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A locational analysis of third sector housing : the case of co-operatives Phipps, Valerie Dale 1979

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A LOCATIONAL ANALYSIS OF THIRD SECTOR HOUSING: THE CASE OF CO-OPERATIVES by V a l e r i e Dale Phipps B.A., McMaster Uni v e r s i t y , 1975 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Dept. of Geography) We accept t h i s thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA January, 1979 © V a l e r i e Dale Phipps, 1979 In presenting th is thes is in par t i a l fu l f i lment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the Univers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L ibrary sha l l make it f ree ly ava i lab le for reference and study. I fur ther agree that permission for extensive copying of th is thes is for scho la r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representat ives . It is understood that copying or pub l i ca t ion of th is thes is for f inanc ia l gain sha l l not be allowed without my wri t ten permission. Department of The Univers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 Date J)-AJ Ib/lJ i i ABSTRACT E v e n t s of t h e p a s t few y e a r s have d e m o n s t r a t e d t h a t i f h o u s i n g r e q u i r e m e n t s of C a n a d i a n s a r e to be met, o r i f new growth i s t o be accommodated, a move away from t r a d i t i o n a l " a p p r o a c h e s to h o u s i n g d e v e l o p m e n t i s n e c e s s a r y . D i s s a t i s -f a c t i o n w i t h t h e t r a d i t i o n a l forms of p r i v a t e and p u b l i c s e c t o r h o u s i n g has r e s u l t e d i n t h e emergence of a ' t h i r d s e c t o r ' i n t h e h o u s i n g f i e l d . T h i s t h i r d s e c t o r p l a c e s an emphasis on v o l u n t a r i s m , and i n v o l v e s n o n - p r o f i t h o u s i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n s and c o - o p e r a t i v e h o u s i n g s o c i e t i e s . T h i s s t u d y i s c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e c o - o p e r a t i v e component o f t h i r d s e c t o r h o u s i n g i n Canada. The p r i m a r y o b j e c t i v e o f t h i s s t u d y was t o d e s c r i b e t h e s p a t i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n of two t y p e s o f c o - o p e r a t i v e h o u s i n g --t h e b u i l d i n g co-op and t h e c o n t i n u i n g h o u s i n g c o - o p e r a t i v e . A s e c o n d o b j e c t i v e was t o a n a l y z e t h e s p a t i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n i n o r d e r to i d e n t i f y t h e v a r i o u s f a c t o r s t h a t have l e d to t h i s d i s t r i b u t i o n . The a n a l y s i s encompassed two s c a l e s -- t h e n a t i o n a l and t h e u r b a n . At t h e n a t i o n a l s c a l e , a v a r i e t y of f a c t o r s were examined i n c l u d i n g government p o l i c i e s and t h e r o l e o f s u p p o r t i n s t i t u t i o n s as t h e y r e l a t e to t h e l o c a t i o n of b o t h b u i l d i n g and c o n t i n u i n g c o - o p s . At t h e u r b a n s c a l e , two m e t h o d o l o g i e s a r e u s e d to a n a l y z e t h e p a t t e r n of c o n t i n u i n g h o u s i n g co-ops i n t h e G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t and M e t r o p o l i t a n T o r o n t o . D i s c r i m i n a n t a n a l y s i s was a p p l i e d to a.number o f d e m o g r a p h i c and p h y s i c a l v a r i a b l e s t o d i s t i n g u i s h between i i i l o c a l a r e a s w i t h co-op h o u s i n g and t h o s e a r e a s w i t h o u t . Then t h r e e c a s e s t u d i e s of t h e d e v e l o p m e n t p r o c e s s o f Van-c o u v e r p r o j e c t s were examined to d e t e r m i n e t h e r o l e o f community a t t i t u d e i n t h e s p a t i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n o f c o - o p e r a t i v e h o u s i n g . A l t h o u g h c o - o p e r a t i v e h o u s i n g i n e i t h e r f o r m i s l o c a t e d i n e v e r y p r o v i n c e i n Canada, th e s p a t i a l p a t t e r n o f each t y p e was shown to be q u i t e d i s t i n c t . B u i l d i n g c o - o p s , w h i c h have t h e i r o r i g i n s i n the M a r i t i m e s , e x h i b i t a d e f i n i t e e a s t e r n Canada e m p h a s i s . A l t e r n a t i v e l y , c o n t i n u i n g h o u s i n g c o - o p e r -a t i v e s a r e f o u n d from c o a s t t o c o a s t , but w i t h a c e n t r a l - t o -w e s t e r n Canada o r i e n t a t i o n . I n b o t h c a s e s t h e d e t e r m i n i n g f a c t o r s o f d e v e l o p m e n t were i d e n t i f i e d as t h e s p o n s o r i n g i n s t i t u t i o n and f i n a n c i a l s u p p o r t . F o r b u i l d i n g c o-ops d e v e l o p e d d u r i n g the 1940's and 1950's, th e C a t h o l i c C h u r c h was t h e most s i g n i f i c a n t s p o n s o r . More r e c e n t l y , t h e r o l e of s p o n s o r has been assumed by p r o v i n c i a l h o u s i n g a g e n c i e s . C o n t i n u i n g co-ops have a l w a y s been s p o n s o r e d by t h e c o - o p e r a t i v e and l a b o u r movements. At the u r b a n s c a l e , c o n t i n u i n g h o u s i n g c o - o p e r a t i v e s were s e e n to be q u i t e d i f f e r e n t i n t h e G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t and i n M e t r o p o l i t a n T o r o n t o . In V a n c o u v e r most of t h e p r o j e c t s a r e new townhouse d e v e l o p m e n t s i n the p e r i p h e r y whereas i n T o r o n t o t h e y a r e p r i n c i p a l l y r e h a b i l i t a t i o n or c o n -v e r s i o n h o u s i n g l o c a t e d i n the c e n t r a l c i t y r e g i o n . As a r e s u l t of t h e s e d i v e r g e n t p a t t e r n s , t h e l o c a t i o n a l d e t e r m i n a n t s , as i d e n t i f i e d by d i s c r i m i n a n t a n a l y s i s , were q u i t e d i f f e r e n t . i v I n V a n c o u v e r f i v e v a r i a b l e s were s e l e c t e d ; t h e s e were t h e p e r c e n t a g e of houses w h i c h a r e d e t a c h e d , t h e p e r c e n t a g e of p o p u l a t i o n w i t h some u n i v e r s i t y e d u c a t i o n , t h e p e r c e n t a g e of the employed p o p u l a t i o n w i t h p r o f e s s i o n a l , m a n a g e r i a l and t e c h n i c a l o c c u p a t i o n s , p e r c e n t a g e o f o c c u p i e d d w e l l i n g s w i t h r e s i d e n t s l e s s t h a n one y e a r , and s o c i a l h o u s i n g u n i t s p e r c a p i t a . The V a n c o u v e r d i s c r i m i n a n t f u n c t i o n was not a b l e t o a d e q u a t e l y d i s t i n g u i s h between a r e a s w i t h c o - o p s and t h o s e w i t h o u t i n Metro T o r o n t o . F u r t h e r m o r e , when M e t r o T o r o n t o d a t a were s u b j e c t e d to d i s c r i m i n a n t a n a l y s i s , t h e r e s u l t a n t s p a t i a l p a t t e r n was too g e n e r a l to be o f s i g n i f i c a n c e . Community a t t i t u d e and l o c a t i o n a l c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n were i d e n t i f i e d as key l o c a t i o n a l d e t e r m i n a n t s of c o n t i n u i n g h o u s i n g co-ops i n V a n c o u v e r . However, i t was a l s o f o u n d t h a t n o t a l l p r o j e c t s g e n e r a t e c o n f l i c t . V TABLE OF CONTENTS Page A b s t r a c t , . . , , . . , , . , . , , . . , i i L i s t o f T a b l e s v i i L i s t of F i g u r e s , i x Acknowledgements . x C h a p t e r 1 INTRODUCTION 1 2, AN OVERVIEW OF CO-OPERATIVE HOUSING IN CANADA , , 10 An I n t r o d u c t i o n t o C o - o p e r a t i v e H o u s i n g 10 B u i l d i n g C o - o p e r a t i v e s i n Canada: A Review , 15 C o n t i n u i n g H o u s i n g C o - o p e r a t i v e s i n Canada: A Review 21 3 RESEARCH DESIGN 26 I n t r o d u c t i o n t o M e t h o d o l o g y 26 The D a t a 27 The S t a t i s t i c a l A n a l y s i s 34 S t a t i s t i c a l P r o c e d u r e 38 4 CO-OPERATIVE HOUSING IN CANADA 43 The S p a t i a l and T e m p o r a l P a t t e r n s . . . . 43 An A n a l y s i s of t h e P a t t e r n s of B u i l d i n g Co-op P r o j e c t s 52 An A n a l y s i s of t h e P a t t e r n s of C o n t i n u i n g C o - o p e r a t i v e H o u s i n g . , . . , 64 F u t u r e D i r e c t i o n s of C o - o p e r a t i v e H o u s i n g i n Canada , , , , , , 77 v i C h a p t e r Page 5 CONTINUING CO-OPERATIVE HOUSING IN SELECTED URBAN AREAS 83 The S p a t i a l and T e m p o r a l P a t t e r n s , , , . 83 The D i s c r i m i n a n t A n a l y s i s , , , 93 A D i s c u s s i o n o f t h e S p a t i a l Components of Urban H o u s i n g Co-ops . . . . 113 F u t u r e D i r e c t i o n s o f C o n t i n u i n g Co-op H o u s i n g . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128 6 CONCLUSIONS 132 SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY 139 APPENDICES 148 I C o n t i n u i n g C o - o p e r a t i v e s i n Canada . . . . 148 I I V a r i a b l e C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s B e f o r e N o r m a l i z a t i o n . , 152 N o r m a l i z a t i o n and R e s u l t i n g C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s 15:4 I I I F l y e r D i s t r i b u t e d to t h e Community Opposed t o P e n t a 155 v i i L I S T OF T A B L E S T a b l e P a g e I T y p e s o f O p e r a t i o n A d o p t e d by H o u s i n g C o - o p e r a t i v e s o f Q u e b e c , 1 9 3 7 - 1 9 6 5 19 I I The C o n f u s i o n o r C l a s s i f i c a t i o n M a t r i x , . . , 41 I I I C o - o p e r a t i v e H o u s i n g U n i t s i n C a n a d a . . . . . 45 I V Number o f B u i l d i n g C o - o p U n i t s C o m p l e t e d - 1 9 4 0 - 1 9 7 7 49 V B u i l d i n g C o - o p s i n U r b a n C e n t r e s . . . . . . . 50 V I C o n t i n u i n g C o - o p H o u s i n g U n i t s C o m p l e t e d . . , 51 V I I C o n t i n u i n g C o - o p s i n M e t r o p o l i t a n A r e a s , 1977 53 V I I I D i s t r i b u t i o n o f H o u s i n g C o - o p e r a t i v e s i n Quebec by Number o f H o u s e s B u i l t by E a c h C o - o p 59 I X B u i l d i n g C o - o p s i n S y d n e y and S a c k v i l l e , 1 9 6 5 - 1 9 7 3 63 X C o m p l e t i o n D a t e s o f 1974 F u n d e d P r o j e c t s . . . 78 X I C o n t i n u i n g C o - o p s i n G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t . . . , 85 X I I C o n t i n u i n g H o u s i n g C o - o p s i n M e t r o p o l i t a n T o r o n t o 87 X I I I T y p e o f C o n s t r u c t i o n i n C o - o p P r o j e c t s i n M e t r o T o r o n t o a n d GVRD 89 X I V D i s c r i m i n a n t F u n c t i o n C o e f f i c i e n t s f o r GVRD N o r m a l i z e d D a t a (DF1) , , 100 XV P r e d i c t i o n R e s u l t s o f DF1 - The C o n f u s i o n M a t r i x . , . , , . . . . . „ . , , . 101 v i i i T a b l e - Page XVI D i s c r i m i n a n t F u n c t i o n C o e f f i c i e n t s f o r GVRD Raw Dat a CDF2) , , , , 104 XVII P r e d i c t i o n R e s u l t s of DF2 - The C o n f u s i o n M a t r i x 105 X V I I I P r e d i c t i o n R e s u l t s A p p l y i n g DF2 to Metro T o r o n t o Raw D a t a 107 XIX D i s c r i m i n a n t F u n c t i o n C o e f f i c i e n t s f o r M e tro T o r o n t o (DF3) , , 110 XX P r e d i c t i o n R e s u l t s o f T o r o n t o D i s c r i m i n a n t F u n c t i o n (DF3) I l l XXI Group Means f o r S e l e c t e d V a r i a b l e s 115 XX I I C o m p a r i s o n of Co-op A r e a Means w i t h O v e r a l l Means f o r S e l e c t e d V a r i a b l e s 117 i x L I S T OF FIGURES F i g u r e Page 1 L o c a l P l a n n i n g A r e a s i n t h e GVRD 35 2 M i n o r P l a n n i n g D i s t r i c t s i n M e t r o T o r o n t o 36 3 C o - o p e r a t i v e H o u s i n g i n Canada « 44 4 Growth of C o - o p e r a t i v e P r o j e c t s i n Canada 46 5 Number o f P r o j e c t s C ompleted 1972-1977 . , . . 92 6 C o n t i n u i n g H o u s i n g Co-ops i n GVRD .. , 94 7 C o n t i n u i n g H o u s i n g Co-ops i n M e t r o T o r o n t o , . 95 8 Skewness and K u r t o s i s of V a r i a b l e s B e f o r e N o r m a l i z a t i o n 98 9 Skewness and K u r t o s i s of V a r i a b l e s A f t e r N o r m a l i z a t i o n 99 10 DF1 P r e d i c t e d Co-op L o c a t i o n s 102 11 DF2 P r e d i c t e d Co-op L o c a t i o n s 106 12 DF2 P r e d i c t e d Co<-op L o c a t i o n s f o r Met r o T o r o n t o 109 13 DF3 P r e d i c t e d Co-op L o c a t i o n s 112 X ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Many p e o p l e have o f f e r e d t h e i r s u p p o r t t h r o u g h o u t my c o u r s e o f s t u d y . I would l i k e to thank a l l of them, f o r w i t h o u t t h e i r s u p p o r t t h i s t h e s i s would n e v e r have become a r e a l i t y . I n p a r t i c u l a r , I would l i k e t o thank my a d v i s o r , Dr. John M e r c e r , f o r h i s a s s i s t a n c e , c o n s t r u c t i v e c r i t i c i s m and, most i m p o r t a n t l y , f o r h i s p a t i e n c e . G r a t i t u d e i s a l s o e x p r e s s e d to t h o s e p e o p l e i n v o l v e d w i t h c o - o p e r a t i v e h o u s i n g who s u p p l i e d much o f t h e r e q u i r e d d a t a . S p e c i a l t h a n k s i s e x t e n d e d to D a v i d J a c k s o n , Tony L l o y d and S h i r l e y Schmid f o r t h e i r a s s i s t a n c e . F i n a l l y , I would l i k e t o e x p r e s s my i n d e b t e d n e s s t o my f a m i l y , e s p e c i a l l y my husband, f o r t h e i r c o n s t a n t e n c o u r a g e -ment and m o r a l s u p p o r t . CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION The " h o u s i n g p r o b l e m " i s one of t h e m a j o r i s s u e s t h a t has r e p e a t e d l y a t t r a c t e d t h e a t t e n t i o n of p o l i t i c i a n s , a c a d e m i c s and r e f o r m movements s i n c e the time of C o n f e d e r a t i o n . The emphasis of t h e p r o b l e m i s c o n t i n u a l l y c h a n g i n g from one of t h e a b s o l u t e q u a l i t y of h o u s i n g , t o r e l a t i v e s h o r t a g e s of h o u s i n g , t o a f f o r d a b i l i t y c o n s t r a i n t s o f h o u s i n g and a h o u s e h o l d ' s a c c e s s to t h e m a r k e t . T h i s c o n d i t i o n of f l u x makes t h e h o u s i n g p r o b l e m p a r t i c u l a r l y d i f f i c u l t t o s o l v e . Government a t t i t u d e s towards h o u s i n g have changed from t h e b e l i e f t h a t h o u s i n g i s a good or s e r v i c e whose c o n s u m p t i o n s h o u l d be g o v e r n e d by the u s u a l income or w e a l t h c o n s t r a i n t s , t o t h e p o s i t i o n where h o u s i n g i s r e g a r d e d as a b a s i c r i g h t f o r a l l . The p r e s e n t p o s i t i o n i s c l e a r l y r e f l e c t e d i n the f o l l o w i n g s t a t e m e n t by the t h e n M i n i s t e r of Urban A f f a i r s , H o n o u r a b l e Ron B a s f o r d , t h a t t h e F e d e r a l Government has " a d o p t e d t h e b a s i c p r i n c i p l e t h a t i t i s the f u n d a m e n t a l r i g h t of C a n a d i a n s , r e g a r d l e s s of t h e i r economic c i r c u m s t a n c e s , t o e n j o y a d e q u a t e s h e l t e r a t r e a s o n a b l e c o s t " ( H a n s a r d , J a n u a r y 11, 1973, p. 186, q u o t e d i n O n t a r i o Economic C o u n c i l , 1976, p. 5 ) . C o - e x i s t i n g w i t h t h i s p o s i t i o n i s t h e a t t i t u d e t h a t " i n a c o u n t r y whose p e o p l e a r e pr o u d of t h e i r i n d e p e n d e n c e , r e n t e d h o u s i n g i s g e n e r a l l y r e g a r d e d as s e c o n d b e s t , p u b l i c o w n e r s h i p as an o c c a s i o n a l l y n e c e s s a r y e v i l , and home o w n e r s h i p as t h e i d e a l " ( D o n n i s o n 1968, p. 5 6 ) . In Canada, t h e r e f o r e , we have a s i t u a t i o n of e v e r y o n e s u p p o s e d l y h a v i n g - 2 -t h e r i g h t t o a d e q u a t e h o u s i n g at a r e a s o n a b l e c o s t , and a t t h e same time most p e o p l e a s p i r i n g to o w n e r s h i p of s i n g l e family-d e t a c h e d d w e l l i n g s as t h e i r " u n s w e r v i n g i d e a l " ( M i c h e l s o n 1972, p. 3 ) . The r e a l i t i e s of p r e s e n t day u r b a n l i v i n g p r e c l u d e t h e r e a l i z a t i o n of t h e s e p o s s i b l y i n c o m p a t i b l e g o a l s f o r a v a s t m a j o r i t y of t h e p o p u l a t i o n . P r o b l e m s of h o u s i n g a r e b ecoming more p r o b l e m s of a f f o r d a b i l i t y and l e s s t h o s e of a b s o l u t e q u a l i t y . P r e s e n t methods f o r m e a s u r i n g h o u s i n g r e q u i r e m e n t s a r e i n a d e q u a t e ( A r m i t a g e and A u d a i n 1972); c o n s e q u e n t l y , t e m p o r a r y s h o r t a g e s f r e q u e n t l y o c c u r . Due to the r e s t r i c t e d s u p p l y rand t h e i n c r e a s i n g demands due to h o u s e h o l d f o r m a t i o n and p o p u l a t i o n changes i n l o c a l m a r k e t s , p r i c e s f o r h o u s i n g have s o a r e d r e c e n t l y . E u r t h e r m o r e , new h o u s i n g p r i c e s c o n t i n u e to i n c r e a s e as a r e s u l t of " t h e i n c r e a s e d c o s t of s e r v i c e d l a n d i n u r b a n c e n t r e s and t h e c o s t of b o r r o w i n g money t o a c q u i r e r e s i d e n t i a l p r o p e r t y " ( I l l i n g 1968). The a v e r a g e s e l l i n g p r i c e of homes s o l d t h r o u g h t h e M u l t i p l e L i s t i n g S e r v i c e of t h e R e a l E s t a t e Board of M e t r o p o l i t a n T o r o n t o a l m o s t d o u b l e d from 1969 to 1974. In 1969 t h e a v e r a g e s e l l i n g p r i c e was $28,945; by 1972, i t was $32,513. In 1973 i t jumped to $40,605 and i n 1974, to $52,806 ( R e a l E s t a t e B o a r d of M e t r o p o l i t a n T o r o n t o , q u o t e d i n M i c h e l s o n 1977). I t has become i n c r e a s i n g l y a p p a r e n t t h a t t h e p r i v a t e s e c t o r , w h i c h has d e v e l o p e d most o f t h e e x i s t i n g h o u s i n g s t o c k , i s not a b l e to p r o d u c e h o u s i n g at an a f f o r d a b l e l e v e l f o r a l l s e c t o r s of t h e p o p u l a t i o n (Marsh 1976). I n f a c t , Canada may be g o i n g backwards i n making h o u s i n g more a f f o r d a b l e . A r e c e n t - 3 -r e v i e w of C a n a d i a n h o u s i n g i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e p r o p o r t i o n of income s p e n t by f a m i l i e s on s h e l t e r i n c r e a s e d f o r a l l b u t the h i g h e s t income q u i n t i l e s f r o m 1969 t o 1972, t h e most r e c e n t y e a r f o r w h i c h d a t a were a v a i l a b l e . The i n c r e a s e s were g r e a t e s t f o r t h e l o w e s t two q u i n t i l e s ; t h e l o w e s t i n c r e a s e d from 28.9% to 29.9%; the s e c o n d from 22.0% to 23.1% ( C a n a d i a n C o u n c i l o n / S o c i a l D e velopment, 1977 ) . C o n s e q u e n t l y , i f t h e h o u s i n g .. . r e q u i r e m e n t s of C a n a d i a n s a r e to be met, a move away from t r a d i t i o n a l a p p r o a c h e s t o h o u s i n g d e v e l o p m e n t w i l l be n e c e s s a r y . L a r g e r p r o p o r t i o n s of t h e p o p u l a t i o n a r e u n a b l e t o p u r c h a s e t h e i r own home, and as a r e s u l t , t h e y a r e becoming t e n a n t s i n m u l t i p l e u n i t d w e l l i n g s . The p r i v a t e s e c t o r ' s h o u s i n g s t a r t s r e f l e c t t h i s move towards m u l t i p l e f a m i l y d w e l l i n g s . In 1962, 26% of t h e t o t a l h o u s i n g s t a r t s were m u l t i p l e d w e l l i n g s ; by 1976, t h e p r o p o r t i o n was 71% ( c a l c u l a t e d from C.M.H.C. 1977, p. 7 0 ) . However, f o r many, even t h e c o s t of p r i v a t e s e c t o r r e n t a l accommodation i s too g r e a t . R e a l i z i n g t h i s f a c t , the p u b l i c s e c t o r i n c r e a s e d the H o u s i n g A s s i s t a n c e Programs a c t i v i t y i n t h e l a t e s i x t i e s . In 1963. o n l y 1.6% of t h e t o t a l h o u s i n g s t a r t s were f u n d e d under H o u s i n g A s s i s t a n c e Programs a u t h o r i z e d by F e d e r a l l e g i s l a t i o n ; t h i s had r i s e n to 8.7% i n 1976 ( c a l c u l a t e d from C.M.H.C. 1977, p. 1 4 ) . Even w i t h t h i s i n c r e a s e i n f e d e r a l l y a s s i s t e d low income h o u s i n g s t a r t s , t h e m a j o r i t y of p e o p l e a r e l e f t t o seek h o u s i n g e l s e w h e r e . F o r many, t h e i r income i s n o t h i g h enough t o a f f o r d p r i v a t e s e c t o r h o u s i n g , and y e t t h e i r income l e v e l i s t o o h i g h f o r t r a d i t i o n a l s t a t e - o w n e d p u b l i c h o u s i n g . In an at t e m p t t o f i l l t h e needs of t h o s e i n t h i s gap, a ' t h i r d ' s e c t o r i n t h e - 4 -h o u s i n g f i e l d has d e v e l o p e d i n Canada. S i n c e t h e ' t h i r d ' s e c t o r has o n l y r e c e n t l y emerged as a r e c o g n i z a b l e e n t i t y , and s i n c e i t i n c l u d e s so many d i f f e r e n t e l e m e n t s , i t i s v e r y d i f f i c u l t t o d e f i n e . Some of t h e grou p s a c t i v e i n t h i s s e c t o r have t h e i r b a s i s i n l o n g e s t a b l i s h e d v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s w i t h a h i e r a r c h i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n and a p a t e r n a l i s t i c o u t l o o k (an example would be a c h u r c h group p r o v i d i n g h o u s i n g f o r the e l d e r l y ) . Other g r o u p s a r e newly formed w i t h a d e m o c r a t i c and p a r t i c i p a t o r y n a t u r e (an example would be a b u i l d i n g c o - o p e r a t i v e s o c i e t y c o n s t r u c t i n g h o u s i n g f o r t h e m s e l v e s ) . The m o t i v a t i o n s of the groups a l s o v a r y ; f o r some t h e h o u s i n g i t s e l f i s t h e p r i m a r y g o a l and f o r o t h e r s , i t i s m e r e l y a means to some o t h e r g o a l . T h e r e a r e two major e l e m e n t s i n t h e t h i r d s e c t o r — n o n - p r o f i t o r g a n i z a t i o n s and c o - o p e r a t i v e s o c i e t i e s . The i n v e t e r a t e n o n - p r o f i t group i s t h e s e r v i c e c l u b t h a t p r o v i d e s h o u s i n g f o r o t h e r s , e.g. s e n i o r c i t i z e n s . C o - o p e r a t i v e s o c i e t i e s are owned and o p e r a t e d by members who a r e u s u a l l y p r o v i d i n g h o u s i n g f o r t h e m s e l v e s . Thus, the o r g a n i z a t i o n and management p h i l o s o p h i e s of t h e s e two g r o u p s are o f t e n d i f f e r e n t and t h e s e d i f f e r e n c e s a r e o f t e n r e f l e c t e d i n t h e i r i n s t i t u t i o n a l b a s e s . N o n - p r o f i t o r g a n i z a t i o n s o f t e n have t h e i r base i n v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s , such as n e i g h b o u r h o o d c i t i z e n s ' g r o u p s , e t h n i c a s s o c i a t i o n s , c h u r c h o r g a n i z a t i o n s or s e r v i c e c l u b s , whereas t h e c o - o p e r a t i v e movement grew out of t h e c r e d i t and t r a d e u n i o n s ( H a i r e 1975). A l t h o u g h t h e s e p a r a t i o n between t h e s e two grou p s i s n a r r o w i n g as c i t i z e n s ' h o u s i n g g r o u p s t a k e on a s p e c t s of b o t h , an h i a t u s s t i l l e x i s t s i n t h i r d s e c t o r h o u s i n g . - 5 -T h i s s t u d y i s c o n c e r n e d w i t h the c o - o p e r a t i v e component of t h i r d s e c t o r h o u s i n g i n Canada. A c o - o p e r a t i v e h o u s i n g p r o j e c t i s d e f i n e d by t h e N a t i o n a l H o u s i n g Act (NHA) as a " h o u s i n g p r o j e c t b u i l t or a c q u i r e d by a c o - o p e r a t i v e a s s o c i a t i o n i n c o r p o r a t e d under t h e laws of Canada or any p r o v i n c e " (S t a t u t e s of Canada, 1973/74, C h a p t e r 18, S e c t i o n ( 1 ) , p. 3 2 7 ) . The NHA r e c o g n i z e s two t y p e s of c o - o p e r a t i v e h o u s i n g , as f o l l o w s : (a) a c o - o p e r a t i v e a s s o c i a t i o n t h a t i s c o n s t r u c t i n g , a c q u i r i n g or i m p r o v i n g h o u s i n g w i t h t h e i n t e n t i o n of s e l l i n g t h e h o u s e s to the members of t h e a s s o c i a t i o n ; and (b) a c o - o p e r a t i v e a s s o c i a t i o n t h a t i s a n o n - p r o f i t c o r p o r a t i o n as d e f i n e d i n s u b - s e c t i o n 1 5 . 1 ( 3 ) , and i s c o n s t r u c t i n g , a c q u i r i n g or i m p r o v i n g a h o u s i n g p r o j e c t w i t h t h e i n t e n t i o n of p r o v i d i n g h o u s i n g t o p e r s o n s , the m a j o r i t y Of whom are members of t h e a s s o c i a t i o n , who w i l l occupy th e h o u s i n g o t h e r w i s e t h a n as owners upon c o m p l e t i o n of the p r o j e c t . ( S t a t u t e s of Canada, 1973/74, C h a p t e r 18, S u b - s e c t i o n 34.18, pp. 343-344) These t y p e s c o r r e s p o n d w i t h t h e b u i l d i n g c o - o p e r a t i v e and t h e c o n t i n u i n g h o u s i n g c o - o p e r a t i v e , r e s p e c t i v e l y ; t h e s e i m p o r t a n t d i s t i n c t i o n s w i l l be d i s c u s s e d more f u l l y i n C h a p t e r 2. P e r h a p s as a r e s u l t of t h e r e l a t i v e newness and s c a r c i t y of t h e s e t y p e s of h o u s i n g , t h e r e i s a p a u c i t y of a c a d e m i c r e s e a r c h c o n c e r n i n g co-op h o u s i n g i n Canada. W i t h r e s p e c t t o e x i s t i n g knowledge, t h e r e a r e f o u r a r e a s of e m p h a s i s . The f i r s t group c o n s i s t s of a s e r i e s o f d e s c r i p t i v e works o u t l i n i n g the h i s t o r y of v a r i o u s p r o j e c t s ( A r n o l d 1940, C o c h r a n 1968, D i n e e n 1975, L a i d l a w 1975, P o m p e r l e a u 1976, Schmid 1974, Simpson 1976). None of t h e s e a r e a n a l y t i c a l , b u t t h e y p r o v i d e - 6 -many i n s i g h t s i n t o c o - o p e r a t i v e h o u s i n g as each i s w r i t t e n from an ' i n s i d e r ' s ' p o i n t of v i e w . The s e c o n d body of l i t e r a t u r e i s c o n c e r n e d w i t h p o l i c y a n a l y s i s and p e r f o r m a n c e ( C l a r k 1975, C o n s t a n t i n u 1970, D e n n i s and F i s h 1972, J o r d a n 1973, H a i r e 1975, Le C o n s e i l de l a C o - o p e r a t i o n du Quebec 1986, Midmore 1962, Roach 1974, S c o t t 1958). Each of t h e s e a u t h o r s e x p r e s s e s the v i e w t h a t co-op h o u s i n g i s a v i a b l e h o u s i n g form t h a t has n o t been u t i l i z e d t o i t s f u l l e s t p o t e n t i a l i n Canada. The p r i m a r y r e a s o n g i v e n f o r t h i s u n d e r d e v e l o p m e n t , as i l l u s t r a t e d by two of t h e t i t l e s --Programs i n S e a r c h of a P o l i c y and In Want of a P o l i c y -- i s a need f o r a d e f i n i t i v e f e d e r a l p o l i c y s t a t e m e n t f o r c o - o p e r a t i v e h o u s i n g . The t h i r d group examines t h e e c o n omics and f i n a n c i n g of c o - o p e r a t i v e h o u s i n g (Chen 1971, Haar 1953, W i l l c o x 1 953). These s t u d i e s advance t h e i d e a t h a t t h e s a v i n g s i n h o u s i n g c o s t s e x p e r i e n c e d i n co-op h o u s i n g a r e n o t a r e s u l t of t h e form of t e n u r e , b u t r a t h e r from t h e s c a l e of e n t e r p r i s e , s u b s t i t u t i o n of l a b o u r f o r money and l o n g term f i n a n c i n g . The c h i e f a d v a n t a g e of co-op h o u s i n g i s s e e n as t h e p a s s i n g on of t h e s e s a v i n g s t o t h e consumer. The l a s t a r e a of most r e c e n t i n t e r e s t i n c o - o p e r a t i v e h o u s i n g i s c o n c e r n e d w i t h r e s i d e n t i a l s a t i s f a c t i o n , the d e c i s i o n to move to a c o n t i n u i n g co-op p r o j e c t and c o m p a r i s o n s between condominiums, a p a r t m e n t s and co-ops (Andrews and B r e s l a u e r 1976a-e, D a v i d s o n 1976, S u l l i v a n 1971). These s t u d i e s have shown t h a t c o - o p e r a t i v e h o u s i n g i s not s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t from o t h e r s i m i l a r s t r u c t u r e s , b o t h a p a r t m e n t complexes and townhouses, i n - 7 -terms of r e s i d e n t i a l s a t i s f a c t i o n and t h e d e c i s i o n t o move. Most r e s i d e n t s a r e s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e i r h o u s i n g c h o i c e s ; t h o s e t h a t a r e n o t o f t e n had i n a c c u r a t e or i n c o m p l e t e i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g t h e p r i n c i p l e s of c o - o p e r a t i v e t e n u r e . S p e c i f i c a l l y , some r e s i d e n t s were not aware of t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s of t h e s e p r i n c i p l e s and t h e r e q u i r e d p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n s u c h t h i n g s as p r o j e c t management. T h e s e - p e o p l e had seen co-op h o u s i n g m e r e l y as cheap h o u s i n g , i g n o r i n g or i g n o r a n t of the i d e o l o g y and s o c i a l p u r p o s e of c o - o p e r a t i o n . The p r e s e n t s t u d y o v e r l a p s each of t h e s e f o u r a r e a s of e m p h a s i s . I t w i l l a l s o add a new d i m e n s i o n to c o - o p e r a t i v e h o u s i n g r e s e a r c h w i t h an e x a m i n a t i o n of t h e s p a t i a l c o n f i g u r -a t i o n of t h e e x i s t i n g p r o j e c t s . None of t h e above m e n t i o n e d s t u d i e s have been c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e l o c a t i o n a l a s p e c t s of c o - o p s , a l t h o u g h t h e works by Andrews and B r e s l a u e r a r e c o n c e r n e d i n d i r e c t l y w i t h t h e l o c a t i o n of co-op h o u s i n g as a d e t e r m i n a n t of r e s i d e n t i a l s a t i s f a c t i o n and t h e d e c i s i o n to move t o a c o - o p e r a t i v e h o u s i n g p r o j e c t . An i n i t i a l o b j e c t i v e of t h i s s t u d y i s to d e s c r i b e the s p a t i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n of b u i l d i n g and c o n t i n u i n g t y p e s of c o - o p e r a t i v e h o u s i n g i n Canada. To a c h i e v e t h i s , d a t a were c o l l e c t e d f o r t h e e n t i r e h i s t o r y (1937 - 1977) f o r co-op h o u s i n g at t h e n a t i o n a l s c a l e . T h i s d a t a s e t i s d e s c r i b e d g r a p h i c a l l y , c a r t o g r a p h i c a l l y and v e r b a l l y . A s e c o n d o b j e c t i v e i s t o a n a l y z e t h i s s p a t i a l d i s t r i b u t -i o n i n o r d e r to i d e n t i f y t h e v a r i o u s f a c t o r s t h a t have l e d t o t h i s d i s t r i b u t i o n . The a n a l y s i s encompasses two s c a l e s ; t h e - 8 -n a t i o n a l and t h e u r b a n . The u r b a n a r e a examined i s t h e G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t , w i t h M e t r o p o l i t a n T o r o n t o d i s c u s s e d f o r c o n t r a s t . At the n a t i o n a l s c a l e , a v a r i e t y of f a c t o r s a r e examined i n c l u d i n g government p o l i c i e s , and the r o l e of s u p p o r t i n s t i t u t i o n s as t h e y r e l a t e of t h e l o c a t i o n of c o - o p e r a t i v e p r o j e c t s . At t h e u r b a n s c a l e , t h e a n a l y s i s e n t a i l s two method-o l o g i e s . D i s c r i m i n a n t a n a l y s i s i s a p p l i e d to a number of demo-g r a p h i c and p h y s i c a l v a r i a b l e s i n an a t t e m p t to d i s t i n g u i s h between l o c a l a r e a s w i t h co-op h o u s i n g and t h o s e a r e a s w i t h o u t . Then, t h r e e c a s e s t u d i e s of t h e d e v e l o p m e n t p r o c e s s a r e examined to d e t e r m i n e t h e r o l e of community a t t i t u d e s i n t h e s p a t i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n of c o - o p e r a t i v e h o u s i n g . As f o r any r e s e a r c h p r o b l e m , a m a j o r d e c i s i o n i n v o l v e s t h e c h o i c e of a m e t h o d o l o g y . In t h e c a s e of c o - o p e r a t i v e h o u s i n g , f o u r methods of a n a l y s i s seemed p o s s i b l e . These were, f i r s t , a s t u d y of i n n o v a t i o n d i f f u s i o n ; s e c o n d , a d e t a i l e d s t u d y of the d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s ; t h i r d , a s t u d y of l o c a t i o n a l c o n f l i c t ; and f o u r t h , an o v e r v i e w s t u d y i n v o l v i n g a s p e c t s of each of t h e o t h e r t h r e e . I t was t h e l a t t e r a p p r o a c h w h i c h was a d o p t e d . Each of t h e o t h e r t h r e e methods i m p l i e d , i n p a r t , an i n i t i a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g of t h e phenomena i n v o l v e d . In t h e c a s e of c o - o p e r a t i v e h o u s i n g , v e r y l i t t l e i n f o r m a t i o n was a v a i l a b l e . P r i o r t o c o m p l e t i o n of t h i s s t u d y , i t would have been d i f f i c u l t t o be c o n f i d e n t t h a t t h e r e was s u f f i c i e n t m a t e r i a l f o r any of t h e o t h e r a p p r o a c h e s . I t i s b e c a u s e of t h e r e l a t i v e p a u c i t y of i n f o r m a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g c o - o p e r a t i v e h o u s i n g i n Canada t h a t a g e n e r a l o v e r v i e w a p p r o a c h was t a k e n . T h i s s t u d y was s e e n to be - 9 -one w h i c h would l a y t h e f o u n d a t i o n f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h i n co-op h o u s i n g . The o r g a n i z a t i o n of the t h e s i s i s as f o l l o w s : Some b a s i c d e f i n i t i o n s and p r i n c i p l e s of t h e c o - o p e r a t i v e h o u s i n g movement a r e p r o v i d e d i n C h a p t e r 2 . In a d d i t i o n , a b r i e f h i s t o r i c a l o v e r v i e w o f b u i l d i n g and c o n t i n u i n g h o u s i n g c o - o p e r a t i v e s i s f o u n d i n t h e c h a p t e r . C h a p t e r 3 p r e s e n t s t h e r e s e a r c h d e s i g n f o r t h i s s t u d y . The c h a p t e r i s d i v i d e d i n t o f o u r s e c t i o n s d e a l i n g w i t h an i n t r o d u c t i o n to t h e m e t h o d o l o g y , d e s c r i p t i o n of t h e d a t a r e q u i r e m e n t s , an i n t r o d u c t i o n t o t h e s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s , and a d e s c r i p t i o n of t h e d i s c r i m i n a n t p r o c e d u r e . C h a p t e r 4 c o n t a i n s a d e s c r i p t i o n and a n a l y s i s of t h e s p a t i a l and t e m p o r a l p a t t e r n s of b o t h b u i l d i n g and c o n t i n u i n g c o - o p e r a t i v e s i n Canada. In C h a p t e r 5, the p a t t e r n s of c o n t i n u i n g c o - o p e r a t i v e s «• i n t h e G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t a r e i n v e s t i g a t e d . The r e s u l t s of the d i s c r i m i n a n t a n a l y s e s a r e p r e s e n t e d and d i s c u s s e d . Community a t t i t u d e s a r e examined t h r o u g h t h r e e case s t u d i e s of t h e de v e l o p m e n t p r o c e s s of c o n t i n u i n g c o - o p e r a t i v e s . C h a p t e r 6 , c o n c l u d e s t h e s t u d y w i t h a s h o r t summary of the f i n d i n g s . I t a l s o p o s i t i o n s t h i s s t u d y i n b o t h the f i e l d of g eography and i n t h e h o u s i n g l i t e r a t u r e . CHAPTER 2 AN OVERVIEW OF CO-OPERATIVE HOUSING IN CANADA The term ' c o - o p e r a t i v e h o u s i n g ' i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a v a r i e t y of h o u s i n g t y p e s , r a n g i n g from l u x u r y condominiums to communes. The p u r p o s e of t h i s c h a p t e r i s t o e x p l a i n what i s meant by c o - o p e r a t i v e h o u s i n g i n t h i s t h e s i s , and t o c l a r i f y a v a r i e t y of t e r m i n o l o g y . S e c o n d l y , t h i s c h a p t e r p r o v i d e s a b r i e f r e v i e w o f c o - o p e r a t i v e h o u s i n g i n Canada, An I n t r o d u c t i o n to C o - o p e r a t i v e H o u s i n g The n o t i o n of c o - o p e r a t i v e e n t e r p r i s e has been known t o C a n a d i a n s i n t h e form of consumer co-ops f o r o v e r a c e n t u r y . O t h e r p o p u l a r c o - o p e r a t i v e a c t i v i t i e s i n c l u d e c r e d i t u n i o n s , wheat p o o l s , day c a r e c e n t r e s and a u t o m o b i l e i n s u r a n c e . By c o m p a r i s o n , c o - o p e r a t i v e h o u s i n g , s t i l l i n i t s i n f a n c y , i s n o t a w e l l - k n o w n s e c t o r o f the c o - o p e r a t i v e movement. T h e r e i s no p r e c i s e or s i m p l e d e f i n i t i o n o f c o - o p e r a t i v e h o u s i n g as t h e c o n c e p t i s complex. F i v e ways i n w h i c h c o -o p e r a t i v e methods a r e used i n o b t a i n i n g h o u s i n g f o r consumers have been i d e n t i f i e d ( L a i d l a w 1971a, W i l l c o x 1953), The f i r s t , c o - o p e r a t i v e f i n a n c i n g , i s r e p r e s e n t e d i n Canada by t h e c a i s s e s p o p u l a i r e s ( i n Quebec) and c r e d i t u n i o n s . These c o - o p e r a t i v e i n s t i t u t i o n s p r o v i d e f i n a n c i n g f o r home p u r c h a s e or i m p r o v e -ments . A s e c o n d method of o b t a i n i n g h o u s i n g c o - o p e r a t i v e l y i s - 10 -- 11 -t h r o u g h c o - o p e r a t i v e p u r c h a s i n g . P e o p l e may f o r m a group to j o i n t l y p u r c h a s e l a n d , b u i l d i n g s u p p l i e s or m a t e r i a l s f o r t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f homes to be i n d i v i d u a l l y owned. T h i s may be done i n a number of ways, but none of t h e s e a r r a n g e m e n t s i s common i n Canada. In t h e t h i r d t y p e , the p r o d u c e r s of h o u s i n g , r a t h e r t h a n t h e consumers, f o r m a c o - o p e r a t i v e t o p r o v i d e h o u s i n g . T h i s has been c a l l e d t h e b u i l d e r s ' c o - o p e r a t i v e , and a l t h o u g h i t i s unknown i n Canada, Sweden has p r o v i d e d much of i t s h o u s i n g t h i s way ( s e e C o n s t a n t i n u 1970, Greve 1971), C o - o p e r a t i v e b u i l d i n g , t h e f o u r t h f o r m , o c c u r s when a group of f a m i l i e s form a c o - o p e r a t i v e f o r t h e p u r p o s e of c o n -s t r u c t i n g homes w h i c h w i l l e v e n t u a l l y be owned by t h e members i n d i v i d u a l l y . I n Canada t h e r e a r e two t y p e s of b u i l d i n g c o - o p e r a t i v e s . I n t h e c o n t i n u i n g t y p e , t h e c o - o p e r a t i v e r e m a i n s i n t a c t as an o r g a n i z a t i o n u n t i l t h e group mortgage i s a m o r t i z e d . A c t u a l o w n e r s h i p r e m a i n s w i t h the group d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d , w i t h f a m i l i e s l e a s i n g t h e i r homes from th e co-op. Once the mortgage has been p a i d , the homes a r e i n d i v i d u a l l y owned. T h i s was t h e o r i g i n a l form a d o p t e d i n Nova S c o t i a i n t h e l a t e n i n e t e e n t h i r t i e s . In t h e t e r m i n a t i n g t y p e , t h e c o - o p e r a t i v e i s d i s s o l v e d when c o n -s t r u c t i o n i s c o m p l e t e d , and the f a m i l i e s t a k e o v e r t h e d w e l l i n g s w i t h i n d i v i d u a l m o r t g a g e s . T h i s t y p e of c o - o p e r a t i v e was q u i t e common i n O n t a r i o a f t e r t h e war, and t h e r e c e n t l y formed b u i l d i n g c o-ops i n Nova S c o t i a have a d o p t e d t h i s a r r a n g e m e n t . The h o u s i n g c o - o p e r a t i v e i s t h e f i f t h and most a d v a n c e d example o f a c o - o p e r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e b e i n g u t i l i z e d t o p r o d u c e - 12 -h o u s i n g . The term h o u s i n g c o - o p e r a t i v e s h o u l d not be c o n f u s e d w i t h c o - o p e r a t i v e h o u s i n g ; t h e f i r s t r e f e r s to a p a r t i c u l a r t y p e o f co-op, whereas t h e s e c o n d r e f e r s to t h e g e n e r a l c o - o p e r a t i v e h o u s i n g movement. In h o u s i n g c o - o p e r a t i v e s , members n e v e r assume i n d i v i d u a l o w n e r s h i p of t h e h o u s i n g u n i t s , but have o w n e r s h i p i n t h e form of s h a r e s i n t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n . Thus the t e n a n t s become l a n d l o r d s , and t h e l a n d l o r d s (owners) must q u a l i f y by b e i n g t e n a n t s . T h i s i s t h e newest form of c o - o p e r a t i v e h o u s i n g i n Canada, and u s u a l l y o c c u r s as m u l t i p l e u n i t h o u s i n g d e v e l o p m e n t s i n l a r g e u r b a n a r e a s . E a c h of t h e s e d i f f e r e n t t y p e s of c o - o p e r a t i v e a r r a n g e ^ merits f o r h o u s i n g p r o d u c t i o n a r e based on c e r t a i n p r i n c i p l e s t h a t d i s t i n g u i s h them from o t h e r o r g a n i z a t i o n s o r b u s i n e s s e s . C o - o p e r a t i v e p r i n c i p l e s a r e o f t e n c a l l e d t h e R o c h d a l e p r i n c i p l e s a f t e r t h e p i o n e e r c o - o p e r a t i v e of t h e E n g l i s h consumers move-ment s t a r t e d i n L a n c a s h i r e i n 1844 ( s e e B a i l e y 1955, I n t e r -C o - o p e r a t i v e C o u n c i l 1975, S a u n d e r s 1938). A l t h o u g h t h e s e p r i n c i p l e s have not been s e t down i n a manner t h a t i s u n i v e r -s a l l y a c c e p t e d , s i x p r i n c i p l e s were a p p r o v e d by t h e 1966 W o r l d C o n g r e s s of t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l C o - o p e r a t i v e A l l i a n c e . T hese p r i n c i p l e s a r e : ( L a i d l a w 1971b) (.1) open and v o l u n t a r y membership; (2) d e m o c r a t i c c o n t r o l v i a t h e p r i n c i p l e of one member-one v o t e ; (3) l i m i t e d i n t e r e s t on c a p i t a l ; (4) s u r p l u s e a r n i n g s ( p r o f i t ) b e l o n g to t h e members ( c u s t o m e r s ) on a p r o -p o r t i o n a t e b a s i s a c c o r d i n g to p u r -chase or b u s i n e s s done; - 13 -(5) : member e d u c a t i o n ; (6) c o - o p e r a t i o n among c o - o p e r a t i v e s . A l t h o u g h t h e a p p l i c a b i l i t y of each of t h e s e p r i n c i p l e s to h o u s i n g i s not i m m e d i a t e l y a p p a r e n t , t h e y a r e r e l e v a n t . Each w i l l now be d i s c u s s e d i n t u r n , d r a w i n g on t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n by L a i d l a w ( 1 9 7 1 b ) . (1) Membership i n a c o - o p e r a t i v e h o u s i n g p r o j e c t i s open t o a l l p e r s o n s who a p p l y i n good f a i t h , and who a r e w i l l i n g to p a r t i c i p a t e ' i n a r e a s o n a b l e way'. W h i l e a c e r t a i n d e g r e e of c o m p a t i b i l i t y among members i s r e q u i r e d f o r s u c c e s s , r a c i a l or o t h e r forms of d i s c r i m i n a t i o n a r e not a l l o w e d . F u r t h e r m o r e , co-op h o u s i n g s h o u l d seek t o e l i m i n a t e the s e g r e g a t i o n and c o n c e n t r a t i o n of low income f a m i l i e s i n s p e c i f i c a r e a s . (2) The one member-one v o t e p r i n c i p l e i m p l i e s t h a t each h o u s e h o l d has one v o t e . The aim i s t o e n c o u r a g e a l l members t o t a k e p a r t as a c t i v e l y as p o s s i b l e i n t h e a f f a i r s o f t h e g r o u p . (3) L i m i t e d i n t e r e s t on c a p i t a l r e f e r s t o e q u i t y i n c o - o p e r - : a t i v e h o u s i n g . I n a l l c o - o p e r a t i v e p r o c e d u r e s o t h e r t h a n t h e h o u s i n g co-op, h o u s i n g u n i t s a r e a t some t i m e h e l d by p r i v a t e o w n e r s h i p , and t h e market s y s t e m d e t e r m i n e s t h e e q u i t y . How-e v e r , i n t h e h o u s i n g c o - o p e r a t i v e s , o w n e r s h i p i s a l w a y s c o l l e c t i v e , hence the i s s u e of e q u i t y i s i m p o r t a n t and r e q u i r e s c l a r i f i c a t i o n ; A l t h o u g h s e v e r a l a l t e r n a t i v e s e x i s t , t h e o f f i c i a l p o l i c y of t h e C o - o p e r a t i v e H o u s i n g F o u n d a t i o n o f Canada i n v o l v e s c o n s t a n t d o l l a r s ( L a i d l a w 1 9 7 5 ) . T h i s means t h a t when a member l e a v e s t h e co-op h i s i n i t i a l c o n t r i b u t i o n - 14 -or down payment i s r e t u r n e d , p l u s a bonus to r e f l e c t any i n c r e a s e s i n t h e market v a l u e o f t h e p r o p e r t y . The i n c o m i n g member would t h e n pay the l a r g e r amount as a down payment, (4) M o n t h l y c h a r g e s s h o u l d c o v e r a l l c o s t s i n v o l v e d , and may be a d j u s t e d as c o s t s change. These m o n t h l y c h a r g e s s h a l l be p r o p o r t i o n a t e to s p a ce o c c u p i e d . T h e r e f o r e , a h o u s e h o l d w i t h a t h r e e bedroom u n i t would pay more t h a n a h o u s e h o l d w i t h a two bedroom u n i t . The m o n t h l y c h a r g e s a r e a l s o r e l a t e d to h o u s e h o l d income i n a s i m i l a r manner; f a m i l i e s w i t h a h i g h income w i l l pay more f o r a two bedroom u n i t t h a n f a m i l i e s w i t h a low income. T h i s r e s u l t s i n an i n t e r n a l s u b s i d y , w i t h t h e h i g h e r income f a m i l i e s s u b s i d i z i n g t h e l o w e r income f a m i l i e s , (5) E d u c a t i o n i s e s s e n t i a l to a l l t y p e s of c o - o p e r a t i v e h o u s i n g to g i v e members an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f a l l t h e f a c t o r s i n v o l v e d i n owning and m a i n t a i n i n g a h o u s i n g p r o j e c t a nd/or u n i t . I d e a l l y , e ach member would become k n o w l e d g e a b l e about f i n a n c i n g d e t a i l s , m a i n t e n a n c e r e q u i r e m e n t s , and o t h e r f a c t o r s i m p o r t a n t i n t h e management of t h e p r o j e c t . A n o t h e r f a c e t of t h e e d u c a t i o n p r o g ram e n c o u r a g e s members towards d e s i r a b l e s o c i a l g o a l s , w h i c h i n c l u d e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n community a f f a i r s . (6) The c o n c e p t of c o - o p e r a t i o n among c o - o p e r a t i v e s e n c o u r ^ ages members to f o r m o t h e r c o - o p s , s u c h as c r e d i t , u n i o n s , day-c a r e c e n t r e s , and consumer c o - o p s . T h i s p r i n c i p l e i s o f t e n p u r s u e d v i a the e d u c a t i o n p rogram. C o - o p e r a t i v e h o u s i n g i s c l e a r l y v e r y d i f f e r e n t f r o m o t h e r - 15 -t y p e s of h o u s i n g . O c c u p a n t s a r e s i m u l t a n e o u s l y l a n d l o r d s and t e n a n t s . F u r t h e r m o r e , members a r e e n c o u r a g e d to t a k e p a r t i n v a r i o u s forms of c o l l e c t i v e a c t i o n . Those a d v o c a t i n g co-op a p p r o a c h e s to t h e s u p p l y and c o n s u m p t i o n o f h o u s i n g see s u c h h o u s i n g as s a t i s f y i n g t h o s e whose needs a r e not met by the market economy and who a r e o u t s i d e t h e m a i n s t r e a m . Thus co-op h o u s i n g has a d u a l i s t i c n a t u r e ; i t i s b o t h a b u s i n e s s e n t e r -p r i s e and an o r g a n i z a t i o n w i t h a d i s t i n c t s o c i a l p u r p o s e . B u i l d i n g C o - o p e r a t i v e s i n Canada: A Review B u i l d i n g c o - o p e r a t i v e s were the f i r s t f o r m of c o - o p e r a t i v e h o u s i n g to be d e v e l o p e d i n Canada, The f i r s t homes were s t a r t e d i n 1938 i n R e s e r v e M i n e s , an i m p o v e r i s h e d m i n i n g community i n Cape B r e t o n . As t h i s p r o j e c t i s n o t o n l y t h e f i r s t i n Canada, but has been seen as t h e r o o t of t h e p r e s e n t s e l f - h e l f p r o g r am i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s , 1 a b r i e f o u t l i n e of i t s d e v e l o p m e n t i s p r e s e n t e d h e r e ( f o r a c o m p l e t e a c c o u n t , see A r n o l d 1 9 4 0 ) . D u r i n g t h e d e p r e s s i o n , l e a d e r s of S t . F r a n c i s X a v i e r U n i v e r s i t y were d e d i c a t e d t o a b r o a d program o f s o c i a l and economic p r o g r e s s r e s t i n g on t h e a s s u m p t i o n t h a t common p e o p l e s h o u l d be m a s t e r s of t h e i r own d e s t i n i e s . One of t h e l e a d e r s , R e v e r e n d J . J . Tompkins, known as F a t h e r Jimmy, had o r g a n i z e d s t u d y g r o u p s , and t h r o u g h h i s e d u c a t i o n p r o g r a m a c r e d i t u n i o n was o r g a n i z e d i n 1933, and a co-op g r o c e r y s t o r y was opened i n 1935. I t was t h r o u g h F a t h e r Jimmy's i n i t i a t i v e t h a t one o f h i s s t u d y g r o u p s , c o n s i s t i n g of e l e v e n m i n e r s a t R e s e r v e M i n e s , Nova S c o t i a , t u r n e d to t h e i n n o v a t i o n of c o - o p e r a t i v e h o u s i n g - 16 -to a l l e v i a t e t h e i r p r o b l e m s of h i g h r e n t s and p o o r h o u s i n g c o n -d i t i o n s . F a t h e r Jimmy had h e a r d about s e l f - h e l p h o u s i n g i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s and f e l t t h a t i t c o u l d be combined w i t h h i s n o t i o n s o f c o - o p e r a t i v e s to s o l v e t h e i r h o u s i n g p r o b l e m s . S i n c e t h e m i n e r s were w o r k i n g o n l y two o r t h r e e s h i f t s a week, time was p l e n t i f u l f o r s t u d y i n g and b u i l d i n g . A p e r i o d of s i x months was r e q u i r e d f o r o r g a n i z e d s t u d y on numerous t o p i c s : f i n a n c i a l and l e g a l a r r a n g e m e n t s , p l a n n i n g , c o n s t r u c t i o n and d e s i g n , c o s t c o n t r o l , c o - o p e r a t i v e h i s t o r y and p h i l o s o p h y , F i n a n c i n g of t h e p r o j e c t was o b t a i n e d t h r o u g h t h e p r o v i n c i a l government h o u s i n g a g e n c y . 2 The Nova S c o t i a H o u s i n g Commission A c t a u t h o r i z e d l o a n s a t a 3^ 2% i n t e r e s t r a t e to l i m i t e d d i v i d e n d c ompanies, Under t h i s A c t , t h e Commission p r o v i d e d 75% of t h e f i n i s h e d c o s t of t h e house w i t h t h e r e m a i n i n g 25% b e i n g p r o v i d e d by the group i n v o l v e d . As few l i m i t e d d i v i d e n d companies had u t i l i z e d t h i s p r o v i s i o n , F a t h e r Jimmy was a b l e t o c o n v i n c e t h e government to a l l o w c o - o p e r a t i v e s f u n d i n g under t h e A c t , w i t h members c o n t r i b u t i n g "sweat e q u i t y " o r l a b o u r i n l i e u of t h e i r 25% e q u i t y . As w i t h any p i o n e e r i n g e f f o r t , many p r o b l e m s a r o s e i n t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n of t h e homes; however, by December of 1938, t h e m i n e r s t o o k up r e s i d e n c e i n t h e i r new homes i n ' T o m p k i n s v i l l e ' , t h e new s u b u r b of R e s e r v e M i n e s . D u r i n g t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n of T o m p k i n s v i l l e , c o - o p e r a t i v e h o u s i n g s t u d y g r o u p s were formed i n o t h e r Nova S c o t i a n towns. The i n n o v a t i o n o f b u i l d i n g c o - o p e r a t i v e s w i t h a sweat e q u i t y and a c o n t i n u i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n f o r t h e term of the m ortgage, - 17 -d i f f u s e d r a p i d l y to o t h e r c o m m u n i t i e s . By 1953, t h i r t y - f i v e g r o u p s had been f i n a n c e d by t h e Nova S c o t i a H o u s i n g Commission, and 428 c o - o p e r a t i v e l y b u i l t homes were o c c u p i e d (Roach 1 9 7 4 ) . Co-op h o u s i n g g r o u p s were a l s o formed i n P r i n c e Edward I s l a n d and N e w f o u n d l a n d . T o m p k i n s v i l l e ' s s u c c e s s a l s o i n s p i r e d g r o u p s i n Quebec, and t h e f i r s t b u i l d i n g c o - o p e r a t i v e was o r g a n i z e d t h e r e i n 1937. I t , however, n e v e r p r o c e e d e d beyond t h e i n c o r p o r a t i o n s t a g e . Quebec's f i r s t b u i l d i n g co-op to be c o m p l e t e d c o n s i s t e d of 15 ho u s e s c o n s t r u c t e d i n A s b e s t o s i n 1941. I t had f o l l o w e d the T o m p k i n s v i l l e model as s e t out i n a handbook p u b l i s h e d by the E x t e n s i o n Department o f S t , F r a n c i s X a v i e r U n i v e r s i t y . T h i s b o o k l e t had been s e n t to t h e L i g u e O u v r i e r e C a t h o l i q u e f o r use i n t h e i r a d u l t e d u c a t i o n p r o g r a m s . The L i q u e O u v r i e r e C a t h o -l i q u e promoted the de v e l o p m e n t o f h o u s i n g c o - o p e r a t i v e s i n Quebec i n much t h e same manner as t h e E x t e n s i o n Department i n Nova S c o t i a . To t h i s movement was added t h e s u p p o r t of t h e c l e r g y , the p a r i s h p r i e s t o f t e n b e i n g t h e i n i t i a t o r , p r o m o t o r and c o -o r d i n a t o r of t h e h o u s i n g co-op. However, t h e c o - o p e r a t i v e move-ment i t s e l f a l s o p l a y e d a s u p p o r t i v e r o l e i n Quebec, C r e d i t u n i o n s , c a i s s e s p o p u l a i r e s and o t h e r c o - o p e r a t i v e f i n a n c e i n s t i t u t i o n s p r o v i d e d 60% of a l l l o a n s made to members of h o u s i n g c o - o p e r a t i v e s (Le C o n s e i l de l a C o - o p e r a t i o n du Quebec 1968). In many c a s e s t h e y n ot o n l y p r o v i d e d t h e f u n d i n g , but a l s o the i n i t i a t i v e f o r t h e p r o j e c t . T h i s i l l u s t r a t e s t h e f a c t t h a t many c o - o p e r a t i v e h o u s i n g p r o j e c t s u t i l i z e more t h a n one method o f a p p l y i n g c o - o p e r a t i v e t e c h n i q u e s t o h o u s i n g ; i n t h i s - 18 -c a s e , b o t h co-op b u i l d i n g and c o - o p e r a t i v e f i n a n c e p r a c t i c e s a r e u s e d , One of t h e d i s t i n c t i v e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of c o - o p e r a t i v e h o u s i n g i n Quebec i s t h e v a r i e t y of t y p e s o f co-op i n v o l v e m e n t . These have i n c l u d e d l a n d p u r c h a s i n g co-ops w h i c h do n o t engage i n c o n s t r u c t i o n , sweat e q u i t y b u i l d i n g c o - o p e r a t i v e s , c o - o p s a c t i n g as g e n e r a l c o n t r a c t o r s on b e h a l f o f t h e i r members, and p r o d u c e r c o - o p e r a t i v e s w h i c h m e r e l y a c t as d e v e l o p e r s a r r a n g i n g f o r t h e p u r c h a s e of t h e l a n d and the c o n s t r u c t i o n o f houses by i n d e p e n d e n t c o n t r a c t o r s . T h e s e forms a r e n o t m u t u a l l y e x c l u s i v e ; T a b l e I d e m o n s t r a t e s th e v a r i o u s c o m b i n a t i o n s u s e d i n t h e e v o l u t i o n o f t h e 41 h o u s i n g c o - o p e r a t i v e s s t u d i e d by t h e Con— s e i l de l a C o - o p e r a t i o n du Quebec (C.C.Q) i n 1965. In a l l c a s e s , t h e c o - o p e r a t i v e p u r c h a s e s t h e l a n d on b e h a l f of t h e members. O t h e r w i s e , t h e r e i s an a b s e n c e of u n i f o r m i t y as to t h e mode of o p e r a t i o n . As a r e s u l t of t h i s c o m p l e x i t y , Quebec does n o t d i s -t i n g u i s h between b u i l d i n g c o-ops and o t h e r co-ops!, Data p e r -t a i n i n g t o Quebec's c o - o p e r a t i v e h o u s i n g s e c t o r i n c l u d e s a l l p r o j e c t s u s i n g any of t h e p r a c t i c e s n o t e d i n T a b l e I . As t y p e s 1 and 2 do n o t f i t i n t o t h e d e f i n i t i o n of b u i l d i n g co-ops used h e r e , t h e Quebec d a t a are somewhat i n f l a t e d . R e g a r d l e s s of t h e t y p e ( s ) of c o - o p e r a t i v e u t i l i z e d , i n a l m o s t e v e r y p r o j e c t t h e c o - o p e r a t i v e was d i s s o l v e d upon the c o m p l e t i o n of c o n s t r u c t i o n , and t i t l e t o t h e home was p a s s e d on to t h e i n d i v i d u a l member. T h i s r e f l e c t s t h e f a c t t h a t t h e c o - o p e r a t i v e f a c t o r of t h e h o u s i n g p r o j e c t was i n c i d e n t a l , and n o t v i e w e d as an end i n i t s e l f , b u t r a t h e r as a means of p r o v - 19 -TABLE I TYPES OF OPERATION ADOPTED BY HOUSING CO-OPERATIVES OF QUEBEC 1937-1965 Number Type of O p e r a t i o n C o - o p e r a t i v e s 1. C o n s t r u c t i o n by i n d e p e n d e n t c o n t r a c t o r 6 2. C o n s t r u c t i o n by co-op, t h e n by r e s i d e n t c o n t r a c t o r 1 3. C o n s t r u c t i o n by membership, t h e n by i n d e p e n d e n t c o n t r a c t o r 1 4. C o n s t r u c t i o n by membership, n e x t by co-op, t h e n by i n d e p e n d e n t c o n t r a c t o r 1 5. C o n s t r u c t i o n by membership 3 6. C o n s t r u c t i o n by co-op 11 7. C o n s t r u c t i o n by membership, t h e n by co-op 9 8. C o n s t r u c t i o n by membership, n e x t by i n d e p e n d e n t c o n t r a c t o r , t h e n by co-op 1 9. Land o n l y ( t h e i n d i v i d u a l l o o k s a f t e r t h e c o n t r a c t i n g ) 5 10. C o n s t r u c t i o n by membership i n common, t h e n by i n d i v i d u a l member 1 11. C o n s t r u c t i o n by the co-op, t h e n by i n d i v i d u a l member __2_ TOTAL 41 N o t e s : The word ' c o - o p e r a t i v e ' or 'co-op'' r e f e r s h e r e t o t h e s p o n s o r i n g g r o u p , or t h e 'mother' s o c i e t y . The word 'membership' r e f e r s to t h e p e o p l e who w i l l a c t u a l l y o c c u p y t h e c o m p l e t e d u n i t s , or the ' d a u g h t e r -s o c i e t y . In a l l of t h e above c a s e s , the c o - o p e r a t i v e p u r c h a s e s the l a n d f o r the p r o j e c t . S o u r c e : Le C o n s e i l de l a C o - o p e r a t i o n du Quebec 1968, p, 81, - 20 -v i d i n g f a m i l i e s w i t h i n d i v i d u a l home o w n e r s h i p (C.C.Q, 1968), These t e r m i n a t i n g c o - o p e r a t i v e s , u s i n g t h e methods l i s t e d i n T a b l e I , have been q u i t e p o p u l a r i n Quebec, w i t h a p p r o x i m a t e l y 4,500 u n i t s b e i n g c o m p l e t e d by 1957 ( S c o t t 1958), A f t e r W o r l d War I I , a few b u i l d i n g c o - o p e r a t i v e s were d e v e l o p e d i n O n t a r i o . I n 1952, S t . P a t r i c k ' s C o l l e g e i n Ottawa d e v e l o p e d a handbook and an e d u c a t i o n a l program d e s i g n e d t o h e l p p e o p l e i n t e r e s t e d i n d e v e l o p i n g b u i l d i n g c o - o p e r a t i v e s , The s i g n i f i c a n c e of t h i s r e p e a t e d s p o n s o r s h i p by t h e C a t h o l i c C h u r c h w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n C h a p t e r 4; i t i s s u f f i c i e n t h e r e to n o t e t h a t as i n Quebec, a l l homes come under s i n g l e f a m i l y o w n e r s h i p upon c o m p l e t i o n of c o n s t r u c t i o n . I n O n t a r i o , f i n a n c i n g o f b u i l d i n g c o-ops has been t h r o u g h C e n t r a l M o r t g a g e and H o u s i n g C o r p o r a t i o n (C.M.H.C.). A l t h o u g h C.M.H.C, d i d n o t p r o v i d e f o r a l o w e r i n t e r e s t r a t e f o r c o - o p e r a t i v e p r o j e c t m o r t g a g e s , t h e sweat e q u i t y p r i n c i p l e c o u l d be a p p l i e d ( J o r d a n 1 9 7 1). A p p r o x i m a t e l y 800 b u i l d i n g c o - o p e r a t i v e h o u s e s were c o n s t r u c t e d by t h e mid-1950's. More r e c e n t l y , b u i l d i n g c o - o p e r a t i v e p r o j e c t s have been d e v e l o p e d i n M a n i t o b a , S a s k a t c h e w a n , A l b e r t a and New B r u n s w i c k ; t h i s t y p e o f c o - o p e r a t i v e has not y e t been s u c c e s s f u l l y d e v e -l o p e d i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . D a t a and f u r t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g t h e l o c a t i o n of b u i l d i n g c o - o p e r a t i v e s i n Canada w i l l be g i v e n i n C h a p t e r 4. - 21 -C o n t i n u i n g H o u s i n g C o - o p e r a t i v e s i n Canada; A Review The f i r s t C a n a d i a n c o n t i n u i n g h o u s i n g c o - o p e r a t i v e was d e v e l o p e d i n W i n n i p e g , M a n i t o b a . S i n c e the f o u n d i n g of wheat p o o l s and c r e d i t u n i o n s , t h e p h i l o s o p h y and m e t h o d o l o g y of c o - o p e r a t i v e e n t e r p r i s e s had become e n t r e n c h e d i n t h e M a n i t o b a way of l i f e . I n t h e e a r l y f i f t i e s , a group of U n i v e r s i t y of M a n i t o b a s t a f f and f a c u l t y a t t e m p t e d t o p r o v i d e c o - o p e r a t i v e h o u s i n g f o r t h e m s e l v e s n e a r the u n i v e r s i t y ( C o — o p e r a t i v e C r e d i t S o c i e t y o f M a n i t o b a 1975, L a i d l a w 1975, P o m p e r l e a u 1976). When t h e l a n d i n t e n d e d f o r use became u n a v a i l a b l e , many of them s a t i s f i e d t h e i r h o u s i n g needs i n d i v i d u a l l y . However, t h e i r i n t e r e s t i n c o - o p e r a t i v e h o u s i n g c o n t i n u e d , and i n the f a l l of 1959, t h e y came t o g e t h e r w i t h l e a d e r s of l o c a l consumer and p r o d u c e r c o - o p e r a t i v e s to s t u d y methods o f a p p l y i n g c o -o p e r a t i v e t e c h n i q u e s to the h o u s i n g of low and m o derate income f a m i l i e s . The group knew t h a t b u i l d i n g c o - o p e r a t i v e s had become q u i t e p o p u l a r i n e a s t e r n Canada, but t h e y were i n t e r e s t e d i n d e v e l o p i n g co-op h o u s i n g w h i c h would be owned c o l l e c t i v e l y even a f t e r i t was b u i l t . They were aware of co-op h o u s i n g i n Sweden, I s r a e l and t h e U.S., and d u r i n g t h e w i n t e r o f 1959-60 t h e y began an i n v e s t i g a t i o n of c o n t i n u i n g h o u s i n g c o - o p e r a t i v e s f o r C a n a d i a n s w i t h t h e i n t e n t o f c r e a t i n g a p r o v i n c i a l o r g a n i z * -a t i o n t o promote and d e v e l o p s u c h h o u s i n g . A f t e r t h e C o - o p e r a t i v e H o u s i n g A s s o c i a t i o n of M a n i t o b a (CHAM) r e c e i v e d i t s c h a r t e r i n 1960, two members went to New Y o r k to s t u d y t h e c o - o p e r a t i v e h o u s i n g d e v e l o p e d by t h e U n i t e d H o u s i n g F o u n d a t i o n (UHF), W h i l e i n v e s t i g a t i n g t h e New Y o r k e x p e r i e n c e , CHAM d e c i d e d t h a t t h e UHF - 22 -model c o u l d e a s i l y be a d a p t e d to t h e C a n a d i a n c o n t e x t . The UHF p r o j e c t s were l a r g e ( t h e i n i t i a l p r o j e c t had 2,600 u n i t s ) and members r e c e i v e d o n l y t h e i r i n i t i a l down payment when th e y l e f t t h e p r o j e c t . 3 As a r e s u l t , CHAM's f i r s t p r o j e c t p l a n c a l l e d f o r 980 h o u s i n g u n i t s t o be b u i l t on c i t y owned l a n d i n n o r t h w e s t W i n n i p e g . The c i t y had r e q u e s t e d p r o p o s a l s t o d e v e l o p t h i s l a n d f o r low income h o u s i n g , but as t h e y were u n f a m i l i a r w i t h c o n -t i n u i n g h o u s i n g c o - o p e r a t i v e s , CHAM's p r o p o s a l was n o t a c c e p t e d . F u r t h e r a p p r o a c h e s to c i t y c o u n c i l f i n a l l y p r o v e d s u c c e s s ^ f u l i n A p r i l 1962 when c o u n c i l a g r e e d to l e a s e 11.6 a c r e s of l a n d t o CHAM f o r 60 y e a r s . The l a n d was s e r v i c e d i n 1963, and CHAM p r o c e e d e d t o p r e p a r e p l a n s f o r a 200 u n i t d e v e l o p m e n t c o n r s i s t i n g o f an a r r a n g e m e n t of s i x complexes of 30 to 35 town-h o u s e s each, CMHC a g r e e d to f i n a n c e t h e p r o j e c t ; however, i t would not advance any c a p i t a l u n t i l t h e p r o j e c t was 50% o c c u p i e d and would;.not c o n s i d e r i t a c o - o p e r a t i v e d e v e l o p m e n t u n l e s s 80% o f t h e u n i t s were o c c u p i e d by co-op members. T h i s l a c k of immediate f u n d s was c i r c u m v e n t e d when two m i l l i o n d o l l a r s were a d v a n c e d by t h e C o - o p e r a t i v e C r e d i t S o c i e t y of M a n i t o b a , and g u a r a n t e e d by F e d e r a t e d C o - o p e r a t i v e s ; a g a i n , t h e i m p o r t a n c e of o t h e r c o - o p e r a t i v e s i s e v i d e n t . I t t o o k t h e c o n t r a c t o r two y e a r s to c o m p l e t e t h e p r o j e c t . W i l l o w P a r k , t h e f i r s t c o n t i n u i n g h o u s i n g c o - o p e r a t i v e i n Canada, was o f f i c i a l l y opened on August 8, 1966, w i t h o n l y o n e - q u a r t e r of t h e p r o j e c t o c c u p i e d , The s a l e of s h a r e s was slow, p r o b a b l y b e c a u s e of t h e i n n o v a t i v e and u n f a m i l i a r p r o d u c t b e i n g s o l d , but s i x months l a t e r t h e p r o j e c t was f u l l y o c c u p i e d . - 23 -W i l l o w P a r k i l l u s t r a t e s n i c e l y t h e c o n c e p t of mother and d a u g h t e r s o c i e t i e s i n h o u s i n g c o - o p s . The mother s o c i e t y may be a p r o v i n c e - w i d e o r g a n i z a t i o n , s u c h as CHAM, or one s e r v i n g a l a r g e c i t y . The p u r p o s e of the mother s o c i e t y i s t o d e v e l o p t h e p r o j e c t on b e h a l f of t h e p e o p l e who w i l l o c c u p y i t . T h i s p r o -c e s s o f de v e l o p m e n t i n c l u d e s s e c u r i n g the l a n d , d e s i g n i n g the p r o j e c t , a r r a n g i n g f o r f i n a n c i n g and c o n t r a c t s and s u p p l i e s , s u p e r v i s i n g c o n s t r u c t i o n , and h e l p i n g to o r g a n i z e t h e d a u g h t e r s o c i e t y . Once c o n s t r u c t i o n i s c o m p l e t e , the p r o j e c t i s handed o v e r to t h e d a u g h t e r s o c i e t y whose members a c t u a l l y own and occupy t h e p r o j e c t . T h i s m o t h e r - d a u g h t e r s o c i e t y r e l a t i o n s h i p has been f o l l o w e d by many o f t h e c o n t i n u i n g h o u s i n g c o - o p e r a t i v e s i n Canada. A few have been a b l e to d e v e l o p p r o j e c t s w i t h o u t h e l p f r o m a mother s o c i e t y , b u t de v e l o p m e n t has g e n e r a l l y t a k e n many more months t h a n t h o s e d e v e l o p e d w i t h t h i s k i n d o f h e l p . A l t h o u g h W i l l o w P a r k was s u c c e s s f u l , t h e c o n c e p t of a c o n t i n u i n g h o u s i n g co-op was slow to d e v e l o p e l s e w h e r e . The N a t i o n a l H o u s i n g A c t (NHA) d i d not make p r o v i s i o n s f o r t h e monetary s u p p o r t of h o u s i n g c o - o p e r a t i v e s , and i n the a b s e n c e of a d e f i n i t e p o l i c y , CMHC was r e l u c t a n t t o a p p r o v e f i n a n c i n g f o r t h e s e p r o j e c t s . T h e r e f o r e , i t was v e r y d i f f i c u l t f o r the p r o r j e c t s to r e c e i v e government f i n a n c i n g . O t h e r a l t e r n a t i v e f i n a n c i n g was s o u g h t , and i n a few c a s e s f i n a n c i n g was a r r a n g e d t h r o u g h c r e d i t u n i o n s . However, i n 1973, v e r y i m p o r t a n t changes were made i n t h e NHA to make p r o v i s i o n s f o r t h e f i n a n c i n g o f h o u s i n g c o - o p e r a t i v e s ( C h a p t e r 4) and s i n c e t h i s t i m e , t h e number of p r o j e c t s has grown r a p i d l y . At t h e time of w r i t i n g - 24 -(.1977), a l l p r o v i n c e s e x c e p t New B r u n s w i c k , P r i n c e Edward I s l a n d and N e w foundland have c o n t i n u i n g h o u s i n g c o - o p e r a t i v e s . From t h i s b r i e f o v e r v i e w , c o - o p e r a t i v e h o u s i n g a p p e a r s as a complex and r e l a t i v e l y n o v e l phenomenon. The c o - o p e r a t i v e i d e a , b a s e d on f i v e p r i n c i p l e s , may be a p p l i e d to h o u s i n g t h r o u g h a v a r i e t y of a r r a n g e m e n t s . Two o f t h e s e a r r a n g e m e n t s , t h a t of t h e b u i l d i n g c o - o p e r a t i v e and t h e h o u s i n g c o - o p e r a t i v e s , have been i m p o r t a n t i n t h e c r e a t i o n of a c o - o p e r a t i v e h o u s i n g move-ment i n Canada. However, t h e y have had q u i t e d i s t i n c t h i s t o r i e s . B u i l d i n g c o - o p e r a t i v e s were f i r s t d e v e l o p e d f o r t y y e a r s ago i n Cape B r e t o n and have s i n c e d i f f u s e d westwards t o A l b e r t a . Con-t i n u i n g c o - o p e r a t i v e s , on t h e o t h e r hand, s t a r t e d l i t t l e more t h a n a decade ago i n M a n i t o b a and have s i n c e s p r e a d west to B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a and e a s t t o Nova S c o t i a . However, the p a t t e r n i s not u n i f o r m s i n c e many p r o v i n c e s a r e d o m i n a t e d by o n l y one of t h e s e forms of c o - o p e r a t i v e h o u s i n g . The p a t t e r n and t h e r e a s o n s f o r i t a r e more f u l l y e x p l o r e d i n C h a p t e r 4. - 25 -F o o t n o t e s - C h a p t e r 2 A l t h o u g h a few s e l f - h e l p h o u s i n g p r o j e c t s had s t a r t e d i n P e n n s y l v a n i a i n 1937 , t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l S e l f - ^ H e l p H o u s i n g A s s o c i a t i o n a t t r i b u t e s t h e p r e s e n t s e l f - h e l p program i n t h e U.S. to t h e r e d i s c o v e r y o f t h e Nova S c o t i a p r o j e c t s . B a r d M c A l l i s t e r i m p o r t e d th e i d e a t o C a l i f o r n i a , t h e s t a r t i n g p o i n t of t h e p r e s e n t s e l f - h e l p a c t i v i t y i n t h e U.S. (.C. L, C o c h r a n , 1968). 2 The Nova S c o t i a H o u s i n g Commission i s a p r o v i n c i a l government ag e n c y , s e t up w i t h th e p a s s i n g o f t h e Nova S c o t i a H o u s i n g A c t i n 1932. The p u r p o s e o f t h i s c o m m i s s i o n i s to (1) s t u d y h o u s i n g n e e d s ; (2) make recommendations f o r t h e improvement of h o u s i n g c o n d i t i o n s ; (3) e n c o u r a g e and p r o v i d e p u b l i c and p r i v a t e i n i t i a t i v e i n h o u s i n g and n e i g h b o u r h o o d improvement m a t t e r s . 3 T h i s was i n c o n t r a s t t o o t h e r p r o j e c t s where d e p a r t i n g members c o u l d seek t h e f u l l m arket v a l u e f o r t h e i r u n i t from i n c o m i n g members. These u n i t s soon become p r i c e d so t h a t o n l y h i g h -income f a m i l i e s c o u l d a f f o r d them ( P o m p e r l e a u 1976, p. 4 2 ) . CHAPTER 3 RESEARCH DESIGN I n t r o d u c t i o n t o M e t h o d o l o g y T h i s s t u d y examines c o - o p e r a t i v e h o u s i n g a t two d i f f e r e n t s p a t i a l s c a l e s , t h e n a t i o n a l and t h e u r b a n . At b o t h s c a l e s , an a t t e m p t i s made t o answer t h e f o l l o w i n g r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s : Where i s co-op h o u s i n g l o c a t e d ? I s t h e r e an i d e n t i f i a b l e p a t t e r n ? What l o c a t i o n a l f a c t o r s e x p l a i n or a c c o u n t f o r t h i s p a t t e r n ? To answer t h e s e q u e s t i o n s , two d i f f e r e n t a p p r o a c h e s a r e t a k e n . T h i s c h a p t e r d i s c u s s e s the d a t a u s e d and t h e p r o -c e d u r e s f o l l o w e d i n t h e s e two a p p r o a c h e s . A p r i m a r i l y d e s c r i p t i v e a p p r o a c h i s u t i l i z e d i n a n s w e r i n g the above q u e s t i o n s a t the n a t i o n a l s c a l e . The mapping of t h e l o c a t i o n s o f c o - o p e r a t i v e h o u s i n g p r o j e c t s , and g r a p h i n g o f t h e number of c o m p l e t e d u n i t s t h r o u g h t i m e i n d i c a t e t h e s p a t i a l and t e m p o r a l p a t t e r n s . Then, i n a t t e m p t i n g t o e x p l a i n t h e s e p a t t e r n s , v a r i o u s f a c t o r s a r e examined. These f a c t o r s a r e d e r i v e d f r o m two c r i t i c a l s t a g e s i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t of a h o u s i n g p r o j e c t — p l a n n i n g and f i n a n c i n g . In t h e p l a n n i n g s t a g e , t h e p r i m a r y i n t e r e s t i s i n the i n i t i a l d e c i s i o n to d e v e l o p a c o - o p e r a t i v e h o u s i n g p r o j e c t . Thus, the m o t i v a t i o n s of t h e i n i t i a t o r s and the s u b s e q u e n t e f f e c t of t h e s e m o t i v a t i o n s on t h e e v o l u t i o n o f c o - o p e r a t i v e h o u s i n g a r e examined. F i n a n c i n g , or the! l a c k of i t , o b v i o u s l y has an e f f e c t oh t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f any p r o j e c t . F o r t h i s r e a s o n , s u p p o r t i v e f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l l e g i s l a t i o n i s examined. As t h e e x i s t e n c e o f e n a b l i n g l e g i s l a t i o n does not - 26 -- 2 7 -e n s u r e f u n d i n g , c e n t r a l to the a n a l y s i s a r e CMHC p o l i c y and p r o v i n c i a l government a t t i t u d e s . At t h e u r b a n s c a l e , a more a n a l y t i c a l or s t a t i s t i c a l a p p r o a c h i s u t i l i z e d to answer the r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s . The u r b a n a r e a s s e l e c t e d f o r a n a l y s i s a r e t h e G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t (GVRD) and M e t r o p o l i t a n T o r o n t o , These two c i t i e s a r e t h e most a c t i v e l o c a l e s f o r c o n t i n u i n g c o - o p e r a t i v e h o u s i n g i n Canada, t o g e t h e r a c c o u n t i n g f o r a p p r o x i m a t e l y 43 p e r c e n t of t h e c o m p l e t e d u n i t s , I t i s a t t h i s u r b a n s c a l e t h a t t h e m i c r o f a c t o r s of l o c a t i o n a r e a n a l y z e d . To e x p l a i n why some n e i g h b o u r h o o d s have c o - o p e r a t i v e h o u s i n g and o t h e r s do n o t , s t a t i s t i c a l t e c h n i q u e s a r e u s e d . A number of d e m o g r a p h i c v a r i a b l e s and v a r i a b l e s w h i c h d e s c r i b e t h e p h y s i c a l components of t h e l o c a l a r e a s a r e s u b j e c t e d t o d i s c r i m i n a n t a n a l y s i s . T h i s s t a t i s t i c a l t o o l p r o v i d e s a mechanism f o r d i s t i n g u i s h i n g between a r e a s w i t h c o-ops and t h o s e w i t h o u t , as w e l l as a l l o w i n g p r e d i c t i o n f o r f u t u r e s i t e s . As n o t a l l of t h e d e t e r m i n i n g f a c t o r s o f l o c a t i o n a r e q u a n t i f i a b l e , a few o f t h e f a c t o r s w h i c h c o u l d not be i n c l u d e d i n t h e d i s c r i m i n a n t a n a l y s i s a r e examined t h r o u g h c a s e s t u d i e s of t h e d e v e lopment o f t h r e e c o n t i n u i n g c o - o p s , The r e m a i n d e r o f t h i s c h a p t e r i s d e v o t e d to a d i s c u s s i o n of t h e d a t a r e q u i r e m e n t s of t h i s s t u d y , p r o c e d u r e s u s e d i n d a t a c o l l e c t i o n , and t h e s t a t i s t i c a l t o o l s u t i l i z e d i n t h e a n a l y s i s . The D a t a The s p a t i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n o f c o - o p e r a t i v e h o u s i n g was - 28 -d e s c r i b e d and a n a l y z e d a t d i f f e r e n t s p a t i a l s c a l e s and w i t h v a r y i n g d e g r e e s of d e t a i l , hence t h e d a t a r e q u i r e m e n t s were e x t e n s i v e . C o n s e q u e n t l y , t h e d a t a c o l l e c t i o n p r o c e d u r e may be b r o k e n i n t o t h r e e d i s t i n c t s t a g e s . The f i r s t s t a g e i n v o l v e d t h e c o l l e c t i o n o f p r i m a r y d a t a r e q u i r e d to e s t a b l i s h t h e s p a t i a l p a t t e r n of co-op h o u s i n g . The s p e c i f i c d a t a i t e m s . w e r e as f o l l o w s : 1. L o c a t i o n of p r o j e c t by m u n i c i p a l i t y and by p r o v i n c e . F o r p r o j e c t s i n t h e G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t and M etro T o r o n t o , the s t r e e t a d d r e s s e s were r e q u i r e d . 2. Type of c o - o p e r a t i v e ; c o n t i n u i n g or b u i l d i n g . 3. Date of c o m p l e t i o n of p r o j e c t . 4. Number o f u n i t s i n each p r o j e c t . 5. The t y p e o f b u i l d i n g , e.g. townhouse, a p a r t m e n t , d e t a c h e d homes, or c o t t a g e s , 6. The number of bedrooms i n each u n i t . 7. H o u s e h o l d s t r u c t u r e ; s e n i o r s or f a m i l i e s . 8. The i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f t h o s e co-ops w i t h "sweat e q u i t y " . In some c a s e s d e t a i l s of m o r t g a g e s and o t h e r f i n a n c i a l a r r a n g e -ments were a v a i l a b l e . I t was t h e s o u r c e o f f u n d i n g , n o t t h e s p e c i f i c f i n a n c i n g d e t a i l s , t h a t was of i n t e r e s t . Most of these d a t a were o b t a i n e d t h r o u g h t h e C e n t r a l M o r t -gage and H o u s i n g C o r p o r a t i o n (CMHC) and the C o - o p e r a t i v e H o u s i n g F o u n d a t i o n of Canada (CHF). The i n f o r m a t i o n s u p p l i e d by t h e s e two a g e n c i e s was s u p p l e m e n t e d by d a t a from o t h e r non^-govern-m e n t a l a g e n c i e s , s u c h as t h e U n i t e d H o u s i n g F o u n d a t i o n , and - 29 -t h e C o l u m b i a H o u s i n g F o u n d a t i o n , b o t h of V a n c o u v e r , and t h e T o r o n t o N o n - P r o f i t C o - o p e r a t i v e H o u s i n g F e d e r a t i o n , P r o v i n c i a l government d e p a r t m e n t s i n v o l v e d w i t h c o - o p e r a t i v e h o u s i n g , s u c h as t h e Department of C o - o p e r a t i o n and C o - o p e r a t i v e Development of t h e P r o v i n c e o f S a s k a t c h e w a n , and t h e Nova S c o t i a H o u s i n g Commission, a l s o a s s i s t e d i n d a t a c o l l e c t i o n . I n some c a s e s , r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of t h e c o - o p e r a t i v e h o u s i n g p r o j e c t s t h e m s e l v e s were c o n t a c t e d to s u p p l y m i s s i n g d a t a i t e m s . D a t a f o r a l l c a s e s were o b t a i n e d from more t h a n one o f t h e above s o u r c e s . The a c c u r a c y of t h e d a t a c o u l d , t h e r e f o r e , be c h e c k e d . When d i s c r e p a n c i e s o c c u r r e d , t h e d a t a s u p p l i e d by t h e c o - o p e r a t i v e i t s e l f were assumed t o be c o r r e c t . I n c a s e s where d a t a were n o t f u r n i s h e d by t h e co-op i t s e l f , d a t a f r o m t h e agency w i t h the most l o c a l i z e d s p a t i a l s c a l e were u s e d , s i n c e i t was assumed t h a t t h e l o c a l agency would have had t h e c l o s e s t c o n t a c t w i t h t h e p r o j e c t . One l i m i t a t i o n o f t h i s r e l i a n c e on r e s o u r c e g r o u p s and government a g e n c i e s i s t h a t o n l y p r o j e c t s w h i c h have been a s s i s t e d by t h e s e a g e n c i e s a r e i n c l u d e d i n : t h e d a t a s e t . P r o -j e c t s t h a t have been d e v e l o p e d by s m a l l g r o u p s , w i t h o u t e i t h e r CMHC f u n d i n g , or r e s o u r c e group a s s i s t a n c e , would n o t be i n c l u d e d . However, t h i s number i s p r o b a b l y i n s i g n i f i c a n t . The s e c o n d s t a g e of d a t a c o l l e c t i o n was d i r e c t e d a t i d e n t i f y i n g and o b t a i n i n g v a r i a b l e s w h i c h m i g h t d i s c r i m i n a t e between c o m m u n i t i e s w i t h c o - o p e r a t i v e h o u s i n g and t h o s e w i t h o u t , The s c a l e of a n a l y s i s c o n c e r n i n g t h i s p r o b l e m b e i n g u r b a n , t h e v a r i a b l e s s e l e c t e d f o r i n c l u s i o n i n t h e a n a l y s i s had to have - 30 -shown some u s e f u l n e s s i n g r o u p i n g s i m i l a r n e i g h b o u r h o o d s w i t h i n c i t i e s . In o t h e r words, the v a r i a b l e s must have s c o r e d h i g h l y i n t h e v a r i o u s f a c t o r a n a l y s e s t h a t have been p e r f o r m e d f o r C a n a d i a n c i t i e s . V a r i o u s u r b a n f a c t o r i a l e c o l o g i e s have c o n — s i s t e n t l y i d e n t i f i e d two major f a c t o r s , one b e i n g : f a m i l y s t a t u s and t h e o t h e r , s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s t a t u s , as i m p o r t a n t i n d e s c r i b i n g t h e s p a t i a l s t r u c t u r e o f C a n a d i a n c i t i e s . A l t h o u g h t h e v a r i -a b l e s w h i c h c o n s t i t u t e t h e s e f a c t o r s a r e n o t a l w a y s t h e same, t h e y a r e b r o a d l y s i m i l a r (Bourne 1971, D a v i e s 1973, Haynes 1971, M u r d i e 1969, N i c h o l s o n 1969, P a t t e r s o n , 1 9 7 4 , P e u k e r 1971). The v a r i a b l e s w h i c h r e p e a t e d l y s c o r e h i g h on t h e s e f a c t o r s were c h o s e n as p o t e n t i a l d i s c r i m i n a t i n g v a r i a b l e s , b a s e d on t h e argument t h a t i f t h e y were u s e f u l f o r d e s c r i b i n g a r e a s w i t h i n c i t i e s , t h e n t h e y might a l s o be u s e f u l i n d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g between a r e a s w i t h i n c i t i e s . T h ese v a r i a b l e s were: 1. P e r c e n t a g e of p o p u l a t i o n o l d e r t h a n 65 y e a r s ; 2. P e r c e n t a g e of f a m i l i e s w i t h t h r e e or more c h i l d r e n ; 3. Female l a b o u r f o r c e p a r t i c i p a t i o n r a t e ; 4. P e r c e n t a g e of h o u s i n g u n i t s w h i c h a r e owner o c c u p i e d ; 5. P e r c e n t a g e of h o u s i n g u n i t s w h i c h a r e s i n g l e d e t a c h e d ; 6. P e r c e n t a g e of h o u s i n g u n i t s t h a t a r e a p a r t m e n t s ; 7. Median v a l u e o f owner o c c u p i e d h o u s i n g u n i t s ; ', 8. A v e r a g e c a s h r e n t ; 9. P e r c e n t a g e of p o p u l a t i o n with, one y e a r or more u n i v e r s i t y ; - 31 10. M e d i a n h o u s e h o l d income; 11. P e r c e n t a g e o f p o p u l a t i o n employed i n p r o f e s s i o n a l , t e c h n i c a l , o r m a n a g e r i a l o c c u p a t i o n s (Census Canada M a j o r Groups 11, 21, 23, 25, 27, 31, 3 3 ) . The v a l u e s f o r t h e s e v a r i a b l e s were c a l c u l a t e d u s i n g d a t a f r o m the 1971 Census o f Canada, P o p u l a t i o n and H o u s i n g C h a r a c t e r - i s t i c s by Census T r a c t s , S e r i e s A arid B, f o r T o r o n t o and V a n c o u v e r . Two a d d i t i o n a l v a r i a b l e s were s e l e c t e d f r o m t h e Census i n f o r m a t i o n . T hese were: 1. P e r c e n t a g e o f h o u s i n g u n i t s c o n -s t r u c t e d a f t e r 1960; 2. P e r c e n t a g e of r e s i d e n t s l i v i n g i n t h e a r e a f o r l e s s t h a n one y e a r . The r a t i o n a l e f o r i n c l u d i n g t h e s e two v a r i a b l e s , r e s p e c t i v e l y , was as f o l l o w s : (1) As t h e c o n t i n u i n g h o u s i n g c o - o p e r a t i v e s have o n l y been c o n s t r u c t e d i n Canada s i n c e the 1960's, i t seems r e a s o n a b l e t o assume t h a t t h e y would be b u i l t i n a r e a s w i t h r e l a t i v e l y h i g h new c o n s t r u c t i o n r a t e s . The argument was t h a t o l d e r , more e s t a b l i s h e d n e i g h b o u r h o o d s a r e g e n e r a l l y o p p o s e d to new c o n -s t r u c t i o n , p a r t i c u l a r l y m u l t i - f a m i l y h o u s i n g , hence t h e p o s s i -b i l i t y of t h e c o-ops r e c e i v i n g community a p p r o v a l f o r c o n s t r u c t i o n a r e s l i m . However, f o r t h e c o - o p e r a t i v e s t h a t have n o t c o n -s t r u c t e d t h e i r own u n i t s , but have p u r c h a s e d e x i s t i n g a p a r t m e n t b l o c k s , t h i s argument would n o t a p p l y , T h i s r o u t e o f o b t a i n i n g h o u s i n g has, however, been the e x c e p t i o n r a t t i e r t h a n t h e r u l e i n t h e GVRD, Thus, i t i s h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t co-op p r o j e c t s would - 32 -more l i k e l y be f o u n d i n a r e a s w i t h a h i g h p e r c e n t a g e of new c o n s t r u c t i o n , (2) I t has been f o u n d t h a t i n some c a s e s , c o r - o p e r a t i v e h o u s i n g has g e n e r a t e d c o n f l i c t i n t h o s e n e i g h b o u r h o o d s i n w h i c h l o c a t i o n was p r o p o s e d , o f t e n r e s u l t i n g i n the abandonment of t h e p r o j e c t . Hence the argument f o r i n c l u d i n g t h i s v a r i a b l e was t h a t p r o j e c t s would be e s t a b l i s h e d i n a r e a s w i t h a h i g h t u r n o v e r r a t e , as t h e s e a r e a s would be l e s s l i k e l y to p r o d u c e t h e h i g h l e v e l of community s p i r i t n e c e s s a r y to oppose a d e v e l o p m e n t . Thus, i t was h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t a r e a s w i t h a h i g h p e r c e n t a g e of p e o p l e r e s i d e n t i n t h e a r e a f o r l e s s t h a n one y e a r would be more l i k e l y t o have co-op p r o j e c t s t h a n the more s t a b l e n e i g h b o u r -hoods . Two a d d i t i o n a l v a r i a b l e s were i n c l u d e d i n the a n a l y s i s . One v a r i a b l e , the number o f c r e d i t u n i o n s per c a p i t a , was used as a c r u d e i n d e x of c o - o p e r a t i v e a c t i v i t y i n e a c h s t u d y a r e a . The i n c l u s i o n of t h i s v a r i a b l e was j u s t i f i e d on t h r e e b a s e s . F i r s t , c r e d i t u n i o n s have o f t e n s u p p l i e d the i m p e t u s f o r t h e d e v e l o p m e n t of co-op h o u s i n g , p r o v i d i n g b o t h d i r e c t i o n and s t a r t - u p f u n d i n g . As t h i s encouragement was o f t e n o f f e r e d to l o c a l g r o u p s , i t was assumed t h a t t h e p r e s e n c e o f numerous c r e d i t u n i o n s would i n c r e a s e an a r e a ' s p r o b a b i l i t y of a t t r a c t i n g c o - o p e r a t i v e h o u s i n g . Second, as c r e d i t u n i o n s a r e a t y p e o f c o - o p e r a t i v e , i t was f e l t t h a t p e o p l e i n t h e n e i g h b o u r h o o d o f a c r e d i t u n i o n would be a c c u s t o m e d to c o - o p e r a t i v e e n t e r p r i s e . As s u c h , t h e r e would be l e s s a n t a g o n i s m and s u s p i c i o n r e g a r d i n g - 33 -t h e co-op h o u s i n g p r o j e c t , T h i r d , t h e c o - o p e r a t i v e p r i n c i p l e o f " c o - o p e r a t i o n among c o - o p e r a t i v e s " may h e l p a new c o - o p e r a t i v e h o u s i n g p r o j e c t e s t a b l i s h i n an a r e a w i t h c r e d i t u n i o n s . Thus, t h e h y p o t h e s i s i s t h a t co-op p r o j e c t s would be more l i k e l y f o u n d i n a r e a s w i t h a h i g h number o f c r e d i t u n i o n s p e r c a p i t a . These d a t a were o b t a i n e d by mapping t h e c r e d i t u n i o n s l i s t e d i n the Y e l l o w Pages of t h e a p p r o p r i a t e t e l e p h o n e b o o k s . The t o t a l number of c r e d i t u n i o n s f o r each s t u d y a r e a was t h e n c o u n t e d , and d i v i d e d by t h e p o p u l a t i o n o f t h e a r e a . The p o p u l -a t i o n d a t a was t a k e n from t h e 19 71 Census of Canada. The l a s t v a r i a b l e i n c l u d e d , s o c i a l h o u s i n g u n i t s p e r c a p i t a , r e l a t e s f u r t h e r to l o c a t i o n a l c o n f l i c t . S o c i a l h o u s i n g has been d e f i n e d by CMHC as " t h o s e r e n t a l and c o - o p e r a t i v e u n i t s where t h e r e i s some e l e m e n t of p u b l i c s u b s i d y o r some form of i n t e r e s t r a t e a s s i s t a n c e and hence a r e s t r i c t i o n on the c l i e n t e l e t h a t i s accommodated" ( J o s e y 1976). In u s i n g t h i s v a r i a b l e , c o - o p e r a t i v e u n i t s have been removed from the t o t a l u n i t s f o r s o c i a l h o u s i n g . The d e c i s i o n to i n c l u d e t h i s v a r i a b l e was b a s e d on t h e argument t h a t t h e s t i g m a a t t a c h e d to co-op h o u s i n g i s s i m i l a r to t h a t of s o c i a l h o u s i n g i n g e n e r a l . T h i s s t i g m a c o u l d l e a d to a s t i f f e n i n g of o p p o s i t i o n to p r o j e c t s . However, a s s u m i n g a p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t e d between p r e s e n t s o c i a l h o u s i n g and t h e n e i g h b o u r h o o d , t h e p r i o r e x i s t e n c e of s o c i a l h o u s i n g c o u l d 'pave th e way' f o r a co-op h o u s i n g p r o j e c t . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e e x i s t e n c e o f s o c i a l h o u s i n g may be an i n d i c -a t i o n of n e i g h b o u r h o o d a c c e p t a n c e of a need f o r s u b s i d i z e d m u l t i p l e f a m i l y h o u s i n g . Thus, i t i s h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t c o-ops - 34 r would be f o u n d i n a r e a s w i t h a h i g h number of s o c i a l h o u s i n g u n i t s p e r c a p i t a . The l o c a t i o n and number of u n i t s of t h e v a r i o u s s o c i a l h o u s i n g p r o j e c t s were o b t a i n e d from t h e O n t a r i o H o u s i n g Commission f o r M e t r o p o l i t a n T o r o n t o and from CMHC f o r t h e G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t , These d a t a were mapped and t h e n the number of u n i t s p e r s t u d y a r e a was d i v i d e d by t h e p o p u l ^ a t i o n f o r t h e a r e a . The t h i r d s t a g e of d a t a c o l l e c t i o n r e l a t e d to the l o c a t i o n a l c o n f l i c t s i n v o l v i n g c o - o p e r a t i v e h o u s i n g g r o u p s . Methods us e d f o r s e c u r i n g t h e s e d a t a i n c l u d e d a l i t e r a t u r e s e a r c h , a r e v i e w o f newspaper a r t i c l e s and e d i t o r i a l s , a t t e n d i n g p u b l i c m e e t i n g s a t w h i c h c o - o p e r a t i v e p r o j e c t s were b e i n g d e b a t e d , and i n t e r v i e w i n g p e o p l e i n v o l v e d w i t h co-op h o u s i n g . The i n t e r -v i e w s were c o m p l e t e l y u n s t r u c t u r e d and open ended, and were used p r i m a r i l y as a c h e c k f o r i n f o r m a t i o n o b t a i n e d t h r o u g h t h e w r i t t e n m a t e r i a l . The u r b a n a r e a s t u d y u n i t i s t h e l o c a l p l a n n i n g a r e a . In the GVRD t h e s e a r e c a l l e d L o c a l A r e a s , and i n M e t r o p o l i t a n T o r o n t o t h e y a r e M i n o r P l a n n i n g D i s t r i c t s ( F i g u r e s 1 and 2, r e s p e c t i v e l y ) . T h e s e a r e a s a r e r e l a t i v e l y homogeneous, and have been d e f i n e d by l o c a l p l a n n i n g d e p a r t m e n t s f o r p l a n n i n g p u r p o s e s . The S t a t i s t i c a l A n a l y s i s I t seems c l e a r t h a t g e o g r a p h i c a l i n v e s t ! ^ g a t i o n i s c o n c e r n e d w i t h d i s c o v e r i n g and d e s c r i b i n g a r e a l v a r i a t i o n s i n the o c c u r r e n c e of phenomena on t h e e a r t h ' s s u r f a c e , and a l s o w i t h t h e s e a r c h f o r - 37 -o t h e r a r e a l l y a s s o c i a t e d f a c t o r s t h a t may h e l p t o e x p l a i n the o b s e r v e d d i s -t r i b u t i o n s . ( M c C a r t y e t a l , , 1956, p, 20) The major o b j e c t i v e o f t h i s i n q u i r y as s e t out i n C h a p t e r 1 i s to i d e n t i f y t h e v a r i o u s f a c t o r s t h a t l e d to t h e p r e s e n t s p a t i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n of c o - o p e r a t i v e h o u s i n g . One o f t h e f i r s t s t e p s l e a d i n g to t h i s o b j e c t i v e was to d e t e r m i n e whether or n o t l o c a l a r e a s w i t h c o - o p e r a t i v e h o u s i n g were d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h o s e w i t h o u t i t , o t h e r t h a n i n t h e p r e s e n c e or a b s e n c e of co-op h o u s i n g . To d i s t i n g u i s h between t h e s e two g r o u p s , a number o f v a r i a b l e s were s e l e c t e d . These v a r i a b l e s , d i s c u s s e d i n the p r e -c e d i n g s e c t i o n , measure s o c i a l and economic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of t h e p o p u l a t i o n , and d e s c r i b e some of t h e p h y s i c a l a t t r i b u t e s of e a ch l o c a l a r e a t h a t were e x p e c t e d to d i f f e r e n t i a t e between the two g r o u p s . These v a r i a b l e s , d e s c r i b i n g t h e two g r o u p s , t h o s e w i t h co-ops and t h o s e w i t h o u t , were t h e n s u b j e c t e d to a s t e p - w i s e d i s c r i m i n a n t a n a l y s i s . E a r l y a p p l i c a t i o n s of d i s c r i m i n a n t a n a l y s i s were l a r g e l y b i o l o g i c a l and a n t h r o p o m e t r i c i n n a t u r e , d e a l i n g w i t h s u c h d i v e r s e t o p i c s as the d a t i n g o f E g y p t i a n s k u l l s ( B a r n a r d 1935) and d i s c r i m i n a t i o n between n e u r o t i c and n o r m a l humans (Rao and S t a t e r 1 9 4 9). In t h e s e and o t h e r e a r l y a p p l i c a t i o n s of d i s -c r i m i n a n t a n a l y s i s , 1 t h e r e was g e n e r a l l y some a m b i g u i t y as to w h i c h group a c e r t a i n sample b e l o n g e d ; h e n c e , t h e r e s e a r c h e r was c o n c e r n e d w i t h d i s c r i m i n a t i o n among t h e g r o u p s i n s u c h a manner as to m i n i m i z e the p o s s i b i l i t y of e r r o r when c l a s s i f y i n g new c a s e s . G i v e n t h e d i s c r i m i n a n t f u n c t i o n , t h e r e s e a r c h e r was a b l e to p r e d i c t t h e group membership of u n c l a s s i f i e d s a m p l e s . T h i s , - 38 -t h e n , i s t h e p r e d i c t i v e c a p a b i l i t y of t h i s s t a t i s t i c a l t e c h n i q u e , S i n c e t h e s e s t u d i e s , d i s c r i m i n a n t a n a l y s i s has been a p p l i e d t o a g r e a t r a n g e of d a t a , o f t e n w i t h an emphasis on t h e d e s c r i p t i v e q u a l i t i e s of t h e t e c h n i q u e r a t h e r t h a n on the p r e ^ d i c t i v e ones ( K i n g 1970), R e c e n t a p p l i c a t i o n s of d i s c r i m i n a n t a n a l y s i s i n t h e s o c i a l s c i e n c e s have been c o n c e r n e d w i t h i d e n t i f y i n g t h e i m p o r t a n t d i s c r i m i n a t o r s between g r o u p s r a t h e r t h a n w i t h the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n p r o b l e m ( B a r b e r 1972, K i n g 1967, Massey 1971, Woodyard 1974), In t h i s s t u d y , d i s c r i m i n a n t a n a l y s i s i s u t i l i z e d as a means of s e l e c t i n g t h e v a r i a b l e s w h i c h b e s t d i s t i n g u i s h between c o m m u n i t i e s w i t h c o - o p e r a t i v e s and t h o s e w i t h o u t , i . e . the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n p r o b l e m . The p r e d i c t i v e c a p a b i l i t y of t h e t e c h n i q u e s a l s o a l l o w s one to .comment on t h e p r o b a b i l i t y o f o t h e r a r e a s u n d e r g o i n g c o - o p e r a t i v e d e v e l o p m e n t i n t h e n e a r f u t u r e . S t a t i s t i c a l P r o c e d u r e The s t a t i s t i c a l t h e o r y o f d i s c r i m i n a n t a n a l y s i s , l i k e most m u l t i v a r i a t e s t a t i s t i c a l p r o c e d u r e s , assumes t h a t t h e d i s r c r i m i n a t i n g v a r i a b l e s a r e n o r m a l l y d i s t r i b u t e d and t h a t t h e r e a r e e q u a l v a r i a n c e - c o v a r i a n c e m a t r i c e s w i t h i n each g r o u p . However, i n p r a c t i c e , t h e t e c h n i q u e i s v e r y r o b u s t and t h e s e a s s u m p t i o n s need n o t be s t r o n g l y a d h e r e d t o CNie e t a l , 1975 , p. 4 3 5 ) . C o n s e q u e n t l y , two a n a l y s e s were r u n , one w i t h n o r m a l i z e d d a t a , and one w i t h raw d a t a . The i n i t i a l s t a g e o f the f i r s t a n a l y s i s , t h e r e f o r e , was to c h e c k e a c h v a r i a b l e f o r n o r m a l i t y . P a t t e r s o n (1974, p, 341 s u g g e s t s t h a t skewness - 3 9 -( m e a s u r i n g asymmetry) and k u r t o s i s ( m e a s u r i n g p e a k e d n e s s ) a r e t h e b e s t t e s t s f o r n o r m a l i t y ; d a t a w i t h a n o r m a l d i s t r i b u t i o n w i l l have a skewness of 0 , and a k u r t o s i s of 3 , F o r each v a r i a b l e t h e skewness and k u r t o s i s were c a l c u l a t e d , and where n e c e s s a r y , the v a r i a b l e s were n o r m a l i z e d u s i n g P a t t e r s o n ' s (1974, 1976) NORMAL program. The NORMAL program's e f f e c t i v e n e s s i s i n l a r g e p a r t due to a p r o c e d u r e o f d a t a s c a l i n g b e f o r e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n . P a t t e r s o n (1974, p. 45) f o u n d t h a t i f a l i n e a r t r a n s f o r m was a p p l i e d b e f o r e t h e n o n - l i n e a r t r a n s f o r m , t h e r a n g e of skewness and k u r t o s i s v a l u e s w h i c h c o u l d be removed became w i d e r t h a n when u s i n g o n l y the n o n - l i n e a r t r a n s f o r m . E s s e n t i a l l y , t h e l i n e a r t r a n s f o r m g i v e s t h e d a t a a new mean and s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n , "Note t h a t t h e s c a l i n g p r o c e d u r e has no e f f e c t on e i t h e r t h e skewness or k u r t o s i s of t h e o r i g i n a l v a r i a b l e but r a t h e r changes the e f f e c t of t h e n o n - l i n e a r t r a n s f o r m a p p l i e d a f t e r t h e s c a l i n g " ( P a t t e r s o n , 1974, p. 4 5 ) , The s c a l e d d a t a i s sub-s e q u e n t l y t r a n s f o r m e d u s i n g any o f t h e u s u a l t r a n s f o r m s , s u c h as l o g ( x ) , /x~, a r c t a n ( x ) , ex. The combined r e s u l t o f t h e s e p r o -c e d u r e s was to c r e a t e a s e t of n o r m a l i z e d d a t a w h i c h was use d as i n p u t t o the f i r s t d i s c r i m i n a n t a n a l y s i s . The SPSS subprogram DISCRIMINANT ( N i e e_t a l . 1975) was a p p l i e d t o b o t h the raw and n o r m a l i z e d d a t a t o d i s t i n g u i s h between t h e two g r o u p s . The W i l k s ' lambda s e l e c t i o n c r i t e r i a was u s e d . 2 The p r o c e s s b e g i n s by s e l e c t i n g t h e s i n g l e v a r i a b l e w h i c h has t h e h i g h e s t o v e r a l l m u l t i v a r i a t e F r a t i o f o r t h e t e s t of d i f f e r e n c e s among t h e group c e n t r o i d s . The v a r i a b l e w h i c h - 40 -m i n i m i z e s t h e F r a t i o a l s o m i n i m i z e s t h e W i l k s ' lambda, a measure of group d i s c r i m i n a t i o n . T h i s i n i t i a l v a r i a b l e i s t h e n p a i r e d w i t h each r e m a i n i n g v a r i a b l e to s e l e c t which, p a i r p r o d u c e s the b e s t F r a t i o . T h i s p a i r i s t h e n combined w i t h each of t h e r e m a i n i n g v a r i a b l e s , and the p r o c e s s c o n t i n u e s u n t i l a l l t h e v a r i a b l e s a r e s e l e c t e d , or u n t i l no a d d i t i o n a l v a r i a b l e s p r o v i d e a minimum l e v e l of improvement, o r u n t i l no a d d i t i o n a l v a r i a b l e s have a t o l e r a n c e l e v e l s u f f i c i e n t l y h i g h f o r c o n s i d e r a t i o n . The m a t h e m a t i c a l o b j e c t i v e of d i s c r i m i n a n t a n a l y s i s i s to w e i g h t and l i n e a r l y combine t h e s e s e l e c t e d v a r i a b l e s i n some f a s h i o n so t h a t t h e grou p s a r e f o r c e d to be as s t a t i s t i c a l l y d i s t i n c t as p o s s i b l e . The r e s u l t of t h i s i s t h e d i s c r i m i n a n t f u n c t i o n . The c o e f f i c i e n t s o f t h e f i n a l d i s c r i m i n a n t f u n c t i o n have been s t a n d a r d i z e d i n s u c h a.way t h a t t h e r e s u l t i n g d i s -c r i m i n a n t s c o r e s have a mean of z e r o and a s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n of o n e . 4 T h i s a l l o w s t h e s t a n d a r d i z e d c o e f f i c i e n t s to r e p r e s e n t t h e r e l a t i v e c o n t r i b u t i o n of i t s a s s o c i a t e d v a r i a b l e to t h e f u n c t i o n . The d i s c r i m i n a n t f u n c t i o n i s of t h e form: D. = d . i Z . + d . 0 Z „ + ... + d. Z (1) l i l 1 x2 2 i p p where D. = the s c o r e on d i s c r i m i n a n t f u n c t i o n i ; l d . d . = t h e n o r m a l i z e d w e i g h t i n g x l i p c o e f f i c i e n t s ; Z- , . . , ,Z = t h e v a l u e s of t h e p d i s -1 p . c r i m i n a n t v a r i a b l e s used i n the a n a l y s i s . Once t h e d i s c r i m i n a n t f u n c t i o n i s d e r i v e d , we a r e a b l e to a s s e s s t h e s u c c e s s w i t h which, t h e d i s c r i m i n a t i n g v a r i a b l e s a c t u a l l y d i s t i n g u i s h between t h e two g r o u p s . To do t h i s , a - 41 -c r i t i c a l v a l u e f o r D^ i s d e t e r m i n e d , s u c h t h a t i f a sample has a D v a l u e above t h e b r e a k p o i n t , u s i n g e q u a t i o n ( 1 ) , t h a t sample b e l o n g s t o one g r o u p , and i f i t s D v a l u e s i s below, i t i s a s s i g n e d to t h e o t h e r g r o u p . U s i n g t h i s p r e d i c t e d c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , i t i s p o s s i b l e t o a s c e r t a i n , t h r o u g h a c o n f u s i o n m a t r i x , t h e e f f i c i e n c y w i t h w h i c h t h e d i s c r i m i n a n t f u n c t i o n works. T h i s c o n f u s i o n m a t r i x , o r c l a s s i f i c a t i o n t a b l e as i t i s sometimes c a l l e d , com-p a r e s t h e c a s e s c o r r e c t l y c l a s s i f i e d w i t h t h o s e i n c o r r e c t l y c l a s s i f i e d . S p e c i f i c a l l y , e a c h sample i s a s s i g n e d t o a group d e p e n d i n g on i t s d i s c r i m i n a n t s c o r e ; t h e n t h e a c t u a l group t h e sample b e l o n g s t o i s compared w i t h , i t s p r e d i c t e d group and t h e sample i s a s s i g n e d t o t h e a p p r o p r i a t e c e l l i n t h e m a t r i x . F o r example, i f A i s p r e d i c t e d t o be an a r e a w i t h a co-op b u t i n r e a l i t y i t does n o t have a co-op, i t would be a s s i g n e d t o X 2 i i n t h e m a t r i x ( T a b l e I I ) . From t h e t o t a l f i g u r e s , t h e p r o -p o r t i o n o f c o r r e c t l y c l a s s i f i e d c a s e s may be d e r i v e d . I n t h i s manner t h e v a l i d i t y o f t h e d i s c r i m i n a n t f u n c t i o n as a d e s -c r i p t i v e and p r e d i c t i v e t o o l f o r t h e l o c a t i o n o f c o - o p e r a t i v e h o u s i n g can be a s s e s s e d . TABLE I I THE CONFUSION OR CLASSIFICATION MATRIX PREDICTED GROUP ACTUAL GROUP Co-ops No Co-ops Go-ops X i i X l 2 No co-ops X 2 1 X 2 2 - 42 -F o o t n o t e s - C h a p t e r 3 F o r a d i s c u s s i o n of the d e v e l o p m e n t of d i s c r i m i n a n t a n a l y s i s , see D a v i d T. Tiedeman ( 1 9 5 1 ) , "The u t i l i t y of t h e d i s c r i m i n a n t f u n c t i o n i n P s y c h o l o g i c a l and G u i d a n c e i n v e s t i g a t i o n s , " H a r v a r d E d u c a t i o n a l Review 21, pp. 71080; M.M, T a t s u o k a and D,V. Tiedeman ( 1 9 5 4 ) , " D i s c r i m i n a n t a n a l y s i s " , Review o f  E d u c a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h 2 4 ( 5 ) , pp. 402^420, D u r i n g t h e e a r l y s t a g e s of t h e a n a l y s i s , a v a r i e t y of s t e p -w i s e s e l e c t i o n c r i t e r i a were u s e d , i n c l u d i n g M a h a l a n o b i s d i s -t a n c e between g r o u p s , l a r g e s t minimum between gro u p s F, l a r g e s t i n c r e a s e i n a v e r a g e m u l t i p l e c o r r e l a t i o n , and t h e l a r g e s t i n c r e a s e i n Rao's V. As the r e s u l t i n g d i s c r i m i n a n t f u n c t i o n s were t h e same i n each c a s e , f u r t h e r a n a l y s i s u t i l i z e d o n l y t h e W i l k s ' Lambda c r i t e r i o n . F o r a d i s c u s s i o n of t h e W i l k s ' . c r i t e r i o n , see W.W. C o o l e y and P.R. Lohnes ( 1 9 7 1 ) , M u l t i v a r i a t e  D a t a A n a l y s i s . New Y o r k : John W i l e y and Sons, Ch. 8 and 9. T h i s l a s t t e s t i s a c t u a l l y p e r f o r m e d b e f o r e a v a r i a b l e i s s e l e c t e d . T h i s t o l e r a n c e c h e c k i s needed to d e t e c t s i t u a t i o n s i n w h i c h r o u n d i n g e r r o r d u r i n g t h e i n v e r s i o n o f t h e p o o l e d w i t h i n g r o u p s c o v a r i a n c e m a t r i x would have a s e r i o u s e f f e c t upon the r e s u l t s . F o r a m a t h e m a t i c a l d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e method of d e r i v i n g t h e d i s c r i m i n a n t c o e f f i c i e n t s , see s u c h m u l t i v a r i a t e t e x t s as : L ohnes (19 6 2 ) . - M u l t i v a r i a t e P r o c e d u r e s f o r New Y o r k : John W i l e y and Sons, pp. 116-120; Lohnes ( 1 9 7 1 ) , M u l t i v a r i a t e D a t a A n a l y s i s , and Sons, pp, 243-250; J.P. Van de Geer to M u l t i v a r i a t e A n a l y s i s f o r t h e S o c i a l W.W. C o o l e y and P.R. t h e S o c i a l S c i e n c e s . W.W. C o o l e y and P.R. New Y o r k : John W i l e y (19 71), I n t r o d u c t i o n Sc i e n c es, San F r a n c i s c o : W.H. Freeman and Co, Ch. 18 CHAPTER 4 CO-OPERATIVE HOUSING IN CANADA The two forms o f c o - o p e r a t i v e h o u s i n g i n Canada have u n i q u e h i s t o r i e s and d i s t r i b u t i o n s . Overviews of' ;the ..concept and d e v e l o p m e n t of the b u i l d i n g and n o n - p r o f i t c o n t i n u i n g h o u s i n g c o - o p e r a t i v e s were g i v e n i n C h a p t e r 2. The p u r p o s e of t h i s c h a p t e r i s t o d e s c r i b e t h e s p a t i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n s and to a n a l y z e t h e s e p a t t e r n s a t a n a t i o n a l s c a l e . The S p a t i a l and T e m p o r a l P a t t e r n s C o - o p e r a t i v e h o u s i n g , i n e i t h e r f o r m , has been d e v e l o p e d i n e v e r y p r o v i n c e of Canada ( F i g . 3 ) . The r e l a t i v e p r o p o r t i o n of b u i l d i n g c o - o p s to c o n t i n u i n g h o u s i n g co-ops v a r i e s g r e a t l y a c r o s s t h e n a t i o n , f r o m 100% i n P . E . I , t o 0% i n B.C. T h e r e i s an o b v i o u s emphasis on b u i l d i n g co-ops i n e a s t e r n Canada, w i t h c o n t i n u i n g h o u s i n g co-ops d o m i n a t i n g i n O n t a r i o , M a n i t o b a and B.C. In terms of t h e t o t a l number of u n i t s c o m p l e t e d , b u i l d i n g c o - o p e r a t i v e s f a r e x c e e d c o n t i n u i n g h o u s i n g c o - o p s ( T a b l e I I I ) , F u r t h e r e x a m i n a t i o n of T a b l e I I I shows t h a t c o n t i n u i n g c o-ops have, however, been a d o p t e d a t a much f a s t e r r a t e , w i t h o v e r 3,500 c o n t i n u i n g u n i t s c o m p l e t e d i n t h e f i r s t decade (1966-1975) v e r s u s about 500 b u i l d i n g u n i t s i n i t s f i r s t decade (1937-1946), e x c l u d i n g Quebec d a t a . 1 F i g u r e 4 d a t a i n d i c a t e s t h a t i n terms of t h e growth i n the number of p r o j e c t s , t h e two t y p e s of c o - o p e r a t i v e h o u s i n g have grown a t f a i r l y c o n s i s t e n t r a t e s , - 43 -- 45 -TABLE I I I CO-OPERATIVE HOUSING UNITS IN CANADA P e r i o d B u i l d i n g C o n t i n u i n g ( U n i t s ) ( U n i t s ) 1937-1940 49 0 1941-1950 517 0 1951-1960 2377 0 1961-1970 2796 530 1971-1972 1574 867 1973-1975 2298 1898 1976-1977 643 2 07 6 TOTAL 10264 5371 Quebec f i g u r e s have been e x c l u d e d f r o m t h e s e t o t a l s . (See f o o t n o t e f o r an e x p l a n a t i o n . ) -46-FIGURE 4 Growth of Co-operative Projects i n Canada Time 0 = 1937 for Building Co-ops' Time 0 = 1965 for Continuing Co-ops Q / • Building Co-ops ° Continuing Co-ops J 1 •<P~C>— O _ ^ 4 6 8 Time (Years) 10 12 - 47 -T h i s s i m i l a r i t y i n growth r a t e s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y n o t i c e a b l e when the s l i g h t d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e c u r v e s i s a c c o u n t e d f o r by W o r l d War I I , w h i c h s e v e r e l y c o n s t r a i n e d c o n s t r u c t i o n f o r t h r e e y e a r s . The f a c t t h a t t h e number of u n i t s does n o t i l l u s t r a t e the s i m i l a r i t y i n growth r a t e s d e m o n s t r a t e s one of t h e u n d e r -l y i n g d i f f e r e n c e s between b u i l d i n g and c o n t i n u i n g co-op p r o j e c t s . B u i l d i n g c o-ops t e n d to have l e s s t h a n 20 members i n most c a s e s . F o r example, the Nova S c o t i a H o u s i n g Commission recommends t h a t no more t h a n 12 members b e l o n g to one g r o u p . I n c o n t r a s t , c o n -t i n u i n g h o u s i n g co-ops o f t e n have more t h a n 200 members.and seldom l e s s t h a n f i f t y . T h i s t e n f o l d d i f f e r e n c e i n s c a l e i s e x p l a i n e d by t h e d i f f e r e n c e i n n a t u r e of t h e c o - o p e r a t i v e p r o j e c t s . In b u i l d i n g c o - o p e r a t i v e s , t h e group s h a r e s r e s p o n -s i b i l i t i e s i n p l a n n i n g and b u i l d i n g t h e i r homes. As members a c t u a l l y work t o g e t h e r i n t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e i r homes, i t i s i m p o r t a n t t h a t t h e y g e t a l o n g w e l l ; l a r g e g r o u p s o f t e n i n h i b i t i n d i v i d u a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n and c o m m u n i c a t i o n s ( B a l e s e t a l . 1951) and t h e y a r e u s u a l l y l e s s s t a b l e t h a n s m a l l g r o u p s (James 1951) \ c o n s e q u e n t l y , b u i l d i n g co-op g r o u p s t e n d t o be q u i t e s m a l l . I n c o n t i n u i n g h o u s i n g c o - o p s , t h i s i s l e s s i m p o r t a n t as t h e c o n -s t r u c t i o n , and o f t e n t h e p l a n n i n g o f t h e p r o j e c t , i s c o n t r a c t e d o u t . F u r t h e r m o r e , a l a r g e group may t a k e a d v a n t a g e of economies of s c a l e i n the c o n t r a c t i n g and p u r c h a s i n g of m a t e r i a l s f o r t h e p r o j e c t (Chen 1971, Haar 1953, W i l l c o x 1 9 53). T h e r e f o r e , i t i s b e n e f i c i a l f o r c o n t i n u i n g c o-ops t o be l a r g e i n s c a l e . B u i l d i n g c o - o p e r a t i v e s have been a t t e m p t e d i n e v e r y p r o -v i n c e , i n c l u d i n g B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . The s o l e p r o j e c t a t t e m p t e d - 48 -i n Squamish, B.C. f a i l e d , however, due to f i n a n c i a l d i f f i -c u l t i e s t h a t a r o s e as a r e s u l t of u n d e r e s t i m a t i n g t h e amount of t e c h n i c a l h e l p r e q u i r e d and b u i l d i n g m a t e r i a l c o s t s (S. Schmid 1976). From t h e number o f houses c o m p l e t e d i n e a c h of t h e o t h e r p r o v i n c e s , Nova S c o t i a and Quebec a r e i m m e d i a t e l y a p p a r e n t as l e a d e r s i n t h e f i e l d ( T a b l e I V ) . One must keep i n mind, how-e v e r , t h a t t h e f i g u r e s g i v e n f o r Quebec a r e n o t n e c e s s a r i l y o n l y t h o s e of b u i l d i n g c o - o p e r a t i v e s . As a r e s u l t t h e y a r e somewhat g r e a t e r t h a n t h e t r u e f i g u r e s f o r o n l y b u i l d i n g c o - o p e r a t i v e s . ( T h i s i s d i s c u s s e d f u r t h e r l a t e r i n t h i s c h a p t e r . ) .In any e v e n t , i t i s r e a s o n a b l e t o s t a t e t h a t t h e r e has been c o n s i d e r a b l e a c t i v i t y i n b u i l d i n g c o - o p e r a t i v e h o u s i n g i n Quebec. T u r n i n g b r i e f l y to o t h e r p r o v i n c e s , t h e r e has been c o n -s i d e r a b l e d e v e l o p m e n t i n each of t h e r e m a i n i n g m a r i t i m e p r o -v i n c e s , and i n O n t a r i o , d e v e l o p m e n t o c c u r r e d i n t h e 1950's but has s i n c e c e a s e d . W e s t e r n p r o v i n c e s a r e j u s t b e g i n n i n g t o d e v e l o p b u i l d i n g c o - o p e r a t i v e s . W i t h i n t h e p r o v i n c e s , b u i l d i n g co-ops have been d e v e l o p e d i n b o t h l a r g e m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a s and s m a l l towns. Over h a l f of t h e b u i l d i n g c o - o p e r a t i v e s a r e l o c a t e d i n t h e major c e n t r e s o f most p r o v i n c e s ( T a b l e V ) . C o n t i n u i n g h o u s i n g co-ops were n o t d e v e l o p e d u n t i l t h e l a t e 1960's, a l m o s t t h i r t y y e a r s a f t e r t h e f i r s t b u i l d i n g co-op. D u r i n g t h e f i r s t few y e a r s , one p i l o t p r o j e c t was d e v e l o p e d i n e a c h o f the p r o v i n c e s west o f and i n c l u d i n g O n t a r i o ( T a b l e V I ) . S i n c e 1972 on, t h e r e has been a s t e a d y growth i n t h i s t y p e o f co-op u n i t i n O n t a r i o , M a n i t o b a and B r i t i s h C o l o m b i a , w h i c h t o g e t h e r a c c o u n t f o r 90% o f t h e C a n a d i a n t o t a l . Quebec and Nova TABLE IV NUMBER OF BUILDING CO-OP UNITS COMPLETED - 1940 1-1977 Y e a r Nf I d . N . S . P . E . I . N.B. Que. 1 O n t . 2 Man. Sask, A l t a . 3 T o t a l 1940 0 49 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 9 1950 30 335 0 0 2500 102 0 0 50 3017 1960 365 974 14 0 2000 753 0 62 209 4377 1970 153 2406 151 86 1600 - 0 0 0 8953 1972 9 1398 93 74 0 0 0 0 1575 1975 28 1692 144 346 *• 0 4 84 0 2298 1977 21 106 211 — — 0 16 289 0 643 TOTAL 606 6960 623 506 6100 855 20 453 259 20951 l As d i s c u s s e d i n t h e t e x t , due to the b r o a d e r d e f i n i t i o n of co -op h o u s i n g used by Quebec, t h i s d a t a i s somewhat g r e a t e r than i f o n l y 1 b u i l d i n g co-ops ' as d e f i n e d i n t h i s t h e s i s were i n c l u d e d . A l s o , Quebec d a t a a r e e s t imat e s , whereas the o t h e r d a t a a r e a c t u a l count s. 2 As n o t e d , r e c e n t d a t a f o r O n t a r i o wexe not a v a i l a b l e . However » i n t e r v i e w s w i t h r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of b o t h the co-op movement and CMHC i n d i c a t e t h a t no b u i l d i n g c o - o p e r a t i v e s have been c o n s t r u c t e d i n the 1970's and few, i f any, i n t h e 1960's. A l b e r t a C o - o p e r a t i v e A c t i v i t i e s B r a n c h of the p r o v i n c i a l government h i r e d a p r o v i n c i a l h o u s i n g o f f i c e r i n 1976 to s t i m u l a t e the growth of b u i l d i n g c o - o p e r a t i v e s . - 50 -TABLE V BUILDING CO-OPS IN URBAN CENTRES P r o v i n c e O n t a r i o Quebec Sask. N . B . S e l e c t e d ( L e a d i n g ) Urban C e n t r e s K i n g s t o n , Oshawa, Ottawa, T o r o n t o , W i ndsor M o n t r e a l , Quebec R e g i n a , S a s k a t o o n Number of U n i t s 485 2000 293 P e r c e n t a g e of P r o v i n c i a l T o t a l 51.8 30 78 . 5 Moncton, F r e d e r i c t o n , S t . John 291 84 .1 N. S H a l i f a x , S a c k v i l l e , Sydney 2315 39.1 - 51 -TABLE VI CONTINUING CO-OP HOUSING UNITS COMPLETED Y e a r 19 66 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 B.C. 0 30 0 0 134 95 74 677 368 469 TOTAL 1847 A l t a , 0 0 0 380 0 0 0 0 0 0 % of Cdn . T o t a l 34.3 380 7 . 1 Sask, 0 0 0 0 48 0 0 0 0 0 48 0.9 Man. 200 0 0 68 0 174 0 0 247 150 839 Ont. 0 0 300 0 237 128 474 195 703 139 2176 Que. 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 56 0 0 15.6 40.5 56 1,0 NYS . 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 25 0 0 25 0,5 T o t a l 200 30 300 448 419 397 548 953 1318 656 5371 - 52 -S c o t i a have a l s o each d e v e l o p e d two s m a l l p r o j e c t s . At t h e time of w r i t i n g ( 1 9 7 7 ) , no de v e l o p m e n t o f c o n t i n u i n g h o u s i n g c o -o p e r a t i v e s had o c c u r r e d i n t h e r e m a i n i n g m a r i t i m e p r o v i n c e s . At a s m a l l e r s c a l e , c o n t i n u i n g c o-ops a r e f o u n d i n 13 of 22 m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a s o f Canada ( c e n t r e s w i t h a p o p u l a t i o n e x c e e d i n g 100,000); a n o t h e r two m e t r o p o l i t a n c e n t r e s have p r o -j e c t s under c o n s t r u c t i o n ( T a b l e V I I ) . O n l y a few of t h e p r o j e c t s a r e l o c a t e d i n s m a l l u r b a n c e n t r e s . (See A p p e n d i x I f o r a com-p l e t e l i s t i n g o f t h e c o n t i n u i n g h o u s i n g c o - o p e r a t i v e s i n Canada.) An A n a l y s i s of the P a t t e r n s of B u i l d i n g Co-op P r o j e c t s In a t t e m p t i n g to e x p l a i n the r e a s o n s f o r t h e de v e l o p m e n t of b u i l d i n g c o - o p e r a t i v e s , one i m m e d i a t e l y t u r n s to t h e h o u s i n g s h o r t a g e s d u r i n g t h e d e p r e s s i o n and f o l l o w i n g t h e war. The h o u s i n g s h o r t a g e was, no do u b t , t h e p r i m a r y f a c t o r , but i t was not a s u f f i c i e n t c o n d i t i o n as t h e c o u n t r y had e x p e r i e n c e d s h o r t a g e s b e f o r e w i t h o u t t h e i n c e p t i o n of b u i l d i n g c o - o p e r a t i v e s . The c r i t i c a l and c a t a l y t i c f a c t o r a p p e a r s to be t h e e x t e n s i v e a d u l t e d u c a t i o n programs s p o n s o r e d by t h e C a t h o l i c C h u r c h i n Nova S c o t i a , Quebec and O n t a r i o . S c o t t d e s c r i b e s t h e S t , P a t r i c k ' s C o l l e g e program i n O n t a r i o as f o l l o w s ( S c o t t 1958, p, 2 ) : The c o u r s e s were d e s i g n e d to f o c u s a t t e n t i o n on modern s o c i a l p r o b l e m s and ways i n wh i c h t h e s e can be s o l v e d . Many f a m i l y p r o b l e m s a r e p r e c i p i t a t e d or a g g r a v a t e d by i n a d e q u a t e accommodation and i n r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h i s f a c t , t h e S o c i a l A c t i o n Department d i r e c t e d i t s e n e r g i e s towards r e i n f o r c i n g f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s h i p s by ' s e l f — h e l p ' and c o - o p e r a t i o n . - 53 -TABLE V I I CONTINUING CO-OPS IN METROPOLITAN AREAS, 1977 Number M e t r o p o l i t a n A r e a o f Co^op U n i t s Number (Ranked by 1971 s i z e ) C ompleted ^ of P r o j e c t s M o n t r e a l 48 2 T o r o n t o 899 17 V a n c o u v e r 1403 13 O t t a w a - H u l l 236 2 W i n n i p e g 839 6 Edmonton l —>— 0 H a m i l t o n 2 0 Quebec 5 1 C a l g a r y 380 1 S t . C a t h a r i n e s 0 0 London 84 1 W i ndsor 300 1 K i t c h e n e r 0 0 H a l i f a x 25 2 V i c t o r i a 28 6 6 Sudbury 0 0 R e g i n a 48 1 C h i c o u t i m i 0 0 S t . Johns 0 0 S a s k a t o o n 3 0 Thunder Bay 256 1 S t . John 0 0 TOTAL 4809 54 Sundance Co-op i n Edmonton r e c e i v e d f u n d i n g i n 1974 from CMHC. A l t h o u g h t h e a u t h o r u n d e r s t a n d s t h a t i t has been com-p l e t e d , s u p p o r t i n g e v i d e n c e was n o t o b t a i n a b l e . A l t h o u g h n e i t h e r CMHC nor CHF had d a t a f o r h o u s i n g co-ops i n H a m i l t o n , t h e O n t a r i o M i n i s t r y f o r A g r i c u l t u r e and Food's O n t a r i o C o - o p e r a t i v e s 1971-72 (p. 6) s t a t e s t h a t " h o u s i n g c o-ops came i n t o p r o m i n e n c e a r o u n d 1950, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n H a m i l t o n and B u r l i n g t o n where many a p a r t m e n t b u i l d i n g s were c o n s t r u c t e d and l a t e r owned by t h e i r c o - o p e r a t i v e members." The a u t h o r s u s p e c t s t h a t t h e s e were condominiums, however, r a t h e r t h a n t r u e co-op h o u s i n g , S a s k a t o o n s t a r t e d c o n s t r u c t i o n o f a c o n t i n u i n g co-op p r o j e c t i n 1977. - 54 -Th e s e a d u l t e d u c a t i o n programs were, t h e r e f o r e , e n c o u r a g i n g i n d i v i d u a l home o w n e r s h i p , and saw s e l f - h e l p and c o - o p e r a t i o n , t h e b u i l d i n g co-op, as a means o f a c h i e v i n g t h i s g o a l . J o r d a n -(1973, p. 69) e l a b o r a t e s ^ o n t h i s theme by s t a t i n g t h a t t h e C a t h o l i c C h u r c h f e l t t h a t home o w n e r s h i p was n e c e s s a r y t o u n d e r -g i r d t h e f a m i l y ; f u r t h e r m o r e , " p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y was one of t h e d i s t i n g u i s h i n g s i g n s of s o c i e t i e s n ot r u l e d by a t h e i s t i c communism". Thus, the C a t h o l i c C h u r c h p l a y e d the r o l e of t h e s p o n s o r i n g i n s t i t u t i o n , h e l p i n g to o r g a n i z e g r o u p s and p r o v i d i n g g u i d a n c e d u r i n g t h e s t u d y p e r i o d . O b v i o u s l y , t h e C h u r c h was c o n c e r n e d w i t h c o - o p e r a t i v e h o u s i n g as a means to an end. The c o - o p e r a t i v e c o n t e n t of t h e development was i n c i d e n t a l to t h e end r e s u l t of s i n g l e f a m i l y h o u s i n g . The l a c k of i n t e r e s t i n c o - o p e r a t i o n i t s e l f i s e v i d e n c e d by the f i n a n c i n g a r r a n g e m e n t s e s t a b l i s h e d i n e a c h p r o v i n c e . In Nova S c o t i a , f u n d i n g was a p p r o v e d by t h e N.S. H o u s i n g Commission under t h a t p r o v i n c e ' s L i m i t e d D i v i d e n d A c t . Bec a u s e c o - o p e r a t i v e s r e c e i v e d a below market i n t e r e s t r a t e u nder t h i s a c t , i t was r e q u i r e d t h a t t h e p r o j e c t r e m a i n i n t h e o w n e r s h i p o f t h e co-op u n t i l t h e mortgage was a m o r t i z e d . T h i s meant t h a t t h e co-op as a whole was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r p a y i n g t h e mortgage, and hence had t o d e a l w i t h d e l i n q u e n t members, In 1953, a f e d e r a l - p r o v i n c i a l agreement was r e a c h e d whereby t h e f e d e r a l government p r o v i d e d 75% of t h e l o a n s under t h e N.H.A. As f u n d i n g was no l o n g e r under t h e p r o v i n c i a l L i m i t e d D i v i d e n d A c t , co-op members r e q u e s t e d t h a t t h e y be g r a n t e d i n d i v i d u a l m o r t g a g e s . I n 1970, t h e p r o v i n c e ' s i n t r o d u c t i o n of t h e o p t i o n a l - 55 -i n d i v i d u a l mortgage a l l o w e d each member t o be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r h i s own m o r t g a g e , h e n c e , i n d i v i d u a l home o w n e r s h i p o c c u r s on c o m p l e t i o n of t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n . Thus, i n t h i s i n s t a n c e , t h e c o - o p e r a t i v e c o n t e n t of t h e h o u s i n g d e v e l o p m e n t has d e c l i n e d i n i n v e r s e p r o p o r t i o n t o t h e p r o v i n c e ' s p a r t i c i p a t i o n . I n t h e o t h e r p r o v i n c i e s , m o r t g a g e s have a l w a y s been h e l d i n d i v i d u a l l y , w i t h t h e co-op e x i s t i n g s o l e l y t o d e v e l o p t h e houses and s e c u r e t h e l o a n . In P . E . I . , f o r example, the H o u s i n g C o r p o r a t i o n d e s c r i b e s co-op h o u s i n g as "an e x c e l l e n t o p p o r t u n i t y f o r moderate income f a m i l i e s t o own t h e i r own homes t h r o u g h t h e i r own c o n s t r u c t i o n e f f o r t s " . Thus, i n most of Canada, t h e b u i l d i n g c o - o p e r a t i v e s e r v e s as a medium t h r o u g h w h i c h p e o p l e may c o n s t r u c t t h e i r own homes. 2 T h i s v i e w of c o - o p e r a t i v e s as a means t o i n d i v i d u a l home o w n e r s h i p r e s u l t e d i n c o n f u s i o n when c o n t i n u i n g h o u s i n g c o - o p e r a t i v e s were f i r s t i n t r o d u c e d . T h i s p r o b l e m w i l l be d i s c u s s e d l a t e r i n t h i s c h a p t e r . I n Nova S c o t i a , t h e C a t h o l i c C h u r c h , i n t h e form of S t . F r a n c i s X a v i e r E x t e n s i o n D e p a r t m e n t ' s e d u c a t i o n p rogram, i s a l s o l a r g e l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the w i d e s p r e a d d i f f u s i o n o f b u i l d i n g c o - o p s . T h e i r programs r e a c h e d many a r e a s of t h e p r o v i n c e , and t h e i n n o v a t i o n o f b u i l d i n g co-ops was d i s c u s s e d a t many s t u d y g r o u p s . The E x t e n s i o n Department a l s o p u b l i s h e d b o o k l e t s p r o v i d i n g u s e f u l i n f o r m a t i o n , b o t h t e c h n i c a l and p h i l o s o p h i c a l . The Department even c o n v i n c e d t h e Nova S c o t i a H o u s i n g Commission to make f u n d s a v a i l a b l e t o c o - o p s , and t h e Commission became e n t h u s i a s t i c once a few p r o j e c t s had been - 56 -s u c c e s s f u l . Thus, w i t h b o t h t h e t e c h n i c a l h e l p of t h e E x t e n s i o n D e p a r t m e n t , and t h e f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e o f t h e p r o v i n c i a l government, b u i l d i n g co-ops f l o u r i s h e d In Nova S c o t i a . I n r e c e n t y e a r s , p r o v i n c i a l l a n d a s s e m b l y p r o j e c t s i n many a r e a s o f Nova S c o t i a ( S a c k v i l l e , C o l e H a r b o u r , Sydney, P o r t Hawkesbury) have made s e r v i c e d l o t s a v a i l a b l e t o co-op p r o j e c t s and hence have s e r v e d as an added s t i m u l u s . In O n t a r i o , t h e I n s t i t u t e o f S o c i a l A c t i o n a t S t . P a t r i c k ' s C o l l e g e i n Ottawa commenced i n a s u p p o r t i v e r o l e s i m i l a r t o S t . F r a n c i s X a v i e r . I n 1952 t h e I n s t i t u t e d e v e l o p e d a handbook and e d u c a t i o n a l program, and f o r t h e new few y e a r s the r a t e of p r o j e c t s i n c r e a s e d from one o r two a y e a r t o t w e l v e or f i f t e e n . A l t h o u g h t h e I n s t i t u t e ' s e d u c a t i o n programs were r e s t r i c t e d to t h e Ottawa r e g i o n , t h e i r handbook s p u r r e d on p r o j e c t s i n o t h e r a r e a s of O n t a r i o . As a r e s u l t of t h i s i n c r e a s e d a c t i v i t y , a number of s e r v i c e o r g a n i z a t i o n s were formed. Two of t h e s e were the C o - o p e r a t i v e B u i l d i n g S o c i e t y w h i c h p r o v i d e d management s e r v i c e s , and t h e C o - o p e r a t i v e Home B u i l d e r s F e d e r a t i o n . B u t , b o t h of t h e s e , and o t h e r o r g a n i z -a t i o n s , f o l d e d a f t e r o n l y a few y e a r s of s e r v i c e . Midmore (1962, p. 60) s t a t e s t h a t t h e m a j o r r e a s o n f o r t h e i r f a i l u r e l a y i n t h e a f o r e m e n t i o n e d l a c k of c o - o p e r a t i v e c o n t e n t i n the p r o -gram. Members saw t h e m s e l v e s as i n d i v i d u a l home owners, and once t h e i r homes were c o m p l e t e d , t h e y l o s t i n t e r e s t i n t h e movement and w i t h d r e w t h e i r s u p p o r t . Hence, the much needed e x p e r t i s e was l o s t , and each new group had t o f l o u n d e r on i t s own. B e s i d e s t h i s l a c k of t e c h n i c a l s u p p o r t , b u i l d i n g c o -- 57 -o p e r a t i v e s i n O n t a r i o had a d i f f i c u l t t i m e s e c u r i n g f u n d i n g . P r o j e c t s had to a p p l y t o C.M.H.C, on t h e i r own, w i t h o u t t h e b e n e f i t of a p r o v i n c i a l m e d i a t o r . F u r t h e r m o r e , co-ops d i d not r e c e i v e p r e f e r e n t i a l l e n d i n g r a t e s as i n Nova S c o t i a , b u t were g i v e n m o r t g a g e s on t h e same b a s i s as i n d i v i d u a l s . R e p e a t e d r e q u e s t s f o r f u n d i n g under t h e L i m i t e d D i v i d e n d S e c t i o n of t h e N.H.A. were d e n i e d ( J o r d a n 1 9 73). Thus, t h e r e was no f i n a n c i a l b e n e f i t t o be d e r i v e d f r o m f o r m i n g a c o - o p e r a t i v e . The o n l y a d v a n t a g e to co-op b u i l d i n g was t h a t you c o u l d h e l p each o t h e r b u i l d h o u s e s and sweat e q u i t y c o u l d be use d i n l i e u of a down-payment. C.M.H.C, however, d i d not r e a l l y a p p r o v e of u n t r a i n e d l a y g r o u p s d e v e l o p i n g h o u s e s ( J o r d a n 1973, p. 6 3 ) ; hence f u n d i n g was v e r y d i f f i c u l t t o o b t a i n . T h i s l a c k of s u p p o r t i n s t i t u t i o n s and r e a d y f u n d i n g c a u s e d t h e demise o f b u i l d i n g c o - o p e r a t i v e s i n O n t a r i o . A l t h o u g h no a c t u a l d a t a a r e a v a i l a b l e , C.M.H.C, s t a f f s t a t e t h a t b u i l d i n g co-ops have n o t been b u i l t i n O n t a r i o s i n c e t h e e a r l y 1960's. A l t h o u g h t h e number o f u n i t s c o m p l e t e d i n Quebec i s much g r e a t e r t h a n O n t a r i o ( T a b l e I V ) , t h e o v e r a l l e v o l u t i o n i s s i m i l a r . The most i m p o r t a n t s u p p o r t i v e r o l e was a g a i n p l a y e d by the c h u r c h . The L i g u e O u v r i e r e C a t h o l i q u e ' s a d u l t e d u c a t i o n p r o g r am f o r w o r k e r s was one of t h e p i l l a r s of h o u s i n g c o -o p e r a t i v e s i n Quebec. I t s e d u c a t i o n a l and c o h e s i v e a c t i o n among u n i o n movements and the c l e r g y ' s a c t i v e s u p p o r t showed c o n c r e t e r e s u l t s i n t h e f o r m a t i o n of numerous h o u s i n g c o - o p e r a t i v e s . E x i s t i n g l o c a l c r e d i t u n i o n s and h o u s i n g c o - o p e r a t i v e s a l s o s t i m u l a t e d t h e c o - o p e r a t i v e s e c t o r of h o u s i n g , t h e f o r m e r - 58 -a d v a n c i n g the c a p i t a l , w h i l e th e l a t t e r p r o v i d e d t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e . C e r t a i n o t h e r i n t e r m e d i a r y b o d i e s gave t h e i r s u p p o r t , b o d i e s such as t h e l o c a l a s s o c i a t i o n s of c i v i l s e r v a n t s and t h e S a i n t J e a n - B a p t i s t e S o c i e t y , From 1937 t o 1965, 198 c o - o p e r a t i v e s were i n c o r p o r a t e d i n Quebec (Le C o n s e i l de l a C o - o p e r a t i o n du Quebec 1968, p. 6 4 ) , However, even w i t h t h e e x t e n s i v e s u p p o r t i n s t i t u t i o n s , o n l y 20 to 3Q% o f t h i s t o t a l a c t u a l l y engaged i n c o n s t r u c t i o n p r o g r a m s . As n o t e d i n C h a p t e r 2, a v a i l a b l e d a t a f o r Quebec i n c l u d e s u n i t s t h a t do not f i t p r e c i s e l y t h e d e f i n i t i o n of b u i l d i n g c o - o p s . T h i s d i f f e r e n c e a l s o h e l p s t o e x p l a i n how 40 to 60 i n c o r p o r a t e d c o - o p e r a t i v e s c o u l d c o m p l e t e o v e r 6,000 u n i t s . The d i s t r i b u t i o n of h o u s i n g co-ops i n Quebec by t h e number of h o u s e s b u i l t i s shown i n T a b l e V I I I . C l e a r l y , the s m a l l group w h i c h i s t y p i c a l o f Nova S c o t i a and O n t a r i o i s not as p r e v a l e n t i n Quebec. I t a p p e a r s t h a t r a t h e r t h a n h a v i n g many s m a l l c o -o p e r a t i v e s e n g a g i n g i n c o n s t r u c t i o n i n t h e same r e g i o n , one l a r g e co-op has been formed. F o r example, t h e H o u s i n g Co-o p e r a t i v e s o f M o n t r e a l and Quebec have b u i l t 850 and 594 h o u s e s , r e s p e c t i v e l y . The s y s t e m employed i s s i m i l a r to t h a t of t h e mother and d a u g h t e r s o c i e t i e s of M a n i t o b a ( s e e - C h a p t e r 2 ) , I n Quebec, however, the d a u g h t e r s o c i e t y n e v e r becomes a co-op i n i t s own r i g h t , as the u n i t s a r e owned i n d i v i d u a l l y once t h e y a r e c o m p l e t e d . As a r e s u l t , the d a t a i n T a b l e V I I I p r o v i d e s no i n s i g h t i n t o t h e s i z e of t h e i n d i v i d u a l p r o j e c t s . A c c o r d i n g t o t h e C o n s e i l de l a C o - o p e r a t i o n du Quebec (1968, pp. 6 5 - 6 7 ) , t h e r e has been a downward t r e n d i n t h e a n n u a l - 59 -TABLE V I I I DISTRIBUTION OF HOUSING CO-OPERATIVES IN QUEBEC BY NUMBER OF HOUSES BUILT BY EACH CO-OP Numb er Houses B u i l d Per C o - o p e r a t i v e 0-49 Number of Co—ops 18 50-99 100-199 200-399 400-799 800 p l u s TOTAL 7 11 3 1 1 41 S o u r c e : Le C o n s e i l de l a C o - o p e r a t i o n du Quebec 1968, p. 78. - 60 -r a t e o f c o - o p e r a t i v e e s t a b l i s h m e n t from 1948 t o 1963 (1963 b e i n g t h e i r most r e c e n t d a t a ) , w i t h a p r e d i c t i o n of f u r t h e r d e c l i n e s . As i n O n t a r i o , t h i s d e c l i n e was a t t r i b u t e d p r i -m a r i l y to t h e movement's l a c k o f o n g o i n g m o t i v a t i o n . In t h e e a r l y y e a r s , p i l o t p r o j e c t s were a t t e m p t e d i n S a s k a t c h e w a n and A l b e r t a , but the l a c k of s u p p o r t i n s t i t u t i o n s and f u n d i n g a g a i n s t o p p e d t h e movement. However, i n t h e p a s t few y e a r s , t h e p o t e n t i a l of b u i l d i n g c o-ops has been r e a l i z e d and some p r o v i n c e s a r e e s t a b l i s h i n g d e p a r t m e n t s t o p r o v i d e t h e n e c e s s a r y s u p p o r t . S a s k a t c h e w a n p r o v i d e s an e x c e l l e n t example. D u r i n g t h e f i f t i e s , t w e l v e g r o u p s were g r a n t e d c h a r t e r s . O n l y f o u r of t h e s e c o m p l e t e d t h e i r homes. The o t h e r g r o u p s d i s s o l v e d b e f o r e c o n s t r u c t i o n s t a r t e d , p r i m a r i l y as a r e s u l t of f i n a n c i a l d i f f i c u l t i e s . As no o r g a n i z a t i o n was w i l l i n g to s u p p o r t t h e c o - o p e r a t i v e s and p r o v i d e s t a r t - u p f u n d i n g , the movement d i e d w i t h o n l y one o t h e r p r o j e c t b e i n g c o m p l e t e d i n 1960. Then, i n t h e mid-1970's, t h e p r o v i n c i a l government d e c i d e d t o promote b u i l d i n g c o - o p s . S i n c e t h i s t i m e an i n c r e a s i n g number o f p r o j e c t s have been c o m p l e t e d each y e a r , w i t h even more s c h e d u l e d f o r c o m p l e t i o n n e x t y e a r (1978) ( T a b l e I V ) . In P . E . I . , c o - o p e r a t i v e h o u s i n g has been a c t i v e s i n c e 1960 ( T a b l e I V ) . The p r o v i n c i a l H o u s i n g C o r p o r a t i o n p r o v i d e s i n f o r m a t i o n and a s s i s t a n c e i n f o r m i n g the co-op g r o u p s , g u i d a n c e t h r o u g h o u t t h e s t u d y p e r i o d , and f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e . F u r t h e r -more, t h e Department of R e g i o n a l Economic E x p a n s i o n i n c o n -j u n c t i o n w i t h t h e P . E . I . H o u s i n g C o r p o r a t i o n have a s e r v i c e d - 61 -l o t s u b s i d y program, and a low income a s s i s t e d home o w n e r s h i p program, b o t h of wh i c h a r e us e d as a supplement t o t h e e x i s t i n g co-op h o u s i n g program. W i t h t h i s a c t i v e s u p p o r t , i t i s n o t s u r p r i s i n g t h a t t h e number of co-ops i n P. E . I , i s s t e a d i l y i n c r e a s i n g . A l b e r t a h i r e d a p r o v i n c i a l h o u s i n g o f f i c e r i n 1976 t o s t i m u l a t e growth i n b u i l d i n g c o - o p e r a t i v e d e v e l o p m e n t , B.C, as y e t has n o t u n d e r t a k e n any program to s u p p o r t b u i l d i n g c o - o p s . As m e n t i o n e d e a r l i e r , t h e one p i l o t p r o j e c t a t t e m p t e d i n Squamish, B.C., f a i l e d as a r e s u l t of a l a c k o f t e c h n i c a l e x p e r t i s e and s u f f i c i e n t f u n d i n g . The two p r i m a r y d e t e r m i n a n t s of t h e v a r i a t i o n i n b u i l d i n g c o - o p e r a t i v e a c t i v i t y from p r o v i n c e to p r o v i n c e a r e , t h e r e f o r e , a s p o n s o r i n g i n s t i t u t i o n and f i n a n c i a l s u p p o r t . The s p o n s o r i n g group i s n e c e s s a r y t o p r o v i d e t e c h n i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n r e q u i r e d f o r p l a n n i n g and b u i l d i n g homes. They a l s o a i d i n e s t i m a t i n g t h e t o t a l c o s t s of t h e p r o j e c t and p r e p a r i n g l o a n a p p l i c a t i o n s . The need f o r f i n a n c i a l s u p p o r t i s s e l f - e x p l a n a t o r y . F u n d i n g i s not o n l y r e q u i r e d f o r b u i l d i n g m a t e r i a l s , however, but a l s o f o r t h e p l a n n i n g of the p r o j e c t . P r i o r t o 1973, t h e l a c k of s t a r t -up f u n d i n g had p r o v e d to be a major o b s t a c l e i n many p r o j e c t s . A g a i n , t h i s s t a r t - u p f u n d i n g was o f t e n s u p p l i e d by s u p p o r t i n s t i t u t i o n s . S i n c e 1973, F e d e r a l s t a r t - u p f u n d i n g has been made a v a i l a b l e t o co-op g r o u p s , but i n many i n s t a n c e s i t i s i n s u f f i c i e n t and o u t s i d e s o u r c e s o f f u n d i n g a r e s t i l l n e c e s s a r y . H a v i n g a s c e r t a i n e d t h e r e a s o n s f o r t h e d e v e l o p m e n t of b u i l d i n g co-ops a c r o s s Canada, the l o c a t i o n w i t h i n e ach p r o — - 62 -v i n c e w i l l now be examined. B u i l d i n g co-ops a r e a l m o s t e x c l u s i v e l y s i n g l e f a m i l y d e t a c h e d homes; c o n s e q u e n t l y , t h e y a r e p o p u l a r l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h r u r a l a r e a s where l a n d i s r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e and more c h e a p l y a t t a i n e d , J o r d a n (1973, p p t 60-61) s t a t e s t h a t C.M.H.C. p o l i c y was s u c h t h a t co-ops c o u l d n o t o b t a i n l o a n s i n l a r g e m u n i c i p a l i t i e s , and hence were f o r c e d i n t o r u r a l a r e a s . But a r e v i e w of t h e l o c a t i o n s of b u i l d i n g c o - o p e r a t i v e p r o j e c t s ( T a b l e V ) , t e n d s to i n v a l i d a t e t h i s a s s e r t i o n . T r a d i t i o n a l l y , most (66.7%) of t h e co-op homes c o n s t r u c t e d i n Nova S c o t i a were i n t h e r u r a l e a s t e r n a r e a of t h e p r o v i n c e . O n l y 14.7% of t h e co-op h o u s e s were i n t h e H a l i f a x -D artmouth a r e a by 1964. S i n c e 1965, t h e movement has grown r a p i d l y and 3,871 u n i t s have been b u i l t i n t h e H a l i f a x - D a r t m o u t h ^ S a c k v i l l e a r e a . T h i s change i n l o c a t i o n a l emphasis i s i n l a r g e p a r t due t o a p u b l i c l a n d a s s e m b l y p r o j e c t i n S a c k v i l l e , T h i s p r o j e c t has o f f e r e d s e r v i c e d l o t s to co-op p r o j e c t s a t s u b -s i d i z e d r a t e s . O t h e r r e g i o n s a l s o have l a n d a s s e m b l y p r o j e c t s , As a r e s u l t of t h e s e p r o g r a m s , t h e p r o p o r t i o n of u r b a n l o c a t e d b u i l d i n g c o-ops has i n c r e a s e d s u b s t a n t i a l l y ( s e e T a b l e I X ) , I n O n t a r i o , where f i n a n c i n g was from C.M.H.C. d i r e c t l y , o v e r h a l f of t h e u n i t s c o m p l e t e d by 1957 were l o c a t e d i n some of t h e l a r g e u r b a n a r e a s of t h e p r o v i n c e ( T a b l e V ) . In New B r u n s w i c k and S a s k a t c h e w a n , r o u g h l y 7 8 0 % o f the co-op p r o j e c t s a r e l o c a t e d i n t h e major c i t i e s . In t h e s e p r o v i n c e s , as i n Nova S c o t i a , p u b l i c l a n d a s s e m b l y p r o j e c t s a r e h e l p i n g t o p r o v i d e l a n d a t r e a s o n a b l e c o s t to b u i l d i n g c o - o p s . Thus, i t a p p e a r s t o be a f a l l a c y t h a t b u i l d i n g c o - o p e r -TABLE IX BUILDING CO-OPS IN SYDNEY AND SACKVILLE, 1965-1973 S y d n e y - S a c k v i l l e Y e a r Sydney ( U n i t s ) S a c k v i l l e ( U n i t s ) P r o v i n c i a l T o t a l ( U n i t s ) Combined as P r o v i n c i a l 1965 46 — 83 1966 18 -- 67 1967 ' 35 8 213 25,29% 1968 66 126 541 35.50% 1969 116 175 578 50.34% 1970 79 351 642 66.98% 1971 68 320 637 60,91% 1972 74 414 761 64.13% 1973 37 140 349 5 0.71% S o u r c e : Roach (1973, p. 9) - 64 -a t i v e s a r e f o u n d o n l y i n r u r a l a r e a s . A l t h o u g h t h e movement o r i g i n a t e d i n s m a l l r u r a l c e n t r e s , i t has moved i n t o m a j o r u r b a n a r e a s of t h o s e p r o v i n c e s s u p p o r t i n g t h e c o n c e p t of b u i l d i n g c o - o p s . The key f a c t o r a p p e a r s to be the a v a i l a b i l i t y o f s e r v i c e d l o t s . I n many c i t i e s s u c h l o t s a r e no l o n g e r a a v a i l a b l e e x c e p t a t an e x t r e m e l y h i g h c o s t , much beyond the means of a p e r s o n i n t e r e s t e d i n b u i l d i n g h i s own home, F o r t h i s r e a s o n , t h e dev e l o p m e n t of b u i l d i n g c o - o p e r a t i v e s w i l l n o t o c c u r i n many c i t i e s i n t h e n e a r f u t u r e . However, i f o t h e r a r e a s f o l l o w t h e Nova S c o t i a model, where l a n d a s s e m b l y programs make r e a s o n a b l y p r i c e d s e r v i c e d l o t s a v a i l a b l e to b u i l d i n g c o -o p e r a t i v e s , t h e movement can f l o u r i s h . T h i s i s d e p e n d e n t , of c o u r s e , on t h e l e v e l s and n a t u r e of a v a i l a b l e f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e . An A n a l y s i s of t h e P a t t e r n s of C o n t i n u i n g  C o - o p e r a t i v e H o u s i n g T h e r e a r e two p r i m a r y f a c t o r s t h a t a c c o u n t f o r t h e e a r l y d e v e l o p m e n t p a t t e r n s of c o n t i n u i n g h o u s i n g c o - o p e r a t i v e s i n Canada. The f i r s t of t h e s e , t h e c o - o p e r a t i v e / l a b o u r movement, was a p r o m o t i o n a l f a c t o r ; t h e s e c o n d , C.M.H.C. p o l i c y , was a i n h i b i t o r y f a c t o r . The f o r c e s o f each was, i n p a r t , d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d to t h e a c t i v i t i e s o f t h e o t h e r . A l t h o u g h an i n d e p t h d i s c u s s i o n of t h e e v o l u t i o n of C.M.H.C. p o l i c y as r e l a t e d t o c o n t i n u i n g c o-ops i s beyond t h e scope of t h i s s t u d y , an e l a b o r -a t i o n o f some of t h e p o i n t s r a i s e d i n C h a p t e r 2 w i l l i l l u s t r a t e t h e r o l e s o f b o t h C.M.H.C. and t h e c o - o p e r a t i v e / l a b o u r move-ment. ( F o r a c o m p l e t e d i s c u s s i o n of t h e e v o l u t i o n o f C.M.H.C. - 65 -p o l i c y and c o - o p e r a t i v e h o u s i n g , see D e n n i s and F i s h ( 1 9 7 2 ) , H a i r e ( 1 9 7 5 ) , and J o r d a n (1973),) B e c a u s e t h e r o l e s of t h e two gr o u p s a r e i n t e r - d e p e n d e n t , the f o l l o w i n g d i s c u s s i o n i s o r g a n -i z e d c h r o n o l o g i c a l l y r a t h e r t h a n t o p i c a l l y . The i m p e t u s f o r c o n t i n u i n g c o - o p e r a t i v e h o u s i n g came from w i t h i n t h e c o - o p e r a t i v e movement i t s e l f . S i x o f t h e t e n c h a r t e r members o f CHAM, t h e d e v e l o p e r s o f t h e f i r s t c o n t i n u i n g co-op i n Canada, were r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of F e d e r a t e d C o - o p e r a t i v e s L t d . , M a n i t o b a P o o l E l e v a t o r s , U n i t e d G r a i n Growers L t d . , C o - o p e r a t i v e L i f e I n s u r a n c e Company, C o - o p e r a t i v e F i r e and C a s u a l t y Company and t h e W i n n i p e g and D i s t r i c t L a b o u r C o u n c i l ( C o - o p e r a t i v e C r e d i t S o c i e t y o f M a n i t o b a ) . W i t h t h i s heavy c o - o p e r a t i v e / l a b o u r c o n t e n t , i t i s not s u r p r i s i n g t h a t t h e group was n o t c o n t e n t to d e v e l o p b u i l d i n g co-ops w i t h t h e co-op d i s s o l v e d upon c o m p l e t i o n o f t h e h o u s i n g . As p r e v i o u s l y n o t e d , CHAM members s t u d i e d d i f f e r e n t forms o f c o - o p e r a t i v e h o u s i n g b e f o r e d e c i d i n g to a d o p t t h e l a b o u r s p o n s o r e d U.H.F. co-op h o u s i n g model d e v e l o p e d i n New Y o r k . CHAM t h e n went on to d e s i g n t h e i r f i r s t c o n t i n u i n g co-op p r o j e c t . U n t i l t h i s p o i n t , t h e i n i t i a l s t a g e s i n t h e development of h o u s i n g c o - o p e r a t i v e s had been s t e a d i l y p r o g r e s s i n g . However, once t h e p l a n s were drawn, t h e n e x t s t e p was t o s e c u r e f i n a n c i n g f o r t h e p r o j e c t . CHAM a p p r o a c h e d CMHC f o r f u n d i n g i n September 1960, b u t "Head O f f i c e c o u l d n o t fathom l e n d i n g to a c o - o p e r a t i v e w h i c h was not composed o f r e s i d e n t s , and s t a t e d t h a t a l o a n c o u l d n ot be made." (Head O f f i c e to W i n n i p e g B r a n c h , CMHC, O c t o b e r 1960, c i t e d i n J o r d a n 1 9 73). F u r t h e r m o r e , b e c a u s e t h e W i n n i p e g C i t y C o u n c i l d i d n o t - 66 -a p p r o v e t h e i r p r o p o s a l , t h e s i t e c h o s e n f o r d e v elopment was n o t a v a i l a b l e . T h i s was t h e f i r s t m ajor o b s t a c l e to t h e d e v e l o p -ment o f t h e c o n t i n u i n g co-op movement. P e r h a p s as a r e s u l t of CHAM's p r o p o s a l , the C o - o p e r a t i v e U n i o n of Canada r e c e i v e d a g r a n t from CMHC i n 1961 t o s t u d y c o - o p e r a t i v e h o u s i n g . The c o m p l e t e d s t u d y (Midmore 1962) o u t -l i n e s t h e E u r o p e a n and A m e r i c a n e x p e r i e n c e w i t h h o u s i n g c o - o p e r a t i v e s . The r e p o r t s t r e s s e s t h e v i a b i l i t y o f m u l t i p l e u n i t c o n t i n u i n g h o u s i n g c o - o p e r a t i v e s i n Canada, and recommends t h a t t h e p r e f e r e n t i a l i n t e r e s t r a t e s t h e n p r o v i d e d f o r p e o p l e of low i n c o m e s , u n i v e r s i t y s t u d e n t s and e l d e r l y p e r s o n s be made a v a i l a b l e t o c o - o p e r a t i v e s whose members f a l l i n t o t h e s e b r o a d c l a s s e s . The C o - o p e r a t i v e U n i o n of Canada r e p o r t s e r v e d to p r o v o k e d i s c u s s i o n w i t h i n b o t h CMHC and c o - o p e r a t i v e a s s o c i a t i o n s . In 1963, when CHAM a p p l i e d t o CMHC f o r f u n d i n g o f i t s W i l l o w P a r k p r o j e c t , t h e C o r p o r a t i o n was more r e c e p t i v e . CMHC a g r e e d to p r o v i d e l o n g term f i n a n c i n g i n the form o f a c o n v e n t i o n a l f i r s t mortgage w i t h an i n t e r e s t r a t e of 6%% and an a m o r t i z a t i o n p e r i o d o f 30 y e a r s . As CMHC would not f u n d t h e e n t i r e p r o j e c t a s e c o n d mortgage of $225,000 was o b t a i n e d from t h e C o — o p e r a t i v e C r e d i t S o c i e t y o f M a n i t o b a ( P o m p e r l e a u 1976, p, 4 3 ) . The r e m a i n d e r of t h e f i n a n c i n g came from t h e r e s i d e n t s i n t h e form of s h a r e c a p i t a l . However, even a f t e r r e c e i v i n g t h e s e committ-ments f o r f i n a n c i n g , CHAM s t i l l e x p e r i e n c e d many p r o b l e m s w i t h CMHC. F i r s t , CMHC r e f u s e d t o a d vance th e f u n d s n e c e s s a r y t o - 67 r p r e p a y t h e 60 y e a r l e a s e on t h e l a n d as r e q u i r e d by the c i t y o f W i n n i p e g . CHAM had to pay t h e $50,000 t h e m s e l v e s . Then CMHC a s s e s s e d the l e n d i n g v a l u e o f t h e de v e l o p m e n t much l o w e r t h a n a n t i c i p a t e d and t o l d CHAM t h a t the t e n d e r s r e c e i v e d were too h i g h . As a r e s u l t , many i t e m s had t o be c u t out of t h e p l a n s t o b r i n g them w i t h i n CHMC s p e c i f i c a t i o n s . The most s i g n i f i c a n t c o m p l i c a t i o n c a u s e d by CMHC i n v o l v e d t h e advance of f u n d s . The l e t t e r of i n t e n t f r o m CMHC on t h e f i n a n c i n g i n d i c a t e d t h a t i t would pay t h e t o t a l amount of th e l o a n when h a l f of t h e u n i t s i n t h e de v e l o p m e n t were com-p l e t e d . A l a t e r s t i p u l a t i o n r e q u i r e d the p r o j e c t to be 50% o c c u p i e d b e f o r e any f u n d s were p a i d t o CHAM, A c c e s s t o f u n d s was f u r t h e r impeded by the r e q u i r e m e n t t h a t 80% o f the u n i t s were to be o c c u p i e d by members who had p a i d f o r s h a r e s i n t h e de v e l o p m e n t . These r e q u i r e m e n t s put CMHC s u b s t a n t i a l l y i n a r i s k f r e e p o s i t i o n , but i t made i t v i r t u a l l y i m p o s s i b l e to d e v e l o p a c o - o p e r a t i v e p r o j e c t w i t h o u t i n t e r i m f i n a n c i n g . Taken t o g e t h e r , t h e s e r e q u i r e m e n t s meant t h a t t h e n e c e s s a r y i n t e r i m f i n a n c i n g would n o t be p r o v i d e d by CMHC. A two y e a r l o a n of two m i l l i o n d o l l a r s was, t h e r e f o r e , o b t a i n e d from t h e C o - o p e r a t i v e C r e d i t S o c i e t y of M a n i t o b a and g u a r a n t e e d by t h e F e d e r a t e d C o - o p e r a t i v e s . CMHC t h e n made a d v a n c e s on t h e b a s i s of t h e number of u n i t s o c c u p i e d by c o - o p e r a t i v e members. T h i s r e v i e w of t h e dev e l o p m e n t of W i l l o w P a r k i l l u s t r a t e s w e l l the c o n t r a s t i n g b u t l i n k e d r o l e s of CMHC and t h e c o - o p e r a t i v e / l a b o u r movement. When CMHC h i n d e r e d t h e p r o j e c t , t h e c o - o p e r a t i v e and l a b o u r g r o u p s , a s s i s t e d w i t h t h e r e q u i r e d f u n d i n g , As a - 68 -r e s u l t o f t h i s ' g r i t d e t e r m i n a t i o n ' of the l a b o u r and c o -o p e r a t i v e g r o u p s t o see t h e dev e l o p m e n t of t h e f i r s t c o n t i n u i n g co-op h o u s i n g p r o j e c t i n Canada, W i l l o w P a r k was a b l e to o v e r -come t h e o b s t a c l e s c r e a t e d by a c a u t i o u s and c o n s e r v a t i v e b u r e a u c r a c y . B e f o r e d i s c u s s i n g the dev e l o p m e n t of c o n t i n u i n g h o u s i n g c o - o p e r a t i v e s i n Canada f u r t h e r , a few p o i n t s must be s t r e s s e d . W i l l o w P a r k was d e v e l o p e d by a 'mother s o c i e t y ' as d e f i n e d i n C h a p t e r 2. CHAM r a i s e d t h e e q u i t y , b u i l t and o p e r a t e d t h e p r o j e c t , and p o l i c e d t h e income and o t h e r e l i g i b i l i t y r e q u i r e -ments of t h e o c c u p a n t s . But CHAM members d i d n o t r e s i d e i n t h e p r o j e c t t h e m s e l v e s . Thus, when o t h e r c o - o p e r a t i v e g r o u p s a p p r o a c h e d CMHC f o r f u n d i n g , CMHC c o u l d o n l y e n v i s a g e a l o a n to a co-op w h i c h d i d not i n c l u d e t h e r e s i d e n t s of t h e p r o j e c t as members. I t c o u l d n ot be composed of r e s i d e n t s of t h e p r o j e c t who would r a i s e t h e e q u i t y and own s h a r e s i n t h e co-op. T h e r e -f o r e , i n t h e s i x t i e s , o n l y mother s o c i e t i e s c o u l d o b t a i n f u n d i n g f o r a c o - o p e r a t i v e h o u s i n g p r o j e c t . C o n s e q u e n t l y , the i n i t i a l s u p p o r t of t h e few p r o j e c t s t h a t r e c e i v e d f u n d i n g was f r o m t h e c o - o p e r a t i v e / l a b o u r movement. Co-op V i l l a , i n A b b o t s f o r d , B.C., was d e v e l o p e d as a r e s u l t of a d e c i s i o n of t h e A b b o t s f o r d C r e d i t U n i o n to a l l o c a t e $2,000 of i t s ' s u r p l u s e a r n i n g s towards t h e s p o n s o r s h i p of a h o u s i n g co-op. A mother s o c i e t y , The A b b o t s f o r d C o - o p e r a t i v e H o u s i n g A s s o c i a t i o n , was formed w i t h t h e m a j o r i t y o f i t s d i r e c t o r s drawn from t h o s e of the c r e d i t u n i o n . The c r e d i t u n i o n p r o v i d e d i n t e r i m f i n a n c i n g and p u r c h a s e d s u f f i c i e n t l a n d - 69 -to p r o v i d e a s m a l l l a n d bank f o r f u t u r e b u i l d i n g s . S o l i d a r i t y Tower, a h i g h r i s e a p a r t m e n t co-op i n W i n d s o r , O n t a r i o was t h e r e s u l t of t h e U n i t e d Auto Workers L o c a l 444 ' s i n t e r e s t i n d e v e l o p i n g c o - o p e r a t i v e h o u s i n g . Both of t h e s e p r o j e c t s r e c e i v e d m o r t g a g e s from CMHC, but t h e i n t e r i m f i n a n c i n g was a r r a n g e d t h r o u g h l o c a l c r e d i t u n i o n s . The C o r p o r a t i o n t r e a t e d t h e s e p r o j e c t s as home o w n e r s h i p p r o j e c t s , s i n c e t h e y f e l t t h a t t h e c o - o p e r a t i v e " i n f a c t does r e p r e s e n t a form of home o w n e r s h i p , a l t h o u g h e x p r e s s e d i n l e a s e h o l d f o r m " (A,D. W i l s o n , E x e c u t i v e D i r e c t o r , W i ndsor O f f i c e , CMHC, June 14, 1966, c i t e d i n D e n n i s and F i s h 1 9 7 2). As a r e s u l t of t h i s p o s i t i o n , t h e s e c o - o p e r a t i v e p r o j e c t s , l i k e W i l l o w P a r k , r e c e i v e d f u n d i n g under S e c t i o n 58 o f t h e NHA, a d i r e c t l e n d i n g f o r home o w n e r s h i p p r o v i s i o n , w i t h o u t any p r e f e r r e d i n t e r e s t r a t e , A l t h o u g h t h e s e were the o n l y two p r o j e c t s t o be c o m p l e t e d i n t h e f i r s t few y e a r s a f t e r W i l l o w P a r k ' s c o m p l e t i o n , t h i s does n o t d e n o t e a l a c k of i n t e r e s t i n t h i s i n n o v a t i v e h o u s i n g f o r m . In 1968 t h e C o - o p e r a t i v e U n i o n of Canada and t h e N a t i o n a l L a b o u r C o n g r e s s formed t h e N a t i o n a l L a b o u r C o - o p e r a t i v e Committee (NLCC). The NLCC wanted to see t h e d e v e l o p m e n t of c o n t i n u i n g c o-ops by f u t u r e o c c u p a n t s r a t h e r t h a n by a mother s o c i e t y . I t f e l t t h a t a t r u e c o - o p e r a t i v e p r o j e c t had t o be d e s i g n e d , b u i l t and o p e r a t e d by the p e o p l e t h a t would l i v e i n t h e p r o j e c t . As a means of p r o m o t i n g t h e s e c o - o p e r a t i v e s , t h e NLCC s p o n s o r e d a s e r i e s of s e m i n a r s a c r o s s Canada. At t h e same t i m e , the C o - o p e r a t i v e H o u s i n g F o u n d a t i o n of Canada (CHF), t h e i m p l e m e n t i n g arm of t h e NLCC, was w o r k i n g t o - 7 0 -o b t a i n a r e v i s i o n of s e c t i o n 15 of t h e NHA making c o - o p e r a t i v e s e l i g i b l e f o r t h e p r e f e r e n t i a l l e n d i n g r a t e , CMHC had p r e -v i o u s l y a g r e e d i n p r i n c i p l e t h a t l i m i t e d d i v i d e n d l o a n s c o u l d be made to c o - o p e r a t i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n s w h i c h were n o t composed of r e s i d e n t s o f t h e p r o j e c t . I n t h i s i n s t a n c e , CMHC v i e w e d t h e co-op p r o j e c t as e s s e n t i a l l y a r e n t a l p r o j e c t , w i t h t h e s p o n s o r i n g i n s t i t u t i o n ( t h e mother s o c i e t y ) a c t i n g as t h e d e v e l o p e r s of t h e p r o j e c t . T h i s v i e w comes t h r o u g h i n t h e f o l l o w i n g s t a t e m e n t of the government's p o s i t i o n i n 1963 (CMHC Memorandum, May 21, 1963 , c i t e d i n D e n n i s and F i s h 1972) : I t i s d i f f i c u l t t o see how a c o - o p e r a t i v e c o u l d u n d e r t a k e to r e s e r v e o c c u p a n c y f o r s p e c i a l g r o u p s of low income or o t h e r w i s e d i s a d v a n t a g e d p e o p l e , and s t i l l r e m a i n a c o - o p e r a t i v e but i f i t c o u l d , t h e r e does no t seem to be any r e a s o n why i t s h o u l d n o t q u a l i f y f o r t h e s p e c i a l l e n d i n g terms p r o v i d e d i n t h e A c t f o r s u c h p r o j e c t s . In such a c o - o p e r a t i v e p r o j e c t , however, t h e t e n a n t s t h e m s e l v e s c o u l d have v e r y l i t t l e c o n t r o l o v e r o c c u p a n c y , e i t h e r t h e i r own or t h a t of o t h e r s , and t h i s does no t seem t o be c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of what c o - o p e r a t i v e h o u s i n g u s u a l l y s e e k s . I t i s o b v i o u s t h a t CMHC does n o t e q u a t e t h e t e n a n t w i t h t h e c o - o p e r a t i v e i t s e l f . T h i s i s f u r t h e r e v i d e n c e d i n t h e c a s e of a C a l g a r y p r o j e c t . I n J a n u a r y 1968, the h o u s i n g committee of t h e C a l g a r y B u i l d i n g T r a d e s C o u n c i l , a group a r i s i n g from t h e NLCC s e m i n a r s , s o u g h t c l a r i f i c a t i o n of t h e i r e l i g i b i l i t y f o r a S e c t i o n 15 l o a n to d e v e l o p a c o - o p e r a t i v e h o u s i n g p r o j e c t . CMHC r e s p o n d e d t h a t t h e y would be e l i g i b l e p r o v i d e d t h e y d i d not g i v e p r e f e r e n t i a l t r e a t m e n t t o members of t h e b u i l d i n g t r a d e s , S i n c e t h e committee was i n t e r e s t e d i n d e v e l o p i n g a co-op as - 71 -p r o p o s e d by t h e NLCC, t h e l a b o u r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of t h e s t e e r i n g committee r e s i g n e d when t h e C o - o p e r a t i v e H o u s i n g A s s o c i a t i o n of C a l g a r y was i n c o r p o r a t e d . T h i s meant t h a t t h e A s s o c i a t i o n c o n s i s t e d of f u t u r e o w n e r / t e n a n t s , r a t h e r t h a n B u i l d i n g T r a d e s C o u n c i l r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . The s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h i s w i l l become c l e a r a f t e r the d i s c u s s i o n o f CMHC's more r e c e n t and c u r r e n t p o l i c i e s . I n e a r l y 1969, CMHC p r o p o s e d changes i n t h e NHA s u c h t h a t "A low income c o - o p e r a t i v e w i t h members owning s h a r e s i n t h e c o - o p e r a t i v e and h a v i n g p o s s e s s i o n but n e v e r becoming owners of t h e i n d i v i d u a l u n i t s ( e . g . W i l l o w Park)" (Memorandum, P r e s i d e n t to M i n i s t e r , Feb. 6, 1969, c i t e d i n D e n n i s and F i s h 1 9 72), be e l i g i b l e f o r p r e f e r e n t i a l l o a n s u nder S e c t i o n 15. The A c t was amended and t h e C a n a d i a n H o u s i n g S t a t i s t i c s (1969, p. x v i ) s t a t e s t h a t " l o a n s may be made to any p e r s o n or any t y p e of o r g a n i z a t i o n , i n c l u d i n g a c o - o p e r a t i v e " . However, CMHC would not a s s u r e CHF t h a t l o a n s would be f o r t h c o m i n g u nder S e c t i o n 15. As m e n t i o n e d above, CHF was p r o m o t i n g co-ops w h i c h would be d e v e l o p e d by t h e e v e n t u a l r e s i d e n t s r a t h e r t h a n by a group of c o n c e r n e d c i t i z e n s . CMHC had n o t c o n s i d e r e d t h i s t y p e of co-op p r o j e c t where members d e v e l o p h o u s i n g f o r t h e m s e l v e s . T h i s was c l e a r l y a t y p e o f home o w n e r s h i p whereas CMHC had been a b l e to v i e w co-ops d e v e l o p e d as a f o r m of r e n t a l p r o j e c t when t h e y recommended the changes i n the NHA, T h i s becomes c l e a r e r i n t h e f o l l o w i n g q u o t a t i o n , t a k e n from a Memorandum from t h e P r e s i d e n t of CMHC, H,W, H i g n e t t , to t h e M i n i s t e r , H o n o u r a b l e R, A n d r a s , September 24, 1969, q u o t e d i n D e n n i s and F i s h 1972, - 72 -p. 253 : We a r e p r e s e n t l y p r e p a r e d and a u t h o r i z e d to p r o v i d e l o a n s to t h e same l e v e l and c o v e r i n g t h e same a m e n i t i e s f o r c o -o p e r a t i v e s as f o r any o t h e r form of h o u s i n g o w n e r s h i p . We t o o k t h e v i e w when t h e b r i e f was o r i g i n a l l y p r e s e n t e d to us t h a t S e c t i o n 15, however, p r o v i d e s f a v o u r -a b l e i n t e r e s t r a t e s f o r low income t e n a n t s whose e n t i t l e m e n t to o c c u p y th e h o u s i n g c e a s e s when.they c e a s e to r e q u i r e t h e s u b -s i d i z e d i n t e r e s t r a t e . T h i s means, f o r p r a c t i c a l p u r p o s e s , t h a t we would f i n a n c e a p r o j e c t s p o n s o r e d by a c o - o p e r a t i v e i n p r e c i s e l y t h e same manner as one s p o n s o r e d by any p r i v a t e d e v e l o p e r , s u b j e c t to t h e same p r o v i s i o n s f o r r e n t c o n t r o l and income e l i g i b i l i t y l i m i t a t i o n . The c o - o p e r a t i v e s , on t h e o t h e r hand, w h i l e r e l y i n g on t h e t e c h n i c a l i t y t h a t t h e o c c u p a n t i s a t e n a n t , promote e n t i r e l y t h e c o n c e p t o f o w n e r s h i p r a t h e r t h a n t e n a n c y , and t h e y have i n d e e d p r o p o s e d t h a t t h e t e n a n t s p r o v i d e t h e e q u i t i e s r e q u i r e d to f i n a n c e t h e i r u n i t s . We f e e l t h i s to be i n c o n s i s t e n t to .the b a s i c c o n c e p t of t h e l e g i s l a t i o n as i t i s p r e s e n t l y w r i t t e n . Thus, a l t h o u g h changes had been p a s s e d r e g a r d i n g t h e a c c e s s i -b i l i t y of c o - o p e r a t i v e s to S e c t i o n 15 f u n d s , t h e t y p e of co-op promoted by CHF was n o t e l i g i b l e . T h i s meant t h a t t h e p r o j e c t p r o p o s a l by the C o - o p e r a t i v e H o u s i n g A s s o c i a t i o n of M a n i t o b a would have been d e n i e d a c c e s s to S e c t i o n 15 r a t e s , CMHC's p o s i t i o n on c o - o p e r a t i v e h o u s i n g i s u n d e r s t a n d a b l e g i v e n i t s e x p e r i e n c e w i t h c o - o p s . F i r s t , t h e C o r p o r a t i o n had been f u n d i n g b u i l d i n g c o - o p e r a t i v e s f o r y e a r s i n O n t a r i o and e l s e w h e r e , and t h e s e have been d e s c r i b e d as e s s e n t i a l l y a t o o l f o r home o w n e r s h i p . G i v e n t h a t one t y p e of c o - o p e r a t i v e h o u s i n g l e d to home "ownership, i t seemed r e a s o n a b l e to assume t h a t a l l co-ops d e s i r e d t h i s end. S e c o n d l y , CHF and t h e c o n -- 73 -t i n u i n g co-ops t h e m s e l v e s f r e q u e n t l y p o i n t e d out t h e s i m i l a r i t y of co-op h o u s i n g to home o w n e r s h i p , p a r t i c u l a r l y when a d v e r t i s i n g f o r members. G i v e n t h e s e f a c t s , and CMHC's l o n g t e r m r e l u c t a n c e t o a l l o w a c c e s s t o t h e L i m i t e d D i v i d e n d A c t , i t s h o u l d n o t have been s u r p r i s i n g t h a t CHF's r e q u e s t was d e n i e d , CHF would p r o b a b l y have c o n t i n u e d to p r e s s f o r a c c e s s to S e c t i o n 15 had not t h e I n n o v a t i v e H o u s i n g Program been i n t r o -d u ced. T h i s program, announced i n F e b r u a r y 1970, by t h e M i n i s t e r R e s p o n s i b l e f o r H o u s i n g , Hon. R. A n d r a s , s e t a s i d e $200 m i l l i o n to f u n d i n n o v a t i v e forms of low c o s t h o u s i n g f o r f a m i l i e s and i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h i n the low income s e c t o r of t h e p o p u l a t i o n . The aim was to s u p p l y f a m i l i e s i n the-, $4,000 to $6,000 income group w i t h new h o u s i n g , as r i s i n g b u i l d i n g c o s t s had r e s t r i c t e d new homes a v a i l a b l e t o t h i s group to p u b l i c h o u s i n g . The program was to be f o c u s s e d on h o u s i n g needs w i t h i n m a j o r u r b a n a r e a s where c o n d i t i o n s of t i g h t h o u s i n g and h i g h c o s t s were e x e r t i n g s e v e r e p r e s s u r e on low income h o u s i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s . ( C a n a d i a n C o u n c i l f o r S o c i a l D evelopment 1971, p. 7) T h i s program c o u l d not have been more t i m e l y f o r c o - o p e r a t i v e h o u s i n g . The C o - o p e r a t i v e H o u s i n g A s s o c i a t i o n o f C a l g a r y ' s S c a r c e e Meadows p r o j e c t m e n t i o n e d e a r l i e r , was one o f t h e f i r s t t o r e c e i v e f u n d i n g under the I n n o v a t i v e H o u s i n g f u n d . P l a n n e d e x p a n s i o n o f CHAM's W i l l o w P a r k p r o j e c t a l s o r e c e i v e d f u n d i n g . Due t o t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s of t h e I n n o v a t i v e H o u s i n g Program, t h e new a d d i t i o n t o o k t h e f o r m o f a new co-op c a l l e d W i l l o w P a r k E a s t H o u s i n g C o - o p e r a t i v e L i m i t e d , w i t h i t s own membership and B o a r d of D i r e c t o r s . - 74 -A t o t a l o f 795 c o - o p e r a t i v e h o u s i n g u n i t s were c o m p l e t e d under t h i s program. T h i s a c c o u n t s f o r t h e g r e a t s u r g e i n c o - o p e r a t i v e a c t i v i t y i n 1971 and 1972 as i n d i c a t e d i n F i g u r e 4, Only two s m a l l p r o j e c t s c o m p l e t e d d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d were n o t fun d e d under t h e I n n o v a t i v e H o u s i n g Program, One was t h e s-econd phase of Co-op V i l l a i n A b b o t s f o r d , The o t h e r , t h e J o i n t A c t i o n Co-op i n R e g i n a , was not e l i g i b l e f o r f u n d i n g as i t c o n s i s t e d o f e x i s t i n g u n i t s r a t h e r t h a n new c o n s t r u c t i o n ; i t was s p o n s o r e d by th e S a s k a t c h e w a n C r e d i t U n i o n . As m e n t i o n e d e a r l i e r , one of t h e p r o b l e m s c o n c e r n i n g c o - o p e r a t i v e a c c e s s t o t h e p r e f e r r e d i n t e r e s t r a t e was t h e di c h o t o m y of t h e t e n a n t / o w n e r p o s i t i o . n of members. S p e c i f i c a l l y , CMHC p r o v i d e d t h e s e l o a n s t o h o u s i n g p r o j e c t s f o r p e o p l e i n a narro w income g r o u p . I f t e n a n t s c e a s e d to f a l l i n t h i s r a n g e , t h e y were ' k i c k e d o u t ' of t h e p r o j e c t . A p p l y i n g t h i s to c o - o p e r a t i v e s had t h e e f f e c t of r e q u i r i n g a member t o s e l l h i s s h a r e and g i v e up h i s u n i t when h i s income l e v e l e x c e e d e d t h e upper l i m i t . T h i s ' k i c k o u t ' c l a u s e was o b v i o u s l y a c o n t r a -d i c t i o n t o t h e s e c u r i t y of t e n u r e t h r o u g h o w n e r s h i p w h i c h t h e c o - o p e r a t i v e s p r o moted. T h i s p r o b l e m a l s o a r o s e under t h e I n n o v a t i v e H o u s i n g Program. However, an a r r a n g e m e n t was worked out w i t h CMHC whereby a member whose income e x c e e d e d t h e upper bound p a i d a s u r c h a r g e and r e m a i n e d i n p o s s e s s i o n of h i s u n i t . T h i s s u r c h a r g e was i n t h e form o f a h i g h e r m o n t h l y payment. The f u n d s p r o d u c e d by t h i s s u r c h a r g e were t h e n u s e d to p r o v i d e u n i t s a t r e d u c e d r a t e s to low income members. T h i s was the f o u n d i n g of t h e i n t e r n a l s u b s i d y a s p e c t of c o n t i n u i n g c o-ops - 75 -m e n t i o n e d i n C h a p t e r 2. A m a j o r d i f f i c u l t y e x i s t e d w i t h t h i s a r r a n g e m e n t . I f t h e c o - o p e r a t i v e were to c o n t i n u a l l y o f f e r t h e l o w e r r e n t t o t h e low income members, i t needed t o a l w a y s have s u f f i c i e n t numbers of h i g h income members t o p r o v i d e the n e c e s s a r y s u r p l u s . T h i s meant t h a t o n l y a few low income f a m i l i e s c o u l d p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e scheme, p a r t i c u l a r l y i f t h e group c o n s i s t e d o f m o derate income p e o p l e . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e number of p o s s i b l e low income members was f u r t h e r r e d u c e d by t h e r e q u i r e m e n t t h a t e ach s u p p l y a 5% e q u i t y . A s o l u t i o n was t r i e d i n t h e DeCosmos C o - o p e r a t i v e i n V a n c o u v e r , one of t h e I n n o v a t i v e H o u s i n g p r o j e c t s . The t h r e e l e v e l s of government ( f e d e r a l , p r o v i n c i a l and m u n i c i p a l ) e n t e r e d i n t o an agreement w i t h the co-op s u c h t h a t t e n u n i t s were made a v a i l a b l e to f a m i l i e s r e q u i r i n g p u b l i c h o u s i n g a s s i s t a n c e . In o r d e r to q u a l i f y f o r t h e o p e r a t i n g s u b s i d i e s o f f e r e d u nder the P u b l i c H o u s i n g s e c t i o n of the NHA ( S e c t i o n 4 0 ) , the c o - o p e r a t i v e was d e s i g n a t e d as a L o c a l H o u s i n g A u t h o r i t y . W i t h t h i s d e s i g n -ation:,, the p r o v i n c i a l and f e d e r a l governments t h e n p a i d the e q u i t y r e q u i r e d of t h e t e n f a m i l i e s . The governments a l s o p a i d t h e d i f f e r e n c e between the 'break even r e n t ' and t h e l o w e r r e n t p a i d by t h e low income members. T h i s method p r o v e d to be q u i t e s u c c e s s f u l . The I n n o v a t i v e H o u s i n g Program was t e r m i n a t e d i n 1971, and t h e c o - o p e r a t i v e movement was l e f t u n s u r e of c o n t i n u e d f u n d i n g . The C o - o p e r a t i v e H o u s i n g F o u n d a t i o n renewed i t s r e q u e s t t o CMHC to a l l o w c o - o p e r a t i v e a c c e s s to t h e p r e f e r r e d i n t e r e s t r a t e s o f S e c t i o n 15. B e c a u se of t h e s u c c e s s of t h e p r o j e c t s - 76 -fu n d e d under t h e I n n o v a t i v e H o u s i n g Program, CMHC was f i n a l l y r e s p o n s i v e t o t h e s e r e q u e s t s . In June of 1963, amendments to th e NHA p r o v i d e d t h e l o n g sought a f t e r c h a n g e s , A d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e s e changes i s g i v e n below, 1. S e c t i o n 15.1 a l l o w s l o a n s to c o n t i n u i n g c o - o p e r a t i v e s of up to 100% of t h e p r o -j e c t ' s l e n d i n g v a l u e , 2. S e c t i o n 15.1 p r o v i d e s f o r a g r a n t of up to 10% of t h e c a p i t a l c o s t s o f t h e p r o -j e c t . 3. S e c t i o n 15.1 a l l o w s f o r f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t -ance i n p r e p a r i n g l o a n a p p l i c a t i o n s to CMHC ( S e c t i o n 3 7 . 1 ) . 4. S e c t i o n 34.18 a l l o w s co-op members t h e same a s s i s t a n c e as i n d i v i d u a l s f o r home o w n e r s h i p . T h i s a s s i s t a n c e i n c l u d e s f e d e r a l l o a n s f o r as low as 8% and a d d i t i o n a l f o r g i v e n e s s up to $600 p e r y e a r i n i n t e r e s t c h a r g e s , d e p e n d i n g on i n c ome. 5. S e c t i o n 44.1(b) p r o v i d e s a r e n t s u b s i d y f o r low income f a m i l i e s on a r e n t - g e a r e d -to-rincome f o r m u l a where p r o v i n c e s a r e w i l l i n g t o s h a r e t h e c o s t w i t h CMHC. ( T h i s d i d n o t come i n t o e f f e c t u n t i l 1975.) 6. C o - o p e r a t i v e g r o u p s w h i c h p l a n n e d to p u r c h a s e e x i s t i n g u n i t s were now e l i g i b l e f o r a l l of the above f u n d i n g . To be e l i g i b l e f o r t h e above s u b s i d i e s , a c o - o p e r a t i v e had t o c o n s i s t of f u t u r e o w n e r / t e n a n t s w i t h members p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n t h e d e s i g n and dev e l o p m e n t p r o c e s s . M other s o c i e t i e s were n o t e l i g i b l e f o r t h e s e p r o g r a m s . W i t h t h e above changes i n t h e NHA, many grou p s immediate a p p l i e d f o r f u n d i n g . A l t h o u g h 21 g r o u p s had r e c e i v e d f u n d i n g a p p r o v a l by J u l y 1, 1974 , t h e r e a l e f f e e t of tHe changes i n - 11 -l e g i s l a t i o n i n terms of c o m p l e t e d u n i t s was not e v i d e n t u n t i l 1975, The r e a s o n s f o r t h i s a r e t w o f o l d . F i r s t , the I n n o v a t i v e H o u s i n g Program of the p r e v i o u s y e a r s was s t i l l a f f e c t i n g t h e number of c o m p l e t e d u n i t s i n 1972, Thus, a l t h o u g h t h e u n i t s c o m p l e t e d i n 1973 and 1974 a r e s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r t h a n p r e -1970 f i g u r e s , t h e y a r e c o m p a r a b l e to t h e number of u n i t s com-p l e t e d i n 1971-1972 as a r e s u l t of t h e I n n o v a t i v e H o u s i n g Program, and a r e , t h e r e f o r e , n o t as i m p r e s s i v e as t h e y m i g h t o t h e r w i s e have been. S e c o n d l y , t h e t i m e l a g between f u n d i n g a p p r o v a l and p r o j e c t c o m p l e t i o n may be v e r y l a r g e . F o r example, two p r o j e c t s r e c e i v i n g f u n d i n g a p p r o v a l and s t a r t - u p g r a n t s i n e a r l y 1974 were n o t c o m p l e t e d u n t i l 1977. T a b l e X i l l u s t r a t e s t h i s t i m e l a g f e a t u r e o f d e v e l o p m e n t . A n o t h e r g r o u p , PENTA, d i d n o t s t a r t c o n s t r u c t i o n u n t i l l a t e 1977. (PENTA w i l l be d i s -c u s s e d i n d e t a i l i n C h a p t e r 5 . ) ; P r o j e c t s i n v o l v i n g t h e p u r c h a s e of e x i s t i n g u n i t s n a t u r a l l y d i d not have as l o n g a d e v e l o p m e n t p e r i o d . C o n s e q u e n t l y , 548 u n i t s of e x i s t i n g h o u s i n g were o c c u p i e d by co-op g r o u p s i n 1974. S i n c e t h i s t i m e , t h e number of co-op h o u s i n g u n i t s c o m p l e t e d and o c c u p i e d each y e a r has e s c a l a t e d . F u t u r e D i r e c t i o n s of C o - o p e r a t i v e H o u s i n g i n Canada Two f a c t o r s have d o m i n a t e d th e d e v elopment of b o t h b u i l d i n g and c o n t i n u i n g c o - o p e r a t i v e s . These a r e t h e s p o n s o r i n g i n s t i t -u t i o n and f i n a n c i a l s u p p o r t . Any d i s c u s s i o n of t h e f u t u r e d i r e c t i o n s o f co-op h o u s i n g i n Canada must c o n s i d e r b o t h of t h e s e f a c t o r s . The C a t h o l i c C h u r c h p l a y e d t h e r o l e of t h e s p o n s o r i n g - 78 -TABLE X COMPLETION DATES OF 1974 FUNDED PROJECTS Co-op P r o j e c t R e c e i v i n g Fund A p p r o v a l J a n . 1, 1974-Ju-ly. 1, 1974 B a i n P i o n e e r ( R o c h d a l e ) R I v e r d a l e Haney P i o n e e r DACHI Chadwick Towers C a s t l e g r e e n Lynn V a l l e y Denier s Spr i n g r i d g e James Bay • V i l l a g e C a n a d i e n P e n t a Dome Coady Sundance L o c a t i o n T o r o n t o V i c t o r i a T o r o n t o Maple R i d g e T o r o n t o T o r o n t o Thunder Bay V a n c o u v e r V a n c o u v e r V i c t o r i a V i c t o r i a W i n n i p e g V a n c o u v e r V i c t o r i a Ottawa Edmont on Comple t i o n Date 1974 1974 1974 1975 1975 1976 1976 1976 1976 1976 1977 1977 1978 ( e s t i m a t e ) - 79 -i n s t i t u t i o n i n t h e e a r l y d e v e l o p m e n t o f b u i l d i n g c o - o p e r a t i v e s . More r e c e n t l y , t h i s r o l e h a s . b e e n assumed by p r o v i n c i a l g o v e r n -ment a g e n c i e s . P r o v i n c i a l government i n v o l v e m e n t has had two d i s t i n c t e f f e c t s on b u i l d i n g c o - o p e r a t i v e d e v e l o p m e n t . When t h e Nova S c o t i a H o u s i n g Commission c e a s e d t o i n v o l v e t h e E x t e n s i o n Department of t h e S t . F r a n c i s X a v i e r U n i v e r s i t y i n t h e b u i l d i n g co-op program i n 1970, t h e movement l o s t i t s g r a s s r o o t s o r g a n i z a t i o n . T h i s meant a move away from t h e e x t e n s i v e e d u c a t i o n programs and m u t u a l h e l p t y p i c a l of t h e e a r l i e r p r o -j e c t s i n N.S. t o h o u s i n g b u i l t by c o n t r a c t o r s w h i c h o n l y t h e h i g h e r income g r o u p s now a t t r a c t e d to t h e p r o g r a m can a f f o r d . The p r o v i n c i a l government i s not c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e s o c i a l a s p e c t s of the program, but m e r e l y t h e end r e s u l t of a f f o r d a b l e h o u s i n g . Thus, t h e N.S.H.C. has a l l o w e d co-ops to d i s s o l v e upon t h e c o m p l e t i o n o f the h o u s e s . Thus, the e f f e c t of t h e g o v e r n -ment's more e x t e n s i v e i n v o l v e m e n t i n t h e program has been a s w i t c h of emphasis from c o - o p e r a t i v e h o u s i n g as a means of s o c i a l improvement as s p o n s o r e d by t h e C h u r c h , to a method of p r o v i d i n g h o u s i n g to a g r e a t e r number of p e o p l e , as s p o n s o r e d by the government. The s e c o n d major e f f e c t of p r o v i n c i a l government i n v o l v e -ment has been an i n c r e a s e i n a c t i v i t y . T h i s i s a r e s u l t of F e d e r a l f u n d s now b e i n g u n i v e r s a l l y a v a i l a b l e , p a r t i c u l a r l y when p r o v i n c i a l s u p p o r t e x i s t s . As a p r o v i n c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , c o - o p e r a t i v e h o u s i n g r e c e i v e d g r e a t e r m onetary committment. The government c o u l d h a r d l y promote h o u s i n g w h i c h i t was not p r e p a r e d to f u n d . F u r t h e r m o r e , p r o v i n c i a l g overnments a r e - 80 -t r y i n g to make t h e i r programs more w o r k a b l e by s e t t i n g up l a n d banks, e t c . , t o make s e r v i c e d l o t s a v a i l a b l e t o b u i l d i n g co-op p r o j e c t s a t a f f o r d a b l e r a t e s . T h i s o b v i o u s l y t i e s i n w i t h t h e s e c o n d f a c t o r n e c e s s a r y f o r c o - o p e r a t i v e a c t i v i t y , f i n a n c i a l s u p p o r t . I n p r o v i n c e s where the government i s a c t i v e l y s u p p o r t i n g b u i l d i n g c o - o p s , S a s k a t c h e w a n , A l b e r t a , M a n i t o b a and t h e M a r i t i m e s , a c o n t i n u e d growth i n b u i l d i n g c o-ops can be e x p e c t e d . W i t h o u t p r o v i n c i a l government s u p p o r t , t h e r e i s l i t t l e hope f o r a c t i v i t y i n t h e o t h e r p r o v i n c e s . At t h i s p o i n t i n t i m e , s u p p o r t does n o t seem to be f o r t h c o m i n g i n e i t h e r O n t a r i o o r B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . F o r c o n t i n u i n g c o - o p e r a t i v e s t h e l a b o u r / c o - o p e r a t i v e movement w i l l c o n t i n u e to be n e c e s s a r y as t h e s u p p o r t i n s t i t u t i o n . The C o - o p e r a t i v e H o u s i n g F o u n d a t i o n of Canada, w h i c h now i n c l u d e s members f r o m t h e m a j o r i t y of co-op h o u s i n g p r o j e c t s , p l a y s an i m p o r t a n t f u n c t i o n by not o n l y p r o v i d i n g i n f o r m a t i o n b o t h a b o u t , and t o c o - o p s , but a l s o s e r v i n g as t h e c e n t r a l v o i c e of t h e movement. B e s i d e s t h i s n a t i o n a l body, l o c a l r e s o u r c e g r o u p s a r e a l s o n e c e s s a r y . P r o b l e m s o f t e n a r i s e when the l o c a l group wants to ' h e l p ' too much w i t h a p r o j e c t , or when c o n f l i c t s o c c u r among members ( C u l l 1976), but i t i s d i f f i c u l t f o r a p r o j e c t to s u c c e e d w i t h o u t t h e t e c h n i c a l g u i d a n c e p r o v i d e d by t h e l o c a l r e s o u r c e g r o u p s , We can e x p e c t a growth of c o n t i n u i n g co-op h o u s i n g p r o j e c t s most l i k e l y i n c i t i e s where t h e s e r e s o u r c e g r o u p s e x i s t . A l t h o u g h t h e N. H.. A. was amended i n 1973 , many p e o p l e w i t h i n t h e c o - o p e r a t i v e b u i l d i n g s e c t o r f e e l t h a t f u r t h e r changes - 81 -a r e n e c e s s a r y r e g a r d i n g m o n t h l y payments, maximum c o s t p e r u n i t , and i n t e r i m f i n a n c i n g ( H a i r e 1975). However, even g i v e n t h e s e c h a n g e s , t h e l a r g e s t p r o b l e m f a c i n g c o n t i n u i n g co-op d e v e l o p m e n t i s p u b l i c a t t i t u d e . I n g e n e r a l , p u b l i c a t t i t u d e s f o c u s s i n g on i n d i v i d u a l l y owned p r o p e r t y as a g o a l , a r o u n d w h i c h h o u s i n g s h o u l d be d e v e l o p e d have p r o v e d to be major o b s t a c l e s to growth. A l t h o u g h t h i s p o i n t w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n d e t a i l i n C h a p t e r 5, we must n o t e h e r e t h a t t h e e x p a n s i o n of h o u s i n g co-ops w i t h i n the t h i r d s e c t o r w i t h o u t a change i n p u b l i c a t t i t u d e w i l l be v e r y d i f f i c u l t , i f not i m p o s s i b l e . Thus, e x c e p t i n g a change i n government p o l i c y t owards c o - o p s , we i c a n n o t e x p e c t to see a change i n t h e p r e s e n t growth t r e n d s . C o n t i n u i n g c o - o p s , b e c a u s e of t h e i r m u l t i p l e u n i t n a t u r e , a r e not l i k e l y t o e x p e r i e n c e any m a j o r d e v e l o p m e n t i n t h e M a r i t i m e s . However, i n c i t i e s w h i c h a r e e x p e r i e n c i n g b o t h r a p i d p o p u l a t i o n growth and an e s c a l a t i o n of h o u s i n g p r i c e s , t h e r e s u l t a n t :o p r o b l e m s of a f f o r d a b i l i t y and a c c e s s to h o u s i n g w i l l e n c o u r a g e the growth of co-op h o u s i n g . As a c o n s e q u e n c e , we would e x p e c t co-op d e v e l o p m e n t i n C a l g a r y , Edmonton, and p o s s i b l y i n R e g i n a as t h e S a s k a t c h e w a n economy c o n t i n u e s t o show s t r e n g t h . - 82 -F o o t n o t e s - C h a p t e r 4 Due to t h e u n p r e d i c t a b l e i n c o m p a t i b i l i t y of t h e Quebec d a t a , i t has been e x c l u d e d f o r p u r p o s e s of c o m p a r i s o n . I n c l u d i n g Quebec, t h i s d i f f e r e n c e i n number f o r c o n t i n u i n g v e r s u s b u i l d i n g c o - o p s , 5,000 v e r s u s 3,000 r e s p e c t i v e l y , i s s t i l l e v i d e n t . 2 A l t h o u g h most p r o v i n c e s have made t h e i r own a r r a n g e m e n t s w i t h CMHC, O n t a r i o b u i l d i n g c o - o p s n e v e r had t h e b e n e f i t of a p r o -v i n c i a l h o u s i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n . As a r e s u l t of a l l of t h e s e d i f f e r e n t p r o v i n c i a l a r r a n g e m e n t s , l o a n s were p r o c e s s e d under d i f f e r e n t s e c t i o n s c o f t h e NHA. O n t a r i o ' s l o a n s were o r i g i n a l l y u nder S e c t i o n 7 and 8; P . E . I . , N.S, and Sa s k a t c h e w a n have agreements under S e c t i o n 35A; Quebec d i d not r e c e i v e l o a n s from CMHC. R e c e n t l y , a l l b u i l d i n g co-op l o a n s f r o m CMHC come under S e c t i o n 40. The c o n s e q u e n c e of t h e s e v a r i e d f i n a n c i a l a g reements i s t h a t CMHC does n o t have a r e c o r d of b u i l d i n g c o - o p s . I n O n t a r i o , t h i s means t h a t r e c e n t d a t a a r e not a v a i l a b l e . I n p r o v i n c e s where p r o v i n c i a l h o u s i n g a u t h o r i t i e s have h a n d l e d l o a n s , u n i t t o t a l s a r e u s u a l l y a v a i l a b l e . CHAPTER 5 CONTINUING CO-OPERATIVE HOUSING IN SELECTED URBAN AREAS The d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e s p a t i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n of c o - o p e r a t i v e h o u s i n g by p r o v i n c e e m p h a s i z e d two f a c t o r s , t h e s p o n s o r i n g i n s t i t u t i o n and f i n a n c i a l s u p p o r t . However, a l t h o u g h t h e s e f a c t o r s a r e n e c e s s a r y c o n d i t i o n s f o r d e v e l o p m e n t , t h e y a r e not s u f f i c i e n t . A p r e c i s e l o c a t i o n must be sought o u t , o b t a i n e d , and a p p r o v e d f o r d e v e l o p m e n t . The p u r p o s e of t h i s c h a p t e r i s t o examine t h e s p a t i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n of c o n t i n u i n g c o - o p e r a t i v e s a t the u r b a n s c a l e , and to examine t h e d e t e r m i n a n t s of l o c a t i o n s w i t h i n t h e c i t y . The two u r b a n a r e a s s e l e c t e d f o r a n a l y s i s a r e t h e G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t (GVRD) and M e t r o p o l i t a n T o r o n t o , The r e a s o n s f o r t h e s e l e c t i o n of t h e s e a r e a s a r e t w o f o l d . F i r s t , t o g e t h e r t h e y a c c o u n t f o r 43% o f t h e c o m p l e t e d c o n t i n u i n g co-op h o u s i n g u n i t s i n Canada and a r e o b v i o u s l y of g r e a t s i g n i f i c a n c e . S e c o n d l y , i n f o r m a t i o n was a v a i l a b l e f o r b o t h a r e a s and was r e l a t i v e l y a c c e s s i b l e t o t h e a u t h o r . No su c h a n a l y s i s of b u i l d i n g co-ops was p e r f o r m e d b e c a u s e of t h e l a c k of i n f o r m -a t i o n due t o t h e e a r l y d a t e o f most ,of t h e p r o j e c t s , and a l s o b e c a u s e of t h e d i s t a n c e s e p a r a t i n g t h e a u t h o r f r o m t h e c e n t r e of b u i l d i n g co-op a c t i v i t y i n the M a r i t i m e s . The S p a t i a l and T e m p o r a l P a t t e r n s Two u n i q u e p a t t e r n s of c o n t i n u i n g c o - o p e r a t i v e d e v e l o p -- 83 -- 84 -merit e x i s t f o r M e t r o T o r o n t o and the GVRD, A l t h o u g h t h e f i r s t p r o j e c t c o m p l e t e d i n each c i t y i n v o l v e d new c o n s t r u c t i o n f i n a n c e d by t h e I n n o v a t i v e H o u s i n g Program d i s c u s s e d i n C h a p t e r 4, t h i s i s t h e o n l y p o i n t of s i m i l a r i t y . From t h e i n i t i a l p r o j e c t f o r w a r d , t h e p a t h s of d e v e l o p m e n t d i v e r g e . They e x h i b i t b o t h d i f f e r i n g s p a t i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n s and t e m p o r a l p a t t e r n s . The f i r s t p r o j e c t i n GVRD, DeCosmos, was c o m p l e t e d i n 1972 ( T a b l e X I ) . DeCosmos i s a l a r g e p r o j e c t w i t h 110 u n i t s , l o c a t e d i n t h e K i l l a r n e y a r e a o f V a n c o u v e r . A major p o r t i o n of t h i s n e i g h b o u r h o o d had o n l y r e c e n t l y been p l a n n e d f o r d e v e l o p m e n t , much of i t i n townhouses. DeCosmos, t h e r e f o r e , o f f e r e d a s i g n i f i -c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t t e n u r e p a t t e r n w h i l e t h e a c t u a l h o u s i n g s t r u c t u r e was s i m i l a r to o t h e r new d e v e l o p m e n t s i n t h e a r e a . T h i s s i t u a t i o n h o l d s f o r most of t h e c o n t i n u i n g co-op p r o j e c t s c o m p l e t e d i n GVRD; newly c o n s t r u c t e d townhouse t y p e d e v e l o p m e n t i n a r e a s where o t h e r non-co-op townhouses a r e b e i n g c o n s t r u c t e d . (The' s i g n i f i c a n c e of t h i s w i l l be d i s c u s s e d l a t e r i n t h i s c h a p t e r . ) As a . : r e s u l t of t h e new c o n s t r u c t i o n r e q u i r e d i n GVRD co-op p r o j e c t s , a c o n s i d e r a b l e t i m e l a g e x i s t s between t h e i n i t i a l p l a n n i n g of t h e p r o j e c t and t h e c o m p l e t i o n d a t e . I t i s f o r t h i s r e a s o n t h a t none of t h e p r o j e c t s were c o m p l e t e d i n 1974 i n t h e GVRD. P r o j e c t s c o m p l e t e d p r i o r to t h i s d a t e had r e c e i v e d f u n d i n g t h r o u g h t h e I n n o v a t i v e H o u s i n g Program, A l t h o u g h t h e program was t e r m i n a t e d i n 1971, many of t h e f u n d e d p r o j e c t s were c o m p l e t e d a f t e r t h i s d a t e ( r e f e r b a c k to T a b l e X ) , Then, even w i t h t h e NHA amendments o c c u r r i n g i n 1973, t h e t i m e p e r i o d n e c e s s a r y f o r p l a n n i n g , and c o n s t r u c t i o n of t h e p r o j e c t s , and TABLE XI CONTINUING CO-OPS IN GREATER VANCOUVER REGIONAL DISTRICT Y e a r of C o m p l e t i o n 1972 1973 1975 1976 1977 Number of U n i t s 110 65 150 7 42 84 215 24 162 65 74 42 200 170 Type of C o n s t r u c t i o n new c o n s t r u c t i o n new c o n s t r u c t i o n new c o n s t r u c t i o n r e h a b i l i t a t i o n new c o n s t r u c t i o n new c o n s t r u c t i o n r e h a b i l i t a t i o n / c o n v e r s i o n new c o n s t r u c t i o n m o b i l e home pads new c o n s t r u c t i o n new c o n s t r u c t i o n new c o n s t r u c t i o n new c o n s t r u c t i o n new c o n s t r u c t i o n P r o j ec t Name DeCosmos A z a l e a Gardens Kanata S t r a t h c o n a Co-op New Wesminster Haney Pioneer V i l l a g e M o u n t a i n View Norman Bethune Meadow H i g h l a n d s Lynn V a l l e y K l a h a n i e Co-op d ' H a b i t a t i o n Adanac F a l s e Creek M u n i c i p a l i t y V a n c o u v e r C o q u i t l a m V a n c o u v e r V a n c o u v e r New W e s t m i n s t e r Maple R i d g e P o r t Moody Burnaby P i t t Meadows N o r t h V a n c o u v e r Richmond V a n c o u v e r V a n c o u v e r V a n c o u v e r TOTAL 1403 - 86 -f o r p r o j e c t a p p r o v a l from CMHC, meant t h a t no p r o j e c t s were co m p l e t e d i n 1974. The f i r s t p r o j e c t s w h i c h r e c e i v e d f u n d i n g under t h e new s e c t i o n s of the NHA were n o t c o m p l e t e d u n t i l 19.75. D e p e n d i n g on t h e s i z e of the p r o j e c t , and v a r i o u s o t h e r c o m p l i -c a t i o n s , t h e t i m e l a g between t h e d e c i s i o n to b u i l d a co-op p r o j e c t and c o m p l e t i o n was u s u a l l y two or t h r e e y e a r s , Thus, a l t h o u g h a c o u p l e of p r o j e c t s r e c e i v e d f u n d i n g a p p r o v a l each y e a r , s e v e n p r o j e c t s were c o m p l e t e d i n 1975, a c c o u n t i n g f o r 677 u n i t s . S i n c e t h i s t i m e , o n l y two or t h r e e p r o j e c t s have been c o m p l e t e d each y e a r . In M e t r o T o r o n t o , a d i f f e r e n t p i c t u r e of c o n t i n u i n g c o - o p e r a t i v e s emerges. A l t h o u g h A l e x a n d r a P a r k r e c e i v e d f u n d i n g t h r o u g h t h e I n n o v a t i v e H o u s i n g P rogram as d i d De Cosmos, i t c o n s i s t s of b o t h townhouses and a p a r t m e n t s . F u r t h e r m o r e , A l e x a n d r a P a r k i s u n i q u e i n T o r o n t o , as a l l o t h e r p r o j e c t s u t i l i z e e x i s t i n g h o u s i n g u n i t s f o r at l e a s t a p o r t i o n of t h e p r o j e c t ( T a b l e X I I ) . Thus, a c o m p a r i s o n of t h e t y p e of c o n -t i n u i n g co-op p r o j e c t s i n t h e two c i t i e s u s i n g a c h i - s q u a r e t e s t , i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e y a r e s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t ( T a b l e X I I I ) . The e x c e p t i o n i n one c i t y i s the r u l e i n t h e o t h e r . The p r i m a r y r e a s o n f o r t h e d i f f e r e n t t y p e o f development i n e ach c i t y i s t h e m o t i v a t i n g f a c t o r of t h e cor-op g r o u p . I n the GVRD, most p r o j e c t s a r e a r e s u l t of a group o f p e o p l e j o i n t l y d e c i d i n g t h a t t h e y w i s h t o improve t h e i r s t a n d a r d of l i v i n g . As p r i v a t e o w n e r s h i p e x c e e d e d the means o f t h e s e p e o p l e , co-op h o u s i n g was seen as t h e b e s t a l t e r n a t i v e . I n Metro T o r o n t o , however, the s t o r y was more one of s u r v i v a l . T h i s i s TABLE X I I CONTINUING HOUSING CO-OPS IN METROPOLITAN TORONTO Y e a r of Complet i o n 1973 1974 1975 1976 Number Type of of U n i t s C o n s t r u c t i o n 103 new c o n s t r u c t i o n 260 r e h a b i l i t a t i o n / c o n v e r s i o n 41 r e h a b i l i t a t i o n / c o n v e r s i o n 13 r e h a b i l i t a t i o n / c o n v e r s i o n 75 r e h a b i l i t a t i o n / c o n v e r s i o n 8 r e h a b i l i t a t i o n / c o n v e r s i o n 36 r e h a b i l i t a t i o n / c o n v e r s i o n 51 r e h a b i l i t a t i o n / c o n v e r s i o n 40 r e h a b i l i t a t i o n / c o n v e r s i o n 67 new c o n s t r u c t i o n / r e h a b i l i t a t i o n 31 new c o n s t r u c t i o n / r e h a b i l i t a t i o n P r o j e c t Name A l e x a n d r a P a r k B a i n A partments D u f f e r i n Grove R i v e r d a l e F o r w a r d 9 Community R i v e r d a l e Don A r e a (DACHI) M a i n - G e r r a r d John B r u c e Chadwick Towers DACHI x Borough T o r o n t o T o r o n t o T o r o n t o T o r o n t o T o r o n t o T o r o n t o T o r o n t o T o r o n t o T o r o n t o E a s t Y o r k T o r o n t o TABLE X I I CCont inued) Y e a r of Number C o m p l e t i o n of U n i t s 1976 25 47 1977 32 7Q Type of C o n s t r u c t i o n r e h a b i l i t a t i o n / c o n v e r s i o n r e h a b i l i t a t i o n / c o n v e r s i o n r e h a b i l i t a t i o n / c o n v e r s i o n e x i s t i n g P r o j e c t Name Borough R i v e r d a l e T h u r l e s t o n e Grace M a c l n n i s Wood T r e e T o r o n t o S c a r b o r o u g h T o r o n t o T o r o n t o TABLE X I I I TYPE OF CONSTRUCTION IN CO-OP PROJECTS IN METRO TORONTO AND GVRD Met r o T o r o n t o GVRD Number P e r c e n t of T o t a l Number P e r c e n t of T o t a l Type of C o n s t r u c t i o n of U n i t s Number o f U n i t s x of U n i t s Number of U n i t s R e h a b i l i t a t i o n / ^ g 5 > g 2 5 ? ± 8 3 C o n v e r s i o n I New C o n s t r u c t i o n 109 14,2 1146 81,7 S = 924 w i t h 1 d e g r e e o f freedom - 90 -b e s t e x p l a i n e d by means of t h e example of B a i n A p a r t m e n t s , I n 1912, some o f T o r o n t o ' s w e a l t h y f a m i l i e s i n c o r p o r a t e d as t h e T o r o n t o H o u s i n g Company, and t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e c i t y , b u i l t t h e B a i n A p a r t m e n t s to p r o v i d e good q u a l i t y , low r e n t a l a p a r t m e n t s f o r t h e w o r k i n g c l a s s . By 1964, the T o r o n t o H o u s i n g Company had become a l m o s t e n t i r e l y e n t r e p r e n e u r i a l , and t h e a p a r t m e n t s had been a l l o w e d to d e t e r i o r a t e . L a t e i n 1972, t h e t e n a n t s c o u l d no l o n g e r t o l e r a t e t h e s t a t e of de c a y and c a l l e d i n t h e c i t y i n s p e c t o r s . As a r e s u l t of the i n s p e c t i o n , t h e T o r o n t o H o u s i n g Company was o r d e r e d to b r i n g t h e h o u s i n g lip t o s t a n d a r d . The Company d e c i d e d .that i f i t was; going t o have t o pay f o r r e n o v -a t i o n s , i t would c r e a t e a p r o f i t a b l e v e n t u r e and s e l l t he newly r e n o v a t e d u n i t s as condominiums. L a t e i n 1973, t h e Company began r e n o v a t i o n s toward t h i s end. In F e b r u a r y 1974, t h e t e n a n t s of B a i n A p a r t m e n t s were made aware of t h e Company's d e c i s i o n when t h e y were g i v e n t h e c h o i c e of b u y i n g t h e i r u n i t a t a v e r y h i g h p r i c e , or moving out when t h e l e a s e e x p i r e d . Many of the t e n a n t s had l i v e d a t B a i n f o r t e n t o twenty y e a r s , some as l o n g as f i f t y y e a r s , and th e y had put a l o t of time and money i n t o r e p a i r i n g t h e i n t e r i o r o f t h e i r u n i t s . O b v i o u s l y , t h e y d i d n o t want t o move, and y e t most o f them c o u l d not a f f o r d t h e mor t -gage payments. C o n s e q u e n t l y , t h e r e s i d e n t s d e c i d e d t o form a c o - o p e r a t i v e , and w i t h t h e h e l p of CMHC and t h e c i t y of T o r o n t o ' s N o n - P r o f i t H o u s i n g C o r p o r a t i o n , t h e y were a b l e t o buy- t h e p r o -j e c t ( C o - o p e r a t i v e H o u s i n g F o u n d a t i o n of Canada, June 1976, p. 2 ) . S i m i l a r a c c o u n t s c o u l d be g i v e n f o r most o f t h e p r o j e c t s i n T o r o n t o , 1 The d e c i s i o n to form a co-op o r i g i n a t e s out o f a - 91 -d e s i r e to c o n t i n u e t o l i v e i n h o u s i n g t h a t t h e owners have d e c i d e d t o s e l l . They a r e l o c a t e d i n a r e a s where c o n s i d e r a b l e ' w h i t e - p a i n t i n g ' i s o c c u r r i n g , and t h e o n l y method of r e m a i n i n g i n t h e n e i g h b o u r h o o d o r b u i l d i n g w i t h o u t p a y i n g t h e h i g h e r r e n t a l s or b u y i n g t h e u n i t , i s c o - o p e r a t i v e o w n e r s h i p , A l t h o u g h M o u n t a i n View Co-op i n GVRD i s a r e s u l t o f s i m i l a r c i r c u m -s t a n c e s .(Simpson 1976), t h e a p p l i c a t i o n s of o t h e r co-ops i n t e r e s t e d i n r e h a b i l i t a t i o n or c o n v e r s i o n o f e x i s t i n g h o u s i n g were d e n i e d b a s e d on t h e a s s u m p t i o n t h a t " b u y i n g e x i s t i n g h o u s i n g u n i t s i n u r b a n a r e a s does l i t t l e to a i d t h e h o u s i n g c r i s i s " (CMHC o f f i c i a l , q u o t e d i n H a i r e 1975, p, 1 6 ) , C o n s e q u e n t l y , few c o n v e r s i o n or r e h a b i l i t a t i o n c o - o p e r a t i v e p r o j e c t s e x i s t i n t h e GVRD. T h i s d i f f e r e n c e i n the t y p e of de v e l o p m e n t i s a l s o r e f l e c t e d i n t h e t e m p o r a l p a t t e r n s o f each c i t y . As m e n t i o n e d e a r l i e r , t h e time l a g between t h e i n i t i a l p l a n n i n g s t a g e and c o m p l e t i o n of a new p r o j e c t i s u s u a l l y about two y e a r s . I n c o m p a r i s o n , c o n v e r s i o n or r e h a b i l i t a t i o n co-op p r o j e c t s c an t a k e as l i t t l e as a few months, p a r t i c u l a r l y i f t h e t e n a n t / owners do most of t h e work t h e m s e l v e s , u t i l i z i n g the 'sweat e q u i t y ' p r i n c i p l e . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e s e p r o j e c t s t e n d t o be s m a l l e r i n s c a l e , w i t h a mean s i z e o f 58 u n i t s i n Metro T o r o n t o , compared w i t h a mean s i z e o f 118 u n i t s f o r new c o n s t r u c t i o n u n i t s i n GVRD. T h i s t i m e l a g a c c o u n t s f o r t h e d i f f e r e n t c u r v e s of t h e number of p r o j e c t s c o m p l e t e d t h r o u g h t i m e ( F i g , 5 ) , The s p a t i a l p a t t e r n s of c o - o p e r a t i v e h o u s i n g i n e a c h o f t h e c i t i e s a r e a l s o d i s t i n c t i v e , A c u r s o r y e x a m i n a t i o n of t h e -92-FIGURE 5 Number of Projects Completed 1972 - 1977 Number of Projects Completed 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 Year of Completion ° Metropolitan Toronto # Greater Vancouver R.D. - 93 -s p a t i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n of co - o p s w i t h i n t h e l o c a l a r e a s of GVRD i n d i c a t e s a random p a t t e r n ( F i g , 6 ) , E x c e p t f o r t h e a g r i -c u l t u r a l a r e a s of t h e GVRD, t h e l o c a l a r e a s with, co-ops a r e w i d e l y d i s p e r s e d t h r o u g h o u t t h e r e g i o n . However, on c l o s e r e x a m i n a t i o n , i t becomes e v i d e n t t h a t n e i t h e r t h e w e s t e r n s i d e of t h e c i t y of V a n c o u v e r , nor t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y of West V a n c o u v e r have co-op p r o j e c t s . A l l o f t h e h i g h l y u r b a n i z e d m u n i c i p a l i t i e s o f t h e GVRD, e x c e p t West V a n c o u v e r , have at l e a s t one co-op p r o j e c t . The a g r i c u l t u r a l a r e a s o f S u r r e y and D e l t a do n o t have any co-op h o u s i n g . In M e t r o T o r o n t o , c o - o p e r a t i v e h o u s i n g i s c o n c e n t r a t e d w i t h i n t h e c i t y of T o r o n t o i t s e l f ( F i g . 7 ) , Only two p r o j e c t s a r e l o c a t e d i n t h e o t h e r b o r o u g h s of t h e r e g i o n , one i n E a s t Y o r k and one i n S c a r b o r o u g h . However, even t h e s e p r o j e c t s a r e l o c a t e d i n minor p l a n n i n g d i s t r i c t s w h i c h a r e c l o s e t o b o t h t h e c i t y i t s e l f , and c i t y p l a n n i n g d i s t r i c t s c o n t a i n i n g co-op p r o j e c t s . In c o n t r a s t t o GVRD's s c a t t e r e d p a t t e r n , M e tro T o r o n t o ' s p r o j e c t s a r e c l u s t e r e d about t h e c e n t r a l c i t y r e g i o n . I t i s t h e p u r p o s e of the r e m a i n d e r of t h i s c h a p t e r t o d i s c u s s some of t h e l o c a t i o n a l d e t e r m i n a n t s o f t h e s e s p a t i a l d i s -t r i b u t i o n s . The D i s c r i m i n a n t A n a l y s i s D i s c r i m i n a n t a n a l y s i s was a p p l i e d t o v a r i o u s GVRD d a t a i n an a t t e m p t t o d e f i n e a p a t t e r n i n t h e s p a t i a l p a t t e r n o f c o -o p e r a t i v e p r o j e c t s . S p e c i f i c a l l y , t h e t e c h n i q u e was u s e d to d i s -t i n g u i s h between l o c a l a r e a s w i t h co-ops and t h o s e w i t h o u t . I I FIGURE. 7 Continuing Housing Co-ops i n Metro Toronto - 96 -A l i s t o f t h e v a r i a b l e s and t h e d e r i v a t i o n s of t h e s e d a t a were o u t l i n e d i n C h a p t e r 3. In t h e e a r l y s t a g e s of a n a l y s i s , t h e e n t i r e GVRD was i n c l u d e d i n t h e d i s c r i m i n a n t a n a l y s i s . However, i n the f i n a l a n a l y s i s , o n l y 44 o f t h e 63 l o c a l p l a n n i n g a r e a s were i n c l u d e d . T h e r e were t h r e e r e a s o n s f o r e x c l u s i o n of t h e s e o t h e r a r e a s . F i r s t , none of the a r e a s s o u t h o f the F r a s e r R i v e r have c o -o p e r a t i v e h o u s i n g . C o n s e q u e n t l y , a l t h o u g h t h e y added t o t h e t o t a l sample s i z e , t h e y i n c r e a s e d d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y t h e d i f f e r ^ -ence i n s i z e s o f t h e two g r o u p s . S e c o n d l y , t h e a u t h o r f e l t t h a t t h e s e s o u t h e r n a r e a s , as w e l l as t h e a g r i c u l t u r a l a r e a s of Richmond, c o n s t i t u t e d a d i f f e r e n t t y p e of u r b a n l i v i n g , not r e a l l y c o m p a r a b l e to t h e r e m a i n i n g u r b a n a r e a s of GVRD. The t h i r d r e a s o n i n v o l v e s t h e a c t u a l r e s u l t s of t h e i n i t i a l a n a l y s i s . When t h e e n t i r e GVRD was use d i n t h e d i s c r i m i n a n t a n a l y s i s , t h e p r e d i c t i v e r e s u l t s were m u c h ! l e s s s u c c e s s f u l t h a n when o n l y t h e a r e a s n o r t h of t h e F r a s e r and w e s t e r n Richmond were i n c l u d e d . T h i s d i f f e r e n c e i n r e s u l t s i s p r o b a b l y a t t r i b u t a b l e to t h e above two r e a s o n s f o r e x c l u s i o n . As a c o n s e q u e n c e , a l l o f -the a n a l y s e s d i s c u s s e d i n t h i s t h e s i s are based .on. t h i s r e s t r i c t e d a r e a of GVRD. P r i o r to t h e a c t u a l d i s c r i m i n a n t a n a l y s i s , t h e d a t a were n o r m a l i z e d u s i n g P a t t e r s o n ' s (.1974 , 1976) NORMAL program ( C h a p t e r 3). The most o f t e n u s e d n o n ^ l i n e a r t r a n s f o r m a p p l i e d a f t e r s c a l i n g was a r c s i n X u. The d e s c r i p t i v e s t a t i s t i c s of each v a r i a b l e b e f o r e and a f t e r t r a n s f o r m a t i o n a r e g i v e n i n Appendix I I . The t r a n s f o r m u s e d i n ea c h c a s e i s a l s o i n c l u d e d . The - 97 -NORMAL program i s p r i m a r i l y c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e skewness and k u r t o s i s of e a c h v a r i a b l e ; F i g u r e s 8 and 9 i l l u s t r a t e t h e skewness and k u r t o s i s of e a c h v a r i a b l e b e f o r e and a f t e r t r a n s -f o r m a t i o n , r e s p e c t i v e l y . Most of t h e v a r i a b l e s f a l l w i t h i n t h e 99% c o n f i d e n c e I n t e r v a l a f t e r t r a n s f o r m a t i o n . The n o r m a l i z e d d a t a were t h e n s u b j e c t e d t o a s t e p — w i s e d i s c r i m i n a n t a n a l y s i s . S i x v a r i a b l e s were s e l e c t e d as the b e s t d i s c r i m i n a t o r s between the two g r o u p s ( T a b l e X I V ) . I g n o r i n g the s i g n , each of t h e s t a n d a r d i z e d c o e f f i c i e n t s r e p r e s e n t s t h e r e l a t i v e c o n t r i b u t i o n of i t s a s s o c i a t e d v a r i a b l e to t h e d i s -c r i m i n a n t f u n c t i o n . The s i g n i t s e l f d e n o t e s whether t h e v a r i -a b l e i s making a p o s i t i v e o r n e g a t i v e c o n t r i b u t i o n . I n t h i s d i s c r i m i n a n t f u n c t i o n ( D F 1 ) , t h r e e v a r i a b l e s , p e r c e n t a g e of d e t a c h e d h o u s e s , p e r c e n t a g e of p o p u l a t i o n w i t h some u n i v e r s i t y , and p e r c e n t a g e of p o p u l a t i o n w i t h p r o f e s s i o n a l , m a n a g e r i a l o r t e c h n i c a l o c c u p a t i o n s , a c c o u n t f o r about t h e same c o n t r i b u t i o n to t h e d i s c r i m i n a n t s c o r e . The r e m a i n i n g t h r e e a c c o u n t f o r about h a l f as much. The u n s t a n d a r d i z e d c o e f f i c i e n t s of DF1 were used to c l a s s i f y e ach of t h e 44 l o c a l a r e a s . A t o t a l of 84.09% of t h e a r e a s were c o r r e c t l y c l a s s i f i e d ( T a b l e XV). S u c c e s s was g r e a t e r amongst l o c a l a r e a s w i t h o u t co-ops t h a n a r e a s w i t h c o - o p s . T h i s would seem to i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e l o c a l a r e a s w i t h o u t c o - o p s a r e more d i s t i n c t i v e t h a n a r e a s w i t h c o - o p s . A c o m p a r i -son of a r e a s w i t h co-ops ( F i g . 6) and a r e a s w h i c h DF1 p r e d i c t e d as h a v i n g co-ops ( F i g . 10) i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e two d i s t r i b u t i o n s a r e q u i t e s i m i l a r . A few a b e r r a n t c a s e s a r e e v i d e n t ; Burnaby M o u n t a i n and H a s t i n g s - S u n r i s e l o c a l a r e a s a r e not p r e d i c t e d as FIGURE 8 Skewness and Kurtosis of Variables Before Normalizing (GVRD Data) 12# •ft 7 m Kurtosis NOTE; Numbers r e f e r to v a r i a b l e number as l i s t e d i n Appendix I I 9.9% Confidence Interval FIGURE 9 Skewness and Kurtosis of Variables A f t e r Normalizing (GVRD Data) 3. 2 . 1 « Skewness c ? :-•14 5 • 0 . 8 # 1 S« -1 2# 3 4 5 6 Kurtosis NOTE: Numbers r e f e r to v a r i a b l e number as l i s t e d i n Appendix II 99% Confidence Interval - 100 -TABLE XIV DISCRIMINANT FUNCTION COEFFICIENTS FOR GVRD NORMALIZED DATA (DF1) V a r i a b l e % Houses D e t a c h e d S t a n d a r d i z e d U n s t a n d a r d i z e d C o e f f i c i e n t s C o e f f i c i e n t s -0. 95 •6,59 % P o p u l a t i o n w i t h some U n i v e r s i t y % P o p u l a t i o n P r o f e s s i o n a l , M a n a g e r i a l , T e c h n i c a l % D w e l l i n g s w i t h R e s i d e n t s l e s s t h a n one y e a r Per C a p i t a C r e d i t U n i o n s ( I O " 8 ) 1. 05 -1. 08 -0.068 -0.56 3 , 64 -0.53 *2 . 58 -1.55 Pe r C a p i t a S o c i a l H o u s i n g U n i t s ( l O ^ 4 ) CONSTANT •0,53 -1, 61 12 ,86 GROUP CENTR0IDS: Co-op = -0.922 Non Co-op = 0,430 - 101 -TABLE XV PREDICTION RESULTS OF DF1 THE CONFUSION MATRIX Number P r e d i c t e d P r e d i c t e d o f Cases No Co-ops Co-ops A c t u a l Group No Co-ops 30 26 (86.7%) 4 (13.3%) Co-ops 14 3 (21.4%) 11 (78,6%) P e r c e n t a g e of Groups C o r r e c t l y C l a s s i f i e d = 84.09% - 103 -a r e a s f o r c o - o p s . Four a r e a s , C a p i l a n o , E d m o n d s — C a r i b o o , Ranch P a r k , and P o r t C o q u i t l a m a r e p r e d i c t e d as a r e a s f o r c o - o p e r a t i v e h o u s i n g d e v e l o p m e n t . S i m i l a r r e s u l t s were o b t a i n e d u s i n g raw d a t a as i n p u t t o t h e d i s c r i m i n a n t a n a l y s i s . F o r t h i s f u n c t i o n ( D F 2 ) , t h e p e r -c e n t a g e of d e t a c h e d h o u s e s i s t h e most i m p o r t a n t t o t h e f u n c t i o n ( T a b l e X V I ) . The p e r c e n t a g e of d w e l l i n g s w i t h r e s i d e n t s who have l i v e d i n the b u i l d i n g l e s s t h a n one y e a r i s t h e n e x t most s i g n i f i c a n t , f o l l o w e d c l o s e l y by t h e p e r c e n t a g e of t h e p o p u l a t i o n w i t h p r o f e s s i o n a l , m a n a g e r i a l and t e c h n i c a l o c c u p -a t i o n s . The DF2 p r e d i c t i o n c a p a b i l i t y , i . e . p e r c e n t a g e of c a s e s c o r r e c t l y c l a s s i f i e d ( T a b l e X V I I ) , i s i d e n t i c a l t o t h a t of DF1 ( T a b l e XV). However, t h e a c t u a l l o c a l a r e a s s e l e c t e d as h a v i n g co-ops a r e d i f f e r e n t ( F i g . 1 1 ) . R e n f r e w - C o l l i n g w o o d and Seymour a r e added as p o s s i b l e co-op h o u s i n g l o c a t i o n s , b ut Ranch P a r k and Lynn V a l l e y a r e e x c l u d e d . H a s t i n g s - S u n r i s e and Burnaby M o u n t a i n a r e s t i l l n ot p r e d i c t e d t o be l o c a t i o n s f o r c o - o p e r a t i v e h o u s i n g . To t e s t t h e a p p l i c a b i l i t y of DF2 f o r c l a s s i f y i n g c a s e s i n o t h e r c i t i e s , i t was a p p l i e d t o M e t r o T o r o n t o . Raw d a t a were f i r s t c o r r e c t e d by a d d i n g a c o n s t a n t t o g i v e e q u a l means f o r each v a r i a b l e f o r b o t h c i t i e s . The u n s t a n d a r d i z e d c o e f f i c i e n t s o f DF2 were t h e n used to c a l c u l a t e d i s c r i m i n a n t s c o r e s f o r M e t r o , and t h e m i n o r p l a n n i n g a r e a s were c l a s s i f i e d a c c o r d i n g l y . A l t h o u g h 65,79% of the c a s e s were c o r r e c t l y c l a s s i f i e d (.Table X V I I I ) , o n l y one a r e a with, c o - o p e r a t i v e h o u s i n g was a c c u r a t e l y p r e d i c t e d . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e a c t u a l l o c a t i o n s p r e d i c t e d f o r 104 -TABLE XVI DISCRIMINANT FUNCTION COEFFICIENTS FOR GVRD RAW DATA CDF2) S t a n d a r d i z e d D n s t a n d a r d j z e d V a r i a b l e Co e f f i c l e n t s C o e f f i c i e n t s % D e t a c h e d Houses 1.83 0,07 % P o p u l a t i o n w i t h some U n i v e r s i t y -0,71 -0,07 Med i a n V a l u e Owner O c c u p i e d D w e l l i n g -0.49 -0;06 % P o p u l a t i o n o l d e r t h a n 65 y e a r s 0.62 0,11 % P o p u l a t i o n P r o f e s s i o n a l , M a n a g e r i a l , T e c h n i c a l 1.11 0,09 % D w e l l i n g s w i t h R e s i d e n t s l e s s t h a n one y e a r 1.38 0,18 P e r C a p i t a (10~") S o c i a l H o u s i n g U n i t s 0.79 0,27 CONSTANT -9.21 GROUP CENTR0IDS: Co-op = 1.003 Non Co-op = -0.468 EIGENVALUE: 0.926 CANONICAL CORRELATION: 0.693 WILKS' LAMBDA: 0,519 CHI SQUARE: 25.228 DEGREES OF FREEDOM; - 105 -TABLE XVI I PREDICTION RESULTS' OF DF2 -THE CONFUSION MATRIX Number P r e d i c t e d P r e d i c t e d of Cases No Co-ops Co—ops A c t u a l Group No Co-ops 30 26 (86.7%) 4 (13.3%) Co-ops 14 3 (21.4%) 11 (78.6%) P e r c e n t a g e of Grouped C a s e s C o r r e c t l y C l a s s i f i e d : 84.09% - 107 -TABLE X V I I I PREDICTION RESULTS APPLYING DF2 TO METRO TORONTO RAW DATA Number of P r e d i c t e d P r e d i c t e d C a s e s No: Co-op Co-op A c t u a l Group No Co-ops 65 49 (75.4%) 16 (24.6%) Co-op 11 10 (90.9%) 1 (9.1%) P e r c e n t a g e of Grouped Cases C o r r e c t l y C l a s s i f i e d : 65,79% - 108 -c o - o p s . ( F i g . 12) e x h i b i t a t o t a l l y d i f f e r e n t s p a t i a l p a t t e r n t h a t t h e a c t u a l d i s t r i b u t i o n ( F i g . 7 ) . T h i s i s n o t c o m p l e t e l y s u r p r i s i n g as t h e t y p e s of h o u s i n g i n v o l v e d , . . . e x i s t i n g - u n i t s v e r s u s new c o n s t r u c t i o n , a r e d i f f e r e n t , and hence t h e i r l o c a t i o n a l d e t e r m i n a n t s c o u l d a l s o be d i f f e r e n t . To d e t e r m i n e whether or not the v a r i a b l e s used i n t h e GVRD d i s c r i m i n a n t a n a l y s i s c o u l d be used to d i s t i n u i s h between Metro m i n o r p l a n n i n g d i s t r i c t s w i t h co-ops and t h o s e w i t h o u t , a d i s c r i m i n a n t a n a l y s i s was p e r f o r m e d u s i n g M etro raw d a t a . The r e s u l t i n g d i s c r i m i n a n t f u n c t i o n (DF3) c o n t a i n e d o n l y two of t h e f i f t e e n v a r i a b l e s — the p e r c e n t a g e of d e t a c h e d h o u s i n g and t h e median v a l u e of owner o c c u p i e d d w e l l i n g s ( T a b l e X I X ) . However, whereas a h i g h p r o p o r t i o n of d e t a c h e d h o u s i n g i n t h e GVRD h e l p e d to w e i g h t t h e d i s c r i m i n a n t s c o r e t o w a r d s a co-op v a l u e , a low p r o p o r t i o n o f d e t a c h e d h o u s i n g i n M e t r o would s i g n i f y t h e p o s s i b i l i t y of c o - o p s . A l t h o u g h DF3 was a b l e t o c o r r e c t l y c l a s s i f y 90.9% of t h e a r e a s w i t h c o - o p s , t h e o v e r a l l p e r c e n t a g e of c o r r e c t l y c l a s s i f i e d g r o u p s was 75% ( T a b l e X X). F u r t h e r m o r e , DF3 had a c a n o n i c a l c c o r r e l a t i o n of o n l y 0.445, and an e i g e n v a l u e of 0.247. A l t h o u g h t h e r e s u l t a n t s p a t i a l p a t t e r n of p r e d i c t e d co-op l o c a t i o n s ( F i g . 3) encompasses t h e a c t u a l l o c a t i o n s o f co-op h o u s i n g i n Me t r o T o r o n t o , i t s p r e d i c t e d a r e a l s p r e a d i s much g r e a t e r . C l e a r l y , DF3 has n o t s a t i s f a c t o r i l y i s o l a t e d a r e a s w i t h co-ops from t h o s e w i t h o u t . A l t h o u g h DF3 i s s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t , t h e s p a t i a l r e s u l t s a r e much too g e n e r a l to be of s i g n i f i c a n c e . S u g g e s t i o n s f o r i m p r o v i n g t h e d i s c r i m i n a n t analysis f or Metro Toronto are discussed l a t e r i n t h i s chapter. FIGURE 12 DF2 Predicted Locations for Co-op Housing i n Metro Toronto - 110 -TABLE XIX DISCRIMINANT FUNCTION COEFFICIENTS FOR METRO TORONTO (DF3) S t a n d a r d i z e d Coe f f i c i e n t s U n s t a n d a r d i z e d C o e f f i c i e n t s V a r i a b l e % D e t a c h e d Houses 0.89 0,04 Median V a l u e Owner O c c u p i e d D w e l l i n g s 0.45 0.05 CONSTANT -3.40 GROUP CENTROIDS: Co-op Non C EIGENVALUE: 0,247 CANONICAL CORRELATION: WILKS' LAMBDA: 0.802 CHI SQUARE: 16.137 = -1.075 -op = 0.182 0.445 DEGREES OF FREEDOM: 2 - I l l -TABLE XX PREDICTION RESULTS OF TORONTO DISCRIMINANT FUNCTION (DF3) Number P r e d i c t e d P r e d i c t e d of C a s e s No Co-op Co-ops A c t u a l Group No Co-op 65 47 (72.3%) 18 (27.7%) Co-op 11 1 (9.1%) 10 (90.9%) P e r c e n t a g e of Grouped Cases C o r r e c t l y C l a s s i f i e d : 75.00% DF3 Predicted Locations for Co-op Housing - 113 -A D i s c u s s i o n of the S p a t i a l Components of  Urban H o u s i n g Co-ops D i s c r i m i n a n t a n a l y s i s has p r o v i d e d t h e t o o l f o r d i s -t i n g u i s h i n g between l o c a l a r e a s w i t h c o - o p e r a t i v e h o u s i n g and l o c a l a r e a s w i t h o u t i t i n GVRD. To go beyond t h i s s t a g e , i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o be a b l e to d e s c r i b e t h e two t y p e s o f a r e a s . The d i s c r i m i n a t i n g v a r i a b l e s s e l e c t e d i n DF1 and DF2 p r o v i d e an o b v i o u s p o i n t f o r d e p a r t u r e . A l t h o u g h some of t h e v a r i a b l e s i n c l u d e d i n t h e two d i s -c r i m i n a n t f u n c t i o n s a r e d i f f e r e n t , f i v e c o r e v a r i a b l e s a r e a p p a r e n t . D F l and DF2 b o t h i n c l u d e t h e f o l l o w i n g v a r i a b l e s : 1. P e r c e n t a g e o f ho u s e s w h i c h a r e d e t a c h e d ; 2. P e r c e n t a g e of p o p u l a t i o n w i t h some u n i v e r s i t y e d u c a t i o n ; 3. P e r c e n t a g e of employed p o p u l a t i o n i n p r o f e s s i o n a l , m a n a g e r i a l and t e c h n i c a l o c c u p a t i o n s (Census Canada Groups 11,27,31,21,23,25,33); 4. P e r c e n t a g e of t h e o c c u p i e d d w e l l i n g s w h i c h have r e s i d e n t s who have l i v e d i n t h e b u i l d i n g l e s s t h a n one y e a r ; 5. S o c i a l h o u s i n g u n i t s p e r c a p i t a . I n e x a m i n i n g t h e i n d i v i d u a l c o n t r i b u t i o n s made by each v a r i a b l e to t h e d i s c r i m i n a n t s c o r e , i t i s i m p o r t a n t to remember t h a t t h e c o e f f i c i e n t v a l u e s a r e d e r i v e d from t h e l i n e a r c o m b i n a t i o n s of a l l o f the s e l e c t e d v a r i a b l e s . T h e r e f o r e , t h e c o n t r i b u t i o n of any one o f t h e v a r i a b l e s i n t h e s e f u n c t i o n s may be overshadowed by the j o i n t c o n t r i b u t i o n of some or a l l o f t h e r e m a i n i n g v a r i a b l e s . The e f f e c t s of t h e two v a r i a b l e s , p e r c e n t a g e of p o p u l a t i o n - 114 -w i t h u n i v e r s i t y and p e r c e n t a g e o f employed p o p u l a t i o n ; i n p r o -f e s s i o n a l , m a n a g e r i a l and t e c h n i c a l o c c u p a t i o n s , i l l u s t r a t e s t h i s d i f f i c u l t y i n i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . A l t h o u g h t h e r e i s a w i t h i n groups c o r r e l a t i o n of 0 . 8 3 between t h e s e two v a r i a b l e s , t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e c o e f f i c i e n t s i g n s a r e o p p o s i t e . T a k i n g e i t h e r of t h e s e v a r i a b l e s i n i s o l a t i o n c o u l d l e a d to e r r o n e o u s r e s u l t s . However, when t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e means a r e compared, some s e n s e i s made of t h e a p p a r e n t c o n t r a d i c t i o n ( T a b l e X X I ) . In b o t h g r o u p s , t h e p e r c e n t a g e of p r o f e s s i o n a l , t e c h n i c a l and m a n a g e r i a l o c c u p a t i o n s i s g r e a t e r t h a n t h e p e r c e n t a g e of u n i v e r s i t y p e o p l e . But, t h e ra n g e between t h e two v a r i a b l e s i s much g r e a t e r f o r co-op a r e a s t h a n f o r no co-op a r e a s . Thus, i t i s n o t t h e i n d i v i d u a l v a r i a b l e s w h i c h a r e s i g n i f i c a n t f o r d i s c r i m i n a t i o n , but t h e d i f f e r e n c e between t h e two v a l u e s . C o - o p e r a t i v e h o u s i n g p r o j e c t s have a t e n d e n c y t o be l o c a t e d i n a r e a s w i t h many p e o p l e employed i n p r o f e s s i o n a l , m a n a g e r i a l and t e c h n i c a l o c c u p a t i o n s t h a t do n o t r e q u i r e u n i v e r s i t y e d u c a t i o n ( f o r example, p o s t m a s t e r s , s a l e s and p r o d u c t i o n managers, n u r s e s , p h y s i o t h e r a p i s t s , m u s i c i a n s , d a n c e r s ) . D e s c r i b i n g t h e two t y p e s of a r e a s : i n terms of t h e o t h e r t h r e e c o r e v a r i a b l e s a l s o has some c o m p l i c a t i o n s . A l t h o u g h t h e mean s c o r e s f o r each v a r i a b l e , e x c e p t f o r s e n i o r s , a r e d i f f e r e n t f o r each group ( T a b l e X X I ) , t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e d i s -t r i b u t i o n s a r e n o t s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t u s i n g C h i - s q u a r e ( a = 0 . 0 5 ) . A g a i n , i t i s t h e c o m b i n a t i o n o f v a r i a b l e s w h i c h i s i m p o r t a n t . None of the co-op a r e a s a r e above a v e r a g e on a l l s e l e c t e d v a r i a b l e s , nor a r e any of them a l l below a v e r a g e 115 -TABLE XXI GROUP MEANS FOR SELECTED VARIABLES V a r i a b l e % D e t a c h e d Houses Co-op Group 58.38 No Co-op Group 69 . 04 % P o p u l a t i o n w i t h some U n i v e r s i t y % P o p u l a t i o n P r o f e s s i o n a l , M a n a g e r i a l , T e c h n i c a l % D w e l l i n g s w i t h r e s i d e n t s l e s s t h a n one y e a r P e r C a p i t a (IO - 1*) S o c i a l H o u s i n g U n i t s M edian V a l u e Owner O c c u p i e d D w e l l i n g s Per C a p i t a ( 1 0 ~ 8 ) C r e d i t U n i o n s 10.70 17 . 24 22.30 3.60 26.8 1.31 17 . 68 20.88 19, 70 1.32 31. 7 0. 56 % P o p u l a t i o n o l d e r t h a n 65 y e a r s 10.87 10,97 - 116 -( T a b l e X X I I ) . One of t h e most f r e q u e n t c o m b i n a t i o n s i s a h i g h p e r c e n t a g e o f d e t a c h e d h o u s i n g but a low median v a l u e . In f a c t , most of t h e a r e a s have a low median v a l u e . S o c i a l h o u s i n g and c r e d i t u n i o n s seem t o be of i m p o r t a n c e when o t h e r v a r i a b l e s do not form a u s u a l c o m b i n a t i o n . F o r example, K i l l a r n e y has a h i g h v a l u e f o r b o t h d e t a c h e d h o u s i n g and median v a l u e . F u r t h e r -more, i t has a low t u r n o v e r r a t e ( p e r c e n t of r e s i d e n t s l e s s t h a n one y e a r ) and few s e n i o r c i t i z e n s . Y e t , i t i s h i g h i n b o t h s o c i a l h o u s i n g and c r e d i t u n i o n s p e r c a p i t a and hence b o t h DF1 and DF2 p r e d i c t i t t o be a c o - o p e r a t i v e h o u s i n g l o c a t i o n . H a s t i n g s - S u n r i s e , on the o t h e r hand, has o n l y a h i g h p e r c e n t a g e o f d e t a c h e d h o u s i n g , and as a r e s u l t i t i s n e v e r p r e d i c t e d as h a v i n g co-op h o u s i n g . Thus, many c o m b i n a t i o n s of t h e v a r i a b l e s can be used t o d e s c r i b e a c o - o p e r a t i v e h o u s i n g l o c a t i o n ; no s i n g l e ' t y p i c a l ' d e s c r i p t i o n i s p o s s i b l e . What t h e n d e t e r m i n e s t h e l o c a t i o n o f c o - o p e r a t i v e h o u s i n g ? I f i t i s n o t u n i q u e t o o n l y one t y p e o f n e i g h b o u r h o o d , what a r e t h e c o n t r o l l i n g f a c t o r s of i t s l o c a t i o n ? In some c a s e s i t i s m e r e l y a q u e s t i o n of o p p o r t u n i t y . F o r example, t h e M o u n t a i n View co-op d i d n o t cho o s e t h e i r s i t e ; t h e p e o p l e a l r e a d y l i v e d i n the b u i l d i n g and t h e y had formed a co-op to e n a b l e them to c o n t i n u e to l i v e i n t h e b u i l d i n g (.Simpson 1976) . In most c a s e s , however, one of the key d e t e r m i n a n t s i s l a n d a v a i l a b i l i t y . S i n c e most GVRD co-ops i n v o l v e many a c r e s of l a n d ( e . g . , K a n a t a s i t e i s 10 a c r e s ) , i t i s o f t e n d i f f i c u l t t o f i n d an a v a i l a b l e p a r c e l of l a n d at an a f f o r d a b l e p r i c e . I n a s u r v e y of c o - o p e r a t i v e and o t h e r n o n - p r o f i t g r o u p s i n Canada, TABLE XXII COMPARISON OF CO-OP AREA MEANS WITH OVERALL MEANS FOR SELECTED VARIABLES D e t a c h e d Med . V a l u e Res, < I y r S o c i a l H o u s i n g C r e d i t Unions % > 65 y r s Burnaby Mt. B u r q u i t l a m F a i r v i e w H a s t i n g s - S u n r i s e K i l l a r n e y Lynn V a l l e y Maple R i d g e New W e s t m i n s t e r N o r t h V a n c o u v e r P i t t Meadows P o r t Moody So u t h Cambie S t r a t h c o n a West Richmond + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + • + + + + + i i—1 i h i g h e r t h a n o v e r a l l mean l e s s t h a n o v e r a l l mean e q u a l t o o v e r a l l mean - 118 -d i f f i c u l t i e s w i t h l a n d and b u i l d i n g a c q u i s i t i o n formed the s e c o n d l a r g e s t p r o b l e m a r e a a f t e r f i n a n c i n g and p l a n n i n g p r o b l e m s ( H a i r e 1 9 7 5 ) . Due to c o s t r e s t r i c t i o n s , many p r o j e c t s c a n n o t a f f o r d t o buy l a n d i n t h e open m a r k e t . C o n s e q u e n t l y , many groups seek p u b l i c l y owned l a n d t h a t may be a v a i l a b l e f o r l o n g t e r m l e a s e a t a n o m i n a l c h a r g e . A l t h o u g h t h e c i t y or p r o v i n c e may have s u c h p a r c e l s a v a i l a b l e f o r c o - o p e r a t i v e d e v e l o p m e n t , t h i s does n o t e n s u r e t h a t t h e p r o j e c t w i l l be d e v e l o p e d . T h e r e a r e a whole s e r i e s of i n t e r - c o n n e c t e d f a c t o r s w h i c h d e t e r m i n e the f i n a l outcome of a p r o j e c t ' s a p p l i c a t i o n to d e v e l o p p u b l i c or p r i v a t e l a n d . A few of t h e more i m p o r t a n t o f t h e s e f a c t o r s w i l l be d i s c u s s e d below by means of t h r e e c a s e s t u d i e s of c o - o p e r a t i v e h o u s i n g p r o j e c t s i n t h e GVRD. Case 1 The s i m p l e s t c a s e i s t h a t of a group p r o p o s i n g to d e v e l o p a co-op p r o j e c t i n a newly d e v e l o p i n g a r e a . T h i s i s , i n f a c t , t h e s i t u a t i o n of most of t h e c o - o p e r a t i v e h o u s i n g p r o j e c t s i n t h e GVRD ( e . g . DeCosmos, K a n a t a , Norman B e t h u n e , F a l s e C r e e k ) . In each c a s e , t h e p r o j e c t i t s e l f was of t h e same b u i l d i n g t y p e , u s u a l l y townhouses, as o t h e r d e v e l o p m e n t s i n t h e a r e a . As s u c h , the o n l y u n i q u e component about the co-op p r o j e c t was i t s form o f t e n u r e . C o n s e q u e n t l y , t h e s e p r o j e c t s had l i t t l e d i f f i c u l t y i n r e c e i v i n g p r o j e c t a p p r o v a l . T h e r e a r e two key f a c t o r s a t p l a y h e r e . F i r s t , by d e v e l o p i n g a p r o j e c t i n a new a r e a , t h e r e i s no p r e - e x i s t i n g community to oppose the p r o j e c t . S e c o n d l y , even i f a community e x i s t e d , t h e co-op p r o j e c t i s one of a - 119 -s e r i e s of d e v e l o p m e n t s a l l s i m i l a r i n s t y l e . C o n s e q u e n t l y , few arguments a g a i n s t the p r o j e c t c o u l d be s t a t e d , u n l e s s one was to o b j e c t on p h i l o s o p h i c a l g r o u n d s r e g a r d i n g t h e c o - o p e r a t i v e p h i l o s o p h y i t s e l f . Thus, w i t h b o t h a s i m i l a r b u i l d i n g s t y l e and a l a c k o f a p r e v i o u s l y e x i s t i n g community, p r o j e c t a p p r o v a l i s r e l a t i v e l y s i m p l e . Case 2 The s e c o n d c a s e i s a l i t t l e more c o m p l i c a t e d . Adanac C o - o p e r a t i v e H o u s i n g S o c i e t y p r o p o s e d d e v e l o p m e n t o f an e l e v e n a c r e p a r c e l of B.C. Department o f H o u s i n g owned l a n d i n t h e H a s t i n g s - S u n r i s e a r e a of GVRD. The s i t e i s b o r d e r e d by a f o r m e r j u v e n i l e d e t e n t i o n home w h i c h i s c u r r e n t l y u s e d f o r community m e e t i n g s and e v e n t s , and a s e n i o r c i t i z e n s home, The houses i n the s u r r o u n d i n g n e i g h b o u r h o o d a r e s m a l l o l d bungal o w s , r a n g i n g i n c o n d i t i o n f r o m d i l a p i d a t e d t o newly r e n o v a t e d . T h e r e a r e many v a c a n t l o t s s o u t h of t h e s i t e . Some l i g h t i n d u s t r y , a n d new d u p l e x h o u s i n g a r e f o u n d a d j a c e n t t o t h e s i t e i n Burnaby. A major u r b a n a r t e r i a l bounds t h e s i t e . E a r l i e r p r o p o s a l s f o r t h e s i t e had i n c l u d e d i n d u s t r i a l d e v e l o p m e n t and a fre e w a y a c c e s s r o u t e . At t h e t i m e , t h e H a s t i n g s - S u n r i s e A c t i o n C o u n c i l was o r g a n i z e d to p r o t e s t t h e s e p r o p o s a l s . When t h e c i t y r e j e c t e d t h e s e p r o p o s a l s b e c a u s e of community a n t a g o n i s m , t h e community group was a s k e d to s u g g e s t an a p p r o p r i a t e l a n d use f o r t h e s i t e . They d e c i d e d on h o u s i n g , and c o n s e q u e n t l y , the C h a r l e s Adanac C o - o p e r a t i v e was formed i n 1973. Many of t h e members of Adanac a l r e a d y l i v e d i n r e n t a l accommodations i n t h e n e i g h b o u r h o o d and had h e l p e d to f i g h t t h e - 120 -e a r l i e r d e v e l o p m e n t p r o p o s a l s . The p r o p o s a l put f o r t h by Adanac was f o r 200 f a m i l y u n i t s r a n g i n g i n s i z e from one to f i v e bedrooms. The b u i l d i n g s were to be two and t h r e e s t o r y townhouses. Because th e a r e a was zoned as RS-1 (One F a m i l y D w e l l i n g D i s t r i c t ) , a r e z o n i n g a p p l i c a t i o n to change i t t o CD-I ( C o m p r e h e n s i v e Development D i s t r i c t ) was f i l e d w i t h t h e C i t y of V a n c o u v e r . F o r a l l r e z o n i n g a p p l i c a t i o n s i n V a n c o u v e r , a p u b l i c m e e t i n g must be h e l d p r i o r t o t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e a p p l i c a t i o n to C o u n c i l , At t h e p u b l i c m e e t i n g , not one o b j e c t i o n to the p r o p o s a l was r a i s e d . The p r o j e c t was s u p p o r t e d by t h e D i r e c t o r of P l a n n i n g and t h e s i t e was r e z o n e d . I n t h i s c a s e , t h e r e e x i s t s a s i t e , b u t an e x p e d i e n t use was needed. N e i t h e r i n d u s t r i a l d e v e l o p m e n t n o r a highway a c c e s s r o u t e was a c c e p t a b l e to t h e r e s i d e n t s . C o - o p e r a t i v e h o u s i n g was an a c c e p t a b l e a l t e r n a t i v e . A n o t h e r f a c t o r i n a i d of the p r o j e c t was the o r i g i n of the c o - o p e r a t i v e group i t s e l f . B e c a u s e i t had grown out of a community o r g a n i z a t i o n , an o r g a n i z a t i o n c r e a t e d to p r o t e c t t h e n e i g h b o u r h o o d from u n a c c e p t a b l e l a n d u s e s , t h e co-op was a p a r t of the community. These two f a c t o r s r e n d e r e d c e r t a i n t h e p r o j e c t ' s a c c e p t a n c e . Case 3 The P e n t a c a s e i s by f a r t h e most c o m p l i c a t e d and a t t h e t i m e of w r i t i n g ( 1 9 7 7 ) , i t had s t i l l n ot been c o m p l e t e l y r e s o l v e d . E a r l y i n 1973, P e n t a , a group of 44 a d u l t s and 23 c h i l d r e n , a p p l i e d f o r a r e z o n i n g of 1,3 a c r e s of c i t y owned l a n d n e a r the U n i v e r s i t y Endowment l a n d s . The s e l e c t e d p r o - ; - 121 -p e r t y had a l r e a d y been designated by t h e c i t y f o r d e v e l o p m e n t , but P e n t a ' s p r o p o s e d d e v e l o p m e n t of s i x c l u s t e r s of t w o - s t o r e y r e s i d e n c e s n e c e s s i t a t e d a r e z o n i n g f r o m RS-1 to CD—1, The s i t e i s l o c a t e d between West 20 t h and West 2 1 s t Avenues, a b u t t i n g Camosun Avenue and the U n i v e r s i t y Endowment L a n d s . The s u r r o u n d i n g n e i g h b o u r h o o d c o n s i s t s of a v a r i e t y of ages and s t y l e s of m i d d l e c l a s s homes. B o t h s e n i o r c i t i z e n s on p e n s i o n who have l i v e d i n t h e a r e a f o r s e v e r a l d e c a d e s and s t u d e n t s s p e n d i n g a few y e a r s i n i l l e g a l basement s u i t e s p o p u l a t e t h e n e i g h b o u r h o o d . However, even w i t h t h i s r a n g e , the a r e a i s c o n s i d e r e d s t a b l e and h i g h l y d e s i r a b l e by home p u r c h a s e r s . The P e n t a group o r g i n a t e d i n e a r l y 1973 when f i v e f r i e n d s (hence the name P e n t a . f r o m t h e Greek ' p e n t e ' meaning f i v e ) got t o g e t h e r to t r y t o f i n d a s o l u t i o n t o t h e i r h o u s i n g p r o b l e m s . The P e n t a group expanded i n t o an a s s o c i a t i o n of n e a r l y two dozen f a m i l i e s who r e g i s t e r e d t h e m s e l v e s as a B.C. S o c i e t y , The group c o n s i s t e d of a mixed c o l l e c t i o n of o c c u p a t i o n s , i n c l u d i n g t e a c h e r s , s o c i a l w o r k e r s , r e t i r e d p e o p l e , s t u d e n t s , a p s y c h o -l o g i s t and a b o o k - k e e p e r . As a t h i r d of t h e group a l r e a d y l i v e d i n t h e Dunbar-West P o i n t Grey a r e a , and a n o t h e r t h i r d l i v e d i n K i t s i l a n o , t h e y s e a r c h e d f o r a s u i t a b l e s i t e i n t h e west side area of - Vancouver,- c l o s e to t h e u n i v e r s i t y . The s i t e d e s c r i b e d above was s e l e c t e d and t h e y employed an a r c h i t e c t u r a l f i r m to d e s i g n t h e h o u s i n g p r o j e c t . The P e n t a Group s u b m i t t e d t h e i r p l a n to t h e C i t y of V n a c o u v e r . The c i t y ' s d e s i g n p a n e l a p p r o v e d t h e p r o j e c t and an - 122 -a p p l i c a t i o n f o r r e z o n i n g was s u b m i t t e d . Between t h e s u b m i s s i o n of t h e i r a p p l i c a t i o n and t h e n o t i c e of t h e p u b l i c h e a r i n g , P e n t a t o o k t h e i r p r o p o s a l to t h e p u b l i c . They p u b l i s h e d a pamphlet d e s c r i b i n g t h e i r m o t i v e s and a t t i t u d e s towards the n e i g h b o u r h o o d . The pamphlet a l s o o u t l i n e d the e s s e n t i a l com-p o n e n t s of t h e i r p r o p o s a l . T h i s was d i s t r i b u t e d by hand to t h e p e o p l e i n a two s q u a r e b l o c k r a d i u s of t h e s i t e . F u r t h e r -more, t h e y i n v i t e d t h e p u b l i c to an Open House where a model of t h e p r o p o s e d townhouse r e s i d e n c e s was on d i s p l a y , and members answered q u e s t i o n s . In s h o r t , P e n t a seemed to have t a k e n e v e r y s t e p p o s s i b l e t o e x p l a i n t h e i r p r o p o s a l to the community i n o r d e r to g a i n t h e i r s u p p o r t . The community r e s p o n s e c o u l d not have been f a r t h e r f r o m P e n t a ' s e x p e c t a t i o n s . W i t h i n a week of t h e i n f o r m a t i o n m e e t i n g , a p r o t e s t committee of r e s i d e n t s had been f o r m e d , c a l l i n g them-s e l v e s t h e Dunbar A c t i o n Committee (DAC). DAC i m m e d i a t e l y w r o t e up a f l y e r o u t l i n i n g P e n t a ' s p l a n s and the a c t i o n s t h a t c o u l d be t a k e n to p r e v e n t i t s f r u i t i o n ( A p p e n d i x I I I ) . F o u r main a r e a s of c o n t e n t i o n q u i c k l y became a p p a r e n t . These i n v o l v e d , i n o r d e r o f p r i o r i t y , t h e change i n r e s i d e n t i a l d e n s i t y , t h e government s u b s i d y of t h e p r o j e c t , the t i m i n g o f P e n t a ' s i n f o r m i n g the p u b l i c o f i t s p l a n s (and P e n t a ' s a t t i t u d e ) , and l a s t l y , t h e e c o l o g i c a l b a l a n c e of the Camosun Bog. E a c h of t h e s e t o p i c s a r e b e s t d e s c r i b e d t h r o u g h a few e x c e r p t s f r o m community news-p a p e r s . " t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n of co-op h o u s i n g ... w i l l mean p l a c i n g t h e e q u i v a l e n t of two h ouses on e v e r y 33 f o o t l o t , r e s u l t i n g - 123 -In a h i g h e r d e n s i t y t h a n at p r e s e n t and a c o n s e q u e n t l o w e r i n g of r e s i d e n t i a l q u a l i t y ... l o c a l r e s i d e n t s s t r e s s t h a t t h e y Bought t h e i r own homes at 'top d o l l a r s ' i n t h e open market i n o r d e r to l i v e i n a s i n g l e f a m i l y a r e a " (The W e s t e r n News, March 27, " T h e i r a t t e m p t to put 26 b u i l d i n g s [ u n i t s ] on 13 l o t s c r e a t e s a t h r e a t to t h e r e s -i d e n t i a l q u a l i t y of Dunbar, t h e l a s t s t r o n g h o l d of RS-1 i n V a n c o u v e r , C l e a r l y , t h i s q u a l i t y o f l i f e i s under a t t a c k , " ( S t e v e B r e w s t e r , L e t t e r s to t E d i t o r , The W e s t e r n News, « May 15, 1975) " B r e w s t e r s a y s t h a t 300 names i n a l l have been c o l l e c t e d f r o m r e s i d e n t s who f e e l t h a t the townhouses w i l l d e s t r o y t h e s i n g l e f a m i l y c h a r a c t e r of t h e a r e a . R e s i d e n t s say a l s o t h a t t h e d e v e l o p m e n t would s e t a p r e c e d e n t f o r o t h e r s l i k e i t . " (The C o u r i e r , A p r i l 10, 1975) " T h r e e l e v e l s of t a x p a y e r s would, i n e f f e c t , be s u b s i d i z i n g a p r o p o s e d ' P e n t a ' c o - o p e r a t i v e h o u s i n g p r o j e c t ... A i d , Mike H a r c o u r t e x p l a i n e d t h a t t h e c o -o p e r a t i v e group would r e c e i v e m o r t g a g e s from t h e F e d e r a l and P r o v i n c i a l G o v e r n -ment a t low i n t e r e s t r a t e s . The c i t y would t h e n s u p p l y t h e l a n d a t o n e - t h i r d l e s s t h a n the g o i n g market r a t e ... 'I t a k e t h i s as meaning t h a t t h r e e l e v e l s of t a x p a y e r s a r e s u p p o r t i n g a group w h i c h i s no d i f f e r e n t from o t h e r r e s i -d e n t s of t h e area.'" (The C o u r i e r , A p r i l 24, 1975) "We're not a g a i n s t t h e s e p e o p l e , a l t h o u g h we f e e l t h a t t h e y a r e not e n t i t l e d to a c i t y s u b s i d y , many a r e w e l l o f f , more so t h a n p e o p l e a l r e a d y i n t h e a r e a , and t h e y ' r e g e t t i n g i n t o a c h o i c e l o c a t i o n on t h e b a c k s o f t h e n o t - s o - w e l l - o f f " , ( J o h n H i l l , The C o u r i e r , A u g u s t 4, 1977) - 124 -" I t was P e n t a who s t e e r e d t h i s i s s u e i n t o an a d v e r s a r y one w i t h i t s s e c r e c y i n n e g o t i a t i o n w i t h t h e C i t y o v e r a y e a r and a h a l f . The p r o f e s s i o n a l l y p r o d u c e d b r o c h u r e P e n t a d i s t r i b u t e d was i n f o r m -a t i v e , n o t c o n s u l t i v e . We went t o P e n t a ' s open house as i n d i v i d u a l s i n d i s a r r a y f a c i n g a w e l l p l a n n e d P.R. e v e n t . Does P e n t a now t h i n k t h e t i m e i s r i p e t o a p p e a l t o the c o n s i d e r a b l e p u b l i c sympathy t h a t e x i s t s f o r t h o s e who f i n d s i n g l e - f a m i l y d w e l l i n g s p r i c e d out of t h e i r r e a c h . And a r e we to be c h a r a c t e r i z e d as t h e b e a s t l y ' haves' who deny t h e ' h a v e - n o t s ' even t h e c o u r t e s y o f a p u b l i c exchange", ( S t e v e B r e w s t e r , L e t t e r s to t h e E d i t o r , The x W e s t e r n NeVs, May 22 , 197 5) . "... the r e z o n i n g a p p l i c a t i o n , w h i c h was p r e s e n t e d t o C i t y C o u n c i l a f t e r some many months of c o m m u n i c a t i o n between t h e Co-op-e r a t i v e and C i t y C o u n c i l and t h e v a r i o u s d e p a r t m e n t s , w i t h o u t any i n p u t f r o m t h e r e s i d e n t s of t h e a r e a ... t h e m a c h i n e r y of d e c i s i o n making was w e l l under way f a r b e f o r e t h e r e s i d e n t s became aware t h a t t h e m a c h i n e r y had even become a p p l i c a b l e t o t h e i r a r e a " . ( R o b e r t W i c k s , L e t t e r s to t h e E d i t o r , The W e s t e r n News, May 22, 1975) "Some c o n c e r n was v o i c e d o v e r t h e p o s s i -b i l i t y t h a t the h o u s i n g p r o j e c t would somehow im p i n g e on the Camosun Bog, and would g e n e r a l l y i m p a i r t h e l o c a l e c o l o g y " , (The W e s t e r n News, A p r i l 24, 1975) C l e a r l y , t h e community was not s u p p o r t i v e of t h e P e n t a p r o j e c t . The o p p o s i t i o n was not o n l y f r o m t h o s e p e o p l e l i v i n g i n c l o s e p r o x i m i t y to t h e p r o p o s e d p r o j e c t , but a l s o f r o m p e o p l e l i v i n g as f a r as twenty b l o c k s away. P e o p l e d i d not want a p r e c e d e n t s e t f o r t h i s w e s t e r n a r e a of t h e c i t y . I f c o - o p e r a t i v e h o u s i n g was l o c a t e d i n t h i s p a r t o f Dunbar, t h e n i t m ight ' s p r e a d ' to - 125 -o t h e r n e a r b y n e i g h b o u r h o o d s . C o n s e q u e n t l y , no one wanted to see c o - o p e r a t i v e h o u s i n g i n t h e Dunbar a r e a . I n many c a s e s the o p p o n e n t s ' d i s p a r a g e m e n t of t h e p r o j e c t stemmed from a f e a r of t h e unknown. C o - o p e r a t i v e h o u s i n g was new t o t h e community; would i t d e s t r o y t h e i r community? What would happen to t h e i r p r o p e r t y v a l u e s ? Would o t h e r l e s s d e s i r a b l e r e s i d e n t i a l d e v e l o p m e n t s o c c u r b e c a u s e t h e co-op group had s e t a p r e c e d e n t ? O t h e r c o m p l a i n t s a r o s e out o f a t y p e of j e a l o u s y . The community had worked h a r d f o r t h e i r h o u s i n g ; why s h o u l d o t h e r s r e c e i v e a s u b s i d y t o l i v e i n t h e i r n e i g h b o u r h o o d . T h i s b i t t e r n e s s may have been i n p a r t due to an o l d s c a l e of v a l u e s where each man s h o u l d f e n d f o r h i m s e l f , and a man d i d not r e a c h manhood u n t i l he had t a k e n on t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of b u y i n g a house (Rose 1958), or i t may be a r e s e n t m e n t a t n o t h a v i n g had s i m i l a r h e l p , r e g a r d l e s s of r e l a t i v e need. A l t h o u g h t h e y a l s o a r g u e d about n o t h a v i n g e a r l y knowledge of t h e p r o j e c t , i t i s d o u b t f u l whether t h i s would have made a d i f f e r e n c e to t h e i r s t a n c e . More t h a n l i k e l y , t h i s argument, l i k e t h a t of t h e e c o l o g y of t h e bog, were made to mask t h e i r more p a s s i o n a t e r e a s o n s f o r r e j e c t i n g t h e p r o p o s a l . As a r e s u l t of t h e community o p p o s i t i o n , t h e p r o p o s a l was r e j e c t e d by a 5-5 v o t e by c i t y c o u n c i l (one a l d e r p e r s o n was a b s e n t ) . However, t h i s was n o t t h e end to t h e P e n t a c a s e . The p u b l i c o u t c r y o v e r t h e r e j e c t i o n of t h e p r o p o s a l was c o n s i d e r -a b l e . The i s s u e became a v e r y p o l i t i c a l m a t t e r , as members of The E l e c t o r s A c t i o n Movement (TEAM), the dominant c i v i c p a r t y , had been s p l i t on t h e i r v o t e . Many TEAM members and o t h e r s - 126 -i n c l u d i n g TEAM A l d e r p e r s o n M a r z a r i , f e l t t h a t b o t h Mayor P h i l l i p s and A i d . V o l r i c h , b o t h TEAM members, were b e i n g u n a c c o u n t a b l e to TEAM by v o t i n g a g a i n s t t h e p r o j e c t ( V a n c o u v e r  Sun, June 20, 1975). E d i t o r i a l s e n t i t l e d " C i t y H a l l Houses a S p l i t P e r s o n a l i t y " ( P r o v i n c e , June 23, 1975) and " R e j e c t i o n of Co-op a S o r r y S p e c t a c l e " ( V a n c o u v e r Sun, June 23, 1975) were t y p i c a l r e a c t i o n s to C o u n c i l ' s d e c i s i o n . One TEAM member, S h i r l e y Schmid, a l s o a l e a d e r i n t h e c o - o p e r a t i v e h o u s i n g movement i n B.C., r e a c t e d i n t h e . ^ f o l l o w i n g manner: "[she] a s k e d t h a t t h e b o a r d of d i r e c t o r s now e x e r c i s e t h e p r i n c i p l e o f a c c o u n t -a b i l i t y and r e q u i r e Mayor P h i l l i p s and A i d . V o l r i c h t o j u s t i f y t h e i r d e c i s i o n and t o g i v e some i n d i c a t i o n o f t h e i r f u t u r e p o s i t i o n w i t h r e g a r d t o TEAM p o l i c y ... t h e i r v o t e was a d i r e c t c o n -t r a d i c t i o n of TEAM's h o u s i n g p o l i c y t h a t a v a r i e t y of h o u s i n g s t y l e s s e r v i n g a v a r i e t y of income l e v e l s be a v a i l a b l e i n a l l a r e a s of t h e c i t y " ( V a n c o u v e r Sun, June 26, 1975) The P e n t a r e j e c t i o n was no l o n g e r m e r e l y a n e i g h b o u r h o o d i n c i d e n t ; i t had become a major c i v i c p o l i t i c a l i s s u e . In t h e meantime, t w e l v e of t h e o r i g i n a l P e n t a group were l o o k i n g f o r a n o t h e r s i t e , and a new way t o a p p r o a c h t h e com-m u n i t y . A new s i t e was f o u n d i n O c t o b e r , a t 2nd Avenue and W a l l a c e a d j a c e n t to J e r i c h o B e ach. T h i s s i t e was a l s o a s i n g l e f a m i l y zone ( R S - 1 ) , but major r e c r e a t i o n a l e s t a b l i s h m e n t s s u c h as the R o y a l V a n c o u v e r Y a c h t C l u b and t h e J e r i c h o T e n n i s C l u b and a s e n i o r c i t i z e n s d e v e l o p m e n t were l o c a t e d n e a r b y . F u r t h e r -more, P e n t a ' s p r o p o s a l was p a r t of a j o i n t v e n t u r e w i t h t h e GVRD N o n - P r o f i t H o u s i n g C o r p o r a t i o n and a n o t h e r co-op, t h e - 127 -Dunbar Community Co-op, S i n c e t h e c i t y wanted to d e v e l o p t h i s s i t e t h e m s e l v e s , t h e y o r g a n i z e d a l l o f t h e p u b l i c i n f o r m -a t i o n c e n t r e s and h a n d l e d p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s . Thus, the c i t y ' s i n v o l v e m e n t w i t h t h e a p p l i c a t i o n f o r r e z o n i n g , and t h e p o l i t i c a l t u r m o i l o v e r P e n t a ' s e a r l i e r p r o p o s a l worked t o g e t h e r t o e n s u r e the C o u n c i l ' s unanimous d e c i s i o n i n A u g u st 1976 to a l l o w the r e z o n i n g . One must remember that the. surrounding community had s i m i l a r c o m p l a i n t s and o b j e c t i v e s r e g a r d i n g t h e p r o p o s a l , and t h e p u b l i c m e e t i n g was s t i l l d e c i d e d l y e x p l o s i v e , however, C o u n c i l had l i t t l e c h o i c e but to a p p r o v e t h e r e z o n i n g . A l t h o u g h the r e z o n i n g was a p p r o v e d , numerous o t h e r p r o -blems c o n c e r n i n g s u c h t h i n g s as u n d e r g r o u n d p a r k i n g , f i n a n c i n g , and l e a s i n g a r r a n g e m e n t s f o r t h e l a n d s t i l l a r o s e . L a s t l y , t h e r e was some d e b a t e c o n s i d e r i n g the l e g a l i t y of a l l o w i n g t h e p r o p e r t y to be used f o r h o u s i n g when i t had been e x p r o p r i a t e d i n t h e 1950's f o r p a r k p u r p o s e s . A l t h o u g h t h e s e i s s u e s were n o t r e s o l v e d to l o c a l r e s i d e n t s ' s a t i s f a c t i o n , c o n s t r u c t i o n of t h e p r o j e c t has begun. O b v i o u s l y , n o t a l l new c o - o p e r a t i v e h o u s i n g p r o j e c t s f a c e s u c h extreme community a n t a g o n i s m . Why d i d P e n t a ? I s i t a p r o b l e m of west s i d e v e r s u s e a s t s i d e p o l i t i c s ? P e r h a p s , C l e a r l y , b o t h t h e i n i t i a l r e j e c t i o n and t h e u l t i m a t e a p p r o v a l were p o l i t i c a l manoeuvres, but t h e i n t e n s e h a t r e d on the p a r t of t h e community c a n n o t be e x p l a i n e d by p o l i t i c s . However, when government, i n t h e f o r m of C o u n c i l , has not y e t t a k e n a c o n f i r m e d s t a n d f o r c o - o p e r a t i v e h o u s i n g , i t i s n o t s u r p r i s i n g t h a t t h e p u b l i c a l s o h e s i t a t e s . When one community i s s u c c e s s -- 128 -f u l a t s t o p p i n g a p r o j e c t , a n o t h e r c o m m u n i t y w i l l f e e l t h a t i t s h o u l d a l s o be g i v e n t h e same o p p o r t u n i t y . When i t i s n o t s u c c e s s f u l , f e e l i n g s a r e i n t e n s i f i e d and c o m m u n i t y c o n t i n u e s t o t r y t o ' s a v e t h e i r n e i g h b o u r h o o d ' . As s u g g e s t e d e a r l i e r , t h i s a r i s e s o u t o f b o t h a f e a r o f t h e u n k n o w n , a n d j e a l o u s y , The n a t u r e o f t h e i r o p p o s i t i o n i s i n t a n g i b l e a n d , c o n s e q u e n t l y , v e r y h a r d t o c o m b a t . P e r h a p s w i t h t i m e , as p e o p l e b e g i n t o u n d e r s t a n d c o - o p e r a t i v e h o u s i n g , and t o r e a l i z e t h a t i t i s n o t ' t h e e n e m y ' , and l o c a l g o v e r n m e n t t a k e s a s u p p o r t i v e s t a n c e , t h i s i n t e n s e l o c a t i o n a l c o n f l i c t w i l l n o t o c c u r , and c o - o p h o u s i n g w i l l be l o c a t e d i n many more n e i g h b o u r h o o d s . A few k e y l o c a t i o n a l d e t e r m i n a n t s c a n be d r a w n f r o m t h e a b o v e c a s e s t u d i e s . C l e a r l y , a c o - o p e r a t i v e g r o u p h a s t h e b e s t c h a n c e o f d e v e l o p m e n t i n an a r e a w i t h o u t a p r e - e x i s t i n g c o m -m u n i t y . A n o t h e r a l t e r n a t i v e w o u l d be t o c h o o s e a l o c a t i o n c l o s e t o a n o t h e r c o - o p , s u c h as i n t h e c a s e o f K a n a t a and D e C o s m o s . I n t h i s m a n n e r , t h e g r o u p i s s u r e t o g a i n s u p p o r t a t l e a s t f r o m t h e p r e v i o u s l y e x i s t i n g c o - o p . I n c a s e s w h e r e t h i s i s n o t p o s s i b l e , t h e b e s t o p t i o n i s t o p r o p o s e d e v e l o p m e n t o f a s i t e t h a t h a s b e e n p r e v i o u s l y c o n s i d e r e d f o r a more n o x i o u s l a n d u s e . A t t h i s p o i n t i n t i m e , i t i s c l e a r t h a t i f a g r o u p w o u l d l i k e t o s o l v e t h e i r h o u s i n g p r o b l e m q u i c k l y , t h e y a r e b e s t n o t t o s u g g e s t l o c a t i o n i n a p r e d o m i n a n t l y s i n g l e f a m i l y n e i g h b o u r -h o o d . F u t u r e D i r e c t i o n s o f C o n t i n u i n g C o - o p H o u s i n g T h r o u g h t h e u s e o f d i s c r i m i n a n t a n a l y s i s , i t h a s b e e n - 129 -p o s s i b l e to d i s t i n g u i s h between a r e a s w i t h co-op h o u s i n g and t h o s e w i t h o u t i t i n the GVRD, W i t h t h e s e l e c t e d v a r i a b l e s , i t was not p o s s i b l e i n Metro T o r o n t o . T h e r e i s an o b v i o u s need f o r f u r t h e r a n a l y s i s of t h e T o r o n t o s c e n e w i t h more d e s -c r i p t i v e v a r i a b l e s . S i n c e most M e t r o co-ops a r e r e h a b i l i t a t i o n p r o j e c t s , i t might be s e n s i b l e to i n c l u d e a v a r i a b l e o f t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f r e n o v a t e d b u i l d i n g s i n t h e a r e a . A s u r r o g a t e , o r a l t e r n a t i v e v a r i a b l e , m ight be t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f pre-war h o u s i n g . A f u r t h e r v a r i a b l e m i g h t be t h e p r e s e n c e o f N e i g h b o u r -hood Improvement P r o j e c t s i n the a r e a . Each o f t h e s e v a r i a b l e s would h e l p to s e p a r a t e the downtown co-op a r e a s f r o m the u n l i k e l y co-op a r e a s t h a t have been p r e d i c t e d by t h e d i s c r i m i n a n t f u n c t i o n s , s u c h as N o r t h Y o r k . A l t h o u g h l o c a t i o n a l c o n f l i c t was n o t d i s c u s s e d f o r M e t r o , s i m i l a r community a n t a g o n i s m e x i s t s ( D i n e e n 1974, H u n t e r 1 9 7 5 ) . F o r b o t h c i t i e s , t h e a d d i t i o n of some measure o f t h e c o m m u n i t i e s ' s e n s e of p l a c e and n e i g h b o u r h o o d t i e s i n t h e d i s -c r i m i n a n t a n a l y s i s would h e l p t o improve t h e t o o l s p r e d i c t i v e c a p a b i l i t y . A m a j o r d i f f i c u l t y i n v o l v e d w i t h u s i n g s u c h i n t a n g i b l e v a r i a b l e s i s q u a n t i f i c a t i o n , However, i f i t were p o s s i b l e t o q u a n t i f y t h e s e v a r i a b l e s , t h e i r i n c l u s i o n c o u l d p o s s i b l y c o n t r o l f o r a r e a s t h a t , a l t h o u g h a p p e a r t y p i c a l of co-op l o c a t i o n s , c o u l d n e v e r a c c e p t co-op h o u s i n g b e c a u s e t h e p r e v a i l i n g s o c i a l m i l i e u . Most of t h e l o c a t i o n a l f a c t o r s i d e n t i f i e d above w i l l be a p p l i c a b l e i n o t h e r c i t i e s . One q u a l i f i c a t i o n of t h i s would be t h a t f i r s t one must i d e n t i f y t h e t y p e of c o n s t r u c t i o n - 130 -i n v o l v e d i n the m a j o r i t y o f p r o j e c t s . I f i t were new c o n -s t r u c t i o n , t h e n g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s drawn from GVRD would be a p p l i c a b l e . F o r example, M i s s l s s a u g a O n t a r i o p r o j e c t s a r e new, c o n s e q u e n t l y , we would e x p e c t them to c o n f o r m to t h e GVRD p a t t e r n s . However, i t would be n e c e s s a r y t o c o n t r o l f o r c i t y d i f f e r e n c e s w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e v a r i a b l e v a l u e s b e f o r e a p p l y i n g t h e d i s c r i m i n a n t f u n c t i o n . In t h e c a s e of the r e h a b i l i t a t i o n c o - o p e r a t i v e s , s u c h as i n Metro T o r o n t o , f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n i s n e c e s s a r y . One c o u l d p o s t u l a t e t h a t c i t i e s s u c h as V i c t o r i a , w i t h e x i s t i n g r e h a b i l i t a t i o n c o - o p e r a t i v e p r o j e c t s , would be s i m i l a r to T o r o n t o , and t h a t the same l o c a t i o n a l d e t e r m i n a n t s would a p p l y . The p r o b l e m i s t o a d e q u a t e l y d e f i n e t h e l o c a t i o n a l d e t e r m i n a n t s f o r M e t r o T o r o n t o . Some s u g g e s t i o n s a r e made i n t h e c o n c l u d i n g chap t e r . - 131 -F o o t n o t e s - C h a p t e r 5 F o r a c o m p l e t e a c c o u n t o f one i n t e r e s t i n g p r o j e c t , DACHI, see J . D i n e e n ( 1 9 7 4 ) . CHAPTER 6 CONCLUSIONS A l t h o u g h " g e o g r a p h y has n e v e r c o n c e r n e d i t s e l f d e e p l y w i t h t h e q u e s t i o n of h o u s i n g " ( K i r b y 1976), t h r e e g e n e r a l a r e a s of h o u s i n g r e s e a r c h can be i d e n t i f i e d . The f i r s t of t h e s e i s c o n c e r n e d w i t h g e n e r a l r e s i d e n t i a l p a t t e r n s and t h e s o c i a l g e o g r a p h y of t h e c i t y . T hese p a t t e r n s a r e i d e n t i f i e d by e i t h e r a s e g r e g a t i o n o f a r e a s a c c o r d i n g t o d e m o g r a p h i c o r p h y s i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s (Adams 1970, Bourne 1971, D a v i e s 1973, M o r r i l l 1965) or by a d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n of l a n d u s e s s u c h as i n d u s t r i a l and c o m m e r c i a l v e r s u s r e s i d e n t i a l u s e s ( M u r d i e 1976, J o h n s t o n 1971) or by m o b i l i t y p a t t e r n s ( B a r r e t t 1973, Brown and Moore 1970, Boyce 1969, H e r b e r t 1973). A s e c o n d a r e a of c o n c e r n f o c u s e s on u r b a n h o u s i n g m a r k e t s . R e c e n t g e o g r a p h i c a l l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w s of t h i s f i e l d ( K i r b y 1975, S h a r p e l l 9 7 7 ) have i d e n t i f i e d numerous a r e a s of r e s e a r c h . P r o m i n e n t among t h e s e a r e t h e economic s p a t i a l m odels o f h o u s i n g m a r k e t s ( A l o n s o 1964, Bourne 1976, Brown 1977, D a v i e s 1976, Muth 1969). The t h i r d r e s e a r c h a r e a has l o o k e d a t t h e l o c a t i o n s of p a r t i c u l a r t y p e s of h o u s i n g . To d a t e t h i s a r e a has not r e c e i v e d t o o much a t t e n t i o n and i s r e s t r i c t e d t o a few works c o n c e r n i n g a p a r t m e n t l o c a t i o n i n T o r o n t o (Bourne 1968, 1973) and p u b l i c h o u s i n g i n B r i t a i n (Cox 1974) and i n t h e U.S. ( M e r c e r and H u l t q u i s t 1976). I t i s i n t h i s t h i r d a r e a of r e s e a r c h t h a t - 132 -- 133 -t h i s s t u d y l i e s . Two methods o f a p p l y i n g c o - o p e r a t i v e t e c h n i q u e s to h o u s i n g , t h e b u i l d i n g c o - o p e r a t i v e and t h e c o n t i n u i n g h o u s i n g c o - o p e r a t i v e , have been examined i n t h i s s t u d y . A l t h o u g h c o - o p e r a t i v e h o u s i n g i n e i t h e r f o r m i s l o c a t e d i n e v e r y p r o -v i n c e i n Canada, th e s p a t i a l p a t t e r n of each t y p e has been shown to be q u i t e d i s t i n c t . B u i l d i n g c o - o p s , w h i c h have t h e i r o r i g i n s i n t h e M a r i t i m e s , e x h i b i t a d e f i n i t e e a s t e r n Canada e m p h a s i s . A l t e r n a t i v e l y , c o n t i n u i n g h o u s i n g c o - o p e r a t i v e s a r e f o u n d from c o a s t t o c o a s t , but w i t h a c e n t r a l - t o - w e s t e r n Canada o r i e n t -a t i o n . I n b o t h c a s e s , t h e d e t e r m i n i n g f a c t o r s of d e v e l o p m e n t have been i d e n t i f i e d as the s p o n s o r i n g i n s t i t u t i o n and f i n a n c i a l s u p p o r t . F o r b u i l d i n g c o-ops d e v e l o p e d d u r i n g t h e 1940's and 1950's, the C a t h o l i c C h u r c h was t h e most s i g n i f i c a n t s p o n s o r . More r e c e n t l y , t h e r o l e of s p o n s o r has been assumed by p r o -v i n c i a l h o u s i n g a g e n c i e s . C o n c u r r e n t w i t h t h i s s h i f t away from C h u r c h i n v o l v e m e n t has been th e d e c l i n e of c o - o p e r a t i v e c o n t e n t i n b u i l d i n g c o - o p s . Fewer g r o u p s a r e b u i l d i n g t h e i r own h o u s i n g u s i n g t h e sweat e q u i t y p r i n c i p l e , c o n s e q u e n t l y , h i g h e r income gro u p s a r e now b e i n g a t t r a c t e d t o t h e program. F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e l o w e r income g r o u p s i n many c a s e s can no l o n g e r a f f o r d t h e c o n t r a c t u a l l y b u i l t houses w h i c h many of t h e co-op g r o u p s a r e now d e v e l o p i n g . F i n a n c i a l s u p p o r t f o r b u i l d i n g c o - o p e r a t i v e s has a l w a y s been s u p p l i e d by t h e f e d e r a l government, w i t h p r o -v i n c i a l m e d i a t i o n i n a l l c a s e s e x c e p t O n t a r i o , C o n t i n u i n g c o - o p e r a t i v e s have a l w a y s been s p o n s o r e d by t h e co-op and l a b o u r movements, even to t h e p o i n t o f p r o v i d i n g f i n a n c i a l s u p p o r t - 134 -when CMHC was u n w i l l i n g to do so, S i n c e 1973, f i n a n c i n g i s u s u a l l y p r o v i d e d by CMHC, A t h i r d f a c t o r , l a n d a v a i l a b i l i t y , has become i n c r e a s i n g l y i m p o r t a n t i n r e c e n t y e a r s . R e a s o n a b l y p r i c e d s e r v i c e d l o t s were becoming a s c a r c e i t e m i n most c i t i e s , Land a s s e m b l y p r o j e c t s , b o t h p u b l i c and c o - o p e r a t i v e , a r e now a l l e v i a t i n g t h i s p r o b l e m and making p r o p e r t y a v a i l a b l e t o c o -o p e r a t i v e g r o u p s . In a c t u a l number of c o m p l e t e d u n i t s , b u i l d i n g c o -o p e r a t i v e s f a r e x c e e d c o n t i n u i n g h o u s i n g c o - o p e r a t i v e s , However, t h i s has been r e l a t e d to t h e d i f f e r e n c e i n a v e r a g e s i z e o f p r o — e j e c t s as t h e growth r a t e i n t h e number o f p r o j e c t s has been f a i r l y c o n s i s t e n t f o r b o t h . C o n t i n u i n g c o - o p e r a t i v e h o u s i n g has been seen to be q u i t e d i f f e r e n t i n G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t and M e t r o p o l i t a n T o r o n t o . In GVRD, most o f t h e p r o j e c t s a r e new townhouse d e v e l o p m e n t s , o f t e n c o n s t r u c t e d i n t h e p e r i p h e r a l a r e a s o f b u i l t - u p r e g i o n s of t h e c i t y . A l t e r n a t i v e l y , M e t r o T o r o n t o c o - o p e r a t i v e p r o j e c t s a r e p r i n c i p a l l y r e h a b i l i t a t i o n o r c o n v e r s i o n h o u s i n g l o c a t e d i n t h e c e n t r a l c i t y r e g i o n . As a r e s u l t of t h e s e d i v e r g e n t p a t t e r n s , t h e l o c a t i o n a l d e t e r m i n a n t s i d e n t i f i e d by d i s c r i m i n a n t a n a l y s i s were q u i t e d i f f e r e n t . I n GVRD, f i v e v a r i a b l e s were s e l e c t e d f o r i n c l u s i o n i n t h e d i s -c r i m i n a n t f u n c t i o n s u s i n g b o t h t h e raw and t h e n o r m a l i z e d d a t a , T hese v a r i a b l e s were t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f hou s e s w h i c h are-.detached, p e r c e n t a g e o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n w i t h some u n i v e r s i t y e d u c a t i o n , p e r c e n t a g e of t h e employed p o p u l a t i o n w i t h p r o f e s s i o n a l , m a n a g e r i a l or t e c h n i c a l o c c u p a t i o n s , p e r c e n t a g e of o c c u p i e d - 135 -d w e l l i n g s w i t h r e s i d e n t s l e s s t h a n one y e a r and s o c i a l h o u s i n g u n i t s p e r c a p i t a . A l t h o u g h t h e d i s c r i m i n a n t f u n c t i o n s f o r raw and n o r m a l i z e d d a t a were not the same, t h e i r p r e d i c t i v e c a p a b i l i t i e s f o r GVRD were e q u a l . F o r Metro T o r o n t o , however, t h e GVRD d i s c r i m i n a n t f u n c t i o n f o r raw d a t a was n o t a b l e to a d e q u a t e l y d i s t i n g u i s h between t h e two g r o u p s . F u r t h e r m o r e , when Metro T o r o n t o d a t a f o r t h e e n t i r e s e t o f v a r i a b l e s were s u b j e c t e d t o d i s c r i m i n a n t a n a l y s i s , t h e r e s u l t a n t s p a t i a l p a t t e r n of p r e d i c t e d a r e a s f o r co-ops was too g e n e r a l to be of s i g n i f i c a n c e . Community a t t i t u d e and l o c a t i o n a l c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n were i d e n t i f i e d as key l o c a t i o n a l d e t e r m i n a n t s o f c o n t i n u i n g c o - o p e r a t i v e s i n GVRD. I t was fou n d t h a t a c o - o p e r a t i v e group would have t h e b e s t chance o f dev e l o p m e n t i n an a r e a w i t h o u t a p r e - e x i s t i n g community, o r a t l e a s t i n an a r e a t h a t was not p r e d o m i n a n t l y s i n g l e f a m i l y r e s i d e n t i a l . One i m p o r t a n t f i n d i n g drawn from t h e t h r e e c a s e s t u d i e s was t h a t n o t a l l p r o j e c t s g e n e r a t e c o n f l i c t , and i n g e n e r a l , c o n f l i c t may be a t y p i c a l . F o u r a r e a s of f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h seem t o be i n d i c a t e d . The f i r s t i n v o l v e s a more d e t a i l e d a n a l y s i s of Metro T o r o n t o ' s c o - o p e r a t i v e h o u s i n g . F u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n and t h e i d e n t i f i -c a t i o n of a d d i t i o n a l v a r i a b l e s f o r i n c l u s i o n i n t h e d i s c r i m i n a n t a n a l y s i s i s n e c e s s a r y . A few of t h e p o s s i b l e v a r i a b l e s t o be added t o t h e a n a l y s i s were m e n t i o n e d e a r l i e r . These i n c l u d e p e r c e n t a g e of r e n o v a t e d b u i l d i n g s , p e r c e n t a g e o f p r e - 1 9 4 0 ' s h o u s i n g , i n d e x of N e i g h b o u r h o o d Improvement P r o j e c t s , i n d e x of sense of p l a c e or n e i g h b o u r h o o d c o h e s i o n . The d a t a f o r t h e - 1 3 6 -f i r s t t h r e e v a r i a b l e s would be r e l a t i v e l y s i m p l e to o b t a i n . The l a t t e r two, b e i n g somewhat i n t a n g i b l e , would pose a p r o b l e m w i t h r e s p e c t to q u a n t i f i c a t i o n . I f t h i s were overcome, t h e s e v a r i a b l e s c o u l d h e l p to d i s c r i m i n a t e between a r e a s w i t h co-ops and t h o s e w i t h o u t i n T o r o n t o . A s e c o n d a r e a of r e s e a r c h would examine t h e s i m i l a r i t i e s and d i f f e r e n c e s o f r e h a b i l i t a t i o n and new c o - o p s . A l t h o u g h t h i s t h e s i s i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e y a r e two d i s t i n c t t y p e s of c o n t i n u i n g c o - o p e r a t i v e s , i t i s d i f f i c u l t a t e t h i s p o i n t t o a s c e r t a i n w h ether t h e s e a r e d i f f e r e n c e s due to l o c a t i o n a l c o n t e x t ( i . e . the d i f f e r e n t c i t i e s ) or i n h e r e n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n n a t u r e ( i . e . e x i s t i n g u n i t s v e r s u s new c o n s t r u c t i o n ) . I t would be n e c e s s a r y to s t u d y co-ops of each t y p e w i t h i n one c i t y to f u r t h e r compare them. The t h i r d body of r e s e a r c h needed would c o n s i d e r t h e d i f f u s i o n mechanism of c o - o p e r a t i v e h o u s i n g . T h i s would be p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t e r e s t i n g f o r b u i l d i n g co-ops as t h e y n e i t h e r have a s t e a d y growth r a t e n o r a c o n s i s t e n t s p a t i a l p a t t e r n . More i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g t h e demise of b u i l d i n g co-ops i n O n t a r i o , and t h e sudden s u r g e i n t h e p r a i r i e s , would be n e c e s s a r y . A f o u r t h s t u d y would i n v o l v e an analysis of t h e l e c a -t i o n a l c o n f l i c t g e n e r a t e d by co-op h o u s i n g . A d e t a i l e d s t u d y of t h e a c t o r s i n v o l v e d i n t h e c o n f l i c t , and t h e i r m o t i v e s , would h e l p to e s t a b l i s h b o t h ways of a v o i d i n g c o n f l i c t and p o l i c i e s f o r a i d i n g t h i s t y p e of h o u s i n g . -137-The P r o s p e c t f o r C o - o p e r a t i v e H o u s i n g . C o - o p e r a t i v e h o u s i n g i n Canada has an u n c e r t a i n f u t u r e . The d a t a p r e s e n t e d i n t h i s t h e s i s i n d i c a t e t h a t a peak i n the p r o d u c t i o n of b o t h b u i l d i n g and c o n t i n u i n g co-op h o u s i n g has been p a s s e d . Whether a c o m p l e t e h a l t i n co-op a c t i v i t y o r a r e s u r g e n c e w i l l o c c u r i s open to d e b a t e , b u t r e c e n t changes i n f e d e r a l h o u s i n g p o l i c y i n d i c a t e t h a t f u r t h e r d e c l i n e i s l i k e l y . The d e c l i n e i n the d e v e l o p m e n t of co-op h o u s i n g and even t h e l i m i t e d i m p a c t may be a t t r i b u t e d i n p a r t to t h e f e d e r a l A s s i s t e d Home Ownership Program (AHOP). S i n c e b o t h AHOP and No n - P r o f i t co-op h o u s i n g a r e d i r e c t e d towards t h e c r e a t i o n of m o d e r a t e l y p r i c e d h o u s i n g w i t h r e l a t i v e l y low m o n t h l y payments, t h e y a . r e : p o t e n t i a l l y c o m p e t i t o r s f o r t h e same c l i e n t g r o u p . P e o p l e who might have been a t t r a c t e d to c o - o p e r a t i v e h o u s i n g f o r f i n a n c i a l r e a s o n s c o u l d have se e n i n AHOP an o p p o r t u n i t y to own t h e i r own home and b u i l d up e q u i t y , an i d e a l s t i l l s t r o n g l y h e l d by C a n a d i a n s , as n o t e d i n C h a p t e r 1. Government a p p r o p r i a t i o n s have c e r t a i n l y been b i a s e d i n f a v o u r of AHOP and i t s r e c e n t s u c c e s s o r , t h e G r a d u a t e d Payment M o r t -gage (GPM) compared to t h e " r a d i c a l " c o - o p e r a t i v e a l t e r n a t i v e . F o r t h o s e a t t r a c t e d by t h e s o c i a l i d e o l o g y of t h e c o - o p e r a t i v e c o n c e p t , co-op h o u s i n g would l i k e l y be p r e f e r r e d to AHOP, as s u m i n g t h a t c o-ops a r e a f i n a n c i a l l y v i a b l e a l t e r n a t i v e . T h i s v i a b i l i t y i s now b e i n g s e r i o u s l y t h r e a t e n e d . In May 1978, CMHC announced t h a t w h i l e s t a r t - u p f u n d i n g f o r co-ops would c o n t i n u e m o r t g a g e s were to be o b t a i n e d from a p p r o v e d l e n d i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s . CMHC would i n s u r e s u c h l o a n s and o n l y p r o v i d e d i r e c t l o a n s where t h e y c o u l d h o t be o b t a i n e d from a p r i v a t e l e n d e r . T h i s would not o n l y r a i s e -138-a d m i n i s t r a t i o n c o s t s f o r t h e c o - o p e r a t i v e s i n c e an a d d i t i o n a l a g e n c y , t h e l e n d e r e n t e r s i n t o the p r o c e s s , b u t more i m p o r t a n t l y , i t means t h a t a p r e f e r e n t i a l l e n d i n g r a t e and t h e 10% g r a n t would no l o n g e r be a v a i l a b l e . The i n c r e a s e d c o s t s r e d u c e t h e f e a s i b i l i t y of co-op p r o j e c t s and c o u l d mean more i n t e r e s t i n a l t e r n a t i v e s s u c h as t h e GPM. Co-op h o u s i n g has a l s o been a f f e c t e d by c u t - b a c k s i n f e d e r a l s p e n d i n g . As of September 1978, c o - o p e r a t i v e s and o t h e r e l e m e n t s of t h e N o n - P r o f i t H o u s i n g Program w i l l r e c e i v e o n l y sub-s i d i e s to o f f s e t o p e r a t i n g l o s s e s and a l l l o a n s a r e to be t e r m i n a t e d , As shown p r e v i o u s l y , f i n a n c i a l s u p p o r t from government has been a n e c e s s a r y c o n d i t i o n f o r - c o - o p e r a t i v e h o u s i n g d e v e l o p m e n t . The r e d u c t i o n o f t h i s s u p p o r t and t h e emphasis on a s s i s t a n c e f o r p r i v a t e o w n e r s h i p of market h o u s i n g c o u l d v e r y w e l l s p e l l t h e demise of c o - o p e r a t i v e h o u s i n g a c t i v i t y . P r o v i n c i a l governments ( u n d e r p r e s s u r e t h e m s e l v e s to r e d u c e s p e n d i n g ) and c r e d i t u n i o n s may be the o n l y f i n a n c i a l s a l v a t i o n . SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY Adams, J . S . 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APPENDIX I CONTINUING CO-OPERATIVES IN CANADA - 148 -Y e a r of C o m p l e t i o n Pr o.i ec t Name 1966 W i l l o w P a r k 1969 Co-op V i l l a 1970 S o l i d a r i t y 19 71 S c a r c e e Meadows W i l l o w P a r k E a s t 1972 Co-op V i l l a J o i n t A c t i o n DeCosmos Twin P i n e A s h w o r t h Square 1973 A z a l e a Gardens Co-op V i l l a A l e x a n d r a P a r k P a r e B e a u s o l e i l 1974 W i l l o w P a r k E a s t F o r w a r d 9 R o c h d a l e P l a c e B a i n A p a r t m e n t s D u f f e r i n Grove R i v e r d a l e B r o o k s 1975 John B r u c e M a i n - G e r r a r d U.A.W. S t r a t h c o n a Co-op L o c a t i o n P r o v i n c e Number U n i t s W i n n i p e g M a n i t o b a 200 A b b o t s f o r d B.C. 30 Windsor O n t a r i o 300 C a l g a r y A l b e r t a 380 W i n n i p e g M a n i t oba 68 A b b o t s f o r d B.C. 24 R e g i n a Sask. 48 V a n c o u v e r B.C. 110 London O n t a r i o 84 M i s s i s s a u g a O n t a r i o 153 C o q u i t l a m B.C. 65 A b b o t s f o r d B.C. 30 T o r o n t o O n t a r i o 72 Ottawa O n t a r i o 56 W i n n i p e g Man!t o b a 174 T o r o n t o O n t a r i o 75 V i c t o r i a B.C. 74 T o r o n t o O n t a r i o 260 T o r o n t o O n t a r i o 41 T o r o n t o Ontar i o 13 M i s s i s s a u g a O n t a r i o 85 T o r o n t o O n t a r i o 40 T o r o n t o O n t a r i o 51 E s s e x O n t a r i o 60 V a n c o u v e r B.C. 7 Y e a r o f Complet i o n 1975 1976 P r o j e c t Name Bauer S t . 0V0 Le V i l l a g e de Cote des Ne i g e s Chez Nous de Quebec Chez Nous de Quebec C a n t o n s de l ' E s t K a n a t a New W e s t m i n s t e r Haney P i o n e e r V i l l a g e M o u n t a i n View Norman Bethune Meadow H i g h l a n d s DACHI R i v e r d a l e C a r p a t h i a H o u s i n g DACHI R i v e r d a l e T h u r l e s t o n e C a s t l e G r e e n Q u a r r y C o r d o v a Chadwick Towers Lynn V a l l e y K l a h a n i e L o c a t i o n Pro v i n c e Number of U n i t s H a l i f a x H a l i f a x M o n t r e a l Quebec S t . S auveur S h e r b r o o k e V a n c o u v e r New W e s t m i n s t e r Maple Ridge P o r t Moody; Burnaby P i t t Meadows T o r o n t o T o r o n t o W i n n i p e g T o r o n t o T o r o n t o T o r o n t o Thunder Bay Ot tawa Oshawa T o r o n t o N o r t h V a n c o u v e r Richmond N. S . 6 N.S. 19 Quebec 23 Quebec 5 Quebec 3 Quebec 25 B.C. 150 B.C. 42 B.C. 84 B.C. 215 B.C. 24 B.C. 162 O n t a r i o 36 O n t a r i o 8 M a n i t o b a 152 O n t a r i o 31 O n t a r i o 25 O n t a r i o 47 O n t a r i o 256 O n t a r i o 180 O n t a r i o 97 O n t a r i o 67 B.C. '-65 B.C. 74 Y e a r of C o m p l e t i o n P r o j e c t Name 1976 Co-op.. Demers W i l d e r n e s s P a r k W a s h i n g t o n S p r i n g r i d g e Mar i g o I d C a r p a t h i a 1977 James Bay Adanac M i s s i o n V i l l a g e C a n a d i e n F a l s e C r e e k G e n e s i s G r a c e M a c l n n i s Wood T r e e L o c a t i o n P r o v i n c e Number U n i t s V a n c o u v e r B.C. 42 V i c t o r i a B.C. 38 V i c t o r i a B.C. 59 V i c t o r i a B.C. 4 S a a n i c h B.C, 86 W i n n i p e g M a n i t o b a 95 V i c t o r i a B.C. 25 Vancouver B.C. 200 M i s s i o n B.C. 74 W i n n i p e g M a n i t o b a 150 V a n c o u v e r B.C. 170 T immins O n t a r i o 37 T o r o n t o O n t a r i o 32 T o r o n t o O n t a r i o 70 APPENDIX I I VANCOUVER VARIABLE CHARACTERISTICS - 152 -VARIABLE CHARACTERISTICS BEFORE NORMALIZATION (GREATER'VANCOUVER REGIONAL DISTRICT DATA) S t a n d a r d V a r i a b l e Name Mean D e v i a t i o n Minimum Maximum v Skewnes s K u r t o s 1. % Owner O c c u p i e d 60.857 23.587 3 , 600 94 . 699 -0,989 3 , 112 2. % S i n g l e D e t a c h e d 64 . 373 25.064 2.000 95 .000 -0.941 3,061 3 . % A p a r t m e n t s 27.504 24.508 1.699 96.800 1.164 3 , 685 4. % Some U n i v e r s i t y 15.438 10.455 5.399 44.100 1.205 3.434 5. Med i a n V a l u e ($) 30.209 7 . 940 21.699 57,899 1, 654 5. 842 6. A v e r a g e Rent ($) 135.613 32 . 133 70.000 237.000 1. 117 4.987 7. Median H o u s e h o l d Income ( $ 1 0 ~ 3 ) 9.560 2 . 582 4.040 15.920 0,293 3 .331 8. % P o p u l a t i o n o v e r 65 y e a r s 10.713 5.857 2.300 29.600 1,016 4 .078 9. % F a m i l i e s w i t h more t h a n two c h i l d r e n 18.697 8 . 110 1.399 34.399 -0.262 2 . 381 10. Female P a r t i c i p -a t i o n R ate 43.063 6.539 28.199 62.000 0. 953 4 .204 11. % P r o f e s s i o n a l , T e c h n i c a l , Manager i a l 19.777 11.280 1. 300 54.699 0.936 3 .565 12. % Homes C o n s t r u c t e d a f t e r 1960 32.113 15.581 6. 000 68,100 0. 228 2 .511 13 . % R e s i d e n t l e s s t h a n o n e j y e a r 20.540 7 . 552 9. 800 40.399 0. 585 2.719 14. C r e d i t U n i o n s Per C a p i t a (10 _ i*) 0.800 1.439 0. 000 6.069 2.535 9.129 15 . S o c i a l H o u s i n g P e r C a p i t a ( 1 0 2 ) 2.077 2 . 934 0. 000 14.850 2.586 10.506 NORMALIZATION AND RESULTING CHARACTERISTICS (GREATER VANCOUVER REGIONAL DISTRICT DATA) Var i a b l e T r a n s f o r m Mean 1 ARCSIN (Xl<) 1.237 2 ARCSIN ( X ^ ) 1.289 3 ARCSIN (tS) 0.730 4 ARCSIN ( X ^ ) 0.699 5 LOG ( X ) 1.006 6 ARC TAN ( X ) 0.397 7 NONE 9.560 8 LOG ( X ) 0.671 9 ARCSIN ( X ) 0.481 10 ARC TAN ( X ) 0.350 11 SQUARE ROOT ( X ) 6.441 12 ARCSIN ( X ^ ) 0.937 13 ARCSIN ( X * ) 0.846 14 ARCSIN ( X ^ ) 0.348 15 ARCSIN ( X ^ ) 0.475 S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n Skewness K u r t o s i s 0.141 -0.435 3 , 002 0.143 -0,297 2,541 0.320 0.056 3.344 0. 289 0, 303 2.876 0. 584 0.228 2 , 517 0,276 0.091 3 . 304 2. 582 0,243 3,331 0.346 0.155 2,560 0, 243 0. 047 2 . 602 0. 386 - 0 . O i l 3,193 2. 038 0,065 3.151 0. 236 0.020 3 . 305 0.263 0. 046 3 .351 0. 362 0,535 2. 143 0.327 -0.013 2.521 APPENDIX I I I FLYER DISTRIBUTED BY THE COMMUNITY OPPOSED TO PENTA - 155 _ - 156 -FLYER FLYER FLYER FLYER RESIST REZONING IN THE CAMOSUN BOG AREA T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n s h e e t i s p r o d u c e d on b e h a l f of t h e home-owners and r e s i d e n t s o f t h e 3900 and 4000 b l o c k s West 1 9 t h , 20th and 2 1 s t who w i s h to p r e s e r v e t h e q u a l i t y and c h a r a c t e r of t h e n e i g h b o u r h o o d . The names of f i v e a r e a owners a p p e a r below. I f you w i s h to d i s c u s s t h e i s s u e s r a i s e d by t h e a t t e m p t s of t h e P e n t a h o u s i n g Co-op t o put 26 d w e l l i n g s on 13 s m a l l (33 f o o t ) l o t s , p l e a s e phone t h e named p e r s o n s . (We r e q u e s t t h a t you phone t h e number t i c k e d on y o u r f l y e r , f i r s t . ) The s t a t u s of t h i s i s s u e a t t h i s t i m e ( 2 5 t h of March) i s as f o l l o w s . P e n t a , a Co-op formed under the B.C. S o c i e t i e s A c t , c o m p r i s e s 44 a d u l t s and t h e i r 23 c h i l d r e n or d e p e n d e n t s . In a c o l l e c t i v e a t t e m p t to p r o v i d e t h e m s e l v e s w i t h s i n g l e f a m i l y d w e l l i n g s at low c o s t t h i s group banded t o g e t h e r , engaged ;the a r c h i t e c t u r a l f i r m o f W a l k e y / O l s e n t o d e s i g n t h e i r h o u s e s , c h o s e Camosum Bog as a s i t e , a p p r o a c h e d V a n c o u v e r C i t y C o u n c i l to c o n s i d e r b o t h th e r e z o n i n g and s a l e of t h i s l a n d to P e n t a . C o u n c i l p a s s e d a m o t i o n t o t h e e f f e c t of l o o k i n g i n t o t h e p o s s i b i l i t y of r e z o n i n g and s a l e of t h i s l a n d . I t was, a t t h e time of t h e P e n t a o f f e r , b e i n g p r e p a r e d f o r s a l e , on a l o t by l o t b a s i s , t o any d e v e l o p e r . C o u n c i l w i l l be c o n s i d e r i n g t h e r e z o n i n g a p p l i c a t i o n soon. The D e s i g n P a n e l and P l a n n i n g D e p a r t m e n t s of t h e C i t y C o u n c i l have, we u n d e r s t a n d , a p p r o v e d t h e p r e l i m i n a r y p l a n s of P e n t a . I t was a t t h i s s t a g e , i n t h e l i g h t of t h e knowledge of a p u b l i c h e a r i n g and t h a t an a r t i c l e would appear i n t h e W e s t e r n News, t h a t t h e P e n t a group d e c i d e d to " c o n s u l t " t h e r e s i d e n t s of t h i s s i n g l e f a m i l y a r e a . T h i s b o m b s h e l l t o o k th e form of a s l i c k b r o c h u r e w h i c h i m p l i e d t h a t t h i s ' d e v e l o p m e n t ' was an a c c o m p l i s h e d f a c t . lt_ i_s no t . W i t h t h e a c t i v e s u p p o r t o f the n e i g h b o u r h o o d , t h i s ' d e v e l o p m e n t ' w i l l not o c c u r . The f o l l o w i n g a c t i o n has been t a k e n . A p e t i t i o n has been c i r -c u l a t e d w h i c h r e q u e s t s C o u n c i l to r e j e c t t h i s a p p l i c a t i o n f o r r e z o n i n g . The C i t y C l e r k has been v i s i t e d by a d e l e g a t i o n of r e s i d e n t s who a r e p r o t e s t i n g t h e p r o p o s a l . A l d e r m e n (and women). H a r c o u r t , M a r z a r i , Kennedy, Sweeney, and t h e Mayor have h e a r d p e r s o n a l c o m p l a i n t s from a r e a r e s i d e n t s . We e n c o u r a g e a r e a r e s i d e n t s t o c o n t a c t members of t h e C o u n c i l and make t h e i r c o m p l a i n t s VOCAL. I f you have f r i e n d s or r e l a t i v e s who would c o n t a c t C o u n c i l members, p l e a s e u r g e them to do s o . They would be p a r t i c u l a r l y e f f e c t i v e i f t h e y c o m p l a i n e d as r e s i d e n t s of Dunbar or P o i n t Grey who w i s h to r e t a i n some area., o f .the c i t y as a s i n g l e f a m i l y a r e a . I f you have made a c o n t a c t w i t h C o u n c i l Members o t h e r t h a n t h o s e m e n t i o n e d above, p l e a s e a d v i s e one o f 

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