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Examination of urban sprawl characteristics and of the role of soil quality in peripheral land use changes… Westover, Dennis M. 1979

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c • EXAMINATION OF URBAN SPRAWL CHARACTERISTICS AND OF THE ROLE OF SOIL QUALITY IN PERIPHERAL LAND USE CHANGES - GREATER VANCOUVER by Dennis M. Westover B.A., The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1973 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE i n the FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department of S o i l Science We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA October 11939 'c\ Dennis M. Westover 9 1 9 7 9 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s in p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Co lumb ia , I a g ree that the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s tudy . I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be g r a n t e d by the Head o f my Department o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . It i s u n d e r s t o o d tha t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be a l l o w e d w i thou t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department o f SOIL SCIENCE The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Co lumbia 2075 Wesbrook P l a c e Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 Date OCTOBER 8. 1979 ) ABSTRACT T h i s t h e s i s examines some of the problems a s s o c i a t e d w i t h urban sprawl, and attempts to determine the r o l e of s o i l q u a l i t y w i t h r e s p e c t t o land use changes on fo u r r u r a l - u r b a n f r i n g e s i t e s i n the m e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver area. P a r t I d e s c r i b e s v a r i o u s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f , and problems c r e a t e d by, urban sprawl, i t s e f f e c t s on the country-s i d e , and reasons why i t occ u r s . In P a r t I I , the study s i t e s are d e s c r i b e d i n terms of s o i l s , parent m a t e r i a l s , drainage, and topography. In addition., p h y s i c a l and c u l t u r a l i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g the re g i o n s surrounding each s i t e i s given to p o r t r a y each s i t e i n i t s l a r g e r context. D e t a i l s and e v a l u a t i o n of the r e s e a r c h r e s u l t s f o l l o w . Four s i t e s , one i n each of the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s of D e l t a and Langley and two i n the M u n i c i p a l i t y of Richmond, were s e l e c t e d w i t h f e a t u r e s r e f l e c t i n g the p h y s i c a l h e t e r o g e n e i t y o f the Lower F r a s e r V a l l e y and f o r t h e i r p r o x i m i t y t o urban c e n t r e s . Four s e r i e s of a i r photographs were assembled and examined, i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h s o i l s maps, to determine what land use m o d i f i c a t i o n had occu r r e d over a p e r i o d o f about twenty years. Land use changes were c o r r e l a t e d w i t h s o i l s data to determine which s o i l s were most a f f e c t e d by urban development. The r e s u l t s of t h i s study appear to indicate that s o i l q u a l i t y (for agriculture) by i t s e l f i s i n s u f f i c i e n t to delay urbanization of fringe land. Other factors, such as i s o l a t i o n from urban centres, zoning provisions, and economic v i a b i l i t y , are as important as s o i l q u a l i t y i n determining the fate of a g r i c u l t u r a l land on the rural-urban fringes of Greater Vancouver. - i v -TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT i i TABLE OF CONTENTS i v LIST OF APPENDICES v i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS v i i INTRODUCTION 1 PART I. URBANIZATION AS IT AFFECTS RURAL LAND 5 A. INTRODUCTION 5 B. GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS AND PROBLEMS OF SPRAWL 7 1. Low Density and I r r e g u l a r Development 7 2. S e r v i c e D e f i c i e n c i e s 9 3. S o c i a l Inconvenience 11 4. Commercial and I n d u s t r i a l Land Use Problems , 12 5. Encroachment Onto A g r i c u l t u r a l Land 14 C. REASONS FOR URBAN ENCROACHMENT 15 1. M o b i l i t y 15 2. Zoning 18 3. T a x a t i o n 21 4. S p e c u l a t i o n 23 5. P u b l i c A t t i t u d e s 25 6. Government P o l i c y 2 9 - v -PART I I . THE RESEARCH SITES. 34 A. INTRODUCTION 34 B. SITE INFORMATION — RICHMOND, B.C 3 6 C. SITE INFORMATION — LANGLEY, B.C 47 D. SITE INFORMATION — DELTA, B.C 58 EVALUATION OF RESEARCH RESULTS 68 CONCLUSIONS 77 LITERATURE CITED 82 SELECTED REFERENCES 87 APPENDICES . 90 - v i -LIST OF APPENDICES Appendix Page A Key 91 B Richmond :— North S i t e 93 C Richmond — South S i t e 97 D Langley S i t e 101 E D e l t a S i t e 105 F L i s t of S o i l s 109 G L i s t of A i r Photographs I l l - v i i -ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The author i s g r e a t l y indebted to her t h e s i s s u p e r v i s o r , Dr. L.M. L a v k u l i c h , f o r h i s encouragement, guidance, and p a t i e n c e throughout the course of t h i s p r o j e c t ; and t o her committee members, Dr. C.A. Rowles, Dr. D.S. Lacate, Mr. G.G. Runka f o r t h e i r h e l p f u l a d v i c e and c o n s t r u c t i v e c r i t i c i s m s . S i n c e r e thanks are extended to Mrs. J u l i a Lansiquot f o r the draughting of the f i g u r e s , and to a l l the f a c u l t y , s t a f f , and students of the Department of S o i l Science f o r t h e i r f r i e n d s h i p and encouragement d u r i n g the course of t h i s study. To f a m i l y and f r i e n d s , s p e c i a l a p p r e c i a t i o n i s tendered f o r t h e i r u n f a i l i n g support and encouragement throughout the years of u n i v e r s i t y study. - 1 -INTRODUCTION In an h i s t o r i c a l c ontext u r b a n i z a t i o n i n western s o c i e t y has been i n progress s i n c e the e i g h t e e n t h century (Stone, 1969). At present i t i s a worldwide phenomenon, most n o t i c e a b l e i n T h i r d World c o u n t r i e s . Canada, however, i s not exempt from the t r e n d . Indeed i t s r a t e of urban growth has been i n c r e a s i n g s i n c e C o n f e d e r a t i o n , w i t h a s l i g h t pause o c c u r r i n g d u r i n g the Depression f o l l o w e d by f u r t h e r growth from 19 41 onward. Of n e c e s s i t y urban growth r e q u i r e s l a n d - land f o r housing, i n d u s t r y , commerce, t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , e d u c a t i o n a l and h e a l t h i n s t i t u t i o n s , and so on. U n f o r t u n a t e l y i t i s o f t e n a c q u i r e d at the expense of a g r i c u l t u r a l land a t the c i t y ' s p e r i p h e r y . A s i g n i f i c a n t p o r t i o n of the r u r a l - u r b a n f r i n g e areas of M e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver, B r i t i s h Columbia c o n t a i n s o i l s which, a c c o r d i n g to the Canada Land Inventory c l a s s i f i c a t i o n system, are s u i t a b l e f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s . In r e c e n t years urban encroachment onto these s o i l s has hastened the removal of a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d from p r o d u c t i o n and may have, i n the process, s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n c r e a s e d the r e l i a n c e upon imports of p r e v i o u s l y home grown foods. The passage of the B r i t i s h Columbia Land Commission Act of 1973 was passed as a mechanism to c o n t r o l some of these land l o s s e s (BCLC, 1973). - 2 -T h i s t h e s i s proposes to examine the r o l e of a p a r t i c u l a r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f a g r i c u l t u r a l land, s o i l q u a l i t y , and to determine i t s r o l e i n land use m o d i f i c a t i o n a t the r u r a l - u r b a n f r i n g e of M e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver. I t a l s o proceeds from the n u l l hypothesis t h a t "the b e t t e r q u a l i t y s o i l s have g r e a t e r a b i l i t y to f o r e s t a l l urban development". Four s i t e s , two i n Richmond D i s t r i c t M u n i c i p a l i t y , and one each i n the D i s t r i c t M u n i c i p a l i t i e s of D e l t a and Langley, have been chosen f o r study. These p a r t i c u l a r areas were s e l e c t e d i n order to r e p r e s e n t the heterogeneous nature of the Lower F r a s e r V a l l e y i n terms of s o i l s , parent m a t e r i a l s , drainage, and topography. Because Richmond i s more urbanized than are D e l t a and Langley one of i t s s i t e s has been s e l e c t e d w i t h some o f the same s o i l s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s as the other but without major s u b d i v i s i o n . In a d d i t i o n , p r o x i m i t y to urban cen t r e s and the p o s s i b l e i n h e r e n t r e s t r a i n t s to urban growth possessed by each s i t e have been c o n s i d e r e d . H o p e f u l l y the r e s u l t s o f these s t u d i e s can be a p p l i e d to s i m i l a r areas i n the Lower F r a s e r V a l l e y and elsewhere. The concept of urban sprawl, the f a c t o r s i n f l u e n c i n g i t s development, and i t s e s p e c i a l e f f e c t s on the r u r a l - u r b a n i n t e r f a c e w i l l be d e a l t w i t h i n Part I. Examples o c c u r r i n g i n the Canadian context w i l l be accorded s p e c i a l emphasis. P a r t I I o u t l i n e s the attempt to determine the changes i n l a n d use on each o f the fou r s i t e s over an approximate twenty year p e r i o d , and mainly p r i o r to the passage of the - 3 -B r i t i s h Columbia Land Commission Act of A p r i l , 1973. The modification of land engaged i n s o i l dependent a g r i c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s , such as small f r u i t s and vegetables, grains and pasture, i s of prime concern i n t h i s thesis. Accordingly, the interpretation of each s i t e has been undertaken with these c r i t e r i a i n mind. Analysis of data, the comparing and contrasting of land use changes of each area with respect to s o i l quality, plus the examination of the v a l i d i t y of the hypothesis, w i l l comprise the summary. It i s believed that non-soil based a c t i v i t i e s have a v a l i d place i n t h i s discussion. In accordance with t h i s assumption, therefore, observations on the v i a b i l i t y of non-s o i l based a g r i c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s i n the three municipalities w i l l be included i n the f i n a l remarks. Presentation of possible alternate land uses w i l l be included as well. B r i t i s h Columbia i s poorly endowed with arable s o i l s , s o i l s which constitute a bare f i v e percent of a t o t a l area of 100,000,000 hectares. In addition less that one percent i s of prime Class One a g r i c u l t u r a l land (Huckvale, 1975). Losses of s i g n i f i c a n t amounts of these s o i l s to urban development w i l l , i n the writer's opinion, exacerbate the growing trend toward the importing of domestic food supplies. In should be r e a l i z e d that a number of our current foreign sources, such as C a l i f o r n i a , are themselves the targets of the urbanization trend, and i f they succumb to t h i s influence the law of supply and demand w i l l , i n the future, ensure higher priced foods - 4 from these areas. We must also address ourselves to the moral issues involved, that i s i n an increasingly populating world we can no longer afford the luxury of haphazard and thoughtless urban growth when i t involves the d i s p o s i t i o n of food-producing s o i l s . S o i l s once paved are seldom recovered. - 5 -PART I. URBANIZATION AS IT AFFECTS RURAL LAND A. INTRODUCTION North American c i t i e s possess cer t a i n common str u c t u r a l elements (Broek and Webb, 19 68). The oldest of these i s the "central zone", often referred to as the central business d i s t r i c t or downtown core which dates, i n most cases, from the nineteenth century. It contains a l l manner of public and business enterprises plus r e s i d e n t i a l enclaves, mainly for the r i c h or the very poor. R a i l l i n e s usually converge i n t h i s area. In the l a t e nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, and as the c i t y expanded and the core's physical structures became obsolete or decayed, the "middle zone" emerged. Due to i t s diverse nature - l i g h t i n d u s t r i a l , low income housing, commercial and so on - i t has become the "grey area" i n many c i t i e s and a major problem i n urban reconstruction. As the nineteenth century drew to a close the wealthy began to s e t t l e the "outer zone". Larger l o t s and substantial homes predominated. Parks, shopping areas and, i n some cases, newer i n d u s t r i a l plants were interspersed amongst the housing. The advent of mass transportation around World War One was instrumental i n the complete u t i l i z a t i o n of t h i s zone. The fourth zone has been termed the "urban fringe" or the "cutting edge of suburbanization beyond the outer zone" - 6 -(Broek and Webb, 1968). New housing s u b d i v i s i o n s mingle w i t h o l d e r v i l l a g e s , woodland and, f r e q u e n t l y , farmland. I t i s t h i s zone w i t h which we are the most concerned. The major p a r t of the growth of c i t i e s takes p l a c e on t h i s outer edge (Russwurm, 1976). Expansion o f t e n leads to i n e f f i c i e n t and c o n f l i c t i n g land uses accompanied by the l o s s , e i t h e r by d e l i b e r a t i o n or because of ignorance, of good a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d . The term commonly employed f o r t h i s phenomenon i s "urban sprawl". Other d e s c r i p t i v e terms have been used f o r the components of expanding c i t i e s i n c l u d i n g suburban zone, commuting zone, urban f r i n g e and urban shadow (Russwurm, 1976). The suburban zone i s one of continuous b u i l d u p of mainly newer houses which surrounds the o l d e r p a r t s of the c i t y . I t i s not a p a r t o f the urban f r i n g e . Commuting zone r e f e r s to the t o t a l area from which a c i t y ' s workforce egresses, t h a t i s , approximately f i f t y to e i g h t y k i l o m e t r e s from the b u i l t u p c i t y l i m i t s and i n c l u d i n g the urban f r i n g e and shadow zones. The l a t t e r two c o i n c i d e , w i t h the urban f r i n g e a d j o i n i n g the b u i l t u p c i t y and the urban shadow occupying t h a t l a n d between the f r i n g e and the o u t l y i n g r u r a l area. A c c o r d i n g t o Russwurm (1976) the urban f r i n g e c o n t a i n s those elements which mark the i n t r u s i o n of urban land use a c t i v i t i e s i n t o the r u r a l c o u n t r y s i d e , housing, i n d u s t r y , and commercial ventures among o t h e r s . I t may extend from - 7 -sixteen to t h i r t y kilometres beyond the c i t y l i m i t s . In his opinion the term "rural-urban fringe" i s inaccurate as th i s zone " . . . i s created by the outward expansion of the c i t y " and that the word " r u r a l " should be deleted. Never-theless the term "rural-urban" - or "urban-rural" - fringe i s commonly employed and for the purpose of t h i s thesis w i l l be synonymous with "urban fringe". I t has also been described as an area of changing p o l i t i c a l , s o c i a l and economic ch a r a c t e r i s t i c s on a c i t y ' s r u r a l periphery (Crosswhite and Vaughn, 19 62) or, more sardonically, as the "stockbroker b e l t " (Broek and Webb, 1968). B. GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS AND PROBLEMS OF SPRAWL The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and problems peculiar to urbanization of outlying t e r r i t o r i e s are many and diverse, encompassing both form and substance and varying i n degree. Low densities, i r r e g u l a r land development, service d e f i c i e n c i e s , s o c i a l inconveniences, i n d u s t r i a l and commercial land use problems and, espe c i a l l y relevant to t h i s thesis, encroachment onto a g r i c u l t u r a l s o i l s are the p r i n c i p a l accoutrements of c i t y spread. 1. Low Density and Irregular Development A l l sprawl areas have one c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i n common - 8 -- low population, d e n s i t y (Lower Mainland Regional P l a n n i n g Board, 1956). The r e s u l t s o f one survey conducted by the L.M.R.P.B. of B r i t i s h Columbia suggests a d e n s i t y of 8.75 persons per hec t a r e whereas an e a s t e r n Canadian source suggests a range o f twenty to f i f t y persons per square k i l o m e t r e (Russwurm, 1976). These f i g u r e s are not a r b i t r a r y . One must be cog n i z a n t of the g e o g r a p h i c a l area under o b s e r v a t i o n . What c o n s t i t u t e s low d e n s i t y to a Ho l l a n d e r , f o r example, may be a crowded c o n d i t i o n t o an Ar i z o n a n . However, r e g a r d l e s s o f a b s o l u t e numbers low p o p u l a t i o n d e n s i t y can be s a i d t o be both a cause and an e f f e c t of poor land u t i l i z a t i o n . I r r e g u l a r o r "ragged" development i s a common f e a t u r e of sprawl. Due to ever growing m o b i l i t y of the average person i n the world's i n d u s t r i a l i z e d n a t i o n s - and e s p e c i a l l y i n Canada and the Un i t e d States - the outer f r i n g e s of the c i t y are more a c c e s s i b l e than ever b e f o r e . Major t r a f f i c a r t e r i e s become the l i f e l i n e s of new or p o t e n t i a l suburbs. I t i s along these roads t h a t one becomes aware of the "ribbon" or " s t r i p " type o f development t h a t o f t e n accompanies growth on the r u r a l - u r b a n f r i n g e . A t y p i c a l area might i n c l u d e a few small r e t a i l e s t a b l i s h m e n t s , a gas s t a t i o n or two, f a s t - f o o d o u t l e t s , a supermarket, a t r a i l e r c o u r t or motel, perhaps some s c a t t e r e d housing, and the u b i q u i t o u s used c a r l o t . - 9 -"Leapfrogging" i s another sprawl p a t t e r n and an extremely w a s t e f u l one (Clawson, 1972). I t occurs when p a r c e l s o f v a r i o u s s i z e s are bypassed i n a h i t and miss f a s h i o n , o f t e n the r e s u l t o f s p e c u l a t i o n . Clawson (1972) notes t h a t even i n areas c l a s s i f i e d as urban as much as t h i r t y p ercent o f the land may not be i n urban use. Low u t i l i z a t i o n f r e q u e n t l y occurs i n areas employing a g r i d system of survey. Lack of i n f i l l i n g accompanies growth on the p e r i p h e r y of the g r i d , a f e a t u r e n o t i c e a b l e i n many areas of the Lower Mainland o f B r i t i s h Columbia, w i t h t y p i c a l examples b e i n g found i n Richmond M u n i c i p a l i t y . The long narrow l o t s consequent o f t h i s type o f development -somewhat r e m i n i s c e n t of the s e i g n i e u r a l l a n d h o l d i n g s of e a r l y Quebec - h a b i t u a l l y r e s u l t i n inadequate usage a t the c e n t r e o f the g r i d . These c e n t r a l areas may l i e t o t a l l y i d l e . Furthermore many p r o p e r t y owners and t h e i r l o c a l governments are e i t h e r unable or u n w i l l i n g to remedy the s i t u a t i o n or are i n d i f f e r e n t t o i t . Thus sprawl i s perpetuated. As l a n d becomes fragmented and d e n s i t i e s remain low v a r i o u s problems emerge. 2. S e r v i c e D e f i c i e n c i e s Unplanned growth p r e d i s p o s e s a community to s e v e r a l unpleasant aspects of l i f e i n c l u d i n g inadequate - or even no -sewer and water mains, gas, power and telephone l i n e s , p u b l i c - 10 -t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , f i r e and p o l i c e p r o t e c t i o n as w e l l as d e c e n t r a l i z e d e d u c a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s . The e f f i c i e n t and o r d e r l y implementation of s e r v i c e s r e q u i r e s compact, continuous urban development (Russwurm, 1976). Costs of sewer and water mains, f u e l and power l i n e s , and road systems are b a s i c a l l y i n p r o p o r t i o n to t h e i r l e n g t h , t h a t i s , the more persons served per u n i t of l e n g t h p l u s the s m a l l e r the average fron t a g e l e n g t h per user the l e s s c o s t l y the s e r v i c e w i l l be. A B r i t i s h Columbia study has shown, f o r i n s t a n c e , t h a t d u r i n g the n i n e t e e n f i f t i e s the annual c o s t of water i n sprawl areas of the Lower Mainland was twice as high as t h a t of f u l l y developed suburban areas (Russwurm, 1976). S i m i l a r examples have been documented elsewhere (ARcher, 1972). I t i s apparent t h a t i f s e r v i c e c o s t s are spread over an e n t i r e j u r i s d i c t i o n the f u l l y developed p o r t i o n s w i l l be s u b s i d i z i n g the uneconomic s e r v i c e s of t h e i r l e s s urbanized f e l l o w s . E x c e s s i v e l y low p o p u l a t i o n d e n s i t i e s may p r e c l u d e c e r t a i n s e r v i c e s t h a t c i t y d w e l l e r s take f o r granted such as sewage treatment and adequate s t r e e t l i g h t i n g (Marks, 1952). Others may be p r e s e n t but be i n c o n v e n i e n t l y l o c a t e d or sparse. I t has been noted, f o r example, t h a t i n order to i n s t a l l a f o u r -room s c h o o l w i t h i n one k i l o m e t r e of every c h i l d , a s m a l l , t e n -s t o r e shopping c e n t r e w i t h i n one k i l o m e t r e of each housewife, and a n o n - s u b s i d i z e d h a l f house bus s e r v i c e w i t h i n one-half k i l o m e t r e of most homes the d e n s i t i e s r e q u i r e d would be two, three and f i v e or more persons per h e c t a r e r e s p e c t i v e l y , the - 11 -l a t t e r f i g u r e r e p r e s e n t i n g a low average d e n s i t y f o r a continuous s i n g l e - f a m i l y s u b d i v i s i o n (Russwurm, 1976). Inadequate p o l i c e and f i r e p r o t e c t i o n are s e r i o u s matters f o r obvious reasons. Property damage, through f i r e or vandalism, can be very severe i f d i s t a n c e s to be covered are too g r e a t or i f water s u p p l i e s are poor or u n a v a i l a b l e . Problems may a r i s e i f the a f f l i c t e d p r o p e r t y l i e s beyond the boundaries o f p o l i c e and f i r e j u r i s d i c t i o n s , and u n l e s s neighbouring m u n i c i p a l i t i e s have p r i o r arrangements r e g a r d i n g emergencies p r o p e r t y damage, as w e l l as l o s s of l i f e , c o u l d be c a t a s t r o p h i c . Such l o s s e s c o u l d harm a community's f i n a n c i a l p o s i t i o n through d i m i n u t i o n of tax revenue. Fragmented land use a f f e c t s not o n l y the p h y s i c a l aspects of l i f e but a l s o the s o c i a l ones. 3. S o c i a l Inconveniences As noted p r e v i o u s l y p r o v i s i o n of p u b l i c t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i n suburban areas i s dependent upon p o p u l a t i o n d e n s i t y f o r economic f e a s i b i l i t y . Lack of bus s e r v i c e s tend to t r a p suburbanites, e s p e c i a l l y homemakers and the poor, u n l e s s a l t e r n a t e means of m o b i l i t y are a v a i l a b l e . The purchase of a second car i s o f t e n i m p e r a t i v e . Such a purchase may p l a c e a heavy burden on a s l i m budget, perhaps a l r e a d y s t r a i n e d by housing and commuting c o s t s . - 12 -Shopping f a c i l i t i e s are o f t e n i n c o n v e n i e n t l y l o c a t e d . A t r i p to the "corner s t o r e " , maybe a k i l o m e t r e or more away, i s a major e x p e d i t i o n f o r a mother wi t h small c h i l d r e n . Unless she possesses an automobile she must depend upon s t o r e d e l i v e r y (somewhat sc a r c e these days), p u b l i c t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i f a v a i l a b l e , or her husband's good nature. R e c r e a t i o n a l and c u l t u r a l amenities tend a l s o t o be i n s h o r t supply. L i b r a r i e s , a r t g a l l e r i e s , parks, swimming p o o l s , i c e arenas, gymnasia and so on are normally s i t u a t e d i n areas of a hi g h enough d e n s i t y to e i t h e r d e f r a y t h e i r c o s t s or to be as s e l f s u f f i c i e n t as p o s s i b l e . S c a t t e r e d development permits n e i t h e r c o n d i t i o n . The f r i n g e - d w e l l i n g f a m i l y must o r d i n a r i l y t r a v e l t o an urbanized r e g i o n i n order to engage i n a c t i v i t i e s c i t y f o l k take f o r granted. 4. Commercial and I n d u s t r i a l Land Use Problems Urban f r i n g e areas are c h a r a c t e r i z e d by problems r e l a t e d to commercial and i n d u s t r i a l e n t e r p r i s e s . Manufacturing p l a n t s , c o n s t r u c t i o n a c t i v i t i e s , t r a n s p o r t a t i o n t e r m i n a l s and a i r p o r t s are the most s i g n i f i c a n t i n d u s t r i a l land users on the r u r a l - u r b a n f r i n g e (Russwurm, 1976). The f r i n g e i s deemed s u i t a b l e f o r the l a t t e r two a c t i v i t i e s because of the need f o r cheap, abundant, l e v e l l a n d and because of i n h e r e n t n o i s e g e n e r a t i o n , e s p e c i a l l y by r a i l w a y m a r s h a l l i n g yards and a i r c r a f t o p e r a t i o n s . - 13 -Manufacturing plants often require large acreages i n order to engage i n continuous s i n g l e - l e v e l assembly operations, for example the automobile and a i r c r a f t industries. Lesser industries, often odoriferous, smoky or dusty by nature, frequently dot the landscape along p r i n c i p a l transportation routes from the c i t y , thus enhancing the t y p i c a l "ribbon" or " s t r i p " configuration of sprawl. Some examples of industries i n t h i s category are concrete products, scrap metal yards, meat and poultry processors, wood products, sewage plants and garbage dumps. Russwurm (1976) points out that the incompatibility of land use a c t i v i t i e s rather than the need for large tracts of cheap land i s the p r i n c i p a l dilemma planners face with respect to the location of these industries. As yet i t i s unresolved. Industrial parks are a p a r t i a l solution but only as long as urbanization of the surrounding area i s held i n abeyance. Commercial development on the rural-urban fringe may take the form of a large shopping centre - such as Seven Oaks in Abbotsford or Guildford i n Surrey - or i n d i v i d u a l businesses clustered i n smaller shopping malls or strung out along highways. The f i r s t type requires large tracts of inexpensive land on or near a major access route. It may also locate at major intersections i n order to draw i n c l i e n t e l e from outside the immediate d i s t r i c t . Subsequently i t may a t t r a c t r e s i d e n t i a l development. The second type of commercial enterprise - motels, service stations, fast-food outlets - i s - 14 -g r e a t l y dependent upon the t r a n s i e n t element of t r a d e . Consequently a highway l o c a t i o n i s v i t a l to i t s e x i s t e n c e . Not i n f r e q u e n t l y an u n a t t r a c t i v e appearance combined w i t h t r a f f i c c o n g e s t i o n are unwelcome accompaniments. Moreover t h i s k i n d of business may f a c e d i s r u p t i o n i f i t i s not i n c l u d e d i n f u t u r e long-range development plans (Russwurm, 1976). 5. Encroachment Onto A g r i c u l t u r a l Land There are two major as p e c t s to the problem of urban encroachment onto a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d : i n e f f i c i e n c y of l a n d use and unnecessary c o n v e r s i o n of good farming s o i l s to urban use (Russwurm, 1976). The i n e f f i c i e n c y r e v e a l s i t s e l f as areas of i d l e l a n d and as a p l e t h o r a of small acreages, which may or may not be employed as "hobby farms" of whose value to s o c i e t y o p i n i o n s d i f f e r (Pearson, 1972 and Rawson, 1973). Unnecessary c o n v e r s i o n develops when urban growth bypasses marginal and submarginal l a n d and impinges upon the top t h r e e s o i l c l a s s e s f o r a g r i c u l t u r e . Both c o n d i t i o n s are a f f e c t e d by economic f a c t o r s which w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n the f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n . C o n t r a c t i o n of h i g h c l a s s farmland on the r u r a l - u r b a n i n t e r f a c e has been documented i n Canada f o r s e v e r a l y e a r s , i n c l u d i n g s t u d i e s on the Lower F r a s e r V a l l e y i n B r i t i s h Columbia (Crerar, 1970), the Calgary-Edmonton C o r r i d o r i n A l b e r t a (St. John's Calgary Report, 1978) and the Niagara - 15 -F r u i t B e l t o f southern O n t a r i o (Krueger, 1970). In the l a t t e r case c o n v e r s i o n of farmland has been a f a i r l y c o n t i n u a l process s i n c e the h i n e t e e n - t h i r t i e s . I t has been suggested t h a t the removal of land from food p r o d u c t i o n has been exaggerated and t h a t the r e a l problem to be c o n s i d e r e d i s the use of hig h r a t h e r than low q u a l i t y land f o r urban purposes (Russwurm, 197 6). Although more s t r i n g e n t p l a n n i n g r e g u l a t i o n s have, i n v a r i o u s l o c a t i o n s , slowed urban sprawl onto prime farming s o i l s i t remains a d i s t r e s s i n g problem (Calgary Report, 1978). The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of sprawl are p h y s i c a l manifes-t a t i o n s o f v a r i o u s economic, p o l i t i c a l and s o c i a l i n f l u e n c e s . They w i l l be d e t a i l e d i n the f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n . C. REASONS FOR URBAN ENCROACHMENT 1. M o b i l i t y The d a i l y journey to work was a common aspect of m e t r o p o l i t a n l i f e even i n the e a r l y t w e n t i e t h century (Broek and Webb, 1968). D i s t a n c e s t r a v e l l e d were u s u a l l y not ex c e s s i v e and p u b l i c t r a n s p o r t such as t r o l l e y c a r s and t r a i n s were employed. Even employers l i v e d near t h e i r b usinesses (Dyckman, 1970). - 16 -I t was the advent of the r e l a t i v e l y i n e x p e n s i v e , massed produced automobile, coupled with the development of e x t e n s i v e highway networks t h a t , more than any other f a c t o r , was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r encouraging the sprawling outward growth of the modern c i t y and the formation of i t s "bedroom" s a t e l l i t e s (Barlowe, 1972). Thus the journey to work became "commuting". The p r i v a t e c a r made i t p o s s i b l e f o r those of modest f i n a n c i a l means to experience the d e l i g h t s of the c o u n t r y s i d e d u r i n g weekend o u t i n g s . By doing so i t a l s o whetted a p p e t i t e s f o r l e s s expensive housing on l a r g e r l o t s , f a r from in n e r c i t y crowds and grime. The p r e f e r e n c e f o r the automobile over p u b l i c t r a n s p o r t a t i o n modes i s a very r a t i o n a l one (Lithwick, 1970). By improving a c c e s s i b i l i t y i t s a f f o r d s i t s user the b e n e f i t s of job, market, and l e i s u r e commodities at a r e l a t i v e l y low p r i v a t e c o s t . In a b s o l u t e terms, however, the c o s t i s h i g h . Low income groups, unable to a f f o r d c a p i t a l - i n t e n s i v e c a r s , l o s e t h e i r o p t i o n to l o c a t e i n suburban areas. They are f o r c e d onto h i g h - c o s t land i n the i n n e r c i t y . For them m o b i l i t y c o n t r a c t s and c o n f i n e s i t s e l f to the use of p u b l i c t r a n s p o r t a t i o n s e r v i c e s which, i n many North American c i t i e s , have d e c l i n e d s u b s t a n t i a l l y as automobile usage has i n c r e a s e d . The c a r has a very h i g h l a n d - u s i n g c a p a c i t y (Lithwick, 1970). The t r e a d m i l l aspect of "more c a r s l e a d i n g to more sprawl l e a d i n g to more c a r s " i s one of the most s e r i o u s - 17 -components of urban l i f e . With accompanying s u b u r b a n i z a t i o n the process a c c e l e r a t e s as the need f o r more c a r s i n c r e a s e s . T r a f f i c c o n g e s t i o n becomes an unpleasant by-product. In a d d i t i o n v a s t amounts of a g r i c u l t u r a l and other r u r a l lands are consumed by necessary road b u i l d i n g . S t u d i e s undertaken by the Greater Vancouver Regional D i s t r i c t (among others) serve to r e v e a l how u t i l i z a t i o n of the p r i v a t e car has f l o u r i s h e d on the Lower Mainland of B r i t i s h Columbia (Skoda, 1975). Between 1963 and 1972 road t r a f f i c i n the r u r a l - u r b a n f r i n g e grew by n i n e t y to one hundred f i f t y percent i n c o n t r a s t to t h a t of the urban core's t h i r t y to seventy percent. The r u r a l - u r b a n f r i n g e s t a t i s t i c s r e f l e c t growth i n the non-farm as w e l l as suburban developments. At the time of the study optimism was expressed t h a t the then c u r r e n t expansion of the p u b l i c t r a n s i t system would reduce the s u b s t a n t i a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n t r a f f i c growth between core and f r i n g e areas. T h i s example has been repeated elsewhere i n the western w o r l d and i s a f u n c t i o n of the comparatively f r e e c h o i c e o f r e s i d e n c e and p l a c e of work enjoyed i n our i n d u s t r i a l i z e d s o c i e t y (Dyckman, 1970). D e s e c r a t i o n of the r u r a l - u r b a n f r i n g e by way of sprawl i s a s e l f - i n f l i c t e d c o n d i t i o n brought about by the e x e r c i s i n g of these freedoms. The p r i v a t e c a r i s but a t o o l . - 18 -M o b i l i t y i s one f a c t o r which i n f l u e n c e s urban encroachment of a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d s . Zoning, an important example of the use of " p o l i c e power" to d i r e c t land use, i s another. 2. Zoning The concept of zoning i s not a complicated one. E s s e n t i a l l y i t means the d i v i s i o n of land i n t o d i s t r i c t s having d i f f e r e n t r e g u l a t i o n s (Barlowe, 1972). I t i s an implement r a t h e r than a s u b s t i t u t e f o r land use p l a n n i n g , i t s e f f e c t i v e n e s s being a f u n c t i o n of the c h a r a c t e r of the p l a n n i n g upon which i t i s based. I t i s one of the t r a d i t i o n a l methods of growth c o n t r o l (Levine, 1974). Zoning r e g u l a t i o n s p e r t a i n i n g to urban r e s i d e n t i a l communities, f o r example, have h i s t o r i c a l l y been adopted as means to ensure - among other t h i n g s - a decent q u a l i t y of l i f e . C o n t r o l of u n d e s i r a b l e environmental i n f l u e n c e s such as f a c t o r i e s , s k y s c r a p e r s , n o i s e - p r o d u c i n g concerns, f i r e hazards and so on, i s an e s s e n t i a l element of zoning i n urban areas. R u r a l zoning tends to be more concerned w i t h the d e t e r m i n a t i o n of lands on which a g r i c u l t u r e , f o r e s t r y and r e c r e a t i o n are to be conducted (Barlowe, 1972). I t i s u n f o r t u n a t e t h a t zoning, r e l i e d upon to i n t r o d u c e o r d e r l i n e s s to the land p l a n n i n g process, has f r e q u e n t l y been weakened by the ad hoc manner i n which i t i s - 19 -o f t e n a p p l i e d , e s p e c i a l l y without regard to a long range master p l a n , indeed i f any e x i s t s (Clawson, 1972}. In other words zoning i s o n l y as strong as the i n d i v i d u a l s and o r g a n i z a t i o n s employing i t and sprawl p r o l i f e r a t e s where e f f e c t i v e zoning i s absent (L.M.R.P.B., 1956). Problems a r i s e when p l a n n i n g agencies become powerless, through i n h e r e n t l a c k of c o - o r d i n a t e d e f f o r t , t o c o n t r o l p o s s i b l e c a p a c i t y and v e s t e d i n t e r e s t s of p r i v a t e f i r m s and i n d i v i d u a l s who, Clawson (1972) s t a t e s , have exerted the determining i n f l u e n c e on the form of American suburban development. Canada has not been immune to such a c t i v i t i e s e i t h e r . R u r a l -urban f r i n g e lands are f r e q u e n t l y i n jeopardy, p a r t l y because of demographic composition. For i n s t a n c e farmers, n e a r i n g r e t i r e m e n t age and i n many cases unable to make t h e i r b usinesses economically v i a b l e f o r one reason or another, are approached by developers with monetary o f f e r s s u f f i c i e n t to permit r e t i r i n g i n comfort. They seek r e l i e f i n r e z o n i n g . Often exceptions are made and thus the u r b a n i z i n g i n f l u e n c e spreads. T h i s has been the h i s t o r y of zoning i n North America (Franson, 1972). P r i v a t e i n d i v i d u a l s , daunted by the h i g h c o s t i f c i t y housing l o t s , look to the cheaper farmland on the urban p e r i p h e r y - as much f o r a l i f e s t y l e as f o r an investment. These people f r e q u e n t l y become "hobby farmers", o p i n i o n s of whose value to s o c i e t y range from m i l d enthusiasm (Rawson, 1973) to o u t r i g h t d i s t a s t e (Calgary Report, - 20 -1978). One c o u l d concede these h o l d i n g s as having some r e -deeming s o c i a l value and t h a t adequate husbandry might, f o r a time a t l e a s t , h elp keep urban sprawl i n abeyance. On the other hand such "farms" can become the c a t a l y s t s f o r r e z o n i n g and s u b d i v i s i o n . L e g i t i m a t e farmers are f r o z e n out by g r e a t l y i n c r e a s e d l a n d p r i c e s which make farming e c o n o m i c a l l y unsound. I f c i t i e s themselves are l o c a t e d on S o i l C l a s s e s One, Two and Three the problem of f r i n g e a g r i c u l t u r a l land l o s s becomes even more acute. Two Canadian c i t i e s , Edmonton and C a l g a r y , are a f f e c t e d by the aforementioned s i t u a t i o n . The former i s l o c a t e d on C l a s s One s o i l and the l a t t e r i s on C l a s s e s One and Two s o i l s . Each has taken a d i f f e r e n t approach to f r i n g e land r e t e n t i o n . Edmonton's r e g i o n a l planners b e l i e v e t h a t i f a p a r c e l of land remains l a r g e enough - at l e a s t t h i r t y - t w o h e c t a r e s - the owner w i l l e i t h e r farm i t h i m s e l f or r e n t i t out to another farmer. In t h i s way the top t h r e e s o i l c l a s s e s w i l l be saved. Calgary p l a n n e r s , c o n v e r s e l y , have attempted to thwart p o t e n t i a l developers and to slow the r e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d by m a i n t a i n i n g l o t s i z e s of 0.4 to 0.8 h e c t a r e s r a t h e r than the e i g h t to s i x t e e n h e c t a r e s the developers and hobby farmers have been buying. I t remains to be seen which approach w i l l be the most s u c c e s s f u l . I t i s u n f o r t u n a t e t h a t zoning i s o f t e n viewed as a d e f e n s i v e mechanism t o prevent u n d e s i r e d development r a t h e r than as a p o s i t i v e approach to b e t t e r l a n d use p l a n n i n g . - 21 -The r u r a l - u r b a n f r i n g e by i t s very nature i s i n p a r t i c u l a r need of c o - o r d i n a t e d , comprehensive long range p l a n n i n g by a l l l e v e l s of government. D i f f i c u l t i e s a r i s e when government agencies are a t v a r i a n c e with one another r e g a r d i n g p u b l i c p o l i c y . One area of p o l i c y and l e g i s l a t i o n which has had c o n s i d e r a b l e impact on f r i n g e areas i s t h a t of t a x a t i o n . 3. T a x a t i o n The primary purpose of t a x a t i o n i s to r a i s e revenue (Rawson, 1961) and two p a r t i c u l a r types of taxes a f f e c t land r e s o u r c e s . The f i r s t i s the g e n e r a l p r o p e r t y tax, t h a t i s a charge - u s u a l l y annual - a g a i n s t the assessed value of non-exempt p r o p e r t i e s w i t h i n a t a x i n g d i s t r i c t (Barlowe, 1972). The second k i n d i s the s p e c i a l assessment, used to f i n a n c e the c o n s t r u c t i o n of roads, sidewalks, sewers and other improvements. S p e c i a l assessments have the power of r a i s i n g or lowering p r o p e r t y v a l u e s , f o r example the upgrading of a r e s i d e n t i a l road to a main thoroughfare r e s u l t i n g i n a lowering of house .values to the homeowners (Barlowe, 1972). The g e n e r a l p r o p e r t y tax appears to be the most i n f l u e n t i a l tax a f f e c t i n g urban encroachment onto f r i n g e l a n d s . As a revenue base i t i s h i g h l y i n e l a s t i c w i t h r e s p e c t to urban development, a f a c t o r which leads to f r i n g e l a n d being - 22 -underassessed, i t s market value lowered and i t s v u l n e r a b i l i t y t o sprawl enhanced (Lithwick, 1 9 7 0 ) . A g r i c u l t u r a l p r o p e r t y has t r a d i t i o n a l l y been assessed at lower r a t e s than i t s c i t y c o u n t e r p a r t . When i t i s p a r t of the r u r a l — u r b a n f r i n g e , however, farmland w i t h p o t e n t i a l s u b d i v i s i o n v a l u e can o f t e n be p r e s s u r e d i n t o h i g h e r use i f assessed at c u r r e n t market v a l u e r a t h e r than j u s t f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l purposes (Calgary Report, 1 9 7 9 ) . Although o n l y a s m a l l p r o p o r t i o n of the t o t a l l a n d area may be h i g h p r i c e d i t may a f f e c t the p a t t e r n of land p r i c e s and tax-assessed v a l u e s f o r the e n t i r e area. Furthermore land i s o f t e n r e q u i r e d , though zoning r e s t r i c t i o n s , t o be valued a t i t s h i g h e s t and best use r e g a r d l e s s of p r e s e n t use (Nader, 1 9 7 3 ) . The i n c r e a s e d taxes which u s u a l l y f o l l o w may be s u f f i c i e n t t o f o r c e a d i m i n u t i o n , i f not a complete suspension, of farming a c t i v i t i e s . As noted p r e v i o u s l y a l a c k of economic v i a b i l i t y may encourage farmers to s e l l out to developers or hobby farmers. On the o t h e r hand hobby farmers may themselves become v i c t i m s of i n c r e a s e d assessments and s o a r i n g taxes. For example, i n 197 8 small landowners near Edmonton, A l b e r t a were c o n f r o n t e d w i t h assessment i n c r e a s e s t h a t would have, i n some i n s t a n c e s , r a i s e d taxes up to f i v e thousand pe r c e n t . T h e i r appeal to the p r o v i n c i a l assessment appeal board f o r r e l i e f on the grounds t h a t , although they occupied l e s s than e i g h t h e c t a r e s , they should s t i l l be taxes as farmers was - 23 -d i s m i s s e d (Calgary Report, 1979). I t has been noted t h a t l a n d taxes, c o n t r a r y to the theory behind them, seldom r e f l e c t the c u r r e n t p r o d u c t i v i t i e s of l a n d r e s o u r c e s (Timmons and Cormack, 1971), and over the years they have o f t e n been employed to e i t h e r promote or discourage p a r t i c u l a r economic a c t i v i t i e s . In some L a t i n American c o u n t r i e s p e n a l t y taxes have been adopted to discourage u n d e r - u t i l i z a t i o n of l a n d . In p a r t i c u l a r , Colombia enacted a law i n 1957 wherein a l l r u r a l l a n d were o f f i c i a l l y c l a s s i f i e d , a s p e c i f i c minimum p r o p o r t i o n of which had to be c u l t i v a t e d . In a d d i t i o n an annual p e n a l t y tax was to be exacted from h o l d i n g s which f a i l e d to meet p r o d u c t i o n quotas (Barlowe, 1972). P o t e n t i a l l o s s e s of f r i n g e a g r i c u l t u r a l land might be c u r t a i l e d i f , as Timmons and Cormack suggest, land taxes f o r revenue purposes were e l i m i n a t e d and were used " s o l e l y as a means of d i s c o u r a g i n g or encouraging the use of land r e s o u r c e s i n an a c c e p t a b l e manner". At pre s e n t t h i s does not appear t o be happening. Although the impact of t a x a t i o n i s s i g n i f i c a n t , i t has been suggested t h a t f r i n g e areas are even more a d v e r s e l y a f f e c t e d by l a n d s p e c u l a t i o n (Pickard, 1966). 4. S p e c u l a t i o n Land s p e c u l a t i o n r e f e r s to the h o l d i n g of land over time wi t h the e x p e c t a t i o n of i t i n c r e a s i n g i n value without - 24 -any improvements being made (Russwurm, 1976). S p e c u l a t i v e a c t i v i t i e s tend to t h r i v e d u r i n g p e r i o d s of i n f l a t i o n s i n c e under more s t a b l e c o n d i t i o n s i n v e s t o r s may have to r e t a i n p r o p e r t y f o r s e v e r a l years b e f o r e being a b l e to s e l l a t a p r o f i t (Barlowe, 1972). Using l a n d as an i n f l a t i o n a r y hedge c a r r i e s a caveat, however, as s u c c e s s f u l s p e c u l a t i o n r e q u i r e s l a n d v a l u e s to a p p r e c i a t e more r a p i d l y than f i x e d h o l d i n g c o s t s such as taxes. At p r e s e n t - i n Canada at l e a s t - l a n d brokers are o p t i m i s t i c r e g a r d i n g p r o p e r t y on the urban p e r i p h e r y . They expect f r i n g e land purchases to double i n value i n l e s s than ten years and t o g i v e a t l e a s t a ten percent annual r e t u r n (Russwurm, 1976). Higher p r i c e s a l s o occur as l a n d changes hands, perhaps s e v e r a l times, w i t h the a d d i t i o n a l c o s t s being passed on to the consumer. Russwurm (197 6) makes r e f e r e n c e to a number of problems i n c u r r e d by s p e c u l a t i o n , the f i r s t of which i s the unnecessary e s c a l a t i o n of l a n d v a l u e s , due mainly t o the f a c t o r s noted above. Secondly, u n n e c e s s a r i l y l a r g e areas may remain i d l e due to land being h e l d i n e x p e c t a t i o n of f u t u r e p r o f i t . Such was the case r e g a r d i n g land designated f o r M i r a b e l A i r p o r t , about seventy-two k i l o m e t r e s n o r t h of Montreal. A v a s t area of about nineteen hundred f i f t y k i l o m e t r e s square was d e c l a r e d a s p e c i a l p l a n n i n g area and development was f r o z e n . Farmers' e x p e c t a t i o n s rose, l a n d v a l u e s soared and s p e c u l a t i o n was r i f e - 25 -(Pearson, 1972). Under these circumstances s o i l c o n d i t i o n s may d e t e r i o r a t e to such a degree as to render i t u n f i t f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l purposes without s u b s t a n t i a l c a p i t a l o u t l a y . In a d d i t i o n r i s i n g p r i c e s tend to make the land e c o n o m i c a l l y v i a b l e o n l y f o r urban uses. S p e c u l a t i o n a l s o leads to p l a n n i n g problems. O r d e r l y and continuous development i s rendered d i f f i c u l t when l a r g e t r a c t s of l a n d are h e l d o f f the market i n a n t i c i p a t i o n of f u t u r e monetary g a i n . As w e l l s p e c u l a t o r s may d i s a g r e e w i t h planners over development of t h e i r p r o p e r t y and, i f i n f l u e n t i a l enough, may persuade governing bodies to undertake p r o j e c t s which are i n c o n f l i c t w i t h p l a n n i n g recommendations. Sprawl i s almost t o t a l l y the end product of land s p e c u l a t i o n (Rawson, 1961) and i f i t i s to be curbed s o c i a l a t t i t u d e s must be examined and h o p e f u l l y m o d i f i e d . 5. P u b l i c A t t i t u d e s I t i s d o u b t f u l t h a t ad hoc development of the r u r a l -urban f r i n g e would have taken p l a c e - a t l e a s t to the extent i t has - i f the p r e v a i l i n g a t t i t u d e toward i t was n e g a t i v e . Tolerance of piecemeal lan d use stems p r i m a r i l y from the economic p h i l o s o p h y o f l a i s s e z f a i r e , more s p e c i f i c a l l y the r i g h t t o do w i t h one's p r o p e r t y as one sees f i t and to t u r n a p r o f i t as w e l l , r e g a r d l e s s of the consequences to s o c i e t y - 26 -as a whole. Adam Smith, i n h i s t r e a t i s e "Wealth of Nations", expressed i t thus: "Every i n d i v i d u a l endeavours to employ h i s c a p i t a l so t h a t i t s produce may be of g r e a t e s t v a l u e . He g e n e r a l l y n e i t h e r i n t e n d s to promote the p u b l i c i n t e r e s t , nor knows how much he i s promoting i t . He intends o n l y h i s own s e c u r i t y , o n l y h i s own g a i n . " (Samuelson and S c o t t , 1968) North Americans i n p a r t i c u l a r are s t r o n g adherents of t h i s p h i l o s o p h y . In W e s tern-style democracies the s a l e of l a n d f o r the purpose of r e a l i z i n g a p r o f i t i s c o n s i d e r e d an i n h e r e n t r i g h t and any moves to c o n f i s c a t e a l l or a p o r t i o n of such a g a i n might be s t r o n g l y r e s i s t e d . In an i n t e r v i e w r e g a r d i n g land s p e c u l a t i o n problems w i t h the then Canadian environment m i n i s t e r , Jean Marchand, a newspaper r e p o r t e r e l i c i t e d the comments t h a t "...the p h i l o s o p h y of p r o f i t i s something which i s p a r t of our s o c i e t y . . . " and t h a t "...Canadians b e l i e v e , r i g h t l y or wrongly, t h a t p r i v a t e e n t e r p r i s e i s the b e s t way of a c h i e v i n g the common good" (Rotering, 197 6). These statements would probably be echoed by most of h i s p o l i t i c a l c o u n t e r p a r t s i n America. The i s s u e o f what c o n s t i t u t e s f a i r p r o f i t on l a n d s a l e s i s a very complex one. I t was suggested i n a r e p o r t - 27 -r e l e a s e d by the Canadian H a b i t a t S e c r e t a r i a t (.197 6) t h a t a major p o r t i o n of unearned increment should be c o n f i s c a t e d or taxes away or, i n the words of the then M i n i s t e r of J u s t i c e , Ron B a s f o r d , "The unearned increment r e s u l t i n g from the r i s e i n l a n d v a l u e s r e s u l t i n g from change of use of land, from p u b l i c investment or d e c i s i o n , or due to the g e n e r a l growth o f the community, must be s u b j e c t to a p p r o p r i a t e r e c a p t u r e . . . " (The Province, 1976). I t was u n c e r t a i n a t the time whether " a p p r o p r i a t e r e c a p t u r e " r e p r e s e n t e d as much as one hundred percent t a x a t i o n or o n l y the c o n f i s c a t i o n of a very small p o r t i o n . Although the p r o s p e c t s of r e c a p t u r e may appeal to persons of the T h i r d World or elsewhere, most North Americans would deem i t q u i t e unacceptable. When l a n d was deemed p l e n t i f u l the emphasis on i n d i v i d u a l r i g h t s was an e x p r e s s i o n of s o c i a l needs at the time. However i t appears t h a t c o l l e c t i v e r i g h t s have assumed a g r e a t e r importance w i t h r e s p e c t to the d i v i s i o n of p r o p e r t y . E f f e c t i v e l a n d use p l a n n i n g n e c e s s i t a t e s a balance between p u b l i c and p r i v a t e i n t e r e s t s . A major o b s t a c l e to the r e s t r u c t u r i n g of r i g h t s i n l a n d between the i n d i v i d u a l and the group i s the value system of the p u b l i c a t l a r g e ( C a s t l e and R e t t i g , 1972). One's concept of what c o n s t i t u t e s p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y , as w e l l as the proper r o l e of l o c a l a u t h o r i t y , may be a t v a r i a n c e with s o l u t i o n s to problems i n i t i a t e d by s o c i e t y as a whole. C a s t l e and R e t t i g (1972) b e l i e v e t h a t more e x t e n s i v e p l a n n i n g may - 28 -b r i n g about g r e a t e r r e c o g n i t i o n of the b a s i c problem, t h a t i s , p r i v a t e versus c o l l e c t i v e needs. I t w i l l be necessary, they p o i n t out, to f i n d other means to s a t i s f y such o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r i n d i v i d u a l s e l f - e x p r e s s i o n as are t r a d i t i o n a l l y found through the development of p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y , e n t r e p r e n e u r s h i p and d e c e n t r a l i z e d decision-making. I f the s i t u a t i o n i s ignored they f o r e s e e the occurrence of inadequate measures to cope w i t h fundamental land use problems such as l o s s o f farmland on the r u r a l - u r b a n f r i n g e . With r e s p e c t to p e r i p h e r a l a g r i c u l t u r a l the major problem has been the l a c k of r e s p e c t f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l land as a v a l u a b l e non-renewable re s o u r c e (Parker, 1968). The bona f i d e farmer u s u a l l y regards the land as a t r u s t , to be c a r e f u l l y husbanded and passed i n good order to f u t u r e g e n e r a t i o n s . On the other hand urban d w e l l e r s tend to look upon i t as a commodity, one to be s u b d i v i d e d , s o l d and b u i l t upon. Parker (1968) views these c o n f l i c t i n g value systems as h o l d i n g grave i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r l a n d areas t h a t are c l e a r l y s u i t a b l e f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s . T h i s concern can a l s o be a p p l i e d to f r i n g e areas elsewhere i n Canada, f o r example the Niagara F r u i t B e l t , the St. Lawrence Lowlands near Montreal, and the l a c u s t r i n e s o i l s of the Red and A s s i n i b o i n e r i v e r systems near Winnipeg (Crerar, 1970). The San Joaquin and Imperial v a l l e y s i n C a l i f o r n i a are two of the o u t s t a n d i n g American examples o f f e r t i l e areas threatened by c o n f l i c t i n g r u r a l and urban a t t i t u d e s toward l a n d development. - 29 -In a d d i t i o n the n o t i o n t h a t the sum of i n d i v i d u a l a c t i o n s can be c o l l e c t i v e l y c o s t l y i s incomprehensible to many (Benson, 1972) . Thus the u r b a n i z i n g of sma l l s c a t t e r e d p r o p e r t i e s on a g r i c u l t u r a l land i s expensive i n terms of the d e p l e t i o n of a f r a g i l e , f i n i t e and b a s i c resource as w e l l as i n the money wasted on i n e f f i c i e n t l y o r g a n i z e d s e r v i c e s . Land use c o n f l i c t s are as o l d as c i v i l i z a t i o n , y e t i t i s r e l a t i v e l y r e c e n t l y t h a t they have become such important t o p i c s f o r d i s c u s s i o n . P r e v i o u s l y land was c o n s i d e r e d t o be a r e l a t i v e l y abundant r e s o u r c e . L a t e l y , however, p o p u l a t i o n growth and the i n c r e a s i n g demand f o r and of the lan d has served to emphasize i t s i n h e r e n t i n e l a s t i c i t y . T h i s i r r e p l a c e a b l e commodity i s being c a l l e d upon to feed, c l o t h e , s h e l t e r , t r a n s p o r t , employ, and to p r o v i d e r e c r e a t i o n a l amenities f o r more human beings than ever b e f o r e . In doing so i t i s under-going s u b s t a n t i a l changes, the dynamics of which are becoming the f o c i of a t t e n t i o n a t a l l l e v e l s of government. 6. Government P o l i c y I t would not be u n f a i r t o say t h a t government p o l i c y , or l a c k of i t , has been a c o n t r i b u t i n g f a c t o r i n the e r o s i o n of p e r i p h e r a l farmland. In essence the s t r u c t u r a l complexity of government has served to c r e a t e d i s t o r t i o n s and weaknesses i n l a n d use p l a n n i n g , thereby encouraging ad hoc development on the 'rural-urban f r i n g e . - 30 -Primary r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r urban sprawl u s u a l l y r e s t s (i n Canada) wi t h the l o c a l government, t h a t i s to say with v i l l a g e s , towns, c i t i e s and m u n i c i p a l d i s t r i c t s w i t h i n a p r o v i n c e . A p a r t i c u l a r weakness a t t h i s l e v e l i s the m u l t i -p l i c i t y o f governmental u n i t s which r e s u l t i n the fragmentation of s e r v i c e s t o the p u b l i c (Del G u i d i c e and Zacks, 1968). Furthermore the e x c e s s i v e bureaucracy tends to produce i n s u f f i c i e n t c o - o r d i n a t i o n i n the esta b l i s h m e n t of sound lan d use o b j e c t i v e s , not to mention l e s s p u b l i c c o n t r o l and awareness of p l a n n i n g problems. As w e l l as p e r m i t t i n g i n e f f i c i e n c i e s o v e r l a p p i n g j u r i s d i c t i o n s c o n t r i b u t e t o c o n t r a d i c t o r y policy-making (Benson, 197 2). T h i s i s e v i d e n t where, f o r example, one government agency grants tax concessions t o a resource i n d u s t r y which c o n t r a d i c t the e f f o r t s by another agency to encourage con-s e r v a t i o n o f the same r e s o u r c e . L o c a l community plans are f r e q u e n t l y a t v a r i a n c e w i t h r e g i o n a l views on f a c t o r s i n f l u e n c i n g l o c a l growth as w e l l as i g n o r i n g the p o s s i b l e e f f e c t s on p e r i p h e r a l a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d where i t e x i s t s (Robinson, 1970). Indeed l o c a l p o l i c i e s , or an absence o f them, can s e r i o u s l y impair or n u l l i f y farmland c o n s e r v a t i o n e f f o r t s o f other l e v e l s o f government. At the same time s e n i o r governments are not always cognizant of the e f f e c t s o f t h e i r own p o l i c i e s . In the e a r l y n ineteen s e v e n t i e s the B r i t i s h Columbia government e s t a b l i s h e d the Greenbelt Fund f o r the purchase and p r e s e r v a t i o n of l a n d f o r farming - 31 -and r e c r e a t i o n . Some of t h i s l a n d was i n the predominantly a g r i c u l t u r a l m u n i c i p a l i t y of D e l t a , near the C i t y of Vancouver. Government purchase p r i c e s f o r farmland ranged from $10,000 to $12,500 per h e c t a r e . For a g r i c u l t u r a l purposes, however, i t was v a l u e d a t o n l y $3,750 per h e c t a r e . I t was suggested t h a t s a l e s f o r farming a c t i v i t i e s would dry up s i n c e farmers would not wish to pay the h i g h e r p r i c e s and t h a t l a n d owners would be u n w i l l i n g t o s e l l f o r l e s s than the government was prepared to pay. In e f f e c t the a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d market would be s t i f l e d and r a t h e r than p r e s e r v i n g farmland government p o l i c y would be encouraging the o p p o s i t e r e s u l t (Pearson, 1972). Conversely s e n i o r governments may c a r r y out p o l i c i e s which are a t odds with l o c a l community g o a l s . One example i s t h a t o f the U n i t e d S t a t e s government highway c o n s t r u c t i o n programme which has c o n t r i b u t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y to urban sprawl i n t h a t country (Blumenfeld, 1966). E q u a l l y as important as government p o l i c y per se i s the q u a l i t y and q u a n t i t y of c i t i z e n s ' c o n t r i b u t i o n s to the p l a n n i n g process. P u b l i c hearings have been more frequent occurrences i n the few years, although some people view them as waste of time (Franson, 1972). Ne v e r t h e l e s s they are a l s o regarded as necessary adjuncts to the p l a n n i n g process and f o r the attainment of consensus r e g a r d i n g p l a n n i n g d e c i s i o n s . Whether governments t r u l y v alue p u b l i c o p i n i o n , however, i s another matter e n t i r e l y and a t times the c o u r t s may be c a l l e d upon to f o r c e government p l a n n i n g agencies to c o n s i d e r p u b l i c o p i n i o n r e g a r d i n g proposed l a n d use changes. - 32 -E a r l y i n 1979, i n a t h i r t y - s e v e n page judgment, the A l b e r t a Appeal Court r u l e d t h a t the Calgary Regional Planning Commission (C.R.P.C.) and the Rocky View M u n i c i p a l D i s t r i c t P l a n n i n g Board must grant a new he a r i n g to a f r i n g e area rancher r e g a r d i n g an i l l e g a l q u a r t e r - s e c t i o n s u b d i v i s i o n a d j a c e n t t o h i s la n d . The rancher had e a r l i e r o b j e c t e d t o the development o f the s u b d i v i s i o n on the grounds t h a t i t was "an i n t r u s i o n o f a r e s i d e n t i a l community i n t o an e x t e n s i v e c a t t l e r a n c h i n g o p e r a t i o n " . The C.R.P.C. and the p r o v i n c i a l p l a n n i n g board had agreed. However, as the law per m i t t e d him, the developer continued to pre s s u r e these agencies f o r app r o v a l , with the p r o v i n c i a l p l a n n i n g board e v e n t u a l l y agreeing to l e t the three home s u b d i v i s i o n remain. The rancher appealed. In i t s judgment the Appeal Court r u l e d t h a t although the developer's c o n s i d e r a b l e expenditure "was made i n good f a i t h , t h i s i s not a matter r e l e v a n t to good p l a n n i n g " and t h a t i t i s incumbent upon p l a n n i n g agencies t o c o n s i d e r the p u b l i c i n t e r e s t i n the " o r d e r l y and economic development of the area". T h i s l e g a l judgment was prompted by the d e c i s i o n of the M u n i c i p a l D i s t r i c t of Rocky View to r e c l a s s i f y t h i s p a r t i c u l a r area from a g r i c u l t u r a l to r u r a l small h o l d i n g without any c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h the rancher a f f e c t e d or anyone e l s e concerned (Schmidt, 1979). F u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n would probably uncover many s i m i l a r i n c i d e n t s i n Canada and the United S t a t e s . - 33 -The world and s o c i e t y are e v o l v i n g c o n s t a n t l y and although the aforementioned c o n t r i b u t o r s to urban encroachment onto farmland - m o b i l i t y , zoning, t a x a t i o n , s p e c u l a t i o n , p u b l i c a t t i t u d e s and government p o l i c y - are deemed by the w r i t e r to be paramount, one c o u l d probably c i t e o t h e r s e q u a l l y as v a l i d . - 34 -PART I I . THE RESEARCH SITES A. INTRODUCTION The f o u r s i t e s i n v o l v e d i n t h i s study were s e l e c t e d i n order to r e p r e s e n t a c r o s s - s e c t i o n of the Lower F r a s e r V a l l e y i n terms of s o i l s , parent m a t e r i a l s , drainage and topography. In a d d i t i o n , such f a c t o r s as p r o x i m i t y to urban c e n t r e s and p o s s i b l e i n h e r e n t r e s t r a i n t s to u r b a n i z a t i o n o f each s i t e have been c o n s i d e r e d . A g e n e r a l d e s c r i p t i o n of the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s i n which these areas are l o c a t e d has been i n c l u d e d to r e v e a l each s i t e i n i t s l a r g e r c o n t e x t . The f i r s t two s i t e s are l o c a t e d i n Richmond M u n i c i p a l i t y . Although each has some s o i l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n common wit h the other, one has been exposed to s u b d i v i s i o n development whereas the other has not. P a r a d o x i c a l l y , i t i s the s i t e f a r t h e s t from the major urban centr e of the area - Vancouver - and p o s s e s s i n g the p o o r e s t e n g i n e e r i n g s o i l q u a l i t i e s i n which development has o c c u r r e d . S i t e number three i s l o c a t e d i n the uplands of Langley M u n i c i p a l i t y . The c l o s e s t urban c e n t r e i s Langley C i t y , about three k i l o m e t r e s to the northwest. The l a s t r e s e a r c h area i s a p o r t i o n of Westham I s l a n d i n the M u n i c i p a l i t y of D e l t a . The i s l a n d i s a t the mouth of the F r a s e r River and r e p r e s e n t s an o u t s t a n d i n g example of d e l t a i c landscape. Besides i t s p h y s i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s the r e l a t i v e i s o l a t i o n from l a r g e urban c e n t r e s was a f a c t o r - 35 -i n i t s selection for study. Research was undertaken primarily by employing a i r photographs and land use maps. Photos were examined to determine the presence and extent of obvious urbanization, including subdivision development, and the presence and extent of improved acreage, that i s the conversion of forest to agriculture and/or forest to urban use. The re s u l t s were correlated with s o i l data to determine what s o i l s were subject to adverse modifications with respect to agriculture. Richmond, Langley and Delta municipalities form part of the Fraser Lowland, that part of the Coastal Through which l i e s within the Georgia Depression. This area, ranging from near sea l e v e l to about one hundred twenty metres above sea l e v e l i s characterized by wide, flat-bottomed valleys and extensive areas of r o l l i n g uplands. Drainage i s provided by the Fraser River. Most of the area i s underlain by g r a n i t i c bedrock covered with deep s u r f i c i a l deposits, formed during the Recent g l a c i a l age which terminated about ten thousand years ago. The delta i s s t i l l i n the process of formation (Acron and Crosson, 1978) . Agriculture i s the main land use i n the Fraser Lowland. Mild c l i m a t i c conditions permit a wide range of crops, regional s u i t a b i l i t y of the same being determined by s o i l v a r i a t i o n s . Wetland Organic and Gleysolic s o i l s are well suited to the production of crops such as b r o c c o l i , cabbage, carrots, corn, lettuce, onions and potatoes. Small - 36 -f r u i t s - b l u e b e r r i e s , c r a n b e r r i e s , r a s p b e r r i e s and s t r a w b e r r i e s - are c o n c e n t r a t e d w i t h i n adaptable s o i l areas. Other s o i l and n o n - s o i l based a g r i c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s i n c l u d e p o u l t r y r a i s i n g and the l a r g e , l o n g - e s t a b l i s h e d d a i r y i n d u s t r y , mink ranching, b o r t i c u l t u r e , equine breeding and domestic pet boarding. Water management problems are the p r i n c i p a l ones c o n f r o n t i n g a g r i c u l t u r e i n the Lower F r a s e r V a l l e y (Acron and Crosson, 1978). The need f o r a r t i f i c i a l drainage i s p r e c i p i t a t e d by h i g h winter water t a b l e s whereas summer moisture d e f i c i t s must be overcome by i r r i g a t i o n . The F r a s e r Lowland i s , by most peoples' standards, a f i n e p l a c e to l i v e , work, and p l a y . Because a r e a l p o p u l a t i o n and i t s a t t e n d a n t development i s i n c r e a s i n g , land use c o n f l i c t s are becoming more e v i d e n t . A g r i c u l t u r e must compete wi t h other l a n d uses f o r space i n a f i n i t e r e g i o n . B. SITE INFORMATION — RICHMOND, B.C. 1. Geography and Land Use The Township of Richmond, a l s o known as Richmond M u n i c i p a l i t y , i s s i t u a t e d a t the mouth of the F r a s e r R i v e r and at the extreme western end of the Lower F r a s e r V a l l e y of B r i t i s h Columbia. I t i s bounded on the n o r t h by the C i t y of Vancouver from which i t i s separated by the n o r t h arm of the - 37 -F r a s e r R i v e r ; on the west by the S t r a i t of Georgia; on the south by the M u n i c i p a l i t y of D e l t a from which i t i s separated by the south arm of the F r a s e r R i v e r ; and on the e a s t by the Queensborough d i s t r i c t of the C i t y of New Westminster. Richmond i s composed of s e v e r a l i s l a n d s , the p r i n c i p a l ones being L u l u I s l a n d (10,033 h e c t a r e s ) , Sea I s l a n d (1,528 hectares) and M i t c h e l l I s l a n d (105 h e c t a r e s ) . The r e s t are s m a l l e r i s l a n d s of v a r i o u s s i z e s ( F o a r s t e l , 1964). L u l u I s l a n d i s the s i t e i f a v a r i e t y of l a n d uses i n c l u d i n g r e s i d e n t i a l , a g r i c u l t u r a l , i n d u s t r i a l and commercial. Access to Vancouver i s made p o s s i b l e by the Knight S t r e e t and Oak S t r e e t b r i d g e s . The George Massey (Deas Island) Tunnel connects the i s l a n d to D e l t a v i a Highway 499. In c o n t r a s t , Sea I s l a n d i s dominated by the a v i a t i o n i n d u s t r y , i t s presence manifested by a i r p l a n e hangers, a i r l i n e o f f i c e s and the Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l A i r p o r t . L i t t l e a g r i c u l t u r e remains and r e s i d e n t i a l development i s l i m i t e d mainly to two s m a l l s u b d i v i s i o n s , one l o c a t e d i n the south-e a s t e r n corner o f the i s l a n d and the other about two k i l o -metres nor t h o f the a i r p o r t t e r m i n a l . D i r e c t access to Vancouver i s l i m i t e d to the use of the A r t h u r Laing Bridge, c o n s t r u c t e d to f a c i l i t a t e the flow of a i r p o r t t r a f f i c . Three minor b r i d g e s span the middle arm of the F r a s e r R i v e r . M i t c h e l l I s l a n d ' s land use i s l i m i t e d mainly to i n d u s t r i a l and commercial e n t e r p r i s e s . R e s i d e n t i a l development i s i n s i g n i f i c a n t . D i r e c t access to Vancouver and L u l u I s l a n d - 38 -occurs v i a the Knight S t r e e t Bridge. At p r e s e n t about 3,600 hecta r e s are a c t i v e l y used f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t i o n i n Richmond (Greater Vancouver Regional D i s t r i c t , 197 5) i n c l u d i n g small f r u i t s ( s t r a w b e r r i e s , r a s p b e r r i e s , b l u e b e r r i e s and c r a n b e r r i e s , the l a t t e r two being grown on o r g a n i c d e p o s i t s i n e a s t e r n Richmond), p o u l t r y , v e g e t a b l e s , h o r t i c u l t u r e , g r a i n s and d a i r y c a t t l e . 2. Geology Richmond i s p a r t of the F r a s e r V a l l e y D e l t a , an area extending from the S t r a i t of Georgia eastward one hundred and twenty-eight k i l o m e t r e s , and from the Canada - U n i t e d S t a t e s border northward to the Coast Mountains. The d e l t a , s t i l l i n the formative p r o c e s s , l i e s mainly below the l e v e l of extreme hig h t i d e and i s e x t e n s i v e l y dyked to prevent f l o o d i n g . A l l u v i a l sands, f i f t e e n or more metres deep, are u n d e r l a i n by a f a i r l y t h i c k c l a y and s i l t y c l a y s e c t i o n , w i t h a t o t a l d e p o s i t i o n of as much as two hundred and t h i r t e e n metres being found on L u l u I s l a n d (Armstrong, 1956). Large sphagnum peat bogs are found on the e a s t e r n s i d e of the i s l a n d . In common w i t h areas of s i m i l a r geology, Richmond experiences d i f f i c u l t i e s w i t h s u r f a c e r u n o f f , the c l a y and s i l t y c l a y s o i l s being l a r g e l y impervious to downward p e r c o l a t i o n . The peat bogs are sources of e n g i n e e r i n g problems as l o a d i n g produces e x c e s s i v e compaction and poor - 39 -drainage. S u b s t a n t i a l f i l l must be u t i l i z e d i n f o u n d a t i o n and road c o n s t r u c t i o n . The h i g h water t a b l e a d v e r s e l y a f f e c t s s e p t i c tank sewage d i s p o s a l s i n c e the s u c c e s s f u l o p e r a t i o n of a u n i t i s dependent upon the maintenance of water l e v e l s below the . a b s o r p t i o n t i l e s (Armstrong, 1 9 5 6 ) . Proper water l e v e l s are maintained by numerous dykes and pumping s t a t i o n s . Although s e r i o u s f l o o d i n g has not taken p l a c e s i n c e 194 8 the i n h e r e n t nature of the F r a s e r R i v e r presupposes a s i m i l a r occurrence i n the f u t u r e . 3. Community Development In 18 62 settlement of Richmond began and i t s i n -c o r p o r a t i o n as a Township f o l l o w e d i n 1 8 7 9 (Richmond Review, 1 9 7 6 ) . The salmon i n d u s t r y became f i r m l y e s t a b l i s h e d -l a r g e l y by the Japanese - i n the southwestern L u l u I s l a n d community o f Steveston (Siemens, 1 9 6 8 ) . Of s p e c i a l importance d u r i n g the years p r e c e d i n g 1 9 0 9 were the d a i r y i n d u s t r i e s of L u l u and Sea i s l a n d s , sources of Vancouver's m i l k supply (Winter, 1 9 6 8 ) . In a d d i t i o n the f e r t i l e d e l t a s o i l s y i e l d e d farm products such as potatoes, hay and oats (Roy, 1 9 6 8 ) . The years p r i o r to World War I were spent i n e s t a b l i s h -i n g communication and t r a n s p o r t networks between the young township and i t s neighbours. The Canadian P a c i f i c Railway, d e s i r o u s of s e r v i n g the canning i n d u s t r y , e s t a b l i s h e d the - 4 0 -Vancouver and L u l u I s l a n d L i n e i n 1 9 0 5 (Roy, 1 9 6 8 ) , w i t h the B r i t i s h Columbia E l e c t r i c Railway assuming i t s o p e r a t i o n around 1 9 1 4 i n r e c o g n i t i o n of the area's a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o s p e c t s . Road networks were l a i d out i n the g r i d system, the p r e - 1 9 0 5 s t r u c t u r e s c o n s i s t i n g of "corduroy" and p l a n k i n g (Meyer, 1 9 6 8 ) . Pursuant to the primary purpose of l i n k i n g the s e t t l e r s to t h e i r market c e n t r e s , l o c a l s t r e e t p a t t e r n s evolved around r a i l connections to Vancouver and New Westminster. A f t e r World War I, and as motor t r a n s p o r t reduced dependence upon the r a i l w a y s , B.C. E l e c t r i c Railway - now B.C. Hydro Railway - became a f r e i g h t feeder l i n e f o r l o c a l products d e s t i n e d f o r the t r a n s c o n t i n e n t a l r a i l w a y s (Roy, 1 9 6 8 ) . At pres e n t Richmond i s served by the Canadian P a c i f i c and Canadian N a t i o n a l r a i l w a y s , p l u s the B.C. Hydro Railway with connections to the B u r l i n g t o n Northern Railway and the United S t a t e s . For motor t r a n s p o r t the F r a s e r - D e l t a Throughway b i s e c t s the township p r o v i d i n g r a p i d and convenient access to the U n i t e d Sta t e s v i a Highway 4 9 9 . In the meantime the p o p u l a t i o n had i n c r e a s e d s t e a d i l y . A f t e r World War I I the s u b s t a n t i a l r i s e i n automobile usage encouraged new r e s i d e n t i a l development. Settlement o c c u r r e d near main roads, thereby r e d u c i n g t r a v e l time to employment i n Vancouver. Steveston, the o r i g i n a l urban c e n t r e , had a t t r a c t e d r e s i d e n t i a l growth to the west of Number F i v e Road ( F o e r s t e l , 1 9 6 4 ) . During 1 9 5 0 ' s r e s i d e n t i a l growth proceeded very r a p i d l y , i t s progress f a c i l i t a t e d by the opening of the - 41 -new Oak S t r e e t Bridge i n 1 9 5 7 . Between 1 9 5 1 and 1 9 6 1 the p o p u l a t i o n grew from 1 9 , 1 8 6 to 4 3 , 3 2 3 , an i n c r e a s e of over 1 2 5 percent (Howard, 1 9 7 5 ) . Present p o p u l a t i o n i s about n i n e t y - f i v e thousand (Business L i f e , 1 9 7 9 ) . 4. R e s t r a i n t s on Development Richmond i s an a t t r a c t i v e p l a c e to l i v e and work. However three environmental f a c t o r s have been c i t e d as l i m i t s to f u t u r e u r b a n i z a t i o n on any l a n d other than t h a t now d e s i g n a t e d . They are a g r i c u l t u r a l p r e s e r v a t i o n , f l o o d i n g danger, and a i r p o r t n o i s e (G.V.R.D., 1 9 7 5 ) . At p r e s e n t about 3 , 6 0 0 h e c t a r e s are i n a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t i o n w i t h more than f i f t y p e r c e n t of the farm l y i n g on Canada Land Inventory C l a s s e s One and Two s o i l s . Primary and secondary a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d r e s e r v e s have been i n s t i t u t e d i n order to p r o t e c t the farmland and have, i n the process, c r e a t e d c l e a r l y d e f i n e d southern and e a s t e r n boundaries f o r urban development. The township l i e s wholly i n a f l o o d p l a i n , thus e s t a b l i s h i n g another l i m i t t o growth. Present p o l i c y r e s t r i c t s u r b a n i z a t i o n t o i t s p r e s e n t boundaries. With exceptions of Steveston and B r i d g e p o r t no development can take p l a c e e a s t of Number F i v e Road or south of Steveston Highway. T h i s p o l i c y a f f o r d s f u r t h e r p r o t e c t i o n to farmland as the a g r i c u l t u r a l r e s e r v e s a l s o l i e i n the f l o o d p l a i n . - 42 -A i r p o r t n o i s e i s a l e s s obvious problem out n e v e r t h e l e s s an important one. High n o i s e l e v e l s are being experienced by the.Sea I s l a n d s u b d i v i s i o n s p l u s areas n o r t h of Westminster Highway and east to Number Seven Road on L u l u Road. Lesser l e v e l s are encountered elsewhere. The amount of d i s t u r b a n c e i s a f u n c t i o n of o p e r a t i o n a l procedures and runway c o n f i g u r a t i o n s . B a r r i n g a severe enough energy c r i s i s t o b r i n g about a n o t i c e a b l e d i m i n u t i o n of a i r t r a v e l , h igh n o i s e l e v e l s are expected to continue i n t o the f o r e s e e a b l e f u t u r e . 5. S i t e Information - North S i t e a. Area - 2.6 square k i l o m e t r e s bounded by Cambie Road on the n o r t h , Number Seven Road on the e a s t , Westminster Highway on the south, and Number S i x Road on the west. b. Topography - mainly g e n t l y u n d u l a t i n g t o un d u l a t i n g w i t h slope values ranging from 0.5 - 5 per c e n t . c. S o i l s -(i) Annis Rego G l e y s o l (peaty phase) - Parent M a t e r i a l s : o r g a n i c over a l l u v i u m - Drainage: poor to very poor - A g r i c u l t u r a l C a p a b i l i t y : can support small f r u i t s such as b l u e b e r r i e s and c r a n b e r r i e s , and forage crops. - 43 -- Limitations: poor drainage. A r t i f i c i a l drainage i s a must for a l l crops but cranberries and blueberries. Improvement of aeration, rooting depth and permeability needed by way of occasional subsoiling. ( i i ) Blundell Saline Rego Gleysol (peaty phase) - Parent Material: organic over alluvium - Drainage: poor to very poor - A g r i c u l t u r a l Capability: can support forage production, oats, potatoes and canning peas. - Limitations: poor drainage. T i l e s and ditches are required for water table control. ( i i i ) Delta Saline Orthic Humic Gleysol - Parent Material: alluvium - Drainage: poor - A g r i c u l t u r a l Capability: can support a wide variety of crops including potatoes, canning peas, sugar beet seed, straw-berries, cereal grains, forages, silage and sweet corn. - Limitations: poor drainage and susceptibi-b i l i t y to puddling. S o i l should not be c u l t i v a t e d when wet. A r t i f i c i a l drainage i s required for winter water table - 44 -control i n order to f a c i l i t a t e spring planting and c u l t i v a t i o n , (iv) K i t t e r Orthie Gleysol - Parent Material: alluvium - Drainage: moderately poor - A g r i c u l t u r a l Capability: good for a variety of crops including forages, oats, strawberries, potatoes, and vegetables such as canning peas and beans. - Limitations: the accumulative effects of several minor s o i l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s including r e s t r i c t e d drainage and rooting depth, plus s l i g h t topographical r e s t r i c t i o n s . These produce uneven maturation of such crops as beans and canning peas. d. Restraints on Urbanization - t h i s s i t e l i e s on a floodplain and, as noted previously, p o l i c y has dictated that t h i s area (east of Number Five Road) be r e s t r i c t e d from urban development. In addition, i t i s within the boundaries of the a g r i c u l t u r a l land reserve. - 45 -6. S i t e Information - South S i t e a. Area - 2.6 square k i l o m e t r e s bounded by G r a n v i l l e Avenue on the north., Number 5 Road on the e a s t , F r a n c i s Road (equivalent) on the south, and Number 4 Road on the west. b. . Topography - almost l e v e l t o g e n t l y u n d u l a t i n g with slope v a l u e s ranging from 0-2 per c e n t . c. S o i l s -(i) B l u n d e l l S a l i n e Rego G l e y s o l - see n o r t h s i t e i n f o r m a t i o n ( i i ) Lumbum T y p i c M e s i s o l ( f i b r i c type) - Parent M a t e r i a l : o r g a n i c - Drainage: very poor - A g r i c u l t u r a l C a p a b i l i t y : can support b l u e b e r r i e s , c r a n b e r r i e s , some for a g e s , p l u s t r u c k crops such as l e t t u c e and c a r r o t s i f proper water t a b l e c o n t r o l i s p r e s e n t . - L i m i t a t i o n s : the very poor drainage. Improved drainage would improve the c a p a b i l i t y r a t i n g . ( i i i ) Richmond T e r r i c Humisol - Parent M a t e r i a l : o r g a n i c over a l l u v i u m - Drainage: very poor - 46 -- A g r i c u l t u r a l C a p a b i l i t y : can support b l u e b e r r i e s , c r a n b e r r i e s , forage cr o p s , and v e g e t a b l e crops such as c a r r o t s , l e t t u c e and potatoes. - L i m i t a t i o n s : poor drainage. S u f f i c i e n t water t a b l e c o n t r o l would be r e q u i r e d b e f o r e s o i l c o u l d be e x t e n s i v e l y used f o r anything but b l u e b e r r i e s and c r a n b e r r i e s . T h i s s o i l i s d i f f i c u l t to re-wet once completely d r i e d . (iv) T r i g g s S p h a g n o - F i b r i s o l - Parent M a t e r i a l : o r g a n i c - mainly sphagnum with some hypnum mosses. - Drainage: very poor - A g r i c u l t u r a l C a p a b i l i t y : very low; b l u e b e r r i e s , c r a n b e r r i e s , forages and perhaps some t r u c k crops. - L i m i t a t i o n s : very poor drainage and low f e r t i l i t y . Reclamation by way of high water t a b l e c o n t r o l would be r e q u i r e d b e f o r e t h i s s o i l c o u l d be f u l l y u t i l i z e d f o r a g r i c u l t u r e . In a d d i t i o n t h i s s o i l i s d i f f i c u l t t o re-wet once d r i e d out. d. The s i t e l i e s on a f l o o d p l a i n , i t s s o i l s have poor e n g i n e e r i n g c a p a b i l i t y , and i t i s w i t h i n the boundaries of the a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d r e s e r v e . - 47 -C. SITE INFORMATION — LANGLEY, B.C. 1. Geography and Land Use The M u n i c i p a l i t y o f Langley, about 312 square k i l o m e t r e s i n s i z e , i s s i t u a t e d a t the approximate c e n t r e of the F r a s e r V a l l e y d e l t a . I t s boundaries are the F r a s e r R i v e r to the nor t h , 2 76th S t r e e t on the east, the Canada-United States border to the south, and 196th S t r e e t on the west. The immediate neighbours i n c l u d e the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s o f Surrey, Maple Ridge and Matsqui on the west, n o r t h and east r e s p e c t i v e l y and Washington S t a t e on the south. Two smal l i s l a n d s Brae and McMillan, l i e o f f s h o r e i n R u s s e l l Reach, n o r t h of F o r t Langley, and are separated from the main body of the m u n i c i p a l i t y by Bedford Channel. Land use i n Langley i s v a r i e d but the major p o r t i o n of the m u n i c i p a l i t y i s r u r a l , w i t h the land mainly engaged as cropl a n d , improved and unimproved pasture, g r a s s l a n d and f o r e s t (Skoda, 1975). Dairy c a t t l e , p o u l t r y , horse breeding and domestic pet boarding comprise some examples of other a g r i c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s . Commerce, i n d u s t r y and housing are l o c a t e d i n th r e e p r i n c i p a l areas: Langley C i t y , near the Surrey border; the town of F o r t Langley on the F r a s e r R i v e r ; and the town of Aldergrove,, near Matsqui. Zoning - f o r s u b d i v i s i o n c o n t r o l purposes - ranges from roughly 0.2-8 hectare p a r c e l l i m i t s , with dog kennels being p e r m i t t e d i n - 48 -some areas zoned two or more h e c t a r e s . McMillan I s l a n d i s the s i t e o f an Indian r e s e r v a t i o n . D i r e c t access between Langley and other Lower Mainland areas and the United States i s a v a i l a b l e through the use of Highway 401 (Trans-Canada) and the north-south Aldergrove - Sumas Highway. Access to the n o r t h shore of the F r a s e r R i v e r from F o r t Langley i s p r o v i d e d by the A l b i o n F e r r y . 2. Geology Langley r e p r e s e n t s s e v e r a l g e o l o g i c a l f a c e t s o f the F r a s e r V a l l e y D e l t a ( C e n t r a l F r a s e r V a l l e y Regional D i s t r i c t , 1972) . The lowlands, ranging from zero to twenty-one metres above, sea l e v e l , are composed mainly of s i l t y and c l a y e y f l o o d p l a i n and d e l t a i c d e p o s i t s o f the Campbell, F r a s e r , Nicomekl and Salmon r i v e r s . Topography ranges from f l a t t o u n d u l a t i n g w i t h l a r g e p o r t i o n s having poor drainage, e s p e c i a l l y d u r i n g winter months. In summer i r r i g a t i o n i s r e q u i r e d f o r the G l e y s o l s and l i g h t - t e x t u r e d Regosols. The lowlands are c l a s s e d as f e r t i l e w i t h r e s p e c t to management requirements. The uplands, ranging from twenty-one to about one hundred twenty-two metres above sea l e v e l , are c o n s i d e r e d l e s s f e r t i l e and l e s s w e l l adapted to g e n e r a l farming. These - 49 -areas appeal mainly to o r c h a r d i s t s , cattlemen, mixed farmers, hobby farmers and the r e t i r e d . In g e n e r a l farms are s m a l l e r than those o f the lowlands due to d i f f i c u l t y i n removing heavy t r e e cover. Parent m a t e r i a l s are l a r g e l y g l a c i o m a r i n e and outwash d e p o s i t s of medium t e x t u r e . They are moderate t o w e l l d r a i n e d . Topography v a r i e s from u n d u l a t i n g to r o l l i n g and i s i n t e r s p e r s e d w i t h f l a t t e r r a c e s . Small amounts o f o r g a n i c s o i l s are a l s o present i n the forms of peat and muck, the l a t t e r being the more f e r t i l e and, as such, s u i t a b l e f o r i n t e n s i v e t r u c k farming. I t has been estimated t h a t the m u n i c i p a l i t y has 2,032 hectar e s o f C l a s s e s One and Two s o i l s , 24,380 hecta r e s of C l a s s e s Three and Four, 3,348 hecta r e s of C l a s s F i v e , 2,929 hectares o f C l a s s e s S i x and Seven, and 972 he c t a r e s of o r g a n i c s o i l s (C.F.V.R.D., 1972). 3. Community Development The modern h i s t o r y o f Langley begins w i t h the founding of F o r t Langley i n 1827 by the Hudson's Bay Company, h e r e a f t e r r e f e r r e d to as "the Company" (Howell-Jones, 196 8). T h i s settlement, the f i r s t European one i n the r e g i o n , engaged i n the c o l l e c t i o n and export of f u r s and salmon, a g r i c u l t u r e assuming l a t e r importance as farming developed to supply the Company and Russian Alaskan f o r t s . Due to i t s a c t i v e d i s -couragement by the Company, independent settlement d i d not - 50 -begin u n t i l 1858, the year i n which the new crown colony of B r i t i s h Columbia was formed. F o r t Langley became i t s f i r s t c a p i t a l . L a t e r , i n 1873, the p r e s e n t M u n i c i p a l i t y of Langley was i n c o r p o r a t e d . Meanwhile, road and water l i n k s from the f o r t to i t s customers were e s t a b l i s h e d . T r a i l s c u t through the dense f o r e s t , sometimes f o l l o w i n g Indian t r a i l s which were l o c a t e d on h i g h e r ground. The F r a s e r R i v e r system (and p a r t i c u l a r l y the Nicomekl and Salmon r i v e r s ) was u t i l i z e d as much as p o s s i b l e (Meyer, 1968). The 1858 Gold Rush hastened a g r i c u l t u r a l settlement of the F r a s e r V a l l e y , settlement designed to p r o v i d e food f o r the miners. L a t e r , however, customers elsewhere were sought and more e f f i c i e n t t r a n s p o r t a t i o n was needed i n order to supply them. Railways were to assume a new importance (Roy, 1968). The governors of the Canadian P a c i f i c Railway had, by 1878, determined t h a t a route through B r i t i s h Columbia to tidewater on the P a c i f i c Coast should be e s t a b l i s h e d . E x h i b i t i n g c o r p o r a t e a t t i t u d e s worthy of those of the present day, the route was s e l e c t e d to s a t i s f y the Company's d e s i r e f o r economy and f u t u r e p r o f i t s r a t h e r than to c a t e r to the needs and resources of the V a l l e y . The ensuing l i n e completely bypassed the south s i d e of the F r a s e r R i v e r , much to the c h a g r i n of i t s r e s i d e n t s . I t was l e f t to an E n g l i s h company to s a t i s f y l o c a l needs. - 51 -The B r i t i s h Columbia E l e c t r i c Railway inaugurated s e r v i c e s t o New T-Jestminster, Langley and C h i l l i w a c k i n 1910, an a s s o c i a t i o n which was to l a s t f o r f o r t y y e a r s . The l i n e , c l o s e l y p a r a l l e l l e d by t h a t o f the Canadian Northern ( l a t e r Canadian N a t i o n a l ) Railway, soon d i s p l a y e d i t s r i v e r steamer competitors and had a fav o u r a b l e impact upon the V a l l e y ' s farming and lumber economies. As new roads were b u i l t and e x i s t i n g ones upgraded motor t r a n s p o r t e v e n t u a l l y d i s p l a c e d most r a i l s e r v i c e s . In 1923 the B.C.E.R. i n i t i a t e d i t s own bus s e r v i c e , P a c i f i c Stage (now P a c i f i c Coach) L i n e s , i n r e c o g n i t i o n of the tr e n d . The r a i l w a y now e x i s t s as a feeder l i n e . Because Langley was c o n s i d e r e d a s u b s t a n t i a l d i s t a n c e away from the p r i n c i p a l c e n t r e s of urban growth, i t maintained almost t o t a l r u r a l i t y and a r e l a t i v e l y slow p o p u l a t i o n growth u n t i l the 1960's. The completion o f Highway 401 made a c c e s s i -b i l i t y e a s i e r f o r those workers employed i n Vancouver, Burnaby and New Westminster who favoured a r u r a l l i f e s t y l e . The 1976 census gave the m u n i c i p a l i t y ' s p o p u l a t i o n as 35,926. 4. R e s t r a i n t s on Development Langley i s a p l e a s a n t , r u r a l l y o r i e n t e d community now f a c i n g e x t e r n a l p r e s s s u r e s f o r i n c r e a s e d urban development. However c e r t a i n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s make ex c e s s i v e growth i n a d v i s a b l e . - 52 -F i r s t o f a l l , i t s low l y i n g areas are flo o d - p r o n e , although dyking i s present. Secondly, f a i r or poor drainage, the bane of a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t i o n , a d v e r s e l y a f f e c t s much of the m u n i c i p a l i t y , e s p e c i a l l y the lowland areas. Upland r u n o f f , f r e q u e n t l y c r e a t e d by l a n d c l e a r i n g , s t r a i n s stream and d i t c h c a p a c i t i e s at lower l e v e l s . F l a t areas, and those covered by r e l a t i v e l y impermeable marine sediments, are su b j e c t t o ponding and s a t u r a t i o n (Luttmerding and Sprout, 1966). T h i r d l y , the f o r e s t c o v e r i n g much of the upland areas i s expensive t o remove. As s t a t e d e a r l i e r improper c l e a r i n g may l e a d to e x c e s s i v e r u n o f f and, e q u a l l y s e r i o u s as f a r as a g r i c u l t u r e i s concerned, t o p s o i l removal. F o u r t h l y , most of Langley has a l i m i t e d supply of ground-water f o r i r r i g a t i o n purposes and domestic water, p r i n c i p a l l y s u p p l i e d by a r t e s i a n w e l l s , i s d i f f i c u l t to tap from areas u n d e r l a i n by g l a c i o m a r i n e sediments (Luttmerding and Sprout, 19 66). In low p r e c i p i t a t i o n years water shortages c o u l d occur i f urban development i n c r e a s e s enough t o a d v e r s e l y a f f e c t the withdrawal-recharge flow of the a q u i f e r s . F i f t h l y , the area l i e s w i t h i n the a g r i c u l t u r a l land r e s e r v e and cannot undergo land use changes without s p e c i a l d i s p e n s a t i o n . F i n a l l y , the r e s i d e n t s appear to favour an e s s e n t i a l l y - 53 -r u r a l atmosphere. A c c o r d i n g l y , the m u n i c i p a l by-law f o r s u b d i v i s i o n c o n t r o l r e f l e c t s t h i s a t t i t u d e . 5. S i t e Information a. Area - 3.9 square k i l o m e t r e s bounded by 2 8th Avenue (equivalent) on the n o r t h , 224th S t r e e t on the e a s t , 1*6th Avenue on the south, and 216th S t r e e t on the west. b. Topography - w i d e l y v a r i e d , ranging from v i r t u a l l y l e v e l t o very s t e e p l y s l o p i n g . Average topography i s u n d u l a t i n g to g e n t l y r o l l i n g . Slope v a l u e s range from about 0.5-30+ percent. c. S o i l s -(i) A l b i o n Humic L u v i c G l e y s o l - Parent, M a t e r i a l : g l a c i o m a r i n e - Drainage: moderately poor - A g r i c u l t u r a l C a p a b i l i t y : hay and p a s t u r e . Some areas are h e a v i l y wooded. T h i s s o i l was o r i g i n a l l y p a r t of the Scat s e r i e s but has been separated because l e s s s e v e r e l y r e s t r i c t e d drainage. - L i m i t a t i o n s : mainly drainage. T h i s s o i l i s s u b j e c t to s a t u r a t i o n and some f l o o d i n g d u r i n g p e r i o d s of heavy r a i n f a l l . - 54 -( i i ) Heron Rego Humic G l e y s o l - Parent M a t e r i a l : marine - Drainage: poor - A g r i c u l t u r a l C a p a b i l i t y : can produce hay and past u r e - L i m i t a t i o n s : poor drainage. Heavy f o r e s t c l e a r i n g (.where a p p l i c a b l e ) p l u s drainage system i n s t a l l a t i o n s r e q u i r e d f o r r e c l a m a t i o n . ( i i i ) Judson T e r r i c Humisol (muck) - Parent M a t e r i a l : o r g a n i c over g l a c i o m a r i n e - Drainage: very poor - A g r i c u l t u r a l C a p a b i l i t y : pasture and hay, ve g e t a b l e s , and b l u e b e r r i e s . - L i m i t a t i o n s : drainage. I f the s u r f a c e l a y e r becomes e x c e s s i v e l y dry, s o i l subsidence and c r a c k i n g i s induced. I f w e l l managed muck s o i l s have p o t e n t i a l f o r t r u c k crop p r o d u c t i o n . (iv) Lumbum T y p i c M e s i s o l - Parent M a t e r i a l : o r g a n i c - Drainage: very poor - A g r i c u l t u r a l C a p a b i l i t y : c r a n b e r r i e s , b l u e b e r r i e s , and forage . If_ water t a b l e i s c o n t r o l l e d and s u r f a c e f i b r i c l a y e r decomposed, c a r r o t s , l e t t u c e , and other t r u c k crops can be grown. - 55 -- Limitations: poor drainage. A r t i f i c i a l drainageis required for a g r i c u l t u r a l use. It should be below the rooting depth of a crop but high enough for subsurface i r r i g a t i o n . (v) Nicholson Podzolic Grey Luvisol - Parent Material: glaciomarine - Drainage: moderately well to well - A g r i c u l t u r a l Capability: among the best Langley upland s o i l s for agriculture. Good for hay and pasture, small f r u i t s and vegetables. - L i m i t a t i o n s : located on undulating topography which makes the depressions (mainly occupied by the poorly drained Scat series) d i f f i c u l t to manage and cu l t i v a t e ; otherwise a good s o i l , (vi) Ross Rego Gleysol - Parent Material: alluvium - Drainage: very poor - A g r i c u l t u r a l Capability: hay and pasture plus rough grazing i n uncleared areas. - Limitations: the very poor drainage and dense swamp forest cover. Reclamation would require modification of these two elements and the expense incurred might - 56 -be i n v a i n due to frequent f l o o d i n g and l a t e r a l seepage from streams. Access i s d i f f i c u l t i f Ross s o i l s are l o c a t e d a t the bottom of deep r a v i n e s . ( v i i ) Scat O r t h i c Humic G l e y s o l - Parent M a t e r i a l : g l a c i o m a r i n e - Drainage: poor - A g r i c u l t u r a l C a p a b i l i t y : l i m i t e d : mainly hay and pasture or f o r water storage. - L i m i t a t i o n s : poor drainage, poor s t r u c t u r e , and shallow r o o t i n g depth. Scat s o i l s are c o n s i d e r e d of f a i r to poor s u i t a b i l i t y f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t i o n . ( v i i i ) Sunshine O r t h i c Humo-Ferric Podzol - Parent M a t e r i a l : m a r i n e / g l a c i a l outwash - Drainage: w e l l - A g r i c u l t u r a l C a p a b i l i t y : hay and p a s t u r e . Improved f e r t i l i t y would allow c u l t i v a t i o n of small f r u i t s and other crops. - L i m i t a t i o n s : droughtiness and low f e r t i l i t y ( i . e . l i g h t t e x t u r e s , low moisture h o l d i n g c a p a c i t y , and low p l a n t n u t r i e n t s u p p l i e s ) . (ix) Whatcom L u v i l s o l i c Humo-Ferric Podzol - Parent M a t e r i a l : g l a c i o m a r i n e - 57 -- Drainage: moderately well - A g r i c u l t u r a l Capability: forage and pasture, small f r u i t s , vegetables, h o r t i c u l t u r e . - Limitations: mainly economic, including the high cost of forest cover removal. In addition the exposing of the compact, impervious parent material upon clearing w i l l necessitate years of intensive management with manure and f e r t i l i z e r to achieve s a t i s f a c t o r y productivity. Otherwise Whatcom i s one of Langley's better upland s o i l s . d. Restraints on Urbanization - the Langley municipal council has placed t h i s p a r t i c u l a r area with the two hectare zone for subdivision control. It i s also within the a g r i c u l t u r a l land reserve. Although much of the s i t e i s f a i r l y well drained i t i s interspersed with pockets of poorly drained s o i l s . Sewage disposal i s one urban factor which could be adversely affected by the organic s o i l s i n the area. Moreover the forested areas would be expensive to clear. Because much of the area i s underlain by glaciomarine sediments and the water therein located at depth, tapping the reservoir i s d i f f i c u l t . Since the flow i s - 58 -f r e q u e n t l y i n s u f f i c i e n t f o r i r r i g a t i o n purposes wi t h r e s p e c t to the p r e s e n t types of l a n d use, i t would be l o g i c a l to assume t h a t u r b a n i z a t i o n of the s i t e would exacerbate the problem as f a r as domestic or i n d u s t r i a l water s u p p l i e s were concerned. D. SITE INFORMATION — DELTA, B.C. 1. Geography and Land Use D e l t a M u n i c i p a l i t y , l o c a t e d a t the western end of the Lower F r a s e r V a l l e y , t o t a l s 17,893 he c t a r e s of l a n d (Luttmerding and Sprout, 19 68). I t s boundaries are the south arm of the F r a s e r R i v e r on the n o r t h , 120th S t r e e t on the e a s t , Boundary Bay and the Canada-United States border on the south, and on the west, the S t r a i t of Georgia. The mainland p o r t i o n of the m u n i c i p a l i t y i s supplemented by s e v e r a l i s l a n d s , the most not a b l e among them being Annacis, R e i f e l , T i l b u r y and Westham. D e l t a i s engaged i n a v a r i e t y of l a n d uses which r e v e a l the extent to which i t has become a "bedroom" community of Vancouver. R e s i d e n t i a l s u b d i v i s i o n s are c e n t r e d mainly i n Ladner, North D e l t a , and South D e l t a (Tsawwassen). The r e t a i l s e c t o r , c o n s i d e r e d to be somewhat underdeveloped a t pr e s e n t (Business L i f e , 1979), i s l o c a t e d p r i n c i p a l l y i n Ladner and Tsawwassen. Access to Richmond i s v i a Highway 499 and the - 59 -George Massey Tunnel. Highway 10 (Ladner Trunk Road) pr o v i d e s a l i n k w i t h Surrey and e a s t e r n V a l l e y d i s t r i c t s , and Highway 17 (Tsawwassen Highway), connects D e l t a w i t h the Vancouver and Gulf I s l a n d s f e r r y t e r m i n a l . B.C. Hydro Railway s e r v i c e s the c o a l and petroleum export t e r m i n a l a t Roberts Bank. I n d u s t r i a l e n t e r p r i s e s are l a r g e l y s e t t l e d on two i s l a n d s , Annacis and T i l b u r y . Annacis, about 480 h e c t a r e s , has been p a r t i a l l y developed by Grosvenor I n t e r n a t i o n a l , and to-date i t s Annacis I n d u s t r i a l E s t a t e covers about 160 hectares and c o n t a i n s approximately 915,000 square metres of b u i l d i n g s (Business L i f e , 1 9 7 9 ) . Products range i n nature from cake mixes to p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l equipment, from w i r e products to auto import s t o r a g e . The i s l a n d s disadvantage i s i t s l a c k of d i r e c t a c c e s s i b i l i t y t o D e l t a . T h i s must be gained v i a Surrey and New Westminster. T i l b u r y I s l a n d I n d u s t r i a l Park, ad-m i n i s t e r e d by the B r i t i s h Columbia Development C o r p o r a t i o n , was c r e a t e d i n 49 and 40 hectare stages r e s p e c t i v e l y . Another 160 h e c t a r e s , some of which i s s t i l l i n the a g r i c u l t u r a l land r e s e r v e , has been suggested f o r f u r t h e r i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n . The i s l a n d i s r e a d i l y a c c e s s i b l e from D e l t a v i a R i v e r Road. Other commercial areas i n c l u d e Burns Bog (peat e x t r a c t i o n and processing) and the R i v e r Road area (cement manufacturing). In a d d i t i o n there i s a v i a b l e f i s h i n g i n d u s t r y and more than 800 fishermen are based i n the m u n i c i p a l i t y (Business L i f e , 1 9 7 9 ) . - 6 0 -R e i f e l and Westham i s l a n d s l i e a t the opposing end of the l a n d use spectrum, the former the s i t e of a w e l l known b i r d sanctuary and the l a t t e r a very s u c c e s s f u l a g r i c u l t u r a l community, one which enjoys one of Canada's ou t s t a n d i n g s o i l - moisture - c l i m a t e regimes. Both are i n the a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d r e s e r v e and are somewhat i s o l a t e d . A s i n g l e , one lane b r i d g e , spanning Canoe Pass, i s the only access way to the mainland. D e l t a ' s a g r i c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s are w i d e l y v a r i e d and i n c l u d e d a i r y and beef c a t t l e r a i s i n g , p o u l t r y and egg p r o d u c t i o n , and the growing of such crops as sweet and s i l a g e corn, canning peas, beans, potatoes, and s m a l l f r u i t s . 2. Geology L i k e Richmond, D e l t a i s contained w i t h i n the F r a s e r Lowland s u b d i v i s i o n of the C o a s t a l Trough. S o i l s are p r e -dominantly F r a s e r R i v e r a l l u v i a l d e p o s i t s - f i f t e e n or more metres deep - along w i t h s u b s t a n t i a l peat accumulations i n the Burns Bog r e g i o n . A l l D e l t a ' s lowland s o i l s , w i t h the e x c e p t i o n of the Tsawwassen s e r i e s , are c l a s s i f i e d as p o o r l y d r a i n e d (Luttmerding and Sprout, 1968). I n f i l t r a t i o n and s u r f a c e r u n o f f are inadequate and, unless c o n t r o l l e d , tend to r e t a r d crop germination and render c u l t i v a t i o n d i f f i c u l t . Dykes have been i n s t a l l e d t o m aintain proper water l e v e l s . - 6 1 -Upland s o i l s have l a r g e l y been urban i z e d and a g r i c u l t u r e per se i s l i m i t e d to home gardening. 3. Community Development Settlement i n D e l t a began i n 1 8 5 7 w i t h a land h o l d i n g on Annacis I s l a n d being recorded i n A p r i l of t h a t year ( T a y l o r , 1 9 5 8 ) . F u r t h e r settlement f o l l o w e d i n other areas, n o t a b l y A n n i e v i l l e , Boundary Bay, and North D e l t a , w i t h i n c o r p o r a t i o n o c c u r r i n g i n 1 8 7 9 . Pioneers encountered t h r e e main problems: f l o o d i n g , drainage, and i n s e c t nuisance. Dyking, i n i t i a t e d by W.A. Ladner, became a d i s t r i c t p r i o r i t y , and i t i s a t r i b u t e to the workmanship of an e a r l i e r era t h a t s t r u c t u r e s begun i n 1 8 9 5 remained v i r t u a l l y i n t a c t a g a i n s t f l o o d s f o r over s i x t y y e a r s . In 1 8 8 2 the f i r s t e f f e c t i v e drainage system was in t r o d u c e d on h i s East D e l t a farm by the l a t e John O l i v e r , a former p r o v i n c i a l premier. His method became standard throughout the m u n i c i p a l i t y . As a c o r o l l a r y to improve dyking and drainage the i n s e c t nuisance abated as breeding grounds d r i e d up. P r i o r to 1 9 0 0 land h o l d i n g s were r e l a t i v e l y l a r g e , many exceeding two hundred hectares (compared wi t h two farms g r e a t e r than 224 h e c t a r e s remaining by 1 9 5 1 ) . In 1 8 9 4 , 4 , 2 1 6 hectares were under c u l t i v a t i o n , mainly i n g r a i n s and hay. A f u r t h e r 2 , 5 6 6 h e c t a r e s were c l a s s i f i e d as pa s t u r e . - 6 2 -R e l i a n c e on g r a i n s and hay as the p r i n c i p a l farm products d i m i n i s h e d w i t h the 1903 opening of a Great Northern Railway branch l i n e betweenColebrook ( i n Surrey) and P o r t Guichon on the F r a s e r R i v e r . R e l i a b l e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n to urban markets s t i m u l a t e d the f l e d g l i n g d a i r y i n d u s t r y i n t o becoming the area's most v a l u a b l e a g r i c u l t u r a l commodity. F u r t h e r d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n f o l l o w e d . P o u l t r y and eggs, potatoes and ot h e r v e g e t a b l e s , s m a l l f r u i t s , and beef c a t t l e entered the farming scene and have remained to the present time. F i s h i n g was an important i n d u s t r y b e f o r e the t u r n of the century but l e s s has been recorded about i t s e a r l y days as opposed to those of a g r i c u l t u r e . I t i s known to have begun around 1890, wit h sockeye salmon as the main c a t c h . Two p r i n c i p a l f i s h i n g communities emerged: Port Guichon, mainly European; and Sunbury, l a r g e l y occupied by Japanese. In a d d i t i o n canning f a c i l i t i e s were b u i l t . E a r l y l a n d t r a n s p o r t a t i o n was d i f f i c u l t , e s p e c i a l l y i n the lowland where soggy s o i l c o n d i t i o n s p e r s i s t e d . By 1890 the present road p a t t e r n was e s t a b l i s h e d and 1913 saw rock and g r a v e l s u r f a c e s r e p l a c e corduroy ones. Access to i t s e a s t e r n V a l l e y neighbours has e x i s t e d f o r many years but D e l t a waited u n t i l the 1950's before i t was d i r e c t l y connected to Richmond by the George Massey Tunnel. The opening o f the tunnel hastened a h i t h e r t o slow p o p u l a t i o n growth which, i n t u r n , c o n t r i b u t e d to an o v e r a l l d e c l i n e i n - 63 -a g r i c u l t u r a l acreage. P o p u l a t i o n c u r r e n t l y i s about 74,000 (Business L i f e , 1979). 4. R e s t r a i n t s on Development D e l t a i s b l e s s e d w i t h abundant space and a f i n e c l i m a t e . However development and l a n d use p l a n n i n g are made somewhat d i f f i c u l t by the f a c t t h a t the m u n i c i p a l i t y c o n t a i n s f i v e d i s t i n c t and separated p h y s i o g r a p h i c r e g i o n s : the r e s i d e n t i a l communities of South D e l t a (Tsawwassen), Ladner, and North D e l t a ; the a g r i c u l t u r a l lands; and the Annacis I s l a n d i n d u s t r i a l e s t a t e (Greater Vancouver Regional D i s t r i c t , 1976). For example, North D e l t a i s more c l o s e l y a l i g n e d with Surrey, with r e s p e c t to shopping and employment, than to Ladner and Tsawwassen, and Annacis I s l a n d i s not d i r e c t l y a c c e s s i b l e from D e l t a a t a l l . The a g r i c u l t u r a l lands surround and i s o l a t e the r e s i d e n t i a l areas from one another. Thus the m u n i c i p a l i t y i s fragmented. Three f a c t o r s pose l i m i t a t i o n s to e x t e n s i v e u r b a n i z a t i o n . They are a g r i c u l t u r a l p r e s e r v a t i o n , p o t e n t i a l f l o o d i n g , and the e x t e n s i v e peat accumulations. More than h a l f of the C l a s s One and Two s o i l s w i t h i n the Greater Vancouver Regional D i s t r i c t are s i t u a t e d i n D e l t a . About 13,200 he c t a r e s form p a r t of the a g r i c u l t u r a l land r e s e r v e and around 8,800 hectar e s of t h i s t o t a l are i n p r o d u c t i o n (G.V.R.D., 1976). While a t present most - 64 -u r b a n i z a t i o n i s c o n f i n e d to the uplands, Annacis I s l a n d , and p a r t s of R i v e r Road, r a p i d growth has p l a c e d pressure on farmland. In r e c e n t years e x t e n s i v e s u b d i v i s i o n b u i l d i n g has r e s u l t e d i n one of the Regional D i s t r i c t ' s lowest d e n s i t i e s . I f t h i s t r e n d continues the m u n i c i p a l i t y c o u l d run out o f s u i t a b l e r e s i d e n t i a l l a n d by 1986. Furthermore, the proposed r e a c t i v a t i o n of the Boundary Bay a i r p o r t and an expansion of Roberts Bank has e l i c i t e d concern from the farming community about p o t e n t i a l a g r i c u l t u r a l s o i l l o s s e s i f these p r o j e c t s proceed (Business L i f e , 1979). I t remains to be seen how s t r o n g a l i m i t i n g f a c t o r the a g r i c u l t u r a l land r e s e r v e w i l l prove to be r e g a r d i n g farmland p r e s e r v a t i o n . F l o o d i n g a f f e c t s s e v e r a l l a n d uses and i n v a r y i n g degress. I t does, however, a f f o r d f u r t h e r p r o t e c t i o n from development to those p o r t i o n s of the a g r i c u l t u r a l land r e s e r v e which are l o c a t e d i n the F r a s e r R i v e r e s t u a r y . The t h i r d f a c t o r l i m i t i n g growth i s the e x t e n s i v e peat accumulations. These s o i l s are not s u i t a b l e f o r development due to an e x c e s s i v e water h o l d i n g c a p a c i t y , poor drainage, and proneness to compaction upon l o a d i n g . The l a r g e amount o f f i l l needed f o r c o n s t r u c t i o n purposes would add s u b s t a n t i a l l y t o the c o s t of such c o n s t r u c t i o n . - 65 -5. S i t e Information a. Area - approximately 2.9 square k i l o m e t r e s of t e r r i t o r y on Westham I s l a n d , i n c l u d i n g a l l land w i t h i n the boundaries of areas i d e n t i f i e d as 89 G2, 90 G2, 100A G2, 101A G2, and 190 G2 (92 G/3 E,W; e d i t i o n 2 ASE; s e r i e s A 721 -Vancouver South). b. Topography - mainly g e n t l y u n d u l a t i n g w i t h slope v a l u e s ranging from 0.5-2 per c e n t . c. S o i l s -(i) Crescent O r t h i c G l e y s o l - Parent M a t e r i a l : a l l u v i u m - Drainage: moderately poor to poor - A g r i c u l t u r a l C a p a b i l i t y : can be used f o r a wide v a r i e t y of crops i n c l u d i n g grass - c l o v e r forage, potatoes, beans, canning peas, sweet corn and other v e g e t a b l e s , c e r e a l g r a i n s , c l o v e r seed, sugar beet seed, and s t r a w b e r r i e s . - L i m i t a t i o n s : mainly drainage. A r t i f i c i a l drainage i s r e q u i r e d f o r c o n t r o l of high winter water t a b l e s to p r o t e c t p e r e n n i a l crops and to f a c i l i t a t e s p r i n g c u l t i v a t i o n . These s o i l s puddle i f c u l t i v a t e d when wet. - 66 -( i i ) Tsawwassen O r t h i c Regosol - Parent M a t e r i a l : beach d e p o s i t s - Drainage: moderately w e l l to w e l l - A g r i c u l t u r a l C a p a b i l i t y : very l i m i t e d ; mainly forages - L i m i t a t i o n s : droughtiness plu s low c a t i o n exchange c a p a c i t y . ( i i i ) Westham S a l i n e Rego Humic G l e y s o l - Parent M a t e r i a l : marine and non-marine d e p o s i t s - Drainage: poor to very poor - A g r i c u l t u r a l C a p a b i l i t y : can support a wide range of crops i n c l u d i n g grass -c l o v e r f o r a g e s , canning peas, sugar beet seed, s t r a w b e r r i e s , potatoes, beans, c e r e a l g r a i n s and v e g e t a b l e s . - L i m i t a t i o n s : poor drainage. A r t i f i c i a l drainage i s r e q u i r e d to c o n t r o l w i n t e r water t a b l e and to f a c i l i t a t e s p r i n g c u l t i v a t i o n . These s o i l s puddle and compact i f c u l t i v a t e d when wet. d. R e s t r a i n t s on u r b a n i z a t i o n - a t r u e farming community, VJestham I s l a n d has s u c c e s s f u l l y r e s i s t e d urban development f o r the f o l l o w i n g reasons: - 6 7 -l i m i t e d access to the mainland p o r t i o n of the m u n i c i p a l i t y ; the high water t a b l e and t h r e a t of f l o o d i n g ; p r o s p e r i t y of the farmers over a long p e r i o d of time; the presence of the R e i f e l I s l a n d b i r d sanctuary and the Alaksen N a t i o n a l W i l d l i f e Refuge; and the i s l a n d forms p a r t of the a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d r e s e r v e . - 68 -EVALUATION OF RESEARCH RESULTS A. Richmond - North S i t e (See appendices) P r i n c i p a l f e a t u r e s noted over a 20-year p e r i o d were: (1) l a c k of s u b d i v i d i n g on most of the s i t e . A few b u i l d i n g s were added or d e l e t e d along the p e r i p h e r y and small roads c o n s t r u c t e d i n both the northern and southern halves of the s i t e . An e q u e s t r i a n t r a c k was added to the l a r g e h o l d i n g i n the southeastern quadrant. S o i l s a f f e c t e d were the B l u n d e l l - D e l t a and D e l t a -B l u n d e l l complexes; (2) s m a l l p o r t i o n of the southwest corner of the s i t e being converted to urban use on the p o o r l y d r a i n e d B l u n d e l l - A n n i s complex. Conversion of p r e v i o u s l y i d l e land f i r s t observed on 1963 photographs; 2 (3) approximately 0.3 km , l o c a t e d on B l u n d e l l - A n n i s , B l u n d e l l - D e l t a and D e l t a - B l u n d e l l complexes being converted to r e c r e a t i o n a l use. A sequence of photographs, beginning i n 1969, r e v e a l e d the emerging l e n t i c u l a r p a t t e r n of a g o l f course. (4) the a d d i t i o n of three new d w e l l i n g s i n a s m a l l -l o t s u b d i v i s i o n along the western end of Westminster Highway. - 69 -A g r i c u l t u r a l land use on t h i s s i t e - mainly d a i r y i n g - remained r e l a t i v e l y i n t a c t but w i t h some m o d i f i c a t i o n s ; a f o u r hectare commercial development at Westminster Highway and Number 6 Road, some s u b d i v i d i n g of s m a l l p r o p e r t i e s on Westminster Highway, and a g o l f course development. With the e x c e p t i o n of the f o u r hectare p a r c e l ( c l a s s i f i e d as " s e r v i c e d i s t r i c t " ) the e n t i r e s e c t i o n i s zoned f o r a g r i c u l t u r e and f u r t h e r s u b d i v i d i n g i s p r o h i b i t e d (Richmond Pla n n i n g Dept., 1979) . The g o l f course r e p r e s e n t s an a l l o w a b l e d e v i a t i o n due t o i t s r e c r e a t i o n a l nature. With r e s p e c t t o s o i l q u a l i t y the s e c t i o n can be roughly b i s e c t e d , w i t h the northern h a l f p o s s e s s i n g the b e t t e r s o i l s . I t i s i n t h i s area where the l e a s t amount of change was observed. A few b u i l d i n g a d d i t i o n s and d e l e t i o n s , a s m a l l road to the i n t e r i o r of the northwest q u a r t e r - s e c t i o n , p l u s the removal of a narrow s t r i p from the aforementioned quadrant f o r the g o l f course comprised the changes. On the southeast q u a r t e r s e c t i o n , where s o i l q u a l i t y i s somewhat lower, a d d i t i o n s a n d d e l e t i o n s of b u i l d i n g s took p l a c e but i t s a g r i c u l t u r a l c h a r a c t e r remained i n t a c t . A p p r o p r i a t e l y , the p o o r e s t s o i l s , l o c a t e d i n the southwest q u a r t e r s e c t i o n , were the r e c i p i e n t s of urban and r e c r e a t i o n a l development. In t h i s case the h i g h e r q u a l i t y s o i l s , a i d e d by b e n e f i c i a l zoning, were not a f f e c t e d by u r b a n i z a t i o n . - 70 -B. Richmond - South S i t e (See appendices) P r i n c i p a l f e a t u r e s noted over an 18-year p e r i o d were: (1) a d d i t i o n of S h e l l Road, d i s p l a c i n g some s o i l of Triggs-Lumbum and Lumbum-Triggs complexes. The road p a r a l l e l e d e x i s t i n g r a i l w a y l i n e and b i s e c t e d the s i t e from n o r t h t o south; 2 (2) c l e a r a n c e of approximately 0.3 km on T r i g g s -Lumbum complex and Richmond s e r i e s , most of i t a f f e c t e d between 1954 and 1969; (3) a d d i t i o n a l b u i l d i n g c o n s t r u c t i o n , e s p e c i a l l y along B l u n d e l l Road, G r a n v i l l e Avenue, and Number 5 Road. The Triggs-Lumbum and Lumbum-T r i g g s complexes were the most a f f e c t e d along w i t h minor p o r t i o n s of the Richmond s e r i e s and the B l u n d e l l - A n n i s complex. Forty-one new b u i l d i n g s were observed. Organic s o i l s occupy almost one hundred percent of the south s i t e and, i n t h e i r n a t i v e s t a t e , p r e c l u d e most s o i l -based a g r i c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t y . B l u e b e r r y and cra n b e r r y c u l t i v a t i o n i s the exc e p t i o n . U n t i l 1971 at l e a s t , a c o n s i d e r a b l e p o r t i o n of t h i s s i t e was employed i n a g r i c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t y , p r i n c i p a l l y b l u e b e r r y p r o d u c t i o n . B l u e b e r r i e s have t r a d i t i o n a l l y found ready markets i n the Greater Vancouver area and elsewhere. - 71 -T h i s reason, and p r o f i t a b i l i t y , would account f o r these sm a l l producers remaining i n b u s i n e s s . High w a t e r - r e t e n t i o n c a p a c i t y and the tendency to compact e x c e s s i v e l y when loaded a l s o render these s o i l s as u n s u i t a b l e f o r e n g i n e e r i n g purposes. Notwithstanding these i n h e r e n t d e f i c i e n c i e s r e s i d e n t i a l i n f r i n g e m e n t along the margins of the s i t e advanced s t e a d i l y between 1954 and 1969. The low d e n s i t y , p e r i p h e r a l land use p a t t e r n observed here i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h one aspect of urban sprawl o u t l i n e d i n P a r t I. T h i s s i t e presented a paradox. Farming and e n g i n e e r i n g s o i l c o n d i t i o n s are adverse, y e t a g r i c u l t u r e and r e s i d e n t i a l development of s p r a w l - l i k e d e n s i t y c o e x i s t e d . The s i t u a t i o n may be more a t t r i b u t a b l e to economic and zoning f a c t o r s than to s o i l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . The economic elements of b l u e b e r r y farming i n Richmond are v a r i e d (Hitchman, 1974). F i r s t , a s i x hectare minimum p a r c e l s i z e has been suggested f o r v i a b i l i t y of an e n t e r p r i s e . Even so, the income d e r i v e d from t h i s small a u n i t may be i n s u f f i c i e n t to cover f i x e d c o s t s of o p e r a t i o n . Second, bushes r e q u i r e from e i g h t to ten years a f t e r p l a n t i n g to produce optimum y i e l d s , thus postponing maximum cash r e t u r n s . T h i r d - and perhaps the most c r u c i a l element - s e l l i n g p r i c e s f o r produce are determined elsewhere, namely i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s . The combination of growing c o n d i t i o n s i n the midwest (Michigan) and market c o n d i t i o n s i n C a l i f o r n i a s e t s l o c a l -- 72 -p r i c e s . A c c o r d i n g l y , growers may encounter a s i t u a t i o n where bumper crops f e t c h high p r i c e s and sparse crops, low r e t u r n s , a c o n d i t i o n which c o n t r a d i c t s the c o n v e n t i o n a l views r e g a r d i n g supply and demand. Lack of a b i l i t y to c o n t r o l the s e l l i n g p r i c e s f o r t h e i r products leaves growers v u l n e r a b l e t o economic pre s s u r e s and v a g a r i e s of the marketplace i f c o s t s exceed income. One method of r e c o v e r i n g c o s t s i s the s a l e of p r o p e r t y f o r s u b d i v i d i n g purposes, a prospect not t o t a l l y unpleasant i n view of r i s i n g r e a l e s t a t e p r i c e s i n a r a p i d l y growing m u n i c i p a l i t y (Hitchman, 1974) . S a l e s , however, are s u b j e c t t o zoning r e g u l a t i o n s . By-laws passed d u r i n g the 1950's encouraged sma l l s c a l e a g r i c u l t u r e i n the v i c i n i t y of the Bfighouse commercial centre by p e r m i t t i n g s m a l l h o l d i n g s of a minimum of 0.2 h e c t a r e s ( i n c l u d i n g p a r c e l s on the study s i t e ) t o e x i s t near t h a t area ( F o e r s t e l , 1964). Subsequent r e v i s i o n s (1963) p l a c e d the s i t e w i t h i n the " a g r i c u l t u r a l d i s t r i c t " zone. Small h o l d i n g s were s t i l l permitted."*" Larger p a r c e l s c o u l d be s u b d i v i d e d i n t o 0.2 hectare l o t s , p r o v i d i n g the minimum al l o w a b l e frontage faced onto an improved road, f o r example G r a n v i l l e Avenue (Richmond Pl a n n i n g Department, 1979). Conformance wi t h these r e g u l a t i o n s l e d t o the p a r c e l s ' excess land (or "back end") becoming the l a n d l o c k e d i n t e r i o r of the s i t e and which became, i n t u r n , consigned to dormancy with r e s p e c t to development. 1 On t h i s p a r t i c u l a r s i t e most l o t s are 0.32 h e c t a r e s and the by-law permits s u b d i v i d i n g to 0.16 hectare p a r c e l s . - 73 -I t would be l o g i c a l t o assume t h a t the land use p a t t e r n s developed on t h i s s i t e were at l e a s t p a r t i a l outgrowth of t h i s type of s u b d i v i d i n g . C. Langley (See appendices) P r i n c i p a l f e a t u r e s noted over a 21-year p e r i o d were: (1) c o n s i d e r a b l e l a n d c l e a r i n g , f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l purposes, o u t s i d e the immediate Anderson Creek area. Approximately one square k i l o m e t r e was c l e a r e d and s o i l s a f f e c t e d were mainly Whatcom-A l b i o n , Whatcom-Scat, and Whatcom-Scat-Nicholson complexes; (2) p r o g r e s s i v e f o r e s t t h i c k e n i n g along, and i n the v i c i n i t y of Anderson Creek i n v o l v i n g N i c h o l s o n -Ross, Whatcom-Scat-Nicholson, and Whatcom-Scat complexes; (3) some p e r i p h e r a l c o n s t r u c t i o n of farm and r e s i d e n t i a l b u i l d i n g s ; (4) s e v e r a l s m a l l , i r r e g u l a r shaped c l e a r i n g s , s u g g e s t i v e of l a r g e p a r c e l s u b d i v i s i o n , i n the nor t h e a s t corner of the s i t e and on Whatcom-A l b i o n and Whatcom-Scat complexes; (5) s m a l l l o t development, a f f e c t i n g Whatcom-Scat-Ni c h o l s o n and Whatcom-Sunshine complexes near 18th Avenue right-of-way. - 74 -The uplands of Langley M u n i c i p a l i t y are the end products of P l e i s t o c e n e g l a c i a t i o n and most of the s o i l s t h e r e i n r e f l e c t t h i s o r i g i n . Upland o r g a n i c s o i l s occupy d e p r e s s i o n s , seepages, and areas along streams, f o r example Anderson Creek. Undoubtedly s o i l and topographic f e a t u r e s i n f l u e n c e d the type of land use found on t h i s s i t e . F o r e s t cover remained i n some areas and t h i c k e n e d or regrew i n o t h e r s . Cost of removal, s o i l i n f e r t i l i t y and/or p e r m e a b i l i t y f o r a g r i c u l t u r e , and poor drainage and steep topography a s s o c i a t e d w i t h Anderson Creek may p a r t l y account f o r t h i s phenomenon. S u b d i v i d i n g appeared to occur, p r i n c i p a l l y i n the n o r t h e a s t corner. T h i s was p e r m i s s i b l e as the m u n i c i p a l i t y was governed by a s u b d i v i s i o n c o n t r o l by-law - r a t h e r than zoning per se - which allowed two hectare p a r c e l s i n the area bounded by 2 4th Avenue, 216th S t r e e t , 2 8th Avenue, and 224th S t r e e t . Only one r e s i d e n c e per p a r c e l was p e r m i t t e d . South of 2 4th Avenue fo u r h e c t a r e s represented the minimum a l l o w a b l e l o t s i z e , the housing s t i p u l a t i o n remaining unchanged (Langley P l a n n i n g Department, 1979). No p r o v i s i o n was made f o r commercial development and none was observed on the photographs. Most lan d c l e a r i n g was a g r i c u l t u r e o r i e n t e d and the b e t t e r s o i l s were employed f o r t h i s purpose. However, unequal drainage a b i l i t i e s possessed by the s o i l s comprising the a f f e c t e d complexes appeared t o r e s t r i c t the c l e a r e d areas to - 75 -hay and pasture u t i l i z a t i o n , thereby promoting n o n - s o i l based a c t i v i t i e s such as p o u l t r y r a i s i n g . When compared with the other s i t e s s t u d i e d the Langley s i t e i s more i s o l a t e d from the l a r g e , densely populated urban areas. R e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r d e t e r r i n g urban growth i n t h i s area l i e s more with i s o l a t i o n , s u b d i v i s i o n c o n t r o l , and t o p o g r a p h i c a l f a c t o r s than i t does wi t h s o i l q u a l i t y . D. D e l t a (See appendices) P r i n c i p a l f e a t u r e s noted over a 20-year p e r i o d were: (1) the v i r t u a l absence of land use changes over the 20-year study p e r i o d ; (2) completion of nine new r e s i d e n t i a l and/or farm b u i l d i n g s and the d e l e t i o n of s i x o t h e r s , most of which occ u r r e d between 1954 and 1963; (3) completion of a commercial b u i l d i n g and adjacent p a r k i n g l o t between 1963 and 1969. L o c a t i o n i s on Westham I s l a n d Road between K i r k l a n d and Savage roads. S o i l complex a f f e c t e d was Crescent-Westham. L i t t l e change was observed i n t h i s t r a d i t i o n a l l y a g r i c u l t u r a l area and the amount of good q u a l i t y s o i l d i s p l a c e d - 76 -f o r the commercial b u i l d i n g and p a r k i n g l o t was c o n s i d e r e d to be i n s i g n i f i c a n t . Although zoned f o r a g r i c u l t u r e o n l y , a development designed f o r p u b l i c use i s permitted without i n f r i n g e m e n t on zoning r e g u l a t i o n s (Delta Town Pla n n i n g Department, 1979). Telephone or hydro i n s t a l l a t i o n s are i n t h i s category. The high q u a l i t y s o i l s of Westham I s l a n d have s u c c e s s f u l l y r e s i s t e d urban encroachment mainly, the w r i t e r b e l i e v e s , on t h e i r own m e r i t and because of the economic p r o s p e r i t y of the farmers. Other f a c t o r s , such as i s o l a t i o n , zoning, and an agreeable c l i m a t e have o b v i o u s l y been b e n e f i c i a l . However, one would h a r d l y expect the c o n t i n u i t y of farming o p e r a t i o n s on the i s l a n d i f s o i l p r o p e r t i e s had rendered the e n t e r p r i s e s uneconomical. - 77 -CONCLUSIONS The r e s u l t s of t h i s study appear t o i n d i c a t e t h a t s o i l s s u i t a b l e f o r a g r i c u l t u r e , r e g a r d l e s s of t h e i r q u a l i t y , w i l l not by themselves f o r e s t a l l urban growth. Other p r o t e c t i v e elements are r e q u i r e d . With r e s p e c t t o Westham I s l a n d the i s o l a t i o n a f f o r d e d by Canoe Pass and the s i n g l e lane b r i d g e was a p o s i t i v e f a c t o r i n d e l a y i n g urban growth from nearby Ladner. R e l a t i v e l y l a r g e p a r c e l s i z e s were another. Moreover farmers have, f o r s e v e r a l decades, had p r o f i t a b l e o p e r a t i o n s , and as long as they continue to do so the s o i l s of Westham I s l a n d w i l l l i k e l y be farmed. In the case of the Langley s i t e the s u b d i v i s i o n c o n t r o l by-law, a probable outgrowth of the c i t i z e n s ' wish t o r e t a i n a r u r a l l i f e s t y l e , has c e r t a i n l y been v a l u a b l e t o a g r i c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t y i n the area. I t i s not i n c o n c e i v a b l e t h a t , i n the absence of the by-law, " s p i l l o v e r " from r a p i d l y growing Langley C i t y and the nearby Brookswood S u b d i v i s i o n would have occurred. Indeed some s p e c u l a t i o n may a l r e a d y have taken p l a c e by some people h o p e f u l of f u t u r e by-law changes. While the by-law does a f f o r d p r o t e c t i o n f o r a r u r a l way of l i f e , i t s designated minimum l o t s i z e s tend t o promote sprawl p a t t e r n s and d e n s i t i e s , l e a d i n g t o land use i n e f f i c i e n c y . A g r i c u l t u r a l s o i l s i n Richmond are i n the unenviable p o s i t i o n of being very c l o s e t o the C i t y of Vancouver. The - 78 -m u n i c i p a l i t y i t s e l f has experienced unabated growth s i n c e the l a t e 1950's, expansion which has exacerbated the l o s s of e x c e l l e n t a g r i c u l t u r a l s o i l s t o urban development, e s p e c i a l l y on the m u n i c i p a l i t y ' s western s i d e . I t i s to the c r e d i t of Richmond's p u b l i c a d m i n i s t r a t i o n t h a t the long-term d e t r i m e n t a l e f f e c t s of urban sprawl were re c o g n i z e d s e v e r a l years ago and t h a t steps were taken to ensure more o r d e r l y r e s i d e n t i a l and commercial growth. By and l a r g e the zoning by-laws formulated have been q u i t e e f f e c t i v e i n the p r e v e n t i o n of s u b d i v i s i o n and development of farmland ( F o e r s t e l , 1964). On the n o r t h s i t e , most p a r c e l s have remained l a r g e , thus i n c r e a s i n g the l i k e l i h o o d of being p r o f i t a b l y operated. The g o l f course r e p r e s e n t s an e x c e l l e n t use of the area's lower q u a l i t y s o i l s by r e t a i n i n g the land as a green open space, space which c o u l d r e v e r t t o a g r i c u l t u r a l use i f necessary. Moreover, the i n s t i t u t i o n of improved drainage, a e r a t i o n , and f e r t i l i t y - a l l requirements of good course maintenance - have served to improve s o i l q u a l i t y . As f a r as the s m a l l l o t r e s i d e n t i a l s e c t i o n i s concerned, zoning r e g u l a t i o n s appear to have checked i t s growth. The south s i t e i s another matter. S p r a w l - l i k e d e n s i t i e s and p e r i p h e r a l development are l o n g s t a n d i n g f e a t u r e s , abetted by the 0.2 hectare minimum p a r c e l s i z e a l l o w a b l e . Although the s o i l s on t h i s s i t e are normally c o n s i d e r e d to be poor f o r most s o i l based a g r i c u l t u r e , they are e x c e l l e n t - 79 -f o r b l u e b e r r y p r o d u c t i o n . Given the s t r o n g demand f o r the f r u i t and p r o x i m i t y to the p r i n c i p a l marketing areas, one might expect t h i s s i t e t o be r e l a t i v e l y s a f e f o r f u t u r e blueberry-growing. The w r i t e r does not b e l i e v e t h i s to be the case. P a r c e l s i z e s are r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l , perhaps too s m a l l i n many i n s t a n c e s to be operated e c o n o m i c a l l y . In a d d i t i o n , farmers are c o n f r o n t e d w i t h nuisances such as s t a r l i n g s , dogs, weed and labour problems, and unsympathetic urban neighbours. The c r u c i a l f a c t o r , however, appears to be the c o s t of land i n the area, r e p o r t e d t o be around $74,000 per hectare i n 1974 (Hitchman, 1974). P r i c e s have s u b s t a n t i a l l y i n c r e a s e d s i n c e then."*" I f one were to c o n s i d e r the c o s t of such i n p u t s as mortgage a m o r t i z i a t i o n , taxes, f e r t i l i z e r , machinery, labour, and new p l a n t i n g s and add to them the u n r e l i a b i l i t y of market p r i c e l e v e l s , i t i s not d i f f i c u l t t o f o r e s e e f u t u r e problems f o r the area i f a s u f f i c i e n t number of growers are unable t o defray o p e r a t i n g expenses. Despite the m u n i c i p a l i t y ' s good i n t e n t i o n s , the 0.2 hectare minimum l o t s i z e has served to encourage land use i n e f f i c i e n c y , as witnessed by the dormancy of i n t e r i o r land. F r i n g e a g r i c u l t u r e i s i n t r o u b l e i n t h i s country and has been so f o r some time (Crerar, 1970). Canada and the p r o v i n c e of B r i t i s h Columbia have not been b l e s s e d w i t h an overabundance of f e r t i l e s o i l . Unless good land use p l a n n i n g assumes a g r e a t e r importance than i t does at p r e s e n t , 1 A 1979 Block Bros, r e a l e s t a t e catalogue l i s t s an a s k i n g p r i c e of $176,900 f o r a 1.53 h e c t a r e p r o p e r t y a t G r a n v i l l e Avenue and Number 5 Road. T h i s i s the e q u i v a l e n t of $115,621 per h e c t a r e . - 8 0 -s i g n i f i c a n t amounts of remaining good s o i l s c o u l d be permanently removed from p r o d u c t i v e use. Some suggestions which may be of value are: 1) remove i n c e n t i v e s t o sp e c u l a t e i n a g r i c u l t u r a l land. S t r o n g l y enforced zoning r e g u l a t i o n s , r e s t r i c t i o n s on the l e n g t h of time lan d may be h e l d f o r s u b d i v i d i n g , and assessment f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l purposes, r a t h e r than f o r "highest and best use", would help t o s o l v e t h i s problem; 2) c o n s o l i d a t e s m a l l p a r c e l s i n t o l a r g e r ones i n order t o promote economic v i a b i l i t y and to discourage under-u t i l i z a t i o n . Richmond's b l u e b e r r y areas might b e n e f i t from t h i s a c t i o n ; 3) c o n s i d e r n o n - s o i l based a g r i c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t y where s o i l q u a l i t y i s too low to permit crop p r o d u c t i o n or where p a r c e l s i z e i s l i m i t e d . Mink ranching, p o u l t r y r a i s i n g , h o r t i c u l t u r e , bee-keeping, and horse breeding are some examples. Many of these occupations have been undertaken i n Langley but are a l s o a p p r o p r i a t e f o r smal l and/or i n f e r t i l e areas e l s e -where i n the Lower F r a s e r V a l l e y ; 4) implement p o l i c i e s to save f r i n g e or oth e r a g r i c u l t u r a l s o i l s from u n s u i t a b l e urban uses. The passage of the B r i t i s h Columbia Land Commission A c t (1973), by the p r o v i n c i a l government of the day, has slowed the l o s s of a g r i c u l t u r a l s o i l s i n t h i s p r o v i n c e . Emulation by adminis-t r a t i o n s elsewhere would b e n e f i t Canada as a whole. - 8 1 -The a v a i l a b i l i t y of good s o i l and of u s e f u l farmland cannot be taken f o r granted, e i t h e r i n t h i s p r o v i n c e or anywhere e l s e i n Canada. As much at stake as p o r t i o n s o f our food supply i s the r i g h t t o the q u a l i t y of l i f e we have come to expect and, h o p e f u l l y , a p p r e c i a t e . Urban sprawl i s a long-term detriment to any community and one t h a t should not be t o l e r a t e d on u s e f u l farmland near our c i t i e s . L i t t l e w r i t i n g has been done r e g a r d i n g a g r i c u l t u r a l s o i l l o s s e s i n the Lower F r a s e r V a l l e y of B r i t i s h Columbia. The w r i t e r b e l i e v e s t h a t more r e s e a r c h i n t o t h i s t o p i c i s r e q u i r e d and t h a t a more e f f i c i e n t methodology be developed. I f t h i s t h e s i s can b e n e f i t subsequent r e s e a r c h e r s or a i d the community a t l a r g e , i t s undertaking w i l l have been worthwhile indeed. - 82 -LITERATURE CITED ACTON, D.F. and L.S. CROSSON. 197 8. S o i l landscapes i n the C o r d i l l e r a n r e g i o n of western Canada. I n t e r n a t i o n a l S o c i e t y of S o i l Science, 11th. Congress, Edmonton. ARCHER, R.W. 1972. Land s p e c u l a t i o n and s c a t t e r e d development: f a i l u r e s i n the u r b a n - f r i n g e l a n d market. Urban Research U n i t Seminar S e r i e s , A u s t r a l i a n N a t i o n a l Univ., Canberra. ARMSTRONG, J.E. 1956. S u r f i c i a l geology of Vancouver area, B r i t i s h Columbia. Can. Dept. of Energy, Mines, and Resources, paper 55-40. BARLOWE, R. 197 2. Land resource economics: the economics of r e a l p r o p e r t y . P r e n t i c e - H a l l Inc., Englewood, N.J. BENSON, W.A. 1972. Demand f o r and of the land. Land Seminar Proc. of Canadian C o u n c i l of Resource and Environment M i n i s t e r s , F r e d e r i c t o n , N.B. BLOCK BROS. REALTY LTD. 197 9. Our c a t a l o g - the b e s t s e l l e r : homes, lan d , and hobby farms. N.R.S. P u b l i s h i n g Div., Vancouver, 386:86. BLUMENFELD, H. 1966. The r o l e of the f e d e r a l government i n urban a f f a i r s . In: L.D. Feldman and M.D. G o l d r i c k (eds.) P o l i t i c s and Government of Urban Canada: S e l e c t e d Readings. Methuen, Toronto, pp. 174-182. BRITISH COLUMBIA LAND COMMISSION. 197 3. Remarks made by seminar chairman, W i l l i a m Lane. Vancouver, B.C. BROEK, J.O. and J.W. WEBB. 1968. A geography of mankind. McGraw-Hill, New York. BUSINESS LIFE IN WESTERN CANADA. 1979a. D e l t a f l e x e s i n d u s t r i a l s t r e n g t h s . S y l v e s t e r P u b l i c a t i o n s , Calgary. 7 ( 2 ) : 67-72. . 1979b. Richmond se t s the pace f o r s o l i d growth. 7(2): 74-80. - 83 -CASTLE, E.N. and R.B. RETTIG. 1972. Land use c o n f l i c t s and t h e i r r e s o l u t i o n . J . of S o i l and Water Conservation 27(5): 207-210. CENTRAL FRASER VALLEY REGIONAL DISTRICT. PLANNING DEPARTMENT. 1972. Regional farmland study. CLAWSON, M. 197 2. The scrambled p a t t e r n of land c o n v e r s i o n . J . of S o i l and Water C o n s e r v a t i o n 27 (4) :148-151. CRERAR, A.D. 197 0. The l o s s of farmland i n the m e t r o p o l i t a n r e g i o n s of Canada. In: R.R. Krueger, F.O. Sargent, A. de Vos, and N. Pearson (eds.) Regional and Resource P l a n n i n g i n Canada. H o l t , R i n e h a r t , and Winston, Toronto, pp. 126-133. CROSSWHITE, W.M. and G.F. VAUGHN. 1962. Land use i n the r u r a l - u r b a n f r i n g e : a case study of New C a s t l e County, Delaware. Farm Economics Div., Economic Research S e r v i c e , U.S.D.A. B u l l e t i n 340. DEL GUIDICE, D. and S.M. ZACKS. 1968. The 101 governments of Metro Toronto. In: L.D. Feldman and M.D. G o l d r i c k (eds.) P o l i t i c s and Government of Urban Canada, Methuen, Toronto, pp. 219-229. DELTA TOWN PLANNING DEPARTMENT. 197 9. P e r s o n a l communication. DYCKMAN, J.W. 1970. T r a n s p o r t a t i o n i n c i t i e s . C i t i e s : a S c i e n t i f i c American Book. A l f r e d A. Knopf, New York, pp. 133-155. ECONOMIC COUNCIL OF CANADA and L.O. STONE. 1969. From the 1960's to the 1970's; urban growth. In: L.D. Feldman and M.D. G o l d r i c k (eds.) P o l i t i c s and Government of Urban Canada. Methuen, Toronto, pp. 10-19. FOERSTEL, H.J. 1964. The e f f e c t i v e n e s s of land use c o n t r o l s i n c u r b i n g urban sprawl. A case study i n Richmond, B. C. M. Sc. T h e s i s , Univ. of B r i t i s h Columbia, School of Community and Regional P l a n n i n g . FRANSON, R.T. 1972. The l e g a l and i n s t i t u t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e f o r p l a n n i n g i n the F r a s e r V a l l e y . Proceedings from a seminar "Land Use i n the F r a s e r V a l l e y - Whose Concern?". Centre f o r C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n and Fac. of S c i e n c e , Univ. of B r i t i s h Columbia w i t h a s s i s t a n c e from Doucrlas C o l l e g e . - 84 -GREATER VANCOUVER REGIONAL DISTRICT. 197 5. The l i v e a b l e r e g i o n 1976-1986: p r o p o s a l s t o manage the growth of Greater Vancouver. Greater Vancouver Regional D i s t r i c t , Vancouver. HITCHMAN, R.N. 1974. Farm v i a b i l i t y : phase one. D r a f t r e p o r t s on Richmond and Surrey w i t h p a r t i c u l a r r e f e r e n c e to the "Secondary A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Reserve". Prepared f o r the Greater Vancouver Regional D i s t r i c t - B r i t i s h Columbia Land Commission seminar, Vancouver. HOWARD, I. 1975. E d i t o r i a l i n Richmond Review, A p r i l 2. HOWELL-JONES, G.I. 1968. The u r b a n i z a t i o n o f the F r a s e r V a l l e y . In: A.H. Siemens (ed.) Lower F r a s e r V a l l e y : E v o l u t i o n of a C u l t u r a l Landscape. T a n t a l u s Research, Vancouver, pp. 139-161. HUCKVALE, M. 1975. Keeping the o p t i o n s open. B r i t i s h Columbia Environment and Land Use Committee. Land 1(1): 14-17. KRUEGER, R.R. 1970. The d i s a p p e a r i n g Niagara f r u i t b e l t . In: R.R. Krueger and ot h e r s (eds.) Regional and Resource Pl a n n i n g i n Canada ( r e v i s e d ed.) pp. 134-149. LANGLEY MUNICIPAL PLANNING OFFICE. 1979. P e r s o n a l communication. LEVINE, R.A. 197 4. Growth c o n t r o l : some ques t i o n s f o r urban decision-makers. Report f o r the RAND C o r p o r a t i o n , Santa Monica, C a l . LITHWICK, N.H. 1970. Urban Canada: problems and p r o s p e c t s . A r e p o r t prepared f o r the Hon. R.K. Andras, M i n i s t e r r e s p o n s i b l e f o r Housing, Govt, of Canada. C e n t r a l Mortgage and Housing, Ottawa. LOWER MAINLAND REGIONAL PLANNING BOARD OF BRITISH COLUMBIA. 1956. Economic aspects of urban sprawl. Lower Mainland Regional P l a n n i n g Board, New Westminster. LUTTMERDING, H.A. and P.N. SPROUT. 1966. S o i l survey of Langley M u n i c i p a l i t y and Barnston I s l a n d . P r e l i m i n a r y Report No. 7, Lower F r a s e r V a l l e y S o i l Survey, B.C. Dept. Agr., Kelowna. . 1969. S o i l survey of D e l t a and Richmond m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . P r e l i m i n a r y Report No. 10, Lower F r a s e r V a l l e y S o i l Survey. B.C. Dept. Agr., S o i l s Div., Kelowna. - 85 -MARKS, HON. H. 19 52. C o n s o l i d a t i o n of urban areas. Speech d e l i v e r e d at the Fourth N a t i o n a l Businessmen's Conference on Urban Problems, P o r t l a n d , Ore. Pamphlet. MEYER, R.H. 1968. The e v o l u t i o n of roads i n the Lower F r a s e r V a l l e y . In: A.H. Siemens (ed.) Lower F r a s e r V a l l e y : E v o l u t i o n of a C u l t u r a l Landscape. pp.69-88. NADER, R. 1973. P o l i t i c s of land. Study group r e p o r t on land use i n C a l i f o r n i a . Grossman, New York. PARKER, V. J . 1968. Problems and progress i n r a t i o n a l i z i n g the use of the resources of the Lower F r a s e r V a l l e y . IN: A.H. Siemens (ed.) Lower F r a s e r V a l l e y : E v o l u t i o n of a C u l t u r a l Landscape, pp. 163-171. PEARSON, N. 1972. F r a s e r V a l l e y - rape i t or preserve i t ? Proceedings from a seminar "Land Use i n the F r a s e r V a l l e y - Whose Concern?". Centre f o r C o n t i n u i n g Education and Fac. of Sci e n c e , Univ. of B.C. w i t h a s s i s t a n c e from Douglas C o l l e g e . PICKARD, J.P. 1966. T a x a t i o n and land use i n m e t r o p o l i t a n and urban America. Progress r e p o r t of the Urban Land I n s t . Research Conference Programme on the Impacts of T a x a t i o n on Urban Land Uses. Research Mono. 12, Urban Land I n s t . , Washington, D.C. PROVINCE, The. 1976. What's a p p r o p r i a t e l a n d p r o f i t ? Vancouver, B.C. 79(52):4. RAWSON, M. 1961. Property t a x a t i o n and urban development: e f f e c t s of the p r o p e r t y tax on c i t y growth and change. Research Mono. 4. Urban Land I n s t . , Washington, D.C. 1973. P a r t - t i m e farmers. Appendix A-2 of "Minimum Maintenance". Report prepared f o r the P r i n c e Edward I s l a n d Royal Commission on Land Ownership and .Land Use. RICHMOND REVIEW. 1976. Progress '76. E d i t o r i a l , A p r i l 30. RICHMOND TOWN PLANNING DEPARTMENT. 1979. P e r s o n a l communication. ROBINSON, I.M. 197 0. Peace R i v e r Region: r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g and development. In: R.R. Krueger and others (eds.). Regional and Resource P l a n n i n g i n Canada ( r e v i s e d ed.), pp. 104-105. - 86 -ROTERING, G. 197 6. You cannot stop a s o c i e t y any more than you can stop a human being. Richmond Review. June 4. ROY, P.E. 1968. The changing r o l e of r a i l w a y s i n the Lower F r a s e r V a l l e y . IN: A.H. Siemens (ed.)'. Lower F r a s e r V a l l e y : E v o l u t i o n of a C u l t u r a l Landscape, pp. 51-67. RUSSWURM, L.H. 1976. Urban f r i n g e and urban shadow. In: R.C. B r y f o g l e and R.R. Krueger (eds.) Urban Problems ( r e v i s e d ) , pp. 148-163. ST. JOHN'S CALGARY REPORT. 197 8. A l b e r t a ' s growing dilemma: farmland on the verge. St. John's P u b l i c a t i o n s , Calgary. 2(16): 16-18. . 1979. Tax assessment: a farmer i s a farmer i s a 2(41): 9-11. SAMUELSON, P.A. and A. SCOTT. 1968. Economics: an i n t r o d u c t o r y a n a l y s i s . 2nd Canadian ed. McGraw-Hill, Toronto, p.44. SCHMIDT, J . 1979. A g r i c u l t u r a l A l b e r t a . Weekly column i n the C a l g a r y Herald, January 10. SIEMENS, A.H. 19 68. The process o f settlement i n the Lower F r a s e r V a l l e y — i n i t s p r o v i n c i a l c ontext. In: A.H. Siemens (ed.) Lower F r a s e r V a l l e y : E v o l u t i o n of a C u l t u r a l Landscape, pp. 27-49. SKODA, L. 1975. Georgia S t r a i t Urban Region. Map prepared f o r Urban A f f a i r s , Canada and Environment Canada, Ottawa. TAYLOR, G. 1958. D e l t a ' s century, of pr o g r e s s . K a r f o o t -Holmes, C l o v e r d a l e , B.C. TIMMONS, J.F. and J.M. CORMACK. 1971. Managing n a t u r a l resources through land tenure s t r u c t u r e s . J . of S o i l and Water Co n s e r v a t i o n 26(1): 4-10. WINTER, G.R. 1968. A g r i c u l t u r a l development i n the Lower F r a s e r V a l l e y . In: A.H. Siemens (ed.) Lower F r a s e r V a l l e y : E v o l u t i o n o f a C u l t u r a l Landscape, pp. 101-115. SELECTED REFERENCES BARTELLI, L . J . and others (ed.) 1966. S o i l surveys and land use p l a n n i n g . SSSA and ASA, Madison, Wise. BECK, M. 1963. Property t a x a t i o n and urban lan d use i n n o r t h - e a s t e r n New J e r s e y . Research Mono. 7. Urban Land I n s t . , Washington, D.C. BEECROFT, E. 1971. Regional government and c o n s e r v a t i o n . J . of S o i l and Water Co n s e r v a t i o n 26(2). CANADA DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 197 0. The system of s o i l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n f o r Canada. Queen's P r i n t e r , Ottawa. CLARK, C. 19 67. P o p u l a t i o n growth and land use. MacMillan, London. CLAWSON, M. 1960. Land f o r the f u t u r e . Johns Hopkins Pr e s s , B a l t i m o r e , Md. . 1972. The f i n i t e n e s s and f l e x i b i l i t i e s of land r e s o u r c e s . J . of S o i l and Water Co n s e r v a t i o n 27(5). DASMANN, R.F. 1972. Environmental c o n s e r v a t i o n . 3rd e d i t i o n . John Wiley, Toronto. DE VRIES, J . 1972. The r o l e of a g r i c u l t u r a l use of land i n an urban s o c i e t y . Proceedings from a seminar "Land Use i n the F r a s e r V a l l e y - Whose Concern?". Centre f o r C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n and Fac. of Scien c e , Univ. of B r i t i s h Columbia wi t h a s s i s t a n c e from Douglas C o l l e g e . GERTLER, L.O. 1961. The impact of urban growth on a g r i c u l t u r a l l a nd. Prepared by the Co n s e r v a t i o n C o u n c i l of O n t a r i o f o r the Resources of Tomorrow Conference. GERTLER, L.O. and R. CROWLEY. 1977. Changing Canadian c i t i e s : the next 25 years. M c C l e l l a n d and Stewart, Toronto. GIERMAN, D.M. 1977. R u r a l t o urban lan d c o n v e r s i o n . Lands D i r e c t o r a t e , F i s h e r i e s and Environment Canada. O c c a s i o n a l Paper 16. GREATER VANCOUVER REGIONAL DISTRICT. 1972. A r e p o r t on l i v e a b i l i t y . G r e a t e r Vancouver Region a l D i s t r i c t , Vancouver. - 88 -GREATER VANCOUVER REGIONAL DISTRICT. 1973. The burden of growth p r o j e c t . I n t e r i m Report of the Impact of 197 3 M u n i c i p a l T a x a t i o n . G r e a ter Vancouver Regional D i s t r i c t , Vancouver. HALL, P. 1966. The world c i t i e s . World U n i v e r s i t y L i b r a r y . McGraw-Hill, New York. IOWA STATE UNIVERSITY. CENTRE FOR AGRICULTURAL AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT. 197 0. B e n e f i t s and burdens of r u r a l development. Iowa St a t e Univ. P r e s s , Ames. KAISER, E . J . and R.W. MASSIE. 1968. Landowner behaviour: f a c t o r s i n the d e c i s i o n t o h o l d or s e l l p r o p e r t y on the urban f r i n g e . I n s t , of S o c i a l Research, Univ. of North C a r o l i n a , Chapel H i l l . Research Previews 15(1). LOWER MAINLAND REGIONAL PLANNING BOARD OF BRITISH COLUMBIA. 19 54. The Greater Vancouver m e t r o p o l i t a n community: a p r e l i m i n a r y f a c t u a l study. L.M.R.P.B., New Westminster. . 1956. Urban sprawl. 1957. D e l t a : p lans f o r the f u t u r e . 1961a. Land f o r l e i s u r e . . 1961b. I n d u s t r i a l land p r o s p e c t s i n the Lower Mainland Region of B r i t i s h Columbia. . 1962a. Land f o r farming. . 1962b. Langley i n the S i x t i e s : a p o l i c y f o r development. A r e p o r t f o r the Reeve and C o u n c i l of the Township of Langley. . 19 63. Chance and c h a l l e n g e : a concept and pl a n f o r the development of the Lower Mainland Region. MACE, R.L. and W.J. WICKER. 1968. Do s i n g l e - f a m i l y homes pay t h e i r way? A comparative a n a l y s i s of c o s t s and revenues f o r p u b l i c s e r v i c e s conducted f o r the Urban Land I n s t . , Research Mono. 15. Urban Land I n s t . , Washington, D.C. PICKARD, J.P. 1962. Changing urban land uses as a f f e c t e d by t a x a t i o n . Research Mono. 6. Urban Land I n s t . , Washington, D.C. - 89 -RUNKA, G.G. 1973. Land c a p a b i l i t y f o r a g r i c u l t u r e . B.C. Dept. Agr., S o i l Survey Div., Kelowna. STRONG, M. 1973. An economic i n v e s t i g a t i o n of p a r t - t i m e farming i n the Lower F r a s e r V a l l e y of B r i t i s h Columbia. M. Sc. T h e s i s . Univ. of B r i t i s h Columbia, Dept. Agr. Ec. VALENTINE, K.W., P.N. SPROUT, T.E. BAKER and L.M. LAVKULICH. 197 8. The s o i l landscapes of B r i t i s h Columbia. Resource A n a l y s i s Branch, M i n i s t r y of the Environment, V i c t o r i a . WILBURN, M.D. 1973. P e r s p e c t i v e on mixed use development. Urban Land 39(2). - 90 -APPENDICES A - G - 9 1 -APPENDIX A. KEY. K E Y BUILDINGS - 1963 - 1969 - 1971 -1973 - 1974 (LANGLEY) BUILDINGS BUILDINGS D E L E T E D WOODED/SCRUB CLEARED RAILROAD IMPROVED-URBAN IMPROVED-AGRICULTURE IMPROVED-RECREATIONAL CLEARED- IDLE FOREST REGROWTH APPENDIX B. RICHMOND — NORTH SITE. - 94 -- 95 -- 96 -RICHMOND - NORTH SITE (1954) C A M B I E R O A D I W E S T M I N S T E R H I G H W A Y S C A L E : A P P R O X . 1 - 1 2 , 0 0 0 APPENDIX C. RICHMOND — SOUTH SITE. - 98 -- 100 -RICHMOND - SOUTH SITE (1954) G R A N V I L L E A V E N U E Q < O * r 1 i l l • i i i i i i i L_J r 1 i i i i _ J •v I r J r i 1 I I < o en ID b F R A N C I S R O A D R I G H T - O F - W A Y S C A L E : A P P R 0 X . 1 : 1 2 , 0 0 0 - 101 -APPENDIX D. LANGLEY SITE. - 1 0 2 -W - A B LANGLEY SITE - (1954) 2 8 A V E N U E R I G H T - O F - W A Y 1 6 A V E N U E S C A L E - A P P R O X . 1 : 1 2 , 0 0 0 - 105 -APPENDIX E. DELTA SITE. - 106 -- 107 -S C A L E : A P P R O X . 1 : 1 2 , 0 0 0 - 109 -APPENDIX F. LIST OF SOILS. - 110 -S o i l Name Symbol Al b i o n AB Annis AN B l u n d e l l BU Crescent CT Delta DT Heron HN Judson JN K i t t e r K Lumbum LM Nicholson N Richmond RC Ross RS Scat SC Sunshine SS Triggs TR Tsawwassen TS Westham WS Whatcom W APPENDIX F. LIST Parent M a t e r i a l glaciomarine org.over alluvium II II alluvium II marine organic over glaciomarine alluvium organic glaciomarine org.over alluvium alluvium glaciomarine m a r i n e / g l a c i a l outwash organic beach deposits marine glaciomarine OF SOILS Drainage mod.poor to poor poor to v.poor n it mod.poor to poor poor II very poor moderately poor very poor moderately w e l l very poor II poor w e l l very poor mod.well to we l l poor to v.poor moderately w e l l C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Humic Luvic G l e y s o l Rego G l e y s o l S a l i n e Rego G l e y s o l Orthic G l e y s o l S a l i n e O r t h i c Humic Gleys o l Rego-Humic G l e y s o l T e r r i c Humisol O r t h i c G l e y s o l Typic Mesisol P o d z o l i c Grey L u v i s o l T e r r i c Humisol Rego G l e y s o l O r t h i c Kumic G l e y s o l O r t h i c Humo-F e r r i c Podzol Sphagno-Fibrisol O r t h i c Regosol S a l i n e Rego-Humic G l e y s o l L u v i s o l i c Humo-F e r r i c Podzol - I l l -APPENDIX G. LIST OF AIR PHOTOGRAPHS. - 112 -Appendix G. LIST OF AIR PHOTOGRAPHS R o l l No. Photo No. Date F l y i n g Ht. C.F.L. Location 1672 68-70 1954 Richmond North II 104-106 i i n 1673 14-16 II Richmond South 11 43-45 II i t i i It 90-94 n Westham Island 1674 3-7 II t i n II 52-55 t i t i n 1979 80-84 II Langley 1680 26-29 n i i 5063 130-131 1963 1860 153.35 Richmond South It 228-230 11 « II II t i II 208-210 n ft II Richmond North 5065 114-119 n II t l Westham Island 5066 48-53 • II 1860-1890 II n n 5072 39-41 II 1830-1890 ft Langley f l 143-145 n 11 f l i t It 199-201 II ft ft n 5317 107-109 1969 1860 152.26 t i n 175-177 l> II II i t 5318 44-46 11 1800 11 Westham Island II 218-221 t l II t l II n ft 226-228 ft ft II n M 5319 161-163 II t l VI Richmond South 5320 73-75 II n ft II i i ft 70-72 II ft ft Richmond North II 102-104 II 1860 II II II 5403 34-36 1971 1800 It Westham Island II 90-92 II ft II n H 96-98 t l ft t l Vt 11 tt 145-147 II VI f l Richmond South " 169-170 II VI It Richmond North ft 182-183 f l VI ft II t i 5431 234-235 VI 2400 II Richmond South II 254-255 II t l f l t i » 5525 6-7 1973 1800 f l Westham Island II 58-60 II It 11 . t i II ft 71-73 II ft ft II VI t l 160-162 II ft II Richmond North 5591 87-89 1974 1890 152.433 Langley II 161-163 i t ft n Note: Coverage f o r Langley i n 1971 and 1973 u n a v a i l a b l e . Coverage for Richmond South i n 1973 aDd 197 4 u n a v a i l a b l e . 

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