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The Vijñaptimātratā Buddhism of the Chinese monk Kʻuei-chi (A.D. 632-682) Sponberg, Alan 1979

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THE VIJNAPTIMATRATA BUDDHISM OF THE CHINESE MONK K'UEI-CHI (A.D. 632-682) ALAN SPONBERG B.A. , American U n i v e r s i t y , 1968 M.A. , U n i v e r s i t y o f Wisconsin, 1972 A DISSERTATION SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY IN ; THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department of Asian Studies We accept t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n as conforming t o the re q u i r e d standard. THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA August 1979 © Alan Sponberg, 1979 In presenting th is thesis in par t ia l fu l f i lment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the Univers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library shal l make i t f ree ly avai lab le for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of th is thesis for scholar ly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representatives. It is understood that copying or publ icat ion of th is thesis for f inanc ia l gain shal l not be allowed without my written permission. Department of The Univers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 DE-6 B P 75-51 1 E ABSTRACT The d i s s e r t a t i o n seeks to determine the main features of the Buddhist thought of K'uei-chi, F i r s t P a t r i a r c h of the Fa-hsiang School of East Asian Buddhism, and to further e s t a b l i s h h i s p o s i t i o n as a key f i g u r e i n the transmission of Indian p h i l o s o p h i c a l t r a d i t i o n s into China.. In addition i t provides a t r a n s l a t i o n of an o r i g i n a l essay written "by K'uei-chi on Vijnaptimatrata. (Mere Conceptualization) the fundamental philosophic p r i n c i p l e of the School of Yogacara Buddhism to which he was h e i r . There are two parts to the d i s s e r t a t i o n : Part One comprising Chapts. I- I I I and Part Two comprising Chapts. IV and V. In Part One, the f i r s t chapter summarizes the biographical data a v a i l a b l e on K'uei-chi's l i f e , d iscussing i n p a r t i c u l a r h i s r o l e as t r a n s l a t o r and exegete, and also the r e l a t i o n s h i p between these a c t i v i t i e s and his personal r e l i g i o u s l i f e . Chapt. I I discusses K'uei-chi's written works, pointing out a number of features that indicate h i s s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t s . I t includes a d e t a i l e d and annotated analysis of a l l h i s surviving works. Chapt. I l l presents a survey of the main doctrines of the Vijnaptimatrata Yogacara school of Asafiga and Vasubandhu. As one branch of Mahayana Buddhism, the. school i s shown to be best understood as a systematic soteriology characterized by an emphasis on the epistemic rather than the ontologic analysis of the constituents of experience (dhamas). This chapter concludes with a discussion of K'uei-chi's s i g n i f i c a n c e as a major fig u r e i n the development of i i i Buddhist thought i n East Asia. He i s presented as a s y n c r e t i s t who sought to organize a manifold and complex t r a d i t i o n i n a manner that would allow i t s transmission into a very d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r a l context. Part Two consists of a t r a n s l a t i o n of one essay from K'uei-chi's voluminous d o c t r i n a l compendium, the Forest of Doctrines in the Garden of the Dharma of Mahayana Buddhism (Ta-sheng fa-yuan i-lin ohang). Chapt. IV provides an introduction to the work, out-l i n i n g the commentaries used, both contemporary and modern, and discussing the methodological problems confronted i n t r a n s l a t i n g the tex t . Chapter V i s the t r a n s l a t i o n i t s e l f : K'uei-chi's "Essay on Vijnaptimatrata" (Wei-shih chang) i n ten sections. It includes extensive annotation i n d i c a t i n g the sources of the ideas K'uei-chi discusses and providing supplementary information on the many Buddhist doctrines to which he r e f e r s . TABLE OF CONTENTS i v Page Abstract i i PART ONE: K'UEI-CHI, THE MAN AND HIS THOUGHT Chapter I. BIOGRAPHY 2 Family and Childhood k A t t r a c t i o n to Buddhism 6 K'uei-chi and Hsuan-tsang 8 K'uei-chi, the Exegete 11 Quality of K'uei-chi's Scholarship 11 Personal Religious L i f e l 6 I I . K'UEI-CHI'S WRITTEN WORKS 21 An Analysis of the Surviving Works 2k Discussion 32 I I I . K'UEI-CHI AND YOGACARA 37 YOGACARA IN INDIA AND CHINA 38 VIJNAPTIMATRATA 39 Atman and Dharmas 39 Trisvabhavata: the Three Aspects of Own-being hO Vijnaptimatrata vs. Cittamatrata i n l a t e r Yogacara k2 Vijnana and V i j n a p t i k3 YOGACARA PSYCHOLOGY 50 The Eight Modes of Mental A c t i v i t y 51 Alaya and Atman 57 The Components of Perception 60 THE PATH TO ENLIGHTENMENT 6l The Five Stages of Sanct i f i c a t i o n 6l The Yogacara Conception of Nirvana 6k K'UEI-CHI'S CONTRIBUTION . 6U D o c t r i n a l C l a s s i f i c a t i o n 65 The F i v e - l e v e l Contemplation of Vijnaptimatrata 67 PART TWO TRANSLATION OF "THE ESSAY ON VIJNAPTIMATRAT&" IV. INTRODUCTION TO THE TRANSLATION TO The Commentaries 70 Methodological Considerations 72 V. K'UEI-CHI'S "ESSAY ON VIJNAPTIMATRATS" 79 [Preface] ' 79 Section 1. . Exposition of the Substance 80 2. C r i t i c a l Analysis of the Term 103 3. Explanation of the D i s t i n c t i o n s and the Unity 108 h. Which Mode of Mentation Performs the Contemplation? 118 5. C l a r i f y i n g what Distinguishes the Classes 120 v i 6 . The Stages of C u l t i v a t i n g R e a l i z a t i o n . . . . 1 2 7 7 . Of What Nature i s the Dharma '.Contemplation*? 137 •8.' The S t a t i o n s and the Base of A r i s i n g . . . . ikk 9. Severing the Obstacles and Defilements . . . 151 1 0 . Turning t o and Embracing the Two Emptinesses 1 5 8 NOTES CHAPTER I 1 6 2 CHAPTER I I 1 6 7 CHAPTER I I I 1 7 1 CHAPTER IV 1 7 5 CHAPTER V 1 7 6 ABBREVIATIONS 2 1 5 BIBLIOGRAPHY 2 1 7 1 PART ONE: K'UEI-CHI, THE MAN AND HIS THOUGHT Chapter I BIOGRAPHY - c h i ^ j j f £ (A.D. 6 3 2 - 6 8 2 ) , The Chinese Buddhist monk K'uei-while remaining as yet r e l a t i v e l y unknown i n the West, was one of the most prominent figures among the a r i s t o c r a t i c i n t e l l i g e n t s i a who were att r a c t e d to Buddhism during the e a r l y part of the T'ang Dynasty (A.D. 6 1 8 - 9 0 7 ) . The beginning of the 7 t h century had seen the founding of a new Chinese empire a f t e r 5 0 0 years of i n t e r n a l s t r i f e and discord; f i n a l l y once again China was united. I t was a time when the Chinese court was becoming in c r e a s i n g l y more int e r e s t e d i n the regions beyond i t s western f r o n t i e r , and when Buddhist thought was rapidly/becoming the fashion of the day. K'uei-chi's prominence stems from the two major a c t i v i t i e s of h i s l i f e : h i s p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the t r a n s l a t i o n project,sponsored by-the T'ang Emperor T'ai-tsung 6 2 6 - 6 H 9 ) , a n < i h i s l a t e r prodigious l i t e r a r y a c t i v i t y as a t e x t u a l commentator and formulator of what was to become the orthodox version of Yogacara Buddhism i n East Asia. Both of these a c t i v i t i e s were the consequence of h i s long ass o c i a t i o n with the famous Chinese Buddhist p i l g r i m Hsuan-tsang ^ (ca. 596-661+) . 2 In A.D. 61+55 when K'uei-chi was t h i r t e e n years o l d , Hsuan-tsang returned to the T'ang c a p i t a l from sixteen years of t r a v e l and study i n the major Buddhist monastic centers and u n i v e r s i t i e s of 3 Central A s i a and India. Buddhism had been growing s t e a d i l y i n China for several centuries by t h i s time, but among Hsuan-tsang's native Chinese contemporaries there were none who could r i v a l his understanding of the Indian o r i g i n s of Buddhism. From his long residence at the famous Buddhist monastery-university at Nalanda he had brought back a profound mastery of Indian s c h o l a s t i c philosophy and also an . extensive c o l l e c t i o n of Buddhist r e l i g i o u s and p h i l o s o p h i c a l l i t e r a t u r e . The remaining nineteen years of h i s l i f e were devoted to d i r e c t i n g a team of Buddhist scholars who t r a n s l a t e d those Indian works from Sanskrit into L i t e r a r y Chinese. This t r a n s l a t i o n p r o j e c t , the most extensive and l a v i s h l y funded i n the h i s t o r y of Chinese Buddhism, provided the te x t u a l corpus by which the Chinese were f i n a l l y to gain a mature understanding of Indian Yogacara Buddhism, a p h i l o s o p h i c a l system even more a l i e n and contrary to the indigenous thought of t h e i r time than to some of our own modern notions of philosophy and psychology. Hsuan-tsang, i f we judge from h i s work, considered h i s main ro l e to be that of a transmitter and t r a n s l a t o r . It was to K'uei-chi, his s p e c i a l l y chosen and personally i n s t r u c t e d successor, that he l e f t the equally important and arduous task of providing the commentaries that would make t h i s vast body of newly t r a n s l a t e d t e c h n i c a l l i t e r a t u r e accessible to the Chinese Buddhist p u b l i c . I t was K'uei-chi who was l a r g e l y responsible f o r standardizing an orthodox synthesis of the various d o c t r i n a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s and po s i t i o n s represented i n the many works brought back to China by Hsuan-tsang. So important, i n f a c t , was K'uei-chi's r o l e as formulator and synthesizer, that i t was he who •was l a t e r given the p o s i t i o n of F i r s t P a t r i a r c h of the Fa-hsiang Tsung J/^ v 0^ , the dominant school of Chinese Yogacara Buddhism and one which subsequently had a strong influence on Japanese i n t e l l e c t u a l h i s t o r y as w e l l . Thus, i n the eyes of some at l e a s t , K'uei-chi's place i n the h i s t o r y of Chinese Yogacara Buddhism has been seen as even more c r u c i a l than that of Hsuan-tsang. Sources for an account of K'uei-chi's l i f e are l i m i t e d and beset, moreover, with a l l the usual problems involved i n d i s t i n g u i s h i n g hagiography from.biography, a task made a l l the more d i f f i c u l t by the 3 dearth of autobiographical references i n K'uei-chi's own w r i t i n g s . In o u t l i n e , the major events i n K'uei-chi's l i f e were his childhood i n the a r i s t o c r a t i c c i r c l e s of the c a p i t a l , h i s early a t t r a c t i o n to Buddhism, h i s t r a i n i n g and c o l l a b o r a t i o n with Hsuan-tsang, and h i s l i t e r a r y a c t i v i t y subsequent to Hsuan-tsang 1s death. There are, i n addition, two important themes running throughout hi s l i f e : h i s commitment to c a r e f u l scholarship,and to Buddhist r e l i g i o u s p r a c t i c e . In even a summary account of K'uei-chi's l i f e i t i s necessary to consider each of these t o p i c s . Family and Childhood . The general circumstances of K'uei-chi's e a r l y years can be surmised with some p r o b a b i l i t y . He was the scion of a family w e l l -established i n the T'ang imperial court.and h e i r to a long t r a d i t i o n of d istinguished m i l i t a r y leadership. The family name i s recorded as Y i i - c h ' i n , that of an o r i g i n a l l y non-Chinese clan h i s t o r i c a l l y associated with the court of the Northern Wei ^fc^$*Dynasty (A.D. 386-534); By the beginning of the T'angDynasty the family had become thoroughly s i n i c i z e d and c o n t r o l l e d important posi t i o n s i n the court. K'uei chi's grandfather was given the t i t l e of Duke of Ch'ang-ning ^ ^ / / ^ a n d h l s uncle was Yii-ch'ih Ching-te Jjf§^^Jj^y. Duke of O^jS , a famous general who had played an instrumental r o l e i n the founding of the T'ang Dynasty and was s t i l l a powerful figure i n the court, of T'ai-tsung, the second T'ang emperor. K'uei-chi's father. Yu-^ch^ih"'Tsutig ^Pfjt^ j* . was also rather prominent, having secured appointment to a number of posts in c l u d i n g M i l i t a r y Governor of Sung-chou ^')4) fyfy ^ and General of the Left Palace Guard j s ^ j S p . , . perhaps the p o s i t i o n he was holding when K'uei-chi was born i n the T'ang c a p i t a l , Ch'ang-an •> i n A.D. 6 32-.^  Our subject's personal name (his ming ^ ) i s not recorded i n any of the sources and, indeed, even the monastic name he took upon entering the order has been a to p i c of some controversy among Japanese scholars. C e r t a i n l y the common- and probably i n v a r i a b l e — r T p r a c t i c e among Chinese Buddhists at the time that they, at l e a s t t h e o r e t i c a l l y , relinquished a l l connections with t h e i r family was to take a two-character r e l i g i o u s name. In t h i s they were following a custom established by t h e i r Indian predecessors. The problem with the name K ' u e i - c h i * ^ ^ i s that the combination of these two characters together i s not found i n any of his own wr i t i n g s , though he does r e f e r 6 to himself a few times i n the third-person simply.as Chi . This pe c u l i a r circumstance i s compounded by the fact that i n the e a r l i e s t e ditions of his surviving works, his name as the author i s usually given preceded by various t i t l e s , . s o that we f i n d , f or example: Mahayana Chi ^ ^ , Chi of Ta-tz 'u-en. Monastery ^  i ^ \ c L ^ -^fc > the Monk Chi^/J,\ > a n c * sometimes again simply Chi. This has l e d some scholars to question the r e l i a b i l i t y of the t r a d i t i o n which gives K ' u e i ^ as the f i r s t character of the na^e. 5 The evidence against K'uei, however, seems circumstantial and inconclusive. Moreover, even though some question regarding the o r i g i n a l name does.indeed remain, we are nonetheless l e f t with the fac t that, i n the l a t e r t r a d i t i o n , Hsuan-tsang's famous d i s c i p l e was c e r t a i n l y known by the r e l i g i o u s name K'uei-chi and r e f e r r e d to by the t i t l e Tz'u-en Ta-shih ^^^^'^KJ^^-> t h e G r e a t Master of Tz'u-en Monastery. A t t r a c t i o n to Buddhism Beyond t h i s information about K'uei-chi's family background only a few d e t a i l s of his e a r l y years have survived. One of the e a r l i e s t biographical documents, the memorial i n s c r i p t i o n from his tomb, records that, even as a c h i l d , K'uei-chi was " g i f t e d with words and capable of minute ;study", and that he began e a r l y h i s t r a i n i n g i n the Confucian c l a s s i c s , an aspect of his education which i s borne 7 out i n the frequent non-Buddhist a l l u s i o n s found m h i s prefaces. This combination of family influence, native i n t e l l i g e n c e , and s o l i d Confucian education would c e r t a i n l y suggest the prospect of a bright future i n the imperial court. It i s i n t e r e s t i n g , consequently, to speculate about the circumstances.that l e d a youth, so well positioned for a career of power and wealth, to enter instead, a monastic l i f e of study and meditation. We know . r e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e about t h i s c r u c i a l period i n K'uei-chi's l i f e , but there i s one important record from his own hand, one of the very few instances i n a l l h i s surviving works where he writes about himself. These terse autobiographical remarks are "found i n the shorter commentary to the Ch'' eng-wei-shih-lun where K'uei-chi i s . r e l a t i n g how he came to be q u a l i f i e d to comment on t h i s important Yogacara work: At the age of nine. I suffered the misfortune Cof being orphaned]. From that time on I sought to entrust myself to other-worldly matters, longing ever more for the black robes Cof a Buddhist monk]. While s t i l l young I cut o f f a l l f e e l i n g s for ephemeral s o c i a l customs and besmirched worldly rewards, u n t i l , at the age of seventeen, I f i n a l l y gave myself up to the monastic order. By s p e c i a l imperial decree I became an assistant Cto Hsiian-tsang]. From the time I became, one of the three thousand Cof h i s followers] I humbly and joyously modeled myself on the seventy 7$. y L. 8 / L* "V Cadvanced d i s c i p l e s ] , Cthinking t h a t ! I must c e r t a i n l y harmonize my pious vow Cwith the master's • intention] i f I were l a t e r to receive h i s personal i n s t r u c -t i o n . L i t t l e did I think that with my meager t a l e n t s I would indeed become, part of the t r a n s l a t i o n team. It was i n performing those duties that I took up my w r i t i n g 9 t a b l e t and feasted on t h i s t r e a t i s e . K'uei-chi and Hsuan-tsang There are no.further d e t a i l s of K'uei-chi's e a r l i e s t contact with Hsuan-tsang i n h i s own wr i t i n g s . There i s however a more w e l l -known, though probably apocryphal, account that occurs i n the l a t e r biographies, most notably i n the o f f i c i a l Sung Biograpies of Eminent • Monks compiled by Tsan-ning \|| and completed i n 988. After providing the customary information about K'uei-chi's family background, Tsan-ning r e l a t e s the following story: When Hsuan-tsang f i r s t had occasion [to encounter K'uei-chi] on the street and observe his fine and luminous features as well as h i s rash deportment, the master remarked, "That he i s the descendant of a family of generals, there i s no mistaking! But suppose that [our meeting] i s the converging of cause and condition JJjk^S 63 $1 ^2- C a n d n o t m e r e c h a n c e ] : 1 0 i f he were to convert and become my d i s c i p l e , my doctrines would c e r t a i n l y have an agent i n whom they could be entrusted." Hsuan-tsang then r e c a l l e d an event from h i s time i n India. At the time when he was planning the i t i n e r a r y for h i s return to China, he was staying among a group of Nirgranthikas [ i . e . , J a i n mendicants]. An augury was done, y i e l d i n g the auspicious prognostication: "Master, you have only to return to the East, and a b r i l l i a n t d i s c i p l e w i l l appear.""'""'" Thereupon Hsuan-tsang went to the General of the Northern Gate- [ i . e . , K'uei-chi's father] to subtly suggest ^ ^ " j j ^ that h i s son give up the family l i f e [and become a monk]. The father hesitated asking,. "How could a coarse and rough youth of h i s sort be worthy of Your Reverence's teaching?" To which Hsuan-tsang r e p l i e d , "His true t a l e n t s , but 9 f o r you General, would never have been produced but f o r my humble s e l f , they would never have been recognized!" Even though h i s f a t h e r then agreed, K ' u e i - c h i was s t i l l vehemently opposed. They importuned him and f i n a l l y , w i t h a gesture of re s p e c t , he complied. S t i l l a g i t a t e d , he added i n a s t r a i n e d v o i c e , "Allow me three t h i n g s and then I w i l l take the monastic vows: t h a t I do not have t o give up my passionate d e s i r e s , the p r o h i b i t e d foods, and afternoon meals." Hsuan-tsang pretended assent t o t h i s request, t h i n k i n g t h a t he could i n i t i a l l y use these hooks of d e s i r e as an enticement, and then l a t e r b r i n g K ' u e i - c h i t o the Buddha-wisdom. A f t e r t h a t , whenever K ' u e i - c h i t r a v e l e d , he had c a r t s loaded down w i t h the aforementioned objects of d e s i r e . Hence the epithet' current i n the v i c i n i t y of the c a p i t a l : [ K ' u e i - c h i , ] the Three Cart Monk— -Tsan-ning goes on t o c i t e the a u t o b i o g r a p h i c a l passage t r a n s l a t e d above, n o t i n g the obvious i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s i n both tone and f a c t between the two accounts. While t h i s s t o r y of the three c a r t s f i l l e d w i t h wine, women and f i n e food does add an a t t r a c t i v e element of human f e e l i n g , and f a i l i n g , t o K'uei-chi's biography, i t must be noted t h a t , by the time of Tsan-ning, s e c t a r i a n polemic and even slander were not uncommon among the various monastic groups competing f o r i m p e r i a l f a v o r . The s t o r y reported by Tsan-ning seems f a r more c o n s i s t e n t w i t h these l a t e r h i s t o r i c a l developments than w i t h the e a r l i e r r e c o r d of K'uei-chi's l i f e . Even so, T O v a r i a n t s of the s t o r y and a l s o the a p p e l l a t i o n , "Three Cart Monk," di d come t o be widely c i r c u l a t e d throughout East A s i a , and there have been many within the t r a d i t i o n who have accepted t h i s rather d i f f e r e n t ih p i c t u r e of K'uei-chi as accurate. Whatever were the circumstances that brought the two together, there i s no doubt that. Hsiian-tsang recognized K'uei-chi to be a b r i l l i a n t d i s c i p l e . That he very quickly became one of the master's p r i n c i p a l assistants i s suggested by K'uei-chi himself i n the auto-biographical passage c i t e d above. This i s further confirmed by the record i n the Klafcywzn Catalogue which shows that between 659-663 K'uei-chi served as pi-shou Jp£'-s^ * ^ the amanuensis or f i r s t a s s i s t a n t , to Hsiian-tsang during the t r a n s l a t i o n and e d i t i n g of the Ch''eng-wei-sh-ih-lun ( i . e . , the Thirty Verses of Vasubandhu along with an edited synopsis of the ten major Indian commentaries),"^ the Twenty Verses IT with auto-commentary by the same author, the Madhyanta-vibhaga verses l8 along with Vasubandhu's commentary, and also two non-Mahayana works of s i g n i f i c a n c e : a d o c t r i n a l analysis of the various schools of Indian 19 Buddhism, the Sarmyabhedhoparacanaedkra, and a major work i n the _ 2 0 Sarvastivadin Abhidharma, the Dhatukayapadas'astrai both of which may or may not be works of the same Vasumitra. It should be noted that a l l but these l a s t two are among the key works of the Vasubandhu-Dharmapala branch of Indian Yogacara that was the basis for the Chinese school founded by Hsuan-tsang and K'uei-chi'. • As we s h a l l see below, i t was these works along with the Yogdcdrabhumi that received the greatest portion of K'uei-chi's attention as a commentator. K'uei-chi, the Exegete Beyond his association with Hsuan-tsang, K'uei-chi's fame rests on h i s e f f o r t s to•provide the exegetical material necessary to make the complex Yogacara r e l i g i o u s system understandable to the Chinese. So prodigious were these e f f o r t s , i n f a c t , that he came to be honored as the Exegete of a Hundred Works \ f j ^ $ l L i . 2 1 The "hundred" may well have been hyperbole, but i t i s c e r t a i n from even a cursory examination of the various e a r l y catalogues of Buddhist works that K'uei-chi did write more than the twenty-odd works that have survived. An analysis of these surviving works undertaken below i n the following chapter indicates the breadth of K'uei-chi's i n t e r e s t s as a Buddhist scholar.. In addition to h i s works on Yogacara and Buddhist l o g i c he wrote commentaries on the most popular early Mahayana Sutras, i n t e r p r e t i n g them from a Yogacara point of view. Quality of K'uei-chi's Scholarship In addition to the quantity.of K'uei-chi's l i t e r a r y a c t i v i t y i ndicated above, there i s also much that r e f l e c t s i t s q u a l i t y . Above a l l , h i s scholarship i s characterized by the desire to transmit and record the Indian Yogacara t r a d i t i o n as accurately as possible while s t i l l adapting i t s presentation to the s p e c i a l needs of the Chinese audience. This at t i t u d e i s well i l l u s t r a t e d by an account given by K'uei-chi himself of the e d i t i n g and t r a n s l a t i o n of the Ch'eng-wei-shih-lim3 the single most important.treatise of the. Fa-hsiang Yogacara 22 school i n East Asia. The core of t h i s work i s the Thirty Verses (Trimsikd) composed by Vasubandhu (4th or 5th cen.) who was, along with h i s brother Asafiga, one of the two p r i n c i p a l formulators of C l a s s i c a l Yogacara i n India. The Thirty Verses presents a concise summary of Yogacara philosophy and soteriology focusing on the doctrine of Vijnaptimatrata. Intended as a mnemonic a i d , the bare verses them-. selves require a supplementary commentary. None was provided by Vasubandhu himself, but by the time Hsiian-tsang studied i n India, the commentaries of ten of Vasubandhu's successors had come to be considered a u t h o r i t a t i v e even though each d i f f e r e d somewhat i n t h e i r 23 i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of Vasubandhu's thought. Hsiian-tsang studied these commentaries i n India and brought them a l l back to China. His f i r s t plan was to t r a n s l a t e a l l ten commentaries separately i n addition to the o r i g i n a l Thirty Verses. K'uei-chi objected, however, and i t was h i s concern that p r e v a i l e d . Fearing that t r a n s l a t i o n s of a l l ten commentaries would lead to great confusion since each d i f f e r e d on a number of d e t a i l s , he suggested that they take one commentary as the basic text and add to that c a r e f u l l y edited selections from the other nine, taking care to i l l u s t r a t e the points of controversy, but also to c r i t i c a l l y i n d i c a t e the best i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . The commentary chosen as the base text, was that of Dharmapala,the predecessor of Hsiian-tsang's teacher at Nalanda. i n India. The r e s u l t , what we have now as the Ch'' eng-wei-shih-lun i n Chinese, -is.a synthetic work showing some c r e a t i v i t y i n i t s presentation and discussion of the differences with-i n the school, and c e r t a i n l y a work that succeeds better i n presenting the t r a d i t i o n to a new audience than ten separate works, each p a r t i a l l y c o n tradicting the other. The synthetic format of the Ch'eng-wei-shih-lun that K'uei-chi proposed i s thus a compromise of s o r t s , one that mediates the dual r e s p o n s i b i l i t y he' f e l t . b o t h to the o r i g i n a l Indian Buddhist t r a d i t i o n and to the Chinese Buddhist community. This gives us a good idea of the i n t e n t i o n of K'uei-chi's scholarship, but what of the p a r t i c u l a r s k i l l s he acquired to achieve t h i s end?, Tsan-ning's biography r e l a t e s that K'uei-chi studied f i v e Indian languages under Hsuan-tsang, a point of some i n t e r e s t as i t was very unusual f o r a native Chinese Buddhist i n China to acquire any knowledge at a l l of Indian or Central Asian languages. It i s also a point of much s i g n i f i c a n c e i n the assessment of K'uei-chi's scholarship, and one which, underlies a set of key questions. Was K'uei-chi capable of studying independently the voluminous material brought back by Hsuan-tsang? Was he able to consult the many works that were never translated? Was he capable of v e r i f y i n g what t r a n s l a t i o n s there were against the o r i g i n a l texts? A l l of these questions are important i n gauging the depth of K'uei-chi's scholarship, and their.answer depends l a r g e l y on whether or not he did, i n p a r t i c u l a r , master Sanskrit, the p r i n c i p a l language of the Mahayana l i t e r a t u r e Hsuan-tsang brought back from India. One might well hesitate to accept an uncorroborated report 25 i n Tsan-ning's r e l a t i v e l y l a t e work, though his i n c l u s i o n of the d e t a i l " f i v e " suggests something more than simple hagiography. While we have no d i r e c t statement from K'uei-chi (or Hsuan-tsang) that he mastered Sanskrit, there i s s u f f i c i e n t i n d i r e c t evidence to make i t very probable. K'uei-chi frequently i n his w r i t i n g glosses words and passages i n a manner that indicates a knowledge of the o r i g i n a l t e x t . Perhaps the most convincing example of t h i s i s seen i n the famous passage i n his Lotus Sutra commentary where he points out that KumarajIva's Chinese text i s ambiguous because i t does not d i s t i n g u i s h between c a r d i n a l and o r d i n a l numbers. K'uei-chi notes that the Sanskrit t e x t , at one point i n the parable of the burning house and the three c a r t s , c l e a r l y says "second" and " t h i r d " rather than "two" and "three", and that, while Kumarajiva's Chinese can be read either way, i t i s most l i k e l y to be understood i n the l a t t e r s e n s e . ^ This i s a point which had l e d astray even the eminent Lotus commentator Chi-tsang ^ 5 who lacked any. knowledge of Sanskrit, and subsequently l e d to a major controversy i n East Asian Buddhism over the question of whether the bodhisattva vehicle i t s e l f was the One Vehicle of the Lotus Sutra, or whether the One Vehicle was beyond i t as well as the sravaka and the pratyekabuddha vehicle.. In addition to that type of reference to the Sanskrit text in K'uei-chi's works, there are also many passages-where he glosses a p a r t i c u l a r Sanskrit word, t r a n s c r i b i n g the sound into Chinese and then g i v i n g the meaning(s) i n Chinese.. One example which occurs i n the "Essay-oh •Vijnaptimatrata" t r a n s l a t e d below i s worthy of s p e c i a l 28 note. At the opening of the second section of the essay K'uei-chi undertakes a c r i t i c a l analysis of the term wei-shih ' ^ J - » "the standard Chinese equivalent f o r Vijnaptimatrata. He states that 'wei-renders the Sanskrit '-matrata', which he t r a n s c r i b e s ^ '•Jji (var .«Ji -(in modern Chinese pronounced: mo-da-la-to, but i n the T'ang Chinese of K'uei-chi, something closer to ma-tat-1 a t - t a ) ; '•• and that 'shih', which i s usually the equivalent f o r 'vijnana', i n t h i s case stands for ' v i j n a p t i ' which he transcribes ^ (modern Ch.: p ' i - j o - t i ; and T'ang Ch. : bj'i-nia(.k)-tej--) • He continues, moreover, in the gloss of 'wei'/matrata.' to discuss three d i f f e r e n t meanings . that the word has i n Sanskrit but does not have i n Chinese. Now i t i s always possible that we have, i n both of the instances c i t e d above, a case of secondary or i n d i r e c t , rather than d i r e c t , knowledge of the language. A l l of t h i s p h i l o l o g i c a l informa-t i o n may have been part of the o r a l exegetical t r a d i t i o n passed on from Hsuan-tsang to K'uei-chi, i n Chinese, during the course of t h e i r t r a n s l a t i o n work, a hypothesis that i s by no means implausible when one considers the amount of t h i s sort of knowledge that the East Asian ( e s p e c i a l l y the Japanese) exegetes, without any knowledge of Sanskrit, s t i l l maintained i n the o r a l t r a d i t i o n r i g h t down to the beginning of the present century. However, though t h i s p o s s i b i l i t y can never be conclusively excluded on the basis of the surviving documents, i t does seem u n l i k e l y i n K'uei-chi's case. Too many other factors argue i n favor of a d i r e c t knowledge of the Indian t e x t s . Considering the circumstances, K' uei - c h i c e r t a i n l y had the opportunity to learn the language from Hsuan-tsang. And the l a t t e r , judging from the. accounts.of h i s own study of Sanskrit i n h i s travelogue, c e r t a i n l y placed a high value on "being able to work d i r e c t l y from the o r i g i n a l t e x t s . Given then the degree of K'uei-chi's i n t e l l e c t u a l a b i l i t y , the opportunity and the motivation provided by Hsuan-tsang, and f i n a l l y the i n d i r e c t evidence presented i n many passages l i k e those c i t e d above, i t does seem quite l i k e l y that K'uei-chi would have .". • learned- Sanskrit very well indeed. Personal Religious L i f e of Yogacara Buddhism i s an evaluation of his personal r e l i g i o u s l i f e . What was the s i g n i f i c a n c e of r e l i g i o u s p r a c t i c e i n his l i f e ? Was he a Yogacara p r a c t i t i o n e r , or was h i s involvement i n Buddhism l i m i t e d to t e x t u a l study and exegesis? Answers to these questions are necessary to shed l i g h t on K'uei-chi's view of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the p h i l o s o p h i c a l and s o t e r i o l o g i c a l aspects of Yogacara. chi's a c t i v i t y as a t r a n s l a t o r and commentator; i t i s much more d i f f i c u l t to glean any information about, his personal r e l i g i o u s p r a c t i c e . Nonetheless several useful observations can be made. A l l the sources agree that K'uei-chi spent his adult l i f e i n residence Of great importance to the study of K'uei-chi' s understanding From the h i s t o r i c a l record we know a great deal about K' ue i -as a monk at the Hung-fu Monastery and l a t e r at the newly b u i l t Ta-tz' u-en Monastery Buddhist centers i n the c a p i t a l . In spite of the l a t e r rumors, of K'uei-chi's indulgent t a s t e s , i t i s very l i k e l y , i f not c e r t a i n , that the monastic r u l e would have "been rather s t r i c t l y observed i n monasteries of t h i s prominence. This gives us some idea of the r e l i g i o u s atmosphere i n which K'uei-chi l i v e d d a i l y . There are, moreover, i n at l e a s t some of the biographical sources, reports of K'uei-chi p a r t i c i p a t i n g in three s p e c i f i c v a r i e t i e s of r e l i g i o u s p r a c t i c e : meditation, pilgrimage to sacred spots, and Maitreya devotionalism. A l l three of these a c t i v i t i e s were Well-established forms of B u d d h i s t p r a c t i c e i n India as well as China, and the f i r s t and the t h i r d , at l e a s t , held a s p e c i a l place i n the Yogacara school. K'uei-chi's p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the f i r s t two i s attested by the preface to his commentary on the Heart Sutra, an e a r l y — — p r o b a b l y even contemporaneous-—biographical source a t t r i b u t e d to Miao Shen-jung There i t i s reported that K'uei-chi frequently 2 8 p r a c t i c e d meditation, and that, he made pilgrimages t o Mount Wu-t'ai yy. l\\ w h e r e ^ e communicated with Manjusri, the patron bodhisattva of that famous r e l i g i o u s s i t e , and to Lou-fan t^'^  where he made s p i r i t u a l contact with the famous Chinese monk Hui-yuan ^ (A.D. 29 33^-^l6). Among other such references, the memorial i n s c r i p t i o n on K'uei-chi's tomb notes that he r e c i t e d the bodhisattva vows every day, 30 and that he made statues or images of Maitreya. This l a s t point, r a i s e s the aspect of K'uei-chi's r e l i g i o u s p r a c t i c e that most warrants s p e c i a l note. It seems very l i k e l y that i n addition to his a c t i v i t i e s as a Buddhist philosopher and scholar, K'uei-chi was also a pious adherent of Maitreya devotionalism. According to Buddhist t r a d i t i o n the bodhisattva Maitreya i s the next i n the long succession of Buddhas to be born i n t h i s world. He i s said to dwell i n the Tusita Heaven, a paradise within t h i s world-system to which his devotees by vi r t u e of t h e i r f a i t h may secure r e b i r t h , there to await his advent as the next Buddha, an event that w i l l mark the beginning of a golden age when i t w i l l be f a r easier to 31 achieve the ultimate goal of nirvana. The i n s p i r a t i o n a l figure of Maitreya was already i n India the focus of one branch of Buddhist devotionalism that combined both messianic and. m i l l e n a r i a n elements. In China the Maitreya c u l t was e s p e c i a l l y popular during the Northern Wei period (A.D. 386-534),^ though i t was l a t e r e c l i p s e d by another branch of Buddhist devotionalism focused on the Pure Land of Amitabha Buddha. The ea r l y T'ang was a c r u c i a l period i n the development of Buddhist devotionalism in China, as the t r a n s i t i o n from Maitreya to Amitabha had. already begun to take place, by the time Hsuan-tsang returned from China i n 6^ +5, and was soon accelerated, i n part at l e a s t , by the u l t i m a t e l y unsuccessful attempt of the Empress Wu jf"^  (r. 655-705) to j u s t i f y her usurpation of the., imperial, throne with the claim that she was the incarnation of Maitreya. Debate and controversy between, these two competing branches of devotionalism was thus a very current issue in the Chinese c a p i t a l during K'uei-chi's. l i f e t i m e . In addition to the mention of the Maitreya statue c i t e d above, several other facts give evidence, both d i r e c t and c i r c u m s t a n t i a l , of K'uei-chi's association with the Maitreya c u l t . The Yogacara school i n India already held Maitreya in s p e c i a l regard: several of the key works of the school are a t t r i b u t e d to.one Maitreya-natha, whom many considered to be the bodhisattva Maitreya. S i m i l a r l y , there are accounts of --Asadga re c e i v i n g the i n s p i r a t i o n f or h i s t r e a t i s e s d i r e c t l y from Maitreya, and K'uei-chi himself reports that Maitreya devotion was p r a c t i c e d 35 by both Asanga and Vasubandhu. That Hsuan-tsang. was c e r t a i n l y a Maitreya devotee i s attested by several incidents recorded i n h i s 36 travelogue and biographies. F i n a l l y , more d i r e c t evidence of K'uei-chi's adherence to Maitreya devotionalism i s c l e a r l y seen i n his one surviving commentary on one of the p r i n c i p a l Maitreya sutras where he asserts, i n some d e t a i l , the s u p e r i o r i t y of Maitreya devotion over 37 the c u l t of Amitabha's Pure land. In sum then, we have a p i c t u r e of K'uei-chi as an energetic and probably strong-willed i n d i v i d u a l , one who maintained a high degree of prominence and independence throughout his l i f e . As a youth he was provided with a l l the p r e r e q u i s i t e s of a highly successful career i n government service, advantages which he-chose instead to develop i n a comparably f r u i t f u l career as a Buddhist monk. He was a c a r e f u l and d i l i g e n t scholar, yet also a s k i l l e d i n t e r p r e t e r who was not a f r a i d to advance his own ideas. Most s i g n i f i c a n t l y he was, i n the best Yogacara t r a d i t i o n , a t h e o r e t i c i a n and a p r a c t i t i o n e r , one who saw no c o n f l i c t between d o c t r i n a l study and r e l i g i o u s p r a c t i c e , between p h i l o s o p h i c a l speculation and s p i r i t u a l c u l t i v a t i o n . The Yogacara Buddhism of K'uei-chi., seen i n the context of h i s l i f e , c l e a r l y an. i n d i v i s i b l e combination of both, these two elements: philosophy and soteriology. Chapter II K'UEI-CHI'S WRITTEN WORKS The best way of assessing the range of K'uei-chi's thought would be a c a r e f u l analysis of his written works. This could t e l l us a great deal about h i s p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t s , the manner i n which he approached the d o c t r i n a l t r a d i t i o n i n Buddhism, and also the s p e c i f i c t e x t u a l sources he considered most important. The problems involved i n such an analysis are, however, considerable. In spite of the fact that K'uei-chi was known as the "Exegete of a Hundred Works", r e l a t i v e l y few of these have survived, and several of those that have are defective and incomplete. The l o s s of so many of K'uei-chi's works has t o do, i n part, with the decline of the Fa-hsiang School i n China within three generations a f t e r K'uei-chi, a decline due to periodic p o l i t i c a l suppression of the monasteries, combined with an apparent l o s s of int e r e s t i n the i n t r i c a c i e s of the sch o l a s t i c Abhidharma asepct of Yogacara. The problems of t e x t u a l preservation were also compounded by the fact that the f i r s t major compilation and p r i n t e d e d i t i o n of the Chinese Buddhist Canon was not undertaken u n t i l 972 at the beginning of the Sung Dynasty, almost -300 .years a f t e r K'uei-chi's death. Circumstances were d i f f e r e n t i n Japan, however, and i t was there that many, of his works were preserved. Several of the students of both. Hsiian-tsang and K'uei-chi had come to Ch'ang-an from Japan, and a f t e r t h e i r return, the Fa-hsiang (J': Hosso) teaching was maintained u n t i l the present as an i n s t i t u t i o n a l l y separate school with i t s own monasteries and l i b r a r i e s . A major impetus for the b r i e f r e v i v a l of in t e r e s t i n Buddhist p h i l o s o p h i c a l thought and p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the Ch'' eng-wei-shih-lun i n China during the Republican Period i n the early part of t h i s century came as the result, of a curious incident i n v o l v i n g some of K'uei-chi's works that had been preserved i n Japan. One of the i n i t i a t o r s of the Chinese r e v i v a l movement,YANG Wen-hui > n a d occasion i n I 8 7 8 to meet the Japanese Buddhist scholar NANJO Bun'yu (Bunyiu Nanjio) ^^/^jjl. i - n London,, where the l a t t e r was studying with the S a n s k r i t i s t Max Muller. YANG l a t e r requested NANJO to help him locate copies of Buddhist works no longer a v a i l a b l e i n China but preserved i n Japan. Among the hundreds that eventually made t h e i r way from Japan back to China were a number of K'uei-chi's works, inc l u d i n g his longer commentary on the'Ch 1eng-wei-shih-lun (no. 18) and his d o c t r i n a l compendium, the Fa-yuan i - l i n ohang (no. 26). The subsequent p u b l i c a t i o n of these works i n China stimulated the in t e r e s t of YANG's famous students OU-YANG Ching-wu jlJ&Jl a n d M E I K u a n S " h s i ^trftx^, •> t n e Buddhist Abbot T'ai-hsu y i v j ^ . ^ ^ ^ J ' a n d a number of other prominent. Chinese i n t e l l e c t u a l s of the time including K'ANG Y u - w e i j | ^ ^ , LIANG Ch'i-ch'ao ^ ^ ^ a n d LIANG Sou-ming ||ti$>t>lv That i n t e r e s t . i n turn r e s u l t e d in.renewed discussion of K'uei-chi. works and several modern commentaries i n Chinese. 1 To date, no one has attempted to reconstruct a complete l i s t of a l l of K'uei-chi's writings. There has not even been a complete and annotated l i s t of the surviving works that are a t t r i b u t e d to him. The task of compiling a l i s t of K'uei-chi's l o s t works i s a s u b s t a n t i a l research project i n i t s own r i g h t , one beyond the bounds of the present study. Many t i t l e s of books a t t r i b u t e d to K'uei-chi can be found i n the various catalogs of Buddhist works, some of which are very nearly 2 contemporaneous:with K'uei-chi; much care, however, must be taken to determine how many of these entries indicate the same work l i s t e d under d i f f e r e n t t i t l e s . The f i r s t steps i n t h i s process have been taken by YUKI Reimon i n his luishikigaku tensekishi ^iffi^^Z Hi '•'(1962>, though he r e s t r i c t s himself to K'uei-chi's commentaries on primary Yogacara sutras and t r e a t i s e s . ' Much remains to be done with respect to K'uei-chi's l o s t works. More can be said of the surviving material, though even here there i s some confusion and a great deal of uncertainty. In 1 9 5 ^ FUKAURA Seibun )^ j£. ^published--an unannotated l i s t of surviving works a t t r i b u t e d to K'uei-chi, some 2 6 i n number. Stanley Weinstein pointed out i n 1 9 5 9 that a d d i t i o n a l works a t t r i b u t e d to K'uei-chi could be found i n the Collection of Rare Books of the Sung Canon \ suggesting the FUKAURArs l i s t be amended to include at l e a s t 28 t i t l e s . ^ A c t u a l l y , both these figures are inaccurate because, as w i l l be seen i n the analysis provided below, two of the t i t l e s i n FUKAURA's. l i s t are i n fact the same work i n two d i f f e r e n t forms, while one of the additions proposed by Weinstein i s r e a l l y just an o u t l i n e of another work already l i s t e d . The more d e t a i l e d a n a l y s i s presented here l i s t s 2 6 . t i t l e s a f t e r making the c o r r e c t i o n s noted, above. But even t h i s number has l i t t l e r e a l meaning, be-cause these are works attributed t o K ' u e i - c h i . At l e a s t one of these works has been proved t o post-date K ' u e i - c h i , and the a t t r i b u t i o n of s e v e r a l others has been s e r i o u s l y questioned. S u b t r a c t i n g those works from the l i s t , we are l e f t w i t h 20 or 21 t i t l e s which thus f a r have been accepted t o be the work of K'uei-c h i . ^ This number too should probably be q u a l i f i e d by the observation t h a t some p o r t i o n s of at l e a s t one of these works, the d o c t r i n a l compendium Fa-yuan i-Zin ehang (no. 26), may have c i r c u l a t e d separately or even been o r i g i n a l l y w r i t t e n as independent essays; t h i s w i l l be discussed i n more d e t a i l i n the I n t r o d u c t i o n t o the T r a n s l a t i o n . Whichever was the case, one does encounter references t o and commentaries on i n d i v i d u a l chapters of the Fa-yuan i-Hn ehang^ which might thus appear t o be t i t l e s not i n c l u d e d i n the a n a l y s i s below. An A n a l y s i s of K'uei-chi's S u r v i v i n g Works Since the r e l a t i v e chronology of K'uei-chi's works i s , w i t h one or two exceptions,^ impossible t o e s t a b l i s h , the f o l l o w i n g c a t a l o g i s arranged t o p i c a l l y . The numbers i n brackets i n d i c a t e t i t l e s t hat have been questioned as works of K'uei-chi's i n s p i t e of the a t t r i b u t i o n ; d e t a i l s are noted i n the r e s p e c t i v e e n t r i e s . A l l of the works l i s t e d here can be found i n at l e a s t one of three c o l l e c t i o n s a v a i l a b l e i n modern e d i t i o n s : the Taisho shinshu ?K (abbreviated T ) , the Dainihon zoku zokyo ^\$$s see b i b l i o g r a p h y f o r d e t a i l s of p u b l i c a t i o n . I . Commentaries on Sutras Ll.l Chin-kang-pan-jo-ohing tsan-shu 2 s c r o l l s ; (T:1700, XXXIII.124-154); (Z:l/38/4) Commentary t o the Kumarajiva t r a n s l a t i o n of the Diamond Sutra (Vajraechedikd-prajndparamita). g There i s a Hsiian-tsang t r a n s l a t i o n of t h i s s u t r a , and i t i s u n l i k e l y t h a t K ' u e i - c h i would have chosen to use the Kumarajiva version as a "base. text. The a t t r i b u t i o n of t h i s work to K'uei-chi i s 9 questioned by FUKAURA Seibun and others. Chin-kang-pan-jo-lun hui-shih j^ 'J J^J^  ^JP* 3 s c r o l l s ; (T: 1816, XL.719-783); (Z:l / 7 4 / 3 ) . Sub-commentary to Bodhiruci's t r a n s l a t i o n 1 0 of a commentary on the Diamond Sutra (Vajracchedika-prajftaparamita.)attributed i n the Chinese text to Vasubandhu. Pan-j' o-po-lo-mi-to-hsin-ching yu-tsan . 2 s c r o l l s ; (T: 171© s, XXXIII. 523-542); (S:l / 4 l / 3 ) . Commentary to Hsiian-tsang's' t r a n s l a t i o n 1 1 of the Heart Sutra (Prajnaparamita-hrdaya). Ta-pan-jo-po-lo-mi-to-ching pan-Qo-li-ch'u-fen shu-tsan 3 s c r o l l s : (T:l695, XXXIII .25-63); (Z:l/32/2). 12 Commentary to Hsuan-tsang's t r a n s l a t i o n of the Perfection of Wisdom in ISO Lines (Adhyardhasatika prajHaparamita-sutra). Miao-fa-lien-hua-ching hsuan-tsan ^ j j j^- j^ jfc^ ^ ^j* 20 s c r o l l s ; (T:1723,XXXIV.651-854); (S:l/52 /4-5) 13 Commentary to Kumarajiva's t r a n s l a t i o n - of the Lotus Sutra (Saddharmapundartka);: includes a po s t s c r i p t 14 containing some autcb/iographical material. 26 Analysis of the Surviving Works (cont. ) 6. Miao-fa-lien-hua-ohing shih-wei-wei-ehr chang 1 s c r o l l ; (Z:l / 52/4). A p h i l o l o g i c a l essay analyzing the 6l8 occurrences of the.two grammatical p a r t i c l e s wei^^/^ and wei 3 i n Kumarajiva's t r a n s l a t i o n 1 ' ' of the Lotus Sutra; 2 for the 327 occurrences:of wei K'uei-chi distinguishes nine d i f f e r e n t meanings, and for the 327 occurrences 4 of wei , three d i f f e r e n t meanings. 7. Sheng-man-ehing• shu-ohi Jj|^ ^jfc "^(!» 2 s c r o l l s ; (Z: 1/30/4). Commentary to Gunabhadra's t r a n s l a t i o n 1 ^ , of the Sutra on the Lion's Roar of the Queen SrZmdla (SrtmdlddevZ-simhanada). 8. Shuo-wu-kou-oh . , , _ „ , 'eng-ohing shu ^ ffa 6 s c r o l l s ; (T: 1782, XXXVIII.993-1114); (Z:l/29/3-4). 17 Commentary to Hsuan-tsang's t r a n s l a t i o n of the •Vima lakTrti-nirdes'a. Kuan-mi-le-shang-sheng-Tou-shuai-tiien-ohing tsan 2 s c r o l l s ; (T: 1 0 2 , XXXVIII.272-299); (Z: 1/35/4) Commentary to Chu-ch'u-ching-sheng's 18 _ » t r a n s l a t i o n of the Sutra r e l a t i n g Maitreya s Analysis of the Surviving Works (cont. ) ascent to the T u s i t a Heaven, one of the three p r i n c i p a l Maitreya sutras t r a n s l a t e d into Chinese. C10.H O-mi-t'o-ching shu p<fj" jj£ j£)|C. ' 1 . s c r o l l ; (T:1T57,XXXVII.310-329); (Z:l /33/2) . 19 Commentary to Kumarajiva's t r a n s l a t i o n of the shorter Sukhavati-vyuha Sutvay of which there i s I 21 20 also a Hsuan-tsang t r a n s l a t i o n . The a t t r i b u t i o n to K'uei-chi i s questioned by FUKAURA and others. d i ' . 1 0-mi-t1e-ching t'ung-tsan-shu jJSj" j3«£ ^  ^ | | 3 s c r o l l s ; . ( T : 1758, XXXVII.329-349); (Z: 1/33/1). A longer commentary on Kumarajiva's t r a n s l a t i o n of the shorter SukTiavati-vyuha; see no. C10H above. The a t t r i b u t i o n here i s likewise questioned. I I . Commentaries on Treatises (sastras) 12. I-pu-tsung-lun-lun shu-chi j^^ * /^tv 1 s c r o l l ; (Z: 1/83/3). 22 Commentary to Hsuan-tsang's t r a n s l a t i o n of Vasumitra's Samayabedoparacanacakra, an analysis of the d o c t r i n a l differences among the early Indian Buddhist schools composed probably i n the 2nd century B.C. Etienne Lamotte r e f e r s to and tr a n s l a t e s portions of t h i s commentary i n 23 Histoire du Bouddhisme Indien. 28 Analysis of the Surviving Works (cont) 13. Yu-ch'ieh-shih-ti-lun lueh-tsuan >j[j\z 16 s c r o l l s ; (T: 1829,XLIII.1-228); (Z: 1/75/1-3). Commentary to the f i r s t two-thirds of Hsiian-tsang's t r a n s l a t i o n of the Yogacdrabhurm. 14. Yu-ch'ieh-lun chieh-chang-sung J^yi ^fcf\ ^  1 s c r o l l ; (S: 1/75/3). Verses on the duration and succession of events i n a kalpa or eon of time; based on Hsiian-tsang's t r a n s l a t i o n of the Yogdcdrabhumi (see no. 13 above), 15. Tsa-chi-lun shu-chi ^ j^. <f£^ 10 s c r o l l s ; (Z: 1/74/4-5). 25 Sub-commentary to Hsiian-tsang's t r a n s l a t i o n of Sthiramati's commentary {Vydkhyd) to the Abhidharma-samuecaya. 16. Tien-chung-pien-lun shu-chi v ^ y^ *, 3 s c r o l l s ; (T: 1835, XLIV .1-46); (Z: l / 7 5'/l). Commentary to Hsiian-tsang' s t r a n s l a t i o n ^ of the Madhydnta-vibhdga. 17. Wei-shih erh-shih-lun shu-chi X2^J. 2 s c r o l l s ; (T: 1834, XLIII.978-1009); (Z: 1/83/2). Commentary to Hsiian-tsang's t r a n s l a t i o n of Vasubandhu's Twenty Verses ('Vims,atika) with 29 Analysis of the Surviving Works (cont. ) auto-commentary. Clarence Hamilton has done 28 a study of t h i s work and also t r a n s l a t e s portions of i t i n his t r a n s l a t i o n of the 29 Twenty Verses. 18. Ch'eng-wei-shih-lun shu-chi ffy V ^ L ^ jSgj 10 s c r o l l s ; (T: 1830, XLIII.229 -6o6); (Z: 1/77/1-5). 30 K'uei-chi's main commentary to the Ch1' eng-wei-shrh-lun3 a t r a n s l a t i o n of Vasubandhu's Thirty Verses (Trirnsika) along with a s e l e c t i o n from the commentaries of ten Indian exegetes edited by Hsiian-tsang and y 31 32 K'uei-chi. L. de La Vallee-Poussin and Wei Tat both make reference to and t r a n s l a t e portions of t h i s work i n t h e i r respective French and Engli s h t r a n s l a t i o n s of the Ch'eng-wei-shih-lun. l8a. Ch'eng-wei-shi-lun shu-chi k'o-wen i n c . , 2 of ? s c r o l l s ; ,STIC: 5.2 (fas. 47 of r e p r i n t ) . An incomplete copy of what appears to be a d e t a i l e d schematic outline of the contents of no. 18.. 19. Ch'eng-wei-shih-lun Lchang-chung-1 shu-yao 4 s c r o l l s ; (T: 1831, XLIII. 607-658); (Z: l / 7 8 / l ) . A shorter commentary on the es s e n t i a l s or fundamentals of the Ch'eng-wei-shih-lun. This work includes the b r i e f but important autobiographical passage 33 t r a n s l a t e d above. Analysis of the Surviving Works (cont.) 20. Ch'eng-wei-shih-lun pieh-ch'ao jffy vfy. "2£yjj ^ i n c . : no. 1, 5, 9, &.10 of org. 10 s c r o l l s ; (Z: 1/77/5) An incomplete supplementary commentary on the Ch'eng-wei-shih-lun; only four s c r o l l s survive. YUKX Reimon r a i s e s some questions regarding the a t t r i b u t i o n of t h i s work to K'uei-chi, but i s not ready t o r e j e c t i t without further t e x t u a l study. C 2 1 . 3 Ch'eng-wei-shih-lun liao-chien / j j ^ ^ i ^ ^ j ^ ^ j " f j g j 2 s c r o l l s ; (T: 1836, XLIV.46-52); (Z: 1/76/5). A s e l e c t i v e commentary to the Ch'eng-wei-shih-lun. YUKI Reimon has done a study of t h i s work concluding that, on the basis of the ideas i t contains, i t must post-date Chih-chou ^ |^ (b.679) which places i t in the. mid-T'ang several generations a f t e r K'uei-c h i . 3 ^ FUKAURA Seibun agrees. 3^ 22. Ta-sheng-po-fa-ming-men-lun ohieh 2 s c r o l l s ; (T: I836, XLIV.U6-52); (Z: I /76/5) . 37 Commentary to Hsuan-tsang's t r a n s l a t i o n of the Mahdydna-§atadharrm-prakd§amukha-sdstra of Vasubandhu, a Yogacara-Abhidharma work. The published editions of t h i s work i n the c o l l e c t i o n s c i t e d above are based on a woodblock text which was edited by the Ming 0^  monk P'u-t' a i and include h i s i n t e r l i n e a r sub-commentary. 31 Analysis of the Surviving Works (cont. ) FUKAURA Seibun l i s t s another t i t l e , the Po-fa-ming-men-lun ohui-yen § yfc f ^ *^ 3o i n 1 s c r o l l as a separate work of K'uei-chi's; t h i s l a t t e r work, however, i s i n fact a sub-commentary by the Ming monk Ming-yii tf^ which includes . i n the text the same K'uei-chi commentary found i n the P'u-t'ai woodblock; The portion of both these works a t t r i b u t a b l e to K'uei-chi i s thus the same. 23. Yin-ming-ju-cheng-li-lun shu \ ^ < S^. jE- ^I^LJ. 3 s c r o l l s ; (T: 1840, XLIV.91-143); (Z:l / 86 /4 ) . 39 Commentary to Hsiian-tsang's t r a n s l a t i o n of the Nydyapravesa, an introductory work on l o g i c which r the Chinese a t t r i b u t e to Sankarasvamin and the Tibetans to Dignaga. A study of t h i s work based on K'uei-chi's commentary has been done by R.S. Y. Chi.^° 24. Yin-ming-cheng-li-men-lun shih-szu-kuo-lei shu 1 s c r o l l ; STIC: 6.1 (fas. 51 of the r e p r i n t ) . An exegesis of fourteen categories of l o g i c a l 41 f a l l a c y based on Hsiian-tsang's t r a n s l a t i o n of Dignaga's Nyayamukha. Analysis of the Surviving Works (cont.) I I I . Independent Works ( i . e . , those that are not commentaries on some other s p e c i f i c work.) [25. 1 Hsi-fang-yao-ohueh-shih-i-t 'ung-kuei (2j jf^ f" ^kji J$f\r ^ jfl^  1 s c r o l l ; (T: 1964, XLIV.104-110); (Z :2 / l2 /4 ) . A Pure Land t r a c t , the a t t r i b u t i o n of which has 42 been questioned by FUKAURAU Seibun and others. In h i s study of the authorship of t h i s work Stanley Weinstein comments that i t " i s not a commentary on a p a r t i c u l a r Pure Land work, but rather an apologetic for Pure Land Buddhism i n general, defending i t against r i v a l systems of b e l i e f , r e c o n c i l i n g i t s seeming disagreements with c e r t a i n Mahayana t e x t s , and asserting the s u p e r i o r i t y of the Pure Land n43 concept of salvation over that of other sects. 26. Ta-sheng fa-yuan i - l i n ehang ^ y^^J^, /Jy^ p^L 7 s c r o l l s ; (T: l 8 6 l , XLV.245-374); (Z: 2/2/5). A d o c t r i n a l compendium comprising 29 essays or chapters on various Yogacara t o p i c s . For more on t h i s work see the introduction to the Trans-l a t i o n below. Discussion The preceding analysis suggests a number of observations about the sources of K'uei-chi's understanding of Buddhism and about h i s own spe c i a l i n t e r e s t s as a Buddhist exegete. I t i s c e r t a i n l y the case that any observations based on the above data must remain somewhat ten t a t i v e because we lack a complete catalog of a l l of K'uei-chi's works, both surviving and l o s t . Even so, the surviving works provide an adequate sample to allow quite useful generalizations. Some a d d i t i o n a l data on K'uei-chi's l o s t works w i l l also be incorporated into, the following discussion. Looking at the group of works l i s t e d above as a whole, there are two immediately obvious, and hardly s u r p r i s i n g , c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s : the emphasis on Yogacara and the c o r r e l a t i o n with Hsuan-tsarig's t r a n s l a t i o n s , Sixteen of the works r e l a t e d i r e c t l y to works t r a n s l a t e d by Hsuan-tsang's t r a n s l a t i o n team; and nos. 12, 14, 15, 16, IT, 18, 19, 20, [211,.22, 23, 24, and 26 are a l l e x c l u s i v e l y Yogacara works. Considered t o p i c a l l y , these e x c l u s i v e l y Yogacara works constitute the l a r g e s t single group of K'uei-chi's works, both i n number and i n length. In addition to the surviving works on Yogacara l i s t e d above, there i s record i n several of the catalogs of K'uei-chi having written a commentary to the Mahdydna-samgvahaj^the Hsien-yang-sheng-chiao-lun ( ^Prakdrandrya~§dsana/-vdad)^ and some shorter works based on the Afa/zayana^ataci/zaraapra/ca^amufe/za-^astra (cf. no. 2 2 ) . ^ Thus we can see that K'uei-chi wrote commentaries on v i r t u a l l y • . 47 a l l of the p r i n c i p a l Yogacara t r e a t i s e s of the Maitreya*-'Asanga school, though not on the Ratnagotra-vibhaga. While he d i d write a commentary on most of the Yogdedrabhumi3 i t i s c l e a r that his primary i n t e r e s t s were i n the l a t e r developments associated with Vasubandhu (cf. nos. 2, 15, IT, 18, 19, 20, and.-[21l)., He i s , moreover, one of the only Chinese exegetes to show any sustained i n t e r e s t i n the s t i l l l a t e r developments i n l o g i c found i n the works of Dignaga and the other 48 Yogacarin l o g i c i a n s (nos. 23 and 24). The quite substantial sub-commentary to Sthiramati's Abhidharmasamueeaya-vydkhyd (no. 15) warrants s p e c i a l note. In spite of the p r e v a i l i n g view which associated Fa-hsiang with Dharmapala i n contrast to Sthiramati, K'uei-chi c l e a r l y r e l i e d heavily on t h i s p a r t i c u l a r Sthiramati work, a fact that i s corroborated by the frequency with which i t i s quoted i n the Fa-yuan i - t i n ehang (no. 26). F i n a l l y there are, among K'uei-chi's Yogacara works, two very prominent omissions that cannot go unremarked: there i s no record of K'uei-chi ever having composed commentaries to the two Yogacara sutras: 49 the Sandhinirmoeana and the Lahkdvatdra. While he might have d i s -regarded the Lanka-on-doctrinal grounds, i t i s c l e a r from his c i t a t i o n s that he d i d consider the Sandhinirmoeana to be an important source. Most l i k e l y he simply f e l t t h a t , unlike the sastras or t r e a t i s e s , Yogacara sutras d i d not require s p e c i a l commentary. He c l e a r l y did not f e e l that way about the pre-Yogacara sutras on the other hand.- Af t e r the group of e x c l u s i v e l y Yogacara works, the next larges t d i v i s i o n of K'uei-chi's works i s that comprising his commentaries on the early Mahayana sutras (nos. Ill through C11D) . In t h i s group we f i n d commentaries on the most popular Mahayana s c r i p t u r e s : the Prajfldparamitd (in several versions: nos. C l ] , 2 , 3 , and 4), the Lotus (nos. 5 & 6), the Srimdladevi (no. 7), and Vimalakirti (no. 8) and also to the d e v o t i o n a l i s t i c Maitreya Sutra (no. 9) and the sutras on Amitabha's Pure Land (nos. C10H & till, c f . also no. C26H; i t i s the a t t r i b u t i o n of these l a t t e r Amltabha works that i s most frequently questioned.) This i n t e r e s t i n the e a r l y non-Yogacara Mahayana sutras i s p l a i n l y sectarian: K'uei-chi's i n t e n t i o n was to int e r p r e t them from the Yogacara point of view. In t h i s sense they were sutras that required i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , whereas the Lanka and the Sandhinivmocana did not. Also among K'uei-chi commentaries i s one based on a HTriayana work, the Samayabhedoparacanacakra (no. 12). This was an important early (2nd century B.C.) work on d o c t r i n a l h i s t o r y that was t r a n s l a t e d three d i f f e r e n t times into Chinese, the l a s t time by Hsuan-tsang with K'uei-chi's assistance. K'uei-chi's apparent regard for the importance of t h i s non-Mahayana work i s consistent with the attention he devotes to d o c t r i n a l h i s t o r y i n the Fa-yuan i - l i n chang (no. 26), which begins with an essay providing a d e t a i l e d analysis of the various schools of Indian Buddhism, both Hinayana and Mahayana.^ 0 Early d o c t r i n a l h i s t o r y seems to be another area, along with l o g i c , i n which K'uei-chi had a s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t . A l l of K'uei-chi's works considered so f a r have been commentaries and, with the one exception just noted, commentaries either on Yogacara t r e a t i s e s or on pre-Yogacara sutras. Most of these follow t h e i r respective base text very c l o s e l y , u sually l i n e by l i n e ; thus they are comprehensible only when read i n conjunction with i t . Of the surviving works a t t r i b u t e d to K'uei-chi only two are l i s t e d ' i n the analysis above as independent works, i . e . , works not based d i r e c t l y on some p a r t i c u l a r primary t e x t . The f i r s t of these, the Pure Land t r a c t Hsi-fang-yao-ahueh-shih-i-t%ung-kuei (no. 25), i s not a work of K'uei-chi's i n the opinion of FUKAURA, Weinstein and ot h e r s . ^ 1 That leaves the Fa-yuan i - l i n chang (no. 26) as the single surviving work of t h i s class that unquestionably i s a work of K'uei-chi.- It i s e a s i l y one of the most s i g n i f i c a n t of h i s works, surpassed i n fame only by h i s two main commentaries to the Ch'eng-wei-sh-ih-lun (nos. 18 & 19). For the purpose of determining K'uei-chi's own understanding of Yogacara, i t i s the single most important source, as i t i s i n t h i s work, made up of a number of more or l e s s independent essays, that K'uei-chi i s most free to organize h i s material i n a way that r e f l e c t s h i s own understanding and i n t e r e s t s : he i s not bound by the text upon which he i s commenting, as i s the case i n the other works. The s p e c i a l features of t h i s l a s t work w i l l be considered further i n the Introduction to the Translation below. Chapter I I I : K'UEI-CHI AND YOGACARA As one of the branches of Buddhist thought, the elaborate, and at times exceedingly i n t r i c a t e , t h e o r i z i n g of the Yogacara school was focused on a single objective: l i b e r a t i o n , the cessation of the su f f e r i n g both phy s i c a l and psychological that i s the i n e v i t a b l e consequence of normal, worldly existence characterized by the cycle of continual death and r e b i r t h (samsara). In pursuit of t h i s goal the various Buddhist schools sought, i n d i f f e r e n t ways, to chart a p r a c t i c a l path through the maze of our mundane experience, a course of p r a c t i c e that would ulti m a t e l y insure the r e a l i z a t i o n of t h i s l i b e r a t i o n . In the e a r l i e s t period of the t r a d i t i o n , t h i s p r a c t i c a l , even empirical o r i e n t a t i o n , was combined with a substantial degree of a n t i -metaphysical skepticism. There seems to have been a good deal of i n i t i a l resistance towards any preoccupation with the type of p h i l o -sophical questions that Gautama and h i s followers 'felt could lead only to interminable metaphysical speculation, and hence away from enlighten-ment and l i b e r a t i o n . As the incr e a s i n g l y more systematic soteriology of the l a t e r schools developed however, more and more philosophic issues were r a i s e d as legitimate and, indeed, necessary to the proper formu-l a t i o n of the path to l i b e r a t i o n . This b a s i c a l l y s o t e r i o l o g i c o r i e n t a t i o n was the common ground shared by a l l the Buddhist schools. It was the reference of a l l the subsequent p h i l o s o p h i c a l speculation, the one constant that established the parameters of Buddhist thought. To t h i s common problematic the Yogacarins or M e d i t a t i o n - p r a c t i t i o n e r s , i n t h e i r t u r n , added a number of s i g n i f i c a n t : innovations,both p r a c t i c a l and t h e o r e t i c a l . The most important of these must be o u t l i n e d i n order to assess the thought of K'uei-chi as presented i n the essay t r a n s l a t e d below. YOGACARA IN INDIA AND CHINA The Fa-hsiang school of Hsiian-tsang and K'uei-chi was founded i n China i n the early 7th century just as Yogacara was reaching i t s peak i n India. As one stream of the Mahayana transformation of the older Abhidharma t r a d i t i o n i n India, the e a r l i e s t s t r a t a of Yogacara thought are found i n works of several disparate c l a s s e s , the h i s t o r i c a l i n t e r - r e l a t i o n s h i p s of which.are yet to be r e s o l v e d . 1 The s c r i p t u r a l (sutra) t r a d i t i o n i s represented, p r i m a r i l y by the Sandhi-nirmocana Sutra, by portions of the Avatamsaka Sutra, and f i n a l l y by the Lahkdvatdra Sutra which appears to include a good deal of r e l a t i v e l y l a t e r Yogacara thought. The t r e a t i s e (sastra) t r a d i t i o n i s represented i n the f i r s t place by the voluminous Yogdcdrabhumi (which includes the Bodhisattva-bhumi)3 an encyclopedic work a t t r i b u t e d to Asanga but very l i k e l y com-p r i s i n g much e a r l i e r material representing the t r a n s i t i o n from Hinayana - - 2 to Mahayana Abhidharma. There were also other e a r l y t r e a t i s e s , the Ratnagotravibhdga. Cox.Uttaratantra)and Hie AbhisamaydlanRara,for example, that represent the d i f f e r e n t streams feeding into what gradually became a recognizable school. The beginning of a second period of Yogacara development i s marked by the t r e a t i s e s of Asanga and Vasubandhu, two brothers of the 4th century who formulated what we can think of as C l a s s i c a l Yogacara. This period of Yogacara thought i s characterized "by a more c a r e f u l l y -4 integrated systematic soteriology epitomized by the Vijnaptimatrata doctrine introduced in.Asahga's Mahaydnd sutralankdra and.Mahayana-samgraha3. and l a t e r elaborated i n .the Twenty Verses (Vimsatika) and Thirty Verses (Trimsika)3 a t t r i b u t e d to Vasubandhu. These were the main Yogacara works that Hsuan-tsang studied i n India. The Fa-hsiang school of Hsuan-tsang and K'uei-chi was not the f i r s t transmission of Yogacara to China, but i t was the most compre-hensive introduction of t h i s C l a s s i c a l Yogacara. . Hsuan-tsang's o r i g i n a l purpose for t r a v e l l i n g to India was to secure a better and more complete version of the Yogdedrabhumi. When he f i n a l l y returned he brought not only that work, but a l l of the. major works of Asanga and Vasubandhu along with a thorough understanding of the several exegetical t r a d i t i o n s that had developed since t h e i r death. The sum of t h i s knowledge was presented in the synoptic Ch'eng-wei-shih-lun or Substantiation of VijHaptimdtratdj a work based on the Thirty Verses (Trimsika) and the ten major commentaries which he edited i n China with K'uei-chi's assistance. Thus, K'uei-chi's Buddhism was derived from the V i j n a p t i -matrata Yogacara of the Asanga and Vasubandhu t r e a t i s e s , augmented by the more fundamental scholasticism of the Yogdedrabhumi and v a r i o u s l y . interpreted by the ten p r i n c i p a l Yogacara exegetes who included Sthiramat and Dharmapala. VIJNAPTIMATRATA Atman and Dharmas. The basic p h i l o s o p h i c a l question for the l a t e r Buddhist schools j including Yogacara, concerned the r e a l i t y status of the constituents or events of experience (dharmas) and also of the i n d i v i d u a l or the s e l f (atman/pudgala) that experiences those events.. Many elements of the c l a s s i c appearance and r e a l i t y problem of Western philosophy are evident here, but always relegated to the more basic question of s o t e r i o l o g i c a l relevance. For Asahga and Vasubandhu e s p e c i a l l y , the objective was not so much to exhaustively analyze, or catalog what does e x i s t , i n the manner of c l a s s i c a l ontology. They sought rather to show that what we., conventionally take as e x i s t i n g does not r e a l l y e x i s t , and that i t i s p r e c i s e l y t h i s mis-perception that perpetuates our bondage and obscures the l i b e r a t i o n to be experienced i n enlightenment. A l l the constituents of our experience, both the 'things' experienced and also what we take to be the 'experiencer,' both the perceiver and the perceived are, i n t h i s a n a l y s i s , seen to be empty of any ultimate, unconditioned r e a l i t y . They must be seen as empty of any e s s e n t i a l , . abiding substance or own-being (svabhava) that would make them, independent of a l l the other manifold factors of experience, r e a l i n any ultimate sense. Trisvabhayata: the Three Aspects of Own-being The Yogacarins recognized three aspects of the existence or "own-being of the phenomena, of experience: The Imaginary ( p a r i k a l p i t a ) aspect, the Dependent or Relative (paratantra) aspect, and the Absolute (parinispanna) aspect.^ The phenomena, when taken together i n t h e i r mutually conditioned and.interdependent i n t e r a c t i o n , do have a p r o v i s i o n a l , p r a c t i c a l sort of r e a l i t y . In t h i s sense we can say that they ' e x i s t . ' This Dependent own-being should however he seen i n i t s ultimate aspect, the Absolute. I t i s t h i s absolute aspect of the Dependent tha t , f o r the Yogacarins, i s the only ultimate R e a l i t y . As such i t remains i n -expressible, though.it i s re f e r r e d to as the Tathata or Thusness of a l l things. To remain b l i n d to t h i s ultimate aspect of r e a l i t y , to c l i n g to the constituent elements of the Dependent aspect whether the apparent objective things or the apparent subjective s e l f that i s to remain bound to the purely Imaginary aspect of r e a l i t y , the subject-object world with a l l the contradictions and f r u s t r a t i o n that normally constitute the unsatisfactory experience of human existence. The s o t e r i o l o g i c a l task for the Yogacarins i s thus to cease t h i s c l i n g i n g to the Dependent i n i t s Imaginary aspect and to r e a l i z e instead the Absolute. Much of the c r i t i c a l epistemological awareness underlying t h e i r analysis was shared with, or even derived from, the Madhyamlka school. Both schools recognized the s o t e r i o l o g i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e of. delusion. For both schools the basic human problem was seen to be epistemic. The Madhyamikas provided a sophisticated p h i l o -sophical analysis of the p h i l o s o p h i c a l nature of delusion and language. Accepting that a n a l y s i s , the Yogacarins continued on to inquire into the psychological nature of delusion, and to combine a l l these i n s i g h t s into a comprehensive, systematic soteriology on the o l d Abhidharma model The. unique Yogacara contribution t o the development of Buddhist thought can be seen i n t h i s emphasis on the psychological aspects of delusion and l i b e r a t i o n . Combining the older Abhidharma attempt to present a systematic map of experience with the Madhyamika innovation of c r i t i c a l epistemology, the Yogacarins sought to analyze the structure of human awareness or consciousness that account f o r our experience of delusion or enlightenment. They presented a philosophic psychology or philosophy of mind that sought to explain the process by which we unconsciously perpetrate delusion and bondage to s e l f and dharmas, and also the process by which that delusion can be severed. The epistemic focus of t h i s psychology came to the forefront i n Vijnaptimatrata Yogacara. Vijnaptimatrata vs. Cittamatrata i n l a t e r Yogacara In contrast to the Cittamatrata (Thought-only-ness) doctrine of the e a r l i e r Yogacarins, Asanga and Vasubandhu expressed t h e i r basic p o s i t i o n as Vijnaptimatrata. While the former doctrine focuses on the nature of the state of l i b e r a t i o n , the l a t t e r attempts to explain the 7 nature of the state of bondage. In K'uei-chi's terms, Cittamatrata t e l l s us about the Absolute, while Vijnaptimatrata t e l l s us about the 8 conventional realm of experience. Cittamatrata i s thus a more general proposition; i t can be understood as an o n t o l o g i c a l assertion concerning the nature of existence. Vijnaptimatrata, however, i s a much more s p e c i f i c , epistemic.proposition that i s intended to t e l l us about the perceptual error that prevents us from r e a l i z i n g l i b e r a t i o n . Again, i t s primary i n t e n t i o n i s patently s o t e r i o l o g i c a l . It involves } to some extent, o n t o l o g i c a l presuppositions regarding the nature of existence, but they are not primary and are not, for the most part, e x p l i c i t l y formulated. It was Vijnaptimatrata that became the ce n t r a l p h i l o s o p h i c a l p r i n c i p l e of C l a s s i c a l Yogacara as. expressed by Asanga and Vasubandhu, the Indian school of Yogacara thought from which the formulation of Hsuan-tsang and K'uei-chi was derived. I t was t h i s doctrine that provided the cornerstone of the analysis of the delusory process "by which we remain "bound- to the world of i n e v i t a b l e s u f f e r i n g and woe, and, as such, i t was taken by K'uei-chi as the theme of h i s t r e a t i s e t r a n s l a t e d below, "The Essay on Vijnaptimatrata." Vijnana and V i j n a p t i The Sanskrit terms v i j n a p t i and vijnana are both primary derivatives of the verb v i j f l a - j both are verbal nouns expressing an activity.. The verb vijHd- i s made up of the ^'jnd- (cognate to gignoskein > gn5sis; (^noscere; to know, etc.) plus the p r e p o s i t i o n a l a f f i x vi- which adds to the root the q u a l i t y of being (or doing) asunder, apart, d i s t i n c t or d i f f e r e n t , a q u a l i f i c a t i o n p a r a l l e l e d i n many cases by that, of the L a t i n p r e f i x de-/dis-. Thus the basic meaning of vijHd- i s to know d i s t i n c t l y or d i s c u r s i v e l y . In a somewhat broader sense, i t can mean simply to perceive, and again by extension: to be \ 9 aware or to be conscious (of something). Examples, of a l l these shades of meaning, and more, can be found i n the Buddhist t e c h n i c a l l i t e r a t u r e . The nominal forms of t h i s verb, both vijnana and v i j n a p t i , r e t a i n the reference to an a c t i v i t y : they express the action s p e c i f i e d by the verb, in somewhat the same manner as the -ing forms i n Eng l i s h (e.g., walking, swimming, etc. as i n : "Running i s good for you.""^ ) They do not express a state of being: hence the inappropriateness of 'consciousness,' the most commonly encountered equivalent f o r - v i j n a n a I f we are to render these forms into E n g l i s h , the equivalents should properly be verbal nouns ending i n -ings. or -tion. The -tion forms i n English are more v e r s a t i l e , but s t i l l r e t a i n some degree of ambiguity as they can be understood i n three d i f f e r e n t ways.: they can r e f e r to the act of doing some action (e.g., "Correction i s what i s needed."); they can r e f e r to the t h i n g that i s done (e.g., "There are many manifestations of t h i s form".); and they can also express a state of "being (e.g., "He was i n a state of elation".). -The latter-of-these three categories must be excluded i n the case of any -tion equivalent for vijnana or v i j n a p t i . What then i s the range of vijnana as a t e c h n i c a l term? Vijnana c e r t a i n l y occurs often i n Buddhist l i t e r a t u r e with the more r e s t r i c t e d meaning of perception. In Yogacara t e x t s , however, and probably i n e a r l i e r Buddhist w r i t i n g as w e l l , i t i s very often also used as a more generic designation for a l l forms of mental a c t i v i t y , conscious and unconscious. This i s evident, f o r example, i n the range of a c t i v i t y comprised by the eight modes of vijnana, a Yogacara doctrine to be discussed below. One f i n d s , moreover, passages where vijnana i s s a i d to stand for c i t t a (thought), manas (mind), vijnana (as s p e c i f i c a l l y perception, i . e . , the s i x modes of empirical perception), and for v i j n a p t i as well."'""'" There i s no simple English equivalent that conveys t h i s range of meaning. The best course i s probably to incorporate the term vijnana into our t e c h n i c a l vocabulary as has already been done with a number of other Buddhist concepts: nirvana, karma, dharma, etc. I f a simple English equivalent f o r vijnana i n i t s broadest, generic sense 12 i s necessary, then 'mentation' seems f a r preferable to 'consciousness.' The action-noun v i j n a p t i , i n contrast to vijnana, i s derived from the causative form of the verb vijnd-} i . e . , vijnapaya-. The basic meaning of vijnd- i n the causative i s to make someone (else) know or d i s t i n g u i s h (something). In C l a s s i c a l Sanskrit i t came to mean: to declare (x to be y ) ; to announce, to address (a superior); to inform (someone about something), etc. Thus the nominal d e r i v a t i v e v i j n a p t i can r e f e r to the act of representation or designation, and i t i s also used to r e f e r to the object of that act, i . e . , the •information that i s made known, the address that one makes (to a superior), etc. As a t e c h n i c a l term i n the C l a s s i c a l . Yogacara of Asanga and Vasubandhu, the meaning of v i j n a p t i seems to be derived most d i r e c t l y from the verbal meaning of declaring or designating x to be y, as when the Dependent (paratantra) i s mis-taken and then clung to i n i t s Imaginary ( p a r i k a l p i t a ) aspect. V i j n a p t i thus r e f e r s generally to the act by which t h i s i s done and,.perhaps, i n some cases to a given, p a r t i c u l a r instance of the act. The term:has been t r a n s l a t e d by using a number of d i f f e r e n t equivalents: representation (Suzuki and Hamilton), ideation or i d e i f i c a t i o n ( L e v i ) , notation or n o t i f i c a t i o n (Demieville and L e v i ) , idee(s) (Lamotte), Erkenntnis (Frauwallner), designation (Hurvitz), etc. None of these, however, f u l l y conveys the p a r t i c u l a r epist'.anic a c t i v i t y the Yogacarins seem to have i n mind. 'Denotation' of 'designation' probably comes the closest to rendering the l i t e r a l meaning, as both r e f l e c t the causative element i n the grammatical form of the term. There i s more however that' should be conveyed by any . equivalent, i f the s p e c i a l Yogacara a p p l i c a t i o n of the term i s to be understood. Asanga and Vasubandhu seem to be focusing on the a c t i v i t y of taking one t h i n g as another, or i n a narrower, epistemological context, on the process by which we come to know the world, the process of concept formation. A better E n g l i s h equivalent for r e f l e c t i n g t h i s aspect of v i j n a p t i ' s meaning i s 'conceptualization.' It i s through t h i s act of conceptualization, according to the Yogacarins, that we construct or. constitute the world as we take i t to be given i n our experience; we do t h i s i n a manner that allows understanding and conventional discrimination, i n a manner necessary to function i n the mundane world. This a c t i v i t y i s thus not i n i t s e l f negative i t does however become so. To the extent that we c l i n g to the world so constructed as ulti m a t e l y r e a l , we are deluded. Thus blinded to the true R e a l i t y Thusness or t a t h a t a we remain i n e x t r i c a b l y bound to the world of death and r e b i r t h (samsara). It i s i n t h i s sense that the Yogacarins assert that the world as we know i t i s vijnapti-matra or conceptualization-only. There are two questions that remain unresolved i n t h i s i n t e r -p r etation. The f i r s t concerns the causative form of v i j n a p t i : Why d i d the Yogacarins choose a causative d e r i v a t i v e of vignd- i f they were r e f e r r i n g to conceptualization, a process which i s i n t e r n a l and does not n e c e s s a r i l y involve some other party? The second question a r i s e s when we look to the Chinese transmission of the doctrine: Why d i d the Chinese t r a n s l a t o r s generally not d i s t i n g u i s h between v i j n a p t i and vijnana, rendering them both with the same character? It i s quite possible that these questions are not unrelated and, while i t i s not yet possible to provide f u l l y s a t i s f a c t o r y answers to them, the following discussion may at le a s t suggest some p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r further ex-pl o r a t i o n . V i j n a p t i became a key Yogacara.concept for.the f i r s t time i n the works of Asanga and Vasubandhu, the two figures responsible f o r the f i r s t c a r e f u l and systematic formulation of what.had been a rather loose t r a d i t i o n comprising several d i f f e r e n t streams of thought. It i s not d i f f i c u l t to imagine why they might seek for t h e i r p r i n c i p a l doctrine a new, more precise term, e s p e c i a l l y given the new more epistemic o r i e n t a t i o n of t h e i r a n a l y s i s . Vijnana was a key concept to be sure, 47 but one which already had a broad range of d i f f e r e n t meanings, both general and more t e c h n i c a l . The new idea they sought to emphasize was c l e a r l y r e l a t e d to t h i s broad notion of vijnana, and i t i s not s u r p r i s i n g that they would choose a form of the same verb, vijnd-. But why a causative form? Why a form t h a t , i n the' s t r i c t e s t sense, indicates the act of causing, not oneself, but.someone else to know something? This seems inconsistent with the basic i n t e n t i o n of the Yogacara ana l y s i s . They were not concerned with how we cause others to have knowledge, but rather with how we ourselves come to have knowledge and, c o i n c i d e n t a l l y , come to be deluded with respect to R e a l i t y . This i s a purely i n t e r n a l , r e f l e x i v e process, not one i n v o l v i n g a second party as one might expect the causative to imply. And there were c e r t a i n l y other, non-causative forms of vijna- a v a i l a b l e . Why not v i j n a t i , for example, rather than the v i j n a p t i ? One p o s s i b i l i t y i s that the causative aspect of v i j n a p t i by that time had been d i l u t e d i n conventional usage to the point of having l o s t i t s force i n the s t r i c t e s t sense of "one party causes another party to do x." This i s c e r t a i n l y p o s s i b l e ; but even i f i t allows a looser use of v i j n a p t i , i t s t i l l does not explain the attractiveness of that p a r t i c u l a r form. There i s one p o s s i b i l i t y that may account f o r the attractiveness of the p a r t i c u l a r term v i j n a p t i , one that.warrants further, more diachronic study: the possible r e l a t i o n s h i p between v i j n a p t i and p r a j n a p t i , a term already by Asanga's time i n the t e c h n i c a l vocabulary 13 of the Sautrantika's and the Madhyamikas. It i s perhaps no coincidence that Asanga choose a. term that was both.formally and semantically p a r a l l e l to the Madhyamika term for the world-constructing process. Prajnapti has been defined as r e f e r r i n g to the designations or the language constructs by which we r e l a t e . t o the world, as "the superimposition of 'concepts' onto bare experience." 1^ Douglas Daye, who has a s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t i n r e l a t i n g Madhyamika to contemporary developments in. Western philosophy, says about p r a j n a p t i : CThe Madhyamika! concept of language constructs (prajnapti) i s an accommodation to the Abhidharma Sautrantika answer that a l l dharmas are p r a j n a p t i s , i . e . , f r u i t f u l f i c t i o n s , appropriate but unconfirmable. outside the systemic context of dharma analysis language. As we s h a l l see, there i s also a Madhyamika acknowledgement of t h i s problematic, so, just as prajnaptis are f r u i t f u l f i c t i o n s within the r e l i g i o u s language frameworks, we f i n d i n a s i m i l a r manner that the word emptiness ( s u n y a t a ) i s said also to be merely a p r a j n a p t i ; i t i s a f r u i t f u l f i c t i o n which, i f r e i f i e d , leads to confusions which obviate the desirable r e l i g i o u s ends f o r which both the concepts of emptiness and dharma analysis have been generated. Another way to say the same thing i s that p r a j n a p t i ( s ) , upayas, and the "emptiness of emptiness" are r e f l e x i v e metagrids which r e f e r to r e l a t i o n -ships of epistemic evaluation but not to the o n t o l o g i c a l e n t i t i e s presupposed by the world's way of t a l i n g . - ^ The v i j n a p t i of Asanga and Vasubandhu c e r t a i n l y seems to have played i n t h e i r system a p a r a l l e l r o l e to prajnapti. in.the Madhyamika system. With the second question r a i s e d above we turn to the Chinese transmission of Vijnaptimatrata to ask why the Chinese t r a n s l a t o r s choose to render t h i s key doctrine with the am iguous equivalent wei-shih 3 ^ using for v i j n a p t i the character shih If^? , (to recognize, to know) the same equivalent used standardly for vijnana. This too i s a problem that y i e l d s to no simple s o l u t i o n . One thing i s clearj however i t was not a case of simply confusing the two Sanskrit words, c e r t a i n l y not i n the case of Hsuan-tsang and K'uei-chi,at l e a s t . The fact i s e a s i l y established that the two terms could and often were distinguished i n the writings of Hsuan-tsang and K'uei-chi. Their standard equivalent for v i j n a p t i when i t i s to be distinguished from vijnana i s l i a o (to understand) or l i a o - f e n ~f ^ ft which K'uei-chi i n turn glosses as l i a o - t a (to understand, comprehend) and f e n - p i e h ^ ^ (to d i s -criminate or discern). This i s c l e a r l y not vijnana (mentation) i n the generic sense as synononymous with c i t t a (thought). K'uei-chi i n -dicates t h i s i n h i s discussion of why the sutras emphasize c i t t a while the sastras emphasize vijnapti."'"^ The Chinese gloss of v i j n a p t i i s i n fact very close, i n both form and meaning, to the Tibetan equivalent vnam par rig, and that provides some i n t e r e s t i n g information with respect to the f i r s t question r a i s e d above. Neither the Chinese or the Tibetans rendered v i j n a p t i with a causative form, i n d i c a t i n g that the causative, second-person-dire c t e d aspect was not a prominent feature i n the gloss of the term I T that they received from t h e i r Indian teachers. While i t i s thus not d i f f i c u l t to e s t a b l i s h that Hsuan-tsang and K'uei-chi understood v i j n a p t i as a term d i s t i n c t from the generic vijnana (mentation), the question s t i l l remains of why they rendered v i j n a p t i with shih "^jjj^ as well as with l i a o . Two considerations may have played at le a s t some ro l e i n t h e i r decision. F i r s t , shih was already well-established i n the Chinese Buddhist. t r a d i t i o n as an equivalent for both vijnana and v i j n a p t i , e s p e c i a l l y i n the e a r l i e r Yogacara t r a n s l a t i o n s done by Paramartha (Mahayana-samgraha, Trimsika.) and Prabhakaramitra.(Mahayana-sutralankara). Hsuan-tsang and K'uei-chi may have f e l t the expression wei-shih '•^'l^was already so w e l l -established that i t should be l e f t , r e l y i n g on the context and frequent glosses t o make the necessary d i s t i n c t i o n s . c l e a r . Also, using shih "3^ for both does r e f l e c t the i n t e g r a l r e l a t i o n s h i p between vijnana and v i j n a p t i , a fact apparent i n Sanskrit.from the common root, but obscured i n Chinese when two unrelated characters are used. With t h i s second question we are, i n the end, reduced to speculation. The above may well have been factors i n the d e c i s i o n , but they are d i f f i c u l t to accept as an adequate explanation. There were many other established equivalents that•Hsuan-tsang did change: t r a n s c r i p t i o n s l i k e alaya ^ ^ o r the older ^ ^ ^ ^ and t r a n s -l a t i o n s as w e l l : pien-chi-so-chih hsing *|£for p a r i k a l p i t a -svabhava i n the place of the older fen-pieh hsing ^ j^'} ''j^.et c. Besides, he r e - t r a n s l a t e d a l l the important Vijnaptimatrata Yogacara works (except for the Mahayana-sutralankaTa); so consistency was not a serious 1 problem. F i n a l l y there were c e r t a i n l y other suitable ways of rendering v i j n a p t i into Chinese: i n the l a t e r t r a n s l a t i o n of the Lahkdvatdra done by Siksananda and edited by Fa-tsang and others at the beginning of the 8th century, for example, we f i n d v i j n a p t i rendered chia-ming ^Ij^J^, ( l i t . : suppositional o r conventional names) and c h i a - s h i h - s h e i | ^ ^ ^ " ^ ^ (suppositionally or conventionally provided or e s t a b l i s h e d ) . 1 ^ Why Hsiian-tsang and K'uei-chi retained shih for v i j n a p t i thus remains a conundrum. YOGACARA PSYCHOLOGY The Yogacarins had from the beginning a s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t i n the structures of mental a c t i v i t y . They sought to understand not only why human s u f f e r i n g i s the r e s u l t of delusion, but also how the delusion i s perpetrated what the psychological mechanics of t h i s process are. Affirming the fundamental Mahayana equation of samsara and nirvana, they went on to ask why, even i n the l i g h t of reason, people s t i l l obstinately c l i n g to the delusions by which they are bound. They f e l t that an understanding of the nature of mental a c t i v i t y , conscious and unconscious, was necessary i f we are to free ourselves of the obstacles to enlightenment. In the course of t h e i r analysis they developed a sophisticated philosophy of mind and a psychology .' which 19 included an e x p l i c i t theory of unconscious motivation. The Eight Modes of Mental A c t i v i t y The centraldoctine i n the Yogacara psychology i s t h e i r analysis of the eight modes of mental a c t i v i t y or mentation (vijnana), a paradigm that represents the culmination of a long t r a d i t i o n of psychological i n t e r e s t and speculation i n Buddhist thought. The Agama l i t e r a t u r e includes several models f or understanding the noetic aspect of human experience. What was perhaps the e a r l i e s t analysis of man, the psycho-p h y s i c a l organism posited an inseparable, dual nature termed name-and-form (nama-rupa). Rupa, or form, was glossed as the four primary elements (mahabhuta.) : earth, water, f i r e and a i r ; while naman was under stood to comprise a l l the no e t i c , non-formal factors of what we con-v e n t i o n a l l y know as. the i n d i v i d u a l . The Five Skandha formula, which has i t s o r i g i n s i n the same period, r e f l e c t s even more the subjective o r i e n t a t i o n that was character i s t i c already i n ea r l y Buddhist thought. In t h i s analysis the f i r s t aggregate (skandha) of the human-personality i s s t i l l rupa (form), but the noetic component i s divided into four d i f f e r e n t aggregates: f e e l i n g or sensation (yedana), conception (samjna), predispositions (samskarah) and discrimination or perception (vijnana). The d i s t i n c t i o n s between, and the r e l a t i o n s h i p s among, these four factors were, however, never adequately distinguished. With the Abhidharma l i t e r a t u r e another, more systematic paradigm came to the fore: the s i x modes of perception (vijnana). Here there i s c l e a r l y an attempt to understand the process and the structures of sensory perception and conceptual organization. The f i r s t f i v e modes correspond to the f i v e sense f a c u l t i e s and are involved i n rudimentary, empirical perception. The s i x t h mode, mano-vijnana, i s the a c t i v i t y of u n i f y i n g or organizing the raw sense data into the conceptual framework by which we r e l a t e to our experience. For the ear l y Abhidharmikas, the s i x t h was the highest order of noetic a c t i v i t y corresponding to what has been c a l l e d mind or i n t e l l e c t i n the Western t r a d i t i o n . In the six-vijnana analysis t h i s coordinative function plus the f i v e modes of empirical perception were thus thought to cover the f u l l range of mental a c t i v i t y . With the flowering of philosphic discussion and argument i n the scho l a s t i c period, however, a number.of problems were r a i s e d that i n d i -cated serious deficiencies, i n the s i x - f o l d a n a l y s i s . The Yogacarins were, with respect to r e l i g i o u s p r a c t i c e , s p e c i a l i s t s in. the c u l t i v a t i o n of meditative trance. I t was they, i n p a r t i c u l a r , who f e l t . t h a t the s i x modes did not exhaust the f u l l range of mental a c t i v i t y : i t could not account f o r some of the kinds of cognition they had experienced d i r e c t l y or i n t u i t i v e l y i n meditation. They pointed out, moreover, that there must be some a d d i t i o n a l mode of mental a c t i v i t y to account f o r the continuity of the i n d i v i d u a l p e r s o n a l i t y through, periods when the f i r s t s i x modes are inoperative i n deep sleep, i n unconsciousness, i n some kinds of meditative trance, and i n the c t r a n s i t i o n from one l i f e to the next r e b i r t h . To solve these problems they proposed the addition of two further modes: manas (mind) and alaya vijnana (store-mentation). In the Yogacara scheme - of eight vijnanas, manas' then became the seventh mode of mental a c t i v i t y . S t r i c t l y speaking manas means mind, a thing or e n t i t y , and so i t may appear to us. The Yogacarins gloss i t however as manana ( r e f l e c t i v e c o g i t a t i o n , t h i n k i n g ) , and i t , l i k e the 20 other modes, should be understood as an a c t i v i t y . Manas i s responsible for our awareness of the subject-object dichotomy; i n the unpur i f i e d state, as klista-manas, ( d e f i l e d mind), i t i s the ego-postulating function and, thus, the source and the locus of the delusion that obscures en-lightenment. Hence the c r u c i a l r o l e that manas plays i n Yogacara soteriology. This delusion p e r s i s t s because manas takes as the object (alambana) of i t s r e f l e c t i v e a c t i v i t y . t h e eighth mode of mental a c t i v i t y , the alaya-vijnana, r e i f y i n g i t into a ' s e l f (atman) or ego. In the Yogacara analysis t h i s i s the primary act c o n s t i t u t i n g nescience (avidya), the source of a l l a f f l i c t i o n s . Thus manas i t s e l f - i s not self-conscious-ness, or the ego; but the i n t e r a c t i o n between manas and the alaya-vijnana is. The alaya-vijnana. too, as we s h a l l see, i s not a th i n g , but rather a continuum of discre t e events. When manas i s dire c t e d towards the alaya, however, i t projects onto the continuum a un i f y i n g i d e n t i t y : i t i s then that self-consciousness i s born and one thinks of "oneself" as an i n d i -v i d u a l . Short of enlightenment t h i s portion of the manas a c t i v i t y remains unconsciousness, though, unlike mano-vijnana (the s i x t h vijnana) i t never 21 ceases, throughout the course of normal human existence. The eighth vijnana according to the Yogacarins i s the l a t e n t substructure of a l l mental a c t i v i t y . As such, i t i s distinguished from the other seven vijnanas. which are said to be the manifest or proceeding modes of mental a c t i v i t y ( p r a v r t t i - v i j n a n a ^jjfc) • I f the a c t i v i t y of manas i s p a r t i a l l y conscious and p a r t i a l l y unconscious as ind i c a t e d : above, the a c t i v i t y of the eighth vijnana i s t o t a l l y unconscious. In t h i s broadest sense i t bears the designation fundamental mentation (mula-vijnana) :, but i t i s encountered more frequently under several other names r e f e r r i n g to s p e c i f i c aspects of i t s function. Before discussing the three functions of the eighth vijnana as l a i d out i n the Ch'eng-wei-shih-lim i t i s necessary to introduce two further terms, vasana (impression, impregnation, permeation, perfuming) and b i j a (seed, t r a c e , p o t e n t i a l i t y ) , the key. concepts i n the Yogacara theory of the unconscious conditioning of a l l human action. Vasam.a i s the process by which traces of former a c t i o n , the b i j a s or s e e d - p o t e n t i a l i t i e s , are l a i d down and retained, i n the continuum of the substratum mental a c t i v i t y ( i . e . , i n the Unconscious). Vasana i s generally said to be derived from the denominative verb vasaya-: to make fragrant, to perfume, to scent (cf. vasa: perfume), as r e f l e c t e d i n the Chinese equivalent h s u n - h s i ^ ^ (perfuming r e p e t i t i o n or habituation). I t seems also to have been associated with ( i f not h i s t o r i c a l l y derived from) the causative of ^vas (to dwell) which, i n the nominal form vasana, r e f e r s to an impression l e f t dwelling i n the mind,and by extension to a notion, an idea, a f a l s e notion, etc. This l a t t e r association with ^vas i s probably r e f l e c t e d i n the Tibetan equivalent: bag ehags i n c l i n a t i o n s or propensity; c f . , anusaya: bag la rial). By t h i s process of vasana, unconscious energy patterns or i n c l i n a t i o n s are impressed upon the stream of mentation by every action we perform. These s e e d - p o t e n t i a l i t i e s then develop as part of the 55 stream u n t i l , eventually, they come to f r u i t i o n , a f f e c t i n g our behavior at some l a t e r point i n time. This "ripening of the seeds" p e r s i s t s not only throughout one's entire l i f e , but into future l i v e s as w e l l , t h i s being necessary of course to account for the fundamental law of causation i n the form of karmic r e t r i b u t i o n . For the Yogacarins, the s i x modes of mental a c t i v i t y could not adequately account for the persistence of t h i s vasana process, e s p e c i a l l y given i t s unconscious nature. Hence the necessity of the eighth vijnana. The discussion of the eighth vijnana i n the Ch'eng-wei-shih-lun focuses on three d i f f e r e n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , each having i t s own par-t i c u l a r designation: the eighth as alaya-vijnana, as sarvabTjaka-22 vijnana, and as vipaka-vijnana. Thus we f i n d the eighth vijnana considered i n terms of i t s e s s e n t i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c (sva-laksana ), i n terms of i t s function as a cause (hetu 1^3 ), and i n terms of i t s function as an e f f e c t (phala ). With regard to i t s e s s e n t i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c , the eighth vijnana i s c a l l e d the alaya-vijnana; considered i n i t s r o l e as cause, i t has the s p e c i a l name sarvabTjaka or bearer of a l l the seeds; and considered i n i t s r o l e as the r e s u l t of previous acts, i . e . , as e f f e c t , i t i s given the s p e c i a l name vipaka-vijnana or f r u i t i o n mentation. The most familiar, of these i s , of course alaya-v i jnana. The second two designations, also occur very frequently however, and are important because they indicate a cause and e f f e c t aspect of the eighth vijnana to which K'uei-chi frequently r e f e r s . Alaya-vijnana has been rendered with a number of d i f f e r e n t equivalents: store-consciousness,.foundation consciousness, Grund-erkennen (Frauwallner), connaissance-receptacle (Lamotte), or connaissance-trefonds ( L e v i ) , etc. The word alaya i s from the Sanskrit verb ~tl~ -meaning to c l i n g t o , adhere t o , a l i g h t on, or he hidden i n . The nominal form alaya can mean a fir m or fundamental base, and by extension i s used to r e f e r to a dwelling or home. Following an established t r a d i t i o n , Hsiian-tsang and K'uei-chi rendered alaya-vijnana as t s a n g - s h i h J u s t as often, however, they, use the t r a n s c r i p t i o n j ^ j w h i c h was introduced by Hsiian-tsang to replace an older form. The character ^ g y y has two main readings i n 2 Chinese: as a verb (now read ts'ang ) i t means to hide away, to embrace or bear, to store up and save; as a noun (now read tsang J, i t i s used to r e f e r to a granary or storehouse, i . e . , the place where something i s stored up or hidden away. The eighth vijnana i s . s aid i n the Ch''eng-wei-shih-tun to be alaya i n three d i f f e r e n t senses: i t i s a c t i v e l y alaya (neng-ts'ang jrt^ i n that i t "stores" the seeds ( b i j a s ) ; i t i s passi v e l y alaya (so-ts'ang ft\ ^ ^U ^ a t i t i s what i s "perfumed" or permeated by a l l actions per formed through the process of unconscious conditioning or impression (vasana); f i n a l l y i t i s alaya i n the sense of being clung to (chih-ts'a.ng jjj^)) by the seventh vijnana (manas) which mistakes i t for an enduring s e l f (atman) or ego. K'uei-chi takes the l a s t of these three senses of alaya to be the most important or basic. The l a t t e r two correspond to the other two designations for the eighth Vijnana: sarvabTj:aka and vipaka. The designation sarvabijaka-vijnana, i . e . , mentation holding a l l the seeds, r e f e r s to the eighth vijnana i n i t s capacity of being the cause of a l l events. It retains a l l the seeds, both innate and acquired, without lo s s u n t i l they are ready to come to f r u i t i o n i n the form of some future action. K'uei-chi correlates the sarvabijaka aspect of. the eighth vijnana with the active (neng-ts'ang) sense of alaya. The t h i r d designation, vipaka-vijnana, i . e . , f r u i t i o n or r e t r i b u t i o n mentation', r e f e r s to the eighth vijnana i n i t s capacity of being the e f f e c t of a l l previous actions. As the underlying stream of mentationj i t i s what has been impregnated or "perfumed" by the seeds of a l l previous acts....As such, i t i s t h e i r " f r u i t " or e f f e c t . K'uei-chi correlates the vipaka aspect of the eighth vijfiana with the passive (so-ts'ang) sense of alaya. Alaya and Atman We have seen that the eighth vijnana doctrine of the Yogacarins was an attempt to deal with the problem of continuity: the persistence of the i n d i v i d u a l p e r s o n a l i t y and the causal e f f i c a c y of karmic r e t r i -bution. Both of these aspects of continuity must be preserved i f there i s to be any meaning i n r e l i g i o u s c u l t i v a t i o n , i n the quest for l i b e r a t i o n . The most ingenious innovation of the Yogacara c o l u t i o n to t h i s problem has also been the most misunderstood. Beginning with t h e i r contemporary c r i t i c s within the Buddhist t r a d i t i o n , the charge that has been r a i s e d against the Yogacarins i s that the alaya-vijnana i s simply the Upanisadic atman, the immutable S e l f or Soul, i n disguise. While i t i s f r u i t f u l to consider the influence.of e a r l y Indian c l a s s i c a l p h i l o s o p h y - — e s p e c i a l l y Sahkhya for example on t h i s Buddhist school, the suggestion that.theYogacarins abandoned or betrayed the basic Buddhist doctrine of anatman (no-soul) involves a misunderstanding of the Yogacara conception of alaya, and of vijnana as w e l l . Moreover, i t misdirects one's attention away from the r e a l innovation introduced by the Yogacarins i n t h e i r theory of the eight modes of mental a c t i v i t y . F i r s t of a l l , with respect to the nature of personal c o n t i n u i t y throughout one's own l i f e and from one l i f e to the next, the Yogacarins employed e s s e n t i a l l y ' t h e same argument used by a l l Buddhists to avoid p o s i t i n g a permanent, immutable substance or soul. The eighth vijnana i s indeed said to p e r s i s t , but i n a quite p a r t i c u l a r manner: " i t proceeds on l i k e the current of a r i v e r " (tac ca vartate srotasaughavat) or, i n the Chinese, equivalent, "perpetually turning l i k e a raging t o r r e n t " we co n s i d e r - i t the same r i v e r from one moment to the next. Even the pec u l i a r currents and eddies remain the same or s h i f t only slowly over a long period of time as the obstructions to the flow are gradually s h i f t e d about or worn away. So also does p e r s o n a l i t y " p e r s i s t " , but t h i s i s not to say that there i s some underlying "immutable p e r s i s t e n t " . The Yogacarins go to some pains to e s t a b l i s h that what " p e r s i s t s " i s the. stream of momentary events, each a r i s i n g and then p e r i s h i n g to give way to the next. Thus they p o s i t c o n t i n u i t y , but not permanence. I f the eighth vijnana were permanent i n the sense of immutable there could be no "perfuming" (vasana), no unconscious, habituation, because the eighth vijnana could not be a l t e r e d i n any way by the influence of performed acts. It i t were notcontinuous, on the other hand, causal connection would be broken, there would be no l i n k between cause and e f f e c t , between r e l i g i o u s p r a c t i c e and a t t a i n i n g l i b e r a t i o n . eighth., vijnana ever e n t i r e l y broken off ? According to the Ch'eng-wei-shih-Zun} the eighth vijnana, i n some form, continues forever. Certain The r i v e r flows along., always d i f f e r e n t , and yet Does.this flow ever cease? Is t h i s substratum a c t i v i t y of the of i t s functions, however, cease at c e r t a i n stages on the path to en-lightenment. The alaya function - i . e . , the eighth vijnana as mistaken by manas to be an enduring s e l f ceases i n those who have become arhats. The Dharmapala. t r a d i t i o n followed by Hsuan-tsang and K'uei-chi i n t e r p r e t s t h i s to mean those who have eliminated the obstruction constituted by the 24 a f f l i c t i o n s (klesavarana). The seeds or traces of the a f f l i c t i o n s are s t i l l present i n the eighth vijnana of these s a i n t s , i n the vipaka or f r u i t i o n function, but these seeds no longer come to f r u i t i o n i n any manifest a c t i v i t y . These saints are thus c a l l e d bodhisattvas who do not f a l l back (avaivartika bodhisattvah). Those-, who have thus eliminated the obstacle of the a f f l i c t i o n s can include the sravaka arhats, the pratyeka-buddhas and, according to the Dharmapala t r a d i t i o n , bodhisattvas from the Eighth to Tenth.Lands. Because the a f f l i c t i o n - s e e d s (klesabTja) p e r s i s t even i n these s a i n t s , the vipaka function of the eighth vijnana continues.. This i s brought to an end only i n the Tathagata of f u l l y -r e a l i z e d ' Buddhas, at which point the eighth vijnana i s said to become 25 amala- or vimala-vijnana, pure or immaculate mentation. The point on which the Yogacarin explanation of i n d i v i d u a l continuity most s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r s from that of the e a r l i e r Buddhists i s that with t h e i r conception of the seventh and eighth vijnanas we f i n d an e x p l i c i t theory of a c t i v e , yet quite unconscious, mentation. This seems to be the r e a l innovation of Yogacara psychology: a well-developed theory accounting f o r the persistence i n the unconscious of energy patterns which have the p o t e n t i a l to a f f e c t future action. This i s the Yogacara theory of dynamic unconscious motivation. 6 o The Components of Perception Another important theory of the Yogacara philosophy of mind that i s taken up i n K'uei-chi's essay i s the bhaga doctrine, the analysis of the components (bhaga) of perception. The l a t e r Yogacara s c h o l i a s t s recognized four variants of t h i s doctrine, each analyzing perception 2 6 into one, two, three, or four components r e s p e c t i v e l y . The Dharmapala t r a d i t i o n followed by K'uei-chi was the school that posited four components in a l l : the subjective or noetic component (darsana-bhaga), the objective or noematic component (nimitta-bhaga), the s e l f - v e r i f y i n g component (svasamvitti-bhaga) and the v e r i f i e r of the s e l f - v e r i f y i n g component (samvitti-svasamvitti-bhaga). . According:to t h i s theory there are, i n the act of perception, two reciprocal'aspects: the c o n s t i t u t i n g "subject" or noesis and the constituted "object" or noema. Both of these are components of the i n t e r n a l act of perception: there i s no question at t h i s l e v e l of analys i s . o f any "external object." The important point i s the corre-l a t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p between the two: each presupposes the i n e v i t a b l e , as i t is, a function of the manas a c t i v i t y . I t i s impossible to have a " s e l f " without having an "other," though the "other" i n t h i s case i s purely i n t e r n a l or noematic. I m p l i c i t here also i s a notion of the i n t e n t i o n a l i t y ' o f consciousness: f o r the Yogacarins the object perceived i s an i n t e n t i o n a l object. The l a t t e r two components are meant to explain our a b i l i t y to become i n t u i t i v e l y aware of our mental-activity at t h i s i n t e n t i o n a l l e v e l . It i s the more e s s e n t i a l s e l f - v e r i f y i n g or self-witnessing component that allows us to step back from, the l e v e l of dichotomized cognition, and i t i s the v e r i f i e r of t h i s s e l f - v e r i f y i n g function that confirms t h i s . K'uei-chi discusses the s o t e r i o l o g i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e of t h i s theory i n h i s section on the f i v e - l e v e l contemplation of V i j n a p t i -- 27 matrata. It should be noted that the i n f i n i t e regress suggested by Dharmapala's svasamvittibhaga and samvittirsvasamvitti-bhaga would not have been acceptable to any Buddhist philosopher. It seems best to understand h i s samvitti-svasamvitt-bhaga simply as an attempt to i n t r o - . duce, not a regression, but a r e f l e x i v e loop into the system by which pre-dichotomized mentation.can become aware of i t s e l f i n t u i t i v e l y . THE PATH TO ENLIGHTENMENT Another important d i v i s i o n of Yogacara, doctrine comprised the various formulations of the stages on the path to enlightenment or s a n c t i f i c a t i o n . "While more i n the realm of dogmatics than the epistemo-l o g i c a l and psychological doctrines discussed above, i t was t h i s aspect of Yogacara that provided the framework f o r a l l r e l i g i o u s p r a c t i c e . Given the.basic s o t e r i o l o g i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n of Yogacara and having noted the r o l e of personal^-religious p r a c t i c e i n K'uei-chi's l i f e , i t i s not su r p r i s i n g to f i n d that a large portion of h i s "Essay on V i j n a p t i -matrata" i s devoted to the discussion of various s c h o l a s t i c issues regarding the stages on the path. The. Five. Stages of S a n c t i f i c a t i o n The Yogacara formulation of the stages on the path to enlighten-ment i s a complex system comprising a number of d i f f e r e n t paradigms, many of which can be found independently of the others i n e a r l i e r Abhidharma works. Indeed, i t i s here that the Yogacara debt to the older Abhidharma t r a d i t i o n i s most obvious. K'uei-chi follows a basic system of f i v e stages (avastha)- on the path, one that i s presented i n some d e t a i l i n 28 the Ch'eng-wei-shih-lun. This formula i s based p r i m a r i l y on the Mahay ana-samgraha of Asanga who systematized a great, deal of e a r l i e r material found i n the Yogacarabhwni , the Dasabhumika sutra^the Buddha-29 bhumi Sutra, and other works. The f i v e stages presented i n the Ch'eng-wei-shih-lun. are: 1. The Stage of Provisioning (sambhar avast ha $^ ./f^ - ) 2. The Stage of Preliminary Training (prayogavastha 3. The Stage of Penetration(prativdhehavastha "0 . | ^ /f .^ ) h. The Stage of C u l t i v a t i o n (bhavanavastha 'j'^  ^ / / ^ - ^ 5. The Ultimate Stage (nisthavastha ^j\X-) In the Stage of Provisioning the aspirant i s p r i m a r i l y concerned with developing the q u a l i t i e s favorable to l i b e r a t i o n known as the moksabhagTyas jf^ jf^ L^ » a n older Abhidharma category r e f e r r i n g to 30 one's.own l i b e r a t i o n , . but said i n the Yogacara context to r e f e r to the bodhisattva's e f f o r t s to secure the l i b e r a t i o n ' of other beings. This stage i s said to l a s t from the f i r s t thought of enlightenment (bodhicitta) u n t i l one i s equipped with a l l the moskabhagiyas. It i s i n t h i s stage that the p r a c t i t i o n e r f i r s t confronts the task of c u t t i n g o f f the seed-p o t e n t i a l i t i e s of the two obstacles, that of the a f f l i c t i o n s and that barring wisdom. The Stage of. Preliminary Training i s dominated by the development of the q u a l i t i e s favorable to.the penetration.of understanding, the nirvedhabhagiyas )'||| jf^ • These nirvedhabhagTyas comprise the Four Examinations.(paryesana) and the Four Exact Comprehensions, two important doctrines that K'uei-chi mentions several times i n his 3 1 "Essay on Vijnaptimatrata." They w i l l "be discussed further below. In other Yogacara works these f i r s t two stages, since they are both preparatory, are grouped together as the Land Where One Practices Firm Resolve (adhimukticaryabhumi). The next stage, c a l l e d the Stage of Penetration i n the Ch'eng-we%-sh%h-Vim3 i s also commonly known.as the Path of V i s i o n or Insight (darsanamarga M y$. ) • Having succeeded i n the Four Examinations and the Four Exact Comprehensions, the p r a c t i t i o n e r now produces the non-discriminating cognition • (nirvikalpakajnana t^? ^ %'\ ) which i s free of the subject-object dichotomy.and gives d i r e c t , i n t u i t i v e knowledge of r e a l i t y . One experiences Thusness at t h i s stage, and a c t u a l l y a l l that remains to be done i s p r a c t i c e and. further refinement. This stage i s completed with the thought of the f i r s t of the Ten Bodhisattva Lands. Next i s the Stage, of P r a c t i c e or C u l t i v a t i o n i n which one * 32 proceeds through, the Ten Bodhisattva Lands (dasabhumi). The newly acquired nondiscriminating cognition i s employed to destroy the "crude dross" (dausthulya) of the two obstacles i n preparation for the basic r e o r i e n t a t i o n (asraya-paravrtti) of p e r s o n a l i t y that constitutes l i b e r a t i o n . This stage culminates i n the Diamond-like Concentration (vajropamasamadhi) which marks the ultimate r e a l i z a t i o n . The. Ultimate Stage i s attained with, the f i n a l elimination of a l l the seeds of the two obstacles. This i s the pure realm of the Buddhas in.which, one experiences the various Buddha-bodies. 6k The Yogacara Conception of Nirvana Yogacara shares much of the formal structure o u t l i n e d above with the rest of Mahayana Buddhism. There are. however, several innovations that were developed e s p e c i a l l y i n the Vijnaptimatrata Yogacara of Asanga and Vasubandhu. The most important of these i s the notion of dynamic or unfixed nirvana ( a p r a t i s t h i t a - n i r v a n a ) . The roots of t h i s e x p l i c i t l y p o s i t i v e formulation of nirvana can be traced back to the Prajflapdram-itd Sutras, but i t s f i r s t systematic presentation seems to be found i n the 33 Mahdydna-samgraha. Building on the basic Mahayana doctrine advocating the salvation of a l l being through the combination of the bodhisattvas wisdom (prajna) and compassion (karuna), the doctrine of dynamic or unfixed nirvana presents a cognitive model of enlightenment that attempts to resolve the dilemma of supra-mundane transcendence versus mundane s a l v i f i c e f f i c a c y inherent in.the older notion of nirvana. Unlike the Abhidharma conception of nirupadhLsesa-nirvana ( e x t i n c t i o n without remainder) i n which the arhat became t o t a l l y removed from the world of discrimination and s u f f e r i n g , the Yogacara idea of unfixed nirvana allows the f u l l y - r e a l i z e d bodhisattva to remain a c t i v e . i n the realm of death and r e b i r t h (samsara). By means of h i s subsequently acquired cognition (prs^tha-labdha jnana) he i s able to perceive both.the Absolute and the Dependent, allowing him to work for. the weal of the beings s t i l l trapped i n delusion. K'UEI-CHI'S CONTRIBUTION . Before turning to the t r a n s l a t i o n of -K'uei-chi's "Essay on Vijnaptimatrata" something must be s a i d of K'uei-chi's s p e c i a l c o n t r i -bution to Yogacara thought. What ro l e d i d he play i n the o v e r a l l h i s t o r y of Yogacara Buddhism? What ro l e d i d he play i n Chinese Buddhism? In what way, i f any, did he continue developing the school of thought he. sought to preserve i n i t s new home? A f i n a l answer to these questions can hardly be made on the basis of a study of one short work; there are, however,'several i n d i c a t i o n s of K'uei-chi's contribution evident i n t h i s essay. We have seen already the r o l e K'uei-chi played i n introducing a more comprehensive.transmission of the Vijnaptimatrata Yogacara of Asanga and Vasubandhu into China, as both t r a n s l a t o r and exegete. Looking now i n p a r t i c u l a r at h i s work as an e s s a y i s t , i t becomes obvious that he saw h i s r o l e as that of a s y n c r e t i s t . There are, moreover, two d i s t i n c t facets to K'uei-chi's. syncretism, one that can be seen as systematic or taxonomic, and one that i s c l e a r l y more synthetic or c r e a t i v e . D o c t r i n a l C l a s s i f i c a t i o n The taxonomic facet of K'uei-chi's e f f o r t s i s the most apparent of the two i n the' "Essay on Vijnaptimatrata." . D o c t r i n a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . , what the Chinese c a l l e d p'an-chiao jjhj ^f{, i s a s p e c i a l form of exegesis that had i t s o r i g i n s i n India, but became an even more s a l i e n t feature of Chinese Buddhism. I t was an attempt to r a t i o n a l i z e i n some systematic manner a l l the various, and at time seemingly contradictory, teachings that were put forward as "the word of the Buddha.". It i s possible to d i s t i n g u i s h two types of d o c t r i n a l a n a l y s i s , one more c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the Indian Abhidharma t r a d i t i o n , and one more c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y , though, not e x c l u s i v e l y , Chinese. The former was the necessary r e s u l t of the d o c t r i n a l i n f l a t i o n or p r o l i f e r a t i o n that marked the' development of Abhidharma Buddhism i n India. As the problematic addressed by the l a t e r schools became in c r e a s i n g l y complex, new solutions were formulated and new models generated. The o l d formulas and paradigms, venerable even i f outmoded, were never discarded, however: they were simply accumulated. A great deal of the l a t e r Buddhist s c h o l i a s t s ' energies was devoted to providing a r a t i o n a l e f or the i n t e r -r e l a t i o n s h i p of an ever-expanding number of doctrines, even though these doctrines, for the most p a r t , never o r i g i n a l l y had any p a r t i c u l a r i n t e g r a l or genetic relationship., having simply been d i f f e r e n t but p a r a l l e l responses to the same questions. Another form of d o c t r i n a l a n a l y s i s , one which i n fact i s simply an extension of the f i r s t , sought to construct a hierarchy of the various Buddhist schools, usually based on some p e r i o d i z a t i o n of the Buddha's teaching career. Again the attempt i s to r e c o n c i l e apparently d i v e r -gent p o s i t i o n s , but now on a broader scale, usually with the i n t e n t i o n of proving the s u p e r i o r i t y of one p a r t i c u l a r school over the others while s t i l l incorporating a l l . the schools into a developmental schema: i . e . , "Our school represents the ultimate doctrine.of the Buddha ex-pressed i n terms of the absolute t r u t h , while the other schools are p r o v i s i o n a l teaching leading eventually up to ours." This i s the form of d o c t r i n a l analysis that i s usually meant by p'an-chiao i n China. The m u l t i - l e v e l systems of the T ' i e n - t ' a i ^ a n d Hua-yen 34 schools are the most prominent examples. Of these two types of d o c t r i n a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n K'uei-chi was c l e a r l y more occupied with the former. This very l i k e l y r e f l e c t s the fact that h i s t r a i n i n g i n Buddhism and h i s s t y l e of scholarship were influenced more by t r a d i t i o n a l Indian models than by those of the current Chinese schools. His d o c t r i n a l analysis c e r t a i n l y shows a sharp contrast to that of his s l i g h t l y e a r l i e r counterparts Chih-i ^ ]jj (538-597) of the T ' i e n - t * a i school, and Fa-shun j/fcj/fy (557-640) and C h i h - y e n ^ (602-668) of the Hua-yen school. There are a number of examples of t h i s f i r s t type of d o c t r i n a l analysis i n K'uei-chi's "Essay on Vijnaptimatrata," v i r t u a l l y a l l of them r a t i o n a l i z i n g , various Yogacara doctrines. Intjl.3.2 f o r example, he lays out a f i v e - f o l d c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of the d i f f e r e n t ways i n which Vijnaptimatrata i s taught i n the scriptures (sutra) and t r e a t i s e s (sastra). £ln 2.2 he explains why the sutras teach Cittamatrata whereas the sastras teach Vijnaptimatrata. In ^6.1 he discusses the d i f f e r e n c e between the four-stage path of the Mahdydna-samgraha and the f i v e -stage path.that i s found i n both the Mahdydna-samgraha and the Ch'eng-wei-shih-Xiai. These, are a l l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c examples of K'uei-chi's st y l e of d o c t r i n a l a n a l y s i s , the f i r s t or taxonomic, facet of h i s syncretism. The F i v e - l e v e l Contemplation of Vijnaptimatrata The second, or more c r e a t i v e , facet of K'uei-chi's syncretism i s seen most c l e a r l y i n his formulation of the F i v e - l e v e l Contemplation of Vijnaptimatrata presented i n t j l . 1.1-5 of the'essay t r a n s l a t e d here. This type of syncretism d i f f e r s from the d o c t r i n a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n discussed above i n that here we f i n d an o r i g i n a l attempt to summarize the s o t e r i o l o g i c a l process that l i e s at the core of Vijnaptimatrata Yogacara. K'uei-chi. i s doing something more that simply r e c o n c i l i n g doctrines that were already current: with the new doctrine of the F i v e - l e v e l Contemplation he i s attempting t o syntheeize the whole system into one.comprehensive and e a s i l y understandable paradigm. This doctrine represents K'uei-chi's most o r i g i n a l contribution both to Yogacara Buddhism" i n general and'to Chinese Buddhism as w e l l . It provides a model for'the progressive r e a l i z a t i o n of the fundamental p r i n c i p l e of Mere Conceptualization (Vijnaptimatrata), a model o u t l i n i n g the successive l e v e l s by which one gains an understanding of delusion and experiences the enlightenment that constitutes nirvana. I t incorporates the c r i t i c a l epistemology and psychology of a number of basic Yogacara doctrines, the eight modes of mental a c t i v i t y , the three aspects of existence.'or own-being, the emptiness, of the s e l f and the dharmas, the analysis of the perceptual components., combining a l l of these i n a manner that c l a r i f i e s how thei r , a p p l i c a t i o n leads, step by step, to the ultimate experience of Thusness and l i b e r a t i o n . It i s i n t h i s o r i g i n a l doctrine that we see most c l e a r l y K'uei-chi's own personal combination of Buddhist philosophy and soteriology. PART TWO: TRANSLATION OF "THE ESSAY ON VIJNAPTIMATRATA" Chapter IV INTRODUCTION TO THE TRANSLATION K'uei-chi's "Essay on Vijnaptimatrata" i s the t h i r d of 29 chapters i n h i s rather long d o c t r i n a l compendium, the Ta-sheng fa-yuan i-Zin chang (no. 26).. The rest of t h i s work includes, among others, essays on the d o c t r i n a l h i s t o r y of the early Indian schools, • on the various c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s of vehicles (yana), on the sixty-two f a l s e views ( d r s t i ) , the eight deliverances, the three jewels (Buddha-Dharma-Sahgha), and on the Buddha lands. No precise date i s given, for the compilation of the work, though i t i s l i k e l y to be r e l a t i v e l y l a t e as K'uei-chi c i t e s several of h i s e a r l i e r works i n the t e x t . It i s possible that at l e a s t some, of the chapters were written as independent essays, or at l e a s t c i r c u l a t e d as such. This i s suggested by the fact that i n addition to the commentaries to the work as a whole, one also finds commentaries written on several of the i n d i v i d u a l essays or chapters. The "Essay on Vijnaptimatrata" seems to have been one of the most popular of the essays judging from the commentaries. The Commentaries The catalog section of the Taisho l i s t s a t o t a l of 59 commen-t a r i e s that t r e a t a l l or parts. of K'uei-chi's compendium."'" Of these, 11 are a v a i l a b l e i n p r i n t e d e d i t i o n s , 34 survive i n manuscript, and the remaining 14 have been l o s t . . Of the surviving commentaries that treat the compendium as a whole, the most important are: 1 . Ta-eheng fa-yuan i-lin ehang pu-eh'ueh 3 surviving scrolls, Z:2/3/1. Composed by Hui-chao j||Jj (?-714), second patriarch of the Fa-hsiang school after K'uei-chi. 2 . Ta-sheng fa-yuan i-lin ehang ehueh-tse-chi 4 scrolls, Z: 2 / 3 / 1 . Composed by Chih-chou \% ( 6 7 8 - 7 3 3 ) , third patriarch of the Fa-hsiang school after K'uei-chi. 3 . Da-igohoongivinjd shishikusho 22 scrolls, T: 2323, LXXI.473-887. Composed by the Tokugawa Japanese monk Kiben ^  ( 1 7 1 8 - 1 7 9 1 ) in 1 7 8 7 . Among these three, nos. 2 and 3 have sections commenting on the "Essay on Vijnaptimatrata," while the corresponding section of no. 2 has been lost. Kiben's commentary is important because he cites, c r i t i c a l l y , a number of. other commentaries that are available only in manuscript or that have been lost. 1 There.are also several commentaries on the "Essay on Vijnapti-matrata" alone: 4. -Yuishikisho sh-Lki 12 scrolls, T: 2319, LXXI.298-4l8. Composed by the Fujiwara monk Shin go j j j f js]|jf (931 -1004) . . 72 5. Ta-sheng fa-yuan i-lin wei-shih-chang chiang-lu Written by the Chinese Buddhist Abbot T'ai-hsu. y£\ w h _ (1890-1947); pp. 938-1089 of his c o l l e c t e d works, the T'ai-hsu Ta-shih chuan-shu (see bibliography). 6. Fa-yuan i-lin chang wei-shih-chang chu Written by Mei Kuang-hsi / j s J ^ ^ L i ^ ' » o r i g i n a l l y published i n 1923 and reprinted by the Hsin-wen-feng c h ' u - p a n | ( j ^ ^ J ^!| J j j j , Taiwan, 1973. Shingo's , commentary i s e x c e l l e n t , providing much information on the sources of the doctrines K'uei-chi mentions i n his t e x t . The l a t t e r two works are i n t e r e s t i n g i n t h e i r own rig h t as examples of the thought i n s p i r e d by the r e v i v a l of Buddhist philosophy i n the - e a r l y part of the 20th century. T'ai-hsu's commentary shows a good deal of o r i g i n a l i t y whereas that of Mei follows the Japanese works very c l o s e l y . In preparing the present t r a n s l a t i o n , I made use of these s i x commentaries r e l y i n g e s p e c i a l l y on nos. 3 and k. No. 2 i s the most authori t a t i v e but, unfortunately, i t i s very short and often more obscure than K'uei-chi's o r i g i n a l t e x t . I also consulted the Japanese t r a n s -l a t i o n s of the text i n the Kokuyaku issaikyo — * JQ\ (KI: XLV.Ul-53) and the Kokuyaku daizokyo ^ ^^^\ j^fcfy&S™' X L I 1 ' 56 -80 ) , Methodological Considerations There are several d i f f e r e n t problems that must be overcome i n the t r a n s l a t i o n of any of K'uei-chi's works, problems that can be e s p e c i a l l y d i f f i c u l t i n the case of h i s essays where, in,contrast to the commentaries, one does not.have a base text providing the theme and structure. A l l of K'uei-chi's works were, moreover, written f or an audience having a more thorough knowledge of the Indian Buddhist t r a d i t i o n and the Yogacara l i t e r a t u r e i n p a r t i c u l a r than, i s current today. Many doctrines of which he assumes a knowledge can, however, be tracked down i n one of several basic works: i n the Abhidharmakosa, a HTnayana Abhidharma work, the Mahdydna-samgraha, the most systematic introduction to Asanga's thought, or the Ch'eng-wei-shih-lun, the synthetic e d i t i o n of the Indian commentaries to Vasubandhu's Thirty Verses (Trimsika) discussed above. The Kos"a survives i n Sanskrit as well as Chinese and Tibetan, the Mahdydna-samgraha, i n Chinese and Tibetan only, and the Ch'eng-wei-shih-tun -is only i n .Chinese.Fortunately we have from Louis de La Vallee-Poussin and Etienne Lamotte excellent annotated t r a n s l a t i o n s 2 i n French of a l l three of these works. For the present study reference has also been made, to the Mahdydna-samgraha commentaries of Asvabhava. and Vasubandhu, which survive i n Chinese and Tibetan and are excerpted' i n Lamotte's: Samgraha t r a n s l a t i o n . The t r a n s l a t i o n of Buddhist p h i l o s o p h i c a l t r e a t i s e s from L i t e r a r y Chinese poses, a number of p h i l o l o g i c a l problems as w e l l . The Chinese Buddhist exegetes had, by K'uei-chi's time, developed a number of s t y l i s t i c conventions p e c u l i a r to "Buddhist Chinese." Many of these r e f l e c t the s p e c i a l demands of t r a n s l a t i n g from Sanskrit, a highly i n f l e c t e d language given to hypotactic construction., to Chinese which i s uninfl e c t e d and, r e l a t i v e l y , . f r e e of hypotaxis. An example can be seen in. the construction very frequently encountered i n the Chinese of Hsuan-tsang and K'uei-chi where a declarative proposition i s followed by one or more clauses providing the reason or j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r the assertion. Each.of these "because. . ." clauses i s marked by the function word ku i^H^ (therefore, thus) coming at the end of the clause. In an unpunctuated t e x t , and even more i n a poorly punctuated t e x t , t h i s can very e a s i l y lead to confusion, since one normally expects j j j^ to stand at the beginning of a "therefore. . ." clause. There are many examples of t h i s p a r t i c u l a r construction i n the text t r a n s l a t e d here, and several instances where the punctuation i n d i c a t e d i n the Taisho e d i t i o n of-the .text i s very questionable. Another set of problems, often far more perplexing, arises when one encounters the Chinese equivalents of Buddhist t e c h n i c a l terms. This i s of s p e c i a l concern when working with the writings of Hsuan-tsang and K'uei-chi. Their t r a n s l a t i o n s are generally considered t o be the most t e c h n i c a l l y accurate of a l l of those done i n China. Hsuan-tsang d i d not h e s i t a t e , i n most cases, to revise older equivalents. Constantly s t r i v i n g f or consistency and p h i l o l o g i c a l p r e c i s i o n , the often chose p a i n f u l l y l i t e r a l equivalents for t e c h n i c a l terms, a feature of h i s s t y l e that makes i t seem p e c u l i a r to the Chinese reader who i s well-educated, but. unfamiliar with Buddhist doctrine and terminology. Consider, for example, his rendering of the Sanskrit vipaka ( f r u i t i o n ) as i n the f r u i t i o n or r e t r i b u t i o n aspect (vipaka-vijnana) of the eighth mode of mental a c t i v i t y . d i s c u s s e d i n Chapter I I I above: i-shu (lit..:- ' d i f f e r e n t - r i p e n i n g ' ; contrast Paramartha's kuo-pao ) ^ '• ' f r u i t - r e t r i b u t i o n ' ) . Hsuan-tsang's-equivalent, i n t h i s case, i s etymologically precise to the point of being quite misleading. From the Chinese alone, one has no way of knowing that the i . ( ' d i f f e r e n t ' ) of i-shu simply renders the vi- of vipaka, the same p r e f i x mentioned above i n the discussion of vijnana. In This case, the Chinese i i s probably not meant to s i g n i f i c a n t l y q u a l i f y or r e s t r i c t the meaning of shu though, when.working only from a Chinese t e x t , one might well expect that i t did. A c e r t a i n amount of t h i s p e c u l i a r i t y i s a feature of a l l Buddhist w r i t i n g i n Chinese.- One does, however, f i n d i t much more often i n the Chinese of Hsuan-tsang and K'uei-chi than i n that of KumarajTva whose t r a n s l a t i o n s are f r e e r and consequently seem more "Chinese." This, excessive l i t e r a l n e s s , i n both syntax and d i c t i o n , can work i n two d i f f e r e n t d i r e c t i o n s . When one i s unfamiliar with a given expression, i t may seem quite opaque i n the Chinese or, what i s worse, i t may seem to mean something quite d i f f e r e n t from the Sanskrit t e c h n i c a l term i t renders. On the other hand., once one acquires the necessary f a m i l i a r i t y with.the terminology, t h i s p e c u l i a r i t y begins to work as an advantage, e s p e c i a l l y given the meticulous conistence i n the writing.: of these two monks. To acquire that familiarity,.-,especially when dealing with r e l a t i v e l y obscure. Abhidharma doctrines, can however s t i l l be a formidable task. This i s just.as true when working with K'uei-chi's essays, as when reading a work that has been t r a n s l a t e d from Sanskrit into Chinese. Even: though.the. essays were o r i g i n a l l y composed i n Chinese, they s t i l l , because of t h e i r t e c h n i c a l nature, employ a l l the s t y l i s t i c conventions and terminology of the t r a n s l a t i o n s . While i t i s u n l i k e l y that K'uei-chi: went so f a r as to.compose his essays i n Sanskrit and then t r a n s l a t e them into Chinese, i t i s nevertheless often h e l p f u l to reconstruct the hypothetical Sanskrit patterns and terms that l i e behind h i s thought. 76 Fortunately, t h i s task has been made somewhat easier by several research aids that have become available only r e l a t i v e l y r e c e n t l y , aids that were indispensable to the present study and t r a n s l a t i o n . While the t r a n s l a t i o n s of La-Vallee-Poussin and Lamotte done i n the f i r s t h a l f of t h i s century provide a great deal of assistance i n recognizing the Chinese equivalents of Sanskrit t e c h n i c a l terms, many of the equivalents they give are hypothetical reconstructions from texts that survive only i n Chinese and Tibetan. The p o s s i b i l i t y of being mislead i s always present: a prime example i s La Vallee-Poussin's i n i t i a l reconstruction of *bhuta-tathata for the key term chen-ju ^ ^ g i n the Ch'eng-wei-shih-Vun, a reconstruction that he himself subsequently r e a l i z e d was not borne out by. the surviving Sanskrit of the Madhydnta-vibhdga where chen-ju i s shown to be Hsiian-tsang's standard equivalent for the more basic Yogacara term tathata (Thusness). The p u b l i c a t i o n of modern c r i t i c a l editions of the works l i k e the• Madhydnta-vibhdga that do survive i n Sanskrit as well as Chinese and Tibetan has made our task easier than that faced by La Vallee-Poussin. We now have Sanskrit editions of most of the basic Yogacara works: the Mahdyana-sutrdlahkara, the Vimsatikd3and Tvimsika with commentaries, the Lahkdvatava3 the Abhidharma-samucoaya3 and also portions of the e a r l i e r Yogdcdrabhurni.. We also now have the Sanskrit version of the Abhidharmakosa from a manuscript that was not a v a i l a b l e to La V a l l e e -Poussin when he undertook his t r a n s l a t i o n of that work from the Chinese. Even more helpful, than these, c r i t i c a l editions are a number of recent b i - and t r i - l i n g u a l g lossaries and indices to the most important Yogacara works surviving i n Sanskrit. Most h e l p f u l for the present t r a n s l a t i o n were NAGAO Gadjin's indices to. the .Mad.hy~mta-V-ibha.ga and the Mahayana-sutralahkara, HIRAKAWA . A k i r a 1 s index to the Abhidharma-kosa, k and SUZUKI Daisetsu's index to the Lofika.vata.Ta. These books provide a separate, index f o r each of the languages, Sanskrit, Chinese and Tibetan, with cross-references to the other languages and page references to various editions of the text. This makes i t much easier to determine i f a given Chinese expression was used as an equivalent for some Sanskrit term, and i n many cases allows comparison of the equivalent used by d i f f e r e n t Chinese t r a n s l a t o r s and by.the Tibetans as w e l l . The f i r s t and t h i r d of the above l i s t are e s p e c i a l l y useful i n working on K'uei-chi's writings because they are both works t r a n s l a t e d by Hsuan-tsang, one a Yogacara t r e a t i s e and the other an Abhidharma compendium. By using these indices along with the e a r l i e r reconstructions of La • Vallee-Poussin andLamotte, I have been able to provide a s i g n i -f i c a n t number of Sanskrit equivalents for the t e c h n i c a l terms i n •K'uei-chi's. essay. This might seem l e s s necessary i n the case of a text that was not o r i g i n a l l y t r a n s l a t e d from Sanskrit; however, i t i s warranted i n l i g h t of the s p e c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of K'uei-chi's essay st y l e that were out l i n e d above. There were also other considerations. English, equivalents'for Yogacara terms e s p e c i a l l y , have only just begun to be worked out and there i s some controversy over the best rendering for many important...concepts. I have provided the Sanskrit were possible to avoid ambiguity, e s p e c i a l l y for those who may be f a m i l i a r with Yogacara from Sanskrit and Tibetan sources rather, than from Chinese. The Sanskrit equivalents.also serve t o . a l e r t the reader of the Chinese text .that there may be special, considerations when rendering a given Chinese expression into English. As a general methodological p r i n c i p l e , my English t r a n s l a t i o n i s based' on the meaning of the o r i g i n a l Sanskrit t e c h n i c a l term (where i t i s known) rather than on the Chinese equivalent In most instances there i s no noticeable discrepancy, but i n some the case, of i-shu discussed above, f or example the English does not always come d i r e c t l y or l i t e r a l l y from the Chinese. In these cases the Sanskrit i s always provided on the f i r s t occurrence and again l a t e r i f the term i s taken up i n a d i f f e r e n t context. Chapter V K'UEI-CHI'S "ESSAY ON VIJNAPTI-MATRATA"1 [Preface! In o u t l i n e , t h i s essay on the Vijnapti-matrata doctrine i s a c r i t i c a l explanation i n ten sections: 1. Exposition of the Substance; 2. C r i t i c a l Analysis of the Term; 3. Explanation of the D i s t i n c t i o n s and the Unity; k. Which Mode of Mentation Performs the Contemplation?; 5. C l a r i f y i n g what Distinguishes the Classes; 6. The Stages of C u l t i v a t i n g R e a l i z a t i o n ; 7- Of What Nature i s the Dharma 'Contemplation'?; 8. The Stations and the Base of A r i s i n g ; 9. Severing the Obstacles and Defilements; 10. Turning to and Embracing the Two Emptinesses. (258bl8) Section One: Exposition of the Substance There are two v a r i e t i e s of t h i s substance: the substance of that which i s contemplated^^ [ i . e . , the objective aspect of Vijnaptimatrata] and the substance of the contemplator [ i . e . , the subjective aspect of Vijnaptimatrata]. 1.1 The Objective Aspect of Vijnaptimatrata The objective aspect of Vijnaptimatrata takes a l l dharmas as i t . e s s e n t i a ! s t a n c e % .3 _ s e notn e x i s t s ana non-k e x i s t i n g dharmas are contemplated as being nothing but conceptualiza-t i o n (vijnapti-matra). There are i n o u t l i n e f i v e l e v e l s [of contem-p l a t i n g a l l dharmas as vijnapti-matraD. (258b20) 1.1.1 F i r s t Level: Banishing the False Preserving the Real The f i r s t l e v e l i s the [contemplation of 1 Vijnapti[-matratal]^ i n which one banishes the f a l s e ^ and preserves the r e a l ^ s t 4 * f -One contemplates the fact that the Imaginary ( p a r i k a l p i t a ) a r i s e s from what i s e x c l u s i v e l y unreal (abhuta-matra) and i s completely without substance function |zl . One should properly banish what i s thus empty (sunya), because i t e x i s t s only i n one's [deluded! f e e l i n g s $ and not as a matter of absolute r e a l i t y j £ . 8 One then contemplates the fact that the Dependent (paratantra) and the Absolute (parinispanna) are the substance and the r e a l i t y of a l l dharmas and are the realm of the Two Wisdoms. One should properly preserve what thus e x i s t s , because they do exist as absolute r e a l i t y , even though they CseemU not to e x i s t from the perspective of one's [deluded!! f e e l i n g s . A p a i r of v e r s e s 1 ^ by Asanga says: The [ r e l a t i o n s h i p ] between name and th i n g i s adventitious Their nature should be CthusH examined. With regard to t h e i r dual a s p e c t j 1 1 one must also deduce that There i s nothing but conceptualization, nothing but conventional designation. With the Exact Comprehensions one sees there i s no 'object' (artha), That there i s nothing but discrimination into three. The object does not e x i s t , and so the three do not exi s t e i t h e r ; To r e a l i z e t h i s i s to enter into the 13 Three Natures. [Glossing the term 'Vijnaptimatrata'Ii, the Ch'eng-wei-shih-lun says: The word vijrlccpti expresses c o l l e c t i v e l y [the various categories of mental a c t i v i t y common, to a l l sentie,nt beings: namely, the eight modes of mentation (vijnana), the s i x classes of mental c o e f f i c i e n t s ( c a i t t a ) , the development 1^ of mentation into an objective component (nimitta-bhaga) and a subjective component (darsana-bhaga), the modality d i s t i n c t i o n s 1 ^ , and the Thusness ( t a t h a t a ) 1 ^ that i s made evident by the p r i n c i p l e of t h e i r emptiness. Cit expresses the eight vijnanas,! because they are the e s s e n t i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s (svalaksana) of a l l mentation (vijnana); [the mental c o e f f i c i e n t s , ! because they are associated with mentation; [the objective and subjective components,! because they are the developments of the above two; [the d i s t i n c t i o n s , ! because they are modalities of the above three; [and Thusness,! because i t i s the R e a l i t y ^ | (bhutata?) of the above four. Thus a l l dharmas: are inseparable from mentation and are c o l l e c t i v e l y defined by the term ' v i j n a p t i ' . The word mdtvatd i s meant simply to deny the notion clung to by fools that there are some t r u l y e x i s t i n g external forms or matter, etc., separate from our mentation. 1^ There are many passages l i k e these that v e r i f y [the doctrine of ' • "banishing the f a l s e and preserving the r e a l " ! . (258c4) People have always, without any beginning, clung to the notion of s e l f (atman) and dharmas as e x i s t i n g , while dismissing r e l a t i v e f a c t s jfe- and the abstract universal as empty. Therefore, i n t h i s [ f i r s t l e v e l ! of contemplation, the "banishing" i s the contemplation of the emptiness Cof the Imaginary], as i t counteracts and destroys our c l i n g i n g to what [seems to] e x i s t ; whereas, the "preserving" i s the contemplation of the existence [of the Dependent and the Absolute], as i t counteracts and expels our c l i n g i n g to what [seems to] be empty. 83 Thus we now contemplate the emptiness Cof what seemed to e x i s t ] and the existence Cof what seemed empty] '^"^j » while banishing the alleged existence Cof what only seems to e x i s t ] and the alleged emptiness Cof what only seems to be empty] ^ * ' However, i f there i s no existence Cof what we formerly thought to e x i s t ] and no emptiness Cof what we formerly thought to be empty] • "j f ^ ^ S^t, then, so a l s o , i s there no emptiness Cof what we formerly thought to e x i s t ] and no existence Cof what we formerly thought to be empty] By taking a l l these assertions of 'emptiness' and 'existence' as mutually dependent, the contemplation i s brought to completion. Of what emptiness, a f t e r a l l , can there be any 'pure existence'; and,.of what existence, any 'pure emptiness'? Therefore, a l l .those who wish to enter the true dharma-hood (dharmata) that i s cut o f f from words, must enter by r e l y i n g on t h i s 20 device Cof contemplating what seems to exist as empty and what seems to be empty as e x i s t i n g ] . This does, not mean, however, that i n every case 'existence' and 'emptiness' are f i x e d as such Ci.e., r e i f i e d ] . _ 21 At the stage where one r e a l i z e s (saksatkaroti) the contemplation of R e a l i t y , there i s neither 'existence' nor 'emptiness'. There i s no discrimination of dharmas because t h e i r ultimate nature i s cut o f f from words. When i t i s stated Cas for example i n the PrajhTiparamita Su.tra.sl that i t is. necessary to contemplate everything as empty, for only then can one experience (saksatkaroti) R e a l i t y , t h i s means that i t i s necessary to.take as one's i n i t i a l entrance the view that the Imaginary i s empty. 84 One. i s thereby able to enter into R e a l i t y . [Thus, while one does indeed take the view of emptiness], the substance of R e a l i t y i t s e l f 22 • i s not emptiness. .We have seen that the expression • 'Vijnaptimatrata' denies what i s f a l s e l y clung to. That being the case, i f one c l i n g s to the notion that there t r u l y e x i s t s some 'only-ness' of a l l v i j n a p t i , then since t h i s too i s something clung to i t must be rejected as w e l l . This i s the l e v e l of [the contemplation] of the objective aspect of Vijnaptimatrata that constitutes the i n i t i a l entrance [to the d o c t r i n e ] . At every stage along the path, one should deliberate on i t and c u l t i v a t e i t s r e a l i z a t i o n . (258cl4) 1.1.2 Second Level: Relinquishing the Superfluous Retaining the Pure 23 The second l e v e l i s [the contemplation of] V i jnaptil-matrata] i n which one relinquishes the superfluous and retains the pure $0-^1 n*$L' Although we have taken the view that r e l a t i v e p a r t i c u l a r s [ i . e . , the paratantra] and the absolute u n i v e r s a l [ i . e . , the parinispanna] do not exist apart from mentation (vijnana), i t i s nevertheless the case that t h i s i n t e r n a l vijnana has both an objective f i e l d [ i . e . , the nimitta-bhaga] and subjective thought ( c i t t a ) [ i . e . , the darsana-bhaga]. This i s so, because as soon as thought a r i s e s , i t 24 25 i s deposited i n the i n t e r n a l objective f i e l d [as a seed] and i s then born..[Even so,] i t i s only representation ( v i j n a p t i ) that i s said to be '-only' (-matra); we do not say ' o b j e c t i v e - f i e l d - o n l y ' (visaya-matra * ^ ^ ) , [ i . e . , that a l l dharmas are only of the objective _, 26 f i e l d ] . The Oieng-wei-shih-lun says: Vijnana exists only i n t e r n a l l y , whereas the objective f i e l d also pervades the external. Fearing t h i s • o v e r f l o w i n t o the external, we only say 'vi j n a p t i - o n l y ' [and never say 'visaya-only *] The f o o l i s h deludedly c l i n g to the objective field.-Performing d e f i l e d deeds (klistakarniani) they-are submerged i n the cycle of death.and r e b i r t h (samsara). They do not know to contemplate the mind and d i l i g e n t l y t o seek escape [from t h i s c y c l e ] . Out of compassion for them,[the Buddha] declared t h i s expression, ' v i j n a p t i - o n l y ' , thereby causing them to contemplate their.thought and f i n d l i b e r a t i o n from the cycle of death and r e b i r t h . This does not mean that the i n t e r n a l objective f i e l d [ i . e . , the nimitta-bhaga] i s , 2 7 l i k e the external, t o t a l l y m e x i s t e n t . Because the objective f i e l d [ i . e . , the nimitta-bhaga] has t h i s super-fluous overflow 3^^_Cinto seeming e x t e r n a l i t y ] , i t i s relinquished and not designated '-only' (-matra). Because the substance of thought [ i . e . , the darsaha-bhaga] i s pure, i t i s retained and declared to be 'vijnap t i - o n l y ' . The Ghanavyuha Sutra says: The objects of c i t t a , [ i . e . , of a l l men1 Are not separate from manas and vijKana ,al a c t i v i t y ] " t h e i r own-being (svabhava); Therefore I declare that, i n every way 29 There i s only vijnana and nothing e l s e . The Avatamsaka, Sutra and other works say, "The three realms are nothing "but thought (citta-matra). The I-ohiao Ching j j j^ says, "Therefore a l l of you must c a r e f u l l y regulate and focus your thought; i f i t i s regulated and focused on one point, there w i l l "be no 31 matter which i s not distinguished." These passages are a l l included i n t h i s entrance (pravesa), [the second l e v e l of the contemplation of the Vijnaptimatrata of a l l dharmasH. (258c26) 1.1.3 Third Level: Gathering i n the Branches Returning to the Root - • - 32 The t h i r d l e v e l i s [the contemplation of3 Vijnapti[-matrataH i n which one gathers i n the b ranches 3 3 and returns to the root .. Jp^ jj . The objective f i e l d , which i s what i s apprehensor (grahya) within thought, i s manifestly evident; and, so a l s o , are the operations (kriya J^J )of thought, which i s the i n t e r n a l apprehender (grahaka). This subjective portion (darsana-bhaga) and objective portion (nimitta-bhaga) both exist i n dependence on mentation (vijnana). This i s so, because, i f separated from the substantial r o o t 3 ^ ^ ^ o f mentation, the branch-dharmas » ^ absolutely cannot e x i s t . The Trimsikd says: The notions of a s e l f (atman) and t r u l y e x i s t i n g dharmas, which a r i s e i n p r o v i s i o n a l discourse 87 Have a v a r i e t y of d i f f e r e n t permutations; A l l of which, depend on developments of mentation; What develops into them are only three: 35 The Ch'eng-wei-shih-lun states, "'Development' ( p a r i n a m a ^ ^ ) means that the substance of mentation turns into what appears to be the two components. This i s so, because, both the objective component (nimitta-bhaga) and the subjective component (darsana-bhaga) a r i s e i n 36 dependence on the s e l f - v e r i f y i n g component (svasamvitti-bhaga)." The Sandhi-nirmoeana Sutra states, " A l l the objects (alambana j^ff jjHJO 37 of mentation (vijnana) are merely manifestations of mentation.' One gathers i n the objective and subjective components, which have branched out, and returns to t h e i r root, v i z . , mentation. Therefore, t h i s entrance (pravesa) [ i . e . , the t h i r d l e v e l of the contemplation of the Vijnaptimatrata of a l l dharmasH encompasses- the contemplation of what i s declared to be the absolute universal and r e l a t i v e p a r t i c u l a r s , or the absolute (paramartha ^ ) and the conventional ( s a m v r t i ^ ^ ) , etc. (259a4) 1.1.4 Fourth Level: Suppressing the I n f e r i o r Manifesting the Superior 38 The fourth l e v e l i s [the contemplation of1 Vijnapti[-matrataH i n which one suppresses the i n f e r i o r -and manifests the superior '-•fli? • Both thought (citta)- and the mental c o e f f i c i e n t s (caitta). are capable of developing and becoming manifest. Even so, we only say 'thought-only' ( c i t t a - m a t r a A ^ * ) and not 'mental-c o e f f i c i e n t s - o n l y ' (caitta-matra^fe ' V C , ' jf{[ ). The substantial c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of thought, the king, i s i t s supremacy (pradhanya j | p ; whereas, the mental c o e f f i c i e n t s are subordinate and depend on t h e i r superior to be born. At t h i s l e v e l we suppress what i s subordinate and do not display i t , thus manifesting only the superior dharma, [thought !. Therefore, the Commpassionate and Honored One [ i . e . , Maitreya! declared: It i s granted that thought manifests i t s e l f i n what appears as a d u a l i t y ; / - \ 39 Just so, i t may appear as greed (.ragaj, etc.; Or, a l t e r n a t i v e l y , i t may appear as f a i t h (sraddha) , etc.;^° Nevertheless, there are no d i s t i n c t l y d e f i l e d or whole-some dharmas [separate from thought ( c i t t a ) ! . ^ " While the e s s e n t i a l substance $ ' ' f j ^ o f "thought ( c i t t a ) ^ 2 i s able to develop, manifesting i t s e l f i n what appears as the d u a l i t y of the subjective and objective components, i t i s s t i l l the case that the substance of the mental c o e f f i c i e n t s greed, f a i t h , etc. also are each able to develop, manifesting themselves i n what appears as t h e i r own subjective and objective components. Because thought i s superior however, the verse says [only! that thought appears as the two. Because the mental c o e f f i c i e n t s are subordinate, they are suppressed, and the verse says nothing about them. This does not mean, however, that they are incapable of appearing as the two. The Vimaldk'rti says, "Through the defilement of thought, beings are d e f i l e d . Through p u r i t y of thought, beings are p u r i f i e d . " ^ 3 This and other such passages are included i n t h i s entrance (pravesa), [the fourth l e v e l of contemplating the Vijnaptimatrata of a l l dharmasD.(259al2) 1.1.5 F i f t h Level: Banishing the Marks and Rea l i z i n g the True Nature _ hh The f i f t h l e v e l i s Cthe contemplation ofH VijnaptiC-matrataD i n which one banishes the char a c t e r i z i n g marks (laksana) and r e a l i z e s the true nature (dharmata' ?)4^ " f f ^ S i *|^. • ^ n w n a t i s expressed by the word ' v i j n a p t i ' , there are both an abstract u n i v e r s a l and r e l a t i v e p a r t i c u l a r s . The r e l a t i v e p a r t i c u l a r s are the marks jjfQ or functions |£j which one should banish and not grasp. The abstract u n i v e r s a l i s the true nature *J^-or substance which one should seek to r e a l i z e . The SrZmala Sutra declares, "the thought ( c i t t a ) that i s cl e a r and pure by nature Q >^'V^' . " ^ A verse from the Mahayana-samgvaha says: From a rope a r i s e s the notion of a snake, But on seeing the rope, one discerns that i n the 1+6 l i g h t of reason there i s no snake, And, when one v e r i f i e s the constituent parts of the rope i t s e l f , 90 One knows that i t , l i k e the perception of the hi snake, i s a delusion. What i s stated here i s that when we give r i s e to the notion of the rope (rajjubuddhi), we have banished the notion of a snake (sarpabuddhi): This i s a metaphorical representation of how one banishes Imaginary ( p a r i k a l p i t a ) notions by contemplating the Dependent (paratantra). When we see the constituent parts making up the rope, we banish the notion of the rope i t s e l f : t h i s i s a meta-p h o r i c a l representation of how one banishes the notion of the Dependent (paratantra) by seeing the Absolute (parinispanna). The meaning here i s c l e a r : both of these banished notions ar i s e dependent on something else $>C^ i2» ytfi • When one has severed 48 the d e f i l e d [portion of the Dependent], the notions of an eternal s e l f (atman) and t r u l y e x i s t i n g dharmas, which, l i k e the snake and the rope, were clung to as r e a l , no longer correspond to any f a c t u a l i t y . With regard to the Dependent (paratantra): t h i s does not mean that., because, i t should be banished, therefore both [the d e f i l e d portion and the pure portion] are eliminated together. The snake appears as a r e s u l t of delusion, and so i s completely without either substance or function. The rope, however, comes into being by v i r t u e of i t s constituent hemp f i b e r s , and so i s not without some p r o v i s i o n a l function. The: hemp f i b e r s i l l u s t r a t e the r e a l u n i v e r s a l , while the rope i l l u s t r a t e s the dependent aspect of things. Once one knows the respective substance and function of the rope and the hemp f i b e r s , the f a c t u a l i t y of the snake i s spontaneously destroyed. Because the f a c t u a l i t y of the snake i s destroyed, the 'snake' corresponds to no f a c t u a l i t y [ i . e . , i t lacks even p r o v i s i o n a l existence]. This i s what i s termed "banishing what i s clung t o . " It i s not as i f [ c l i n g i n g t o] the Dependent (paratantra) can be severed only a f t e r "one i s on'the Holy Path (aryamarga). This i s so, because one gradually enters R e a l i t y , penetrating the emptiness of the 'snake' and understanding the constituent nature of the rope. At the stage, where one r e a l i z e s the contemplation of R e a l i t y , the r e a l universal i s illuminated and the conventional p a r t i c u l a r s are evident. Once the u n i v e r s a l and the p a r t i c u l a r s have become evident, the notions of s e l f (atman) and. t r u l y e x i s t i n g dharmas cease. I t i s p r e c i s e l y t h i s that i s the essence of what was viewed i n the f i r s t contemplation. (259a27) 1.2 The Subjective Aspect of Vijnaptimatrata 1.2.1 The subjective aspect of Vijnaptimatrata takes as . _ . kQ i t s e s s e n t i a l substance wisdom (prajna), the mental c o e f f i c i e n t of the s p e c i a l or determinate (viniyata) class of dharmas. The s i x t h s c r o l l of the Mahayana-samgraha says: "For what reasons does the bodhisattva enter into Vijnaptimatrata? By means of a knowledge of calming (samatha) and i n s i g h t (vipasyana) t h a t . i s supermundane and that takes the synthetic dharmas as i t s -object'. . . " ^ Asvabhava explains the passage saying, " I t i s by a. concentrated knowledge^ 1 not subject to confusion (samahitaviparitajnana). . .." Some int e r p r e t t h i s saying that Vijnaptimatrata as applied to the contemplating subject has both the calming (samatha) and insight (vipasyana) [components of meditation!] as i t s nature (svabhava). This•- i s ' simply not. so... I f we include ' i t s ' associates , then the four mental aggregates (skandhas) are the substance. But i f we add i t s subsidiariesjjj^ , then a l l f i v e aggregates would be involved. The current opinion holds that, based on the name, the substance of the subjective aspect of Vijnaptimatrata i s wisdom only [ i . e . , insight (vipasyana)^ and not calming (samatha)3. Asvabhava says both that Vijnaptimatrata [ i s realized!! by means of the knowledge that i s i n t u i t i v e comprehension (abhisamaya), and also, that i t i s by means of the concentrated knowledge not subject 54 to confusion. He c i t e s only the knowledge that a r i s e s i n concen-t r a t i o n (samadhi) as the substance of the subjective aspect of Vijnaptimatrata because, when one produces the s p e c i a l view of Vijnaptimatrata accompanying the Four Examinations (paryesana), one ne c e s s a r i l y i s i n concentration (samadhi). He does not say that the subjective aspect of Vijnaptimatrata has calming (samatha) as i t s substance. The Mahayana-samgraha, moreover, says: . . . by means of the Four Examinations (pariyesana). . ., and the Four Exact Comprehensions (yathabhuta-parijnana), . . . and because everything i s thus nonexistent, one takes t h i s Thusness and t h i s Suchness [known tol a l l bodhisattvas as the c u l t i v a t i o n and t r a i n i n g by which one enters V i j n a p t i -matrata. With respect to the mental expressions (manojalpa), which appear as words (aksara) and •meanings (artha),, /when.one deductively examines these..word-names , Cone sees; that] they are only mental • expressions . . . In the Yogdadra-bhwni}the Abhidharma-samuccay<a, and other works, the Four Examinations and the Four Exact Comprehensions a l l have wisdom 56 (prajna) as t h e i r substance. The Four Examinations are e x c l u s i v e l y d e f i l e d (sasrava), while the Four Exact Comprehensions are both d e f i l e d and pure (sasravanasrava). When the. Mahayana-samgraha says that entering into the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of what i s to be known (jfieyalaksana) i s based on the b e n e f i c i a l perfuming influence of frequently hearing [the scriptures 1 (bahusruta-bhavita) and that this, i s not included (asamgrhita) i n the alaya-- 5 7 vijnana, the text r e f e r s only to the pure seeds which develop i n that stage of the Holy Path. They are what i s c a l l e d 'perfuming influence' (bhavana) [ i n the t e x t ] , and they are designated as distinct; from the alaya-vijnana. It i s not the case that a l l subjects performing the contemplations are e x c l u s i v e l y pure Canasrava). • Were that not so, the Four Examinations would not [ f a l l under the category ofII preliminary cognition (prayogika-jnana). (259bl6) 1.2.2 While the above pertains i n a general discussion [of the subjective aspect of Vijnaptimatrata, i t can be further analyzed]. In a more s p e c i f i c presentation, i t i s summarized under two d i v i s i o n s : f i r s t , the contemplating subject as cause \^ ; and second, the v*) 5 9 contemplating subject as e f f e c t 3£ . 94 As cause, i t applies to a l l . t h r e e v a r i e t i e s of •wisdom, and i s e x c l u s i v e l y d e f i l e d : therefore,. we take the wisdom produced through er u d i t i o n (srutamaya), the wisdom produced through r e f l e c t i o n (cintamaya), and the wisdom produced through s p i r i t u a l c u l t i v a t i o n (bhavanamaya as the substance of the contemplating subject. But, t h i s has only the nature of [what i s acquired through! acute discernment; i t i s not something that i s wholesome (kusala) by v i r t u e of one's b i r t h \%. 61 va . Therefore, the Mahayana-samgraha says, "By means of these mental expressions (manojalpa.) which appear as the texts and theses (dharmartha) and are produced of the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the Dharma of the Great Vehicle, [the bodhisattva enters! the land where one produces resolute b e l i e f (adhimukticaryabhumi), or the Path of V i s i o n (darsanamarga) or _ 62 1 the Path of Cultivation- (bhavanamarga). . ." And the Cheng-wei-shih-lun says of Vijnaptimatrata i n t h i s context: at the Stage of Provisioning 63 (sambharavastha) one gains profound resolute b e l i e f (adhimukti) through e r u d i t i o n and r e f l e c t i o n ; while, at the Stage of Training (prayogavastha.), one produces the Four Examinations, etc. and projects the v i s i o n of r e a l i t y * ^ [of the Path of V i s i o n (darsanamarga)!.^ [The contemplating subject, taken! as e f f e c t , i s e x c l u s i v e l y pure. In t h i s sense, we take the wisdom produced through s p i r i t u a l c u l t i v a t i o n , as the substance of the contemplator because i t takes both. the. correct cognition (samyag-jnana) and the subsequently acquired cognition (prsta-labdha-jnana) as i t s e s s e n t i a l substance. The Mahayana-samgraha and other works say that i t i s by thoroughly 95 comprehending the p r i n c i p l e of Thusness,, and then, by c o n t r o l l i n g a l l the obstructions, and f i n a l l y ! "by separating oneself completely from a l l the obstructions that one enters, r e s p e c t i v e l y , the Path of V i s i o n , the. Path:.,of C u l t i v a t i o n , and the'Path: of the Saints (asaiksa-marga); th u s . i s the sequence. R e a l i z i n g the VijnaptiC-matrataJ of the absolute, u n i v e r s a l i s . done only by the correct cognition (samyag-jnana],.and r e a l i z i n g the VijnaptiC-matrataH of the conventional p a r t i c u l a r s i s done only by the subsequently acquired cognition (prstha-lahdha-jnana).^ Such passages i n the scripture are numerous and t h e i r meaning i s c l e a r . It i s not necessary to c i t e any more as proof for these doctrines. (259b27) 1.3 Further Analysis 1.3.1 Contemplation, Concentration and R e a l i z a t i o n While the preceding [i.e.., §1.1 and §1.21 analyzed CV i j n a p t i -matratal, again into.a subjective and an objective aspect, that was s t i l l a discussion of its.most, general meaning. I f we speak of Vijnaptimatrata. i n the broadest sense, i t applies to both the subjective and objective aspects. I f , Chowever,! we speak of the 'contemplation of V i j n a p t i -matrata', t h i s involves only the subjective and not the objective aspect... It. applies to both-impure and pure (sasravanasrava) mental dharmas. .It.applies to both: dispersed (asamahita) and concentrated Csamahita) mental dharmas.^ 8 It takes as i t s e s s e n t i a l substance a l l of the three v a r i e t i e s , of wisdom that produced through e r u d i t i o n , through r e f l e c t i o n , and through, s p i r i t u a l c u l t i v a t i o n and also the three types of cognition the preliminary (prayogika), the fundamental (mula), and the subsequently acquired '(prstha-labdha).^ I f we speak of 'concentration (samadhi) on Vijnaptimatrata', i t applies to both the impure and pure mental dharmas, but only the concentrated and not the dispersed. It involves only the wisdom produced through s p i r i t u a l c u l t i v a t i o n 1 and not that of er u d i t i o n and r e f l e c t i o n . I t applies t o a l l three types of cognition. I f we. speak of ' t r u l y r e a l i z i n g Vijnaptimatrata', i t involves only pure dharmas and not the impure, only the concentrated and not the dispersed. I t involves only the correct cognition (samyag-jnana) and the subsequently acquired cognition, but not the preliminary cognition. In these l a s t two cases, what i s said, about the three v a r i e t i e s of wisdom i s E s t i l l at the l e v e l Seventh Land and below where they are each considered to have a d i s t i n c t substance %'\l^f^_ , andU not at the l e v e l of the. [ultimate] doctrine. Were i t not so, then the concentration of Vijnaptimatrata and the true r e a l i z a t i o n of V i j n a p t i -matrata spoken of above would also be.said to involve the wisdom produced through e r u d i t i o n and.through r e f l e c t i o n as i s stated i n the TO Dasabhimi-vydkhyana.^ . This, should be understood as explained below [ i n the "Essay on the Three V a r i e t i e s of Wisdom" X-lkt% H. 7 1 (259c6) 1.3.2 The Five Categories of Vijnaptimatrata Now., i n general, i f we c a r e f u l l y examine a l l the various notions of Vijnaptimatrata expounded i n the various teachings, we see 72 that there are r e a l l y no more than f i v e categories. F i r s t , there i s Vijnaptimatrata i n terms of the objective s e n s e - f i e l d ^LJ^^efi, . The Abhidharma Sutra says: Hungry ghosts (preta), beasts ( t i r y a k ) , men and gods Each, according to t h e i r respective c a p a c i t i e s , Have, d i f f e r e n t notions of the same thing';';' therefore 73 We accept that objects (artha) have no true existence. Texts such as t h i s , which teach only the objective realm contemplated by Vijnaptimatrata, a l l f a l l under the category of Vijnaptimatrata i n terms of the objective s e n s e - f i e l d . The second -category i s Vijnaptimatrata i n terms of doctrine T^Jt *ll J exemplified by such verses as, Because thought c l i n g s to i t s e l f . 75 The Vijnaptimatrata doctrines declared i n the Avatamsaka Sutra, the Sandhinirmocana Sutra, and other works a l l f a l l under the category of Vijnaptimatrata i n terms of doctrine. Third, i s Vijnaptimatrata i n terms of abstract universals s a s exemplified by the Trimsikd verse that says:. . A l l the developments.of vijnana are either That which, discriminates or that which, i s discriminated; By v i r t u e of t h i s , they do not e x i s t , and Therefore everything i s nothing but con-75 ceptualization;,(vi jnapti-matra). The p r i n c i p l e s that thus e s t a b l i s h Vijnaptimatrata a l l f a l l under the category of Vijnaptimatrata i n terms of abstract universals. Fourth, i s : Vijnaptimatrata i n terms of practice^^fjE fijr; i t i s exemplified by verses such as: The bodhisattva, i n the state of concentration -16 It i s also exemplified by the Four Types of Examination (paryesana) and by the Four Exact Comprehensions (yathabhuta-parijnana), etc. These a l l f a l l under the category of Vijnaptimatrata i n terms of p r a c t i c e . F i f t h , i s Vijnaptimatrata i n terms of i t s r e s u l t i n g f r u i t / : /f^ HK . The Buddhabhumi Sutra says, " I t i s i n the Great Mirror Cognition (mahadarsajnana) that a l l spheres (dhatu), sense-realms 77 (visaya) and perceptions (vijnana) appear." The Tathagatagundlamkara Sutra says The untainted mentation (vijnana) of the Tathagatas Is l i m p i d (visuddha); i t i s the pure (anasrava) realm, Liberated from a l l obstacles (avarana),and Associated with the Great Mirror Cognition. 78 The' Ch'eng-wei-shih-lim says Cof the f r u i t 3 : It i s the pure realm (dhatu), Inconceivable, good, immutable, and Blessed; i t i s that Body of L i b e r a t i o n , Named the Dharmatbody] of the Great Sage. 79 The acquired f r u i t s of Vijnaptimatrata, which are thus taught, a l l f a l l under the category of Vijnaptimatrata i n terms of i t s f r u i t . (259c2l) here, includes, without exception., a l l v a r i e t i e s of Vijnaptimatrata. Among the doctrines [found i n the s c r i p t u r e s ] , however, various and d i f f e r e n t things are taught, with regard to the l e v e l of meaning and according to what i s most opportune, under the f i r s t category of Vijnaptimatrata i n terms of the objective s e n s e - f i e l d . 1. Some scriptures discuss [the f i r s t category of] V i j n a p t i -matrata on the basis of what i s . c l u n g t o . The Lahkdvatdra states: 1.3.3 The Six D i v i s i o n s 80 The doctrine of Vijnaptimatrata. i n f i v e categories expounded Because thought c l i n g s to i t s e l f , Thought appears" as • the manifestation ' of external objects. Because these sense-objects (drsya) do not exist 8l They are nothing but thought. [This passage i l l u s t r a t e s the f i r s t alternative!] because i t shows that the objective s e n s e - f i e l d i s an unreal manifestation based only on [thought ] c l i n g i n g to thought. 2. Some scriptures elucidate [the f i r s t category] of V i j n a p t i -matrata on the basis of the impurity [of the s e n s e - f i e l d ] . The Avatamsaka Sutra states: "The three world-realms are nothing but 82 thought (cittamatra)." [This passage i l l u s t r a t e s the second a l t e r -native] because i t teaches Vijnaptimatrata with reference to the worldliness [of the s e n s e - f i e l d ] . 3. Some scriptures discuss [the f i r s t category o f] Vijnaptimatrata on the basis of what i s clung to and according to what exis t s c o n d i t i o n a l l y . A verse from the Trimsikd says: The notions of s e l f (atman) and t r u l y e x i s t i n g dharmas, which a r i s e i n p r o v i s i o n a l discourse Have a v a r i e t y of d i f f e r e n t permutations; A l l of which depend on developments of mentation / • . — x 83 (vijnanaJ. [This passage i l l u s t r a t e s the t h i r d a l t e r n a t i v e , ] because i t [teaches the Vijnaptimatrata of the sense-field] on the basis.of the production of c l i n g i n g both to the two, [ i . e . , s e l f and dharmas] and to the subjective and objective components (darsananimittabhaga), which ar i s e 101 84 from. the v e r i f y i n g component (sam.vittihha.ga) of mentation (vijnana), and also on the basis of the notions of s e l f and dharmas declared by mundane teachers and by the Holy S c r i p t u r e . ^ 4. Some scriptures discuss [the f i r s t category] of V i j n a p t i -matrata on the basis of sentient beings. The Vimdlaktrti-nirdesa says, "Through p u r i t y of thought, sentient beings are pure: through o Y the defilement (samklesa) of thought, sentient beings are d e f i l e d . " 5. Some scriptures discuss Cthe f i r s t category] of V i j n a p t i -matrata on the basis of a l l dharmas, both conditioned and unconditioned (samskrtasamskrta). TheSandhinirmocana declares that, " A l l objects (alambana) of mentation (vijnana) are nothing but manifestations of + .. ,,88 mentation. 6. Some scriptures discuss [the f i r s t category] of V i j n a p t i -matrata. according to how a thing [ i . e . , the supposed object] i s r e f e r r e d to. An Abhidharma Sutra verse says: Hungry ghosts (preta), beasts ( t i r y a k ) , man, and gods Each, according to t h e i r respective c a p a c i t i e s , 89 [Have d i f f e r e n t notions of the same t h i n g ] . . . [This verse i l l u s t r a t e s the s i x t h a l t e r n a t i v e ] because i t discusses Vijnaptimatrata i n terms of the fact that one thing i s r e f e r r e d to [ d i f f e r e n t l y by d i f f e r e n t beings]. Thus there are innumerable d o c t r i n a l categories and d i v i s i o n s . The s i x [ a l t e r n a t i v e ] d i v i s i o n s c i t e d above categorize and encompass a l l doctrines... It i s only the f i f t h of the above C l . 3 - 3 - 5 3 however, that completely exhausts the f u l l meaning of the p r i n c i p l e . This i s so, because i t states i n a general way that everything i s vijnapti-mat In some cases we r e s t r i c t the categories of Vijnaptimatrata 90 to three: s e n s e - f i e l d , p r a c t i c e , and f r u i t . These are analyzed more thoroughly i n [my) Commentary on the Heart Sutra. ^ 1 (260a9) 103 Section Two: C r i t i c a l Analysis of the Term 2.1 The Meaning of Vijnaptimatrata 2.1.1 Vigyiapti The Sanskrit vijnapti fft i s t r a n s l a t e d "by shih ; i n t h i s context shih means 'knowing d i s c u r s i v e l y ' or 'discriminating' 11192 That which has mentation (vijnana) as i t s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c [the eight vijnanasH, that which i s associated with mentation [the si x classes of mental c o e f f i c i e n t s ] , the developments of mentation [the subjective and objective p o r t i o n s ] , the modalities of mentation [the twenty-four citta-viprayukta-dharmas], and the real, nature•of mentation [ThusnessD, a l l these f i v e dharmas the absolute u n i v e r s a l 9k and the r e l a t i v e p a r t i c u l a r s are inseparable from vijnana and, ., . 95 therefore, are s a i d to be nothing but conceptualizatLcn(.vijnapti-matra). Were i t not so, Thusness would not be Vijnaptimatrata (Conceptualization only-ness). This i s not to say, on the other hand, that there i s only one single Thought and. nothing else whatsoever. Since i t encompasses everything else and goes back to Vijnana, everything i s c o l l e c t i v e l y defined by t h i s term ' v i j n a p t i ' . I f i t did not encompass and go back to R e a l i t y ,then i t would not be c a l l e d Thus^^j..^^ (260alU) 104 2.1.2 -matrata The Sanskrit -mdtratd j3p; «.Jl3. (var.00. ) ^ i s t r a n s l a t e d "by V>ei\zJ^. Maira has three meanings. 1. The f i r s t i s matra i n the sense of 'selecting out and holding t o ' , ^ a s when we re j e c t jSj^j^the Imaginary ( p a r i k a l p i t a ) self-hood of both beings and dharmas, while s e i z i n g on ^f^jj^the Dependent (paratantra) c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and the Absolute (parinispanna) aspect of vijnana. The Ch'eng-wei-shih-lun says that the expression '-matrata' i s meant to deny the notion of a s e l f or dharmas e x i s t i n g apart from vijnana, but not to deny thought and mental coefficient's Ccaitta), that do exist inseparable from vijnana."'" 0 0 (260al8) 2. The second meaning i s matra i n the sense of ' d e f i n i t e l y ' % L 101 102 or ' c e r t a i n l y ' Therefore [part of a verse i n ! an ol d t r a n s l a t i o n of the Madhyanta-vibhdga says: Within t h i s there d e f i n i t e l y i s emptiness, 103 In that there i s also t h i s . This-means that within conventional p a r t i c u l a r s there definitely i s the absolute universal ^^J^^ a n d within that absolute u n i v e r s a l , there definitely are conventional p a r t i c u l a r s . These two p a r t i c u l a r s and u n i v e r s a l are defined^^"^Cby'matra(ta)' 1 as f a l l i n g within what i s expressed by ' v i j n a p t i ' ; and t h i s demonstrates that the [ d u a l i t y ! of apprehenso'r and apprehended does not e x i s t . 1 0 ^ (260a2l) 105 3. The t h i r d meaning i s matra i n the sense of 'making c l e a r what i s superior' - ^ i s m e a n i n g i s i l l u s t r a t e d by the Sastra-master Gopa i n h i s Vimsatika commentary where he says, "When the text says Vijnaptimatrata, i t mentions only the sovereign i-J^^' According to reason (yukti)• however, t h i s includes [not just thought ( c i t t a ) , but! the mental constituents ( c a i t t a ) as w e l l , just as when we say, 'The king i s coming!.' we know that i t i s never without his retinue of ministers and attendants." 1 0'' These are the three d i f f e r e n t meanings. Currently, i n the context of Vijnaptimatrata,'matra' i s usually glossed with the f i r s t meaning, 'selecting out and holding t o ' . (260a24) 2.2 Discussion 2.2.1 Vijnapti-matra vs. Citta-matra [Why do the sastras say conceptuali-zation-only (vijnapti-matra), while the sutras say thought-only (citta-matra)?!''Conceptualization ( v i j n a p t i ) i s the same as thought ( c i t t a ) . Because thought 'accumulates' 1 0^ and gives r i s e to variegated pictures [ i . e . , the v i j n a p t i ! , the sutras take i t as the p r i n c i p a l f actor JL. and, on that 107 basis,state 'thought-only' (citta-matra). The sastras, however, take the discriminating '/J JJ'J a n d understanding ~^ j j^ [ a c t i v i t y of 108 the mind! as t h e i r b a s i s , and say that everything i s conceptualization only (vijnapti-matra). Some say that the doctrine of the sutras applies to both cause and resultant f r u i t ; and so the sutras, speaking comprehensively, 106 say citta-matra. Whereas, what i s taught by the sastras l i e s only i n the realm of cause, and so the sastras say only vijnapti-matra. V i j n a p t i ' s meaning of 'discerning and analyzing' pertains at the causal l e v e l , and the p r a c t i c a l u t i l i t y of ' v i j n a p t i ' i s powerful; therefore [the sastrasD teach that i t i s ' v i j n a p t i ' that i s 'matra'.. These two doctrines citta-matra and vijnapti-matra do not d i f f e r i n meaning. The Vimsatikd says, "Thought ( c i t t a ) , mind (manas), mentation (vijnana), and conceptualization ( v i j n a p t i ) are but differences of name." 1 0^ Vijnaptimatrata, understood as "the only-ness that i s of v i j n a p t i " , i s ' a karmadharaya compound"!"10 Others, in c l u d i n g the Lokayatas and Bhavaviveka, have established doctrines of 'objective-field-only-ness' (visaya-matrata). In order to d i s t i n g u i s h our doctrine from;theirs, we say 'the only-ness of v i j n a p t i ' . [The o b j e c t - f i e l d i s a development of vijnana, so] r e l y i n g thus on the p r i n c i p a l [ i . e . , what i s primary and not d e r i v a t i v e ] , we cannot go astray (260b2) 2.2.2 Vijnaptimatrata vs. Prajna In order to cause beings to r e l i n q u i s h conceptualization ( v i j n a p t i ) and t o . r e l y on wi,sdom. (prajna), the sastras teach the expression 'Vijnaptimatrata.' I f we speak of the subjective aspect, then wisdom i s dominant and conceptualization i s secondary. I f we take as our focus the o b j e c t i v e - f i e l d (visaya), then i t i s i n ever case inseparable from th o u g h t . ( c i t t a ) . Now.the sastras take the objective aspect [as t h e i r focus] and therefore c a l l t h e i r doctrine conceptualization-only-ness 107 (Vijnaptimatrata). Again: because [ v i j n a p t i ] i s not separate from, and r e l i e s on, the p r i n c i p a l [ i . e . , vijnana or c i t t a ] , the sastras c a l l t h e i r doctrine Vijnaptimatrata. aspect [rather than the o b j e c t i v e ] ; therefore one should r e l y on wisdom (prajna). Again, taking [what brings] b l i s s as t h e i r t o p i c , the sutras i n every case only c a l l t h e i r doctrine the [Perfection of] Wisdom; whereas, the sastras take [what i s to be] ..abhorred as dharmas ultimately go back to the., unconditioned [Absolute (parinispanna)], we say a l l dharmas are Thusness. When [from a d i f f e r e n t viewpoint] we take as our p r i n c i p a l doct;rine the fact that a l l dharmas go back to the conditioned [Dependent (paratantra)]., then we say a l l dharmas are con-ceptuaiization-only (vijnapti-matra). F i n a l l y , when we take as our p r i n c i p a l doctrine the f a c t that a l l dharmas go back to i n t u i t i v e discernment (pravicaya)^"^then we say that everything i s wisdom (prajna). This [concludes] what i s t i t l e d "Section Two: A C r i t i c a l Study of the term." (260bl0) Certainty (nis'citatva), [however] comes from the subjective s i g n i f i c a n t and expound both When we take as our p r i n c i p a l doctrine the fact that a l l Section Three: Explanation of the D i s t i n c t i o n and the Unity In the above t i t l e ' d i s t i n c t ' ^ m e a n s ''separate'^ , and 'united w i t h ' ^ * means 'the same as' . The t i t l e means that, since a l l the sutras and sastras have each stated various doctrines under d i f f e r e n t names, we s h a l l now explain them i n terms of t h e i r basic unity. These various doctrines are only d i s t i n c t i o n s i n the basic meaning of Vijnaptimatrata; there i s no s u b s t a n t i a l difference •"'among' .-. them. ( 2 6 0 b l 3 ) [The various doctrines discussed here are divided into f i v e main groups: those that have one term, those that have two terms, and 112 so on up to those that have f i v e terms.! 3.1 Doctrines Having One Term Of those doctrines having one term, there are thirty-one. 3.1.1 In the Avatamsaka 'Sutra and other works, that which denies that there are sense-fields (visaya) separate from vijnana 113 - —• i s c a l l e d Thought-only-ness (citta-matrata). In the Eadhayanta Vibti'agay, that which denies the ways of c l i n g i n g to the extremes Cof n i h i l i s m and eternalism! i s c a l l e d the Middle Way (madhyama pratipad). In the Prdgnqpdramita Sutras , that which elucidates the discerning (pravicaya) nature Cof wisdom! i s c a l l e d the Perfection 109 of Wisdom (prajna-paramita). In the Lotus Sutra that which elucidates ultimate conveyance 1 1^ i s c a l l e d the One Vehicle (ekayana). 1 1^ These four d o c t r i n a l terms Thought-only-ness, the Middle Way, the Perfection of Wisdom, and the One Vehicle apply to both the subjective and the objective aspect; they also apply to the con-templation of both the absolute (paramartha) and the conventional (samvrti) f i e l d s Cof knowledge]. However, Cof the three kinds of cognition within the subjective aspect,] the correct cognition (samyag-jnana) involves only the absolute, whereas the preliminary cognition (prayogika-jnana) and the subsequently acquired cognition (prstha-labdha-jnana) involve both the absolute and the c o n v e n t i o n a l . 1 1 ^ 117 But i f we speak of r e a l i z a t i o n , then the subsequently acquired cognition involves only the conventional realm. (260bl9) l l 8 There are, however, some that say of the COne Vehicle doctrine] in the Lotus Sutra that i t has as i t s basis (asraya) only the f r u i t i o n wisdom Cand i s thus beyond the causal l e v e l ] . The sutra, Cthey claim], says merely that three carts wait outside the door, Cnot that they are means of escaping the burning house]. Therefore, what are c a l l e d the means-, of e x i t from the house Ci.e., the e f f e c t i v e causes of l i b e r a t i o n ] are being c a r r i e d out i n the folds of Cthe father's] robe,climbing on the table Cto get out the window], or leaving through the door; the One Vehicle i s not named among these Cas a cause]. This view i s , indeed, contrary to reason ( y u k t i ) . The sravakas, the pratyeka-buddhas and the non-relapsing (avaivartika) bodhisattvas mount t h i s jewelled cart Ci.e., the One Vehicle] and 119 go d i r e c t l y to the Platform of the Path Ci.e., enlightenments. Therefore, the One Vehicle CfunctionsH at the l e v e l of cause Cand resultant f r u i t 1. Moreover,since the Six Dharmas taught i n the Srimdla-sutra'^" ' already have the Great Vehicle as t h e i r purport, i t must apply to the preliminary CcausalU stage as well Cas the f r u i t i o n . stageH. A f u l l exposition of t h i s i s provided below i n the "Essay on the Vehicles". (260b24),• 3.2.2 CContinuing the l i s t of the thirty-one doctrines having one term,] i n the Srimald-Sutra, that which denies a l l forms of -vain delusion (abhuta-parikalpa) i s c a l l e d the One Truth. Also, that which c l a r i f i e s the root or foundation of a l l dharmas, i s c a l l e d the One Base. Both the emptiness Cof the parikalpitaH by which one r e a l i z e s the Absolute and also the emptiness of that r e a l i z a t i o n i t s e l f are c a l l e d Emptiness. That which displays the d i f f e r e n t entanglements, which manifests a l l the Buddha v i r t u e s , and whence a l l Buddhas issue f o r t h i s c a l l e d the Tathagata-garbha. That which elucidates the e s s e n t i a l l y undefiled true dharma-nature i s c a l l e d the Mind that i s Pure by Nature; and that which i s the substance of the Buddha-virtues i s c a l l e d the Dharma-kaya. In the Vimaldkirti-nirdesa, that which denies that there are d i s t i n c t i o n s within the ultimate universal i s c a l l e d the Dharma-theme 122 of Ion-duality (advayadharma-mukhapravesa). In the Ta-hui-ching . that which demonstrates that dharmas neither a r i s e nor i\V •MA' cease i s also c a l l e d the doctrine of Non-production and Non-123 destruction. In the Mahdparinirvdna-sutra, that which shows the I l l cause of the Dharma-kaya i s frequently c a l l e d the Buddha-nature. In the Lahkdvatdra-sutra3 that which manifests what i s beyond verbal 124 - -expression i s c a l l e d the Inconceivable (acintya). In the Yogdedra-bhumi- and other t r e a t i s e s , that which cannot be established or f i x e d conceptually, 1 2'' i s c a l l e d the Indeterminate (avyavasthita) . 1 2 ^ In the Mahdydna-samgraha and other works, that which "manifests i t s 127 u n i v e r s a l i t y , c o n tinuity. . .," i s c a l l e d the Absolute (parinispanna). In Sthiramati's Commentary to the Abhidharma-samuccaya and other t r e a t i s e s , that which elucidates what i s not delusional and not - 128 inverted- - • i s c a l l e d Thusness '(tat-hata.). -These t h i r t e e n d o c t r i n a l terms [ i . e . , those of §3.1.23 are only universale• applying to the objective aspect and only to the f i e l d of absolute knowledge. (260c6) 3.1.3 For fear that the text w i l l become too p r o l i x , only a few of the one-term doctrines have been summarily c i t e d here. Indeed, there are many more. There i s the Dharma-realm (dharma-dhatu); Dharma-ness (dharmata), the q u a l i t y of not. being f a l s e and delusional (abhuta-129 130 parikalpatva), the q u a l i t y of being unaffected (avikaratva), the q u a l i t y of u n i v e r s a l same-ness (samata), the q u a l i t y of being free of r e - b i r t h , the fixed-ness of a l l dharmas, the dwelling Cof tathata3 i n a l l dharmas (dharmasthitita) the Dharma-station, the Pinnacle of ^ 131 R e a l i t y (bhutakoti), Space (akasa) , the Inexistence (nairatmya) Cof s e l f and dharmas3, the Absolute (paramartha), and the Realm of the Inconceivable (acintyadhatu); these fourteen doctrines are explained 132 more f u l l y i n the Greater C100:,000; Vermel Pra jrld-paramitd Sutra. 112 A l l the thirty-one l i s t e d above are single-term doctrines . (260c]Q ) 3.2 Doctrines Have Two Terms There are four doctrines with two terms. 3.2.1 In the Yogdedrabhunri, we f i n d that what i s conceptually 133 f i x e d and what i s not conceptually f i x e d d i f f e r i n that the former i s shallow and obvious- whereas the l a t t e r i s deep •' and abstruse; therefore they are c a l l e d the Determinate and the Indeterminate Truths (vyavasthitavyavasthitasatya) which are the same as the doctrines of the Four Holy Truths that are Fashioned (krta) and the Four Holy Truths that are Unfashioned (akrta) found i n the Srimdla . Sutra. And i n the Mahaparinirvdna Sutra there i s what i s c a l l e d the Two 136 Truths, absolute (paramartha) and conventional (samvrti). In the Hsien-yang-lun that which s p e c i f i e s and that which i s 137 s p e c i f i e d are c a l l e d the Two Dharmas, Name and Thing. These three binary doctrines [Determinate and Indeterminate, Two Truths, Name and ThingH apply to both the subjective and the objective aspect; they involve both the absolute and the conventional, and also a l l three kinds of cognition: the i n i t i a l Ci.e., prayogika-jnanaH, the middle Ci.e., mula- or samyag-jnanaH, and the subsequent 138 Ci.e., prstha-labdha-jnanall. (260cl5) 3.2.2 In the Mahdydna-samgraha and.other works, that which makes cl e a r the inexistence of what i s clung to i s c a l l e d the 139 Nonsubstantiality of Person and Dharmas (pudgaladharmanairatmya). This doctrine also applies to both the subjective and the objective 113 aspect. I t involves only the absolute, however, and not the conventional. It s t i l l applies to a l l three kinds of cognition: the i n i t i a l , the middle and the subsequent.(260cl7) 3.3 Doctrines Having Three Terms There are four doctrines that have three terms. 3.3.1 In the Sandhinirmocana Sutra and other works, the doctrine that makes cl e a r the categories and d i s t i n c t i o n s that apply to a l l the dharmas, determining what exists [paratantra and parinispanna] and what does not exist [ p a r i k a l p i t a ] , what are r e l a t i v e p a r t i c u l a r s [paratantra] and what i s the absolute u n i v e r s a l [ p a r i -nispanna], i s c a l l e d the doctrine of the Three Aspects of Own-being (trisvabhava). Also, the doctrine that makes clear how these three aspects are [to be understood as] free from any imaginary ( p a r i k a l p i t a ) r e a l i t y i s c a l l e d the Three-fold Absences Of Own-being ( t r i v i d h a • nihsvabhavata. )^° These two doctrines involve only the objective aspect, though they s t i l l apply to a l l three kinds of cognition and to both the absolute and the conventional f i e l d s . I f , however, one speaks of the contemplation of these two doctrines [trisvabhava and trividha. : nihsvabhavata "],then i t i s only the subjective aspect that i s i n -volved and not the objective aspect. It s t i l l applies to a l l three kinds of cognition and to both the absolute and the conventional.(260c21) 3-3.2 In the Yogacara-bhumi and other works the doctrine that elucidates the s k i l l f u l means for parting one's bonds i s c a l l e d the 114 doctrine of the Three Entrances to L i b e r a t i o n (vimoksamukha). 1^ 1 Also, the doctrine that expounds the v e r i f i c a t i o n of the abstruse universal i s c a l l e d the doctrine of the Three Kinds of Non-arising 142 Dharma Patience (anutpattikadharmaksanti). These two doctrines involve only the subjective aspect and not the objective aspect. They involve only the fundamental cognition [ i . e . , the correct cognition or samyag-jnanaH and the subsequently acquired cognition. They apply to both the absolute and the conventional.(260c23) 3.k Doctrines Having Four Terms Of doctrines with four terms, there are four. 3.4.1 In the Bodhisattva-bhumi3that which c l a r i f i e s the summation of doctrine i s c a l l e d the FourUdanas, v i z . , 1.) A l l con-structions (samskara) are non-enduring; 2.) A l l impurity i s s u f f e r i n g (duhkha)^ 3.) A l l dharmas are without self-hood [ i . e . , u l t i m a t e l y nonexistent]; k.) Nirvana i s quiescent ( s a n t a ) . 1 ^ 3 In the Treatise on the Perfection of Wisdom (Ta-chih-tu-lun)3 / v . jjt §V8) .> that which makes clear the d i s t i n c t i o n [between d i f f e r e n t points of view] i s c a l l e d the doctrine of the Four Siddhantas*, v i z . , 1.) the mundane point of view (laukika siddhanta); 2.) the absolute point of view (paramarthika siddhanta); 3.) the therapeutic point of view ( p r a t i -paksika siddhanta); and 4.) the i n d i v i d u a l point of view ( p r a t i -paurusika siddhanta) The preceding two doctrines apply to both the subjective aspect and the objective aspect, to both the absolute and the conventional, and to a l l three kinds of cognition.(260c29) 3.k.2 In a l l the sastras, the means by which one i n i t i a l l y contemplates what i s coarse are c a l l e d the Four Examinations (paryesana) . 1 ^ T h e y involve only the subjective aspect and not .'the objective aspect, only the preliminary cognition and not the middle or subsequent cognitions. They apply to both the absolute and the" conventional. ( 2 6 l a 2 ) 3.4.3 Also i n a l l the sastras, the means by which one sub-sequently contemplates what i s subtle are c a l l e d the Four Exact Comprehensions ( y a t h a b h u t h a - p a r i j n a n a ) T h e y also involve only the subjective aspect and not the objective aspect. They apply to a l l three kinds of cognition Chowever 1, Tand/fall.,within' -both the absolute and the conventional. ( 2 6 l a 4 ) 3.5 Doctrines Having Five Terms Of doctrines with f i v e terms, there i s one. In the Sutra of the Benevolent Ring, the doctrine by which the stages Cof the bodhisattva pathH can be distinguished and c e r t i f i e d i s c a l l e d the doctrine of the Five Degrees of Patience. F i r s t i s the Subduing Patience, because i t i s the c e r t i f i c a t i o n that the passions have been i n i t i a l l y subdued Cin the preliminary practice!) before the Ten Lands (bhumi). Second i s the Patience of F a i t h , which i s established i n the F i r s t , Second and Third Lands as one a t t a i n s an unshakeable f a i t h because a l l mundane categories are taken together as the same. Th i r d i s the Patience.of Following, which i s attained i n the Fourth, F i f t h 116 and Sixth Lands,because one follows the supr.amundane p r a c t i c e s . Fourth i s the Non-arising Dharma Patience, which i s attained i n the Seventh, Eighth and Ninth Lands, because one constantly and spontaneously views the p r i n c i p l e that a l l dharmas are sign-less (animitta). F i f t h i s the Patience of Quiescence, which i s attained i n the Tenth Land,, the Buddha-land, and the Cause and F r u i t i o n Stage, because one becomes 147 completely and f u l l y quiescent. These f i v e involve only the subjective aspect and not the objective aspect. The F i r s t Degree of Patience involves only the preliminary cognition, while the l a t t e r four degrees should apply 148 to the remaining two kinds of cognition. A l l Five Degrees of Patience apply to both.the absolute and the conventional. (26lall) 3.6 Doctrines Having Six and More Terms There are other doctrines c a l l e d the Six Clear Comprehensions (abhisamayantika)j 1^^ the Seven Components of Enlightment (bodhyanga) 1^ 0 the E i g h t - f o l d Holy Path (astangamarga^^the Nine V a r i e t i e s of 152 Calming (samatha), the Ten Dharmas of Those who have Nothing More 153 to Learn (asaiksadharma). the Four States of Mindfulness (smrtyupasthana),^^^the Four Right E f f o r t s (samyak-prahana) 156 the Four Elements of Supernatural Power (rddhipada), the Five F a c u l t i e s (indriya) the Five Powers (bala) j ^ ^ e t c . These doctrines Care common to a l l the three vehicles andU are not within the proper Ci.e., exclusive!! contemplation of the bodhisattvas. Therefore, they are not discussed separately h e r e . 1 ^ (26lal4) 3.1 Conclusion Thus, although a l l of these doctrines are taught under d i f f e r e n t names, they are a l l [merely! s p e c i f i c names for the knowledge of the realm of "Vijnaptimatrata [expounded! here. (26lal5 Section Four: Which Mode of Mentation Performs the Contemplation? 4.1 According to Other Buddhist Schools The Mahasamgikas and o t h e r s ^ ^ d e c l a r e that the s i x sensory-perceptions ( v i j n a n a ^ ^ a r e d e f i l e d (rakta) and that a l l of them can become p u r i f i e d ( v i r a k t a ) . The V a t s i p u t r i a s and o t h e r s ^ ^ d e c l a r e that the f i r s t f i v e sensory vijnanas are neither d e f i l e d nor p u r i f i e d , 163 whereas the s i x t h can be both. The Sarvastivadins and others say that a l l s i x vijnanas are d e f i l e d , but only the s i x t h can be p u r i f i e d , Within the Mahayana, some of the former teachers said that i t i s the seventh vijnana Ci.e., manasH that i s p u r i f i e d on the Path of C u l t i v a t i o n (bhavana-marga), while others s a i d that i t i s the eighth 164 Ci.e., alayaH that i s p u r i f i e d on the Path of C u l t i v a t i o n . A l l of these are incorrect doctrines and cannot be r e l i e d upon. (26la20) 4.2 The Correct View 4.2.1 The Subjective Aspect. I f we speak of mentation '.(vijnana) i n i t s subjective aspect, , 45-then, at the causal l e v e l , i t can only be the s i x t h vijnana._ This i s so because the f i r s t s c r o l l of the logdcdrdbhwni says that the only t h i n g capable of e f f e c t i n g separation from greed ( r a g a ) 1 ^ i s 164 the unique action of the s i x t h vijnana, mano-vijnana. It applies to both the absolute and the conventional, as well as to a l l three kinds of cognition. CAgain, t h i s can be true only of the s i x t h vijiianall because the other seven vijffanas are incapable of ' activating;..generalized objects (.samastalambana), of contemplating uni v e r s a l truth.;."and, thus-, of entering - into a R e a l i t y . The Yogdadrabhumi, moreover, says that t h i s i s so because only the s i x t h vijnana discerns and r e f l e c t s on objects ( a l a m b a n a ) T o the extent 169 that the seventh vijnana i s drawn out by the s i x t h vijnana, i t too may be taken to function i n the subjective aspect, applying, Cin that case] to the middle and the subsequent of the three kinds of cognition Ci.e., samyag-jnana and prsta-labdha-jnana3. The f r u i t i o n l e v e l , i . e . , Buddhahood, applies to a l l vijnanas and i s capable of the contemplation of Vijnaptimatrata. Three bf the Four Cognitions Cviz>. , the Great Mirror Cognition (mahadarsa-jnana) -the cognition of Universal Sameness (samata-jnana), and the Cognition of Profound Contemplation (pratyaveksana-jnana)1 apply to both parts of the two d i v i s i o n s : absolute and conventional, u n i v e r s a l and p a r t i c u l a r s . The Cognition of Action Ci.e., the Cognition that Performs What i s to be Done (krtyanusthana-jnana)1 does not involve the absolute; i t contemplates only the conventional vijnana. This explanation i s based on the sastras. On the bases of reason ( y u k t i ) , however, some CsayD the Cognition of Action also involves the absolute. That which i s only the perception (vijnana) of Thusness i s d e f i n i t e l y not the subjective aspect. (26la27) 4.2.2 The Objective Aspect I f we speak of the objective aspect, then a l l eight vijnanas apply at both the causal and the f r u i t i o n l e v e l . The perception of Thusness i s also thus, Ci.e., under the objective aspect]. (_26la28) 120 ' Section Five: C l a r i f y i n g what Distinguishes the Classes mm 5.1 The Absolute Aspect of Mentation The f i r s t of these classes i s mentation (vijnana) i n i t s absolute (paramartha) aspect. 5.1.1 As Contemplated by the F i r s t and Third Cognition I f i t i s a contemplation of the preliminary cognition (prayogika-jnana) or the subsequently acquired cognition (prstha-jnana), then i t i s the common or complex c h a r a c t e r i s t i c (samanya-laksana) of things [that are contemplated], rather than the d i s t i n c t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c (prabheda-170 laksana). This i s so, because a l l the dharmas are taken together as 171 a general object (samastalambana). (26lbl) 5.1.2 As Contemplated by the Second Gognition I f i t i s contemplated with the fundamental cognition (mula-jnana-samyag-jnana.), then i t i s the d i s t i n c t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c [that i s contemplated], rather than the common c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . This i s so, because, i n t h i s case, a l l the dharmas are known d i s t i n c t l y . 1. However, even though the substance [ i . e . , the own-being (sva-bhava)] of a thing i s not a common c h a r a c t e r i s t i c , a l l myriad dharmas are,.nonetheless, inseparable from these [ i . e . , from the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s they have in.common with other dharmas]. According to reason, then, the above are the same, and not two [ d i f f e r e n t 121 cases!. Therefore one should s t i l l , [even with reference to funda-mental cognition!, say i t i s the common c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s [that are contemplated]. The sutras and sastras say that the act of mind focused on the common c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s (samanyalaksana-mamasikara?) i s able to 172 sever doubts: we can explain t h i s assertion on the basis of the above d o c t r i n a l p r i n c i p l e [that a l l dharmas are inseparable form t h e i r common c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ] and also on the basis of preliminary cognition 2. However, i n the case of a l l dharmas, each has i n d i v i d u a l l y i t s own univer s a l and t h i s i s r e a l i z e d separately within each. One should not say that t h i s i s a common c h a r a c t e r i s t i c . (26lb6) 5.2 The Dependent Aspect of Mentation [The next of these classes i s ] mentation (vijnana) i n i t s 173 Dependent (paratantra) aspect [when seen] as i l l u s o r y . 5.2.1 The Eight Modes of Mentation. 1. Some say that the substance [of a l l experience], whether at the causal or the f r u i t i o n l e v e l , i s the same single vijnana, one substance whose functions are numerous. This i s the doctrine of 17 k the bodhisattvas of one category. 2. Others state that the substance, whether at the causal or the f r u i t i o n l e v e l , i s dual. The section on the "Land Endowed with Thought" ( s a c i t t i k a bhumi) i n the "Viniscaya-samgrahani" of the Yogdad^abhumi states that t h i s r e f e r s to the fundamental mode of — 175 mentation (mula-vijnana) and the developed modes ( p r a v r t t i - v i j n a n a ) . 3. In some cases, the causal l e v e l alone i s declared to have three parts. The Madhyanta-vighdga says, "Vijnana transforms i t s e l f into what appear as external objects (artha) and beings (sattva), 176 as a s e l f (atman) and as representations ( v i j n a p t i ~f ). . . ." The Trirns'ikd says, "[The three] vijnanas are f r u i t i o n , c o g i t a t i o n , 177 and the discrimination of. the sense, f i e l d s . " The most frequently experienced aspect of the eighth vijnana. i s the f r u i t i o n nature [ i . e . 178 karmic r e t r i b u t i o n , e s p e c i a l l y continual r e b i r t h ] ; that i s why the t r e a t i s e s (sastra) emphasize i t rather than the other aspects. When the eighth vijnana i s considered under the name adana-vijfiana (that which retains the seed p o t e n t i a l i t i e s and the manifestations), then according to reason ( y u k t i ) , i t applies at the f r u i t i o n l e v e l as well h. In some cases, the causal stage and the f r u i t i o n stage together are declared to have three parts, v i s . , thought [ c i t t a as the eighth vijnana], mind [manas as the seventh vijf i a n a ] , and 179 perception [vijnana as s p e c i f i c a l l y the s i x sensory vijnanas]. 5. In some cases, the f r u i t alone i s declared to be four, as i n the Buddhabhumi Sutra and other works, which teach the t o p i c l80 of the Four Cognitions. 6. In some cases, cause :and f r u i t together are declared to be s i x , as i n the Srimald Sutra where s i x vijnanas are taught. 7- In some cases, cause and f r u i t together are declared to be seven, as i n the doctrines that teach the Seven Thought Realms x 182 (dhatuj. 8. In some cases, cause and f r u i t are declared to be eight, 183 v i s . , the Eight Modes of Mentation (vijnana).' 9. In some cases, cause and f r u i t taken together are declared to he nine. The ninth Ci.e., "Sagatham"] chapter of the Lahkdvatara Sutra says: A l l the modes of mentation, eight or nine, Are l i k e the waves formed + 184 m water. I f , according to the Wu-hsiang-lun ^B'ft^"'"^ and the T'ung-hsing-ahing }g| *|^)l.^vjjj t > ^ ^ o n e takes Thusness (tathata) as the ninth Cvijnanal,-. i t i s because the absolute and the conventional l87 Caspect of the eighth] are being discussed side by side. Now we, Con the other hand], take the p u r i f i e d state of the eighth or base vijnana to be Cwhat others c a l l ] the ninth, because the d e f i l e d and the pure states of the base vijnana, Cthe eighth,] are discussed separately Cwithout being considered two d i f f e r e n t modes, an eighth and a n i n t h ] . The Tathdgata-gimdlamkara Sutra says: The unstained, vijnana of .the Tathagata Is the pure, undefiled (anasrava) realm; Resolving a l l obstruction, l88 It i s connected with the Great Mirror Cognition. In t h i s t e x t , i t says that the unstained (vimala or amala) vijnana goes together with the Great Mirror Cognition, and because the ninth vijnana i s further c a l l e d the amala-vijnana; therefore, one should know that the d e f i l e d and pure aspect of the eighth vijnana are being 124 discussed separately, and that i t i s t h i s l a t t e r that i s taken to he a ninth vijnana. 10. In some cases, the cause i s [considered] eight and the f r u i t , three Cof the eight] vijnanas, as i n the Buddhxbhumi and other works, which say i t i s so because the f i r s t f i f t e e n realms 189 (dhatu) are e x c l u s i v e l y impure (sasrava). 11. In some cases, the cause i s [considered] eight and the f r u i t , seven [of the eight] vijnanas. The sastra-master Sthiramati says t h i s i s so because mind ( i . e . , manas, the seventh vijnana] i s 1Q0 e x c l u s i v e l y d e f i l e d . 12. [ F i n a l l y , ] i t i s said i n some cases that a l l eight vijnanas are present i n both the cause and the f r u i t . Such was taught to be the correct doctrine by. Dharmapala and others ?~^{26lb6) 5.2.2 The Components of Perception [Next are the d i s t i n c t i o n s regarding the number of components (bhaga)] within mentation i n i t s Dependent (paratantra) aspect. Some declare that there i s only one, the s e l f - v e r i f y i n g component (sam v i t t i -bhaga). This i s . the view of the master Sthiramati. Some declare that there are only two, the subjective component (darsana-bhaga) and the objective component (nimitta-bhaga). This i s the view of the master 192 Nanda. Some say there are only three, the s e l f - v e r i f y i n g component, the subjective component, and the objective component. This i s the view of the master Dignaga. [ F i n a l l y , ] some say that there are four components., adding to the above three, the. v e r i f i e r of the s e l f -v e r i f y i n g component (samvitti-svasamvitti-bhaga). This i s the view of the master Dharmapala. (26lb29) 5.2.3 The Eight Modes are Neither the Same nor D i f f e r e n t . A l l such d i s t i n c t i o n s among the vijnanas pertain only when they are discussed from one p a r t i c u l a r viewpoint. CA more comprehensive understanding i s ] based on the passage i n the Ch'eng-wei-shih-lun where i t states that the eight vijnanas, with respect to t h e i r own-being, cannot be said to be d e f i n i t e l y d i f f e r e n t from each other. This i s so,.because they have the nature of being both cause and f r u i t , because t h e i r nature i s not. f i x e d , and because they are l i k e the waves i n water. Nor, on the other hand, are they d e f i n i t e l y the same. This i s so, because t h e i r aspects (akara), t h e i r bases (asraya), t h e i r objects (alambana) and t h e i r associated Cmental c o e f f i c i e n t s ] 193 (viprayukta) are d i f f e r e n t , because t h e i r a r i s i n g and ex t i n c t i o n are d i f f e r e n t , and because t h e i r r o l e s i n the perfuming process (vasana)^"^are d i f f e r e n t 1 ^ The Lankavatara Sutra says: There are eight modes: c i t t a , manas, and Cthe s i x ] vijnanas. Conventionally, t h e i r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s (laksana) are distinguished, But absolutely, t h e i r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s are not distinguished, For, Cat that l e v e l ] there i s neither that which characterizes nor that which i s characterized. , (26lc5) 5 .3 Conclusion A l l such d i s t i n c t i o n s among classes of vijnana are c a l l e d con-ceptualization-only (vijnapti-matra). With respect to t h i s i l l u s o r y mentation ,when contemplated with the preliminary cognition, only the common c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s (samanya-laksana) Cof things] are cognized, not the i n d i v i d u a l : c h a r a c t e r i s t i c (sva-laksana); when contemplated with the subsequently acquired cognition however, the contemplation of t h e i r i n .dividual ; c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i s included as w e l l . This i s so, because, [by means of the subsequently acquired cognition] each r e l a t i v e e n t i t y of the Dependent (paratantra) aspect i s i n d i v i d u a l l y v e r i f i e d . 1 ^ ( 2 6 l c 8 ) Section Six: The Stages i n C u l t i v a t i n g R e a l i z a t i o n 198 C l a r i f i c a t i o n of the Stages 6.1.1 D i f f e r e n t Accounts in'the'Scriptures 1. The Mahayana-Samgraha declares: At what points i s the bodtiisattva able to enter Cinto the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of what i s to be known (Jfieyalaksana)]? It i s said t h a t , with regard to these mental expressions (manojalpa) endowed with v i s i o n the expressions that take the appearance of the Dharma and i t s meanings and that are born of the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the Mahayana Dharma the bo.dhisattva i s eit h e r i n the Land where One Practices Firm Resolve (adhimukticaryabhumi), or on the Path of V i s i o n (darsana-marga), or on the Path of C u l t i v a t i o n (bhavana-marga), or on the Ultimate Path (nistha-marga).Clf he i s i n the Land where One Practices Firm Resolve,] i t i s because, with regard to the fact that a l l dharmas are merely conceptualization (Vijnaptima-t r a t a ) , he becomes f i r m l y resolved based on what he has heard. C l f he i s on the Path of V i s i o n , ] i t i s because he succeeds i n exactly (yathabhutam) penetrating Cthe Doctrine]. C l f he i s on the Path of C u l t i v a t i o n , ] i t i s because he brings a l l the obstacles under c o n t r o l . CAnd, i f he i s on the Ultimate Path,] i t i s because he becomes completely 194 separated from a l l the obstacles. Asavabhava says i n his commentary Con t h i s passage]: Some reside i n the Land where One Practices Firm Resolve because, i n the midst of the fact that a l l dharmas are conceptualization only', they produce a fi r m resolve basing themselves only on Ethe teachings] they have heard. Others are • on the Path of V i s i o n because they succeed i n exactly penetrating these mental expressions . . . .Others are on the Path of C u l t i v a t i o n because t h i s c u l t i v a t i o n counteracts and controls the obstacle to what i s to be known (Jneya-varana). And some are on the Ultimate Path, because they are extremely pure and completely separated from the o b s t a c l e s . 2 0 0 ( 2 6 l c l 7 ) . The Ch'eng-wei-shih-lun says: How does one gradually enter (praskandati) Vijnaptimatrata? A l l bodhisattvas, with regard to the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and nature of V i j n a p t i -_ 201 C-matrataH become capable of a profound - 20 (gambhira) b e l i e f and understanding (adhimukti) at the Stage of Provisioning (sambharavastha) 1. At the Stage of Preliminary Training (prayoga-vastha), they are able gradually to subdue and eliminate both what i s apprehended (grahaka) and what apprehends (grahya), and to produce (abhinirharanti) the View of R e a l i t y (tattvadar-sana). At the Stage of Penetration (prativedha-vastha) they exactly penetrate or comprehend. At the Stage of C u l t i v a t i o n (bhavanavastha), they repeatedly c u l t i v a t e [ t h e i r r e a l i z a t i o n ] i n accord with the v i s i o n [of the previous stage], subduing and severing ...the remaining obstacles. A r r i v i n g at the Ultimate Stage (nisthavastha), they escape a l l obstacles, becoming complete and l u c i d , able f o r the rest of the time to convert the various classes of beings, causing them also to enter the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and nature of 203 Vijnaptimatrata. (26lc23) 3. The f i f t y - n i n t h s c r o l l Cof the logdodvabhumil says: How i s one able to sever the a f f l i c t i o n s (klesa)? What i s necessary (kiyata) for i t to be suitable to say that the a f f l i c t i o n s have been severed? . . . Because the bodhisattva has accumulated the p r o v i s i o n of wholesome dharmas Cat the Stage of Provisioning!], because he has attained a r e a l i z a t i o n of the Land of S k i l l f u l Means Cat the Stage of Preliminary T r a i n i n g ] j because he has a f u l l r e a l i z a t i o n of the Land of V i s i o n Cat the Stage of Penetration], and because he has assembled the Land of C u l t i v a t i o n Cat the Stage of C u l t i v a t i o n ] , he i s able to sever the a f f l i c t i o n s and a t t a i n the Ultimate Land. I t i s then that one should say that the bodhisattva has 204 severed a l l of the a f f l i c t i o n s . This i s just the same as i n the Ch' eng-wei-shih-tun. (26lc27) 6.1.2 ' "Explanation of the Differences. 'The doctrine of four stages i n the Mahayana-samgraha holds that the Provisioning Stage (sambharavasta) of hearing (sruta) and thinking (cinta) Cabout the Dharma] i s quite long: only a f t e r completing a great eon(mahakalpa) of c u l t i v a t i o n does one undertake Cthe a c t i v i t i e s ] of the Stage of I n i t i a l Training (prayogavastha) and 205 then, i n the stage of, concentration, produce the contemplation of Vijnaptimatrata. Emphasizing i n i t s discussion what predominates Lin t h i s period leading up to the Stage of V i s i o n , viz :. , the hearing and thinking about the Dharma], the Mahccydna-samgraha teaches only-four stages. Because [262a] the actual time spent i n contemplation Cat the Stage of Training] i s r e l a t i v e l y short, that stage i s sub-sumed [under the f i r s t ] and. i s not taught separately. The doctrine of f i v e stages taught i n the Ch'eng-wei-shih-lun and other works i s a discussion based on R e a l i t y ( t a t t v a ) ; i t f u l l y distinguishes a l l the aspects (akara) of s p i r i t u a l c u l t i v a t i o n (bhavana). In the stage preceding the Path of V i s i o n (darsana-marga) there i s , indeed,some .subduing and elimination of the a f f l i c t i o n s . 2 0 ^ * The Mahayana-samgraha,the Ch'eng-wei-shih-lun and other works each say that, because of the contemplation involved i n the examinations performed i n [the Four Steps Conducive to I n t e l l e c t u a l Penetration — 207 (nirvedha-bhagiyas), v i s . , ] heat (usmagata), etc., there i s some subd.uing and elimination of the a f f l i c t i o n s . Those who hasten d i r e c t l y [to Buddhahood following the bodhisattva path] and those who go the long way round [converting only l a t e r to the bodhisattva path a f t e r progressing on the sravaka or pratyeka buddha path] are the same i n the stages p r i o r to the Ten 208 Lands. Those who go the long way round, even though they are becoming pure (anasrava) and are i n the kind of discursive con-209 templation, are,nonetheless, unable to subdue and eliminate the a f f l i c t i o n s . This i s so, because, not ever having r e a l i z e d r e a l mentation, they are never able to discern the mentation that i s l i k e an i l l u s i o n . (262a6) 131 6.2 Types of C u l t i v a t i o n The preceding paragraphs c l a r i f i e d the stages; the following w i l l d i s t i n g u i s h the types of s p i r i t u a l c u l t i v a t i o n (bhavana). Three types of c u l t i v a t i o n are distinguished: the c u l t i v a t i o n of r e a l i z a t i o n , the c u l t i v a t i o n of the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s (laksana?), and the c u l t i v a t i o n of the stations of existence (bhumi). 6.2.1 C u l t i v a t i o n of R e a l i z a t i o n . At the stages p r i o r to the Path .'of V i s i o n (darsana-marga), although one produces the contemplation of the Vijnaptimatrata of both the absolute and the conventional, i t i s only apparent and not r e a l . On entering the Path of Vision, [the bodhisattvasH of both the Path of V i s i o n into R e a l i t y and the Path of V i s i o n into the 210 C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s [of Vijnaptimatratan discern r e a l mentation; and i t i s just then that the subsequently acquired cognition of the conventional discerns conventional mentation. The the Fourth Land 211 and before, the absolute and the conventional are only just united. However, as i t i s done only with much e f f o r t (abhoga), the u n i f i c a t i o n can be e f f e c t e d only s l i g h t l y i n the beginning. A r r i v i n g at the Sixth 212 Stage, the state of being free of notions (nirnimitta) about things occurs frequently, but one i s not yet able to sustain i t for a long time. Only then i n the Seventh. Land does one succeed i n sustaining i t f o r a long time.' It i s , however,still s i m i l a r to preliminary t r a i n i n g [ i n that i t s t i l l requires e f f o r t ] , and so i t too i s not yet spontaneous. In the Eighth Land and above, one's c u l t i v a t i o n becomes e f f o r t l e s s , while spontaneously, and i n the midst of emptiness, one gives r i s e to the supreme p r a c t i c e . Both the absolute and the 132 conventional'mentation permanently take a u n i f i e d object (alambana). 213 Having a r r i v e d at the Land of the Buddhas, three of the Four Cognitions Cviz., the Great Mirror Cognition (mahadarsa-.jna.na), the Cognition of Universal Sameness (samatajnana), and the Cognition of Profound Contemplation (pratyaveksana-jnana)1 are able to take 214 absolute and conventional mentation as t h e i r object. The s i x t h i s unspecified, because i t follows the mind's i n c l i n a t i o n (adhyasaya). The Cognition that Completes Things Ci.e., the Cognition that Completes what i s to be Done (krtyanusthaha-jnana)D takes only the conventional as i t s object, because i t s aspects 215 (akara) and objects (alambana) are shallow, though there are others who say that i t also includes the absolute, because i t s sovereignty (vasitva) i s complete. (262al6) 6.2.2 C u l t i v a t i o n of the C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s What i s termed ' c u l t i v a t i o n of the contemplation of V i j n a p t i -matrata'? This r e f e r s to the process by which the seeds (bija) and the Manifestations (samudacara) of the impure (sasrava) and the pure (anasrava) contemplating mind are brought to develop, f l o u r i s h , grow and mature. In the f i r s t stage of c u l t i v a t i o n , following the Dharma that has been heard, the c o g i t a t i o n that engenders the sense-fields causes t h i s contemplating mind to ripen i n i t s refinement and become s o v e r e i g n . 2 1 ^ Later, when one subdues t h e . c l i n g i n g to what i s apprehended (grahya) and what apprehends (grahaka), the contemplating mind develops to become cl e a r and superior, while the images making 217 up the sense-fields gradually become more subtle. When the mind 2l8 and the sense-fields suddenly become profound, the contemplation develops to become pure ( a n a s r a v a ) C o n t i n u i n g to development i n 2: the same way, i t proceeds from the lower degree to the middle degree. Developing further from the middle degree to the highest degree, i t 221 reaches the ultimate completion and f u l f i l l m e n t . This i s what i s 222 termed c u l t i v a t i o n . 223 The f i r s t two stages involve the three v a r i e t i e s of wisdom i n t h e i r impure (sasrava) form and the c u l t i v a t i o n of both the manifestations (sumudacara) and the seeds ( b i j a ) ; t h i s i s so, because the e f f i c a c y of the p u r i t y acquired from c u l t i v a t i n g the seeds accrues only gradually. At the Stage of Penetration (prativedhavastha) Ci.e., the Path of V i s i o n ] , there i s only the wisdom produced through •. . c u l t i v a t i o n . It becomes r e f i n e d and pure. There i s c u l t i v a t i o n of~ both the manifestations and the seeds, but the c u l t i v a t i o n of seeds remains impure. At the Stage of C u l t i v a t i o n : i f i n the Seventh Land or before, one i s equipped with a l l three v a r i e t i e s of wisdom, both impure and pure, and one undertakes the c u l t i v a t i o n of both the manifestations and the seeds. From the Eighth Land onwards, one has the three v a r i e t i e s of wisdom i n t h e i r pure form and undertakes the c u l t i v a t i o n of both the manifestations and the seeds, with the l a t t e r again remaining impure. At the Ultimate Stage, the impure dharmas are completely abandoned. Since the pure dharmas have come to completion, there i s no further c u l t i v a t i o n . One i s , however, s t i l l equipped with manifestations and seeds and with the pure contemplation of the dual theme of the absolute and the conventional. (262a29) 6.2.3 C u l t i v a t i o n of the Stations of Existence There i s the c u l t i v a t i o n of a c q u i s i t i o n (pratilambha-bhavana) and the c u l t i v a t i o n of p r a c t i c e (nisevana-bhavana.) .The ninth, s c r o l l of Sthiramati's Commentary on the Abhidharma-samuecaya says: 225 Moreover, when born to one of these paths, one i s able to determine one's habit energy Ci.e., the perfuming e f f e c t one's current actions have on the production of wholesome dharmas i n the fu t u r e ] . This i s c a l l e d ' c u l t i v a t i o n of the a c q u i s i t i o n Cof future wholesome dharmas]', because, on the basis of t h i s , a l l the classes of se.ed-potentialities develop,increase and l i n k together, eventually to be produced. Moreover, the c u l t i v a t i o n or practi c e that actualizes these paths i s what i s c a l l e d "the c u l t i v a t i o n of p r a c t i c e " , because i t i s by v i r t u e of t h i s that the 226 a c t u a l i z a t i o n of these paths i s effected. " P r a c t i c e " r e f e r s to the manifest state (samudacara) and a c q u i s i t i o n " to the seed-potential state. There are those who are based i n one of the lower stations of existence and put f o r t h the thought of one of the same lower s t a t i o n s . Their ' c u l t i v a t i o n of. p r a c t i c e ' Ci.e., what i s manifest (samudacara)] i s only of the lower stations,' while t h e i r ' c u l t i v a t i o n of a c q u i s i t i o n ' Ci.e., what becomes seed-potentiality] i s of the upper stations as we l l , since, what i t 'acquires' i s the taking of higher realms as i t s object which causes i t s power to f l o u r i s h and grow. This i s so, because Cin t h i s case] both the substance and the function of the lower stations are enhanced; whereas, only the function of the higher 227 stations i s enhanced. [This i s attested by] a passage i n the Ch''eng-wei-shih Lun that says: That the f i r s t three of the formless (arupya) stations are said to have t h i s f a c u l t y [ v i s . , anajnatam] i s because i t i s the p a r t i a l , c u l t i v a t i o n - a c q u i s i t i o n of the superior Path of V i s i o n , Ci.e., i t i s present as a seed-. , . , .. • 228 p o t e n t i a l i t y ] . There are those who are based i n a lower s t a t i o n of existence . and who put f o r t h the thought of a higher s t a t i o n . Their ' c u l t i v a t i o n of p r a c t i c e ' i s of the higher s t a t i o n only, while t h e i r ' c u l t i v a t i o n 229 of a c q u i s i t i o n ' i s of the lower s t a t i o n as w e l l . There are those who are based i n a higher s t a t i o n of existence and who put f o r t h the thought of a higher s t a t i o n . Their ' c u l t i v a t i o n of p r a c t i c e ' i s of the higher s t a t i o n only, while t h e i r ' c u l t i v a t i o n of a c q u i s i t i o n ' i s also of the lower stations as well 230 Has the higher s t a t i o n s ] . There are those who are based i n a higher s t a t i o n of existence and who put.forth the thought of a lower s t a t i o n . Their ' c u l t i v a t i o n of p r a c t i c e ' i s of the lower s t a t i o n only, while t h e i r ' c u l t i v a t i o n of a c q u i s i t i o n ' i s of the higher stations as w e l l . In every case one can, when based'in a higher s t a t i o n of existence, c u l t i v a t e e i t h e r the same st a t i o n or any of the lower stat i o n s . I f , however, we speak of c u l t i v a t i n g a higher s t a t i o n when based i n a lower s t a t i o n of existence, t h i s must r e f e r to the c u l t i v a t i o n of one who has already attained that higher s t a t i o n [ i n a 136 previous existence]'or one who has sovereignty over that s t a t i o n [acquired through concentration (samadhi)]. I t does not r e f e r to the other, classes, of beings. The passage i n [ S t h i r a m a t i 1 s ] Commentary to the- Abhidharma-samueeaya saying that those of lower 231 s t a t i o n of existence are incapable of c u l t i v a t i n g higher stations i s a statement pe r t a i n i n g only to the c u l t i v a t i o n of e i t h e r the 2 32 neophyte (adikarmika) or the one who i s gradually approaching [the concentration of a higher s t a t i o n ] . They have not yet acquired sovereignty (vasitva) and, i f they have not attained the higher l e v e l s of concentration (samadhi), they are incapable of the higher c u l t i v a t i o n s because they have either only just produced the f r u i t [ i n the case of 233 the l a t t e r ] or not yet produced f r u i t [ i n the case of the former]. It i s not the case that those who are superior are thus l i m i t e d . (262bl5) 137 Section Seven: 23U Of What Nature i s The Dharma 1 Contemplation 1? There are two varieties' o f t h i s constituent of experience (dharma): the 'contemplator' J f J ^ ^ ^ C i . e . , the subjective f a c t o r ] ; and the 'contemplated' iSlel C i . e. , the objective f a c t o r ] . 7-1 The Subjective Factor The subjective factor i s d e f i n i t e l y not Imaginary ( p a r i k a l p i t a ) , because the Imaginary i s without substance. This i s according to the correct doctrine Ci.e., that of Dharmapala]. The impure (sasrava) subjective factor d e f i n i t e l y belongs to the Dependent (paratantra), while the pure (anasrava) subjective factor i s included under two Cof the three] natures. With respect to whether i t i s continuous or non-continuous, i t belongs to the Dependent (paratantra); whereas, with respect to whether i t i s impure or pure, i t belongs to the Absolute (parinispanna). It i s c e r t a i n l y not the case that pure subjective f a c t o r belongs e x c l u s i v e l y to the Absolute Caspect of existence], because i t i s not the absolute u n i v e r s a l ^ . This makes i t clear that: In the period before entering the ten lands, there i s only an impure and.Dependent subjective f a c t o r . In the Seventh Land and before, the ''subjective factor is". C p a r t i a l l y ] impure and C p a r t i a l l y ] pure, and i s both Dependent and Absolute. In the Eight Land and above, the subjective factor i s only pure, but i s s t i l l both Dependent and Absolute. (262b22) 138 7.2 The Objective Factor 7.2.1 Three D i f f e r e n t S c r i p t u r a l Sources l a . On the nature of objective f a c t o r , the Mahayana-samgraha says: 235 Thus, by awakening."to and entering the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the apparent objects • which are mental expressions, the.Bodhisattva awakens to and enters the Imaginary Nature. By awakening to and entering Vijnaptimatrata, he awakens to and'=enters-• the • Dependent. Nature . . . . I f he has 236 destroyed the notion of the Vijnaptimatrata of the classes of s e e d - p o t e n t i a l i t i e s that were perfumed by the preached Dharma which consists of mental expressions... . then, at that time, the i n t u i t i v e nondiscriminating cognition (nirvikalpaka-^jnana). . . that.[takes.subject and object! as the same (sama-sama) w i l l have a r i s e n , and he w i l l awaken 237 to and enter the Absolute Nature. l b . Arid, i t says further: The [ r e l a t i o n s h i p between! name and th i n g i s adventitious; Their", nature should\ be. [thus! examined. With.regard to t h e i r dual.aspect one must also deduce that There i s nothing but.conceptualization, nothing but representation With, the Exact Comprehensions one sees that there, i s no object (artha), 139 That there is.nothing hut discrimination into three. The object does not e x i s t , and so the three do not exist e i t h e r ; To r e a l i z e t h i s i s to enter into the 2 38 Three Natures. The f i r s t h a l f of the f i r s t verse r e f e r s to awakening to and entering the Imaginary ( p a r i k a l p i t a ) , and the second h a l f of the f i r s t verse r e f e r s awakening to• and entering the Dependent (paratantra) Nature. The second verse r e f e r s to awakening to and- entering- the Absolute' (parinispanna) Nature. l c . The Ch'eng-wei-shih-lun-. says: Without having seen Thusness (tathata), One i s not able to discern that 239 a l l constructions Are l i k e magical i l l u s i o n s , etc.: Even though they may be there., they are not r e a l . 2 ^ 1 0 2. Thus, the three passages above are not the same. According to the f i r s t passage from the Mahayana-samgraha3 i t i s with the Warmth degree (usmagata) and the Head Degree (murdhan) Cof the Stage of Preliminary Training. (prayogavastha)ll that one enters the Imaginary ( p a r i k a l p i t a ) ; then, with.the Acquiescence Degree (k s a n t i ) , the Pinnacle of Worldly Truth Degree (laukikagryadharma) also of the Stage of Preliminary T r a i n i n g ] , one enters the Dependent (paratantra); • 241 and then, with.the f i r s t thought of the F i r s t Land, one enters the Absolute (parinispanna). According to the second passage from the Mahayana-samgraha, one enters two of the Natures [ v i s . , Imaginary and Dependent] with the Four Examinations, which are part of the Warmth and the Head Degree Cof the Stage of Preliminary T r a i n i n g ] , and then, with the Four Exact Comprehensions. [also of the Stage of Preliminary T r a i n i n g ] , one enters the Absolute. According to the Ch'eng-wei-sh-ih-tun passage, one must enter the F i r s t Land, and only then does one awaken to the Three Natures. (262c8) 7.2.2 Two Di f f e r e n t D o c t r i n a l Views Although there are three passages, there are r e a l l y only two [ d i f f e r e n t ] doctrines: the f i r s t i s genuine r e a l i z a t i o n and 1. The verse i n the Ch'eng-wei-shih-lun i s based on what 242 i s genuine personal r e a l i z a t i o n . This i s because i t i s only with the two Pure Cognitions---vis.,the fundamental cognitions (mula-jnana) which \-"first'.- r e a l i z e s the absolute, and the subsequently-acquired wisdom (prstha-labdha-jnana) which l a t e r r e a l i z e s the conventional that the l a t t e r two Natures [Dependent and Absolute] can be r e a l i z e d . When one has r e a l i z e d these two Natures, one does not perceive the d u a l i t y of that which.apprehends (grahaka) and that which i s apprehended (grahya), and i t i s t h i s that i s c a l l e d r e a l i z i n g the non-existence of the Imaginary ( p a r i k a l p i t a ) . [Such] non-existent dharmas e n t a i l the absence of substance; . 243 what then i s there [of the Imaginary Nature] f o r wisdom to r e a l i z e ? The non-existence [of the Imaginary] that i s indi c a t e d by the fact 141 that things are permutations of vijnana i s included i n Cthe r e a l i z a t i o n o f] the Dependent Nature, -while the non-existence Cof the Imaginary] indicated by the universal of Thusness i s included i n Cthe r e a l i z a t i o n o f] the Absolute. Therefore,Cin the Ch'eng-wei-shih-lun passage],the Imaginary, i s not discussed separately as having a separate r e a l i z a t i o n . Having only entered into the two Natures Cvis., Dependent and Absolute], one no longer perceives: the d u a l i t y of that which apprehends and that which i s apprehended, and t h i s C i n . i t s e l f ] i s c a l l e d becoming aware of and entering the Imaginary. However, since i t i s the cognition of true substance Ci.e., the fundamental cognition (mula-jnana)] that r e a l i z e s the', u n i v e r s a l by f u l l y penetrating the non-existence Cof that which apprehends and that which i s apprehended], i t i s most-often said to be t h i s cognition that r e a l i z e s the Imaginary. Even though t h i s d u a l i t y Cof apprehender and apprehended] i s already no longer seen even before the Path of V i s i o n (darsana-marga), one s t i l l has not personally acquired the two cognitions Cvis., fundamental and subsequently acquired] and i t i s not called.the r e a l i z a t i o n of the non-existence Cof apprehender and apprehended]. Therefore, i t i s only then at the F i r s t Land that one i s sa i d to have r e a l i z e d Cthe Three Natures] (262cl7) l b . In the f i r s t passage from the Mahayana-samgraha,what i s said about awakening, to the Absolute i s based on Cthe f i r s t of the above categories,] genuine r e a l i z a t i o n ; and accords with the Ch'eng-wei-shih-lun passage. CWhat i s said.about] awakening to the f i r s t two Natures i s based on Cthe second of the above caregories,] 'apparent awakening'. This i s so, because, f o r most of the time, during the greatest.portion Cof one's p r a c t i c e ] , one thinks, with some i n t e l l e c t u a l 142 understanding, about the f i r s t two Natures. Even.though, f o r a very-short time, during a small portion Cof one's p r a c t i c e ] , one does indeed appear to awaken and enter the Absolute, nevertheless, t h i s i s not f o r most of the time during the greatest portion Cof' one's p r a c t i c e ] and i s s t i l l not.personal r e a l i z a t i o n . Therefore, t h i s passage i s based on the f i r s t category of'genuine r e a l i z a t i o n ' . (262c2l) l c . In the second passage from the Mahaydna-samgvaha, what i s said about awakening to and entering the Three Natures i s a discussion based e n t i r e l y on Cthe second category o f ] 'apparent' i n t e l l e c t u a l understanding. One f i r s t contemplates the fact that name and thing are 245 not [ i n t r i n s i c a l l y ] i n t e r - r e l a t e d ; therefore that i s c a l l e d awakening to and entering into the Imaginary. Next one contemplates the fact that there i s nothing but dharmas conceptualized by mentation and named by 246 convention, etc.; and, even though one has not yet r e a l i z e d what i s the Ultimate R e a l i t y , t h i s i s c a l l e d awakening to the Dependent. At the stage of the Four.Exact Comprehensions, even though what i s . r e a l s t i l l has c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and one has not yet r e a l i z e d Thusness, the two that 247 which apprehends and. that which i s apprehended both cease. One enters i n a manner bearing an apparent resemblance to the contemplation of r e a l wisdom Con the Path of V i s i o n ] and, with that i n t e l l e c t u a l understanding, goes so f a r as to say, "Why, this i s Thusness (thathata)!" Thus, while the stage of the Exact Comprehensions may indeed be c a l l e d entry into the Absolute (parinispanna), s t i l l i t i s not an i n t u i t i v e entry (262c28) 2. CSummary:3 The Mahay'ana-samgraha bases i t s e l f on the apparent: in. l i g h t of the i n t e l l e c t u a l understanding of the Three 24 Natures, i t explains, separately how one awakens to and enters each. The Ch'eng-wei-shih^-Lun bases i t s e l f on the r e a l : i t says that one separately r e a l i z e s the l a t t e r two Natures and, i n doing t h a t , succeeds i n r e a l i z i n g the Imaginary. Even though the texts d i f f e r , they do not contradict each other. Other text can a l l be explained by analogy to these. (263al) Section Eight: The Stations and the Base of A r i s i n g This section has two parts: the f i r s t discusses the base ( a s r a y a ) 2 ^ [from which one gives r i s e to the contemplation of Vijnaptimatrata],and the second c l a r i f i e s the stations Cof existence 250 or meditation] i n which i t a r i s e s . (263a3) 8.1 The Base 2^ 1 252 8.1.1 F i r s t A r i s i n g 253 I f i t i s a case of sudden and- di r e c t awakening, then the f i r s t a r i s i n g Cof the contemplation] i s attained by one based i n the Realm of Sense-desire (kama-dhatu). This i s so, because one can f i r s t produce the superior mind only i n the Realm of Sense-desire. 254 The Hs%en-yang-sheng-ch%ao-luri•- "and other .works say: Because of the extreme d i s t r e s s , i t does not a r i s e i n 255 the wretched des t i n i e s (durgati); Because of the extreme pleasure, i t does not a r i s e i n the two higher realms. 2"^ .It'is-only among -the men and. the gods of the Realm of Sense-desire That Buddhas appear and that one i s able to give r i s e 257 to comprehension (abhisamaya). During the period up to and including the F i r s t Land Ci.e., at the Stage of Provisioning and the Stage of Preliminary T r a i n i n g ] , everything can be accomplished.while based i n any of the three realms. We allow that the bodhisattva of insight (vipasyana-bodhisattva) can be born i n the Realm of Formlessness (arupya-dhatu), because he can, with a formless mind, discern everything. Were i t not so, what person would succeed i n t h i s matter. During the period up to and i n c l u d i n g the Seventh Land, the bodhisattva gives r i s e to the contemplation while based either i n the Realm of Sense-desire or the Realm of Form (rupa-dhatu). This i s so, because the bodhisattva Cof t h i s degree1 i s not born i n the Realm of Formlessness. From the Eighth Land on, the bodhisattva gives r i s e to the contemplation based only, i t i s c e r t a i n , i n a body of the Realm of Sense-desire.. This i s so, because i t i s by entrusting himself to t h i s superior base that he attains enlightenment (bodhi). (263alo) 258 2. I f i t i s a case of gradual awakening: Cthere are three d i s t i n c t classes: (2a) those who have already attained the f i r s t two f r u i t s ; (2b) those who attained the t h i r d f r u i t and are of successive b i r t h ; (2c) those who.. have. ei t h e r attained the t h i r d f r u i t and are not of successive b i r t h , or who have attained the fourth f r u i t . : 2a. I f they are. saints who had already attained the f i r s t two. f r u i t s , (i.e.., those who were stream-winners "or once-returners before taking the bodhisattva pathH, the base upon which they succeeded i n f i r s t giving r i s e to the contemplation must be of the Realm of Sense-desire. COf these, there are again two classes: those of successive b i r t h and those not of successive birth.1 I f he i s not of successive b i r t h (aparivrttajanman) the base upon which he gave r i s e to the contemplation at the Seventh Land and before can also be of the Realm of Form [as well as the Realm of Sense-desire!. Although he has not yet entered the Lands, he i s s t i l l , not born.in the Realm of Formlessness. This i s so, because he received b i r t h according to the sovereignty of h i s vow of compassion towards a l l beings, and that prevents him from being born i n the Realm of Formlessness[where compassion cannot be practiced!]. It i s also the case, because such an a l t e r a t i o n of the realm i n which the. bodhisattva i s born, i s not allowed on the basis of [any new karmie action due toll h i s p r a c t i c e of c u l t i v a t i o n . Such a bodhisattva. d i f f e r s from the bodhisattva of sudden awakening: the l a t t e r has already become pure (anasrava) before • entering the Path of V i s i o n because the strengths he has acquired through his karmic action are more numerous. There are some who allow that t h i s type of bodhisattva [ i . e . , one of gradual awakening who i s of successive birthD i s also born into the Realm of Formlessness. This [they say 3 i s so, because, the connections of karmic action they have within the three •realms' " s t i l l exist'; ;• and also because i t i s not the case that being born i n the higher realm, they loathe the defilements, of the lower realms. I f i t i s the case of a bodhisattva of gradual awakening who i s of successive b i r t h (parivrttajanman), then he d e f i n i t e l y cannot be born i n the upper, realm. This i s so, because, on producing the thought and afterwards, he can be only i n the Realm of Sense-desire. (2"63al7) 2b. I f i t i s a case of a bodhisattva Cof gradual awakening] who had attained the t h i r d f r u i t Ci.e.., who was a non-returner (anagamin)] and i s not of successive b i r t h , then i t was i n the Realm of Sense-desire that he f i r s t put f o r t h the thought, and he subsequently takes both t h i s realm and also the Realm of Form as the base for giving r i s e to the contemplation of Vijnaptimatrata. He i s not born into the Realm of Formlessness because i t i s without advantage. (263al9) 2c. I f i t i s a case of a bodhisattva Cof gradual awakening] who had attained the t h i r d f r u i t and i s of successive b i r t h , or who had attained the fourth f r u i t , Cthere are two p o s s i b i l i t i e s ] . I f i t was i n the Realm of Sense-desire that he f i r s t produced the thought Cof enlightenment], then, in.the beginning and l a t e r , he gives r i s e to the contemplation based only i n the Realm of Sense-desire. I f , on the other hand, i t was i n the Realm of Form, that he f i r s t produced, the thought Cof enlightenment], then It i s based only i n the Realm of Form that he gives r i s e to the contemplation of Vijnaptimatrata. (263a2l). 8.1.2 The F i r s t R e a l i z a t i o n 1. Bodhisattvas of sudden awakening, at the time of t h e i r f i r s t r e a l i z a t i o n Cof Vijnaptimatrata], must be based i n the Realm of Sense-desire. This i s . so, because by v i r t u e of having severed the tendency t o c l i n g to the notion, of S e l f (pudgalabhinivesa?), t h e i r wisdom and their, l o a t h i n g Cof the cycle of death and r e - b i r t h ] are deep. 2. Bodhisattvas of gradual awakening, at the time of t h e i r f i r s t r e a l i z a t i o n Cof VijnaptimatrataH can be based i n the Realm of Form as well as the Realm of Sense-desire. When the Esien-yang-sheng-c'kiao-'lun and other works declare that i t i s only within the Realm of Sense-desire that one can enter comprehension (abhisamaya), i t i s with reference to the i n i t i a l entry of each of the three types of saints on'' h i s respective path Cviz., sravaka, pratyeka-buddha, or bodhisattvail. This i s so, because the statement does not p e r t a i n to those who have gradually awakened to the: bodhisattva path Cafter severing the c l i n g i n g to the notion of S e l f on e i t h e r the sravaka or patyeka-buddha path!, since Cthe remaining task of1 severing the c l i n g i n g to a notion of t r u l y e x i s t i n g dharmas (dharmabhinivesa.) does not require the deep loath i n g of the cycle of death and r e - b i r t h Cpossible only i n the Realm of Sense-desire:. (263a24) 8.2 The Stations 8.2.1 The Correct Doctrine The preceding c l a r i f i e d the base Cupon which one gives r i s e to the contemplation of V i j n a p t i m a t r a t a l , what follows c l a r i f i e s the stations, of existence or meditation i n which i t a r i s e s . In one's own s t a t i o n of e x i s t e n c e ^ ^ w i t h i n the Realm of Sense-desire, the contemplation.involves both the wisdom, produced through e r u d i t i o n (srutamayi prajna) and the wisdom produced through r e f l e c t i o n (cintamayi-prajna). Being only dispersed (asamahita), i t i s not concentration (samadhi); i t i s also not free of the impurities (anasrava). This i s based on the correct doctrine and does not take up any l a t e r a l assertions. During, contemplation based, i n the Realm of Form, two of the wisdoms are involved, that due to eru d i t i o n and that due to c u l t i v a t i o n (bhavanamayi-prajna). In contemplation based i n the Realm of Formlessness there i s only the wisdom produced through c u l t i v a t i o n , and not the others. We say the Realm of Form lacks the wisdom produced through r e f l e c t i o n , and that the Realm of Form-lessness lacks the wisdom due to erudition as well as that due to r e f l e c t i o n , because t h i s i s i n accord, with a l l of the teachings. These three v a r i e t i e s of wisdom are acquired through t r a i n i n g 262 (prayogika) only; they are not included within the cla s s of what i s acquired through b i r t h (upapatti-pratilambhika). 8.2.2 Explanation'', of some L a t e r a l Assertions According to what i s asserted i n the s i x t y - f i f t h s c r o l l of 263 the •Yogdedrabhumi.,. however, they may be C263bH Cthe r e s u l t ofH concentration (samadhi), and they may be acquired through b i r t h , as with ihs;i:ght,-bodhisattvas who have not.-yet-> attained sovereignty and sravakas who have attained broad:wisdom. Whether they be sravakas who s t i l l have something to learn (saiksa)- or arhats, they discern dharmas of the three realms and pure dharmas by means of thought Cwhile basedH i n the Realm of Formlessness. Therefore, we know that t h i s contemplation i s also present i n the Realm of Form-lessness. The bodhisattva [ i n that easeH i s at the stage of the Forty Stations of Thought p r a c t i c e d on the Path of V i s i o n and before;.this, i s so, because i t i s declared i n many places that at the stage of the Lands and above [ i . e . , from the end of the Path 150 of V i s i o n ] , the bodhisattva i s not horn Cin the Realm of Formlessness]. The sravaka of broad wisdom i s properly (yathayogyam) declared to be of t h i s c l a s s , because he i s not deluded about the dharmas. Aside from these two exceptions i t i s not stated that other humans also succeed i n taking everything as an object with "formless, thought. From the stage of the bodhisattva's Path of V i s i o n up to the Diamond-like Concentration (vajropan.a-samadhi), one's st a t i o n i s the fourth l e v e l of meditation Cin the Realm of Form], Later a l l the stations are included: one can properly be based, i n any of t h e ten stations the s i x i n the Realm of "Form,and the four i n the Realm of Formlessness and give r i s e to t h i s contemplation. Cof Vijnaptimatrata!]. What, severs doubts are the f i r s t nine of these s t a t i o n s , while 264 discursive contemplation i s involved i n a l l ten. They should properly be taught separately. The pure (anasrava) modes of wisdom due to erudition and r e f l e c t i o n accord with t h e i r base Cviz., wisdom due to c u l t i v a t i o n : and are without error. Of the Ceight3 not-yet-arrived (anagamya) l e v e l s 2 ^ , the highest seven have only pleasure Cin the higher realmsH and loathi n g _ \ '266 Cm the lowest realm]; t h e i r aspects (akara) appear as i f checked, and so they are unable to produce.it Ci.e., the base of c u l t i v a t i o n ] , (263bll) 151 Section Nine: . Severing the Obstacles and Defilements There are two types of obstacles: those'that are. innate (sahaja), and those Cthat a r i s e as the r e s u l t ] of discrimination ( v i k a l p i t a ) . Each of these i s again divided into two types: the obstacle [constituted by] the various a f f l i c t i o n s (klesavarana or a f f l i c t i o n - o b s t a c l e ) , and the obstacle Charring] what i s to be known (Jneyavarana or wisdom-obstacle).^''' 9.1 The Stage of Severance The Tenth S c r o l l of Ch'eng-wei-shih-lvn says Cthat the two 268 types of the two obstacles are severed as fo l l o w s ] . 9.1.1 The manifestations (samudacara) of the d i s c r i m i n a t i o n -produced portion of the a f f l i c t i o n - o b s t a c l e (vikalpaklesavarana) are subdued, b i t by b i t , on the Path of Provisioning (sambhara-marga), and then, on the Path of Training (prayoga-marga), one can, at once, subdue them completely. The seeds and impregnations Cof t h i s portion of the a f f l i c t i o n - o b s t a c l e 1. are severed i n the F i r s t Cor Joyous] Land. 9-1.2 The manifestations of the innate portion of the a f f l i c t i o n - o b s t a c l e (sahajaklesavaranasamudacara) are subdued, b i t by b i t , before the CBodhisattva] Lands, and then, from the F i r s t Land onward, one can, at once, subdue them completely. They w i l l , however, on occasion seem to a r i s e by the strength of Cthe bodhisattva's3 w i l l Ce.g., as s k i l l f u l means (upaya) f o r the conversion of other beings], but there i s nothing wrong with that. From the Eighth Cor Immovable] Land onward there are no further manifestations. The impregnations Cof t h i s portion of the a f f l i c t i o n - o b s t a c l e ] are 1 5 2 removed Stage by Stage, while i t s seeds are severed i n the Diamond-l i k e Concentration. The erroneous view of i n d i v i d u a l i t y • ( s a t k a y a d r s ^ i ) , e t c . , of Cthe a f f l i c t i o n - o b s t a c l e ] , along with i t s innate portion, are both perma-nently subdued i n the Fourth Cor B r i l l i a n t ] Stage because there i s no longer any c l i n g i n g to dharmas Cas r e a l ] (dharmagraha). The C a f f l i c t i o n s ] Produced by Cthis erroneous view of i n d i v i d u a l i t y ] are not operative i n the F i f t h CVery D i f f i c u l t to Conquer] Land because they, as i t s companions,, are also destroyed. 9 . 1 . 3 The manifestations, of the. discrimination-produced portion of the wisdom-obstacle (vikalpajneyavaranasamudacara) are also subdued, b i t by b i t , on the Path of Provisioning; and then, on the Path of Training one can, at once, subdue them, completely. The seeds and impregnations Cof t h i s portion of the wisdom-obstacle] are severed i n the F i r s t Cor Joyous] Land. 9 . 1 . 4 The manifestations of the innate portion Cof the wisdom-obstacle](sahajajneyavaranasamudacara) are Cgenerally speaking], subdued b i t by b i t p r i o r to the CBodhisattva] Lands, and t h i s continues u n t i l , f i n a l l y , i n the Tenth Cor Dharma-cloud] Land they are subdued completely. I f , however, we speak Cof each type of manifestation] s p e c i f i c a l l y , then Cthose manifestations associated with] the f i r s t s i x vijnanas are subdued completely i n the Eighth Cor Immovable] Land, while the seeds and impregnations Cassociated with the s i x vijnanas] are severed Stage by Stage. CThose manifest-ations associated with] the seventh vijnana are subdued on the Path of Training stage of the Diamond-like Concentration; and, when t h i s Diamond-like Concentration a r i s e s , the seeds and impregnations [associated with the seventh vijnana! are a l l severed. (263b25) 9.2 Various Other C l a s s i f i c a t i o n 9.2.1 The Three Stages of Severance. The Bodhi-sattvabhumi-'teaches that the a f f l i c t i o n - o b s t a c l e 269 and the wisdom-obstacle are both severed i n three stages. 1. F i r s t , i s the Stage of Supreme Joy where the a f f l i c t i o n s [associated with! the unfavorable destinies and also the most super-270 . • f i c i a l crude dross (dausthulya) of the wisdom-obstacle are a l l severed forever. [At t h i s Stage! one i s able to prevent any further manifestation of the upper-middle grade of a f f l i c t i o n s , and has the very f i r s t r e a l i z a t i o n of the cognition of the r e a l i t y of the two emptinesses. 2. Second i s the In e f f i c a c i o u s and Formless Stage. [In t h i s Stage! the a f f l i c t i o n s which can obstruct the non-arising dharma patience and also the l e s s - s u p e r f i c i a l crude dross of the wisdom-obstacle are a l l severed forever. -Before the various a f f l i c t i o n s cease to be manifested, one has, spontaneously, the very f i r s t r e a l i z a t i o n of the non-arising dharma patience. 3. Third i s the Stage of the Supremely F u l f i l l e d Bodhisattva. [In t h i s stage! the impregnations and the p r o c l i v i t i e s (anusaya) of the a f f l i c t i o n s and also the most deep-rooted crude dross of the wisdom-obstacle are severed forever. [Thereupon! one enters the Tathagata Stage. (263c5) 9.2.2 The Three P r o c l i v i t i e s The Sandhinirmocana Sutra states that there are three 271 Ctypes o f] p r o c l i v i t i e s (anusaya). 1. F i r s t are the p r o c l i v i t i e s known as 'companions that have been destroyed.' "These are the non-innate a f f l i c t i o n s of the f i r s t f i v e Lands that are the attendants or companions of the manifestations of innate a f f l i c t i o n s . The former are permanently non-recurrent at 272 that time Ci.e., the F i f t h Land]." The meaning of t h i s teaching i s that Cthe group of a f f l i c t i o n s ] associated with the s i x t h vijnana and comprising the erroneous view of i n d i v i d u a l i t y (satkayadrsti), etc., are termed 'innate', while a l l the other a f f l i c t i o n s are termed•'non-innate.' The.substance of these non-innate a f f l i c t i o n s i s r e l a t i v e l y coarse however: they a r i s e with the innate a f f l i c t i o n s as t h e i r cause, and, when these innate a f f l i c t i o n s are severed, they too, i n t u r n , cease to e x i s t . Therefore they are c a l l e d 'destroyed ,273 companions.' 2. Second, are the feeble p r o c l i v i t i e s . "These are the subtle manifestations occurring i n the Sixth and Seventh Lands. This i s so because, i f subdued by s p i r i t u a l . c u l t i v a t i o n (bhavana), they are no 274 longer manifested." I t i s not the case Cas with the f i r s t type of. p r o c l i v i t y ] . that, as the innate erroneous view of i n d i v i d u a l i t y i s severed, so also i n turn are they. This ..is because they are r e l a t i v e l y d i f f i c u l t to sever. What i s sa i d here does not contradict the Lahkavatara Sutra which says th a t , because the innate erroneous view of i n d i v i d u a l i t y i s severed, greed Ci.e., raga, f i r s t of the 275 -a f f l i c t i o n s ] i s no longer produced. The sutra focuses on the doctrine of the a f f l i c t i o n severed by the f i r s t two vehicles Ci.e., 155 the sravakas and the pratyeka-buddhas1. I t i s not based on the doctrine that, when the bodhisattva's wisdom-obstacle has ceased to e x i s t , his a f f l i c t i o n s [greed, etc.] are therefore not produced. I f , a l t e r n a t i v e l y , we base, ourselves'on the stage where both types of p r o c l i v i t i e s are d e f i n i t i v e l y severed, then the sutra and t h i s t r e a t i s e are not i n mutual cont r a d i c t i o n . 3. Third are the subtle p r o c l i v i t i e s . "This means that from the Eighth Cor Immovable] Land and above, a l l the a f f l i c t i o n s that, have been removed from t h i s Land are never again manifested. This i s so because what remains are only those p r o c l i v i t i e s that have 276 the wisdom-obstacle as t h e i r base." 277 However, i t i s also s a i d that, by v i r t u e of having severed the most s u p e r f i c i a l crude dross in. the i n i t i a l Lands, one can then and only then manifest and a t t a i n the f i r s t two Cof the above] degrees of p r o c l i v i t y Csuppression]. And again, that by v i r t u e of having severed the l e s s s u p e r f i c i a l crude dross i n the Eighth Cor Immovable] Land, one manifests the Cthird] degree i n which the subtle p r o c l i v i t i e s ' Care suppressed].. F i n a l l y , i f Cthe aspirant] has severed the deep-rooted crude dross, then we say he i s permanently separated from a l l p r o c l i v i t i e s and resides i n the Land of the Buddhas. (263c2l) 9 .2.3 The Four Obstacles In the Ratnagotra-vibhdga there are passages saying that there are. four obstacles (avarana): f i r s t , the obstacle of the icchantikas' lack of f a i t h Cin the Buddha's teachings]; second, the obstacle.of the non-Buddhists' ( t i r t h i k a ) c l i n g i n g to an eternal 279 self: (atman); t h i r d , the obstacle:of the sravakas' fear of s u f f e r i n g ; 1 156 and fourth, the obstacle of the pratyeka-buddhas.' abandonment of 280 the thought Cof great compassion]. 281 With the state of mind gained i n the Sixth of the Ten F a i t h s , Cthe bodhisattva! subdues the f i r s t of the above obstacles because h i s 282 f a i t h does not relapse. In the Fourth Abode of the Ten Abodes, Cthe bodhisattva] subdues the second of the above obstacles because the coarse aspect of the f a l s e view of an eternal s e l f (atmadrsti) due to f a l s e discrimination i s not produced. The seeds of these two obstacles are severed on. entering the F i r s t Cor Joyous] Land. The t h i r d of the above obstacles, which i s an obstacle b a r r i n g what i s to be known Ci.e., jneyavarana, or wisdom-obstacle], i s severed i n the F i f t h Cor Very D i f f i c u l t to Conquer] Land. This i s so because the obstacle constituted by the desire f o r the l e s s e r 283 nirvana of the lower vehicles Ci.e., that of the sravakas and Pratyeka-buddhas] i s severed i n the F i f t h Land. CThe fourth of the above obstac l e s ] , that obstacle constituted by the pratyeka-buddhas giving up the thought Cof Great Compasison f o r other beings], i s severed by the bodhisattva only i n the Seventh Cor Far-reaching] Land. This i s so, because up u n t i l the Sixth Land the bodhisattva -.• i s " s t i l l contemplating the twelve-fold chain of causation Cas i f he were a pratyeka-buddha] In some cases i t i s said that the seeds of the passions (klesabija) of the former two of these obstacles are severed on the Path of V i s i o n (darsana-marga), while the seeds of the passions of the l a t t e r two obstacles are severed i n the Diamond-like Concen-t r a t i o n (vajropamasamadhi). 263c28) 9.2.4 The" Five" Persistent A f f l i c t i o n s The Srimala Sutra declares•that there are f i v e v a r i e t i e s 285 of p e r s i s t e n t a f f l i c t i o n : The persistent a f f l i c t i o n based on some p a r t i c u l a r f a l s e view, the persistent a f f l i c t i o n of craving f o r the objects of desire, the pe r s i s t e n t a f f l i c t i o n of craving f o r form, the persistent a f f l i c t i o n of craving for worldly existence (bhava), 286 and the per s i s t e n t a f f l i c t i o n of nescience. The f i r s t of these, the persistent a f f l i c t i o n based on some p a r t i c u l a r f a l s e viewpoint, i s severed [by the bodhisattva! i n the F i r s t Cor Joyous] Land. The next three are severed i n the Diamond-like Concentration. The f i f t h v a r i e t y , the pe r s i s t e n t a f f l i c t i o n of nescience, i s severed according to i t s degree ei t h e r b i t by b i t or a l l at once on the Path of V i s i o n and on the Path of S p i r i t u a l C u l t i v a t i o n . I f the impregnations and the p r o c l i v i t i e s of the f i r s t four Cof these v a r i e t i e s of a f f l i c t i o n ] are the same as the wisdom-obstacle Ci.e., as the f i f t h ] , then they are severed e i t h e r b i t by b i t or a l l at once on the Path of V i s i o n and on the Path of S p i r i t u a l C u l t i v a t i o n . (264a4) 288 • 9-2.5 In other cases the doctrine of the Six A f f l i c t i o n s , 289 and also the.doctrines of the Seven P r o c l i v i t i e s , the Eight 290 291 292 Envelopments, the Nine F e t t e r s , the Ten A f f l i c t i o n s , the Ten 293 294 Di s t r a c t i o n s , the Ten Discriminations, and others are taught. These are discussed more thoroughly i n the "Essay on the Severing of 295 the Obstacles." The a f f l i c t i o n s and obstacles, etc. discussed i n t h i s . s e c t i o n are only those which are severed i n the contemplation of Vijnaptimatrata; the others that are to be destroyed are not discussed. (264a7) Section Ten: Turning to and Embracing the Two Emptinesses 10.1 General Statement The t r e a t i s e s (sastras) declare the two emptinesses: emptiness of the i n d i v i d u a l (pudgala-sunyata) and emptiness of the dharmas dharma-sunyata).^^6 r p ^ i s contemplation of Vijnaptimatrata involves the contemplation of both the. two emptinesses. The Four Examinations and the Four Exact Comprehensions involve the emptiness of both the 297' i n d i v i d u a l and dharmas. As CdharmasH constitute the base (asraya) upon--Which, the i n d i v i d u a l i s posited, the t r e a t i s e s teach only the 298 contemplation of dharmas. They do.this, because the mind, seeking knowledge of a l l modes (sarvakarajnata), contemplates the emptiness of dharmas; and because i t i s done i n order to produce the proper understanding of the two emptinesses. Moreover, the contemplation of Cthe emptiness] of dharmas. ne c e s s a r i l y e n t a i l s the emptiness of the i n d i v i d u a l ; t h i s i s so, because i t i s attested i n the t r e a t i s e s . (264al2) 10.2 Discussion 10.2.1 Objection Clf you say the emptiness of dharmas n e c e s s a r i l y e n t a i l s the emptiness of the individual,3 why i s i t that when you discuss delusion in.contrast to awakening, you say that c l i n g i n g to the notion of the i n d i v i d u a l i s necessarily,combined with c l i n g i n g to the notion of dharmas; yet when you speak of awakening i n contrast to delusion you say that [ r e a l i z a t i o n of] the emptiness of the i n d i v i d u a l does not involve the emptiness of dharmas? I f you'say that, depending on the degree of one's understanding, one can he awakened t o Cthe emptiness] of the i n d i v i d u a l , hut not ne c e s s a r i l y to Cthe emptiness] of dharmas, then i t must also he the case that, according to the degree of one's delusion, one could he deluded about the function Ci.e., about the i n d i v i d u a l ] , and not be deluded about the substance , Ci.e., about the dharmas]. 2^ ( 2 6 U a l 5 ) 10.2.2 Reply There has never been a case of someone understanding the substance while being deluded about the function; therefore, c l i n g i n g to the Cnotion. of an] i n d i v i d u a l n e c e s s a r i l y e n t a i l s c l i n g i n g to the Cnotion of] dharmas. But, just as the degree of one's awakening may be shallow and not penetrate the depths, so Cunderstanding] the emptiness of the i n d i v i d u a l does not n e c e s s a r i l y e n t a i l that of dharmas. The. Vimsatikd-vijnaptimdtratd says: The n o n s u b s t a n t i a l i t y ^ ^ o f the dharmas to which beings c l i n g , Moreover, i s entered by means of .the , . . ' 301 remaining doctrine. It i s t h i s doctrine, of Vijnaptimatrata that Cis the "remaining doctrine" by which one] enters the emptiness of dharmas. This says that the emptiness of dharmas n e c e s s a r i l y depends on- Vijnaptimatrata, not that the contemplation of Vijnaptimatrata i s nothing hut the emptiness of dharmas; t h i s i s so because e s t a b l i s h i n g only the emptiness of the i n d i v i d u a l i s s t i l l Cone part of] Vijnaptimatrata. I f i t i s only the contemplation of the emptiness of dharmas, then i t i s d e f i n i t e l y Vijnaptrimatrata. With the emptiness of the 302 i n d i v i d u a l , i t - i s not c e r t a i n , because the emptiness of the i n d i v i d u a l Ccultivated by those] of the l e s s e r two vehicles i s not the contemplation of Vijnaptimatrata. (26Ua2l) 10.2.3 Analysis 1. The contemplation of Vijnaptimatrata i s broad i n extension i n that i t involves the contemplation of both the i n d i v i d u a l 303 and dharmas. The contemplation of dharmas i s more l i m i t e d i n extension i n that i t occurs only in,Cthe contemplation o f ] V i j n a p t i -matrata. The contemplation of the i n d i v i d u a l i s broad i n that i t occurs i n what i s the contemplation of.Vijnaptimatrata. The contemplation.of Vijnaptimatrata. i s more l i m i t e d i n extension i n that there are cases when the contemplation of the i n d i v i d u a l i s not _ 304 Cthe contemplation of .Vijnaptimatrata]. 305 2. Therefore, when we d i r e c t our attention to the contem-p l a t i o n of. the emptiness of the i n d i v i d u a l i n the contemplation of Vijnaptimatrata, i t must be analyzed according to the above statements. There i s no case where the contemplation of Vijnaptimatrata i s not the emptiness.of the i n d i v i d u a l , because the contemplation of only the emptiness of dharmas necessarily.involves that of the i n d i v i d u a l . There are Chowever] cases where the contemplation of the emptiness of the i n d i v i d u a l i s not that of Vijnaptimatrata; namely, the contemplation of the emptiness of the i n d i v i d u a l Ccultivated by those] of the l e s s e r two veh i c l e s . 161 3. In the case.of the emptiness of dharmas v i s - a - v i s V ijnaptimatrata,.it i s again a s i m i l a r s i t u a t i o n . . There are cases vhere Cthe contemplation of] Vijnaptimatrata i s not Cthe contemplation] of the emptiness of dharmas, namely the contemplation of V i j n a p t i -matrata i n which Cone views] the emptiness of the i n d i v i d u a l . There are [however] no cases where the contemplation of Cthe emptiness o f] the dharmas i s not that of Vijnaptimatrata. The meaning of the statements established by these two are [thus] understandable.(264a28) 10.3 Conclusion Vijnaptimatrata involves the contemplation of both the two emptinesses. When the t r e a t i s e s state only that the contemplation of dharmas i s the contemplation of Vijnaptimatrata, i t i s because t h e i r statement i s based on what i s the necessary condition [ i . e . , on the sine qua non, the emptiness of dharmas]. Furthermore, when i t i s said that a l l [ v a r i e t i e s of].emptiness are together embraced Cby the contemplation of Vijnaptimatrata], i t i s then as i s taught i n the "Essay on I f we speak i n terms of a^general r u l e (utsarga Emptiness. 308 (26Ubl) Notes t o Chapter I Pages 2 x- 20 Noel Peri,•who considered K ' u e i - c h i t o be' "probablement l e p l u s grand des e c r i v a i n s c h i n o i s bouddhistes," (A propos de l a Date de Vasubandhu," p. 34), was perhaps the f i r s t Western w r i t e r to draw a t t e n t i o n t o h i s importance. A f t e r t h a t , though s e v e r a l scholars i n c l u d i n g most notably La V a l l e e - P o u s s i n made use of K'uei-chi's commentaries, nothing was w r i t t e n t h a t d e a l t s p e c i f i c a l l y w i t h K ' u e i - c h i u n t i l Stanley Weinstein's two a r t i c l e s i n 1959 (see B i b l i o g r a p h y below f o r complete r e f e r e n c e s ) . Even i n the modern Japanese secondary l i t e r a t u r e one f i n d s very l i t t l e on K ' u e i - c h i . Besides b r i e f treatment i n the standard Yogacara/Fa-hsiang h i s t o r i e s (e.g., FUKAURA and YUKl) and the o c c a s i o n a l a r t i c l e (e.g.,WATANABE), there i s , t o my knowledge, only one monograph devoted t o K ' u e i - c h i : SAEKI's b i o g r a p h i c a l study, Jion daishi den. A more comprehensive assessment of K'uei-chi's place i n the development of East Asian Buddhism and Yogacara i n p a r t i c u l a r i s yet t o be done. 2 For in f o r m a t i o n on Hsuan-tsang see e s p e c i a l l y : Arthur Waley, The Real Tripitaka, 1952; H u i - l i , The Life of Hsuan-tsang,and Kenneth Ch'en, Buddhism in China X1964), pp. 235-38, 368-9, and p. 523 f o r f u r t h e r b i b l i o g r a p h y . 3 In h i s " B i o g r a p h i c a l Study of Tz'u-en" (1959), Stanley Weinstein has provided a c r i t i c a l a n a l y s i s of the e a r l y sources f o r K'uei-chi's biography, p o i n t i n g out the inadequacies of the " o f f i c i a l Sung biography" (see below) which i s the b a s i s f o r many of the modern b i o g r a p h i c a l references. The r e l e v a n t e a r l y documents have been published under the t i t l e " J i o n D a i s h i denki.monj i i , " i n Shoso, 9 (June 1940), 40-48. Cf. a l s o SAEKI Ryoken, Jion daishi den. Ii The various records of K ' u e i - c h i ' s b i r t h and death have been analyzed by. S. Weinstein, and he concludes that the most commonly c i t e d dates, A.D. 632-682 are p r e f e r a b l e t o any of the v a r i a n t s ("Bio. Study," pp. 148-149). ^ See, f o r example FUKAURA S., Yuishikigaku kenkyu, V o l . I , p. 256, n. 2. Stanley Weinstein ("Bio. Study," pp. 129-133) goes f u r t h e r t o suggest that K'uei-and Chi were two d i f f e r e n t monks, one famous and one obscure, each having o n e - s y l l a b l e names which were l a t e r a s s i m i l a t e d i n t o one. While i t may w e l l be thought p e c u l i a r that the f u l l name i s not recorded i n the works of K ' u e i - c h i t h a t have s u r v i v e d , i t i s not necessary t o assume t h a t the name was i n f a c t , simply C h i , a s i t u a t i o n t h a t would be even more p e c u l i a r . A b b r e v i a t i o n of two-character monastic names t o only the second character was common, e s p e c i a l l y when some a d d i t i o n a l t i t l e was a f f i x e d or when reference was made t o oneself i n w r i t i n g . Notes to Chapt. I (pp. 2 -20) The f u l l name, K'uei-chi, is attested quite e a r l y , the most r e l i a b l e source being the famous K'ai-yuan Buddhist Catalogue (cf. Chapt. I I , note 2) compiled i n A.D. 730-by Chih-sheng, a time l e s s than 50 years a f t e r K'uei-chi's death when the prominence of the Fa-hsiang School.was at i t s apogee. It i s d i f f i c u l t to believe that Chih-sheng, a bibliographer noted for h i s c r i t i c a l scholarship, would have accepted an u n v e r i f i e d version of the name of so prominent a Fa-hsiang master. 7 8 Cited i n S. Weinstein, "Bio. Study," p. 137. Gyonen.'s $\ (1240-1321) h i s t o r y , the Sangoku buppo denzu engi %. \% % >f| j j | ^ $ t > (BZ: CI.10TM.2-13) records the t r a d i t i o n that Hsiian-tsang had 3000 d i s c i p l e s f*}/^, 70 of whom were advanced j j ^ j , M replete JL./^ , and one f u l l y i n i t i a t e d ^ S T ^ . . The p a r a l l e l here with the 70 d i s c i p l e s of Confucius i s probably no coincidence; i n f a c t , i t i s possible that those seventy represented, the i d e a l of the d i s c i p l e that K'uei-chi a c t u a l l y had i n mind at the time that he wrote t h i s passage. o T: XLIII.698b24-29. For a somewhat d i f f e r e n t rendering of most of t h i s passage compare S. Weinstein, "Bio. Study," p. 137. 1 0 This seems preferable to the punctuation indicated at T: L.725b24. For the Buddhists the converging of cause and condition (hetupratyaya) was of course determined by previous actions (karma). 1 1 H u i - l i ' s biography (The Life of Hsuan-tsang3 pp. l6l - l 6 2 ) reports Hsiian-tsang's encounter with the Nirgrantha Vajra who was r e --nowned' for h i s s k i l l s i n d i v i n a t i o n . A d i v i n a t i o n was performed to '.. learn about the return journey and several d i f f e r e n t things were revealed. H u i - l i ' s account mentions nothing, however, about the prophesy of a b r i l l i a n t d i s c i p l e . 12 T: L725b23-c7. In some cases I follow S. Weinstein's renderin of t h i s passage; i n others we d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y : c f . h i s "Bio. Study," p. 140. 13 One variant i s found i n another Sung work the Ts'ung-Un sheng-shih J^qfc compiled by the Zen master Ku-yiieh Tao-jung & Q j|k , who says (Z:2b/2l/l .47.1.b) that K'uei-chi was followed by three carts f i l l e d with sutras and sastras with wine and food *fySp_ , and with women • Ku-yiieh Tao-jung also includes the i n t r i g u i n g report that on one occasion when K'uei-chi had an audience with the emperor he d i d not carry out the prescribed etiquett This source i s not included among those considered i n Weinstein's "Bio. Study." Notes to Chapt. I (pp. 2 - 20) A s t r i k i n g example may be seen i n the case of Ikkyu Sojun — •f^'^?^, , the famous Zen eccentric of 15th cen. Japan, who sought to i d e n t i f y h i s own unconventional behavior with that of the Abbot K'uei-chi whom he took to be a kindred s p i r i t :- Sonja Arntzen i n "The Crazy Cloud Anthology (Kyounshu) of Ikkyu Sojun," (poem no. 166) t r a n s l a t e s the following poem of Ikkyu's: " P r a i s i n g the Dharma Master Tz'u-en K'uei-chi" K'uei-chi's samadhi was by i t s very nature r e a l . Wine, meat, the sutras and beauties, The eye of the Abbot was just l i k e t h i s . In our school, there i s only t h i s ClkkyuH Sojun. 15 L i t e r a l l y "the t r a n s c i b e r , " i . e . , the one whose duty was to transform the o r a l t r a n s l a t i o n of the senior t r a n s l a t o r from the c o l i o q u i a l into l i t e r a r y Chinese, the written form of the language that d i f f e r s s i g n i f i c a n t l y from the spoken language i n both vocabulary and grammar. It should be noted tha t , i n l i g h t of the value placed on elegant expression, t h i s was a p o s i t i o n of more r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and prestige than that of a mere scri b e . 1 6 T: 1585, XXXI.1-60 1 T T: 1590, XXXI.74-77 1 8 T: 1600, XXXI.464-477 1 9 T: 2031, XLIX.15-17 ^ U T: 1540, XXVI.614-627 21 See for example Tsan-ning's biography, T: L.726bl4. 22 K'uei-chi's account i s found at the opening of his shorter commentary to the Ch'eng-wei-shih-lun, T: XLIII.6o8b29cl4. ,.The ten were BandhusrT, Citrabhanu, Gunamati, Sthiramati, Nanda, Suddhacandra, Dharmapala, Visesamitra, Jinaputra and Jfiana-candra; for more on these prominent Indian sastra masters see P. Demieville, "Historique du Systeme Vijnaptimatrata," pp. 18-22 and also E. Frauwallner, "Landmarks i n the History of Indian Logic." T: L.725cl2 Notes to Chapt. I . (pp. 2 - 2 0 ) 25 There i s another reference to K'uei-chi's knowledge of Sanskrit i n a biographical passage i n Hsi-fu's -rSJ^ jL sub-commentary to K'uei-chi's Lotus Sutra Commentary (Z:l /53/3.179r); Hsi-fu's work was not written u n t i l 877 however, so we s t i l l l ack corroboration from any of the contemporary accounts. A c a r e f u l study of K'uei-chi's Miao-fa-lien-kua-ching shih-wei-wei-erh-chang (no. 6) i n conjunction with the Sanskrit text of the Lotus Sutra may y i e l d more conclusive evidence of his knowledge of Sanskrit. 2 ^ S. Weinstein ("Bio. Study," pp. 143-144) discusses t h i s passage (T: XXXIV.715b) i n more d e t a i l . 2 7 MARUYAMA Takao ("Kichizo no Hokkegiso no kenkyu," pp. 312-315) discusses t h e v a r i o u s passages where t h i s ambiguity i s present i n the Chinese t r a n s l a t i o n showing, through comparison with the o r i g i n a l Sanskrit, that Chi-tsang sometimes understood the text c o r r e c t l y , sometimes not. 28 This passage occurs at T: XLV.260al0-24 which corresponds to section 2.1 of the t r a n s l a t i o n below. on S. Weinstein ("Bio. Study," p. 128) suggests that Miao Shen-jung i s probably an ol d error for Miao Shen-k'o ^ !^ , a h i s t o r i a n i n the service of Empress Wu jj^ (r. 6 5 5 — ) • 30 This i s not ne c e s s a r i l y to be assumed of a Buddhist monk, e s p e c i a l l y one whose primary vocation was d o c t r i n a l exegesis. KumarajTva, for example, i s reported to have had l i t t l e patience with two HTnayana meditation s p e c i a l i s t s and.to have agreed to t r a n s l a t e Mahayana meditation works only.after repeated requests from h i s Chinese followers,.events which suggest t h a t , for some Dharma Masters at l e a s t , there may have been more of a d i v i s i o n between theory and p r a c t i c e than for K'uei-chi. 3 1 Cited i n S. Weinstein, "Bio. Study," pp. 147 and 148. 32 33 Cited i n i b i d . , p. 148 Paul Demieville has provided an excellent study of Maitreya devotionalism i n his two a r t i c l e s "Maitreya l ' i n s p i r a t e u r " and "Le paradis de Maitreya." See also E. Lamotte, Eistoire, pp.' 775-788 and esp. the notes on pp. 778, 783-785 for a d d i t i o n a l bibliography on Maitreya i n Western sources. Notes to Chapt. I (pp. 2 - 20) 3k The fact that K'uei-chi's family f i r s t rose to prominence i n t h i s same non-Chinese dynasty suggests the p o s s i b i l i t y of exposure to Maitreya devotionalism even p r i o r to h i s Yogacara a f f i l i a t i o n . 35 In h i s commentary on one of the Maitreya sutras at T: XXXVIII.277c25. 36 Cf. f o r example the famous incident of Hsuan-tsang's encounter with the bandits which i s summarized from h i s biography in P. Demieville's "Le paradis de Maitreya" p. 388. When Hsuan-tsang thought he was about to be s a c r i f i c e d to Durga by the bandits, he requested that they f i r s t allow him a moment to enter by means of concentration the Tus i t a Heaven; on doing t h i s , his countenance became so transformed that the bandits were dissuaded from the s a c r i f i c e . S. Weinstein's a r t i c l e "On the Authorship of the Esi-fang Yao-chueh" discusses the prominence of Maitreya devotionalism i n K'uei-chi's thought while showing why i t i s u n l i k e l y that K'uei-chi wrote the Pure Land t r a c t that i s a t t r i b u t e d to him. The a t t r i b u -t i o n of a l l of the Pure Land works K'uei-chi i s said to have written was previously questioned by FUKAURA and others; c f . the discussion of these works i n Chapt. 2 below. 167 Notes to Chapter II Pages 21 - 36 This reintroduction of K'uei-chi's works into China might be seen as a purely East Asian instance of what some s o c i o l o g i s t s r e f e r to as the "pizza e f f e c t . " For a more extensive account of the 20th century .. r e v i v a l of Yogacara thought i n China see Wing-tsit CHAN, Religious Trends in Modern China (1953), chapters II & I I I ; and Holmes Welch, The Buddhist Revival in China, (1968), esp. chapters I, I I I , & VI. 2 K'uei-chi's works are l i s t e d i n a number of catalogs; the most important are: Kai-yuan shih-ohiao lu ^ fj ^C-> 20 s c r o l l s ; by Chih-sheng 5 compilation completed i n A.D. 730; T: 2154, LV.372-722. Hosso-shu. shosho Jj^ * ^ 4^. J^^JL* 1 s c r o l l ; compiled by the Japanese monk KelsoJ~-j^^? i n A.D. 914; T: 2180, LV.1138-1140. Sinp 'yon ohogong kyonggang oh 'ongnok jffi jfcjjjff jgfa ^ J j f e ^ H ^ L 3 s c r o l l s ; compiled by the Korean monk Uichon i n 1090; T: 2184, LV.1165-H78. Chushin Hosso-shu. shosho j f i j^ ^ J^Q "f^ ^ 1 s c r o l l ; compiled by the Japanese monk Zoshun J^j j •^jf* i n 1176; T: 2 l 8 l , LV.1140-1144. Yuishikigaku kenkyu, Vol. 1, pp. 249-250. S. Weinstein, "Bio. Study," p. 122, n. 10. In addition to those works questioned by more than one ;.• researcher, YDKI Reimon(Yuishikigakutensekishi, pp. 310-311) suspects one of the l e s s e r Ch'eng-wei-shih-lun commentaries, no. 20 (q.v.), but suggests further study before any judgment i s made. Notes to Chapt. II (pp. 21 - 36) The longer commentary on the Ch'eng-wei-shih-lun (no. 18) was written before the shorter (no. 19); the Heart Sutra commentary (no. 3) i s quoted i n the Fa-yuan i-lin ehang (no. 26); and the Maitreya Sutra commentary (no. 9) i s quoted i n the commentary on the VimalahTrti-nirdesa (no. 8) and appears to be r e f e r r e d to i n the longer Ch'eng-wei-shih-lun commentary (no. 18). 7 T: 235, VIII.748-752. T: 220.9, VII.979-986. q FUKAURA S., luishikigaku kenkyu, V o l . I, p. 250. 1 0 T: 1511, XXV.781-798. This Vajraeahedika commentary was apparently never t r a n s l a t e d by Hsiian-tsang. 1 1 T: 251, VIII.848-849. 1 2 T: 220.10, VII.986-991. - 1 0 T: 262, IX.1-63. -The\ Saddharmti-TpundarZka was never t r a n s l a t e d by Hsiian-tsang. l h r See S. Weinstein, "Bio. Study," P. 122. See note 13 above. 1 ^ T: 353, XII.217-223. The SrvmdlddevZ was never t r a n s l a t e d by Hsiian-tsang. 1 7 T: 476, XIV.557-588. -1 o T: 452, XIV.418-421. None of the Maitreya sutras were tr a n s l a t e d by Hsiian-tsang. 1 9 T: 366, XII.346-348. Of) T: 367, XII.348-351. 2 1 FUKAURA S., luishikigaku kenkyu, Vol.1, p. 250, MOCHIZUKI S., Jodokyo no kenkyu, p. 480; SAKAINO K., Shina Bukkyo-shi kowa, V o l . I I , p. 380. 169 Notes to Chapt. II (pp. 21 - 36) 2 2 T: 2031, XLIX.15-17-2 3 pp. 300-310. ?4 T: 1579, XXX.279-883. 2 5 T: 1606, XXXI. 694-774. 2 6 T: 1600, XXXI. 464-477-2 7 T: 1590, XXXI.74-77. 28 "K'uei Chi's Commentary on Wei-shih-er-shih-lun," JAOS, 53 (1933), 142-151. 29 Wei-shih-er-shih-lun, (1938). Cf. also the other a r t i c l e s by Hamilton on the Twenty Verses l i s t e d i n the Bibliography below. 3°'T: 1585, XXXI.1-60. 31 VijHaptimdtratdsiddhi:La Siddhi de Eiuan-Tsang, (1929-1948). 32 Ch'eng Wei-shih Lun. (1973). 33 The passage occurs at the opening of the work, i n a discussion of the transmission of the Ch'eng-wei-shih-lun, T:XLIII.6o8b24-29. See above p. 7-34 -YUKI R., luishikigaku tensekishi,^. 310-311. 35 -YUKI R.,. Joyuishikiron-ryoken no kenkyu; c f . also h i s luishikigaku tensekishi, p. 310. FUKAURA S., luishikigaku kenkyu, Vol. I, p. 250. 3 7 T: l6l4, XXXI.11-13. FUKAURA S., luishikigaku kenkyu V o l . I, p. 250. 3 9 T: 1630, XXXII.11-13. 170 Notes to Chapt. II (pp. 21 -36) ^° R. S. Y. Chi, Buddhist Formal Logic, (1969). 1 1 1 T: 1628, XXXII. 1-6. 42 FUKAURA S., Yuishikigaku kenkyu, V o l . I, p. 250; and S. Weinstein, "On the Authorship of the Hsi-fang yao-chueh," pp. 12-13. 43 Weinstein, i b i d . 44 YUKI R., Yuishikigaku tensekishi, p. 227. 45 This i s a work a t t r i b u t e d to Asanga; i t i s r e l a t e d to the Yogacarabhumi and survives only i n the Chinese t r a n s l a t i o n of. Hsuan-tsang (T: 1602-1603, XXXI.480-589) and the p a r t i a l t r a n s l a t i o n of Paramartha (T: 1618, XXXI .878-882).Cf. YUKI R., Yuishikigaku tensekishi, pp. 86-87, and 300. 46 -YUKI R., Yuishikigaku tensekishi, pp. 382-383. 47 ' The one exception i s the Mahayana-sutralankara, perhaps because t h i s was not tr a n s l a t e d by Hsuan-tsang while the Hsien-yang-sheng-ohiao-lun was. 48 Several catalogs also record a K'uei-chi commentary to •'-Hsuan-tsangls-'-translation (T: 1624, XXXI.888-889) of Dignaga's Alambanapar~ksa; c f . YUKI, i b i d . , p. 365. 49 The Sandhinirmooana was tr a n s l a t e d by Hsiian-tsang (T: 676, XVI.688-711), but the Lahkaoatara was not, although i t was well-known i n the t r a n s l a t i o n s of Bodhiruci and Gunabhadra. 5 0 The Tsung-liao-ohien-ehang ^.^fa] 3 ^ , T: XLV.245-255-^ See note 42 above. Notes to Chapter III (Pages 37 -68) Jacques May ("La Philosophie.bouddhique i d e a l i s t e " ) provides a review of recent scholarship on these h i s t o r i c a l questions. 2 For recent.arguments supporting Frauwallner's contention that the Yogacarabhumi represents a composite Schulwerk, see L. Schmithausen, "Zur Literaturgeschichte der Alteren Yogacara-schule." Schmithausen points out the absence.in t h i s work of the l a t e r Yogacara doctrines that are associated.with Asanga: Vijnaptimatrata, a p r a t i s t h i t a -nirvana, t r i - k a y a , etc. See J . May, "La Philosophie bouddhique i d e a l i s t e , " p. 265 for a d i f f e r e n t p e r i o d i z a t i o n of what he prefers to c a l l -Vijnanavada. h - -The meaning of v i j n a p t i as a te c h n i c a l term i n Yogacara i s discussed i n d e t a i l below. The reader should note that here and i n the t r a n s l a t i o n below there are two forms of the term, vijnapti-Matra and Vijnaptimatrata. The -taending i n the second form corresponds to our s u f f i x -ness. Thus, the f i r s t form i s the a d j e c t i v a l form as i n the statement: "Everything i s nothing but v i j n a p t i " or " v i j n a p t i - o n l y . " The addition of the s u f f i x i n the second form turns the q u a l i f i c a t i o n into an abstract houn, as i n the phrase, "the doctrine of mere v i j n a p t i " or "vijnapti-only-ness." The large case 'V w i l l be used i n the l a t t e r case to help d i s t i n g u i s h the two forms. ^ K'uei-chi takes up the topic of the Two Emptinesses i n § 1 0 of his essay t r a n s l a t e d below. ^ K'uei-chi discusses the Trisvabhavata doctrine i n $1.1.1-5 and %"{. 7 Cf. Suzuki, Studies in the LanW.vata.ra Sutra, pp. 179-182. 8 2.2 i n the t r a n s l a t i o n . 9 Cf. E. Conze, Materials for a Dictionary of The Prajnaparamita Literature, p. 352: v i j a n a t i and pp. 182-183: j a n a t i . See also Stcherbatsky's short a r t i c l e , "Uber den B e g r i f f vijnana i n Buddhismus." Notes to.Chapt. I l l (pp. 37 - 68) The -ana d e r i v a t i v e s , hut not the - t i derivatives (except f o r a few exceptions i n the masculine rather than the feminine) can also he agent nouns, i . e . , nouns i n d i c a t i n g the person or thing i n which the action appears; the reference i n that case .is concrete rather than abstract as with the action nouns. This grammatical a l t e r n a t i v e i s , however, q u i t e : u n l i k e l y i n the case of vijnana. Cf. W.D. Whitney, Sanscrit Grammar, pp. 420-428, 432-438. 1 1 Cf. Lahkdvatara: "Sagathakam" 459 (Suzuki ed.); but see also CWSL: v. 8a where c i t t a , . manas and vijnana are corr e l a t e d to the eight modes, o f mental a c t i v i t y (vijnana). K'uei-chi discusses t h i s at 5-2.3 i n the t r a n s l a t i o n below. 12 Besides being a state rather than an act, consciousness i s also inappropriate because, when applied to the eighth vijnana, one has the anomaly of "unconscious consciousness." 13 Prajnapti has a long h i s t o r y as a te c h n i c a l term. It i s found i n e a r l y abhidharma works (e.g., the PrajHaptis'dstra, one of the sub-s i d i a r y Pddas- to the ."Jftdnaprasthdna) . It i s .found-in the Prajnaparamita Sutras where Conze t r a n s l a t e s i t as concept, conception, conceptual e n t i t y , nominal concept, intimation (see Materials for a Dictionary of the Prajftdparamita. Literature, p. 269). It i s also found i n the Lahkdvatara where,:in.the opinion of Suzuki (Studies, p. 420, 440-44l) i t i s a synonym for v i j n a p t i . Charles Prebish (ed.), Buddhism, A Modern Perspective, p. 290. "Madhyamika," i n i b i d . , pp. 91. See § 2 . 2 . 1 ' of the t r a n s l a t i o n below. 17 There i s one instance.in the Madhydnta-vibhdga (iV.lOcd v) where para - v i j n a p t i i s rendered with a causative form i n Tibetan: ' mam par rig bhyed, but i n that case Hsuan-tsang's t r a n s l a t i o n also r e f l e c t s the causative: l i n g - t 'o-shen-hsin-shou ^ l*$/i%^L • Thus i n a d i f f e r e n t context v i j n a p t i could be and.was. t r a n s l a t e d with the causative i n both languages. 18 Cf. Suzuki, Studies, pp. 440-441 on v i j n a p t i i n the Lanka. 19 In the West i t i s usually Freud that i s given c r e d i t for f i r s t formulating a theory of dynamic, unconscious motivation; see for example, J.O. Wisdom, "Psychoanalytic Theories of the Unconscious," i n the Encyclopedia of Philosophy (New York: Macmillan, 1967). Notes to Chapt. I l l (pp. 37 -'68) 20 Cf. Trims'ikd. I I : there i s some debate over whether manana i n the text of t h i s verse: means manana (c o g i t a t i o n , r e f l e c t i o n ) or Manyana (conceit i n the sense of vain imagining and p r i d e ) . Both would f a l l within the a c t i v i t y of manas i n any case. See L e v i , Materiaux} p. 70, note 2 and La Vallee-Poussin, Siddhi} p. 90. 21 The occasions when.the manas. a c t i v i t y ceases are discussed i n CWSL: v .2a-8a. 2 2 CWSL: ii . l 2 a - 1 3 a . 2 3 Trirnsikd IV 24 On the two obstructions see 9 of the t r a n s l a t i o n below and also CWSL: ix . 5b -7a . 25 See K ' u e i - c h i 1 s discussion of the difference between 8th and 9th vijnana at 5.2.1.(9) i n the t r a n s l a t i o n below. 2 ^ These are treated at some length i n the CWSL (see esp. i i . 2 6 b -29a); c f . also La Vallee-Poussin's very h e l p f u l note, Siddhi3\sg. 8-9. K'uei-chi outlines the' four d i f f e r e n t opinions at § 5 - 2 . 2 . 27. below. 28 29: On the F i v e - l e v e l Contemplation see § 1 . 1 . 1 - 5 of the t r a n s l a t i o n CWSL: ix .3b-8b: Siddhi: pp. 562-667. See 6.1. where. K'ueir-chi discusses the difference between the four-stage theory and the five-stage theory. 3 0 Kosa: VI. 22-25. (xxiii . 7 b - 9 b ) 31 On the Four.Examinations and the Four exact Comprehensions see 1.2.1 of the t r a n s l a t i o n and. e s p e c i a l l y Chapt. V, note 56. 32 On the ten.lands and t h e i r p o s i t i o n i n the f i v e stages see Obermiller, "Doctrine of Ppm," pp. 51-57, and also pp. 14-47 where he contrasts, the. Banayana and the Mahayana versions of the f i v e stages, 33 - -For a study of t h i s doctrine In the Mahayana-samgraha and i t s r e l a t i o n to the three v a r i e t i e s of nondiscriminating cognition (the preliminary, the fundamental and the subsequently acquired) see my a r t i c l e "Dynamic Li b e r a t i o n i n Yogacara Buddhism." 174 Notes to Chapt. I l l (pp. 37 -68) On the t o p i c of doctrinal, c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . i n general and on the T ' i e n - t ' a i system of Chih-i i n p a r t i c u l a r , see Leon Hurvitz, Chih-i} pp. 214-331. 175 Notes to Chapter IV Pages 70 - 78 This section of the Taisho somokuruku flj fa >£f $9, g gfc 2 See bibliography for f u l l La Vallee-Poussin amended pu b l i c a t i o n of the second volume i n the appendix, pp. 7^5-750. has the separate t i t l e Showa hobo see Vol. I: pp. 480-481. references. his e a r l y reconstruction before the of the Siddhi; he discusses the issue See bibliography f o r f u l l references. Notes to Chapter V Pages 79 - l 6 l : i There are several variants of the t i t l e of t h i s p ortion of the Ta-sheng fa-yuan i-lin ehang (no. 26): the Taisho e d i t i o n (based on a l8th cen. blockprint) has the "The D o c t r i n a l Forest of V i j n a p t i -matrata" j whereas, the 8th cen. commentaries of both of K'uei-chi's immediate successors, Hui-chao and Chih-chou have simply "Essay on Vijnaptimatrata" as t r a n s l a t e d here. The ten section headings l i s t e d i n the.Preface also occur i n the subsequent text as the main d i v i s i o n s . The sub-sectional headings are provided by the t r a n s l a t o r . 2 Reference to the Taisho text of the essay w i l l be given i n t h i s manner at the end of each sub-section. 3 When K'uei-chi uses the expression t ' i . ' j ^ j ^ here and above, he has i n mind both the Chinese p h i l o s o p h i c a l d i s t i n c t i o n between substance and function (see below:§ 1.1.l) and also the Buddhist t e c h n i c a l term svabhava ('own-being' ) which i n Hsiian-tsang's Chinese i s rendered sometimes as tzu-hsing ^ »|^ _ , sometimes as t z u - t ' i Q In t h i s t r a n s l a t i o n t ' i ', and t z u - t ' i & <<&£ are c o n s i s t e n t l y rendered as 'substance' and 'essential substance'; r e s p e c t i v e l y , although K'uei-chi does not seem to d i s t i n g u i s h between the two. ^ Shingo (298b) comments that t h i s could mean ei t h e r 'existing and non-existing' or 'conditioned (samskrta) and unconditioned (asamskrta) dharmas'. He opts for the former i n t e r p r e t a t i o n saying that the contemplation of the objective realm includes purely imaginary ( p a r i k a l p i t a ) objects which would not be included within the class of conditioned and un conditioned dharmas. Fa >^ i s , of course, the standard equivalent, for the Sanskrit 'dharma' whether i t means the 'Doctrine of the Buddha' (Dharma) or 'the elements of experience' (dharmah). ^ The commentators agree that jjLjjE- ^f^Jt should be understood as "the [contemplation] of Vijnapti[matrata] that banishes the f a l s e and preserves the Real; c f . T'ai-hsii (p. 954): In a Buddhist context hsii used with a negative connotation 6 3 t (abhuta). i s mos  l i k e l y to be understood asTisu-wang J^_^. > 'unreal' or ' f a l s e ' 7 Shih ,standing alone, i s not a standard equivalent for any Sanskrit t e c h n i c a l term i n the Chinese of Hsiian-tsang and K'uei-chi. It i s probably best understood here as e l l i p t i c f o r chen-shih , which i s the standard equivalent for t a t t v a . There are a number of Notes to Chapt. V (pp. 79 - l 6 l ) related. Yogacara terms that can he tr a n s l a t e d as 'Real,' 'the Re a l i t y , ' 'the Absolute,' e t c . ; c f . notes 9 and l6 below. 8 Cf. CWSL (viii. 2 9 a ) ; La Vallee-Poussin reconstructs r u c i and yu k t i . The commentators say that ch'ing ('feelings') means wang-ch'ing ^  .jjk ('deluded f e e l i n g s ' ). 9 & The chen JH. here, as i s often the case given the constraints of the four-four rhythmK'uei-chi sought to maintain, i s probably e l l i p t i c f o r chen-ju ^ - ^ ^ . ( t a t h a t a ) or Thusness, which for the Yogacarins was Reality") See also note l6 below. 1 0 These two verses occur as quoted here i n the second s c r o l l of Hsuan-tsang's t r a n l a t i o n of the Mahayana-samgraha (T:XXXI . l43ci-4) and i n Asvabhava's Upanibandhana i n the s i x t h s c r o l l of Hsiian-tsang's t r a n s l a t i o n (T:XXXI. 417c21-4l8al5). For the Sanskrit of the f i r s t verse, which survives i n the Mahayaha-sutralamkara, see XIX :h j , p. 168 i n the e d i t i o n of S. L e v i , and p. 276 i n his t r a n s l a t i o n . ^ The f i r s t l i n e (pada) of t h i s verse i s somewhat problematic since the Chinese t r a n s l a t i o n can very e a s i l y be misunderstood. Hsiian-tsang's t r a n s l a t i o n has: The Sanskrit, as preserved i n the Mahay ana-sutralankara (see note 10 above), says: agantukatvaparyesa anyonyam namavastunoh \ prajnapter dvividhasyatra tanmatratvasya caisana || The Chinese k ' e * ^ (guest, lodger, t r a v e l e r , stranger, etc.) often occurs with chu (master, r u l e r ) expressing the r e l a t i o n s h i p between host and guest, l o r d and r e t a i n e r , proprietor and customer, etc. Now the Chinese for the f i r s t l i n e above says that "name and t h i n g are r e c i p r o c a l l y guest to each other," with the implication that one i s the host f o r the other and visa-versa. This should not however be understood to mean that they are"mutually r e l a t e d " i n any intrinsic way. Quite to the contrary the verse means to say they have no essen-t i a l or inherent r e l a t i o n s h i p whatsoever, t h e i r association i s purely acc i d e n t a l . This i s expressed more c l e a r l y by the Sanskrit agantuka-, which can also mean both 'stranger' and 'guest ,':', but as an adjective i n te c h n i c a l usage means 'adventitious' or 'accidental'. Thus the best l i t e r a l t r a n s l a t i o n of the Chinese would be that they are "strangers to each other," but "adventitious" (following the Sanskrit) i s l e s s l i k e l y to mislead. K'uei-chi discusses these same two verses again i n Section Seven below, and at § 7 . 2 . 2(lc ) he glosses the r e l a t i o n s h i p between name and thing as pu-hsiang-shu ^ M\ > "not i n t e r - r e l a t e d " . The "dual aspect," according to Asvabhava^s commentary (T:XXXI. 417c-4l8a2), r e f e r s to t h e i r apparent uniqueness or own-being and t h e i r apparent d i s t i n c t i o n s or s p e c i f i c a t i o n s . 178 Botes to Chapt. V (pp. 79 - l 6 l ) 12 Asvabhava (Ul8a5-7) says these are the discrimination or conceptualization of the name, the discrimination or conceptualization designating the name, and the discrimination or conceptualization designating the s p e c i f i c a t i o n s (see above, n. 10). For more on these see n. 55 below on the Four Examinations and the Four Exact Comprehensions, 1 3 The Three Natures are the Three Aspects of Own-being (trisvabhava) j£l ^ *\%. discussed i n Chapt. I I I . K'uei-chi c i t e s these verses again below i n h i s discussion of t h i s how the three natures are r e a l i z e d i n Section 7-2. ~^ Cf. La Vallee-Poussin Vs" note" ( S i d d k i 3 ' p . 67) on the term parinama and the differences i n i t s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n by Sthiramati and Dharmapala. La Vallee-Poussin., following SAEKI, takes these to be the viprayuktas, which the Yogacarins-—unlike the Sarvastivadins do not consider to be a separate category of dharmas completely d i s t i n c t from r u p a - c i t t a - c a i t t a . ~^ Chen-ju ^ - ^ t ^ . renders t a t hat'a '(Thusness) or t a t t v a (Reality) i n Hsiian-tsang's Chinese, not bhuta-tathata; t h i s i s attested by a number of occurrences i n h i s t r a n s l a t i o n of the Madhyanta-vibhdga3 for which the o r i g i n a l Sanskrit survives. On the difference between these terms and t h e i r Chinese equivalents see also La Vallee-Poussin's Appendix: "Notes sur l a Tathata ou Dharmata" (Siddhi3 pp. 743-761. 1 T CWSL: v i i . 2 5 a l8 The r e l a t i v e facts correspond to the Dependent (paratantra) aspect of own-being or existence, and the abstract u n i v e r s a l to the Absolute (parinispanna). 19 The extensive i n t e r p o l a t i o n necessary to make t h i s passage comprehensible i n English i s based on the p a r a l l e l structure of the Chinese and on the explanations of the commentators. 20 This i s a s k i l l f u l means (upaya) to be employed only p r o v i s i o n a l l y and l a t e r abandoned when the goal i s reached. 21 The Sanskrit saksatkr- ( l i t . : to do or put before one's own eyes') has the meaning of 'experiencing d i r e c t l y , ' or ' v e r i f y i n g through one's own experience.' The Chinese render t h i s with cheng HjE^ ( l i t . : 'to t e s t i f y to') conferring upon i t a somewhat extended meaning. The best English equivalent i s 'to r e a l i z e ' understood to mean both 'to e f f e c t ' and 'to make part of one's own personal experience.' Notes to Chapt. V (pp. 79 - l 6 l ) 22 - -This i s the c r u c i a l point regarding which the Yogacarins f e l t they d i f f e r e d most s i g n i f i c a n t l y from the Madhyamikas. 23 Cf. note 5 above. 24 T'o"j£ means l i t e r a l l y 'entrusted to': In Buddhist Chinese the expression t'o-sheng i s used to describe the manner of procreation of higher l i f e forms whereby the male deposits, his. _ seed (usually thought of as a homunculus) into the womb of the female who subsequently bears the c h i l d . 2 ^ In Hsuan-tsang's Chinese ching £^usually renders visaya, 'the objective realm or f i e l d , ' but can also stand for artha, 'object La Vallee-Poussin prefers the l a t t e r , reconstructing 'artha-matra.' 2 f^ This answers an unstated objection, namely: I f the inner noetic or subjective component and the inner noematic or objective component are i n e x t r i c a b l y joined, i t seems a r b i t r a r y to speak only of vijnapti-matra; why not say visaya-matra. 2 7 CWSL: x.31a 28 The Yogacarins often gloss c i t t a ('thought') and manas ('mind') as synonyms for vijnana ('mentation'); sometimes, however, they d i s t i n g u i s h between the three terms saying that c i t t a r e f e r s s p e c i f i c a l l y to the eighth mode of mentation, manas to the seventh, and vijnana, i n the s t r i c t e s t sense ('discrimination' or 'perception' to the f i r s t s i x modes. Cf. also 2.2.1 and note 109 below. 29 The Ghanavyuha Sutra was never t r a n s l a t e d by Hsuan-tsang; however t h i s verse i s c i t e d i n the Cheng-wei-shih-lun ( v i i . 2 1 a ) , T: XXXI.39a, although the source i s not mentioned there. 30 This well-known assertion occurs several times m the Avatatnsaka, see . for example T: X.194a and 195b. 31 The I-ckiao eking i s an a l t e r n a t i v e name for KumarajTva's t r a n s l a t i o n of the Fo-dh 'ui pan-nieh-p 'an lu^h-shuo-chiao-ch-ieh eking $^#L>f ^ 4 tL^1#££( T : n o- 3 8 9 ) - K'uei-chi c i t e s with e l l i p s e s the passage occurring at T: X I I . l l l l a ! 5 - 2 0 . 32 Cf. note 5 above. 33 - t Mo ' 5 ^ i s more l i t e r a l l y the t i p s or ends of the branches, The image i s of the root as the cource and the. branches as the extensions. 180 Notes to Chapt.. V (79 - l6l) 3 ^ This r e f e r s to the s e l f - v e r i f y i n g component (svasamvitti-hhaga), which occurs as t s u - t ' i - f e n & >j§w as well as tzu-cheng-fen fa Cf. note 36 below. * 35 This i s Hsiian-tsang's rendering of the f i r s t verse of Vasubandhu's Thirty Verses (T: XXXI,60a23-24). This i s the commentary on the above verse i n the CWSL (i.2b), T: XXXIlbl. Note that K'uei-chi i n c i t i n g t h i s passage uses the variant t z u - t ' i ^ ( l i t . : own-substance or e s s e n t i a l substance) rather than the more standard equivalent tzu-cheng ^ ( l i t . : s e l f - a t t e s t e r ) which i s what i s found at the corresponding spot i n the TaishS e d i t i o n of the CWSL. 3 7 T: XVI.698b2. 38 Cf. note 5 above. 39 Greed (raga) i s f i r s t i n the Yogacara l i s t of the s i x a f f l i c t i o n s (klesa ) or defilements ( s a m k l e s a ^ f t ^ ), i . e . , those mental c o e f f i c i e n t s ( c a i t t a s ) that obstruct enlightenment. F a i t h (sraddha) i s f i r s t i n the l i s t of the eleven wholesome or good (kusala )mental c o e f f i c i e n t s , i . e . , those mental states conducive to enlightenment. 41 This i s from the Mahayana-sutralarnkdra; K'uei-chi c i t e s the verse as t r a n s l a t e d by Hsiian-tsang i n the CWSL (vii.8a) where i t occurs as a quote; c f . T: XXXI.36c27-28. The t r a n s l a t i o n of La V a l l e e -Poussin (Siddhi, p. 3l6) incorporates some h e l p f u l i n t e r p o l a t i o n s based on K'uei-chi's CWSL commentary: Nous affirmons que l a pensee, unique, apparait double, comme objet et sujet (grahya, grahaka) oucomme image et v i s i o n (nimitta et darsanabhaga, . . . ) ; de meme e l l e apparait comme Raga, etc., comme Sraddha, etc.: i l n'y a pas de Dharma s o u i l l e ou bon en dehors du C i t t a . For the surviving Sanskrit version of the verse, see S. Levi's e d i t i o n of the Mahayana-sutralamkara (p. 36). This i s the s e l f - v e r i f y i n g component (samvitti-bhaga); cf . note 37 above. Notes to Chapt. V (79 - l 6 l ) This passage occurs i n a s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t form i n Hsuan-tsang's t r a n s l a t i o n (T: XIV.5631)27-28). K'uei-chi c i t e s i t again, with yet another v a r i a t i o n , i n % 1 .3.3 (k); c f . note 87. kk Cf. note 5 above. 1 + 5 T: XII.222b4-c7. ^ The a "^ here i s problematic. K'uei-chi's commentators take i t as an equivalent for yuktas or yuktitas(as t r a n s l a t e d here) which i t often i s . Lamotte seems to ignore i t i n h i s t r a n s l a t i o n of the l i n e , "puis on examine l a corde et on comprend qu'elle n'est pas un serpent," {La Somme3 p. 164). There i s nothing to which i t corresponds i n the two Chinese and one Tibetan versions of the p a r a l l e l text c i t e d i n note 47 below. ^ A c t u a l l y the verse i t s e l f i s not i n the Mahay ana-samgraha, but rather i n Asvabhava's commentary (T: XXXI.Ul5b6-cl6). Asvabhava c i t e s no source but i t seems to be the same as the f i r s t verse found i n the Hastabhavaprakarana, a work the',Tibetans ascribe to Aryadeva and the Chinese to Dignaga; c f . F. W. Thomas and H. UI: "The Hand Tre a t i s e ' , A Work b y Aryadeva." This l a t t e r work seems to be the e a r l i e s t reference i n Indian l i t e r a t u r e to the famous rope-snake analogy, better known perhaps from the l a t e r Vedanta works of S*ankara. H U The i n t e r p o l a t i o n follows Benkl (605cl4-6o6a27)• According to both the Mahay ana-samgraha and the Ch'eng-wei-shih-lun there are two portions or aspects of the Dependent: one d e f i l e d ( i . e . , the paratantra as p a r i k a l p i t a ) and one pure ( i . e . , the paratantra as parinispanna). 1)9 Hsuan-tsang and K'uei-chi render prajna ( ' i n t u i t i v e wisdom') with both chih ^  and YmlJ^ . Hui i s used for prajna as one of the f i v e s p e c i a l or determinate (viniyata) mental c o e f f i c i e n t s ( cf. n. I l l below), while chih occurs i n more general contexts. Both forms, and also the t r a n s c r i p t i o n pan-jo J$S£ 7?^ occur i n the present d i s -cussion. The standard English equivalent i s 'wisdom' i n a l l three cases. Here h u i j l * i s rendered with "wisdom" and l a t e r i n t h i s passage c h i h ^ i s rendered with "knowledge" to r e f l e c t K'uei-chi's choice of the two d i f f e r e n t characters. The context makes i t c l e a r , however, that K'uei-chi c o n s i d e r s ^ ? "knowledge" (as used here) to be equivalent to wisdom^; . The argument that K'uei-chi develops here also assumes the association of insig h t (vipasyana) with wisdom (prajna). 182 Notes to Chapt. V (79 - l6l) The c i t a t i o n i s ungrammatical hecause of the e l l i p s i s ; see Lamotte's t r a n s l a t i o n of the complete passage, La Somme, pp. 167-168. 5 1 Cf. note 49 above. 52 Hsuan-tsang's t r a n s l a t i o n of Asvabhava's Uphanibandana commentary to the Mahay ana-samgraha (T:XXXI.4l6c6). 5 3 Cf. note 49 above. 54 K'uei-chi seems here to be paraphrasing the passage c i t e d above (n. 52). ^ This i s quoted from the t r a n s l a t i o n of Hsuan-tsang, T: XXXI.142cl7-21. For a rendering of the complete passage, see Lamotte's t r a n s l a t i o n , La Somme, pp. l6l-l62. ^ The Four Examinations are: 1. nama-paryesana : examination of the fact that the name (naman) i s simply a mental expression (manojalpa). 2. art ha-parye sana ^ j f f - J ^ . :examination of the f a c t . that the thing or object (artha) i s simply a mental expression. 3. namarthasvabhava-prajnapti-paryesana %j. fa ^ f^j(^  ^ examination of the fact that the uniqueness or own-being (svabhava) a t t r i b u t e d to the name or thing i s nothing hut conceptualization (Prajnapti). 4. namarthavisesa-prajnapti-paryesana, ^ 7 ^ ^ - ^ f j ^ 5oL examination of the :fact that the d i s t i n c t i o n s or s p e c i f i c a t i o n s (visesa) a t t r i b u t e d to the name are nothing but conceptualization. The Four Exact Comprehensions are the corresponding states of comprehension a r i s i n g when one knows each of the above four, propositions to be true. For a discussion of these two Yogacara doctrines i n the Ch'eng-wei-shih-lun and the Mahay ana-samgraha, see Siddhi, pp. 576-577 and La Somme, pp. l6l-l62. For references to the doctrines i n the Bodhisattva-bhumi,the Mahayana-sutralamkara and the Abhidharma-samueeaya-vyakhya, see La Somme, p. 30. On the rol e of the Examinations and the Comprehensions i n r e a l i z i n g the emptiness of the s e l f and of dharmas see 10.1 and esp. note 297 below. Notes to Chapt. V (79 - l 6 l ) 57 Rather than a d i r e c t quote, t h i s appears to he a paraphrase of T:. XXXI.l42h6-7 i n the t r a n s l a t i o n of Hsiian-tsang. 58 The commentators say i t i s at the Stage of Provisioning and the Preliminary.Stage; c f . Tai-hsii, p. 993-59 Chih-chou (53b) says, "The impure (sasrava) i s termed 'cause,' and the pure (anasrava) within the cause >^  i s given the general designation ' e f f e c t . ' " ^° For a discussion of these three v a r i e t i e s of wisdom see Ko§a VI.5 ( x x i i . l l a - 1 2 a ) . . For a more s p e c i f i c a l l y Yogacara presen-t a t i o n of the three, see•:MaTidydna-sutrdlamkdra3yj.. 6-7 (Levi ed., PP. 55-56; trans., p.103) and also St.S'chayer's study of that chapter, "Die Erlosungslehren der Yogacaras," esp. pp. 100-102. ^ The various ways by which things are considered wholesome or conducive to enlightment are defined i n the "Prakaraprabheda" section of the Abhidhavma-sgmueeaya.- Walpola Rahula {Le Compendium, p. 35) t r a n s l a t e s : Qu'est-ce qui est favorable par l'obtention de naissance? C'est l a production des r e s u l t a t s ( v i p a k a b h i n i r v r t t i ) q u i leur conviennent (tadrupa) par suite de l a pratique h a b i t u e l l e anterieure (purvabhyasam agamya) de ces memes qualites favorables, de t e l l e maniere que l e penchant (ruci) vers e l l e s demeure naturellement (prakrtya) et inconscie.mment (apratisamkhyaya). ^ 2 T: XXXI.I42bl4 - l6 . In t h i s passage the causal aspect i s represented by the verbal concepts, while the stages attained are the e f f e c t . ^ Hsin-chieh / f | . fa i s one of several Chinese equivalents for the t e c h n i c a l term adhimukti which La Vallee-Poussin renders quite l i t e r a l l y as 'adhesion-sympathie.' It i s v a r i o u s l y glossed as involv i n g elements of zealous i n c l i n a t i o n , strong r e s o l u t i o n , f a i t h , c e r t a i n t y , etc., with regard to the Dharma. 6h On the two v a r i e t i e s of the Darsanamarga, v i z . , the tattvadarsanamarga and the laksanadarsanamarga, see ix . l 3a -15a , and also La Vallee-Poussin's note {Siddhi pp. 588-560). Notes to Chapt. V ( 7 9 - l 6 l ) This passage.is not a di r e c t - quote, hut rather a summary of the material i n the n i n t h s c r o l l which t r e a t s the f i v e stages (avastha) on the Holy Path. ^ The correct cognition, also known as the fundamental Enon-discriminatingH cognition (mula-Cnirvikalpaka3-jnana), i s : t h e state of awareness by which one r e a l i z e s enlightenment. The sub-sequently acquired cognition, which follows the correct cognition, i s the state of awareness by which the enlightened bodhisattvas and Buddhas are able to r e t a i n t h e i r s a l v i f i c e f f i c a c y i n the world of beings s t i l l bound by discrimination (vikalpa). Both of these are necessary i n the Yogacara conception of l i b e r a t i o n , i . e . , the Unfixed Nirvana ( a p r a t i s t h i t a - n i r v a n a ) . These two together with the preliminary cognition (prayogika-jnana),. make up the doctrine of the three kinds of cognition For a study of t h i s important Yogacara s o t e r i o l o g i c a l doctrine based on chapters 8 and 9 of the Mahaydna-samgraha see Sponberg, "Dynamic Li b e r a t i o n i n Yogacara Buddhism." On the doctrine of pure and impure dharmas, see Kosa 1:4 (i . 3a -3b) . 68 On the d i s t i n c t i o n between dispersed and concentrated mental dharmas see Kosa 1:33 (ii . 5 b - 6 a ) and IV:123 ( x v i i . l 7 a - b ) . 69 70 Cf. notes 60 and -6~ above. This i s Vasubandhu's commentary to the Dasabhumika Sutra; the reference i s to the 10th chapter (12th s c r o l l ) of Bodhiruci's t r a n s l a t i o n , T: XXVI.193-203. 71 This i s another essay or chapter i n K'uei-chi's Ta-sheng fa-yuan .i-Zin chang (no. 26), T: XLV.350-356. The f i v e categories of Vijnapti-matrata are di f f e r e n t from the f i v e l e v e l s of Vijnapti-matrata t ^ ' i ^ ' ^ L which were treated above.in 1.1.1-1.1.5. 73 K'uei-chi c i t e s the verse as i t i s quoted i n the Mahdydna-samgraha at T-.XXXI .148bl-2 i n the t r a n s l a t i o n of Hsuan-tsang. This same argument i s one of the four used to e s t a b l i s h Vijnaptimatrata i n the Vimsatika ( I I - I I I ) . The •Mahdydna-abdhidharma-sutra does not survive. Notes to Chapt. V (79 - 1.6l) 1 _ r This i s one l i n e of a verse from the Lahkdvatara Sutra as i t occurs i n the t r a n s l a t i o n Budhiruci and as i t i s quoted i n the Ch'eng-wei-shih-lun (ii . 2 9 a ) . K'uei-chi c i t e s the complete verse below at 1.3-3.1; see note 8 l . 75 y This i s Hsuan-tsang's rendering of Trimsika XVII (T: XXXI.6la2-3)- It r e f l e c t s the Dharmapala t r a d i t i o n of i n t e r -p reting the Sanskrit o r i g i n a l which i n the e d i t i o n of Levi (Deux TraitSs,p. 14) reads: vijnanaparinamo 'yam-vikalpo yad .vikalpyate XJ •' • tena tan n a s t i tenedam sarvamvijnaptimatrakam }| l7 l | The t r a d i t i o n that followed Sthiranati parsed the Sanskrit somewhat d i f f e r e n t l y , y i e l d i n g an al t e r n a t i v e understanding, which i s followed by Jacobi (Trimsika, p. 47) who t r a n s l a t e s : Diese Modification des Bewusstseins i s t eingebildete Vorstellung; was durch diese v o r g e s t e l l t wird, das i s t ''nichts'" Selendes . This verse i s one of the most s i g n i f i c a n t of the t h i r t y f o r comparing the two divergent t r a d i t i o n s ; c f . La Vallee-Poussin's note (Siddhi, p. 416). if\ This i s the f i r s t l i n e of two verses quoted i n the Mahdydna-samgraha from the Yoga-vibhahga ( ? ) ^ S ' J 3$t4foi$ • T n e complete text of the two from the Chinese of Hsuan-tsang reads: The bodhisattva i n the state of concentration Sees that images (pratibimba) are nothing but thought.. Once the concept of objects (arthasamjna) has been destroyed, He sees that there i s nothing but his own concepts (svasamjfia). Residing thus i n i n t e r n a l thought (antascitta) He knows that what i s apprehended (grahya) i s ine x i s t e n t , And then, that the apprehensor (grahaka) does not exist e i t h e r ; F i n a l l y he touches the state where there i s nothing to be had (anupalambha). K'uei-chi, no doubt, has i n mind the passage from the Ch'eng-wei-shih-lun ( i x . l l a ) that c i t e s these two verses to i l l u s t r a t e the nirvedhabhagTyas or phases of the Station of Preliminary Training (prayogavastha). 186 Notes -to Chapt. V (79 - l6 l ) 77 This i s quoted from Hsuan-tsang's t r a n s l a t i o n of Bandhuprabha's commentary to the Buddhabhumi Sutra, T:. XXVI. 302c. 7ft K'uei-chi c i t e s the verse as i t i s quoted i n the Ch'eng-wei-shi-lun, ( i i i . 1 5 a ) , T: XXXI.13c23-24. 79 1 7 TrimsikaXXX (T: XXXI.6lb22-23). Hsuan-tsang's t r a n s l a t i o n i n t h i s case i s a very l i t e r a l rendering of the Sanskrit (Levi, Deux Traites, p. 14): sa evanasravo dhatur acintya^. kusalo dhruvah | . sukho vimuktikayo 'sau dharmakhyo 'yam mahamuneh 113011 80 Having discussed the f i v e categories of Vijnaptimatrata, K'uei-chi now gives examples of s i x alternate ways of explaining the f i r s t of the f i v e categories, i . e . , Vijflaptimdtrata.'ln terms of the objective s e n s e - f i e l d . 8l Cf. note 74 above. The corresponding Sanskrit i s found i n the Lankavatara Sutra X:101 (NANJO, ed., p. 227): svacittabhinivesena cittam v a i sampravartate | bahirdha n a s t i v a i drsyam ato v a i cittamatrakam || 82 See note 30 above. This i s Trimsika I (T: XXXI.60a23-24) which K'uei-chi has already c i t e d above at §1.1.3; c f . note 35 above. 84 The commentators explain that r e f e r r i n g to the subjective and objective components i s to discuss Vijnaptimatrata i n terms of what e x i s t s c o n d i t i o n a l l y (samskrta-dha'rma), and that r e f e r r i n g . t o the c l i n g i n g to s e l f and dharmas i s to discuss i t i n terms of what i s clung t o . 85 The'following l i n e i s not i n the Taisho e d i t i o n of K'uei-chi's t e x t , though i t does occur i n a l l the other e d i t i o n s . The Taisho ommission i s probably a simple p r i n t i n g error since no variant i s noted in the apparatus. The omitted l i n e reads: 86 The commentators explain that mundane people conventionally state that s e l f and dharmas e x i s t basing themselves on what has no substance and following t h e i r deluded fee l i n g s t h i s i s to discuss Vijnaptimatrata i n terms of what i s clung t o . The Holy Scriptures p r o v i s i o n a l l y state that s e l f and dharmas e x i s t basing themselves on what i s s u b s t a n t i a l l y established t h i s i s to discuss Vijnaptimatrata according to what e x i s t s c o n d i t i o n a l l y . Notes to Chapt. V (79 - l 6 l ) ^ Cf. T: XIV.563h27-29. This passage was already c i t e d above in a s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t form at § 1 . 1 . 4 ; c f . note 43. 88 In Hsiian-tsang's t r a n s l a t i o n of the Sandhinivmooana Sutra t h i s passage occurs at T: XVI.698b2. 89 The f u l l verse i s c i t e d above at § 1 . 3 . 2 : c f . note 73. 90 In that analysis the f i r s t three s e n s e - f i e l d , doctrine and p r i n c i p l e s of the f i v e categories f a l l together under the heading of s e n s e - f i e l d understood more generally. 9 1 T: XXXIII.526a26-cl6; c f . no. 3 i n the Analysis of K'uei-chi's Surviving Works (Chapt. I I , p. 25 ) above. 9 2 In Buddhist Chinese shih"ti8fecan render the two d i f f e r e n t Sanskrit verbal nouns: vijnana (mentation or perception) and v i j n a p t i (representation or conceptualization). In the Buddhist Chinese of Hsiian-tsang, l i a o - p i e h ^ ^ i j which i s given here as the gloss f o r v i j f i a p t i u s ually renders a f i n i t e form of the verb v i j n a - . . ' V i j n a - ' means to know i n a discursive or discriminating manner; whence vijnana: discriminate know-ing, mentation, perception, etc. Contrast the verb prajna-: ' to know.intuitively; whence the noun prajna: i n t u i t i v e wisdom, gnosis, etc. Cf.$ 2.2.1 below where, rather than l i a o - p i e h f Jji] , K'uei-chi speaks of the l i a o - t a XjJix (understanding) and fen-pieh / ^ ^ ( d i s c r i m i n a t i n g ) a c t i v i t y of the mind. 9 3 Here (and below) K'uei-chi has simply shih "\$£fc , which could correspond to eit h e r vijnana or v i j n a p t i , and may indicate that he f e l t i t was unnecessary to d i s t i n g u i s h between the two; c f . Chapt. I l l above. Here mentation :(vijnana") • seems more l i k e l y because of the context, even though he c l e a r l y s p e c i f i e s v i j n a p t i ^ . ^ " y ^ J u s t above 94 The commentators explain that the f i r s t four are the r e l a t i v e p a r t i c u l a r s and the l a s t i s the universal p r i n c i p l e : c f . Tai-hsii, p. 1007. 95 This i s a paraphrase of a passage i n the Ch'eng-wei-shi-h-lun (vii.25a) c i t e d by K'ei-chi i n ^ l . l . l above. 96 This i s a play on the Chinese equivalent for Thusness which i s the combination of the two characters: chen-ju j|| The commen-tators explain that t h i s statement i s to answer the objection that i t seems just as v a l i d to say Thusness-only as to say representation-only While both are indeed accepted as tru e , t h e i r context and applications 188 Notes to Chapt. V (79 - l 6 l ) vary. The latter-—-though, not as u l t i m a t e — — i s nonetheless preferred because.it focuses the aspirant's.attention on the delusory, grasping nature of the mind and i s thus more appropriate., to the f i r s t e f f o r t s towards l i b e r a t i o n . Cf. the l a s t paragraph of § 2.2.2 below. ana x m r a cnaracters oi t i n s t r a n s c r i p t i o n d i f f e r e n t l y . (XLV.260al5) has -*IL for -ZjL , and fc>) f o r ^ . J with no varian-Ch'u-tz 'u (T'ang pronounciation: tsia ?-ts via h ) « d i - j j i ' J i s an i i 97 Each, of the editions of the text consulted reproduce the second and t h i r d characters f t h i s t r a n s c r i p t i o n d i f f e r e n t l y . The Taisho iants c i t e d , impossible t r a n s c r i p t i o n f or the Sanskrit '-tra-.' and probably i s simply the result, of a misprint, or perhaps the error of an e a r l i e r s c r i b e . There i s some evidence for the l a t t e r p o s s i b i l i t y , since T'ai-hsu. (p. 1008) gets, the t h i r d c h a r a c t e r ^ correct, but l i k e the. Taisho has <*)£. f o r tfjt- . Shingo (LXXI. 342b26), and Mei (.35b) whose commentary i s based on h i s , both: have the correct form Kiben (LXXXI.6l5a23) abbreviates to RJ- .„8 The single character wei renders both the base form 'matra' (only) and the derivative 'matrata', (only-ness, exelusiveness). The t r a n s c r i p t i o n above i s c l e a r l y 'matrata', however the three meanings given i n the text seem to apply to the" base form; hence 'matra' here and 'matrata' above i n the t r a n s l a t i o n . 99 The English 'only' renders t h i s f i r s t meaning of '-matra'. 1 0 0 This appears to be a paraphrase of CWSL (vii.19b) \ T: XXXI.38c24-25, which, reads s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t l y : . "The expression '-matrata' Is meant to deny that there are r e a l things e x i s t i n g apart from vijnana w&iSt "^ f ijfy , tut not to deny that mental dharmas, etc. do e x i s t inseparable from vijnana jj^  ^ %&W('*jfti \& ^  SAEKI, following K'uei-chi, glosses "mental dharmas, et c . " as the two perceptual .components (bhaga)., form (rupa), Thusness, etc. 101 K'uei-chi probably, has. in mind both the Sanskrit 'eva' ( j u s t , p r e c i c e l y , quite, that very . . ., etc.) and also the explative p a r t i c l e . 'tu.' which, does occur i n the verse he c i t e s below. . 1 0 2 Although, the' Taisho apparatus gives no va r i e n t s , the ku (therefore) at 260al8 does not occur i n the T'as-hsu, Mei, or Shing5 editions of the text;. (.it i s i n that of Kiben). The meaning i s not s i g n i f i c a n t l y affected e i t h e r way. 189 Notes to Chapt. V (79 - l 6 l ) This i s the second h a l f of the famous Madhydnta-vibhdga verse ( l : l ) , which survives i n the o r i g i n a l Sanskrit (NAGAO ed., pp. 17): ahhuta-parikalpo ' s t i dvayan t a t r a na vidyate | sunyata vidyate t v atra tasyam api sa vidyate | J l . l | | This verse i s important because i t expresses an atttempt to resolve the dilemma of accepting p l u r a l i t y i n the world at the conventional l e v e l , while maintaining that at the ultimate l e v e l R e a l i t y i s an Absolute, here expressed as amptiness (sunyata). I t i s thus a key passage for determining the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the Dependent and the Absolute and i t i s also important to any study of e a r l y Madhyamika-Yogacara hybrid thought. See the following note for a f u l l t r a n s l a t i o n . Two Chinese t r a n s l a t i o n s of the Madhyanta-vibhaga survive, that of Paramartha done between 559-570 and that of Hsuan-tsang done i n 66l; (YUKI, Tensekishi, mentions no l o s t t r a n s l a t i o n s ) . The l i n e quoted i s the same as Hsuan-tsang's version except for the character t i n g for which Hsiian-tsang gives 'wei ' . Shingo (6l5a29-bl) says that the version K'uei-chi c i t e s here i s that of Paramartha, however the Taisho e d i t i o n of Paramartha's t e x t , (T: XXXI. U6UblU), l i k e Hsiian-tsang's (T: XXXI.l+51alM has rather than , with no variant given. K'uei-chi could perhaps be r e f e r r i n g to an e a r l y draft of Hsiian-tsang's t r a n s l a t i o n . 'Ting' i s a more accurate t r a n s l a t i o n of the Sanskrit 'tu' than 'wei'. 10H This alludes to the f i r s t h a l f of the above verse, which K'uei-chi does not give i n h i s c i t a t i o n . Hsiian-tsang t r a n s l a t e s the complete verse: Vain delusion e x i s t s . In t h i s the two do not e x i s t . Within t h i s there i s only emptiness. In that there i s also t h i s . Vasubandhu's commentary (T: XXXL.U6Ubl6-22) explains that "vain delusion" r e f e r s to the discrimination of the apprehender and the apprehended. These "two" however do not e x i s t . Gopa's commentary was never t r a n s l a t e d into Chinese; K'uei-chi quotes t h i s passage from a c i t a t i o n i n h i s own Vimsatikd commentary (no. .1.7) at T: XLIII.982a. This gloss, which i s very frequently encountered i n Yogacara works, goes back to a h i s t o r i c a l l y questionable etymological derivation of c i t t a (thought) from the root V c i - : to gather, c o l l e c t . The doctrine of citta-matra i s perhaps best known from the Lahkdvatara Sutra, but i s also found i n the Avatamsaka•Sutra, cf': note 113 below. Notes to Chapt. V (79 - l 6 l ) - i A O Cf. note 92 above. 109 This comes from the opening of Vasubandhu's auto-commentary on the Twenty Verses. Note, that here the Chinese for vijnana i s c l e a r l y distinguished from v i j n a p t i ~J . Cf. CWSL (v.8a) T: XXXI. 42c9-15) 5 which explains how the terms c i t t a , manas and vijnana are used d i f f e r e n t l y , though they are of the substance. 1 1 0 In Sanskrit grammar karmadiaraya compounds are d e s c r i p t i v e compounds usually i l l u s t r a t e d by examples l i k e hilbtpala.. (blue l o t u s ) , or, i n English, by a compound l i k e b l a c k b i r d . Vijnaptimatrata can be understood as one of a sp e c i a l sub-class of karmadharya compounds made up of two substantives, rather than the more common adjective/adverb-substantive pattern. ~L1~'" As part of a discussion of the f i v e s p e c i a l or determinate (viniyata) mental c o e f f i c i e n t s ( c a i t t a ) , the Ch'eng-wei-shth-lim (v.31ab) defines wisdom (prajna) as discernment (pravicaya Ef] i f ). In Buddhist. terminology, pravicaya ( [ i n t u i t i v e or enlightened' d i s -cernment) has a p o s i t i v e connotation, whereas vi k a l p a ( [ f a l s e , v a i n , or deluded] discrimination) has a decidedly negative connotation; c f . also note 92 above. 11? Cf. Shingo (345b6-9). 113 The citta-matra(ta) doctine occurs several places i n the Avatamsaka (e.g., T: X.194a, 195b and 288c) and very often of course, i n the Lankavatara. m i ' ' " — " *'* ' ';o transport, transportation) as sheng 115 The most important passage i n the Lotus dealing with the One Vehicle doctrine i s the Parable of the Burning House (T: IX.9b f f . i n KumarajTva's Chinese ve r s i o n ) . For an English t r a n s l a t i o n of the KumarajTva version, the most popular i n East A s i a , see L. Hurvitz, Scripture of the Lotus Blossom, pp. 58ff. On the three kinds of cognition see note 66 above. 1 1 7 Shingo (347al9-20) and Mei (29a-b) say that t h i s means: "When we speak of r e a l i z i n g the p r i n c i p l e - that the Dependent i s l i k e an i l l u s i o n , then i t i s only the conventional and not the ab-solute 1 [that i s involved!." The commentators gloss yun , (t< ; ( v e h i c l e ) ; hence 'conveyance.' Notes to Chapt. V (79 - l 6 l ) l l 8 Shingo (3^71>2l) c i t e s Zenju who says that the following polemic i s directed p r i m a r i l y against.the Chinese. Madhyamika exegete Chi-tsang jjjw . The issue i s whether the One Vehicle should, be considered cause or f r u i t , or both. Chi-tsang discusses the three a l t e r n a t i v e s i n his Commentary on the Lotus Sutra.(T: no. 1722, XXXIV) deciding i n favor of the second a l t e r n a t i v e , that the One Vehicle i s the F r u i t i o n • Knowledge of the Buddhas. K'uei-chi attacked that position, maintaining that i t must be both cause and f r u i t . His arguments are i n t r i c a t e and s c h o l a s t i c . The present text i s only a b r i e f summary; they are presented more f u l l y i n K'uei-chi's Commentary on the Lotus Sutra (T: XXXIV.762a). The key point for K'uei-chi i s that the One Vehicle i s a conveyance, a means of reaching the goal of enlightenment. It must, therefore, be considered as cause. He accepts that, as the reward which i s waiting outside the burning house, i t can also be considered the f r u i t ; hence his p o s i t i o n that i t i s both cause and f r u i t . 1 1 9 Tao-ch,'' ang i s the standard equivalent for bodhimanda, the platform, terrace or seat of enlightenment the spot under the hodhi tree where the Buddha became enlightened. 1 2 0 According to the Srimdld-devT Sutra (T: XII.219b), the Six Dharmas or basic t o p i c s taught by the Buddha are the preservation of the True Doctrine, the decline of the True Doctrine, the monastic rules (pratimoksa), the monastic code (vinaya), going f o r t h from the home to take up the monastic l i f e , and the ordination of monks. For an English t r a n s l a t i o n of t h i s passage, see A. and H. Wayman, Lion's Roar, pp. 78-79. 121 This i s the fourth essay or chapter of K'uei-chi's Ta-sheng fa-yuan i-'-lin ehang (no. 26), T: XLV.261+-268. 122 The chapter on the Dharma-theme of Non-duality, famous f o r the passage r e l a t i n g VimalakTrti's "thunderous s i l e n c e , " i s i n the f i f t h s c r o l l of Hsiian-tsang*s t r a n s l a t i o n (T: XIV.577al2-23); cf . E. Lamotte's excellent French t r a n s l a t i o n of the Tibetan version of the chapter, L*Enseignement3 pp. 301-318. 123 Ta-hui ehing (Mahamati Sutra) i s an alternate name for Gunabhadra's t r a n s l a t i o n of the Lahkdvatara Sutra: the doctrine r e f e r r e d to here i s found at T: XVI.506a. 124 s The doctrine of the Inconceivable i s discussed at T: XVI.526a in Bodhiruci's t r a n s l a t i o n of the Lahkdvatara. Notes to Chapt. V (pp. 79 - l 6 l ) 125 » i,v In the Chinese of Hsuan-tsang and K'uei-chi, shih-she i s a standard equivalent for prajnapti and the. f i n i t e forms of the verb prajna- i n the causative, which means 'to form concepts o f , or 'to designate'. This i s discussed at T: XXX.654a i n Hsuan-tsang's t r a n s l a t i o n of the Yogdedrabhumi. 127 This i s taught several places i n the Mahayana-samgraha, see esp. T: XXXI.139b6 f f . The phrase: "manifestests i t s u n i v e r s a l i t y , continuity. . . ," i s also found i n the CWSL ( v i i i . 3 0 a ) T: XXXI46bll. 128 This i s the Abhidharma-sumueeaya-vydkhyd which was t r a n s l a t e d by Hsuan-tsang and was the subject of a .sub-commentary by K'uei-chi (no. 15). The passage r e f e r r e d to here (T: XXXI.702b3-c2) occurs i n a discussion of the eight unconditioned dharmas which include several of the other doctrines mentioned by K'uei-chi i n t h i s section. 129 Cf. Madhydnta-vibhdga verse 1:4 (NAGAO ed., p. 19). 130 This i s a seemingly un-Buddhist. doctrine, e s p e c i a l l y i f avikaratva i s rendered 'immutability'. Shingo (353a29-bl) c i t e s Sthiramati's Abhidharma-samuccaya-vydkhya l(T: XXX.702b-c), which explains that what i s forever unaffected i s the lack of any true s e l f (anatman). 131 Shingo again c i t e s the same passage (see n. 130 above) from Sthiramati's commentary which explains that akasa should be understood as the absence of matter or form. 132 The reference i s to a passage (T: V.71a) i n Hsuan-tsang's t r a n s l a t i o n of the 'Satasdhasrikd Prajftdparamitd. 133 See notes 125 and 126 above. The text of the Yogdedrabhumi (T: XXX.653c) goes on to explain that the Four Holy Truths are what can.be conceptually f i x e d and the Thusness (tathata), i s what cannot be conceptually f i x e d . See also La Vallee-Poussin's note, Siddhi, p. 582-583. 135 The passage occurs at T: XII.221b-c. For a discussion of the difference, see the English t r a n s l a t i o n and notes i n A. and H. Wayman, Lion's Roar, pp. 96-98. The Waymans r e f e r to the two types as the "Create and Uncreate Holy Truths." Notes to Chapt. V (79 - l6l) 1 3 6 T: XII.443a 137 T: XXXI.536c; t h i s i s from an important hut as yet rather neglected-early Yogacara t r e a t i s e , the Hsien-yang-sheng-chiao-lun (ff: 1602), a work surviving only i n Chinese that i s ... a t t r i b u t e d to Asanga and was tr a n s l a t e d by Hsuan-tsang; the Sanskrit t i t l e has been reconstructed as Prakaranarya-sasana-sastra or -vaca-It i s an abridgement of the Yogdedrabhumi according to the preface, but Alex Wayman {Analysis, p. 32 and 39) f e e l s that i t i s an e a r l i e r work of which the Yogdedrabhumi i s an expansion; t h i s i s a problem that warrants more attention. 138 K'uei-chi often uses i n i t i a l , middle and subsequent to re f e r to the three kinds of nondiscriminating cognition, the preliminary, the fundamental or correct, and the subsequently acquired; c f . note 66 above. 139 The Sanskrit nairatmya means l i t e r a l l y ' s e l f l e s s - n e s s ' . Nairatmya-dharmata (the nonsubstantiality of a l l dharmas [i n c l u d i n g the person or s e l f 1 ) i s mentioned i n the Mahayana-samgraha at T: XXXI.147c9, and Asvabhava analyses i t into the dual non-sub-s t a n t i a l i t y of both person and dharmas i n his commentary, T: XXXI.430al7 26... This doctrine i s a more frequently encountered topic i n the CWSL. l i | 0 See T: XVT.688b694a for the Sandhinirmocana chapter. There i s also a long discussion of these two doctrines i n the Mahayana-samgraha and the CWSL. The Yogdedrabhumi (T: XXX.436b) l i s t s the three as emptiness (sunyata), the absence of signs (animitta), and the absense of desires (apranihita). They are also mentioned but not l i s t e d i n the commentary t Mahayana-sutrdlankdra XI:3 (S. Levi ed., p. 54). 142 I have not yet located t h i s doctrine i n the Yogdedrabhumi. 143 • In Hsuan-tsang's t r a n s l a t i o n of the Yogacarabhumi these are discussed at T: XXX.544a. 144 The doctrine of the Four Siddhantas or points of view i s found only i n the Ta-chih-tu-lun (Mahaprajnaparamita-sastra?), T: XXV.59b-6lb; although there i s a p a r a l l e l doctrine of four r e a l i t i e s (tattva) i n the Bodhisattvabhumi (WOGIHARA ed., p. 37). For a t r a n s l a t i o n of the Ta-chih-t*u-lun passage, see E. Lamotte, Le t r a i t e , pp. 27-46. Notes to Chapt. V (79 - l 6 l ) See note 56 above and 297 below. See note 56 above and 297 below. - i , ^ 7 This i s the Jen-wang pan-jo-po-lo-mi-to ching . J . >j£ ^7 (T: no. 245). The discussion of/the Five Patiences i s found at (T: VIII .,826b)-. On the Ten.Lands see. section nine of the t r a n s l a t i o n below. 148 The commentators, however, say that a l l three cognitions are involved, and not simply the remaining two: c f . Shingo (358al6-17). On the Six Abhisamayas see CWSL (ix.l6b-17a). Also very h e l p f u l . i s La Vallee-Poussin 1s long note, "Les s i x Abhisamayas et le s deux Darsanamargas, (SiddhiyW. 601-602 ) which discusses the Sanskrit and P a l i sources for the Abhisamaya doctrine and also the various l i s t s that occur. The Seven Components of Enlightenment make up the s i x t h d i v i s i o n of the Thirty-seven Aids to Enlightenment (bodhipaksya, dharmah); f o r a convenient l i s t of the thirty-seven aids with one set of the Chinese equivalents, see L. Hurvitz, Chih-I3 pp. 344-346. For a d e t a i l e d study of the thirty-seven, see Har Dayal, Bod. Doctrine, pp. 80-164. 151 The E i g h t - f o l d Noble Path i s , of course, the Fourth Holy Truth and also the seventh d i v i s i o n of the Thirty-seven Aids to Enlighten-ment; c f . note 150 above. 152 A This doctrine i s discussed i n the' Sravakabhwii section of the logacarabhwtij T: XXX.450cl5-20. 15 3 These are discussed i n the Hsien-yang-lun (cf. note 137) at T: XXXI.496b5-12. 154 The four States of Mindfulness make up the f i r s t d i v i s i o n of the Thirty-seven Aids to Enlightenment; c f . note 150 above. The Four Right E f f o r t s make up the second d i v i s i o n of the Thirty-seven Aids to Enlightenment; c f . note 150 above. The Four Elements of Supernatural Power make up the t h i r d d i v i s i o n of the Thirty-seven Aids to Enlightenment; c f . note 150 above. Notes to Chapt. V (pp. 79 - l 6 l ) 157 These are moral f a c u l t i e s rather than the f i r s t f i v e sense-f a c u l t i e s . Together they make up the fourth d i v i s i o n of the T h i r t y -seven Aids to Enlightenment; c f . note 150 above. 158 These are the f i f t h d i v i s i o n of the Thirty-seven Aids (cf. note 150 above); they are the powers corresponding to the f i v e (potential) f a c u l t i e s mentioned above. Shingo (359al7-19) comments that the above doctrines (from the Six Comprehensions to the Five Powers) are common to a l l three v e h i c l e s , to that of the sravakas, the pratyeka-buddhas, and the bodhisattvas; therefore, they are not discussed i n d e t a i l . In another chapter of K'uei-chi's Ta-sheng - fa-yuan i-lin ehang;. (no. 26), the "Essay on Severing the Obstacles" Jg^ " jSjjt^ f^ . , he says that t h i s r e f e r s to the four d i v i s i o n s of the Mahasamgikas plus the MahTsasakas (T: XLV.282cl7-l8). K'uei-chi's primary source for information regarding the doctrines of the ea r l y Indian schools of Buddhism that never gained any following i n China i s vasumitra's Samayabhedoparacanacakra, a d o c t r i n a l h i s t o r y t r a n s l a t e d by both Paramartha and Hsiian-tsang and also the subject of a commentary by K'uei-chi (no. 12). These are the f i r s t s i x modes of mentation (vijnana), the l i s t common to a l l Buddhist schools. l62 Following K'uei-chi's other works Shing5 (359"b22-24) says that t h i s group includes the VatsTputrTyas and also the DharmottarTyas, the BhadrayanTyas, the. SammEtTyas and the Saimagarikas. Shingo notes (359c4-10) that K'uei-chi does not specify i n h i s other works which schools are to be included, i n t h i s group, but he and the other commentators f e e l that K'uei-chi meant to include the rest of the t r a d i t i o n a l l i s t of eighteen Hinayana schools, according to Vasumitra (see note 160 above). 164 The f i r s t view i s ascribed to Bodhiruci, the second to Paramartha. The references c i t e d by Shingo (359c-360a) i l l u s t r a t i n g these two views warrant discussion i n any future work on Yogacara i n pre-T'ang China. T'ai^hsii (p. 1029) comments: "While s t i l l within the causal stage Ci.e., before the f r u i t of nirvana i s at t a i n e d ] , only the [mental c o e f f i c i e n t ] wisdom (prajna),associated with the s i x t h vijnana can be considered vijnana i n i t s subjective aspect." Notes to Chapt. V (pp. 79 - 161) In a more s p e c i f i c context the Chinese yii renders the sp e c i a l or determinate- (viniyata) mental c o e f f i c i e n t ( c a i t t a ) chanda (inte r e s t or d e s i r e ) . Here i t seems more l i k e l y to h e - e l l i p t i c for t'an-yu ^ , and thus to he understood as the more serious a f f l i c t i o n : greed of covetousness (raga). The compound l i . - y i i occurs i n Hsiian-tsang's t r a n s l a t i o n of the Kosa for vit a - r a g a , vairagya-, etc. This statement occurs i n a s i g n i f i c a n t passage discussing the d i s t i n c t i o n s of the s i x t h vijnana: T: XXX.280h i n Hsiian-tsang's t r a n s l a t i o n . l68 This is. i n the same passage c i t e d above i n note 167. T'ai-hsii (pp. 1029-1030) and the other commentators explain that, from the time that the bodhisattva begins on the Path - of Vis i o n (darsana-marga) and the s i x t h vijnana begins to develop into wisdom, the seventh also follows, gradually developing into wisdom as w e l l . Shingo" (360b-c) c i t e s at some length the texts on which t h i s view i s based. 170 _ _ On the samanya-laksana and the prabheda-laksana see CWSL (ix . 7a ) and Kosa -III:32c-d* (x.8a), VI:15c-d ( x x i i i . 2 b ) . La V a l l e e -Poussin reconstructs *samasta-laksana and vyasta-laksana r e s p e c t i v e l y , but the forms given above are attested i n Hsiian-tsang's t r a n s l a t i o n of both the Kosa and thQ^Mad^ydnta-vibhaga. T'ung-hsiang ilsl i s an alt e r n a t i v e f o r kung-hsiang ^ Z.^ • ' 171 L i t . : ". . .because of a l l the darmas, which are a general object ^samaatalambanasarvadharmebhyah)"; on the samastalambana, see the Kosa references c i t e d i n note 170 above. 1 7 2 For examples see the Yogacarabhumi (T: XXX.628c), Sthiramati's Vyakhya to the Abhidharma-samuceaya (l: XXXI-.726,ST-727a), and also the commentary to the Buddhabhumi 'Sutra (T: XXVI.3l8a-b). 17 3 The Dependent (paratantra) has a d e f i l e d , i l l u s o r y nature and a pure nature, i . e . , i t can be seen as the Imaginary ( p a r i k a l p i t a ) or as the Absolute (parinispanna); c f . §1.1 . 5 and note 48 above. 174 The "bodhisattvas of one category" maintained that there i s only one category or mode of mentation, v i z . manas, and that everything can be reduced to i t . For a discussion of t h i s p o s i t i o n see the Mahay ana-samgraha (T: XXXI.138 c23-13916) and the corresponding commentaries: Vasubandhu (339c23-342bl3) and Asvabhava (401c27-402bl0). Cf. also Lamotte's trans. (La Somme, pp. 101-103); Lamotte Notes to Chapt. V (pp. 79 - l 6 l ) understands i - l e i p'u-sa.- - to mean "one category of bodhisattvas" rather than "the bodhisattvas of one category." No names of any Indian masters who held t h i s view are given,'but Kiben (630al-2) says that K'uei-chi's famous r i v a l , the Korean monk Wonch'uk $ 7$'^ 1 S a s s o c ^ - a " t e d with one v a r i e t y of the doctrine. 175 The fundamental mode of mentation i s another name for the eighth or store (alaya) mode, and the developed (.pravrtti)- '.'•' modes are the f i r s t seven. The passage c i t e d occurs at T: XXX.651b i n the t r a n s l a t i o n of Hsuan-tsang. This i s Hsuan-tsang's t r a n s l a t i o n (T: XXXI.U64c9) of the f i r s t h a l f of Verse 1:3; i n Sanskrit (NAGAO ed. p. 18): artha-satvatma-vijnapti-pratibhasam prajayate | vijnanam n a s t i casyarthas tad-abhavat tad apy asat j| There are a c t u a l l y four terms mentioned here, but K'uei-chi's commentators explain that the f i r s t two, what appear as objects and beings, are included i n the alaya-vijnana; the t h i r d , what appears as a s e l f , i s the seventh vijnana (manas); and the fourth, what appears as representations, comprises the s i x sensory vijnanas. 1 7 7 This i s verse 2a-b of the Tvimsikd T: XXXI.60a26 i n Hsuan-tsang' s t r a n s l a t i o n . F r u i t i o n i s the eighth or alaya-vijnana, c o g i t a t i o n i s the seventh (manas) and discrimination of the sense-f i e l d s comprises the remaining s i x sensory vijnanas. The CWSL, i n i t s commentary on the above verse (ii.12b-13a), explains that the eighth vijnana can be considered both cause and e f f e c t : as cause i t i s termed sarvabTjaka, that which has a l l the seed p o t e n t i a l i t i e s ; as e f f e c t , i t i s the vipakaphala, the ripened f r u i t of the p a r t i c u l a r existence ( i . e . , b i r t h ) a given i n d i v i d u a l experiences as the r e s u l t of his.previous actions that i s as a result, of the seeds l a i d down previously. This i s not the same cause-fruit d i s t i n c t i o n that distinguishes the s p i r i t u a l path (cause) from Buddha-hood ( f r u i t ) . 1 7 9 T'ai-hsu (1034) says that t h i s view i s represented by the Vimsatikd. Shingo • (366cl6-367a7) analyzes., i t -more c a r e f u l l y , : citing"* passages out of .'several'works including the Yogdcavdbhurni. 180 T: XVI.721b; see also the commentary a t t r i b u t e d to Bandhuprabha: T:•XXVI.302b. On the four cognitions see Chapt. I l l above. 198 Notes to Ch.. V ( p p. 79 _ I'6l:) T: XII.222h. l82 Of the eighteen realms or factors i n the process of perception, ( v i s . , s i x sense f a c u l t i e s , s i x sense objects and s i x sensory perceptions) seven are considered to be mental i n the HTnayana Abhidharma. 18 3 • , On the ..eight modes p f mentation, see Chapt. I l l above. -1 oJ. • ' -T: XVI. 565b The Wu-hsiang-lun (aZaksana-sdstra?) was a long work, probably a compilation of several Yogacara t e x t s , s a i d to have been t r a n s l a t e d by Paramartha. It i s no longer existent as such", however, Paramartha's t r a n s l a t i o n of the Trimsikdjthe Chuan-shih-lun t^sSfcl^ w ( T : 1587, v o l . XXXI) i s said to have been one part of i t . K'uei-chi's reference i s to a passage i n t h i s l a t t e r work (T: XXXI.62C). 1 8 6 T: XVI.642c-643a. -1 Qrj Shingo.(369a22-29) explains that these two texts consider the amala-vijnana to be Thusness (t-athata) rather than simply the p u r i f i e d form of the eighth vijnana. This i s of course contrary to the Dharmapala t r a d i t i o n . 1 Aft This verse i s quoted i n the CWSL (iii.1 5 a ) T: XXXI.13c. 189 This view maintains that a l l eight vijnanas function at the causal l e v e l , but only the sixth,.seventh, and eighth remain when the f r u i t i s r e a l i z e d . The f i r s t f i v e are excluded from the f r u i t i o n ' stage because i t i s held that they and t h e i r respective objects and f a c u l t i e s , i . e . , the f i r s t f i f t e e n realms or factors of perception (cf. note 182 above) are inherently impure and a n t i t h e t i c a l to the f r u i t of Buddha-hood. K'uei-chi r e f e r s to the passage i n the Budanabhumi at T: XXVI.293c, and probably also has i n mind CWSL (x .l9a-22b) T: XXXI.57a. 190 Sthiramati thus maintains that, while the causal stage comprises a l l eight vijnanas, the f r u i t i o n " • s t a g e lacks the seventh because i t i s e s s e n t i a l l y d e f i l e d and must be t o t a l l y cut o f f . 191 Dharmapala d i f f e r s from Sthiramati i n that he accepts a p u r i f i e d state of the seventh vijnana (manas) which i s fun c t i o n a l in..the f r u i t i o n ? . stage of Buddhahood. 192 ^ • This view i s also ascribed to Bandhusri Notes to Chapt. V (pp. 79 - l 6 l ) 193 That i s to say: the eight vijnanas have d i f f e r e n t a c t i v i t i e s , they have the d i f f e r e n t sense f a c u l t i e s as t h e i r base, they have the di f f e r e n t sense-fields as t h e i r objects, and they are associated with, d i f f e r e n t mental states. 194 The eighth vijnana i s what i s perfumed (so-hsun H]^* )» whereas the remaining seven vijnanas are the perfuming agents (neng-195 This appears, to be a paraphrase of a passage occurring at CWSL (vii.18a) T: XXXI.38c; c f . La Vallee-Poussin's t r a n s l a t i o n and very h e l p f u l i n t e r p o l a t i o n s (Siddhi3 p. 414). 196 In the Lankdvatdra t h i s verse i s found at T: XVI.574b-c. It i s also quoted i n the CWSL passage c i t e d above i n note 195 and La Vallee-Poussin (Siddhi, pp. 414-415) adds a very i n t e r e s t i n g note. This verse,, i n i t s d i f f e r e n t versions warrants further study. 197 This l a s t paragraph seems out of place, coming a f t e r the stated conclusion. It might, be an addendum of K'uei-chi's or the in t e r p o l a t i o n of some l a t e r commentator. It might also be a displaced portion of the o r i g i n a l t e x t : l o g i c a l l y i t should come at the beginning o f § 5 . 2 before the discussion of the eight modes of mentation. 198 The. stages of s a n c t i f i c a t i o n are the Four Paths (marga) and the Five Stages (avastha) discussed above i n Chapt. I I I . Here K'uei-chi f i r s t (§6.1.1) c i t e s three d i f f e r e n t passages from Yogacara.treatises that seem to outl i n e the progression of s a n c t i -f i c a t i o n d i f f e r e n t l y , and then (§6.1.2) he explains how these passages are to be understood so that there i s no contr a d i c t i o n . 199 K'uei-chi c i t e s Hsuan-tsang's. t r a n s l a t i o n of the Mahaydna-samgrdha.: (T: XXXI.142bl4-17); c f . Lamotte's French t r a n s l a t i o n (La Somme3 pp. 155-156). 2 0 0 This c i t a t i o n from Asvabhava's Upanibandana i s s l i g h t l y abbreviated; see Hsuan-tsang's Chinese t r a n s l a t i o n (T: XXXI.414a3-5) and also the French, t r a n s l a t i o n of Lamotte (La Samme, pp. 155-156). This phrase, "yu'shih hsiang hsin was apparently dropped i n La Vallee-Poussin's.translation of the CWSL (Siddhi3 p. 563) Rather than Wei Tat's.(p. 667) reading of vijnana f or shih i n t h i s l i n e i t seems.preferable to take i t as an e l l i p s i s f o r wei-shih , necessary to maintain the s t r i c t four-four rhythm. Understood thus (as t r a n s l a t e d here) i t i s p a r a l l e l with, the c l o s i n g phrase of the 200 Notes to Chapt. V (pp. 79 - l 6 l ) 202 "^ The ""belief and understanding"/^ nT n e r e ^ s "the same as the "fi r m r e s o l v e " ^ jJJj; i n the Mahayana-samgraha i n the f i r s t paragraph above. Both are standard Chinese equivalents for the Sanskrit adhimukti, which i s perhaps best understood as 'resolute b e l i e f . ' • 2 0 3 CWSL (ix.4a-b) T: XXXI.48bl5-20 204 The passage i s c i t e d from Hsuan-tsang's t r a n s l a t i o n , T: XXX.628bl5-24. 205 The "stage of concentration" ref e r s to the c u l t i v a t i o n of the Four Examinations (paryesana) and the Four Exact Comprehensions (yatha-bhuta-par'ijnana )undertaken at the Stage of Preliminary Training (prayogavastha); c f . note 56 above. 2 ° ^ Though there i s no subduing and elimination- of the a f f l i c t i o n s i n the period of hearing and thinking about the Dharma, there i s some subduing and elimination when one begins t r a i n i n g i n the Four Examinations and the Four Exact Comprehensions; therefore, these two periods which comprise the F i r s t Land (bhumi) i n the Mahayana-samgraha are counted separately as two d i s t i n c t stages i n the CWSL formula. 207 The Four Steps Conducive to I n t e l l e c t u a l Penetration are the preparation f o r entering the Path of V i s i o n (darsana-marga), i n the five-stage formula of the CWSL they make up the Stage of Preliminary Training; whereas, i n the four-stage formula of the Mahayana-samgraha they are mastered at the very end of one's residence i n the Land where One Practices Firm Resolve (adhimukticarya-bhumi). The Four Examinations and the Four Exact Comprehensions are acquired during the course of mastering these nirvedha-bhagiyas. The Path of Vi s i o n i s also known as the Stage of Penetration (nirvedhavastha). 2 0 8 Tai-hsu (p. 1042) says t h i s r e f e r s to those who f i r s t follow the HTnayana and l a t e r the Mahayana, or i n some cases, to those who f a l l back to the Hinayana from the Mahayana, only l a t e r to take up the Mahayana once again. In the l a t t e r case e s p e c i a l l y y u - h u i . can be understood i n i t s common meaning of 'winding about l i k e a r i v e r . ' Those who convert to the bodhisattva path are those of unspecified or indeterminate clan (aniyata-gotra); c f . La Vallee-Poussin's "Carriere du Bodhisattva" i n the appendix to the Siddhi3 p. 723, and also Ober-m i l l e r ' s "Doctrine of Prajna-paramita.," p. 33. 209 Pure, discursive^ contemplation i s the highest of the anupurva-samapattis and i s the preparation for nirodha-samapatti, the concentration of ext i n c t i o n accessible to the saints of a l l three v e h i c l e s . 201 Notes to Chapt. V (pp. 79 - l 6 l ) 210 According to...the CWSL (ix . l 3 a - l 6 b ) there are two d i v i s i o n s of the Path of V i s i o n (darsana-marga), the chen-chien-tao $ v jvf' and the hsiang-chien-tao J^Q , which La Vallee-Poussin "reconstructs as tattva-darsana-marga and laksana-darsana-marga respectively.There are problems with both reconstructions however: the f i r s t could be *bhuta-darsana-marga or *tathata- ; and the second, even more problematic, could be laksana- , n i m i t t a - 0 0 or even a k a r a - 0 0 , where h s i a n g ^ would stand for hsing-hsiang ^ Jjf)^ • The commentators to K'uei-chi's text seem to have the l a t t e r , i . e . , akara-darsana-marga, i n mind, but the issue remains a problem r e q u i r i n g further•study and a d d i t i o n a l sources. See also La.Vallee-Poussin's note (Siddhi, pp. 588-589). 211 The commentators point out that t h i s r e f e r s only to the Second, Third and Fourth Land, since the F i r s t Land i s attained already on the Path of V i s i o n (darsana-marga). The following statements thus pertain to the Path of C u l t i v a t i o n (bhavana-marga). The n i r n i m i t t a - v i h a r a f u l l y attained only i n the Seventh Land; c f . Siddhi, p. .616, for a discussion of "being without notions." 213 The Stage of C u l t i v a t i o n (bhavana-marga) comes to an end with the Tenth Land bringing K'uei-chi now to the Final. Stage (nisthavastha*) which i s the Land of the Buddhas (buddha-bhumi). 214 The f i r s t two of the Cognitions are s p e c i f i e d or determinate i n that they always take the absolute and the conventional together as t h e i r object. The s i x t h of the contemplations that make up the t h i r d Cognition, however, takes them sometimes together, sometimes separately as i t s object. 215 The commentators say that the preceeding view i s that of •Dharmapala and what follows i s that of Prabhamitra, the d i s c i p l e of Dharmapala's who wrote the commentary on the Buddhabhumi Sutra. This occurs at the Stage of Provisioning(sambharavasta) ; according to the commentators. 217 This occurs at the Stage of Preliminary Training (prayoga-vastha). 01 A Shingo5. (383a26-27) says that t h i s l i n e means that "the r e a l i z a t i o n of the mind and the s e n s e - f i e l d come together with R e a l i t y . " Notes t o Chapt. V (pp. 79 - l 6 l ) P I Q This i s said to. occur on the Path, of V i s i o n (.darsana-marga). 220 This, corresponds to the c u l t i v a t i o n of the Ten Lands on the Path of C u l t i v a t i o n (bhavana-marga). 221 This i s s a i d to occur at the F i n a l Stage (nis.thavastha). 222 This paragraph analyses c u l t i v a t i o n with reference to the condition or states of the contemplating mind as i t progresses through the Five Stages. The next paragraph gives another analysis of c u l t i -vation, t h i s time s p e c i f y i n g which of the three v a r i e t i e s of wisdom i s operative at each stage, whether one i s c u l t i v a t i n g the mani-festations or the seed-potentialities,and whether the reference i s to impure or pure dharmas. 223 These are the three v a r i e t i e s of wisdom: that produced through er u d i t i o n (srutamayT prajna), that produced through r e f l e c t i o n (.cintamayi"); and that produced through c u l t i v a t i o n (bhavanamayT). 224 This r e f e r s not to the Ten Lands of the Bodhisattva Path discussed above, but to the nine stations of the three realms. There nine lands or stations are the l e v e l s of existence, one land at the l e v e l of the Desire Realm (kama-dhatu), four lands i n the Realm of Form (rupa-dhatu) and four more i n the Formless Realm (arupya-dhatu). They are both l e v e l s of r e b i r t h and of meditative concentration. Another name for the nine stations of existence ( c h i u - t i i s the nine paths (chiu-tao -j]^ jjjf. ) . 226 This quote i s from a passage (T: XXXI.738al2-68) discussing four types of cultivation., the two which K'uei-chi t r e a t s here plus two more, v i z . : the c u l t i v a t i o n of disposing (vinirdhavana-bhavana) and the c u l t i v a t i o n of opposing (pratipaksa-bhavana). In the f i r s t of the four, the c u l t i v a t i o n of a c q u i s i t i o n , one c u l t i v a t e s the whole-some dharmas that have not yet been produced i n order to acquire them. In the second, the c u l t i v a t i o n of p r a c t i c e , one c u l t i v a t e s the whole-some dharmas that have already been produced i n order to enhance and expand them. In the t h i r d , the c u l t i v a t i o n of disposing, one c u l t i -vates the expulsion of .unwholesome dharmas that have been produced i n order to permanently dispose of them. And f i n a l l y i n the fourth, the cultivation- of. oppostion, one opposes those unwholesome dharmas that have not yet been produced so that they w i l l never be produced. 227 The manifestation can produce new seeds; t h i s i s what i s meant by an increase i n the substance. However, the newly produced seeds can be only of the same l e v e l as the manifestation i t s e l f , hence only of the lower state i n t h i s case. An increase i n Notes to Chapt. V (pp. 79 - l 6 l ) function, on the other hand, r e f e r s to.the reinforcement of seed-, p o t e n t i a l i t i e s already present,. and these, can he of any state, higher states as well as the current lower state.. Therefore,. although there can he no new production of s e e d - p o t e n t i a l i t i e s of higher states, the already e x i s t i n g s e e d - p o t e n t i a l i t i e s of higher states, can he r e i n f o r c e d and thus enhanced;cf. T'ai-hsu's comment to t h i s passage (p. 1050). P P R CWSL (vii.33a) T: XXXI.41a24-25. 229 What i s manifest i s only the thought of the higher state; however, a l l wholesome s e e d - p o t e n t i a l i t i e s , even those already acquired.in lower states, are enhanced and so the ' c u l t i v a t i o n of a c q u i s i t i o n ' i s s a i d to be of both the higher and the lower l e v e l s . 230 This case d i f f e r s from the above only i n that i t i s i n i t i a t e d i n one of the higher states. The r e s u l t s are the same as the case above. The commentators discuss a number of theories on the d i v i d i n g l i n e between these two cases within the nine states. 2 3 1 T: XXXI.74255-12• 232 L i t . : Cat the stage] of the i n i t i a l actions. This term occurs as the f i r s t of a ser i e s of progressive degrees i n several Abhidharma c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s ; cf. Kosa VI:9d ( x x i i . l 4 b ) , VI:70 (xxv.l4a-15a), and VIII:31c'(xxix2b-3a). 233. The t r a n s l a t i o n follows the commentators rather than the punctuation indicated i n the Taisho ed.; c f . Shingo (370a8-12) and Jiben (639c20-23). 2 3 ^ Hsing "Id (nature) as i s often the case, stands for tzu-hsing Q 7flL : svabhava (own-being). The question treated by K'uei-chi i n t h i s section i s : to which of the three aspects of existence or own-being (svabhava) does contemplation belong. Jiben (639c26-28) glosses kuan-fa Jg^y^ (contemplation-dharma) i n the t i t l e of t h i s section as meaning 'contemplation and dharma(s)' rather than 'the dharma of contemplation.' He goes on to say that contemplation means 'what contemplates'. ( i . e . , the subjective factor) and dharma(s) means what i s contemplated (I.e..., the objective f a c t o r ) . This i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i s not found i n the other commentaries and i s not r e f l e c t e d i n the present t r a n s l a t i o n . 2 3 ^ Wu-ju "J^ fyX^  renders the Sanskrit verb praskand- which means 'to enter,' but with the a d d i t i o n a l connotation of 'coming to under-stand completely.' Thus 'to enter' the Three Natures i s to f u l l y understand and experience a l l t h e i r implications, not simply to Notes to Chapt. V (pp. 79 - l6l) know them as, d o c t r i n a l statements. Both.Chinese and English lack a single verb, that conveys this, meaning adequately. The Chinese t r a n s l a t o r s employed: the compound wu-gu. (to awaken to. and. enter, or awakened-ly to enter). The l i t e r a l E n g l i s h equivalent seems somewhat clumsy, hut i t makes i t possible to r e f l e c t K'uei-chi's. play on the Chinese wu-ju which he l a t e r s p l i t s into two separate verbs. 2 36 There i s a discrepancy here between K'uei-chi's c i t a t i o n and the text of Hsuan-tsang's Mahdydna-samgraha t r a n s l a t i o n . Hsiian-tsang' s t r a n s l a t i o n i n a l l surviving versions has lisiang jN 7^ (samjna: conception, notion), whereas a l l editions of K'uei-chi's text have hsiang which can be ei t h e r laksana or nimitta ( c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s or signs). The present t r a n s l a t i o n follows the Hsiian-tsang text. 237 This i s a c i t a t i o n of T: XXXI.I43a9-l6 that has become rather d i s t o r t e d by the e l l i p s e s indicated. Working p r i m a r i l y from the Tibetan, Lamotte (La Somme, pp. l64-l65) renders the complete passage as follows: Air:.si done,en entrant dans l a parole mentale (mano-jalpa) qui est •--l;''objeti apparent (nirbhasarthalaksana), l e Bodhisattva est entre dans l a nature imaginaire ( ;parikalpitasvabhava); en entrant dans l e Rien qu'idee (vijnaptimatra), i l est entre dans la-rtature dependante (paratantrasvabhava); comment e n t r e - t - i l dans l a nature absolue (parinispannasvabhava)? II y entre en rejetant (nirakarana) encore l a notion de Rien qu'idee ( v i j n a p t i -matrasamjfia). Alors,pour- l e Bodhisattva qui a .de.truit (vidhvams-) l a notion d'objet' '• (arthasamjna), l e s paroles mentales (manojalpa), resultant de 1'impregnation des Dharma ou'is (srutadharmavasananvaya), n'ont pas l a p o s s i -b i l i t e (avaksasa) de n a i t r e sous l'apparence d'un objet et, par consequent, ne naissent pas non plus comme idee, sans plus. Quand l e Bodhisattva reside .'"dans l e nom-sans-concept a l' e n d r o i t de tous l e s objets (sarvarthesu nirvikalpakanama), quand i l reside par perception directe (pratyaksayogena) dans 1'element fondamental (dharmadhatu), alors i l a t t e i n t l e savoir i n t u i t i f (nirvikalpakajnana) pour qui l'objet (alambana) et l e sujet de connaissance (alambaka) sont parfaitement identiques (samasama).C'est a i n s i que l e Bodhisattva est entre dans l a nature absolue. 238 These two verses were already quoted above i n 1.1.1.; c f . notes 10 and 11 for d e t a i l s on t h e i r o r i g i n and the surviving Sanskrit o r i g i n a l f o r the f i r s t . This i s samskara (hsing ^  ) i n the more general sense of ' a l l conditioned states," which i s very close to-.rsamskrt'adharma rather than the more s p e c i f i c use of samskara (predisposition) f o r the fourth skandha and the second nidana; c f . Edg. p. 542. Notes to Chapt. V (pp. 79 - l 6 l ) CWSL ( v i i i . ' 3lb), T: XXXI.46c-6; SAEKZ notes! that t h i s verse i s from.the Avatamsaka Sutra, but gives no s p e c i f i c reference. See also La Vallee-Poussin 1 s note. (Siddhi, p. 533c) comparing t h i s verse t a l i n e from Nagarjuna. 241 This i s the f i r s t of the Sixteen Thoughts of the an a l y t i c view of the second division-, of the Path of V i s i o n ( v i z . , laksana-darsanamarga, see note 210 above). Cf. Obermiller, "Doctrine of the Prajna-paramita," pp. 21-24 and 37-41. 2 42 Contrary t o the Taisho punctuation, t h e k u . ^ ^ a t 262cll should go with what preceeds rather than what follows i t . 243 This paragraph explains why the CWSL passage unlike those from the Mahayana-samgraha gives no s p e c i f i c point at which the Imaginary, i s r e a l i z e d separately•from the other two. There i s no content to the : r e a l i z a t i o n of the Imaginary because i t has no substanc Its r e a l i z a t i o n i s constituted by the r e a l i z a t i o n of the Dependent and the Absolute; i t follows n e c e s s a r i l y : when they are r e a l i z e d , i t i s r e a l i z e d . 2 ^ T'ai-hsu (p. IO58) explains t h i s rather e l l i p t i c passage as follows:. "Prior t o the Path of V i s i o n the Exact Comprehensions contemplated.the Pinnacle of Worldly Truth. Degree Cof the Stage of Preliminary T r a i n i n g ] . Even though one has. therein also contemplated the emptiness of that which, apprehends and that which, i s apprehended, t h i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of emptiness i s s t i l l a permutation of conscious-ness and not the r e a l i z a t i o n of wisdom. Because one has not yet acquired the Two Wisdoms, one i s s t i l l , unable to r e a l i z e the l a t t e r two Natures.. Because to r e a l i z e the l a t t e r two Natures i s to r e a l i z e the F i r s t , the CWSL says t h a t . i t i s on entering the F i r s t Land, and only then, that one r e a l i z e s the Three Natures." 245 This r e f e r s to the f i r s t part of the f i r s t of the two Mahayana-samgraha verses c i t e d above i n § 7 - 2 . 1 ( l b ) ; c f . also 1.1.1, note 11. 246 This r e f e r s to the second part of the f i r s t of the two Mahayana-samgraha verses c i t e d above i n § 7 . 2 . 1 ( l b ) . 247 This refers, to the second of the two Mahayana-samgraha verses cited, above i n § 7 - 2 . 1 . ( l b ) . 248 This seems preferable to the punctuation indicated by the Taisho.bunt en at T: XLV.262c27-28: i t makes t h e . f i r s t statement more p a r a l l e l to the next. 2 0 6 Notes to Chapt. V (pp. 7 9 - l 6 l ) Hsiian-tsang and K'uei-chi render asraya (base) a numher of d i f f e r e n t ways: iffi., s o — i f^^L , so-i-chih^f<fjc. j]c f s o - i - s h e r : ffy^fc~$t s o - i - s h e n - h s i a n g /if 4ft. a r e a l l attested i n the tr a n s l a t i o n s of the Kosa and Madhyanta-vibhdga. 250 The lands (hhumi) here again r e f e r not to the Ten Lands of the bodhisattva path, but to the nine stations of existence i n the three world-realms. 2 5 1 The base may, depending on circumstances, be any one of the three realms of existence. K'uei-chi's discussion of the base ( §8.l) . i s divided into a consideration of the base from which one f i r s t gives r i s e to.the contemplation of Vijnaptimatrata ( § 8 . 1 . l ) and the base from which one f i r s t r e a l i z e s Vijnaptimatrata ( § 8 . 1 . 2 ) . Each, of these i s further sub-divided depending on the type of i n d i v i d u a l involved. 2 5 2 The discussion of the base from which one f i r s t gives r i s e to the contemplation of Vijnaptimatrata', ( § 8 . 1 . 1 ) i s again divided into several parts on the basis of what type of p r a c t i t i o n e r i s involved: ( l ) those whose awakening was sudden and d i r e c t , ( 2 ) those whose awakening was gradual. Each of these i s then further sub-divided. 2 5 3 The commentators say t h i s . r e f e r s to those who enter the bodhisattva path and proceed d i r e c t l y to the goal, as opposed to those who begin i n one of the other paths and take up the bodhisattva practices only l a t e r . 2 5 4 On t h i s work see note 1 3 7 above. 2 5 5 The wretched de s t i n i e s are b i r t h as a ghost (preta), as a denizen, of h e l l (nairayika) or as an animal (tir.yagyoni). These, along with, the favorable births: as a god (deva) or as a human (manusya), make up the f i v e d e s t i n i e s to which one may be reborn. Because existence i n the Realm of'Fbrm(rupa-dhatu) and the Realm of Formlessness (arupya-dhatu) i s so pleasant, t h e i r inhabitants have no incentive t o seek, release of death and rebirth.. This i s often said of existence as a god (deva) generally. T: <XXXi ; $60b l 9 -20 . In the text c i t e d , the verse i s followed by a prose section c l a r i f y i n g the rather terse expression and syntax of the four, five^character phrases (pada). Notes to Chapt. V (pp. 79 - l 6 l ) 258 This refers, to.those, who. f i r s t follow the sravaka or pratyeka-buddha path, and l a t e r convert to. the. bodhisattva path. 259 I t i s not clear from the text or the commentaries exactly how K'uei-chi understood t h i s designation, which i s rendered into Chinese as pu-ching-sheng-che ^ 3—>& '.' The term i s mentioned i n the Kosa commentary to.VI:40c-d (xxiv . 6 6 ) ; La Vallee-Poussin (VI, p. 219) t r a n s l a t e s : "II a r r i v e qu'un.Arya, devenu Arya dans une premiere naissance par 1'acquisition du f r u i t de Srotaapanna ou Sakrdagamin obtienne dans l'existance suivante l e f r u i t d' Anagamin. On designe cet Anagamin par 1 'expression parivrttajanma anagami." How the term was employed by the Yogacarins requires further research i n the Yogacarabhumi. The previous paragraphs discussed the base upon which the bodhisattva f i r s t gives r i s e to the contemplation of Vijnaptimatrata; t h i s paragraph and the one following discuss the base upon which the bodhisattva has the f i r s t r e a l i z a t i o n of Vijnaptimatrata. This refers, to the p a r t i c u l a r state of existence to which the meditator was born (as the r e s u l t of past deeds) and from which he i n i t i a t e s the contemplation. Chia-hsing-shan J^>2 ^  ^ occurs once i n Hsuan-tsang's t r a n s l a t i o n of the Kosa for prayogika gunah (virtues of t r a i n i n g ) ; much more often, however, i t renders simply prayogika (preliminary or preparatory) i n contrast t o upapatti-pratilambhika (acquired through birth.). 263 In Hsuan-tsang's t r a n s l a t i o n of the Yogacarabhumi the corresponding passage i s found at T: XXX:663a. 2 ^ Pure (anasrava) discursive contemplation i s said to be the same as the subsequently acquired.cognition; c f . Siddhi, pp.. 406-407-On the anagamya stage see Kosa IV:l8a-b (xiv.51 -5b) , VI:47cd (xxiv . l 4 a ) and La Vallee-Poussin's notes. The term 'defilements' renders samklesa (tsa-jan and ' a f f l i c t i o n ' renders klesa (fan-nao "IS ) • The former i s a generic designation-, the l a t t e r are s p e c i f i c , u s ually enumerated as si x or ten: see below 9-2 and e s p e c i a l l y notes 288 and 294. 208 Notes to Chapt. V (pp. 79 - l 6 l ) 267 There are thus four categories of obstacles or obstructions ( c f . , the table below). And, as analyzed below, each of these has three forms, i . e . , each of the four occurs i n the form of manifestations, impregnations and seeds. Manifestations of each category are the actual ;cccurrehces .of the obstacle i n our experience. Impregations or impressions are the r e s i d u a l traces and impurities l e f t by the manifestations a f t e r they pass out of existence. F i n a l l y , the seeds are the latent or p o t e n t i a l d i s p o s i t i o n of the obstacles to come into manifestation at some future time.. Each of these three forms i s , in the order given ( i . e . , manifestationsj impregnations, and seeds), progressively more d i f f i c u l t to suppress or destroy. Categories and Forms of the Obstacles A f f l i c t i o n - o b s t a c l e • Wisdom-obstacle• • innate • discrimination-produced •innate .discrimination-produced \ each occuring i n the form of: . Mani f e st at ions -Impregnations Seeds 268 K'uei-chi's discussion here i s a summary of the'-CWSL •• - • section (ix ,27b-x.3a) on the Ten and Eleven Obstacles. He analyzes ' the three forms (manifestations,impregnations and seeds) of each of the categories of obstacles: the portion of the;.obstacle, c o n s t i t u t e d . by the a f f l i c t i o n s t h a t . i s innate (^9.1.l); the portion of the obstacle constituted by the a f f l i c t i o n s that i s produced by CvainU discrimination (%9.1.2); the portion of the obstacle barring wisdom that i s innate (§9.1.3); and the portion of the obstacle b a r r i n g wisdom that i s produced by CvainD discrimination (§9.1.4) 269 K'uei-chi's discussion of t h i s three-stage doctrine i s based on the Bodhisattva-bhumi passage found at T: XXX.562a27-bl4. 270 On the three v a r i e t i e s of crude dross see Sandhinirmocana IX.28-29 (pp. 145-146 i n Lamotte's ed. and p. 145 of his t r a n s . ) . There i s also a Bodhisattva-bhumi passage discussing three v a r i e t i e s of crude dross, v i s . , tvaggata, phalgugata, and saragata dausthulya; cf. J . Rahder, Dasabhumika, Appendice, p. 25. 271 The following discussion of the three p r o c l i v i t i e s i s based on the Sandhinirmocana passage that corresponds to Chapt. IX.28-29 of Lamotte-'s- ed. of the Tibetan version (pp. 145-146 i n the ed. and p. 254 i n the t r a n s . ) . Parts of K'uei-chi's text are d i r e c t quotes Notes to Chapt. V (pp. 79 - l 6 l ) from the Chinese, t r a n s l a t i o n of the Sandhinirmocana done by Hsiian-tsang (T: XVI.707C); the .quoted portions are indicated i n the t r a n s l a t i o n below. 2 T 2 T: XVI.707clU-l6 2 7 3 Based p r i m a r i l y on the Tibetan version of the Sandhinirmocana, Lamotte understands t h i s category of anusaya (Fr. : l a trace) somewhat d i f f e r e n t l y . He tra n s l a t e s (Sandhinirmocana, p. 254): La trace qui d e t r u i t son compagnon, a savoir dans l a cinquieme t e r r e . Les passions d ' a c t i v i t e spontanee (asahaja) sont l e compagnon des passions d ' a c t i v i t e innee (sahaja). Les premieres n'existent plus a ce moment Cdans l a cinquieme terreH. C'est pourquoi on parle de "trace qui d e t r u i t son compagnon." 2 T ^ T: XVI.707cl6-17 275 This assertion i s found i n Gunabhadra's t r a n s l a t i o n of the Lahkavatara at T: XVI .495all-12. 2 T 6 T: XVI.707cl7-19 277 What follows i s a paraphrase of the Sandhinirmocana passage at T: XVI.707c22-25. 2 7 8 Ch'an-t'i \HLi i s an abbreviation of i - c h ' a n - t ' i — |^J which transcribes 'icchantika' a Buddhist t e c h n i c a l term for those who t o t a l l y lack the p o t e n t i a l of Buddha-hood; c r . La Vallee-Poussin's note, Siddhi, p. 724. 279 Not having comprehended the Mahayana doctrine asserting that there i s no difference between the world of s u f f e r i n g (samsara) and l i b e r a t i o n (nirvana), the sravaka seeks to escape from the world of s u f f e r i n g into nirvana as. quickly as po s s i b l e , not remaining i n the world to benefit other beings. 280 I t i s d i f f i c u l t to trace t h i s passage i n the one surviving Chinese t r a n s l a t i o n of the Ratnagotra-vibhaga. The four types of obstacles are discussed i n the t h i r d s c r o l l (T: XXXI.829al6-b3), but the s p e c i f i c p r a c t i c e s by which they are overcome as discussed by K'uei-chi i n the next paragraph are not mentioned i n the Ratnagotra-vibhaga passage. Turning to Obermiller's t r a n s l a t i o n of the Tibetan version of the work, the closest p a r a l l e l seems to be the passage on pp. 232-233', although i t i s again d i f f e r e n t from both the Chinese.translation and from K'uei-chi's synopsis. 210 Notes to Chapt. V (pp. 79 - l 6 l ) 28l The Ten Degrees..of Faith, and the Ten Ahodes are the f i r s t . and second d i v i s i o n s of the Fifty-two'. Stages of Bodhisattva P r a c t i c e ; see Hurvitz, C h i h - i , p. 363. In b r i e f the Ten Degrees of F a i t h are: l ) f a i t h , 2) mindfulnes, 3) e f f o r t , 4) wisdom, 5) concentration, 6) non-relapse, 7) diversion or tr a n s f e r of merit, 8) protection of the Dharma, 9) d i s c i p l i n e , and 10) vows. The s i x t h degree i s s i g n i f i c a n t here because at t h i s point the bodhisattva becomes confirmed i n his pursuit of the Buddha's teaching and no. longer subject to the icchantika's lack of f a i t h . 282 See note 28l above; i n b r i e f , the Ten Abodes are: l ) gi v i n g r i s e to the thought. Cof Enlightenment,1; 2) the well-regulated stage; 3) p r a c t i c e ; 4) noble r e b i r t h .[to the clan of TathagatasD; 5) per-;: f e c t i o n of s k i l l f u l means; 6) r e c t i f i c a t i o n of thought; 7) no relapse; 8) perennial, youth; 9) Dharma fprince; and 10) consecration or baptism. 283 On the four types of nirvana see CWSL (x.9a-10a) T: XXXI.55b. 284 One t r a d i t i o n a l explanation of pratyeka-buddhas i s that they are saints who a t t a i n Buddha-hood by contemplating the p r i n c i p l e of dependent c o - a r i s i n g (pratTtya-samutpada) as manifest i n the twelve-fold chain of cause and e f f e c t . 285 The doctrine discussed here i s found i n a long passage t r e a t i n g the differences between the path of a bodhisattva and that of the sravakas and pratyeka-buddhas; i n G-unabhadra's Chinese t r a n s -l a t i o n i t i s found at T: XII.219c-220b. The text f i r s t discusses four types '?of persistent : " a f f l i c t i o n that can eventually be severed by the sravakas and pratyeka-buddhas. It then discusses a f i f t h a f f l i c t i o n , that of nescience, which i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t from the other four i n that i t can be completely severed only by a, bodhisattva who becomes a Buddha. Cf. the Engli s h t r a n s l a t i o n of the SrTmala-devT Sutra done by A. and H. Wayman (pp. 84-85),. and see also the note concerning (p. 84, n. 56) the f i r s t four a f f l i c t i o n s and t h e i r c o r r e l a t i o n with the Abhidharma subdivision of the term upadana. 286 The f i r s t four of these are considered to be the a f f l i c t i o n -obstacle and the l a s t to he the wisdom-obstacle. 287 T'ai-hsu. (p. 1082) explains t h a t , i f the doubts a r i s i n g as a r e s u l t of nescience are a r e s u l t of dis c r i m i n a t i o n , they are severed a l l at once; whereas, i f they are innate, they are severed b i t by b i t . Notes to Chapt. V (pp. 7 9 -II61) The Six A f f l i c t i o n s (klesa) are: 1) raga (greed or covetousness) 2) pratigha ( h o s t i l i t y or anger) 3) moha (delusion or f o l l y ) k) mana (conceit or pride) 5) v i c i k i t s a (doubt) 6) k u d r s t i (false views or prejudice) These are discussed i n a l l the basic Abhidharma works; c f . esp. CWSL (vi.l2b-14b). 2 8 9 The Seven P r o c l i v i t i e s (anusaya) are 1) kamaraga (craving f o r pleasure or sensual desire) 2) pratigha ( h o s t i l i t y ) 3) bhavaraga (craving f or existence or r e b i r t h ) h) mana (pride or conceit) 5) avidya (nescience) 6) d r s t i (false views) 7) v i c i k i t s a or vimati (doubts) The Eight Envelopments (paryavasthana) are: 1) ahrTkya (shamelessness) 2) anapatrapya (immodesty) 3) Trsya (envy) k) matsarya (avarice) 5) auddhatya (di s s i p a t i o n ) 6) kaudrtya (regret or remorse) 7) styana (torpor) 8) middha (drowsiness) The Nine Fetters (samyojana) are 1) anunaya (attachment or desire) 2) pratigha ( h o s t i l i t y ) 3) mana (pride or conceit) h) avidya (nescience) 5) d r s t i ( f a l s e views) 6) paramarsa (clinging) 7) v i c i k i t s a (doubt) 8) Trsya (envy) 9) matsarya (avarice) 292 The Ten A f f l i c t i o n s comprise the f i r s t f i v e of the a f f l i c t i o n s l i s t e d above i n note 288 along with the f i v e v a r i e t i e s of the s i x t h , k u d r s t i (false views). The l a t t e r 7 f i v e are: 1) satkayadrsti: the erroneous view of i n d i v i d u a l i t y . 2) antagrahadrsti: the view that c l i n g s to the extreme of eternalism or n i h i l i s m . 3) mithyadrsti: f a l s e views generally, prejudices. 212 Notes t o Chapt. V (pp. 79 - l 6 l ) 4) drsti. paramarsa: to.consider excellent and . conducive t o . p u r i t y any other f a l s e views. 5) sllavrata.paramarsa: to consider ..excellent; and conducive to p u r i t y a code of moral precepts based on any f a l s e views. Cf. CWSL (yi . l 4h -15b) . 293 The doctrine of the Ten Dis t r a c t i o n s i s not a commonly encountered enumeration. -K'uei-chi mentions these i n h i s "Chapter on the. Severing of A f f l i c t i o n " (.286a4; c f . note 295 below), but does not l i s t or discuss them i n d i v i d u a l l y . 294 , _ _ _ ' The Ten Discriminations are treated i n the Mahayana-sutra-lahkdra (XI:77); see Levi's e d i t i o n (p. 76) and. t r a n s l a t i o n (p. 136). 295 The "Essay on the Severing of Obstacles" i s the seventh essay or chapter of the Ta-sheng. fa-yuan, .i-tin ehang (no. 26), T: XLV.282a-287b. In section eight of t h i s essay (285a-286a) K'uei-chi discusses these and other groups of a f f l i c t i o n s , obstacles, etc. 2-96 - -The. doctrine of the two emptinesses i s a basic Mahayana doctrine that receives much attention i n the Yogacara treatises.. The. emptiness of the i n d i v i d u a l (pudgala) i s a variant term f o r the emptiness of the s e l f . The arhats of the l e s s e r two vehicles are said to r e a l i z e the emptiness of the s e l f or the i n d i v i d u a l , but only bodhisattvas r e a l i z e also the emptiness of a l l elements of experience (.dharmas); according to the Yogacarins, they do t h i s by the contemplation of Vijnaptimatrata. The important point necessary to understand the following discussion i s . t hat, since the i n d i v i d u a l i s simply an aggregation of dharmas, the '-.emptiness of the i n d i v i d u a l i s subsumed by the emptiness of dharmas. 297 On the Four Examinations and the Four Exact Comprehensions .see note. 56 above. Shingo (4l5a23-24) comments: "The Examinations contemplate the. emptiness of what i s apprehended and eliminate the notion of a t r u l y e x i s t i n g s e l f (atman) and t r u l y , e x i s t i n g dharmas. The Exact Comprehensions contemplate the emptiness of what apprehends and eliminates only the notion of t r u l y e x i s t i n g dharmas." 298 "' The commentators say t h i s r e f e r s to a passage i n the CWSL (.vi.i..22ab) where It i s said that the Buddha declared the doctrine of .the. Twelve Entrances' (the s i x sense f a c u l t i e s and t h e i r respective objects.) to. e s t a b l i s h the emptiness of the s e l f or i n d i v i d u a l , while declaring the doctrine of Vijnaptimatrata to e s t a b l i s h the emptiness of dharmas. Cf. La Vallee-Poussin's.translation.of the passage (_Siddhi, p. 426); and also Vimsatika IX which. Is c i t e d by K'uei-chi below i n § 1 0 . 2 . 2 . . 213 Notes to Chapt. V (pp. 79 - l 6 l ) 299 The l o g i c a l error involved i n the. objection i s quite rudimentary: the objector f a i l s to.recognize the. v a l i d i t y . o f the modus t o l l e n s argument: P 3 1 ' ~p 3 0 0 'Nonsubstantiality' renders 'nairatmya'; dharma-nairatmya (fa-wu-wo >^ ) and pudgala-nairatmya. (sheng-wu-wo ^ . ^ j * ) are equivalent to the emptiness of dharmas and the emptiness of the s e l f . 301 This i s from the 9th Verse i n Hsuan-tsang's t r a n l a t i o n (T: XXXI.75b26). K'uei-chi c i t e s only the second h a l f of the verse: the f i r s t h a l f explains that the nonsubstantiality of the s e l f i s entered by means of the doctrine of the Twelve-: .Entrances .„ See note 298 above on CWSL (vii .22ab) which presents the same view. 3 0 2 The ku (therefore, because) should be punctuated with t h i s phrase rather than the one following as i n the Taisho e d i t i o n ; the four-four rhythm i s broken i n eit h e r case. 303 Here and below, when K'uei-chi speaks of the contemplation of the i n d i v i d u a l and the dharmas, he means s p e c i f i c a l l y the contemplation of t h e i r emptiness. 304 Thus the contemplation of Vijnaptimatrata can be seen as both broad and l i m i t e d i n i t s range of extension. The former applies when i t i s considered v i s - a - v i s the contemplation of the emptiness of the i n d i v i d u a l , and the l a t t e r applies v i s - a - v i s the contemplation of the emptiness of dharmas. 305 The syntax and the rhythm of t h i s passage are somewhat i r r e g u l a r . The t r a n s l a t i o n follows the t r a d i t i o n a l punctuation indicated by the e a r l i e s t Japanese commentators and found in•the Taishd the KD and the KI editions of the text. T'ai-hsu, however, punctuates d i f f e r e n t l y taking the f i r s t part of t h i s sentence' as the l a s t part of the preceding sentence. Thus, he understands the close of the l a s t paragraph and the beginning of th i s , paragraph as follows: The contemplation of •Vijnaptimatrata ' i s more l i m i t e d i n extension i n that there may be cases of Cthe contemplator of3 the emptiness of the i n d i v i d u a l , but they are not, by vi r t u e of that, cases of the contemplation of V i j n a p t i -matrata. When we d i r e c t our attention to the contemplation of the emptiness, of the i n d i v i d u a l , i t must be analyzed according to the above statements. . . . Notes t o Chapt. V (pp. 79 - l 6 l ) For tso^ft (establish) some older versions have chu/fjj^ (all - , in..every case), a variant, not. noted in the Taisho apparatus. Shingo.rejects the variant;. Kiben mentions the controversy, deciding that' chii i s acceptable; and T'ai-hsu. simply amends his e d i t i o n of the text to: read chu with.no comment. 307 The commentators disagree on what the "two" here r e f e r s t o : the Japanese say i t r e f e r s to the l a s t two sets of assertions, i . e . , §10 . 2.3 (2) and (.3), but T'ai-hsu takes i t to r e f e r to the analysis of the contemplation of Vijnaptimatrata i n i t s broad sense and i t s r e s t r i c t e d sense, i .e .,§ 10.2. 3 ( l ) . The present e d i t i o n of K'uei-chi's Ta-sheng fa-yuan i - l i n ohang (no. 26) does not contain an "Essay on Emptiness," and there seems to.be no i n d i c a t i o n that i t ever did. The commentators suggest the p o s s i b i l i t y . t h a t this, may be a reference to the work of someone else."" 215 ABBREVIATIONS See bibliography f o r p u b l i c a t i o n d e t a i l s . BEFEO BSOAS BZ Chih-chou CWSL Edg./Edgerton IBK IHQ JAOS KD KI Kiben Kosa Bulletin de L'Ecole Francaise d'Extreme-Orient Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies Dainihon Bukkyo zensho. See Commentary no. 2, Chapt. IV, p. 71• Ch1 eng-wei-shih-lun, references to the ed. of SAEKI Join which also allows easy reference to the trans, of La Vallee-Poussin. Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Grammar and Dictionary Indogaku bukkyogaku kenkyu. l^f/JE-fj^^^^J^^^ Indian Historical Quarterly Journal of the American Oriental Society Kokuyaku Daizokyo ijj ^ \ Toky5: T5hS Shoin j£ j£ ^ , 1928-1932. Kokuyaku issaikyo —""* j^J Series 2. T5ky5: Daito Shuppansha j- jj^  Jjj^ ^ J^ ___ 1928- . See Commentary no. 3, Chapt. IV, p. 71. Abhidharmakosa of Vasubandhu, references give f i r s t the chapter and verse number, then the s c r o l l and page number i n the Chinese ed. of SAEKI K y o k u g a ^ t ' f ( K y 5 t 5 : Hozokan % j $ / | £ , l 8 8 7 ) . This allows easy reference both to the Sanskrit editions and to the t r a n s l a t i o n of La V a l l e e -Poussin (Paris: Geuthner, 1923-1931) as w e l l . La Somme La Somme du Grand Vehicule d'Asanga, t r a d , par E. Lamotte. 216 Melanges Chinois et Bouddhiques See Commentary no. 6, Chapt. IV, p. 72. Philosophy East and West La Vallee-Poussin 1s trans, of the Ch'eng-wei-shih-lun, Vijrtaptimdtratdsiddhi, La siddhi de Eiuan-tsang. Sung-tsang i - c h e n * ^ ^ ^ jjjf (Rare Books of the Sung Canon), r p t . Commercial Press. Taisho ed. of Chinese Canon, see under TAKAKUSU and WATANABE i n h i h l i o g . See Commentary no. 5, Chapt. IV, p. 72. CWSL t r a n s l a t i o n : Ch'eng Wei-shih Lun: The Doctrine of Mere Consciousness. Wiener Zeitschrift fur'Aie Kunde Sud- und Ostasiens und Arehiv fur Indische Philosophie. Dainihon zokuzdkyd, see under MAEDA and NAKANO i n h i h l i o g . BIBLIOGRAPHY Arntzen, Sonja. "The Crazy Cloud Anthology (Kyounshu) of Ikkyu. Sojun." 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