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UBC Theses and Dissertations

A reassessment of early Renaissance inscriptional letters Evans, Gerald 1980

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A REASSESSMENT OF EARLY RENAISSANCE INSCRIPTIONAL LETTERS by Gerald Evans B.A. , The University of Houston, 1971 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of Fine Arts) We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA November 1980 (c) Gerald Evans, 1980 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of Brit ish Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representatives. It is understood that copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. r> r Fine Arts Department of The University of Brit ish Columbia 2 0 7 5 W e s b r o o k P l a c e V a n c o u v e r , C a n a d a V 6 T 1 W 5 15 October 1980 i i ABSTRACT The early i n s c r i p t i o n a l display l e t t e r s which were the immediate successors of the I t a l i a n Gothic Uncialesque of the fourteenth century were the so-called l e t t e r e antiche of the f i f t e e n t h century. Very s i m i l a r to the l e t t e r s which today are c a l l e d sans s e r i f , the l e t t e r e antiche were not used for a l l purposes, but only on monuments having antique associa-t i o n s . They were employed by the renowned a r t i s t s of the early Renaissance for a period of some seventy years (1400-1470) u n t i l they were supplanted by the so-called neo-Trajanic l e t t e r s , display l e t t e r s of exceptional beauty and grace which resembled quite f a i t h f u l l y the o r i g i n a l Trajanic l e t t e r s of the Roman Empire. Neo-Trajanic l e t t e r s remained canonic for some three centuries u n t i l , at the beginning of the nineteenth century, l e t t e r s of the sans s e r i f v a r i e t y reappeared and have remained quite popular and widely used to t h i s day. Early i n s c r i p t i o n a l s were viewed by nineteenth and early twentieth century art h i s t o r i a n s and palaeographers as t r a n s i t i o n a l between the Gothic Uncialesque and the neo-Trajanic l e t t e r s . They were thought to be experimental e f f o r t s at achieving an au t h e n t i c a l l y antique s t y l e and therefore only marginally antique. That opinion was reinforced by a seeming lack of s t y l i s t i c c o ntinuity among the l e t t e r e antiche. A f t e r the mid-twentieth century, however, art h i s t o r i a n s began to question the generally negative appraisal that early i n s c r i p t i o n a l s had hitherto received. In reappraising the l e t t e r e antiche, however, these modern c r i t i c s were not systematic enough to provide an adequate explanation either of the subtlety of the assumptions that supported the t r a d i t i o n a l view of the early i i i i n s c r i p t i o n a l s or of the h i s t o r i c a l and c a l l i g r a p h i c s i g n i f i c a n c e of the l e t t e r e antiche. The objective of t h i s thesis i s twofold: to e s t a b l i s h f i r s t that the l e t t e r e antiche are genuinely antique, where antiqueness i s s t y l i s t i c a l l y conceived; second, that they express a s t y l i s t i c c o ntinuity that reveals the conscious c a l l i g r a p h i c i n t e n t i o n of the early Renaissance a r t i s t s . In short, I intend to question the negative appraisal that early i n s c r i p t i o n a l s have received i n the past by challenging the assumptions that supported that a p p r a i s a l . In order to f a c i l i t a t e an understanding of the misinter-pretations of the i n s c r i p t i o n a l evidence i m p l i c i t i n the t r a d i t i o n a l view, i t w i l l be necessary to provide a comprehensive view of epigraphy i n the early Renaissance. To accomplish these ends, I have adopted the following structure for my t h e s i s . The Introduction and Chapter I w i l l give an overview of the general problem and of the h i s t o r i c a l process by which the t r a n s i t i o n from the Gothic Uncialesque to the Trajanic l e t t e r s was made. From t h i s i t w i l l also become c l e a r why c r i t i c a l opinion was led to a negative appraisal of the l e t t e r e antiche. Chapter II delineates the views of the two modern c r i t i c s most responsible for the contemporary reassessment of the l e t t e r e antiche, giving the substance of these views and evaluating them. Chapter III introduces a method of s t y l i s t i c a l l y determining the 'antiqueness' or 'gothicness' of a s c r i p t independent of i t s a u t h e n t i c i t y as a known period s t y l e . By that method the l e t t e r e antiche are then evaluated and found to be genuinely antique. Chapter IV sets f o r t h a neutral system of a n a l y s i s , employing an objective palaeographic methodology, by which early i n s c r i p t i o n a l s may be i v analyzed and c l a s s i f i e d i n terms of t h e i r q u a l i t i e s , and not i n terms of t h e i r departure from or adherence to a norm. Drawing on the conclusions of Chapter I I I , and employing the method-ology introduced i n Chapter IV, Chapter V concludes the argument of t h i s thesis with a r e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of early i n s c r i p t i o n a l s by which v a l i d l i n e s of s t y l i s t i c continuity may be demonstrated. In the Conclusion of the t h e s i s , I apply the pattern of s t y l i s t i c c o n t i n u i t y which emerged from the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of early i n s c r i p t i o n a l s i n Chapter V to reveal s i g n i f i c a n t v a r i a t i o n s i n the manner of l e t t e r execution from the beginning to the end of the seventy year period under consideration. These v a r i a t i o n s d i s c l o s e the r e a l nature of the experi-mentation which can be said to have characterized the e f f o r t s of early Renaissance c a l l i g r a p h e r s . V TABLE OF CONTENTS PAGE L i s t of I l l u s t r a t i o n s v i Acknowledgements x i i i I. Introduction 1 I I . Chapter One: Humanist Letteri n g vs. Scriptura Monumentalis . 5 I I I . Chapter Two: Modern Art H i s t o r i c a l Appraisal of Early I n s c r i p t i o n a l s 18 IV. Chapter Three: A S t y l i s t i c Re-evaluation of the Lettere Antiche 25 V. Chapter Four: A C l a s s i f i c a t i o n System f or Early Renaissance Display Letters 33 VI. Chapter Five: A C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of F i f t e e n Early Renaissance In s c r i p t i o n s 44 VII. Conclusion 53 VIII. I l l u s t r a t i o n s 58 IX. Glossary 95 X. Bibliography 99 v i LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS PAGE FIGURE 1: ' Donatello and Michelozzo, Tomb of John XXIII (1422-27); Baptistry, Florence (from Pope-Hennessy, I t a l i a n Renaissance Sculpture, London, 1971, F i g . 58) 58 2: Donatello and Michelozzo, I n s c r i p t i o n on the Tomb of John XXIII; Baptistry, Florence (from Gray, "Sans S e r i f and Other Experimental Inscribed Letter i n g of the F i f t e e n t h Century," Motif, 5 [1960], F i g . 6) 58 3: Michelozzo, D e t a i l of the Bronze I n s c r i p t i o n for the Aragazzi Tomb (c. 1430); Montepulciano, Duomo (from Caplow, Michelozzo, New York, 1977, I I , F i g . 72) . . . 59 4: Lorenzo G h i b e r t i , I n s c r i p t i o n above the N a t i v i t y  and Annunciation to the Shepherds (1404-07); North Door, Bapt i s t r y , Florence (from Krautheimer and Krautheimer-Hess, Lorenzo Ghiberti,. Princeton, 1956, I I , PI. 27) 60-5: Lorenzo G h i b e r t i , I n s c r i p t i o n above the Adoration  of the Magi (1404-07); North Door, Baptistry, Florence (from Krautheimer, Lorenzo G h i b e r t i , P i . 28) . 60 6: Luca d e l l a Robbia: Cantoria (1431-38); Museo d e l Opera del Duomo, Florence (from Cruttwell, Luca and Andrea D e l i a Robbia, London, 1902, facing p. 47) . . . 61 7: Luca d e l l a Robbia, D e t a i l of the I n s c r i p t i o n below the Singing Boys on the Cantoria; Museo del Opera del Duomo, Florence (from Gray, "Sans S e r i f , " F i g . 8) . 61 8: Tomb of Spinello d i Bonsignore de' S p i n e l l i ; Santa Croce, Florence (from Saalman, "Tommaso S p i n e l l i , Michelozzo, Manetti, and Ro s s e l l i n o , " Journal of the  Society of A r c h i t e c t u r a l H i s t o r i a n s , 25 [1966], F i g . 6) 62 9: Lorenzo G h i b e r t i , I n s c r i p t i o n on the Shrine of St. Zenobius (1434-42); Duomo, Florence (from Krautheimer, Lorenzo G h i b e r t i , P i . 78b) 62 v i i FIGURE PAGE 10: Lorenzo G h i b e r t i , Close-up of the I n s c r i p t i o n on the Shrine of St. Zenobius; Duomo, Florence (from Goldscheider, G h i b e r t i , London, 1949, F i g . 112) . . . . 63 11: Lorenzo G h i b e r t i , D e t a i l of the I n s c r i p t i o n on the Shrine of St. Zenobius; Duomo, Florence (from Krautheimer, Lorenzo G h i b e r t i , P i . 80a) 63 12: Lorenzo G h i b e r t i , Shrine of the Three Martyrs (c. 1428); Bargello, Florence (from Krautheimer, Lorenzo G h i b e r t i , PI. 76) 64 13: Lorenzo G h i b e r t i , Close-up of the I n s c r i p t i o n on the Shrine of the Three Martyrs: Bargello, Florence (from Goldscheider, G h i b e r t i , F i g . 111A) 64 14: Lorenzo G h i b e r t i , I n s c r i p t i o n on the S c r o l l of John the Baptist (1412-16); Or San Michele, Florence (from Krautheimer, Lorenzo G h i b e r t i , d e t a i l of P i . 11a) 65 15. Lorenzo G h i b e r t i , D e t a i l of the I n s c r i p t i o n on the Hem of John the Baptist (1412-16); Or San Michele, Florence (from Krautheimer, Lorenzo G h i b e r t i , d e t a i l of PI. 11a) 65 16: Bernardo Rossellino and a s s i s t a n t s , Tomb of the Beata V i l l a n a (ca. 1451); S. Maria Novella, Florence (from Schulz, The Sculpture of Bernardo Rossellino, F i g . 96) 66 17: Desiderio da Settignano and ass i s t a n t of Bernardo Rossellino, D e t a i l of the I n s c r i p t i o n on the Tomb of the Beata V i l l a n a ; S. Maria Novella, Florence (from Schulz, The Sculpture of Bernardo Rossellino, F i g . 103) 66-18: Bernardo Rossellino and as s i s t a n t s , Tomb of Leonardo Bruni (1444-51); S. Croce, Florence (from Pope-Hennesy, I t a l i a n Renaissance Sculpture, F i g . 60) . 67 19: Bernardo Rossellino and a s s i s t a n t s , D e t a i l of the Tomb of Leonardo Bruni; S. Croce, Florence (from Schulz, The Sculpture of Bernardo Ross e l l i n o , F i g . 50) . 67 20: Bernardo Rossellino and as s i s t a n t s , D e t a i l of the In s c r i p t i o n on the Tomb of Leonardo Bruni, l e f t side; S. Croce, Florence (from Schulz, The Sculpture  of Bernardo Rossellino, d e t a i l of F i g . 61) 68 v i i i Bernardo Rossellino and a s s i s t a n t s , D e t a i l of the In s c r i p t i o n on the Tomb of Leonardo Bruni, r i g h t side; S. Croce, Florence (from Schulz, The Sculpture of Bernardo Rossellino, d e t a i l of F i g . 60) . Desiderio da Settignano, Tomb of Carlo Marsuppini (ca. 1451); S. Croce, Florence (from Pope-Hennessy, I t a l i a n Renaissance Sculpture, F i g . 61) . . Desiderio da Settignano, D e t a i l of the Tomb of Carlo Marsuppini; S. Croce, Florence (from P l a n i s c i g , Desiderio da Settignano, Wieri, 1942, P i . 23) Desiderio da Settignano, D e t a i l of the I n s c r i p t i o n on the Tomb of Carlo Marsuppini; S. Croce, Florence (from P l a n i s c i g , Desiderio da Settignano, P i . 24) . . Luca d e l l a Robbia, The Federighi Monument (1454-56); Santa T r i n i t a , Florence (from B a r g e l l i n i , I D e l i a  Robbia, Milan, 1965, Tav. X) Luca d e l l a Robbia, Close-up of the I n s c r i p t i o n on the Federighi Monument; Santa T r i n i t a , Florence (from B a r g e l l i n i , I Dell a Robbia, d e t a i l of Tav. X) Lorenzo G h i b e r t i , I n s c r i p t i o n below Isaac on the Gates of Paradise (1445-50); Bapt i s t r y , Florence (from Krautheimer, Lorenzo G h i b e r t i , P i . 94) Lorenzo G h i b e r t i , I n s c r i p t i o n above Joshua on the Gates of Paradise; Baptistry, Florence (from Krautheimer, Lorenzo G h i b e r t i , P i . 107) D e t a i l of the I n s c r i p t i o n on the Pazzi Chapel (1429); S. Croce, Florence (from Gray, "Sans S e r i f , " F i g . 11) Tomb of Giovanni C h e l l i n i ; S. Domenico, S. Miniato a l Tadesco (from Schulz, The Sculpture of Bernardo  Rossellino, F i g . 121) D e t a i l of the I n s c r i p t i o n on the Tomb of Giovanni C h e l l i n i ; S. Domenico, S. Miniato a l Tadesco (from Schulz, The Sculpture of Bernardo Rossellino, F i g . 127) Donatello (?), D e t a i l of the I n s c r i p t i o n on the Tomb of Bishop Pecci (1426); Duomo, Siena (from Gray, "Sans S e r i f , " F i g . 10) . . ix FIGURE PAGE 33: Donatello (?), D e t a i l of Letters on the Tomb of Bishop Pecci; Duomo, Siena (from Gray, "Sans S e r i f , " d e t a i l of F i g . 10) 34: D e t a i l of the Bancozzi-Catenacci Tombstone (dated 1424); S. Croce, Florence (from Gray, "Sans S e r i f , " F i g . 3) 35: Berto d i Lionardo Tombstone (dated 1430); S. Croce, Florence (from Gray, "Sans S e r i f , " F i g . 5) 36: D e t a i l of the S c h i a t t e s i Tombstone (dated 1423); S. Croce, Florence (from Gray, "Sans S e r i f , " F i g . 2) . 37: Roman I n s c r i p t i o n (167 B.C.); Delphi, Sanctuary (from D i e h l , Inscriptiones Latinae, Bonn, 1912, p. 6, F i g . a) 38: R.R. Donnelly Cast of the Trajan I n s c r i p t i o n (106-113 A.D.); Trajan Column, Rome (from Catich, The Origin of the S e r i f , Davenport, 1968, F i g . 81) . . 39: Augustan I n s c r i p t i o n (1st century B.C.); Forum, Rome (from Catich, The Ori g i n of the S e r i f , F i g . 163) 40: A l b e r t i , D e t a i l of the I n s c r i p t i o n on the Santo Sepulchro R u c e l l a i (1467); San Pancranzio, Florence (from Gray, "Sans S e r i f , " F i g . 18) 41: I n i t i a l C i n Cato's L i f e , B.M. Add. MS. 22318 (from Diringer, The Illuminated Book, London, 1967, facing p. 346) 42: F e l i c e F e l i c i a n o , I n s c r i p t i o n a l Scriptura Monu- mentalis (1467); above the arch of the ce n t r a l entrance of the Pescheria, Verona (from Mardersteig, "Leon B a t t i s t a A l b e r t i e l a r i n a s c i t a del carattere l a p i d a r i o romano nei quattrocento," I t a l i a medioevale  e umanistica, 2 [1959], Tav. XX) 43: Poggio B r a c c i o l i n i , Laur. S t r o z z i 96, S a l u t a t i , De  verecundia, c. 1402-3? (from A.C. de l a Mare, Handwriting, d e t a i l of P i . XVa) 44: Poggio B r a c c i o l i n i , E l E s c o r i a l N. I l l 7, Plato, Gorgias, 1411? (from A.C. de l a Mare, Handwriting, d e t a i l of P i . XVh) X FIGURE PAGE 45: Sozomeno of P i s t o i a , B i b l . Forteguerrlana A. 4, •Terence, completed 1412 (from A.C. de l a Mare, Handwriting, d e t a i l of P i . XXb) 81 46: Antonio d i Mario, B i b l . Laurenziana, MS. 39, 35, f o l . 48v, C. Valerius Flaccus, 1429 (from Covi, "Lettering i n F i f t e e n t h Century F l o r e ntine Painting," Art B u l l e t i n , 45 [1963], d e t a i l of F i g . 7) 81 47: Massaccio, D e t a i l of the T r i n i t y , I n s c r i p t i o n above the Skeleton; Santa Maria Novella, Florence (from Covi, " L e t t e r i n g , " d e t a i l of F i g . 25) 82 48: Rome, B i b l . Nationale, Sessorian Bible 3, F o l . I v., twelfth century (from Garrison, Studies i n the History (_ of Medieval I t a l i a n Painting, I I , Florence, 1953-62, F i g . 213) . 82 49: I n s c r i p t i o n on the Tomb of Cardinal Stefaneschi (early 15th century); Sta. Maria i n Trastevere, Rome (from Anderson, The Art of Written Forms, New York, 1969, F i g . 138) 83 50: Bernardo Rossellino and a s s i s t a n t s , I n s c r i p t i o n on the Tomb of Neri Capponi; S. S p i r i t o , Florence (from Schulz, The Sculpture of Bernardo Rossellino, d e t a i l of F i g . 114) 83 51: F e l i c e F e l i c i a n o , Geometric Construction of the Letter H (from Mardersteig, "Leon B a t t i s t a A l b e r t i , " F i g . 5) 84 52: Domenico Veneziano, D e t a i l of F i c t i v e I n s c r i p t i o n on the Madonna and Saints; U f f i z i , Florence (from Covi, " L e t t e r i n g , " F i g . 40) 84 53: Andrea Mantegna, Signature on St. Euphemia (1454); Capodimonte, Naples (from Meiss, "Toward a More Comprehensive Renaissance Palaeography," Art B u l l e t i n , 42 [1960], F i g . 18) 84 54: Chart showing the devolution of majuscules (from Catich, Origin of S e r i f , F i g . 147) 85 55: Drawn l e t t e r (from Catich, O r i g i n of S e r i f , d e t a i l of F i g . 15) 85 56: Letter E with drawn support and built-up arms (from Johnston, Writing and Illuminating and Le t t e r i n g , London, 1932, d e t a i l of F i g . 165a) . . -86 x i FIGURE PAGE 57: Letter S, built-up with a brush (from Catich, Origin of S e r i f , d e t a i l of F i g . 15) 86 58: Letter E, built-up using a wide nibbed pen (from Johnston, Writing and Illuminating and Let t e r i n g , d e t a i l of F i g . 165b) 86 59: Poggio B r a c c i o l i n i , Westdeutsche Bibliothek (formerly B e r l i n , Preuss, Staatsbibliothek) Hamilton 166, f o l . 162r, Cicero, E p i s t o l a ad Atticum, 1408 (from A.C. de l a Mare, Handwriting, d e t a i l of P i . XVf) . . . 87 60: Praenestine Brooch (7th century B.C.); L u i g i P i g n o r i Museum of Ethnography and Prehistory, Rome (from Catich, Origin of S e r i f , F i g . 137) 88 61: Praenestine Brooch, a s t y l i z e d redrawing of i t s i n s c r i p t i o n (from Catich, Origin of S e r i f , F i g . 138) . 88 62: Tomb of Scipio Barbatus, consul 298, censor 290 B.C. (from D i e h l , Inscriptiones Latinae, p. 4) 89 63: Chart of Letters Found i n Popular In s c r i p t i o n s (from Gray, "The Palaeography of L a t i n I n s c r i p t i o n s i n the Eighth, Ninth, and Tenth Centuries i n I t a l y , " Papers  of the B r i t i s h School at Rome, NS 3 [1948], p. 163) . . 89 64: Munich, Bayerischestaatsbibliothek MS. Lat. 4456, Regensberg Sacramentary of Henry I I , illuminated t i t l e page, c. 1007 (from Morison, P o l i t i c s and  Sc r i p t , Oxford, 1972, F i g . 114) 90 65: E s c o r i a l Vitimas 17, Echternach Gospels of Henry I I I , 1043-46, Golden Uncialesque (from Morison, P o l i t i c s and S c r i p t , F i g . 117) 90 66: Round Uncialesque I n s c r i p t i o n Commemorating Innocent II (dated 1148); Sta. Maria i n Trastevere, Rome (from Morison, P o l i t i c s and S c r i p t , F i g . 138) . . 91 67: Giovanni del Biondo, D e t a i l of Gothic Uncialesque Letters i n the Presentation of Christ i n the Temple (1364); Florence, Accademia (from Covi, " L e t t e r i n g , " F i g . 5) 91 68: B r i t i s h Museum, Letters from the Benedictional of St. Ethelwold, l a t e 10th century (Gray, Letter i n g as Drawing: Contour and Silhouette, London, 1970, F i g . 5) 92 x i i FIGURE RAGE 69: P a r i s , Bib. Nat. MS. Lat. 9388, Opening Page of the Gospel of St. John from the Metz Gospels, mid 9th century (from Gray, Le t t e r i n g as Drawing: Contour  and Silhouette, F i g . 7) 92 70: Pavement I n s c r i p t i o n (dated 1207); San Miniato, Florence (Gray, "Sans S e r i f , " F i g . 9) 93 71: D e t a i l of an I n s c r i p t i o n i n Sans S e r i f Letters on the Facade of the Pantechnicon (c. 1820); London, Motcomb Street (from Morison, P o l i t i c s and S c r i p t , F i g . 179) 93 72: Brush Written Trajanic Letters (from Catich, O r i g i n of S e r i f , F i g . 162) 94 x i i i Acknowledgements I would l i k e to express my gratitude to the following kind and generous persons, whose guidance, i n s p i r a t i o n , and expertise have made i t p ossible to bring t h i s t h e s i s to completion: Dr. Debra Pincus gave unreservedly of her time and energy i n helping me to focus, organize, and express the ideas presented i n t h i s paper. In addition, she frequently and extensively edited the text. Professor James Russell suggested the merit of t h i s subject as a thesis t o p i c , c a r e f u l l y edited the text, and provided astute guidance at a l l . s t a g e s of the work. Barbara Hopkins of the s l i d e l i b r a r y generously helped me to prepar the i l l u s t r a t i o n s . Bonnie Schoenberger p a t i e n t l y , and with, good humour, typed and retyped the text. Professor Peter Guenther of the U n i v e r s i t y of Houston gave me the i n s p i r a t i o n to sustain me i n t h i s e f f o r t . And f i n a l l y - my family and f r i e n d s , e s p e c i a l l y my wife Helen, united with them i n providing the s p i r i t u a l encouragement to enable me t "run, and not be weary; ... walk, and not f a i n t . " 1 Introduction For a period of some seventy years, roughly 1400-1470, Florentine a r t i s t s used c e r t a i n Roman l e t t e r s (Figs. 1-36) for t h e i r i n s c r i p t i o n a l work on tomb, a r c h i t e c t u r a l , and other monuments—letters which can be referred to as 'early i n s c r i p t i o n a l s ' . These l e t t e r s have received a negative appraisal from both a r t h i s t o r i a n s and palaeographers, i n part based on the p o s i t i v e appraisal of the so-called Trajanic l e t t e r s which superseded the early i n s c r i p t i o n a l s and remained canonic for over three centuries (Figs. 40, 42, 50). On the assumption that the Trajanic l e t t e r s were the f i r s t "perfected," genuinely antique l e t t e r s of the Renaissance because they appear to duplicate a known antique s t y l e (Figs. 38, 39),^" the early i n s c r i p t i o n a l s have been seen as co n s t i t u t i n g an i n t e r m e d i a t e — 2 a t r a n s i t i o n a l or "a n t i c i p a t o r y " s t y l e . Nicolete Gray's singular attempt to order or c l a s s i f y the early i n s c r i p t i o n a l s divides them into s t y l e s 3 according to the degree of "gothic" c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which they e x h i b i t . The existence of only one e f f o r t to c l a s s i f y the early i n s c r i p t i o n a l s i s i n accord with another aspect of the negative appraisal they have r e c e i v e d — t h a t the l e t t e r s lack harmony of s t y l e and d e f i n i t i v e n e s s of 4 form, two ess e n t i a l s of a d i s t i n c t c a l l i g r a p h i c s c r i p t . Two factors have tended, I believe, to delay a reassessment of early i n s c r i p t i o n a l s : the a_ p r i o r i assumption that the early i n s c r i p t i o n a l s are "romano gothic" and therefore experimental i n form; and the considerable v a r i a t i o n i n appear-ance which the early i n s c r i p t i o n a l s e x h i b i t , a v a r i a t i o n which tends to obscure t h e i r common c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s (Figs. 7, 17, 24). Today, when there i s a m u l t i p l i c i t y of s t y l e s i n use and an acceptance of varying degrees of formality for " d i g n i f i e d " s c r i p t s , the 2 i n s c r i p t i o n a l l e t t e r s of the early Renaissance may more r e a d i l y be seen as c o n s t i t u t i n g a d i s t i n c t group—executed with varying techniques but 5 a l l within the Roman t r a d i t i o n . Such a reassessment i s the objective of t h i s t h e s i s . On the basis of a s t y l i s t i c re-evaluation and a r e c l a s s i f i -cation of early i n s c r i p t i o n a l s , I w i l l argue that the early i n s c r i p t i o n a l s were the f i r s t genuinely antique l e t t e r s to follow the Gothic Uncialesque of the fourteenth century. On the basis of a r e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of early i n s c r i p t i o n a l s — a r e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n which takes into account the p r i n c i p l e s of l e t t e r design and e x e c u t i o n — I w i l l demonstrate the l i n e s of s t y l i s t i c continuity which emerge when the early i n s c r i p t i o n a l s are ordered according to t h e i r formal q u a l i t i e s as l e t t e r s . This reassessment w i l l show that the period of the early i n s c r i p t i o n a l s , even though but a moment i n the long h i s t o r y of l e t t e r design, i s one of the most revealing i n the h i s t o r y of Western l e t t e r i n g . It i s by no means i n f e r i o r i n the succession of l e t t e r s which exhibit a monumental h i s t o r i c s i g n i f i c a n c e , a profoundly expressive s i g n i f i c a n c e , and an a r t i s t i c consciousness of the p r i n c i p l e s of c a l l i g r a p h i c l e t t e r design. But f i r s t some disclaimers. The s t y l i s t i c groupings which emerge from the guidelines suggested i n t h i s paper are tentative for a number of reasons. A l l of the material germane to the subject has not yet been established or c o l l e c t e d . In addition, while close photographs are e s s e n t i a l for a competent palaeographical a n a l y s i s , for the larger part of the material that has been c o l l e c t e d adequate photographs are lacking; i t r a r e l y has been seen as necessary to photograph i n s c r i p t i o n s — e v e n those on s i g n i f i c a n t monuments—at close range. F i n a l l y , having never v i s i t e d the monuments i n person, I have not been able to confirm photographic impressions with d i r e c t observation or squeezes. 3 The sixteen monumental i n s c r i p t i o n s considered i n t h i s paper cannot be said to be a completely representative cross-section of Florentine c a l l i g r a p h y . They have been chosen as a sampling of the best that Renaissance Florentine a r t i s t s had to o f f e r insofar as the i n s c r i p t i o n s which have been photographed have been on monuments executed by the best Florentine a r t i s a n s . I have exercised d i s c r i m i n a t i o n , I believe, i n not omitting representative works and i n considering a representative cross-section of those i n s c r i p t i o n s which already have been discussed i n the l i t e r a t u r e . The majority of the i n s c r i p t i o n s discussed here are inci s e d into a stone or bronze ground. However, c e r t a i n exceptions have been'included i n order to present a more comprehensive view of the l e t t e r i n g s t y l e s of Lorenzo G h i b e r t i and Michelozzo: the bronze i n s c r i p t i o n for Michelozzo's Tomb of Bartolomeo Aragazzi (Fig. 3), i n which the l e t t e r s are raised; and the i n s c r i p t i o n s on Ghiberti's North Doors of the Florentine Baptistry (Figs. 4-5), on which the l e t t e r s were l i g h t l y engraved and then gi l d e d . For comprehensiveness, I have chosen to consider the works of Florentine artisans whether or not those monuments were located i n Florence. I have therefore included the Aragazzi Tomb (Fig. 3), the Pecci Tomb (Figs. 32-33), and the Tomb of Giovanni C h e l l i n i (Figs. 3 0 - 3 1 )— a l l of which are located outside of Florence i t s e l f . 4 Footnotes: Introduction As w i l l be discussed l a t e r i n t h i s paper, early Trajanic l e t t e r s of the Renaissance looked l i k e Traj an l e t t e r s but were executed i n a fashion very d i f f e r e n t from the way i n which the f i r s t T r a janic l e t t e r s were formed. 2 The use of the words "mutation" and " a n t i c i p a t i o n " or " a n t i c i p a t o r y " i n t h i s t h e s i s has been adopted i n accordance with a suggestion made by Erwin Panofsky at the Twentieth In t e r n a t i o n a l Congress of the History of Art (see Jean Bony, "Introduction," Twentieth International Congress of  the History of A r t , I [Princeton: Princeton U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1963], p. 81).' Panofsky, as paraphrased by Bony, stated that "he was i n c l i n e d to doubt that the concept of ' t r a n s i t i o n ' has a^legitimate place i n a r t h i s t o r i c a l w r i t i n g because, i n h i s view, a l l major innovations amount to the opening of a door that had been closed b e f o r e — a process that may be compared to a mutation i n biology: there i s no r e a l ' t r a n s i t i o n ' between a mutant and i t s progenitors. The concepts that Panofsky believes should be used instead are: f i r s t , a n t i c i p a t i o n (as when some c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of a l a t e r s t y l e seem to appear at a much e a r l i e r date without as yet leading to a continuous t r a d i t i o n ) ; second, mutation. ..." I am indebted to Pat Cairney for c a l l i n g my a t t e n t i o n to t h i s passage. 3 N i c o l e t e Gray, "Sans S e r i f and Other Experimental Inscribed L e t t e r i n g of the E a r l y Renaissance," Motif, 5 (1960), pp. 66-76. 4 E.A. Lowe, "Handwriting," The Legacy of the Middle Ages, ed. C.G. Crump and E.F. Jacob (1926; r p t . Oxford: The Clarendon Press, 1948), p. 197. In making t h i s statement, I am paraphrasing and amplifying a s i m i l a r statement made by Ni c o l e t e Gray. Gray stated that "Today, when design i s again at a f l u i d stage, these are of great i n t e r e s t and one can regard them as inventions i n t h e i r own r i g h t , not j u s t as steps towards a f i n a l rediscovery." See Gray, "Sans S e r i f , " p. 67. 6 The Aragazzi tomb i s i n the Duomo at Montepulciano, the P e c c i tomb i s i n the Siena cathedral, and the C h e l l i n i tomb i s i n the Duomo at San Miniato a l Tedesco. 5 Chapter I: Humanist L e t t e r i n g vs. S c r i p t u r a Monumentalis This t h e s i s presents a reassessment of the display l e t t e r s used by F l o r e n t i n e a r t i s t s from the beginning of the f i f t e e n t h century through the 1470's. Behind t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n l i e s the profound dictum of the renowned palaeographer, E.A. Lowe, who declared: ... though s c r i p t s seem to move down the ages with the majestic slowness of g l a c i e r s , they are not mere c a r r i e r s or external instruments, but genuine mani-f e s t a t i o n s of t h e i r age, bearing the marks of i t s v i c i s s i t u d e s . Thus w r i t i n g , which i s p r i m a r i l y the humble medium f o r recording the deeds, thoughts, and i n t e r e s t s of an age, by d i n t of being i t s e l f an a r t , becomes at once an expression and a r e g i s t e r of the s p i r i t which informs that age. Herein l i e s the p e c u l i a r i n t e r e s t that w r i t i n g has for the student of c u l t u r e i n general.1 By f a r the majority of the i n s c r i p t i o n s considered i n t h i s paper are from tombs of the early Renaissance—an a r t i s t i c form to which I was introduced some three years ago while researching the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the Renaissance antique r e v i v a l and the wording as well as the palaeographic form of e a r l y Renaissance tomb i n s c r i p t i o n s . Responding to communal and p r i v a t e demands, the prominent sculptors of the e a r l y Renaissance were p r o l i f i c i n t h e i r c r e a t i o n of tomb monuments. V i r t u a l l y a l l of the major sculptors of the period were employed on tomb commissions, a r c h i t e c t u r a l l y conceived and placed i n prominent p o s i t i o n s i n the major F l o r e n t i n e churches. Two such monuments are the Tomb of  Leonardo Bruni ( F i g . 18) and the Tomb of Carlo Marsuppini (Fig. 22), both chancellors of Florence and humanist scholars. Facing each other acrdss the nave of the Franciscan church of Santa Croce, these monuments r e f l e c t the i n c l i n a t i o n of early Renaissance sculptors to incorporate numerous 6 antique features into the design of tomb monuments. Such monuments served as conspicuous memorials to the deceased—to enhance, as i t were, t h e i r fama—and as s i l e n t heralds of the emergence of a new educational, and ultimately moral or' s p i r i t u a l i d e a l — t h e studia humanitatis, which found i t s expression i n neo-antique forms for which the models were the remains 2 of "hallowed a n t i q u i t y " — s a c r o s a n c t a vetustas. The prominent placement of i n s c r i p t i o n s on the early Renaissance tombs suggests that they were conceived as i n t e g r a l elements of the monu-3 ments they adorned. Like the monuments, they r e f l e c t the antique i n s p i r a t i o n of t h e i r designers. From the beginning of the f i f t e e n t h century, but more cons i s t e n t l y from the 1420's onward, the l e t t e r s of the i n s c r i p t i o n s on sarcophagi, and those on other forms understood as being of antique i n s p i r a t i o n ( i . e . , a r c h itecture, medals, medallions, or parapets) 4 assume a Roman-related antique form. A Renaissance a r t i s a n such as Lorenzo G h i b e r t i would c a l l these l e t t e r s " l e t t e r e antiche." They appeared not only on r e a l objects of antique i n s p i r a t i o n , but also on f i c t i v e monuments, such as painted architecture or painted sarcophagi. G h i b e r t i used the term l e t t e r e antiche to describe the l e t t e r s he fashioned on the Shrine of St. Zenobius (Figs. 9-11), and those he carved on an antique c o r n e l i a n . 5 The same expression was used by scribes and men of l e t t e r s i n describing pen-written c a p i t a l s and miniscules. Vespasiano da B i s t i c c i , the Florentine book publisher and supporter of the new humanistica s c r i p t , wrote that the Florentine notary and professional sc r i b e , Poggio B r a c c i o l i n i , "was a f i n e copyist of l e t t e r a antica ... and i n h i s youth copied for money; and i n t h i s way he met his need for books and other things." S i m i l a r l y , the term was employed to describe the writing i n 7 c e r t a i n manuscripts found i n the papal l i b r a r y during an inventory i n 1443, a l l of which were written i n the humanistic hand perfected by Ppggio B r a c c i o l i n i i n the early years of the f i f t e e n t h century.^ Miniscule l e t t e r s were c l a s s i f i e d i n the Renaissance by reference to the cursive c h a r a c t e r — t h e "running" q u a l i t y or speed of execution—of the l e t t e r s . Thus Vespasiano da B i s t i c c i stated that Niccolo N i c c o l i — a scholar, c a l l i g r a p h e r , and votary of c l a s s i c a l a n t i q u i t y — u s e d neo-antique miniscule l e t t e r s of varying degrees of c u r s i v i t y or formality for the copying, using N i c c o l i ' s expression, a l l ' a n t i q u a , i n the manner of, or with the savour of a n t i q u i t y , of manuscripts of antique authors. Vespasiano c a l l e d N i c c o l i ' s two most formal s c r i p t s the formata and the corsiva; without naming i t , he described a t h i r d as an e s p e c i a l l y f a s t g s c r i p t which N i c c o l i used for d i c t a t i o n purposes. The modern palaeographer Stanley Morison has suggested that t h i s extra f a s t s c r i p t be c a l l e d the , 9 corrente. We do not know whether Renaissance c a l l i g r a p h e r s used a s i m i l a r c l a s s i f i c a t i o n f o r c a p i t a l l e t t e r s , but one may be in f e r r e d from the a r t i s t i c evidence. An inspection of Renaissance manuscripts written a l l ' a n t i c a (Figs. 43-46) reveals that these manuscripts were punctuated and decorated with large l e t t e r s at the beginning of verses or paragraphs which were given a heaviness or a greater monumentality by an accentuation, a building-up, of t h e i r members (Fig. 44). These l e t t e r s are now c a l l e d versals."*"^ The same manuscripts exhibit even larger decorated or f o l i a t e d l e t t e r s at the beginning of major sections which, being much lar g e r , were outlined and l a t e r f i l l e d - i n with colour ( Fig. 43, 46). Such l e t t e r s are c a l l e d i n i t i a l s . The larger v e r s a l s and i n i t i a l s were also designed a l l ' a n t i c a to harmonize with the neo-antique miniscule s c r i p t which they 8 accompanied, quite possibly at the urging, i f not the hand, of N i c c o l i h i m s e l f . 1 1 I n i t i a l s and versals are l e t t e r s which are drawn instead of written. They are less cursive than written c a p i t a l s ( F ig. 59) since i t takes more time and care to either o u t l i n e or build-up a l e t t e r than i t does to write one. The s e l e c t i v e use, i n manuscripts, of d i f f e r e n t types of majuscules— written c a p i t a l s , i n i t i a l s , or v e r s a l s — f o r d i f f e r e n t purposes i s a factor of considerable i n t e r e s t and s i g n i f i c a n c e . The type of majuscule which was used f o r s t a t e l y purposes i n manuscripts—that i s , the ver s a l s and i n i t i a l s — w a s also used for i n s c r i p t i o n a l l e t t e r i n g . There i s , there-fore, a continuity i n the palaeographic design of display l e t t e r s whether they are presented on vellum, stone, bronze, or wood. For example, the shape and the shading of the i n i t i a l l e t t e r N i n an early manuscript of the notary and papal secretary, Poggio B r a c c i o l i n i (Fig. 43), are i d e n t i c a l with the shape and shading of the N's on Luca d e l l a Robbia's Cantoria (Roman N with tapered legs i n F i g . 7) or Ghiberti's Shrine of the Three  Martyrs (Fig. 13). The more cursive accentuation of the A i n a s l i g h t l y l a t e r Poggio manuscript (Fig. 44) i s s i m i l a r to that of the A i n the Tomb  of the Beata V i l l a n a ( F ig. 17) from the Rossellino workshop. The shape and the shading of the i n i t i a l A's i n an early Terence of Sozomeno of P i s t o i a ( F ig. 45, the s e r i f e d A preceding INCIPIT) as well as Antonio d i Mario's C. Valerius Flaccus (Fig. 46, the decorated i n i t i a l ) are si m i l a r to the shape and shading of the A's i n the Donatello and Michelozzo's Tomb of John XXIII (Fig. 2), Ghiberti's Shrine of St. Zenobius (Figs. 10, 11), Masaccio's T r i n i t y (Fig. 47), and Michelozzo's bronze i n s c r i p t i o n 12 for the Aragazzi Tomb (Fig. 3). In some i n s t a n c e s — a s , for example, the l e t t e r i n g on the Tomb of Carlo Marsuppini (Fig. 2 4 ) — t h e l e t t e r s , although 9 v e r s a l s , appear close to written, cursive l e t t e r s , due to t h e i r l i m i t e d two-dimensional extension; they are c l o s e l y related to written manuscript c a p i t a l s . 13 During the 1470's, a newcomer to the Renaissance i n s c r i p t i o n a l sphere, the neo-Trajanic l e t t e r (Figs. 40, 42)—which had apprenticed as 14 a manuscript i n i t i a l some twenty years e a r l i e r —pre-empted the v e r s a l as the l e t t e r of choice for i n s c r i p t i o n a l l e t t e r i n g . Neo-Trajanic l e t t e r s were thought to duplicate a known antique type ( i . e . , genuinely Roman, before the f i f t h century, Fi g s . 38, 39)"^ and, once accepted, they remained canonic u n t i l the appearance of the sans s e r i f l e t t e r s at the beginning of 16 the nineteenth century (Fig. 71). Although they were not, when f i r s t used, seen as requiring a s p e c i a l t i t l e — b e i n g apparently considered as part of the l e t t e r e antiche—some eighty years l a t e r they received the t i t l e of lettere romane.^ Today, because of t h e i r resemblance to the Trajanic l e t t e r s on Trajan's Column i n Rome (Fig. 38), they are c a l l e d 18 Trajanic l e t t e r s ; the generic name given to them i n the s p e c i a l i z e d 19 modern l i t e r a t u r e i s the s c r i p t u r a monumentalis. Beginning i n the 1470's, then, v e r s a l s of varying degrees of c u r s i v -i t y were joined and then r a p i d l y replaced by the s c r i p t u r a monumentalis. Twentieth century art h i s t o r i a n s have conceived of a developmental pi c t u r e to explain the s h o r t - l i v e d i n s c r i p t i o n a l s of the early Renaissance and the emergence i n the 1470's of the l e t t e r e romane. The p i c t u r e r e s t s on a number of assumptions: f i r s t , that the point at which a l e t t e r can be said to d e f i n i t i v e l y f a l l within the antique t r a d i t i o n i s the point at which i t duplicates a known antique s t y l e ; second, that the early i n s c r i p -t i o n a l s are s t y l i s t i c a l l y a n t i c i p a t o r y to the l a t e r l e t t e r e romane or 10 Trajanic l e t t e r s ; and t h i r d , that the l e t t e r e romane are the r e a l mutant' forms in the development of display l e t t e r s during the Renaissance. Im p l i c i t i n these assumptions i s the notion that the early i n s c r i p t i o n a l s , because experimental, are therefore lacking i n s t y l i s t i c c o n t inuity. M i l l a r d Meiss expressed t h i s developmental concept very s u c c i n c t l y i n h i s book Andrea Mantegna as Illuminator (1957). Speaking of the period following the 1420's, the decade to which the f i r s t major group of early i n s c r i p t i o n a l s belongs, Meiss stated: Slowly during the subsequent years, e s p e c i a l l y i n lapidary i n s c r i p t i o n s , the l e t t e r s drew closer to Roman precedent; ... It was only much l a t e r i n the century, however, that c a p i t a l l e t t e r s acquired the perfection of the f i n e l y s e r i f e d s c r i p t u r a monumen- t a l i s of the l a t e Republic of early Empire.21 S i m i l a r l y , the modern epigraphist and scholar, Giovanni Mardersteig, stated: La r i n a s c i t a del carattere l a p i d a r i o romano r i s a l e essatamente a l i a meta del secolo, ma solo dopo due decenni de graduale sviluppo raggiungeva l a sua forma classica.22 As previously suggested, t h i s developmental p i c t u r e has been t r a d i -t i o n a l l y associated with a negative appraisal of the early i n s c r i p t i o n a l s . For example, at the beginning of the twentieth century, A. Schmarsow characterized the painted display l e t t e r s of Domenico Veneziano and Benozzo Gozzoli (Fig. 52) as co n s t i t u t i n g an "imperfect Roman lapidary 23 s t y l e . " In 1923, A. Hessel described the early i n s c r i p t i o n a l s as 24 gotico antiqua or romano-gothic. More recently, i n 1959, Giovanni Mardersteig characterized the l e t t e r s on Luca d e l l a Robbia's Cantoria (Figs. 6, 7) and those on the Tomb of John XXIII by Donatello and 25 Michelozzo (Fig. 2) as being " c a r a t t e r i d i tipo romano e gotico." In 11 1960, Nicolete Gray, a scholar and p r a c t i s i n g c a l l i g r a p h e r , spoke of the early i n s c r i p t i o n a l s as "experimental" and "intermediate between Gothic 26 and Roman." And i n 1972, Stanley Morison, an eminent palaeographer, spoke of the l e t t e r i n g on the Tomb of John XXIII (Fig. 2) as "of an 27 ' a r t i s t i c ' and p r i m i t i v e experimental type." In recent years, however, a few s c h o l a r s — i n p a r t i c u l a r , M i l l a r d Meiss and Nicolete Gray—have l a i d the foundation for a reassessment of early i n s c r i p t i o n a l s . Their contribution to the formation of a new view of early i n s c r i p t i o n a l s w i l l be considered i n the following chapter. 12 Footnotes: Chapter I Lowe, "Handwriting," p. 198. 2 Erwin Panofsky, Renaissance and Renascences i n Western Art (1965; r p t . London: Granada Publishing Co., 1970), pp. 68-113 et passim. See also R. Weiss, The Spread of I t a l i a n Humanism (London: Hutchinson and Co. Ltd., 1964), 11-21; B.L. Ullman, Studies i n the I t a l i a n  Renaissance (Rome: E d i z i o n i d i S t o r i a e Letteratura, 1955), pp. 11-40; William J . Bouwsma, The Interpretation of Renaissance Humanism (Washington: The American H i s t o r i c a l Association, 1959); John Edwin Sandys, Harvard  Lectures on the Revival of Learning (Cambridge: Cambridge Uni v e r s i t y Press, 1905); Eugenio Garin, Science and C i v i c L i f e i n the I t a l i a n  Renaissance, trans. Peter Munz (1966; r p t . New York: Doubleday and Co., Inc., 1969), pp. 1-20. 3 John Sparrow, V i s i b l e Words: A Study of Ins c r i p t i o n s i n and as  Works of Art (Cambridge: Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1969), pp. 16-17. 4 Dario Covi, "Lettering i n F i f t e e n t h Century Florentine P a i n t i n g , " Art B u l l e t i n , 45 (1963), pp. 13-15. Covi l i n k s the appearance of i n s c r i p -tions i n Roman l e t t e r s with A l b e r t i ' s theory of a r c h i t e c t u r a l harmony which A l b e r t i expressed i n his t r e a t i s e , De Re A e d i f i c a t o r i a . Observing that i n s c r i p t i o n s had become accepted as i n t e g r a l parts of a r t i s t i c monuments, Covi stated: "Thus conceived, they had to be made to conform to the s t y l e of the p a r t i c u l a r objects on which they were placed. This was i m p l i c i t i n Renaissance thought and theory. Leon B a t t i s t a A l b e r t i , i n Books VI and IX of the De Re A e d i f i c a t o r i a , extols harmony as a c a r d i n a l p r i n c i p l e of beauty, defining i t as the consonance of a l l the parts of a thing... I t would have been contrary to the Florentine sense and theory of harmony to impose Gothic l e t t e r s on c l a s s i c a l or Renaissance objects." A problem with Covi's theory i s that i t ignores the i n t r i n s i c a r t i s t i c merit and the expressive q u a l i t i e s of the l e t t e r s , r elegating them to the status of an adjunct to ar c h i t e c t u r e . ^ The expression was used i n his autobiography, I Commentarii [the text of which may be found i n Ludwig Goldscheider, G h i b e r t i (London: Phaidon Press, 1949), pp. 19-21, esp. a r t . 12; and i n Richard Krautheimer and Trude Krautheimer-Hess, Lorenzo G h i b e r t i (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1970), I, pp. 12-15]. 6 B.L. Ullman, Origin, p. 23 and n. 10 i n which Ullman gives h i s source as : Vespasiano da B i s t i c c i , V i t e d i uomini del secolo XV (Milan, 1951), p. 291. 13 For the f u l l quotation i n the papal inventory, see: Covi, "L e t t e r i n g , " p. 6, n. 41; and Stanley Morison, "Early Humanistic Script and the F i r s t Roman Type," The Library, 4th Ser., 24 (June-September, 1943), p. 6, n. 1. g Morison, "Early Humanistic S c r i p t , " pp. 5-6. For pertinent obser-vations on the place of Niccolo N i c c o l i i n the humanist r e v i v a l of l e t t e r s , see: Ernst H. Gombrich, "From the Revival of Letters to the Reform of the A r t s , " Essays i n the History of Art Presented to Rodolf Wittkower, ed. Douglas Fraser, Howard Hibbard, and Milton J . Lewine (London: Phaidon Press Ltd., 1967), pp. 71-82. 9 Ibid., p. 6. The term i s used by Edward Johnston, Writing and Illuminating and  Lettering (London: S i r Isaac Pitman and Sons, Ltd., 1932), pp. 112-113. Nicolete Gray, L e t t e r i n g as Drawing: Contour and Silhouette (London: Oxford University Press, 1970), p. 5. 1 1 A suggestion made by A.C. de l a Mare, The Handwriting of the I t a l i a n  Humanists, Vol. 1, fasc. 1 (Oxford: Oxford Un i v e r s i t y Press, 1973), pp. 50, 74. 12 For concise and scholarly biographies of Poggio B r a c c i o l i n i , Niccolo N i c c o l i , Bartolomeo Aragazzi, Sozomeno of P i s t o i a , et a l , see de l a Mare, op. c i t . While the models for the humanist miniscule s c r i p t seem to have been miniscule l e t t e r s i n manuscripts of the eighth through the twelfth centuries, the closest patterns for Florentine i n s c r i p t i o n a l and painted majuscules, as well as manuscript v e r s a l s , appear to have been twelfth century manuscript versals and i n i t i a l s . For the dates of the possible models for the new humanistic s c r i p t see Ullman, Or i g i n , p. 54; B.L. Ullman, Ancient Writing and I t s Influence (New York: Cooper Square Publishers, 1963), p. 137; and Morison, "Early Humanistic S c r i p t , " p. 7. A l l three suggestions d i f f e r , although a l l of the dates given f a l l within the range of the eighth through the twelfth centuries. For possible models for the l e t t e r e antiche i n twelfth century manuscripts see E.B. Garrison, Studies i n the History of Medieval  I t a l i a n Painting (Florence: L'Impronta, 1955-56), Figs. 3, 98, 99, 204, 215, as well as F i g . 213 which i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n t h i s thesis as F i g . 48. That provenance i s consonant with what i s presently known concerning the derivations of early Renaissance a r c h i t e c t u r a l motives and the f l o r a l decorations of f i f t e e n t h century decorated i n i t i a l s . See F i g s . 43, 46, t h i s t h e s i s . For the f l o r a l motifs decorating f i f t e e n t h century "vine stem" i n i t i a l s see: Otto Pacht, "Notes and Observations on the Origin of Humanistic Book-Decoration," Saxl Memorial Essays (London: Thomas Nelson and Sons Ltd., 1857), pp. 184-194; and for observations concerning the r e l a t i o n s h i p of the "vine-stem" i n i t i a l s i n Poggio B r a c c i o l i n i ' s 14 manuscripts of c l a s s i c a l authors to twelfth century models see: Albania De La Mare and Douglas F.S. Thompson, "Poggio's E a r l i e s t Manuscript," I t a l i a medioevale e umanistica, 16(1973), pp. 191-192 and A.G. De La Mare, Handwriting, pp. 49-50. In f n . 1, p. 50, De La Mare notes that a Livy manuscript from the hand of Giovanni Aretino (Florence, Laur. 63, 5, Livy Dec. I l l , f i n i s h e d i n 1412) has ','vlne stem" i n i t i a l s , as well as an undated, but probably e a r l i e r Livy (Florence, Laur. 63, 4, Dec. I) by Aretino. The e a r l i e s t manuscript having a "vine-stem" i n i t i a l which approximates the form of a Renaissance i n s c r i p t i o n a l l e t t e r i s Laur. S t r o z z i 96, S a l u t a t i , De verecundia, a t t r i b u t e d both by De La Mare and Ullman to Poggio B r a c c i o l i n i and dating to 1402-03. See De La Mare, Handwriting, p. 78, #13, and Ullman, Or i g i n , pp. 21, 24-27. That l e t t e r i s here given as F i g . 43. For the p a r a l l e l influence of Tuscan Proto-Renaissance buildings of the twelfth century on f i f t e e n t h century a r c h i t e c t s see: Rudolf Wittkower, " A l b e r t i ' s Approach to Antiquity i n Architecture," JWCI, 4 (1941), p. 2;; and Erwin Panofsky, Renaissance and Renascences, pp. 40 and 164. Panofsky's reference: H. Teit z e , "Romanische Kunst und Renaissance," Vortrage der Bibliothek Warburg, 1926-27, p. 43ff., p a r t i c u l a r l y p. 52f. 13 M i l l a r d Meiss, Andrea Mantegna as Illuminator (New York: Columbia University Press, 1957), p. 57; Covi, " L e t t e r i n g , " p. 8; Giovanni Mardersteig, "Leon B a t t i s t a A l b e r t i e l a r i n a s c i t a del carattere l a p i d a r i o romano nei quattrocento," I t a l i a medioevale e umanistica, 2.(1959), p. 295; Nicolete Gray, "Sans S e r i f , " p. 68. In Florence, A l b e r t i ' s i n s c r i p t i o n on the Santo Sepolcro R u c e l l a i (San Pancranzio, 1467) marks one of the e a r l i e s t appearances of the Trajanic l e t t e r . See F i g . 40. Letters e x h i b i t i n g the conventions of Trajanic l e t t e r s were being used as early as the 1450's by Andrea Mantegna (Fig. 53) and by Donatello. See M i l l a r d Meiss, "Towards a More Comprehensive Renaissance Palaeography," Art  B u l l e t i n , 42(1960), pp. 101-104. 14 M i l l a r d Meiss, Andrea Mantegna, pp. 52-67. 15 In Joyce S. and Arthur E. Gordon, "Contributions to the Palaeo-graphy of L a t i n I n s c r i p t i o n s , " University of C a l i f o r n i a Publications i n  C l a s s i c a l Archaeology, 3 (1946-57), pp. 80-81, the Gordons established that Trajanic l e t t e r s are h i s t o r i c a l l y associated with the period of the Roman Empire. No documentary evidence has yet been presented to suggest that Renaissance c a l l i g r a p h e r s were aware of the h i s t o r i c a l associations we now attach to the Imperial and Republican l e t t e r s r e s p e c t i v e l y . Conv inced that Trajanic l e t t e r s must have been constructed along geometrical l i n e s i n order to have obtained an inner harmony—that i s , applying the same p r i n c i p l e s to l e t t e r i n g that they applied to a r c h i t e c t u r e — l a t e r f i f t e e n t h century t h e o r i s t s stressed the importance of geometrical constructs to the proper design of Trajanic l e t t e r s . The e a r l i e s t known manuscript dealing with that subject i s that of F e l i c e F e l i c i a n o , the archaeologically oriented antiquarian and c a l l i g r a p h e r whose manuscript appeared i n the early 1460's. For geometrically constructed l e t t e r s of the Renaissance see Donald M. Anderson, The Art of Written Forms: The  Theory and P r a c t i c e of Calligraphy (New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 15 Inc., 1969), pp. 125-133; Albrecht Durer, On the Just Shaping of L e t t e r s , trans. R.T. Nichol (1535; r p t . New York: The G r o l i e r Club, 1917); Giovanni B a t t i s t a V e r i n i , Luminario, trans. A.F. Johnson with i n t r o . Stanley Morison (1526; r p t . Cambridge: Harvard College Library, 1947), pp. 1-12 e_t passim; Stanley Morison, Fra Luca de P a c i o l i of Borgo S.  Sepolcro (New York: The Grolier- Club, 1933), pp. 13-73. For F e l i c i a n o ' s place as the f i r s t to introduce a manuscript describing the geometric con-s t r u c t i o n of Trajanic l e t t e r s see: James Mosley, "Trajan Revived," Alphabet, 1 (1964), p. 18; Morison, Fra Luca, p. 15; Anderson, Art of  Written Forms, p. 126. Anderson gives the date of c. 1463. ^ For the appearance of "pure" sans-serif l e t t e r s on nineteenth century Greek r e v i v a l architecture see: Stanley Morison, P o l i t i c s and  S c r i p t , ed. and completed by Nicholas Barker (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1972), pp. 323-24. ^ F e l i c e F e l i c i a n o c a l l e d the geometrically constructed l e t t e r s he proposed i n the s i x t i e s antique caractere. Giovanni B a t t i s t a V e r i n i (1526) c a l l e d h i s constructed l e t t e r s l e t t e r e antiche. But, when Giovanbattista Palatino published a w r i t i n g book "of the A r r i g h i - T a g l i e n t e type" i n 1545, he c a l l e d the geometrically constructed antique l e t t e r s by the t i t l e l e t t e r e romane. And when the Spanish c a l l i g r a p h e r Juan de Yciar published hi s Arte s u b t i l i s s i m a i n 1548, he c a l l e d the l e t t e r s l e t r a l a t i n a . C l e a r l y a d i s t i n c t i o n had been made by the middle of the sixteenth century. One of the e a r l i e s t recorded uses of the term l e t t e r e romane i s that of Durer i n h i s t r e a t i s e e n t i t l e d On the Just Shaping of Le t t e r s , published i n 1535. I have not seen the L a t i n text, but i f the t r a n s l a t i o n from the L a t i n of R.T. Nichol i s accurate, Durer used the term l i t t e r a romana. See Durer, Just Shaping of Letters , p. 5. For F e l i c e F e l i c i a n o ' s use of the term antique caractere, Palatino's use of the term l e t t e r e romane, and V e r i n i ' s use of the term l e t t e r e antiche,. see V e r i n i , Luminario, pp. 8, 10, 19. For the use of the term l e t r a l a t i n a see Donald M. Anderson, Art of Written Forms, p. 130. Trajanic l e t t e r s appear to have been championed by antiquarians with an archaeological bent, l i k e the antiquarian and c a l l i g r a p h e r , F e l i c e F e l i c i a n o (Figs. 42, 51). Whereas the f i r s t wave of antique r e v i v a l i s t s appears to have been scholars oriented toward the written remains of a n t i q u i t y , the second wave appears to have been comprised of amateur archaeologists oriented toward the physical remains of a n t i q u i t y . Follow-ing i n the footsteps of C i r i a c o of Ancona (c. 1391-1450), F e l i c e F e l i c i a n o , Giovanni Marcanova, Fra Giovanni Giocondo, the c a l l i g r a p h e r Bartolomeo Sanvito, and the painter Andrea Mantegna formed s i l l o g i of i n s c r i p t i o n s by copying texts from antique monuments. Such e f f o r t s were to culminate four centuries l a t e r i n works such as Theodore Mommsen's Corpus I n s c r i p - tionum Latinarum ( B e r l i n , 1863) . For the a c t i v i t i e s of C i r i a c o of Ancona see: P h y l l i s Williams Lehmann and Karl Lehmann, Samothracian Ref l e c t i o n s : Aspects of the Revival of the Antique (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1973). For the e f f o r t s of F e l i c e F e l i c i a n o see: Charles M i t c h e l l , " F e l i c e F e l i c i a n o Antiquarius," Proceedings of the B r i t i s h Academy, 47 (1961), pp. 197-222. For the work of early antiquarians, including Poggio B r a c c i o l i n i — w h o , as Ullman states, took the form of h i s antique c a p i t a l s from antique i n s c r i p t i o n s (Ullman, Humanistic S c r i p t , pp. 55-56)— 16 see: John Edwin Sandys, L a t i n Epigraphy: An Introduction to the Study  of L a t i n Inscriptions (Groningen: Bauma's Boekhuis N.V., 1969), pp. 20-24. Sandys' recounting of one of the most memorable adventures of some of the early antiquarians ( F e l i c e F e l i c i a n o , Giovanni Marcanova—physician and philosopher—and Andrea Mantegna) on the western shore of the Lago d i Garda i n the autumn of 1464 i s succinct and quite b e a u t i f u l . See also John Edwin Sandys, Harvard Lectures on the Revival of Learning (Cambridge: Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1905). A b r i e f account of the early a n t i -quarians interested i n i n s c r i p t i o n a l l e t t e r s i s given by Anderson, Art of  Written Forms, pp. 125-26. 18 •E.A. Catich, The Or i g i n of the S e r i f (Davenport: The C a t f i s h Press, 1968), pp. 157-58. Modern palaeographers, i n considering the epigraphic remains of Roman a n t i q u i t y , have stressed the importance of the concept of the epigraphic l e t t e r as being a palaeographic form made permanent. Epigraphists, such as Giancarlo S u s i n i , while stressing the importance of other aspects, of an i n s c r i p t i o n which make i t more than simply a palaeographic document, have nevertheless agreed with the thesis propounded by the palaeographer, Jean Mallon: to wit, that an i n s c r i p t i o n may be "appraised, as far as the palaeographer i s concerned, from the same point of view and by the same methods." See Giancarlo S u s i n i , The Roman  Stonecutter: An Introduction to L a t i n Epigraphy, ed. E. Badian and trans. A.M. Dabrowski (1967; r p t . London: Camelot Press Ltd., 1973), p. 1. Mallon distinguished three d i s t i n c t stages i n the production of an epigraphic monument: planning, executing, and cu t t i n g . Planning involves the d r a f t i n g of the text; executing involves the t r a n s f e r r i n g of the text to the s t o n e — t h a t i s , the writing or l e t t e r i n g of the text ( c a l l e d the ordinatio) on the stone with either a brush or a firmer stylographic t o o l by the so-called ordinator or quadratarius; and cuttin g involves the f i x i n g of the palaeographic form through the carving of a V cut i n the stone by the sculptor or the so-called l a p i c i d a . See again S u s i n i , Roman  Stonecutter, pp. 2-3. The second stage i s analagous to the wr i t i n g or l e t t e r i n g process on parchment or vellum, and therefore the ordinatio c l e a r l y f a l l s within the domain of the palaeographer. Father Catich proposed s i m i l a r stages i n the creating of an i n s c r i p -t i o n a l monument a f t e r an intensive study of the l e t t e r s on Trajan's Column in Rome (Fig. 38). To the above stages he added a f o u r t h — t h e painting of the V cut with a red-orange pigment. Catich concluded that c h i s e l l i n g i s "... wholly a n c i l l a r y to writing and l e t t e r i n g . It i s the supporting buttress to the written i n s c r i p t i o n which i s the all-important element." See Catich, Origin of the S e r i f , pp. 65-66. 19 Recently Father E.A. Catich has suggested that the Trajanic l e t t e r s were brush written, not drawn, on the stone and then incised for permanence. He has therefore stressed t h e i r flowing, cursive character. See F i g . 72, Catich, Origin of the S e r i f , pp. 66, 184, et passim. See n. 2, Introduction. 17 Meiss, Andrea Mantegna, p. 57. Meiss has made a number of out-standing contributions to a new understanding of the l e t t e r e antiche, which w i l l be discussed i n Chapter I I . 22 Mardersteig, "Leon B a t t i s t a A l b e r t i , " p. 286. 23 Covi, " L e t t e r i n g , " p. 7, f n . 56. Coyi's r e f . from n. 8, p. 2 i s A. Schmarsow, "Domenico Veneziano," L'Arte, 15 (1912), p. 10. 24 Morison, "Early Humanistic S c r i p t , " p. 3, n. 1. Morison's r e f . : A. Hessel i n "Von der S c h r i f t zum Druck," Z e i t s c h r i f t des deutschen  Vereins fur Buchwesen und Schrifttum,. 6 (1923), p. 92. Mardersteig, "Leon B a t t i s t a A l b e r t i , " p. 286. Gray, "Sans S e r i f , " p. 67. 18 Chapter I I : Modern Art H i s t o r i c a l Appraisal of Early I n s c r i p t i o n a l s M i l l a r d Meiss and Nicolete Gray ushered i n a new c r i t i c i s m of early Florentine i n s c r i p t i o n a l s i n 1960 with two separately published a r t i c l e s which stressed the d i s t i n c t i v e q u a l i t i e s of the early i n s c r i p t i o n a l s and drew attention to aspects of t h e i r s t y l i s t i c c o n t inuity. Meiss, departing from the negative judgement of early i n s c r i p t i o n a l s he had previously set f o r t h i n his book, Andrea Mantegna as Illuminator, praised t h e i r a u s t e r i t y i n such a way as to suggest that they exhibited the moral v i r t u e s which early humanist scholars admiringly a t t r i b u t e d to the Romans of the Republican p e r i o d . 1 Using the suggestive adjectives of Ambrogio Tr a v e r s a r i , Meiss declared: ... the s i m i l a r i t i e s i n these i n s c r i p t i o n s are greater than the d i f f e r e n c e s . They a l l possess what Ambrogio Trav e r s a r i described as puritas and suavitas. There i s a continuity and what may be c a l l e d , I think, a strong palaeographic t r a d i t i o n . 2 Thus Meiss saw the early i n s c r i p t i o n a l s as c o n s t i t u t i n g a coherent u n i t — one which he chose to c a l l a t r a d i t i o n — c h a r a c t e r i z e d p r i n c i p a l l y by^ the q u a l i t i e s of puritas and suavitas, terms which Meiss translated as 3 "restrained measure and spare elegance." Meiss further elaborated on the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of that t r a d i t i o n by using d e s c r i p t i v e adjectives employed 4 by Lorenzo V a l l a : planius, apertius, and d i s t i n c t i u s . Plan-ius r e l a t e s to being c l e a r , d i s t i n c t , or l e g i b l e ; apertius, to being p l a i n , c l e a r , f manifest, or undecorated; and d i s t i n c t i u s , to being separate and d i s t i n c t . Meiss praised p r e c i s e l y that q u a l i t y of the early i n s c r i p t i o n a l s by which they s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r from the s c r i p t u r a monumentalis—their more formal and l e s s cursive character. 5 19 Meiss did not follow up h i s revised estimate of the early i n s c r i p -t i o n a l s with a systematic an a l y s i s . However, by emphasizing t h e i r d i s t i n c t i v e q u a l i t y as a c l a s s — a q u a l i t y which he saw as a high degree of f o r m a l i t y — h e stressed t h e i r planned rather than t h e i r accidental or experimental aspect, and thus prepared the way for a new understanding of early i n s c r i p t i o n a l s . Meiss made another contribution to a revised understanding of early i n s c r i p t i o n a l s by suggesting that they might have an antique precedent. Although he did not f i n d one, h i s search raised the p o s s i b i l i t y of viewing the early i n s c r i p t i o n a l s as genuinely antique whether or not a given model might be found. The concept of the genuinely antique q u a l i t y of the early i n s c r i p t i o n a l s i s the fundamental tenet of Chapter III of t h i s paper. Like Meiss, Nicolete Gray highlighted the d i s t i n c t i v e l y formal, undecorated q u a l i t y of the early i n s c r i p t i o n a l s by associating them with a modern, somewhat austere s t y l e of l e t t e r i n g c a l l e d "sans s e r i f " (Fig. 71). In i t s narrowest sense, sans s e r i f l e t t e r i n g i s m o n o l i n e — a l l l i n e s being of the same width—and s e r i f l e s s . Technically, early i n s c r i p t i o n a l s i n the Florentine sphere of i n s c r i p t i o n a l a c t i v i t y ^ are not sans s e r i f — a g fact which Gray her s e l f r e a l i z e d . Many early i n s c r i p t i o n a l s i n the Florentine sphere are s e r i f e d (Figs. 3, 9, 10, 20, 21), and almost a l l exhibit a modulation i n the width of the strokes forming the l e t t e r s (e.g., Figs. 3, 7, 8, 11, 17). However, Gray's a s s o c i a t i o n of early i n s c r i p t i o n a l s with the general class of sans s e r i f l e t t e r s i s legitimate insofar as early i n s c r i p t i o n a l s exhibit a formality very much akin to those which are sans s e r i f i n s t y l e . Gray further emphasized the d i s t i n c t i v e n e s s of the early i n s c r i p t i o n a l s by suggesting the l e t t e r s are "... of i n t r i n s i c i n t e r e s t and one can regard them as inventions i n t h e i r own r i g h t , not j u s t as steps 20 towards a f i n a l rediscovery." At one point Gray suggested that early i n s c r i p t i o n a l s , l i k e sans s e r i f l e t t e r s , belong with Trajanic l e t t e r s to the same antique t r a d i t i o n . Using the term "Roman" to re f e r to the l e t t e r s here c a l l e d the l e t t e r e romane or the s c r i p t u r a monumentalis, she stated that: ... when people started to think about sans they have thought of i t as the skeleton of the Roman, rather than thinking of sans and Roman as simple, or compli-cated and sophisticated, versions of the same forms.10 But she did not follow through with that conception when determining the l i n e s of continuity among early i n s c r i p t i o n a l s . Gray established three s t y l e s within the c o l l e c t i o n of early i n s c r i p -t i o n a l s i n the geographical spheres of Florence, Rimini, and Rome. Two of those s t y l e s , favoured i n Florence, were characterized by Gray as "romano-gothic" and not genuinely Roman. These s t y l e s are distinguished by the degree to which they exhibit key "gothic" c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s — n a m e l y , c u r v i l i n e a r modulation i n the contour of l e t t e r downstrokes and r e c t i -l i n e a r modulation i n the width of other r e c t i l i n e a r parts—arms and oblique l i n e s — o f letters."'""'" C u r v i l i n e a r modulation i n the contour of l e t t e r downstrokes can be seen quite c l e a r l y i n most of the downstrokes i n the i n s c r i p t i o n on the Tomb of Bishop Pecci (Figs. 32, 33, note e s p e c i a l l y the legs of the N i n DNO and the I's i n IOHANNI); and the r e c t i l i n e a r modulation i n the width of the arms and oblique l i n e s can be seen very v i v i d l y i n the l e t t e r s on Luca's Cantoria (Fig. 7, note e s p e c i a l l y the A's and the E's). Naming her Florentine s t y l e s a f t e r exemplary tomb i n s c r i p -t i o n s , Gray c a l l e d them the Berto d i Leonardo Style ( F i g . 35), the Bancozzi-Catenacci Style ( Fig. 34), and the S c h i a t t e s i Style ( F ig. 36): the f i r s t s t y l e exhibits both forms of modulation; the second features 21 only r e c t i l i n e a r modulation i n arms and oblique l i n e s ; the t h i r d shows neither of these c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . The "pure sans s e r i f " design of the l e t t e r s of the S c h i a t t e s i Style (Fig. 36), since i t was r a r e l y practiced by Florentine a r t i s t s , w i l l not be discussed i n t h i s paper. , Within the category of the Bancozzi-Cantenacci Style Gray placed the following monuments: the Bancozzi-Catenacci Tomb (Fig. 34), the Tomb of John XXIII (Fig. 2), the North Door of the Florentine Baptistry (Figs. 4-5), the Shrine of St., Zenobius (Figs. 9-11), the Shrine of the Three Martyrs (Figs. 12, 13), and Luca d e l l a Robbia's Cantoria (Figs. 6, 7). Gray l i s t e d only two monuments which c l e a r l y exhibit the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c c u r v i l i n e a r modulation i n the contour of downstrokes said to d i s t i n g u i s h the Berto d i Leonardo Style: the Berto d i Leonardo Tomb i t s e l f (Fig. 35) and the Tomb of Bishop Pecci (Figs. 32, 33) at t r i b u t e d to Donatello. She made that s t y l e more i n c l u s i v e , however, by including within the same sphere those l e t t e r s i n which the c u r v i l i n e a r modulation, i n the hands of " l e s s accomplished l e t t e r designers" became the "les s precise wedge 12 termination." Thus Gray included the a l t a r of the Pazzi Chapel (Fig. 29) and the Tomb of the Beata V i l l a n a (Figs. 16, 17) within the Berto d i Leonardo category. While Gray saw early i n s c r i p t i o n a l s as d i s t i n c t i v e and as the product of a conscious choice, her method of c l a s s i f y i n g them r e f l e c t s the t r a d i -t i o n a l a p r i o r i assumption that they are e s s e n t i a l l y "romano-gothic." Once that assumption had been made, Gray was then i n c l i n e d to f i n d support for i t i n the s t y l i s t i c evidence by associating early i n s c r i p t i o n a l s with p a r t i c u l a r gothic motives (e.g., splaying of downstrokes) or by l a b e l i n g c e r t a i n motives which they ex h i b i t , such as r e c t i l i n e a r modulated width of l i n e i n l e t t e r arms, as "gothic." 22 Gray's analysis and classification of early inscriptionals involves two important misinterpretations of the stylistic evidence: a misinter-pretation of two stylistic characteristics, labeled by Gray as gothic, and a misinterpretation of the taxonomic significance of curvilinear modula-tion in letter downstrokes. Rectilinear modulation in the width of letter arms and some of the oblique lines of letters, although characteristic of early inscriptionals, cannot be conceived stylistically as gothic. Curvilinear modulation in letter downstrokes, although stylistically a gothic characteristic, cannot legitimately be seen as typical of a large class of early inscriptionals since i t is not appropriate to see wedges as "imprecise" attempts at executing curves; the splaying of downstrokes is properly seen only in taxonomic association with letter shape and therefore is of a broader and wider classifying significance. To support those contentions, and, in the process, to show that most early inscriptionals are properly classified as Roman instead of romano-gothic, a stylistic re-evaluation of early inscriptionals is offered in Chapter III. In Chapter IV, a neutral system of analysis, one employing an objective palaeographic methodology, is introduced as a descriptive tool by which early inscriptionals may be analyzed and classified in terms of their qualities and not in terms of their departure from or adherence to a norm. Drawing on the conclusions of Chapter III and employing the methodology introduced in Chapter IV, Chapter V concludes the argument of this thesis with a reclassification of early inscriptionals to show their -, . . . . 13 lines of stylistic continuity. 23 Footnotes: Chapter II 1 I am indebted to Dr. Debra Pincus for t h i s reading of Meiss. 2 Meiss, "Renaissance Palaeography," p. 99. 3 Ibid p. 103. • » 4 Ibid p. 99. 5 For r e f . , see Ch. 1, f n . 19. It i s p r e c i s e l y the flowing q u a l i t y of the neo-Trajanic l e t t e r which i s emphasized by E.A. Catich. The formal q u a l i t i e s of the humanistic miniscule l e t t e r e antiche were noted by two outstanding humanist scholars of the fourteenth century, Petrarch and Coluccio S a l u t a t i . Petrarch wrote to h i s f r i e n d Boccaccio i n 1352 that he preferred manuscripts written i n ' l e t t e r a antiqua', and that he was sending Boccaccio a copy of h i s (Petrarch's) e p i s t l e s written "not i n the spreading luxuriant l e t t e r i n g , fashionable at a time when scribes are painters, that pleases but t i r e s the eyes, as i f they were invented for anything else than reading, but i n a trim, c l e a r hand, appealing to the eye" (the underlining i s mine). S i m i l a r l y , the Florentine chancellor, Coluccio S a l u t a t i , wrote i n 1392 to "his French f r i e n d Jean de Montreuil for a copy of Abelard i n 'antiqua l i t t e r a ' as no other s c r i p t was more pleasing to his eyes." For the Petrarch quotation see B.L. Ullman, Ori g i n , pp. 12-13, and n. 6 for the e n t i r e L a t i n quotation. Ullman's re f : E p i s t . fam. XXIII, 19, 8 (1366). For the S a l u t a t i quotation see Ullman, Or i g i n , pp. 13-14, and n. 10. Ullman's r e f . : E p i s t . I l l (1896), p. 76. 6 The "narrow sense" of the sans s e r i f s t y l e i s used by Nicolete Gray to describe the q u a l i t i e s of the sans s e r i f s c r i p t as defined by the c a l l i g r a p h e r s Edward Johnston and E r i c G i l l . She i s c l e a r l y not using the term "sans s e r i f " i n i t s narrowest sense ( i . e . , l e t t e r s which are monoline and s e r i f l e s s , see F i g . 70) i n her a r t i c l e on early i n s c r i p t i o n a l s . See Gray, "Sans S e r i f , " p. 71 for her i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the Johnston and G i l l d e f i n i t i o n . The term "sans s e r i f " i s typographic i n o r i g i n and was f i r s t used i n the catalogues of B r i t i s h typefounders of the early nineteenth century when the f i r s t sans s e r i f types appeared. See Morison, P o l i t i c s and  S c r i p t , pp. 5-8 and fn. 1, p. 8. For further h i s t o r i c a l data on sans s e r i f l e t t e r s see: P.M. Handover, "Letters Without S e r i f s , " Motif, 6 (1961), pp. 66-81. ^ Gray suggested that there were three p r i n c i p a l spheres of l e t t e r i n g a c t i v i t y — F l o r e n c e , Rimini, and Rome. See Gray, "Sans S e r i f , " p. 67. Ibid., p. 71. 9 Ibid., p. 67. 1 0 Ibid. 11 12 13 Ibid., pp. 69-71. Ibid., p. 71. Lowe, "Handwriting," p. 197, stated that^"Calligraphy i s distinguished by harmony of s t y l e . It i s conscious of the methods which i t gets i t s r e s u l t s . Its forms are d e f i n i t e . " 25 Chapter I I I : A S t y l i s t i c Re-evaluation of the Lettere Antiche In discussing the s t y l i s t i c p r i n c i p l e s by which a set of l e t t e r s might be said to be Roman or Gothic, i t i s necessary to consider the close s t y l i s t i c r e l a t i o n s h i p i n which Gothic and Roman l e t t e r s stand to each other. That r e l a t i o n s h i p can be best understood by considering the i n t e r -r e l a t i o n s h i p between Roman c a p i t a l s , u n c i a l s , and miniscules since the Gothic c a p i t a l alphabet i s a fusion of those forms. Uncials and miniscules are forms which evolved or "devolved" from the Roman c a p i t a l s through a n a t u r a l l y occurring palaeographic process (Fig. 54). This process involves the informal p r o c l i v i t i e s of the writing hand. Writing, although an a r t , i s also an instrument of communication. When a s c r i p t o r i s p r i m a r i l y concerned with the content of a manuscript, he draws on a k i n e s t h e t i c sense to f a s h i o n — i n a sense, automatically-—his l e t t e r s . 1 Once the l e t t e r s have been committed to "bodily memory," i t i s possible for the scribe to be free of concern with l e t t e r shape on a conscious l e v e l . But the employment of the k i n e s t h e t i c sense or bodily memory, because i t relegates the process of l e t t e r formation to a secondary l e v e l of conscious-ness, opens the way for the expression of c e r t a i n p r o c l i v i t i e s peculiar to the writing process. The s c r i p t o r becomes more concerned for the conven-2 ience of the hand that makes, rather than the eye that reads. Foremost among these p r o c l i v i t i e s are the tendency to round off angles, the tendency to fuse strokes by executing one curve for two or three straight l i n e s , and 3 the tendency to curve straight l i n e s . The l e t t e r forms which emerge are c u r v i l i n e a r i n form and have become known as u n c i a l s . Speaking of uncialesque w r i t i n g , the distinguished palaeographer , E.M., Thompson stated: 26 The second form of Majuscule writing employed as a l i t e r a r y hand for the texts of MSS. i s that to which the name of Uncial has been given. I t i s a modification of square c a p i t a l w r i t i n g . As square l e t t e r s were the easiest to carve on stone or metal, so was i t more simple, when writing l e t t e r s with the reed or pen on a material more or les s s o f t , to avoid r i g h t angles by the use of curves. Uncial, then, i s e s s e n t i a l l y a round hand, and i t s p r i n c i p a l char-a c t e r i s t i c l e t t e r s are the curved f orms ,.A c> ^ - 7} (O 4 When the process of devolution i s extended further, and the l e t t e r s begin to exh i b i t also a concomitant diminution i n s i z e , the l e t t e r s are known as miniscules. The modern c a l l i g r a p h e r and palaeographer, Father E.A. Catich, has suc c i n c t l y written of the equivalence of semi-formal or informal writing with uncialesque forms. Catich expressed that equivalence as follows: Speaking generally [sic] kinesthesis i s h i s t o r i c a l l y important, for i t i s at the root of the devolution of majuscules that produced m i n i s c u l e s — t h a t i s , the kin e s t h e t i c changeover from formality to informality i n letter-making, and kinesthesis explains the formation of semi-formal ( I t a l i c ) w r i t i ng from formal writing.5 Thus uncialesque writing i s informal, and the d i s t i n g u i s h i n g s t y l i s t i c mani-f e s t a t i o n of that in f o r m a l i t y i s the presence of c u r v i l i n e a r i t y . Conversely, the d i s t i n g u i s h i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of formal writing i s i t s r e c t i l i n e a r i t y . Following the d i s s o l u t i o n of the Roman Empire and for a number of centuries thereafter, the Roman-alphabet became transformed through the i n f l u x of a number of uncialesque shapes. That transformation occurred i n stages, but eventually a number of uncials and the miniscule N were combined with l e s s r a d i c a l l y modified Roman c a p i t a l s to form the so - c a l l e d "Gothic majuscule alphabet," an alphabet having a c a p i t a l status and com-prised of Roman majuscules and a number of "devolved," informal forms raised to c a p i t a l status. Roughly a t h i r d of the Gothic majuscule alphabet i s comprised of "devolved" forms, and i t i s i n understanding those 27 forms s t y l i s t i c a l l y that the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the Gothic and the Roman s c r i p t s may be perceived. For the d i s t i n g u i s h i n g factor between the devolved and the antique l e t t e r s i s the r e l a t i v e dominance of the formal, straight l i n e . It i s thus possible to judge the "antique" or "gothic" character of a l e t t e r — a n d u l t i m a t e l y the t r a d i t i o n of a developed s c r i p t — b y inspecting the l e t t e r shapes to determine the degree to which the s c r i p t e x hibits r e c t i l i n e a r i t y or c u r v i l i n e a r i t y , formal or informal shapes, as that a n t i t h e s i s i s the essence of a t r a d i t i o n ( i . e . , antique or Gothic). C u r v i l i n e a r i t y i s increasingly practiced i n the legs or supports of display l e t t e r s from the eighth through the twelfth and t h i r t e e n t h centuries. During t h i s period, the contour of l e t t e r supports became more strongly and c o n s i s t e n t l y i n conformity with the uncialesque s t y l e of l e t t e r i n g that prevailed (Fig. 66). Thus the legs of the l e t t e r s slowly l o s t t h e i r a r c h i t e c t u r a l l y supportive function and acquired a more two-dimensional design-oriented function. In short, c u r v i l i n e a r i t y i n the down-strokes of display l e t t e r s i s a q u a l i t y which i s an adjunct to l e t t e r form, and, as such, i s properly viewed as an important indica t o r of the t r a d i t i o n to which l e t t e r s might be said to belong. If the lettere antiche are now considered s t r i c t l y from the'point of view of t h e i r l i n e a r i t y , the l e t t e r s used by the foremost sculptors of the early Renaissance reveal shapes which are remarkably consistent i n t h e i r form. They can be seen to belong to the antique t r a d i t i o n by comparing them to s p e c i f i c examples within that t r a d i t i o n , such as the L a t i n votive i n s c r i p t i o n of L. Aemilius Paulus (Fig. 37), or the Trajanic i n s c r i p t i o n i n 28 Rome (Fig. 38). The c u r v i l i n e a r i t y of the Gothic majuscule alphabet (Figs. 49, 67) has yielded to the r e c t i l i n e a r i t y of antique c a p i t a l s . The neo-antique l e t t e r s of the early Renaissance (Figs. 1-36) are almost i d e n t i c a l i n t h e i r character with the l e t t e r s that characterized Roman anti q u i t y u n t i l the advent of i n s c r i p t i o n a l changes i n the seventh century.^ In the sixteen monumental i n s c r i p t i o n s considered i n t h i s paper, only three instances appear i n which the l e t t e r s can be • said to belong to the Gothic t r a d i t i o n : two G's of Gh i b e r t i , one i n his Shrine of St. Zenobius (Fig. 10, in the word INSIGNI), and the other i n h i s signature on the Gates of Paradise (Fig. 27); and an E i n the Tomb of Bishop Pecci (Fig. 32, i n the 8 name PECCIO) at t r i b u t e d to Donatello and Michelozzo. The group of sixteen also exhibits an equally consistent attention to the contour of l e t t e r downstrokes. Their consistent r e c t i l i n e a r i t y reveals that the l e t t e r supports have been formed i n a fashion consistent with t h e i r antique shape. The only i n s c r i p t i o n which can be said to be a clear instance of an a r t i s t consciously forming c u r v i l i n e a r downstrokes i s the i n s c r i p t i o n on the Tomb of Bishop Pecci (Figs. 32-33, note p a r t i c u l a r l y the N i n DNO, the I i n IOHANNI, the I i n PECCIO, and the N i n SENEN). There are, indeed, other i n s c r i p t i o n s which exhibit either a freedom i n the formation of intermittent l e t t e r downstrokes, as, for example, the i n s c r i p t i o n on the a l t a r of the Pazzi Chapel (Fig. 29, note the f i r s t I i n the i l l u s t r a t i o n ) or an intermittent splaying of the ends of downstrokes, as, for example, the i n s c r i p t i o n on the Tomb of Leonardo Bruni (Figs. 20-21, note the I's i n POTVISSE and MIGRAVIT). I suggest, however, that such s c r i p t s s t i l l r e t a i n the qua l i t y of an t i q u i t a s . Neither of the above instances, even though they exhibit a degree of a r t i s t i c l i c e n s e , shows a conscious or i n t u i t i v e intent to use f i r m l y the c u r v i l i n e a r modulation of 29 downstrokes as a l e t t e r i n g motif as i t i s exhibited on the Pecci Tomb or, for example, i n a f i f t e e n t h century manuscript of Cato's L i f e (Fig. 41), 9 att r i b u t e d by Charles M i t c h e l l to a Lombard bottega. For that reason, the Pecci i n s c r i p t i o n i s here considered to f a l l outside the neo-antique t r a d i t i o n of the early Renaissance. It exhibits l e t t e r s i n which one, but not both, of the e s s e n t i a l s t y l i s t i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the l e t t e r e antiche are employed; that i s , l e t t e r s which are Roman i n shape,but c u r v i l i n e a r , instead of r e c t i l i n e a r , i n the contour of t h e i r downstrokes. Such l e t t e r s may be said to belong to a group of ' a n t i c i p a t o r y 1 s c r i p t s , l i k e the s c r i p t of the Cato's L i f e ( F ig. 41), which f a i l to exhibit a l l of the conventions e s s e n t i a l to the formation of l e t t e r s i n the neo-antique t r a d i t i o n . A r t i s t i c l i c e n s e , however, must be seen as having exceeded i t s l i m i t when curves become stra i g h t l i n e s — a s i s the supposed case c i t e d by Gray i n instances such as the wedge-shaped downstrokes that appear i n i n s c r i p -tions l i k e the Tomb of the Beata V i l l a n a ( F i g . 17, note the N i n VILLANE). Thus the extension of the qu a l i t y of c u r v i l i n e a r i t y suggested by Gray, to the point at which the gothic splayed downstroke i s supposed to have become a wedge ( i . e . , the gothic curve becomes a s t r a i g h t l i n e ) , i s c l e a r l y untenable even within the l i m i t s of a r t i s t i c l i c e n s e . As a r u l e , curves do not appear i n the l e t t e r arms of the l e t t e r e  antiche. So long as the contour of the l i n e s forming the l e t t e r arms of the l e t t e r e antiche are r e c t i l i n e a r , they m u s t — i n accordance with the s t y l i s t i c p r i n c i p l e here suggested—be seen as Roman i n t r a d i t i o n , whether or not they exhibit a modulated width of l i n e . Modulated width of l i n e , hereinafter c a l l e d stroke-shading, i s not "gothic" per se. It i s only c u r v i l i n e a r modulation that can be cogently associated with the Gothic t r a d i t i o n . 30 In the few instances i n which curves do appear i n the l e t t e r arms of the l e t t e r e antiche, they are confined to one of the two contour l i n e s forming the arm, thereby producing a s e r i f e d e f f e c t . For example, the inner l i n e of the lower arm of the E's i n the i n s c r i p t i o n of the Tomb of John XXIII i s frequently curved (Fig. 2, note the lower arm of the E i n FLORENTIA). A s i m i l a r e f f e c t may be noted i n the l e t t e r i n g i n the bronze i n s c r i p t i o n for the Aragazzi Tomb (Fig. 3, note the E's i n the t h i r d and fourth l i n e s ) . But, so long as one of the l i n e s i n such arms remains r e c t i l i n e a r , the character of the arm i s r e c t i l i n e a r . ^ " I submit that the Gothic use of r e c t i l i n e a r stroke shading ( F i g . 67, see the arm of the L i n the t h i r d l i n e on the l e f t side of the book) i s simply an instance of the Gothic employment of an e s s e n t i a l l y Roman or Romanesque motif. In substance, on the basis of the s t y l i s t i c argument given at the beginning of t h i s chapter, I conclude that the l e t t e r e antiche were the f i r s t genuinely antique l e t t e r s of the Renaissance regardless of whether or not they either look antique or can be said to duplicate a known antique s t y l e . In addition, the l i n e s of continuity seen i n the l e t t e r e antiche by '.Nicolete Gray;—lines established by her system of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n — a r e seen to be i n v a l i d through the a p p l i c a t i o n of that same argument. A revised estimate of the l i n e s of continuity among the l e t t e r e antiche i s necessary for a proper and complete reassessment of Early Renaissance display l e t t e r s . To that end, an objective or neutral system of l e t t e r c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i s now offered i n Chapter IV, and used to c l a s s i f y the l e t t e r e antiche i n Chapter V. 31 Footnotes: Chapter III Catich, Origin of S e r i f , pp. 141-142. 2 Ibid., p. 134. 3 Ibid., p. 142. 4 Edward Maunde Thompson, An Introduction to Greek and L a t i n  Palaeography (Oxford: The Clarendon Press, 1912), p. 102. 5 Catich, Origin of S e r i f , p. 144. 6 Covi, " L e t t e r i n g , " p. 3. The term "Gothic majuscule alphabet" was coined by Covi. ^ Uncials were introduced into manuscript writing i n the fourth century A.D., and i s o l a t e d u n c i a l i n s c r i p t i o n a l forms can be found from the l a t t e r part of the second century through the l a t t e r part of the fourth century. See Thompson, Introduction, pp. 284-285. An examination of the i n s c r i p t i o n a l specimens i n Ernestus D i e h l , Inscriptiones Latinae (Bonn: A. Marcus et E. Webber, 1912), p. 37, indicates a s i g n i f i c a n t increase i n u n c i a l forms i n the seventh century. g H. Caplow, Michelozzo (New York: Garland Publishing Inc., 1977), p. 260, suggests that Michelozzo worked alone on the Aragazzi tomb (Fig. 3). If that i s so, and i f the l e t t e r i n g on that tomb i s any i n d i c a t i o n of Michelozzo's l e t t e r i n g s t y l e , then i t i s hardly l i k e l y that the l e t t e r -ing on the Pecci tomb i s from his hand. Nicolete Gray, "Sans S e r i f , " p. 71, noted that the l e t t e r i n g s t y l e of the i n s c r i p t i o n on the Tomb of Bishop Pecci (Fig. 32) i s quite d i f f e r e n t from the s t y l e of the John XXIII i n s c r i p t i o n (Fig. 2), also associated with the names of Donatello and Michelozzo. Since, as w i l l be shown l a t e r , the l e t t e r i n g s t y l e s of the John XXIII and the Aragazzi i n s c r i p t i o n s are fundamentally the same, i t would appear that the i n s c r i p t i o n s on those monuments might cogently be associated with the hand of Michelozzo. 9 David Diringer, The Illuminated Book (1958; r p t . New York: Frederick A. Praeger, Inc., 1967), facing p. 346. The extent and continuity of s c r i p t s such as those seen i n the Pecci i n s c r i p t i o n or the Cato's L i f e ( F ig. 41) have not been investigated. I do not r u l e out the p o s s i b i l i t y that they, l i k e the l e t t e r e antiche, might be seen to constitute a coherent group of s t y l e s within a t r a d i t i o n which has not been defined within the context of t h i s paper. r 32 That "rule of thumb" i s my own. Generally, i t works quite w e l l , but there i s one s i t u a t i o n i n which a lapse i s evident at t i m e s — t h a t i s , with the cen t r a l arm of the E which sometimes has two splayed contour l i n e s . See the E's on the Aragazzi tomb (Fig. 3). Chapter IV A C l a s s i f i c a t i o n System For Early Renaissance Display Letters The Primary P r i n c i p l e of C l a s s i f i c a t i o n : Formality Both Nicolete Gray and M i l l a r d Meiss recognized the importance of formality i n l e t t e r i n g . It was on the issue of formality that Meiss based h i s notion of a "palaeographic t r a d i t i o n . " I t was the formal, undecorated q u a l i t y of the l e t t e r e antiche that allowed them to be le g i t i m a t e l y compared with the modern sans s e r i f s t y l e by Gray. Furthermore as noted i n Chapter 1,^ Renaissance s c r i p t o r s and scholars themselves used the q u a l i t y of l e t t e r formality i n di s t i n g u i s h i n g types of s c r i p t on the basis of t h e i r c u r s i v i t y — t h e formata, the c o r s i v a , and the corrente. The r e l a t i o n s h i p between formality and speed was noted by E.A. Catich. Father Catich stated: Formal l e t t e r s favor the need of the eye that reads, whereas informal favor the hand that makes the l e t t e r s . Speed of wr i t i n g then i s a chief cause for the s h i f t from formality to informality i n a c a l l i g r a p h e r ' s writing.2 As noted i n Chapter I I I , the change from Roman c a p i t a l s to the devolved forms of unci a l s and miniscules i s a r e s u l t of the informal p r o c l i v i t i e s of the writing hand. The r e l a t i o n s h i p between Gothic and Roman l e t t e r s i s a r e f l e c t i o n of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between informal forms and formal ones. Following the lead of those scholars, I suggest that the fundamental p r i n c i p l e of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of display l e t t e r s i s formality. Furthermore, I propose that the three primary determinants of l e t t e r formality, i n order of importance, are: l e t t e r shape, a factor which might reasonably be said to determine the t r a d i t i o n to which a l e t t e r belongs; l e t t e r execution, a factor which may be said to r e f l e c t the "manner of speaking" or r h e t o r i c a l 34 mode i n which the l e t t e r s are executed; and l e t t e r c u r s i v i t y , a qu a l i t y which r e f l e c t s the speed of execution and which might be c a l l e d l e t t e r genre. These three d i v i s i o n s are the basis of the r e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of the l e t t e r e antiche presented i n Chapter V. Tra d i t i o n : l e t t e r shape The p r i n c i p l e underlying the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of a l e t t e r i n g t r a d i t i o n — c u r v i l i n e a r i t y vs r e c t i l i n e a r i t y , i n f o r m a l i t y vs formality—was given i n Chapter I I I . At that point only two t r a d i t i o n s were d i s c u s s e d — t h e Gothic and the Roman. In the h i s t o r y of L a t i n i n s c r i p t i o n a l forms, however, two other t r a d i t i o n s are indicated: the Etruscan and the Ottonian Uncialesque. In order of t h e i r appearance, four changes of t r a d i t i o n have characterized the palaeographic h i s t o r y of L a t i n s c r i p t s : the t r a n s i t i o n from the Etruscan (Figs. 60-61) to the Roman t r a d i t i o n ( F ig. 62) i n the t h i r d 3 century B.C.; the t r a n s i t i o n , north of the Alps, from the Roman to the 4 Ottonian Golden Uncialesque (Figs. 64-65) i n the eleventh century; the t r a n s i t i o n from the Golden Uncialesque to the Ottonian Round Unc i a l e s q u e — a s t y l i s t i c v a r i a t i o n of what we know as Gothic—which made i t s e a r l i e s t appearance i n I t a l y i n the mid-twelfth century (Fig. 66);^ and the t r a n s i t i o n from the Gothic Uncialesque (Fig. 49) to the Roman i n the f i f t e e n t h century. 6 Rhetorical Mode: l e t t e r execution Letters may be seen as belonging to eit h e r of two r h e t o r i c a l modes— writing or drawing. Writing i s that method of forming l e t t e r s i n which each e s s e n t i a l part of each l e t t e r i s made i n one stroke.^ Drawing i s the method i n which at le a s t one of the e s s e n t i a l parts of a l e t t e r i s made i n 35 more than one stroke.^ Rhetorical mode may be determined by inspecting the shading of a p a r t i -cular s c r i p t . If no shading i s present, then the l e t t e r s , by d e f i n i t i o n , have been written. If shading i s present, however, then i t s pattern must be considered to determine i f the l e t t e r s have been written or drawn. Shaded writing i s obtained when a writing instrument with a square-edged nib i s used. I t i s sometimes c a l l e d thick-and-thin w r i t i n g because the process of w r i t i ng with a square-edged instrument r e s u l t s i n l e t t e r s which have strokes of varying widths or t h i c k n e s s e s — t h e widest strokes being those which are formed at the same angle at which the w r i t i n g instrument i s held. Shaded writing i s r a t i o n a l i n that the same strokes, regardless of the l e t t e r s i n which they occur, are the same i n w i d t h — a pattern which occurs because the writing instrument i s held at a constant cant or angle to the l i n e of wri t i n g . Shaded wri t i n g , regardless of whether i t has been executed with a q u i l l , a pen, a reed, or a brush, exhibits contrast shading i n i t s r e c t i l i n e a r members; that i s , a v a r i a t i o n of l i g h t and shade through the contrast of strokes of 9 d i f f e r e n t width. It also exhibits stroke shading i n i t s c u r v i l i n e a r parts; that i s , a modulation i n the width of the i n d i v i d u a l curved stroke. R e c t i l i n e a r stroke shading—that i s , a r e c t i l i n e a r modulated width of l i n e used for r e c t i l i n e a r strokes (e.g., see the arms of the E's and the L's i n F i g . 7 ) — i s a s t y l i s t i c e f f e c t obtainable only through the technique of drawing. Drawing i s also frequently characterized by consistent shading—as opposed to the r a t i o n a l shading of wr i t i n g ; that i s , the shading pattern for i n d i v i d u a l l e t t e r s does not vary, but l i k e strokes are not nece s s a r i l y the same i n width. For example, the t h i n diagonal of the l e t t e r N on the Tomb of John XXIII (Fig. 2) i s much thinner than the same stroke i n the l e t t e r A, but a l l the A's and a l l of the N's are the same. 36 S i m i l a r l y , the M's i n the i n s c r i p t i o n on Luca d e l l a Robbia's Cantoria (Fi g . 7) have legs which, although they are the same downstroke, are d i f f e r e n t i n w i d t h — a v a r i a t i o n which i n t h i s instance i s occasioned by the fact that the l e f t downstroke i s stroke-shaded. A l l of Luca's M's, i t w i l l be noted, are the same. Therefore his shading i s consistent but non-rational. Luca's M's are of p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t i n that they are both contrast and stroke-shaded: the stroke-shading, as previously noted, being apparent i n the modulated widths of the l e f t hand legs; and the contrast-shading i s seen i n both the varying widths of the legs and the varying widths of the members of the diagonals forming the inner V's. H i s t o r i c a l changes i n r h e t o r i c a l mode have been as infrequent as changes i n t r a d i t i o n . From the period of the e a r l i e r Roman i n s c r i p t i o n s of about the t h i r d century B.C. to the nineteenth century there were only two changes i n mode: the change from the written c a p i t a l to the drawn c a p i t a l , begun by the eighth century and c r y s t a l i z e d by the tenth and eleventh centuries;"^ and the change from the drawn back to the written c a p i t a l , begun at the end of the f i f t e e n t h century and c r y s t a l i z e d by the mid-sixteenth century. The l e t t e r s on the Trajanicinscription i n Rome (Fig. 38) and those on an Augustan i n s c r i p t i o n from the Roman forum (Fig. 39) c l e a r l y show the canonic, s e r i f e d , contrast-shaded c a p i t a l of the Roman Empire. If the recent research of Father E.A. Catich i s correct, i t now appears that the Trajanic l e t t e r s , the s c r i p t u r a monumentalis, before they were inci s e d i n the stone for permanence, were fashioned by the technique of writing with a square-edged brush."'"''' They therefore belong to the mode of w r i t i n g . The change i n r h e t o r i c a l mode from writing to drawing was p a r t i c u l a r l y undramatic because c a l l i g r a p h e r s tended to copy the shape and shading of 37 the Trajanic l e t t e r while using the drawing technique."""' The ninth century Carolingian c a p i t a l s on the opening page of the Gospel of St. John from the Metz Gospels (Fig. 69) and the drawn Trajanic c a p i t a l s i n the Benedictional of St. Ethelwold (Fig. 68, l a t e tenth century) exhibit the subtle aspect of the f i r s t change i n r h e t o r i c a l mode which was to l a s t f o r many centuries. Although the new technique of drawing implied the pos-s i b i l i t y of freer forms, a c e r t a i n conservatism characterized the early 13 e f f o r t s with the new method. A conservatism also characterized the change i n r h e t o r i c a l mode implied i n the reintroduction of the Trajanic l e t t e r i n the l a t t e r part of the f i f t e e n t h century. The numerous t r e a t i s e s on the geometric construc-t i o n of Trajanic l e t t e r s t e s t i f i e s to the b e l i e f that the Trajanic l e t t e r s were thought to have been properly executed i f they were drawn according 14 to c e r t a i n geometric p r i n c i p l e s . It was not u n t i l the mid-sixteenth century that the great Vatican scr i b e , Giovanni Francesco C r e s c i , outraged his noted contemporary, Giovanbattista Palatino, by p u b l i c l y suggesting that such l e t t e r s might best be drawn freehand. 1 5 Genre: l e t t e r 'cursivity There are four genres to which l e t t e r s might belong—two within the mode of writing and two within the mode of drawing—depending upon the 16 degree of c u r s i v i t y which they e x h i b i t . The four genres emerge from the use of four d i f f e r e n t techniques to form l e t t e r s : penning, l e t t e r i n g , l ayering and o u t l i n i n g (Figs. 55-59, 72). Letters which are penned (Fig. 59) are here c a l l e d simpals; those which are l e t t e r e d are here c a l l e d i n s c r i p t i o n a l s ( F ig. 72); those which are layered are c a l l e d v e r s a l s (Figs. 56-58); and those which are outlined are c a l l e d i n i t i a l s (Fig. 55).^ 38 Penning and l e t t e r i n g belong to the mode of w r i t i n g . S i m i l a r l y , l a y e r i n g and o u t l i n i n g belong to the mode of drawing. Penning i s a method of forming l e t t e r s i n which each e s s e n t i a l part of each l e t t e r i s made i n one stroke by a r e l a t i v e l y r i g i d instrument held at 18 a constant cant. L e t t e r i n g i s a more formal type of writing than pen-ning. In l e t t e r i n g , each e s s e n t i a l part of each l e t t e r i s s t i l l made i n one stroke, but l e t t e r i n g i s a less cursive process made so by the addition of one or more formal elements of technique. Such elements may include a frequent change of cant, the addition of s e r i f s , or the use of a soft t o o l , such as a brush. Layering and o u t l i n i n g are methods of forming l e t t e r s i n which the es s e n t i a l parts of the l e t t e r s are made i n more than one stroke. They d i f f e r i n that layering i s a more cursive process whereby the l e t t e r s are built-up (Figs. 56-58); o u t l i n i n g i s a process whereby l e t t e r s are f i r s t s k e l e t a l l y drawn and then f i l l e d - i n ( F i g. 43, the i n i t i a l N ; F i g . 46, the i n i t i a l A; and F i g . 55). Both layered and outlined l e t t e r s have been c a l l e d v e r s a l s , a term which owes i t s o r i g i n to the fac t that l e t t e r s of that kind were commonly used during the medieval period to introduce or 19 mark the beginning of verses or paragraphs. In t h i s paper, however, because of the need for a technical d i s t i n c t i o n between each type, layered l e t t e r s w i l l be c a l l e d v e r s a l s and those which are drawn w i l l be c a l l e d i n i t i a l s — a reference to the more formally drawn illuminated i n i t i a l s (Figs. 41, 43, 46) frequently used i n the medieval and Renaissance periods to i n i t i a t e major manuscript d i v i s i o n s . Beyond those primary f a c t o r s , lesser f a ctors may be said to constitute the elements of a s p e c i f i c s t y l e . Style i s here conceived as a c o l l e c t i v e phenomenon, determined by those c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which unite and harmonize 39 members of the same genre, the most s i g n i f i c a n t of which i s shading. Other fac t o r s , such as s e r i f i n g , module, spacing, and cant, although of le s s s i g n i f i c a n c e than shading, are also important i n harmonizing members of the same genre. Since shading can be used to aid i n the determination of t r a d i t i o n , r h e t o r i c a l mode, genre,.and s t y l e , i t must be used with caution by proceeding from the larger to the smaller d i v i s i o n s . In that way, errors 21 of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n w i l l be avoided. 40 Footnotes: Chapter IV Above, p. 7. 2 See Ch. I l l , n. 2 . 3 Anderson, Art of Written Forms, p. 4 3 . Etruscan characters can be seen on one of the e a r l i e s t known specimens of L a t i n w r i t i n g , the i n s c r i p -t i o n on the Praenestine F i b u l a (Figs. 6 0 - 6 1 ) . The l e t t e r s are c l e a r l y highly r e c t i l i n e a r . The i n s c r i p t i o n i s retrograde,. With the-text .reversed i t may be .t r a n s l i t e r a t e d to read in. Archaic L a t i n : MANIOSME FECIT NVMASIOI, that i s , Manios made me for Numasios. The change i n t r a d i t i o n from the Etruscan to the Roman i s evident i n i n s c r i p t i o n s dating from the t h i r d century B.C., as, for example, the i n s c r i p t i o n on the tomb of Scipio Barbatus (Fig. 6 2 ) . The former highly r e c t i l i n e a r t r a d i t i o n of the Etruscan s c r i p t became considerably modulated through the infusion of c u r v i l i n e a r elements i n the B, D, R, and S. In the Etruscan alphabet the r e c t i l i n e a r l e t t e r form K was used for the sound we now associate with K and C. By su b s t i t u t i n g the C for the K, a major c u r v i l i n e a r element was added to the Roman alphabet. 4 Morison, P o l i t i c s and S c r i p t , pp. 202 -240 . There was a period of intermediate change. The t r a d i t i o n established during the Republican period continued through the Imperial period, although there was a change in the way display l e t t e r s were executed ( l a t e r i n t h i s paper c a l l e d r h e t o r i c a l mode) that serves.as a palaeographic marker between the two periods ( i . e . , Roman and Imperial). The f i r s t s i g n i f i c a n t departure from the canonical Roman (antique) t r a d i t i o n i n i n s c r i p t i o n a l l e t t e r i n g occurred during the seventh and the eighth centuries (Ch. I l l , no. 7 , for r e f . ) when uncialesque forms, which had been introduced into manuscript writing during the fourth century, found t h e i r way into a c a p i t a l context i n i n s c r i p t i o n s . Inscriptions e x h i b i t i n g uncialesque forms are p a r t i c u -l a r l y evident in the so-called "Popular School," one of the three schools of l e t t e r design said to have characterized i n s c r i p t i o n a l forms i n I t a l y during the eighth and ninth centuries. These schools were formulated by Nicolete Gray i n a study of I t a l i a n i n s c r i p t i o n s of the eighth through the tenth centuries which she pub-l i s h e d i n 1948. See Nicolete Gray, "The Palaeography of L a t i n Inscriptions i n the Eighth, Ninth, and Tenth Centuries i n I t a l y , " Papers of the B r i t i s h  School at Rome, NS .3 (1948) , pp. 3 8 - 1 7 1 . For the eighth and ni n t h centuries Gray delineated three d i s t i n c t schools: the Lombard school, the Roman, and the Popular school (Gray, "Palaeography," pp. 78, 154-61 et passim). The l e t t e r forms of the Lombard and the Roman schools tended toward forms i n the customary antique t r a d i t i o n , while the Popular school incorporated a number of u n c i a l forms, among which can be counted the u n c i a l forms of E, D, H, M, and U (Gray, "Palaeography," p. 7 9 ) . The existence of the Popular school did not constitute a canonic change i n t r a d i t i o n , but i t did portend a major change which appears to have occurred north of the Alps simultaneously with that period now c a l l e d the Romanesque. 41 Under the influence of the Carolingian renovatio of the ninth century, Popular i n s c r i p t i o n s disappeared i n the tenth century i n I t a l y and l e t t e r s i n the t r a d i t i o n a l antique t r a d i t i o n continued throughout the tenth and eleventh centuries (Gray, "Palaeography," p. 159). Letters of the u n c i a l -esque v a r i e t y found a more f e r t i l e s o i l north of the Alps where they germinated and acquired a new authority as c a p i t a l l e t t e r s i n the c a p i t a l s c r i p t associated with the Germanic kings of the eleventh through the thirteenth centur i e s — t h e Golden and the Round Uncialesque. See Morison, P o l i t i c s and S c r i p t , pp. 202-240. Both the Regensburg Sacramentary of  Henry II (c. 1007, F i g . 64) and the Echternach Gospels of Henry III (c. 1043-6, F i g . 65) exhibit c a p i t a l l e t t e r s i n the Golden Uncialesque t r a d i t i o n featuring the u n c i a l forms of D (not seen i n these examples), E, G, M, and U. It might also be noted that these examples exhibit the c u r v i l i n e a r modulation of l e t t e r supports previously said (Ch. I l l , p. 27) to characterize a change i n t r a d i t i o n as i t a f f e c t s two-dimensionally extended downstrokes. ~* Morison, P o l i t i c s and S c r i p t , p. 222. The Ottonian Round U n c i a l -esque made an early appearance i n I t a l y about a century l a t e r than i t s appearance north of the Alps i n an i n s c r i p t i o n commemorating Innocent II i n Sta. Maria i n Trastavere in Rome. Stanley Morison has suggested that the poor workmanship of that i n s c r i p t i o n (Fig. 66) was probably due to the fact that the craftsmen were unfamiliar with the forms which they were cu t t i n g . The l e t t e r i n g i s very rounded—highly uncialesque. Of p a r t i c u l a r note are the u n c i a l forms of H, E, M, T, D (with a l e f t extended spur), G, and N. The l e t t e r s of t h i s i n s c r i p t i o n also exhibit a pronounced c u r v i l i n e a r modulation i n t h e i r supports, stroke shading (see glossary) which features a r a d i c a l contrast between t h i c k and t h i n i n the subsid-iary strokes of some l e t t e r s (e.g., F i g . 66, the f i r s t N i n l i n e 8), and a high degree of s e r i f i n g . Thirteenth and fourteenth century uncialesque forms, c a l l e d the Compressed Uncialesque i n contrast to the Round Uncialesque, exhibit a compression i n the l e t t e r forms (see Morison, P o l i t i c s and S c r i p t , pp. 230, 232, and Fig s . 141, 152; also, t h i s paper, Figs. 49, 52), more elaborate decorative devices (e.g., f l a g - l i k e appendages on the A's and D's), the use of h a i r - l i n e s e r i f s or extensions, a s h i f t i n balance i n which one single l e t t e r support i s dominant ( e s p e c i a l l y apparent i n the l e t t e r s A, M, and N), and a r a d i c a l contrast between thick and t h i n areas in stroke shading. The i n s c r i p t i o n on the Tomb of Cardinal Stefaneschi i n Sta. Maria i n Trastavere, although quite l a t e i n date.and:.somewhat extreme i n i t s decoration (Anderson, Art of Written Forms, p. 100), i s n i c e l y i l l u s t r a t i v e of the form the Compressed Uncialesque had reached when the Renaissance reformation of s c r i p t began with the scribes and scholars i n the l a t t e r part of the fourteenth century. It should be noted that the Compressed Uncialesque did not cease to exis t when the Roman emerged i n the f i f t e e n t h century and the Roman c a p i t a l s did not cease to exi s t when the Ottonian Round Uncialesque became a canonic s c r i p t i n the eleventh century. As l a t e as the middle of the t h i r t e e n t h century Frederick I I (d. 1250) was using Uncialesque on h i s seal but Augustan c a p i t a l s for other purposes. See Morison, P o l i t i c s and  Sc r i p t , p. 244. 42 Catich, Origin of S e r i f , p. 11. g Catich, Origin of S e r i f , p. 14 follows that nomenclature, although he uses the term ' f i l l e d - i n ' l e t t e r for a l e t t e r which i s f i r s t outlined ( i . e . , drawn) and then darkened. A standard meaning for the terms draw-ing and l e t t e r i n g i s by no means evident. Thus Nicolete Gray uses the term 'pen-drawn c a p i t a l s ' to describe some early Renaissance pen written forms and the term 'drawn' to describe c e r t a i n Anglo-Saxon l e t t e r s which were outlined and then f i l l e d i n . See Gray, L e t t e r i n g as Drawing, p. 5 and F i g . 1. Edward Johnston, Writing & Illuminating, and L e t t e r i n g , pp. x i i i - x v , 240-241 and Figs. 142 and 143 i s unclear i n his use of the terms. Reading between the l i n e s , Johnston appears to believe that the differ e n c e between writing and l e t t e r i n g i s a question of attention; that i s , the degree to which a s c r i p t o r or a r t i s a n i s concerned with the art of l e t t e r making. Thus a l l of the l e t t e r s i n Johnston, Figs. 147 and 148 (involving a l l ways of l e t t e r making) are said to be l e t t e r e d . 9 Both the terms contrast-shading and stroke-shading have been coined by me for use i n t h i s paper. Letters which are stroke-shaded have at least one r e c t i l i n e a r member which varies i n i t s width, while l e t t e r s which are contrast-shaded have at l e a s t two r e c t i l i n e a r members which vary from each other i n t h e i r width but which are i n d i v i d u a l l y monoline. 10 See n. 13 below. 11 Catich, Origin of S e r i f , pp. 158-183, 12 Gray, Letter i n g as Drawing, pp. 5-10 and F i g s . 4-7, 13 Some early manuscripts exhibit l e t t e r s with a free, drawn form, as, for example, F i g . 17 i n Gray, op. c i t . , p. 21, consisting of l e t t e r s i n a manuscript written at Corbie, c. 800. 14 See n. 15, Ch. I. Anderson, Art of Written Forms, p. 131; and James Mosley, "Trajan Revived," Alphabet, 1 (1964), p. 22. The d i s t i n c t i o n i s analagous to the d i s t i n c t i o n made by Renaissance ca l l i g r a p h e r s between the progressively more cursive formata, corsiva, and corente s c r i p t s . See above p. 7 and n. 8, Ch. I. I have coined the term 'simpal' as a reduction of the term used by Edward Johnston to l a b e l penned c a p i t a l s i n contrast to those which had been drawn ( i . e . , v ersals or i n i t i a l s ) — t h a t i s , 'simple-written c a p i t a l ' . See Edward Johnston, Writing & Illuminating, and L e t t e r i n g , p. 123. 43 A s l i g h t l y more r i g i d d e f i n i t i o n than that given by E.A. Catich for a written l e t t e r . See Catich, O r i g i n of S e r i f , p. 11. S e r i f s , i n the penning process, are e s s e n t i a l insofar as they are executed as part of the e s s e n t i a l strokes; i n l e t t e r i n g , s e r i f s are adventitious insofar as they are 'added-on'. 19 Edward Johnston, Writing & Illuminating, and Le t t e r i n g , pp. 112-Module i s the r e l a t i o n s h i p of height to width. Cant i s the angle at which the wr i t i n g instrument i s held to the l i n e of w r i t i n g . See the Glossary f o r these and other terms. 21 Such a procedure would only be following the l o g i c of c l a s s i f i -c a tion. It might be r e c a l l e d that Nicolete Gray used a shading factor ( i . e . , the c u r v i l i n e a r modulation of l e t t e r downstrokes) i n order to determine s t y l e when that factor should have been used to determine t r a d i t i o n . 44 Chapter V: A C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of F i f t e e n Early Renaissance Inscriptions It has already been argued i n Chapter IV that the l e t t e r e antiche as a group belong to the antique t r a d i t i o n by v i r t u e of the notable degree of r e c t i l i n e a r i t y or formality incorporated i n both t h e i r shape and the l i n e a r i t y of t h e i r downstrokes. In t h i s chapter, the group of f i f t e e n early Renaissance i n s c r i p t i o n s examined i n t h i s t h e s i s w i l l be discussed i n terms of the d i v i s i o n s of r h e t o r i c a l mode, genre, and s t y l e . Rhetorical Mode The presence of r e c t i l i n e a r stroke-shading i n a l l of the f i f t e e n remaining i n s c r i p t i o n s — t h e P e c c i i n s c r i p t i o n was eliminated i n Chapter I I I as not bearing l e t t e r s which exhibit a l l of the es s e n t i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the l e t t e r e a n t i c h e — r e v e a l s that the l e t t e r e antiche belong to the r h e t o r i c a l mode of drawing insofar as they are a l l either i n i t i a l s or ve r s a l s . Genre The two genres of drawn l e t t e r s — i n i t i a l s and v e r s a l s — a r e both represented i n the Florentine i n s c r i p t i o n a l sphere. To the genre of i n i t i a l s belong the following monuments: Monument A r t i s t Date Figure(s) Tomb of John XXIII Donatello-Michelozzo 1422-27 1-2 Tomb of Bartolomeo Aragazzi Michelozzo ca. 1430 3 North Doors of Florentine Baptistry G h i b e r t i 1404-07 4-5 Luca Del i a Robbia's Cantoria Luca d e l l a Robbia 1431-38 6-7 Tomb of Spinello d i ^ Bonsignore de' S p i n e l l i undetermined 8 45 Monument A r t i s t Date Figure(s) Shrine of St. Zenobius G h i b e r t i Shrine of the Three Martyrs G h i b e r t i John the Baptist ( s c r o l l ) G h i b e r t i 1434-42 ca. 1428 1412-16 9-11 12-13 14 Tomb of John XXIII: Aragazzi Tomb: Notes on the Monuments most l e t t e r s appear to have been drawn with the exception, perhaps, of the arms of the E's and the bases of the L's which could have been drawn or layered. On the whole, however, the l e t t e r s give a drawn appearance. the considerable two-dimensional extension of these l e t t e r s along with the p r e c i s i o n and regular-i t y of the l e t t e r contours suggest, in t h i s specimen, which i s quite s i m i l a r to the John XXIII tomb, a drawn technique. G h i b e r t i 1 s North Doors Luca's Cantoria S p i n e l l i Tomb Zenobius Shrine Three Martyrs Shrine S c r o l l of Baptist a l l c l e a r l y drawn Ghiberti's l e t t e r s on these monuments are much smaller than those on the North Doors and much more f i n e l y modulated. The best example for c l o s e , inspection i s F i g . 11. The modulation i s so f i n e and so co n t r o l l e d that a drawn technique i s suggested. M i l l a r d Meiss believed that the l e t t e r s on the Baptist were drawn. 2 These l e t t e r s appear to have been too c a r e f u l l y planned and to be too ruled and regularized to have been layered. One exception to that pattern i s the quite rough-hewn L i n FLORENTINI (Fig. 11). The remaining monuments, which f a l l into the genre of v e r s a l s , are as follows: Monument A r t i s t Date Figure(s) Tomb of Leonardo Bruni Rossellino Workshop 1444-51 18-21 Tomb of the Beata V i l l a n a Rossellino Workshop ca. 1451 16-17 Tomb of Carlo Marsuppini Desiderio da Settignano ca. 1451 22-24 Gates of Paradise G h i b e r t i 1445-50 27-28 Tomb of Bishop Federighi Luca d e l l a Robbia 1454-56 25-26 Tomb of Giovanni C h e l l i n i ca. 1462 30-31 A l t a r of the Pazzi Chapel ca. 1429 29 46 Notes on the Monuments Tomb of Leonardo Bruni a number of the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the l e t t e r s of the Bruni Tomb suggest a built-up rather than a drawn technique: the l i m i t e d two-dimensional extension of most l e t t e r s (e.g., the L i n LATINAS, the A's i n MIGRAVIT, VITA, LATINAS); the l i m i t e d modulation i n r e c t i -l i n e a r l e t t e r parts (e.g., the l e f t diagonals of the A's, the arms of the F i n FERTVR, the base of the L i n LATINAS); and the c u r v i l i n e a r modulation i n the arms of some l e t t e r s (e.g., the lower arm of E i n EST and the lower and upper arms of E i n POTVISSE) which i s quite s i m i l a r to the e f f e c t obtained through the built-up technique (see Figs. 56 and 58). Tomb of the Beata V i l l a n a the very f i n e and l i m i t e d modulation i n r e c t i -l i n e a r l e t t e r parts suggests the layering or built-up technique. The modulation appears to have been c a r e f u l l y considered and executed. Tomb of Carlo Marsuppini the l e t t e r s of t h i s i n s c r i p t i o n are quite close to being monoline. Layering, however, can be seen i n the arms of the E's (e.g., see the E's i n VATEM, SOLVITE) and e s p e c i a l l y i n the cross bars of the T's (e.g., see the T's i n SERVANT, VATEM, and the T i n the ERAT i n the t h i r d l i n e , F i g . 24). R e c t i l i n e a r modulation i n the width of a stroke, although intermittent, can be seen in such l e t t e r s as the second A i n MAGNA (Figs. 23, 24, fourth l i n e down). Gates of Paradise represent a departure from Ghiberti's usual technique of using i n i t i a l s . Intermittent and f i n e l y modulated width of l i n e can be seen i n the E's of GHIBERTIS (Fig. 27) and ARTE (Fig. 28). Many of the l e t t e r s exhibit Ghiberti's t i n y s e r i f s (e.g., the I's and the N i n CIONIS, F i g . 27). Ghiberti's name seems to be i n t e n t i o n a l l y "antiqued" through the use of a reversed N and a B with disconnected bowls.^ Tomb of Bishop Federighi t h i s i s a d i f f i c u l t monument to c l a s s i f y because, in some ways, the l e t t e r s look l i k e i n i t i a l s and, i n others, l i k e v e r s a l s . The wide downstrokes and the clear stroke-shading of some l e t t e r parts l i k e the l e f t leg of the M i n CUM ( f i f t h l i n e ) suggest an o u t l i n i n g technique ( i . e . , i n i t i a l s ) . The l i m i t e d modulation i n most of the other l e t t e r s , however, suggests a built-up technique. Nothwithstanding the contrast-shaded N's, there i s a great deal of s i m i l a r i t y 47 between the Federighi Monument and the Bruni Tomb (Figs. 20, 21), e s p e c i a l l y i n the l a t e r a l spacing, the l i g a t u r e s (e.g., AE), the module, and the forms of the G and the M. Tomb of Giovanni C h e l l i n i The l e t t e r s of t h i s tomb have been seen as com-parable i n design to those on the S p i n e l l i  Tomb (Fig. 18).^ I suggest, however, that the comparison i s not a convincing one. The l e t t e r s on the S p i n e l l i Tomb c l e a r l y appear to be drawn i n i t i a l s , while those on the C h e l l i n i  Tomb appear to be only i n t e r m i t t e n t l y layered. That s l i g h t l a y e r i n g can be seen i n the arms of the E and the L i n SEPVLCHRUM, F i g . 31. A l t a r of the Pazzi Chapel The l e t t e r i n g on t h i s monument suggests an excellence i n the execution of l e t t e r s i n the bu i l t - u p technique. While l i v e l y i n design, each l e t t e r has been c a r e f u l l y layered with a subtle r e c t i l i n e a r modulation. The consistency of the layering i s notable. It can be seen i n i t s most subtle form i n the r e c t i l i n e a r , but apparently unruled, modulation of l e t t e r parts such as the v e r t i c a l s of the N's and the supports of the M i n QUEM (Fig. 29). Style Two s t y l e s can be seen to emerge within the genre of i n i t i a l s : a more formal s t y l e — h e r e c a l l e d the Perpendicular S t y l e — c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a heavy stress on the weight of the major downstrokes and a greater stress on constrast-shading as opposed to stroke-shading; and a s t i l l formal, but more elegant s t y l e — h e r e c a l l e d the Tapered S t y l e — c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a consistent emphasis on r e c t i l i n e a r stroke-shading i n l e t t e r arms and i n many supports. The emphasis on r e c t i l i n e a r stroke-shading y i e l d s a tapered or gently modulated e f f e c t which contrasts with the strong v e r t i c a l stress of l e t t e r s i n the Perpendicular Style. The Perpendicular Style i s epitomized by the i n i t i a l s on the Tomb of  John XXIII (Fig. 2) while the l e t t e r s on Luca d e l l a Robbia\s Cantoria (Fig. 7) are c l a s s i c examples of l e t t e r i n g i n the Tapered Style. Nearly 48 a l l of Ghiberti's mature l e t t e r i n g i s i n the Tapered Style, a fact which can be seen from the further c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of early i n i t i a l s into s t y l e s as follows: Monument A r t i s t Date Figure I n i t i a l s (genre) Perpendicular Style North Doors of the Florentine Baptistry Tomb of John XXIII Tomb of Bartolomeo Aragazzi G h i b e r t i Donatello and Michelozzo Michelozzo 1404-7 1422-27 ca. 1430 4-5 1-2 Tapered Style John the Baptist ( s c r o l l ) Luca's Cantoria Shrine of the Three Martyrs Gh i b e r t i 1412-16 Luca d e l l a Robbia 1431-38 Ghi b e r t i . ca.. 1428 Shrine of St. Zenobius G h i b e r t i Tomb of Spinello d i Buonsignore de' S p i n e l l i 1434-42 14 6^ 7 12-13 9-11 8 Notes on the Monuments North Doors John XXIII Aragazzi monument The v e r t i c a l stress i n these monuments can be most c l e a r l y seen i n the wide and heavy down-strokes of the M's and the N's. Stroke shading i s l i m i t e d to the l e t t e r arms and to c e r t a i n oblique l i n e s (e.g., the l e f t legs of the A's). A l l v e r t i c a l s describe strong rectangles. 49 John the Baptist ( s c r o l l ) Luca's Cantoria Shrine of Three Martyrs Shrine of St. Zenobius S p i n e l l i Tomb The modulated width of l i n e , e s p e c i a l l y i n the v e r t i c a l s , i s not easy to see i n t h i s photo-graph (Fig. 14). The l e t t e r which most c l e a r l y reveals the predominantly tapered technique i s the N i n the t h i r d l i n e . Note the modulation i n the width of both of i t s legs. Two of the most outstanding l e t t e r s i n t h i s s t y l e are the M and the N. The formula for the M i s as follows: r i g h t l eg, an unmodulated perfect rectangle; l e f t l e g , stroke-shaded with r e c t i -l i n e a r modulation tapering upward; the c e n t r a l V, contrast-shaded with the l e f t oblique l i n e wider than the r i g h t . Both of the legs of the N taper, the l e f t up, and the r i g h t down. Within the genre of v e r s a l s , two s t y l e s are again suggested: a more austere s t y l e — h e r e c a l l e d the Condensed S t y l e — c h a r a c t e r i z e d by l e t t e r s which are c l o s e l y placed and an M with v e r t i c a l legs ( f a c i l i t a t i n g com-pactness) ; and a more informal, freer s t y l e — h e r e c a l l e d the F o l l i e S t y l e — c h a r a c t e r i z e d by l e t t e r s which are further apart, M's with slanted sides, and other c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s suggestive of a greater spontaneity. The i n s c r i p t i o n s bearing versals j I suggest, are appropriately divided as follows: Monument A r t i s t Date Figure Versals (genre) Condensed Style Tomb of Leonardo Bruni Tomb of Bishop Federighi Gates of Paradise Rossellino workshop Luca d e l l a Robbia G h i b e r t i 1444- 51 1454-56 1445- 50 18-20 25-26 27-28 50 Monument A r t i s t Date Figure F o l l i e Style A l t a r of the Pazzi Chapel Tomb of the Beata V i l l a n a i Tomb of Carlo Marsuppini Tomb of Giovanni C h e l l i n i ca. 1429 29 Desiderio da Settignano ca. 1451 16-17 and an assistant of Bernardo Rossellino Desiderio da Settignano ca. 1451 22-24 ca. 1462 30-31 Notes on the Monuments Bruni Tomb As previously noted, these monuments have a Federighi Monument basic s i m i l a r i t y (p. 46 above). They both have a fundamental formality which i s obtained, i n part, by a close spacing of the l e t t e r s . That close spacing i s f a c i l i t a t e d by employing a l e t t e r M with v e r t i c a l legs. The Bruni tomb, to my mind, appears to have been more c a r e f u l l y considered; the c a l l i g r a p h e r seems to have been more att e n t i v e to the methods by which he intended to achieve an e f f e c t . Gates of Paradise It i s noteworthy that at the end of h i s career G h i b e r t i used l e t t e r s for a major display purpose which were i n form quite s i m i l a r to those he used for a minor purpose at the begin-ning of his career (Fig. 15). Even though the l e t t e r s on the hem of the Baptist are i n s c r i p -t i o n a l s (perhaps even simpals) while the l e t t e r s on the Gates of Paradise are v e r s a l s , they are c e r t a i n l y quite close to each other. The words of t h i s i n s c r i p t i o n are more formally compact l i k e those of the Bruni and Federighi tombs. A l t a r of the Pazzi Chapel The highly cursive s t y l e i s f a c i l i t a t e d by the wide-angled M and accentuated by the pr a c t i c e of telescoping l e t t e r s ( i . e . , placing l e t t e r s inside others). Also highly informal i s the casual, almost spontaneous q u a l i t y of the b u i l t -up technique. Tomb of the Beata V i l l a n a The cursive q u a l i t y of t h i s i n s c r i p t i o n , aside from the wide-angled M, i s enhanced by the attenuation of the l e t t e r s (almost r u s t i c i n module), the high-aproned R, and the N with a 51 cross-bar that does not connect at the leg ends. Marsuppini Tomb The l e t t e r s i n both of these monuments, C h e l l i n i Tomb although versals (note the E's and the T's i n the Marsuppini tomb [ F i g . 24] and the L i n the C h e l l i n i tomb [Fig. 31]) are so close to being monoline as to appear as i f they might have been written with a hard, rounded instrument. They come quite close to being formal i n s c r i p -t i o n a l s as opposed to cursive v e r s a l s . These, then, are the groupings which emerge when the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n system developed i n Chapter IV i s applied to the l e t t e r e antiche. A f i n a l l i s t i n g of the groupings and dating of the tomb monuments alone w i l l be useful i n following the conclusions which follow t h i s chapter. The pattern which emerges i s as follows: I n i t i a l s Tomb of John XXIII Tomb of Bartolomeo Aragazzi Shrine of the Three Martyrs Shrine of St. Zenobius Versals Tomb of Leonardo Bruni Tomb of the Beata V i l l a n a Tomb of Carlo Marsuppini Tomb of Bishop Federighi Tomb of Giovanni C h e l l i n i 1422-27 ca. 1430 ca. 1428 1434-42 1444-51 ca. 1451 ca. 1451 1454-56 ca. 1462 52 Footnotes: Chapter V x H. Saalman, "Tommaso S p i n e l l i , Michelozzo, Manetti, and Ross e l l i n o , " Journal of the Society of A r c h i t e c t u r a l H i s t o r i a n s , 25 (1966), p. 159 suggests that the date of the S p i n e l l i Tomb i s not before the 1450's by connecting i t with a 1458 catasto of Bernardo Rossellino and by associating i t s l e t t e r i n g with that on the tomb of Giovanni C h e l l i n i . It appears to me that the l e t t e r i n g on the C h e l l i n i tomb i s quite d i f f e r e n t from that which i s on the S p i n e l l i tomb and I therefore question the dating. 2 Meiss, "Renaissance Palaeography," p. 99. 3 Krautheimer, G h i b e r t i , p. 4 suggests that G h i b e r t i couldn't write hi s own name. That suggestion i s c e r t a i n l y questionable. He wrote i t c o r r e c t l y many years previously on the North Doors and i t i s not l i k e l y that he forgot how to write his own name during the intervening period. Krautheimer himself states that G h i b e r t i "knew L a t i n and evidently read the ancient writers to some extent." See Krautheimer, i b i d . See n. 2, Ch. V. 53 Conclusion The primary aim of t h i s thesis has been to argue that early i n s c r i p -t i o n a l s are antique; that i s , s t y l i s t i c a l l y akin to Roman l e t t e r s preceding the f i f t h century A.D. The second aim of the thesis has been to show that the early i n s c r i p t i o n a l s exhibit l i n e s of s t y l i s t i c continuity by which they may be seen as genuinely c a l l i g r a p h i c — e x h i b i t i n g a harmony of s t y l e and a consciousness of the methods by which c e r t a i n e f f e c t s might be achieved."'" The a r t i s a n s of the l e t t e r e antiche can thus be said to have achieved the minimal requirements of a c a l l i g r a p h i c s c r i p t . Yet an impartial reading of the evidence also suggests that the c r i t i c ' s perception of change or experimentation within the l e t t e r e antiche* was not without some basis i n actual f a c t . The r e a l nature of that experi-mentation, however, may be perceived by considering the dating of the tomb 2 monuments which were c l a s s i f i e d into genres i n the preceding chapter. Inspection reveals that tomb and r e l i q u a r y i n s c r i p t i o n s bearing l e t t e r s which are i n i t i a l s appear to have been executed p r i m a r i l y within the f i r s t three decades of the f i f t e e n t h century. They were followed i n the 1440's through the 1460's with versals;. then, i n the 1470's with geometricized, 3 drawn i n s c r i p t i o n a l s . F i n a l l y , i n the 1550's, a century and a half a f t e r the appearance of the l e t t e r e antiche, there appears to have been a change in r h e t o r i c a l mode—appropriate to the execution of l e t t e r s belonging to 4 the genre of i n s c r i p t i o n a l s — i n i t i a t e d by Giovanni C r e s c i . In other words, the change was not p r i m a r i l y one of s t y l e , but of genre. That change suggests a searching by Renaissance c a l l i g r a p h e r s for the most appropriate genre with which to express l e t t e r s i n a new t r a d i t i o n such that a harmon-ious balance might be reached between the d i s c i p l i n e implied i n highly 54 r e c t i l i n e a r forms and the spontaneity that might serve as i t s b a l a n c e — a spontaneity which, as they were eventually to f i n d , might be achieved through a change of r h e t o r i c a l mode. The answer to that search, the so l u t i o n to the question of obtaining the most balanced l e t t e r , appears to have been the Trajanic l e t t e r . Is the Trajanic l e t t e r , then, i n r e a l i t y , the " i d e a l " l e t t e r ? The answer to that question i s perhaps best phrased as follows: i t i s i d e a l l y balanced, not i d e a l l y antique. I t can be said to express an unusually harmonious balance between formality and informa l i t y , d i s c i p l i n e and spontaneity, r e s t r a i n t and freedom. Renaissance a r t i s t s appear to have more e a s i l y accepted the formality and r a t i o n a l i t y implied i n t h e i r return to l e t t e r s i n the antique t r a d i t i o n than the spontaneity and informality needed to balance that return. They seem to have f e l t that the informality or spontaneity they i n t u i t e d i n the Trajanic l e t t e r s needed to be transformed, as i t were, through the a p p l i c a -t i o n of c e r t a i n mathematical laws, so that the l e t t e r s might re-emerge, transformed, from the more casual domain of the craftsman to the more formal realm of the art i s t . ~ * The l e t t e r e antiche occupy an important place i n the Renaissance p i c t u r e because, i n one sense, they reveal a desire to r e t a i n something of the former t r a d i t i o n , a r h e t o r i c a l mode of l e t t e r i n g , and i n another sense, that very q u a l i t y gives them a degree of formality by which they might be said to be the most severe of antique l e t t e r s . The r h e t o r i c a l mode of l e t t e r i n g which served as a formal balance for the l e t t e r s i n the Gothic t r a d i t i o n served, not as a balance but as a stress to the formality of l e t t e r s i n the antique t r a d i t i o n . The l e t t e r e antiche are at once reminiscent of the l e t t e r s of the Gothic period and so severely antique as 55 to j u s t i f y comparison with archaic sculpture. The excessive formality which they reveal may be taken as an i n d i c a t i o n of the zea l with which humanist a r t i s t s and scholars redeveloped the antique t r a d i t i o n . There are two parerga which I believe to be worthy of note i n conclu-ding t h i s paper: f i r s t , the l i g h t which t h i s palaeographic examination throws on the so-called "problem of the Renaissance," the question as to whether there was i n fact a Renaissance; second, the l i g h t which the inves-t i g a t i o n throws on the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the attention of Renaissance humanists to grammar and calligraphy and the emergence of a new h i s t o r i c a l v i s i o n . There i s a large body of l i t e r a t u r e devoted to the question of the r e a l i t y of the Renaissance. While i t i s not within the scope of t h i s paper to consider that l i t e r a t u r e , i t i s germane, to point out that from a palaeographic point of view there i s absolutely no question as to the existence of a Renaissance, a period d i s t i n c t l y and r a d i c a l l y d i f f e r e n t from the roughly one thousand years which preceded i t . From a palaeo-graphic point of view, that new period can be characterized as one i n which c e r t a i n previously recessive c a l l i g r a p h i c elements became dominant, fin d i n g t h e i r c a l l i g r a p h i c expression i n an emphasis on formality, d i s c i p l i n e , r a t i o n a l i t y , r e s t r a i n t , and a stress on t a c t i l e consciousness as opposed to the operation of the "automatic" kinesthetic sense.^ The c a l l i g r a p h i c evidence exhibits a concrete and undeniable a f f i r m a t i o n of Jacob Burckhardt's view of the Renaissance as a d i s t i n c t l y d i f f e r e n t period from the Gothic, involving a revolutionary new "discovery of the world and of man. The new c a l l i g r a p h i c process presented i n t h i s paper, which c e r t a i n l y must have been perceived by scholar-scribes, would have intersected i n an 56 i n t e r e s t i n g way with the i n c l i n a t i o n of humanist s c h o l a r s — f r o m Petrarch 9 onward — t o view the medieval years as a period of decline. The period of darkness was seen by them as followed by a r e b i r t h i n the l a t e four-teenth and f i f t e e n t h centuries. That h i s t o r i c a l v i s i o n may well have been strengthened—and possibly even generated—by the extensive humanist con-cern and contact with grammar and c a l l i g r a p h y . The devolution of majuscules described i n Chapter I II need only be thought of as a "decline," a f a l l i n g away of majuscules from t h e i r " i d e a l " form, for the 'Dark Ages' concept to a r i s e . Much the same idea may be derived from a study of grammar i n which medieval L a t i n grammar and L a t i n orthography are e a s i l y viewed as a " f a l l i n g away" from the c l a s s i c a l , " i d e a l " form. Instead of viewing themselves as involved i n a synthesis or r e v o l u t i o n — a new turn that would reveal another aspect of the same universe—Renaissance humanists saw t h e i r period as co n s t i t u t i n g one of r e b i r t h from darkness into l i g h t , from decline to reform and regeneration. Perhaps i t i s not too far-fetched to perceive the l e t t e r e antiche as manifestations of that shadowy period of change when there was yet a r e c o l l e c t i o n and an appreciation of the way things were united with the dawning of a new, but complementary perception. If so, i t i s only to be expected that the l i f e of a l l l e t t e r e antiche w i l l be s h o r t - l i v e d , for indeed i t i s uncommon for men to stand long i n two worlds. 57 Footnotes: Conclusion A paraphrasing of E.A. Lowe. See n. 13, Ch. I I . 2 See p. 51. 3 See p. 9 and notes 14 and 15, Ch. I. 4 See p. 37 and n. 15, Ch. IV. 5 I am thinking here of the famous medieval dictum, "Ars sine  s c i e n t i a n i h i l e s t." See J.S. Ackerman, "Gothic Theory of Architecture at the Cathedral of Milan," Art B u l l e t i n , 31 (1949), p. 100. The word " a r t " during that period i s equivalent to our term " c r a f t . " For a f u l l discussion and bibliography on that subject see Panofsky, Renaissance and Renascences. 7 See pp. 25-26, Ch. I I I . g Wallace K. Ferguson, The Renaissance i n H i s t o r i c a l Thought (Cambridge: The Riverside Press, 1948), p. 192. 9 Panofsky, Renaissance and Renascences, pp. 10-18. See also T.E. Mommsen, "Petrarch's Concept of the Dark Ages," Speculum, 17 (1942), pp. 226 f f . 58 Figure 1: Donatello and Michelozzo, Tomb of John XXIII (1422-27); B a p t i s t r y , Florence (from Pope-Hennessy, I t a l i a n Renaissance  Sculpture, London, 1971, F i g . 58) Figure 2: Donatello and Michelozzo, I n s c r i p t i o n on the Tomb of John XXIII; Baptistry, Florence (from Gray, "Sans Se r i f and Other Experimental Inscribed Letteri n g of the F i f t e e n t h Century," Motif, 5 [1960], F i g . 6) 59 Figure 3: Michelozzo, D e t a i l of the Bronze I n s c r i p t i o n for the Aragazzi Tomb (c. 1430); Montepulciano, Duomo (from Caplow, Michelozzo, New York, 1977, I I , F i g . 72) Figure 4: Lorenzo G h i b e r t i , I n s c r i p t i o n above the N a t i v i t y and Annunciation to the  Shepards (1404-07); North Door, B a p t i s t r y , Florence (from Krautheimer and Krautheimer-Hess, Lorenzo G h i b e r t i , Princeton, 1956, I I , PI. 27) Figure 5: Lorenzo G h i b e r t i , I n s c r i p t i o n above the Adoration of the Magi (1404-07); North Door, Bapt i s t r y , Florence (from Krautheimer, Lorenzo G h i b e r t i , PI. 28) Figure 6: Luca d e l l a Robbia: Cantoria (1431-38); Museo d e l Opera del Duomo, Florence (from Cruttwell, Luca and Andrea D e l l a  Robbia, London, 1902, facing p. 47) m IN WNTE a m fv m CYTHAK Figure 7: Luca d e l l a Robbia, D e t a i l of the In s c r i p t i o n below the Singing Boys on the Cantoria; Museo del Opera del Duomo, Florence (from Gray, "Sans S e r i f , " F i g . 8) Figure 8: Tomb of Spinello d i Bonsignore de' S p i n e l l i ; Santa Croce, Florence (from Saalman, "Tommaso S p i n e l l i , Michelozzo, Manetti, and Ro s s e l l i n o , " Journal of the  Society of A r c h i t e c t u r a l H i s t o r i a n s , 25 [1966], F i g . 6) Figure 9: Lorenzo G h i b e r t i , I n s c r i p t i o n on the Shrine of St. Zenobius (1434-42); Duomo, Florence (from Krautheimer, Lorenzo G h i b e r t i , PI. 78b) Figure 10: Lorenzo G h i b e r t i , Close-up of the I n s c r i p t i o n on the Shrine of St. Zenobius; Duomo, Florence (from Goldscheider, G h i b e r t i , London, 1949, F i g . 112) Figure 11: Lorenzo G h i b e r t i , D e t a i l of the I n s c r i p t i o n on the Shrine of St. Zenobius; Duomo, Florence (from Krautheimer, Lorenzo G h i b e r t i , PI. 80a) Figure 12: Lorenzo G h i b e r t i , Shrine of the Three Martyrs (c. 1428); Bargello, Florence (from Krautheimer, Lorenzo  G h i b e r t i , PI. 76) Figure 13: Lorenzo G h i b e r t i , Close-up of the I n s c r i p t i o n on the Shrine of the Three Martyrs; Bargello, Florence (from Goldscheider, G h i b e r t i , F i g . 111A) 65 Figure 14: Lorenzo G h i b e r t i , I n s c r i p t i o n on the S c r o l l of John the Baptist (1412-16); Or San Michele, Florence (from Krautheimer, Lorenzo G h i b e r t i , d e t a i l of PI. 11a) Figure 15: Lorenzo G h i b e r t i , D e t a i l of the I n s c r i p t i o n on the Hem of John the Baptist (1412-16); Or San Michele, Florence (from Krautheimer, Lorenzo G h i b e r t i , d e t a i l of PI. 11a) 66 Figure 16: Bernardo Rossellino and as s i s t a n t s , Tomb of the Beata V i l l a n a (ca. 1451); S. Maria Novella, Florence (from Schulz, The Sculpture of Bernardo  Rossellino, F i g . 96) Figure 17: Desiderio da Settignano and assistant of Bernardo Rossellino, D e t a i l of the I n s c r i p t i o n on the Tomb of the Beata V i l l a n a ; S. Maria Novella, Florence (from Schulz, The Sculpture of Bernardo Rossellino, F i g . 103) Figure 18: Bernardo Rossellino and assi s t a n t s , Tomb of Leonardo Bruni (1444-51); S. Croce, Florence (from Pope-Hennessy, I t a l i a n Renaissance Sculpture, F i g . 60) Figure 19: Bernardo Rossellino and a s s i s t a n t s , D e t a i l of the Tomb of Leonardo Bruni; S. Croce, Florence (from Schulz, The Sculpture of  Bernardo Rossellino, F i g . 50) as --j Figure 20: Bernardo Rossellino and assi s t a n t s , D e t a i l of the I n s c r i p t i o n on the Tomb of Leonardo Bruni, l e f t side; S. Croce, Florence (from Schulz, The  Sculpture of Bernardo Ross e l l i n o , d e t a i l of F i g . 61) Figure 21: Bernardo Rossellino and as s i s t a n t s , D e t a i l of the I n s c r i p t i o n on the Tomb of Leonardo Bruni, r i g h t side; S. Croce, Florence (from Schulz, The Sculpture of Bernardo  Rossellino, d e t a i l of F i g . 60) CO Figure 22: Desiderio da Settignano, Tomb of Carlo Marsuppini (ca. 1451); S. Croce, Florence (from Pope-Hennessy, I t a l i a n  Renaissance Sculpture, F i g . 61) Figure 23: Desiderio da Settignano, D e t a i l of the Tomb of Carlo Marsuppini; S. Croce, Florence (from P l a n i s c i g , Desiderio da  Settignano, Wien, 1942, P i . 23) R A VATE/A , H . . > t . .*••;•>• * •E MVSAE ' : Q 4 « C H O W Figure 24: Desiderio da Settignano, D e t a i l of the I n s c r i p t i o n on the Tomb of Carlo Marsuppini; S. Croce, Florence (from P l a n i s c i g , Desid erio da Settignano, P i . 24) 71 Figure 25: Luca d e l l a Robbia, The Federighi Monument (1454-56); Santa T r i n i t a , Florence (from B a r g e l l i n i , I D e l l a Robbia, Milan, 1965, Tav. X) Figure 26: Luca d e l l a Robbia, Close-up of the I n s c r i p t i o n on the Federighi Monument; Santa T r i n i t a , Florence (from B a r g e l l i n i , I D e l l a Robbia, d e t a i l of Tav. X) IBEK Figure 27: Lorenzo G h i b e r t i , I n s c r i p t i o n below Isaac on the Gates of Paradise (1445-50); Baptistry, Florence (from Krautheimer, Lorenzo G h i b e r t i , PI. 94) Figure 28: Lorenzo G h i b e r t i , I n s c r i p t i o n above Joshua on the Gates of Paradise; Baptistry, Florence (from Krautheimer, Lorenzo G h i b e r t i , PI. 107) Figure 29: D e t a i l of the I n s c r i p t i o n on the Pazzi Chapel (1429); S. Croce, Florence (from Gray, "Sans S e r i f , " F i g . 11) Figure 30: Tomb of Giovanni C h e l l i n i ; S. Domenico, S. Miniato a l Tadesco (from Schulz, The Sculpture of Bernardo Ross e l l i n o , F i g . 121) I W J W U I X J L I U W ^ f c P V L C H P V M H Figure 31: D e t a i l of the I n s c r i p t i o n on the Tomb of Giovanni C h e l l i n i ; S. Domenico, S. Miniato a l Tadesco (from Schulz, The Sculpture of Bernardo  Rosse l l i n o , F i g . 127) ;;A/i: :l:!ij);/;o.,). f ( ) M A N N j ^Cao.^NEN .Ai3()<;TO. iSvPTOi '-PTARIO.EPO.G ^hShTAiK) . ()|>|:V! IT!. 74 Figure 32: Donatello (?), D e t a i l of the In s c r i p t i o n on the Tomb of Bishop Pecci (1426); Duomo, Siena (from Gray, "Sans S e r i f , " F i g . 10) Figure 33: Donatello (?), D e t a i l of Letters on the Tomb of Bishop Pecci; Duomo, Siena (from Gray, "Sans S e r i f , " d e t a i l of F i g . 10) Figure 34: D e t a i l of the Bancozzi-Catenacci Tombstone (dated 1424); S. Croce, Florence (from Gray, "Sans S e r i f , " F i g . 3) Figure 35: Berto d i Lionardo Tombstone (dated 1430); S. Croce, Florence (from Gray, "Sans S e r i f , " F i g . 5) 76 Figure 36: D e t a i l of the S c h i a t t e s i Tombstone (dated 1423); S. Croce, Florence (from Gray, "Sans S e r i f , " F i g . 2) Figure 37: Roman I n s c r i p t i o n (167 B.C.); Delphi, Sanctuary (from D i e h l , Inscriptiones  Latinae, Bonn, 1912, p. 6, F i g . a) 77 S E NAT VSP< MPCAESARI D M NERVAEFNEJR^AE r R AIA N O-AVGG E RMOACICOPONTI F vi AX IM OTRIBPOTXVIIIM P VI COS VIPP VDDECLARANDVMWANTAEALTITVDINIS 4 O N S E T L O C V S T A ^ ^ ^ J Figure 38: R.R. Donnelly Cast of the Trajan I n s c r i p t i o n (106-113 A.D.); Trajan Column, Rome (from Catich, The Origin of the S e r i f , Davenport, 1968, F i g . 81) Figure 39: Augustan I n s c r i p t i o n (1st century B.C.); Forum, Rome (from Catich, The Ori g i n  of the S e r i f , F i g . 163) 78 Figure 40: A l b e r t i , D e t a i l of the I n s c r i p t i o n on the Santo Sepulchro R u c e l l a i (1467); San Pancranzio, Florence (from Gray, "Sans S e r i f , " F i g . 18) 79 M DIGNITATIS ET CiLOKIE SVMPS IT A PROANO CATO Figure 41: I n i t i a l C i n Cato's L i f e , B.M. Add. MS. 22318 (fron Diringer, The Illuminated  Book, London, 1967, facing p. 346) Figure 42: F e l i c e F e l i c i a n o , I n s c r i p t i o n a l Scriptura Monumentalis (1467); above the arch of the cent r a l entrance of the Pescheria, Verona (from Mardersteig, "Leon B a t t i s t a A l b e r t i e l a r i n a s c i t a del carattere l a p i d a r i o romano nei quattrocento," I t a l i a medioevale e  umanistica, 2 [1959], Tav. XX) COIVCIO TVtM CANCFLUMO ROM U N O AMTbONfVS DC bAIWFFALblS IM MfcPJTVc3 PHI'MCVS FAVtNflNVS. ON iicrror cLinfTinie uir'ne me deeJocjiirmu .mnuf ur cjuonciim fetvwxhvciuul *6 rrum arxro TPnf.ltftr'rib; colo cjticndam .ilium pkyfic" in rjiud.i nry (eniltum crntk>Li .iba ivrmlTcrc txmuo (cr motif Ciraij-eb.tr. Quod imni ret hpftxertr I Figure 43: Poggio B r a c c i o l i n i , Laur. S t r o z z i 96, S a l u t a t i , De verecundia, c. 1402-3? (from A.C. de l a Mare, Handwriting, d e t a i l of PI. XVa) l O H A N H l - P A r e . X X I l l . L E 0 1 TIN V S . PfU>EMlV/W.lN .C N1S NimAcJiiem Uauflam* puurr fefcfut ru.< aetata rr mumifciiLi intend; l cjiiecLin cjvio « ilUf t*nai (cduraff cuf ^e«runr tvr .IUCJUA auxxxnCcyctx < Mic^i tutc i« ItcCTtttttu mec mine lot Figure 44: Poggio B r a c c i o l i n i , E l E s c o r i a l N. I l l 7, Plato, Gorgias, 1411? (from A.C. de l a Mare, Handwriting, d e t a i l of P i . XVh) 81 Figure 45: Sozomeno of P i s t o i a , B i b l .  Forteguerriana A. 4, Terence, completed 1412 (from A.C. de l a Mare, Handwriting, d e t a i l of P i . XXb) C. v ,'ALETU fcLASCl 5E'HHI 5A1B! HCON ItBEK-HH m C i P l T f t l l C l T E •Q^EAHOH OCVU5DI jttr ampuufec-uif. mforant.riatxc-;. rnoftTufa-a i unoni ardenn trtjpicU tjranif: V trtouA nunc tacito pedorc cgjiudiA no Figure 46: Antonio d i Mario, B i b l . Laurenziana, MS. 39, 35, f o l . 48v, C_. Valeriu s Flaccus, 1429 (from Covi, "Lettering i n F i f t e e n t h Century Florentine Painting," Art B u l l e t i n , 45 [1963], d e t a i l of F i g . 7) Figure 47: Massaccio, D e t a i l of the T r i n i t y , I n s c r i p t i o n above the Skeleton; Santa Maria Novella, Florence (from Covi, " L e t t e r i n g , " d e t a i l of F i g . 25) I AmiitnTTj p i rn * iq> WIMT tru ^ »' tdrb« ViHirvt JbXrii pJbUxMA €t intcrptJtiontHirrU*(jpiaH|u Iptaunc -\ BAI fUi m <fcft>pbfu n a . ( t w d i i n u u i I f f f n v u r u iitf-i J v L u i i jpac4pa*i, i.. tr umjurfcul u» mo _ . *' AC^iiHtoriJ'-Sidivtr^HTn i x V 6 I I; tnf idirn-Figure 48: Rome, Bibl. Nationale, Sessorian  Bible 3, fol. I v., twelfth century (from Garrison, Studies in the History of Medieval  Italian Painting, II. Florence, 1953-62, Fig. 213. 83 (famHiwM WIBVH wm% mm VIMPJIU lfl>Pft MORS R^PVFf HORWilW mWV?ft RlflflRMfl MeMyinrt)eDerfflfflAmiens ailwravsin O M PRGPvun etroQVTO i iwuvm ovi s w a l e s ™ %6fllf€ P8JKRVS eR^ill ROmflR ^ I l r t R f l ^ P R M "Oe^mflph^irasois JirMaRno (fflntome nnws KVVSIDIB hURIBUKe MIR KOnGlMRtifltflMS WO O S S A tcuuii M K I V S arame sieieuoRHi flaw Figure 49: I n s c r i p t i o n on the Tomb of Cardinal Stefaneschi (early 15th century); Sta. Maria i n Trastevere, Rome (from Anderson, The Art of Written Forms, New York, 1969, F i g . 138) Figure 50: Bernardo Rossellino and assi s t a n t s , I n s c r i p t i o n on the Tomb of Neri Capponi; S. S p i r i t o , Florence (from Schulz, The Sculpture of Bernardo Rossellino, d e t a i l of F i g . 114) 84 Figure 51: F e l i c e F e l i c i a n o , Geometric Construction of the Letter H (from Mardersteig, "Leon B a t t i s t a A l b e r t i , " F i g . 5) Figure 52: Domenico Veneziano, D e t a i l of F i c t i v e I n s c r i p t i o n on the Madonna and Saints; U f f i z i , Florence (from Covi, " L e t t e r i n g , " F i g . 40) Figure 53: Andrea Mantegna, Signature on St. Euphemia (1454); Capodimonte, Naples (from Meiss, "Toward a More Comprehensive Renaissance Palaeography," Art B u l l e t i n , 42 [1960], F i g . 18) H H HH h h—h A A A A X X a - a R R R Rl*"NT F F F f f f — f E E E e £ e — e T T T t t 1 Figure 54: Chart showing the devolution of majuscules (from Catich, Origin of  S e r i f , F i g . 147) Figure 55: Drawn l e t t e r (from Catich, Origin of S e r i f , d e t a i l of F i g . 15) Figure 56: Letter E with drawn support and built-up arms (from Johnston, Writing and  Illuminating and L e t t e r i n g , London, 1932, d e t a i l of F i g . 165a) Figure 57: Letter S, built-up with a brush (from Catich, Origin of S e r i f , d e t a i l of F i g . 15) Figure 58: Letter E, built-up using a wide nibbed pen (from Johnston, Writing and  Illuminating and L e t t e r i n g , d e t a i l of F i g . 165b) A N N O DOMINJUMTCCCVIII.A N I MIL-FT. DC .Vii Figure 59: Poggio B r a c c i o l i n i , Marburg, Westdeutsche Bibliothek (formerly B e r l i n ,  Preuss, Staatsbibliothek) Hamilton 166, f o l . 162r, Cicero, E p i s t o l a ad Atticum, 1408 (from A.C. de l a Mare, Handwriting, d e t a i l of PI. XVf) Figure 60: Praenestine Brooch (7th century B.C.); L u i g i P i g n o r i Museum of Ethnography and Prehistory, Rome (from Catich, Origin of  S e r i f , F i g . 137) toKAWVW^£IAlB4:3B343Wtfc)l\MW • I Figure 61: Praenestine Brooch, a s t y l i z e d redrawing of i t s i n s c r i p t i o n (from Catich, Origin of S e r i f , F i g . 138) Figure 62: Tomb of Scipio Barbatus, consul 298, censor 290 B.C. (from Diehl, Inscriptiones  Latinae, p. 4) ^ N ° P R £ S V M W J p J fi S T V ^ S u q R S v Figure 63: Chart of Letters Found i n Popular Ins c r i p t i o n s (from Gray, "The Palaeography of La t i n Inscriptions i n the Eighth, Ninth, and Tenth Centuries i n I t a l y , " Papers of the  B r i t i s h School at Rome, NS 3 [1948], p. 163) Figure 64: Munich, Bayerischestaatsbibliothek MS. Lat. 4456, Regensberg Sacramentary of  Henry I I , illuminated t i t l e page, c. 1007 (from Morison, P o l i t i c s and S c r i p t , Oxford, 1972, F i g . 114) Figure 65: E s c o r i a l Vitimas 17, Echternach Gospels of Henry I I I , 1043-46, Golden Uncialesque (from Morison, P o l i t i c s and S c r i p t , F i g . 117) ^ o • f W m a o i e s q c i B wnnooenei ' H'oeaooffloB Figure 66: Round Uncialesque I n s c r i p t i o n Commemorating Innocent II (dated 1148); Sta. Maria i n Trastevere, Rome (from Morison P o l i t i c s and S c r i p t , F i g . 138) OF 11, Figure 67: Giovanni del Biondo, D e t a i l of Gothic Uncialesque Letters i n the Presentation of Christ i n the  Temple (1364); Florence, Accademia (from Covi, " L e t t e r i n g , " F i g . 5) Figure 68: B r i t i s h Museum, Letters from the Benedictional of St. Ethelwold, l a t e 10th century (Gray, L e t t e r i n g as Drawing: Contour  and Silhouette, London, 1970, F i g . 5) NPBJS CIP1C E R A I Figure 69: P a r i s , Bib. Nat. MS. Lat 9388, Opening Page of the Gospel of St. John from the Metz Gospels, mid 9th century (from Gray, L e t t e r i n g as Drawing  Contour and Silhouette, F i g . 7) 93 Figure 70: Pavement I n s c r i p t i o n (dated 1207); San Miniato, Florence (Gray, "Sans S e r i f , " F i g . 9) Figure 71: D e t a i l of an I n s c r i p t i o n i n Sans S e r i f Letters on the Facade of the Pantechnicon (c. 1820); London, Motcomb Street (from Morison, P o l i t i c s and  S c r i p t , F i g . 179) 94 ABCDEFGHI L M N O P Q R T U V W X Y Z & J 1234567890 Figure 72: Brush Written Trajanic Letters (from Catich, Origin of S e r i f , F i g . 162) 95 Glossary of Terms * indicates other terms i n glossary Related Terms Majuscules, miniscules, u n c i a l s , c a p i t a l s : m a j u scules —large case l e t t e r s : l e t t e r s which have been written between two guidelines. m i n i s c u l e s — s m a l l case l e t t e r s : l e t t e r s which have been written between four guidelines, the body of the l e t t e r s occupying the space of two of those l i n e s . u n c i a l s —rounded majuscules* c a p i t a l s —majuscules having the highest status. Although i t i s possible for un c i a l s to be c a p i t a l s , as, for example, i n the case of the Ottonian Golden Uncialesque (Figs. 64, 65), the use of the term generally implies a Roman, more r e c t i l i n e a r shape. Penning, l e t t e r i n g , l a y ering, o u t l i n i n g : penning — a term coined by me to re f e r to the method of forming l e t t e r s i n which each e s s e n t i a l part of each l e t t e r i s made in one stroke by a r e l a t i v e l y r i g i d instrument held at a constant cant.* l e t t e r i n g — l e t t e r i n g i s here understood as a more formal type of wr i t i n g * than penning.* In l e t t e r i n g , each e s s e n t i a l part of each l e t t e r i s s t i l l made i n one stroke, but l e t t e r i n g i s a l e s s cursive process made so by the addition of one or more formal elements of technique which may include a frequent change of cant,* the addi t i o n of s e r i f s , * or the use of a soft t o o l — s u c h as a brush. lay e r i n g — l a y e r i n g i s a cursive* method of drawing* i n which the l e t t e r s are built-up (Figs. 56-58). o u t l i n i n g — o u t l i n i n g i s the most formal method of drawing* i n which the l e t t e r s are f i r s t s k e l e t a l l y drawn and then f i l l e d - i n (Fig. 43, the i n i t i a l N; F i g . 46, the i n i t i a l A; and Fi g . 55). 96 I n i t i a l s , v e r s a l s , i n s c r i p t i o n a l s , simpals: i n i t i a l s — o u t l i n e d * c a p i t a l s * v e r s a l s — l a y e r e d * c a p i t a l s * i n s c r i p - t i o n a l s — l e t t e r e d * c a p i t a l s , * a term coined by me. simpals —penned* c a p i t a l s , * a term coined by me. Contrast-shading, stroke-shading: contrast-shading — a term coined by me to r e f e r to the v a r i a t i o n of l i g h t and shade within a l e t t e r through a contrast of strokes which are i n d i v i d u a l l y monoline* but of d i f f e r i n g widths. stroke- shading — a term coined by me to re f e r t o i t h e v a r i a t i o n of l i g h t and shade within a l e t t e r through a modulation of the width of an i n d i v i d u a l stroke within that l e t t e r . One l e t t e r can have both contrast-shading and stroke-shading. T r a d i t i o n , r h e t o r i c a l mode, genre: t r a d i t i o n — a term coined by me to r e f e r to the largest unit of l e t t e r c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . It r e l a t e s to l e t t e r shape, or the degree to which l e t t e r s exhibit either r e c t i l i n e a r i t y or c u r v i - ' l i n e a r i t y . r h e t o r i c a l mode — a term coined by me to r e f e r to a secondary unit of l e t t e r c l a s s i f i c a t i o n (after t r a d i t i o n ) which r e l a t e s to the manner of l e t t e r execution ( i . e . , w r i t i n g * or drawing*). genre — a term coined by me to r e f e r to a secondary unit of l e t t e r c l a s s i f i c a t i o n (after r h e t o r i c a l mode) which re l a t e s to l e t t e r c u r s i v i t y * ( i . e . , penning,* l e t t e r i n g , * l a y e r i n g , * or o u t l i n i n g * ) . Letters can be said to f a l l within the genres of i n i t i a l s , * i n s c r i p t i o n a l s , * v e r s a l s , * or simpals.* 97 Single Terms c a n t — the angle at which the writing instrument i s held to the l i n e of w r i t i n g . c a n o n i c — u n i v e r s a l l y accepted and used as the standard. c u r s i v e — having a "running" or flowing q u a l i t y . A cursive s c r i p t i s one which i s less formal. Since the s c r i p t o r i s more flowing i n h i s technique, a cursive s c r i p t tends to be rounded. Within the r h e t o r i c a l mode of w r i t i n g , * penning* i s more cur-sive than l e t t e r i n g * ; within the r h e t o r i c a l mode of drawing,* l a y e r i n g * i s more cursive than o u t l i n i n g . * devolution of majuscules—the process by which, through the demands of c u r s i v i t y * and the function of the kin e s t h e t i c sense,* majuscules "decline" i n s i z e and "fall-away" from t h e i r more r e c t i l i n e a r , formal structure (Fig. 54). d r a f t — that part of the making of an i n s c r i p t i o n which involves a preparatory plan on paper. It may be either a precise or a sketchy image of the planned i n s c r i p t i o n . early i n s c r i p t i o n a l s — a term coined by me to r e f e r to the l e t t e r s found i n the highest q u a l i t y I t a l i a n i n s c r i p t i o n a l work from roughly 1400-1470. Gothic majuscule alphabet-—a term coined by Dario Covi (Covi, " L e t t e r i n g , " p. 3) to re f e r to the Gothic majuscule* s c r i p t which was com-posed of Roman c a p i t a l s , * and u n c i a l s * and miniscules* raised to a c a p i t a l * status. ki n e s t h e t i c sense—the "bodily memory" by which a movement or movements may be repeated without a special, conscious e f f o r t . l a p i c i d a — the i n d i v i d u a l who f i x e s an i n s c r i p t i o n into the stone ground by c h i s e l i n g a V cut. The Romans maintained the angle of the cut, and therefore varied the depth. The Renaissance l a p i c i d a maintained the depth of the cut, but varied the angle (see Catich, O r i g i n of S e r i f , p. 61 and n. 4, p. 286). l e t t e r e a n t i c h e — a term used by Renaissance a r t i s t s to describe the l e t t e r s they placed on monuments seen as having antique associations. In the l a t t e r part of the f i f t e e n t h century the term was used both for early i n s c r i p t i o n a l s * and for the neo-Trajanic* l e t t e r s which superseded the early i n s c r i p t i o n a l s . Later, however, the neo-Trajanic* l e t t e r s were known as l e t t e r e  romane.* In t h i s thesis the term l e t t e r e antiche i s used to re f e r to the l e t t e r s executed a f t e r the turn of the f i f t e e n t h century but before the advent of the Trajanic l e t t e r s * (e.g. F i g . 7). 98 l e t t e r e romane—the Renaissance term f or the neo-Trajanic* l e t t e r s which superseded the early i n s c r i p t i o n a l s * (Figs. 40, 42, 50, 53). module:— the r e l a t i o n s h i p of the heighth to the width of a l e t t e r . monoline— having the same width throughout. neo-Trajanic l e t t e r s — R e n a i s s a n c e l e t t e r s which became commonly used i n the 1470's and were thought to be duplicates of the type of l e t t e r s found on the Trajan Column i n Rome. Neo-Trajanic i s a modern nomenclature. The Renaissance a r t i s t s knew them va r i o u s l y as l e t t e r e romane,* l e t t e r e antiche,* l i t t e r a romana, antique caractere, or l e t r a l a t i n a (Figs. 40, 42, 50, 53). o r d i n a t i o — t h e w r i t i n g * or drawing* of the text of an i n s c r i p t i o n on the stone with either a brush or a firmer stylographic t o o l , said to be done by the ordinator who i s also c a l l e d the quadratarius. s c r i p t u r a a c t u a r i a — a Roman l e t t e r , akin to the s c r i p t u r a monumentalis* or T r a j a n i c * l e t t e r , but more cu r s i v e . * It i s also c a l l e d a Rustic l e t t e r . Like the s c r i p t u r a monumentalis* i t i s brush-made, but i s considerably more attenuated i n i t s proportions, having been executed by holding the instrument at a large cant.* s c r i p t u r a monumentalis—a term which describes the monumental Roman i n s c r i p t i o n a l l e t t e r of the Empire such as that found on the Trajan Column (Figs. 38-39). squeeze— an impression made of an i n s c r i p t i o n either with a gel which i s inserted into the l e t t e r s and then allowed to harden or by using a kind of f i l t e r paper i n the same manner by wetting i t and then working i t into the i n s c r i p t i o n . Trajanic l e t t e r — l e t t e r such as that found on the Trajan Column i n Rome (Figs. 38-39). 99 Bibliography Ackerman, J.S. "Gothic Theory of Architecture at the Cathedral of Milan." Art B u l l e t i n , 31 (1949), pp. 84-111. A l b e r t i , Leone B a t t i s t a . Ten Books on Architecture . 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