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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Plant associations within the subalpine mountain hemlock zone as indicators of recreational land use… Eekman, Gordon Clifford Duncan 1976

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C . I PLANT ASSOCIATIONS WITHIN THE SUBALPINE MOUNTAIN HEMLOCK ZONE AS INDICATORS OF RECREATIONAL LAND USE CAPABILITY by GORDON CLIFFORD DUNCAN EEKMAN B . S c , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C olumbia, 1964 B.A., U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1968 M . S c , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1970 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Scho o l o f Community and R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g ) We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o the r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September 1976 © G o r d o n C l i f f o r d D u n c a n E e k m a n , 1 9 7 6 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an advanced degree a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, I a g r e e t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y . I f u r t h e r a g r e e t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u rposes may be g r a n t e d by the Head o f my Department o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l n o t be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Gordon C D . Eekman School o f Community and R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 Wesbrook P l a c e V a ncouver, Canada V6T 1W5 Date September 1976 i i ABSTRACT T h i s t h e s i s i s c o n c e r n e d w i t h p l a n t a s s o c i a t i o n s w i t h i n the S u b a l p i n e Mountain Hemlock Zone as i n d i c a t o r s o f r e c r e a t i o n a l l a n d use c a p a b i l i t y . With t he f i e l d r e c o g n i t i o n o f a p p r o x i m a t e l y twenty p l a n t s ( t r e e s , t a l l s h r u b s , low s h r u b s , and ground p l a n t s ) a l l the p l a n t a s s o c i a t i o n s w i t h i n t h i s zone can be i d e n t i f i e d . Knowing the b i o g e o c l i m a t i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the p l a n t a s s o c i a t i o n s and the l i m i t a t i o n s o f l a n d f o r r e c r e a t i o n , l a n d use d e c i s i o n s c o n c e r n i n g summer r e c r e a t i o n can be made. The o b j e c t i v e s a r e to d e v e l o p c r i t e r i a f o r r a t i n g the l i m i -t a t i o n o f l a n d f o r s e l e c t e d r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s ; to summarize i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t t h e p l a n t a s s o c i a t i o n s and b i o g e o c l i m a t i c c o n d i t i o n s f o u n d w i t h i n t h e S u b a l p i n e Mountain Hemlock Zone o f s o u t h w e s t e r n B r i t i s h Columbia f o r p l a n n i n g p u r p o s e s ; t o a s s i g n c a p a b i l i t y r a t i n g s t o l a n d based on the b i o g e o c l i m a t i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the p l a n t a s s o c i a t i o n s and on the c r i t e r i a f o r r a t i n g t h e l i m i t a t i o n o f l a n d f o r r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s ; and t o i l l u s t r a t e how the c a p a b i l i t y r a t i n g s o f p l a n t a s s o c i a t i o n s f o r r e c r e a t i o n can be used i n r e c r e a t i o n p l a n n i n g . T h i s s t u d y i s a r e s p o n s e t o the need f o r a s i m p l e , r a p i d , a c c u r a t e , i n e x p e n s i v e , s i t e s p e c i f i c a p p r o a c h t o l a n d use p l a n n i n g based on r e a d i l y r e c o g n i z a b l e i n d i c a t o r s . By i d e n t i f y i n g and mapping p l a n t a s s o c i a t i o n s , a r e c r e a t i o n a l l a n d use c a p a b i l i t y d i s t r i b u t i o n i i i i s made a p p a r e n t . With such d e t a i l e d s i t e s p e c i f i c i t y , p l a n n e r s and n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e managers can make r a t i o n a l d e c i s i o n s about l a n d use based on the b i o g e o c l i m a t i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f p l a n t a s s o c i a t i o n s and on the l i m i t a t i o n s o f l a n d f o r r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s . I t i s sug g e s t e d t h a t the l a n d use p l a n n i n g a p p r o a c h p r e s e n t e d i n t h i s t h e s i s can be e x t e n d e d n o t o n l y t o o t h e r b i o g e o c l i m a t i c zones b e s i d e s the S u b a l p i n e Mountain Hemlock Zone but a l s o t o o t h e r a c t i v i t i e s b e s i d e s r e c r e a t i o n . i v TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER PAGE ONE INTRODUCTION 1 TWO CRITERIA FOR RATING THE LIMITATION OF LAND FOR RECREATION 5 L i m i t a t i o n C l a s s e s . 5 C o n t r i b u t i n g F a c t o r s 6 S e l e c t e d R e c r e a t i o n a l A c t i v i t i e s 13 THREE CHARACTERISTICS OF THE SUBALPINE MOUNTAIN HEMLOCK ZONE 17 The S u b a l p i n e Mountain Hemlock Zone 17 P l a n t A s s o c i a t i o n s w i t h i n t he P a r k l a n d Subzone 2i P l a n t A s s o c i a t i o n s w i t h i n t he F o r e s t Subzone 27 FOUR CAPABILITY RATINGS OF PLANT ASSOCIATIONS FOR RECREATION 32 FIVE CASE STUDY 40 F a c t o r s i n P l a n n i n g 40 Case Study: Paul R i d g e , G a r i b a l d i Park . 42 A Z o n i n g Concept . 44 A Summary 46 SIX CONCLUSIONS 57 BIBLIOGRAPHY 61 APPENDIX - THE PLANT ASSOCIATIONS OF THE SUBALPINE MOUNTAIN HEMLOCK ZONE 64 V LIST OF TABLES TABLE PAGE I. C r i t e r i a f o r Campground and Day Use L i m i t a t i o n 15 I I . C r i t e r i a f o r P a t h s and T r a i l s L i m i t a t i o n 16 I I I . C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the S u b a l p i n e M o u n t a i n Hemlock Zone 20 IV. P l a n t A s s o c i a t i o n s o f the P a r k l a n d Subzone 22 V. Summary o f the C h a r a c t e r i s t i c S p e c i e s o f the P a r k l a n d P l a n t A s s o c i a t i o n s 23 V I . P l a n t A s s o c i a t i o n s o f the F o r e s t Subzone 28 V I I . Summary o f the C h a r a c t e r i s t i c S p e c i e s o f the F o r e s t P l a n t A s s o c i a t i o n s 29 V I I I . C a p a b i l i t y R a t i n g s o f P l a n t A s s o c i a t i o n s f o r R e c r e a t i o n 39 IX. The Vaaoinio - Tsugetum mertensianae . 6b X. The Leptarrheno - Calthetum mevtensianae 67 XI. The Fhyllodooo - Cassiopeium mertensianae 69 X I I . The Nano - Tsugetum mertensianae 71 X I I I . The Vaooinietum d e l i o i o s i 73 XIV. The Saxifragetum tolmiei 75 XV. The Caricetum n i g r i c a n t i s 78 XVI. The Cladothamno - Tsugetum mertensianae BO X V I I . The Abieto - Tsugetum mertensianae 82 X V I I I . The Streptopo - Abietetum amabilis 84 XIX. The Oplopanaoo - Thujetum p l i c a t a e . . . . . 86 XX. The L y s i c h i t o - Chamaeoyparetum nootkatensis 88 XXI. The Eriophoro - Sphagnetum 90 v i TABLE PAGE X X I I . C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ( A v e r a g e s ) f o r t h e P l a n t A s s o c i a t i o n s o f t h e S u b a l p i n e M o u n t a i n Hemlock Zone 92 v i i L I ST OF FIGURES FIGURE PAGE 1. A R e p r e s e n t a t i v e Sequence and the R e l a t i o n s h i p s o f P a r k l a n d P l a n t A s s o c i a t i o n s 25 2. A R e p r e s e n t a t i v e R i d g e w i t h i n t he P a r k l a n d Subzone 26 3. A R e p r e s e n t a t i v e Sequence and t h e R e l a t i o n s h i p s o f F o r e s t P l a n t A s s o c i a t i o n s 31 v i i i L IST OF MAPS MAP PAGE 1. R e g i o n a l P e r s p e c t i v e 49 2. Study A r e a s 50 2A. S t u d y A r e a and Park Zones 52 3. P l a n t A s s o c i a t i o n s - A r e a 1 54 4. P l a n t A s s o c i a t i o n s - A r e a 2 56 i x ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The a u t h o r w i s h e s t o e x p r e s s h i s a p p r e c i a t i o n to Mr. I r v i n g Fox, D i r e c t o r o f t h e Westwater R e s e a r c h C e n t r e , f o r h i s a s s i s t a n c e i n t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s . H i s w i l l i n g n e s s t o communicate i d e a s and c o n s t r u c t i v e c r i t i c i s m i s e s p e c i a l l y a p p r e c i a t e d . The a u t h o r i s a l s o i n d e b t e d t o Mr. Mel T u r n e r , Parks B r a n c h , Department o f R e c r e a t i o n and C o n s e r v a t i o n , V i c t o r i a , B.C., f o r d i s c u s s i o n s about p l a n t a s s o c i a t i o n s and p a r k s p l a n n i n g . Mrs. Maryse E l l i s c o n t r i b u t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y my making s u g g e s t i o n s on f o r m a t and by t y p i n g t h e t h e s i s . 1 CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION D u r i n g the l a s t two decades a number o f c o n c e p t s f o r c l a s s i f y i n g and e v a l u a t i n g l a n d have emerged. H i l l s (1961, 1966) and H i l l s e t a l . (1970) grouped p a t t e r n s o f l a n d and w a t e r i n t o c o n v e n i e n t u n i t s f o r r e g i o n a l r e s o u r c e management and m u l t i p l e l a n d use p l a n n i n g f o r f o r e s t r y , a g r i c u l t u r e , w i l d l i f e and r e c r e a t i o n . T h i s a p p r o a c h c l a s s i f i e d and e v a l u a t e d l a n d a c c o r d i n g t o i t s c a p a b i l i t y to s u s t a i n r e s o u r c e u s e s . In c o m p i l i n g the g u i d e l i n e s f o r b i o - p h y s i c a l l a n d c l a s s i f i c a t i o n L a c a t e (1969) s t a t e d t h a t the aim o f the p r o j e c t was t o d i f f e r e n t i a t e and c l a s s i f y e c o l o g i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t segments o f t h e l a n d s u r f a c e r a p i d l y and a t a s m a l l s c a l e . The i n v e n t o r y o f f o r e s t l a n d and a s s o c i a -ted w i l d l a n d r e s o u r c e s was t o s e r v e as an e c o l o g i c a l b a s i s f o r l a n d use p l a n n i n g i n v o l v i n g management o f l a n d s f o r f o r e s t r y , a g r i c u l t u r e , r e c r e a t i o n , w i l d l i f e , and water y i e l d s . Emphasis was p l a c e d on the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n and mapping o f p a t t e r n s o f s o i l , l a n d f o r m , v e g e t a t i o n and w a t e r . In 1969 the Canada Land I n v e n t o r y p u b l i s h e d t he Land C a p a b i l i t y C l a s s i f i c a t i o n f o r Outdoor R e c r e a t i o n . The b a s i s o f c l a s s i f i c a t i o n was the q u a n t i t y o f r e c r e a t i o n g e n e r a t e d and s u s t a i n e d p er u n i t a r e a o f l a n d p er y e a r , Canada Department o f R e g i o n a l Economic E x p a n s i o n ( 1 9 6 9 ) . A c c o r d i n g t o Cressman and Hoffman (1968) two c h a r a c t e r -i s t i c s o f the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n system a f f e c t e d i t s a p p l i c a b i l i t y . 2 F i r s t , l a n d was n o t c l a s s i f i e d f o r i t s c a p a b i l i t y to s u p p o r t each t y p e o f r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t y , r a t h e r f o r i t s c a p a b i l i t y t o s u p p o r t r e c r e a t i o n i n g e n e r a l . Second, because o f i t s l e v e l o f g e n e r a l i z a t i o n t h i s c a p a b i l i t y c l a s s i f i c a t i o n was n o t i n t e n d e d t o be the b a s i s f o r d e t a i l e d r e c r e a t i o n a l s i t e p l a n n i n g . U s i n g an e d a p h i c a p p r o a c h S t e v e n s (1966) and Montgomery and E d m i n s t e r (1966) d e m o n s t r a t e d the a p p l i c a b i l i t y o f u s i n g s o i l c h a r a c t e r -i s t i c s t o p l a n r e c r e a t i o n a l l a n d u s e . McHarg (1969) and W a l l a c e e t a l . (1971) used a m u l t i - f a c t o r e d a p p r o a c h t h a t i n c l u d e d c l i m a t e , g e o l o g y , p h y s i o g r a p h y , h y d r o l o g y , s o i l s , v e g e t a t i o n , w i l d l i f e , and p r e s e n t l a n d use t o d e v e l o p e n v i r o n m e n t a l e v a l u a t i o n m a t r i c e s and s u i t a b i l i t y maps f o r l a n d u s e s . On S a l t s p r i n g I s l a n d H i r v o n e n e t a l . (1974) grouped p h y s i c a l and v e g e t a t i o n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n t o l a n d s c a p e a s s o c i a t i o n s which d e p i c t e d a p a r t i c u l a r r a n g e o r p a t t e r n o f l a n d f o r m , p a r e n t m a t e r i a l s , s o i l c o n d i t i o n s , and p l a n t c o m m u n i t i e s . In d e s c r i b i n g l a n d s c a p e a s s o c i a t i o n s he f o u n d t h a t t h e n a t u r a l u n d i s t u r b e d l a n d s c a p e s c o r r e s p o n d c l o s e l y w i t h p l a n t c o m munities ( p l a n t a s s o c i a t i o n s o f K r a j i n a ) . He c o n s i d e r e d t h a t because o f t h e r e c o g n i z a b l e s i m i l a r i t y o f b i o p h y s i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h i n a s s o c i a t i o n s and the d i f f e r e n c e s between a s s o c i a t i o n s , t h e y p r o v i d e d t h e b a s i s f o r management i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s . E n v i r o n m e n t a l h a z a r d s , r e c r e a t i o n , f o r e s t r y , w i l d l i f e , a g r i c u l t u r e and r e s i d e n t i a l V... u s e s , and management c o n s i d e r a t i o n s a r e s u g g e s t e d based on the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the l a n d s c a p e a s s o c i a t i o n s . 3 By u s i n g a c o m b i n a t i o n o f l a n d f o r m , t o p o g r a p h y , s u p e r f i c i a l d e p o s i t s , s o i l s , and v e g e t a t i o n Hawes (1974) d e s c r i b e d l a n d systems and t h e i r c a p a b i l i t y f o r e n g i n e e r i n g , u r b a n development, r e c r e a t i o n and w i l d l i f e i n the Okanagan V a l l e y . Most o f the above methods o f l a n d c l a s s i f i c a t i o n and e v a l u a t i o n r e q u i r e o r u t i l i z e d e t a i l e d and e x p e r t i n v e n t o r i e s o f m i c r o c l i m a t e , p h y s i o g r a p h y ( t o p o g r a p h y and l a n d f o r m ) , g e o l o g y ( b e d r o c k and p a r e n t m a t e r i a l ) , h y d r o l o g y , s o i l s , and v e g e t a t i o n . What i s needed i s a s i m p l e , r a p i d , a c c u r a t e , i n e x p e n s i v e , s i t e s p e c i f i c a p p r o a c h to l a n d use p l a n n i n g based on r e a d i l y r e c o g n i z a b l e i n d i c a t o r s . In B r i t i s h Columbia a s i g n i f i c a n t c o n t r i b u t i o n towards s i t e s p e c i f i c i t y was made by K r a j i n a (1965, 1969). D i s t r i b u t i o n p a t t e r n s o f v e g e t a t i o n were i d e n t i f i e d and c a t e g o r i z e d i n t o e l e v e n b i o g e o c l i m a t i c z o n e s . A b i o g e o c l i m a t i c zone i s a p a r t i c u l a r e n v i r o n m e n t a l c o m b i n a t i o n t h a t i n c l u d e s c l i m a t i c , t o p o g r a p h i c , e d a p h i c , and b i o t i c f a c t o r s a l l o f w hich a r e m o d i f i e d w i t h t i m e . Each b i o g e o c l i m a t i c zone i s s u b d i v i d e d i n t o a number o f p l a n t a s s o c i a t i o n s ( s y n e c o l o g i c a l c o m m u n i t i e s ) t h a t a r e c l i m a t i c a l l y , e d a p h i c a l l y , and b i o t i c a l l y u n i q u e . S i n c e e a c h p l a n t a s s o c i a t i o n i s s u p p o r t e d by a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c mix o f e n v i r o n m e n t a l f a c t o r s , by i d e n t i f y i n g the p l a n t a s s o c i a t i o n and knowing the u n i q u e e n v i r o n m e n t a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ( c l i m a t e , t o p o g r a p h y , s o i l s ) t h a t can p r o d u c e and s u s t a i n such an a s s o c i a t i o n , p l a n n e r s and n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e managers can make s i t e s p e c i f i c d e c i s i o n s on l a n d u s e . The h y p o t h e s i s o f t h i s t h e s i s i s t h a t p l a n t a s s o c i a t i o n s , as d e f i n e d by K r a j i n a (1969) and Brooke e t a l . ( 1 9 7 0 ) , a r e i n d i c a t o r s o f the 4 s e n s i t i v i t y o f the t e r r a i n f o r use o r d i s t u r b a n c e . S p e c i f i c a l l y t h i s t h e s i s i s c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e c a p a b i l i t y o f l a n d f o r r e c r e a t i o n as i n d i c a t e d by p l a n t a s s o c i a t i o n s w i t h i n t h e S u b a l p i n e M o u ntain Hemlock Zone. With t he f i e l d r e c o g n i t i o n o f a p p r o x i m a t e l y twenty p l a n t s ( t r e e s , t a l l s h r u b s , low s h r u b s , and ground p l a n t s ) a l l t h e p l a n t a s s o c i a t i o n s w i t h i n t h i s zone can be i d e n t i f i e d . Knowing the b i o -g e o c l i m a t i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the p l a n t a s s o c i a t i o n s and the l i m i -t a t i o n s o f l a n d f o r r e c r e a t i o n , 1 and use d e c i s i o n s c o n c e r n i n g summer r e c r e a t i o n can be made. The o b j e c t i v e s a r e : 1. t o d e v e l o p c r i t e r i a f o r r a t i n g t h e l i m i t a t i o n o f l a n d f o r s e l e c t e d r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s ; 2. t o summarize i n f o r m a t i o n about t h e p l a n t a s s o c i a t i o n s and and b i o g e o c l i m a t i c c o n d i t i o n s f o u n d w i t h i n t h e S u b a l p i n e M ountain Hemlock Zone o f s o u t h w e s t e r n B r i t i s h Columbia f o r p l a n n i n g p u r p o s e s ; 3. t o a s s i g n c a p a b i l i t y r a t i n g s t o l a n d based on the b i o g e o -c l i m a t i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e p l a n t a s s o c i a t i o n s and on t h e c r i t e r i a f o r r a t i n g t h e l i m i t a t i o n o f l a n d f o r r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s ; and 4. t o i l l u s t r a t e how the c a p a b i l i t y r a t i n g s o f p l a n t a s s o c i a t i o n s f o r r e c r e a t i o n can be used i n r e c r e a t i o n p l a n n i n g . In g e n e r a l , l a n d use can be a s s e s s e d a t t h r e e l e v e l s : c a p a b i l -i t y , s u i t a b i l i t y , and f e a s i b i l i t y . The c a p a b i l i t y o f l a n d t o s u p p o r t a p a r t i c u l a r a c t i v i t y r e f e r s t o (a) the degree t o which b i o g e o c l i m a t i c 4 .a f a c t o r s l i m i t t he use o f l a n d f o r the a c t i v i t y and (b) the degree t o which r e m e d i a l measures would be n e c e s s a r y t o overcome the l i m i t i n g b i o g e o c l i m a t i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the l a n d so t h a t the a c t i v i t y c o u l d o c c u r . The c a p a b i l i t y o f l a n d f o r an a c t i v i t y i s r a t e d a c c o r d i n g t o whether the b i o g e o c l i m a t i c f a c t o r s c o n t r i b u t e "none to s l i g h t " l i m i t a t i o n , "moderate" l i m i t a t i o n , o r " s e v e r e " l i m i t a t i o n t o l a n d use. F o l l o w i n g an assessment o f l i m i t a t i o n s , l a n d can be a s s e s s e d i n terms o f i t s s u i t a b i l i t y and f e a s i b i l i t y f o r a p a r t i c u l a r use. The s u i t a b i l i t y o f l a n d f o r an a c t i v i t y r e q u i r e s a c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f n o t o n l y the c a p a b i l i t y o f the l a n d b u t a l s o the d e s i r a b i l i t y ( a t t r a c t i v e n e s s ) o f the l a n d f o r use. Thus w i t h a s u i t a b i l i t y a s s e s s m e n t t h e r e i s a c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f n o t o n l y the b i o g e o c l i m a t i c l i m i t a t i o n s o f the l a n d but a l s o the p r e f e r e n c e s and demands o f p e o p l e f o r the use o f the l a n d f o r a p a r t i c u l a r a c t i v i t y . F e a s i b i l i t y , t h e t h i r d l e v e l o f l a n d a s s e s s m e n t , examines whether, w i t h r e s p e c t to the l i m i t a t i o n s and d e s i r a b i l i t y o f t h e l a n d f o r use, the d i s a d v a n t a g e s ( c o s t s ) a s s o c i a t e d w i t h l a n d use c o u l d be j u s t i f i e d by the a d v a n t a g e s ( b e n e f i t s ) . T h i s t h e s i s i s l i m i t e d t o t h e c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f the c a p a b i l i t y o f l a n d f o r r e c r e a t i o n i n the S u b a l p i n e Mountain Hemlock Zone. 5 CHAPTER TWO CRITERIA FOR RATING THE LIMITATION OF LAND FOR RECREATION In t h i s c h a p t e r c r i t e r i a a r e e s t a b l i s h e d f o r r a t i n g the l i m i t a t i o n s o f l a n d f o r s e l e c t e d r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s . The a p p r o a c h used f o r e s t a b l i s h i n g the r a t i n g s has e v o l v e d l a r g e l y from Montgomery and E d m i n s t e r ( 1 9 6 6 ) , Hawes (1974) and B r i e r e ( 1 9 7 5 ) . L i m i t a t i o n C l a s s e s T h r e e l i m i t a t i o n c l a s s e s a r e d e f i n e d . 1. None to s l i g h t l i m i t a t i o n - a r a t i n g o f none t o s l i g h t ( h i g h c a p a b i l i t y ) i n d i c a t e s t h a t i f t h e r e a r e l i m i t a t i o n s p r e s e n t t h e y can be overcome e a s i l y w i t h o u t s p e c i a l p l a n n i n g o r management p r o c e d u r e s . 2. Moderate l i m i t a t i o n - a r a t i n g o f moderate (moderate c a p a b i l i t y ) i n d i c a t e s t h a t the l i m i t a t i o n s can be overcome w i t h good p l a n n i n g , d e s i g n , o r management p r o c e d u r e s a t a moderate t o m o d e r a t e l y h i g h c o s t . 3. S e v e r e l i m i t a t i o n - a r a t i n g o f s e v e r e (low c a p a b i l i t y ) i n -d i c a t e s t h a t even w i t h good p l a n n i n g and management p r o -c e d u r e s the l i m i t a t i o n s w i l l be d i f f i c u l t t o overcome. A r e a s w i t h s e v e r e l i m i t a t i o n s a r e u n s u i t a b l e o r r e q u i r e s p e c i a l and c o s t l y p r o c e d u r e s to make them s u i t a b l e f o r a s p e c i f i e d a c t i v i t y . 6 C o n t r i b u t i n g F a c t o r s By e x a m i n i n g a s p e c t s o f s o i l s , s l o p e , and v e g e t a t i o n the degree o f l i m i t a t i o n o f l a n d f o r an a c t i v i t y can be a s s e s s e d . The f o l l o w i n g f a c t o r s a r e c o n s i d e r e d : (1) h y g r o t o p e i n c l u d i n g d r a i n a g e , f l o o d i n g , seepage, and ground w a t e r d e p t h , and snow d u r a t i o n , (2) s u r f a c e s o i l t e x t u r e ( p e r m e a b i l i t y , c o h e s i o n and c o m p a c t a b i l i t y ) , (3) s t o n i n e s s o f p r o f i l e , (4) permeable s o i l d e p t h o r d e p t h t o b e d r o c k , (5) s l o p e , and (6) v e g e t a t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . 1. H y g r o t o p e : H y g r o t o p e c l a s s e s r e f e r t o the m o i s t u r e regime o f p l o t s s t u d i e d i n the S u b a l p i n e M o u n t a i n Hemlock Zone. The c l a s s e s a r e based on t o p o g r a p h y , s o i l p r o f i l e c h a r a c t e r -i s t i c s , d r a i n a g e , p r e s e n c e o r a b s e n c e o f seepage, t h e a e r i a l e x t e n t o f the c o n t r i b u t i n g w a t e r s h e d to the s i t e , and water-t a b l e l e v e l . The c l a s s e s r e f e r t o the normal m o i s t u r e r egime d u r i n g s n o w - f r e e p e r i o d s and n o t to m o i s t u r e c o n -d i t i o n s i m m e d i a t e l y f o l l o w i n g snow-melt, p r o l o n g e d r a i n s o r d r y p e r i o d s . The f i v e c l a s s e s as d e s c r i b e d by Brooke e t a l . (1970, p. 313) a r e : (a) v e r y d r y t o d r y : K n o l l s and peaks o f r o c k y o u t c r o p s , r o c k o u t c r o p o r l i t h i c s o i l s o f convex r e l i e f on r i d g e c r e s t s . S o i l s a r e s h a l l o w and w e l l -d r a i n e d . 7 (b) m o d e r a t e l y d r y : W e l l - d r a i n e d s o i l s on convex r e l i e f on upper s l o p e s o r s t o n y g l a c i a l t i l l s o f convex o r s t r a i g h t r e l i e f . Seepage a b s e n t d u r i n g s n o w - f r e e p e r i o d s . ( c ) m e s i c : Medium t e x t u r e d (loamy) s o i l s o f s t r a i g h t o r s h a l l o w convex r e l i e f . S o i l s have good d r a i n a g e and seepage i s a b s e n t o r r a r e l y p r e s e n t . I f p r e s e n t , seepage i s deep i n the p r o f i l e and o c c u r s o n l y t e m p o r a r i l y f o l l o w -i n g p r o l o n g e d heavy r a i n d u r i n g t h e s n o w - f r e e p e r i o d . (d) h.yqric: Moderate to i m p e r f e c t l y d r a i n e d s o i l s o f s t r a i g h t o r c o n c a v e r e l i e f . G l e y i n g i s e v i d e n t i n the s o i l p r o f i l e and seepage water i s u s u a l l y p r e s e n t . The maximum water l e v e l i n s o i l may be a t o r near the s o i l s u r f a c e f o r p a r t o f t h e s n o w - f r e e p e r i o d . (e) h y d r i c : S o i l s w i t h i m p e r f e c t t o v e r y poor d r a i n a g e . S o i l s a r e s a t u r a t e d o r i n u n d a t e d f o r most o f the y e a r . Concave o r s t r a i g h t r e l i e f u s u a l l y on l o w e r s l o p e s , s p r i n g - w a t e r swamps, str e a m edges and moors. W i t h i n c r e a s i n g m o i s t u r e c o n t e n t , s o i l s become i n c r e a s i n g l y l i m i t e d i n r e c r e a t i o n a l c a p a b i l i t y . F o r example, s o i l s w i t h a h i g h c l a y c o n t e n t , p o o r l y d r a i n e d s o i l s , f l o o d e d s o i l s , s o i l s w i t h h i g h w a t e r t a b l e o r permanent seepage l i m i t t he use o f w e l l s and sewage d i s p o s a l b ecause o f t h e p o t e n t i a l f o r s u r f a c e and ground w a t e r p o l l u t i o n . Running s u r f a c e w a t e r a s s o c i a t e d w i t h p o o r l y d r a i n e d s o i l s may a c c e l e r a t e s o i l e r o s i o n . With f l o o d i n g , permanent s t r u c t u r e s ( b u i l d i n g s , t a b l e s , 8 roads and camp pads) may be damaged. B r i e r e (1975) c o n s i d e r e d a f l o o d -i n g f r e q u e n c y g r e a t e r than once e v e r y f i f t y y e a r s t o be a s e v e r e l i m i t a t i o n p a r t i c u l a r l y f o r campgrounds. 2. S u r f a c e S o i l T e x t u r e : S o i l t e x t u r e r e f e r s t o the r e l a t i v e p r o p o r t i o n o f sand ( 2 . 0 - 0 . 0 5 mm d i a m e t e r ) , s i l t (0.05 - 0.002 mm d i a m e t e r ) , and c l a y (<0.002 mm d i a m e t e r ) i n a mass o f s o i l . Sandy s o i l s a r e c o a r s e -t e x t u r e d s o i l s ( s a n d s and loamy san d s ) and have a h i g h p r o p o r t i o n o f sand. Loamy s o i l s a r e m o d e r a t e l y c o a r s e t o m o d e r a t e l y f i n e - t e x t u r e d s o i l s ( s a n d y loams, loams, s i l t s , and c l a y loams) and have a more even b l e n d o f sand, s i l t and c l a y . C l a y e y s o i l s a r e f i n e - t e x t u r e d s o i l s ( c l a y s ) and have a h i g h p r o p o r t i o n o f c l a y , U.S.D.A. (1951, pp. 205-213). S u r f a c e s o i l t e x t u r e c an be used t o i n f e r p r o p e r t i e s o f s o i l p e r m e a b i l i t y , c o h e s i o n , and c o m p a c t a b i l i t y . P e r m e a b i l i t y i s a measure o f t h e a b i l i t y o f s o i l t o t r a n s m i t water and a i r . C o h e s i o n , t h e a b i l i t y o f s o i l t o s t i c k t o g e t h e r , i s t h e p r i m a r y f a c t o r a f f e c t i n g s u r f a c e s t a b i l i t y . S o i l s h i g h i n c l a y have a low p e r m e a b i l i t y b u t a h i g h c o h e s i v e n e s s . C o n v e r s e l y , sandy s o i l s a r e h i g h l y permeable b u t l a c k c o h e s i o n e s p e c i a l l y when d r y . Loams and sandy loams, which a r e permeable w i t h good c o h e s i v e p r o p e r t i e s , g e n e r a l l y p r o v i d e few t e x t u r a l l i m i t a t i o n s f o r r e c r e a t i o n . Both c l a y s , which may become wet and s t i c k y f o r p r o l o n g e d p e r i o d s and a r e slow to d r y , and l o o s e s a n d s , w h i c h a r e u n s t a b l e , e r o d a b l e and d u s t y , have a g r e a t e r l i m i t a t i o n f o r r e c r e a t i o n . 9 When s o i l s a r e compacted, s o i l s t r u c t u r e b r e a k s down and s o i l p o r o s i t y and p e r m e a b i l i t y d e c r e a s e . With c o m p a c t i o n i n f i l t r a t i o n r a t e s o f w a t e r i n t o s o i l a r e d e c r e a s e d r e s u l t i n g i n an i n c r e a s e p o t e n t i a l f o r p o n d i n g o r s u r f a c e r u n o f f and e r o s i o n . Compaction can be c a u s e d by r a i n f a l l on b a r e s o i l , by t r a m p l i n g o r by m a c h i n e r y . The d egree t o w hich a s o i l i s s u s c e p t i b l e t o c o m p a c t i o n depends on s o i l t e x t u r e , s t r u c t u r e and t h e m o i s t u r e c o n t e n t a t the time o f d i s t u r b a n c e . Because o f t h e i r r e l a t i v e l y l a r g e - s i z e d p a r t i c l e s c o a r s e - t e x t u r e d g r a v e l s , s a n d s , and sandy loams have few l i m i t a t i o n s w i t h r e s p e c t t o s o i l c o m p a c t i o n , whereas, m o d e r a t e l y f i n e - t e x t u r e d loams and s i l t s , w h i ch have l a r g e amounts o f f i n e and c o a r s e p a r t i c l e s , have g r e a t e r l i m i t a t i o n s . S o i l s u r f a c e s t a b i l i t y i s t h e r e l a t i v e r e s i s t a n c e o f s o i l p a r t i c l e s t o detachment and t r a n s p o r t . S u r f a c e s t a b i l i t y i s d e t e r m i n e d by i n h e r e n t s o i l p r o p e r t i e s s u c h as t e x t u r e , s t r u c t u r e , t o p o g r a p h y , and by t h e p r o t e c t i v e v e g e t a t i v e c o v e r . As w i t h permea-b i l i t y , c o h e s i o n , and c o m p a c t a b i l i t y , s o i l s u r f a c e s t a b i l i t y can be i n t e r p r e t e d l a r g e l y from s o i l t e x t u r e . W e l l - g r a d e d g r a v e l s and m o d e r a t e l y f i n e - t e x t u r e d loams because o f t h e i r c o a r s e n e s s and c o h e s i v e n e s s r e s p e c t i v e l y have r e l a t i v e l y s t a b l e s o i l s u r f a c e s . However, c o a r s e - t e x t u r e d sands and loamy sands which l a c k c o h e s i v e p r o p e r t i e s and f i n e - t e x t u r e d s i l t s and c l a y s w hich l o s e c o h e s i o n on s a t u r a t i o n and a r e s u s c e p t i b l e t o f r o s t d e f o r m a t i o n a r e c o n s i d e r e d t o have l i m i t a t i o n s w i t h r e s p e c t t o s o i l s u r f a c e s t a b i l i t y . 10 F r o s t a c t i o n , a common o c c u r r e n c e i n the S u b a l p i n e M o u n t a i n Hemlock Zone, r e s u l t s from t h e f o r m a t i o n o f i c e l e n s e s a t t h e s o i l s u r f a c e . I c e l e n s e s a r e pro d u c e d by a s l o w l y moving f r e e z i n g f r o n t s u p p l i e d w i t h s o i l m o i s t u r e . S o i l p a r t i c l e s a r e l o o s e n e d d u r i n g t h i s p r o c e s s r e s u l t i n g i n an i n c r e a s e d s u s c e p t i b i l i t y o f the s o i l t o e r o s i o n by wind, w a t e r , and g r a v i t y . F i n e - t e x t u r e d loams and s i l t s a r e p a r t i c u l a r l y s u s c e p t i b l e t o f r o s t a c t i o n as a r e s u l t o f t h e i r c a p a b i l i t y t o d e l i v e r w a t e r f o r i c e l e n s e f o r m a t i o n whereas c o a r s e -t e x t u r e d sands and g r a v e l s a r e n o t as s u s c e p t i b l e . A l s o , when s o i l s a r e exposed from v e g e t a t i o n d i s t u r b a n c e s , t h e p o t e n t i a l f o r s u p e r f i c -i a l f r o s t a c t i o n i s i n c r e a s e d . 3. S t o n i n e s s : S t o n i n e s s r e f e r s t o t h e amount o f c o a r s e g r a v e l , r o c k f r a g m e n t s o r s t o n e s 2 cm d i a m e t e r o r l a r g e r i n the s o i l p r o f i l e e x p r e s s e d as a p e r c e n t a g e o f the p r o f i l e c r o s s - s e c t i o n , Brooke e t a l . (1970, p. 314). W i t h i n c r e a s i n g s t o n i n e s s , s o i l s become l e s s e a s i l y compacted. With e x c e s s i v e s t o n i n e s s , s o i l c o h e s i o n i s r e d u c e d r e s u l t i n g i n a r e d u c t i o n i n s o i l s u r f a c e s t a b i l i t y , a c o n d i t i o n t h a t becomes i n c r e a s i n g l y i m p o r t a n t w i t h i n c r e a s i n g s l o p e . As s t o n i n e s s i n c r e a s e s , t h e c o s t o f s i t e p r e p a r a t i o n and the i n s t a l l a t i o n and m a i n t e n a n c e o f f a c i l i t i e s (camp pads, p i t t o i l e t s , t r a i l s ) i n c r e a s e s . 4. Depth t o B e d r o c k : S o i l s s h a l l o w t o be d r o c k o r t o an impermeable l a y e r become s a t u r a t e d more q u i c k l y than deep s o i l s . When s a t u r a t e d , s h a l l o w s o i l s tend t o " f l o a t " above the bedrock s u r f a c e r e s u l t i n g i n 11 d e c r e a s e d f r i c t i o n a t the s o i l / b e d r o c k i n t e r f a c e t h a t i n c r e a s e s t he p o t e n t i a l f o r mass w a s t i n g . B edrock a t o r n e a r the s o i l s u r f a c e c a n a f f e c t s o i l d r a i n a g e and may r e s u l t i n p o n d i n g . S h a l l o w s o i l s r e q u i r e g r e a t e r s i t e p r e p a r a t i o n f o r i n t e n s i v e u s e s as campgrounds and day use a r e a s . Sewage d i s p o s a l may be a p r o b l e m . A l s o , t he e s t a b l i s h m e n t and m a i n t e n a n c e o f v e g e t a t i o n on s o i l s s h a l l o w t o an i m p e r v i o u s l a y e r o r r o c k i s more d i f f i c u l t b ecause o f r e s t r i c t e d r o o t i n g . W i t h r e s p e c t t o mass w a s t i n g s o i l s g r e a t e r than two meters (6 f e e t ) i n de p t h g e n e r -a l l y have few l i m i t a t i o n s , Swanston ( 1 9 7 0 ) . Hawes (1974) n o t e d t h a t s o i l s l e s s than one meter (3 f e e t ) i n d e p t h have a g r e a t e r p o t e n t i a l f o r s a t u r a t i o n and c o n s e q u e n t l y have g r e a t e r l i m i t a t i o n s . 5. S l o p e : S l o p e i s a major f a c t o r i n d e t e r m i n i n g s o i l s t a b i l i t y . With i n c r e a s i n g s l o p e t h e f r i c t i o n between the s o i l and t h e s l i d i n g s u r f a c e d e c r e a s e s r e s u l t i n g i n an i n c r e a s e d p o t e n t i a l f o r e r o s i o n . W ith u n d i s t u r b e d v e g e t a t i o n many s o i l s a r e por o u s enough t o have l i t t l e s u r f a c e r u n o f f e ven on s t e e p s l o p e s . However, w i t h removal o f t h e v e g e t a t i v e c o v e r s o i l s may be compacted r e s u l t i n g i n a d e c r e a s e i n the r a t e o f i n f i l t r a t i o n and w a t e r t r a n s m i s s i o n , i n the i n t e r r u p t i o n o f n a t u r a l d r a i n a g e p a t t e r n s , and i n an i n c r e a s e i n r u n n i n g s u r f a c e w a t er o v e r b a r e s o i l . With i n c r e a s i n g s l o p e t h e r e i s an i n c r e a s e d p o t e n t i a l f o r b o t h s u r f a c e e r o s i o n and mass s o i l movement. The p r i m a r y f a c t o r s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a r e a s o f h i g h e r o s i o n p o t e n t i a l a r e s t e e p s l o p e s , h i g h p r e c i p i t a t i o n , and s h a l l o w s o i l s o v e r an impermeable l a y e r . With r e s p e c t t o s u r f a c e e r o s i o n , s l o p e s l e s s than f i v e p e r c e n t 12 have few l i m i t a t i o n s whereas s l o p e s g r e a t e r than t h i r t y p e r c e n t have a g r e a t e r l i m i t a t i o n ; and w i t h r e s p e c t t o mass s o i l movement, s l o p e s l e s s than t h i r t y p e r c e n t have few l i m i t a t i o n s whereas s l o p e s g r e a t e r than s i x t y p e r c e n t have a g r e a t e r d e g r e e o f l i m i t a t i o n , Hawes (197 4 ) . W ith i n c r e a s i n g s l o p e the c o s t o f s i t e p r e p a r a t i o n and m a i n t e n a n c e i n c r e a s e s . 6. V e g e t a t i o n : A l p i n e and s u b a l p i n e l a n d s c a p e s a r e p a r t i c u l a r l y v u l n e r a b l e t o d i s t u r b a n c e . R e c o v e r y o f e c o s y s t e m s a t h i g h e l e v a t i o n s i s s low, p a r t i c u l a r l y where s o i l s a r e s h a l l o w o r u n s t a b l e . Because o f the s h o r t growing season and t h e l i m i t e d time p l a n t s have t o c o m p l e t e t h e i r l i f e c y c l e s , a d i s t u r b a n c e a t a c r i t i c a l p o i n t may c a u s e i r r e v e r -s i b l e damage. T h e r e a r e s e v e r a l forms t h a t d i s t u r b a n c e can t a k e . (a) Compaction, e s p e c i a l l y o f s o i l s h i g h i n c l a y and low i n s a n d s , g r a v e l s , o r o r g a n i c m a t t e r , r e d u c e s w a t e r i n f i l t r a t i o n , a l t e r s d r a i n a g e p a t t e r n s , and i m p a i r s the s o i l t o m a i n t a i n i t s p l a n t community. (b) P h y s i c a l damage t o t h e v e g e t a t i v e c o v e r r e s u l t s i n a l o s s o f t h e s p e c i e s more s u s c e p t i b l e t o d i s t u r b a n c e . ( c ) S i n c e v e g e t a t i v e c o v e r c o n t r i b u t e s s i g n i f i c a n t l y t o p r e v e n t i n g s o i l e r o s i o n , t h e removal o f t h e v e g e t a t i v e c o v e r and the s u b s e q u e n t l o o s e n i n g o f the s o i l g e n e r a l l y r e s u l t s i n s u r f a c e e r o s i o n and p o n d i n g p a r t i c u l a r l y i n r e g i o n s o f h i g h r a i n f a l l . F o r example, i n s u b a l p i n e p a r k s pathways become waterways, h i k e r s d e t o u r and s t a r t the d evelopment o f p a r a l l e l o r b r a i d e d t r a i l s . Once e r o s i o n s t a r t s , i t i s s e l f - p e r p e t u a t i n g . S i m i l a r l y , r o a d s may b l o c k and d i v e r t the normal s u r f a c e d r a i n a g e 13 t h e r e b y o p e n i n g s e c o n d a r y c h a n n e l s , (d) Garbage c o v e r i n g slow g r o w i n g s u b a l p i n e p l a n t s w i l l p roduce p a t c h e s o f dead v e g e t a t i o n w h i c h , when the garbage i s removed, c o u l d be a f o c a l p o i n t f o r e r o s i o n , o r c o u l d t a k e many y e a r s t o r e v e g e t a t e . As. a c o m p l i c a t i o n , much garbage i s n o t b i o d e g r a d a b l e , (e) Removal o f s t a n d i n g o r f a l l e n t r e e s i n the s p a r s e l y t i m b e r e d s u b a l p i n e c o u n t r y c o n t r i b u t e s to the d i s t u r b a n c e . D e c a y i n g l o g s a r e an i m p o r t a n t p a r t o f e c o s y s t e m r e c y c l i n g . In g e n e r a l , Hawes (1974) s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h r e e f a c t o r s a r e i m p o r t a n t i n e v a l u a t i n g v e g e t a t i o n f o r r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s : the r e s i s t a n c e o f v e g e t a t i o n t o d i s t u r b a n c e , t he a b i l i t y o f v e g e t a t i o n t o r e c o v e r f o l l o w i n g d i s t u r b a n c e , and the a t t r a c t i v e n e s s o f the v e g e t a t i o n . S e l e c t e d R e c r e a t i o n a l A c t i v i t i e s The r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s t o be r a t e d a r e (a) campgrounds and day use a r e a s and (b) pa t h s and t r a i l s . Campgrounds and day use a r e a s tend t o c o n c e n t r a t e use i n a c o n f i n e d d e s i g n a t e d a r e a and a r e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h i n t e n s i v e , h i g h d e n s i t y a c t i v i t i e s . A c c o r d i n g to the Canada Land I n v e n t o r y r e p o r t on r e c r e a t i o n , Canada Department o f R e g i o n a l Economic E x p a n s i o n ( 1 9 6 9 ) , t h e e s s e n t i a l r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r o r g a n i z e d camping i n camp-grounds a r e : s t a b l e b ut u n c o n s o l i d a t e d s u r f a c e m a t e r i a l s , e x t e n s i v e areas o f low g r a d i e n t s o r v e r y f r e q u e n t l e v e l t e r r a c e s , p r o x i m i t y t o p o t a b l e water, t r e e c o v e r t o p r o v i d e wind and sun s h e l t e r , and a c c e s s i b i l i t y . A s c e n i c e n v i r o n m e n t i s d e s i r a b l e . Day use a r e a s , which p r o v i d e a number o f f a c i l i t i e s i n c l u d i n g p i c n i c t a b l e s , w a t e r and sewage f a c i l i t i e s , n a t u r e t r a i l s , a c c e s s r o a d s , and p a r k i n g l o t s , have s i m i l a r r e q u i r e m e n t s as f o r campgrounds. The f o l l o w i n g c o n d i t i o n s a r e some o f the l i m i t i n g f a c t o r s o f l a n d f o r a campground o r day use a r e a : poor d r a i n a g e , f r e q u e n t f l o o d i n g ( g r e a t e r t h a n once e v e r y f i f t y y e a r s ) , p r e s e n c e o f seepage w a t e r , h i g h w a t e r - t a b l e , p r o l o n g e d s n o w - d u r a t i o n , low p e r m e a b i l i t y , low c o h e s i o n , s u r f a c e i n s t a b i l i t y , h i g h s t o n i n e s s o f s o i l p r o f i l e , s h a l l o w d e p t h t o b e d r o c k o r impermeable l a y e r , h i g h s l o p e and v e g e t a l i o n s e n s i t i v i t y t o d i s t u r b a n c e . T a b l e I p r e s e n t s the c r i t e r i a f o r campground and day use a r e a l i m i t a t i o n based on Montgomery and E d m i n s t e r ( 1 9 6 6 ) . C o n t r i b u t i n g f a c t o r s a r e r a t e d and p l a c e d i n l i m i t a t i o n c l a s s e s a c c o r d i n g to the degree o f l i m i t a t i o n . 15 TABLE I C r i t e r i a f o r Campground and Day Use A r e a L i m i t a t i o n C o n t r i b u t i n g F a c t o r s None to S l i g h t L i m i t a t i o n Moderate L i m i t a t i o n S e v e r e L i m i t a t i o n H y g r o t o p e V e r y d r y t o m o d e r a t e l y d r y : w e l l - d r a i n e d s o i l s w i t h no p o n d i n g , no seepage d u r i n g s n o w - f r e e p e r i o d , g r ound-water depth >1 meter, no f l o o d i n g M e s i c : good d r a i n -age, seepage r a r e o r deep, g r o u n d -w a t e r < l m e t e r , no f l o o d i n g d u r i n g s e a s o n o f use H y g r i c to h y d r i c : moderate to p o o r d r a i n a g e , seepage u s u a l l y p r e s e n t , o r h i g h w a t e r -t a b l e , o r s o i l s a t u r a t e d , o r s u b j e c t to f l o o d -i n g S l o p e (°) < 5 < 9 5 - 8 > 8 9 - 1 5 ! > 15 S u r f a c e S o i l T e x t u r e M o d e r a t e l y c o a r s e t o m edium-textured s o i l s : sandy loams t o loams; s o i l s n o t s u b j e c t t o b l o w i n g C o a r s e - t e x t u r e d | F i n e - t e x t u r e d s o i l s s o i l s : loamy sands j c l a y s w i t h low n o t s u b j e c t t o ' . p e r m e a b i l i t y ; l o o s e b l o w i n g ; medium 1 sands w i t h low t o m o d e r a t e l y f i n e - ' c o h e s i o n , s o i l s t e x t u r e d s o i l s : ' s u b j e c t to b l o w i n g s i l t loams to j o r w i t h u n s t a b l e s i l t y c l a y loams j s u r f a c e Depth t o Bedrock ( m e t e r s ) > 1 < 1 S h a l l o w s o i 1 s wi th r o c k o u t c r o p s , s u p e r f i c i a l b e d r ock > 40 . ... - - - -S t o n i n e s s o f P r o f i l e < 10 10 - 40 V e g e t a t i o n a l C h a r a c t e r -i s t i e s R a p i d r e -v e g e t a t i o n V e g e t a t i o n i n t o l e r -a n t o f d i s t u r b a n c e , slow r e - v e g e t a t i o n 16 A l t h o u g h paths and t r a i l s a r e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a l i n e a r l y i n t e n s i v e a c t i v i t y , t h e y c o n t r i b u t e t o a g e n e r a l i z e d d i s p e r s a l . In de-t e r m i n i n g the degree o f l i m i t a t i o n o f l a n d f o r p a t h s and t r a i l s c o n s i d e r a t i o n was g i v e n to h y g r o t o p e , s u r f a c e s o i l t e x t u r e , s t o n i n e s s and s l o p e . E x c e p t f o r s l o p e the l i m i t a t i o n s o f l a n d f o r p a t h s and t r a i l s a r e e s s e n -t i a l l y t he same as f o r campgrounds and day use a r e a s . Because p a t h s and t r a i l s can be d e s i g n e d t o f o l l o w c o n t o u r s , s l o p e s l e s s t h a n t h i r t y p e r c e n t can be c o n s i d e r e d t o p r o v i d e few l i m i t a t i o n s whereas s l o p e s g r e a t e r than s e v e n t y p e r c e n t a r e s e v e r e l y l i m i t i n g , Hawes ( 1 9 / 4 ) . T a b l e II p r e s e n t s the c r i t e r i a f o r paths and t r a i l s l i m i t a t i o n . TABLE I I C r i t e r i a f o r Paths and T r a i l s L i m i t a t i o n C o n t r i b u t i n g F a c t o r s None t o S l i g h t L i m i t a t i o n Moderate L i m i t a t i o n S e v e r e L i m i t a t i o n H y g r o t o p e Ve r y d r y t o m e s i c : w e l l - d r a i n e d s o i l s n o t s u b j e c t t o f l o o d i n g d u r i n g season o f use M e s i c t o h y g r i c : m o d e r a t e l y w e l l -d r a i n e d s o i l s s u b j e c t t o o c c a s i o n a l pond-i n g , o r o c c a s i o n a l f l o o d i n g , o r w a t e r -t a b l e <1 meter H y g r i c t o h y d r i c : p o o r l y d r a i n e d s o i l s , f r e q u e n t f l o o d i n g d u r i n g season o f use S u r f a c e S o i l T e x t u r e M o d e r a t e l y c o a r s e t o medium-textured s o i l s : sandy loams to loams Medium to f i n e - t e x -t u r e d s o i l s : s i l t loams t o sandy c l a y s ; loamy sands F i n e - t e x t u r e d s o i l s : c l a y s ; l o o s e sands and s o i l s s u b j e c t to b l o w i n g S l o p e (°) (X) < 17 < 30 1 7 - 3 5 30 - 70 > 35 > 70 17 CHAPTER THREE CHARACTERISTICS OF THE SUBALPINE MOUNTAIN HEMLOCK ZONE The S u b a l p i n e M o untain Hemlock Zone The S u b a l p i n e M o untain Hemlock Zone, K r a j i n a (1969) and Brooke e t a l . (1970), o c c u r s on the c r e s t s and s l o p e s o f i n n u m e r a b l e r i d g e s and peaks i n the C o a s t M o u n t a i n s . T h i s b i o g e o c l i m a t i c b e l t between the C o a s t a l Western Hemlock Zone and the A l p i n e Tundra Zone o c c u p i e s an a l t i t u d i n a l band from a p p r o x i m a t e l y 3000 t o 5500 f e e t (900 - 1675 m e t e r s ) e l e v a t i o n on windward s l o p e s and 3600 t o 6000 f e e t (1100 - 1825 m e t e r s ) e l e v a t i o n on l e e w a r d s l o p e s i n s o u t h w e s t e r n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . C h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y t h i s snowy m i c r o t h e r m a l s u b a l p i n e s u b c o n t i n e n t a l humid c l i m a t e has a c o o l , s h o r t summer, wet s e a s o n i n the w i n t e r , and heavy snow c o v e r o v e r u n f r o z e n ground o f s e v e r a l months d u r a t i o n . C o n s i d e r a b l e v a r i e t y and l o c a l i s m o c c u r s w i t h i n s h o r t d i s t a n c e s . C l o u d i n e s s , u s u a l l y h i g h h u m i d i t i e s , much p r e c i p i t a t i o n and snow, c o o l n e s s , and sudden changes i n c l i m a t i c p a t t e r n a r e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c . Snow and f r e e z i n g t e m p e r a t u r e s may o c c u r i n any month o f the y e a r a t h i g h e l e v a t i o n s . O t h e r s i g n i f i c a n t f e a t u r e s o f the c o a s t a l windward s u b a l p i n e c l i m a t e i n c l u d e a l o w e r i n f l u e n c e o f wind than o c c u r s i n more c o n t i n e n t a l l e e w a r d s u b a l p i n e a r e a s and the l a c k o f f r o z e n s o i l . R a d iosonde d a t a have shown a modal o c c u r r e n c e o f the f r e e z i n g i s o t h e r m a t 3250 f e e t (990 m e t e r s ) between November and May f o r the s o u t h w e s t e r n c o a s t a l a r e a , P e t e r s o n ( 1 9 6 9 ) . T h i s c o n c e n t r a t i o n i n w i n t e r f r e e z i n g l e v e l 18 c o i n c i d e s w i t h a s h a r p i n c r e a s e i n snow a c c u m u l a t i o n . The v e g e t a t i o n p a t t e r n changes w i t h i n c r e a s i n g c l i m a t i c s e v e r i t y i n d i c a t e d by a marked s h i f t i n t r e e s p e c i e s c o m p o s i t i o n a t the lower boundary o f t h i s zone. Douglas f i r {Pseudotsuga menziesii) r e a c h e s i t s upper a l t i t u d i n a l l i m i t , c o a s t a l w e s t e r n hemlock {Tsuga heterophylla) i s r e p l a c e d by mountain hemlock {Tsuga mevtensiana), and w e s t e r n r e d c e d a r [Thuja p l i c a t a ) by y e l l o w c e d a r {Chamaeoyparis nootkatensis). A t h i g h e r e l e v a t i o n s i n the S u b a l p i n e M o u n t a i n Hemlock Zone the t r e e c o v e r f a i l s t o form c l o s e d s t a n d s i n a r e a s h a v i n g a deep p e r s i s t i n g snow c o v e r and a s h o r t e r growing s e a s o n . The ca u s e f o r t h e z o n a l change from c o a s t a l w e s t e r n hemlock t o the mountain hemlock i s due t o the s h a r p i n c r e a s e i n snow a c c u m u l a t i o n and the l o n g e r snow-covered p e r i o d . The S u b a l p i n e M o u n t a i n Hemlock Zone i s s u b d i v i d e d i n t o two sub-zon e s : f o r e s t and p a r k l a n d . The F o r e s t Subzone o c c u p i e s t h e lower e l e v a t i o n s o f the S u b a l p i n e Zone where a m a b i l i s f i r {Abies amabilis), m o u n t a i n hemlock {Tsuga mevtensiana) and y e l l o w c e d a r {Chamaeoyparis nootkatensis) f o r m c l o s e d s t a n d s . These t r e e s a r e dependent upon u n f r o z e n g r o u n d . In s o u t h e r n B r i t i s h Columbia t h i s subzone e x t e n d s a p p r o x i m a t e l y between 3000 and 3600 f e e t (900-1100 m e t e r s ) on t h e windward s i d e and between 3600 and 4500 f e e t (1100-1370 m e t e r s ) on the l e e w a r d . Snow d u r a t i o n i n t h e F o r e s t Subzone seldom exceeds e i g h t months but i s u s u a l l y a t l e a s t s i x months. The s l i g h t l y warmer c l i m a t e , s h a l l o w e r snow c o v e r i n g , and s h o r t e r snow-covered p e r i o d r e s u l t i n a l o n g e r growing p e r i o d than f o r t h e a d j o i n i n g h i g h e r P a r k -l a n d Subzone. 19 The P a r k l a n d Subzone e x t e n d i n g from t h e upper e l e v a t i o n s o f the F o r e s t Subzone t o the A l p i n e Tundra Zone l i e s a p p r o x i m a t e l y between 3600-5500 f e e t (1100 - 1675 m e t e r s ) on th e windward e x p o s u r e and between 4500-6000 f e e t (1370 - 1825 m e t e r s ) on the l e e w a r d . Ecosystems o f the P a r k l a n d Subzone a r e i n f l u e n c e d by the g r e a t a c c u m u l a t i o n o f snow, t h e l o n g e r snow-covered p e r i o d o f 8 t o 10 months o r more and the s h o r t e r g r o w i n g s e a s o n t h a n o c c u r s a t lo w e r e l e v a t i o n s . In the P a r k l a n d Subzone t r e e s form i n clumps s u r r o u n d e d by s h r u b s , h e a t h e r s {Cassiope mertensiana, Phyllodoce empetrifovmis) and o t h e r low l y i n g p l a n t c o m m u n i t i e s . A t t h e s e a l t i t u d e s t h e u n d e r s t o r y o f b l u e b e r r y , h u c k l e b e r r y {Vaceinium spp.) and r h o d o d e n d r o n {Rhododendron albiflorum) a r e c o n s p i c u o u s . An o u t -s t a n d i n g f e a t u r e o f t h e f l o r a o f t h e p a r k l a n d r e g i o n i s t h e l a r g e a r e a s o f f l o w e r i n g s p e c i e s o f a l p i n e p l a n t s . These s p e c i e s , o v e r 150 i n number, f l o w e r i n r a p i d s u c c e s s i o n and p r o v i d e a c o l o u r f u l d i s p l a y d u r i n g t h e s h o r t summer sea s o n o f J u l y and A u g u s t . Thus, f o r t h e S u b a l p i n e M o u n t a i n Hemlock Zone, t h e r e i s an i n c r e a s i n g s e v e r i t y o f c l i m a t e w i t h i n c r e a s i n g e l e v a t i o n and i n c r e a s i n g s e v e r i t y o f m i c r o c l i m a t e w i t h d e c r e a s i n g p r o t e c t i o n from a f o r e s t canopy. The l a r g e a r e a l c o v e r a g e by low s h r u b and n o n - f o r e s t e d communities a t h i g h e r e l e v a t i o n s i n the P a r k l a n d Subzone c o i n c i d e w i t h l a r g e r a n n u a l , s e a s o n a l and d a i l y t e m p e r a t u r e r a n g e s , h i g h e r a b s o l u t e maxima and minima, s h o r t e r f r o s t - f r e e p e r i o d s and g r e a t e r e v a p o r a t i o n r a t e s t h a n o c c u r i n the F o r e s t Subzone. In a d d i t i o n , t h e P a r k l a n d Subzone l a c k i n g a c o n t i n u o u s f o r e s t c o v e r has g r e a t e r a c c u m u l a t i o n s o f snow and s h o r t e r snow-free p e r i o d s t h a n t h e f o r e s t e d lower e l e v a t i o n s . 20 T a b l e I I I summarizes the g e n e r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the Sub-a l p i n e M o untain Hemlock Zone and i s based on th e d a t a o f K r a j i n a ( 1 9 6 9 ) . TABLE I I I C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f th e S u b a l p i n e M o u n t a i n Hemlock Zone C l i m a t e : Dfc (Kb'ppen), m i c r o t h e r m a l s u b a l p i n e s u b c o n t i n e n t a l humid c l i m a t e w i t h heavy snow c o v e r o v e r u n f r o z e n g r o u n d . 178-432, 70-170 280-2032, 110-800 3-7, 38-44 -9 t o -1, 16-30 11-13, 51-56 Annual t o t a l p r e c i p i t a t i o n (cm, i n c h e s ) Annual s n o w f a l l (cm, i n c h e s ) Mean annual t e m p e r a t u r e (°C, °F) Mean mo n t h l y J a n u a r y (°C, °F) J u l y (°C, °F) Number o f months m o n t h l y a v e r a g e above 1 0 ° C ( 5 0 ° F ) : 2-3 below 0°C ( 3 2 ° F ) : 1-6 Number o f f r o s t - f r e e days : 40-120 E l e v a t i o n : S o u t h e r n B r i t i s h Columbia windward ( m, f e e t ) : 900-1675,3000-5500 l e e w a r d (m, f e e t ) : 1100-1825,3600-6000 S o i l : S o i l s : Humic P o d z o l s which remain u n f r o z e n d u r i n g w i n t e r . P r e v a i l i n g p e d o g e n i c p r o c e s s e s : mor f o r m a t i o n , g l e i z a t i o n , p o d z o l i z a t i o n . V e g e t a t i o n : F o r e s t Subzone i n d i c a t o r s : Tsuga mevtensiana, Abies amabilis, and Chamaecyparis nootkatensis i n c l o s e d s t a n d s . P a r k l a n d Subzone i n d i c a t o r s : Phyllodoce empetviformis, Cassiope mevtensiana, and Vaceinium deliciosum; t r e e s d e v e l o p i n clumps s u r r o u n d e d by h e a t h e r p l a n t c o m m u n i t i e s . 21 P l a n t A s s o c i a t i o n s w i t h i n the P a r k l a n d Subzone S c a t t e r e d t r e e c o v e r and l o n g d u r a t i o n of.snow a r e t h e most r e a d i l y a p p a r e n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the P a r k l a n d Subzone. T r e e s , e i t h e r as i s o l a t e d i n d i v i d u a l s o r as s m a l l clumps, grow l a r g e l y on t o p o g r a p h i c prominences o f d r y t o m e s i c h a b i t a t s which a r e f r e e o f snow e a r l y i n the y e a r . T r e e s p e c i e s a r e m a r k e d l y c h i o n o p h o b o u s . W i n t e r t e m p e r a t u r e s i n t h e P a r k l a n d Subzone do n o t o f t e n r e a c h 0°F (-18°C) and t h e snow c o v e r i s v e r y deep. T r e e s p e c i e s r e q u i r e a b o u t 3 1/2 t o 4 months f r e e o f snow e x c e p t f o r dwarf o r krummholz growth forms a t h i g h e r e l e v a t i o n s . When t r e e s a t t a i n s u f f i c i e n t h e i g h t t o p r o j e c t above the s t a n d i n g snow o f l a t e March and A p r i l , a d v a n t a g e may be t a k e n o f the above f r e e z i n g a i r t e m p e r a t u r e s d u r i n g t h e day t h e r e b y i n c r e a s i n g the growth p e r i o d by s e v e r a l weeks. H e a t h - l i k e o r low s h r u b v e g e t a t i o n i n a r e a s h a v i n g l o n g e r snow d u r a t i o n c o v e r s much o f t h e r e m a i n i n g s u r f a c e o f the P a r k l a n d Subzone. H e r b a c i o u s v e g e t a t i o n o f stream-edge o r s p r i n g - l i n e h a b i t a t s , sedge communities o f b a s i n o r d e p r e s s i o n h a b i t a t s , and v e g e t a t i o n o f u n s t a b l e and e r o d e d sheet-wash s l o p e s a r e o t h e r c o n s p i c u o u s communities w h i c h c o n t r i b u t e t o the mosaic f o u n d i n t h e P a r k l a n d Subzone. Brooke e t a l . (1970) s u b d i v i d e d the P a r k l a n d Subzone i n t o p l a n t a s s o c i a t i o n s based on snow d u r a t i o n . (See T a b l e I V ) . T a b l e s and d e s c r i p t i o n s o f t h e p l a n t a s s o c i a t i o n s o f t h e P a r k l a n d Subzone based on the d a t a o f Brooke e t a l . (1970) a r e fou n d i n the A p p e n d i x . A summary o f the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s p e c i e s o f t h e P a r k l a n d 22 Subzone w i t h t h e i r L a t i n and common names i s p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e V. A r e p r e s e n t a t i v e sequence and the r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f some p l a n t a s s o c i a t i o n s a r e i l l u s t r a t e d i n F i g u r e s 1 and 2. TABLE IV P l a n t A s s o c i a t i o n s o f the P a r k l a n d Subzone I . Chionophobous f o r e s t e d u n i t s w i t h snow d u r a t i o n a v e r a g i n g a b o u t 8 months o r l e s s : 1. M e s i c h a b i t a t s : Vaooinio-Tsugetum mertensianae. (V-Tm) I I . M o d e r a t e l y c h i o n o p h i l o u s u n i t s w i t h snow d u r a t i o n a v e r a g i n g between 8 and 9 months: 1. Herbaceous v e g e t a t i o n o f stream-edge, s p r i n g - l i n e o r s e m i - t e r r e s t r i a l h a b i t a t s : Leptarrheno-Calthetum leptosepalae. ( L - C l ) 2. H e a t h - l i k e o r low sh r u b v e g e t a t i o n o f t e r r e s t r i a l m e s i c t o h y g r i c h a b i t a t s : (a) Phyllodooo-Cassiopetum mertensianae. (P-Cm) (b) Bono-Tsugetum mertensianae. (N-Tm) ( c ) Vaccinietum delioiosi. (Vd) I I I . C h i o n o p h i l o u s u n i t s w i t h snow d u r a t i o n o f a t l e a s t 9 months: 1. V e g e t a t i o n o f u n s t a b l e sheet-wash s l o p e s o r h a m a d a - l i k e s u r f a c e s : Saxifragetum tolmiei. ( S t ) 2. V e g e t a t i o n o f s e m i - t e r r e s t r i a l snow b a s i n h a b i t a t s : Caricetum nigricantis. (Cn) TABLE V Summary o f the C h a r a c t e r i s t i c S p e c i e s o f t h e P a r k l a n d P l a n t A s s o c i a t i o n s A s s o c i a t i o n C h a r a c t e r i s t i c S p e c i e s * Common Name Vaocinio-Tsugetum mertensianae Tsuga mertensiana ( c d ) Abies amabilis (cd) Vacoinium membranaoeum (cd) Rhododendron aIbiflorum ( d , s ) Vacoinium deliciosum ( c ) mountain hemlock a m a b i l i s f i r mountain h u c k l e b e r r y w h i t e rhododendron b l u e l e a f h u c k e l b e r r y Leptarrheno-Calthetum leptosepalae Leptarrhena p y r o l i f o l i a ( c d , s ) Caltha leptosepala ( c d , s ) Erigeron peregrinus ( c d , s ) Parnassia fimbriata ( c d , s ) Equisetum palustre ( d , s ) l e p t a r r h e n a w h i t e marsh m a r i g o l d mountain d a i s y f r i n g e d g r a s s o f P a r n a s s u s h o r s e t a i l Phyllodooo-Cassiopetum mertensianae Phyllodoce empetriformis (cd) Cassiope mertensiana ( c d ) Luetkea pectinata ( c ) Lycopodium sitchense ( c ) Vaocinium deliciosum ( c ) r e d h e a t h e r w h i t e moss h e a t h e r meadow s p i r e a A l a s k a c l u b moss b l u e l e a f h u c k l e b e r r y Nano-Tsugetum mertensianae Tsuga mertensiana ( c d ) Phyllodoce empetriformis (cd) Cassiope mertensiana (cd) Luetkea pectinata (cd) Vacoinium deliciosum ( c ) mountain hemlock r e d h e a t h e r w h i t e moss h e a t h e r meadow s p i r e a b l u e l e a f h u c k l e b e r r y Vaooinietum d e l i c i o s i Vacoinium deliciosum (cd) Phyllodoce empetriformis (cd) Cassiope mertensiana (cd) Luetkea pectinata ( c ) b l u e l e a f h u c k l e b e r r y r e d h e a t h e r w h i t e moss h e a t h e r meadow s p i r e a A b b r e v i a t i o n s f o l l o w i n g s p e c i e s names a r e : c d = c o n s t a n t dominant, c = c o n s t a n t , d = domin a n t , s = s e l e c t i v e s p e c i e s T a b l e V ( c o n t i n u e d ) A s s o c i a t i o n C h a r a c t e r i s t i c S p e c i e s * Common Name Saxifragetwn toVmiei Saxifraga tolmiei ( c d , s ) Marsupella brevissima (cd) T o l m i e s a x i f r a g e Caricetum n i g r i c a n t i s Car ex nigricans (cd) Polytrichum norvegicvm ( c d , s ) b l a c k a l p i n e sedge h a i r c ap moss * A b b r e v i a t i o n s . f o l l o w i n g s p e c i e s names a r e : cd = c o n s t a n t dominant, c = c o n s t a n t , d = dominant, s = s e l e c t i v e s p e c i e s ro 25 SUBALPINE MOUNTAIN HEMLOCK ZONE 1 Vaccinio - Tsugetum mertcnsianae 2 Nano-Tsugetuin mertensianae 3 VaccirJetum dcliciosi 4 Phylloo'oco - Cassiopetum mertensianae. 5 Caricetum nigricantis 6 Polytrichia* norvcgicum community (extremely late snow-lie) m m . F i g u r e 1 A R e p r e s e n t a t i v e Sequence and the R e l a t i o n s h i p s o f Some P a r k l a n d P l a n t A s s o c i a t i o n s , a f t e r Brooke e t a l . ( 1 9 7 0 ) SUBALPINE MOUNTAIN HEMLOCK ZONE 1 Vaccinio - Tsugetum mertensianae 2 Vaccinietum deliciosi 3 Phyllodoco - Cassiopetum mertensianae 4 Saxifragetum tolmiei 5 Marsupella brevissima community Dotted line represents position of extremely late snow-lie F i g u r e 2 A R e p r e s e n t a t i v e R idge w i t h i n t h e P a r k l a n d Subzone, a f t e r Brooke e t a l . (1970) 27 P l a n t A s s o c i a t i o n s w i t h i n t h e F o r e s t Subzone F o r e s t c o v e r i s m o s t l y c o n t i n u o u s i n t h e F o r e s t Subzone. The c l i m a t e i s s l i g h t l y warmer and snow d e p t h and d u r a t i o n a r e l e s s than i n t h e P a r k l a n d Subzone r e s u l t i n g i n a l o n g e r g r o w i n g s e a s o n and the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f complex f o r e s t e d e c o s y s t e m s . Beneath t h e f o r e s t canopy, the e x p o s u r e and d e n s i t y o f t h e t r e e c o v e r a c c o u n t e d f o r most o f t h e m i c r o c l i m a t i c d i f f e r e n c e s between h a b i t a t s , Brooke e t a l . (1970, p. 261). The v e g e t a t i o n p a t t e r n s and t r a n s i t i o n s a r e more s u b t l e t h a n t h o s e o c c u r r i n g i n the more s e v e r e e n v i r o n m e n t s o f th e P a r k l a n d Subzone. In t h e F o r e s t Subzone t o p o g r a p h i c p o s i t i o n , e x p o s u r e , e d a p h i c d i f f e r e n c e s r e l a t e d t o d r a i n a g e , s e a s o n a l m o i s t u r e r e g i m e , and seepage w a t e r s u p p l y r e s u l t i n the most o b v i o u s d i f f e r e n c e s i n v e g e t a t i o n between h a b i t a t s . Brooke e t a l . (1970) s u b d i v i d e d t h e F o r e s t Subzone i n t o p l a n t a s s o c i a t i o n s based on seepage i n f l u e n c e s . (See T a b l e V I ) . T a b l e s and d e s c r i p t i o n s o f t h e p l a n t a s s o c i a t i o n s o f t h e F o r e s t Subzone based on the d a t a o f Brooke e t a l . ( 1 9 7 0 ) a r e f o u n d i n the A p p e n d i x . A summary o f t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s p e c i e s o f t h e F o r e s t Subzone w i t h t h e i r L a t i n and common names i s p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e V I I . A r e p r e s e n -t a t i v e sequence and t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f some p l a n t a s s o c i a t i o n s a r e i l l u s t r a t e d i n F i g u r e 3. 28 TABLE VI P l a n t A s s o c i a t i o n s o f the F o r e s t Subzone I. F o r e s t e d u n i t s l a c k i n g a seepage i n f l u e n c e o r w i t h o n l y a temp o r a r y seepage i n f l u e n c e . 1. M o d e r a t e l y d r y l i t h i c h a b i t a t s o r h a b i t a t s w i t h s h a l l o w s o i l s Cladothamno - Tsugetum mertensianae (C-Tm) 2. M e s i c h a b i t a t s w i t h s h a l l o w t o deep s o i l s Abieto - Tsugetum mertensianae (A-Tm) 3. H y g r i c h a b i t a t s w i t h deep s o i l s and a temporary seepage i n f l u e n c e Streptopo - Abietetum amabilis (S-Aa) I I . F o r e s t e d u n i t s o f h y g r i c h a b i t a t s w i t h a permanent seepage i n f 1 u e n c e . 1. Seepage f a s t - f l o w i n g i n stream-edge or s p r i n g - l i n e h a b i t a t s Oplopanaco - Thujetum plioatae (O-Tp) 2. Seepage slow-moving o r s t a g n a t i n g i n d e p r e s s i o n s o f s p r i n g - l i n e h a b i t a t s Lysiohito - Chamaeoypare turn nootkatensis (L-Cn) I I I . N o n - f o r e s t e d s e m i - t e r r e s t r i a l moor h a b i t a t s Eriophoro - Sphagnetum ( E - S ) . TABLE VII Summary o f the C h a r a c t e r i s t i c S p e c i e s o f the F o r e s t P l a n t A s s o c i a t i o n s A s s o c i a t i o n C h a r a c t e r i s t i c S p e c i e s * Common Name Cladothamno-Tsugetum mertensianae Tsuga mertensiana (cd) Chamaeoyparis nootkatensis (cd) Abies amabilis{cd) Cladothamnus pyrolaeflorus ( c d , s ) Vaccinium membranaoeum (cd) Vaocinium alaskaense (cd) Menziesia ferruginea (c) Phyllodooe empetriformis (c) mountain hemlock y e l l o w c e d a r a m a b i l i s f i r c o p p e r bush mountain h u c k l e b e r r y A l a s k a b l u e b e r r y f a l s e a z a l e a r e d h e a t h e r Abieto-Tsugetum mertensianae Tsuga mertensiana (cd) Abies amabilisicd) Vaccinium alaskaense (cd) Vaccinium membranaoeum ( c ) Menziesia ferruginea ( c ) mountain hemlock a m a b i l i s f i r A l a s k a b l u e b e r r y m ountain h u c k l e b e r r y f a l s e a z a l e a Streptopo-Abietetum amabilis Abies amabilis(cd) Tsuga mertensiana (cd) Vaccinium alaskaense (cd) Streptopus roseus ( c ) Rubus pedatus (cd) a m a b i l i s f i r mountain hemlock A l a s k a b l u e b e r r y t w i s t e d s t a l k t r a i l i n g rubus T a b l e V II ( c o n t i n u e d ) A s s o c i a t i o n C h a r a c t e r i s t i c S p e c i e s * Common Name Oplopanaco-Thuj etum p l i c a t a e Tsuga heterophylla (cd) Abies amabilis (cd) Oplopanax horridus ( c d , s ) Vacoinium alaskaense (cd) Athyrium filex-femina ( c d , s ) Gymnooarpium dryopteris (cd) Streptopus roseus ( c ) Tiarella unifoliata (c) w e s t e r n hemlock a m a b i l i s f i r d e v i l ' s c l u b A l a s k a b l u e b e r r y l a d y f e r n t w i s t e d s t a l k foam f l o w e r Lysichito-Chamaecy par etum nootkatensis Abies amabilis (cd) Tsuga heterophylla (cd) Chamaecypavis nootkatensis (cd) Tsuga mertensiana ( c ) Vacoinium alaskaense (cd) Lysichiturn americanum ( c d , s ) Rubus pedatus (c) Clintonia u n i f l o r a ( c ) a m a b i l i s f i r w e s t e r n hemlock y e l l o w c e d a r m ountain hemlock A l a s k a b l u e b e r r y skunk cabbage t r a i l i n g rubus queen's cup Eriophoro-Sphagetum Carex aquatilis (d,e) Eriophorum angustifolium ( d , s ) Drepanooladus aduncus (d) Sphagnum spp. (d) water sedge c o t t o n g r a s s . moss pea t mosses A b b r e v i a t i o n s f o l l o w i n g s p e c i e s names a r e : c d = c o n s t a n t dominant, c = c o n s t a n t , d = dominant, s = s e l e c t i v e , e = e x c l u s i v e s p e c i e s 31 SUBALPINE MOUNTAIN HEMLOCK ZONE 1 Cladothamno - Tsugetum mertensianae, vacciniosum alaskaensis 2 Cladothamno - Tsugetum mertensianae, cladothamno - tsugosum mertensianae 3 Abieto - Tsugetum mertensianae 4 Streptopo - Abietetum amabilis 5 Streptopo - Abietetum amabilis, streptopo - abietosum amabilis 6 Lysichito - Chamaecyparetum nootkatensis F i g u r e 3 A R e p r e s e n t a t i v e Sequence and the R e l a t i o n s h i p s o f Some F o r e s t P l a n t A s s o c i a t i o n s , a f t e r Brooke e t al ' . (1970) 32 CHAPTER FOUR CAPABILITY RATINGS OF PLANT ASSOCIATIONS FOR RECREATION The c a p a b i l i t y r a t i n g o f a p l a n t a s s o c i a t i o n f o r r e c r e a t i o n r e f e r s t o t he deg r ee o f t h e b i o g e o c l i m a t i c l i m i t a t i o n o f t he p l a n t a s s o c i a t i o n f o r an a c t i v i t y and t o t h e deg r ee t o w h i c h r e m e d i a l measu res w o u l d be n e c e s s a r y t o overcome t h e s e l i m i t a t i o n s . The c a p a b i l i t y o f e a ch p l a n t a s s o c i a t i o n i s r a t e d a c c o r d i n g t o w h e t h e r t he b i o g e o c l i m a t i c f a c t o r s c o n t r i b u t e "none t o s l i g h t " l i m i t a t i o n , "mode r a t e " l i m i t a t i o n , o r " s e v e r e " l i m i t a t i o n t o r e c r e a t i o n . Each p l a n t a s s o c i a t i o n i s r a t e d and p l a c e d i n one o f t h e t h r e e l i m i t a t i o n c l a s s e s a c c o r d i n g t o t h e a b i l i t y o f t h e p l a n t a s s o c i a t i o n t o s u p p o r t r e c r e a t i o n . Vaccinio-Trugetum mertensianae: Moun t a i n H u c k l e b e r r y - M o u n t a i n Hemlock The Vaocinio-Tsugetum mertensianae, f ound on r i d g e c r e s t s and uppe r s l o p e s , has a snow d u r a t i o n o f 8 mon t h s , i s m e s i c t o m o d e r a t e l y d r y , and i s m o d e r a t e l y t o w e l l - d r a i n e d . A l t h o u g h w i t h use t h e l ow sh r ub l a y e r i s o f t e n d e s t r o y e d and t h e s t o n i n e s s o f t he p r o f i l e e x p o s e d , t h e t h i c k o r g a n i c l a y e r mats and r e s i s t s e r o s i o n . T h i s a s s o c i a t i o n i s t h e l e a s t f r a g i l e p l a n t communi ty w i t h i n t h e P a r k l a n d Sub zone . A p p r o p r i a t e r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s f o r t h e Vaocinio-Tsugetum mertensianae i n c l u d e h i k i n g , c a m p i n g , n a t u r e s t u d y , and p h o t o g r a p h y . Because l o c a l s l o p e s may e x c e ed t h o s e d e s i r a b l e and l o c a l s u r f a c e d r a i n a g e may r e s t r i c t t h e s i z e o f c o n t i n u o u s campgrounds , c a m p s i t e l o c a t i o n must be s i t e s p e c i f i c . The p r e s e n c e o f t a l l s h r u b s as 33 Rhododendron albiflorum and Vaccinium membranaoeum may be used to advan-t a g e i n t r a i l l o c a t i o n as such p l a n t s d i s c o u r a g e w a n d e r i n g . The r e c r e a t i o n a l c a p a b i l i t y r a t i n g f o r t h i s a s s o c i a t i o n i s none t o s l i g h t because t h e r e a r e few l i m i t a t i o n s f o r both i n t e n s i v e (campgrounds) and d i s p e r s e d ( t r a i l s ) u s e . Leptarrheno-Calthetum leptosepalae: L e p t a r r h e n a - White Marsh M a r i g o l d The Leptarrheno-Calthetum leptosepalae, f o u n d i n b a s i n s o r on l o b e s , has a snow d u r a t i o n o f 7 1/2 months and i s h y d r i c ( s e m i - t e r r e s t r i a l ) w i t h v e r y poor t o poor d r a i n a g e . T h i s a s s o c i a t i o n i s one o f the w e t t e s t i n t h e P a r k l a n d Subzone. Because o f the s a t u r a t e d s o i l and h i g h w a t e r - t a b l e , a p p r o p r i a t e r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s i n the Leptarrheno-Calthetum leptosepalae a r e l i m i t e d and c o n f i n e d t o n o n - i n t e n s i v e uses as n a t u r e s t u d y , v i e w i n g , p h o t o -g r a p h y . The c a p a b i l i t y r a t i n g f o r campgrounds and t r a i l s i s s e v e r e . Phyllodoco-Cassiopetum mertensianae A s s o c i a t i o n s : H e a t h e r Communities The Phyllodoco-Cassiopetum mertensianae (Red H e a t h e r - W h i t e Moss H e a t h e r ) , Nano-Tsugetum mertensianae (Dwarf Mountain Hemlock) and Vaccinietum d e l i c i o s i ( B l u e L e a v e d H u c k l e b e r r y ) , f o u n d on r i d g e s and s l o p e s , have a snow d u r a t i o n between 8 and 8 1/2 months and a r e h y g r i c t o m e s i c . Because t h e low sh r u b s a r e i n t o l e r a n t o f p h y s i c a l d i s t u r b a n c e t h e s e a s s o c i a t i o n s a r e t h e most f r a g i l e i n the P a r k l a n d Subzone. Of t h e s e a s s o c i a t i o n s t h e Nano-Tsugetum mertensianae has the l e a s t l i m i t a t i o n f o r t r a i l d evelopment because i t has t h e s h o r t e s t snow d u r a t i o n , i s m o d e r a t e l y t o i m p e r f e c t l y d r a i n e d , and has a s t o n y p r o f i l e . The o t h e r a s s o c i a t i o n s a r e more l i m i t e d i n t h e i r r e c r e a t i o n a l c a p a b i l i t y . Of t h e s e Phyllodoco-Cassiopetum mertensianae has t h e l o n g e s t 34 snow d u r a t i o n , t h e s h a l l o w e s t s o i l , and i s the l e a s t s t o n y . A l t h o u g h t h e Vacoinietum d e l i c i o s i has t h e d e e p e s t s o i l and i s the s t o n i e s t , i t has t h e p o o r e s t d r a i n a g e . The t h i c k humus o f the Vacoinietum d e l i c i o s i has a h i g h w a t e r - h o l d i n g c a p a c i t y and r e m a i n s v e r y m o i s t t h r o u g h o u t t h e y e a r . A t t e n t i o n t o t h e t r a i l s u r f a c e s h o u l d emphasize e r o s i o n -p r e v e n t a t i v e measures. G e n e r a l l y t h e l a c k o f w e l l - d r a i n e d s o i l s , t h e l a c k o f shade v e g e t a -t i o n , and the s e n s i t i v i t y o f t h e low shru b s t o damage r e d u c e s the c a p a b i l i t y o f t h e s e a s s o c i a t i o n s f o r camping. These a s s o c i a t i o n s have f e w e s t l i m i t a t i o n s f o r n a t u r e s t u d y , v i e w i n g , p h o t o g r a p h y , and t r a n s i e n t h i k i n g on w e l l - c o n s t r u c t e d t r a i l s . The c a p a b i l i t y r a t i n g f o r campgrounds and t r a i l s i s mod e r a t e . Saxifvagetum tolmiei: S a x i f r a g e The Saxifvagetum tolmiei, f o u n d on n o r t h m i d - s l o p e s , has a snow d u r a t i o n o f 9 1/2 months, i s m o d e r a t e l y d r y to h y g r i c , and i s w e l l to m o d e r a t e l y d r a i n e d . T h i s a s s o c i a t i o n has t h e s t e e p e s t s l o p e , s t o n i e s t s o i l , l e a s t s t a b l e s o i l , l o n g e s t snow d u r a t i o n , l e a s t v e g e t a t i o n , l e a s t humus and most exposed p l a n t community i n the S u b a l p i n e M o u n t a i n Hemlock Zone. Because o f s l o p e , s o i l i n s t a b i l i t y , snow d u r a t i o n , e x p o s u r e , and l a c k o f v e g e t a t i o n t h e c a p a b i l i t y o f t h e Saxifvagetum tolmiei f o r campgrounds i s e s s e n t i a l l y n o n - e x i s t e n t . T r a i l s do not r e q u i r e s u r f a c i n g b u t i n s t a b i l i t i e s may r e q u i r e s p e c i a l c o n s t r u c t i o n and 35 m a i n t e n a n c e p r o c e d u r e s . A p p r o p r i a t e r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s i n t h i s a s s o c i a t i o n a r e h i k i n g , v i e w i n g , and ph o t o g r a p h y . The r e c r e a t i o n a l c a p a b i l i t y r a t i n g f o r t h i s a s s o c i a t i o n i s moderate f o r t r a i l s and s e v e r e f o r campground. Cariaetum n i g r i c a n t i s : Sedge - Moss The Cariaetum nigviaantis, found i n b a s i n s , has a snow d u r a t i o n o f 9 months, i s h y g r i c t o h y d r i c ( s e m i - t e r r e s t r i a l ) , and i s p o o r l y t o v e r y p o o r l y d r a i n e d . T h i s a s s o c i a t i o n i s one o f th e w e t t e s t and i s the f l a t t e s t i n t h e P a r k l a n d Subzone. Because o f th e s a t u r a t e d s o i l , p e r i o d i c f l o o d i n g and poor d r a i n a g e , t h e c a p a b i l i t y r a t i n g f o r t r a i l s i s s e v e r e . In a d d i t i o n , because o f th e l a t e s n o w - l i e , the e x p o s u r e f r o m t h e l a c k o f t r e e s and t a l l s h r u b s , and the m o s q u i t o h a b i t a t , t h e c a p a b i l i t y r a t i n g f o r camp-grounds i s s e v e r e a l s o . N a t u r e s t u d y , v i e w i n g , and p h o t o g r a p h y may be a p p r o p r i a t e . Cladothamno-Tsugetum mertensianae: Copper Bush-Mountain Hemlock The Cladothamno-Tsugetum mertensianae, found on r i d g e s t o lower s l o p e s , has a snow d u r a t i o n o f 7 months, i s d r y t o m e s i c , and i s w e l l t o m o d e r a t e l y d r a i n e d . T h e r e may be a temp o r a r y seepage i n f l u e n c e d u r i n g snow-melt and f o l l o w i n g heavy r a i n s . T h i s a s s o c i a t i o n i s t h e d r i e s t , has t h e s h a l l o w e s t s o i l s , has t h e most open t r e e canopy, and has one o f t h e d e n s e s t s h r u b c o v e r s i n the F o r e s t Subzone. 36 A p p r o p r i a t e r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s i n c l u d e h i k i n g , camping, n a t u r e s t u d y , and ph o t o g r a p h y . P l a c e m e n t o f campgrounds s h o u l d a v o i d s i t e s w i t h s h a l l o w s o i l s o r r o c k o u t c r o p s and a r e a s s u b j e c t t o tem p o r a r y seepage i n f l u e n c e s . The r e c r e a t i o n a l c a p a b i l i t y r a t i n g f o r t h i s a s s o c -i a t i o n i s moderate f o r campgrounds because o f the s h a l l o w s o i l s and ro c k o u t c r o p s and none t o s l i g h t f o r t r a i l s . Abieto-Tsugetum mertensianae: A m a b i l i s F i r - M o u n t a i n Hemlock The Abieto-Tsugetum mertensianae, found on r i d g e s , s l o p e s and benches, has a snow d u r a t i o n o f 7 1 /2 months, i s m e s i c t o t e m p o r a r i l y h y g r i c , and i s i m p e r f e c t l y t o w e l l - d r a i n e d . Temporary seepage may o c c u r d u r i n g e a r l y summer. D u r i n g the f a l l and w i n t e r the s o i l s r emain near s a t u r a t i o n w i t h w a t e r f r o m heavy p r e c i p i t a t i o n o r t h e wet snow-pack. The t h i c k f i n e - t e x t u r e d humus has a h i g h w a t e r - h o l d i n g c a p a c i t y and slow d r a i n a g e . The t e m p o r a r y seepage i n f l u e n c e s o f e a r l y summer and the near s a t u r a t i o n o f s o i l s i n f a l l r e d u c e t h e c a p a b i l i t y r a t i n g o f t h i s a s s o c -i a t i o n f o r camping t o moderate. The r a t i n g f o r t r a i l s i s none to s l i g h t . Streptopor-Abietetum amabilis: T w i s t e d S t a l k-Amabi 1 i s F i r The Streptopo-Abietetum amabilis, f o u n d on s l o p e s , has a snow d u r a t i o n o f 7 months, i s h y g r i c t o m e s i c , and i s m o d e r a t e l y t o i m p e r f e c t l y d r a i n e d w i t h t e m p o r a r y t o permanent seepage i n f l u e n c e s . The s o i l s a r e deep, s t o n y and have a t h i c k o r g a n i c l a y e r . 37 A l t h o u g h the seepage i n f l u e n c e s i n t h i s a s s o c i a t i o n a r e more pronounced t h a n f o r t h e Abieto-Tsugetum mertensianae, the r e c r e a t i o n a l c a p a b i l i t y r a t i n g f o r the Streptopo-Abietetum amabilis can be r e g a r d e d as m a r g i n a l l y moderate f o r campgrounds and t r a i l s b ecause the s o i l s a r e deep and m o d e r a t e l y s t o n y w i t h m o d e r a t e l y t o w e l l - d r a i n e d l o c a l a r e a s . However, the a r e a s h a v i n g h y g r i c h y g r o t o p e s , i m p e r f e c t d r a i n a g e , and seepage i n f l u e n c e s have a s e v e r e l i m i t a t i o n f o r r e c r e a t i o n . Oplopanaoo-Thugetum plioatae: D e v i l ' s C l u b - W e s t e r n Red Cedar The Oplopanaco-Thujetum plioatae, f o u n d on lower s l o p e s , has a snow d u r a t i o n o f 6 1/2months, i s h y g r i c , a n d m o d e r a t e l y to i m p e r f e c t l y d r a i n e d . T h e r e i s a permanent f a s t - f l o w i n g seepage i n f l u e n c e and t h e w a t e r - t a b l e i s l e s s t h a n o n e - h a l f meter i n d e p t h . Because o f t h e permanent f a s t - f l o w i n g seepage i n f l u e n c e , the h i g h w a t e r - t a b l e , and the s p i n e s o f Oplopanax horridus, the c a p a b i l i t y r a t i n g o f t h i s a s s o c i a t i o n f o r campgrounds and t r a i l s i s s e v e r e . Lysiohito-Chamaecyparetum nootkatensis: Skunk Cabbage - Y e l l o w Cedar The Lysiohito-Chamaecyparetum nootkatensis, found on low e r s l o p e s , has a snow d u r a t i o n o f 6 1/2 months, i s h y d r i c , a n d i s p o o r l y d r a i n e d w i t h a permanent slow-moving seepage i n f l u e n c e . The w a t e r - t a b l e f l u c t u a t e s b u t i s l e s s t h a n o n e - h a l f meter i n d e p t h . S i n c e t h i s b o g - l i k e a s s o c i a t i o n i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by permanent slow-moving o r s t a g n a t i n g seepage and by a t h i c k a c c u m u l a t i o n o f b l a c k muck o r p e a t , t h e r e c r e a t i o n a l c a p a b i l i t y r a t i n g i s s e v e r e . Eriophoro-Sphagnetum: G r a s s - Water Sedge - P e a t Moss The Eriophoro-Sphagnetum, f o u n d on benchs, has a snow d u r a t i o n o f 7 1/2 months, i s h y d r i c ( s e m i - t e r r e s t r i a l ) , and i s v e r y p o o r l y to p o o r l y d r a i n e d . The w a t e r - t a b l e i s l e s s than f i f t e e n c e n t i m e t e r s i n depth and s t a n d i n g w a t e r i s p r e s e n t o f t e n on the s u r f a c e i n s m a l l p o o l s . T h i s a s s o c i a t i o n i s t h e f l a t t e s t and w e t t e s t and has the deepest o r g a n i c l a y e r i n the F o r e s t Subzone. Because o f t h e s a t u r a t e d s o i l , p o or d r a i n a g e , and h i g h w a t e r -t a b l e , the r e c r e a t i o n a l c a p a b i l i t y r a t i n g o f th e Eriophoro-Sphngnatum i s s e v e r e . T a b l e V I I I summarizes the r e c r e a t i o n a l c a p a b i l i t y r a t i n g s o f p l a n t a s s o c i a t i o n s i n the S u b a l p i n e Mountain Hemlock Zone. 1 39 TABLE V I I I C a p a b i l i t y R a t i n g s o f P l a n t A s s o c i a t i o n s f o r R e c r e a t i o n P l a n t A s s o c i a t i o n Campgrounds and Day Use L i m i t a t i o n P aths and T r a i l s L i m i t a t i o n Vaocinio-Tsugeturn mertensianae none t o s l i g h t none t o s l i g h t Leptarrheno-Calthetum leptosepalae s e v e r e s e v e r e Phyllodooo-Cassiopetum mertensianae moderate moderate Nano'-Tsugetum mertensianae moderate moderate Vacoinietum delioiosi moderate moderate Saxifrage turn tolmiei s e v e r e moderate Caricetum nigrioantis s e v e r e s e v e r e Cladothamno-Tsugetum mertensianae moderate none to s l i g h t Abieto-Tsugeturn mertensianae moderate none to s l i g h t Streptopo-Abiete turn amabilis moderate t o s e v e r e moderate Oplopanaco-Thujetum plicatae s e v e r e s e v e r e Lysiohito-Chamaeoyparetum nootkatensis s e v e r e s e v e r e Eriophoro-Sphagnetum s e v e r e s e v e r e 40 CHAPTER FIVE CASE STUDY The p u r p o s e o f t h i s c h a p t e r i s t o i l l u s t r a t e how the c a p a b i l i t y r a t i n g s o f p l a n t a s s o c i a t i o n s f o r campgrounds and t r a i l s can be a p p l i e d t o r e c r e a t i o n p l a n n i n g . T h i s c h a p t e r (a) d i s c u s s e s t h e demands f o r , and t he b e n e f i t s and c o s t s o f p r o v i d i n g r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s i n p a r k s and how t h e c a p a b i l i t y r a t i n g s o f p l a n t a s s o c i a t i o n s can c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s , (b) p r e s e n t s a r e p o r t about t he p l a n t a s s o c i a -t i o n s and t h e i r d i s t r i b u t i o n w i t h i n two s t u d y a r e a s on Pa u l R idge i n G a r i b a l d i P a r k , ( c ) p r e s e n t s t h e z o n i n g a p p r o a c h o f the B r i t i s h Columbia P a r k s B r a n c h t o the s o u t h w e s t e r n p o r t i o n o f G a r i b a l d i P a r k , and (d) summarizes a s p e c t s o f u t i l i z i n g c a p a b i l i t y r a t i n g s o f p l a n t a s s o c i a t i o n s f o r p l a n n i n g campgrounds and t r a i l s i n p a r k s . F a c t o r s i n P l a n n i n g The d e velopment o f r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s w i t h i n a park can depend on two f a c t o r s : (a) the demands o r r e q u i r e m e n t s o f p r e s e n t and p o t e n t i a l park u s e r s and (b) t h e c o s t s o f m e e t i n g t h o s e demands. G e n e r a l l y , i f t h e b e n e f i t s ( a d v a n t a g e s , v a l u e ) o f t h e demand f o r a g i v e n f a c i l i t y e x c e e d s t h e c o s t s ( d i s a d v a n t a g e s ) o f p r o v i d i n g t h e f a c i l i t y , t h e f a c i l i t y i s j u s t i f i e d . 4 1 Once the b e n e f i t s o f the demand f o r r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s a r e d e t e r m i n e d t h r o u g h s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s t u d i e s , t h e c o s t s o f m e e t i n g t h e demand s h o u l d be d e t e r m i n e d . The c o s t s o f p r o v i d i n g r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s as campgrounds and t r a i l s i n c l u d e n o t o n l y t h e c o s t o f c o n s t r u c t i o n and m a i n t e n a n c e o f the f a c i l i t y b u t a l s o t h e l o s s e s from man-made a l t e r a t i o n s o f t h e e n v i r o n m e n t . These c o s t s depend s u b s t a n -t i a l l y on the c a p a b i l i t y o f t h e l a n d f o r use. The g r e a t e r the l i m i t a t i o n o f l a n d f o r r e c r e a t i o n , t h e g r e a t e r t h e c o s t o f p r o v i d i n g r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s . Now, f o r each p l a n t a s s o c i a t i o n i t s h o u l d be p o s s i b l e t o e s t i m a t e t h e u n i t c o s t o f p r o v i d i n g a p a r t i c u l a r f a c i l i t y . With such u n i t c o s t e s t i m a t e s , c o m p a r i s o n s c o u l d be made between t he p l a n t a s s o c i a t i o n s . D e c i s i o n s c o u l d be made based on the e n v i r o n m e n t a l l i m i t a t i o n s o f l a n d and t h e a s s o c i a t e d u n i t c o s t o f p r o v i d i n g f a c i l i t i e s . F o r example, w i t h u n i t c o s t e s t i m a t e s a p l a n n e r c o u l d d e t e r m i n e i f i t was l e s s c o s t l y t o l o c a t e a f a c i l i t y i n an a r e a h a v i n g a p a r t i c u l a r l i m i t a -t i o n f o r use o r l e s s c o s t l y t o l o c a t e t h e f a c i l i t y e l s e w h e r e . Thus, u s i n g c a p a b i l i t y r a t i n g s o f p l a n t a s s o c i a t i o n s as i n d i c a t o r s o f the u n i t c o s t s o f p r o v i d i n g f a c i l i t i e s , a p l a n n e r can make a d e c i s i o n as t o whether o r n o t a f a c i l i t y i s j u s t i f i e d based on a c o m p a r i s o n o f t h e c o s t s and b e n e f i t s o f p r o v i d i n g t h e f a c i l i t y . 42 Case S t u d y : Paul R i d g e , G a r i b a l d i Park Paul Ridge ( a l s o known as Red H e a t h e r R idge) i s l o c a t e d w i t h i n the s o u t h w e s t e r n p o r t i o n o f G a r i b a l d i Park and i s a p p r o x i m a t e l y f i f t y m i l e s (80 k i l o m e t e r s ) n o r t h o f Vancouver. The s t u d y a r e a b e g i n s a t the Base Camp p a r k i n g l o t (3300 f e e t , 1005 m e t r e s ) and t a k e s t h e r o a d t o the c r e s t o f Paul R i dge (5500 f e e t , 1675 m e t r e s ) known as Round Mo u n t a i n . The o b j e c t i v e s o f the c a s e s t u d y a r e t o map the p l a n t a s s o c i a t i o n s w i t h i n a v i s u a l c o r r i d o r from the r o a d between Base Camp and Round Mountain and t o s u g g e s t r e c r e a t i o n a l l a n d uses based on the c a p a b i l i t y r a t i n g s d e t e r m i n e d f o r each p l a n t a s s o c i a t i o n . In o r d e r t o l o c a t e t h e p l a n t a s s o c i a t i o n s t o p o g r a p h i c maps and a e r i a l p h o t o g r a p h s were used i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h f i e l d o b s e r v a t i o n . S p e c i f i c p l a n t a s s o c i a t i o n s were i d e n t i f i e d by r e c o g n i z i n g t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c c o m b i n a t i o n s o f p l a n t s p e c i e s ; r e f e r t o T a b l e s IV and V f o r the P a r k l a n d Subzone and T a b l e s VI and VII f o r t h e F o r e s t Subzone. The s t u d y i s p r e s e n t e d i n f i v e maps. Map 1 from 92G o f the N a t i o n a l T o p o g r a p h i c S e r i e s g i v e s a r e g i o n a l o r i e n t a t i o n . Map 2 from a p o r t i o n o f t h e B r i t i s h Columbia Department o f L a n d s , F o r e s t s , and Water R e s o u r c e s map, PS-G3, e n t i t l e d Western G a r i b a l d i P a r k , l o c a t e s the two s t u d y a r e a s i n G a r i b a l d i Park and Map 2A d emarcates the p a r k zones d e s i g n a t e d i n the B r i t i s h Columbia P a r k s B r a n c h p l a n n i n g r e p o r t by T u r n e r ( 1 9 7 4 ) . Map 3 i l l u s t r a t e s t h e l o c a t i o n o f t h e p l a n t a s s o c i a t i o n s i n A r e a 1. The c o n t o u r s o f Map 3 have been t r a c e d from-an e n l a r g e m e n t o f a p o r t i o n o f PS-G3. Map 4 p r e s e n t s t h e l o c a t i o n o f the p l a n t a s s o c i a t i o n s o f A r e a 2. Both Maps 3 and 4 can be used t o i l l u s t r a t e how p l a n t a s s o c i a t i o n s as i n d i c a t o r s o f the c a p a b i l i t y o f l a n d f o r r e c r e a t i o n can be used i n the p l a n n i n g o f p a r k s . On e x a m i n i n g Map 3, P l a n t A s s o c i a t i o n s A r e a 1, a g e n e r a l d i s t r i b u t i o n p a t t e r n o f p l a n t a s s o c i a t i o n s becomes r e a d i l y a p p a r e n t . From Base Camp t o Paul R idge one t r a n s v e r s e s a c o a r s e v e g e t a t i o n a l m o s aic where some p l a n t a s s o c i a t i o n s have been a g g r e g a t e d because the map s c a l e would n o t p e r m i t a f i n e r r e s o l u t i o n . However, a t t h i s s c a l e a p e r s p e c -t i v e o f g e n e r a l r e c r e a t i o n a l l a n d use l i m i t a t i o n s can be d e t e r m i n e d . W i t h i n t h e c o r r i d o r o f A r e a 1 a g g r e g a t e s o f p l a n t a s s o c i a t i o n s can be r e a d i l y i d e n t i f i e d . The a g g r e g a t e composed o f Vaccinio-Tsugetum mertensianae (V-Tm), Phyllodoco-Cassiopetum mertensiana.e (P-Crn), Neow-Tsugetum mertensianae (N-Tm), and Vaccinietum d e l i c i o s i (Vd) ranges from none t o s l i g h t t o moderate l i m i t a t i o n f o r r e c r e a t i o n . The a g g r e g a t e Vaccinio-Tsugetum mertensianae and Abieto-Tsugetum mertensianae (A-Tm) ranges f r o m a none t o s l i g h t t o moderate l i m i t a t i o n f o r campgrounds and i s r a t e d none t o s l i g h t f o r t r a i l s . The a g g r e g a t e streptopo-Abietetum amabilis ( S - A a ) , Oplopanaco-Thujetum plioatae (O-Tp), and L y s i o h i t o -Chamaecyparetum nootkatensis (L-Cn) r a n g e s from moderate t o s e v e r e l i m i t a t i o n f o r r e c r e a t i o n . Where c a p a b i l i t y r a t i n g s a r e s e v e r e , campgrounds and t r a i l s would be c o s t l y t o l o c a t e . However, where c a p a b i l i t y r a t i n g s a r e moder-a t e o r none t o s l i g h t , t h e r e a r e fe w e r b i o g e o c l i m a t i c l i m i t a t i o n s and the c o s t s o f o v e r c o m i n g t h e l i m i t a t i o n s a r e l o w e r . With t he mapping o f t h e s e a g g r e g a t e s t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e i n d i v i d u a l l y i d e n t i f i e d p l a n t a s s o c i -a t i o n s a g e n e r a l i n d i c a t i o n o f the c a p a b i l i t y o f l a n d f o r campgrounds and t r a i l s i s p r e s e n t e d o v e r a l a r g e a r e a o f l a n d . Map 4, P l a n t A s s o c i a t i o n s A r e a 2, p r e s e n t s a d e t a i l e d d i s t r i -b u t i o n p a t t e r n o f p l a n t a s s o c i a t i o n s t y p i c a l l y found s u r r o u n d i n g t h e f l a t and wet Caricetum nigricantis (Cn) a s s o c i a t i o n i n the P a r k l a n d Subzone. A t t h i s s c a l e a d e t a i l e d p e r s p e c t i v e o f r e c r e a t i o n a l l a n d use l i m i t a t i o n s becomes a p p a r e n t . S u r r o u n d i n g t h e Caricetum nigricantis a r e t h e Phyllodoco-Cassiopetum mertensianae (P-Cm) and Nano-Tsugetum mertensianae (N-Tm) r a n g i n g a p p r o x i m a t e l y 0-1 f e e t ( 0 - 1 / 3 meter) above the l e v e l o f t h e sedge-moss community, t h e Vaccinietum delidosi (Vd) r a n g i n g a p p r o x i m a t e l y 1 - 3 f e e t ( 1 / 3 - 1 meter) above, and the Vaccinio-Tsugetum mertensianae (V-Tm) r a n g i n g a p p r o x i m a t e l y 3 - 6 f e e t ( 1 - 2 m e t e r s ) above. C o r r e s p o n d i n g t o t h e s e p l a n t a s s o c i a t i o n s a r e r e c r e a t i o n a l l a n d use c a p a b i l i t y r a t i n g s r a n g i n g from s e v e r e a t the l e v e l o f the Cavicetwn n i g r i c a n t i s t o none t o s l i g h t a t the l e v e l o f the Vaccinio-Tsugetum mertensianae. With t h e d e t a i l e d mapping o f t h e s e p l a n t a s s o c i a t i o n s the c a p a b i l i t y o f l a n d f o r campgrounds and t r a i l s i s made a p p a r e n t a t the s i t e s p e c i f i c l e v e l . Such d e t a i l e d mapping can c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e s e l e c t i o n o f t h e l e a s t c o s t l y r o u t e f o r t r a i l s o r l o c a t i o n f o r camp-grou n d s . A Z o n i n g C o n c e p t The z o n i n g a p p r o a c h o f t h e B r i t i s h Columbia P a r k s B r a n c h t o the s o u t h w e s t e r n p o r t i o n o f G a r i b a l d i Park i n c l u d e s f o u r z o n e s , T u r n e r ( 1 9 7 4 ) . The Easy A c c e s s Zone (EA) d e f i n e s t h e l i m i t s f o r e a s y m o t o r i z e d 45 a c c e s s and f o r i n t e n s i v e use o f the p a r k . T h i s zone w i l l be a "day-use d e s t i n a t i o n a r e a " and w i l l i n c l u d e a day l o d g e , a campground, t r a i l s , r o a d a c c e s s and p a r k i n g f a c i l i t i e s . The p u r p o s e o f the P r e s e r v a t i o n F e a t u r e Zone (PF) i s t o p r e s e r v e l a n d i n i t s n a t u r a l s t a t e . T h i s zone w i l l i n c l u d e the e n t i r e Paul R i d g e , an a r e a t h a t has t h e " l a r g e s t r i d g e panorama s u b a l p i n e meadow i n the p a r k . " Land damaged from p r e v i o u s c o n s t r u c t i o n o f r o a d s and t r a i l s w i l l be r e s t o r e d t o as " n a t u r a l a s t a t e as p o s s i b l e . " E x c e p t f o r a c c e s s t r a i l s no development o f any k i n d w i l l be p e r m i t t e d . The P r i m i t i v e A c c e s s Zone (PA) f e a t u r e s " n o n - m o t o r i z e d park o p p o r t u n i t i e s based upon p r i m i t i v e a c c e s s . " C o m p a t i b l e a c t i v i t i e s i n c l u d e h i k i n g , a l p i n e camping, m o u n t a i n e e r i n g , n a t u r e s t u d y , p h o t o g r a p h y , and s k i t o u r i n g . The N a t u r e C o n s e r v a n c y Zone (NC) i s i n t e n d e d t o be w i l d e r n e s s . No development o f any k i n d w i l l be p e r m i t t e d . T h i s z o n i n g c o n c e p t r e p r e s e n t s a p l a n n i n g a p p r o a c h s e n s i t i v e t o l a n d p r e s e r v a t i o n , c o n s e r v a t i o n , and u t i l i z a t i o n . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h i s p o l i c y o f a l a n d use g r a d i e n t from i n t e n s i v e h i g h d e n s i t y day use t o a d i s p e r s e d low d e n s i t y l o n g e r term use r e f l e c t s a b a l a n c e d i n t e r p r e -t a t i o n o f the needs o f p e o p l e f o r d i f f e r e n t t y p e s o f r e c r e a t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e and o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s o f t h e e n v i r o n m e n t f o r s u s t a i n e d s e l f - m a i n t e n a n c e . However, when s i t e s p e c i f i c d e c i s i o n s must be made about l a n d u s e , a more d e t a i l e d a p p r o a c h i s r e q u i r e d . I t i s then t h a t p l a n t a s s o c i a t i o n s can become i m p o r t a n t i n d i c a t o r s o f r e c r e a t i o n a l l a n d use c a p a b i l i t y . A Summary D u r i n g t h e f i e l d work a number o f c o n s i d e r a t i o n s became a p p a r e n t : 1. I t was n o t e d t h a t t h e p r e s e n c e o f the r o a d a l t e r e d t he c h a r a c t e r -i s t i c p a t t e r n o f the p l a n t a s s o c i a t i o n s . P a r t i c u l a r l y i n t h e F o r e s t Subzone, the removal o f s h a d e - p r o d u c i n g t r e e s and t a l l s h r u b s and the m o d i f i c a t i o n o f d r a i n a g e r e s u l t e d i n a r o a d s i d e e f f e c t . O f t e n t h e p l a n t a s s o c i a t i o n s i m m e d i a t e l y a d j a c e n t t o th e r o a d were d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h o s e f u r t h e r away from t h e r o a d . 2. P l a n t a s s o c i a t i o n s were n o t a b r u p t l y s e p a r a t e d f r o m each o t h e r . O f t e n t h e r e was a b l e n d i n g o f t h e a s s o c i a t i o n s ; t r a n s i t i o n s were n o t always s h a r p l y d e m a r c a t e d . 3. I t became a p p a r e n t t h a t i n o r d e r t o a p p r e c i a t e some o f t h e c h a n g i n g p a t t e r n s o f p l a n t d i s t r i b u t i o n , a e r i a l p h o t o g r a p h s would be e s s e n t i a l . However, a l t h o u g h a e r i a l p h o t o g r a p h s g r e a t l y a s s i s t i n l o c a t i n g t o p o g r a p h i c f e a t u r e s , s u r f a c e r u n -o f f , and v e g e t a t i o n a l c h a n g e s , t h e y were o f t e n o f i n s u f f i c i e n t d e t a i l f o r s i t e s p e c i f i c p l a n n i n g . S i t e s p e c i f i c i t y was a c h i e v e d w i t h f i e l d o b s e r v a t i o n . 4. By mapping t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n p a t t e r n s o f p l a n t a s s o c i a t i o n s o f whole p a r k s u s i n g both a e r i a l p h o t o g r a p h s and f i e l d o b s e r v a t i o n s an i n f o r m a t i o n bank can be c r e a t e d and c o u l d be a v a i l a b l e f o r 47 f u t u r e p l a n n i n g . A t the s i t e s p e c i f i c l e v e l , d e t a i l e d mapping can be used n o t o n l y f o r development p u r p o s e s b u t a l s o f o r n a t u r e s t u d y programs and p e r i o d i c a s s e s s m e n t o f e n v i r o n m e n t a l change. 5. The degree t o which p l a n t a s s o c i a t i o n s can be used i n the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s f o r p a r k s depends on t h e s i z e o f t h e s t u d y a r e a . With c o m p a r a t i v e l y l a r g e a r e a s o f l a n d , perhaps encompassing one o r more b i o g e o c l i m a t i c z o n e s , a g e n e r a l p e r s p e c t i v e o f r e c r e a t i o n a l l a n d use l i m i t a t i o n can be a s c e r t a i n e d f r o m t h e g e n e r a l d i s t r i b u t i o n p a t t e r n o f the p l a n t a s s o c i a t i o n s . A t t h i s s c a l e c e r t a i n p l a n t a s s o c i a t i o n s w i t h s i m i l a r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s may be a g g r e g a t e d t o form a c o a r s e v e g e t a t i o n a l m o s a i c t h a t would i n d i c a t e g e n e r a l r e c r e a t i o n a l l a n d use l i m i t a t i o n s . C o n v e r s e l y , w i t h s m a l l a r e a s o f l a n d , p e r h a p s encompassing o n l y one p l a n t a s s o c i a t i o n o r maybe a few p l a n t a s s o c i a t i o n s , a d e t a i l e d p e r s p e c t i v e o f r e c r e a t i o n a l l a n d use l i m i t a t i o n s can be o b t a i n e d from t he s p e c i f i c l o c a t i o n s and r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f each p l a n t a s s o c i a t i o n . F u r t h e r m o r e , some p a r k s may be m u l t i z o n a l , may i n c l u d e s e v e r a l b i o g e o c l i m a t i c zones each w i t h s e v e r a l p l a n t a s s o c i a t i o n s ; o t h e r p a r k s may be l o c a t e d e n t i r e l y w i t h i n one b i o g e o c l i m a t i c zone. L i k e w i s e , s p e c i f i c s i t e s w i t h i n a p a r k may i n c l u d e s e v e r a l p l a n t a s s o c i a t i o n s o r i n c l u d e o n l y one. Thus, t h e s i z e o f t h e a r e a and the d i s t r i b u t i o n p a t t e r n o f t h e v e g e t a t i o n w i l l d e t e r m i n e t he d e g r e e t o which p l a n t a s s o c i a t i o n s can be used i n the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . The a p p l i c a t i o n o f p l a n t a s s o c i a t i o n s as i n d i c a t o r s o f r e c r e a t i o n a l l a n d use l i m i t a t i o n s can range i n s c a l e from whole p a r k s o r l a r g e a r e a s o f p a r k s t o s p e c i f i c s i t e s . With such a range i n s c a l e , maps o f the 48 d i s t r i b u t i o n p a t t e r n s o f p l a n t a s s o c i a t i o n s w i l l range i n r e s o l u -t i o n from c o a r s e t o f i n e d e p e n d i n g on whether p l a n t a s s o c i a t i o n s a r e a g g r e g a t e d o r i n d i v i d u a l l y enumerated and d i s t i n g u i s h e d g r a p h i c a l l y . 6. By mapping t h e g e n e r a l d i s t r i b u t i o n p a t t e r n o f p l a n t a s s o c i a t i o n s , p l a n n e r s and n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e managers can o b t a i n a p e r s p e c t i v e o f l a n d use l i m i t a t i o n s w i t h i n the whole p a r k . With t h i s o v e r v i e w s p e c i f i c s i t e s can be chosen and c o o r d i n a t e d i n t o a Whole p a r k p l a n . Then h a v i n g s e l e c t e d s p e c i f i c s t i e s d e t a i l e d mapping o f p l a n t a s s o c i a t i o n s can a i d i n a r a t i o n a l development. By b e i n g aware o f t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n p a t t e r n and b i o g e o c l i m a t i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f p l a n t a s s o c i a t i o n s a park p l a n n e r o r n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e manager has a r a t i o n a l b a s i s f o r making d e c i s i o n s a b o u t r e c r e a t i o n a l l a n d use l i m i t a t i o n s and the c o s t s o f p r o v i d i n g r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s . LEGEND: MAP 2A NC: N a t u r e C o n s e r v a n c y Zone PA: P r i m i t i v e A c c e s s Zone PF: P r e s e r v a t i o n F e a t u r e Zone EA: E a s y A c c e s s Zone LEGEND: MAP 3 F o r e s t Subzone A-Tm: Abieto-Tsugetum mertensianae: E-S: Eriophoro-Sphagnetum: L-Cn: Lysiohito-Chamaecyparetum nootkatensis: O-Tp: Oplopanaco-Tkujetum plioatae: S-Aa: Streptopo-Abietetum ambilis: none to s l i g h t t o moderate s e v e r e s e v e r e s e v e r e moderate t o s e v e r e P a r k l a n d Subzone Cn: Caricetum n i g r i c a n t i s : s e v e r e L - C l : Leptarrheno-Calthetum leptosepalae: s e v e r e N-Tm: Nano-Tsugetum mertensianae: moderate P-Cm: Phyllodoco-Cassiopetum moderate mertensianae: Vd: Vaccinietum d e l i c i o s i : moderate V-Tm: Vaccinio-Tsugetum mertensianae: none t o s l i g h t 55 LEGEND: MAP 4 Cn: Caricetum n i g r i c a n t i s : s e v e r e L - C l : Leptarrheno-Calthetum s e v e r e leptosepalae: N-Tm: Nano-Tsugetum mertensianae: moderate P-Cm: Phyllodoco-Cassiopetum moderate mertensianae: Vd: Vaccinietum d e l i c i o s i : moderate' V-Tm: Vaccinio-Tsugetum none t o s l i g h t mertensianae: MAP 4 x PLANT ASSOCIATIONS AREA 2 meters 57 CHAPTER SIX CONCLUSIONS T h i s s t u d y has been c o n c e r n e d w i t h the r e c r e a t i o n a l l a n d use ca p -a b i l i t y as i n d i c a t e d by p l a n t a s s o c i a t i o n s w i t h i n t h e S u b a l p i n e M o u n t a i n Hemlock Zone o f s o u t h w e s t e r n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . Based on t h e b i o g e o c l i m a t i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e p l a n t a s s o c i a -t i o n s w i t h i n t h e S u b a l p i n e M o u n t a i n Hemlock Zone and on t h e c r i t e r i a f o r r a t i n g t h e l i m i t a t i o n of. l a n d f o r r e c r e a t i o n , c a p a b i l i t y r a t i n g s o f p l a n t a s s o c i a t i o n s f o r r e c r e a t i o n have been a s s i g n e d as f o l l o w s : 1. The Vaccinio-Tsugetwn mertensianae i s t h e l e a s t f r a g i l e p l a n t community i n the P a r k l a n d Subzone and has the f e w e s t l i m i t a t i o n s f o r campgrounds and t r a i l s . C a p a b i l i t y R a t i n g : None t o s l i g h t . 2. The Leptarrheno-Calthetum leptosepalae, b e i n g s e m i - t e r r e s t r i a l , i s one o f t h e w e t t e s t a s s o c i a t i o n s i n the S u b a l p i n e M o u n t a i n Hemlock Zone. I t has the d e e p e s t s o i l and t h i c k e s t o r g a n i c l a y e r and i s t h e l e a s t s t o n y i n the P a r k l a n d Subzone. C a p a b i l i t y R a t i n g : S e v e r e . 3. The Phyllodoco-Cassiopetum mertensianae a s s o c i a t i o n s a r e the most f r a g i l e p l a n t communities i n t h e P a r k l a n d Subzone. C a p a b i l i t y R a t i n g : M oderate. 4. The Saxifragetum tolmiei i s t h e most exposed p l a n t community, and has t h e s t e e p e s t s l o p e , s t o n i e s t s o i l , l e a s t s t a b l e s o i l , l o n g e s t snow d u r a t i o n , l e a s t v e g e t a t i o n , l e a s t humus i n t h e S u b a l p i n e M o u n t a i n Hemlock Zone. C a p a b i l i t y R a t i n g : S e v e r e (campgrounds), moderate ( t r a i l s ) . 5. The Caricetum n i g r i c a n t i s i s one o f t h e w e t t e s t and i s the f l a t t e s t i n the P a r k l a n d Subzone. C a p a b i l i t y R a t i n g : S e v e r e . 6. The Cladothamno-Tsugetum mertensianae i s the d r i e s t , and has t h e s h a l l o w e s t s o i l s , most open t r e e canopy, and one o f t h e d e n s e s t s h r u b c o v e r s i n the F o r e s t Subzone. C a p a b i l i t y R a t i n g : Moderate (campgrounds), None t o s l i g h t ( t r a i l s ) . 7. The Abieto-Tsugetum mertensianae and Strepto-Abietetum mer-tensianae b o t h have temporary seepage i n f l u e n c e s and a t h i c k w a t e r - h o l d i n g o r g a n i c l a y e r . C a p a b i l i t y R a t i n g s f o r Abieto-Tsugetum mertensianae: Moderate (campgrounds), None t o s l i g h t ( t r a i l s ) ; and f o r Strepto-Abietetum mertensianae: Moderate t o s e v e r e . 8. The Oplopanaco-Thujetum plioatae has a permanent f a s t -f l o w i n g seepage i n f l u e n c e . C a p a b i l i t y R a t i n g : S e v e r e . 9. The Lysiohito-Chamaecyparetum nootkatensis has the d e e p e s t s o i l and the s h o r t e s t snow d u r a t i o n i n the S u b a l p i n e M o u n t a i n Hemlock Zone. I t has a permanent slow-moving seepage i n f l u e n c e . C a p a b i l i t y R a t i n g : S e v e r e . 59 10. The Eriophoro-Sphagnetum i s the f l a t t e s t and w e t t e s t i n the F o r e s t Subzone and has t h e t h i c k e s t o r g a n i c l a y e r i n t h e S u b a l p i n e M o untain Hemlock Zone. C a p a b i l i t y R a t i n g : S e v e r e . I t i s a n t i c i p a t e d t h a t t h i s s i t e s p e c i f i c a p p r o a c h t o l a n d use p l a n n i n g based on r e a d i l y r e c o g n i z a b l e p l a n t i n d i c a t o r s i s a p p l i c a b l e t o o t h e r b i o g e o c l i m a t i c zones a l s o . Each o f the e l e v e n b i o g e o c l i m a t i c zones w i t h i n B r i t i s h C o l umbia c o u l d be s t u d i e d i n a s i m i l a r f a s h i o n t h e r e b y e n a b l i n g t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f a manual on the p l a n t a s s o c i a t i o n s o f B r i t i s h Columbia as i n d i c a t o r s o f r e c r e a t i o n a l l a n d use c a p a b i l i t y . F u r t h e r m o r e , o t h e r a c t i v i t i e s b e s i d e s r e c r e a t i o n c o u l d be s t u d i e d . C r i t e r i a c o u l d be e s t a b l i s h e d f o r r a t i n g t h e l i m i t a t i o n o f l a n d f o r o t h e r a c t i v i t i e s . Then c a p a b i l i t y r a t i n g s o f p l a n t a s s o c i a t i o n s c o u l d be a s s i g n e d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e b i o g e o c l i m a t i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f each p l a n t a s s o c i a t i o n and t h e c r i t e r i a f o r r a t i n g t h e l i m i t a t i o n o f l a n d f o r each a c t i v i t y . Thus t h e l a n d use p l a n n i n g a p p r o a c h p r e s e n t e d i n t h i s t h e s i s c o u l d be ex t e n d e d n o t o n l y t o o t h e r b i o g e o c l i m a t i c zones b e s i d e s t h e S u b a l p i n e Mountain Hemlock Zone b u t a l s o t o o t h e r a c t i v i t i e s b e s i d e s r e c r e a t i o n . T h i s s t u d y i s a r e s p o n s e t o the need f o r a s i t e s p e c i f i c a p p r o a c h t o l a n d use p l a n n i n g based on r e a d i l y r e c o g n i z a b l e i n d i c a t o r s . By i d e n t i f y i n g and mapping p l a n t a s s o c i a t i o n s , a r e c r e a t i o n a l l a n d use c a p a b i l i t y d i s t r i b u t i o n i s made a p p a r e n t . With such d e t a i l e d s i t e s p e c i f i c i t y , p l a n n e r s and n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e managers can make r a t i o n a l d e c i s i o n s a b o u t l a n d use based on the b i o g e o c l i m a t i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s 60 o f p l a n t a s s o c i a t i o n s and on t h e l i m i t a t i o n s o f l a n d f o r r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s . Thus by u s i n g the c a p a b i l i t y r a t i n g o f p l a n t a s s o c i a t i o n s f o r r e c r e a t i o n d e c i s i o n s as t o whether o r n o t r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s s h o u l d be l o c a t e d a t a s p e c i f i c s i t e can be made based on the b i o g e o -c l i m a t i c l i m i t a t i o n s o f the p l a n t a s s o c i a t i o n s and on the a s s o c i a t e d u n i t c o s t s o f p r o v i d i n g t h e f a c i l i t i e s . T h i s t h e s i s has d e m o n s t r a t e d t h a t the p l a n t a s s o c i a t i o n s , as c a t e g o r i z e d by K r a j i n a (1969) and Brooke e t a l . ( 1 9 7 0 ) , can be used as i n d i c a t o r s o f r e c r e a t i o n a l l a n d use c a p a b i l i t y w i t h i n the S u b a l p i n e Mountain Hemlock Zone. 61 BIBLIOGRAPHY B r i e r e , D. ( 1 9 7 5 ) . "A L a n d s c a p e A p p r o a c h t o E n v i r o n m e n t a l C l a s s i f i -c a t i o n i n t h e Upper C h i l l i w a c k V a l l e y : I n t e r p r e t a t i o n s f o r S e l e c t e d R e c r e a t i o n a l A c t i v i t i e s . " C h a p t e r V i n R e g i o n a l  N a t u r a l R e s o u r c e s P l a n n i n g : A Framework and i t s A p p l i c a t i o n  t o t h e C h i l l i w a c k R i v e r B a s i n i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , Morton, W. and I.K. Fox, e d i t o r s , Westwater I n s t i t u t e , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , V a n c o u v e r , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . B r o o k e , R . C , E.B. P e t e r s o n , and V . J . K r a j i n a . ( 1 9 7 0 ) . "The Sub-a l p i n e M o u n t a i n Hemlock Zone." E c o l o g y o f Western N o r t h  A m e r i c a . V o l . 2, No. 2, pp. 148-349. Canada Department o f R e g i o n a l Economic E x p a n s i o n . ( 1 9 6 9 ) . Land Capa- b i l i t y C l a s s i f i c a t i o n f o r O u t d o o r R e c r e a t i o n . R e p o r t No. 6-1969. Canada Land I n v e n t o r y . Ottawa, Canada. Cressman, D.R. and D.W. Hoffman. ( 1 9 6 8 ) . " C l a s s i f y i n g Land f o r R e c r e a t i o n . " J o u r n a l o f S o i l and Water C o n s e r v a t i o n , V o l . 23, No. 3, pp. 91-93. Eekman, G.C.D. ( 1 9 7 2 ) . N a t u r a l R e s o u r c e s and R e c r e a t i o n i n G a r i b a l d i  P a r k 1972. P a r k s B r a n c h , Department o f R e c r e a t i o n and C o n s e r v a t i o n , V i c t o r i a , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . Hawes, R.A. ( 1 9 7 4 ) . A L a n d s c a p e A p p r o a c h t o Land C l a s s i f i c a t i o n and P l a n n i n g - Okanagan V a l l e y BrTtiTFTJoTumTiTa: M.Sc. I h e s i s , Department o f S o i l S c i e n c e , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , V a n c o u v e r , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . Hawes, R.A. ( 1 9 7 5 ) . "A L a n d s c a p e A p p r o a c h t o E n v i r o n m e n t a l C l a s s i f i c a t i o n i n the Upper C h i l l i w a c k V a l l e y : I n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f S o i l E r o s i o n and Mass S o i l Movement P o t e n t i a l . " C h a p t e r IV i n R e g i o n a l N a t u r a l R e s o u r c e s P l a n n i n g : A Framework and  i t s A p p l i c a t i o n to the C h i l l i w a r k R i v e r B a s i n i n B r i t i s h  C o l u m b i a , M o r t o n , W. and I.K. Fox, e d i t o r s . H i r v o n e n , H.E., J.P. Senyk, and E.T. Oswald. ( 1 9 7 4 ) . S a l t s p r i n g  I s l a n d : A L a n d s c a p e A n a l y s i s . BC-X-99. E n v i r o n m e n t Canada. P a c i f i c F o r e s t R e s e a r c h C e n t r e , 506 West B u r n s i d e Road, V i c t o r i a , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . H i l l s , G.A. ( 1 9 6 1 ) . The E c o l o g i c a l B a s i s f o r Land-Use P l a n n i n g . R e s e a r c h R e p o r t No. 46. R e s e a r c h B r a n c h , O n t a r i o Department o f Lands and F o r e s t s . H i l l s , G.A. ( 1 9 6 6 ) . "The C l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f Land f o r M u l t i p l e Use," i n P r o c e e d i n g s o f the N a t i o n a l Committee on F o r e s t Land. Canada Department o f F o r e s t r y , Ottawa, Canada. H i l l s , G.A., D.V. Love, and D.S. L a c a t e . ( 1 9 7 0 ) . D e v e l o p i n g a  B e t t e r E n v i r o n m e n t : E c o l o g i c a l Land-Use P l a n n i n g i n O n t a r i o - A S t u d y o f M e t h o d o l o g y i n t h e Development o f  R e g i o n a l P l a n s . O n t a r i o Economic C o u n c i 1 . K r a j i n a , V . J . ( 1 9 6 5 ) . " B i o g e o c l i m a t i c Zones and C l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . " E c o l o g y o f Western N o r t h A m e r i c a . V o l . 1, pp. 1-17. K r a j i n a , V . J . ( 1 9 6 9 ) . " E c o l o g y o f F o r e s t T r e e s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . E c o l o g y o f W e s t e r n N o r t h A m e r i c a . V o l . 2, No. 1, pp. 1-147. L a c a t e , D.S. ( 1 9 6 9 ) . G u i d e l i n e s f o r B i o - P h y s i c a l Land C l a s s i f i -c a t i o n : A C l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f F o r e s t Lands and A s s o c i a t e d  W i l d l a n d s . P u b l i c a t i o n No. 1264. Department o f F i s h e r i e s and F o r e s t r y , C a n a d i a n F o r e s t r y S e r v i c e , Ottawa, Canada. McHarg, I . ( 1 9 6 9 ) . D e s i g n w i t h N a t u r e . A m e r i c a n Museum o f N a t u r a l H i s t o r y , N a t u r a l H i s t o r y P r e s s . Garden C i t y , New Y o r k . Montgomery, P.H. and F.C. E d m i n s t e r . ( 1 9 6 6 ) . "Use o f S o i l S u r v e y s i n P l a n n i n g f o r R e c r e a t i o n , " i n S o i l S u r v e y s and Land  Use P l a n n i n g , L . J . B a r t e l l i , A.A. K l i n g e b i e l , J.V. B a i r d , and M.R. H e d d l e s o n , e d i t o r s . S o i l S c i e n c e S o c i e t y o f A m e r i c a , M a d i s o n , W i s c o n s i n , pp. 104-112. 63 M o r t o n , W. and I.K. Fox. ( 1 9 7 5 ) . R e g i o n a l N a t u r a l R e s o u r c e s P l a n n i n g : A Framework and i t s A p p l i c a t i o n t o the C h i l l i w a c k R i v e r B a s i n i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . Westwater I n s t i t u t e , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , V a n c o u v e r , B r i t i s h Columbia. P e t e r s o n , E.B. ( 1 9 6 9 ) . "Radiosonde Data f o r C h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n o f a Mountain E n v i r o n m e n t i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . " E c o l o g y . V o l . 50, pp. 200-205. S t e v e n s , M.E. ( 1 9 6 6 ) . " S o i l S u r v e y s as A p p l i e d t o R e c r e a t i o n S i t e P l a n n i n g . " J o u r n a l o f F o r e s t r y . V o l . 64, No. 5, pp. 314-316. Swanston, D.N. ( 1 9 7 0 ) . M e c h a n i c s o f D e b r i s A v a l a n c h i n q i n S h a l l o w  T i l l S o i l s o f S o u t h e a s t e r n A l a s k a . U.S.D.A., F o r e s t S e r v i c e , P a c i f i c N o r t h w e s t F o r e s t and Range E x p e r i m e n t a l S t a t i o n . Swanston, D.N. and C T . D y r n e s s . ( 1 9 7 3 ) . " S t a b i l i t y o f S t e e p Land." J o u r n a l o f F o r e s t r y . V o l . 71, No. 5, pp. 264-269. T u r n e r , M. ( 1 9 7 4 ) . A D i r e c t i o n f o r Diamond Head. P l a n n i n g D i v i s i o n , P a r k s B r a n c h , Department o f R e c r e a t i o n and C o n s e r v a t i o n , V i c t o r i a , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . U n i t e d S t a t e s Department o f A g r i c u l t u r e . ( 1 9 5 1 ) . S o i l S u r v e y Manual. U.S.D.A. Handbook No. 18. W a l l a c e , McHarg, R o b e r t s and Todd. ( 1 9 7 1 ) . A m e l i a I s l a n d , F l o r i d a :  A R e p o r t on the M a s t e r P l a n n i n g P r o c e s s f o r a New R e c r e a t i o n a l Community. WMPT, 1737 C h e s t n u t S t r e e t , P h i l a d e l p h i a , P e n s y l v a n i a 19103. A P P E N D I X THE PLANT ASSOCIATIONS OF THE SUBALPINE MOUNTAIN HEMLOCK ZONE (Based on the d a t a o f Brooke e t a l . (1970)) TABLE IX The Vaccinio-Tsugetum mertensianae (V-Tm) Topography S l o p e (°) Snow d u r a t i o n (months) Humus t y p e S o i l t y p e P a r e n t m a t e r i a l D r a i n a g e H y g r o t o p e T h i c k n e s s o f humus (cm) Main r o o t c o n c e n t r a t i o n t o (cm) Permeable s o i l d e p t h (cm) S t o n i n e s s o f p r o f i l e (%) C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s p e c i e s : t r e e s -Ridge t o m i d - s l o p e w i t h complex, convex, s t r a i g h t r e l i e f 14 (0-40) 8.1 (7.5-8.5) M y c e l i a l r o o t mor Humic P o d z o l Glacial t i l l M o d e r a t e l y t o w e l l - d r a i n e d M e s i c t o m o d e r a t e l y d r y 21 (5-36) 25 (10-40) 56 + (38-72+) 19 (0-30) Tsuga mertensiana ( c d ) * Abies amabilis (cd) t a l l s h r u b s - Vaccinium membranaoeum ( c d ) Rhododendron albiflorum ( d , s ) low s h r u b s - Vaccinium deliciosum ( c ) ground l a y e r - Rhytidiopsis robusta ( c ) Dicranum fuscescens (d) c = c o n s t a n t , d = dominant, and s = s e l e c t i v e D e s c r i p t i o n 66 Chionophobous c o a s t a l s u b a l p i n e and montane f o r e s t e d u n i t s w i t h snow d u r a t i o n a v e r a g i n g a b o u t 8 months s h r u b l a y e r s dominated by e r i c a c e o u s d e c i d u o u s s p e c i e s . Communities a s s o c i a t e d w i t h P o d z o l and Humic P o d z o l s o i l s o r g l e y e d e q u i v a l e n t s ; humus t h i c k and a c i d t o e x t r e m e l y a c i d i n r e a c t i o n . Brooke e t a l . (1970) T h i s a s s o c i a t i o n i s f o r e s t e d w i t h e i t h e r o c c a s i o n a l clumps o f t r e e s o r l a r g e r p a t c h e s o f c o n t i n u o u s f o r e s t a t l o w e r e l e v a t i o n s i n t h e P a r k l a n d Subzone. I t i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by c h i o n o p h o b o u s v e g e t a t i o n w h ich i s f r e e o f snow 3 - 4 weeks e a r l i e r t h a n a d j a c e n t h a b i t a t s and i s f o u n d on m e s i c t o m o d e r a t e l y d r y h a b i t a t s o f w e l l - t o m o d e r a t e l y w e l l -d r a i n e d r i d g e c r e s t s and upper s l o p e s . In exposed h a b i t a t s t h e t a l l s h r u b s o c c u r c l o s e l y clumped a r o u n d t h e base o f t r e e s . Herbaceous p l a n t s and shade i n t o l e r a n t low s h r u b s a r e p o o r l y d e v e l o p e d i n t h i s a s s o c i a t i o n . The humus i s t h i c k and r o o t s a r e l a r g e l y c o n f i n e d t o t h i s o r g a n i c l a y e r . 67 TABLE X The Leptarrheno - Calthetum leptosepalae (L-C1) Topography S l o p e (°) Snow d u r a t i o n (months) Humus t y p e S o i l t y p e D r a i n a g e H y g r o t o p e Ground water d e p t h (cm) T h i c k n e s s o f Humus (cm) Main r o o t c o n c e n t r a t i o n t o (cm) Permeable s o i l d e p t h (cm) S t o n i n e s s o f p r o f i l e (%) B a s i n , l o b e w i t h convex, s t r a i g h t r e l i e f 8 (2-14) 7.7 (7.5-8) S e m i - t e r r e s t r i a l f o r m s , anmoors and p e a t s S e m i - t e r r e s t r i a l o r g a n i c V e r y poor t o poor H y d r i c ( s e m i - t e r r e s t r i a l ) 14 (2-32) 46 (25-67) 18 (10-35) 64+ (26-80+) 8 (0-30) C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s p e c i e s : h e r b a c e o u s p l a n t s - Leptarrhena p y r o l i f o l i a ( c d , s ) Caltha leptosepala ( c d , s ) Erigeron peregrtnus ( c d , s ) Equisetwn palustre ( d , s ) Parnassia fimbriata ( c d , s ) Rhytidiadelphus squarrous ( c d , s ) Drepanooladus aduncus ( c d , s ) P h i l a n o t i s fontana ( c d , e ) ground l a y e r 68 D e s c r i p t i o n : M o d e r a t e l y c h i o n o p h i l o u s communities o f g e n e r a l l y s p r i n g - l i n e o r stream-edge s e m i - t e r r e s t r i a l h a b i t a t s ; moving w a t e r i s c o l d and where f a s t - f l o w i n g , snow d u r a t i o n may be somewhat l e s s t h a n 8 months. Lush h e r b a c e o u s v e g e t a t i o n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f a l p i n e meadow communities i s a s t r i k i n g f e a t u r e o f t h i s u n i t . Brooke e t a l . (1970) Herbaceous communities may form a s l i g h t l y r a i s e d s u r f a c e i n t h e shape o f a l o b e o v e r t h e a d j a c e n t ground l e v e l ; t h e r a i s e d s u r f a c e c o n s i s t s o f wel l - d e c o m p o s e d humus a c c u m u l a t i o n s . When t h i s a s s o c i a t i o n o c c u r s on t h e m a r g i n o f streams d i f f e r e n t c o m b i n a t i o n s o f s p e c i e s o c c u r i n bands p a r a l l e l t o t h e open w a t e r . The leptavvheno-Calthetum leptosepalae h a b i t a t s have a h y d r i c ( s e m i - t e r r e s t r i a l ) m o i s t u r e regime w i t h g r o u n d w a t e r p e r m a n e n t l y p r e s e n t a t o r v e r y c l o s e t o t h e s u r f a c e ; t he s o i l i s s a t u r a t e d . The w a t e r i s c o l d and i t s movement may v a r y from f a s t i n the f l u s h h a b i t a t s t o slow but c o n t i n u o u s i n o t h e r s . T h e r e i s l i t t l e t e n d e n c y f o r t h e water t o s t a g n a t e i n s m a l l p o o l s w h i c h may be p r e s e n t on the s u r f a c e and the w a t e r movement h a s t e n s snow m e l t . T h i s p r o v i d e s t h e h a b i t a t w i t h a s l i g h t l y l o n g e r growing s e a s o n than a t t h e a d j a c e n t m o d e r a t e l y c h i o n o p h i l o u s t e r r e s t r i a l h a b i t a t s . TABLE XI The Phyllodooo-Cassiopetum mertensianae (P-Cm) Topography S l o p e (°) Snow d u r a t i o n (months) Humus t y p e S o i l t y p e P a r e n t m a t e r i a l D r a i n a g e H y g r o t o p e T h i c k n e s s o f humus (cm) Main r o o t c o n c e n t r a t i o n t o (cm) Rermeable s o i l d e p t h (cm) S t o n i n e s s o f p r o f i l e (%) C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s p e c i e s : low s h r u b s A l l p o s i t i o n s on s l o p e w i t h convex, s t r a i g h t , c o n c a v e r e l i e f 10 (0-26) 8.6 (8-9) M a t t e d , f i b r o u s , r o o t o r g r e a s y mors, d y s t r o p h i c moder S u b a l p i n e I n t e r g r a d e s t o P o d z o l s w i t h t e r r e s t r i a l A-B-C h o r i z o n sequence G l a c i a l t i l l M o derate t o i m p e r f e c t H y g r i c t o mesic 7 (0-28) 12 (5-24) 40+ (21-85+) 22 (5-50) - Phyllodoce empetriformis (cd) Cassiope mertensiana (cd) Luetkea pectinata ( c ) Lyoopodium sitchense ( c ) Vacoinium deliciosum ( c ) ground l a y e r - Orthocaulis f l o e r k i i ( c d ) Dioranum fuscesoens (d) D e s c r i p t i o n : M o d e r a t e l y c h i o n o p h i l o u s c o m m u n i t i e s dominated by h e a t h - l i k e o r low s h r u b s p e c i e s o f t e r r e s t r i a l m e s i c t o h y g r i c h a b i t a t s ; snow d u r a t i o n a v e r a g i n g 8 and 9 month l i m i t s c o l o n i z a t i o n by c o n i f e r s t o dwarf and s c r u b f o r m s . P i t c h y b l a c k and p e a t y raw humus o f a c i d r e a c t i o n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y forms a w e l l - d e f i n e d o r g a n i c l a y e r o v e r the s l i g h t l y t o m o d e r a t e l y p o d z o l i z e d m i n e r a l s o i l . B rooke e t a l . (1970) The a s s o c i a t i o n i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by an e x t r e m e l y dense and m atted c o v e r o f Phyllodoce empetriformis ( r e d h e a t h e r ) and Cassiope mertensiana ( w h i t e moss h e a t h e r ) . A t h i g h e l e v a t i o n s i n the P a r k l a n d Subzone where the h a b i t a t s a r e m e s i c to h y g r i c , the humus i s f i n e l y decomposed, m a t t e d w i t h r o o t s o f the low s h r u b s p e c i e s . A t lo w e r e l e v a t i o n s where h a b i t a t s a r e more h y g r i c , t h e humus i s t h i c k e r . Seepage may be p r e s e n t f o l l o w i n g heavy r a i n s . S o i l s o f th e Phyllodooo-Cassiopetum mertensianae a r e u s u a l l y s h a l l o w . B edrock o r a f i r m compacted f r a g i p a n - l i k e l a y e r may be p r e s e n t w i t h i n a b o u t 6 t o 18 i n c h e s o f t h e m i n e r a l s o i l s u r f a c e . Most o f t h e r o o t s a r e c o n f i n e d t o t h e o r g a n i c h o r i z o n s . 71 TABLE XII The Nano-Tsugetum mertensianae (N-Tm) Topography S l o p e (°) Snow d u r a t i o n (months) Humus t y p e S o i l t y p e , P a r e n t m a t e r i a l D r a i n a g e H y g r o t o p e T h i c k n e s s o f humus (cm) Main r o o t c o n c e n t r a t i o n t o (cm) Permeable s o i l d e p t h (cm) S t o n i n e s s o f p r o f i l e (%) Ridge t o lower s l o p e w i t h c o n v e x , s t r a i g h t , c o n c a v e r e l i e f 16 (5-30) 8.2 (7.5-8.5) M a t t e d , r o o t , o r g r e a s y mors, d y s t r o p h i c moder S u b a l p i n e I n t e r g r a d e s G l a c i a l t i l l M o derate t o i m p e r f e c t H y g r i c t o mesic 7 (0-17) 13 (5-37) 45 (25-79+) 30 (10-60) C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s p e c i e s : t a l l s h r u b s - Tsuga mertensiana (cd) low s h r u b s - Cassiope mertensiana ( c d ) Phyllodoce empetriformis (cd) Luetkea pectinata (cd) Vacoinium delioiosum ( c ) ground l a y e r Orthooaulis f l o e r k i i ( c ) Racomitrium heterostiohum (cd) Dicranum fuscescens ( c ) 72 D e s c r i p t i o n : V e g e t a t i o n o f t h e Nano-Tsugetum mertensianae a s s o c i a t i o n c l o s e l y r e s e m b l e s t h a t f o r the Phyllodooo-Cassiopetum a s s o c i a t i o n . The p r e s e n c e and dominance o f c h a r a c t e r i s t i c dwarf o r s h r u b - l i k e Tsuga mertensiana p h y s i o g n o m i c a l l y d i s t i n g u i s h e s t h i s u n i t from t h e s u r r o u n d i n g low s h r u b communities o f t h e P a r k l a n d Subzone. Because o f the s h o r t g r o w i n g s e a s o n (3 1 / 2 - 4 1/2 months) and the deep snow a c c u m u l a t i o n which c a u s e s much d e f o r m a t i o n and breakage o f the t r e e s , m o u n t a i n hemlock may r e a c h a h e i g h t o f o n l y 4 f e e t i n 100 y e a r s a t h i g h e l e v a t i o n s and 6 t o 10 f e e t a f t e r 50 t o 100 y e a r s a t lower e l e v a t i o n s i n t h e P a r k l a n d Subzone. A l t h o u g h a more o r l e s s e r e c t stem d e v e l o p s on f l a t t o g e n t l y s l o p i n g t o p o g r a p h y , on s t e e p l y s l o p i n g h a b i t a t s t h e t r e e s o f t e n l e a n and snow c r e e p c a u s e s a s t r o n g b a s a l c r o o k on t h e stems. The a s s o c i a t i o n i s c o n s i d e r e d t o be m o d e r a t e l y c h i o n o p h i l o u s . Snow-free p e r i o d s a r e s l i g h t l y l o n g e r than f o r t h e a d j a c e n t Phyllodooo-Cassiopetum h a b i t a t s . The Nano-Tsugetum mertensianae o c c u r s on convex t o s t r a i g h t t o p o g r a p h y f r o m r i d g e c r e s t s t o m i d - s l o p e s where a warmer c l i m a t e o r s h a l l o w e r snow d e p t h c o n t r i b u t e s t o a snow d u r a t i o n 2 t o 3 weeks s h o r t e r than f o r the Phyllodooo-Cassiopetum h a b i t a t s . S o i l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s r e s e m b l e t h o s e o f the Phyllodooo-Cassio-oetum metensianae. 73 TABLE X I I I The Vacoinietum d e l i c i o s i (Vd) Topography S l o p e (°) Snow d u r a t i o n (months) Humus t y p e S o i l t y p e P a r e n t m a t e r i a l D r a i n a g e H y g r o t o p e T h i c k n e s s o f humus (cm) Main r o o t c o n c e n t r a t i o n to (cm) Permeable s o i l d e p t h (cm) S t o n i n e s s o f p r o f i l e (%) C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s p e c i e s : t a l l s h r u b s low s h r u b s A l l p o s i t i o n s on s l o p e w i t h c o n c a v e , s t r a i g h t r e l i e f 16 (10-26) 8.4 (8-8.5) G r e a s y , m a t t e d , r o o t mors, p e a t R a n k e r - l i k e s o i l s , S u b a l p i n e I n t e r -g r a d e s , P o d z o l s G l a c i a l t i l l Poor t o moderate H y g r i c t o mesic 21 (12-44) 16 (10-22) 45+ (33-54) 34 (5-60) Vacoinium deliciosum ( c d ) "Phyllodoce empetriformis (cd) Cassiope mertensiana ( c d ) Luetkea pectinata ( c ) ground l a y e r - Dioranum fuscescens ( c d ) Orthooaulis f l o e r k i i (cd) Rhytidiopsis robusta ( c ) 74 D e s c r i p t i o n : The Vacoinietum d e l i c i o s i a s s o c i a t i o n o c c u p i e s h a b i t a t s i n t e r -m e d i a t e i n snow d u r a t i o n between the Phyllodoco-Cassiopetum and t h e Vaocinio-Tsugetum mertensianae. The a s s o c i a t i o n has a sno w - f r e e p e r i o d a b o u t 1 t o 3 weeks l o n g e r t h a n the a d j a c e n t Phyllodoco-Cassiopetum h a b i t a t s and a b o u t 1 t o 3 weeks s h o r t e r than Vaccino-Tsugetum merten-sianae h a b i t a t s . In the P a r k l a n d Subzone the a s s o c i a t i o n o f t e n forms a " b r i d g e " between i s o l a t e d t r e e s and s m a l l t r e e clumps and g i v e s way t o t h e Phyllodoco-Cassiopetum w i t h i n c r e a s i n g snow d u r a t i o n . Vacoinietum d e l i c i o s i has a snow d u r a t i o n s l i g h t l y l o n g e r t h a n t h a t o f the Nano-Tsugetum. The h y g r o t o p e i s h y g r i c t o m e s i c . The s h r u b l a y e r o f t h i s community i s w e l l d e v e l o p e d and domin-a t e d by Vacoinium deliciosum, the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f which r e s u l t s f r o m d i f f e r e n c e s i n the l e n g t h o f the growing s e a s o n . I t s f r e q u e n t c o n c e n t r a -t i o n a l o n g s m a l l s t r e a m s s u g g e s t s t h a t i t i s l e s s c h i o p h i l o u s t h a n e i t h e r Phyllodoce empetriformis o r Cassiope mertensiana. The humus t y p e i s a w e l l d e v e l o p e d g r e a s y mor o r r o o t mor which i s o f t e n s h a r p l y s e p a r a t e d f r o m t h e m i n e r a l s o i l . Near t h e m i n e r a l s o i l s u r f a c e , t h e humus g r a d e s w i t h d e p t h t o a v e r y f i n e t e x t u r e d b l a c k p i t c h y ( g r e a s y ) mor. T h i s humus has a h i g h w a t e r - h o l d i n g c a p a c i t y and re m a i n s v e r y m o i s t t h r o u g h o u t t h e y e a r . O r g a n i c h o r i z o n s a r e c o n s i d e r a b l y t h i c k e r ( a v e r a g e 21 cm) th a n t h o s e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e Phyllodooo-Cassiopetum o r t h e Nano-Tsugetum mertensianae ( a v e r a g e 7 t o 8 cm). 75 TABLE XIV The Saxifvagetum tolmiei ( S t ) Topography M i d - s l o p e w i t h convex, s t r a i g h t r e l i e f S l o p e (°) Snow d u r a t i o n (months) Humus t y p e S o i l t y p e P a r e n t m a t e r i a l D r a i n a g e H y g r o t o p e T h i c k n e s s o f humus (cm) Main r o o t c o n c e n t r a t i o n t o (cm) Permeable s o i l d e p t h (cm) S t o n i n e s s o f p r o f i l e (%) 23 (19-29) 9.5 Raw s o i l , humus r a r e T e r r e s t r i a l raw s o i l G l a c i a l t i l l on sheet-wash o r c o l l u v -i a l s l o p e W e l l t o moderate M o d e r a t e l y d r y t o h y g r i c 0 8 (5-10) 34+ (25+ - 50+) 45 (25-60) C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s p e c i e s : low s h r u b - Saxifvaga tolmiei ( c d , s ) ground l a y e r - Mavsupella bvevissima (cd) D e s c r i p t i o n : C h i o n o p h i l o u s communities c o v e r e d by snow f o r a t l e a s t 9 t o 10 months, d e v e l o p i n g on r e g o s o l i c (A)-C s u b a l p i n e and a l p i n e s o i l s ; s o i l and v e g e t a -t i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t l i m i t e d by s o i l movement ( s o l i f l u c t i o n , f r o s t - h e a v i n g and sheet-wash) and o c c u r r e n c e u s u a l l y on s l o p e s w i t h n o r t h e r n e x p o s u r e s , c o l d a i r d r a i n a g e o r f r o s t - p o c k e t s and an o c c a s i o n a l permanent annual c o v e r a g e o f snow. P a t t e r n e d s u r f a c e f e a t u r e s s u c h as s t o n e s t r i p e s , c r e s c e n t shaped s o r t e d s t o n e p a t t e r n s and ha m a d a - l i k e s u r f a c e s a r e common. Brooke e t a l . (1970) The a s s o c i a t i o n i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by i t s p h y s i o g n o m i c s i m p l i c i t y and t h e s m a l l number o f c o n s t i t u e n t s p e c i e s . I t d e v e l o p s on u n s t a b l e s l o p e s and l a t e s n o w - l i e a r e a s . Saxifvagetum tolmiei h a b i t a t s a r e c h a r a c t e r i z e d by slow g r a v i t a t i o n a l movement o f m a t e r i a l near the s u r f a c e promoted by heavy r a i n s on u n p r o t e c t e d s l o p e s , f r o s t - h e a v i n g and n e e d l e i c e i n e a r l y f a l l , an e x t r e m e l y s h o r t s n o w - f r e e p e r i o d , and c o o l m i c r o -c l i m a t e s . S a t u r a t i o n o f t h e s o i l from n e a r b y l a t e - m e l t i n g snow a c c u m u l a t i o n a r e a s f a v o r s s o l i f l u c t i o n . Heavy r a i n s i n summer e r o d e s u r f a c e s o f t h e community i n a r e a s n o t p r o t e c t e d by t h e s p a r s e v e g e -t a t i o n c o v e r . C o a r s e g r a v e l and s t o n e s a r e s h i f t e d downslope and s o r t e d i n t o p a t t e r n s where sheet-wash i s i n t e r r u p t e d by l a r g e t e m p o r a r i l y s t a b i l i z e d s t o n e g r o u p s o r s o l i t a r y r o c k s and p a t c h e s o f p l a n t c o v e r . A l t h o u g h i n s t a b i l i t y o f t h e s l o p e i s a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c c o n d i t i o n c o n t r i b u t i n g t o t h e s p a r s e v e g e t a t i o n and immature s o i l p r o f i l e d e v e l o p m e n t , l a t e s n o w - l i e i s a l s o o f c r i t i c a l i m p o r t a n c e . The s l o w l y m e l t i n g snow m a i n t a i n s a c o l d i r r i g a t i o n s u p p l y and d e l a y s warming o f the s o i l . Saxifvaga tolmiei, a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c c o n s t a n t dominant s p e c i e s , i s e s t a b l i s h e d below o r w i t h i n t he p r o t e c t i o n o f s t a b i l i z e d r o c k s . A n o t h e r c o n s t a n t d ominant, Mavsupella bvevissima, a b r y o p h y t e , p i o n e e r s on u n s t a b l e s l o p e s where i t forms c h a r a c t e r i s t i c m a t - l i k e c o l o n i e s . S o i l s o f the Saxifragetum tolmiei h a b i t a t s a r e immature. The uppermost h o r i z o n i s weakly d e v e l o p e d , c o n t a i n s o n l y a few r o o t s , and i s o n l y s l i g h t l y d arkened by s m a l l amounts o f c r u d e l y i n c o r p o r a t e d o r g a n i c m a t t e r . The l a t e - m e l t i n g snow and c o o l c l i m a t e f a v o r s l i t t l e b i o l o g i c a l a c t i v i t y i n the s o i l s . TABLE XV The Cariaetum n i g r i c a n t i s (Cn) Topography B a s i n w i t h s t r a i g h t r e l i e f on a l l u v i u m , outwash f a n S l o p e (°) Snow d u r a t i o n (months) Humus t y p e S o i l t y p e D r a i n a g e H y g r o t o p e T h i c k n e s s o f humus (cm) Main r o o t c o n c e n t r a t i o n to. (cm) Permeable s o i l d e p t h (cm) S t o n i n e s s o f p r o f i l e (%) 1 (0-5) 9.2 (9-9.5) R h i z o g e n o u s anmoor Snow b a s i n anmoor Ve r y poor t o poor H y g r i c t o h y d r i c 4 (0-24) 21 (7-25) 60+ (50+- 72+) 13 (0-50) C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s p e c i e s : low s h r u b s - Carex nigricans (cd) Deschampsia atropurpurea(c) ground l a y e r - Polytrichum norvegicum ( c d , s ) K i a e r i a b l y t t i i ( c ) 79 D e s c r i p t i o n : C h i o n o p h i l o u s sedge and b r y o p h y t e v e g e t a t i o n o f S c h n e e t a l c h e n s e m i - t e r r e s t r i a l h a b i t a t s d e v e l o p i n g on a n m o o r - l i k e A-C s u b a l p i n e and a l p i n e s o i l s ; s o i l and v e g e t a t i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t l i m i t e d by l a t e s n o w - l i e and t h e c o l d u s u a l l y w a t e r - s a t u r a t e d r o o t e n v i r o n m e n t . D e p o s i t i o n o f f i n e o r g a n i c and i n -o r g a n i c s e d i m e n t s i s common i n t h e s e b a s i n o r d e p r e s s i o n h a b i t a t s f o l l o w i n g snow m e l t . Brooke e t a l . (-1970) T h i s a s s o c i a t i o n , l i k e t h e Saxifvagetum, i s s t r o n g l y c h i o n o p h i l o u s w i t h snow r e m a i n i n g on the h a b i t a t f o r 9 months o r l o n g e r each y e a r . The Cariaetum n i g v i c a n t i s i s c o n f i n e d t o s e m i - t e r r e s t r i a l h a b i t a t s such as b a s i n s o f f l a t t o s l i g h t l y c o n c a v e r e l i e f . A w a t e r - t a b l e may be found w i t h i n a few i n c h e s o f t h e s u r f a c e e x c e p t f o r b r i e f p e r i o d s o f the y e a r and the s u r f a c e s a r e f l o o d e d a n n u a l l y f o l l o w i n g snow m e l t and a f t e r e a c h heavy r a i n . The h a b i t a t i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by s e m i - t e r r e s t r i a l o r g round-water s o i l s . An e x t r e m e l y dense mat o f Carex nigviaans c h a r a c t e r i z e s t h e v e g e t a t i o n o f t h i s community and i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r th e t u r f - l i k e o r r h i z o g e n o u s n a t u r e o f the s u r f a c e s o i l . 80 TABLE XVI The Cladothamno-Tsugetum mertensianae (C-Tm) Topography S l o p e (°) Snow d u r a t i o n (months) Humus t y p e S o i l t y p e P a r e n t m a t e r i a l D r a i n a g e H y g r o t o p e T h i c k n e s s o f humus (cm) Main r o o t c o n c e n t r a t i o n t o (cm) Permeable s o i l d e p t h (cm) S t o n i n e s s o f p r o f i l e (%) Ridge t o lo w e r s l o p e w i t h complex, convex, s t r a i g h t , c o n c a v e r e l i e f 14 (0-30) 7.1 (7-8) M y c e l i a l r o o t , matted r o o t mors P o d z o l s , P o d z o l R a n k e r s , R a n k e r s S h a l l o w and g l a c i a l t i l l W e l l - d r a i n e d t o moderate Dry t o m e s i c , t e m p o r a r i l y h y g r i c 16 (6-37) 18 (8-35) 45 (12-92) 27 (0-60) C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s p e c i e s : t r e e s - Tsuga mertensiana ( c d ) Abies amabilis ( c d ) Chamaeayparis nootkatensis ( c d ) t a l l s h r u b s - Cladothamnus pyrolaeflorus ( c d , s ) Vacoinium alaskaense ( c d ) Vacoinium membranaceum ( c d ) Menziesia ferruginea ( c ) low s h r u b s - "Phyllodoce empetriformis ( c ) ground l a y e r - Dicranum fusoescens (cd) Rhytidiopsis robusta (cd) Dicranum scoparium (cd) 81 D e s c r i p t i o n : F o r e s t e d u n i t s l a c k i n g a seepage i n f l u e n c e o r w i t h o n l y a te m p o r a r y seepage i n f l u e n c e , m o d e r a t e l y d r y l i t h i c h a b i t a t s o r h a b i t a t s w i t h s h a l l o w s o i l s . B r ooke e t a l . (1970) O f a l l f o r e s t e d communities i n the F o r e s t Subzone, t he Cladothamno-Tsugetum mertensianae has t h e most open t r e e canopy and h a b i t a t s w i t h t h e s h a l l o w e s t s o i l s . T h e r e a r e two v a r i a n t s : vacciniosum alaskaenis and cladothamno-tsugosum mertensianae. The vacoinissum alaskaensis v a r i a n t o c c u r s on exposed r o c k o u t -c r o p k n o l l s o r on t h e f l a n k s o f r o c k o u t c r o p s and has t h e d r i e s t m o i s t u r e r e g i m e o f any f o r e s t e d u n i t i n the F o r e s t Subzone. The t o p o g r a p h i c p o s i t i o n o f t h i s v a r i a n t r e s u l t s i n an e a r l y d r y i n g o u t o f t h e s h a l l o w ( a v e r a g e 22 cm) s o i l and p r e c l u d e s t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f seepage i n f l u e n c e s . Shrub undergrowth i s dense. The cladothamno-tsugosum mertensianae v a r i a n t o c c u r s on upper t o l o w e r s l o p e s , always where be d r o c k i s e x p o s e d . The s o i l s a r e c o n -s i d e r a b l y d e e p e r ( a v e r a g e 61 cm) than f o u n d w i t h t h e vacciniosum alaskaensis v a r i a n t . F o l l o w i n g heavy r a i n s , temporary seepage may be p r e s e n t . The s o i l s a r e v e r y s t o n y and m o d e r a t e l y w e l l - d r a i n e d . O r g a n i c a c c u m u l a t i o n s a r e t h i c k , o f t e n g r e a s y i n c h a r a c t e r and have a h i g h w a t e r - h o l d i n g c a p a c i t y . T r e e c o v e r i s open; s h r u b c o v e r i s de n s e . TABLE XVII The Abieto-Tsugetum mertensianae (A-Tm) Topography S l o p e (°) Snow d u r a t i o n (months) Humus t y p e S o i l t y p e D r a i n a g e P a r e n t m a t e r i a l H y g r o t o p e T h i c k n e s s o f humus (cm) Main r o o t c o n c e n t r a t i o n t o (cm) Permeable s o i l d e p t h (cm) S t o n i n e s s o f p r o f i l e (%) S l o p e , r i d g e , bench w i t h c o n v e x , complex, s t r a i g h t r e l i 16 (0-35) 7.4 (6.5-8) M y c e l i a l r o o t mor Humic P o d z o l s I m p e r f e c t t o w e l l - d r a i n e d G l a c i a l t i l l M e s i c t o t e m p o r a r i l y h y g r i c 27 (10-69) 27 (15-60) 64 (34-102) 23 (5-40) C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s p e c i e s : t r e e s - Tsuga mertensiana ( c d ) Abies amabilis ( c d ) t a l l s h r u b s - Vacoinium alaskaense ( c d ) Vacoinium membranaceum ( c ) Menziesia ferrugina ( c ) ground l a y e r - Dicranum fusoescens ( c d ) Rhytidiopsis robusta (cd) Dicanum scoparium ( c d ) 83 D e s c r i p t i o n : F o r e s t e d u n i t s w i t h t e m p o r a r y seepage i n f l u e n c e , m esic h a b i t a t s w i t h s h a l l o w t o deep s o i l s . Brooke e t a l . (1970) Some s o i l s may be weak l y t o m o d e r a t e l y g l e y e d from t e m p o r a r y seepage d u r i n g e a r l y summer. D u r i n g f a l l and w i n t e r t he s o i l s r emain near s a t u r a t i o n w i t h w a t e r from heavy p r e c i p i t a t i o n o r the wet snow-pack. The humus i s t h i c k , c o n t a i n s much de c a y e d wood, and has a h i g h w a t e r - h o l d i n g c a p a c i t y and r a t h e r slow d r a i n a g e because o f i t s f i n e t e x t u r e . Pronounced humps o f o r g a n i c m a t e r i a l a r e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f the ground s u r f a c e . Most t r e e s p e c i e s a r e e s t a b l i s h e d on t h e s e humps. T h i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e r e d u c e d c o v e r a g e by t a l l s h r u b s c l e a r l y d i s t i n g u i s h e s t h e Abieto-Tsugetum mertensianae from t h e Cladothamno-Tsugetum mertensianae. TABLE XVIII The Streptopo-Abietetum amabilis (S-Aa) Topography S l o p e s w i t h convex, c o n c a v e , s t r a i g h t r e l i e f S l o p e (°) Snow d u r a t i o n (months) Humus t y p e S o i l t y p e P a r e n t m a t e r i a l D r a i n a g e H y g r o t o p e T h i c k n e s s o f humus (cm) Main r o o t c o n c e n t r a t i o n t o (cm) Permeable s o i l d e p t h (cm) S t o n i n e s s o f p r o f i l e (%) 21 (0-40) 7.0 (6.5-8) M a t t e d f i b r o u s , m a t t e d , g r e a s y , m y c e l i a l r o o t mors O r g a n i c , B r u n i s o l i c , G l e y s o l i c and R e g o s o l i c s o i l s G l a c i a l t i l l M o d e rate t o i m p e r f e c t H y g r i c t o me s i c 22 (7-45) 22 (10-40) 77+ (50-105) 31 (10-60) C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s p e c i e s : t r e e s - Abies amabilis ( c d ) Tsuga mertensiana ( c d ) t a l l s h r u b s - Vacoinium alaskaense (cd) low s h r u b s - Rubus pedatus ( c d ) Streptopus roseus ( c ) g r o u n d l a y e r - Rhytidiopsis robusta ( c d ) Dicranum fuscescens ( c ) 85 D e s c r i p t i o n : M e s i c h a b i t a t s w i t h deep s o i l s and a te m p o r a r y seepage i n f l u e n c e . Brooke e t a l . (1970) T o p o g r a p h i c a l l y , t h i s a s s o c i a t i o n o c c u r s on lower and m i d - s l o p e s between the Abieto-Tsugetum mertensianae and the Lysichito-Chamaecypare turn nootkatensis o r the Oplopanaco-Thujetum p l i c a t a e . The h a b i t a t s have a h y g r i c t o me s i c m o i s t u r e regime and a weak t o s t r o n g t e m p o r a r y seepage i n f l u e n c e . The s o i l s a r e deep ( a v e r a g e 77+cm), s t o n y , and have t h i c k o r g a n i c a c c u m u l a t i o n s ( a v e r a g e 22 cm). Humus t y p e s range from raw humus and f i n e - t e x t u r e d g r e a s y mor t o moders and an amorphous b l a c k p i t c h y muck i n w e t t e r h a b i t a t s w i t h more p r o l o n g e d seepage. Streptopus roseus3 S. streptopoidesand S. amplexifolius a r e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s p e c i e s i n the low sh r u b and herb l a y e r and c o n t r i b u t e t o d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g Streptopo-Abietetum amabilis from t h e Abieto-Tsugetum mertensianae. TABLE XIX The Oplopanaoo-Thujetum p l i c a t a e (O-Tp) Topography S l o p e (°) Snow d u r a t i o n (months) Humus t y p e S o i l t y p e P a r e n t m a t e r i a l D r a i n a g e H y g r o t o p e Ground water d e p t h (cm) T h i c k n e s s o f humus (cm) Main r o o t c o n c e n t r a t i o n t o (cm) Permeable s o i l d e p t h (cm) S t o n i n e s s o f p r o f i l e (%) Lower s l o p e w i t h c o n c a v e , s t r a i g h t r e l i e f 18 (17-20) 6.4 (6-7) M y c e l i a l , m a t t e d , m u l l - l i k e mors G l e y e d s o i l s G l a c i a l t i l l , a l l u v i u m Moderate t o i m p e r f e c t H y g r i c 43 (25-56) 14 (2-27) 21 (15-25) 69+ (41+ - 98) 31 (15-50) C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s p e c i e s : t r e e s - Tsuga heterophylla ( c d ) Abies amabilis ( c d ) t a l l s h r u b s - Oplopanax horridus ( c d , s ) Vacoinium alaskaense ( c d ) low s h r u b s - Athyrium f i l i x - f e m i n a ( c d , s ) Gymnocarpium dryopteris (cd) Streptopus roseus ( c ) T i a r e l l a u n i f o l i a t a ( c ) Ground l a y e r - Rhizomnium nudum ( c d ) Rhytidiopsis robusta (cd) Dicranum fusoescens ( c ) 87 D e s c r i p t i o n : F o r e s t e d u n i t s o f h y g r i c h a b i t a t s w i t h a permanent seepage i n f l u e n c e , seepage f a s t - f l o w i n g i n s t r e a m -e d g e o r s p r i n g - l i n e h a b i t a t s . Brooke e t a l . (1970) H a b i t a t s o f t h e s u b a l p i n e Oplopanaoo-Thujetum plioatae have a s h o r t snow d u r a t i o n p e r i o d ( a v e r a g e 6.4 months) and a r e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a r e a s o f f a s t - f l o w i n g seepage i n stream-edge o r s p r i n g - l i n e h a b i t a t s . S o i l s a r e g l e y e d , s t o n y , and have r e d u c e d o r g a n i c accumu-l a t i o n . The t r e e canopy i s n o t dense, most o f t h e t r e e s p e c i e s a r e s h a l l o w r o o t i n g , and w i n d f a l l i s common. M o u n t a i n hemlock i s c o n f i n e d t o s l i g h t humps o r p o r t i o n s o f t h e h a b i t a t where d r a i n a g e i s improved. Openings i n t h e t r e e canopy e n c o u r a g e a dense s h r u b c o v e r dominated by Oplopanax horridus. 88 TABLE XX The Lysiohito-Chamaecyparetum nootkatensis (L-Cn) Topography S l o p e (°) Snow d u r a t i o n (months) Humus t y p e S o i l t y p e P a r e n t m a t e r i a l D r a i n a g e H y g r o t o p e Ground w a t e r d e p t h (cm) , T h i c k n e s s o f humus (cm) Main r o o t c o n c e n t r a t i o n t o (cm) Permeable s o i l d e p t h (cm) S t o n i n e s s o f p r o f i l e {%) Lower s l o p e w i t h c o n c a v e , s t r a i g h t r e l i e f 17 (7-27) 6.3 (6-7) B l a c k muck o r anmoor G l e y s o l i c and O r g a n i c s o i l s G l a c i a l t i l l P oor H y d r i c 12-54 41 (30-65) 40 (30-50) 101+ (72-135+) 16 (0-30) C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s p e c i e s : t r e e s - Abies amabilis (cd) Tsuga heterophylla ( c d ) Chamaeoyparis nootkatensis ( c d ) Tsuga mertensiana ( c ) t a l l s h r u b s - Vaooinium alaskaense ( c d ) low s h r u b s - Lysichitum americanum ( c d , s ) Rubus pedatus ( c ) C l i n t o n i a u n i f l o r a ( c ) ground l a y e r - Rhizomnium nudum ( c d ) Rhytidiadelphus loreus ( c d ) Rhytidiopsis robusta ( c d ) Plagiothecium undulatum ( c ) Sphagnum squarrosum ( c ) 89 D e s c r i p t i o n : F o r e s t e d u n i t s w i t h a permanent seepage i n f l u e n c e , seepage slow-moving o r s t a g n a t i n g i n d e p r e s s i o n s o f s p r i n g - l i n e h a b i t a t s . Brooke e t a l . (1.970) The Lysiohito-Chamaecyparetum nootkatensis o c c u r s i n h y g r i c t o h y d r i c h a b i t a t s a t the l o w e s t e l e v a t i o n s i n t h e S u b a l p i n e M o u n t a i n Hemlock Zone. I t i s i n f l u e n c e d by seepage slow-moving o r s t a g n a t i n g i n d e p r e s s i o n s o r s p r i n g - l i n e h a b i t a t s . M a j o r h a b i t a t i n f l u e n c e s on v e g e t a t i o n a r e abundant permanent seepage near t h e s o i l s u r f a c e w hich may s t a g n a t e i n d e p r e s s i o n s , impeded d r a i n a g e w i t h p oor s o i l a e r a t i o n , and t h i c k a c c u m u l a t i o n s o f b l a c k muck o r p i t c h y p e a t humus. These c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s g i v e t h i s a s s o c i a t i o n a b o g - l i k e a p p e a r a n c e w i t h many o f t h e t r e e s p e c i e s c o n f i n e d t o d r i e r r a i s e d humps on the s u r f a c e . A r a n k odour c o n t r i b u t e d by Lysichitum americanum and the mucky p o o r l y a e r a t e d s o i l s a r e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e Lysiohito-Chamaecyparetum nootkatensis. TABLE XXI The Eviophovo-Sphagnetum (E-S) T o p o g r a p h y S l o p e (°) Snow d u r a t i o n (months) Humus t y p e S o i l t y p e D r a i n a g e H y g r o t o p e Ground water d e p t h (cm) T h i c k n e s s o f humus (cm) Main r o o t c o n c e n t r a t i o n t o (cm) Permeable s o i l d e p t h (cm) C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s p e c i e s : low s h r u b s ground l a y Bench w i t h s t r a i g h t r e l i e f 3 (0-10) 7.6 (7.5-8) S e m i - t e r r e s t r i a l forms ( p e a t s ) G l e y e d s o i l s below o r g a n i c accumu-l a t i o n s V e r y p o o r t o poor H y d r i c ( s e m i - t e r r e s t r i a l ) 10 (10-15) 92+ (83-100+) 32 (30-34) 98+ (95+ - 100+) - Carex a q u a t i l i s (d,e) Eviophovum anguste folium ( d , s ) :r - Dvepanocladus aduncus (d) Sphagnum spp. (d) 91 D e s c r i p t i o n : N o n - f o r e s t e d s e m i - t e r r e s t r i a l moor h a b i t a t s . Low moor communities o f s e m i - t e r r e s t r i a l h y g r i c t o h y d r i c h a b i t a t s dominated by sedges and b r y o p h y t e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y Sphagnum spp. S t a n d i n g w a t e r o f t e n p r e s e n t on the s u r f a c e i n s m a l l p o o l s and i s s t a g n a n t o r v e r y s l o w l y moving. Brooke e t a l . (1970) The main f e a t u r e s o f t h e Eviophovo-Sphagnetum a r e t o p o g r a p h i c p o s i t i o n s which c o n c e n t r a t e t h e f l o w o f d r a i n a g e i n s m a l l b a s i n s , c h a n n e l s o r g e n t l e s l o p e s , and a sl o w r a t e o f d e c o m p o s i t i o n o f t h e humus because o f s l o w l y moving w a t e r and poor a e r a t i o n . A c c u m u l a t i o n s o f o r g a n i c m a t t e r ( p e a t s ) may r i s e above the ground s u r f a c e i n t h e form o f l a r g e b e n c h - l i k e l o b e s . The w a t e r - t a b l e l e v e l i s u s u a l l y w i t h i n a few i n c h e s o f t h e s u r f a c e . The m i n e r a l s o i l i s s t r o n g l y g l e y e d . T A B L E X X I I Character i s t i cs (Averages) for the Plant Associat ions of the Subalpine Mountain Hemlock Zone C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Hygrotope Drainage Snow duration (months) Ground water depth (cm) Seepage charac-t e r i s t i c s Slope (°) Permeable s o i l depth (cm) Thickness of humus (cm) Stoniness o f p r o f i l e (%) S i g n i f i c a n t s o i l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Parkland Subzone V-Tm L-Cl P-Cui N-Tm Vd St Cn Mesic to moderately dry Moderately to we'il-drainod 8.1 Hydric , seml-ter res-t r i a l Very poor to poor 14 56+ 21 19 7.7 14 Semi te r res -t r i a l 64+ 46 Saturated s o i l with high water table thick humus Hygric to Hygric to Hygric to Moderat- Hygric mesic mesic mesic e ly dry to to hydric hygric Moderate Moderate Poor to Well to Very to to moderate moderate poor Imperfect Imperfect to poor Forest Subzone C-Tm A-Tm S-Aa O-Tp L-Cn E-S 3.6 8.2 6.4 9.5 9.2 Fluctu-at ing from 0 to 50+ 22 Wel l-defined organic layer , shallow s o i l 30 34 Humus moist through-out year 45 So i l move-ment from s o l i f l u c -t i o n , f r o s t -heaving, sheet-wash 13 Semi-ter res-t r i a l with water-satur-ated root env i r -onment Dry to Mesic to Hygric Hygric Hydric Hydr ic , mesic temporary to semi-hygrlc mesic te r res -t r i a l Iwell- Imperfect Moderate Moderate Poor [drained to w e l l - to to to drained Imperfect Imperfect .moderate 7.1 7.4 7.0 6.4 6.3 Tempor- Tempor-ary in ary and ear ly f l u c t u -summer a t ing and f a l l 43 12-54 Very poor to poor 7.6 10 - - - Flood- No or Tempor- Tempor- Perman • Perman- Stagnant, ing tempor- ary ary to ent ent semi-fol low- ary during perman- f a s t - slow- ter res -ing seepage e a r l y ent f low- moving t r i a l snow fol low- summer ing or stag melt and ing nant heavy heavy ra in ra in 10 16 16 23 1 14 16 21 18 17 3 40+ 45 45+ 34+ 60+ 45 64 77+ 69+ 101 + 98+ 7 7 21 0 4 16 27 22 14 41 92+ 27 23 Humus has high water holding capac-i t y and slow drainage 31 Deep stony s o i l with th ick organic layer 31 Stony s o i l with th in organic layer 16 Mucky s o i l Saturated s o i l with high-water tab le , th ick organic l a y e r KO r o 

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