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Strategies for culturally-based art education : a qualitative methodology Andrews, Eleanor Margaret-Rose 1980

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STRATEGIES FOR CULTURALLY-BASED ART EDUCATION: A QUALITATIVE METHODOLOGY by ELEANOR MARGARET-ROSE ANDREWS B . E d , , The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Co lumbia , 1967 A T H E S I S S U B M I T T E D IN P A R T I A L F U L F I L L M E N T OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of Art Education) [Faculty of Education] We accept t h i s thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA May 1980 Eleanor Margaret-Rose Andrews, 1980 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an advanced degree a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y . I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be g r a n t e d by the Head o f my Department o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department o f Art Education The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 Wesbrook P l a c e Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 Date April, 1S98Q A b s t r a c t In t h i s t h e s i s the p r o p o s a l i s made t h a t a r e c o n c e p t u a l i -z a t i o n of a r t i n educat ion i s needed to expand the framework of the d i s c i p l i n e beyond the somewhat i n s u l a r parameters of c o n v e n t i o n a l p r o d u c t i o n - o r i e n t e d approaches. An expanded paradigm as proposed i n t h i s t h e s i s would encompass the s k i l l s and c o n s t r u c t s t h a t would a l l o w students to i n v e s t i g a t e f u n d a -mental r e l a t i o n s h i p s between a r t and l i f e e x i s t i n g i n any c u l t u r a l s e t t i n g . The rev iew of l i t e r a t u r e p rov ided c o n t r i b u t e s to the t h e o r e t i c a l foundat ion f o r t h i s v iew of a r t educat ion by i n c l u d i n g the f o l l o w i n g : (a) a summary of a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l and s o c i o l o g i c a l approaches which he lp to i d e n t i f y p o s s i b l e research avenues f o r the study of a r t i n c u l t u r e ; (b) an overv iew of i s s u e s r e l a t e d t o the present s t a t e of m u l t i -c u l t u r a l i s m and e d u c a t i o n ; (c) an examinat ion of s e l e c t e d b a s i c o r i e n t a t i o n s and d i r e c t i o n s i n c u r r i c u l u m development, w i t h p a r t i c u l a r emphasis on q u a l i t a t i v e approaches; (d) an examinat ion of some of the major w o r l d - v i e w s which e x i s t ;.-as p e r c e p t u a l v a r i a t i o n s among p e o p l e s , and which are r e f l e c t e d i n t h e i r a r t s ; and (e) a summary of the major developments which have p rov ided the foundat ions f o r c u r r e n t c u l t u r e - b a s e d work i n a r t e d u c a t i o n , and which have helped to i d e n t i f y p o t e n t i a l i t i e s f o r the f u t u r e . Based on t h i s t h e o r e t i c a l framework, a m e t h o d o l o g i c a l model i s p resented to e l u c i d a t e one p o s s i b l e q u a l i t a t i v e approach to the study of a r t i n c u l t u r a l c o n t e x t . Each com-ponent of the methodology i s d e s c r i b e d i n d e t a i l , and each i n c l u d e s d e t a i l e d summary c h a r t s . Th is i s f o l l o w e d by a sample study i l l u s t r a t i n g one p o s s i b l e a p p l i c a t i o n of the use of the methodology. F i n a l l y , f u t u r e needs are i d e n t i f i e d and recommendations are put forward to i l l u s t r a t e the p o t e n -t i a l of t h i s type of methodology w i t h i n the e d u c a t i o n a l f i e l d as a whole. Fundamental ly the methodology presented here p rov ides a p r a x i o l o g i c a l approach to the study of a r t , r e q u i r i n g t h a t s tudents l e a r n to become r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e i r own a c t i o n s by c o n s c i o u s l y i n v e s t i g a t i n g the i n h e r e n t meanings of these a c t i o n s on an o n - g o i n g b a s i s . The s tudents are asked t o become c u r r i c u l u m d e v e l o p e r s , c u l t u r a l a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s , c o n n o i s s e u r s , c r i t i c s , and c r a f t s m e n . In a d d i t i o n t o encompassing e s s e n t i a l l y a hermeneut ic -s o c i a l a d a p t a t i o n o r i e n t a t i o n , t h i s methodology a l s o focuses on pe rsona l re levance by p r o v i d i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r the student to cons ide r h i s / h e r p e r s o n a l r o l e and " b e i n g " as an i n d i v i d u a l l i v i n g i n a c u l t u r a l w o r l d . In essence i t p r o -v i d e s a means through which h e u r i s t i c l e a r n i n g may be f a c i l i -t a t e d through d i a l e c t i c i n t e r a c t i o n f o c u s i n g on c u l t u r a l themes. Th is i n t e r a c t i o n i s c a r r i e d out w i t h i n four s t a g e s : i n v e s t i g a t i o n , c r i t i c i s m , p r o d u c t i o n , and e v a l u a t i o n . The major aims f o r tfre program are i d e n t i f i e d as i n c l u d -i n g : (aI l e a r n i n g to understand the f u n c t i o n s and meaning of a r t i n c u l t u r e ; (b) l e a r n i n g to a p p r e c i a t e the r o l e of the i v a r t i s t / c r a f t s m a n i n c u l t u r a l c o n t e x t ; and (c) deve lop ing c u l t u r a l competencies , i . e . , s e n s i b i l i t i e s which would enable i n d i v i d u a l s to become r e s p o n s i b l e and respons ive wor ld c i t i -zens , capable of i n t e l l i g e n t and c r e a t i v e c r o s s - c u l t u r a l i d e n t i f i c a t i o n s and i n t e r a c t i o n . I t i s p o s i t e d t h a t the study of a r t w i t h i n t h i s contex t can p rov ide unique i n s i g h t s i n t o c u l t u r a l va lues and w o r l d - v i e w s , l e a d i n g towards h e i g h t -ened c u l t u r a l and a r t i s t i c c o n s c i o u s n e s s . V Table of Contents Page ABSTRACT i i LIST OF FIGURES x LIST OF PLATES x i ACKNOWLEDGMENTS x i i Chapter 1. INTRODUCTION 1 Introduction to the Problem 1 I n i t i a l Delimitation and Related Elements 5 Potential and Needs 7 Dimensions and Issues 10 Statement of the Problem 13 Importance of the Study 16 Assumptions and Delimitations 20 De f i n i t i o n of Terms 25 Art - 25 Art Forms 26 Aspects of A r t i s t i c Learning 28 Anthropological/Sociological Terms . . . 29 Terms Relating to "Culture" 30 Mu l t i c u l t u r a l Terms 32 Curriculum-Based Terms . . . . 34 Forms of Inquiry 34 Summary 35 Design of the Study 36 v i Chapter Page 2. REVIEW OF LITERATURE 37 Anthropology and S o c i o l o g y 37 Conceptual Framework: Overview 37 Anthropology 37 Soc io logy 39 Major Cons t ruc ts and C o n s i d e r a t i o n s . . . . 40 Anthropology . 4 0 S o c i o l o g y 44 Summary 45 Methodologies 4 6 A n t h r o p o l o g i c a l approaches 4 6 Overview 46 Approaches 4 8 S o c i o l o g i c a l approaches 53 Summary and I m p l i c a t i o n s 56 M u l t i c u l t u r a l i s m and Educat ion 5 7 H i s t o r i c a l Overview . 58 The E d u c a t i o n a l C h a l l e n g e : Des ign ing Exper iences and S t r a t e g i e s 59 Goals 60 Approaches and s t r a t e g i e s 60 Resources 66 Research 6 8 Summary and C o n c l u s i o n 70 C u r r i c u l u m 72 Major C o n s i d e r a t i o n s and G u i d e l i n e s . . . . 76 v i i Chapter Page O r g a n i z a t i o n of C u r r i c u l u m 80 O r i e n t a t i o n s . 85 Three C u r r i c u l a 87 C u r r i c u l u m and L e a r n i n g . 90 E v a l u a t i o n 95 Summary and C o n c l u s i o n 99 C u l t u r a l W o r l d - P e r s p e c t i v e s 101 Japanese . . - 102 Chinese 105 East Ind ian 106 Nat i ve Ind ian I l l Conc lus ion 114 A r t Educat ion 115 I n i t i a l Discernments 117 Contemporary Trends and O r i e n t a t i o n s . . . 123 Summary 127 Summary and C o n c l u s i o n 128 3 . THE METHODOLOGY 134 Overview of the Methodology . 141 B a s i c Format 141 P r e - i n t e r a c t i v e stage 142 Stage 1 : Research and c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . . 142 Stage 2: C r i t i c a l a n a l y s i s 143 Stage 3 ; P r o d u c t i o n 143 Stage 4: E v a l u a t i o n 143 D e c i s i o n l e v e l s . . . . . . 144 v i i i Chapter Page I m p l i c i t Features , „ , , , , „ . . . . . 146 Components of the Methodology 148 P r e — I n t e r a c t i v e Stage (Teacher Only) . . 148 Stage 1 : Research and C l a s s i f i c a t i o n . . 160 Stage 2 ; C r i t i c a l A n a l y s i s . 177 Stage 3 : P r o d u c t i o n 189 Stage 4: E v a l u a t i o n . 201 Time A l l o c a t i o n and P o t e n t i a l Scope . . . 214 A p p l i c a t i o n of the Methodology: Sample Study 22 7 Thematic Overview 227 Stage 1 : Research and C l a s s i f i c a t i o n . . 235 Stage 2 : C r i t i c a l A n a l y s i s 247 Phase 1 - A e s t h e t i c / c u l t u r a l a n a l y s i s . 247 Phase 2 - S t r u c t u r a l i n q u i r y 24 8 Stage 3 : P r o d u c t i o n 251 Stage 4: E v a l u a t i o n 254 I m p l i c i t L e a r n i n g P o t e n t i a l 256 Summary 257 4. DISCUSSION OF THE METHODOLOGY, FUTURE NEEDS, RECOMMENDATIONS, AND CONCLUSIONS 263 D i s c u s s i o n s of the Methodology 26 3 Future Needs 276 Pre - rServ ice Educat ion of Teachers . . . . 276 I n - S e r v i c e Educat ion of Teachers . . . . 283 F i e l d P o t e n t i a l i t i e s 287 The community 287 i x Chapter Page Museums . . . . . . . 289 Curriculum Materials . 290 Future Directions for Research and Study. 295 P o l i t i c a l Needs . . . . . . . . 301 Other Needs 30 3 Recommendations 306 Conclusions 311 FOOTNOTES 317 REFERENCE NOTES 318 BIBLIOGRAPHY 320 APPENDIX A. SUMMARY OF ENROLMENT BASED ON RETURNS FROM 76 ELEMENTARY AND 18 SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN VANCOUVER DISTRICT 33,6 X L i s t of Figures Figure Page 1. Overview of Methodology: Stages and Procedures 145 2. Background Considerations: Pre-Interactive Stage (Teacher Only) 159 3. Sample Delimitation Format 16 7 4. Thematic Scope Chart: P o s s i b i l i t i e s for Study Emphasis (Chart A) 17 3 5. Major Perceptual Frames: Approaches to Cul t u r a l Study (Chart B) 174 6. Approaches to Documentation and C l a s s i f i c a t i o n (Chart C) 175 7. F i r s t Step i n Teacher/Student Interactions: Ethnographic Investigation (Stage 1) 176 8. Ethnographic Examination Phase 1: Aesthetic/ Cultural Analysis 186 9. Ethnographic Examination Phase 2: Structural Inquiry 187 10. Composite Features of Stage 2 188 11. Decision and Working Phases Related to Student Production (Stage 3) 200 12. Evaluation Within Production Component 206 13. Three Stage Sequential Evaluation . . . . . . . 207 14. Composite Phases Relating to Evaluation (Stage 4) 210 15. H o l i s t i c View of Curriculum 218 16. Sequential Scope Chart for Developmental Learning 225 17. Model for Development of Cultural Under-standing Within Curriculum . . . . . 226 x i L i s t of Plates A l l Photographs courtesy of the Museum of Anthropology, U.B.C. Plate Page I (Museum No. N1.71) Chinese costume -s i l k and gold, dyed and woven 2 37 II (Museum No. B 646) T r a d i t i o n a l East Indian s a r i 237 III (Museum No. N2.1011) Japanese d o l l wearing kimono i n red, grey, and yellow 2 38 IV (Museum No. N1.73) Informal dress of a Han woman during the Ch' ing Dynasty 2 39 V (Museum No. N1.730) Peasant's costume . . . . 239 VI (Museum No. N1.659)' O f f i c i a l ' s costume . . . . 240 VII (Museum No. N1.54) Badge worn by fourth ranking c i v i l o f f i c i a l 240 VIII (Museum No. N1.6 32) Nun's costume 241 IX (Museum No. N1.714) Costume worn by immortal princess 241 X (Museum No. N1.681) Warrior's armour with leg panels and c o l l a r 242 XI (Museum No. N1.42) Chinese hat 243 XII (Museum No. N1.814) Bride's headdress . . . . 244 XIII (Museum No. Nl.32) Scarf with calligraphy . . 244 XIV (Museum No. N2.205) Japanese kimono. Deep purple ground with pine, cloud, and chrysanthemum design . . . . . . 245 XV (Museum No. N1.627) D e t a i l from Cantonese opera costume; Peacock - good luck . . . . . 246 XVI (Museum No. N1.641). D e t a i l from Cantonese opera costume: Peony - Spring 246 x i i Acknowledgements Th is w r i t e r would l i k e to express s i n c e r e a p p r e c i a t i o n f o r the he lp p rov ided by a number of people i n the p r e p a r a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s . In p a r t i c u l a r , a p p r e c i a t i o n i s extended to the members of my a d v i s o r y committee: to Dr . James Gray f o r h i s suppor t i ve adv ice and cont inuous s c h o l a r l y gu idance , to Dr . Graeme Chalmers f o r h i s cont inuous he lp w i t h c u l t u r e -o r i e n t e d r e f e r e n c e s , and to Dr . V i n c e n t D'Oyley f o r h i s r e c o g n i t i o n of the need to i n v e s t i g a t e m u l t i - p e r s p e c t i v e s and unique w o r l d - v i e w s r e f l e c t e d through a r t . S p e c i a l thanks i s extended to Penny Gouldstone , who p rov ided the i n i t i a l impetus t h a t began my i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n t o the r e l a t i o n s h i p between a r t and c u l t u r e , and who has p rov ided u n f a i l i n g suppor t . Thanks i s a l s o extended to Dr . Doug Boughton, who recogn ized my i n t e r e s t i n q u a l i t y and who p rov ided the i n i t i a l d i r e c t i o n s which l e d towards my d e v e l o p -ment o f the q u a l i t a t i v e format p rov ided i n t h i s t h e s i s . G r a t e f u l thanks i s a l s o g i ven to L e l o Morton f o r her d i l i g e n t a s s i s t a n c e w i t h the t y p i n g . F i n a l l y , deep a p p r e c i a t i o n i s expressed to my husband Ian f o r h i s conf idence i n me and f o r h i s p a t i e n c e and encouragement throughout the p r e p a r a t i o n of t h i s work. M.A. 1 Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION I n t r o d u c t i o n to the Problem Human b e i n g s , p a r t i c u l a r l y those l i v i n g i n many urban cent res of the Western w o r l d , are becoming i n c r e a s i n g l y aware of the f a c t t h a t we share a common e a r t h . The media p r o v i d e s d a i l y reminders of t h i s r e a l i t y , a long w i t h i t s i m p l i c a t i o n s , o f t e n i n t e n s i f y i n g a n x i e t i e s and f r e q u e n t l y i n s t i g a t i n g an undercurrent of h y s t e r i a which o n l y serves t o deepen the chasms of misunderstanding among p e o p l e s . In response to t h i s growing c o n s c i o u s n e s s , movements w i t h i n American and Canadian educat ion systems over the past two decades have t r i e d to p rov ide a m e l i o r a t i o n i n the form of s p e c i a l i z e d programs. Among these have been programs f o r the c u l t u r a l l y d i f f e r e n t , programs about c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s , programs f o s t e r i n g b i l i n g u a l e d u c a t i o n , and e t h n i c s t u d i e s . Regardless of the f o c u s , a l l o f these programs come under the r u b r i c of m u l t i c u l t u r a l e d u c a t i o n . Some i n i t i a l q u e s t i o n s which w i l l he lp to p rov ide a focus f o r the underp innings of t h i s t h e s i s are as f o l l o w s : What progress has been made i n the f i e l d of m u l t i c u l t u r a l educat ion? Have advances been made i n terms of p r o v i d i n g a v i a b l e educat ion f o r a m u l t i - c u l t u r a l s o c i e t y ? Where does a r t educat ion f i t ? Perhaps even more fundamental i s 2 the q u e s t i o n of meaning i n v o l v e d i n the concept of m u l t i -c u l t u r a l i s m i t s e l f . Gibson (1976a) suggests the f o l l o w i n g : I n s o f a r as a l l i n d i v i d u a l s f i n d they must a t t r i b u t e d i f f e r e n t e x p e c t a t i o n s to d i f f e r e n t s e t s of p e o p l e , they l i v e i n a m u l t i - c u l t u r a l w o r l d . To the degree t h a t i n d i v i d u a l s a c q u i r e the competencies needed to i n t e r a c t e f f e c t i v e l y w i t h s e t s of people whose c u l t u r e s d i f f e r , they themselves become m u l t i - c u l t u r a l . (pp. 2-4) A b r i e f p e r u s a l of any b i b l i o g r a p h y f o c u s i n g on m u l t i -c u l t u r a l i s m and educat ion w i l l r e v e a l the major s u b j e c t s and i s s u e s t h a t have r e c e i v e d a t t e n t i o n i n recent y e a r s . Those works l i s t e d by M a l l e a and Shea (1979) , f o r example, focus on such themes as p l u r a l s o c i e t i e s , m i n o r i t i e s and educa -t i o n , language, r a c e , and a t t i t u d e s . A s c r u t i n y of t h i s l i t e r a t u r e a l s o r e v e a l s the p a u c i t y of m a t e r i a l d e a l i n g w i t h the r o l e of a r t educat ion as i t r e l a t e s to m u l t i c u l -t u r a l concerns , on e i t h e r a t h e o r e t i c a l or p r a c t i c a l l e v e l . For over twenty y e a r s , UNESCO has been c a l l i n g f o r "a broadening of the h o r i z o n s of e d u c a t i o n " ( F r a d i e r , 1959, p. 42) to i n c l u d e the i n c o r p o r a t i o n of elements t h a t would i n c r e a s e c u l t u r a l unders tand ing . The i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of such a broad goa l can be seen i n a v a r i e t y of forms. One community-based v e n t u r e — f o u n d on the Hobbema Reserves , south of Edmonton—is repor ted by A o k i (1978b) as hav ing a b a s i c creed which cen t res on the enhancement of " the human-ness of a l l human be ings" (p. 9 3 ) , i n c o r p o r a t i n g a r e s p e c t 3 for the uniqueness of both i n d i v i d u a l students and ethnic groups. Such an approach would seem, i n many ways, to exemp-l i f y the approach advocated by Gibson (1976b). Her overview of the shortcomings of m u l t i c u l t u r a l programs led to her proposal that the most viable approach to m u l t i c u l t u r a l edu-cation would be through the concept of m u l t i c u l t u r a l educa-ti o n as normal human experience. In his 1978 INSEA address, Smith (Note 1) commented on the fact that t h i s approach would mean "making students competent to function i n a number of cultures". Given the p l u r a l i s t i c nature of our ever-shrinking world, such a goal would not seem unreason-able. In f a c t , i t would seem almost e s s e n t i a l , as a pre-req u i s i t e for viable world c i t i z e n s h i p for both present and future generations. With McFee (19 66), Feldman was among the f i r s t art educators to recognize some of the shortcomings of art edu-cation i n terms of c u l t u r a l factors. In his book Becoming Human Through Art (1970) he notes, f i r s t , how the anthropo-l o g i s t ' s view of "primitive a r t " correlates with " c i v i l i z e d a r t " . In both cases, art attends to the following: It serves as a cohesive force i n culture, recording experience, communication information, perpetuating t r a d i t i o n s , displaying wealth, entertaining the commu-nity , invoking gods and departed s p i r i t s , protecting individuals against i l l n e s s and catastrophe, promoting f e r t i l i t y , averting death i n c h i l d b i r t h , building courage i n war, renewing the l i f e of the departed, 4 f a c i l i t a t i n g passage from one human c o n d i t i o n to another . (p. 13) He then makes the f o l l o w i n g comment w i t h re fe rence to a r t e d u c a t i o n : A r t educat ion i s on l y beg inn ing to f e e l the consequen-ces of the r e v a l u a t i o n of a r t from the s tandpo in t of a d e f i n i t i o n d e r i v e d from p r i m i t i v e a r t . In many p l a c e s , a r t i s s t i l l taught as i f i t were an adornment of g rac ious l i v i n g r a t h e r than an e s s e n t i a l e x p r e s s i o n of the human s p i r i t . From the v iewpo in t of p r i m i t i v e a r t , we are a f f l i c t e d i n our c u l t u r e by a s e p a r a t i o n of a r t from l i f e . By i s o l a t i n g a r t i n museums and i s o l a t i n g i t s study i n our schoo l programs, we have accompl ished what the p r i m i t i v e t r ibesman might c o n s i d e r the murder of a r t . The i r o n y of our predicament i s t h a t when we recogn ize the s e p a r a t i o n of a r t and l i f e i n our c u l t u r e , we t r y to r e i n s t a t e a r t by a r t i f i c i a l means. That i s , we encourage the c r e a t i o n of a r t i s t i c products by c h i l d r e n and a d u l t s who f e e l no v i t a l need t o make them. Yet anthropology c l e a r l y demonstrates t h a t i n those c u l t u r e s where a r t i s i n t e g r a l or cont inuous w i t h l i v i n g , i t i s c rea ted because of genuine p e r s o n a l and s o c i a l u r g e n c i e s . (pp. 13-14) These comments r e f l e c t the essence of the problem i n terms of the p resent s t a t e of a r t e d u c a t i o n . The concept ion t h a t a r t can be separated from l i f e and enshr ined i n i t s own un ive rse i s one which c o u l d use some r i g o r o u s r e - t h i n k i n g . 5 As the N a t i o n a l A r t Educat ion A s s o c i a t i o n (NAEA) p o i n t s o u t : "The v i s u a l a r t s c o n t a i n a r e c o r d of the achievement of man-k i n d , s i n c e the va lues and b e l i e f s of a people are uniquely-mani fes ted i n the a r t forms they produce" [ ( E s s e n t i a l s , , 1979) . The m u l t i c u l t u r a l nature of t o d a y ' s s o c i e t y p resents an imminent cha l lenge f o r a r t e d u c a t o r s . Before r e v i e w i n g some of the dimensions of t h i s c h a l l e n g e , I w i l l o u t l i n e an i n i t i a l d e l i m i t a t i o n f o r t h i s s tudy . I n i t i a l D e l i m i t a t i o n and R e l a t e d Elements A rev iew of research and c u r r e n t programs shows t h a t i n many ways developments i n both American and Canadian a r t educat ion f o l l o w s i m i l a r t r e n d s . As an exemplary f i e l d w i t h i n which the m u l t i c u l t u r a l nature of s o c i e t y r e v e a l s i t s e l f , the c i t y of Vancouver p r o v i d e s a v a l i d conceptua l base f o r c o n s i d e r i n g the impact of m u l t i c u l t u r a l educat ion programs. Th is c i t y , as r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the Canadian scene, w i l l be cons idered as a t h e o r e t i c a l case study w i t h i n which the methodology p rov ided w i t h i n t h i s t h e s i s might be used. The i n s i g h t s c o n t r i b u t i n g toward the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the problem to be addressed w i t h i n t h i s t h e s i s have been gained from a number of a r e a s . Of major importance i s the demographic data p u b l i s h e d by governmental and l o c a l agen-c i e s . S t a t i s t i c s t a b u l a t i n g p o p u l a t i o n by mother tongue i n d i c a t e a very wide range of e t h n i c d i v e r s i t y w i t h i n Canada {Census of Canada, 1976) . More l o c a l i z e d d a t a , such 6 as t h a t t a b u l a t e d by the Vancouver School Board ( E l l i s , 1977) , r e v e a l t h a t many schoo ls draw a' s i g n i f i c a n t percentage of t h e i r p o p u l a t i o n from f a m i l i e s where E n g l i s h i s the second language (see Appendix A f o r a summary of the enro lment ) . Conferences such as the one sponsored by the B .C . p r o -v i n c i a l government i n A p r i l , 1979, i n d i c a t e the r e c o g n i t i o n be ing g i ven to the c u l t u r a l h e r i t a g e of the p o p u l a t i o n . In terms of e d u c a t i o n , the Canadian A s s o c i a t i o n f o r C u r r i c u l u m Stud ies (CACS) has been i n s t r u m e n t a l i n i n i t i a t i n g some d i s c u s s i o n s and p roposa ls connected w i t h c u r r i c u l u m d e v e l o p -ment i n S o c i a l S t u d i e s . As an expansion of t h i s a r e a , a f i e l d of study c a l l e d " e t h n i c s t u d i e s " has been i n t r o d u c e d , the purpose of which i s to study e t h n i c groups (people who share a common h e r i t a g e and a n c e s t r y ) , " the e t h n i c e x p e r i - : ence, and the impact of e t h n i c i t y on Canadian s o c i e t y and c u l t u r e " (Wood, 1978, p. 2 ) . I d e n t i f i e d as a component w i t h i n t h i s f i e l d , a r t educat ion w i l l be examined w i t h i n t h i s t h e s i s i n terms of i t s p o t e n t i a l f o r a d d r e s s i n g the e t h n i c theme. However, the scope of the c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n w i l l , a t the same t i m e , extend w e l l beyond the " e t h n i c " v i e w p o i n t . The aspects of " c u l t u r a l competency" proposed by Gibson (1976b) and Smith (Note 1) w i l l be cons idered as a fundamental goa l f o r a r t e d u c a t i o n . One of the major f e a t u r e s w i t h i n t h i s t h e s i s i s the m e t h o d o l o g i c a l framework through which t h i s competency g o a l might be addressed . S i x major c o n s t r u c t s p r o v i d e t h e o r e t i -c a l foundat ion f o r t h i s model . These a r e : an th ropo logy , 7 sociology, the f i e l d of multiculturalism and education, art education, curriculum, and multi-perspective philosophies gleaned from c u l t u r a l world views. The review of l i t e r a t u r e i n Chapter 2 outlines those elements of these six i n t e r r e -lated strands which are s i g n i f i c a n t to the methodology being presented. Potential and Needs Both Gibson (1976b) and Smith (Note 1) express concern about the d i r e c t i o n of m u l t i c u l t u r a l education, f e e l i n g that i t s many facets create confusion concerning major goals and in t e r - r e l a t i o n s h i p s . Smith submits that the value and uni-fying thread l i e s i n the fact that c u l t u r a l studies make us "aware of the many d i f f e r e n t ways humans have devised for meeting needs and securing human values we a l l either share or can understand". Before the problem and design of t h i s study are presented, some of these s i g n i f i c a n t needs and values related to the study of culturally-based arts i n education w i l l be i d e n t i f i e d . Echoing the thought expressed i n the opening paragraph of t h i s introduction, Grigsby (1977) observes that "tensions between people of d i f f e r e n t cultures, l i f e s t y l e s , value systems, aspirations, and expressions have increased i n recent years, arid on occasion, have exploded v i o l e n t l y " (pp. 23-24). He then emphasizes that a curriculum that could generate respect for the people who create the arts "can be a beginning to a sensitive understanding of Peoples" (p. 24). 8 But what, s p e c i f i c a l l y , can the a r t s u n i q u e l y p rov ide? Some prominent a r t educators p rov ide i n i t i a l i n s i g h t s . McFee (1974) p o i n t s out t h a t i f our b a s i c assumptions about a r t l ead us to cons ide r a r t as a phenomenon of human behaviour which i s r e l a t e d i n some degree to a l l of s o c i e t y , we can " recogn i ze a r t as one of the major communication systems of s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n and of s o c i e t y i n t r a n s i t i o n " (p. 80 ) . Chalmers (19 74) adds t h a t an understanding of the f u n c t i o n s of a r t as i t " t r a n s m i t s the c u l t u r a l h e r i t a g e , m a i n t a i n s c e r t a i n c u l t u r a l v a l u e s , and i n d i r e c t l y e f f e c t s c u l t u r a l change and improvement" (p. 21) w i l l p rov ide the i n d i v i d u a l w i t h a unique understanding of the w o r l d , one which i s i m p o s s i b l e to o b t a i n through any o the r means. He suggests t h a t i t i s more important to p l a c e the emphasis on the why of a r t , r a t h e r than on the what, where, when, and how. McFee and Degge (1977) emphasize t h a t a r t p r o v i d e s i n s i g h t i n t o q u a l i t i e s , v a l u e s , and b e l i e f s . Concepts of r e a l i t y are o b j e c t i f i e d i n d rawings , p a i n t i n g s , and c a r v i n g s ; are r e f l e c t e d i n ceremonies , r i t u a l s , and f e s t i v a l s ; and can be i d e n t i f i e d through m u s i c , l i t e r a t u r e , drama, and myths. C l o t h i n g , a r c h i t e c t u r e , and the des ign of u t i l i t a r i a n o b j e c t s are a l l i n f l u e n c e d by c u l t u r a l va lues and b e l i e f s . By address ing such phenomena through a r t i s t i c i n q u i r y i n educa-t i o n c h i l d r e n can become acqua inted w i t h new p e r s p e c t i v e s >of the w o r l d , and can be helped to exper ience "more s u b t l e forms of f e e l i n g and more p r e c i s e images of the human s p i r i t 9 than they are l i k e l y t o d i s c o v e r on t h e i r own" (Chapman, 1978, p. 5 ) . In p r e s e n t i n g an a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l approach f o r the study of a r t , Anderson (19 79) suggests t h a t " i f we l e a r n enough about the ways of other people we might begin t o see our own s o c i e t y i n a new l i g h t " (p. 200) . A r t can p r o v i d e a funda-mental avenue f o r opening up these p e r s p e c t i v e s . I t o f f e r s a l i m i t l e s s f i e l d f o r both o b j e c t i v e and humanistic i n v e s t i -g a t i o n of those q u a l i t i e s o f mankind, w i t h a l l i t s c u l t u r a l v a r i a t i o n s , which are un i q u e l y expressed through the a r t s . E i s n e r (1972) s t a t e s t h a t " a r t . . . breeds a f f i l i a t i o n through i t s power to move the emotions and to generate cohe-si v e n e s s . . . I t d i s c l o s e s the i n e f f a b l e and enl a r g e s our consciousness" (p. 16 ) . Since world cohesiveness and under-standing are so g r e a t l y needed i n t h i s p r e s e n t age, a r t edu-c a t i o n must be re-examined i n terms of i t s i n h e r e n t p o t e n t i a l f o r a d d r e s s i n g t h i s need. The g r e a t promise of c u l t u r a l i n s i g h t a v a i l a b l e through the study of a r t has been overlooked by l a r g e numbers of a r t educators. The major need f o r t h i s type of study has a l r e a d y been e l u c i d a t e d . However, s p e c i f i c needs w i t h i n a r t educa-t i o n have been i d e n t i f i e d by McFee (1974) as i n c l u d i n g the f o l l o w i n g : - the need f o r r e s e a r c h i n the f i e l d o f a r t , t o i d e n t i f y the f u n c t i o n s of a r t i n l i f e . T h i s , she suggests, should i n c l u d e a study of the v a l u e s , a t t i t u d e s , and meanings asso-c i a t e d with a r t forms. 10 - the need to re -examine what we are t e a c h i n g about a r t . McFee wonders i f we are h e l p i n g c h i l d r e n to understand t h e i r own c u l t u r e w h i l e a t the same t ime h e l p i n g them to a p p r e c i a t e a l l the v i s u a l a r t s . - the need to improve s k i l l s o f a r t c r i t i c i s m . - the need to examine c u l t u r e s o ther than our own to g a i n new p e r s p e c t i v e s . A l s o of prime importance i s the need to p rov ide s tudents w i t h the s k i l l s r e q u i r e d f o r r e s e a r c h , o b s e r v a t i o n , and i n t e l l i g e n t examinat ion of c u l t u r a l phenomena. Dimensions and Issues The dimensions of the t a s k r e l a t i n g to a c u l t u r a l l y -based s t r u c t u r i n g of a r t educat ion encompass a number of i s s u e s . One aspect p e r t a i n s to the enlargement of b a s i c concepts of both a r t and c u l t u r e . H a l l (1976) g r a p h i c a l l y s t a t e s t h a t "the mental maps . . . we c a r r y w i t h u s , based as they are on our own c u l t u r a l e x p e r i e n c e , are l i t t l e b e t -t e r than those Columbus had when he s a i l e d west . . . [and beheld] I n d i a i n 1492" (pp. 4 5 - 4 6 ) . Th is l a c k of awareness can apply to one ' s own c u l t u r e as w e l l as to the c u l t u r e of " o t h e r s " . Innate assumptions about one 's own system c a n , acco rd ing to H a l l , on ly be r e - e v a l u a t e d by i n t e r a c t i n g w i t h those who do not share t h a t system. Contemporary concepts of a r t c o u l d a l s o be examined. Feldman (1970) notes t h a t the idea of contemporary a r t as "a commodity w i t h a market va lue . . . . i n e v i t a b l y a f f e c t s the way we perceive art objects and the a c t i v i t y of a r t i s t s " (p. 17). This conception provides the governing incentive behind many of the art programs found i n today's schools, as borne out by "product-orientation" of so many programs. As such, t h i s framework i s very r e s t r i c t i v e and does l i t t l e to bolster the values of art beyond i t s market value. The value issue i s also i d e n t i f i e d by Macdonald (1977b) as he discusses curriculum. He points out. that " a l l c u r r i -culum talk and work i s value based" (p. 21). Although he fee l s that not a l l curriculum workers take the time to c l a -r i f y the values that underline t h e i r programs, the value base has important implications for the type of program offered. He feels that two fundamental value questions inform and form the human condition. These are: "(a) what i s the meaning of human l i f e ? , and (b) how s h a l l we l i v e together?" (p. 20). A further explication of these ques-tions and the role that a r t education can play i n addressing these issues i s provided i n Chapter 2. Huebner (1975a) discusses both e t h i c a l and esthetic valuing within educational a c t i v i t i e s . He makes the follow-ing comment: Esthetic valuing . . . i s often completely ignored, perhaps because the educator i s not s u f f i c i e n t l y con-cerned with or knowledgeable about esthetic values or perhaps because esthetic a c t i v i t i e s are not highly prized today i n society, (p. 226) Dimensions of esthetic valuing are i d e n t i f i e d as including: (a) the relat i o n s h i p of the esthetic object with the world of use, (b) the unity, wholeness, and harmony found within the object, and (c) the r e f l e c t i o n of meanings and truth to be found i n the object. E t h i c a l values r e l a t e to human encounters. Huebner emphasizes that "the encounter -is. In i t i s the essence of l i f e . In i t l i f e i s revealed and l i v e d . " (p. 227) Huebner feels that esthetic and e t h i c a l value systems would provide necessary extensions and enrichment i f com-bined with the technological, p o l i t i c a l , and s c i e n t i f i c value systems which comprise the primary fo c a l points of much of today's classroom a c t i v i t y . Macdonald (1975b) makes a case for education as "a moral enterprise rather than simply a set of technical problems" (p. 4). He notes the increasing concern for qual i t y that i s becoming evident i n educational theory. These ideas are expressly seen i n E l l i o t Eisner's recent writings as he remarks on the state of research. He comments as follows: The idea that there are multiple ways i n which things are known - that there i s a variety of expressive modalities through which what i s known can be disclosed - simply has been absent from the conversations that animate the educational research community. (1979, p. 198) Eisner further remarks on Ernest Cassirer's point i n An Essay on Man that "a s c i e n t i f i c perspective without an a r t i s t i c one leads to monocular v i s i o n ; both are necessary to have depth p e r c e p t i o n " (p. 1 9 8 ) . Th is expanded paradigm w i l l be r e f e r r e d to i n subsequent s e c t i o n s of t h i s t h e s i s . Statement of the Problem The elements which have been i n t r o d u c e d i n the f i r s t s e c t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s have b r i e f l y focused on aspects r e l a t -i n g to an e s s e n t i a l n e e d — t h e need f o r a r t educat ion to more f u l l y expand i t s p o t e n t i a l as a v i a b l e and important educa -t i o n a l endeavor, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n terms of i t s inherent promise as a means f o r p r o v i d i n g new i n s i g h t s i n t o a r t , c u l t u r e , and l i f e . One of the major f a c t o r s i n t r i n s i c to the problem c e n -t e r s around the shortcomings of c u r r e n t a r t e d u c a t i o n . W i l -son (1974) d e s c r i b e s the g a m e - l i k e , c o n v e n t i o n a l , and r u l e -governed approach to schoo l a r t which r e s u l t s i n a r t p roducts " w i t h the proper expected look" (p. 6 ) . Th is "expected look" g e n e r a l l y has " l i t t l e or no counte rpar t e i t h e r i n the p e r s o -n a l spontaneous e x p r e s s i o n of c h i l d r e n or i n the c u l t u r e o u t -s i d e of the s c h o o l " ( E f l a n d , 1976, p. 3 8 ) . Even w i t h i n these d e s c r i p t i o n s i t i s apparent t h a t the production o f a r t , a l b e i t " s c h o o l a r t " , i s another c h a r a c t e r -i s t i c of c u r r e n t a r t programs. As E i s n e r (19721 has empha-s i z e d , the h i s t o r i c a l and c u l t u r a l aspects of a r t have been v i r t u a l l y neg lec ted i n schoo ls (p. 2 6 ) . L i t t l e o r no a t t e n -t i o n has been g iven to the s o c i a l va lues or c u l t u r a l p a t t e r n s so i n t r i c a t e l y woven i n t o the foundat ions of s o c i e t y and so c l o s e l y t i e d to c u l t u r a l change. A t the same t ime the deve -lopment of c r i t i c a l s k i l l s ["the a b i l i t y to see v i s u a l form . . . on a plane of aesthetic meaning" (Eisner, 1972, p. 26)] has been neglected. Very l i t t l e time has been given to discussions which would help to foster t h i s a b i l i t y . I t i s due to such c h a r a c t e r i s t i c features as those indicated above that art education has found i t s e l f on the periphery of general education. S p e c i f i c needs have already been mentioned. However, among the avenues available for i n i t i a t i n g improvement i n art education, McFee (1974) suggests the following: 1. Helping students see the functions of art i n culture as i t transmits values and attitudes, and i d e n t i f i e s c u l t u r a l meanings. 2. Helping students respect and understand c u l t u r a l pluralism i n our society by becoming aware of the functions of art i n our many subcultures, (p. 95) Further avenues are offered by Chapman (1978) when she states that "approaches to study should r e f l e c t not only d i f f e r e n t concepts of art within Western culture but also c r o s s - c u l t u r a l concepts drawn from anthropology" (p. 123). If art forms can be viewed as c u l t u r a l a r t i f a c t , as physical evidence about the culture, much can be learned about those cultures which produced them. This would necessitate increased attention being given to both obser-vation and discussion within the art curriculum, involving the c o l l e c t i o n and interpretation of a r t i f a c t s that have symbolic and/or aesthetic value i n selected cultures. To d a t e , most of the recommendations p rov ided by a r t educators w i t h regard to the c u l t u r a l theme have been i n the form of t h e o r e t i c a l g u i d e l i n e s . However, very few concrete suggest ions or models have been evolved t h a t can p rov ide the connect ing l i n k s between theory and imp lementat ion . Gay (19 77) notes " the absence of the use of s y s t e m a t i c approaches or des ign s t r a t e g i e s i n most of the m u l t i c u l t u r a l or e t h n i c s t u d i e s programs t h a t have been produced so f a r " (p. 9 4 ) , and Gibson (1976b) s t a t e s t h a t " the q u e s t i o n f o r educators i s how best to c r e a t e l e a r n i n g environments which promote r a t h e r than i n h i b i t the a c q u i s i t i o n of m u l t i c u l t u r a l competencies" (p. 17) . In l i g h t of the shortcomings of the c u r r e n t approach to a r t e d u c a t i o n , and the needs and va lues which have been i d e n t i f i e d i n t h i s i n t r o d u c t i o n , the t a s k becomes c l e a r . A methodology must be developed which w i l l emphasize a c u l t u r a l foundat ion f o r a r t e d u c a t i o n , and p rov ide v i a b l e avenues f o r h e l p i n g c h i l d r e n to develop c r o s s - c u l t u r a l understandings through a r t . T h e r e f o r e , the e s s e n t i a l problem i s addressed i n the f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n s : Given the m u l t i c u l t u r a l nature of society and the lack of adequate art education models incorporating s t r a t e g i e s which focus on the r e l a t i o n s h i p of art to l i f e , how can the framework of art education he changed and expanded to encompass the fundamental conceptions and provide the essential s k i l l s for students to become informed world c i t i z e n s ? In t h i s pursuit, can a metho-16 dology be developed which would emphasize q u a l i t i a t i v e ways of knowing, based on the unique potential for learning that only art education can provide? The purpose d e r i v e d from t h i s problem i s to develop a methodology f o r t e a c h i n g - l e a r n i n g s t r a t e g i e s t h a t would a l l o w the elementary schoo l a r t c u r r i c u l u m to move toward t o t a l i n t e g r a t i o n of both c r i t i c a l and p r o d u c t i v e a s p e c t s , w i t h a fundamental ly c u l t u r a l f o u n d a t i o n . The i n t e n t of t h i s methodology i s to emphasize q u a l i t a t i v e modes of l e a r n i n g through n a t u r a l i s t i c i n q u i r y . I t i s hoped t h a t t h i s type of i n q u i r y would l ead toward the enrichment of the s t u d e n t s ' understanding of the s i g n i f i c a n c e of a r t w i t h i n s o c i e t y . Importance of the Study A l though the fundamental importance of the study may be deduced from the arguments put forward i n the p r e v i o u s s e c -t i o n s of t h i s t h e s i s , a b r i e f summary and e x t e n s i o n of these ideas f o l l o w s : 1 . The study i s designed to p rov ide a methodology which would be s u i t a b l e f o r use w i t h i n an elementary c l a s s -room by both g e n e r a l i s t s and s p e c i a l i s t s . The methodology presented i n Chapter 3 p r o v i d e s f o r both c o n t i n u i t y and sequence i n l e a r n i n g s . 2. The methodology i s based upon p h i l o s o p h i c a l under -p i n n i n g s designed t o expand the s t u d e n t s ' unders tand ing of the s i g n i f i c a n c e of a r t i n the c u l t u r a l c o n t e x t . At the same t ime i t i s designed to promote i n t e r c u l t u r a l under -17 s t a n d i n g . 3 . F l e x i b i l i t y and a d a p t a b i l i t y to i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y s t u d i e s i s an i m p l i c i t f e a t u r e of the methodology. These are a l s o fundamental c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the t ime framework f o r the methodology, which can be adapted to both shor t and e x t e n s i v e pe r iods of s tudy . 4. C o n s i d e r a t i o n s f o r teacher -g rowth are as i m p l i c i t to the methodology as s t u d e n t - g r o w t h . J o i n t d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g , i n v e s t i g a t i v e , and e v a l u a t i v e procedures are i n c l u d e d to p rov ide c o n d i t i o n s f o r new i n s i g h t s to be gained by both students and teachers on an o n - g o i n g b a s i s . 5. The methodology i s designed t o : - p rov ide an avenue f o r the development of p r i d e f o r c h i l d r e n s 1 own c u l t u r a l h e r i t a g e , w h i l e a t the same t ime p r o v i d i n g a v i a b l e a r t educat ion f o r a m u l t i c u l t u r a l s o c i e t y . - p l a c e major emphasis on the why of a r t — t h r o u g h comparat ive i n v e s t i g a t i o n s t h a t focus on both micro and macro themes. In t h i s manner, a r t educat ion can he lp s tudents to uncover the u n d e r l y i n g s t r u c t u r e s of s o c i e t i e s and he lp them to draw connect ions between a r t and l i f e . : 6. The study i s designed to he lp s tudents come to terms w i t h the o n t o l o g i c a l q u e s t i o n s : (a) where have I come from?, (b) who am I ? , and (c) where can I go? By hav ing t h i s conceptua l base , the program can p rov ide m o t i v a t i o n f o r p e r -s o n a l growth (see Footnote 1 ) . 7. The methodology i s designed t o : - expand the meaning and s i g n i f i c a n c e of the 18 "production" component of the program by enabling students to consider the underlying meanings and purposes related to production. - provide a framework for equipping students with "rudimentary instruments and s k i l l s for reading the codes and signals of other s o c i e t i e s " (Smith, Note 1). Among these would be both c r i t i c a l and perceptual s k i l l s . - allow for the use of hermeneutics, semiotic inquiry, and the study of meaning. The use and refinement of i n t e r p r e t i v e s k i l l s would provide the student with an essential tool that could be applied to other world-oriented interactions. 8. The methodology i s designed to encourage the oppor-tunity to see the i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p of things. It provides the means for drawing "attention to the interrelatedness of elements within a whole" and provides the students with a way "to make sense of the world" (Eisner, 1972, p. 281). By encouraging t h i s process the art education program could help to "develop the s e n s i b i l i t y necessary for human concern" (p. 281). 9. The methodology provides an avenue for the develop-ment of mu l t i c u l t u r a l competencies which should include the essential knowledge and s k i l l s needed for e f f e c t i v e function-ing within the complex s o c i e t i e s of the present and future world. At the same time, t h i s type of program provides for the incorporation of concepts related to an e t h i c a l r a t i o n -a l i t y designed to increase the students' "response-ability" 19 i n the world (Huebner, 1975a, pp. 229-231). 10. The procedures within the methodology are designed to provide a framework which could be used even beyond c l a s s -room a p p l i c a t i o n s — t o provide the students, as children and eventually as adults, with the means to continue both t h e i r a r t i s t i c and c u l t u r a l learnings throughout the rest of t h e i r l i v e s . In essence, t h i s might f a l l within what Eisner (1972) c a l l s "boundary pushing", the a b i l i t y to a t t a i n the possible by "extending or redefining the l i m i t s of common objectives" (p. 217). 11. The emphasis i s placed on q u a l i t a t i v e inquiry since these forms of inquiry "have the potential to help individuals secure a f e e l for the r e a l i t y they are trying to understand. To be able to put yourself i n the place of another i s c r u c i a l for understanding how others f e e l " (Eisner, 1978, p. 202). Implicit i n t h i s type of inquiry i s Bernstein's (1971) notion of unfreezing the structuring of knowing and changing the boundaries of consciousness, (p. 67) Broudy (1979) comments that " i n a world where images displace r e a l i t y , i t becomes of paramount importance to know which i s which. In a world of choice and action, i t becomes important to seek the truth" (p. 350). The methodology pro-vided within t h i s thesis i s intended to help both students and teachers i n that search. In Broudy's words: "The impor-tant matter for the cause of arts education i s whether or not the school can help students become sensitive and sel e c t i v e i n t h e i r transaction with imagery both i n i t s r e l a t i o n to the world of fact and to the human r e a l i t y " (p. 34 0). 20 I d e n t i f i e d i n Chapter 2 are some of the many r e a l i t i e s of t h i s world. I t i s hoped that the procedures presented within t h i s thesis w i l l help to increase awareness of these r e a l i t i e s and of th e i r implications or influences. Assumptions and Delimitations The nature of the assumptions and delimitations i n t e -g r a l to this thesis centre on two major areas: those which relate to the school setting and those which r e l a t e to the nature of ar t . In terms of the school se t t i n g , the following assump-tions are made: 1. The t r a d i t i o n a l "school art s t y l e " , as assessed by Efland (1976) and as characterized by Eisner (1972, p. 23-27), i s , indeed, as overt and manifest as has been sugges-ted, and i s s t i l l as current as when i n i t i a l l y analysed. 2. Given the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the t r a d i t i o n a l "school art s t y l e " , with i t s emphasis on production and i t s neglect of the c u l t u r a l / h i s t o r i c a l and c r i t i c a l aspects of a r t , i t might be assumed that one of i t s major goals has been, and s t i l l i s , to i n s t i l l i n students the aspiration to continue production i n the future, either as a f u l l time pursuit or as a l e i s u r e a c t i v i t y . The emphasis on " o r i g i n a l i t y " and personal significance i s very strong. Feldman (1970) sub-mits the following observation: Art c u r r i c u l a are sub s t a n t i a l l y confined to the study and practice of the "f i n e " arts (architecture excluded) 21 and the c r a f t s . Even where the s o - c a l l e d u s e f u l a r t s , or c r a f t s , are p r a c t i c e d , emphasis i s f r e q u e n t l y - o n the a r i s t o c r a t i c v i r t u e of unique possess ion . . . . a r t o b j e c t s are s t i l l c r e a t e d and examined as i f they were avatars of s t a t u s f o r t h e i r possessors . . . . The p r i v a t e and p e r s o n a l va lues of a r t are s t r e s s e d out of p r o p o r t i o n to t h e i r h e a l t h y re levance to the s o c i a l dimensions of . . . l i f e . (p. 21) The assumption u n d e r l y i n g t h i s t h e s i s i s t h a t by p l a c i n g the emphasis on c u l t u r a l and c r i t i c a l l e a r n i n g s , w i t h p roduc -t i o n be ing i n t e r r e l a t e d , the s tudents w i l l have the o p p o r t u -n i t y to develop s k i l l s which w i l l be i n h e r e n t l y f a r more v i a b l e , i n terms of deve lop ing c r i t i c a l consc iousness than an emphasis on p r o d u c t i o n s k i l l s a l o n e . Th is change would be p a r t i c u l a r l y s i g n i f i c a n t f o r those s tudents who tend to f e e l i n t i m i d a t e d by the demands p l a c e d upon them by the p r o d u c t i o n emphasis , and whose subsequent f e e l i n g s of inadequacy r e s u l t from both consc ious and subconscious comparisons of p roduc -t i o n r e s u l t s . 3. Very few t e a c h e r s , e i t h e r g e n e r a l i s t s or a r t s p e -c i a l i s t s , are f u l l y aware of the l i m i t a t i o n s of the " s c h o o l a r t s t y l e " . However, i t i s assumed t h a t many t e a c h e r s , e s p e c i a l l y those work ing i n Canada's major urban c e n t r e s , would have some awareness of the m u l t i c u l t u r a l nature of s o c i e t y and the i m p l i c a t i o n s of t h i s r e a l i t y i n terms of e d u c a t i o n a l requ i rements . I t i s t h e r e f o r e assumed t h a t some of them would be w i l l i n g to c o n s i d e r implementing a methodo-logy which would h e l p to i n c r e a s e c u l t u r a l / a r t i s t i c awareness f o r both students and t e a c h e r s . In terms of the nature o f a r t , and the method by which i t can be s t u d i e d i n a r t educa t i o n programs, the f o l l o w i n g assumptions are made: 1. Despite i t s d i f f e r e n t forms a r t serves e s s e n t i a l l y the same f u n c t i o n s w i t h i n a l l c u l t u r e s . The v a l i d i t y o f t h i s a s s e r t i o n i s confirmed elsewhere by two major i n v e s t i -g a t i o n s conducted by t h i s r e s e a r c h e r (see Andrews, Notes 2 & 3) :. Both the commonalities of f u n c t i o n and the v a r i a t i o n s of form among the v i s u a l a r t s would p r o v i d e enough p o i n t s of departure- to f a c i l i t a t e e i t h e r a broad-based approach (breadth) or a more i n t e n s i v e approach (depth) to the study of a p a r t i c u l a r s u b j e c t or theme. 2. Not a l l e t h n i c groups d i s p l a y an equal dominance of v i s u a l a r t s . Other a r t forms such as music or dance may take precedence w i t h i n c e r t a i n c u l t u r a l groups. T h i s would have some b e a r i n g on the approach used f o r p a r t i c u l a r s t u d i e s . 3. A r t p r o v i d e s a major avenue f o r m a i n t a i n i n g , t r a n s -m i t t i n g , and changing the c u l t u r e , and i s t h e r e f o r e a v i a b l e and important f o c a l p o i n t f o r e d u c a t i o n a l p u r s u i t s . 4. The scope of p o s s i b i l i t i e s open f o r study w i t h i n the a r t c u r r i c u l u m should i n c l u d e the popular, v e r n a c u l a r , f o l k , and environmental a r t s , i n c l u d i n g a r c h i t e c t u r e , r a t h e r than j u s t the " e l i t e " or " c l a s s i c a l / f o r m a l " forms o f . a r t . T h i s i n c l u s i v e scope makes a v a i l a b l e f o r study s u b j e c t s t h a t w i l l r e f l e c t as many aspects as p o s s i b l e of the c u l t u r e s t h a t produce them—so t h a t the study of the "why" of a r t w i l l more deeply r e f l e c t the va lues and mot ives inherent w i t h i n those c u l t u r a l frameworks. 5. The most important focus f o r the program should r e l a t e to i n s i g h t s t h a t on l y a r t can p r o v i d e . The a r t p r o -gram should not be used p r i m a r i l y to achieve o the r ends, a l though other g o a l s , such as i n c r e a s i n g p r i d e i n one 's h e r i t a g e , would h o p e f u l l y be ach ieved c o n c u r r e n t l y w i t h the a r t i s t i c g o a l s . Apar t from the d e l i m i t a t i o n s which are apparent from the framework se t by the assumpt ions , and the i n i t i a l d e l i m i t a -t i o n i d e n t i f i e d i n the f i r s t s e c t i o n , the f o l l o w i n g are a l s o i n t e g r a l to the s t r u c t u r e of t h i s s tudy : 1 . I t has been suggested t h a t , a long w i t h a c t u a l a r t i -f a c t s , many s o r t s of i n f o r m a t i o n should be cons idered i n the study of a r t : " the p s y c h o l o g i c a l , c o g n i t i v e , and methodolo -g i c a l , as w e l l as those concerned w i t h the c r e a t i v i t y of the a r t i s t and the t o t a l process of a r t i n a g i ven c u l t u r e " (Chalmers, 1978, p. 2 4 ) . T h i s study does not presume t o a t tend to all of those a s p e c t s , but i n s t e a d focuses p r i m a r i l y on methodologies p rov ided by s o c i o l o g i s t s and a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s as they apply these processes to the study of the a r t i f a c t . . In Chapter 4 recommendations are o f f e r e d r e g a r d i n g the range of r e l a t e d f a c t o r s r e q u i r i n g f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h and d e v e l o p -ment. 2. The processes and concepts i n v o l v e d w i t h i n the des ign of t h i s study are se t up p r i m a r i l y w i t h the elementary s c h o o l c lassroom i n mind. However, the procedures cou ld e a s i l y be a p p l i e d to ah a r t c u r r i c u l u m at the secondary schoo l l e v e l as w e l l . A l though the a s s o c i a t i o n s underp inn ing the e lemen-t a r y schoo l emphasis stem from the nature and needs of the B.C. l o c a l e , the methodology i s designed so t h a t i t has the p o t e n t i a l f o r much wider usage. One f i n a l assumption should be no ted . H a l l (1976) comments t h a t one cannot assume " t h a t an o u t s i d e r c a n , w i t h i n a matter of months or even y e a r s , adequately unders tand , e x p l a i n , or d e s c r i b e a f o r e i g n c u l t u r e ; and t h a t he can t ranscend h i s own c u l t u r e " (p. 221) . In o ther words a t t a i n -i n g " c u l t u r a l competency" i s not a qu ick and easy t a s k . I t r e q u i r e s d i l i g e n t and c o n s i s t e n t e f f o r t . For t h i s r e a s o n , a focus f o r cont inuous l e a r n i n g over a s p i r a l c u r r i c u l u m format i s p rov ided i n Chapter 3 . A t the same t i m e , such l e a r n i n g r e q u i r e s t h a t c l o s e s c r u t i n y be g i ven to one 's own c u l t u r e . As H a l l p o i n t s o u t : One cannot normal l y t ranscend one 's own c u l t u r e w i t h -out f i r s t exposing i t s major h idden axioms and unsta ted assumptions concern ing what l i f e i s a l l about - how i t i s l i v e d , v iewed, a n a l y z e d , t a l k e d about , d e s c r i b e d , and changed . . . . The task i s f a r from s i m p l e , ye t understanding o u r s e l v e s and the wor ld we have c rea ted . . . i s perhaps the s i n g l e most important task f a c i n g mankind today , (p. 222) In t h i s p u r s u i t , a r t educat ion must begin to r e v e a l i t s p o t e n t i a l f o r p r o v i d i n g unique i n s i g h t s i n t o c u l t u r e and l i f e . 25 D e f i n i t i o n o f Terms , For the purposes of t h i s study s p e c i f i c d e f i n i t i o n s w i l l apply. These are l i s t e d as f o l l o w s : 1. A r t - Art as r e f e r r e d to i n t h i s t h e s i s i s c o n s i -dered to i n c l u d e a l l those a r t forms l i s t e d i n t h i s s e c t i o n . I t i s a l s o c o n s i d e r e d i n terms of i t s a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l and s o c i o l o g i c a l d e f i n i t i o n . Hunter and Whitten ( 1 9 7 6 ) suggest t h a t the d e f i n i t i o n of a r t "must be broad enough t o be used c r o s s - c u l t u r a l l y f o r comparison, but must a l s o take indigenous c a t e g o r i e s of a r t and a e s t h e t i c s i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n " (p. 2 0 ) . Of a l l the d e f i n i t i o n s reviewed, the f o l l o w i n g seem to f i t the above c r i t e r i a : - A r t r e s u l t s "when a c r e a t i v e i n d i v i d u a l g i v e s to c u l t u r a l v a l u e s a p e r s o n a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i n matter, movement or sound of such a nature t h a t the forms which r e s u l t . . . comply w i t h standards of beauty v a l i d i n h i s s o c i e t y " (Gerbrands, 1 9 5 7 , p. 1 3 9 ) . - " A r t . . . i s the c r e a t i o n . . . of p u b l i c o b j e c t s or events which serve as d e l i b e r a t e l y o r g a n i z e d s e t s of c o n d i t i o n s f o r experience i n the q u a l i t a t i v e mode" ( M i l l s , 1 9 7 1 , p. 9 0 ) . D'Azevedo, 1 9 5 8 , p r e s e n t s a very s i m i l a r d e f i n i t i o n . Anderson ( 1 9 7 9 ) o n l y p a r t i a l l y agrees with M i l l s ' and d'Azevedo's d e f i n i t i o n s , and f e e l s t h a t a "working d e f i n i -t i o n " should be adopted t h a t c o n s i d e r s a r t as " t h a t area o f 26 human a c t i v i t y in which v i r t u o s i t y may be developed to a p a r t i c u l a r l y high l e v e l by some in d i v i d u a l s " (p. 196). I t should be emphasized that these i n i t i a l d e f i n i t i o n s of art r e f l e c t the "Western" view that "art" i s something that can be i s o l a t e d and examined. However, t h i s i s not an all-encompassing world view. Highwater (Note 4) explains, for example, the view of art t r a d i t i o n a l l y held by Native Americans: "Art i s the central core of the Native American experience. For the Native American, everything i s art. L i f e i s art; death i s art; and everything that we create i s some sort of art form". Other world-views are examined i n Chapter 2. Within th i s thesis a l l of these perspectives are considered under the conception of "art". 2. Art forms - Because of t h e i r i m p l i c i t r e l a t i o n s h i p to t h i s study the following c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s are worthy of notation: (a) Fine arts (or formal, major, or " k l i t e " arts) - An i n t e l l e c t u a l expression (eg. as i n paint-ing or sculpture) related more to the emotions than to u t i l i -t a rian purposes. This type of art i s r i c h i n formal values and formal meanings. Jenkins (1958) explains the essence of th i s type of art as follows: In formal art . . . . the a r t i s t composes a work that conveys i t s content lar g e l y by the structuring of sensuous-emotional materials and with a minimum of reliance on either a r b i t r a r y or t r a d i t i o n a l symbols, thus making i t r e l a t i v e l y independent of e x p l i c i t r e f e r e n c e s to our accumulated e x p e r i e n c e , (p. 285) (b) Applied arts Cor c r a f t s ) - A r t forms u s u a l l y hav ing u t i l i t a r i a n v a l u e . (c) Folk arts - A r t forms e x p r e s s i v e of the common p e o p l e , o f t e n s e l f - t a u g h t . These are h a n d c r a f t s c rea ted f o r u t i l i -t a r i a n , s y m b o l i c , o r d e c o r a t i v e purposes . F o l k a r t s have r o o t s i n l o c a l or e t h n i c t r a d i t i o n s and they u s u a l l y d i s p l a y g reat v i t a l i t y . (d) Environmental art - Focuses to a l a r g e ex tent on a r c h i t e c t u r e and the b u i l t environment. I t r e f l e c t s c u l t u r a l i n f l u e n c e s as w e l l as the a t t i t u d e s and a c t i v i t i e s of the immediate s u r -roundings . (e) Popular art - T y p i f i e d by forms t h a t are mass produced f o r l a r g e aud iences . Such forms i n c l u d e comic books , p o s t e r s , and movies . (f) Vernacular arts - A broad term used to d e s c r i b e the wide v a r i -ety of v i s u a l forms i n s o c i e t y "used t o shape v a l u e s , to i n f l u e n c e a s p i r a t i o n s , and i n g e n e r a l to mot i vate people to do or not do c e r t a i n t h i n g s " ( E i s n e r , 1979, p. 8 9 ) . As E i s n e r e x p l a i n s : " the des ign of shopping c e n t e r s , the forms of the d i s p l a y s t h a t are c r e a t e d , the k inds of images t h a t are shown i n the mass media . . . [ these] are the "h idden 28 persuaders" i n our culture" (p. 89). Cg) Tourist arts - Arts created with a p r o f i t motive, to s a t i s f y t o u r i s t demands. These arts "may bear l i t t l e r e l a t i o n to the t r a d i t i o n a l arts of the creator culture" (Graburn, 1976, p. 6) . 3. Aspects of a r t i s t i c learning - The following three aspects comprise what i s considered i n thi s thesis to be the int e r r e l a t e d components of art education. Therefore, when "art education" i s mentioned, i t w i l l refer to these three elements i n combination. (a) Cultural - The aspect of the perception of works of art which draws upon a comprehension of the re l a t i o n s h i p between art and l i f e . These works are produced by human beings who l i f e i n cultures, and "these cultures have available to them samples of previous a r t i s t s ' e f f o r t s " (Eisner, 1972, p. 111). In this regard, both h i s t o r i c a l and contemporary art forms can receive attention. (b) C r i t i c a l - That realm which develops "the a b i l i t i e s which enable the c h i l d to enjoy and experience . . . works of art" (Eisner, 1972, p. 106). The c r i t i c a l realm focuses on talk about art and uses s k i l l s associated with hermeneu-t i c s , the art of inter p r e t a t i o n . (c) Productive - Those aspects of a r t i s t i c learning which d e a l w i t h how one l e a r n s t o draw, p a i n t , s c u l p t , e t c . T h i s i n c l u d e s the l e a r n i n g and r e f i n i n g o f s k i l l s needed to pro-duce a r t forms. 4. A n t h r o p o l o g i c a l / s o c i o l o g i c a l terms (a) Anthropology and i t s subdivisions - As a comprehensive study of man, anthropology would be d i f f i c u l t to d e a l w i t h i f i t was not broken down i n t o more manageable components. Of i n t e r e s t to t h i s study are the s o c i o - c u l t u r a l aspects which c o n t a i n two major con-s t i t u e n t s : ethnography and ethnology. Winick (1956) s t a t e s t h a t ethnography i s " p r i m a r i l y a d e s c r i p t i v e and n o n i n t e r -p r e t i v e study" (p. 193) . Ethnology i s " o f t e n c a l l e d c u l t u r a l anthropology" and i s d e f i n e d by Winick as "the study of c u l -t u r e on a comparative b a s i s " (p. 193) . Ethnography, then, e s s e n t i a l l y p r o v i d e s the f i e l d w o r k f o r ethnology. Both of these processes are used i n the model presented i n t h i s t h e s i s . (b) Sociology - A c c o r d i n g t o Banks (1975), " s o c i o l o g y i s p r i m a r i l y concerned w i t h the process by which people become human" (p. 81 ) . An assumption i s t h a t "people a c q u i r e human t r a i t s and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o n l y by i n t e r a c t i n g w i t h the human group" (p. 81) . A s o c i o l o g i c a l approach to a r t , t h e r e -f o r e would focus on the connections between a r t and group l i f e . B a r n e t t (1959) suggests t h a t the value o f a s o c i o l o -g i c a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f a r t l i e s i n i t s p o t e n t i a l f o r i n c r e a s -i n g man's understanding of s o c i a l communication, s o c i a l 30 structure, and c u l t u r a l change, (c) Culture - Gordon (1978) provides the following expla-nations : Culture "refers to the s o c i a l heritage of man -the ways of acting and the ways of doing things which are passed down from one generation to the next, not by genetic inheritance but by formal and informal methods of teaching and demonstration" (p. 115). A culture i s a group of people having a s p e c i f i c concept of r e a l i t y , components of which include b e l i e f s , behaviour patterns, values, attitudes, symbols, and material objects. Put simply, culture could be described as a pattern of l i v i n g : "a way of looking at the world" (Highwater, Note 4 ) . A "culturally-based art curriculum" has as i t s focus the a r t i s t i c a r t i f a c t s and philosophies which relate to man's so c i a l heritage. The a r t i f a c t s cannot be addressed i n i s o -l a t i o n . They must be related to the values, a t t i t u d e s , and behaviours that produced them. (Blue, 1978) 5. Terms r e l a t i n g to "culture" (a) Cultural r e l a t i v i s m refers to the idea that values, behaviour, and a l l other aspects of the culture must be viewed within the framework of the culture, rather than seen i n comparison with values of other cultures. (b) frequently occuring at a subconscious l e v e l , eth.nooentrism i s the assumption that one's own culture " i s superior i n every respect . . . to a l l other cultures" (Havi-land, 1978, p. 4201. 31 (c)„ C l o s e l y r e l a t e d to e t h n o c e n t r i s m , but concerned more w i t h p e r c e p t i o n , i s ••phenomenal absolutism, Th is r e l a t e s to the f a c t t h a t the observer "assumes t h a t the wor ld i s e x a c t l y as he sees i t . He accepts the ev idence of p e r c e p t i o n u n c r i t i c a l l y . He does not recogn i ze t h a t h i s v i s u a l p e r c e p -t i o n i s mediated by i n d i r e c t i n f e r e n c e systems" ( S e g a l l , Campbell & H e r s k o v i t s , 1966, p. 5 ) . (d) Geertz (1973) d e f i n e s a c u l t u r e ' s ethos as " the t o n e , c h a r a c t e r , and q u a l i t y of t h e i r l i f e , i t s moral and a e s t h e t i c s t y l e and mood; i t i s the u n d e r l y i n g a t t i t u d e toward themselves and t h e i r wor ld t h a t l i f e r e f l e c t s " (p. 127) . Newman (1970) summarizes t h i s by s a y i n g . that ethos r e f e r s to the emot iona l aspects o f a c u l t u r e , i n c o n t r a s t to the eidos or c o g n i t i v e framework of the c u l t u r e . He submits t h a t the a r t s p rov ide a method of communication which encompasses both the ethos and e idos of the c u l t u r e . (e) Etio and emio are two terms which have become popular i n a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l l i t e r a t u r e . Jones (19 79) p r o -v ides the f o l l o w i n g e x p l a n a t i o n : The e t i c approach looks a t behav ior from the o u t s i d e f o r the purpose of comparing c u l t u r e s . O b j e c t i v e o b s e r v a t i o n i s the method of study . . . The emic approach . . . attempts to d i s c o v e r how a system looks from the i n s i d e , so o r d i n a r i l y on ly one c u l t u r e i s s t u d i e d at a t ime and comparison i s not a matter o f immediate i n t e r e s t . The c a t e g o r i e s and r u l e s of beha -v i o r are d e r i v e d from the u s e r ' s p o i n t of v iew. (p. 57) 32 The methodology p rov ided i n t h i s t h e s i s can f a c i l i t a t e e i t h e r one of these approaches. 6. M u l t i c u l t u r a l terms Ca) Enculturation - a process whereby man " a c q u i r e s the c u l t u r e i n t o which he i s born" ( S e g a l l , Campbel l , & H e r s -k o v i t s , 1966, p. 10 ) . (b) Differential acculturation (or b i c u l t u r a t i o n ) - "a process whereby members of an e t h n i c group become aware of customs p r a c t i c e d i n the sur round ing s o c i e t y but borrow on l y t r a i t s immediate ly r e l e v a n t to t h e i r i n t e r -e s t s " (Honigmann, 1976, p. 350) . (c) Acculturation - when two d i f f e r e n t e t h n i c groups exchange c u l t u r a l elements and complexes - " A c c u l t u -r a t i o n proceeds i n both d i r e c t i o n s when two s o c i e t i e s are i n any k i n d of c o n t a c t " (Banks, 1975, p. 5 7 ) . (d) Cultural assimilation - the " n e a r - t o t a l a b s o r p -t i o n of one group i n t o the va lues and i n s t i t u t i o n a l p a t t e r n s of another , e i t h e r v o l u n t a r i l y or by f o r c e " (Fuse, 1977, p. 12) . (d) Society - has been d e f i n e d as "a group of people occupy ing a s p e c i f i c l o c a l i t y who are dependent on each o ther f o r s u r v i v a l " (Hav i land , 1978, p. 4 ) . C u l t u r e i s shared by members of s o c i e t y through the r e l a t i o n s h i p s of s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n . However, s o c i e t i e s encompass sub -c u l t u r a l v a r i a t i o n s . One aspect of t h i s i s shown i n the f o l l o w i n g d e f i n i t i o n . 33 (e) Cultural pluralism - " cons idered to be the e x i s t e n c e of more than one form of common t r a d i t i o n s , h i s t o -r i e s , and c u l t u r a l t i e s " w i t h i n a s o c i e t y . " C u l t u r a l p l u -r a l i s m encompasses the c o n c e p t s , h a b i t s , s k i l l s , a r t s , ins t ruments and i n s t i t u t i o n s of more than one group of people" ( F o l i o , 1977, p. 326). ' In terms of e d u c a t i o n , a c a u t i o n a r y note i s p rov ided by the N a t i o n a l C o u n c i l f o r the S o c i a l S tud ies (NCSS) Task Force on E t h n i c S tud ies C u r r i c u l u m G u i d e l i n e s (1976). They suggest t h a t an e d u c a t i o n a l program t h a t attempts t o d e a l w i t h the c u l t u r a l c o n t r i b u t i o n s of all groups w i t h i n a s o c i e t y would be encompassing too broad a scope to be e f f e c -t i v e . Rather , a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s e l e c t i o n of e t h n i c p l u r a l i s m should be used as a study base . (f) Ethnic group - " i n c l u d e s people who share a common h e r i t a g e , a n c e s t r y , and sense of b e l o n g i n g t o g e t h e r . These c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s are r e f l e c t e d i n groups such as Greeks , S c o t s , Amish , Ch inese , and U k r a i n i a n s " (Wood, 1978, p. 2 ) . An e t h n i c group w i t h i n the boundar ies of a l a r g e r s o c i e t y may be " s e t o f f by r a c e , r e l i g i o n , o r n a t i o n a l o r i g i n , or some combinat ion of these c a t e g o r i e s " (Gordon, 1978, pp. 110-111) . An e t h n i c m i n o r i t y group f r e q u e n t l y i s d e f i n e d as be ing accorded unequal t reatment and o p p o r t u n i t i e s (Wood, p. 9) . (g) E t h n i c i t y - r e f e r s to " m u l t i c u l t u r a l , m u l t i -e t h n i c i n t e r a c t i v e contex ts i n which a t t e n t i o n i s focused on an e n t i t y — the e t h n i c group — which i s marked by some degree 34 of c u l t u r a l and s o c i a l commonality" (Cohen, 1978, p. 386) . (h) Cultural .diversity - " the c o n d i t i o n of wide d i v e r s i t y and d i f f e r e n c e s w i t h i n and among e t h n i c groups. Such f a c t o r s as s o c i a l c l a s s , o c c u p a t i o n , and l i f e s t y l e s a f f e c t c u l t u r a l d i v e r s i t y " (K ing , 1977, p. 1 5 ) . ( i ) Values - " those elements w i t h i n a c u l t u r e to which i n d i v i d u a l s and groups a t t a c h a h igh worth" (Banks, 1975, p. 84) . (j) Multiculturalism - compr is ing or p e r t a i n i n g to more than one c u l t u r a l or e t h n i c group. Multicultural education i s " the process whereby a person develops compe-t e n c i e s i n m u l t i p l e systems of s tandards f o r p e r c e i v i n g , e v a l u a t i n g , b e l i e v i n g , and do ing" (Gibson, 1976b, p. 1 6 ) . 7. Cu r r i cu lum-based terms (a) Curriculum - Def ined b r o a d l y , c u r r i c u l u m i n c l u d e s "what i s taught i n schoo ls . . . how i t i s taught . 1. . and the techniques used to eva lua te what i s taught" .{.Curriculum Planning, 1979, p. 1 ) . (b) Curriculum orientations - Terminology d e s i g n a t -i n g the meaning and scope of each o r i e n t a t i o n i s o u t l i n e d i n Chapter 2. (c) Types of curriculum - Terms are d e f i n e d i n Chapter 2. 8. Forms of i n q u i r y (a) Quantitative inquiry - s c i e n t i f i c i n approach. Th is type of i n q u i r y u s u a l l y f u n c t i o n s w i t h i n an ends-means format . I t i n c l u d e s such procedures as demographic d e s c r i p -t i o n s , s o c i a l survey r e s e a r c h , content a n a l y s i s , exper imenta l l a b o r a t o r y t e c h n i q u e s , and s t a t i s t i c a l techn iques (Dr iedger , 1978) . Such s c i e n t i f i c approaches have t r a d i t i o n a l l y p layed a dominant r o l e i n e d u c a t i o n a l i n q u i r y . (b) Q u a l i t a t i v e inquiry - an open-ended, f l e x i b l e approach which uses n a t u r a l i s t i c i n q u i r y t e c h n i q u e s , o f t e n stemming from anthropo logy . I t employs i n v e s t i g a t i v e s t r a t e -g i e s t o uncover as many f a c e t s of a g iven phenomenon as p o s s i b l e , e s s e n t i a l l y seek ing h o l i s t i c v i e w s . Q u a l i t a t i v e methods i n c l u d e the h i s t o r i c a l approach, ethnography, the community s tudy , and comparat ive s t u d i e s , which can be both q u a l i t a t i v e and q u a n t i t a t i v e (Dr iedger , 19 78 ) . Q u a l i t a t i v e i n q u i r y i s becoming recogn ized as a v i a b l e a l t e r n a t i v e to s c i e n t i f i c paradigms. I t ho lds g reat p o t e n t i a l f o r humanis-t i c i n v e s t i g a t i o n and c u r r i c u l u m des ign ( E i s n e r , 1979; Guba, 1978; P i n a r , 1974 & 1975) . Summary The terms t h a t have been p rov ided i n t h i s s e c t i o n have been i n c l u d e d f o r three r e a s o n s : (a) they p rov ide a work ing vocabulary s i g n i f i c a n t to the t h e s i s and to any study i n c o r -p o r a t i n g c u l t u r a l elements i n a r t e d u c a t i o n , (b) they h e l p to p rov ide f u r t h e r d e l i m i t a t i o n s f o r the s tudy , and (c) they can be used as a resource r e f e r e n c e i n terms of f o c a l p o i n t s f o r i n v e s t i g a t i o n , as demonstrated i n the methodology i n Chapter 3 . 36 Design of the Study Th is i n t r o d u c t o r y chapter has p rov ided an overv iew of the r a t i o n a l e , s i g n i f i c a n t needs, major i s s u e s , important terms and fundamental problems which comprise the foundat ion f o r t h i s s tudy . Chapter 2 i n c o r p o r a t e s a rev iew of l i t e r a t u r e f o c u s i n g on the major conceptua l s t rands which i n t e r r e l a t e to p rov ide the p h i l o s o p h i c a l and s t r u c t u r a l g u i d e l i n e s f o r the methodo-logy presented i n Chapter 3. Th is methodology p rov ides a p r o c e d u r a l format f o r t e a c h i n g - l e a r n i n g s t r a t e g i e s f o r a c u l t u r a l l y - b a s e d a r t educat ion program f o r elementary g rades . Each component and d e c i s i o n l e v e l i s e x p l a i n e d , and re fe rence c h a r t s are i n c l u d e d to summarize the scope, sequences and p r o c e d u r a l cho ices a v a i l a b l e . F i n a l l y , the a p p l i c a t i o n of the use of the methodology i s demonstrated through a sample s tudy . In the f i n a l chapter i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r the use of the methodology are examined, f u t u r e needs are e x p l i c a t e d , and recommendations are p r o v i d e d . 37 Chapter 2 REVIEW OF LITERATURE Th is chapter i n c o r p o r a t e s a rev iew of l i t e r a t u r e r e l a t e d to s i x major f i e l d s : an th ropo logy , s o c i o l o g y , m u l t i c u l t u r a l i s m and e d u c a t i o n , c u r r i c u l u m , c u l t u r a l w o r l d - p e r s p e c t i v e s , and a r t e d u c a t i o n . Each of these areas has been examined i n d e -pendent l y . However, as i s e x p l a i n e d i n the chapter summary, many aspects of these f i e l d s work together to comprise the t h e o r e t i c a l foundat ion f o r the methodology presented i n Chapter 3 . Anthropology and S o c i o l o g y In t h i s rev iew the f i e l d s of anthropology and s o c i o l o g y are cons idered both s e p a r a t e l y and together s i n c e both f i e l d s can p rov ide i n s i g h t s i n t o ways of l o o k i n g a t a r t . Of p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t to t h i s study are those a n t h r o p o l o -g i c a l and s o c i o l o g i c a l p rocesses which might be adaptable to c lassroom procedures . Th is rev iew i n c l u d e s a b r i e f c o n -c e p t u a l framework, a summary of major c o n s t r u c t s , and s p e c i -f i c approaches to the study of a r t . S i g n i f i c a n t d e f i n i t i o n s r e l a t i n g to anthropo logy , s o c i o l o g y , c u l t u r e , and a r t have a l ready been presented i n Chapter 1 . Conceptual Framework: Overview Anthropo logy . Anderson (1979) p o i n t s out t h a t a n t h r o -pology has a tw in g o a l : " I t d e s c r i b e s . . . w i d e l y d i v e r s e 38 s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l systems . . . and i t a l s o attempts to d i s c o v e r r e g u l a r i t i e s of p a t t e r n t h a t occur i n t h i s d i v e r -s i t y " (p. 195) . The a r t s i n anthropo logy , a c c o r d i n g to Merr iam (.1971), have been t r a d i t i o n a l l y viewed as p r o d u c t s , separated from c u l t u r a l c o n t e x t . He submits t h a t a l though anthropology seeks d e s c r i p t i v e f a c t s , i t i s of g r e a t e r impor -tance to seek the reasons t h a t l i e behind the f a c t s . Thus, s t u d i e s must be conducted which w i l l l ead "toward an under -s tand ing of the how and why of human behav io r " (p. 9 8 ) . In h i s i n t r o d u c t i o n to C o l l i e r ' s Visual Anthropology (1967), S p i n d l e r notes t h a t , i n the s i m p l e s t te rms , a n t h r o -p o l o g i c a l processes i n v o l v e " g a t h e r i n g , o r d e r i n g , and i n t e r -p r e t i n g " d a t a . As F i r t h (1951) i n d i c a t e s , " a l l a r t i s com-posed i n a s o c i a l s e t t i n g ; i t has a c u l t u r a l content " (p. 162) . He proposes t h a t when the a n t h r o p o l o g i s t pursues the t a s k of i n t e r p r e t i n g the meaning of c u l t u r a l a r t i f a c t s , the s o c i a l c o r r e l a t e s must be c o n s i d e r e d . A l though the goa ls and b a s i c t a s k s of anthropology are important aspects of the f i e l d , the c o n t e x t u a l suggest ions p rov ided by Merr iam and F i r t h he lp to i d e n t i f y key c o n s i d e r -a t i o n s f o r the i n v e s t i g a t i o n of a r t . In t h i s l i g h t , Garba -r i n o (.1977) emphasizes the importance of the use of c r o s s -c u l t u r a l compar isons. He suggests t h a t such methods p rov ide i n f o r m a t i o n about human a l t e r n a t i v e s and he lp t o uncover new p e r s p e c t i v e s f o r v iew ing one ' s own s o c i e t y and va lues (p. 3 ) . S i m i l a r ideas can be seen w i t h i n s o c i o l o g i c a l c o n s t r u c t s . 39 S o c i o l o g y . Acco rd ing to Si lbermann (1968) the " s o c i o -logy of a r t " "has on l y r e c e n t l y won r e c o g n i t i o n as a branch of s c i e n c e . This d i s c i p l i n e i s "concerned w i t h c u l t u r a l spheres of i n f l u e n c e " and d i r e c t s i n q u i r y " i n t o those h i s t o -r i c a l f a c t s which are c o r r e l a t e d t o one another and to the progress of s o c i e t y " (p. 575) . As one of i t s t a s k s , S i l b e r -mann m a i n t a i n s , the s o c i o l o g y of a r t seeks to analyze and d e s c r i b e the f o r c e s i n v o l v e d . In h i s i n t r o d u c t i o n to Duvignaud's The Sociology of Art (1972), F l e t c h e r suggests t h a t Duvignaud would c l a i m t h a t " the r o l e of a r t , as an aspect of a wider i m a g i n a t i v e f u n c -t i o n , i s to connect man w i t h h i s d e s t i n y , which i s l i f e " (p. 16 ) . Th is comment may be a c c u r a t e l y r e f l e c t e d by D u v i g -naud's statement t h a t the s t a r t i n g p o i n t of a s o c i o l o g y of a r t " i s both a r e a l exper ience of c r e a t i v i t y and an e q u a l l y dynamic exper ience of a c t u a l l i f e w i t h i n s o c i e t y . The task of such a s o c i o l o g y of a r t would be to f i n d , w i thout be ing dogmatic or p e d a n t i c , the e x t e n t to which the imaginary i s rooted i n c o l l e c t i v e l i f e " (p. 21) . S i lbermann summarizes the aims of the s o c i o l o g y of a r t by beg inn ing w i t h the assumption t h a t each of the a r t s i s exper ienced w i t h i n "a cont inuous s o c i a l p r o c e s s , i n v o l v i n g i n t e r a c t i o n between the a r t i s t and h i s s o c i o - c u l t u r a l e n v i -ronment and r e s u l t i n g i n the c r e a t i o n of a work . . . which i s i n t u r n r e c e i v e d by the s o c i o - c u l t u r a l environment and r e a c t s upon i t " (.p. 585) . S i lbermann then emphasizes t h a t 40 the aims of the sociology of a r t involve the study of the a r t i s t , the work of art, and the public — and the i n t e r -action and interdependence of each. Major Constructs and Considerations Anthropology. In his overview of anthropological methods, Zaccari (1974) i d e n t i f i e s three major concepts used for developing a procedural framework. The f i r s t of these i s structuralism, which Zaccari summarizes as "a search to (1) find relationships between d i s t i n c t and d i f -ferent phenomena; (2) formulate these relationships i n systematic ways that can be examined, analysed, and under-stood; and (3) discover the o v e r a l l organization between parts and wholes" (p. 15). The second major concept i s functionalism, which focuses on the purposes, use or function of objects. Participant observation i s used as a primary means for systematically researching these aspects (Honigmann, 1976, p. 238). Structural-functional analysis, which incorporates aspects of the other two, involves recording data, organizing behaviours into categories, looking for consistent r e l a t i o n -ships, and ascertaining "the ways i n which the categories form an o v e r a l l system" (Zaccari, p. 21). Decisions r e l a t i n g to the selection of the most feas i b l e approach to use i n an investigation of art and culture would focus on the appropriateness of each of the three major con-cepts, as well as on other factors. Wolfe (1969) p o i n t s out t h a t a l though there are numerous v a r i a t i o n s i n d e f i n i t i o n s of a r t and c u l t u r e , a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s agree t h a t a r t i s a u n i v e r s a l aspect of c u l t u r e . However, i n h i s commentary on the meaning of a r t i n c o n t e x t , Honigmann (1963) i l l u m i n a t e s a b a s i c c o n s i d e r a t i o n : " A r t i s t w o f o l d . . . . To understand a r t i t i s w e l l to be c l e a r whether you are going to a t tend to process . . . or p roduct" (p. 217) . He a l s o notes tha t " the most d i f f i c u l t task i n s t u d y i n g any a r t i s gauging i t s e x i s t e n t i a l meaning" (p. 217) . These c o n s i d e r a t i o n s must be combined w i t h some of the o ther i m p l i -c i t i deas r e l a t e d t o p e r s p e c t i v e s of c u l t u r e . For example, many of the aspects d e f i n e d i n Chapter 1 such as ethnography, e thno logy , e t h n o c e n t r i s m , c u l t u r a l r e l a t i v i s m , and phenome-n a l a b s o l u t i s m h e l p to i l l u s t r a t e the many d i f f e r e n t v i e w -p o i n t s i n v o l v e d and emphasize the importance of s p e c i f y i n g the b a s i c purposes and framework f o r s tudy . The approach be ing advocated w i t h i n t h i s t h e s i s i s to p l a c e the s t r e s s on the why of a r t . Th is vantage p o i n t would p rov ide a major avenue f o r i n c r e a s i n g both our under -s tand ing of the f u n c t i o n s of a r t i n c u l t u r e and our o v e r a l l a p p r e c i a t i o n of the unique r e l a t i o n s h i p between a r t and l i f e w i t h i n p a r t i c u l a r s o c i e t i e s . The r e s e a r c h e r , i n a t t e n d i n g to the "why" q u e s t i o n , must be aware t h a t " a r t . . . i s always s i g n i f i c a n t e x p e r i -e n t i a l l y . Because i t occurs i n a l l c u l t u r e s we know any -t h i n g about , i t has i t s o r i g i n s i n p ro found ly human e x p e r i -ence" ( M i l l s , 1971, p. 9 2 ) . However, the r e s e a r c h e r must 42 never lose sight of the fac t that; each i n d i v i d u a l i s accustomed to seeing.-specific.forms of art, and i s trained to associate them with certain emotional or i n t e l l e c t u a l impressions i n keeping with the c u l t u r a l pattern of the society to which he belongs . . . . The foreign work of art belongs to a s p e c i f i c scheme of association which i s determined by i t s own c u l t u r a l pattern. We may consider, therefore, that before forming an opinion concerning a work of art from a culture which i s strange to us, i t i s only f a i r to begin by finding out and examining the association scheme connected with i t . (Gerbrands, 1957, pp. 2-3) It i s also important for the researcher to: be prepared for the fact that the v i s u a l arts w i l l include not only those media, such as woodcarving, ceramics, and two-dimensional painting, . . . but also media that have l i t t l e or no development i n the fine art t r a d i t i o n of the west: decoration of the human body, feather and q u i l l work, two-dimensional work i n sand, and so on - i n short, any tangible medium that may be altered through human manipulation to produce an object that one may see. (Anderson, 1979, p. 11) The scope, therefore, i s as broad as human experience. In order to begin narrowing the f i e l d i n terms of classroom study, certain influences can be considered. Halpin (1979, pp. 1-2) notes that "there i s an obvious pre-occupation i n our time with heritage and continuity, with people c r e a t i n g a sense of who they are i n terms of who they were, which i s a l s o a c e n t r a l p reoccupat ion of an th ropo logy" . The task i n v o l v e s " c u l t u r a l and a r t i s t i c decipherment t h a t can t r u l y be compared i n d i f f i c u l t y w i t h b r e a k i n g the w r i t -i n g codes of a n c i e n t and unknown languages" . S ince t h i s h e r i t a g e theme i s a t o p i c which has the p o t e n t i a l to r e l a t e d i r e c t l y to the c h i l d r e n i n the c l a s s r o o m , i t appears to be a l o g i c a l f o c a l p o i n t . Whatever the focus f o r the study of a r t i n c u l t u r e , i t i s e s s e n t i a l l y important t h a t a r t i f a c t s are not i s o l a t e d , but r a t h e r are examined w i t h i n the context o f the c u l t u r e . Honigmann (1963) p o s i t s t h a t t h i s r e q u i r e s answering two q u e s t i o n s : "What i s the purpose or meaning of t h i s behav io r or a r t i f a c t ? What are i t s f u n c t i o n s ? " (p. 9 ) . To f u r t h e r c l a r i f y the t a s k , Honigmann notes t h a t "the f u n c t i o n of any i tem of c u l t u r e i s whatever d i f f e r e n c e i t makes i n the whole realm o f l i f e be ing s t u d i e d " (p. 1 2 ) . In a recent study conducted by t h i s researcher (Andrews, Note 2 ) , v a r i o u s f u n c t i o n s of a r t were i d e n t i f i e d through a survey of a wide range of l i t e r a t u r e . These f u n c t i o n s were then c o o r d i n a t e d i n t o s p e c i f i c g roup ings . The survey showed tha t a d i s t i n c t i o n cou ld be made between p e r s o n a l and group f u n c t i o n s ( r e l a t i n g t o va lues and n e e d s ) . However, t o make the framework f o r the study more workab le , the f u n c t i o n s were grouped i n t o seven c a t e g o r i e s . These groupings helped to show t h a t a r t e s s e n t i a l l y f u n c t i o n s i n the f o l l o w i n g ways: 44 T- as appare l and p e r s o n a l adornment - i n the s e r v i c e of u t i l i t y and embel l ishment a t home and at work - i n the p u r s u i t of p l a y and l e i s u r e - f o r r i t u a l and c e l e b r a t i o n ( i n c l u d i n g r e l i g i o n ) - i n the s e r v i c e of p o l i t i c a l i d e o l o g i e s - towards economic and commercial ends - f o r group - f u n c t i o n s and a s s o c i a t i o n s ( i n c l u d i n g e d u c a t i o n , r e f l e c t i o n , and contemplat ion) A n t h r o p o l o g i c a l procedures f o c u s i n g on t o p i c s such as those i d e n t i f i e d above cou ld e a s i l y be adapted t o the c lassroom s e t t i n g . However, the s o c i a l contex t of these f u n c t i o n s i s a dominant f e a t u r e . T h e r e f o r e , s o c i o l o g i c a l theory must a l s o be c o n s i d e r e d . S o c i o l o g y . In terms of the h i s t o r i c development of the s o c i o l o g y of a r t , Chalmers (1973) and Si lbermann (1968) t r a c e the beg inn ings of the s o c i a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of a r t from the e a r l y 1 8 0 0 ' s . From these w r i t i n g s and o thers (Barnet t , 1959; Duvignaud, 1972; F i r t h , 1951; Harap, 1949; K a v o l i s , 1968) i t i s apparent t h a t the c o n s t r u c t s and methodologies of the s o c i o l o g y of a r t are not n e a r l y as c l e a r l y d e f i n e d as they are i n anthropo logy . In h i s attempt to p rov ide a f o c u s , S i lbermann (1968) argues t h a t many of the e a r l i e r schoo ls of thought f r e q u e n t l y d i s r e g a r d e d s o c i a l r o l e s , s o c i a l s t r a t i -f i c a t i o n , and even s o c i a l changes. He suggests t h a t h i s t o -r i c a l f a c t s must not on ly be c o r r e l a t e d w i t h one another but a l s o w i t h the progress of s o c i e t y . Thus, "an a r t form [must be] p l a c e d i n the context of s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s " (p. 576) . S i l b e r m a n n ' s comments are echoed w i t h i n B e r n d t ' s o b s e r -v a t i o n t h a t " a r t i s subsumed under o ther a c t i v i t i e s [such as] r e l i g i o n , economics, magic , sex , and so on and can be understood on l y i n r e l a t i o n to one or more of t h e s e , [and t h a t ] . . . . a r t i s t i c a c t i v i t y i s a c u l t u r a l i n g r e d i e n t which c o l o r s and g i ves meaning to the s o c i a l d imension" (p. 101) . In c o n s i d e r i n g the a p p l i c a t i o n of the s o c i o l o g y of a r t , Hauser (1972, pp. 272-273) c a u t i o n s t h a t a l though we "possess the power of examining our own thought c r i t i c a l l y , and so c o r r e c t i n g to a c e r t a i n ex tent the one -s idedness and e r r o r of our v iews" we must a l s o r e a l i z e t h a t " they can never be f i n a l l y e x c l u d e d " . H is words emphasize the l i m i t s of our o b j e c t i v i t y and remind us t h a t " a l l a r t i s s o c i a l l y c o n d i -t i o n e d , but not e v e r y t h i n g i n a r t i s d e f i n a b l e i n s o c i o l o g i -c a l terms . . . . A l l t h a t s o c i o l o g y can do i s t o account i n terms of i t s a c u t a l o r i g i n f o r the ou t look on l i f e m a n i -f e s t e d i n a work of a r t " . Summary. The c o n s t r u c t s and c o n s i d e r a t i o n s i d e n t i f i e d i n the p reced ing overv iew can do l i t t l e more than prov ide an i n i t i a l g l impse i n t o the scope of the f i e l d . I t has been suggested t h a t a l though the f i e l d of anthropology as i t r e l a t e s to a r t may be more c l e a r l y d e f i n e d than t h a t of s o c i o l o g y , both have something to o f f e r . In o rder to i d e n -t i f y the p o s s i b l e c o n t r i b u t i o n s of these d i s c i p l i n e s i n terms of a r t educat ion s p e c i f i c approaches and processes are exam-ined i n the for thcoming s e c t i o n . Methodologies Before an a n a l y s i s can be done of a c u l t u r e , o r of any of i t s components, i t i s e s s e n t i a l to i d e n t i f y the c u l t u r a l f i e l d . Honigmann (1963) s p e c i f i e s t h a t t h i s i n v o l v e s th ree s e t s of c o n d i t i o n s : " the human organ ism's b i o l o g i c a l n a t u r e ; the number of human beings i n s o c i e t y , t h e i r age, sex , and o ther c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ; and, f i n a l l y , the landscape i n which those persons l i v e or which they e x p l o i t " (p. 322) . These c o n d i t i o n s must be kept i n p e r s p e c t i v e , and t h e i r i n t e r r e l a -t i o n s h i p s attended to when a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l and s o c i o l o g i c a l models are developed. A n t h r o p o l o g i c a l approaches 1. Overview. P l o g and Bates (1976) p o i n t out t h a t there are four major aspects i n the a n t h r o p o l o g i s t ' s work. In the f i r s t , p r e p a r i n g the f i e l d , the most important compo-nent cente rs around p r e p a r i n g a workable p l a n based on a s p e -c i f i c problem. From t h i s p o i n t the a n t h r o p o l o g i s t w i l l be i n v o l v e d i n data c o l l e c t i o n , adapt ing to f i e l d r e s e a r c h , and a n a l y s i s o f the f i e l d d a t a . S p i n d l e r (1963) makes re fe rence to the complex i t y of t h i s process when he s t a t e s t h a t the a n t h r o p o l o g i s t must "observe , q u e s t i o n , exper ience u n t i l he i s ab le to make sense out of p a t t e r n s of behav ior and m o t i -v a t i o n t h a t are never s imple and are always s t range when seen from the p e r s p e c t i v e of h i s own c u l t u r e " (p. 31 ) . One 47 of the i m p l i c a t i o n s of t h i s , S p i n d l e r p o s i t s , i s t h a t data c o l l e c t i o n must be done " i n terms of some frame of r e f e r e n c e , however i m p l i c i t i t may b e " . Th is o b s e r v a t i o n would r e l a t e to such aspects as those d e f i n e d i n Chapter 1 , and r e f e r r e d to on p. 41 of t h i s t h e s i s . The frame of re fe rence i s p a r -t i c u l a r l y important when c r o s s - c u l t u r a l comparisons are be ing done. One of the p r o c e d u r a l components of the a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l task i s the development of models , which are g e n e r a l i z e d p i c t u r e s or e x p l a n a t i o n s of the r e s e a r c h e r ' s o b s e r v a t i o n (Garbar ino , 1977, p. 6 ) . H a l l (1976) notes t h a t " the purpose of the model i s to enable the user to do a b e t t e r job i n h a n d l i n g the enormous complex i t y i n l i f e " (p. 1 2 ) . The model develops from the process of a n a l y s i s : " s o r t i n g out the s t r u c t u r e s of s i g n i f i c a t i o n . . . and dete rmin ing t h e i r s o c i a l ground and import" (Geertz , 1973, p. 9 ) . H a l l (1976) e x p l a i n s t h a t : A l l t h e o r e t i c a l models are i n c o m p l e t e . By d e f i n i t i o n , they are a b s t r a c t i o n s and t h e r e f o r e leave t h i n g s o u t . What they leave out i s as important a s , i f not more important t h a n , what they do n o t , because i t i s what i s l e f t out t h a t g i ves s t r u c t u r e and form to the system . . . . In c o n s t r u c t i n g t h e i r models of c u l t u r e , most a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s take i n t o account t h a t the re are d i f f e r -ent l e v e l s of b e h a v i o r ; o v e r t and cover t , i m p l i c i t and e x p l i c i t , t h i n g s you t a l k about and t h i n g s you do n o t . Cp. 14) 48 H a l l f u r t h e r e x p l a i n s t h a t the m a j o r i t y of Western people have been t r a i n e d t o t h i n k i n terms of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n systems or taxonomies. However, as i s shown i n subsequent s e c t i o n s of t h i s t h e s i s , there are o ther wor ld views t h a t can f a c i l i t a t e more h o l i s t i c s t r u c t u r i n g of thought . Such p e r s p e c t i v e s h o l d great promise f o r broadening the h o r i z o n s of i n q u i r y . Before t u r n i n g to a rev iew of these s t r u c t u r e s and showing t h e i r i n f l u e n c e to d a t e , the ex tens ions of t r a -d i t i o n a l "Western" a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l and s o c i o l o g i c a l c o n -s t r u c t s are o u t l i n e d i n the form of s p e c i f i c approaches. 2. Approaches. E i s n e r (Note 5) s t a t e s t h a t : An e s s e n t i a l q u e s t i o n f o r most a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s has been whether i t i s p o s s i b l e to develop methods t h a t would make c r o s s - c u l t u r a l comparisons f e a s i b l e and r e l i a b l e . I t has been an essential d o c t r i n e of a n t h r o -pology t h a t no comparison can be any more r e l i a b l e than the ethnographies upon which the comparisons are based. The f o l l o w i n g approaches w i l l he lp to i d e n t i f y ways i n which ethnographies might be o r g a n i z e d . Honigmann (1963, p. 223) asks the q u e s t i o n : "How does a r t make i t s impact?" As response , he suggests t h a t a t t e n -t i o n be g iven to t e c h n i q u e , content symbol ism, and the t o t a l s e t t i n g w i t h i n which i t o c c u r s . Two major elements are presented as c a t e g o r i c a l s t r u c t u r e s . The f i r s t i s style. Th is focuses on "the manner and form w i t h which any a r t i s produced i n a p a r t i c u l a r s o c i a l s e t t i n g " . The second i s 49 function, which i n v o l v e s " a l l r e l e v a n t h a b i t s w i t h which an a r t i s e x e c u t e d " . Th is i n c l u d e s : the number of people d i r e c t l y i n v o l v e d i n the a r t i s t i c ac t ( i s i t in tended f o r a few or i s i t t r u l y p o p u l a r ? ) ; the a r t i s t ' s r e l a t i o n s h i p to h i s audience [eg. fo rmal or i n f o r m a l ] ; the a r t i s t ' s p h y s i c a l b e h a v i o r , e s p e c i a l l y i f he performs i n p u b l i c ; t e c h n i c a l a t t r i b u t e s or e v i -dence of t e c h n i q u e ; symbols together w i t h t h e i r s o c i a l l y ass igned meanings; purposes t h a t mot ivate the a r t ; how the a r t i s l ea rned and t r a n s m i t t e d , and any p h y s i c a l media or ins t ruments i n v o l v e d , (p. 22 7) Haselberger (1961) p resents a very comprehensive format f o r the study of a r t . She sees the major problems f o r i n v e s -t i g a t i o n as c e n t e r i n g o n : (a) a sys temat i c study of i n d i v i -dual a r t o b j e c t s , (b) the a r t i s t ' s b iog raphy , (c) the study of a r t i n the whole s t r u c t u r e of the c u l t u r e , and (d) the h i s t o r y of a r t . Methods f o r use i n t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n are proposed a s : c o l l e c t i o n , d e s c r i p t i o n , i n q u i r y , and o b s e r -v a t i o n . Descr ibed i n d e t a i l i n her paper , the c r i t e r i a suggested f o r a study of a work of a r t encompass the f o l l o w -i n g : m a t e r i a l , t e c h n i q u e , purpose, c o n t e n t , fo rm, s t r u c t u r e , and c u l t u r a l c o n t e x t . She suggests t h a t such c r i t e r i a can be used as a focus f o r c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . Altman (19 61) not on l y comments on H a s e l b e r g e r ' s model , but he a l s o o f f e r s h i s own s u g g e s t i o n s . A l t m a n ' s approach begins w i t h an o u t l i n e of th ree broad areas which might p r o -v i d e focus f o r the development of o b j e c t i v e s . These a r e : 50 (1) Study of the a r t o b j e c t f o r a r t h i s t o r y . (What i s i t l i k e ? Why i s i t the way i t i s ? What i s i t s f u n c -t i o n ? What does i t or d i d i t mean to the s o c i e t y which produced i t ? ) (2) Study of the a r t ob ject , ; as an avenue toward the understanding of the s o c i e t y , c u l t u r e , or p e r i o d of which i t i s an e x p r e s s i o n . (.3) Study of the a r t o b j e c t i n the frame of the s t u d i e s of the psychology or ph i losophy of a r t . (p. 357) Altman then p resents an o u t l i n e of data t h a t should be the t a r g e t f o r r e s e a r c h . These t o p i c s encompass the f o l l o w -i n g : (1) an i n v e n t o r y of a l l p o s s i b l e data r e l a t i n g to the p h y s i c a l or ephemeral aspects o f the a r t s w i t h i n the s o c i e t y ; (2) s t y l e ; (3) i n f o r m a t i o n about the a r t i s t ; (4) the a e s t h e -t i c a t t i t u d e of the p e o p l e ; (5) e x t r i n s i c symbol ic meaning and sub jec t m a t t e r , i n c l u d i n g pr imary s u b j e c t m a t t e r , i c o n o -graphy, and i c o n o l o g y ; (6) data on a r t i s t i c q u a l i t y ; and (7) data on " c o n n o i s s e u r s h i p " . Gotshalk (.1947) and Vandenhoute (1961) both advocate a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n system based on the u n i v e r s a l aspects o f : m a t e r i a l , form, e x p r e s s i o n , and f u n c t i o n . Vandenhoute e x p l a i n s , as f o l l o w s : (a) " the cho ice of any raw m a t e r i a l by the a r t i s t i s c o n d i t i o n e d as much by p h y s i c a l environment as by the c u l t u r a l " (p. 3 75 ) ; (b) the form of the o b j e c t i s r e l a t e d to the nature of the raw m a t e r i a l s used , and i s " u l t i m a t e l y shaped a c c o r d i n g to the p r i n c i p l e s i n h e r e n t i n the nature of the work of a r t , i . e . , by the p r i n c i p l e s of 51 harmony, e q u i l i b r i u m , symmetry or asymmetry, and o t h e r s " Cp. 375) ; (c) the e x p r e s s i o n of the o b j e c t r e l a t e s to "the source from which s p r i n g the s e n t i m e n t s , the i d e a s , and a s s o c i a t i o n s of i d e a s " (p. 376) ; and (d) the f u n c t i o n of the work of a r t i s r e l a t e d to " i t s own u l t i m a t e f i x e d g o a l " (p. 376) . Mills (1971) d i s c u s s e s four aspects of a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s ' t reatment of a r t ; t h a t i s , techn ique and m a t e r i a l s , s o c i a l f u n c t i o n s , s t y l e , and i t s nature as a medium of e x p r e s s i o n i n terms of the l i m i t a t i o n s r e l a t e d to t h i s t r e a t m e n t . H i s purpose i s to present a more humanis t i c approach, f o c u s i n g on the a f f e c t i v e . H is model i n c l u d e s the f o l l o w i n g : (a) the a r t i s t i c p r o c e s s , aspects of which i n c l u d e the exper ience of the a r t i s t , s k i l l , m a t e r i a l i t y , the p u b l i c o b j e c t , s t y l e , u t i l i t y , a p p r e c i a t i o n , the a e s t h e t i c e x p e r i e n c e , and u n i v e r -s a l i t y ; (b) bases f o r d e f i n i n g a r t ; and (c) a r t and the q u a l i t a t i v e mode of r e l a t i n g t o q u a l i t i e s of f e e l i n g a s s o c i -a ted w i t h the s u b j e c t . Hal-pin (197 9) b r i n g s new i n s i g h t i n t o "the museum approach to a r t " , which has been s o - l a b e l l e d by d'Azevedo (.1958) as an approach which p l a c e d the emphasis on form and fo rmal products - the a r t i f a c t as a r t form o u t s i d e of i t s c u l t u r a l c o n t e x t . H a l p i n , however, r e l a t e s the importance of museum c o l l e c t i o n s i n the a r t i s t i c development of the Haida a r t i s t Robert Dav idson, Based on the o l d g u i l d system ( H a l p i n , Note 6 ) , the l a b e l s a p p l i e d to the stages of t h i s development are as f o l l o w s : (a) a p p r e n t i c e , (b) journeyman, (c) master, and (d) a r t i s t . Although somewhat open-ended, these categories were found to " f i t " Davidson's conception of his own development as a r t i s t . In t h i s development he found that museum co l l e c t i o n s were able to provide him with essential insights which helped him to examine and r e - i n t e r -pret the old forms of Haida culture (Davidson, 1978). This "museum" aspect i s important and i s therefore addressed i n subsequent sections of t h i s t h e s i s . Two f i n a l approaches do not relate s p e c i f i c a l l y to a r t , but deserve mention because of t h e i r inherent importance to the topic as a whole. (1) Collier''s (1967) photographic research method. C o l l i e r introduces t h i s method by stating that the essence of applied anthropology focuses on observation, synthesis, and action. He reasons that since "the nonverbal language of photorealism i s the language that i s most understood i n t e r c u l t u r a l l y and c r o s s - c u l t u r a l l y " (p. 4), the camera i s of great importance to the anthropologist. In t h i s regard C o l l i e r sees the camera having, among others, the following uses: - to provide an ethnographic overview of the topic or environment under study as a means of continually c l a r i f y i n g the purposes of the study - to record d e t a i l for use i n analysis. If t h i s photo-graphic recording includes both process and product, larger relationships can be established. 53 - as a means of counting, measuring, comparing, q u a l i -fying, and tracking. C2). P a r t i c i p a n t o b s e r v a t i o n . As previously mentioned, t h i s i s a p r i n c i p a l method within the functional o r i e n t a t i o n . However, Pohland (1972) expands the basic conception of t h i s method. After analysis of a variety of participant observa-tion studies, Pohland and Smith, his associate, i s o l a t e d four dimensions pertaining to research s t y l e s . Emphasizing a "multi-method, multi-person, m u l t i - s i t u a t i o n , m u l t i - v a r i -able" (p. 11) approach, Pohland explains that t h i s approach e s s e n t i a l l y f a c i l i t a t e s q u a l i t a t i v e research with an "inner" rather than "outer" perspective. This f i n a l method r e f l e c t s ideologies s i m i l a r to those found i n the h o l i s t i c and contextual paradigms of Eastern thought. As such i t helps to take the f i e l d of anthropolo-g i c a l inquiry away from the more controlled emphases out-li n e d i n some of the previous approaches. Soc i o l o g i c a l approaches. As has been previously i n d i -cated, and as Kavolis (1968) has remarked, the sociology of art appears to lack a "systematic t h e o r e t i c a l structure". However, the l i t e r a t u r e does reveal a few approaches which might be adaptable to school use. Although re-emphasizing the t r i a d , i . e . r e l a t i o n s h i p , of a r t i s t , product, and public response as major subject material for the s o c i o l o g i s t , Barnett (1959) acknowledges that " p a r t i t i o n i n g the t o t a l area of art into several recogn ized a r t s and s t u d y i n g each one s e p a r a t e l y " (p. 211) would broaden the scope of the f i e l d , as would the use of comparat ive and c r o s s - c u l t u r a l t e c h n i q u e s . However, care would have to be taken to m a i n t a i n a c o n t e x t u a l emphasis . Kavolis (1968) goes f u r t h e r than t h i s and o u t l i n e s p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r the s t r a t i f i c a t i o n of i n t e r p r e t i v e p e r -s p e c t i v e s t h a t span such aspects a s : s o c i a l c l a s s e s , i . e . a r i s t o c r a t i c , peasant , m i d d l e - c l a s s ; r e l i g i o u s q u a l i t i e s ; images of the u n i v e r s e ; a c t i v i t y or " a c t i o n " o r i e n t a t i o n s ; va lue o r i e n t a t i o n s ; t ime o r i e n t a t i o n s ; and o r i e n t a t i o n s r e l a t e d to n a t u r e . Duvignaud (1972) p rov ides four work ing hypotheses as a b a s i s f o r a s o c i o l o g i c a l a n a l y s i s o f a r t . He s t a t e s t h a t : These terms are on l y v a l i d i n r e l a t i o n to a l i v i n g s o c i e t y which i s the background to e v e r y t h i n g t h a t i s r e p r e s e n t e d . And t h i s background i s a l s o the dynamic p r i n c i p l e and d r i v i n g f o r c e , because each of i t s aspects on ly has meaning i n the cont inuous movement of change which makes s o c i e t y what i t i s . To understand the meaning of a r t i s t i c c r e a t i o n , we have to work out a coherent p i c t u r e of s o c i a l c r e a t i o n , (p. 63) Duvignaud's four hypotheses a r e : (1) drama - d e f i n e d a s ; "a combinat ion of behav iour , emot ions , a t t i t u d e s , i d e o l o g i e s , a c t i o n s and c r e a t i o n s w h i c h , for the creative individual c r y s t a l l i z e s the whole of s o c i e t y and p l a c e s the genes is of a work of a r t w i t h i n the complex of those c o n t r a d i c t o r y forms which make up c o l l e c t i v e l i f e " 55 (p. 49) (2). the polemic s i g n - "a t e c h n i c a l attempt to communi-cate through a p a r t i c u l a r element which i n d i c a t e s but does not c o n s t i t u t e the whole" (p. 51) (3) anomy - changes and new images t h a t r e s u l t when a s t a t e of d i s o r d e r occurs w i t h i n the s o c i e t y (such d i s o r d e r o f t e n r e s u l t s i n great c r e a t i v e per iods ) (4) a t y p i c - d e v i a t i o n s from the norm. The term p a r t i -c u l a r l y a p p l i e s to the i n d i v i d u a l who evo lves new forms apar t from those g e n e r a l l y r e l a t i n g to c o l l e c t i v e l i f e and ' c o l l e c -t i v e unconsc iousness ' (Duvignaud, 1972, p. 62). Mukevjee (1948) d i s t i n g u i s h e s four separate f i e l d s of i n q u i r y as the sub jec t matter o f the s o c i o l o g y of a r t . These i n v o l v e an a n a l y s i s o f : (1) the s o c i a l and i d e o l o g i c a l background of the a r t i s t ; (2) the i n d i v i d u a l a r t i s t ' s o r i g i n a l or nove l a c h i e v e -ment and the a r t t r a d i t i o n ; (3) the form, m o t i f and theme of a r t i n r e l a t i o n to the p r e c i s e s o c i a l h i s t o r i c a l s e t t i n g ; and (4) the acceptance or u n p o p u l a r i t y of the a r t o b j e c t , (p. 37) In the s e l e c t i o n of the a p p r o p r i a t e approach to use i n the s o c i o l o g i c a l a n a l y s i s of a r t , what i s e s s e n t i a l l y i m p o r t a n t , accord ing to Si lbermann (1968), i s t h a t the way i s made " e a s i e r to recogn ize man h i m s e l f -— the end and means of a l l a r t —- i n h i s a r t i s t i c be ing i n the r i g h t p l a c e and s i t u a t i o n " (p. 587) . To t h i s end, " the a r t s o c i o -l o g i s t never separates a r t from r e a l i t y " and bases a l l t h e o -r i e s on " the o b s e r v a t i o n of f a c t s [which] g i ves d i s c i p l i n e to the s o c i o l o g y of a r t " and " i s at the same t ime s o c i o l o g y i n i t s pu res t form" (p. 5 88) . Summary and I m p l i c a t i o n s Th is rev iew of a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l and s o c i o l o g i c a l c o n -s t r u c t s and approaches i l l u s t r a t e s some of the ways i n which a r t can be examined as an i n t e g r a l component of c u l t u r e . Some of these approaches p l a c e g r e a t e r emphasis on the t o t a l c u l t u r a l contex t than do o t h e r s . In terms of i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r e d u c a t i o n , Eggan (1957) r e l a t e s t h a t both anthropology and educat ion are "concerned w i t h the t r a n s m i s s i o n of the s o c i a l h e r i t a g e from one gene-r a t i o n to the next and w i t h the processes by which t h a t t r a n s m i s s i o n i s ach ieved" (p. 247) . The union between these two d i s c i p l i n e s r e p r e s e n t s , to Shunk and G o l d s t e i n (1964), a tendency towards g r e a t e r consc iousness t h a t has come to focus on man h i m s e l f , and t h a t j o i n s together both human is t i c concerns and s c i e n t i f i c s tandards of o b j e c t i v i t y . S p i n d l e r (1963) r e l a t e s the d e f i n i t i o n t h a t "educat ion . . . i s the process of t r a n s m i t t i n g c u l t u r e - i n c l u d i n g s k i l l s , knowledge, a t t i t u d e s , and v a l u e s , as w e l l as s p e c i f i c b e h a v i o r a l p a t t e r n s . I t i s the c u l t u r e of the human b e i n g . " (p. 58) The q u e s t i o n asked by H a l l (1976) i n t h i s regard i s : "How does one go about l e a r n i n g the u n d e r l y i n g s t r u c t u r e of c u l t u r e ? " (p. 106) . O b s e r v a t i o n , he f e e l s , i s a key e lement , 57 and "any of the b a s i c c u l t u r a l systems and subsystems can serve as a focus f o r o b s e r v a t i o n " . As Metraux (.1963) ag rees , "the va lues of a c u l t u r e are r e f l e c t e d i n a l l i t s a s p e c t s , and each d e t a i l can be seen i n i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p to the l a r g e r whole" (p. 121) . As an i n h e r e n t aspect of c u l t u r e t h a t can be found i n a l l s o c i e t i e s , " a r t i s the great b i n d e r , the u b i q u i t o u s s e a l of community l i f e and a c t i o n " (Mukerjee, 1948, p. x x i ) . I t s symbols t r a n s m i t "the i m a g i n a t i v e t r a n s -f i g u r a t i o n s of human r e l a t i o n s , v a l u e s , and e x p e r i e n c e s " (p. x i i i ) . Mukerjee p o s i t s t h a t the study of a r t forms of d i f f e r e n t peoples "would he lp i n cementing the u n i t y of man-k i n d " (p. 27) and would en la rge human conc iousness . In t h i s l i g h t , the study of a r t i s a m u l t i c u l t u r a l t a s k . As s u c h , the i m p l i c i t f e a t u r e s of m u l t i c u l t u r a l i s m and i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p to educat ion must be examined. M u l t i c u l t u r a l i s m and Educat ion The f i e l d of m u l t i c u l t u r a l i s m and educat ion tends to be , a t qu ick g l a n c e , r a t h e r amorphous. The r a t i o n a l e s f o r e d u c a t i o n a l programs, the d i v e r g e n t themes, and the m u l t i p l e d i r e c t i o n s encompass a broad range of i d e a l s and i n t e n t s . A t e n t a t i v e framework f o r these i s s u e s was i d e n t i f i e d through a recent i n v e s t i g a t i o n conducted by t h i s r e s e a r c h e r (Andrews, Note 3 ) . Some of the major f i n d i n g s of t h a t study are summarized i n t h i s s e c t i o n . Th i s framework adds to the conceptua l base f o r the methodology i n Chapter 3 . S i g n i f i -cant terms have a l r e a d y been i n t r o d u c e d i n Chapter 1 . 58 H i s t o r i c a l Overview In October , 1971, a por tentous event occur red i n the House of Commons i n Ottawa. Th is was the announcement of a n a t i o n a l p o l i c y on m u l t i c u l t u r a l i s m . Th i s announcement represents a t r a n s f o r m a t i o n p o i n t i n a s h i f t from a t r a d i -t i o n a l l y " B r i t i s h / F r e n c h " o r i e n t a t i o n i n Canada to a g r a d u a l l y i n c r e a s i n g acceptance of a "mosaic" concept which encompasses the i d e a of e t h n i c groups m a i n t a i n i n g t h e i r d i s t i n c t i v e n e s s " w h i l e f u n c t i o n i n g as p a r t of a whole" (Palmer & Troper , 1973, p. 1 7 ) . S ince 1971, four p r o v i n c e s — O n t a r i o , Man i toba , Saskatchewan, and A l b e r t a — have adopted p r o v i n c i a l m u l t i -c u l t u r a l p o l i c i e s and have extended these p o l i c i e s toward the development of m u l t i c u l t u r a l educat ion programs. At the present t i m e , B.C. i s i n the process of e s t a b l i s h i n g i t s own m u l t i c u l t u r a l c u r r i c u l u m p o l i c y . Whi le i t may be t r u e t h a t a heightened awareness c o n c e r n -i n g m u l t i c u l t u r a l i s m has helped "many j o u r n a l i s t s , academics , e d u c a t o r s , p o l i t i c i a n s , and members of the genera l p u b l i c . . . become moire s e n s i t i v e to and i n v o l v e d w i t h both the p o s i t i v e and p rob lemat i c aspects of Canada's e t h n i c d i v e r s i t y " (Wood, 1978, p. v ) , the p r o v e r b i a l gap between theory and p r a c t i s e w i t h regard to educat ion cont inues to be a major problem. In order to c l o s e the gap i t i s important t o have a c l e a r i d e a of the e s s e n t i a l c o n s t r u c t s of m u l t i c u l t u r a l educat ion theory — to analyze i t s d i r e c t i o n s , to c o n s i d e r i t s g o a l s , to c l a r i f y the f e a t u r e s which have s p e c i f i c 59 b e a r i n g on p a r t i c u l a r p a r t s of the country — so t h a t s c h o o l programs and s p e c i f i c d i s c i p l i n e s , such as a r t educat ion can work toward f u l f i l l m e n t of t h a t promise i n i t i a t e d almost a decade ago. W i t h i n t h i s s e c t i o n , the major f e a t u r e s of m u l t i c u l t u r a -l i s m are o u t l i n e d , w i t h re fe rence to e d u c a t i o n a l i s s u e s . The E d u c a t i o n a l C h a l l e n g e : Des ign ing Exper iences and S t r a t e g i e s Cather ine M i c h a l s k i , Cha i rperson f o r the Committee on M u l t i c u l t u r a l i s m i n the Onta r io M i n i s t r y of E d u c a t i o n , notes t h a t "educat ion f o r a m u l t i c u l t u r a l s o c i e t y i s the educat ion a l l c h i l d r e n . . . should be r e c e i v i n g . I t i s an educat ion t h a t a l l teachers . . . should be prepared to g i v e " ( M i c h a l s k i , 1977, p. 82) . Of a l l the routes proposed by advocates of m u l -t i c u l t u r a l s c h o o l i n g , the g r e a t e s t p romise , a c c o r d i n g t o Macdonald (1977a)., " r e s t s i n the enlargement of human p o t e n t i a l by the a c t u a l l i v i n g i n m u l t i c u l t u r a l s i t u a t i o n s i n c lassrooms" (p. 8 ) . What t h i s i n v o l v e s i s : the r e c o g n i t i o n of each person i n the context of h i s / h e r c u l t u r a l background. In t h i s sense the i n d i v i d u a l i s not a b s t r a c t e d from a l i v i n g context and p l a c e d under the gr idwork of s t a n d a r d i z e d norms. Fur thermore , the r e c o g n i t i o n of the power of a c u l t u r a l u p b r i n g i n g demands the acceptance of the r e a l worth of the contex t from which a person comes as a s e l f - c o n f i d e n t s t e p p i n g o f f p l a c e f o r pe rsona l development, (p. 8) A l though t h i s may be the f i r s t s tep — a key s tep — s p e c i f i c 60 goals and organizational strategies must also be considered.-Goal s. One of the es s e n t i a l goals of m u l t i c u l t u r a l education, as proposed by the ASCD (1977) , appears to be that of "developing p o s i t i v e and productive in t e r a c t i o n among people and among experiences of diverse c u l t u r a l groups" (p. 3). This idea i s expanded upon by Sitaram and Haapanen (19 79) when they propose that major goals should relate to i n t e r c u l t u r a l communication, the purpose of which would be to help each student share his/her experiences to enrich the l i v e s of others. They submit that "when sharing expands from the in d i v i d u a l to the entire culture, the i n t e r -c u l t u r a l communication would have achieved the ultimate goal of human int e r a c t i o n " (p. 159). This might, i n many ways, relate to Asante and Barnes' (1979) "demystifying theory" through which they submit that "cross-cultural effectiveness i s more than a . . . successful dissemination of facts. I t is fundamentally a demystification of role i n a given s o c i -ety" (p. 98). Approaches and Strategies. In terms of application, the ASCD (19 77) makes the following statement: The heart of m u l t i c u l t u r a l education pertains to the int e r a c t i o n a l dimensions of human behavior, and the development of e f f e c t i v e s k i l l s to f a c i l i t a t e such functioning . . . . It endorses the development of perceptual, a n a l y t i c a l , and application s k i l l s , which can be applied i n both formal and informal, personal 61 and i n s t i t u t i o n a l s e t t i n g s , (p. 4) Before t u r n i n g to p r o p o s a l s f o r deve lop ing the k inds of s k i l l s noted above, a b r i e f overv iew of e a r l y approaches i s g iven to p rov ide an i n i t i a l p e r s p e c t i v e . Tomkins (1978) c o n -ducted a survey t o f i n d out what these approaches have been. He suggests t h a t m u l t i c u l t u r a l c u r r i c u l a has i n c l u d e d : (1) the museum approach - which tends to focus on i s o -l a t e d d e t a i l s , observed out of c o n t e x t , r e s u l t i n g i n l i t t l e conceptua l understanding (2) the heritage approach - which focuses on c h a r t e r group dominance through an e t h n o c e n t r i c and p a t e r n a l i s t i c v iewpoint (3) the disciplines approach - pursued main ly through the use of h i s t o r y (4) the interdisciplinary approach - which i n c o r p o r a t e s s o c i a l sc ience concepts , c o n s i d e r s c o n f l i c t i n g i n t e r p r e t a -t i o n s , and t r e a t s va lue i s s u e s . Tomkins notes t h a t the i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y approach has been deemed by many educators to h o l d the most p romise . C e r -t a i n l y aspects of t h i s approach can be seen i n the f o l l o w -i n g s u g g e s t i o n s . Two p a r t i c u l a r p roposa ls g i ve c l u e s to p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r the s t r u c t u r i n g of v i a b l e approaches to m u l t i c u l t u r a l e d u c a t i o n . S a r a l (19 79) suggests t h a t we "begin to focus upon the deep s t r u c t u r e of c u l t u r a l exper ience c h a r a c t e r i z e d by the r e c e p t i o n , o r g a n i z a t i o n , and u t i l i z a t i o n of i n f o r m a - ' t i o n gained through contac t w i t h environment" (p. 82) . 62 D'Oyley (Note 7) suggests t h a t " the l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s . . . should be rooted i n s i t u a t e d n e s s (.in a grand sense) , be r e a l i s t i c and emancipatory , and should be enabled by and r e s p e c t f u l of the m u l t i - e t h n i c i z i n g hand" , w h i c h , f o r Canada, i n c l u d e s f i v e f i n g e r s or assemblages i d e n t i f i e d a s : "(a) the a b o r i g i n a l ; (b) the anglophone; (c) the f rancophone; (.d) the l a t e r European; and (e) the l a t e r v i s i b l e m i n o r i t y ( i . e . , A f r i c a n and A s i a n ) " (D 'Oyley , Note 8 ) . S i g n i f i c a n t t o both of these p r o p o s a l s i s the read iness of the implementers of e d u c a t i o n a l t h e o r y , the t e a c h e r s , to s h i f t from t r a d i t i o n a l f a c t - o r i e n t e d approaches to more i n q u i r y - b a s e d s t r a t e g i e s . Seelye (1976) notes t h a t "a major charge of educat ion c o n s i s t s i n m o t i v a t i n g s tudents to ask p r o d u c t i v e ques t ions and then t e a c h i n g s tudents s k i l l s t h a t w i l l enable them to f i n d answers to t h e i r q u e s t i o n s " (p. 120) . One of the major t a s k s f o r the teacher i n t h i s approach i s to he lp the student d e f i n e problems which would i n t e r e s t the student and " l e a d to a d i s c o v e r y t h a t c u l t u r a l p a t t e r n s i n t e r a c t and t h a t they are used by people to s a t i s f y u n i v e r -s a l needs" (p. 123) . The l e a r n i n g of knowledge, a t t i t u d e s , and s k i l l s p r o -v i d e s a c e n t r a l focus w i t h i n both t r a d i t i o n a l and m u l t i c u l -t u r a l approaches. Acco rd ing to Seelye (1976), a n t h r o p o l o -g i c a l procedures can be used to a s s i s t t h i s l e a r n i n g . He suggests t h a t ; What i s important i s not the a c q u i s i t i o n of a broader base of a r b i t r a r y and p o i n t l e s s f a c t s , but the a b i l i t y 63 to gather f a c t s from a v a r i e t y of sources - and then to do something w i t h the f a c t s ! I t i s the human mind tha t o rgan i zes and a s s i g n s importance to f a c t s . Many great i n s i g h t s are formed by people who are p u t t e r i n g around w i t h data i n an attempt to tease out something which makes sense, (p. 124) A n t h r o p o l o g i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s have been exp lo red i n some depth by Grant (1977). W i t h i n h i s paper e n t i t l e d " A n t h r o p o l o g i c a l Foundat ions of Educat ion That i s M u l t i c u l -t u r a l " , he r e l a t e s the common areas of concern of both anthropology and e d u c a t i o n , o u t l i n e s the i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r educat ion of c u l t u r a l r e l a t i v i s m , and i d e n t i f i e s some of the means by which "anthropology p r o v i d e s u n d e r g i r d i n g f o r some of the b a s i c tene ts of educat ion t h a t i s m u l t i c u l t u r a l " (p. 38) . S i m i l a r connect ions are a l s o drawn by Johnson (1977) as he p resents a case f o r the use of e thnographic approaches f o r t e a c h i n g and l e a r n i n g . Such methods o f f e r a deeper and broader p o t e n t i a l f o r l e a r n i n g than might be p o s s i b l e through the e a r l i e r "museum" approach o b j e c t e d to by Werner, Conners , A o k i , and D a h l i e (1977), and most c e r t a i n l y o v e r r i d e the l i m i t a t i o n s of the " h e r i t a g e " approach. One of the shortcomings of the "museum" approach as i t has c o n v e n t i o n a l l y been employed has been i t s focus on i s o -l a t e d d e t a i l s of a c u l t u r e and the l a c k of a t t e n t i o n g i ven to the i s s u e s and meanings necessary f o r the development of conceptua l unders tand ing . What i s important i s t h a t c h i l d r e n 64 l e a r n to ask the why q u e s t i o n s , and develop the s k i l l s needed f o r f i n d i n g answers t h a t w i l l he lp them "become aware of why people have developed c e r t a i n t r a d i t i o n s and a r t i f a c t s , and the meanings these h o l d f o r them" (Snyder, 1978, p. 150) . In order to adhere to the goal o f deve lop ing respec t f o r c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s , anthropology suggests t h a t c u l t u r e be s t u d i e d from a nonethnocent r i c p o i n t of v iew. A t t e n d i n g to t h i s c o n s t r u c t i s not a s imple t a s k . One of the major elements i n v o l v e d i n the t a s k i s the i s s u e of v a l u e s . Values are such major v a r i a b l e s t h a t they tend to permeate most communication systems. S i ta ram and Haapanen (1979) p o i n t out t h a t as a r e s u l t of t h i s , most communication ( i n c l u d i n g media shows, newspapers, t e x t b o o k s , and i n t e r p e r s o n a l communication) i s e t h n o c e n t r i c . Th is aspect i s something t h a t both s tudents and teachers must beg in to r e c o g n i z e . A long w i t h o ther w r i t e r s F r i e s e n (1977) suggests t h a t va lues are a t the base of i n t e r c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s . How-e v e r , S i ta ram and Haapanen s t a t e t h a t va lues per se can n e i t h e r be measured nor observed . The q u e s t i o n they ask i n t h i s regard i s : "Then what can we measure and observe?" (p. 156) . The i n s i g h t to v a l u e s , they o f f e r , would have t o come from observ ing the customs, e x p e c t a t i o n s , and b e l i e f s of the c u l t u r e . A g a i n , the important, process term i s obser-vation.' C r o s s - c u l t u r a l comparat ive s t u d i e s based on such o b s e r v a t i o n s c o u l d he lp to p l a c e these aspects i n p e r s p e c -t i v e . 65 In order to more f u l l y gain insight into the "deeper structures" of culture, new methods of inquiry are needed. The l i n e a r , a n a l y t i c a l methods of the Western world are increasingly being recognized for t h e i r l i m i t a t i o n s . Mori-yama (1978) notes that: A new way of looking at the world i s gaining ground i n our culture. I t i s frankly subjective, non-rational, and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y Oriental i n i t s approach. I t should complement the s c i e n t i f i c view, not replace i t . . . . A f u l l account of r e a l i t y i s achieved by enlarg-ing the frame of reference to include both models as alternative truths, (p. 16) Howell (1979) adds that "by combining Eastern and Western approaches, we should be able to create theory that i n t e r -prets l i f e facts more completely than either does alone" (p. 38). Beyond the t h e o r e t i c a l process decisions, a major task for educators l i e s i n the area of organizing content. Gay (.19 77) suggests that two useful strategies include the following: (1) a thematic approach - t h i s involves the use of i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y techniques, comparative analyses, and multiethnic perspectives (2) a conceptual approach - t h i s i s designed around a series of "generic concepts selected from d i f f e r e n t d i s c i -p l i nes" (p. 102). These concepts should be "applicable to a l l ethnic group experiences". 66 The concepts and techn iques which comprise the s u b j e c t focus f o r a c u l t u r a l l y - b a s e d study can draw from sources such as the a r t s , f o l k l o r e , h i s t o r y , the b e h a v i o r a l s c i e n c e s , and s o c i a l s c i e n c e s . These and other sources and resources should be g iven c l o s e c o n s i d e r a t i o n . Resources . One of the g r e a t e s t misconcept ions h e l d by t e a c h e r s , e s p e c i a l l y when they approach an u n f a m i l i a r a r e a , i s t h a t they must have a l a r g e reserve of w r i t t e n i n f o r m a -t i o n c l o s e a t hand as t h e i r content source . As ide from the e thnocent r i sm i s s u e a l ready mentioned i n connect ion w i t h w r i t t e n m a t e r i a l s i s the f a c t t h a t such m a t e r i a l s comprises on ly one of many o f t e n more v a l i d sources . Olneck (1978) c a u t i o n s t h a t : C u l t u r e s are not j u s t c o l l e c t i o n s of f a c t s , common memories, v o c a b u l a r i e s , or f e s t i v a l s and foods . Those t h i n g s , ren t from the contex ts i n which they o r i g i n a t e d and no longer roo ted i n v i t a l and cohes ive communit ies , and then reassembled i n packaged c u r r i c u l a , cannot p r o -v i d e the sense of b e l o n g i n g and s e l f - e s t e e m t h a t come from a c u l t u r a l l y i n t a c t community which enjoys the respec t of o ther communit ies , (p. 109) McPhee (19 77) s t a t e s t h a t " c u r r i c u l u m has tended to g l o s s over the c o n t r i b u t i o n s of m i n o r i t y groups to our s o c i -e ty" (p. 8 ) . One r e l a t e d f a c t o r i s t h a t c u r r i c u l u m m a t e r i a l , when i t i s w r i t t e n about such groups , i s o f t e n w r i t t e n from an e t i c . v iewpo in t which cou ld on ly p rov ide a s u p e r f i c i a l v iew 67 at b e s t . Some of the g r e a t e s t sources of i n f o r m a t i o n can be found w i t h i n the community i t s e l f and should be tapped as a v i t a l resource w i t h i n the e d u c a t i o n a l framework. One example of a school -community a l l i a n c e a long these l i n e s i s the Mount C u r r i e program f o r Nat i ve I n d i a n s . A l though s t i l l a t tempt ing to work out a few communication d i f f i c u l t i e s (see Wyatt , 1978., p. 21) , the program p r o v i d e s a s i g n i f i c a n t example of how members of the community can add a dimension to l e a r n i n g which cou ld never be o b t a i n a b l e w i t h i n the c lassroom s e t t i n g . Recent community-based r e s e a r c h has p rov ided t h i s i n v e s t i g a t o r w i t h a p p r e c i a b l e i n s i g h t i n t o resources to be found w i t h i n the community i n r e l a t i o n to the c u l t u r a l a r t s . Such r e s e a r c h , i f conducted as an i n t e g r a l component and avenue f o r student l e a r n i n g , c o u l d do much to i n c r e a s e the awareness and unders tand ing of everyone i n v o l v e d . Even w i t h i n the c lassroom s e t t i n g , teachers should not over look the f a c t t h a t s tudents themselves can be v a l u a b l e r e s o u r c e s . A c c o r d i n g to O r t i z and T r a v i e s c o (1977): C a r e f u l p l a n n i n g and d i r e c t i o n are r e q u i r e d to p rov ide the necessary and a p p r o p r i a t e exper iences to c a p i t a l i z e on the c h i l d ' s c u l t u r a l and l i n g u i s t i c r e s o u r c e s . The c lassroom atmosphere must ensure the uniqueness of each c h i l d , and c h i l d r e n should be encouraged to share t h e i r unique exper iences w i t h t h e i r p e e r s , (p. 123) The key phrase i s " c a r e f u l p l a n n i n g " , s i n c e damage may a l s o be done by the i n s e n s i t i v e teacher who t r i e s t o f o r c e s tudents 68 into inappropriate or uncomfortable situations possibly-leading to embarrassment or r i d i c u l e . In Baptiste and Baptiste's (1977) words: The teacher i s the wheel that turns. The degree of each turn depends upon the teacher's understanding of di f f e r e n t ethnic cultures, upon his/her attitudes toward differences i n ethnic backgrounds, and upon h i s / her a b i l i t y to develop teaching strategies appropriate for the philosophy of c u l t u r a l pluralism, (p. I l l ) The potential for the development of knowledge, attitudes, and s k i l l s within a m u l t i c u l t u r a l education program must be based on a process-oriented, rather than a content-limited framework. Baptiste and Baptiste state that "there are no curriculum guides, no material k i t s , no pre- or post-tests, no objectives, and no teacher editions available for one to plug into the e x i s t i n g courses for 'Bingo! M u l t i c u l t u r a l Education'" (p. 112). Rather, the impetus for inquiry and discovery must be based on the teacher's commitment to the inherent potential of the f i e l d . Research. Yamamoto (1977) makes the point that most researchers (especially those working i n the s c i e n t i f i c mode) "lack the special sort of intimacy with l i f e that i s indispensable to the asking of s i g n i f i c a n t questions and to a f u l l appreciation of human complexities" (p. 88). In r e l a t i n g the dynamic, everchanging nature of culture he draws attention to basic considerations for the researcher. 69 What he feels i s important (and t h i s could apply to children as researchers as well as adult researchers dealing with any educational problem) i s an action approach i n which a l l par-t i c i p a n t s share the experience equally. One of the ingre-dients of t h i s approach i s the process of " c i r c u l a r causa-t i o n " , which involves a r e a l i z a t i o n of the interdependence of a l l factors. This "precludes a compartmentalized approach that focuses on a part to neglect the whole" (p. 91), and c a l l s for contextual observation, inter p r e t a t i o n , and under-standing. One p a r t i c u l a r area where the need for t h i s type of research i s greatest i s i n the area of Native Education. According to Dodge (1977), "the majority of curriculum materials about Indians have one common t r a i t - s u p e r f i c i a l research as t h e i r basis" (p. 137). I t may be found that an in-depth review of material r e l a t i n g to various ethnic groups would r e s u l t i n a s i m i l a r finding. I f educators and children could learn the s k i l l s needed for "action-oriented" research, to enable them to act and inter a c t i n context, the boundaries and l i m i t a t i o n s created by conventional methods of learning would soon disappear. Eisner (Note 5) defines research as "any systematic, careful inquiry designed to further our understanding of the way the world i s , the way i t can become, or the way i t ought to be". The q u a l i t a t i v e aspects of t h i s , he suggests, can include both description and metaphor. 70 The methodology p rov ided i n Chapter 3 i n c o r p o r a t e s research, as an i n t e g r a l f e a t u r e . Summary and Conc lus ion To t h i s p o i n t , t h i s rev iew of l i t e r a t u r e has i n c l u d e d an overv iew of s e l e c t e d a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l / s o c i o l o g i c a l p r o -cesses and m u l t i c u l t u r a l i s s u e s . The i n t e r p l a y among these f i e l d s can e a s i l y be r e c o g n i z e d . The r e l a t i v e va lue of a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l and s o c i o l o g i c a l methods as r e s e a r c h and c lassroom s t r a t e g i e s can be seen as examples of the expan-d ing q u a l i t a t i v e paradigm now be ing advocated by many e d u -c a t o r s and s c h o l a r s . In terms of r a t i o n a l e , Lupul (1978) submits t h a t : From a s o c i o l o g i c a l p o i n t of v iew, a b e t t e r knowledge of Canada's d i v e r s i t y would he lp to produce people who can b e t t e r a p p r e c i a t e and enjoy the a n c e s t r a l r o o t s of t h e i r f e l l o w c i t i z e n s , because they are f a m i l i a r w i t h t h e i r most c h e r i s h e d customs, a r t s and t r e a s u r e s , (p. 139) As an i n t e g r a l component of c u l t u r e and s o c i e t y , a r t ho lds g reat promise as an avenue f o r the development of m u l t i c u l t u r a l awareness. However, as p r e v i o u s l y i n d i c a t e d , i n order to t r u l y f a c i l i t a t e l e a r n i n g about a c u l t u r e through i t s a r t s , and at the same t ime i n c r e a s i n g our awareness of the f u n c t i o n s and va lues of a r t w i t h i n s o c i e t i e s , the study of a r t - i n - c u l t u r e must be open to the i n c l u s i o n of any or a l l of the a r t forms which might be found w i t h i n the c u l t u r e . 71 The NCSS Task Force C1976) proposes t h a t ; E t h n i c m u s i c , a r t , a r c h i t e c t u r e and dance - pas t and contemporary - p rov ides . , . avenues f o r e x p e r i e n t i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n , as they i n t e r p r e t the emotions and f e e l i n g s of e t h n i c groups. The a r t s and humani t ies can serve as e x c e l l e n t v e h i c l e s f o r s t u d y i n g group exper iences by f o c u s i n g on the q u e s t i o n : What aspects of the exper ience of a p a r t i c u l a r e t h n i c group helped c r e a t e these k inds of m u s i c a l and a r t i s t i c exp ress ions? . . . . Students should become acquainted w i t h what has been c r e a t e d i n l o c a l e t h n i c communities . . . . L o c a l people should be i n v i t e d t o d i s c u s s t h e i r v iewpo in ts and exper iences w i t h s t u d e n t s . Students should a l s o have o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r deve lop ing t h e i r own a r t i s t i c , m u s i c a l , and l i t e r a r y a b i l i t i e s , even to make them a v a i l a b l e to the l o c a l community, (p. 38) D 'Oy ley (Note 9) r e a f f i r m s the concept ions emphasized throughout the l i t e r a t u r e when he s t a t e s t h a t " the a r t s are e s s e n t i a l organs of e t h n i c e n t e r p r i s i n g " . As such they can p rov ide a unique and eminent l y v i a b l e means f o r g a i n i n g i n s i g h t i n t o c u l t u r e and the nature of man h i m s e l f . 72 C u r r i c u l u m As the methodology presented i n the next chapter i s e s s e n t i a l l y a c u r r i c u l u m model i t i s necessary to rev iew the i m p l i c i t f e a t u r e s and concepts t h a t have p rov ided impetus f o r t h a t model . In t h i s s e c t i o n , some of the key c o n s i d e r -a t i o n s are i d e n t i f i e d . The th ree major f e a t u r e s of c u r r i c u l u m - what i s t a u g h t , how to teach i t , and how to e v a l u a t e i t - have a l r e a d y been mentioned i n the d e f i n i t i o n g iven i n Chapter 1 . Obv ious ly t h i s d e f i n i t i o n i s a s i m p l i s t i c d i s t i l l a t i o n of very complex i d e a s . E i s n e r 0l979) e l a b o r a t e s on the b a s i c concept by e x p l a i n i n g t h a t c u r r i c u l u m i s a program of p lanned events which has e d u c a t i o n a l consequences (p. 3 9 - 4 0 ) . I m p l i c i t to t h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n are ques t ions such a s : Who p lans the events — and f o r whom? and What i s meant by e d u c a t i o n a l consequences? The f a c t o r s r e l a t i n g to these q u e s t i o n s and to o the r key i s s u e s must be taken i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n when programs are des igned . Desp i te the c l a i m s of " o b j e c t i v i t y " made by those who adhere to the s c i e n t i f i c approach to c u r r i c u l u m development, the words of R i c h a r d S c h a u l l , i n h i s i n t r o d u c t i o n to F r e i r e ' s Pedagogy of the Oppressed (1970) , i l l u m i n a t e a b a s i c t r u t h . He comments as f o l l o w s : There i s no such t h i n g as a neutral e d u c a t i o n a l p r o c e s s . 73 Education either functions as an instrument which i s used to f a c i l i t a t e the integration of the younger gener-ation into the l o g i c of the present system and bring about conformity to i t , or i t becomes "the practice of freedom", the means by which men and women deal c r i t i -c a l l y and c r e a t i v e l y with r e a l i t y and discover how to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the transformation of t h e i r world. The development of an educational methodology that f a c i l i -tates t h i s process w i l l i n e v i t a b l y lead to tension and c o n f l i c t within our society. But i t could also c o n t r i -bute to the formation of a new man and mark the beginn-ing of a new era i n Western history, (p. 15) These comments help to break the bonds of t r a d i t i o n i n the curriculum f i e l d , which, according to Apple and King (1977) "has i t s roots i n the s o i l of s o c i a l control" (p. 112). The Tyler ends-means model, which has dominated the f i e l d for much of t h i s century, incorporates e s s e n t i a l l y a s c i e n t i f i c view of curriculum. However, as Kliebard (1975b) notes, i t i s time to "recognize the Tyler rationale for what i t i s : Ralph Tyler's version of how a curriculum should be developed — not the universal model of curriculum develop-ment" (p. 81). Kliebard adds that "the new epoch i s long overdue". Pinar (.1975) explains that new conceptions of curriculum are evolving. The reconception of curriculum has "entailed a s e n s i t i v i t y to contemporary h i s t o r i c a l and c u l t u r a l develop-ments" (p. x i ) , involving concepts related to e x i s t e n t i a l i s m 74 and phenomenology. Pinar adds that "at i t s most ambitious, the f i e l d w i l l attempt to become a synthesis of contemporary s o c i a l science and the humanities. It w i l l attempt a marriage of two cultures: the s c i e n t i f i c and the a r t i s t i c and huma-n i s t i c " (p. x i i ) . After contemplating Paulo Freire's phenomenological approach to education as i l l u s t r a t e d i n Pedagogy of the Oppressed, Greene (1974) suggests the following: Curriculum . . . must be conceived i n terms of pos s i -b i l i t y for ind i v i d u a l s , a l l kinds of in d i v i d u a l s . I t must o f f e r varying perspectives through which a l l kinds of people can view t h e i r own l i v e d worlds. It must provide opportunities for them to see that they themselves, whoever they are, constitute those worlds as self-determining human beings e x i s t i n g with others i n intersubjective community, (p. 69) The significance of t h i s conception can be further i d e n t i -f i e d when i t i s viewed i n context with others. The tri-paradigmatic framework of knowledge and human interests introduced by Habermas (1968) has provided a sub-s t a n t i a l key for the emergence of new curriculum conceptions. For example, his empirical-analytic/ historical-hermeneutic/ s e l f - r e f l e c t i o n triumvirate has provided the foundation for Aoki's (1978a) three orientations to curriculum inquiry, interpreted as: (a) empirical-analytic (technical), focusing on man "acting upon" the world; (b) s i t u a t i o n a l - i n t e r p r e t i v e , focusing on man r e l a t i n g to his s o c i a l world; and (c) c r i t i c a l , 75 focusing on r e f l e c t i o n - man r e l a t i n g to s e l f , within his s o c i a l world. A more d i s t i l l e d i n terpretation of Habermas1 theories i s related by Molnar and Zahorik (1977) as they outline a scheme which was i d e n t i f i e d by James Macdonald at a c u r r i c u -lum theory conference i n C h a r l o t t e s v i l l e , V i r g i n i a , i n 1975. This format describes three views of curriculum theory as follows: (1) Control - An ends-means design which "begins with s p e c i f i c goals, moves to content and learning a c t i v i t i e s , and culminates with evaluation" (p. 5). This i s e s s e n t i a l l y the Tylerian model. (2) Eermeneutic - A theory emphasizing thoughts and ideas. "Hermeneutic theories provide new viewpoints, per-spectives, and interpretations of the human condition" (p. 6). In t h i s case the i n t e r e s t i s on meaning rather than control. (.3) C r i t i c a l - "Deals with both perspective and prac-t i c e , with both understanding and control . . . . The methodology of the c r i t i c a l t h e o r i s t i s c r i t i c a l r e f l e c t i o n on practise" (p. 6). In t h i s case, the value position i s always i d e n t i f i e d . These views of curriculum have been i d e n t i f i e d at t h i s point to provide an i n i t i a l insight into the nature of the assumptions surrounding the f i e l d . That i s to say, goals tasks, guidelines, and structures a l l stem from these assump-tions. Before organizational formats can be addressed, how-76 eve r , these and s e v e r a l o ther i m p l i c i t f e a t u r e s and i s s u e s r e l a t i n g t o c u r r i c u l u m foundat ions must be c o n s i d e r e d . Major C o n s i d e r a t i o n s and G u i d e l i n e s E l i z a b e t h Randolph, 1977-1978 p r e s i d e n t of the A s s o c i a -t i o n f o r S u p e r v i s i o n and C u r r i c u l u m Development, notes i n the foreword to Curriculum Theory (Molnar & Z a h o r i k , 1977) tha t the r e a l purpose of educat ion should be cons idered when deve lop ing c u r r i c u l u m . Is the r e a l purpose of educat ion " to m a i n t a i n the s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e as i t has e x i s t e d or to improve the e x i s t i n g s t r u c t u r e by p r o v i d i n g an e d u c a t i o n a l environment tha t maximizes human p o t e n t i a l " (p. v i ) ? A c r i t i c a l i s s u e focuses on "the moral q u e s t i o n of how to r e l a t e to o thers or how best to l i v e toge ther " (Macdonald, 1977b,p . 11 ) . Th is a l s o r e l a t e s to v a l u e s . One of Macdonald 's major o b j e c t i o n s to the s c i e n t i f i c approach to c u r r i c u l u m development i s the c l a i m t h a t i t i s "va lue f r e e " (p. 15)'. However, as has a l r e a d y been shown, the va lues inherent i n t h i s approach are s t r o n g l y r e l a t e d to c o n t r o l . E i s n e r (1979) notes t h a t some of the f e a t u r e s of the s c i e n t i f i c t r a d i t i o n i n c l u d e the f o l l o w i n g : (1) the almost t o t a l e x c l u s i o n of any th ing but t i g h t l y c o n t r o l l e d i n q u i r y (2) a p reoccupat ion w i t h s t a n d a r d i z e d outcomes C 3 ) the f a c t t h a t " l i t t l e or no r o l e can be g i ven to the p u p i l f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the c r e a t i o n of h i s or her e d u c a t i o n a l program" (p. 15 ) : because such involvement would be too d i f f i c u l t t o f i t i n t o the system (.4) the segregat ion of l e a r n i n g t a s k s i n t o s m a l l d i s -j o i n t e d u n i t s to the p o i n t where much of the c u r r i c u l u m i s rendered almost meaningless t o c h i l d r e n . E i s n e r suggests t h a t a major c o n s i d e r a t i o n would d e a l w i t h the i d e a of e d u c a t i o n a l consequences . He e x p l a i n s t h a t " e d u c a t i o n a l events or a c t i v i t i e s do much more than what i s i n t e n d e d ; they i n f l u e n c e people i n a wide v a r i e t y of ways" (p. 40 ) . C o n s i d e r a t i o n s r e l a t i n g t o these events or a c t i v i -t i e s have to do w i t h th ree types of e x p e r i e n c e : those t h a t are educational3 noneducationaly and mis educational. E i s n e r acknowledges John Dewey's Experience and Education (1938) f o r these terms and d e s c r i b e s the d i f f e r e n c e s as f o l l o w s : E d u c a t i o n a l exper iences . . . c o n t r i b u t e to the i n d i -v i d u a l ' s growth [which] represents the e x t e n s i o n of human i n t e l l i g e n c e , the i n c r e a s e i n the o rgan ism's a b i l i t y to secure meaning from exper ience and to ac t i n ways tha t are i n s t r u m e n t a l to the achievement of i n h e r e n t l y worthwhi le ends. Noneducat ional exper iences are those t h a t are s imply undergone and have no s i g n i f i -cant e f f e c t on the i n d i v i d u a l one way or the o ther . . . . M i s e d u c a t i o n a l exper iences are those t h a t thwart or hamper our a b i l i t y to have f u r t h e r exper iences or to i n t e l l i g e n t l y cope w i t h problems i n a p a r t i c u l a r arena of a c t i v i t y , (p. 44). Re la ted t o t h i s n o t i o n and i n terms of e d u c a t i o n a l meaning, 78 Huebner (19741 notes that "ve should be somewhat certain that new materials and methods have educational meaning, not school meaning" (p. 49) . What i s i n i t i a l l y required i n curriculum planning, there-fore, i s a consideration for the basic value framework of learning a c t i v i t i e s , along with the basic need to design a c t i v i t i e s that have educational meaning. The issue of "edu-cational meaning" i s p a r t i c u l a r l y s i g n i f i c a n t . The question or decision we face with regard to curriculum matters i s : educational meaning for whom? Who makes the c u r r i c u l a r d e c i -sions? — and using what c r i t e r i a ? Who w i l l experience the consequences of these decisions? What w i l l be the effects? We have already examined the shortcomings of the s c i e n t i f i c approach to curriculum development. We must consider other alternatives. Huebner (1974) submits that the task of the c u r r i c u l a r i s t i s "to think through the d i a l e c t i c a l relationships between the i n d i v i d u a l and the society or community i n such a way that both [maintain] some kind of rhythmic continuity and change" (p. 37). He considers three aspects of i n t e n t i o n a l education to be: (a) "the phenomena of memory and t r a d i t i o n s as these store and make accessible the past"; (b) "the a c t i v i t y of interpretation, the hermeneutical a r t , which i s the bridge between s e l f and other, a linkage among past, present, and future"; and (c) "the phenomenon of community as a caring c o l l e c t i v i t y i n which individuals share memories 79 and i n t e n t i o n s " (p. 37) . What i s needed, t h e n , are methods tha t w i l l he lp to make i n t e n t i o n a l educat ion p o s s i b l e . One p a r t i c u l a r method — n a t u r a l i s t i c i n q u i r y — ho lds g reat promise f o r opening up the boundar ies of i n v e s t i g a t i o n and m e r i t s c o n s i d e r a t i o n h e r e . I t has p o t e n t i a l f o r e x p l o r -i n g p o s s i b l e content f o r the c u r r i c u l u m ; f o r e x p l o r i n g va lue bases and r e s o u r c e s ; f o r more r e s p o n s i b l y address ing the e d u -c a t i o n a l meaning of c u r r i c u l a , p a r t i c u l a r l y f o r s p e c i f i c c o n s t i t u e n c i e s ; and f o r opening up the f i e l d of c u r r i c u l u m development to the more a c t i v e i n c l u s i o n of teachers and s t u d e n t s . Guba (1978) d e s c r i b e s the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of n a t u r a l i s -t i c i n q u i r y as f o l l o w s : - i t a l l o w s f o r v a r y i n g degrees or "waves" of d i s c o v e r y - i t i s n o n - m a n i p u l a t i v e - i t focuses on r e a l events - i t has r o o t s i n ethnography and phenomenology The n a t u r a l i s t i c i n q u i r e r - i s concerned w i t h d e s c r i p t i o n and u n d e r s t a n d i n g , and i n e l i c i t i n g t r u t h through c r o s s - c h e c k i n g and t r i a h g u l a t i o n - has as h i s / h e r purpose the d i s c o v e r y or v e r i f i c a t i o n of phenomena - seeks h o l i s t i c views - i s i n t e r e s t e d i n uncover ing v a r i o u s p e r s p e c t i v e s , seek ing m u l t i p l e r e a l i t i e s . The t r a d i t i o n a l " c o n t r o l " methods of c u r r i c u l u m d e v e l o p -80 merit have not on l y r e s t r i c t e d the types of i n q u i r y which c o u l d be used t o i n v e s t i g a t e needs, but have a l s o r e s t r i c t e d the des ign of programs. E t h n o c e n t r i c va lues have r u l e d aims and p rocedures , and have found t h e i r way i n t o a l l s u b -j e c t f i e l d s w i t h i n the s c h o o l s . By f o c u s i n g n a t u r a l i s t i c i n q u i r y on humanis t i c va lues and needs, w i t h a community based emphasis , the knowledge base and e d u c a t i o n a l p o t e n t i a l f o r a l l s tudents would be g r e a t l y e n l a r g e d . With these ideas i n mind, some of the major c o n s i d e r a t i o n s f o r o r g a n i z i n g c o n -t e n t can be addressed. O r g a n i z a t i o n o f C u r r i c u l u m As has a l r e a d y been i n d i c a t e d , the c u r r i c u l u m emphasis which I am advocat ing i n t h i s t h e s i s i s a c u l t u r a l - b a s e d approach. Smith (1978) c a u t i o n s t h a t " c u l t u r a l educat ion i s one of the most d i f f i c u l t , i f not i m p o s s i b l e , t a s k s f a c i n g any c u r r i c u l u m deve loper . I t must begin w i t h exper ience" (p. 44). In my type of program, "each i n d i v i d u a l , by v i r t u e of h i s e x i s t e n c e , i s p a r t o f the ' m a t e r i a l ' and groups of i n d i v i d u a l s , by v i r t u e of t h e i r t o g e t h e r n e s s , are i n v o l v e d i n a l e a r n i n g ' a c t i v i t y ' " (p. 43). In the o r g a n i z a t i o n of a c u l t u r a l l y - b a s e d c u r r i c u l u m these aspects must be kept i n mind. Macdonald (19741 suggests t h a t " c e n t e r i n g " should be the developmental aim of e d u c a t i o n . " C e n t e r i n g takes p l a c e w i t h i n the c u l t u r e of the i n d i v i d u a l , and the process of c e n t e r i n g u t i l i z e s the data of an i n d i v i d u a l ' s c u l t u r e , 81 what he e x p l i c i t l y knows through s o c i a l p r a x i s " (p. 105) . Macdonald e x p l a i n s t h a t such an approach i n no way c o n f l i c t s w i t h the accumulated knowledge of a c u l t u r e ; i t merely p l a c e s t h i s knowledge i n the base or ground from which i t grows. As such , c e n t e r i n g i s the fundamental process of human be ing t h a t makes sense out o f our p e r c e p t i o n s and c o g n i t i o n s of r e a l i t y , (p. 105) . He suggests t h a t some of the ques t ions t h a t can be asked about c u r r i c u l u m i n view of t h i s aim a r e : (1) What k i n d s of a c t i v i t y are encouraged t h a t p rov ide f o r opening up p e r c e p t u a l exper iences? (2) What k inds of a c t i v i t y f a c i l i t a t e the process of s e n s i t i z i n g people to o t h e r s , to i n n e r v i b r a t i o n s ? (3) What k inds of a c t i v i t y p rov ide exper iences f o r deve lop ing c l o s e - k n i t community r e l a t i o n s h i p s ? (4) What ways can we o rgan i ze knowledge to en la rge human p o t e n t i a l through meaning? (p. 105-106) These ques t ions and the f o l l o w i n g v iewpo in ts can be combined w i t h o ther r e l a t e d c o n s i d e r a t i o n s when c o n c e p t u a l i z i n g an i d e a l c u r r i c u l u m . Huebner (.1974) submits the f o l l o w i n g i d e a s : An educator cannot i n t e n t i o n a l l y educate w i thout t h i n k -i n g about the i n d i v i d u a l , the s o c i e t y , and the c u l t u r e or t r a d i t i o n . I t i s i n t a l k about these th ree p r e s e n -ces and t h e i r be ing together i n a p l a c e t h a t we c l a r i f y 82 our memories, share our i n t e n t i o n s , and f e e l our powers . , . , I t i s i n t h i n k i n g about the togetherness of these th ree presences t h a t we a r t i c u l a t e e d u c a t i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n and e d u c a t i o n a l method, (p. 41) Huebner suggests t h a t these th ree aspects "can be i n t e r r e -l a t e d by hermeneut ica l or i n t e r p r e t i v e a c t i v i t y , by p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i t y , and by work a c t i v i t y " (p. 4 1 ) . In t h i s l i g h t , c u r r i c u l u m q u e s t i o n s can i n c l u d e : "What p a s t , t h a t i s , what c o l l e c t i v e memories, t r a d i t i o n s , and a r t i f a c t s can be made present f o r what c h i l d i n the presence of what community? What k inds of a c t i v i t y occur among these th ree p resences?" Cp. 4 1 - 4 2 ) . Through these q u e s t i o n s , Huebner 1 s i n t e n t i s " to b r i n g i n t o f o c a l a t t e n t i o n the phenomena of s u b j e c t i v i t y and i n t e r s u b j e c t i v i t y , freedom as p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a p u b l i c w o r l d , and power" (p. 4 2 ) . The q u e s t i o n s asked by Macdonald and Huebner p o i n t t o some key c o n s i d e r a t i o n s f o r the o r g a n i z a t i o n of a c u l t u r a l l y -based c u r r i c u l u m . However, i n terms of the Canadian s i t u a -t i o n , Wood (1978) suggests t h a t thought should a l s o be g i ven to the f o l l o w i n g : the r o l e t h a t n o n - B r i t i s h , non-French Canadians have p layed " i n the development of Canada's economy, p o l i t i c a l system, s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e and n o n - m a t e r i a l c u l t u r e , and a r t i s t i c and f o l k c u l t u r e " (p. 2 6 ) ; the ways i n which s p e c i f i c communities have been a f f e c t e d by the growth of e t h n i c d i v e r s i t y ; and the impact of i n c r e a s i n g e t h n i c d i v e r -s i t y on Canada's development i n the f u t u r e . C u r r i c u l a r 83 ques t ions r e l a t i n g to these i s s u e s , i n concer t w i t h those p r e v i o u s l y l i s t e d , cou ld he lp t o p rov ide a focus f o r l e a r n i n g about the i n t e r p l a y of e t h n i c f a c t o r s i n Canadian s o c i e t y . With regard t o o r g a n i z a t i o n , B e r n s t e i n (1971) proposes tha t there are two broad types of c u r r i c u l a . One, a c u r r i c u -lum i n which the contents are bounded and i n s u l a t e d from one another i s c a l l e d a collection t y p e . The o t h e r , a c u r r i c u -lum i n which the contents are openly r e l a t e d t o each o ther i s termed an integrated t y p e . W i t h i n these s t r u c t u r e s i s the concept of framing, which " r e f e r s to the degree of c o n -t r o l teacher and p u p i l possess over the s e l e c t i o n , o r g a n i -z a t i o n and p a c i n g of the knowledge t r a n s m i t t e d and r e c e i v e d i n the pedagog ica l r e l a t i o n s h i p " (p. 50) . B e r n s t e i n expands on these ideas as f o l l o w s : The u n d e r l y i n g theory of l e a r n i n g of c o l l e c t i o n i s l i k e l y to be d i d a c t i c w h i l s t the u n d e r l y i n g theory of l e a r n i n g of i n t e g r a t e d codes may w e l l be more group or s e l f - r e g u l a t e d . Th i s a r i s e s out of a d i f f e r e n t c o n -cept of what counts as hav ing knowledge, which i n t u r n leads t o a d i f f e r e n t concept o f how the knowledge i s to be a c q u i r e d . These changes i n emphasis and o r i e n t a t i o n of the pedagogy are i n i t i a l l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the y : / r e l a x e d frames which teacher and taught e n t e r . Relaxed frames not on ly change the nature of the a u t h o r i t y r e l a t i o n s h i p s by i n c r e a s i n g the r i g h t s of the t a u g h t , they can a l s o weaken or b l u r r [ s i c ] the boundary between what may or may not be t a u g h t , and so more of the 84 teacher and taught i s l i k e l y to en te r t h i s pedagog ica l frame, (p. 61) One of the premises behind the methodology i n Chapter 3 i s t h a t the i n t e g r a t e d type of c u r r i c u l u m as d e s c r i b e d by B e r n s t e i n would be i d e a l l y appurtenant to a c u l t u r a l f o u n -d a t i o n . B e r n s t e i n suggests t h a t "order c r e a t e d by i n t e g r a -ted codes may w e l l be p r o b l e m a t i c " (p. 64 ) . He a l s o notes tha t i n order to ensure p u r p o s e f u l l e a r n i n g , four c o n d i t i o n s are i n v o l v e d : (1) "There must be consensus about the i n t e g r a t i n g idea and i t must be very e x p l i c i t " (p. 6 4 ) . (2) "The nature of the l i n k a g e between the i n t e g r a t i n g idea and the knowledge t o be c o - o r d i n a t e d must a l s o be c o h e r -e n t l y s p e l l e d o u t . I t i s t h i s l i n k a g e which w i l l be the b a s i c element i n b r i n g i n g teachers and p u p i l s i n t o t h e i r working r e l a t i o n s h i p " (p. 64 ) . (3) " E v a l u a t i o n c r i t e r i a are l i k e l y to be r e l a t i v e l y weak, i n the sense t h a t the c r i t e r i a are l e s s l i k e l y to be as e x p l i c i t and measurable as i n the case of c o l l e c t i o n . As a r e s u l t , i t may be necessary t o develop committees [where] both teachers . . . and . . . p u p i l s . . . per form m o n i t o r i n g f u n c t i o n s " (p. 6 5 ) . (4) " I t i s l i k e l y t h a t i n t e g r a t e d codes w i l l g i ve r i s e to m u l t i p l e c r i t e r i a of assessment compared w i t h c o l l e c t i o n codes" (p. 65 ) , One p a r t i c u l a r concept p e r t a i n i n g to the i n t e g r a t e d 85 type of s t r u c t u r e should be ment ioned; the concept of p r a x i s . Macdonald (1975a) e x p l a i n s t h a t , i n the context of c u r r i c u l u m development, p r a x i s r e f e r s to a c t i o n with r e f l e c t i o n , " i n d i s t i n c t i o n from e i t h e r r e f l e c t i o n w i thout a c t i o n ( i n t e l l e c t -ual ism) or a c t i o n wi thout r e f l e c t i o n ( a c t i v i s m ) " (p. 291) . P r a x i s i n v o l v e s o n - g o i n g e v a l u a t i o n and c o n s i d e r a t i o n f o r the r a t i o n a l e , va lue base , i m p l i c a t i o n s , and i m p l i c i t mean-ings of c u r r i c u l u m a c t i v i t y . I t must be an i n t e g r a l compo-nent w i t h i n a c u l t u r a l l y - b a s e d framework. O r i e n t a t i o n s In the i n t r o d u c t i o n to t h i s rev iew of l i t e r a t u r e on c u r r i c u l u m t h e o r y , th ree views of c u r r i c u l u m based on Habermas' t h e o r i e s of knowledge and human i n t e r e s t s were i d e n t i f i e d . These views he lp t o c l a r i f y d i s t i n c t p o s i t i o n s w i t h i n the f i e l d . E i s n e r (1979) i d e n t i f i e s f i v e i d e o l o g i c a l p o s i t i o n s which are permeated w i t h va lues t h a t shape concept ions of e d u c a t i o n a l p r a c t i c e . Each of these b a s i c o r i e n t a t i o n s has " s p e c i f i c i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r the goa ls and content of s p e c i f i c sub jec t matter c u r r i c u l a " (p. 7 0 ) . A l though s i m i l a r i n many ways to the th ree views a l r e a d y p r e s e n t e d , these f i v e o r i e n -t a t i o n s p l a c e a s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t emphasis on the p r i o r i t i e s which i n f l u e n c e e d u c a t i o n a l d e c i s i o n s and a c t i v i t i e s . These o r i e n t a t i o n s are summarized as f o l l o w s ; (.1). Development of cognitive processes In t h i s o r i e n t a t i o n the emphasis i s p l a c e d on the 86 i|evelopraent of the s t u d e n t ' s i n t e l l e c t u a l powers. The s t r u c -tu re of the c u r r i c u l u m f a c i l i t a t e s c o g n i t i v e development, emphasiz ing process over c o n t e n t . (.2) Academic rationalism Here, " the c e n t r a l aim i s to develop man's r a t i o n a l a b i l i t i e s by i n t r o d u c i n g h i s r a t i o n a l i t y to ideas and o b j e c t s t h a t represent r e a s o n ' s h i g h e s t achievements" (p. 57 ) . In t h i s c a s e , the c u r r i c u l u m must i n c l u d e " the grandest of man's i n t e l l e c t u a l works" (p. 56) — both E a s t e r n and Western (my emphasis) — w i t h i n the a r t s and s c i e n c e s . The o p t i m a l peda -g o g i c a l mode i n t h i s o r i e n t a t i o n i s d i a l e c t i c d i s c u s s i o n . (3) Personal relevance W i t h i n t h i s s t a n c e , the teacher f u n c t i o n s as f a c i l -i t a t o r , h e l p i n g s tudents to r e a l i z e t h e i r unique p o t e n t i a l i -t i e s . (4) Social adaptation and social reconstruction Th is f o u r t h concept ion has a dua l t h r u s t . I t s goa l i s ; t o r e v e a l the i n t r i c a c i e s of s o c i a l l i f e , as w e l l as to prepare s tudents to become r e s p o n s i b l e c i t i z e n s . In the a r t s , c u r r i c u l u m content might focus on the hidden forms of p e r s u a s i o n i n a d v e r t i s i n g , the impact of new technology on the c h a r a c t e r of a r t forms, the i d e a l s conveyed to the young by the mass media . What we see here i s an emphasis on the q u e s t i o n s t h a t c i t i z e n s have to d e a l w i t h or t h a t i s some s i g n i f i c a n t way a f f e c t s t h e i r l i v e s , (p. 65). 87 (.5) Curriculum as technology This o r i e n t a t i o n conce ives of c u r r i c u l u m as an ends-means s t r u c t u r e . S p e c i f i c measurable g o a l s , and ordered t a s k s he lp to make the t e c h n o l o g i c a l l y - b a s e d c lassroom run as an " e f f i c i e n t and e f f e c t i v e machine" (p. 70 ) . E i s n e r emphasizes t h a t " the p r o v i s i o n of l e a r n i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s i s probably the s i n g l e most important f a c t o r i n f l u e n c i n g the content of l e a r n i n g i n s c h o o l , the importance of an o r i e n t a t i o n to c u r r i c u l u m can h a r d l y be underest imated" (p. 71) . However, he a l s o c a u t i o n s t h a t the context and j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r the cho ice of o r i e n t a t i o n i s a l s o ext remely impor tant . He notes t h a t , i n p r a c t i c e , these o r i e n t a t i o n s "are seldom encountered i n t h e i r pure fo rm, a l though i n many forms of e d u c a t i o n a l p r a c t i c e one of the f i v e views dominates" (p. 71) . I t i s a l s o l i k e l y t h a t schoo l may be "somewhat e c l e c t i c i n what they do" (p. 72) . S p e c i f i c f e a t u r e s of these o r i e n t a t i o n s , and of the three views of c u r r i c u l u m i n t r o d u c e d e a r l i e r , are r e f e r r e d to i n Chapter 3 . Three C u r r i c u l a E i s n e r (1979) p rov ides one f u r t h e r p o i n t of d i f f e r e n -t i a t i o n i n terms of c u r r i c u l a . Th is d i v i s i o n f a l l s i n t o the f o l l o w i n g c a t e g o r i e s ; CI) Explicit curricula Th is e s s e n t i a l l y has a p u b l i c p resence . I t i s 88 i d e n t i f i a b l e i n courses of s tudy ; i t can be both a r t i c u l a t e d and e v a l u a t e d . (2) Implicit curricula This i s the "h idden" c u r r i c u l u m . E i s n e r e x p l a i n s t h a t " s c h o o l s s o c i a l i z e c h i l d r e n to a set of e x p e c t a t i o n s tha t some argue are p ro found ly more power fu l and l o n g e r -l a s t i n g than what i s i n t e n t i o n a l l y taught or what the e x p l i -c i t c u r r i c u l u m of the schoo l p u b l i c l y p r o v i d e s " (p. 75). W i t h i n the i m p l i c i t c u r r i c u l u m , such aspects as i n i t i a t i v e , r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , p u n c t u a l i t y , c o m p e t i t i v e n e s s , and respec t are e i t h e r c u l t i v a t e d or d i s s u a d e d . (.3) Null curricula The n u l l c u r r i c u l u m e s s e n t i a l l y encompasses those aspects tha t the schoo ls do not t e a c h . There are two d imen-s ions i n v o l v e d : (a) i n t e l l e c t u a l p r o c e s s e s , and (b) c o n -t e n t . In the f i r s t i n s t a n c e , th ree domains ( c o g n i t i v e , a f f e c t i v e , and psychomotor) p rov ide the nexus f o r the fo rma-t i o n of taxonomies t h a t work w i t h i n s c i e n t i f i c t r a d i t i o n s . However, E i s n e r makes the f o l l o w i n g o b s e r v a t i o n : Many of the most p r o d u c t i v e modes of thought are non -v e r b a l and a l o g i c a l . These modes operate i n v i s u a l , a u d i t o r y , metaphor i c , s y n e s t h e t i c ways and u t i l i z e forms of concept ion and e x p r e s s i o n t h a t f a r exceed the l i m i t s of l o g i c a l l y p r e s c r i b e d c r i t e r i a . . . . When we look a t schoo l c u r r i c u l a w i t h an eye toward the f u l l range of i n t e l l e c t u a l p rocesses t h a t human 89 beings can e x e r c i s e , i t q u i c k l y becomes apparent t h a t on ly a s lender range of those processes i s emphasized. Cp. 84).. In terms of c o n t e n t , the " n u l l " aspects of c u r r i c u l a are even more o b v i o u s . C e r t a i n b a s i c s k i l l s and s u b j e c t areas are deemed to be the "most impor tant" and are found i n abundance i n both secondary and elementary s c h o o l s . When these are rev iewed , c e r t a i n q u e s t i o n s come to l i g h t : Who dec ides on what should be i n c l u d e d i n the c u r r i c u l u m ? In whose i n t e r e s t s are the components s e l e c t e d ? Can a l l of the s t a n d a r d , t r a d i t i o n a l " c o n t r o l " dominated approaches and content f e a t u r e s be c o n t i n u o u s l y and u n q u e s t i o n i n g l y taught to s t a n d a r d i z e d c o n s t i t u e n t s ? Are the b a s i c founda -t i o n s f o r c u r r i c u l u m d e c i s i o n s ever examined or quest ioned by those who implement them? Is our s o c i e t y i n need of o ther types of c u r r i c u l a ? What about the needs of the m u l t i -c u l t u r a l s o c i e t y : i s the community ever consu l ted? To what extent does e t h n o c e n t r i c i t y dominate the c u r r i c u l u m ? Why cannot s u b j e c t s such as law, anthropo logy , and f i l m - m a k i n g be o f f e r e d ? What o ther aspects o f the n u l l c u r r i c u l u m have never been cons idered? To what ex tent do Western views permeate the c u r r i c u l u m ? These, and many o ther q u e s t i o n s are beg inn ing to be asked . Caught i n the midst of t r a d i t i o n a l approaches and r e c o n c e p t u a l i s t ideas are teachers and s t u d e n t s . T h e i r p o s i t i o n s w i l l be examined n e x t . 90 Cur r i cu lum and Learn ing Macdonald (1975a)., i n h i s rev iew of r e c o n c e p t u a l i s t c u r r i c u l u m t h e o r i e s , notes t h a t the broader v i s t a s which are opening up " focus upon the s o c i a l , c u l t u r a l , and p e r s o n a l context and f a b r i c which i s interwoven i n t o a complex mosaic of l i v i n g and be ing" (p. 9 ) . These three components — s o c i a l , c u l t u r a l , and p e r s o n a l — have too f r e q u e n t l y been d isconnected i n h i s t o r i c a l approaches to c u r r i c u l u m . How-ever , c u r r i c u l u m r e c o n c e p t u a l i s t s and advocates of m u l t i -c u l t u r a l educat ion espouse the more n a t u r a l i s t i c view of t h e i r i n t e r r e l a t e d n e s s . F o l i o (1977), f o r example, p r o v i d e s suggest ions f o r the implementat ion of c u l t u r a l s t r a t e g i e s w i t h i n the c l a s s r o o m . He proposes t h a t i n g r e d i e n t s should i n c l u d e : (1) s e t t i n g a s i d e l a r g e b l o c k s of t ime f o r c u l t u r a l i n q u i r y and r e l a t e d a c t i v i t i e s , i n c l u d i n g l i b r a r y r e s e a r c h , f a m i l y and community invo lvement , and a c t i v i t i e s t h a t focus on " p e r c e i v i n g , c a t e g o r i z i n g , c o n c e p t u a l i z i n g , and genera -l i z i n g about c u l t u r a l p l u r a l i s m " (p. 327) . (2) s h a r i n g the f i n d i n g s of i n d i v i d u a l i n q u i r y t o promote l e a r n i n g about the c u l t u r a l h e r i t a g e of o t h e r s . F o l i o emphasizes the f o l l o w i n g : [Such i n g r e d i e n t s j can be extremely d i f f i c u l t to i m p l e -ment i f the c lassroom or schoo l s i t u a t i o n does not f o s t e r openness and i n n o v a t i o n . Teachers should look f o r o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o c a p i t a l i z e on the d i s c o v e r i e s of 91 the students and on the many materials which they w i l l bring into t h i s learning s i t u a t i o n . An open, p o s i t i v e attitude toward differences must be fostered by the teacher i f t h i s strategy i s going to succeed, (p. 32 7) The NCSS Task Force on Ethnic Studies Curriculum Guide-li n e s (1976) proposes that students need to develop the f o l -lowing s k i l l s : i d e n t i f y i n g problems; formulating hypotheses; locating and evaluating source materials; organizing information as evidence; analyzing, i n t e r p r e t i n g , and reworking what was found; and coming to some conclusion. Students also need ample opportunities to learn to use knowledge in making sense out of the situations they encounter, (p. 29) The Task Force further submits that Determing basic ideas, discovering and v e r i f y i n g f a c t s , and valuing are i n t e r r e l a t e d aspects of decision-making. Ample opportunity for practice i s necessary - as often as possible - i n r e a l - l i f e s i t u a t i o n s ; such practice frequently requires i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y as well as multi-ethnic perspectives, (p. 30) One of the major approaches which could help i n the development of such s k i l l s and learnings i s thematic i n v e s t i -gation. F r e i r e C19 701 provides insight into t h i s process, as follows; We must r e a l i z e that the aspirations, the motives, and 92 the o b j e c t i v e s i m p l i c i t i n . . . meaningfu l themat ics are human a s p i r a t i o n s , m o t i v e s , and o b j e c t i v e s . . . . Thematic i n v e s t i g a t i o n thus becomes a common s t r i v i n g towards awareness of r e a l i t y and towards s e l f - a w a r e n e s s , which makes t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n a s t a r t i n g p o i n t f o r the e d u c a t i o n a l process or f o r c u l t u r a l a c t i o n of a l i b e r a t i n g c h a r a c t e r , (p. 98) F r e i r e emphasizes t h a t such i n v e s t i g a t i o n must be based upon " r e c i p r o c i t y of a c t i o n " . He e x p l a i n s : Thematic i n v e s t i g a t i o n . . . as a process of s e a r c h , of knowledge, and thus of c r e a t i o n . . . r e q u i r e s the i n v e s t i g a t o r s to d i s c o v e r the i n t e r p e n e t r a t i o n of p r o b -lems, i n the l i n k i n g of meaningfu l themes. The i n v e s t i -g a t i o n w i l l be most e d u c a t i o n a l when i t i s most c r i t i -c a l , and most c r i t i c a l when i t avo ids the narrow o u t -l i n e s of p a r t i a l o r " f o c a l i z e d " v iews of r e a l i t y , and s t i c k s to the comprehension of total r e a l i t y . Thus, the process of s e a r c h i n g f o r meaningfu l themat ics should i n c l u d e a concern f o r l i n k s between themes, a concern t o pose these themes as problems, and a concern f o r t h e i r h i s t o r i c a l - c u l t u r a l c o n t e x t . (p. 99) In terms of the r o l e of the teacher i n the t e a c h i n g / l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n which encompasses the s o c i a l , c u l t u r a l , and p e r s o n a l t r i u n e , Greene (19 74) informs us t h a t : Working i n a d i a l o g i c a l r e l a t i o n w i t h s t u d e n t s , the teacher must t r y to move h i m s e l f and them to ask the 93 kinds of worthwhile questions that lead to disclosure and engage individuals i n praxis. These are the kinds of questions that enable learners to perceive t h e i r own r e a l i t i e s from many vantage points. They are the kinds of questions that enable them to i d e n t i f y lacks i n t h e i r l i f e situations and to move toward repair and transcen-dence. I t i s out of such perceptions . . . that cogni-t i v e action arises. I t i s against the background of such questioning that i n d i v i d u a l s reach out to c o n s t i -tute meaning in t h e i r l i v e s . (p. 79) Before such a role could be assumed, many teachers may have to c r i t i c a l l y examine t h e i r assumptions and b e l i e f s concerning key areas. Wolfson (1977) suggests that these elements or considerations should be examined as responses to s p e c i f i c questions. These, along with her judgments, are presented as follows: (1) "What are schools for? . . . for l i v i n g , learning, and growing, i n d i v i d u a l l y and i n groups" (p. 84). (2) How do children and adults learn? . . . "through involvement i n and int e r a c t i o n with t h e i r environment: searching, selecting, experimenting, assimilating, and making meaning" (p. 84). (.3). How do children grow? , , . through a process of "expanded awareness" (p. 85). {A\ What i s the nature of knowledge? . . . " a l l knowl-edge i s uncertain, subject to change, and personally con-structed" (p. 85). Wolfson believes that "we have not f u l l y 94 grasped the i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r educat ion of t h i s v iew of k n o w l -edge" (p. 85) , (.51 What are our assumptions and b e l i e f s about the wor ld? . . . teachers need to be "open to an awareness of o ther p e o p l e ' s p e r s p e c t i v e s " (p. 86 ) . (.6) "What i s my understanding of my r o l e as a teacher? . . . . teacher and s tudents together make the c u r r i c u l u m " (pp. 8 6 - 8 7 ) . A c lassroom approach to c u r r i c u l u m and i n s t r u c t i o n based on the b e l i e f s o u t l i n e d above would p rov ide o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r a c t i v e cho ice and j o i n t d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g about c u r r i c u l u m . "Persons i n such an environment [would] focus on t h e i r b e i n g -i n - t h e - w o r l d and, i n s h a r i n g t h e i r p e r s p e c t i v e s , [would] c o n -t r i b u t e to the awareness and 'becoming' of o t h e r s , opening new p o s s i b i l i t i e s , new g o a l s , and new invo lvements" (Wolfson, p. 88) . Such an approach to l e a r n i n g would i n v o l v e s tudents and teachers as c o - i n v e s t i g a t o r s . Together they would dec ide on aspects of a study t h a t would be t h e m a t i c a l l y r e l e v a n t . In the i n v e s t i g a t i o n the "why" ques t ions would dominate, l e a d -i n g towards g r e a t e r v i s i o n , and wider h o r i z o n s of knowledge. Greene (1974) e l a b o r a t e s as f o l l o w s : When we t h i n k phenomeno log ica l l y , we r e a l i z e t h a t c o n -sc iousness means a t h r u s t i n g toward the t h i n g s of the w o r l d . I t r e f e r s , i n f a c t , to the m u l t i p l e ways i n which the i n d i v i d u a l comes i n touch w i t h o b j e c t s , 95 e v e n t s , and o ther human b e i n g s . These ways of coming i n touch i n c l u d e a l l the a c t i v i t i e s by means of which r e a l i t i e s ' p resent themse lves : p e r c e i v i n g , j u d g i n g , b e l i e v i n g , remembering, i m a g i n i n g . (p. 71) She adds t h a t " s i g n i f i c a n t l e a r n i n g can on ly take p l a c e when the i n d i v i d u a l c o n s c i o u s l y looks from a v a r i e t y of vantage p o i n t s upon h i s own l i v e d w o r l d , and when he ach ieves . . . a ' r e c i p r o c i t y of p e r s p e c t i v e s ' upon h i s own r e a l i t y " (p. 2 73) . Greene acknowledges A l f r e d Schutz (1967) f o r t h i s ' r e c i p r o c i t y of p e r s p e c t i v e s ' term and suggests t h a t " c u r r i -culum be conceived as a source of such p e r s p e c t i v e s r a t h e r than a c a r r i e r of some a l i e n r e a l i t y " (p. 73 ) . In p u r s u i t of the type of l e a r n i n g i m p l i e d w i t h i n t h i s expanded paradigm,, s tudents must be c h a l l e n g e d to "move out of t h e i r own s u b j e c t i v i t i e s " (Greene, p. 74 ) . When the "why" q u e s t i o n i s used to d i s c l o s e the w o r l d , the depth of under -s tand ing t h a t may be a t t a i n e d i s l i m i t l e s s . In such a l e a r n -i n g s i t u a t i o n , w i t h the teacher a c t i n g as c o - i n v e s t i g a t o r , a new " l i f e - s p a c e f o r t e a c h e r ' s growth" i s p r o v i d e d , which he lps at the same t ime to assure " the e x i s t e n c e of o p t i m a l c o n d i t i o n s f o r the e d u c a t i o n a l growth of s t u d e n t s " ( E i s n e r , 1979, p. 167) . E v a l u a t i o n E i s n e r C1979) p o i n t s out t h a t there are th ree s u b j e c t mat ters t h a t can be i d e n t i f i e d as the p o t e n t i a l focus f o r e v a l u a t i o n : the c u r r i c u l u m , the t e a c h i n g , and the s t u d e n t ' s 96 l e a r n i n g . In a t r a d i t i o n a l ends-means approach t h i s t a s k i s f a c i l i t a t e d by the s t r u c t u r a l . i s o l a t i o n o f i n d i v i d u a l aspects of each of these f a c t o r s . However, i n a c u r r i c u l u m c h a r a c t e r -i z e d by the f e a t u r e s d e s c r i b e d i n r e c o n c e p t u a l i s t v i e w s , the task of d i a g n o s i s becomes much more complex. T r a d i t i o n a l e v a l u a t i o n techniques can no longer be a p p l i e d . What i s needed, t h e r e f o r e , are approaches to e v a l u a t i o n which would c o o r d i n a t e w i t h the paradigm of q u a l i t a t i v e i n q u i r y . Stake (1975) he lps to d i f f e r e n t i a t e between the s c i e n -t i f i c "mainstream" approach which he c a l l s preordinate e v a l -u a t i o n , and a form which he c a l l s responsive e v a l u a t i o n . He d e f i n e s t h i s as f o l l o w s : An e d u c a t i o n a l e v a l u a t i o n i s responsive evaluation i f i t o r i e n t s more d i r e c t l y to program a c t i v i t i e s than to program i n t e n t s ; responds t o audience requirements f o r i n f o r m a t i o n ; and i f the d i f f e r e n t v a l u e - p e r s p e c t i v e s present are r e f e r r e d to i n r e p o r t i n g the success and f a i l u r e of the program. (p. 14) Stake e x p l a i n s t h a t t h i s type of e v a l u a t i o n i n v o l v e s f o l l o w -i n g a p l a n of o b s e r v a t i o n s and n e g o t i a t i o n s . Much of t h i s i s done i n f o r m a l l y — " i t e r a t i n g and keeping a r e c o r d of a c t i o n and r e a c t i o n " (p. 1 4 ) . Th is i n v o l v e s l o o k i n g f o r p a t t e r n s and s i g n i f i c a n t e v e n t s . Such an approach " i s an attempt to respond to the n a t u r a l ways i n which people a s s i m i l a t e i n f o r m a t i o n and a r r i v e a t unders tand ing" (p. 2 3 ) . In essence , "the respons ive e v a l u a t o r prepares p o r t r a y a l s " , seek ing to "convey h o l i s t i c i m p r e s s i o n , the mood, even the mystery of the exper ience" (p. 23) . A s i m i l a r concept ion of e v a l u a t i o n i s r e v e a l e d i n E i s n e r ' s (.1979) " c o n n o i s s e u r s h i p " model . Guba (1978) summar-i z e s the b a s i c i n t e n t of the model as f o l l o w s : "Th is model . . . c o n s i d e r s e d u c a t i o n a l e v a l u a t i o n e q u i v a l e n t to e d u c a t i o n -a l c r i t i c i s m , i . e . , the process through which the c o m p l e x i -t i e s of the e n t i t y be ing eva lua ted are p e n e t r a t i n g l y and p u b l i c l y d e s c r i b e d and a p p r a i s e d " (pp. 3 8 - 3 9 ) . E i s n e r (1979) d e f i n e s c o n n o i s s e u r s h i p as the a r t of a p p r e c i a t i o n , and d e f i n e s c r i t i c i s m as the a r t of d i s c l o s u r e . "Conno isseur -sh ip i s a p r i v a t e a c t ; i t c o n s i s t s of r e c o g n i z i n g and appre -c i a t i n g the q u a l i t i e s of a p a r t i c u l a r , but i t does not r e q u i r e e i t h e r a p u b l i c judgment or a p u b l i c d e s c r i p t i o n of those q u a l i t i e s " (p. 193) . C r i t i c i s m , however, depends on c o n n o i s -s e u r s h i p . The p r e r e q u i s i t e s are d e s c r i b e d by E i s n e r as f o l l o w s : What i s i n v o l v e d i n the development of e d u c a t i o n a l conno isseursh ip i s , f i r s t , the o p p o r t u n i t y to a t tend to happenings of e d u c a t i o n a l l i f e i n a f o c u s e d , s e n s i -t i v e , and consc ious way. Second, i t r e q u i r e s the o p p o r t u n i t y to compare such happenings, t o d i s c u s s what one sees so t h a t p e r c e p t i o n s can be r e f i n e d , to i d e n t i f y events not p r e v i o u s l y p e r c e i v e d , and to i n t e -grate and appra i se what has been seen, (p, 195) Three major aspects r e l a t e t o e d u c a t i o n a l c r i t i c i s m . These 98 a r e : d e s c r i p t i o n , i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , and e v a l u a t i o n . The l a t -t e r process focuses on a s s e s s i n g the e d u c a t i o n a l import or s i g n i f i c a n c e of the events or o b j e c t s d e s c r i b e d or i n t e r p r e -ted ( E i s n e r , p. 211) . Both the " r e s p o n s i v e " model and the " c o n n o i s s e u r s h i p " model are d e s c r i b e d by t h e i r authors i n a manner which shows t h e i r p o t e n t i a l f o r use by o u t s i d e examiners , i . e . , by p e r -sons not i n v o l v e d i n the c lassroom s i t u a t i o n on a d a i l y b a s i s . However, aspects of these models can a l s o be employed by teachers and s tudents f o r purposes of s e l f e x a m i n a t i o n . As the e v a l u a t i o n i n s t r u m e n t , the c o n n o i s s e u r / c r i t i c takes an a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l - p a r t i c i p a n t observer s t a n c e , e n t e r i n g i n t o the s i t u a t i o n to p rov ide as n a t u r a l a response or judgment as p o s s i b l e . Thus, teachers and s t u d e n t s , as c o - i n v e s t i g a -t o r s w i t h i n a s tudy , are themselves "deve lop ing c o n n o i s s e u r s " who can d e s c r i b e q u a l i t i e s o f the exper ience from unique v i e w p o i n t s . The re fo re , t h e i r r o l e i n the e v a l u a t i o n process i s ext remely s i g n i f i c a n t . The methodology i n Chapter 3 p r o -v i d e s suggest ions f o r the use of t h i s c o n n o i s s e u r s h i p / c r i t i c approach. One other model of e v a l u a t i o n r e l a t e d to n a t u r a l i s t i c i n q u i r y i s the " i l l u m i n a t i o n " model . Guba (1978) e x p l a i n s t h a t t h i s model encompasses th ree s t a g e s : Ca) o b s e r v a t i o n f o r the purpose of i n i t i a l f a m i l i a r i z a t i o n ; (b) "more s u s t a i n e d and i n t e n s i v e i n q u i r y i n t o a number of common i n c i -d e n t s , r e c u r r i n g t r e n d s , and i s s u e s f r e q u e n t l y r a i s e d i n discussion" (.p. 40) ; and (c) e f f o r t s to seek general p r i n -c i p l e s and trends, to determine patterns of cause and e f f e c t , and to place findings within a broader context. Within t h i s model "observations are intended primarily to b u i l d up a continuous record of ongoing events" (p. 40). Guba explains that no matter which model i s used, most scholars agree that "evaluation has two p a r t i c u l a r thrusts or elements: description and judgment" (p. 41). He notes that within the n a t u r a l i s t i c approach, description helps "to determine what i s there, to discover how components are related, to determine what people think about a s i t u a t i o n " . However, evaluation i s incomplete " i f i t does not also com-ment on the worth, u t i l i t y , or merit of the evaluated e n t i t y as well" (p. 41). Within the classroom s i t u a t i o n the evaluation phase of a study can be organized as a natural follow-up to the inves-t i g a t i v e and production phases. In t h i s manner the entire learning s i t u a t i o n can function as a h e u r i s t i c and syner-g i s t i c whole. Summary and Conclusion In t h i s review of curriculum theory I have emphasized, to a large extent, the broader horizons for learning which appear to be possible using q u a l i t a t i v e approaches as opposed to t r a d i t i o n a l "control" methods. This conceptual base i s one of the s i g n i f i c a n t components supporting the methodology presented i n Chapter 3. 100 Perhaps a m e t a p h o r i c a l d e s c r i p t i o n would be apropos. K l i e b a r d (1975a). suggests t h a t the r o o t s of c u r r i c u l u m des ign r e l a t e to th ree a r e a s : p r o d u c t i o n , growth, and t r a v e l . H i s t r a v e l metaphor seems to c o o r d i n a t e w i t h n a t u r a l i s t i c i n q u i r y : The c u r r i c u l u m i s a route over which s tudents w i l l t r a v e l under the l e a d e r s h i p of an exper ienced guide and companion. Each t r a v e l l e r w i l l be a f f e c t e d d i f f e r e n t l y by the journey s i n c e i t s e f f e c t i s a t l e a s t as much a f u n c t i o n of the p r e d i l e c t i o n s , i n t e l l i g e n c e , i n t e r e s t s , and i n t e n t of the t r a v e l l e r as i t i s of the contours of the r o u t e . T h i s v a r i a b i l i t y i s not on l y i n e v i t a b l e , but wondrous and d e s i r a b l e . T h e r e f o r e , no e f f o r t i s made to a n t i c i p a t e the exact nature of the e f f e c t on the t r a v e l l e r ; but a g reat e f f o r t i s made to p l o t the route so t h a t the journey w i l l be as r i c h , as f a s c i n a -t i n g , and as memorable as p o s s i b l e . (p. 85) A l though perhaps the "nature of the e f f e c t on the t r a v e l l e r " should be g iven c o n s i d e r a t i o n , o ther aspects of t h i s metaphor seem f i t t i n g . Quer ies stemming from the l a s t l i n e might i n c l u d e : Who w i l l p l o t the route? What i n f l u e n c e s w i l l c h a r t the course? and What leeway does the c u r r i c u l u m t r a v e l l e r have a long the journey? Huebner (1975b) speaks of "images of the f u t u r e " (p. 2 75) . Whose c u l t u r e and h e r i t a g e w i l l p r o v i d e the grounding f o r what f u t u r e ? What i s the r o l e of educat ion? The advocates of q u a l i t a t i v e i n q u i r y i n c u r r i c u l u m seem to 101 have found an i l l u m i n a t i n g key . Such i n q u i r y suggests the p o t e n t i a l f o r e x p e r i e n c i n g new r e a l i t i e s and d i s c o v e r i n g g rea te r i n s i g h t s i n t o m u l t i p l e t r u t h s than are p o s s i b l e u s i n g t r a d i t i o n a l methods. The next s e c t i o n w i l l examine some of the p e r s p e c t i v e s t h a t may be r e v e a l e d w i t h i n a q u a l i t a t i v e approach to a r t e d u c a t i o n . C u l t u r a l W o r l d - P e r s p e c t i v e s Many of the p reced ing comments, a l though important to the s t r u c t u r e of t h i s t h e s i s , r e v e a l the thoughts of Western s c h o l a r s . The w r i t i n g s of such s c h o l a r s are p r o l i f i c and v a r i e d . However, there i s a t r a d i t i o n of commonality among them — an adherence to v e r b a l l o g i c t h a t channels t h i n k i n g a long b a s i c a l l y l i n e a r t r a c k s . H a l l (1976) submits t h a t "Western man sees h i s l o g i c as synonymous w i t h the t r u t h . For him i t i s the on l y road to r e a l i t y " (p. 9 ) . I t i s because of such l o g i c t h a t Western a r t has become, i n the minds of many p e o p l e , separated from l i f e . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , t h i s type of t h i n k i n g and t h i s " s e p a r a t i o n of a r t from l i f e " has extended even i n t o the a r t c l a s s r o o m , r e s u l t i n g i n the "schoo l a r t " d e s c r i b e d i n Chapter 1 . As p r e v i o u s l y n o t e d , Western s c h o l a r s have r e c e n t l y begun to ga in v a l u a b l e i n s i g h t s from more h o l i s t i c a l l y -o r i e n t e d Eas te rn paradigms. Reconceptua l i zed views of c u r r i c u l u m , such as those o u t l i n e d i n the p reced ing s e c t i o n , i l l u s t r a t e the i n f l u e n c e of t h i s thought . 102 In the development of v i a b l e a r t educat ion f o r a m u l t i -c u l t u r a l s o c i e t y , views from many c u l t u r e s must be c o n s i d e r e d . By r e f l e c t i n g on these v i e w s , important i n s i g h t s can be ga ined concern ing the r e l a t i o n s h i p of a r t to l i f e . An understanding of t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p would , i n t u r n , he lp to p rov ide a broader p h i l o s o p h i c a l foundat ion f o r program development. In the overview prov ided i n t h i s s e c t i o n , o b s e r v a t i o n s on a r t , c u l t u r e , and l i f e , and comments on e d u c a t i o n , as they r e f l e c t Japanese, Ch inese , E a s t I n d i a n , and N a t i v e Ind ian p e r s p e c t i v e s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the m u l t i c u l t u r a l nature of the Vancouver l o c a l e add to the p h i l o s o p h i c a l base r e l a t i n g to the methodology i n Chapter 3 . In many c a s e s , t h i s rev iew i s based on comments from a r t i s t s and a r t h i s t o r i a n s w i t h i n those c u l t u r e s . Japanese In h i s i n t r o d u c t i o n to Soetsu Y a n a g i 1 s The Unknown Craftsman (1972), Bernard Leach notes t h a t Yanagi makes no d i s t i n c t i o n between t r u t h and beauty , nor between f i n e and a p p l i e d a r t . He r e f e r s , r a t h e r , to Y a n a g i 1 s "Kingdom of Beauty" theory i n which " a l l v a r i e t i e s of a r t - p r i m i t i v e , f o l k , a r i s t o c r a t i c , r e l i g i o u s , o r i n d i v i d u a l - meet i n e q u a l i t y at a t o p l e s s , b o t t o m l e s s , round t a b l e . Th is [he t h i n k s ] has never been s t a t e d before and may indeed come to be accepted i n a mature and round w o r l d " (p. 8 9 ) . Yanagi p o i n t s out t h a t "each n a t i o n has i n i t s own a r t an e x p r e s s i o n of i t s p a r t i c u l a r p e r c e p t i o n of beauty . By l o o k i n g at the 103 art of a l l peoples, by loving and respecting i t , the nations of the world can, [he 'believes], achieve mutual s p i r i t u a l harmony" (p. 156). These statements, when contrasted with the Western view of "art as object", as a separate e n t i t y which can only be f u l l y appreciated and understood by an e l i t e few, provide an e n t i r e l y d i f f e r e n t framework for a conception of ar t . These statements also suggest the potential for an e n t i r e l y d i f f e r e n t approach to the study of a r t i n education. The key to the art of appreciation and to the success of depiction i n Japanese art i s observation. Yanagi pro-vides the following explanation: Socrates saw the i d e n t i t y of action and knowing. To see and at the same time to comprehend i s the i d e a l , but i n practice we are f a r removed from t h i s unity . . . . of the two, those forced into the f i e l d of knowledge are i n the worst p o s i t i o n as far as beauty i s concerned. To be unable to see beauty properly i s to lack the basic foundation for any aesthetic • understanding . . . . To "see" i s to go d i r e c t to the core; to know the facts about an object of beauty i s to go around the periphery. (pp. 109-110) Yanagi suggests that i n order to refi n e the a b i l i t y to see, the desire to judge immediately must be put aside. The object must be contacted d i r e c t l y and p o s i t i v e l y . He cautions that "gazing at objects through the colour c a l l e d 104 ego" (p. 153} w i l l prevent one from seeing the true meaning of things. Yanagi also provides a caveat to the quantitative approach. He suggests that when such a treatment i s used, one can only see those parts that correlate with the measure-ment instrument. "Whenever fixed rules are applied to an object, only certain parts of i t may be perceived. But an object i s an i n t e g r i t y ; when, therefore, we force d u a l i s t i c d i s t i n c t i o n s upon i t , i t s r e a l i t y has already f l e d " (p. 153). With regard to education, Yanagi remarks that "attempts to improve the attitude of society through aesthetic and c u l t u r a l education at school i s very important. School education these days seems to be i n c l i n e d too much to i n t e l -l e c t and i s lacking i n c u l t u r a l f e e l i n g " (pp. 218-219). What i s important, he f e e l s , i s to concentrate on learning to understand the truth behind c u l t u r a l a r t , to " r e f l e c t upon the s o c i a l background" (p. 213) that provides the impetus for art and beauty. Cultural r e f l e c t i o n s can reveal unique p e r c e p t i v i t i e s . The Japanese culture, for example, i s permeated with a special aesthetic s e n s i b i l i t y referred to as s h i b u i , which i s understood by a l l people within the society. Muraoka and Okamura (19 73) explain that an appreciation of the beauty of nature and of man-made things i s "a matter of course . . . This has been the t r a d i t i o n of aesthetic consciousness since ancient times i n Japan" (p. 15). 105 S h i n k b k a i (.1961) e x p l a i n s t h a t the Japanese people have an "easy f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h p r a c t i c a l a e s t h e t i c i s m " , which " a t i t s p r a c t i c a l best . . . may be a model p a t t e r n of g rac ious l i v i n g , w h i l e at i t s s p i r i t u a l h e i g h t , i t may a t t a i n the depths of Zen ph i losophy" (p. 95 ) . Yanagi (1972) emphasizes t h a t i t i s " the see ing eye" (p. 97) t h a t p rov ides the key t o the r e l a t i o n s h i p between t r u t h and beauty . I t i s through t h i s concept , he f e e l s , . that Japan can make i t s g r e a t e s t c o n t r i b u t i o n to wor ld c u l t u r e . Chinese A c c o r d i n g t o Sze (1959), one of the u n d e r l y i n g mot ives of Chinese l i f e i s a sense of f i t n e s s : " E s s e n t i a l l y , the sense of f i t n e s s i s knowing what to do and how to do i t , s u i t a b l e to the o c c a s i o n , w i t h the i m p l i c a t i o n t h a t , i n p e r -forming a r i t e or behaving ceremonious ly , one understands the meaning and purpose of the r i t u a l approach" (p. 6 ) . This motive stems from the great u n i f y i n g aim of e x p r e s s i n g Tao, the Way — " the b a s i c Chinese b e l i e f i n an o rder and harmony i n nature" (p. 3 ) . In terms of Chinese a r t , t h i s p a t t e r n made s p e c i f i c demands on the t r a i n i n g and d i s c i p l i n e of p a i n t e r s , whose goa l i n t r a d i t i o n a l Chinese p a i n t i n g focuses on e x p r e s s i n g the harmony of Tao. Two s p e c i f i c f e a t u r e s are i m p l i c i t to the t r a d i t i o n a l educat ion of a s c h o l a r . One i s the c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p between p a i n t i n g and c a l l i g r a p h y , and the o ther i s the t r a d i t i o n a l 106 view that "painting i s not a profession but an extension of the art of l i v i n g " (p, 6 1 , Ritual has always been important within Chinese culture. Both painting and "every other phase of Chinese l i f e " has t r a d i t i o n a l l y served "to order the l i f e of the community i n harmony with the forces of nature (Tao), on which subsistence and well-being" (p. 7) depend. In painting, the central goal i s to express the Tao of l i v i n g by revealing the essen-t i a l inner s p i r i t or l i f e force of the subject. This could be contrasted with the Western approach, which tends to place emphasis on the depiction of outward appearance. In both Chinese and Japanese cultures, folk arts play a s i g n i f i c a n t r o l e . The beauty of folk c r a f t s i s appreciated for i t s relationship within the d a i l y l i v e s of the people. The natural beauty of these objects i s a beauty of the warm and f a m i l i a r , a beauty of t o t a l selflessness steeped i n t r a d i t i o n , which r e f l e c t s "the times and environments and l i f e styles of i t s users" (Muraoka & Okamura, 1973, p. 13). Chinese and Japanese art both embody a t r a d i t i o n of "selective v i s i o n " , r e f l e c t an all-encompassing attunement to nature, and are based on long-standing t r a d i t i o n s and aesthetic i d e a l s . The study of either one of these cultures within art education could vastly enrich the f i e l d . East Indian Anand (1933). t e l l s us that "the Hindu view of art i s the Hindu view of l i f e " (p. 371 — a philosophy which might 107 be s a i d to extend throughout a l l v a r i e t i e s of Ind ian r e l i -g i o n , Anand a l s o p o i n t s out t h a t the S a n s k r i t language c o n -t a i n s no exact e q u i v a l e n t f o r the word " a r t " . A r t i s on l y seen i n r e l a t i o n to the s e r v i c e i t renders i n p u r s u i t of " l i f e - o r i e n t e d " i d e a l s . Mukerjee (1948) e x p l a i n s t h a t " a r t and r e l i g i o n develop together . . . . A r t , l i k e r e l i g i o n , exp lo res the e n t i r e meaning of l i f e , the h e i g h t s and depths of man's exper ience" (.p. 10) . A r t r e f l e c t s an ext remely complex network of b e l i e f s centered around such major d i e t i e s as Buddha, S i v a , and K r i s h n a . These b e l i e f s are expressed to a l a r g e ex tent through the t r a d i t i o n a l a r t s of s c u l p t u r e and p a i n t i n g . The major m o t i v a t i n g f o r c e f o r the a r t i s t i s an i n n e r consc iousness f l o w i n g d i r e c t l y from h i s contemplat ion of r e l i g i o n and p h i l o s o p h y . Swarup (1957) submits t h a t " f o r the I n d i a n , c r e a t i o n as w e l l as contemplat ion of a work of a r t i s p r e - e m i n e n t l y a s p i r i t u a l exper ience" (p. 7 4 ) . A l l aspects of a r t — f i n e , d e c o r a t i v e , f o l k , s e c u l a r , u t i l i -t a r i a n — are h e l d i n equal esteem. A l l a r t forms seek to express the s p i r i t of the Cosmic Soul through r e p r e s e n t a -t i o n s of i t s v a r i o u s aspects (with beauty be ing one of those a s p e c t s ) . The contemplat ion of any of these aspects would p rov ide a gl impse of the e s s e n t i a l D i v i n e , To r e f l e c t the beauty of the D i v i n e i s . t h u s a fundamental goa l of a r t . As i n Chinese and Japanese c u l t u r e s , c r a f t s and c r a f t s -manship are h e l d i n h i g h esteem. The craf tsman c o n s i d e r s 108 his divine forefather to be "Vishvakarma, Lord of the Arts", who provides both a model and a s p i r i t u a l incentive. Employ-ing t r a d i t i o n a l methods handed down from father to son, the craftsman s t r i v e s toward the supreme id e a l of beauty. As a r e s u l t , a special sense of harmony and high standards of workmanship and design are embodied i n the products. In terms of a study approach, Coomaraswamy (1956) sub-mits that to have c u l t u r a l value, the student must accept the whole point of view which gave impetus to the work of art. He must "universalize himself" (p. 30) so that he can go beyond the simple accumulation of facts. To have c u l t u r a l value the study must "become a means of growth" (p. 30). Part of the process of learning to understand c u l t u r a l art, Coomaraswamy f e e l s , i s to think about i t "as t h e i r authors did" (p. 16). While the t o t a l a c h i e v a b i l i t y of th i s task i s un l i k e l y , some ins i g h t , at l e a s t , could be attained by examining the philosophical r e l a t i o n s h i p between art and l i f e . Thus, a study focusing on products created by an East Indian craftsman would necessitate learning about his supreme ideals and investigating the motivating forces that would lead to the creation of his products. Coomaraswamy explains that the study of c u l t u r a l art i s a study i n values: Taking t h i s point of view, we s h a l l break down the s o c i a l and economic d i s t i n c t i o n of fine from applied art; we s h a l l no longer divorce anthropology from a r t , 109 but recogn ize t h a t the a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l approach to a r t i s a much c l o s e r approach than the a e s t h e t i c i a n ' s ; we s h a l l no longer pretend t h a t the content of the f o l k a r t s i s any th ing but m e t a p h y s i c a l . (p. 21) Quest ions which he f e e l s should be asked should focus on the u l t i m a t e t r u t h and f u n c t i o n of the o b j e c t . In t h i s l i g h t , he suggests t h a t "the human va lue of any th ing made i s determined by the co inc idence i n i t of beauty and u t i l i t y , s i g n i f i c a n c e and a p t i t u d e " . The p r o d u c t i o n of o b j e c t s should not r e p r e -sent "a r e d u c t i o n of the s tandard of l i v i n g to subhuman l e v e l s " (p. 2 2 ) . In terms of i n v e s t i g a t i n g the s i g n i f i c a n c e of c u l t u r a l a r t s , Coomaraswamy f e e l s t h a t the a n t h r o p o l o g i s t can p l a y a key r o l e . An a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l approach can go f a r beyond a mere h i s t o r i c a l study "which g e n e r a l l y penet ra tes no f a r t h e r than an a n a l y s i s of s t y l e s , and c e r t a i n l y not to an a n a l y s i s of the necessary reasons of ' i c o n o g r a p h i e s or l o g i c of compo-s i t i o n " (p. 75 ) . In the study of symbol ism, f o r example, made p o s s i b l e through a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l p rocedures , a u n i v e r s a l language i s addressed . Coomaraswamy e x p l a i n s t h a t " the c o n -t e n t of symbols i s m e t a p h y s i c a l " (p. 78 ) . [Whether i t i s ] a c r u c i f i x , I o n i c column, peasant embro id -e r y , o r t r a p p i n g s of a horse [ there i s ] . , . meaning over and above what may be c a l l e d the immediate va lue of the o b j e c t to us as a source of p l e a s u r e or n e c e s s i t y of l i f e . Th is i m p l i e s f o r us t h a t we cannot pretend to have 110 accounted f o r the genes is of any such work of a r t u n t i l we haye understood what i t was f o r and what i t was i n t e n -ded to mean. (p. 78) P a r t of the cha l lenge i n v o l v e d i n the study of c u l t u r a l a r t i s to t r y to p l a c e the work i n the context of i t s c r e a -t i o n , i n i t s t r a d i t i o n a l or contemporary s e t t i n g , so t h a t i t s pr imary f u n c t i o n can be a s c e r t a i n e d . The va lues and motives r e l a t i n g to t h a t context can be very c u l t u r a l l y r e v e a l i n g . Maduro (1976), f o r example, p r o v i d e s as a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l repor t of Brahmin p a i n t e r s of R a j a s t h a n . Based on f i e l d work c a r r i e d out i n 1968 -70 , the r e p o r t shows how a r t i s t s have ad jus ted to commercial demands, w h i l e at the same t ime remain ing t rue to t r a d i t i o n , by p roduc ing two types of p a i n t -i n g s : those which they s e l l to t o u r i s t s , and those which remain t r a d i t i o n a l l y f u n c t i o n a l as important elements of c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y . Maduro p r o v i d e s the f o l l o w i n g comment f o r f u t u r e c o n s i d e r a t i o n : The Hindu God of C r e a t i v i t y , Lord V ishvakarma, has s a i d : "I s h a l l be Many". W i t h i n the amazing d i v e r s i t y and c u l t u r a l p l u r a l i s m t h a t c h a r a c t e r i z e our contem-porary s o c i e t i e s , we s h a l l have to c o n s i d e r the god 's words s e r i o u s l y and search f o r u n d e r l y i n g symbol ic u n i t i e s . Perhaps we w i l l pass from t h i s s t a g e , i n Which, e x o t i c e t h n i c a r t s a re s imple c u r i o s i t i e s and s t a t u s symbols , to the e x c i t i n g p o s s i b i l i t i e s of a more s e r i o u s t ime i n which more people a c t u a l l y study I l l the cultures from which the arts derive. Art can play a v i t a l role i n t h i s c r o s s - c u l t u r a l adventure, (pp. 243-244) Native Indian For many historians, p o l i t i c i a n s , and scholars, the world i s characterized by a d i s t i n c t East/West d i v i s i o n . This generally accepted d i v i s i o n i s r e f l e c t e d through time associations, value systems, r e l i g i o u s systems, and thought processes. However, even within these major d i v i s i o n s there are unique variations. It might also be posited that there i s a " t h i r d " major world d i v i s i o n — a category which i s too frequently overlooked. This i s the aboriginal, or "native" perspective. Although t h i s too has numerous variations and sub-distinctions, the general view i s one which i s unique to the same extent that the East/West differences are unique. Simon (1973) suggests that "throughout Indian thought there i s an omnipresence of [a] sense of partnership between mortal men and s p i r i t s , of l i f e . . . being mortally given for immortal ends" (p. 9). This, she f e e l s , i s one of "the most astonishing of nature's teachings, revealed only to the human s p i r i t , never to the physical eye" (p. 9). High-water (Note 4) explains that the power found i n the earth, in the sky, and i n a l l of the things that are part of crea-tion r e f l e c t s an i m p l i c i t harmony. When speaking of the t r a d i t i o n a l view of l i f e , Highwater relates that the Indian t r i e s to maintain harmony "with forces seen and unseen i n 112 tha t magnif i e e n t background of h i s l i f e " . The Ind ian b e l i e v e s t h a t he i s "par t of e v e r y t h i n g e l s e , and not always the most important p a r t " . Highwater c o n t r a s t s t h i s w i t h the "Western" v iew i n which man i s cons idered to be s p e c i a l and s u p e r i o r , where e v e r y t h i n g can be used at h i s d e s c r e t i o n . Highwater a l s o r e l a t e s the Ind ian b e l i e f i n a "multi-v e r s e " . He notes t h a t "one of the most complex l e s s o n s " of h i s l i f e was to l e a r n t h a t non - Ind ians b e l i e v e i n a " u n i v e r s e " , m a i n t a i n i n g s i n g u l a r views of r e a l i t y . The problem w i t h t h i s , he submi ts , i s t h a t "when you b e l i e v e t h a t you are the p o s s e s -sor of a unique and s i n g u l a r t r u t h you possess a k i n d of momentum, perhaps a k i n d of compuls ion , which people who b e l i e v e i n many - t ruths do not p o s s e s s " . Highwater emphasizes tha t i t i s meanings, r a t h e r than a s i n g u l a r t r u t h , which p r e -occupies I n d i a n s . Robert Davidson (1978) , speaking from the Haida v i e w p o i n t , conf i rms t h i s statement when he suggests t h a t there are th ree s i d e s t o events and i d e a s : "your s i d e , my s i d e , and the t r u t h " (p. 1 2 ) . W i t h i n Ind ian c u l t u r e s , a r t i s t o t a l l y interwoven w i t h l i f e , f u n c t i o n i n g as an i n d i v i s i b l e component i m p l i c i t l y t i e d to r e l i g i o n , s u p e r s t i t i o n , s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e , and n a t u r e . A l l of these f a c e t s t r a d i t i o n a l l y r e f l e c t one another . H i g h -water (Note 4) e x p l a i n s t h a t " i n no Ind ian language i s there any word which conveys the i d e a of a r t . T h a t ' s because e v e r y t h i n g i s a r t and there i s no need to become consc ious of i t or s e l f - c o n s c i o u s of i t " . The s p l i t between a r t and 113 l i f e , and t h e r e f o r e the i n t r o d u c t i o n of the d i s t i n c t concept of " a r t " , comes i n t o e x i s t e n c e o n l y at the moment when a r t ceases to be the c a r r i e r of a u n i f i e d ideo logy of a p e o p l e , when a s o c i e t y ' s b e l i e f i n i t s e l f and i t s c e n t r a l mythology i s shaken by i n v a d e r s , r a d i c a l s w i t h i n i t s own r a n k s , o r m i l i t a r y s u b j u g a t o r s . When a r t i s detached from i t s c e n t r a l mythology, i t becomes i t s own i d e o l o g y . (Highwater, 1976, p. 195) Such a d i v i s i o n between Northwest Coast I n d i a n a r t and l i f e came w i t h the a r r i v a l of the Europeans. When the p o t -l a t c h was outlawed the e n t i r e economy and s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e of the r e g i o n was l e f t i n great d i s a r r a y . A r t l o s t i t s e s s e n t i a l m o t i v a t i o n . F o r t u n a t e l y , the past decade has marked the beg inn ing of a r e v i v a l - - r e f e r r e d to by some as "a r e n a i s s a n c e " of n a t i v e a r t . For many n a t i v e a r t i s t s t h i s has i n c l u d e d a c u l t u r a l search i n p u r s u i t of t h e i r r o o t s . Th is search has r e s u l t e d i n a reawakening of t r a d i t i o n a l concepts and i d e o -l o g i e s . In the northwest coast indian artists 1979 graphics collection 3 the f o l l o w i n g statements r e v e a l views of contem-porary Ind ian a r t i s t s : - There has been been a l o t of t h i n g s w r i t t e n about our a r t . A l o t of those t h i n g s are not t r u e because i t was always w r i t t e n from o u t s i d e the c u l t u r e , and always from a C h r i s t i a n p o i n t of v iew . . . . To r e a l l y understand 114 the a r t , you have t o understand the c u l t u r e , and the h i s t o r y , and you have to understand the people . . , . You c a n ' t separate the a r t from the p e o p l e . (Dempsey Bob) - Words are not our medium; our . . . a r t i s our l a n -guage, and we speak of sacred b e l i e f s . We are p h i l o -sophers , p rophets , and p o e t s . We are the r e c i p i e n t s and workers of s u p e r n a t u r a l powers, and we are the v o i c e of the nature of t h i n g s . I t i s each a r t i s t ' s task to i n t e r p r e t these s u p e r n a t u r a l and n a t u r a l laws . (Joe David) When speaking of t r a d i t i o n a l v i e w s , F r a n c i s W i l l i a m s adds: "We d i d n ' t c a l l i t a r t i n those days . I t was a process of l i v i n g " . Conc lus ion Highwater (Note 4) s t a t e s h i s concern f o r b r i n g i n g to the a t t e n t i o n of the c lassroom the f a c t t h a t i t i s unnecessary to s e t t l e f o r two, t h r e e , or at most four hundred years of h i s t o r y , as a f o c a l p o i n t f o r the study of a r t , "when you might have . . . perhaps 30,000 years o f h i s t o r y " . Perhaps p a r t of the problem i s due to the f a c t t h a t " a r t " (as s t u d i e d i n Nor th American schools ) i s commonly c o n c e p t u a l i z e d as "Western" a r t , p r i m a r i l y i n the European sense. A broader p e r s p e c t i v e would i n c l u d e the v a s t and r i c h h e r i t a g e of a b o r i g i n a l and Easte rn c u l t u r e s , which goes back thousands of y e a r s . 115 In terms of v i a b i l i t y , the e t h n o c e n t r i c Western c o n -c e p t i o n i s d e s p e r a t e l y i n need of expans ion . O lder c u l t u r e s are based on b e l i e f s , v a l u e s , and m o t i v a t i o n s which are o f t e n more c l e a r l y r e f l e c t e d through the a r t s than through systems of l o g i c such as p r i n t , which comprise the s c i e n t i f i c , q u a n t i t a t i v e mode. In H ighwater ' s words (Note 4 ) : "The job of a r t [ i s ] to make the i n e f f a b l e , the unfathomable, v i s i b l e to u s " . In terms of i t s p o t e n t i a l f o r opening up new, and to a l a r g e ex tent unexp lo red , v i s i o n s of the wor ld — v i s i o n s t h a t cou ld g r e a t l y i n c r e a s e c u l t u r a l competencies - - a r t educat ion must beg in to l i s t e n to these c u l t u r a l wor ld v i e w s . I t must open up new avenues f o r g a i n i n g i n s i g h t i n t o c u l t u r e and i n t o the fundamental meaning of a r t and l i f e . The f i n a l s e c t i o n of t h i s chapter p rov ides a survey of i n i t i a l and cu r ren t attempts to expand the f i e l d i n the d i r e c t i o n of i t s c u l t u r a l l y - b a s e d p o t e n t i a l . A r t Educat ion I t has on l y been w i t h i n the l a s t ten to f i f t e e n years t h a t a r t educators have begun t o d i s c e r n the va lue of a d d r e s s -i n g the c u l t u r a l theme i n a r t e d u c a t i o n . The i n i t i a l r e c o g -n i t i o n may have been i n response to the 1960's e t h n i c r e v i t a l -i z a t i o n movements, which r e s u l t e d from the 1954 American Supreme Court r u l i n g which outlawed s e g r e g a t i o n . 116 In t h i s f i n a l s e c t i o n of the chapter a b r i e f h i s t o r i c a l survey i s p r e s e n t e d , r e l a t i n g major developmental views concern ing the c u l t u r a l component w i t h i n a r t e d u c a t i o n . I t might be noted t h a t many of the suggest ions come from A m e r i -can a r t e d u c a t o r s . There are s e v e r a l reasons why these sources are impor tant . A l though the Canadian f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l p o l i c i e s on m u l t i c u l t u r a l i s m have been a c t i v e l y u rg ing educators to t u r n t h e i r a t t e n t i o n to i s s u e s f o c u s i n g on c u l t u r a l p l u r a l i s m , t h e i r recommendations have, to d a t e , r e c e i v e d l i t t l e r e c o g n i t i o n from Canadian a r t e d u c a t o r s . In 1972, f o r example, the p rov ince of B .C. r e p r i n t e d the c u r r i -culum guide f o r elementary schoo l a r t , which i n c l u d e d a 1964 o u t l i n e f o r pr imary grades and a 1968 o u t l i n e f o r i n t e r -mediate grades . The guide focuses almost e x c l u s i v e l y on " p r o d u c t i o n " a c t i v i t i e s , w i t h an almost complete l a c k of a t t e n t i o n be ing g iven to the promotion of i n t e r c u l t u r a l c o n -c e p t s . The r e v i s i o n date f o r t h a t document has not yet been announced. At the same t i m e , some Canadian a r t educators r e c e i v e American a r t educat ion j o u r n a l s . The views expressed i n these j o u r n a l s , as w e l l as i n major American p u b l i c a t i o n s , p rov ide an important impetus . I t might t h e r e f o r e be i n - : f e r r e d t h a t Amer ican-based views he lp to p rov ide the founda -t i o n f o r the present t h e o r e t i c a l and p r a c t i c a l s t a t e of Canadian a r t e d u c a t i o n . 117 I n i t i a l Discernments In 1966, June K. McFee presented a paper, the purpose of which was to address the relationships between society, art, and education as considerations for art curriculum. In th i s paper McFee recognized a number of implications for art education, r e l a t i n g to current s o c i a l change. A research focus on s o c i a l functions and behaviours r e l a t i n g to art was described as a major avenue for learning about the importance of art as a unifying factor i n the community. At the same time, the question of organizing art experiences and symbolic communication as a means of helping c u l t u r a l groups maintain a sense of i d e n t i t y was posited as a major challenge. In th i s 1966 paper, McFee foresaw the p o t e n t i a l of art education as a key factor i n the development of students' c u l t u r a l awareness. Newman (19 70) added to McFee's ideas by suggesting that since " a r t i s t i c expression has long been regarded as one of the better indices into a p a r t i c u l a r culture's ethos" (p. 18), a focus on t h i s i n the art curriculum would help i n the pro-motion of i n t e r c u l t u r a l understanding. Interaction with the art of others was suggested, along with i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y inquiry. Anthropological views were introduced by Ianni (1968) as he highlighted the ethnocentric stance taken by European educators. Ianni suggested that great potential lay i n reaching toward folk cultures within society as a source 118 f o r a r t i s t i c and c u l t u r a l enr ichment . S i m i l a r a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l i n s i g h t s are seen i n Feldman's Becoming Human Through Art . (1970) . In t h i s work he suggests tha t " the f a i l u r e t o see the d i a l e c t i c a l nature of a r t and t h e r e f o r e the purposes and f u n c t i o n s of a r t i n the wor ld has c reated c o n s i d e r a b l e m i s c h i e f f o r a r t e d u c a t i o n " (p. 177) . Humanist ic s t u d i e s , he n o t e s , would i l l u m i n a t e ques t ions t h a t d e a l w i t h the q u a l i t y of l i f e and p rov ide re levance f o r everyone. Such ques t ions " d i r e c t l y i n v o l v e man i n the angu ish , achievements , and a s p i r a t i o n s of o ther p e o p l e , and i n endur ing human ques t ions of a r t i s t i c form, moral v a l u e , and pe rsona l b e l i e f " (p. 174) . Feldman s t a t e s t h a t " the nature of a r t as r i t u a l and c o n f r o n t a t i o n stands at the hear t of a humanis t i c theory of a r t e d u c a t i o n " (p. 177) . W i t h i n such an approach, Feldman suggests the f o l l o w i n g c a t e g o r i e s : (1) C o g n i t i v e study - l e a r n i n g to understand the w o r l d , l e a r n i n g about man through a r t (2) L i n g u i s t i c study - l e a r n i n g the language of a r t (3) Media study - l e a r n i n g about the i n t e r a c t i o n of m a t e r i a l s and meanings (4) C r i t i c a l study - l e a r n i n g the techn iques of a r t c r i t i c i s m Feldman's c u r r i c u l u m p r o p o s a l s are based on j o i n t t e a c h e r - , student c o n s u l t a t i o n s , f o c u s i n g on i n q u i r y based on r e a l problems. Encounters w i t h the wor ld are seen as important 119 s t a r t i n g p o i n t s f o r making the a r t c u r r i c u l u m meaningfu l and a u t h e n t i c . One s i g n i f i c a n t c u r r i c u l u m framework, p u b l i s h e d i n 19 70, i s the guide f o r elementary a r t i n s t r u c t i o n f o r Ohio s c h o o l s . Both Feldman and McFee, among o t h e r s , acted as c o n s u l t a n t s on t h i s p r o j e c t . The r e s u l t i s a program format based on th ree key g o a l s : (1) H e l p i n g each student achieve p e r s o n a l f u l f i l l m e n t (.2) Improving s o c i e t y through g r e a t e r a r t i s t i c under -s tand ing (3) T r a n s m i t t i n g c u l t u r a l h e r i t a g e through a r t . The guide p rov ides suggest ions f o r o r g a n i z i n g content through u n i t themes designed to i n c r e a s e the c h i l d r e n ' s awareness of a r t i n s o c i e t y . S t i l l i n use , t h i s guide i s an important c o n t r i b u t i o n to the f i e l d . In terms of t h e o r e t i c a l foundat ions , Chalmers ' (1971) d i s s e r t a t i o n p rov ides a s u b s t a n t i a l r a t i o n a l e by i l l u s t r a t -i n g how a r t p l a y s a p i v o t a l r o l e i n t r a n s m i t t i n g , s u s t a i n -i n g , and changing c u l t u r e . I t was suggested t h a t , among other t h i n g s , a r t "may b o l s t e r the morale of groups to m a i n -t a i n u n i t y and s o c i a l s o l i d a r i t y and may a l s o c rea te aware-ness of s o c i a l i s s u e s and lead to s o c i a l change" (p. 101) . The suggest ion was t h a t the s o c i a l foundat ions of a r t and a r t ' s f u n c t i o n a l r o l e i n human a f f a i r s would p rov ide a broader scope f o r a r t educat ion than a focus on a e s t h e t i c va lues a l o n e . 120 The concern f o r s o c i a l va lues cou ld a l s o be seen i n a g r a d u a l l y i n c r e a s i n g i n t e r e s t i n m u l t i c u l t u r a l i s m . In the i M u l t i c u l t u r a l Educat ion Development Program (MEDP), i n i t i a t e d at Ind iana U n i v e r s i t y i n 1972, f o r example, the a r t d e p a r t -ment p rov ided a program component e n t i t l e d "The A r t s i n a M u l t i c u l t u r a l S o c i e t y P r o j e c t " (AMSP). Th is p r o j e c t was based on the ph i losophy t h a t " a r t educat ion p rov ides a unique o p p o r t u n i t y f o r p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n c u l t u r a l l y d i v e r s e l e a r n i n g exper iences" (Lovano-Kerr & Zimmerman, 1977, p. 34 ) . The 1972 NAEA P a c i f i c Reg iona l Conference a l s o d e a l t w i t h a r t educat ion i n c u l t u r a l c o n t e x t . The conference theme — "A C e l e b r a t i o n of P e o p l e s " — focused on the impor -tance to a r t educators of understanding the d i v e r s i t y of c u l t u r a l exper iences and concepts of r e a l i t y i n terms of p r o v i d i n g s i g n i f i c a n t l e a r n i n g i n the a r t s (G laeser , 1973) . In G l a e s e r ' s (1973) subsequent i n v e s t i g a t i o n of a r t and c u l t u r e he d e s c r i b e s the r o l e of the a r t educator as one of h e l p i n g c h i l d r e n to d i s c o v e r common and shared dimensions of l i f e so t h a t t r a d i t i o n s can be both newly exper ienced and u n i f i e d w i t h contemporary ones f o r t ranscendence i n t o the f u t u r e . At the 19 73 NAEA M i n i c o n f e r e n c e on c u l t u r e and a r t e d u c a t i o n , h e l d i n Taos, New Mex ico , d i s c u s s i o n s centered on p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r making a r t educat ion more meaningfu l f o r c h i l d r e n i n a p l u r a l i s t i c s o c i e t y . Suggest ions t h a t came from those d i s c u s s i o n s i n c l u d e d : 121 - the importance of f i n d i n g a p l a c e f o r the v e r n a c u l a r educator i n the s c h o o l , to h e l p t o b r i d g e the gap between schoo l and community - the encouragement of p a r e n t a l involvement - the b e t t e r use of museums as sources f o r " e d u c a t i o n a l m a t e r i a l t h a t c o u l d he lp to f o s t e r c h i l d r e n ' s c o g n i t i v e , a e s t h e t i c , and c u l t u r a l growth" ( Tay lo r , 1975, p. 1 1 ) . The conferences and p u b l i c a t i o n s of the l a t e 1960's and e a r l y 1970's h e l p e d , i n Chalmers ' (1973) words, to set the stage f o r the " e c l e c t i c approach" (p. 255) . However, as of 1974, a r t educat ion s t i l l had a long way to go i n terms of expanding i t s h o r i z o n s to more adequately embrace the c u l t u r a l i s s u e . One problem was t h a t w r i t e r s o f "popu lar " a r t educa -t i o n magazines g e n e r a l l y seemed to over look the e n t i r e ques -t i o n concern ing the r e l a t i o n s h i p between s o c i a l va lues and a r t i n educat ion (Chalmers, 1974) . As Chalmers n o t e d , very few a r t educators had even " p u b l i c a l l y admit ted the s h o r t -comings of much cu r ren t a r t e d u c a t i o n " (p. 2 1 ) . To t h i s p o i n t , the comments have r e v e a l e d the i n i t i a l p r o g r e s s i o n of thought concern ing c u l t u r a l a r t educat ion i n terms of "mainstream" s c h o o l s . The premise f o r t h i s t h e s i s l i e s i n the concept ion t h a t such schoo ls c o u l d be of g r e a t e r va lue I f the c u l t u r a l component were g iven g r e a t e r emphasis . However, o ther schoo l s i t u a t i o n s should a l s o be c o n s i d e r e d . Bryant - ' (19.74)., f o r example, addresses the i s s u e of a r t e d u -c a t i o n f o r American Ind ians i n the Bureau of Ind ian A f f a i r s ' 122 s c h o o l s . Such a study reminds us t h a t there are c o n s t i t u e n -c i e s other than the mainstream t h a t should be cons idered as w e l l . Such c o n s i d e r a t i o n s c o u l d o f f e r mutual advantages. Bryant (19 74) submits t h a t the i m p l i c a t i o n s of h i s study can b e n e f i t both the a r t educator and those i n v o l v e d i n American Ind ian e d u c a t i o n . He i d e n t i f i e s t h a t these assumptions are based on the f o l l o w i n g i d e a s : " c u l t u r a l l y i d e n t i f i a b l e a r t s c o n t r i b u t e i n a p o s i t i v e way t o the enr ichment of a l l a r t . . . the concept of c u l t u r a l d e p r i v a t i o n works both ways and there are a m u l t i t u d e of exper iences e n r i c h i n g the l i v e s of Ind ian c h i l d r e n . . . of which middle c l a s s urban c h i l d r e n are depr i ved" (Wax, 1971, p. 86 ) . One of the c o n c l u s i o n s of B r y a n t ' s study i n d i c a t e d t h a t "the a e s t h e t i c s e n s i b i l i t i e s which form the context of c u r r e n t American Ind ian a r t e x p r e s s i o n may remain b a s i c a l l y a n t i t h e t i -c a l to those of American n o n - I n d i a n s " (p. 117) . Such i n s i g h t s would be fundamental t o p r o v i d i n g v i a b l e a r t educat ion f o r Ind ian c o n s t i t u e n c i e s . At the same t ime such ideas would be an important component of a c u l t u r a l "mainstream" a r t program, adding to a conceptua l foundat ion t h a t cou ld he lp s tudents to comprehend a l t e r n a t i v e wor ld views i n r e l a t i o n to a r t . I t must be remembered t h a t the l i n k between a r t and l i f e , i n d i v i s i b l e i n so many t r a d i t i o n a l c u l t u r e s , can serve as an exemplary model f o r the c u l t u r a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n of a r t . Such c o n s i d e r a t i o n s can l e a d to an expanded s t r u c t u r i n g of 123 a r t e d u c a t i o n . The f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n p r o v i d e s an overv iew of r e c e n t developments. Contemporary Trends and O r i e n t a t i o n s As an ex tens ion of McFee's e a r l i e r work -— Preparation for Art (1970) - - a new p u b l i c a t i o n was i n t r o d u c e d i n 1977. Focus ing on the promotion of i n t e r c u l t u r a l understanding through a r t , the 1977 book s t a t e s t h a t the most c r i t i c a l p o i n t concern ing educat ion f o r m u l t i c u l t u r a l s o c i e t i e s i s as f o l l o w s : To equip c h i l d r e n of v a r i e d c u l t u r a l backgrounds to cope i n the mainstream of the s o c i e t y w i thout caus ing them to devalue t h e i r own c u l t u r a l background. We must remember t h a t a p e o p l e ' s i d e n t i t y i s developed i n r e l a t i o n to t h e i r background, and t h a t the a r t i n i t helped them l e a r n and develop concepts of who and what they a r e . (McFee & Degge, p. 10) The focus of the book i s d e s c r i b e d i n the f o l l o w i n g s t a t e -ments: Th is book i s concerned w i t h a r t as an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f p e o p l e ' s l i v e s and w i t h the ways a r t enhances and i n f l u e n c e s the human e x p e r i e n c e . I t ana lyzes the search ing and e x p r e s s i n g f u n c t i o n s i n c r e a t i n g a r t . I t s t u d i e s des ign as an o r d e r i n g process of human e x i s t e n c e and analyzes ways the b u i l t environment expresses p e o p l e ' s va lues and how these l o n g - l a s t i n g fo rmat ions i n f l u e n c e l i f e s t y l e s . (McFee & Degge, p. 2) 124 Although content suggest ions and a c t i v i t i e s are i n c l u d e d , the book m a i n t a i n s a s t r o n g t h e o r e t i c a l emphasis , r e q u i r i n g the reader to comprehend the o v e r a l l s t r u c t u r e of the t h e o r i e s before making d e c i s i o n s towards implementat ion . Another r e s o u r c e , i n t r o d u c e d the f o l l o w i n g y e a r , i s Chapman's Approaches in Art in Education (1978). Th is resource p rov ides a foundat ion program f o r p r e s c h o o l to j u n i o r h igh a r t e d u c a t i o n , i n c o r p o r a t i n g both i n t e r d i s c i p l i -nary and m u l t i c u l t u r a l a s p e c t s . R e f l e c t i n g the goa ls of the 19 70 Ohio g u i d e , f o r which Chapman prov ided major i n s p i r a t i o n , the th ree main purposes of a r t educat ion expressed i n t h i s book a r e : p r o v i d i n g f o r p e r s o n a l f u l f i l l m e n t , n u r t u r i n g s o c i a l c o n s c i o u s n e s s , and t r a n s m i t t i n g the c u l t u r a l h e r i t a g e . These goa ls were the r e s u l t s of Chapman's r e c o g n i t i o n of the need f o r c u l t u r a l en l ightenment . The book p rov ides an almost encyc loped ic format designed to o f f e r a source f o r unders tand -i n g the a r t i s t i c p r o c e s s , f o r p e r c e i v i n g and responding to a r t forms — i n c l u d i n g the development of c r i t i c a l s k i l l s — and f o r l e a r n i n g to understand the r o l e of a r t i n contempo-r a r y s o c i e t y . O b s e r v a t i o n , i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , and va lue c o n -s i d e r a t i o n s are i m p l i c i t f e a t u r e s . Chapman's book p rov ides a major c o n t r i b u t i o n to the f i e l d . Whi le resources such as those d e s c r i b e d above are unquest ionab ly s i g n i f i c a n t , the emphasis appears to be c o n -c e n t r a t e d on Western contemporary s o c i e t y . Very l i t t l e i s mentioned about the p h i l o s o p h i e s , b e l i e f s , or wor ld v iews 125 stemming from other cultures. However, an a r t i c l e by Mcintosh. (.1978) r e f l e c t s the p o t e n t i a l of a more all-encom-passing paradigm. In t h i s a r t i c l e she proposes a " c u l t u r a l interface" approach to art education. The goal of t h i s approach i s the democratization of society, which, according to Mcintosh, " w i l l grant the i n d i v i d u a l the r i g h t to decide for himself which c u l t u r a l values, b e l i e f s , and practices he w i l l incorporate into his l i f e " (p. 18). Within the model "differences are respected and maintained", but "simi-l a r i t i e s are also a c t i v e l y sought and encouraged to grow". The model i s based on the following concepts: No hierarchy of cultures i s i m p l i c i t i n t h i s model: one culture i s not seen as inherently superior or i n f e r i o r to another. Cultural d i v e r s i t y i s an asset . . . . Inherent i n the model i s the r e a l i z a t i o n that education must help to prepare students to l i v e i n an unknown culture, that of the future. This can be accomplished by having students learn about and through the d i v e r s i t y of cultures, not just i n /America, but i n the whole world, and not just i n the present, but also in the past. Developing competencies, understandings, and s k i l l s i n more than one culture, preferably i n many, w i l l allow students to more readi l y adapt to whatever the future holds for them, (p, 18) One of the major problems r e l a t i n g to the challenge of providing a viable culturally-based program i s the lack of genera t i ve re fe rence m a t e r i a l r e f l e c t i v e of the a r t s of d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r a l groups. Such m a t e r i a l c o u l d p l a y a key r o l e i n deve lop ing background understandings l e a d i n g towards c u l t u r a l competencies . G r i g s b y ' s Art and Ethnics (1977) i s an example of the type of m a t e r i a l t h a t cou ld h e l p c lass room teachers r e l a t e to the c u l t u r a l h e r i t a g e of s p e c i f i c e t h n i c groups. In t h i s book, Gr igsby e x p l a i n s t h a t " n a t u r a l f o r c e s , such as geo -g raph ic l o c a t i o n , c l i m a t e , t e r r a i n , vegetab le and animal l i f e , i n f l u e n c e the a r t i s t s and the a r t p roduct" (p. 6 0 ) . A l s o i m p o r t a n t , he n o t e s , are concepts of s e l f , f a m i l y , c l a n , t r i b e , and r a c e . However, he suggests t h a t r e l i g i o n i s one of the most powerfu l f o r c e s i n shaping the e t h n i c component. Through such comments Gr igsby p r o v i d e s i n s i g h t i n t o numerous f a c t o r s t h a t should be cons idered i n the study of a r t — but which are very r a r e l y addressed . At the 23rd World Congress of INSEA i n 1978, McFee (Note 10) p rov ided the reminder t h a t " p h i l o s o p h i c a l t h e o r i e s of a e s t h e t i c s are o f t e n based w i t h i n one c u l t u r a l va lue system, so i t i s sometimes d i f f i c u l t t o use a theory from one c u l t u r e i n responding to the work of an a r t i s t from a d i s t i n c t l y d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r e " . She noted t h a t " s i n c e one of our goals i s to i n c r e a s e wor ld wide understanding through the a r t s . , , we need t o develop more awareness of the c u l t u r a l f a c t o r s t h a t i n f l u e n c e a e s t h e t i c s " . In essence , she was a l l u d i n g to the need f o r g a i n i n g i n s i g h t s i n t o a l t e r -n a t i v e concepts o f r e a l i t y . 127 At the same conference/ Smith (Note 1) caut ioned t h a t " d i v i s i o n and d i s s e n s i o n must be counted among the p o s s i b l e unintended and unwanted consequences of t e a c h i n g f o r c u l t u r a l d i v e r s i t y as c u r r e n t l y p r a c t i s e d " . However, he suggests t h a t by c o n c e n t r a t i n g on the g o a l of c u l t u r a l competency the o u t -come would e v e n t u a l l y enable s tudents " to operate i n d i f f e r -ent systems as the s i t u a t i o n may r e q u i r e " . Smith f e e l s t h a t " the d i a l e c t i c a l method . . . p r o v i d e s the most p romis ing paradigm f o r e x p e r i e n c i n g a d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r e " . The approach would i n v o l v e t r e a t i n g the a l i e n c u l t u r e as a " s i g n i f i c a n t o t h e r " , emphasiz ing r e s p e c t . Thus, he proposes t h a t the r i g h t way to c e l e b r a t e c u l t u r a l d i v e r s i t y would be through unbiased i n q u i r y designed to address the s i g n i f i c a n c e and re levance of p a r t i c u l a r phenomena. The en la rged p e r s p e c t i v e which would r e s u l t would be an important pe rsona l b e n e f i t . Summary As has been shown i n t h i s rev iew , i n q u i r y i n t o the p o t e n -t i a l f o r c u l t u r a l s t u d i e s i n a r t educat ion has had a r e l a - ' t i v e l y b r i e f h i s t o r y . I t i s perhaps f o r t h i s reason t h a t so few models and v i a h l e approaches are a v a i l a b l e . As i s the case w i t h many deve lop ing f i e l d s , much of the c u l t u r a l emphasis to date i s found i n the form of t h e o r y . The metho-dology presented i n Chapter 3 p r o v i d e s an implementat ion model as one p o s s i b l e avenue f o r a t t e n d i n g to the needs inherent w i t h i n the f i e l d . 128 Summary and Conc lus ion The s i x major elements which have been reviewed i n t h i s chapter — anthropo logy , s o c i o l o g y , the f i e l d of m u l t i c u l -t u r a l i s m and e d u c a t i o n , c u r r i c u l u m , c u l t u r a l w o r l d - p e r s p e c -t i v e s , and a r t educat ion — might , a t f i r s t g l a n c e , appear to be somewhat i n s u l a r . However, i t i s t h i s r e v i e w e r ' s c o n t e n t i o n t h a t these elements c o n t a i n f a c t o r s w h i c h , i n the development of a c u l t u r a l l y - b a s e d a r t educat ion program, must be cons idered w i t h r e f e r e n c e to one another . The d i s c i p l i n e s of anthropology and s o c i o l o g y he lp to suggest study procedures f o r the i n v e s t i g a t i o n of c u l t u r a l a r t . However, s p e c i a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s are needed f o r the m u l t i d i m e n s i o n a l f i e l d proposed w i t h i n t h i s t h e s i s . S ince the purpose of t h i s study i s t o develop a methodology which cou ld serve a p l u r a l i s t i c s o c i e t y , the r e l a t i o n s h i p between m u l t i c u l t u r a l i s m and educat ion has had to be examined. H i s t o -r i c a l t rends have helped to d e f i n e d i r e c t i o n s f o r p resent and f u t u r e developments. S i g n i f i c a n t i s s u e s and t rends i n c u r r i c u l u m t h e o r y , and developmental views i n a r t educat ion have he lped to f u r t h e r d e l i m i t the r a t i o n a l e behind the methodology be ing advocated i n t h i s t h e s i s . F i n a l l y , the m u l t i c u l t u r a l wor ld v iews which embody unique p h i l o s o p h i e s and va lues p e r t a i n i n g to a r t and l i f e he lp to p rov ide an en la rged framework w i t h i n which to c o n s i d e r the r e l a t i o n s h i p s among the o ther components. 129 Thus, each of the s i x major elements examined i n t h i s chapter must be cons idered as in te rdependent . Before t u r n i n g to the methodology i n Chapter 3 , some of these i n t e r r e l a t i o n -sh ips might be cons idered i n the f o l l o w i n g comments. At v a r i o u s p o i n t s throughout these f i r s t two c h a p t e r s , re fe rences have been made to major wor ld d i v i s i o n s . In essence , the s c i e n t i f i c / i n t u i t i v e s p l i t which c h a r a c t e r i z e s wor ld c u l t u r a l p e r s p e c t i v e s has a l s o found i t s way i n t o c u r r i c u l u m theory . G r a d u a l l y , Western t h e o r i s t s are expand-i n g t h e i r frames of re fe rence t o encompass the h o l i s t i c , a s s o c i a t i v e forms of t h i n k i n g t h a t have been t r a d i t i o n a l l y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of Eas te rn modes. S t r u c t u r e s f o r i n q u i r y are be ing proposed t h a t would expand the p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r coming " to know" about a g iven phenomenon. I t has been shown t h a t the d o c t r i n e of " a r t f o r a r t ' s s a k e " , an i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c "Western" n o t i o n , i s , i n f a c t , "a s a c r i f i c e of humanity to a r t , of the whole to the p a r t " (Coomaraswamy, 1956, p. 83) . The shortcomings of t h i s Western view have r a r e l y been recogn ized i n a r t educat ion theory . In terms of the p resent wor ld s i t u a t i o n , i t i s important to r e a l i z e t h a t the impact of s c i e n t i f i c and m o d e r n i s t i c views on the o l d c u l t u r e s has caused upheavals such as have never be fo re been f e l t i n the h i s t o r y of mankind. Major adjustments t o thought , i d e a l s , and va lues have had to be made. The t r a d i t i o n a l a r t s have s u f f e r e d i n many ways, 130 r e s u l t i n g i n the s a c r i f i c e of q u a l i t y t o q u a n t i t y , f u n c t i o n -a l i t y to f r i v o l i t y , and the s e p a r a t i o n of a r t from l i f e . At the same t i m e , t r u t h and beauty have o f t e n been swept a s i d e , r e s u l t i n g i n degenerat ion on many f r o n t s , and a d e p r e -c i a t i o n of s tandards . Yanagi (1972) has proposed t h a t one means of c o u n t e r -balance a g a i n s t the machine age i s through the use of man's hands, working d i r e c t l y w i t h n a t u r a l m a t e r i a l s , towards e x p r e s s i o n of h i s inner n a t u r e . Coomaraswamy (1956) sees the r e - e s t a b l i s h m e n t of the " m a s t e r - a p p r e n t i c e " approach as an important means by which harmony and q u a l i t y might be r e v i v e d . Yanagi notes the s p e c i a l s i g n i f i c a n c e of the c ra f tsmansh ip approach as f o l l o w s : In these days o f d e t e r i o r a t i o n o f the a r t o f the people nobody e l s e i s a v a i l a b l e who can set the standards of beauty o ther than the a r t i s t - c r a f t s m a n . Today . . . we need the c a p a c i t y of those who can show us how to p r o p e r l y a p p r e c i a t e beauty i n work . . . . The presence of a r t i s t - c r a f t s m e n i s to serve as a b r i d g e between t h i s p e r i o d and the next f l o w e r i n g of the a r t of the p e o p l e . T h e i r va lue t h e r e f o r e , l i e s i n t h e i r a b i l i t y to understand beauty r a t h e r than i n t h e i r e x p r e s s i o n of i t . Consequent ly , t h e i r work takes on great s i g n i f i -cance as a. g i f t to the wor ld of thought . (p. 201) The problem and cha l lenge f o r the a r t educator i s t o f i n d v i a b l e methods f o r g a i n i n g i n s i g h t s not on l y i n t o the appre -c i a t i o n of beauty but i n t o avenues f o r c r e a t i n g beauty . The 131 c u l t u r a l wor ld a r t s p rov ide an almost l i m i t l e s s source f o r t h i s i n q u i r y . Both a r t educators and c u r r i c u l u m t h e o r i s t s have begun to recogn ize the a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l r o o t s of q u a l i t a t i v e i n q u i r y . Procedures t h a t f a c i l i t a t e o b s e r v a t i o n and d i s c u s s i o n are fundamental ly s u i t e d to t h i s type of r e s e a r c h . However, i t i s e s s e n t i a l to keep i n mind the h o l i s t i c context of q u a l i -t a t i v e i n q u i r y . Th is i n v o l v e s a search f o r r e l a t i o n s h i p s and an e x p l o r a t i o n of the i n h e r e n t drama i n v o l v e d . In essence , we are p l a c i n g the i n t e l l e c t u a l mode of i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i n j u x t a p o s i t i o n w i t h the i n t u i t i v e mode. In J a w o r s k i 1 s words: The former i s based on the use of l o g i c , words, c o n c e p t s , and c a u s a l i t y , w h i l e the l a t t e r i s based on v i s i o n (sometimes p r e c o g n i t i v e ) , emotion ( i n c l u d i n g i n s p i r a -t i o n ) , dream (and i t s s p e c i a t i o n , t r a n c e ) , and s y n c h r o -n i c i t y (a mechanism t h a t i n t e r c o n n e c t s a l l p a r t s of the un ive rse i n t o a who le ) . (Northwest coast, 1979) Jaworsk i notes t h a t by a t t e n d i n g to the i n t u i t i v e , one can reach "a deeper l e v e l of a r t where words become u s e l e s s , and i n t u i t i o n must take over to he lp us f o l l o w these images as they meander through the pathways of the human and the d i v i n e " (n. p.) , One of the arguments presented i n t h i s t h e s i s i s t h a t schoo l must p rov ide a means fo j : e d u c a t i n g the i n t u i t i v e . T h i s s k i l l i s as important to the t e c h n o l o g i s t as i t i s to 132 the a r t i s t , since i t holds the key to q u a l i t a t i v e l i f e . Another argument presented i s that the school must focus on craftsmanship to the greatest degree possible, emphasiz-ing the i n t e g r a l relationship between material and function. In this process i t must attend to nature's laws and follow the natural course towards truth and beauty. By placing the emphasis on craftsmanship, a sense of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i s c u l t i v a t e d . By emphasizing c r i t i c a l s k i l l s the student learns to consider his/her own advancement i n a s p i r i t which can lead to l i f e - l o n g questioning concerning matters of quality. Emphasizing an i m p l i c i t feature r e l a t i v e to t h i s quest, Eisner (.1979) states that A l l of us construct our conception of r e a l i t y by i n t e r -acting with the environment. What we take to be true i s a product not only of the so-called objective con-ditions of the environment, but also of how we construe that environment. And that construction i s influenced by our previous experience, including our expectations, our e x i s t i n g b e l i e f s , and the conceptual tools through which the objective conditions are defined. (p. 214) These concepts of r e a l i t y are also r e f l e c t e d i n our arts . As Lee (.1949) submits; Every art represents the mind of the people that creates i t . The mind of the people has been molded gradually within the frame of t h e i r conventional thoughts. These 133 thoughts d i d not take t h e i r form a l l of a sudden but arose by deduct ion from c o l l e c t e d o b s e r v a t i o n s of d a i l y l i f e as l i v e d under the n a t u r a l c o n d i t i o n s , or r a t h e r the g e o g r a p h i c a l c o n d i t i o n s , of the area concerned. Cp. 36) Somehow our concept ions o f r e a l i t y have to become f l e x i b l e enough to a l l o w us to c o n s i d e r o ther c o n c e p t i o n s . As Lee has shown, a r t i s e s s e n t i a l l y an embodiment of these a l t e r -n a t i v e v i e w s . As such i t i s an eminent f i e l d f o r i n v e s t i -g a t i o n . The importance of broadening our p e r s p e c t i v e s cannot be overemphasized. C u l t u r a l d i v e r s i t y i s a f a c t of l i f e . The impact of i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n i s ex tend ing i n t o a l l co rners of the w o r l d . As important as i t i s to examine the i m p l i c a -t i o n s of these f a c t o r s w i t h i n our own c u l t u r e s , there are broader dimensions t o c o n s i d e r . U l t i m a t e l y , the c u r r i c u l u m should p rov ide the means f o r deve lop ing s k i l l s t h a t w i l l enable c h i l d r e n to become c i t i z e n s of the w o r l d . The i n q u i r y t h a t occurs w i t h i n the c u r r i c u l u m should be both e d u c a t i o n a l l y and c u l t u r a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t . Th is must be t r u e of a r t educat ion as of any o ther d i s c i p l i n e . The methodology presented i n the next chapter rep resents an attempt t o weave the above-mentioned c o n s i d e r a t i o n s i n t o a f l e x i b l e framework t h a t would he lp both s tudents and teachers to address the i s s u e s and r e f i n e the necessary s k i l l s tha t -might l ead toward the development of c u l t u r a l competency. 134 Chapter 3 THE METHODOLOGY In 1520, afte r viewing an exhibit of a r t i s t i c treasures broughts from Mexico to Brussels, Durer wrote: " A l l the days of my l i f e I have seen nothing that rejoiced my heart so much as these things, for I saw amongst them wonderful works of art and I marveled at the subtle ingenuity of men in foreign lands. Indeed I cannot express a l l that I thought there" (quoted i n Fraser, 1971, p. 25). The challenge for art education i s to fi n d avenues that w i l l i n s t i l l i n stu-dents and teachers the sense of excitement and motivation that must accompany q u a l i t a t i v e inquiry into c u l t u r a l l y -based arts — so that the inherent richness, both material and ethereal, of such objects and forms can be f u l l y revealed. I t has been suggested, i n Chapter 2, that s t r i c t adher-ence to s c i e n t i f i c methods would greatly l i m i t the pot e n t i a l for discovery i n education. As Howell (1979) points out, thi s quantitative approach attempts to omit the foundation stage which should encompass observation and description. A more h o l i s t i c q u a l i t a t i v e approach would combine Eastern and Western methods to provide a greater balance i n theory and investigation than either means used alone. What, therefore, must be considered in planning a methodology? 135 Pohland (1972) reminds us that a methodology i s basic-a l l y a strategy. The value of t h i s strategy, he f e e l s , l i e s i n i t s h e u r i s t i c p r o f i t . From the learner's standpoint, the methodology should allow the student the opportunity to make sense of the world — to ask questions and seek answers through the examination and ordering of materials. In Greene's (1975) words, i t should allow the learner to impose "configurations" (a term he attributes to Merleau-Ponty, 1964, p. 99) "by means of experiences and percep-tions made available for personally conducted cognitive action" (p. 299). Pinar (1975) notes that Macdonald (1975a) c a l l s for an "action" approach i n curriculum. A sim i l a r approach to research i s advocated by Yamamoto (1977) as he describes the teaching-learning aspects involved: "One c r i t i c a l ingredient . . . i s a r e a l i z a t i o n that the sharing . . . in such an experience adds immensely to the development of the participants, of t h e i r self-esteem, insight, competence, and autonomy" (p. 90). An ess e n t i a l requirement i s the establishment of a trusting relationship between teacher and students. In such a relat i o n s h i p students are a c t i v e l y involved i n planning procedures. Although the teacher has a key role i n terms of coordinating inquiry and focusing investiga-tions with regard to value orientations and goals, students should be consulted about these values and goals. Their 136 reactions and suggestions should be a prime component within the planning stages. Eisner (1972) suggests that questions should address the ideas that students have concerning both projects and time arrangements involved i n the learning a c t i v i t i e s (p. 181) . In her examination of the teacher's r o l e , Wolfson (1977) suggests that the teacher must be aware that c h i l d -ren's natural "out-of-school" learning involves "communica-ti o n , action, exploration, encounters, the expansion of awareness, and the construction and reconstruction of meaning" (p. 83). These kinds of a c t i v i t i e s , she f e e l s , should be encouraged within the classroom setting. A further dimension relates to the two d i f f e r e n t "worlds" which intera c t i n the school s i t u a t i o n . As Robert-son (1961) points out, at school the c h i l d i s very l i k e l y to be presented with "a complete new set of values" (p. 57), often far d i f f e r e n t from those related to the home s i t u a -t i o n . At school, the objects and experiences of the chil d ' s physical and s o c i a l world become extended, so that his own views have "to be brought into r e l a t i o n with a group of people" (p. 57). As has been indicated i n Chapter 2, the c u l t u r a l factors involved can be very s i g n i f i c a n t . Rather than ignoring the s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l implica-tions of the student's dual existence i n these s i t u a t i o n s , the curriculum should f a c i l i t a t e the c o r r e l a t i o n of these factors. It i s only through such c o r r e l a t i o n that the 137 c u r r i c u l u m can be made r e l e v a n t . In p ropos ing the r e l a t i o n - , s h i p s between such c o n s i d e r a t i o n s and the s t u d e n t ' s l e a r n i n g , Greene (1975) w r i t e s : the i n d i v i d u a l , i n our case the s t u d e n t , w i l l on l y be i n a p o s i t i o n to l e a r n when he i s committed to ac t upon h i s w o r l d . I f he i s content to admire i t o r s imply accept i t as g i v e n , i f he i s i n c a p a b l e of b r e a k i n g w i t h e g o c e n t r i s m , he w i l l remain a l i e n a t e d from h i m s e l f and h i s own p o s s i -b i l i t i e s ; he w i l l wander l o s t and v i c t i m i z e d upon the r o a d ; he w i l l be unable t o l e a r n . He may be c o n d i t i o n e d ; he may be t r a i n e d . He may even have some r o t e memory of c e r t a i n elements of the c u r r i c u l u m ; but no matter how w e l l dev ised i s t h a t c u r r i c u l u m , no matter how w e l l adapted to the stages of h i s growth, l e a r n i n g (as d i s c l o -s u r e , as g e n e r a t i n g s t r u c t u r e s , as engender ing meanings, as a c h i e v i n g mastery) w i l l not o c c u r . (p. 313) Greene f u r t h e r suggests t h a t , as the v e h i c l e through which meaningfu l l e a r n i n g s can be f a c i l i t a t e d , the c u r r i c u l u m must enable the s tudent to p a r t i c i p a t e i n c o n s t r u c t i n g networks of r e l a t i o n s h i p s which would l e a d to d i s c o v e r y . In t h i s p u r s u i t , " the problem f o r t h e i r teachers i s to s t i m u l a t e an awareness of the q u e s t i o n a b l e , to a i d i n the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the t h e m a t i c a l l y r e l e v a n t , to beckon beyond the everyday" (p. 315) . In terms of the a r t c u r r i c u l u m , s p e c i f i c f e a t u r e s must be c o n s i d e r e d . The s t a r t i n g p o i n t b e i n g advocated i n t h i s t h e s i s stems from the r e a l i z a t i o n t h a t , as an i n t e g r a l 138 aspect of c u l t u r e , a r t can r e v e a l unique p e r s p e c t i v e s of l i f e and can p rov ide impor tant i n s i g h t i n t o v a l u e s . From t h i s b a s i c premise s p e c i f i c avenues f o r i n q u i r y and l e a r n -i n g can be developed. One of the major p i v o t a l f e a t u r e s of a s t u d e n t - c e n t e r e d " a c t i o n " c u r r i c u l u m i s the a b i l i t y of the s tudents to ask r e l e v a n t q u e s t i o n s . One cannot assume t h a t the s t u d e n t s ' c u r i o s i t y w i l l n a t u r a l l y l ead towards h o l i s t i c unders tand -i n g s . In f a c t , many c u l t u r a l a r t i f a c t s may, a t f i r s t , draw the s t u d e n t s ' a t t e n t i o n because of t h e i r f o r e i g n c h a r a c t e r -i s t i c s . In a t t e n d i n g t o these d e t a i l s s tudents may i n i t i a l l y be prone to express e t h n o c e n t r i c comments t h a t emphasize the e x o t i c (See lye , 1976, p. 12 ) . I t i s the task of the teacher to he lp the s tudents to ask s i g n i f i c a n t q u e s t i o n s which can p lace the s o - c a l l e d " e x o t i c " i n t o r e l a t i o n s h i p s t h a t w i l l he lp to i l l u m i n a t e the c o n t e x t u a l framework of c u l t u r e s . In t h i s manner not on l y can s tudents beg in to make sense out of the m a t e r i a l r a m i f i c a t i o n s of d i s t i n c t c u l t u r e s , but they can a l s o beg in to examine the p h i l o s o p h i -c a l arid e t h e r e a l e lements , i . e . , v a l u e s , b e l i e f s , i d e a l s , r e f l e c t e d i n c u l t u r a l a r t i f a c t s . A t t e n t i o n to such aspects s h o u l d , i d e a l l y , t r i g g e r a h e u r i s t i c process of i n q u i r y which has l i m i t l e s s boundar ies . The s t r u c t u r a l o r g a n i z a t i o n of the l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n i s a l s o an important c o n s i d e r a t i o n . One of the major l i m i -t a t i o n s of the t r a d i t i o n a l " c o n t r o l " approach w i t h i n c u r r i -culum i s the idea t h a t everyone i s supposed to l e a r n the 139 same t h i n g s a t the same t i m e . The " e a r l y " f i n i s h e r or the "s low" worker tend to p resent problems w i t h i n "the sys tem" , r e q u i r i n g the teacher to make s p e c i a l arrangements to a c c o -modate these " v a r i a t i o n s from the norm". However, i n a t rue s t u d e n t - c e n t e r e d h e u r i s t i c c u r r i c u l u m each student can more a c t i v e l y be i n v o l v e d i n s t r u c t u r i n g h i s own l e a r n -i n g a c c o r d i n g to h i s own i n t e r e s t s and needs. Such an approach would have to f a c i l i t a t e both i n d i v i d u a l i z e d and f l e x i b l e group l e a r n i n g s , depending upon p a r t i c u l a r c i r c u m -s t a n c e s . The p o t e n t i a l f o r both i n - d e p t h and b road ly based i n v e s t i g a t i o n s would a l s o be e s s e n t i a l . A s y n e r g i s t i c , q u a l i t a t i v e a r t c u r r i c u l u m — i n c o r p o r -a t i n g c r i t i c a l and p r o d u c t i v e a s p e c t s , w i t h a c u l t u r a l foundat ion — would have to c o o r d i n a t e these aspects w i t h the above-mentioned f e a t u r e s . D ia logue would be e s s e n t i a l w i t h i n t h i s approach s i n c e s h a r i n g , d i s c u s s i o n , and mutual d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g would be i m p l i c i t to h e u r i s t i c l e a r n i n g . The methods proposed i n t h i s t h e s i s i n i t i a l l y cen te r on ethnographic i n q u i r y . Th is i s f o l l o w e d by c r i t i c a l a n a l y s i s , which c o n s t i t u t e s the key process r e l a t e d to the o r g a n i z a t i o n and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of c o n t e x t u a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s . Th is a n a l y s i s p rov ides the p r e l i m i n a r y m o t i v a t i o n l e a d i n g towards d e c i s i o n s r e l a t e d t o p r o d u c t i o n . The g u i d e l i n e i n i d e n t i f y i n g the purposes of p r o d u c t i o n would be to keep the emphasis t o t a l l y i n accordance w i t h the c o n t e x t u a l f rame-work which encompasses the i n i t i a l i n q u i r y and c r i t i c a l d i s c u s s i o n . A concern f o r q u a l i t y and c ra f tsmansh ip should 140 be linked with the value bases derived from the preliminary-phases. F i n a l l y , the assessment of learning should be seen in terms of the o v e r a l l development r e l a t i n g to each stage: inquiry, c r i t i c i s m , and production. By c o r r e l a t i n g a l l of these aspects around a c u l t u r a l foundation, the aim of h o l i s t i c comprehension and relevance can be addressed. What i s e s s e n t i a l l y important within t h i s methodology i s the i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p between each part of the learning experience. Each aspect must contribute to the next, lead-ing to a gradually evolving q u a l i t a t i v e awareness of the " f i t " and meaning of art i n culture. In his foreword to Richardson's In the Early World (1964) John Melser explains how Richardson employed a q u a l i -t a t i v e approach i n his classroom i n a New Zealand school. In t h i s s i t u a t i o n "the primary demand on the c h i l d was that he think through to exactly what he observed, f e l t , or believed" (p. v i ) . This, Melser explains, requires careful t r a i n i n g to eliminate the merely stock response and the expected answer. He notes that In the beginning the pressure towards awareness and discrimination comes from the teacher. But since i f i t comes only from the teacher or i f i t remains mainly with the teacher the pressure w i l l produce only imita-t i v e performance, the weight of f e e l i n g must become a community one as quickly as possible. (p. v i i ) The ultimate goal was for the students to develop a s o l i d pride i n craftsmanship and to expand t h e i r i n t u i t i v e aware-141 ness of the wor ld around them. A l though the c e n t r a l aim f o r the methodology proposed i n t h i s t h e s i s i s m u l t i c u l t u r a l awareness through the a r t s •— towards the development of c u l t u r a l competency (see p. 2) — the development of c ra f tmansh ip i s a l s o a fundamental g o a l . By l e a r n i n g to recogn ize and s t r i v e towards q u a l i t y s tudents can take a major s tep i n the d i r e c t i o n of becoming " r e s p o n s e - a b l e " wor ld c i t i z e n s . The r e c o g n i t i o n of the f u n c t i o n and va lue of a r t i n c u l t u r a l context p r o v i d e s the a l l - e n c o m p a s s i n g f o u n d a t i o n . In the p r e s e n t a t i o n of t h i s methodology an overv iew i s i n t r o d u c e d f i r s t . Th is i s f o l l o w e d by an i n - d e p t h exami -n a t i o n of each stage to e x p l i c a t e the r a t i o n a l e , p rocedures , the scope of p o s s i b i l i t i e s , and the l i n k a g e between d e c i s i o n l e v e l s . Reference c h a r t s are i n c l u d e d to summarize p r o c e -d u r a l c h o i c e s . A t ime/scope a l l o c a t i o n i s a l s o p rov ided t o i l l u s t r a t e t h i s aspect of the methodology 's a d a p t a b i l i t y and p o t e n t i a l . F i n a l l y , the use of the methodology i s demonstrated through a sample s tudy . A s p e c i f i c c u l t u r a l theme i s chosen and developed through each stage of the methodology to i l l u s t r a t e the p r a c t i c a l a p p l i c a t i o n . Overview o f the Methodology B a s i c Format The methodology (see F i g u r e 1) i s e s s e n t i a l l y des igned to p rov ide a c y c l i c a l format f o r i n q u i r y and l e a r n i n g . A l though the teacher has s p e c i f i c background c o n s i d e r a t i o n s 142 which must be addressed befo re meeting w i t h the s t u d e n t s , the methodology p l a c e s major emphasis on t e a c h e r - s t u d e n t i n t e r a c t i o n . The format encompasses the f o l l o w i n g : P r e - i n t e r a c t i v e stage ( teacher o n l y ) . In t h i s stage the teacher makes i n i t i a l background d e c i s i o n s which r e l a t e to the foundat ions and assumptions which w i l l he lp to guide the i n q u i r y . A framework f o r the o v e r a l l goa ls i s c o n s i -dered , a l though f u r t h e r d i s c u s s i o n s and d e l i m i t a t i o n s f o r s p e c i f i c goa ls w i l l f o l l o w i n conference w i t h the s t u d e n t s . In t h i s p r e - i n t e r a c t i v e stage the teacher must a l s o cons ide r such aspects as the o r g a n i z a t i o n of the p h y s i c a l l e a r n i n g environment , and the p o t e n t i a l i n c l u s i o n or e x c l u -s i o n of sub jec t m a t t e r . D e c i s i o n s r e l a t i v e to the pr imary c u r r i c u l u m o r i e n t a t i o n would p rov ide an i n i t i a l g u i d e l i n e f o r d i s c u s s i o n s w i t h s t u d e n t s . To a l a r g e ex tent such d i s c u s s i o n s would a l s o r e l a t e t o p r o d u c t i o n and e v a l u a t i o n emphases. Stage 1 : Research and c l a s s i f i c a t i o n (students as e thnographers ) . In t h i s stage the teacher and the s tudents must f i r s t j o i n t l y dec ide on a study emphasis r e l a t e d to s p e c i f i c g o a l s . The theme and/or approach i s chosen from Charts A and B (see F i g u r e s 4 & 5 , pp. 173 & 174) . Th is i s f o l l o w e d by the c o l l e c t i o n , documentat ion, and c l a s s i -f i c a t i o n of the samples f o r study u s i n g a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l and/or s o c i o l o g i c a l p r o c e s s e s . Note : Much, o r a l l , o f t h i s c o l l e c t e d ev idence can be photograph ic . Chart C (see F i g u r e 6, p. 175) o u t l i n e s a b a s i c format f o r the 143 d o c u m e n t a t i o n / c l a s s i f i c a t i o n phase. Stage 2: C r i t i c a l a n a l y s i s (students as e t h n o l o g i s t s ) . In t h i s stage s tudents conduct a c r i t i c a l examinat ion of t h e i r e thnographic r e s e a r c h . Th is i n v o l v e s c l o s e o b s e r v a -t i o n , d e s c r i p t i o n , a n a l y s i s , and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i n an attempt to d i s c o v e r i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s among aspects of t h e i r r e s e a r c h . The s t r e s s i n t h i s stage i s p l a c e d on a r r i v i n g a t c o n t e x t u a l understandings r e l a t i n g to s p e c i f i c wor ld v iews . C r o s s - c u l t u r a l comparison would be a s i g n i f i -cant component. Stage 3 : P r o d u c t i o n (students as a r t i s t s ) . Th is stage extends d i r e c t l y from the r e s e a r c h and a n a l y s i s conducted w i t h i n the f i r s t two s t a g e s . The f i r s t task i s f o r s t u d e n t s , w i t h the a i d of the t e a c h e r , to fo rmulate o b j e c t i v e s f o r p r o d u c t i o n . In essence p a r t i c u l a r themat ic l e a r n i n g s based on the f i r s t two stages should i n i t i a t e q u e s t i o n s which can he lp the s tudents to i d e n t i f y p r o d u c t i o n t a s k s . These t a s k s can r e l a t e to e i t h e r t e c h n i c a l or i n t e r p r e t i v e problems which w i l l extend the i n i t i a l l e a r n i n g s . In the second p a r t of t h i s stage the s tudents a c t as a r t i s t s , a t t e n d i n g to the d e l i m i t a t i o n s s p e c i f i e d by t h e i r p r o d u c t i o n g o a l s . At a l l t imes the o v e r a l l goa l r e l a t i n g to c ra f t smansh ip i s s t r e s s e d . Stage 4: E v a l u a t i o n (students as e v a l u a t o r s l . A l l phases of the methodology are examined w i t h i n t h i s s t a g e . The assessment i s conducted by both the s tudents and the teacher i n j o i n t c o n s u l t a t i o n . Q u a l i t a t i v e techn iques are used to examine the d e c i s i o n s made at c r i t i c a l p o i n t s , the q u a l i t y of t e a c h i n g / l e a r n i n g s t r a t e g i e s , the q u a l i t y and c ra f tsmansh ip i s s u i n g from Stage 3 , and the o v e r a l l success of the p rocedures . A f t e r the e v a l u a t i o n has been done a j o i n t d e c i s i o n i s made concern ing the p o s s i b i l i t i e s of e i t h e r ex tend ing the study theme, f o r g r e a t e r depth or c o n -t r a s t or compar ison, or s e l e c t i n g a new one. I f the theme i s extended Stage 5 would o v e r l a p w i t h Stage 1 and the e n t i r e format would be r e p e a t e d . D e c i s i o n l e v e l s . There are two c r i t i c a l d e c i s i o n l e v e l s i n v o l v e d i n the methodology. The f i r s t occurs a f t e r Stage 2. I f the theme chosen f o r r e s e a r c h and a n a l y s i s has been r e l a -t i v e l y r e s t r i c t i v e the d e c i s i o n may be to r e t u r n to Stage 1 to conduct f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n s before p r o d u c t i o n ques -t i o n s and t a s k s are i d e n t i f i e d f o r Stage 3 . In essence t h i s r e t u r n to research and a n a l y s i s can be conducted as o f t e n as i s j o i n t l y deemed necessary . The second d e c i s i o n l e v e l occurs a f t e r Stage 4 . A t t h i s p o i n t the d e c i s i o n r e l a t e s t o the cho ice of ex tend ing the theme i n t o Stage 5 or c o n c l u d i n g t h a t p a r t i c u l a r thema-t i c f o c u s . In t h i s second i n s t a n c e a new theme would be chosen f o r Stage 1 the next t ime t h a t the methodology i s used. Figure 1 OVERVIEW OF METHODOLOGY: STAGES AND PROCEDURES Background Considerations Pre-interactive Stafie (T only) Teacher should consider: - curriculum orientation - major aim(s) - general goals - physical logistics - expl ic i t / impl ic i t / null dimensions CHART A Thematic Possibil i t ies (See Figure if) CHART B Perceptual Frames (See Figure 5) First Step in Teacher/Student Interactions Stage 1 (T-S): Research and Classification 1. Make choice for study emphasis — from Chart A and/or B. 2. Carry out re-search (may be photographic). 3. Use approach to classif ication as shown in Chart C. Stage 5 (T-S): Further research & documentation (eg. for greater depth, comparison/ contrast) CHART C Approaches to Classification (See Figure 6) Consequent Dialogue and Activity Student Production of art works . Discussion prior to next cycle Stage 2 (T-S): Cr i t i ca l Analysis 1 . Aesthetic/cultural analysis - observation - description - inquiry into meanings 2. Structural analysis (See Figures 8 & 9) S3 O I Stage 3: Production 1. Formation of objectives for production (T-S) 2. Production (S) within one of four phases: - Apprentice - Journeyman - Master - Artist (See Figure VI ) Stage if: Evaluation t. Student emphasis - overview of 3 stage development 2. Teacher emphasis - examination of role 3. Curriculum - review of educa-tional significance LEGEND T - Teacher-only decisions T-S = Joint teacher/student decisions S = Student only Decision Levels A • B = Points where process could be terminated i f goals have been met 146 I m p l i c i t Features One of the major f e a t u r e s of the methodology i s the f a c t t h a t the students are r e q u i r e d to p l a y a key r o l e i n p l a n n i n g t h e i r own l e a r n i n g . At every stage o ther than the p r e - i n t e r a c t i v e stage the s tudents are c a l l e d upon to make p r o c e d u r a l d e c i s i o n s . The t e a c h e r ' s t a s k i n v o l v e s h e l p i n g the students to t h i n k about the cho ices a v a i l a b l e , h e l p i n g them to cons ide r the r a t i o n a l e f o r d e c i s i o n s , encouraging and f a c i l i t a t i n g the s h a r i n g of i d e a s , and h e l p i n g them t o develop a sense of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y as d e c i s i o n - m a k e r s , c r i t i c s , and c r a f t s m e n . The format of the methodology can accommodate a f u l l c l a s s u s i n g i t at one t i m e , w i t h everyone f u n c t i o n i n g t o g e t h e r ; i t can be adapted to s m a l l e r group work, w i t h each group f o c u s i n g on a d i f f e r e n t v a r i a t i o n of a theme; and i t can f a c i l i t a t e i n d i v i d u a l i z e d research and s tudy . For each of these arrangements the teacher would f u n c t i o n as a c o n s u l t a n t and c o - i n v e s t i g a t o r . Regard less of the arrangement the s h a r i n g of ideas and group c o n s u l t a t i o n f o r d e c i s i o n s i s an important f e a t u r e . As each stage i s deve loped , and p a r t i c u l a r l y as each stage i s conc luded , the cho ices and d e c i s i o n s made should be understood and agreed upon by a l l concerned. I f s m a l l group work or i n d i v i d u a l i z e d study i s o c c u r r i n g then the s h a r i n g and c o o r d i n a t i o n of r e s e a r c h should occur a t key t imes — p a r t i c u l a r l y at D e c i s i o n l e v e l s A and B — or a t mutua l l y agreed upon stages depending upon the c i rcumstances 147 of the study. Even i f the program i s in d i v i d u a l i z e d t h i s sharing can f a c i l i t a t e the coordination of research so that more h o l i s t i c insights can be gained. By sharing both the results of research and the res u l t s of c r i t i c a l analysis the perceptual and conceptual learnings can be extended. By describing the production tasks and seeking c r i t i c i s m on the results the q u a l i t a t i v e goals can extend into the development of high standards of craftsmanship. In terms of study focus the thematic p o s s i b i l i t i e s should always have a c u l t u r a l base but, as i s shown i n Chart A (Figure 4, p. 173), the variations are l i m i t l e s s . Within the study a central concern should involve i l l u m i -nation of the philosophical perspectives which inculcate the art. Thus, as research i s carr i e d out, the world views that are represented are continuously being addressed. At the same time c u l t u r a l d i s t i n c t i o n s and s i m i l a r i t i e s are continuously placed i n perspective and new understandings are constantly added to the conceptual whole. In t h i s manner each thematic episode builds into an evolving p i c -ture of the c u l t u r a l world, as represented through a r t . In the following section an in-depth examination i s provided for each stage of the methodology. 148 Components of the Methodology P r e - i n t e r a c t i v e Stage (Teacher Only) Before examining the t a s k s which i n v o l v e the teacher i n the p r e - i n t e r a c t i v e stage o f t h i s methodology one might cons ide r the t r a d i t i o n a l t a s k s of the teacher i n the c o n -v e n t i o n a l r u l e - g o v e r n e d approach to schoo l a r t . In the c o n v e n t i o n a l r o l e the t e a c h e r ' s major concern i s d i r e c t e d towards s e l e c t i n g a p r o d u c t i o n t o p i c t h a t w i l l " i d e a l l y " f i t w i t h i n the time a l l o t m e n t set a s i d e f o r t h a t day ' s a r t a c t i v i t y . F r e q u e n t l y the elementary teacher w i l l pre-make an "example" of the proposed product to show the c l a s s be fo re they beg in t h e i r "own" work — f o l l o w i n g the r u l e s set out by the t e a c h e r . Thus, the product i s p r e -s e l e c t e d and the "expected l o o k " i s superimposed on the s t u d e n t s ' consc iousness before they even b e g i n . In many cases the s tudents do not even know why they are do ing the a c t i v i t y , o ther than the f a c t t h a t the a r t c l a s s i s deemed to be t h e i r " fun and r e l a x a t i o n " t i m e . In t h i s t r a d i t i o n a l s i t u a t i o n l i t t l e , i f any, c o n s i d e r -a t i o n i s g iven to c u l t u r a l v a l u e s or to the i m p l i c i t r e l a t i o n -sh ip of t h i s a c t i v i t y to the t o t a l e d u c a t i o n a l endeavor. Most c e r t a i n l y d e c i s i o n s r e l a t i n g to t h i s type of a c t i v i t y r a r e l y r e f l e c t c o n s i d e r a t i o n s f o r the c h i l d ' s o u t - o f - s c h o o l c u l t u r e , and j u s t as r a r e l y r e f l e c t any r e a l concern f o r the c o g n i t i v e ex tens ions of t h i s s o - c a l l e d " c r e a t i v e " e n t e r -p r i s e . The " c o n t r o l " methods t r a d i t i o n a l l y used emphasize 149 an i s o l a t i o n of events and, by t h e i r own s t r u c t u r e s , s e p a -r a t e l e a r n i n g s so t h a t even the teachers f a i l to recogn i ze the importance of making h o l i s t i c connect ions between a c t i -v i t i e s . In the p r e - i n t e r a c t i v e stage be ing proposed i n t h i s methodology the t e a c h e r ' s pr imary concern i s to c o n s i d e r the h o l i s t i c e d u c a t i o n a l va lue o f the for thcoming s t u d i e s . D'Oyley (1979) ^ suggests t h a t a good t e a c h e r / c u r r i c u l u m b u i l d e r should be "so steeped i n a knowledge of what i s i n the p u b l i c domain" t h a t h igh standards can be used to i s o -l a t e pars imonious subsets which can be examined i n the c u r r i c u l u m . He suggests t h a t " the r o l e o f the c u r r i c u l u m b u i l d e r i s l i k e t h a t of the n o v e l i s t : t h a t person must i s o l a t e some exper iences and f o c u s e s , and i n g e n i o u s l y d e l i n e a t e and c h a r a c t e r i z e " - ( p . 127) . W i t h i n t h i s methodology the teacher w i l l not be s o l e l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the f i n a l s e l e c t i o n . However, he/she must be aware of the i m p l i c a t i o n s of the j o i n t t e a c h e r - s t u d e n t s e l e c t i o n s t h a t w i l l be made f o r the study f o c u s . Us ing t h i s awareness of the p u b l i c domain the teacher can he lp the students to make balanced s e l e c t i o n s t h a t w i l l r e i n f o r c e t h e i r h o l i s t i c l e a r n i n g s . Q u i l l e n (1963) p o s i t s t h a t educators must c o n s i d e r how the methods used i n the c lassroom " w i l l t r a n s f e r d i r e c t l y to e f f e c t i v e n e s s i n l i v i n g o u t s i d e of the s c h o o l " (p. 5 1 ) . A l a r g e p a r t of t h i s c o n s i d e r a t i o n should a t tend to the m u l t i c u l t u r a l nature of the p u b l i c domain. At the 150 same time the teacher must c o n s i d e r the educational aims t h a t r e l a t e to t h i s e f f e c t i v e n e s s i n l i v i n g so t h a t s k i l l s can be developed towards t h i s end. E i s n e r (1979) suggests t h a t "aims are the most g e n e r a l statements t h a t p r o c l a i m to the wor ld the va lues t h a t some group ho lds f o r an e d u c a t i o n a l program" (p. 116) . In the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of a genera l aim a d i r e c t i o n or v iewpo in t can be g iven f o c u s . From here goa ls can be developed which " d e s c r i b e the purposes h e l d f o r a course or schoo l program" (p. 116) . D e c i s i o n s concern ing aims and goa ls are i m p l i -c i t l y r e l a t e d t o the va lue bases and pr imary o r i e n t a t i o n of the c u r r i c u l u m . As was d e s c r i b e d i n Chapter 2 the va lue p o s i t i o n s t h a t shape concept ions of e d u c a t i o n a l p r a c t i c e can f a l l i n t o d i s t i n c t p a t t e r n s and o r i e n t a t i o n s . The wise teacher should have some knowledge of which va lues and o r i e n t a t i o n s p rov ide the g u i d i n g framework f o r e d u c a t i o n a l exper iences which occur i n h i s / h e r c l a s s r o o m . The p o s i t i o n be ing advocated as a foundat ion f o r t h i s methodology i s a hermeneutic format — where i n t e r e s t i s p l a c e d on meaning r a t h e r than c o n t r o l — i n concer t w i t h a s o c i a l a d a p t a t i o n o r i e n t a t i o n . Th is i s not to say t h a t aspects of the other o r i e n t a t i o n s w i l l not p l a y a r o l e . Th is p o s i t i o n s imply emphasizes the major va lue t h r u s t of the program. In essence the cho ice of o r i e n t a t i o n i n f l u e n c e s the set of e d u c a t i o n a l p r i o r i t i e s which " d e f i n e s the content and i n f l u e n c e s the c l i m a t e w i t h i n which s tudents and teachers 151 work" ( E i s n e r , 1979, p. 7 1 ) . The cho ice of a hermeneut ic -s o c i a l a d a p t a t i o n o r i e n t a t i o n he lps to i d e n t i f y the l e a r n i n g exper iences which can p rov ide the p o t e n t i a l f o r s tudents to address the major aim of c u l t u r a l competency. In d e c i d i n g on g o a l parameters v a r i o u s dimensions of c u l t u r e should be c o n s i d e r e d . Th is r e q u i r e s go ing beyond the va lue systems and b e l i e f s of the dominant c u l t u r e and r e s p e c t i n g each i n d i v i d u a l " i n h i s / h e r c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e " . I t a l s o means p r o v i d i n g " f o r each p e r s o n ' s development through h i s / h e r own l i f e h i s t o r y and unique c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s " (Macdonald, 1977a, p. 1 3 ) . T h e r e f o r e , i n the p r e - i n t e r a c t i v e stage the goa ls should be d e f i n e d " i n broad h o l i s t i c terms" (p. 13) which can p rov ide the foundat ion f o r the development of r e s e a r c h and s k i l l o b j e c t i v e s , i n c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h the s t u d e n t s . S ince the emphasis f o r t h i s methodology i s p l a c e d on meaning the c o g n i t i v e goa ls should be a prime c o n s i d e r a t i o n . Werner, Conners, A o k i , and D a h l i e (1977) e x p l a i n t h a t the c o g n i t i v e view of c u l t u r e encompasses " the t o t a l contex t developed over t ime through which a group c o l l e c t i v e l y approaches and i n t e r p r e t s t h e i r w o r l d " (pp. 3 4 - 3 5 ) . They note t h a t t h i s i n c l u d e s the g roup 's b e l i e f systems, w o r l d -v iew, va lues and a t t i t u d e s , myths and i d e a l s . C o g n i t i v e g o a l s , t h e r e f o r e , would i d e n t i f y the types of understandings which might be a t t a i n e d by a d d r e s s i n g s p e c i f i c c u l t u r a l f a c t o r s w i t h i n a c e r t a i n t ime frame i n the c u r r i c u l u m . These goa ls may r e f l e c t the m u l t i c u l t u r a l nature of the 152 s o c i e t y w i t h i n which the schoo l i s l o c a t e d , or they c o u l d be of a more genera l n a t u r e . P o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r e i t h e r depth or breadth approaches are a l s o a v a i l a b l e . In terms of a r t educat ion as e x e m p l i f i e d w i t h i n t h i s methodology goal c o n s i d e r a t i o n s should i d e n t i f y the p o t e n t i a l f o r deve lop ing c o g n i t i v e understandings w i t h i n the r e s e a r c h / c r i t i c a l / p r o d u c t i o n / e v a l u a t i o n phases which cente r around c u l t u r a l a r t i f a c t s . Students might begin to develop c u l t u r a l competencies by f i r s t c o n s i d e r i n g a r t a s s o c i a t i o n s w i t h i n t h e i r own immediate o u t - o f - s c h o o l w o r l d . The va lues and c u l t u r a l w o r l d - v i e w s r e l a t e d to these f a m i l i a r a r t aspects cou ld be exp lo red i n c o n v e r s a t i o n w i t h f a m i l y members and members of the community. Such a focus would r e l a t e to the goal of deve lop ing p r i d e i n o n e ' s own e t h n i c i t y and c u l t u r a l h e r i t a g e . Goals r e l a t e d to the development of m u l t i c u l t u r a l understandings through a r t and to understanding the r o l e of a r t i n c u l t u r e would have to be d i r e c t e d towards c r o s s - c u l -t u r a l r e s e a r c h which emphasizes c o g n i t i o n . E i s n e r (1979) suggests t h a t one major aim of educat ion i s " t o teach c h i l d r e n t o t h i n k , to a c t , and to l e a r n from the consequences of one 's a c t i o n " (p. 120) . A l l of the goa ls r e l a t e d to the four phases of the methodology focus on deve lop ing s t u d e n t s ' p e r c e p t u a l , c o g n i t i v e , and c r e a t i v e a b i l i t i e s t o the p o i n t where they can become respons ive and r e s p o n s i b l e wor ld c i t i z e n s , capable of i n t e l l i g e n t c u l t u r a l i n t e r a c t i o n and demanding of care and concern f o r a common e a r t h . A r t i s t i c inquiry can help i n the "demystification" of c u l t u r a l r e a l i t i e s , but t h i s i s only possible i f teachers themselves are aware of the pervasiveness and importance of these c u l t u r a l v ariations. The teacher must also be aware of the types of problems which could be i d e n t i f i e d as research focal points to help i n the students' contextual understanding of the role of art i n culture. Such consider-ations must be given attention before interactions with students can begin. Eisner (1979) notes that although goal considerations are necessary the task of educational transformation draws heavily on the expertise of the teacher. He feels that events must be conceptualized i n such a way that the educa-t i o n a l promise can be c l e a r l y seen. To t h i s end, "educa-t i o n a l l y appropriate means must be created to enable stu-dents to interact with problems or situations that w i l l y i e l d an understanding of . . . concepts and generalizations" (p. 119). In the pre-interactive stage part of these con-ceptualizations should focus on the physical l o g i s t i c s of the proposed study. In other words, the conditions related to research and exploration into problems should be pre-considered. Questions for consideration might include the following: (1) What p o t e n t i a l i t i e s or li m i t a t i o n s are inherent in a classroom based study? What physical requirements must be given attention? What materials might be needed? (.2) How w i l l the study r e l a t e to the school structure 154 in general? Note; Both philosophical and physical aspects might be considered i n t h i s question. Would m u l t i - l e v e l , i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y extensions be possible? C3) Can f i e l d research add to the pot e n t i a l for the study? Is museum research feasible? (4) What community aspects might be addressed? Can community personnel be involved? By addressing these p o s s i b i l i t i e s beforehand the teacher would be prepared to o f f e r any available alternatives for research which might seem appropriate to the students' needs. One further aspect that should be taken into consider-ation within the pre-interactive stage i s the e x p l i c i t / i m p l i c i t / n u l l dimensions of the curriculum. As previously noted, the e x p l i c i t dimension incorporates the p u b l i c l y -i d e n t i f i a b l e components. However, within t h i s methodology these components would not be t o t a l l y i d e n t i f i e d u n t i l the students become involved i n the decision making. This student-teacher in t e r a c t i o n , i n e f f e c t , helps to make the e x p l i c i t dimension more viable than i t would be i n a t r a d i -t i o n a l "control" curriculum. As Hanvey (1965) explains: The e x p l i c i t curriculum of the school probably has less influence than any teacher would wish to know. Nevertheless, the influence of . . . programs . . . can be increased - i f . . . programs demonstrably provide students with the opportunity to see human a f f a i r s i n large perspective, with the s k i l l s of d i s c i p l i n e d observation and with new power to explain s o c i a l phenomena. (p. 316) Thus, i n the pre-interactive stage the teacher can give thought to the scope p o s s i b i l i t i e s of the e x p l i c i t c u r r i c u -lum, but the f i n a l choices can only be made i n consultation with the students. With the active involvement of the students i t i s presumed that the putative value of t h i s dimension would be greatly increased. In terms of the i m p l i c i t curriculum, the teacher has a key role to play. Apple (1977) emphasizes that notions of " j u s t i c e and e t h i c a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y " (p. 14) are extremely s i g n i f i c a n t . However, there are other dimensions of t h i s i m p l i c i t component as well. In r e l a t i n g some of the t r a d i t i o n a l features of the "hidden" curriculum, H a l l (1976, p. 209) points out that the lessons children quickly learn include: "the c u l t u r a l l y important point that schedules are sacred and rule every-thing" , "bureaucracies are . . . r e a l and are not to be taken l i g h t l y " , and "education i s a game i n which there are winners and losers, and the game has l i t t l e relevance to either the outside world or to the subject being studied". He suggests that ethnocentric attitudes generally lead to the imposition of Western value systems on children from a l l c u l t u r a l back-grounds, with the assumption that a l l other r e a l i t i e s are i n f e r i o r . He stresses that "the way children are treated i n schools i s sheer madness . . . . Our schools are a vignette of how man, i n the development of c i v i l i z a t i o n and i t s core i n s t i t u t i o n s , has managed to ignore or disrespect some of 156 the most compelling aspects of his own nature" (p. 2 05). While Hall's comments may be overstatements, they con-t a i n a great deal of truth. Such truths are too frequently overlooked, but must become part of the teacher's conscious-ness i f the methodology proposed i n t h i s thesis i s to have v a l i d i t y . The i m p l i c i t dimensions of t h i s curriculum format must include the promotion of respect for world-views other than "Western"; the i m p l i c i t and e x p l i c i t b e l i e f that art i s an important element of culture, through which c u l t u r a l values and philosophies are revealed; the expectation that children can assume greater r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n defining goals for t h e i r own learning and i n determining "the kind of resources that they w i l l need to pursue the ends they have formulated" (Eisner, 1979, p. 75); and the promotion of respect for the worth of a l l individuals involved i n the enterprise. In essence i t i s proposed that the "game" aspect of the hidden curriculum be f i n a l l y overcome so that the r e a l business of learning can be addressed. The curriculum must allow a l l children to benefit, not just those from the dominant society. By focusing on a culturally-based art curriculum that incorporates these i m p l i c i t dimensions there may f i n a l l y be a chance for r e a l learning and understanding to occur. Part of t h i s preconceptualized framework involves con-siderations for the n u l l curriculum. The major dimensions and important considerations for t h i s component have already been outlined i n Chapter 2. Thus i t i s important to be 157 aware of those i n t e l l e c t u a l processes and content areas that might p o t e n t i a l l y be overlooked. In helping the students with t h e i r decisions for study focus the awareness of these aspects can help the teacher to ensure that some degree of balance i s maintained i n learnings. It can be seen that the tasks and considerations that are required of the teacher i n t h i s pre-interactive stage are far d i f f e r e n t from those that would t r a d i t i o n a l l y occupy the teacher's attention before class i n t e r a c t i o n . In essence the teacher i s required to consider the meanings and dimen-sions of the forthcoming study so that he/she can provide assistance and leverage i n the investigations. In addition to the above the teacher must be capable of providing insight into resources that would enrich the study, and should be f a m i l i a r with investigative procedures that might be best suited to the goals, i . e . , anthropological and s o c i o l o g i c a l processes such as those outlined i n Chap-ter 2. The teacher should also be able to, i n D'Oyley's (1979) words: "assure that the materials and experiences are i n t r i n s i c a l l y motivating and i n meaningful small units, exhibit a caring for and valuing of high standards i n stu-dent accomplishment, and j u d i c i o u s l y guide student i n i t i a -t i v e " (p. 128) . It i s unfortunate that the t r a d i t i o n a l "control" models and Tylerian p r i n c i p l e s have led teachers to believe that highly,defined goals and products-in-view are e s s e n t i a l to pedagogy. Eisner (1979) helps to expand t h i s conception by 158 explaining that the art of teaching involves the a b i l i t y to exercise on-going q u a l i t a t i v e judgments as q u a l i t a t i v e ends unfold. Obviously a framework i s necessary, but i t can be constructed i n such a way that inventiveness and discovery are i m p l i c i t within the design. In t h i s framework many of the ends are emergent and teaching can become a true a r t rather than merely a routine-dominated task which often does l i t t l e to insp i r e anyone. Robertson (1961) puts t h i s into perspective as follows: The teacher must be some one who i s aware of the great variety of human experience, aware as no c h i l d can be of the beginnings which may lead on to the riches our c i v i l i z a t i o n can o f f e r . She i s above a l l one who evokes i n t e r e s t , who can spark o f f such a f l a s h . How is t h i s done? Surely only by being excited and i n t e r -ested h e r s e l f , and sharing that with the children . . . . If the teacher i s not fascinated afresh every day by the material of her job there w i l l be no educa-t i o n , only a t o i l of learning. (p. 85) This methodology i s designed to keep the teacher interested as much as i t i s designed to i n t r i n s i c a l l y motivate the stu-dents. Once the preliminary dimensions are considered i n the pre-interactive stage they can provide the conceptual foundations for the teacher's r o l e . From t h i s point on a l l other decisions are made i n consultation with the students. An overview of the components of the pre-interactive stage i s provided i n Figure 2. Figure 2 Background Considerations Pre-interactive Stage (Teacher Only) Teacher should: - consider the curriculum orientation - i d e n t i f y the primary aim(s) for the program - i d e n t i f y o v e r a l l goals (general) - determine the physical l o g i s t i c s for the program with reference to: - the classroom (setting & materials) - the school - f i e l d research p o t e n t i a l i t i e s - consider the e x p l i c i t / i m p l i c i t / n u l l dimensions of the curriculum 160 Stage 1: Research and C l a s s i f i c a t i o n One of the f i r s t tasks for the teacher — e s p e c i a l l y the f i r s t time t h i s methodology i s introduced — i s to "set the stage" for q u a l i t a t i v e inquiry. This requires approach-ing the students i n a consultative manner. Although the teacher w i l l have to help the students to understand the basic framework for study, the emphasis should be placed upon j o i n t planning. It i s important that students under-stand that they have freedom to decide on investigative themes and to assume j o i n t r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for t h e i r learning. Thus, a d i a l e c t i c atmosphere must be established. In introducing the basic framework the teacher should ensure that the students have some understanding of the general d i r e c t i o n and o v e r a l l goals for the study. By c l a r i f y i n g these aspects at the beginning the students are not only provided with a rationale, but they also have a chance to ask questions and add t h e i r own suggestions. These directions and goals would, of course, be further c l a r i f i e d as the study proceeds. The next step i s to i d e n t i f y the role of the students in t h i s f i r s t phase of the study. In t h i s phase the students w i l l act as ethnographers. They should understand that i n t h i s role they w i l l be faced with a multitude of choices. They w i l l be i d e n t i f y i n g problems and carrying out i n v e s t i -gative procedures that w i l l help them to learn about new worlds. They w i l l have the opportunity to gain new under-standings concerning the functions and meanings of a r t , that could — i n the end — leave them with a new consciousness and concern for q u a l i t a t i v e l i f e . The students should under-stand that i n t h i s f i r s t phase they w i l l be c a l l e d upon to define objectives and to work through the anthropological processes of gathering and ordering data. They should also be aware of the inte r p r e t i v e dimension which w i l l follow i n Stage 2. In terms of class organization, i t may be wise to work through a central theme with the f u l l class the f i r s t time that the methodology i s i n s t i t u t e d . Following the i n i t i a l sequence the class might be partitioned into small groups for s e l e c t i v e investigation, or f u l l i n d i v i d u a l i z a t i o n of study could ensue. In each case, arrangements would have to be made for group sharing and consultation. The f i r s t j o i n t class-teacher dialogue would focus upon the search for investigative themes. Plog and Bates (1976) suggest that i n preparing the research design the anthropolo-g i s t must begin with a problematic focus and rationale. One possible s t a r t i n g point i n terms of the school s i t u a t i o n would be to begin with the school environment as i t relates to the out-of-school culture. This environment may be pre-dominantly Anglo, or Chinese, or Indian, or i t may be an admixture of several cultures. From t h i s r e a l i z a t i o n a s p e c i f i c problem could be i d e n t i f i e d that can be investigated through art. In t h i s l i g h t children should be led to under-stand that, although they may not at f i r s t recognize i t , a dominant Anglo environment i s just as c u l t u r a l l y unique to 162 someone with another world-view as t h e i r culture i s to the Anglo. This i s one of the reasons why c r o s s - c u l t u r a l i n v e s t i -gation and comparison i s so important. In discussing the "demystification" process, Asante and Barnes (1979) suggest that t r i g g e r i n g devices which could i n i t i a t e i n t e r c u l t u r a l investigation may be physical, sensual, or psychic. They note that "physical t r i g g e r i n g devices may include how people of d i f f e r e n t races or cultures dress, how d i f f e r e n t they appear to us p h y s i c a l l y , and what actions of thei r s are s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t from ours to be recogniz-able as c u l t u r a l rather than personal idiosyncrasies" (p. 97). Smell, touch, and taste are included i n sensual devices. However, the v i s u a l may be i n i t i a l l y more s i g n i f i c a n t . Asante and Barnes suggest that "psychic t r i g g e r i n g devices are i n c l u -ded i n the a n t i c i p a t i o n , apprehension, and even nervousness which may occur" when peoples of d i f f e r e n t cultures have to meet and int e r a c t . The purpose of addressing such points of c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n within the classroom setting i s not to high-l i g h t differences but to begin to attend to the depth of meaning which must be a central concern for t h i s study. In other words, the students must r e a l i z e from the beginning that t h e i r investigation of art w i l l not focus merely on c o l l e c t i n g and describing the world's ornaments, body decorations, variations i n clothing, blanket and rug designs, pottery and basket s t y l e s , a r c h i t e c t u r a l embellishments, monuments, ceremonial masks, legends, 163 work songs, s o c i a l dances, and other art forms. But the process of c o l l e c t i n g must eventually lead to some kind of analysis, and then perhaps to some illu m i n a t i n g generalizations about relationships between art and culture. (Haviland, 1978, pp. 360-361) This investigation must rel a t e to the values, b e l i e f s , and world-views which are r e f l e c t e d in the arts. Following the i n i t i a l dialogue — designed to illuminate the f i e l d from which students w i l l select t h e i r i n v e s t i g a t i v e theme -- the students must consider the learning outcomes which would be important to them. In the "control" approach thi s would involve sta t i n g behavioural objectives that would prec i s e l y delimit the c r i t e r i a for learning. However, i n this methodology, expressive outcomes w i l l provide the guide-lines sjo that maximum f l e x i b i l i t y i s ensured. As Eisner (1979) states: "expressive outcomes are the consequences of curriculum a c t i v i t i e s that are i n t e n t i o n a l l y planned to pro-vide a f e r t i l e f i e l d for personal purposing and experience" (p. 103). He further notes that, for the teacher, the task involves having students "engage i n a c t i v i t i e s that are s u f f i c i e n t l y r i c h to allow for a wide, productive range of educationally valuable outcomes" (p. 104). In t r a n s l a t i n g these concepts into the methodology, students w i l l begin by i d e n t i f y i n g what they wish to d i s -cover through the investigative phase. These discoveries w i l l p o t e n t i a l l y lead to new questions which can be i d e n t i -f i e d i n the second stage. By the time they reach the t h i r d stage — production — t h e i r previous learnings w i l l allow them to formulate new expressive objectives for production. In each phase the extent of t h e i r learnings w i l l not be revealed u n t i l the phase draws to a conclusion. At that point, j o i n t discussions w i l l illuminate new directions and further decisions can be made about subsequent procedures. As Eisner suggests, "purposes need not precede a c t i v i t i e s ; they can be formulated in the process of action i t s e l f " (p. 104). In terms of the organization of research, t h i s methodo-logy f a c i l i t a t e s a wide range of s t a r t i n g points which might constitute a viable investigative focus. B u i l t around the thematic approach proposed by Fre i r e (1970) and other educa-tors (such as Gay, 1979), t h i s investigative mode i s also emergent i n that i t s boundaries are adaptive to conceptual understandings which can encompass overlap and interconnect-ing variables. Thus, a singular theme can encompass many sub-sections. Decisions r e l a t i n g to the extent and depth into which the study might delve can only be made within the emerging investigative process. Guba (1978) explains: When the n a t u r a l i s t i c evaluator [here interpreted as investigator] has i d e n t i f i e d even a preliminary set of categories he w i l l wish to begin "fleshing" them out, i . e . , by c o l l e c t i n g information which w i l l describe the issues or concerns i n some d e t a i l , by providing perspectives for viewing them, and by developing 165 s u f f i c i e n t evidence to permit judgments to be made about them. (p. 57) In terms of the t y p i c a l n a t u r a l i s t i c inquiry s i t u a t i o n , Guba notes that three major strategies can be pursued: (.1) Extension - "The inquirer begins with a known item or items of information and builds on them. He uses these items as bases for other questions or as guides i n his exami-nation of documents. Amoeba-like, he inches his way from the known to the unknown" (p. 59). (2) Bridging - "The inquirer begins with several known, but apparently disconnected, items of information" (p. 59). He/she then searches for connections between the items u n t i l the relationship i s understood. C3) Surfacing - "As the inquirer becomes more and more familiar with the area, he becomes able to propose new i n f o r -mation that ought to be found i n the f i e l d and then to v e r i f y i t s existence" (p. 59). In the selection of a thematic fo c a l point for class investigation, many related variables may be i d e n t i f i e d . Each variable can be examined i n a d i f f e r e n t way, by d i f f e r -ent groups or i n d i v i d u a l s , and then these elements can be joined together during sharing sessions. The three s t r a t e -gies noted above would play a key role i n drawing connections and determining boundaries for learning. Guba suggests that closure can come when the inquiry has: (a) exhausted possible sources of information, (b) reached a saturation point in terms of useful y i e l d , (c) 166 attained a useful degree of r e g u l a r i t y so that integration and comprehension can occur, or (d) overextended predeter-mined boundaries. An overview of thematic p o s s i b i l i t i e s and approaches i s provided i n Charts A and B (Figures 4 & 5, pp. 173 & 174). In the selection of theme the teacher should ensure that there i s some aspect of coordination between topics, even i f small group or i n d i v i d u a l i z e d inquiry i s being done. In t h i s way the contextual learning can be reinforced by shar-ing investigative discoveries. Although a sample study i s provided i n a subsequent section of t h i s chapter, an i n i t i a l explanation of t h i s selection process follows. The general theme chosen for study might be "Animals in Art". This might be correlated with an " h i s t o r i c a l " approach. An i n i t i a l i nvestigation could uncover examples of animals as they have been depicted h i s t o r i c a l l y i n the art of a large number of c u l t u r a l groups. Although cert a i n discoveries can be made by reviewing these examples, i f the boundaries of the investigation were limited to two or three c u l t u r a l groups more depth in: learnings would ensue. Further delimitations and greater depth can follow from here. In Figure 3 one possible delimitation format i s shown. It might also be noted that c o r r e l a t i o n of theme and approach could involve several dimensions. For example, one could examine how animals have been depicted h i s t o r i c a l l y for r e l i g i o u s purposes c r o s s - c u l t u r a l l y . In t h i s case two approaches would be selected to coordinate with one theme. Figure 3 167 Sample Delimitation Format General Investigative Theme General Cross-Cultural Comparison Sp e c i f i c Cross-Cultural Comparison. Animals i n Art - H i s t o r i c a l Approach Animals i n Art: Chinese, Japanese, East Indian Chinese Animals i n Art Japanese I East Indian w c o •H +J O G Religious P o l i t i c a l A r c h i t e c t u r a l Celebrational -> 1 Sculpture Painting Fabrics T A. Delimitation to Individual Cultures & Individual Components i . i e . Chinese: Animals i n Sculpture Types of sculpture Functions of sculpture Symbolic meanings 168 With regard to investigative procedures, a number of anthropological processes were i d e n t i f i e d i n Chapter 2. I t was shown that i n order to uncover meaning i n the investiga-tion of art the gathering, ordering, and in t e r p r e t i n g pro-cesses must be related to s o c i a l and contextual correlates. These correlates must be p a r t i c u l a r l y kept i n mind during these next phases of the methodology. When the students have completed the f i r s t step of th e i r ethnographic inquiry — preparing t h e i r f i e l d by i d e n t i f y i n g t h e i r theme and j u s t i f y i n g t h e i r choice i n terms of pot e n t i a l c u l t u r a l and a r t i s t i c learning — they can j o i n t l y consider f i e l d techniques that w i l l help them to gather the necessary data. Two possible methods that might be used are: 1. Photographic c o l l e c t i o n As an emphatic advocate of the use of photography for anthropological investigation, C o l l i e r (1967) explains that because the photograph can record complex d e t a i l s of a f i e l d i t can be of great value to research. The scope and authenticity provided through photographs can greatly a s s i s t the inquirer i n observing, i d e n t i f y i n g , and r e l a t i n g s p e c i f i c components. While t h i s researcher i s not suggesting that each stu-dent become an avid photographer — although that would also be useful •— the suggestion i s being put forward that various ramifications of the photograph be used as research data. This could take the form of old magazines, i . e . , National 169 Geographies; posters and brochures from t r a v e l agencies; postcards; books; and any other piece of material that could v i s u a l l y r e l a t e aspects of the chosen investigative theme. As Shuter (1979) notes, "photographs are a r i c h source of in t e r a c t i o n a l data; the recorded information need only be categorized, measured, and compared" (p. 259). 2. Museum research As sources for c u l t u r a l a r t i f a c t s , both contemporary and h i s t o r i c a l , museums can be very valuable to the anthro-pological researcher. Not only can they supply the " r e a l " objects of a culture, but they can often provide photographic material which can be brought back to the classroom. In museum-related research i t i s p a r t i c u l a r l y important for the investigator, i . e . , student as co-investigator with the teacher, to be prepared with an investigative plan so that th i s f i e l d experience w i l l be as rewarding as possible. This plan should allow the student to make connections with pre-vious discoveries, and should enable him/her to expand c u l -t u r a l context understandings as part of a h o l i s t i c process. The research, i f planned appropriately, should allow the Investigator to answer questions and i t should also open up new points of inquiry. In both of these approaches — photographic c o l l e c t i o n and museum research -- there i s one danger. Eisner (Note 5) explicates t h i s with a reminder about emic and e t i c d i s t i n c -tions. The caveat relates to the fact that photographic and museum approaches are e s s e n t i a l l y e t i c . As such, there i s a 170 p o s s i b i l i t y for misinterpretation. The challenge, therefore, i s to f i n d a way to obtain an emic or "inside" view of the c u l t u r a l phenomena under inves t i g a t i o n . In t h i s pursuit, a minimum requirement would be v e r i f i c a t i o n of interpretations. Four possible emic avenues are: (1) Searching for written material from primary c u l t u -r a l sources, i . e . , from scholars, a r t i s t s , and historians who are representatives of s p e c i f i c cultures, or who have worked extensively within p a r t i c u l a r cultures. (2) Cross-checking with families and/or friends who are representatives of s p e c i f i c cultures. (3) Cross-checking with ethnic community centers and/ or with community members, i . e . , a r t i s t s . Some of these people might even be w i l l i n g to come to the classroom. (4) Becoming par t i c i p a n t observers i n c u l t u r a l set--tings. This approach would involve d i r e c t observation of c u l t u r a l phenomena, interviewing, p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n c u l t u r a l events, and the c o l l e c t i o n of c u l t u r a l evidence i n coordi-nation with "on-the-spot" documentation with regard to use and meaning. Of a l l the approaches noted above, photographic docu-mentation has the greatest p o t e n t i a l for on-going usage. The other methods can, and should, add to the v i a b i l i t y of photographic int e r p r e t a t i o n . Wherever possible the photo-graphs that are c o l l e c t e d and analysed within one p a r t i c u l a r study should be retained and kept on f i l e so that they might p o t e n t i a l l y add to further studies which might be done from 171 other perspectives. After the c o l l e c t i o n stage i s completed, the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n stage can begin. The major problem i n the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n stage i s to determine how to organize data so that connections can be made between isol a t e d elements. This involves the i d e n t i f i -cation of clues to c u l t u r a l value-orientations and b e l i e f s . C o l l i e r (1967) points out that i n doing a c u l t u r a l inventory through the use of photographs, every object w i l l contain clues to such c u l t u r a l manifestations as r e l i g i o n , ethnic a f f i n i t y , and p o l i t i c a l a f f i l i a t i o n . He notes that these clues can r e f l e c t aesthetic judgment, such as can be seen i n the "fine a r t " / " f o l k a r t " delineation; they can r e f l e c t time orientations; they can emphasize a p a r t i c u l a r subject-content focus, i . e . , scenes from history, nature orientations, nonrepresentational images; and they can i l l u s t r a t e s t y l i s t i c variables, i . e . , c l a s s i c a l Greek, Impressionistic, vernacular. In each of these aspects there can be detected a c u l t u r a l value base that relates to s o c i a l and philosophical foundations. The arrangement of the c o l l e c t e d data would have a d e f i n i t e connection with the thematic focus chosen for the investigation. I t can be organized into a simple inventory or i t can be set up so that c r o s s - c u l t u r a l correlations are c l e a r l y evident. However, there may be added dimensions which would help to provide further insight into c u l t u r a l meanings. For example, the thematic focus might correlate with one of the anthropological or s o c i o l o g i c a l approaches 172 outlined i n Chapter 2. Another p o s s i b i l i t y might be to is o l a t e one or more aspects of these approaches as an inves-t i g a t i v e focus, or to i s o l a t e and correlate a major percep-tual approach (see Figure 5) with a topic from the scope chart (see Figure 4) . Regardless of the study focus, the research and c l a s s i -f i c a t i o n phase must provide adequate groundwork for the ethnological analysis which w i l l follow i n Stage 2. If the c o l l e c t i o n of data i s ordered i n such a way that in-depth comprehension of art and culture can ensue, and i f t h i s data and ordering can provide the framework for c r o s s - c u l t u r a l comparison, then the insight into human and a r t i s t i c a l t e r -natives that may be provided w i l l help to guarantee q u a l i -t a t i v e learning. Figure 6 i l l u s t r a t e s some possible approaches to c l a s s i -f i c a t i o n . Figure 7 provides a summary of the major features of Stage 1. General Themes People Animals Birds Insects Landscapes Flowers and Plant8 Note: Each of these could also have a 6ub-focus i . e . "People" - People i n costume - People i n s o c i e t a l r o l e s - Children - Old people - Group representa-t i o n s S p e c i a l EventB - F e s t i v a l s - Celebrations - Ceremonial occasions - Holiday themes F ' g u r e Thematic Scope Chart Chart A: P o s s i b i l i t i e s for Study Emphasis Art i n Culture could be studied from viewpoint of: Types of Art Fine a r t Applied a r t Folk a r t Environmental a r t Popular a r t Vernacular a r t T o u r i s t a r t Class D i s t i n c t i o n s i n Art A r i s t o c r a t i c i . e . court a r t , art f o r the n o b i l i t y Peasant Middle c l a s s Geographic Focus Large c u l t u r a l / geographic region i . e . A f r i c a , Asia, A u s t r a l i a , Mexico Smaller c u l t u r a l / geographic region i . e . Egypt, Japan, Peru Smaller group or sub-culture i . e . Haida, Yoruba S p e c i f i c component within large or small c u l t u r a l group i . e . basket making - of one group - of 2 or more groups ( f o r contrast, comparison) Time Orientation T r a d i t i o n a l V a r i a t i o n s from t r a d i t i o n a l i . e . r e s u l t i n g from change or disorder within the s o c i e t y Contemporary Continuum from past to present H i s t o r i c , focusing on a s p e c i f i c period Coordination with p o l i t i c a l or h i s t o r i c a l events Conceptual Investigation Seek evidence of: - ethnocentrism - enculturation - a c c u l t u r a t i o n - bicul'turation - c u l t u r a l a s s i m i l a t i o n Media Themes and/or Art Forms Drawing Painting Sculpture Ceramics Crafts Printmaking Fabric Arts Architecture Design ( i n c l u d i n g the a r t elements: - l i n e , shape, texture, colour, form, pattern) Functions of Art Apparel and personal adornment U t i l i t y and embellishment at home & at work Play & l e i s u r e R i t u a l and c e l e b r a t i o n ( i n c l u d i n g r e l i g i o n ) P o l i t i c a l Economic & commercial Group ( i n c l u d i n g education, r e f l e c t i o n , & contemplation) 174 Figure 5 Major Perceptual Frames CHART B: Approaches to Cultural Study - Philosophical - H i s t o r i c a l - Geographic - Functional - Personal - Religious - Celebrational - P o l i t i c a l - Expressive - Decorative - Economic - Technical Note: These approaches could be considered major viewpoints in a study. These choices are included to show the variety of perceptual frames which might be used. Some overlap with elements i n CHART A i s unavoidable. Figure 6 C l a s s i f i c a t i o n CHART C: Approaches to Documentation and C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Simple inventory related to thematic and/or perceptual focus or Cross-cultural c o r r e l a t i o n with thematic and/or perceptual focus or Correlation with pre-prescribed anthropological or s o c i o l o g i c a l approach i . e . see Chapter 2 176 Figure 7 F i r s t Step i n Teacher/Student Inter-actions: Ethnographic Investigation Stage 1: Research and C l a s s i f i c a t i o n 1. Make choice for study emphasis from Chart A and/or B. Chart A (See Figure 4) Chart B (See Figure 5) 2. Carry out research. 3. Use approach to documentation Chart C as shown i n (See Figure 6) Chart C. 177 Stage 2: C r i t i c a l Analysis In Stage 1 of t h i s methodology the students select their investigative focus, carry out t h e i r data-gathering research, and order t h e i r findings i n preparation for more intensive observation and analysis. A l l of t h i s i s done to enable both the students and the teacher to address questions concerning why art i s made and what i t s purpose i s i n terms of c u l t u r a l context. Before turning to potential formats for c r i t i c a l analysis, some preliminary considerations should be noted. The f i r s t consideration f o r Stage 2 i s a caveat. The la b e l " c r i t i c a l analysis" tends to have s c i e n t i f i c and quantitative connotations. However, i n keeping with the q u a l i t a t i v e emphasis, i t must be remembered that there are no absolutes i n t h i s analysis. Among the roles that the c r i t i c could assume might be that of surveyer, interpreter, or connoisseur. The actions that could involve the c r i t i c might include: investigating, discriminating, defining, and elucidating. As can be detected by such variations i n r o l e , numerous viewpoints and formats might be used to uncover meanings, but at no time should the method become all-important. The methods can be regarded as tools through which a r t i s t i c and c u l t u r a l decoding might occur but a b s o l u t e judgments require the imposition of the viewer's values. Thus, whether the emphasis i s on observational analysis or whether i t tends 178 toward the i n t e r p r e t i v e , i t i s part of the teacher's task to t r y to monitor a n a l y t i c a l discussions so that the children understand the meanings and implications of what they are saying and reviewing. The second consideration relates to the c u l t u r a l / a r t i s -t i c interplay involved. Viewed i n juxtaposition these e l e -ments have the pot e n t i a l to reveal the authentic r e a l i t i e s inherent i n each other. However, for c l a r i f i c a t i o n , i t may be necessary to concentrate on one or the other of these dimensions at any given time before r e - j o i n i n g them to i d e n t i f y the h o l i s t i c truth. Coomaraswamy (1956) suggests that "the f i r s t sane questions that can be asked about a work of art are, What was i t for? and What does i t mean?" (p. 40). He notes that "the functional purpose of the work of art . . . has always a s p i r i t u a l meaning . . . . Function and meaning cannot be forced apart; the meaning of the work of art i s i t s i n t r i n -s i c form as much as the soul i s the form of the body. Meaning i s even h i s t o r i c a l l y p r i o r to u t i l i t a r i a n applica-t i o n " (p. 40). Therefore, to concentrate on formal analysis alone would be divorcing form from purpose. A l l inherent dimensions must be addressed. The problem i n t h i s pursuit l i e s i n where to begin. Yanagi (1972) provides the reminder that " f i r s t impressions . . . are often astonishingly sound . . . . In f i r s t impres-sions, the faculty of i n t u i t i o n functions most f r e e l y , per-mitting us to look at unfamiliar objects with ever new and l i v i n g perception" (p. 155). He suggests that seeing must come before knowing — "Applied to the perception of beauty, t h i s means that i f a man employs the function of knowing before seeing, his power to see i s impaired" (p. 153). After considering the above aspects, and a f t e r reviewing a number of c r i t i c a l methodologies developed by art educators CBroudy, 1977; Chapman, 1978; Eisner, 1972; Feldman, 1970) and anthropologists/sociologists, t h i s investigator has developed an approach to inquiry that has the p o t e n t i a l to uncover both s t r u c t u r a l and c u l t u r a l meanings. Figure 8 (p. 186) i l l u s t r a t e s a format for inquiry into the aesthetic/ c u l t u r a l dimension, with emphasis on functions and c u l t u r a l associations. Figure 9 (p. 187) i l l u s t r a t e s an emphasis on s t r u c t u r a l inquiry, although the c u l t u r a l context i s s t i l l a primary factor. With reference to Figure 8, the a e s t h e t i c / c u l t u r a l analysis begins with i n i t i a l reactions. As Eisner (1972) notes, "the f i r s t responses to a work can serve as a s t a r t i n g point? for further analysis" (p. 107). Eisner emphasizes that "the function of analysis i s not to perform an i n t e l l e c t u a l exercise but to heighten one's perception of the work" (p. 107). In the format provided i n Figure 8 the student would begin by describing his f i r s t impressions about the work(s). This description can provide the s t a r t i n g point upon which greater understanding can be b u i l t . The steps leading towards understanding may require modification of the i n i t i a l response, but at least a platform would be i d e n t i f i e d . 180 Following preliminary observation and discussion the student can describe such features as sensory elements, the character and impact of images, and the overt symbolism. This description provides the groundwork for inquiry into s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l meanings. A certain amount of supple-mentary research may be necessary to c l a r i f y these meanings. In any case such inquiry should focus on the following: 1. Symbolism - According to Coomaraswamy (1956) , "symbols are the universal language of art; an international language with merely d i a l e c t i c v a r i a t i o n s " (p. 78). As Duvignaud (1972) adds: "We can only e s t a b l i s h the extent to which a p a r t i c u l a r a r t i s t i c expression i s rooted i n society by analysing a l l the s o c i a l symbols which are c r y s t a l l i z e d i n i t and which i t i n turn c r y s t a l l i z e s i n i t s development" (p. 64). In symbolic inquiry i t may be possible to i d e n t i f y forms and meanings which relate only to p a r t i c u l a r s o c i e t i e s . However, other symbolic elements may be found i n several cultures. In t h i s case differences i n meanings could be r e f l e c t i v e of unique c u l t u r a l perspectives. 2. Contextual function - As has been stressed i n Chapters 1 and 2, art serves e s s e n t i a l l y the same functions within a l l cultures. However, the emphasis and forms r e l a -t i v e to these functions can have l i m i t l e s s v a r i a t i o n s . Since t h i s aspect i s i d e a l l y suited to c r o s s - c u l t u r a l comparison i t can provide a key analytic f o c a l point for the i d e n t i f i -cation of c u l t u r a l variations and meanings. 181 3. Cultural associations - Among the p o s s i b i l i t i e s that could help an inquirer to uncover c u l t u r a l d i s t i n c t i o n s and progressions are: (a) material/thematic associations — i . e . , How do the material and subject matter r e f l e c t the phy s i c a l / c l i m a t i c region from which the'art form i s derived? (b) time associations — i . e . , Do both h i s t o r i c a l and contemporary art forms from t h i s culture r e t a i n d i s t i n c t i v e features which span the time frame? What time-related changes can be seen i n these forms? What constancies remain over the time span? Can outside influences, i . e . , from other cultures, be detected? (c) s t y l i s t i c a s s o c i a t i o n s — i . e . , What aspects of these art forms indicate that they are unique to a s p e c i f i c culture? (d) philosophical a s s o c i a t i o n s — i . e . , What aspects of these art forms r e f l e c t the unique c u l t u r a l world-views that provide t h e i r impetus? As i s indicated i n Figure 8, although most of these questions can be asked of single c u l t u r a l a r t i f a c t s , the inquiry may be more b e n e f i c i a l l y addressed to a group of objects. Thus, i f the c o l l e c t i o n which precedes t h i s analysis y i e l d s a large number of material and/or p i c t o r i a l examples, then a wide var i e t y of subjects may be reviewed at one time. With reference to Figure 9, the student would concen-trate on the st r u c t u r a l dimensions of the a r t i f a c t s as a 182 prelude to defining his/her own production-oriented problems, which would subsequently occur i n Stage 3. Illumination based on the ae s t h e t i c / c u l t u r a l rationale i s s t i l l an impor-tant consideration. However, craftsmanship and aesthetic relationships are also d i r e c t l y addressed. The following aspects would be the focus of in-depth s t r u c t u r a l inquiry: (.1) the design elements — including the deployment of each feature, the o v e r a l l composition, and the relat i o n s h i p between components (2) the interactions among material, form, function, and subject matter (3) craftsmanship (and i t s inherent meaning) — dimen-sions of t h i s inquiry would focus on - the v i t a l i t y r e f l e c t e d i n the object(s) - the "beauty" inherent i n the object(s) - the inherent "truth" within the object(s) - the s k i l l , care, and concern r e f l e c t e d i n the construction of the object(s) - the relat i o n s h i p between form and function Two dimensions of the craftsmanship component might be given special mention. Yanagi (1972) explains that the relati o n s h i p between truth and beauty i n an object relates to both i t s inherent worth, i . e . , functional value, and to a respect for the natural order of things that can be r e f l e c -ted i n the object. For example, i n his description of the beauty of Korean "hakeme" ware, Yanagi relates that one may sense i n these objects "the es s e n t i a l rhythms.of human l i f e , 183 in t h e i r most unadorned form" (p. 173). He suggests that these objects "could be c a l l e d a d i r e c t manifestation of the natural l i f e l i v e d by those who made the pots, of the p l a c i d frame of mind i n which they rose and lay down i n harmony with nature" (pp. 173-174). As contrast Yanagi notes the 'unnaturalness of our l i v e s today. He observes that "true humanity and natural-ness have become d i s t r e s s i n g l y remote from our existence'! (p. 174). Thus, the "truth" i n c r a f t work " i s governed by the same kind of laws that make water run downhill and clouds r i s e " (p. 175). Children cannot be expected to become craftsmen i n one forty minute class. They must be helped to see the r e l a t i o n -ship between meanings i n an art work and i t s t o t a l c u l t u r a l context. The c r i t i c a l and c u l t u r a l components of art edu-cation have to be prime features of a learning environment designed to b u i l d the students' s e n s i b i l i t i e s to the point where they can begin to recognize quality and craftsmanship i n a r t i f a c t s — and to place them within an authentic c u l t u -r a l context. This i s the only way that the students can be inspired to s t r i v e towards excellence themselves. The analytic formats proposed for t h i s stage are by no means the only p o s s i b i l i t i e s . A n a l y t i c a l discussion might also focus on some of the anthropological/sociological f o r -mats outlined i n Chapter 2. However, f i n a l judgments should be suppressed and open-ended inquiry should be emphasized. In reviewing forms and depths of inter p r e t a t i o n , 184 Jenkins (1958) explains that "the no v e l i s t , playwright, and dramatic poet also have available the powerful t o o l of characterization: the mere fact that there are several characters present, and i n some degree of c o n f l i c t , e n t a i l s that we view t h e i r common si t u a t i o n from d i f f e r e n t points of view" (p. 2 56). An analogy might be drawn between t h i s description and the si t u a t i o n inherent i n Stages 1 and 2 of this methodology. In essence the great variety of c u l t u r a l art forms represent the characters on a stage, each i n some degree of c o n f l i c t . Each character, or art form, has a di f f e r e n t motivation and each implores us to consider the special circumstances surrounding t h e i r viewpoints. Each can reveal a great deal, but must be approached with the most appropriate questions. Jenkins observes that The unfolding of a p l o t , with i t s discoveries, delays, c r i s e s , and denouements, plays an analogous role i n the novel and drama. This device i s by no means r e s t r i c t e d to l i t e r a t u r e , but i s pervasive even i n the so-called " s t a t i c " arts of painting, sculpture, and architecture. (p. 254) He suggests that i t i s from a "creation of tensions that are only gradually resolved that art derives much of i t s depth and richness" (p. 255). In the classroom s i t u a t i o n we cannot expect to uncover a l l the a r t i s t i c and c u l t u r a l wealth that might be available. However, the investigative framework can provide s i g n i f i c a n t insight into the p o t e n t i a l . 185 The a e s t h e t i c / c u l t u r a l analysis format can help to bridge the gap between the material and non-material aspects of a culture. Such inquiry can provide the means for r e l a t -ing art to heritage and for uncovering dimensions of c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y that may not be seen i n any other way. The structu-r a l inquiry format has the po t e n t i a l to focus students 1 attention on q u a l i t a t i v e considerations which could help them to make responsible decisions about worthwhile produc-tion-oriented goals. This task" affords the i n i t i a t i n g phase within the next stage of the methodology. As previously mentioned, Figure 8 represents the phases in the ae s t h e t i c / c u l t u r a l analysis, and Figure 9 i l l u s t r a t e s the s t r u c t u r a l inquiry. Figure 10 i l l u s t r a t e s the r e l a t i o n -ship between the major components of Stage 2. The p r e l i m i -nary decision l e v e l i n t h i s figure indicates a point where the process could either return to Stage 1 or go on to complete Stage 2 — before going on to Stage 3. I t i s also possible to complete both inquiry l e v e l s of Stage 2 without going on to Stage 3, as would be the case i f appreciation alone was the objective. 186 Figure 8 Ethnographic Examination Phase 1 Aesthetic/Cultural Analysis 1. Observation - i n i t i a l reaction; description of how the work affects the viewer 2. Description of aesthetic features - sensory (re: colour, shape, texture, use of lines) - character and impact of images - symbolism ( i f apparent) 3. Inquiry into meanings related to: - symbolism - contextual function - c u l t u r a l associations, including space, time, s t y l e , philosophy - other i m p l i c i t aspects associated with the thematic or perceptual choice Note: Some of the questions related to t h i s analysis could most b e n e f i c i a l l y be directed to single c u l t u r a l a r t i f a c t s . Other questions would be more suited to groups of objects. Figure 9 Ethnographic Examination Phase 2 Structural Inquiry - Examination of design elements i n depth, including o v e r a l l composition and relationships between components - Examination of the interactions among material, function, form, and subject matter - Examination of craftsmanship (and i t s inherent meaning) - focus on - v i t a l i t y - beauty - "truth" - s k i l l , care, and concern i n making - re l a t i o n s h i p of form to function Note: Again, the focus should be on illumination rather than judgment. Figure 10 Composite Features of Stage 2 Stage 2: C r i t i c a l Analysis Aesthetic/Cultural Analysis (See Figure 8) — Preliminary Decision Level Structural Inquiry (See Figure 9) Note: The extent to which attention would be given to each element i n these phases would be p a r t l y determined by the focus chosen i n Stage 1. 189 Stage 3; Production In t h i s stage the most important primary consideration for both students and teacher relates to the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the purpose for production. The development of c u l t u r a l competency i s a major factor here as much as i t i s i n the investigative and c r i t i c a l phases. Part of the c u l t u r a l competency framework relates to the esthetic valuing dimension discussed by Huebner (1975a). In terms of production the students can extend t h e i r appre-c i a t i o n of qual i t y and craftsmanship by setting production goals which focus on the manipulation of materials directed towards the development of competency i n p a r t i c u l a r areas. By becoming involved i n production they can learn about the demands placed upon the craftsman/artist i n terms of creating q u a l i t a t i v e products. This, i n turn, can help them to recognize and r e q u i s i t i o n q u a l i t y i n t h e i r day-to-day c u l t u -r a l environment. Part of the task involves learning to recognize and u t i l i z e the "language" of art and culture. It requires both examination and interpretation focusing on art elements, media, and c u l t u r a l images as these facets relate to pro-duction. I t also requires that attention be given to the inherent function of both the art a c t i v i t y and the subse-quent product. Questions that might be asked include: What does the a c t i v i t y mean i n terms of the student's o v e r a l l a r t i s t i c and c u l t u r a l learning?, and Of what value i s the product?, i . e . , What does the product mean to the student? 190 These questions should be addressed by both the students and the teacher i n j o i n t consultation. Before a procedural format for production tasks i s out-lined, a b r i e f review of the i m p l i c i t dimensions of c r a f t s -manship i s provided. Robertson (1961) suggests that "the craftsman i s distinguished by his attitude to his materials and to the function his product serves i n a world of human beings" (p. 141). The craftsman may: (a) work on his own -- s t r i v i n g to do the best job possible for his customer, (b) work with a team — i n which case each team member would i d e a l l y s t r i v e towards qu a l i t y , or (c) serve as a designer or consultant — perhaps for an industry. Robertson posits that i n each case the craftsman "needs to be a person of wide culture; he should be one who i s interested i n human beings" (p. 141). The humanity-oriented craftsman i s interested not i n his own personal g l o r i f i c a t i o n but i n the improvement of society. Yanagi (1972) expresses a concern that "unless a wide public takes up t h i s issue, the history of general craftsmanship w i l l come to an end" (p. 204) . A l l around us we can see examples of a degeneration of qu a l i t y i n consumer products. As an e f f o r t to overcome t h i s prevalence schools must place high p r i o r i t y on i n s t i l l i n g i n students a f e e l for the i n t e g r i t y that comes from equating beauty with use. Robertson comments that " i t i s our r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to con-serve and increase what i s good, to preserve what we cannot use at present for future generations. This attitude of 191 r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i s one engendered by the c r a f t s " (p. 16). Three natural l i m i t a t i o n s of craftsmanship are funda-mental to the approach that might be designated for produc-tio n . Yanagi notes that these focus on: "the purpose for which a given a r t i c l e i s used; the nature of the materials employed; the appropriate techniques" (p. 117). To a large extent these aspects can be examined i n Stage 2 of the methodology. However, such examination should also help the students to consciously focus on a production topic which has s p e c i f i c meaning for them. Asante and Barnes (1979) point out that "action occurs when the students says 'this i s the way I choose to act on the basis of my informa-t i o n ' " (p. 102). If the students' investigative questioning has been designed to focus on purpose, materials, techniques — and c u l t u r a l meaning — then a natural transfer of t h i s conceptual framework can be applied to production. However, a developmental productive/evaluative schema i s also neces-sary. The t r a d i t i o n a l craftsmanship construct provides suggestions for a format which may be f e a s i b l y adaptable to classroom usage. This r e f l e c t s back to the g u i l d system approach which, Yanagi submits, helps to e s t a b l i s h a s o c i a l confidence stemming from an i n b u i l t code of morality. Yanagi offers that, as a counter against the "expression of personality" which pervades the present arts, " i n the new guilds, as i n the old, the expression would be that of humanity, the w i l l to l i v e and work together, not as a 192 means to an end, but as an end i n i t s e l f . There i s no other r a t i o n a l answer" (p. 209). As noted i n Chapter 2, Halpin (1979 & Note 6) has i d e n t i -f i e d four labels which r e f l e c t the old gu i l d system. These apply to four stages of the a r t i s t ' s development. In terms of the methodology being proposed for t h i s t h e s i s , t h i s researcher submits that these guild stages may be adaptable to the production phase of a culture-based program. The descriptions of the features of these stages are based on the labels used i n an exhibition of pr i n t s by Robert David-son, Haida, at the Museum of Anthropology at U.B.C. They r e f l e c t the a r t i s t ' s development as he worked on mastering his c r a f t . These stages, and suggestions for t h e i r possible classroom adaptations, are l i s t e d as follows: 1. Apprentice - "Learning the Alphabet: entering the t r a d i t i o n , learning the forms from previous a r t i s t s , copying the images" In t h i s stage students would be involved i n such a c t i v i -t i e s as: - testing t h e i r physical responses to media, i . e . , to clay, to paint, to fabric s — to discover t h e i r i n i t i a l a f f i n i t y and to begin to develop t h e i r understanding of the scope and potential of these materials - te s t i n g the potential of d i f f e r e n t techniques - exploring the ef f e c t s of and relationships between d i f f e r e n t art elements 193 - solving basic problems related to learning about media, techniques, and art elements - learning about images, techniques and media indigenous to s p e c i f i c cultures by "creating in the style of . . . .", i . e . , role playing. Note: In t h i s instance p a r a l l e l s might be drawn between the a c t i v i t i e s with which the student i s pa r t i c i p a t i n g and the a c t i v i t i e s with which the a r t i s t / craftsman i n the c u l t u r a l s e t t i n g would be involved. For example, the Chinese painter would go through many stages in his attempt to approach the tao of painting. The Native Indian would watch and copy p a r t i c u l a r techniques passed on by the masters of s p e c i f i c c r a f t s . In many cases these t r a d i t i o n a l arts allow natural laws to dictate the patterns which reveal themselves i n the work. As Yanagi r e l a t e s , " i n a good pattern, man i s f a i t h f u l to laws; one detects i n i t a true humility" (p. 117). In the apprentice stage the student sees and translates images that are deemed by him to be important. These images come from his environment, from his c u l t u r a l heritage, from his investigations into the arts i n previous stages of the methodology, and from his own need to express his r e l a t i o n -ship with the world. Some of the c u l t u r a l and environmental images may have a strong impact on the student and may be revealed i n the student's work i n many forms as the student struggles to learn about them and to learn through them. However, as Davidson (1978) a t t e s t s , such reworking only 194 helps to increase visions — i t provides a way of searching, a way of reworking the past i n order to become prepared for the present and the future. 2. Journeyman - "Interpreting the Song: demonstrating competence i n the elements, new understandings of old forms, interpretations" In t h i s stage students would begin to recognize a change from t h e i r apprenticeship a c t i v i t i e s as they: - show a f f i n i t y for p a r t i c u l a r media - show understanding of p a r t i c u l a r techniques to the point where q u a l i t a t i v e r e s u l t s can ensue - demonstrate an a b i l i t y to interpret c u l t u r a l and environmental influences through t h e i r images and through t h e i r i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of important thematic problems 3. Master - "Mapping New Worlds: exploring the form, stretching the boundaries, extending the t r a d i t i o n " At t h i s point students would begin to: - competently work with selected media, exploring t h e i r variations and p o t e n t i a l - c l a r i f y and test the technical p o s s i b i l i t i e s that might i n t e r r e l a t e with p a r t i c u l a r media and images - consider how to adapt t h e i r production s k i l l s to the solution of c u l t u r a l and environmental needs and problems 4. A r t i s t - "Creating the T r a d i t i o n : personal expres-sion of the t r a d i t i o n , generating new forms, passing on the t r a d i t i o n " 195 At t h i s stage students would begin to coordinate t h e i r own l i f e and a r t i s t i c experiences i n such a way that true personal statements can be expressed. The students' work would r e f l e c t an understanding of t h e i r own ontological development. They would: - demonstrate a confidence and competence i n the use of t h e i r chosen media, i n r e l a t i o n to s p e c i f i c techniques - have an inherent understanding of t h e i r own personal creative and c u l t u r a l orientations, and be able to express these perspectives with reference to others - be able to connect t h e i r c u l t u r a l and a r t i s t i c a b i l i -t i e s and understandings with t h e i r role i n contemporary l i f e so that they w i l l have a clear perspective that w i l l allow them to contribute to the q u a l i t a t i v e advancement of society. One p a r t i c u l a r feature of t h i s g u i l d schema i s the fact that i t does not submit to age or grade l e v e l d i s t i n c t i o n s . In essence an i n d i v i d u a l could reach the " a r t i s t " l e v e l i n terms of one s p e c i f i c focus and then return to the apprentice l e v e l to begin another developmental cycle. At the same time an i n d i v i d u a l could progressively work on developing competency i n a number of d i f f e r e n t areas, so that eventual a r t i s t i c and c u l t u r a l competency has both a depth and breadth foundation. Regardless of the approach the learning framework would never dictate complete closure, but would always entreat the student to expand upon previous s k i l l s and learnings. The 196 framework i s also based on the assumption that each student can, by beginning at the apprenticeship stage and by pro-gressing at h i s own rate, tease out some dimension of pro-duction that w i l l have a r t i s t i c and c u l t u r a l value for him — that w i l l lead to the development of confidence, that w i l l extend his a r t i s t i c and c u l t u r a l awareness, and that w i l l help him to develop into a responsible c i t i z e n who cares about the qua l i t y of l i f e . To return to the connection between the f i r s t two stages of t h i s methodology and t h i s production stage — we have seen how the two major a n a l y t i c a l formats i n Stage 2 can help to orient the student towards the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of possible s t a r t i n g points for production. These s t a r t i n g points could focus on such aspects as: (a) media and tech-niques, (b) a r t elements, (c) images, (d) symbolism, (e) subject var i a t i o n s , (f) s p e c i f i c c u l t u r a l art functions, and (g) c u l t u r a l s t y l e . In most cases there w i l l be a cert a i n amount of overlap between these elements, but c e r t a i n aspects would p o t e n t i a l l y appeal to some students more than to others. It i s therefore the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the student to i d e n t i f y , i n consultation with the teacher and with other group mem-bers, what aspects w i l l receive attention at d i f f e r e n t times. It i s at t h i s point that production objectives are i d e n t i f i e d . At f i r s t a l l students would begin at the apprenticeship l e v e l . For some t h i s may e n t a i l a very short period of work; others may choose to work through exploratory a c t i v i t i e s 197 i n d e f i n i t e l y — the time length being p a r t i a l l y determined by the focus i d e n t i f i e d within the students' objectives. Regardless of the stage to which the a c t i v i t i e s r e l a t e , what i s important i s that the students understand the meaning and consequence of t h e i r choice of study. They must be able to see t h e i r production focus as an extension of the i n v e s t i -gative and c r i t i c a l preliminaries. In turn, the evaluation c r i t e r i a which i s applied to these aspects — c o l l e c t i o n , c r i t i c i s m , and production — must help to reveal the h o l i s t i c learnings and i m p l i c i t meanings related to each stage of the learning continuum. The evaluation phase i n Stage 4 i s thus c r u c i a l to the c y c l i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p between the production stage and the f i r s t two stages of the methodology. In terms of the cor r e l a t i o n between stages of the metho-dology and in d i v i d u a l needs and goals, the teacher must act as a coordinator. This involves being aware of the develop-mental needs and advances of students. Amorphous groupings can f a c i l i t a t e c o l l e c t i o n , c r i t i c i s m , and production i n t e r -ests so that each in d i v i d u a l can decide at the end of each major phase what should constitute the next area for atten-t i o n . The key decision lev e l s i n the methodology, afte r Stages 2 and 4, help to indicate when these decisions should be made. True to i t s q u a l i t a t i v e premise, t h i s methodology encom-passes very l i t t l e standardization i n terms of either stu-dent placement or s p e c i f i c task confinements. Rather, i t 198 provides a construct within which adaptability and responsi-b i l i t y may be fostered. It has the p o t e n t i a l to address Robertson's (1961) concern for finding ways to help young people to "build up a personality to r e s i s t the dangers and yet use the forces within a technological c i v i l i z a t i o n " (p. 39) . According to Robertson, the practise of craftsmanship, whereby the i n d i v i d u a l accepts the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for deci-sions and finds his own solution to problems, aids the development of an individual's p o t e n t i a l i t i e s . She feels that conditions which help students to better t h e i r own work provide a far more viable framework than those which foster competition. Rather than being dictated by an authority figure, i . e . , the teacher, or by a h i e r a r c h i c a l e n t i t y who has no r e a l knowledge of the students or the s i t u a t i o n , the learning consignments should relate to the purposes defined within the students' own i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of goals, to the materials which would best meet those goals, and to the constructs of s p e c i f i c techniques. Robertson submits that A sound c r a f t t r a i n i n g i n any material i s l i k e l y to r e s u l t i n the s a t i s f a c t i o n of f e e l i n g f u l l y an i n d i - ' v i dual, i n a sphere where individualism can hurt no one else, and where i t i s tempered by the r e s t r a i n t and humility which the continued practice of a c r a f t bring. If the maker does go through a stage of exuberance and o v e r - i n d i v i d u a l i t y the r e s u l t s stand there as actual 199 things i n the maker's environment; he has to take respon-s i b i l i t y for them, he cannot excape i t , except by going farther and doing better. Armed with the complete cer-tain t y which comes from a deep experience of t h i s nature, that they as individuals are not cogs but creative beings who can mould to some extent t h e i r material world, people are less l i k e l y to w i l t into passive acceptance, and more l i k e l y to know where they can d i r e c t t h e i r c r i t i c i s m and state t h e i r r e f u s a l to accept the l i f e l e s s or the shoddy, (p. 40) Within t h i s methodology preliminary observations and discussions provide an i n i t i a t i n g force which can help the student make production-oriented decisions that focus on the development of craftsmanship. As Robertson has noted, inherent i n t h i s focus i s the pote n t i a l for developing confidence and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . If the program i s based on a c u l t u r a l founda-ti o n these aspects can p o t e n t i a l l y evolve to the point where students recognize the value of a r t i s t i c and c u l t u r a l compe-tency — and a c t i v e l y s t r i v e towards these ends. Figure 11 provides a summary of the major components of Stage 3. Figure 11 Decision and Working Phases Related to Student Production Stage 3: Production 1. Formation of objectives for production 2. Production within one of the following phases: - Apprentice (exploratory) - Journeyman (interpretive) - Master (extending boundaries) - A r t i s t (expressing personal statements) 201 Stage 4: Evaluation This stage presents the opportunity to review the t o t a l learning experience, from the major goals i d e n t i f i e d i n the pre-interactive stage to the f i n a l production outcomes i n Stage 3. The central concern at t h i s point i s to have both the teacher and the students consider the quality of the experience i n terms of i t s educational s i g n i f i c a n c e . To arrive at t h i s type of understanding i t i s important to go beyond the kinds of normative and standardized procedures that might be found i n a t r a d i t i o n a l "control" s i t u a t i o n . Eisner (1979) comments that "the main issue with respect to evaluation centers around the care, the complexity, and the comprehensiveness with which the choices are made" (p. 130). T r a d i t i o n a l l y , classroom evaluation has been almost t o t a l l y concerned with the measurement of student per-formance. However, Eisner submits that the focus should encompass three subject matters: "the curriculum i t s e l f , the teaching that i s provided, and the outcomes that are r e a l i z e d " (p. 176). His suggestion i s that, rather than c a l l i n g for conclusions, evaluation procedures should seek disclosures. Possible formats for t h i s q u a l i t a t i v e procedural focus are provided i n t h i s section. In terms of evaluating curriculum content, Eisner points out that there are two considerations: F i r s t , i t i s important to determine whether the content and tasks the curriculum encompasses are within the 2 02 developmental scope of the children who are to deal with i t . . . . The second basis on which content may be evaluated deals with the expe r i e n t i a l f i t n e s s of the con-tent to the e x p e r i e n t i a l background of the students, (p. 177) Although i t i s important to consider these aspects i n the developmental stages of the curriculum, i t i s also important to keep these considerations i n mind while the curriculum i s . in progress. Within t h i s methodology there i s a b u i l t - i n safeguard which can help to ensure that the match between content/tasks and student a b i l i t i e s i s appropriate. This relates to the fact that the students play a major role i n defining the investigative theme and determining developmental tasks. At the Stage 4 l e v e l i t may be appropriate to take a more broadly focused look at how, i n fact, these relationships are progressing. Both teacher and students might therefore review the following features: - the rel a t i o n s h i p between the content chosen to date and the major goals of the program — an examination of t h i s aspect should help i n the selection of subsequent content - the s u i t a b i l i t y of the content and methodology to the background and i n t e r e s t of the students - the educational significance of the o v e r a l l experience to date In assessing the teaching component, the teacher might 203 begin with s e l f - a n a l y t i c questions designed to reveal whether or not any of the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , values, or interests being displayed on his/her part either help or hinder the achieve-ment of the major goals of the program. Eisner suggests that " i t would be i n t e r e s t i n g to ask students to characterize the contributions, other than those provided by course content, that t h e i r teachers made to them" (p. 182). Other inquiry points concerning the teacher's role could focus on: the appropriateness of the materials and learning environment which the teacher has helped to provide - the success of the teacher as a coordinator of student learning, i . e . , Has the teacher managed to successfully corre-late group and in d i v i d u a l interests? It would also be important to f i n d out to what extent the teacher i s aware of the progress that each student i s making, and how the class i s progressing as a whole. With regard to providing disclosures about the character of the students' work and the type of progress being made, again i t i s important to address as many aspects as possible. This requires that close attention be given to each learning component. In essence, no one i s closer to the learning experience than the student. Therefore, i t i s fundamental that the student be a c t i v e l y involved i n recording and corre-l a t i n g his/her progress. Eisner suggests that, i n the q u a l i -t a t i v e mode, the task requires that attention be given to such aspects as the d i s t i n c t i v e s t y l e of the students' ideas, 204 t h e i r verbal expression, the q u a l i t y of t h e i r productive work, th e i r analytic a b i l i t i e s , and the ways i n which they respond to new opportunities. Although the teacher could attempt to keep on-going anecdotal records of these aspects, the f e a s i b i l i t y of attend-ing to a l l of these dimensions for a l l students i n the class i s debatable. At the same time the teacher would be observ-ing from a once-removed position and could not t o t a l l y reveal the extent of the learnings as could the student. The answer, i t would seem, would be to continue joint e f f o r t s , as have been employed through the f i r s t three stages. This investigator i s proposing two formats which might help students to examine t h e i r own progress and make decisions about t h e i r own learning. The f i r s t relates s p e c i f i c a l l y to t h e i r work i n Stage 3 (production). Figure 12 i l l u s t r a t e s the organization of elements. I t i s suggested that three headings might provide an organizational and evaluative focus: media, technique, and subject/image sele c t i o n . For each pro-ject an objective, i . e . expected learning outcome, i s i d e n t i -f i e d and recorded within a p a r t i c u l a r production phase. At the completion of the project the student reconsiders his objective and evaluates the actual learning outcome. This i s also recorded. The number of considerations and the amount of d e t a i l that would be given attention would be decided i n r e l a t i o n to/ the project i t s e l f . The student's experience i n working with the format and 205 his/her motivation and understanding of the significance of taking part i n planning the learning sequences would a f f e c t the type of reporting that would ensue at any given time. I t i s probable that the depth of insight and the succinctness of the summations w i l l improve as the student becomes f a m i l i a r with the format. The student's age l e v e l would also be a factor. The format could f a c i l i t a t e the recording of b r i e f phrases only or i t could encompass anecdotal reporting of much greater depth. The second format, as shown i n Figure 13, i s designed to reveal the sequential and interconnecting r e l a t i o n s h i p between each of the f i r s t three stages of the methodology. This format, as well as the one described above, i s meant to be used by the student. A special record book can be kept by each student so that notations can be made within these formats on an on-going basis. In t h i s sequential evaluation the students would keep a record of t h e i r major objectives, i . e . , expectations for learning that i n i t i a t e each stage, and the major learning outcomes that conclude each stage. At the end of each stage these outcomes should help to give d i r e c t i o n for the subse-quent stage. At the end of Stage 2 a decision can be made concerning whether to go on to production a c t i v i t i e s i n Stage 3 or whether to return to do further investigation i n Stage 1. Again, anecdotal reporting would be done, and the same l i m i t a -tions and pot e n t i a l would apply as was mentioned for the f i r s t format. 206 Figure 12 Evaluation Within Production Component Apprentice Media Technique Subj ect/Image Apprentice Obj ective Outcome Obj ective Outcome Obj ective Outcome Journeyman Master Artist Figure 13 Three Stage Sequential Evaluation Stage 1 Stage 2 Stage 3 > Objective Outcome Objective Outcome -^Objective Outcome Students keep i n d i v i d u a l anecdotal notebooks to: Ca) define t h e i r objectives for each stage (b) record outcomes - including learnings, p a r t i c i p a t i o n , response, and any aspect which might seem appropriate This i s an on-going process. 208 Figure 14 provides an overview of the major components of Stage 4. It i s recommended that the format from Figure 13 be addressed f i r s t since t h i s would serve as a natural exten-sion from Stage 3. During the evaluation stage the student should be given the opportunity to share his/her learnings with other members of the group or clas s , and group/class sharing should also be encouraged. Eisner (1979) suggests that questions might include: How does the student f e e l about his experience? "Is what she i s learning becoming part of her world view? Are the major lessons he i s learning those that are being taught?" (p. 269). Other questions might ask: To what extent i s the student f a c i l i t a t i n g his/her own learn-ing? How much teacher guidance i s needed i n the decision-making process? If the student i s having d i f f i c u l t y learning or accepting r e s p o n s i b i l i t y with regard to his/her part i n th i s process, how can these d i f f i c u l t i e s be overcome? The key to such insights l i e s i n the teacher's a b i l i t y to learn and accept students as people with unique and in d i v i d u a l needs and backgrounds. It i s only through an open and honest relationship that q u a l i t a t i v e learning can be fostered. In the second part of Stage 4 the teacher must be w i l l i n g to objectively question his/her own r o l e . Again, much honesty i s required and the students must r e a l i z e that they have a role here as well. Their observation and examination of the teacher as co-investigator and as a coordinator of learning must be brought into focus so that adjustments can be made as 209 needed. In t h i s case, j o i n t sharing of ideas and feelings would be a major aspect. F i n a l l y , the curriculum as a whole should be re-examined so that a l l parties can consider the inherent constructs i n terms of the progression that has already been made. The educational significance of t h i s structure must be considered in terms of o v e r a l l programmatic dir e c t i o n s . 210 Figure 14 Composite Phases Relating to Evaluation Stage 4: Evaluation 1. Student Emphasis Overview of three stage development See Figure 13 - should involve group/class sharing and discussion of progress 2. Teacher Emphasis Consider: - type of guidance provided - f a c i l i t a t i o n re: learning environment - success as coordinator of student learning (re: adaptation of groups, etc.) - comprehension of in d i v i d u a l and group progress 3. Curriculum Consider: - r e l a t i o n s h i p of content to goals - s u i t a b i l i t y to background and interests of students - educational significance 211 The procedural formats that have been proposed for evaluat-ing the stages of t h i s methodology have a l l been based on one reporting "type" — the written format. However, Eisner (1979) notes that other methods, such as the use of f i l m and videotape, may also hold great promise. Photography and tape-recordings might also be considered. A l l of these non-written methods could greatly broaden the scope of q u a l i t a t i v e evaluation. While these methods might be most fe a s i b l y used i n experi-mental-research studies of selected teaching-learning s i t u a -tions, there may be ways i n which they could also be used i n the classroom s i t u a t i o n . For example, the teacher and/or stu-dents might routinely take black-and-white photographs of products created i n Stage 3. These photographs could be kept on f i l e to b u i l d up long-term records of the student's progress towards the development of craftsmanship i n various areas. Videotapes and tape-recordings of group interactions might also help the teacher to assess the effectiveness of his/her role as f a c i l i t a t o r and co-investigator. The use of any of these non-written methods within any of the stages of t h i s methodology would p o t e n t i a l l y add to the depth of insight which might be gained about any of the three major subject matters — curriculum, teaching, and student learning. . The decisions that are made within the fourth stage of t h i s methodology — whether based on anecdotal reporting or whether based on newer audio-visual methods of reporting — should relate to one conclusion: What w i l l be the next step? 212 It i s possible that the student(s) may wish to return to the production focus of Stage 3, to i d e n t i f y further objectives and carry out more a c t i v i t i e s that might further h i s / t h e i r progress i n production-oriented s k i l l s . The decision may also be to return to the i n i t i a l thematic topic to begin a more in-depth investigation — herein c a l l e d Stage 5 (see Figure 1, p. 145) — that could further t h e i r conceptual understandings before they go on with further production. Such further investigation might involve a comparison study or i t may focus primarily on depth studies related to p a r t i c u -l a r aspects of the o r i g i n a l theme. In either case, the metho-dology with i t s c r i t i c a l decision le v e l s and i t s on-going evaluative expectations would allow the student(s) to repeat the procedures from a new, but related, perspective. I f , on the other hand, Stage 4 comprised the culmination of a study then Stages 1 through 4 would be r e - i n i t i a t e d when a new investigative concern was introduced. In terms of the decision that would have to be made Jones (1979) provides some guidelines. His suggestions relate to the etic/emic d i s t i n c t i o n . He explains that "the major point of contrast between the e t i c and emic approaches i s that the former can be used for systematic comparison, while the l a t t e r attempts to discover how the events appear to the persons within each culture" (p. 66). He suggests that i t may be he l p f u l to go back and f o r t h between doing p a r t i a l emic investigations and e t i c comparisons. Each approach helps 213 the other. By concentrating on only one type of approach the perspective becomes too focused. However, a reciprocat-ing format would uncover a balance of views that would pro-vide the investigator with the most viable returns. It should be emphasized that a quick foray into the investigation of c u l t u r a l art w i l l do very l i t t l e i n terms of meeting the goals related to the development of c u l t u r a l and a r t i s t i c competency. Much greater commitment i s required. Jenkins (1958) notes that The a r t i s t cannot epitomize the achievements of his experience and transfer them to us.in the neatly pack-aged form of a digest. He must instead enable us to retrace his steps, place us i n the same perspectives that he has occupied, and lead us to the same encounters with things. It i s the function of l o g i c to convince us of what i s demonstrably c e r t a i n , and of rhetoric to per-suade us of what i s probable. I t i s the function of art to show us what i s . The work of art i s neither a demon-str a t i o n nor an argument. I t i s a composition, s k i l l -f u l l y contrived to summon our resources of sense and f e e l i n g and thought, and to maneuver these to the point where they can best apprehend the aesthetic [and c u l t u r a l ] object. (p. 257) The demands of the investigative task are many. In Coomara-swamy' s (1956) words: a man i s only q u a l i f i e d to translate an ancient text when he has r e a l l y p a r t i c i p a t e d i n , and not merely observed, 214 the outer and inner l i f e of i t s time, and i d e n t i f i e d t h i s time with his own. A l l t h i s evidently requires a far longer, more round about, and self-denying d i s c i p l i n e than i s commonly associated with the study of the history of a r t , which generally penetrates no farther than an analysis of s t y l e s , (p. 75) The decisions made i n Stage 4 must be based on considerations for as many dimensions as possible which would relate to the attainment of educationally s i g n i f i c a n t learnings stemming from a c u l t u r a l / a r t i s t i c foundation. The approach cannot be taken l i g h t l y and the scope and extension of the learning potential must be part of the deliberations. The time/scope outline i n the next section of t h i s thesis may help to i l l u s t r a t e t h i s p o t e n t i a l . Time A l l o c a t i o n and Potential Scope One of the features and putative values of the methodo-logy l i e s i n i t s f l e x i b i l i t y and adaptability i n terms of the time span that could be allocated for i t s use within the classroom s e t t i n g . In t h i s section some of the inherent features are reviewed along with recommendations for imple-mentation. Eisner (19 79) points out that there are two images of c u r r i c u l a r sequences which might be considered when making decisions about time a l l o c a t i o n s . He terms one of these the "staircase" model. This model i s b u i l t around the " e f f i c i e n c y " rationale which di r e c t s movement along a well defined route 215 towards a predetermined destination which has been set by the curriculum designer and the teacher. As Eisner notes, i n this model "there i s l i t t l e room for wasted motion or explora-tory adventures" (p. 122). The other image of curriculum organization i s the "spider-web" model. This encompasses "a set of h e u r i s t i c projects, materials, and a c t i v i t i e s whose use w i l l lead to diverse out-comes among the group of students" (p. 123). Eisner describes the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of t h i s model as follows: The assumption used i n t h i s mode of curriculum organiza-tion i s that what i s needed are projects and a c t i v i t i e s that i n v i t e engagement rather than control. With engag-ing projects or a c t i v i t i e s students w i l l create ideas and develop s k i l l s that they want to pursue. The task of the teacher i s then to f a c i l i t a t e the i n t e r e s t s and goals that students develop as a r e s u l t of such engage-ment, (p. 12 3) The methodology described i n t h i s thesis i s e s s e n t i a l l y an example of the "spiderweb" design. I t also exemplifies the type of design that anthropologists and m u l t i c u l t u r a l advocates tend to favour. Haviland (1978), for example, emphasizes the varied a c t i v i t i e s which the anthropologist might investigate within f i e l d research. This encompasses not only such aspects as art forms, dance forms, and musical forms, but also the verbal arts including "narrative, drama, poetry, incantations, proverbs, r i d d l e s , word games, and 216 even naming procedures, compliments, and i n s u l t s " (p. 361); myths — which "may be said to express a part of the world view of a people" (p. 362); legends; and folk t a l e s . Baptiste and Baptiste (1977) also make a case for a mul t i c u l t u r a l emphasis which, they f e e l , should extend into "physical education, mathematics, science, a r t , music, lang-uage arts, reading, and even vocational arts" (p. 111). They emphasize that a c r o s s - d i s c i p l i n a r y approach would be a much more viable way of developing conceptual learning than i s o l a t i n g such elements as "ethnic holidays, r e l i g i o u s ceremonials, super-heroes, and foods" (p. 106). Such i s o l a -t ion — whether i t be discipline-based or a c t i v i t y - o r i e n t e d — tends to dissipate rather than integrate learnings. Even i f art could be viewed as the central focus for other d i s c i p l i n a r y areas, i . e . , i f i t could be conceptualized as the true "basic" i n curriculum,.there are many viewpoints which could be applied to the study. For example, F i r t h (1951) points out that rather than simply being judged aesthe-t i c a l l y a r t could be approached from economic, p o l i t i c a l , or re l i g i o u s points of view. Such viewpoints could lead to study problems which could even coordinate with such " s c i e n t i -f i c " . d i s c i p l i n e s as math and science. While the methodology proposed i n t h i s thesis could most c e r t a i n l y be adapted to the " t r a d i t i o n a l " f o r t y minute classes, held perhaps two to three times per week, i t s true value would l i e i n the extensions that could be made with regard to other subjects. In e f f e c t the proposal being made i s that a much 217 more h o l i s t i c view of the t o t a l curriculum be entertained. Feldman (19 70) suggests that the curriculum scope should be focused on man, "what he builds and what he feels about people and things" (p. 193). This may also r e f l e c t Brameld's proposal for "a new design for the whole of general education in terms of the concep't of c u l t u r a l order viewed spatiotem-por a l l y " (Brameld & S u l l i v a n , 1961, p. 77). Although i t i s beyond the parameters of t h i s thesis to provide an in-depth examination of the i m p l i c i t relationships which could extend through a h o l i s t i c paradigm of curriculum development, a possible conceptual format i s outlined i n Figure 15. This i l l u s t r a t e s one way i n which art could be interconnected with the other components. Figure 15 H o l i s t i c View of Curriculum those outlined i n Chart B (Figure 5). In terms of sequential development a number of factors might be taken into consideration. One of these factors i s learning a b i l i t i e s . In the forword to Teaching Culture (1976), Birkmaier notes how Seelye builds a language and culture study by s t a r t i n g with the elementary l e v e l "where the program i s primarily focused on the concrete" and ending with "higher leve l s of abstraction and value systems" which are dealt with at upper l e v e l s . Seelye suggests that strategies might develop along several l i n e s . If the theory that any concept can be taught at any l e v e l i s followed, the methodological task becomes one of i d e n t i f y i n g examples and exercises to i l l u s t r a t e the concept at a l e v e l r e a d i l y understandable by a given age group. I f , however, one believes that e f f e c t i v e , teaching of a concept depends on assessing i t s d i f f i c u l t y and then presenting i t to an age group that has reached the requisite l e v e l of maturity to comprehend i t , the problem becomes one of arranging c u l t u r a l concepts into a hierarchy of r e l a t i v e complexity. (p. 50) He also suggests that the strategy might be rather e c l e c t i c . Perhaps some insight could be gained by considering the nature of the a c t i v i t i e s s i g n i f i c a n t to the methodology i n th i s thesis. Emmons and Cobia (1973) provide enlightenment when they explain the success of the anthropological approa-ches used in some sample primary grade classrooms. They found that even f i r s t grade children could assume the role of participant observer, often reporting i n the form of simple 220 one sentence statements. Cross-cultural comparison was shown to hold s p e c i f i c fascination for them. Methods used i n the study involved children i n role-playing, dramatization, and many other a c t i v i t i e s designed to i n i t i a t e questioning. In a l l procedures the teachers t r i e d to engage children i n a c t i v i t i e s that duplicated those i n a given culture. Many of the a c t i v i t i e s were selected to convey the idea that differences i n human behaviour are r e f l e c t e d i n c u l t u r a l a r t i f a c t s . Through examination of these a r t i f a c t s concepts r e l a t i n g to the idea of c u l t u r a l patterning were brought into view. The o v e r a l l findings of the study showed that although young children preferred topics with a concrete referent, abstract ideas could s t i l l be developed. For example, because of the way one unit developed the idea of s o c i a l organization proved to be very e x c i t i n g to the children. In another instance several second grade boys became interested i n the concept of Aztec m i l i t a r y government. The onus i s e s s e n t i a l l y on the teacher to help to guide the students toward the iden-t i f i c a t i o n of a c t i v i t i e s and concepts which would be not only applicable but int e r e s t i n g to them. Certain topics such as r e l i g i o n and p o l i t i c a l constructs would probably be best introduced at grade lev e l s higher than primary, but a l l decisions of t h i s nature would have to be made with p a r t i c u l a r students and groups i n mind. One cannot give blanket guide-li n e s without knowing the children. 221 Learn ing theory c a n , of c o u r s e , add to the genera l s t r u c t u r e s of c u r r i c u l u m development w i t h regard to a p p r o x i -mating the type of concepts and a c t i v i t i e s t h a t c o u l d be in t roduced a t d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s . Rouse (1971) shows how such t h e o r i s t s as P i a g e t , B runer , and Woodruff p resent v a r i o u s s t r u c t u r e s which can serve as a guide t o c u r r i c u l u m o r g a n i z a -t i o n . With re fe rence to such t h e o r i e s Rouse shows how a c u r r i c u l u m can be d i v i d e d i n t o s e v e r a l l e v e l s w i t h each l e v e l encompassing d i f f e r e n t a b i l i t y s tages i n v o l v i n g : (a) p e r -c e p t i o n b e h a v i o u r s , i . e . , s e e i n g , t o u c h i n g , r e c o g n i z i n g ; (b) knowing b e h a v i o u r s , i . e . , l e a r n i n g the language of a r t ; (c) choos ing b e h a v i o u r s , i . e . , d e s c r i b i n g , c l a s s i f y i n g , e x p l a i n i n g ; and (d) p r o d u c t i o n b e h a v i o u r s , i . e . , u s i n g t o o l s and m a t e r i a l s . Another f a c t o r would r e l a t e to developmental and i n t e r e s t l e v e l s of a r t such as those o u t l i n e d by Lowenfeld and B r i t t a i n (1975). Such o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s focus t o a l a r g e ex tent on g e n e r a l i z e d stages of a r t i s t i c development. P r e -supposed i n t e r e s t f i e l d s which are used w i t h i n such o r g a n i z a -t i o n a l p a t t e r n s tend t o be " a - c u l t u r a l " . In o ther words, the c u l t u r a l element i s not g i ven r e c o g n i t i o n . Whi le not denying the v a l i d i t y of these f a c t o r s , t h i s researcher i s sugges t ing t h a t the c u l t u r a l element must a l s o be addressed . C e r t a i n l y i t would seem to be as impor tant a c o n s i d e r a t i o n as those aspects i d e n t i f i e d above. Robertson (1961) suggests t h a t as w e l l as a l l o w i n g f o r 222 the child's natural c r e a t i v i t y i n art we must "enable him to re a l i z e that cross-relations e x i s t among a l l important human a c t i v i t i e s " (p. 56). Exploration time must be provided to allow the c h i l d to delve into various thematic regions, and positi v e encouragement must be given to reinforce pattern-making and strengthen the child' s re-creation of order. Robertson notes that i t i s important to introduce concepts and processes "at a l e v e l he i s capable of understanding" (p. 61). Chapman (1978) helps to provide a guideline for this when she describes various stages of a r t i s t i c develop-ment which children can be expected to go through from the pre-school years to junior high years. The c u l t u r a l element i s included in her sections on " a r t i s t i c heritage" and "art in society". However, the emphasis s t i l l appears to be con-centrated on Western contemporary society. In order to extend the c u l t u r a l paradigm for sequential curriculum development, t h i s investigator has t r i e d to corre-late ideas introduced by m u l t i c u l t u r a l s p e c i a l i s t s with some of the thematic and conceptual f o c a l points which could pro-vide the basis for extended learnings. Figure 16 i l l u s t r a t e s the thematic scope. In essence, any chosen theme could be introduced at any grade l e v e l , but the a c t i v i t y choices and the depth considerations would re l a t e to the child's interests and a b i l i t i e s at various stages. Figure 17 i l l u s t r a t e s a possible c u l t u r a l developmental framework which could i n t e r -act with these themes. 223 One other suggestion i s offered by Robertson as follows: I would l i k e to plead very strongly for enough f l e x i b i -l i t y in the school timetable for groups to meet and practise the c r a f t s apart from the formal grouping by age or academic achievement. In the f i r s t place i t allows for a cross-section of ages, involving a natural way of learning, the younger children from the older. Newcomers to such a group see the d i f f e r e n t stages of the work going on a l l round them, and learn a great deal, both of the s k i l l s and of the attitude to c r a f t s -manship, not by formal teaching, but simply by picking i t up. They see, too, more of the possible range of work as i t progresses, which stimulates t h e i r i n t e r e s t to tackle new things. (p. 78) The methodology provided in t h i s thesis offers the potential for this type of f l e x i b i l i t y , but i t would require i n t e r -mixing among classes and grade l e v e l s i n order for cross-cooperation to be carried out to t h i s extent. The f i r s t steps — centered i n the i n d i v i d u a l classroom, with the methodology addressed to a large group before i t i s then adapted to smaller groups and f i n a l l y to indi v i d u a l s — would have to be carried out f i r s t . From there other adaptations could p o t e n t i a l l y be made. In the implementation of t h i s methodology i t i s strongly recommended that the use of the format embrace as wide a range of time and conceptual/disciplinary emphases as 224 possible. As noted, the format can be used on a l i m i t e d basis, but i t s true value rests i n i t s adaptability to a broad framework, h e u r i s t i c i n character. As shown i n Figure 15 (p. 218) the i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y p o t e n t i a l should be con-sidered s i g n i f i c a n t . Figure 16 Sequential Scope Chart for Developmental Learning Thematic Explorations Media Techniques Functions of Art Types of Art C r i t i c a l Emphases (Depth) Production Emphases (Depth and Scope) Related to developmental stages of learning, in t e r e s t areas, p o t e n t i a l connections to other subject f i e l d s within the curriculum. Figure 17 227 To t h i s point i n t h i s chapter each of the major features of the methodology has been outlined and explained i n depth. Time adaptations and recommendations for sequential develop-ment formats have been introduced. In the next section a sample study i s provided to i l l u s t r a t e one possible approach to implementation. Application of the Methodology: Sample Study One of the most important c r i t e r i a related to the selec-tion of a topic or theme for study within t h i s methodology i s i t s potential educational worth. The d u a l i s t i c aims of c u l t u r a l and a r t i s t i c understanding should provide the i n i t i a l guidelines. However, personal significance would also be a factor. From t h i s viewpoint a student might ask: "What value does th i s study hold for me?". Thus the germinal questions would be directed towards highli g h t i n g aspects of a topic that encompasses a l l three elements. This sample study provides an example of a topic which i m p l i c i t l y incorporates a l l three of the above-mentioned aspects. The thematic/perceptual focus which has been chosen i s : "Apparel and personal adornment — Geographic (Chinese)/ H i s t o r i c " . Before the topic i s addressed within each stage some of the dimensions of the thematic choice are outlined. Thematic Overview In terms of rationale, Horn (1968) notes that "clothing . . . i s generally accepted as one of the fundamental needs 228 of individuals and families the world over" (p. 1). Influenced by numerous factors and forces, clothing can be seen "as one of the most personal components of d a i l y l i f e , and at the same time as a manifestation of s o c i a l a c t i v i t y deeply embedded i n the c u l t u r a l scheme of an era" (p. 3). A study of clothing would therefore provide an avenue for examining c u l t u r a l p a r t i c u l a r i t i e s . The relationship between clothing and the art world as a whole i s also s i g n i f i c a n t . Langner (1959) makes the emphatic statement that "plainness i n clothing i s the enemy of a r t . Were we to dress e n t i r e l y i n p l a i n clothes, we would l i v e i n a drab world indeed" (p. 119). In his argument Langner draws p a r a l l e l s between creation along other a r t i s t i c l i n e s and the clothing worn during d i f f e r e n t periods. For example, he explains how the theatre "flourished mostly i n periods of beautiful clothing, such as the Greek, Elizabethan and Restora-t i o n " (p. 119). Robertson (1961) contributes a rationale which highlights the significance of the study of clothing from the students' viewpoint. She submits that students should be helped to understand that clothes have much more than a protective function. Clothes serve to adorn and disguise the body. They f a c i l i t a t e or r e s t r i c t s p e c i f i c types of movement. Robertson suggests that by exploring the conventions and r i t u a l s related to apparel students can begin to consider the values i m p l i c i t i n i t s various facets and can learn to make responsible personal decisions about the use and role of clothing i n t h e i r l i v e s . Such exploration can focus on c u l -t u r a l attitudes, r o l e - r e l a t e d functions, psychological i m p l i -cations, and personal adaptations. In considering the rel a t i o n s h i p between clothing and s o c i a l order, Roach and Eicher (1965) note the associative patterns that occur in culture with reference to structures such as family, economy, p o l i t y , r e l i g i o n and caste or c l a s s . They also suggest that "since the s o c i a l order proceeds through time, clothing, a material f a c i l i t y , may r e f l e c t change or s t a b i l i t y i n the society's nonmaterial aspects" (p. 2). This being the case, they suggest that the study of dress and adornment can cast l i g h t on the t o t a l picture of human behaviour. Horn (1968) suggests that three major elements might be considered i n a study of clothing: (a) the material a r t i -facts themselves, i . e . , materials indigenous to s p e c i f i c regions, (b) the normative patterns or i n s t i t u t i o n s which set the rules which govern behaviour, and (c) the "menti-facts" of l i f e — the ide a l s , values, and b e l i e f s "that underlie or account for . . . courses of action" (p. 68). With regard to the material a r t i f a c t s , Horn notes that Through the eyes of the anthropologist we are able to see how the design of a given costume i s dependent upon the materials, the tools, and the techniques that are available to the maker of the garment. Also, by comparing clothing with other art forms, we observe 230 that i t r e f l e c t s the t y p i c a l mode of expression that characterizes the culture. In any given period, the sty l e of painting, the design of a chair, the structure of a building, or the look of a woman are e s s e n t i a l l y the same. (p. 34) Aspects which could be focused on could include: (a) the materials which r e f l e c t the geographic region, i . e . , s i l k used i n China and Japan, hides used by the Eskimos; (b) the processes used to construct the items, i . e . , tanning, weaving, dyeing; and (c) the indigenous designs, patterns, and styles which r e f l e c t c u l t u r a l meanings. With regard to the customs and laws associated with clothing there are numerous factors involved, including ethnocentric attitudes, rules of etiquette, fashion trends, and s o c i a l mores. This can also include sexual d i s t i n c t i o n s , such as the pants/skirts dichotomy that takes various forms within d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r a l enclosures; moral standards, one extreme of which can be seen i n Moslem women's voluminous garments which cover a l l features save the eyes; and le g a l or p o l i t i c a l measures which enforce clothing practises as a means of regulating society. With regard to value orientations, Horn states that again there are many facets involved. She suggests that b e l i e f s associated with equality, beauty, p r a c t i c a l i t y , economy, maturity, and i n d i v i d u a l i t y are among the motivat-ing forces in clothing behaviour. With reference to group associations, she notes that clothing attitudes can relate 231 to a desire to conform, a desire to express i n d i v i d u a l i t y , prestige values, physical comfort, and the desire to p a r t i c i -pate. Aesthetic s a t i s f a c t i o n can also be achieved i n t h i s regard. Fliigel (1971) explains that the motive of decoration i s a major aspect inherent i n human clothing and adornment. Among the psychological or s o c i a l variations of t h i s aire l i s t e d the following functions: (1) to add to the sexual attractiveness of the wearer (2) to display trophies — emphasizing the achievements of the wearer (3) to t e r r o r i z e , to s t r i k e fear into the hearts of enemies (4) to indicate rank or occupation (.5) to exhibit signs of l o c a l i t y or n a t i o n a l i t y — Fliigel notes that clothes or costumes i n t h i s respect are not subject to changes imposed by fashion. Their value depends on the fact that the national or ethnic styles e s s e n t i a l l y remain true to t r a d i t i o n . (6) to display wealth (.7) to f i l l a need for carrying e s s e n t i a l a r t i c l e s (.8) to extend the bodily s e l f — Fliigel notes that "clothing, by adding to the apparent size of the body i n one way or another, gives us an increased sense of power . . . ultimately by enabling us to f i l l more space" (p. 34). By closely focusing on p a r t i c u l a r aspects of clothing i t i s possible to uncover some of the deeper dimensions that 232 would, i n turn, r e f l e c t values, b e l i e f s , and c u l t u r a l v a r i a -tions. Hansen (n.d.) notes, for example, that i n some t r a d i -t i o n a l European r u r a l communities "costume played so important a role i n v i l l a g e society that there were rules governing dress according to the seasons of the church year" (p. 21). Married/unmarried d i s t i n c t i o n s were also important. In terms of a l l of the above-noted features the a r t i s t i c element plays a v i t a l r o l e . With reference to East Indian culture Swarup (1957) notes that prescriptions of r i g i d s o c i a l codes have ordained i n d i v i d u a l styles of decoration, colours and designs for d i f f e r e n t occasions and d i f f e r e n t communities. Auspicious occasions l i k e marriages, f e s t i v e seasons and sacred ceremonials have c a l l e d forth from Hindus the use of p a r t i c u l a r clothes i n b r i l l i a n t shades of every colour (p. 81). Colour associations have, i n some areas, s p e c i f i c meanings. Handa (1975) notes, for example, that i n the Pahari folk cultures yellow i s associated with Spring and with d i v i n i t y . Each of the other colours are also used in costume to express d i f f e r e n t concepts and b e l i e f s . Another important aspect i s highlighted by Dhamija (1970) as he points out that "designs i n clothes and jewellry of the people a l l over India were governed for a long time by th e i r p a r t i c u l a r castes" (p. 68). By studying the design and colour associations of such groups many insights into t r a d i -t i o n a l values could be obtained. 233 In the study of clothing i n culture the associative schemes which relate to aspects such as s o c i e t a l r o l e , mate-r i a l , values, and motives a l l suggest topics around which an investigation might be conducted. One further guideline might c l a s s i f y clothing into type. Horn (1968) suggests that t h i s refers to three b a s i c configurations: (a) the t a i l o r e d garment, (b) the draped garment, and (c) the compo-s i t e type which could be either f i t t e d or un f i t t e d . In each case h i s t o r i c a l / c u l t u r a l settings, aesthetic a t t r i b u t e s , t r a d i t i o n a l customs, and obsolescence/economic factors might be considered. Two other systems of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n are suggested by Flugel (1971). In these systems, clothing can be grouped according to: (a) three regional classes, termed p r i m i t i v e , t r o p i c a l , and a r c t i c ; and (b) "fixed" and "modish" classes. The main components of the f i r s t grouping are described as follows: (1) primitive — characterized by l o i n coverings or ornaments (2) t r o p i c a l — made from vegetable rather than animal products, associated with the art of weaving (3) a r c t i c — designed to f i t cl o s e l y to the body and to cover i t more or less e n t i r e l y The main components of the second grouping include: (1) "fixed" clothing styles — change very slowly over time; vary greatly i n r e l a t i o n to geographic space (2) "modish" styles -— t y p i f i e d by rapid time changes; 234 spread over wide spacial frames which share common communica-tion networks and c u l t u r a l influences. Fliigel notes that the "modish" style i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the modern Western world, whereas i n other parts of the world "dress changes much more slowly, i s more cl o s e l y connected with r a c i a l and l o c a l circumstances, or with s o c i a l or occupa-t i o n a l standing" (p. 130) , i n essence exhibiting more of the features of the "fixed" type. He notes, however, that excep-tions to these rules can be seen i n geographical costumes and in uniforms. The thematic overview that has been presented as an introduction to th i s sample study has been included for several reasons. F i r s t , i t reveals some of the aspects of the topic that might be uncovered in an investigative study. Secondly, i t helps to i l l u s t r a t e the i m p l i c i t r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h i s topic and the art/culture emphasis within t h i s methodology. F i n a l l y , i t provides a conceptual framework which can help to f a c i l i t a t e discussions of the sample study. The study i t s e l f i s presented i n the following section, with each aspect i d e n t i f i e d within the appropriate stage. The pre-interactive stage, however, w i l l not be re-introduced since the curriculum orientation and major goals have already been explained. The physical l o g i s t i c s and the e x p l i c i t / i m p l i c i t / n u l l dimensions would have to be considered i n terms of the curriculum as a whole. The sample study therefore i l l u s t r a t e s one possible procedural sequence beginning with the f i r s t step in teacher/student interactions. The format 235 follows the sequential outline presented i n Figure 1 (p. 145). Stage 1: Research and C l a s s i f i c a t i o n 1. The thematic choice for the study emphasis i s : "Apparel and personal adornment". This is* combined with a geographic/historic perceptual frame which focuses on Chinese costumes from a t r a d i t i o n a l , viewpoint. 2. In terms of the type and extent of research that might be done within t h i s stage a classroom approach would f a c i l i t a t e the c o l l e c t i o n of many more samples, both photo-graphic and/or material. However, those samples presented here can at least i l l u s t r a t e the type of c o l l e c t i o n that might be possible. 3. For the purpose of i l l u s t r a t i n g the f l e x i b i l i t y and depth/scope p o s s i b i l i t i e s within such a topic a delimitation construct i s outlined as one format for documentation and study. Plates I, I I , and III I l l u s t r a t e the c r o s s - c u l t u r a l comparison which might be done among Chinese, Japanese, and East Indian t r a d i t i o n a l costumes. The documentation format would f a c i l i t a t e viewing these three types concurrently. Plates IV - X i l l u s t r a t e s p e c i f i c functions of Chinese costumes as they serve to i d e n t i f y s o c i e t a l r o l e s . Plates XI - XIII i l l u s t r a t e how one s p e c i f i c aspect of apparel — i n t h i s case headgear — can be i s o l a t e d so that more in-depth examination can occur. Plates XIV - XVI i l l u s t r a t e how such elements as f a b r i c , 236 symbolism, colours, and workmanship might be i s o l a t e d for study. In t h i s sample case, c r o s s - c u l t u r a l comparison might be done between Japanese and Chinese costumes. In t h i s documentation and c l a s s i f i c a t i o n stage the photo-graphs and/or a r t i f a c t s are grouped so as to f a c i l i t a t e ana-l y s i s . 237 Plate II Tr a d i t i o n a l East Indian s a r i Museum No. B6^ -6 238 Plate III (a & b) Museum No. N2.1011 Japanese d o l l wearing kimono i n red, grey, and yellow. Si l v e r coloured hair ornaments arranged i n t r a d i t i o n a l e l a -borate c o i f f u r e . 239 Museum No. N 1 .730 2 M Plate VIII Nun's costume (from Canton Museum No. N 1 . 7 1 i+ Museum No. N 1.681 Plate X Warrior's armour with l e g panels and c o l l a r (from Cantonese opera col l e c t i o n ) Museum No. N 1 .^2 Plate XI Chinese hat Museum No. N 2.205 Plate XIV Japanese kimono. Deep purple ground with pine, cloud, and chrysanthemum design. Museum No. N 1.627 P l a t e XV D e t a i l f rom Cantonese opera costume: Peacock - good l u c k Museum No. N 1 .641 P l a t e XVI D e t a i l from Cantonese opera costume: Peony - S p r i n g 247 Stage 2; C r i t i c a l Analysis Phase 1 - Aes t h e t i c / c u l t u r a l analysis. In t h i s phase each of the four photographic groupings — general cross-c u l t u r a l comparison, role d i s t i n c t i o n s , headgear, and smaller d e t a i l s — would be addressed separately. For each grouping a c t i v i t i e s would focus around the three areas i d e n t i f i e d as part of t h i s a n a l y t i c a l phase. Suggestions and some of the possible findings are noted below. 1. Observation - e l i c i t i n g i n i t i a l reaction (a) Cross-cultural comparisons -- s i m i l a r i t i e s include the draped appearance of the garments, a looseness in f i t , an apparent richness i n f a b r i c (b) Role d i s t i n c t i o n s — variations can be seen in the degree of opulence r e f l e c t e d i n the costumes; certain symbols seem to be evident; a commonality i s seen i n the looseness i n f i t (c) Headgear — each item i s very unique i n appearance and i n material used Cd) Smaller d e t a i l s — natural symbols are used in both the Chinese and Japanese examples; the Chinese exam-ples appear to be more elaborate i n design and o v e r a l l rendering than the Japanese 2. Description In t h i s phase each of the component groupings would be described i n d e t a i l . Images, symbolism, and sensory e l e -ments would be noted. 248 3. Inquiry into meanings Again, each photographic grouping would be examined independently. To uncover s p e c i f i c meanings further research might have to be done concerning p a r t i c u l a r aspects. In t h i s inquiry questions which might be asked could include the following: - What do the symbols represent? What kind of b e l i e f s are r e f l e c t e d i n such images? - How would these a r t i c l e s function within the t r a d i - ' t i o n a l society? Why are some items more opulent than others? - What do these a r t i c l e s t e l l us about the h i s t o r i c a l time period which they represent? How does the geographic/ environmental space of the culture reveal i t s e l f i n these a r t i c l e s ? What d i s t i n c t i v e aspects of these a r t i c l e s t e l l us that they represent one p a r t i c u l a r c u l t u r a l group as opposed to others? - How do you think the wearer would f e e l about his/her a t t i r e ? What e f f e c t would the clothing have on the wearer? - What kind of c u l t u r a l / h i s t o r i c world-view i s repre-sented by these factors? Such questions are designed to uncover meanings associated with the a r t i f a c t s . The second phase emphasizes the struc-t u r a l elements. Phase 2 - Structural inquiry. In t h i s phase i n d i v i d u a l items might be selected for in-depth examination. Questions could include the following: 249 - How are each of the design elements, i . e . , colour, l i n e , texture, shape, pattern, form, displayed i n the a r t i c l e ? How do the elements relate to one another? What i s the over-a l l effect? - How does the material r e l a t e to i t s inherent form and function? Questions r e l a t i n g to t h i s costume-based study might include: How do the beads and tassels on the bride's headdress contribute to the function of t h i s a r t i c l e ? How does the material and design of each aspect of the warrior's armour serve the function of t h i s costume? What kind of image i s portrayed by the use and placement of d i f f e r e n t materials — delicacy?, reverence?, p r a c t i c a l i t y ? , strength?, fearlessness? - How i s craftsmanship exhibited i n the a r t i f a c t ? (a) What kind of intent or v i t a l m o t i v a t i o n of the craftsman might be seen i n the a r t i c l e ? How does one think the a r t i s t or designer approached the creation of i t ? How might the motivation or v i t a l i t y behind a costume d i f f e r i f the costume was designed for stage presentation rather than for actual use? (b) How has the craftsman interpreted a p a r t i c u l a r culture-oriented expression of beauty — through elaborate design?, through the use of s p e c i f i c art elements?, through the use of s p e c i f i c materials? (c) How i s t r u t h r e f l e c t e d i n the a r t i f a c t ? What kind of n a t u r a l laws might have guided the craftsman? 250 How might the s o c i a l background of the a r t i f a c t have provided impetus for i t s creation? What kind of c u l t u r e -o r i e n t e d truth does t h i s r e f l e c t ? With regard to t h i s sample study questions r e l a t i n g to t h i s aspect might include: Why are flags included i n the warrior's armour? Why i s the peasant's costume less sumptious and elaborate than the costume of the well-to-do woman? How i s the craftsman guided by these s o c i a l considerations? Another aspect r e l a t i n g to truth might focus on the •philosophical truths that guide the craftsman. Questions might ask: Why does the Japanese kimono i n Plate XIV exhibit great s i m p l i c i t y i n o v e r a l l design i n combination with a r e l a t i v e l y complex nature-oriented decorative border? What truths l i e behind the craftsman's creation of t h i s a r t i c l e ? — love of s i m p l i c i t y and harmony?, appreciation of nature?, p r a c t i c a l aestheticism? (d) What s k i l l and care i s evident i n the construction of the a r t i f a c t ? To a large extent t h i s could only be viably addressed i n the first-hand examination of a r t i c l e s , as could be f a c i l i t a t e d through museum studies. (e) How do these craftsmanship-oriented aspects con-tribu t e towards the o v e r a l l " f i t " of the a r t i f a c t to i t s supposed function?, i . e . , Would the warrior's costume be suited for battle? If so, what type of combat might be carried out by the warrior who might have worn such a costume in a t r a d i t i o n a l setting? What kind of f u n c t i o n a l i t y i s 251 implied by the use of rank badges such as that i l l u s t r a t e d i n Plate VII? How would the design and craftsmanship of such badges contribute to the purpose for which they were intended? Once inquiry has been concluded within the two anal y t i c phases two questions must be asked: CD What o v e r a l l learnings have been f a c i l i t a t e d i n th i s study? With reference to both art and culture what do we know now that we didn't know when the study was begun? (2) Is further research and documentation necessary? Note: This question may even be asked at the conclusion of the a e s t h e t i c / c u l t u r a l analysis phase. Decision Level A (see Figure 1, p. 145) indicates the point where a decision i s made to either: (a) return to Stage 1 to continue research on the same or a related t o p i c , or (b) go on to Stage 3. If the decision i s to go on i t would be because enough insight has been gained to allow the teacher and student(s) to j o i n t l y decide on the production focus for that forthcoming stage. That component i s addressed next. Stage 3: Production The f i r s t task within Stage 3 i s to decide on the objec-tives for production. This would i n i t i a l l y be an in d i v i d u -a l i z e d process, but i t might be found that small groups can be formed based on common in t e r e s t s . The teacher would help the students to consider p o s s i b i l i t i e s for the production emphasis. Based on t h i s Chinese apparel topic some po s s i -252 b i l i t i e s might include the following: (1) an exploration of f a b r i c making arts - This could focus on such aspects as weaving, applique work, embroidery, dyeing, f a b r i c p r i n t i n g . (.2) a closer study of the design elements within the a r t i c l e s , possibly accomplished by - examining and sketching symbolic images - considering variations of these a r t i c l e s and garments and designing these - working out new formations of the symbolic images, and considering and testing t h e i r incorporation and e f f e c t i n various media - considering the essence of the t r a d i t i o n a l Chinese s t y l e and designing contemporary variations of par-t i c u l a r a r t i c l e s , possibly focusing on garments and items which the student(s) might l i k e to wear (3) doing further research into the c u l t u r a l setting, including geographic and a r c h i t e c t u r a l study; then coordinat-ing and interpreting " t o t a l " pictures of Chinese l i f e through drawings, paintings, and/or p r i n t s . Regardless of the production emphasis i t i s important that the student consider the appropriate phase within which to work. From t h i s viewpoint objectives can be i d e n t i f i e d to give the student some d i r e c t i o n for his/her work. In terms of structuring the objectives, Eisner's (1979) expressive objective format has been suggested. Using t h i s format the students i d e n t i f y what they wish to accomplish i n t h e i r production a c t i v i t i e s . However, the actual process of work may illuminate outcomes which show some v a r i a t i o n on the o r i g i n a l plans. These outcomes would then suggest further directions for subsequent work. The evaluation format provided in Figure 12 (p. 2 06) i l l u s t r a t e s one way i n which these objectives and outcomes could be coordinated. By noting the objective and then the subsequent outcome the student builds up a picture of h i s / her developmental learning i n Stage 3. These notations then provide a reference point for subsequent work, even using d i f f e r e n t themes. The phases of production provide a format which can help the student to i d e n t i f y progress i n each area. In the apparel topic, for example, i t would be quite possible for the stu-dent to be a journeyman i n weaving, as far as a p a r t i c u l a r technique i s concerned. However, he/she may be an apprentice in the use of smooth, fi n e threads for weaving, and may also be in the apprentice stage i n terms of working with Chinese subject matter and images. Each production topic could suggest a d i f f e r e n t combina-tion of experiences. By recording each aspect and noting the outcomes the student can examine the progressive stages leading to competencies. In Stage 4 these learnings can be placed in perspective with learnings which have extended from the f i r s t two stages. 254 Stage 4; Evaluation During the f i r s t two stages the students should have been keeping anecdotal notations concerning p a r t i c u l a r aspects of the study. From t h i s sample topic these notations could include: - ideas related to the use of p a r t i c u l a r f a b r i c s or materials i n the a r t i c l e s of costume - ideas associated with craftsmanship - symbolic meanings - comments about the role associations related to costume - summary statements concerning the h i s t o r i c and c u l t u r a l world-view which provided motivation. Notations about p o s s i b i l i t i e s for production and for further exploration could also be kept. When the production overview i s added to the overview from the f i r s t two stages the student can see how the t o t a l study i n t e r r e l a t e s . A sharing process w i l l help students to review the meanings of the a c t i v i t i e s , to c l e a r l y think through the learnings, and to c r i t i c a l l y test and evaluate t h e i r progress. Such sharing can help students to s t r i v e for high standards of craftsmanship since, as Richardson (1964) has shown, the r e c i p r o c a l c r i t i c i s m helps them to more f u l l y gain imaginative and aesthetic i n s i g h t . By emphasizing the extension and t o t a l integration of the three stages the poten-t i a l for gaining c u l t u r a l i n s i g h t i s also s i g n i f i c a n t . The teacher emphasis and the curriculum considerations 255 in t h i s fourth stage have already been explained. The teacher's role and the educational significance of the study must be considered in r e l a t i o n to the student's learnings. These constitute three dimensions of a h o l i s t i c and i n t e r -related process. The o v e r a l l d i r e c t i o n of Stage 4 should lead to a d e c i -sion about the next topic for study. I f the decision was to continue research into the Chinese theme, p o s s i b i l i t i e s might include: - examining other t r a d i t i o n a l Chinese art forms to do comparisons and to add depth to conceptual understandings of Chinese art and culture - examining modern Chinese fabrics and s t y l e s , doing comparisons, and noting the t r a d i t i o n a l motifs and s t y l i s t i c features which influence the contemporary - doing a microscopic study, i . e . , of a family, to see how art functions i n the d a i l y l i f e of the Chinese family, either i n the o r i g i n a l setting or as part of a sub-culture i n another region - examining contemporary Chinese l i f e i n North American society; noting the use of art and the evidence of b i c u l t u r a -t i o n , acculturation, or c u l t u r a l assimilation. If the decision was to do further c r o s s - c u l t u r a l com-parisons i n terms of apparel and personal adornment, further investigation could focus on the Japanese, East Indian, or other Eastern cultures. Eastern cultures might also be com-256 pared with aboriginal or Western cultures. The l i s t of p o s s i b i l i t i e s for investigation and further study i s endless. It i s for t h i s reason that s p e c i f i c guide-li n e s cannot be given. The methodology can only provide a framework. The decisions must be made by the part i c i p a n t s . I m p l i c i t Learning Potential Within t h i s sample study, as i n others, the emphasis would be placed upon finding out what makes the a r t i f a c t s unique to a p a r t i c u l a r c u l t u r a l group. Why are certa i n materials, symbols, colours, s t y l e s , and techniques used i n pa r t i c u l a r ways, possibly unique to that culture? What does such a study t e l l us about the values and b e l i e f s of the culture? How i s art used to transmit and maintain the c u l -ture? What changes and variations can be seen over time? What function does art have i n r e l a t i o n to the contemporary culture? The answers to these questions can be revealed i n various forms depending upon the topic chosen for invest i g a t i o n . Throughout the study the student should be aware of the c u l -t u r a l and a r t i s t i c understandings that are being uncovered i n the process of the a c t i v i t i e s . The personal significance aspect can be addressed as the student learns to make deci-sions about his/her p a r t i c u l a r points of concentration. Before future needs and recommendations concerning c u l -t u r a l studies i n art education are outlined, a b r i e f summary of Chapter 3 i s provided. 257 Summary In the presentation of t h i s methodology i t may be noted that suggested questions and procedural frameworks have been iso l a t e d and compartmentalized to f a c i l i t a t e description. In keeping with the q u a l i t a t i v e rationale i t should be stressed, however, that the a c t u a l process of study may i n fact be much more i n t e r r e l a t e d . Stages 1 and 2 may expand developmentally as the study progresses. Stages 2 and 3 may work together i n a more correlated manner, with production objectives being formulated almost on an on-going basis. Certainly aspects of Stage 4 would occur on an on-going basis within a l l three of the previous stages. What, therefore, would such a format mean to the participants? How would they be affected? Unlike the t r a d i t i o n a l "control" s i t u a t i o n which i s based on the idea of "school as a one-way educational process, from adult to c h i l d " (Huebner, 1974, p. 51), t h i s structure necessitates that the student becomes an active p a r t i c i p a n t -inquirer. What must be recognized i s that even i n the t r a d i -t i o n a l s i t u a t i o n "students themselves can and do act as cata-l y s t s i n a l t e r i n g school experience by bringing into the i n s t i t u t i o n and d i s t r i b u t i n g material and resources that honestly represent the culture and history of p a r t i c u l a r classes and groups of people" (Apple, 1977, p. 21). Unfortu-nately, the c a t a l y s t i c action can, and often does, manifest i t s e l f in negative forms where ethnocentrism abounds. This occurs because students tend to i n h e r i t t h e i r parents value 258 systems unquestioningly and transfer p r e j u d i c i a l attitudes about culture and art into the school and classroom. By working within a format that w i l l f a c i l i t a t e inquiry into both art and culture a l l participants can be helped to openly and honestly engage i n investigations that can help to uncover basic truths and meanings. The process requires that the "why" question be asked by both the students and the teacher as they j o i n t l y embark on the demystification journey. I t requires that they employ survey techniques from a variety of perspectives. I t demands inquiry before action, and i t necessitates an i n t e r r e l a t e d focus encompassing a l l aspects of the study. Within the study the teaching process i t s e l f can be regarded, to a certain extent, "as a form of inquiry, as a process of exploring problems that one cannot always define or predict" (Eisner, 1979, p. 161). I t requires a r t i s t r y , openness, and a genuine desire to help the students develop r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n the pursuit of t h e i r own learning. In the process of inquiry the teacher helps to oversee the evolution of learning. Among the tasks which w i l l involve the teacher w i l l be those described as follows: - ensuring that c u l t u r a l and a r t i s t i c description, although necessarily fragmentary at times, ultimately relates to the t o t a l view of the process of human l i v i n g — ensuring that ethnocentric attitudes are eliminated from the frame of reference 259 - helping students to understand t h e i r roles as they assume d i f f e r e n t stances while working through the methodology - helping the student to understand the relevance of each aspect of the study i n terms of his/her own "becoming" as an in d i v i d u a l l i v i n g i n a c u l t u r a l world - helping the students to make appropriate choices to ensure balance and coordination i n learnings - helping students to see that each a r t i f a c t under inves-t i g a t i o n i s representative of p a r t i c u l a r values, b e l i e f s , and world-views; that each element exemplifies a d i s t i n c t feature within a h o l i s t i c c u l t u r a l perspective - helping students to understand the benefits of employ-ing a variety of procedural formats, including macrostudies, microstudies, and c r o s s - c u l t u r a l comparisons - helping students to develop t h e i r research a b i l i t i e s , so that photographic c o l l e c t i o n might be enriched by f i e l d c o l l e c t i o n studies and p a r t i c i p a n t observation - helping students to develop t h e i r a r t i s t i c / c u l t u r a l competencies, i n r e l a t i o n to one another, so that each aspect reinforces the other, through exploration with materials, images, and techniques; through problem-solving and r o l e -playing; and through continuous attention to craftsmanship and a r t i s t i c / c u l t u r a l meanings. It should be noted that any major aspect that might have seemed important within the t r a d i t i o n a l art curriculum might be p o t e n t i a l l y adapted to t h i s type of c u l t u r a l / a r t i s -t i c study — as long as i t has educational s i g n i f i c a n c e . 260 Certainly media and techniques can be directed towards the development of a r t i s t i c and c u l t u r a l competencies. However, there i s one p a r t i c u l a r feature which could be given s p e c i a l comment. This i s the "holiday-special event" phenomenon that permeates so much of the elementary school art curriculum. Celebrations and "art" oriented interpretations of special days frequently r e f l e c t some of the most i n s i p i d features of the "school art s t y l e " mentioned i n Chapter 1. The wealth of p o s s i b i l i t i e s which are available to r e c t i f y t h i s s i t u a t i o n must be given attention. One approach which would greatly enrich both the c u l t u r a l learning potential and the understanding of art i n culture would be to focus on m u l t i c u l t u r a l celebrations and special events. Not only could classroom a c t i v i t i e s be directed towards understanding the associations and meanings related to these events, but often students could be given the oppor-tunity to p a r t i c i p a t e i n community-based celebrations so that first-hand experiences can be gained. Another approach would be to focus on h i s t o r i c a l associa-tions of r e a d i l y recognized special days. For example, for Valentine's Day students could research culture-bas