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The stories and heroes of Vasilii M. Shukshin Polowy, Teresa Lynn 1979

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THE STORIES AND HEROES OF VASILII M. SHUKSHIN by TERESA LYNN POLOWY B.A. U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1975 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN THE REQUIREMENTS MASTER PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF FOR THE DEGREES OF OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of S l a v o n i c Studies) We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA June, 1979 (c) Teresa Lynn. Polowy, 1979 I n p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an a d v a n c e d d e g r e e a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g r e e t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e a n d s t u d y . I f u r t h e r a g r e e t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d by t h e Head o f my D e p a r t m e n t o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l n o t be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . D e p a r t m e n t n f S l a v o n i c S t u d i e s The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a 2075 W e s b r o o k P l a c e V a n c o u v e r , C a n a d a V6T 1W5 D E - 6 B P 75-51 1 E ABSTRACT V a s i l i i Makarovich Shukshin was a well-known Soviet a r t i s t i c f igure, for he was a very popular actor and f i l m d i r e c t o r as well as a f a v o r i t e author. My thesis i s a study of the a r t i s t i c genre i n which Shukshin was most p r o l i f i c -the story (rasskaz), but much of what i s suggested i s applicable to his work i n other l i t e r a r y forms as well as to his work i n the cinema a r t s . Shukshin's personal a r t i s t i c v e r s a t i l i t y greatly determined his d i s t i n c t i v e prose which borders between l i t e r a t u r e and cinema. His s t o r i e s are immediate; one senses the gestures and hears the speech of the characters. The 'cinematic' q u a l i t y i s an es s e n t i a l element of his s t y l e and story structure with i t s great concentration upon dialogue and other d i r e c t speech forms. I t i s his hero that i s Shukshin's biggest contribution to Soviet l i t e r a t u r e and i t i s the revelation of the Shukshin hero to the reader which i s the essential reason for the story to e x i s t . During the years of development and maturation as a writer, Shukshin proved that he was an expert of the s o c i a l and psychological processes taking place within r u r a l dwellers who are subjected to the constant influence of urban culture. Such heroes are r e s t l e s s people, d i s s a t i s f i e d with the banality of d a i l y l i f e . They speak of the s p i r i t , of truth, and of the meaning of l i f e , but because they do not conform to the accepted s o c i a l norms, they are regarded as *chudiki', eccentrics. In a l l of h i s a r t i s t i c endeavors, Shukshin successfully creates h i s own c h a r a c t e r i s t i c and unique world which i s an accurate and honest r e a l i t y . The e f f e c t i v e employment of dialogue, monologue and other speech forms enhances the impression of the r e a l i t y of the world of the hero-eccentric. As well, these speech forms serve as vehicles for the gentle humour which i s an important element i n Shukshin 1s s t o r i e s . This humour i s s k i l l f u l l y blended with a tra g i c q u a l i t y which r e s u l t s from the meeting of the imagined and concrete r e a l i t i e s with which the hero must cope. As Shukshin's hero-eccentric evolves, the moral po s i t i o n taken by the author becomes more c l e a r l y defined. Through h i s heroes Shukshin condemns and exposes those s o c i a l phenomena which corrupt and c r i p p l e the human soul. The stories bear strong moral overtones, and the l a s t ones, written before Shukshin's death i n 1974, are quite obviously s o c i a l s a t i r e s which employ more b i t i n g irony and sarcasm than Shukshin had ever used i n h i s l i t e r a r y work. My thesis i s comprised of an introduction, two main chapters, and a conclusion. In the INTRODUCTION, a b r i e f biography of Shukshin's work i n cinema and l i t e r a t u r e i s presented with attention paid to his c r i t i c a l reception within the Soviet Union. CHAPTER ONE deals with two inseparable facets of Shukshin's a r t - h i s st y l e and structure and t h e i r role i n the manifestation of his unique hero. CHAPTER TWO treats Shukshin's a r t i s t i c means of expression as well as his refined use of four d i s t i n c t forms of d i r e c t speech i n the revelation of the hero - his ultimate objective. The CONCLUSION summarizes the discussion of the previous chapters i n the consideration of the special pathos which exists i n Shukshin's s t o r i e s . I t suggests as well, Shukshin's importance as a contemporary Soviet author whose ideas have the potential for a broad, more universal a p p l i c a t i o n . TABLE OF CONTENTS PAGE ABSTRACT . . . i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENT . . . . . . . . . . v i INTRODUCTION. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Notes t o I n t r o d u c t i o n . . 14 CHAPTER I. STRUCTURE AND CHARACTERIZATION IN THE SHUKSHIN STORY. . . . . . . . 16 1. The Story-Scene . . . . . . . 19 2. The Shukshin Hero 44 Notes t o Chapter I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 I I . DIRECT SPEECH FORMS IN THE SHUKSHIN STORY: LANGUAGE AND DIALOGUE; 75 Notes to Chapter I I . . . . . . • 1 1 2 CONCLUSION • .-. . . . . 116 Notes to C o n c l u s i o n . . . . 134 BIBLIOGRAPHY . . 135 APPENDIX I ."•..«.• .-..v.-.. 1 3 8 APPENDIX I I . . . . . . . " . . . 139. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I would l i k e to express sincere thanks to Dr. Barbara Monter who gave me c r i t i c a l , patient, but always encouraging guidance i n the preparation and writing of my thesis (and who possibly saved me from endless, uninspiring hours i n afternoon ceramics c l a s s e s ) . I extend my appreciation also to Dr. Michael F u t r e l l and Dr. Christopher Turner for the time spent reading my work, i d e n t i f i n g areas for correction, and suggesting v i t a l improve-ments . Special acknowledgement must go also to Dr. A l i a P. Gerisemenko of the Department of Soviet L i t e r a t u r e at Moscow State University who f i r s t introduced me to s t o r i e s of V a s i l i i M. Shukshin and who has shown continuous i n t e r e s t i n my work. F i n a l l y , without the constant support and strength provided by my family, and i n p a r t i c u l a r by my husband Larry, my work would have been very many times harder to accomplish. *... he demanded much of l i f e : that i t be joyous, peaceful, r e s t f u l . People were known to give a l l of themselves to achieve these things. They were not everything, but they were much; i t i s a rare thing for a person to f i n d himself i n harmony with his surroundings, i t i s the reward either of ordinary foolishness or extraordinary wisdom.' VASILII M. SHUKSHIN 'Fundamental Objections', Soviet L i t e r a t u r e , No.9, 1975 INTRODUCTION V a s i l i i Makarovich Shukshin, (1929-1974), i s a somewhat unusual phenomenon i n the world of contemporary Soviet a r t . A talented writer, Shukshin did not publish his f i r s t story u n t i l he was t h i r t y years of age. U n t i l t h i s time, his energies had been centered upon cinematography i n his capacity as di r e c t o r and actor. -Shukshin's untimely death i n 1974 at the age of f o r t y - f i v e cut short his work at the height of i t s creative potential both i n his l i t e r a r y and cinematographic careers. Among ordinary Soviet readers, and p a r t i c u l a r l y Russians, Shukshin was a f a v o r i t e writer and an extremely popular actor. At the same time, he was held i n high regard by the Soviet l i t e r a r y c r i t i c s and p o l i t i c a l a u t h o rities despite the often s a t i r i c a l intonations and themes which are important elements i n h i s s t o r i e s . Shukshin's b r i e f l i t e r a r y career was p r o l i f i c ; he produced one hundred and f i f t e e n s t o r i e s and novellas, many of which were published i n six c o l l e c t i o n s of s t o r i e s , as well as two novels. His career i n cinema, so inseparably linked to th i s l i t e r a r y one i s evident even i n a preliminary l i s t i n g of Shukshin's work, for h i s cinema-scenes (kino-stsenki) and cinema-novellas (kino-povesti), as well as one stageplay, were published i n l i t e r a r y journals and widely read."1" Shukshin's work i n l i t e r a t u r e and cinema sparked tremendous in t e r e s t i n c r i t i c a l c i r c l e s and i t was always a 2 source of controversy and debate. His death prompted a c r i t i c a l summing-up of his a r t , and suddenly Shukshin's l i t e r a t u r e was receiving overwhelming attention and s i g n i f i c a n t acknowledgement from the l i t e r a r y system which had been so guarded i n i t s 2 approach to the works during Shukshin 1s l i f e . Typical of the glowing praise which was directed at Shukshin's work i s the following: "For some reason we were ashamed to apply to the best books of Shukshin the same standards we apply, l e t us say, to Leskov, Bunin, and even Chekhov. Only now, when Shukshin i s not here with us, are we beginning to r e a l i z e that the highest standards are appropriate and not beyond V a s i l i i Shukshin*s 3 power." In 1975, a two-volume c o l l e c t i o n of Shukshin's s t o r i e s and novellas was published as well as Shukshin's s i x t h c o l l e c t i o n of s t o r i e s . Two issues of the popular magazine, 'Roman-gazeta' 4 were dedicated i n th e i r e n t i r e t y to Shukshin's s t o r i e s . This posthumous recognition culminated i n the bestowing of the Lenin Prize, the highest state award i n the Soviet Union, upon Shukshin's internationally-acclaimed f i l m , 'Kalina Krasnaia 1. I t i s both in t e r e s t i n g and necessary to speculate about the great a t t r a c t i o n of Shukshin's creative work for readers and c r i t i c s a l i k e . Although his art i s a combination of successful l i t e r a r y elements, I propose that his fundamental appeal i s emotional. In h i s sto r i e s and fil m s , Shukshin captures the s p e c i f i c pressures and i r r i t a t i o n s of modern Soviet l i f e through v i s u a l , auditory, and s i t u a t i o n a l scenes. These are generally prompted not so much by reason as by spontaneous 3 reactions, sympathies and antipathies. At a more extended, universal l e v e l , Shukshin e f f e c t i v e l y portrays the atomized existence of man l i v i n g i n urban, technological s o c i e t i e s . His means of revealing and conveying these facets of modern l i f e are based on his innate a b i l i t y to blend the anguish of the situations with a gentle, compassionate humour. Shukshin's biography before the beginning of his creative career i s ordinary and t y p i c a l of many young men of his generation, yet i t served to provide him with numerous life-experiences and a resultant and v i t a l sympathy for people. He was born i n 1929 i n Srostki, a v i l l a g e i n the A l t a i region of S i b e r i a . As a boy, he worked on a c o l l e c t i v e farm a f t e r q u i t t i n g school at the age of sixteen, then l i k e many others, he was drawn to the town and the construction s i t e s of Kaluga and Vladimir. After four years of naval service, Shukshin returned to Srostki to d i r e c t a school for r u r a l youth where he taught hi s t o r y . At the age of twenty-five Shukshin settled i n Moscow and entered the State I n s t i t u t e of Cinematography studying under the d i r e c t o r M.I. Romm i n the Faculty of Directing. This association was to have a fundamental impact on Shukshin's re l a t i o n s h i p with l i t e r a t u r e , f o r , as he acknowledges: "Romm had an outlook on f i l m that one would hardly expect i n a well-known f i l m d i r e c t o r : he connected i t with l i t e r a t u r e - good l i t e r a t u r e . He used to make us write sketches and short s t o r i e s , sometimes on set themes, sometimes on whatever we l i k e d . I had seen a l o t of good i n l i f e - a l o t of good people...Romm was 4 pleased with my work. He said, "Vasia, you've got i t i n you, 5 keep i t up!" In 1964, Shukshin completed the f i r s t of hi s films demonstrating the organic r e l a t i o n s h i p of cinema and l i t e r a t u r e which would develop and mature i n his works. The f i l m 'There Lives Such A Fellow'/*Zhivet takoi paren 1' received the Golden Lion of St. Mark award at the 16th Annual Venice Film F e s t i v a l ; but, more s i g n i f i c a n t l y , the f i l m u t i l i z e d a s i t u a t i o n Shukshin had taken from one of his f i r s t published s t o r i e s . Subsequently, throughout h i s p a r a l l e l l i t e r a r y and cinema careers, Shukshin duplicated many of his l i t e r a r y plots on the screen. Shukshin's uniqueness i n Soviet l i t e r a t u r e i s found i n t h i s i n t e g r a l r e l a t i o n s h i p between l i t e r a r y and cinematographic a c t i v i t y . His l i t e r a r y works are remarkable for t h e i r v i s u a l , concrete q u a l i t i e s . In hi s s t o r i e s , as i n his fi l m s , there i s the express desire and a b i l i t y to render the character above a l l else, by the spoken word. The t r i n i t y of writer, d i r e c t o r , and actor combined to produce an a r t i s t who created work of unity and completness. Shukshin's characters appear without fanfare and they act, speak, and l i v e n aturally and r e a l i s t i c a l l y . Shukshin as author i s content with b r i e f remarks i n his s t o r i e s . That which i s l e f t unsaid i s r e a d i l y perceived through the gestures and mime of the characters. Despite the success and innovation of Shukshin"s p a r a l l e l work i n l i t e r a t u r e and cinema, i t was an extremely d i f f i c u l t approach with inherent clashes and contradictions. Towards the end of hi s l i f e , Shukshin was preparing himself 5 to give up cinema and concentrate upon his writing exclusively. Shortly before h i s death, he expressed t h i s desire i n one of i his l a s t interviews: 'I am once again convinced that I am not involved i n my element. At the moment, I must think about the fundamental restructuring of my l i f e . I must, of course, part with something - with cinema, with theatre or with acting. Perhaps also with my Moscow residence!...The attempt to embrace a l l to a small extent - that has guided me...More than anything, I am concerned with the question - where i s Shukshin the writer? The writer i n the f i n a l analysis, i s most important to me!...6 In an interview published a f t e r his death, Shukshin gives a deprecatory summary of his l i t e r a r y works: "Well, what a r e s u l t ! For f i f t e e n years of work, several s l i g h t l i t t l e books, eight or nine printers* sheets apiece...This i s n ' t the 7 work of a professional writer." I t seems that Shukshin was h i s own toughest c r i t i c disregarding as he does a l l of the writing which he did i n the form of screenplays, s t o r i e s and 'povesti* written for the cinema. In h i s s e l f - c r i t i c i s m he does what no l i t e r a r y c r i t i c either before or a f t e r h i s death has done - he spoke of his l i t e r a t u r e i n terms which iso l a t e d i t from his other creative work. However, objective c r i t i c i s m of Shukshin's l i t e r a r y work must take into account h i s a c t i v i t i e s and contributions i n h i s other a r t i s t i c endeavors: for the important reason that his evolution as a writer i s ref l e c t e d and duplicated i n his evolution as a writer for the cinema and as an actor i n many of h i s own screenplays. Shukshin*s writing developed and matured dramatically during h i s creative career, and t h i s i s most evident i n an 6 examination o f h i s s t o r i e s . Shukshin's f i r s t c o l l e c t i o n o f s t o r i e s , ' V i l l a g e D w e l l e r s / S e l ' s k i e Z h i t e l i appeared i n 1963 - a l i g h t , t r a n q u i l book. I t i s such s t o r i e s as 'Stepan i n Love'/'Stepkina L i u b o v ' 1 , 'Alone'/'Odni", and 'Grin'ka M a l i u g i n ' which appeared i n the c o l l e c t i o n t h a t l e d to Shukshin's i n i t i a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n w i t h i n the ranks o f the ' d e r e v e n s h c h i k i * , w r i t e r s of r u a l prose. Shukshin's common hero i n the f i r s t h a l f of the 19 60s i s a young man, perhaps a d r i v e r o r a farm worker who i s motivated by spontaneous f e e l i n g s . Such heroes overcome s t i l l u n e l i m i n a t e d d i f f i c u l t i e s i n c o l l e c t i v e farm and country g l i f e without any s p e c i a l e f f o r t . The most remarkable element i n the s t o r i e s was the f r e s h n e s s and sharpness o f the language conveying d e t a i l s of d a i l y l i f e w i t h a s t r o n g c o n c e n t r a t i o n on the psychology o f the hero which was somewhat unusual f o r 'country prose..'. Shukshin was welcomed by the l i t e r a r y c r i t i c s of the two most i n f l u e n t i a l j o u r n a l s o f the time, Novyi M i r and O k t i a b r ' , as a ' s t e r n w r i t e r o f l i f e ' ( s u r o v y i b y t o p i s a t e l ' ) 9 and as a s i n g e r of moral w e l l - b e i n g . Shukshin immediately r e j e c t e d the l a b e l ' b y t o p i s a t e l ' ' and, i n 1964, he countered w i t h a s t o r y 'The C r i t i c s ' / K r i t i k i ' which one prominent c r i t i c r e gards as the f i r s t appearance of the ' r e a l Shukshin'."^ The hero was not the u s u a l l i k e a b l e , t r u s t i n g l a d , but an o l d man who r e a c t s v i o l e n t l y to a s i t u a t i o n which, would not warrant such behaviour from another type of hero. T h i s s t o r y , coupled w i t h Shukshin's i n d i g n a t i o n t h a t h i s 'happy hero' was b e i n g w i d e l y p e r c e i v e d as a s t r i c t l y humorous f i g u r e by l i t e r a r y c r i t i c s , provoked the comment i n O k t i a b r t h a t 7 Shukshin was now apologizing for the ignorance of the country and i t s desire not to go i n step with the times. During the mid-1960's, Shukshin became acutely aware that the message he was attempting to convey must be consolidated, concentrated, and made unmistakably c l e a r . His vehicle for t h i s presentation was his hero, and i t became increasingly evident to c r i t i c s , that the essence of a s p e c i f i c Shukshin story lay i n the examination of i t s hero. As Shukshin's work matured and the number of heroes grew, i t became clear that the essence of Shukshin's art lay i n the evolution of the c o l l e c t i v e Shukshin hero. C r i t i c s began to view Shukshin's s t o r i e s i n r e l a t i o n to each other, a group of s t o r i e s as a cycle and a c o l l e c t i o n of stories as a 'book-cycle'. These s t o r i e s had a generic unity based on 'that which i s l e f t unfinished, on the fi n e points, on the 'wide open' composition of each story' which allowed stories published a f t e r a s p e c i f i c c o l l e c t i o n to supplement and develop the previous works.'^ ''' The change i n the at t i t u d e of the c r i t i c s toward Shukshin and his l i t e r a r y work was due to the development of Shukshin himself. In a l l of his creative work, Shukshin was concentrating h i s attention on the drama o f the soul of the country-dweller. He was investigating how that person could best unite and combine within himself a sense of his hi s t o r y , the immediacy of modernity and the most p o s i t i v e facets of r u r a l and urban cultures. As indiv i d u a l s with unique-historical bonds determining the i r actions and thought, Shukshin's heroes evaluate, compare 8 and c o n t r a s t , ponder and s p e c u l a t e i n v e r y s p e c i f i c ways about t h e i r c i r c u m s t a n c e s . Through i t s heroes, Russian l i t e r a t u r e has always r e f l e c t e d s o c i a l changes brought about by war, p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i s m , economic c o n d i t i o n s , r e v o l t and r e v o l u t i o n . G i f t e d w r i t e r s are a b l e t o make t h e i r heroes synonymous wi t h the e x i s t e n t s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n s . V a s i l i i Shukshin i s one of the contemporary S o v i e t w r i t e r s who b e s t p o r t r a y s through h i s heroes the consequences o f the p o s t - r e v o l u t i o n years of s o c i a l change i n the S o v i e t Union which saw war, u r b a n i z a t i o n , modern i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n and the c o l l e c t i v i z a t i o n of a g r i c u l t u r e . His heroes are those who have l e f t one environment and have never q u i t e s e t t l e d i n t o another. They are an ambiguous mixture which i s n e i t h e r urban or r u r a l i n i t s p e r s p e c t i v e s . I f the heroes have s e t t l e d i n the v i l l a g e , then the v i l l a g e begins to change as i t i s exposed to urban c u l t u r e through encroaching technology. I f the hero i s a c i t y - d w e l l e r , he f a i l s to f e e l t h a t he has e s t a b l i s h e d h i m s e l f i n t h a t environment. H a b i t s and customs of the urban way of l i f e are i n c o m p l e t e l y understood by the heroes, and they r e f l e c t t h i s i n , t h e b i t t e r - s w e e t h y b r i d o f t h e i r thought, a c t i o n s , and speech. T h i s i s the world o f Shukshin*s ' h e r o - e c c e n t r i c s ' who make t h e i r appearance i n the s t o r i e s of the l a t e 1960's, but who are nonetheless e x t e n s i o n s o f Shukshin's i n i t i a l 'happy heroes'. A l l o f these heroes have experienced one and the same s o c i a l , h i s t o r i c a l and s p i r i t u a l drama which m a n i f e s t s i t s e l f i n two d i s t i n c t ways. There i s the q u i e t e c c e n t r i c who approaches people w i t h g o o d w i l l and i s bewildered and h u r t when 9 he i s r e j e c t e d or i g n o r e d . On the other hand, t h e r e i s the peasant, choking with b i t t e r n e s s and contempt who l i v e s to d i s g r a c e and b e l i t t l e anyone or anything connected w i t h urban, 'educated* c u l t u r e . The d i v i d e d q u a l i t y o f the Shukshin h e r o - e c c e n t r i c r e s u l t s i n a q u a l i t y o f ambiguity i n most o f h i s s t o r i e s . The c r i t i c a l debate r e g a r d i n g Shukshin's p l a c e i n 'country prose' culminated i n the l a t e 1960's w i t h some c r i t i c i z i n g him f o r h i s i d e a l i z a t i o n o f the v i l l a g e and o t h e r s p r a i s i n g him f o r f i n d i n g i n the country 'man' i n the f u l l e s t meaning of the word. Shukshin a t t h i s time was t r y i n g to e x t r i c a t e h i m s e l f from the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f 'derevenshchik' a l t o g e t h e r . -An important and much-cited statement i n a 19 68 a r t i c l e w r i t t e n by Shukshin r e v e a l s how he, as an i n d i v i d u a l , p e r c e i v e s h i m s e l f t o be i n an u n c e r t a i n p o s i t i o n w i t h r e g a r d to h i s s o c i e t y . 'And as I approached the-age-of f o r t y , I understood t h a t I am n e i t h e r a c i t y man to the core nor a country man. I t ' s a t e r r i b l y i n c o n v e n i e n t p o s i t i o n to be i n . I t ' s not even l i k e b e i n g i n between two c h a i r s , but more l i k e t h i s : I have one f o o t on the shore and the other i n the boat. I f i n d t h a t I must swim, but to swim seems somehow h o r r i f y i n g . — I can't stay l o n g i n t h i s c o n d i t i o n , I know, f o r I w i l l f a l l . . . B u t i n t h i s p o s i t i o n o f mine t h e r e are c e r t a i n 'pluses'...Through comparison, from every p o s s i b l e 'from t h e r e to here' and 'from here t o t h e r e ' , thoughts i n v o l u n t a r i l y a r i s e not o n l y about 'the country' and about 'the c i t y ' -but about Russia.12 The d u a l i t y o f the Shukshin h e r o - e c c e n t r i c i s merely a r e f l e c t i o n o f S h u k s h i n 1 s a t t i t u d e and f e e l i n g s about h i s own l i f e s i t u a t i o n . He i s concerned w i t h the human s o u l i n the process o f p r e s e r v i n g i t s i d e n t i t y . I n c r e a s i n g l y he compressed 10 h i s powers o f o b s e r v a t i o n and c r e a t i v e e n e r g i e s a t one p o i n t and e x p l o r e d t h a t p o i n t to i t s essence. I n t o n a t i o n s as w e l l as the system of v a l u e s changed d r a s t i c a l l y and the moral ponderings of the heroes were changed i n the c o n t e n t of Shukshin's works and not merely a t the s u p e r f i c i a l l e v e l . The appearance o f C h a r a c t e r s / Kharaktery, Shukshin's f o u r t h c o l l e c t i o n o f s t o r i e s became a major event i n S o v i e t prose of 1973. L i k e much of Shukshin's previous-work, i t was the s u b j e c t of l i v e l y c r i t i c a l debate which culminated i n the con-c l u s i o n t h a t the new and s i n g u l a r f e a t u r e s of Shukshin's s t o r i e s removed him from the ranks of 'country prose'. His new work r e v e a l e d l i n e s of sympathy and c o n t r a s t which were e s s e n t i a l l y moral, not t y p o l o g i c a l l y urban or r u r a l i n t h e i r o r i e n t a t i o n . The new and key c o n t r a d i c t i o n o f Shukshin's h e r o - e c c e n t r i c , i s to l i v e a c c o r d i n g to the s o u l , t o detach o n e s e l f from m a t e r i a l v a l u e s and to leave behind s o u l l e s s work and mundane d a i l y l i f e . Yet, the hero i s almost i n e x t r i c a b l y bound by a l l of these t e n a c i o u s f e a t u r e s of modern l i f e . A new i n t o n a t i o n of melancholy, o f an omnipresent m a l a i s e u n d e r l i e s many o f Shukshin's l a t e r and b e s t works. The hero i s a t a l o s s as to what t o do about t h i s mood, he doesn't know what i s wrong. -He reaches the c o n c l u s i o n t h a t a ' h o l i d a y f o r the s o u l ' i s needed, a moral d e c i s i o n which m o t i v a t e s a l l of h i s a c t i o n s and thought. In Shukshin's s t o r i e s of the 1970's u n t i l the time of h i s death the i n t e r e s t i n the r e s t l e s s and nervous r e l a t i o n s h i p of man w i t h h i s surrounding world i s e v i d e n t . Shukshin c o n s i d e r s the q u e s t i o n s o f d a i l y l i f e w i t h i n t e n s i t y , but he i s much more 11 than a chronicler of t h i s l i f e , a 'bytovnik'. His heroes observe themselves and t h e i r inner worlds and f i n d there a void. They become anxious and because of t h i s unusual sensation which prompts a c t i v i t y , they are perceived as 'strange people'. They are separated from others by t h e i r constant search for something which i s unclear, intangible, elusive, perhaps non-existent, but desperately needed. The search may be an active one, finding temporary solution i n the numerous peculiar 'holidays for the soul' which Shukshin's heroes devise for themselves. I t also bears a speculative nature; the 'eternal questions' about l i f e and death are asked with i n t e n s i t y and a great desire for answers. Shukshin does not seek to depict the r e a l world through his hero-eccentrics. He portrays segments of i t which are chosen and f i l t e r e d through the consciousness of the hero i n i t s p r i n c i p a l and most dramatic moments. The r e a l , external world i s presented merely as a supplement to the more essential r e a l i t y perceived by Shukshin's hero-eccentric. Among Shukshin's l a t e r stories-are some of the best, for they contain his evolved, mature hero-eccentric t o t a l l y absorbed i n his search for the human soul. These s t o r i e s are endowed with a special pathos - they have acquired a fi n e tragi-comic q u a l i t y . There i s a moving lack of convergence between the complexity of the problems of existence which so torment Shukshin's hero and the concrete, very ordinary manner i n which the hero expresses his f eelings and thoughts. The ambiguity and contradiction which Shukshin always carr i e d within himself i s a main feature of his a r t . It manifests 1 2 i t s e l f i n h i s l i t e r a r y and cinematographic work at many in t e r r e l a t e d l e v e l s and i s e s p e c i a l l y prominent i n the various aspects of the characterization of h i s heroes. This thesis i s , i n large part, a developmental examination of the Shukshin story. Because of the nature of the a r t i s t i c form, i t i s also a concentration upon the Shukshin hero, the most v i t a l reason for the story to e x i s t . The contents consist of two main chapters and a conclusion. The f i r s t chapter considers the singular q u a l i t i e s of Shukshin's 'story-scene' with respect to the nature of the plot and the st r u c t u r a l elements of the story. In the second portion of Chapter One, the discussion transfers naturally to the examination of the Shukshin hero: who he i s , who he interacts with, h i s his t o r y and development. Chapter Two treats the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c means of expression i n the Shukshin story as well as the forms of d i r e c t speech which his characters employ. A detailed syntactic and s t y l i s t i c investigation of Shukshin's use of dialogue concludes the chapter. I consider t h i s chapter to be es p e c i a l l y essential to an investigation of Shukshin's s t o r i e s , for important elements of his s t y l e , lexicon, syntax, and semantics have la r g e l y been overlooked i n l i t e r a r y c r i t i c i s m which has been captured by the content, ideas, and heroes i n Shukshin's l i t e r a r y work. The Conclusion discusses the inherent humour i n the speech of Shukshin's hero as well as the use which Shukshin makes of irony and s a t i r e i n h i s s t o r i e s . I t summarizes Shukshin's place i n the Russian l i t e r a r y t r a d i t i o n and his significance as a modern Soviet writer. Footnotes are to be found at the conclusion of each chapter and are numbered consecutively throughout each chapter. 13 In Chapter Two as w e l l as i n the Conclusion,.most o f the q u o t a t i o n s g i v e n to i l l u s t r a t e d i a l e c t , s t y l e , and the use o f s a t i r e are t r a n s c r i b e d i n Russian i n order to convey the f u l l meaning o f the examples. A l l e x c e r p t s which have been t r a n s c r i b e d are noted w i t h i n the t e x t o f the t h e s i s , w h i l e t r a n s l a t e d passages are acknowledged i n the r e g u l a r notes a t the end o f the c h a p t e r . Unless otherwise noted, a l l t r a n s l a t i o n s o f Shukshin's s t o r i e s are my own taken from S o v i e t p u b l i c a t i o n s of c o l l e c t i o n s o f h i s s t o r i e s o r from the Izbrannye p r o i z v e d e n i i a v dvukh tomakh, V o l . 1. A t a b l e of the system of t r a n s l i t e r a t i o n which I have chosen to use i n my t h e s i s i s p r o v i d e d i n Appendix I. Appendix I I c o n t a i n s a b i b l i o g r a p h y of Shukshin's works-which have been p u b l i s h e d i n book form as w e l l as i n f o r m a t i o n on the c o n t e n t s of each book. 14 NOTES TO INTRODUCTION 1. Refer to Appendix I I f o r a b i b l i o g r a p h i c a l l i s t i n g o f Shukshin's works p u b l i s h e d i n book form. 2. T y p i c a l o f the ambiguous and d i v e r s e o p i n i o n of S o v i e t l i t e r a r y c r i t i c s are e x c e r p t s from two a r t i c l e s p u b l i s h e d o n l y months b e f o r e Shukshin's death. Both a r t i c l e s were p u b l i s h e d i n the j o u r n a l L i t e r a t u r n o e obozrenie, No. 1 (1974) . 'Following the.example o f our c r i t i c s , even the cinema experts c o n s i d e r him [Shukshin] a s p e c i a l i s t o f ' e c c e n t r i c s ' , o f 'strange p e o p l e ' . . . T h i s f e a t u r e of Shukshin a l l o w s c r i t i c s to accuse him of a c e r t a i n u n r e a l i s t i c q u a l i t y o f i n t e r n a l r e a l i s m , a s i m i l a r i t y to l i f e i n s t e a d o f l i f e i t s e l f . . . ' . (V. Gusev, 'Imenno z h i z n ' , a ne chto drugoe', p.50.) 'The p r o f e s s i o n a l ' m u l t i - o p e r a t i v e ' q u a l i t y o f V a s i l i i Shukshin, i n i t i a l l y so endearing to many e v a l u a t o r s of l i t e r a t u r e and a r t , i s now looked upon somewhat d i f f e r e n t l y ; Shukshin has done so much i n v a r i e d areas and i s so popular, t h a t i t i s n ' t c l e a r by what p r o f e s s i o n a l code he should be judged...We don't need to 'review' Shukshin's books or t e x t s , but i n the sequence o f h i s t e x t s (good, bad, f a i r , b r i l l i a n t , profound, s u p e r f i c i a l . . . ) , we must sense the f a t e and experience o f the s o u l . The c r i t i c G. M i t i n understood t h i s s i x years ago when he wrote, t h a t t h i s author... c r e a t e s not so much a r e a l world, as h i s own p a r t i c u l a r Shukshin l i f e f i l l e d w i t h h i s own heroes. Other c r i t i c s . . . p u t t h e i r accent on the thoughts... A l i a Marchenko even expressed the o p i n i o n t h a t i n our l i t e r a t u r e Shukshin c r e a t e s something i n the way of the heavenly myth...I don't know how t o prove to A l i a Marchenko t h a t t h i s l i f e i s r e a l a c c o r d i n g to t e x t u r e , empiricism, or the f a b r i c o f the d e s c r i p t i o n . For t h i s you must simply r e a d . You can sense t h i s i n any d i a l o g u e : Shukshin i s remarkably knowledgeable about modern r e a l i t y , he has a t r u l y s o c i a l f e e l i n g f o r people o f a d e f i n i t e type; t h e r e are i n contemporary r e a l i t y l a y e r s , s t r a t a , types o f which Shukshin i s an e x p e r t . ' . (L. A n n i n s k i i , 'Shukshinskaia z h i z n ' ' , pp. 50-51) . 3. Gleb Goryshin, 'Gde-nibud' na R u s i . . . ' , Avrora, No. 6 (1975) , p.24. 4. I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note the q u a n t i t y ( t i r a z h ) i n which these p u b l i c a t i o n s were i s s u e d . •Izbrannye p r o i z v e d e n i i a v dvukh tomakh was an e d i t i o n of 200,000 c o p i e s ; B r a t itioi -15 300,000 c o p i e s ; and the two i s s u e s of Roman-gazeta d e d i c a t e d to Shukshin's s t o r i e s were e d i t i o n s - p f 2 m i l l i o n each. These f i g u r e s bear witness to the o f f i c i a l i n t e r e s t i n Shukshin's work and to i t s acknowledgement of the p u b l i c p o p u l a r i t y o f the w r i t e r . 5. Molodaia g v a r d i i a , No. 3 (1962), p. 110 quoted i n G e o f f r e y A. Hosking, 'The F i c t i o n o f V a s i l y Shukshin' i n Snowball Berry Red and Other S t o r i e s , ed. Donald M. F i e n e (Ann Arbor; A r d i s , 1979), p.3. 6. V l a d i m i r Solov'ev, 'Fenomen V a s i l i i a Shukshina. V dopolnenie k skazannomu 1, Iskus stvo k i n o , No. 10 (1975), p.19. 7. Quoted i n M i c h e l H e l l e r , ' V a s i l y Shukshin: In Search of Freedom', i n Snowball B e r r y Red, p.213. S p e c u l a t i o n must take over a t t h i s p o i n t with r e g a r d t o Shukshin's p r o j e c t e d success a t d i s s o c i a t i n g h i m s e l f from work i n cinema. Only a few months p r i o r to h i s death, he had been granted p e r m i s s i o n to make a f i l m about Sten'ka Razin based upon h i s e a r l i e r n o v e l , I Came to Give You  Freedom. T h i s was a p r o j e c t which Shukshin had wanted to undertake f o r s e v e r a l y e a r s . I t i s h i g h l y i r o n i c too, t h a t Shukshin's death came on a f i l m s e t where he was sh o o t i n g a r o l e i n a movie based on M. Sholokhov's work, They Fought For the Motherland. 8. Of these e a r l y heroes, Shukshin was l a t e r t o say, "too happy", (blagopoluchen). 9. Quoted i n L. A n n i n s k i i , 'Put 1 V a s i l i i a Shukshina', N e d e l i a , No. 15 (1976), p.119. 10. A n n i n s k i i , p.120. 11. A n n i n s k i i , p.123. 12. 'Monolog na l e s t n i t s e ' quoted i n Solov'ev. p.25. 16 CHAPTER I STRUCTURE AND CHARACTERIZATION IN THE SHUKSHIN STORY The fundamental o r i g i n a l i t y o f the s t o r i e s o f the V a s i l i i M. Shukshin i s to be found i n the v e r y form o f the works. The f i r s t c o n s i d e r a t i o n i s the s t r u c t u r e o f Shukshin's p l o t , the f e a t u r e s o f which admit the second e s s e n t i a l s t r u c t u r a l element o f i n t e r n a l dynamism as p a r t o f each and every work. I t i s t h i s i n t e r n a l dynamism which determines and d i r e c t s the movement o f the p l o t , f o r i t s u b t l y counterposes the elements of a c o n c i s e n a r r a t i v e p o i n t o f view to a c o n c e n t r a t e d c h a r a c t e r development u s i n g such s t y l i s t i c and s t r u c t u r a l d e v i c e s as d i r e c t speech forms, p e r i p e t i a o f p l o t , and the manner o f speaking, t h i n k i n g , and a c t i n g which the c h a r a c t e r s d i s p l a y . These elements must be c o n s i d e r e d s e p a r a t e l y i n o r d e r t o understand the e f f o r t which Shukshin expended to produce works of apparent s i m p l i c i t y which, i n f a c t , p r e s e n t a sketch of the complexity of S o v i e t contemporary l i f e w i t h g r e a t c l a r i t y . With r e g a r d t o p l o t i n the Shukshin s t o r y , i t i s the dynamism o f a l l of these combined components which enables the s i m p l e s t o f p l o t s t o be completely s u f f i c i e n t f o r the e v o l u t i o n o f the s t o r y . In Shukshin's work, an 'inner a c t i o n ' supplants the e x t e r n a l a c t i o n which i s o f t e n the m o t i v a t i n g power i n the p l o t s t r u c t u r e o f s t o r i e s o f such b r e v i t y . Shukshin does not conc e n t r a t e h i s a t t e n t i o n on the u n r a v e l i n g of an i n v o l v e d p l o t o f a c t i o n , but r a t h e r on the i n t e r n a l substance o f h i s heroes. S h u k s h i n 1 s works are based upon i n t e r n a l i z e d p l o t s 17 which are not even plots as much as they are conditions (polozheniia) or situations (sluchai) which capture the moral images of h i s heros. Generally, the events i n Shukshin's s t o r i e s can be outlined b r i e f l y i n one or two sentences for i t seems that not very much 'happens'. A few i l l u s t r a t i o n s are t y p i c a l of the ' r e t e l l a b l e ' nature of Shukshin's s t o r i e s : On a v i s i t to town, a young husband buys his wife a pair of white leather boots and i s tormented by the thought of his extravagance and of what his wife w i l l say to reprimand him for his action. (1 Boots'/'Sapozhki', 1970). A lad i s convinced that he can-invent the f i r s t perpetual motion engine and w i l l accept neither f r i e n d l y advice nor s c i e n t i f i c fact to the contrary. ('The Obstinate One'/ 'Upornyi*, 1973). A shop assistant mistakes a customer for a drunk whom she had thrown out of the store the night before, and with the supportive additional comments and i n s u l t s of the customers waiting i n l i n e , she succeeds i n upsetting the man she has accused to the point of explosive f r u s t r a t i o n . ('The Insult'/ •Obida' ,.,1971) . The concept of p l o t as being dependent upon the a c t i v i t y and sequence of events found i n a work does not apply to the Shukshin story. The events i n his works are always subordinate to the character and the way i n which he speaks and acts, responds to others around him, and reacts i n a given s i t u a t i o n . For example, the f a c t that Spirka Rastorguev k i l l s himself a f t e r being p h y s i c a l l y ejected from the house of a 18 gymnastics teacher and h i s w i f e when he misunderstands the i n t e n t i o n s o f the woman toward him, i s not the most important p a r t o f the s t o r y "The Bastard'/'Suraz'. The purchase o f the p a i r o f white boots by the husband f o r h i s w i f e i s o n l y a means which Shukshin employs t o r e v e a l something which he c o n s i d e r s to be v i t a l . Of prime importance to the author are the r e a s o n s which l i e behind the a c t i o n s of h i s c h a r a c t e r s . In an i n t e r v i e w f o r L i t e r a t u r n i a gazeta i n 1974, Shukshin spoke o f t h i s i n t e r e s t . "More than anything e l s e , I am i n t e r e s t e d i n the ' h i s t o r y o f the s o u l ' , and, f o r the sake o f i t s r e v e l a t i o n , I c o n s c i o u s l y omit much from the e x t e r n a l l i f e of t h a t person whose s o u l a g i t a t e s me."1 Thus, Shukshin's p l o t e x i s t s i n order to r e v e a l h i s hero, e s p e c i a l l y by means of the process which precedes and l e a d s up to a change of consciousness which i s s i g n i f i c a n t to the c h a r a c t e r and to h i s f u t u r e mode of t h i n k i n g and a c t i n g . The m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f the Shukshin hero i s a b a s i c concept which needs to be grasped immediately i n an i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f Shukshin's s t o r i e s . From t h i s source flows the c o n c e n t r a t i o n upon such s t y l i s t i c f e a t u r e s as dramatic and dynamic d i r e c t speech and e s p e c i a l l y d i a l o g u e as w e l l as the g e n e r a l l y n e u t r a l n a r r a t i o n which accompanies these speech forms. I t a l s o e x p l a i n s the g r e a t v a r i e t y o f s i t u a t i o n s i n which Shukshin's hero i s p l a c e d as w e l l as the moral and e t h i c a l overtones found i n most of the s t o r i e s as the c h a r a c t e r approaches h i s change o f c o n s c i o u s n e s s . 19 1. The S t o r y - Scene Shukshin's s t o r i e s are o f t e n r e f e r r e d to i n S o v i e t l i t e r a r y c r i t i c i s m as ' s t o r y - s c e n e s ' f o r t h e r e i s a d e f i n i t e s c e n i c q u a l i t y to the n a r r a t i v e enhanced by a type of dramatism p e c u l i a r to Shukshin's w r i t i n g which c e n t r e s around the o b j e c t i v e 2 r e n d e r i n g o f the speech and the behaviour of the c h a r a c t e r s . These q u a l i t i e s arouse the senses of the reader f o r there i s a s t r o n g p r o p e r t y o f immediacy to the s t o r i e s - he i s a b l e to watch the a c t i o n , to hear the exchanges between the personages, and to f e e l the emotion of a s i t u a t i o n . Much o f the power o f these suggestions stems from Shukshin's knowledge of and involvement i n the cinematographic a r t s both as an a c t o r and as a d i r e c t o r . H i s t r a i n i n g and p r a c t i c a l work i n t h i s i n d u s t r y i n f l u e n c e d h i s l i t e r a r y s t y l e g r e a t l y . In h i s s t o r i e s one may i d e n t i f y the s k i l l of a d i r e c t o r i n the arrangement o f the c h a r a c t e r s , and i n the c o n s t r u c t i o n o f s e t t i n g conveyed i n terms o f a n e u t r a l and o m niscient n a r r a t i v e which p r o v i d e s any d e t a i l s needed i n a v e r y c o n c i s e way. The i n f l u e n c e of the a c t o r comes through i n the p o r t r a y a l o f the c h a r a c t e r s themselves, i n t h e i r use o f g e s t u r e , mimicry, i n t o n a t i o n a l p o s s i b i l i t i e s , and i n the o v e r a l l e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f the spoken word i n the. s t o r i e s . The q u a l i t y and q u a n t i t y of d i a l o g u e i s one o f the main v e h i c l e s through which Shukshin's knowledge o f the cinema r e v e a l s i t s e l f . The m a j o r i t y of h i s s t o r i e s do not depend upon summary or d e s c r i p t i v e moments. The d i a l o g u e i s s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t 20 and complete to the extent that i f a l l s t a t i c description was removed from a given story, the actual content would suffer only minimally. This i s a q u a l i t y which i s immediately sensed by directors of stage and cinema and which has enabled much of Shukshin's work to appear i n the form of plays, f i l m s , or simply i n an evening of dramatized r e c i t a t i o n . Because authorial text i s used sparingly by Shukshin, usually appearing i n the form of a neutral narrator, the exact remarks made by t h i s narrator regarding external features of the hero or of his surroundings resemble the form and content of stage d i r e c t i o n s provided i n a dramatic work. For example, the following scene i s from the story 'The Brother-in-Law'/Svoiak Sergei Sergeich', ;. where two r e l a t i v e s , one a v i s i t o r from a nearby town, are steaming themselves i n the 'bania'. 'The hot stones snorted v i c i o u s l y and another v i o l e n t , surging cloud of steam struck the c e l l i n g and swirled downward...The heat took your breath away and boxed your ears for you. Andrei squatted down away from i t . Sergei Sergeich underwent wriggling torments on the shelf, his swarthy painted body g l i s t e n i n g i n the semi-darkness. F i n a l l y he scrambled down from the shelf and ran into the dressing room to catch h i s breath. Andrei climbed upon on the shelf for a minute and switched himself a l i t t l e on the legs and waist. He was not a lover of steam. Then he also dropped down to the f l o o r . "Let's have a smoke," c a l l e d Sergei Sergeich., They l i t up i n the cool dressing room. Sergei Sergeich. returned to his e a r l i e r t o p i c . "So give me an example of what there i s to do around here." "For crying out loud," said Andrei. "Just l i e down and s p i t at the ceiling...Or see a movie when they bring around a film.•-Or go f i s h i n g . . . 'What i s there to do?' he says." 21 "Have you got any f i s h i n your r i v e r ? " "A few. The guys around here f i s h upstream. There i t ' s probably a l i t t l e b e t t e r . " "Do you have a boat?" "Yes - but no motor." "What's the matter? No motors around here?" "Yeah, sure - over i n the st o r e . . . B u t who's got t h a t k i n d of money?" "At home I've got a m o t o r c y c l e . .On Saturdays around f o u r a.m. I ' l l take o f f down the highway a t a hundred k i l o m e t e r s an hour. What a b e a s t t h a t machine i s ! We d r i v e out to the l a k e s t o go f i s h i n g . " "Do you c a t c h anything?" "Well, not to l i e about i t , I u s u a l l y b r i n g home about h a l f a s a c k f u l . Rozka.hardly knows what to do w i t h them a l l . She f r i e s - t h e m , p i c k l e s them, makes, chowder...But mostly we f e r t i l i z e our garden with them." "What?!" exclaimed A n d r e i . "Sure. I r e a l l y l i k e onions --grow them i n a hot-house. I use f i s h m e a l f o r f e r t i l i z e r . . . Y o u should see the onions grow! Nobody i n our town has onions l i k e t h a t ! T h i s big...And sweet, my God...Just r e c e n t l y I got on the w a i t i n g l i s t f o r a V o l g a . I was ad v i s e d to w a i t f o r a F i a t , but the way I f i g u r e , t h e y ' l l be f o o l i n g around w i t h t h a t F i a t f o r f i v e more years - and i n t h a t time I can get a Vo l g a . Hoo boy!...I t h i n k I ' l l go get steam-blasted some more." 3 A f t e r t h a t the women bathed.' T h i s e x c e r p t i s t y p i c a l o f Shukshin's s t o r y - s c e n e . The n e u t r a l n a r r a t o r simply r e f l e c t s the a c t i o n and then the d i a l o g u e , f r e e - f l o w i n g and e n e r g e t i c , takes over. I t jumps from t o p i c to t o p i c s i m u l a t i n g a r e a l c o n v e r s a t i o n , r e v e a l i n g by i m p l i c a t i o n as i t p r o g r e s s e s , the moral and e t h i c a l p o s i t i o n 22 of the c h a r a c t e r s . A t t i t u d e s and v a l u e s r e g a r d i n g t h e i r d a i l y l i v e s are r e f l e c t e d i n the t o p i c s o f c o n v e r s a t i o n and i n the d i f f e r e n t ways i n which the two men t a l k of t h i n g s which concern them f i n a n c i a l l y , p e r s o n a l l y , and s o c i a l l y . The l a c o n i c i s m o f Shukshin's work i s an element e s s e n t i a l to the i n t e r n a l dynamism upon which the s t o r i e s are based, f o r i t enhances the immediacy o f the e n t i r e scene through the t e r s e n e s s and c o n c i s e n e s s of d i a l o g u e and n a r r a t i o n . The s t o r i e s are so s u c c i n c t t h a t o f t e n we are informed of the p l a c e of a c t i o n , and g i v e n i n d i c a t i o n s o f the conduct of the hero as w e l l as some of h i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , w i t h i n the l i m i t s o f one or two sentences. 'On Sunday, e a r l y i n the morning, Ivan D e g t i a r e v ' s f a t h e r - i n — l a w , Naum Krechetov, appeared - a peasant not y e t o l d , quick, c r a f t y , and charming. Ivan d i d n ' t l i k e h i s f a t h e r - i n - l a w , and Naum, f e e l i n g s o r r y f o r h i s daughter, put up w i t h Ivan*'* In t h i s s t o r y , 'The W o l v e s ' / ' V o l k i ' , the c h a r a c t e r s w i l l be f u r t h e r developed i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h the n a r r a t i v e , but f o r the p r e s e n t , i n two sentences, the main c h a r a c t e r s have been o u t l i n e d and p l a c e d i n i n t e r n a l c o n f l i c t . From here, we can a l s o p r o j e c t t h a t a c o n f r o n t a t i o n must i n e v i t a b l y occur f o r Shukshin would not have p r o v i d e d the i n f o r m a t i o n of the d i s l i k e between the two men i n h i s sparse n a r r a t i o n , i f i t was not v i t a l to the development o f the s t o r y . The Shukshin s t o r y i s made up of t h r e e b a s i c compon-e n t s : the e x p o s i t i o n , the body of the s t o r y which i s a c t u a l l y the development of the hero, and the ending which i n v o l v e s a r e v e l a t i o n to the hero or h i s coming to a change o f c o n s c i o u s n e s s . 23 L e t us examine these components s e p a r a t e l y i n o r d e r t o understand b e t t e r how Shukshin uses s t o r y s t r u c t u r e to i t s b e s t advantage i n the c r e a t i o n o f h i s s t o r y - s c e n e s . The e x p o s i t i o n of Shukshin's p l o t s determine the i n i t i a l c omposition o f personages and t h e i r l i n k s as w e l l as the i n i t i a l c ircumstances i n which these c h a r a c t e r s are i n t e r a c t i n g . Shukshin employs two kinds o f e x p o s i t i o n , both of which are simple and which proceed immediately to the core of the matter. In both the ' d i r e c t e x p o s i t i o n * and the 'sudden s t a r t 1 there i s immediate p r e s e n t a t i o n o f the a c t i o n w i t h no subsequent drop i n pace as the s t o r y proceeds. In 'The I n s u l t / ' O b i d a ' , Shukshin uses the sudden s t a r t and begins h i s s t o r y w i t h a l r e a d y developed a c t i o n , o n l y subse-q u e n t l y a c q u a i n t i n g us w i t h the c h a r a c t e r s and the hero. The f i r s t sentence i n the s t o r y t e l l s us t h a t 'Sashka Ermolaiev had been i n s u l t e d . ' We know immediately t h a t the s t o r y w i l l be based upon t h i s i n s u l t . In 'A Storey'/'Raskas', the major problem 5. f o r the hero i s the p o i n t where the s t o r y begins.- 'The w i f e of Ivan P e t i n had l e f t him. But how she d i d i t I . . ; J u s t l i k e i n the good o l d n o v e l s - she r a n away w i t h an o f f i c e r . ' Through the sudden s t a r t i n 'How the Old Man Died'/Kak Pomiral S t a r i k ' , we sense t h a t we w i l l read about the f i n a l hours b e f o r e the death o f t h i s c h a r a c t e r . 'The o l d man had been s u f f e r i n g s i n c e morning. An a g o n i z i n g weakness had come over him...He had a l r e a d y been f e e l i n g weak f o r a month, but today the weakness was e s p e c i a l l y acute- such an anguish i n h i s h e a r t , he f e l t bad enough to c r y . ' 24 Other of Shukshin's s t o r i e s are i n i t i a t e d by a d i r e c t e x p o s i t i o n i n t r o d u c i n g the p a r t i c i p a n t s w i t h i n a sentence or two. Often these e x p o s i t i o n s take on the tone of a t a l e o r an anecdote by t h e i r simple language and p r e s e n t a t i o n of the hero. Semka Rys from the s t o r y 'The Master'/'Master', i s d e s c r i b e d v i v i d l y i n the opening paragraph w i t h accounts of h i s physique, h i s s t r e n g t h , and h i s a b i l i t y as a b u i l d e r . - 'There once l i v e d i n the v i l l a g e o f Chebrovka a man c a l l e d Semka Rys, a rake, and a l s o a c a r p e n t e r second to none. T a l l s k i n n y , w i t h a b i g nose, he d i d n ' t l o o k a t a l l l i k e a hero of a n c i e n t times. But when Semka took o f f h i s s h i r t , s t i l l wearing h i s sun-bleached g u n d e r s h i r t . . . The d i r e c t e x p o s i t i o n a l s o o c c u r s through the p r e s e n t a t i o n of a d i a l o g i c a l exchange i n v o l v i n g the hero of the s t o r y and a secondary c h a r a c t e r . In t h i s way, we are immediately i n t r o d u c e d to the hero and h i s temperament. The s t o r y 'Mikroscop' begins thus: " I t had been necessary to dec i d e on t h i s . " He decided. He got home somehow, not h i m s e l f - y e l l o w i s h ; not l o o k -i n g at h i s w i f e , he s a i d : " I t ' s t h i s way...I l o s t some money." A t t h i s , h i s broken nose (a crooked one w i t h a hump), from y e l l o w , became r e d . "One hundred and twenty r o u b l e s . . . . " •'. Even i n h i s very l a s t s t o r i e s , Shukshin d i d not abandon h i s p r i n c i p l e of immediate and c o n c i s e e x p o s i t i o n d e s p i t e the maturation and i n c r e a s e d complexity of the s t o r y c ontent. In the 1974 s t o r y , 'Greetings to the Grey Onel'/ ' P r i v e t SivomuJ', we are t o l d d i r e c t l y t h a t 'This i s the s t o r y o f how M i k h a i l A l e x a n d r o v i c h Egorov, a candidate o f s c i e n c e , t a l l , c o n c e n t r a t e d , and b e s p e c t a c l e d , 25 almost got married. There was a g i r l . . . a woman, who slowly, g endearingly named him 'Michel' (Mishel'). Shukshin's method.of exposition i s b r i e f and purposeful for i t leads us d i r e c t l y to the concentration upon the characters and the hero which comprises the most important part of the story content. The largest part of his stories i s centred upon the development of the hero and the movement of the pl o t toward the change of consciousness which ine v i t a b l y occurs i n the hero. There are two basic manifestations of t h i s movement, although these have multiple variat i o n s and p o s s i b i l i t i e s . The f i r s t type comes about through a process of t r i a l or test i n which an i n i t i a l f a l s e premise held by the hero i s challenged and a new comprehensive position i s the r e s u l t . For example, absolutely nothing w i l l dissuade Monia Kvasov, the protagonist of the 197 3 story 'The Obstinate One'/'Upornyi', from t r y i n g to invent the f i r s t perpetual motion machine. After arguing with a young engineer and his mathematician wife to whom he has gone for advice about his endeavor, then v i s i t i n g a physics teacher for the same reason, Monia goes back to his project damning t h e i r s c i e n t i f i c facts which say that the machine w i l l not work. The only thing which w i l l change Monia*s mind i s the machine i t s e l f . '...without any excitement at a l l , he pushed his wheel with his foot...Then he leaned l e i s u r e l y against the wall and pa t i e n t l y watched the wheel spinning. But i t spun a b i t , then stopped...He had to s t a r t i t again and again and he watched with amazement and a growing f e e l i n g of hatred the gleaming c i r c l e with bright spokes. I t persisted i n stopping...He sat there a l i t t l e longer, then got up, and, u t t e r l y deflated and defeated, wandered away not caring where he was going... 26 ... Monia s a t by the r i v e r u n t i l s u n r i s e . He was not a b i t w o r r i e d a t h i s f a i l u r e any more...Suddenly he thought he ought to marry someone, and have c h i l d r e n -say three of them - and watch them g r o w i n g . 1 9 The s t o r y ends wi t h Monia r i d of h i s n a t i v e o b s e s s i o n and more r e c e p t i v e to the i d e a of f a c t and s c i e n c e . Where fornix e r l y he had f e l t t h a t the engineer, p h y s i c i s t , and mathematician were i n c o n s p i r a c y a g a i n s t him, and t h a t they had made a p a c t to ensure t h a t the wheel must not t u r n , now when Monia speaks to the engineer, ' i t became c l e a r t h a t he [the engineer] was not a t a l l a bad-tempered man, h i s s m i l e was t h a t of a simple, t r u s t i n g soul.'"''^ When the engineer suggests t h a t Monia study i n order to understand h i s f a i l u r e , Monia c o u n t e r s : '"Everybody keeps nagging about study - a r e n ' t there f o o l s among the l e a r n e d too?" "There a r e . But t h e r e are more f o o l s among the i g n o r a n t . . . " ' Monia undergoes a type of change of consciousness which demonstrates one o f Shukshin's major emphases i n h i s works -the i n v e s t i g a t i o n of the phychology o f h i s hero which i s governed by s o c i a l and p e r s o n a l f a c t o r s . The change which occurs i n Monia has moved him i n the d i r e c t i o n o f becoming a person who i s p r e -pared to take a broader, more open-minded a t t i t u d e toward t h i n g s which concern him and e s p e c i a l l y toward t h a t which he r e a l l y does not understand. Shukshin c o n c e n t r a t e s on what takes p l a c e i n the minds of h i s heroes and on what ki n d s o f s o c i a l and en-vironmental occurrences w i l l i n i t i a t e and i n f l u e n c e the thought process l e a d i n g to a more a c t u a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f l i f e by the hero. The second type o f change of consciousness which o c c u r s w i t h Shukshin's hero i n v o l v e s h i s coming to terms w i t h h i s s i t u a t i o n i n l i f e , t h a t i s , o f seeing h i s p o s i t i o n i n a new way. The hero i s u s u a l l y a t l e a s t p a r t i a l l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the circumstances i n which we meet him, and, coming to t h i s r e a l i z a t i o n , he must take some d e c i s i v e a c t i o n e i t h e r to r e c t i f y h i m s e l f or to remove h i m s e l f . Thus, we meet two Shukshin heroes who commit s u i c i d e . Kol'ka Paratov ('Oh, a Wife saw Her Husband o f f to Paris'/'Zhena muzha v P a r i z h p r o v o z h a l a . . . ' " ) , sees no other s o l u t i o n t o h i s unbearable p o s i t i o n w i t h i t s unmistakable f o u n d a t i o n of s o c i a l d i f f e r e n c e between h i m s e l f and h i s w i f e . S p i r k a Rastorguev, ('The B a s t a r d ' / ' S u r a z ' ) , of i l l e g i t i m a t e b i r t h , has f e l t the s o c i a l p r e s s u r e s of h i s p o s i t i o n as w e l l as the a s s o c i a t e d e x p e c t a t i o n s throughout h i s l i f e , and these f i n a l l y break him down. Most o f t e n i n t h i s second type of process to change of c o nsciousness, the hero has been acted upon by o t h e r s . His own a c t i o n s do not d i r e c t l y b r i n g about good or bad e x p e r i e n c e s , but the a c t i o n s and statements o f o t h e r s w i t h whom he i s i n v o l v e d do, as we see i n the s t o r y 'Two F i n g e r s ' / * B e z p a l y i ' . S e r g e i Bezmenov i s b l i n d l y i n l o v e w i t h h i s sensual w i f e K l a r a . Despite warnings from h i s f a m i l y and f r i e n d s t h a t she i s t a k i n g advantage of him, S e r g e i simply cannot see h i s s i t u a t i o n i n t h a t l i g h t . When a c o u s i n of S e r g e i who i s a student a t a c i t y t e c h n i c a l i n s t i t u t e comes to a f a m i l y d i n n e r , he and K l a r a put on a f i n e show o f i n t e l l e c t u a l i z i n g . - K l a r a makes such a s t r o n g impression on everyone a t t e n d i n g the d i n n e r , t h a t S e r g e i l i t e r a l l y explodes with p r i d e . 28 'His shoulders a c q u i r e d such breadth t h a t he c o u l d have touched o p p o s i t e w a l l s of the house a t once w i t h them: he f e l t so j o y f u l t h a t he would have l i k e d t o embrace and k i s s everyone i n t u r n . He was c r y i n g , he wanted to s i n g , to laugh...Then he went outdoors, put h i s head under the tap i n the yard and got thoroughly wet...A r a r e , wonderful t r a n q u i l i t y s e t t l e d on him: i t was as i f he were f l o a t i n g somewhere, su b m i t t i n g to the calm, powerful c u r r e n t o f time. His thoughts were c l e a r and simple: "See - I'm a l i v e . F i n e . " ^ 2 S e r g e i ' s r e v e r i e s end r u d e l y and suddenly when, from the o t h e r s i d e o f the p a r t i t i o n , he hears h i s w i f e and c o u s i n t a l k i n g i n t i m a t e l y and p a s s i o n a t e l y w i t h each o t h e r . ^ He goes mad and chases the couple w i t h an axe. L a t e r , f e e l i n g the unbearable p a i n of the r e a l i z a t i o n of h i s s i t u a t i o n , S e r g e i chops o f f two f i n g e r s on h i s l e f t hand i n an a c t o f t r a n s f e r r i n g h i s mental and emotional anguish i n t o p h y s i c a l p a i n . Yet even though K l a r a ' s c r u e l a c t i o n ends with such an u n f o r t u n a t e r e s u l t f o r S e r g e i , he r e f u s e s to blame h i s w i f e . He f e e l s t h a t he had needed to s u f f e r l i k e t h a t i n h i s l i f e . ' . . . i f such a tempest were to f l y a t him a g a i n he'd f l i n g wide h i s arms and go to meet her . Say what you l i k e , however p a i n f u l i t had been, t h a t had been a g r e a t time. And, of course, you c o u l d n ' t have g r e a t times without a hangover, c o u l d you...But he had had times, 13 hadn't he. He d e f i n i t e l y had. So there you a r e . ' As a r e s u l t o f t h i s type of change of consciousness, the hero emerges from h i s h a r d s h i p with a g r e a t e r sense o f s e l f -awareness, f o r he has s u c c e s s f u l l y come through some s o r t o f emotional, moral, or mental t r i a l . As w i t h S e r g e i Bezmenov, the hero may be f u l l y c o n s c i o u s of h i s s e l f - w o r t h or he may o n l y sense i t and make t h i s f e e l i n g d i s c e r n i b l e t o the reader through 2 9 the q u e s t i o n s which he asks h i m s e l f and o t h e r s about l i f e and how b e s t to l i v e i t . The p r o c e s s o f change of consciousness i n the hero r e l i e s upon the l i t e r a r y d e v i c e of ' p e r i p e t i a * - the sudden or unexpected r e v e r s a l of s i t u a t i o n or circumstance. I t i s a f e a t u r e which i s used e f f e c t i v e l y by Shukshin to enhance the dynamism of h i s s t o r y , f o r the developments which l e a d up to the t u r n i n the d i r e c t i o n of the s t o r y produce a sharp r i s e i n t e n s i o n endowing the s t o r y w i t h a d e f i n i t e dramatism. Shukshin employs a s p e c i f i c type of p e r i p e t i a which i s c o n d i t i o n e d by the b r e v i t y of h i s work and the i n t e n s i t y of c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n and d i a l o g u e . P e r i p e t i a , as used by Shukshin, occurs i n an a l r e a d y complex s i t u a t i o n , f o r he never i n t r o d u c e s new c h a r a c t e r s or circumstances as m o t i v a t i o n f o r the p e r i p e t i a . In t h i s use o f p e r i p e t i a , i t i s a g a i n the p r o c e s s which i s emphasized, f o r the hero i s aware of the f a c t s from the v e r y beginning of the s t o r y , and by l i v i n g , t h i n k i n g , and working with these f a c t s , he iis l e d to an o p i n i o n , a t t i t u d e , or statement which d i f f e r s from h i s o r i g i n a l s t a r t i n g p o i n t . P e r i p e t i a i s g e n e r a l l y a f e a t u r e o f Shukshin's s t o r y endings. He e i t h e r concludes a b r u p t l y w i t h the d e v i c e o f p e r i p e t i a , or uses i t to engage i n a v e r y c o n c i s e ending c o n s i s t i n g of c h a r a c t e r d i a l o g u e or monologue, or o f n a r r a t i v e d i s s e r t a t i o n . Shukshin never develops the hero beyond the p o i n t of h i s change of consciousness; the most he p r o v i d e s the reader with i s a h i n t of how the hero may u t i l i z e h i s new awareness i n the f u t u r e . His endings are as b r i e f as h i s e x p o s i t i o n s . 30 In the s t o r y 'The O b s t i n a t e One' f o r example, we have seen how Monia's o p i n i o n of h i s a b i l i t y to c r e a t e the p e r p e t u a l motion machine r e v e r s e s i t s e l f by the end of the s t o r y a l o n g w i t h h i s c o n c e p t i o n o f the young engineer. Shukshin's paragraph-long c o n c l u s i o n s makes obvious o n l y the f a c t t h a t Monia i s aware o f h i s change i n a t t i t u d e and thought, but does not develop Monia f u r t h e r or p r o j e c t him i n t o the f u t u r e . 'Monia remained i n the f r o n t room, s i t t i n g by the window. The top o f the window-pane was bathed i n red-the sun was r i s i n g . The v i l l a g e was waking up: gates were banging, cows were mooing a s k i n g to be taken to p a s t u r e . People were c a l l i n g t o one another, even shouting here and t h e r e . E v e r y t h i n g was j u s t as i t should be. Thank God, a t l e a s t here e v e r y t h i n g was c l e a r , Monia thought. The sun rose and s e t , r o s e and s e t , e t e r n a l and u n a t t a i n a b l e , and meanwhile, people went on doing t h e i r d a i l y rounds, shouting, h u r r y i n g , working, watering the cabbages-people, my dear people-good morning to y o u ! ' ^ In the s t o r y 'Boots', S e r g e i ' s w i f e i s not i n the l e a s t b i t angry t h a t he has spent so much money on white l e a t h e r boots. Despite the f a c t t h a t they do not f i t her, they are promised to the e l d e s t daughter when she f i n i s h e s the t e n t h grade. Ivan r e a l i z e s t h a t h i s w i f e has deeply a p p r e c i a t e d h i s g e s t u r e , and t h a t i t has meant much to her. With t h i s new r e a l i z a t i o n , the s t o r y ends. 'Klavdia was making up the bed. "Aren't you coming!" she c a l l e d . He waited on purpose, to see what she would say next. " S e r g e i , l o v e ! " S e r g e i r o s e , spat on the stub of h i s c i g a r e t t e and went i n s i d e , s m i l i n g t o h i m s e l f and shaking h i s head. But he d i d n ' t t h i n k , so t h a t ' s what made her sweet -buying those boots. No, i t wasn't because o f the boots. That wasn't i t . I t was because, because...Never mind. I t was good.', 31 •The Opinion'/'Mnenie*, a-1972 Shukshin s t o r y , i s one o f h i s t y p i c a l works. I t i n c l u d e s a l l of the components and s t r u c t u r e s o f the sto r y - s c e n e which have been d i s c u s s e d above as w e l l as the r e s u l t a n t emotional e f f e c t produced i n the reader by the change of consciousness i n the hero and the atta c h e d moral i m p l i c a t i o n s . 'The Opinion' begins from a d e f i n i t e l y s t a t e d p o s i t i o n . Kondrashin, the hero o f the s t o r y and a man i n an u n s p e c i f i e d a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p o s t , c o n s i d e r s an a r t i c l e which has been w r i t t e n by h i s s u p e r i o r to be empty, p o i n t l e s s , and l a c k i n g i n new i d e a s . He i s so a g i t a t e d by t h i s a r t i c l e , a - r e g u l a r " r o u t i n e a r t i c l e ' (dezhurnaia s t a t ' i a ) o f bureaucracy, t h a t even h i s f r i e n d and fellow-worker i s s u r p r i s e d by h i s r e a c t i o n . The s t o r y begins i n t y p i c a l Shukshin f a s h i o n w i t h d i r e c t e x p o s i t i o n . A n e u t r a l n a r r a t o r g i v e s us as much s e t t i n g and as much i n f o r m a t i o n about Kondrashin as we need t o know b e f o r e the a c t i o n b e g i n s . 'A c e r t a i n Kondrashin, Gennadii S e r g e e v i c h , a moderately plump man, blue-eyed, b a l d i n g , w i t h a haughty even s l i g h t l y f a s t i d i o u s e x p r e s s i o n on h i s f a c e , came through the entrance of a l a r g e , b r i g h t -eyed b u i l d i n g a t f i v e minutes to nine , took the key f o r room 208 from the cubbyhole, and r a n t o the second f l o o r p l a y i n g a b i t w i t h the t i g h t key-cover, went down a long c o r r i d o r , unlocked room 208, took the l o c a l paper which had been p l a c e d i n the door handle, entered the room, hung h i s j a c k e t on the rack, and p u l l i n g up h i s white pressed pants a t the knee very s l i g h t l y , he s a t down a t h i s desk. He examined the newspaper. Immediately, he came upon the a r t i c l e o f h i s c h i e f - the l i t t l e c h i e f (shefunia) as he was c a l l e d by the young workers. And he began t o read . As he read, the haughty e x p r e s s i o n on h i s f a c e was i n t e n s i f i e d by d e r i s i o n . "My dear God!" he s a i d a l o u d . He grabbed the phone and d i a l l e d the i n t e r n a l t h r e e - d i g i t number.', 32 We f i n d out immediately from Kondrashin's conversation with his fr i e n d Iakovlev just what his opinion i s of the a r t i c l e . •"Well? asked Kondrashin, nodding at the newspaper. "What about i t ? Not one fresh idea, twaddle with self-confidence." He perhaps may have resembled an American, t h i s Kondrashin, i f his nose, an altogether respectable nose, did not end suddenly i n such a Tambov bulb, and i f t h i s nose did not inopportunely redden, although Kondrashin's face was fresh and complacent. "You don't say", said Iakovlev, the perfect gentleman. He swung his foot. "The d e v i l knows!...", exclaimed Kondrashin, continuing to walk about the o f f i c e and puffing away at a ciga r e t t e . "If there's nothing to say, then why write?" "He responded. Raised questions..." "But there aren't any kind of questions ra i s e d ! Where are those questions?" "What do you mean? There's even the phrases, 'We must s t r a i n to the l i m i t . . . ' , 'We're bound to a time...'" "Oh sure! I t would be better i f he strained himself i n a restaurant - i t ' s more concrete. And that's i t exactly - phrases!" "In a restaurant - that goes without saying... that comes afterwards." "And he's not even ashamed", marvelled Kondrashin. "In a l l seriousness...It's as i f he begged someone or something l i k e that. One b i t of jabber, another b i t of twaddle, they don't even write l i k e that for a d i s t r i c t newspaper. No, he s i t s down to write! That's Doldon Ivanich for you." "The d e v i l with him! What are you so excited about?", Iakovlev asked si n c e r e l y . "It's a routine a r t i c l e . . . " 17 "The whole thing i s disgusting." ' In the narration of the omniscient narrator, the description of Kondrashin i s objective, presenting him as he 33 would look to others with his careless, breezy mannerisms. Throughout the story, the importance of Kondrashin's appearance and habits i s emphasized by the narrator's attention to them. However, the narrator passes no judgements and his descriptions are doubled by Kondrashin's active behaviour and speech i t s e l f . The conversation of the co-workers continues into a change of topic. Kondrashin and Iakovlev talk of some r e l a t i v e s who are v i s i t i n g the former from the country. Although t h i s short exchange may at f i r s t seem to be a side motif, i t does, in f a c t , concern a main t r a i t of Kondrashin's character make-up. His attitude towards his v i s i t o r s i s symptomatic of his approach to l i f e : he puts these people up at his home, instead of finding a hotel for them, because i t makes Kondrashin look good. Although t h i s i s never d i r e c t l y stated i n the conversation, i t i s gleaned from Kondrashin's statements and conduct throughout the story. Kondrashin i s then c a l l e d i n to discuss the a r t i c l e with the ' c h i e f himself. He takes with him his very affected and 'American' manner as well as the expectation that his superior w i l l demand praise for the a r t i c l e . As he waits i n the reception room, Kondrashin thinks about the bureaucratic world of which he i s a part and we are admitted to his thoughts: •Kondrashin sat down e a s i l y on the chair, threw his arm over the back of the next chair, and began to drum hi s fingers s o f t l y on the smooth wood. During t h i s time, he concentratedly stared ahead, his l i p s pursed, eyebrows s l i g h t l y knotted together into a l i n e - and he thought of the secretary and about the pompous comfort with which the 'chiefs', ' l i t t l e c h i e f s ' , 'underchiefs' and 'overchiefs* surrounded themselves. Generally, he l i k e d t h i s appearance of dign i t y , the breadth and the excessiveness of t h i s c l o i s t e r but, for example, Doldon Ivanich lacked the knowledge 34 of how to use a l l of t h i s : i n s t e a d of conducting o n e s e l f simply i n t h i s b u r e a u c r a t i c l u x u r y , w i t h moderation and t a s t e , he s w e l l s out l i k e a t u rkey, w i t h s e l f - i m p o r t a n c e . He thought of the s e c r e t a r y i n t h i s way: never i n h i s l i f e would he conduct h i m s e l f w i t h any s e c r e t a r y as i f he was i n a banal n o v e l . T h i s was a l s o ' d o l d o n i s h ' ( d o l d o n s t v o ) : to g a l l i v a n t w i t h the s e c r e t a r i e s without f a i l . T h i s was s q u a l o r , awkwardness. P r i m i t i v e n e s s . .. * T h i s type o f d i r e c t speech, impersonal d i r e c t speech, (nesobstvennaia p r i a m a i a rech') i s used o f t e n by Shukshin, f o r i t g i v e s the impression o f knowledge f l o w i n g d i r e c t l y from the c h a r a c t e r t o the reader without being f i l t e r e d through the 19 i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f a n a r r a t o r . The t e n s i o n and drama surrounding Kondrashin's thoughts, v o i c e d and unvoiced, and o p i n i o n about the a r t i c l e i n c r e a s e s s t e a d i l y . The reader a l r e a d y has enough i n f o r m a t i o n about Kondrashin t o r e a l i z e what h i s nature r e a l l y i s . None-t h e l e s s , when Shukshin employs p e r i p e t i a i n the scene i n which Kondrashin speaks to h i s c h i e f about the a r t i c l e , the e f f e c t i s s t i l l p o w e r f u l . T h i s scene i s r i c h i n s a t i r i c humour. Kondrashin i s immediately d i s c o n c e r t e d by h i s c h i e f ' s frankness i n a s k i n g f o r some ge n u i n e l y good c r i t i c i s m . He even momentarily f o r g e t s h i s a l l - i m p o r t a n t image. 'Kondrashin was not i n the l e a s t prepared f o r the ' l i t t l e c h i e f t o b e g i n d i r e c t l y w i t h t h i s - w i t h the magazine. He was taken aback... "I read i t , " s a i d Kondrashin. And i n a s h o r t time he pursed h i s l i p s . ' 9 n 3 5 In the ensuing dialogue, Shukshin employs h i s l i n g u i s t i c and syntactic talents to achieve the e f f e c t of irony. He i s aware that o r a l speech i s very often determined by s o c i a l factors and Kondrashin demonstrates t h i s i n the vocabulary and intonations with which he addresses his superior. His phrasing and long-winded constructions are those of a man attempting to ingratiate himself and to make a good impression. '"This a r t i c l e i s so contemporary. -It i s 'today' and necessary." "That i s ? " D i m i t r i Ivanovich didn't understand. "By i t ' s soul, that is...how can I make t h i s more exact - by i t ' s business-like e f f i c i e n c y , concreteness, by that s i m p l i c i t y , d e f i n i t e l y , although i n i t not everything i s simple, precise-l y i n i t s very soul i t i s well-timed. And contemporary."'^ Here the pe r i p e t i a of action i s enhanced by p e r i p e t i a of language, for Kondrashin himself uses the kind of empty, generalizing phrases which he found so offensive i n the a r t i c l e . They are abstract to the point where even the puzzled ' c h i e f asks for explanation. Yet, Kondrashin i s able to convince his higher-up of the excellence of the a r t i c l e as well as to impress him with h i s phrases. He leaves the o f f i c e of 'Doldon Ivanich' with an apparent f e e l i n g of s a t i s f a c t i o n with himself and considers that perhaps a b i t of f l i r t i n g with the secretary might not be so bad despite his recent contempt for the morals and irrespon-s i b i l i t i e s of the higher-ups. Thus, the very abrupt conclusion of the story through the device of per i p e t i a i s t o t a l l y unexpected i n view of 36 Kondrashin's success and t r a i n of thought as he goes back t o h i s own o f f i c e . '...And he l e f t the r e c e p t i o n room. And walked along the carpeted way...On the s t a i r s to the second f l o o r he d i d n ' t run, but walked s l o w l y . He walked and s h a r p l y slapped h i s palm a l o n g the smooth, t h i c k h a n d r a i l s . And suddenly, not too l o u d l y , a n g r i l y , even w i t h rage, he s a i d of someone: " C r - r e t i n s ! ' 2 2 'The Opinion' i s a s t o r y which i s v e r y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f Shukshin's form i n the m a j o r i t y of h i s work. Every p a r t of the s t o r y i s necessary - t h e r e i s nothing s u p e r f l u o u s to the u n i d i r e c t i o n a l q u a l i t y of the p l o t movement. The p r o g r e s s i o n from d i a l o g u e to d i a l o g u e i n the s t o r y i s s c e n i c i n the sense t h a t a c t i o n s , thoughts, and d i a l o g u e seem to be o c c u r r i n g as the reader goes al o n g . We are not o f t e n t o l d d i r e c t l y by the n a r r a t o r about the events. The n e u t r a l omniscience o f the n a r r a t o r i s the most common form i n Shukshin's s t o r i e s , except f o r a number o f s t o r i e s w r i t t e n d u r i n g h i s l a s t y e a r s , which employ a much more p e r s o n a l and d i r e c t v o i c e w i t h the n a r r a t i o n being presented from the f i r s t person witness or f i r s t person p r o t a g o n i s t p o i n t of view. G e n e r a l l y , as i n 'The O p i n i o n ' , Shukshin's n a r r a t o r informs us o n l y o f t h i n g s which the c h a r a c t e r s cannot t e l l us about themselves, such as about t h e i r own p h y s i c a l appearance, manner o f conduct, speech, d r e s s . O f t e n too, as i n the exchange between Kondrashin and Iakovlev where they are t a l k i n g about t h e i r out-of-town guests, the n a r r a t o r i s completely e l i m i n a t e d . We are l e f t to i n f e r the s i g n i f i c a n c e of t h e i r c o n v e r s a t i o n through the d i a l o g u e a l o n e . In Shukshin's s t o r i e s t h e r e i s thus a c o n s i s t e n t mixture o f a 'dramatic mode' o f n a r r a t i o n , where the i n f o r m a t i o n i s conveyed d i r e c t l y through the c h a r a c t e r s themselves, w i t h t h a t of a n e u t r a l o m n i s c i e n t n a r r a t o r who i s always w i l l i n g to i n t e r v e n e , speaking i m p e r s o n a l l y . However the image content of the n a r r a t o r ' s speech i s e n t i r e l y w i t h i n the comprehension and experience o f the c h a r a c t e r s , f o r i n h i s i n t e r v e n t i o n s i n t o the d i a l o g u e he employs language which the c h a r a c t e r s would not have spoken themselves but which they would have c l e a r l y understood. Thus one may suggest t h a t a type of d i a l o g i c a l i t y i s c r e a t e d between the author and h i s c h a r a c t e r s which bears s i m i l a r i t y to the type which M i k h a i l B a k h t i n p e r c e i v e s and e l u c i d a t e s i n h i s work, Problems o f Dostoevsky's P o e t i c s ; 'The e s s e n t i a l d i a l o g i c a l i t y of Dostoevsky's works i s indeed not l i m i t e d to the outward, c o m p o s i t i o n a l l y expressed d i a l o g u e c a r r i e d on by h i s heroes. D i a l o g i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s o b t a i n between a l l the e l e m e n t s o f i t s s t r u c t u r e , t h a t i s , the elements are c o n t r a p u n t a l l y counterposed. For d i a l o g i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s c o n s t i t u t e a much more f a r - r e a c h i n g phenomenon than merely the r e l a t i o n s h i p between speeches i n a l i t e r a r y composition, they are an almost u n i v e r s a l phenomenon which permeates a l l of human speech and a l l r e l a t i o n s h i p s and m a n i f e s t a t i o n s o f human l i f e . ' 2 3 Bakhtin speaks about Dostoevsky's works as a whole, and p a r t i c u l a r l y about h i s n o v e l s , w h i l e we are immediately concerned w i t h the c o n s i d e r a b l y d i f f e r e n t genre of the s h o r t s t o r y . S t i l l , i t i s worthwhile to a p p l y Bakhtin's i d e a o f ' c o n t r a p u n t a l l y counterposed• d i a l o g i c a l elements to Shukshin's 38 d i a l o g u e e s p e c i a l l y w i t h r e g a r d to the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the v a r i o u s a s p e c t s o f d i r e c t speech, i n t e r n a l monologue, the i n t e r -j e c t i o n s o f a n e u t r a l n a r r a t o r , and those of a n a r r a t o r who i s c l o s e to the p o s i t i o n o f the hero. The d e v i c e of a u t h o r i a l i n t e r v e n t i o n i s used by Shukshin o f t e n not to pass judgements or to c l a r i f y , but simply to enhance and r e f l e c t the dynamic d i a l o g u e o f the c h a r a c t e r . In the s t o r y ' V e r u i u ! 1 / ' I B e l i e v e ! 1 , the hero, Maksim I a r i k o v , h i m s e l f s e t s the scene and the mood o f the s t o r y and i n c r e a s e s the dramatism to the p o i n t where he and the v i v a c i o u s c h a r a c t e r o f the p r i e s t seem v i r t u a l l y independent o f the author whose i n t e r v e n t i o n s may almost be c o n s i d e r e d expendable. The v e r y unusual p r i e s t a d v i s e s Maksim to l i v e l i f e to the f u l l e s t , to weep and dance, and to b e l i e v e i n L i f e t o a l l e v i a t e h i s aching s o u l . He taunts Maksim i n order to r e v i v e h i s s p i r i t . Maksim asks the p r i e s t : •"And where are we a l l running?" "Anywhere. What d i f f e r e n c e does i t make where? The good and the e v i l are a l l going the same way." "Somehow I don't f e e l I'm going anywhere a t a l l . " "Then you're weak-kneed. You're an i n v a l i d . Your f a t e i s to s i t i n one p l a c e and moan." Maksim g r i t t e d h i s t e e t h . He g l a r e d a n g r i l y a t the p r i e s t . "Why was I d e a l t such a m i s e r a b l e f a t e ? " "You're a w e a kling. Weak, as a...as a h a l f - b o i l e d r o o s t e r . I t ' s no use r o l l i n g your eyes l i k e t h a t . " " A l l r i g h t , then, your s o - c a l l e d h o l i n e s s , and what i f I thump you between the eyes, r i g h t now? " The p r i e s t burst out laughing i n his booming bass voice (lung disease, indeed!), "You see th i s ? " he said, holding up his brawny arm. "It's pretty s o l i d : a process of natural ; s e l e c t i o n would f o l l o w . " . 24 Shukshin inserts h i s word as an observer watching from the s i d e l i n e s i n order to support the e f f e c t that i s being produced through the dialogue. -Surely we can imagine Maksim's v i s i b l e anger when he g r i t s h i s teeth at the i n s u l t s being hurled at him, or the p r i e s t brandishing his arm at Maksim without being told that these actions are occurring. The spoken exchange i s s u f f i c i e n t . But the narrator's comments are i n t e g r a l l y counter-posed to the dialogue i n that they r e f l e c t i t without detracting from i t . There i s thus a closeness i n the position taken by the hero and by the narrator, but t h i s approximation does not mean the i r sameness. I suggest that quite often Shukshin's authorial interventions may be seen as part of the dialogue. He portrays a non-verbal dialogue, a non-verbal reaction. 'Both of them, the p r i e s t and Maksim, were dancing with a kind of grim frenzy, so that one f e l t i t was quite natural: either they must dance, or else tear t h e i r s h i r t s , weep and gnash t h e i r teeth';. Such non-verbal dialogue which i s governed by emotion and i n -t u i t i o n c a l l s to mind the c i t a t i o n from Bakhtin which i s presented above. I t i s that kind of d i a l o g i c a l communication which 'permeates a l l of human speech, and a l l relationships and mani-festations of human l i f e ' . I t i s also t o t a l l y i n keeping with the story-scene which Shukshin developed as the form which his stor i e s would follow, since i t allows p o s s i b i l i t i e s of innovation using the author's knowledge of acting and d i r e c t i n g techniques. 4 0 Much o f the e f f e c t o f the m a j o r i t y of Shukshin's s t o r i e s stems from h i s use of p o i n t of view which i s a combination of the s c e n i c and the summary. The minds of the c h a r a c t e r s are r e v e a l e d f r e e l y and a t w i l l , y e t as an author, Shukshin i s i n c o n t r o l w i t h the e x p l a n a t o r y and omniscient tone of the n a r r a t o r . However, the moment of r e v e l a t i o n , the 'change of c o n s c i o u s n e s s ' i n Shukshin's hero always belongs to the main personage i n the s t o r y . I t i s almost always i n v o l v e d w i t h what the hero immedi-a t e l y says through a d i r e c t speech form and the f u r t h e r i m p l i c a -t i o n s o f the v e r b a l r e a c t i o n s may be g i v e n through the n a r r a t o r to end the s t o r y . In 'The O p i n i o n ' , Kondrashin's c r y of ' C r - r e t i n s ! ' on the s t a i r w e l l r e p r e s e n t s the moment of the change o f con-s c i o u s n e s s toward which the e n t i r e s t o r y has been d i r e c t e d . Yet even though t h i s i s the climax and c u l m i n a t i o n of the s t o r y , i t i s l e f t t o the reader to d e c i d e f o r whom t h i s i n d i c t m e n t i s intended from the development o f the hero and the o t h e r c h a r a c t e r s throughout the s t o r y . Because most o f h i s heroes are aware or become aware of t h e i r a c t i v e r o l e i n c r e a t i n g the p a r t i c u l a r s i t u a t i o n i n which we f i n d them, the s t o r i e s o f t e n c o n t a i n a t r a g i c element. Combined w i t h t h i s f e a t u r e i s a g e n t l e humour, i n h e r e n t i n the vocabulary which Shukshin chooses f o r each hero, as w e l l as i n the e f f e c t o f the i r o n i c and s a t i r i c i m p l i c a t i o n s c a r r i e d by the n a r r a t e d d e s c r i p t i o n s of d r e s s and mannerisms. T h i s presence o f a keen humour i n Shukshin's s t o r i e s i s an important f e a t u r e . The sharp and dramatic c o n f l i c t s which occur i n the 41 works are e l u c i d a t e d to a g r e a t extent by the humour s i n c e i t flows n a t u r a l l y from the s i t u a t i o n and the c o n d i t i o n and n a t u r e s of the c h a r a c t e r s i n the s t o r i e s . The t r a g i - c o m i c e f f e c t of 'The O p i n i o n ' l i e s i n the conscious a t t i t u d e o f Kondrashin toward the h y p o c r i s y which he f e e l s i s r e q u i r e d o f him. We come t o understand the hero almost s o l e l y through h i s p r e o c c u p a t i o n w i t h c r e a t i n g an e f f e c t on those around him. -However, Kondrashin s t i l l has enough conscience remaining to be a b l e t o vent h i s f r u s t r a t i o n s w i t h the b u r e a u c r a t i c web i n which he i s caught. D e s p i t e the r a t h e r r i d i c u l o u s f i g u r e which Kondrashin has c u t throughout the s t o r y , by h i s v e r y human d i s p l a y o f c o n s c i o usness a t the v e r y end o f the s t o r y , a good amount o f sympathy i s d i r e c t e d toward him a t t h i s f i n a l p o i n t . With the emphasis which Shukshin p l a c e s on the s o c i o -p s y c h o l o g i c a l f a c t o r s i n f l u e n c i n g the development of h i s hero, i t i s to be expected t h a t the s t o r i e s have strong moral and e t h i c a l overtones^ A dominant theme runs throughout a l l of Shukshin's work. I t i s the v o i c e of the author a s k i n g through h i s c h a r a c t e r s t h a t the reader c o n s i d e r the q u a l i t y o f contemporary l i f e . He puts t h i s theme d i r e c t l y i n t o words o n l y i n two o f h i s l a s t s t o r i e s , 'Van'ka T e p l i a s h i n ' (1973) and 'The Slander'/ ' K l i a u z a ' (1974). The hero o f the s l a n d e r asks i n anguishV "What i s happening to us? What i s going on? I t i s d i s g u s t i n g t o l i v e - you l i v e without wanting to when we are l i k e we are now!" And Van'ka g i v e s h i s s o l u t i o n to the s t a t e of moral and p e r s o n a l 42 l i f e when he a d v i s e s : "You have to be human.(Nado chelovekom b y t 1 ) You must be human and not chase a f t e r a f i f t y kopeck p i e c e b e f o r e you a r e . " Connected wi t h the moral i m p l i c a t i o n s o f Shukshin's s t o r i e s i s a group o f d i s t i n c t s t o r i e s mentioned e a r l i e r , i n which Shukshin uses a much more s u b j e c t i v e n a r r a t o r who gets d i r e c t l y i n v o l v e d i n the dramatic r e a l i t y as the f i r s t person witness or the f i r s t person p r o t a g o n i s t . These s t o r i e s were w r i t t e n a f t e r 19 71, w e l l along i n Shukshin's l i t e r a r y c a r e e r . In them, we s t i l l f i n d the s y n t a c t i c means of p o r t a y a l t y p i c a l o f e a r l i e r s t o r i e s , but the f a c t o r which i s a l t e r e d i s the author's w i l l i n g n e s s to i n t r u d e i n a more d i r e c t way. The syntax and language of h i s i n t r u s i o n s are always i n keeping w i t h the d i r e c t i o n and theme of the s t o r y and t h i s theme i s the same when the f i r s t person p r o t a g o n i s t appears. The moral and s p i r i t u a l s e a r c h i n g which Shukshin's hero i s undertaking i n the s t o r i e s o f t h i s time are more s u b j e c t i v i z e d , so t h a t Shukshin h i m s e l f i s a f f o r d e d the o p p o r t u n i t y t o p h i l o s o -p h i z e . Shukshin appears to u t i l i z e t h i s f i r s t person p r o t a g o n i s t when the q u e s t i o n s being asked by h i s c h a r a c t e r s are not b e i n g expressed completely enough f o r what the author wants to say. I t i s t h i s p r o t a g o n i s t who poses some of the more complex moral and p h i l o s o p h i c a l problems i n c l u d e d i n Shukshin's work. In the 1971 s t o r y , 'Uncle E r m o l a i ' / ' D i a d i a E r m o l a i ' , the f i r s t person p r o t a g o n i s t c a r r i e s on an i n t e r n a l monologue, based upon the t h i n k i n g about l i f e which he has done s i n c e the days of boyhood t r i c k s p l a y e d upon h i s u n c l e . 43 'Ermolai G r e g o r ' e v i c h , u n c l e E r m o l a i . And I r e c a l l him — as I stand over h i s grave. I t h i n k . And my thoughts o f him are simple: always a l a b o u r e r , a k i n d , honest person. J u s t as a l l here a r e , j u s t as my g r a n d f a t h e r , my grandmother. Simple thoughts. Only,.I can't t h i n k them through to the end, f o r a l l my i n s t i t u t e s and books. For example: what was t h e i r l i f e , was there any g r e a t i d e a i n i t ? I t was p r e c i s e l y i n how they l i v e d . Or maybe, there was no i d e a a t a l l , but o n l y work, and more work...They worked and t h e i r c h i l d r e n were born. I saw o t h e r people l a t e r on...Not lay-a b o u t s by any means, but...they understand t h e i r l i v e s d i f f e r e n t l y . . . A n d I myself understand i t d i f f e r e n t l y ! -Only...when I l o o k at these mounds, I don't know: which o f us i s r i g h t , which i s w i s e r ? ' 2 5 The language and syntax of the p r o t a g o n i s t who stands so c l o s e to the author i s wholly r e m i n i s c e n t of Shukshin's o b j e c t i v i z e d d i a l o g u e i n i t s r e a l i s t i c and n a t u r a l flow. T h i s i s not i d l e p h i l o s o p h i z i n g but an urgent p a r l e y with the r e a d e r . I t i s absorbing and demanding of an answer. Thus, the Shukshin s t o r y i s a composite of many elements. These elements are the key to the a b i l i t y o f the author t o produce so many s t o r i e s without f a l l i n g i n t o a r e p e t i -t i o u s mold. He reduces c e r t a i n elements w h i l e expanding o t h e r s , keeping as h i s f o c a l p o i n t i n each s t o r y h i s hero, caught up i n what i s an episode from the o v e r a l l p a t t e r n o f h i s l i f e . In some s t o r i e s , the s u b j e c t matter w i l l d e a l w i t h seemingly t r i v i a l o c c u r r e n c e s such as an argument wi t h a shop c l e r k , the o b s e r v a t i o n of neighbours, the buying o f a p a i r of boots. A t other times, the m a t e r i a l w i l l d e a l w i t h p h i l o s o p h i c a l y e t u n i v e r s a l l y human q u e s t i o n s o f how to l i v e , how t o 'be human', and how to f i n d 'a h o l i d a y f o r the s o u l . ' Shukshin e f f e c t i v e l y f r e e z e s t h i s moment and transforms i t i n t o an event, paying 44 s p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n to the s o c i a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l f a c t o r s which i n f l u e n c e the hero. 2 . THE SHUKSHIN HERO Shukshin should not be c o n s i d e r e d a w r i t e r o f 'byt', of the d a i l y mode o f l i f e , and c l a s s i f i e d w i t h the ' d e r e v e n s h c h i k i 1 , a group o f contemporary w r i t e r s whose main c o n c e n t r a t i o n and sympathies are a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the Russian v i l l a g e and co u n t r y -f o l k i n an e t h n o l o g i c a l , moral and h i s t o r i c a l sense. His s t o r i e s extend w e l l beyond the l i m i t s o f t h i s t r e n d , c e n t r e d as i t i s i n the p o r t r a y a l o f the v i l l a g e , the d i a l e c t and the mores o f the Russian c o u n t r y s i d e as being a source of t r a d i t i o n a l goodness and wisdom p i t t e d a g a i n s t the e v i l s o f technology and u r b a n i z a -t i o n . Shukshin d e a l s w i t h a world o f complex socio-psycho-l o g i c a l p r o c e s s e s which r e c u r i n the l i v e s and minds o f h i s t y p i c a l c h a r a c t e r - the r u r a l d w e l l e r whose o c c u p a t i o n or o t h e r a c t i v i t i e s and r e l a t i o n s h i p s o r i e n t him toward town o r c i t y and a world and l i f e - s t y l e which i s not w e l l understood. In the developed, t e c h n o l o g i c a l world which o f t e n encroaches upon v i l l a g e l i f e , Shukshin i s a b l e t o d e s c r i b e the p s y c h o l o g i c a l atmosphere produced by and a s s o c i a t e d with technology. Shukshin shows how the country person, o r the newcomer to the c i t y i s not t o t a l l y comfortable i n h i s new urban surround-i n g s . The author s e t s the l i m i t s of the primary moral elements which have persevered through a l l o f the t e c h n o l o g i c a l and s o c i a l 45 advances. These q u a l i t i e s are the most b a s i c o f human v a l u e s and are u s u a l l y a t t r i b u t e s o f the hero - there i s Chudik's honesty when he r e t u r n s a f i f t y - r o u b l e note he has found, Sashka Ermolaiev's anguished thoughts about the l a c k of r e s p e c t which people show f o r each o t h e r , S e r g e i Bezmenov's compassion toward h i s u n f a i t h f u l w i f e , and the p e r s i s t e n c e and hard work of Monia Kvasov which are g e n e r a l l y needed to get through l i f e . These v a l u e s are p o r t r a y e d by Shukshin i n h i s c h a r a c t e r s ; and next he goes on to i n v e s t i g a t e the c o n d i t i o n s and circumstances which change them, deform them, and r e p l a c e them. Although Shukshin's s t o r i e s and s t y l e are o r i e n t e d toward g e n e r a l t r e n d s and problems, the s o c i o - p s y c h o l o g i c a l c o n c e n t r a t i o n endows h i s work wi t h g r e a t p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f ;., i n d i v i d u a l i z a t i o n . H i s heroes t h i n k , express themselves and behave i n v e r y p e r s o n a l ways. Each development o f a hero i s i n d i v i d u a l i z e d w h i l e remaining a p o r t r a y a l o f the contemporary s o c i a l r e a l i t y . Shukshin's s u b j e c t matter, p l o t s and c h a r a c t e r s are never d i r e c t e d toward the d e p i c t i o n o f what an i d e a l person or s i t u a t i o n might be. He i s t o t a l l y engrossed i n what an o r d i n a r y man might become through h i s p o t e n t i a l f o r making a c h o i c e o r a d e c i s i o n which w i l l be e i t h e r p o s i t i v e o r n e g a t i v e , h e l p f u l or i n j u r i o u s t o h i s p e r s o n a l growth. U n l i k e most authors of 'country prose', Shukshin does not f i n d the focus of goodness, co n s c i e n c e , and humanity i n e i t h e r the c i t y or the country, but o n l y i n the so u l of man. A theme running throughout Shukshin's s t o r i e s as he co n c e n t r a t e s i n t e n t l y on h i s c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n o f the hero i s 46 the i m p l i e d q u e s t i o n : "What i s an educated ( i n t e l l i g e n t n y i ) man?" Again, i t i s the moral v i r t u e s which are c e n t r a l i n an answer to t h i s q u e s t i o n t h a t Shukshin h i m s e l f p r o v i d e s : 'This i s a r e s t l e s s c o n s c i e n c e , i n t e l l i g e n c e , the complete absence of l o g i c when i t i s necessary to s i n g i n a mighty bass, the b i t t e r d i s c o r d w i t h i n o n e s e l f from the cursed q u e s t i o n : 'What i s t r u t h ? * . I t i s p r i d e and...the compassion f o r the d e s t i n y of the p e o p l e . 1 ^ Shukshin's c h a r a c t e r s and hero r e f l e c t t h i s r e s t l e s s -ness and t h i s search f o r t r u t h i n every s t o r y , f o r they r e p r e s e n t a broad spectrum of o r d i n a r y S o v i e t people- mainly but not e x c l u s i v e l y r u r a l d w e l l e r s and workers whose oc c u p a t i o n s as t r u c k d r i v e r s , c a s u a l l a b o u r e r s and v a r i e d craftsmen, c o n s t r u c -t i o n workers, t r a c t o r - d r i v e r s and c o l l e c t i v e farm workers p l a c e them i n cons t a n t c o n t a c t w i t h urban c u l t u r e . The s o c i a l , c u l t u r a l , and h i s t o r i c a l t r a d i t i o n s o f these people are somewhat ambiguous, f o r they r e p r e s e n t t h a t segment of the S o v i e t p o p u l a t i o n which had been uprooted by the p o s t - r e v o l u t i o n a r y years o f r a p i d s o c i a l change. T h i s s o c i a l u n c e r t a i n t y i s r e f l e c t e d i n Shukshin's hero, f o r he i s v e r y s u s c e p t i b l e to thoughts and n o t i o n s provoked by h i s t i g h t e n i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h urban c u l t u r e and i t s t e c h -nology. These thoughts o f t e n m a n i f e s t themselves w i t h i n the hero as an ' i d e e - f i x e ' - a p o s s e s s i v e , a l l - e m b r a c i n g i d e a which i s perhaps the most important f e a t u r e of Shukshin's hero. He always has a d e f i n i t e p e r c e p t i o n o f the world which i s ve r y c l e a r and l o g i c a l to him d e s p i t e the f a c t t h a t h i s i d e a has l i t t l e to do w i t h p r a c t i c a l i t y or even common sense. The hero's idea o f t e n l e a d s him to speak about t r u t h , the s p i r i t , and the meaning of l i f e as he f e e l s i n c r e a s i n g d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h the t r i v i a l i t y o f d a i l y l i f e . Thus, i n an attempt to f i n d some answers to the q u e s t i o n s which he begins to ask h i m s e l f , the Shukshin hero d e v i s e s h i s own methods. One, a t r u c k d r i v e r f o r a ;- l o c a l s t a t e farm, becomes obsessed by the i d e a o f i n v e n t -in g a p e r p e t u a l motion m a c h i n e . A n o t h e r i s determined to under-stand why people t r e a t each o t h e r so b a d l y and d i s r e s p e c t f u l l y . A t h i r d , a p a r t - t i m e p a i n t e r and d i s a b l e d v e t e r a n , spends a g r e a t d e a l of energy behaving i n a manner which i s designed to have s t r a n g e r s b e l i e v e t h a t he holds the rank of ' g e n e r a l ' . The l i s t o f m o t i v a t i n g , p r o p e l l i n g i d e a s and p u r s u i t s goes on e n d l e s s l y , always unique i n the way t h a t the v a r i o u s c h a r a c t e r s handle t h e i r i d e a , but y e t always b a s i c a l l y the same and r o o t e d i n the same source. In t h i s f e a t u r e there i s a s t r o n g p a r a l l e l t o the works of Dostoevsky and t h e i r s i m i l a r d e p i c t i o n o f the p o s s e s s i o n of the c h a r a c t e r by an i d e a . Dostoevsky's hero i s more p h i l o s -o p h i c a l and r e f l e c t i v e than the e a r l y Shukshin hero, who w i t h m a t u r i t y a t t a i n s a deeper l e v e l o f r e f l e c t i o n . In keeping with the p h i l o s o p h i z i n g and i n t e l l e c t u a l i z i n g bent o f the times, Dostoevsky's hero sees and understands the world and i t s formu-l a t i o n from the v i e w p o i n t o f a g i v e n , all-encompassing i d e a . In h i s work on Dostoevsky, Problems of Dostoevsky's P o e t i c s , M i k h a i l B a k h t i n proposes that..."The i d e a becomes i n him [the personage] an 'idea f o r c e ' which omnipotently d e f i n e s and d i s t o r t s h i s c o n s c i o u s n e s s : i t i s i n f a c t not he who l i v e s , but the i d e a , and the n o v e l i s t d e s c r i b e s not the hero's l i f e , 27 but the l i f e o f the idea i n him..." 48 In the s t o r i e s which Shukshin wrote from the mid-1960's on, t h i s element of ' i d e a - f o r c e ' - r e v e a l s i t s e l f more s t r o n g l y and more c o n s i s t e n t l y , changing o n l y i n s p e c i f i c emphasis but not i n essence. Of course, i n comparing t h i s common aspe c t of the heroes of Dostoevsky and Shukshin, we are speaking o n l y of the common f a c t o r of m o t i v a t i o n and p a r t i c u l a r l y m o t i v a t i o n of d i a l o g u e . The i d e a s which d r i v e the heroes o f the two w r i t e r s d e r i v e from t o t a l l y d i f f e r e n t sources-and c o n d i t i o n s , but as a thematic d e v i c e and i n t h e i r i n f l u e n c e - o n the d i a l o g u e o f the c h a r a c t e r s c o m p o s i t i o n a l l y , they have much i n common. In Shukshin's s t o r i e s , the ' i d e a - f o r c e ' f i n d s an i d e a l p l a c e f o r i t s m a n i f e s t a t i o n as a component p a r t of the d i m i n i s h e d p l o t . I t i s always connected w i t h the change which the protagon-i s t undergoes, f o r the ' i d e a - f o r c e " i t s e l f may motivate the hero to conceive of t h i n g s i n a ' b e t t e r ' way (such as Maksim I a r i k o v ' s r e a l i z a t i o n t h a t h i s s o u l was aching and h i s search f o r how to r e l i e v e the p a i n ) , or i t may a c t i n a more neg a t i v e way by d e l u d i n g the hero i n t o f o r g e t t i n g t h a t the i d e a i s j u s t a product of h i s own i m a g i n a t i o n (as w i t h the p a r t - t i m e p a i n t e r M a l a f e i k i n , who becomes General M a l a f e i k i n to impress s t r a n g e r s when he speaks w i t h them.) One o f the most g r a p h i c examples o f the i d e a a c t u a l l y l i v i n g and speaking through the mouth of the hero i s the 1968 Shukshin s t o r y e n t i t l e d , " M i l l e pardons, madame'. The hero, Bron'ka Pupkov, time and time a g a i n t e l l s the s t o r y of how he was chosen to a s s a s s i n a t e H i t l e r . In the e x c e r p t s which f o l l o w , one can c l e a r l y see how the i d e a p r o g r e s s i v e l y and t o t a l l y 49 consumes the conscious mind of the hunting guide. ' I t was on the l a s t day o f his t r i p , when they h e l d a f a r e w e l l p a r t y , t h a t Bronka would launch i n t o h i s f a v o u r i t e s t o r y . - He c o u l d s c a r c e l y w ait f o r the day, and he used to prepare c a r e -f u l l y f o r i t . When a t l a s t i t came, he f e l t a p l e a s a n t t i n g l e i n the p i t of h i s stomach and h e l d h i m s e l f g r a v e l y a l o o f . . . ..."Were you ever a t the f r o n t ? " ^ h e asked c a s u a l l y . . . "Have you heard about the attempt on H i t l e r ' s l i f e ? " "Of course." "No, no, not t h a t one. The other one."... "Who f i r e d a t him?" Bronka d i d not hear the q u e s t i o n . He s a t smoking and s t a r i n g i n t o the f i r e . "Where was t h i s attempt?" Bronka d i d not answer. Everyone exchanged s u r p r i s e d g l a n c e s . " I f i r e d a t him," he s a i d suddenly... "...Are you s e r i o u s ? " "What do you mean? Do you suppose I don't r e a l i z e t h a t d i s t o r t i o n o f h i s t o r y i s a s e r i o u s m a t t e r ? . . . " ' A f t e r a d e t a i l e d monologue about how i t had happened t h a t he was chosen f o r the m i s s i o n , Bronka t e l l s o f the way i n which he was admitted i n t o H i t l e r ' s inner c i r c l e , the whole time i n c r e a s i n g the t e n s i o n and suspense w i t h h i s use o f s h o r t senten-ces, q u e s t i o n s , and g e s t u r e s . 'My h e a r t was i n my mouth. -Where was H i t l e r ? ' . . . I s a l u t e d , " H e i l H i t l e r " . I was h o l d i n g a l a r g e package wi t h an automatic i n s i d e , loaded w i t h poisoned dum-dum b u l l e t s . A g e n e r a l came up and reached f o r my package, but I brushed him p o l i t e l y a s i d e . " M i l l e pardons, madame - f o r 50 the Fuhrer i n person." I was speaking p e r f e c t German, mark you...'' Q The c u l m i n a t i o n of the e n t i r e monologue and the climax o f the p l o t comes when Bronka d e s c r i b e s the shot. '...He sm i l e d . And then I b u r s t open the .package. "So you're s m i l i n g , you r a t i Well then, take t h i s f o r our s u f f e r i n g s . " "Bronka was s h r i e k i n g , h o l d i n g h i s arm as i f about to shoot..."Well, now you can bathe i n your own b l o o d , you c r a w l i n g vermin." T h i s was a h e a r t - r e n d i n g howl. Then f o l l o w e d complete s i l e n c e and a h u r r i e d , almost i m p e r c e p t i b l e whisper: "I f i r e d " . Bronka looked down wept s i l e n t l y . . . When he r a i s e d i t , h i s f a c e was furrowed w i t h t e a r s . Then q u i e t l y , v e r y q u i e t l y , he s a i d , with h o r r o r i n h i s v o i c e : "I missed." No one s a i d a n y t h i n g . "Another drop i f you p l e a s e . " Bronka s a i d q u i e t l y but i n s i s t e n t l y . He drank i t and walked o f f to the water. And there he s a t f o r hours, alone on the bank, i n the g r i p of h i s traumatic ex p e r i e n c e . '->n " M i l l e pardons, madame' i s a good example of how the many elements which Shukshin uses i n h i s seemingly simple p l o t s come to g e t h e r to produce a p i e c e o f l i t e r a t u r e . The p l o t i s a t r a g i c one f o r Bronka i s so t o t a l l y - p o s s e s s e d by an ' i d e a - f o r c e ' t h a t i t motivates a l l of h i s speech, a c t i o n and emotions. He i s so h e l p l e s s a g a i n s t t h i s o b s e s s i o n t h a t a t times he r e a l l y b e l i e v e s t h a t he once d i d make an attempt on H i t l e r ' s l i f e . The t y p i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c which o f t e n accompanies a p e r v a s i v e idea i s t h a t o f a consequent i n c o n g r u i t y with r e a l t y , and t h i s i s c e r t a i n l y the case w i t h Bronka. Shukshin's hero r e v e a l s t h i s disharmony most o f t e n and v e r y e f f e c t i v e l y through h i s 51 language. Bronka d i s p l a y s t h i s f e a t u r e of i n c o n g r u i t y when he u t t e r s the phrase ' m i l l e pardons, madame'. -Thi s simple statement i s a m u l t i p l e e r r o r to which Bronka i s t o t a l l y o b l i v -i o us - he i s not aware t h a t he has used a French e x p r e s s i o n a d d r e s s i n g a woman when he was supposed t o have excused h i m s e l f before a German g e n e r a l . Worse, Bronka a s s u r e s h i s audience around the camp f i r e , t h a t he spoke p e r f e c t German. The p l o t o f " M i l l e pardons, madame" i s moved along by the monologue which a l s o s e t s the scene and the mood and i n c r e a s e s the t e n s i o n of the s t o r y through the use o f s y n t a c t i c and s t y l i s t i c d e v i c e s . The dynamism of the monologue and the f u n c t i o n s which i t serves c r e a t e s the impression t h a t the p l o t a c t u a l l y e v o l v e s from the d i r e c t . s p e e c h form, an impression which i s common to h i s s t o r i e s w i t h t h e i r s i m p l i c i t y o f p l o t . The extreme u n i d i r e c t i o n a l q u a l i t y o f Shukshin's hero i s r ooted i n the same q u a l i t y which i s found i n the p l o t . J u s t as no "s i d e events'occur i n the p l o t , with every occurrence having a b e a r i n g on the d i r e c t i o n i n which the s t o r y moves toward the p o i n t o f emphasis, so too i s t h i s r e f l e c t e d i n the heroes. Shukshin p o r t r a y s h i s heroes through one f e a t u r e - the most important and demonstrative. Thus, the hero i s h e l d i n the g r i p of an i d e a and i s imbued w i t h a s i n g l e n e s s of purpose from which he w i l l not be swayed. I t i s important to d i s t i n g u i s h the Shukshin hero from the other personages i n h i s s t o r i e s . Because o f the b r e v i t y and l a c o n i c i s m of the Shukshin s t o r y t h e r e are r a r e l y more than two major c h a r a c t e r s and never more than t h r e e . One of these c h a r a c t e r s i s the hero and the o t h e r s are i n d i v i d u a l i z e d o n l y to the p o i n t o f s e r v i n g a p a r t i c u l a r f u n c t i o n w i t h i n the framework o f the p l o t . I t i s these background c h a r a c t e r s who motivate the hero t o take some s o r t o f a c t i o n , to t h i n k something out, or to defend a p o s i t i o n . • Shukshin's hero c o n s t a n t l y i n t e r a c t s and contends with two groups of people. The f i r s t i s h i s urban c o u n t e r p a r t , o f t e n w ell-educated, who appears i n the s t o r i e s as the teacher, p r o f e s s o r , student or c a n d i d a t e . The second group w i t h which the hero must come to terms i s h i s female c o u n t e r p a r t , u s u a l l y the w i f e . The t y p i c a l s t r u c t u r e of the s t o r i e s counterposes the hero to the secondary personage i n a c l e a r o p p o s i t i o n o f o p i n i o n , a t t i t u d e , o r p o i n t o f view. Shukshin always p o r t r a y s the educated c h a r a c t e r p o s i t i v -e l y i f t h a t c h a r a c t e r uses h i s knowledge i n a c o n s t r u c t i v e way and i s p a t i e n t and understanding of the n a i v e t e and, a t times, ignorance, o f the hero. The hero i s p l a c e d i n an incongruous, humorous p o s i t i o n when he e i t h e r competes w i t h or i g n o r e s the i n t e l l i g e n c e o f the ot h e r personage. Monia Kvasov s t u b b o r n l y d i s r e g a r d s a l l l e a r n e d o p i n i o n which says t h a t a p e r p e t u a l motion machine cannot be b u i l t . Gleb K a p u s t i n ( ' C u t - O f f ' / ' S r e z a l ' ) , p r e t e n t i o u s l y assumes an educated v o c a b u l a r y and a concern w i t h academic 'problems*. Naum E v s t i g n e e i c h , from the s t o r y 'Outer Space, the Nervous System, and Slab o f Fatback'/'Kosmos, n e r v n a i a sistema, i shmat s a l a ' , i s convinced t h a t h i s young boarder i s wasting time going t o s c h o o l , u n t i l he i s d e c i s i v e l y moved to a changed outlook about l e a r n i n g when he i s t o l d how Academician 53 Pavlov recorded h i s own death up to the f i n a l minute. In such an arrangement o f c h a r a c t e r s ; - t h e hero f a c i n g h i s educated c o u n t e r p a r t r i t i s the hero who must change or e l s e s u f f e r the consequence o f l o o k i n g the f o o l . * Shukshin d e p i c t s a good number of educated personages who, through t h e i r s e l f - i m p o r t a n c e , ambitions, and a i r s , have l o s t the c a p a c i t y to 'be human'. These he does not t o l e r a t e and the h e r o - e c c e n t r i c stands out as m o r a l l y s u p e r i o r t o such c h a r a c t e r s . Semka Rys, the hero of the s t o r y 'The Master'/ 'Master', has f a l l e n i n l o v e w i t h a l i t t l e church o u t s i d e h i s v i l l a g e and i s obsessed by the d e s i r e to r e s t o r e i t t o i t s o r i g i n a l beauty. But he i s t o l d c o l d l y and u n f e e l i n g l y by a young s p e c i a l i s t t h a t the church i s not s p e c i a l and i s merely a copy o f o l d e r , more b e a u t i f u l n o r t h e r n churches. When Ivan P e t i n ' s w i f e l e a v e s him f o r another man, Ivan w r i t e s not o n l y of h i s g r i e f , anger, and h u r t , but a l s o o f h i s i n d i g n a t i o n t h a t the p a i r had no co n s c i e n c e . He takes h i s s t o r y to the l o c a l newspaper, where the e d i t o r a t f i r s t takes the composition as a joke. When he comes to r e a l i z e t h a t Ivan i s a b s o l u t e l y s e r i o u s , the e d i t o r e x p l a i n s t h a t the s t o r y cannot be p r i n t e d i n i t s o r i g i n a l form and suggests t h a t they s i t down together t o r e w r i t e the appeal to c o n s c i e n c e . Ivan simply takes h i s s t o r y and l e a v e s . In the s t o r y , 'The O d d b a l l ' / 'Psikopat', the h e r o - e c c e n t r i c i s the v i l l a g e l i b r a r i a n who has been p r e s c r i b e d i n j e c t i o n s but who p h y s i o l o g i c a l l y has g r e a t t r o u b l e a c c e p t i n g them. As a r e s u l t o f the incompetence o f the nurse who i s a d m i n i s t e r i n g 54 t h e i n j e c t i o n s , t h e h e r o u p b r a i d s a y o u n g d o c t o r f o r h i s l a c k o f c o n c e r n a n d c o m p l a c e n c y . ' . . . " Y o u d o n ' t know a n y t h i n g , y o u n g m a n . " "On w h a t do y o u b a s e t h a t s t a t e m e n t ? " , t h e d o c t o r a s k e d w i t h a n a i r o f i r o n y . " O n e v e r y t h i n g . " T h e o d d - b a l l l o o k e d s i m p l y a n d d i r e c t l y a t t h e d o c t o r . " Y o u ' r e a d o c t o r ' , h e c a l m l y c o n t i n u e d t o a s s e s s . " Y o u r n u r s e d o e s n ' t k n o w how t o d o i n j e c t i o n s , b u t y o u . . . t h a t d o e s n ' t d i s t u r b y o u o n e b i t . . . " . . . I ' m a m a z e d a t y o u r . . . y o u r . . . d o l t i s h s e l f -c o m p l a c e n c y . Y o u s i t t h e r e w i t h a d e a d s o u l , no t r o u b l e s , no s o r r o w s - a n d y o u w r i t e p r e -s c r i p t i o n s . . . " T h e d o c t o r , d u m b f o u n d e d , l o o k e d a t t h e m a n . He w a s s i l e n t . "How c a n y o u l i v e l i k e t h a t ? E h ? How c a n y o u ? . . . I ' m n o t q u a r r e l i n g w i t h y o u , I r e a l l y w a n t t o u n d e r s t a n d : s u r e l y y o u c a n ' t l i v e l i k e t h a t ? The man d o e s n ' t e v e n know h i s own w o r k . . . H e d o e s n ' t e v e n w a n t t o know i t , t o 2_ l o v e i t , b u t j u s t s i t s s c o w l i n g w i t h i m p o r t a n c e . . . " ' T h e e d u c a t e d , u r b a n p e r s o n a g e i s e s s e n t i a l i n S h u k s h i n ' s s t o r i e s b o t h t o t h e p l o t , a n d t o t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e h e r o ' s c h a r a c t e r . S u c h s e c o n d a r y c h a r a c t e r s f a c i l i t a t e t h e d e p i c t i o n o f c o n t e m p o r a r y o n g o i n g s o c i a l i s s u e s c o n c e r n i n g t h e m o r a l d e b a t e a b o u t t h e f a v o u r a b l e a s p e c t s o f e d u c a t i o n , g r e a t e r a w a r e n e s s a n d u n d e r s t a n d i n g , a n d t h e c h a n g i n g s p i r i t u a l v a l u e s a n d m o r e s o f a n e d u c a t e d , m o d e r n i z i n g p o p u l a t i o n . T h e c o n s t r a i n t s w h i c h S h u k s h i n ' s h e r o f e e l s u p o n h i s s e a r c h f o r h i s s o u l a n d t r u t h , do n o t come o n l y f r o m e x t e r n a l s o c i a l c i r c u m s t a n c e s . To a g r e a t e x t e n t , t h e y come f r o m a m o r e p e r s o n a l s o u r c e , f r o m t h e f e m a l e c h a r a c t e r o f t h e s t o r y who i s u s u a l l y t h e h e r o ' s w i f e . A l t h o u g h t h e r e a r e no f e m a l e h e r o e s i n S h u k s h i n ' s s t o r i e s , women a r e a l w a y s p r e s e n t a s t h e 5 5 a n t i t h e s i s to the f a n c i f u l hero. -Shukshin 1 s female c h a r a c t e r i s a r e a l i s t and thus she does not a t a l l a p p r e c i a t e the hero's t a l k o f such i n t a n g i b l e s as the importance of coming t o an understanding o f l i f e , o r the v a l u e he p l a c e s upon r e v i v i n g and expanding the human s o u l . Her concern i s o n l y t o get on with d a i l y l i f e and to cope w i t h new c o n d i t i o n s o f u r b a n i z a t i o n and m a t e r i a l w e l l - b e i n g . The r o l e o f the woman i s more than a down-to-earth, p r a c t i c a l v o i c e i n the world o f the h e r o - e c c e n t r i c . She i s b e g u i l e d by the new l u x u r i e s and conveniences more r e a d i l y than i s the hero, and thus the woman i s d e p i c t e d as be i n g extremely m a t e r i a l i s t i c . In her d e s i r e f o r s o c i a l p o s i t i o n w i t h i n her immediate environment, Shukshin's female c h a r a c t e r becomes an unsuspecting r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f the 'status quo.' I t i s the w i f e o f Bronka Pupkov who c o n s t a n t l y nags t h a t he w i l l be charged w i t h d i s t o r t i o n of h i s t o r y one day i f he con-t i n u e s t o t e l l h i s t a l e about H i t l e r . F i l i p p Nasedkin's w i f e , i n ' B i r d o f P a s s a g e * / ' Z a l e t n y i ' , complains to the c o l l e c t i v e farm committee t h a t her husband has taken to d r i n k because he has b e f r i e n d e d a man whom the v i l l a g e wives c o n s i d e r to be a bad i n f l u e n c e . Again, i t i s a female s t o r e c l e r k who r u d e l y and u n f a i r l y accuses Sashka Ermolaiev o f having come i n t o the s t o r e when he was drunk and she r e f u s e s to serve him. The b a s i c o p p o s i t i o n between the outlook on l i f e h e l d by the hero and t h a t h e l d by the female c h a r a c t e r i s a const a n t throughout Shukshin's work.- The hero i s humanistic - h e i s s e a r c h i n g f o r h i s human s p i r i t . :The woman i s m a t e r i a l i s t i c 56 and extremely s u s c e p t i b l e to the v a l u e s and morals o f a newly t e c h n o l o g i c a l s o c i e t y . T h i s dichotomy between the b a s i c moral p h i l o s o p h y o f the hero and the female c h a r a c t e r was o r i g i n a l l y s t a t e d i n a very e a r l y Shukshin s t o r y , and i t remained unchanged to the end of h i s l i t e r a r y c a r e e r . A n t i p , an e l d e r l y harnessmaker i n the 1963 s t o r y 'Alone'/*Odni', t r i e s to t a l k to h i s w i f e about how good i t i s to have a s e n s i t i v e and k i n d s o u l , but over the y e a r s , her answer to him has always been an unchanging i n d i f f e r e n c e . '"You, Marfa, although you're a s t r o n g o l d woman, you're muddle-headed." "And why's t h a t ? " "Well, because...What do you want? That day and n i g h t I sewed and sewed? W e l l , I a l s o have a s o u l . I t wants to have a good time too, t h i s s o u l . " "I s p i t on your s o u l I " 32 "Ekh..."' In some o f Shukshin's s t o r i e s , the female does appear i n a more p o s i t i v e l i g h t . -In 'Boots'/'Sapozhki', S e r g e i ' s w i f e does not reproach her husband f o r buying a p a i r of expensive white boots f o r her. In ' P e t i a ' , the w i f e L i a l ' k a seems to put up h a p p i l y w i t h her demanding and s p o i l e d husband. S t i l l , these women are developed a g a i n s t the dominant c h a r a c t e r i -z a t i o n o f the hero. S e r g e i expects t h a t h i s w i f e w i l l be f u r i o u s i f he buys the boots and t h i s f e a r p l a y s a major r o l e i n the s t o r y . L i a l ' k a puts up wit h P e t i a and h i s a n t i c s f o r the simple reason t h a t she l o v e s him. 57 Those women i n Shukshin's s t o r i e s who are not wives of the heroes a re o f t e n d e p i c t e d as being young and s e l f i s h l y concerned w i t h themselves and the impression they are making on o t h e r s . Another element o f t h i s c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n i s the f a s c i n a t i o n w i t h which these young g i r l s view Western c u l t u r e . Kate ('Ket') i n 'Greetings to the Grey One!/'Privet Sivomu!', d r i n k s whiskey, t h i n k s the book A i r p o r t i s g r e a t l i t e r a t u r e , and c a l l s a l l o f her acquaintances by the Western e q u i v a l e n t s of t h e i r Russian names. S i m i l a r l y , there i s a young s a l e s c l e r k i n "Post S c r i p t ' / ' P o s t s k r i p t u m ' who t r e a t s f o r e i g n t o u r i s t s who come to her counter w i t h the utmost r e s p e c t . However, when two S o v i e t t o u r i s t s ask to be shown a souvenir c i g a r e t t e l i g h t e r , she answers them r u d e l y and proceeds to ignore them. Shukshin's female c h a r a c t e r i s r a t h e r s u p e r f i c i a l and s t a t i c w i t h few v a r i a t i o n s . T h i s d e p i c t i o n and p o r t r a y a l of ' t y p i c a l ' S o v i e t women a l l o w s f o r a^deeper c o n c e n t r a t i o n on the p s y c h o l o g i c a l development o f Shukshin's hero. In 'Two F i n g e r s ' / ' B e z p a l y i ' , K l a r a has been u n f a i t h f u l t o her husband S e r g e i , y e t he i s a b l e t o c o n s i d e r i t a s - o n l y one o f l i f e ' s many t r i a l s , which, d e s p i t e the temporary p a i n , i s necessary to e x p e r i e n c e . When Ivan P e t i n ' s w i f e abandons him i n 'A Storey'/'Raskas', Ivan uses the i n c i d e n t to expound on the f a c t t h a t people should have a con s c i e n c e and should be k i n d e r t o each o t h e r . M i k h a i l (Mishel') i n 'Greetings to the Grey One'.' comes to r e a l i z e the powerful h o l d which 'Ket' and her p r e t e n s -i o n s have had on him. As he le a v e s her apartment a f t e r f i g h t i n g w i t h another o f her male f r i e n d s , M i k h a i l senses t h a t : 'The 58 f e e l i n g h e h a d was s t r a n g e : i t w a s - b i t t e r a n d n a s t y , y e t a t t h e same t i m e , w i t h r e l i e f , h e t h o u g h t t h a t now h e n e e d n o t come h e r e a g a i n . T h a t w h i c h was l e f t t h e r e b e h i n d h i m - ' K e f s ' l o v i n g , t h e c o n t e m p o r a r y h u m i l i a t i o n - -had b e e n l i k e a h o s p i t a l , - d a n g e r o u s , d e l i r i o u s , a n d n o w - q u i c k l y a w a y f r o m h e r e w i t h o u t 33 l o o k i n g b a c k . ' The woman p e r s o n a g e i n S h u k s h i n ' s w o r k s r e p r e s e n t s t h a t w i t h i n s o c i e t y f r o m w h i c h t h e h e r o i s a t t e m p t i n g , t h r o u g h h i s f a n t a s i e s , t o f i n d some r e l i e f . S h e i s t h e u n q u e s t i o n i n g a b s o r b e r a n d r e f l e c t e r o f t h e new S o v i e t c o n s u m e r s o c i e t y , w h i l e t h e h e r o i s s e l e c t i v e a n d w a r y . H e a c c e p t s some f e a t u r e s s u c h a s e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s a n d a c h a n c e t o u n d e r s t a n d l i f e b e t t e r ( t h i s i s r e f l e c t e d , i n p a r t , b y - h i s e x p a n d e d v o c a b u l a r y ) a n d , a s a c o n s e q u e n c e , h e q u e s t i o n s a n d u s u a l l y r e j e c t s some o f t h e o t h e r a s p e c t s s u c h a s b u r e a u c r a c y , b o o r i s h n e s s ( ' k h a m s t v o ' ) , a n d t h e l a c k o f human s o u l . A l l o f S h u k s h i n ' s s e c o n d a r y a n d b a c k g r o u n d c h a r a c t e r s a r e i n c l u d e d i n t h e s t o r i e s t o s e r v e t h e i m p o r t a n t f u n c t i o n o f r e p r e s e n t i n g a n d t y p i f y i n g t h e s o c i a l p r e s s u r e s a n d t r e n d s w h i c h a r e n e c e s s a r y t o t h e a c c u r a t e p o r t r a y a l o f t h e h e r o . T h e s e p e r s o n a g e s p r o v i d e a c o n c r e t e q u a l i t y t o t h e e n v i r o n m e n t o r s o c i e t y i n w h i c h t h e h e r o m u s t a c t . T h u s i t i s t h e h e r o whom t h e r e a d e r f o l l o w s w i t h t h e g r e a t e s t i n t e r e s t a n d t e n s i o n a n d who r e c e i v e s t h e s h a r p e s t e m o t i o n a l c o l o u r a t i o n e v o k i n g j o y , c o m p a s s i o n , s y m p a t h y , o r s o r r o w . . T h e d i m i n i s h e d c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n o f s e c o n d a r y p e r s o n a g e s d o e s n o t mean t h a t c h a r a c t e r d e v e l o p m e n t i s i m p o v e r i s h e d i n Shukshin's s t o r i e s , f o r i t i s the ' i d e e - f i x e ''.'-of. the hero and the way i t i s developed which leads t o g r e a t p l o t dynamism and the r e v e l a t i o n o f the a l l - i m p o r t a n t c h a r a c t e r of the hero. The heroes of most of the s t o r i e s from Shukshin's middle p e r i o d , 1967 to 1972 (and o v e r l a p p i n g somewhat even i n t o h i s l a s t works), 34 appear as ' e c c e n t r i c s ' or i n Russian, ' c h u d i k i ' . The impression of e c c e n t r i c i t y i s c r e a t e d through t h e i r t o t a l p s y c h o l o g i c a l and emotional involvement i n p u r s u i n g t h e i r ' i d e a ' which le a d s them i n t o s i t u a t i o n s and encounters whose comic or humourous consequences are simply not c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the a c t i o n s and behaviour o f people w i t h more 'normal', more accepted standards of behaviour and thought. I t i s important t h a t Shukshin's use of sub-standard Russian i n the form of d i a l e c t and ja r g o n i n i t s l i n g u i s t i c and s y n t a c t i c c a p a c i t y p a r a l l e l s t h i s i n c o n g r u i t y of the hero w i t h the community around him. T h i s p o i n t w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n g r e a t e r l e n g t h i n the f o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r . I t i s the element of d e f i n i t e 'strangeness' which makes Shukshin's heroes memorable. The common f e a t u r e s i n a l l of these personages are r e v e a l e d i n the s p o n t a n e i t y o f a c t i o n and emotions s p r i n g i n g from t h e i r p a s s i o n a t e natures and t h e i r love f o r and i n s i s t e n c e upon t r u t h . An e a r l y s t o r y , 'The C r i t i c s ' / ' K r i t i k i ' w r i t t e n i n 19 64 i n t r o d u c e s one o f Shukshin's o r i g i n a l ' c h u d i k i ' who was to evolve g r e a t l y by the end o f Shukshin's w r i t i n g c a r e e r . An o l d man l i v i n g i n a v i l l a g e i s watching a show on t e l e v i s i o n i n which an a c t o r i s p o r t r a y i n g a carpenter.. I t i s obvious t h a t the a c t o r i s t o t a l l y i n e p t and unknowledgeable o f t h i s 60 s k i l l and the b i d man, not b e i n g a b l e to bear the charade, k i c k s i n the t e l e v i s i o n s creen. From the mid-1960s to about 1970, Shukshin's heroes were i n t e r e s t i n g and unique i n t h a t t h e i r d e c i s i v e n e s s o f a c t i o n , governed by the p a r t i c u l a r m o t i v a t i n g idea of each, l e d them to g e n u i n e l y humorous encounters w i t h o t h e r s around them. The hero was frank and honest, smart and r e f l e c t i v e by nature, and d e s p i t e the circumstances he would f i n d h i m s e l f i n through the combination of these q u a l i t i e s w i t h h i s ' i d e a - f o r c e ' , he i s never presented to the reader as a comic f i g u r e . In t h i s p e r i o d appeared such s t o r i e s as 'Chudik', ' M i l l e pardons, madame,' 'Mikroskop', 'Grin'ka M a l i u g i n ' , ' K l a s s n y i V o d i t e l ' , and 'Vania, t y kak zdes?'. These s t o r i e s are a l l based on v a r i o u s types of ' p l o t s ' o f f o r t u n e ' and the hero i n each case has developed an unorthodox way o f d e a l i n g w i t h the world. He puts h i s b e l i e f s , concepts and emotions to the t e s t i n h i s i n t e r a c t i o n s and r e a c t i o n s . Pron'ka, i n 'Vania, what are you doing here?'/Vania, ty kak zdes'?', i s v i s i t i n g a nearby town when he i s approached by a young g i r l who i s l o o k i n g f o r a c e r t a i n 'type' o f person to f i l l a small r o l e i n a f i l m . Pron'ka has the look she wants - t h a t o f '...a simple l a d who i s v i s i t i n g the c i t y f o r the f i r s t time." He agrees to do the p a r t u n t i l he r e a l i z e s t h a t the d i r e c t o r i s t o t a l l y misinformed as to how the country l a d , Va n i a , should speak, a c t and t h i n k . A f t e r s e v e r a l humorous exchanges between Pron'ka and the d i r e c t o r , i n which Pron'ka c h a l l e n g e s the misconceptions of the d i r e c t o r , . Pron'ka d e c i d e s a g a i n s t t a k i n g the p a r t . 61 G r i n ' k a M a l i u g i n i s the hero of a s t o r y which bears h i s name. He i s a young man who i s c o n s i d e r e d ' strange' by h i s f e l l o w v i l l a g e r s and workers. Instead of working f o r e x t r a pay on a Sunday, Gr i n ' k a would always comb h i s sandy f o r e l o c k a c c u r a t e l y t o the r i g h t s i d e , put on h i s good b l a c k pants and zippered j a c k e t and walk about town to the admiring g l a n c e s of the g i r l s . The main a c t i o n o c c u r s when Grin'ka jumps i n t o a g a s o l i n e t r u c k which has caught f i r e and d r i v e s i t toward the r i v e r . He jumps f r e e j u s t b e f o r e the t r u c k goes o f f the bank and breaks h i s l e g i n the p r o c e s s . Two q u e s t i o n s capture the essence of the remaining events o f the s t o r y . Grin'ka i s asked by s e v e r a l people what i t was t h a t made him want to r i s k h i s l i f e by l e a p i n g i n t o the t r u c k and why he had waited u n t i l the very l a s t minute to jump c l e a r . G rin'ka simply cannot answer these q u e s t i o n s - he j u s t d i d i t . When a young woman comes to i n t e r v i e w him f o r a newspaper, he simply asks her to make up a reason which sounds good. These e a r l y heroes do more a c t i n g than pondering. I f they do not understand something, they ask, and then s t a t e t h e i r o p i n i o n . I f they are 'moved' to do something which seems sudden and i n e x p l i c a b l e to the reader, they do i t n a t u r a l l y , without thought. They simply do not q u e s t i o n why or how they, as i n d i v i d u a l s , have come to t h i n k and a c t the way they do. During the e a r l y 1970s, Shukshin's hero develops p e r c e p t i b l y . He becomes aware of h i m s e l f and o f h i s ' o d d i t y ' . He r e a l i z e s t h a t he needs to behave as he-does i n order to r e l i e v e an emptiness, a melancholy, a d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n which 62 he senses within himself. He f e e l s good when he i s engrossed in his own p a r t i c u l a r 'fancy.' Two embodiments of t h i s more mature hero-eccentric present themselves chronologically and developmentally i n the s t o r i e s . The eccentric now becomes a hero who explains his strangeness to himself (and sometimes to others), as being a 'holiday for the soul' - a chance for s p i r i t u a l freedom unhamp-ered by the constraints of a sophisticated and progressing technological society. He i s happy i n his temporary, imagined world and refuses to r e l i n q u i s h t h i s time which he has set aside for his soul. Aliosha Beskonvoinyi w i l l not give up his weekend r i t u a l of the steambath ('bania') to go to work or even to a meeting on the c o l l e c t i v e farm. He i s a model worker for f i v e days a week and no matter how he i s begged, regaled, or enticed by the chairman and the council of the kolhoz, he w i l l not work on the weekends. This i s because, i n the 'bania', something wonderful happens to Aliosha each week. -'God, what a f a n t a s t i c peace there was i n his soul! The children weren't s i c k l y , he had no argument with anyone, he had even been able to lend some money. ...Here l i f e went on - wholly concrete, but also e n t i r e l y inexplicable - dear and beloved to the extreme...Every unhealthy tendency was completely dismissed by Aliosha, petty thoughts abandoned him, and i n h i s soul s e t t l e d a f e e l i n g of completeness, strength, c l a r i t y - l i f e became understandable. That i s , i t was alongside him, just outside the l i t t l e window of the 'bania', but Aliosha became unattainable to l i f e , to i t s hubbub and malice, he became larger and even condescending.' .......Aliosha came out of the. 'bania' when i t began to grow dark. -He was new and w e l l -steamed ... * _ 63 The complexity of the h e r o - e c c e n t r i c e x i s t s o n l y i n the response o f the reader toward him f o r the e c c e n t r i c h i m s e l f i s not always aware of i t . Shukshin's e c c e n t r i c s f i n d t h e i r own o u t l e t s i n a mu l t i t u d e o f ways. A c i t y shopkeeper goes r e g u l a r l y each Saturday t o the t r a i n s t a t i o n and asks-the country f o l k who are w a i t i n g there f o r t r a i n s about a good v i l l a g e which he might move t o . But i n r e a l i t y the man has no i n t e n t i o n o f l e a v i n g the c i t y . A man i s t e m p o r a r i l y obsessed by the p o s s i b i l i t y o f r e c o n s t r u c t i n g a b e a u t i f u l o l d country church- as an a r c h i t e c t u r a l monument. When he i s informed t h a t the church i s merely a copy of even o l d e r churches i n n o r t h e r n R u s s i a , h i s d i s i l l u s i o n m e n t i s so g r e a t , t h a t he cannot even bear to look a t the church when he has to pass i t . The o u t l e t or i d e a of Shukshin's h e r o - e c c e n t r i c need not be profound, l o n g - l a s t i n g , or e v e n - n e c e s s a r i l y o f b e n e f i t to o t h e r s . Some of these heroes d i s p l a y l e s s sympathetic q u a l i -t i e s i n t h e i r search f o r s p i r i t u a l space. Gleb Kapustin from the s t o r y ' C u t - O f f ' / ' S r e z a l * f e e l s a b s o l u t e l y wonderful when he i s de b a t i n g and v e r b a l l y b a t t l i n g young students and academics who are n a t i v e s o f h i s v i l l a g e and have r e t u r n e d f o r a v i s i t . He savours-the p r e c i s i o n o f h i s infamous a t t a c k on the unsuspecting v i c t i m as w e l l as the moment he grabs t o c l o s e i n f o r the v e r b a l and i n t e l l e c t u a l ' c u t - o f f . 'Around the t a b l e the c o n v e r s a t i o n was going along i n a v e r y f r i e n d l y manner - i t was almost as i f Gleb had been forgotten...And here he 35 chose to s t a r t the a t t a c k on the c a n d i d a t e . . . ' The 'debate' continues- as- the candidate gets more and more exasperated w i t h Gleb's bookish-phrases and l e a r n e d c l i c h e s . He g l a n c e s m e a n i n g f u l l y a t h i s - w i f e as he p a s s i v e l y acknowledges something which Gleb has s a i d . -'And i t was p o i n t l e s s , f o r the g l a n c e had been i n t e r c e p t e d and Gleb r o c k e t e d upwards...Every time i n the c o n v e r s a t i o n s with- knowledgeable people from the v i l l a g e , t h i s moment ensued - when Gleb soared toward the h e i g h t s . He o b v i o u s l y always awaited such-a moment and was j o y f u l when i t came.'-,-. Gleb a t t h i s p o i n t l i t e r a l l y bombards the c a n d i d a t e w i t h c r i t i c i s m s and sarcasms and a l l o w s no o p p o r t u n i t y f o r the c andidate to defend h i m s e l f . '..."You may w r i t e the word 'narod' hundreds of times i n v a r i o u s a r t i c l e s , but your, knowledge about i t does not i n c r e a s e . Because you do not want to get any c l o s e r t o t h i s 'narod'. And when you l e a v e t h i s v i l l a g e , y o u ' l l have a s e r i e s of meetings. You've become an e x p e r t on the t o p i c , r i g h t ? W e l l , i t ' s easy to be made a f o o l o f , r i g h t ? Good-bye. Spend your t i m e - o f f pleasantly...amongst the 'narod'." Gleb g r i n n e d triumphantly and l e f t the c o t t a g e . He always l e f t i n t h i s w a y . ' ™ Gleb has found a r e l e a s e f o r h i m s e l f by a t t a c k i n g the v e r y t h i n g a g a i n s t which he has a p e r s o n a l grudge, - t h e younger, well-educated g e n e r a t i o n , which to Gleb seems t o be q u i c k l y f o r g e t t i n g or i g n o r i n g what he deems to be one o f the mainstays of l i f e - the country people and t h e i r v a l u e s and morals. In t h i s v e n g e f u l a t t a c k , Gleb f i n d s h i s ' h o l i d a y ' . These then are Shukshin's heroes who are a b l e to arrange t h e i r ' h o l i d a y s f o r the s o u l ' and s u c c e s s f u l l y make i t f i t i n t o the framework of t h e i r more 'normal*, d a i l y l i v e s . Shukshin's v 65 hero-eccentric may be free i n h i s c a p t i v i t y ( l i k e Bronka Pupkov who i s a captive of h i s fantasy to be recognized as H i t l e r ' s assassin),or captured i n h i s freedom ( l i k e Aliosha Beskonvoinyi i n his apparently perfect method of finding a holiday for h i s soul.) One of the two conditions p r e v a i l s depending upon the emphasis of the p l o t and the degree of constraint which the hero feels i n his d a i l y l i f e . Shukshin's hero-eccentric does not deal with l i f e ' s truths i n sober, r e a l i s t i c terms. Rather, he 39 deals with the truth of his imagination. Shukshin releases his hero as the eccentric through the vividness and energy of intense realism. Yet, there i s a second r e a l i t y for Shukshin's hero which comes about through elements of process and complexity rather than through imagination and fancy. Such matured heroes represent a further development and sophistication of Shukshin's a b i l i t y to present a convincing socio-psychological p o r t r a i t of contemporary Soviet man. The hero-eccentric now e s s e n t i a l l y devotes his l i f e , upon occasion even s a c r i f i c i n g i t , i n search of that 'holiday for the soul', that temporary release from everyday pressures and tensions. Most important, t h i s hero proceeds beyond the search for t h i s release a c t i v e l y and passionately to question why he should need i t at a l l and what i t i s that i s bothering him. From 1971 on, the hero makes increasing reference to the soul i n h i s dialogues and monologues and, coupled with t h i s heightened self-awareness, he appeals to-the consciences of others to 'be human' (byt chelovekom). More often, these hero-eccentrics infringe upon areas 66 of d a i l y l i f e which are more personal and fundamental than v accepted standards of speech and behaviour. They begin to ques-t i o n the accepted l i f e s t y l e and the values and morals which are a part of i t . These heroes make those around them f e e l a c e r t a i n discomfort and g u i l t at having l e t t h e i r values of good and honour become so e a s i l y d i s t o r t e d . The mature Shukshin hero f u l l y engages our emotional response i n a more steady and complex way than the e a r l i e r hero-eccentric. This increased complexity l i e s - b a s i c a l l y i n the f a c t that t h i s hero i s as aware as the reader of h i s i n t e r n a l c o n f l i c t . Shukshin's mature eccentric r a i s e s or evokes extremely in t e r e s t i n g questions concerning l i f e which a c t u a l l y embody the moral v i s i o n of the story. This i s mainly because the hero now looks for his s p i r i t u a l freedom i n a less active way than did the e a r l i e r heroes. His search i s of a speculative, philosophical nature. Shukshin's mature hero frequently asks the 'fundamental questions' with great i n t e n s i t y : questions about the meaning of l i f e , about what death i s . He asks these timeless questions i n innumerable ways, d i r e c t l y and i n d i r e c t l y , through h i s actions and h i s thoughts. Shukshin's heroes poignantly yet i n s i s t e n t l y express t h e i r need to discover the answers to these secrets. Some, l i k e Maksim farikov, f e e l a physical pain. 'Every Sunday a mood of depression would descend upon him. Real, deep-down, gut-rot depression. Maksim could f e e l i t p h y s i c a l l y . . . "...a man has a soul too! Here i t i s , here, and i t aches!" Maksim pointed to h i s chest. "I'm not making ^. i t up. I can f e e l i t elementally - i t aches."' If the hero does not f e e l a physical pain, then he f e e l s nothing - an oppressive, depressing emptiness i n his 67 present l i f e s i t u a t i o n . Despite h i s questionings, he cannot discover what to do i n order to help himself. In the 1967 story, 'In P r o f i l e and F u l l Face'/'V p r o f i l ' i anfas ' O , t h i s type of hero appears early and alone i n Shukshin's works of that period. Ivan, the hero, cannot be s a t i s f i e d with his modest and s u f f i c i e n t l i v i n g as a c o l l e c t i v e farm worker because he wants more than anything else for h i s work to have some meaning beyond the material. He does not state t h i s need d i r e c t l y but he i s p a i n f u l l y aware of i t , and t h i s i s seen c l e a r l y i n his f r u s t r a t i n g conversation with an e l d e r l y fellow v i l l a g e r which comprises a f u l l h a l f of the story structure. Ivan t r i e s to make the man understand what he himself cannot f u l l y comprehend. '"But I don't know what I'm working f o r . Do you understand? I was taken on, I dp my b i t . But i f you ask me why, I don't know. Just to s t u f f myself? Well, okay, then, my b e l l y ' s f u l l - now what?" "When you've got enough to eat, you s t a r t getting choosy," the old man explained. "You don't know how i t i s with us. You had no horizons i n your day, so you were s a t i s f i e d . You were cavemen. I could l i v e the way you used to, but I need something more." "You can't be bothered to earn f i f t e e n hundred roubles a month, while I used to break my back r i g h t through the summer for a- few miserable kopecks." "But I don't need that much money," said Ivan as i f to provoke him. "Don't you see that? It's something else I need."'.. talking for the The conversation continues with the two characters at cross purposes. The next day, Ivan leaves his v i l l a g e town to see i f he can f i n d h i s answers there. 68 Other of Shukshin's mature hero-eccentrics are able to explain things to others. Sania Neverov i s loved by h i s friends because, as one o f them says, he made them ' . . . f e e l better, more clear i n your head, as though you had become, an immense, free being, able to fathom the beginning and the end of your l i f e , or as though you had taken the measure of p r i c e l e s s things and understood them a l l . ' ^ 2 Yet, t h i s hero has not discovered the truth for which he i s searching. When he begins to die, i n desperation he t r i e s to f i n d an answer for the l a s t time and for himself. '"I'm not a f r a i d , " whispered Sania hastening with his f a i l i n g strength, "I can face i t . . . But i f I could have another year, then I'd accept death. After a l l , one has to accept i t anyway. But i t can't happen just l i k e t h i s . . . T h i s i s n ' t an execution, so how can i t just happen l i k e t h i s ? " "Have a l i t t l e vodka, Sania." . "Another six months! This summer...I don't need anything, I ' l l just gaze at the sun. Do you know I can't remember a single blade of grass? Who needs my death, when I don't want to die?".. Sania was weeping. " F i l l i p p . "Yes, Sania." "Who needs my death? It's so stupid, so stupid. Like a great mindless wheel r o l l i n g over you."^ In one of the l a s t of Shukshin's s t o r i e s , published i n 1974, the hero comes to acknowledge that r e f l e c t i o n s about the meaning of l i f e and death are agonizing and f r u i t l e s s i n the sense that no d e f i n i t i v e answer i s every reached. The narrator of the story i s a patient i n a h o s p i t a l , and one night he looks on as the man i n the next bed dies. 69 "A man had ceased to be. After that I lay a l l night, my heart empty; I wanted to concentrate on some kind of central thought, I wanted - not to understand, no, I'd t r i e d to understand before and couldn't - just to f e e l , even i f only for a moment, only b r i e f l y , l i k e that f a i n t l i t t l e track, so that i n my heart or mind just a t i n y b i t of l i g h t should be thrown on what i t was, then - there was a man living...Say, we must l i v e ; but i n that case, why hasn't t h i s damned g i f t been taken from us, the eternal, tormenting, and useless attempt at understanding: "Why a l l this?"...But why a l l this? Why? Ah, well, one just has to go on l i v i n g without looking back, to go on for the time a l l o t t e d you: i t seems there i s nothing so frightening i n dying after a l l . " . . This hero, the f i r s t person narrator i n the story, has completed the process of r e a l i z a t i o n and self-consciousness as much as any human being r e a l i s t i c a l l y can. He emerges from h i s tormented questioning with a clearer concept o f w h a t he needs t o d o * He accepts the f a c t that he i s a l i v e and w i l l die and thus should l i v e as best he can for himself and for others. Shukshin's hero-eccentrics do develop and mature noticeably as the stories themselves progress. On the one hand, th i s hero i s able to resort to fancies and f l i g h t s of imagination i n order to survive. On the other hand, the extension of t h i s character learns how to cope with h i s r e a l i t y i n a l o g i c a l and r a t i o n a l way. However, Shukshin does include i n h i s repertoire of heroes two young men, whose immediate s o c i a l environments and personal circumstances clash with t h e i r fancies making i t imposs-i b l e for them to cope. Kol'ka Paratov ('Oh, a wife Saw Her Husband !Qff to Paris') and Spirka Rastorguev ('The Bastard *) commit suicide. Just as Shukshin depicted 'closed' characters who have found the p a r t i c u l a r answer for which they are searching 7Q o n l y a few times, so he d e p i c t s o n l y two c h a r a c t e r s a t the oth e r extreme - those who have completely l o s t hope i n a t t a i n i n g any contentment or s a t i s f a c t i o n from l i f e , even of the temporary s o r t . I t i s worth n o t i n g too, t h a t any n e g a t i v e c h a r a c t e r s which we meet i n Shukshin's s t o r i e s r e f l e c t s o c i a l e v i l s such as 'khamstvo' (boorishness) and bureaucracy and the demands which these elements p l a c e upon the hero and those around him. His nega t i v e heroes and c h a r a c t e r s f a l l i n t o s o c i a l types and g e n e r a l i -z a t i o n s which are r e a d i l y i d e n t i f i e d r a t h e r than b e i n g c h a r a c t e r -i z e d by any i n d i v i d u a l or p e r s o n a l negative t r a i t s . Shukshin's h e r o - e c c e n t r i c i s s t r i v i n g t o understand h i m s e l f as he i s sim u l t a n e o u s l y t r y i n g t o understand the world around him. He i s fragmented and o f t e n c o n t r a d i c t o r y . But Shukshin develops an important hero i n t h a t he r e a l i s t i c a l l y p o r t r a y s the f u n c t i o n i n g , m a l f u n c t i o n i n g , and even the breakdown of an i n d i v i d u a l w i t h i n one p a r t i c u l a r s o c i a l r e a l i t y . The Shukshin c h a r a c t e r i s the S o v i e t man sta n d i n g some s i x decades removed from the r e v o l u t i o n o f 1917. He i s a l s o the contemporary man l i v i n g i n a t e c h n o l o g i c a l , u r b a n i z e d , and modernized s o c i e t y f a c i n g many o f the problems which h i s Western c o u n t e r p a r t f a c e s . He i s bewildered by urban c i v i l i z a t i o n , but he t r i e s t o f i n d a p l a c e i n i t . I f he cannot accomplish t h i s , he l o o k s f o r some s o r t o f e x i t or r e l e a s e which i s of a temporary nature. T h i s modern man has no m a t e r i a l need, but t h i s does not compensate f o r the 'aching s o u l ' which he suddenly becomes aware o f . He r e a l i z e s h i s d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n and unhappiness wi t h l i f e and he f e e l s an emptiness which he t r i e s t o f i l l w i t h i m a g i n a t i v e , y e t 71 very human escapes, e c c e n t r i c i t i e s , fancies. His reactions and methods of approaching t h i s problem are, of course tempered and coloured by the p e c u l i a r i t i e s of Russian and Soviet history and modernity, and es p e c i a l l y by considerations dealing with the c i t y and the country where there has long been a d i s t i n c t i o n made between l i f e s t y l e s , morals, and philosophy. Through his heroes, Shukshin does much more than simply r e f l e c t the confusing and often painful t r a n s i t i o n from r u r a l to urban values. He depicts a universal searching - a part of the t o t a l r e a l i t y made up of a complex of hopes, fears, decisions and desires which are encountered by everyman. NOTES TO CHAPTER ONE V.F. Gorn, 'Nado chelovekom b y t ' ' , L i t e r a t u r a v shk o l e , No. 5 (1976), p. 10 ' r a s s k a z - s t s e n k a ' . The form i s a l o o s e combination o f s e v e r a l elements. I t combines w i t h i n i t s e l f f e a t u r e s o f the l i t e r a r y genre 'rasskaz' as w e l l as as p e c t s of the dramatic 1 s t s e n a 1 of which 'stsenka' i s a d i m i n u t i v e term. As w e l l , 'stsenka' has i t s own d e f i n i t i o n : *A small dramatic work o r s t o r y d e p i c t i n g episodes o f d a i l y l i f e . ' S.I* Ozhegov, S l o v a r '  russkogo i a z y k a , (Moskva:Izdatel'stvo R u s s k i i i a z y k , 1975) . Donald M. Fiene and B o r i s P e s k i n , t r a n s . , i n Snowball  B e r r y Red and O t h e r - S t o r i e s f ed. Donald M. Fi e n e (henceforth a b b r e v i a t e d to Snowball B e r r y Red), (Ann A r b o r ; A r d i s , 1979), pp. 52-53. V.M. Shukshin, Izbrannye p r o i z v e d e n i i a v dvukh tomakh, torn 1-2 (henceforth a b b r e v i a t e d to V. Shukshin, Izbran.  prOi ' Z . , t . l ) , (Moskva: Molodaia g v a r d i i a , 1975), p. 66. A t t e n t i o n should be p a i d to the i n t e n t i o n a l l y i n c o r r e c t s p e l l i n g o f the Russian word ' s t o r y ' (rasskaz) i n the t i t l e of t h i s work. The i n c o r r e c t Russian 'raskas' and the E n g l i s h r e n d e r i n g o f the mistake ' s t o r e y ' , serve t o i n i t i a t e the c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n o f the hero. W.G. Fiedorow, t r a n s . , i n Snowball B e r r y Red, p. 105. V. Shukshin, I z b r a n \ p r o i z . , t . l , p. 163. V. Shukshin, I z b r a n ^ p r o i z . , t . 1, p. 409. Natasha Johnstone, t r a n s . , i n S o v i e t L i t e r a t u r e (henceforth a b b r e v i a t e d t o Sov. L i t . ) , no. 10 (1974), pp. 14-17 Sov. L i t . , No. 10, p. 16. Sov. L i t . , No. 10, p. 17. H i l d a Perham, t r a n s . , i n Sov. L i t . , No. 9 (1975), p. 18. Sov. L i t . , No. 9, p. 20. Sov. L i t . , No. 10, p. 17. Robert D a g l i s h , t r a n s . , i n Sov. L i t . , No. 10 (1974), p. 115. 73 16 V. Shukshin, I z b r a n . p r o ! z . , t . 1, . 3 0 4 . 17 I z b r a n . p r o i z . , t . l , p. 305. 18 I z b r a n . p r o i z . , t . l , p. 308. 19 'Impersonal d i r e c t speech* i s my own t e n t a t i v e t r a n s l a t i o n of a t e c h n i c a l term which i s l a t e r d i s c u s s e d i n d e t a i l . Refer ahead to Chapter Two, p. 1 1 2 , footnote 7. 20 I z b r a n . p r o i z . , t . l , pp. 307-308. 21 Izbrah.pr o i z . , t . l , p. 308. 22 I z b r a n . p r o i z . , t . l , p. 309. 23 R.W. R o s t e l , t r a n s . , Problems o f Dostoevsky's P o e t i c s , by M i k h a i l B a k h t i n (Ann A r b o r : A r d i s , 1973), p. 34. 24 G e o f f r e y A. Hosking, t r a n s . , i n Snowball B e r r y Red, p. 93. 25 V. Shukshin, Izbran. p r o i z . , t . l , p. 216. 26 V. Kantorovich, 'Novye t i p y , n o v y i slovar',novye o t n o s h e n i i a * , S i b e r s k i e o g h i , No. 9 (1971), p. 177. 27 Bakhtin, p. 19 28 G e o f f r e y A. Hosking, t r a n s . , i n Snowball B e r r y Red, pp. 42-44. 29 Snowball B e r r y Red, p. 47. 30 Snowball Be r r y Red, p. 47. 31 V. Shukshin, I z b r a n . p r o i z . , t . l , pp. 399-400. 32 V. Shukshin, I z b r a n . p r o i z . , t . l , p. 23. 33 V. Shukshin, I z b r a n . p r o i z . , t . l , p. 416. 34 'Chudik* i s a word o f popular p a r l a n c e which bears the same meaning as the contemporary standard Russian word, 'chudak'. The d e f i n i t i o n o f both, i s t h a t o f *a strange person, w i t h strange q u a l i t i e s ; an unusual person.', S l o v a r ' russkogo i a z y k a . 35 V. Shukshin, I z b r a n . p r o i z . , t . l , pp. 323-330. 36 V. Shukshin, Izbran.pro!z., t . l , p. 174. 37 V. Shukshin, I z b r a n . p r o i z . , t . l , p. 176. 74 38 V. Shukshin, I z b r a n . p r o i z . , t . l , p. 178. 39 Shukshin's 'chudik' has a c o u n t e r p a r t i n Western l i t e r a r y c r i t i c i s m - a c h a r a c t e r whom W.H. Harvey suggests be c a l l e d the 'card' i n h i s a r t i c l e 'The Human Context* i n Theory o f the Novel, ed. P. S t e v i c k (New York: M a c M i l l a n P u b l i s h i n g Company, 1967), pp. 231-261. The s i m i l a r i t y i s i n c r e a s e d by-Harvey's suggestion t h a t the 'card' d e s i r e s a ' h o l i d a y from e x i s t e n c e ' which p a r a l l e l s the search o f Shukshin's 'chudik' f o r the 'h o l i d a y f o r the s o u l ' . F or both c h a r a c t e r s , the f a n t a s y which p r o v i d e s t h i s ' h o l i d a y ' i s as r e a l as the l i m i t a t i o n s p l a c e d upon them i n t h e i r d a i l y l i v e s . The 'card' and the 'chudik' both enjoy a p a r t i c u l a r type of freedom which stems from the f a c t t h a t they are triu m p h a n t l y themselves and t h a t they seem .to be immune to the knocks they take as they a s s e r t t h e i r natures.. 40 G e o f f r e y A. Hosking, t r a n s . , i n Snowball B e r r y Red, p. 87. 41 G e o f f r e y A. Hosking, t r a n s . , i n Snowball Berry Red, pp. 24-25. 42 G e o f f r e y A. Hosking, t r a n s . , i n Snowball B e r r y Red, p. 79. 4 3 G e o f f r e y A. Hosking, t r a n s . , i n Snowball B e r r y Red, p. 84. 44 K e i t h Hammond, t r a n s . , i n Sov. L i t . , No. 9 (1975), p. 55. 75 C H A P T E R I I D I R E C T S P E E C H F O R M S I N T H E S H U K S H I N S T O R Y : L A N G U A G E A N D D I A L O G U E - 1 -J u s t a s i n t h e s t r u c t u r e o f h i s s t o r y - s c e n e s S h u k s h i n s u b o r d i n a t e s s t y l i s t i c a n d s t r u c t u r a l e l e m e n t s o f p l o t a n d n a r r a t i o n t o t h e m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f h i s h e r o - e c c e n t r i c , s o h e c h o o s e s a n d u t i l i z e s d y n a m i c , d r a m a t i c s p e e c h f o r m s w h i c h w i l l b e s t r e v e a l t h i s h e r o s u c c e s s f u l l y . T h e d i r e c t s p e e c h f o r m s a n d t h e l e x i c o n e m p l o y e d i n t h e m m i r r o r n o t o n l y t h e p e r s o n a l m u l t i f a c e t e d d e v e l o p m e n t w h i c h t h e h e r o u n d e r g o e s , b u t t h e c h a n g e s o c c u r r i n g w i t h i n S o v i e t s o c i e t y i t s e l f , c h a n g e s w h i c h i n i t i a t e a n d i n f l u e n c e t h e s p i r i t u a l , e m o t i o n a l , a n d p s y c h o l o g i c a l g r o w t h o f t h e h e r o . T h u s t h e f o r m s o f d i r e c t s p e e c h w h i c h S h u k s h i n w o r k s w i t h a r e o f i n t e r e s t n o t o n l y f r o m t h e s t a n d p o i n t o f l i n g u i s t i c s t r u c t u r e a n d l i t e r a r y s t y l e , a n d b e c a u s e o f t h e i r s o c i a l - h i s t o r i c a l o r i g i n s , b u t a l s o i n o r d e r t o s e e h o w S h u k s h i n s e l e c t s , c o n s t r u c t s a n d p a r a l l e l s t h e m t o t h e t h e m a t i c s t r u c t u r e o f t h e s t o r i e s . I n S h u k s h i n ' s s t o r i e s , i t i s t h e q u a n t i t y o f d i r e c t s p e e c h f o r m s a n d t h e r e s u l t a n t c o n v e r s a t i o n a l q u a l i t y w h i c h a r e t h e m o s t o b v i o u s s t y l i s t i c a n d s t r u c t u r a l e l e m e n t s . T h e p r e d o m -i n a n c e o f d i r e c t s p e e c h i s t o t a l l y i n k e e p i n g w i t h t h e s t r u c t u r e o f t h e ' s t o r y - s c e n e ' w h i c h S h u k s h i n a d a p t e d a n d d e v e l o p e d f o r h i s w o r k a s i t f a c i l i t a t e s t h e d i r e c t d e p i c t i o n o f t h e h e r o a n d o f t h e p r o c e s s o f c h a n g e w h i c h h e e x p e r i e n c e s . S h u k s h i n a c k n o w -l e d g e d t h e e m p h a s i s u p o n d i r e c t s p e e c h i n h i s w o r k w h e n , d u r i n g 76 an interview, he said: 'Direct speech allows me to diminish the descriptive section a l i t t l e : what kind of person? How does he think? What does he want? In the end we c e r t a i n l y e s t a b l i s h an understanding of the person - having l i s t e n e d to him. Thus he could not t e l l a l i e - he doesn't know how, even i f he would l i k e t o . ' 1 What i n i t i a l l y appears to be a simple and s t r a i g h t -forward usage of d i r e c t speech by Shukshin deserves to be examined in greater d e t a i l i n order to determine how or to what extent i t s usage i s peculiar to Shukshin's writing as compared to other writers of short s t o r i e s . In t h i s Chapter I w i l l examine the ways that Shukshin employs d i r e c t speech. These forms give h i s work i t s r e a l i s t i c q u a l i t y , for through the syntax and lexicon an i l l u s i o n of o b j e c t i v i t y and authenticity i s created. A f i r s t impression made upon the casual reader i s that d i a l o g i c a l exchanges constitute most of Shukshin's writing s t y l e . Upon closer reading and investigation of the works, i t becomes clear that, while dialogue i s indeed the dominant and most im-portant d i r e c t speech form, there are other forms which perform v i t a l i n d i v i d u a l functions within the story while supplementing and enhancing the dialogue. Thus, i n the f i r s t part of t h i s chapter, I w i l l discuss the s t r u c t u r a l and s t y l i s t i c features of four d i r e c t speech forms most common i n Shukshin's work. I w i l l reserve a more concentrated study of Shukshin's dialogue with respect to the d i s t i n c t i v e lexicon and syntax which composes i t for the second part of the chapter. From the general l i n g u i s t i c material with which Shukshin has elected to work, he creates speech forms which have become i d e n t i f i e d with his sto r i e s and t h e i r heroes, for his means of expression i s in d i v i d u a l i z e d and singular. Important aspects of Shukshin's unique mode of expression l i e i n the re l a t i o n s h i p which exists i n the remarks exchanged between the characters, as well as i n the p e c u l i a r i t i e s of the movement of thought which manifests i t s e l f i n the d i r e c t speech forms. For example, i n a d i a l o g i c a l form, a conventional way of developing an idea i s to have an assertion followed by a response of some nature with the construction displaying a binominal unity. One of the chara-c t e r i s t i c s of Shukshin's dialogue i s that i t displays a poly-nomial unity i n that the r e l a t i o n s h i p between statement and response i s t i g h t l y bonded to the narrative. In the story 'Shtrikhi k portretu', the movement of the hero-eccentric Kniazev's thought i s an example of Shukshin's c h a r a c t e r i s t i c dialogue structure: '"Rest i s re s t , i t ' s a l l the same how you spend yourtime." "There does e x i s t an active r e s t , " Kniazev interrupted t h i s absurd attempt to in s t r u c t him, "and a passive r e s t . -Along with rest,, the active type suggests some sort of wholly-conformable arrangement". "Your head can spin from these 'arrangements'", chuckled Sil'chenko. "I'm not ta l k i n g about 'these' arrangements, but about wholly-eomformable ones", emphasized Kniazev. And he looked at Sil'chenko sternly and calmly. "Do you understand the difference?" Sil'chenko didn't l i k e i t either when people talked with him as i f they were teaching him. "No, I don't get i t . Explain i t please." 78 "What's your profession?" "What has that got to do with i t ? " "Well, i t does..." "A make-up a r t i s t . " At t h i s , Kniazev grew bolder; his blue eyes gleamed with a merry mocking l i g h t ; he become ins o l e n t l y condescending. "Have you ever been t o l d how b u r i a l mounds are f i l l e d in?", he asked. He f e l t very s a t i s f i e d when i t came to giving an account of h i s ideas. Sil'chenko was completely unprepared for these 'burial mounds'; he was b a f f l e d . "What's t h i s about b u r i a l mounds?" "Have you ever seen how they are f i l l e d in?" 2 "Well, have you seen how..."' The exchange continues, but from the above segment, one can see just how t i g h t l y the dialogue i s bound to the narrative. If one were to read the dialogue only, Kniazev's t r a i n of thought would be incomprehensible as i t jumps around from r e s t to a c t i v i t y , profession, and b u r i a l mounds. Even with the supplementation of the narration, the idea which Kniazev i s attempting to e l u c i -date i s obscure. Obviously, the point which he i s making i s motiviated by the'idee-fixe' which l i v e s within him. Shukshin's monological forms display a unity which i s likewise t i g h t l y bonded to the narrative. In f a c t , the mono-logue - -±9 more dependent upon the narration to inform the reader of mood and movement, both of a s t y l i s t i c and of a conceptual nature. In Shukshin's s t o r i e s , i t i s very common to f i n d a d i a l o g i c a l s i t u a t i o n which almost imperceptibly passes over 7 a i n t o a mono l o g i c a l one, a ta s k accomplished by b r i e f , s u b t l e n a r r a t i v e remarks. In ' Z a l e t n i y ' , Sania i s d i s c u s s i n g the c i r -cumstances o f h i s l i f e w ith h i s f r i e n d s from the v i l l a g e , but t h i s c o n v e r s a t i o n ends as a monologue wi t h an i n t o n a t i o n which i s s e a r c h i n g and a t times almost desperate. '"...My b r o t h e r sends me money. He's r i c h . Or a t l e a s t no,not e x a c t l y r i c h , but he has enough to l i v e on. And he g i v e s me some." That the two peasants c o u l d understand: h i s b r o t h e r p i t i e d him. " I f o n l y I c o u l d s t a r t a l l over a g a i n ! " On Sania's t h i n , dark f a c e h i s muscles and sharp cheekbones stood out i n r i d g e s . H is eyes shone f e v e r i s h l y . He was worked up. - " I would e x p l a i n what I know now: t h a t man i s an a c c i d e n t a l , b e a u t i f u l , and a g o n i z i n g attempt on Nature's p a r t t o understand i t s e l f . A f r u i t l e s s attempt, I assure you, because i n nature along w i t h man the r e l i v e s a canker. Death! And death i s unavoidable, but we w i l l ne-e-ever take i n t h a t f a c t . Nature w i l l never understand i t s e l f . So i t gets angry and takes vengeance i n the form o f man. L i k e an evil...mm..." Sania's f u r t h e r words were i n a u d i b l e . In e f f e c t , he was t a l k i n g to h i m s e l f , f o r the peasants got t i r e d o f s t r a i n i n g t o hear him and began t o d i s c u s s t h e i r own a f f a i r s . "Love? Yes./" Sania muttered. "But l o v e o n l y complicates and confuses e v e r y t h i n g . . . " ' The n a r r a t i v e i n t e r j e c t i o n s i n t o the dialogue/monologue thus r e f l e c t ; : t h e changes i n the d i r e c t speech environment as w e l l as the mood o f the c h a r a c t e r s . -In Shukshin's w r i t i n g then, semantic and s t y l i s t i c d e v i c e s are as important t o the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the d i r e c t speech form as the a c t u a l l i n g u i s t i c p o r t r a y a l o f the remarks. These f e a t u r e s a re o f t e n ignored i n the c o n c e n t r a -t i o n on examining the l e x i c a l and s y n t a c t i c elements o f Shukshin's work. 80 Shukshin's d i r e c t speech form, and p a r t i c u l a r l y h i s d i a l o g u e s and monologues, are dramatized. Through them, he attempts to convey the dramatism, t e n s i o n , and c o n t r a d i c t i o n s o f a s i t u a t i o n . The i n d i v i d u a l remarks of h i s heroes and c h a r a c t e r s are d e f i n i t e l y l a c o n i c and e l l i p t i c d e s p i t e the l e n g t h a t which some may speak. Because i n s t r u c t u r e , syntax, and form Shukshin's monologues and d i a l o g u e s simulate the t y p i c a l f e a t u r e s o f r e a l forms, the remarks of the c h a r a c t e r s are i n t e n s i f i e d i n t h e i r e x p r e s s i v e c a p a c i t i e s , and the thoughts and f e e l i n g s o f the c h a r a c t e r s are u n i q u e l y but a u t h e n t i c a l l y communicated. As Shuksin's work developed and matured from the e a r l y s t o r i e s t o those of the l a t e 1960s, he began more f r e q u e n t l y to develop h i s heroes i n such a way as would promote a need i n them to q u e s t i o n and to assess the circumstances and events which a f f e c t e d them i n t h e i r d a i l y l i v e s . A r e f l e c t i v e q u a l i t y appears i n the heroes' d i a l o g u e s and monologues, a q u a l i t y which i s some-times expressed t h o u g h t f u l l y , g e n t l y , or q u i e t l y , as opposed to other times when i t comes f o r t h l o u d l y , e m o t i o n a l l y and a g g r e s s i v e l y . When Shukshin's hero begins to meditate upon experiences which have been evoked by the immediate d i a l o g i c a l s i t u a t i o n , i t i s t y p i c a l t h a t h i s i n t e r l o c u t o r s are o n l y a b l e t o supply b r i e f remarks or simple c o n f i r m a t i o n t h a t they agree, d i s a g r e e , or are l i s t e n i n g . In ' S l u c h a i v r e s t o r a n e ' , the nameless h e r o - e c c e n t r i c i n t e n t l y t r i e s to convince a young man who has s a t down a t h i s t a b l e , t h a t the young female s i n g e r i n the r e s t a u r a n t must be saved. 81 *" Ah, what an empty l i f e I've l i v e d , V a n i a ! What a waste... I haven't even l o v e d . Been a f r a i d t o l o v e , I r e a l l y have." "Why?" The o l d man wasn't l i s t e n i n g t o him, he j u s t went on t a l k i n g . "Ah, once t h e r e was a g i r l l i k e t h a t , and she used to s i n g t o o . . . I t was h e a r t - r e n d i n g . And I used to s i t l i k e t h i s and l i s t e n . She needed to be saved too.." " . . . B e t t e r i f I'd done something s i l l y , b e t t e r to have been a drunkard. Perhaps I'd have been a b i t b o l d e r . " "...^i'fiever once d i d a r a s h t h i n g . Can you b e l i e v e i t ? " "What's so bad about t h a t ? " "Not one o f f e n c e . I t ' s r e v o l t i n g . I t ' s t e r r i b l e I " . . . „ In 'Veruiu!', Maksim I a r i k o v ' s ponderings about why he f e e l s an ache i n h i s s o u l l e a d him to the b r e a k i n g p o i n t i n an exchange with h i s w i f e . "... "You wori;'^t . understand. " "Why not? E x p l a i n and I w i l l understand." "Well, look, you've got a l l the normal p a r t s of the body - arms, legs...and what not. What s i z e they are i s another q u e s t i o n , but they're a l l more or l e s s i n the r i g h t p l a c e . I f your l e g h u r t s , you f e e l i t . I f you're hungry, you get something to e a t . Okay?" "Well?"... "But a man has a s o u l t o o ! Here i t i s , here, and i t aches!" Maksim p o i n t e d to h i s c h e s t . "I'm not making i t up. I can f e e l i t e l e m e n t a l l y - i t aches!" "Have you got any o t h e r aches?" 82 ..."Ask me who I hate more than anyone i n the world, and I ' l l t e l l you: people who have no s o u l . Or a r o t t e n one. T a l k i n g t o you i s l i k e knocking my head a g a i n s t a b r i c k w a l l . " "Huh! Windbag!" "Oh, get l o s t ! " 5 A s i m i l a r , m e d i t a t i v e element i s common t o Shukshin's monological forms and e s p e c i a l l y i n t e r n a l i z e d monologues, which are found i n the s t o r i e s of h i s l a t e r p e r i o d w i t h more frequency. These i n t e r n a l monologues c o n s i s t e n t l y bear g r e a t s i m i l a r i t y to an u t t e r e d d i r e c t speech form, f o r the l e x i c o n and syntax i s not a l t e r e d . An example o f Shukshin's i n t e r n a l monologue i s to be found i n the s t o r y 'The Bastard'/'Suraz* i n which the hero, S p i r k a Rastorguev, d i s c u s s e s a l t e r n a t i v e s w i t h h i m s e l f a f t e r he has twice been d r i v e n out of the home o f a gymnastics teacher and h i s young, p r e t t y w i f e . ' Well chump... You're t r a s h , a r e n ' t you? Thrown out l i k e some mangy c r e a t u r e , and you...Well, now!... How I was beaten! Laughing and p l a y i n g . . . I was dragged out, trampled; -But what k i n d o f person are you? A f t e r a l l , people w i l l laugh a t you. And the teacher w i l l be the f i r s t one t o laugh. What are you? Not a s i n g l e o l d woman would a l l o w h e r s e l f t o be t r e a t e d l i k e t h a t . ' g With h i s i n t e r n a l monologue, Shukshin i s a b l e t o p o r t r a y both the emotion and the p r o c e s s of r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n which occur i n S p i r k a ' s mind. The syntax i s e l l i p t i c i n the extreme, jumping from one thought to another and l e a v i n g thoughts incomplete, which serves to i n d i c a t e the mental and emotional a c t i v i t y which the hero i s e x p e r i e n c i n g . Thus, the thoughts of the hero are s t r u c t u r a l l y and s t y l i s t i c a l l y r e p r e s e n t e d as d i r e c t speech even though not a word i s u t t e r e d t o anyone. However, i t i s t y p i c a l of Shukshin's 83 d i r e c t speech s t y l e t h a t w h i l e employing i n t e r n a l monologue on one l e v a l , he a l s o i n c l u d e s a good amount of a c t u a l d i a l o g u e between c h a r a c t e r s a t another l e v e l w i t h i n the same s t o r y . H i s works 'Thoughts'/'Dumy* and 'Uncle E r m o l a i ' i l l u s t r a t e t h i s f e a t u r e w e l l . Both i n v o l v e f l a s h b a c k s i n the hero's mind (which are r e v e a l e d through the use o f i n t e r n a l monologue), w h i l e the s t o r y i s s e t i n the present w i t h the hero a c t i n g and c o n v e r s i n g w i t h o t h e r s around him. Shukshin employs two o t h e r types o f d i r e c t speech forms i n h i s works which are n e i t h e r as d i s c e r n i b l e nor as t a n g i b l e as the d i r e c t speech types o f monologue or d i a l o g u e . These forms have been i d e n t i f i e d by v a r i o u s S o v i e t c r i t i c s as 'impersonal 7 8 d i r e c t speech' and ' f r e e d i r e c t speech'. T h e i r r e g u l a r usage by Shukshin enhances and e n r i c h e s the o v e r a l l i m pression of the c o n v e r s a t i o n a l , c o n c i s e q u a l i t y c r e a t e d i n the works. The b a s i c d i s t i n g u i s h i n g f e a t u r e between 'impersonal' and ' f r e e ' d i r e c t speech forms and the forms o f d i a l o g u e and monologue, l i e s i n the f a c t t h a t the former are not u t t e r e d remarks although they 9 do bear c l o s e resemblance to such remarks. Next to the dynamism o f p o r t r a y a l a f f o r d e d a c h a r a c t e r by h i s use of d i a l o g u e and monologue, ' f r e e d i r e c t speech' accounts f o r the e a s i l y p e r c e i v e d c o n v e r s a t i o n a l and i n t o n a t i o n a l q u a l i t i e s o f Shukshin's work. M o r p h o l o g i c a l l y and s y n t a c t i c a l l y , the ' f r e e ' form o f d i r e c t speech corresponds to u t t e r e d forms and i s d i f f e r -e n t i a t e d l a r g e l y by i t s g r a p h i c p r e s e n t a t i o n . -Shukshin's most common method o f employing ' f r e e d i r e c t speech* i s i n combination w i t h a n a r r a t i v e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f one or two sentences. Thus, 8 4 i n d i r e c t and d i r e c t speech forms a r e e n c l o s e d t o g e t h e r w i t h i n one paragraph. In t h i s way, the ' f r e e ' form o f d i r e c t speech i s e s p e c i a l l y e f f e c t i v e s i n c e i t appears to continue the monologue or d i a l o g u e i n t o the t e x t o f the n a r r a t i o n , but without the a i d of formal markers such as q u o t a t i o n marks or paragraphing. In 'The I n s u l t ' / ' O b i d a ' , Sashka Ermolaiev's mental s t a t e i s v i v i d l y d e p i c t e d as he w a i t s to t a l k t o an e l d e r l y s t r a n g e r who has been an accomplice to the i n s u l t h u r l e d a t him by a s h o p c l e r k . 'He decided to wait f o r t h a t one i n the r a i n c o a t . To t a l k a b i t . How? To ask: how long are we going to a i d b o o r i s h n e s s ? Why should.he jump to such t o a d i e s ? What's i t f o r ? Why the accursed d e s i r e to encourage t h a t rude, b o o r i s h saleswoman, the o f f i c e c l e r k , simply boors - to o b l i g e whatever comes along? S u r e l y , we o u r s e l v e s breed such i l l - m a n n e r s . . . u s . Nobody d e l i v e r e d them to us, they weren't dropped i n parachutes...' 'Free d i r e c t speech' f r e q u e n t l y a c q u i r e s a r h e t o r i c a l q u a l i t y i n many o f the s t o r i e s . Along w i t h the type o f q u e s t i o n i n g found i n the above ex c e r p t which u r g e n t l y demands an answer, the ' f r e e ' form can a l s o take on a r e f l e c t i v e q u a l i t y t o which n e i t h e r answer nor comment i s necessary. F i l l i p p T u r i n , the hero of the s t o r y 'In the Autumn'/'Osen*iu 1, goes through emotional anguish and mental t u r m o i l when he l e a r n s t h a t the woman whom he has l o v e d a l l h i s l i f e , has d i e d . We are a b l e to sense h i s a g i t a t i o n d i r e c t l y , through the use which Shukshin makes o f ' f r e e ' d i r e c t speech. ' The f e r r y was approaching t h i s shore. Again the c h a i n s c l i n k e d and the motors s e t up a h o w l . . . F i l l i p a g a i n stood a t the s c u l l and looked a t the c l o s e d c a r . I t was unfathomable...Never i n h i s l i f e d i d he t h i n k : what i f Mar'ia was to d i e ? Not once d i d he t h i n k t h a t . I f t h e r e was something he wasn't ready f o r , i t was her death. When the c l o s e d c a r began to d r i v e o f f the f e r r y , F i l l i p p f e l t an unbearable p a i n 8 5 i n his chest. He was seized by an uneasiness. What should he do? I t was time to leave. D e f i n i t e l y . He shouldn't be l i k e t h i s : he'd follow with h i s eyes, and that would be a l l . What to do? The uneasiness a l l the more commanded him, he did not move from the spot, and he f e l t completely unlike h i m s e l f . * ^ In confusion, indecision, and emotion which the hero experiences are accessible to the reader. The immediacy which the 'free' d i r e c t speech form gives to a scene i s v i t a l to Shukshin's character portrayal, for the intonation and mood created by the usage of such a form substitutes for the pos s i -b i l i t i e s of movement and gesture suggested by an uttered speech form. 'Free d i r e c t speech' i s an essential speech form for the demands of the brevity which characterizes Shukshin's story-scene. Shukshin consciously uses the form as a means of extending the dynamism of fast-moving, strong dialogue into the spheres of narrator commentary and authorial point of view. I t i s es p e c i a l l y important to Shukshin i n the l a t t e r areas since 'free' d i r e c t speech i s devoid of the dryness of i n d i r e c t speech and commentary and i s able to maintain the emotion and authenticity found i n the uttered speech of Shukshin's characters. In Shukshin's story-scenes there i s a strong r e l a t i o n - -ship between the actual dialogue or separate uttered remarks i n a given story, and the d i r e c t speech form i d e n t i f i e d as 'imper-sonal'. 'Impersonal d i r e c t speech * contains within i t s e l f a reproduction of the actual speech of the hero as well as the barely perceptible speech of the narrator which i s conveyed through the prism of the hero's consciousness. -The types of 'impersonal d i r e c t speech' vary i n complexity within the Shukshin story-scene depending 86 upon anumber of s t y l i s t i c f e a t u r e s such as the degree which the hero's speech p e n e t r a t e s t h a t of the n a r r a t o r , the e x t e n t of correspondence between the p o i n t o f view o f the n a r r a t o r and the hero, and the degree o f mutually-shared experience between t h a t which i s conveyed i n the n a r r a t i o n and t h a t conveyed i n the form of 'impersonal d i r e c t speech'. For example, i n the s t o r y ' P e t i a ' , the n a r r a t o r does not p a r t i c i p a t e i n the d i a l o g u e . b u t comments on what he sees and hears from the s i d e . . 'Late a t n i g h t , P e t i a and L i a l ' k a r e t u r n home. P e t i a i s a b i t under the weather. He s i t s down on the porch steps and doesn't want t o go any f u r t h e r . "Come on, Petia'. P e t i a dear." L i a l ' k a c a l l s him. "Don" wanna I." says P e t i a . "Don' wanna!" " P e t i a ! " L i a l ' k a i s almost i n t e a r s . "You've t i r e d me out as i t i s . You're so heavy dear. Come alon g , P e t i a d a r l i n g ? Come on, dear. Have some p i t y on me! Come on, jny d a r l i n g , y o u ' l l j u s t r o l l i n t o bed and be o f f to s l e e p i n winking... Won't you now?" "Don' wanna", grunts the lead-heavy P e t i a . . . Somehow she manages to get P e t i a . up the s t e p s . . . And a l l of a sudden I am s t r u c k by the r e a l i z a t i o n t h a t she a c t u a l l y l o v e s him, does L i a l ' k a . She l o v e s her P e t i a . Why the d e v i l should I s i t here making surmises? She l o v e s him...' 12 The e n t i r e e x c e r p t i s c o n v e r s a t i o n a l and as dynamic and r e a l as i f we are a c t u a l l y h e a r i n g the d i a l o g u e between P e t i a and L i a l ' k a without the mediation of the n a r r a t o r . There i s a c l e a r s e p a r a t i o n between the n a r r a t i o n and the element of 'impersonal d i r e c t speech' found i n the comments of the f i r s t 87 person observer even though both are modes o f conveying i n f o r -mation about what has o c c u r r e d . In the s t o r y 'Fading Blossoms'/'Vianet, propadaet', another v a r i a t i o n o f the 'impersonal' form of d i r e c t speech i s u t i l i z e d . A c h a r a c t e r who i s not p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the immediate d i a l o g u e but i s p a s s i v e l y o b s e r v i n g , makes an e v a l u -a t i o n of the behaviour and speech o f one of the speakers. A l l comments are presented through the eyes of the l i t t l e boy who i s watching the scene. '"Raining, i s i t , V l a d i m i r N i k o l a i e v i c h ? " " D r i z z l i n g . I t ' s the time of year f o r i t now, i s i t not?" Uncle V o l o d i a spoke v e r y n e a t l y somehow,. p l a c i n g h i s words l i k e t oy b r i c k s , f i r s t i n one p o s i t i o n , then - a f t e r due c o n s i d e r a t i o n - i n another. "Yes, the season...What i s i t today? The twenty-seventh? In t h r e e days...we s h a l l be i n October." "We s h a l l t h a t " , mother si g h e d . Slavka was s u r p r i s e d t h a t h i s mother, u s u a l l y so clamorous and sharp-tongued, should always q u i e t l y agree w i t h e v e r y t h i n g Uncle V o l o d i a s a i d . She was h a r d l y h e r s e l f . She blushed and d i t h e r e d . . . " S t i l l p l a y i n g are you, Slavka?" 1, Uncle V o l o d i a asked. "He p l a y s " , mother shot back. "He's a t i t as soon as he comes home from s c h o o l . I'm t i r e d o f i t - r i n g i n g i n my e a r s . " T h i s was a whopping l i e and Slavka m a r v e l l e d inwardly.,_ Because the n a r r a t o r and the l i t t l e boy Slavka share the same p o i n t o f view r e g a r d i n g the behaviour of Slavka's mother and the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f Uncle V o l o d i a , the c o n v e r s a t i o n a l exchanges which occur can be presented d i r e c t l y to the reader i n combination w i t h the immediate r e a c t i o n o f the o b s e r v e r s . 88 N a r r a t i v e i n t e r v e n t i o n does not impose i t s e l f but i n s t e a d f i t s a p p r o p r i a t e l y and c o n c i s e l y i n t o the d i a l o g i c a l s t r u c t u r e o f the s t o r y . Shukshin i s a b l e t o use the d e v i s e o f 'impersonal d i r e c t speech' to i t s f u l l p o t e n t i a l i n the p o r t r a y a l o f the psychology of h i s h e r o - e c c e n t r i c . J u s t as r e a l i t y a n d the r e a l i t y o f the i m a g i n a t i o n are counterposed i n the r e v e l a t i o n of c h a r a c t e r as w e l l as i n theme, the same dualism i s strengthened by Shukshin's use of d i r e c t speech forms. A f a v o u r i t e method o f c h a r a c t e r i z i n g h i s h e r o - e c c e n t r i c , i s to use 'impersonal d i r e c t speech' i n com-b i n a t i o n w i t h an a c t u a l u t t e r e d remark. The remark i s d i v i d e d i n t o two forms, the pronounced and unpronounced, and thus has an important impact a t the i n t e r i o r and s u p e r f i c i a l l e v e l s o f the hero's c o n s c i o u s n e s s . For example, the hero i n the s t o r y 'The Odd-Ball'/'Chudik', t u r n s i n a f i f t y r o u b l e note which he has found l y i n g on the f l o o r o f a produce^ s t o r e . He t e l l s the c a s h i e r w i t h p r i d e t h a t : "Where I'm from, f o r example, we don't t o s s around t h i s k i n d of money." As he walks away, he f e e l s good, and the sentence which he has u t t e r e d embodies h i s p r i d e . 'CGhudik] r e p e a t s the s i t u a t i o n m e n t a l l y ^ he thought i t a l l over -how e a s i l y and c a s u a l l y he had s a i d i t : "Where I'm from,, f o r JL4 example, we don't t o s s around t h i s k i n d of money." -In such a speech combination o f u t t e r e d remarks and 'impersonal d i r e c t speech', the hero i s shown imagining the e f f e c t and impact o f what he has s a i d upon those around him. From t h i s combination o f the r e a l and the subsequently s u b j e c t i v i z e d r e p r o d u c t i o n , Shukshin proceeds w i t h h i s h e r o - e c c e n t r i c 89 f a r t h e r i n t o the realm o f the imagined r e a l i t y . U sing the form of 'impersonal d i r e c t speech', Shukshin's hero responds i n h i s im a g i n a t i o n t o an event or c o n v e r s a t i o n a l exchange which has a c t u a l l y taken p l a c e . The f o l l o w i n g e x c e r p t from the 1972 s t o r y 'How the Rabbit Flew i n a Balloon*/"Kak z a i k a l e t a l na vozdushnykh sha r i k a k h ' , demonstrates how Shukshin employs, t h i s t e c h n ique. In h i s i m a g i n a t i o n , Egor produces a r e t o r t to the uncooperative remarks o f a t i c k e t - s e l l e r w i t h whom he had e a r l i e r had a con-v e r s a t i o n . He goes to the t i c k e t o f f i c e h i m s e l f , t o k i o s k number three but he f i n d s t h a t ' . . . i t wasn't her when he approached the wicket. I f i t had been her, Egor would have s a i d t o t h a t woman i n the l i t t l e window...He would have s a i d . - " I t seems t h a t one t i c k e t has been found a f t e r a l l , eh? Oh, you...Well, how d i d t h a t come about, my dear one? And you s i t l o o k i n g so s t e r n and j u s t . "I've a l r e a d y t o l d you, no t i c k e t s ! " But one c a l l - a n d a t i c k e t , i t turns out, i s a v a i l a b l e . -That means t h a t you should say: "For you - t h e r e i s none". And the look, the look - one can't get near you! There i s n ' t a n y thing l i k e i t except i n a m i l i t a r y cap." W e l l , perhaps, he wouldn't have s a i d i t so s a r c a s t i c a l l y . . . ' " " " ^ Such usage o f 'impersonal d i r e c t speech' s u c c e s s f u l l y adds to the p o r t r a y a l o f the hero and t o the e l u c i d a t i o n o f h i s p e r s p e c t i v e s on the world around him. - F r e q u e n t l y , such forms take on stro n g s a t i r i c a l overtones as the ex c e r p t above. Shukshin t r e a t s as r e a l i t y a s i t u a t i o n or an event which the h e r o - e c c e n t r i c has imagined f o r h i m s e l f - i n i t s e n t i r e t y . The use of the 'impersonal d i r e c t speech' form i s t y p i c a l o f 90 the s t o r i e s i n which the f a n t a s y of the h e r o - e c c e n t r i c i s e s p e c i -a l l y deep-rooted. The heros f u r t h e r r e v e a l the i n c o n g r u i t y between t h e i r r e a l i t y and the accepted r e a l i t y i n a d i r e c t way, f o r Shukshin exposes the psychology of the hero a t work. T h i s i s e v i d e n t i n 'The O p e r a t i o n of Efim P i a n y k h ' / ' O p e r a t s i i a Efima Pianykh' as the c h a r a c t e r m e n t a l l y s e t s the scene f o r h i m s e l f and f o r the r e a d e r . 'The c l o s e r Efim got t o the h o s p i t a l , the more unnerved and cowardly he became...Well, l e t ' s say they admitted him without having to w a i t i n l i n e . The d o c t o r . A young, imposing woman. "What's the matter w i t h you?" "A s p l i n t e r . " "Where?" "There." "Where's 'there'?" "Well, t h e r e . . . " "Show i t to me. My God'. Why was I g i v e n such a sentence?! Couldn't the s c o u n d r e l have got him j u s t a b i t higher'.' ^ T h i s excerpt a n t i c i p a t e s the l a c k of congruence which can occur between an imagined s i t u a t i o n and the s i t u a t i o n which r e a l l y does o c c u r . But Shukshin makes t h i s non^-coincidence between a c t u a l and imagined more p r e c i s e - b y c o u n t e r p o s i n g the imagined flow of a s i t u a t i o n to the way i n which i t occurs i n r e a l i t y . '"I've begun to w r i t e my work,..Anna Afanasyevna. ' L e t t e r s from the H i n t e r l a n d . Notes o f a Doctor'... Solodovnikov turned •.toward Anna Afanasyevna...Anna 91 Afanasyevna, the head doc t o r was a c o n s i d e r a t e , mother-hen type...who, having read the 'Notes' i n t h e i r manuscript says i n amazement: " I t ' s j u s t l i k e a n o v e l ! " - " A l l r i g h t , but as a d o c t o r does t h i s i n t e r e s t you?" - "Very much! There are simply the most wonderful t h i n g s i n i t 1 . " - "And as f o r y o u r s e l f . . .you don't take o f f e n c e a t the author?" - " W e l l , o f course not, what i s there to be offended about? I t ' s a l l t r u e . . . " "...So you've a l r e a d y begun to w r i t e ? " asked Anna Afanasyevna. "Some k i n d of notes. Is t h a t why you're l a t e ? " Solodovnikov was offended by the head d o c t o r : a m a r t i n e t i n a s k i r t . Only one. t h i n g , the sheet i r o n was on her mind.",_ The flow and d i r e c t i o n of the d i a l o g u e which the hero Solodovnikov imagines w i l l take p l a c e i s completely o p p o s i t e to the form which the dialogue, does take between h i m s e l f and the head d o c t o r . S e v e r a l elements are repeated i n both the r e a l and imagined v e r s i o n s . -The r e a c t i o n o f Anna Afanasyevna to h i s l i t e r a r y endeavor i s q u i t e the o p p o s i t e t o t h a t which the d o c t o r - a u t h o r had dreamed i t would be. The 'mother hen' image which Solodovnikov p r o j e c t s f o r the head d o c t o r i s not upheld i n h i s e s t i m a t i o n o f her i n r e a l l i f e as a ' m a r t i n e t ' ; Shukshin's use of the 'impersonal' d i r e c t speech form allows him the freedom to c r e a t e s i t u a t i o n s and c o n v e r s a t i o n s which e x i s t o n l y w i t h i n the mind o f the hero, y e t are v e r y r e a l -i s t i c to the r e a d e r . 'Impersonal d i r e c t - s p e e c h ' as used by Shukshin may be c o n s i d e r e d as d i r e c t speech which has f o r f e i t e d i t s c o n v e n t i o n a l s t y l i s t i c and g r a p h i c form and has taken on the f u n c t i o n of b e i n g a f a c e t of the hero's c o n s c i o u s n e s s . The support which t h i s form g i v e s Shukshin's s o c i o - p s y c h o l o g i c a l 92 emphasis on the development of the character of his hero i s v i t a l for he i s able to delve into the consciousness of the hero and fi n d there a dynamic world which at times r e f l e c t s and at other times d i s t o r t s the r e a l world. I t i s the composite structure of the Shukshin story-scene which concerns us. The mutually complementary and supple-mentary features of the forms and variati o n s of dialogue, monologue, 'free' and 'impersonal' d i r e c t speech are responsible for the c r i t i c a l and public success of Shukshin's s t o r i e s . Through the application of such speech forms, Shukshin creates the l i n g u i s t i c a l l y diverse and conversationally a g i l e q u a l i t y .with which his s t o r i e s have become associated.. I would now l i k e to investigate b r i e f l y the s t y l i s t i c means by which Shukshin developed an i n d i v i d u a l i z e d means of expression from the general l i n g u i s t i c materials with which he chose to work and which became c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the author and of his type of hero. Because Shukshin's d i r e c t speech forms are a l l designed s p e c i f i c a l l y to represent the concrete speech and thought of the hero, Shukshin's f i g u r a t i v e system i s not extensive. The images which Shukshin does create are expressed la r g e l y i n terms of the simile, metaphor, p e r s o n i f i c i a t i o n , and the epithet, a l l of which represent the figures of speech most common to and widespread i n popular and regional d i a l e c t i c a l lexicons. Generally, the images are v i v i d and concise and are offered to the reader either through d i r e c t speech forms or through a descriptive narration. The brevity of the image i s concurrent with the e l l i p t i c nature of Shukshin's conversational 93 exchanges and w i t h the type o f d i a l e c t which Shukshin employs. The b a s i c f i g u r e s o f speech, s i m i l e and p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n are pres e n t i n h i s works i n l a r g e amount r e f l e c t i n g the p r o p e n s i t y of popular language and c o n v e r s a t i o n toward these d e v i c e s . 1 " D o v o l ' n y i - t o . Zhmurissia,kak kot na solnyshke..."' ( 1 : 3 3 5 ) 1 8 ' " P r i r o d a nikogda s e b i a ne poimet...Ona v z b e s i l a s ' i m s t i t za s e b i a v l i t s e cheloveka..."' (1:18 3)., 'Po voskresen'iam n a v a l i v a l a s ' osobennaia t o s k a . . . Maksim f i z i c h e s k i c h u s t v o v a l ee, gadinu: kak e s l i by n e o p r i a t n a i a , ne sovsem zd o r o v a i a baba, b e s s o v e s t n a i a s t i a z h e l y m zapakhom i z o r t a , o b s h a r i v a l a evo vsevo rukami...' (Besedy:120) '" B i u r o k r a t i z m , on, znaete, r a z ' e d a e t ne t o l ' k o u c h r e z h d e n i i a , - sochuvstvenno z a g o v o r i l s t a r i c h o k . -Vot zdes'...zdes' on p r o i a v l i a e t s i a v n a i b o l e e u r o d l i v o i forme."" (Besedy:47) In those s t o r i e s i n which Shukshin's hero i s a c t i v e l y engaged i n d i a l o g u e and monologue, t h e r e i s - g e n e r a l l y a synecdochal image i n c l u d e d r e p r e s e n t i n g one o f the secondary c h a r a c t e r s . These personages pass through the hero's consciousness and are r e v e a l e d t o the reader by t h e i r s t r o n g e s t , most v i t a l q u a l i t y . 'Plashch o s t a n o v i l s i a , nedobro u s t a v i l s i a na Sashku.' (1:209) 'I o p i a t ' v s k o c h i l i k h o t e l s k o l ' z n u t ' pod c chudovishchnyi shatun - k g o r l u f i z k u l f t u r n i k a . No v t o r o i shatun korotko d v i n u l evo v c h e l i u s t * s n i z u . . . ' (1:195) 'A small neat head appears round the door. Two c l e a r eyes, t h e i r l i d s s t i l l s l i g h t l y p u f f y from s l e e p . . . He's i n l o v e w i t h t h a t neat l i t t l e head and never t e l l s her about i t . ' (Sov. L i t , 9 (1975);38-39) A f i g u r a t i v e d e v i c e o f which Shukshin i s fond i s the use of names which c h a r a c t e r i z e the e s s e n t i a l f e a t u r e s o f a 94 personage i n one word. These are more r e v e a l i n g of c h a r a c t e r than a simple nickname and may be c o n s i d e r e d as a type o f synecdoche s i n c e they are a p p l i e d o n l y to 'anonymous' c h a r a c t e r s . Because we know nothing about the personage other than what the c o n n o t a t i o n i n the c h a r a c t e r i z i n g name p r o v i d e s , the image t h a t we have o f these c h a r a c t e r s i s based on the name alone . In the s a t i r i c a l s t o r y 'Three G r a c e s ' / ' T r i G r a t s i i ' , Shukshin uses h i s n a m e - c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n e f f e c t i v e l y . 'Sperva korotko o p i s h u i k h . Nomer o d i n . T i k h a i a s v i d u , y ochkakh, korotkonogaia... Budem nazyvat' ee T i k h u s h n i t s a . Nomer dva. Za sorok.Krupnaia, s v i s h n e v o i borodavkoi na shee. G o v o r i t gromko, uverenno... Budem nazyvat' ee D e i a t e l * . Nomer t r i . R y z h e v o l o s a i a . * . S t r e m i t e l ' n a i a v mysiiakh, master zamochnykh skvazhin...Budem nazyvat* ee L e t i a s h c h a i a po volnam. Mozhno pro s t o Ryzhaia.' (1:255) Such ch a r a c t e r i z a t i o n - b y - n a m e i ? found i n s e v e r a l s t o r i e s and i s o f t e n i n c l u d e d i n the t i t l e of such s t o r i e s as 'Chudik', 'Psikhopat', 'Khmyr', 'Ryzhyi'. The c h a r a c t e r o f these h e r o e s i s s e t a t the beginning o f the s t o r y , and because the hero remains c o n s t a n t , with h i s a c t i o n s and i n t e r a c t i o n s w i t h o t h e r s around him p r o v i n g the accuracy of the a p p e l l a t i o n , the c h a r a c t e r -i z a t i o n found i n h i s name makes him a k i n to the heroes o f the Russian f o l k - t a l e , the 'skazka'. In f a c t , another l e v e l of i m a g i s t i c v o c a b u l a r y i n Shukshin's work does f i n d i t s source i n Russian o r a l f o l k - a r t which extends a tremendous i n f l u e n c e over Shukshin's work. Not i n f r e q u e n t l y , h i s n a r r a t i v e i s enhanced by l e x i c a l and s t r u c t u r a l elements of the 'skazka', the most popular form o f o r a l f o l k - a r t . 95 Such i n c l u s i o n s are e v i d e n t from the t i t l e s of s e v e r a l s t o r i e s such as 'Kak z a i k a l e t a l na vozdushnykh s h a r i k a k h ' and 'Do t r e t ' > ~ ik h petukhov'. They are a l s o seen i n the opening l i n e s o f many of h i s works. ' Z h i l - b y l v s e l e Cherbrovka nekto Semka Rys'...' (1:244) *V ra i g o r o d o k N. p r i e k h a l i e t i , kotorye po v e r t i k a l ' n o i stene na m o t o t s i k l a k h ezdut.' (1:362) 'Davno-davno eto b y l o ! Tak davno, chto'< vspomlnat•' neokhota, kogda eto b y l o . Eto b y l o davno i prekrasno.' (1:403) Shukshin i s s e n s i t i v e not o n l y t o the r o l e and p o t e n t i a l of the spoken word, but a l s o to the e f f e c t and mood which the use of f o l k songs and poetry can c r e a t e . Songs are p r e s e n t w i t h i n the s t r u c t u r e o f s e v e r a l o f Shukshin's s t o r i e s and he uses them t o attune the reader e m o t i o n a l l y t o the theme of h i s work. 'Potom A n t i p z a i g r a l v e s e l u i u . . . Okh, tarn, r i - t a - t a m , R i t a t u s h e n ' k i moi, Pokhodite, p o g u l i a i t e , P o - b a - l u i - t i s i a 1 "..Kakuiu z h e l a e t e , mademuazel' f r a u ? " "Pro V o l o d t s i u - m o l o d t s a . " ."^ Ona t i a z h e l a i a , nu ee!" "Nichevo. Ia poplachu knot' maleh*ko." Okh, ne v e i t i - s i a c h a i k i nad morem . , -. ... \ " z a p e l A n t i p , -' • Vam-nekuda, bednen'kim, s e s t ' . S l e t a i t e v S i b i r ' , v k r a i d a l e k i i , S n e s i t e p e c h a l ' n u - i a v e s t ' . ...Marfa z a k h l i u p a l a . " A n t i p , a A n t i p ! . . P r o s t i t y menia, e s l i i a chem-nibud' t e b i a o b i z h a i u , " p r o g o v o r i l a ona skvoz' s l e z y . "Erunda", s k a z a l A n t i p . --"Ty menia tozhe p r o s t i , e s l i i a v i n o v a t y i . " ' (1:29) The above scene i s from the e a r l y s t o r y 'Alone'/'Odni". An e l d e r l y couple t r i e s t o come to terms w i t h t h e i r d i f f e r i n g views about what i s important i n l i f e . The songs, happy and sad, r e f l e c t 96 t h e i r many years of l i f e t ogether and r e c o n c i l e the s i t u a t i o n between them to one o f compromise and understanding. Words from f o l k songs are found i n Shukshin's s t o r y t i t l e s throughout h i s l i t e r a r y c a r e e r . -The words t o the songs e i t h e r appear w i t h i n the t e x t o f the s t o r y i t s e l f ('Vianet, propadaet', "Zhena muzha v P a r i z h p r o v o z h a l a ' , V voskresen'e Mat'-Starushka') or are i n c l u d e d as an epigraph t o the s t o r y , ('I r a z i g r a l i s * zhe k o n i p o l e ' ) . The songs thus become l e i t m o t i f s of the s t o r i e s i n which they a p p e a r . I n 'A Wife saw her Husband o f f to P a r i s ' , the use o f the song i s e s p e c i a l l y poignant f o r i t i s the hero's temporary r e l e a s e from the p r e s s u r e s i n h i s d a i l y l i f e and i t a l s o r e f l e c t s the tragedy of h i s i n e v i t a b l e s u i c i d e . 'Kazhduiu n e d e l i u , v subbotu vecherom, Kol'ka Paratov daet vo dvore k o n t s e r t . V y n o s i t t r e k h r i a d k u s malinovym mekhom," r a z v o r a c h i v a e t ee, i : A zhena muzha v P a r i z h provozhala, N a s u s h i l a emu s u k h a r e i . . . P r o i g r y s h . Kol'ka, smeshno o t k l i a c h i v zad, p r i t a n t s o v y v a e t . ...Molchat vokrug, budto d o g a d y v a i u t s i a : paren' v y p l i a s y v a e t kakuiu-to s v o i u zataennuiu g o r ' k u i u b o l ' . 1 ( 1 : 2 3 2 - 2 3 4 ) But Kol'ka's l i f e i s not as gay as h i s song, and j u s t as the words of the song b e g i n the t r a g i c s t o r y o f Kol'ka Paratov, so they are r e c a l l e d j u s t b e f o r e h i s s u i c i d e . *"Tak?", s p r o s i l s e b i a Kol'ka. " Z n a c h i t , zhena muzha v P a r i z h p r o v o z h a l a ? " . Z a k r y l okno, z a k r y l f o r t o c h k u . . . V z i a l karandash i krupno n a p i s a l na belom kraeshke gazety: 'Dochen'ka, papa uekhal v komandirovku.'' ( 1 : 2 3 2 - 2 3 4 ) A f e a t u r e a l s o o f Shukshin's t i t l e s i s t h a t many o f them are symbolic and more o r g a n i c a l l y interwoven i n t o the n a r r a t i v e 97 of the s t o r y than i s u s u a l . 'Suraz' f o r example, i s a t y p i c a l l y S i b e r i a n word which i s not found i n any d i c t i o n a r y o f the Russian language. I t i s a powerful word wi t h m u l t i p l e meanings,, embracing the n o t i o n o f i l l e g i t i m a t e b i r t h as w e l l as t h a t o f a mischievous event, a d i s t r e s s . The hero, S p i r k a Rastorguev, i s 'suraz' and the a p p l i c a t i o n of the word to him i s a p p r o p r i a t e . I t f o r e -t e l l s the t w i s t e d f a t e o f the young man which we come to l e a r n d u r i n g the course o f the s t o r y . ' K a l i n a K r a s n a i a ' , the name o f another o f Shukshin's works, i s a popular e p i t h e t and an image bound up wit h f o l k b e l i e f . The guelder r o s e i s the f o l k symbol o f a b e l a t e d , o f t e n t r a g i c love which i s u n r e a l i z a b l e . In h i s attempt t o d e p i c t the c h a r a c t e r s and t h e i r c i r -cumstances r e a l i s t i c a l l y , Shukshin t u r n s to the words, e x p r e s s i o n s and f i g u r a t i v e speech which are found i n the voc a b u l a r y o f the c h a r a c t e r s . These l e x i c a l and semantic elements are used spontaneously by the c h a r a c t e r s , f o r Shukshin t r i e s , whenever p o s s i b l e , to speak about the s u b j e c t i n the l a r g e o f the s u b j e c t i t s e l f . 98 - 2 -A d e t a i l e d d i s c u s s i o n of Shukshin's d i a l o g u e has been p l a c e d a t the end of my i n v e s t i g a t i o n of the author's use o f d i r e c t speech forms because h i s d i a l o g u e , more than any o t h e r o f the forms, i s g r e a t l y dependent upon the l e x i c o n from which i t i s c o n s t r u c t e d . Whereas other d i r e c t speech types are e s s e n t i a l l y p s y c h o l o g i c a l and r e v e l a t o r y of mood,-state o f mind and emotion because of t h e i r s u b j e c t i v i z e d n a tures, d i a l o g u e depends upon the o b j e c t i v e r e p r o d u c t i o n o f though and v e r b a l exchanges w i t h a l l of the s u b t l e t i e s and nuances i n h e r e n t i n these forms. Through the e x t e r n a l i z e d q u a l i t y o f d i a l o g u e , the i n t e r n a l , sometimes s p i r i t u a l process of change which i s o c c u r r i n g w i t h i n the hero, comes to the s u r f a c e . I t i s , i n f a c t , the d i a l o g u e which i s the d r i v i n g f o r c e behind the m a n i f e s t a t i o n of the hero i n the m a j o r i t y o f Shukshin's s t o r i e s and i s a compensating f a c t o r f o r the g e n e r a l l y d i m i n i s h e d r o l e of p l o t . In some ways, the use of d i a l o g u e to r e v e a l e f f e c t i v e l y a hero i s more d i f f i c u l t than to simply a l l o w the reader i n t o the mind of the personage as one might w i t h i n t e r n a l monologue or other d i r e c t speech t y p e s . The hero must be understood through h i s v e r b a l r e l a t i o n s , r e a c t i o n s , and communications w i t h o t h e r s . Because Shukshin's d i a l o g i c forms are c h a r a c t e r i z e d by t h e i r l a c o n i c i s m , they c o n t a i n o n l y those thoughts, emotions, pr f e e l i n g s which are e s s e n t i a l t o the s t o r y . Such s y n t a c t i c f e a t u r e s of c o n v e r s a t i o n as exclamations and the omission of v e r b a l forms, as w e l l as the u t i l i z a t i o n o f s t y l i s t i c elements such as the 99 pause or a sudden change of t o p i c or thought, a t t e s t to the e l l i p t i c q u a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of Shukshin's work. The i n d i v i d u a l words which Shukshin's c h a r a c t e r s and p a r t i c u l a r l y h i s heroes use to express themselves become symbols and i n d i c a t o r s o f t h e i r p o r t r a y e d environments, f o r o f t e n , i f the words do not convey f a c t s and events, they do c r e a t e an i n t e r n a l and s u b j e c t i v e r e a l i t y . Bronka Pupkov, H i t l e r ' s would-be a s s a s s i n , i s a prime example, f o r through Bronka's d i a l o g u e we come to understand'him as a complete person who possesses needs and d e s i r e s no matter how strange these may seem t o us. The Shukshin d i a l o g u e i s never a b s t r a c t d e s p i t e the e c c e n t r i c and f a n c i f u l i d e a s propounded by the v a r i o u s heroes and d e s p i t e the o f t e n d i f f i c u l t v o c a b u l a r y which i s drawn from the l i t t l e - k n o w n S i b e r i a n d i a l e c t , or a s o c i a l l y - r o o t e d d i a l e c t . Shukshin takes t h i s c o n c r e t e v o c a b u l a r y and e x p e r t l y r e c o n s t r u c t s the c o l l o q u i a l d a i l y speech of the Russian c o u n t r y s i d e , or the c o n v e r s a t i o n a l or t e c h n i c a l speech of v a r i o u s s t r a t a o f Russian s o c i e t y . He does t h i s w i t h g r e a t s k i l l , t r a n s f e r r i n g the shape, e x p r e s s i o n , and n a t u r a l n e s s i n h e r e n t i n these l e x i c o n s i n t o h i s l i t e r a r y d i a l o g u e . Through the use of d i a l e c t s i n h i s work, Shukshin accomplishes an important t a s k - he i n t r o d u c e s and f a m i l i a r i z e s the reader with the unique thought, p h i l o s o p h y , and d i s p o s i t i o n o f the segments o f the S o v i e t p o p u l a t i o n which use the d i s t i n c t i v e l e x i c o n s . 100 Shukshin has a n a t u r a l and informed command o f a l l of the v o c a b u l a r i e s w i t h which he works i n h i s s t o r i e s . The p a r t i c u l a r S i b e r i a n d i a l e c t which i s so o f t e n used, i s , i n e f f e c t , h i s ' f i r s t language', w h i l e some of the s o c i a l d i a l e c t s were subsequently a c q u i r e d through p e r s o n a l c o n t a c t and e x p e r i e n c e . Shukshin thus possesses the advantage o f being a b l e t o supplement h i s use of d i a l e c t w i t h a c o n s c i o u s a p p l i c a t i o n of l i t e r a r y d e v i c e s . T h i s combination of elements accentuates both h i s t a l e n t as a w r i t e r and the unusual, o f t e n b e a u t i f u l p r o p e r t i e s 19 of the language of h i s d i a l o g u e s . On most o c c a s i o n s , the l o g i c a l c o n s t r u c t i o n , c l a r i t y , assurance, and emotion o f the speech of the Shukshin hero so captures the a t t e n t i o n t h a t the e x t e r n a l uniqueness of the speech i s h a r d l y p e r c e i v e d . Regionalisms, coarseness, and even a t times o b s c e n i t i e s may be i n c l u d e d i n the language, but they have a l l been accepted i n t o the bounds of the l i t e r a r y v o c a bulary f o r they are necessary to the emotional and moral e f f e c t s which Shukshin i s s t r i v i n g to c r e a t e . L e t us now b r i e f l y examine the a s p e c t s o f the term ' d i a l e c t ' b e f o r e l o o k i n g more c l o s e l y a t the d i a l e c t types and c o n v e r s a t i o n a l s t y l e i n Shukshin's s t o r i e s . In T e o r i i a L i t e r a t u r y , the c l a s s i c work o f the f o r m a l i s t Tomashevskii, 20 the q u e s t i o n o f d i a l e c t i s addressed. Tomashevskii d e l i n e a t e s two types o f d i a l e c t o c currences w i t h i n the l i t e r a r y m i l i e u , both of which are found r e g u l a r l y i n Shukshin's w r i t i n g . The f i r s t i n v o l v e s the use of the v o c a b u l a r y , grammar, or p r o n u n c i a t i o n of an e t h n i c or r e g i o n a l group. Such forms, termed ' r e g i o n a l i s m s • or ' p r o v i n c i a l i s m s ' , are the most obvious o c c u r r e n c e s of d i a l e c t which appear i n a l i t e r a r y work. As such, they have a l s o been the forms most c r i t i c i z e d by l i t e r a r y c r i t i c s . Shukshin wrote v e r y few s t o r i e s i n which a l l o f the occurrences of d i r e c t speech are w r i t t e n i n the d i a l e c t o f the S i b e r i a n v i l l a g e , c o n t r a r y to the p i c t u r e which i s put forward 21 i n some negative c r i t i c i s m o f Shukshin's work. The s t o r i e s i n which t h i s does occur ('Odni', 'Vianet, propadaet', ' V o l k i ' ) are found i n h i s e a r l i e r , pre-1970 works. The second type o f d i a l e c t occurrence found i n Shukshin's s t o r i e s i n v o l v e s the use of t h a t category o f speech i d e n t i f i e d with separate and d e f i n i t e s o c i a l groups, i n c l u d i n g t h a t l e x i c o n which i s commonly termed 'jargon' or ' s l a n g ' . Shukshin uses s o c i a l d i a l e c t s c o n s t a n t l y and w i t h good e f f e c t p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the works w r i t t e n a f t e r 1970. T h i s i n c r e a s e d emphasis on the r e p r o d u c t i o n o f s o c i a l d i a l e c t s r e f l e c t s the thematic m a t u r a t i o n o f Shukshin's work, o f t h i s p e r i o d . Shukshin shows h i m s e l f to be f a m i l i a r w i t h b u r e a u c r a t i c j a r g o n , demon-s t r a t i n g h i s p r o f i c i e n c y w i t h ' o f f i c i a l e s e ' i n such s a t i r e s as 'The Opinion'/'Mnenie' and 'General M a l a f e i k i n ' . He i s s i m i l a r l y e f f e c t i v e i n h i s use of t e c h n i c a l v o cabulary i n 'The O b s t i n a t e One'/*Upornyi', the ' e l e v a t e d ' jargon and speech forms o f the i n t e l l i g e n t s i a i n ' C u t - O f f ' / ' S r e z a l ' , and i n the use o f the s l a n g o f the small town b i g - s h o t i n 'The Brother-in-Law'/*Svoiak S e r g e i S e r g e i c h * . The s o c i a l l e x i c o n predominant i n Shukshin's d i a l o g u e s w r i t t e n a f t e r the mid-19 60s i s one which combines pure ' r e g i o n a l ' elements w i t h those p o s s e s s i n g a ' c i t i f i e d ' or ' i n t e l l e c t u a l * 102 c o a t i n g . These components are i n s e r t e d i n t o the g e n e r a l s t r u c t u r e of Contemporary Standard Russian, the accepted c o n v e r s a t i o n a l form. Such a combination o f the speech of v a r i o u s s o c i a l groups i n t o one l e x i c o n i s termed 'meshchanskii govor 1 - a type o f speech which o c c u p i e s an i n t e r m e d i a t e p o s i t i o n between the s t r a t a o f l i t e r a r y and educated speech and'those o f pure ' r e g i o n a l ' d i a l e c t . The most d i s t i n c t i v e f e a t u r e o f the 'meshchanskii' l e x i c o n i s t h a t , as an in t e r m e d i a t e l a y e r , i t a s p i r e s t o c r e a t e the e f f e c t t h a t i t has mastered urban, educated, i n t e l l e c t u a l speech forms. Having adopted these forms, o f t e n without completely comprehending meanings or co n n o t a t i o n s , the l i n g u i s t i c 'meshchanin' d i s t o r t s the voc a b u l a r y and g i v e s i t new meaning. The 'meshchanskii' l e x i c o n m a n i f e s t s i t s e l f i n many o f Shukshin's s t o r i e s and i n c o u n t l e s s d i a l o g i c a l exchanges, many of which c a r r y s t r o n g s o c i a l overtones and i m p l i c a t i o n s due to the nature o f the l e x i c o n i t s e l f . In the m a j o r i t y o f h i s s t o r i e s , Shukshin uses Contem-porary Standard Russian as the standard a g a i n s t which other d i a l e c t s may be p e r c e i v e d and i d e n t i f i e d . In a g i v e n s t o r y , we may f i n d any combination o f d i a l e c t s counterposed one to another. Numerous s t o r i e s are c o n s t r u c t e d around two main c h a r a c t e r s , one speaking standard Russian and the oth e r the S i b e r i a n d i a l e c t . (jfeel' s k i e z h i t e l i ' , 'Chudik', 'Na kladbishche') . Others i n v o l v e the use of 'meshchanskii' speech counterposed to standard Russian ('Srezal') or to a S i b e r i a n v i l l a g e d i a l e c t ('Svoiak S e r g e i Sergeich');. Shukshin i s a l s o a b l e t o c r e a t e v a r i o u s h y b r i d s o f d i a l e c t w i t h i n h i s works, such as when 103 standard Russian absorbs i n t o i t s e l f - t e c h n i c a l , m e d i c a l , o r b u r e a u c r a t i c jargon ( . ' U p o r n y i * ' P s i k h o p a t ' , 'Mnenie'). Shukshin employs v a r i o u s r e g i o n a l and s o c i a l d i a l e c t s f o r reasons which o b v i o u s l y extend w e l l beyond an a e s t h e t i c v a l u e which may be a t t r i b u t e d to such i n c l u s i o n s . The l e x i c o n which Shukshin chooses f o r h i s s t o r i e s i s i n t e g r a l l y p a r a l l e l l e d t o the themes. An e f f e c t i v e i l l u s t r a t i o n o f t h i s t i g h t r e l a t i o n s h i p between the l e x i c o n o f Shukshin's d i a l o g u e (and d i r e c t speech forms i n general) and the thematic s t r u c t u r e of the s t o r i e s i s seen i n the s t o r y ' S e l ' s k i e z h i t e l i ' . The two main c h a r a c t e r s , a grandmother and her s c h o o l -aged grandson, are separated by more than j u s t t h e i r d i f f e r e n c e i n y e a r s . They l i v e i n two d i f f e r e n t worlds. Babka Malania has decided t o f l y to Moscow to v i s i t her son.. In order t o f i n d out what steps she should take to make t h i s journey, she t a l k s w i t h a neighbour who has done some t r a v e l l i n g , a t l e a s t i n comparison t o h i s f e l l o w v i l l a g e r s . The grandson Shurka l i s t e n s w i t h g r e a t s k e p t i c i s m and growing dismay to the s t o r i e s of the neighbour, f o r he sees h i s grandmother g e t t i n g v i s i b l y more and more f r i g h t e n e d by t h i n g s she cannot understand. I n e v i t a b l y , the voyage i s postponed and an excuse sent t o the son i n Moscow t h a t h i s mother w i l l come by t r a i n i n the summer. The gap which separates Babka Malania from her grandson i s expressed l i n g u i s t i c a l l y as w e l l as t h e m a t i c a l l y . For example, Shurka i n t e r r u p t s and c o r r e c t s her s e v e r a l times as she c o n s t r u c t s a telegram to Moscow. '"Dorogoi synok Pasha, e s l i uzh t y khochesh', shtoby i a p r i e k h a l a , to ia,.konnechno, mogu, k h o t i a mne na s t a r o s t i l e t . . . " " P r i v e t ! " s k a z a l Shurka. "Khto zhe tak telegram p i s h e t ? " "A kak nado, po-tvoemu?" "Priedem. Tochka. H i tak: priedem p o s l e Novogo goda Tochka. Podpis': Mama. Vse." Babka dazhe o b i d e l a s ' . "V s h e s t o i k l a s s khodish' Shurka, a p o n i a t i a nikakogo. Nado zhe umnet' pomalen'ku."' (1:17) Babka does not understand a world o f new conveniences and modes o f communication and she demonstrates her t o t a l l a c k o f comprehension time and a g a i n i n her speech, e i t h e r through words which she has newly a c q u i r e d but has not f u l l y understood or i n her r e a c t i o n s and q u e s t i o n s t o the i n f o r m a t i o n which her neighbour g i v e s her about the f l i g h t . '"Gospodi, gospodi!" vzdokhnula babka. "Davai p i s a t ' P a v l u . A telegrammu anulirovaem"... "Anachit, ne p o l e t i m ? " "Kuda zhe l e t e t ' - s t r a s t ' t a k a i a , b a t i u s h k i moi! Soberut potom t r i s t a gramm..."' (1:21) Shurka, on the o t h e r hand, handles new words and e x p r e s s i o n s w i t h complete freedom as we see i n the p e r s o n a l p o r t i o n o f the l e t t e r which he sends to h i s u n c l e . 'Babon'ku napugal d i a d i a Egor L i z u n o v . . . On, naprimer, " p r i v e l t a k o i f a k t : on v y g l i a n u l v okno i v i d i t , chto motor g o r i t . E s l i by eto b y l o tak, to l e t c h i k s t a l by s s h i b a t ' piamia s k o r o s t i ' i u , kak eto obychno d e l a e t s i a . Ia p r e d l a g a i u , chto on u v i d e l plamia i z v y k h l o p n o i truby i p o d n i a l paniku...' (1:21) In ' S e l ' s k i e z h i t e l i ' , the d i f f e r i n g l e v e l s of v o c a b u l a r y and means of e x p r e s s i o n u t i l i z e d by Babka Malania and Shurka are i n d i c a t o r s o f s o c i a l processes o c c u r r i n g i n the S o v i e t Union. L a r g e l y through the use of l i n g u i s t i c forms, Shukshin i s a b l e to d e p i c t o b j e c t i v e l y the d i s c r e p a n c i e s i n segments o f the p o p u l a t i o n which modernization a n d 1 a c c e s s t o e d u c a t i o n i n e v i t a b l y c r e a t e . As a g e n e r a l r u l e , Shukshin's e a r l y hero, l i k e Babka Malania, speaks i n the language o f the country f o l k and the n a i v e , s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d , and honest q u a l i t i e s o f the hero's c h a r a c t e r and of h i s view on l i f e are r e f l e c t e d i n the s i m i l a r nature of h i s spoken language. Such correspondence i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n the f o l l o w i n g scene from the s t o r y 'Chudik' i n which the hero pens a telegram to h i s w i f e i n order to inform her t h a t he as s a f e l y a r r i v e d a t h i s d e s t i n a t i o n . 'V a e r o p o r t u Chudik n a p i s a l telegrammu zhene: ' P r i z e m l i l i s ' . Vetka s i r e n i upala na grud', m i l a i a Grusha menia ne zabud'. V a s i a t k a . ' T e l e g r a f i s t k a , s t r o g a i a , sukhaia' zhenshchina, p r o c h i t a v telegrammu, p r e d l o z h i l a : "Sovtav'te inache. Vy v z r o s l y i chelovek, ne v detsade. 'Pochemu?" s p r o s i l Chudik. "Ia e i vsegda tak p i s h u v pis'makh. Eto zhe moia zhena!...Vy, naverno, podumal "...Eto o t k r y t y i t e k s t . " Chudik p e r e p i s a l : ' P r i z e m l i l i s * . Vse v p o r i a d k e . - V a s i a t k a . ' 106 T e l e g r a f i s t k a sama i s p r a v i l a dva s l o v a : ' p r i z e m l i l i s 1 ' i ' V a s i a t k a ' . S t a l o : ' d o l e t e l i ' , ' V a s i l i i * . " ' P r i z e m l i l i s ' " . . . V y chto, kosmonavt, chto l i ? " 1 (1:107) The s o c i a l d i f f e r e n c e which e x i s t s between Chudik and the t e l e g r a p h i s t i s immediately e v i d e n t i n the speech of the two c h a r a c t e r s . I t i s t y p i c a l t h a t Shukshin should d e p i c t these d i f f e r e n c e s through the e f f e c t i v e use of a dynamic, s e l f -r e v e a l i n g d i a l o g u e r a t h e r than t u r n i n g to s t a t i c , d e s c r i p t i v e n a r r a t i o n . As Shukshin's s t o r i e s mature t h e m a t i c a l l y , words t y p i c a l o f the 'meshchanskii govor' become more fre q u e n t i n the d i a l o g u e s . G e n e r a l l y , i t i s not the Shukshin hero who employs the v o c a b u l a r y o f the 'meshchanin' f o r Shukshin r e s e r v e s i t to d e p i c t the n e g a t i v e q u a l i t i e s of t h a t secondary c h a r a c t e r with whom the hero must i n t e r a c t . Shukshin's maturing hero uses an u n p r e t e n t i o u s form of speech which has evolved n a t u r a l l y from s o c i a l circumstances i n t h a t i t i s a standard Russian w i t h elements of r e g i o n a l d i a l e c t coming t o the s u r f a c e . When a Shukshin hero does use 'meshchanskii govor', he i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d as b eing e i t h e r v e r y d i s a g r e e a b l e or a p a t h e t i c v i c t i m o f the s o c i a l demands which have been p l a c e d upon him. One o f the most v i v i d scenes u s i n g the 'meshchanskii govor' i s found i n the s t o r y ' C u t - O f f ' / ' S r e z a l ' i n which a v i l l a g e ' i n t e l l e c t u a l ' d e l i g h t s i n embarrassing those f e l l o w v i l l a g e r s who have gone to the c i t y f o r a higher education and have r e t u r n e d f o r a v i s i t . Gleb K a p u s t i n t r i e s l i n g u i s t i c a l l y and m e n t a l l y to get the b e t t e r of them. These attempts o f t e n b a c k f i r e much to the amusement of the bewildered v i s i t o r , but Gleb and h i s admiring v i l l a g e r s are t o t a l l y o b l i v i o u s to the ignorance which he m a n i f e s t s . 'I t u t on p o s h e l v ataku na kandidataw "V k a k o i o b l a s t i v y i a v l i a e t e s e b i ? " , s p r o s i l on. "Gde r a b o t a i u , chto l i ? " "Da." "Na f i l f a k e . " " F i l o s o f i i a ? " "Ne sovsem." "Neobkhodimaia veshch'."Glebu nuzhno b y l o , chtob b y l a f i l i s o f i i a . On o z h i v i l s i a . ' (1:174) Instead o f simply a s k i n g , t h e candidate what h i s academic i n t e r e s t or s p e c i a l i z a t i o n i s i n common, standard Russian, Gleb i n v e n t s the c o n s t r u c t i o n , "In what area do you r e v e a l y o u r s e l f ? " The form i s not o n l y awkward and u n n a t u r a l , but poor Russian. S i m i l a r l y , Gleb i n t e r p r e t s the acronym ' f i l f a k ' as r e f e r r i n g t o p h i l o s o p h y and he i s completely unaware of h i s mistake. Both i n s t a n c e s d e t r a c t g r e a t l y from the i n t e l -l e c t u a l tone which Gleb i s t r y i n g to e s t a b l i s h . Those personages i n Shukshin's s t o r i e s who employ the 'meshchanskii l e x i c o n , whether the hero or a secondary c h a r a c t e r i n a p a r t i c u l a r s t o r y , r e v e a l one common f e a t u r e . They f e e l d i s s a t i s f i e d and f r u s t r a t e d w i t h themselves. T h i s f e e l i n g o f i n s u f f i c i e n c y i s upheld by the themes which run throughout Shukshin's work, but i t i s most g r a p h i c a l l y mani-f e s t e d i n the speech of the c h a r a c t e r s . These c h a r a c t e r s , l i k e 108 Gleb Kapustin, are u s u a l l y country people l i v i n g i n small towns who f e e l an i n t e n s e need to make an impression. They choose to do t h i s through t h e i r speech, but i n s t e a d of producing the intended e f f e c t , the person to whom t h e i r e f f o r t s are d i r e c t e d p e r c e i v e s t h e i r speech as being f a l s e and p r e t e n t i o u s . The humorous, i r o n i c a l , and s a t i r i c a l r e s u l t s - w h i c h such l e x i c o n can c r e a t e through i t s i n c o n g r u i t y and i n c o n s i s t e n c y w i t h a accepted usages w i l l be d i s c u s s e d a t g r e a t e r l e n g t h i n the f i n a l c h a p t er. A r t i s t i c a l l y , the most powerful and e f f e c t i v e a p p l i -c a t i o n of d i a l e c t i n Shukshin's work i s found i n those forms and d e v i c e s which c o n c e n t r a t e upon conceptual and c o n s t r u c t i v e elements. As the s t o r i e s p r o g r e s s and the w r i t i n g matures, they l e s s o f t e n employ the s u p e r f i c i a l forms of ph o n e t i c d i a l e c -t i s m such as s u b s t i t u t i n g 'chavo' f o r 'chavo' and 'toper' f o r 'teper'. They become l e s s r e l i a n t as w e l l upon the use of d i s t i n c t i v e l e x i c a l elements which f u r t h e r c h a r a c t e r i z e a r e g i -o n a l d i a l e c t w i t h such e x p r e s s i o n s as 'mnogon'ko vas', 'pomalen* ku', 'boiiazno malen'ko*. In h i s c o n s t a n t search f o r new methods of d e p i c t i o n and p o r t r a y a l o f h i s hero, Shukshin was a b l e to r e p r e s e n t the c o m p l e x i t i e s o f h i s hero with g r e a t e r l i n g u i s t i c i n s i g h t as h i s w r i t i n g developed. Shukshin's b e s t s t o r i e s i n t r o d u c e semantic idioms o f d i a l e c t , that, i s , unique and . . . 22 s p e c i f i c idea-meaning c o n s t r u c t i o n s and combinations. The most important f e a t u r e of the c o l l e c t i v e e f f e c t of Shukshin's d i r e c t speech forms combined w i t h the l e x i c o n and the f i g u r a t i v e system composing item i s - t h a t they are conducive 109 to the c r e a t i o n of a s t o r y s t r u c t u r e based upon hyperbole. The unusual and unorthodox q u a l i t y o f the hero's speech and p e r c e p t i o n s m i r r o r s the exaggerated and extreme ways i n which the hero searches f o r h i s ' h o l i d a y f o r the s o u l ' . The hyperbole u s u a l l y stems from a d i a l o g i c a l scene w i t h a n a r r a t i v e d e s c r i p t i o n extending the e f f e c t . Beginning i n the e a r l y 197 0s, the f a c t t h a t hyperbole was a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c f e a t u r e of Shukshin's s t o r i e s was made more obvious by the author h i m s e l f . His s t o r i e s a f t e r t h i s time c o n t a i n powerful d i a l o g u e which v i v i d l y p o r t r a y s the complexity of h i s hero through h i s r e a c t i o n s to the o p p o s i t i o n s and f r u s t r a t i o n s o f h i s d a i l y l i f e . -The ' d i a l o g i c a l c l a s h ' i s a main h y p e r b o l i c form, f o r the hero e x p l o s i v e l y and e m o t i o n a l l y expresses h i m s e l f to those personages who, to him, r e p r e s e n t the problems c o n f r o n t i n g him. Kol'ka Paratov i n 'Zhena muzhav P a r i z h p r o v o z h a l a ' reaches the b r e a k i n g p o i n t when h i s w i f e accuses him o f being a ' p e t t y - b o u r g e o i s ' element - a 'meshchanin'. * . . . V l e t e l v k v a r t i r u . Zhena V a l i a , zachuiav nedobroe, s k h v a t i l a doch' na r u k i . "Tol'ko t r o n * ! Tol'ko t r o n ' posmei!.>." Kol'ku b i l o k rupnoi d r o z h * i u . "P-polozh* rebenka",. s k a z a l on, z a i k a i a s ' . "Tol'ko t r o n ' ! . . . " "Vse ravno i a t e b i a u b ' i u sevodnia." Kol'ka sam p o d i v i l s i a - budto ne on s k a z a l e t i strashnye s l o v a , a k t o - t o d r u g o i s k a z a l obdumanno. "Dozhdalas' t y s v o e i uchasti...Ne k h o t e l a z h i t ' na belom svete? Podykhai. Ta t e b i a e t o i n o c h ' i u ' (1:238) There are numerous h y p e r b o l i c ; s c e n e s and images c a l l e d f o r t h i n the d i a l o g u e s of Shukshin's heroes which i l l u s t r a t e 110 the s u r p r i s i n g and unique r e l e a s e s which the h e r o - e c c e n t r i c s f i n d f o r themselves. For example, Bronka Pupkov, whose name i s as absurd as the t a l e he has i n v e n t e d , g i v e s h i m s e l f a d r a s t i c ultimatum. '"Ia g o v o r i u : e s l i i a promakhnus', i a budu p o s l e d n i i p r e d a t e l ' i v r a g naroda! H i , g o v o r i u , l i a g u riadom s G i t l e r o m , i i i vy v y r u c h i t e G e r o i a Sovetskogo Soiuza Pupkova B r o n i s l a v a Ivanovicha."' (1:120) S e r g e i S e r g e i c h , one of Shukshin's most unpleasant heroes, i s convinced t h a t as a ' c i t y ' man, he l i v e s b e t t e r than the v i l l a g e f o l k , e s p e c i a l l y h i s r e l a t i v e s . He 'generously' buys a boat motor f o r h i s b r o t h e r - i n - l a w A n d r e i , and as A n d r e i s t a r e s a t the motor i n d i s b e l i e f S e r g e i S e r g e i c h *...vdrug zaprygnul emu na spinu i z a k r i c h a l v e s e l o : "Nu-ka - vmakh!... Do k r y l ' t s a . V i d e l k i n o k a r t i n u ' V i i ' ? " "Bros'!..." A n d r e i peredernul plechami. "Nu?" K s c h a s t i ' i u , n i k t o ne v y s h e l i z doma.' (Novyi M i r , No. 10 (1969):94). There i s a b e a u t i f u l l y h y p e r b o l i c scene i n 'Veruiu!" i n which Maksim I a r i k o v , i n t a l k i n g w i t h a v e r y unusual p r i e s t , has f i n a l l y found an answer to the tormenting q u e s t i o n s he asks about h i s s o u l . He and the p r i e s t b e g i n to c e l e b r a t e t h e i r b e l i e f i n a s o r t of v i v i d pantheism by b r e a k i n g i n t o a w i l d dance and chant. •Maksim p r i s t r a i v a l s i a v z a t y l o k popu, o n i , p r i p l i a -s y v a i a , molcha s o v e r s h i l i krug po i z b e , potom pop o p i a t ' b r o s a l s i a v p r i s i a d k u , kak v prorub'> r a s p a k h i v a i a r u k i . . . P o l o v i n t s y g n u l i s ' . "Ekh, v e r u i u , v e r u i u ! Ty-na, ty-na, ty-na - p i a t ' ! Vse o g l o b e l ' k i - na i a t ' ! V e r u i u ! V e r u i u ! A gde s h e s t * , tarn-i s h e r s t ' ! V e r u i u ! V e r u i u ! " Oba, pop i Maksim, p l i a s a l i s t a k o i - t o z l o s t ' i u , s takim osterveneniem, chto ne k a z a l o s ' i strannym, chto o n i - p l i a s h u t . Tut - i i i p l i a s a t ' , i i i uzh r v a t ' na g r u d i rubakhu i p l a k a t 1 , i s k r i p e t ' zubami.* (Besedy: 128) In g e n e r a l , the language of the Shukshin hero has been accepted as a p a r t o f the contemporary l i t e r a r y language, although i n i t s semantic composition as w e l l as i t s l e x i c o n and s t r u c t u r e o f the phrase, t h i s language i s q u i t e d i f f e r e n t from the Russian o f the c l a s s i c s . The most e s s e n t i a l element, however, i s p r e s e n t i n Shukshin's work --the u n i f i e d a r t i s t i c c o n s t r u c t i o n of the v e r b a l m a t e r i a l by which the reader i s a b l e spontaneously to sense the e x p r e s s i o n , and which i s so v i t a l a p a r t of the l i t e r a r y language. For Shukshin, i t i s e s s e n t i a l t h a t d i r e c t speech and p a r t i c u l a r l y d i a l o g u e forms p l a y the major and i n i t i a l r o l e i n the c r e a t i o n of the whole a r t i s t i c image of h i s hero. Throughout Shukshin's work t h e r e i s a u n i t y and completeness which i s r o o t e d i n the t i g h t i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p which e x i s t s between h i s s t r u c t u r e , : theme, and s t y l e . Shukshin developed h i s unique means of e x p r e s s i o n i n order to ensure the c r e a t i o n of a d i s t i n c t and c l e a r l y understood r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of S o v i e t man i n contemporary S o v i e t r e a l i t y . 112 NOTES TO CHAPTER TWO 1 V.A. Kuz'muk, ' V a s i l i i Shukshin i r a n n i i Chekhov'/ Russkaia  l i t e r a t u r a , No. 3 (1977), p. 199. 2 V. Shukshin, Izbran»proiz., t . l , p. 372. 3 G e o f f r e y A. Hosking, t r a n s . , i n Snowball B e r r y Red, P. 83. 4 V.M. Shukshin, Besedy p r i i a s n o i lune (Henceforth a b b r e v i a t e d to V. Shukshin, Besedy, (Moskva:Izdatel'stvo s o v e t s k a i a R o s s i i a , 1975), pp. 51-52. 5 G e o f f r e y A. Hosking, t r a n s . , i n Snowball B e r r y Red, pp. 87-88 . 6 George Butsche, t r a n s . , i n Snowball B e r r y Red, p. 76. 7 'Nesobstvennaia priamaia r e c h ' ' i s a term used by G.M. Chumakov, S i n t a k s i s k o n s t r u k t s i i s chuzhoi r e c h ' i u (Kiev: V i s h c h a shkola, 1976); B.A. L a r i n , ' E s t e t i k a s l o v a i i a z y k p i s a t e l i a ' i n D i a l e k t i z m v i a z y k e s o v e t s k i k h p i s a t e l e i , (Leningrad:Khudozhestvennaia l i t e r a t u r a 1974); i n the book Iazykovye p r o t s e s s y sovremennoi r u ssko'i khudozhestvennoi  l i t e r a t u r y , (Moskva: Akademiia Nauk SSSR, 1977); and i n Grammatika russkogo i a z y k a , torn I I , ' S i n t a k s i s ' , c h a s t ' v t o r a i a , (Moskva:Akademiia Nauk SSSR, 1960). The f o l l o w i n g d e s c r i p t i o n i s from the l a t t e r work: ''Nesobstvennaia p r i a m a i a r e c h ' ' i s a complex d e v i c e . . . not o n l y u n i t i n g i n i t s e l f the p e c u l i a r f e a t u r e s o f d i r e c t and i n d i r e c t speech, but p o s s e s s i n g i t s own s p e c i f i c f e a t u r e s . As d i r e c t speech, • 'nesobstvennaia p r i a m i a r e c h ' ' p r e s e r v e s e i t h e r i n i t s e n t i r e t y o r i n p a r t the l e x i c a l phraseo-l o g i c a l and s y n t a c t i c a l p e c u l i a r i t i e s o f the speaker, but i t cannot s y n t a c t i c a l l y be separated from the author's speech. On the other hand, as i n i n d i r e c t speech, 'nesobstvennaia p r i a m i a r e c h ' ' r e t a i n s the a b i l i t y to a l t e r p e r s o n a l forms of verbs and pronouns... Not being bound by the s t r u c t u r a l p e c u l i a r i t i e s o f i n d i r e c t speech, 'nesobstvennaia p r i a m i a r e c h ' ' i s a b l e to more f u l l y and e x a c t l y t r a n s m i t the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c f e a t u r e s o f the speech of the personage, i n p a r t , i t s emotional c o l o u r a t i o n (exclamatory sentences, r h e t o r i c a l q u e s t i o n s , e t c . ) . The communication of the i n d i v i d u a l s t y l e o f the speaker i n 'nesobstvennaia priamaia rech'* i s devoid o f the d e l i b e r a t e h e s s - c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f such occurrences i n i n d i r e c t speech...' (pp. 428-430). 113 8 'Svobodnaia p r i a m a i a r e c h ' ' i s r e f e r r e d to by G.M. Chumakov i n S i n t a k s i s k o n s t r u k t s i i s chuzhoi r e c h ' i u . 9 There i s some u n c e r t a i n t y amongst t h e o r e t i c i a n s as to whether 'nesobstvennaia p r i a m a i a r e c h ' ' and 'svobodariaia p r i a m a i a r e c h ' ' should be c l a s s i f i e d as forms of i n d i r e c t or d i r e c t speech. For the purposes of t h i s t h e s i s , I have chosen to r e g a r d them as the l a t t e r d e s p i t e t h e i r complex i n t e r n a l combination of f e a t u r e s common to both d i r e c t and i n d i r e c t speech forms such as elements of p o r t r a i t u r e , landscape and biography of the c h a r a c t e r . My r a t i o n a l e f o r c o n s i d e r i n g them as forms o f d i r e c t speech w i t h regard to Shukshin's work i s the important r o l e they p l a y i n extending and d e v e l o p i n g the i l l u s i o n o f the prominent p o s i t i o n of the spoken word i n the s t o r i e s . T h i s i l l u s i o n i s v i t a l t o the dynamic s t r u c t -u r a l and s t y l i s t i c requirements of Shukshin's s t o r y - s c e n e . 10 V. Shukshin, I z b r a n . p r o i z . , t . l , p. 209. 11 V. Shukshin, I z b r a n . p r o i z . , t . l , p. 358. 12 Robert D a g l i s h , t r a n s . , S o v . L i t . , No. 12 (1971), pp. 107-108, 13 V. Shukshin, I z b r a n . p r o i z . , t . l , p. 61. 14 V. Shukshin, I z b r a n . p r o i z . , t . l , p. 104. 15 V. Shukshin, Besedy, p. 11. 16 V. Shukshin, I z b r a n . p r o i z . , t . l , p. 202. 17 V. Shukshin, Besedy, p. 174. 18 I c o n s i d e r i t e s s e n t i a l when d e a l i n g w i t h syntax and l e x i c o n t h a t c i t a t i o n s from Shukshin's works be t r a n s -c r i b e d i n the o r i g i n a l R u ssian. -For the sake o f b r e v i t y , they are documented w i t h i n the t e x t i t s e l f u s i n g the a b b r e v i a t e d forms of the books which have been noted e a r l i e r . (1:335) r e p r e s e n t s I z b r a n . p r o i z . , t . l f o l l o w e d by the page number o f the c i t a t i o n . 19 T h i s i s a f a c e t of Shukshin's use o f d i a l e c t which has been l a r g e l y overlooked by c r i t i c s due to the emphasis they p l a c e on Shukshin's use of r e g i o n a l d i a l e c t i n h i s work. 20 Tomashevskii observes t h a t although the boundary d i v i d i n g language from d i a l e c t i s i m p r e c i s e and i n c o n s i s t e n t , they are e s s e n t i a l l y d i f f e r e n t i a t e d by the f a c t t h a t d i a l e c t i s based on widespread, p o p u l a r - f o l k l e x i c o n which, i n the main, i s not of a l i t e r a r y nature. The essence of a literary language i s -not found in the combination into unified, a r t i s t i c constructions of verbal material which leads the reader to sense spont-aneously the expression. The emphasis must be placed on expression to a large degree, for, unlike conversa-tional speech, literary expression is-devoid of means of communication such as gesture and mime. The Theory  of Literature (LetchworthrBradda Books, 1971) . Shukshin was at times c r i t i c i z e d for his linguistic position, and was charged with abusing dialect forms and words of popular speech, and even with exceeding the bounds of good taste. The following critique is typical of the objections to Shukshin*s use of popular speech: 'Certainly nobody would protest against the attempt of the writer to convey the very structure and colouring of the speech of his: heroes, but when the author, clearly sympathizing with the person-age, speaks of him...as he does in the story 'Sud': "shel Efim na sud, kak kurva s kotelkom - nervnichal"'... this i s witness to the fact that, unfortunately, at times, his taste betrays him... Despite this directness of the story about l i f e , the frankness, even earthiness doesn't weaken the poetic quality...Rather i t allows us to sense more acutely the beauty of people of positive potential...'. Alia rOvcharenko, 'Rasskazy V a s i l i i a Shukshina', Don No. 1 (1976), p-. 159. Such criticism, which contradicts i t s e l f within the two paragraphs, attests to the confusion of some literary c r i t i c s as to how they should accept Shukshin's work into a world of set literary standards including those of vocabulary. Typical examples of such constructions are the neologisms which occur in Shukshin's stories. Many times they are 'all-purpose' expressions,-malapropisms which are used very imaginatively. In 'The Brother-in-Law', Sergei Sergerich uses forms of the word 'melankhoi:iia_': : in different ways. ' " .. . ty vse-taki malakhol' hyi'.'' '"...ty sovsem kakoi-to malakhol'hyi muzhik"' (Novyi mir, No. 10 (1969), pp. 92-93). The forms of the foreign-sounding word 'melankholiia' which Shukshin's hero invents for himself are used to express his opinion of his country brother-in-law as a 'simple jerk' or a 'poor yokel'. . . i '• ; 115 In the s t o r y 'Chudik', the hero i s p r e p a r i n g to v i s i t h i s b r o t h e r i n the U r a l s which i n v o l v e s a long journey o f thousands of m i l e s . However h i s '"Na U r a l ! Na U r a l ! " , o t v e c h a l on na vopros: kuda eto on s o b r a l s i a ? . . . " N a u r a l I Nado - P r o s h v y r n u t ' s i a . " * (1:103), i s a t o t a l l y i n a p p r o p r i a t e e x p r e s s i o n i n d i c a t i n g t h a t he i s - g o i n g to 'nip over' t o the U r a l s . While on the a i r p l a n e , Chudik attempts to c a r r y on a c o n v e r s a t i o n w i t h the man s i t t i n g next to him. He t e l l s him'a s t o r y about a son who almost k i l l s h i s mother y e t the mother f o r g i v e s him out o f l o v e . Chudik ends the s t o r y by asking the man to c o n s i d e r : ' " P r e d s t a v l i a e t e , kakim nado byt' grubym, bestaktnym."' (1:105) . He again chooses an i n a p p r o p r i a t e e x p r e s s i o n when he r e f e r s to a man who comes c l o s e to murdering h i s mother as ' t a c t -l e s s ' . iar> CONCLUSION In the d i s c u s s i o n o f the p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r s , I have r e f e r r e d to the unique pathos which e x i s t s i n Shukshin's work. Whether c o n s i d e r i n g the c h a r a c t e r of the hero, h i s a c t i v e o r p a s s i v e methods of seeking f o r s o l u t i o n s to h i s q u e s t i o n s , or the d i a l o g i c and o t h e r d i r e c t speech forms employed by the heroes, one i s always aware of an element of i n c o n g r u i t y . The r e a l i t y o f a s i t u a t i o n as p e r c e i v e d by Shukshin's hero i s always to some degree i n c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the a c t u a l r e a l i t y o f the v e r y human s i t u a t i o n i n which he f i n d s - h i m s e l f i n v o l v e d . A dual emotional response i s evoked i n the reader by most o f Shukshin's s t o r i e s , one wants to laugh but senses t h a t t h i s i s not a t o t a l l y a p p r o p r i a t e response. Thus a f i n e l y developed t r a g i - c o m i c q u a l i t y i s the f o u n d a t i o n o f Shukshin's pathos i n a l l of h i s c r e a t i v e work. As Shukshin's heroes p r o g r e s s and develop, so too does the type and q u a l i t y of the humour found i n the s t o r i e s . From the d i a l o g i c a l l y - b a s e d , good-natured humour of h i s e a r l y s t o r i e s i n which there i s a c e r t a i n p l a y f u l n e s s , and an unguarded s m i l e , the humour p e r c e p t i b l y a l t e r s and matures i n l a t e r works. In most of Shukshin's s t o r i e s from the l a t e 1960s onwards, our s m i l e s , as r e a c t i o n s to a hero's predicament or h i s response to i t , are i n c r e a s i n g l y tempered by our. awareness t h a t something i s fundamentally amiss w i t h i n the hero. Shukshin's g e n t l e l i n g u i s t i c humour p l a y s a fundamental and c o n s t a n t r o l e i n a l l o f h i s work. But, as Shukshin's hero 117-evolves and begins to think about himself and about h i s values and place i n the world around him, a c a r e f u l l y controlled irony and subsequent s a t i r i c a l element appear as integral components i n Shukshin's knowledgeable and pungent t r a n s c r i p t i o n of ordinary speech, with i t s substandard constructions, archaisms, neologisms, and malapropisms. Such l i n g u i s t i c a l l y - r o o t e d s a t i r i c a l humour i s reminiscent of the s o c i a l s a t i r e of the early Anton Chekhov and of Mikhail Zoshchenko. The vocabulary which t h e i r heroes employ i s of primary importance to the socib-psychological bent of the s t o r i e s , to the characterization of the heroes which i s a r e s u l t of t n i s emphasis, as well as to the a r t i s t i c creation of a humorous, i r o n i c e f f e c t . The choice of vocabulary for the various characters found i n Chekhov's, Zoshchenko's and Shukshin's s t o r i e s , p a r a l l e l s the i n t e r n a l , mental states of these characters. Shukshin's l i n g u i s t i c humour bears a good deal of s i m i l a r i t y to that of Zoshchenko despite the f a c t that the l a t t e r i s the overt s a t i r i s t and 'funny man'. As a means of s o c i a l character-i z a t i o n both authors make use of the 'meshchanskii govor", the semi-educated speech of Zoshchenko's urban bourgeoisie and of Shukshin's newcomer to the c i t y . Shukshin's predominantly r u r a l heroes are being drawn into a tightening r e l a t i o n s h i p with urban culture, technology, values and morals. Two types of humour r e s u l t from t h e i r language: the s a t i r e i s d i s t i n c t when a pretentious display of incompletely -understood new vocabulary i s made by a character. A l i g h t e r , more compassionate humour i s applied to a sympathetic hero who makes an honest attempt to adjust to new s o c i a l conditions but who confuses a word or a concept. In Shukshin's work, the major p o r t i o n of both types of humour stems from the d i a l o g i c a l exchanges i n the s t o r i e s . A good example o f Shukshin's n o n - s a t i r i c b r o a d l y -a p p l i e d humour i s found i n the 1967 s t o r y 'The C l a s s y D r i v e r ' / • K l a s s n i y V o d i t e l ' ' . The humour i s based p r i m a r i l y on the use of two words which the hero, Pashka, has invented and added to h i s v o c a b u l a r y as a r e s u l t o f h i s p e r i o d of stay i n a town which he i n i t i a l l y t e l l s people had been Moscow. To add to the comic e f f e c t , Pashka uses the words so f r e e l y t h a t t h e i r meaning i s never c o n s t a n t . In one exchange, both of h i s neologisms occur i n c l o s e p r o x i m i t y to one another. '"Klub e s t ' ? " - s p r o s i l Pashka. "Klub? Nu kak zhe!" " S f o t o g r a f i r o v a n o . " "Chto?:" x "Soglasen, g o v o r i u . Piramidon."' ( C h i s t y e _ prudy:15 0) I t i s up to the i m a g i n a t i o n of the reader t o guess what Pashka i s t r y i n g to say. ' S f o t o g r a f i r o v a n o " here probably has the c o n n o t a t i o n of 'I see*. The other e x p r e s s i o n , 'piramidon i s l i k e l y h i s own v e r s i o n of 'pardon', but i t gains i n humorous e f f e c t s i n c e i t i s a c t u a l l y the name of a s e d a t i v e which Pashka has heard and confuses w i t h the non-Russian 'pardon'. The verb ' s f o t o g r a f i r o v a t ' ' i s a l s o i nvented by Pashka and i s used i n i t s own v e r y e x p r e s s i v e way throughout the s t o r y , c o n s t a n t l y changing i t s meaning as w e l l as i t s grammatical aspect. During a chess game w i t h the f i a n c e of a g i r l to whom •119 Pashka i s a t t r a c t e d , he taunts the young man saying t h a t t h e r e are s t i l l p l e n t y o f chances to beat him before he f i n a l l y wins the game. '...Tut eshche polno shansov s f o t o g r a f i r o v a t ' menia -s n i s k h o d i t e l ' n o s k a z a l Pashka.' (Chi s t y e prudy: 158) When Pashka and the f i a n c e s i t down to the game o f chess, Pashka i s extremely i n t e n t upon impressing the man who i s , i n f a c t , from Moscow. He attempts to make h i s impression both by h i s c l e v e r chess moves and w i t h h i s i n t e l l e c t u a l w i t . '...Pashka poshel v t o r o i . "Sdelaem n e k o t o r y i piramidon, kak g o v o r i a t f r a n t s u z y . " ' ( C h i s t y e prudy: 157) In h i s use o f 'piramidon', t h i s time as a noun, Pashka shows o n l y h i s t o t a l ignorance of the French language made a l l the more e v i d e n t by h i s u n n a t u r a l use of vo c a b u l a r y w i t h which he i s uncomfortable but which he f e e l s i s necessary t o him as a v e h i c l e of acceptance i n t o a broader, contemporary s o c i a l r e a l i t y . Evidence o f t h i s d e s i r e i s seen a l l through the s t o r y as Pashka i n t e r s p e r s e s h i s d i a l o g u e w i t h phrases which he has a c q u i r e d on h i s r e c e n t t r i p to 'the c i t y ' . We f i n d such e x p r e s s i o n s as 'pogovorim kak zhel'tmeny' ( C h i s t y e prudy: 1 5 5 ) ' p r e d l a g a i u na t u r v a l ' s a ' ( C h i s t y e prudy: 152) - phrases which are almost c o r r e c t except f o r t h e i r p r o n u n i c a t i o n . The i n c o r r e c t n e s s o f such phrases coupled w i t h Pashka*s c a r e f r e e p e r s o n a l i t y and the happy abandon w i t h which he?throws them out, do indeed make us laugh. But even i n the compa r a t i v e l y comical circumstance o f the s t o r y , through h i s omn i s c i e n t n a r r a t o r , . Shukshin i s a b l e t o convey f e e l i n g s o f compassion f o r the young man so eager to impress, and he i s a b l e to make the reader f e e l the same sympathy. Even i n t h i s happy-go-lucky ch a r a c t e r , . we can see s i g n s of the impending c l a s h e s which Shukshin's f u t u r e heroes w i l l undergo w i t h the surrounding s o c i a l o r d e r . Pashka, through some of h i s newly-acquired v o c a b u l a r y , i s showing h i s d e s i r e t o model h i m s e l f , w i t h u n q u e s t i o n i n g enthusiasm, on the new s o c i a l g o a l s and demands. Yet, he i s completely a r t l e s s , n a i v e , and i g n o r a n t o f some of the negative f e a t u r e s o f the r u l e s by which he must p l a y i f he i s to f i n d peace i n t h i s new environment. As p a r t of the development of h i s hero, Shukshin has determined t h a t the u n d e r l y i n g f a c t o r o f the many t r a g i - c o m i c scenes which occur i n h i s s t o r i e s , i s the emptiness which the hero c o n s c i o u s l y f e e l s or u n c o n s c i o u s l y senses w i t h i n h i s s o u l . The l a c k which h i s hero comes to sense i s brought to the s u r f a c e through h i s a c t i o n s and h i s v o c a b u l a r y , both o f which are u s u a l l y incongruous w i t h the standards and accepted behaviour of the s o c i a l r e a l i t y . Inherent i n the c o n c l u s i o n s which each o f Shukshin's s t o r i e s draws about i t s heroes, i s a judgement upon the s o c i e t y i n which the hero l i v e s . T h i s i s d i r e c t e d toward the reader through the author's use of v a r i o u s d e v i c e s of s a t i r e . Although o n l y the very l a s t o f Shukshin's works have been c r i t i c a l l y acclaimed as works of e x c e l l e n t s o c i a l s a t i r e , t h i s element has 2 always been p r e s e n t , although not p r e v a l e n t i n Shukshin's s t o r i e s . I t has :been a concealed but con s t a n t support of Shukshin's strong p s y c h o l o g i c a l c r e a t i o n o f complex c h a r a c t e r s . In h i s s t o r i e s , Shukshin's a t t e n t i o n to s a t i r i c innuendo i s e v i d e n t /.:\;:121 i n the i r o n i c s i t u a t i o n s i n which the heroes f i n d themselves as w e l l as i n the o v e r t parody o f s o c i a l t y p e s . Although Shukshin's s a t i r i c d e v i c e s are t y p i c a l l y those a s s o c i a t e d w i t h c h a r a c t e r -i z a t i o n , he always complements them w i t h l i n g u i s t i c elements which supplement the parody or i r o n y he i s aiming a t . I t i s the language i n which Shukshin's heroes speak which g i v e s the humorous i l l u s i o n t o a s i t u a t i o n which i s f a r more s e r i o u s from a p s y c h o l o g i c a l , s o c i o l o g i c a l , o r moral p o i n t o f view. For example, Shukshin u t i l i z e s the v e r b a l e r r o r e f f e c t i v e l y as a d e v i c e of parody and a source o f humour. With t h i s element, he i s a b l e to r e v e a l the unpleasant q u a l i t i e s o f Gleb Kapustin, one of Shukshin's most unsympathetic heroes from the s t o r y ' C u t - O f f ' / ' S r e z a l ' . — K a p u s t i n ' s semi-educated speech and the p r e t e n s i o n and ignorance w i t h which he pronounces h i s words and phrases make them humorous d e s p i t e the d e f i n i t e s o c i a l c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n which runs a l o n g s i d e the humour. Gleb gets g r e a t s a t i s f a c t i o n i n b e l i t t l i n g and embarrassing academics and people of p o s i t i o n who pass through h i s v i l l a g e on a v i s i t . During evenings o f d i s c u s s i o n which i n e v i t a b l y occur w i t h these people, Gleb i s renowned f o r h i s a t t a c k s on the v i s i t o r s . In the s i t u a t i o n which p r o v i d e s the b a s i s f o r the s t o r y ' C u t - O f f , Gleb's v i c t i m i s a young ca n d i d a t e and h i s w i f e , n a t i v e s o f the v i l l a g e who have r e t u r n e d to see the young man's mother. Gleb begins the expected a t t a c k on the candidate but understands the man's s p e c i a l t y t o be p h i l o s o p h y i n s t e a d o f the a c t u a l p h i l o l o g y , a r e s u l t o f Gleb's misunderstanding o f the acronym, ' f i l f a k ' . T h i s l i n g u i s t i c e r r o r i s c r u c i a l to the course o f the remainder of the s t o r y , f o r Gleb proceeds to ' i n t e r r o g a t e ' the candidate on v a r i o u s ' p h i l o s o p h i c a l q u e s t i o n s . ' '"How does p h i l o s o p h y d e f i n e the concept of weight-l e s s n e s s a t the moment?" "Like i t always has. Why 'at the moment?'" "Well, there was an o c c u r r e n c e not long ago, and t h a t ' s why I ask. N a t u r a l p h i l o s o p h y , l e t ' s say, d e f i n e s i t one way, s t r a t e g i c p h i l o s o p h y , completely d i f f e r e n t l y . "But t h e r e i s n ' t such p h i l o s o p h y as s t r a t e g i c ! " , chuckled the c a n d i d a t e . . . " . . . A l r i g h t . Second q u e s t i o n . How do you p e r s o n a l l y f e e l about the problem o f shamanism i n the f a r r e g i o n s of S i b e r i a ? " . . . "...Are you s e r i o u s ? " , V a l i a asked i n c r e d u l o u s l y . "With your p e r m i s s i o n " . Gleb stood and bowed w i t h r e s t r a i n t . "The q u e s t i o n of course, i s n ' t g l o b a l , but from the p o i n t o f view of our b r o t h e r , i t would be i n t e r e s t i n g to know..." 3 3 "But what q u e s t i o n then?!" the c a n d i d a t e exclaimed; 1,' The candidate and h i s w i f e continue to be hounded by Gleb u n t i l they r e a c h a p o i n t of u t t e r e x a s p e r a t i o n . F i n a l l y , a f t e r an e s p e c i a l l y v i n d i c t i v e o u t b u r s t i n which Gleb a t t a c k s the candidate and a l l h i s knowledge i n s e t phrases and c l i c h e s , the candidate exclaims i n wonderment: ' " T i p i c h n y i demagog-k l i a u z n i k ! Ves' nabor f r a z , vse priemy i u k h v a t k i . . . " "Ne p o p a l i . Za v s i u s v o i u z h i z n ' n i odnoi anonimki i l l k l i a u z y n i na kogo ne n a p i s a l . " Gleb posmotrel na muzhikov: muzhiki z n a l i , chto eto pravda. "Ne to, t o v a r i s h c h k a n d i d a t . . . " ' (1:178) The p l a y on words i s a g a i n based on one s i n g l e word, ' k l i a u z n i k ' w i t h i t s double meaning o f a person as a t r i c k s t e r S.; 123 (the meaning the candidate had i n t e n d e d ) , and o f a person b e i n g a s l a n d e r e r (the understanding which Gleb t o o k ) . I n s u l t e d a t being c a l l e d a ' s l a n d e r e r * , Gleb t u r n s to h i s f e l l o w v i l l a g e r s f o r support. The i r o n y o f the e n t i r e s t o r y l i e s i n the v e r b a l e r r o r , f o r Gleb misunderstands two key words, ' f i l f a k ' and ' k l i a u z n i k * . Nonetheless, he c a r r i e s on a t o t a l l y outrageous and p r e t e n t i o u s p h i l o s o p h i c a l d i s c u s s i o n u p s t a g i n g everyone e l s e w i t h h i s a u d a c i t y . His c o n c l u s i o n t h a t he has got the b e t t e r o f y e t another candidate produces a str o n g h y p e r b o l i c , comic e f f e c t . Yet, i t a l s o serves to s a t i r i z e the m e n t a l i t y of the contemporary 'meshchanin' and exposes some o f the more neg a t i v e f e a t u r e s o f s o c i a l processes which have taken p l a c e and are p r e s e n t l y o c c u r r i n g . - A s i m i l a r i r o n y i s achieved i n the s t o r y 'General M a l a f e i k i n ' when the hero assumes the speech s t y l e and a t t i t u d e s of the 'higher ups* when t a l k i n g w i t h people who know nothing about h i s r e a l l i f e as a s e m i - r e t i r e d p a i n t e r . -There i s Kondrashin from the s t o r y 'The O p i n i o n ' / 'Mnenie' w i t h h i s a f f e c t e d and' Americanized mannerisms and h a b i t s , and there i s Roza, the s t o r e c l e r k who, with i m p o l i t e n e s s and d i s r e s p e c t , i n s u l t s the hero o f the s t o r y , •The I n s u l t ' / ' O b i d a ' . Shukshin uses the i n t e r e s t i n g mixture o f c o l l o q u i a l , semi-educated and newly a c q u i r e d ' i n t e l l e c t u a l ' v o c a b u l a r y t o p o r t r a y the m i l l i o n s o f Russian people who are non-humorously and i n t e n s e l y caught up i n the process of c o n s o l i d a t i n g a p o s i -t i o n f o r themselves i n a modern, t e c h n o l o g i c a l s o c i e t y . Shukshin's word i s his main vehicle for s a t i r e and parody. In a given instance, a word, intonation, or phrase may have a double or even t r i p l e s i g n i f i c a n c e . For example, when Bronka Pupkov's wife upbraids him for t e l l i n g h i s t a l l -t a l e about the assassination attempt on H i t l e r ' s l i f e , she threatens him with, " . . . y o u ' l l f i n d yourself up before a judge one of these days. -For d i s t o r t i n g history..." But Bronka simply r e t o r t s , "They can't do anything. I t ' s not a published work. 4 Don't you understand?" The irony centres around the issue of the d i s t o r t i o n of history, which i s recognized as being a serious offense when propagated i n d i v i d u a l l y , but which e x i s t s , i n many instances, at the o f f i c i a l , , mass l e v e l . Any authorial or narrative intervention during a s a t i r i c section i s usually perceived by the reader as being of the most necessary sort, never imbued with forced comically or a r t i f i c i a l i t y . The psychological-exactness of Shukshin's s a t i r e doubles the psychological emphasis on the character development of the hero, for a main objective of his s a t i r e i s to single out the moral vices and a n t i - s o c i a l occurrences which e s s e n t i a l l y contradict the s o c i a l r e a l i t y of a professed soc i a l i s t soc i e t y . Shukshin's characters as vehicles of h i s s a t i r i c a l devices may be divided into two types. There are those who are enraptured with the r e l a t i v e l y new material conveniences of that part of society which has been integrated more f u l l y into the new s o c i a l order. The others are those who have : r e a l i z e d the p r i n c i p l e s of a 'developing society' to t h e i r own advantage. Thus, 'meshchanstvo 1, the p e t t y - b o u r g e o i s m e n t a l i t y i n a l l i t s m u l t i - f a c e t e d forms, i s one of the main o b j e c t s o f Shukshin's s a t i r e . The f i r s t type of c h a r a c t e r s a r e , l i k e Pashka, Shukshin's country f o l k who, f o r the time b e i n g , have pr e s e r v e d t h e i r more humanistic v a l u e s , but whose so u l i s t e m p o r a r i l y b l i n d e d by the apparent w e l l - b e i n g of t h e i r c o u n t e r p a r t s i n the more t e c h -n o l o g i c a l , urban p o r t i o n o f t h e i r s o c i e t y . In the 1972 s t o r y ' P o s t s c r i p t ' / ' P o s t Skriptum*, w r i t t e n i n the form o f a l e t t e r , two countrymen journey f i v e thousand k i l o m e t r e s to L e n i n g r a d . The b i g g e s t impressions made upon Ivan, the author o f the l e t t e r , are the Venetian b l i n d s and the bed i n h i s h o t e l room,. 'I am s t r u c k by the windows-here. As soon as you walk i n , you f a c e a window the l e n g t h o f the e n t i r e w a l l . To the l e f t hangs an i r o n bar, to which i s a t t a c h e d a t h i n rope, and t h i s rope goes up somewhere i n t o the depths...And i f you go up and t u r n the bar to the l e f t , the room f a l l s i n t o semi-darkness. Turn i t to the r i g h t - i t i s l i g h t a g a i n . I t a l l has to do with the Venetian b l i n d s which are on the window...If they s e l l some l i k e t h i s , I'm going to put them up a t home...I'm a l s o d e f i n i t e l y going to make a bed l i k e the one here. I t ' s an amazing bed. I and Ivan Deviatov drew a sketch of i t . . . I wash, p l a y w i t h the Venetian b l i n d s , l i e on the bed and t h i n k : t h i s i s how to l i v e ! You c o u l d l i v e a hundred years and not be b i t t e n by any n e c e s s i t y s i n c e e v e r y t h i n g has been invented a l r e a d y . . . ' ,-However, the two Ivans t h i n k nothing of the way i n which they are moved out o f t h e i r o r i g i n a l h o t e l room i n order to accommodate t o u r i s t s . Nor does the author of the l e t t e r take much n o t i c e of how he i s r u d e l y i g n o r e d by a s a l e s c l e r k who i s g i v i n g a l l of her a t t e n t i o n to the f o r e i g n e r s a t a souvenir counter. £'•--12.6 And Ivan c o n t i n u e s t h a t : 'I was w i t h Ivan a t the bazaar - n o t h i n g s p e c i a l t h e r e ! . . . But i n the s t o r e , what there i s ! True - not V enetian b l i n d s . But i n g e n e r a l , the c i t y i s somewhat c l o s e r to communism than our mother c o u n t r y s i d e ! * g In t h i s s t o r y , t h e r e i s no s i d e i n t e r v e n t i o n from Shukshin. The main c h a r a c t e r h i m s e l f exposes a l l t h a t needs to be exposed, i n c l u d i n g a n a i v e i d e o l o g i c a l , o b s e r v a t i o n which equates the attainment o f communism wit h m a t e r i a l goods and a consumer o r i e n t a t i o n . Ivan i s the type of c h a r a c t e r who i s v e r y impressionable and s u s c e p t i b l e to the i n v i t i n g a spects of m a t e r i a l w e l l - b e i n g and consumerism.- He i s a l s o an o b j e c t a t whom Shukshin's sarcasm i s d i r e c t e d . The s a t i r e i n ' P o s t s c r i p t ' a l s o e x i s t s a t the l i n g u i s t i c l e v e l , f o r not o n l y does Ivan admire and envy the p o s s e s s i o n s and comforts found i n the c i t y , he a c t i v e l y adopts and u t i l i z e s some of i t s vocabulary,;; In the s h o r t three-page l e t t e r of which the s t o r y i s comprised, there i s a mixture of ' c u l t u r e d speech' as p e r c e i v e d by Ivan, as w e l l as bureaucratism and c o l l o q u i a l i s m s . For example, the a d j e c t i v e s ' c o l o s s a l ' , 'amazing'/, and ' c h i c ' are n o t i c e a b l e i n t h e i r over-usage w i t h i n the l e t t e r . As w e l l , they are used i n unusual ways. -The nouns which they modify are not commonly m o d i f i e d by such a d j e c t i v e s , and thus, a humorous e f f e c t i s produced when Ivan w r i t e s o f an 'amazing bed' ( p o r a z i t e l ' n a i a k r o v a t * ) , t h a t the bathroom i s 'simply amazing' ( t u a l e t p r o s t o p o r a z i t e l ' n y i ) , and t h a t the h o t e l i s 'simply c h i c ' ( g o s t i n i t s a p r o s t o s h i k a r n a i a ) . 127 The second group of characters which Shukshin uses within a s a t i r i c a l m i l i e u are those who embody the s o c i a l vices themselves, consciously and without embarrassment. These are the s e l f - i n t e r e s t e d individuals, often portrayed as the bureaucrat, the shopclerk, or as a member of a type of petty-bourgeois sector which exists i n the Soviet Union. . This character i s shown as a debased and deformed r e s u l t of the 'consumer psychology' which i s part of the modernizing society. In the story 'The Brother-in-Law'/'Svoiak Sergei, Sergeich', such a psychology i s revealed i n the character of the brother-in-law who unwillingly; comes to v i s i t h i s r e l a t i v e s i n a small town, boasting a l l the while of c i t y conveniences, of the salary and possessionswhich are h i s , and of h i s getting the better of the system. The basic irony of the story l i e s i n the pretensions of Sergei Sergeich to being an 'urbanite', for his ' c i t y ' has, at most, a population of f i f t e e n thousand 5 people. His superiority complex therefore, i s comical. '"Where I work we get a long vacation. We're i n a p r i v i l e g e d p o s i t i o n . " Again --arrogance and pride. There wasn't a modest spot on his entire body. He was l i k e a q u i l t , with every patch bragging and swaggering. "Special p r i v i l e g e . " ,:; - • "Special how?" "With respect to salary and vacation." "What, a r e a l high salary, huh?" Sergei Sergeevich chuckled at Andrei's ignorance. "For example, up to four hundred roubles!" Andrei was amazed: "Oho ho!" "Do you know how much a professor gets here?" "Where?" "Why here - i n the middle o f R u s s i a ^ " "And how am I supposed to know t h a t ? " "Look, the h i g h e s t - p a i d p r o f e s s o r gets f i v e hundred roub l e s . Max imunul' "Well, and so?" "Well, so I never made i t through grammar s c h o o l ' " Again S e r g e i S e r g e i c h laughed h i s l i t t l e laugh. "That's the way we l i v e . .. I've a l r e a d y got one. f o o t i n Communism, you might say."'^ However laughable the a i r s and p r e t e n s i o n s of S e r g e i S ergeevich may seem, h i s comfortable p o s i t i o n i s t r u l y a comment on h i s s o c i e t y . I t t o l e r a t e s such s e l f - s e e k e r s and the j u s t i f i c a t i o n of t h e i r s o c i a l circumstances by means of i d e o l o g i c a l concepts which have been adapted and manoeuvered by them to s u i t t h e i r purposes. S e r g e i Sergeevich*s comment about 'one f o o t i n Communism* i d e n t i f i e s and s a t i r i z e s the view which equates communism w i t h m a t e r i a l p o s s e s s i o n s . T h i s theme- i s s i n g l e d o ut by Shukshin f o r e s p e c i a l l y severe c r i t i c i s m , s i n c e i t runs p a r a l l e l t o other moral themes i n h i s s t o r i e s - the problem of how to l i v e p r o -p e r l y , of how to 'be human'. The consumer-oriented view o f communist s o c i e t y , whether u t t e r e d n a i v e l y and i n n o c e n t l y as Ivan s t a t e s i t i n ' P o s t s c r i p t ' , o r c a l l o u s l y and pompously i n as S e r g e i Sergeevich's pronouncement, i s seen by Shukshin as a main moral v i c e from which flow many human and s o c i a l problems. Our f i n a l e v a l u a t i o n as r e a d e r s r e g a r d i n g a f a c e t o f s o c i a l l i f e or a c h a r a c t e r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f i t , r e s u l t s from the a t t e n t i o n which Shukshin pays to the psychology o f the 129 characters. Shukshin's s i m p l i c i t y of p l o t ably reveals the d a i l y l i f e and morals of such a person as Sergei Sergeich, . the. 'meshchanin'. The author consistently and exactly recreates the authentic speech and manner of thought of the brother-in-law with the evident aim of making t h i s character an object of h i s s a t i r e . 'Sergei Sergeich - had begun to brag again about how t e r r i f i c everything was turning out for him i n his life...Then he began to accuse Andrei of not knowing how to l i v e . "Not even a t e l e v i s i o n set, huh?" "Nope." . •<., "Well, l i s t e n . Y o u ' r e nothing but a mangy muzhik. Do you mean to say you can't afford a t e l e v i s i o n set?" "...What do I need one of those things f o r . And I don't need a F i a t e i t h e r . Understand?...Who the h e l l do you think you are?...You no sooner ar r i v e than you s t a r t spouting o f f - t h i s i s no good, you don't l i k e that...I didn't ask you to come here, hold your tongue. Act decent." "In other words, even i f I see something that's i n f e r i o r I s t i l l have to say i t ' s okay? Is that it?...But a t e l e v i s i o n set i s an absolute necessity] Suppose you've got a son growing up. Instead of scratching around-, i n g the garden i n the evenings, he could be looking at T.V."' ' Sergei Sergeich's values and conceptions are presented d i r e c t l y to the reader, yet the tone of the authorial s a t i r e i s evident even i n Shukshin's objective re-creation of t h i s conversation. The importance that Sergei Sergeich attaches to owing a t e l e v i s i o n set and his impatience and utter intolerance of those who have less than what he considers proper, are the main objects of Shukshin's sarcasm. But Sergei Sergeichf'js"', opinions > and Shukshin's s a t i r i c intonations are objectivized-to the point where one may assume that such views are widespread 130 and common i n the r e a l w orld. In t h i s p r e s e n t a t i o n , the i r o n y l i e s i n the d i s c r e p a n c y between S e r g e i S e r g e i c h ' s r e a l i t y and the type o f s o c i a l r e a l i t y which i s p r o f e s s e d to e x i s t . Shukshin does not l e t t h i s d i s c r e p a n c y escape our n o t i c e i n h i s l i t e r a t u r e . Shukshin's i n t e r e s t i n such c h a r a c t e r s as S e r g e i S e r g e i c h l i e s i n the u n i f i c a t i o n of t h e i r q u a l i t i e s o f o r d i n -a r i n e s s , s o u l l e s s n e s s , and greed i n t o a c a r i c a t u r e - a d e v i c e of comic r e d u c t i o n . His c a r i c a t u r e s are marked by t h e i r c o n c e i t and arrogance which i s founded i n an i g n o r a n t concept o f t h e i r s e l f - w o r t h . The e n t i r e image which Shukshin c r e a t e s t e l l s o f the t r u e u n o r i g i n a l i t y and i n t e r n a l d e p e r s o n a l i z a t i o n of such c h a r a c t e r s . We meet such personages c o n s i s t e n t l y throughout Shukshin's work. There i s the man i n the o v e r c o a t i n 'The I n s u l t ' / ' O b i d a ' , the b u r e a u c r a t i n 'The Opinion'/'Mnenie', and the s a l e s c l e r k i n ' P o s t s c r i p t ' / 'Post Skriptum'. A l l are v e h i c l e s f o r Shukshin's s a t i r i z a t i o n of those f a c t o r s i n s o c i e t y which he f e e l s are m o r a l l y harmful - bureaucracy, b o o r i s h n e s s (khamstvo), and a p e t t y - b o u r g e o i s m e n t a l i t y (meshchanstvo). In h i s s a t i r e and s a t i r i c a l overtones, Shukshin's o r g a n i c humour i n h i s c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n s and i n the l i n g u i s t i c p o r t r a y a l s , transforms what c o u l d be a p o t e n t i a l l y severe accus-a t o r y n a r r a t i v e i n t o a complex weaving of emotion,, i n c l u d i n g anger and g r i e f , w i t h a good d e a l of compassion. F a r from re d u c i n g the e f f e c t o f the sarcasm and i r o n y i n Shukshin's works, t h i s emotion conveys i n s t e a d a s p e c i a l depth and s t r e n g t h t o the s a t i r e . • 131 I t i s the presence o f i r o n y and s a t i r e and the d e v i c e s which are u t i l i z e d by Shukshin to achieve these e f f e c t s which p r e s e n t d i f f i c u l t i e s f o r c r i t i c s who would c l a s s i f y Shukshin as a w r i t e r of 'country prose'. The s o c i a l , p s y c h o l o g i c a l and moral i m p l i c a t i o n s of h i s s t o r i e s , h i s b e l i e f i n the n e c e s s i t y of d e p i c t i n g people w i t h t h e i r f l a w s , and h i s r e f u s a l t o c r e a t e an ' i d e a l type', i n v o l v e d him i n almost c o n s t a n t c o n t r o v e r s y w i t h some l i t e r a r y c r i t i c s . The ' d e r e v e n s h c h i k i ' r e c o n s t r u c t t h e i r knowledge o f d a i l y l i f e i n the Russian c o u n t r y s i d e and small town i n ways v e r y d i f f e r e n t from Shukshin's. Some, f o r example, u t i l i z e i n t e n s e d e s c r i p t i o n of country people and t h e i r h a b i t s , w h i l e o t h e r s c o n c e n t r a t e upon p o e t i c , a e s t h e t i c l a n d -scapes. N o t i c e a b l y absent from Shukshin's prose, as opposed to t h a t o f authors o f 'country uprose', i s the o p p o s i t i o n of the c i t y to the c o u n t r y and the attempt to d e p i c t the country as s u p e r i o r . D e s p i t e the f a c t t h a t most of Shukshin's c h a r a c t e r s and heroes are country f o l k from small v i l l a g e s and towns who are t r y i n g to d e a l w i t h encroaching modernity, Shukshin does not c r e a t e an image of the c i t y as being stagnant, s q u a l i d and narrow. Shukshin's themes of moral emptiness run p a r a l l e l i n both c i t y and country s e t t i n g s . In most i n s t a n c e s , h i s work i s dominantly e t h i c a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l b e f o r e i t i s dominantly s o c i a l . Based on the s u b j e c t matter of h i s s t o r i e s , Shukshin may be grouped w i t h such other r e c e n t S o v i e t w r i t e r s as V l a d i m i r Tendriakov, V a s i l i i Belov, and Evgenii-Nosov. -These authors a l l p o r t r a y S o v i e t v i l l a g e and r u r a l l i f e from the p o i n t o f 132 v i e w o f t h e h i s t o r i c a l p r o c e s s e s w h i c h h a v e o c c u r r e d t h e r e i n t h e p a s t d e c a d e s - c o l l e c t i v i z a t i o n , p o s t - w a r e c o n o m i c h a r d s h i p s , a n d t h e m a s s m o v e m e n t o f y o u t h t o u r b a n c e n t r e s . S h u k s h i n ' s s i n g u l a r f o r m o f t h e s t o r y - s c e n e a n d h i s u n i q u e , m o d e r n h e r o - e c c e n t r i c , s e p a r a t e h i m f r o m t h e s e o t h e r f i n e w r i t e r s . I t i s t r u e t h a t i n s o m e o f h i s s t o r i e s , s u c h a s ' I n t h e C e m e t e r y ' / ' N a k l a d b i s h c h e ' , ' I n t h e A u t u m n ' , / « ' O s e n ' i u ' , a n d ' H o w t h e O l d M a n D i e d ' / ' K a k p o m i r a l s t a r i k ' , t h e d o m i n a n t l y r i c a l i n t o n a t i o n s a n d h e r o p r o v i d e S h u k s h i n w i t h m u c h i n c o m m o n w i t h h i s c o n t e m p o r a r i e s . - B u t s t o r i e s s u c h a s ' C u t - O f f ' . ' / ' S r e z a l . ' ' , ' P s i k h o p a t / ' T h e O d d - B a l l ' , a n d ' I B e l i e v e ! ' / ' V e r u i u i ' , a n d m a n y o t h e r s c o u l d o n l y h a v e b e e n c r e a t e d b y S h u k s h i n w i t h t h e i r c o n c e n t r a t i o n o n t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r t h e m o r a l h e a l t h o f t h e o r d i n a r y m a n a n d t h e i r e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e c o m p l e x i t y o f t h e c o n t e m p o r a r y s p i r i t u a l p r o c e s s . T h e i n n o v a t i o n o f S h u k s h i n ' s s t y l e i n i t s d e v e l o p e d , m a t u r e d f o r m , w a s a c k n o w -l e d g e d b y V a s i l i i B e l o v . O f S h u k s h i n ' s w o r k h e s a i d t h a t , i n h i s l a s t y e a r s , S h u k s h i n h a d w o r k e d o u t a c o m p l e t e l y n e w l i t e r a r y s t y l e c o n s i s t i n g o f s u c h f e a t u r e s a s a p s y c h o l o g i s m a n d b r e v i t y o f s c e n a r i o c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f ' l o n g ' p r o s e , a n i n t i m a t e e m o t i o n , 9 a n d a d y n a m i c s i u j e t . . S e v e r a l e l e m e n t s a r e c o m b i n e d w i t h s t r i k i n g s u c c e s s i n S h u k s h i n ' s s t y l e : s a t i r i c a l i n t o n a t i o n s a r e c o m p a t i b l e w i t h m o r e l y r i c a l o n e s a n d t h e s e i n n o w a y i n t e r e f e r e w i t h t h e p h i l o s o p h i c a l r e f l e c t i o n s o f S h u k s h i n ' s h e r o e s . S h u k s h i n ' s m a j o r c o n t r i b u t i o n t o S o v i e t l i t e r a t u r e i s , i n f a c t , h i s h e r o . H e h a s i n n u m e r a b l e f a c e s , b u t i s a l w a y s o n e a n d t h e s a m e p s y c h o l o g i c a l t y p e , a c t i n g i n v a r i o u s c i r c u m s t a n c e s a n d e n v i r o n m e n t s . 133 Shukshin possesses the a b i l i t y to p e r c e i v e keenly and convey i n h i s a r t the h i s t o r y and moral i d e a o f the Russian people as they see themselves. The epigraph to the two-volume e d i t i o n o f h i s c o l l e c t e d works,-a l e t t e r w r i t t e n by Shukshin i n 1974, a t t e s t s t o t h i s p e r c e p t i o n . 'During t h e i r h i s t o r y , the Russian people have s e l e c t e d , p r e s e r v e d , and e l e v a t e d to a h i g h degree of r e s p e c t such human q u a l i t i e s which need not be su b j e c t e d t o r e c o n s i d e r a t i o n : honour, d i l i g e n c e , c o n s c i e n t i o u s n e s s , kindness.;. In a l l s o r t s o f h i s t o r i c a l c a t a s t r o p h e s , we have endured, and preserved i n pure form, the g r e a t Russian language, which has been passed to us by our f a t h e r s and g r a n d f a t h e r s . . . B e l i e v e , t h a t a l l of t h i s was not i n v a i n : our songs, our t a l e s , our v i c t o r i e s a t t a i n e d by tremendous ha r d s h i p , our s u f f e r i n g s - don't g i v e t h i s up f o r a p i n c h o f s n u f f . We know how to l i v e . - Remember t h i s . Be human.', n While h i s concerns are deeply n a t i o n a l , Shukshin's main ideas are not so s p e c i f i c to S o v i e t s o c i e t y t h a t they l o s e the q u a l i t y o f u n i v e r s a l a p p l i c a t i o n . H is c o n c e n t r a t i o n on the honest r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f the human predicament i n modern, i n d u s t r i a l i z e d s o c i e t y i s r e l e v a n t to the attempt a t the a s s e r t -i o n o f i n d i v i d u a l i t y which i s o c c u r r i n g i n many s o c i e t i e s . Shukshin's b e s t s t o r i e s w i l l l i k e l y be read and c i t e d f o r many years to come as i n d i c a t o r s o f the s o c i a l and moral c o n d i t i o n of the 1960s and 1970s w i t h i n the S o v i e t Union. His s i n g u l a r c h a r a c t e r , the h e r o - e c c e n t r i c , w h i l e not a new hero, w i l l con-t i n u e to a s s e r t h i m s e l f i n the sphere o f contemporary world l i t e r a t u r e i n ways which w i l l make him synonymous w i t h our fast-moving, m a t e r i a l i s t i c , t e c h n o l o g i c a l time. 134 NOTES TO CONCLUSION 1 V.M. Shukshin, i n C h i s t y e prudy (henceforth r e f e r r e d t o w i t h i n the t e s t as C h i s t y e p r u d y ) , (Moskva: I s d a t e l ' s t v o R u s s k i i i a z y k , 1977). 2 The works which were acknowledged as s a t i r i c a l p i e c e s are the s t o r y *Kliauz;a*, A v r o r a , No. 8 (1974); 'Do t r e t ' i k h petukhov (skzka pro Ivana-duraka,kak on k h o d i l za t r i d e v i a t ' zemel' n a b i r a t ' s i a uma-razuma)', Nash Sovremennik, No. 1 (1975; 'A poutru o n i p r o s n u l i s ' ' , Nash Sovremennik, No. 6 (1975); and the sta g e p l a y 'Energichnye l i u d i ' , L i t e r a t u r n a i a R o s s i i a , (7 IV 1974), (14 VI 1974), (21 VI 1974). 3 V. Shukshin, I z b r a n . p r o i z . , t . l , pp. 174-175. 4 V. Shukshin, I z b r a n . p r o i z . , t i l , p . 122. 5- V. Shukshin, I z b r a n . p r o i z . , t . l , p. 262. 6 I z b r a n . p r o i z . , t . l , p. 264. 7 Snowball Berry Red, p. 50. 8 Snowball Be r r y Red, pp. 53-54. 9 V. Korobov, V a s i 1 i 1 Shukshin (Moskva: S o v e t s k a i a R o s s i i a , 1977), p. 179. 10 V. Shukshin, I z b r a n . p r o i z . , t . l , e p igraph. 135 BIBLIOGRAPHY I. PRIMARY SOURCES A. In Russian Shukshin, V a s i l i i Makarovich. 'Svoiak S e r g e i S e r g e i c h ' . Novye mir, No. 10 (1969), pp. 90-94. Izbrannye p r o i z v e d e n i i a v.dvukh tomakh. V o l . I . Moskva: Molodaia g v a r d i x a , 1975. " . Besedy p r i i a s n o i l u n e . Moskva:Sovetskaia R o s s i i a , 1975. C h i s t y e prudy. Moskva:Russkii i a z y k , 1977. B. In E n g l i s h F i e n e , Donald M., ed. V a s i l y Shukshin: Snowball Berry Red and Other  S t o r i e s . Ann A r b o r : A r d i s , 1979. Shukshin, V a s i l i i Makarovich. ' P e t y a ' . T r a n s . Robert D a g l i s h . In S o v i e t L i t e r a t u r e , No. 12 (1971), pp. 103-108. 'Boots'. Trans Robert D a g l i s h . In S o v i e t L i t e r a t u r e , No. 10 (1975), pp. 12-20. . 'The O b s t i n a t e One'. Trans. Natasha Johnstone. In S o v i e t L i t e r a t u r e , No. 10 (1974), pp. 3-17. . 'Two F i n g e r s ' . Trans. H i l d a Perham. In S o v i e t L i t e r a t u r e , No. 9 (1975), pp.-12-20. ' 'There was a Man L i v i n g * . Trans. K e i t h Hammond. In S o v i e t L i t e r a t u r e , No. 9 (1975), pp. 52-55. 'Sunday Boredom.' Trans. Robert D a g l i s h . In S o v i e t L i t e r a t u r e , No. 9 (1975), pp. 36-42. 136 I I . SECONDARY SOURCES A. Books Bakhtin, M i k h a i l . Problems o f Dostoevsky*s P o e t i c s . Trans., R.W. R o s t e l . Ann A r b o r : A r d i s , 1973. • Chumakov,. G.M. S i n t a k s i s k o n s t r u k t s i i s chuzhoi r e c h ' i u . K i e v : Vishcha shkola, 1976. Korobov, V. V a s i l i i Shukshin. Moskva:Sovetskaia R o s s i i a , 1977. Tomashevskii, The Theory of L i t e r a t u r e . Letchworth:Bradda Books, 1971. Grammatika russkogo i a z y k a . Vol.. I I . P a r t 2. Moskva: Academiia Nauk SSSR, 1960. Iazykovye p r o t s e s s y sovremmenoi r u s s k o i khudozhestvennoi  T i t e r a t u r y . Moskva:Academiia Nauk SSR, 19 77. B. A r t i c l e s A n n i n s k i i , L. 1 S h u k s h i n s k a i a z h i z n ' ' . -In L i t e r a t u r n o e o b o z r e n i e , No. 1 (1974) pp. 50-55. . 'Put' V a s i l i i a Shukshina'. In N e d e l i a , No. 15 (1976) pp. 117-128. Gorn, V:F. 'Nado chelovekom b y t ' ' . In L i t e r a t u r a v shkole, No. 5 (1976) pp. 9-16. Goryshin, G. 'Gde-nibud* na R u s i . . . ' . In A v r o r a . . No. 6 (1975) pp. 24-27. Gusev, V. 'Imenno z h i z n ' , a ne chto drugoe'. In L i t e r a t u r n o e  o bozrenie, No. 1 (1974) pp. 50-55 Harvey, W.H. 'The Human Context'. i n Theory o f the Novel. Ed. P. S t e v i c k . New York:Macmillan P u b l i s h i n g Company, 1976 pp. 231-261. H e l l e r , M. ' V a s i l y Shukshin:In Search o f Freedom'. Trans. George Gutsche. In Snowball B e r r y Red and Other S t o r i e s . Ed. Donald M. F i e n e . Ann A r b o r : A r d i s , 1979 pp.213-233. 137 Hosking, G.A. 'The F i c t i o n o f V a s i l y Shukshin.' In Snowball  Berry Red and Other S t o r i e s . Ed. Donald M. F i e n e . Ann A r b o r V A r d i s , 1 9 7 9 pp. 3-18. 'Shukshin: A P r e l i m i n a r y B i b l i o g r a p h y * . In Snowball Be r r y Red and Other S t o r i e s . Ed. Donald M. F i e n e . Ann A r b o r : A r d i s , 1979 pp. 237-250. Kan t o r o v i c h , V. 'Novye t i p y , n o v y i s l o v a r ' , novye o t n o s h e n i i a ' . In S i b e r s k i e o g n i , No. 9 (1971) pp. 176-180. Kuz'muk, V.A. "V a s . i l . i i Shukshin i r a n i i Chekhov'. In Russkaia l i t e r a t u r a , No. 3 (1977) pp. 198-205. L a r i n , B.A. ' E s t e t i k a s l o v a i i a z y k p i s a t e l i a ' . In D i a l e k t i z m v i a z y k e s o v e t s k i k h p i s a t e l e i . Leningrad:Khudozhestvenna l i t e r a t u r a , 1974 pp. 228^-261. Ovcharenko, A. 'Rasskazy V a s i l i i a Shukshina*. In Don, No. 1 (1976) pp. 155-166. Solov'ev, V i 'Fenomen V a s i l i i a Shukshina. V dopolnenie k ;skazannomu.' In I s k u s s t v o k i n o , No. 10 (1975) pp. 16-29. APPENDIX I T r a n s l i t e r a t i o n Tab1e Russian E n g l i s h Russian E n g l i s h A a A a* n n P P E 6 B b p P R r B B V V c c S s r r G g T T T t n fl D d y y U u E e E e F f E e E 1 e X X kh kh }K Zh zh i l Ts t s 3 3 z z Ch ch H H I i m III Sh sh K H I i m m Shch shch K K K k b l y JI JI L 1 3 3 E 1 e M M M m K) K) Iu i u H H N n fl H Ia i a 0 O 0 o • & * b The Russian l e t t e r s e, e, and 3 are not d i f f e r e n t i a t e d i n t h i s t r a n s l i t e r a t i o n system; the d i s t i n c t i o n i s l e f t t o the reader's knowledge of s t r e s s i n and p r o n u n c i a t i o n o f the Russian language. 

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