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From The taming of the shrew to Kiss me Kate : the changing fortunes of Katherine, the shrew Edgar, Patricia 1976

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FROM THE TAMING OF THE SHREW TO KISS ME KATE: THE CHANGING FORTUNES OF KATHERINE, THE SHREW by PATRICIA EDGAR B.A., U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1967. A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of English) We accept t h i s thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l , 1976 (o) Patricia Edgar In presenting th i s thes is in pa r t i a l fu l f i lment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the Un ivers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L ibrary sha l l make it f ree l y ava i l ab le for reference and study. I fur ther agree that permission for extensive copying of th is thes is for scho lar ly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representat ives. It is understood that copying or pub l i ca t ion of th is thes is for f i nanc ia l gain sha l l not be allowed without my writ ten permission. Department of The Univers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia 20 75 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 Date n*x|(& 191£ i i ABSTRACT William Shakespeare's play, The Taming of the Shrew has a varied and i n t e r e s t i n g stage h i s t o r y . Beginning with Fletcher's The Tamer Tarn'd (1633), a sequel to Shakespeare, there have been many adaptations of the p l o t i n farce, opera and poeti c drama, i n c l u d i n g an American musical comedy. This thesis w i l l follow the stage h i s t o r y of The Taming of the Shrew, focussing on the dramatic development and treatment of the heroine, Katherine. Shakespeare's shrew, Katherine, i s much more than a t r a d i t i o n a l shrew stereotype. Her dramatic presentation i n language and action has enough depth and subtlety to provoke much c o n f l i c t i n g c r i t i c i s m and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . What motivates her anger? Why i s she p h y s i c a l l y abusive? Is she subdued, tamed or re-educated? Enough clues are present i n the play to provide f o r i n t e r e s t i n g debate. The f i r s t part of the thesis i s concerned with examining Shakespeare's dramatic concept of the shrew to e s t a b l i s h the scope and range of Katherine's personality and her response to Petruchio's taming t r i c k s . In l a t e r versions of the play, the character of Katherine receives a v a r i e t y of dramatic treatments. Some playwrights reduce Katherine's dramatic function to a mere ou t l i n e . Others accentuate her p h y s i c a l l y abusive and sharp-tongued q u a l i t i e s . Yet another v a r i a t i o n i s a softening of the shrewish d i s p o s i t i o n i i i to allow f o r a sentimental treatment of shrew conditioning. The dramatic vigour of the shrew character i s constant, but v a r i a t i o n s i n p l o t , language and thematic idea r e s u l t i n very d i f f e r e n t and entertaining shrew types. This stage h i s t o r y of The Taming of the Shrew as i t relates to the heroine, Katherine, includes an analysis of the following plays. The Tamer Tarn'd (1633), a sequel by John Fletcher serves to comment on Shakespeare's Kate by d i r e c t a l l u s i o n and by dramatic contrast. Sauny the Scot (1667) i s a bastardised Restoration version i n which the shrew i s a f a r c i c a l stereo-type who must s u f f e r extensive p h y s i c a l humiliation for her excessive displays of nastiness. Catherine and Petruohio (1756) i s David Garrick's miniature version of Shakespeare which stresses the farce, s i m p l i f y i n g the play and the dramatic impact of Catherine. John Tobin's The Honeymoon (1805) i s a poetic attempt to re-create The Shrew. The heroine i n t h i s play suffers the s i n of pride, but i s won over to domesticity and humility by love and r u r a l surroundings provided by a gentle tamer. The thesis also considers the nineteenth century attempts to revive the Shakespeare o r i g i n a l which struggled unsuccessfully with the popularity of the Garrick version. Some of the musical adaptations of The Shrew provide a r i c h v a r i e t y of shrew heroines i n very d i f f e r e n t s e t t i n g s . Included are a b a l l a d opera, A Cure for a Scold (1735), a.German opera by Hermann Goetz, The Taming of the Shrew (1878), and a modern i v musical comedy version, Kiss Me Kate (1948). These adaptations and variant versions provide a v e r i t a b l e school of Katherines. The streak of genius i n Shakespeare's dramatic idea of a shrew, who, even i n the realm of farce i s seen as a human being with the capacity to f e e l , change and grow, becomes very strongly apparent as Shakespeare's Kate i s measured against the shrew heroines i n these derivative plays. The contrasting shrew types, though i n t e r e s t i n g and pleasing i n t h e i r own way, never quite acquire the stature, poise, wit, i n t e l l i g e n c e and humour which characterise Shakespeare's a t t r a c t i v e Kate. For Kate's c i v i l i s i n g and learning encounter with Petruchio i s not the b r u t a l i s i n g , punitive or subjugating r i t u a l of t r a d i t i o n ; amidst the s l a p s t i c k of farce, Kate, with her Petruchio, provides a unique v a r i a t i o n of the shrew heroine. She i s not conquered. She changes h e r s e l f . This i s her d i s t i n c t i o n and her strength and the mark of Shakespeare's human touch. V TABLE OF CONTENTS Chapter Page INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . 1 I. - KATHERINE IN THE TAMING OF THE SHREW . . . • 4 II. THE DESCENT OF THE SHREW . . . . . . . . . 42 . The Tamer Tam'd ( 42 ) Sauny the Scot ( 52 ) III. FARCE, SENTIMENT AND REVIVAL 69 Catherine and Petruchio ( 69 ) The Honeymoon ( 79 ) Nineteenth Century Revivals ( 95 ) IV. THE MUSICAL SHREW 107 A Cure for a Scold 108) The Taming of the Shrew ( 118) Kiss Me Kate ( 130) CONCLUSION I-4? FOOTNOTES . 1 5 0 BIBLIOGRAPHY . . 1 5 5 Acknowledgments To Dr. R. Ingram, Department of English, U.B.C. Many thanks f o r cheerful support and help, always r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e . To my husband David. Many thanks f o r the g i f t of time and the art of patience. 1 INTRODUCTION The Taming of the Shrew i s an early play i n which Shakespeare mixes elements of farce and comedy i n a manner which he was not to do again. In this play he explores farce more cheer-f u l l y and vigourously than i n almost any l a t e r play. The abundance of f a r c i c a l elements has often l e d to the play being produced as simply a f a r c i c a l romp, a l l s l a p s t i c k , h e c t i c action and grotesque characterisation. Yet t h i s goes too f a r , f arther than Shakespeare intends. Amid the laughter and j o l l i t y there i s s t i l l some more serious comment. This comic as against f a r c i c a l aspect shows most c l e a r l y i n the c e n t r a l s i t u a t i o n , the taming of the shrew, the c i v i l i s i n g of Kate, the subjugating of Kate, the teaching of Kate, the maturing of Kate—indeed the range of opportunity i n dealing with Kate that i s o f f e r e d marks the comic, the thoughtful aspect of the play. The changing and mixed audience reactions to the play t e s t i f y to i t s teasing and ambivalent q u a l i t i e s . With the ; passage of time, audience reaction has ranged from r e j e c t i o n of the play's s i l l i n e s s to recognition of the play as a formula fo r modern marriages. Samuel! Pepys' judgement of the play, as recorded i n h i s diary, i s not receptive even of i t s extreme f a r c i c a l q u a l i t i e s . "A s i l l y play,""'" was his v e r d i c t . George 2 Bernard Shaw, w r i t i n g of the Daly r e v i v a l of The Shrew i n 1888, saw the play as of f e n s i v e : I think no woman should enter a theatre where that play i s performed; and I should not have stayed to witness i t myself, but that, having been t o l d the Daly Company has restored Shakespeare's version to the stage, I desired to see with my own eyes whether any c i v i l i s e d audience would stand i t s b r u t a l i t y . ^ GermaineGreer, a l i t e r a r y c r i t i c w r i t i n g a feminist t r a c t i n 1970,is not outraged at the seeming subjugation and b u l l y i n g of Katherine. She commends the Katherine-Petruchio entente as a v i a b l e r e l a t i o n s h i p , an example f or feminists, "only Kates make good wives, and then only to Petruchios; f o r the 3 rest , t h e i r cake i s dough." Granted, Pepys i s w r i t i n g of a bastardised version of Shakespeare's play, George Bernard Shaw i s w r i t i n g , tongue i n cheek, under the assumed guise of a lady from the country and Germaine Greer wants to emphasise women's rights :cto i n d i v i d u a l i t y , energy and w i l l . However, these very mixed and decided views are an i n d i c a t i o n of the provoking and timeless elements to be found i n the play. The l i t e r a r y c r i t i c s , as usual, cover a wide range of speculations i n t h e i r approach to the play. Some of the more 4 recent c r i t i c s , spurred by N e v i l l e C o g h i l l , and urged on by H.C. Goddard^ and Margaret Webster^ favour a reading of the play which sees Katherine motivated i n her anger, vindicated i n her i n i t i a l bad-tempered displays and even taming Petruchio. Robert Heilman^ t r i e s to bring these c r i t i c s back into l i n e . 3 He seeks to curb the sympathy for Katherine, the shrew, by p u l l i n g i n the leash and i n s i s t i n g on the l i m i t i n g aspects of the f a r c i c a l genre which would hold Katherine to her f o l k - l o r e stereotype;,, and yet, i f this i s taken too f a r , i t deprives the play of many of i t s most thoughtful and t a n t a l i s i n g q u a l i t i e s . Thus the pendulum swings. And wh i l s t the c r i t i c s argue back and f o r t h , the play w i l l continue to o f f e r i t s e l f to actors, audience and readers f o r t h e i r s h i f t i n g i n t e r p r e t a t i o n and reaction. The centre of most of the controversy and emphasis w i l l be Kate. I t i s her play, and i t i s the shrew who w i l l act as lens and f o c a l point i n th i s study of Shakespeare's play and the hi s t o r y of i t s chequered stage career as we pursue i t down the centuries. < 4 CHAPTER I KATHERINE IN THE TAMING OF THE SHREW A reading of a play which intends to approach the drama through character must take i n t o account the s t r u c t u r a l and thematic nature of the work. Northrop Frye has l a i d down some simple but b a s i c p r i n c i p l e s which i n d i c a t e a sound approach to character: In drama, ch a r a c t e r i s a t i o n depends on function: what a character i s follows from what he has to do i n the play. Dramatic function i n i t s turn depends on the structure of the play. The character has c e r t a i n things to do because the play has such and such a shape. Given a s u f f i c i e n t l y powerful sense of s t r u c t u r e , the characters w i l l be e s s e n t i a l l y speaking dramatic functions, as they are i n Jensen's comedy of humours. The structure of the play in turn depends on the category of play: i f i t i s a comedy, i t s structure w i l l require a p r e v a i l i n g mood^ Many s t r u c t u r a l elements fuse to give power and thrust to Shakespeare's handling of shrew taming. An awareness of these elements i s necessary f o r a f u l l apprehension of the form which gives shape, ou t l i n e , texture and depth to Shakespeare's concept of the shrew stereotype?.. What kind of a play i s The Taming of the Shrew? To what extent i s the play a farce and how does t h i s a f f e c t the character-i s a t i o n of Katherine? The play i s generally accepted as a farce and does indeed have many f a r c i c a l elements. Farce i s a form of low comedy which sets out to win laughter without engaging the mind. The f a r c i c a l p l o t usually moves ra p i d l y , with a speeding 5 up of human behaviour and a great display of s l a p s t i c k and buffoonery which carr i e s the audience along i n laughter which prevents thought or empathy. The characterisations are usually one-dimensional and f a m i l i a r stock types, often exaggerated into grotesque caricatures as the action proceeds. Shakespeare indulges these elements of farce most f r e e l y i n t h i s play. The action moves at a l i g h t n i n g g pace as Petruchio i s blown into Padua l i k e a gale and moves the taming process along at headlong speed. The wooing, wedding, and bedding allow ample opportunity for s l a p s t i c k and fun, an opportunity which has often led to the pibay';say being produced as simply a f a r c i c a l romp. The characters are stock comic types,-and, with f a r c i c a l emphasis, they can be acted as l i t t l e more than caricatures. But there i s another side to the play, a more serious strand, and i t i s t h i s comic as against f a r c i c a l aspect which shows most c l e a r l y i n the c e n t r a l s i t u a t i o n , the taming of Katherine. By h i s handling of the f a r c i c a l elements and by the i n t r o -duction of other material, Shakespeare transforms the f a r c i c a l and moves the play i n the d i r e c t i o n of h i s l a t e r comedies. One of the devices he uses to tune down the b r u t a l i s i n g q u a l i t i e s of the b a s i c taming p l o t i s the Induction. In a prelude to the main action, Shakespeare introduces us to the drunken t i n k e r , Christopher Sly. Seized by a l o r d who sees an opportunity for some fun, Sly i s c a r r i e d to the Lord's house, bathed, wined and dined and, i n a drunken stupor, t o l d he i s a l o r d . Hovering y 6 between dream and r e a l i t y , he becomes the audience for a production of the shrew-taming t a l e presented by a group of s t r o l l i n g players. This i s the framework f o r Katherine's t a l e and her taming i s presented as a play within a play. As Katherine's t a l e i s intended f o r the education and amusement of Christopher Sly and introduced i n the s p i r i t of teasing and fun, the s t a r v i n g and brow-beating she undergoes i s enjoyed as a game. Not f e l t so keenly because i t i s distanced by this framing device, Katherine's taming can be viewed with more o b j e c t i v i t y and consequently enjoyed with the mind. The t r a d i t i o n a l romance i n the Bianca,- Lucentio subplot also has a softening e f f e c t on the harshness and cruelty inherent i n the taming process. Interwoven with the b r i t t l e n e s s of the main action, the courtship of Bianca (patterned a f t e r the courtly t r a d i t i o n ) provides r e l i e f from the main p l o t and gives a strong dramatic contrast. The story of her wooing by three s u i t o r s who employ devious schemes to approach her and place t h e i r s u i t , also provides an important s o c i a l background f o r the Katherine story. The group of minor characters involved i n this complex pu r s u i t , supply Katherine with a family, some motivation for her bad humour, and a society to r e j o i n at the end of the play. Most importantly, Bianca serves as a powerful f o i l f o r Katherine. As the two p l o t l i n e s develop, the s i s t e r s are jux t a -pps'edd to good e f f e c t dramatically. Katherine, seemingly a shrew, emerges as a free and restored i n d i v i d u a l at the end of the play.• Bianca, seemingly sweet, ends the play as a 7 p o t e n t i a l shrew, Bianca i s very important dramatically, providing a means of i n d i c a t i n g Katherine's growth. I t i s this growth, th i s maturing of personality and development i n Katherine's character, which marks the comic or thoughtful aspect of the play. Katherine enters the play i n a state of anger and f r u s t r a t i o n , demonstrating signs of emotional and mental turmoil. She i s out of sorts with h e r s e l f , her family and society at large. I t i s Petruchio's attempts to c i v i l i s e , subjugate or teach Kate (depending on the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of h i s a c t i o n s ) , which forms the taming process at the heart of the play. The process, marked by means of s o c i a l i s o l a t i o n and deprivation of food, sleep and r i g h t s , i s very much i n the f a r c i c a l vein. I t i s Katherine 1s lack of s e l f knowledge and s o c i a l awareness which provides the comic blocking device and her new v i s i o n or reform (again open to i n t e r p r e t a t i o n ) , provides the release or f a r c i c a l purgation. In his development of this freeing action, Shakespeare seems to be working i n two t e r r i t o r i e s , gleaning advantages from the fusion of two comic forms. For above and beyond the simple f a r c i c a l purge, there i s a strong sense of regeneration at the end of the play, more a f u l l f i L m e n t t of the comic than the f a r c i c a l intent. The emphasis on s o c i a l regeneration shows i t s e l f i n d i f f e r e n t ways. We see i t c l e a r l y announced by Katherine h e r s e l f i n the scene with Vincentio when she decides to accept Petruchio's 8 v i s i o n . In a moment of enlightenment she acknowledges her movement from stagnation to new l i f e , i n a passage with multiple 2 implications." Everything I look on seemeth green," she announces. In the c l o s i n g scene when her new and s o c i a l l y accepted r e l a t i o n -ship with Petruchio i s demonstrated, the moral norm and pattern f o r a new society are c l e a r l y indicated. Yet another pattern which reinforces the idea of comic f u l l f i l m e n t t over f a r c i c a l s o l u t i o n i s the impact of the j u x t a p o s i t i o n of the main and subplot. The courtly wooing of Bianca and the blunt, d i r e c t and r e a l i s t i c approach of Petruchio to marriage are two opposite and extreme poles. The one i s b l i n d , the other coarse. Although the play ends with the apparent triumph of the Petruchio technique, the very extremity of the two modes seems to argue, not for an acceptance of one method over another, but a search f o r a median, a middle way; a norm which i t i s for the audience to i d e n t i f y and accept. This i s the pattern of comic r e s o l u t i o n found i n Shakespeare's l a t e r comedies. The form of this play, then, seems to be an e f f e c t i v e blend . of farce and comedy, a fusion which succeeds and provides a wider and firmer base for Shakespeare's treatment of h i s stereo-type heroine. I f Shakespeare had allowed a glimpse of c o n f l i c t i n Katherine as she struggled with her pride and her feelings for Petruchio, we would have a f u l l y developed heroine of the Helena or Beatrice mold. As i t i s , Katherine i s a mixture, a prototype. She uproots h e r s e l f and moves out of the realm of 9 farce, but doesn't quite step i n t o the f u l l e r world of comedy. Shakespeare's handling of h i s source material also i n t e r e s t i n g l y demonstrates how he i s moving away from the purely f a r c i c a l . The main action of the play, the shrew taming, i s derived from the native f o l k l o r e and b a l l a d t r a d i t i o n s . Because of the recognisable features of the f o l k shrew, Shakespeare's i n t r o -duction of Katherine i n the early scenes, need not be strongly drawn. I t i s enough to suggest the shrew c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n the i n i t i a l scenes (as Hortensio and Gremio do so w e l l ) , and allow the audience to supplement t h e i r i n i t i a l a ppraisal of Katherine with the stereotype image. The main p l o t material i s further enriched by Shakespeare's use of h i s own Warwickshire creation, Christopher Sly, i n the Induction. Sly's being t r i c k e d i n t o b e l i e v i n g he i s a l o r d sets the theme of i l l u s i o n and r e a l i t y which i s further developed i n the main body of the play. The ideas of master and servant r e l a t i o n s , c o n t r o l l e r and co n t r o l l e d , husband and wife assumptions and presumptions are also introduced i n t h i s prelude, giving d i r e c t i o n and.focus f o r the main p l o t . The play within a play framework created by this sequence, as has been s a i d , makes Katherine's taming more of a.game or 3 presentation than a d i r e c t i m i t a t i o n of l i f e . The subtle blending of Gascoigne's The Supposes i n t o the subplot and texture of the play i s the t h i r d strand of source material which helps provide the r i c h background f or the shrew taming. The story of Bianca and her three s u i t o r s o f f e r s a 10 pattern of contrast to the main action. I t s s a t i r i c a l and l i g h t treatment of t r a d i t i o n a l romance further softens the e f f e c t s of the ruder and coarser elements i n the f o l k t a l e main p l o t . Katherine's wooing i n a l l i t s starkness and r e a l i t y , i s more acceptable and palatable when contrasted with the a r t i f i c i a l i t y and b l i n d i d e a l i s m as developed i n the subplot. The merging of these three story sources, thus provides a complex of dramatic tensions and i n t e r a c t i o n s which gives much richness and depth to the p l a i n figures of r i t u a l shrew taming. Later versions of Shakespeare's play which tamper with t h i s fusion of r e l a t e d story elements, frequently impoverish t h e i r drama and pare Katherine's dramatic conception to i t s bare bones i n the process. The Taming of the Shrew draws much of i t s v i t a l i t y from the i n t e r p l a y of contrasts which creates a taut dramatic s t r u c t u r e . The play's basic rhythm i s established by the a l t e r n a t i n g and merging of the Katherine-Petruchio story with that of Bianca and her s u i t o r s . The f a s t verbal fireworks and tempo of the main p l o t contrast with the slow i n t r i g u i n g and manipulations of the subplot. Each story, with i t s s p e c i a l emphasis, provides r e l i e f from the other. The Bianca story i s interwoven c a r e f u l l y so that the shrew taming keeps i t s sharpness and impact without d u l l i n g or tedium. The wedding f i a s c o , the miserable journey y to Petruchio's house and the bedroom scene are reported, not — -shown, thus providing v a r i e t y , preserving the crispness and 11 freshness of the taming and holding the tension as the play moves towards the c l i m a c t i c k i s s . The i n t e r p l a y of the two plot l i n e s generates patterns of opposites i n mood, at t i t u d e and language, which provide much of the play's texture. Romanticism i s p i t t e d against realism to good e f f e c t . Lucentio^strikes the f i r s t a ttitude i n declaring hi s purpose for coming to Padua: f o r I have P i s a l e f t And am to Padua come, as he that leaves A shallow plash to plunge him i n the deep, And with s a t i e t y seeks to quench h i s t h i r s t . ( I , . i , 21-24) His purpose i s stated f i g u r a t i v e l y with a l l the indulgence of f e e l i n g , sensuality and excess of the romantic. Against t h i s we have the vigorous and d i r e c t statement of purpose of Petruchio: And I have thrust myself i n t o this maze Happily to wine and thri v e as best I may: Crowns i n my purse I have and goods at home, And so am come abroad to see the world. ( I , i i , 55-59) Lucentio i s blinded by love. Attracted by Bianca 1s s i l e n c e , he i s bewitched by the t r a d i t i o n a l " c o r a l l i p s " and scented breath. Bianca i s thus elevated to the p o s i t i o n of courtly mistress and wooed i n d i r e c t l y , with the help of a l i t t l e disguise and a handy L a t i n grammar. Katherine, by contrast, i s accepted as described, "the curst", and wooed f o r c e f u l l y and d i r e c t l y by Petruchio: Marry, so I mean, sweet Katherine, i n thy bed: And therefore, s e t t i n g a l l t h i s chat aside, Thus i n p l a i n terms: your father hath consented That you s h a l l be my wife; your dowry 'greed on; And w i l l you, n i l l you, I w i l l marry you. ( I I , i , 261-265) 12 Thus the p o l a r i t i e s i n language and attitude are struck and maintained, providing v a r i e t y of mood, sentiment and language which give texture, colour and body to the action. S t r u c t u r a l l y , then, The Shrew has a strong dramatic unity. The three story sources are fused i n t o a dramatic whole. The shrew taming i s juxtaposed with a romantic subplot which brightens, sharpens and enriches both the action and the dramatic concept of tamer and tamed. The texture of the play i s r i c h and var i e d and the dramatic tensions are strong, moving the play i n e v i t a b l y towards r e l i e f and resolu t i o n . The dramatic soundness of the play w i l l become more apparent as we move to-examine the dramatist's conception of the shrew.and examine i n more d e t a i l the nature of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between Katherine and Petruchio. When Shakespeare introduces Katherine, he c l e a r l y indicates that she i s a shrew of f o l k t r a d i t i o n , e a s i l y recognisable and undesirable. Hortensio, and p a r t i c u l a r l y Gremio, define, her i n shrewish epithets, proclaiming t h e i r d i s t a s t e f o r her type. Before Katherine even speaks a l i n e i n the play, Gremio places her on the lowest l e v e l of the female hierarchy, i n d i c a t i n g she should be "carted": that i s , exposed as a p r o s t i t u t e and p u b l i c l y humiliated. The t r a d i t i o n a l shrew image i s created by a series of derogatory epithets and exclamations. Katherine i s "the d e v i l " , "the d e v i l ' s dam", " f i e n d of h e l l " , " i n t o l e r a b l e curst and shrewd and forward, so beyond a l l measure" (I, i i , 89). Shakespeare soon shows Katherine's shrewishness i n action. On 1 3 her f i r s t entrance ( I , i ) , she attacks i n three d i f f e r e n t d i r e c t i o n s . She f i r s t rebukes her father, Baptista, "Is i t your w i l l to make a s t a l e of me among these mates?" she scolds. Then she turns to lash at the su i t o r s as they taunt her about her unmarried state and d i s p o s i t i o n . F i n a l l y , she turns to sneer at her s i s t e r , Bianca, "A pretty peat! i t i s best put f i n g e r i n the eye, an she knew why." This floundering, lunging and b l u s t e r give a strong i n i t i a l dramatic impression. Katherine i s attempting to cope with t r y i n g circumstances, but succeeds only i n antagonising everyone, reaping a harvest of i l l - w i l l and d i s l i k e . She seems determined to challenge every statement. When Bap t i s t a t e l l s her to stay, she flashes back: Why, and I tr u s t I may go too, may I not? What, I s h a l l be appointed hours; as though, b e l i k e , I knew not what to take, and what to leave, ha? (I, i , 102-105) Here again we see a strong w i l l and the need f o r assertion, but i n the manner of d e l i v e r y , Katherine's scorn and sarcasm are an i n e f f e c t i v e means of dealing with her s i t u a t i o n or a l l e v i a t i n g her obvious misery. In t h i s opening scene Katherine i s seen at her l e a s t a t t r a c t i v e . Her speech i s vulgar as she takes her cue from the sui t o r s and uses str e e t invective as a means of r e t a l i a t i o n . This unpleasant impression i s developed further i n the scene with Bianca, where Katherine binds her s i s t e r , using threats and b u l l y i n g t a c t i c s to e l i c i t some i n d i c a t i o n of Bianca's feelings and preferences 14 for her s u i t o r s . Again t h i s scene shows Katherine's jealousy and f r u s t r a t i o n at work, ending only i n p h y s i c a l violence and without s o l u t i o n or r e l i e f . Katherine's soured d i s p o s i t i o n and her i n a b i l i t y to cope w±h her unhappiness are now firml y established f o r the audience. Against these obvious signs of shrewishness, we have other signals to in d i c a t e that this state of f r u s t r a t i o n and bi t t e r n e s s i s not Katherine's natural d i s p o s i t i o n , and there are many clues which point to Katherine's p o t e n t i a l f o r change. We have several hints that Katherine's behaviour has been motivated by her family experiences. In the scene with Bianca's s u i t o r s , B a ptista i s seen to embarrass Katherine by tossing her as a consolation p r i z e to sui t o r s already committed.to Bianca. Katherine i s thus forced to endure t h e i r r e j e c t i o n i n favour of Bianca, together with t h e i r h o s t i l e remarks. Her anger springs n a t u r a l l y from her s e n s i t i v i t y and hurt f e e l i n g s , which she covers desperately by rebuking her father and attacking the su i t o r s . B a p t i s t a even indicates that this kind of r i t u a l has been performed before: Gentlemen, importune me no far t h e r , For how I firmly am resolved you know; That i s , not to bestow my youngest daughter Before I have a husband f o r the elder. ( I , i , 46-52) This occasion i s the one where Ba p t i s t a w i l l c a l l a h a l t to the wooing of Bianca. There i s evidence that B a p t i s t a prefers Bianca; a preference which may explain some of Katherine's bitterness without excusing 15 her b u l l y i n g behaviour. Baptista, f o r instance, takes no part i n answering the s u i t o r s ' obvious rudeness towards Katherine, yet i s at pains to console Bianca f o r her postponed courtship, "For I w i l l love thee ne'er the l e s s , ray g i r l . " ( I , i , 78), he assures her. The schoolmasters are to be h i r e d f o r Bianca's delight i n music, instruments and poetry, which may p a r t l y explain Katherine's bad-tempered attack on Hortensio i n a l a t e r scene. The sequence i s concluded as Ba p t i s t a hastens i n to commune more with Bianca, bidding Katherine remain behind with her two taunters. These actions, by providing some motive f o r Katherine's i l l - n a t u r e d behaviour, show that Katherine's shrew-ishness i s more a product of her experiences than an inborn character t r a i t . There are other hints provided to allow f o r some i n s i g h t into Katherine's anger. There i s a strong f e e l i n g that Katherine recognises her own merits and sees through Bianca's seeming acquiescence and d o c i l i t y . Her f r u s t r a t i o n l i e s i n her i n a b i l i t y to obtain recognition f o r he r s e l f or to expose Bianca's truer nature. As she r e p l i e s to the s u i t o r s ' taunts, she nods i n Bianca's d i r e c t i o n and warns: I wis i t i s not halfway to her heart; But i f i t were, doubt not her care should be To comb your noddle with a three-legged s t o o l And paint your face and use you l i k e a f o o l . ( I , i , 61-Her warning i s born out i n the f i n a l scene when Bianca makes a f o o l of her husband p u b l i c l y . But i n these circumstances, the warning f a l l s on stony ground. The audience catches an early 16 glimpse of Bianca's cutt i n g d i s p o s i t i o n , sweetly disguised as seeming cooperation. As Katherine f l a i l s around t r y i n g to make Bianca expose her true f e e l i n g s , Bianca q u i e t l y s l i p s i n the kn i f e , teasing Katherine with her lack of s u i t o r s by o f f e r i n g one of her surplus: I f you a f f e c t him s i s t e r , hear I swear I ' l l plead for you myself, but you s h a l l have him. (I I , i , 14-15) L i t t l e wonder Katherine i s f r u s t r a t e d . I t i s not Bianca's crossness which aggravates her jealousy and feeds her anger, but Bianca's s i l e n c e ; her a r t i l l e r y of sweetness and.indignation which defies p u b l i c exposure. So Katherine i s seen to rage, fume and act the shrew, but with some audience-insight i n t o the nature of her family s i t u a t i o n and the source of her anguish. In these two i n i t i a l scenes with Katherine, we also glimpse the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which w i l l a t t r a c t Petruchio and ultimately be the means of her l i b e r a t i o n and strength; namely her i n t e l l i g e n c e and wit and her great reserves of energy and s p i r i t . Her i n t e l l i g e n c e and independent s p i r i t show quickly i n her a b i l i t y to stand up for h e r s e l f against two h o s t i l e males without any support from her father. Her a g i l i t y of wit i s shown i n her f a s t exchange with Hortensio and Gremio as she plays t h e i r kind of word game, adopting t h e i r masculine form of derogation; a pattern she w i l l use again i n her f i r s t encounter with Petruchio. Her energy and s p i r i t are r e a d i l y i d e n t i f i e d i n t h i s early scene, though obviously misspent and misdirected. Katherine, the shrew, — 17 i s thus launched on her career. But Shakespeare, i n these f i r s t apparently shrewish demonstrations, has already planted the seeds of ambivalence and i n s i g h t which w i l l provide the groundwork f or a f u l l c h a r a c t e r i s a t i o n of a shrew who i s also a human being. Petruchio i s the c a t a l y s t , the means by which Katherine begins to discover her strengths and power, her humour, and her capacity to f e e l , learning to apply them to the art of success^-f u l l i v i n g . Understanding the nature of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between Katherine and Petruchio i s b a s i c to understanding the dramatic effectiveness of Katherine. Petruchio creates the environment and stages the si t u a t i o n s which w i l l t e s t and probe Katherine's p o t e n t i a l ; i n the assertion of h i s value system, he provides a means of measuring Katherine's increased effectiveness. What are Petruchio's motives? Why does he undertake to woo Katherine? The obvious motive of marrying f o r money doesn't make too much sense when Petruchio i s already the i n h e r i t o r of h i s father's s u b s t a n t i a l estate, with "crowns i n h i s purse" and "goods at home." Although he proclaims at great length and with extended imagery on "gold's e f f e c t , " there i s a ce r t a i n playfulness i n hi s posturing. The motive must l i e elsewhere. Petruchio's love of gamesmanship, as established i n the opening scene with h i s servant, Grumio, i s perhaps, a clearer i n d i c a t i o n of h i s r e a l motives. Shakespeare introduces Petruchio as a man of great energy, 18 vigour and presence, a man who thrives on games, a man who w i l l d e l i b e r a t e l y provoke misunderstandings to create a means of rel e a s i n g h i s energy and e s t a b l i s h i n g h i s sense of i d e n t i t y . Shakespeare shows us Petruchio's s t y l e i n the f i r s t scene i n the play where he creates an excuse f o r verbal sparring with his servant Grumio on the theme of knocking. We see Petruchio d e l i g h t i n g i n the match, using the affected antagonism as.a means to provoke incident and stimulation and to create the sense of action and engagement which are necessary to h i s l i f e -s t y l e and h i s sense of s e l f . This i n i t i a l impression i s confirmed i n h i s meeting with Hortensio and Gremio. He chooses to define himself as d i f f e r e n t and more capable than the general s u i t o r come to town. When t o l d of curst Katherine, h i s reaction i s not apprehension but approbation: I know she i s an irksome, brawling scold: I f that be a l l , masters, I hear no harm. (I, i i , 188-190) When he r e a l i s e s that a shrew i s a great threat to Hortensio and Gremio, he seizes upon t h e i r doubts and uses the s i t u a t i o n to develop a strong, masculine image of himself: Think you a l i t t l e din can daunt my ears? Have I not i n my time heard l i o n s roar? Have I not heard the sea, puffed up with winds, Rage l i k e an angry boar chafed with sweat? Have I not heard great ordnance i n the f i e l d , And heaven's a r t i l l e r y thunder i n the skies? Have I not i n a pitched b a t t l e heard Loud 'larums, neighing steeds, and trumpet's clang? And do you t e l l me of a woman's tongue, That gives not h a l f so great a blow to hear As w i l l a chestnut i n a farmer's f i r e ? Tush, tush! fear boys with bugs. (I, i i , 200-211) 19 This speech shows many of Petruchio's dominant character t r a i t s . He i s an experienced s o l d i e r and w e l l t r a v e l l e d . He i s a man of imagintion, yet p r a c t i c a l . He i s mature and capable with a vigorous and dramatic sense of l i f e . His choice and develop-ment of image and h i s great delight i n language, e s t a b l i s h Petruchio's need to l i v e and enjoy l i f e by and through language; for him i t i s a means of s e l f - d e f i n i t i o n . His energy and vigour are released and f f . u l f i l l e d i n the fluency of s e l f -expression. Such a man, powerful, p r a c t i c a l and v e r b a l l y dexterous -and: a g i l e requires a vigorous and v e r b a l l y s k i l f u l partner to complement h i s approach to l i f e . Such a mate i s Katherine. Petruchio, somewhat of a s c o l d himself, as the Grumio in t e r l u d e has demonstrated, recognises i n the shrewish epithets which describe Katherine, the manifestations of the same kind of mental and verbal energy that he himself possesses. He e a s i l y recognises a l i k e temperament, and t h i s i s h i s motivation. The fact that Katherine i s young, a t t r a c t i v e , well-brought up and r i c h i s an added incentive to a p o t e n t i a l l y rewarding enterprise. The scene which antic i p a t e s Petruchio's f i r s t encounter with Katherine, again stresses Petruchio's i n t e r e s t i n Katherine's verbal a b i l i t i e s and energy. As Hortensio, lute around his head, describes Katherine's attack on him, r e c a l l i n g how he stood amazed: While she d i d c a l l me r a s c a l f i d d l e r And twangling Jack; with twenty such v i l e terms, As she had studied to misuse me so. ( I I , i , 161-164) 20 Petruchio's i n t e r e s t i s aroused; h i s love of contest and verbal sparring, leading him to exclaim with enthusiasm: Now by the world, i t i s a l u s t y wench; I love her ten times more than e're I did; 0, how I long to have some chat with her! ( I I , i , 161-164) In the following meeting and exchange of chat, Petruchio tests Katherine's wit and s p i r i t and h i s i n i t i a l supposition that Katherine's energy and w i l l are a match f orchis own i s w e l l substantiated. Petruchio proceeds to clap up the match. Following h i s n a t u r a l i n s t i n c t s he has found a wife with a mettle to match h i s own. To appreciate the dramatic effectiveness of Katherine's response to Petruchio, we need to see the motive and plan of attack which Petruchio intends to use to c i v i l i s e or tame h i s wife. He recognises Katherine's p o t e n t i a l and sets out to allow her to develop and become more s o c i a l l y aware and e f f e c t i v e . He would l i k e Katherine to see with his v i s i o n and experience and use her energy and wit to play the games he enjoys. He does t h i s by, " k i l l i n g her i n her own humour," that i s he burlesques her behaviour and l e t s her see how i n e f f e c t i v e i t i s . He launches h i s campaign i n h i s usual gamesmanship s t y l e , adapting h i s favourite stance, opposition: Say that she r a i l ; why then I ' l l t e l l her p l a i n She sings as sweetly as a nightingale: Say that she frown; I ' l l say she looks as clear As morning roses newly washed with dew; Say she be mute and w i l l not speak a word; Then I ' l l commend her v o l u b i l i t y . (II, i , 171-176) Petruchio i s here addressing the audience, i n v i t i n g them to 21 accept h i s approach to wife taming. The e f f e c t of this i s to make the audience less apprehensive of the r i g i d i t y of Petruchio's methods, d i r e c t i n g t h e i r sympathies towards h i s taming problems and away from Katherine. Petruchio interrupts the action as h i s plan proceeds, to give a progress report to the audience and maintain t h e i r support of h i s cause. Thus, Katherine becomes less of a v i c t i m and more of a wayward p u p i l , whose welfare i s the concern of both Petruchio and the audience. The f i r s t skirmish between Katherine and Petruchio i s also the f i r s t step towards Katherine's enlightenment. She engages i n a b a t t l e of wits and meets and recognises her match. This act of recognition i s important, as i t makes Katherine accept and react to Petruchio i n a more tolerant and att e n t i v e way, opening the path to understanding as she recognises the p o t e n t i a l Tightness of Petruchio as a husband. The f i r s t encounter i s also a good learning s i t u a t i o n f o r Katherine. Her a b i l i t y to bandy words i s given f u l l range, although she i s somewhat out played by a more experienced player. She recognises t h i s arid also learns that this s k i l f u l and mature man i s determined to marry her, ^ f u l f i l l i n g her need f o r personal and s o c i a l recognition and perhaps, love. The r e s u l t i s , she i s a l i t t l e stunned by the meeting, but acquiescent, w i l l i n g to comply with the wedding arrangements with only mild, face-saving protests. This f i r s t meeting also sets up many of the patterns i n the relationshipswhich w i l l be repeated and elaborated i n subsequent 22 scenes. With a f a s t , staccato pace, Petruchio and Katherine engage i n a ser i e s of f a s t , f l a s h i n g exchanges, which show t h e i r respective a b i l i t i e s to match wit f o r wit, pun f o r pun. Katherine copes w e l l , but she f a l t e r s . With Petruchio 1s vulgar j i b e : What with my tongue i n your t a i l ? — Nay, come again, Good Kate; I am a gentleman — ( I I , i , 217-219) Katherine's embarrassment at t h i s intimate v u l g a r i t y i s expressed p h y s i c a l l y . She h i t s out at Petruchio, unable to muster a s u i t a b l e reply. The repartee begins again, but Katherine cannot sustain the pace. When Petruchio exclaims, "Why here's no crab; and therefore look not sour," Kate cannot continue the word play, but f a l l s back on i n s i s t e n c e , "There i s , there i s " she answers. Petruchio, recognising that Katherine i s f a l t e r i n g , saves her feelings by admitting that h i s wit i s i n f e r i o r , claiming, "I am too young for you." Petruchio has tested and discovered the range of Katherine's wit and verbal s k i l l s , and s a t i s f i e d , moves on to prepare Katherine for his wedding intentions. In a ser i e s of sustained passages, he builds a pleasant image of Katherine that i s i n great contrast to the image of h e r s e l f Katherine has absorbed from her father and Bianca's s u i t o r s : 0 slanderous world! Kate l i k e the hazel-twig Is s t r a i g h t and slender, and brown i n hue As hazel-nuts and sweeter than the kernels. ( I I , i , 247-250) This change of ploy, despite i t s teasing tone, begins;, to have i t s e f f e c t on Katherine. . "Where did you study a l l t h i s goodly speech?" she queries, puzzled. Petruchio senses i n t h i s question 23 the beginnings of a response i n Katherine, and i n his whirlwind, " s e t t i n g a l l this chat aside," announces h i s in t e n t i o n to marry her. Katherine makes no reply. Her s i l e n c e i s consent. With the return of Ba p t i s t a and the change from private to p u b l i c scene, Petruchio strengthens h i s hold on Katherine's i n t e r e s t by redef i n i n g Katherine's p u b l i c image to her father and previous persecutors: For she's not forward, but modest as the dove; She i s not hot, but temperate as the morn; For patience she w i l l prove a second G r i s s e l , And Roman Lucrece for her ch a s t i t y : ( I I , i , 287-291) Petruchio i s showing Katherine h i s support of her and defends her fur t h e r by claiming that her shrewishness i n p u b l i c i s by mutual arrangement. Petruchio talks through Baptista to Katherine, brushing aside her protest by emphasising h i s w i l l and choice with the very f i r m statement, "I choose her for myself." Katherine gives her s i l e n t approval, making no further protests as dates and times of the wedding ceremony are b r i s k l y arranged and Petruchio whirls her o f f the stage i n the nat u r a l flow of his energy and purpose. This scene i s dramatically very important i n e s t a b l i s h i n g the mutual a t t r a c t i o n between Katherine and Petruchio. Petruchio has tested Katherine and found her agreeable and stimulating. Already, i n h i s usual b r i s k fashion, he has sta r t e d to r e -fashion Katherine's p u b l i c image. He has made his choice. Katherine has likewise s i g n a l l e d her in t e r e s t i n Petruchio. Having well-demonstrated her a b i l i t y to protest and claim her 24 rights i n e a r l i e r scenes, her lack of p e r s i s t e n t objection to the planned b e t r o t h a l i s i n d i c a t i v e of her willingness to marry Petruchio. Katherine's sense of commitment! to Petruchio and her t a c i t agreement to the wedding contract i s shown and emphasised i n the pre-wedding scene when Petruchio's non-appearance causes alarm. Katherine's strong sense of personal disappointment i s as much the cause for her d i s t r e s s as the obvious s o c i a l embarrassment, as she leaves the scene weeping and humiliated. The sense of mutual a t t r a c t i o n and the hint of possible a f f e c t i o n between Petruchio and Katherine serves an important dramatic need. I t helps i l l u m i n a t e the actions and reactions of tamer and tamed i n the action to come, and i t a l l e v i a t e s much of the brutishness and cruelty inherent i n the struggle between the p a i r . This glimpse of concern and demonstrated a b i l i t y to f e e l , allows the audience the means to recognise the humanity of the characters, and th i s i n turn makes both tamer and p u p i l , more than f a r c i c a l caricatures as we glimpse t h e i r humanity. The s e r i e s of actions which make up the taming process each show a stage i n Katherine's development and growing awareness. Katherine's growth i s measured by her reactions to the demonstrations put on f o r her benefit by Petruchio, rather than i n t e r a c t i o n with Petruchio himself. Her f i r s t d i s t r e s s i n g experience i s the b i z a r r e wedding ceremony. Her reactions to Petruchio's rudeness and abusive treatment of the p r i e s t are mixed and unsure. She fi g h t s to re t a i n her composure. She "trembled and shook," according to Gfemio's account, but otherwise kept s i l e n t . 25 A f t e r the embarrassment of the church proceedings, Katherine's pl e a f o r Petruchio to remain f o r the f e s t i v i t i e s i s as much a desire f o r s o c i a l normality as an assertion of w i l l . P e t r u c h i o 1 s r e f u s a l sparks o f f Katherine's indignation and she loses her composure, reverting to her stereotyped image in a display of anger. This i s a dramatically e f f e c t i v e moment and Petruchio removes h i s bride f o r e e f u l l y , astshenrages^mst'ampsnandrfrets y-This image of the angry Katherine i s Katherine's l a s t contact with her family. When she next returns to the family c i r c l e , calm, c o n t r o l l e d and serene, the sharp dramatic contrast i s very e f f e c t i v e . Katherine's i n i t i a l reaction to Petruchio's scenarios i s one of confusion. Katherine i s q u i e t l y and s e r i o u s l y t r y i n g to comprehend the meaning of Petruchio's professed concern and hi s b i z a r r e and outrageous actions. Petruchio feeds a constant stream of images of care and concern f o r Katherine whilst thwarting her w i l l . These images nourish Katherine's s p i r i t , i n that she has been previously starved of a f f e c t i o n and regard; they also form a new image of h e r s e l f which i s s o c i a l l y acceptable and desirable. This ploy of Petruchio has another a f f e c t . I t d u l l s Katherine's anger, so that she i s more objective and thoughtful about her new p o s i t i o n and less i n c l i n e d to respond with pure emotion. In s t r i v i n g to understand, Katherine's seriousness also prevents her from seeing the mockery and games aspect of Petruchio's performance and allows her to learn from her experiences. 26 Petruchio's f i r s t demonstration for Katherine i s the p h y s i c a l and verbal abuse of his servants, for no apparent f a u l t . His rough, ill-mannered behaviour which Katherine observes, leads her to a di s t a s t e f o r h i s unfairness and violence. She i s provoked to intervene on behalf of a servant, "Patience, I pray you, 'twas a f a u l t u nwilling." Katherine begins to r e j e c t Petruchio's excesses. Choosing a more moderate r o l e f o r h e r s e l f , she councils Petruchio as he throws meat around the stage: I pray you husband, be not so disquiet The meat was w e l l , i f you were so contented. (IV, i , 168-170) Because of her struggle to make an assessment of her new environment, Katherine, i n thoughtful mood, i s able to respond to undesirable s o c i a l scenes, not with anger, but with patience. Her s e l f -centered world i s beginning to open up as Katherine allows h e r s e l f to be aware of, and respond to, the fe e l i n g s of others. Petruchio postpones the consummation of the marriage, another deviance from s o c i a l and personal expectations which confuses Katherine. As Petruchio rants and raves i n a sermon on continence i n a reported scene, Katherine, unsure, embarrassed and confused, " S i t s as one new r i s e n from a dream." At t h i s point sae i s at a lo s s . There are no normal s o c i a l patterns she can r e l y on, so she must turn to h e r s e l f to make what she can of t h i s new l i f e . Katherine must s t a r t from scratch and f i n d a new way of understanding.and coping with her environment. Katherine's next set of reactions iis*e exploratory, as she seeks a means to grasp, control and p a r t i c i p a t e i n the events 27 going on around her. In the scene where she requests meat from Grumio and he teases her by way of reply, she i s f r u s t r a t e d and resorts to her old means of coping, by h i t t i n g out at Grumio. Next, Petruchio, a f t e r allowing Katherine to eat, introduces a new aspect of the game i n a scene with the t a i l o r . Petruchio continues to thwart every expression of Katherine's w i l l . He intends to make her agree to a l l h i s views and the scene amplifies h i s p o s i t i o n , "Look, what I speak or do, or think to do, You are s t i l l crossing i t . " Katherine's cumulative reaction i s r a t i o n a l now. She i s emotional, but constructive. Instead of chiding, she asks f o r her rights as a human being: Why s i r , I t r u s t I may have leave to speak; And speak I w i l l : I am no c h i l d , no babe: And your betters have endured me- say my mind, And i f you cannot, best you stop your ears. My tongue w i l l t e l l the anger of my heart, Or else my heart, concealing i t , w i l l break; And rather than i t s h a l l , I w i l l be free Even to the uttermost, as I please, i n words. (IV, i i i , 73-80) This speech reveals much about Katherine's state of mind. She knows she must express her fee l i n g s to preserve her sanity and i s seeking a r a t i o n a l , verbal release, rather than explosions of anger or i n v e c t i v e . Although her appeal i s swept methodically aside by the campaigning Petruchio, Katherine's s p i r i t s are beginning to r i s e out of the morass. In the scene with the t a i l o r , Katherine again attempts to assert her newly discovered sense of s e l f i n a r a t i o n a l way, but her w i l l i s thwarted by Petruchio and she f a l l s into the background as Petruchio and Grumio give a demonstration of word 28 power and gamesmanship i n a scene b r i s t l i n g with vigour and figure s . Katherine i s treated to a dazzling display of verbosity, wit and spectacle. Determined and p o s i t i v e , she watches and she learns. Katherine t r i e s two more times to assert what she knows i s her truth. On the f i r s t occasion, the time of day i s the issue. Petruchio, as a matter of p r i n c i p l e , deprives her of that. F i n a l l y , the naming of the d a i l y f i x t u r e i n l i f e , the sun, becomes a matter of Petruchio's whim. At this point, a hint from Hortensio makes Katherine r e a l i s e she can s t i l l preserve her sanity. "Say as he says, or we s h a l l never go," he urges. At this point Katherine r e a l i s e s that this i s a game, a naming game, and names do not change the inner essence and r e a l i t y of things. Sun, moon or rush candle, what does i t r e a l l y matter? Katherine agrees to name the sun or moon as Petruchio's whims di c t a t e ; playing the game by his r u l e s , she gives her assent: Then God be blessed, i t i s the blessed sun: But sun i t i s not, when you say i t i s not; And the moon changes even as your mind, What you w i l l have i t named, even that i t i s ; And so i t s h a l l be so for Katherine. (IV, v, 18-25) This change of approach opens up a whole new world for Katherine as she explores the p o s s i b i l i t i e s of th i s new type of game. Petruchio seizes upon the approaching Vincentio and creates a test f or Katherine to see she understands the f u l l p o s s i b i l i t i e s of the game. He addresses Vincentio as a gentle mistress, then throws the cue to Katherine to see i f she can handle the s i t u a t i o n . She can. "Young budding virgin!^, f a i r and fresh and sweet," she greets Vincentio, elaborating on his feminine q u a l i t i e s . Petruchio c a l l s attention to her mistake, and she calmly follows his d i r e c t i o n and reverses the greeting: 29 Pardon, old father, my mistaking eyes, That have been so bedazzled with the sun That everything I look on seemeth green: Now I perceive thou a r t a reverend father: Pardon, I pray thee, for my mad mistaking. (IV, v, 45-49) This i s Katherine playing the game; her reference to being bedazzled by the sun i s a sign of her good humour as she signals to Petruchio that she has caught the s p i r i t of the game. This i s a changed Katherine, demonstrating the beginnings of a new s o c i a l poise and ease and an easy f a c i l i t y and deftness i n the handling of other people. When forced to p u b l i c l y l y withdraw her statement, instead of floundering and f l a r i n g with anger, she handles the p o t e n t i a l s o c i a l r i d i c u l e modestly and e f f i c i e n t l y . Her new sense of control contrasts greatly with her behaviour i n the opening scenes of the play. It i s at this moment of recognition i n the play, that Katherine discovers she i s free. She finds the way for her verbal s k i l l s and energy to be used i n a s o c i a l l y acceptable manner. She understands Petruchio's games and finds she can p a r t i c i p a t e w e l l . She finds she i s free with words (a r i g h t she claimed e a r l i e r ) , and she has the power to use words to good e f f e c t . F i n a l l y , she learns to relax. By j o i n i n g Petruchio's games, she finds she has anally and a partner. With the decrease i n tension between them, Katherine can now look at the world with fresh eyes. The b r i e f s t r e e t scene where Katherine and Petruchio k i s s before they r e j o i n society, i s the only scene where Katherine and Petruchio are completely alone (except f o r the i n i t i a l wooing scene). 30 The acceptance of each other i n this personal and dramatically powerful res o l u t i o n i s a highly s i g n i f i c a n t stage moment. Despite the p u b l i c place, t h i s i s a private, p h y s i c a l k i s s , a p h y s i c a l i n t e r -action between Katherine and Petruchio. There has been much t a l k of phys i c a l action i n the play, but u n t i l this moment of acceptance, Petruchio never lays a hand on Kate (she slaps him once). On the Shakespearean stage, such p h y s i c a l actions are v i t a l l y important f o r being so few and hence so meaningful. This b r i e f symbolic action, therefore c a r r i e s a strong dramatic meaning within the structure of the play. Petruchio teasingly demands a k i s s before they go further, and Katherine, with an affectionate "nay" agrees. The kiss seals the compact between husband and wife, making them a team. I t also bears the dramatic e f f e c t of the sexual consummation of the r e l a t i o n s h i p , postponed so e f f e c t i v e l y u n t i l t h i s moment. A l l struggle and tension between husband and wife ceases with t h i s k i s s , as r e s o l u t i o n and harmony are dramatically presented. Katherine's re-education and healing i s now complete. Emotionally ffu. M i l l e d , at peace with h e r s e l f , her husband and the world, Katherine i s ready f o r her c l i m a c t i c re-entry i n t o society. Shakespeare shows this as Katherine's triumph, not Petruchio's v i c t o r y . Katherine has acquired s o c i a l poise and learned how to be s o c i a l l y e f f e c t i v e . By agreeing with Petruchio's whims she has taken the wind out of his s a i l s . By choosing a moderate and modest s o c i a l r o l e f o r h e r s e l f (instead of the extreme stance 31 of her e a r l i e r , i n e f f e c t i v e days), she i s now i n a p o s i t i o n to crush a l l opposition and e s t a b l i s h her s u p e r i o r i t y and s o c i a l a c c e p t a b i l i t y i n a commanding and devastating p u b l i c display. In the f i n a l banquet scene, where three couples converge to form the basis f o r the new society, many changes have taken place and new character t r a i t s are juxtaposed e f f e c t i v e l y to produce a teasing and ambivalent ending to the play.• Bianca, now married to Lucentio, i s free to reveal, her true, shrewish d i s p o s i t i o n . Hortensio's new bride, the widow, i s challenging, a s s e r t i v e and mocking i n a s i m i l a r vein. Katherine,.by contrast, seems to be providing a new image of the subdued and conforming wife, obedient to her husband's whims and commands. But, l i k e most of the seeming i n the play, the r e a l i t y i s d i f f e r e n t . Katherine, f a r from g r o v e l l i n g at her husband's feet, i s indulging i n an exploration of her newly discovered freedom, w h i l s t Bianca and the widow are about to re-enact the t r a d i t i o n a l power struggle between husband and wife, a struggle which Katherine has already shown to be i n e f f e c t i v e and destructive, leading to nothing but continuous tension and unhappiness. For the audience who read Katherine's words with knowledge gleaned from her f r u s t r a t i n g experiences, when she t e l l s Bianca and the widow: But now I see our lances are but straws, Our strength as weak, our weakness past compare That seeming to be most which we indeed l e a s t are. (V, i i , 171-174) she i s t r u t h f u l l y sharing some of her own r e a l i s a t i o n s . She 32 has indeed found that opposing her husband's w i l l with tongue and pride i s a useless means of s e l f - a s s e r t i o n and leads only to f r u s t r a t i o n and d i v i s i o n . Accepting the husband's conditions has, i n Katherine's experience, l e d to a new mental freedom and s t a b i l i t y and an increased sense of self-worth, confidence and s o c i a l effectiveness. In her long address i n the f i n a l scene, Katherine demonstrates her s o c i a l s k i l l s i n many d i r e c t i o n s , simultaneously. To the audience she demonstrates a return to mental health. Her poise, the flow of her r a t i o n a l and c o n t r o l l e d speech and her i n s i g h t into the process she has undergone, are i n e f f e c t i v e contrast to the snappy, e r r a t i c and uncontrolled.behaviour witnessed i n the opening scenes. Katherine's speech i s also d i r e c t e d at Petruchio, as she gives him a superb example of her s k i l l i n gamesmanship, using many of Petruchio's favourite ploys. She talks to Petruchio through her choice of imagery i n much the same fashion as Petruchio at the end of the wooing scene, when, making wedding plans with Baptista, he also communicated with Katherine. She has absorbed Petruchio's techniques i n a l l t h e i r manifestations. . Katherine nourishes Petruchio's ego by def i n i n g .his s o c i a l image i n terms which w i l l please him. For her audience, she employs the images of l o r d , king, sovereign and prince to define Petruchio's s o c i a l status. For Petruchio's p r i v a t e s a t i s f a c t i o n , she re-inforces Petruchio's self-image as the man of action by defining h i s husbandly r o l e i n terms of ph y s i c a l r i s k and endurance. Her husband i s : 33 one that cares f o r thee And f o r thy maintenance commits his body To p a i n f u l labour both by sea and land, To watch the night i n storms, the day i n cold Whilst thou l i e s t warm at home, secure and safe. (V, i i , 145-149) Katherine's speech serves also as a veh i c l e f o r her revenge. When the widow i n s u l t s her at the beginning of the banquet scene by i n d i c a t i n g that by troubling her husband with her,shrewishness, she sets the standards f o r measuring marital woes, Katherine i s provoked. Although urged to respond, Katherine, with her new sense of control, finds a more subtle and s a t i s f y i n g means of r e t a l i a t i o n . She places Bianca and the widow i n the p o s i t i o n of rebels, and chooses to define h e r s e l f as the moderate and acceptable model of w i f e l y behaviour. No amount of anger, sarcasm and invective such as Katherine used to h u r l around, could so e f f e c t i v e l y expose Bianca and the widow. She has achieved recognition, a c c e p t a b i l i t y and acclaim f o r h e r s e l f , and shown by contrast that Bianca and the widow are not quite so sweet and desirable as they were acclaimed o r i g i n a l l y . Thus, with con t r o l of her anger and language, development of her confidence, s e n s i t i v i t y and s o c i a l awareness, Katherine has been sweepingly successful. Katherine's dominance i n the c l o s i n g scene of the play creates another dramatic e f f e c t . We have experienced the range of Petruchio's s o c i a l s k i l l s and f e l t the impact of h i s mature, c o n t r o l l i n g personality. Katherine, purged of her problems, i s on the threshold of a new and f u l l e r s o c i a l experience. She i s 34 seen i n ascendance as the play concludes, and t h i s emergence creates an ambivalent and t a n t a l i s i n g end to the play. " ' T i s wonder, by your leave, she w i l l be tamed So" i s as much a question as a statement. I t i s also a strong h i n t that there i s more to t h i s business of taming than the mechanical working of the p l o t ; that we should look to.the texture of the play to under-stand a l l the dramatic implications and to experience the richness of c h aracterisation. Much of the richness of cha r a c t e r i s a t i o n i s found i n the language of the play. The dramatic use of language provides not only texture, v a r i e t y and colour, but i s an important device fo r i n d i c a t i n g the movement of the main plot.and the growth of Katherine from her o r i g i n a l stereotype to a r i c h e r c h a r a c t e r i s a t i o n . Katherine i s defined as much by her language and use of i t , as she i s by her actions. The scolding tongue i s the hall-mark of the shrew, j u s t as nagging, chiding, complaining and rebuking are her favou r i t e occupations. I f we examine Katherine's use of language, we have good i n s i g h t i n t o the extent of her shrewishness and her l i m i t a t i o n s as a dramatic characterisation. . In the opening scenes of the play, Katherine's verbal performance indicates that she i s an e f f e c t i v e shrew. She uses offensive language as a means of self-defence, but her very use of s t r e e t i n v e c t i v e also indicates much about her i n i t i a l mental state. She uses the low language s t y l e of f i g h t i n g , but her language lacks sustained ideas and imagery. The staccato pace of her i n i t i a l entrance scene together with the l i m i t e d expression of ideas and the need f o r a verbal outlet convey a strong dramatic 35 impression of f r u s t r a t i o n and anger, and also i n d i c a t e Katherine's i s o l a t e d p o s i t i o n . Talk i s important. I t can include and exclude, and Katherine i s shown as excluded. B a p t i s t a goes twice to chat with Bianca, never with Katherine except to reprimand. Katherine has no verbal ou t l e t . The s u i t o r s w i l l trade i n v e c t i v e but not conversation and i t i s Bianca's reluctance to t a l k which feeds Katherine's anger. Invective, then, i s Katherine's only means o f . communication as she i s seen locked i n t o a r e f l e x s i t u a t i o n . When abuse and b u l l y i n g f a i l she resorts to p h y s i c a l violence. H i t t i n g i s the.only release for pent up f e e l i n g s which have no other o u t l e t . The taming process i s a b a t t l e of the sexes, conceived dramatically as a mental combat with language as the v e h i c l e for the taming action. Language i s Petruchio's taming device, but i t also serves to i n d i c a t e the stages i n the development of his r e l a t i o n s h i p with Katherine and i s an.important means of measuring Katherine's growth as a heroine within the play, con-tributing,, to the richness of her dramatic conception. The use of language in.the wooing scene i s highly important dramatically. As Petruchio and Katherine trade epithets and puns, we perceive through t h e i r compatibility of language and witticisms that t h i s couple i s p o t e n t i a l l y well-matched. They recognise t h i s as they test each other and so do the audience. This i s more than an excercise i n wit, i t i s the beginning of a r e l a t i o n s h i p , and f o r Katherine, a chance f o r r e a l verbal s e l f -expression. Despite her mental a g i l i t y , Katherine s t i l l shows 36 the l i m i t a t i o n s of her e a r l i e r exchanges with Gremio and Hortensio. She does not have Petruchio's mastery of words, and this shows i n t h e i r respective a b i l i t i e s to name things. Petruchio has her measure, but she misjudges him: Katherine: What i s your crest? a ccoxcomb? Petruchio: A combless cock, so Kate w i l l be my hen. Katherine: No cock of mine; you crow too l i k e a craven. Petruchio: Nay, come, Kate, come; you must not look so sour. Katherine: I t i s my fashion, when I see a crab. ( I I , i , 224-228) Petruchio i s no f o o l as Katherine's "coxcomb.!!- would i n d i c a t e , nor yet a coward as her "craven" suggests, nor i s her comparison of his face to a crabapple, with the i m p l i c a t i o n of a s h r i v e l l e d s k i n , an accurate or apt one. Katherine's misnaming i n t h i s scene i s symptomatic of her lack of p r e c i s i o n and effectiveness. Petruchio's language springs from bluntness. He i s a master of a l l s t y l e s and s o c i a l l y e f f e c t i v e and respected for his a b i l i t y y w i t h words. He has a vigorous and c o l o u r f u l way of speaking and can adapt hi s s t y l e and manner to s u i t a l l s o c i a l occasions. He can handle the lowstyle banter with his servant Grumio or the t a i l o r ; he can project a strong and impressive s e l f image which makes him an imposing figure amongst his s o c i a l equals, and he can use high s t y l e r h e t o r i c to control and impress Baptista and Vincentio, representatives of the older, r u l i n g class. Petruchio can handle a l l s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n s and i t i s h i s use of language which establishes h i s superior and commanding po s i t i o n . He i s the i d e a l i n s t r u c t o r f o r Katherine. 37 A f t e r t h e i r wedding, Petruchio assumes Katherine's s t y l e of i n v e c t i v e and behaviour and uses i t on the p r i e s t and h i s servants i n a burlesque which demonstrates to Katherine the uselessness of that form of verbal energy. As Petruchio brings Katherine to accept h i s d e f i n i t i o n s of things i n the sun, moon, naming game, Kathering begins to see with Petruchio's eyes and begins to explore this new arrangement by experimenting with language. Freed from her former habits of i n v e c t i v e Katherine makes swift progress. Petruchio introduces the game with a t e s t of r h e t o r i c , greeting Vincentio thus: What stars do spangle heaven with such beauty, As those two eyes become that heavenly face? (IV, v, 31-32) Katherine demonstrates her s k i l l , developing the conceit: Young budding v i r g i n , f a i r and fresh and sweet, Whither away, or where i s thy abode? Happy the parents of so f a i r a c h i l d ; Happier the man whom favourable stars A l l o t thee f o r h i s lov e l y bed-fellow! (IV, v, 36-40) Katherine's c o l l a b o r a t i o n and fluency i n handling the high-style language i s a mark of her maturity and development. With her a b i l i t y to control words and to p a r t i c i p a t e i n language games, Katherine assumes an equal r e l a t i o n s h i p with Petruchio and achieves c o n t r o l of her l i f e and her marriage. Katherine's f i n a l speech i s a synthesis of what she has learned about h e r s e l f , others, and language. Her opening comments accomplish several things dramatically: Fi e , f i e ! unknit that threatening unkind brow; And dart not s c o r n f u l glances from those eyes To wound thy l o r d , thy king, thy governor: 38 It b l o t s thy beauty as f r o s t s do b i t e the meads, Confounds thy fame as whirlwinds shake f a i r buds, And i n no sense i s meet or amiable. (V, i i , 134-139) The widow i s angry with Katherine, but Katherine i n t e r p r e t s the dark looks as intended f o r Hortensio (a deflatory t a c t i c she learned from Petruchio on her wedding day). She wins male support by associating the husbands with kings and governors, whilst e s t a b l i s h i n g her superior stance, winning attention by her fluent use of sustained imagery. When she continues her speech to compare a woman moved with a fountain, and shows that she i s b e r e f t thereby of beauty, again, she accomplishes much i n short, compass. She comes to terms with her e a r l i e r mental predicament and gives the problem to the new brides, casting out her old image and e s t a b l i s h i n g her new i d e n t i t y . Katherine has acquired Petruchio's fluency of language, and with i t , s o c i a l effectiveness and acceptance. She has many of Petruchio's verbal techniques. "Thy husband i s thy l o r d , thy l i f e , thy keeper, thy head, thy sovereign," i s a .direct verbal echo of Petruchio's claim that Katherine i s , "my house, my household s t u f f , my f i e l d , my barn, my ox, my ass, my any-thing." From Petruchio, Katherine has learned the technique of v a r i a t i o n and extension: Such duty as the subject owes the prince Even such a woman giveth her husband; And when she i s forward, peevish, s u l l e n , sour, And not obedient to h i s honest w i l l , What i s she but a f o u l contending r e b e l , And graceless t r a i t o r to her loving lord? (V, i i , 153-158) 39 Katherine's f i n a l speech reveals a mature and highly verbal woman. Katherine's flow of words, her a b i l i t y to be precise with images, and her s k i l l s i n using language as a means of s o c i a l d e f i n i t i o n are the measuring device of her change and her growth to maturity. Through development of her language p o t e n t i a l , Katherine has achieved s o c i a l triumph and personal v i c t o r y . Other aspects of the play's dramatic structure contribute to the richness and f u l l n e s s of Katherine's c h a r a c t e r i s a t i o n . Shakespeare conceives h i s taming process as a mental struggle, a b a t t l e of wits, not the p h y s i c a l l y abusive and p r i m i t i v e dominance found i n b a l l a d versions of shrew taming. Therefore, v i r t u a l l y a l l the phys i c a l violence i s c a r r i e d i n the language and imagery of the play: Petruchio to the T a i l o r , f o r instance: 0 monstrous arrogance! T h o u l l i e s t , thou thread, thou thimble, Thou yard, three quarters, h a l f - y a r d , quarter, n a i l ! Thou f l e a , thou n i t , thou winter c r i c k e t thou! Braved i n mine own house with a skein of thread? Away, thou rag, thou quantity, thou remnant. (IV, i i i , 106-110) This scene i s t y p i c a l also of Petruchio's method of handling Katherine. His abuse and energies are directed at servants and others, never at her. The knockabout abounds i n the language, but considering the nature of farce, the p h y s i c a l abuse and bu f f e t i n g i s kept to a minimum. Katherine grows through observation, she i s not cowed by threat of punishment and p h y s i c a l violence. Her stature i s enhanced by her capacity to learn and adapt. Although s u f f e r i n g from having her w i l l thwarted, Katherine accepts Petruchio's l i f e - s t y l e f r e e l y and without duress. Many 40 of the subsequent Katherines i n d e r i v a t i v e plays w i l l not be allowed the freedom from p h y s i c a l abuse, or the luxury of choice. The wit and humour which sustains the play's mood and s p i r i t includes Katherine. She i s not the butt of the humour or made to look a f o o l . She i s a p a r t i c i p a n t i n the b a t t l e of wits. The wooing scene i s important i n e s t a b l i s h i n g Katherine's enjoyment of the sparring match, and Katherine's nimble performance more than assures the audience that she i s capable of taking care of h e r s e l f . This p u b l i c assumption of a taming process basedcon an a t t r a c t i o n f or Katherine, provides a comfortable dramatic tension f o r the enjoyment of the verbal fireworks provided i n the taming scenes. Katherine accepts Petruchio's conditions i n good humour i n the sun, moon-rnaming sequence, and i t i s t h i s humour which saves her from the danger of abject submission. Shakespeare has taken the shrew stereotype as a basis f o r his heroine, Katherine, and given us the study of a complex human being s t r u g g l i n g to come to terms with h e r s e l f , Petruchio and society. Katherine i s no unrelenting, nagging, s i n g l e -sided p e r s o n a l i t y , but a multi-dimensional character who grows i n language,^.perception and a b i l i t y during the course of the play. Katherine's taming i s not a subjugation, a b r u t a l i n t i m i d a t i o n to crush and bend the w i l l , but an education, a maturing, a learning s i t u a t i o n i n which Katherine discovers something about h e r s e l f and l i f e , shedding her anger, f r u s t r a t i o n and narrowness and 41 accepting h e r s e l f , her husband and the world i n a new s p i r i t of tolerance and good humour. Katherine's growth and develop-ment i n the play i s Shakespeare's dramatic master stroke, f o r t h i s shrew becomes more than a stereotype, she i s humanised, and i t i s her capacity to learn, and the process of se l f - d i s c o v e r y which provides the serious core, the thoughtful aspect of the play amidst the w i l d f r o l i c s of a cheerful, f a r c i c a l romp. CHAPTER II THE DESCENT OF THE SHREW Katherine the shrew, as Shakespeare created her i n The Taming of the Shrew, l i v e d only b r i e f l y on the English stage. The wit, i n t e l l i g e n c e , humour and humanity which separated Shakespeare's dramatic concept from the t r a d i t i o n a l stereotype f i g u r e , quickly faded i n the dramatic sequels and tamperings which followed the Shakespearean creation. In Fletcher's sequel to The Shrew, The Woman's Prize or The Tamer Tam'd, the shrew character leaves the realm of comedy to return to farce. In Lacy's version of Shakespeare's Shrew3 Saimy the Scot, the vu l g a r i t y of the shrew character i s excessive and extravagant even f o r the realm of farce. Katherine's b r i e f hour i s over, as t h i s chapter w i l l explore. When Fletcher wrote The Tamer Tam'd i n 1604-cl617, he W'3-ote assuming an audience f a m i l i a r i t y with Shakespeare's Shrew. In w r i t i n g a sequel to this play, Fletcher took the same theme which Shakespeare had explored i n The Shrew; the struggle f or mastery between men and women, and using the same character of Petruchio, wrote a new farce exploring the ma r i t a l accommodation game. This play i s i n t e r e s t i n g i n showing how the ro l e of the shrew i s developed and changed and i t of f e r s an i n t e r e s t i n g backward glance at the Kate of Shakespeare. When Fletcher begins h i s action i n The Tamer Tam'd, we 43 f i n d Petruchio (Katherine being dead), about to enter h i s second marriage with the young and modest Maria. Aided by Byancha, Maria i s determined to assume the part of the shrew and tame the b e l l i g e r e n t though older Petruchio. After the wedding, Maria locks h e r s e l f up and refuses Petruchio his marriage rights and his house u n t i l he agrees to c e r t a i n conditions. The house stays under siege u n t i l Petruchio capitulates and agrees to Maria's demands. The taming process goes on, however. Maria's next ploy i s to declare that Petruchio has the plague, and he i s placed under house arrest with a nurse. When t h i s t a c t i c i s played out, Maria forces Petruchio to undertake a long sea-voyage, o u t l i n i n g her conditions thus: Then when time, And fulness of occasion have new made, you, And squar'd you from a Sot i n t o a Signior, Or nearer, from a Jade i n t o a Courser; Come home an aged man, as did Ulysses, And I your glad Penelope. (I, i i , p . 7 ) 1 Petruchio contrives to return home i n a c o f f i n , expecting Maria to weep over h i s corpse, instead of which she launches i n t o a derogatory speech on h i s manhood. Roused from assumed death, Petruchio acknowledges Maria's dominance, but she immediately reverses her triumph and vows to be Petruchio's servant and serve h i s pleasure. The action of the subplot, as Maria's younger s i s t e r , L i v i a , t r i c k s and avoids an older s u i t o r , Moroso, and wins her young lover, Roland, i s further cause f o r the fea s t i n g and drinking which mark the s o c i a l r e c o n c i l i a t i o n . Thus the play ends with the f a r c i c a l happy ending as n a t u r a l 44 order i s restored. Maria i s not a shrew. She assumes the role as a means to tame Petruchio. Fletcher i s c a r e f u l to e s t a b l i s h her modesty before she assumes her shrewish guise, and to e s t a b l i s h Petruchio' anger and churlishness. Byancha warns Maria: Nay, never look for a merry hour, Maria, I f now you make i t not; l e t not your blushes, Your modesty, and tenderness of s p i r i t , Make you continual Anuile to h i s anger: Believe me, since h i s f i r s t wife set him going, Nothing can bind h i s rage: ( I , i i , p. 7) In s e t t i n g out to tame Petruchio, Maria's.aims are more s o c i a l than personal, as she takes up the cause of a l l oppressed women, es p e c i a l l y i n the early part of the play with the seige, the mock b a t t l e , and reports of other m i l i t a n t women who support her stand. When L i v i a says, "Why. then, l e t ' s a l l wear breeches," Maria responds with a passionate pleaisfor freedom from t y r a n n i c a l husbands: Now thou com'st near the nature of a woman; Hang these tame hearted Eyasses, that no sooner See the tune out, and hear t h e i r Husbands hollow, But cry l i k e Kites upon 'em: The free Haggard (Which i s that woman, that hath wing, and knows.it, S p i r i t and plume) w i l l make an hundred checks, To stew her freedom, s a i l i n ev'ry a i r , And look out ev'ry pleasure; not regarding Tune, nor quarry, t i l l her p i t c h command What she desires, making her foundred keeper Be glad to f l i n g out t r a i n s , and golden ones, To take her down again. (I, i i , p. 10) In t h i s speech, as i n many other set pieces, Maria d e l i v e r s a t i r a d e embracing the general l o t of woman rather than her own p a r t i c u l a r woes. In f a c t , Maria a c t u a l l y campaigns against 45 Petruchio before she has experienced ei t h e r misery or joy. Her opposition i s a matter of p r i n c i p l e . Like Katherine i n Shakespeare's Shrew, Maria i s s t i l l capable of poetry, r h e t o r i c and wit. Her use of language i s fl u e n t , varied and e f f e c t i v e . Her l a s t speech over Petruchio's c o f f i n as he pretends death to rouse Maria's f e e l i n g s , i s a masterpiece of irony and strategy. L i t t l e wonder Petruchio capitulates as he hears Maria reverse h i s expectations, weeping she says, not f o r h i s death, but h i s "poor, unmanly, wretched, f o o l i s h l i f e . " She proceeds thus: To think what th i s man was, how simple, How f a r below a man, how f a r from reason, From common understanding, and a l l Gentry, While he was l i v i n g here he walked amongst us. He had a happy turn he dyed; I ' l l t e l l ye, These are the wants I weep for, not h i s person: The memory of t h i s man, had he l i v ' d But two years longer, had begot more f o l l i e s , Than wealthy Autumn F l i e s . But l e t him r e s t , He was a f o o l and farewel he; not p i t i e d , I mean i n way of l i f e , or action By any understanding man that's honest; But only in's p o s t e r i t y , which I, Out of the fear h i s ruines might o u t l i v e him, In some bad issue, l i k e a c a r e f u l woman, Like are indeed, born only to preserve him, Deny'd him means to r a i s e . (V, i v , p.J T88) Haria's language s k i l l s demonstrate a mind and a wit. She i s capable of innuendo, and c o n t r o l l e d humour, and therefore more e f f e c t i v e because her range of language reaches beyond the mere trading of i n v e c t i v e , anger and complaint associated with the t r a d i t i o n a l o n shrew stereotype. Like Katherine, she can point — and score i n a s o c i a l l y acceptable and agreeable fashion as 46 she goes about s e t t l i n g her a f f a i r s . However, the audience never r e a l l y come close to an under-standing of Maria, or have much i n s i g h t into her motives or pers o n a l i t y , f or Maria i s very much a mouthpiece, a figu r e of farce, who serves the needs and twists of the p l o t without much i n d i v i d u a l i s i n g of personality and without any growth of character. This f u n c t i o n a l aspect of Maria's characterisation i s seen best at her moment of triumph. With Petruchio under co n t r o l , without motive or warning, Maria suddenly reverses her p o s i t i o n and f o r the sake of the demanded happy ending, abandons her stance as shrew, and with i t her f l a r e f o r poetry: I have done my worst, andidhave my end, forgive me; From t h i s hour make me what you please: I have tam'd ye, And now am vowed your servant: Look not strangely, Nor fear what I say to you. Dare you k i s s me? Thus I begin my new love. (V, i v , p. 88) The k i s s which seals this pact i s r i t u a l i s t i c a l l y e f f e c t i v e , but i t lacks the kind of dramatic force Shakespeare achieves with the c o n c i l i a t o r y k i s s between Kate and Petruchio. Maria and Petruchio have a stated r e l a t i o n s h i p , but the audience have no sense of closeness or r e l i e f i n th i s sealed union. The f a r c i c a l mood prevents the intimacy.and involvement we are allowed i n Shakespeare's treatment of a b a t t l i n g couple. In Fletcher's treatment of the shrew theme, we also see the beginning of a trend to v u l g a r i t y and grossness which w i l l pervade many of the l a t e r dramatic v a r i a t i o n s of The Taming of the Shrew, a change which a f f e c t s the shrew ch a r a c t e r i s a t i o n 47 of t h i s and l a t e r pieces. In The Shrew, Shakespeare tre a t s his warring honeymooners with delicacy and good humour, handling the sexual r e l a t i o n s h i p without offending moral taste or s e n s i b i l i t i e s . He does this by emphasising the s o c i a l and i n d i v i d u a l aspects of his characters, merely h i n t i n g with Petruchio's sermon an continency at the matter of sexual consummation. The sexual a t t r a c t i o n between Kate and Petruchio i s f e l t i n the tensions of language and scene, and released i n the same manner, through language. I t i s strong and dramatic, springing from compounding tensions which move the play toward resolution and release. Fletcher does not create t h i s kind of tension. The sexual implications of Petruchio's marriage with the young Maria become a f o c a l point f o r elaboration and speculation. There i s a lewdness of tone which s t r i k e s a vulgar note, and the v u l g a r i t y and sexual overtones are an important aspect of the taming struggle. Maria withholds sexual consummation, so much pu b l i c t a l k and emphasis i s placed on the sexual act which w i l l s e a l the marriage and e s t a b l i s h Petruchio's dominant p o s i t i o n . The conversation between Petruchio and his father-in-law, Petronius, exemplifies the tone and the emphasis on sexual v i r i l i t y , as Petruchio takes bets on h i s wedding night performance: Petronius: See how these boys despise us. W i l l you to bed son? This pride w i l l have a f a l l . Petruchio: Upon your daughter; But I s h a l l r i s e again, i f there be truth In Eggs, and butter'd Parsnips. Petronius: W i l l you to bed son, and leave talking? 48 Petronius: Tomorrow morning we s h a l l have you look, For a l l your great words, l i k e St. George at Kingston, Running a foot-back from the furious Dragon, That with her angry t a i l belabours him For being l a z i e . Travio: His courage quench'd, and so far quench'd— Petruchio: 'Tis w e l l S i r . What then? Sophocles: F l y , f l y , quoth then the f e a r f u l dwarfe; Here i s no place f o r l i v i n g man. Petruchio: Well my masters, i f I do sink under my business, as I f i n d ' t i s very.possible, I am not the f i r s t that has miscarried; So.that's my comfort, what may be done without impeach or waste, I can and w i l l do. How now, i s my f a i r Bride a bed? Jaques: No t r u l y , S i r Petronius: Not a bed yet? body o' me: w e ' l l up and r i f l e her: here's a c o i l with a Maiden-head, ' t i s not i n t a i l & d , i s i t ? Petruchio: I f i t be, I ' l l try a l l the Lawi'th 'Land, but I ' l l cut i t o f f : l e t ' s up, l e t ' s up, come. (I, i i , p. 13) I t i s the sexual union which holds the audience 1 sitafeterf.t'ionxiri.hthis play, not the long term compatibility and s u i t a b i l i t y which Shakespeare emphasises. Between each sequence of events, the discussion f a l l s back on Petruchio's sexual triumph or lack of i t , as he threatens p h y s i c a l humiliation i n return f o r sexual r e -j e c t i o n . Anal imagery i s employed to besmirch and punish Maria, adding to the v u l g a r i t y and coarseness of the play's texture. "Give her a Crab-tree cudgel," Maria's father suggests, and Petruchio agrees: So I w i l l ; And a f t e r i t a f l o c k bed for her bones. $md Wa-rdle^gsRajtiile.fiheytbrace her l i k e a Drum, She s h a l l betpkmp"eredswith-=n her months s Gentxams She s h a l l not know a s t o o l "in £en3irionths, Gentlemen. (I I , v, p. 32) 49 This coarseness finds no r e l i e f or contrast i n the subplot. Old Moroso i n pursuit of young L i v i a i s i n stark contrast to Shake^-speare's old man, Gremio, i n pursuit of Bianca. No courtly love romance, g i f t s or pedestals here. Lechery i s Moroso's aim, stated lewdly and d i r e c t l y . L i v i a ' s father discusses Moroso's impending marriage with h i s daughter, l e e r i n g at the sexual encounter near at hand: Moroso: . . . t h i s night then I s h a l l enjoy her. Petronius: You s h a l l handsel her. Moroso: Old as I am, I ' l l give her one blow f o r ' t S h a l l make her groan t h i s twelve-month Petronius: Where's your Joyntu-re? Moroso: I have a Joyntune f o r her. Petronius: Have your Council perus'd i t yet? Moroso: No Council but the night, and your sweet daughter, S h a l l e'r peruse that joyntune. ( I I , i i , p. 24) Fletcher's world i s defined by many r e p e t i t i o n s and v a r i a t i o n s of t h i s scene and these sentiments. Within Fletcher's world, the struggle between shrew and husband i s defined i n sexual terms. I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note that i n the court c i r c l e s of James I and Henrietta Maria, The Tamer Tam'd with i t s greater emphasis on farce and i t s cruder approach to m a r i t a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s , seems to have received greater approval than i t s fore-runner, The Shrew. The Queen saw a performance of The Shrew and i t was " l i k e d " , but a few days l a t e r , The Tamer Tam'd was "very w e l l 2 l i k e d . " C e r t a i n l y the coarseness appealedd. to the audiences of the Restoration period. The Tamer Tam'd was one of the f i r s t pieces to be revived when the theaters were re-opened a f t e r the 50 Cromwell closure: I t is.these same sexual overtones which colour the view we have of Shakespeare's heroine as she i s described w i t h i n The Tamer Tam'd. Any audience f a m i l i a r with the Shakespearean heroine on the stage would f i n d i t very hard to r e c o n c i l e the two concepts of Katherine. Nowhere i n The Tamer Tam'd do we f i n d a glimpse of the angry g i r l who sheds her f r u s t r a t i o n s and learns to l i k e h e r s e l f and the world. Instead, we have the b i t t e r p o r t r a i t of the t r a d i t i o n a l , unrelenting shrew, disturbed and enlarged to the proportions of caricature. Katherine, viewed i n retrospect, i s the source of a l l e v i l and receives the blame for Petruchio's nasty d i s p o s i t i o n . Moroso claims that because of her d a i l y hue and c r i e s upon him, Katherine turned Petruchio's temper and made him blow as high as h e r s e l f . Katherine's devastating impact upon Petruchio i s explained by Tranio thus: For yet the bare remembrance of h i s f i r s t wife (I t e l l ye on my knowledge, and a truth too) Will^make him s t a r t in's sleep, and very often Cry out f o r Cudgels, Colestaves, anything; Hiding h i s breeches, out of fear her Ghost Should walk, and wear 'em yet. ( I , i , p. 3) Petruchio's own version of h i s l i f e with Katherine reveals a sordid, domestic scene: Had I not ev'ry morning a rare breakfast, Mixt with a learned Lecture of i l l language, Louder than Tom o'Lincoln; and at dinner, A dyet of the same dish? Was there evening 51 That ere past over us, without thou Knave, Or thou whore f o r digestion? had I ever A p u l l at t h i s same sport men run mad for But l i k e a Cur I was f a i n to show my teeth f i r s t , And almost worry her? ( I l l , i v , p. 50) As he begins to struggle with Maria, even h i s present d i f f i c u l t i e s are small i n comparison with his struggles with Katherine. A f t e r his past experiences with Katherine, he cannot t o l e r a t e Maria's t r i c k e r y without l o s i n g face: . . . may I, with reputation (Answer me t h i s ) with safety of mine honor, (After the mighty manage of my f i r s t wife, Which was indeed a fury to t h i s F i l l y , A f ter my twelve strong labours to reclaim her, Which would have made Don Revoules horn mad, And h i d him i n h i s Hide) s u f f e r t h i s C-icelyl ( I I , v i , p Katherine's reputation l i v e s on i n caricature, a f o i l to make Mari sweeter, more acceptable by comparison. I t i s one of the.gentle i r o n i e s i n contrasting the two plays, that Maria, upholding the general p o s i t i o n and rights of women, reject s Katherine's supposed struggles with Petruchio, claiming a superior stance and w i l l : Maria: A weaker subject Would shame the end I aim at, disobedience. You t a l k to tamely: By the f a i t h I have In my own noble W i l l , that c h i l d i s h woman That l i v e s a prisoner to her Husband's pleasure, Has l o s t her making, and becomes a beast, Created f o r his use, not fellowship. L i v i a : His f i r s t wife s a i d as much Maria: She was a f o o l , And took a scurvy course; l e t her be nam'd 'Mongst those that wish f o r things, but dare not do 'em: I have a new dance for him. ( I , i i , p. 10) 52 Neither males nor females have anything good to say about the ill-remembered Katherine Minola. Within a short span of time, Katherine as a dramatic presence has been blackened and diminished i n stature; the stereotype character eliminating the i n d i v i d u a l i s e d and humanised concept of Shakespeare. This process of reduction, beginning i n Fletcher's sequel, i s c a r r i e d to the ultimate i n John Lacy's Restoration version, Sauny the Scot. Sauny the Scot, a bastardised version of Shakespeare's Taming of the Shrew, made i t s debut on the London stage at the Theatre Royal on A p r i l 9, 1667. I t was written by John Lacy, a favourite actor of Charles II, and presents a Restoration image of a shrew which i s a complete perversion of i t s Shakespearean model i n many ways. During the Restoration period the theatre world changed r a d i c a l l y from what i t had been i n Shakespeare's day. The theatre had moved indoors and become a toy of the aristocracy; , andafeKisnaudiencgecharige. had an. effect', on\ the>. themes and tastes of the theatre.fare. The plays produced during t h i s period indulge a taste i n bedroom farce, v u l g a r i t y , sexual.leering and innuendo; an audience preference which i s very much prevalent i n Lacy's version of The Shrew. Lacy was an actor who excelled i n 'humours'and characters of the ' F a l s t a f f type: to s u i t the tastes of h i s audience (and h i m s e l f ) , he makes many s t r u c t u r a l changes i n Shakespeare's play. He changes the language to prose and moves the scene from I t a l y to contemporary London. For an age which prefers realism 53 to romanticism an emphasis on p h y s i c a l violence accompanies the discarding of the romantic aspects of Shakespeare's subplot of Bianca and her s u i t o r s ; as -.the fun' of manoeuvring i s preferred to the posturing of the courtly lover. Shakespeare's Lucentio who comes to Padua to wallow i n romance, prepared to "plunge him i n the deep, And with s a t i e t y seeks to quench h i s t h i r s t , " i s replaced by a p r a c t i c a l Restoration l a d , Winlove, who "weary of the country l i f e , " has come up to London, "to glean many v i c e s . W i t h o u t the contrast of romance, the play becomes re-p e t i t i v e and mechanical, l o s i n g much of i t s v i t a l i t y as i t i s reduced from the comic plane to the l e v e l of extravagant farce. The mechanising and coarse e f f e c t s of t h i s f a r c i c a l treatment are also emphasised by Lacy's treatment of the taming process. There i s no Induction to introduce, frame and distance the b r u t a l i t y and c r u e l t y inherent i n the taming story. In no sense i s Petruchio's taming to be taken as a game. The audience must react d i r e c t l y to the v i o l e n t struggle of the main characters. Lacy's Petruchio does not conspire with the audience and share hi s purpose and technique f o r taming the shrew. Petruchio attacks Margaret the shrew, v e r b a l l y and p h y s i c a l l y , without any audience conspiracy thus making the ensuing action much more callous and mercenary; actions further b r u t a l i s e d by the increased incidence of h i t t i n g , threatening and beating which run as a l e i t motif throughout the play. The p l o t of Seamy the Soot follows The Shrew story i n 54 b a s i c o u t l i n e , but Lacy introduces changes i n scenes and incidents which create a d i f f e r e n t dramatic flow and texture from that of Shakespeare's o r i g i n a l . Lacy s p o i l s many of Shakespeare's dramatic moments by a n t i c i p a t i o n , ruining the o r i g i n a l l y intended surprise and sense of climax. In Shakespeare, much of the dramatic e f f e c t of the taming sequence i s created by Petruchio' sjrgradual'ly leading up to a demand that Kate name things as he c a l l s them. Thus the sun/moon episode i s a culminating and dramatic highpoint i n t h e i r evolving r e l a t i o n s h i p . Lacy loses t h i s impact i n his version by having Petruchio play the name game e a r l i e r when he i n s i s t s that the v e a l he o f f e r s Margaret i s a p u l l e t . She refuses to play the game at this point and the meat i s removed, but t h i s anticipatory t a c t i c s p o i l s the dramatic effectiveness and s i g n i f i c a n c e of the l a t e r ploy. S i m i l a r l y , Lacy loses the dramatic balance of Shakespeare created by the v a r i e t y of reported actions and stage actions. He brings on stage events Shakespeare chose to report, i n c l u d i n g a b r u t a l bedroom scene between Margaret and Petruchio i n which Petruchio orders Sauny to undress Margaret, then forces her to smoke and drink against her w i l l . This kind of scene, besides being r e p e t i t i v e and d u l l i n g the e f f e c t of the taming process, also emphasises the violence and b r u t a l i t y , as Petruchio assaults Margaret's person i n t h i s d i r e c t and coarse manner. In emphasising the p h y s i c a l and sexual dominance of the shrew i n t h i s kind of scene, Lacy i s introducing and s t r e s s i n g an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of 55 the taming which Shakespeare chose to avoid d i r e c t l y . The f i f t h act of Lacy's ve r s i o n i s almost completely o r i g i n a l with Lacy. Shakespeare's version was perhaps not strong enough or punitive enough f or the Restoration taste, f o r Lacy finds i t necessary to recreate the b a t t l e between Margaret and Petruchio i n an extended action, drawing out the v a r i a t i o n s of humili a t i o n and i n t i m i d a t i o n . In Shakespeare, the l a s t act moves toward r e c o n c i l i a t i o n . In Lacy, b a t t l e i s resumed as Margaret enters the l a s t act clamouring f o r continual warfare as she complains to Biancha of her e a r l i e r treatment: Had I served him as bad as Eve did Adam, he could not have used me worse; but I am resolved, now I'm home again, I ' l l be revenged. 1*11 muster up the sp i t e of a l l curs'd women since Noah's flood to do him mischief and add new vigour to my tongue. I have not pared my n a i l s t h i s f o r t n i g h t ; they are long enough to do him some execution, thats my comfort. (V, p. 384) Margaret continues her resistance and antagonism to the b i t t e r end as she f i r s t r i d i c u l e s Petruchio p u b l i c l y ; and then stubbornly r e s i s t s as Petruchio t r i e s to cowe her with the Tthreatxof the b r u t a l i t y of having her teeth removed and be being buried a l i v e i f she refuses to speak and give i n . As she f i n a l l y capitulates and the scene concludes with r e c o n c i l i a t i o n and s o c i a l j o l l i t y , the dramatic e f f e c t of Margaret's acceptance of Petruchio as her master i s merely a mechanical necessity to ensure the happy ending. The demonstration of Margaret's reformation i s squeezed into the clo s i n g minutes of this act and given l i t t l e emphasis. Her rebuke to the other wives i s scarcely more than a passing comment: 56 F i e , l a d i e s , f or shame!,. How dare you i n f r i n g e that duty which you j u s t l y owe your husbands? They are our Lords, and we must pay 'em service. (V, p. 398) Thus Lacy changes what i n Shakespeare i s a dramatic and culminating h i g h l i g h t into an innocuous, mechanical r i t u a l , as h i s shrew i s f i n a l l y tamed and forced to put her capitulatory signature to the s o c i a l confession. The greatest and most d i s t o r t i n g changes Lacy makes are i n h i s characterisations of Petruchio and the shrew, and most uniquely i n h i s development of the t i t l e r o l e of Sauny the Scot; the servant r o l e of Grumio fattened at the expense of Petruchio and intruded i n t o the play to the detriment of i t s o r i g i n a l form, but presumably f o r the greater amusement of the Restoration audience. Sauny i s lewdness and rudeness p e r s o n i f i e d . His v u l g a r i t y and obscenity colour the whole play. His affected Scots d i a l e c t , h i s rudeness and h i s interference are very evident i n the scene where he introduces a disguised Geraldo to Biancha's father. In t h i s scene he i s upstaging Petruchio, taking away his i n i t i a t i v e i n the play's action by launching the deceptions of the Biancha intr i g u e s himself: Beaufort: Here, s i r ; , what would you have? What are you? Sauny: Marry, I'se ean a bonny Scot, s i r . Beaufort: A Scotchman! Is that a l l ? Sauny: Wuns! wud ye have me a cherub? I ha' brought ye a small teaken, s i r . Beaufort: But d'ye hear, you Scot, don't you use to put o f f your cap to your betters? 57 Sauny: Marry, we say i n Scotland gead morn t i l l ye f or a' the day, and sea put on our bonnets again, s i r . Bud, s i r , I ha' brought ye a teaken. Beaufort: To me? Where i s ' t ? From whence i s your teaken. S auny: Marry, from my good master, Petruchio, s i r . He has sen' ye a piper to teach your bonny lasses to pipe; but gin ye'd l i t Sauny teach 'em, I'se pipe 'em sea—whim, whum—their a . . s s h a l l ne'er leave giging and joging while there's a tooth i n t h e i r head. Beaufort: Petruchio? I remember him now. How does thy master? Sauny: Marry, s i r , he means to make one of your lasses h i s wanch—that i s , h i s love and h i s l i g b y . Beaufort: You are a saucy rogue. S auny: Gud wull a, s i r . H e ' l l tak your lass with a long tang that the d e i l and Sauny wunna venter on; but he's here hi s aunsel, s i r . ( I I , p. 333) In presenting the music teacher and introducing Petruchio's i n t e n t i o n to sue f o r Margaret, Sauny i s p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the main events of the play, not as a servant, but as a s o c i a l equal, and t h i s presents an imbalance i n the play. He i s present also at the wooing scene between Petruchio and Margaret, pointing up the sexual, l e e r i n g and coarser aspects of the struggle as he makes asides to the audience, provoking Margaret and turning the two-sided wooing into a three-sided a f f a i r with himself p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the sparring as Petruchio's partner: Margaret: Sauny: I matched to thee? What? to such a fellow with a g r i d i r o n face? with a nose set on l i k e a candle's end stuck against a mudwall,' and a mouth to eat milk porridge with ladles? Foh! i t almost turns my stomach to look on't. Gud, on your stomach wamble to see h i s face, what w i l l ye dea when ye see h i s a... . e, madam? 58 Margaret: Marry come up, Aberdeen! Take t h a t — [ h i t s him a box on the ear]—and speak next when i t comes your turn. Sauny: 'Sbreed! the d e i l tak 1 a gripe o' yer faw fi n g e r s , and d r i s s your doublat for ye! Petruchio: Take heed, Pet, Sauny's a desperate fellow. Margaret: You're a couple of loggerheads, Master and Man, that I can t e l l you! [Going] Petruchio: Nay, nay, stay, Peg! For a l l t h i s I do l i k e thee, and I mean to have thee; i n truth, I am thy servant. Margaret: Are you? why, then, I ' l l give you a favour, and thus I ' l l t i e i t on; there's for you! [Beats him] ( I I , p. 336) His presence i s needed by Petruchio, who cannot cope with Margaret without h i s aid and support. When Margaret o f f e r s to leave, Petruchio turns f i r s t to Sauny: Petruchio: Stop her s i r r a h ; stop her! Sauny: Let her gea her gale, s i r , an e'en twa d e i l s an' a Scotch wutch blow her weem f u l l fo wind. Petruchio: Stay her, s i r r a h ; stay her, I say! Sauny: 'sbreed, s i r , stay her yersen! But hear ye s i r , an her t a i l gea as f a s t her her tang, Gud! ye ha' meet with a whipster, s i r ! ( I I , p. 338) By i n t e r f e r i n g g i n t h i s way, Sauny makes Petruchio a much weaker character than i n Shakespeare. Petruchio, by t o l e r a t i n g Sauny's rudeness and interference, i s made almost dependent on him to run h i s a f f a i r s , thus appearing a somewhat pale master when compared with h i s witty, dominant and energetic servant. Indeed, i t i s the servant who has the ear of the audience, not Petruchio, and ' Sauny guides the focus and i n t e r e s t of the .audience as they view the shrew taming. 59 Petruchio's r o l e i n Sauny the Soot i s also much more b r u t a l and callous. His i n t e r e s t i n Margaret i s reduced to the purely mercenary. The humour and love of challenge i s l o s t i n t h i s play, as i s the audience's knowledge that Petruchio i s r i c h i n his own r i g h t . When Lacy's Petruchio states h i s marriage q u a l i f i c a t i o n s , he doesnit b l u n t l y and coldbloodedly: Gerlado: What q u a l i f i c a t i o n s do you look for? Petruchio: Why, money—a good portion. Geraldo: Is that a l l . Petruchio: A l l , man? A l l other things are i n my making. Geraldo: I s h a l l come roundly to you, and wish you to a r i c h wife; but her face Petruchio: That s h a l l break no s q u a r e s — a mask w i l l mend i t ; wealth i s the burthen of my wooing song. If she be r i c h , I care not i f she want a nose or an eye; anything with money. ( I I , p. 326) Petruchio's taming i s done out of desire for the s o c i a l match and sexual conquest. There are not hints of a f f e c t i o n present or possible. Where Shakespeare has Petruchio suggest w i t t i l y that h e ' l l keep warm i n Kate's bed by marriage, Lacy has h i s Petruchio emphasise h i s claim to Margaret as sexual monopoly: Come, leave your i d l e prating. Have you I w i l l , or no man ever s h a l l . Whoever else attempts i t , h i s throat w i l l I cut before he l i e s one night with thee; i t may be, thine too f o r company. I am the man am born to tame thee, Peg. ( I I , p. 339) Petruchio tames Margaret by v i o l e n t , p h y s i c a l i n t i m i d a t i o n . Hs uses '''".hreate He uses threats and thought-less humiliations i n an a l l out e f f o r t to crush Margaret's opposition. His actions are mechanical and completely lacking i n any concern or s e n s i t i v i t y f o r her feelings as he forces her to smoke and drink to the point of being p h y s i c a l l y 60 i l l . Margaret's consent to the marriage i s obtained by threat of beating: Hold! get me a s t i c k there, Sauny. By th i s hand, deny to promise before your father, I ' l l not leave you a whole r i b ; I ' l l make you do't and be glad on't. ( I I , p. This i s Petruchio's taming approach, b r u t a l i t y . Conform or s u f f e r . Lacy's f i f t h act i s an elaboration of th i s concept. As Petruchio c a l l s f o r a barber to extract a tooth because Margaret refuses to speak, we see something of the streak of cr u e l t y as he picks out the d e t a i l s of tearing gums to taunt and t e r r i f y the stubborn Margaret: Petruchio: You must draw that gentlewoman a tooth there. Prithee do i t neatly, and as gently as thou canst; and d'ye hear me, take care you don't tear her gums. Barber: I warrant you, s i r . Sauny: Hear ye, s i r ; could not ye mistake, and p u l l her tong out instead of her teeth? (V, p. 390) Biancha cannot t o l e r a t e the mindless b r u t a l i t y and leaves, but Petruchio i s not s a t i s f i e d . He summons a b i e r , and as she refuses to speak, orders her bound and born to the family v a u l t . Margaret cap i t u l a t e s . Although these actions are part of the farce and treated i n f a r c i c a l vein, there i s a harshness and underlying b i t t e r n e s s beneath the r i t u a l of these taming ordeals; a rawness of f e e l i n g and antagonisms which emerges. Lacy's protagonist i s a mechanical tamer, a man without humour or poetry. His coarseness, and that of h i s servant Sauny, together with h i s mindless capacity to chastise and punish without i n t e r e s t or a f f e c t i o n , make him a character f a r removed 61 from h i s prototype i n Shakespeare's Shrew, but then, the shrew he must tame i s not Shakespeare's Kate, but a Restoration perversion who i s as unattractive as her tamer and equally lacking i n poetry, humour and f e e l i n g . In Sauny the Soot, Margaret - isuannunrepenfcant s c h e m i n g , abusive, t r a d i t i o n a l shrew, having shed the more graceful and appealing q u a l i t i e s of her Shakespearean prototype?.. Lacy's shrew i s dedicated to peevishness, and her bad-tempered d i s p o s i t i o n shows no growth or a l l e v i a t i o n during the course of the farce. Margaret's opening remarks i n the play i n d i c a t e her f a c i l i t y i n the language of the streets as she attacks Biancha's su i t o r s who taunt her: Take heed I don't bestow the breaking of your c a l f ' s head f o r you. You make? marry come up! Go get you a seamstress, and run i n score with her f o r muckinders to dry your nose with, and marry her at l a s t to pay the debt. Andiyou there, goodman turnip-eater, with your neats-leather phisnomy, I ' l l send your kitchen wench to l i q u o r i t t h i s wet weather. Whose old boots was i t cut out of? ( I , p. 321) This v i o l e n t opening i s re-inforced as her jealousy of her s i s t e r Biancha and her peevishness are given f u l l r e i n : Margaret: Marry come up, proud s l u t ! must you be making yourself f i n e beforeyyour?6.1der, s i s t e r ? You are the favourite, are you? but I s h a l l make you know your distance. Give me that necklace and those pendants. I ' l l have that whisk too. There's an o l d handkerchief, good enough for you! Biancha: Here, take 'em s i s t e r ! I resign 'em f r e e l y . I would give you a l l I have to purchase your kindness. 62 Margaret: You f l a t t e r i n g gypsy! I could f i n d i n my heart to s l i t your dissembling tongue. Come t e l l me, and without l y i n g , which of your su i t o r s you love best. T e l l me, or I ' l l beat you to clouts, and pinch thee l i k e a f a i r y . Biancha: Believe me, s i s t e r , of a l l men a l i v e , I never saw that p a r t i c u l a r face which I could fancy more than another. Margaret: His wife, you l i e ; and I could f i n d i n my heart to dash thy teeth down thy throat. I know thou l o v ' s t Geraldo. ( I I , p. 331) These inasty-mpered; displays are not tempered by hints of motivation or in s i g h t into parental preference fori'Biancha. They are out-bursts of the t r a d i t i o n a l scold, with a l i t t l e more emphasis on the v i o l e n t and p h y s i c a l expression of Margaret's devouring anger. Biancha i s not the s l y l i t t l e miss here, but more the mis-treated C i n d e r e l l a , as Margaret deprives her of her f i n e r y and heaps abuse upon her. and., '.a.'- HiT-i-...; - a-peay: <?h s< .•• This stereotype characterisation i s further reinforced i n the wooing scene with Petruchio and Sauny. Again, i n trans-forming Shakespeare's scene, Lacy loses much of the d e l i c a t e balance of wit and pun. Margaret does not engage i n a b a t t l e . of wits, but treats Petruchio to a fl u e n t demonstration of her name-calling technique. As she decries Petruchio' ;s .gridironaface, "with a nose set on l i k e a candle's end stuck against a mud w a l l , and a mouth to eat porridge with l a d l e s , " Margaret paints a caricature p i c t u r e i n an e f f o r t to r i l e Petruchio, but she displays no capacity for wit or humour i n th i s scene, nor does she form any understanding with Petruchio through the medium of language as does Kate i n The Shrew. Margaret's e f f o r t s 63 i n this scene are r e s t r i c t e d to a few verbal j i b e s and several attempts to h i t Petruchio and Sauny, before they threaten her in t o acquiescence with a s t i c k . Margaret agrees to the marriage - — as a form of challenge, not because she senses a p o t e n t i a l partner. "The d e v i l ' s i n th i s fellow, he has beat me at my own weapon. I have a good mind to marry him, to try i f he can tame me." She acknowledges her own shrewishness and recognises her techniques, and i n conspiring with the audience i n th i s aside, she provides for the struggle of w i l l s which must follow. Shakespeare's shrew, by contrast, only recognises and acknowledges her bad-tempered ways a f t e r she has shed them. Margaret, unlike Kate who responds to Petruchio's demonstrations by an increasingsympathy for the servants, i s only holding h e r s e l f i n waiting f o r the moment of revenge, "Sure he w i l l run himself out of breath, and then i t w i l l be my turn." Throughout the taming process Margaret accedes to Petruchio's demands but with-holds her r e a l anger and f r u s t r a t i o n , b i d i n g her time, waiting f o r her chance to s t r i k e back. She agrees to Petruchio's naming of times, but indicates her fe e l i n g s to the audience i n an aside, "Let me but once see Lincoln's Inn F i e l d s again, and yet thou shalt not tame me!" In the sun and moon naming scene Margaret agrees to the naming as demanded by Petruchio, but has reached no moment of in s i g h t or understanding. When Petruchio i n s t r u c t s her how to greet the approaching t r a v e l l e r she i s s t i l l querying, "Are you mad? t i s an o l d man." Then having complied, she mutters 64 c o m p l a i n t s t o h e r s e l f and the a u d i e n c e as P e t r u c h i o excuses h e r mis t a k e t o S i r L i o n e l W i n l o v e on grounds of h e r f a s t i n g : . Curse upon your excuse and the cause o f i t . I c o u l d have ea t e n my shoe s o l e s i f I might have had 'em f r i e d . (IV, p. 374) In the f i f t h a c t , M a r g a r e t ' s e n t r e n c h e d and u n r e l e n t i n g p o s i t i o n i s v e r y apparent as she p l a y s out h e r humour u n t i l t h e f i n a l moments o f the p l a y . She e n t e r s the l a s t a c t t h i r s t i n g f o r vengeance. Ha v i n g r e a c h e d an u n d e r s t a n d i n g w i t h B i a n c h a , Margaret proceeds t o s e t up a s'chool f o r shrews and teaches t h e r u l e s t o B i a n c h a . B i a n c h a c l a i m s t h a t h e r husband, Mr. Winlove ( L u c e n t i o ) , has a b e t t e r d i s p o s i t i o n than P e t r u c h i o , but M a r g a r e t i n s t r u c t s h e r : T r u s t him and hang him; t h e y ' r e a l l a l i k e . Come, thou s h a l t be my s c h o l a r ; l e a r n t o frown arid c r y out f o r u n k i n d n e s s , b u t b r a v e anger; though h a s t a tongue, make use o n ' t — s c o l d , f i g h t , s c r a t c h , b i t e — a n y t h i n g . S t i l l . t a k e e x c e p t i o n s a t a l l he does, i f t h e r e be cause or n o t ; i f t h e r e be r e a s o n f o r ' t , h e ' l l l a u g h t a t thee. I ' l l make P e t r u c h i o g l a d to wipe my shoes or walk my h o r s e e r e I have done w i t h him. ("V, p. 384) Thus, i n t h i s f i n a l mini-drama, Margaret s e t s out t o r e v e r s e h e r h u m i l i a t i o n s and seek h e r revenge. T h i s f i n a l a c t i s a d r a m a t i c a f t e r . p l a y , i n which L a c y ' s shrew has a chance to r i d i c u l e P e t r u c h i o i n the t r a d i t i o n a l v e i n , b e f o r e u n d e r g o i n g h e r f i n a l c h a s t i s e m e n t and d e f e a t . P e t r u c h i o b o a s t s p r e m a t u r e l y o f h i s s u c c e s s f u l t r a i n i n g , g i v i n g M a r g a r e t a chance t o ve n t h e r anger b e f o r e an impressed B i a n c h a . P e t r u c h i o ' s r e p l y t o her a t t a c k i s t o p r e t e n d she i s not a t t a c k i n g , a r a t h e r weak i m i t a t i o n o f Shakespeare's P e t r u c h i o who d e c i d e d 65 to contradict Katherine i n the wooing scene. Margaret's attack, though highly vocal, r e l i e s on the t r a d i t i o n a l shrew t a c t i c s as she catalogues her intentions and threats: Petruchio: Prithee, Peg, leave making a noise! i ' f a i t h , thou'lt make my head ache. Margaret: Noise? why, t h i s i s s i l e n c e to what I intend. I ' l l t a l k louder than t h i s every night i n my sleep. Sauny: The d e i l s h a l l be your bed-fellow f o r Saundy, then. Margaret: I w i l l learn to r a i l at thee i n a l l language. Thunder s h a l l be s o f t music to my tongue. Sauny: The d e i l a b i t Scots ye got to brangle un! Marry, the d e i l gie ye a clap wi a French thunderbolt. Petruchio: Very pretty. Prithee go on. Margaret: I ' l l have a c o l l e c t i o n of a l l the i l l names that ever was invented, and c a l l you over by 'em twice a day. Petruchio: And have the catalogue published for the education of young scolds. Proceed, Peg! Margaret: I ' l l have you chained to a stake at B i l l i n g s g a t e and baited by fishwives, while I stand to hiss 'em on. Petruchio: Ha, ha, ha! Witty Peg! forward. Margaret: You shan't dare to blow your nose but when I b i d you; you s h a l l know me to be the master. (V, p. 388) This name-calling, nagging and b a i t i n g , Margaret's only and l i m i t e d form of attack, i s r i d i c u l e d by Petruchio as he laughs at her t i r a d e , undaunted and s t i l l very much i n control. Margaret f i r s t resorts to phys i c a l beating as she f l i e s at Petruchio, then vows s i l e n c e f o r two months and s i t s by s u l l e n l y . Margaret has had her turn to speak and i s s t i l l r e b e l l i o u s and defiant. 66 Although i t i s dramatically weak to have the slanging match f l a r e up again i n the f i n a l act, Lacy seems to need a further extension beyond Shakespeare's plot outline to carry Margaret's chastise-ment to the f u l l e s t extent. Margaret's vow of si l e n c e gives Petruchio the opportunity f o r further humiliation. Petruchio's f i r s t punishment, the threat.of the barber p u l l i n g out her tooth i s a good way of punishing a shrew i n the t r a d i t i o n a l pattern. When Margaret f a i n t s , her apparent un-conciousness i s a good excuse for a mock b u r i a l , i n e f f e c t t h i s i s a threat of death, howbeit i n f a r c i c a l mode (a r e v e r s a l of the Fletcher scene). Faced with l i f e or death, Margaret concedes the match, s t i l l swearing vengeance. "Liy'stthou, my poor Peg?" asks Petruchio. "Yes, that I do, and w i l l , to be your tormentor." However, when the death-threat i s renewed, Margaret acknowledges her defeat and r e a l i s e s that she must comply with Petruchio's demands. Having agreed to obey, the f a r c i c a l happy ending brings about a swift turn of character. Petruchio t e l l s Margaret, "Thus I free thee and make thee mistress both of myself and a l l I have." And, Margaret, having recognised the extent of the l i f e and death control Petruchio holds over her, defines her new r o l e . "You've taught me now what ' t i s to be a wife, and I ' l l s t i l l show myself yourhumble handmaid." A swift r e c o n c i l i a t i o n follows, including a b r i e f b e t t i n g scene on the obedience of wives. Margaret wins f o r Petruchio making a slim and token speech on the w i f e l y r o l e and the dance ends the f r o l i c . In t h is r e - w r i t i n g of Shakespeare's Shrew, Lacy has converted 67 Shakespeare's farce/comedy to the lowest l e v e l of farce. The language, tone, p h y s i c a l violence, character stereo-typing and the prolonged extended and disturbing s t r u c t u r a l changes have r a d i c a l l y a l t e r e d the e f f e c t of Shakespeare's story and also produced a r a d i c a l l y a l t e r e d shrew characterisation. Margaret begins and ends the play as an unremitting shrew. Her use and control of language show the narrowness of her a b i l i t y to think and her f a i l u r e to develop and grow. Shakespeare's Kate shows through her use of language that she has a mind and wit and an a b i l i t y to learn and grow. She learns from observation i n a b a t t l e of minds with Petruchio. Lacy's Margaret, by contrast, ends as she begins. At the end of the play, she i s s t i l l the harsh, self-centered, shrew stereotype capable only of abusive shrewishness. The b r i e f r e v e r s a l at the end of the farce does l i t t l e to a l l e v i a t e the r e p e t i t i v e , mechanical operation of herijttiate shrewish d i s p o s i t i o n . The operation of the b r u t a l form of humour at work i n the play also serves to l i m i t the cha r a c t e r i s a t i o n of Margaret. Shakespeare's Kate i s included i n the humour and p a r t i c i p a t e s f r e e l y and e n e r g e t i c a l l y i n the exchange of witticisms which give the play i t s texture. Margaret has l i m i t e d p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the play's humour, except to h u r l threats and abuse. Instead, she i s the victim, the butt of the humour as she undergoes the shrew's r i t u a l chastisement. She i s continually discomfited i n a harsh and p h y s i c a l manner, and her sufferings serve only to increase her feelings of s e l f - p i t y as she seeks revenge. 68 The r e l a t i o n s h i p between tamer and shrew i n Lacy 1s play i s very l i m i t e d . There i s a humane and human qu a l i t y i n Shakespeare's struggle, together with a psychological dimension of ch a r a c t e r i s a t i o n which i s completely absent i n Lacy's play. Lacy's outrageous, f a r c i c a l treatment with i t s mechanising and s i m p l i f y i n g process, eliminates Shakespeare's s u b t l e t i e s and reduces the ma r i t a l struggle to one.of p h y s i c a l i n t i m i d a t i o n and sexual dominance. The l i m i t a t i o n s of the partnership are defined by the language and imagery of the play which i s based on st r e e t invective and sexual v u l g a r i t y . The absence of poetry, r h e t o r i c and romantic colouring make the taming of Margaret a mechanical and r i t u a l shrew taming. Margaret begins and ends a shrew. Petruchio begins and ends as a simple-minded brute supported by a chorus of coarse v u l g a r i t i e s from a gross and obscene Sauny, deli v e r e d i n mock-. Sco t t i s h gibberish. L i t t l e wonder that even Samuel Pepys was not enamoured with t h i s Shakespearean d i s t o r t i o n . He records h i s displeasure thus : A p r i l 9, 1667 To the King's.house . . . a n there we saw the Tameing of a Shrew, which hath some very good pieces i n i t , but generally i s but a mean play: and the best part, "Sauny", done by Lacy, hath- not h a l f i t s l i f e , by reason of the words, I suppose, not being ^nders.tdod.j.taliel'east'byieme. It i s rather sad to consider that t h i s vulgar farce, with i t s meaner, v e r b a l l y - l i m i t e d and stereotyped concept of shrew and tamer dominated the English stage u n t i l 1754, when i t was replaced by David Garrick's Catherine and Petruchio. 69 CHAPTER I I I FARCE, SENTIMENT AND REVIVAL In 1754, David Garrick produced h i s acting version of The Taming of the Shrew, entitled.Catherine and Petruchio; a reworking of Shakespeare which was highly successful and popular with audiences f o r the next one hundred and f i f t y years. This play replaced Sauny the Scot, and although i n i t s own way i t i s a mutilation of the Shakespearean o r i g i n a l , i n i t s use of Shakespearean language and i t s closer adherence to the shrew and tamer characterisation of Shakespeare, i t presents a more pleasing and dramatically sound adaptation.than i t s Restoration antecedent. By the middle of the eighteenth century, Shakespearean comedies, d i s l i k e d and for the most part avoided by the Restoration adaptors, were r a p i d l y coming into fashionlarid provided a new source of material f o r inventive dramatists. Garrick was such a one, and i n h i s adaptations of Shakespeare was catering to a growing audience i n t e r e s t and responding to a change i n audience s e n s i b i l i t i e s . The P u b l i c taste was beginning to indulge i t s e l f i n excessive s e n s i b i l i t y , and prudery, unknown to the Restoration, was beginning to e f f e c t the l i t e r a r y and dramatic climate. These changes are r e f l e c t e d i n Garrick's version of The Shrew, which not only shuns the v u l g a r i t y of Lacy, but even, very gently, purges the bluntness of the Shake-spearean o r i g i n a l . 70 In adapting The Taming of the Shrew, Garrick follows Shakespeare but by eliminating the Induction and the Bianca subplot condenses the work into three acts. He retains the poetry of Shakespeare, adding some of h i s own to s u i t h i s adaptation, and this gives the farce much of i t s vigour and appeal. The taming process between Petruchio and Catherine retains i t s basic Shakespearean shape and i s the only centre of i n t e r e s t of the play. In condensing and re-shaping Shakespeare i n this fashion, Garrick affects the scope and impact of the comedy. Many of the scenes which i n Shakespeare's play take place i n a large s o c i a l grouping are now changed to intimate scenes between one or two characters. This focuses the action on the i n d i v i d u a l s and there i s l e s s awareness of the larger s o c i a l implications found i n Shakespeare. In Garrick's version we don't see Catherine i n an unhappy s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n at the beginning of the action, shunned, taunted and unable to function e f f e c t i v e l y . Nor, as the action concludes, do we see her restored to society i n an acceptable and highly capable p o s i t i o n . This dimension and comment i s completely absent. S t r u c t u r a l l y , Garrick also loses much of the material which provides balance, substance and r e l i e f , keeping the taming process fresh and l i v e l y . To provide the necessary r e l i e f from the main action, Garrick must r e l y on the scenes with Petruchio's servants. I t i s perhaps a response to this s t r u c t u r a l need for r e l i e f 71 and contrast which p r e c i p i t a t e d the glut of stage business which accrued around this play with the passage of time. The prompt-books of productions of t h i s play show an increased l e v e l of p h y s i c a l knockabout and foolery i n the servant and haberdasher scenes. Garrick himself i n an un-Shakespearean fashion added a f i g h t between the T a i l o r and Grumio, about which much stage business c o l l e c t e d . By the middle of the nineteenth century, the Walnut Street Promptbook records the amplifications of the servants' pantomimes. The following stage d i r e c t i o n s i n d i c a t e how the episode of the mutton i s to be played:" Petruchio asks "What's t h i s ? " "Holding up a l e g of mutton," and "Cook sneaks behind servants." When h i s presence i s demanded, "Gru. who has h i d under the table C. pokes out h i s head & c a l l s . 'Cook' Pet beats him^with the l e g of mutton." At l a s t he drives them out. The Becks ve r s i o n adds more business: They f a l l — s t u m b l e over each o t h e r — h e storms Sheaves—& Kate runs behind . . . the settee & hides — C u r t i s screams & h u r r i e s o f f . . . & Grumio gets under table & as Pet looks to see i f a l l have gone —Grumio walks o f f with table on h i s back.^ This extravagent stage business i s matched by an increased need to caricature the character of Catherine and p a r t i c u l a r l y Petruchio. Woodward, the actor;wbtS' introduced the tendency to overacting which begins the c a r i c a t u r i n g of the r o l e . I t i s recorded that Woodward was "more wild, extravagent and f a n t a s t i c a l than the author designed," and that "he c a r r i e d 3 h i s acting to an almost r i d i c u l o u s excess." His boisterous and b r u t a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of Petruchio l e d to p h y s i c a l abuse as 4 he "threw Mrs. C l i v e down" on e x i t i n g at the end of the second 72 act. His zea l f or p h y s i c a l i n t i m i d a t i o n led him on one occasion to s t i c k a fork i n t o h i s Catherine's finger.'' This t r a d i t i o n of b u l l y i n g becomes a part of the Petruchio r o l e . Kemble's acting text records the i n c l u s i o n of the symbolic whip^ and t h i s becomes an accepted extension of the Petruchio r o l e which p e r s i s t s i n l a t e r r e v i v a l s of the Shakespearean o r i g i n a l . The c r i t i c s i n the l a t e nineteenth century who witnessed the f u l l e f f e c t s of the accumulated stage business and c a r i c a t u r i n g were revolted by the mutilation of Shakespeare's i n t e n t , and keen to show how i t d i s t o r t e d the taming process and the concept of the shrew, Katherine: Those who know Shakspeare only i n the cl o s e t w i l l not believe how completely he i s t r a v e s t i e d . A s i n g l e instance w i l l s u f f i c e to show the nature of the a l t e r a t i o n s that were perpetrated by a man who was considered.in h i s day a Shakespearian authority. One of the means adopted by Petruchio to tame his forward spouse i s extravagance of unreasonable complaint which s h a l l cow her and disgust her with her own violence. Thus when the cook brings i n well-appointed meats he declares them burnt to a coal; and. when the t a i l o r supplies costly and fashionable a t t i r e he pronounces i t unwearable. Katherine stands thus a chance of being sent to bed supperless, and conducted to her father's house with no change of dress. In the unreasonableness l i e s a l l the motive. "The meat were w e l l j, i f you were so contented," says the disconcolate wife. Of the head-gear she declares, "I l i k e the cap"; and of the habit: — I never saw a better-fashioned gown, More quaint, more pleasing, nor more commendable. When, however, the meat i s represented as i n truth black as co a l , when hat and dress are caricatures, the wrath of Petruchio becomes j u s t i f i a b l e , and the only thing i n e x p l i c a b l e i s Katherine's readiness to accept such things. So f i l t h y i s the j o i n t produced that the stage business o r d i n a r i l y p r a c t i s e d , and now again repeated, i s to make Petruchio rub i t on the 73 face of the cook, who departs looking l i k e a negro. Every kind of absurdity i s permitted. The attendants waiting upon Petruchio are l i k e the comic servants of pantomime, and the t a i l o r , when Grumio menaces him, stands i n the middle of the bonnet-box he has brought, and asks, "Would you h i t a man i n h i s own shop?" That these things produce roars' of laughter may e a s i l y be conceived. I f the name of Shakespeare i s removed from such f o o l i n g , moreover, i t may be pardonable enough. When announced as h i s i t i s wholly indefensible. I t was on the 18th of March, 1754, Garrick f i r s t produced t h i s travesty. Yates as Grumio, Woodward as Petruchio, and Mrs. P r i t c h a r d f i r s t , and subsequently Mrs. C l i v e , as Katherine, shared the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the invention of t h i s comic business." 7 Garrick's play then, i n abstracting the farce from the Shakespeare whole and providing scope for excess and exaggeration of the f a r c i c a l , i s l i k e l y responsible f o r e s t a b l i s h i n g Shakespeare's shrew as a t r a d i t i o n a l stereotype i n a t r a d i t i o n a l f a r c i c a l s e t t i n g , a d i s t o r t i o n of ch a r a c t e r i s a t i o n which s t i l l l i n g e r s even i n modern versions of the restored Shakespearean Shrew. Although Garrick treats the shrew-taming i n f a r c i c a l vein, he does so with much of Shakespeare's language and tone. Whilst indulging the excesses of f a r c i c a l knockabout and p h y s i c a l b l u s t e r , i n matters of language we see a moderating hand at work. Gone i s the sexual innuendo and v u l g a r i t y of Lacy. Garrick even removes Shakespearean directness where he f e e l s i t may offend a more s e n s i t i v e audience. In the wooing scene between Petruchio and Catherine h i s r e f i n i n g hand removes the sexual bluntness i n such exchanges as: Petruchio: Who knows not where a wasp does wear . h i s sting? In h i s t a i l . 74 Katherine: In h i s tongue. Petruchio: Whose tongue? Katherine: Yours, i f you talk of t a i l s : and so farewell. Petruchio: What, with my tongue i n your t a i l ? Nay, come again, Good Kate; I am a gentleman— g Katherine: That I ' l l t r y . [She strikes kirn] Petruchio's sexual punning offends Katherine, provoking her into h i t t i n g out at Petruchio, perhaps from embarrassment at h i s directness. The same scene i n which Garrick substitutes a le s s offensive and more bland exchange has Catherine react to Petruchio because he attempts to k i s s her: Catherine: I f I be waspish, 'best beware my Sting. Petruchio: My Remedy, then i s to pluck i t out. Catherine: Ay, i f the Fool cou 1d f i n d i t where i t l i e s . Petruchio: The Fool knows where the Honey i s , sweet Kate. {Offers to kiss her] Catherine: 'Tis not f o r Drones to taste. 9 Petruchio: That w i l l I t ry. {She strikes him] Shakespeare's exchange has a b r i s k pace with a f a s t exchange of word f o r word as Katherine and Petruchio thrust and parry i n t h e i r b a t t l e of wits. The wit lessens the offensiveness of the sexual affront and allows Katherine some excuse 'for her attempt to s t r i k e . Garrick's exchange i s more even, l o s i n g the b r i s t l i n g and provoking q u a l i t y of Shakespeare and Catherine appears to be a coy, f l i r t a t i o u s miss. In only a s l i g h t abbreviation Garrick has l o s t some of the Shakespearean wit and energy; i n r e f i n i n g h i s source he takes away the directness of Petruchio's ch a r a c t e r i s a t i o n and much of the wit and mettle of Katherine. 75 The p l o t of Catherine and Petruchio opens with p r i v a t e negotiations underway between Petruchio and Baptista. Petruchio states h i s p o s i t i o n and indicates h i s mercenary i n t e r e s t . The element of bravado and s o c i a l posturing depicted i n Shakespeare's s o c i a l impression of Petruchio i s l o s t i n th i s p r i v a t e , i n d i v i d u a l i s e d bargaining scene. S i m i l a r l y , Catherine's i n i t i a l i n t roduction as a shrew i s very sketchy and o f f e r s no c r i t e r i a f o r evaluating the cause and extent of her shrewish d i s p o s i t i o n . Catherine enters the play to meet Petruchio. Before the wooing scene, her shrewishness i s established only by Baptista's warning and the report of Catherine's music teacher who enters, l u t e on head, to p r o f f e r h i s resignation, recounting Catherine's verbal and ph y s i c a l attack on h i s person. This b r i e f introduction gives the audience very l i t t l e information or i n s i g h t i n t o Catherine's d i s p o s i t i o n . Without the. suitors and Bianca to provide some hints as to the motivation or cause of her supposed anger, the audience must seek explanations elsewhere. Garrick provides h i s own motives f o r Catherine's antagonism. We learn that Bianca, the younger s i s t e r , i s already married to Hortensio and Catherine i s i n the embarrassing p o s i t i o n of being l e f t on the shelf. Having agreed to Petruchio's terms, B a p t i s t a o f f e r s Catherine the choice between Petruchio and disinheritance. She thus enters the wooing scene with r e s e n t f u l and ambivalent f e e l i n g s , musing thus: How! turned a d r i f t , nor know my Father's House! Reduced to t h i s , or none, the Maid's l a s t Prayer; 76 Sent to be woo'd l i k e Bear unto the Stake? Trim wooing l i k e to be!—and he the Bear, For I s h a l l b a i t him—yet the Man's a Man. (Act. I, p. 8) The wooing scene follows the general shape of Shakespeare's o r i g i n a l except for a muting of language and a condensing of content. In reducing the scene, Garrick loses the dramatic moments and pauses which Shakespeare uses to in d i c a t e mutual awareness and acceptance. In Shakespeare, Kate's only protest a f t e r Petruchio's statement of marriage intent i s the muttering of, " I ' l l see thee hanged f i r s t . " We see that Garrick loses t h i s sense of entente i n h i s version, f o r he finds i t necessary to re-shape the climax of th i s scene, giving i t a very d i f f e r e n t e f f e c t . Garrick expands the Shakespearean scene; h i s Catherine i s i n ac t i v e r e b e l l i o n against the idea of marriage and shows an aggressive and revengeful streak i n her attitude towards Petruchio. Where Kate keeps s i l e n t , Catherine challenges. Petruchio: Catherine: Never to Man s h a l l Cath'rine give her Hand: Here ' t i s , and l e t him take i t , an' he dare. Petruchio: Were i t the Fore-foot of an angry Bear, I'd shake i t o f f ; but as i t i s Kate's, I k i s s i t . Catherine: Y o u ' l l k i s s i t closer, e'er our Moon be wain'd. (Act I, p. 15) As Petruchio leaves and the scene closes with Catherine's address to the audience, her r i v a l r y with Bianca i s made p l a i n as she states her i n t e n t i o n to tame her husband: Why ye s ; " S i s t e r Bianoa now s h a l l see The poor abandoned Cath'rine, as she c a l l s me, 77 Can hold her head as high, and be as proud, And make her Husband stoop unto her Lure, As she, or e're a Wife i n Padua. As double as my Portion be my Scorn; Look to your Seat, Petruchio, or I throw you. Cath'rine s h a l l tame t h i s Haggard;—or i f she f a i l s , S h a l l tye her Tongue up, and pare down her N a i l s . (Act I, p. 16) The development of the play follows Shakespeare's o u t l i n e with the omission of any subplot material. The only dramatic r e l i e f from the taming techniques of Petruchio i s the tomfoolery and b u l l y i n g of servants and t a i l o r , and as we have seen, this aspect of the play developed much t r a d i t i o n a l stage business and clowning. The naming of the time scene i s omitted and the sun/moon naming game i s brought indoors as a condition f o r leaving the house. Catherine, l i k e Kate, agrees to name the sun or moon as Petruchio's whim decides, but where Kate enters f r e e l y i n t o the game and gains a sense of r e l i e f , Catherine goes through the motions of agreeing, but without any sense of change or perception. She states her reason simply, "I see ' t i s vain to struggle with my Bonds." She greets the stranger (not Vincentio, but Baptista come to v i s i t with Bianca and Hortensio), as Petruchio di r e c t s her, but without what i n Shakespeare has been a sense of continuous growth. The priv a t e kiss scene, which i n Shakespeare marks the sea l i n g of mutual understanding, i s , of course, omitted, as Garrick's play moves s w i f t l y towards the f i n a l stage of declared transformation. Catherine, unlike Kate, has merely decided to obey because she sees no a l t e r n a t i v e . We see t h i s i n several ways. Baptista 78 comments, "Ar't not altered Katel" and Catherine makes a simple revealing statement i n reply. "Indeed I am. I am transformed to Stone." This shrew has not reached out for equal partner-ship with her husband; she has merely ceased to struggle, surrendered her w i l l and become l i f e l e s s . She w i l l obey, not collaborate, thus i s Shakespeare's shrew transformed. The f i n a l scene bears out t h i s impression of the defeated shrew, despite the use of Kate's words of rebuke transplanted from Shakespeare. Catherine delivers her rebuke to Bianca, not of her own i n i t i a t i v e , but prompted by Petruchio's repeated command. Gone i s the verbal and s o c i a l subtlety found i n Shakespeare as Kate uses the opportunity to restore, rebuke, explore and communicate her new sense of s e l f and her newly acquired s o c i a l e f f ectiveness. Instead, Catherine d e l i v e r s her speech interrupted and prompted by Petruchio. Bianca, f a r from being routed and displaced, voices her horror at Catherine's broken s p i r i t . Was ever Woman's S p i r i t broke so soon! What i s the matter, Katel hold up thy Head, Nor lose our Sex's best Perogative, To wish and have our W i l l . — (Act I I I , p. 53) Only a f t e r the o b l i g i n g dispatch of her duties does Catherine receive Petruchio's k i s s of approval as he delights i n her public performance of duty which t e s t i f i e s to the success of h i s technique. This i s not the Petruchio d e l i g h t i n g i n the joys of h i s new partnership and h i s wife's new v e r b a l and s o c i a l ease. This dimension of The Shrew ending i s missing i n Garrick's 79 dramatic structure, both i n p l o t and language development. Instead, Garrick's tamer i s happy to have s o c i a l endorsement of his superior p o s i t i o n , cheered by the success of h i s campaign. He shows th i s by s e i z i n g Kate's.lines from Shakespeare, c l o s i n g the play with a borrowed le c t u r e on the duty a woman owes her husband: How shameful ' t i s when Women are so simple To o f f e r War where they should kneel f o r Peace; Or seek f o r Rule, Supremacy and Sway, Where bound to love, to honour and obey. (Act I I I , p. 56) Thus,p putting women i n t h e i r proper perspective, Garrick's play concludes. Catherine i s a much diminished shrew i n a much diminished play. Garrick's s t r u c t u r a l changes and f a r c i c a l l i m i t a t i o n s do not allow the scope and development found i n Shakespeare. Catherine lacks the vigour, v i t a l i t y , wit and sparkle found i n Kate. Garrick's shrew concept i s l i m i t e d and t r a d i t i o n a l , despite i t s Shakespearean base. He shows us a shrew who i s comically manipulated into surrendering her opposition to win peace, and that i s a l l . No i n s i g h t , no depth, no ambivalence i n h i s cha r a c t e r i s a t i o n . It i s this reduced dramatic version of Shakespeare's shrew which dominated the English stage u n t i l the suc c e s s f u l r e v i v a l of the Shakespeare o r i g i n a l i n the nineteenth century. In d i f f e r e n t climes and ages, s t i l l we f i n d The same events f o r d i f f ' r e n t ends designed 80 Garrick's Catherine and Petruchio was the most popular and frequently-performed version of The Taming of the Shrew i n the eighteenth and nineteenth century, but i n February, 1805 at Drury.-Lane, an attempt was made to launch a new dramatic version of Shakespeare's shrew-taming p l o t when John Tobin's The Honeymoon made i t s debut on the English stage. 'The .'Honey-r-mo'on'; produced a month a f t e r Tobin's death from consumption, was the f i r s t of h i s plays to reach an audience ( t h i r t e e n of his'plays having been rejected by London theatre managers i n the preceding years). Tobin grew up i n Southampton, enjoying the theatre there and acquiring a l i f e - l o n g passion f o r Shakespeare and the Elizabethan playwrights, a passion which reveals i t s e l f strongly i n h i s plays, p a r t i c u l a r l y The Honeymoon. Tobin's r attempts to revive the manner of Elizabethan comedy were agreeably received by some contemporary c r i t i c s : one reviewer acknowledges his talents and debts thus: The plan of the fable i s so f a r from new that i t appears to be an absolute i m i t a t i o n of Shakspeare, not only i n the characters of the Duke and J u l i a n a , who are l i t e r a l l y Catherine and Petruchio drawn i n a d i f f e r e n t point of view, but of Zamera, who i s as t r u l y a t r a n s c r i p t of V i o l a i n Twelfth Eight. In the management of the p r i n c i p a l plan, when the scene changes from palace to the cottage, we are no less f o r c i b l y reminded of Rule a Wife and Have a Wife by Beaumont and Fletcher. The i m i t a t i o n s , through the whole play, of the authors of that age, are too numerous to be c i t e d ; but they are frequently so happily made, and often executed with such an a i r of o r i g i n a l i t y , that instead of being blemishes, they seem to stamp a s t e r l i n g merit, and to p u r i f y the dramatic gold that had so long and so basely been alleyed. In updating h i s Shakespearean source i n The Honeymoon, 81 Tobin changes h i s tamer prototype from a coarse r e a l i s t to an i d e a l i s t i c romantic lover. The shrew changes from an angry, f r u s t r a t e d and i n e f f e c t i v e g i r l to a haughty and proud young lady somewhat given to s o c i a l a s pirations. The taming process, the purging of the shrew's pride, i s accomplished by gentle manipulation, patience and a few, well-placed l i e s (presumably j u s t i f i e d by the successful outcome). This i s a genteel and quietly-accomplished taming; no p h y s i c a l violence i s threatened or occurs, indeed the tamer deplores the use of p h y s i c a l violence: The man that lays h i s hand upon a woman Save i n the way of kindness, i s a wretch Whom 'twere gross f l a t t e r y to name a coward. (I, i , p.24) Tobin's play thus changes farce to romantic comedy. Tobin,/ i s , i n f a c t , the only w r i t e r of his period w r i t i n g i n the s t y l e 4 of poetic, romantic comedy, and although he may be out of touch with the themes, l i f e and language of h i s own age, his play i s a pleasing and i n t e r e s t i n g version of The Taming of the Shrew and a most romantic and gentle i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the shrew stereotype. The main p l o t of The Honeymoon concerns the Duke of Aranza and h i s new bride Juliana. To tame the f a l s e pride he recognises i n h i s beloved, the Duke removes Ju l i a n a to a rough country cottage a f t e r t h e i r wedding, t e l l i n g her he i s no duke but a country fellow and that h i s wife must learn to l i v e the simple, country l i f e . Having aspired to be a duchess, J u l i a n a f e e l s cheated and rebels against menial chores and a l i f e of service to a low status husband. She runs away to complain to the Duke 82 but a servant, disguised as the Duke, sends her back to l i v e f o r a month's honeymoon before suing, f o r divorce. The month i n the cottage i s s u f f i c i e n t time for Aranza to win over h i s wife. . She i s duly converted then restored to her p o s i t i o n of duchess as a l l ends w e l l . There are two subsiduary p l o t s which give texture, contrast and dramatic r e l i e f to the main story. Juliana's s i s t e r , Volante, plays the coquette with the Count Montalban (a f r i e n d and confidant of Aranza), and they are s w i f t l y reconciled. The t h i r d s i s t e r , Zamara has run away from home. She i s i n love with Rolando, who i s a professed woman-hater due to h i s having e a r l i e r been refused as a s u i t o r by Juliana. Disguised as a page, she follows him to war, nurses him, befriends him and f i n a l l y removes her disguise to win h i s love and acceptance as a female. The outcome of a l l three r e l a t i o n s h i p s i s the willingness of the women to accept and serve t h e i r husbands graciously and whole-heartedly. The taming of the shrew as•Tobin conceives i t , takes the form of a personal struggle between husband and wife, motivated by love. The wider implications are shunned as Tobin focusses upon the personal i n t e r a c t i o n of Aranza and Ju l i a n a , emphasising not the sexual or mental dominance of the wife, but the emotional conditioning of Juliana. The Duke's genuine concern and firmness bring f i r s t obedience, then acceptance and appreciation as J u l i a n a i s won over. Tobin's shrew i s 83 defined, shaped and viewed through the eyes of her lover, the•Duke of Aranza. His c o n t r o l l i n g and overseeing hand i s f e l t even i n those scenes where Ju l i a n a i s alone. He introduces the play and he ends the play r e j o i c i n g i n the success of h i s manipulations. The shrew i s his toy, h i s creation, and thus has a l i m i t e d dramatic scope within the play's structure. When Aranza f i r s t introduces J u l i a n a , he describes her p o s i t i v e and endearing q u a l i t i e s f i r s t . He delights i n her youth, beauty and her "well-proportioned form and noble presence." He i s also at pains to have Count Montalban appreciate her wit which he describes as "admirable." Her f a u l t , we learn, i s pride, but th i s i s no deterrent to the Duke: .Yet though she be prouder Than the vext ocean at i t s topmost swell, And every breeze w i l l chafe her to a storm, I loverher s t i l l the better. (Act I, p. 10) He proceeds to take Montalban i n t o h i s confidence, o u t l i n i n g h i s plan to tame J u l i a n a by pretending he i s not a Duke but a peasant l i v i n g i n a miserable hut: There with coarse raiment, household drudgery, Laborious excercise, and cooling viands, I w i l l so kwer her distimper'd blood And tame the d e v i l i n her, that, before We have burnt out our happy honeymoon, She, l i k e a well - t r a i n e d hawk,, s h a l l at my whistle Quite her high f l i g h t s , and perch upon my finger To wait my bidding. ( I , i , p. 11) With excess of image and i n romantic vein he anticipates h i s success: When with a bold hand I have weeded out The rank growth of her pride, s h e ' l l be a garden 84 Lovely i n blossom, r i c h i n f r u i t ; t i l l then, An unprun'd wilderness. ( I , i , p. 11) This tamer's approach and target are i n great contrast to those of Shakespeare's Petruchio. Where Petruchio recognises Katherine's pride as a source of strength and seeks to channel i t i n t o a s o c i a l l y e f f e c t i v e and acceptable form, using an unromantic and rough c a r i c a t u r i n g technique to show Kate the error of her ways, Tobin's Duke views pride as weakness and flaw, an obstacle to be eliminated by household drudgery to make hi s wife acceptable to him. He seeks to produce a v i a b l e and soc i a l l y - c o n d i t i o n e d wife, cozened and persuaded i n t o her ro l e of obedience by romantic gloss and emotional pressure. The Duke's romantic pursuit and h i s p o e t i s i n g set the tone and mood of the play. The t r a d i t i o n a l shrew epithets, i n v e c t i v e , and coarseness, are absent i n th i s treatment. Rolando, the woman-hater, comes closest to defining women i n the shrew stereo-type: Next I bethought me of a water m i l l ; But that stands s t i l l on Sundays; a woman's tongue Needs no r e v i v i n g sabbath. And, besides, A m i l l , to give i t motion, waits f o r g r i s t ; Now whether she has aught to say or no, A woman's tongue w i l l go for excercise. In short, I came to th i s conclusion: Most earthly things .have t h e i r s i m i l i t u d e s , But woman's tongue i s yet incomparable. (I, i , p. 13) This declaiming i s not destructive or coarse, i t serves to provide a pleasant diversion: harshness i s a n t i t h e t i c a l to the romantic mood and this i s the closest Tobin comes to the t r a d i t i o n a l vindictiv.ee s p i r i t which p r e v a i l s i n plays with a 85 shrew taming theme. Juliana's f i r s t entrance i n the play provides a demonstration of her undesirable c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . She postures before her glass, taking pride i n her appearance and seeking approval. Volante describes her behaviour thus: Instead of the high honours that await her, I think that, were she now to be enthron'd, She would become her coronation; For when she has adjusted some stray lock, Or f i x t at l a s t some sparkling ornament, She views her beauty with c o l l e c t e d pride, Musters her whole soul i n her eyes, and says, "Look I not l i k e an Empress?" (I, i i , p. 18) She chafes because of the Duke's la t e appearance, s t a t i n g her views of m a r i t a l r e l a t i o n s : Man was born to wait On woman, and attend her sov'reign pleasure! This tardiness- upon h i s wedding day Is but a sorry sample of obedience. (I, i i , p. 18) Volante taunts J u l i a n a , saying she wants a "paper man cut by a baby" f o r a husband. This provokes an impassioned response from J u l i a n a as she paints a dreary p i c t u r e of the cowed wife: a t h i n g For l o r d l y man to vent h i s humours on; A d u l l domestic drudge, to be abus'd Or fondled as the f i t may work upon him:— "I f you think so, my dear;" and, "As you please;" And, "You know best;"—even when he nothing knows— I have no p a t i e n c e — t h a t a free-born woman Should sink the high tone of her noble nature Down to a s l a v i s h whisper, f o r that compound Of f r a i l mentality they c a l l a man, And give her charter up, to make a t y r a n t ! — ( I , i i , p. Jul i a n a has se r i o u s l y underestimated the Duke's p o t e n t i a l , l i t t l e r e a l i s i n g that "a d u l l domestic drudge" i s j u s t the ro l e Aranza has i n mind f o r her. J u l i a n a enters her marriage f e e l i n g that 86 she has Aranza under c o n t r o l : And him I have so manag'd, that he fe e l s I have conferr'd an honour on his house, By coyly condescending to be h i s . ( I , i i , p. 19) Jul i a n a i s too confident, too wayward and too proud. This i s the extent of her shrewishness, and her humbling w i l l be the taming she must undergo. In the second act, the taming process begins. J u l i a n a i s t o l d of her loss of s o c i a l status. She learns that she i s married to a peasant and must perform the menial tasks her pride abhors. She i s outraged at the deceit p r a c t i s e d upon her and fe e l s cheated. The Duke i s patient and firm. He can wait out the expected storm, calmly: Why, l e t the flood rage onI There i s no tide i n woman's wildest passion But hath an ebb. ( I I , i , p. 25) The Duke remains cool and confident as J u l i a n a seethes with anger and a sense of betrayal. She escapes to the Duke's palace to claim redress for her wrongs. Jacquez, Aranza's servant, disguised and prompted by his master, l i s t e n s to Juliana's protests as she complains of her misery, not i l l -treatment : The man has made a tolerable husband But f o r the monstrous cheat he put upon me, I claim to be divorc'd. ( I l l , i i , p. 46) Ju l i a n a agrees to wait a month before pursuing her claim and the honeymoon p a i r return to the cottage. This gives Aranza ample time to make her f e e l that the loss of her expected s o c i a l 87 status, h i s cheat, i s not important. Now Juliana's re-education begins i n earnest. To win freedom of movement, she agrees to obey the Duke without dispute, and a v i s i t from f r i e n d l y neighbours, Lopez and h i s wife, providesAranza with the opportunity to test h i s wife's obedience. J u l i a n a must learn domestic obedience and humility, and i n t h i s scene, which contains many Shakespearean elements adapted to s u i t t h i s r u r a l and gentle corrective excercise, she must swallow her pride as she attends to the needs of the guests under a barrage of c r i t i c i s m and correction from a gentle Aranza. F i r s t we have a re-enactment of Petruchio's sun/moon obedience test as J u l i a n a i s obliged to s i t or stand according to Aranza's changing whim: (Enter Lopez.) Duke: My neighbour Lopez!—Welcome, s i r ! — M y w i f e — {introducing her) A chair! (To Juliana.) Your p a r d o n — y o u ' l l excuse her s i r — A l i t t l e awkward, but exceeding w i l l i n g . (She brings in a chair.) One f o r your husband!—Pray be seated neighbour!— Now you may serve yourself. J u l i a n a : I thank you, s i r , I'd rather stand. Duke: I'd rather you should s i t . J u l i a n a : I f you w i l l have i t so—Would I were dead!— (Aside. She brings a chair, and sits down. ) Duke: Tho', now I think again, ' t i s f i t you stand, That you may be more free to serve our guest. J u l i a n a : Even as you command! (Rises) ( I I I , i v , p. 51) Having complied i n obedience, J u l i a n a i n the r o l e of hostess 88 must s u f f e r p u b l i c c r i t i c i s m as her poor domestic talents i n the serving of wine to the v i s i t o r s are subjected to Aranza's indulgent and apologetic c r i t i c i s m . This r e j e c t i o n of food as a t e s t i n g device i s yet another v a r i a t i o n of Shakespeare: Duke: J u l i a n a : Duke: Ju l i a n a : Duke: Jul i a n a : Duke: Ju l i a n a : Duke: Ju l i a n a : Duke: ..TuXi rraa: J u l i a n a : Now we s h a l l do! (Pours out.) Why what the d e v i l ' s this? Wine, s i r ! This wine? Tis f o u l as di t c h - w a t e r — Did you shake the cask? What s h a l l I say? (Aside.) Yes, s i r . You did? I did. I thought so! Why, do you think, my love, that wine i s physic, That must be shook before ' t i s swallow'd?— Come, try again. I'11 go no more! You won't? I won't! You won't!. (Showing the key.) You had forgot y o u r s e l f , my love! Well, I obey! [Exit.] ( I I I , i v , p. 54) The f i n a l t e s t i n g i n t h i s sequence, comes i n the matter of c l o t h i n g , again reminiscent of Shakespeare's t a i l o r scene as Aranza over.ud.es Juliana's choice of a blue dress, i n s i s t i n g she wear the white. Also at work i n t h i s scene, we have another technique borrowed from Petruchio as Aranza builds a new image of h i s wife, painting an a t t r a c t i v e picture of the vi r t u e s of s i m p l i c i t y and naturalness as more pleasing to the husband than vanity, pomp and display. F i r s t he disparages elaborate a t t i r e : 89 I ' l l have no g l i t t e r i n g gewgaws stuck about you, To s t r e t c h the gaping eyes of ideot wonder, And make men stare upon a piece of earth As on the star-wrought firmament—no feathers To wave as streamers to your v a n i t y — Nor cumbrous s i l k , that, with i t s r u s t l i n g sound, Makes proud the f l e s h that bears i t . She's adorn 1d Amply, that i n her husband's eye looks l o v e l y — The truest mirror that an honest wife Can see her beauty i n . ( I l l , i v , p. 55) then he paints an elaborate and romanticised p i c t u r e of n a t u r a l beauty with the help of elaborate metaphors to sustain h i s persuasive image: Thus modestly a t t i r ' d , An half-blown rose stuck i n thy braided h a i r , With no more diamonds than those eyes are made of, No deeper rubies than compose,thy l i p s , Nor pearls more precious than.Inhabit them; With the pure red and, white, which that some hand That blends the rainbow mingles i n thy cheeks; This well-proportioned form (think not I f l a t t e r ) In graceful motion to harmonious sounds, And thy free tresses dancing i n the wind;— Thou'It f i x as much observance, as chast dames Can meet, without a blush. ( I l l , i v , p. 55) Thus, i n these modifications of Shakespeare's technique, Aranza tests and converts h i s wife. The r u r a l f e s t i v i t i e s which follow t h i s neighbourly scene are the climax to h i s persuasive campaign. When the Duke and J u l i a n a attend the r u r a l dancing, J u l i a n a asserts h e r s e l f independently, winning the Duke's approval by rebuking Lopez f o r h i s forwardness, howbeit, charmingly. As Lopez attempts to greet her with a k i s s , she rewards h i s rebuke with a box on the ears. As Lopez protests h i s treatment, she handles the s i t u a t i o n with s p i r i t : 90 Lop ez: I only meant to ape your husband, lady! He kisses where he pleases. . . . J u l i a n a : So do I, s i r ! Not where I have no pleasure. Excellent {Aside) Duke: Ju l i a n a : My l i p s are not my own. My hand i s free s i r . (Offering i t ) (IV, i i i , p. 67) Lopez accepts Juliana's o f f e r and they dance. The stage di r e c t i o n s i n d i c a t i n g Juliana's changing d i s p o s i t i o n : Immediately following the dance, we have confirmation of Juliana's character change. The next scene opens i n domestic t r a n q u i l i t y as J u l i a n a s i t s before the cottage sewing, singing the song of the blushing country maiden. Here we have a p i c t u r e of the The month i s up, J u l i a n a has served out her time and i s free to leave, but she f i r m l y decides to stay. She assures the Duke, "You know, that, to be mistress of the world, I would not leave you." (V, i , p. 69) The Duke tests her resolve by r e -c a p i t u l a t i n g the g l o r i e s of being a duchess, but she r e j e c t s his teasing and offers the k i s s to s e a l the pact. When her father arrives to "rescue" her from her wrongs, she f r e e l y chooses her husband over her father i n a speech that i s a weak paraphrase of Kate's address i n The Shrew: iThey dance; Juliana at f i r s t perversely, but afterwards entering into the s p i r i t of it; and then go off. ] (IV, i i i , p. 67) shrew domesticated and l i k i n g i t . The taming i s complete. I l e f t you, s i r , a forward f o o l i s h g i r l , F u l l of capricious thoughts and f i e r y s p i r i t s , Which, without judgement, I would vent on a l l . But I have learnt t h i s truth i n d e l i b l y , — 91 That modesty, i n deed, i n word, and thought, I s the prime g r a c e o f woman; and w i t h t h a t , More than by f r o w n i n g l o o k s and saucy speeches, She may persuade the man t h a t r i g h t l y l o v e s h e r ; Whom she was n'er i n t e n d e d t o command. (V, i , p. 71) We see where t h i s t r a n s f o r m a t i o n took p l a c e . Not i n the head, b u t i n the h e a r t . Love wins the day: he has s i m p l y t a u g h t me To l o o k i n t o m y s e l f : h i s p o w e r f u l r h e t ' r i c Hath w i t h s t r o n g i n f l u e n c e i m p r e s s ' d my h e a r t , And made me see a t l e n g t h the t h i n g t h a t I have been, And what I am, s i r . (V, i , p. 71) Thus the shrew i s educated. When she l e a r n s t h a t she i s in d e e d a duchess, h e r h u m i l i t y b e f o r e t h i s d a z z l i n g p r o s p e c t i s as e v i d e n t as h e r former p r i d e : I am l o s t , t o o , In a d m i r a t i o n , s i r : my f e a r f u l thoughts R i s e on a t r e m b l i n g wing t o t h a t r a s h h e i g h t , Whence, growing d i z z y once, I f e l l t o e a r t h . Y e t s i n c e y o u r goodness, f o r the second time, W i l l l i f t me,, tho' unworthy, to t h a t p i t c h Of g r e a t n e s s , t h e r e t o h o l d a c o n s t a n t f l i g h t , I w i l l endeavour so t o b e a r m y s e l f , That i n the w o r l d ' s eye, and my f r i e n d s ' o b s e r v a n c e — And—-what's f a r d e a r e r , y o u r most p r e c i o u s j u d g e m e n t — I may not shame your:dukedom. (V, i i i , p. 79) The Duke, p l e a s e d and d e l i g h t e d at h i s w i f e ' s r e f o r m and compliance, ends^the p l a y , p r o c l a i m i n g the j o y s o f h a v i n g a tamed w i f e : A g e n t l e w i f e Is s t i l l the s t e r l i n g comfort o f a man's l i f e ; To f o o l s a torment, b u t a l a s t i n g boon To those who w i s e l y keep t h e i r honeymoon. (V, i i i , p. 81) Ta The Duke's taming i s made p a l a t a b l e because o f h i s ob v i o u s a f f e c t i o n , p a t i e n c e and g e n t l e treatment o f J u l i a n a . The ro m a n t i c mood and g l o s s m i n i m i s e the v e r y r e a l d e f e a t which J u l i a n a has undergone. There i s no sense o f p a r t n e r s h i p o r 92 equality of r e l a t i o n s h i p i h e r e . J u l i a n a has been won over to domestic servitude, w i l l i n g to place her husband's desires above her own. She i s ready to give him the respect of the t r a d i t i o n a l , subordinate wife i n exchange f o r h i s love and f l a t t e r y . Like Shakespeare's Kate, J u l i a n a has agreed to view l i f e through her husband's eyes, but h i s view places her i n a secondary r o l e . With Shakespeare's Petruchio there i s more the sense of the husband i n v i t i n g h i s wife's complicity i n facing the world as a team of l i k e - p l a y e r s . Shakespeare's Kate grows i n awareness and views the world with a stronger sense of awareness and i n a be t t e r p o s i t i o n to c o n t r o l her l i f e , her destiny and her place i n the marriage union. With Juliana, there i s a sense of diminishing personality. In surrendering her w i l f u l n e s s and desire f or s e l f - a s s e r t i o n , J u l i a n a has given up the control of her l i f e and i t s d i r e c t i o n , handing over her destiny to her master, the Duke. The action i n the s t o r i e s of Rolando and Zamora and Volante and Montalban again emphasises the s a t i s f a c t i o n of serving the beloved. Zamora i s w i l l i n g to s u f f e r any abuse, any hardship and tolerate any conditions to be able to serve Rolando. That i s a l l she demands of the r e l a t i o n s h i p , a chance to play slave to Rolando's master. Having won Rolando's love, Zamora hastens to assure him, "And as a wife, should you grow weary of me, I ' l l be your page again." (V, i i , p. 77) Volante, despite her teasing treatment of the Count, despises the idea 93 of a tamed husband. She t e l l s J u l i a n a early i n the play, "Heav'ns preserve me ever from that d u l l b l e s s i n g — a n obedient husband." (I, i i , p. 19) The s e r v i l e r o l e i s her choice also. A l l the ladies i n -this play, then, end i n t o t a l agreement. They are a l l prepared and w i l l i n g to submit to t h e i r husbands' ru l e . There w i l l be no challenging of masculine authority, no domestic rumblings. Tobin's play ends i n f u l l accord and union, the only h i n t f o r the future r e l a t i o n s h i p s of these married couples, i s that t h e i r paths w i l l run smoothly and without discord ever a f t e r . Love conquers a l l . In modelling h i s play on the comedies of Shakespeare and the seventeenth century w r i t e r s , Tobin has captured much of the E l i z -aDeth'anth flavour and s t y l e of comedy, but i n h i s treatment of the shrew-taming theme, he has l o s t the sparkle, v i t a l i t y and r e a l humour which we f i n d i n Shakespeare's The Taming of the Shrew. The realism, the vigourous andclwitty exchanges between tamer and bride, the romantic contrasts and the l i v e l y a c t i o n are a l l missing i n The Honeymoon. A heavy romantic mood pervades Tobin's play, with the r e s u l t that h i s shrew i s merely a petulant, headstrong g i r l who f e e l s a l i t t l e cheated by her scheming husband u n t i l she i s f i n a l l y persuaded by some mystical force i n the r u r a l environment and the patience of a determined spouse, that she should cease to protest her wrongs. J u l i a n a i s no virago. There are no v i o l e n t outbursts of i n v e c t i v e , X no r e s o r t i n g to p h y s i c a l violence. There i s , i n f a c t , very l i t t l e to be tamed, but, the Duke manages to correct those s l i g h t 94 imperfections which prevent J u l i a n a from being the d o c i l e , empty, amiable, complaisant and desirable wife. Through the d i s t o r t i n g v e h i c l e of romantic comedy borrowed from another age, Tobin creates a shrew who i s no shrew a t . a l l . Tobin, i n st r e s s i n g the romance and sentiment and elimi n a t i n g the f a r c i c a l i s as f a r from the Shakespearean shrew concept i n h i s i n t e r -p r e t a t i o n as Lacy i s i n h i s version, where the extreme farce r e s u l t s i n an equally unrecognisable d i s t o r t i o n of Shakespeare's shrew. Tobin's play, w h i l s t f a i l i n g to achieve any l a s t i n g success, appears to have pleased the audience. The Times c r i t i c records i t was received, "with very great applause." Although t h i s r e -viewer was c r i t i c a l of the lack of o r i g i n a l i t y , he nevertheless acknowledge's Tobin's s k i l l s : Without possessing, therefore, the le a s t o r i g i n a l i t y i n the e s s e n t i a l constituents to dramatic composition which we have mentioned, we think i t but j u s t to observe, that the Honey Moon i s a r a t i o n a l and pleasing Comedy. If the author has made rather free with the labours of his predecessors, we s h a l l not i n t e r f e r e further with the p u b l i c s a t i s f a c t i o n thahn we have done, or be so invidious as to tear h i s borrowed plumage from him. There i s no inconsiderable merit i n the ingenious execution of a dramatic theft, and the author of the Honey Moon, be he dead or l i v i n g , has proved himself a dextrous plagiarist.^ Unfortunatley, Tobin's i n i t i a l success with t h i s play was short-l i v e d . A f t e r a few more performances, the play disappeared 13 completely from the English stage. It i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note that the play did meet with some success i n New York. I t was staged frequently i n 1844, 95 1845, and 1846, often, as a b e n e f i t p r o d u c t i o n . " These per-formances were staged as platforms f o r the actresses playing the part of J u l i a n a , and the large receipts seem to i n d i c a t e that the productions were highly successful, thus t e s t i f y i n g to the a t t r a c t i o n of shrew-taming and shrews. Except f o r these American r e v i v a l s , Tobin's romanticised shrew play was a dramatic f a i l u r e . His gentle taming i n "borrowed plumage" met l i t t l e response i n a theatre world which continued to enjoy Garrick's f a r c i c a l romp i n preference to Shakespeare. David Garrick's Catherine and Petruchio continued to be the popular form of The Taming of the Shrew throughout the nineteenth century. I t was so successful as a f a r c i c a l a f t e r p i e c e , that even with the r e v i v a l of other Shakespeare comedies, the o r i g i n a l Taming of the Shrew continued to be ignored. In 1844, Benjamin Webster elected to revive the Shakespearean o r i g i n a l and i n a r a d i c a l form. He decided to stage h i s r e s t o r a t i o n i n the Elizabethan manner, shunning the current t h e a t r i c a l e f f e c t s and extravagant staging i n favour of a simple s e t t i n g of screens and curtains. His enterprise provoked mixed c r i t i c i s m and revived, i f b r i e f l y , an i n t e r e s t i n Shakespeare's Shrew and i t s stage h i s t o r y . The Taming of the Shrew, derived from the f o l i o text, was presented at the Haymarket on March 16, 1844. The play was presented complete with the Induction scenes, the parts 96 of Katherine and Petruchio being played by Mrs. Nisbett and Benjamin Webster. The play was w e l l received and played many times throughout the season. Webster considered t h i s play amongst his "highest and most glorious a c h i e v e m e n t s a n d selected scenes from t h i s play for.his benefit performance i n 1847 to raise money for the purchase and preservation of Shakespeare's house.^ It i s i n t e r e s t i n g to see the kind of emphasis and i n t e r -pretation given to the play by Webster. The contemporary c r i t i c s provide some clues to the kind of e f f e c t s produced by the play, although there i s some c o n f l i c t of opinion. The Times c r i t i c applauds Webster's novel staging technique: The greatest c r e d i t i s due to Mr. Webster for r e v i v i n g the play i n the way i n which we f i n d •*.; i t i n Shakespeare's works and f o r producing i t i n a s t y l e so unique that t h i s r e v i v a l i s r e a l l y one of the most remarkable incidents of the modern t h e a t r e . ^ His enthusiasm i s not shared by The Spectator c r i t i c , however: Perhaps the absence of scenery f i x e d attention on the actors more cl o s e l y than usual, for we never heard SHAKSPERE'S poetry more barbarously mangled: even the voices sounded harsh and unmusical. In short, 1 s ' the whole performance was tedious and disagreeable. As f o r the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of the characters, the c r i t i c s agree about what they see but disagree about the rightness. Webster as Petruchio, seems to have attacked h i s r o l e with b l u s t e r and gusto, perhaps l o s i n g some of the w i t t i e r and more humourous ef f e c t s by h i s p h y s i c a l and verbal excesses. In The Illustrated London News, the c r i t i c records: 97 Webster p l a y e d i n some o f the b o i s t e r o u s scenes o f the comedy w i t h g r e a t s p i r i t , b u t to use a v u l g a r s a y i n g , he cowed r a t h e r than humbled the saucy Kate', t h e r e was more o f the rude t y r a n t than the haughty gentleman about h i m . ^ The unenthus±&s£ptcSpect:ator c r i t i e d f i n d s -sthis - - i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f P e t r u c h i o "almost l i b e l l o u s " and v e r y un-Shakespearean: i n s t e a d of the gay, h i g h m e t t l e d g a l l a n t , p i q u e d i n t o making a conquest o f the shrew, and who i n o r d e r t o ov e r b e a r h e r p e r v e r s e temper a f f e c t s a peremtory manner and t y r a n n i c a l l y c a p r i c i o u s humour—he makes P e t r u c h i o a v u l g a r , r o y s t e r i n g b u l l y , whose b r a w l i n g , i n c o n s e q u e n t i a l b l u s t e r would never have subdued the s p i r i t o f the q u i c k - w i t t e d Kate. She i s tamed n o t so much by h e r dread o f v i o l e n c e and e x p e r i e n c e o f p r i v a t i o n , as by the f o r c e of a s t r o n g w i l l and h i g h handed c o n t r o l which masters h e r wayward temper, and which she f i n d s i t e a s i e r t o submit t o than r e s i s t . u The more k i n d l y Times c r i t i c h i n t s t h a t unsure l i n e s may acco u n t f o r h i s nervous, uneven i n t e r p r e t a t i o n : Webster as P e t r u c h i o , showed t h a t a l e s s h u r r i e d study o f the arduous p a r t would have made him a v e r y a b l e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e . Many p o r t i o n s he performed w i t h v e r y s t r i k i n g e f f e c t , w h i l e o t h e r s seemed marred by nervousness a r i s i n g from a sense t h a t the t e x t was not w h o l l y a t h i s command. ^ Webster c o n c e i v e d o f P e t r u c h i o as an o v e r b e a r i n g f e l l o w and i n l a t e r p e r f o r m a n c e s , whip i n hand, he continued' t o overwhelm h i s K a t h e r i n e and impress h i s a u d i e n c e , t e s t i f y i n g t o the s t r e n g t h o f the t r a d i t i o n a l G a r r i c k b u l l y b o y : Mr. Webster k e p t h i s p o s i t i o n o f a strong-minded lady-tamer, and c r a c k e d h i s whip, w i t h a h e a l t h y d e t e r m i n a t i o n t h a t always made an e f f e c t upon the a u d i e n c e . ^ How i s K a t h e r i n e i n t e r p r e t e d i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h t h i s 98 overwhelming and t y r a n n i c a l P e t r u c h i o ? Mrs. N i s b e t t seems t o have c r e a t e d a f a v o u r a b l e i m p r e s s i o n i n h e r r o l e as K a t h e r i n e . W i t h i n the s c r e e n e d and c u r t a i n e d i n t i m a c y o f Webster's s e t t i n g , she appears t o have h a n d l e d K a t h e r i n e ' s development w i t h some i n s i g h t and s u b t l e t y . The Illustrated London News c r i t i c d e s c r i b e s h e r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n t h us: Mrs. N i s b e t t gave a new phase to the c h a r a c t e r of Kate; she d i d n o t suddenly s i n k i n t o the a b j e c t s l a v e o f h e r husband's whim, but now and the n broke out i n t o s h o r t e b u l l i t i o n s o f the h a s t y temper she was want t o i n d u l g e i n . Her s o f t e n i n g down to g e n t l e n e s s was "by f i n e degrees" and h e r i r a s c i b i l i t y " b e a u t i f u l l y l e s s . " I n s h o r t , as we have s a i d b e f o r e , h e r Kate was the b e s t we have e v e r seen, f o r through the v e i l o f the t e r m i g a n t the l a d y was s t i l l v i s i b l e . 3 The l e s s r e c e p t i v e c r i t i c i n The Spectator i s n o t so impressed. He sees extremes o f i n t e r p r e t a t i o n and none o f the s u b t l e t i e s : Mrs. N i s b e t t ' s c o n c e p t i o n o f K a t h e r i n e i s e q u a l l y at v a r i a n c e w i t h the c h a r a c t e r : she v e n t s h e r i l l - h u m o u r s w i t h t h e lowbred a i r s o f the common termagent and h e r s u b m i s s i o n appears as a b j e c t as h e r p r e v i o u s r e s i s t a n c e i s u n d i g n i f i e d . ^ However, The Spectator c r i t i c i s i n agreement w i t h the o t h e r c r i t i c s i n acknowledging the i m p a c t . o f Mrs. N i s b e t t ' s performance of K a t h e r i n e ' s speech on the duty o f w i v e s . He admits i t was " a d m i r a b l e " and r e c o r d s t h a t i t "drew down a b u r s t of a p p l a u s e , which i t deserved; and thus t u r n e d t h e s c a l e i n f a v o u r o f the 25 performance" The Times l i k e d Mrs. N i s b e t t ' s " p e t u l a n t v i v a c i t y " as "Kate the c u r s t " as much as the c o n t r a s t o f the "tamed" K a t e : She a c t e d w i t h a degree o f .feminine d e l i c a c y and g r a c e f u l n e s s w h i c h formed a p l e a s i n g c o n t r a s t . The i m p r e s s i v e and r e a l l y e l o q u e n t manner i n which 99 she delivered the concluding speech on the duty of wives to t h e i r husbands, drew down repeated shouts of applause. ^ On the whole, the r e v i v a l seems to have produced extremes of i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . Webster's excessive b l u s t e r seems matched by Mrs. Nisbett's delight i n playing both termigant and lady i n the high s t y l e . The Athenaeum c r i t i c sums up t h i s exaggerated and declamatory performance thus: The impression conveyed by t h e i r performance i s that of a scolding vixen suddenly converted i n t o an eloquent advocate and example of obedience i n a wife by salutary dread of the tyranny of a b r u t a l husband: those who see no more than t h i s i n "The Taming of the Shrew" w i l l be s a t i s f i e d with t h i s performance; and delight as the audience did, i n the buffooneries i n which Mr. Buckstone, as Grumio, r e v e l l e d with h i s usual g u s t o . ^ It i s i n t e r e s t i n g that t h i s r e s t o r a t i o n included the f u l l text of the f o l i o version, yet provoked l i t t l e comment on the part of the c r i t i c s on e i t h e r the Induction scenes or the material i n the sub-plot. Strickland, the actor who played the r o l e of Christopher Sly, was commended highly for h i s part, but the secondary characters received only passing mention, aA t y p i c a l comment being: Mrss. J u l i a Bennett as Bianca, "walked i n beauty," f o r she had l i t t l e else to do. The rest of the dramatis •personae remain i n the status quo of t h e i r r e s p e c t a b i l i t y . ^ 8 It i s tempting to conclude that, notwithstanding the novelty of the s e t t i n g , the sub-plot, new m a t e r i a l to audiences only acquainted with Catherine and Petruchio, made l i t t l e impression 100 on audience and c r i t i c s . From the descriptions of the character-isations of Katherine and Petruchio i t also had l i t t l e effect on the main impact of the taming sequences. The Catherine and Petruchio f a r c i c a l traditions of caricature and excessive stage business and fooling seem to colour and dominate this production of the revived .Taming of the Shrew. Despite the Webster excesses, this production, livel y and adhering to the Shakespeare text, was a successful attempt to present the bard in his own colours, not edited and reduced to Garrick's compact scheme. The play ran again successfully during the 1847 season, but i t s moment was fleeting. ' The attraction of Catherine and Petruchio prevailed over the novelty of Webster's staging experiment and i t was a decade later before Phelps made an enterprising attempt to stage Shakespeare's Shrew for the benefit of the Victorian audience. On November 15, 1856, Phelps produced a revived version, of The Taming of the Shrew at Sadler's Wells. This was the twenty-ninth Shakespearean revival under his management of the theatre. Phelps produced this play complete with the Induction and f u l l text, but in a modern staging and setting, not lik e Webster in a stylised attempt to recapture the Elizabethan flavour. However, Phelps, like Webster, had to contend with the persistent popularity of Catherine and Petruchio. Garrick's play was s t i l l too popular to be dislodged, and Phelps' revival raised only a passing interest and comment from the drama c r i t i c s . 101 From the short reviews a v a i l a b l e , the preference f o r , and f a m i l i a r i t y with, Garrick's version, show i n the c r i t i c s ' reaction to the sub-plot material. Compared with the l i v e l y f a r c i c a l fare, i t i s d u l l s t u f f with l i t t l e appeal. The Spectator c r i t i c states the case w e l l : The play revived at,Sadler's Wells on Saturday has not been acted i n . i t s e n t i r e t y , save at the Haymarket i n 1844, w i t h i n the memory of many generations,—although Katherine and Petruchio, as Garrick's abridgement i s c a l l e d , has always been a favourite afterpiece. From the e f f e c t of the representation at Sadler's Wells we may gather the inference, that our immediate ancestors were not mere blockheads i n t h e a t r i c a l a f f a i r s as r i g i d Elizabethans would have us suppose. The story i n which Katherine and Petruchio (played with excellent s p i r i t by Miss Atkinson and Mr. Marston) are the p r i n c i p a l f i g u r e s , shakes the audience with laughter; and "the Induction," with the tinker of Mr. Phelps, i s a choice l i t t l e b i t of low comedy: but the d u l l tangled t a l e of Bianca and her s u i t o r s i s scarcely worth the trouble of r e v i v i n g , lacking as i t does a l l the p r a c t i c a l "fun" and ingenuity which belong to the Comedy of Errors,' while i t i s marked with the same puppet-like treatment of the personages that belongs to that p r i m i t i v e work.^ The c r i t i c i n The Illustrated London News i s a l i t t l e more appreciative of the dramatic function*-of the Bianca sequences, indeed he f e e l s that the laughter i n the play owed much to the dramatic balance of the sub-plot material. Having praised the low comedy of Mr. Phelps i n the part of Christopher Sly, which produced convulsive laughter, he comments on the e f f e c t s of the rest of the play: We may add that the most uproarious merriment . also rewarded the e f f o r t s of Mr. Marston and Miss Atkinson as Petruchio and Kather ine. The e f f e c t was incomparibly greater than ever produced by the performance of the same play i n i t s usual abridged form. Why i s this? 102 I t i s true that some of the passages usually omitted, are d u l l , tedious and "lead to nothing" but they serve the purpose of r e l i e f and, contrast; and i t i s owing to the dramatist's exquisite d i s t r i b u t i o n of l i g h t and shade that the comic scenes came out with so much more potency i n t h e i r n a t u r a l order than i n that imposed upon them i n the compressed version. Another instance, t h i s , to demonstrate how much less wise i n general i s the player than the poet, and to inculcate reverence to works which bear on them the divine impress of genius. The r e v i v a l i n f u l l of "The Taming of the Shrew" i s l i k e l y to teach t h i s lesson, and i f i t does no more i t w i l l have answered no mean purpose and done no l i t t l e good.30 This c r i t i c ' s appreciation was not t y p i c a l of the audience i n general. The Taming of the Shrew did not prosper and Phelps himself returned to the preferred version of Catherine and Petruchio as a box o f f i c e winner, leaving the r e s t o r a t i o n of, and appreciation of, The Shrew for another time and place. It was an American imported production of The Taming of the Shrew by the dynamic Augustin Daly which f i n a l l y drove Catherine and Petruchio from the English stage and established the Shakespearean play i n the t h e a t r i c a l r e p e t o i r e , and that not u n t i l the year 1888. Augustin Daly presented a dynamic and opulent version of The Taming of the Shrew i n New York i n 1886 where i t received immense acclaim, running f o r one hundred and t h i r t y seven consecutive performances. The outstanding cast and the l a v i s h s e t t i n g were transferred to London, and the play made i t s English debut on May 29, 1888 at the Gaiety. Theatre. The production was a b r i l l i a n t one by a l l accounts, owing much of i t s sparkle and e f f e c t to the impressive i n t e r -p retation of the r o l e of Katherine by the actress Ada Rehan. 103 What d i d Daly do to the p l a y t o make i t suc c e e d as a comedy where P h e l p s and Webster had o b t a i n e d no l a s t i n g impact? D a l y f i r s t shook o f f the s h a c k l e s o f Catherine and Petruchio and the accumulated f a r c i c a l t r a d i t i o n s and s e t out to produce a 31 comedy, not a f a r c e . Many o f the c l o w n i n g excesses were removed i n the p r o d u c t i o n a c c o r d i n g t o the Athenaeum c r i t i c : At any r a t e , "The Taming o f the Shrew" i s an immeasurably f i n e r work than the o f t e n p r a i s e d " C a t h e r i n e and P e t r u c h i o . " The scenes i n P e t r u c h i o ' s house were sho r n o f much o f the extravag-ance o r d i n a r i l y e x h i b i t e d i n England, b u t were y e t - t o o f u l l o f b u f f o o n e r y . D a l y ' s s e t t i n g s f o r the p l a y were o p u l e n t and l a v i s h , f u l l of sensuous d e t a i l s , r e d b r o c a d e s , b e a u t i f u l I t a l i a n f u r n i t u r e s e t a g a i n s t g o t h i c backgrounds o f g r e a t s p l e n d o u r . M u s i c was added t o the p l a y , i n c l u d i n g a c h o r a l c e l e b r a t i o n i n the f i n a l banquet scene where a c h o i r o f boys sang Bishop's, " S h o u l d he U p b r a i d " , a l y r i c from an e a r l y n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y m u s i c a l v e r s i o n o f the p l a y , t o the s p l e n d i d l y c l a d g u e s t s . Amidst these l u s h and p l e a s i n g e f f e c t s , Daly shaped the b a s i c Shake-spearean p l o t t o c r e a t e a p o w e r f u l p l a t f o r m f o r Ada Rehan as h i s dynamic shrew. D a l y used much o f the t e x t of t h e F i r s t F o l i o e d i t i o n , but he d i d make a l t e r a t i o n s t o s u i t h i s d r a m a t i c c o n c e p t . He e l i m i n a t e d Shakespeare's s c e n i c language, p r e f e r r i n g h i s audi e n c e t o enjoy the s e n s u a l i t y o f h i s o p u l e n t s t a g e d e s i g n s . He a l s o removed a l l c o a r s e language. H i s master s t r o k e however, 104 was to change Shakespeare's p l o t to create a highly dramatic i n i t i a l scene for the shrew, Katherine. Shakespeare's early scene with Katherine and the su i t o r s i s omitted and Katherine makes her grand entrance at the beginning of the second act, sweeping onto the stage and cowing a protesting Bianca;- a f o r c e f u l entrance repeated i n the s i l e n t movies by Mary Pickford. The c r i t i c Odell, who witnessed t h i s impressive entrance records his reactions thus: Ada Rehan reached the peak of her fame i n the role of Katherine; I b e l i e v e I may say that her stormy entrance as the shrew, with her flaming red h a i r and her r i c h dress of superb mahogany-coloured damask, was the most magnificent stage entry I have ever seen. And her change from shrew to l o v i n g wife was an exquisite b i t of acting, p l a c i n g Miss Rehand among the great a r t i s t s i n dramatic h i s t o r y . 3 Katherine's entrance which begins at a high p i t c h moves on to a great climax. Daly contrives to leave Katherine on stage at the end of t h i s act where she turns to address the audience with words borrowed from Garrick: I s ' t so? Then watch me w e l l , and see The scorned Katherine make her husband stoop Unto her tune, And hold her head as high, and be as proud, As e'er a wife i n Padua! Or—double as my portion be my scorn! Look to your seat, Petruchio, or I throw you: Katherine s h a l l tame this haggard; or, i f she f a i l s , S h a l l t i e her tongue up, and pare down her nails.34 Besides the p l o t changes made by Daly to heighten the impact of Katherine, much of the success of the c h a r a c t e r i s a t i o n i s probably the r e s u l t of Ada Rehan's fresh and i n t e r e s t i n g insight i n t o the p o s s i b i l i t i e s of the Katherine r o l e . Winter 105 i n h i s book Shakespeare on the Stage records Ada Rehan's impressions of Katherine the shrew: The shrewishness of Katherine i s l a r g e l y super-f i c i a l . Externally a v i r a g o — b u t the l o v l i e s t q u a l i t i e s of womanhood are latent i n her. She i s at war with h e r s e l f a termagent i n temper; haughty; s e l f - w i l l e d ; imperious; r e s e n t f u l of control, s t i l l more r e s e n t f u l of the thought of submission to love, yet at heart ardently desirous of i t and s e c r e t l y impelled to seek i t . Her s p i r i t i s high and f i e r y , and while she longs f o r love, she rages against h e r s e l f , condemning the weakness which permits her longing: but which f e a l l y . l i s her unrecognised power. ^ With t h i s i n s i g h t and much na t u r a l acting a b i l i t y , Miss Rehan appears to have given a sumptuous and passionate i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of Katherine. The Athenaeum c r i t i c records the power of her performance: Her appearance as she entered fuming upon the stage i n the second act, or again when she sat, the centre of a wedding banquet i n her father's h a l l i n Padua, i s one of the things that w i l l haunt the memory. Meanwhile, her movements had.something of the rage of a captured animal, and her outcries were such as an actress less i n s p i r e d by her subject and less suredof her resources dared not have employed. The actor playing Petruchio, John Drew, appears to have played h i s r o l e with manly charm and grace, making the taming 37 process boisterous, but without b r u t a l i t y . Daly, although aiming for the s p i r i t of comedy, allowed h i s actors to play i n high f a r c i c a l v e i n : Both play i n the f a r c i c a l key, r i g h t l y esteeming that to tone down the extravagant scenes i n the modern manner would be to w h i t t l e them away to nothing. Mr. Drew wields h i s long whip with the dexterity of a cowboy. There i s , i n short, nothing of the namby-pamby i n the performance; a p o l i c y . o f . h a l f measures, even in.the throwing about of a leg of mutton upon which Katherine O 106 hopes to dine, would be disastrous, , and much of Miss Rehan's and Mr. Drew's success i s due to t h e i r appreciation of that truth.38 Of course, the restored underplot with i t s romantic and l i n g u i s t i c contrast would serve to balance the farce and elevate the mood i n the d i r e c t i o n of the Icomic. The Times c r i t i c i s aware of the s t r u c t u r a l r o l e of the subplot: Besides the Introduction, Mr. Daly restores the underplot of the play concerning the loves of Hortensio and Bianca.• The scenes so introduced are not p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t e r e s t i n g i n themselves, but they serve to throw int o r e l i e f the r e l a t i o n s of the s t i f f - n e c k e d heroine and her subjugator. In the purely f a r c i c a l version of The Taming of the Shrew the. importance of such r e l i e f appears to have been underestimated. I t i s d i f f i c u l t otherwise to account f o r the greatly increased i n t e r e s t which Mr. Daly and h i s company have been able to arouse. Those who have known i t only i n the current acting form w i l l be agreeably surprised at the wealth of dramatic material thus brought to l i g h t , and at the unsuspected force of Miss Rehan and Mr. Drew's embodiment of the leading characters. Whatever dramatic and v i s u a l chemistry was at work i n th i s production, i t was successful and pleasing. In t h i s version of The Taming of the Shrew* Shakespeare's o r i g i n a l dramatic concept was presented i n a palatable and e x c i t i n g form, winning a permanent place f o r i t s e l f i n the r e p e r t o i i e o f the English stage. CHAPTER IV THE MUSICAL SHREW In the preceding chapters we have followed the fortunes of Shakespeare's The Taming of the Shrew i n i t s dramatic form and v a r i a t i o n s as i t was played on the London stage during the l a s t three hundred years. Just as various actors and play-wrights could not r e s i s t borrowing and re-working the Shakespeare o r i g i n a l , so musicians could not r e s i s t the a t t r a c t i o n s of the p l o t and Shakespeare's Shrew has provided the dramatic impetus f o r many forms and musical v a r i a t i o n s . Among the e a r l i e s t adaptors was James Worsdale i n the eighteenth century, who took the plot and added ballads and dancing to create a b a l l a d opera. Later opera writers could not r e s i s t the play. Notably, Hermann Goetz who wrote a German opera i n 1878; Charles S i l v e r produced La Megere Apprivoisee (1922); a very recent Russian version by Shebalin, Ukrosohenie Straptivo was performed i n Moscow i n 1960. In America, V. Giannini created an i n t e r e s t i n g opera f o r the Kansas State Opera Company i n 1953 and Cole Porter together with Sam and B e l l a Spewack could not r e s i s t t r e a t i n g The Shrew to the f u l l r i t u a l of the American musical comedy i n 1948. Not a l l the l i b r e t t o s are available f o r analysis, but i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to look at the a v a i l a b l e musical versions to see how they handle Shakespeare's The Taming of the Shrew, being p a r t i c u l a r l y concerned with the treatment of Katheri'rie'. 108 During the eighteenth century, before the impact of David Garrick, comedy and farce'were " i n a s p i r i t of decay.""'' Search-ing f o r new forms and seeking to s a t i s f y changing audience tastes, John Gay.y, with h i s The Beggar's Opera (1728), spawned a new dramatic form, the b a l l a d opera; a comic hybrid which dominated the stage f o r the next decade, at the expense of other forms of comedy. The b a l l a d opera was usually a two or three act a f f a i r i n which prose, blank verse and rhymed dialogue, together with songs, ballads and a i r s , were used to t e l l a f a r c i c a l or sentimental story. This dramatic and musical potpourri endeavoured to compete with the popul-arlit-.^. of the current audience preference f o r the elaborate and extravagent I t a l i a n opera. Catering.to t h i s popular taste, James Worsdaje, a p o r t r a i t painter by profession, abandoned h i s brushes for the pen and wrote A Cure for a Scold (1735), a version of The Taming of the Shrew, supposedly based on Shakespeare, but a c t u a l l y modelled on John Lacy's version, Sauny the Scot. Shakespeare's shrew-taming i s changed in t o this strange musical, the b a l l a d opera, with some i n t e r e s t i n g dramatic v a r i a t i o n s . Worsdale borrows hi s p l o t from the Lacy version of The Shrew, paraphrasing much of the Lacy dialogue (howbeit, purged of i t s v u l g a r i t i e s and obsc e n i t i e s ) , following the extended Lacy p l o t i n Margaret's attempts at revenge and her f i n a l p h y s i c a l and 109 mental Intimidation by threats of teeth p u l l i n g , and i n this version, not b u r i a l but ' b l i s t e r s ' and 'bleedings', before she f i n a l l y agrees to obey her husband. The s p i r i t of the play i s much the same as that of Lacy's farce. The characterisations are stereotypes, functioning within a s k e l e t a l p l o t , with l i t t l e depth, motivation or d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n . The p h y s i c a l i n t i m i d a t i o n and b u l l y i n g , the exchange of invective and h o s t i l i t y , and the b r u t a l i t y a l l contribute to the farce's b r i t t l e q u a l i t y . However, against these elements which derive from the Lacy source, we have a new and unique q u a l i t y — t h e impact of the music and l y r i c s . In A Cure for a Scold, Worsdale reduces the shrew-taming story to a mere two acts and these two acts sustain twenty-three songs and ballads together with three or four dances. The songs are the dominant element, i n t e r r u p t i n g the p l o t i n the middle of the dialogue to provide outbursts of musical comment addressed to the audience. The s t o r y - l i n e i s simply the framework f o r a s e r i e s of songs and l y r i c s which revolve around the problems of married happiness. The l y r i c s provide a mixture of viewpoints on the question of m a r i t a l harmony and f i n a l l y move to a r e s o l u t i o n which suggests that accord can be reached i f love i s present: Come, come soft n u p t i a l Powers, Bless, bless Bridegroom and Bride, Let each Rapture be ours, Let love always preside. Hence, hence Care and D i s t r a c t i o n , Love's s o f t gentle Bands Creates sweet S a t i s f a c t i o n Where he j o i n s the Hands. 110 Such p r o t e s t a t i o n s l i n k e d w i t h p l e a s i n g t o n e s , s o f t e n and sweeten the b i t t e r p i l l o f w i f e - t a m i n g as d e r i v e d from the c o a r s e Lacy m a t e r i a l , g i v i n g a l y r i c a l and tempering dimension t o an e s s e n t i a l l y b a r e , b r u t a l r i t u a l o f w i f e i n t i m i d a t i o n . The m u s i c a l element a l s o p r o v i d e s a means o f u n i v e r s a l i s i n g the impact of the theme as well-known songs and tunes a r e used t o expound w e l l - w o r n t r u t h s and a t t i t u d e s . The arrangement of the l y r i c s has a d r a m a t i c f o r c e o f i t s own. T h e i r emerging p a t t e r n p r o v i d e s m u s i c a l u n i t y and d r a m a t i c t e n s i o n as o p p o s i n g views a r e j u x t a p o s e d t o b r i n g about a r e c o n -c i l i n g e f f e c t . ' The i n t r o d u c t o r y song, sung to the l i v e l y dance tune, Lillybutlero, i n t r o d u c e s the p l a y ' s theme: The s h a r p e s t of P l a g u e s t h a t Satan cou'd f i n d , To t o r t u r e , p e r p l e x and e m b i t t e r our L i f e ; I s c e r t a i n l y t h i s to be l i n k ' d and c o n f i n ' d , ' T i l l D e a t h — t o a termagant Jade of a W i f e . I f w e a l t h she b r i n g s , She f l a u n t s and f l i n g s , D i s p l e a s i n g and t e i z i n g , i l l - n a t u r ' d and proud; H e r s e l f only, p r i z i n g . . . Her husband d i s p i s i n g As s i l v e r i n B e l l s makes 'em doubly as l o u d . ( I , i , p. 2) The dance rhythms and tempo, merry, s o c i a l and f a m i l i a r , pass c h e e r f u l comment on the woes o f l i f e m a r r i e d to a shrew, announcing the modd and a t t i t u d e o f the whole p l a y . • The theme i s t o be t r e a t e d i n j o c u l a r v e i n and the e n t e r t a i n m e n t w i l l t r e a t the problems of m a r i t a l d i s c o r d i n a l i g h t - h e a r t e d and p o s i t i v e f a s h i o n , w i t h o u t h o s t i l i t y o r v i n d i c t i v e n e s s . The rhythm.and imagery of a l l the l y r i c s f o l l o w s t h i s p a t t e r n , sweetening and s u s t a i n i n g i n an e s s e n t i a l l y happy approach t o w i f e - t a m i n g . I l l Worsdale has his l y r i c s present opposite points of view. Thus, S i r William Worthy (Baptista) sings of the t r i a l s of marriage with a bad wife: Three ways, a Philosopher s a i t h , A Scold may be cured i f she's young; To Stop her Breath, Or f r e t her to Death, Or snip o f f the Tip of her Tongue. (I, i , p. 13) His lament and so l u t i o n are quickly answered by Flora's (Bianca's) l y r i c , where she puts the problem of the married wife: Altho' so fondly they profess, To love us without ranging; Their Passions vary, l i k e t h e i r Dress, Decaying, ever changing No Face so f a i r , no Eye so bright . From rouing to r e s t r a i n them; As Boys whom gil d e d Toys delight, Possess, and then disdain them. (I, i , p. 14) Throughout the play the l y r i c s i n t e r r u p t the action to make contrasting comments. During Margaret's taming at Petruchio's house, the servants make a choric comment on the events, but always an attack on shrewishness i s countered by an opposing viewpoint. Archer (Grumio) sings on the best methods to keep women quiet i n a f a s t , merry tune. This i s answered by a slow lament from Margaret as she muses on the hard fate of women: Alas, from every Joy debarr'd To what hard F a t e i i s Woman born, Our tender Passion's best Reward Is cold Contempt and k i l l i n g Scorn. For Men inconstant as the Wind, Expert i n f a l s e deluding Arts , When most caress'd are most unkind, They only win to break our Hearts. ( I I , i , p. 38) Thus, the l y r i c s shape and cont r o l the entertainment, allowing 112 an e x p l o r a t i o n of the theme through music (which a f f e c t s mood and e m o t i o n s ) , p r o v i d i n g an added d i m e n s i o n t o the b a s i c p l o t . W i t h i n t h i s l y r i c a l framework, Margaret i s the same shrew s t e r e o t y p e we f i n d i n Lacy. She i s a b u s i v e , c o a r s e , l i m i t e d i n language, w i t and m e n t a l a g i l i t y , m a i n t a i n i n g h e r v e n g e f u l and v i n d i c t i v e n a t u r e u n t i l the c l o s i n g scene o f the p l a y . An a t t r a c t i v e a c t r e s s w i t h an a p p e a l i n g v o i c e , c o u l d , through the o p p o r t u n i t y a f f o r d e d by the l y r i c s and t h e i r gay and p e r s u a s i v e rhythms, tone down and modify the n a s t i n e s s o f d i s p o s i t i o n which comes throughhtherdriamaticetexfesasoborpow.ed from Lacy. But b a s i c a l l y , Worsdale's M a r g a r e t i s an a s s e r t i v e , a b u s i v e s c o l d to the end o f t h e p l a y . The wooing and taming p r o c e s s i s t a k e n from Lacy. Shrew and tamer exchange i n v e c t i v e (not w i t ) , and agreement to m a r r i a g e i s o b t a i n e d by t h r e a t s o f the s t i c k . M a r g a r e t agrees t o wed to seek vengeance and to a c c e p t the c h a l l e n g e of t r y i n g t o tame P e t r u c h i o . There i s not h i n t o f a t t r a c t i o n , c o m p a t i b i l i t y o r the p o s s i b i l i t y o f e n t e n t e ; the m a r r i a g e p a c t i s mercenary and f u n c t i o n a l . L i k e L a c y ' s shrew, Margaret endures h e r e x p e r i e n c e s a t P e t r u c h i o ' s house, but e n t e r s the f i n a l scenes u n r e p e n t a n t and s e e k i n g revenge. A g a i n , l i k e L a c y ' s Peg, she has a chance t o abuse P e t r u c h i o , then, under a vow of s i l e n c e , she endures attempts a t t e e t h p u l l i n g , much t a l k l o f b l e e d i n g under the tongue, and the a p p l i c a t i o n of b l i s t e r s and o t h e r such torments as P e t r u c h i o a n d . h i s h i r e d p h y s i c i a n can d e v i s e . 113 Of course she surrenders under these threats of p h y s i c a l abuse and the happy ending and r e t r a c t i o n are speedily concluded. This i s the r i t u a l chastisement for the t r a d i t i o n a l , l i m i t e d shrew stereotype of farce and folkways. Within the. musical scheme, Margaret's l y r i c s provide an elaboration of the basic shrew type i n both music and sentiment. Her songs reveal a range of f e e l i n g s and moods. She i s a s s e r t i v e , claiming that wives must stand up.for themselves or be i n s u l t e d : I w i l l assert my Sex's Right, h i s Noise and Frowns a l i k e despise, Since angry Wives l i k e Vipers b i t e , l e t none provoke them i f they're wise. (I, p. 28) Some of her songs are sung to laments, as she reveals her s u f f e r i n g and feelings of s e l f - p i t y . She also reveals her disillusionment with marriage and her fear and d i s t r u s t of men: Were women wise, they wou'd not wed, Nor t r u s t to f a l s e imperious Men, Our Joys we leave i n the Marriage-Bed, But never resume 'em again. ( I I , p. 40) Like other shrew types, Margaret i s defeated r i t u a l i s t i c a l l y and i n the mood of farce, learning the lesson that loves comes only with subjugation: How caress'd am I Mutually complying. (II, p. 57) Like Lacy's play, Worsdale's musical entertainment does not provide -for' a n y s u b t l e t y i n the r e l a t i o n s h i p between shrew and tamer. This i s a simple scheme with unmotivated, p r e s c r i p t i v e behaviour ending i n a mechanical and manipulated resolve. There i s no character development or change i n Worsdale's shrew and 114 the e p i l o g u e q u e s t i o n s the m e c h a n i c a l o p e r a t i o n of the p l o t as M a r g a r e t s t e p s o u t to address the audience t h u s : W e l l I must own, i t wounds me to the H e a r t To a c t , unwomanly =• so mean a P a r t . What to submit, so tamely . . . so contended, Thank Heav'n I'm n o t the t h i n g I r e p r e s e n t e d . ( I I , p. 60) Tongue i n cheek she warns t h a t i n l i f e t h i n g s are d i f f e r e n t : A t Westminster b e g i n , at Wapping end, Y o u ' l l f i n d the Scene r e v e r s ' d , and e v ' r y Dame, L i k e o l d A l c i d e s , . . . making Monsters tame. ( I I , p. 60) In Worsdale's w o r l d , shrews remain shrews. W i t h i n t h i s m u s i c a l p l a y , Margaret'ss'innate and p e r s i s t e n t s h rewishness i s b a l a n c e d by the i n n o c e n t s u f f e r i n g o f F l o r a ( B i a n c a ) i n the s u b p l o t s t o r y , as extremes o f f e m i n i n e c h a r a c t e r i s a t i o n are p i t t e d a g a i n s t each o t h e r . In t h i s s i m p l i f i e d v e r s i o n of the p l a y , the s u b p l o t c o n s i s t s of F l o r a ' s l o v e f o r a young swain, G a i n l o v e , who, with, the connivance o f a t y p i c a l l y scheming e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y s e r v a n t , Lucy, a f f e c t s an elopement w i t h F l o r a , w h i c h i s r e c o g n i s e d i n the happy r e c o n c i l i a t o r y c o n c l u s i o n -of the p l a y . • F l o r a ' s r o l e . i n the p l a y i s not as a s u b s i d i a r y one and the i n t r i g u e s o f the s u b p l o t command a l a r g e p l a c e i n the p l a y ' s a c t i o n . F l o r a s e r v e s as a p o w e r f u l f o i l f o r M a r g a r e t and h e r many l y r i c s a l l o w h e r to a c t as a mouthpiece f o r s i l e n t , s u f f e r i n g , wronged women who cannot a s s e r t themselves o r e x p r e s s t h e i r f e e l i n g s . She i s the complete o p p o s i t e of the shrew type, b e i n g a l l h e a r t , " emotion and f e a r . One of h e r l y r i c s summarises h e r d i s p o s i t i o n : 115 How vain's our Scorn, and Woman's Pride, Our Passion to conceal; When what we study most to hide, Our Actions most reveal. The Bi r d whose trembling Breast, Pants f o r i t s Young, a f r a i d ; By fearing to disc l o s e her Nest, Is by those Fears betray'd. (I, p. 16) Worsdale, with F l o r a as mouthpiece, widens the scope of h i s play beyond Lacy's scheme, creating a f a i r and innocent p o r t r a i t of woman to balance Margaret's very r e a l and entrenched nastiness. In adapting Lacy's play f or his musical i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , Worsdale s i m p l i f i e s h i s characterisation, p i t t i n g one extreme against another. In using other characters and allowing them l y r i c a l comments which juxtapose c o n f l i c t i n g and contrasting views on wives and wife taming, Wo.rsdale achieves a round and i n t e r e s t i n g i nterplay of views. This p a r t i c u l a r emphasis, together with the merry, f a m i l i a r tunes, l i g h t l y r i c s and general good humour make th i s a d i s t i n c t i v e and l i v e l y v a r i a t i o n of The Taming of the Shrew as derived from Lacy. Contemporary c r i t i c s who reviewed the play acknowledged the entertaining aspects of the singing. Aaron H i l l and William Popple, who produced a t h e a t r i c a l paper, The Prompter, had th i s to say about the f i r s t performance of A Cure for .a. Scold: As the greater part of that performance belongs to our countryman Shakespeare, except a few new scenes introduced to connect the detached ones from The Taming of the Shrew and make i t one, the chief merit of the poet must a r i s e from the goodness of the songs, and i t must be confessed, my'friend has a pretty knack at songs; f o r excepting an idea or two a l i t t l e gross, though witty, i f that i s 116 possible, I have not seen a more entertaining farce this good while.^ These early dramatic c r i t i c s were wrong in attributing the play's material to Shakespeare, but probably right in responding to the appeal of the songs. This ballad opera was reasonably successful for the next few years. Playbills of the period record i t s success. One performance was played, "At the particular 4 Desire of several Ladies of Quality." Another performance, together with Dry den' s All. for. Love'- on May 5 was a "Benefit for the Author of the F a r c e , a n d "played by command of His Royal Highness." In this particular performance, James Worsdale played the part of the tamer, Manly. The long term success of this musical venture was not to be, however. With the adyent of Garrick's Catherine and Petruchio, Worsdale's musical pastiche disappeared completely. The Times of May 15, 1828,. records that Shakespeare's The Taming of the Shrew was revived at Drury Lane in i t s original form, "the f i r s t time for we believe seventy years that i t s stage qualifications have met with a proper opportunity of being duly appreciated." The play referred to was not a dramatic revival of Shakespeare, but another musical version, patched together by the musicians Braham and Cooke. The Shakespeare text was burdened with a series of sonnets borrowed haphazardly from the Shakespeare canon and inserted for the musical delight of the audience. The selection of sonnets reveals a preponderance 117 of love l y r i c s , i f the f i r s t l i n e s are any i n d i c a t i o n , and most.of songs are delivered by Katherine and Hortensio on the theme of 'love', 'poetry' and 'music' Such sentiments i n the mouth of a shrew throughout the play must have j a r r e d a l i t t l e with the development and characterisation designed by Shakespeare. Against these sentimental l y r i c s of Katherine, Petruchio continued to play i n the Garrick s t y l e of boisterous s l a p s t i c k . The Times c r i t i c records: Wallack was an exc e l l e n t representative of Petruchio. In the supper scene of the t h i r d act h i s assumed habits of violence produced e f f e c t s i r r e s i s t i b l y laughable, and the manner ^ i n which he manifested them received much applause. The balance of the Shakespeare play must have been further upset by the r o l e of Hortensio. The part was taken by Braham, the composer, who set out to present h i s music to vocal advantage. He sings many l y r i c s and, rather s u r p r i s i n g l y as f a r as p l o t i s concerned, a l l the duets with Katherine. I t has been suggested that h i s part, f i l l e d out with a l l his musical declamations, even caused a change i n p l o t , so that Katherine ult i m a t e l y ends g the play with Hortensio, not Petruchio. Without the s c r i p t , t h i s cannot be v e r i f i e d , but the changes i n ch a r a c t e r i s a t i o n and p l o t r e s u l t i n g from the musical embellishments seem to be d i s t o r t i n g and out of mood with the comedy i n the o r i g i n a l . Perhaps the p u b l i c thought so too, f o r t h i s musical r e v i v a l l a s t e d a mere four days and was replaced on May, 20, 1828 with a production of the ever popular Garrick version, Catherine 118 and Petruchio. Hermann Goetz' opera, The Taming of the Shrew ( l i b r e t t o by J.V. Widmann a f t e r William Shakespeare), o f f e r s a sentimental i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of Shakespeare's play and provides an i n t e r e s t i n g v a r i a t i o n of the shrew stereotype i n i t s treatment of the heroine, Katherine. It was well received i n Europe and opened i n London on October 25, 1878. In examining the l i b r e t t o as a dramatic scheme, we should bear i n mind that i t i s more straightforward than ordinary drama needs to be, as the words, action, gesture and voice i n f l e c t i o n are c a r r i e d by the music i n opera. The l i b r e t t o provides dramatic p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r character or at l e a s t sketches, but only the musician can create them. The dramatic concepts of Kate and Petruchio, which provide the framework for Goetz' musical i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , lose much of t h e i r Shakespearean comic expression and become very sentimental. A l i b r e t t o n e c e s s a r i l y s i m p l i f i e s the play, for music has to be allowed, scope for i t s powers. In t h i s process of s i m p l i f i c a t i o n , Shakespeare's Kate i s re-created as a proud and sentimental young g i r l , and his energetic Petruchio i s replaced by a jaded and w i l f u l name-sake whose ennui can only be l i f t e d by the pursuit and conquest of a r e s i s t i n g g i r l . Goetz' music has a tendency to seriousness, a mood not l i g h t enough for the comic vein, and the r e s u l t i s a rather heavy and sentimental version of Shakespeare's vigorous 119 romp. In t h i s o p e r a , K a t h e r i n e i s n o t mean, j e a l o u s , o r p h y s i c a l l y and v e r b a l l y a b u s i v e . The n a s t i e r shrew q u a l i t i e s are c o m p l e t e l y m i s s i n g . Widmarm's shrew has the fl a w s of p r i d e and ar r o g a n c e . I t i s an i n t e r e s t i n g d r a m a t i c concept, f o r the K a t h e r i n e i n t h e e a r l y scenes o f t h i s o p e r a i s s t r o n g and n o t u n a t t r a c t i v e . The audience sympathises, p r o b a b l y r e s p o n d i n g to the domest i c dilemma i n which she f i n d s h e r s e l f . As the s t o r y opens, the chorus ( B a p t i s t a ' s s e r v a n t s ) , i n t e r r u p t L u c e n t i o ' s s e r e n a d i n g of B ianka. They are i n an u p r o a r because K a t h e r i n e has d i s m i s s e d them f o r l a z i n e s s and d i s l o y a l t y . They complain o f K a t h e r i n e ' s h a r s h n e s s , a l t h o u g h subsequent scenes i n d i c a t e t h a t K a t h e r i n e ' s judgement o f t h e i r b e h a v i o u r was p r o b a b l y j u s t i f i e d . K a t h e r i n e ' s anger i n t h i s i n i t i a l scene i s d i r e c t e d towards h e r f a t h e r . B a p t i s t a , a weak man, p l e a d s w i t h h i s s e r v a n t s to r e t u r n to work (thus undermining K a t h e r i n e ' s judgement and a u t h o r i t y ) , then b r i b e s them w i t h o f f e r s of more wine and money. K a t h e r i n e h a t e s t o see h e r f a t h e r p a n d e r i n g to the s e r v a n t s ' g u i l e s . " F u r y consumes me. Oh, the shame o f i t a l l , " ^ she c r i e s i n d i s g u s t . Her h o r r o r of i n e f f e c t u a l and weak men i s f u r t h e r r e v e a l e d i n the scene between h e r and Bi a n k a . There may be a t i n g e o f envy i n K a t h e r i n e ' s s n e e r i n g remarks about Bianka's s e r e n a d i n g l o v e r s , but K a t h e r i n e j u s t i f i e s her p o s i t i o n by r e v e a l i n g h e r d i s t a s t e f o r females who c a t e r t o the whims and f a n c i e s o f men: 120 And you are i n s u l t i n g to a l l womanhood. Yes you and your kind are responsible f o r the fact that we are branded by a l l men as the weaker sex. Naturally, i f any l i t t l e serenade makes you swoon and robs you of a l l sense. So there's nothing l e f t but to f a l l into t h e i r arms. Its a shame how we sink, deeper and deeper, mere toys;,tossed about by p r i m i t i v e male desire. Pray t e l l me, f o r whom i s the rose i n your hair? For whom your hands so c a r e f u l l y guarded by expensive gloves, your clothes sprinkled with perfume; the golden bracelet: round your arm? For men. (II, i , p Then she reveals her p o s i t i o n . "Men's d o l l s , that's what we are. We? No indeed, not I. I ' l l f i g h t against that." ( I I , i , p Excitedly pacing the f l o o r , Katherine commands Bianka to play the guitar and she sings her song of defiance. She w i l l remain a v i r g i n . The only man who could ever hope to win her would have to be a super-hero, capable of outstanding deeds: To whoever wants to win me, I s h a l l say: "Climb to heaven's pinnacle and stop the course of the sun for me." And to one who wants to marry me: "Climb down in t o h e l l and j u s t f o r the fun of i t , bring back the d e v i l . " But no one s h a l l r e a l l y possess me, f o r i t only brings bad luck. ( I I , i , p. 19) These strong f e e l i n g s at the beginning of the opera promise a great struggle for any man wishing to come to terms with t h i s Katherine. Baptista warns Petruchio that, "she rule s , she wears.the crown and we are but dust under her feet." ( I I , i i i , p-But Petruchio i s not daunted. He^desiresatdichange-Katherine ahdueahif-atherine; And I'm the one to turn her i n t o a dove. If y o u ' l l give her to me, I promise I ' l l make her as tender as the zephyr's breeze. Nay, more, I ' l l turn her into the most obedient, loving c h i l d . ( I I , i i i , p. 21) 121 The opera f u l f i l s t h i s promise. Katherine the strong, the s e l f - a s s e r t i v e feminist w i l l crumple into the trembling, weeping, g r a t e f u l , s e l f - s a c r i f i c i n g , a l l - l o v i n g cipher of a wife, who weeps with r e l i e f and gratitude at the feet of her saviour. This i s the sentimental taming of a shrew, a master/ slaver or f a t h e r - c h i l d r e l a t i o n s h i p of c o n t r o l l e r and subject, strong and help l e s s , matched i n an unequal marital partnership which i s r e a l l y a p a t e r n a l i s t i c dominance of one w i l l over another. Widmann's Petruchio i s portrayed as a sated, jaded and bored gentleman who finds l i f e a burden. He i s a wanderer, r e s t l e s s , f i n d i n g the world hollow and empty. Everything comes too e a s i l y to th i s Petruchio, power, women, and money. No one opposes him; the whole world i s at his w i l l . As he confides to Hortensior^he seeks opposition: Petruchio: Oh, God, how much love I could give to one who'd r e s i s t me. Hortensio: I f that's a l l you're craving, I know a g i r l as cold and hard as marble. Petruchio: (with mounting warmth) I f such a one should e x i s t , I want to meet her and make her mine. Only that would reconcile me to th i s mercenary world. Oh, to f i n d a woman as proud and strong as I. (I, v, p. 16) Where Shakespeare's Petruchio seeks an energetic and s p i r i t e d wife and re-educates her to release her f u l l p o t e n t i a l , allowing her to develop and grow, Widmann's Petruchio i s seeking resistance f o r the joy of crushing i t and bending i t to h i s w i l l . His 122 wife w i l l be reduced and re-shaped, becoming one of the toys she so despised at the beginning of the story. The taming process in this opera follows a strange pattern. Petruchio campaigns gloriously to conquer, but Katherine offers l i t t l e real resistance and is won over at the time of their marriage. Petruchio's interest in Katherine is fired by a remembrancee of an earlier encounter. Many years previously, she had resisted his advances. Recalling this occasion, inspires Petruchio to pursue his suit. Consequently, he sings a beautiful love song beneath her balcony before launching his campaign: Sleep gently. But a short rest and then you must,fight and face deep sorrow. Already I love you, but I dare not spare you pain, for I must f i r s t break and tame you u n t i l you've become as gentle as a zephyr's breeze. Sleep well. Have peace for one more night, my untamed, wild l i t t l e g i r l . (I, iv, p. 17) Petruchio wins his campaign easily and quickly in the i n i t i a l wooing scene in Act Two. He captures Katherine's imagination by projecting an impressive image of himself as a giant doer of great deeds. He announces himself to be the super-hero Katherine has prescribed for herself: Who dares say "No" when I, Petruchio, was the f i r s t to say "Yes?" Think of that, Kate. My walls tremble when I pass by; many a wild horse has been tamed by these arms; even the lion slinks from my fierce eyes, and my voice triumphs over the thunder of canons. And then you, gentle l i t t l e dove, dare set your w i l l against mine? The immovable w i l l of a real man, a giant? (II, iv, p. 24) Twice Petruchio embraces and kisses Katherine whilst she struggles 123 to break away, thus stimulating further his jaded taste, but even as she struggles she has already yielded, revealing her mixed emotions thus: I want to tear him apart, yet c a l l him my own. I hate to see him alive, yet i f he were dead, I too would die. I'd shoot him down i f I had arrows, then wake him with tears of love. (II, iv, p. 25) Continuing a l i t t l e public resistance, Katherine follows the Shakespearean pattern in showing disappointment at Petruchio' delay and rebuking him for refusing to participate in the wedding fe s t i v i t i e s . But then resistance ceases. In Petruchio's house, Katherine does not assert herself; instead, f u l l of love and longing for peace, she tries to show patience whilst Petruchio goes through the performance of bullying the servants. Petruchio attitude is one of patronising Katherine, even showing pity. He calls her "dear child" and issues a l l the commands. She has abandoned a l l opposition and seeks only to appease his ever-lasting anger. "My strength is gone," she sings and paints a sad picture of her mental state. Sinking, losing her courage, willing to give her l i f e for Petruchio, she commits herself to a role of humility, surrender and self-abnegation: But I musn't complain. I must bear whatever t r i a l s he may choose for me. There is but one horizon, but one sweet hope, that finally h e ' l l take pity upon poor me, that h e ' l l be touched by my utter humility. Oh, wondrus thought; oh boundless happinessk once true love leads him to my heart. So now, no more complaints. Humility w i l l make me bear whatever further t r i a l s he may choose for me. (IV, i , p. 41) 124 This is not Shakespeare's Kate or Lacy's Margaret. This Katherine is s i t t i n g out the storm, hoping her surrender w i l l win her peace once Petruchio realises he has no more battles to fight. The t a i l o r scene which follows Katherine's self-revelations, is the breaking point. Katherine bursts into tears. Petruchio begins the sun and moon naming, but a tearful Katherine is too overcome to even want to participate. At this moment she is a l l confusion as she sobs to Petruchio that she is born anew and his to command. This scene is one overflowing with emotion. No humour or comic treatment here as Katherine weeps: I don't mean anything anymore. My eyes are in tears. There is but one thing I see clearly, that I am no more the same g i r l I used to be. Broken is the w i l l of the arrogant, wild maiden. Instead, a wife's much more beautiful more noble bearing. I only realise i t now, after your joking warnings. At last I am born anew yours whatever you may choose to do. Yes—your own wife, who loves you with a l l her heart and soul. (Overflowing with emotion, she sinks to the floor at -Petruchio's feet. He lifts her lovingly and clasps her in his arms) (IV, iv, p. 45) Petruchio announces that the t r i a l is ended and together they sing of their b l i s s f u l future: Once wary to death, now transfigured with joy—once a threatening sky, now a radiant sun—that's how love romps about in God's domain, joining the hearts with the stars. (IV, i y , p. 46) The entrance of Baptista with the two newly-married couples brings the opera to a speedy and boisterous conclusion. There are no bets or quiet revenges in this emotionally f u l l ending. Katherine greets Bianka joyfully and in a whispered confession, 125 reveals her transformation: Bianka: (whispering to Katherine) And you? Are you happy? You look so pale I can't t e l l you how I've worried about you. Are you longing for your former freedom? Katherine: (passionately) I am u t t e r l y , u t t e r l y happy. Bianka: I'm amazed. Are you t e l l i n g the truth? What about your proud independence? Your bold, defiant w i l l power? Katherine: (with muoh warmth) I've s a c r i f i c e d i t a l l , and more, to him whom I love with a l l my heart. (IV, i v , p. The chorus remark on the apparent change i n Katherine, "sweet l i k e an angel," they sing, and Katherine bubbles over to be s o c i a l l y well-received. She pours out her gratitude to Petruchio: A l l within trembles with happiness dear, dear, Petruchio. You've won your p r i z e because you've created a new, a better Kate, who's indebted to you forever and ever. (IV, i v , p. 48) Widemann's shrew thus changes fromda woman who hates weakness who d i s l i k e s females who allow themselves to become the toys of men, to a chi l d - b r i d e who w i l l do anything farther husband's love, peace and approval. The mature and capable woman with a mind and a w i l l has been reduced to a f l u t t e r i n g , babbling c h i l d . The e f f i c i e n t housekeeper, capable of handling lazy and indolent servants i s now incapable of making any decisions without the approval of her overbearing husband/master. This i s the character sketch provided by Widemann's l i b r e t t o . When Goetz develops the characters with h i s music he accentuates the seriousness and sentimentality of Widemann's dramatic concept. 126 The Times c r i t i c s i n 1878 and again i n 1880, were quick to point out what they considered the musical shortcomings of t h i s comic opera. The chief musical c r i t i c i s m i s that Goetz i s incapable of comedy. "He takes everything au grand serieux,"^ and t h i s i s e s p e c i a l l y true of his treatment of Katherine and Petruchio: The main d i f f i c u l t y lay i n the two chief characters. The shrew and her conqueror, conceived musically, would i n e v i t a b l y become broadly comic types, and the r e s u l t would be opera bouffe pure and simple. To write t h i s Herr Goetz was neither w i l l i n g nor able; hence his hero and heroine had to undergo a considerable change i n the d i r e c t i o n of sentiment.1^ The music provides many sentimental and d e l i g h t f u l melodies and even moments of intense passion. Petruchio's love song beneath Katherine's balcony as. he anticipates h i s courtship i s described as "as sweet an arioso as ever devoted l o v e r breathed 13 for his mistress." (Perhaps more appropriate to a Lucentio than a Petruchio) Katherine's early c a p i t u l a t i o n s i s c l e a r l y indicated i n the music. Even as Katherine pleads with Petruchio to stay for the wedding celebrations, she does i t , " i n the most submissively melodious phra s e . " ^ The c r i t i c f o r the Illustrated London News i s also concerned with the pervading tone of the music. He also f e e l s that i t i s f a r too serious to be i n keeping with the subject, i n some instances being, "sombre to the point of gloom." Although the music i s heavy and f a i l s to sparkle i n comic vein, there are some pleasing and e f f e c t i v e moments. One h i g h l i g h t f o r t h i s c r i t i c i s the 127 wooing scene: The subsequent scene of the interview of Petruchio and Katherine, being one of the best portions of the opera. It contains several e f f e c t i v e passages, e s p e c i a l l y that f o r Katherine, "He makes me fear." Even i n t h i s movement, however, the composer's serious tendency i s occasionally disadvantageously apparent.-^ Despite i t s shortcomings, musically t h i s opera was f a i r l y popular for several decades, but has never achieved any great popularity i n the modern opera repertoire. With a sentimental l i b r e t t o and serious music i t i s quite far i n mood and character from i t s Shakespearean o r i g i n a l . Its f a i l u r e to capture the comedy and s p i r i t of i t s prototype probably explains i t s lack of popular appeal. Shrews are more at home i n the realm of comedy. When sentiment enters i n , comedy i s l o s t , and Goetz' and Widemanm'iss' sad l i t t l e - g i r l shrew i s a good example of the shrew stereotype l o s t i n nineteenth century sentimentality. In the twentieth century there have been sev e r a l operatic treatments of The Taming of the Shrew. Charles S i l v e r produced a French version i n 1922, La Megere Appri.vdvsee. In th i s version,-the l i b r e t t i s t has Katherine submit to Petruchio under threat of banishment to a convent. The ending has a sentimental twist as Katherine, exhausted and apparently sleeping, overhears Petruchio singing of his p a i n f u l task of hardening h i s heart so that ultimately he might arouse her love response. However, no written l i b r e t t o i s av a i l a b l e f or a closer scrutiny of the 128 piece. Another contemporary treatment i s a Russian version by the composer, Shebalin, e n t i t l e d Ukroshchenie Stroptivoi (The Taming of the Shrew) 1954. This i s a very a t t r a c t i v e and t r a d i t i o n a l handling of Shakespeare's play. The musical selections I have heard are l i g h t and pleasing, probably w e l l suited to the comic mood of the piece. The l i b r e t t o does diverge from the play, although generally preserving i t s s p i r i t . P h y l l i s H a r t n o l l describes the v a r i a t i o n s i n the book, Shakespeare in Music: Petruchio makes Katherina change her wedding dress f o r that i n which h i s great-grandmother was married. When he gets her home, he points to h i s drunken old servant C u r t i s , says he i s a b e a u t i f u l young g i r l , and orders Katherina to ki s s him, rebuking her when she does so (compare t h e i r argument about the sun and moon i n IV. 5 of the pla y ) . The denouement i s d i f f e r e n t l y approached. Upset by Petruchio's wooing, Katherina rushes into the stormy night and i s brought back unconscious. He begins to f e e l he has gone too f a r and f o r f e i t e d her love; when her obedience wins him h i s bet i n the l a s t scene (as i n the play) he concedes her the v i c t o r y . But Shebalin Varies the wager (V. 2. 65 f f ) and backdates i t to Act I, where Petruchio bets Lucentio and Hortensio a thousand ducats that he w i l l marry Katherina tomorrow and tame her i n a month (the servants have t h e i r own bet on the s i d e ) , thus neatly tying up the p l o t . ^ ^ The changes i n p l o t suggest some i n t e r e s t i n g dramatic v a r i a t i o n s , but unfortunately, there i s no r e a d i l y a v ailable l i b r e t t o to allow f o r further i n v e s t i g a t i o n . Yet another modern opera treatment i s an American opera by V. Giannini, presented by the N.B.C. network on American t e l e v i s i o n i n 1954. This, The Taming of the Shrew, l a t e r staged at the New 129 York City Center i n 1958, was widely acclaimed as a pleasing and sparkling rendering of the shrew story. Certainly there i s none of Goetz' sentimentality here. The opera's l i b r e t t o , w r i t t e n by the composer and Dorothy Fee use only "the l u s t y and singing l i n e s " " ^ of Shakespeare together with passages from Romeo and Juliet and the sonnets. The opera, with a gay and. l i g h t book and Giannini's b r i t t l e music, impressed the New York audiences with "the v i v a c i t y 18 of i t s s p i r i t s and the boisterousness of i t s laughter." This p a r t i c u l a r production was staged with pace and.invention by Margaret Webster i n an attempt to capture the l i v e l y atmosphere of Shakespeare's o r i g i n a l version. The opera i s a v a i l a b l e i n 19 a recording by the Kansas State Opera Company, but there i s no e a s i l y obtained l i b r e t t o for a close study of the dramatic structure of the opera. In l i s t e n i n g to the opera, the musical patterns follow the Shakespearean plan. For three acts, Katherine must sing some rather s h r i l l music before r e l a x i n g into more melodious a i r s . Bianca and the characters i n the subplot have the pleasing harmonies and pleasing melodic l i n e s which juxtapose e f f e c t i v e l y with thee discords produced by Katherine's i n i t i a l bad humour, p a r a l l e l i n g Shakespeare's dramatic contrast of romance and r e a l i t y . However, although this opera captures much of the Shakespearean intent i n mood and structure, the l i b r e t t i s t s appear to have l o s t the s u b t l e t i e s of the Shakespearean characterisation of 130 Katherine and Petruchio. Writing i n the New York Herald Tribune, Paul Henry Lang has t h i s to say about the weakness of the l i b r e t t o : The comic element i s w e l l u t i l i s e d and the play goes l i k e l l i g h t n i n g — b u t there i s no characterisation whatever. In order to be b e l i e v a b l e Kate must be downright b r u t a l , which i n turn authorises Petruchio to be even tougher. There i s no i n d i c a t i o n anywhere that he i s i n love with Kate, i n fact he i s ready to marry her before he has set eyes upon her, and this i n s p i t e of her reputation f o r being completely i n t r a c t a b l e . This i s an animal taming, not a love story . . . The denouement i s r e a l l y makeshift t h e a t r e — i t s weakest p a r t . ^ l Whatever the flaws i n the dramatic s t r u c t u r e , the opera makes entertaining l i s t e n i n g , capturing much of the good humour, sparkle and comedy of the Shakespeare play. On December 30, 1948 at the New Century Theater i n New York, Kiss Me Kate, a musical by Cole Porter with the book by B e l l a and Samuel Spewack, introduced The Taming of the Shrew to the strange world of the American musical comedy i n perhaps i t s most b i z a r r e and teasing conversion. The production was a l a v i s h and g l i t t e r i n g a f f a i r and immensely successful; i t ran f o r three years i n New York and had equal success i n England. Translated into many languages i t was also very popular i n Europe. The c r i t i c s were unanimous i n declaring i t s great appeal and vigour, and of i t s type i t appears to be an outstanding musical: I f Kiss Me Kate i s n ' t the best musical comedy I ever saw, I don't remember what the best musical comedy I ever saw was c a l l e d . I t , the Cole Porter 131 — B e l l a Spewack song and dance show now up near Central Park, has everything."21 The musical c e r t a i n l y contains many pleasing and happy combinations and a f a i r l y generous portion of Shakespeare. The Spewacks have devised a very compact and simple scheme, mixing Shakespeare's play with the m a r i t a l discord of a divorced American acting couple who are appearing i n i t , thus creating a series of s i t u a t i o n s r i c h i n dramatic irony. The language and wit of Shakespeare i s juxtaposed with the language, idiom and values of the New York Theater world and underworld, providing a r i c h and varied texture. Cole Porter's l y r i c s and music add a further happy dimension, producing an e x c i t i n g piece of theatre which works b e a u t i f u l l y , despite, or because of, the mixture of these strange elements. The c e n t r a l figure i s undoubtedly the shrew, Kate, played by the actress-shrew, L i l l i . The two aspects of character-i s a t i o n are inseperable; L i l l i depicts Shakespeare's Kate as an extension of her personality and motivated by her p e c u l i a r passions. As Kate i n the play within a play and as her s e l f i s h and petulant s e l f i n the framing story, she i s a contemporary American expression of the shrew stereotype. The dazzling t h e a t r i c a l e f f e c t s , the sp a r k l i n g music and the l i g h t f r i v o l o u s mood of the musical, provide only a sugar-coating f o r the inate pettiness and adolescent self-indulgence which are the character-i s t i c s of t h i s concept of the shrew. This, i n e f f e c t , i s a d e l i g h t -f u l and entertaining treatment of the American "bitch-goddess." 132 As such i t provides a very unusual concept of the shrew. The American musical comedy i s a strange, hybrid enter-tainment whose e s s e n t i a l q u a l i t y i s d i f f i c u l t to capture through e i t h e r a dramatic or musical analysis. Much of the enjoyment of the musical i s a response to an assault on the senses. Lavish and sensuous costumes, elaborate sets and staging, colour, movement, dance routines, music and songs create the spectacle which delights the audience. The appeal i s p r i m a r i l y to the senses, not the mind. The outstanding success of Kiss Me' Kate t e s t i f i e s to the p a r t i c u l a r alchemy at work. John Mason Brown, reviewing the opening night f o r the Saturday Review attempts to define the elusive q u a l i t i e s which provide such pleasant entertainment: The point, the delight of Kiss Me Kate i s that though i t f i l l s the passing seconds delectably and leaves us with agreeable memories, i t does not i n v i t e us to think. I t i n v i t e s us to "feed apace" with ears and eyes both greedy and g r a t e f u l on what i s most bright and gay, " i n a f l a s h , and so away." In place of thought, i t o f f e r s amusement. Its only profundity i s i t s s k i l l , which i s enormous. Perhaps more accurately I should say i t s profundity l i e s i n i t s s k i l l s because as staged by John C. Wilson they are many and b r i l l i a n t l y fused. Kiss Me Kate does not remind, provoke, explore, s t i r , or illumine. It relaxes and captivates. Yet the relaxation i t affords i s e x h i l a r a t i n g rather than enervating. The back-bone of this f e s t i v e , c o l o u r f u l f r o l i c i s the c l e v e r l y devised l i b r e t t o by Samuel and B e l l a Spewack. They explore the love-hate r e l a t i o n s h i p of a contemporary American couple through the medium of Shakespeare's Taming of the Shrew. 133 I t i s the Shakespeare m a t e r i a l which p r o v i d e s a means of communication f o r the w a r r i n g c o u p l e and a l s o the s t i m u l u s to a f f e c t a r e c o n -c i l i a t i o n . In t h i s b u r l e s q u e , Kate and P e t r u c h i o are A m e r i c a n i s e d , v u l g a r i s e d and r e d u c e d to c a r i c a t u r e , but they do p r o v i d e a l i v e l y p o i n t of d e p a r t u r e f o r t h i s modern v e r s i o n of shrew-taming. I t i s the Spewack's book which w i l l p r o v i d e the b a s i s f o r the shrew c h a r a c t e r i s a t i o n to be c o n s i d e r e d i n t h i s paper. Kiss Me Kate opens w i t h a l i v e l y t h e a t r i c a l r e h e a r s a l . F r e d Graham, a l o y a l t h e a t r e man, has h i r e d h i s ex^-wife, L i l l i V a n e s s i , now a temperamental movie s t a r , to p l a y K a t h e r i n e to h i s P e t r u c h i o i n a m u s i c a l v e r s i o n o f The Taming of the Shrew. I t i s opening n i g h t i n B a l t i m o r e , and i n the o p e n i n g scenes of the b a c k s t a g e r e h e a r s a l we are q u i c k l y i n t r o d u c e d to the v o l a t i l e q u a l i t y o f the r e l a t i o n s h i p o f t h e two l e a d i n g c h a r a c t e r s . A l t h o u g h d i v o r c e d , Fred and L i l l i , w h i l s t p r e t e n d i n g i n d i f f e r e n c e , r e v e a l t h a t they are s t i l l i n t e r e s t e d i n each o t h e r . F r e d arouses L i l l i ' s j e a l o u s y by f l i r t i n g w i t h L o i s Lane ( B i a n c a ) , and L i l l i r e t a l i a t e s by f l a u n t i n g h e r w e a l t h , j e w e l s and h e r i n f l u e n t i a l f i a n c e , H a r r i s o n , b e f o r e an a r o u s e d F r e d i n a p e t t y d i s p l a y o f d r e s s i n g room one-up-manship. The s p a r r i n g c o n t e s t eases, o f f as they r e c a l l t h e i r e a r l i e r m a r r i e d l i f e when s a l a r i e s were low and p a r t s i n the chorus p r o v i d e d b r e a d and b u t t e r . T h e i r n o s t a l g i a i s c a p t u r e d i n the r o m a n t i c mood and l y r i c s o f "Wunder-b a r , " as " s e c r e t c h a l e t s , " " m o o n l i g h t " and an e x h i l a r a t i n g Swiss s e t t i n g d e f i n e the f a n t a s y r e a l m of the r o m a n t i c . I t i s 134 this romantic n o s t a l g i a which provides the point of departure f o r the 'taming 1 which w i l l follow. L i l l i ' s n o s t a l g i a re-kindles her feeli n g s for Fred and the a r r i v a l of a bouquet of flowers releases a floo d of emotion as L i l l i acknowledges her love f o r Fred. She defines her feelings i n the song "So i n Love," r e v e l l i n g i n the mystique of romance, her own joys and her a b i l i t y to sustain a l l hurts and b e t r a y a l : In love with the night mysterious The night when you f i r s t were there In love with my joy d e l i r i o u s When I knew that you could care. So taunt me and hurt me, Deceive me, desert me, I'm yours t i l l I die, So i n love, So i n love, 23 So i n love, with you, my love, amd I. (I, i i i , p. 39) I r o n i c a l l y , the bouquet which triggered t h i s outburst was Fred's opening night g i f t for Lois Lane, but when he sees L i l l i ' s delight with the flowers, he l i e s , i n d i c a t i n g to L i l l i that he sent the flowers because he s t i l l cares. The card delivered with the bouquet i s s l i p p e d , unread, into L i l l i ' s dress as she hurries away for the opening of The Shrew. Fred's deception, when revealed l a t e r , provokes an outburst of fury. At t h i s point i n the musical, L i l l i ' s c h a r a c t e r i s a t i o n i s very ambivalent. She has displayed her arrogance, pride and t h e a t r i c a l i t y . She has shown her dexterity i n her a b i l i t y to tr e a t i n s u l t with i n s u l t and trade hurt f o r hurt. Beneath this facade we have glimpses of sentimentality and the urge f o r romance. As L i l l i begins her i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the Katherine-role, her true 135 p e r s o n a l i t y b e g i n s to emerge. L i k e Shakespeare's K a t e , L i l l i i s i n a s t a t e of f l u x as the p l a y b e g i n s . The Shrew p l a y w i t h i n a p l a y b e g i n s w i t h B a p t i s t a and the s u i t o r s . K a t h e r i n e i s i n t r o d u c e d as a shrew i n a s e r i e s o f v i o l e n t a c t i o n s . With b a r e l y a word, K a t h e r i n e responds to the s u i t o r s ' i n s u l t s by h u r l i n g a v a r i e t y of o b j e c t s at h e r t o r m e n t o r s . Three geranium p o t s , a s t o o l and a w a t e r i n g can, thrown from the b a l c o n y , announce h e r anger and mood. T h i s s e t s t h e p a t t e r n f o r the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f the K a t h e r i n e - r o l e . She i s viewed as a n o n - v e r b a l shrew. Her weapons w i l l be anger, s u l k i n g , p h y s i c a l v i o l e n c e , l a c k of c o - o p e r a t i o n and d e f i a n c e . The P e t r u c h i o i n t h i s m i n i a t u r e v e r s i o n o f The Shrew i s p o r t r a y e d as s t r o n g l y mercenary. The p l a y l e t f o l l o w s Shake-sp e a r e ' s scheme as P e t r u c h i o s i n g s , " I ' v e Come t o Wive I t W e a l t h i l y i n Padua." He q u i c k l y d e c i d e s to woo K a t h e r i n e , b u t w i t h the match a r r a n g e d , he shows a r o m a n t i c bent. Unable to c a t c h a g l i m p s e o f K a t h e r i n e on the b a l c o n y , he v o i c e s h i s l o n g i n g s f o r romance. He s i n g s , "Were T h i n e That S p e c i a l Face," a song i n which he wonders i f Kate c o u l d f u l f i l l h i s y e a r n i n g s and f a n t a s i e s . K a t h e r i n e , however, has no r o m a n t i c f e e l i n g s towards men. In the song, " I Hate Men," she i n d i c a t e s h e r d i s l i k e and d i s t r u s t o f the p r e d a t o r male. Her c a t a l o g u e o f them i n c l u d e s the a r r o g a n t 24 male a t h l e t e , d i s l i k e d f o r h i s manner b o l d and b r a s s y , " the t r a v e l l i n g salesman h a t e d f o r h i s p o t e n t i a l f o r s e x u a l 136 e x p l o i t a t i o n — ' " T i s he who'll have the fun and thee the baby," she warns—the businessman with h i s opportunity for betr a y a l i s another target of her scorn, as are old men who are sexually f a i t h f u l but r e p u l s i v e l y rheumatic. This catalogue reveals her deep-seated fear of betrayal and the c y n i c a l outlook of the d i s i l l u s i o n e d romantic. With t h i s mental attitude to over-come, Petruchio has a d i f f i c u l t task ahead of him. Thus the scene i s set. L i l l i and Fred are attracted to each other but cannot overcome t h e i r i n a b i l i t y to communicate. Thus the Kate and Petruchio r o l e s , conceived as secret romantics with a hard covering of mercenary intent and vowed d i s l i k e , are ready vehicles for them to explore t h e i r love-hate s i t u a t i o n . L i l l i reads the card and learns of Fred's deception. Her sense of wrong, her anger and f r u s t r a t i o n are released through Kate as the wooing scene commences and the p a r a l l e l action of the frame story and the play within a play i s launched. L i l l i , as Kate, enterss. the wooing scene, out of control. She enters the play ahead of cue. She throws the symbolic bouquet at Fred (Petruchio), ad-libs her l i n e s and tears up the offending card c a l l i n g him a bastard. The s t a r t l e d Fred t r i e s to regain control of the s i t u a t i o n and this unprofessional display of anger. He reminds L i l l i , "We're on stage now, L i l l i , " ( I , v, p. 44) but his warning cannot cool her tantrums. The scene proceeds i n the Shakespeare pattern, but L i l l i i nterrupts the flow of the scene with a series of unscripted and v i o l e n t 137 p h y s i c a l assaults on Fred. She h i t s Fred (Petruchio) i n the stomach, slaps h i s knee and bi t e s h i s hand. As the slapping continues Fred ad-libs Petruchio's l i n e s to d e l i v e r a warning, then, i n an aside, he delivers the ultimatum, "You keep on acting j u s t the way you've been doing Miss Vanessi, and I ' l l give you the paddling of your l i f e and rig h t on stage." (I, v, p. 44) This merging of s t o r i e s and c h a r a c t e r i s a t i o n provides a r i c h harvest of dramatic i r o n i e s as the scene moves to i t s expected climax. There i s l i t t l e sympathy for this petulant, c h i l d i s h shrew as she receives the paternal d i s c i p l i n e at the end of t h i s scene: Petruchio: Father and wife and gentleman, adieu: (swings her away from him; enter crowd) I w i l l unto Venice. (she kicks him) —I'm warning y o u ! — t o buy apparel against the wedding day. Sunday comes apace And we w i l l have rings and things and f i n e array and Kiss Me Kate. (she slaps him) A l l r i g h t Miss Vanessi—you asked f o r this and you're going to get i t . (Ee takes her across his knee. Be begins paddling her. ) Katherine: Oh! (Ee paddles her harder) Fred, what are you doing? Oh! — Oh! — Oh! — (She screams. Ee paddles her harder. Screams from crowd.) (Blackout) ( I , v, p. 44) The action of the play now moves back stage. L i l l i ' s jealousy and anger, f i r e d by the i n d i g n i t y of her unrehearsed paddling, release the f u l l range of her s e l f i s h n e s s and petulance. Having disrupted the previous scene, she now threatens to ru i n the whole show by refusing to p a r t i c i p a t e . L i l l i : i s 138 j e a l o u s and i t shows i n a tremendous r e l e a s e o f b l i n d , s e l f -c e n t e r e d anger. Her e m o t i o n a l tantrums are beyond the r e a c h o f r a t i o n a l argument. T h i s shrew has no sense o f c o n t r o l , m o r a l o b l i g a t i o n o r p r o f e s s i o n a l i s m . C e r t a i n l y she has no sense of humour. T h e r e f o r e , l i k e the u n w i l l i n g Kate who must s u f f e r P e t r u c h i o ' s d i s p l a y s , L i l l i t o o , i s f o r c e d to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the p l a y under du r e s s . Two g a n g s t e r s w i t h a f i n a n c i a l i n t e r e s t i n the p l a y ' s s u c c e s s , prompted by F r e d , p r e s s u r e L i l l i i n t o resuming h e r r o l e as Kate. Thus L i l l i and Kate must endure P e t r u c h i o ' s performance i n the next segment o f The Shrew p l a y ; a g a i n the p a r a l l e l a c t i o n and c h a r a c t e r i s a t i o n c r e a t e s a r i c h , i r o n i c s i t u a t i o n f u l l o f e n t e r t a i n i n g double e n t e n d r e . The scenes i n P e t r u c h i o ' s house, condensed f o r e f f e c t , a r e p l a y e d out i n b u r l e s q u e ; the g a n g s t e r s a c t i n g the p a r t o f the s e r v a n t s to ensure L i l l i ' s c o o p e r a t i o n . P e t r u c h i o c r a c k i n g h i s whip and K a t h e r i n e t r y i n g to s t u f f sausages down h e r b o d i c e a r e r e m i n i s c e n t of the G a r r i c k s t y l e o f p l a y i n g t h e s e scenes f o r f u l l , f a r c i c a l e f f e c t . The f o o d - t h r o w i n g scene i s q u i c k l y f o l l o w e d by the h a b e r d a s h e r scene as th e p l a y h u r t l e s towards some form o f e n t e n t e o r b r e a k i n the dead-lock. I t i s P e t r u c h i o who i n i t i a t e s the b e g i n n i n g of compromise.- K a t h e r i n e i s b l i n d e d by j e a l o u s y and needs the r e a s s u r a n c e of a f a i t h f u l husband. With Kate l o c k e d i n the bedroom r e f u s i n g him a d m i s s i o n , P e t r u c h i o s i n g s g a i l y o f the l i f e he used to l e a d , "Where Is the L i f e That L a t e I had." He r e c a l l s the f u n he had w i t h Momo, C a r o l i n a , Rebecca^ F e d o r a , L i s a and many more. Then, w i t h a flamboyant 139 gesture he abandons i t a l l and turns to Kate. She opens the door! Where i s the l i f e that l a t e I led? Where i s i t now, t o t a l l y dead. Where i s the fun I used to find? Where has i t gone? Gone with the wind. I've, oftabeen t o l d of n u p t i a l b l i s s But what do you do, A quarter to two, With only a shrew to kiss? So I repeat what f i r s t I s a i d , Where i s the l i f e that l a t e I led? (At the end of the song PETRUCHIO bows and backs into door. It opens. He winks, throws black address book away, and exits through door.) ( I I , i i i , p. 50) This scene ends with a compromise. Petruchio's willingness to embrace monogamy i s matched by Katherine's gesture i n opening the door, i n d i c a t i n g her willingness to accept Petruchio and r i s k the betrayal and deceptions her e a r l i e r song had shown to be the source of her antipathy towards men. This scene matches the c l i m a c t i c sun-moon scene followed by the st r e e t kiss which indicated the p r i v a t e union of Shakespeare's lovers. Within the play sequence, Fred and L i l l i have a r r i v e d at a moment of truth. Now i n the backstage scenes, they must reach the same l e v e l of acceptance i f there i s to be a s a t i s f a c t o r y conclusion. Behind the scenes, Fred decides to show L i l l i the r e a l i t y of her planned marriage with the e l d e r l y p o l i t i c i a n , Harrison. In an amusing scene he plays a clever game of exposure, leading Harrison to describe the kind of married l i f e L i l l i can expect. 140 Prompted by Fred, he paints a l i f e of r u r a l stagnation. L i l l i i s h o r r i f i e d as the dismal sequence of a l i f e of meals, naps, quiet f o r m a l i t i e s , more naps,, more meals and yet more naps i s l a i d before her. Faced with r e a l i t y and a snoring, napping Harrison, L i l l i t e l l s Fred to "get out." She has arr i v e d at the moment of truth. Struggling to come to terms with h e r s e l f , L i l l i leaves to take a t a x i , as the curtains open f o r the f i n a l act of Shakespeare's play. The unanswered question i s solved within The Shrew play. As Baptista asks, "Where i s Kate?" L i l l i enters the stage much to the r e l i e f and delight of Fred. She p a r t i c i p a t e s f u l l y and charmingly i n the f i n a l e , singing " I Am Ashamed thati Women Are So Simple." When Petruchio c a l l s , "Come and k i s s me, Kate," Fred and L i l l i ' s problems are solved. The stage d i r e c t i o n indicates they k i s s as Fred and L i l l i . The f u l l company sing and dance the f i n a l chorus i n a blaze of harmony and revelry. What kind of a shrew i s L i l l i and what i s the taming process she undergoes? In t h i s Spewack version of shrew taming, the shrew i s a s p o i l e d actress who has never grown up. L i l l i i s demanding, self-centered, c h i l d i s h petulant, vain and mercenary. As such, she i s not capable of entering into a s a t i s f a c t o r y marriage with Fred. The views we have of Fred and L i l l i ' s former l i f e and aspirationss reveal the difference i n t h e i r a ttitudes. Fred has remained with the ' c l a s s i c ' theatre, L i l l i has gone to pulp movies which o f f e r glamour and handsome 141 renumeration. Fred has high professional standards, whereas L i l l i has embraced the Hollywood cocktail circuit and acquired a "swimming-pool" mentality. The differences emerge in one of their arguments: Fred: A l l right, thirty two. What the h e l l has my age to do with this? They were f u l l , rich years and I'm proud of them. Every minute of them. Show me an actor who's done a l l I've done—My Peer Gynt in London— L i l l i : You never got to London. Fred: My Hamlet in Dublin. L i l l i : You got paid in potatoes. Mashed! Fred: That's a l l you ever think of—money —money—money. Miss Vanessi, you have no soul! And what the h e l l do you mean by poking me in the ribs? L i l l i : It's in the script. Fred: The h e l l i t i s ! I couldn't teach you manners as a wife, but by God I ' l l teach you manners as an actress. (I, v i i , p. 45) The 'soul' which Fred claims L i l l i lacks, is the ability to feel for the theatre; to appreciate a theatrical ideal and code of values. This is the key to Fred's shrew-taming. L i l l i must learn to appreciate 'true' theatre values not the f r i l l s . Only when she has this sense of commitment to an ideal can she and Fred have the basis for a working partnership. The taming process in the play parallels Shakespeare's model. Petruchio's 'taming' helps Katherine become socially conscious and socially effective. Within the theatrical idiom of Kiss> M&- Kate'-, Fred helps L i l l i come to terms with herself and the theatre world. The selfish, unprofessional behaviour 142 she demonstrates i n the e a r l y p a r t o f the p l a y i s shed when she v o l u n t a r i l y a c c e p t s h e r p r o f e s s i o n a l commitment and r e t u r n s to f i n i s h the p l a y . L i l l i has l e a r n e d t o view the w o r l d through Fred's eyes and a c c e p t h i s sense o f p r o f e s s i o n a l i s m . T h i s i s h e r development w i t h i n the scheme o f the m u s i c a l . F r e d , who i n i t i a t e d the a c t i o n by i n v i t i n g L i l l i to p e r f o r m i n the ' l i v e ' t h e a t r e , has succeeded i n r e c l a i m i n g her. The c y c l i c movement of the a c t i o n i s emphasised i n the opening and c l o s i n g r i t u a l s o f the m u s i c a l . F r e d and L i l l i a re r e h e a r s i n g t h e i r c u r t a i n c a l l s when the L o i s Lane i n c i d e n t s e t s i n motion the j e a l o u s y , a t t r a c t i o n and c o n f l i c t which p r e v e n t harmony. In the f i n a l scene, the i n t e r r u p t e d c u r t a i n c a l l i s completed i n harmony t o p u b l i c a p p l a u s e . T h i s p u b l i c a c c l a i m i s the s o c i a l endorsement o f t h e i r r e s t o r e d u n i o n and a token o f t h e i r p r o f e s s i o n a l s u c c e s s . The taming i s complete. The scenes from Shakespeare's comedy, r e - c r e a t e d i n terms of the Broadway m u s i c a l , p r o v i d e some i n t e r e s t i n g c o n t r a s t s when t r a n s l a t e d i n t o the modern i d i o m . Shakespeare takes the P e t r u c h i o - K a t h e r i n e approach to m a r r i a g e as an example of r e a l i s m to be j u x t a p o s e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y w i t h the r o m a n t i c t r a d i t i o n o f the L u c e n t i o - B i a n c a s u b p l o t . The Spewack's r e v e r s e the scheme i n t h e i r m u s i c a l . I t i s the Kate and P e t r u c h i o s t o r y which i s founded and n u r s e d on r o m a n t i c i s m , i d e a l i s m , p r o f e s s i o n -a l i s m and o t h e r a b s t r a c t i o n s . L i l l i and F r e d b o t h n o u r i s h 143 t h e i r smouldering love on the inta n g i b l e q u a l i t i e s of romance. Although Fred i s a p r a c t i c a l d i r e c t o r , he i s impractical i n the ways of the world. He i s happy to act i n a c l a s s i c play and lose money because i t i s i d e a l i s t i c , worthy and conforms to h i s idealism and romantic notions. His idealism and commit-ment triumph over L i l l i ' s mercenary values as love conquers a l l . The realism or p r a c t i c a l approach to l i f e i s found i n the sub-plot.. I t i s Lois Lane, the show g i r l who plays Bianca, who has a p r a c t i c a l approach to l i v i n g . She can chide her lover B i l l (Lucentio) and express a desire to escape to the quiet of suburban or country l i v i n g , but i n deeds, she shows a p r a c t i c a l , r a t i o n a l l approach to l i f e . She i s a survivor. She i s open, good-natured and easy-going; prepared to take whatever l i f e o f f e r s and make the best of i t . Her song, "Always True To You, Darling i n My Fashion," sums up her casual atti t u d e . She catalogues a l i s t . o f her a f f a i r s i n which she i s always w i l l i n g to trade favours for any advantages to be obtained such as a " C a d i l l a c " , "a Paris hat," "diamond c l i p " or a "stay at the R i t z . " Despite these spontaneous adventures, she assures B i l l good-humouredly, "I'm always true to you, d a r l i n g , i n my way." ( I I , i v , p. 52) This candour and easy-going nature i s transferred to Bianca. Whilst Kate i s fuming and rumbling about her fear and d i s l i k e of men, f l i r t a t i o u s and casual Bianca i s t e l l i n g her s u i t o r s : 144 I'm a maid who w i l l marry And w i l l take double quick Any Tom, Dick or Harry And Harry, Tom or Dick. (I, v, p. 41) Lois' lover i n the framing story and Lucentio i n the play within a play, i s B i l l Calhoun, a p r o f e s s i o n a l gambler with an i r r e s p o n s i b l e way of w r i t i n g I.O.U's f o r ten thousand d o l l a r s — i n other people's names. I t i s h i s gambling adventures which bring the gangsters into the play and only a deus ex machina manipulation solves h i s dilemma as an underworld assassination cancels h i s debts. Lois loves B i l l for what he i s . She i s a l l accepting, hoping f o r , but not expecting, reform. B i l l i s equally tolerant of L o i s ' casual a f f a i r s , and t h e i r union ends happily and r e a l i s t i c a l l y . Neither holds any expectations. Both take l i f e as i t happens. The high-flown r h e t o r i c of Shakespeare's Lucentio i s reduced to the threshold of l i t e r a c y as B i l l sings a patter-song t r i b u t e to Lois (Bianca). The earth-bound l i m i t a t i o n s of t h i s New York lover are captured humourously i n h i s d i t t y : Bianca, Bianca, Oh, baby, w i l l you be mine? Bianca, Bianca, You better answer yes Or poppa spanka. To win you, Bianca There's nothing I would not do. I would gladly give up Coffee f o r Sanka Even Sanka, Bianca, For you. ( I I , v i , p. 54) This frankness, freshness and s i m p l i c i t y which characterises the sub-plot lovers and t h e i r approach to l i f e creates some 145 i n t e r e s t i n g d r a m a t i c e f f e c t s . Shakespeare's B i a n c a and L u c e n t i o end the p l a y w i t h t h e i r problems j u s t b e g i n n i n g . T h e i r c o u r t l y r i t u a l approach to m a r r i a g e and the l a c k o f knowledge o f each o t h e r guarantee at l e a s t an i n t e r e s t i n g p e r i o d o f adjustment ahead. P e t r u c h i o and K a t h e r i n e , h a v i n g come to terms w i t h each o t h e r , end the p l a y i n harmony. In the Spewacksi' scheme, we have a d i f f e r e n t c o n c l u s i o n . B i l l and L o i s end the p l a y i n a t o l e r a n t and a c c e p t i n g u n i o n . T h e i r adjustment and s p o n t a n e i t y are c o n t r a s t e d w i t h the rocky adjustment o f L i l l i and F r e d . As a f o i l t o L i l l i , L o i s p o i n t s up the narrowness, s e l f i s h n e s s and p e t t i n e s s of the shrew. Her e l a s t i c m o r a l i t y seems t o count f o r naught when measured a g a i n s t . L i l l i ' s man-i p u l a t i o n o f H a r r i s o n , h e r w i l f u l n e s s and h e r l a c k o f s p a r k l e and humour. The romance which r e u n i t e s F r e d and L i l l i seems to o f f e r l e s s a s s u r a n c e o f a h a p p y - e v e r - a f t e r e n d i n g than the t o l e r a n c e and openess o f L o i s and B i l l . Amidst the f u n , music and s p e c t a c l e o f Kiss Me Kate, we have a new e x p r e s s i o n o f the shrew s t e r e o - t y p e . The modern shrew i s seen as an a d o l e s c e n t , s e l f - i n d u l g e n t , demanding l i t t l e g i r l . F r e d , the tamer, must p l a y the f a t h e r f i g u r e to t h i s c h i l d l i k e b r i d e , p a d d l i n g h e r where n e c e s s a r y t o curb h e r g i r l i s h temper. L i l l i i s s t u b b o r n , d e f i a n t and w i l f u l , but she l a c k s the w i t , i n t e l l i g e n c e and independent s p i r i t o f Shakespeare's Kate. When t h i s shrew i s thwarted she runs to a f a t h e r f i g u r e f o r h e l p ; someone who w i l l s o l v e h e r problems and a c c e p t h e r 146 a d o l e s c e n t b e h a v i o u r w i t h o u t q u e s t i o n . H a r r i s o n i s L i l l i ' s prop as the p l a y opens. F r e d merely usurps h i s p o s i t i o n to become the a u t h o r i t y and mentor i n L i l l i ' s l i f e . For the sake of F r e d , we hope t h a t L i l l i ' s r e t u r n to the p l a y i s the f i r s t s t e p towards m a t u r i t y , f o r i n t h i s shrew-taming, the audience's sympathies l i e most d e c i d e d l y w i t h the tamer. D e s p i t e the f u n and f r o l i c o f t h i s l i g h t - h e a r t e d t a l e , F r e d appears to have won a v e r y h o l l o w v i c t o r y i n d e e d i n t h i s modern v e r s i o n of The Taming of the Shrew. 1 4 7 CONCLUSION "The genius of Shakespeare may be said to go i n and out with the person of Katherina," wrote the eighteenth century c r i t i c , Dowden,''' commenting on the o r i g i n a l i t y of Shakespeare's dramatic invention. Katherine i s not borrowed from an e a r l i e r play, but.springs from the mind of Shakespeare as an o r i g i n a l creation. Although she has many of the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of her f o l k - l o r e background, i n her humanity, i n t e l l i g e n c e , and humour she stands apart from the stereotype. Shakespeare, through a balance of p l o t and language and hints of ambivalence, creates a unique shrew heroine with f e e l i n g s , mind and wit. Wisely, he matches her with a verbose, witty and energetic partner who prefers words to blows, wit to whip. The r e s u l t i s a bright and l i v e l y shrew heroine engaged i n mental combat with a b r i s t l i n g , l i v e l y hero. This i s a cheerful and b u s t l i n g farce with a p o s i t i v e flow which sitdmuJL'ates. ahdmentertaiins. entertains,-In attempting to modify Shakespeare to s u i t s h i f t i n g audience tastes, the unique q u a l i t i e s of Shakespeare's Kate are never f u l l y captured by any of the adaptions f o r the stage or musical theatre. Writers of pure farce such as Lacy and Garrick re-create Kate as f u n c t i o n a l , s i m p l i f i e d f j a r c i c a l stereotype, l o s i n g the sharpness, i n s i g h t and capacity for growth which mark Shakespeare's heroine. Sentimentalists such as Tobin and Widemann lose the wit and humour of the Shakespeare 148 shrew by s e n t i m e n t a l i s i n g t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between shrew and tamer and t o n i n g down the b r i s k , f a r c i c a l q u a l i t i e s . A l t h o u g h m i s s i n g the unique d r a m a t i c b a l a n c e of Shakespeare i n t h e i r •vdiiOiis a d a p t a t i o n s , t h e v a r i o u s w r i t e r s do c r e a t e t h e i r own l i v e l y v e r s i o n s o f the shrew h e r o i n e . Lacy's shrew, though n a s t y and v u l g a r , has energy and d r i v e . T o b i n ' s proud J u l i a n a has n o t o n l y p r i d e but charm. In Widemann we glimpse an a s s e r t i v e f e m i n i s t b e f o r e h e r sudden s u r r e n d e r to the power of l o v e and Spewacks' L i l l i i s l i v e l y , f o r c e f u l , b r i t t l e and mercenary as she c r e a t e s havoc i n Kiss Me Kate. A l l o f the shrew h e r o i n e s share a common c h a r a c t e r i s t i c . I n i t i a l l y ^ t h e y have a s t r o n g w i l l t o g e t h e r w i t h energy, d r i v e and a s t r o n g sense of s e l f , y e t they must submit t o the u l t i m a t e taming p r o c e s s . Here a g a i n they d i v e r g e from the Shakespeare o r i g i n a l . Is Shakespeare's Kate famed? There i s enough e v i d e n c e to s u ggest t h a t Kate's e n t e n t e w i t h P e t r u c h i o i s b a s e d upon growth o f s e l f - a w a r e n e s s , i n t e l l i g e n t a p p r a i s a l and v o l u n t a r y a c c e p t a n c e o f the u n i o n . Kate l e a r n s from h e r e x p e r i e n c e s and agrees t o P e t r u c h i o ' s terms o r games, f r e e l y . T h i s freedom o f c h o i c e a l l o w s h e r t o e s t a b l i s h an e q u a l p a r t n e r s h i p w i t h P e t r u c h i o . T h i s p a t t e r n does not a p p l y to subsequent shrew h e r o i n e s . L a c y ' s shrew i s t h r e a t e n e d and cowed i n t o obeying. G a r r i c k ' s C a t h e r i n e g i v e s up and a c c e p t s h e r f a t e . J u l i a n a ' s p r i d e i s purged and she embraces h u m i l i t y . Widemann's K a t h e r i n e i s r educed t o a whimpering c h i l d . Even the modern L i l l i r e f u s e s 149 r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r h e r own d e s t i n y , c h o o s i n g F r e d as h e r mentor and f a t h e r - f i g u r e . In a l l o f these v e r s i o n s , e i t h e r by b r u t e f o r c e o r c o e r c i o n , the h e r o i n e e x p e r i e n c e s a l o s s , a d i m i n i s h i n g o f p e r s o n a l i t y and s p i r i t , a g r e e i n g to p l a y a s u b s i d i a r y r o l e t o the master s t a n c e assumed by the "tamers." Not so w i t h Shakespeare's Kate. Her s t a t u r e i s enhanced by the end o f the p l a y ; she has i n c r e a s e d h e r p o t e n t i a l f o r h a p p i n e s s , h e r sense o f s e l f i s i n t a c t and she s h a r e s a r e l a t i o n -s h i p w i t h P e t r u c h i o based on e q u a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n and mutual r e s p e c t and enjoyment. K a t h e r i n e i s n o t p u n i s h e d and b r i d l e d , b u t e n r i c h e d and f r e e d . She has l o s t n o t h i n g b u t h e r m i s e r y . T h i s i s the genius o f Shakespeare. The f a r c i c a l r i t u a l o f shrew taming becomes not an a c t i o n o f subduing, a s s e r t i o n o f f o r c e o r punishment, but a f r e e i n g , u p l i f t i n g e x p e r i e n c e as h i s shrew h e r o i n e , u n l i k e h e r e n s l a v e d s i s t e r s , emerges from h e r b a t t l e , u n s c a r r e d , p o i s e d , s t r o n g , s e l f c o n f i d e n t and happy, w i t h h e r s e l f , h e r husband and the w o r l d . FOOTNOTES INTRODUCTION ^Helen McAfee, Pepys on the Restoration Stage (New York: Benjamin Blom Inc., 1952), p. 74. 2 Edwin Wilson, eds, Shaw on Shakespeare (London: C a s s e l l , 1962), p. 178. 3 The Female Eunuch (London: Paladin, 1971), p. 209. 4 "The Basis f o r Shakespearean Comedy" Essays and Studies, 1950, pp. 1-28. ''The Meaning of Shakespeare (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1951), p. 167. ^Shakespeare Without Tears, p. -97. '^.'The Return of the Shrew" Modern Language Quarterly 28, (1966), p. 147-161. CHAPTER ONE ^"Characterisation i n Shakespearean Comedy," Shakespeare Quarterly, 4, (1953), p. 271. 2 R. Warwick Bond, ed., The Taming of the Shrew (London: Methuen and Co., 1904) IV, v, 46. A l l subsequent quotations from the play w i l l be taken from this Arden Shakespeare e d i t i o n and referred to by act, scene and l i n e . 3 Later versions of the play, such as Garrick's Catherine and Petruchio, by omitting the Induction and most of the Bianca ma t e r i a l , allow for greater d i r e c t b r u t a l i t y of e f f e c t . Perhaps i t i s more than coincidental that the stage business i n this version of the play indicates a great increase i n the f a r c i c a l knock about and the whip becomes Petruchio's standard acting accessory and symbol of h i s powers of persuastion. 151 CHAPTER TWO "*"A.R. Waller, ed. , "The Woman's P r i z e " , i n The Works of Francis Beaumont and John Fletcher (Cambridge: University-Press, 1910), p. 7. A l l further references to t h i s play w i l l be quoted from t h i s e d i t i o n of the play and r e f e r r e d to by act, scene and page. 2 A. Thorndike, English Comedy, (New York: Macmillan and Co., 1929), p. 208. 3 T. Lounsbury, Shakespeare as a Dramatic Artist (New York: Charles Scribners, 1901), p. 266. kT.Sh, I, i , 23-24. ~*John Lacy, "Sauny the Scot," i n Dramatists of the Restoration (Edinburgh: William Paterson, 1875), ( I , i , p. 320). A l l sub-sequent references to the text of this play w i l l be quoted from th i s e d i t i o n by act and page. Pepys on the Restoration Stage, p. 74. CHAPTER THREE "*"A. Sprague, Shakespeare and the Actors (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1944), p. 59. 2 I b i d . 3 William Winter, Shakespeare on the Stage (New York: Moffat and Co., 1915), p. 499. 4 I b i d . 5 I b i d . Shakespeare and the Actors, p. 57. ^ The Atheneaum, June 26, 1875, p. 48 8T.Sh, ( I I , i , 214-219) 9 David Garrick, Catherine 'and Petruchio (rpt. London: Cornmarket Press Ltd., 1909), I, p. 10. A l l further quotations from this Garrick play w i l l be taken from t h i s e d i t i o n and re f e r r e d to by act and page. 152 John Tobin, The Honeymoon (London: Longman, Hurst, Rees and Orme, 1805) Prologue. A l l further quotations w i l l be taken from this edition and referred to by act and page. 11 "Pieces First Performed in January and February 1805," rev. of The Honeymoon, Theatrical Recorder 2 1805-1806, pp. 201-202. 12The Times, January 29, 1805. 13 J. Genest, The English Stage 7, p. 646 records that The Honeymoon was acted twenty-eight times. 14 G. CD. Odell, Annals of the New York Stage (New York: Columbia University Press, 1942), V, p. 271. ^G.C.D. Odell, Shakespeare from Betterton to Irving (New York: Charles Scribners Sons, 1920) II, p. 3. ^Nineteenth Century British Theatre p. 168. 1 7March 18, 1844. March 23, 1844. 1 9March 23, 1844. 2 0March 23, 1844. 2 1March 18, 1844. 22 The I l l u s t r a t e d London News, October 30, 1847. 2 3March 23, 1844. 2 4March 23, 1844. 2 5 I b i d . 2 6March 18, 1844. 27May 23, 1844. 28 Illustrated London News, March 23, 1844. 29 November 22, 1856. 30 November 22, 1856. 31 Annals of the New York Stage 13, p. 215. 153 3 2June 2, 1888. 33 Annals of the New York Stage 13, p. 215. 34 This version i s quoted from W. Winter's Shakespeare on the Stage. I t doesn't quite agree with the Garrick text. Winter i s probably quoting the Daly s c r i p t . 3 5 p . 520. 3 6 J u n e 2, 1888. 37 Winter, p. 527. 38 The Times May 30, 1888 39 Ibid. CHAPTER POUR ^Allardyce N i c o l l , A History of Early Eighteenth Century Drama (Cambridge: Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1929), p. 237. 2 James Worsdale, A Cure for a Scold (rpt. London: Corn-market Press, 1969), p. 59. A l l further quotations w i l l be taken from this text and referred to by act and page. 3 William W. Appleton and Kalman A. Burnim, eds., The Prompter. A Theatrical Paper by Aaron Hill and William Popple 1734-1736. (New York: Benjamin Blom, 1966) Entry f o r Tuesday, March 11, 1735. 4 The London Stage 3, p. 463. 5 I b i d . p. 487. Shakespeare from Betterton to Irving I I , p. 145. Odell provides a long l i s t of f i r s t l i n e s i n d i c a t i n g t h e i r sources i n the Sonnets and other Shakespeare plays. 7May 15, 1828. g P h y l l i s H a r t n o l l , ed., Shakespeare in Music (London: Macmillan and Co., 1964), p. 128. 9 Shakespeare on the Stage, p. 502. 154 Translation of Robert Korst f or Urania recording URLP 221, 1952. (I, i , p. 8) A l l quotations w i l l be taken from t h i s l i b r e t t o and referred to by act, scene and page. 1XThe Times, October 26, 1878. 1 2 I b i d . 1 3 I b i d . lliThe Times, January 20, 1880. ^Illustrated London News, October 28, 1878. ^Shakespeare in Music, p. 130. 1 1 New York Times, A p r i l 14, 1958. 1 8 I b i d . 19 V i t t o r i o Giannini, The Taming of the Shrew, Franco-Columbia recording LC 73-752207. 2 0 A p r i l 14, 1958. 21 New York Journal American, December 31, 1948. 22 John Mason Brown, rev. of Ktss Me Kate by Samuel and B e l l a Spewack and Cole Porter, Saturday Review, 32 (Jan. 22, 1949), 34-35. 23 B e l l a and Samuel Spewack, Kiss Me Kate, text i n Theater Arts, (January, 1955) pp. 34-57. A l l further quotations w i l l be taken from this text and referred to by act, scene and page. 24 Z 4 ( I , v, p. 43) 2 5 I b i d . CONCLUSION ^Quoted from W. Winter, Shakespeare on the Stage, p. 497. Selected Bibliography Aaron H i l l and William Popple. The Prompter. A Theatrical Paper (1734-1736), ed. William W. Appleton, Kalman A. Burnim. New York: Benjamin Blom, 1966. Appleton, William W. Beaumont and Flethher. A Critical Study. London: A l l e n and Unwin, 1956. Avery, Emmett L., et a l . The London Stage, 1660-1800. 5 pts. i n 11 v o l s . Carbondale: Southern I l l i n o i s U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1960-68. Bates, A. Ed. The Drama. 19 vo l s . London: H i s t o r i c a l Publishing Company, 1906. Berry, Ralph. Shakespeare's Comedies: Explorations in Form. Princeton: Princeton U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1972. Bradbrooke, M.C. "Dramatic Role as S o c i a l Image: a Study of The Taming of the Shrew". Shakespeare Jahrbuch, XCIV, 1958, pp. 132-150. Brunvand, J.H. "The F o l k t a l e O r i g i n of The Taming of the Shrew". Shakespeare Quarterly, XVII, 1966, pp. 345-360. Bullock, Christopher. The Cobler of Preston. 1723, rpt. London: Cornmarket Press Ltd., 1969. Charlton^, H.B. Shakespearean Comedy. London: Methuen and Co. Ltd., 1966. C o g h i l l , N. "The Basis of Shakespearean Comedy". Essays and Studies, 1950, pp. 1-28. Craig, H. An Interpretation of Shakespeare. Columbia, Mis s o u r i : Lucas Bros. Publishers, 1948. Craig, W.J. ed. The Taming of the Shrew: The Arden Shakespeare. London: Methuen and Co., 1904. Erye, Northrop. "The Argument of Comedy". English Institute Essays, 1948, pp. 57-73. . "Characterization i n Shakespearean Comedy", Shakespe Quarterly, IV, 1953, pp. 271-277. 156 Garrick, David. Dramatic Works. 3 v o l s . 1798; rpt Farnborough, Hants: Gregg International Publishers, 1969. Catherine and Petruchio. A Comedy in Three Acts. As It is Performed At The Theatre Royal In Drury Lane. Altered From Shakespeare's Taming of the Shrew. 1756. rpt. London: Cornmarket Press Ltd., 1969. Genest, J . Some Account of thetEnglish Stage From The Restoration in 1660 to 1850. 10 vols. Bath: H.E. Carrington, 1832. Goetz, Hermann. The Taming of the Shrew (German-English l i b r e t t o ) . Urania Records URLP 221, 1952. Goddard, Harold C. The Meaning of Shakespeare. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1951. Greer, Germaine. The Female Eunuch. London: Paladin, 1971. H a r t n o l l , P h y l l i s , Ed. Shakespeare in Music: Essays by John Stevens, Charles Cudworth, Winter Dean, Roger Fiske. With a Catalogue of Musical Works. London: Macmillan and Co. Ltd., 1964. Heilman, Robert B. "The 'Taming' Untamed, or The Return of the Shrew". Modern Language Quarterly, XXVII (June 1966), pp. 147-161. Houk, R. "The Evolution of the Tdm-ifi§ of the Shrew". Publication of Modern Language Association, LVII, 1942, pp. 1009-1039. "Shakespeare's Heroic Shrew". Shakespeare Association Bulletin, XVIII, 1943, pp. 121-132, 175-186. Jameson, Mrs. Shakespeare's Heroines: Characteristics of Women Moral, Poetical and H i s t o r i c a l . London, 1889; rpt. New York: AMS Press, Inc., 1967. Johnson, Charles. The Cobbler of Preston. 1716. rpt. London: Cornmarket Press, 1969. Lacy, John. 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Chapel H i l l : U n i v e r s i t y of N. C a r o l i n a Press, 1966. Ribner, I. "The Morality of Farce: The Taming of the Shrew". Essays in American and English Literature. Athens, Ohio; Ohio University Press, 1967, pp. 165-176. Richmond, Hugh. Shakespeare's Sexual Comedy: A Mirror for Lovers. New York: Bobbs M e r r i l Co., Inc., 1971. Sanders, Norman. "Themes and Imagery i n The Taming of the Shrew". Renaissance Papers, eds. S.K. Heninger, Peter Phialas, George Williams (Southeastern Renaissance Conference, 1964). Sears, Jayne. "The Dreaming of the Shrew". Shakespeare Quarterly, XVII, 1966, pp. 41-56. Seronsy, CC. "Supposes As the Unifying Theme i n The Shrew". Shakespeare Quarterly, XIV, 1963, pp. 15-30. Spencer, Hazelton. Shakespeare Improved. The Restoration Version in Quarto on the Stage. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1927. Spewack, Samuel and B e l l a . Kiss Me Kate, Theater Arts (January 1955) pp. 34-57. Sprague, Arthur C. 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The Works of Francis Beaumont and John Fletcher. Vol. 8. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1910. Weiss, Theodore. The Breath of Clowns and Kings: Shakespeare's Early Comedies and Histories. New York: Atheneum, 19 71. Wentsdorf, K. "The Authenticity of The Taming of the Shrew". Shakespeare Quarterly, V, 1954, pp. 11-32. Wilson, Edwin, ed. Shaw on Shakespeare: An Anthology of Bernard Shaw's Writings on the Plays and Production of Shakespeare. London: Cassell, 1962. Wilson, John Harold. The Influence of Beaumont and Fletcher on the Restoration Drama. Columbus Ohio: Ohio State University Press, 1928. Winter, William. Shakespeare on the Stage: Second Series. New York: Moffat, and Col, 1915. Worsdale, James. A Cure for a Scold: A Ballad Farce of Two Acts. 1735; rpt. London: Cornmarket Press, 1969. 

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