UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

The stories and heroes of Vasilii M. Shukshin Polowy, Teresa Lynn 1979

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THE  STORIES AND HEROES OF V A S I L I I M. SHUKSHIN  by TERESA LYNN POLOWY B.A. U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h  C o l u m b i a , 1975  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE  REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREES OF MASTER OF ARTS  in THE  FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES  (Department o f S l a v o n i c  We a c c e p t t h i s to  Studies)  t h e s i s as conforming  the required  standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF B R I T I S H COLUMBIA J u n e , 1979  (c)  T e r e s a Lynn. P o l o w y , 1979  DE-6  In p r e s e n t i n g  this  thesis  an a d v a n c e d d e g r e e a t the I  Library  further  for  shall  agree  this  thesis for  extensive  Slavonic  i s understood  Studies Columbia  the requirements I agree  r e f e r e n c e and copying of  this  that  not  copying or  for that  study. thesis  by t h e Head o f my D e p a r t m e n t  f i n a n c i a l gain shall  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h 2075 W e s b r o o k P l a c e V a n c o u v e r , Canada V6T 1W5  1 E  It  of  B r i t i s h Columbia,  available for  permission.  Department n f  75-51  of  s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d  written  BP  freely  permission for  by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . of  fulfilment  the U n i v e r s i t y  make i t  that  in partial  or  publication  be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t  my  ABSTRACT  V a s i l i i Makarovich artistic  f i g u r e , f o r he was  Shukshin was  a well-known S o v i e t  a very popular a c t o r and  d i r e c t o r as w e l l as a f a v o r i t e author.  My  film  t h e s i s i s a study  of the a r t i s t i c genre i n which Shukshin was most p r o l i f i c the s t o r y  -  ( r a s s k a z ) , but much o f what i s suggested i s a p p l i c a b l e  to h i s work i n other l i t e r a r y forms as w e l l as t o h i s work i n the cinema a r t s . Shukshin's p e r s o n a l a r t i s t i c v e r s a t i l i t y  greatly  determined h i s d i s t i n c t i v e prose which borders between l i t e r a t u r e and cinema.  His s t o r i e s are immediate; one senses the g e s t u r e s  and hears the speech o f the c h a r a c t e r s .  The  'cinematic' q u a l i t y  i s an e s s e n t i a l element o f h i s s t y l e and s t o r y s t r u c t u r e w i t h i t s g r e a t c o n c e n t r a t i o n upon d i a l o g u e and other d i r e c t  speech  forms. I t i s h i s hero t h a t i s Shukshin's b i g g e s t c o n t r i b u t i o n to S o v i e t l i t e r a t u r e and i t i s the r e v e l a t i o n o f the Shukshin hero t o the reader which i s the e s s e n t i a l reason f o r the s t o r y to e x i s t .  During the y e a r s of development and m a t u r a t i o n as a  w r i t e r , Shukshin proved t h a t he was  an expert of the s o c i a l  and  p s y c h o l o g i c a l processes t a k i n g p l a c e w i t h i n r u r a l d w e l l e r s who are s u b j e c t e d t o the c o n s t a n t i n f l u e n c e of urban c u l t u r e .  Such  heroes are r e s t l e s s people, d i s s a t i s f i e d w i t h the b a n a l i t y of daily l i f e .  They speak o f the s p i r i t , of t r u t h , and o f the meaning  of l i f e , but because they do not conform to the accepted s o c i a l norms, they are regarded as  *chudiki',  eccentrics.  In a l l o f h i s a r t i s t i c endeavors, Shukshin s u c c e s s f u l l y c r e a t e s h i s own  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c and unique world which i s an  a c c u r a t e and honest r e a l i t y .  The e f f e c t i v e employment o f d i a l o g u e ,  monologue and o t h e r speech forms enhances the i m p r e s s i o n of the r e a l i t y of the world o f the h e r o - e c c e n t r i c .  As w e l l , these  speech forms serve as v e h i c l e s f o r the g e n t l e humour which i s an important element i n S h u k s h i n s s t o r i e s . 1  T h i s humour i s  s k i l l f u l l y blended w i t h a t r a g i c q u a l i t y which r e s u l t s from the meeting o f the imagined and c o n c r e t e r e a l i t i e s w i t h which the hero must cope. As Shukshin's h e r o - e c c e n t r i c  e v o l v e s , the moral  p o s i t i o n taken by the author becomes more c l e a r l y d e f i n e d . Through h i s heroes Shukshin condemns and exposes those s o c i a l phenomena which c o r r u p t and c r i p p l e the human s o u l .  The  stories  bear s t r o n g moral o v e r t o n e s , and the l a s t ones, w r i t t e n b e f o r e Shukshin's death i n 1974, a r e q u i t e o b v i o u s l y s o c i a l  satires  which employ more b i t i n g i r o n y and sarcasm than Shukshin had ever used i n h i s l i t e r a r y work. My t h e s i s i s comprised o f an i n t r o d u c t i o n , two main c h a p t e r s , and a c o n c l u s i o n .  In the INTRODUCTION, a b r i e f  biography o f Shukshin's work i n cinema and l i t e r a t u r e i s presented w i t h a t t e n t i o n p a i d t o h i s c r i t i c a l r e c e p t i o n w i t h i n the S o v i e t Union.  CHAPTER ONE  d e a l s w i t h two  inseparable  f a c e t s o f Shukshin's a r t - h i s s t y l e and s t r u c t u r e and  their  r o l e i n the m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f h i s unique hero.  TWO  CHAPTER  t r e a t s Shukshin's a r t i s t i c means o f e x p r e s s i o n as w e l l as h i s r e f i n e d use o f four d i s t i n c t forms o f d i r e c t speech i n t h e r e v e l a t i o n o f the hero - h i s u l t i m a t e summarizes the d i s c u s s i o n consideration stories.  objective.  The CONCLUSION  o f the p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r s i n t h e  o f t h e s p e c i a l pathos which e x i s t s i n Shukshin's  I t suggests as w e l l , Shukshin's importance as a  contemporary  Soviet  author whose i d e a s have the p o t e n t i a l f o r  a broad, more u n i v e r s a l  application.  TABLE OF CONTENTS  PAGE  ABSTRACT  . . .  ACKNOWLEDGEMENT INTRODUCTION.  . . . .  i i  . . . . . .  v i  . . . . . . . . . . . . .  1  Notes t o I n t r o d u c t i o n .  .  14  CHAPTER I.  II.  STRUCTURE AND CHARACTERIZATION IN THE SHUKSHIN STORY. . . . . . . .  16  1.  The S t o r y - S c e n e . . .  19  2.  The S h u k s h i n Hero  . . . .  44  Notes t o Chapter I . . . . . . . . . .  . . . . . . .  DIRECT SPEECH FORMS IN THE SHUKSHIN LANGUAGE AND DIALOGUE;  STORY:  Notes t o Chapter I I . . . . . CONCLUSION  .  72  75 •  1  • .-. . . . . Notes t o C o n c l u s i o n  BIBLIOGRAPHY  . .  . .  . .  APPENDIX  I  APPENDIX  II. .  1  2  116 134 135  ."•..«.• .-..v.-.. . . . . ." . . .  1  3  8  139.  ACKNOWLEDGEMENT  I would l i k e to express s i n c e r e thanks t o Dr. Barbara Monter who  gave me  c r i t i c a l , p a t i e n t , but always  guidance i n the p r e p a r a t i o n and w r i t i n g o f my p o s s i b l y saved me  encouraging  thesis  (and  who  from e n d l e s s , u n i n s p i r i n g hours i n a f t e r n o o n  ceramics c l a s s e s ) . I extend my  a p p r e c i a t i o n a l s o t o Dr. M i c h a e l F u t r e l l  and Dr. C h r i s t o p h e r Turner f o r the time spent r e a d i n g my work, i d e n t i f i n g areas f o r c o r r e c t i o n , and suggesting v i t a l  improve-  ments . S p e c i a l acknowledgement must go a l s o t o Dr. A l i a  P.  Gerisemenko of the Department of S o v i e t L i t e r a t u r e a t Moscow State U n i v e r s i t y who M. Shukshin and who  first  i n t r o d u c e d me  to s t o r i e s of V a s i l i i  has shown continuous i n t e r e s t i n my work.  F i n a l l y , without the c o n s t a n t support and s t r e n g t h p r o v i d e d by my  f a m i l y , and i n p a r t i c u l a r by my husband L a r r y ,  my work would have been v e r y many times harder to accomplish.  *... he demanded much o f l i f e : t h a t i t be joyous, peaceful, r e s t f u l . People were known t o g i v e a l l o f themselves to achieve these t h i n g s . They were not e v e r y t h i n g , but they were much; i t i s a r a r e t h i n g f o r a person to f i n d h i m s e l f i n harmony w i t h h i s surroundings, i t i s the reward e i t h e r o f o r d i n a r y f o o l i s h n e s s o r e x t r a o r d i n a r y wisdom.'  VASILII M. SHUKSHIN  'Fundamental O b j e c t i o n s ' , S o v i e t L i t e r a t u r e , No.9, 1975  INTRODUCTION  V a s i l i i Makarovich Shukshin,  (1929-1974), i s a  somewhat unusual phenomenon i n t h e world o f contemporary Soviet a r t . first  A t a l e n t e d w r i t e r , Shukshin d i d not p u b l i s h h i s  s t o r y u n t i l he was t h i r t y years o f age.  time, h i s e n e r g i e s  had been centered  Until  this  upon cinematography i n  h i s c a p a c i t y as d i r e c t o r and a c t o r . -Shukshin's untimely death i n 1974 a t the age of f o r t y - f i v e c u t short h i s work a t t h e h e i g h t o f i t s c r e a t i v e p o t e n t i a l both i n h i s l i t e r a r y and cinematographic c a r e e r s .  Among o r d i n a r y S o v i e t  readers,  and  p a r t i c u l a r l y Russians, Shukshin was a f a v o r i t e w r i t e r  and  an extremely popular a c t o r .  h e l d i n h i g h regard  A t the same time, he was  by the S o v i e t l i t e r a r y c r i t i c s and p o l i t i c a l  a u t h o r i t i e s d e s p i t e t h e o f t e n s a t i r i c a l i n t o n a t i o n s and themes which are important elements i n h i s s t o r i e s . Shukshin's b r i e f l i t e r a r y c a r e e r was p r o l i f i c ;  he  produced one hundred and f i f t e e n s t o r i e s and n o v e l l a s , many o f which were p u b l i s h e d two n o v e l s .  i n s i x c o l l e c t i o n s o f s t o r i e s , as w e l l as  His career  i n cinema, so i n s e p a r a b l y  t h i s l i t e r a r y one i s e v i d e n t  linked to  even i n a p r e l i m i n a r y l i s t i n g o f  Shukshin's work, f o r h i s cinema-scenes ( k i n o - s t s e n k i ) and cinema-novellas were p u b l i s h e d  ( k i n o - p o v e s t i ) , as w e l l as one i n l i t e r a r y j o u r n a l s and w i d e l y  stageplay, read." " 1  Shukshin's work i n l i t e r a t u r e and cinema sparked tremendous i n t e r e s t i n c r i t i c a l c i r c l e s and i t was always a  2  source o f c o n t r o v e r s y and debate.  H i s death prompted  a critical  summing-up o f h i s a r t , and suddenly Shukshin's l i t e r a t u r e was r e c e i v i n g overwhelming  a t t e n t i o n and s i g n i f i c a n t acknowledgement  from the l i t e r a r y system which had been so guarded i n i t s 2  approach t o the works d u r i n g S h u k s h i n s l i f e . 1  Typical of  the  glowing p r a i s e which was d i r e c t e d a t Shukshin's work i s  the  following:  the  b e s t books o f Shukshin the same standards we a p p l y , l e t us  say,  "For some reason we were ashamed t o apply t o  t o Leskov, Bunin, and even Chekhov.  Only now, when Shukshin  i s n o t here w i t h us, a r e we b e g i n n i n g t o r e a l i z e t h a t the h i g h e s t standards are a p p r o p r i a t e and not beyond V a s i l i i  Shukshin*s  3  power."  In 1975, a two-volume c o l l e c t i o n o f Shukshin's  and n o v e l l a s was p u b l i s h e d as w e l l as Shukshin's s i x t h of  stories.  Two i s s u e s o f the p o p u l a r magazine,  stories  collection  'Roman-gazeta' 4  were d e d i c a t e d i n t h e i r e n t i r e t y t o Shukshin's s t o r i e s .  This  posthumous r e c o g n i t i o n culminated i n the bestowing o f the L e n i n P r i z e , the h i g h e s t s t a t e award i n the S o v i e t Union, upon Shukshin's internationally-acclaimed film, It  'Kalina K r a s n a i a . 1  i s both i n t e r e s t i n g and necessary t o s p e c u l a t e  about the g r e a t a t t r a c t i o n of Shukshin's c r e a t i v e work f o r readers and c r i t i c s a l i k e . of  s u c c e s s f u l l i t e r a r y elements, I propose t h a t h i s fundamental  appeal i s e m o t i o n a l . the  Although h i s a r t i s a combination  In h i s s t o r i e s and f i l m s , Shukshin c a p t u r e s  s p e c i f i c p r e s s u r e s and i r r i t a t i o n s o f modern S o v i e t  through v i s u a l , a u d i t o r y , and s i t u a t i o n a l scenes. g e n e r a l l y prompted  life  These a r e  not so much by reason as by spontaneous  3  r e a c t i o n s , sympathies and a n t i p a t h i e s .  A t a more extended,  u n i v e r s a l l e v e l , Shukshin e f f e c t i v e l y p o r t r a y s the atomized e x i s t e n c e o f man l i v i n g  i n urban, t e c h n o l o g i c a l s o c i e t i e s . H i s  means o f r e v e a l i n g and conveying these f a c e t s o f modern are  life  based on h i s i n n a t e a b i l i t y t o blend the anguish o f the  s i t u a t i o n s w i t h a g e n t l e , compassionate  humour.  Shukshin's biography b e f o r e the b e g i n n i n g o f h i s c r e a t i v e c a r e e r i s o r d i n a r y and t y p i c a l o f many young men o f his  g e n e r a t i o n , y e t i t served t o p r o v i d e him w i t h numerous  l i f e - e x p e r i e n c e s and a r e s u l t a n t and v i t a l He was born i n 1929 of  Siberia.  sympathy f o r p e o p l e .  i n S r o s t k i , a v i l l a g e i n the A l t a i  region  As a boy, he worked on a c o l l e c t i v e farm a f t e r  q u i t t i n g s c h o o l a t the age o f s i x t e e n , then l i k e many o t h e r s , he was drawn t o the town and the c o n s t r u c t i o n s i t e s o f Kaluga and Vladimir. to  A f t e r four years o f n a v a l s e r v i c e , Shukshin r e t u r n e d  S r o s t k i t o d i r e c t a s c h o o l f o r r u r a l youth where he taught  history.  A t the age o f t w e n t y - f i v e Shukshin s e t t l e d i n Moscow  and entered the S t a t e I n s t i t u t e o f Cinematography under the d i r e c t o r M.I.  studying  Romm i n the F a c u l t y o f D i r e c t i n g .  T h i s a s s o c i a t i o n was t o have a fundamental  impact on Shukshin's  r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h l i t e r a t u r e , f o r , as he acknowledges:  "Romm  had an o u t l o o k on f i l m t h a t one would h a r d l y expect i n a w e l l known f i l m d i r e c t o r : literature.  he connected i t with l i t e r a t u r e - good  He used t o make us w r i t e sketches and s h o r t  sometimes on set themes, sometimes on whatever  we l i k e d .  stories, I had  seen a l o t o f good i n l i f e - a l o t o f good people...Romm was  4 pleased w i t h my work.  He s a i d , " V a s i a , you've g o t i t i n you,  5  keep i t up!" In 1964, Shukshin completed t h e f i r s t o f h i s f i l m s demonstrating t h e o r g a n i c r e l a t i o n s h i p o f cinema and l i t e r a t u r e which would develop and mature i n h i s works.  The f i l m  'There  L i v e s Such A F e l l o w ' / * Z h i v e t t a k o i p a r e n ' r e c e i v e d t h e Golden 1  L i o n o f S t . Mark award a t t h e 16th Annual V e n i c e F i l m but, more s i g n i f i c a n t l y , the f i l m u t i l i z e d a s i t u a t i o n had taken from one o f h i s f i r s t p u b l i s h e d s t o r i e s .  Festival; Shukshin  Subsequently,  throughout h i s p a r a l l e l l i t e r a r y and cinema c a r e e r s , Shukshin d u p l i c a t e d many o f h i s l i t e r a r y p l o t s on t h e s c r e e n . Shukshin's uniqueness i n S o v i e t l i t e r a t u r e i s found i n t h i s i n t e g r a l r e l a t i o n s h i p between l i t e r a r y and cinematographic activity.  H i s l i t e r a r y works a r e remarkable f o r t h e i r  concrete q u a l i t i e s .  visual,  In h i s s t o r i e s , as i n h i s f i l m s , t h e r e i s  the express d e s i r e and a b i l i t y t o render the c h a r a c t e r above a l l e l s e , by t h e spoken word.  The t r i n i t y o f w r i t e r , d i r e c t o r , and  a c t o r combined t o produce an a r t i s t who c r e a t e d work o f u n i t y and completness.  Shukshin's c h a r a c t e r s appear without f a n f a r e  and they a c t , speak, and l i v e n a t u r a l l y and r e a l i s t i c a l l y . Shukshin as author i s c o n t e n t w i t h b r i e f remarks i n h i s s t o r i e s . That which i s l e f t u n s a i d i s r e a d i l y p e r c e i v e d through t h e g e s t u r e s and mime o f t h e c h a r a c t e r s . D e s p i t e t h e success and i n n o v a t i o n o f Shukshin"s p a r a l l e l work i n l i t e r a t u r e and cinema,  i t was an extremely  d i f f i c u l t approach w i t h i n h e r e n t c l a s h e s and c o n t r a d i c t i o n s . Towards t h e end o f h i s l i f e ,  Shukshin was p r e p a r i n g h i m s e l f  5  to g i v e up cinema and concentrate  upon h i s w r i t i n g e x c l u s i v e l y .  S h o r t l y b e f o r e h i s death, he expressed t h i s d e s i r e i n one o f i  his  last  interviews: 'I am once again convinced t h a t I am not i n v o l v e d i n my element. A t the moment, I must t h i n k about the fundamental r e s t r u c t u r i n g o f my l i f e . I must, of c o u r s e , p a r t w i t h something - w i t h cinema, w i t h t h e a t r e o r w i t h a c t i n g . Perhaps a l s o w i t h my Moscow residence!...The attempt t o embrace a l l to a s m a l l extent - t h a t has guided me...More than anything, I am concerned w i t h the q u e s t i o n - where i s Shukshin the w r i t e r ? The w r i t e r i n t h e f i n a l a n a l y s i s , i s most important to me!...6 In an i n t e r v i e w p u b l i s h e d  a f t e r h i s death, Shukshin  g i v e s a d e p r e c a t o r y summary o f h i s l i t e r a r y works: what a r e s u l t !  "Well,  F o r f i f t e e n years o f work, s e v e r a l s l i g h t  books, e i g h t o r nine p r i n t e r s * sheets a p i e c e . . . T h i s  little  i s n ' t the  7  work o f a p r o f e s s i o n a l w r i t e r . "  I t seems t h a t Shukshin  was h i s own toughest c r i t i c d i s r e g a r d i n g as he does a l l o f the w r i t i n g which he d i d i n the form o f s c r e e n p l a y s , and  ' p o v e s t i * w r i t t e n f o r the cinema.  he does what no l i t e r a r y c r i t i c  stories  In h i s s e l f - c r i t i c i s m  e i t h e r before  or a f t e r h i s  death has done - he spoke o f h i s l i t e r a t u r e i n terms which i s o l a t e d i t from h i s other  c r e a t i v e work.  However, o b j e c t i v e  c r i t i c i s m o f Shukshin's l i t e r a r y work must take i n t o account h i s a c t i v i t i e s and c o n t r i b u t i o n s i n h i s o t h e r a r t i s t i c for  endeavors:  the important reason t h a t h i s e v o l u t i o n as a w r i t e r i s  r e f l e c t e d and d u p l i c a t e d i n h i s e v o l u t i o n as a w r i t e r f o r the cinema and as an a c t o r i n many o f h i s own  screenplays.  Shukshin*s w r i t i n g developed and matured  dramatically  d u r i n g h i s c r e a t i v e c a r e e r , and t h i s i s most e v i d e n t  i n an  6  examination of h i s s t o r i e s . stories, 1963 in  'Village Dwellers/Sel'skie  - a light,  tranquil  book.  Love'/'Stepkina Liubov' ,  initial  t h e 19 60s  who  prose.  still  of  in 'Stepan  'Grin'ka  that l e d to  Shukshin's  the ranks of the 'derevenshchiki*,  S h u k s h i n ' s common h e r o  i s a young man,  i s m o t i v a t e d by  appeared  I t i s such s t o r i e s as  i n the c o l l e c t i o n  classification within  writers of r u a l  Zhiteli  collection  ' A l o n e ' / ' O d n i " , and  1  M a l i u g i n ' which appeared  of  Shukshin's f i r s t  perhaps  spontaneous  half  a d r i v e r o r a farm worker  feelings.  uneliminated d i f f i c u l t i e s  i n the f i r s t  Such h e r o e s  in collective  overcome  f a r m and c o u n t r y  g  life in  w i t h o u t any  special  t h e s t o r i e s was  effort.  The m o s t r e m a r k a b l e  t h e f r e s h n e s s and  conveying d e t a i l s of d a i l y  life  sharpness o f the  with a strong  on t h e p s y c h o l o g y o f t h e h e r o w h i c h was ' c o u n t r y prose..'. of  S h u k s h i n was  t h e two m o s t i n f l u e n t i a l  and O k t i a b r ' , and  as a  i n 1964,  w h i c h one 'real  Shukshin'."^  trusting  This  story,  h e r o ' was  h e r o was who  'The  'bytopisatel''  Critics'/Kritiki'  not the u s u a l  appearance  of  the  likeable,  reacts violently  coupled with Shukshin's  critics,  bytopisatel')  to a  situation  such b e h a v i o u r from another t y p e o f hero.  being widely perceived  by l i t e r a r y  the l a b e l  r e g a r d s as t h e f i r s t  l a d , b u t an o l d man  which, w o u l d n o t w a r r a n t  (surovyi  well-being.  critic The  critics  j o u r n a l s o f the time, Novyi M i r  he c o u n t e r e d w i t h a s t o r y  prominent  concentration  welcomed by t h e l i t e r a r y  Shukshin immediately r e j e c t e d and,  language  somewhat u n u s u a l f o r  'stern writer of l i f e ' 9  as a s i n g e r o f m o r a l  element  provoked  indignation  as a s t r i c t l y  t h e comment i n  t h a t h i s 'happy humorous  Oktiabr  figure that  7  Shukshin was  now  a p o l o g i z i n g f o r the ignorance o f the country and  i t s d e s i r e not t o go i n step w i t h the times. During the mid-1960's, Shukshin became a c u t e l y aware t h a t the message he was  attempting t o convey must be c o n s o l i d a t e d ,  c o n c e n t r a t e d , and made unmistakably p r e s e n t a t i o n was  clear.  His vehicle f o r t h i s  h i s hero, and i t became i n c r e a s i n g l y e v i d e n t t o  c r i t i c s , t h a t the essence o f a s p e c i f i c Shukshin s t o r y l a y i n the examination o f i t s hero.  As Shukshin's work matured and  the number o f heroes grew, i t became c l e a r t h a t the essence o f Shukshin's a r t l a y i n the e v o l u t i o n o f the c o l l e c t i v e hero.  Shukshin  C r i t i c s began to view Shukshin's s t o r i e s i n r e l a t i o n t o  each o t h e r , a group o f s t o r i e s as a c y c l e and a c o l l e c t i o n o f s t o r i e s as a 'book-cycle'. based on  'that which  These s t o r i e s had a g e n e r i c u n i t y  i s l e f t u n f i n i s h e d , on the f i n e  points,  on the 'wide open' c o m p o s i t i o n of each s t o r y ' which allowed s t o r i e s p u b l i s h e d a f t e r a s p e c i f i c c o l l e c t i o n to supplement  and  develop the p r e v i o u s works.'^''' The change i n the a t t i t u d e o f the c r i t i c s  toward  Shukshin and h i s l i t e r a r y work was due to the development Shukshin h i m s e l f .  In a l l o f h i s c r e a t i v e work, Shukshin  of was  c o n c e n t r a t i n g h i s a t t e n t i o n on the drama o f the s o u l o f the country-dweller.  He was  i n v e s t i g a t i n g how  t h a t person c o u l d b e s t  u n i t e and combine w i t h i n h i m s e l f a sense o f h i s h i s t o r y , the immediacy o f modernity and the most p o s i t i v e f a c e t s o f r u r a l and urban  cultures. As i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h u n i q u e - h i s t o r i c a l bonds d e t e r m i n i n g  t h e i r a c t i o n s and thought, Shukshin's heroes e v a l u a t e , compare  8  and c o n t r a s t , p o n d e r their  and  circumstances.  always r e f l e c t e d activism,  Through  social  economic  speculate  social  changes  conditions,  contemporary the in  conditions.  and  h e r o e s a r e t h o s e who quite is  settled  If  of  t h e u r b a n way  h e r o e s , and their  make t h e i r  but  who  he  fails  of l i f e  appearance  never  t h a t he  H a b i t s and  has  customs the  in,the bitter-sweet hybrid  of  speech. 'hero-eccentrics'  i n the s t o r i e s of the l a t e  1960's,  initial  A l l o f t h e s e h e r o e s have e x p e r i e n c e d one  d i s t i n c t ways.  which  b e g i n s t o change  a r e i n c o m p l e t e l y u n d e r s t o o d by  and  His  I f the heroes  are nonetheless extensions o f Shukshin's  i n two  modern  and have  to f e e l  i n t h a t environment.  same s o c i a l , h i s t o r i c a l and  itself  change  through encroaching technology.  i s the world of Shukshin*s  'happy h e r o e s ' .  of the  a r e an ambiguous m i x t u r e  then the v i l l a g e  to urban c u l t u r e  thought, a c t i o n s ,  who  environment  i n i t s perspectives.  they r e f l e c t t h i s  This  the  They  i n the v i l l a g e ,  himself  urbanization,  one  the hero i s a c i t y - d w e l l e r ,  established  S h u k s h i n i s one  best p o r t r a y s through h i s heroes  war,  have l e f t  into another.  as i t i s exposed  Gifted  the c o l l e c t i v i z a t i o n of a g r i c u l t u r e .  n e i t h e r urban or r u r a l  have s e t t l e d  and r e v o l u t i o n .  h e r o e s synonymous w i t h t h e  Vasilii  saw  has  political  o f the p o s t - r e v o l u t i o n years of s o c i a l  the S o v i e t Union which  industrialization  b r o u g h t a b o u t b y war, revolt  S o v i e t w r i t e r s who  consequences  ways a b o u t  i t s heroes, Russian l i t e r a t u r e  w r i t e r s a r e a b l e t o make t h e i r existent  i n very specific  and  s p i r i t u a l drama w h i c h m a n i f e s t s  There i s the q u i e t e c c e n t r i c  a p p r o a c h e s p e o p l e w i t h g o o d w i l l and  who  i s b e w i l d e r e d and h u r t when  9  he  i s rejected  peasant,  or ignored.  c h o k i n g w i t h b i t t e r n e s s and c o n t e m p t who l i v e s t o  d i s g r a c e and b e l i t t l e 'educated*  debate  culminated  hero-eccentric  and o t h e r s p r a i s i n g  him f o r h i s  him f o r f i n d i n g  'man' i n t h e f u l l e s t m e a n i n g o f t h e w o r d . to extricate  'derevenshchik' a l t o g e t h e r .  The  p l a c e i n 'country prose'  1960's w i t h some c r i t i c i z i n g  t i m e was t r y i n g  statement  urban,  i n most o f h i s s t o r i e s .  r e g a r d i n g Shukshin's  of the v i l l a g e  the country  at t h i s  q u a l i t y o f the Shukshin  i n the late  idealization  of  divided  i n a q u a l i t y o f ambiguity  critical  in  anyone o r a n y t h i n g c o n n e c t e d w i t h  culture. The  results  On t h e o t h e r hand, t h e r e i s t h e  h i m s e l f from  Shukshin  the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n  -An i m p o r t a n t and m u c h - c i t e d  i n a 19 68 a r t i c l e w r i t t e n b y S h u k s h i n r e v e a l s how h e ,  as an i n d i v i d u a l ,  p e r c e i v e s h i m s e l f t o be i n an u n c e r t a i n  position  with regard to h i s society. 'And a s I a p p r o a c h e d t h e - a g e - o f f o r t y , I u n d e r s t o o d t h a t I am n e i t h e r a c i t y man t o t h e c o r e n o r a c o u n t r y man. I t ' s a t e r r i b l y i n c o n v e n i e n t p o s i t i o n t o be i n . I t ' s n o t e v e n l i k e b e i n g i n between two c h a i r s , b u t more l i k e t h i s : I h a v e one f o o t on t h e s h o r e and t h e other i n the boat. I f i n d t h a t I must swim, b u t t o swim seems somehow h o r r i f y i n g . — I c a n ' t s t a y l o n g i n t h i s c o n d i t i o n , I know, f o r I w i l l f a l l . . . B u t i n t h i s p o s i t i o n o f mine t h e r e a r e c e r t a i n ' p l u s e s ' . . . T h r o u g h c o m p a r i s o n , f r o m e v e r y p o s s i b l e 'from t h e r e t o h e r e ' and 'from h e r e t o t h e r e ' , t h o u g h t s i n v o l u n t a r i l y a r i s e n o t o n l y a b o u t ' t h e c o u n t r y ' and a b o u t ' t h e c i t y ' but about Russia.12  The  d u a l i t y o f the Shukshin h e r o - e c c e n t r i c  a r e f l e c t i o n of Shukshin s 1  life  situation.  attitude  and f e e l i n g s about  He i s c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e human s o u l  process of preserving  i t s identity.  i s merely h i s own  i nthe  I n c r e a s i n g l y he c o m p r e s s e d  10  his  powers o f o b s e r v a t i o n and  explored  that point  creative  to i t s essence.  t h e h e r o e s were c h a n g e d  appearance  fourth collection of  1973.  the moral  His  of Characters / Kharaktery,  critical and  debate which  singular  from the ranks of new  ponderings  Shukshin's  o f s t o r i e s became a m a j o r e v e n t i n S o v i e t  t h a t t h e new  removed him  i t was  f e a t u r e s of Shukshin's  their  hero-eccentric,  The  f r o m m a t e r i a l v a l u e s and daily  life.  new  i s to l i v e  l i n e s o f sympathy and  and  according to the soul,  i s almost  The  hero  'holiday  A new  intonation  f o r the s o u l '  h i s death the i n t e r e s t  of  man  the  and  thought. the  i n t h e r e s t l e s s and n e r v o u s  life  the  i s needed, a moral  with h i s surrounding world i s evident.  questions of daily  do  -He r e a c h e s  s t o r i e s o f t h e 1970's u n t i l  of  of  Shukshin's  i s a t a l o s s a s t o what t o  d e c i s i o n which m o t i v a t e s a l l o f h i s a c t i o n s Shukshin's  oneself  i n e x t r i c a b l y bound by a l l o f  a b o u t t h i s mood, he d o e s n ' t know what i s wrong.  In  Shukshin's  to detach  m e l a n c h o l y , o f an o m n i p r e s e n t m a l a i s e u n d e r l i e s many o f  conclusion that a  rural  t o l e a v e b e h i n d s o u l l e s s work and mundane  Yet, the hero  and b e s t w o r k s .  stories  contrast  key c o n t r a d i c t i o n o f  t h e s e t e n a c i o u s f e a t u r e s o f modern l i f e .  later  con-  'country prose'.  work r e v e a l e d  orientation.  prose  the  culminated i n the  w h i c h were e s s e n t i a l l y m o r a l , n o t t y p o l o g i c a l l y u r b a n o r in  the  level.  L i k e much o f S h u k s h i n ' s p r e v i o u s - w o r k ,  subject of l i v e l y clusion  and  as  and  i n t h e c o n t e n t o f S h u k s h i n ' s works  and n o t m e r e l y a t t h e s u p e r f i c i a l The  point  I n t o n a t i o n s as w e l l  system o f v a l u e s changed d r a s t i c a l l y of  e n e r g i e s a t one  with intensity,  relationship  Shukshin  b u t he  time  considers  i s much more  11 than a c h r o n i c l e r o f t h i s l i f e ,  a 'bytovnik'.  H i s heroes observe  themselves and t h e i r inner worlds and f i n d t h e r e a v o i d .  They  become anxious and because o f t h i s unusual s e n s a t i o n which prompts a c t i v i t y , they a r e p e r c e i v e d as 'strange p e o p l e ' . are  They  separated from o t h e r s by t h e i r c o n s t a n t search f o r something  which i s u n c l e a r , i n t a n g i b l e , e l u s i v e , perhaps n o n - e x i s t e n t , but d e s p e r a t e l y needed. temporary  The search may  be an a c t i v e one,  s o l u t i o n i n the numerous p e c u l i a r  finding  'holidays f o r the  s o u l ' which Shukshin's heroes d e v i s e f o r themselves.  I t also  bears a s p e c u l a t i v e nature; the ' e t e r n a l q u e s t i o n s ' about  life  and death are asked w i t h i n t e n s i t y and a g r e a t d e s i r e f o r answers. Shukshin does not seek t o d e p i c t the r e a l world through h i s heroeccentrics. filtered  He p o r t r a y s segments o f i t which are chosen and  through the c o n s c i o u s n e s s of the hero i n i t s p r i n c i p a l  and most dramatic moments. merely as a supplement  The r e a l , e x t e r n a l world i s presented  to the more e s s e n t i a l r e a l i t y p e r c e i v e d by  Shukshin's h e r o - e c c e n t r i c . Among Shukshin's l a t e r s t o r i e s - a r e some of the b e s t , for  they c o n t a i n h i s e v o l v e d , mature h e r o - e c c e n t r i c t o t a l l y  i n h i s search f o r the human s o u l .  absorbed  These s t o r i e s are endowed w i t h  a s p e c i a l pathos - they have a c q u i r e d a f i n e t r a g i - c o m i c  quality.  There i s a moving l a c k o f convergence between the complexity o f the  problems o f e x i s t e n c e which so torment Shukshin's hero and  the  c o n c r e t e , v e r y o r d i n a r y manner i n which the hero expresses  his  f e e l i n g s and thoughts. The ambiguity and c o n t r a d i c t i o n which Shukshin  c a r r i e d w i t h i n h i m s e l f i s a main f e a t u r e o f h i s a r t .  always  I t manifests  12  itself  i n h i s l i t e r a r y and cinematographic work a t many i n t e r r e l a t e d  l e v e l s and i s e s p e c i a l l y prominent  i n the v a r i o u s a s p e c t s o f the  c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n o f h i s heroes. T h i s t h e s i s i s , i n l a r g e p a r t , a developmental of the Shukshin s t o r y . it  examination  Because o f the nature o f the a r t i s t i c  form,  i s a l s o a c o n c e n t r a t i o n upon the Shukshin hero, the most v i t a l  reason f o r the s t o r y to e x i s t . chapters and a c o n c l u s i o n . q u a l i t i e s o f Shukshin's  The c o n t e n t s c o n s i s t o f two main  The f i r s t chapter c o n s i d e r s the s i n g u l a r  ' s t o r y - s c e n e ' w i t h r e s p e c t t o the nature  of the p l o t and the s t r u c t u r a l elements o f the s t o r y . second p o r t i o n o f Chapter One,  In the  the d i s c u s s i o n t r a n s f e r s n a t u r a l l y  to the examination o f the Shukshin hero:  who  i n t e r a c t s w i t h , h i s h i s t o r y and development.  he i s , who Chapter Two  he treats  the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c means o f e x p r e s s i o n i n the Shukshin s t o r y as w e l l as the forms o f d i r e c t speech which h i s c h a r a c t e r s employ. A detailed  s y n t a c t i c and s t y l i s t i c  i n v e s t i g a t i o n of  use o f d i a l o g u e concludes the c h a p t e r .  Shukshin's  I consider t h i s chapter  to be e s p e c i a l l y e s s e n t i a l to an i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f Shukshin's s t o r i e s , f o r important elements o f h i s s t y l e , l e x i c o n , syntax, and semantics have l a r g e l y been o v e r l o o k e d i n l i t e r a r y  criticism  which has been captured by the c o n t e n t , i d e a s , and heroes i n Shukshin's l i t e r a r y work.  The C o n c l u s i o n d i s c u s s e s the i n h e r e n t  humour i n the speech o f Shukshin's hero as w e l l as the use which Shukshin makes o f i r o n y and s a t i r e i n h i s s t o r i e s .  I t summarizes  Shukshin's p l a c e i n the Russian l i t e r a r y t r a d i t i o n and h i s s i g n i f i c a n c e as a modern S o v i e t w r i t e r . Footnotes are to be found a t the c o n c l u s i o n o f each chapter and are numbered c o n s e c u t i v e l y throughout each c h a p t e r .  13  I n C h a p t e r Two  as w e l l  as i n t h e C o n c l u s i o n , . m o s t o f t h e  quotations given to i l l u s t r a t e satire  are transcribed  dialect,  style,  and  the use o f  i n R u s s i a n i n o r d e r t o convey  meaning o f t h e e x a m p l e s .  the  A l l e x c e r p t s w h i c h have b e e n  are noted w i t h i n  the text of the t h e s i s ,  are acknowledged  i n the r e g u l a r  own  transcribed  while translated  passages  n o t e s a t t h e end o f t h e c h a p t e r .  Unless otherwise noted, a l l t r a n s l a t i o n s o f Shukshin's a r e my  full  stories  t a k e n from S o v i e t p u b l i c a t i o n s o f c o l l e c t i o n s o f h i s  s t o r i e s o r f r o m t h e I z b r a n n y e p r o i z v e d e n i i a v d v u k h tomakh, Vol.  1. A t a b l e o f t h e system o f t r a n s l i t e r a t i o n which  chosen  to use  i n my  thesis  i s provided  i n Appendix  c o n t a i n s a b i b l i o g r a p h y o f Shukshin's works-which published of  i n book f o r m a s w e l l  e a c h book.  I. have  I have  Appendix been  as i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e c o n t e n t s  II  14  NOTES TO  INTRODUCTION  1.  Refer to Appendix I I f o r a b i b l i o g r a p h i c a l S h u k s h i n ' s w o r k s p u b l i s h e d i n book f o r m .  listing  of  2.  T y p i c a l o f t h e ambiguous and d i v e r s e o p i n i o n o f S o v i e t l i t e r a r y c r i t i c s a r e e x c e r p t s f r o m two a r t i c l e s p u b l i s h e d o n l y months b e f o r e S h u k s h i n ' s d e a t h . B o t h a r t i c l e s were p u b l i s h e d i n t h e j o u r n a l L i t e r a t u r n o e o b o z r e n i e , No. 1 (1974) . ' F o l l o w i n g the.example o f our c r i t i c s , even the c i n e m a e x p e r t s c o n s i d e r him [ S h u k s h i n ] a s p e c i a l i s t of ' e c c e n t r i c s ' , of 'strange people'...This f e a t u r e o f S h u k s h i n a l l o w s c r i t i c s to a c c u s e him o f a c e r t a i n u n r e a l i s t i c quality of internal realism, a s i m i l a r i t y to l i f e i n s t e a d o f l i f e i t s e l f . . . ' . (V. G u s e v , 'Imenno z h i z n ' , a ne c h t o d r u g o e ' , p.50.) 'The p r o f e s s i o n a l ' m u l t i - o p e r a t i v e ' q u a l i t y o f V a s i l i i S h u k s h i n , i n i t i a l l y so e n d e a r i n g t o many e v a l u a t o r s o f l i t e r a t u r e and a r t , i s now l o o k e d upon somewhat d i f f e r e n t l y ; S h u k s h i n has done so much i n v a r i e d a r e a s and i s so p o p u l a r , t h a t i t i s n ' t c l e a r b y what p r o f e s s i o n a l c o d e he s h o u l d be judged...We d o n ' t need t o ' r e v i e w ' S h u k s h i n ' s b o o k s o r t e x t s , b u t i n t h e s e q u e n c e o f h i s t e x t s (good, bad, f a i r , b r i l l i a n t , p r o f o u n d , s u p e r f i c i a l . . . ) , we must s e n s e t h e f a t e and experience of the s o u l . The c r i t i c G. M i t i n u n d e r s t o o d t h i s s i x y e a r s ago when he w r o t e , t h a t t h i s a u t h o r . . . c r e a t e s n o t so much a r e a l w o r l d , a s h i s own p a r t i c u l a r S h u k s h i n l i f e f i l l e d w i t h h i s own heroes. O t h e r c r i t i c s . . . p u t t h e i r a c c e n t on t h e t h o u g h t s . . . A l i a Marchenko even e x p r e s s e d t h e o p i n i o n t h a t i n o u r l i t e r a t u r e S h u k s h i n c r e a t e s s o m e t h i n g i n t h e way o f t h e h e a v e n l y myth...I d o n ' t know how t o p r o v e t o A l i a Marchenko t h a t t h i s l i f e i s r e a l a c c o r d i n g t o texture, empiricism, or the f a b r i c of the d e s c r i p t i o n . F o r t h i s you must s i m p l y r e a d . You c a n s e n s e t h i s i n any d i a l o g u e : Shukshin i s remarkably knowledgeable a b o u t modern r e a l i t y , he has a t r u l y s o c i a l f e e l i n g f o r people o f a d e f i n i t e type; t h e r e are i n contemporary r e a l i t y l a y e r s , s t r a t a , types o f which Shukshin i s an e x p e r t . ' . (L. A n n i n s k i i , 'Shukshinskaia z h i z n ' ' , pp. 50-51) .  3.  Gleb Goryshin, (1975) , p.24.  'Gde-nibud' na R u s i . . . ' , A v r o r a ,  No.  6  4.  I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note the q u a n t i t y ( t i r a z h ) i n which t h e s e p u b l i c a t i o n s were i s s u e d . • I z b r a n n y e p r o i z v e d e n i i a v d v u k h tomakh was an e d i t i o n o f 200,000 c o p i e s ; B r a t itioi -  15 300,000 c o p i e s ; and t h e two i s s u e s o f Roman-gazeta d e d i c a t e d t o S h u k s h i n ' s s t o r i e s were e d i t i o n s - p f 2 m i l l i o n e a c h . These f i g u r e s bear w i t n e s s t o t h e o f f i c i a l i n t e r e s t i n S h u k s h i n ' s work and t o i t s a c k n o w l e d g e m e n t o f t h e p u b l i c p o p u l a r i t y of the w r i t e r . 5.  M o l o d a i a g v a r d i i a , No. 3 ( 1 9 6 2 ) , p . 110 q u o t e d i n G e o f f r e y A. H o s k i n g , 'The F i c t i o n o f V a s i l y S h u k s h i n ' i n S n o w b a l l B e r r y Red and O t h e r S t o r i e s , e d . D o n a l d M. F i e n e (Ann A r b o r ; A r d i s , 1 9 7 9 ) , p . 3 .  6.  V l a d i m i r S o l o v ' e v , 'Fenomen V a s i l i i a S h u k s h i n a . V d o p o l n e n i e k s k a z a n n o m u , I s k u s s t v o k i n o , No. 10 ( 1 9 7 5 ) , p.19. 1  7.  Quoted i n M i c h e l H e l l e r , ' V a s i l y S h u k s h i n : In Search o f Freedom', i n S n o w b a l l B e r r y Red, p.213. S p e c u l a t i o n must t a k e o v e r a t t h i s p o i n t w i t h r e g a r d t o Shukshin's p r o j e c t e d s u c c e s s a t d i s s o c i a t i n g h i m s e l f from work i n c i n e m a . O n l y a few months p r i o r t o h i s d e a t h , he had b e e n g r a n t e d p e r m i s s i o n t o make a f i l m a b o u t S t e n ' k a R a z i n b a s e d upon h i s e a r l i e r n o v e l , I Came t o G i v e You Freedom. T h i s was a p r o j e c t w h i c h S h u k s h i n had wanted to undertake f o r s e v e r a l y e a r s . I t i s highly i r o n i c too, t h a t S h u k s h i n ' s d e a t h came on a f i l m s e t where he was s h o o t i n g a r o l e i n a m o v i e b a s e d on M. S h o l o k h o v ' s work, They Fought F o r the M o t h e r l a n d .  8.  Of t h e s e e a r l y h e r o e s , S h u k s h i n was happy", ( b l a g o p o l u c h e n ) .  9.  Quoted No. 15  10.  Anninskii,  p.120.  11.  Anninskii,  p.123.  12.  i n L. A n n i n s k i i , ( 1 9 7 6 ) , p.119.  'Monolog na l e s t n i t s e '  'Put  1  quoted  later  Vasiliia  t o say,  Shukshina',  i n Solov'ev.  p.25.  "too Nedelia,  16  CHAPTER I STRUCTURE AND  The  IN THE SHUKSHIN STORY  fundamental o r i g i n a l i t y  Vasilii  M.  works.  The f i r s t  plot,  CHARACTERIZATION  of the s t o r i e s of the  S h u k s h i n i s t o be found i n t h e v e r y form o f t h e consideration  i s the s t r u c t u r e o f Shukshin's  t h e f e a t u r e s o f which admit  structural  element o f i n t e r n a l  e v e r y work. and d i r e c t s  It i s this  t h e second  essential  dynamism a s p a r t o f e a c h and  internal  dynamism w h i c h  t h e movement o f t h e p l o t ,  determines  f o r i t subtly counterposes  the elements o f a c o n c i s e n a r r a t i v e p o i n t o f view t o a c o n c e n t r a t e d c h a r a c t e r development as d i r e c t  such s t y l i s t i c  speech forms, p e r i p e t i a o f p l o t ,  speaking, t h i n k i n g , These  using  and a c t i n g w h i c h  e l e m e n t s must be c o n s i d e r e d  the e f f o r t which  i n fact,  S o v i e t contemporary  life  With regard  of  the story.  i n order to understand  clarity.  i n the Shukshin story, components w h i c h  t o be c o m p l e t e l y s u f f i c i e n t  I n S h u k s h i n ' s work, an i s often  enables the  f o r the evolution  t h e m o t i v a t i n g power i n t h e S h u k s h i n does n o t  c o n c e n t r a t e h i s a t t e n t i o n o n t h e u n r a v e l i n g o f an  heroes.  b u t r a t h e r on t h e i n t e r n a l  involved  substance o f h i s  S h u k s h i n s works a r e based upon i n t e r n a l i z e d 1  i t i s the  'inner a c t i o n ' supplants  s t r u c t u r e o f s t o r i e s o f such b r e v i t y .  plot of action,  display.  t o produce works o f a p p a r e n t  with great  to plot  the e x t e r n a l a c t i o n which plot  the characters  present a sketch of the complexity of  dynamism o f a l l o f t h e s e combined simplest of plots  devices  and t h e manner o f  separately  S h u k s h i n expended  s i m p l i c i t y which,  and s t r u c t u r a l  plots  17 which are not even p l o t s as much as they are c o n d i t i o n s ( p o l o z h e n i i a ) or s i t u a t i o n s  ( s l u c h a i ) which capture the moral  images of h i s heros. G e n e r a l l y , the events i n Shukshin's s t o r i e s can be o u t l i n e d b r i e f l y i n one o r two sentences f o r i t seems t h a t not very much 'happens'.  A few i l l u s t r a t i o n s a r e t y p i c a l o f the  ' r e t e l l a b l e ' nature o f Shukshin's  stories:  On a v i s i t to town, a young husband buys h i s w i f e a p a i r o f white l e a t h e r boots and i s tormented by the thought of his  extravagance and o f what h i s w i f e w i l l  for  his action.  ( Boots'/'Sapozhki', 1  say to reprimand him  1970).  A l a d i s convinced t h a t he c a n - i n v e n t the  first  p e r p e t u a l motion engine and w i l l accept n e i t h e r f r i e n d l y a d v i c e nor s c i e n t i f i c f a c t to the c o n t r a r y . 'Upornyi*,  ('The O b s t i n a t e  One'/  1973). A shop a s s i s t a n t mistakes a customer f o r a drunk  whom she had thrown out o f the s t o r e the n i g h t b e f o r e , and w i t h the  s u p p o r t i v e a d d i t i o n a l comments and i n s u l t s o f the customers  waiting i n l i n e ,  she succeeds i n u p s e t t i n g the man  accused to the p o i n t o f e x p l o s i v e f r u s t r a t i o n .  she has  ('The  Insult'/  •Obida' ,.,1971) . The concept o f p l o t as b e i n g dependent  upon the  a c t i v i t y and sequence o f events found i n a work does not apply to  the Shukshin s t o r y .  The events i n his  subordinate to the c h a r a c t e r and the way  works are always i n which he speaks and  a c t s , responds to o t h e r s around him, and r e a c t s i n a g i v e n situation.  For example, the f a c t t h a t S p i r k a Rastorguev  kills  h i m s e l f a f t e r b e i n g p h y s i c a l l y e j e c t e d from the house o f a  18 gymnastics  t e a c h e r and h i s w i f e when he m i s u n d e r s t a n d s  i n t e n t i o n s o f t h e woman t o w a r d part of the story p a i r o f white  "The B a s t a r d ' / ' S u r a z ' .  The p u r c h a s e  employs t o r e v e a l  something  prime  importance  w h i c h he  to the author are the reasons  which l i e behind  the actions of h i s characters.  for  gazeta  Literaturnia  i n 1974, S h u k s h i n  "More t h a n a n y t h i n g e l s e ,  I am i n t e r e s t e d  life  I n an i n t e r v i e w  spoke o f t h i s  interest.  i n the 'history of the  and, f o r t h e sake o f i t s r e v e l a t i o n ,  much f r o m t h e e x t e r n a l me."  of the  t o be v i t a l . Of  soul',  important  b o o t s by t h e husband f o r h i s w i f e i s o n l y a  means w h i c h S h u k s h i n considers  him, i s n o t t h e most  the  I c o n s c i o u s l y omit  o f t h a t p e r s o n whose s o u l  agitates  1  Thus, Shukshin's  plot  exists  i n order to reveal  his  hero,  and  l e a d s up t o a c h a n g e o f c o n s c i o u s n e s s w h i c h i s s i g n i f i c a n t  to  e s p e c i a l l y b y means o f t h e p r o c e s s w h i c h  precedes  t h e c h a r a c t e r and t o h i s f u t u r e mode o f t h i n k i n g  The m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f t h e S h u k s h i n  hero  i s a basic  and a c t i n g .  concept  needs t o be grasped  immediately  stories.  From t h i s  s o u r c e f l o w s t h e c o n c e n t r a t i o n upon  stylistic  f e a t u r e s a s d r a m a t i c and dynamic d i r e c t  especially  dialogue as w e l l  as the g e n e r a l l y  which accompanies these speech variety of situations well  as the moral  i n an i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f  forms.  i n which Shukshin's  and e t h i c a l  overtones  s t o r i e s as t h e c h a r a c t e r approaches  hero  found  Shukshin's such  speech and  neutral  I t also  which  narration  explains the great i s placed as i n most o f t h e  h i s change o f c o n s c i o u s n e s s .  19 1.  The  Story  -  Scene  Shukshin's s t o r i e s are literary scenic  criticism  as  'story-scenes'  q u a l i t y to the  peculiar  often  r e f e r r e d to i n  f o r there  n a r r a t i v e e n h a n c e d by  is a definite  a type of  to Shukshin's w r i t i n g which centres  Soviet  dramatism  around the  objective 2  rendering  of  the  s p e e c h and  These q u a l i t i e s arouse the strong the  property  of  the  emotion of Much o f  a r t s b o t h as  an  work i n t h i s  industry  arrangement o f  power o f  actor  the  provides  any  themselves,  in their and  a director.  influenced identify  a neutral  comes t h r o u g h  possibilities,  s t o r i e s - he  i s able  is a to  watch  p e r s o n a g e s , and  involvement i n the  as  d e t a i l s needed  actor  reader f o r there  these suggestions  characters,  i n terms o f  the  and  and  may  conveyed  of  the  characters.  to  a situation.  the  s t o r i e s one  senses of  the  exchanges between the  Shukshin's knowledge o f  In h i s  behaviour of  immediacy t o t h e  a c t i o n , to hear the  feel  the  use  i n the  His  his literary the  skill  stems  from  cinematographic t r a i n i n g and  style greatly.  of a d i r e c t o r i n  and  i n the  and  omniscient narrative  i n a very i n the  construction  concise  way.  portrayal of  of gesture,  practical  mimicry,  of  setting  which  The  the  the  influence  characters  intonational  o v e r a l l effectiveness of  the  spoken  word i n the. s t o r i e s . The  q u a l i t y and  quantity  of d i a l o g u e  i s one  of  the  main v e h i c l e s t h r o u g h which S h u k s h i n ' s knowledge o f  the  reveals  depend  itself.  summary o r  The  majority  of  d e s c r i p t i v e moments.  h i s s t o r i e s do The  dialogue  is  not  cinema upon  self-sufficient  20  and complete to the extent t h a t i f a l l s t a t i c d e s c r i p t i o n was removed from a g i v e n s t o r y , the a c t u a l content would s u f f e r o n l y minimally.  T h i s i s a q u a l i t y which i s immediately  sensed by  d i r e c t o r s of stage and cinema and which has enabled much of Shukshin's work to appear i n the form of p l a y s , f i l m s , o r i n an evening o f dramatized  recitation.  Because a u t h o r i a l t e x t i s used s p a r i n g l y by u s u a l l y appearing  simply  Shukshin,  i n the form of a n e u t r a l n a r r a t o r , the  exact  remarks made by t h i s n a r r a t o r r e g a r d i n g e x t e r n a l f e a t u r e s o f the hero or of h i s surroundings stage d i r e c t i o n s provided  resemble the form and content  i n a dramatic  of  work.  For example, the f o l l o w i n g scene i s from the s t o r y 'The  Brother-in-Law'/Svoiak  r e l a t i v e s , one  S e r g e i S e r g e i c h ' , . where ;  two  a v i s i t o r from a nearby town, are steaming  themselves i n the  'bania'.  'The hot stones snorted v i c i o u s l y and another v i o l e n t , s u r g i n g c l o u d o f steam s t r u c k the c e l l i n g and s w i r l e d downward...The heat took your b r e a t h away and boxed your ears f o r you. A n d r e i squatted down away from it. S e r g e i S e r g e i c h underwent w r i g g l i n g torments on the s h e l f , h i s swarthy p a i n t e d body g l i s t e n i n g i n the semi-darkness. F i n a l l y he scrambled down from the s h e l f and ran i n t o the d r e s s i n g room to c a t c h h i s breath. A n d r e i climbed upon on the s h e l f f o r a minute and switched h i m s e l f a l i t t l e on the l e g s and w a i s t . He was not a l o v e r of steam. Then he a l s o dropped down to the f l o o r . "Let's have a smoke," c a l l e d S e r g e i Sergeich., They l i t up i n the c o o l d r e s s i n g room. S e r g e i Sergeich. r e t u r n e d to h i s e a r l i e r t o p i c . "So g i v e me an example o f what t h e r e i s to do around here." "For c r y i n g out l o u d , " s a i d A n d r e i . "Just l i e down and s p i t a t the c e i l i n g . . . O r see a movie when they b r i n g around a f i l m . • - O r go f i s h i n g . . . 'What i s there to do?' he says."  21  "Have y o u g o t a n y f i s h  i n your  river?"  "A few. The g u y s a r o u n d h e r e f i s h u p s t r e a m . There i t ' s probably a l i t t l e b e t t e r . " "Do y o u h a v e a "Yes  boat?"  - b u t no m o t o r . "  "What's t h e m a t t e r ?  No m o t o r s a r o u n d  here?"  "Yeah, s u r e - o v e r i n t h e s t o r e . . . B u t who's g o t t h a t k i n d o f money?" " A t home I ' v e g o t a m o t o r c y c l e . .On S a t u r d a y s a r o u n d f o u r a.m. I ' l l t a k e o f f down t h e h i g h w a y a t a h u n d r e d k i l o m e t e r s an h o u r . What a b e a s t t h a t m a c h i n e i s ! We d r i v e o u t t o t h e l a k e s t o go f i s h i n g . " "Do y o u c a t c h  anything?"  " W e l l , n o t t o l i e a b o u t i t , I u s u a l l y b r i n g home about h a l f a s a c k f u l . R o z k a . h a r d l y knows what t o do w i t h them a l l . She f r i e s - t h e m , p i c k l e s them, makes, c h o w d e r . . . B u t m o s t l y we f e r t i l i z e o u r g a r d e n w i t h them." "What?!" e x c l a i m e d  Andrei.  "Sure. I r e a l l y l i k e o n i o n s --grow them i n a h o t house. I use f i s h m e a l f o r f e r t i l i z e r . . . Y o u should s e e t h e o n i o n s grow! Nobody i n o u r town h a s o n i o n s like that! T h i s b i g . . . A n d sweet, my G o d . . . J u s t r e c e n t l y I g o t on t h e w a i t i n g l i s t f o r a V o l g a . I was a d v i s e d t o w a i t f o r a F i a t , b u t t h e way I f i g u r e , t h e y ' l l be f o o l i n g a r o u n d w i t h t h a t F i a t f o r f i v e more y e a r s - a n d i n t h a t t i m e I c a n g e t a Volga. Hoo b o y ! . . . I t h i n k I ' l l go g e t s t e a m - b l a s t e d some more." 3  After  t h a t t h e women  This excerpt The  i s typical  o f Shukshin's  n e u t r a l n a r r a t o r simply r e f l e c t s  dialogue, from by  bathed.'  topic  story-scene.  t h e a c t i o n and t h e n t h e  f r e e - f l o w i n g and e n e r g e t i c , t a k e s o v e r . to topic  implication  simulating a real  as i t progresses,  conversation,  I t jumps revealing  t h e m o r a l and e t h i c a l  position  22 of  the  lives  characters. are  Attitudes  r e f l e c t e d i n the  The essential  to  the  of  terseness  s t o r i e s are of  action,  well two  as  things  in  the  which  concern  socially.  i n t e r n a l dynamism upon w h i c h t h e  stories  immediacy o f  the  conciseness of dialogue  succinct  and  and  t a l k of  and  element  and  so  men  conversation  their daily  S h u k s h i n ' s work i s an  based, f o r i t enhances the the  two  personally,  laconicism  values regarding  topics of  d i f f e r e n t ways i n w h i c h t h e them f i n a n c i a l l y ,  and  given  t h a t o f t e n we  i n d i c a t i o n s of  and  are  the  e n t i r e scene  through  narration.  informed of  conduct of  some o f h i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , w i t h i n  are  the  The  the  the  place  hero  as  l i m i t s o f one  or  sentences. 'On Sunday, e a r l y i n t h e m o r n i n g , I v a n D e g t i a r e v ' s f a t h e r - i n — l a w , Naum K r e c h e t o v , a p p e a r e d - a p e a s a n t n o t y e t o l d , q u i c k , c r a f t y , and c h a r m i n g . Ivan d i d n ' t l i k e h i s f a t h e r - i n - l a w , and Naum, f e e l i n g s o r r y f o r h i s d a u g h t e r , p u t up w i t h I v a n * ' * In t h i s s t o r y ,  will but  be  f u r t h e r developed  f o r the  present,  been o u t l i n e d can  and  also project  that  between t h e  two  ents: the  the  men  exposition,  revelation  to the  the  the  the  the  narrative,  From h e r e ,  have we  must i n e v i t a b l y o c c u r information  of  the  i f i t was  for  dislike not  vital  story.  story the  characters  main c h a r a c t e r s  in internal conflict.  a confrontation  i s made up  body o f  h e r o , and  hero or  the  w i t h the  i n h i s sparse narration,  Shukshin  development of  sentences,  have p r o v i d e d  development of The  Wolves'/'Volki',  i n conjunction  i n two  placed  Shukshin would not  to the  'The  the  the  of  three  basic  compon-  s t o r y which i s a c t u a l l y  ending which i n v o l v e s  h i s coming t o a c h a n g e o f  a  consciousness.  23  Let  us examine t h e s e components  b e t t e r how in  Shukshin uses  story  structure  e x p o s i t i o n of Shukshin's  composition o f personages circumstances employs two which  i n which  to i t s best  advantage  their  story  p l o t s determine  l i n k s as w e l l  as the  immediately  initial  exposition*  and  the  'sudden s t a r t  1  subsequent  Shukshin  are simple  to the core of the matter.  and  In both  there i s drop  initial  immediate  i n pace  as  the  proceeds. In  'The  I n s u l t / ' O b i d a ' , S h u k s h i n u s e s t h e sudden  begins h i s story with a l r e a d y developed a c t i o n ,  quently first  the  these characters are i n t e r a c t i n g .  k i n d s o f e x p o s i t i o n , both o f which  proceed  'direct  and  p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e a c t i o n w i t h no  and  i n order to understand  the c r e a t i o n of h i s s t o r y - s c e n e s . The  the  separately  a c q u a i n t i n g us w i t h t h e c h a r a c t e r s and  sentence  i n the s t o r y t e l l s  been i n s u l t e d . ' upon t h i s  We  insult.  us t h a t  know i m m e d i a t e l y In  only  subse-  the hero.  'Sashka  The  Ermolaiev  that the story w i l l  'A S t o r e y ' / ' R a s k a s ' ,  start  the major  be  had based  problem  5.  for  the hero  i s t h e p o i n t where t h e s t o r y b e g i n s . -  I v a n P e t i n had  in  t h e good o l d n o v e l s - she r a n away w i t h an o f f i c e r . '  we  sudden s t a r t s e n s e t h a t we  him.  i n 'How will  An  how  t h e O l d Man  read about  death of t h i s character. morning.  But  she d i d i t I . . ; J u s t  of  the  left  'The  'The  Died'/Kak P o m i r a l  the f i n a l  o l d man  a g o n i z i n g w e a k n e s s had  wife like Through  Starik',  hours b e f o r e the  had b e e n s u f f e r i n g  come o v e r him...He  since  had  a l r e a d y b e e n f e e l i n g weak f o r a month, b u t t o d a y t h e w e a k n e s s was  especially  a c u t e - s u c h an a n g u i s h i n h i s h e a r t , he  bad  enough t o c r y . '  felt  24  Other o f Shukshin's exposition two.  introducing  by t h e i r  Semka Rys f r o m vividly his in  the story  o f Chebrovka  as a b u i l d e r . -  a man c a l l e d  t o none.  he d i d n ' t l o o k a t a l l l i k e Semka t o o k o f f h i s s h i r t , g  still  The d i r e c t  decided. ing  exchange i n v o l v i n g  the hero  his very l a s t immediate  increased  nose  "One h u n d r e d stories,  The s t o r y  " I t ' s t h i s way...I l o s t  and t w e n t y  He not look-  some money."  r o u b l e s . . . . " •'. Even i n  S h u k s h i n d i d n o t abandon h i s p r i n c i p l e  complexity of the story content.  that  'Mikroscop'  (a c r o o k e d o n e w i t h a hump), f r o m y e l l o w ,  and c o n c i s e e x p o s i t i o n d e s p i t e  ' G r e e t i n g s t o t h e Grey  of the  I n t h i s way, we a r e i m m e d i a t e l y  " I t had been n e c e s s a r y t o d e c i d e on t h i s . "  h i s broken  became r e d .  Egorov,  B u t when  h i s sun-bleached  t o t h e h e r o and h i s temperament.  a t h i s w i f e , he s a i d :  directly  w i t h a b i g nose,  He g o t home somehow, n o t h i m s e l f - y e l l o w i s h ;  At this,  of  Semka R y s , a r a k e , and  Tallskinny,  wearing  lived  e x p o s i t i o n also occurs through the  s t o r y and a s e c o n d a r y c h a r a c t e r .  begins thus:  'There o n c e  a hero o f a n c i e n t times.  presentation of a d i a l o g i c a l  introduced  i s described  paragraph with accounts of h i s physique,  a l s o a c a r p e n t e r second  undershirt...  and p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e h e r o .  'The M a s t e r ' / ' M a s t e r ' ,  s t r e n g t h , and h i s a b i l i t y the v i l l a g e  t a k e on t h e t o n e o f a t a l e o r an  simple language  i n the opening  by a d i r e c t  the p a r t i c i p a n t s w i t h i n a sentence or  Often these expositions  anecdote  stories are i n i t i a t e d  Onel'/  t h e m a t u r a t i o n and I n t h e 1974  ' P r i v e t SivomuJ',  story,  we a r e t o l d  ' T h i s i s t h e s t o r y o f how M i k h a i l A l e x a n d r o v i c h  a candidate of science,  tall,  c o n c e n t r a t e d , and b e s p e c t a c l e d ,  25 almost got m a r r i e d .  There was a g i r l . . . a woman, who s l o w l y , g  e n d e a r i n g l y named him 'Michel'  (Mishel').  Shukshin's method.of e x p o s i t i o n i s b r i e f and p u r p o s e f u l for  i t l e a d s us d i r e c t l y t o the c o n c e n t r a t i o n upon t h e c h a r a c t e r s  and the hero which comprises story content.  the most important p a r t o f t h e  The l a r g e s t p a r t o f h i s s t o r i e s i s c e n t r e d  upon t h e development o f the hero and the movement o f t h e p l o t toward the change o f consciousness which i n e v i t a b l y o c c u r s i n the hero.  There a r e two b a s i c m a n i f e s t a t i o n s o f t h i s movement,  although these have m u l t i p l e v a r i a t i o n s and p o s s i b i l i t i e s . The f i r s t or  type comes about through a process o f t r i a l  t e s t i n which an i n i t i a l  f a l s e premise  h e l d by the hero i s  c h a l l e n g e d and a new comprehensive p o s i t i o n i s the r e s u l t . For example, a b s o l u t e l y nothing w i l l dissuade Monia Kvasov, the p r o t a g o n i s t o f t h e 197 3 s t o r y from t r y i n g t o i n v e n t the f i r s t  'The O b s t i n a t e One'/'Upornyi',  p e r p e t u a l motion machine.  A f t e r a r g u i n g w i t h a young engineer and h i s mathematician to whom he has gone f o r a d v i c e about h i s endeavor, then  wife visiting  a p h y s i c s teacher f o r the same reason, Monia goes back t o h i s p r o j e c t damning t h e i r s c i e n t i f i c machine w i l l not work.  f a c t s which say t h a t t h e  The o n l y t h i n g which w i l l change Monia*s  mind i s the machine i t s e l f . '...without any excitement a t a l l , he pushed h i s wheel with h i s foot...Then he leaned l e i s u r e l y a g a i n s t the w a l l and p a t i e n t l y watched t h e wheel s p i n n i n g . But i t spun a b i t , then stopped...He had t o s t a r t i t again and a g a i n and he watched w i t h amazement and a growing f e e l i n g o f h a t r e d t h e gleaming c i r c l e w i t h b r i g h t spokes. I t p e r s i s t e d i n stopping...He s a t there a l i t t l e l o n g e r , then got up, and, u t t e r l y d e f l a t e d and d e f e a t e d , wandered away not c a r i n g where he was g o i n g . . .  26 ... M o n i a s a t by t h e r i v e r u n t i l s u n r i s e . He was n o t a b i t w o r r i e d a t h i s f a i l u r e any m o r e . . . S u d d e n l y he t h o u g h t he o u g h t t o m a r r y someone, and h a v e c h i l d r e n s a y t h r e e o f them - and w a t c h them g r o w i n g . 1 9  The and  story  ends w i t h M o n i a r i d o f h i s n a t i v e o b s e s s i o n  more r e c e p t i v e t o t h e  e r l y he  had  felt  i d e a o f f a c t and  that the engineer,  were i n c o n s p i r a c y a g a i n s t him, to ensure  ' i t became c l e a r  a t a l l a b a d - t e m p e r e d man,  trusting  soul.'"''^  i n order  to understand  keeps nagging too?"  physicist,  t h a t he  and  mathematician  when M o n i a  When t h e e n g i n e e r  pact  speaks  [the engineer]  h i s s m i l e was  his failure,  Where fornix  t h a t t h e y had made a  t h a t t h e w h e e l must n o t t u r n , now  to the engineer, not  and  science.  suggests  that of a  was  simple,  t h a t Monia  Monia c o u n t e r s :  study  '"Everybody  a b o u t s t u d y - a r e n ' t t h e r e f o o l s among t h e  "There a r e .  But  learned  t h e r e a r e more f o o l s among t h e i g n o r a n t . . . " '  Monia undergoes a t y p e o f change o f c o n s c i o u s n e s s d e m o n s t r a t e s one  o f Shukshin's  m a j o r emphases i n h i s w o r k s -  the i n v e s t i g a t i o n of the phychology by  social  and  has moved him pared  personal factors.  which concern  him  and  does not u n d e r s t a n d . in  process  The  which  especially Shukshin and  occurrences w i l l  i s governed  change which o c c u r s  more open-minded a t t i t u d e  the minds o f h i s heroes  vironmental  o f h i s hero  i n the d i r e c t i o n o f becoming a p e r s o n  to take a broader,  which  who  i n Monia i s pre-  toward  t o w a r d t h a t w h i c h he  really  c o n c e n t r a t e s on what t a k e s on what k i n d s o f s o c i a l  initiate  l e a d i n g t o a more a c t u a l  and  things  i n f l u e n c e the  interpretation of l i f e  and  place en-  thought by  the  hero. The with  second  Shukshin's  hero  type o f change o f c o n s c i o u s n e s s  which  i n v o l v e s h i s coming t o t e r m s w i t h  his  occurs  situation  in life,  way.  hero i s u s u a l l y a t l e a s t p a r t i a l l y  The  the c i r c u m s t a n c e s realization, rectify  he must t a k e  h e r o e s who Kol'ka  Spirka Rastorguev, birth,  has  felt  ('Oh,  ('The  the  b r e a k him  consciousness,  but  t h e a c t i o n s and  do,  a s we  social  not d i r e c t l y  a d v a n t a g e o f him,  second  Her  to two  sees  its  of  no  unmistakable his wife.  illegitimate as  his life,  and  story  institute  on  show o f  type  of process  to  well these  friends  t h a t she  i s taking  cannot see h i s s i t u a t i o n  S e r g e i who  intellectualizing.  i s a student and  that  in  at a Klara  - K l a r a makes s u c h  everyone a t t e n d i n g the d i n n e r , pride.  Sergei  h i s sensual wife K l a r a .  comes t o a f a m i l y d i n n e r , he  with  i s involved  Fingers'/*Bezpalyi'.  i n love with  His  experiences,  o f o t h e r s w i t h whom he  'Two  change  others.  b r i n g a b o u t g o o d o r bad  When a c o u s i n o f  explodes  this  Husband o f f  b e e n a c t e d upon by  Sergei simply  technical  literally  meet  of h i s p o s i t i o n  throughout  D e s p i t e w a r n i n g s f r o m h i s f a m i l y and  i m p r e s s i o n on  saw  position with  pressures  statements  i n the  Bezmenov i s b l i n d l y  a fine  T h u s , we  Bastard'/'Suraz'),  t h e h e r o has  a c t i o n s do  that l i g h t .  coming t o  down.  own  see  and,  d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n h i m s e l f and  Most o f t e n i n t h i s of  a Wife  the a s s o c i a t e d e x p e c t a t i o n s  finally  responsible for  muzha v P a r i z h p r o v o z h a l a . . . ' " ) ,  social  new  suicide.  s o l u t i o n to h i s unbearable  foundation of  as  meet him,  in a  some d e c i s i v e a c t i o n e i t h e r  commit  Paratov  Paris'/'Zhena  other  i n w h i c h we  seeing h i s p o s i t i o n  h i m s e l f o r t o remove h i m s e l f .  Shukshin  to  that i s , of  a  Sergei  city put  strong  28 'His s h o u l d e r s a c q u i r e d s u c h b r e a d t h t h a t he c o u l d have touched o p p o s i t e w a l l s o f t h e house a t once w i t h them: he f e l t so j o y f u l t h a t he w o u l d have l i k e d t o embrace and k i s s e v e r y o n e i n t u r n . He was c r y i n g , he wanted t o s i n g , t o l a u g h . . . T h e n he went o u t d o o r s , p u t h i s head u n d e r t h e t a p i n t h e y a r d and g o t t h o r o u g h l y wet...A r a r e , w o n d e r f u l t r a n q u i l i t y s e t t l e d on him: i t was a s i f he were f l o a t i n g somewhere, s u b m i t t i n g to the calm, powerful c u r r e n t o f time. His t h o u g h t s were c l e a r and s i m p l e : "See - I'm a l i v e . Fine."^ 2  Sergei's reveries from  the other  g o e s mad  intimately  and  the unbearable c h o p s o f f two his  mental  r u d e l y and  side of the p a r t i t i o n ,  cousin talking He  end  chases  and  his left  emotional  though K l a r a ' s c r u e l  he h e a r s h i s w i f e  t h e c o u p l e w i t h an a x e .  f i n g e r s on  anguish  action  Later,  hand i n an  act of  into physical  ends w i t h  s u c h an  needed  in his life.  t e m p e s t were t o f l y a t him  a g a i n he'd  to  like,  meet h e r .  t h a t had  Say what y o u  been a g r e a t time.  great times without  Sergei  Yet  even  He  feels  '...if  that  such  a  f l i n g w i d e h i s arms and  however p a i n f u l  And,  feeling  unfortunate  he had  that  ^  transferring  pain.  f o r S e r g e i , he r e f u s e s t o blame h i s w i f e . like  and  of h i s s i t u a t i o n ,  result  to s u f f e r  when,  p a s s i o n a t e l y w i t h each o t h e r .  p a i n of the r e a l i z a t i o n  and  suddenly  o f c o u r s e , you  i t had  go  been,  c o u l d n ' t have  a h a n g o v e r , c o u l d y o u . . . B u t he had  had  times,  13 hadn't he.  He As  the hero  definitely  a result  emerges f r o m  had.  of this  has  emotional, moral,  or mental  be  sense  make t h i s  i t and  fully  are.'  t y p e o f change o f  consciousness,  h i s h a r d s h i p w i t h a g r e a t e r sense  a w a r e n e s s , f o r he  t h e h e r o may  So t h e r e you  s u c c e s s f u l l y come t h r o u g h trial.  of  some s o r t  selfof  A s w i t h S e r g e i Bezmenov,  c o n s c i o u s o f h i s s e l f - w o r t h o r he may feeling  discernible  to the reader  only  through  29  t h e q u e s t i o n s w h i c h he how  asks  h i m s e l f and  and  best to l i v e i t . The  relies  p r o c e s s o f change o f c o n s c i o u s n e s s  upon t h e l i t e r a r y  device of  or unexpected  reversal of  feature which  i s used  endowing t h e Shukshin  c o n d i t i o n e d by  occurs new  i n an  dialogue.  of peripetia,  emphasized,  f o r the hero  these  which d i f f e r s  endings.  story,  f a c t s , he  t o enhance  Peripetia,  situation,  the i n t e n s i t y  as used  f o r he  by  never  introduces peripetia.  i s aware o f t h e f a c t s and  by  living,  from  the  t h i n k i n g , and  starting  very  working or  statement  point.  i s g e n e r a l l y a f e a t u r e o f Shukshin's  He  concludes  abruptly with the device  o r u s e s i t t o engage i n a v e r y c o n c i s e  consisting  o f c h a r a c t e r d i a l o g u e o r monologue, o r o f never  develops  o f h i s change o f c o n s c i o u s n e s s ; i s a h i n t o f how  the f u t u r e .  the hero  His endings  of  Shukshin,  as m o t i v a t i o n f o r t h e  iis l e d t o an o p i n i o n , a t t i t u d e ,  Shukshin  in  which  Peripetia  dissertation.  to  i t i s again the process which i s  from h i s o r i g i n a l  either  the  rise  type of p e r i p e t i a  peripetia,  with  It is a  dramatism.  t h e b r e v i t y o f h i s work and  In t h i s use  with  sudden  s t o r y produce a sharp  employs a s p e c i f i c  a l r e a d y complex  of the  - the  hero  f o r t h e d e v e l o p m e n t s w h i c h l e a d up  characters or circumstances  beginning  Shukshin  story with a d e f i n i t e  c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n and  i n the  s i t u a t i o n or circumstance.  the t u r n i n the d i r e c t i o n of the tension  'peripetia*  e f f e c t i v e l y by  dynamism o f h i s s t o r y ,  is  o t h e r s about l i f e  the hero  t h e most he may  utilize  a r e as b r i e f  story  of  ending narrative  beyond t h e p o i n t  provides the h i s new  reader  awareness i n  as h i s e x p o s i t i o n s .  30  In the s e e n how motion  story  'The  O b s t i n a t e One'  Monia's o p i n i o n o f h i s a b i l i t y  machine r e v e r s e s i t s e l f  by  his  change i n a t t i t u d e  f u r t h e r o r p r o j e c t him  and  thought,  into  the  of the story along with  Shukshin's  c o n c l u s i o n s makes o b v i o u s o n l y t h e f a c t  have  to c r e a t e the p e r p e t u a l  t h e end  h i s c o n c e p t i o n o f t h e young e n g i n e e r .  f o r e x a m p l e , we  paragraph-long  t h a t M o n i a i s aware o f  but does not d e v e l o p  Monia  future.  'Monia r e m a i n e d i n t h e f r o n t room, s i t t i n g b y t h e window. The t o p o f t h e window-pane was b a t h e d i n r e d - t h e sun was r i s i n g . The v i l l a g e was w a k i n g up: g a t e s were b a n g i n g , cows were m o o i n g a s k i n g t o be t a k e n to pasture. P e o p l e were c a l l i n g t o one a n o t h e r , e v e n s h o u t i n g h e r e and t h e r e . E v e r y t h i n g was j u s t a s i t should be. Thank God, a t l e a s t h e r e e v e r y t h i n g was c l e a r , Monia thought. The sun r o s e and s e t , r o s e and s e t , e t e r n a l and u n a t t a i n a b l e , and m e a n w h i l e , p e o p l e went o n d o i n g t h e i r d a i l y r o u n d s , s h o u t i n g , h u r r y i n g , working, watering the cabbages-people, my dear people-good morning to y o u ! ' ^ In the s t o r y bit  angry  Despite  t h a t he h a s  the f a c t  the e l d e s t realizes that story  'Boots',  s p e n t so much money on w h i t e  t h a t t h e y do  daughter  S e r g e i ' s wife i s not i n the  when she  t h a t h i s w i f e has  leather  least boots.  not f i t her, they are promised finishes  the tenth grade.  Ivan  deeply appreciated h i s gesture,  i t h a s meant much t o h e r .  With  t h i s new  to  realization,  and the  ends. ' K l a v d i a was she c a l l e d .  m a k i n g up t h e b e d .  He w a i t e d on p u r p o s e , "Sergei, love!"  "Aren't you  t o s e e what she w o u l d  coming!" say  next.  S e r g e i r o s e , s p a t on t h e s t u b o f h i s c i g a r e t t e and went i n s i d e , s m i l i n g t o h i m s e l f and s h a k i n g h i s h e a d . B u t he d i d n ' t t h i n k , so t h a t ' s what made h e r sweet buying those boots. No, i t w a s n ' t b e c a u s e o f t h e b o o t s . That wasn't i t . I t was b e c a u s e , b e c a u s e . . . N e v e r m i n d . I t was good.',  31 •The O p i n i o n ' / ' M n e n i e * , a-1972 S h u k s h i n i s one o f h i s t y p i c a l w o r k s . and  story,  I t i n c l u d e s a l l o f t h e components  s t r u c t u r e s o f t h e s t o r y - s c e n e w h i c h have b e e n d i s c u s s e d  above as w e l l a s t h e r e s u l t a n t reader  emotional  by t h e change o f c o n s c i o u s n e s s  e f f e c t produced  i n the  i n t h e h e r o and t h e a t t a c h e d  moral i m p l i c a t i o n s . 'The Kondrashin,  begins  from a d e f i n i t e l y  He i s so a g i t a t e d b y t h i s a r t i c l e , (dezhurnaia  stat'ia)  fellow-worker The  and  position.  p o s t , c o n s i d e r s an a r t i c l e w h i c h h a s b e e n w r i t t e n  h i s s u p e r i o r t o b e empty, p o i n t l e s s ,  direct  stated  t h e h e r o o f t h e s t o r y and a man i n a n u n s p e c i f i e d  administrative by  Opinion'  and l a c k i n g  a-regular  o f bureaucracy,  i n new  "routine  ideas.  article'  t h a t e v e n h i s f r i e n d and  i s s u r p r i s e d by h i s r e a c t i o n . story begins  exposition.  i n typical  Shukshin  fashion with  A n e u t r a l n a r r a t o r g i v e s u s a s much  a s much i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t K o n d r a s h i n  setting  a s we need t o know b e f o r e  the a c t i o n b e g i n s . 'A c e r t a i n K o n d r a s h i n , G e n n a d i i S e r g e e v i c h , a m o d e r a t e l y plump man, b l u e - e y e d , b a l d i n g , w i t h a h a u g h t y e v e n s l i g h t l y f a s t i d i o u s e x p r e s s i o n on h i s f a c e , came t h r o u g h t h e e n t r a n c e o f a l a r g e , b r i g h t eyed b u i l d i n g a t f i v e m i n u t e s t o n i n e , took t h e key f o r room 208 f r o m t h e c u b b y h o l e , and r a n t o t h e s e c o n d f l o o r p l a y i n g a b i t w i t h t h e t i g h t k e y - c o v e r , went down a l o n g c o r r i d o r , u n l o c k e d room 208, t o o k t h e l o c a l p a p e r w h i c h had b e e n p l a c e d i n t h e d o o r h a n d l e , e n t e r e d t h e room, hung h i s j a c k e t on t h e r a c k , and p u l l i n g up h i s w h i t e p r e s s e d p a n t s a t t h e knee v e r y s l i g h t l y , he s a t down a t h i s d e s k . He examined t h e newspaper. I m m e d i a t e l y , he came upon t h e a r t i c l e o f h i s c h i e f - t h e l i t t l e c h i e f ( s h e f u n i a ) a s he was c a l l e d b y t h e young w o r k e r s . And he b e g a n t o r e a d . As he r e a d , t h e h a u g h t y e x p r e s s i o n o n h i s f a c e was i n t e n s i f i e d by d e r i s i o n . "My d e a r God!" he s a i d a l o u d . He g r a b b e d t h e phone and d i a l l e d t h e i n t e r n a l t h r e e - d i g i t number.',  32  We f i n d out immediately  from Kondrashin's c o n v e r s a t i o n  w i t h h i s f r i e n d Iakovlev j u s t what h i s o p i n i o n i s o f t h e a r t i c l e . •"Well? asked Kondrashin, nodding a t the newspaper. "What about i t ? Not one f r e s h i d e a , twaddle w i t h s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e . " He perhaps may have resembled an American, t h i s Kondrashin, i f h i s nose, an a l t o g e t h e r r e s p e c t a b l e nose, d i d not end suddenly i n such a Tambov b u l b , and i f t h i s nose d i d not i n o p p o r t u n e l y redden, although Kondrashin's f a c e was f r e s h and complacent. "You don't say", s a i d I a k o v l e v , t h e p e r f e c t He swung h i s f o o t .  gentleman.  "The d e v i l knows!...", exclaimed Kondrashin, c o n t i n u i n g to walk about the o f f i c e and p u f f i n g away a t a c i g a r e t t e . " I f t h e r e ' s n o t h i n g t o say, then why w r i t e ? " "He responded.  Raised q u e s t i o n s . . . "  "But t h e r e a r e n ' t any k i n d o f q u e s t i o n s r a i s e d ! Where a r e those q u e s t i o n s ? " "What do you mean? There's even the phrases, 'We must s t r a i n t o the l i m i t . . . ' , 'We're bound t o a time...'" "Oh sure! I t would be b e t t e r i f he s t r a i n e d h i m s e l f i n a r e s t a u r a n t - i t ' s more c o n c r e t e . And t h a t ' s i t e x a c t l y - phrases!" "In a r e s t a u r a n t - t h a t goes without s a y i n g . . . t h a t comes a f t e r w a r d s . " "And he's not even ashamed", m a r v e l l e d Kondrashin. "In a l l s e r i o u s n e s s . . . I t ' s as i f he begged someone or something l i k e t h a t . One b i t o f j a b b e r , another b i t o f twaddle, they don't even w r i t e l i k e t h a t f o r a d i s t r i c t newspaper. No, he s i t s down t o w r i t e ! That's Doldon I v a n i c h f o r you." "The d e v i l w i t h him! What are you so e x c i t e d about?", Iakovlev asked s i n c e r e l y . "It's a routine a r t i c l e . . . " 17  "The whole t h i n g i s d i s g u s t i n g . "  '  In the n a r r a t i o n o f the o m n i s c i e n t n a r r a t o r , the d e s c r i p t i o n o f Kondrashin i s o b j e c t i v e , p r e s e n t i n g him as he  33  would look to o t h e r s with h i s c a r e l e s s , breezy mannerisms. Throughout  the s t o r y , the importance o f Kondrashin's  and h a b i t s i s emphasized  appearance  by the n a r r a t o r ' s a t t e n t i o n t o them.  However, the n a r r a t o r passes no judgements and h i s d e s c r i p t i o n s are  doubled by Kondrashin's a c t i v e behaviour and speech  itself.  The c o n v e r s a t i o n o f the co-workers c o n t i n u e s i n t o a change o f t o p i c . who  Kondrashin and Iakovlev t a l k o f some r e l a t i v e s  are v i s i t i n g the former from the c o u n t r y .  s h o r t exchange may in His to  at f i r s t  Although t h i s  seem t o be a s i d e m o t i f , i t does,  f a c t , concern a main t r a i t of Kondrashin's c h a r a c t e r make-up. a t t i t u d e towards h i s v i s i t o r s i s symptomatic life:  o f h i s approach  he puts these people up a t h i s home, i n s t e a d o f f i n d i n g  a h o t e l f o r them, because i t makes Kondrashin look good.  Although  t h i s i s never d i r e c t l y s t a t e d i n the c o n v e r s a t i o n , i t i s gleaned from Kondrashin's statements and conduct throughout the s t o r y . Kondrashin i s then c a l l e d i n to d i s c u s s the a r t i c l e w i t h the ' c h i e f and  himself.  He takes w i t h him h i s v e r y a f f e c t e d  'American' manner as w e l l as the e x p e c t a t i o n t h a t h i s s u p e r i o r  w i l l demand p r a i s e f o r the a r t i c l e .  As he w a i t s i n the r e c e p t i o n  room, Kondrashin t h i n k s about the b u r e a u c r a t i c world o f which he i s a p a r t and we are admitted to h i s thoughts: •Kondrashin s a t down e a s i l y on the c h a i r , threw h i s arm over the back o f the next c h a i r , and began to drum h i s f i n g e r s s o f t l y on the smooth wood. During t h i s time, he c o n c e n t r a t e d l y s t a r e d ahead, h i s l i p s pursed, eyebrows s l i g h t l y knotted together i n t o a l i n e - and he thought o f the s e c r e t a r y and about the pompous comfort w i t h which the ' c h i e f s ' , ' l i t t l e c h i e f s ' , ' u n d e r c h i e f s ' and ' o v e r c h i e f s * surrounded themselves. G e n e r a l l y , he l i k e d t h i s appearance o f d i g n i t y , the breadth and the e x c e s s i v e n e s s o f t h i s c l o i s t e r but, f o r example, Doldon I v a n i c h l a c k e d the knowledge  34  o f how t o u s e a l l o f t h i s : i n s t e a d of conducting oneself simply i n t h i s b u r e a u c r a t i c luxury, w i t h m o d e r a t i o n and t a s t e , he s w e l l s o u t l i k e a t u r k e y , w i t h s e l f - i m p o r t a n c e . He t h o u g h t o f t h e s e c r e t a r y i n t h i s way: never i n h i s l i f e w o u l d he c o n d u c t h i m s e l f w i t h any s e c r e t a r y a s i f he was i n a b a n a l n o v e l . T h i s was a l s o 'doldonish' (doldonstvo): to g a l l i v a n t with the s e c r e t a r i e s without f a i l . T h i s was s q u a l o r , awkwardness. P r i m i t i v e n e s s . .. * This type of d i r e c t (nesobstvennaia it  gives the  character  speech,  priamaia rech')  impersonal  i s used  direct  o f t e n by  Shukshin,  i m p r e s s i o n o f knowledge f l o w i n g d i r e c t l y  to the reader without  being  filtered  speech,  from  through  for the  the  19 interpretation of a narrator. The thoughts,  t e n s i o n and  v o i c e d and  increases steadily. about Kondrashin  unvoiced, The  is  still  Kondrashin's  o p i n i o n about the  a l r e a d y has  employs p e r i p e t i a  article  enough i n f o r m a t i o n  what h i s n a t u r e r e a l l y  speaks t o h i s c h i e f  i n the  is.  scene  about the a r t i c l e ,  the  None-  i n which effect  powerful. This  is  and  reader  to realize  t h e l e s s , when S h u k s h i n Kondrashin  drama s u r r o u n d i n g  immediately  scene  is rich  in satiric  d i s c o n c e r t e d by  humour.  his chief's  frankness  i n asking  for  some g e n u i n e l y good c r i t i c i s m .  his  a l l - i m p o r t a n t image. ' K o n d r a s h i n was n o t i n t h e l e a s t p r e p a r e d f o r t h e ' l i t t l e c h i e f to begin d i r e c t l y with t h i s - with the magazine. He was t a k e n a b a c k . . . "I he  He  Kondrashin  read i t , " said Kondrashin. pursed h i s l i p s . ' 9 n  even m o m e n t a r i l y f o r g e t s  And  i n a short  time  35  In  t h e ensuing d i a l o g u e , Shukshin  employs h i s  l i n g u i s t i c and s y n t a c t i c t a l e n t s t o achieve the e f f e c t o f i r o n y . He i s aware t h a t o r a l speech  i s v e r y o f t e n determined  by s o c i a l  f a c t o r s and Kondrashin demonstrates t h i s i n the v o c a b u l a r y and  i n t o n a t i o n s with which he addresses h i s s u p e r i o r . H i s  p h r a s i n g and long-winded c o n s t r u c t i o n s a r e those o f a man attempting t o i n g r a t i a t e h i m s e l f and t o make a good i m p r e s s i o n . '"This a r t i c l e i s so contemporary. - I t i s 'today' and necessary." "That i s ? "  D i m i t r i Ivanovich d i d n ' t  understand.  "By i t ' s s o u l , t h a t is...how can I make t h i s more exact - by i t ' s b u s i n e s s - l i k e e f f i c i e n c y , concreteness, by t h a t s i m p l i c i t y , d e f i n i t e l y , although i n i t not e v e r y t h i n g i s simple, p r e c i s e l y i n i t s v e r y s o u l i t i s w e l l - t i m e d . And contemporary."'^ Here t h e p e r i p e t i a o f a c t i o n i s enhanced by p e r i p e t i a of  language,  f o r Kondrashin  h i m s e l f uses the k i n d o f empty,  g e n e r a l i z i n g phrases which he found  so o f f e n s i v e i n t h e a r t i c l e .  They a r e a b s t r a c t t o the p o i n t where even the p u z z l e d  'chief  asks f o r e x p l a n a t i o n . Yet, Kondrashin  i s a b l e to convince h i s higher-up o f  the e x c e l l e n c e o f the a r t i c l e as w e l l as to impress him w i t h h i s phrases.  He l e a v e s the o f f i c e o f 'Doldon I v a n i c h ' w i t h an  apparent  f e e l i n g o f s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h h i m s e l f and c o n s i d e r s  t h a t perhaps a b i t o f f l i r t i n g w i t h t h e s e c r e t a r y might not be so bad d e s p i t e h i s r e c e n t contempt f o r the morals and i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s o f the higher-ups. Thus, t h e v e r y abrupt c o n c l u s i o n o f the s t o r y the d e v i c e o f p e r i p e t i a i s t o t a l l y unexpected  i n view o f  through  36  Kondrashin's his  own  success  and  t r a i n of thought  a s he  goes back  to  office. '...And he l e f t t h e r e c e p t i o n room. And w a l k e d a l o n g t h e c a r p e t e d way...On t h e s t a i r s t o t h e s e c o n d f l o o r he d i d n ' t r u n , b u t w a l k e d s l o w l y . He w a l k e d and s h a r p l y s l a p p e d h i s p a l m a l o n g t h e smooth, t h i c k h a n d r a i l s . And suddenly, n o t t o o l o u d l y , a n g r i l y , e v e n w i t h r a g e , he s a i d o f someone: "Cr-retins! ' 'The  2  2  Opinion'  i s a s t o r y which i s very  of  S h u k s h i n ' s f o r m i n t h e m a j o r i t y o f h i s work.  of  the  story i s necessary  the u n i d i r e c t i o n a l  - there  quality  from d i a l o g u e t o d i a l o g u e  i n the  and  the reader  We  for  presented  from the  protagonist point of  first  d i r e c t voice with  i n 'The  Opinion',  such  as a b o u t t h e i r  manner o f c o n d u c t ,  speech, d r e s s .  between K o n d r a s h i n  and  the except which  the n a r r a t i o n  or f i r s t  person  Shukshin's n a r r a t o r  are l e f t  to i n f e r  the dialogue  own  the  O f t e n t o o , as  i n the  the n a r r a t o r i s completely s i g n i f i c a n c e of t h e i r  alone.  us  p h y s i c a l appearance,  I a k o v l e v where t h e y a r e t a l k i n g  out-of-town guests,  through  witness  the  us o n l y o f t h i n g s w h i c h t h e c h a r a c t e r s c a n n o t t e l l  about themselves,  We  of  as  view.  G e n e r a l l y , as  their  d i r e c t l y by  n e u t r a l omniscience  person  sense  occurring  stories written during h i s l a s t years,  employ a much more p e r s o n a l and  informs  seem t o be  to  progression  i s t h e m o s t common f o r m i n S h u k s h i n ' s s t o r i e s ,  a number o f  being  The  s t o r y i s scenic i n the  dialogue  The  part  superfluous  are not o f t e n t o l d  n a r r a t o r about the events. narrator  Every  o f t h e p l o t movement.  that a c t i o n s , thoughts, goes a l o n g .  i s nothing  characteristic  exchange about  eliminated.  conversation  In Shukshin's mixture of a is  conveyed  stories  there i s thus a  ' d r a m a t i c mode' o f n a r r a t i o n , where t h e i n f o r m a t i o n directly  through  the c h a r a c t e r s themselves,  t h a t o f a n e u t r a l o m n i s c i e n t n a r r a t o r who to intervene, speaking  impersonally.  of the n a r r a t o r ' s speech and  consistent  i s always  with  willing  However t h e image c o n t e n t  i s e n t i r e l y w i t h i n the  comprehension  experience of the c h a r a c t e r s , f o r i n h i s i n t e r v e n t i o n s  t h e d i a l o g u e he  employs language  n o t have s p o k e n t h e m s e l v e s  into  which the c h a r a c t e r s would  b u t w h i c h t h e y w o u l d have  clearly  understood. Thus one may  suggest  that a type of  i s c r e a t e d b e t w e e n t h e a u t h o r and  dialogicality  h i s c h a r a c t e r s which  bears  similarity  t o t h e t y p e w h i c h M i k h a i l B a k h t i n p e r c e i v e s and  elucidates  i n h i s work,  Problems o f Dostoevsky's  Poetics;  'The e s s e n t i a l d i a l o g i c a l i t y o f D o s t o e v s k y ' s works i s i n d e e d n o t l i m i t e d t o t h e outward, compositionally expressed dialogue c a r r i e d on by h i s h e r o e s . Dialogical relationships o b t a i n between a l l t h e e l e m e n t s o f i t s s t r u c t u r e , t h a t i s , the elements a r e c o n t r a p u n t a l l y counterposed. For d i a l o g i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s c o n s t i t u t e a much more f a r - r e a c h i n g phenomenon than m e r e l y the r e l a t i o n s h i p between speeches i n a l i t e r a r y c o m p o s i t i o n , t h e y a r e an a l m o s t u n i v e r s a l phenomenon w h i c h p e r m e a t e s a l l o f human s p e e c h and a l l r e l a t i o n s h i p s and m a n i f e s t a t i o n s o f human l i f e . ' 2 3 Bakhtin and  particularly  concerned story.  speaks about  about  Dostoevsky's  h i s n o v e l s , w h i l e we  with the c o n s i d e r a b l y d i f f e r e n t  Still,  i t i s worthwhile  works as a whole, are  genre  immediately of the short  to apply Bakhtin's idea  ' c o n t r a p u n t a l l y counterposed• d i a l o g i c a l  elements  to  of  Shukshin's  38  dialogue various  e s p e c i a l l y with regard  a s p e c t s of d i r e c t speech,  jections of close  to  a neutral  the  and  not  device  reflect  the  1  1  seem v i r t u a l l y may  a l m o s t be The  to the  his  and  considered  those of  to c l a r i f y , of  the  a narrator  the  inter-  who  but  i s u s e d by simply  character.  h e r o , Maksim I a r i k o v ,  is  increases  the  the  vivacious  character  of  a u t h o r whose  to  himself  s t o r y and  the  Shukshin enhance  In t h e  the  story sets  dramatism the  priest  interventions  expendable.  very unusual p r i e s t advises t o weep and  h i s aching  spirit.  the  independent of  fullest,  alleviate  i n t e r n a l monologue, t h e  authorial intervention  t h e mood o f  p o i n t where he  r e l a t i o n s h i p between  hero.  dynamic d i a l o g u e  Believe! ,  s c e n e and  to the  of  the  the  and  t o pass judgements o r  'Veruiu! /'I the  narrator,  position of  The often  to  d a n c e , and  soul.  He  Maksim a s k s t h e  •"And where a r e  we  Maksim t o  to b e l i e v e  live  in Life  t a u n t s Maksim i n o r d e r t o  life to revive  priest: a l l running?"  "Anywhere. What d i f f e r e n c e d o e s i t make where? The g o o d and t h e e v i l a r e a l l g o i n g t h e same way." "Somehow I d o n ' t f e e l  I'm  g o i n g anywhere a t  all."  "Then y o u ' r e weak-kneed. Y o u ' r e an i n v a l i d . Y o u r f a t e i s t o s i t i n one p l a c e and moan." Maksim g r i t t e d h i s t e e t h . at the p r i e s t . "Why  was  I dealt  He  glared  such a m i s e r a b l e  "You're a w e a k l i n g . Weak, a s rooster. I t ' s no u s e r o l l i n g  angrily  fate?"  a...as a h a l f - b o i l e d your eyes l i k e t h a t . "  " A l l r i g h t , t h e n , y o u r s o - c a l l e d h o l i n e s s , and what i f I thump y o u b e t w e e n t h e e y e s , r i g h t now? "  The p r i e s t b u r s t o u t laughing i n h i s booming bass v o i c e (lung d i s e a s e , indeed!), "You see t h i s ? " he s a i d , h o l d i n g up h i s brawny arm. "It's pretty solid: a process o f natural s e l e c t i o n would f o l l o w . " . ;  24  Shukshin i n s e r t s h i s word as an observer watching from the s i d e l i n e s i n order  to support t h e e f f e c t t h a t i s b e i n g  produced through t h e d i a l o g u e .  -Surely we can imagine Maksim's  v i s i b l e anger when he g r i t s h i s t e e t h a t t h e i n s u l t s b e i n g a t him, or t h e p r i e s t b r a n d i s h i n g  h i s arm a t Maksim without  t o l d t h a t these a c t i o n s a r e o c c u r r i n g . sufficient.  being  The spoken exchange i s  But t h e n a r r a t o r ' s comments a r e i n t e g r a l l y  posed t o the d i a l o g u e  hurled  counter-  i n t h a t they r e f l e c t i t without d e t r a c t i n g  from i t . There i s thus a c l o s e n e s s  i n the p o s i t i o n taken by  the hero and by the n a r r a t o r , b u t t h i s approximation does n o t mean t h e i r sameness.  I suggest t h a t q u i t e o f t e n Shukshin's  a u t h o r i a l i n t e r v e n t i o n s may be seen as p a r t o f the d i a l o g u e . He p o r t r a y s a non-verbal d i a l o g u e ,  a non-verbal r e a c t i o n .  'Both  of them, the p r i e s t and Maksim, were dancing w i t h a k i n d o f grim f r e n z y , so t h a t one f e l t i t was q u i t e n a t u r a l :  e i t h e r they must  dance, or e l s e t e a r t h e i r s h i r t s , weep and gnash t h e i r teeth';. Such non-verbal d i a l o g u e  which i s governed by emotion and i n -  t u i t i o n c a l l s t o mind t h e c i t a t i o n from B a k h t i n which i s presented above.  I t i s t h a t kind o f d i a l o g i c a l communication which  'permeates a l l o f human speech, and a l l r e l a t i o n s h i p s and manif e s t a t i o n s o f human l i f e ' . the story-scene  I t i s a l s o t o t a l l y i n keeping w i t h  which Shukshin developed as the form which h i s  s t o r i e s would f o l l o w , s i n c e i t allows p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f i n n o v a t i o n using  the author's knowledge o f a c t i n g and d i r e c t i n g  techniques.  40  Much o f t h e e f f e c t o f t h e m a j o r i t y o f stories of  stems f r o m h i s u s e o f p o i n t o f v i e w w h i c h  the scenic  revealed  and  freely  t h e summary.  and a t w i l l ,  o m n i s c i e n t tone o f the  ately  I t i s almost always says through a d i r e c t  t i o n s of the v e r b a l end  the  'change o f c o n s c i o u s n e s s '  i n v o l v e d w i t h what t h e h e r o  immedi-  s p e e c h f o r m and  implica-  r e a c t i o n s may  the further  be g i v e n t h r o u g h t h e  'The O p i n i o n ' , K o n d r a s h i n ' s c r y o f  on t h e s t a i r w e l l  narrator  though  'Cr-retins!'  r e p r e s e n t s t h e moment o f t h e c h a n g e o f  s c i o u s n e s s toward which even  i n the  story. In  Yet  the  narrator.  Shukshin's hero always belongs t o the main personage  story.  this  the e n t i r e  s t o r y has b e e n  con-  directed.  i s t h e c l i m a x and c u l m i n a t i o n o f t h e  story,  it  i s l e f t t o t h e r e a d e r t o d e c i d e f o r whom t h i s i n d i c t m e n t  is  i n t e n d e d from t h e development  characters  are  y e t a s an a u t h o r , S h u k s h i n i s i n  However, t h e moment o f r e v e l a t i o n ,  to  i s a combination  The m i n d s o f t h e c h a r a c t e r s  c o n t r o l w i t h t h e e x p l a n a t o r y and  in  Shukshin's  throughout  the  o f t h e h e r o and  the other  story.  B e c a u s e m o s t o f h i s h e r o e s a r e aware o r become aware of  their  w h i c h we  active role find  i n creating  the p a r t i c u l a r  situation i n  them, t h e s t o r i e s o f t e n c o n t a i n a t r a g i c  Combined w i t h t h i s v o c a b u l a r y which  feature  i s a g e n t l e humour, i n h e r e n t  Shukshin chooses  of the i r o n i c  the e f f e c t  by  t h e n a r r a t e d d e s c r i p t i o n s o f d r e s s and m a n n e r i s m s .  feature.  The  and  i n the  f o r each hero, as w e l l  in  p r e s e n c e o f a keen  element.  satiric  humour i n S h u k s h i n ' s  implications  stories  s h a r p and d r a m a t i c c o n f l i c t s w h i c h  i s an  as  carried This important  occur i n the  41 works a r e e l u c i d a t e d flows n a t u r a l l y of  t o a g r e a t e x t e n t by  f r o m t h e s i t u a t i o n and  the c h a r a c t e r s i n the The  t h e c o n d i t i o n and  feels  almost  tragi-comic effect  on  i s r e q u i r e d o f him.  solely  natures  stories. of  'The O p i n i o n ' l i e s  c o n s c i o u s a t t i t u d e o f K o n d r a s h i n toward he  t h e humour s i n c e i t  We  i n the  the h y p o c r i s y which  come t o u n d e r s t a n d  the  hero  t h r o u g h h i s p r e o c c u p a t i o n w i t h c r e a t i n g an  those around  him.  -However, K o n d r a s h i n  still  has  effect  enough  c o n s c i e n c e r e m a i n i n g t o be a b l e t o v e n t h i s f r u s t r a t i o n s w i t h t h e b u r e a u c r a t i c web ridiculous  i n which  f i g u r e which  he  i s caught.  K o n d r a s h i n has  Despite the  c u t throughout  rather  the  story,  by h i s v e r y human d i s p l a y o f c o n s c i o u s n e s s a t t h e v e r y end the s t o r y , at this  a good amount o f sympathy i s d i r e c t e d  final With  psychological it  i s t o be  ethical  toward  t h e emphasis which factors  expected  S h u k s h i n ' s work.  influencing  S h u k s h i n p l a c e s on t h e development  that the s t o r i e s  the  have s t r o n g m o r a l  I t i s the v o i c e of the author asking through  life.  theme d i r e c t l y  puts t h i s stories,  'Kliauza'  - you And  live  contemporary  i n t o words o n l y i n two  'Van'ka T e p l i a s h i n '  (1973) and  'The  of  Slander'/  (1974). The  happening  and  A d o m i n a n t theme r u n s t h r o u g h o u t a l l o f  the reader c o n s i d e r the q u a l i t y o f  last  socio-  of h i s hero,  his characters that  his  him  point.  overtones^  He  of  hero o f the s l a n d e r asks i n anguishV  t o us?  What i s g o i n g on?  without wanting  t o when we  Van'ka g i v e s h i s s o l u t i o n  "What i s  I t i s disgusting a r e l i k e we  are  to the s t a t e of moral  to  live  now!"  and p e r s o n a l  42 life  when he  byt ) 1  You  before  advises:  must be  you  "You  human and  not  human.(Nado  chase a f t e r  a fifty  chelovekom kopeck  the moral  i s a group o f d i s t i n c t  implications of  Shukshin's  s t o r i e s mentioned e a r l i e r ,  w h i c h S h u k s h i n u s e s a much more s u b j e c t i v e n a r r a t o r who directly witness  involved or  the  written after I n them, we of e a r l i e r author's  phize.  questions  being  first  theme o f t h e  days o f boyhood  career. typical the  way.  this  appears.  which Shukshin's hero i s  this  t i m e a r e more s u b j e c t i v i z e d ,  i s a f f o r d e d the opportunity  a s k e d by  always  s t o r y and  person protagonist  searching  this  first  to philoso-  person  his characters  are  protagonist not  enough f o r what t h e a u t h o r w a n t s t o  being say.  p o s e s some o f t h e more complex  story,  person protagonist  b a s e d upon t h e  were  language of h i s i n t r u s i o n s are  p h i l o s o p h i c a l problems i n c l u d e d  first  person  These s t o r i e s  i n t r u d e i n a more d i r e c t  i s t h i s p r o t a g o n i s t who  1971  first  f a c t o r which i s a l t e r e d i s  stories of  completely  In the the  the  same when t h e spiritual  the  in  gets  s y n t a c t i c means o f p o r t a y a l  t h e d i r e c t i o n and  i n the  as  i n Shukshin's l i t e r a r y  Shukshin appears to u t i l i z e  expressed  and  but  Shukshin himself  when t h e  It  the  s y n t a x and  m o r a l and  that  find  w i l l i n g n e s s to  keeping with  reality  person protagonist. w e l l along  stories,  undertaking so  first  still  theme i s t h e The  i n the dramatic  19 71,  The in  piece  are." Connected with  stories  have t o be  i n S h u k s h i n ' s work.  'Uncle E r m o l a i ' / ' D i a d i a c a r r i e s on  an  t h i n k i n g a b o u t l i f e w h i c h he t r i c k s played  moral  upon h i s  internal has  uncle.  Ermolai', monologue,  done s i n c e  the  43 ' E r m o l a i G r e g o r ' e v i c h , u n c l e E r m o l a i . And I r e c a l l him — as I s t a n d o v e r h i s g r a v e . I think. And my t h o u g h t s o f him a r e s i m p l e : a l w a y s a labourer, a k i n d , honest person. J u s t as a l l h e r e a r e , j u s t a s my g r a n d f a t h e r , my g r a n d m o t h e r . Simple thoughts. O n l y , . I c a n ' t t h i n k them t h r o u g h t o t h e end, f o r a l l my i n s t i t u t e s and b o o k s . For example: what was t h e i r l i f e , was t h e r e any g r e a t i d e a i n i t ? I t was p r e c i s e l y i n how t h e y lived. Or maybe, t h e r e was no i d e a a t a l l , b u t o n l y work, and more w o r k . . . T h e y worked and t h e i r c h i l d r e n were b o r n . I saw o t h e r p e o p l e l a t e r o n . . . N o t l a y - a b o u t s b y any means, b u t . . . t h e y understand t h e i r l i v e s d i f f e r e n t l y . . . A n d I myself u n d e r s t a n d i t d i f f e r e n t l y ! -Only...when I l o o k a t t h e s e mounds, I d o n ' t know: w h i c h o f u s i s r i g h t , which i s w i s e r ? ' 2 5 The so c l o s e  language  to the author  objectivized idle  and  s y n t a x o f t h e p r o t a g o n i s t who  i s wholly reminiscent of  dialogue i n i t s r e a l i s t i c  is  not  philosophizing  It  i s a b s o r b i n g and  demanding o f an  author  These elements  t o produce  t i o u s mold. keeping  He  as h i s f o c a l  in  what i s an  In  some s t o r i e s ,  trivial  e p i s o d e from  freezes  This reader.  story  the o v e r a l l  o f many  to the a b i l i t y  elements  i n each  falling  of  into  h i s hero,  a  deal with  repetiothers,  caught  pattern of h i s  will  the  w h i l e expanding  the buying o f a p a i r  times, the m a t e r i a l w i l l  how  flow.  up  life.  seemingly  o c c u r r e n c e s s u c h as a n a r g u m e n t w i t h a shop c l e r k ,  universally and  i s a composite  a r e the key  the s u b j e c t matter  observation of neighbours, other  story  certain  point  natural  answer.  so many s t o r i e s w i t h o u t  reduces  Shukshin's  b u t an u r g e n t p a r l e y w i t h t h e  Thus, t h e Shukshin elements.  and  stands  deal with philosophical  human q u e s t i o n s o f how  to f i n d  'a h o l i d a y  t h i s moment and  of boots.  to l i v e ,  f o r the s o u l . '  transforms i t into  how  to  'be  Shukshin an  event,  the At  yet human',  effectively paying  44 special  attention  influence  2 .  to the social  which  t h e hero.  THE SHUKSHIN HERO Shukshin  of  and p s y c h o l o g i c a l f a c t o r s  the daily  s h o u l d n o t be c o n s i d e r e d a w r i t e r o f 'byt',  mode o f l i f e ,  and c l a s s i f i e d w i t h t h e ' d e r e v e n s h c h i k i , 1  a g r o u p o f c o n t e m p o r a r y w r i t e r s whose m a i n c o n c e n t r a t i o n and sympathies folk  i n an e t h n o l o g i c a l , m o r a l  extend in  are associated with the Russian v i l l a g e  w e l l beyond t h e l i m i t s  and h i s t o r i c a l of this  the portrayal o f the v i l l a g e ,  sense.  His stories  trend, centred as i t i s  the d i a l e c t  the Russian c o u n t r y s i d e as b e i n g a source and wisdom p i t t e d  and c o u n t r y -  a n d t h e mores o f  of t r a d i t i o n a l  goodness  a g a i n s t t h e e v i l s o f t e c h n o l o g y and u r b a n i z a -  tion. Shukshin  deals with a world  o f complex  logical  processes which r e c u r i n t h e l i v e s  typical  character- the rural  activities and  life,  t e c h n o l o g i c a l world Shukshin  atmosphere produced Shukshin to  the c i t y  ings.  d w e l l e r whose o c c u p a t i o n o r o t h e r town o r c i t y  and l i f e - s t y l e w h i c h i s n o t w e l l u n d e r s t o o d .  the developed, village  and m i n d s o f h i s  and r e l a t i o n s h i p s o r i e n t h i m t o w a r d  a world  socio-psycho-  which o f t e n encroaches  b y and a s s o c i a t e d w i t h  technology.  shows how t h e c o u n t r y p e r s o n , comfortable  sets the l i m i t s  w h i c h have p e r s e v e r e d  upon  i s able to describe the psychological  i s not t o t a l l y  The a u t h o r  In  through  o r t h e newcomer  i n h i s new u r b a n  o f t h e primary moral  a l l of the technological  surroundelements and s o c i a l  45  advances.  T h e s e q u a l i t i e s a r e t h e most b a s i c  and a r e u s u a l l y  o f human v a l u e s  a t t r i b u t e s o f the hero - there  i s Chudik's  h o n e s t y when he r e t u r n s a f i f t y - r o u b l e n o t e he h a s f o u n d ,  Sashka  E r m o l a i e v ' s anguished thoughts about t h e l a c k o f r e s p e c t  which  p e o p l e show f o r e a c h o t h e r ,  toward  S e r g e i Bezmenov's c o m p a s s i o n  h i s u n f a i t h f u l w i f e , and t h e p e r s i s t e n c e and h a r d work o f M o n i a Kvasov w h i c h a r e g e n e r a l l y needed  to get through l i f e .  values a r e portrayed by Shukshin i n h i s c h a r a c t e r s ; he g o e s on t o i n v e s t i g a t e change them, d e f o r m  These  and n e x t  t h e c o n d i t i o n s and c i r c u m s t a n c e s w h i c h  them, and r e p l a c e  them.  A l t h o u g h S h u k s h i n ' s s t o r i e s and s t y l e a r e o r i e n t e d toward g e n e r a l  t r e n d s and p r o b l e m s ,  the socio-psychological  c o n c e n t r a t i o n endows h i s work w i t h g r e a t p o s s i b i l i t i e s individualization.  H i s heroes think,  b e h a v e i n v e r y p e r s o n a l ways.  express  o f ;.,  t h e m s e l v e s and  Each development  o f a hero i s  i n d i v i d u a l i z e d w h i l e remaining a p o r t r a y a l o f t h e contemporary social  reality.  Shukshin's subject matter, p l o t s  are never d i r e c t e d or  toward  s i t u a t i o n might be.  t h e d e p i c t i o n o f what a n i d e a l  He i s t o t a l l y  o r d i n a r y man m i g h t become  of  or injurious  t o h i s p e r s o n a l growth.  but o n l y  and h u m a n i t y  f o r making a  be e i t h e r p o s i t i v e o r n e g a t i v e ,  'country p r o s e ' , Shukshin does n o t f i n d  conscience,  person  e n g r o s s e d i n what an  through h i s p o t e n t i a l  c h o i c e o r a d e c i s i o n which w i l l helpful  and c h a r a c t e r s  i n either  the c i t y  U n l i k e most a u t h o r s  t h e f o c u s o f goodness, or the country,  i n t h e s o u l o f man. A theme r u n n i n g t h r o u g h o u t S h u k s h i n ' s s t o r i e s a s he  c o n c e n t r a t e s i n t e n t l y on h i s c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n o f t h e h e r o i s  46  the  implied  man?"  question:  Again,  "What i s a n e d u c a t e d  (intelligentnyi)  i t i s t h e m o r a l v i r t u e s which a r e c e n t r a l i n an  answer t o t h i s  question  that  Shukshin himself  provides:  'This i s a r e s t l e s s conscience, intelligence, t h e c o m p l e t e a b s e n c e o f l o g i c when i t i s n e c e s s a r y to sing i n a mighty bass, the b i t t e r d i s c o r d w i t h i n o n e s e l f from t h e cursed question: 'What i s t r u t h ? * . I t i s p r i d e and...the compassion for the d e s t i n y of the people. ^ 1  Shukshin's c h a r a c t e r s ness and t h i s a broad  search  f o r t r u t h i n every  spectrum o f o r d i n a r y  exclusively rural  dwellers  truck d r i v e r s , casual  and h e r o r e f l e c t  a n d w o r k e r s whose o c c u p a t i o n s and v a r i e d c r a f t s m e n ,  with  historical  for  they represent  had  been uprooted by t h e p o s t - r e v o l u t i o n a r y  hero, by  This  that  social  uncertainty  p e r h a p s t h e most i m p o r t a n t  little  and l o g i c a l t o do w i t h  idea often  cultural,  leads  meaning o f l i f e  social  i n Shukshin's provoked  u r b a n c u l t u r e and i t s t e c h themselves w i t h i n the all-embracingidea  which  f e a t u r e o f Shukshin's hero.  perception  t o him d e s p i t e  He  o f t h e world which i s very the fact  t h a t h i s i d e a has  p r a c t i c a l i t y o r e v e n common s e n s e . him t o speak about t r u t h , t h e s p i r i t ,  a s he f e e l s  which  of rapid  s u s c e p t i b l e t o t h o u g h t s and n o t i o n s  These thoughts o f t e n m a n i f e s t  always has a d e f i n i t e  years  i s reflected  h i s tightening r e l a t i o n s h i p with  clear  place  The s o c i a l ,  segment o f t h e S o v i e t p o p u l a t i o n  h e r o a s an ' i d e e - f i x e ' - a p o s s e s s i v e , is  construc-  t r a d i t i o n s o f t h e s e p e o p l e a r e somewhat ambiguous,  f o r he i s v e r y  nology.  as  farm workers  urban c u l t u r e .  and  change.  represent  Soviet people- mainly but not  labourers  contact  restless-  s t o r y , f o r they  t i o n w o r k e r s , t r a c t o r - d r i v e r s and c o l l e c t i v e them i n c o n s t a n t  this  increasing dissatisfaction  The h e r o ' s and t h e with  the  triviality  of d a i l y  life.  Thus,  answers t o t h e q u e s t i o n s which S h u k s h i n h e r o d e v i s e s h i s own ;- l o c a l  methods.  One,  a  ing  a perpetual motion m a c h i n e . A n o t h e r  A third,  to The  of energy behaving  have s t r a n g e r s b e l i e v e list  always  handle t h e i r  unique  this  feature  works o f D o s t o e v s k y  and  t h e c h a r a c t e r by a n  ophical  and  reflective  philosophizing  Dostoevsky's lation  pursuits  that the various  basically  'general'. goes  on  characters  t h e same and r o o t e d  their idea.  hero  and  similar  d e p i c t i o n of the possession  Dostoevsky's  than the e a r l y level  h e r o i s more  S h u k s h i n h e r o , who  of r e f l e c t i o n .  intellectualizing  s e e s and  to the  philoswith  In k e e p i n g w i t h  bent o f the times,  u n d e r s t a n d s t h e w o r l d and  i t s formu-  from the v i e w p o i n t o f a g i v e n , a l l - e n c o m p a s s i n g i d e a . In  h i s work on D o s t o e v s k y ,  Poetics, Mikhail him  i d e a s and  a  i s designed  there i s a strong p a r a l l e l  m a t u r i t y a t t a i n s a deeper the  under-  t h e same s o u r c e . In  of  to  v e t e r a n , spends  t h a t he h o l d s t h e r a n k o f  i d e a , but y e t always  invent-  disrespectfully.  i n a manner w h i c h  i n t h e way  driver  i s determined  disabled  of motivating, propelling  endlessly,  in  and  some  the  the idea o f  e a c h o t h e r so b a d l y and  a part-time painter  great deal  a truck  f a r m , becomes o b s e s s e d by  people t r e a t  to f i n d  he b e g i n s t o a s k h i m s e l f ,  for  s t a n d why  state  i n an a t t e m p t  but  the idea,  but  the l i f e  an  'idea f o r c e ' which  h i s consciousness: and  of  Dostoevsky's  B a k h t i n p r o p o s e s t h a t . . . " T h e i d e a becomes i n  [the personage]  and d i s t o r t s  Problems  omnipotently defines  i t i s i n f a c t n o t he who  the n o v e l i s t d e s c r i b e s not the hero's 27  of the idea  i n him..."  lives, life,  48 In the  s t o r i e s which Shukshin wrote from the  on,  this  element of  and  more c o n s i s t e n t l y , c h a n g i n g o n l y  not  i n essence.  Of  'idea-force'-reveals  course,  the  h e r o e s o f D o s t o e v s k y and  of  the  common f a c t o r o f m o t i v a t i o n  derive  The  ideas  from t o t a l l y  a thematic device the  characters  ist  and  in their  undergoes, f o r the things  as  deluding  the  o f h i s own  in a  p a i n ) , or  hero  only  motivation  the  two  writers  the  dialogue  the  'idea-force'  of  f i n d s an  a component p a r t o f  aching  i t may  as  act  (as w i t h t h e to  the  diminished  change which t h e  as Maksim  h i s search  idea  part-time  impress  how way  by  i s just a  painter  strangers  hero  Iarikov's  for  i n a more n e g a t i v e the  protagon-  motivate the  (such  and  ideal  product  Malafeikin,  when  he  them.)  One and  aspect  speaking  heroes of  ' b e t t e r ' way  becomes G e n e r a l M a l a f e i k i n  living  but  t h e y have much i n common.  into forgetting that  imagination  speaks w i t h  are  ' i d e a - f o r c e " i t s e l f may  t h a t h i s s o u l was  to r e l i e v e the  emphasis  particularly  influence-on  I t i s always connected w i t h the  realization  strongly  d i f f e r e n t sources-and c o n d i t i o n s , but  compositionally,  to conceive of  who  and  which d r i v e the  for i t s manifestation  plot.  in specific  S h u k s h i n , we  In Shukshin's s t o r i e s , place  more  i n c o m p a r i n g t h i s common  of  of dialogue.  itself  mid-1960's  of  the most g r a p h i c  speaking  examples o f  t h r o u g h t h e mouth o f  the  the  hero i s the  Shukshin s t o r y e n t i t l e d ,  " M i l l e p a r d o n s , madame'.  B r o n ' k a Pupkov, t i m e and  time again  was  chosen to a s s a s s i n a t e  one  can  clearly  see  how  Hitler.  the  tells In the  idea a c t u a l l y  the  hero,  s t o r y o f how  excerpts  idea progressively  The  1968  and  which  he follow,  totally  49  consumes t h e c o n s c i o u s mind o f t h e h u n t i n g  guide.  ' I t was o n t h e l a s t d a y o f h i s t r i p , when t h e y h e l d a f a r e w e l l p a r t y , t h a t Bronka would l a u n c h i n t o h i s f a v o u r i t e s t o r y . - He c o u l d s c a r c e l y w a i t f o r t h e d a y , a n d he u s e d t o p r e p a r e c a r e f u l l y f o r i t . When a t l a s t i t came, he f e l t a p l e a s a n t t i n g l e i n t h e p i t o f h i s stomach and h e l d h i m s e l f g r a v e l y a l o o f . . . ..."Were y o u e v e r a t t h e f r o n t ? " ^ h e a s k e d casually... "Have y o u h e a r d a b o u t t h e a t t e m p t o n H i t l e r ' s life?" "Of  course."  "No, no, n o t t h a t o n e . "Who f i r e d  The o t h e r  one."...  a t him?"  Bronka d i d n o t hear t h e q u e s t i o n . and s t a r i n g i n t o t h e f i r e . "Where was t h i s  He s a t s m o k i n g  attempt?"  Bronka d i d n o t answer. Everyone exchanged surprised glances. " I f i r e d a t h i m , " he s a i d suddenly... "...Are you s e r i o u s ? " "What do y o u mean? Do y o u s u p p o s e I d o n ' t realize that distortion of history i s a serious matter?..."'  After  a d e t a i l e d m o n o l o g u e a b o u t how i t h a d happened  t h a t h e was c h o s e n f o r t h e m i s s i o n , B r o n k a t e l l s w h i c h he was a d m i t t e d increasing  into Hitler's  inner c i r c l e ,  o f t h e way i n t h e whole  t h e t e n s i o n and suspense w i t h h i s use o f s h o r t  time  senten-  c e s , q u e s t i o n s , and g e s t u r e s . 'My h e a r t was i n my mouth. -Where was H i t l e r ? ' . . . I saluted, "Heil H i t l e r " . I was h o l d i n g a l a r g e package w i t h an automatic i n s i d e , loaded w i t h p o i s o n e d dum-dum b u l l e t s . A g e n e r a l came up and r e a c h e d f o r my p a c k a g e , b u t I b r u s h e d h i m politely aside. " M i l l e p a r d o n s , madame - f o r  50 the Fuhrer i n person." German, mark you...''  I was  speaking p e r f e c t  Q  The c u l m i n a t i o n o f t h e e n t i r e monologue and o f t h e p l o t comes when B r o n k a  the climax  d e s c r i b e s the shot.  '...He s m i l e d . And t h e n I b u r s t o p e n t h e .package. "So y o u ' r e s m i l i n g , y o u r a t i Well then, take t h i s f o r our s u f f e r i n g s . " "Bronka was s h r i e k i n g , h o l d i n g h i s arm as i f a b o u t t o s h o o t . . . " W e l l , now y o u c a n b a t h e i n y o u r own b l o o d , y o u c r a w l i n g v e r m i n . " T h i s was a h e a r t - r e n d i n g howl. Then f o l l o w e d complete s i l e n c e and a h u r r i e d , a l m o s t i m p e r c e p t i b l e whisper: "I f i r e d " . B r o n k a l o o k e d down wept s i l e n t l y . . . When he r a i s e d i t , h i s f a c e was furrowed w i t h t e a r s . Then q u i e t l y , v e r y q u i e t l y , he s a i d , w i t h h o r r o r i n h i s v o i c e : "I m i s s e d . " No  one  said anything.  "Another d r o p i f you p l e a s e . " Bronka s a i d q u i e t l y but i n s i s t e n t l y . He d r a n k i t and walked o f f t o the water. And t h e r e he s a t f o r h o u r s , a l o n e o n t h e bank, i n t h e g r i p o f h i s t r a u m a t i c e x p e r i e n c e . '-> n  " M i l l e p a r d o n s , madame' i s a good many e l e m e n t s w h i c h  example o f how  Shukshin uses i n h i s seemingly simple p l o t s  come t o g e t h e r t o p r o d u c e a p i e c e o f l i t e r a t u r e . a tragic that is  one  f o r Bronka  The p l o t i s  i s so t o t a l l y - p o s s e s s e d by an  t h i s o b s e s s i o n t h a t a t t i m e s he  b e l i e v e s t h a t he o n c e d i d make a n a t t e m p t on H i t l e r ' s typical  idea is  'idea-force'  i t m o t i v a t e s a l l o f h i s s p e e c h , a c t i o n and e m o t i o n s .  so h e l p l e s s a g a i n s t  The  the  characteristic  which o f t e n  i s that o f a consequent  certainly  a  Shukshin's hero  m o s t o f t e n and v e r y e f f e c t i v e l y  really life.  pervasive  incongruity with realty,  the case with Bronka.  t h i s disharmony  accompanies  He  and  this  reveals  through h i s  51  language.  Bronka d i s p l a y s  this  f e a t u r e o f i n c o n g r u i t y when  he u t t e r s  the phrase  statement  i s a multiple error  i o u s - he  i s n o t aware t h a t he h a s u s e d a F r e n c h  addressing  ' m i l l e p a r d o n s , madame'. - T h i s  a woman when he was  b e f o r e a German g e n e r a l . a r o u n d t h e camp f i r e ,  supposed  Worse, B r o n k a  t h a t he  The p l o t o f  t o which Bronka  simple  is totally  expression  t o have e x c u s e d  assures h i s audience  spoke p e r f e c t  German.  s e t s t h e s c e n e and  t h e mood  i n c r e a s e s the t e n s i o n o f the s t o r y through the use o f stylistic  devices.  f u n c t i o n s which actually which  syntactic  The dynamism o f t h e monologue and  i t serves creates the impression that the  i s common t o h i s s t o r i e s w i t h t h e i r  rooted  a s no  and  the plot  e v o l v e s f r o m t h e d i r e c t . s p e e c h f o r m , an i m p r e s s i o n  The is  himself  " M i l l e p a r d o n s , madame" i s moved a l o n g  by t h e monologue w h i c h a l s o  and  obliv-  extreme  unidirectional  i n t h e same q u a l i t y w h i c h  the p o i n t o f emphasis,  i s found i n the p l o t .  i n which  g r i p o f an  i d e a and  w h i c h he w i l l It  n o t be  Thus,  Just  toward  i n the heroes.  f e a t u r e - t h e most  the hero i s h e l d  i n the  i s imbued w i t h a s i n g l e n e s s o f p u r p o s e  from  swayed.  i s important to d i s t i n g u i s h  the other personages  t h e s t o r y moves  so t o o i s t h i s r e f l e c t e d  and d e m o n s t r a t i v e .  hero  with every occurrence  S h u k s h i n p o r t r a y s h i s h e r o e s t h r o u g h one important  plot.  q u a l i t y o f Shukshin's  "side events'occur i n the p l o t ,  h a v i n g a b e a r i n g on t h e d i r e c t i o n  simplicity of  in his stories.  the Shukshin hero  Because  of the  from  brevity  and l a c o n i c i s m o f t h e S h u k s h i n s t o r y t h e r e a r e r a r e l y more t h a n two m a j o r  c h a r a c t e r s and  n e v e r more t h a n t h r e e .  One  of these  characters  i s t h e h e r o and t h e o t h e r s a r e i n d i v i d u a l i z e d  to the p o i n t o f s e r v i n g a p a r t i c u l a r framework o f t h e p l o t .  only  function within the  I t i s t h e s e background  m o t i v a t e t h e h e r o t o t a k e some s o r t o f a c t i o n ,  characters to think  who  something  out, o r t o defend a p o s i t i o n . • Shukshin's hero c o n s t a n t l y w i t h two g r o u p s o f p e o p l e .  The f i r s t  o f t e n w e l l - e d u c a t e d , who a p p e a r s professor,  student or candidate.  t h e h e r o must come t o t e r m s the w i f e .  The t y p i c a l  attitude,  and c o n t e n d s  i s h i s urban  counterpart,  i n the s t o r i e s as t h e t e a c h e r , The s e c o n d g r o u p w i t h w h i c h  i s h i s female c o u n t e r p a r t ,  usually  structure of the s t o r i e s counterposes  the hero t o t h e secondary personage opinion,  interacts  i n a clear opposition of  o r p o i n t o f view.  Shukshin always p o r t r a y s t h e educated c h a r a c t e r  positiv-  ely  i f t h a t c h a r a c t e r u s e s h i s k n o w l e d g e i n a c o n s t r u c t i v e way  and  i s patient  and u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e n a i v e t e a n d , a t t i m e s ,  ignorance, o f the hero.  The h e r o i s p l a c e d  humorous p o s i t i o n when he e i t h e r  competes w i t h o r i g n o r e s t h e  i n t e l l i g e n c e o f the o t h e r personage. d i s r e g a r d s a l l learned o p i n i o n which machine c a n n o t be b u i l t .  i n an i n c o n g r u o u s ,  Monia  Kvasov  stubbornly  says t h a t a p e r p e t u a l  Gleb Kapustin  motion  ('Cut-Off'/'Srezal'),  p r e t e n t i o u s l y assumes an e d u c a t e d v o c a b u l a r y and a c o n c e r n w i t h academic Space,  'problems*.  t h e Nervous  sistema,  Naum E v s t i g n e e i c h ,  System,  i shmat s a l a ' ,  and S l a b o f Fatback'/'Kosmos,  i s c o n v i n c e d t h a t h i s young  i s wasting time going t o s c h o o l , u n t i l to a changed  from t h e s t o r y  'Outer nervnaia  boarder  he i s d e c i s i v e l y moved  o u t l o o k a b o u t l e a r n i n g when he i s t o l d  how A c a d e m i c i a n  53  Pavlov an  recorded  h i s own d e a t h up t o t h e f i n a l m i n u t e .  arrangement o f c h a r a c t e r s ; - t h e  In such  hero f a c i n g h i s educated  c o u n t e r p a r t r i t i s t h e h e r o who must c h a n g e o r e l s e s u f f e r t h e consequence o f l o o k i n g  the f o o l . *  S h u k s h i n d e p i c t s a good number o f e d u c a t e d who, t h r o u g h t h e i r lost and  the capacity  self-importance, t o 'be human'.  the hero-eccentric  characters.  ambitions,  stands out as morally  i n love with  and a i r s ,  a little  superior  beauty.  young s p e c i a l i s t  B u t he i s t o l d  church outside h i s  t h a t t h e c h u r c h i s n o t s p e c i a l and i s m e r e l y  leaves  of h i s g r i e f ,  anger, and h u r t ,  the  original the  leaves. is but  that  takes the composition  that  Ivan i s a b s o l u t e l y  as serious,  t h a t t h e s t o r y cannot be p r i n t e d i n i t s  to conscience.  In the story,  the v i l l a g e  Ivan simply  'The O d d b a l l ' /  to rewrite  t a k e s h i s s t o r y and 'Psikopat',  the hero-eccentric  l i b r a r i a n who h a s b e e n p r e s c r i b e d i n j e c t i o n s  who p h y s i o l o g i c a l l y h a s g r e a t  a result  not only  f o r m and s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e y s i t down t o g e t h e r  appeal  Ivan  He t a k e s h i s s t o r y t o t h e l o c a l  When he comes t o r e a l i z e  editor explains  When  but also of h i s indignation  newspaper, where t h e e d i t o r a t f i r s t joke.  churches.  h i m f o r a n o t h e r man, I v a n w r i t e s  t h e p a i r h a d no c o n s c i e n c e .  a  i t to i t s  c o l d l y and u n f e e l i n g l y by a  a c o p y o f o l d e r , more b e a u t i f u l n o r t h e r n Petin's wife  t o such  'The M a s t e r ' /  v i l l a g e and i s o b s e s s e d by t h e d e s i r e t o r e s t o r e original  have  These he does n o t t o l e r a t e  Semka R y s , t h e h e r o o f t h e s t o r y  'Master', has f a l l e n  personages  trouble accepting  them.  As  o f t h e i n c o m p e t e n c e o f t h e n u r s e who i s a d m i n i s t e r i n g  54 the of  injections, c o n c e r n and  the  hero  upbraids  a young d o c t o r  for  his  lack  complacency.  ' . . . " Y o u d o n ' t know a n y t h i n g , y o u n g m a n . " "On w h a t do y o u b a s e t h a t s t a t e m e n t ? " , the d o c t o r asked w i t h an a i r o f i r o n y . "On e v e r y t h i n g . "The o d d - b a l l l o o k e d s i m p l y and d i r e c t l y a t t h e d o c t o r . "You're a doctor', he c a l m l y c o n t i n u e d t o a s s e s s . "Your nurse d o e s n ' t k n o w how t o d o i n j e c t i o n s , b u t y o u . . . t h a t d o e s n ' t d i s t u r b y o u one b i t . . . " . . . I ' m amazed a t y o u r . . . y o u r . . . d o l t i s h s e l f complacency. You s i t t h e r e w i t h a dead s o u l , no t r o u b l e s , no s o r r o w s - a n d y o u w r i t e p r e scriptions. . ." The d o c t o r , dumbfounded, He w a s s i l e n t .  looked at  the  man.  "How c a n y o u l i v e l i k e t h a t ? Eh? How c a n y o u ? . . . I ' m not q u a r r e l i n g with you, I r e a l l y want to understand: s u r e l y you c a n ' t live l i k e that? T h e man d o e s n ' t e v e n k n o w h i s own w o r k . . . H e d o e s n ' t e v e n w a n t t o know i t , t o 2_ love i t , but just s i t s scowling with importance..."' The e d u c a t e d ,  urban  in  Shukshin's  stories  of  the  character.  hero's  both  to  depiction of  contemporary  the  moral debate  about  values  awareness and mores  the  search  social  for  of  an  his  and t o  plot,  ongoing  favourable  educated, which  s o u l and  circumstances.  more p e r s o n a l  the  and u n d e r s t a n d i n g ,  The c o n s t r a i n t s his  is  Such secondary  the  greater  personage  source,  who i s  u s u a l l y the  hero's  heroes  i n Shukshin's  stories,  social  issues  aspects and  the  do n o t extent,  female  wife.  characters  of  development facilitate concerning  education,  changing  S h u k s h i n ' s hero  truth,  the  the  spiritual  modernizing population.  To a g r e a t from  essential  come o n l y they  character  Although  women a r e  feels  there  upon  from  come f r o m of are  the no  always present  external a  story female as  the  55  antithesis is  to the f a n c i f u l  a realist  and thus  hero.  -Shukshin s female c h a r a c t e r 1  she does n o t a t a l l a p p r e c i a t e t h e hero's  t a l k o f such i n t a n g i b l e s as t h e importance understanding o f l i f e , and  expanding  with d a i l y  o r t h e v a l u e he p l a c e s upon  t h e human s o u l .  life  o f c o m i n g t o an reviving  Her c o n c e r n i s o n l y t o g e t o n  a n d t o c o p e w i t h new c o n d i t i o n s o f u r b a n i z a t i o n  and m a t e r i a l w e l l - b e i n g . The practical  r o l e o f t h e woman i s more t h a n a  voice  down-to-earth,  i n the world o f the hero-eccentric.  b e g u i l e d b y t h e new l u x u r i e s a n d c o n v e n i e n c e s more t h a n i s t h e h e r o , and t h u s t h e woman i s d e p i c t e d extremely m a t e r i a l i s t i c . w i t h i n h e r immediate  In her desire  environment,  readily  as being  for social  Shukshin's  She i s  position  female c h a r a c t e r  becomes an u n s u s p e c t i n g r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e ' s t a t u s quo.' It  i s t h e w i f e o f Bronka  will  be charged w i t h d i s t o r t i o n  tinues to t e l l in  Pupkov who c o n s t a n t l y n a g s t h a t h e  his tale  about  o f h i s t o r y one d a y i f he c o n -  Hitler.Filipp  'Bird o f P a s s a g e * / ' Z a l e t n y i ' , complains  Nasedkin's  to the c o l l e c t i v e  farm committee t h a t h e r husband has t a k e n t o d r i n k he h a s b e f r i e n d e d a man whom t h e v i l l a g e w i v e s be a b a d i n f l u e n c e . and u n f a i r l y  Again,  a c c u s e s Sashka  s t o r e when he was d r u n k The  i t i s a female  wife,  because  consider to  s t o r e c l e r k who r u d e l y  E r m o l a i e v o f h a v i n g come i n t o t h e  and she r e f u s e s t o s e r v e him.  b a s i c o p p o s i t i o n between t h e o u t l o o k o n l i f e  h e l d b y t h e h e r o and t h a t h e l d b y t h e f e m a l e c h a r a c t e r i s a constant throughout -he  S h u k s h i n ' s work.-  The hero  i s s e a r c h i n g f o r h i s human s p i r i t .  i s humanistic  :The woman i s m a t e r i a l i s t i c  56 and  e x t r e m e l y s u s c e p t i b l e t o t h e v a l u e s and m o r a l s o f a n e w l y  technological  society.  T h i s dichotomy  between t h e b a s i c  moral  p h i l o s o p h y o f t h e h e r o a n d t h e f e m a l e c h a r a c t e r was o r i g i n a l l y stated  i n a very early  Shukshin  t o t h e end o f h i s l i t e r a r y i n t h e 1963 s t o r y about  story,  career.  'Alone'/*Odni',  and i t remained  Antip,  tries  how good i t i s t o h a v e a s e n s i t i v e  an e l d e r l y  to talk  harnessmaker  to his wife  and k i n d  o v e r t h e y e a r s , h e r answer t o h i m h a s a l w a y s  unchanged  soul, but  been an unchanging  indifference. '"You, M a r f a , a l t h o u g h y o u ' r e a s t r o n g o l d woman, y o u ' r e m u d d l e - h e a d e d . " "And  why's t h a t ? "  " W e l l , b e c a u s e . . . W h a t do y o u want? That day and n i g h t I sewed a n d sewed? Well, I also have a s o u l . I t w a n t s t o h a v e a good t i m e too, t h i s s o u l . " "I s p i t  on y o u r  "Ekh..."'  soulI"  32  I n some o f S h u k s h i n ' s appear  i n a more p o s i t i v e  stories,  light.  t h e female  does  -In 'Boots'/'Sapozhki',  S e r g e i ' s w i f e does n o t r e p r o a c h h e r husband f o r b u y i n g a p a i r of expensive white boots f o r her.  In 'Petia', the wife  seems t o p u t up h a p p i l y w i t h h e r demanding and s p o i l e d Still,  t h e s e women a r e d e v e l o p e d  zation o f the hero. if  Sergei expects that h i s wife w i l l  he buys t h e b o o t s and t h i s  story.  Lial'ka  reason that  a g a i n s t t h e dominant  f e a r p l a y s a major r o l e  Lial'ka husband.  characteribe f u r i o u s i n the  p u t s up w i t h P e t i a a n d h i s a n t i c s f o r t h e s i m p l e  she l o v e s him.  57 T h o s e women i n S h u k s h i n ' s s t o r i e s who a r e n o t w i v e s of  t h e heroes a r e o f t e n d e p i c t e d as being  concerned  with  on o t h e r s .  themselves and t h e impression  Another element o f t h i s  f a s c i n a t i o n with which these Kate  ('Ket') i n ' G r e e t i n g s  calls  young g i r l s v i e w W e s t e r n  t o t h e Grey One!/'Privet  a l l o f her acquaintances  i s great  Russian  in  S c r i p t ' / ' P o s t s k r i p t u m ' who t r e a t s  who come t o h e r c o u n t e r  Similarly,  with  culture.  Sivomu!',  literature,  by t h e Western e q u i v a l e n t s  of t h e i r "Post  names.  they a r e making  characterization i s the  d r i n k s w h i s k e y , t h i n k s t h e book A i r p o r t and  young and s e l f i s h l y  there  i s a young  salesclerk  foreign tourists  t h e utmost r e s p e c t .  However, when  two  S o v i e t t o u r i s t s a s k t o b e shown a s o u v e n i r c i g a r e t t e  she  a n s w e r s them r u d e l y a n d p r o c e e d s t o i g n o r e  them.  Shukshin's female c h a r a c t e r i s r a t h e r and  static  with  few v a r i a t i o n s .  superficial  T h i s d e p i c t i o n and p o r t r a y a l  of  'typical'  S o v i e t women a l l o w s  on  t h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l development o f Shukshin's hero.  Fingers'/'Bezpalyi',  lighter,  f o r a^deeper c o n c e n t r a t i o n  K l a r a h a s been u n f a i t h f u l  I n 'Two  t o h e r husband  S e r g e i , y e t he i s a b l e t o c o n s i d e r i t a s - o n l y o n e o f l i f e ' s many t r i a l s ,  which, d e s p i t e t h e temporary p a i n , i s necessary  to experience.  When I v a n  Storey'/'Raskas', that people each o t h e r .  Ivan  should  another  (Mishel')  the powerful  i o n s h a v e h a d o n him. with  uses t h e i n c i d e n t  have a c o n s c i e n c e  Mikhail  comes t o r e a l i z e  P e t i n ' s w i f e a b a n d o n s h i m i n 'A t o expound o n t h e f a c t  a n d s h o u l d be k i n d e r t o  i n 'Greetings h o l d which  t o t h e G r e y One'.'  'Ket'  and h e r p r e t e n s -  A s he l e a v e s h e r a p a r t m e n t a f t e r  o f h e r male f r i e n d s , M i k h a i l senses  that:  fighting 'The  58 feeling the  he h a d was  same t i m e ,  come h e r e loving,  with  again.  the  strange:  i t  relief,  he  was-bitter thought  T h a t w h i c h was  left  contemporary h u m i l i a t i o n  -dangerous,  delirious,  and n a s t y ,  that  now h e n e e d  there  at  not  behind him -  - -had b e e n  and n o w - q u i c k l y  yet  like  away from  'Kefs'  a hospital,  here  without  33 looking  back.' T h e woman p e r s o n a g e  that within his  s o c i e t y from  fantasies,  to  find  absorber  and r e f l e c t e r  the  is  as  hero  and, of  as  other lack All  are  is  included  aspects of of  are  the  society  whom t h e  is  reader  he q u e s t i o n s  to  to  the  the  follows  to  serve the  society,  some f e a t u r e s understand  while such  life  vocabulary)  and u s u a l l y r e j e c t s boorishness  some ('khamstvo'),  with  sharpest  sympathy,  or  the  and background important  function  social  pressures  and  portrayal of q u a l i t y to  act.  Thus i t  greatest  the  the  trends  hero.  environment  is  the  hero  interest  and  tension  emotional colouration evoking sorrow..  The d i m i n i s h e d c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n o f character  characters  the  accurate  hero must  joy,  n o t mean t h a t  unquestioning  b y - h i s expanded  bureaucracy,  provide a concrete  the  does  through  soul.  a n d who r e c e i v e s compassion,  and a chance  typifying  i n which  the  new S o v i e t c o n s u m e r  in part,  stories  and  represents  attempting,  She i s  Shukshin's secondary  necessary  These personages or  of  such as  human  i n the  representing  which  hero  some r e l i e f .  reflected,  a consequence,  the  the  s e l e c t i v e and w a r y . H e a c c e p t s  (this  the  and  of  which  educational opportunities  better  i n Shukshin's works  development  is  secondary  personages  impoverished i n  Shukshin's t h e way  stories,  f o r i t i s t h e ' i d e e - f i x e ''.'-of. t h e h e r o and  i t i s developed  w h i c h l e a d s t o g r e a t p l o t dynamism and  the r e v e l a t i o n o f the a l l - i m p o r t a n t The h e r o e s  o f most o f t h e s t o r i e s  1967 t o 1972  character of the hero.  from  Shukshin's  (and o v e r l a p p i n g somewhat  middle  period,  even i n t o h i s l a s t  works),  34 appear  as  'eccentrics' or i n Russian,  of e c c e n t r i c i t y and  emotional  them i n t o  i s c r e a t e d through  involvement  of behaviour  total  i n pursuing their  and t h o u g h t .  linguistic  whose c o m i c  'normal',  and s y n t a c t i c  capacity parallels him.  i s t h e element  makes S h u k s h i n ' s  h e r o e s memorable.  these personages  and love  emotions  of definite  Shukshin's  from  f o r and i n s i s t e n c e upon story,  their  and j a r g o n i n this  incongruity will  chapter.  'strangeness' which  The common f e a t u r e s i n a l l  p a s s i o n a t e n a t u r e s and  their  truth.  'The C r i t i c s ' / ' K r i t i k i '  19 64 i n t r o d u c e s one o f S h u k s h i n ' s  original  written i n  ' c h u d i k i ' who  was  t o e v o l v e g r e a t l y b y t h e end o f S h u k s h i n ' s  writing career.  An o l d man  a show on  living  i n w h i c h an a c t o r that  the actor  use  are revealed i n the spontaneity of action  springing  An e a r l y  standards  This point  be d i s c u s s e d i n g r e a t e r l e n g t h i n t h e f o l l o w i n g  of  o r humourous  more a c c e p t e d  I t i s important that  o f t h e h e r o w i t h t h e community a r o u n d  It  psychological  'idea' which leads  sub-standard R u s s i a n i n t h e form o f d i a l e c t  its  The i m p r e s s i o n  a r e s i m p l y n o t c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e a c t i o n s and  b e h a v i o u r o f p e o p l e w i t h more  of  their  s i t u a t i o n s and e n c o u n t e r s  consequences  'chudiki'.  in a village i s portraying  i s totally  i s watching  television  a carpenter.. I t i s obvious  i n e p t and u n k n o w l e d g e a b l e o f  this  60 skill in  and  t h e b i d man,  not being able to bear the charade,  the t e l e v i s i o n screen. From t h e m i d - 1 9 6 0 s t o a b o u t  were i n t e r e s t i n g governed by to  unique  f r a n k and h o n e s t ,  s m a r t and  appeared  such s t o r i e s as  zdes?'.  of  'plots' of fortune'  an u n o r t h o d o x c o n c e p t s and  These  way  them.  himself  emotions  first  director  He  i s looking  i n each c a s e has He  'Vania,  types  developed  puts h i s b e l i e f s ,  town when he  Pron'ka  reactions.  a c t and  is visiting  and  'type' o f person  the c i t y  the p a r t u n t i l  think.  i s approached  h a s t h e l o o k she w a n t s  i s t o t a l l y m i s i n f o r m e d a s t o how  exchanges between Pron'ka  against  on v a r i o u s  for a certain  in a film.  a g r e e s t o do  s h o u l d speak,  challenges  and  i n h i s i n t e r a c t i o n s and  a nearby  '...a s i m p l e l a d who  time."  Vania,  who  a small r o l e  - that of  this  i n ' V a n i a , what a r e y o u d o i n g h e r e ? ' / V a n i a ,  zdes'?', i s v i s i t i n g  by a y o u n g g i r l  'Klassnyi Voditel',  the hero  to the t e s t  In  he  ' M i l l e p a r d o n s , madame,'  s t o r i e s a r e a l l based and  The  i n through  figure.  of d e a l i n g with the world.  Pron'ka,  fill  'Chudik',  'Grin'ka M a l i u g i n ' ,  kak  kak  action,  r e f l e c t i v e by n a t u r e ,  n e v e r p r e s e n t e d t o t h e r e a d e r as a c o m i c  ty  the  their decisiveness of  t h e c i r c u m s t a n c e s he w o u l d f i n d  'Mikroskop',  to  heroes  combination of these q u a l i t i e s with h i s 'idea-force',  period  ty  i n that  Shukshin's  t h e p a r t i c u l a r m o t i v a t i n g i d e a o f e a c h , l e d them  and d e s p i t e  is  and  1970,  g e n u i n e l y humorous e n c o u n t e r s w i t h o t h e r s a r o u n d  h e r o was  the  kicks  After  f o r the  he r e a l i z e s  that  the country l a d ,  several  the d i r e c t o r , i n which  humorous Pron'ka  the m i s c o n c e p t i o n s o f the d i r e c t o r , . Pron'ka d e c i d e s  taking  the  part.  61 G r i n ' k a M a l i u g i n i s the hero o f a s t o r y which his  name.  his  fellow villagers  pay on  He  zippered the  who  i s c o n s i d e r e d ' s t r a n g e ' by  and w o r k e r s .  Instead of working  a Sunday, G r i n ' k a w o u l d a l w a y s  accurately  of  i s a young man  to the r i g h t  side,  bears  comb h i s s a n d y  for extra forelock  p u t on h i s good b l a c k p a n t s  j a c k e t and w a l k a b o u t  town t o t h e a d m i r i n g  glances  girls. The m a i n a c t i o n o c c u r s when G r i n ' k a jumps i n t o  gasoline river. and  by  t r u c k which has He  jumps f r e e  caught  fire  of the remaining  by  leaping  into  t h e t r u c k and why  i n t e r v i e w him  up  a r e a s o n which sounds good.  not understand  their opinion. sudden and  as i n d i v i d u a l s ,  He  realizes  r e l i e v e an  He  want t o r i s k h i s  he had w a i t e d u n t i l  simply asks her  than  they ask,  'moved' t o do  They s i m p l y do  the  answer  and  then  something  becomes aware o f h i m s e l f and  which  hero  o r how they  seems  they, do.  develops  of h i s 'oddity'.  t h a t he n e e d s t o b e h a v e a s h e - d o e s i n o r d e r a melancholy,  state  i t naturally,  a c t t h e way  1970s, S h u k s h i n ' s  t o make  pondering.  n o t q u e s t i o n why  h a v e come t o t h i n k and  emptiness,  the  Grin'ka i s asked  t o t h e r e a d e r , t h e y do  During the e a r l y perceptibly.  questions capture  do more a c t i n g  something,  I f they are  inexplicable  without thought.  the  When a young woman comes  f o r a n e w s p a p e r , he  These e a r l y heroes t h e y do  i t toward  Grin'ka simply cannot  just did i t .  to  If  Two  t h a t made him  v e r y l a s t m i n u t e t o jump c l e a r . t h e s e q u e s t i o n s - he  drives  events of the s t o r y .  s e v e r a l p e o p l e what i t was  life  and  a  j u s t b e f o r e t h e t r u c k g o e s o f f t h e bank  breaks h i s l e g i n the process.  essence  and  a dissatisfaction  to  which  62  he senses w i t h i n h i m s e l f . i n h i s own  particular Two  present  He f e e l s good when he i s engrossed  'fancy.'  embodiments of t h i s more mature h e r o - e c c e n t r i c  themselves c h r o n o l o g i c a l l y and developmentally  stories.  The  strangeness  e c c e n t r i c now  to h i m s e l f  becomes a hero who  i n the  explains his  (and sometimes t o o t h e r s ) , as b e i n g  a  'holiday f o r the s o u l ' - a chance f o r s p i r i t u a l freedom unhampered by the c o n s t r a i n t s of a s o p h i s t i c a t e d and technological society. world for  and  He  progressing  i s happy i n h i s temporary, imagined  r e f u s e s to r e l i n q u i s h t h i s time which he has  set aside  his soul. A l i o s h a Beskonvoinyi  r i t u a l o f the steambath  w i l l not g i v e up h i s weekend  ('bania') to go to work or even to a  meeting on the c o l l e c t i v e farm. days a week and no matter how by the chairman and on the weekends.  He  i s a model worker f o r f i v e  he i s begged, r e g a l e d , or e n t i c e d  the c o u n c i l of the kolhoz, he w i l l not work  T h i s i s because, i n the  'bania',  something  wonderful happens to A l i o s h a each week. 'God, what a f a n t a s t i c peace there was i n h i s soul! The c h i l d r e n weren't s i c k l y , he had no argument with anyone, he had even been a b l e to lend some money. ...Here l i f e went on - w h o l l y c o n c r e t e , but a l s o e n t i r e l y i n e x p l i c a b l e - dear and beloved to the extreme...Every unhealthy tendency was completely d i s m i s s e d by A l i o s h a , p e t t y thoughts abandoned him, and i n h i s s o u l s e t t l e d a f e e l i n g of completeness, s t r e n g t h , c l a r i t y - l i f e became understandable. That i s , i t was a l o n g s i d e him, j u s t o u t s i d e the l i t t l e window of the 'bania', but A l i o s h a became u n a t t a i n a b l e to l i f e , to i t s hubbub and m a l i c e , he became l a r g e r and even condescending.' . . . . . . . A l i o s h a came out o f the. 'bania' when i t began to grow dark. -He was new and w e l l steamed ... * _  63 The in  complexity  the response  himself  of the hero-eccentric exists  of the reader  him f o r t h e e c c e n t r i c  i s n o t a l w a y s aware o f i t . Shukshin's  m u l t i t u d e o f ways. Saturday  eccentrics A city  to the t r a i n  m i g h t move t o .  find  their  own o u t l e t s  shopkeeper goes r e g u l a r l y  station  are w a i t i n g there f o r t r a i n s  the  toward  only  ina  each  and a s k s - t h e c o u n t r y f o l k about  But i n r e a l i t y  who  a good v i l l a g e w h i c h he  t h e man h a s no i n t e n t i o n o f l e a v i n g  city. A man i s t e m p o r a r i l y o b s e s s e d  reconstructing monument.  a beautiful  o l d c o u n t r y church- as an a r c h i t e c t u r a l  When he i s i n f o r m e d  of  even o l d e r c h u r c h e s  is  so g r e a t , t h a t he c a n n o t  by t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f  that the church  i s merely  a copy  i n northern Russia, h i s disillusionment even bear  to look a t the church  when  he h a s t o p a s s i t . The  outlet  n o t be p r o f o u n d , to o t h e r s . ties  long-lasting,  i n their  display  search f o r s p i r i t u a l K a p u s t i n from  a b s o l u t e l y wonderful  h e r o - e c c e n t r i c need  or even-necessarily of benefit  Some o f t h e s e h e r o e s  Gleb  young  o r idea o f Shukshin's  less  sympathetic  quali-  space.  the story  'Cut-Off'/'Srezal* feels  when he i s d e b a t i n g and v e r b a l l y  battling  s t u d e n t s a n d a c a d e m i c s who a r e n a t i v e s o f h i s v i l l a g e and  have r e t u r n e d f o r a v i s i t .  He s a v o u r s - t h e p r e c i s i o n  i n f a m o u s a t t a c k on t h e u n s u s p e c t i n g v i c t i m he g r a b s  to close  as w e l l  of h i s  a s t h e moment  i n f o r t h e v e r b a l and i n t e l l e c t u a l  'cut-off.  'Around t h e t a b l e t h e c o n v e r s a t i o n was g o i n g a l o n g i n a v e r y f r i e n d l y manner - i t was a l m o s t as i f G l e b h a d b e e n f o r g o t t e n . . . A n d h e r e he 35 chose t o s t a r t t h e a t t a c k on t h e c a n d i d a t e . . . '  The  ' d e b a t e ' c o n t i n u e s - as- t h e c a n d i d a t e g e t s more  and more e x a s p e r a t e d w i t h G l e b ' s b o o k i s h - p h r a s e s and cliches.  He  g l a n c e s m e a n i n g f u l l y a t h i s - w i f e a s he  acknowledges something  which  G l e b has  learned passively  said. -  'And i t was p o i n t l e s s , f o r t h e g l a n c e had b e e n i n t e r c e p t e d and G l e b r o c k e t e d u p w a r d s . . . E v e r y time i n t h e c o n v e r s a t i o n s with- knowledgeable p e o p l e f r o m t h e v i l l a g e , t h i s moment e n s u e d - when G l e b s o a r e d t o w a r d t h e h e i g h t s . He o b v i o u s l y a l w a y s a w a i t e d s u c h - a moment and was j o y f u l when i t came.'-,-. Gleb a t t h i s p o i n t w i t h c r i t i c i s m s and the  sarcasms  literally and  bombards t h e c a n d i d a t e  a l l o w s no o p p o r t u n i t y f o r  candidate to defend h i m s e l f . '..."You may w r i t e t h e word ' n a r o d ' h u n d r e d s o f t i m e s i n v a r i o u s a r t i c l e s , b u t your, k n o w l e d g e about i t does n o t i n c r e a s e . B e c a u s e y o u do n o t want t o g e t any c l o s e r t o t h i s ' n a r o d ' . And when y o u l e a v e t h i s v i l l a g e , y o u ' l l h a v e a s e r i e s of meetings. You've become an e x p e r t on t h e t o p i c , r i g h t ? W e l l , i t ' s e a s y t o be made a f o o l o f , r i g h t ? Good-bye. Spend y o u r t i m e - o f f p l e a s a n t l y . . . a m o n g s t t h e 'narod'." G l e b g r i n n e d t r i u m p h a n t l y and l e f t t h e c o t t a g e . He a l w a y s l e f t i n t h i s w a y . ' ™  G l e b has the  very thing  younger, quickly  These  a g a i n s t which  he h a s  forgetting of l i f e  attacking  a p e r s o n a l grudge,  w e l l - e d u c a t e d g e n e r a t i o n , which  mainstays morals.  f o u n d a r e l e a s e f o r h i m s e l f by  t o G l e b seems t o  o r i g n o r i n g what he deems t o be one - t h e c o u n t r y p e o p l e and  In t h i s v e n g e f u l a t t a c k , Gleb  then are Shukshin's  h e r o e s who  ' h o l i d a y s f o r t h e s o u l ' and framework o f t h e i r more  -the  of  their values  finds his  be the  and  'holiday'.  are able to arrange  their  s u c c e s s f u l l y make i t f i t i n t o  'normal*,  daily  lives.  Shukshin's  the v  65  h e r o - e c c e n t r i c may who  be f r e e i n h i s c a p t i v i t y  ( l i k e Bronka Pupkov  i s a c a p t i v e o f h i s f a n t a s y to be r e c o g n i z e d as  a s s a s s i n ) , o r captured  i n h i s freedom  (like Aliosha  Hitler's Beskonvoinyi  i n h i s a p p a r e n t l y p e r f e c t method of f i n d i n g a h o l i d a y f o r h i s soul.)  One  of the two  c o n d i t i o n s p r e v a i l s depending upon the  emphasis of the p l o t and the degree of c o n s t r a i n t which the hero feels i n his daily l i f e .  Shukshin's h e r o - e c c e n t r i c does not  d e a l w i t h l i f e ' s t r u t h s i n sober, r e a l i s t i c terms.  Rather, he  39 d e a l s with the t r u t h o f h i s i m a g i n a t i o n . Shukshin r e l e a s e s h i s hero as the e c c e n t r i c through the v i v i d n e s s and energy of i n t e n s e r e a l i s m .  Yet, there i s a  second r e a l i t y f o r Shukshin's hero which comes about through elements o f process and  complexity  r a t h e r than through  imagination  and  fancy.  Such matured heroes r e p r e s e n t a f u r t h e r development  and  s o p h i s t i c a t i o n of Shukshin's a b i l i t y to p r e s e n t a c o n v i n c i n g  s o c i o - p s y c h o l o g i c a l p o r t r a i t of contemporary S o v i e t The h e r o - e c c e n t r i c now  man.  e s s e n t i a l l y devotes h i s  life,  upon o c c a s i o n even s a c r i f i c i n g i t , i n search o f t h a t ' h o l i d a y for  the s o u l ' , t h a t temporary r e l e a s e from everyday  and t e n s i o n s .  Most important,  pressures  t h i s hero proceeds beyond the  search f o r t h i s r e l e a s e a c t i v e l y and p a s s i o n a t e l y t o q u e s t i o n why  he should need i t a t a l l and what i t i s t h a t i s b o t h e r i n g  him.  From 1971  on,  the hero makes i n c r e a s i n g r e f e r e n c e to the  s o u l i n h i s d i a l o g u e s and monologues and, heightened to  self-awareness,  he appeals  coupled with  this  to-the consciences of others  'be human' (byt chelovekom). More o f t e n , these h e r o - e c c e n t r i c s i n f r i n g e upon areas  66  of  d a i l y l i f e which are more p e r s o n a l and fundamental  accepted standards o f speech and behaviour.  than  v  They b e g i n t o ques-  t i o n the accepted l i f e s t y l e and the v a l u e s and morals which are a part of i t .  These heroes make those around them f e e l a c e r t a i n  d i s c o m f o r t and g u i l t a t having l e t t h e i r v a l u e s o f good and honour become so e a s i l y  distorted.  The mature Shukshin hero f u l l y engages our emotional response i n a more steady and complex way eccentric.  than the e a r l i e r hero-  T h i s i n c r e a s e d c o m p l e x i t y l i e s - b a s i c a l l y i n the f a c t  t h a t t h i s hero i s as aware as the reader of h i s i n t e r n a l  conflict.  Shukshin's mature e c c e n t r i c r a i s e s or evokes extremely i n t e r e s t i n g q u e s t i o n s concerning l i f e which a c t u a l l y embody the moral of his  the s t o r y .  T h i s i s mainly because the hero now  s p i r i t u a l freedom  i n a l e s s a c t i v e way  vision  looks f o r  than d i d the e a r l i e r  h e r o e s . H i s search i s o f a s p e c u l a t i v e , p h i l o s o p h i c a l n a t u r e . Shukshin's mature hero f r e q u e n t l y asks the 'fundamental q u e s t i o n s ' with g r e a t i n t e n s i t y :  q u e s t i o n s about the meaning o f l i f e ,  about  what death i s . He asks these t i m e l e s s q u e s t i o n s i n innumerable ways, d i r e c t l y and i n d i r e c t l y , through h i s a c t i o n s and h i s thoughts. Shukshin's heroes p o i g n a n t l y y e t i n s i s t e n t l y t h e i r need t o d i s c o v e r the answers t o these s e c r e t s .  express Some, l i k e  Maksim f a r i k o v , f e e l a p h y s i c a l p a i n . 'Every Sunday a mood o f d e p r e s s i o n would descend upon him. R e a l , deep-down, g u t - r o t d e p r e s s i o n . Maksim c o u l d f e e l i t p h y s i c a l l y . . . "...a man has a soul too! Here i t i s , here, and i t aches!" Maksim p o i n t e d t o h i s c h e s t . "I'm not making ^. i t up. I can f e e l i t e l e m e n t a l l y - i t aches."' If feels  the hero does not f e e l a p h y s i c a l p a i n , then he  nothing - an o p p r e s s i v e , d e p r e s s i n g emptiness i n h i s  67 present l i f e  situation.  D e s p i t e h i s q u e s t i o n i n g s , he cannot  d i s c o v e r what t o do i n o r d e r t o h e l p h i m s e l f . In i  anfas'O ,  the 1967 s t o r y ,  profil'  t h i s type o f hero appears e a r l y and alone i n Shukshin's  works o f t h a t p e r i o d . his  'In P r o f i l e and F u l l Face'/'V  Ivan, t h e hero, cannot be s a t i s f i e d w i t h  modest and s u f f i c i e n t l i v i n g as a c o l l e c t i v e farm worker  because he wants more than a n y t h i n g e l s e f o r h i s work t o have some meaning beyond  the m a t e r i a l .  He does not s t a t e t h i s need  d i r e c t l y but he i s p a i n f u l l y aware o f i t , and t h i s i s seen c l e a r l y i n h i s f r u s t r a t i n g c o n v e r s a t i o n w i t h an e l d e r l y f e l l o w v i l l a g e r which comprises a f u l l  h a l f of the story s t r u c t u r e .  Ivan t r i e s  to make t h e man understand what he h i m s e l f cannot f u l l y  comprehend.  '"But I don't know what I'm working f o r . Do you understand? I was taken on, I dp my b i t . But i f you ask me why, I don't know. J u s t to s t u f f myself? W e l l , okay, then, my b e l l y ' s f u l l - now what?" "When you've g o t enough t o eat, you s t a r t g e t t i n g choosy," the o l d man e x p l a i n e d . "You don't know how i t i s w i t h u s . You had no h o r i z o n s i n your day, so you were s a t i s f i e d . You were cavemen. I c o u l d l i v e t h e way you used t o , but I need something more." "You c a n ' t be bothered t o earn f i f t e e n hundred r o u b l e s a month, w h i l e I used to break my back r i g h t through the summer f o r a- few m i s e r a b l e kopecks." "But I don't need t h a t much money," s a i d Ivan as i f to provoke him. "Don't you see t h a t ? I t ' s something e l s e I need."'..  The c o n v e r s a t i o n c o n t i n u e s w i t h the two c h a r a c t e r s t a l k i n g at  c r o s s purposes.  The next day, Ivan l e a v e s h i s v i l l a g e  f o r t h e town t o see i f he can f i n d h i s answers t h e r e .  68  Other of Shukshin's mature h e r o - e c c e n t r i c s are a b l e to e x p l a i n t h i n g s to o t h e r s .  Sania Neverov i s loved by h i s f r i e n d s  because, as one o f them says, he made them ' . . . f e e l b e t t e r , more c l e a r i n your head, as though you had become, an immense, f r e e being, a b l e to fathom the beginning and the end of your l i f e , as though you had understood  taken the measure of p r i c e l e s s t h i n g s  them a l l . ' ^  or  and  2  Yet, t h i s hero has not d i s c o v e r e d the t r u t h f o r which he i s s e a r c h i n g . to  When he begins to d i e , i n d e s p e r a t i o n he  f i n d an answer f o r the l a s t time and  tries  for himself.  '"I'm not a f r a i d , " whispered Sania hastening with h i s f a i l i n g s t r e n g t h , "I can f a c e i t . . . But i f I c o u l d have another year, then I'd accept death. A f t e r a l l , one has to accept i t anyway. But i t can't happen j u s t l i k e t h i s . . . T h i s i s n ' t an e x e c u t i o n , so how can i t j u s t happen l i k e this?" "Have a l i t t l e vodka, S a n i a . " . "Another s i x months! T h i s summer...I need anything, I ' l l j u s t gaze a t the Do you know I c a n ' t remember a s i n g l e of grass? Who needs my death, when I want to d i e ? " . . Sania was weeping.  don't sun. blade don't  "Fillipp. "Yes,  Sania."  "Who needs my death? L i k e a g r e a t mindless  I t ' s so s t u p i d , so s t u p i d . wheel r o l l i n g over y o u . " ^  In one of the l a s t of Shukshin's s t o r i e s , p u b l i s h e d i n 1974,  the hero comes to acknowledge t h a t r e f l e c t i o n s about the  meaning o f l i f e  and death are a g o n i z i n g and  f r u i t l e s s i n the  sense t h a t no d e f i n i t i v e answer i s every reached. of  the s t o r y i s a p a t i e n t i n a h o s p i t a l , and one  on as the man  i n the next bed d i e s .  The  narrator  n i g h t he  looks  69  "A man had ceased to be. After that I l a y a l l n i g h t , my h e a r t empty; I wanted to c o n c e n t r a t e on some k i n d of c e n t r a l thought, I wanted - not to understand, no, I'd t r i e d t o understand b e f o r e and c o u l d n ' t - j u s t t o f e e l , even i f o n l y f o r a moment, o n l y b r i e f l y , l i k e t h a t f a i n t l i t t l e t r a c k , so t h a t i n my h e a r t or mind j u s t a t i n y b i t of l i g h t should be thrown on what i t was, then - there was a man l i v i n g . . . S a y , we must l i v e ; but i n t h a t case, why hasn't t h i s damned g i f t been taken from us, the e t e r n a l , tormenting, and u s e l e s s attempt a t understanding: "Why a l l t h i s ? " . . . B u t why a l l t h i s ? Why? Ah, w e l l , one j u s t has to go on l i v i n g without l o o k i n g back, to go on f o r the time a l l o t t e d you: i t seems t h e r e i s nothing so f r i g h t e n i n g in dying a f t e r a l l . " . . T h i s hero, the f i r s t person n a r r a t o r i n the s t o r y , has completed the process of r e a l i z a t i o n and  s e l f - c o n s c i o u s n e s s as  much as any human b e i n g r e a l i s t i c a l l y can.  He emerges from h i s  tormented q u e s t i o n i n g w i t h a c l e a r e r concept to do*  o f  w h a t  he needs  He accepts the f a c t t h a t he i s a l i v e and w i l l d i e and  thus  should l i v e as b e s t he can f o r h i m s e l f and f o r o t h e r s . Shukshin's h e r o - e c c e n t r i c s do develop and mature n o t i c e a b l y as the s t o r i e s themselves p r o g r e s s . t h i s hero i s a b l e to r e s o r t to f a n c i e s and in  order to s u r v i v e .  c h a r a c t e r l e a r n s how r a t i o n a l way. of  heroes two  Qff  this and  However, Shukshin does i n c l u d e i n h i s r e p e r t o i r e young men,  whose immediate s o c i a l environments and  c l a s h w i t h t h e i r f a n c i e s making i t impossKol'ka Paratov  ('Oh,  to P a r i s ' ) and S p i r k a Rastorguev  commit s u i c i d e . who  imagination  to cope w i t h h i s r e a l i t y i n a l o g i c a l  i b l e f o r them to cope. !  f l i g h t s of  On the o t h e r hand, the e x t e n s i o n o f  p e r s o n a l circumstances  Husband  On the one hand,  J u s t as Shukshin  a w i f e Saw ('The  Her  Bastard *)  depicted 'closed' characters  have found the p a r t i c u l a r answer f o r which they a r e s e a r c h i n g  7Q  o n l y a few t i m e s , extreme - t h o s e  so he d e p i c t s o n l y  who have c o m p l e t e l y  contentment o r s a t i s f a c t i o n It  i s worth n o t i n g  two c h a r a c t e r s  l o s t hope i n a t t a i n i n g any  from l i f e ,  even o f t h e temporary  t o o , t h a t any n e g a t i v e  w h i c h we meet i n S h u k s h i n ' s s t o r i e s r e f l e c t as  'khamstvo'  these  (boorishness)  b y any i n d i v i d u a l  fall  or personal  a s he i s s i m u l t a n e o u s l y  around him.  negative  Shukshin character  such  trying  and g e n e r a l i character-  t o understand  t o understand the world  h e r o i n t h a t he  But  realistically  and e v e n t h e breakdown  social  i s t h e S o v i e t man s t a n d i n g  f r o m t h e r e v o l u t i o n o f 1917.  His  traits.  i s striving  the functioning, malfunctioning,  man l i v i n g  types  r a t h e r than being  o f a n i n d i v i d u a l w i t h i n one p a r t i c u l a r  removed  evils  He i s f r a g m e n t e d a n d o f t e n c o n t r a d i c t o r y .  Shukshin d e v e l o p s an important portrays  characters  around him.  into social  identified  Shukshin's h e r o - e c c e n t r i c himself  reality.  The  some s i x d e c a d e s  He i s a l s o t h e c o n t e m p o r a r y  i n a t e c h n o l o g i c a l , urbanized,  and m o d e r n i z e d  society  f a c i n g many o f t h e p r o b l e m s w h i c h h i s W e s t e r n c o u n t e r p a r t He i s b e w i l d e r e d place  in i t .  sort of exit  sort.  a n d b u r e a u c r a c y a n d t h e demands w h i c h  h e r o e s and c h a r a c t e r s  z a t i o n s which a r e r e a d i l y ized  social  e l e m e n t s p l a c e upon t h e h e r o and t h o s e  negative  a t the other  by urban c i v i l i z a t i o n ,  I f he c a n n o t a c c o m p l i s h  b u t he t r i e s  this,  he l o o k s  faces.  to find  a  f o r some  o r r e l e a s e which i s o f a temporary nature.  This  modern man h a s no m a t e r i a l n e e d , b u t t h i s d o e s n o t c o m p e n s a t e for  t h e 'aching  s o u l ' w h i c h he s u d d e n l y becomes aware o f .  r e a l i z e s h i s d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n and u n h a p p i n e s s w i t h f e e l s a n e m p t i n e s s w h i c h he t r i e s  to f i l l  with  life  He  and he  imaginative, y e t  71 very human escapes, e c c e n t r i c i t i e s , f a n c i e s .  H i s r e a c t i o n s and  methods o f approaching t h i s problem a r e , o f course tempered and c o l o u r e d by t h e p e c u l i a r i t i e s o f Russian and S o v i e t h i s t o r y and modernity, and e s p e c i a l l y by c o n s i d e r a t i o n s d e a l i n g w i t h t h e c i t y and the country where t h e r e has long been a d i s t i n c t i o n made between l i f e s t y l e s , morals, and p h i l o s o p h y .  Through h i s heroes,  Shukshin does much more than simply r e f l e c t t h e c o n f u s i n g and o f t e n p a i n f u l t r a n s i t i o n from r u r a l t o urban v a l u e s .  He d e p i c t s  a u n i v e r s a l s e a r c h i n g - a p a r t o f t h e t o t a l r e a l i t y made up o f a complex o f hopes,  f e a r s , d e c i s i o n s and d e s i r e s which a r e  encountered by everyman.  NOTES TO CHAPTER ONE  V.F.  Gorn,  'Nado c h e l o v e k o m b y t ' ' , L i t e r a t u r a v s h k o l e , No. 5  (1976), p . 10  'rasskaz-stsenka'. The form i s a l o o s e c o m b i n a t i o n o f s e v e r a l elements. I t combines w i t h i n i t s e l f f e a t u r e s o f t h e l i t e r a r y genre 'rasskaz' as w e l l a s a s p e c t s o f t h e dramatic stsena of which 'stsenka' i s a d i m i n u t i v e term. As w e l l , 'stsenka' has i t s own d e f i n i t i o n : *A s m a l l d r a m a t i c work o r s t o r y d e p i c t i n g episodes o f d a i l y l i f e . ' S.I* Ozhegov, S l o v a r ' r u s s k o g o i a z y k a , ( M o s k v a : I z d a t e l ' s t v o R u s s k i i i a z y k , 1975) . 1  1  D o n a l d M. F i e n e and B o r i s P e s k i n , t r a n s . , i n S n o w b a l l B e r r y Red and O t h e r - S t o r i e s e d . D o n a l d M. F i e n e ( h e n c e f o r t h a b b r e v i a t e d t o S n o w b a l l B e r r y R e d ) , (Ann A r b o r ; A r d i s , 1979), f  52-53.  pp.  V.M. S h u k s h i n , I z b r a n n y e p r o i z v e d e n i i a v d v u k h tomakh, torn 1-2 ( h e n c e f o r t h a b b r e v i a t e d t o V . S h u k s h i n , I z b r a n . p r O i ' Z . , t . l ) , (Moskva: M o l o d a i a g v a r d i i a , 1975), p . 66. A t t e n t i o n should be p a i d t o t h e i n t e n t i o n a l l y i n c o r r e c t s p e l l i n g o f t h e R u s s i a n word ' s t o r y ' ( r a s s k a z ) i n t h e t i t l e o f t h i s work. The i n c o r r e c t Russian 'raskas' and t h e E n g l i s h rendering o f t h e mistake 'storey', serve t o i n i t i a t e the c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n o f t h e hero. W.G. F i e d o r o w , t r a n s . , i n S n o w b a l l B e r r y V.  S h u k s h i n , I z b r a n \ p r o i z . , t . l , p . 163.  V.  Shukshin,  I z b r a n ^ p r o i z . , t . 1,  Red,  p . 105.  p . 409.  Natasha Johnstone, t r a n s . , i n S o v i e t L i t e r a t u r e (henceforth a b b r e v i a t e d t o Sov. L i t . ) , n o . 10 (1974), p p . 14-17 Sov.  L i t . , No. 10, p . 16.  Sov.  L i t . , No. 10, p . 17.  H i l d a Perham, t r a n s . , i n Sov. Sov.  L i t . , No. 9, p . 20.  Sov.  L i t . , No. 10, p . 17.  L i t . , No. 9 (1975),  R o b e r t D a g l i s h , t r a n s . , i n Sov.  115.  L i t . , No. 10  p . 18.  (1974), p .  73  16  V. S h u k s h i n , I z b r a n .  pro!z.,  t . 1,  .304.  17  Izbran.proiz.,  t.l,  p . 305.  18  Izbran.proiz.,  t.l,  p . 308.  19  ' I m p e r s o n a l d i r e c t s p e e c h * i s my own t e n t a t i v e t r a n s l a t i o n o f a t e c h n i c a l term which i s l a t e r d i s c u s s e d i n d e t a i l . R e f e r ahead t o C h a p t e r Two, p . 1 1 2 , f o o t n o t e 7.  20  Izbran.proiz.,  t.l,  pp.  21  Izbrah.pr o i z . ,  t.l,  p . 308.  22  Izbran.proiz.,  t.l,  p . 309.  23  R.W. R o s t e l , t r a n s . , P r o b l e m s o f D o s t o e v s k y ' s P o e t i c s , by M i k h a i l B a k h t i n (Ann A r b o r : A r d i s , 1 9 7 3 ) , p . 34.  24  Geoffrey 93.  25  V. S h u k s h i n ,  26  V. K a n t o r o v i c h , 'Novye t i p y , n o v y i s l o v a r ' , n o v y e S i b e r s k i e o g h i , No. 9 ( 1 9 7 1 ) , p . 177.  27  Bakhtin,  p . 19  28  Geoffrey 42-44.  A. H o s k i n g , t r a n s . , i n S n o w b a l l B e r r y Red, p p .  29  Snowball Berry  Red, p . 47.  30  Snowball Berry  Red, p . 47.  31  V. S h u k s h i n ,  Izbran.proiz.,  t.l,  p p . 399-400.  32  V. S h u k s h i n ,  Izbran.proiz.,  t.l,  p . 23.  33  V. S h u k s h i n , I z b r a n . p r o i z . ,  t.l,  p . 416.  34  'Chudik* i s a word o f p o p u l a r p a r l a n c e w h i c h b e a r s t h e same m e a n i n g a s t h e c o n t e m p o r a r y s t a n d a r d R u s s i a n word, 'chudak'. The d e f i n i t i o n o f both, i s t h a t o f *a s t r a n g e p e r s o n , w i t h s t r a n g e q u a l i t i e s ; an u n u s u a l p e r s o n . ' , S l o v a r ' russkogo i a z y k a .  35  V. S h u k s h i n , I z b r a n . p r o i z . ,  t.l,  pp.  36  V. Shukshin, I z b r a n . p r o ! z . ,  t.l,  p . 174.  37  V. S h u k s h i n ,  t.l,  p . 176.  307-308.  A. H o s k i n g , t r a n s . , i n S n o w b a l l B e r r y Izbran.  proiz.,  Izbran.proiz.,  t.l,  Red, p .  p . 216.  323-330.  otnosheniia*,  74  38  V. Shukshin,  I z b r a n . p r o i z . , t . l , p . 178.  39  Shukshin's 'chudik' has a c o u n t e r p a r t i n Western l i t e r a r y c r i t i c i s m - a c h a r a c t e r whom W.H. H a r v e y s u g g e s t s b e c a l l e d t h e ' c a r d ' i n h i s a r t i c l e 'The Human C o n t e x t * i n T h e o r y o f t h e N o v e l , e d . P. S t e v i c k (New Y o r k : M a c M i l l a n P u b l i s h i n g Company, 1 9 6 7 ) , pp. 231-261. The s i m i l a r i t y i s i n c r e a s e d b y - H a r v e y ' s s u g g e s t i o n t h a t the 'card' d e s i r e s a ' h o l i d a y from e x i s t e n c e ' which p a r a l l e l s the search o f Shukshin's 'chudik' f o r t h e 'holiday f o r the s o u l ' . F o r both c h a r a c t e r s , t h e f a n t a s y which provides t h i s ' h o l i d a y ' i s a s r e a l a s t h e l i m i t a t i o n s p l a c e d upon them i n t h e i r d a i l y l i v e s . T h e ' c a r d ' and t h e ' c h u d i k ' b o t h e n j o y a p a r t i c u l a r t y p e o f f r e e d o m w h i c h stems f r o m the f a c t t h a t t h e y a r e t r i u m p h a n t l y themselves and t h a t t h e y seem .to be immune t o t h e k n o c k s t h e y t a k e a s t h e y a s s e r t t h e i r natures..  40  G e o f f r e y A. Hosking,  trans.,  i n Snowball  B e r r y R e d , p . 87.  41  G e o f f r e y A. H o s k i n g ,  trans.,  i n Snowball  B e r r y R e d , p p . 24-25.  42  G e o f f r e y A. Hosking,  trans.,  i n Snowball  B e r r y Red, p . 7 9 .  43  G e o f f r e y A. H o s k i n g ,  trans.,  i n Snowball  B e r r y R e d , p . 84.  44  K e i t h Hammond, t r a n s . ,  i n S o v . L i t . , No. 9 ( 1 9 7 5 ) , p . 55.  75  CHAPTER  DIRECT  SPEECH  FORMS  IN  THE SHUKSHIN  J u s t  as  i n  the  subordinates  s t y l i s t i c  n a r r a t i o n  the  and  to  u t i l i z e s  t h i s  hero  employed  i n  the  S o v i e t  the  l i t e r a r y  but  a l s o  i n  p a r a l l e l s  In speech the  inance of h i s of  forms  most  the  ledged  o r d e r to  and  the  and  the  i t  process  h i s  the  o f  S h u k s h i n  r e s u l t a n t  the  speech  t o t a l l y S h u k s h i n the  w h i c h  o f  the  growth  he  d i r e c t  r e v e a l  l e x i c o n  o c c u r r i n g and  o f  i n f l u e n c e  the  hero.  w i t h  l i n g u i s t i c  are  s t r u c t u r e  c o n s t r u c t s  the  w i t h  d e p i c t i o n  e x p e r i e n c e s . i n  h i s  o f  q u a l i t y  and  o r i g i n s , and  s t o r i e s .  elements.  keeping  speech  b e s t  the  works  q u a n t i t y  adapted  d i r e c t  chooses  s o c i a l - h i s t o r i c a l  s t r u c t u r a l i n  and  changes  s e l e c t s ,  i s  w i l l  he  m u l t i f a c e t e d  S h u k s h i n o f  and so  i n i t i a t e  c o n v e r s a t i o n a l  and  upon  DIALOGUE  S h u k s h i n  p l o t  w h i c h forms  w h i c h  s t r u c t u r e  s t y l i s t i c  emphasis  but  t h e i r  i t  o f  p e r s o n a l  s t a n d p o i n t  s t o r i e s ,  change  speech  w h i c h  thematic  w h i c h  forms  p s y c h o l o g i c a l  because how  s t o r y - s c e n e s  h e r o - e c c e n t r i c ,  changes  the  i s  LANGUAGE AND  elements  undergoes,  speech  see  h i s  speech  o n l y  and  f a c i l i t a t e s o f  o f  d i r e c t  i t s e l f ,  from  to  ' s t o r y - s c e n e '  the  hero  S h u k s h i n ' s  d i r e c t  as  not  d i r e c t  o n l y  o b v i o u s  o f  work the  o f  s t y l e ,  them  The  e m o t i o n a l ,  not  and  the  s o c i e t y  forms  i n t e r e s t  m i r r o r  w h i c h  s p i r i t u a l ,  Thus of  them  o f  s t r u c t u r a l  dramatic  s u c c e s s f u l l y .  development w i t h i n  s t r u c t u r e  and  STORY:  1 -  m a n i f e s t a t i o n  dynamic,  I I  d i r e c t w h i c h  The the  predoms t r u c t u r e  developed o f  the  f o r  hero  S h u k s h i n work  are  when,  and  acknowd u r i n g  76  an i n t e r v i e w , he s a i d : the  ' D i r e c t speech a l l o w s me to d i m i n i s h  descriptive section a l i t t l e :  does he t h i n k ?  what k i n d o f person?  What does he want?  In the end we  How  certainly  e s t a b l i s h an understanding of the person - having l i s t e n e d t o him.  Thus he c o u l d not t e l l a l i e - he doesn't know how,  i f he would l i k e t o . '  even  1  What i n i t i a l l y appears to be a simple and  straight-  forward usage of d i r e c t speech by Shukshin deserves to be examined i n g r e a t e r d e t a i l i n o r d e r t o determine how o r t o what e x t e n t i t s usage i s p e c u l i a r t o Shukshin's w r i t i n g as compared t o o t h e r w r i t e r s of s h o r t s t o r i e s .  In t h i s Chapter I w i l l examine the  ways t h a t Shukshin employs d i r e c t speech. work i t s r e a l i s t i c  These forms g i v e h i s  q u a l i t y , f o r through the syntax and  lexicon  an i l l u s i o n o f o b j e c t i v i t y and a u t h e n t i c i t y i s c r e a t e d . A first  impression made upon the c a s u a l r e a d e r i s t h a t  d i a l o g i c a l exchanges c o n s t i t u t e most of Shukshin's w r i t i n g  style.  Upon c l o s e r r e a d i n g and i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f the works, i t becomes c l e a r t h a t , w h i l e d i a l o g u e i s indeed the dominant  and most im-  p o r t a n t d i r e c t speech form, t h e r e are o t h e r forms which perform v i t a l i n d i v i d u a l f u n c t i o n s w i t h i n the s t o r y w h i l e supplementing and enhancing the d i a l o g u e .  Thus, i n the f i r s t p a r t o f t h i s  chapter, I w i l l d i s c u s s the s t r u c t u r a l and s t y l i s t i c f e a t u r e s of  f o u r d i r e c t speech forms most common i n Shukshin's work.  I  w i l l r e s e r v e a more c o n c e n t r a t e d study of Shukshin's d i a l o g u e w i t h r e s p e c t t o the d i s t i n c t i v e l e x i c o n and syntax which composes i t f o r the second p a r t o f the c h a p t e r . From the g e n e r a l l i n g u i s t i c  m a t e r i a l w i t h which  Shukshin  has e l e c t e d t o work, he c r e a t e s speech forms which have become i d e n t i f i e d w i t h h i s s t o r i e s and t h e i r heroes, f o r h i s means o f e x p r e s s i o n i s i n d i v i d u a l i z e d and s i n g u l a r .  Important  aspects  of Shukshin's unique mode o f e x p r e s s i o n l i e i n t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p which e x i s t s i n the remarks exchanged between the c h a r a c t e r s , as w e l l as i n the p e c u l i a r i t i e s o f the movement o f thought which manifests i t s e l f  i n the d i r e c t speech forms.  F o r example, i n  a d i a l o g i c a l form, a c o n v e n t i o n a l way o f d e v e l o p i n g an i d e a i s to have an a s s e r t i o n f o l l o w e d by a response o f some nature w i t h the c o n s t r u c t i o n d i s p l a y i n g a binominal u n i t y .  One o f t h e c h a r a -  c t e r i s t i c s of Shukshin's d i a l o g u e i s t h a t i t d i s p l a y s a p o l y nomial u n i t y i n t h a t t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between statement and response i s t i g h t l y bonded t o t h e n a r r a t i v e .  In the s t o r y  ' S h t r i k h i k p o r t r e t u ' , the movement o f the h e r o - e c c e n t r i c Kniazev's thought i s an example o f Shukshin's dialogue  characteristic  structure: '"Rest i s r e s t , i t ' s a l l the same how you spend yourtime." "There does e x i s t an a c t i v e r e s t , " Kniazev i n t e r r u p t e d t h i s absurd attempt t o i n s t r u c t him, "and a p a s s i v e r e s t . -Along w i t h r e s t , , the a c t i v e type suggests some s o r t o f w h o l l y conformable arrangement". "Your head can s p i n from these chuckled S i l ' c h e n k o .  'arrangements'",  "I'm not t a l k i n g about 'these' arrangements, but about wholly-eomformable ones", emphasized Kniazev. And he looked a t S i l ' c h e n k o s t e r n l y and c a l m l y . "Do you understand t h e d i f f e r e n c e ? " S i l ' c h e n k o d i d n ' t l i k e i t e i t h e r when people t a l k e d with him as i f they were t e a c h i n g him. "No, I don't g e t i t .  Explain i t please."  78  "What's your p r o f e s s i o n ? " "What has t h a t got to do w i t h i t ? " "Well, i t does..." "A make-up a r t i s t . " At t h i s , Kniazev grew b o l d e r ; h i s b l u e eyes gleamed with a merry mocking l i g h t ; he become i n s o l e n t l y condescending. "Have you ever been t o l d how b u r i a l mounds are f i l l e d i n ? " , he asked. He f e l t v e r y s a t i s f i e d when i t came t o g i v i n g an account of h i s i d e a s . S i l ' c h e n k o was completely unprepared f o r these ' b u r i a l mounds'; he was b a f f l e d . "What's t h i s about b u r i a l mounds?" "Have you ever seen how  they are f i l l e d i n ? "  "Well, have you seen how..."'  2  The exchange c o n t i n u e s , but from the above segment, one can see j u s t how  t i g h t l y the d i a l o g u e i s bound to the n a r r a t i v e .  I f one were t o read the d i a l o g u e o n l y , Kniazev's t r a i n of thought would be incomprehensible as i t jumps around from r e s t t o a c t i v i t y , p r o f e s s i o n , and b u r i a l mounds. of  Even w i t h the supplementation  the n a r r a t i o n , the i d e a which Kniazev i s attempting t o e l u c i -  date i s obscure.  O b v i o u s l y , the p o i n t which he i s making i s  m o t i v i a t e d by t h e ' i d e e - f i x e ' which l i v e s w i t h i n  him.  Shukshin's m o n o l o g i c a l forms d i s p l a y a u n i t y which i s l i k e w i s e t i g h t l y bonded t o the n a r r a t i v e .  In f a c t , the mono-  l o g u e - - ± 9 more dependent upon the n a r r a t i o n t o inform the reader of  mood and movement, both of a s t y l i s t i c and of a c o n c e p t u a l  nature.  In Shukshin's  s t o r i e s , i t i s v e r y common t o f i n d a  d i a l o g i c a l s i t u a t i o n which almost i m p e r c e p t i b l y passes over  7a i n t o a m o n o l o g i c a l one, a t a s k a c c o m p l i s h e d by b r i e f , n a r r a t i v e remarks. cumstances  of h i s l i f e  this conversation is  In 'Zaletniy',  searching  Sania i s discussing  subtle the c i r -  w i t h h i s f r i e n d s from t h e v i l l a g e , b u t  ends a s a monologue w i t h an i n t o n a t i o n  which  and a t t i m e s a l m o s t d e s p e r a t e .  '"...My b r o t h e r s e n d s me money. He's r i c h . Or a t l e a s t n o , n o t e x a c t l y r i c h , b u t he h a s enough t o l i v e o n . And he g i v e s me some." T h a t t h e two p e a s a n t s c o u l d u n d e r s t a n d : h i s b r o t h e r p i t i e d him. " I f only I could s t a r t a l l over again!" On S a n i a ' s t h i n , d a r k f a c e h i s m u s c l e s and s h a r p cheekbones s t o o d o u t i n r i d g e s . H i s e y e s shone feverishly. He was worked u p . - " I w o u l d e x p l a i n what I know now: t h a t man i s a n a c c i d e n t a l , b e a u t i f u l , and a g o n i z i n g a t t e m p t on N a t u r e ' s part t o understand i t s e l f . A f r u i t l e s s attempt, I a s s u r e y o u , b e c a u s e i n n a t u r e a l o n g w i t h man there l i v e s a canker. Death! And d e a t h i s u n a v o i d a b l e , b u t we w i l l n e - e - e v e r t a k e i n t h a t fact. Nature w i l l never understand i t s e l f . So i t g e t s a n g r y and t a k e s v e n g e a n c e i n t h e f o r m o f man. L i k e an evil...mm..." S a n i a ' s f u r t h e r words were i n a u d i b l e . I n e f f e c t , he was t a l k i n g to himself, f o r the peasants got t i r e d o f s t r a i n i n g t o h e a r him and b e g a n t o d i s c u s s t h e i r own a f f a i r s . "Love? Yes./" S a n i a m u t t e r e d . "But l o v e o n l y c o m p l i c a t e s and c o n f u s e s e v e r y t h i n g . . . " '  The  narrative  thus r e f l e c t t h e ; :  well  interjections  changes  i n the d i r e c t  a s t h e mood o f t h e c h a r a c t e r s .  s e m a n t i c and s t y l i s t i c  into  speech environment as  -In S h u k s h i n ' s w r i t i n g  then,  devices are as important t o the e f f e c t i v e n e s s  of the d i r e c t  speech form as t h e a c t u a l  the remarks.  These  features are often  t i o n on examining t h e l e x i c a l work.  the dialogue/monologue  linguistic ignored  and s y n t a c t i c  portrayal of  i n the concentra-  elements o f Shukshin's  80 Shukshin's  direct  speech  form,  and p a r t i c u l a r l y h i s  d i a l o g u e s and m o n o l o g u e s , a r e d r a m a t i z e d .  T h r o u g h them,  attempts  and  t o convey  a situation.  The  are d e f i n i t e l y some may  forms,  individual  laconic  speak.  m o n o l o g u e s and  the dramatism, t e n s i o n ,  and  elliptic  d e s p i t e the l e n g t h s y n t a x , and  dialogues simulate the t y p i c a l  form  and  As  the thoughts  S h u k s i n ' s work d e v e l o p e d  s t o r i e s to those of the l a t e to develop h i s heroes them t o q u e s t i o n and affected  and  way  lives.  real  the  communicated.  and m a t u r e d f r o m  the  early  frequently  as would promote a need i n  t o a s s e s s t h e c i r c u m s t a n c e s and daily  Shukshin's  in their  feelings of  1960s, he began more  i n such a  them i n t h e i r  of  a t which  features of  the remarks o f the c h a r a c t e r s are i n t e n s i f i e d  characters are uniquely but a u t h e n t i c a l l y  in  contradictions  r e m a r k s o f h i s h e r o e s and c h a r a c t e r s  Because i n s t r u c t u r e ,  expressive capacities,  he  A reflective  events  quality  which  appears  t h e h e r o e s ' d i a l o g u e s and m o n o l o g u e s , a q u a l i t y w h i c h i s some-  times expressed  thoughtfully, g e n t l y , or q u i e t l y ,  o t h e r t i m e s when i t comes f o r t h When S h u k s h i n ' s  hero b e g i n s  have b e e n evoked typical  by  loudly,  as o p p o s e d  e m o t i o n a l l y and  aggressively.  t o m e d i t a t e upon e x p e r i e n c e s w h i c h  t h e immediate d i a l o g i c a l  situation,  that h i s i n t e r l o c u t o r s are only able to supply  i t is brief  remarks or simple c o n f i r m a t i o n t h a t they agree, d i s a g r e e , or listening. intently table, saved.  In  tries  that  to  are  ' S l u c h a i v r e s t o r a n e ' , the nameless h e r o - e c c e n t r i c t o c o n v i n c e a young man  t h e young f e m a l e  singer  who  has  s a t down a t h i s  i n t h e r e s t a u r a n t must  be  81 *" Ah, what an empty l i f e I've l i v e d , V a n i a ! What a w a s t e . . . I h a v e n ' t e v e n l o v e d . Been a f r a i d t o l o v e , I r e a l l y have." "Why?" The o l d man w a s n ' t l i s t e n i n g went on t a l k i n g .  t o him,  he  just  "Ah, o n c e t h e r e was a g i r l l i k e t h a t , and she u s e d t o s i n g t o o . . . I t was heart-rending. And I u s e d t o s i t l i k e t h i s and l i s t e n . She needed t o be s a v e d t o o . . " " . . . B e t t e r i f I'd done s o m e t h i n g s i l l y , b e t t e r to have been a d r u n k a r d . P e r h a p s I ' d have been a b i t b o l d e r . " "...^i'fiever once d i d a rash thing. Can y o u b e l i e v e i t ? " "What's so b a d  about  "Not one o f f e n c e . terrible I"...„  that?"  It's revolting.  It's  In  ' V e r u i u ! ' , Maksim I a r i k o v ' s p o n d e r i n g s a b o u t why  an  a c h e i n h i s s o u l l e a d him  with  to the breaking  he  feels  p o i n t i n an  his wife. "... "You "Why  wori;'^t . u n d e r s t a n d . "  not?  E x p l a i n and  I will  understand."  " W e l l , l o o k , you've g o t a l l the normal p a r t s o f t h e body - arms, l e g s . . . a n d what n o t . What s i z e t h e y a r e i s a n o t h e r q u e s t i o n , b u t t h e y ' r e a l l more o r l e s s i n t h e r i g h t p l a c e . I f y o u r l e g h u r t s , you f e e l i t . I f y o u ' r e hungry, you g e t something t o e a t . Okay?" "Well?"... "But a man has a s o u l t o o ! and i t a c h e s ! "  Here i t i s , h e r e ,  Maksim p o i n t e d t o h i s c h e s t . "I'm n o t m a k i n g i t up. I can f e e l i t e l e m e n t a l l y - i t a c h e s ! " "Have y o u  got  any  other  aches?"  exchange  82 ..."Ask me who I h a t e more t h a n anyone i n t h e w o r l d , and I ' l l t e l l y o u : p e o p l e who h a v e no s o u l . Or a r o t t e n one. T a l k i n g t o you i s l i k e k n o c k i n g my head a g a i n s t a b r i c k w a l l . " "Huh! "Oh,  Windbag!" get l o s t ! "  5  A s i m i l a r , m e d i t a t i v e element monological are found These  forms  and  especially  i s common t o  i n t e r n a l i z e d monologues,  i n the s t o r i e s of h i s l a t e r  p e r i o d w i t h more  i n t e r n a l monologues c o n s i s t e n t l y bear g r e a t  t o an u t t e r e d  direct  is  not a l t e r e d .  is  t o be  found  An  speech  form,  'The  and  internal  frequency.  Bastard'/'Suraz*  syntax  monologue i n which  hero,  Spirka Rastorguev,  after  he h a s t w i c e b e e n d r i v e n o u t o f t h e home o f a  t e a c h e r and  which  similarity  f o r the lexicon  example o f S h u k s h i n ' s  i n the story  Shukshin's  the  discusses alternatives with himself gymnastics  h i s young, p r e t t y w i f e .  ' W e l l chump... Y o u ' r e t r a s h , a r e n ' t you? Thrown o u t l i k e some mangy c r e a t u r e , and y o u . . . W e l l , now!... How I was b e a t e n ! L a u g h i n g and p l a y i n g . . . I was d r a g g e d o u t , t r a m p l e d ; -But what k i n d o f p e r s o n a r e you? A f t e r a l l , people w i l l laugh a t you. And t h e t e a c h e r w i l l be t h e f i r s t one t o l a u g h . What a r e you? Not a s i n g l e o l d woman w o u l d a l l o w h e r s e l f t o be t r e a t e d l i k e t h a t . ' g  With h i s i n t e r n a l monologue, S h u k s h i n both the emotion in  and  S p i r k a ' s mind.  f r o m one  thought  hero and  the p r o c e s s o f r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n which  The  the mental  i s experiencing. stylistically  word i s u t t e r e d  syntax i s e l l i p t i c  t o a n o t h e r and  serves to indicate  i s able to portray  leaving  and  i n t h e extreme,  thoughts  Thus, t h e t h o u g h t s o f t h e hero a r e  t o anyone.  speech  jumping  incomplete,  emotional a c t i v i t y which  r e p r e s e n t e d as d i r e c t  occur  even t h o u g h  However, i t i s t y p i c a l  of  which  the structurally not  a  Shukshin's  83 direct  speech  style  leval,  he a l s o  t h a t w h i l e employing  i n t e r n a l monologue on  i n c l u d e s a good amount o f a c t u a l d i a l o g u e b e t w e e n  c h a r a c t e r s a t a n o t h e r l e v e l w i t h i n t h e same s t o r y . 'Thoughts'/'Dumy* Both  involve  one  and  'Uncle E r m o l a i ' i l l u s t r a t e  f l a s h b a c k s i n t h e h e r o ' s mind  through t h e use o f i n t e r n a l monologue), the present w i t h the hero a c t i n g  and  H i s works  this  feature  (which a r e  well.  revealed  while the story  i s set i n  c o n v e r s i n g w i t h o t h e r s around  him. S h u k s h i n employs two i n h i s works which the d i r e c t  speech t y p e s o f monologue o r d i a l o g u e .  by  speech'  7  and  Shukshin enhances  conversational, distinguishing  the f a c t that  by v a r i o u s S o v i e t c r i t i c s 'free d i r e c t and  speech'.  enriches  concise quality f e a t u r e between  s p e e c h f o r m s and  speech  forms  a r e n e i t h e r as d i s c e r n i b l e nor as t a n g i b l e  have b e e n i d e n t i f i e d direct  other types of d i r e c t  8  as  forms  'impersonal  Their regular  the o v e r a l l  created  These  as  usage  impression of the  i n t h e works.  ' i m p e r s o n a l ' and  The  'free'  basic  direct  t h e f o r m s o f d i a l o g u e and monologue, l i e s i n  the former a r e not u t t e r e d remarks  although they  9 do b e a r c l o s e r e s e m b l a n c e Next  t o such  remarks.  t o t h e dynamism o f p o r t r a y a l  by h i s u s e o f d i a l o g u e and m o n o l o g u e , for  the e a s i l y  perceived  o f S h u k s h i n ' s work. form o f d i r e c t entiated  afforded  'free d i r e c t  conversational  M o r p h o l o g i c a l l y and  and  with a narrative  'free d i r e c t  i n t r o d u c t i o n o f one  speech'  syntactically, forms  i t s graphic presentation.  common method o f e m p l o y i n g  and  accounts  qualities the  'free'  is differ-  -Shukshin's  speech*  o r two  character  intonational  speech c o r r e s p o n d s t o u t t e r e d  l a r g e l y by  a  most  i s i n combination  sentences.  Thus,  84  indirect one  and  direct  paragraph.  speech  forms a r e e n c l o s e d t o g e t h e r w i t h i n  I n t h i s way, since  ' f r e e ' form o f d i r e c t  i t appears  speech  is  especially  or  dialogue into  of  f o r m a l markers such as q u o t a t i o n marks o r p a r a g r a p h i n g .  'The  effective  the  t o c o n t i n u e t h e monologue  the t e x t o f the n a r r a t i o n , but without  I n s u l t ' / ' O b i d a ' , Sashka E r m o l a i e v ' s mental  depicted  as he w a i t s t o t a l k  an a c c o m p l i c e  to the i n s u l t  t o an  elderly  h u r l e d a t him  state  the a i d In  is vividly  s t r a n g e r who  has  been  by a s h o p c l e r k .  'He d e c i d e d t o w a i t f o r t h a t one i n t h e r a i n c o a t . To t a l k a b i t . How? To a s k : how l o n g a r e we going to a i d boorishness? Why s h o u l d . h e jump t o s u c h t o a d i e s ? What's i t f o r ? Why t h e a c c u r s e d d e s i r e t o e n c o u r a g e t h a t r u d e , b o o r i s h saleswoman, the o f f i c e c l e r k , simply boors - t o o b l i g e whatever comes a l o n g ? S u r e l y , we o u r s e l v e s b r e e d s u c h ill-manners...us. Nobody d e l i v e r e d them t o u s , they weren't dropped i n p a r a c h u t e s . . . ' 'Free d i r e c t quality found  speech'  frequently acquires a  i n many o f t h e s t o r i e s .  form  can a l s o  t a k e on a r e f l e c t i v e  answer n o r comment i s n e c e s s a r y .  Fillipp  quality Turin,  'In t h e A u t u m n ' / ' O s e n * i u , g o e s t h r o u g h 1  and m e n t a l all  Along with the type of q u e s t i o n i n g  i n t h e a b o v e e x c e r p t w h i c h u r g e n t l y demands an a n s w e r ,  'free'  story  rhetorical  t u r m o i l when he  his life,  through  has d i e d .  We  learns  t o which  the  neither  the hero of  emotional  the  anguish  t h a t t h e woman whom he h a s  are a b l e to sense h i s a g i t a t i o n  t h e u s e w h i c h S h u k s h i n makes o f  'free' direct  loved directly,  speech.  ' The f e r r y was a p p r o a c h i n g t h i s s h o r e . Again the c h a i n s c l i n k e d and t h e m o t o r s s e t up a h o w l . . . F i l l i p a g a i n s t o o d a t t h e s c u l l and l o o k e d a t t h e c l o s e d car. I t was u n f a t h o m a b l e . . . N e v e r i n h i s l i f e d i d he t h i n k : what i f M a r ' i a was t o d i e ? Not o n c e d i d he think that. I f t h e r e was s o m e t h i n g he w a s n ' t r e a d y f o r , i t was h e r d e a t h . When t h e c l o s e d c a r b e g a n t o d r i v e o f f t h e f e r r y , F i l l i p p f e l t an u n b e a r a b l e p a i n  85  i n h i s c h e s t . He was s e i z e d by an u n e a s i n e s s . What should he do? I t was time t o l e a v e . D e f i n i t e l y . He shouldn't be l i k e t h i s : he'd f o l l o w w i t h h i s eyes, and t h a t would be a l l . What t o do? The uneasiness a l l the more commanded him, he d i d not move from the spot, and he f e l t completely u n l i k e h i m s e l f . * ^ In c o n f u s i o n , i n d e c i s i o n , and emotion which the hero experiences a r e a c c e s s i b l e to the r e a d e r . the  The immediacy which  ' f r e e ' d i r e c t speech form g i v e s t o a scene i s v i t a l t o  Shukshin's c h a r a c t e r p o r t r a y a l , f o r the i n t o n a t i o n and mood c r e a t e d by the usage o f such a form s u b s t i t u t e s f o r the p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f movement and g e s t u r e suggested by an u t t e r e d form.  speech  'Free d i r e c t speech' i s an e s s e n t i a l speech form f o r the  demands o f the b r e v i t y which c h a r a c t e r i z e s Shukshin's s t o r y - s c e n e . Shukshin c o n s c i o u s l y uses the form as a means o f extending the dynamism o f fast-moving, strong d i a l o g u e i n t o the spheres o f n a r r a t o r commentary and a u t h o r i a l p o i n t o f view. important to Shukshin i n the l a t t e r areas s i n c e  I t i s especially 'free' d i r e c t  speech i s d e v o i d o f the dryness o f i n d i r e c t speech and commentary and i s a b l e to m a i n t a i n the emotion and a u t h e n t i c i t y found i n the  u t t e r e d speech of Shukshin's c h a r a c t e r s . In  Shukshin's s t o r y - s c e n e s t h e r e i s a strong r e l a t i o n - -  s h i p between the a c t u a l d i a l o g u e o r separate u t t e r e d remarks i n a g i v e n s t o r y , and the d i r e c t speech form i d e n t i f i e d as 'impersonal'.  'Impersonal d i r e c t speech * c o n t a i n s w i t h i n i t s e l f a  r e p r o d u c t i o n o f the a c t u a l speech o f t h e hero as w e l l as the b a r e l y p e r c e p t i b l e speech o f the n a r r a t o r which i s conveyed through the prism o f the hero's c o n s c i o u s n e s s . -The types o f 'impersonal d i r e c t speech' v a r y i n complexity w i t h i n the Shukshin s t o r y - s c e n e depending  86 upon a n u m b e r o f s t y l i s t i c hero's  h e r o , and  of the  such as the degree which  speech p e n e t r a t e s t h a t o f the n a r r a t o r ,  correspondence  which  features  the  the extent of  between t h e p o i n t o f v i e w o f t h e n a r r a t o r and  t h e degree o f m u t u a l l y - s h a r e d e x p e r i e n c e between  i s conveyed  i n t h e n a r r a t i o n and  'impersonal d i r e c t narrator  on what he  speech'.  hears from  that  i n the  F o r example, i n t h e s t o r y  does not p a r t i c i p a t e  s e e s and  t h a t conveyed  the  form  'Petia',  i n t h e d i a l o g u e . b u t comments  the  side..  ' L a t e a t n i g h t , P e t i a and L i a l ' k a r e t u r n home. P e t i a i s a b i t under the weather. He s i t s down on t h e p o r c h s t e p s and d o e s n ' t want t o go any further. "Come on, him. "Don"  Petia'. P e t i a d e a r . "  wanna I."  says P e t i a .  Lial'ka  "Don'  calls  wanna!"  " P e t i a ! " L i a l ' k a i s almost i n t e a r s . "You've t i r e d me o u t a s i t i s . Y o u ' r e so h e a v y d e a r . Come a l o n g , P e t i a d a r l i n g ? Come o n , d e a r . Have some p i t y on me! Come on, jny d a r l i n g , y o u ' l l j u s t r o l l i n t o bed and be o f f t o s l e e p i n w i n k i n g . . . Won't y o u now?" "Don'  wanna", g r u n t s t h e l e a d - h e a v y  Somehow she manages t o g e t P e t i a . up  Petia... the  steps...  And a l l o f a s u d d e n I am s t r u c k by t h e r e a l i z a t i o n t h a t she a c t u a l l y l o v e s him, d o e s L i a l ' k a . She l o v e s h e r P e t i a . Why t h e d e v i l s h o u l d I s i t here making surmises? She l o v e s h i m . . . ' 12  The and  real  Petia  as  and  entire  i f we  e x c e r p t i s c o n v e r s a t i o n a l and  are a c t u a l l y  as  dynamic  h e a r i n g t h e d i a l o g u e between  L i a l ' k a without the mediation of the n a r r a t o r .  is  a clear  s e p a r a t i o n b e t w e e n t h e n a r r a t i o n and  of  'impersonal d i r e c t  speech'  found  the  There  element  i n t h e comments o f t h e  first  87 p e r s o n o b s e r v e r even though mation  the s t o r y  'Fading Blossoms'/'Vianet,  another v a r i a t i o n o f the utilized.  ' i m p e r s o n a l ' form  A c h a r a c t e r who  immediate d i a l o g u e b u t  the  of d i r e c t  i s not p a r t i c i p a t i n g  speech  comments a r e p r e s e n t e d t h r o u g h watching  propadaet', speech  i n the  i s p a s s i v e l y o b s e r v i n g , makes an e v a l u -  a t i o n o f t h e b e h a v i o u r and  is  infor-  a b o u t what h a s o c c u r r e d . In  is  b o t h a r e modes o f c o n v e y i n g  o f one  of the speakers.  the eyes o f the l i t t l e  boy  All who  scene.  '"Raining,  i s i t , Vladimir Nikolaievich?"  "Drizzling. I t ' s t h e t i m e o f y e a r f o r i t now, i s i t not?" U n c l e V o l o d i a s p o k e v e r y n e a t l y somehow,. p l a c i n g h i s words l i k e t o y b r i c k s , f i r s t i n one p o s i t i o n , t h e n - a f t e r due c o n s i d e r a t i o n - i n a n o t h e r . "Yes, t h e season...What i s i t t o d a y ? The t w e n t y - s e v e n t h ? I n t h r e e days...we s h a l l be in October." "We  shall  t h a t " , mother  sighed.  S l a v k a was s u r p r i s e d t h a t h i s m o t h e r , u s u a l l y so c l a m o r o u s and s h a r p - t o n g u e d , s h o u l d a l w a y s q u i e t l y agree with e v e r y t h i n g Uncle V o l o d i a s a i d . She was h a r d l y h e r s e l f . She b l u s h e d and d i t h e r e d . . . "Still asked.  playing  a r e you,  Slavka?" , Uncle V o l o d i a 1  "He p l a y s " , m o t h e r s h o t b a c k . as he comes home f r o m s c h o o l . - r i n g i n g i n my e a r s . " T h i s was a w h o p p i n g l i e and inwardly.,_  Because the n a r r a t o r t h e same p o i n t o f v i e w and  and  "He's a t i t a s soon I'm t i r e d o f i t  Slavka marvelled  the l i t t l e  boy  share  r e g a r d i n g t h e b e h a v i o u r o f S l a v k a ' s mother  the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of Uncle V o l o d i a , the c o n v e r s a t i o n a l  e x c h a n g e s w h i c h o c c u r c a n be p r e s e n t e d d i r e c t l y in  Slavka  to the  reader  c o m b i n a t i o n w i t h t h e immediate r e a c t i o n o f t h e o b s e r v e r s .  88 Narrative  i n t e r v e n t i o n does  a p p r o p r i a t e l y and the  n o t impose i t s e l f  concisely  into the d i a l o g i c a l  structure  speech' to i t s f u l l  potential  his hero-eccentric.  the d e v i s e of  of  'impersonal  J u s t as r e a l i t y a n d  the r e a l i t y  his  speech forms.  hero-eccentric,  A f a v o u r i t e method o f  i s to use  'impersonal d i r e c t  b i n a t i o n w i t h an a c t u a l u t t e r e d r e m a r k . into  two  forms,  the pronounced  hero's consciousness.  and  has  found l y i n g  F o r example, t h e h e r o  on t h e f l o o r  cashier with pride t o s s around good, and  that:  t h i s k i n d o f money."  the sentence which  easily  and  casually  and  As he w a l k s  said  has  levels  of  i n the  story  He  tells  f o r e x a m p l e , we  he has u t t e r e d  he had  thus  r o u b l e note which  from,  'CGhudik] r e p e a t s t h e s i t u a t i o n m e n t a l l y ^ -how  s p e e c h ' i n com-  o f a produce^ s t o r e .  "Where I'm  Shukshin's  characterizing  superficial  'The O d d - B a l l ' / ' C h u d i k ' , t u r n s i n a f i f t y  as  remark i s d i v i d e d  and u n p r o n o u n c e d ,  important impact a t the i n t e r i o r  the  The  of the  of character  w e l l a s i n theme, t h e same d u a l i s m i s s t r e n g t h e n e d b y use of d i r e c t  direct  i n the p o r t r a y a l o f the psychology  imagination are counterposed i n the r e v e l a t i o n  an  fits  story. Shukshin i s a b l e t o use  of  but i n s t e a d  away, he  he the don't  feels  embodies h i s p r i d e .  he t h o u g h t i t a l l o v e r  it:  "Where I'm  from,, f o r  JL4  example, we  don't  t o s s around  this  a speech combination o f u t t e r e d speech',  the hero  what he has  k i n d o f money."  remarks  and  reproduction,  and  direct  impact  of  him.  From t h i s c o m b i n a t i o n o f t h e r e a l subjectivized  'impersonal  i s shown i m a g i n i n g t h e e f f e c t  s a i d upon t h o s e a r o u n d  -In such  and  the subsequently  Shukshin proceeds with h i s h e r o - e c c e n t r i c  89 farther of  into  t h e realm o f t h e imagined r e a l i t y .  'impersonal d i r e c t  speech',  Shukshin's hero responds  i m a g i n a t i o n t o an event o r c o n v e r s a t i o n a l actually  taken place.  'How t h e R a b b i t F l e w  The f o l l o w i n g  remarks  of a ticket-seller  versation.  He g o e s  t h r e e b u t he f i n d s the wicket.  that  '...it  window...He w o u l d  has been found a f t e r  did  t h a t come a b o u t , my d e a r one?  and  just.  "I've already t o l d  in a military  this technique.  cap."  had a con-  t o k i o s k number  all,  have s a i d  have s a i d . eh?  to that  - " I t seems t h a t  Oh, y o u . . . W e l l , how  And y o u s i t l o o k i n g  y o u , no t i c k e t s ! "  " F o r y o u - t h e r e i s none".  l o o k - one can't g e t near y o u !  vozdushnykh  to the uncooperative  i t turns out, i s available.  should say:  na  w a s n ' t h e r when he a p p r o a c h e d  ticket  so  a retort  I f i t had been h e r , Egor would  a ticket,  letal  w i t h whom he h a d e a r l i e r  one  you  zaika  to the ticket o f f i c e himself,  woman i n t h e l i t t l e  -and  exchange which h a s  how S h u k s h i n e m p l o y s ,  In h i s i m a g i n a t i o n , Egor produces  in his  e x c e r p t f r o m t h e 1972 s t o r y  i n a Balloon*/"Kak  sharikakh', demonstrates  U s i n g t h e form  There  Well, perhaps,  so s t e r n  But one c a l l  - T h a t means t h a t And t h e l o o k , t h e  i s n ' t anything l i k e he w o u l d n ' t  i t except  have s a i d i t  sarcastically...'"""^ Such u s a g e  o f 'impersonal d i r e c t  speech'  successfully  adds t o t h e p o r t r a y a l o f t h e hero and t o t h e e l u c i d a t i o n o f h i s p e r s p e c t i v e s on t h e world around take on s t r o n g  satirical  him. - F r e q u e n t l y , such  o v e r t o n e s as t h e e x c e r p t  Shukshin t r e a t s as r e a l i t y which The  the hero-eccentric  has imagined  use o f t h e 'impersonal d i r e c t  a situation  forms  above. o r an event  f o r himself - i n i t s entirety.  speech' form  i stypical of  90 the s t o r i e s  i n which the f a n t a s y of the h e r o - e c c e n t r i c i s e s p e c i -  a l l y deep-rooted. between t h e i r for is  Shukshin  and  reality  heros and  further  reveal  in a direct  of the hero  a t work.  way, This  Operation of Efim P i a n y k h ' / ' O p e r a t s i i a Efima  as the c h a r a c t e r m e n t a l l y s e t s t h e  f o r the  the i n c o n g r u i t y  the accepted r e a l i t y  exposes the psychology  e v i d e n t i n 'The  Pianykh'  The  scene  for himself  reader.  'The c l o s e r E f i m g o t t o t h e h o s p i t a l , t h e more u n n e r v e d and c o w a r d l y he b e c a m e . . . W e l l , l e t ' s s a y t h e y a d m i t t e d him w i t h o u t h a v i n g t o w a i t in line. The  doctor.  A young, imposing  "What's t h e m a t t e r "A  with  woman.  you?"  splinter."  "Where?" "There." "Where's  'there'?"  "Well, t h e r e . . . " "Show i t t o  me.  My God'. Why was I g i v e n s u c h a s e n t e n c e ? ! C o u l d n ' t t h e s c o u n d r e l h a v e g o t him j u s t a b i t higher'.' ^  This excerpt anticipates c a n o c c u r b e t w e e n an really  does o c c u r .  between a c t u a l imagined in  and  imagined But  s i t u a t i o n and  Shukshin  imagined  flow of a s i t u a t i o n  the l a c k of congruence which  makes t h i s  the s i t u a t i o n  non^-coincidence  more p r e c i s e - b y c o u n t e r p o s i n g t o t h e way  which  the  i n which i t occurs  reality. ' " I ' v e b e g u n t o w r i t e my work,..Anna A f a n a s y e v n a . ' L e t t e r s from the H i n t e r l a n d . Notes o f a D o c t o r ' . . . S o l o d o v n i k o v t u r n e d •.toward Anna A f a n a s y e v n a . . . A n n a  91 A f a n a s y e v n a , t h e head d o c t o r was a c o n s i d e r a t e , m o t h e r hen type...who, h a v i n g r e a d t h e 'Notes' i n t h e i r m a n u s c r i p t s a y s i n amazement: " I t ' s j u s t l i k e a n o v e l ! " - " A l l r i g h t , b u t as a d o c t o r d o e s t h i s i n t e r e s t y o u ? " - " V e r y much! There a r e s i m p l y the most wonderful t h i n g s i n i t . " - "And as f o r y o u r s e l f . . .you d o n ' t t a k e o f f e n c e at the author?" -"Well, of course not, what i s t h e r e t o be o f f e n d e d a b o u t ? It's a l l true..." 1  "...So y o u ' v e a l r e a d y b e g u n t o w r i t e ? " Anna A f a n a s y e v n a . "Some k i n d o f n o t e s . why y o u ' r e l a t e ? " S o l o d o v n i k o v was o f f e n d e d by a martinet i n a s k i r t . Only i r o n was on h e r mind.",_  The  f l o w and  the hero Solodovnikov opposite  to the  h i m s e l f and both  direction  the r e a l  and  imagined  v e r s i o n s . -The endeavor had  image w h i c h S o l o d o v n i k o v  a l l o w s him  Shukshin  may  be  conventional  the  function of being  support  of the  i t would be.  which t h i s  The  in real  life  'impersonal'  as a  and  'mother  direct  speech  yet are very  f o r m and  a f a c e t of the hero's  form  conversations  s p e e c h w h i c h has  graphic  is  'martinet';  'Impersonal d i r e c t - s p e e c h ' as used  stylistic  in  to  p r o j e c t s f o r t h e head d o c t o r  c o n s i d e r e d as d i r e c t  its  between  r e a c t i o n o f Anna  o n l y w i t h i n t h e mind o f the hero,  to the r e a d e r .  completely  does take  t h e f r e e d o m t o c r e a t e s i t u a t i o n s and  which e x i s t istic  is  i s q u i t e the opposite  dreamed  i n h i s e s t i m a t i o n o f her Shukshin's use  which  Several elements are repeated  that which the doctor-author  not upheld  take place  form which the d i a l o g u e ,  Afanasyevna to h i s l i t e r a r y  hen'  t h e head d o c t o r : one. t h i n g , t h e s h e e t  of the d i a l o g u e  imagines w i l l  the head d o c t o r .  asked Is t h a t  has  real-  by  forfeited  taken  on  consciousness.  form g i v e s Shukshin's s o c i o - p s y c h o l o g i c a l  The  92  emphasis on the development  o f the c h a r a c t e r  o f h i s hero i s  v i t a l f o r he i s a b l e to d e l v e i n t o the c o n s c i o u s n e s s of the hero and f i n d there a dynamic world which a t times r e f l e c t s and a t o t h e r times d i s t o r t s the r e a l w o r l d . I t i s the composite s t r u c t u r e of the Shukshin s t o r y scene which concerns us. mentary  The m u t u a l l y complementary and s u p p l e -  f e a t u r e s o f the forms and v a r i a t i o n s o f d i a l o g u e ,  monologue, ' f r e e ' and  'impersonal' d i r e c t speech are r e s p o n s i b l e  f o r the c r i t i c a l and p u b l i c success o f Shukshin's  stories.  Through the a p p l i c a t i o n o f such speech forms, Shukshin c r e a t e s the l i n g u i s t i c a l l y d i v e r s e and c o n v e r s a t i o n a l l y a g i l e  quality  .with which h i s s t o r i e s have become a s s o c i a t e d . . I would now  l i k e to i n v e s t i g a t e b r i e f l y the  stylistic  means by which Shukshin developed an i n d i v i d u a l i z e d means o f e x p r e s s i o n from the g e n e r a l l i n g u i s t i c m a t e r i a l s w i t h which he chose to work and which became c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the author and of h i s type o f hero.  Because Shukshin's d i r e c t speech  forms  are a l l designed s p e c i f i c a l l y t o r e p r e s e n t the c o n c r e t e speech and thought o f the hero, Shukshin's f i g u r a t i v e system i s not extensive.  The images which Shukshin does c r e a t e are expressed  l a r g e l y i n terms o f the s i m i l e , metaphor, p e r s o n i f i c i a t i o n ,  and  the e p i t h e t , a l l o f which r e p r e s e n t the f i g u r e s o f speech most common to and widespread i n popular and r e g i o n a l  dialectical  lexicons. G e n e r a l l y , the images are v i v i d and c o n c i s e and are o f f e r e d t o the reader e i t h e r through d i r e c t speech forms o r through a d e s c r i p t i v e n a r r a t i o n .  The b r e v i t y of the image i s  c o n c u r r e n t w i t h the e l l i p t i c nature o f Shukshin's c o n v e r s a t i o n a l  93 e x c h a n g e s and w i t h t h e t y p e o f d i a l e c t w h i c h The b a s i c present of  f i g u r e s o f speech,  Shukshin  s i m i l e and p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n  i n h i s w o r k s i n l a r g e amount r e f l e c t i n g  popular language 1  and  c o n v e r s a t i o n toward  "Dovol'nyi-to. (1:335)  employs. are  the p r o p e n s i t y  these d e v i c e s .  Z h m u r i s s i a , k a k k o t na  solnyshke..."'  1 8  ' " P r i r o d a n i k o g d a s e b i a ne p o i m e t . . . O n a v z b e s i l a s ' i m s t i t za s e b i a v l i t s e c h e l o v e k a . . . " ' (1:18 3)., 'Po v o s k r e s e n ' i a m n a v a l i v a l a s ' o s o b e n n a i a t o s k a . . . Maksim f i z i c h e s k i c h u s t v o v a l e e , g a d i n u : kak e s l i by n e o p r i a t n a i a , ne sovsem z d o r o v a i a b a b a , b e s s o v e s t n a i a s t i a z h e l y m zapakhom i z o r t a , o b s h a r i v a l a evo v s e v o r u k a m i . . . ' (Besedy:120) ' " B i u r o k r a t i z m , o n , z n a e t e , r a z ' e d a e t ne t o l ' k o u c h r e z h d e n i i a , - sochuvstvenno z a g o v o r i l s t a r i c h o k . -Vot z d e s ' . . . z d e s ' on p r o i a v l i a e t s i a v n a i b o l e e u r o d l i v o i forme."" (Besedy:47) In engaged  those s t o r i e s  r e p r e s e n t i n g one  personages  revealed  Shukshin's  hero  i s actively  i n d i a l o g u e and m o n o l o g u e , t h e r e i s - g e n e r a l l y  image i n c l u d e d These  i n which  o f the secondary  a  synecdochal  characters.  p a s s t h r o u g h t h e h e r o ' s c o n s c i o u s n e s s and  t o t h e r e a d e r by  their  'Plashch o s t a n o v i l s i a , Sashku.' (1:209)  s t r o n g e s t , most v i t a l nedobro  ustavilsia  are  quality.  na  'I o p i a t ' v s k o c h i l i k h o t e l s k o l ' z n u t ' p o d c chudovishchnyi shatun - k g o r l u f i z k u l t u r n i k a . No v t o r o i s h a t u n k o r o t k o d v i n u l e v o v c h e l i u s t * snizu...' (1:195) f  'A s m a l l n e a t head a p p e a r s r o u n d t h e d o o r . Two c l e a r eyes, t h e i r l i d s s t i l l s l i g h t l y p u f f y f r o m s l e e p . . . He's i n l o v e w i t h t h a t n e a t l i t t l e head and n e v e r t e l l s h e r a b o u t i t . ' (Sov. L i t , 9 (1975);38-39)  A f i g u r a t i v e d e v i c e o f which u s e o f names w h i c h  characterize  Shukshin  the e s s e n t i a l  i s fond i s the  features of a  94 p e r s o n a g e i n one than  word.  T h e s e a r e more r e v e a l i n g  a s i m p l e n i c k n a m e and  may  be  c o n s i d e r e d as a type  synecdoche s i n c e they are a p p l i e d B e c a u s e we  know n o t h i n g a b o u t  connotation we  only to  i n the c h a r a c t e r i z i n g  story  'Three  name-characterization  of  'anonymous' c h a r a c t e r s .  t h e p e r s o n a g e o t h e r t h a n what name p r o v i d e s , t h e image  have o f t h e s e c h a r a c t e r s i s b a s e d  satirical  of character  on  t h e name a l o n e .  Graces'/'Tri Gratsii',  Shukshin  the that  In  the  uses  his  effectively.  'Sperva k o r o t k o o p i s h u i k h . Nomer o d i n . T i k h a i a s v i d u , y ochkakh, korotkonogaia... Budem n a z y v a t ' ee T i k h u s h n i t s a . Nomer d v a . Za s o r o k . K r u p n a i a , s v i s h n e v o i b o r o d a v k o i na s h e e . G o v o r i t gromko, u v e r e n n o . . . Budem n a z y v a t ' ee D e i a t e l * . Nomer t r i . R y z h e v o l o s a i a . * . S t r e m i t e l ' n a i a v m y s i i a k h , m a s t e r zamochnykh s k v a z h i n . . . B u d e m n a z y v a t * ee L e t i a s h c h a i a po v o l n a m . Mozhno prosto Ryzhaia.' (1:255) Such c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n - b y - n a m e s t o r i e s and 'Chudik', heroesis remains around  i ? found  i s o f t e n i n c l u d e d i n the t i t l e  'Psikhopat',  'Khmyr',  'Ryzhyi'.  him  and  several stories  found  i n h i s name makes him  Russian  folk-tale, In f a c t ,  the  because the  interactions with  these hero  others  the c h a r a c t e r -  a k i n to the heroes  of  the  'skazka'.  another  work d o e s f i n d  level  of  i t s source  imagistic vocabulary i n i n Russian o r a l  which extends  a tremendous i n f l u e n c e o v e r  infrequently,  his narrative  of the  as  character of  p r o v i n g the accuracy of the a p p e l l a t i o n ,  ization  Shukshin's  such  The  set a t the beginning o f the story, c o n s t a n t , w i t h h i s a c t i o n s and  elements  of  in  'skazka',  i s e n h a n c e d by  t h e most p o p u l a r  Shukshin's lexical  folk-art work.  and  form o f o r a l  Not  structural folk-art.  95 Such i n c l u s i o n s a r e e v i d e n t s u c h a s 'Kak z a i k a l e t a l ikh petukhov'.  from t h e t i t l e s  of several stories  na v o z d u s h n y k h s h a r i k a k h '  They a r e a l s o  and 'Do t r e t ' > ~  s e e n i n t h e o p e n i n g l i n e s o f many  o f h i s works. ' Z h i l - b y l v s e l e C h e r b r o v k a n e k t o Semka R y s ' . . . '  (1:244)  *V r a i g o r o d o k N. p r i e k h a l i e t i , k o t o r y e p o v e r t i k a l ' n o i s t e n e na m o t o t s i k l a k h e z d u t . ' (1:362) 'Davno-davno e t o b y l o ! Tak d a v n o , chto'< vspomlnat•' n e o k h o t a , kogda e t o b y l o . E t o b y l o davno i p r e k r a s n o . ' (1:403) Shukshin of  i s s e n s i t i v e not only  t h e s p o k e n word, b u t a l s o t o t h e e f f e c t  of f o l k  s o n g s and p o e t r y  can c r e a t e .  s t r u c t u r e o f s e v e r a l o f Shukshin's attune  and mood w h i c h t h e u s e  Songs a r e p r e s e n t  within the  s t o r i e s and he u s e s them t o  t h e r e a d e r e m o t i o n a l l y t o t h e theme o f h i s w o r k . 'Potom A n t i p z a i g r a l v e s e l u i u . . . Okh, tarn, r i - t a - t a m , R i t a t u s h e n ' k i moi, Pokhodite, p o g u l i a i t e , Po-ba-lui-tisia 1 " . . K a k u i u z h e l a e t e , mademuazel' f r a u ? " "Pro Volodtsiu-molodtsa." ."^Ona t i a z h e l a i a , nu e e ! " "Nichevo. I a p o p l a c h u knot' maleh*ko." Okh, ne v e i t i - s i a c h a i k i nad morem . , -. ... \ " zapel Antip,' • Vam-nekuda, b e d n e n ' k i m , s e s t ' . Sletaite v Sibir', v krai dalekii, Snesite pechal'nu-ia vest'. ...Marfa z a k h l i u p a l a . " A n t i p , a A n t i p ! . . P r o s t i t y menia, e s l i i a chem-nibud' t e b i a o b i z h a i u , " p r o g o v o r i l a ona skvoz' s l e z y . " E r u n d a " , s k a z a l A n t i p . --"Ty m e n i a t o z h e p r o s t i , e s l i ia vinovatyi."' (1:29) The  An  t o t h e r o l e and p o t e n t i a l  above s c e n e i s f r o m t h e e a r l y s t o r y  e l d e r l y couple t r i e s  a b o u t what i s i m p o r t a n t  t o come t o t e r m s w i t h in life.  'Alone'/'Odni".  their differing  views  The s o n g s , happy and s a d , r e f l e c t  96  t h e i r many y e a r s o f l i f e between them t o one  t o g e t h e r and  o f compromise and  Words f r o m  folk  throughout  his literary  either  appear w i t h i n the t e x t o f the  ('I r a z i g r a l i s * of off it  the  stories  to P a r i s ' ,  zhe  life  c a r e e r . -The story  and  i n c l u d e d a s an  koni pole').  The  story  words t o t h e itself  voskresen'e story,  s o n g s t h u s become 'A W i f e  songs  ('Vianet,  epigraph t o the  i n which they a p p e a r . I n  saw  leitmotifs  her  Husband  t h e u s e o f t h e song i s e s p e c i a l l y p o i g n a n t  i s the hero's  daily  i n Shukshin's  "Zhena muzha v P a r i z h p r o v o z h a l a ' , V  Mat'-Starushka') or are  situation  understanding.  songs a r e found  titles  propadaet',  r e c o n c i l e the  temporary  r e l e a s e from  i t also r e f l e c t s  for  the pressures i n h i s  the tragedy of h i s  inevitable  suicide. 'Kazhduiu n e d e l i u , v subbotu vecherom, K o l ' k a P a r a t o v d a e t vo d v o r e k o n t s e r t . V y n o s i t t r e k h r i a d k u s m a l i n o v y m mekhom," r a z v o r a c h i v a e t ee, i : A zhena muzha v P a r i z h p r o v o z h a l a , N a s u s h i l a emu s u k h a r e i . . . Proigrysh. K o l ' k a , smeshno o t k l i a c h i v z a d , p r i t a n t s o v y v a e t . ...Molchat vokrug, budto d o g a d y v a i u t s i a : paren' vypliasyvaet kakuiu-to s v o i u zataennuiu gor'kuiu b o l ' . (1:232-234) 1  But  Kol'ka's  life  i s n o t a s gay  a s t h e w o r d s o f t h e song b e g i n t h e t r a g i c so t h e y a r e r e c a l l e d  just before h i s  as h i s song,  and  story of Kol'ka  just Paratov,  suicide.  *"Tak?", s p r o s i l s e b i a K o l ' k a . " Z n a c h i t , zhena muzha v P a r i z h p r o v o z h a l a ? " . Z a k r y l o k n o , z a k r y l f o r t o c h k u . . . V z i a l k a r a n d a s h i k r u p n o n a p i s a l na b e l o m k r a e s h k e g a z e t y : 'Dochen'ka, p a p a u e k h a l v k o m a n d i r o v k u . ' ' (1:232-234) A f e a t u r e a l s o o f Shukshin's them a r e s y m b o l i c  and  more o r g a n i c a l l y  titles  i s t h a t many o f  interwoven  i n t o the  narrative  97  of  t h e s t o r y than  i s usual.  'Suraz'  S i b e r i a n word w h i c h i s n o t f o u n d language.  and  i n any d i c t i o n a r y o f t h e R u s s i a n  a distress.  birth  The h e r o ,  as w e l l  as that o f a mischievous  S p i r k a Rastorguev,  i s 'suraz'  t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e word t o him i s a p p r o p r i a t e .  tells  the twisted fate  during  o f t h e y o u n g man w h i c h we come t o l e a r n  K r a s n a i a ' , t h e name o f a n o t h e r o f S h u k s h i n ' s  w o r k s , i s a p o p u l a r e p i t h e t and a n image bound up w i t h belief. tragic  The g u e l d e r r o s e i s t h e f o l k  folk  symbol o f a b e l a t e d , o f t e n  love which i s u n r e a l i z a b l e . In  h i s attempt  to depict  cumstances r e a l i s t i c a l l y , figurative  characters.  Shukshin  t h e c h a r a c t e r s and t h e i r  speech which a r e found  These l e x i c a l  possible,  t o speak about  itself.  cir-  t u r n s t o t h e words, e x p r e s s i o n s i n the vocabulary of the  and s e m a n t i c  elements  spontaneously by the c h a r a c t e r s , f o r Shukshin  subject  I t fore-  the course o f the story. 'Kalina  and  typically  I t i s a p o w e r f u l word w i t h m u l t i p l e meanings,, e m b r a c i n g  the n o t i o n o f i l l e g i t i m a t e event,  f o r example, i s a  a r e used  tries,  whenever  the subject i n the large of the  98  -  A detailed  the is  -  d i s c u s s i o n o f S h u k s h i n ' s d i a l o g u e has  p l a c e d a t t h e end o f my direct  2  i n v e s t i g a t i o n of the author's use o f  s p e e c h f o r m s b e c a u s e h i s d i a l o g u e , more t h a n any o t h e r o f  forms, i s g r e a t l y dependent constructed.  upon t h e l e x i c o n  Whereas o t h e r d i r e c t  because o f t h e i r  subjectivized  the  externalized  spiritual  nuances  inherent  quality of dialogue,  p r o c e s s o f change which  comes t o t h e  essentially  o f m i n d and  exchanges  with a l l  i n these forms. the i n t e r n a l ,  Through  sometimes  i s occurring within  the hero,  surface.  It  i s , in fact,  the d i a l o g u e which  i s the d r i v i n g  behind the m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f the hero  i n the majority o f  s t o r i e s and  f o r the generally  role of  i s a compensating  some ways, t h e u s e o f d i a l o g u e t o r e v e a l  a h e r o i s more d i f f i c u l t mind o f t h e p e r s o n a g e other d i r e c t  diminished  The  the  h e r o must be u n d e r s t o o d t h r o u g h  reactions,  and c o m m u n i c a t i o n s  with  forms a r e c h a r a c t e r i z e d by  they c o n t a i n o n l y  which are e s s e n t i a l  effectively  as one m i g h t w i t h i n t e r n a l monologue o r  Shukshin's d i a l o g i c  laconicism,  others.  their  those thoughts, emotions, pr  to the s t o r y .  c o n v e r s a t i o n a s e x c l a m a t i o n s and as w e l l  Shukshin's  than to simply allow the reader i n t o  speech t y p e s .  verbal relations,  Because  factor  force  plot. In  his  emotion  n a t u r e s , d i a l o g u e d e p e n d s upon t h e  o b j e c t i v e r e p r o d u c t i o n o f t h o u g h and v e r b a l t h e s u b t l e t i e s and  from which i t  speech types are  p s y c h o l o g i c a l and r e v e l a t o r y o f m o o d , - s t a t e  of  been  Such  syntactic  features of  the omission of verbal  as t h e u t i l i z a t i o n o f s t y l i s t i c  elements  feelings  forms,  s u c h as t h e  99  p a u s e o r a sudden c h a n g e o f elliptic  quality The  and  characteristic  often,  h i s heroes use  indicators of  i f t h e words do  c r e a t e an  or  of  thought, a t t e s t  internal  their  not  and  to  the  S h u k s h i n ' s work.  i n d i v i d u a l words w h i c h S h u k s h i n ' s  particularly  symbols and  topic  to express portrayed  characters  t h e m s e l v e s become environments,  c o n v e y f a c t s and  events,  subjective reality.  Bronka  for  they  do  Pupkov,  H i t l e r ' s w o u l d - b e a s s a s s i n , i s a p r i m e example, f o r t h r o u g h B r o n k a ' s d i a l o g u e we  come t o u n d e r s t a n d ' h i m a s a  person  needs and  who  t h e s e may  eccentric  possesses seem t o  d e s i r e s no  m a t t e r how  Shukshin dialogue  and  fanciful  i s never a b s t r a c t d e s p i t e  i d e a s p r o p o u n d e d by  and  d e s p i t e the o f t e n d i f f i c u l t  the  little-known Siberian dialect,  Shukshin takes  t h i s concrete  the  daily  vocabulary  w h i c h i s drawn  and  the Russian  He  expression, literary  does t h i s w i t h g r e a t and  naturalness  dialogue.  an  the reader  d i s p o s i t i o n of the the d i s t i n c t i v e  inherent  Through the use  Shukshin accomplishes familiarizes  skill,  important with  from  dialect.  expertly reconstructs countryside, or strata of  transferring  i n these  Russian  the  shape,  lexicons into  of d i a l e c t s t a s k - he  the  the  his  i n h i s work,  introduces  and  the unique thought, philosophy,  segments o f  lexicons.  the  heroes  or a s o c i a l l y - r o o t e d  vocabulary  speech of  the v a r i o u s  c o n v e r s a t i o n a l or t e c h n i c a l speech of v a r i o u s society.  strange  us.  The  colloquial  complete  S o v i e t p o p u l a t i o n which  and use  100  Shukshin of  has  a natural  and  informed  command o f a l l  t h e v o c a b u l a r i e s w i t h w h i c h he w o r k s i n h i s s t o r i e s .  particular effect,  S i b e r i a n d i a l e c t w h i c h i s so o f t e n u s e d ,  his  'first  language',  is, in  w h i l e some o f t h e s o c i a l  were s u b s e q u e n t l y a c q u i r e d t h r o u g h p e r s o n a l c o n t a c t and Shukshin his  thus possesses  the advantage  of being able to  use o f d i a l e c t w i t h a c o n s c i o u s a p p l i c a t i o n  devices. talent  This combination  as a w r i t e r  and  of elements  of  The  dialects experience. supplement  literary  accentuates both h i s  the unusual, o f t e n b e a u t i f u l  properties  19 of  the language  of h i s dialogues.  On most o c c a s i o n s , t h e l o g i c a l assurance,  and  emotion  captures the a t t e n t i o n speech  o f the speech that  e v e n a t t i m e s o b s c e n i t i e s may  vocabulary  Let  and  u s now  of  the  Regionalisms, coarseness,  and  be  into  conversational style  literary  examine t h e a s p e c t s o f t h e  i n Shukshin's  d e l i n e a t e s two  a t the d i a l e c t stories.  i s addressed.  moral  In  regularly  term  types Teoriia  Tomashevskii,  Tomashevskii  types of d i a l e c t occurrences w i t h i n the  m i l i e u , both o f which are found  i n Shukshin's  literary writing.  i n v o l v e s t h e u s e o f t h e v o c a b u l a r y , grammar, o r  p r o n u n c i a t i o n o f an  but  create.  t h e c l a s s i c work o f t h e f o r m a l i s t 20  the q u e s t i o n o f d i a l e c t  first  to  so  i n the language,  t h e bounds o f t h e  b e f o r e l o o k i n g more c l o s e l y  Literatury,  The  included  i s striving  briefly  clarity,  hero  f o r t h e y a r e n e c e s s a r y t o t h e e m o t i o n a l and  e f f e c t s which Shukshin  'dialect'  of the Shukshin  the e x t e r n a l uniqueness  i s hardly perceived.  t h e y have a l l b e e n a c c e p t e d  construction,  e t h n i c or r e g i o n a l group.  Such  forms,  termed  'regionalisms• or  ' p r o v i n c i a l i s m s ' , are  o c c u r r e n c e s o f d i a l e c t which appear such,  they have a l s o been the  critics.  Shukshin  occurrences  wrote v e r y  of d i r e c t  Siberian village,  speech  t h e most  i n a l i t e r a r y work.  forms most c r i t i c i z e d few  obvious  stories  by  As literary  i n which a l l of  the  are w r i t t e n i n the d i a l e c t o f  c o n t r a r y to the p i c t u r e which i s put  the  forward  21 in  some n e g a t i v e  criticism  i n which t h i s does o c c u r are found  second  Shukshin's  stories  identified  with  that  particularly e m p h a s i s on thematic  type of d i a l e c t occurrence  separate  and  definite  strating  dialects  familiar  One'/*Upornyi', the intelligentsia slang of the Sergei  'Volki')  found  in  groups,  'jargon' or  including  'slang'.  w i t h good  1970.  speech  effect  This increased  dialects reflects  work, o f t h i s p e r i o d .  the Shukshin  w i t h b u r e a u c r a t i c j a r g o n , demon-  h i s proficiency with  i n h i s use  social  o f Shukshin's  O p i n i o n ' / ' M n e n i e ' and  effective  social  c o n s t a n t l y and  the r e p r o d u c t i o n o f  shows h i m s e l f t o be  stories  of t h a t category o f  i n the works w r i t t e n a f t e r  maturation  The  pre-1970 works.  i n v o l v e s the use  uses s o c i a l  work.  'Vianet, propadaet',  l e x i c o n w h i c h i s commonly termed  Shukshin  'The  ('Odni',  in his earlier, The  of Shukshin's  'officialese'  i n such  'General M a l a f e i k i n ' .  of technical vocabulary ' e l e v a t e d ' j a r g o n and  i n ' C u t - O f f ' / ' S r e z a l ' , and  s m a l l town b i g - s h o t i n 'The  He  i n 'The  speech  satires is  similarly  Obstinate  forms o f  i n the use  as  of  the  the  Brother-in-Law'/*Svoiak  Sergeich*. The  written after  social  l e x i c o n predominant  t h e mid-19 60s  elements with those  i s one  possessing a  i n Shukshin's  which combines pure  'citified'  or  dialogues 'regional'  'intellectual*  102  coating.  T h e s e components a r e i n s e r t e d  of Contemporary Standard form.  the general  structure  Russian, the accepted c o n v e r s a t i o n a l  Such a c o m b i n a t i o n  i n t o one l e x i c o n  into  o f t h e speech  i s termed  of various social  'meshchanskii  govor  groups  - a type o f  1  s p e e c h w h i c h o c c u p i e s an i n t e r m e d i a t e p o s i t i o n b e t w e e n t h e strata of literary 'regional' dialect. 'meshchanskii'  and e d u c a t e d  speech  The most d i s t i n c t i v e  lexicon  i s that,  forms,  intellectual  the l i n g u i s t i c  g i v e s i t new m e a n i n g .  itself  i t has mastered  forms.  Having  The ' m e s h c h a n s k i i '  i n many o f S h u k s h i n ' s  implications  adopted  these  the vocabulary  lexicon manifests  s t o r i e s and i n c o u n t l e s s d i a l o g i c a l strong social  due t o t h e n a t u r e o f t h e l e x i c o n  In t h e m a j o r i t y o f h i s s t o r i e s ,  o v e r t o n e s and itself.  Shukshin  uses  Standard Russian as t h e standard a g a i n s t which  d i a l e c t s may b e p e r c e i v e d and i d e n t i f i e d . we may f i n d another.  any c o m b i n a t i o n o f d i a l e c t s  Siberian dialect.  counterposed  to standard Russian  Contem-  other story, one t o  two m a i n  s t a n d a r d R u s s i a n and t h e o t h e r t h e  (jfeel' s k i e  zhiteli',  'Chudik',  i n v o l v e the use o f 'meshchanskii'  ('Svoiak  In a given  Numerous s t o r i e s a r e c o n s t r u c t e d a r o u n d  c h a r a c t e r s , one s p e a k i n g  Others  urban,  'meshchanin' d i s t o r t s  e x c h a n g e s , many o f w h i c h c a r r y  porary  feature o f the  o f t e n w i t h o u t c o m p l e t e l y comprehending meanings o r  connotations, and  speech  o f pure  as an i n t e r m e d i a t e l a y e r , i t  aspires to create the effect that educated,  and'those  speech  'Na k l a d b i s h c h e ' ) . counterposed  ('Srezal') or to a S i b e r i a n v i l l a g e  S e r g e i Sergeich');. Shukshin  dialect  i s also able to create  v a r i o u s h y b r i d s o f d i a l e c t w i t h i n h i s w o r k s , s u c h a s when  103  standard Russian absorbs bureaucratic  jargon  Shukshin f o r reasons which which  t h e themes.  itself-technical,  (.'Upornyi*'Psikhopat', employs v a r i o u s r e g i o n a l  o b v i o u s l y extend w e l l  may b e a t t r i b u t e d  Shukshin chooses  into  seen  An e f f e c t i v e  illustration  i n the story  grandson,  in years.  b e y o n d an a e s t h e t i c The l e x i c o n  of this  tight  'Sel'skie  two m a i n c h a r a c t e r s ,  i n two d i f f e r e n t w o r l d s .  their  speech  to h i s fellow villagers.  the neighbour,  h e r son.. I n o r d e r t o j o u r n e y , she  Inevitably,  and g r o w i n g  i n Moscow t h a t h i s m o t h e r w i l l gap w h i c h  Shurka  to the stories visibly  understand.  and an e x c u s e come b y t r a i n  as w e l l  sent t o the i n t h e summer.  as t h e m a t i c a l l y .  i n t e r r u p t s and c o r r e c t s h e r s e v e r a l  a t e l e g r a m t o Moscow.  at least  s e p a r a t e s Babka M a l a n i a f r o m h e r g r a n d s o n  expressed l i n g u i s t i c a l l y  Shurka  dismay  by t h i n g s she cannot  t h e voyage i s postponed  The  The g r a n d s o n  f o r he s e e s h i s g r a n d m o t h e r g e t t i n g  more and more f r i g h t e n e d  difference  Babka M a l a n i a  o u t what s t e p s s h e s h o u l d t a k e t o make t h i s  l i s t e n s with great skepticism  is  relationship  a g r a n d m o t h e r and h e r s c h o o l -  a r e s e p a r a t e d b y more t h a n j u s t  They l i v e  i n comparison  son  which  zhiteli'.  t a l k s w i t h a n e i g h b o u r who h a s done some t r a v e l l i n g ,  of  value  parallelled to  d i a l o g u e (and d i r e c t  has d e c i d e d t o f l y t o Moscow t o v i s i t find  dialects  i n g e n e r a l ) and t h e t h e m a t i c s t r u c t u r e o f t h e s t o r i e s i s  The aged  and s o c i a l  i s integrally  between t h e l e x i c o n o f S h u k s h i n ' s forms  'Mnenie').  t o such i n c l u s i o n s .  forh i s stories  medical, or  F o r example,  times as she c o n s t r u c t s  ' " D o r o g o i synok P a s h a , e s l i u z h t y k h o c h e s h ' , s h t o b y i a p r i e k h a l a , t o i a , . k o n n e c h n o , mogu, k h o t i a mne na s t a r o s t i l e t . . . " "Privet!" pishet?"  skazal  Shurka.  "Khto  zhe t a k t e l e g r a m  "A kak nado, po-tvoemu?" "Priedem. Tochka. H i t a k : p r i e d e m p o s l e Novogo Tochka. P o d p i s ' : Mama. V s e . " Babka d a z h e  goda  obidelas'.  "V s h e s t o i k l a s s k h o d i s h ' S h u r k a , a p o n i a t i a nikakogo. Nado zhe umnet' pomalen'ku."' (1:17)  Babka d o e s n o t u n d e r s t a n d a w o r l d o f new and modes o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n o f comprehension words w h i c h or  and  conveniences  she d e m o n s t r a t e s h e r t o t a l  t i m e and a g a i n  i n her speech, e i t h e r  lack  through  she h a s n e w l y a c q u i r e d b u t has n o t f u l l y u n d e r s t o o d  i n h e r r e a c t i o n s and q u e s t i o n s t o t h e i n f o r m a t i o n w h i c h  neighbour g i v e s her about the  flight.  '"Gospodi, g o s p o d i ! " vzdokhnula babka. Pavlu. A telegrammu a n u l i r o v a e m " . . . " A n a c h i t , ne  "Davai p i s a t '  poletim?"  "Kuda zhe l e t e t ' - s t r a s t ' t a k a i a , b a t i u s h k i S o b e r u t potom t r i s t a gramm..."' (1:21)  moi!  S h u r k a , o n t h e o t h e r hand,  and  e x p r e s s i o n s w i t h complete p o r t i o n of the l e t t e r  h a n d l e s new  f r e e d o m a s we  w h i c h he  her  words  see i n the p e r s o n a l  sends t o h i s u n c l e .  'Babon'ku n a p u g a l d i a d i a E g o r L i z u n o v . . . On, naprimer, " privel takoi fakt: on v y g l i a n u l v okno i v i d i t , c h t o motor g o r i t . E s l i by e t o b y l o t a k , t o l e t c h i k s t a l by s s h i b a t ' p i a m i a s k o r o s t i ' i u , kak e t o obychno d e l a e t s i a . I a p r e d l a g a i u , c h t o on u v i d e l plamia i z vykhlopnoi truby i podnial paniku...' (1:21)  In vocabulary and  'Sel'skie  and  Shurka are  S o v i e t Union. Shukshin  zhiteli',  the d i f f e r i n g  means o f e x p r e s s i o n u t i l i z e d indicators of  social  L a r g e l y through  by Babka  processes  the use  i s able to depict o b j e c t i v e l y  levels  inevitably  e a r l y hero, country  like  f o l k and  of the hero's the is  similar  her  t h a t he  the naive,  c h a r a c t e r and  of l i n g u i s t i c  as  and access  to  1  a general rule,  Shukshin's  speaks i n the language o f  s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d , and o f h i s v i e w on  f o l l o w i n g scene  pens a t e l e g r a m  safely arrived  forms,  the d i s c r e p a n c i e s i n  o f h i s spoken language.  i n the  i n which the hero  As  Babka M a l a n i a ,  nature  illustrated  create.  Malania  o c c u r r i n g i n the  segments o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n w h i c h m o d e r n i z a t i o n education  of  from  life  honest  qualities  are r e f l e c t e d  Such  in  correspondence  the s t o r y  to h i s wife  the  'Chudik'  i n order  to  inform  at his destination.  'V a e r o p o r t u C h u d i k n a p i s a l telegrammu z h e n e : 'Prizemlilis'. V e t k a s i r e n i u p a l a na g r u d ' , m i l a i a G r u s h a m e n i a ne z a b u d ' . Vasiatka.' T e l e g r a f i s t k a , s t r o g a i a , sukhaia' zhenshchina, p r o c h i t a v telegrammu, p r e d l o z h i l a : "Sovtav'te inache. Vy v z r o s l y i c h e l o v e k , ne v d e t s a d e . 'Pochemu?" s p r o s i l C h u d i k . "Ia e i vsegda tak p i s h u v pis'makh. E t o zhe m o i a z h e n a ! . . . V y , n a v e r n o , podumal "...Eto o t k r y t y i Chudik  tekst."  perepisal:  'Prizemlilis*.  Vse  v poriadke.  -Vasiatka.'  106  T e l e g r a f i s t k a sama i s p r a v i l a dva s l o v a : 'prizemlilis ' i 'Vasiatka'. Stalo: 'doleteli', 'Vasilii*. 1  "'Prizemlilis'"...Vy  The  social  c h t o , kosmonavt, c h t o l i ? "  d i f f e r e n c e which  e x i s t s between  and  the t e l e g r a p h i s t  i s immediately evident  the  two  It i s typical  characters.  that  Chudik  i n the speech o f  Shukshin  should d e p i c t  t h e s e d i f f e r e n c e s through t h e e f f e c t i v e use o f a dynamic, revealing dialogue rather  than t u r n i n g  (1:107)  1  to s t a t i c ,  self-  descriptive  narration. As  Shukshin's  t y p i c a l o f the the  s t o r i e s mature t h e m a t i c a l l y ,  ' m e s h c h a n s k i i g o v o r ' become more f r e q u e n t i n  dialogues.  Generally,  i t i s not the Shukshin hero  employs t h e v o c a b u l a r y o f t h e reserves  i t to depict  'meshchanin'  the negative q u a l i t i e s  of that  social  circumstances i n that  Russian w i t h elements o f r e g i o n a l When a S h u k s h i n h e r o does characterized  govor' village  demands w h i c h  i n the story  'intellectual'  v i l l a g e r s who  i t i s a standard  coming  to the  scenes u s i n g  the  him.  'meshchanskii i n which  i n embarrassing those  have gone t o t h e c i t y  pathetic  have b e e n p l a c e d upon  'Cut-Off'/'Srezal'  delights  have r e t u r n e d f o r a v i s i t .  surface.  ' m e s h c h a n s k i i g o v o r ' , he i s  o f t h e most v i v i d  i s found  maturing  has e v o l v e d  as being e i t h e r v e r y d i s a g r e e a b l e or a  v i c t i m of the s o c i a l One  use  dialect  secondary  Shukshin's  h e r o u s e s an u n p r e t e n t i o u s f o r m o f s p e e c h w h i c h from  who  f o r Shukshin  c h a r a c t e r w i t h whom t h e h e r o must i n t e r a c t .  naturally  words  a  fellow  f o r a h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n and  Gleb Kapustin t r i e s  and m e n t a l l y t o g e t t h e b e t t e r o f them.  These  linguistically attempts  often  b a c k f i r e much t o t h e amusement o f t h e b e w i l d e r e d v i s i t o r , G l e b and  h i s admiring v i l l a g e r s  ignorance which 'I  are t o t a l l y  to the  he m a n i f e s t s .  t u t on p o s h e l v a t a k u na  "V k a k o i o b l a s t i "Gde  oblivious  but  kandidataw  vyiavliaete  rabotaiu, chto  sebi?",  sprosil  on.  li?"  "Da." "Na  filfake."  "Filosofiia?" "Ne sovsem." "Neobkhodimaia v e s h c h ' . " G l e b u filisofiia. On o z h i v i l s i a . '  nuzhno b y l o , (1:174)  chtob  byla  I n s t e a d o f s i m p l y a s k i n g , t h e c a n d i d a t e what h i s academic  interest or s p e c i a l i z a t i o n  Russian, Gleb  i n v e n t s the c o n s t r u c t i o n ,  reveal yourself?"  The  but poor  Russian.  Similarly,  'filfak'  as r e f e r r i n g  of  h i s mistake.  lectual  Both  tone which  form  'meshchanskii  Gleb  i s trying  They f e e l  dissatisfied  fested  interprets  to  he  i s c o m p l e t e l y unaware from  of insufficiency  reveal  frustrated  the  s t o r i e s who  one  employ  secondary  common  feature.  with themselves.  i s u p h e l d by t h e themes w h i c h  S h u k s h i n ' s work, b u t  intel-  establish.  i n Shukshin's  story,  and  you  t h e acronym  l e x i c o n , whether the hero o r a  in a particular  throughout  Gleb  instances detract greatly  character  feeling  " I n what a r e a do  i s n o t o n l y awkward and u n n a t u r a l ,  t o p h i l o s o p h y and  Those personages the  i s i n common, s t a n d a r d  i t i s most g r a p h i c a l l y  i n the speech o f the c h a r a c t e r s .  These  This run mani-  characters,  like  108  Gleb Kapustin, who  feel  t o do  an  this  intended  are u s u a l l y country  i n t e n s e need t o make an through t h e i r  effect,  perceives  their  the  create  accepted  f a l s e and  satirical  be  discussed  efforts  choose the  are d i r e c t e d  pretentious.  results-which  t h r o u g h i t s i n c o n g r u i t y and  usages w i l l  They  towns  i n s t e a d of producing  p e r s o n t o whom t h e i r  and  i n small  impression.  speech, but  speech as b e i n g  humorous, i r o n i c a l , can  people l i v i n g  The  such l e x i c o n  inconsistency with  at greater  length  a  i n the  final  chapter. Artistically, c a t i o n of d i a l e c t and  t h e most p o w e r f u l  i n S h u k s h i n ' s work i s f o u n d  d e v i c e s which concentrate  elements.  As  the  l e s s o f t e n employ t h e  tism  such as  s u b s t i t u t i n g 'chavo' f o r  lexical  d i a l e c t with  ku',  ' b o i i a z n o malen'ko*.  o f d e p i c t i o n and  as  introduce . . specific  the  such e x p r e s s i o n s  complexities  semantic  forms  constructive  forms of p h o n e t i c 'chavo' and  dialec-  'toper'  a s w e l l upon t h e u s e  as  search  of h i s hero with  Shukshin's best  idioms of d i a l e c t ,  most i m p o r t a n t  able  to  stories  that, i s , unique  and 22  combinations.  s p e e c h f o r m s combined w i t h item  methods  linguistic  feature of the c o l l e c t i v e  system composing  regi-  'pomalen*  f o r new  greater  for  of  'mnogon'ko v a s ' ,  . i d e a - m e a n i n g c o n s t r u c t i o n s and  figurative  and  p o r t r a y a l o f h i s h e r o , S h u k s h i n was  of Shukshin's d i r e c t the  i n those  appli-  the w r i t i n g matures,  In h i s constant  h i s w r i t i n g developed.  The  effective  elements which f u r t h e r c h a r a c t e r i z e a  onal  represent  and  superficial  T h e y become l e s s r e l i a n t  distinctive  insight  upon c o n c e p t u a l  s t o r i e s progress  they  'teper'.  and  is-that  the  they  effect  lexicon  are  and  conducive  109  to the c r e a t i o n of a s t o r y unusual  and  for his  stems f r o m extending  a dialogical the e f f e c t .  the author  frustrations of h i s d a i l y  a main h y p e r b o l i c form,  a c c u s e s him  of being a  "P-polozh* "Tol'ko  usually  description 197 0s, t h e  fact  himself.  after  His s t o r i e s  p o r t r a y s the  h i s r e a c t i o n s to the o p p o s i t i o n s life.  -The  'dialogical clash' i s  e x p l o s i v e l y and who,  t o him,  Kol'ka Paratov  emotionally  represent  i n 'Zhena m u z h a v  t h e b r e a k i n g p o i n t when h i s w i f e  *...Vletel v kvartiru. Zhena V a l i a , n e d o b r o e , s k h v a t i l a d o c h ' na r u k i .  Kol'ku b i l o  hero  hyperbole  ' p e t t y - b o u r g e o i s ' element - a  "Tol'ko t r o n * !  perceptions  stories  h i m s e l f to those personages  t h e p r o b l e m s c o n f r o n t i n g him.  The  f e a t u r e of Shukshin's  f o r the hero  P a r i z h provozhala' reaches  The  d i a l o g u e which v i v i d l y  through  and  which the  i n the e a r l y  a characteristic  time c o n t a i n powerful  expresses  soul'.  speech  with a narrative  Beginning  complexity of h i s hero and  scene  made more o b v i o u s b y  this  e x t r e m e ways i n  and  'holiday f o r the  t h a t h y p e r b o l e was was  upon h y p e r b o l e .  unorthodox q u a l i t y o f the hero's  m i r r o r s the exaggerated searches  s t r u c t u r e based  Tol'ko  tron'  'meshchanin'.  zachuiav  posmei!.>."  krupnoi drozh*iu. rebenka",. s k a z a l on,  zaikaias'.  tron'!..."  "Vse r a v n o i a t e b i a u b ' i u s e v o d n i a . " Kol'ka sam p o d i v i l s i a - b u d t o ne on s k a z a l e t i s t r a s h n y e s l o v a , a k t o - t o d r u g o i s k a z a l obdumanno. "Dozhdalas' t y s v o e i uchasti...Ne k h o t e l a z h i t ' na b e l o m s v e t e ? Podykhai. Ta t e b i a e t o i n o c h ' i u ' (1:238) There forth  a r e numerous h y p e r b o l i c ; s c e n e s and  i n the d i a l o g u e s of Shukshin's  heroes  which  images  called  illustrate  110  the  surprising  for  themselves.  absurd  as  the  ultimatum.  and  unique r e l e a s e s which the h e r o - e c c e n t r i c s  For  example, B r o n k a Pupkov, whose name i s a s  t a l e he  has  invented,  '"Ia govoriu:  esli  p o s l e d n i i predatel' i vrag Gitlerom,  iii  Bronislava  heroes,  naroda!  Ivanovicha."'  the v i l l a g e  folk,  H i ,  govoriu,  t h a t as  a  o f S h u k s h i n ' s most ' c i t y ' man,  Do  kryl'tsa.  peredernul doma.'  na  spinu  Videl  plechami. (Novyi M i r ,  kinokartinu "Nu?" No.  found  about h i s s o u l . belief  an He  Pupkova  'Vii'?"  unpleasant  'generously' and  as  Andrei  *...vdrug  "Bros'!..."  K schasti'iu,  than  "Nu-ka - vmakh!... Andrei  n i k t o ne v y s h e l  hyperbolic  scene i n  iz  the p r i e s t begin p a n t h e i s m by  'Veruiu!"  a very unusual  answer t o t h e t o r m e n t i n g and  s  10 ( 1 9 6 9 ) : 9 4 ) .  i n a s o r t of v i v i d  d a n c e and  He  Sergei Sergeich  i n w h i c h Maksim I a r i k o v , i n t a l k i n g w i t h finally  riadom  lives better  Andrei,  i zakrichal veselo:  There i s a b e a u t i f u l l y  has  he  especially his relatives.  s t a r e s a t the motor i n d i s b e l i e f emu  liagu  Sovetskogo Soiuza  buys a b o a t motor f o r h i s b r o t h e r - i n - l a w  zaprygnul  drastic  (1:120)  S e r g e i c h , one  i s convinced  gives himself a  i a promakhnus', i a budu  vy v y r u c h i t e G e r o i a  Sergei  find  priest,  questions  to c e l e b r a t e  breaking  he  asks  their  into a wild  chant. •Maksim p r i s t r a i v a l s i a v z a t y l o k popu, o n i , p r i p l i a s y v a i a , m o l c h a s o v e r s h i l i k r u g po i z b e , potom pop o p i a t ' b r o s a l s i a v p r i s i a d k u , kak v p r o r u b ' > r a s p a k h i v a i a ruki...Polovintsy gnulis'. "Ekh, v e r u i u , v e r u i u ! Ty-na, t y - n a , ty-na - p i a t ' ! V s e o g l o b e l ' k i - na i a t ' ! Veruiu! Veruiu! A gde s h e s t * , t a r n - i s h e r s t ' ! Veruiu! Veruiu!"  Oba, pop i Maksim, p l i a s a l i s takim osterveneniem, chto chto o n i - p l i a s h u t . Tut - i na g r u d i r u b a k h u i p l a k a t , ( B e s e d y : 128) 1  In g e n e r a l ,  the language  s takoi-to zlost'iu, ne k a z a l o s ' i s t r a n n y m , i i p l i a s a t ' , i i i uzh r v a t ' i s k r i p e t ' zubami.*  of the Shukshin hero  been a c c e p t e d as a p a r t o f t h e contemporary although and  literary  i n i t s semantic c o m p o s i t i o n as w e l l  s t r u c t u r e o f the phrase, t h i s  language  from t h e R u s s i a n o f the c l a s s i c s .  language,  as i t s l e x i c o n  i s quite  different  The m o s t e s s e n t i a l  however, i s p r e s e n t i n S h u k s h i n ' s work - - t h e u n i f i e d c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e v e r b a l m a t e r i a l by w h i c h spontaneously  that d i r e c t major  and  initial  role  S o v i e t man  i n contemporary  artistic  :  theme, and  clearly Soviet  style.  understood  reality.  unity  interrelationship  d e v e l o p e d h i s u n i q u e means o f e x p r e s s i o n i n o r d e r t o  of  the  S h u k s h i n ' s work t h e r e i s a  e x i s t s between h i s s t r u c t u r e ,  and  vital  i t i s essential  d i a l o g u e forms p l a y  i s rooted i n the t i g h t  the c r e a t i o n of a d i s t i n c t  artistic  i s so  i n the c r e a t i o n o f the whole  Throughout  completeness which  which  For Shukshin,  s p e e c h and p a r t i c u l a r l y  image o f h i s h e r o . and  language.  element,  the reader i s able  t o s e n s e t h e e x p r e s s i o n , and w h i c h  a p a r t of the l i t e r a r y  has  Shukshin ensure  representation  112  NOTES TO CHAPTER  TWO  1  V.A. Kuz'muk, ' V a s i l i i S h u k s h i n i r a n n i i C h e k h o v ' / R u s s k a i a l i t e r a t u r a , No. 3 ( 1 9 7 7 ) , p . 199.  2  V. S h u k s h i n , I z b r a n » p r o i z . ,  3  G e o f f r e y A. H o s k i n g ,  4  V.M. S h u k s h i n , B e s e d y p r i i a s n o i l u n e ( H e n c e f o r t h a b b r e v i a t e d t o V. S h u k s h i n , B e s e d y , ( M o s k v a : I z d a t e l ' s t v o s o v e t s k a i a R o s s i i a , 1 9 7 5 ) , p p . 51-52.  5  G e o f f r e y A. Hosking, 87-88 .  6  George B u t s c h e ,  7  ' N e s o b s t v e n n a i a p r i a m a i a r e c h ' ' i s a t e r m u s e d b y G.M. Chumakov, S i n t a k s i s k o n s t r u k t s i i s c h u z h o i r e c h ' i u ( K i e v : V i s h c h a s h k o l a , 1 9 7 6 ) ; B.A. L a r i n , ' E s t e t i k a s l o v a i i a z y k p i s a t e l i a ' i n Dialektizm v iazyke sovetskikh p i s a t e l e i , ( L e n i n g r a d : K h u d o z h e s t v e n n a i a l i t e r a t u r a 1974); i n t h e book I a z y k o v y e p r o t s e s s y s o v r e m e n n o i r u ssko'i k h u d o z h e s t v e n n o i l i t e r a t u r y , (Moskva: A k a d e m i i a Nauk SSSR, 1 9 7 7 ) ; and i n Grammatika r u s s k o g o i a z y k a , torn I I , ' S i n t a k s i s ' , c h a s t ' v t o r a i a , ( M o s k v a : A k a d e m i i a Nauk SSSR, 1 9 6 0 ) . The f o l l o w i n g d e s c r i p t i o n i s f r o m t h e l a t t e r work:  trans.,  trans.,  trans.,  t.l,  p . 372.  i n Snowball  i n Snowball  B e r r y Red, P. 83.  B e r r y Red, p p .  i n S n o w b a l l B e r r y Red, p . 76.  ' ' N e s o b s t v e n n a i a p r i a m a i a r e c h ' ' i s a complex d e v i c e . . . not only u n i t i n g i n i t s e l f the p e c u l i a r f e a t u r e s o f d i r e c t and i n d i r e c t s p e e c h , b u t p o s s e s s i n g i t s own s p e c i f i c f e a t u r e s . As d i r e c t s p e e c h , • 'nesobstvennaia priamia r e c h ' ' preserves e i t h e r i n i t s e n t i r e t y or i n part the l e x i c a l phraseol o g i c a l and s y n t a c t i c a l p e c u l i a r i t i e s o f t h e speaker, but i t cannot s y n t a c t i c a l l y be s e p a r a t e d from t h e a u t h o r ' s speech. On t h e o t h e r hand, a s i n i n d i r e c t speech, 'nesobstvennaia p r i a m i a r e c h ' ' r e t a i n s t h e a b i l i t y t o a l t e r p e r s o n a l f o r m s o f v e r b s and p r o n o u n s . . . N o t b e i n g bound b y t h e s t r u c t u r a l p e c u l i a r i t i e s o f i n d i r e c t speech, 'nesobstvennaia p r i a m i a r e c h ' ' i s a b l e t o more f u l l y and e x a c t l y t r a n s m i t the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c f e a t u r e s o f the speech of t h e personage, i n p a r t , i t s emotional c o l o u r a t i o n (exclamatory sentences, r h e t o r i c a l q u e s t i o n s , e t c . ) . The c o m m u n i c a t i o n o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l s t y l e o f t h e speaker i n 'nesobstvennaia priamaia rech'* i s devoid of the deliberatehess - c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f such o c c u r r e n c e s i n i n d i r e c t speech...' (pp. 428-430).  113  8  'Svobodnaia p r i a m a i a r e c h ' ' i s r e f e r r e d t o by G.M. Chumakov i n S i n t a k s i s k o n s t r u k t s i i s c h u z h o i r e c h ' i u .  9  T h e r e i s some u n c e r t a i n t y amongst t h e o r e t i c i a n s a s t o whether 'nesobstvennaia p r i a m a i a r e c h ' ' and 'svobodariaia p r i a m a i a r e c h ' ' s h o u l d be c l a s s i f i e d a s f o r m s o f i n d i r e c t or d i r e c t speech. For the purposes of t h i s t h e s i s , I h a v e c h o s e n t o r e g a r d them a s t h e l a t t e r d e s p i t e t h e i r complex i n t e r n a l c o m b i n a t i o n o f f e a t u r e s common t o b o t h d i r e c t and i n d i r e c t s p e e c h f o r m s s u c h a s e l e m e n t s o f p o r t r a i t u r e , l a n d s c a p e and b i o g r a p h y o f t h e c h a r a c t e r . My r a t i o n a l e f o r c o n s i d e r i n g them a s f o r m s o f d i r e c t s p e e c h w i t h r e g a r d t o S h u k s h i n ' s work i s t h e important r o l e t h e y p l a y i n e x t e n d i n g and d e v e l o p i n g t h e i l l u s i o n o f t h e p r o m i n e n t p o s i t i o n o f t h e s p o k e n word i n t h e stories. T h i s i l l u s i o n i s v i t a l t o t h e dynamic s t r u c t u r a l and s t y l i s t i c r e q u i r e m e n t s o f S h u k s h i n ' s s t o r y - s c e n e .  10  V.  Shukshin, I z b r a n . p r o i z . ,  t.l,  p.  209.  11  V.  Shukshin, I z b r a n . p r o i z . ,  t.l,  p.  358.  12  Robert D a g l i s h ,  13  V.  Shukshin,  Izbran.proiz.,  t.l,  p.  61.  14  V.  Shukshin,  Izbran.proiz.,  t.l,  p.  104.  15  V.  S h u k s h i n , B e s e d y , p.  16  V.  Shukshin, I z b r a n . p r o i z . ,  t.l,  p.  202.  17  V.  S h u k s h i n , Besedy, p.  18  I c o n s i d e r i t e s s e n t i a l when d e a l i n g w i t h s y n t a x and l e x i c o n t h a t c i t a t i o n s f r o m S h u k s h i n ' s w o r k s be t r a n s c r i b e d i n the o r i g i n a l R u s s i a n . -For t h e sake o f b r e v i t y , t h e y a r e documented w i t h i n t h e t e x t i t s e l f u s i n g t h e a b b r e v i a t e d forms o f the books which have been noted e a r l i e r . (1:335) r e p r e s e n t s I z b r a n . p r o i z . , t . l f o l l o w e d by t h e page number o f t h e c i t a t i o n .  19  T h i s i s a f a c e t o f S h u k s h i n ' s u s e o f d i a l e c t w h i c h has b e e n l a r g e l y o v e r l o o k e d by c r i t i c s due t o t h e e m p h a s i s t h e y p l a c e on S h u k s h i n ' s u s e o f r e g i o n a l d i a l e c t i n h i s work.  20  Tomashevskii observes t h a t although the boundary d i v i d i n g l a n g u a g e f r o m d i a l e c t i s i m p r e c i s e and i n c o n s i s t e n t , t h e y a r e e s s e n t i a l l y d i f f e r e n t i a t e d by t h e f a c t t h a t d i a l e c t i s b a s e d on w i d e s p r e a d , p o p u l a r - f o l k l e x i c o n which, i n the main, i s not of a l i t e r a r y nature. The  t r a n s . , S o v . L i t . , No.  12  ( 1 9 7 1 ) , pp.  107-108,  11.  174.  essence of a l i t e r a r y language i s -not found i n the combination into u n i f i e d , a r t i s t i c constructions of verbal material which leads the reader to sense spontaneously the expression. The emphasis must be placed on expression to a large degree, f o r , unlike conversat i o n a l speech, l i t e r a r y expression is-devoid of means of communication such as gesture and mime. The Theory of Literature (LetchworthrBradda Books, 1971) . Shukshin was at times c r i t i c i z e d for h i s l i n g u i s t i c p o s i t i o n , and was charged with abusing d i a l e c t forms and words of popular speech, and even with exceeding the bounds of good taste. The following c r i t i q u e i s t y p i c a l of the objections to Shukshin*s use of popular speech: 'Certainly nobody would protest against the attempt of the writer to convey the very structure and colouring of the speech of his: heroes, but when the author, c l e a r l y sympathizing with the personage, speaks of him...as he does i n the story 'Sud': "shel Efim na sud, kak kurva s kotelkom - nervnichal"'... t h i s i s witness to the f a c t that, unfortunately, at times, h i s taste betrays him... Despite t h i s directness of the story about l i f e , the frankness, even earthiness doesn't weaken the poetic quality...Rather i t allows us to sense more acutely the beauty of people of p o s i t i v e p o t e n t i a l . . . ' . A l i a rOvcharenko, 'Rasskazy V a s i l i i a Shukshina', Don No. 1 (1976), p-. 159. Such c r i t i c i s m , which contradicts i t s e l f within the two paragraphs, a t t e s t s to the confusion of some l i t e r a r y c r i t i c s as to how they should accept Shukshin's work into a world of set l i t e r a r y standards including those of vocabulary. Typical examples of such constructions are the neologisms which occur i n Shukshin's s t o r i e s . Many times they are 'all-purpose' expressions,-malapropisms which are used very imaginatively. In 'The Brother-in-Law', Sergei Sergerich uses forms of the word 'melankhoi:iia_': i n d i f f e r e n t ways. :  ' " .. . ty vse-taki malakhol' hyi'.'' '"...ty sovsem kakoi-to malakhol'hyi muzhik"' (Novyi mir, No. 10 (1969), pp. 92-93). The forms of the foreign-sounding word 'melankholiia' which Shukshin's hero invents for himself are used to express h i s opinion of h i s country brother-in-law as a 'simple jerk' or a 'poor yokel'. . . i '• ;  115  In the s t o r y 'Chudik', t h e hero i s p r e p a r i n g t o v i s i t h i s brother i n the U r a l s which i n v o l v e s a long journey of thousands of m i l e s . However h i s '"Na U r a l ! Na U r a l ! " , o t v e c h a l on na v o p r o s : kuda e t o on s o b r a l s i a ? . . . " N a u r a l I Nado - P r o s h v y r n u t ' s i a . " * (1:103), i s a t o t a l l y i n a p p r o p r i a t e e x p r e s s i o n i n d i c a t i n g t h a t he i s - g o i n g t o ' n i p o v e r ' t o the U r a l s . W h i l e on t h e a i r p l a n e , C h u d i k a t t e m p t s t o c a r r y on a c o n v e r s a t i o n w i t h t h e man s i t t i n g n e x t t o him. He t e l l s him'a s t o r y a b o u t a son who a l m o s t k i l l s h i s m o t h e r y e t t h e m o t h e r f o r g i v e s him o u t o f l o v e . C h u d i k ends t h e s t o r y by a s k i n g t h e man t o c o n s i d e r : ' " P r e d s t a v l i a e t e , k a k i m nado b y t ' grubym, b e s t a k t n y m . " ' (1:105) . He a g a i n c h o o s e s a n i n a p p r o p r i a t e e x p r e s s i o n when he r e f e r s t o a man who comes c l o s e t o m u r d e r i n g h i s m o t h e r a s ' t a c t less'.  iar>  CONCLUSION In t h e d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r s , I have referred  t o the unique pathos which  Whether c o n s i d e r i n g  exists  the character of the hero, h i s a c t i v e  p a s s i v e methods o f s e e k i n g f o r s o l u t i o n s the d i a l o g i c h e r o e s , one The  and o t h e r d i r e c t i s always  t o some d e g r e e  speech forms  as p e r c e i v e d  i n which  not a t o t a l l y tragi-comic  t h e t y p e and  Thus a f i n e l y  S h u k s h i n ' s h e r o e s p r o g r e s s and q u a l i t y o f t h e humour f o u n d good-natured  of  involved.  this i s  developed ina l l  stories  and m a t u r e s  from the l a t e  tempered  fundamentally amiss w i t h i n Shukshin's g e n t l e constant role  i n the s t o r i e s .  and  stories  an u n g u a r d e d  1960s onwards,  does  From  smile,  i n l a t e r works.  to a hero's predicament  are increasingly  d e v e l o p , so t o o  humour o f h i s e a r l y  there i s a c e r t a i n playfulness,  s m i l e s , as r e a c t i o n s  and  Shukshin's hero i s  work.  most o f S h u k s h i n ' s  is  incongruity.  wants t o l a u g h b u t s e n s e s t h a t  t h e humour p e r c e p t i b l y a l t e r s  to i t ,  the  i s the foundation o f Shukshin's pathos  the d i a l o g i c a l l y - b a s e d , i n which  by  by  i n t h e r e a d e r by most o f  appropriate response.  of h i s c r e a t i v e As  one  quality  of  he f i n d s - h i m s e l f  A d u a l e m o t i o n a l r e s p o n s e i s evoked stories,  employed  i n c o n s i s t e n t with the a c t u a l r e a l i t y  t h e v e r y human s i t u a t i o n  Shukshin's  or  to h i s questions, or  aware o f an e l e m e n t  r e a l i t y of a situation  always  i n S h u k s h i n ' s work.  In  our  or h i s response  b y our. a w a r e n e s s t h a t  something  the hero.  linguistic  i n a l l o f h i s work.  humour p l a y s a  fundamental  But, as Shukshin's  hero  117-  evolves and begins to t h i n k about h i m s e l f and about h i s v a l u e s and p l a c e i n t h e world around him, a c a r e f u l l y c o n t r o l l e d  irony  and subsequent s a t i r i c a l element appear as i n t e g r a l components i n Shukshin's knowledgeable  and pungent t r a n s c r i p t i o n o f o r d i n a r y  speech, w i t h i t s substandard c o n s t r u c t i o n s , archaisms, neologisms, and malapropisms.  Such l i n g u i s t i c a l l y - r o o t e d s a t i r i c a l humour  i s r e m i n i s c e n t o f the s o c i a l s a t i r e o f the e a r l y Anton Chekhov and o f M i k h a i l Zoshchenko.  The v o c a b u l a r y which t h e i r heroes  employ i s o f primary importance t o the s o c i b - p s y c h o l o g i c a l bent of t h e s t o r i e s , t o the c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n o f the heroes which i s a r e s u l t o f t i s emphasis, n  as w e l l as t o the a r t i s t i c c r e a t i o n o f  a humorous, i r o n i c e f f e c t .  The c h o i c e o f v o c a b u l a r y f o r the  v a r i o u s c h a r a c t e r s found i n Chekhov's, Zoshchenko's  and Shukshin's  s t o r i e s , p a r a l l e l s the i n t e r n a l , mental s t a t e s o f these c h a r a c t e r s . Shukshin's l i n g u i s t i c humour bears a good d e a l o f s i m i l a r i t y to t h a t o f Zoshchenko d e s p i t e the f a c t t h a t the l a t t e r i s the o v e r t s a t i r i s t and 'funny man'.  As a means o f s o c i a l c h a r a c t e r -  i z a t i o n both authors make use o f the 'meshchanskii govor", the semi-educated speech o f Zoshchenko's  urban b o u r g e o i s i e and o f  Shukshin's newcomer t o the c i t y . Shukshin's predominantly r u r a l heroes are b e i n g drawn i n t o a t i g h t e n i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p with urban c u l t u r e , technology, v a l u e s and morals. the  Two types o f humour r e s u l t  from t h e i r  language:  s a t i r e i s d i s t i n c t when a p r e t e n t i o u s d i s p l a y o f i n c o m p l e t e l y  -understood new v o c a b u l a r y i s made by a c h a r a c t e r .  A lighter,  more compassionate humour i s a p p l i e d t o a sympathetic hero who makes an honest attempt t o a d j u s t to new s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n s but  who  c o n f u s e s a word o r a c o n c e p t .  In Shukshin's  work,  m a j o r p o r t i o n o f b o t h t y p e s o f humour stems f r o m t h e exchanges i n the  humour i s f o u n d  •Klassniy V o d i t e l ' ' .  i n t h e 1967  The  non-satiric  story  'The  humour i s b a s e d  words w h i c h t h e h e r o , P a s h k a , h a s  two  to  h i s v o c a b u l a r y as a r e s u l t o f h i s p e r i o d initially  the comic meaning  effect,  i s never In  one  tells  p e o p l e had  Pashka uses  i n v e n t e d and  t h e w o r d s so f r e e l y  exchange, b o t h o f h i s n e o l o g i s m s  i s up  has t h e c o n n o t a t i o n o f  effect  h i s own  since  has h e a r d  and  constantly aspect.  To  add  that  to  their  occur i n  another.  to say.  x  (Chistye  'Sfotografirovano" here  'I s e e * .  version of  i t i s actually  The  other expression,  'pardon',  but  confuses w i t h the non-Russian  The  verb  'sfotografirovat''  i n i t s own changing  _  guess probably 'piramidon  i t g a i n s i n humorous  t h e name o f a s e d a t i v e w h i c h  and  i s used  use  added  to the imagination of the reader t o  what P a s h k a i s t r y i n g  likely  the  o f s t a y i n a town  b e e n Moscow.  '"Klub e s t ' ? " - s p r o s i l Pashka. " K l u b ? Nu kak z h e ! " "Sfotografirovano." "Chto?:" "Soglasen, g o v o r i u . Piramidon."' p r u d y : 1 5 0)  is  Classy Driver'/  constant.  c l o s e p r o x i m i t y t o one  It  broadly-  p r i m a r i l y on  of  w h i c h he  dialogical  stories.  A good example o f S h u k s h i n ' s applied  the  'pardon'.  i s also  v e r y e x p r e s s i v e way  i t s meaning as w e l l  as  Pashka  i n v e n t e d by  throughout  the  Pashka story,  i t s grammatical  D u r i n g a c h e s s game w i t h t h e f i a n c e o f a g i r l  t o whom  •119  Pashka i s a t t r a c t e d , are s t i l l  he t a u n t s t h e young man s a y i n g t h a t  p l e n t y o f chances t o beat  there  him b e f o r e he f i n a l l y  wins  t h e game. '...Tut eshche polno shansov s f o t o g r a f i r o v a t ' menia s n i s k h o d i t e l ' n o s k a z a l Pashka.' ( C h i s t y e p r u d y : 158) When P a s h k a and t h e f i a n c e chess, in  Pashka i s extremely  fact,  f r o m Moscow.  by h i s c l e v e r  s i t down t o t h e game o f  i n t e n t upon i m p r e s s i n g  He a t t e m p t s  t h e man who i s ,  t o make h i s i m p r e s s i o n  c h e s s moves a n d w i t h h i s i n t e l l e c t u a l w i t .  '...Pashka p o s h e l v t o r o i . kak g o v o r i a t f r a n t s u z y . " '  "Sdelaem n e k o t o r y i p i r a m i d o n , ( C h i s t y e p r u d y : 157)  In h i s use o f 'piramidon',  t h i s time  shows o n l y h i s t o t a l  ignorance  of the French  a s a noun, P a s h k a  l a n g u a g e made a l l  t h e more e v i d e n t b y h i s u n n a t u r a l u s e o f v o c a b u l a r y w i t h he  i s uncomfortable  b u t w h i c h he f e e l s  v e h i c l e o f acceptance Evidence  i n t o a broader,  o f t h i s d e s i r e i s seen  on h i s r e c e n t t r i p  t o 'the c i t y ' .  'pogovorim kak zhel'tmeny' turval'sa'  correct such  except  phrases  i s necessary contemporary  a l l through  i n t e r s p e r s e s h i s dialogue with phrases  na  both  t o him as a social  reality.  t h e s t o r y as Pashka  w h i c h he h a s a c q u i r e d  We f i n d  ( C h i s t y e prudy:  such  pronunication.  expressions as  155)'predlagaiu  ( C h i s t y e p r u d y : 152) - p h r a s e s fortheir  which  which a r e almost  The i n c o r r e c t n e s s o f  c o u p l e d w i t h P a s h k a * s c a r e f r e e p e r s o n a l i t y and t h e  happy abandon w i t h w h i c h he?throws them o u t , do i n d e e d make u s laugh. story,  But even i n t h e c o m p a r a t i v e l y through  h i somniscient  comical circumstance  narrator,. Shukshin  i s able to  o f the  convey  f e e l i n g s o f compassion  f o r t h e young man so e a g e r t o  i m p r e s s , and he i s a b l e t o make t h e r e a d e r f e e l Even of  t h e impending  undergo of  i n this  t h e same sympathy.  h a p p y - g o - l u c k y c h a r a c t e r , . we c a n s e e s i g n s  c l a s h e s which  Shukshin's future heroes  with the surrounding s o c i a l  order.  Pashka,  h i s n e w l y - a c q u i r e d v o c a b u l a r y , i s showing  will  t h r o u g h some  h i s desire  t o model  h i m s e l f , w i t h u n q u e s t i o n i n g e n t h u s i a s m , on t h e new s o c i a l demands.  Y e t , he i s c o m p l e t e l y a r t l e s s ,  g o a l s and  n a i v e , and i g n o r a n t o f  some o f t h e n e g a t i v e f e a t u r e s o f t h e r u l e s b y w h i c h he must if  he i s t o f i n d  development underlying his or  peace  i n this  new e n v i r o n m e n t .  play  As p a r t o f t h e  o f h i s hero, Shukshin has determined t h a t the f a c t o r o f t h e many t r a g i - c o m i c  stories,  i s t h e emptiness which  scenes which o c c u r i n  t h e hero c o n s c i o u s l y  u n c o n s c i o u s l y senses w i t h i n h i s s o u l .  feels  The l a c k w h i c h h i s h e r o  comes t o s e n s e i s b r o u g h t t o t h e s u r f a c e t h r o u g h h i s a c t i o n s and his  v o c a b u l a r y , both o f which a r e u s u a l l y  incongruous w i t h the  s t a n d a r d s and a c c e p t e d b e h a v i o u r o f t h e s o c i a l Inherent i n t h e c o n c l u s i o n s which stories i n which  draws about  each o f Shukshin's  i t s h e r o e s , i s a judgement  t h e hero l i v e s .  This  i s directed  reality.  upon t h e s o c i e t y  toward  the reader  through the author's use o f v a r i o u s d e v i c e s o f s a t i r e . o n l y t h e v e r y l a s t o f S h u k s h i n ' s works have been a c c l a i m e d as works o f e x c e l l e n t  social  satire,  Although  critically  this  element has 2  always been  present, although not prevalent  It has been  a concealed but constant support of Shukshin's  :  strong psychological stories,  c r e a t i o n o f complex  Shukshin's a t t e n t i o n  to s a t i r i c  i n Shukshin's  characters. innuendo  stories.  In h i s  i s evident  /.:\ 121 ;:  in  the i r o n i c  situations  i n which  the heroes f i n d  as w e l l  as i n t h e o v e r t parody o f s o c i a l  satiric  devices are typically  ization, which  he a l w a y s  supplement  the language  i n which  a psychological, For effectively this  Although  those associated with  elements  o r i r o n y he i s a i m i n g a t .  S h u k s h i n ' s h e r o e s speak w h i c h  t o a s i t u a t i o n which sociological,  It is  gives the  i s f a r more s e r i o u s  the verbal  error  a s a d e v i c e o f p a r o d y a n d a s o u r c e o f humour. he i s a b l e t o r e v e a l  the unpleasant  from t h e s t o r y  'Cut-Off'/'Srezal'.—Kapustin's  h i s w o r d s a n d p h r a s e s make them humorous d e s p i t e  satisfaction  he  r u n s a l o n g s i d e t h e humour.  in belittling  During evenings o f d i s c u s s i o n which  and e m b a r r a s s i n g  Gleb  academics  on a v i s i t .  i n e v i t a b l y occur with these  i s renowned f o r h i s a t t a c k s on t h e v i s i t o r s .  the s i t u a t i o n which Gleb's v i c t i m  pronounces  the d e f i n i t e  and p e o p l e o f p o s i t i o n who p a s s t h r o u g h h i s v i l l a g e  people, Gleb  heroes  semi-educated  s p e e c h and t h e p r e t e n s i o n a n d i g n o r a n c e w i t h w h i c h  c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n which  With  qualities  o f G l e b K a p u s t i n , one o f S h u k s h i n ' s m o s t u n s y m p a t h e t i c  gets great  from  o r moral p o i n t o f view.  example, S h u k s h i n u t i l i z e s  element,  social  Shukshin's  character-  complements them w i t h l i n g u i s t i c  t h e parody  humorous i l l u s i o n  types.  themselves  provides the basis f o r the story  In  'Cut-Off,  i s a young c a n d i d a t e a n d h i s w i f e , n a t i v e s o f  t h e v i l l a g e who have r e t u r n e d t o s e e t h e young man's m o t h e r . G l e b b e g i n s t h e e x p e c t e d a t t a c k on t h e c a n d i d a t e b u t u n d e r s t a n d s t h e man's s p e c i a l t y  t o be p h i l o s o p h y i n s t e a d o f t h e a c t u a l  philology,  a r e s u l t o f G l e b ' s m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e acronym,  'filfak'.  This  linguistic  error  i s crucial  to the course o f  the remainder  of the  story,  t h e c a n d i d a t e on v a r i o u s  f o r Gleb  proceeds  'philosophical  to ' i n t e r r o g a t e '  questions.'  '"How does p h i l o s o p h y d e f i n e the concept l e s s n e s s a t t h e moment?"  of  weight-  "Like i t always has. Why ' a t t h e moment?'" " W e l l , t h e r e was an o c c u r r e n c e n o t l o n g ago, and t h a t ' s why I a s k . N a t u r a l p h i l o s o p h y , l e t ' s say, d e f i n e s i t one way, s t r a t e g i c p h i l o s o p h y , c o m p l e t e l y d i f f e r e n t l y . "But t h e r e i s n ' t s u c h p h i l o s o p h y a s chuckled the candidate...  strategic!",  "...Alright. Second q u e s t i o n . How do y o u p e r s o n a l l y f e e l a b o u t t h e p r o b l e m o f shamanism i n t h e f a r r e g i o n s of S i b e r i a ? " . . . "...Are you s e r i o u s ? " , V a l i a asked i n c r e d u l o u s l y . "With y o u r p e r m i s s i o n " . G l e b s t o o d and bowed w i t h restraint. "The q u e s t i o n o f c o u r s e , i s n ' t g l o b a l , b u t from t h e p o i n t o f v i e w o f o u r b r o t h e r , i t w o u l d be i n t e r e s t i n g t o know..." 3 exclaimed; ,' 3  "But what q u e s t i o n t h e n ? ! " The by G l e b after  an  until  candidate  t o be  hounded  exasperation.  e s p e c i a l l y v i n d i c t i v e o u t b u r s t i n which Gleb and  the candidate  exclaims  kliauznik!  Ves' "Ne  znali,  a l l h i s knowledge i n s e t p h r a s e s i n wonderment:  nabor f r a z ,  popali.  k l i a u z y n i na  muzhiki  h i s wife continue  they reach a p o i n t of u t t e r  the candidate  i l l  and  the candidate  1  chto  attacks  and  cliches,  ' " T i p i c h n y i demagog-  vse priemy i u k h v a t k i . . . "  Za v s i u  kogo ne  Finally,  svoiu zhizn' n i odnoi  napisal."  eto pravda.  "Ne  Gleb  posmotrel  anonimki na  muzhikov:  to, tovarishch kandidat..."'  (1:178) The  p l a y on words i s a g a i n b a s e d  'kliauznik' with  i t s double  on one  meaning o f a p e r s o n  s i n g l e word,  as a  trickster  S.; 123  ( t h e m e a n i n g t h e c a n d i d a t e had i n t e n d e d ) , a  slanderer  being for  (the understanding which Gleb took).  called  a 'slanderer*,  Gleb turns  being  Insulted a t  to h i s fellow  villagers  support. The  for  irony of the entire story  G l e b m i s u n d e r s t a n d s two k e y w o r d s ,  N o n e t h e l e s s , he c a r r i e s o n a t o t a l l y p h i l o s o p h i c a l discussion upstaging His conclusion  satirize  hyperbolic,  the mentality  which have taken p l a c e i s achieved  i n the verbal  'filfak'  pretentious  everyone e l s e w i t h h i s a u d a c i t y . o f y e t another  features  and a r e p r e s e n t l y  candidate  Yet, i talso  o f t h e contemporary  i n the story  serves  'meshchanin' and  of social  occurring.-  processes A similar  ' G e n e r a l M a l a f e i k i n ' when t h e  h e r o assumes t h e s p e e c h s t y l e a n d a t t i t u d e s o f t h e ' h i g h e r when t a l k i n g w i t h p e o p l e who know n o t h i n g as a s e m i - r e t i r e d 'The  Opinion'/  painter.  about h i s r e a l  ups* life  -There i s K o n d r a s h i n f r o m t h e s t o r y  'Mnenie' w i t h h i s a f f e c t e d and' A m e r i c a n i z e d  m a n n e r i s m s and h a b i t s , with impoliteness •The  error,  and ' k l i a u z n i k * .  o u t r a g e o u s and  comic e f f e c t .  e x p o s e s some o f t h e more n e g a t i v e  irony  lies  t h a t he h a s g o t t h e b e t t e r  produces a strong to  and o f a p e r s o n  and t h e r e  and d i s r e s p e c t ,  i s R o z a , t h e s t o r e c l e r k who, insults  t h e hero o f t h e s t o r y ,  Insult'/'Obida'. Shukshin uses t h e i n t e r e s t i n g mixture o f c o l l o q u i a l ,  s e m i - e d u c a t e d and n e w l y a c q u i r e d portray and tion  'intellectual'  vocabulary to  t h e m i l l i o n s o f R u s s i a n p e o p l e who a r e n o n - h u m o r o u s l y  i n t e n s e l y c a u g h t up i n t h e p r o c e s s o f c o n s o l i d a t i n g a p o s i f o r t h e m s e l v e s i n a modern, t e c h n o l o g i c a l  society.  Shukshin's word i s h i s main v e h i c l e f o r s a t i r e parody. may  In a g i v e n i n s t a n c e , a word, i n t o n a t i o n , or  have a double or even t r i p l e s i g n i f i c a n c e .  and  phrase  For example,  when Bronka Pupkov's w i f e upbraids him f o r t e l l i n g h i s t a l l t a l e about the a s s a s s i n a t i o n attempt on H i t l e r ' s l i f e ,  she  threatens him w i t h , " . . . y o u ' l l f i n d y o u r s e l f up b e f o r e a judge one of these days. -For d i s t o r t i n g h i s t o r y . . . " But Bronka simply retorts,  "They can't do a n y t h i n g .  I t ' s not a p u b l i s h e d work.  4  Don't you understand?"  The  i r o n y c e n t r e s around the i s s u e  of the d i s t o r t i o n of h i s t o r y , which i s r e c o g n i z e d as being a s e r i o u s o f f e n s e when propagated  i n d i v i d u a l l y , but which e x i s t s ,  i n many i n s t a n c e s , a t the o f f i c i a l , , mass l e v e l . Any satiric  a u t h o r i a l or n a r r a t i v e i n t e r v e n t i o n d u r i n g a  s e c t i o n i s u s u a l l y p e r c e i v e d by the reader as b e i n g  of the most necessary  s o r t , never imbued w i t h f o r c e d c o m i c a l l y  or a r t i f i c i a l i t y . The p s y c h o l o g i c a l - e x a c t n e s s of Shukshin's s a t i r e doubles  the p s y c h o l o g i c a l emphasis on the c h a r a c t e r  development of the hero, f o r a main o b j e c t i v e of h i s s a t i r e i s to s i n g l e out the moral v i c e s and a n t i - s o c i a l  occurrences  which e s s e n t i a l l y c o n t r a d i c t the s o c i a l r e a l i t y o f a p r o f e s s e d soc i a l i s t  soc i e t y . Shukshin's c h a r a c t e r s as v e h i c l e s of h i s s a t i r i c a l  d e v i c e s may  be d i v i d e d i n t o two  types.  are enraptured w i t h the r e l a t i v e l y new  There are those material  who  conveniences  of t h a t p a r t o f s o c i e t y which has been i n t e g r a t e d more f u l l y i n t o the new  s o c i a l order.  The o t h e r s are those who  have :  r e a l i z e d the p r i n c i p l e s of a 'developing s o c i e t y ' to t h e i r  own  advantage. in  Thus,  country  first  f o l k who,  humanistic  type  but  Ivan,  1972  t h e bed  are,  time being,  of  their  story  form o f a l e t t e r ,  the  of characters  like  Pashka,  have p r e s e r v e d  counterparts  urban p o r t i o n o f t h e i r In t h e  kilometres  the main o b j e c t s  of  Shukshin's  their  whose s o u l i s t e m p o r a r i l y b l i n d e d  apparent well-being  the  of  f o r the  values,  nological,  f o r m s , i s one  mentality  satire. The  in  1  a l l i t s multi-faceted  Shukshin's  the  'meshchanstvo , the p e t t y - b o u r g e o i s  author of the  by  i n t h e more  tech-  society.  ' P o s t s c r i p t ' / ' P o s t Skriptum*, w r i t t e n  two  to Leningrad.  more  countrymen  The  biggest  letter,  are  journey  five  impressions  thousand  made upon  the Venetian b l i n d s  and  i n h i s h o t e l room,. 'I am s t r u c k by t h e w i n d o w s - h e r e . As s o o n a s you w a l k i n , y o u f a c e a window t h e l e n g t h o f t h e e n t i r e w a l l . To t h e l e f t hangs an i r o n b a r , t o w h i c h i s a t t a c h e d a t h i n r o p e , and t h i s r o p e g o e s up somewhere i n t o t h e d e p t h s . . . A n d i f you go up and t u r n t h e b a r t o t h e l e f t , t h e room f a l l s i n t o semi-darkness. Turn i t to the r i g h t - i t i s l i g h t again. I t a l l has t o do w i t h t h e V e n e t i a n b l i n d s w h i c h a r e on t h e w i n d o w . . . I f t h e y s e l l some l i k e t h i s , I'm g o i n g t o p u t them up a t home...I'm a l s o d e f i n i t e l y g o i n g t o make a bed l i k e t h e one here. I t ' s an a m a z i n g b e d . I and I v a n D e v i a t o v drew a s k e t c h o f i t . . . I wash, p l a y w i t h t h e V e n e t i a n b l i n d s , l i e on t h e bed and t h i n k : t h i s i s how t o l i v e ! You c o u l d l i v e a h u n d r e d y e a r s and n o t be b i t t e n b y any n e c e s s i t y s i n c e e v e r y t h i n g has b e e n i n v e n t e d a l r e a d y . . . ' ,-  However, t h e two which they to  a r e moved o u t  Ivans t h i n k nothing  of  accommodate t o u r i s t s . Nor  much n o t i c e o f how giving  a l l of her  counter.  he  their  original  of  t h e way  h o t e l room i n  does the author of the  i s rudely  ignored  a t t e n t i o n to the  by  in order  letter  a s a l e s c l e r k who  foreigners at a  souvenir  take is  £'•--12.6  And I v a n c o n t i n u e s t h a t : 'I was w i t h I v a n a t t h e b a z a a r - n o t h i n g s p e c i a l there!.. . B u t i n t h e s t o r e , what t h e r e i s ! T r u e - n o t Venetian b l i n d s . But i n g e n e r a l , the c i t y i s somewhat c l o s e r t o communism t h a n o u r m o t h e r countryside!* g  In Shukshin. t o be  this  The  there  main c h a r a c t e r  exposed,  equates the  story,  consumer o r i e n t a t i o n .  Ivan  and  well-being  and  consumerism.-  Shukshin's  sarcasm  and  comforts  some o f the as  found  story  in  by  example,  are  noticeable  they are  used  i n the  chic'  In  he  the  prosto  which  who  object  a  i s very  aspects of  material  a t whom  there well  envy t h e  three-page  i s a mixture as  krovat*),  utilizes  letter  'cultured  the  which  speech'  'chic'  letter.  As  well,  nouns w h i c h t h e y m o d i f y  such a d j e c t i v e s ,  that  the  of  colloquialisms.  ' c o l o s s a l ' , 'amazing'/, and  p o r a z i t e l ' n y i ) , and  (gostinitsa prosto  of  linguistic  possessions  b u r e a u c r a t i s m and  i n u n u s u a l ways. -The by  e x i s t s at the  a c t i v e l y a d o p t s and  short  i s p r o d u c e d when I v a n w r i t e s  (tualet  an  i n t h e i r over-usage w i t h i n  (porazitel'naia  needs  g o o d s and  character  inviting  i s also  city,  adjectives  commonly m o d i f i e d  effect  the  'Postscript' also  I v a n , as  the  type of  d o e s I v a n a d m i r e and  i s comprised,  perceived  exposes a l l t h a t  i s directed.  i t s vocabulary,;;  For  not  only  to  He  from  ideological,observation  i s the  susceptible  satire  f o r not  intervention  communism w i t h m a t e r i a l  impressionable  level,  side  himself  including a naive  attainment of  The  i s no  of  an  and  'amazing  bathroom i s that  shikarnaia).  thus, a  the  humorous  bed'  'simply  hotel  are  is  amazing'  'simply  127 The  second group of c h a r a c t e r s which Shukshin uses  w i t h i n a s a t i r i c a l m i l i e u are those who  embody the s o c i a l v i c e s  themselves, c o n s c i o u s l y and without embarrassment. the s e l f - i n t e r e s t e d i n d i v i d u a l s , o f t e n p o r t r a y e d the shopclerk,  These are  as the  bureaucrat,  or as a member of a type o f p e t t y - b o u r g e o i s  sector  which e x i s t s i n the S o v i e t Union. . T h i s c h a r a c t e r i s shown as a debased and deformed r e s u l t o f the  'consumer psychology' which  i s p a r t of the modernizing s o c i e t y . In the s t o r y 'The Sergeich',  Brother-in-Law'/'Svoiak S e r g e i ,  such a psychology i s r e v e a l e d  the b r o t h e r - i n - l a w  who  of  u n w i l l i n g l y ; comes t o v i s i t h i s r e l a t i v e s  i n a small town, b o a s t i n g of the s a l a r y and  i n the c h a r a c t e r  a l l the while of c i t y conveniences,  possessionswhich are h i s , and of h i s g e t t i n g  the b e t t e r of the system. i n the p r e t e n s i o n s  The  b a s i c i r o n y of the s t o r y  of Sergei Sergeich  f o r h i s ' c i t y ' has,  to being an  lies  'urbanite',  a t most, a p o p u l a t i o n of f i f t e e n thousand  5  people.  His s u p e r i o r i t y complex t h e r e f o r e , i s c o m i c a l . '"Where I work we get a long v a c a t i o n . We're i n a p r i v i l e g e d p o s i t i o n . " A g a i n --arrogance and p r i d e . There wasn't a modest spot on h i s e n t i r e body. He was l i k e a q u i l t , with every patch bragging and swaggering. "Special p r i v i l e g e . "  ,:;  -  •  " S p e c i a l how?" "With r e s p e c t to s a l a r y and  vacation."  "What, a r e a l h i g h s a l a r y , huh?" S e r g e i Sergeevich  chuckled  at Andrei's  "For example, up to f o u r hundred A n d r e i was "Do  amazed:  you know how  "Oho  ignorance.  roubles!"  ho!"  much a p r o f e s s o r gets here?"  "Where?" "Why h e r e "And  - i n the middle of Russia^"  how am I s u p p o s e d  t o know  "Look, t h e h i g h e s t - p a i d roub l e s . Max imunul'  that?"  professor gets f i v e  hundred  " W e l l , and s o ? " "Well,  so I n e v e r made i t t h r o u g h grammar s c h o o l ' "  Again Sergei Sergeich laughed h i s l i t t l e laugh. " T h a t ' s t h e way we l i v e . .. I've a l r e a d y g o t one. f o o t i n Communism, y o u m i g h t s a y . " ' ^ However l a u g h a b l e t h e a i r s a n d p r e t e n s i o n s o f S e r g e i S e r g e e v i c h may seem, h i s c o m f o r t a b l e p o s i t i o n society. of  their  which  I t tolerates social  such  i s t r u l y a comment o n h i s  s e l f - s e e k e r s and t h e j u s t i f i c a t i o n  c i r c u m s t a n c e s b y means o f i d e o l o g i c a l  have b e e n a d a p t e d  concepts  a n d m a n o e u v e r e d b y them t o s u i t  their  purposes. Sergei identifies  S e r g e e v i c h * s comment a b o u t  and s a t i r i z e s  material possessions. for  especially  moral perly,  severe c r i t i c i s m ,  o f how t o 'be human'.  to other  o f how t o l i v e  pro-  The c o n s u m e r - o r i e n t e d view o f n a i v e l y and i n n o c e n t l y a s  i t i n 'Postscript', or callously  and p o m p o u s l y i n  S e r g e e v i c h ' s pronouncement, i s seen by S h u k s h i n as  a main moral v i c e Our  the  o u t by Shukshin  i truns p a r a l l e l  - t h e problem  s o c i e t y , whether u t t e r e d  Ivan s t a t e s as S e r g e i  since  i n Communism*  e q u a t e s communism w i t h  T h i s theme- i s s i n g l e d  themes i n h i s s t o r i e s  communist  social  t h e view which  'one f o o t  life  from which  final  f l o w many human and s o c i a l  e v a l u a t i o n as r e a d e r s r e g a r d i n g a f a c e t o f  or a character representative of i t ,  a t t e n t i o n which  problems.  Shukshin pays  results  from  to the psychology o f the  129  characters.  Shukshin's s i m p l i c i t y o f p l o t a b l y r e v e a l s the  l i f e and morals o f such a person as S e r g e i S e r g e i c h , 'meshchanin'.  The  the a u t h e n t i c  author c o n s i s t e n t l y and  daily  . the.  exactly recreates  speech and manner o f thought o f the  brother-in-law  with the e v i d e n t aim of making t h i s c h a r a c t e r an o b j e c t o f h i s satire. 'Sergei S e r g e i c h - had begun to brag again about how t e r r i f i c e v e r y t h i n g was t u r n i n g out f o r him i n h i s l i f e . . . T h e n he began to accuse A n d r e i of not knowing how to l i v e . "Not even a t e l e v i s i o n s e t , huh?" "Nope." . •<.,  "Well, l i s t e n . Y o u ' r e nothing but a mangy muzhik. you mean to say you can't a f f o r d a t e l e v i s i o n s e t ? "  Do  "...What do I need one o f those t h i n g s f o r . And I don't need a F i a t e i t h e r . Understand?...Who the h e l l do you t h i n k you are?...You no sooner a r r i v e than you s t a r t spouting o f f - t h i s i s no good, you don't l i k e t h a t . . . I d i d n ' t ask you to come here, h o l d your tongue. A c t decent." "In other words, even i f I see something t h a t ' s i n f e r i o r I s t i l l have to say i t ' s okay? Is t h a t i t ? . . . B u t a t e l e v i s i o n set i s an a b s o l u t e n e c e s s i t y ] Suppose you've got a son growing up. Instead o f s c r a t c h i n g around-, i n g the garden i n the evenings, he c o u l d be l o o k i n g at T.V."' ' Sergei Sergeich's d i r e c t l y to the reader,  v a l u e s and  conceptions  are  yet the tone o f the a u t h o r i a l s a t i r e  i s e v i d e n t even i n Shukshin's o b j e c t i v e r e - c r e a t i o n o f conversation.  The  importance t h a t S e r g e i S e r g e i c h  to owing a t e l e v i s i o n set and of those who  h i s impatience and  this  attaches  utter intolerance  have l e s s than what he c o n s i d e r s proper, are  main o b j e c t s of Shukshin's sarcasm. o p i n i o n s > and  presented  Shukshin's s a t i r i c  to the p o i n t where one may  the  But S e r g e i Sergeichf'js"',  i n t o n a t i o n s are o b j e c t i v i z e d -  assume t h a t such views are widespread  130  and  common i n t h e r e a l w o r l d .  lies  i n t h e d i s c r e p a n c y between S e r g e i S e r g e i c h ' s  the type o f s o c i a l does  r e a l i t y which  i s professed  Sergeich  lies  interest  ariness,  soullessness,  o f comic  reduction.  arrogance which  self-worth.  The  We  i s founded  Insult'/'Obida',  entire  image w h i c h and  There  i s t h e man  for  satirization  In h i s s a t i r e  consistently  of those f a c t o r s  and  the  emotion satire.  of  such  throughout 'The  A l l are  in society  into  i n the  a complex w e a v i n g  instead  vehicles  which (khamstvo),  linguistic severe accus-  o f emotion,, i n c l u d i n g  w i t h a good d e a l o f c o m p a s s i o n .  conveys  and  overtones, Shukshin's  be a p o t e n t i a l l y  r e d u c i n g t h e e f f e c t o f t h e s a r c a s m and this  their  (meshchanstvo).  satirical  t r a n s f o r m s what c o u l d  and g r i e f ,  conceit  of  i n the overcoat i n  humour i n h i s c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n s and  atory narrative anger  - a device  are morally harmful - bureaucracy, boorishness  portrayals,  ordin-  Shukshin c r e a t e s t e l l s  'Post Skriptum'.  and a p e t t y - b o u r g e o i s m e n t a l i t y  organic  qualities of  t h e b u r e a u c r a t i n 'The O p i n i o n ' / ' M n e n i e ' ,  in 'Postscript'/  he f e e l s  Sergei  internal depersonalization  the s a l e s c l e r k Shukshin's  literature.  i n an i g n o r a n t c o n c e p t o f  meet s u c h p e r s o n a g e s  S h u k s h i n ' s work.  in his  and g r e e d i n t o a c a r i c a t u r e  and  Shukshin  H i s c a r i c a t u r e s a r e marked by t h e i r  the t r u e u n o r i g i n a l i t y characters.  of t h e i r  irony  reality  i n such c h a r a c t e r s as  i n the u n i f i c a t i o n  the  to e x i s t .  not l e t t h i s d i s c r e p a n c y escape our n o t i c e Shukshin's  and  In t h i s p r e s e n t a t i o n ,  irony  Far  from  i n Shukshin's  a s p e c i a l d e p t h and  works,  strength to  • It  i s the presence  which are u t i l i z e d  by  present d i f f i c u l t i e s as a w r i t e r o f moral  Shukshin  depicting  for c r i t i c s  who  ' c o u n t r y p r o s e ' . The  an  'ideal  people with  type',  their  i n v o l v e d him  some l i t e r a r y  critics.  social,  The  small  town i n ways v e r y d i f f e r e n t  i n the n e c e s s i t y  constant  to  that of authors of  the c i t y  from  as s u p e r i o r . and  heroes  are country  are t r y i n g  both is  city  the attempt  from  and  country  settings.  dominantly  ethical  and  as  their  land-  opposed  i s the o p p o s i t i o n of to d e p i c t the  as b e i n g  country  Shukshin's  s m a l l v i l l a g e s and  themes o f m o r a l  and  aesthetic  prose,  encroaching modernity,  image o f t h e c i t y  Shukshin's  Shukshin's  and  Some, f o r  of country people  f a c t t h a t most o f  folk  to deal with  n o t c r e a t e an narrow.  Despite the  controversy  Shukshin's.  'country uprose',  t o t h e c o u n t r y and  to create  countryside  h a b i t s , w h i l e o t h e r s c o n c e n t r a t e upon p o e t i c , from  Shukshin  his refusal  i n the Russian  intense description  N o t i c e a b l y absent  which  'derevenshchiki' reconstruct  knowledge o f d a i l y  scapes.  effects  devices  p s y c h o l o g i c a l and  his belief  f l a w s , and  their  example, u t i l i z e  these  the  would c l a s s i f y  i n almost  life  s a t i r e and  to achieve  implications of h i s s t o r i e s ,  of  with  o f i r o n y and  characters  towns  Shukshin  stagnant,  who  does  squalid  emptiness run p a r a l l e l  and in  I n most i n s t a n c e s , h i s work  psychological before  i t is  dominantly  social. B a s e d on may  be  grouped w i t h  Tendriakov, all  Vasilii  the s u b j e c t matter  of h i s s t o r i e s ,  Shukshin  such o t h e r r e c e n t S o v i e t w r i t e r s as V l a d i m i r Belov,  and  p o r t r a y S o v i e t v i l l a g e and  Evgenii-Nosov. rural  life  from  -These  authors  the p o i n t of  131  132 view  o f  the  the  p a s t  and  the  h i s t o r i c a l  decades mass  -  movement  f i n e as  modern  w r i t e r s . ' I n  the  the  i n  ' V e r u i u i ' ,  moral  w i t h  h e a l t h  c o m p l e x i t y of  t r u e  the  ledged h i s  l a s t  s t y l e of  by  the  Man  and  c o u l d  o r d i n a r y  man  contemporary i n  i t s  B e l o v .  o f  him o f ' I n  had  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c  worked  a  o f  ' l o n g '  such  and  ' I  he  f o r  the  o f  the  p s y c h o l o g i s m an  acknow-  t h a t ,  c o m p l e t e l y  p r o s e ,  i n n o v a t i o n  was  s a i d  as  by  The  form,  w i t h  B e l i e v e ! ' /  c r e a t e d  p r o c e s s .  work  a  S h u k s h i n  e x a m i n a t i o n  matured  «  s t a r i k ' ,  s t o r i e s  been  S h u k s h i n ' s  as  other  A u t u m n ' , /  p r o v i d e  t h e i r  h i s  such  requirements  s p i r i t u a l  f e a t u r e s  and  t h e s e  p o m i r a l  have  out  i n  h a r d s h i p s ,  s t o r i e s ,  the  -But  the  and  from  O d d - B a l l ' ,  d e v e l o p e d , Of  such  on  economic  h i s  hero  o n l y  t h e r e  s t o r y - s c e n e  D i e d ' / ' K a k  ' P s i k h o p a t / ' T h e  S h u k s h i n  c o n s i s t i n g  some  c o n c e n t r a t i o n  s t y l e  y e a r s ,  o c c u r r e d  c e n t r e s .  c o n t e m p o r a r i e s .  o t h e r s  the  V a s i l i i  s c e n a r i o  o f  k l a d b i s h c h e ' , O l d  h i s  many  the  t h a t  i n t o n a t i o n s  w i t h  o f  S h u k s h i n ' s  form  i n  i s  t h e i r  o f  urban  I t  l y r i c a l  and  to  separate  'Cut-Off'. ' / ' S r e z a l . ' ' ,  Shukshin  youth  s i n g u l a r  'How  common  have  h e r o - e c c e n t r i c ,  and  dominant  much  o f  C e m e t e r y ' / ' N a  ' O s e n ' i u ' ,  w h i c h  c o l l e c t i v i z a t i o n , post-war  S h u k s h i n ' s unique,  p r o c e s s e s  new and  i n l i t e r a r y  b r e v i t y  i n t i m a t e  emotion,  9 and  a  dynamic  s t r i k i n g are  success  c o m p a t i b l e  w i t h  the  major He  s i u j e t .  has  type,  i n  w i t h  .  S h u k s h i n ' s more  p h i l o s o p h i c a l  c o n t r i b u t i o n innumerable a c t i n g  i n  S e v e r a l  to  elements  s t y l e :  l y r i c a l  ones  r e f l e c t i o n s S o v i e t  faces,  v a r i o u s  but  o f  and  t h e s e  i s ,  i n  one  and  and  w i t h  i n t o n a t i o n s i n  S h u k s h i n ' s  a l w a y s  c i r c u m s t a n c e s  combined  s a t i r i c a l  l i t e r a t u r e i s  are  no  way  h e r o e s .  f a c t ,  h i s  the  same  environments.  i n t e r e f e r e S h u k s h i n ' s hero. p s y c h o l o g i c a l  133 Shukshin possesses the a b i l i t y and  to perceive  c o n v e y i n h i s a r t t h e h i s t o r y and m o r a l  people as they  see themselves.  idea o f the Russian  The e p i g r a p h t o t h e two-volume  e d i t i o n o f h i s c o l l e c t e d works,-a l e t t e r w r i t t e n in  1974, a t t e s t s t o t h i s  keenly  by Shukshin  perception.  'During t h e i r h i s t o r y , t h e R u s s i a n p e o p l e have s e l e c t e d , p r e s e r v e d , and e l e v a t e d t o a high d e g r e e o f r e s p e c t s u c h human q u a l i t i e s w h i c h need n o t b e s u b j e c t e d t o r e c o n s i d e r a t i o n : honour, d i l i g e n c e , conscientiousness, kindness.;. In a l l s o r t s o f h i s t o r i c a l c a t a s t r o p h e s , we h a v e e n d u r e d , and p r e s e r v e d i n p u r e f o r m , t h e g r e a t R u s s i a n language, which has been passed t o us by o u r f a t h e r s a n d g r a n d f a t h e r s . . . B e l i e v e , t h a t a l l o f t h i s was n o t i n v a i n : o u r s o n g s , o u r t a l e s , our v i c t o r i e s a t t a i n e d by tremendous h a r d s h i p , o u r s u f f e r i n g s - d o n ' t g i v e t h i s up f o r a p i n c h of snuff. We know how t o l i v e . - Remember t h i s . Be human.', n  While h i s concerns are deeply n a t i o n a l , main i d e a s  a r e n o t so s p e c i f i c  to Soviet  the  quality of universal application.  the  honest r e p r e s e n t a t i o n  industrialized  society that  His concentration  society i s relevant  stories will  likely  t h e 1960s and 1970s w i t h i n  character, tinue  the hero-eccentric,  to assert himself  literature  lose  on  t o t h e attempt a t the a s s e r t i n many s o c i e t i e s .  be r e a d  y e a r s t o come a s i n d i c a t o r s o f t h e s o c i a l of  they  o f t h e human p r e d i c a m e n t i n modern,  ion o f i n d i v i d u a l i t y which i s o c c u r r i n g Shukshin's best  Shukshin's  and c i t e d  and m o r a l  the Soviet Union.  f o r many  condition  His singular  w h i l e n o t a new h e r o , w i l l  i n t h e sphere o f contemporary  world  i n ways w h i c h w i l l make him synonymous w i t h o u r  fast-moving, m a t e r i a l i s t i c ,  technological  time.  con-  134  NOTES TO CONCLUSION  1  V.M. S h u k s h i n , i n C h i s t y e p r u d y ( h e n c e f o r t h w i t h i n t h e t e s t a s C h i s t y e p r u d y ) , (Moskva: R u s s k i i i a z y k , 1977).  2  The w o r k s w h i c h were a c k n o w l e d g e d a s s a t i r i c a l p i e c e s a r e t h e s t o r y * K l i a u z ; a * , A v r o r a , No. 8 ( 1 9 7 4 ) ; 'Do t r e t ' i k h p e t u k h o v (skzka p r o Ivana-duraka,kak on k h o d i l za t r i d e v i a t ' zemel' n a b i r a t ' s i a uma-razuma)', Nash S o v r e m e n n i k , No. 1 (1975; 'A p o u t r u o n i p r o s n u l i s ' ' , Nash S o v r e m e n n i k , No. 6 ( 1 9 7 5 ) ; and t h e s t a g e p l a y ' E n e r g i c h n y e l i u d i ' , L i t e r a t u r n a i a R o s s i i a , (7 IV 1 9 7 4 ) , (14 V I 1 9 7 4 ) , (21 V I 1 9 7 4 ) .  3  V. S h u k s h i n , I z b r a n . p r o i z . ,  t.l,  4  V. S h u k s h i n , I z b r a n . p r o i z . ,  t i l , p .  5-  V. S h u k s h i n , I z b r a n . p r o i z . ,  t.l,  6  Izbran.proiz.,  t.l,  7  Snowball Berry  Red, p . 50.  8  Snowball Berry  Red, p p . 53-54.  9  V. Korobov, V a s i 1 i 1 S h u k s h i n 1 9 7 7 ) , p . 179.  10  V.  referred to Isdatel'stvo  p p . 174-175. 122.  p . 262.  p . 264.  Shukshin, I z b r a n . p r o i z . ,  (Moskva: t.l,  Sovetskaia  epigraph.  Rossiia,  135 BIBLIOGRAPHY  I.  A.  PRIMARY SOURCES  In Russian  Shukshin, V a s i l i i  Makarovich.  No. 10 (1969), p p . 90-94.  ' S v o i a k S e r g e i S e r g e i c h ' . Novye m i r ,  I z b r a n n y e p r o i z v e d e n i i a v.dvukh tomakh. Moskva: M o l o d a i a g v a r d i x a , 1975. "  .  Besedy p r i i a s n o i  C h i s t y e prudy.  B.  lune.  Moskva:Russkii iazyk,  Vol.I.  Moskva:Sovetskaia  Rossiia,  1977.  In English  F i e n e , D o n a l d M., e d . V a s i l y S h u k s h i n : S n o w b a l l Stories. Ann A r b o r : A r d i s , 1979. Shukshin, V a s i l i i  Makarovich.  B e r r y Red a n d O t h e r  ' P e t y a ' . T r a n s . Robert  In S o v i e t L i t e r a t u r e , No. 12 (1971), p p . 103-108. 'Boots'.  Trans Robert D a g l i s h .  Daglish.  In Soviet  Literature,  No. 10 (1975), p p . 12-20. .  'The O b s t i n a t e One'. T r a n s . N a t a s h a  Johnstone. In  S o v i e t L i t e r a t u r e , No. 10 (1974), p p . 3-17. .  'Two F i n g e r s ' . T r a n s . H i l d a  Perham.  In Soviet  L i t e r a t u r e , No. 9 (1975), pp.-12-20. '  1975.  'There was a Man L i v i n g * . T r a n s . K e i t h Hammond. S o v i e t L i t e r a t u r e , No. 9 (1975), p p . 52-55. 'Sunday Boredom.' T r a n s . R o b e r t D a g l i s h . Literature,  No. 9 (1975), p p . 36-42.  In  In Soviet  136 II.  A.  SECONDARY SOURCES  Books  Bakhtin, Mikhail. Problems o f Dostoevsky*s R.W. R o s t e l . Ann A r b o r : A r d i s , 1973. • Chumakov,. G.M. S i n t a k s i s k o n s t r u k t s i i V i s h c h a s h k o l a , 1976. Korobov,  V.  Vasilii  Poetics.  Trans.,  s chuzhoi rech'iu.  Shukshin. Moskva:Sovetskaia  Kiev:  Rossiia,  1977.  Tomashevskii, The T h e o r y o f L i t e r a t u r e . L e t c h w o r t h : B r a d d a B o o k s , 1971. Grammatika r u s s k o g o i a z y k a . SSSR, 1960.  Vol.. I I . Part  2. M o s k v a : A c a d e m i i a Nauk  I a z y k o v y e p r o t s e s s y sovremmenoi r u s s k o i k h u d o z h e s t v e n n o i T i t e r atury. M o s k v a : A c a d e m i i a Nauk SSR, 19 77.  B.  Articles  A n n i n s k i i , L. Shukshinskaia z h i z n ' ' . No. 1 (1974) p p . 50-55. 1  . 'Put' V a s i l i i a 117-128.  pp. Gorn,  Shukshina'.  V : F . 'Nado c h e l o v e k o m (1976) pp. 9-16.  G o r y s h i n , G. 'Gde-nibud* pp. 24-27. Gusev, V.  Harvey,  -In L i t e r a t u r n o e obozrenie,  byt''.  I n N e d e l i a , No.  15  (1976)  I n L i t e r a t u r a v s h k o l e , No.  na R u s i . . . ' .  I n A v r o r a . . No.  'Imenno z h i z n ' , a ne c h t o d r u g o e ' . obozrenie, No. 1 (1974) p p . 50-55  In  6  5  (1975)  Literaturnoe  W.H. 'The Human C o n t e x t ' . i n Theory o f the N o v e l . E d . P. S t e v i c k . New Y o r k : M a c m i l l a n P u b l i s h i n g Company, 1976 pp. 231-261.  H e l l e r , M.  ' V a s i l y S h u k s h i n : I n S e a r c h o f Freedom'. Trans. George G u t s c h e . I n S n o w b a l l B e r r y Red and O t h e r S t o r i e s . E d . D o n a l d M. F i e n e . Ann A r b o r : A r d i s , 1979 pp.213-233.  137 H o s k i n g , G.A. 'The F i c t i o n o f V a s i l y S h u k s h i n . ' In Snowball B e r r y Red and O t h e r S t o r i e s . E d . D o n a l d M. F i e n e . Ann A r b o r V A r d i s , 1 9 7 9 p p . 3-18. 'Shukshin: A Preliminary Bibliography*. B e r r y Red and O t h e r S t o r i e s . E d . D o n a l d M. Ann A r b o r : A r d i s , 1979 p p . 237-250.  In Snowball Fiene.  K a n t o r o v i c h , V. 'Novye t i p y , n o v y i s l o v a r ' , novye o t n o s h e n i i a ' . I n S i b e r s k i e o g n i , No. 9 (1971) pp. 176-180. Kuz'muk, V.A. " V a s . i l . i i S h u k s h i n i r a n i i Chekhov'. l i t e r a t u r a , No. 3 (1977) p p . 198-205. Larin,  In Russkaia  B.A. 'Estetika slova i iazyk p i s a t e l i a ' . In D i a l e k t i z m v iazyke sovetskikh p i s a t e l e i . Leningrad:Khudozhestvenna l i t e r a t u r a , 1974 pp. 228^-261.  O v c h a r e n k o , A. 'Rasskazy V a s i l i i a S h u k s h i n a * . 1 (1976) pp. 155-166.  I n Don,  No.  Solov'ev, V i 'Fenomen V a s i l i i a S h u k s h i n a . V d o p o l n e n i e k ;skazannomu.' I n I s k u s s t v o k i n o , No. 10 (1975) pp. 16-29.  APPENDIX I  Transliteration  Russian  English  A E B r  a 6  A  a*  n  n  P  P  B  b  p  R  r  B  V  V  S  s  r  G  g  T  T  t  fl  D  d  c T y  P c y  U  u  e e  E  e  F  f  E  kh  kh  }K  Zh  e zh  Ts  ts  3  3  z  z  Ch  ch  H  H  I  i  m  III  Sh  sh  K K  H  I  i  m  m  Shch  shch  K  K  k  JI  JI  L  1  3  3  E  M H  M  M  m  K)  K)  Iu  e iu  H  N  n  fl  H  Ia  ia  0  O  0  o  •&  n E E  The  Tab1e  Russian l e t t e r s  transliteration  Russian  1  X  il  bl  y  i n and  1  * b  e, e, and 3 a r e n o t d i f f e r e n t i a t e d  system; the d i s t i n c t i o n  knowledge o f s t r e s s  X  English  is left  in  to the  p r o n u n c i a t i o n o f the Russian  this  reader's language.  

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