UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

The past and present of Robson Street Elsamny, Afaf Makarem 1976

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THE PAST AND PRESENT OF ROBSON STREET by AFAF MAKAREM ELSAMNY B.Arch., Ain-Shams University, Cairo, 1971 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARCHITECTURE in THE SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE We accept t h i s thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA May, 1976 (c) Afaf Makarem Elsamny, 1976 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of Brit ish Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of J&jbU IJfZ&ff ' The University of Brit ish Columbia 2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 Date -yl/J^AJ ~) i^lQy , A B S T R A C T T h i s s t u d y i n v e s t i g a t e s t h e p r o s p e c t s f o r s u r v i v a l o f a s m a l l - b u s i n e s s , h i g h c h a r a c t e r a r e a i n d o w n t o w n V a n c o u v e r , n a m e l y , t h e 1 0 0 0 a n d 1 1 0 0 b l o c k s o f R o b s o n S t r e e t . T h e t e x t i n c l u d e s , f i r s t , a n e x t e n s i v e l i t e r a t u r e s e a r c h i n t o g e n e r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f d o w n t o w n c o m m e r c i a l a r e a s a n d v a r i o u s a s p e c t s o f c o m m e r c i a l r e h a b i l i t a t i o n . A b r i e f h i s t o r y o f t h e f o r c e s w h i c h s h a p e d R o b s o n S t r e e t f o l l o w s , t h e n i n f o r m a t i o n o b t a i n e d f r o m m e r c h a n t s t h r o u g h a q u e s t i o n n a i r e r e g a r d i n g c u s t o m e r a t t r a c t i o n , s t o r e l o c a t i o n a n d s i z e , s a l e s v o l u m e , a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d t h e a r e a , e t c . A f t e r t h i s b a c k g r o u n d i n f o r m a t i o n , t h e p a p e r c o n t i n u e s w i t h t h e r e s u l t s o f a n a b s t r a c t s i m u l a t i o n b y c o m p u t e r o f t h e a r e a ' s f u t u r e u n d e r t h r e e d i f f e r e n t c i r c u m s t a n c e s . T h e f i n d i n g s o f t h e s t u d y s e e m , e s s e n t i a l l y , t o s u p p o r t t h e t w o h y p o t h e s e s m a d e t h a t 1 . ) c h a n g e i n t h e a r e a i s c a u s i n g i m b a l a n c e a n d 2 . ) t h e a r e a w i l l n o t , w i t h o u t o u t s i d e i n t e r v e n t i o n , b e a b l e t o s u r v i v e , p r o s p e r , a n d m a i n t a i n , i t s u n i q u e c h a r a c t e r . i i T A B L E O F C O N T E N T S P a g e A B S T R A C T i T A B L E O F C O N T E N T S i i L I S T O F T A B L E S v L I S T O F F I G U R E S . v i i L I S T O F A P P E N D I C E S i x A C K N O W L E D G E M E N T . . . . . . . x C h a p t e r I I N T R O D U C T I O N 1 1 . 1 . S t a t e m e n t o f t h e P r o b l e m 1 1 . 2 . A s s u m p t i o n s 2 1 . 3 . O b j e c t i v e s a n d H y p o t h e s i s 3 1 . 4 . S c o p e a n d L i m i t a t i o n s 4 1 . 5 . M e t h o d o l o g i e s E m p l o y e d 4 F o o t n o t e s : C h a p t e r I 6 I I D O W N T O W N R E T A I L I N G T R E N D S 7 2 . 1 . D e f i n i t i o n s - 7 2 . 2 . U r b a n i z a t i o n a n d t h e U r b a n C r i s i s 9 2 . 2 . a . O b s o l e s c e n c e 1 0 2 . 2 . b . C o n g e s t i o n 1 1 2 . 2 . c . B l i g h t 1 2 2 . 3 . R e t a i l i n g T r e n d s D o w n t o w n 1 3 2 . 4 . T h e V a l u e o f D o w n t o w n 1 4 2 . 5 . W h a t B e l o n g s D o w n t o w n 1 6 2 . 6 . D o w n t o w n M a r k e t s . 1 8 2 . 7 . C o m m e r c i a l R e h a b i l i t a t i o n 2 1 2 . 7 . a . P h y s i c a l N e e d f o r C o m m e r c i a l R e h a b i l i t a t i o n , 2 2 2 . 7 . b . S t o r e L o c a t i o n R u l e s 2 2 2 . 7 . C T r a f f i c C o n g e s t i o n J 2 4 2 . 7 . d . P a r k i n g 2 6 2 . 7 . e . P e d e s t r i a n A c i t i v i t y 2 6 2 . . . 7 . f . T h e S c o p e o f C o m m e r c i a l R e h a b i l i t a t i o n P r o j e c t s 2 8 i i i C h a p t e r P a g e 2 . 7 . g . S o c i a l N e e d f o r C o m m e r c i a l R e h a b i l i t a t i o n 3 0 2 . 7 . h . E c o n o m i c N e e d f o r C o m m e r c i a l R e h a b i l i t a t i o n 3 0 2 . 7 . i . E x a m p l e s o f C o m m e r c i a l R e h a b i l i t a t i o n P r o j e c t s 3 2 F o o t n o t e s : C h a p t e r I I 3 5 I I I A N A T O M Y O F T H E S T U D Y A R E A . 4 1 3 . 1 . D e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e S t u d y A r e a 4 1 3 . 2 . A B r i e f H i s t o r i c O v e r v i e w 5 5 3 . 3 . P r o p o s a l s 6 7 3 . 4 . A v a i l a b l e S t u d i e s a n d R e p o r t s o n t h e S t u d y A r e a 8 2 3 . 5 . P r o b l e m s a n d I s s u e s i n t h e S t u d y A r e a 8 4 3 . 6 . T h e O r i g i n a l C h a r a c t e r a n d A p p e a l o f t h e S t u d y A r e a 8 6 3 . 7 . G u i d e l i n e s a n d R e c o m m e n d a t i o n s f o r t h e P r e s e r v a t i o n a n d R e j u v e n a t i o n o f t h e S t u d y A r e a 9 5 F o o t n o t e s : C h a p t e r I I I 9 8 I V T H E S U R V I V A L A N D P R O S P E R I T Y O F T H E S T U D Y A R E A . 1 0 2 4 . 1 . I n t r o d u c t i o n 1 0 2 4 . 2 . F u n c t i o n a l C l a s s i f i c a t i o n 1 0 4 i 4 . . 2 . a . C o m p a t i b i l i t y W i t h t h e S t u d y A r e a 1 1 2 4 . 3 . R e t a i l S a l e s V o l u m e 1 1 6 4 . 4 . D a y t i m e . P o p u l a t i o n 1 1 9 4 . 5 . L a n d V a l u e s 1 2 8 4 . 6 . O t h e r P r o b l e m s a n d T h r e a t s 1 3 5 4 . 6 . a . L o s s o f C h a r a c t e r 1 3 5 4 . 6 . b . R e a s o n s B e h i n d " M o v i n g T h o u g h t " 1 3 6 4 . 6 . c . O w n e r - M e r c h a n t v s T e n a n t - M e r c h a n t 1 3 7 4 . 6 . d . R i s i n g R e n t s 1 3 8 4 . 6 . e . L a c k o f I m p r o v e m e n t i n t h e A r e a 1 3 8 4 . 7 . A t t i t u d e s T o w a r d t h e A r e a 1 3 8 4 . 7 . a . A t t i t u d e s T o w a r d C h a n g e 1 3 8 4 . 7 . b . L i k e s a n d D i s l i k e s 1 4 0 F o o t n o t e s : C h a p t e r I V 1 4 3 V E X P E R I M E N T A L P R E D I C T I O N S 1 4 6 5 . 1 . I n t r o d u c t i o n 1 4 6 5 . 2 . T h e T e c h n i q u e U s e d 1 4 7 i v C h a p t e r P a g e 5 . 3 . T h e P r o c e d u r e 1 4 8 5 . 4 . M a t h e m a t i c a l S t r u c t u r e 1 4 9 5 . 5 . D e f i n i n g t h e V a r i a b l e s ^ 1 4 9 5 . 6 . E x p e r i m e n t a l P r e d i c t i o n s 1 5 3 5 . 7 . C o n c l u s i o n s 1 6 0 F o o t n o t e s : C h a p t e r V V I V I E W S A N D S P E C U L A T I O N S 1 6 3 V i e w 1 1 6 3 V i e w 2 1 6 4 V i e w 3 1 6 6 S p e c u l a t i o n s 1 6 6 F o o t n o t e s : C h a p t e r V I 1 6 8 J 3 I B L I 0 G R A P Y . 1 6 9 A P P E N D I C E S " 1 7 5 V L I S T O F T A B L E S T a b l e P a g e I I I D o w n t o w n F u n c t i o n s a n d I n f l u e n c e . . . . . . . . 2 0 I I I I R e t a i l S e c t i o n , C B D , L a r g e C i t y 2 5 I V I C h a n g e i n G r o u n d F l o o r B u s i n e s s C a t e g o r i e s , 1 9 6 5 - 1 9 7 5 1 0 7 I V I I D e t a i l o f t h e C h a n g e s i n t h e " O t h e r R e t a i l S t o r e s " C a t e g o r y 1 0 9 I V I I I B u s i n e s s C a t e g o r y v e r s u s N u m b e r o f Y e a r s o n R o b s o n 1 1 0 I V I V N u m b e r o f Y e a r s o n R o b s o n v e r s u s " M o v i n g T h o u g h t " 1 1 2 I V V C h a n g e i n S a l e s V o l u m e O v e r t h e P a s t 5 Y e a r s 1 1 8 I V V I , C h a n g e i n S a l e s V o l u m e S i n c e M o v i n g ( L e s s t h a n 5 y e a r s ) 1 1 9 I V V I I P e d e s t r i a n C o u n t M i d - B l o c k 1 0 0 0 a n d 1 1 0 0 R o b s o n . D a t e : F r i d a y , M a r c h 2 , 1 9 7 3 . . 1 2 1 I V V I I I P e d e s t r i a n C o u n t s M i d - B l o c k 1 0 0 0 R o b s o n . . 1 2 2 I V I X C u s t o m e r s o n W e e k d a y s V e r s u s C u s t o m e r s o n S a t u r d a y s 1 2 3 I V X P e d e s t r i a n C o u n t s i n D i f f e r e n t . D o w n t o w n S t r e e t s ( 1 9 7 3 ) 1 2 4 I V X I N u m b e r o f C u s t o m e r s p e r W e e k d a y 1 2 5 I V X I I B u s i n e s s C a t e g o r y V e r s u s N u m b e r o f C u s t o m e r s p e r W e e k d a y 1 2 6 I V X I I I C u s t o m e r s p e r W e e k d a y v e r s u s N u m b e r o f Y e a r s o n R o b s o n 1 2 7 I V X I V . C u s t o m e r s p e r W e e k d a y v e r s u s " M o v i n g T h o u g h t " 1 2 7 v i T a b l e P a g e I V X V A s s e s s e d L a n d V a l u e s 1 3 0 -1 3 1 I V X V I F l u c t u a t i o n i n L a n d V a l u e s . . . . . . . . . 1 3 2 I V X V I a M e r c h a n t s ' C o u n t r i e s o f O r i g i n . . . . . . . 1 3 6 I V X V I I O w n e r - M e r c h a n t v e r s u s T e n a n t - M e r c h a n t . . . 1 3 7 I V X V I I I L e a s e T e r m s 1 3 7 I V X I X P e r c e n t a g e o f R e n t I n c r e a s e . . . . . . .. . 1 3 9 I V X X C h a n g e i n S a l e s V o l u m e i n t h e L a s t F i v e Y e a r s v e r s u s P e r c e n t a g e o f I n c r e a s e i n R e n t . 1 3 9 I V X X I C h a n g e i n S a l e s V o l u m e S i n c e M o v i n g v e r s u s P e r c e n t a g e o f I n c r e a s e i n R e n t . . 1 3 9 I V X X I I L i k e s a n d D i s l i k e s 1 4 1 V I I n t e r a c t i o n M a t r i x f o r S i m u l a t i o n o f t h e E x i s t i n g S i t u a t i o n 1 5 4 V I I I n t e r a c t i o n M a t r i x f o r S i m u l a t i o n o f A l t e r n a t i v e 1 . . . . . . . 1 5 6 V I I I I n t e r a c t i o n M a t r i x f o r S i m u l a t i o n o f A l t e r n a t i v e 2 1 5 8 v i i L I S T O F F I G U R E S 2 . 1 . ( 1 ) O p e n a i r c a f e , S p a r k s S t r e e t M a l l ( 2 ) & ( 3 ) B e f o r e a n d a f t e r p i c t u r e s o f S p a r k s S t r e e t b e t w e e n O ' C o n n o r a n d M e t c a l f e 3 1 3 . 1 . T h e C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r s h o w i n g c o m m e r c i a l d i s t r i c t s 4 2 3 . 2 . P a r t o f t h e s t u d y a r e a ' s s u r r o u n d i n g s : t h e B u r r a r d / H a r o i n t e r s e c t i o n . . . . . . . 4 3 3 . 3 . T h e s t u d y a r e a w i t h i n d o w n t o w n V a n c o u v e r . . . 4 4 3 . 4 . T h e R o b s o n S t r e e t s t u d y a r e a i n d e t a i l . . . . 4 5 3 . 5 . T h e s t u d y a r e a a n d s i g n i f i c a n t n e i g h b o u r i n g f e a t u r e s 4 7 3 . 6 . V e h i c u l a r m o v e m e n t p a t t e r n s . v . 4 8 3 . 7 . P e d e s t r i a n t r a f f i c f l o w . . . . . . . . . . . 4 9 3 . 8 . O w n e r s h i p p a t t e r n s s h o w i n g p r o c e s s o f l a n d a s s e m b l y : 5 1 3 . 9 . D o w n t o w n z o n i n g 5 3 3 . 1 0 . A g e o f d o w n t o w n b u i l d i n g s 5 4 3 . 1 1 . H i s t o r i c m a p o f V a n c o u v e r , 1 8 8 9 . . . . . . . 5 6 3 . 1 2 . N o r t h - w e s t c o r n e r o f R o b s o n a n d B u r r a r d ( 1 8 9 7 ) . . . . . . . 5 7 3 . 1 3 . N o r t h - w e s t c o r n e r o f R o b s o n a n d B u r r a r d ( 1 9 7 5 ) 5 8 3 . 1 4 . P u b l i c t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i n 1 9 3 5 6 0 3 . 1 5 . C o n c e p t u a l s k e t c h f o r t h e " I n t e r n a t i o n a l C e n t r e " P r o p o s a l 6 5 3 . 1 6 . L a n d p a r c e l s f o r d e v e l o p m e n t p r o p o s a l s . . . . 6 9 3 . 1 7 . C o n c e p t u a l d r a w i n g f o r t h e N e i l C o o k P r o p o s a l . 7 0 vidi F i g u r e P a g e S K E T C H E S F O R T H E C O M M U N I T Y C O - O P E R A T I V E P R O P O S A L : ( 3 - 1 8 . t o 3 . 2 1 , ) 3 . 1 8 . T y p i c a l s t r e e t l e v e l i n t e r i o r p l a z a . . . . . . 7 4 3 . 1 9 . T y p i c a l e n t r a n c e t o r e s i d e n t i a l c l u s t e r s f r o m s t r e e t l e v e l 7 5 3 . 2 0 . T y p i c a l u p p e r l e v e l r e s i d e n t i a l p l a z a . . . . . . 7 6 3 . 2 1 . T y p i c a l e n t r a n c e p l a z a t o r e s i d e n t i a l c l u s t e r s . . . . . . 7 7 3 . 2 2 . C h a r a c t e r a r e a s i n d o w n t o w n V a n c o u v e r 8 7 R O B S O N S T R E E T I M A G E S : ( 3 . 2 3 . t o 3 . 2 8 . ) 3 . 2 3 . C o s y i n t e r i o r o f a s m a l l R o b s o n S t r e e t r e s t a u r a n t 8 9 3 . 2 4 . S o u t h s i d e o f R o b s o n , e m p h a s i z i n g t h e p a r k i n g p r o b l e m . 9 0 3 . 2 5 . U n u s u a l c o m b i n a t i o n o f r e s i d e n t i a l u n i t s o v e r c o m m e r c i a l f r o n t a g e 9 1 3 . 2 6 . S m a l l s h o p s o n t h e n o r t h s i d e o f R o b s o n : a r e c e n t a t t e m p t a t c h a r a c t e r p r e s e r v a t i o n . 9 2 3 . 2 7 . R o b s o n S t r e e t s i d e w a l k s : w e l l - u s e d b y p e d e s t r i a n s 9 3 3 . 2 8 . / A n " u r b a n o p e n s p a c e " : t o o s m a l l t o b e s u c c e s s f u l . . . . . . . . 9 4 4 . 1 . C o m p a t i b l e b u s i n e s s w i t h R o b s o n S t r e e t c h a r a c t e r 1 1 5 4 . 2 . D o w n t o w n p e d e s t r i a n d e n s i t y p a t t e r n s - 1 2 3 a 4 . 3 . A s s e s s e d l a n d v a l u e s d o w n t o w n . 1 3 3 4 . 4 . R a t i o s o f i m p r o v e m e n t v a l u e t o l a n d v a l u e d o w n t o w n . 1 3 4 L I S T O F A P P E N D I C E S A p p e n d i x A " D i v e r s i t y i n t h e D o w n t o w n " B Q u e s t i o n n a i r e A d m i n i s t e r e d t o R o b s o n S t r e e t M e r c h a n t s a n d A c c o m p a n y i n g L e t t e r C Q u e s t i o n n a i r e a n d R e p o r t t o t h e M a y o r r e : R o b s o n S t r e e t , " b y S u s a n P u r c e l l , D e c e m b e r , 1 9 6 9 D A L i s t o f G r o u n d F l o o r B u s i n e s s L o c a t i o n s i n t h e S t u d y A r e a ( 1 0 0 0 a n d 1 1 0 0 b l o c k s R o b s o n ) i n 1 9 7 5 A C o m p a r i s o n B e t w e e n G r o u n d F l o o r B u s i n e s s L o c a t i o n s D u r i n g 1 9 6 5 a n d 1 9 7 5 E C o m p u t e r C o d e s a n d C o m p u t e r -T a b u l a t e d R e s u l t s z ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I wish to extend my thanks to the Faculty of Graduate Studies and to the Ontario Student Assistance Program for f i n a n c i a l support. Thanks are due to my husband, Kassem, for his much needed moral support and continuing encouragement. Thanks are also due to Natalie Hall of the Architecture Reading Room for her help with the l i t e r a t u r e search. It would have been impossible to put the work into an acceptable form without the generous assistance of Pauline Fowler in e d i t i n g the thesis. In addition, Vera G i l l e n ' s i n t e r e s t in the subject and accuracy in typing helped enormously. And f i n a l l y , I wish to thank my two mentors, Mr. W. Gerson and Mr. P. Roer, who helped formulate the concept and who offered encouragement along the way. 1 C H A P T E R I I N T R O D U C T I O N T h e f a s t a n d h i g h - p i t c h e d h a v e a l l b u t o b l i t e r a t -e d t h e s l o w a n d r e l a x e d . T h e l a r g e a n d l o u d h a v e o v e r w h e l m e d t h e s m a l l a n d q u i e t . E x t i n c t a r e t h e i n i t i m a t e , t h e s p e c i a l , t h e s t r a n g e e x p e r i e n c e s o f t h e g r e a t c i t i e s o f t h e p a s t w h e r e o n c e t h e s o l i t a r y , t h e a d v e n t u r e r , o r t h e p o e t i n c a m o u f l a g e c o u l d m i n g l e a t w i l l w i t h t h e c r o w d a n d f i n d p l e a s u r e b y v e r y r e a s o n o f h i s a n o n y m i t y . 1 1 . 1 . S t a t e m e n t o f t h e P r o b l e m D o w n t o w n i s t h e h e a r t o f e v e r y c i t y . I t e x i s t e d i n e a r l y c i t i e s u n d e r d i f f e r e n t n a m e s . A c i t y ' s l i f e d e p e n d s u p o n w h e t h e r i t s d o w n t o w n c o n t i n u e s f u n c t i o n i n g . G r e a t c i t i e s o f t h e w o r l d t h r i v e b e c a u s e o f t h e i r p u l s a t i n g d o w n t o w n s w h i c h a r e f u l l o f p e o p l e , d i v e r s i t y , a n d e x c i t e m e n t . 2 C h a r l e s A b r a m s d e s c r i b e s d o w n t o w n a s " t h e b u s i n e s s c e n t e r , t h e p l a c e o f w o r k , t h e m u s e u m o f s t y l e , t h e c h a n g e o f s c e n e , t h e c o n f l u e n c e o f d i v e r s i t i e s , t h e e s c a p e t o a n o n y m i t y . " 3 P e o p l e h a v e a l w a y s , r e q u i r e d a c e n t r a l p l a c e t o w h i c h t h e y c a n g r a v i t a t e f o r t h e e x c h a n g e o f h u m a n n e e d s . D o w n t o w n c a n f i l l t h a t n e e d a s i t i s " t h e p l a c e t h a t d r a w s t h e m a s s e s a n d t h a t m a s s e s h a v e m a d e . " 4 D o w n t o w n i s a l i v i n g o r g a n i s m , f o l l o w i n g t h e n a t u r a l l a w s o f g r o w t h a n d d e c a y . D i s t u r b i n g t h e n a t u r a l b a l a n c e b y h a r s h a n d d i s r u p t i v e m e t h o d s w i l l o n l y r e s u l t i n a 2 d e a d d o w n t o w n . " E q u i l i b r i u m p r o v i d e d i n n a t u r e f o r l i v i n g o r g a n i s m s a p p e a r s t o b e a c o m p o u n d o f c o n t r a s t s i n a d y n a m i c r e l a t i o n s h i p . T h e m a n m a d e w o r l d m u s t p r o v i d e a t l e a s t t h e s a m e . " 5 D i v e r s i t y i n s c a l e , e c o n o m i c s , a c t i v i t i e s , a n d a g e i s o n e v i t a l i n g r e d i e n t f o r a h e a l t h y d o w n t o w n . H o w e v e r , f a s c i n a t i o n f o r t h e n e w , t h e l a r g e , a n d t h e p e c u l i a r h a v e d e s t r o y e d i n t e r e s t f o r t h e o l d , t h e s m a l l , a n d t h e f a m i l i a r . M o r e o v e r , l o w - c o s t g r o w t h a p p e a r s t o c e l e b r a t e q u a n t i t y a n d e x a l t i t a b o v e q u a l i t y . P e o p l e a r e l e s s a t t r a c t e d t o a v e r a g e d i m e n s i o n s a l t h o u g h t h e y a r e t h e d i m e n s i o n s o f t h e h u m a n k i n d . 6 T h e o u t c o m e o f t h e s e f a c t s c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e d e -c l i n e o f d o w n t o w n s , d e p r i v i n g t h e u s e r s o f b a s i c p h y s i c a l n e c e s s i t i e s . T h i s s t u d y s e t s o u t t o e x a m i n e a u n i q u e s h o p p i n g s t r e e t i n t h e C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r . T h e p u r p o s e i s t o t e s t t h e c h a n c e s o f s u r v i v a l a n d p r o s p e r i t y o f R o b s o n S t r e e t , w h i c h r e p r e s e n t s a u n i q u e , c o m p a r a t i v e l y o l d , p h y s i c a l l y a n d e c o n o m i c a l l y s m a l l s c a l e s h o p p i n g s t r e e t . T h e c h o i c e o f t h i s p a r t i c u l a r s h o p p i n g s t r e e t i s j u s t i f i e d b y i t s u n q u e s t i o n a b l e v a l u e t o M e t r o p o l i t a n V a n c o u v e r a n d b y t h e f a c t t h a t t h e s t r e e t i s f a c i n g s e r i o u s t h r e a t s a n d t o u g h p r o b l e m s . 1 . 2 . A s s u m p t i o n s ' F r o m a b o u t 1 9 6 0 w e h a v e s e e n t h e b e g i n n i n g o f d o w n -3 t o w n r e v i t a l i z a t i o n . T h e l a r g e c i t i e s w i t h t h e m o s t d e t e r i -o r a t e d C B D ' s h a v e l e d t h e w a y . T h e i s s u e s o f p r e s e r v a t i o n a n d r e s t o r a t i o n o f c h a r a c t e r a r e a s h a v e g a i n e d i m p o r t a n c e i n r e c e n t y e a r s . L o c a l l y , w e h a v e s e e n t h e r e n e w a l o f G a s t o w n , t h e b i r t h p l a c e o f V a n c o u v e r , a n d s e v e r a l r e p o r t s h a v e b e e n m a d e c a l l i n g f o r t h e p r e s e r v a t i o n o f c h a r a c t e r a r e a s i n d o w n t o w n V a n c o u v e r . S u c h p r o j e c t s a n d p r o p o s a l s h a v e r e v e i v e d s u p p o r t b o t h f r o m p r i v a t e a n d p u b l i c i n t e r e s t g r o u p s . T h i s s u p p o r t r e v e a l s t h e a c c e p t a n c e a n d a p p r o v a l o f s u c h a s s u m p t i o n s a s : a . T h e p r e s e r v a t i o n a n d r e s t o r a t i o n o f c h a r a c t e r a r e a s a n d b u i l d i n g s a r e d e s i r a b l e o b j e c t i v e s . b . T h e c e n t r a l a r e a s h o u l d b e e f f i c i e n t a n d s h o u l d o f f e r d i v e r s i t y a n d e x c i t e m e n t . c . T h e s u r v i v a l o f s m a l l b u s i n e s s i s a s i m p o r t a n t t o d o w n t o w n a s b i g d e v e l o p m e n t s . d . S a t i s f y i n g p e d e s t r i a n s ' n e e d s i s e s s e n t i a l f o r a l i v e l y d o w n t o w n . 1 . 3 . O b j e c t i v e s a n d H y p o t h e s i s T h e m a i n o b j e c t i v e o f t h i s s t u d y i s , b y u s i n g t h e c a s e s t u d y m e t h o d , t o c l o s e l y e x a m i n e t w o b l o c k s i n a u n i q u e V a n c o u v e r s h o p p i n g s t r e e t , n a m e l y R o b s o n S t r e e t . I t i s a l s o i n t e n d e d t o f i n d o u t a b o u t t h e e v o l u t i o n o f R o b s o n S t r e e t a n d t o i s o l a t e t h e f o r c e s a n d f a c t o r s t h a t s h a p e d i t t h e w a y i t i s . I n a d d i t i o n , i t w i l l s t u d y t h e p r o b l e m s a n d d i f f i c u l t i e s t h a t t h r e a t e n t h e e x i s t e n c e a n d ^ w e l l - b e i n g o f t h e a r e a . I t i s a i m e d a f t e r w a r d s t o d e t e r m i n e w h a t c h a n c e s 4 o f s u r v i v a l a n d p r o s p e r i t y t h e a r e a h a s a n d w h e t h e r t h e t h r e a t s a n d a n x i e t i e s a r e r e a l . T h e h y p o t h e s e s a r e : a . L e f t t o i t s o w n r e s o u r c e s , a n d w i t h o u t o u t s i d e a s s i s t a n c e , t h e s t u d y a r e a d e f i n e d h e r e i n a s R o b s o n S t r e e t w i l l n o t b e a b l e t o s u r v i v e , p r o s p e r , a n d m a i n t a i n i t s u n i q u e c h a r a c t e r . b . A n a b r u p t c h a n g e i n a n y o f t h e p h y s i c a l , s o c i a l , o r e c o n o m i c v a r i a b l e s t h a t c o m p r i s e t h e e n v i r o n -m e n t o f t h e s t u d y a r e a m a y d i s t u r b i t s n a t u r a l e q u i l i b r i u m , a n d d e s t r o y i t s u n i q u e c h a r a c t e r . 1 . 4 . S c o p e a n d L i m i t a t i o n s A l t h o u g h t h e s t u d y w a s l i m i t e d t o t w o b l o c k s o f R o b s o n S t r e e t , t h e m e t h o d o l o g y c a n b e a p p l i e d t o o t h e r p a r t s o f t h e s t r e e t o r o t h e r c h a r a c t e r a r e a s i n t h e c i t y . F o r t h e p u r p o s e o f f e a s i b i l i t y , t h e s t u d y d e a l s w i t h a l i m i t e d n u m b e r o f p h y s i c a l , e c o n o m i c a n d s o c i a l v a r i a b l e s i n t h e s t u d y a r e a . A b s t r a c t i n g t h e r e a l e n v i r o n -m e n t t o a l i m i t e d n u m b e r o f v a r i a b l e s m a d e t h e s t u d y p o s s i b l e . T h e f i n d i n g s o f t h e s t u d y a r e n e i t h e r f i n a l n o r d e c i s i v e . T h e y c a n b e l o o k e d u p o n a s v i e w s , r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s , s t a t e m e n t s a n d q u e s t i o n s s e t f o r t h f o r t h e i n t e r e s t g r o u p s . F u r t h e r s t u d i e s t o a n s w e r t h e s e q u e s t i o n s o r t o d e t e r m i n e t h e i m p a c t o f a n y o f t h e r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s o r s t a t e m e n t s w o u l d b e n e e d e d . 1 . 5 . M e t h o d o l o g i e s E m p l o y e d I n u s i n g t h e c a s e s t u d y m e t h o d , f i v e m a j o r t e c h n i q u e s h a v e b e e n e m p l o y e d : a . A n e x t e n s i v e l i t e r a t u r e s e a r c h w a s d o n e t o o b t a i n a d e q u a t e i n f o r m a t i o n o n c o m m e r c i a l r e h a b i l i t a t i o n . b . A s t r u c t u r e d q u e s t i o n n a i r e w a s a d m i n i s t e r e d t o b u s i n e s s o p e r a t o r s i n t h e s t u d y a r e a d u r i n g t h e m o n t h s o f D e c e m b e r , 1 9 7 5 a n d J a n u a r y , 1 9 7 6 . T h e q u e s t i o n s a s k e d w e r e d e s i g n e d t o o b t a i n i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t f i n a n c e i a l a n d o p e r a t i n g p r o b l e m s a s w e l l a s t h e a t t i t u d e s a n d v i e w s o f t h o s e i n t e r v i e w e d t o w a r d s t h e a r e a . T h e n a m e s o f t h e s t o r e s w h o s e o p e r a t o r s c o - o p e r a t e d i n t h i s s t u d y a r e i n c l u d e d i n A p p e n d i x B a l o n g w i t h a c o p y o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e . c . U n s t r u c t u r e d i n t e r v i e w s w i t h i n t e r e s t e d p e r s o n n e l . d . A p a r t i c i p a n t o b s e r v e r r o l e h a s b e e n p l a y e d i n o r d e r t o g r a s p p h y s i c a l d e t a i l s b e l i e v e d t o b e o f s i g n i f i c a n c e t o t h e s t u d y . e . B y u s i n g a s s i m i l a t i o n m o d e l . F O O T N O T E S : C H A P T E R I " " " S e r g e C h e r m a y e f f a n d C h r i s t o p h e r A l e x a n d e r , " I n S e a r c h o f t h e S m a l l / " Community and Privacy: Toward a New Architecture of Humanism, 2 n d e d . ; N e w Y o r k : A n c h o r B o o k s D o u b l e d a y a n d C o m p a n y I n c . , 1 9 6 5 , p p . 7 3 , 7 4 . 2 C h a r l e s A b r a m s , " D o w n t o w n D e c a y a n d R e v i v a l , " Journal of the American Institute of Planners, X X V T I I , N o . 1 , F e b r u a r y 1 9 6 1 , p . 3 . . 3 Ibid. 4Ibid. 3 S e r g e C h e r m a y e f f a n d C h r i s t o p h e r A l e x a n d e r , o p . c i t . , p p . 7 8 , 7 9 , F o r e x a m p l e s o f d i v e r s i t y i n d o w n t o w n a r c h i t e c -t u r e i n V a n c o u v e r , s e e A p p e n d i x A . ^Ibid., p . 7 7 . 7 S e v e r a l i n t e r v i e w s h a v e b e e n h e l d w i t h s h o p p e r s , H a r a l d W e i n r e i c h ( P l a n n i n g C o n s u l t a n t f o r t h e R o b s o n I n t e r n a t i o n a l V i l l a g e C o m m u n i t y C o - o p e r a t i v e ) , J o h n C o a t e s , o f t h e C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r P l a n n i n g D e p a r t m e n t , a n d o t h e r s . 7 C H A P T E R I I D O W N T O W N R E T A I L I N G T R E N D S T h e u l t i m a t e p u r p o s e o f a c i t y i s t o p r o v i d e a c r e a t i v e e n v i r o n m e n t f o r p e o p l e t o l i v e i n . B y c r e a t i v e I m e a n a c i t y w h i c h h a s g r e a t d i v e r s i t y a n d t h u s a l l o w s f o r f r e e d o m o f c h o i c e ; o n e w h i c h , g e n e r a t e s t h e m a x i m u m o f i n t e r a c t i o n b e t w e e n p e o p l e a n d t h e i r u r b a n s u r r o u n d i n g s . 1 2 . 1 . D e f i n i t i o n s T h e p u r p o s e o f t h i s l i s t i s t o c l a r i f y c e r t a i n t e r m s u s e d i n t h i s c h a p t e r a n d e l s e w h e r e : B l i g h t i s " t h e d e c a y a n d t h e p r e m a t u r e o b s o l e s c e n c e f o u n d i n m a n y n e i g h b o u r h o o d s , c o m m e r c i a l d i s t r i c t s , a n d i n d u s t r i a l a r e a s " . 2 " T h e t w o b a s i c ^ c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f b l i g h t e d a r e a s a r e s u b - s t a n d a r d n e s s a n d e i t h e r s t a g n a t i o n o r d e t e r i o r a t i o n . " 3 C e n t r a l B u s i n e s s D i s t r i c t " i s t h e h e a r t o f t h e c i t y . I t c o n t a i n s t h e g r e a t e s t c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f o f f i c e s , t h e h i g h -e s t l a n d v a l u e s , t h e m o s t d e n s e c l u s t e r o f t a l l b u i l d i n g s , t h e h u b o f t h e c i t y ' s t r a n s p o r t a t i o n s y s t e m , t h e s e r v i c e c e n t r e f o r t h e u r b a n a r e a , t h e m o s t a c c e s s i b l e p o i n t f o r m o s t o f t h e c i t y d w e l l e r s . " 1 * I n s h o r t , i t i s " t h e f o c u s o f c o m m e r c i a l , s o c i a l a n d c i v i c l i f e , a n d o f t r a n s p o r t -a t i o n " . 5 C o m m e r c i a l R e h a b i l i t a t i o n i s t h e p r o c e s s i n v o l v i n g " t h e r e m o d e l l i n g , l e t t e r i n g , r e p a i r i n g a n d o t h e r w i s e i m p r o v i n g s u b s t a n d a r d , d e t e r i o r a t e d , o r o b s o l e t e a r e a s , o r i n d i v i d u a l s t r u c t u r e s w i t h i n t h e s e a r e a s , s o t h a t a d e c e n t , s a f e a n d s a n i t a r y e n v i r o n m e n t m a y b e a c h i e v e d " , 6 a l s o " t o c o n v e r t c r u m b l i n g , c o l o u r f u l s t r u c t u r e s o f t h e p a s t i n t o a t t r a c t i v e , f u n c t i o n a l s i t e s t o s e r v e m o d e r n b u s i n e s s n e e d s " . 7 8 Deterioration i s the term to describe a d i s t r i c t which has "begun to f a l l below accepted minimum standards, either because of physical or economic change in the d i s t r i c t i t s e l f or because the standards have risen over a period of time". 8 Downtown i s the term most often employed to refer to the central business d i s t r i c t . Environmental Rehabilitation happens when "open space i s treated to relate to the rehabilitated building so i t carries the character of the building beyond the edge of the walls to the edge of the sidewalk". 9 Retail Store "is a business enterprise which sel l s primarily to ultimate consumers for non-business use." 1 0 Urban Centre "is a densely settled built-up area." 1 1 Urban Conservation "is maintaining in good order that which is already in good condition through the application of controls and the encouragement of a public information program." 1 2 It can also be achieved "by means of proper maintenance (including repairs and replacements). It consists in general of the protection of the quality of such areas by preventing the occurrence therein of a l l kinds of conditions that have resulted in deterioration and obsolescence in redeveloped and rehabilitated areas." 1 3 Urban Redevelopment i s the process "in which buildings or areas beyond economic repair are replaced by developments of a similar or more suitable nature". 1 1* Urban Rehabilitation is "the alteration of the physical nature of a building to the point where i t is at least a safe, sound, and decent structure capable of serving a viable economic use". 1 5 Urban Renewal i s "the collective series of actions, both public and private, the total effect of which might be the restoration of the economic, social and physical health for the community".16 So i t i s the "guidance of public and private processes of redevelopment, rehabilitation and conservation [of individual building 9 o r w h o l e a r e a s ] i n t h e l i g h t o f s o c i a l , e c o n o m i c a n d p h y s i c a l o b j e c t i v e s a g r e e d u p o n b y t h e c o m m u n i t y a s o p p o s e d t o m e r e l y a l l o w i n g t h e m a r k e t t o t a k e i t s c o u r s e " . 1 7 U r b a n i z a t i o n r e f e r s t o " t h e p r o p o r t i o n o f t h e t o t a l p o p u l a -t i o n c o n c e n t r a t e d i n u r b a n s e t t l e m e n t s , o r e l s e t o a r i s e i n t h i s p r o p o r t i o n " . 1 8 I t a l s o r e f e r s t o " i n c r e a s e i n t h e n u m b e r o f u r b a n c e n t r e s " . 1 9 2 . 2 . U r b a n i z a t i o n a n d t h e U r b a n C r i s i s W e l i v e i n a n u r b a n a g e . " M o r e t h a n h a l f o f t h e w o r l d ' s p e o p l e w i l l p r o b a b l y b e l i v i n g i n c i t i e s o f 1 0 0 , 0 0 0 o r m o r e b y 1 9 9 0 . " 2 0 T h r o u g h o u t h i s t o r y , c u l t u r a l a n d e c o n o m i c p r o g r e s s h a s f l o u r i s h e d i n c i t i e s . M a n ' s h i g h e s t a c h i e v e m e n t s h a v e b e e n r e a l i z e d i n u r b a n a r e a s , w h e r e t h e g r e a t e r d e g r e e o f p e r s o n a l a n d p o l i t i c a l f r e e d o m h a v e f a v o u r e d t h e f u l l d e v e l o p -m e n t o f i n d i v i d u a l a b i l i t y a n d i n i t i a t i v e . 2 1 D o w n t o w n i s t h e h e a r t o f t h e c i t y a n d a v i t a l c o m p o n e n t o f t h e t o t a l u r b a n s t r u c t u r e . I t i s t h e m o s t i n t e n s e c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f a c t i v i t i e s i n e a c h m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a . 2 2 I n a s t u d y o f C B D a n a l y s i s , W e i s s n o t e d t h a t " r e v i e w o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e a m o u n t s t o a s t i m u l a t i n g i n t e r -d i s c i p l i n a r y e x c u r s i o n i n t o t h e f i e l d s o f u r b a n s o c i o l o g y , h u m a n e c o l o g y , e c o n o m i c g e o g r a p h y , s o c i a l b e h a v i o r , t r a f f i c e n g i n e e r i n g , p u b l i c a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , u r b a n d e s i g n , a n d c i t y a n d r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g . " 2 3 -A.-, s e n s e o f u r b a n c r i s i s i s p e r c e i v e d b y u r b a n 10 area i n h a b i t a n t s t o have i n c r e a s e d i n r e c e n t y e a r s as c i t y problems i n c r e a s e . The s e r i o u s n e s s o f the urban c r i s i s can b e s t be r e c o g n i z e d i n the h e a r t of the c i t y . The causes and e f f e c t s o f the urban c r i s i s are i n t e r r e l a t e d but one can i s o l a t e the t h r e e major ones as b e i n g o b s o l e s c e n c e , c o n g e s t i o n , and p o p u l a t i o n s h i f t s t o the suburbs. These problems are the outcome of a p o p u l a t i o n e x p l o s i o n i n the c i t y . In a d d i t i o n t o the problems i t causes f o r the c i t y , a p o p u l a t i o n e x p l o s i o n can a l s o cause p s y c h o l o g i c a l problems f o r the urban i n d i v i d u a l which are even g r e a t e r . Z o o l o g i s t Desmond M o r r i s argues t h a t 'while man has e v o l v e d t o l i v e i n s m a l l groups he i s f r e q u e n t l y p l a c e d i n the s t r e s s f u l s i t u a t i o n o f h a v i n g t o d e a l w i t h a l a r g e r number o f . p e o p l e i n m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a s . I f a person attempts to a s s i m i l a t e too much incoming i n f o r m a t i o n , he may s u f f e r from 'i n p u t o v e r l o a d ' , which can r e s u l t i n breakdown o f the i n d i v i d u a l . To defend themselves a g a i n s t the o n s l a u g h t o f humanity i i i ' l a r g e c i t i e s , people s e t up an i n t e r l o c k i n g and o v e r l a p p i n g t r i b a l groups. T h i s sense o f estrangement o f people i n c i t i e s i s not caused by i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n p e r s e , but, r a t h e r by l a r g e c o n c e n t r a t i o n s o f p o p u l a t i o n . ' 2 4 2.2.a. Obsolescence Obsolescence i s one o f the major causes o f the p e r c e i v e d urban c r i s i s . The deadening e f f e c t o f o b s o l e s c e n c e a p p l i e s as much to l e g i s l a t i v e , a d m i n i s t r a t i v e , s o c i a l , and f i n a n c i a l s t r u c t u r e s as i t does to the p h y s i c a l s t r u c t u r e s o f b u i l d i n g s and n e i g h b o r h o o d s . 2 5 However, obsol e s c e n c e o f p h y s i c a l components i s the most d i f f i c u l t k i n d to f i g h t as i t i s i n h e r e n t i n the urban 1 1 s t r u c t u r e . O v e r t i m e , t h i s p h e n o m e n o n t e n d s t o r e d u c e t h e u s e f u l n e s s , a t t r a c t i v e n e s s , v a l u e , o r v i t a l i t y o r e l e m e n t s o f t h e u r b a n s t r u c t u r e . 2 6 . . . . W h i l e l i f e c h a n g e s , b u i l d i n g s s t a n d s t i l l ; a n d b e i n g m o r e s o l i d a n d r e s i s t a n t t h a n b r i c k a n d m o r t a r a r e , s t r e e t l i n e s a n d p r o p e r t y l i n e s t h a t h a v e b e e n e s t a b l i s h e d r e m a i n , s o m e t i m e s f o r h u n d r e d s a n d e v e n t h o u s a n d s o f y e a r s . A s P r o f e s s o r A n t h o n y P . A d a m s o n w i s e l y r e m a r k e d , " C i t i e s a r e a l w a y s o u t o f d a t e a n d a l w a y s o u t o f o r d e r . " 2 7 C i t i e s a r e o b s o l e t e f r o m t h e m o m e n t t h e y c o m e i n t o e x i s t e n c e , s o m e t i m e s b e f o r e . O b s o l e s c e n c e i s t h e r e v e r s e o f p r o g r e s s ; t h e f a s t e r p r o g r e s s d e v e l o p s , t h e m o r e o b s o l e s c e n c e o c c u r s . T h e o n l y w a y t o f i g h t o b s o l e s c e n c e i s t o c a r r y o n a c o n t i n u o u s p r o c e s s o f r e n e w a l a n d r e v i t a l i z a t i o n o f a l l u r b a n s t r u c t u r e s . 2 . 2 . b . C o n g e s t i o n B e f o r e t h e 1 9 2 0 ' s t h e o n l y c o n v e n i e n t w a y t o g e t a b o u t t h e c i t y w a s o n t r a c k s — s t r e e t c a r , r a p i d t r a n s i t e l e v a t e d o r s u b w a y l i n e , o r s u b u r b a n r a i l w a y . T h e r i g i d i t y o f t h e s e t r a c k s a n d t h e i r p a t t e r n f r o m t h e c e n t r a l a r e a o u t -w a r d m a d e i t e a s i e r f o r m o s t p e o p l e t o g e t d o w n t o w n t h a n t o g e t t o a n y o t h e r p l a c e i n t h e c i t y . T h u s , t h e e a s i e s t p l a c e t o g o o n a s h o p p i n g t r i p w a s d o w n t o w n . 2 8 H o w e v e r , t h e e v o l u t i o n o f t h e i n t e r n a l c o m b u s t i o n e n g i n e c h a n g e d t h e p i c t u r e g r e a t l y a n d r e l e a s e d p e o p l e f r o m t h e t r a c k s . A s m o r e p e o p l e b e c a m e d e p e n d e n t ' o n l y u p o n t h e i r 1 2 o w n p r i v a t e m e a n s o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n a n d a b j u r e d t h e o l d m a s s t r a n s i t f a c i l i t i e s , t h e c o n g e s t i o n i n t h e c e n t r a l a r e a b e g a n t o m a k e i t m o r e d i f f i c u l t t o g e t d o w n t o w n . T h e a u t o m o b i l e i s m o r e t h a n a m e a n s o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n a s i t h a s b e c o m e a s t a t u s s y m b o l , a h i g h l y v i s i b l e f i n a n c i a l s t a t e m e n t s u p p o r t i n g i t s o w n e r ' s c r e d i t r a t i n g . B u t n o m a t t e r h o w p o p u l a r i t i s , t h e a u t o m o b i l e h a s c a u s e d g r e a t d a m a g e t o t h e c i t y . T h e h u m a n m a j o r i t y h a s b e e n c o w e d i n t o s u b m i s s i o n ; n o t o n l y i s i t i n s t e a d y r e t r e a t b u t i n r o u t l i k e [ s i c ] f r o m t h e c i t y . I t a p p e a r s t h a t t h e i n t e r n a l c o m b u s t i o n e n g i n e , i n i t s m a s s a s s a u l t , h a s l e d t o t h e e x t e r n a l c o m b u s t i o n o f t h e c i t y . 2 9 2 . 2 . C . B l i g h t U r b a n b l i g h t i s t h e m o s t c o m p l e x p r o b l e m i n m o s t N o r t h A m e r i c a n c i t i e s . T h e w o r d " b l i g h t " r e f e r s t o t h e c o l l e c t i v e c o n d i t i o n s t h a t c h a r a c t e r i z e d e c a y e d a n d p r e -m a t u r e l y o b s o l e s c e n t u r b a n a r e a s . I n l a r g e c i t i e s r a p i d m e t r o p o l i t a n g r o w t h h a s i n t e n s i f i e d t h e s p r e a d o f b l i g h t . B l i g h t t a k e s p l a c e d u e t o o n e o r m o r e r e a s o n s : f a u l t y l a n d u s e p a t t e r n s , p o o r o r i g i n a l d e s i g n o r c o n s t r u c -t i o n o f b u i l d i n g s , i n a d e q u a t e p u b l i c s e r v i c e s , o b s o l e s c e n c e , a b u s e o f p r o p e r t y , a n d l a c k o f m a i n t e n a n c e o f e x i s t i n g s t r u c t u r e s . 3 0 I n f i g h t i n g b l i g h t t h e r e a r e c a t e g o r i e s o f p r o j e c t s h a v i n g s e p a r a t e s o c i a l a n d e c o n o m i c g o a l s f i t t i n g i n t o t h e l a r g e r g u i d i n g o b j e c t i v e : 1 3 I m p r o v e m e n t o f t h e e c o n o m i c b a s e o f t h e c i t y t h r o u g h i n d u s t r i a l o r c o m m e r c i a l p r o j e c t s i n v o l v i n g t h e r e h a b i l i t a t i o n o f m a j o r s h o p p i n g c e n t e r s o r d o w n t o w n d i s t r i c t s , i n c l u d i n g b o t h t h e r e d e v e l o p m e n t o f b l i g h t e d s e c t i o n s a n d t h e c o n s e r v a t i o n o f e x i s t i n g a s s e t s . I m p r o v e m e n t s o f h o u s i n g a n d c o m m u n i t y f a c i l i t i e s . I m p r o v e m e n t o f t h o r o u g h f a r e s a n d t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f e x p r e s s w a y s , t r a n s i t r i g h t s o f w a y , n e e d e d t e r m i n a l s , o f f s t r e e t p a r k i n g , a n d l o a d i n g a r e a s . P r e v e n t i o n o f t h e s p r e a d o f b l i g h t . C l e a r a n c e o r r e h a b i l i t a t i o n s p e c i f i c a l l y d e s i g n e d t o c o m p l e m e n t c o n s e r v a t i o n a c t i v i t y . 3 1 2 . 3 . R e t a i l i n g T r e n d s D o w n t o w n A s c i t y p r o b l e m s i n c r e a s e , l i f e b e c o m e s m o r e d i f f i c u l t f o r i t s i n h a b i t a n t s . S t a r t i n g i n t h e m i d 1 9 4 0 ' s N o r t h A m e r i c a n c i t i e s e x p e r i e n c e d a t r e m e n d o u s p o p u l a t i o n s h i f t o u t w a r d f r o m t h e c e n t r a l a r e a s t o t h e s u b u r b s . W i t h t h i s m o v e m e n t , n e w s h o p p i n g c e n t e r s w e r e b u i l t t o s e r v e t h e n e w p o p u l a t i o n , a n d a s t i m e w e n t o n , m o r e a n d l a r g e r s h o p p i n g c e n t e r s w e r e c o n s t r u c t e d . F u r t h e r m o r e , m a n y i n d u s t r i a l p l a n t s a n d g o v e r n m e n t a g e n c i e s f o l l o w e d t h e f l i g h t t o t h e s u b u r b s . F a l l i n g r e t a i l s a l e s d o w n t o w n a r e n o t o n l y a t t r i b -u t e d t o s u b u r b a n i z a t i o n . O t h e r c a u s e s i n c l u d e b l i g h t i n t h e c o r e a r e a , c o n g e s t i o n i n a c c e s s a n d i n t e r n a l m o v e m e n t , a n d p a r k i n g i n c o n v e n i e n c e a n d e x p e n s e . M e r c h a n d i s i n g , t o o , h a s c h a n g e d . T h e s u d d e n i n c r e a s e i n t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f " s t a n d a r d b r a n d s " , t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f l a r g e r m e r c h a n d i s i n g u n i t s , c r o s s l i n e s i n m e r c h a n d i s e , t h e u s e o f t r a d i n g s t a m p s a n d o t h e r a d v e r t i s i n g g i m m i c k s , a n d r e a r r a n g e m e n t i n t h e h o u r s o f b u s i n e s s h a v e a l l c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e d e c l i n e i n s a l e s v o l u m e . A n o t h e r f a c t o r a f f e c t i n g t h e d o w n t o w n r e t a i l b u s i n e s s i s t h e s i z e o f t h e c i t y . A c t u a l l y , i t h a s b e e n o b s e r v e d t h a t t h e p e r c e n t -a g e o f r e t a i l b u s i n e s s i n C B D t e n d s t o v a r y i n v e r s e l y w i t h t h e p o p u l a t i o n s i z e o f t h e c e n t r a l c i t y . I n o t h e r w o r d s , a s t h e c i t y g r o w s l a r g e r , t h e C B D m a y a c c o u n t f o r a r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l e r s h a r e o f t o t a l r e t a i l s a l e s i n t h e u r b a n a r e a . 3 2 T h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h d e v e l o p m e n t o f s u b u r b a n c o m m e r c i a l p r o p e r t y a f f e c t s t h e d o w n t o w n d e p e n d s o n c e r t a i n f a c t o r s w h i c h L a r r y S m i t h s t a t e s a s f o l l o w s : 1 . T h e s i z e o f t h e c i t y . T h e e f f e c t w i l l b e m o r e s e v e r e i n l a r g e r c i t i e s . 2 . T h e a g g r e s s i v e n e s s o f t h e s u b u r b a n d e v e l o p m e n t . 3 . T h e a b i l i t y o f t h e c o m m u n i t y a t l a r g e a n d t h e o w n e r s o f d o w n t o w n b u s i n e s s d i s t r i c t t o a d a p t t h e m s e l v e s t o t h e c h a n g i n g c o n d i t i o n s a n d t o m a i n t a i n a s u b s t a n t i a l v o l u m e o f b u s i n e s s i n t h e d o w n t o w n b u s i n e s s d i s t r i c t . 4 . T h e p h y s i c a l a d a p t a t i o n o f t h e c i t y t o a u t o m o b i l e t r a f f i c e . 5 . T h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h t h e c i t y n o r m a l l y u s e s s i n g l e f a m i l y o r m u l t i p l e f a m i l y d w e l l i n g s a s h o u s i n g f o r i t s p o p u l a t i o n . 6 . T h e a c t i v i t y o f t h e p u b l i c t r a n s p o r t a t i o n s y s t e m , i t s h e a l t h a n d v i g o r a n d t h e a g g r e s s i v e -n e s s o f i t s m a n a g e m e n t . 3 3 2 . 4 . T h e V a l u e o f D o w n t o w n D o w n t o w n h a s a n e s t a b l i s h e d v a l u e i n t h e m i n d s o f u r b a n p o p u l a t i o n s . H o w e v e r , c o n t r o v e r s i a l v i e w s o f i t s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e h e a l t h a n d w e l l - b e i n g o f t h e 15 m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a a s a w h o l e h a v e b e e n e x p r e s s e d . W i t h o u t p o s i t i v e a c t i o n t h e u r b a n c e n t e r m a y w i t h e r , a n d t h e m e t r o p o l i s m a y b e c o m e a v a s t , a m o r p h o u s , h e a d l e s s a m o e b a . A s t r o n g c e n t e r i s n e e d e d s o c i a l l y , e c o n o m i c a l l y a n d p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y , f o r i t ' s h e r e t h a t u r b a n l i f e i s l i v e d i n f u l l , a n d v i r t u a l l y a l l a c t i v i t i e s i n t h e m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a f o c u s t o w a r d s i t . . . . T h e d o w n t o w n a r e a i s t h e b r a i n t i s s u e o f t h e m e t r o p o l i s , a c o m p l e x , e v o l v i n g , a n d l i t t l e -u n d e r s t o o d o r g a n . I f i t i s s i c k , i t m a y r e q u i r e s u r g e r y , b u t t h i s s u r g e r y s h o u l d b e d o n e w i t h s e n s i t i v e f i n g e r s , w i t h t h e f i n e s t s u r g i c a l i n s t r u -m e n t s , a n d w i t h t h e c l o s e s t a t t e n t i o n t o w h a t i n f a c t i s b e i n g d o n e . 3 H A l e s s r e v e r e n t v i e w o f t h e c e n t r a l a r e a i s t h a t . . . t h e c o r e c i t y i s t r e a t e d a s a h e a r t o f a m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a t h a t m a y b e c o m e d i s e a s e d a n d t h u s s u f f e r d i r e i l l n o t o n l y t o i t s e l f , b u t e x t e n d i n g t o t h e w h o l e m e t r o p o l i t a n b o d y . N o v i t a l s t a t i s t i c s o n c e n t r a l c i t y h e a r t a t t a c k s a r e o f f e r e d , h o w e v e r , n o r a n y e v i d e n c e o n m e t r o p o l i t a n b o d i e s s u f f e r i n g f r o m c e n t r a l c i t y h e a r t d i s e a s e . T h e m e t a p h o r s o m e t i m e s p r e s e n t s i t s e l f a s t h e c e n t r a l c i t y i n t h e r o l e o f a t r e e a n d t h e s u b u r b s a s c l i n g i n g p a r a s i t i c v i n e s w h o a r e d e s t i n e d t o f a l l w i t h t h e t r e e i n a c o m m o n f a t e . A g a i n , t h e m e t a p h o r i s n o t d e s i g n e d t o l e a d t o f a c t u a l t r a n s l a t i o n b u t t o p o e t i c a n d e v o c a t i v e c o n v i c t i o n . T h e r h e t o r i c o f p o l i t i c a l p e r s u a s i o n a n d n o s t a l g i c s e n t i m e n t a l m y s t i c i s m i s d e s i g n e d t o a v o i d b o t h f a c t s a n d r a t i o n a l a n a l y s i s . 3 5 D o w n t o w n i s l e s s s u s c e p t a b l e t o d e c l i n e t h a n a n y o t h e r s h o p p i n g d i s t r i c t a s i t s b a s i c h e a l t h d e p e n d s m o r e u p o n t h e g e n e r a l h e a l t h o f t h e r e g i o n a l e c o n o m y t h a n u p o n i t s s h e e r p h y s i c a l a t t r a c t i v e n e s s a s a p l a c e t o s h o p . 3 6 T h e C B D h a s c e r t a i n d e f i n i t e a d v a n t a g e s o v e r t h e s u b u r b a n s h o p p i n g c e n t e r . I n o n e o f h i s v a r i o u s s t u d i e s o f C B D v e r s u s s u b u r b a n r e t a i l o p e r a t i o n s , C T . J o n a s s e n d e s c r i b e s t h e s t r e n g t h o f C B D . 1 6 1 . T h e d o w n t o w n b u s i n e s s d i s t r i c t h a s m a n y s t r e n g t h s w h i c h i t w i l l n o t b e e a s y f o r t h e s u b u r b a n d i s t r i c t s t o o v e r t a k e , a t l e a s t i n c i t i e s o f l e s s t h a n 2 . 5 m i l l i o n p o p u l a t i o n . T h e s e s t r e n g t h s a r e r e l a t e d p r i m a r i l y t o t h e f a c t t h a t c u s t o m e r s f i n d t h a t t h e y h a v e a b e t t e r s e l e c t i o n o f p r i c e s , m o r e f r e q u e n t b a r g a i n s a l e s , b e t t e r a c c e s s t o p u b l i c t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , a n d m o r e c o n v e n i e n t r e a s o n s f o r m e e t i n g t h e i r f r i e n d s f r o m o t h e r p a r t s o f t h e c i t y f o r s h o p p i n g t r i p s , b e t t e r e a t i n g f a c i l i t i e s , a n d m o r e e r r a n d s t h a t t h e y c a n a c c o m p l i s h a t a s i n g l e t i m e i n t h e d o w n t o w n b u s i n e s s d i s t r i c t . T h i s g r o u p o f a t t i t u d e s i n d i c a t e s t h e v e r y s t r o n g p o s i t i o n o f t h e c e n t r a l b u s i n e s s d i s t r i c t a n d r e p r e s e n t s t h e f a c t o r s t h a t t h e c e n t r a l b u s i n e s s d i s t r i c t c a n e m p h a s i z e i n r e s i s t i n g t h e s u b u r b a n t r e n d . 2 . I t i s s i m i l a r l y a p p a r e n t t h a t t h e w e a k n e s s e s a r e t h o s e t h a t r e l a t e p r i m a r i l y t o c o n v e n i e n c e o f a u t o m o b i l e t r a v e l a n d p a r k i n g a n d t h e p r o b l e m o f c a r e o f c h i l d r e n d u r i n g t h e s h o p p i n g t r i p s . 3 7 A h e a l t h y d o w n t o w n a t t r a c t s c r e a t i v e p e o p l e w h o w i l l f i n d i n i t s e n v i r o n m e n t n o t o n l y a s o u r c e o f i n c o m e , b u t i n s p i r a t i o n t o o . I t i s t h e p l a c e o f r e s i d e n c e f o r t h o s e w h o v a l u e i n t i m a t e c o n t a c t w i t h u r b a n f e a t u r e s a n d f o r w h o m t h e c i t y i s a w a y o f l i f e . A h e a l t h y d o w n t o w n i s a p l a c e o f i n f i n i t e v a r i e t y p u l s a t i n g w i t h l i f e d a y a n d n i g h t , w e e k d a y a n d S u n d a y , s p r i n g , s u m m e r , f a l l a n d w i n t e r . 3 8 2 . 5 . W h a t B e l o n g s D o w n t o w n T h e r e i s a c o n t i n u i n g d e m a n d f o r l o c a t i o n s i n o r n e a r t h e c i t y c e n t e r . W h i l e m a n y a c t i v i t i e s c a n b e c a r r i e d o n i n s u b u r b a n o r n o n - c e n t r a l l o c a t i o n s a n d m a n y a r e a l r e a d y b e i n g f o r c e d o u t o f t h e c e n t e r b y h i g h l a n d v a l u e s , r e n t s , t h e r e w i l l a l w a y s b e a m i n o r i t y o f l e g i s l a t i v e a n d 1 7 a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d e p a r t m e n t s o f g o v e r n m e n t , o f f i c e h e a d q u a r t e r s , s p e c i a l t y s h o p s , h o t e l s , e n t e r t a i n m e n t , a n d c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s t h a t m u s t f i n d t h e m s e l v e s a p l a c e s o m e w h e r e w i t h i n t h e d o w n -t o w n a r e a a n d t h e h e a r t o f t h e m e t r o p o l i s . 3 9 I n E u r o p e , t h i s p r e s s u r e o n c e n t r a l a r e a s p a c e s h a s b e c o m e s o g r e a t t h a t r a t i o n i n g t e c h n i q u e s a r e b e i n g d e v e l o p e d w h e r e b y a n y o n e w i s h i n g t o b u i l d t h e r e m u s t m a k e a s t r o n g c a s e a s t o w h y h e c a n o n l y o p e r a t e i n t h e c e n t e r . 1 * 0 W i t h t h e c h a n g e s t h a t h a v e t a k e n p l a c e i n s h o p p i n g h a b i t s , i t i s o n l y t h e v e r y s p e c i a l s h o p , t h e l u x u r y s h o p , t h e s h o p t h a t n e e d s t h e w h o l e m e t r o p o l i t a n p o p u l a t i o n t o s u p p o r t i t , t h a t n e e d s a n d c a n a f f o r d a c e n t r a l l o c a t i o n . I n g e n e r a l , s u i t a b l e u s e s f o r d o w n t o w n a r e t h o s e w h i c h r e p r e s e n t . . . t h e h i g h e s t e x p r e s s i o n o f u r b a n a c t i v i t y , a c h i e v e h i g h p r o d u c t i v i t y i n a c o m p a r a t i v e l y s m a l l s p a c e , a n d s e r v e s p e c i a l i z e d n e e d s , t a s k s a n d s t a n d a r d s . 4 1 T h e v a r i e t y o f a c t i v i t i e s c a r r i e d o n i n t h e d o w n -t o w n i s e s s e n t i a l t o i t s v i t a l i t y . U r b a n v i t a l i t y d o w n t o w n c a n n o t b e a c h i e v e d b y l i m i t -i n g t h e u s e o f l a n d t o o n e a c t i v i t y . R a t h e r a b a l a n c e d v a r i e t y o f l a n d u s e s w o u l d a s s u r e a d i v e r s i t y o f a c t i v i t i e s c o n d u c i v e t o v i t a l i t y . 4 2 E v e n t h o s e a c t i v i t i e s f o u n d i n o l d , o b s o l e t e s t r u c t u r e s a r e a p r o p e r p a r t o f t h e t o t a l m i x t h a t i t t a k e s t o f i l l u p t h e r o s t e r o f t h i n g s t h a t b e l o n g i n t h e c e n t e r . 4 3 T h e r e a r e t w o p r i m a r y r e a s o n s f o r r e t a i l b u s i n e s s e s 1 8 l o c a t i n g d o w n t o w n . 1 . T o t a k e a d v a n t a g e o f t h e t r e m e n d o u s c u m u l a t i v e a t t r a c t i o n r e p r e s e n t e d b y t h e h i g h d e n s i t y r e t a i l e s t a b l i s h m e n t s t h a t a r e a l r e a d y t h e r e . 2 . T o s e r v e t h e d o w n t o w n w o r k i n g o r t r a n s i e n t p o p u l a t i o n . 4 4 T h e r e a r e d i s t i n c t e c o n o m i c a d v a n t a g e s t o c e n t r a l l o c a t i o n s f o r r e t a i l b u s i n e s s e s . B u t , a s m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a s g r o w i n p o p u l a t i o n a n d p h y s i c a l e x t e n t , t h e i r c e n t r a l a c t i v i t i e s g r o w m o r e s l o w l y , s i n c e t h e a d v a n t a g e s o f c e n t r a l -i t y m u s t b e c o u p l e d w i t h a d v a n t a g e s o f a c c e s s i b i l i t y , a n d s o m e f r a c t i o n o f c e n t r a l a c t i v i t i e s f i n d t h a t s u b c e n t e r s b e c o m e b e t t e r l o c a t i o n s f o r t h e m , b e i n g c l o s e r t o t h e p e o p l e s e r v e d a n d a t l o w e r r e n t s . 4 5 I n E r n e s t J a k a r t ' s s t u d i e s f o r B a l t i m o r e a n d S t . L o u i s , h e f i n d s t h a t t h e k e y t o l o c a t i o n o f e s t a b l i s h m e n t s i s t h e p r o d u c t i v i t y l e v e l o f t h e s p a c e i n u s e , e x p r e s s e d a s v a l u e a d d e d p e r s q u a r e f o o t o f l o t , a n d t h a t s m a l l e s t a b l i s h m e n t s p l a y a n i m p o r t a n t r o l e . 4 6 2 . 6 . D o w n t o w n M a r k e t s D o w n t o w n r e t a i l s e c t i o n s d e p e n d p r i m a r i l y u p o n t h r e e k i n d s o f m a r k e t s : r e g i o n a l , m e t r o p o l i t a n a n d l o c a l . R e g i o n a l b u s i n e s s i s d e r i v e d f r o m p e o p l e l i v i n g o u t s i d e t h e m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a w h o c o m e t o t h e c i t y o n o c c a s i o n a l v i s i t s a n d p u r c h a s e u n i q u e , e x p e n s i v e , o r h i g h - s t y l e d g o o d s d o w n -t o w n . T h e r e i s l i t t l e m e t r o p o l i t a n b u s i n e s s s i n c e 1 9 m e t r o p o l i t a n c u s t o m e r s , w h o s h o p m o s t l y i n o u t l y i n g c e n t e r s , v i s i t t h e d o w n t o w n o n a r e l a t i v e l y i n f r e q u e n t b a s i s . L o c a l b u s i n e s s c o m e s f r o m t h e d o w n t o w n o f f i c e b u i l d i n g p o p u l a t i o n a n d f r o m p e o p l e l i v i n g i n o r n e a r d o w n t o w n w h o u s e i t s f a c i l i t i e s a s a n e i g h b o u r h o o d f a c i l i t y . 4 7 A s t u d y o f d o w n t o w n r e t a i l m a r k e t s i n t w e n t y o f t h e l a r g e s t A m e r i c a n c i t i e s r e v e a l s t h a t t h e n e t c h a n g e i n d o w n -t o w n r e t a i l b u s i n e s s h a s b e e n v e r y s m a l l i n r e c e n t y e a r s , a s l o s s e s i n m e t r o p o l i t a n b u s i n e s s h a v e b e e n c o u n t e r b a l a n c e d b y g a i n s i n l o c a l b u s i n e s s . R e g i o n a l b u s i n e s s h a s t e n d e d t o r e m a i n s t a t i c a s s h o w n i n T a b l e I I I . 4 8 R e t a i l b u s i n e s s c o n d u c t e d d o w n t o w n w i t h m e t r o p o l -i t a n c u s t o m e r s c o n t i n u e s t o d e c l i n e , t h o u g h o n l y s l i g h t l y , b e c a u s e i n m o s t c i t i e s d o w n t o w n h a s a l r e a d y l o s t t o o l d e r i n t e r c e p t o r s — • o u t l y i n g s h o p p i n g d i s t r i c t s — w h a t e v e r m e t r o p o l i t a n b u s i n e s s i t w a s g o i n g t o l o s e . A t t h e s a m e t i m e , l o c a l b u s i n e s s i n t h e t w e n t y d o w n t o w n a r e a s s t u d i e d i s i n c r e a s i n g t o b a l a n c e t h e d o w n t o w n m e t r o p o l i t a n t r e n d s f o r t h e f o l l o w i n g r e a s o n s : 1 . A t y p e o f r e s i d e n t i a l r e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n t r e n d o c c u r i n g d o w n t o w n . 2 . R e d e v e l o p m e n t a n d u r b a n r e n e w a l p r o g r a m s i n m a n y l a r g e c i t i e s . 4 9 A s t h e V a n c o u v e r m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a g r e w i n p o p u l a t i o n b y 2 6 p e r c e n t b e t w e e n t h e y e a r s 1 9 4 7 a n d 1 9 5 4 , t h e d o w n t o w n w o r k i n g p o p u l a t i o n i n c r e a s e d b y / a b o u t 1 6 p e r -c e n t , w h i l e t h e n u m b e r o f p e o p l e d o w n t o w n s o l e l y f o r s h o p p i n g T A B L E I I I D O W N T O W N F U N C T I O N S A N D I N F L U E N C E ( C o m p o s i t e f o r 20 l a r g e c i t i e s ) »ARE A' OF* INFLUENCE4 OR> SERVICE . *•_,< '.\,yX& Type of Function- Regional Metropolitan Local Total Spaoa XSpca dsotad to ttw W luenc* foil HScoce dnotad 1c this hfluenc* fed iSparadwotwS lo the Influence Retail 100* 20% - 4 0 % 40% t hnanos! _ Corararojl 100% 40 t 35 25 t CiMSifu-£ Meetings 100* 90 t 5 * 5 J Elliot Jainmflnt 100% 40 t 45 15 -Cuttural 100% 30 — 50 — 20 f Average (utwaghted) 100% 44% t 35% * 21% t 2 1 i n c r e a s e d b y n o t m o r e t h a n 0 . 0 1 p e r c e n t i n t h e s a m e p e r i o d o f t i m e . D o w n t o w n V a n c o u v e r w a s d o i n g s u b s t a n t i a l l y m o r e r e t a i l b u s i n e s s i n 1 9 5 4 t h a n i n 1 9 4 7 , b u t a l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n o f i t c a m e f r o m p e o p l e w h o s e p r i m a r y p u r p o s e f o r b e i n g d o w n t o w n w a s o t h e r t h a n s h o p p i n g , u s u a l l y e m p l o y m e n t . 5 0 2 . 7 . C o m m e r c i a l R e h a b i l i t a t i o n T h e n e c e s s i t y f o r c o m m e r c i a l r e h a b i l i t a t i o n c a n b e g e n e r a t e d b y p h y s i c a l , e c o n o m i c o r s o c i a l n e e d s . T h e d e c i s i o n t o r e h a b i l i t a t e a c o m m e r c i a l a r e a d e p e n d s u p o n t h e s t r u c t u r a l s o u n d n e s s o f t h e a r e a a n d t h e c o s t - b e n e f i t a n a l y s i s o f t h e p r o p o s e d p r o j e c t . T h e o b j e c t i v e s o f c o m m e r c i a l r e h a b i l i t a t i o n u n d e r m a x i m u m c o n d i t i o n s o f n e e d a n d f e a s i b i l i t y a s c i t e d b y R . L . N e l s o n a n d F . T . A s c h m a n a r e : 1 . U n i f i c a t i o n o f t h e d i s t r i c t , a r c h i t e c t u r a l l y a n d p l a n n i n g - w i s e , i n t o a d e f i n i t e e n t i t y w h i c h w i l l n o t s h i f t i t s l o c a t i o n b u t w i l l r e m a i n a s a t r u e " c e n t e r " w i t h p e r p e t u a l r e b u i l d i n g o r s e l f - d e v e l o p m e n t . 2 . I m p r o v e m e n t o f s i t e l a y o u t t h r o u g h e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f n e w r e l a t i o n s h i p s b e t w e e n s t o r e s , p a r k i n g , p e d e s t r i a n s , m o t o r i s t s , t r u c k a n d o t h e r s e r v i c e s . 3 . E l i m i n a t i o n o f b l i g h t i n t h e f o r m o f n o n - c o n f o r m -i n g a n d i n c o m p a t i b l e u s e s a n d d e t e r i o r a t e d s t r u c t u r e s . 4 . P r o v i s i o n o f n e w a m e n i t i e s , i n t e r m s o f b o t h a e s t h e t i c s a n d c o n v e n i e n c e . 5 . A c h i e v e m e n t o f c o h e s i o n o f m a n a g e m e n t o p e r a t i o n , t h r o u g h c o o p e r a t i o n o f t h e m u l t i p l e i n t e r e s t s a c t i n g j o i n t l y t o m a i n t a i n s c i e n t i f i c m a n a g e m e n t p r a c t i c e i n a r e a s o f m u t u a l i n t e r e s t a n d n e c e s s i t y . 5 1 2 2 C o m m e r c i a l r e h a b i l i t a t i o n d o e s n o t b e n e f i t o n l y o n e i n t e r e s t g r o u p i n t h e a r e a s u c h a s p r o p e r t y o w n e r s o r m e r c h a n t s , b u t t h e c i t y a n d t h e c o m m u n i t y a s a w h o l e . 2 . 7 . a . P h y s i c a l N e e d F o r C o m m e r c i a l R e h a b i l i t a t i o n A d o w n t o w n c o m m e r c i a l a r e a t h a t i s i n n e e d o f r e h a b i l i t a t i o n i s n o t d i f f i c u l t t o i d e n t i f i y . C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f s u c h a n a r e a a r e o b v i o u s . B l i g h t a n d i t s a c c o m p a n y i n g p r o b l e m s o f d e c a y a n d p r e m a t u r e o b s o l e s c e n c e , a n d c o n g e s t e d a c c e s s r o u t e s a n d i n t e r n a l c i r c u l a t i o n a r e a l l o b v i o u s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . A e s t h e t i c a l l y , t h e a r e a i s u n p l e a s i n g , h a v i n g n o u n i f i e d d e s i g n a n d n o i d e n t i t y . T h e b u i l d i n g s a r e s t r u c t u r a l l y u n s o u n d . A n o t h e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f a c o m m e r c i a l a r e a i n n e e d o f r e h a b i l i t a t i o n i s t h a t i t s s t o r e s d o n o t f o l l o w a n y o f t h e v a r i o u s r u l e s f o r r e t a i l i n g t h a t h a v e b e e n d e r i v e d f o r m a x i m u m a t t r a c t i o n o f c u s t o m e r s . 2 . 7 . b . S t o r e L o c a t i o n R u l e s S t u d i e s o f s t o r e l o c a t i o n , c o m p a t i b i l i t y c l a s s i f i -c a t i o n , a n d c u m u l a t i v e g e n e r a t i o n h a v e b e e n d o n e a n d r u l e s h a v e b e e n s t a t e d b y R . L . N e l s o n : 1 . A d e q u a c y o f p r e s e n t t r a d i n g a r e a p o t e n t i a l . T o d e t e r m i n e t h e v o l u m e o f b u s i n e s s w h i c h c a n b e d o n e a t a g i v e n l o c a t i o n t h e n u m b e r o f p e o p l e i n t h e t r a d i n g a r e a , h o w m u c h m o n e y t h e y h a v e a n d a r e w i l l i n g t o s p e n d f o r t h e t y p e o f g o o d s p u r v e y e d b y t h e s t o r e h a v e t o b e k n o w n . 23 A c c e s s i b i l i t y o f s i t e t o t r a d i n g a r e a a n d t h e r e b y t o h a v e a v a i l a b l e a s m u c h o f t h e b u s i n e s s p o t e n t i a l a s p o s s i b l e . I n m o s t s t o r e s t h e v o l u m e i s m a d e u p o f a c o m b i n a t i o n o f d i f f e r e n t t y p e s o f b u s i n e s s — g e n e r a t i v e ( p r o d u c e d b y t h e s t o r e i t s e l f t h r o u g h h e a v y a d v e r t i s i n g , b y a r e p u t a t i o n f o r u n i q u e m e r c h a n d i s e , o r i n o t h e r p r o m o t i o n a l w a y s ) , s h a r e d ( s e c u r e d b y a r e t a i l s t o r e a s t h e r e s u l t o f t h e g e n e r a t i v e p o w e r o f i t s n e i g h b o r s ) , s u c i p i e n t ( n o t g e n e r a t e d b y t h e s t o r e i t s e l f o r b y n e i g h b o r i n g r e t a i l e s t a b l i s h m e n t s ) . G r o w t h p o t e n t i a l . T h e s i t e s h o u l d b e i n a t r a d -i n g a r e a o f g r o w i n g p o p u l a t i o n a n d i n c o m e . B u s i n e s s i n t e r c e p t i o n . T h e p r o c e d u r e i s t o e s t a b l i s h o n e s e l f b e t w e e n t h e m a r k e t ( t h e p e o p l e i n t h e t r a d i n g a r e a ) a n d t h e m a r k e t p l a c e ( t h e t r a d i t i o n a l s o u r c e o f t h e s a m e g o o d s ) , s o t h a t t h e c u s t o m e r s w i l l b e i n t e r c e p t e d o n t h e i r w a y i n t o t h e m a r k e t p l a c e . C u m u l a t i v e a t t r a c t i o n . T h e r e a r e t w o t y p e s o f c u m u l a t i v e a t t r a c t i o n : o n e i n v o l v e s s i m i l a r u n i t s w h i c h t o g e t h e r , c a n d r a w m o r e b u s i n e s s t h a n a p a r t ; t h e o t h e r c o m p l e m e n t a r y u n i t s - t h a t i s , c o m p a t i b l e u n i t s w i t h a h i g h i n c i d e n c e o f c u s t o m e r i n t e r c h a n g e . C o m p a t i b i l i t y . T h i s p r i n c i p l e r e q u i r e s t h a t t h e r e b e n o i n t e r r u p t i o n i n s h o p p e r t r a f f i c a n d t h a t c u s t o m e r i n t e r c h a n g e b e a t a m a x i m u m . M i n i m i z i n g o f c o m p e t i t i v e h a z a r d b y t a k i n g i n t o a c c o u n t t h e l o c a t i o n , c h a r a c t e r , s i z e a n d t y p e o f e x i s t i n g c o m p e t i t i v e u n i t s . S i t e e c o n o m i c s . T h i s i n v o l v e s a n a l y s i s o f t h e s i t e i n t e r m s o f t h e r e l a t i o n o f i t s c o s t t o i t s p r o d u c t i v i t y . T h e e f f i c i e n c y o f t h e s i t e , i t s s i z e , s h a p e , t o p o g r a p h y , a v a i l a b i l i t y o f u t i l i t i e s , c o n d i t i o n o f s i d e w a l k a n d s t r e e t , a n d o t h e r i m m e d i a t e o f f s i d e f a c t o r s w h i c h a f f e c t i t s c o s t o r d e s i r a b i l i t y . 5 2 A f u r t h e r e x p l a n a t i o n o f c o m p a t i b i l i t y a n d c u m u l a t i v e a t t r a c t i o n c a n b e s t a t e d a s f o l l o w s : S o m e b u s i n e s s e s a r e c o m p a t i b l e , o t h e r s a r e n o t . A h i g h d e g r e e o f c o m p a t i b i l i t y e x i s t s b e t w e e n t w o b u s i n e s s e s 2 4 w h i c h , b e c a u s e o f t h e i r a d j a c e n c y , d o m o r e v o l u m e t o g e t h e r t h a n t h e y w o u l d i f s e p a r a t e d . T h e m e a s u r e o f c o m p a t i b i l i t y i s t h e d e g r e e t o w h i c h t h e t w o b u s i n e s s e s i n t e r c h a n g e c u s t o m e r s . 5 3 T h e r u l e o f r e t a i l c o m p a t i b i l i t y m a y b e s t a t e d a s f o l l o w s : T w o c o m p a t i b l e b u s i n e s s e s l o c a t e d i n c l o s e p r o x i m i t y w i l l s h o w a n i n c r e a s e i n b u s i n e s s v o l u m e d i r e c t l y p r o p o r t i o n a t e t o t h e i n c i d e n c e o f t o t a l c u s t o m e r i n t e r c h a n g e b e t w e e n t h e m , i n v e r s l e y p r o p o r t i o n a t e t o t h e r a t i o o f t h e b u s i n e s s v o l u m e o f t h e l a r g e r s t o r e t o t h a t o f t h e s m a l l e r s t o r e , a n d d i r e c t l y p r o p o r t i o n -a t e t o t h e s u m o f t h e r a t i o o f p u r p o s e f u l p u r c h a s i n g t o t o t a l p u r c h a s i n g i n e a c h o f t h e t w o s t o r e s . 5 4 S e e T a b l e I I I I f o r c o m p a t i b i l i t y f o r s h o p p e r s ' g o o d s c e n t e r . T h e t h e o r y o f c u m u l a t i v e g e n e r a t i o n s t a t e s t h a t " a g i v e n n u m b e r o f s t o r e s d e a l i n g i n t h e s a m e m e r c h a n d i s e w i l l d o m o r e b u s i n e s s i f t h e y a r e l o c a t e d a d j a c e n t o r i n p r o x i m i t y t o e a c h o t h e r t h a n i f t h e y a r e w i d e l y s c a t t e r e d " . 5 5 2 . 7 . c . T r a f f i c C o n g e s t i o n T r a f f i c c o n g e s t i o n d o w n t o w n a f f e c t s c o m m e r c i a l a r e a s n e g a t i v e l y . I t i s s u c h a n o v e r w h e l m i n g p r o b l e m t o p l a n n e r s , p u b l i c a d m i n i s t r a t o r s , a n d a r c h i t e c t s t h a t t h e y e x c l a i m , " T r a f f i c i s l i k e t h e w e a t h e r . E v e r y b o d y t a l k s a b o u t i t b u t n o b o d y c a n d o a n y t h i n g a b o u t i t . " 5 6 A c c e s s i b i l i t y i s t h e m a j o r f a c t o r t h a t m a k e s d o w n -t o w n b e c o m e t h e d o m i n a n t r e t a i l c e n t e r i n t h e c o m m u n i t y . B u t ifiritniiiliim 11 ft I ii if? 5 s ± J i S I3i fittl- t t f * n » .3 w t _ t a g = a 5 1? « ° ^  5 „ -s - Je ^ 6 5 11* 3 s 8 i f I * j? i 2 i 4 . *{liJiSii lisillsl S « 3 < 1 * S 2 • i-I ,J I o o 3 TJ PJ rt H« cr I—1 2 0 I O o 3 TJ PJ rt H-cr Cenvf nltnct goodi Drugs Supermarket Bakery Delicatessen ] Grocery Meet Liquor Hardware Paint, wallpaper Books Camera Candy Coin), philately Cosmetics, perfume Florlit Gifts, cardi Hobbles, toyi Leather, luggage Pen Office equipment Shoppers' teedi OeDartment ilore Apparel, children*! family men's women'i Men'i furnishings Fun Hosiery, women'i Lingerie Foundation wear (1) Shoes(( family men's, boys' women's Variety, 5c • 10c Jewelry Furniture (2) Draperies Dry goods Floor coverings Knitting Linens Appliances (3) Bar, tavern Drive-In eating Eating, drinking Tearooms (4) Antiques, curios Services (5) Barber Beautician Cleaner, laundry (6) Glazing Laundromat Medical clinic Offices (7) Real estate Optometrist, optical Photographer Pott office Utility collection Repairs, cycle household Shoe repair, shine Repairs, upholstery Alio Mies, services Car dealer Auto parts, accessories Auto repair Service station Used car lot Miscellaneous Bank, financial Bowling Mortuary • • • I M I T T T T t T + m i •f-f-f-f-f mm T444 #### 4444 • • D O ttn •••• •••• •••• if * * *• * *' 44444 • •••4; txttt ••••• ••••• ••••• S 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 • • • • - s i T 4 - 4 4 4 mm mm • • • • • • ® • • ® 44444 • •••• tit ••• 444 ••••• ••••• ••••• ttttt 99S99 • •••• ml • • • • • 9 • • * • ttt\ *• • • • * $ # # # < § ! 4444• • •••• •-f • • 444* • •••• ••••• • • O D D mt: T T T T - I f T T T T T T - 4 4 4 T T TT44--I pHH::::tplH:::::: YT T T T T — 4 4 T T T T I tt nth "HHtfc • • t llttmtmtmT i 8881mm inmntmtttttttttttmt T T T T T T T T 4444 T T T T T 44444 T T T T T 44444 T T T T T • • • • • 44444 • •• • •R , • • • •• • ••• • • • • • • ••• ••••• ••••• T T T T T • •••• • • • • • T T T T T T T T T T T T 4 T T 444-44 T T T T T 44444 T T T T T 44444 T T T T T • • • • • 44444 • •••• • •••• • •••• • •••• • ••• • •• :••: •••• ••••• ••••• T T T T T T T 4 - - -T T T - " -444-'"" T T T 1 444'--T T T - - - 1 - f - f - T - - -T T T 4 - -• •* ® • T + T T 4 „.fTT-• 4TT-• 4T T -••••• • • T T T • • T T T _ • • T T T 1 + TT • • T T T j + TT SBTTTjB + TT • T T T ! « 4 T T • • T T T I « 4 T T • • T T T -• •••• 4 4 - f - 4 4 • •••• 44444 44444, # # # # # # # <D ® §> # <i> # G> # ® # • # 9 ® # # 4 4 4 4 4 ••••• ••••• ••••• ••••• ••••• ••••• 44444 ••••• U D U D O • • • • • T T T T T TTTTT ® ® ® ® ® ®®® ®® • •••• # ® ^ ® '?> # # # # ^  4 4 4 4 4 • •••• • •••• • •••• • •••• • •••• • •••• 44444 • •••»• D O D D U TT TT TT TT • 4 T T mu 4 T T 4 , 4 4 4 T ••TTTH4 T4 • • T T T H ' . TT BB T T T _ • T T T • T T T T • T T T TT . 44 • •••• 44-f-T  T T ; 44; • ••••, r}rtt • • • • • •••44 ••••• • ••«• • • • • • 44444 • ••4D • ••44 • ••44 • •••• • •••• ••••• 4 4 4 4 4 O P U P P • U T T •Oft-••44-. 4 D 4 4 4 I ntu • •••• *Jmtt • e • • • ® 4 » ® 4 •444H 3 • » • • • 44444 • 4*«4 « 4 « # 4 • •••• • •••• • • O D D -»--•--•--»-4 » » « • » D O L I Q Q •-•44 •-•44-•-•4T •444 ••• D .-••t Stv1 4D44 Mi 4D44 4D444 • •••• • •••• • • ••• • •••• • •••• • D D D D 4S448 [ i n n i i n i - 4 « •4* ft »®44 • #44 • ®44 • •44 • •44 4*44. • •444 4»44T. mm • «44T • •444 • •444 • •4-4 • •4-1 •4* • TT • •• • •• 4 4 ® • •• • •• • •• ttt 4 ® -4444* 4-fg •43 40-i 4m ••••• mm • • 4 T 4 ® ® 4 T 4 ® T * T 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 D D D D • •4«* 4. • + « • • •••• • •••• • • O D D • • + •>*< ft: • • 4 D « • • 4 • • ®44*® V. ®4®4®®4 44»®4n t ttttt t tstttt ® * 4 « • • 4 • • 4 4 4 4 * • • 4 D » ••44« * * 4 4 1 • •44» • • 4 D « • • 4 4 ® 4444* • • 4 4 • r i n n m r*, • T O • • a • • a » » • « • • • •• *« • »«• • 4Q •4« • •• • •• • •• • 4 D » 4 D 44aaa • 4 D D D ® 4 D • • T + O D O • 4 D D D • 4 D D D 4 4 D D Q 4 4 D D n •4DOD • 4DDD • 4 D D Q 4 4 D D D 4 4 D Q D 445ga •455a 4 4 D D D • 4 Q D D • •••• •4aaa •4DDD ®4aao • 4 D D D • 4 Q O D • 4 D Q Q • 4 D D D ® 4 • • • • 4 D D D • 4 0 D D •4oaa • 4 0 D D • 4 D D D 8 + D D D • 4 D D D • 4 C D D 4 4 B O O 44000 •+aaa 44oao •4ooa •4ooa 44000 •4ooo • •••• •4000 * 4 D D D •4ooo • 4000 •4aoo • •••• • 4 4 0 » • ••DO 44oao • • • • • • •••• • •••• • «••• 44444 4 4 4 D 4 • •••• • • • • • ++••• • •••• . • • • • • •• • •• • • T D D O " » • • • 26 i n s o m e c i t i e s i t i s n o w a n e g a t i v e i n f l u e n c e . 5 7 I t s h o u l d n o t b e a s s u m e d t h a t a s t o r e w i l l n e c e s s a r i l y b e a c c e s s i b l e t o m o s t p e o p l e . D o w n t o w n i s n o t c e r t a i n t o b e t h e m o s t a c c e s s i b l e p l a c e n o w , a n d i t m a y g r o w l e s s s o i n t h e f u t u r e b e c a u s e o f " t h e s p r e a d i n g o u t o f l o w -d e n s i t y p o p u l a t i o n , t h e g r o w t h o f u r b a n e x p r e s s w a y s y s t e m s , a n d t h e c o n t i n u i n g d e c l i n e o f p u b l i c t r a n s p o r t a t i o n " . 5 8 2 . 7 . d . P a r k i n g T h e p a r k i n g p r o b l e m d o w n t o w n i s a q u a l i t a t i v e r a t h e r t h a n a q u a n t i t a t i v e o n e . M u c h o f t h e p a r k i n g s p a c e a v a i l a b l e i s n o t u s e d b y s h o p p e r s b u t b y w o r k e r s o r p e o p l e o n o t h e r d o w n t o w n e r r a n d s . P e c u l i a r l y e n o u g h , t h e p r o b l e m d o e s n o t e v e n i n c r e a s e w i t h t h e s i z e o f t h e c i t y o r t h e s i z e o f t h e d o w n t o w n r e t a i l d i s t r i c t . 5 9 . . . . A U . S . B u r e a u o f P u b l i c R o a d s s t u d y o f 7 0 c i t i e s , r a n g i n g i n p o p u l a t i o n f r o m 2 5 0 , 0 0 0 t o a p p r o x i m a t e l y 1 , 5 0 0 , 0 0 0 , s h o w e d t h a t t h e n u m b e r o f s h o p p e r s p a r k i n g a t a n y g i v e n t i m e r e a c h e d a n a v e r a g e p e a k o f a b o u t 6 , 0 0 0 f o r a l l c i t y s i z e s * . O n t h e o t h e r h a n d , t h e n u m b e r o f p e o p l e w o r k i n g d o w n t o w n i s a p p a r e n t l y i n c r e a s i n g a l m o s t a s f a s t a s t h e t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n o f t h e m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a . 6 0 2 . 7 . e . P e d e s t r i a n A c t i v i t y " T h e t o w n , a s a m e e t i n g s p a c e , c a l l s f o r t h e r e s t o r a t i o n o f t h e r i g h t s o f t h e p e d e s t r i a n . " 6 1 P e d e s t r i a n , m a s s e s a r e w h a t m a k e d o w n t o w n a n d k e e p i t l i v i n g . . W a l k i n g i s t h e p r i m a r y m o d e o f m o v e m e n t w i t h i n t h e c e n t r a l a r e a . 6 2 I n t h e C B D ' s o f l a r g e c i t i e s , 9 0 p e r c e n t o r m o r e o f a l l 2 7 . d a i l y t r i p s w i t h i n t h e a r e a m a y b e w a l k i n g t r i p s . 6 3 R e n t s a n d l a n d v a l u e s i n d o w n t o w n a r e a s o f m a n y N o r t h A m e r i c a n c i t i e s a r e a l m o s t d i r e c t l y p r o p o r t i o n a l t o t h e v o l u m e o f p e d e s t r i a n t r a f f i c o n t h e s i d e w a l k . 6 4 T h e p e d e s t r i a n d o w n t o w n i s t h e m a i n s o u r c e o f b u s i n e s s f o r t h e r e t a i l s t o r e s i n t h e a r e a . T h e u l t i m a t e f l e x i b i l i t y o f t h e w a l k e r a n d t h e u n l i m i t e d c h o i c e s o f r o u t e s c o n t r i b u t e s t o t h e f a c t t h a t ' " a s m a n y a s a t h i r d o f a l l d o w n t o w n p u r c h a s e s a r e a r e s u l t o f t h e ' i m p u l s e s h o p p i n g 1 o f p a s s e r s b y " . 6 5 T h e p e d e s t r i a n a s a s h o p p e r m a y b e l o n g t o o n e o f t h r e e c a t e g o r i e s : t h e p r i m a r y - p u r p o s e s h o p p e r , t h e e m p l o y e e s h o p p e r , a n d t h e p e r s o n w h o c o m e s d o w n t o w n a n d i n c i d e n t a l l y s h o p s . 6 6 H o w e v e r , m a n y e l e m e n t s , v i s u a l a n d p h y s i c a l , c a n c a u s e i n t e r r u p t i o n s i n p e d e s t r i a n t r a f f i c , s u c h a s : 1 . D e a d s p o t s w h e r e a s h o p p e r l o s e s i n t e r e s t i n g o i n g f a r t h e r . 2 . D r i v e w a y s a n d o t h e r p h y s i c a l b r e a k s i n t h e s i d e w a l k s . 3 . C r o s s t r a f f i c , e i t h e r v e h i c u l a r o r p e d e s t r i a n . 4 . A r e a s t h a t a r e i d e n t i f i e d b y h a z a r d , n o i s e , o d o r , u n s i g h t l i n e s s , o r o t h e r p e d e s t r i a n -i n h i b i t i n g q u a l i t i e s . 5 . . B u s i n e s s w h i c h g e n e r a t e s t r a f f i c i n t h e f o r m o f t r u c k s , p u b l i c v e h i c l e s , p r i v a t e a u t o m o b i l e s o r p e d e s t r i a n s w h o a r e n o t s h o p p e r s , a n d w h i c h t e n d t o c r e a t e c o n g e s t i o n . 6 . B u s i n e s s e s w h o s e c u s t o m e r s ' a v e r a g e p a r k i n g t i m e i s e x t r e m e l y l o n g . 6 7 2 8 I n o r d e r t o o v e r c o m e t h e n e g a t i v e e f f e c t s o f s u c h e l e m e n t s a n d i n o r d e r t o m a x i m i z e p e d e s t r i a n a c t i v i t y a n d t o a c h i e v e a l i v e l y s h o p p i n g s t r e e t , p r o p o s a l s w e r e m a d e s u c h a s : 1 . T h e s e p a r a t i o n o f h e a v y p e d e s t r i a n a n d h e a v y v e h i c u l a r t r a f f i c b y t h e u s e o f m a l l s , o v e r -p a s s e s , u n d e r p a s s e s , t u n n e l s . 2 . T h e u s e o f s u n , s h a d e a n d s h a d o w . T h e s e n e e d s c a n b e m e t b y c o v e r i n g a n d s h a d i n g b y t r e e s a n d s i d e w a l k a r c a d e s . 3 . T h e w a l k i n g s t r e e t s h o u l d o p e n i n t e r m i t t e n t l y i n t o v e r y d e f i n i t e l y a r t i c u l a t e d o p e n s p a c e s , a n d s q u a r e s a n d s i d e w a l k b a y s c o u l d b e e x t e n d e d i n t o t h e s t r e e t . T h e s e s p a c e s c a n b e u s e d f o r t h e p l a c e m e n t o f k i o s k s , d i s p l a y s a n d f r e e -s t a n d i n g s h o p s . A r c a d e s w i t h i n b l o c k s t o l i n k t w o s t r e e t s a n d s h o r t e n l o n g b l o c k s . S i d e w a l k a c t i v i t i e s t o c o m p e n s a t e f o r b l a n k f r o n t a g e s , e l i m i n a t i o n o f s t r e e t p a r k i n g a n d b u i l d i n g a c t i v e f r o n t a g e s t o f i l l t h e g a p s o f p a r k i n g l o t s a n d v a c a n t a r e a s . 4 . S t r e e t f u r n i t u r e w i t h a n a t t r a c t i v e a n d u n i f i e d d e s i g n s h o u l d b e p r o v i d e d . S u c h s t r e e t f u r n i t u r e a s s i g n s , p o s t s , l i g h t i n g , r e c e p t a c l e s , p l a n t h a n g i n g s , b e n c h e s , , e t c . F l o o r s c a p e w h i c h i s t h e t r e a t m e n t o f t h e g r o u n d o r t h e p a v e m e n t w h i c h m a y i m p l e m e n t t h e d i r e c t i o n p a t t e r n s . 6 8 J a n e J a c o b s v i e w e d t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r " e x u b e r a n t d i v e r s i t y " a s b e i n g m o r e t h a n o n e p r i m a r y f u n c t i o n , s h o r t b l o c k s , b u i l d i n g s o f v a r y i n g a g e , a n d d e n s e c o n c e n t r a t i o n s o f p e o p l e . 6 9 2 . 7 . f . T h e S c o p e o f C o m m e r c i a l R e h a b i l i t a t i o n P r o j e c t s C o m m e r c i a l r e h a b i l i t a t i o n c a n b e c a r r i e d o u t w i t h t h e s t o r e , s t r e e t , b l o c k , o r t h e w h o l e a r e a a s t h e u n i t o f 2 9 a n a l y s i s . I m p r o v e m e n t o f t h e p h y s i c a l a s p e c t s o f a s i n g l e r e -t a i l s t o r e m u s t c o n s i d e r m a n y d i f f e r e n t f a c t o r s . T h e o b j e c t i v e s o f s u c h i m p r o v e m e n t m a y b e : t o c r e a t e a n e f f i c i e n t a n d a t t r a c t i v e e n v i r o n m e n t w i t h i n t h e s t o r e i n o r d e r t o p r o m o t e m a x i m u m s a l e s , t o i n t e r l o c k t h e s a l e s s p a c e w i t h s e r v i c e a r e a s a n d t o p u l l c u s t o m e r s i n t o s a l e s s p a c e b y m e a n s o f a n a t t r a c t i v e s t o r e f r o n t . 7 0 T h e e l e m e n t s t h a t m a k e u p t h e s t o r e i m a g e w e r e f o u n d t o h a v e g r e a t c o r r e l a t i o n s w i t h c h a n g e s i n s a l e s v o l u m e . T h e s e m a y b e s t a t e d a s t h e l a y o u t a n d a r c h i t e c t u r e o f t h e s t o r e , t h e s y m b o l s , c o l o r s , a d v e r t i s i n g , a n d s a l e s p e r s o n n e l . 7 1 I n a n i d e a l s i t u a t i o n , t h e s t r u c t u r e o f a s t o r e b u i l d i n g s h o u l d : 1 . e n c l o s e i n t e r i o r s p a c e w i t h t h e f e w e s t p o s s i b l e f i x e d p o i n t s o f o b s t r u c t i o n o n s a l e s f l o o r s , s e r v i c e a r e a s , o r s t o r e f r o n t d i s p l a y z o n e s , 2 . b e a d a p t a b l e t o t h e f l e x i b l e i n s t a l l a t i o n o f c i r c u l a t i o n e l e m e n t s , 3 . b e f i r e p r o o f , 4 . p e r m i t m a x i m u m c o n s t r u c t i o n s p e e d , 5 . b e e c o n o m i c a l i n i n i t i a l a n d m a i n t e n a n c e c o s t s , 6 . a n d f o r m a n a t t r a c t i v e p a t t e r n w h e n e x p o s e d t o v i e w i n t h e s a l e s s p a c e o r o n t h e s t o r e f r o n t , b u t , s h o u l d n e v e r o f f e r u n n e c e s s a r y v i s u a l c o m p e t i t i o n t o t h e m e r c h a n d i s e o n d i s p l a y . 7 2 I n o r d e r t o i m p r o v e p h y s i c a l c o n d i t i o n s i n a c o m m e r c i a l s t r e e t : a u n i f i e d d e s i g n o f s i g n s , c a n o p i e s a n d 30 storefronts should be r e a l i z e d . The use of greenery, attractively-designed street f u r n i t u r e such as receptacles, benches, t r a f f i c signs and l i g h t i n g poles.can also help. The most comprehensive approach to commercial r e h a b i l i t a t i o n to date has been the mall. The f i r s t mall was established i n 1957 i n S p r i n g f i e l d , Oregon, for a ten-day t r i a l period. The f i r s t permanent mall was established i n Kalamazoo, Michigan. In Canada, the Sparks Street Mall i n Ottawa was the f i r s t Canadian experience with malls (Figure 2.1.). 7 3 Malls have come a long way since then, with one or more e x i s t i n g i n many c i t i e s i n North America. 2.7.g., S o c i a l Need For Commercial R e h a b i l i t a t i o n ! The value of downtown commercial areas to the i n d i v i d u a l i s well-known whether he i s a shopper, a small shopkeeper, or a businessman. The c e n t r a l c i t y i s the place that draws the people and that people have made. What a customer expects from downtown stores i s unique q u a l i t y and l e i s u r e l y shopping. As the standard of l i v i n g grows higher,the average consumer has more l e i s u r e time, more means to enjoy i t , and more goods and a c t i v i t i e s competing f o r his attention. As the consumer's expectations r i s e f a s t e r than the performance of the commercial areas, disenchantment grows. t 2.7.h. Economic Needs For Commercial R e h a b i l i t a t i o n \ . . . 31 Above l e f t : Open a i r cafe, Sparks Street Mall Right and below: before and a f t e r pictures of Sparks Street between O'Connor and Metcalfe 3 2 D o w n t o w n r e p r e s e n t s a h i g h i n v e s t m e n t a r e a i n t h e m e t r o p o l i t a n s t r u c t u r e . V a s t s u m s o f p u b l i c a n d p r i v a t e i n v e s t m e n t c a p i t a l a r e t i e d u p i n c e n t r a l a r e a s o f t h e m a i n c i t i e s i n N o r t h A m e r i c a . T h e s e t r e m e n d o u s i n v e s t m e n t s a r e b e i n g m a d e i n a r e a s t h a t a r e t h e m s e l v e s l a r g e l y o b s o l e t e a n d i n e f f i c i e n t . k 4 T h e e c o n o m i c b e n e f i t s o f c o m m e r c i a l r e h a b i l i t a t i o n a r e v a r i o u s . F o r t h e m e r c h a n t , t h e r e h a b i l i t a t e d a r e a w i l l g e n e r a t e m o r e c u s t o m e r t r a f f i c a n d i t w i l l p r o v i d e s a v i n g s i n r e n t a l c o s t s . T h e p r o p e r t y o w n e r w i l l g a i n a n i n c r e a s e i n h i s p r o p e r t y v a l u e , a l t h o u g h i t m a y c a u s e p r o p e r t y t a x e s t o r i s e b e y o n d h i s a b i l i t y t o p a y t h e m . I n t h e c i t y ' s t e r m s , c o m m e r c i a l r e h a b i l i t a t i o n w i l l h e l p s t i m u l a t e t o u r i s t t r a f f i c a n d w i l l i n c r e a s e t a x r e t u r n s t o t h e c i t y . H o w e v e r , c o m m e r c i a l r e h a b i l i t a t i o n i s a n e x p e n s i v e a n d r i s k y b u s i n e s s a s i t i n c l u d e s h i d d e n c o s t s a n d t h e r e a r e n o g u a r a n t e e s f o r f i n a n c i a l s u c c e s s . 2 . 7 . i . E x a m p l e s o f C o m m e r c i a l R e h a b i l i t a t i o n P r o j e c t s C o m m e r c i a l r e h a b i l i t a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s i n N o r t h A m e r i c a n c i t i e s h a v e g a i n e d p u b l i c i t y a n d i n t e r e s t f r o m d i f f e r e n t i n t e r e s t g r o u p s i n r e c e n t y e a r s . S a n F r a n c i s c o i s w o r l d - f a m o u s f o r i t s r e s t o r e d a n d r e h a b i l i t a t e d o l d a r e a s . S t a r t i n g i n t h e e a r l y 1 9 5 0 ' s w i t h t h e J a c k s o n S q u a r e p r o j e c t m a n y r e s t o r a t i o n p r o j e c t s h a v e f o l l o w e d s i n c e t h e n . ' 3 3 T w o c o m m e r c i a l d e v e l o p m e n t s c r e a t e d o u t o f l o n g - i d l e i n d u s t r i a l b u i l d i n g s i n S a n F r a n c i s c o a r e G h i r a r d e l l i S q u a r e a n d T h e C a n n e r y . T h e m a i n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f t h e s e t w o d e v e l o p m e n t s i s t h a t t h e y h a v e s e n s i t i v i t y f o r t h e o l d n o t o f t e n f o u n d i n N o r t h A m e r i c a . 7 4 S o m e o f t h e e l e m e n t s t h e s e t w o d e v e l o p m e n t s c o n t a i n a r e : H i g h q u a l i t y s h o p s a n d r e s t a u r a n t s w i t h g a r d e n t e r r -a c e s , a r c a d e s a n d p l a z a s i n s i d e w a l l s o f m e l l o w r e d b r i c k n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y b u i l d i n g s c o m m a n d i n g i n c o m p a r a b l e v i e w s o f t h e b a y . 7 5 G h i r a r d e l l i S q u a r e o n c e h e l d a c h o c o l a t e f a c t o r y ; b e f o r e t h a t i t b o a s t e d t h e o l d e s t f a c t o r y i n t h e W e s t , a w o o l l e n m i l l w h e r e u n i f o r m s w e r e m a d e i n t h e c i v i l w a r . D u e t o i t s c o n t i n u i n g s u c c e s s , G h i r a r d e l l i S q u a r e h a s g r o w n t o 1 2 0 , 0 0 0 s q u a r e f e e t i n s i z e a n d a n e n l a r g e m e n t f o l l o w e d , t r i p l i n g t h e t e n a b l e s p a c e . I n 1 9 6 7 r e s t a u r a n t s a n d s h o p s e a r n e d b e t t e r t h a n $ 1 3 0 a s q u a r e f o o t , t h r e e t i m e s t h e a v e r a g e f o r m o s t s h o p p i n g c e n t e r s i n A m e r i c a , a n d p r o f i t s h a v e c o n t i n u e d t o r i s e . T h e C a n n e r y p r o j e c t , t h e c o n c e p t o f o n e m a n , w a s a n o l d D e l M o n t e f r u i t c a n n i n g p l a n t d o i n g m a k e - s h i f t s e r v i c e a s a c a r w a r e h o u s e . T h e p r o c e s s o f b r i n g i n g l i f e i n t o t h e a b a n d o n e d b u i l d i n g s i n c l u d e d , a d d i n g o u t d o o r l i f t s , e s c a l a t o r s , e s p l a n a d e s , w a l k w a y s a n d c o r r i d o r s t o l i n k t h r e e f l o o r s o f s h o p s a n d r e s t a u r a n t s r - ^ O . d i f f e r e n t a t t r a c t i o n s . T h e p r o j e c t 34 w a s s o p r o f i t a b l e t h a t i t s a c c o u n t s w e n t f r o m r e d t o b l a c k w i t h i n a y e a r . R e c e n t l y , w e h a v e s e e n s e v e r a l c o m m e r c i a l r e h a b i l i t a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s i n m a j o r C a n a d i a n c i t i e s . B a s t i o n S q u a r e i n V i c t o r i a , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , i s a g o o d e x a m p l e o f a s u c c e s s f u l c o m m e r c i a l r e h a b i l i t a t i o n p r o j e c t . T h e r e b i r t h o f B a s t i o n S q u a r e s t a r t e d o n M a y 1 9 6 5 . T h e o b j e c t i v e o f t h e p r o j e c t w a s t o a l l o w t h e S q u a r e " t o b e d e v e l o p e d t o c r e a t e a p e d e s t r i a n c o n c o u r s e w h e r e a s e r i e s o f i n t e r r e l a t e d l e v e l s t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e t e x t u r e s a n d c o l o u r s o f s o p h i s t i c a t e d l a n d s c a p i n g ( w o u l d ) p r o v i d e a f o r e g r o u n d f o r t h e h a b o u r v i e w " . 7 6 E x t e r i o r a n d i n t e r i o r r e n o v a t i o n o f b u i l d i n g s a d j o i n i n g t h e S q u a r e w a s t o b e c a r r i e d o u t b y p r i v a t e e n t e r -p r i s e , i n t e r e s t s f o r o t h e r t h a n c i t y - o w n e d b u i l d i n g s . B a s t i o n S q u a r e w a s o f f i c i a l l y o p e n e d i n J u l y 1 9 6 6 a n d a p r o p o s a l f o r a s e c o n d p h a s e o f t h e p r o j e c t w a s m a d e . T h e p r o j e c t c o m p l e t e d , B a s t i o n S q u a r e n o w s e r v e s a s a n a t t r a c t i v e p r o m e n a d e a r e a a n d a s a f o c a l p o i n t f o r m u c h b u s i n e s s a n d c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t y . 35 FOOTNOTES: CHAPTER II """Lawrence Halprin, C i t i e s , New York: Reinhold Publishing Co., 19 6 3, p. 7. 2 * R.L. Nelson & F.T. Aschman, Real Estate and City Planning, Englewood C l i f f s , N.J.: Prentice-Hall Inc., 1957, p. 449. C. Woodbury, ed., Urban Redevelopment: Problems & P r a c t i c e s , Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1953, p. 11. A.N. Gunn, Vancouver3 B r i t i s h Columbia: The P r o f i l e of Canada's P a c i f i c Metropolis, Vancouver: Smith Lithographic Co. Ltd., 1968, p. 18. Chauncy, D. Harris & Edward L. Ullman, "The Nature of Cities", Readings in Urban Geography, ed. Harold M. Mayer & Clyde F. Kohn, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 195 9, p. 2 82. DJack M. Siegal & C. William Brooks, Slum Prevention Through Conservation and R e h a b i l i t a t i o n , Report of the Sub-committee on Urban Redevelopment, Rehabilitation and Conservation to the President's Advisory Committee on Government Housing Policies and Programs, Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, .1953, p. 12. ^L. Thomas, Restored Commercial Buildings: How the City Saves Face, San Francisco, March 1968,.p. 24. Woodbury, op. cit., p. 11 Thomas, op. cit., p. 28. XUW.J. Stanton, Fundamentals of Marketing, New York: McGraw-Hill, 1967, p. 39. "^L.O. Stone, Urban Development in Canada* An Introduction to the Demographic Aspects, Ottawa: Dominion Bureau of Statis t i c s , 1967, p. 5. 3 6 1 2 S t a n l e y H . P i c k e t , " U r b a n R e n e w a l , t h e F u n d a m e n t a l s o f P l a n n i n g " , Ontario Housing, X I , N o . 4 , ( A p r i l , 1 9 6 6 ) , p . 1 1 . 1 3 J . M . 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M a r t i n e a u , " T h e P e r s o n a l i t y o f t h e R e t a i l S t o r e , " Harvard Business Review, X X X V I , 1 ( J a n u a r y - F e b r u a r y , 1 9 5 8 ) , p p . 4 7 - 5 5 . 7 2 M o r r i s K e t c h u m , J r . , op. cit., p. 1 0 5 . 7 3 " T h e S p a r k s S t r e e t M a l l , O t t a w a , " The Canadian Archi-tect, ( J u n e , 1 9 6 0 ) , p p . 6 5 - 6 8 . ^ T h i s s e c t i o n h a s b e e n f u l l y a d a p t e d f r o m The Economist, " S a n F r a n c i s c o ' s N e w G o l d C o a s t , " A p r i l 5 , 1 9 6 9 , p p . 5 9 - 4 0 . 7 5 Ibid. 7 6 W i l l i s a n d G u n c l i f f E n g i n e e r i n g l,td. , Application for Urban Renewal Project. Bastion Square Restoration Project Phase 2 ( V i c t o r i a : W i l l i s a n d G u n c l i f f ( 1 9 6 6 ) , p . 7 . A s c i t e d b y S . E . W o o d , Commercial R e h a b i l i t a t i o n Within the Central Business D i s t r i c t : P o l i c i e s for Future Use, U n p u b l i s h e d M a s t e r T h e s i s , " V a n c o u v e r : " U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1 9 6 7 . 4 1 C H A P T E R I I I A N A T O M Y O F T H E S T U D Y A R E A A c h a r a c t e r a r e a i s n o t a r t i f i c i a l , i n s t a n t a n e o u s -l y d e p o s i t e d o r i m p o s e d a s t h e c r e a t i o n o f o n e m a n o r o n e o r g a n i z a t i o n . I t i s r a t h e r t h e p r o d u c t o f a l i v i n g , e v o l v i n g c i t y i n w h i c h t h e c i t i z e n s a r e p l a y -i n g t h e d e c i s i v e r o l e t h r o u g h m o r a l , e c o n o m i c a n d f r e q u e n t l y v o c a l s u p p o r t . o f t h e u r b a n c h a r a c t e r . 1 3 . 1 . D e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e S t u d y A r e a T h e s t u d y a r e a c o n s i s t s o f t h e c o m m e r c i a l f r o n t a g e s o f R o b s o n S t r e e t b e t w e e n B u r r a r d a n d B u t e ( t h e 1 0 0 0 a n d t h e 1 1 0 0 b l o c k s ) . I t i s c e n t r a l l y l o c a t e d i n t h e d o w n t o w n p e n n i n s u l a a n d r e p r e s e n t s a m e e t i n g g r o u n d f o r t h e ; r e s i d e n t -i a l W e s t E n d a n d t h e C B D ( s e e F i g u r e s 3 . 1 . , 3 . 2 . a n d 3 . 3 . ) . R o b s o n S t r e e t r u n s i n a n e a s t - w e s t e r l y d i r e c t i o n w i t h i t s b e g i n n i n g a t C a m b i e B r i d g e a n d i t s w e s t e r n l i m i t a t C h i l c o S t r e e t . T h e s t u d y a r e a i s a w e l l - k n o w n p e d e s t r i a n s h o p p i n g a t t r a c t i o n . T h e t w o b l o c k s e c t i o n o f R o b s o n S t r e e t b e t w e e n B u r r a r d a n d B u t e S t r e e t s , c o m m o n l y r e f e r r e d t o a s R o b s o n s t r a s s e , i s t h e u n i q u e s h o p p i n g p r e c i n c t o f t h e W e s t E n d a t t r a c t i n g l o c a l , r e g i o n a l , a n d t o u r i s t s h o p p e r s . 2 T h e t w o m a i n g a t e s t o t h e a r e a r e p r e s e n t i m p o r t a n t t r a n s i t i o n p o i n t s . T h e B u r r a r d / R o b s o n i n t e r s e c t i o n w i t h t h e P u b l i c L i b r a r y a n d o t h e r d o w n t o w n f u n c t i o n s r e p r e s e n t s a c h a n g e f r o m d o w n t o w n t o t h e m o r e l o c a l s c a l e ' o f t h e W e s t E n d . F i g u r e 3 . 1 . T h e C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r s h o w i n g c o m m e r c i a l d i s t r i c t s o -IS bum Cont inental Tallorfe fcarnantha's In ternat iona l The Centennial Pharmacy L t d . 1194 Neltrar C f f fee Shdp 1190 Robson Gourmet 1184 I J e w e l l i t ^ i i a z Ma The India GHft flouse L t d . 1178 A r a i i e ' " Hardware 1176 & ften's Wear 1174 Rmflinnp I tH 1 1177 Royal Bank Supd Tl)e Or ienta l Marbfl Peacock's Sun' O r ien ta l Pals Hansen's Toys Opportunity Ports ofl T a i l o r i n g 1106fc, VTienna Shop 1106 Kerry SAop 1104)5, The Susanne Busy Bee Grcjcer. ure Show 1170 da L t d . 1164 Grocery 1160 Vacan! e House) L td . 1142B thi l 'drer j WeaH 11I42A t 11P4 r Pljice d ra f t s 1 Hpndltom fjazaar 1 spo^-t Photos |& Ar£ Supplied 1130 Sasha L t d f  1132A 1128 Rehajj i 1 i l a l i u i Ca l j Antiques 1124 a U Co B e l - A i r Cleaner . F a b i f l a Customcolcr Laboratories 1110 Robson .Shoe Renew 1 f!08 sqn Emporium 1104 Imported Shoes 1102 •yf& Flowers 1100 Tr-IU2U9\V Z 4 5 1195 Robson Serv ices 1157 King 's Park ind 1155 Canadian .Government DVA 1145 Unemploytynt 1143 Dbn's S t y l i n g 1141 lE.Cniis Crfus A 1139C HMdelber'g R<j 1139B S : a r Cun'o C qUe 1137 P i c k - A - T o u r 1135 Pobson Botfti 1133 L i J o l i e Wad 1131 B-andt 's 1129 Ljok A r t Fash 1127 S j i s s Herbal 1123 Siape UnisJex 1121 M ) l l e y ' s S_pica; 1101 Bha Spic 1115 T;pee Spot t ing 1111 Cieckers ,HJair 110? The. Robsprjj Ya tk Annus Rqom 1101 Tfie TraveVler Insurance Commit Lounge estaurant s taurant f t s , 1139A Cla .ustqm T a i l o r L t d . Remedies r Design L t d . Shop L t d . Hair Goods L t d . C u t t e r s , miA ' Barn , 1109A V, r 0 V K z sion detti acan cant Robson F l o r i s t *Ar Shoppers Olympia Oysta Gal loway's| Grocer 5 Fabrics L Jewejlers L, Fashion Cen Captain's r Counxry B •larkpting L J e f f Robson Pussycat Old Echo Cont inental Bogena Hal |r ant F ish Co ThVee Graceb 1092 The) Chijbken Hous. G o l f ' s Bakiry 1086 es 1084 d. 1082 d. 1080 _ r d . 1064 Nordic lwbrt 1062 Schn i t ze l House R e i t a u r a n t , . L e PapHllqn Bou:ique 1060 Eemjiouse L t d . 1056 1r Design L t d . 1054 Standard Produce Cq European New and Impbrt ilause L t d . 1044 Rai nbow Produce Vincenl Vincent Del Pers ian Hpus^ Happy Feet Shoes S R e p a i r s , . C i a r d u l l o Frank Shoe Shine<-^"~ L Sign Co. Ltd Miche l le Miche l le 0 ' B r i a n Opt ica l D ispensers , O'Brianj Vancouver CaherJ Land L Murchle 's Tea apd Coffee L Toronto! Dominion B Drug Mark 1098 -• • - 1 1094 re 1070 .. _ C i f e 1068 r  aktry 1066 1052 Dai ry Products 1042 Grahd sji oe C l i n i t Imports Ltd icatessen Ltd Rear r Jewel1 1030 1040 1038 1036 's.1034 ~ h 0 3 2 r4 1028 vale L t i . 1024 teratio£s_LQ2Z 's /l iteratior) Jewel ler 1018 1016 Cher Ton-Tin 1014 srajj i  4-1012 d . 1008 nk 1000 2>00 1099 Downtown Travel Centre Ltd Mem 1097 Whales Tale Gi| 1091 Galaxy Genls 1089 Kjiorr Danrj^ 1075 tobson Fabr ics 1071 Curt is June Fc 1067 premie Herjitac 1053 CEB/ Export arj 1049-51 l o p "Toy Cerj 1045 Jacl son Tradi sh ion Jewel lery |e o f Eskimo Ar t d Import Co. Lt<} t r e Co. L t d . 19 1041 The Old eesa 1035 A r l e n e ' s L^diejs' Wear 1031 Thj Wig Trj?e 1029 Terfipo Canadian] 1027 Be 1025 Wh C r a f t s u t i f u l J>eop]le Unisex te Spot L t c . 1023 Defek London haute C o i f f u r e 1017 Br f ig i t te Mode 1011 Mcfeart Kondi td 1001 Cafd Shop f t Shoppe 's S t y l i n g , 1 087 Shoppe irei & Tea Room PI & Gi loo Figure 3 . 4 . The Robson Street study area i n detai: 4 6 T h e R o b s o n / B u t e i n t e r s e c t i o n i s t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e h o t e l a r e a t o t h e w e s t a n d i t s e r v e s t o c o l l e c t t h e p e d e s t r i a n s m o v i n g a l o n g B u t e f r o m a r e a s t o t h e s o u t h a n d n o r t h h e a d i n g f o r R o b s o n s t r a s s e a n d d o w n t o w n . I n g e n e r a l , t h e s e t w o p r i m e i n t e r s e c t i o n s s e r v e t o c o l l e c t p e d e s t r i a n s s e e k i n g t h e a c t i v i t y o f R o b s o n S t r e e t . T h e s t u d y a r e a i s l o c a t e d w i t h t h e C B D a n d s e r v i c e a r e a s t o t h e n o r t h a n d e a s t . T o t h e w e s t i s a m i x e d - u s e a r e a ( h o t e l , o f f i c e , r e t a i l ) a n d t o t h e s o u t h , t h e r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a ( M a p 3 . 5 ) . T h e s t u d y a r e a o f R o b s o n S t r e e t i s a h e a v y p e d e s t r i a n a n d v e h i c u l a r t r a f f i c a r e a . W h i l e t r a f f i c v o l u m e i n f o r m a t i o n i s n o t a v a i l a b l e , p e d e s t r i a n c o u n t s a r e o u t l i n e d i n C h a p t e r I V . T w o - w a y t r a f f i c i s a l l o w e d o n t h e s t r e e t a s f a r w e s t a s T h u r l o w , w h e r e a n e x c l u s i v e l e f t - h a n d t u r n f o r c e s a l l t r a f f i c o n t o t h a t s t r e e t ( s e e F i g u r e s 3 . 6 a n d 3 . 7 ) . T h e t r a f f i c a t t h i s i n t e r s e c t i o n , c o n s e q u e n t l y , i s h e a v y , f a s t , a n d h a r m f u l t o p e d e s t r i a n a c t i v i t y . B u s r o u t e s r u n e a s t - w e s t a l o n g R o b s o n b e t w e e n D e n m a n a n d T h u r l o w . M e t e r s a l o n g t h e s o u t h s i d e o f t h e s t r e e t p r o v i d e s h o r t - t e r m p a r k i n g f o r s h o p p e r s . I n a d d i t i o n , a c o m m e r c i a l p a r k i n g l o t e x i s t s o n t h e n o r t h s i d e o f t h e 1 1 0 0 b l o c k . S e r v i c e v e h i c l e s u s e l a n e s p a c e s b e h i n d t h e s h o p s t o d e l i v e r t h e i r g o o d s . 4 T h e s t u d y a r e a a t t r a c t s c u s t o m e r s f r o m a l l o v e r t h e G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r a r e a a s w e l l a s o u t - o f - t o w n s h o p p e r s . L o c a l c u s t o m e r s o r i g i n a t e f r o m t h e C e n t r a l W e s t E n d r e s i d e n t i a l F i g u r e 3 .5 . T h e s t u d y a r e a a n d s i g n i f i c a n t n e i g h b o u r i n g f e a t u r e s HOTEL. 1 dOUCZT HOU&fc fEOQC>i*P C^?0AC6 F i g u r e 3.6. V e h i c u l a r m o v e m e n t p a t t e r n s 5 0 a r e a , d o w n t o w n e m p l o y e e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y f r o m t h e G e o r g i a S t r e e t o f f i c e b u i l d i n g s a n d o t h e r s w h o a r e o n i n c i d e n t a l d o w n t o w n e r r a n d s . P e d e s t r i a n s c o m i n g f r o m t h e C B D t o t h e e a s t e r n e n d o f t h e a r e a a r e i n t e r r u p t e d b y s t r e e t c l o s u r e s a t H o w e a n d H o r n b y d u e t o c o n s t r u c t i o n w o r k o n t h e c o u r t -h o u s e c o m p l e x ( b l o c k s 5 1 , 6 1 a n d 7 1 ) . A l s o , t h e c r o s s t o w n f u n c t i o n o f R o b s o n S t r e e t f r o m t h e C a m b i e B r i d g e r e s u l t s i n h e a v y t r a f f i c v o l u m e a n d h i n d e r s p e d e s t r i a n a c t i v i t y . T h e p o i n t o f h i g h e s t e l e v a t i o n o n R o b s o n S t r e e t o c c u r s a t t h e B u t e i n t e r s e c t i o n . T h i s i s w h e r e t h e s t r e e t c o m m a n d s e x c e l l e n t v i e w s o f S t a n l e y P a r k , t h e m o u n t a i n s , B u r r a r d I n l e t a n d t h e d o w n t o w n t o t h e e a s t . T h e l a t e m o r n i n g a n d a f t e r n o o n s u n p e n e t r a t e s t h e s t r e e t l e n g t h w i s e . T h i s l e a v e s t h e s o u t h s i d e w a l k i n s h a d e w h i l e t h e n o r t h s i d e w a l k e n j o y s t h e s u n a t i t s b e s t . H o w e v e r , i t w a s n o t e d t h a t t h e n o r t h s i d e o f t h e s t r e e t i s l e s s a c t i v e d u e t o n e w e r b u i l d i n g s w h i c h l a c k c h a r a c t e r , m o r e i n c o m p a t i b l e b u s i n e s s e s a n d f e w e r b u s i n e s s e s w i t h l o n g e r f a c a d e s . A n o f f i c e b u i l d i n g , a p a r k i n g l o t , a g a s s t a t i o n a n d a c h a i n r e s t a u r a n t w i t h a h u n d r e d f e e t o f f r o n t a g e a r e e x a m p l e s o f i n c o m p a t i b l e u s e s o n t h e n o r t h s i d e o f t h e s t u d y a r e a . T h e s t u d y a r e a a s a w h o l e d o e s n o t o f f e r i t s u s e r s a n y p u b l i c o p e n s p a c e s o n - o r o f f - s t r e e t . M a p 3 . 8 . s h o w s t h a t m a n y l a n d o w n e r s o w n m o r e t h a n o n e p r o p e r t y i n t h e a r e a . T h i s t r e n d i s e v e n m o r e p r o n o u n c e d i n t h e 1 0 0 0 b l o c k . T h e r e a r e o n l y t h i r t y l a n d o w n e r s i n t h e 5 1 Figure 3.8. Ownership patterns showing process of land assembly J § foUTE. Samantha's In ternat iona l The 8-Centennial Pharmacy Lt< . 1194 Nelrrar C f f fee Sh( p 1190 Robson Gourmt t 1184 I Jewel ley^±LB2 The India S i f t Arch ie .House Ltd '" Hardware! Continental Ta i lo r^ & f len's Wear] gup I tri Royal Bank Supd Boul Thfe P i c i af Cai i er Mar Tl}e Or ienta l Marbhe House] Peacock's |Chilclren} Sun' Or ienta l Hansen's Toys Opportuni ty Ports of] B e l - A i r Cleaner F a b i f l a Customed o Mai T a i l o r i n g 11 Kerry Shop 1104!s, The I Susanne I Busy Bee Grcjcer. 1178 1176 1174 1177 ure Show 1170 da L t d . 1164 Grocery 1160 Vacant 11B4 L t d . r Pl j ice Cra f ts 1 HandlTJom Ejazaar 1 WeaH 11H2A 11W2B PakspoVt Photos' t 1132A & A A Suppl ie t 1130 Sasha L t d ! 1128 Rehabil i LdLiufl 1126 a Shop 1106 Ji Emporium 1104 Imported Shoes 1102 & Flowers 1100 Robsqnt gceryJJS TWU2LCW 51a 1195 Robson Serv ices 1157 King 's Parkind 1155 Canadian Government DVA 1145 Unemployment 1143 Don's S t y l i n g 1141 I p. Cnns Ctfus •1139C H 1139B S 1137 P i c k - A - T o u r 1135 Pobson Botftiqt 1133 L i J o l i e Madane 1131 Brandt 's Cjustc 1129 L)ok Ar t Fashi 1127 S m s Herb'al 1123 Siape Unis*ex H 1121 M j l l e y ' s Sj>ic<j 1101 Bla 1101 Tie idelberjg Re ar Curio r J l 1115 T ;pee Spor t ing 1111 Cieckers f la i r 1109 Tie. Robso I r la i . inj Ya: (;k Anjgus Rd. T r a v e l ! e r Insurance Commi Lounge jestaurant istaurant Crjafts, 1139A CI a m T a i l o r L t d . on emedies la i r Design L t d . Shop L t d . Goods L t d . C u t t e r s , l l l l A Barn , 1109A Vacant O V K Z dett< acam o o Schni tze l House Restaurant , Le Papjl Cont inental • Bogena Ha] Robson F l o r i s t Happy Feet Shoes & Rl C i a r d u l l o Frank Shoe Shine 'A r pa i rs „ Shop pi Olympia Oyste The bers l Dru G o l f ' s Bakery 1086 Gal low ay' s| Grocer es 1084 J e f f 5 Fabr ics L :d. 1082 Robson Jewel lers L t d . 1080 Pussycat Fashion Centre 1070 Captain's C i f e 1068 Old :ourftry Bakery 1066 Echo parkf i t ing L ;d . 1064 Nordic Iciport 1062 l i o n Bou : ique 1060 bem house L t d . 1056 Jir Designl L t d . 1054 pj-oduce CrJ. Standard European New and Impjort Jlcjuse L t d . 1044 Rainbow Produce Gr, Vincenl Vincent Del Pers ian Sign Co. L t d . M i c h e l l d Michelle] 0 ' B r l a n Opt ica l D ispensers , 0 ' Vancouver Canera Land L Murchle 's Tea a i d CTpffee L Toronto r g Mart 1098 -• • - 1 1094 1092 1090 i s h CoThj^e Grace Chitken Hous. 1052 Da i r y Products 1042 d Shoe CI i n i t 1040 Imports L t d . 1038 jicatessen L t d e| i) r Jewel's Hous.  p e a r 11030 "Tlartvale L t f l . 1036 TO** s Ajlteratiofis. s A| l terat io is 1018 Btrianj Jewel le -s 1016 Cher Ton-Tin 1014 Dominion Blnk 1000 •71032 3 1028 1012, d . 1008 &00 1099 Downtown Traveft Centre Ltd 1097 Whales Tale Gi| 1091 Gblaxy Genfc 1089 Kjiorr Da " 1075 1071 nn^ Man [Robson Fabrics u r t i s June Fe shion Jewel lery 1067 A r c t i c Herjitace of Eskimo Ar t 1053 CEB/ Export ar d Import Co. Lt<) 1049-51 1 op Toyf Cer t re 1045 Jac lson Tradir 1041 The 1035 Ar 1031 Th. 1017 Br t ig i t te Mode Old Crkes ne 's L^dii Wig Tr^e 1029 Teitipo Canadian 1027 Be. u t i f u l Peopl 1025 Wh te Spo^ Ltc 1023 De ek London r 1011 Mobart Kondi tdre i & Tea Room 1001 Cajrd Shop f t Shoppe 's S t y l i n g , 1 087 g Co. L t d . Shoppe ds ' Wear C ra f t s e Unisex aute C o i f f u r e P l i Gi loo a r e a , b u t t h e r e a r e m o r e t h a n t w i c e t h i s n u m b e r o f p r o p e r t i e s . L a n d a s s e m b l y h a s b e e n t a k i n g p l a c e m o r e r e c e n t l y a s w e l l . S u c h a c t i o n s m a k e t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f l a r g e - s c a l e d e v e l o p m e n t m o r e l i k e l y . T h e s t u d y a r e a i s D i s t r i c t L o t 1 8 5 ; t h e d i m e n s i o n o f a n i n d i v i d u a l l o t i s 6 6 f e e t x 1 2 0 f e e t : 7 9 2 0 s q u a r e f e e t . T h e D i s t r i c t L o t i s p a r t o f t h e l e g a l d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e l a n d i n t h e C B D . I t i s c o m p r i s e d o f s e v e r a l c i t y b l o c k s w h i c h i n t u r n a r e c o m p r i s e d o f l o t s o w n e d b y i n d i v i d u a l s . D o w n t o w n V a n c o u v e r i n c l u d e s t w o D i s t r i c t L o t s . D . L . 5 4 1 i n c l u d e s l a n d e a s t o f B u r r a r d S t r e e t , a n d D . L . 1 8 5 i n c l u d e s l a n d w e s t o f B u r r a r d S t r e e t . 5 T h e R o b s o n S t r e e t a r e a f a l l s u n d e r t h r e e d i f f e r e n t z o n i n g c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s . T h e s e a r e C M - ^ l , C - 5 a n d R M 4 - A ( M a p 3 . 9 . ) . 6 T h e s t u d y a r e a , w h i c h i s t h e c o m m e r c i a l f r o n t a g e , f a l l s u n d e r t h e C - 5 c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . T h e o u t r i g h t F l o o r S p a c e R a t i o f o r t h i s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i s 1 . 0 0 , t h e a d d i t i o n a l F S R f o r t h e c o m m e r c i a l f r o n t a g e i s 4 . 0 0 , w h i c h b r i n g s t h e m a x i m u m a l l o w a b l e F S R t o 5 . 0 0 . T h e m a x i m u m a l l o w a b l e h e i g h t i s 6 s t o r e y s o r 8 0 f e e t . A d d i t i o n a l h e i g h t i s a l l o w e d o n a p p r o v a l b y t h e D i r e c t o r o f P l a n n i n g . T h e b u i l d i n g s i n t h e s t u d y a r e a a r e m o s t l y r u n - d o w n o l d b u i l d i n g s o n e t o f o u r s t o r e y s h i g h . H o w e v e r , o n t h e n o r t h s i d e n e w b u i l d i n g s h a v e b e e n c o n s t r u c t e d i n r e c e n t y e a r s . M a p 3 . 1 0 . c o m p a r e s t h e a g e s o f t h e b u i l d i n g s i n t h e s t u d y a r e a w i t h t h o s e i n t h e r e s t o f d o w n t o w n . 5 5 3 . 2 . A B r i e f H i s t o r i c O v e r v i e w V a n c o u v e r i s a f a i r l y y o u n g m e t r o p o l i s . I t w a s n o t u n t i l 7 5 y e a r s a f t e r C a p t a i n G e o r g e V a n c o u v e r s a i l e d i n t o B u r r a r d I n l e t ( 1 7 9 2 ) t h a t s e t t l e m e n t b e g a n i n t h e a r e a ( 1 8 6 7 ) . T h e c i t y s t a r t e d i n t h e s m a l l v i l l a g e o f G a s t o w n , w h i c h e v e n t u a l l y g r e w i n t o t h e u r b a n c e n t e r o f V a n c o u v e r ( M a p 3 . 1 1 . ) . I n a s h o r t p e r i o d o f t i m e ( a p p r o x i m a t e l y f i f t y y e a r s ) , V a n c o u v e r t u r n e d f r o m a m i 1 1 t o w n t o a m e t r o p o l i s . 8 R o b s o n S t r e e t , i n t h e h e a r t o f t h e y o u n g t o w n , w a s o n e o f i t s f i r s t s t r e e t s . I t w a s n a m e d b y L . A . H a m i l t o n i n 1 8 8 6 i n h o n o r o f t h e H o n o u r a b l e J o h n R o b s o n , M . P . P . w h o w a s P r o v i n c i a l S e c r e t a r y i n 1 8 8 3 , P r i m e M i n i s t e r i n 1 8 8 9 . 9 B a c k i n 1 8 9 0 , R o b s o n S t r e e t , s t i l l i n t h e p r o c e s s o f b i r t h , w a s n e i t h e r a f o r e s t n o r y e t a s t r e e t . S t u m p s u p r o o t e d , d e e p h o l e s , b i g s t o n e s , l i t t l e s t o n e s , e v e r y . u n c o m f o r t a b l e t h i n g t h a t a s t r e e t s h o u l d n o t b e ; n o t h i n g t h a t ! a s e l f - r e s p e c t i n g s t r e e t s h o u l d b e . E v e n t h e h o r s e s s h i e d a t i t . 0 T h e r e w e r e o n l y t w o h o m e s o n t h e i n f a n t s t r e e t . T h e s t r e e t w a s t h e a b o d e o n l y o f m i l l i o n s o f e v e r - c r o a k i n g f r o g s t h a t l e a p e d a n d s p o r t e d i n d o z e n s o f w e e d y p o o l s w h i l e t h e b i r d s t w i t t e r e d m e r r i l y . i n t h e b r a n c h e s o f s u c c u l e n t w i l l o w s . T h e w h o l e a d j a c e n t c o u n t r y s i d e w a s a v a s t p l a y g r o u n d w h e r e y o u n g s t e r s h a d a w h a l e o f a t i m e g o r g i n g o n w i l d b l a c k b e r r i e s a n d h u c k l e -b e r r i e s . 1 1 A f e w w e e k s a n d t h e r e w a s a b i g c h a n g e . T h e s t r e e t w a s g r a d e d , w o o d e n s i d e w a l k s w e r e l a i d d o w n , , n e w h o m e s s p r a n g u p a l m o s t o v e r n i g h t . T h e s t r e e t r u s h e d o n t o w a r d s m a t u r i t y . F i g u r e 3 . 1 1 . H i s t o r i c m a p o f V a n c o u v e r , 1 8 8 9 m N o r t h - w e s t c o r n e r o f R o b s o n a n d B u r r a r d ( 1 8 9 7 ) F i g u r e 3 . 1 3 . N o r t h - w e s t c o r n e r o f R o b s o n a n d B u r r a r d ( 1 9 7 5 ) in CO 5 9 I t b e c a m e a s t r e e t o f b e s t h o m e s a n d s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s ( F i g -u r e 3 - 1 2 . ) . M a n y h o m e s h a d b a r n s a n d n e a r l y e v e r y b a c k y a r d h a d i t s q u o t a o f c h i c k e n s . I n a f e w m o r e m o n t h s R o b s o n , e x t e n d e d w e s t a n d e v e r w e s t . T h e B . C . E l e c t r i c , f o l l o w i n g t h e c r o w d s , b u i l t a s i n g l e s t r e e t c a r l i n e a s f a r a s J e r v i s . T h e c o m p a n y f o l l o w e d w i t h a t e n - m i n u t e s e r v i c e t o D e n m a n i n 1 9 3 5 ( F i g u r e 3 . 1 4 . ) . T h e n R o b s o n S t r e e t , o n c e p u l s a t i n g w i t h t h e i n t i m a t e h o m e l i f e o f t h e e a r l y b u i l d e r s o f V a n c o u v e r , b e c a m e b u s i n e s s - c o n s c i o u s ( i n 1 9 3 5 ) , p a v e d , t w o - l a n e d , w i t h i t s b e g i n n i n g a t C a m b i e S t r e e t . I t b e c a m e a s t r e e t o f s p e c i a l -i z e d s m a l l s h o p s w h e r e p e o p l e c o u l d d o t h e i r m a r k e t i n g c o m f o r t a b l y a n d i n a l e i s u r e l y m a n n e r . H o u s e s o n t h e s t r e e t t h a t w e r e o n c e p r o u d w e r e c r y i n g o u t " p i t i f u l l y f o r a c o a t o f p a i n t t o c o v e r t h e i r u n s i g h t l y d i s i n t e g r a t i o n . " 1 2 R o b s o n , o n c e a f o r e s t , t h e n a " s w e l l " r e s i d e n t i a l s t r e e t , w a s c h a n g i n g t o a c o m m e r c i a l s t r e e t . A s i t b e c a m e a b u s y d o w n t o w n s t r e e t a n d a g r o w i n g t r a f f i c a r t e r y , i t h a d t o e x p e r i e n c e w i d e n i n g a n d c u t t i n g o f i t s t r e e s ( 1 9 3 7 ) , w h i c h w e r e s a i d t o b e w r e c k i n g i t s s i d e w a l k s . 1 3 I n t h e 1 9 4 0 ' s , m a n y o f t h e R o b s o n S t r e e t m e r c h a n t s w e r e p a r t o f B l a c k b u r n M a r k e t , n o w o n l y a m e m o r y a t R o b s o n a n d S e y m o u r . 1 4 W h e n t h e m a r k e t w a s c o n d e m n e d t h e y w e r e f o r c e d f u r t h e r d o w n t h e s t r e e t . T h e 9 0 0 b l o c k R o b s o n b e c a m e t h e m a r k e t c e n t e r . T h e n p r o g r e s s m o v e d t h e m o n c e a g a i n ; l a r g e i n t e r e s t s w e r e b u y i n g o u t t h e s t r e e t e a s t o f B u r r a r d . 1 5 6 1 T h e m e r c h a n t s m o v e d o n e b y o n e a c r o s s B u r r a r d S t r e e t , t a k i n g u p r e s i d e n c e i n t h e r a m s h a c k l e ( b u t l o w r e n t ) b u i l d i n g s o f t h e 1 0 0 0 b l o c k . F a i t h f u l c u s t o m e r s f o l l o w e d t h e m a n d l i f e w e n t o n a s u s u a l . 1 6 I n t h e m i d 1 9 5 0 ' s a t i d e o f G e r m a n i m m i g r a n t s f o r c e d a r e v o l u t i o n o n t h e S t r e e t . 1 7 A l t h o u g h t h e r e w e r e o t h e r E u r o p e a n m e r c h a n t s , t h e p r i n c i p a l o n e s w e r e G e r m a n s . T h e y b r o u g h t t o t h e s t r e e t t h e i r u n i q u e m e r c h a n d i s e w h i c h g a v e t h e s t r e e t i t s f l a v o r . T h e G e r m a n s c a m e t o R o b s o n S t r e e t w h e n t h e y f i r s t i m m i g r a t e d ; t h e n t h e y m o v e d o u t t o R i c h m o n d a n d B u r n a b y a n d m a n y w e n t t o t h e S t a t e s . 1 8 B y t h e 1 9 6 0 ' s a n o t i c e a b l e c h a n g e h a d t a k e n p l a c e i n t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r o f R o b s o n S t r e e t . I t h a s a l w a y s b e e n a s t r e e t f o r n e w C a n a d i a n s b e c a u s e o f t h e n u m b e r o u s c h e a p l o d g i n g h o u s e s a r o u n d i t . B y t h e e a r l y 1 9 6 0 ' s R o b s o n s t r a s s e h a d a c h i e v e d i t s f u l l s t r e n g t h . B e h i n d t h e f a l s e f r o n t s a n d t h e o l d f r o n t s o f b r i c k a n d f r a m e b u i l d i n g s d a t i n g b a c k 6 5 y e a r s o r m o r e w a s o n e o f t h e l i v e l i e s t s e c t i o n s i n t o w n . T h e 7 0 0 - 1 1 0 0 b l o c k s o n R o b s o n w e r e b u r s t i n g w i t h p e o p l e o f a l l a g e s , d e s c r i p t i o n s a n d n a t i o n a l i t i e s . 1 9 T o u r i s t s a n d s h o p p e r s e n c o u n t e r e d a l o n g t h i s s h o r t s t r e t c h o f R o b s o n a m i x t u r e o f e n t e r p r i s e s t h a t s t i r r e d t h e i r s e n s e s o f s m e l l , t a s t e a n d i m a g i n a t i o n a s n o o t h e r s t r e e t i n t h e c i t y d i d . 2 0 6 2 R o b s o n , w h i c h b y t h e n h a d b e c o m e a p a t c h o f E u r o p e i n V a n c o u v e r , h a d a l w a y s b e e n t h r e a t e n e d . T h e t h r e a t s c a m e b o t h f r o m o u t s i d e a n d f r o m w i t h i n . T h e w r e c k e r ' s h a m m e r h i t i t s o l d e s t p a r t , g i v i n g w a y t o n e w d e v e l o p m e n t s i n c o m p a t i b l e w i t h t h e s t r e e t ' s u n i q u e c h a r a c t e r . M o r e p r o p e r t y w a s b e i n g a b s o r b e d b y n e w d e v e l o p m e n t s . R e n t s k e p t r i s i n g a n d t h e f i n a n c i a l l y w e a k w e r e f o r c e d o u t . T h e r e w a s l i t t l e s e c u r i t y , e v e n f o r t h e m o r e a f f l u e n t m e r c h a n t s : 2 1 A c c o r d i n g t o t h e t e r m s o f l e a s e , t h e y c o u l d b e g i v e n o n e m o n t h t o l e a v e . U n d e r s u c h d i c e y c o n d i t i o n s , i m p r o v i n g t h e i r p r e m i s e s s e e m e d f u t i l e , a l t h o u g h m a n y b u i l d i n g s w e r e i n s e v e r e n e e d f o r r e n o v a t i o n . 2 2 B u i l d i n g s w e r e s o o l d t h a t t h e y w e r e l o s i n g m o n e y a n d t h e r e -f o r e i t w a s b e t t e r f o r p r o p e r t y o w n e r s t o l e v e l t h e m t h a n t o m a k e r e p a i r s . I n 1 9 6 8 , t h i r t e e n b u s i n e s s e s o n . t h e n o r t h s i d e o f t h e 1 0 0 0 b l o c k w e r e f o r c e d t o c l o s e . T h e b u i l d i n g s t h e y o c c u p i e d w e r e d e m o l i s h e d a n d e i g h t o f t h e s t o r e s w e r e r e p l a c e d b y a 1 0 0 - f o o t f r o n t a g e r e s t a u r a n t . 2 3 T h e f a c t t h a t s u c h d e v e l o p m e n t s w e r e i n c o m p a t i b l e w i t h t h e s m a l l s p e c i a l t y s h o p c h a r a c t e r o f R o b s o n d i d n o t s e e m t o b o t h e r t h e p r o p e r t y o w n e r s o r t h e d e v e l o p e r s . S u c h d e v e l o p m e n t s u r g e d s t o r e o p e r a t o r s t o l a u n c h a c a m p a i g n f o r t h e p r e s e r v a t i o n o f t h e u n i q u e c h a r a c t e r o f R o b s o n . S t o r e o w n e r s f e a r e d t h e y w o u l d b e g r a d u a l l y f o r c e d o u t v i a t h e w r e c k e r ' s h a m m e r , r e d e v e l o p m e n t a n d r i s i n g r e n t s . A n a s s o c i a t i o n o f t h e s t o r e o p e r a t o r s w a s f o r m e d 63 w i t h t h e a i m o f f i g h t i n g t o p r o t e c t t h e u n i q u e c h a r a c t e r o f t h e s h o p p i n g d i s t r i c t . T h e f i r s t m o v e b y t h e a s s o c i a t i o n w a s t o a p p r o a c h t h e C i t y A d m i n i s t r a t i o n . t o d e t e r m i n e w h e t h e r t h e a r e a c o u l d b e z o n e d s t r i c t l y f o r s m a l l s t o r e s a n d s p e c i a l t y s h o p s . T h e i n c o m p a t i b i l i t y o f l a r g e s t o r e s , c h a i n s t o r e s , p a r k i n g l o t s , g a s s t a t i o n s , b a n k s , e t c . w a s t h r e a t e n i n g t h e c h a r a c t e r o f t h e a r e a . 2 5 T h e p l a n n i n g d e p a r t m e n t s u g g e s t e d t h e y s h a r e t h e c o s t o f a s t u d y f o r r e d e v e l o p m e n t i n t h e a r e a , b u t a g a i n t h e m e r c h a n t s d i d n o t h a v e e n o u g h c o n f i d e n c e t o i n v e s t i n t h e s t u d y d u e t o t h e i n s e c u r e t e r m s o f t h e i r t e n a n c y . T h e c a m p a i g n d i e d . 2 6 T h e c i t y l o s t i n t e r e s t . T h e m e r c h a n t s l o s t i n t e r e s t i n t h e c i t y . 2 7 I n d e s p e r a t i o n , i n 1 9 7 0 , t h e y f o r m e d a g r o u p a n d a p p r o a c h e d t h e p r o v i n c i a l g o v e r n m e n t , t h e n i n t h e m i d s t o f a n e l e c t i o n c a m p a i g n . T h e m e r c h a n t s h o p e d t h e g o v e r n m e n t m i g h t i n c l u d e t h e m i n t h e s h o p p i n g p l a z a o f t h e n e w p r o v i n c i a l g o v e r n -m e n t b u i l d i n g ( b l o c k 6 1 ) t h e r e b y a v o i d i n g r i s i n g g r o u n d f l o o r r e n t s . 2 8 T h e g o v e r n m e n t l a t e r d e c i d e d t h a t t h e s h o p k e e p e r s ' d e v e l o p -m e n t w a s n o t c o m p a t i b l e w i t h t h e p l a n n e d c o u r t h o u s e a n d g o v e r n m e n t o f f i c e b u i l d i n g . F o r t h e f i r s t t i m e , t h e r e w a s t h e n a n a g r e e m e n t a m o n g m e r c h a n t s a b o u t t h e f u t u r e o f t h e s t r e e t . T h e y - r e c o g n i z e d t h a t r e d e v e l o p m e n t w a s i n e v i t a b l e a n d t h e y h a d a 6 4 p r o p o s a l t o s o l v e t h e p r o b l e m o f p r o v i d i n g s m a l l s h o p s a t l o w . r e n t s . 2 9 T h e y s u g g e s t e d c r e a t i n g a m e z z a n i n e l e v e l o f s h o p s a s p a r t o f a d e v e l o p m e n t d e s i g n e d f o r p e d e s t r i a n b r o w s i n g a n d s h o p p i n g ( F i g u r e 3 . 1 5 . ) . T h e y a l s o s u g g e s t e d u n d e r g r o u n d p a r k i n g t o r e t a i n t h e a r e a ' s a t t r a c t i o n f o r s h o p p e r s . T h e p l a n f o r t h a t " i n t e r n a t i o n a l c e n t e r " o n t h e 1 0 0 0 b l o c k w a s s i m p l e w i t h a z o n i n g r e a d j u s t m e n t b y t h e c i t y . T h e r e w a s t o b e h i g h d e n s i t y d e v e l o p m e n t a r o u n d R o b s o n S t r e e t , p r o v i d i n g t h e r e v e n u e t o s u p p o r t t h e s c h e m e . T h o s e w h o c o u l d n o t a f f o r d g r o u n d f l o o r r e n t s w e r e t o m o v e u p t o m e z z a n i n e l e v e l . ; S u g g e s t e d c o n t e n t s o f t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l c e n t e r w e r e : 1 . S p e c i a l i z e d f o o d m a r t . a n d f a r m e r ' s m a r k e t ( e x c l u d -i n g s t a n d a r d g r o c e t e r i a s ) . 2 . G r o u p o f e t h n i c - t y p e r e s t a u r a n t s a n d s n a c k b a r s ( e x c l u d i n g c h a i n f o o d o u t l e t s ) . G r o u n d l e v e l a n d r o o f t o p p l a z a s . 3 . G o v e r n m e n t l i q u o r s t o r e w i t h s p e c i a l i z e d w i n e s . L i c e n s e d p r e m i s e s , p u b s , e t c . 4 . S p e c i a l i z e d s h o p s o f - a l l k i n d s . , . _ b o u t i q u e s , e t c . ( e x c l u d i n g d e p a r t m e n t s t o r e s ) . 5 . T r a v e l a g e n c i e s , t o u r i s m . 6 . I n t e r n a t i o n a l t i c k e t a g e n c y , a i r l i n e o f f i c e s , e t c . 7 . B . C . A u t o m o b i l e A s s o c i a t i o n . 8 . E n t e r t a i n m e n t , c a b a r e t s , c i n e m a s , d i s c o t h e q u e s , e t c . 9 . A d u l t e d u c a t i o n , a u d i t o r i u m , c l u b p r e m i s e s , b o o k c e n t r e , c o n v e n t i o n r o o m s , e t c . 1 0 . E x h i b i t i o n s p a c e s . 6 6 1 1 . A t h l e t i c C l u b . <-1 2 . C h i l d r e n ' s c e n t r e , t o y l a n d , e t c . 1 3 . J a p a n t r a d e c e n t r e . 1 4 . M e d i c a l - D e n t a l C e n t r e . 1 5 . A u t o m o b i l e c e n t r e - s h o w r o o m s , r e p a i r s , c a r r e n t a l s , c a r c l i n i c , a u t o s u p p l i e s , e t c . 1 6 . O f f i c e s . 1 7 . R e s i d e n t i a l - a p a r t m e n t s o f v a r i o u s s i z e s . 1 8 . H o t e l s . 3 1 A s u r v e y c o n d u c t e d b y U . B . C . s t u d e n t s i n D e c e m b e r / 1 9 6 9 , s h o w e d t h e m a j o r i t y o f s h o p p e r s f a v o r e d t h e i d e a o f a p e d e s t r i a n m a l l , o p e n - a i r c a f e s a n d m o r e s p e c i a l t y s t o r e s . 3 2 H o w e v e r , t h e c i t y d e c l i n e d t o p r o v i d e a n y m o n e y o r t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e t o t h e m e r c h a n t s o f t h e 1 0 0 0 b l o c k w h o w e r e t r y i n g t o d e t e r m i n e t h e e c o n o m i c s e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y o f t h e p r o j e c t . T h e c i t y , w h o o w n e d 3 0 p e r c e n t o f t h e b l o c k , w a s t h e n p r e p a r i n g t o s e l l a p o r t i o n o f i t a n d t h e b e s t t h e c i t y c o u n c i l c o u l d d o w a s t o a g r e e n o t t o s e l l a n y o f i t s l a n d f o r a f e w m o n t h s t o g i v e t h e m e r c h a n t s m o r e t i m e f o r t h e i r f e a s i b i l i t y s t u d y . W i t h t h e c i t y ' s n e g a t i v e a t t i t u d e , t h e e f f o r t s f o r t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l c e n t e r w e r e u n l i k e l y t o c o m e t o f r u i t i o n . A s u b s t a n t i a l p r o p o r t i o n o f t h e p r o p e r t y o w n e r s r e f u s e d t o c o m m i t t h e m s e l v e s t o f i n a n c e t h e i r s h a r e o f t h e s t u d y a n d t h e w h o l e p r o j e c t c o l l a p s e d ( 1 9 7 1 ) . I n 1 9 7 3 a n a t t e m p t t o r e v i t a l i z e t h e s t r e e t w a s m a d e i n w h a t w a s c a l l e d t h e " S a t u r d a y M a l l " . T h e s t r e e t w a s 6 7 c l o s e d o f f f o r t r a f f i c i n t h e 1 0 0 0 b l o c k o n s u m m e r S a t u r d a y s , b u t t h e i d e a f a i l e d t o r e a l i z e t h e p o t e n t i a l o f a p e d e s t r i a n -o n l y t e r r i t o r y , p e r h a p s d u e t o a l a c k o f c o m m i t m e n t o n t h e p a r t o f t h e m e r c h a n t s . 3 3 T h e e a r l y s e v e n t i e s h a v e s e e n t h e d e c l i n e o f t h e s t u d y a r e a . S e v e r a l f a c t o r s h a v e c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h i s d e c l i n e . T h o s e f a c t o r s a s w e l l a s p r o p o s a l s f r o m d i f f e r e n t i n t e r e s t g r o u p s f o r t h e r e j u v e n a t i o n o f t h e a r e a a r e d i s c u s s e d i n t h e n e x t s e c t i o n o f t h i s c h a p t e r . A s t h i n g s s t a n d a t t h e p r e s e n t t i m e t h e f u t u r e o f t h e s t u d y a r e a i s u n c e r t a i n . I t i s u n k n o w n w h i c h , i f a n y , o f t h e s e v e r a l p r o p o s a l s w i l l b e c a r r i e d o u t . T h e f e e l i n g a n d t h e c h a r a c t e r o f t h e s t u d y a r e a w i l l n o d o u b t s u f f e r f r o m a n y a b r u p t c h a n g e , a n d t h e l o s s t o t h e C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r w i l l b e g r e a t . - W h a t e v e r t h e p h y s i c a l s h a p e o f f u t u r e d e v e l o p m e n t , t h e s h o p p e r s d i c t a t e t h a t i f R o b s o n d i d n o t e x i s t , i t w o u l d b e n e c e s s a r y t o i n v e n t s u c h a n i a r e a . I t f i l l s c e r t a i n n e e d s f o r t h e u s e r s t h a t n o o t h e r s h o p p i n g a r e a d o e s . 3.3. P r o p o s a l s S i n c e 1 9 7 4 s e v e r a l p r o p o s a l s h a v e b e e n m a d e f o r t h e r e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e 1 0 0 0 b l o c k R o b s o n ( t h e b l o c k b o u n d e d b y R o b s o n , B u r r a r d , H a r o / S m i t h e a n d T h u r l o w S t r e e t s ) . T h e 1 1 0 0 b l o c k w a s n o t i n c l u d e d i n a n y o f t h e d i s c u s s e d p r o p o s a l s . T h e f o u r m a j o r l a n d o w n e r s i n t h e b l o c k - R o b s o n I n t e r n a t i o n a l V i l l a g e C o m m u n i t y C o - o p e r a t i v e , O l y m p i a a n d 6 8 Y o r k , N e i l C o o k a n d t h e C i t y - r e p r e s e n t t h e m a j o r f o r c e s f o r c h a n g e . T h e t h r e e o w n e r s a r e i n c o m p e t i t i o n t o i n c l u d e t h e c i t y - o w n e d l a n d i n t h e i r p r o p o s a l s . P r o p o s a l d e s c r i p t i o n s f o l l o w . a . T h e " M a r k e t p l a c e " - P r o p o s a l I n J a n u a r y 1 9 7 6 c i t y p l a n n i n g o f f i c i a l s a n d m e r -c h a n t s e x p r e s s e d c a u t i o u s o p t i m i s m a b o u t a 7 . 5 m i l l i o n - d o l l a r m a l l p r o p o s e d b y N e i l C o o k , m a j o r o w n e r o f t h e 1 0 0 0 b l o c k R o b s o n . T h e p r o p o s e d m a l l w o u l d b e s i m i l a r t o t h e C a n n e r y a n d G h i r a r d e l l i S q u a r e i n S a n F r a n c i s c o . T h e ' M a r k e t p l a c e ' p r o p o s a l c o n s i s t s o f a t w o - l e v e l s p e c i a l t y r e t a i l c e n t r e a r r a n g e d a r o u n d a c e n t r a l c o u r t y a r d . T h e c e n t r e w o u l d c o n s i s t o f 6 2 s p e c i a l -t y s h o p s o n a E u r o p e a n t h e m e , c o n t a i n i n g a t o t a l r e t a i l s q u a r e f o o t a g e o f . 7 2 , 4 7 2 s q . f t . o f w h i c h 5 0 , 0 0 0 s q . f t . i s o n t h e g r o u n d l e v e l . T h e a v e r a g e s h o p s i z e w o u l d b e 1 , 2 0 0 s q . f t . T w o a n d o n e h a l f l e v e l s o f p a r k i n g a r e p r o p o s e d b e t w e e n t h e l a n e a n d H a r o S t r e e t w i t h e n t r y a n d e x i t f r o m H a r o . T h r e e h u n d r e d a n d e i g h t y p a r k i n g s p a c e s a r e p r o p o s e d w h e r e a s 1 5 5 a r e p e r m i t t e d . T h e s i t e e x t e n d s 2 6 4 f e e t a l o n g R o b s o n S t r e e t e a s t o f T h u r l o w a n d i n c l u d e s 3 3 0 f e e t o f f r o n t a g e o n H a r o S t r e e t ' w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f t h e n o r t h e a s t c o r n e r o f T h u r l o w a n d H a r o w h i c h c o n t a i n s t w o h o u s e s . A C i t y l a n e b i s e c t s t h e s i t e . T h e s i t e i n c l u d e s 1 6 s m a l l s h o p s o n R o b s o n S t r e e t a n d f o u r s h o p s o n T h u r l o w S t r e e t . T h e p o r t i o n o f t h e s i t e s o u t h o f t h e l a n e c o n t a i n s f i v e o l d e r h o u s e s c o n t a i n i n g a t o t a l o f 3 1 r o o m s a n d o n e o l d -e r t w o - s t o r e y a p a r t m e n t b u i l d i n g c o n t a i n i n g 2 5 d w e l l i n g u n i t s . T h u s , a t l e a s t 5 6 u n i t s o f l o w e r -p r i c e d a c c o m m o d a t i o n w o u l d b e d e m o l i s h e d . T h e b a l a n c e o f t h e s i t e i s o c c u p i e d b y s u r f a c e p a r k i n g ' p r o v i d i n g a p p r o x i m a t e l y 7 0 s p a c e s . 3 8 1 p e r c e n t o f t h e t e n a n t s a n d o w n e r s o f R o b s o n 6 9 J 0/4- -A. D/3> '••frag- f ^ 0 / 2 -6 c?. f t - 2-1 *arx - Four owners incoporated as Robson -International V i l l a g e Co-operative. ' - Owned by the developers of the current proposal (Olyrnpia and York Development • L t d . ) . - " " . . C - City ownership. D - C / l , D/2, D/3, b/ 4 : Owned by Neil Cook through various subsidiary and holding , companies. ' :E - The-owners heavily encanvassed to joi n I by Robson International V i l l a g e j Co-operative but as yet undecided. F - Boytinck, Kimbal, Nicholls & Telford. j F i g u r e 3 . 1 6 . L a n d p a r c e l s f o r d e v e l o p m e n t p r o p o s a l s i F i g u r e 3 . 1 7 . C o n c e p t u a l D r a w i n g f o r t h e N e i l C o o k P r o p o s a l 7 1 f r o m B u r r a r d t o B u t e f a v o r e d t h e m a l l p r o p o s a l a n d 5 0 p e r c e n t o f t h e m w e r e i n s u p p o r t o f t h e e x c e s s p a r k i n g t h a t t h e p r o p o s a l c a l l s f o r . T h e d e v e l o p e r c l a i m s t h a t h i s p r o p o s a l e n s u r e s t h e c o n t i n u i n g s u r v i v a l o f R o b s o n S t r e e t i n t h e f o l l o w i n g w a y . i ) D e t e r i o r a t e d b u i l d i n g s i n t h e a r e a w i l l b e r e -p l a c e d w i t h m o d e r n f a c i l i t i e s . i i ) E x i s t i n g m e r c h a n t s w i l l b e g i v e n p r i o r i t y i n n e w s h o p s p a c e . i i i ) R e t a i l c u s t o m e r s w i l l b e a t t r a c t e d b y a w i d e r v a r i e t y a n d q u a l i t y o f g o o d s a n d s e r v i c e s . i v ) S h o p p e r s w i l l e n j o y a n e w c o m b i n a t i o n o f s h o p p i n g a n d l e i s u r e a c t i v i t i e s n o t a v a i l a b l e n o w . v ) M o r e m e r c h a n t s w i l l h a v e a n o p p o r t u n i t y t o o f f e r t h e i r g o o d s a n d s e r v i c e s ; a p p r o x i m a t e l y 6 5 s m a l l s h o p s ( 4 0 0 t o 3 , 0 0 0 s q u a r e f e e t e a c h ) w i l l r e p l a c e t h e 1 6 s h o p s n o w o n t h e p r o p e r t y . v i ) L o n g e r h o u r s o f u s e . v i i ) A d e q u a t e p a r k i n g w i l l b e p r o v i d e d . b . O l y m p i a a n d Y o r k P r o p o s a l 3 5 -T h e p r o p o s a l i s f o r p a r c e l s - B a n d C i n M a p 3 . 1 6 . - P a r c e l B ( O l y m p i a a n d Y o r k ) 2 7 , 5 0 5 s q . f t . ( a p p r o x . ) - P a r c e l C ( C i t y ) 3 0 , 5 3 5 s q . f t . ( a p p r o x . ) I t c o n s i s t s o f : i ) A n o f f i c e t o w e r w i t h r e t a i l a t g r a d e l o c a t e d o n p a r c e l " B " . T h e t o w e r i s p r o p o s e d t o c o n t a i n 1 5 5 , 5 7 9 s q . f t . o f o f f i c e s p a c e , i s 1 1 s t o r e y s ( 1 5 4 ' 0 " ± ) h i g h a n d s t e p s b a c k a t h i g h e r l e v e l s t o r e d u c e s h a d o w s e a s t b y t h e t o w e r . i i ) R e t a i l i s p r o v i d e d o n t w o l e v e l s a n d , i s l o c a t e d o n t h e l o w e r f l o o r s o f b o t h t h e o f f i c e t o w e r a n d i n t h e r e s i d e n t i a l b l o c k o n p a r c e l " C " , t h e C i t y - o w n e d p r o p e r t y . T o t a l r e t a i l p r o p o s e d i s 1 5 , 9 5 3 s q . f t . i i i ) T h e r e s i d e n t i a l p o r t i o n l o c a t e d e n t i r e l y o n p a r c e l " C " , C i t y - o w n e d l a n d , c o n s i s t s o f 6 7 u n i t s ( 1 8 b a c h e l o r , 2 5 o n e - b e d r o o m a n d 2 4 t w o - b e d r o o m ) . T o t a l r e s i d e n t i a l s q u a r e f o o t a g e 7 1 , 0 8 4 s q . f t . d i s t r i b u t e d t h r o u g h 6 s t o r e y s . A s y e t i t i s n o t c o n f i r m e d w h e t h e r u n i t s w i l l b e c o n d o m i n i u m o r r e n t a l . i v ) T h e b u i l d i n g s a r e a r r a n g e d a r o u n d a c o u r t y a r d a p p r o x i m a t e l y 1 0 0 f e e t s q u a r e a n d p r o v i d e a p e r i m e t e r a r c a d e a t g r a d e o n B u r r a r d a n d S m i t h e / H a r o S t r e e t s g i v i n g c o v e r e d a c c e s s t o t h e r e t a i l a t t h o s e l o c a t i o n s . v ) 1 8 5 p a r k i n g s p a c e s b e l o w g r a d e . c . R o b s o n I n t e r n a t i o n a l V i l l a g e C o m m u n i t y C o - o p e r a t i v e  P r o p o s a l I n M a r c h 1 9 7 4 R o b s o n I n t e r n a t i o n a l V i l l a g e C o m m u n -i t y C o - o p e r a t i v e w a s i n c o r p o r a t e d b y a g r o u p p f c i t i z e n s , m e r c h a n t s . a n d l a n d o w n e r s . T h i s o r g a n i z a t i o n , o p e n t o t h e p u b l i c w i t h a m e m b e r s h i p f e e o f t e n d o l l a r s , a t t r a c t e d 1 1 0 m e m b e r s b y J u n e o f 1 9 7 5 . T h e c o - o p e r a t i v e w a s f o r m e d t o a c h i e v e t h e f o l l o w i n g o b j e c t i v e s o n t h e p r o p e r t y b o u n d e d b y R o b s o n , T h u r l o w , S m i t h e / H a r o a n d B u r r a r d S t r e e t s , t o t a l l y i g n o r i n g t h e 1 1 0 0 b l o c k : 3 6 i ) T o i n c r e a s e h o u s i n g s u p p l y f o r m o d e r a t e i n c o m e i n d i v i d u a l s a n d f a m i l i e s i n V a n c o u v e r ' s d o w n t o w n c o r e . i i ) T o i n t e g r a t e t h e h o u s i n g d e v e l o p m e n t w i t h a v a s t l y - i m p r o v e d n e i g h b o u r h o o d w h o s e l i v e l i n e s s a n d l i v e l i h o o d d e p e n d o n t h e e s t a b l i s h e d i n t e r n a t i o n a l f l a v o r o f i t s s p e c i a l t y s t o r e s . i i i ) T o u t i l i z e f u l l y a n d e f f e c t i v e l y s c a r c e d o w n t o w n r e s o u r c e s f o r t h e b e n e f i t o f t h e p e d e s t r i a n c i t i z e n . 7 3 i v ) T o e x t e n d t h e d a i l y l i f e o f d o w n t o w n b e y o n d t h e p e r i o d o f n o r m a l o f f i c e h o u r s . T h e c o - o p e r a t i v e h a s r e c e i v e d a s t a r t - u p g r a n t t o f i n a n c e t h e f i r s t p h a s e o f a f e a s i b i l i t y s t u d y t o d e t e r m i n e i f t h e a b o v e o b j e c t i v e s c a n b e m e t . T h e s t u d y h a s b e e n s e p a r a t e d i n t o f o u r c o m p o n e n t s : i ) C o m m u n i t y p a r t i c i p a t i o n i i ) L e g a l i i i ) L a n d a n d f i n a n c e i v ) P l a n n i n g a n d p r o j e c t c o - o r d i n a t i o n A t t h e p r e s e n t t i m e s e v e r a l o w n e r s i n t h e b l o c k a r e m e m b e r s o f t h e c o - o p e r a t i v e b u t t h e c o - o p e r a t i v e i t s e l f d o e s n o t o w n a n y l a n d i n t h e a r e a . T h e c o - o p e r a t i v e h a s s o f a r f a i l e d t o s e c u r e f u n d i n g c o m m i t m e n t s f r o m t h e p r o v i n c i a l o r f e d e r a l g o v e r n -m e n t t o p u r c h a s e l a n d i n t h e a r e a t o r e a l i z e e v e n a p o r t i o n o f t h e o v e r a l l c o n c e p t . A p r e l i m i n a r y p r o g r a m c o n t a i n e d i n t h e C o - o p e r a t i v e b r o c h u r e o f N o v e m b e r 1 9 7 4 , " A F i r s t A r e a D e v e l o p m e n t C o n c e p t " , s h o w s a n o u t l i n e p r o p o s a l " c o v e r i n g t h e w h o l e 1 0 0 0 b l o c k - ( s e e F i g u r e s 3 . 1 8 . t o 3 . 2 1 . ) . O v e r a p e r i o d o f y e a r s t h e w h o l e b l o c k o f 5 . 2 a c r e s w o u l d b e r e d e v e l o p e d e x c e p t f o r t h e e l e v e n - s t o r e y , 7 5 - s u i t e a p a r t m e n t b u i l d i n g o n P a r c e l F , M a p 3 . 1 4 . T h e p r o g r a m c o n t a i n e d t h e f o l l o w i n g e l e m e n t s : i ) H o u s i n g : ( r e p r e s e n t i n g 8 0 - 8 5 p e r c e n t o f t h e a l l o w a b l e b u i l d i n g a r e a ) F i g u r e s 3 . 1 8 . t o 3 . 2 1 . SKETCHES FOR THE COMMUNITY CO-OPERATIVE PROPOSAL f F i g u r e 3 . 1 8 . T y p i c a l s t r e e t l e v e l i n t e r i o r p l a z a (sketches by: A f a f Elsamny) F i g u r e 3 . 1 9 . T y p i c a l e n t r a n c e t o r e s i d e n t i a l c l u s t e r s f r o m s t r e e t l e v e l 7 8 a . 3 6 s l e e p i n g u n i t s , ( s h a r i n g b o t h w a s h r o o m a n d c o o k i n g f a c i l i t i e s ) 3 0 0 s q . f t . e a c h b . 4 3 h o u s e k e e p i n g u n i t s , ( s h a r i n g w a s h r o o m f a c i l i t i e s ) 3 5 0 s q . f t . e a c h c . 1 4 5 s t u d i o u n i t s , ( s u i t a b l e f o r h o m e o c c u p a t i o n ) 4 0 0 s q . f t . e a c h d . 2 1 7 o n e - b e d r o o m u n i t s , 6 5 0 s q . f t . e a c h e . 1 4 5 t w o - b e d r o o m u n i t s , ( f o r f a m i l i e s a n d s h a r i n g ) 8 0 0 s q . f t . e a c h f . 3 6 t h r e e - b e d r o o m u n i t s , ( f o r l a r g e r f a m i l i e s a n d s h a r i n g ) 1 , 0 0 0 s q . f t . e a c h i i ) C o m m e r c i a l : , ( r e p r e s e n t i n g 1 5 p e r c e n t o f t h e a l l o w a b l e b u i l d i n g a r e a ) i i i ) C o m m u n i t y O p e n S p a c e : ( g r o u n d a n d r a i s e d l e v e l s ; p u b l i c , s e m i - p r i v a t e a n d p r i v a t e ) i v ) A m e n i t y A r e a s : ( d a y c a r e , c r a f t a n d h o b b y r o o m s , m e e t i n g r o o m s , e t c . ) v ) P a r k i n g : ( n o r e q u i r e m e n t s e s t a b l i s h e d a t t h i s p o i n t , e x c e p t t h a t i t b e l i m i t e d a n d u n d e r g r o u n d ) v i ) R e t e n t i o n o f E x i s t i n g H i g h r i s e : 7 5 u n i t s o n 1 3 , 0 0 0 s q . f t . o f p r o p e r t y . ( N o o t h e r b u i l d i n g o n t h e p r o p e r t y w a s d e e m e d w o r t h y o f p r e s e r v a t i o n . ) I n t e r n a t i o n a l V i l l a g e p r o p o s a l w a s m a d e a t t h e r e q u e s t o f t h e p r o v i n c i a l g o v e r n m e n t . T h e s t u d y r e v e a l e d t h e f o l l o w i n g : 3 7 i ) T h e p r o p o s a l p r o v i d e s a d e v e l o p m e n t w i t h a p p r o x -i m a t e l y 5 1 0 , 0 0 0 s q . f t . o f r e s i d e n t i a l s p a c e a n d 9 0 , 0 0 0 s q . f t . o f c o m m e r c i a l s p a c e . i i ) T h e c a p i t a l c o s t s o f t h e b a s i c s t r u c t u r e s w o u l d a p p r o x i m a t e $ 2 4 m i l l i o n , w i t h a n a d d i t i o n a l $ 3 m i l l i o n f o r t h e p a r k i n g s t r u c t u r e ( a t $ 4 0 . 0 0 p e r s q . f t . , 7 0 0 u n d e r g r o u n d p a r k i n g s p a c e s a t $ 4 , 0 0 0 p e r s t a l l ) . i i i ) T h e b a s i c r e v e n u e s p e r s q u a r e f o o t m a y b e s u m m a r i z e d a s f o l l o w s : A n e c o n o m i c f e a s i b i l i t y s t u d y o f t h e R o b s o n G r o s s ( p e r y e a r ) N e t ( p e r y e a r ) R e s i d e n t i a l O f f i c e C o m m e r c i a l 4 . 2 0 2 . 5 0 8 . 0 0 5 . 0 0 1 7 . 0 0 1 2 . 0 0 79 i v ) T h e n e t y e a r l y r e t u r n w o u l d b e $ 2 . 4 m i l l i o n . C a p i t a l i z i n g t h i s a t 1 0 % y i e l d s a s u m o f $ 2 4 m i l l i o n , e q u a l t o t h e c o s t o f s t r u c t u r e s . T h e r e s i d u a l v a l u e o f t h e l a n d i s n i l . v ) I f t h e P r i v i n c e w e r e t o a c q u i r e t h e l a n d a n d l e a s e i t t o t h e C o - o p e r a t i v e a n d i f C e n t r a l M o r t g a g e a n d H o u s i n g C o r p o r a t i o n w e r e t o a d v a n c e a n 8 % l o a n o v e r 5 0 y e a r s w i t h a 1 0 % g r a n t , t h e r e p a y m e n t s r e q u i r e d w o u l d b e : L e a s e o f L a n d : 4 % o f $ 1 4 m i l l i o n $ 6 0 0 , 0 0 0 ( p e r y e a r ) R e p a y m e n t o f # 2 1 . 6 m i l l i o n ( 9 0 % 2 , 0 0 0 , 0 0 0 ( p e r y e a r ) o f c o s t ) a t 8 % o v e r 5 0 y e a r s $ 2 , 6 0 0 , 0 0 0 ( p e r y e a r ) v i ) T h i s c o m p a r e s w i t h t h e e s t i m a t e d $ 2 . 4 m i l l i o n ( b a s e d o n 8 5 % r e s i d e n t i a l ) , a v a l u e w h i c h c o u l d p r o b a b l y b e r a i s e d t o $ 2 . 6 m i l l i o n b y t h e i n c l u s i o n o f o f f i c e s o r s m a l l c h a n g e s i n t h e f l o o r s p a c e r a t i o o r r e s i d e n t i a l - c o m m e r c i a l m i x . v i i ) T h u s , t h e p r o j e c t c o u l d b e v i a b l e a s a c o - o p -e r a t i v e e v e n t h o u g h t h e r e a r e u n d o u b t e d l y h i g h e r e c o n o m i c r e t u r n s f r o m t h e l a n d . T h e c i t y h a s m a d e a n e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e d i f f e r e n t p r o p o s a l s w h i c h c a n b e s u m m a r i z e d a s f o l l o w s . T h e " M a r k e t P l a c e " P r o p o s a l • M a n y e l e m e n t s o f t h e . p r o p o s e d s p e c i a l t y s h o p p i n g c e n t r e c o n f o r m w i t h t h e i n t e n t o f d o w n t o w n z o n i n g . I n f a v o u r o f t h e . r e d e v e l o p m e n t a r e i t s l o w h e i g h t a n d s m a l l s c a l e , - t h e p r o v i s i o n o f a n i n t e r e s t i n g p e d e s t r i a n a r e a , a n d i t s p o t e n t i a l f o r m a i n t a i n i n g t h e E u r o p e a n t h e m e o f R o b s o n S t r e e t . M a j o r d r a w b a c k s o f t h e p r o p o s a l a r e t h e l a c k o f r e t a i l c o n t i n u i t y o n R o b s o n S t r e e t , t h e a b s e n c e o f r e s i d e n t i a l u s e , t h e i m p a c t o n e x i s t i n g m e r c h a n t s , a n d t h e e x c e s s i v e p a r k i n g r e q u e s t e d . 3 8 ' 80 O l y m p i a a n d Y o r k D e v e l o p m e n t s L t d . P r o p o s a l T h i s i s a m u c h m o r e a d v a n c e d p r o p o s a l a n d i t f u l -f i l l s t h e p l a n n i n g o b j e c t i v e s o f t h e C i t y . S p e c i f i c a l l y , t h e p r o p o s a l c o n f o r m s i n t h e f o l l o w i n g r e s p e c t s : i ) I t i n t r o d u c e s a s u b s t a n t i a l n u m b e r o f r e s i d e n t i a l u n i t s . i i ) I t m a i n t a i n s l o w e r - t h a n - p e r m i s s i b l e d e n s i t y ( F S R 4 . 2 3 ) . i i i ) I t i n t r o d u c e s o p e n s p a c e s h e l t e r e d f r o m t h e t r a f f i c a n d r e l a t e d t o t h e i d e n t i f i e d p e d e s t r i a n c i r c u l a t i o n p a t t e r n s . i v ) I t p r o v i d e s a s u b s t a n t i a l a m o u n t o f r e t a i l s p a c e r e l a t e d t o t h o s e p a t t e r n s a l o n g B u r r a r d a n d S m i t h e / H a r o . v ) I t p r o v i d e s a r c a d e s . v i ) I t p r e s e n t s a r e l a t i v e l y l o w p r o f i l e w i t h t h e h i g h e r o f f i c e t o w e r s h a p e d t o m i n i m i z e s h a d o w i n g . T h e s c h e m e l e a v e s t h e f o l l o w i n g u n r e s o l v e d : i ) P r e s e n t p a r k i n g a c c e s s f r o m t h e l a n e s h o u l d b e r e m o v e d a n d a c c e s s t o p a r k i n g s h o u l d b e f r o m H a r o S t r e e t . i i ) T h e p r i c e o f t h e c i t y l a n d o n w h i c h t h e e n t i r e r e s i d e n t i a l c o m p o n e n t o f t h e p r o p o s a l i s l o c a t e d h a s n o t b e e n d i s c u s s e d . 3 9 R o b s o n I n t e r n a t i o n a l V i l l a g e C o m m u n i t y C o - o p e r a t i v e P r o p o s a l T h e p r e l i m i n a r y p r o p o s a l o f t h e C o - o p e r a t i v e c a n s a t i s f y t h e m a j o r p l a n n i n g o b j e c t i v e s f o r t h e c i t y a t s u b -s t a n t i a l l y l o w e r t h a n p r o p o s e d o v e r a l l d e n s i t i e s . H o w e v e r : i ) I t s e e m s u n l i k e l y t h a t t h e C o - o p e r a t i v e c a n g a i n 8 1 c o n t r o l o f t h e b l o c k w i t h o u t m a s s i v e g o v e r n m e n t i n t e r v e n t i o n . i i ) R e c e n t c i t y e n q u i r i e s a t t h e p r o v i n c i a l l e v e l h a v e n o t b e e n e n c o u r a g i n g i n t h i s r e s p e c t . i i i ) I t s e e m s u n l i k e l y t h a t e i t h e r t h e P r o v i n c e o r t h e f e d e r a l a u t h o r i t i e s w i l l p u r c h a s e t h i s p a r t i c u l a r d o w n t o w n l a n d a t a p r e m i u m p r i c e f o r s u c h a h e a v i l y - s u b s i d i z e d h o u s i n g p r o p o s a l . i v ) M u c h o f t h e s u p p o r t f o r t h e C o - o p e r a t i v e i s f r o m m e r c h a n t s a n d n o t o w n e r s . A l s o , m e m b e r -s h i p o f t h e C o - o p e r a t i v e r e q u i r e s l i t t l e o b l i g a t i o n t o a b i d e b y i t s o b j e c t i v e s . v ) E v e n t h e c i t y c o n t r i b u t i o n o f i t s o w n l a n d a t a r e d u c e d p r i c e c o u l d n o t g i v e t h e C o - o p e r a t i v e a p a r c e l s u i t a b l e f o r d e v e l o p m e n t . v i ) F i n a l l y , e f f e c t u a l u n d e r d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h i s b l o c k m a y c r e a t e d i f f i c u l t i e s i n a t t e m p t i n g t o e s t a b l i s h a u n i f y i n g c h a r a c t e r w h e n a d j o i n i n g p r o p e r t i e s d e v e l o p a t n o r m a l d e n s i t i e s . 4 0 A l l t h r e e o f t h e a b o v e - d e s c r i b e d p r o p o s a l s d e a l w i t h t h e b l o c k r a t h e r t h a n m e r e l y t h e c o m m e r c i a l f r o n t a g e . T h i s i s a m o r e c o m p r e h e n s i v e a p p r o a c h , a l t h o u g h i t i s d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h e u n i t o f a n a l y s i s u s e d i n t h i s s t u d y . T h e f i r s t a n d s e c o n d p r o p o s a l s a r e c l e a r l y p r o f i t m o t i v a t e d . H o w e v e r , t h e y c o n t a i n s o m e a t t r a c t i v e f e a t u r e s . T h e p r e s e r v a t i o n o f t h e c h a r a c t e r o f t h e a r e a s e e m s t o b e t h e c o n c e r n o f t h e " M a r k e t p l a c e " p r o p o s a l . T h e t h i r d p r o p o s a l h a s a c o m p l e t e l y d i f f e r e n t e c o n o m i c s t r u c t u r e . H o w e v e r , i t m a y n o t b e t h e b e s t p r o p o s a l f o r t h e c h a r a c t e r . I t e v e n d o e s n o t i n c l u d e i t a s o n e o f i t s m a i n o b j e c t i v e s . R a t h e r , t h e 1 0 0 0 b l o c k w i l l b e u s e d a s a n e x p e r i m e n t a l s a m p l e f o r d o w n t o w n l i v i n g . T h i s p r o p o s a l w o u l d 8 2 o f f e r t h e o r i g i n a l m e r c h a n t a b e t t e r o p p o r t u n i t y , i f n e e d e d , t o r e l o c a t e w i t h i n t h e a r e a a s c o m p a r e d w i t h t h e o t h e r t w o . T h e i n f o r m a t i o n a v a i l a b l e o n t h e d i f f e r e n t p r o p o s a l s v a r i e s g r e a t l y i n q u a n t i t y a n d d e p t h . T h i s m a k e s t h e f o r m u l a t i o n o f a n o b j e c t i v e v i e w p a r t i c u l a r l y d i f f i c u l t . H o w e v e r , t h e c o m m u n i t y c o - o p e r a t i v e p r o p o s a l i s , i n m y v i e w , t h e o n l y o n e t h a t i s l i k e l y t o k e e p s o m e o f t h e o r i g i n a l f l a v o u r o f t h e a r e a b y k e e p i n g s o m e o f t h e o r i g i n a l m e r c h a n t s . 3 . 4 . A v a i l a b l e S t u d i e s a n d R e p o r t s o n t h e S t u d y A r e a T h e R o b s o n S t r e e t r e d e v e l o p m e n t i s s u e a n d t h e p r o b l e m s a n d d i f f i c u l t i e s f a c i n g b u s i n e s s o p e r a t o r s h a v e g a i n e d p u b l i c i t y a n d a t t e n t i o n f r o m i n t e r e s t e d g r o u p s a n d p e r s o n n e l s i n c e t h e l a t e s i x t i e s . A s u r v e y w a s c o n d u c t e d b y a g r o u p o f U . B . C . s t u d e n t s o n S a t u r d a y , D e c e m b e r 2 0 , 1 9 6 9 f r o m 1 1 : 0 0 A . M . t o 4 : 3 0 P . M . a n d e n t a i l e d i n t e r v i e w s w i t h 5 1 5 s h o p p e r s o n R o b s o n S t r e e t , t h o u g h . i t i s n o t c l e a r o n w h i c h b l o c k o r b l o c k s t h e s u r v e y t o o k p l a c e . 1 * 1 T h e p u r p o s e . w a s t o e v a l u a t e p u b l i c i n t e r e s t i n t h e a r e a a s a s p e c i a l t y s h o p p i n g d i s t r i c t . T h e f i n d i n g s s h o w e d t h a t o n l y 3 7 . 1 p e r c e n t o f t h e s h o p p e r s w e r e W e s t E n d r e s i d e n t s a n d 5 p e r c e n t w e r e t o u r i s t s ( l o w b e c a u s e o f t h e w i n t e r s e a s o n ) i n c l u d i n g o n e r e g u l a r s h o p p e r w h o c a m e u p e a c h w e e k e n d f r o m B e l l i n g h a m ! T h e r e m a i n d e r w e r e G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r r e s i d e n t s . 83 T o u r i s t s w h o w e r e i n t e r v i e w e d e x p r e s s e d s t r o n g v i e w s o f R o b s o n S t r e e t a s o n e o f V a n c o u v e r ' s l e a d i n g t o u r i s t a t t r a c t i o n s . 5 4 . 1 p e r c e n t w e r e r e g u l a r c u s t o m e r s . O n l y 2 4 p e r c e n t o f t h e s h o p p e r s w e r e o f f o r e i g n o r i g i n . M a n y s h o p p e r s w i s h e d t o s e e t h e a r e a r e m a i n t h e s a m e . T h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e s h o p p e r s i n t e r v i e w e d f a v o r e d t h e i d e a s o f a n o p e n m a l l o r s q u a r e a n d o p e n - a i r c a f e s . M a n y p r o p o s e d a s e t - u p l i k e t h e S p a r k s S t r e e t M a l l i n O t t a w a , O n t a r i o . A c o p y o f t h e r e p o r t a n d t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e c a n b e f o u n d i n A p p e n d i x C . I n 1 9 7 0 , a s t u d y o n R o b s o n w a s m a d e b y a D a n i s h a r c h i t e c t . 4 2 H e w a s w o r r i e d t h a t p e o p l e w e r e n o t a w a r e o f t h e b u i l t - i n d a n g e r t o a t m o s p h e r e s s u c h a s R o b s o n S t r e e t ' s i n u r b a n r e n e w a l s c h e m e s . T h e d a n g e r h e s a w w a s t h a t m o s t m o r t g a g e s o n n e w d e v e l o p m e n t s c a l l f o r 6 0 p e r c e n t o f t h e p r i m e r e n t a l s p a c e t o g o t o a t e n a n t w i t h n a t i o n w i d e b u s i n e s s a s m o r t g a g e s e c u r i t y . S i n c e t h e p r i m e r e n t a l s p a c e i n m o s t u r b a n h i g h r i s e s c h e m e s m e a n s t h e g r o u n d f l o o r a t t h e s t r e e t l e v e l , s t r e e t s w i t h s u c h d e v e l o p m e n t w o u l d b e d o m i n a t e d b y i n s u r a n c e o f f i c e s , b a n k s , a i r l i n e c o m p a n i e s a n d s i m i l a r f i r m s . T h i s t e n d s t o m a k e s t r e e t s l o s e t h e i r c h a r a c t e r a n d m a k e t h e m c o l d a n d s t e r i l e . T h e C o l o n n a d e i n T o r o n t o , c o n s i d e r e d t o b e a s i m i l a r d e v e l o p m e n t t o t h a t p r o p o s e d f o r R o b s o n , h a s e n d e d u p w i t h m o r e a N e w Y o r k F i f t h A v e n u e f l a v o r t h a n R o b s o n s t r a s s e f l a v o r . E x p e n s i v e b o u t i q u e s a n d f u r r i e r s w e r e a t t r a c t e d 8 4 r a t h e r t h a n l i t t l e E u r o p e a n r e s t a u r a n t s , d e l i c a t e s s e n s , b o o k -s e l l e r s a n d t h e l i k e . A s R o b s o n S t r e e t i s a t r a n s i t i o n a r e a b e t w e e n t h e W e s t E n d a n d t h e C B D w e f i n d i t i n c l u d e d i n s t u d i e s a n d r e p o r t s o n e i t h e r a r e a . I t h a s b e e n n o t e d t h a t a l l o f t h e r e d e v e l o p m e n t p r o p o s a l s d i s c u s s e d p r e v i o u s l y w e r e o n l y c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e 1 0 0 0 b l o c k , i g n o r i n g t h e 1 1 0 0 b l o c k . H o w e v e r , m o s t o f t h e s t u d i e s r e c o g n i z e R o b s o n S t r e e t ' s i n t e r n a t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r a r e a a s t h e s e t w o b l o c k s a n d s o m e e v e n i n c l u d e t h e 1 2 0 0 b l o c k i n t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r p r o t i o n o f t h e s t r e e t . S e v e r a l s t u d i e s t h a t c o n t a i n i n f o r m a t i o n , v i e w s , p o l i c y , g u i d e l i n e s , e t c . a b o u t t h e s t u d y a r e a h a v e b e e n m a d e i n t h e l a s t f e w y e a r s . i ) D o w n t o w n G u i d a n c e P a n e l R e p o r t , D e c e m b e r 1 9 7 4 . i i ) D o w n t o w n V a n c o u v e r - P l a n n i n g C o n c e p t s f o r F u t u r e D e v e l o p m e n t a n d P r o c e s s f o r C o n t r o l o f 1 D e v e l o p m e n t - R e p o r t F o r D i s c u s s i o n p r e p a r e d b y t h e D o w n t o w n S t u d y T e a m o f t h e C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r , S e p t e m b e r 1 9 7 4 . i i i ) O p e n S p a c e , a p o l i c y o u t l i n e f o r t h e W e s t E n d p r e p a r e d f o r t h e C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r W e s t E n d P l a n n i n g C e n t r e , O c t o b e r 1 9 7 3 . i v ) W e s t E n d U r b a n D e s i g n R e g u l a t i o n s , b e l i e v e d t o h a v e b e e n p r e p a r e d f o r t h e C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r W e s t E n d P l a n n i n g C e n t r e a r o u n g 1 9 7 2 - 7 3 . 3 . 5 . P r o b l e m s a n d I s s u e s I n t h e S t u d y A r e a T h e p r o b l e m s a n d i s s u e s i n R o b s o n S t r e e t a r e v a r i e d . T h e r e a r e b o t h s h o r t - t e r m a n d l o n g - t e r m p r o b l e m s d e p e n d i n g o n 8 5 t h e l e n g t h o f t i m e t h e y w i l l t a k e t o b e r e s o l v e d . I t i s e v i d e n t t h a t d i f f e r e n t i n t e r e s t g r o u p s a t t a c h v a r y i n g r e l a t i v e i m p o r t a n c e t o t h e p r o b l e m s a n d i s s u e s i n t h e s t u d y a r e a . W h i l e t h e c i t y m i g h t b e c o n c e r n e d a b o u t s u c h i s s u e s a s t a x r e v e n u e f r o m t h e a r e a , t h e i m p a c t o f r e d e v e l o p -m e n t o n t h e d o w n t o w n a s a w h o l e a n d t h e p r e s e r v a t i o n o f t h e c h a r a c t e r , t h e l a n d o w n e r s m i g h t b e c o n c e r n e d a b o u t a c h i e v i n g t h e h i g h e s t p r o f i t p o s s i b l e , r e d e v e l o p m e n t a n d b e a u t i f - i c a t i o n c o s t s . T h e m e r c h a n t s m i g h t b e c o n c e r n e d a b o u t t h e p o t e n t i a l s a l e s v o l u m e a n d b u s i n e s s c o s t s , c o m p e t i t i o n w i t h o t h e r s h o p p i n g a r e a s , s t a b i l i t y a n d s e c u r i t y . T h e s h o p p e r s ' m a i n c o n c e r n m i g h t b e f o r p r e s e r v a t i o n o f c h a r a c t e r , p a r k i n g f a c i l i t i e s , p e d e s t r i a n - o r i e n t e d a m e n i t i e s a n d p e r s o n a l s h o p p i n g . H o w e v e r , t h e r e a r e g e n e r a l p r o b l e m s r e c o g n i z e d b y a l l i n t e r e s t g r o u p s . ' T h e s e c a n b e c a t e g o r i z e d u n d e r t w o d i f f e r e n t h e a d i n g s : p h y s i c a l p r o b l e m s , a n d s o c i o - e c o n o m i c p r o b l e m s . a . P h y s i c a l P r o b l e m s i ) P r e s e r v i n g t h e p h y s i c a l c h a r a c t e r a n d s c a l e o f t h e s t u d y a r e a a g a i n s t h a r s h a n d d i s r u p t i v e m e t h o d s o f r e n e w a l . " T h e ' c h a r a c t e r ' o f R o b s o n . S t r e e t m u s t b e r e v i t a l i z e d i n o r d e r f o r i t t o s u r v i v e . T h i s c h a r a c t e r e v o l v e d a s s m a l l m e r c h a n t s p r o v i d e d g o o d s a n d s e r v i c e s t o p e o p l e w a l k i n g b e t w e e n w o r k a n d t h e i r a p a r t m e n t s i n t h e W e s t E n d . A s t h e v o l u m e o f W e s t E n d / r e s i d e n t s e x p l o d e s , t h e s e n e e d s m u s t b e b e t t e r s e r v e d b y a l a r g e r v a r i e t y o f s h o p p i n g a n d l e i s u r e 8 6 o p p o r t u n i t i e s t h a n e x i s t t o d a y o n R o b s o n S t r e e t . i i ) T r a f f i c p a t t e r n s , p a r k i n g f a c i l i t i e s a n d p e d e s -t r i a n - o r i e n t e d a m e n i t i e s . i i i ) C l o s u r e o f s t r e e t s a t d i f f e r e n t i n t e r s e c t i o n s i n t e r r u p t i n g p e d e s t r i a n f l o w . i v ) D e t e r i o r a t i o n o f b u i l d i n g s d e s p i t e a c c e p t a b l e a p p e a r a n c e o f t h e s h o p f r o n t s . b . S o c i o - E c o n o m i c P r o b l e m s i ) P r o t e c t i n g t h e o r i g i n a l m e r c h a n t s a g a i n s t e c o n o m i c p r o b l e m s f o r c i n g t h e m o u t . T h e s e r i o u s n e s s o f t h i s p r o b l e m c a n b e s h o w n b y e x a m i n i n g t h e s t a b i l -i t y o f t h e a r e a ' s b u s i n e s s o p e r a t o r s . i i ) D i v i d i n g t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r f i n a n c i n g r e n e w a l a n d b e a u t i f i c a t i o n s c h e m e s a n d s t u d i e s a m o n g t h e c i t y , t h e l a n d o w n e r s a n d t h e m e r c h a n t s . i i i ) ' P r e s s u r e f o r r e d e v e l o p m e n t a n d i t s a s s o c i a t e d p r o b l e m s ( r a i s i n g r e n t s o f n e w s t o r e s b e y o n d t h e r e a c h o f s h o p k e e p e r s a n d t h e d i s r u p t i o n o f b u s i n e s s d u r i n g t h e r e d e v e l o p m e n t p r o c e s s ) . i v ) O w n e r s h i p p a t t e r n s , l a n d a s s e m b l y a c t i v i t i e s i n t h e l a s t f e w y e a r s . 3 . 6 . - T h e O r i g i n a l C h a r a c t e r a n d . . A p p e a l o f t h e S t u d y A r e a V a n c o u v e r i s v e r y f o r t u n a t e t o p o s s e s s s e v e r a l s u c h c h a r a c t e r a r e a s ; C h i n a t o w n , T h e a t r e R o w , G a s t o w n a n d R o b s o n S t r e e t ( c o m m o n l y r e f e r r e d t o a s R o b s o n s t r a s s e , b u t t h i s n a m e i s n o l o n g e r u s e d ) . O t h e r z o n e s , p e r h a p s l a c k i n g p r e c i s e n a m e t a g s , c l e a r l y e x h i b i t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w h i c h i d e n t i f y t h e m a s c h a r a c t e r a r e a s , , ( s e e M a p 3 . 2 2 . ) . T h e s t u d y a r e a , n a m e l y t h e t w o b l o c k s o f R o b s o n S t r e e t b e t w e e n B u r r a r d a n d B u t e , h a s b e e n a u n i q u e s h o p p i n g 8 8 p r e c i n c t f o r " b o t h t h e r e s i d e n t i a l W e s t E n d a n d t h e C o r e , a t t r a c t i n g l o c a l , r e g i o n a l a n d t o u r i s t s h o p p e r s . I t h a s b e e n a n a r e a w h i c h h a s b e c o m e f a v o u r a b l y e s t a b l i s h e d i n t h e m i n d s o f a l m o s t a l l G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r r e s i d e n t s a n d t h i s a w a r e n e s s o f t h e v a l u e o f t h e s t u d y a r e a h a s f r e q u e n t l y b e e n r e f l e c t e d i n m a n y w a y s . T h e c h a r a c t e r o f t h e s t u d y a r e a a s i t o n c e w a s c a n b e b r o k e n i n t o a f e w e l e m e n t s w o r k i n g t o g e t h e r i n b a l a n c e a n d e n h a n c i n g e a c h o t h e r . a . P h y s i c a l C h a r a c t e r ' ( s e e F i g u r e s 3 . 2 3 . t o 3 . 2 8 . ) : i ) S c a l e o f t h e s h o p s a n d b u i l d i n g s . T h e 1 2 t o 1 6 f o o t w i d t h o f m o s t o f t h e s t o r e f a c a d e s ( a l l a t g r o u n d l e v e l ) m e a n i n g n a r r o w s h o p s a n d m a n y d o o r w a y s , i m p r o v i n g p h y s i c a l a n d v i s u a l p e d e s t r i a n a c c e s s i b i l i t y . i i ) A g e o f b u i l d i n g s . i i i ) V a r i e t y . V i s u a l v a r i e t y o f c o l o u r s , c a n o p i e s , s i g n s , w i n d o w d i s p l a y s . A l s o v a r i e t y o f s o u n d s a n d s m e l l s . - - . i v ) A c t i v i t y . H e a v y p e d e s t r i a n , a n d v e h i c u l a r t r a f f i c . -b . S o c i o - E c o n o m i c C h a r a c t e r : i ) E t h n i c o r i g i n s o f t h e m e r c h a n t s ( p a r t i c u l a r l y G e r m a n a n d E u r o p e a n ) , w h i c h a r e r e f l e c t e d i n t h e i r w a r e s . i i ) T h e s c a r c i t y o f s u c h m e r c h a n d i s e e l s e w h e r e . i i i ) T h e s i z e o f i n v e s t m e n t : s m a l l b u s i n e s s e s m e a n -i n g p e r s o n a l i z e d s h o p p i n g . Figures 3.23 to 3.28 ROBSON STREET IMAGES CO Figure 3.23. Cosy i n t e r i o r of a small Robson Street restaurant p F i g u r e 3 . 2 4 . S o u t h s i d e o f R o b s o n , e m p h a s i z i n g t h e p a r k i n g p r o b l e m F i g u r e 3 . 2 5 . U n u s u a l c o m b i n a t i o n o f r e s i d e n t i a l u n i t s o v e r c o m m e r c i a l f r o n t a g e F i g u r e 3 . 2 6 . S m a l l s h o p s o n t h e n o r t h s i d e o f R o b s o n : a r e c e n t a t t e m p t a t c h a r a c t e r p r e s e r v a t i o n F i g u r e 3 . 2 7 . R o b s o n S t r e e t s i d e w a l k s : w e l l - u s e d b y p e d e s t r i a n s 95 3 . 7 . G u i d e l i n e s a n d R e c o m m e n d a t i o n s F o r t h e P r e s e r v a t i o n a n d R e j u v e n a t i o n o f t h e S t u d y A r e a T h e r e c o g n i t i o n o n t h e c i t y ' s p a r t o f t h e v a l u e o f t h e s t u d y a r e a ' s c h a r a c t e r i s r e f l e c t e d i n t h e r e c o m m e n d a -t i o n s , g u i d e l i n e s a n d r e g u l a t i o n s f o r t h e p r o t e c t i o n o f t h e a r e a i n s e v e r a l r e p o r t s . a . G u i d e l i n e s F o r A c t i v i t y I n t h e S t u d y A r e a : k * i ) S p e c i a l t y E u r o p e a n c h a r a c t e r p r o v i d e s a t h e m e .. f o r t h e a r e a a n d s h o u l d b e p r o t e c t e d a n d e n c o u r a g e d . i i ) A n y n e w d e v e l o p m e n t b e h i n d t h e c o m m e r c i a l s t r i p s h o u l d p r o v i d e h o u s i n g f o r 2 4 - h o u r s t r e e t o c c u p a n c y — r a t h e r t h a n o f f i c e s . i i i ) T h e u s e o f s i d e w a l k s , l a n e s a n d c o u r t y a r d s b y m e r c h a n t s a n d a r t i s a n s a d d s t o t h e s t r e e t c h a r a c t e r . i v ) D i s c o u r a g e u s e s n e e d i n g l a r g e f l o o r a r e a o r s e l e c t i v e i n c l i e n t e l e s u c h a s s u p e r m a r k e t s , b a n k s , o f f i c e s , g a s s t a t i o n s a n d p a r k i n g l o t s . b . G u i d e l i n e s F o r C i r c u l a t i o n I n t h e S t u d y A r e a : 5 i ) P e d e s t r i a n r e l a t i o n s h i p o f - s t u d y a r e a t o D o w n - — t o w n s h o u l d b e s t r e n g t h e n e d , e s p e c i a l l y t o n e w d e v e l o p m e n t s s u c h a s P r o v i n c i a l G o v e r n m e n t " U r b a n P a r k " a n d G r a n v i l l e M a l l . i i ) C o n s i d e r a t i o n s h o u l d b e g i v e n t o s u b d u i n g t h e c r o s s t o w n r o l e o f R o b s o n a n d m a k i n g i t t w o - w a y f r o m S t a n l e y P a r k t o S e y m o u r S t r e e t . i i i ) C o m m e r c i a l s t r i p s h o u l d b e e x t e n d e d t o l a n e s p a c e b e h i n d . i v ) R e m o v a l o f o n - s t r e e t c u r b p a r k i n g i s o n l y a p e d e s t r i a n i m p r o v e m e n t i f : - a l t e r n a t e o f f - s t r e e t , s h o r t - t e r m p a r k i n g i s p r o v i d e d . ' - t h e s p a c e g a i n e d i s u s e d f o r w i d e n i n g t h e s i d e w a l k w i t h a p l a n t i n g b u f f e r n e x t t o t h e t r a f f i c . c . G u i d e l i n e s F o r S p a t i a l F o r m I n t h e S t u d y A r e a : i ) I f d e t e r i o r a t i o n o f e x i s t i n g b u i l d i n g s m a k e s t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f n e w b u i l d i n g s i n e v i t a b l e , t h e y s h o u l d b e p l a c e d o n t h e s t r e e t w i t h t h e s a m e b u i l d i n g l i n e s a n d h e i g h t s a s t h e i r n e i g h b o r s . 4 6 i i ) I m p l e m e n t s p e c i a l c o n t r o l s f o r h e i g h t , b u l k a n d p r o f i l e o n a l l b u i l d i n g s s o u t h o f c o m m e r c i a l f r o n t a g e t o a l l o w f o r m a x i m u m s u n l i g h t p e n e t r a -t i o n i n t o R o b s o n S t r e e t a n d i n t o t h e l a n e s p a c e s b e h i n d . 4 7 - N o r t h o f H a r o S t r e e t t o t h e l a n e : b u i l d i n g h e i g h t 8 0 f e e t , F S R 2 . 5 g r o s s ( 2 . 0 n e t ) f o r m i n i m u m l o t s i z e 1 3 2 f e e t b y 1 3 1 f e e t . . A t b a s e o f P o i n t T o w e r , b u i l d i n g u n i t s a l o n g s t r e e t w i t h 3 0 f o o t h e i g h t l i m i t . - S o u t h o f H a r o S t r e e t : b u i l d i n g h e i g h t 1 5 0 f e e t , F S R 3 . 0 g r o s s ( 2 . 4 n e t ) a t s t r e e t l e v e l a n d b a s e o f p o i n t t o w e r b u i l d i n g u n i t s 3 0 f e e t h e i g h t l i m i t . M i n i m u m l o t s i z e 1 4 8 f e e t b y 1 3 1 f e e t . - B u i l d i n g h e i g h t o n B u t e S t r e e t 3 0 f e e t . - A l l s i t e s l e s s t h a n 6 6 f e e t b y 1 3 1 f e e t b u i l d i n g h e i g h t 3 0 f e e t , F S R 1 . 0 ( n e t ) , 1 . 2 5 ( g r o s s ) . i i i ) P r o v i d e s m a l l u r b a n s q u a r e s o r c o u r t y a r d s o f f t h e s i d e w a l k s . f o r m o r e p e d e s t r i a n o p e n s p a c e . L o c a t e t h e m f o r m a x i m u m s u n . p e n e t r a t i o n a n d i n c l o s e p r o x i m i t y t o t h e m a i n s t r e a m o f p e d e s t r i a n s . A l s o , s t r e e t c o r n e r s w i t h i n a n d a t e d g e s o f t h e s t u d y a r e a s h o u l d b e d e v e l o p e d f o r s i t t i n g , s u n n i n g , v i e w i n g . B u i l d i n g s a r e t o b e m i t r e d a t c o r n e r s o r s e t b a c k t o p r o v i d e s p a c e . 4 8 i v ) P r o v i d e a p p r o p r i a t e p e d e s t r i a n a m e n i t i e s ; c o - o r d i n a t e l i g h t i n g , m a j o r t r e e p l a n t i n g , a n d s t r e e t f u r n i t u r e . 4 9 v ) N a r r o w s t r e e t a t c o r n e r s . 5 0 , 97 vi) Maintain storefront diversity and encourage narrow frontages. 5 1 vii) Voids in the building line should be i n f i l l e d with small shops or market st a l l s for pedestrian continuity. 5 2 v i i i ) Establish pedestrian-only character by closing out t r a f f i c at non-peak hours. 5 3 9 8 F O O T N O T E S : C H A P T E R I I I ^ D o w n t o w n G u i d a n c e P a n e l R e p o r t , T h e V a n c o u v e r C i t y P l a n n i n g C o m m i s s i o n ( C i t y H a l l , V a n c o u v e r , D e c e m b e r 1 9 7 4 ) , p . 1 1 . 2 N o r m a n H o t s o n , Open Space, A P o l i c y Outline For the West End, p r e p a r e d f o r t h e C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r W e s t E n d P l a n n i n g C e n t r e ( V a n c o u v e r , O c t o b e r 1 9 7 3 ) , p . 6 1 . 3 Ibid, p . 6 2 . 4 l b i d , p p . 6 1 , 6 2 . 5 W i l l i a m S . J a m i e s o n , Analysis of Growth of Vancouver's Central Business D i s t r i c t , ( U n p u b l i s h e d M a s t e r T h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1 9 7 2 ) , p . 1 8 . ^ D o w n t o w n V a n c o u v e r P l a n n i n g C o n c e p t s f o r F u t u r e D e v e l o p m e n t s a n d P r o c e s s F o r C o n t r o l o f D e v e l o p m e n t R e p o r t F o r D i s c u s s i o n , ( p r e p a r e d b y t h e D o w n t o w n S t u d y T e a m o f t h e C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r , S e p t e m b e r 1 9 7 4 ) , p . 9 9 . 7 A . M o r l e y , Vancouver: From Milltown to Metropolis, ( V a n c o u v e r : M i t c h e l l P r e s s , 1 9 6 9 ) . SIbid. 9 C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r A r c h i v e s , Robson Street, Card O n e , ( V a n c o u v e r , 1 9 3 6 ) . " ^ C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r A r c h i v e s , Robson Street, C a r d F i v e , ( V a n c o u v e r , J a n u a r y 1 2 , 1 9 3 5 ) . Ibid. Ibid. 1 3 C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r A r c h i v e s , Robson Street, C a r d O n e , ( V a n c o u v e r , N o v e m b e r 2 9 , 1 9 3 7 ) . 9 9 1 4 " T h e C i t y : T h e P l o t t o S a v e R o b s o n , " Western Homes & Living, ( V a n c o u v e r , M a y 1 9 7 0 ) , p . 1 0 . Ibid. 16Ibid. 1 7 C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r A r c h i v e s , Robson Street, F o r e i g n T i c k l e P a l a t e s , N e w C a n a d i a n s B r i n g N e w V i t a l i t y t o R o b s o n -s t r a s s e , " ( V a n c o u v e r , A u g u s t 2 6 , 1 9 6 3 ) . Ibid. Ibid. Ibid. 2 1 " T h e C i t y : T h e P l o t t o S a v e R o b s o n , " op . ait., p. 1 0 . 2 2 Ibid. 2 3 C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r A r c h i v e s , Robson Street, " D e m o l i t i o n A x e P o i s e d O n R o b s o n , " ( V a n c o u v e r , M a y 2 3 , 1 9 6 8 ) . 2 4 C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r A r c h i v e s , Robson Street, " S t o r e O w n e r s L a u n c h D r i v e t o P r e s e r v e R o b s o n s t r a s s e , " ( V a n c o u v e r , S e p t e m b e r 2 0 , 1 9 6 8 ) . Ibid. 2 6 C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r A r c h i v e s , Robson Street, " R o b s o n s t r a s s e C a m p a i g n D i e s , " ( V a n c o u v e r , O c t o b e r 3 1 , 1 9 6 8 ) . 2 7 " T h e C i t y : T h e P l o t t o S a v e R o b s o n , " op. cit., p . 1 0 . 28Ibid. 2 9 Ibid. 1 0 0 3 0 - j Ibid. 3 1 W a r n e t t K e n n e d y & A s s o c i a t e s P l a n n i n g C o n s u l t a n t s , International Centre Vancouver, B.C.., " S u g g e s t e d C o n t e n t s o f t h e C e n t r e , " u n p u b l i s h e d r e p o r t . 32 S u s a n P u r c e l l , " R e p o r t o n R o b s o n S t r e e t , " B a s e d o n a l e t t e r f r o m S u s a n P u r c e l l t o t h e M a y o r a n d M e m b e r s o f t h e C i t y C o u n c i l , ( J a n u a r y 1 8 , 1 9 7 0 ) . 3 3 N o r m a n H o t s o n , op cit: , p . 6 1 . 34 R e p o r t t o : T h e D e v e l o p m e n t P e r m i t B o a r d , D e v e l o p m e n t P e r m i t A p p l i c a t i o n N o . 7 2 2 2 4 , 1 0 6 0 R o b s o n S t r e e t a n d 1 0 6 1 H a r o S t r e e t ( N . B . C o o k C o r p o r a t i o n ) ; a n d D e v e l o p m e n t P e r m i t A p p l i c a t i o n N o . 7 2 3 3 1 - 1 1 0 5 H a r o S t r e e t a n d 8 5 5 B u r r a r d S t r e e t ( O l y m p i a a n d Y o r k D e v e l o p m e n t s L t d . ) , V a n c o u v e r C i t y P l a n n i n g D e p a r t m e n t , F e b r u a r y 9 , 1 9 7 6 . 35 . R o b s o n A r e a D e v e l o p m e n t P r o p o s a l s - F u l l R e p o r t , C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r P l a n n i n g D e p a r t m e n t , . J u n e 6 , 1 9 7 5 . 3 6 J . L y n n U i b e l , R o b s o n I n t e r n a t i o n a l V i l l a g e C o m m u n i t y C o - o p e r a t i v e , A F i r s t A r e a D e v e l o p m e n t C o n c e p t . 37 B a s e d o n a l e t t e r f r o m I r w i n / B e i n h a k e r a n d P a r t n e r s t o M r . M . A u d a i n , S p e c i a l A d v i s o r t o t h e M i n i s t e r o f H o u s i n g , " G o v e r n m e n t o f t h e P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , J a n u a r y 3 - , — • 1 9 7 4 . 38 R e p o r t t o : T h e D e v e l o p m e n t . P e r m i t B o a r d , op. cit. 39 R e p o r t t o : P l a n n i n g a n d D e v e l o p m e n t C o m m i t t e e , R e : D e v e l o p m e n t P e r m i t A p p l i c a t i o n N o . 6 9 5 7 2 . R e c o m m e n d a t i o n s a n d G u i d e l i n e s f o r D e v e l o p m e n t o f C i t y a n d P r i v a t e L a n d i n a n d a r o u n d t h e S m i t h e / H a r o / B u r r a r d I n t e r s e c t i o n s , i n c l u d i n g p a r t i a l R o b s o n S t r e e t g u i d e l i n e s , M a y 2 2 , 1 9 7 5 . Ibid. 4 1 . ' S u s a n P u r c e l l , op. cit. 1 0 1 4 2 The Vancouver Sun, J u l y 1 9 7 0 . 4 3 R e p o r t t o : T h e D e v e l o p m e n t P e r m i t B o a r d , op. cit. 4 4 N o r m a n H o t s o n , op. cit. , p . 6 3 . ^Ibid., p . 6 3 . 46Ibid. , p . 6 4 . 4 7 W e s t E n d U r b a n D e s i g n R e g u l a t i o n s - V a n c o u v e r , p . 5 8 4 8 N o r m a n H o t s o n , op. cit. , p . 6 4 . 4 9 W e s t E n d U r b a n P l a n n i n g R e g u l a t i o n s , op. cit., p . 5 8 Ibid. ^ N o r m a n N o t s o n , op. ci t. , p . 6 4 . 52Ibid. , p . 6 4 . 53Ibid., p . 6 4 . 1 0 2 C H A P T E R I V T H E S U R V I V A L A N D P R O S P E R I T Y O F T H E S T U D Y A R E A . . . n o t h i n g a m u s e s m o r e h a r m l e s s l y t h a n c o m p u t a t i o n , a n d n o t h i n g i s m o r e o f t e n a p p l i c a b l e t o . . . s p e c u l a -t i v e i n q u i r i e s . A t h o u s a n d s t o r j e s w h i c h t h e i g n o r a n t r. t e l l , a n d b e l i e v e , d i e a w a y a t o n c e w h e n t h e c o m p u t i s t t a k e s t h e m i n h i s g r i p . S a m u e l J o h n s o n 4 . 1 . I n t r o d u c t i o n T h e i s s u e t o w h i c h t h i s c h a p t e r a d d r e s s e s i t s e l f i s t h e s u r v i v a l a n d p r o s p e r i t y o f t h e s t u d y a r e a . T h i s i s n o t a p r o b l e m u n i q u e t o t h e s t u d y a r e a , b u t r a t h e r , a w e l l - r e c o g -n i z e d p r o b l e m i n m a n y s m a l l - b u s i n e s s a r e a s i n N o r t h A m e r i c a . A v a r i e t y o f s t u d i e s h a v e d o c u m e n t e d t h e f a c t t h a t s e v e r a l p e c u l i a r t r e n d s a r e n o w l e a d i n g t o t h e d e c l i n e o f s m a l l b u s i n e s s i n t h e c e n t r a l c i t y q u i t e i n d e p e n d e n t l y o f u r b a n r e n e w a l , a n d r e g a r d l e s s o f • ] t h e s o c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e n e i g h b o u r h o o d s i n v o l v e d . 2 T h e r e a s o n s b e h i n d t h e s e t r e n d s h a v e b e e n d i s c u s s e d i n p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r s a n d c a n b e s u m m a r i z e d a s b e i n g s u b u r b a n i z a t i o n , r i s i n g i n c o m e s , c h a n g i n g t e c h n o l o g y o f r e t a i l i n g , s o c i a l c h a n g e i n t h e c e n t r a l c i t y a n d t h e i n c r e a s -i n g d e p e n d e n c e o n t h e a u t o m o b i l e . • T h e d e g r e e o f t h e d a n g e r f a c i n g s m a l l b u s i n e s s i s e n o r m o u s . I n t h e p a s t 5 0 y e a r s , o v e r 6 0 , 0 0 0 s m a l l b u s i n e s s e s h a v e b e e n d i s p l a c e d b y o v e r 1 , 0 0 0 u r b a n r e n e w a l 1 0 3 p r o j e c t s i n m o r e t h a n 5 0 0 c i t i e s i n t h e U . S . A . O f t h e s e , c l o s e t o 2 0 , 0 0 0 w e n t o u t o f b u s i n e s s u p o n d i s p l a c e m e n t , a l i q u i d a t i o n r a t e o f t h i r t y - t h r e e p e r c e n t . 3 F o r t h e p u r p o s e o f c l a r i t y , a d e f i n i t i o n o f w h a t i s m e a n t b y " s m a l l b u s i n e s s " i n t h i s c o n t e x t i s r e q u i r e d . A s J . L . B e r r y d e f i n e s t h e m , s m a l l b u s i n e s s 1 . a r e b u s i n e s s e s i n t h a t t h e y i n v o l v e a l l o r m o s t o f t h e b u s i n e s s f u n c t i o n s a n d d e c i s i o n s c o n c e r n -i n g m a r k e t i n g , f i n a n c i n g a n d m a n a g e m e n t ; a n d 2 . d o n o t e x c e e d a s i z e w h i c h p e r m i t s p e r s o n a l i z e d m a n a g e m e n t i n t h e h a n d s o f o n e o r a f e w e x e c u t i v e s , a s o p p o s e d t o i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d m a n a g e m e n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f l a r g e r e n t e r p r i s e s . 4 S m a l l b u s i n e s s , t h u s d e f i n e d , i s s e l f - i n i t i a t e d , l a r g e l y s e l f - f i n a n c e d , a n d s e l f - m a n a g e d . T h e s e c h a r a c t e r i s -t i c s o f s m a l l b u s i n e s s m a k e i t c o n s u m e r - o r i e n t e d a n d e x t r e m e l y s e n s i t i v e t o c h a n g e s i n m a r k e t c o n d i t i o n s i n a v e r y s h o r t p e r i o d o f t i m e . T h e f i r s t h y p o t h e s i s s t a t e s t h a t , l e f t t o i t s o w n r e s o u r c e s a n d w i t h o u t ^ o u t s i d e , a s s i s t a n c e , t h e s t u d y - a r e a , , d e f i n e d h e r e i n a s R o b s o n S t r e e t w i l l n o t b e a b l e t o s u r v i v e a n d p r o s p e r a n d m a i n t a i n i t s u n i q u e c h a r a c t e r . T h e m a i n o b j e c t i v e o f t h i s c h a p t e r i s t o t e s t t h e v a l i d i t y o f t h i s s t a t e m e n t . F o r t h i s p u r p o s e , " s u r v i v a l a n d p r o s p e r i t y " o f t h e a r e a h a d t o b e d e f i n e d a n d b r o k e n d o w n t o m e a s u r a b l e c o m p o n -e n t s . I n t h i s c o n t e x t , t h e s u r v i v a l o f t h e s t u d y a r e a i s : t h e a m o u n t o f t h e e c o n o m i c a n d p h y s i c a l v i t a l i t y i t p o s s e s s -1 0 4 e s ; t h e d e g r e e s o f s e c u r i t y a n d s a t i s f a c t i o n i t p r o v i d e s f o r i t s l a n d o w n e r s , m e r c h a n t s a n d u s e r s ; a n d t h e a r e a ' s a b i l i t y t o d e f e n d i t s c h a r a c t e r a g a i n s t a n y a b r u p t c h a n g e . T h e p r o s p e r i t y o f t h e a r e a i s i t s a b i l i t y n o t o n l y t o s u r v i v e , b u t a l s o t o p r o v i d e m o r e f o r i t s l a n d o w n e r s , m e r c h a n t s a n d u s e r s a n d t o a d d m o r e p h y s i c a l e l e m e n t s t o s t r e n g t h e n a n d e n h a n c e i t s c h a r a c t e r . T h e c o m p o n e n t s o f t h e s u r v i v a l a n d p r o s p e r i t y o f t h e a r e a t h a t c o u l d . b e m e a s u r e d a r e : e c o n o m i c a n d p h y s i c a l v i t a l i t y , t h e e x t e n t o f o p e r a t i o n a l a n d f i n a n c i a l p r o b l e m s , a n d a t t i t u d e s o f t h e m e r c h a n t s t o w a r d t h e s t u d y a r e a . I n o r d e r t o d e s c r i b e a n d m e a s u r e t h e e c o n o m i c a n d p h y s i c a l v i t a l i t y o f a n u r b a n a r e a , f o u r d i s t i n c t a p p r o a c h e s h a v e b e e n c i t e d b y W e i s s : 5 1 . F u n c t i o n a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n - , w h i c h i s t h e b r o a d e s t a n d m o s t d e t a i l e d a p p r o a c h . 2 . R e t a i l s a l e s v o l u m e . •' 3 . D a y t i m e p o p u l a t i o n . 4 . L a n d v a l u e s . 4 . 2 . F u n c t i o n a l C l a s s i f i c a t i o n W h i l e t r e n d s i n r e t a i l s a l e s a t t r a c t i o n , l a n d v a l u e s , a n d d a y t i m e p o p u l a t i o n m a y b e e m p l o y e d a s s y m p t o m a t i c i n d i c a t o r s o f c h a n g e s i n t h e C B D , l a n d u s e s u r v e y s t a k e n a t p e r i o d i c i n t e r v a l s m a y b e u s e d t o m e a s u r e d i r e c t l y t h e c h a n g e s o c c u r i n g i n t h e s t r u c t u r e o f t h e C B D . 6 A s e a r l y a s 1 9 2 7 R . M . H a i g p o i n t e d t o t h e n e e d f o r 1 0 5 v i e w i n g C B c h a n g e s i n t e r m s o f f u n c t i o n s . 7 I n t h e p a s t 2 5 y e a r s t h r e e d i s t i n c t m e t h o d s b a s e d o n f u n c t i o n a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n h a v e e m e r g e d : 1 ) d i r e c t o r y , 2 ) h a r d c o r e , a n d 3 ) s p a c e u s e . 8 T h e d i r e c t o r y m e t h o d u s e d i n t h i s s t u d y a s a f u n c t i o n a l a p p r o a c h w a s e x e m p l i f i e d b y R a t c l i f f e i n h i s s t u d y o f t h e M a d i s o n C B D . T h e b a s i s o f h i s f u n c t i o n a l a p p r o a c h i s : T o e x a m i n e t h e f u n c t i o n s o f t h e c e n t r a l a r e a , t o r e v e a l a n d e x p l a i n c h a n g e s i n s u c h f u n c t i o n s o v e r t i m e , a n d t o b a s e a f o r e c a s t o f t h e f u t u r e r o l e o f t h e c e n t r a l a r e a o n t h e p e r s p e c t i v e o f f u n c t i o n a l s h i f t s . R a t c l i f f e n o t e d t h a t t h e m a i n q u e s t i o n s t o b e a n s w e r e d b y h i s a p p r o a c h w a s , W h e t h e r t h e c e n t r a l a r e a i s d e s t i n e d t o p l a y a n e w a n d c h a n g i n g r o l e i n t h e l i f e o f t h e c o m m u n i t y . 9 T h e d r a w b a c k s o f u s i n g t h e c i t y d i r e c t o r i e s a r e t h a t t h e y a r e n o t ' 1 u l l y " d e s c r i p t i v e , n o r a r e t h e y c o n s i s t e n t f r o m y e a r t o y e a r . 1 0 M o r e r e c e n t s t u d i e s t h a n R a t c l i f f e ' s h a v e t r i e d t o r e m e d y t h e w e a k n e s s i n t h e d i r e c t o r y m e t h o d b y s u p e r i m p o s i n g a b r o a d f u n c t i o n a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s y s t e m , s u c h a s t h o s e e m p l o y e d i n t h e h a r d c o r e a n d s p a c e u s e m e t h o d s . 1 1 I n s p i t e o f t h e l i m i t a t i o n s o f t h e d i r e c t o r y m e t h o d , R a t c l i f f e s u c c e e d e d i n t r a c i n g t h e e s s e n t i a l c h a n g e s t a k i n g p l a c e i n t h e M a d i s o n C B D b y o b s e r v i n g t h e c a t e g o r i e s 1 0 6 s h o w i n g " p l u s m u t a t i o n s " a n d " m i n u s m u t a t i o n s " a s w e l l a s t h o s e r e m a i n i n g s t a t i c . 1 2 I n o r d e r t o c o m p i l e a c o m p r e h e n s i v e l i s t o f t h e l o c a t i o n s o f b u s i n e s s e s w i t h i n t h e s t u d y a r e a , t h e a u t h o r s p e n t t h e p e r i o d f r o m D e c e m b e r 1 0 , 1 9 7 5 t o J a n u a r y 1 0 , 1 9 7 6 w a l k i n g t h e a r e a , , l i s t i n g n e c e s s a r y i n f o r m a t i o n a n d d i s t r i b u t i n g a n d c o l l e c t i n g q u e s t i o n n a i r e s . A s t h e s t u d y p r o c e e d e d , t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n w a s r e c h e c k e d a n d b r o u g h t u p t o d a t e , : s o t h a t d a t a u t i l i z e d i s c o r r e c t u p t o t h e w e e k ; o f : J a n u a r y 3 0 , 1 9 7 6 . I t w a s b e l i e v e d t h a t t h e n a t u r e o f b u s i n e s s c h a n g e i n t h e s t u d y a r e a i n t h e l a s t 1 0 y e a r s w o u l d b e a g o o d i n d i c a t o r o f t h e s t a b i l i t y o f t h e a r e a a n d o f t h e p r e s e n c e o f i n t e r n a l a n d e x t e r n a l f o r c e s c a u s i n g t h e s e c h a n g e s . B y e x a m i n i n g t h e e v o l v i n g p a t t e r n s o f t h e c h a n g e s t a k i n g p l a c e , o n e c o u l d p r e d i c t t h e f u t u r e o f t h e a r e a . • T h e g r o u n d - f l o o r b u s i n e s s e s l o c a t e d i n t h e s t u d y • a r e a w e r e d e t e r m i n e d f o r t h e t w o y e a r s o f 1 9 6 5 a n d - 1 - 9 7 5 - f r o m t h e V a n c o u v e r C i t y D i r e c t o r i e s f o r e a c h o n e o f t h e t w o y e a r s ( f o r a d e t a i l e d l i s t , s e e A p p e n d i x D ) . T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n w a s u s e d t o t r a c k d o w n t h e c h a n g e i n b u s i n e s s c a t e g o r i e s i n t h e s t u d y a r e a . T h e c a t e g o r i e s o f t h e b u s i n e s s e s w e r e e x t r a c t e d f r o m t h e S . W e i s s p r o p o s e d l i s t f o r b u s i n e s s c a t e g o r i e s ( f o r c o d e s h e e t a n d r e s p o n s e c o m p u t e r c a r d d e s c r i p t i o n , s e e A p p e n d i x E ) . I n a n y l o c a t i o n w h e r e m o r e t h a n o n e r e t a i l - t y p e a c t i v i t y w a s c a r r i e d o u t i t w a s l i s t e d u n d e r t h e d o m i n a n t a c t i v i t y . TABLE IV I, CHANGE IN GROUND FLOOR BUSINESS CATEGORIES 1 9 6 5 - 1 9 7 5 B u s i n e s s C a t e g o r y 1 g . 1965 Number o f f . l o c a t i o n s 1975 Number of g . f . l o c a t i o n s Net change (+ o r - ) % o f Change (1965 Base) 1 . Food s t o r e s 21 16 - 5 - 2 3 . 8 % 2 . E a t i n g and d r i n k i n g p l a c e s . 11 12 + 1 +9% 3 . G e n e r a l m e r c h a n d i s e s t o r e s 3 5 + 2 +66.6% 4 . A p p a r e l , a c c e s s o r i e s s t o r e s 15 21 +6 +40% 5 . Drug s t o r e s 3 2 - 1 - 3 3 . 3 % 6 . O t h e r r e t a i l s t o r e s 30 39 +9 + 3 0 . 0 % 7 . E s t a b l i s h m e n t s o f f e r i n g p e r s o n a l and r e p a i r s e r v i c e s p r i m a r i l y to cus tomers 24 13 - 1 1 - 4 5 . 8 % 87 G a s o l i n e s e r v i c e s t a t i o n s 0 1 + 1 CO 9 . Real e s t a t e , f i n a n c e and i n s u r a n c e 6 2 - 4 - 6 6 . 6 % 1 0 . Commerc ia l p a r k i n g use 1 1 0 0% 1 1 . P u b l i c b u i l d i n g s 1 1 0 0% T o t a l 115 113 - 2 1173% 1 0 8 A c o m p a r i s o n m a d e b e t w e e n t h e n u m b e r o f g r o u n d -f l o o r b u s i n e s s l o c a t i o n s i n t h e s t u d y a r e a s h o w e d t h a t w h i l e t h e r e w e r e 1 1 8 l o c a t i o n s i n 1 9 6 5 t h e n u m b e r d e c r e a s e d t o 1 1 3 i n 1 9 7 5 . T h e d e c r e a s e w a s e x p e c t e d t o b e m o r e s i g n i f i c a n t t h a n t h a t n o t e d , d u e t o t h e r e c e n t d e v e l o p m e n t o f n e w s t o r e s a n d r e s t a u r a n t s w i t h w i d e r f a c a d e s a n d m o r e g r o u n d f l o o r a r e a , e s p e c i a l l y o n t h e n o r t h s i d e o f t h e s t r e e t ( e . g . ; t h e C a r d S h o p , 1 0 0 1 R o b s o n ; t h e W h i t e S p o t R e s t a u r a n t , 1 0 2 5 R o b s o n ; a n d t h e T o p T o y C e n t r e , 1 0 4 7 - 1 0 5 1 R o b s o n ) . H o w e v e r , i t s h o u l d b e n o t e d t h a t f i v e n e w s t o r e s o f f R o b s o n , n a m e l y t h e " R o b s o n M e w s " , 1 0 3 9 R o b s o n w e r e i n c l u d e d i n t h e c o u n t a s w e l l a s o n e r e a r s t o r e a t 1 0 3 0 R o b s o n , t h e A r t S i g n C o . I t w a s i n t e r e s t i n g t o n o t e t h a t t h e s t u d y a r e a h a s b e e n u n d e r g o i n g s i g n i f i c a n t c h a n g e s i n t h e l a s t 1 0 y e a r s . O u t o f t h e 1 1 8 b u s i n e s s e s t h a t o p e r a t e d i n t h e s t u d y a r e a i n 1 9 6 5 o n l y 3 1 b u s i n e s s e s c o n t i n u e d o p e r a t i o n i n t h e i r s a m e l o c a t i o n s u p t o 1 9 7 5 ( 2 6 . 2 7 p e r c e n t ) , w h i l e s i x m o r e b u s i n e s s e s m o v e d - t o o t h e r . l o c a t i o n s w i t h i n t h e s t u d y a r e a . T h e t o t a l o f a l l b u s i n e s s e s t h a t s t a y e d i n t h e s t u d y a r e a , t h e r e f o r e , i s 3 7 ( 3 1 . 3 5 p e r c e n t ) . - A m o r e d e t a i l e d t a b l e o f t h e c h a n g e i n t h e " o t h e r r e t a i l s t o r e s " c a t e g o r y r e v e a l s t h a t t h e m o s t s i g n i f i c a n t c h a n g e t h a t h a s t a k e n p l a c e i n t h i s c a t e g o r y i s d u e t o t h e h u g e i n c r e a s e i n t h e n u m b e r o f j e w e l l e r y , g i f t , n o v e l t y a n d s o u v e n i r s h o p s . T h i s i n c r e a s e h a s o c c u r e d a t t h e e x p e n s e o f t h e p e r s o n a l a n d r e p a i r s e r v i c e s c a t e g o r y w h i c h h a s d e c r e a s e d b y 5 0 p e r c e n t i n t h e l a s t 1 0 y e a r s . T h i s t r e n d m a y b e d u e t o - - T - A - B t E — r V — I T DTTAIL OF THE CHANGES IN THE "OTHER RETAIL STORES" CATEGORY B u s i n e s s C a t e g o r y 1965 Number of g . f . l o c a t i o n s 1975 Number o f g . f . 1 o c a t i ons Net change (+. o r - ) " % o f Change (1965 base) J e w e l l e r y s t o r e s 2 10 + 8 + 400% S t a t i o n a r y s t o r e s 2 2 0 0 S p o r t i n g goods s t o r e s 2 1 - 1 - 5 0 % F l o r i s t s 1 3 + 2 + 200% News d e a l e r s and newstands 2 1 - 1 - 5 0 % G i f t , n o v e l t y , and s o u v e n i r s t o r e s 2 7 + 5 + 250% Camera , p h o t o g r a p h i c s u p p l y s t o r e s 2 2 0 0 Second hand s t o r e s 3 1 - 2 - 6 6 . 6 % A n t i q u e shops 0 2 + 2 R e t a i l s t o r e s n o t e l s e w h e r e c l a s s i f i e d 14 10 - 4 - 2 8 . 5 7 % T o t a l 30 39 +9 + 30% TABLE IV I I I . BUS I I*iESS^CAJ^ClRJL_V-S^ NJUMB-E-R—OF—Y-E-ARS--0N~"ROBSON -No. o f Years i n Robson B u s i n e s s C a t e g o r y No answer L e s s than 10 y e a r s 10 o r Years more Sub t o t a l s 1 . Food s t o r e s 10 3 3 16 2 . E a t i n g and d r i n k i n g p l a c e s 10 1 1 12 3 . G e n e r a l m e r c h a n d i s e s t o r e s 3 1 1 5 . 4 . A p p a r e l , a c c e s s o r i e s s t o r e s 15 3 3 21 5 . Drug s t o r e s 1 0 1 2 6 . O t h e r r e t a i l s t o r e s 24 . 11 4 39 7. E s t a b l i s h m e n t s o f f e r i n g p e r s o n a l and r e p a i r s e r v i c e s p r i m a r i l y to s e r v i c e s cus tomers 10 3 0 1 3 8 . G a s o l i n e and s e r v i c e s t a t i o n s 1 . 0 0 1 9 . Real e s t a t e , f i n a n c e and i n s u r a n c e 0 0 2 2 1 0 . Commerc ia l p a r k i n g use 1 0 0 1 1 1 . ' P u b l i c b u i l d i n g s 1 0 0 1 T o t a l 75 22 15 .113 I l l t h e i n c r e a s e i n r e n t a l l e v e l s a n d t h e d e c r e a s e i n r e t a i l s a l e s v o l u m e s t o t h o s e s t o r e s . I t m a y a l s o b e t h a t t h e s t u d y a r e a w a s m a t u r i n g f r o m a l o c a l n e i g h b o r h o o d c o m m e r c i a l s t r e e t t o a m e t r o p o l i t a n s p e c i a l t y s h o p a r e a . T h e c h a n g e c o u l d h a v e b e e n h e a l t h i e r a n d m o r e e n h a n c i n g t o t h e c h a r a c t e r o f t h e a r e a i f t h e n e w s t o r e t y p e s , i n s t e a d o f b e i n g a p p a r e l b o u t i q u e s , j e w e l l e r y a n d g i f t s h o p s , w e r e d e l i c a t e s s -e n s , b o o k s t o r e s a n d o t h e r s p e c i a l t y s t o r e s c o m p a t i b l e w i t h t h e c h a r a c t e r . T a b l e I V I I I s h o w s t h a t t h e l a r g e s t p r o p o r t i o n o f t h e r e s p o n d e n t b u s i n e s s f i r m s a r e r e c e n t o n e s a n d t h a t t h e l a r g e s t c a t e g o r y ( i n n u m b e r ) o f t h e m o r e r e c e n t s t o r e s i s t h e " o t h e r r e t a i l s t o r e s " c a t e g o r y . T h i s s h o w s a t r e n d t o -w a r d i n c r e a s e i n t h i s c a t e g o r y ' s s t o r e s . T h e l a r g e s t p r o p o r t i o n o f t h e o l d e r s t o r e s a r e o f t h e " f o o d s t o r e s " , " a p p a r e l " , a n d " o t h e r r e t a i l s t o r e s " c a t e g o r i e s . C h a n g e i n b u s i n e s s c a t e g o r i e s i n t h e a r e a i s a c o n t i n u i n g p r o c e s s a s b u s i n e s s e s a r e m o v i n g o u t a n d b e i n g r e p l a c e d b y n e w o n e s a l l - t h e t i m e . H a v i n g f o u n d t h a t o u t , i t i s i m p o r t a n t t o k n o w w h e t h e r t h e l e n g t h o f t i m e a b u s i n e s s h a s b e e n i n t h e a r e a a f f e c t s t h e b u s i n e s s o p e r a t o r ' s a t t i t u d e t o w a r d m o v i n g . T h e m e r c h a n t s w e r e a s k e d t h e f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n s : D o e s t h e t h o u g h t o f m o v i n g y o u r b u s i n e s s t o a n o t h e r l o c a t i o n e v e r o c c u r t o y o u ? Y e s N o . I f y e s , w h y ? T h e r e s p o n s e s t o t h e f i r s t p a r t a r e t a b u l a t e d i n 1 1 2 T a b l e I V I V , w h i l e t h e r e s p o n s e s t o t h e s e c o n d p a r t w i l l b e t h e c o n c e r n o f a n o t h e r s e c t i o n o f t h i s c h a p t e r . T A B L E I V I V N U M B E R O F Y E A R S I N R O B S O N V E R S U S " M O V I N G T H O U G H T " No answer Yes No No answer 70 0 0 70 Less t h a n 10 y e a r s 2 11 15 28 10 Years f o r more 1 8 6 15 73 19 21 113 T a b l e I V I V s h o w s t h a t a l t h o u g h t h e d i f f e r e n c e s i n r e s p o n s e s a r e v e r y s l i g h t t h o s e m e r c h a n t s w h o h a v e b e e n i n t h e a r e a l o n g e r t h i n k a b o u t m o v i n g o u t o f t h e a r e a m o r e t h a n t h o s e w h o h a v e b e e n t h e r e f o r a s h o r t e r t i m e . W h a t e v e r t h e r e a s o n s b e h i n d t h i s f a c t , i t i s n o t a h e a l t h y s i g n a s i t i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e a r e a i s l i k e l y t o l o s e m o r e o f i t s o l d e r b u s i n e s s e s . H o w e v e r , t h e d e g r e e o f d a m a g e o r b e n e f i t d o n e t o t h e s t u d y a r e a b y t h i s t r e n d d e p e n d s u p o n t h e t y p e a n d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e n e w b u s i n e s s e s r e p l a c i n g t h o s e t h a t l e a v e . A s t h e p r o p o r t i o n o f t h e r e s p o n d e n t s w a s r a t h e r l o w , n o s t r o n g e r s t a t e m e n t s c o u l d b e m a d e a t t h i s s t a g e o f t h e s t u d y . 4 . 2 . a . C o m p a t i b i l i t y W i t h t h e S t u d y A r e a S i n c e b u s i n e s s e s a r e c o n t i n u a l l y s h i f t i n g , m o v i n g i n a n d o u t o f t h e s t u d y a r e a , i t i s e s s e n t i a l t o d e f i n e w h a t 1 1 3 w h a t c o m p a t i b l e b u s i n e s s e s a r e . T h e y a r e c o n s i d e r e d t o b e t h o s e b u s i n e s s e s w h i c h a r e s u i t a b l e f o r a n a r e a w i t h c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s s u c h a s t h o s e d e s c r i b e d u n d e r t h e " O r i g i n a l C h a r a c t e r a n d A p p e a l " s e c t i o n i n C h a p t e r I I I . I n g e n e r a l , a c o m p a t i b l e b u s i n e s s f i r m i s o n e t h a t : 1 . i s h a r m o n i o u s w i t h t h e a r e a ' s u n i q u e c h a r a c t e r , 2 . a d d s t o t h e d i v e r s i t y o f t h e a r e a , h a n d l e s u n i q u e m e r c h a n d i s e , a n d 3 . p r o v i d e s p e r s o n a l s e r v i c e a n d l e i s u r e l y s h o p p i n g . T h e j u d g e m e n t o f a b u s i n e s s f i r m ' s c o m p a t i b i l i t y i s a s u b j e c t i v e o n e . W h i l e a b u s i n e s s m a y b e c o m p a t i b l e i n t e r m s o f t h e t y p e o f m e r c h a n d i s e a n d t h e s e r v i c e a v a i l a b l e , i t m a y b e i n c o m p a t i b l e r e g a r d i n g t h e s i z e o r t h e p h y s i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e s t o r e . T h e n a m e s a n d a d d r e s s e s o f t h e b u s i n e s s f i r m s j u d g e d t o b e c o m p a t i b l e a r e g i v e n i n t h e f o l l o w i n g l i s t a n d t h e i r l o c a t i o n s a r e i n d i c a t e d o n M a p 4 . 1 . 1 0 0 8 - M u r c h i e ' s T e a a n d C o f f e e L t d . 1 0 1 1 - M o z a r t K o n d i t o r e i a n d T e a R o o m 1 0 1 4 - C h e r T o n - T o n R e s t a u r a n t 1 0 2 4 - M a r y v a l e L t d . ( d e l i c a t e s s e n ) 1 0 2 8 - H a p p y F e e t S h o e s a n d R e p a i r s 1 0 2 9 - T e m p o C a n a d i a n C r a f t s ( a r t ) 1 0 3 0 r e a r - A r t S i g n C o . 1 0 3 2 - R o b s o n F l o r i s t ' 1 0 3 4 - P e r s i a n H o u s e o f J e w e l s 1 1 4 1 0 3 5 - A r l e n e L a d i e s ' W e a r 1 0 3 6 - V i n c e n t D e l i c a t e s s e n 1 0 3 8 - V i n c e n t I m p o r t s L t d . 1 0 3 9 - R o b s o n M e w s 1 . P r o t e a T h e B o u t i q u e 2 . M u n i c h T e a R o o m ( r e s t a u r a n t a n d t a k e - o u t ) 3 . T h e I r o n C o m f o r t e r ( s c u l p t o r ) 4 . S t o n e f l o w e r B o u t i q u e ( c u s t o m d r e s s m a k i n g ) 5 . V e r o n i c a ' s F l o w e r s ( f l o r i s t ) 1 0 4 4 - E u r o p e a n N e w s a n d I m p o r t H o u s e 1 0 4 9 - 5 1 - T o p T o y . C e n t r e 1 0 5 2 - C E B A E x p o r t a n d I m p o r t C o . L t d . 1 0 6 0 - L e P a p i l l o n B o u t i q u e ( l a d i e s ' w e a r ) S c h n i t z e l H o u s e R e s t a u r a n t ( t a k e - o u t f o o d s ) 1 0 6 2 - N o r d i c I m p o r t ( g i f t s ) 1 0 6 6 - O l d C o u n t r y B a k e r y 1 0 6 7 - A u t h e n t i c E s k i m o C a r v i n g 1 0 6 8 - C a p t a i n ' s C a f e 1 0 9 2 - T h r e e G r a c e s ( j e w e l l e r y ) 1 0 9 7 - W h a l e ' s T a l e G i f t S h o p p e 1 1 0 4 - R o b s o n E m p o r i u m T h e ( g i f t ) 1 1 1 5 - T e p e e S p o r t i n g G o o d s L t d . 1 1 2 1 - M o l l e y ' s S p i c e S h o p L t d . 1 1 2 4 - P o r t s o f C a l l ( a n t i q u e s a n d g i f t s ) 1 1 2 7 - S w i s s H e r b a l R e m e d i e s 1 1 2 8 - S a s h a L t d . ( c h i l d r e n ' s w e a r ) 115 Figure 4.1. Businesses compatible with Robson Street character O b u m Coii lamantha' s The 0 0 Vacan| nk4 Tile O r i e n t a l M a r b L ^ s e ] " L t d i Ha Centennial Pharmacy L t . 1194," NeImUr Cjiffee Snop 1190 Robsnn Gourmqt 1184 ' I Jewel lebi_L182. r Z The India G i f t ilouse LtdJ 1178 Arcnie a Hardware 1176 , t inental T a i l o r ; & J e n ' s Wear] 1174 Internat ional BouT jniip Itri Royal Bank J122 T h ; P ic ture Show 1170 af AnTda L t d . 1164 T ; P i i t   a f O n * S u p e r M a r . Grocery 1160 t M L O l i i u r u . t . . Peacock's Chi 1 dreg Wearj 1 iHZ* Sun's Pl^ce draf ts 1140 Or iental rtendlt)om |i~aar llj4_ akspo'rt Photos 1132 S At* Suppl ie i 113' Hansen's Toys p m^. ^ r ; " - s j ^asha L t d l l i 2 8 j Opportunity Rehatrrii1ratirjrri-i2tr| Ports off Ca l l Antiques 1124 Rot son Shoe Renew 1108 . . . T a i l o r i n g 1106>5, Vienna Snop 1106 Kerry Shop 1104*5, The Fobsoji Emporium 1104 Susanne Imported Shoes 1102 1100 Mutual Cpffed BarM123B Mary's t p i l J u r e s | 1 l 2 Q a B e l - A i r C leaner 's 8j Launcfcrer 1.116 F a b i f l a Tex t i les i l t d . l l l l Customcolcr Laborator ies 1110 V Busy Bee Grcjcervf K Flowers T M U E L 0 V O Schn i t ze l House Re Shopbersl Drug Mart 1098 Olympia Oyster anil F ish CoL 1094 n Three Graces 1092 Thd Chifken Housk_m2fl Gold's Bakery 1086 Galloway'sj Grocer ies 1084 Jeff's Fabr ics L t d . 1082 Robson JeweJlers Ltd! 1080 Pussycat Fashion Centre 1070 Captain 's Cafe 1068 Old Courjry Bakery 1066 Echo •larkptinq L t d . 1064 Nordic Tspftrt 1 C ; ? tau rant , Le P a p i l l o n Bou;ique 1060 Cont inental 3em Tlouse L t d . 1056 Bogena Hajir Design) L t d . 1054 Robson F l o r i s t European New and Impart JJIuIe~Ltd. 1044 Happy Feet Shoes & R' . C i a r d u l l o Frank Shoe Shine "AT l e p a i r s , . 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LtdJ 1049-51 " op Toy Cer t re 1045 J a c l s o n T r a d i t g Co. L t d . 1087 F u r t i s June Fdshion Jewellery prcS. ic Hetjitage of Eskimo Art S G 1041 The Old Chjeesd Shoppe 1035 Ar ene 's Lad ies ' Wear 1025 Wh 1031 Thi Wig Tr^e 1029 TetiDO Canadiar C ra f t s 1027 Be, u t i f u l p e o p l e Unisex ,e Spot L td 1023 Dejek London Haute Co i f fu re i 1017 B r i g i t t e Mode 1011 Mozart Konditclrei & Tea Room 1001 Cak-d Shop loo 1 1 6 1 1 2 9 - H a n s e n ' s T o y s a n d A r t S u p p l i e s 1 1 3 4 - R o b s o n B o u t i q u e ( s h o e s ) 1 1 3 9 C - H e i d e l b e r g R e s t a u r a n t 1 1 4 0 - S u n ' s P l a c e ( c r a f t s ) 1 1 4 1 - L e C o u s C o u s ( r e s t a u r a n t ) 1 1 7 4 - C o n t i n e n t a l T a i l o r s a n d M e n ' s W e a r 1 1 8 4 - R o b s o n G o u r m e t D e l i c a t e s s e n T h e b u s i n e s s c a t e g o r y c h a n g e i n t h e s t u d y a r e a i s a. c o n t i n u i n g p r o c e s s a n d i t i s i n e v i t a b l e . I t h a s b e e n s h o w n t h a t w h i l e s o m e c a t e g o r i e s o f b u s i n e s s e s a r e d i m i n i s h i n g o r d i s a p p e a r i n g o t h e r s a r e g r o w i n g a n d i n c r e a s i n g i n n u m b e r . T h o s e b u s i n e s s t y p e s i n c r e a s i n g i n n u m b e r s d i d n o t n e c e s s a r i l y d o s o b e c a u s e o f a g r o w i n g d e m a n d , b u t r a t h e r , b e c a u s e o f o t h e r e x t e r n a l f o r c e s . I f t h i s u n h e a l t h y t r e n d i s t o c o n t i n u e t h e a r e a w i l l g r a d u a l l y l o s e i t s a t t r a c t i o n a n d t h e b u s i n e s s i n t h e w h o l e w i l l b e a f f e c t e d n e g a t i v e l y . 4 . 3 . R e t a i l S a l e s V o l u m e R e t a i l s a l e s v o l u m e i n s h o p p i n g g o o d s h a s b e e n w i d e l y u s e d a s a n e c o n o m i c b a r o m e t e r o f t h e h e a l t h o f t h e C B D . 1 3 P r o u d f o o t , i n h i s s t u d y o f " C i t y R e t a i l S t r u c t u r e " , n o t e d i n 1 9 3 7 t h a t : T h e c e n t r a l b u s i n e s s d i s t r i c t r e p r e s e n t s t h e r e t a i l h e a r t o f e a c h c i t y . . .. . H e r e , i n d i v i d u a l l y a n d c o l l e c t i v e l y , r e t a i l s t o r e s d o a g r e a t e r v o l u m e o f . 1 1 7 b u s i n e s s p e r u n i t a r e a t h a n e l s e w h e r e w i t h i n t h e c i t y . 1 4 A s . m o r e r e c e n t t r e n d s i n r e t a i l i n g h a v e p r e v a i l e d s i n c e t h e n , P r o u d f o o t p o i n t e d o u t t h a t , I t i s a c o m m o n m i s c o n c e p t i o n t h a t t h e m a j o r i t y o f r e t a i l t r a d e i s d o n e i n t h e c e n t r a l d i s t r i c t . ^ 5 T h e r e t a i l t r a d e f u n c t i o n o f d o w n t o w n , i t s s i g n i f i c a n c e a n d m a r k e t s h a v e b e e n d i s c u s s e d i n C h a p t e r I I . T h e s u r v e y w a s c o n d u c t e d f r o m D e c e m b e r 1 0 , 1 9 7 5 t o J a n u a r y 1 0 , 1 9 7 6 . Q u e s t i o n n a i r e s w e r e d i s t r i b u t e d t o 1 0 4 o u t o f 1 1 3 b u s i n e s s f i r m s a n d r e s p o n s e w a s o b t a i n e d f r o m 4 5 ( 3 9 . 8 2 p e r c e n t ) , w h i l e t h e r e m a i n i n g p o r t i o n e i t h e r d e c l i n e d t o r e s p o n d o r g a v e a n s w e r s a n d c o m m e n t s o r a l l y . A l i s t o f t h e n a m e s o f t h e b u s i n e s s f i r m s i n t h e s t u d y a r e a t o g e t h e r w i t h a n i n d i c a t i o n o f w h i c h o f t h e m c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e s t u d y b y a n s w e r i n g t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e i s i n c l u d e d i n A p p e n d i x B . T h e r e s p o n s e r a t e o f 3 9 . 8 2 p e r c e n t w a s l o w e r t h a n e x p e c t e d d u e t o t h e t i m e o f y e a r t h e s u r v e y w a s c o n d u c t e d , a n d t h e l e n g t h o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e . T h e w r i t e r c a l l e d a t e a c h l o c a t i o n e v e r y d a y u n t i l t h e f o r m w a s r e t u r n e d . M o s t o f t h e m e r c h a n t s a r e . g e n e r a l l y u n w i l l i n g t o c o - o p e r a t e w i t h s t u d e n t s . T h e s e m e r c h a n t s h a v e b e e n a p p r o a c h e d b y d i f f e r e n t g r o u p s f o r i n f o r m a t i o n f o r d i f f e r e n t s t u d i e s a n d p r o j e c t s a n d t h e y h a v e b e c o m e h o s t i l e t o w a r d f u r t h e r r e q u e s t s . M o r e -o v e r , t h e y f e e l b i t t e r a n d d i s a p p o i n t e d a s t h e y s e e t h e a r e a d e c l i n i n g a n d n o a c t i o n o r r e s u l t s o f a n y k i n d . T h e r e s p o n s e t o t h e " O p e r a t i n g a n d F i n a n c i a l 1 1 8 I n f o r m a t i o n " s e c t i o n o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e w a s e v e n s m a l l e r t h a n t h e a b o v e - m e n t i o n e d f i g u r e . T h i s w a s d u e t o t h e f a c t t h a t s o m e o f t h e m e r c h a n t s e n c o u n t e r e d w e r e v e r y s e n s i t i v e a b o u t t h e i r f i n a n c i a l a n d o p e r a t i n g s t a t i s t i c s . M o s t w e r e u n w i l l i n g t o r e l e a s e a n y i n f o r m a t i o n n o m a t t e r h o w i n s i g n i f i c a n t i t w a s . L e s s t h a n h a l f t h e r e s p o n d e n t s a n s w e r e d a l l t h e q u e s t i o n s i n t h e " O p e r a t i n g a n d F i n a n c i a l I n f o r m a t i o n " s e c t i o n s o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e , a n d l e s s t h a n o n e q u a r t e r o f t h e r e s p o n d e n t s a n s w e r e d o n l y p a r t s o f i t . T h e q u e s t i o n a s k e d r e g a r d i n g t h e r e t a i l s a l e s v o l u m e w a s a s f o l l o w s : W h a t i s t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f t h e i n c r e a s e o r d e c r e a s e i n y o u r s a l e s v o l u m e i n t h e p a s t f i v e y e a r s o r s i n c e y o u m o v e d i n , i f l e s s t h a n f i v e y e a r s a g o ? (+.. f o r i n c r e a s e , a n d - f o r d e c r e a s e ) % o v e r f i v e y e a r s a g o . % o v e r y e a r s a g o . T A B L E I V V C H A N G E I N S A L E S V O L U M E O V E R T H E P A S T 5 Y E A R S No answer 0 - 1 0 0 % I n c r e a s e More t h a n 100% i n c r e a s e T o t a l 104 7 2 113 119 T A B L E I V V I C H A N G E I N S A L E S V O L U M E S I N C E M O V I N G ( L E S S T H A N 5 Y E A R S ) No answer - 1 0 0 % t o - 0 % D e c r e a s e 0 - 1 0 0 % I n c r e a s e T o t a l 100 4 9 113 A l t h o u g h t h e r e s p o n s e w a s v e r y s m a l l , i t c a n b e s e e n f r o m t h e p r e v i o u s t a b l e s t h a t t h e c a t e g o r y o f t h o s e w h o s u f f e r e d a d e c r e a s e i n s a l e s v o l u m e d i d n o t a p p e a r a m o n g t h o s e w h o h a v e b e e n i n t h e a r e a 5 y e a r s o r l o n g e r . T h i s m a y s u g g e s t a c o r r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n t h e . s a l e s v o l u m e a n d t h e l e n g t h o f s t a y i n t h e a r e a . A l s o , t h e i n c r e a s e i n s a l e s v o l u m e d o e s n o t n e c e s s a r i l y m e a n a n i n c r e a s e i n t h e m e r c h a n t s ' p r o f i t a s i t m a y b e a n i n c r e a s e i n p r i c e s d u e t o r i s i n g p r o d u c t i o n c o s t s . I n g e n e r a l , i t c a n b e s t a t e d t h a t t h o s e w h o h a v e a t l e a s t d o u b l e d t h e i r s a l e s v o l u m e o v e r t h e p a s t 5 y e a r s a r e f e w e r t h a n t h o s e w h o h a v e n o t r e a l i z e d s u c h a n i n c r e a s e . M o r e o v e r , a m o n g t h o s e w h o h a v e b e e n i n t h e a r e a f o r l e s s t h a n f i v e y e a r s , t h e f i r s t c a t e g o r y i s n o n - e x i s t e n t . 4 . 4 . D a y t i m e P o p u l a t i o n D e f i n i t i o n : F o r a n y g i v e n s t a n d a r d l o c a t i o n t h e d a y t i m e p o p u l a -t i o n a t t h e s e l e c t e d h o u r r e p r e s e n t s t h e ' s u m o f t h e n u m b e r o f p e r s o n s p h y s i c a l l y p r e s e n t i n t h e a r e a , 1 2 0 w o r k i n g , a t t e n d i n g s c h o o l , s h o p p i n g , c o n d u c t i n g p e r s o n a l b u s i n e s s , e n r o u t e f r o m o n e p l a c e t o a n o t h e r , o r e n g a g i n g i n o t h e r a c t i v i t i e s a w a y f r o m t h e i r h o m e s , a n d t h e n u m b e r o f r e s i d e n t p e r s o n s r e m a i n i n g a t h o m e i n t h e l o c a t i o n . 1 6 T h e c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f d a y t i m e p o p u l a t i o n i s e s s e n t i a l l y t h e f o r c e w h i c h v i t a l i z e s t h e C B D a n d g i v e s m e a n i n g t o t h e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n o f f u n c t i o n s a n d t h e i n t e n s i t y o f l a n d u s e i n t h e d o w n t o w n a r e a . 1 7 A s i t w a s i m p o s s i b l e f o r t h e w r i t e r t o o b t a i n d a y -t i m e p o p u l a t i o n f i g u r e s f o r t h e s t u d y a r e a , p e d e s t r i a n c o u n t s a n d n u m b e r o f c u s t o m e r s a n d e m p l o y e e s i n t h e s t u d y a r e a w e r e t h o u g h t t o b e a d e q u a t e i n d i c a t o r s o f t h e a t t r a c t i v e n e s s o f t h e a r e a t o t h e p e o p l e . P e d e s t r i a n s w e r e c o n s i d e r e d a s " a k i n d o f i n d e x t o t h o s e p e r s o n s i n t h e a r e a m a i n l y f o r o t h e r t h a n e m p l o y m e n t o r r e s i d e n c e p u r p o s e s " . 1 8 P e d e s t r i a n c o u n t s f o r t h e s t u d y a r e a a s w e l l a s f o r o t h e r d o w n t o w n s t r e e t s o n d i f f e r e n t d a y s o f F e b r u a r y a n d M a r c h , 1 9 7 3 w e r e o b t a i n e d f r o m t h e V a n c o u v e r C i t y E n g i n e e r i n g D e p a r t m e n t . A l s o , t h r e e q u e s t i o n s w e r e i n c l u d e d i n t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e r e g a r d i n g c u s t o m e r s p e r w e e k - d a y , c u s t o m e r s p e r S a t u r d a y , a n d t h e n u m b e r o f f u l l a n d p a r t - t i m e e m p l o y e e s . F r o m T a b l e I V V I I i t i s e v i d e n t t h a t t h e s o u t h s i d e o f t h e 1 0 0 0 b l o c k R o b s o n S t r e e t a t t r a c t s m o r e p e d e s t r i a n t r a f f i c t h a n t h e n o r t h s i d e ( t h e s u n n y s i d e ) . A l s o , m o r e p e o p l e a r e a t t r a c t e d t o t h e 1 0 0 0 b l o c k t h a n t o t h e 1 1 0 0 b l o c k . T h i s i s d u e t o t h e f a c t t h a t t h e 1 0 0 0 b l o c k i n g e n e r a l m a i n t a i n s a s t r o n g e r c h a r a c t e r t h a n d o e s t h e 1 1 0 0 TABLE IV VII PEDESTRIAN COUNT MID-BLOCK 1000 AND 1100 ROBSON DATE: FRIDAY, MARCH 2 , 1973 Bl ock 2 p .m. 3 p .m. 4 p.m. 6 p .m. 7 p .m. 8 p .m. 9 p .m. 1000 N o r t h 1000 South 744 900 732 1136 857 1256 524 793 476 767 508 ; 625 491. 689 4332 6166 10498 1100 Nor th 1100 South 514 820 524 731 89 2 1260 323 589 324 445 388 366 372 221 3337 4432 7769 2978 3123 3265 2229 2012 1887 1773 1 8267 S o u r c e : Vancouver C i t y E n g i n e e r i n g Depa r tm en t . 1 2 2 block, which i s closer to the hotel area on Robson. In addition, the north side of the 1 1 0 0 block has been almost completely r e b u i l t i n the l a s t ten years, leaving the south side with a much stronger character. Table IV VTII shows the number of pedestrians i n the study area on d i f f e r e n t days of the week. Although most of the respondents to the questionnaire reported having more customers on Saturdays than i n any week-day, the pedestrian counts reveal j u s t the opposite. The explanation for t h i s seeming contradiction could be that the higher pedestrian counts on week-days are due to the presence of the downtown employee population and people passing through, most of whom do not nec e s s a r i l y shop i n the study area. On Saturdays the picture i s s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t : the people i n the area are fewer i n number although a greater proportion of them are there to shop. TABLE IV VIII PEDESTRIAN COUNTS MID BLOCK 1 0 0 0 ROBSON B l o c k F r i day Feb . 9 , ' 7 3 S a t u r d a y M a r . 1 7 , ' 7 3 Sunday M a r . 1 8 , ' 7 3 Monday F e b . 1 3 , ' 7 3 1000 Nor th 1000 South 4895 7549 4413 6690 1603 2056 5751 7978 12444 11103 3659 1 3729 1 2 3 T A B L E I V I X C U S T O M E R S O N W E E K D A Y S V E R S U S C U S T O M E R S O N S A T U R D A Y S No answer 0 - 4 9 Cus 5 0 - 1 9 9 tomers More t h a n 200 No answer 75 0 0 0 75 0 - 4 9 to 0 7 6 0 13 | 5 0 - 1 9 9 0 2 10 3 1 5 £ 200 o r ^ more 0 0 0 10 10 75 9 16 13 113 F r o m t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e , t h e r e s p o n d e n t f i r m s ( 4 5 ) e m p l o y a m i n i m u m o f 1 3 0 r e g u l a r e m p l o y e e s a n d 6 0 p a r t - t i m e e m p l o y e e s . M a p 4 . 2 . a s w e l l a s t h e a b o v e t a b l e s s u p p o r t t h e c o n t e n t i o n t h a t t h e r e i s a s i g n i f i c a n t d a y t i m e p o p u l a t i o n , i n = t h e s t u d y a r e a . H o w e v e r , m a n y f a c t o r s h a v e c h a n g e d s i n c e t h e p e d e s t r i a n c o u n t s w e r e m a d e , s u c h a s t h e R o b s o n S t r e e t c l o s u r e a t H o w e a n d H o r n b y , t h e c o m p l e t i o n o f G r a n v i l l e S t r e e t a n d P a c i f i c C e n t r e M a l l s a n d t h e d e c l i n e o f t h e s t u d y a r e a i n g e n e r a l . E v e n i f m o r e r e c e n t c o u n t s w e r e a v a i l a b l e i t w o u l d b e d i f f i c u l t t o i s o l a t e t h e a c t u a l r e a s o n s f o r c h a n g e , i f a n y , i n t h e d a y t i m e p o p u l a t i o n . L i t t l e c a n b e s a i d a b o u t t h e f u t u r e t r e n d o f t h e t o t a l d a y t i m e p o p u l a t i o n o f t h e a r e a . H o w e v e r , i t i s f e l t t h a t s e v e r a l f o r c e s a r e c a u s i n g n e g a t i v e e f f e c t s o n t h e a r e a ' s 124 TABLE IV X PEDESTRIAN COUNTS IN DIFFERENT DOWNTOWN STREETS (1973) S i de Hundred b l ock S t r e e t Mi n i mum per h r . Maxi mum per h r . T o t a l 1 0 - 6 S i dewalk wi dth E 700 B u r r a r d 431 1058 5506 1 7 ' W 700 B u r r a r d 231 1077 4968 18 ' E 800 B u r r a r d 114 226 1057 1 7 ' W 800 B u r r a r d 228 547 2478 1 7 ' E 700 G r a n v i 1 l e 982 2017 11140 1 7 ' W 700 G r a n v i 1 1 e 449 9 64 4608 1 5 ' E 800 G r a n v i 1 1 e 466 840 4868 1 3 ' W 800 G r a n v i 1 1 e 670 1053 5679 14 ' N 1000 Robson 442 1 345 5971 1 5 ' S 1000 Robson 467 1335 7061 11 1 N 1100 Robson 183 643 3094 1 5 ' S 1100 Robson 374 955 5050 11 ' N 1000 G e o r g i a 390 1190 4796 1 8 ' S 1000 G e o r g i a 283 812 3316 1 9 ' N 1100 G e o r g i a 2 6 5 : 469 2309 1 8 ' S 1100 Georg i a 119 439 1616 19 ' N 600 .. Robson - 265 720 . 3456 12 1 S 600 Robson 171 340 1 709 12 ' N 700 Robson 233 429 2071 6 ' s 700 Robson 257 460 2491 1 3 ' N 800 Robson 575 1 334 6368 10 1 s 800 Robson 232 663 3333 1 5 ' N . 900 Robson 433 1 269 5838 1 0 ' s 900 Robson 253 871 4129 9 ' 125 v i t a l i t y . Such factors are: competition from other commercial areas, physical pedestrian obstacles (street closure). One of the i n t e r n a l forces acting negatively i s business s h i f t s . The number of customers at t r a c t e d by d i f f e r e n t businesses varies widely, and i f those businesses a t t r a c t i n g great numbers of customers move out and are replaced by those that a t t r a c t fewer customers, then the r e s u l t w i l l be l e s s customer a t t r a c t i o n f o r the area as a whole. The following tables support the above notion. TABLE IV XI NUMBER OF CUSTOMERS PER WEEKDAY No answer 0 - 4 9 5 0 - 1 9 9 200 o r more 75 13 15 10 113 126 TABLE IV XII BUSINESS CATEGORY VERSUS NUMBER OF CUSTOMERS PER WEEKDAY B u s i n e s s C a t e g o r y No answer CTl O 50-199 200 or more 1 Food s t o r e s 11 0 1 4 16 2 E a t i n g and d r i n k i n g p l a c e s 10 0 0 2 12 3 G e n e r a l m e r c h a n d i s e 3 1 0 1 5 4 A p p a r e l , a c c e s s o r i e s s t o r e s 15 4 2 0 21 5 Drug s t o r e s 1 0 0 1 2 6 O t h e r r e t a i l s t o r e s 26 4 9 0 39 7 E s t a b l i s h m e n t s o f f e r i n g p e r s o n a l and r e p a i r s e r v i c e s p r i m a r i l y to c u s t o m e r s 10 1 1 1 13 8 G a s o l i n e s e r v i c e s s t a t i o n s 1 0 0 0 1 9 Rea l e s t a t e , f i n a n c e and i n s u r a n c e 1 0 0 1 1 10 Commerc ia l p a r k i n g use 1 0 0 0 1 11 P u b l i c b u i l d i n g s 1 0 0 0 1 80 10 13 10 113 TABLE IV X I I I CUSTOMERS PER WEEKDAY VS. NUMBER OF YEARS ON ROBSON No answer Less than 10 y e a r s 10 y e a r s o r more No answer 70 3 1 74 0 - 4 9 0 9 4 13 5 0 - 1 9 9 0 12 3 15 200 o r more 0 4 7 11 70 28 15 113 TABLE IV XIV CUSTOMERS PER WEEKDAY VS. "MOVING THOUGHT" No answer Yes No No answer 70* 2 2 74 0 - 4 9 0 6 7 13 5 0 - 1 9 9 1 6 8 15 200 o r more 2 5 4 11 73 19 21 113 1 2 8 4 . 5 . L a n d V a l u e s I n h i s c l a s s i c s t u d y o f l a n d v a l u e s i n C h i c a g o , H o y t o b s e r v e d t h a t E x c e p t i n c a s e s w h e r e u r b a n l a n d i s u s e d f o r s i g n -b o a r d s o r p a r k i n g s p a c e , a n i n c o m e c a n b e d e r i v e d f r o m a n u r b a n s i t e o n l y b y e r e c t i n g a b u i l d i n g u p o n i t . T h e r e f o r e i t f o l l o w s t h a t a c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p m a y b e e x p e c t e d t o e x i s t b e t w e e n t h e p h y s i c a l g r o w t h o f a c i t y a n d c h a n g e s i n i t s l a n d v a l u e s . H e a l s o n o t e d t h a t W h i l e t h e r e w a s a s t e a d y r i s e i n C B D ' s l a n d v a l u e s , p e r c e n t a g e w i s e C B D v a l u e s f l u c t u a t e d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e p r e v a i l i n g c e n t r i f u g a l a n d c e n t r a l i z i n g f o r c e s . H o y t a t t r i b u t e d t h e r e l a t i v e s h i f t i n l a n d v a l u e s i n t h e 1 9 2 0 ' s t o T h e r i s e o f t h e o u t l y i n g n e i g h b o u r h o o d c e n t e r s a n d t h e s h i f t o f p o p u l a t i o n o u t w a r d . . . , 1 9 T h e h i g h e s t l a n d v a l u e d o w n t o w n i s u s u a l l y t h e m i d d l e o f t h e c e n t r a l s h o p p i n g d i s t r i c t . H o w e v e r , H u r d n o t e d t h a t i n N e w Y o r k C i t y , t h e f i n a n c i a l c e n t r e o f t h e U . S . A . , t h e r e w a s a n e x c e p t i o n i n t h a t i t s f i n a n c i a l l a n d w a s m o r e v a l u a b l e t h a n i t s s h o p p i n g l a n d . 2 0 I n h i s s t u d y o f M i n n e a p o l i s C B D , S c h m i d n o t e d t h a t T h e m a i n r e t a i l s e c t i o n i n v a r i a b l y c o i n c i d e s w i t h t h e p o i n t o f h i g h e s t l a n d v a l u e s , w h e r e a s s u c h s e r v i c e s a s a r e r e p r e s e n t e d b y h o t e l s , b a n k s , t h e a t r e s , w a r e -h o u s e s , c h u r c h e s , a n d s c h o o l s a r e l o c a t e d o n s i t e s o f r e l a t i v e l y l e s s v a l u e i n c o n s i s t e n t p a t t e r n f o r e a c h p e r i o d . 2 1 1 2 9 S e v e r a l s t u d i e s i n o t h e r a r e a s h a v e r e c o n f i r m e d t h e r e s u l t s t h a t t h e h i g h e s t l a n d v a l u e s w i t h i n C B D ' s w a s i n t h e r e t a i l s h o p p i n g c e n t r e l o c a t e d a t t h e c h i e f c o n v e r g i n g p o i n t o f p e d e s t r i a n t r a f f i c . W i t h i n t h i s h i g h e s t l a n d v a l u e a r e a , d e p a r t m e n t s t o r e s , l a d i e s ' w e a r s h o p s , f i v e a n d t e n c e n t s t o r e s , a n d s p e c i a l t y s t o r e s w e r e t h e p r e d o m i n a t i n g g r o u n d f l o o r u s e s . 2 2 A n o t h e r a p p r o a c h i n t h e s t u d y o f l a n d v a l u e s a s r e f l e c t i n g c h a n g e s i n t h e C B D i s t h r o u g h a n a l y s i s o f a s s e s s e d v a l u e s . W h e n H o y t c o m p a r e d l a n d v a l u e s d e t e r m i n e d f r o m s a l e s a n d a p p r a i s a l s w i t h a s s e s s e d l a n d v a l u e s h e o b s e r v e d t h a t T h e e a s i l y a c c e s s i b l e l a n d v a l u a t i o n s o f t a x a s s e s s o r s t h a t a r e s o f r e q u e n t l y u s e d i n m o s t c a s e s . . . d o n o t a d e q u a t e l y s h o w t h e c o u r s e o f r e a l e s t a t e m a r k e t a s i n d i c a t e d o f b y a c t u a l s a l e s . 2 3 S i m i l a r l y , W e n d t o b s e r v e d t h a t a s s e s s e d l a n d v a l u e s i n S a n F r a n s i s c o r e m a i n e d s t a b l e o v e r t h e p e r i o d f r o m 1 9 2 5 t o 1 9 5 0 , a p e r i o d i n w h i c h m a r k e t s a l e s p r i c e s f l u c t u a t e d w i d e l y . 2 1 * I n s p i t e o f t h e s e r e s e r v a t i o n s o n a s s e s s e d l a n d v a l u e s , i t w a s t h e o n l y d a t a a v a i l a b l e i n t h e s t u d y o f l a n d v a l u e s i n t h e s t u d y a r e a . T a b l e I V X V g i v e s t h e a s s e s s e d l a n d v a l u e s i n t h e s t u d y a r e a ( 1 9 7 4 ) a s w e l l a s t h e b u i l d i n g v a l u e t o t h e l a n d v a l u e r a t i o . T h i s c o m p a r i s o n p r o v e s t h a t t h e b u i l d i n g s i n t h e v a l u a b l e s t u d y a r e a a r e o b s o l e t e a n d c a n n o t a c c o m m o d a t e m o d e r n b u s i n e s s n e e d s w h i c h p l a c e s h e a v i e r p r e s s u r e s f o r r e -n e w a l . 130 TABLE IV XV A s s e s s e d l a n d and B u i l d i n g v a l u e Address improvement v a l u e to l a n d v a l u e % 1000 - 1008 2 6 8 , 6 T 0 24% 1012 - 1018 361 ,225 4% 1022 - 1024 1 6 4 , 5 4 1 8% 1028 - 1032 1 7 5 , 2 4 1 15% 1034 - 1042 311 ,006 2% 1044 - 1046 1 6 9 , 9 4 1 12% 1048 - 1052 169 ,141 11% 1054 - 1060 3 5 2 , 7 2 6 16% 1062 - 1070 331 ,226 9% 1080 - 1086 331 ,726 9% 1090 - 1098 393 ,1 19 12% 1001 - 1017 481 ,400 11% 1023 - 1041 1 , 0 9 8 , 6 4 3 34% 1045 - 1053 2 9 3 , 5 4 8 7% 1067 - 1075 2 9 3 , 5 4 8 7% 1089 - 1099 689 , 9 5 3 15% 1100 - 1108 583 ,231 30% 1110 1 1 4 , 2 9 6 11% 1112 - 1116 1 1 3 , 6 0 8 16% 1118 - 1120 1 2 4 , 9 6 4 22% 1122 - 1124 1 1 7 , 4 6 3 33% 1126 - 1132 1 7 3 , 0 9 2 26% 1134 - 1140 1 2 3 , 7 6 8 22% 1142 122 ,296 2 3% 1144 - 1148 9 7 , 7 8 9 ( l a n d o n l y ) -1150 96 ,319 (1 and o n l y ) -1 160 2 9 8 , 8 1 7 5 7% 1164 1 7 4 , 9 7 2 87% 1170 106 ,634 16%/ 1172 - 1180 1 9 2 , 1 5 1 6% TABLE IV XV ( C o n t i n u e d ) A d d r e s s A s s e s s e d l a n d and improvement v a l u e B u i l d i n g v a l u e t o l a n d v a l u e % 1182 - 1194 2 3 3 , 3 7 6 14% 1101 2 0 4 , 0 1 3 52% 1109 • - 1111 8 3 , 4 2 5 24% 1115 • - 1119 115 , 5 2 8 19% 1121 -- 1139 5 9 3 , 7 9 2 24% 1141 -• 1143 1 1 1 , 2 4 9 18% 1145 - 1155 1 , 6 2 5 ,492 500% 1163 - 1165 185 ,025 2% 1195 5 6 6 , 3 8 4 15% S o u r c e : A s s e s s o r s O f f i c e , V a n c o u v e r C i t y H a l l 132 In the l a s t 50 years land values have fluctuated widely as shown i n Table IV XVI. TABLE IV XVI Address Y e a r P r i ce $ Year P r i ce $ I n c r e a s e $ % o f I n c r e a s e 1012 - 1018 1945 4 2 , 0 0 0 1974 361 , 2 2 5 319 , 2 2 5 760% 1142 1941 5 , 0 0 0 1974 122 ,296 1 1 7 , 2 9 6 2 3 4 5 . 9 2 % 1182 - 1194 1941 4 , 5 0 0 1974 233 , 3 8 8 2 2 8 , 8 8 8 5 0 8 6 . 4 % Map 4 . 3 . and 4 . 4 . show the assessed land value i n the study area as compared with the assessed land value i n downtown Vancouver, and the improvement value as a percent-age of the assessed land value. Data on leasing and rentals o f f e r another t o o l i n the land-value approach to measuring CBD v i t a l i t y . Williams-Olson developed a method for constructing a shop-rent index for Stockholm. The shop-rent index i s computed by adding the shop rents of a stre e t frontage and d i v i d i n g the t o t a l by the length of the frontage. The highest shop-rent indices were found at c e n t r a l l y located street i n t e r s e c t i o n s . The streets with the highest indices coincided with s t r e e t s of highest pedestrian t r a f f i c . Only one stre e t with heavy vehicular t r a f f i c was at the same time a good shopping s t r e e t , although not among the b e s t . 2 5 _ 8 foUTE. Samantha's International The Figure 4.4. Ratios of improvement value to land value i n the study area Centenni al Nel Pharmacy L td . 1191 nfar Cjiffec Shcjp 1190 liobsnn Gourmdt 1181 The India CJift | O I I S O Ltd Continental Tailorte & Tlen's Wear] 1174 Tile Or iental Marbfle hrousd Ltd . Ma Thb Pic Royal Bank Supd Peacock's Sun Hansen's Toys Opportuni ty Ports of] Mi lutual Co _ Mary's to i fflures B e l - A i r Cleaner F a b i f l a Customcolc T a i l o r i n g 1106ft, Vienna Shop 1106 Kerry Sftop 1104*5, The RJobson Emporium 1104 Imported Shoes 1102 f Jewel lrj BniiTiqiif I M b f CJnida L td . 1164 1178 117? ure Show 1170 r Mar- Grocery 1160 p i l'drerj wear] 1M?A PT „ . — _ . , „ c e Crafts 1 Or iental h-andmom [jazaar 1 Passport Photos Vacant 11B4 11B2B ft Ar*t Supplie .^asha Ltd 1132A 1130 1128 RehaJiTii -tattafr-tl?! CaU Antiques 1124 fferl Bar 's ll Launderer 111 16 Tex t i les ILtd. 11114 ,r Laborator ies 1110 Rotkon Shoe Renew 1108 Busy Bee Grdceryl ft Flowers 1100 T&7 134 1195 Robson Serv ices 1157 King's Parkind 1155 Canadian Government OVA 8 ». u 00 , 0 1 H T W U E L O V 1137 P ick -A -Tour 1135 Rjbson Boutiq • <11133 Li J o l i e f'adanle « 1 1145 Unempl oyn^e: nt 1143 Dbn 1141 1 h s S t y l i n g 1101 Bha Cous Crjus Restaurant m T a i l o r L td . 1131 B-andt 's (Juste 1129 Ljok Art Fashion 1127 S-n'ss Herb'al Femedies 1123 Siape Unis'ex ha i r Design L td . 1121 Mbl ley ' s Spied, Shop L td . Goods L td . Cut te rs , 1111A b u 1115 T;pee Sportingj 1111 Cieckers rlai. 1109 The. Robson Yar|n Barn, fck Anbus Rdom ^-1101 The T r a v e l l e r Insurance Commi Lounge 1139C H n d e l b e n j Restaurant 1 1 398 Sfrar Curfo C r a f t s , 1139A Claildette 1109A Vicant r n Z sion acant Q 0-10% 11-30% 31-60% 61-100% more than 100% Schnitze l House Restaurant, Le Papj Continental Thd Shopbersl Drug Mart 1098 Olympia Oystdr anil F ish Co. 1094 Three Graces 1092 Chifcken House 1090 G o l f ' s Bakery 1086 Galloway' s| Grocer es 1084 1 s Fabrics L ;d . 1082 Jewellers Ltd . 1080 Fashion Centre 1070 J e f f Robson Pussycat Old Echo Captain's C i fe 1068 Country Bakery 1066 vlark|..ting Ltd . 1064 . . 3em House Bogena Hair Design Standard Produce Cd. 1052 Robson F l o r i s t Happy Feet Shoes & Rl European New and Imp|ort Rainbow Produce "Ar Vincent Del Sign Co. Ltd. ;pa i rs , C i a r d u l l o Frank Shoe Shine Michel le Michel le O'Brlan Opt ical Dispensers , 0'E}rian| Vancouver Calner Toronto Norjli c i l l q n Bou|tique 1060 Ltd . L td . 1056 1054 use L td . 1044 . . . f la i ry Productk 1042* Grand Shoe C l i n i c 1040 Vincent Imports Ltd . 1038 icafessen Ltd.. 1036 Persian llouscj (rf-rtar Rear 1030 'Mar1 s A s A l te ra t ions 1018 vale Ltt teratioris Jewel le -s 1016 Cher Ton-Tin 1014 ' Land L t i . 101? ' 103? • '024 Q2Z d. 1008 Murchle's Tea abd Coffee L I Dominion B^nk 1000 1099 Downtown Travel Centre L td . 1097 Whales Tale Gijft Shoppe 1091 Gblaxy Gerk 1089 1075 1071 1067 Kfiorr Danrijy Mejn's S t y l i n g , Robson Fabrics Curtis June Feshion Jewellery \rcj^ic Herjitag|e of Eskimo Art 1053 CEB/ Export ard Import Co. LtrJ. 1049-51 :op Toy Centre 1045 Jac lson Trjadirg Co. L td . Shoppe 1041 The Old Clfeess1 1035 Ar 1031 The Wig TrJ?e 1029 Tenpo Canadian! 1027 B e . u t i f u l 1025 Wh ene's Ladids ' Wear te Spot L tc . 1023 Defek London haute Co i f fu re 1017 B r i g i t t e Mode 1011 Mozart Kondito|re1 & Tea Room 1001 Card Shop 1087 Pla Craf ts eodle Unisex & G i f 2>OQ loo 135 Rental data was found to be the key t o o l i n determining the land use pattern i n c o r r e l a t i o n with the price of land. Variations i n land values and e s p e c i a l l y where correlated with differences i n rents o f f e r perhaps the best single measure of mobility, and so of a l l the changes taking place i n the expansion and growth of the c i t y . However, i n the study area i t was not possible to use t h i s t o o l as no complete set of re n t a l data could be obtained. The f a c t that the "valuable" land of the study area has not been used to i t s f u l l p o t e n t i a l i s placing i t under heavy pressure for redevelopment. In order f o r the land-owners to get the maximum possible p r o f i t from t h e i r land they w i l l opt for large-scale development. Samples of such concepts have been discussed i n Chapter I I I , "Proposals". 4.6. Other Problems and Threats The problems of the study area have been discussed at length i n Chapter III under-"Problems and Issues".- How-ever, the response to the questionnaire helped to emphasize the magnitude of some of these problems. 4.6.a. Loss of Character One factor which helps define the area's character i s the unique products offered by merchants of c e r t a i n ethnic backgrounds; a reduction of such merchandise on the street would be detrimental to the area's character. In the 1960's, 136 the majority of businessmen i n the study area were German and f i f t y percent of the shoppers were German as we l l . R e t a i l outlets were geared accordingly. Table IV XVI shows c l e a r l y that Germans and Europeans no longer make up the major proportion of Robson Street merchants. In addition, many incompatible businesses, p a r t i c u l a r l y jewellery and g i f t shops, can now be found on the st r e e t . Thus, the area's character has been s u b s t a n t i a l l y damaged. TABLE IV XVI MERCHANTS' COUNTRIES OF ORIGIN No Answer Canada Europe Germany Uganda Kenya . Chinese Other 22 33 24 6 10 13 5 113 Germans: 5.30% Germans and Europeans: 26.55% Not compatible with the area's character: 5 3.9 8% 4.6.b. Reasons Behind "Moving Thought" As has been discussed previously i n t h i s chapter, a substantial proportion of the respondents had "the moving thought" i n mind. Most of those who were thinking about moving ( f i f t e e n percent) a t t r i b u t e d the thought to one or more of the following reasons: - the need f o r more space (for less r e n t ) . 137 - d i s l i k e o f change i n the are a (such as new b u s i n e s s -es moving i n ) . - i n c r e a s i n g taxes and r e n t s . - d e c l i n e i n s a l e s volume ( f o r v a r i o u s r e a s o n s ) . 4.6.C. Owner-Merchant Versus Tenant-Merchant I t was d i s c o v e r e d t h a t most of the respondent merchants i n the area r e n t t h e i r premises r a t h e r than owning them, as shown i n Table IV XVII: TABLE IV XVII OWNER-MERCHANT VERSUS TENANT-MERCHANT No Answer Own Rent 71 3 39 T h i s t r e n d p l a c e s a d d i t i o n a l p r e s s u r e s on b u s i n e s s o p e r a t o r s as l a n d l o r d s t r y t o achieve the highest, r e t u r n s from t h e i r premises. Asked about the l e a s e terms, the merchants i n d i c a t e d t h a t most of them f e e l anxious about t h e i r f u t u r e i n the are a because they are not o f f e r e d secure l e a s e terms. TABLE IV XVIII LEASE TERMS No Answer No Lease 1-3 Years More than 3 Years 78 7 24 4 113 138 4.6.d. During the process of d i s t r i b u t i n g and c o l l e c t i n g the questionnaires, most of the respondents expressed anxiety over the rapid increase i n rents. The fac t that most of the respondents were not making enough p r o f i t to balance the rent increases made the problem worse. 4.6. e. Lack of Improvement i n the Area Another unhealthy sign i n the area i s that the majority of the respondents have never made any improvements to t h e i r l o t , block, or s t r e e t . The reason behind t h i s f a c t can be one of several, such as i n s e c u r i t y of merchants, f i n a n c i a l i n a b i l i t y , lack of f e e l i n g that they belong to the area. Tabulated responses can be found i n Appendix F. 4.7. Attitudes Towards the Area , The attitudes of the business operators were thought to be of great s i g n i f i c a n c e as they w i l l have an impact on the future of the area. Merchants' attitudes to-wards a number of issues such as the type of change they would l i k e to see, i f any, as well as t h e i r l i k e s and d i s l i k e s , were questioned. 4.7.a. Attitudes Towards Change Asked whether they would l i k e to see change taking place i n the study area, 14.29 per cent said yes, and 6.67 TABLE IV XIX PERCENTAGE OF RENT INCREASE No Answer 0%-39% . 40%-99%. 100% or more 86 10 10 7 113 TABLE IV XX CHANGE IN SALES VOLUME IN THE LAST FIVE YEARS VERSUS PERCENTAGE OF INCREASE IN RENT Percentage of Increase i n Rent No Answer 0%-39% 40%-99% 100% or more Total Volume in the last five Vears. No Answer 85 8 7 4 104 Volume in the last five Vears. 0-100% Increase 1 0 3 3 7 Volume in the last five Vears. More than 100% Increase 0 2 0 0 2 Volume in the last five Vears. Total 86 10 10 7 113 I TABLE-IV XXI -CHANGE-IN SALES -VOLUME SINCE-MOVING VERSUS PERCENTAGE OF INCREASE IN RENT Percentage of Increase in Rent No Answer 0%-39% 40%-99% 100% or more Total Change in Sales Vol-ume since moving No Answer 83 5 7 5 100 Change in Sales Vol-ume since moving 100%-0% Decreas i 1 2 0 1 4 Change in Sales Vol-ume since moving 0%-100% Increas 2 2 3 3 1 9 Change in Sales Vol-ume since moving Total 86 10 10 7 ' 113 140 percent said no, while 18.10 percent said " i t depends on the change", and 60.95 percent gave no answer. Most of the respondents thought that change would do the area good and agreed to change with or without reservations. Asked about what kind of change they would l i k e to see take place i n the area, the majority favored one or more of the following: - greenery, wider sidewalks, common awnings covering a l l store fronts. - renovation of e x i s t i n g b u i l d i n g s . - provision of larger stores, new b u i l d i n g s , low rents and longer leases. - re-emphasis of the European element (small s p e c i a l t y stores, unique merchandise, personalized s e r v i c e ) . 4.7.b. Likes and D i s l i k e s The responses to the l i k e s and d i s l i k e s of several aspects of the study area are tabulated i n Table IV XXII. Most of the reasons behind the l i k e s and d i s l i k e s have been discussed previously. The only a d d i t i o n a l category which needs explanation i s the " D i s l i k e s - Other" c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . Most of those who wanted to express t h e i r d i s l i k e s of the area other than those mentioned a t t r i b u t e d t h e i r d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n to one or more of the following: - The gradual loss of the o r i g i n a l Robsonstrasse European f l a v o r . - The condition of some of the older buildings (lack of maintenance). 141 - Lack of suitable parking f a c i l i t i e s . TABLE IV XXII LIKES AND DISLIKES Yes No No Answer Likes Location 24 15 74 113 Likes International Flavor 29 12 72 113 Likes S ize of Stores 12 27 74 113 Likes Lower Rents 5 34 74 113 Likes Other 4 32 77 113 Di sii kes Location 4 32 77 113 Di sii kes Crowds 1 35 77 113 Di sii kes Noise : 4 32 77 113 Di sii kes T r a f f i c 3 33 77 113 The preceding analysis of responses to the questionnaire provided an incomplete set of data about the area. However, i t has helped to formulate a c l e a r e r picture of the s i t u a t i o n i n the study area. This chapter has documented, to some degree, the fa c t that economic trends i n North America are causing a general decline i n downtown small businesses. These same trends are contributing to the d e t e r i o r a t i o n of Robson Street, a predominantly small-business area. Business types have changed enormously over the l a s t ten years: many incompatible businesses now e x i s t i n the area, as well as businesses which 142 are a t t r a c t i n g fewer customers than those once on the stre e t . Although no figures are available to support i t , merchants have the f e e l i n g that pedestrian t r a f f i c generally i s decreasing. R e t a i l sales volume i s on the decline. In addition, there i s heavy pressure f o r redevelopment, which could very e a s i l y lead to the establishment of highly incompatible businesses. A number of other problems pe c u l i a r to Robson Street are also contributing to the area's gradual decay. -The- -o r i g i n a l merchants are moving out, taking with them the merchandise which once gave the st r e e t i t s unique flavour. The fa c t that so many merchants are tenants and not owners means several things: f i r s t , the buildings are poorly maintained; second, i n s e c u r i t y over lease terms leads to a reluctance to make any sort of commitment to the area; t h i r d , merchants are being forced out by high rents; and fourth, merchants who do care about the area f e e l helpless to stop the inexorable decline. There i s a general f e e l i n g among the merchants that Robson Street i s badly i n need of a p o s i t i v e change. Thus, there i s ample evidence to support the hypothesis made at the beginning of t h i s chapter. Robson Street, without outside intervention, w i l l indeed lose i t s unique character. 143 FOOTNOTES: CHAPTER IV Brian J.L. Berry, Sandra J. Parsons and Rutherford H, P i a t t , The Impact of Urban Renewal on Small Business, The Hyde Park - Kenwood Case, (Chicago, I l l i n o i s : Center for Urban Studies, The University of Chicago i n Co-operation with The City of Chicago and the Department of Housing and Urban Development, 1968), p. x i i i . 2 Ibid., p. 81. 3 Ibid-.', p. 1. ,4 Ibid. S h i r l e y F. Weiss, The- Central Business D i s t r i c t In T r a n s i t i o n : Approaches to CBD Analysis and Forecasting Future Space Needs3 C i t y and Regional Planning Studies, Research Paper No. 1 (Chapel H i l l : Department of City and Regional Planning, University of North Carolina, 1957), p. 7. Ibid., p. 16. 7Ibid. 8Ibid. 9 Ibid., p. 17 10 T, . , Ibid. Ibid. Ibid. 13 Ibid. , p. 7 144 14 Malcolm J. Proudfoot, "City R e t a i l Structure," Economic Geography, XII (1937), p. 425. As c i t e d by: Shirley F. Weiss, op. c i t . , p. 7. "^Richard U. R a t c l i f f , Urban Land Economics (New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., 1949), pp. 387-388. As c i t e d by: Shir l e y F. Weiss, op. c i t . , p. 7. 16 U.S. Bureau of the Census, P o p u l a t i o n Estimates f o r S u r v i v a l P l a n n i n g , Washington: Department of Commerce, 1956, p. 9 . As c i t e d by: Shirley F. Weiss, op. c i t . , p. 12. 17 Shir l e y F. Weiss, op. c i t . , p. 12. Gerald William Breese, The Daytime P o p u l a t i o n of the Central Business D i s t r i c t of Chicago, with P a r t i c u l a r Reference to the Factor of Transportation, Chicago: Univer-s i t y of Chicago Press, 1949), p. 195. As c i t e d by: Shir l e y F. Weiss, op. c i t . , . p. 13. Homer Hoyt, One Hundred Years of Land Values in Chicago (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1933) ,.-.>p. 5. As c i t e d by: Shirley F. Weiss, op. c i t . , pp. 9,10. Richard M. Hurd, P r i n c i p l e s of City Land Values (4th ed.; New York: The Record and Guide, 1924), p. 159. As c i t e d by: Shirley F. Weiss, op. c i t . , p. 10. Calvin F. Schmid, S o c i a l Saga of Two C i t i e s (Minneapol-i s : Bureau of Social Research, The Minneapolis Council of Soc i a l Agencies, 1937), pp. 53-55. As c i t e d by: Shirley F. Weiss, op. c i t . , ' p . 10. Sh i r l e y F. Weiss,, op. c i t . , p. 10. 1 4 5 ^ " " H o r n e r H o y t , op. c i t . , p . v i i . A s c i t e d b y : S h i r l e y F . W e i s s , op. c i t . , p . 1 1 . 2 4 P a u l F . W e n d t , " C e n t r a l C i t y P r o p e r t y V a l u e s i n S a n F r a n c i s c o a n d O a k l a n d , " P a r t 4 , Parking as a Factor in Business 3 op. c i t . , p . 1 5 0 . A s c i t e d b y : N S h i r l e y F . W e i s s , op. c i t . , p . 1 1 . H . W i l l i a m s - O l s s o n , " S t o c k h o l m : I t s S t r u c t u r e a n d D e v e l o p m e n t , " Geographical Review, X X X ( 1 9 4 0 ) , p p . 4 2 0 - 4 3 8 . A s c i t e d b y : L e n o r e M . K e l l y , " I n t e n s i t y o f L a n d U s e i n t h e C o m m e r c i a l C o r e A r e a o f W o r c e s t e r , M a s s a c h u s e t t s , " ( u n p u b l i s h e d M a s t e r s T h e s i s , C l a r k U n i v e r s i t y , 1 9 5 0 ) , A b s t r a c t , p . i . A s c i t e d b y : S h i r l e y F . W e i s s , op. c i t . , . p p . 1 1 , 1 2 . i 146 CHAPTER V EXPERIMENTAL PREDICTIONS . . . Any complex system defines an i n t e g r i t y of i t s own and strongly r e s i s t s external changes. When complex systems change they usually change very s l i g h t l y and continuously, but when stressed further they w i l l often f l i p suddenly into an e n t i r e l y new c o n f i g u r a t i o n . 1 5.1. Introduction As has been mentioned previously, the study area at i t s peak strength and v i t a l i t y has been looked upon as a l i v i n g system with a l l of i t s variables i n natural balance. I t has also been demonstrated that there are a number of forces, i n t e r n a l and external, acting on the system. They cause changes i n the magnitude of the v a r i a b l e s , the i n t e r -action among them, and consequently,, the area as a whole which threaten i t s chances fo r s u r v i v a l and prosperity. I t i s the .objective.- of. this~chapter -to. predict, .the . amount of change these forces might cause in.a period of time and whether such change might disturb or destroy the area as a whole. The future of the area could be forecast by s e l e c t -ing the variables thought to be most s i g n i f i c a n t and assuming t h e i r i n t e r a c t i v e behaviour. This was made possible by using KSIM, an i n t e r a c t i v e p o l i c y simulation language. I t was hoped that the procedure would lead to 147 v a l i d a t i o n of the second hypothesis which states that: An abrupt change i n any of the p h y s i c a l , s o c i a l , or economic variables that comprise the environment of the study area may disturb i t s natural equilibrium and destroy i t s unique character. 5.2.. The Technique Used For the purpose of p r e d i c t i n g the future of the area, a simulation language, KSIM was used. KSIM i s a cross-impact language used i n studying environmental problems for forecasting purposes and cross-impact analysis. The reason t h i s p a r t i c u l a r language was used i s , f i r s t of a l l , that no technical s o p h i s t i c a t i o n i s required to become conversant With i t and secondly, that the model's formulation allows for contrary views to be e a s i l y expressed. A t h i r d reason i s that " i t allows one to work with data at any ; j l e v e l — from subjective estimates to highly precise physical measurements — . . ." 2 Therefore, such " s o f t " variables such as Local Color and Community Reaction could be r e a d i l y entered i n the matrix. The argument behind the use of subjective estimates i s that "an imperfect message or subjective evaluation - does contain some information". 3 B r i e f l y , KSIM has features that i) describe the complex i n t e r a c t i o n between the s o f t and hard v a r i a b l e s , i i ) encourage group i n t e r a c t i o n and serve well to focus the dialogue between people of d i f f e r i n g views. 14 8 i i i ) make natural and r e a l i s t i c assumptions about growth c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and i n t e r a c t i v e behaviour. Furthermore, these assumptions can be e a s i l y modified. iv) emphasize the s i g n i f i c a n c e of s t r u c t u r a l r e l a t i o n s rather than numberical pr e d i c t i o n s . Some r e l a t i v e measures are much more suggestive i n putting together mental pictures of the workings of complex systems. 4 5.3. The Procedure F i r s t , the relevant variables were defined and l i s t e d . Then, each variable was normalized to the range from zero to one. Following t h i s , a matrix was prepared summariz-ing the i n t e r a c t i o n among the v a r i a b l e s . At each l o c a t i o n we enter the action of the column heading upon the row heading. A plus entry indicates that the action of variable A upon va r i a b l e B i s p o s i t i v e ; that, i s A encourages B's growth and that such encouragement w i l l be proportional to both the r e l a t i v e size of A and the magnitude of the i n t e r -action c o e f f i c i e n t . 5 I t w i l l be noticed that both the entries i n the i n t e r a c t i o n matrix and the i n i t i a l values are somewhat ar b i t r a r y . There i s considerable room f o r disagreement. However, as mentioned previously, the ease of the model's formulation allows for contrary views to be expressed e a s i l y and i n a s e l f - c o n s i s t e n t fashion. 6 But once a p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r a c t i v e matrix and i n i t i a l values have been chosen, then the future i s set, continuously evolving from the i n i t i a l c o n f i g u r a t i o n . 7 Interaction matices can be found i n Tables V I, I I , and I I I . 149 5.4. Mathematical Structure As the writer has a l i m i t e d mathematical background, a d e t a i l e d presentation of the technical aspects had to be set'aside. However, the properties of the.language as c i t e d by Dr. J . Kane are: i) System variables are bounded. i i ) A variable increases or decreases according to whether the net impact of the other variables i s p o s i t i v e or negative. i i i ) A variable's response to a given impact decreases to zero as that variable approaches i t s upper or lower l i m i t . iv) A l l other things being equal, a v a r i a b l e w i l l produce greater impact on the system as i t grows larger. v) Complex int e r a c t i o n s are described by a looped network of binary i n t e r a c t i o n s . 8 5.5. Defining the Variables Choosing the r i g h t variables i s a key problem. There i s no formula that we can use to t e l l us whether we have picked up the r i g h t variables or l e f t out s i g n i f i c a n t ones. Rather, the choice i s i n t u i t i v e and depends on one's judgement and involvement with the problem. The process of choosing the variables w i l l always reveal one's perspective, that is,one's biases and attitudes towards the problem. Below, a l l the relevant variables are l i s t e d , and given names and i n i t i a l values over the range from 0 to 1. 150 Local Color: This i s the character and i d e n t i t y of the area as described i n Chapter I I I . It has been shown i n previous parts of the study that the character of the area i s decaying and getting weak. That i s , the o r i g i n a l merchants and the o r i g i n a l types of businesses are decreasing i n number. That i s why an i n i t i a l value of 0.2 was given to t h i s v a r i a b l e . From the matrix (Table V I) i t i s c l e a r that only two other variables are b e n e f i c i a l to the Local Color of the area. Those variables are Customer A t t r a c t i o n and Community Reaction. The importance of Customer A t t r a c t i o n has been proven since the v i t a l i t y of the area can be indicated by daytime population (shoppers and sales volume). As for Community Reaction, i t i s evident that only through the actions and reactions of those concerned about the area that something can be done. The variables which have a negative impact on Local Color include Cost, P o l i t i c a l Power, and Outside World. An increase i n any of these v a r i a b l e s w i l l a f f e c t the Local Color negatively. Customer A t t r a c t i o n : This i s the drawing power of the area. The i n i t i a l value given i s 0.5 since the heavy pedestrian t r a f f i c proves that the area i s an a t t r a c t i v e one. However, the area could probably a t t r a c t twice as many customers should i t revert to i t s o r i g i n a l European f l a v o r . As indicated above,.Customer 151 A t t r a c t i o n and Local Color share the same " f r i e n d l y " and "unfriendly" variables. Operating Costs: This term r e f e r s to the costs of running a small business i n the area. They include rent, taxes and other business expenses. In terms of business volume and returns, costs i n the study area are comparatively high. For t h i s reason, a value of 0.7 was given to t h i s v a r i a b l e . P r o f i t : For the businessman or merchant, p r o f i t i s the monetary expression of a gain i n net worth. I t i s stated as a percentage of sales revenue or funds invested. In t h i s context, p r o f i t can be given a comparative value: the r a t i o between the actual p r o f i t and the maximum p r o f i t that could be r e a l i z e d i n that s i t u a t i o n . Physical Development: This i s the extent of land use in.the study area. One i n d i c a t o r of the physical development i s the r a t i o of land improvement value to the assessed value for land alone. Another i s the r a t i o of actual FSR to the maximum allowable. It has been shown that the area i s underused and that the r a t i o . o f b u ilding value to land value i s very low i n most cases. Therefore, an i n i t i a l value of 0.2 was given to t h i s v a r i a b l e . ' 152 P o l i t i c a l Power: This term refers to the power of the c i t y adminis-t r a t i o n and other government a u t h o r i t i e s to impose regula-tions, conditions and orders, and to hold back any forces that w i l l cause abrupt change i n the area. Because the government has not always exercised these powers i n the area, an i n i t i a l value of 0.5 was assigned to t h i s v a r i a b l e . Commun i ty Re ac t i on: This re f e r s to i n t e r e s t groups approving or opposing actions of other i n t e r e s t groups i n the area. I t has been shown i n the h i s t o r i c study that although the value of the area i s well established, no adequate response to i t s decay and growing problems has been shown. That i s why an i n i t i a l value of 0.2 was given to t h i s v a r i a b l e . Outside World: This i s a very broad term which r e f e r s to a combination of external variables which act upon the . system but, which experience e s s e n t i a l l y no reaction i n turn. For the purposes of t h i s study, i t r e f e r s to the influence on the study area of economics, s o c i a l and other trends p r e v a i l i n g i n the downtown, the c i t y , and the country. The Outside World variable stays at a value of 1.0. 153 5.7. Experimental Predictions From Figure 5.1. and given the reasons behind the i n i t i a l value assigned to each v a r i a b l e , i t can be seen that Local Color, P r o f i t and Customer A t t r a c t i o n are d e c l i n i n g very r a p i d l y within the f i f t y time increments. At the same time, Physical Development, P o l i t i c a l Power and Operating Costs are r i s i n g . Community Reaction stays at an almost constant l e v e l . These projections coincide with the perceived dangers to the area. ~ - - - - " I t must be emphasized that f o r t h i s simulation, the increments along the time-axis do. not represent actual time spans. Rather, the graphs indicate eventual trends, eventual r e l a t i o n s h i p s among the variables, given c e r t a i n i n i t i a l values.and i n t e r a c t i o n matrix. A l t e r n a t i v e No. 1: (Table V II and Figure 5.2.) Let us suppose that major r e v i t a l i z a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s take place i n the area for regaining and preserving the o r i g i n a l character of the area. Should these e f f o r t s be successful, the Local Color v a r i a b l e would change i t s value T from 0.2 to 0.7.( n order to achieve t h i s high value for Local Color, however, Physical Development must r e t a i n i t s comparatively low value of 0.2.). Consequently, the area w i l l a t t r a c t even more customers and bring more p r o f i t to the merchants. For t h i s reason the i n i t i a l value of Customer A t t r a c t i o n was increased to 0.8 and P r o f i t was increased to 0.5. These changes would draw the attention of the govern-L O C O L O R A T T R A C T C O S T P R O F I T D E V E L O P P O L P O W C O M M R E AC OUTWORLD L O C O L O R 1.00 3.00 - 4 . 0 0 _ 1 ._00 1 . 0 0 _ _ _ ^ . J P J O _ _ l - . - 0 0 -4.00 DER i vi * ) 0 . 6 ' o . o " o.o ~ " " o.o " 6.6 0.6 0.0 0.0 A T T R A C T 1.00 3 .00 -3.00 - 1 . 00 1.00 - 1.00 1.00 ~ 3 ' 1 ° D E R I V ( * ) 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 "~OT0 OTO" C O S T - 1.00 -3.00 3.00 -2.00 3.00 2.00 - 1.00 4.00 DER IV ( * " ) 0 . 0 0 " . 0 ; 0 . 0 0 . 6 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 P R O F I T 2.00 4.00 - 4.00 3.00 - 1 .00 ~ z ' ° _ 0 ~ 2 ' ® ° DER I V (*) 676 OTO 6To 676 070 ~U7U OTO" OTO t , D E V E L O P -2.00 _ - 3 . 0 0 _ _ _ ' 3.00 - 1.00 3.00 3.00 - 1 . 00 4.00 DER i v l * > " 6 . 6 6 . 6 •  — - Q o . o " o . o o.o o.o P O L P O W - 1.00 -2 .00 - 3 . 0 0 1.00 2.00 3.00 -2.00 3 .00 DER i v (* > 676" o.o 676 676 676 676 67o 0T0 C O M M R E A C 3.00 4.00 3.00 -2.00 1.00 - 3 . 0 0 _ 3.00 - 3 . 0 0 D E R i v ( * V 6 7 6 " " 6.6 '"" 6.0" 6.6 6.6 6.6 6.6 0.6 I n i t i a l V a l u e s : C u s t o m e r A t t r a c t i o n A T T R A C T : 0 . 5 "Cast COST-—" r—QTT P r o f i t P R O F I T . : 0 . 2 P h y s i c a l D e v e l o p m e n t D E V E L O P : 0 . 2 P o l i t i c a l P o w e r P O L P O W ~r 0 T 5 C o m m u n i t y R e a c t i o n C O M M R E A C : 0 . 2 T A B L E V . I I N T E R A C T I O N M A T R I X F O R S I M U L A T I O N — O F " T H E E X I S T I N G S I T U A T I O N " " " " " " " " LOCOLOR ATTRACT COST PROFIT DEVELOP POLPOW COMMREAC OUTWORLD LOCOLOR 3 .00 3 ._0_0 -L.-QQ "V. 00— — 1 .00 1 .00 3. 00 -3.00 DERIV ( * ) 0 .0 0 .0 0.0 0. 0 '0 . o o.o 0. 0 0.0 ATTRACT 3 .00 3 .00 -1.00 -1. 00 1 .00 1.00 2. 00 -2.00 D E R I V l * ) 0 .0 0.0 0 .0 0. 0 0 .0 0.0 0. 0 0.0 COST 1 .00 -1 .00 2.00 -2. 00 -1 .00 -1.00 -1 . 00 2.00 D E R I V l * ) 0 .0 0.0 0.0 0. 0 - 0 .0 0.0 o PROFIT 2 . 00 3 .00 -2.00 2. 00 -1 . 00 -1.00 -1 . 00 ' -1.00 DERI V ( * ) 0 .0 0,0 0.0 0. 0 0 .0 0.0 o. 0 0.0 , DEVELOP -3 .00 -2.00 2.00 2. 00 3 .00 2.00 -2. 00 3.00 DER1V I *) 0 .0 0.0 0.0 0. 0 0 . o o.o 0. 0.0 POLPOW ' 1 .00 ' 2.00 -1 .00 -1. 00 1 .00 2.00 1. 00 -1.00 DER I V l * ) . 0 .0 0.0 0.0 0. 0 0 . 0 0.0 0. 0 0 .0 COMMREAC 3 .00 3.00 -1.00 -1 . 00 -1 .00 -1.00 2. 00 -1.00 DER I V ( * ) 0 .0 0 .0 0.0 0. 0 0 .0 0.0 0. 0 o . o * " I n i t i a l Values Local Color LOCOLOR : 0.7 Customer A t t r a c t i o n ATTRACT : 0.8 -Cast "COST P r o f i t PROFIT Physical Development DEVELOP P o l i t i c a l P o w e r POLPOW Community Reaction COMMREAC -U-T5-0.6 0.2 0T7-0.5 TABLE V II INTERACTION MATRIX FOR SIMULATION OF "ALTERNATIVENO."'""I" cn Figure 5^2. Projected Trends For A l t e r n a t i v e No. 1 L O C G L O R A T T R A C T C O S T P R O F I T D E V E L O P P O L P O W ' C O M M R E A C O U T W O R L D L O C O L O R _ 0.0 1 .00 -4 .00 _ _ -3 .00 -4 .00 J L l i O O _ _ _ — £ * - 0 — - 3 . 0 0 — „._.„.. - Q~Q-~ . ... ^ ^ o .0 " ~ M 0.0 0.6 0.0 ATTRACT 1 . 0 0 2 . 0 0 - 3 . 0 0 - 3 . 0 0 - 3 . 0 0 - 2 . 0 0 1 . 0 0 ~ 3 ' Q ° DER I V l * ) 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 OTO" 0~70 COST 0 . 0 0 . 0 3 . 0 0 " 2 . 0 0 3 . 0 0 2 . 0 0 - 1 . 0 0 3 . 0 0 D E R i V Y * ) 0 . 0 o . o ~ o . d o . o o . o o . o o . o 0 . 0 ' PROFIT 1 . 0 0 2 . 0 0 - 3 . 0 0 1 . 0 0 1 . 0 0 0^0 - 1 . 0 0 , - 1 . 0 0 D E ' R I V l * ) 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 . DEVELOP - 1 . 0 0 - 1 . 0 0 . ,0.0 _ 1 . 0 0 3 . 0 0 2 . 0 0 _ - 2 . 00 3 . 0 0 D E ' R i v i * ) o . o " ' ~ o . o 6 . 6 o . o 6 . 6 o . o o . o o . o POLPOW 1 . 00 1 . 0 0 - 1 . 0 0 - 1 . 00 - 1 . 0 0 1 . 0 0 1 . 0 0 - 1 . 0 0 D E R I V l * ) 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 COMMREAC 1 . 0 0 1 . 0 0 . - 2 . 0 0 - 2 . 00 - 2 . 0 0 - 2 . 0 0 . . . 1 . 0 0 - 2 . 0 0 D - E R I V ( < c , o . 6 . o . o 6 . 6 6 . 6 6 . 6 6 . 6 o . o o . o I n i t i a l Values: Customer A t t r a c t i o n ATTRACT : 0 . 2 UosT^ C0~5T— r~UT9 P r o f i t PROFIT : 0 . 2 Physical Development DEVELOP : 0 . 9 P o l i t i c a l P o w e r " P O L P O W " T ~ 0 T 2 - ~ : ; " ~ Community Reaction COMMREAC : 0 . 2 TABLE V III INTERACTION MATRIX FOR SIMULATION • ~ " " " _ ~ 7 OF "ALTERNATIVE N 0 ; 2 ~ " ~ T ~ " ~ " - Ul CO TIME Figure 5.3. Projected'Trends For Alternative No. 2 160 ment and concerned c i t i z e n groups and encourage them to protect the area by means of enforced guidelines, zoning by-laws, concerned citizens:' .meetings, demonstrations, and so on. The i n i t i a l values given to these two variables under the new s i t u a t i o n are 0.7 and 0.5 r e s p e c t i v e l y . The i n t e r -action among the variable with the new values i s summarized in Table V I I . The future evolving from t h i s configuration as i l l u s t r a t e d in-Figure-5.2. looks much more encouraging t h a n j i t does i n Figure 5.1. Alternative No. 2: (Table V I I I and Figure 5.3.) I f , on the other hand, a major redevelopment occurs with p r o f i t as i t s main objective, the s i t u a t i o n w i l l be completely d i f f e r e n t . As the i n t e n s i t y of development increases, the i n i t i a l values of Cost w i l l increase from the o r i g i n a l s i t u a t i o n while Local Color, P o l i t i c a l Power, P r o f i t and Customer A t t r a c t i o n w i l l s t a r t at lower values. The decrease of these variables w i l l continue as i l l u s t r a t e d i n Figure 5.3. The outcome looks disasterous under t h i s kind of change. 5.8. Conclusions The experimental predictions are hard to defend because of the lack of thorough knowledge of the model's mathematic workings and because of the s u b j e c t i v i t y attached 161 to i t s formulation. However, there i s some value i n t h i s procedure i n that the resultant graphs represent eventual trends which are based on the general thinking i n the area. With the l a s t statement i n mind, i t should be noted that results w i l l vary according to who handles the experiment. 'Al t e r n a t i v e No. 1 demonstrates that r e v i t a l i z a t i o n (higher i n i t i a l value for Local Color) would have a markedly b e n e f i c i a l e f f e c t on the study area. A l t e r n a t i v e No. 2, which simulates a major development i n the area, shows c l e a r l y the detrimental e f f e c t of such a development. Thus, thi s abstract simulation does show that: An abrupt change i n any of the p h y s i c a l , s o c i a l , or economic variables that comprise the environment of the study area may disturb i t s natural equilibrium, and destroy i t s unique character. 162 FOOTNOTES: CHAPTER V ^"J. Kane, Lectures given at U.B.C., Ecology 500, Winter Semester, 1975. 2 J. Kane, "A Primer For a New Cross-Impact Language-KSIM, Technological Forecasting & Social Change 4, (1972), p. 129. 3 J. Kane, I. Vertmsky and W. Thomson, "KSIM: A Method-ology For Interactive Resource P o l i c y Simulation," Water Resources Research,. V o l . 9, No. 1, February * 1973, p. 67. 4 J. Kane, I. Vertinsky and W. Thomson, op. c i t . , p. 65. 5 J. Kane, I b i d . , p. 130. 6 I b i d . 1 I b i d . 8 I b i d . 163 CHAPTER VI VIEWS AND SPECULATIONS The preceding chapters have o u t l i n e d the past, evolution, and present of the study area, as well as experimental predictions for i t s ' f u t u r e . I t i s f e l t that enough background material and data have been provided to make possible the formulation of views and speculations regarding the area as a whole. View 1 The threats facing the study area are so great and the area's a b i l i t y to defend i t s e l f i s so l i m i t e d that the area i s de t e r i o r a t i n g rapidly and no longer maintaining i t s unique character. Supporting Evidence: -i) The disappearance of many of the o r i g i n a l compatible businesses of the area. i i ) The appearance of many new developments which are incompatible with the o r i g i n a l character, e s p e c i a l l y on the north side of the study area. i i i ) The change of the ethnic composition, of the business operators. For d e t a i l s see Chapter IV "Loss of Character," and Appendix E. iv) The run-down appearance of the area due to lack of maintenance and loss of i n t e r e s t on the part of the merchants. v) The fe e l i n g s of anxiety and i n s e c u r i t y expressed .-.- by. merchants because of such factors as decline 164 i n s a l e s volume, r i s i n g o p e r a t i n g c o s t s , e v a c u a t i o n t h r e a t s , e t c . v i ) The p r e v a i l i n g t r e n d toward l a r g e - s c a l e developments i n Vancouver and o t h e r North American c i t i e s . In view o f the above, the f i r s t h y p o t h e s i s s t a t e d i n Chapter I i s made v a l i d : L e f t t o i t s own r e s o u r c e s and w i t h o u t o u t s i d e a s s i s t a n c e , t h e study area d e f i n e d h e r e i n as Robson S t r e e t w i l l not be ab l e to s u r v i v e , p r o s p e r , and m a i n t a i n i t s unique c h a r a c t e r . View 2 . The type, magnitude, and r a t e o f change i n any o f the s o c i a l and economic v a r i a b l e s may cause imbalance t o the whole area and do i r r e p a i r a b l e damage t o i t s c h a r a c t e r . S u p p o r t i n g E v i d e n c e : i ) Change i n the type and s c a l e o f development w i l l a f f e c t o p e r a t i n g c o s t s and, i n t u r n , the socio-economic composition o f the merchants, which w i l l . b e r e f l e c t e d i n t h e i r wares. i i ) The i n c r e a s e i n o p e r a t i n g c o s t s has caused many o f the o r i g i n a l merchants t o move out o f the a r e a . i i i ) The change i n the e t h n i c c o m p o s i t i o n o f the merchants w i l l tend t o change the c l i e n t e l e . i v ) I n c r e a s e d p r o f i t s f o r landowners mean i n c r e a s e d r e n t s f o r merchants, which are passed on t o customers as h i g h e r p r i c e s . T h i s c y c l i c a l p r o c e s s w i l l a f f e c t the socio-economic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the c l i e n t e l e . The above.evidence makes the second'hypothesis appear e s s e n t i a l l y c o r r e c t : 165 An abrupt change i n any o f the p h y s i c a l , s o c i a l , o r economic v a r i a b l e s -that comprise the environment o f the study a r e a may d i s t u r b i t s n a t u r a l e q u i l i b r i u m , and d e s t r o y i t s unique c h a r a c t e r . Many changes have taken p l a c e i n the a r e a ; t h e i r types and magnitudes i n the l a s t t e n y e a r s have caused the tremendous d e t e r i o r a t i o n of the study a r e a . T h i s makes one wonder whether the common assumption t h a t urban r e n e w a l 1 w i l l k i l l the area i s n e c e s s a r i l y v a l i d ; i f renewal does not take p l a c e , the area w i l l most l i k e l y d i e an u n t i m e l y death because o f the type o f change a l r e a d y o c c u r i n g . Indeed, c e r t a i n changes c o u l d be very b e n e f i c i a l t o the area (see Chapter V, Case 2 ) . However, t h i s i s not to say t h a t urban renewal w i l l not harm the a r e a . Urban renewal w i l l not o n l y cause l i q u i d -a t i o n 2 o f e x i s t i n g b u s i n e s s e s , but i t w i l l a l s o l e a v e a l i t t l e chance f o r these b u s i n e s s e s t o r e l o c a t e , s i n c e the r e n t s i n the new development w i l l be out o f t h e i r r e a c h . In an area as unique as Robson S t r e e t , d i s p l a c e m e n t i s a g r e a t trauma f o r the s m a l l b u s i n e s s o p e r a t o r , not o n l y f i n a n c i a l l y , but a l s o e m o t i o n a l l y , as he cannot f e e l as detached as the c h a i n - s t o r e e x e c u t i v e who a r t i c u l a t e s the a l t e r n a t i v e s more d i s p a s s i o n a t e l y . The problem c o n f r o n t i n g s m a l l b u s i n e s s e s a f t e r , d isplacement a r e : i ) Loss o f r e g u l a r customers, i i ) Moving c o s t s . 166 i i i ) F i n d i n g a s u i t a b l e new l o c a t i o n , i v ) Other r e l o c a t i o n expenses. 3 - View 3 I f the ar e a i s to be saved, the p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f a l l the d i f f e r e n t groups i s needed. The landowners and developers are o n l y motivated by p r o f i t and the merchants, i n s e c u r e and f i n a n c i a l l y i n c a p a b l e , cannot do much f o r the are a . Moreover, the l a c k o f o r g a n i z e d c i t i z e n groups l e a v e s o n l y one a l t e r n a t i v e : a massive government i n t e r v e n t i o n t o save the area. T h i s c o u l d be i n the form o f zoning by-laws, e n f o r c e d g u i d e l i n e s , o r heavy s u b s i d y f o r s u i t a b l e p r o j e c t s . S u p p o r t i n g E v idence: i ) L e f t t o market t r e n d s , the ar e a w i l l change co m p l e t e l y . i i ) The p r o p o s a l s f o r redevelopment d e s c r i b e d i n Chapter I I I are e i t h e r u n r e a l i s t i c o r not s i n c e r e l y concerned w i t h p r e s e r v i n g the area's c h a r a c t e r . i i i ) Because redevelopment by p r i v a t e e n t e r p r i s e i s mot i v a t e d l a r g e l y by p r o f i t , such p r o j e c t s are o f t e n so commercialized as t o be.completely u n s u i t a b l e t o the area's o r i g i n a l c h a r a c t e r . S p e c u l a t i o n s i ) With the p r e v a i l i n g , economic and s o c i a l trends t h e r e i s v e r y l i t t l e chance f o r d i v e r s i t y i n a r c h i t e c t u r a l o r economic s c a l e anywhere i n the downtown. Robson S t r e e t i s a study i n - d i v e r s i t y . i i ) The t i d e o f l a r g e - s c a l e developments w i l l take over s i n c e they are more v i a b l e e c o n o m i c a l l y ; Robson S t r e e t s h o u l d be p r e s e r v e d as an area which f a v o r s q u a l i t y over q u a n t i t y . 167 i i i ) Downtown w i l l soon cease to be a meeting or gathering place, since the new developments o f f e r only uninviting open spaces and over-powering buildings. Robson Street, by contrast, i s a streetscape which i n v i t e s gatherings and s o c i a l i z i n g . iv) There i s no future for the small business i n downtown areas. Robson Street i s one of the few areas i n the downtown which could o f f e r the small business a future. v) Robson Street evolved out of s o c i a l and economic needs which are no longer v a l i d (see Chapter III, "A B r i e f H i s t o r i c Overview") . In order f o r i t to continue l i v i n g , an outside force must bring equilibrium back to the area. 168 FOOTNOTES: CHAPTER VI Urban renewal i s known to be undertaken by public agencies i n what they perceive to be the general community good because private decision and actions are held.to be incapable of achieving the ends desired and because the benefits exceed the costs by a greater margin than they would i n some a l t e r n a t i v e use of public funds. As c i t e d by: Brian J.L. Berry, Sandra J. Parsons and Rutherford H. P i a t t , The Impact of Urban Renewal on Small Business 3 The Hyde Park -Kenwood Case, (Chicago, I l l i n o i s : Center for Urban Studies, The University of Chicago i n Co-operation with The City of Chicago and the Department of Housing and Urban Development, 1968) , p. 175.. ^•"Liquidation" i s to re f e r to formal actions to li q u i d a t e and other discontinuances including those firms which simply disappear. As c i t e d by: Brian J.L. Berry, I b i d . , p. 12. 3 • Brian J.L. Berry, I b i d . , p. 171. 169 BIBLIOGRAPHY Books 1. Alonso, William, " C i t i e Planners, and Urban Renewal," ed., James Q. Wilson, Urban Renewal: The Record and the Controversy, (Cambridge: M.I.T. Press, 1966), pp. 449-452. 2. Berry, Brian J.L., Sandra J . Peasons, and Rutherford H. P i a t t , The Impact of Urban Renewal on Small Business, The Hyde Park-Kenwood Case, Chicago, I l l i n o i s : Center for Urban Studies, The University of Chicago i n Co-operation with the City of Chicago and the Department of Housing and Urban Development, 1968. 3. Blumenfeld, H., The Modern Metropolis: I t s Origin, Growth, Characteristics, and Planning, Cambridge, Mass.: The M.I.T. Press, 1967. 4. Breese, Gerald William, The Daytime Population of the Central Business D i s t r i c t of Chicago, with Particular Reference to the Factor of Transportation, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1949. 4. Chermayeff, Serge and Christopher Alexander, Community and Privacy: Toward a New Architecture of Humanism, 2nd ed., New York: Anchor Books Doubleday and Company Inc., 1965. 6. Cross, K.J. and R.W. C o l l i e r , The Urban Renewal Process in Canada: An Analysis of Current Practice, Vancouver: University of B r i t i s h Columbia, n.d. 7. Davis, Kingsley, The "Urbanization of Human Population," A Scientific American Book, Dennis Flangan (ed.), 14th ed., New York: A l f r e d A. Knopf, 1972. 8. Gruen, V i c t o r , The Heart of Our C i t i e s , The Urban C r i s i s : Diagnosis and Cure, New York: Simon and Schuster, 1964. 9. Gunn, A.N., Vancouver, B r i t i s h Columbia: The Profile of Canada's Pacific Metropolis, Vancouver: Smith Lithographic Co. Ltd., 1968. 10. Halprin, Lawrence, C i t i e s , New York: Reinhold Publishing Co., 1963. 170 11. Harris, Chauncy D. and Edward L. Ullman, "The Nature of C i t i e s , " Readings in Urban Geography, ed. , Harold M. Mayer and Clyde F. Khon, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1959. 12. Hoyt, Homer, .One Hundred Years of Land Values in Chicago, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1933. 13. Hurd, Richard M.,. Principles of City Land Values, 4th ed. New York: The Record and Guide, 1924. -14. Jacobs, Jane, The Death and Life of Great American C i t i e s , New York: Random House, 1961. 15. Ketchum, Morris, J r . , Shops and Stores, revised e d i t i o n , Progressive Architecture Library, New York: Reinhold Publishing Co., 1957. 16. Long, E. Norton, "Local Government and Renewal P o l i c i e s , " ed., James Q. Wilson, Urban Renewal: The Record and the Controversy, Cambridge: M.I.T. Press, 1966. 17. M i l l e r , J.M. (ed.), New Life of Cities Around the World: International Hand Book i n Urban Renewal, New York: Books International, 1959. 18. Morley, ,A. , Vancouver: From Milltown to Metropolis, Vancouver: M i t c h e l l Press, 1969. 19. Nelson, R.L., The Selection of Retail Locations, New York: Dodge, 1958. 20. Nelson, R.L. and F.T. Aschman, Real Estate and City Planning, Englewood C l i f f s , N.J.: Pr e n t i c e - H a l l , 1957. 21. Rasmussen, David.W., Urban Economics, F l o r i d a State University, Harper and Row Publishers, New York: Evanston, San Francisco, London, 1973. 22. R a t c l i f f , Richard U. , Urban Land Economics, New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., 1949. ' 23. Roseth, John.(ed-), Urban Redevelopment i n Inner City Areas; Ways and Means of Achievement, Planning, Research Centre Withing the Un i v e r s i t y of Sydney. NSW A u s t r a l i a : James Bennet, [Collaroy] PTY Ltd., 1966. 24. Schmid, Calvin F., Social Saga of Two C i t i e s , Minneapolis: Bureau of Social Research, The Minneapolis Council of S o c i a l Agencies, 1937. 25. Stanton, W.J., Fundamentals of Marketing, New York: McGraw-Hill, 1967. 171 26. Stone, L.O., Urban•Development in Canada: An Introduction to the Demographic .Aspects, Ottawa: Dominion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s , 1967. 27. Thomas, L., "Restored Commercial Bu i l d i n g , " How the City Saves Face, San Francisco, 1968. 28. Weiss, S h i r l e y F., The Central Business District in Transition: Approaches to CBD Analysis and Forecasting Future Space Needs, C i t y and Regional Planning Studies, Research Paper No. 1, Chapel H i l l : Department of C i t y and Regional Planning, University of North Carolina, 1957. 29. Wendt, Paul F., "Central Cit y Property Values i n San Fran-ci s c o and Oakland," Part 4 of Parking as a Factor in Business, n.p., n.d. 30. Woodbury, C. (ed.), Urban Redevelopment: Problems and Practices, Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1953. Pe r i o d i c a l s 31. Abrams, Charles, "Downtown Decay and Revival," Journal of the American Institute of Planners , XXVIII, No. 1, (February, 1961), 3-9. 32. Kane, J . , "A Primer For A New Cross-Impact Language -KSIM," Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 4, 1972, 129-136. 33. Kane, J . , I. Vertinsky and W. Thomson, "KSIM: A Method-ology For Interactive Resource P o l i c y Simulation," Water Resources Research, Vol. 9, No. 1, February, 1973, 67-72. 34. Martineau, P., "The Personality of the R e t a i l Store," Harvard Business Review, XXXVI, 1 (January-February, 1958), 47-55. 35. Morris, Robert L. and S. Zisman, "The Pedestrian, Down-town and the Planners," Journal of the American I n s t i t u t e of Planners, XXVIII (May, 1962), 152-156. 36. Nelson, R.L. and F.T- Aschman, Conservation. and Rehabilitation of Major Shopping D i s t r i c t s , Urban Land I n s t i t u t e Technical B u l l e t i n No. 22. Washington, D.C.: The Urban Land I n s t i t u t e , February, 1964. 172 37. Picket, Stanley H., "Urban Renewal, of Fundamentals of Planning," Ontario Housing, XI, No. 4 ( A p r i l , 1966), 11-15. 38. Proudfoot, Malcolm J . , "City R e t a i l Structure," Economic Geography, XII (1937), 425-429. 39. Rannells, John, "Approaches to Analysis," Journal of the American I n s t i t u t e of Planners, XXVIII (February, 1961), 17-25. 40. Smith, Larry, "Commercial Real Estate Relations Downtown and Suburban," Urban Land, XV, No. 3.(March, 1956), 3-5. 41. William-Olsson, H., "Stockholm: Its Structure and Development," Geographical Review, XXX, 1940, 420-438. 42. Wolfe, M.R., "Shopping Streets and The Pedestrian Rediscovered," American I n s t i t u t e of Architects Journal, XXXVII (May, 1962), 33-42. 43. "The C i t y : The Pl o t to Save Robson," Western Homes and Living, (Vancouver, May 1970) . 44. "San Francisco's New Gold Coast," The Economist, A p r i l 5, 1969, 59-60. 45. "The Sparks Street M a l l , Ottawa," The Canadian Architect, (June, 1960), 65-68. Unpublished Works 46. Jamieson, William S.,."Analysis of Growth of Vancouver's Central Business D i s t r i c t , " Unpublished Master Thesis, University of B r i t i s h .Columbia, 1972. 47. Wood, S.E., "Commercial R e h a b i l i t a t i o n Within the Central Business D i s t r i c t : P o l i c i e s for Future Use," Unpublished Master Thesis, Un i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1967. Reports 48. Hotson, Norman, Open Space, A Policy Outline For the West End, Vancouver, 1973. 49. Report from Irwin/Beinhaker and Partners to Mr. M. Andain, Special Advisor to the Minister of Housing, Government of the Province of B r i t i s h Columbia, January 3, 1974. 173 50. Kennedy, Warnett and Associates Planning Consultants, International Centre, Vancouver, B.C., "Suggested Contents of the Centre," unpublished report, 19 71. 51. P u r c e l l , Susan, "Report on Robson Street," based on a l e t t e r from Susan P u r c e l l to the Mayor and Members of the C i t y Council, Vancouver, January 18, 1970. 52. Siegal, Jack M. and C. William Brooks, Slum Prevention Through Conservation and Rehabilitation, Report of Sub-committee on Urban Redevelopment, R e h a b i l i t a t i o n and Conservation to the President's Advisory Committee on Government Housing P o l i c i e s and Program, (Washington, D.C.: Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1953). 53. Uibel, J . Lynn, Robson International V i l l a g e Community Co-operative, A F i r s t Area Development Concept, Vancouver, 1974. 54. W i l l i s and G u n c l i f f Engineering Ltd., Application For Urban Renewal Project: Bastion Square Restoration Project Phase 2, V i c t o r i a : W i l l i s and G u n c l i f f , 1966. 55. Report to the Development Permit Board, Development Permit A p p l i c a t i o n No. 72224, 1060 Robson Street and 1061 Haro Street (N.B. Cook Corporation); and Development Permit App l i c a t i o n No. 72 331, 1105 Haro Street and 855 Burrard Street (Olympia and York Developments L t d . ) , Vancouver Ci t y Planning Department, February 9,19 76. 56. Robson Area Development P r o p o s a l s — F u l l Report, City of Vancouver Planning Department, June 6, 1975. 57. Report to the Planning and Development Committee, Re: Development Permit Ap p l i c a t i o n No. 69572. Recommendations and Guidelines f o r Development of C i t y and Private Land i n and around the Smithe/Haro/Burrard Intersections, including p a r t i a l Robson Street Guidelines, May 22, 1975. 58. The Vancouver City Planning Commission, Downtown Guidance Panel Report, Vancouver: December, 1974. 59. The Downtown Study Team of the C i t y of Vancouver, Down-town Vancouver Planning Concepts for Future Developments For Control of Development Report For ..Discussion, Vancouver: September, 1974. 59. West End Urban Design Regulations, Vancouver, n.d. 60. The Vancouver Sun, July, 1970. 174 61. City of Vancouver Archives, Robson Street F i l e . 62. Bureau of Municipal Research, A P o s i t i v e Approach to Urban Renewal, Toronto: Bureau of Municipal Research. 63. U.S. Bureau of the Census, Population Estimates for Survival Planning, Washington: Department of Commerce, 1956. APPENDIX A "Diversity i n the Downtown" W e ' v e all been c r i t i cs o f d o w n t o w n archi tecture and d e v e l o p m e n t at some t ime or another, and cer ta in ly this recent decade has seen many o f ou r c i t i zens e m b r o i l e d in bitter debate o v e r what s h o u l d , and shou ld not , be permit ted to reach into o u r V a n c o u v e r s k y l i n e . A s a sort o f re t rospect ive to this era o f debate , and perhaps a p r e c u r s o r to another round of argument yet to c o m e , we a s k e d c i ty archi tect R o g e r K e m b l e to take to the streets w i t h his sketch b o o k and pre jud ices . " S h o w us where you be l ieve things worked?" w e a s k e d h i m , and this is what he c a m e back w i t h . T h i s , t h e n , in the v i e w o f one m a n i s : w am w B y R o g e r K e m b l e Many of these perceptions are of large buildings, but not all excitement Is derived from huge developments. In fact, quite the contrary. What is most important is the opportunity to combine the large with the small. The drawing above is of a little building on Richards Street. Let's hope it is in for a long life. The Court House (below) has always been essentially an ugly building. So far as classical revival is concerned, it is meek and bland. But it's all we've got, and now it is seen in combination with huge glass towers. It has taken on a new grandeur as a modest textured reminder that brute power must have a complement. XJVER A g r a n d o l d b u i l d i n g in one o f V a n c o u v e r ' s mos t u n j u s t l y i g n o r e d u r b a n street scenes — West P e n d e r S t r e e t , west o f V i c t o r y S q u a r e . S o m e d a y , someone at C i t y H a l l is g o i n g to r e a l i z e tha t th i s c o n g l o m e r a t i o n o f b e a u t i f u l l y modest b u i l d i n g s a n d ac t iv i t i e s w i l l be d e s e r v i n g o f spe-c i a l t r ea tmen t o f i ts o w n . O l d a n d n e w h a v e of ten fi t ted w e l l t o g e t h e r , a p a r t f r o m the a t t r a c t i v e d e s i g n p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f c o m b i n i n g g inge r -b r e a d w i t h r e f l ec t ive g lass . I n th i s i n s t a n c e , the o l d Pos t Of f ice at H a s t i n g s a n d G r a n v i l l e a c t u a l l y e n h a n c e s the U . K . B u i l d i n g ' s b l a n d b a c k d r o p . T h e o l d V a n c o u v e r B l o c k t o w e r reflects f r o m the su r f ace of G r a n v i l l e & G e o r g i a ' s s e c o n d b l a c k t o w e r w i t h the b r i g h t l y t e x t u r e d B a y b u i l d i n g c o m p l e t i n g the c o m p o s i -t i o n . W h a t e v e r m a y be s a i d a b o u t t h e d e m i s e o f d o w n t o w n s e l s ewhere doesn ' t h o l d t r u e i n V a n c o u v e r . T h i s i n t e r sec t ion a n d the C o u r t H o u s e S q u a r e s t i l l has to be one o f the mos t e x c i t i n g u r b a n scenes a n y w h e r e . T h e r e ' s the f a m i l i a r , o l d c l o c k t o w e r , a n d it c e r t a i n l y does l o o k f o r l o r n a n d l o n e l y n o w . D o u b t l e s s the m a s t o -d o n r e a r i n g i t s e l f b e h i n d w o n ' t be m u c h c o m p a n y . B u t there a r e a g rea t n u m b e r o f peop le a r o u n d a n d they m a k e a l l the d i f f e r e n c e . H o p e f u l l y they w i l l k e e p it tha t way. A most successfu l u r b a n se t t i ng — C o u r t H o u s e S q u a r e . R e m e m b e r B e n n e t t ' s t o w e r ? W e l l , It 's a l l se t t led d o w n n o w in to wha t is p r o b a b l y W e s t e r n C a n a d a ' s mos t exc i t -ing u r b a n foca l p o i n t . O l d a n d new c o m p l e m e n t one a n o t h e r , r e f l ec t ing e a c h o t h e r ' s g o o d p o i n t s . A n d it w i l l be even b e l t e r w h e n E a t o n ' s a n d the T o r o n t o D o m i n i o n B a n k relent a n d d e v e l o p street l eve l f acades f o r some in te res t ing loss - leader r e t a i l a c t i v i t y . Ill SftgSigS ss|ss||s M A final a n d m o s t success fu l c o m b i n a t i o n o f u r b a n d e s i g n , b o t h b y the s a m e o w n e r — the o l d C P R s t a t i o n a n d the new V a n c o u v e r S q u a r e T o w e r . APPENDIX B Questionnaire Administered to Robson Street Merchants and Accompanying Letter 176a S T R I C T L Y C O N F I D E N T I A L ROBSON STREET SURVIVAL QUESTIONNAIRE A. CUSTOMER ATTRACTION INFORMATION 1. Number.of years in operation in Robson Street: years. 2. On the average, what is the number of customers entering the store per week day? customers. On Saturdays? customers. S. Approximately what is the percentage of customers who actually make purchases? B. STORE SIZE AND LOCATION INFORMATION 1. Number of years in operation at present location. years. . 2. Number.of branches elsewhere, i f any. branches. 3. What i s the size of the premises you occupy in Robson Street at the present time? square feet. 4. Do you feel a need for more space? -• yes no If yes, how many square feet more do you feel you need? i square feet. ROBSON STREET SURVIVAL QUESTIONNAIRE page 2 5. Does the thought of moving your business to another location ever occur to you? yes no. I f yes, why? 6. Do you own or do you rent your premises? own rent. I f you rent, what is the length of the lease? 7. I f you rent your premises, what is the rent? $ • per month, or $ . per year. 8. What was the rent five years ago, or when you moved in, i f less than five years ago? .$ per month, or $ per year, five years ago. $ per month, or $ per year, years ago. 9. I f you own your premises, when did you purchase your .location? Year C. SALES VOLUME INFORMATION 1. What is the percentage of the increase or decrease in your sales volume in the past five years, or since you moved in, i f less than five years ago? (+ for increase, and - for decrease.) % over five years ago. % over years ago. 176c ROBSON STREET SURVIVAL QUESTIONNAIRE page 3 2. How many regular employees do you have on your staff? Full time staff members. Part time staff members. D. ATTITUDES TOWARD ROBSON STREET 1. Since you have been operating your business in Robson Street, have you. done improvements or renovations to: Lot: . yes . no. Block: yes no. Street: yes no. .2. Would you like to see Robson Street change in any way? yes no depends on the change. 3. What kind of change would you like to see? 4. What is i t you like most about the street? -• location. . international flavour size of stores • lower rent . other (specify) 5. What is it' you dislike most about the street? • location • crowds noise traffic other (specify) ^ c 176d Dear Merchant, A student i n the School of Architecture at U.B.C. i s study-ing "Robsonstrasse". She i s intere s t e d i n i t s current conditions and problems, and i t s probable future. We hope the research w i l l lead to a better understanding of the problems confronting "Robsonstrasse" and i t s merchants so that c e r t a i n recommendations for "solving" these problems can be made. We need your co-operation i n providing us with c e r t a i n items of information concerning your business and your attitudes -and feelings about "Robsonstrasse". The information you give us w i l l be treated with the s t r i c t e s t confidence and you or your store w i l l not be i d e n t i f i e d i n the study. The conclusions and findings of the study w i l l be made a v a i l -able to you 'upon request once the study has been completed. Thank you for your co-operation i n completing the attached questionnaire. Yours t r u l y , Paul 0. Roer, P.Eng. School of Community and Regional Planning The University of B r i t i s h Columbia P0R:ijh APPENDIX C Questionnaire* and Report to the Mayor re: Robson Street by Susan P u r c e l l December, 1969 For d e t a i l e d r e s u l t s , see C i t y H a l l Planning Department, Robson Street F i l e . THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA SUSAN PURCELL REPORT ON ROBSON STREET DECEMBER 196 9 177a 1 2 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, ARE YOU Q MALE Q FEMALE ARE YOU • f~j MARRIED Q SINGLE WHERE DO YOU LIVE? DO YOU LIVE IN f-J HOUSE [~j APARTMENT COMPLEX WHAT AREA DO YOU LIVE IN f -j NORTH SIDE | | WEST END | | VANCOUVER | | GREATER VANCOUVER | | OTHER | | TOURIST — OFFICEWORKER OTHER 1 | OTHER ARE YOU • HOUSEWIFE [~J| | STUDENT Q DO YOU HAVE A SECOND LANGUAGE? IF YES, WHAT? 1. ARE YOU AN OCCASIONAL f -j REGULAR [H 2. PURCHASES: SHOPPER? • BAKER • ENTERTAINMENT • BUTCHER • GIFT SHOPS n CLOTHING • GROCERIES • COFFEE, TEA, SPICES • HOUSEHOLD APPLIANCES • DELICATESSEN • JEWELLERY • DRUG STORES • NEWS AGENTS' • DRY GOODS • SHOES SMOKE SHOPS DO YOU FAVOUR THE IDEA OF | | PEDESTRIAN BLOCK CLOSED TO MOTOR TRAFFIC MALL IDEA - TREES, SHRUBS, ENCLOSURES, ETC. OPEN AIR CAFE PEDESTRIAN BRIDGES AT INTERSECTIONS • • • • OFFICE BUILDINGS & HIGH RISE COMPLEXES WITH GROUND FLOOR SPECIALTY SHOPS 1 [ MORE SPECIALTY SHOPS | [ CROSSWALKS IN MIDDLE OF BLOCK | [ OTHER DO YOU FAVOUR | | ROBSON STREET [H [~~| ROBSON STRASSE ROBSON INTERNATIONAL 177c Page 2 s i t , greenery, and some outdoor s h e l t e r . 68.5% were enthusiastic about having a licensed open a i r cafe. Many of the shoppers proposed a set-up l i k e the Sparks Street market i n Ottawa. There was a 53.8% request for more sp e c i a l t y shops. Few people r e a l i z e d that high r i s e complexes are inevit a b l e but they d i d support the idea that ground f l o o r s be reserved s o l e l y for the s p e c i a l t y shops. Although i t i s o f f i c i a l l y known as Robson Street, some c a l l i t Robsonstrasse We asked the people what they would l i k e i t to be c a l l e d o f f i c i a l l y . 42.1% favoured Robson Street, 30.9% l i k e d Robsonstrasse, 15.7% l i k e d Robson International. The balance had no opinion. I enclose a copy of the r e s u l t s . Trusting that t h i s w i l l be of i n t e r e s t to you. Yours t r u l y , Susan P u r c e l l APPENDIX D A L i s t of Ground Floor Business Locations i n the Study Area (1000 & 1100 Blocks Robson) i n 1975 & A Comparison Between Ground Floor Business Locations During 1965 and 1975 LIST OF BUSINESS FIRMS IN THE STUDY AREA (MARCH 1976) Burrard Street Intersects 1000 Toronto Dominion Bank* 1008 Murchie's Tea & Coffee Ltd. 1012 Vancouver Camera Land Ltd.* 1014 Cher Ton-Ton (restaurant) 1016 O 1Brian Jewellers* O*Brian Optical Dispensers 1018-22 Michelle's A l t e r a t i o n s 1024 Maryvale Ltd.* (delicatessen) 1028 Happy Feet Shoes & Repairs C i a r d u l l o Frank Shoe Shine 10 30 Rear Art Sign Co. Ltd. 1032 Robson F l o r i s t 1034 Persian House of Jewels* 1036 Vincent Delicatessen Ltd.* 1038 Vincent Imports Ltd. 104 0 . Grand Shoe C l i n i c 1001 Card Shop 1011 Mozart Konditorei & Tea Room* (bakery) 1017 B r i g i t t e Mode 1023 Derek London Haute C o i f f u r e * 1025 White Spot Ltd. (restaurant) 1027 B e a u t i f u l People Unisex* 1029 Tempo Canadian C r a f t s * (art) 1031 The Wig. Tree (jewellers) 1035 Arlene Ladies' Wear 1039 Robson Mews: 1. The Protea Boutique 2. Munich Tea Room (restau-rant and take-out) 3. The Iron Comforter (sculpture) 4. Stoneflower Boutique (custom dressmaker) 5. Veronica's Flowers ( f l o r i 1041 The Old Cheese Shoppe 178b Burrard Street Intersects - Continued 1042 Rainbow Produce Dairy Products 1044 European New & Import House Ltd. 1052 Standard Produce Co.* 1054 Bogena Hair Design Ltd. 1056 Continental Gem House Ltd.* 1060 Le P a p i l l o n Boutique* (ladies' wear) Schnitzel House Restaurant (take-out) 1062 Nordic Import (gi f t s ) 1064 Echo Marketing Ltd. (jeweller) 1066 Old Country Bakery 1068 Captain's Cafe 1070 Pussycat Fashion Centre* 1080 Robson Jewellers Ltd.* 1082 J e f f ' s Fabrics Ltd.* (dry good 1084 Galloway's Groceries* 1086 o f's Bakery 1045 Jackson Trading Co. Ltd.* ( o r i e n t a l arts) 1049-51 Top Toy Centre 1053 CEBA Export & Import Co. Ltd.* 1067 A r c t i c Heritage of Eskimo Art* 1071 C u r t i s June Fashion Jewellery & G i f t s 1075 Robson Fabrics* (dry goods) 1087 Plantation 1089 Knorr Danny Men's Hair S t y l i n g 1091 Galaxy Gems* (jewellers) 1097 Whales Tale G i f t Shoppe* 1099 Downtown Travel Centre Ltd. 178c Burrard Street Intersects - Continued 1090 The Chicken House 1092 Three Graces* (jewellery) 1094 Olympia Oyster & Fish Co.* 1098 Shoppers Drug Mart* Thurlow Intersects 1100 Busy Bee Grocery & Flowers 1102 Susanne Imported Shoes* 1104 Robson Emporium ( g i f t shop) 1104% Kerry Shop (ladies' wear) 1106 Vienna Shop (watch repairs) 110635 Max T a i l o r i n g 1108 Robson Shoe Renew 1110 Customcolor Laboratories 1114 F a b i f l a T e x t i l e s Ltd. 1116 Bel-Air Cleaners & Launderers 1120  Mary's C o i f f u r e * Butual f ee Bar1101 Black Angus Room* (restaurant) The T r a v e l l e r (restaurant) 1109 The Robson Yarn Barn 1109B Vacant 1111 Checkers Hair Cutters 1111A ! Vacant 1115 Tepee Sporting Goods Ltd. 1121 Molley's Spice Shop Ltd.* 1123 Shape Unisex Hair Design Ltd.* 1127 Swiss Herbal Remedies* 1129 Look Art Fashion* 1131 Brandt's Custom T a i l o r Ltd. (me 's wear) 178d Thurlow Intersects - Continued 1124 Ports of C a l l Antiques* ( g i f t 1126 Opportunity R e h a b i l i t a t i o n ( t h r i f t shop) 1128 Sasha Ltd.* (children's wear) 1130 Hansen's Toys & Art Supplies - 1132A Passport Photos* 1134 Oriental Handloom Bazaar* 1140 Sun's Place Crafts 1142A Peacock's Children Wear 1142B Oriental Marble House Ltd.* (imports) 1144 Vacant 1160 Super Mart Grocery 1164 Royal Bank of Canada Ltd.* 1170 The Picture Show (art) 1172 Samantha's International Boutique Ltd.* 1174 . Continental Tailors^ & Men's Wear 1133 ) La J o l i e Madame (lingerie) 1135 Robson Boutique* (shoes) 1137 Pick-a-Tour* 1139A Claudette's Boutique 1139B Star Curio Crafts ( g i f t shop) 1139C Heidelberg Restaurant 1141 Le Cous Cous Restaurant* 1143 Don's S t y l i n g Lounge 114 5 Unemployment Insurance Commission 1155 . ; Canadian Government DVA 1157 King's Parking 1195 Robson Services Ltd. (service station) T h u r l o w I n t e r s e c t s - C o n t i n u e d 1 1 7 6 A r c h i e ' s H a r d w a r e 1 1 7 8 I n d i a G i f t H o u s e L t d . * 1 1 8 2 J e w e l l e r * 1 1 8 4 R o b s o n G o u r m e t ( d e l i c a t e s s e n ) 1 1 9 0 N e l m a r C o f f e e S h o p 1 1 9 4 C e n t e n n i a l P h a r m a c y L t d . B u t e I n t e r s e c t s * C o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e s t u d y b y a n s w e r i n g t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e . 178f Store No. A COMPARISON BETWEEN GROUND FLOOR BUSINESS LOCATIONS DURING 1965 AND 1975 1965 , 1975 Burrard Intersects 1000 Toronto Dominion Bank 1001 Non-existent i n t h i s year* 1003 Robson Drugs 1005 College Cleaners 1007 Pope's Barber Shop 1007a Far West Stamp Shop 1008 Murchie's Tea &. Coffee Ltd. 1008 Kerr, W.M. (tea) 1009 Smith, A.E. Photo Supplies 1011 E l i t e Imported Shoes 1012 Oben's Home Bakery 1013 L i t t l e Heidelberg (restaurant) 1014 G i l b e r t Hardware. 1016 O'Brian Jewellers - O'Brian O p t i c a l Dispensers 1017 Tepee Sporting Goods 1018-22 Michelle's A l t e r a t i o n s 1019 Wooden Plate Cafe 1023 * 1024 -Maryvale Ltd. (delicatessen)" 1025 Vacant 10 27 Imperial Barber Shop 1028 Happy.Feet Shoes & Repairs C i a r d u l l o Frank Shoe Shine 1029. Marce Shoppe (ladies' wear) 1030 Rear Art Sign Co. 1031 Curtis Radio & E l e c t r i c 1032 Robson F l o r i s t 10 33 B.C. Sewing Supplies 1034 Norman's Meat Market 1035 Elizabeth's Dress-making 1035 Robson Photo & Music . Shop Same Card Shop * * * * Same * * Mozart Konditorei & Tea Room (bakery) Vancouver Camera Land Ltd. * Cher Ton-Ton (restaurant) Same Same B r i g i t t e Mode Same * Derek London Haute Co i f f u r e Same . . White Spot Ltd. (restaurant) Be a u t i f u l People Unisex Same Same Tempo Canadian Crafts (art) Same The Wig.Tree (jewellers) Same * Persian House of Jewels Arlene Ladies' Wear 178g Store No. 1965 1975 1036 1037 1037 1038 1039 1040 1041 1042 1044 1045 1047 1049-51 1052 . 1053 1054 1056 1060 1060 1060 1060 1062 1064 1064 1066 Burrard Intersects -Vincent Delicatessen Ltd. International Cafe Mickey's Shoe & Luggage Repairs Grand Shoe C l i n i c * * * * Natural Food Store (health foods) * Rainbow Produce Dairy Products European News & Import House Ltd. -Ginza Japan Arts -(gift shop) National Council of Jewish Women T h r i f t Shop (2nd hand goods) Robson Mews & Import Store (books) Standard Produce Co. Matsuzaki, Miss A. (dressmaker) Le Chasseur Men's Wear Continental Gem House Ltd. Morgan, R. Coiffures S c h n i t z e l House (restaurant) European Barber Shop Falkenhagen Nordic Import G i f t s Leong Market Products Old Country Bakery * Continued Same * * Vincent Imports Ltd. Robson Mews: 1. The Protea Boutique 2. Munich Tea Room (restaurant & take-out) 3. The Iron Comforter 4. Stoneflower Boutique (custom dressmaker) 5. Veronica's Flowers ( f l o r i s t ) Grand Shoe C l i n i c The Old Cheese Shoppe Same Same Jackson Trading Co. Ltd. (ori e n t a l arts) Top Toy Centre Same CEBA Export & Import Co. Ltd. Bogena Hair Design Ltd. Same 3 Le P a p i l l o n Boutique (ladies' wear) Same * * Same Echo Marketing Ltd. (jeweller & delicatessen) * . Old Country Bakery 178h Store No. 1965 1975 Burrard Intersects - Continued 1067 Friendly Don' s (clothes) Authentic Eskimo Carving 1068 Vacant Captain's Cafe 1070 A t l a s Realty Pussycat Fashion Centre 1070 Dowding, J.A. (notary * public) 1071 Downtown Travel Centre Curtis June Fashion Jewellery & G i f t s 1075 Europa Cafe Robson Fabrics Ltd. (drygoods) 1080 Feinschmecker's Robson Jewellers Ltd. Delicatessen 1082 F r i Schuk Hans & F r i J e f f ' s Fabrics Ltd. Products (sporting (drygoods) goods) 1084 Galloway's Groceries Same 1085 Freybe Delicatessen Same 1086 G o l f s Bakery Same 1087 * Plantation 1089 Frans, N. Barber Knorr Danny Hair S t y l i n g 1090 Our Coffee Shop The, Chicken House 1091 Galano's Beauty Shop Galaxy Gems (jewellers) 1092 New Method (cleaners & Three Graces (jewellery) f u r r i e r s ) 1094 Olympia Oyster & F i s h Same Co. 1097 * Whale's Tale G i f t Shoppe 1098 Cunningham Drug Store Shoppers Drug Mart 1099 International Sundries Downtown Travel Centre Ltd. Thurlow Intersects 1100 Busy Bee Grocery & Same Flowers 1101 The T r a v e l l e r Black Angus Room (restaurant) (restaurant) 1102 Susanne Imported Shoes Same 1103 Whirlomat Laundry * 1104 Robson Hat Works Robson Emporium ( g i f t shop) (cleaners) 1104V The Kerry Shop (ladies' Same wear) 1105 Pete's Barber Shop * 1105 Normandie Beauty Shoppe * 1106 Vienna Shop (watch * repairs) 1106% Max T a i l o r i n g Same 178i Store No. 1965 1975 Thurlow Intersects - Continued 1107 Bradley-Wilson (real * estate) 1108 Robson Shoe Renew Same 1109 The Robson Yarn Barn Same 1109b Vacant Same 1110 Robson Furniture Customcolor Laboratories Exchange 1111 New York Barber Shop Checkers Haircutters 1111a Muri, Mrs. M. Vacant 1114 Susan's Lingerie & Fabiola T e x t i l e s Ltd. Sportswear 1115 Bank of Nova Scotia Tepee Sporting Goods Ltd. 1116 Bel-Air Cleaners & Same Launderers 1120a A La Parisienne (beauty Mary's Coiffures shop) 1120b Mutual Coffee Bar Same 1121 * Molley's Spice Shop Ltd. 1123 * Shap Unisex Hair Design Ltd. 1124 Tom's Market (produce) Ports of C a l l Antiques (gi f t s ) The Dory Shop (2nd hand . goods) 1126 Welfare Ind. of F i r s t Opportunity Re h a b i l i t a t i o n United Church (2nd ( t h r i f t shop) ; • hand goods) 1127 * Swiss Herbal Remedies 1128 AAA Locksmith's Sasha Ltd. (children's wear) 1129 Hansen, P.M. (mfrs. Hansen's Toys & Art Supplies agent) 1131 * Brandts Custom T a i l e r Ltd. (men's wear) 1132a Ace Radio & TV (service) Passport Photos 1133 * La J o l i e Madame (linqerie) 1134; New Spotless Cleaners Or i e n t a l Handloom Bazaar & Launderers 1135 * Robson Boutique (shoes) 1137 * Pick-A-Tour 1139a * Claudette's Boutique 1139b * Star Curio Crafts (gifts) 1139c * Heidelberg Restaurant 1140 Leigh, B. (confection- Sun's Place Crafts ers) 1141 Chicken Delight Le Cous Cous (restaurant) (restaurant) 178j Store No. 1965 1975 Thurlow Intersects - Continued 1142a Peacock's Children's Same Wear 114 2b Toft Furs O r i e n t a l Marble House Ltd (imports) 1143 Don's S t y l i n g Lounge Same 1144 Noah's Ark (pet shop) Vacant 1145 Unemployment Insurance Same Commission 1148 * * 1150 * * 1150a The Dory.Shop (2nd * hand goods) 1150b Esquire Shop (tobacco) * 1155 * Canadian Government DVA 1157 * Kings Parking 1160 Super-Valu Groceries Super Mart Grocery 1163 Coffee Time (restaurant) * 1164 Royal Bank of Canada Ltd. Same 1170 Vancal Reproductions Same 1170 Automatic Sprinkler Co. Samantha's International of Canada ( f i r e Boutique Ltd. fi g h t i n g supplies) 1172 * * 1174 Ralph's T a i l o r i n g Continental T a i l o r s & Men Wear A l t e r a t i o n s 1176 Archie's Hardware Same 1178 A r t e l Radio & TV Repairs India G i f t House Ltd. 1182 I n t e r i o r Products Vacant 1184 Barclay Market (meats) Robson Gourmet (delicates; 1185 Henrich Bros. Garage * 1190 Nelmar Coffee Shop Same 1194 Centennial Pharmacy Ltd. Same 1195 * Robson Services Ltd. (service station) Bute Intersects 79 APPENDIX E Computer Codes & Computer-Tabulated Results 179a Card Column Contents Code 1-5 Subject Number 6 Business Category E 7 Location on the Street F 8 Merchant 1s Age G 9 Merchant's Sex H 10 Merchant's O r i g i n J 11 Questionnaire D i s t r i b u t i o n K 12 Questionnaire Response L 20 Question A - l Number of years i n operation on Robson A - l 21 Question A-2, part 1 Number of customers on weekdays A-2 22 Question A-2, part 2 Number of customers on Saturdays A-2 23 Question A-3 Percentage of customers who make pur-chases A-3 24 Question B - l Number of years i n operation at pres-ent l o c a t i o n A - l 25 Question B-2 Number of branches B-2 28 Question B-3 Size of premises B-3 29 Question B-4, part 1 Need for more space B-4 30 Question B-4, part 2 Extra space needed B-3 31 Question B-5, part 1 Moving thought B-4 3 2 Question B-5, part 2 Reason for moving thought B-4 33 Question B-6, part 1 Owner or tenant B-6a 34 Question B-6, part 2 Length of lease term B-6b 35 Question B-7 Amount of rent B-7 36 Question B-8, part 1 Amount of rent f i v e years ago B-7 37 Question B-8, part 2 Amount of rent since moving B-7 38 Question B-8, part 3 Percentage of increase i n rent B-8 39 Question B-9 Date of purchasing l o t B-9 179b Card Column Contents Code 40 Question C - l , part 1 Change i n sales volume i n the l a s t f i v e years C - l 41 Question C - l , part 2 Change i n sales volume since moving C - l 46 Question C-2, part 1 Number of regular employees ' C-2 47 . Question C-2, part 2 Number of part-time employees C-2 4 8 Question D-l, part 1 Improvements to l o t B-4 49 Question D-l, part 2 Improvements to block B-4 50 Question D - l , part 3 Improvements to s t r e e t B-4 51 Question D-2 Attitudes toward change D-2 52 Question D-3 Kind of change D-3 53 Question D-4, part 1 Likes: Location B-4 54 Question D-4, part 2 Likes: International flavour B-4 55 Question D-4, part 3 Likes: Size of stores B-4 56 Question D-4, part 4 Likes: Lower rent B-4 57 Question D-4, part 5 Likes: Other B-4 58 Question D-5, part 1 D i s l i k e s : Location B-4 59 Question D-5, part 2 D i s l i k e s : Crowds B-4 60 Question D-5, part 3 D i s l i k e s : Noise , B-4 61 Question D-5, part 4 D i s l i k e s : T r a f f i c B-4 6 2 Question D-5, part 5 D i s l i k e s : Other D-4 179c Code E: Business Category 1 Food stores 2 Eating and drinking places 3 General merchandise 4 Apparel, accessories stores 5 Drug stores 6 Jewellery stores 7 Stationery stores 8 Sporting goods stores 9 F l o r i s t s A News dealers, newsstands B G i f t , novelty, souvenir stores C Camera, photographic supply stores D Second-hand stores E Antique shops F R e t a i l stores not elsewhere c l a s s i f i e d G Establishments o f f e r i n g personal and r e p a i r services primarily to customers H Gasoline service stations I Real estate, finance and insurance J Commercial parking use K Public buildings Code F: Location on the Street 1 Closer to Burrard St. i n t e r s e c t i o n 2 Closer to halfway between Burrard St. and Thurlow St. 3 Closer to Thurlow St. i n t e r s e c t i o n 4 Closer to halfway between Thurlow St. and Bute St. 5 Closer to Bute Street i n t e r s e c t i o n X . Not ascertained 0 No answer Code G: Merchant's Age 1 Less than 25 2 25-35 3 35-45 4 45-60 5 More than 60 X Not ascertained 0 No answer Code H: Merchant's Sex 1 Male 2 Female X Not ascertained 0 No answer 1 7 9 d i Code J: Merchant's Origin 1 Canadian 2 European 3 German 4 Induga (Indian-Ugandan) 5 Chinese 6 Other X Not ascertained 0 No answer Code K: Questionnaire D i s t r i b u t i o n 1 Questionnaire d i s t r i b u t e d and accepted 2 Questionnaire d i s t r i b u t e d and rejected 3 Questionnaire not d i s t r i b u t e d X Not ascertained O No answer Code A - l : Number of Years 1 0-3 years 2 4-9 years 3 10-14 years 4 15-29 years 5 30-49 years 6 More than 50 years X Other answer 0 No answer Code A-2: Number of Customers 1 0-19 customers 2 20-49 3 50-99 4 100-199 " 5 200-499 " 6 500-999 " 7 More than 1000 customers' X Other answer 0 No answer Code A-3: Percentage of Customers Who Make Purchases 1 0-10% ~ 2 11-30% 3 31-50% , 4 51-70% 5 71-90% 6 91-100% C o d e B - 2 : N u m b e r o f B r a n c h e s 1 0 b r a n c h e s 2 1 b r a n c h 3 2 - 4 b r a n c h e s 4 5 - 9 5 1 0 - 4 9 6 5 0 - 9 9 7 M o r e t h a n 1 0 0 b r a n c h e s X O t h e r a n s w e r 0 N o a n s w e r C o d e B - 3 : S i z e o f P r e m i s e s ] L e s s t h a n 5 0 0 s q u a r e f e e t 2 5 0 0 - 9 9 9 II II 3 1 0 0 0 - 1 4 9 9 II II 4 1 5 0 0 - 1 9 9 9 II II 5 2 0 0 0 - 2 9 9 9 II II 6 M o r e t h a n 3 0 0 0 " " X O t h e r a n s w e r 0 N o a n s w e r C o d e B - 4 : N e e d f o r M o r e S p a c e , I m p r o v e m e n t s , a n d L i k e s a n d  D i s l i k e s 1 Y e s 2 N o X O t h e r a n s w e r O N o a n s w e r C o d e B - 5 : R e a s o n f o r M o v i n g T h o u g h t 1 N e e d f o r m o r e s p a c e f o r l e s s r e n t 2 D i s l i k e o f t y p e s o f c h a n g e t a k i n g p l a c e i n t h e a r e a 3 I n c r e a s i n g o p e r a t i n g c o s t s 4 D e c l i n e i n s a l e s v o l u m e a n d c u s t o m e r a t t r a c t i o n 5 E v a c u a t i o n n o t i c e 6 S h o r t l e a s e t e r m 7 P a r k i n g p r o b l e m 8 R e a s o n s 1 a n d 2 X O t h e r a n s w e r O N;o a n s w e r Code B-6a: Owner or Tenant 1 2 X 0 Own Rent Other answer No answer Code B-6b: Term of Lease 1 2 3 4 5 6 X 0 Three years More than three years Other answer No answer No lease Less than one year One year Two years Code B-7: Amount of Rent 1 Less than $500 per month 2 $500 to $999 3 $750-$999 4 $1000 to $1499 " 5 $1500 to $1999 " 6 More than $2000 per month X Other answer 0 No answer Code B-8: Percent of Increase i n Rent 1 0-9% 2 10-19% 3 20-39% 4 40-69% 5 70-99% 6 More than 100% X Other answer 0 No answer Code B-9: Date of Purchasing Lot 1 Before 1900 2 1900-1934 3 1935-1949 4 1950-1969 5 After 1970 6 Other answer 0 No answer 179g Code C-1: Change i n Sales Volume 1 More than -100% decrease 2 -100 to -50% 3 -49 to -0% 4 +0 to +30% increase 5 +31 to +60% 6 +61 to +100% 7 +101 to +200% 8 +201 to +300% 9 More than +300% X Other answer 0 No answer Code C-2: Number of Employees 1 0 employees 2 1-3 3 4-6 4 7-10 5 More than 10 employees X Other answer 0 No answer Code D-2: Attitudes Toward Change 1 Yes 2 No 3 Depends on the change X Other answer 0 No answer Code D-3: Kind of Change 1 More greenery, wider sidewalks, common awnings covering a l l fronts 2 More s t r e e t f u r n i t u r e - 3 More Parking f a c i l i t i e s 4 Renovation of e x i s t i n g buildings 5 Larger stores, new bu i l d i n g s , lower rents, and longer leases 6 Provision of r e s i d e n t i a l and pro f e s s i o n a l o f f i c e s above r e t a i l stores 7 Pedestrianize 8 Re-open stre e t closures 9 Re-emphasize European s t y l e A Change to i n t e r n a t i o n a l shopping mall 179h Code D-4: Dislikes--Other 1 The gradual loss of o r i g i n a l Robson Street European flavour 2 The block-up between Howe and Hornby 3 The condition of some of the older buildings i n the area 4 Increasing rents and taxes 5 The lack of sui t a b l e parking f a c i l i t i e s X Other answer 0 No answer ( •AP'R—2ii~i—t~9if6 frCfcVCTSON S"CfRlTl^ l4LT~QUEST IONNAIRE UNIiifi&lAIf IA&LE. 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F R E Q U E N C Y T A B L E Z E R O 11 0 1 2 f-I— 3 4 S I 1 9 1 5 19 3 5 17 1 8 1 1 1 3 T O T A L P E R C E N T A G E Z E R O I I 0 1 2 3 4 51 | 7 , 9 6 1 3 . 2 7 1 6 . 8 1 3 0 . 9 7 1 5 . 0 4 1 5 . 9 3 1 1 1 3 U t i I V A i i l A I £ ILULL OF t j E . E C b A t J I ^ £ c • c rii i c K i r v T A H I P ( CC 8 ) • Z E R O I I 0 1 2 3 4 5 ( 1 0 ) A | I 17 1 16 4 7 ? 4 2 61 113 1 1 i i.— T O T A L P E R C E N T A G E 7 n o n T 1 (i t 2 3 4 5 ( I 0 1 A 1 / T. M 1 1 1 U - ...1— I 1 5 . 0 4 . 8 0 1 4 . 16 4 1 . 5 9 2 1 . 2 4 1 . 7 7 5 . 3 1 1 1 1 3 ' - - ' 3 F R E Q U E N C Y T A B L E Z E R O II 0 1 2 41 I 17 6 7 2 8 1 1 1 1 3 T O T A L P E R C E N T A G E Z E R O I I 0 1 2 41 -> 1 l b . 0 4 5 9 . 2 9 2 4 . 7 8 . 8 8 1 1 1 3 UtlL>iA .ElAI£ I A f l L i : OF M . £ £ C . j j £ N l O R l £ l i N (CC 1 0 ) F R E Q U E N C Y T A B L E 1 N O A N S C A N A D A Z E R O II 0 1 E U R O P E 2 GERMAN 3 INDUGA OTHER 4 5 6 N A | ( 1 0 1 A 1 1 1 7 3 5 2 3 7 10 1 3 5 31 1 1 3 T O T A L P E P C E N T A G c 1 N O A N S C A N A D A Z E R O II 0 1 E U R O P E 2 GERMAN 3 I N D U G A OTHER 4 5 6 N AI ( 1 0 ) A l 1 1 5 . 0 4 3 0 . 9 7 2 0 . 3 5 6 . 1 9 8 . 8 5 1 1 . 5 0 4 . 4 2 2 . 6 5 1 1 1 3 imDtk&lklt OF Q L O I Q I S . I ( C C 1 1 ) F R E Q U E N C Y T A B L E Z E R O I I 0 1 2 31 • I 9 76 17 H I 1 1 3 T O T A L P E R C E N T A G E Z E R O 11 0 1 2 31 1 7 . 9 6 6 7 . 2 6 1 5 . 0 4 9 . 7 3 1 1 1 3 I J N T V A ^ I A T F T A h L F OF O D F S T R E S P I C C 1 2 ) F R E Q U E N C Y T A B L E 2 FRO II 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 I 3 6 2 6 6 12 12 1 181 1 1 3 - J <£> C-l. T O T A L P E R C E N T A G E Z E R O I I 0 1 2 3 4 5 61 I 3 3 . 6 3 2 3 . 0 1 5 . 3 1 1 0 . 6 2 1 0 . 6 2 . 8 8 1 5 . 9 3 1 1 1 3 . UU.LliAB.lALE IA&LE CF Y_£S1NBQ.£SQU <CC 2 0 ) F R E Q U E N C Y T A B L E Z E R O II 0 1 2 3 4 5 1 3 7 ) I + * _ ' | 6 9 14 1 4 5 5 5 L l L i i _ T O T A L P E R C E N T A G E Z E R O I I 0 I 2 3 * < 3 ^ _ [ | 6 1 . 0 6 1 2 . 3 9 1 2 . 3 9 4 . 4 2 4 . 4 2 4 . 4 2 . 8 8 1 1 1 3 Uttiy.AE.lAIE IABLE OF. CUSIQME.BSiiKj2MS < c c 2 1 1 F R E Q U E N C Y T A B L E Z E R O II 0 1 2 3 4 5 61 7 4 " 5 8 1 1 4 6 5 | 1 1 3 T O T A L P E R C E N T A G E ^.ERO II 0 1 2 3 _ 4 _ 5 t[ | 6.5..A9 A.f.42 l*J).fi 5L»J-3 ZM-^ 5.3J, <uAZi _H3. UN IV A k I ATF TAHI f OF CUS TOMERSAT I C C 22) — F R E Q U E N C Y T A b L E _iE.RO 1.1 _Cl 1 2 3 h 5 6 LlflJAL +  | 7 3 4 5 11 5 7 • 6 . . . . 21 1 1 3 T O T A L P E R C E N T A G E Z E R O II 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 ( 1 0 ) A I | 6 4 . 6 0 3 . 5 4 4 . 4 2 9 . 7 3 4 . 4 2 6 . 1 9 5 . 3 1 1 . 7 7 1 . 1 1 3 UN.I_iAB.lAIE IA61E OF £E£CENLb'L1D.EUEC.LiASE (CC 2 3 ) FR£QUENC.Y. . . . .T .At }L£ Z E R O II 0 1 2 3 4 5 J>l | 7___ __ 2 _, _, LlJ LL3. T O T A L P E R C E N T A G E Z F R Q 1 4 -_ 0 1 — r - 2 - 3 J*l -5 6-1 | 6 6 . 3 7 3 . 5 4 7 . 9 6 4 . 4 2 3 . 5 4 4 . 4 2 9 . 7 3 1 1 1 3 A P R i 8 i 1 9 7 6 R O B O S O N S U R V I V A L Q U E S T I O N N A I R E [miM&L&IL IkhLt OF x E S M L D £ M l £ i , r " T c c 2 4 ) F R E Q U E N C Y T A B L E  Z E R O II 0 1 2 . 3 4 5 I I 7 0 15 l b 1 6 3 . | J L i 3. T O T A L P E R C E N T A G E Z E R O I I 0 1 g 3 4 51  ,1 6 1 . 9 5 1 3 . 2 7 1 5 . 9 3 . 8 8 5 . 3 1 2 . 6 5 1 1 1 3 UNJ.y_A.aiA.IE.. I M L f OF £££LI£H£S. ( C C 25) F R E Q U E N C Y T A B L E Z E R O I I 0 1 2 3 4 61 I 7 4 2 2 " a ~ 6 ~~T " 21 1 1 3 T O T A L P E R C E N T A G E  Z E R O I I 0 1 2 3 4 6 | I 6 5 . 4 9 1 9 , 4 7 LiOfl 5 . 3 1 . 8 8 1 . 7 7 1 1 1 3 U N I V A R I A T E T A B L E OF N E E D S P A C E ( C C 2 9 ) F R E Q U E N C Y T A B L E | _ N O A N S - Y E S N 0 | _ _ _ Z E R O I I 6 1 2 I I U 2LC 2JJ LL3_ T O T A L P E R C E N T A G E _ | _ N O A N S _ Y E S _ _ NO | . Z E R O I I 0 1 2 1 J u2.72 1 7.70 1 R .58 I 113 Uhlli-iLLklz. I&iiLL ..OF iHiUfSmiiAIIdD.. (CC 30) F R E Q U E N C Y T A B L E ZERO, U Q 1 2 3 5 J _ I 95 4 9 3 2 1 - 1 1 3 TOTAL P E R C E N T A G E ~ Z E R O .11 0 1 2 3 51 I 8 4 . 0 7 3 . 5 4 7 . 9 6 2 . 6 5 1 . 7 7 1 1 1 3 APR 26, l'9 7 6 - R e 6 0 S 0 N - S U R V I VAL"""QUESTIONNAIRE 5 u N m a i A i l IAQT£ CF ¥QVING.IHQUGUI ("CC~"3IJ FREQUENCY TABLE  I NOANS YES NO OTHER| ZERO II 0 1 2 (10)A| 1 72" ~~ 19 "2f" lT 113 T O T A L P E R C E N T A G E  I N U A N S Y E S NO OT H E R | Z E R O 1 1 0 1 2 t 1 0 ) A | i " 6 3 . 7 2 ' 16".81 1 8 . 5 8 " . 8 8 1 " 113 UNIiZ&dI&I£ IAfiLE OF EEAiQtJEflEiaDVlWGIbQUlitll ( C C 32) fM Q U E N C J L.JAB L E... Z E R O I| 0 I 2 3 4 5 6 7 81 1 94 <, 4 3 3 1 2 1 • 11 113 T O T A L P E R C E N T A G E Z E R O 11 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 83.19 3.54 3.54 2 .65 2.65 .88 1.77 .88 .881 113 UJxllZA.il6.IE IktiLE OF QJuLiY.SB.EN.I ( C C 33) F R E Q U E N C Y T A B L E Z E R O II 0 I 21 1 70 4 3 9 | 113 .. L0TAl_£LRCE.tLIAJ2.E Z E R O II 0 1 2 1 1 6 1 . 9 5 3 . 5 4 3 4 . 5 1 1 113 LJEJlj/AilALE I&b.L£ H F LEAS ilEiJM ( l € _ _3~4J F R E Q U E N C Y T A B L E 7 F R n i | n i 3 4 5 6 ( i n iA I 1 77 7 4 12 8 4 11 113 T O T A L P E R C E N T A G E Z E R O II 0 1 3 4 5 6 (10)A| M - 4 VO 5 I 68.14 6.19 3.54 10.62 7.08 3.54 .881 113 A P R 2d, 1976 R O B O S O N S U R V I V A L Q U E S T I O N N A I R E UULVAEIAIE IAfiLf. OF BELJl ( C C 35) F R E Q U E N C Y T A B L E Z E R O II 0 1 2 3 4 5 61 | 77 4 19 4 5 3 11 113 T O T A L Z E R O II P E R C E N T A G E 0 1 2 3 4 5 61 1 6b.14 3.54 16.81 3.54 4.42 2.65 .881 113 Utiiy.AR.IAIf IL&Lt CF EELtllimAGQ I C C 36) F R E Q U E N C Y T A B L E Z E R O II 0 1 2 3 4 51 1 96 10 2 2 2 11 113. T O T A L P E R C F N T A G E Z E R O I 1 0 1 2 3 4 51 | 8 4 . 9 6 8.85 1 .77 1.77 1.77 .681 113 UN IVAR I AT E T A B L E OF R E N T S I N C E M O V I N G I C C 37) > F R E Q U E N C Y T A B L E 7 F R n i l n I 2 3 41 -... — . . i 1 103 6 2 1 11 113 -T O T A L Z E R O I 1 P E R C E N T A G E 0 1 2 3 41 1 91.15 5.31 1 .77 .88 .88 I 113 UNiy.AKlAI£. IAfclE OF ££EtJit.IJ.JilC£±£5£B£WI ( C C 38) P Q Ff l i IPWC V T A HI F Z E R O I 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 61 1 66 5 1 4 8 2 71 113 T O T A L Z E R Q - . - - L L . _ P E R C E N T A G E Q 1 .2 3... . . 4_ . . . . . . 5 h.\ M - J <£> I 76.11 4.42 .88 ! 3 . 5 4 7.08 1.77 6 .19 | 113 A P R 2 b , 1 9 7 6 R O B O S O N S U R V I V A L Q U E S T I O N N A I R E UUmaiAIJi IkUlt CF LCIEUEttijQT (~CC 3 9 ) F R E Q U E N C Y T A B L E Z E R O II 0 2 41 | 1 1 0 1 2 [ 1 1 3 T O T A L P E R C E N T A G E Z E R O II 0 2 41 I 9 7 . 3 5 . 8 8 1 . 7 7 1 1 1 3 UtUYARlAIt UiLLt OF £bANUEIUSAL£SVI)L5J£RS ( C C 4 0 ) -F R E Q U E N C Y T A B L E Z E R O II. 0 4 5 6 8 ( 1 0 ) A | 1 1 0 4 4 2 1 1 11 1 1 3 T O T A L P F R C F N T A G F Z E R O II 0 4 5 6 8 ( 1 0 ) A | -1 9 2 . 0 4 3 l 5 4 1 . 77 . 8 8 . 8 8 . 8 8 1 1 1 3 U N I V A R I A T F ' T A F i l F OF C. H A MCE I N S A I. E S VOl S I NC E MD V I NG ( C C 4 1 ) F R E Q U E N C Y T A B L E • Z E R O II 0 2 3 4 5 61 1 1 0 0 1 3 . 4 3 21 1 1 3 .. T O T A L P E R C E N T A G E Z E R O II 0 2 3 4 5 61 1 8 8 . 5 0 . ' 8 B 2 . 6 5 3 . 5 4 2 . 6 5 1 . 7 7 1 1 1 3 UNl^aiAIt IAiiLE OF R L G L J ^ £ L I I £ £ S (CC 4 6 ) F R E Q U E N C Y T A B L E Z E R O II 0 1 2 3 4 51 1 7 3 5 ? 5 3 ? b 1 1 1 3 M T O T A L P E R C E N T A G E —-3 VO / F R O II n i ? 3 4 1 O I 6 4 . 6 0 4 . 4 2 2 2 . 1 2 2 . 6 5 1 . 7 7 : 4 . 4 2 | 1 1 3 A P R 2 8 , 1 9 7 6 R CBOSDN S U R V I V A L Q U E S T I O N N A I R E UN.iYA.R.I__I£ IkULL OF E££Il_.EM£L___.££_i ( C C 4 7 ) F R E Q U E N C Y T A B L E Z E R O I | 0 1 2 31 1 7 7 11 2 1 41 1 1 3 T O T A L P E R C E N T A G E Z E R O I| U 1 2 31 1 6 6 . 1 4 9 . 7 3 1 8 . 5 8 3 . 541 1 1 3 ULiLt OF ILEELQI I C C 4 8 ) F R E Q U E N C Y T A B L E 1 N O A N S Y E S NO| Z E R O 11 0 1___ 21 1 72 7 3 4 | 1 1 3 T O T A L P E R C E N T A G E 1 NOANS • Y E S NO I Z E R O I| 0 1 2 1 1 6 3 . 7 2 6 . 1 9 3 0 . 0 9 1 1 1 3 LIUIYARIAIE IAfcLi OF It!£EflJ.K ( C C 4 9 ) -F R E Q U E N C Y T A B L E 1 NOANS Y E S NO I Z E R O II 0 1 21 1 72 3 3 8 I 1 1 3 T O T A L PERC E N T A G E 1 N O A N S Y E S NO I Z E R O I I 0 I 21 1 6 3 . 7 2 2 . 6 5 3 3 . 6 3 1 1 1 3 APR 2 8 , 1976 PODOSON SURVIVAL QUESTIONNAIRE 9 UNlVAB-iAli IAB.1£~ OF l__~££j_I (CC 501 FREQUENCY TABLE  I NOANS YES NO I ZERO II 0 1 21 - — *• — j — +—-—-— I 7 2 ~ 2 3 9 1 7 113 TOTAL PERCENTAGE  I NOANS YES N0| ZERO II 0 1 21 * ~ " ~ f 6 3 . 72 U77 34Tt>7i ~ 113 LlNlY.AIilAI£ IAb-LL OF AIIlIUiJE S . C . L 1 A M E (CC 51) FREQUENCY_ TA_B L E. I NOANS YES NO I ZERO II 0 1 2 31 i 71 15 7 2 0 l TiT TOT AL__P ER.C ENT AGE . . i NOANS YES NO- I ZERO II 0 1 2 31 i 6 2 . 0 3 1 3 . 2 7 6 . 1 9 1 7 . 7 0 1 FIT UNiiZAiilAlE lACLi "OF ..liCLEariANiit (CC" 52) FREQUENCY TABLE : ZERO II 0 1 2 3 4 5 7 9 ( 1 0 ) A | I 8 6 5 1 I 3 k 2 1 3J L J JL TOTAL PERCENTAGE / F R O I I o 1 2 '. 2 4 5 2 2—(IQ )A l I 7 6 . 1 1 4 . 4 2 . 8 8 1 . 7 7 2 . 6 5 3 . 5 4 1 . 7 7 6 . 1 9 2 . 6 5 1 113 APR 28, 1976 RGbOSON SURVIVAL OUEST IONNAI RE " 1° FREQUENCY TABLE  I NOANS YES NO I ZERO II 0 1 21 I 73 - - " 2 V lo t 113 TOTAL PERCENTAGE  I NOANS YES NO I ZERO II 0 1 21 I ' o4.60 ~21.24T^TIST" ~ 1 L3 UttTV-ASIAIE IAEiE OF UliESlNIERELA ICC 54) FREQUENCY ..TABLE... 1 ZERO I I NOANS 0 " Y E S ' 1 NO 1 21 1 71 3 0 121 113 TOTAL PERCENTAGE 1 ZERO II NO A N S 0 YE S 1 NO I 21 1 62. 83 26.55 10.621 113 UttLY.AS.lAIE IAtiLE OF L1ILES.S.1ZE ICC 551 FREQUENCY TABLE 1 ZERO II NOANS 0 YES I NO | 2 1 1 73 12 28 1 113 TDTAI PFRC FNTAGF 1 ZERO I 1 NOANS 0 YES 1 NOI 21 1 64.60 10.62 24.781 113 M -0 VO 1 APR 2 3 , 1976 R OBO SON SURVIVAL QUESTIONNAIRE 1 1 UfclmiAIf lAQLE OF L IBEiLOUBf bll <CC 56) FREQUENCY TABLE ZERO 1 I 1 NGANS 0 YES 1 N0| • 21 — " " " 1 " 7 3 ~ 5 35"| - 113 TOTAL PERCENTAGE  I NOANS YES NO I ZERO II 0 1 21 1 6 4 . 6 0 " 4.42" " 3 0 . 9 7 7 ~ " 113 UbLJLy.ABJ.AIE ILQ.Lt CF LlkEJiQIiJEB (CC 57) F R EQU.EN C Y ... TAB L E.;__..' j NOANS YES NO I • ZERO II 0 1 2 9| I 75 4 33 11 113 IQ T A L.. P. E R C.E; N T AjG E , . j NOANS YES NO. I ZERO II 0 1 2 91 I 6 6 . 3 7 3.54 2 9 . 2 0 .881 113 U u l l V A B i A l i IAELE OF DTsm£SlQ£ . < CC 58) FRFQUFNC Y TA Bl F 1 NOANS YES NO I ZERO II 0 1 21 1 76 4 33 1 113 TOTAL, PFRCrNTACF 1 NOANS YES NO I ZERO I 1 0 1 21 1 6 7 . 2 6 3.54 2 9 . 2 0 I 113 H» - 4 VO CO A P R 2 8 , 1 9 7 6 R G b O S U N S U R V I V A L Q U E S T I O N N A I R E 1 2 F R E Q U E N C Y T A B L E 1 Z E R O II NOANS 0 Y E S 1 NO 1 21 ( 7 6 ~ r 3 6 | 1 1 3 T O T A L P E R C E N T A G E • 1 Z E R O 11 NOANS 0 Y E S 1 NOl 21 U " 1 " 6 7 " . 2 6 " . 8 8 3 1 . 8 6 1 1 1 3 Ut_U._ZA3.lAIE l A k L E OF a l i i LlKESUQlSf ICC 6 0 ) F R E Q U E N C Y T A B L E Z E R O II N O A N S 0 Y E S 1 NO I 21 1 1 7 6 4 33 I 1 1 3 TOTAL P E R C E N T A G E 1 Z E R O I I N O A N S 0 Y E S 1 NO | 2 1 1 6 7 . 2 6 3 . 5 4 2 9 . 2 0 1 1 1 3 Ui_LL_ZA!__lAI£ IAULE OF Ql£U.fc.E_iI£A£ElE I C C 6 1 ) F R E Q U E N C Y T A B L E 1 Z E R O I 1 N O A N S 0 Y E S 1 NO | 21 1 7 6 3 3 4 | 1 1 3 T O T A L PERCEN_T.fi.GE_ 1 Z E R O II NOANS 0 Y E S 1 NO| 21 1 6 7 . 2 6 2 . 6 5 3 0 . 0 9 I 1 1 3 —] VO A P R 2 d , 1 9 7 6 RCBOSON SUPVIVAL QUESTIONNAIRE U U l S / A d l A I f lAflLl OF aiSLlKESQItiJIB I C C 6 2 1 FREQUENCY TABLE '  ZERO 1 1 0 1 2 3 5 110)A| ._ .1. _ 9 . 3 _ _ _ . 9 L J? 4 1| . 1 1 3 T O T A L P E R C E N T A G E Z E R O 1 I 0 1 2 3 5 ( l O ) A l _ _ I 8 2 . 3 0 7 . 9 6 . 8 8 4 . 4 2 3 . 5 4 . 0 8 1 1 1 3 T i wlf T6R~TA BTE~ p'rf FNTTNG! ~~~ . 1 9 4 SEC. CPU TIME EXECUTION TERMINATED  

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