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UBC Theses and Dissertations

An application of Gascoigne’s Certayne notes of instruction to a bouquet of his Posies Forbes, Alexander Malcolm 1976

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AN APPLICATION OF GASCOIGNE'S CERTAYNE NOTES OF INSTRUCTION TO A BOUQUET OF HIS POSIES by ALEXANDER MALCOLM FORBES B.A., U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1974 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department o f E n g l i s h We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA J u l y , 1976 ( c ) A l e x a n d e r M a l c o l m F o r b e s 1976 In presenting th i s thes is in pa r t i a l fu l f i lment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the Un ivers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L ibrary sha l l make it f ree l y ava i l ab le for reference and study. I fur ther agree that permission for extensive copying of th i s thes is for scho lar ly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representat ives. It is understood that copying or pub l i ca t ion of th i s thes is fo r f i nanc ia l gain sha l l not be allowed without my wr i t ten permission. Department of E n g l i s h .  The Un ivers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 We.sbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 Date 22 J u l y 1976 PREFACE AND ABSTRACT The c r i t i c a l l i t e r a t u r e on George G a s c o i g n e s u f f e r s from a s e r i o u s o m i s s i o n : t h e r e has been no attempt t o a p p l y G a s c o i g n e ' s C e r t a y n e Notes  o f I n s t r u c t i o n c o n c e r n i n g the making o f v e r s e o r ryme i n E n g l i s h , w r i t t e n  a t t he r e q u e s t o f Master Edouardo D o n a t i ^ t o any e x t e n d e d p o r t i o n o f h i s p o e t r y , i n a thorough way, toward an i n t e r p r e t a t i v e end. T h a t a p o e t ' s p o e t i c s would n o t be so a p p l i e d t o h i s p o e t r y i s c e r t a i n l y i r o n i c . The i r o n y i s i n t e n s i f i e d i n t h i s i n s t a n c e , because i n a l l p r o b a b i l i t y 2 G a s c o i g n e wrote the Notes a f t e r most o f the p o e t r y was composed. In consequence, t h e r e i s a c o n s i d e r a b l e l i k e l i h o o d t h a t t h e Notes might have been i n p a r t f o r m u l a t e d t h r o u g h a p r o c e s s o f i n d u c t i v e r e a s o n i n g from p a t t e r n s found i n the p o e t r y , n o t s i m p l y t h r o u g h l o g i c a l d e d u c t i o n . T h e r e f o r e , they a r e n a t u r a l l y a p p l i c a b l e t o t h e body o f p o e t r y which t h e y f o l 1 o w (The P o s i e s o f George G a s c o i g n e E s q u i r e : C o r r e c t e d , p e r f e c t e d , and augmented by the A u t h o r ) . My s t u d y i s d i r e c t e d toward r e c t i f y i n g t h i s o m i s s i o n i n the c r i t i c a l l i t e r a t u r e on G a s c o i g n e . In the f i r s t c h a p t e r , I examine the p u b l i s h e d c r i t i q u e s o f G a s c o i g n e which bear upon the r e l a t i o n between G a s c o i g n e ' s p o e t i c t h e o r y and h i s p o e t i c p r a c t i c e . As I hope to show i n t h a t c h a p t e r t h a t t h e r e has i n d e e d been a f a i l u r e t o examine t h o r o u g h l y any body o f G a s c o i g n e ' s work i n terms o f h i s own s t a t e d p o e t i c p r i n c i p l e s , I s h o u l d - i -i i note here t h a t , a c c o r d i n g l y , I s h a l l n o t i n c o r p o r a t e c r i t i c a l r e f e r e n c e s i n t h e c o n c l u d i n g c h a p t e r d e v o t e d t o my r e a d i n g o f t h e poems ( f o r t h e r e a r e no. c r i t i c a l r e f e r e n c e s t o t h e poems c o n s i d e r e d h e r e i n t h a t a r e t h e p r o d u c t s o f any method o f i n t e r p r e t a t i o n t h a t i s a t a l l s i m i l a r t o my own). O c c a s i o n a l s i m i l a r i t i e s i n the l i t e r a t u r e on G a s c o i g n e , e i t h e r o f o b s e r v a t i o n o r o f i n t e r p r e t a t i o n w i t h r e s p e c t t o p a r t i c u l a r poems, a r e a t most r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f p a r a l l e l m e t h o d o l o g i e s o r c o n c l u s i o n s . They may sometimes be s i m i l a r t o , b u t t h e y l i e i n d i s t i n c t l y d i f f e r e n t c u r r e n t s from, t he new i n t e r p r e t a t i v e channel t h a t I hope t o e s t a b l i s h . In C h a p t e r I I , I anatomize t h e p o e t i c p r i n c i p l e s e n u n c i a t e d by Ga s c o i g n e i n h i s Notes. I a l s o a t t e m p t i n t h i s c h a p t e r t o p l a c e G a s c o i g n e ' s t h e o r i e s i n t h e h i s t o r i c a l m ainstream o f i d e a s s i m i l a r t o h i s own. In t he l a s t c h a p t e r , which j u s t i f i e s t h e f i r s t two, I a p p l y G a s c o i g n e ' s p r i n c i p l e s t o a c o h e r e n t body o f h i s p o e t r y . S i n c e I c a n n o t t r e a t a l l o f G a s c o i g n e ' s poems w i t h i n t h e l i m i t s o f a t h e s i s , I r e s t r i c t my s e l e c t i o n t o t h e " F l o w e r s " d i v i s i o n o f t h e P o s i e s . I t makes sense t o d e a l w i t h t h o s e which a r e found i n the f i r s t s e t o f h i s poems (as e s t a b l i s h e d i n the e d i t i o n t h a t he " C o r r e c t e d , p e r f e c t e d , and augmented"). As s u g g e s t e d by t h e t i t l e s o f t h e s e s e t s , " F l o w e r s " e x e m p l i f y more f u l l y t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f h i s b e l i e f s than would poems i n c l u d e d as "Herbes," and e x e m p l i f y t h a t a p p l i c a t i o n b e t t e r than would t h o s e c l a s s i f i e d as "Weedes." The p r i n c i p l e s t h a t g u i d e my s e l e c t i v i t y w i t h i n t h i s framework w i l l be e x p l a i n e d a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e c h a p t e r i n which t he poems a r e a n a l y z e d . T h i s c h a p t e r w i l l c o n c l u d e my t h e s i s . As i n t e r p r e t a t i v e c o n c l u s i o n s c a n n o t be g e n e r a l i z e d , as t h e c r i t i c a l g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s t h a t can be made w i l l be made i n i t , as t h e t e s t o f i n t e r p r e t a t i v e a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e Notes i s t h e c o n c l u s i o n o f a l l t h a t p r e c e d e s i t , and as t h e r e a d e r must be t h e f i n a l j u d g e o f t h e method and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s c o n t a i n e d i n i t , I s h a l l n o t f o l l o w t h i s c h a p t e r w i t h a n o t h e r w h i c h , g i v e n t h e n a t u r e o f t h i s t h e s i s , would be e i t h e r u nwarranted o r r e d u n d a n t . I c o n c l u d e t h i s s t u d y , t h e r e f o r e , w i t h t h i s c h a p t e r . TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER I 1 CHAPTER I I 6 CHAPTER I I I 39 FOOTNOTES P r e f a c e and A b s t r a c t 69 C h a p t e r I 71 C h a p t e r II 74 Ch a p t e r I I I 86 WORKS CITED 93 - i v -ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I wis h t o e x t e n d t he g r e a t e s t p e r s o n a l thanks t o the t h r e e members o f my t h e s i s committee: t o P r o f e s s o r S. K. H e n i n g e r , the d i r e c t o r o f t h i s t h e s i s and master o f e n a r r a t i o poetarum and the a r s  r e c t e l o q u e n d i , f o r h i s u n f a i l i n g c o u n s e l on t h o s e a r t s , u n f a i l i n g k i n d n e s s , and u n f a i l i n g p a t i e n c e ; t o P r o f e s s o r L. M. Johnson, f o r h i s ever-harmonious c o u n s e l on t h i s c o m p o s i t i o n ; and t o P r o f e s s o r R. C. Johnson, t o whose work on G a s c o i g n e , my own i s d e e p l y i n d e b t e d . - v -CHAPTER I The f a i l u r e t o a p p l y G a s c o i g n e ' s p o e t i c p r i n c i p l e s t o h i s p o e t i c p r a c t i c e has n o t p r e c l u d e d some r e f e r e n c e i n the l i t e r a t u r e on G a s c o i g n e to t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between h i s t h e o r y and p r a c t i c e . C r i t i c a l comments f a l l i n t o f o u r c a t e g o r i e s . The f i r s t p o s i t i o n taken i s t h a t the Notes e s s e n t i a l l y do n o t a p p l y t o t h e p o e t r y . T h i s view i s r e p r e s e n t e d by t h e w r i t i n g s o f Vere Rubel and B. A. P. Van Dam. In h i s P o e t i c D i c t i o n i n the E n g l i s h R e n a i s s a n c e  from S k e l t o n t hrough S p e n s e r , Rubel s t a t e s , "The c o n t r a d i c t i o n s t h a t e x i s t e d i n t h e E l i z a b e t h a n age between g e n e r a l t h e o r y and a p p l i c a t i o n a r e everywhere apparent, " 1 and he c i t e s G a s c o i g n e as e v i d e n c e f o r t h i s s t a t e m e n t . In W i l l i a m S h akespeare: Prosody and T e x t , Van Dam r e f e r s t o G a s c o i g n e ' s f a i l u r e t o employ the iamb c o n s t a n t l y , by way o f c o n c l u d i n g t h a t t h e r e i s a d i f f e r e n c e between t h e p o e t ' s t h e o r y and h i s p r a c t i c e . ^ Because the l a t t e r c o n t r a d i c t s both h i m s e l f and G a s c o i g n e i n h i s argument (as I s h a l l d e monstrate l a t e r ) , and s i n c e the f o r m e r n e v e r s y s t e m a t i c a l l y examines G a s c o i g n e ' s work t o s u p p o r t h i s a s s e r t i o n s , I t h i n k no c o u n t e r - a r g u m e n t to t h e i r p o s i t i o n s i s n e c e s s a r y h e r e . The second c a t e g o r y o f c r i t i c a l t r e a t m e n t c o n s i s t s o f d i s c u s s i o n t h a t i s l i m i t e d t o e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e p o e t i c p r i n c i p l e s i n and o f them-s e l v e s , and t h e t h i r d c a t e g o r y c o n s i s t s o f a p p l i c a t i o n o f s e l e c t e d - 1 -2 p r i n c i p l e s t o s e l e c t e d poems. These c a t e g o r i e s a r e b e s t t r e a t e d t o g e t h e r , because t h e y t e n d t o be found t o g e t h e r i n much o f the c r i t i c a l l i t e r a t u r e . George K. Smart, i n h i s a r t i c l e on " E n g l i s h Non-Dramatic Blank V e r s e i n the 16.Century," p r o v i d e s a rough summary o f t h e o b s e r v a t i o n s made i n the Notes, and s t a t e s t h a t t h e " S t e e l G l a s s . . . e x e m p l i f i e s by i t s m e t i c u l o u s r e g u l a r i t y and c o n s i s t e n t use o f the s i n g l e moulded 3 l i n e the t h e o r i e s which G a s c o i g n e had e x p r e s s e d . " The o n l y t h e o r i e s Smart c o n s i d e r s , however, a r e t h o s e c o n c e r n i n g t h e use o f b l a n k v e r s e , c a e s u r a , and p a r a l l e l i s m o f t h o u g h t and l i n e ; and t h e s e t h e o r i e s he a p p l i e s o n l y t o the S t e e l G l a s s , and even then a p p l i e s them o n l y s e l e c t i v e l y , a l t h o u g h he does p r o v i d e a g e n e r a l i z e d m e t r i c t a b l e o f the t y p e s o f l i n e i n t h a t work. D i s c u s s i n g t h e o r y per se more than s e l e c t i v e a p p l i c a t i o n , George S a i n t s b u r y , i n the second volume o f A H i s t o r y o f E n g l i s h Prosody from the T w e l f t h C e n t u r y t o the P r e s e n t Day, summarizes t h e f e a t u r e s o f 4 the Notes, but does s a y , t o o , t h a t G a s c o i g n e founded "the e n t i r e c o n s c i o u s p r o s o d i c s t u d y o f E n g l i s h " ^ (which i m p l i c i t l y s u g g e s t s t h a t G a s c o i g n e f o l l o w e d h i s own p r o s o d i c p r i n c i p l e s ) . In the second volume o f h i s H i s t o r y o f C r i t i c i s m and L i t e r a r y T a s t e i n Europe from the  E a r l i e s t T e x t s t o the P r e s e n t day, S a i n t s b u r y a g a i n d i s c u s s e s the Notes, but o n l y i n a " s e l f - c o n t a i n e d " way^ -- as does J . W. H. A t k i n s i n h i s book, E n g l i s h L i t e r a r y C r i t i c i s m : The Renascence, w h e r e i n A t k i n s makes a g e n e r a l l y c a r e f u l summary o f the Notes, but does l i t t l e more than summarize, n e v e r c o n s i d e r i n g any a p p l i c a t i o n s . John Thompson, i n The  Founding o f E n g l i s h M e t r e , o b s e r v e s t h a t t h e Notes, t o g e t h e r w i t h " G a s c o i g n e ' s own p r a c t i c e i n p o e t r y , mark one o f the major s t a g e s i n the development o f p o e t i c t e c h n i q u e s i n modern E n g l i s h . " ^ A l t h o u g h 3 he g i v e s a g e n e r a l i z e d s t a t i s t i c a l summary o f G a s c o i g n e ' s use o f d i f f e r e n t m e t r i c a l p a t t e r n s , and examines a few s e l e c t e d poems i n terms o f s e l e c t e d p r o s o d i c " I n s t r u c t i o n s " ( e s p e c i a l l y the p a r a l l e l i s m o f m e t r i c and n a t u r a l p a t t e r n s o f a c c e n t ) , Thompson r a r e l y r e f e r s t o p a r t i c u l a r poems, and n e v e r d i s c u s s e s the a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s o f form t o c o n t e n t (as G a s c o i g n e d o e s ) , o r the i n t e r p r e t a t i v e v a l u e o f an a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e Notes t o G a s c o i g n e ' s p o e t r y . Norman E. McClure i m p l i c i t l y e s t a b l i s h e s a l i n k between G a s c o i g n e ' s p r o s o d i c t h e o r y and p r a c t i c e when he s t a t e s t h a t o " C e r t a i n Notes o f I n s t r u c t i o n i s t h e f i r s t t r e a t i s e on E n g l i s h p r o s o d y , " and s h o r t l y t h e r e a f t e r o b s e r v e s : Most o f G a s c o i g n e ' s p o e t r y i s w r i t t e n i n rhyme r o y a l , p o u l t e r ' s measure, and b l a n k v e r s e . He p r e f e r s i a m b i c measures, the f i x e d medial c a e s u r a , the e nd-stopped l i n e , n a t u r a l word o r d e r , n a t i v e and homely words.9 McClure does n o t , however, examine the p o e t r y o f G a s c o i g n e i n terms o f the p o r t i o n s o f the Notes to which he i m p l i c i t l y r e f e r s , nor does he examine t h e p o e t r y i n terms o f any o t h e r p o r t i o n s o f t h e Notes. C. T. P r o u t y ^ and Helen L o u i s e C o h e n ^ a l s o touch upon p a r t i c u l a r p r i n c i p l e s and p a r t i c u l a r poems, b u t do n o t f u l l y e x p l o r e e i t h e r . The l a s t t y p e o f approach t o G a s c o i g n e ' s t h e o r y and p r a c t i c e a s s e r t s a c o r r e s p o n d e n c e between them, but n e i t h e r d e m o n s t r a t e s i t nor s u g g e s t s i n t e r p r e t a t i v e c o n c l u s i o n s t h a t might be drawn from i t . T h i s approach i s r e p r e s e n t e d by two c r i t i c s , F e l i x E. S c h e l l i n g and Ronald C. Johnson. In The L i f e and W r i t i n g s o f George G a s c o i g n e , S c h e l l i n g echoes S a i n t s b u r y when he s t a t e s t h a t "Gascoigne i s r e a l l y o u r f i r s t , c o n s c i o u s p u r i s t ; a man p o s s e s s e d o f d e c i d e d o p i n i o n s , e s p e c i a l l y on the s u b j e c t o f v e r s i f i c a t i o n . " ^ But S c h e l l i n g goes beyond S a i n t s b u r y when he s t a t e s 4 t h a t " G ascoigne . . . has n o t h e s i t a t e d t o p r a c t i c e what he has p r e a c h e d . " He t h e n , however, p r o c e e d s m e r e l y t o a s s e r t t h a t G a s c o i g n e f o l l o w s h i s own a d v i c e on s e v e r a l p o i n t s ^ (on s i m p l e l a n g u a g e , a v o i d a n c e o f L a t i n a t e i n v e r s i o n s , the v a l u e o f c o n s i s t e n c y -- e s p e c i a l l y m e t r i c -- and t h e a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s o f m e t r i c a l a c c e n t t o n a t u r a l ) . A l t h o u g h S c h e l l i n g does g i v e one o r two " i l l u s t r a t i o n s " ( i n the form o f r e f e r e n c e s , n o t e x a m i n a t i o n s ) o f G a s c o i g n e f o l l o w i n g h i s own s u g g e s t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g the use o f a l l e g o r y and t h e o r i g i n a l i t y o f f i g u r e s -- and does c a t a l o g u e ( i n g e n e r a l terms, w i t h o c c a s i o n a l p a r t i c u l a r n o t i c e ) G a s c o i g n e ' s employ-ment o f the d i f f e r e n t v e r s e forms he d i s c u s s e s ( a l t h o u g h he n e v e r c o n s i d e r s the a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s o f t h e s e forms to t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e s u b j e c t s , as G a s c o i g n e does) -- i n none o f t h e s e i n s t a n c e s does he a p p l y the Notes i n t e r p r e t a t i v e l y , and, on the whole, he emphasizes o n l y the p r o s o d i c , m e t r i c a s p e c t s o f t h e Notes. J u s t as S c h e l l i n g goes beyond S a i n t s b u r y i n h i s a p p r e c i a t i o n o f the r e l a t i o n between G a s c o i g n e ' s p o e t i c t h e o r y and p r a c t i c e , so Johnson goes beyond S c h e l l i n g . A f t e r d i s c u s s i n g G a s c o i g n e ' s p r i n c i p l e o f 15 employing m o n o s y l l a b i c E n g l i s h d i c t i o n , Johnson r e f e r s t o t h e i m p o r t a n c e 1 c o f " i n v e n t i o n " and t o the a p p l i c a t i o n i n p r a c t i c e o f G a s c o i g n e ' s s o n n e t t h e o r y . 1 7 He then s u r p a s s e s S c h e l l i n g n o t o n l y i n a p p r e c i a t i n g t h e congruence o f t h e o r y and p r a c t i c e , but a l s o i n p o i n t i n g t o the g r e a t v a l u e o f e x a m i n i n g t h a t congruence (and i n i m p l y i n g t h a t such e x a m i n a t i o n has n o t y e t been s u c c e s s f u l l y c o n d u c t e d ) . Johnson w r i t e s : G a s c o i g n e i s one o f the r a r e p o e t s who n o t o n l y f o r m u l a t e d a w o r k i n g s e t o f p r i n c i p l e s f o r t h e w r i t i n g o f p o e t r y but a l s o f o l l o w e d them t o a l a r g e e x t e n t . As i t can be c o g e n t l y argued t h a t G a s c o i g n e h o l d s a key p o s i t i o n i n a c o n t i n u i n g l i n e o f p o e t i c development, the a n a l y s i s o f h i s p o e t r y i n the l i g h t o f h i s own s t a t e d p r i n c i p l e s becomes i m p o r t a n t . 5 Johnson's p o i n t o f view i s c o r r o b o r a t e d by my s u r v e y o f p u b l i s h e d c r i t i q u e s o f G a s c o i g n e ' s work. There has i n d e e d been c r i t i c a l n e g l e c t o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between h i s p o e t i c t h e o r y and h i s p o e t i c p r a c t i c e . CHAPTER II G a s c o i g n e ' s Notes i s a l i t t l e " a r t o f p o e t i c c o m p o s i t i o n " -- a f a c t s u g g e s t e d by i t s f u l l t i t l e , as w e l l as by i t s c o n t e n t . As s u c h , I would s u g g e s t t h a t , o f a l l the seven streams o f a r t a c c e p t e d t h r o u g h -o u t the m i d d l e ages i n t o the R e n a i s s a n c e ( i . e . , the "seven l i b e r a l a r t s " ) , i t f a l l s b e s t i n t o t h e " g r a m m a t i c a l " one. T h i s i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f t h e background o f G a s c o i g n e ' s work might s u r p r i s e some modern r e a d e r s , who more r e a d i l y i d e n t i f y t h a t background as " r h e t o r i c a l " r a t h e r than " g r a m m a t i c a l " ( t h a t t h e " n u m e r i c a l " a r t s which compose t h e q u a d r i v i u m and t h e a b s t r a c t " d i a l e c t i c a l " one which c o n s t i t u t e s t h e t h i r d member o f t h e t r i v i u m a r e n o t the d i s c i p l i n e s i n which t o p l a c e G a s c o i g n e ' s t r e a t i s e r e q u i r e s , o f c o u r s e , no argument, s i n c e G a s c o i g n e ' s work i s n o t a s t u d y o f a r i t h m e t i c , geometry, m u s i c , astronomy, o r d i a l e c t i c ) . The r e a s o n f o r t h i s s u r p r i s e , I would s u g g e s t , r e s t s i n a m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e h i s t o r i c a l n a t u r e o f grammatical s t u d y , as opposed t o r h e t o r i c a l s t u d y . To p r o v i d e a f u l l t r e a t m e n t o f t h e h i s t o r i c a l d i s t i n c t i o n s between the two a r t s i s n o t p o s s i b l e h e r e , b u t I t h i n k t h a t enough can be s a i d t o d e m o n s t r a t e t h a t p o e t i c " a r t s o f c o m p o s i t i o n " b e l o n g p r i m a r i l y t o the grammatical c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , r a t h e r than t o t h e r h e t o r i c a l . T h i s may b e s t be seen i f t h e r e s p e c t i v e t e l e o l o g i e s o f grammar and r h e t o r i c , and t h e p r a c t i c a l consequences o f t h o s e t e l e o l o g i e s , a r e - 6 -7 a p p r e c i a t e d . In h i s R h e t o r i c i n the M i d d l e Ages, James J . Murphy p r o v i d e s a thorough a n a l y s i s o f the o r i g i n s and p r a c t i c a l development o f the two a r t s . 1 A c c o r d i n g t o Murphy, t h e r e were two f o u n t a i n h e a d s f o r t h e r h e t o r i c a l t r a d i t i o n t h a t f l o w e d t h r o u g h t h e M i d d l e Ages to the R e n a i s s a n c e : The r h e t o r i c a l works may be d i v i d e d i n t o two s c h o o l s o r t r a d i t i o n s : the A r i s t o t e l i a n r h e t o r i c , which has a p h i l o s o p h i c a l and l o g i c a l t o n e , and t h e " C i c e r o n i a n " r h e t o r i c o f C i c e r o , P s e u d o - C i c e r o , and Q u i n t i l i a n , which has a p r a g m a t i c tone c l o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h Roman law.^ The f o u n t a i n h e a d f o r m ediaeval grammar, however, was d i f f e r e n t . The grammatical t r a d i t i o n f l o w e d from a H o r a t i a n s o u r c e : The Ars p o e t i c a o f Horace p r o v i d e s a d v i c e t o w r i t e r s o f p o e t r y , based on t h e grammatical t r a d i t i o n o f e n a r r a t i o  poetarum. Donatus, a l t h o u g h d e a l i n g o n l y w i t h grammar as a r s r e c t e l o q u e n d i , l a y s the groundwork f o r the c o n f u s i o n o f r h e t o r i c and grammar by i n c l u d i n g scemata and t r o p i i n h i s A rs g r a m m a t i c i . R h e t o r i c , t h e n , a c c o r d i n g t o Murphy, i s a b s t r a c t l y c o n c e r n e d w i t h the l o g i c a l , and p r a c t i c a l l y c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e c i v i l . Grammar, on the o t h e r hand, i s c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e p o e t i c -- f o r i t i s n o t o n l y c o n c e r n e d p r a c t i c a l l y w i t h t h e a r s r e c t e l o q u e n d i , but p h i l o s o p h i c a l l y w i t h e n a r r a t i o poetarum ( t h a t i s , the d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n o f the t e x t s o f p o e t s ) . The o r i g i n a l c o n n e c t i o n between the two c o n c e r n s r e s t s i n the f a c t t h a t p o e t i c t e x t s were used a t f i r s t t o i l l u s t r a t e and p r o v i d e models f o r t h e p r a c t i c a l a r t o f grammar. Grammar e a s i l y became p r e c e p t i v e , and so " p o e t i c , " by a r e v e r s a l o f i t s methodology from i n t e r p r e t a t i v e t o p r e c e p t i v e , on t h e b a s i s o f the g e n e r a l p o e t i c p r i n c i p l e s e s t a b l i s h e d by t h e s t u d y o f e x t a n t p o e t i c t e x t s . Murphy then d e m o n s t r a t e s , i n a t horough s t u d y , t h a t t h e H o r a t i a n and Donatan grammatical t r a d i t i o n s e s t a b l i s h e d i n a n t i q u i t y came down through t h e M i d d l e Ages to t h e R e n a i s s a n c e . ^ Murphy t e r m i n a t e s h i s 8 c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f the h i s t o r y o f t h i s a r t a t the R e n a i s s a n c e -- a l t h o u g h he p o i n t s t o the c o n t i n u e d i n f l u e n c e i n t o t he R e n a i s s a n c e o f Donatus ( s a y i n g t h a t " t h e two l i t t l e t r e a t i s e s o f A e l i u s Donatus c o n t i n u e d t o be t h e p r i m e r s f o r grammar a l l through the m i d d l e ages and even p a s t t h a t time . . . the term 'Donet' became a synonym f o r ' p r i m e r , ' o r f i r s t book, i n a s u b j e c t " ^ ) . But the c o n t i n u i t y o f the H o r a t i a n i n f l u e n c e may r e a d i l y be seen i n the P l e i a d e and s u b s e q u e n t l y i n G a s c o i g n e . The French t h e o r i s t s who formed t h e P l e i a d e were d e e p l y i n d e b t e d t o Horace, as J . E. S p i n g a r n o b s e r v e s ; and " G a s c o i g n e ' s Notes o f I n s t r u c t i o n c o n c e r n i n g the making o f Verse . . . [was] m o d e l l e d a p p a r e n t l y on Ronsard's Abrege' de l ' A r t Poe'tique f r a n c o i s ( 1 5 6 5 ) , " ^ as S p i n g a r n a l s o o b s e r v e s . In t h e E n g l a n d o f G a s c o i g n e ' s day, i n f a c t , as G. G r e g o r y Smith comments: The d e b t t o Horace i s c e r t a i n l y g r e a t e r than would appear a t the f i r s t e s t i m a t e , f o r much t h a t s t a n d s t o the c r e d i t o f A r i s t o t l e and o t h e r s i s r e a l l y h i s , o r i s a t l e a s t H o r a t i a n . The A r s P o e t i c a had usurped t h e p l a c e o f mentor, n o t o n l y t o many who would w r i t e p o e t r y , but t o a l l who would w r i t e about i t . Though t h e d i r e c t r e f e r e n c e s ... t o i t o r i t s a u t h o r a r e n o t f r e q u e n t . . . t h e r e i s no l a c k o f b o r r o w i n g o f H o r a t i a n d o c t r i n e and r u l e . . . J C l e a r l y , Horace's A r s p o e t i c a was a dominant i n f l u e n c e , d i r e c t o r i n d i r e c t , when Gasco i g n e was composing h i s Notes. The o t h e r two p r o m i n e n t i n f l u e n c e s one might l o o k f o r a r e A r i s t o t l e and p s e u d o - L o n g i n u s . With r e s p e c t t o t h e De s u b ! i m i t a t e o f pseudo-L o n g i n u s , Donald L. C l a r k has s a i d t h a t "No E l i z a b e t h a n w r i t e r a l l u d e s t o i t o r seems t o have been aware o f i t s e x i s t e n c e u n t i l Thomas Farnaby c i t e s i t as an a u t h o r i t y f o r h i s Index R h e t o r i c u s ( 1 6 3 3 ) . " ^ The t e x t was unknown u n t i l w e l l i n t o t h e s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y . With r e s p e c t t o t h e P o e t i c s o f A r i s t o t l e , Smith has o b s e r v e d t h a t i t was n o t o f much 9 i n f l u e n c e i n t h e e a r l y R e n a i s s a n c e . A c t u a l l y , e x a m i n a t i o n o f G a s c o i g n e ' s Notes r e v e a l s t h a t A r i s t o t l e c o u l d n o t have been o f much s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r G a s c o i g n e i n the c o m p o s i t i o n o f h i s work. There a r e no passages which a r e u n e q u i v o c a l l y A r i s t o t e l i a n , whereas many passages i n the Notes do have c l e a r H o r a t i a n p a r a l l e l s . I s h a l l p o i n t s p e c i f i c a l l y t o g t h e s e p a r a l l e l s l a t e r i n t h i s c h a p t e r . With t h i s s a i d a b o u t t he i n f l u e n c e o f Horace on G a s c o i g n e , what may be s a i d about t h a t o f Donatus? U n f o r t u n a t e l y , a s t y l i s t i c c o n n e c t i o n c a n n o t r e a d i l y be made between G a s c o i g n e and Donatus. D e s p i t e t he d e d u c t i v e r e a s o n s f o r b e l i e v i n g t h a t Donatus must have had a d i r e c t o r i n d i r e c t i n f l u e n c e on G a s c o i g n e , t h e r e i s i n t h e l a s t a n a l y s i s i n s u f f i c i e n t i n t e r n a l e v i d e n c e i n t h e Notes f o r any c o n c l u s i o n t o be made. On the f a c e o f i t , t h e s t r o n g Donatan i n f l u e n c e t h r o u g h o u t t h e m i d d l e ages i n t o the R e n a i s s a n c e s u g g e s t s t h a t G a s c o i g n e would be f a m i l i a r w i t h t h e f i g u r e s and t r o p e s t r e a t e d by Donatus i n t h e t h i r d book o f h i s A r s grammatica ( o r A r s m a i o r ) , t h e s o - c a l l e d B a r b a r i s m u s . As Murphy p o i n t e d o u t above (see p. 7), however, the i n c l u s i o n by Donatus i n h i s work o f f i g u r a e , which t r a d i t i o n a l l y b e l o n g e d t o the r h e t o r i c a l s t r e am, r e s u l t e d i n a " c o n f u s i o n o f r h e t o r i c and grammar" i n t h o s e who t r e a t e d t h e t o p i c o f t h e f i g u r a e a f t e r him. S i n c e G a s c o i g n e does n o t i n d i c a t e what body o f f i g u r e s he b e l i e v e s may be used i n v e r s e , and does n o t a t t a c h s p e c i f i c i n t e r p r e t a t i v e s i g n i f i c a n c e t o such use, h i s r e f e r e n c e t o f i g u r e s and t r o p e s c a n n o t be used i n an a n a l y s i s o f h i s p o e t r y i n terms o f h i s p o e t i c p r i n c i p l e s . A c c o r d i n g l y , I s h a l l r e f e r o n l y t o Horace by way o f e s t a b l i s h i n g t h e p l a c e o f the Notes, i f not t he s o u r c e s o f the Notes, i n t h e A r s p o e t i c a t r a d i t i o n . 10 To say t h a t we c a n n o t use the Donatan background i n t e r p r e t a t i v e l y i s n o t t o s a y , however, t h a t we c a n n o t use i t a t a l l . The d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f t h e i d e n t i t y o f t h e "Master Edouardo D o n a t i " a t whose " r e q u e s t " t h e Notes were s u p p o s e d l y w r i t t e n (as i n d i c a t e d i n the f u l l t i t l e o f the Notes) has l o n g been a s u b j e c t o f s c h o l a r l y s p e c u l a t i o n . I s u g g e s t t h a t the p o p u l a r i t y and s i g n i f i c a n c e o f the work o f Donatus makes i t p o s s i b l e t h a t G a s c o i g n e ' s r e f e r e n c e m i ght be a f a n c i f u l l y humourous a l l u s i o n t o Donatus. As Murphy o b s e r v e d above, "the term 'Donet' became a synonym f o r ' p r i m e r , 1 o r f i r s t book, i n a s u b j e c t . " By making such a r e f e r e n c e , G a s c o i g n e i m p l i e s t h a t the Notes i s a " ' p r i m e r , ' o r f i r s t book" f o r "the making o f v e r s e o r ryme i n E n g l i s h . " I t u r n now t o the p r i n c i p l e s e n u n c i a t e d i n t h i s "Donet" o f E n g l i s h v e r s e . The l o g i c a l p l a c e t o b e g i n e x a m i n a t i o n o f the Notes i s w i t h .what Gasco i g n e terms "The f i r s t and most n e c e s s a r i e poynt t h a t e v e r I founde meete t o be c o s i d e r e d i n making o f a d e l e c t a b l e poeme" (p. 465). For G a s c o i g n e , "The f i r s t and most n e c e s s a r i e poynt ... i s t h i s , t o grounde i t upon some f i n e i n v e n t i o n " (p. 465). The o n l y d i f f i c u l t y w i t h t h i s f i r s t p r e c e p t l i e s i n u n d e r s t a n d i n g what Gasc o i g n e means by " i n v e n t i o n . " G a s c o i g n e h i m s e l f admits t h e d i f f i c u l t y when he says t h a t " t h e r u l e o f I n v e n t i o n ... o f a l l o t h e r r u l e s i s . . . h a r d e s t t o be p r e s c r i b e d i n c e r t a y n e and i n f a l l i b l e r u l e s " (p. 466), but he then a t t e m p t s t o c l a r i f y the term by a d d i t i o n a l d i s c u s s i o n o f i t . The f i r s t p o i n t he makes i s t h a t " i t i s n o t inough to r o l l i n p l e a s a n t woordes, nor y e t t o t h u n d e r i n Rym, Ram, R u f f , by l e t t e r (quoth my master Chaucer) nor y e t t o abounde i n a p t v o c a b l e s , o r e p y t h e t e s , u n l e s s e t h e I n v e n t i o n have i n i t a l s o a l i q u i d s a l i s " (p. 465). From 11 t h e s e r e s t r i c t i o n s , i t i s c l e a r t h a t G a s c o i g n e ' s " I n v e n t i o n " i s n o t t o be e q u a t e d w i t h " e x p r e s s i o n " : i t i s n o t s o n i c ("by l e t t e r " ) , i t i s n o t v e r b a l (however " p l e a s a n t " o r " a p t " ) , and i t i s n o t d e s c r i p t i v e ("nor . . . i n . . . e p y t h e t e s " ) . What i t i s t o be equ a t e d w i t h i s made c l e a r e r when Ga s c o i g n e e l a b o r a t e s what he means by " a l i q u i d s a l i s " : "By t h i s a l i q u i d s a l i s , I meane some good and f i n e d e v i s e , shewing t h e q u i c k e c a p a c i t i e o f a w r i t e r " ( p . 465). Thus, an " I n v e n t i o n " has i n i t something d e v i s e d , and d e v i s e d by t h e " q u i c k e c a p a c i t i e " o f i t s a u t h o r -- i n o t h e r words, i t has more t o do w i t h an " i d e a " than w i t h " e x p r e s s i o n . " T h a t " I n v e n t i o n " means something l i k e " i d e a " i s f u r t h e r c o n f i r m e d by the f a c t t h a t i t can be d e s c r i b e d o r "measured" by the a b s t r a c t terms "good and f i n e , " both o f which q u a l i t i e s G a s c o i g n e r e - e m p h a s i z e s when he s t a t e s , i n a n e a r t a u t o l o g y , "where I say some good and f i n e i n v e n t i o n , I meane t h a t I would have i t both f i n e and good" (p. 465). T h i s he expands when he o b s e r v e s , "many i n v e n t i o n s a r e so s u p e r f i n e , t h a t they a r e V i x good . . . a g a i n e many I n v e n t i o n s a r e good, and y e t n o t f i n e l y h a n d l e d " (p. 465). A l t h o u g h t h e r e i s some a m b i g u i t y i n G a s c o i g n e ' s d i s t i n c t i o n between the terms, we may draw some c o n c l u s i o n s about h i s meaning by remembering t h a t h i s i n i t i a l e x c l u s i o n o f e x p r e s s i v e a t t r i b u t e s from h i s d e s c r i p t i o n o f the " I n v e n t i o n " which must be "both f i n e and good" p r e c l u d e s i n t e r p r e t i n g t h i s l a s t s t a t e m e n t as meaning t h a t an i n v e n t i o n must be based on a good i d e a , and be f i n e l y e x e c u t e d ; r a t h e r , both a d j e c t i v e s must a p p l y t o the n a t u r e o f t h e i d e a on which t h e i n v e n t i o n i s based: t he i n v e n t i o n must be based on "some good and f i n e d e v i s e . " In o t h e r words, both a b s t r a c t q u a l i t i e s d e s c r i b e a s i n g l e a b s t r a c t s u b s t a n t i v e . S i n c e G a s c o i g n e emphasizes t h e i r d i s t i n c t i v e 12 n a t u r e s , he must mean, t h e n , t h a t "good" and " f i n e " a r e a d j e c t i v e s which d e s c r i b e two k i n d s o f a b s t r a c t e x c e l l e n c e , which t h e i d e a a t the h e a r t o f t h e i n v e n t i o n must p o s s e s s . What the two k i n d s a r e i s n o t a b s o l u t e l y c l e a r h e r e , b u t a not u n r e a s o n a b l e assumption would be t h a t "good" r e f e r s to a moral e x c e l l e n c e , and " f i n e " t o an a e s t h e t i c e x c e l l e n c e , f o r the two terms do c a r r y t h o s e d i s t i n c t i v e c o n n o t a t i o n s (as the O x f o r d  E n g l i s h D i c t i o n a r y c o n f i r m s ) . T h i s assumption i s s u p p o r t e d by a d d i t i o n a l comments made by G a s c o i g n e . On t h e one hand, he says t h a t i f he " s h o u l d u n d e r t a k e t o wryte i n p r a y s e o f a gentlewoman" (pp. 465-66), he "would e i t h e r f i n d e some s u p e r n a t u r a l 1 cause wherby my penne might walke i n the s u p e r l a t i v e [ i t a l i c s mine] d e g r e e , o r e l s . . . would u n d e r t a k e t o aunswere f o r any i m p e r f e c t i o n t h a t shee h a t h , and th e r e u p o n r a y s e t h e p r a y s e o f h i r commendacion [ i t a l i c s m i n e ] " ( p . , 4 6 6 ) ; on the o t h e r hand, he warns the w r i t e r n o t t o w r i t e "tanquam  i n o r a t i o n e p e r p e t u a " ( p . 465) -- f o r " i t w i l l a ppeare t o t h e s k i 1 f u l l Reader but a t a l e o f a tubbe" (p. 465) -- and warns him, i f w r i t i n g o f a l a d y , n o t t o " p r a i s e h i r c h r i s t a 1 e y e, n o r h i r c h e r r i e l i p p e , &c. For t h e s e t h i n g s a r e t r i t a & o b v i a " (p. 466). "I would . . . use t h e c o v e r t e s t meane t h a t I c o u l d t o avoyde the uncomely customes o f commo w r i t e r s " (p. 466), w r i t e s G a s c o i g n e . From t h i s e x a m i n a t i o n , I t h i n k i t r e a s o n a b l e t o c o n c l u d e t h a t G a s c o i g n e does i n d e e d view t he "good and f i n e i n v e n t i o n " upon which a poem s h o u l d be grounded as a m o r a l l y e x c e l l e n t and a e s t h e t i c a l l y f i n e i d e a . B e f o r e p r o c e e d i n g t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f G a s c o i g n e ' s n e x t "Note," however, we must make one o r two a d d i t i o n a l o b s e r v a t i o n s . F i r s t o f a l l , i n h i s c l a r i f i c a t i o n o f what i s "good and f i n e , " as quoted above, G a s c o i g n e f u r t h e r s u g g e s t s 13 t h a t he does mean " i d e a " when he speaks o f " I n v e n t i o n " : he o b s e r v e s t h a t i n s p e a k i n g o f "a gentlewoman" he would w r i t e about "some s u p e r n a t u r a l 1 c a u s e " so t h a t h i s pen "might walke i n t h e s u p e r l a t i v e d e g r e e " ("super-n a t u r a l ! " l i t e r a l l y meaning "above the n a t u r a l , " and " t h e s u p e r l a t i v e d e g r e e " — by s u g g e s t i n g i n i t s c o n t e x t moral e x c e l l e n c e , and by b e i n g q u a l i f i e d w i t h t h e d e f i n i t e a r t i c l e -- s u g g e s t i n g an a b s t r a c t a b s o l u t e ) , " o r e l s I would u n d e r t a k e t o aunswere f o r any i m p e r f e c t i o n t h a t shee h a t h " ( o n l y an a b s t r a c t a b s o l u t e t h a t c o v e r s e v e r y p o s s i b i l i t y can "aunswere f o r any [ i t a l i c s mine] i m p e r f e c t i o n " ) . Second, a g a i n i n the above-quoted d i s c u s s i o n o f what i s "good," G a s c o i g n e p o i n t s t o two ways i n which a "good i n v e n t i o n " may be a c h i e v e d : "I would e i t h e r f i n d e some s u p e r n a t u r a l 1 cause whereby my penne might walke i n t h e s u p e r l a t i v e d e g r e e , o r e l s I would u n d e r t a k e t o aunswere f o r any i m p e r f e c t i o n t h a t she h a t h " -- i n o t h e r words, one may s t a r t e i t h e r w i t h a p o r t r a y a l o f something good i n and o f i t s e l f , o r one may s t a r t w i t h t h e c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f " i m p e r f e c t i o n " and "undertake t o aunswere f o r " i t . G a s c o i g n e ' s e x p r e s s i o n o f t h i s d u a l i t y echoes h i s words i n "The E p i s t l e t o t h e Reverend D i v i n e s " (which p r e f a c e s t h e P o s i e s ) when he s t a t e s t h a t he p r e s e n t s t h e P o s i e s to demonstrate t h a t "I . . . d e l i g h t e d t o e x e r c i s e my penne i n m o r a l l d i s c o u r s e s " ( n o t e t h e s i m i l a r i t y i n language t o the N o t e s ) , s a y i n g : I p ersuaded my s e l f e t h a t as i n the b e t t e r s o r t o f t h e same I s h o u l d e p u r c h a s e good l y k i n g w i t h t h e h o n o u r a b l e aged: So even i n t h e w o r s t s o r t e , I might y e t s e r v e as a myrrour f o r u n b r y d l e d y o u t h , to avoyde those p e r i l i e s which I had p a s s e d . F or l i t t l e may he do which hath e s c a p e d t he rock o r the sandes, i f he cannot w a f t w i t h h i s hande t o them t h a t come a f t e r him. (p. 5) 14 As he no t e s i n h i s " a d v e r t i s e m e n t " t o " t h e Readers" (which a l s o p r e f a c e s the P o s i e s ) , T r u e l y ( g e n t l e Reader) I p r o t e s t t h a t I have n o t ment h e e r e i n t o d i s p l e a s e any man, but my d e s i r e hath r a t h e r bene t o e x t e n t most men: I meane the d i v i n e w i t h g o d l y Hymnes and Psalmes, t h e s o b e r minde w i t h moral 1 d i s c o u r s e s , and t h e w i l d e s t w i l l w i t h s u f f i c i e n t w a r n i n g . (p. 16) Thus, he d i v i d e s t he P o s i e s i n t o " F l o u r e s t o c o m f o r t , Herbes t o c u r e , and Weedes t o be avoyded" (p. 1 7 ) , g i v i n g everyone something ( t h e r e b y e c h o i n g h i s "Quot homines, t o t S e n t e n t i a e " a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e N o t e s ) . In t he f i r s t "Note," f i n a l l y , t h e r e a r e seven o t h e r i n d i c a t i o n s n o t h e r e t o f o r e mentioned which c o n f i r m t h a t " I n v e n t i o n " s h o u l d be i n t e r p r e t e d as " i d e a . " These a r e , r e s p e c t i v e l y , h i s o f f - h a n d e d r e f e r e n c e to "what Theame s o e v e r you do take i n hande" (p. 4 6 5 ) , i m p l i c i t s t a t e m e n t o f t h e n e c e s s i t y o f "depth o f d e v i s e i n y e I n v e n t i o n , & some f i g u r e s a l s o " (p. 465), e x p r e s s i o n o f d i f f i c u l t y i n p r o v i d i n g examples o f I n v e n t i o n " s i t h e n c e t h e o c c a s i o n s o f I n v e n t i o n s a r e (as i t were) i n f i n i t e " ( p. 4 6 5 ), t h r e e s t a t e m e n t s t o t h e e f f e c t t h a t i f he " s h o u l d d i s c l o s e . . . p r e t e n c e i n l o v e " he would " e y t h e r make a s t r a u n g e d i s c o u r s e o f some i n t o l l e r a b l e [hence " s u p e r n a t u r a l 1"] p a s s i o n " (p. 4 6 6 ) , o r " f i n d e o c c a s i o n t o p l e a d e by the example o f some h i s t o r i e " ( p . 466) (which s u g g e s t s " i d e a " s i n c e t he exemplary q u a l i t y o f h i s t o r y , n o t i t s e v e n t s i n and o f t h e m s e l v e s , i s e m p h a s i z e d ) , o r " d i s c o v e r my d i s q u i e t i n shadowes per A l l e g o r i a m " (p. 466) (which s u g g e s t s " i d e a " s i n c e i t i s t h e d i s c o v e r y o f " d i s q u i e t " t h a t i s " i n shadowes," the e s s e n c e o r i d e a o f " d i s q u i e t " b e i n g communicated "per A l l e g o r i a m " ) , and, f i n a l l y , o b s e r v a t i o n t h a t "some f i n e d e v i s e . . . beyng founde, p l e a s a n t woordes w i l l f o l l o w w e l l inough and f a s t i n o u g h " (p. 466). As C. S. Lewis n o t e s , 15 The ' I n v e n t i o n ' here i s t h e ' c o n c e i t , ' o r t h e ' i d e a , ' t h e t h i n g t h a t makes the poem d i f f e r e n t from what any man m i g ht say w i t h o u t b e i n g a p o e t . I t s e c u r e s i n p o e t i c t h o u g h t t h a t d e p a r t u r e from the l i t e r a l and o r d i n a r y ( t h e KVTOCO-K and the'cffo-rti^oV ) which A r i s t o t l e demands i n p o e t i c l a n g u a g e . ! 0 For a l l t h e r e a s o n s n o t e d , we may f e e l c e r t a i n t h a t t h i s i n d e e d i s what G a s c o i g n e means by " I n v e n t i o n . " Coming now t o G a s c o i g n e ' s second "Note" a f t e r t h i s u n a v o i d a b l y l o n g c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f " t h e r u l e . . . which o f a l l o t h e r r u l e s i s . . . h a r d e s t t o be p r e s c r i b e d , " one f i n d s a s h o r t and s e l f - e x p l a n a t o r y p r a c t i c a l c a u t i o n b e i n g made: Your I n v e n t i o n b e i n g once d e v i s e d , t a k e heede t h a t n e i t h e r p l e a s u r e o f r i m e , n o r v a r i e t i e o f d e v i s e , do c a r i e you from i t : f o r as t o use o b s c u r e & darke p h r a s e s i n a p l e a s a n t S o n e t , i s n o t h i n g d e l e c t a b l e , so t o e n t e r m i n g l e m e r i e j e s t s i n a s e r i o u s m a t t e r i s an Indecorum. (p. 466) For G a s c o i g n e , t h e n , e x p r e s s i o n must be made to f i t I n v e n t i o n , and n o t the o t h e r way around -- as G a b r i e l Harvey says o f a l a t e r passage i n the Notes, "The I n u e n t i o n must g u i d e & r u l e the E l o c u t i o n : non c o n t r a " ^ decorum b e i n g d e f i n e d i n terms o f the f u l f i l m e n t o f t h a t p r e s c r i b e d r e l a t i o n s h i p . Coming to the t h i r d "Note," however, one f i n d s G a s c o i g n e s u d d e n l y t u r n i n g t o d i s c u s s i o n o f e x p r e s s i o n , r a t h e r than o f i d e a . T h i s might p r e s e n t no h i n d r a n c e t o c l e a r a n a l y s i s i f he were n e v e r t o r e t u r n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f t h e l a t t e r , b u t as he does do so ( i n the s i x t h " N o t e " ) , i t i s seen t h a t , a t t h i s p o i n t , an a n a l y s i s o f t h e Notes must d e p a r t from G a s c o i g n e ' s o r d e r i n g o f h i s d i s c u s s i o n , i f the p r e c e p t s put f o r w a r d a r e t o be c l e a r l y a p p r e c i a t e d i n r e l a t i o n t o one a n o t h e r . G a s c o i g n e h i m s e l f r e a l i z e s t h a t he b e g i n s t o d i g r e s s a t t h i s p o i n t , s a y i n g , "I 16 w i l l n o t d e n i e but t h i s may seeme a p r e p o s t e r o u s o r d r e : but bycause I c o v e t r a t h e r t o s a t i s f i e you p a r t i c u l a r l y , than t o u n d e r t a k e a g e n e r a l l t r a d i t i o n , I w i l n o t somuch s t a n d upon t h e manner as t h e m a t t e r o f my p r e c e p t s " (p. 466). G a b r i e l Harvey p o i n t s t o t h e l o g i c a l d i v i s i o n o f G a s c o i g n e ' s m a t e r i a l when he w r i t e s , on t h e bottom m a r g i n o f h i s copy o f the N o t e s , H i s a p t e s t p a r t i t i o n had bene i n t o p r e c e p t s / I n v e n t i o n . o f ( . E l o c u t i o n . And the s e u e r a l r u l e s o f b o t h , t o be s o r t e d and m a r s h i a l l e d i n t h e i r p r o p e r p l a c e s . 1 2 The p a t t e r n o f c o n s i d e r a t i o n I s h a l l now f o l l o w w i l l be based on t h i s d i v i s i o n . T u r n i n g , t h e n , t o t h e n e x t "Note" w h e r e i n c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f i n v e n t i o n i s t o be found (Note 6 ) , we d i s c o v e r G a s c o i g n e s a y i n g e x a c t l y what he s a i d i n h i s second note — "do you alwayes h o l d y o u r f i r s t d e t e r m i n e d I n v e n t i o n " ( p . 4 6 9 ) , he w r i t e s , "and do r a t h e r s e a r c h e t h e bottome o f y o u r braynes f o r apte wordes, than chaunge good r e a s o n f o r r u m b l i n g rime" (p. 469). As "N.," the anonymous " o t h e r " a n n o t a t o r o f Harvey's 1 ^ copy o f t h e N o t e s , o b s e r v e s , "Idem an t e i n 2 R e g u l a . " Note 10, however, supplements what has been s a i d c o n c e r n i n g i n v e n t i o n , f o r , a l t h o u g h i t o s t e n s i b l y d i s c u s s e s e x p r e s s i v e m a t t e r s -- and says o f t h e r e l a t i o n o f i d e a t o them e s s e n t i a l l y what has been s a i d a l r e a d y --i t r e a l l y i s c o n c e r n e d w i t h what might be termed t h e " t e l e o l o g y " o f p o e t r y : "asmuch as you may, frame y o u r s t i l e t o p e r s p i c u i t y and t o be s e n s i b l e " (p. 470) w r i t e s G a s c o i g n e , who then c o n c l u d e s : f o r t h e haughty o b s c u r e v e r s e doth n o t much d e l i g h t , and the v e r s e t h a t i s t o e a s i e i s l i k e a t a l e o f a r o s t e d h o r s e : 17 but l e t y o u r Poeme be such as may both d e l i g h t and draw a t t e n t i v e r e a d y n g , and t h e r e w i t h a l may d e l i v e r such m a t t e r as be worth the marking. (p. 470) P o e t r y , i n o t h e r words, s h o u l d d e l i g h t -- but i t s h o u l d d e l i g h t i n o r d e r t o "draw a t t e n t i v e readyng" and t h e r e b y communicate an i d e a . The u l t i m a t e o b j e c t i v e o f p o e t r y i s , t h e n , d i d a c t i c , a l t h o u g h t h e d i d a c t i c i s m i s t o be p r e s e n t e d as a t t r a c t i v e l y as p o s s i b l e . As S i d n e y , e c h o i n g Horace, was to say l a t e r , p o e t r y has " t h i s end, t o t e a c h and d e l i g h t . " ^ A l t h o u g h mention has been made o f e x p r e s s i v e m a t t e r s i n t h e Notes c o n s i d e r e d thus f a r , i t i s c l e a r t h a t such mention has been d i r e c t l y s u b o r d i n a t e d t o t h e m a t i c c o n s i d e r a t i o n s . In t h e Notes r e m a i n i n g , however, e x p r e s s i v e c o n c e r n s a r e paramount ( a l t h o u g h , o f c o u r s e , always i m p l i c i t l y s u b o r d i n a t e d t o t h e m a t i c o n e s ) . I t i s a p p r o p r i a t e , t h e n , t o r e t u r n now to the f i r s t o f t h e s e " s t y l i s t i c " n o t e s , Note 3. T h i s Note, l i k e t h e one i m m e d i a t e l y p r e c e d i n g i t , i s a l m o s t s e l f -e x p l a n a t o r y : "I w i l l n e x t a d v i s e you t h a t you h o l d t h e j u s t measure [ i . e . , m e t r e ] wherwith you b e g i n y o u r v e r s e " (p. 466), w r i t e s G a s c o i g n e , who j u s t i f i e s t h e i n c l u s i o n o f t h i s a l m o s t - a x i o m a t i c s u g g e s t i o n i n h i s Notes by r e f e r e n c e t o contemporary p r a c t i c e . As he o b s e r v e s i n an i n t e r e s t i n g commentary on t h e p o s t - S k e l t o n i c p r a c t i c e s o f h i s c o n t e m p o r a r i e s : though t h i s p r e c e p t might seeme r i d i c u l o u s unto y o u , s i n c e e v e r y yong s c h o l l e r can c o n c e i v e t h a t he ought t o c o n t i n u e i n the same measure wherwith he b e g i n n e t h , y e t do I see and r e a d many mens Poems now adayes* whiche b e g i n n i n g w i t h t h e measure o f x i i . i n the f i r s t l i n e , & x i i i i . i n t h e second (which i s the common k i n d e o f v e r s e ) they w i l y e t (by t h a t time t h e y have passed o v e r a few v e r s e s ) f a l i n t o x i i i i . & f o u r t e n e , & s i c de  s i m i l i b u s , the which i s e i t h e r f o r g e t f u l n e s o r c a r e l e s n e s . (p. 466) 18 I t s h o u l d be n o t e d here t h a t t h i s p r e s c r i b i n g o f m e t r i c a l c o n s i s t e n c y d e m o n s t r a t e s t h a t G a s c o i g n e means "metre" when he r e f e r s t o "measure." The n e x t note i s t h e l o n g e s t o f the Notes. A l t h o u g h i t i s n o t as complex as t h e somewhat s h o r t e r f i r s t n o t e , i t does c o n t a i n s e v e r a l s u g g e s t i o n s and o b s e r v a t i o n s — one o r two o f which a r e ambiguous, and one o f which i s c l e a r l y e r r o n e o u s -- and i t i s b e s t t o t r e a t t h e s e s e p a r a t e l y . . The f i r s t s u g g e s t i o n i s , " i n y o u r v e r s e s remembre to p l a c e every worde i n h i s n a t u r a l Emphasis o r sound, t h a t i s to say i n such w i s e ... as i t i s comonly pronounced o r used" (p. 467). T h i s i s c l e a r enough, but G a s c o i g n e ' s expanded d i s c u s s i o n o f t h i s p o i n t i s n o t c l e a r , f o r he says t h a t the word must be p l a c e d so t h a t i t i s g i v e n i t s " n a t u r a l Emphasis o r sound . . . w i t h such l e n g t h o r s h o r t n e s s e , e l e v a t i o n o r d e p r e s s i o n o f s y l l a b l e s " (p. 467) as i t i s n o r m a l l y g i v e n , " t o e x p r e s s e " w h i c h , says G a s c o i g n e , we have t h r e e maner o f a c c e n t s , g r a v i s , l e [ v ] i s , & c i r c u m f l e x a , t h e which I would e n g l i s h t h u s , the l o n g a c c e n t , t h e s h o r t a c c e n t , & t h a t whiche i s i n d i f f e r e n t : the g r a v e a c c e n t i s marked by t h i s c a r a c t e , / the l i g h t a c c e n t i s n o t e d t h u s , \ & the c i r c u f l e x e o r i n d i f f e r e n t i s thus s i g n i f i e d ^ : t h e grave a c c e n t i s drawe o u t o r e l e v a t e , and maketh t h a t s i l l a b l e l o n g wherupo i t i s p l a c e d : the l i g h t a c c e t i s d e p r e s s e d o r s n a t c h e d up, and maketh t h a t s i l l a b l e s h o r t upon the which i t l i g h t e t h : the c i r c u m f l e x e a c c e n t i s i n d i f f e r e t , sometimes s h o r t , sometimes l o n g , sometimes d e p r e s s e d & sometimes e l e v a t e . ( p . 467) The d i f f i c u l t y h e r e , o f c o u r s e , i s t h a t G a s c o i g n e speaks o f s y l l a b i c l e n g t h and s y l l a b i c a c c e n t i n t e r c h a n g e a b l y . As a consequence, i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o d e c i d e what he means, p r e c i s e l y . C a t h e r i n e Ing, i n E l i z a b e t h a n L y r i c s , p r o v i d e s a f i n e a n a l y s i s o f the problem, when she w r i t e s : 19 G a s c o i g n e . . . speaks o f ' l o n g ' and ' s h o r t ' a c c e n t s , and i t i s i m p o s s i b l e t o t e l l whether h i s c o n f u s i o n i s between l e n g t h and l o u d n e s s as marks o f i m p o r t a n c e i n a s y l l a b l e o r between d i f f e r e n t terms f o r a l o n g s y l l a b l e . 1 5 In h e r d e f i n i t i o n o f " d e p r e s s e d , " Ing w r i t e s : T h i s i s G a s c o i g n e ' s term f o r ' u n s t r e s s e d ' o r 'unimportant' ( o f a s y l l a b l e ) , though he makes d e f i n i t i o n d i f f i c u l t by c o n f u s i n g i t w i t h ' s h o r t . ' 1 6 Of the term " e l e v a t e d " she w r i t e s : G a s c o i g n e uses t h i s o f t h e s y l l a b l e c a r r y i n g a c c e n t ; whether i t has s t r e s s o r emphasis o r n o t , i n h i s use i t has i c t u s . P r o b a b l y , t h e r e f o r e , i t s h o u l d be d e f i n e d as c a r r y i n g i c t u s J ' F i n a l l y , she says o f t h e term, " l o n g " : O c c a s i o n a l l y G a s c o i g n e and o t h e r s a p p l y t h i s t o a s y l l a b l e , by a k i n d o f metonymy, i n t h e meaning o f ' i m p o r t a n t ' o r 'accented.'18 Ing i n t h e s e comments p r o v i d e s , I t h i n k , as much o f a r e s o l u t i o n t o t h e problem as i s p o s s i b l e . B e f o r e c o n s i d e r i n g t h e n e x t p o i n t made by G a s c o i g n e i n the f o u r t h n o t e , one o t h e r a m b i g u i t y i n the passage so f a r d e a l t w i t h must be c o n s i d e r e d -- namely, the q u e s t i o n o f what p r e c i s e l y i t i s t h a t G a s c o i g n e v means ( i n h i s frame o f r e f e r e n c e ) by " c i r c u f T e x e " a c c e n t . John Thompson i n The Founding o f E n g l i s h Metre c o n s i d e r s t h i s v e r y q u e s t i o n , and p r o v i d e s a most c o n v i n c i n g argument when he s u g g e s t s t h a t t h i s a c c e n t p r o b a b l y s i g n i f i e s e i t h e r " t h e d e g r e e s o f s t r e s s between t h e s t r o n g e s t and t h e weakest, o r . . . h i s r e c o g n i t i o n o f how t h e s t r e s s p a t t e r n t h a t forms a p h r a s e o r a compound word can d e t e r m i n e t h e degree o f s t r e s s on a s y l l a b l e , as i n a 1 i g h t house o r a 1 i g h t h o u s e . " l b > Thompson then goes on t o note t h a t G a s c o i g n e "speaks a g a i n o f t h e i n d i f f e r e n t s t r e s s when he c o n s i d e r s 20 the a d j u s t m e n t o f language t o t h e m e t r i c a l p a t t e r n " and q u o t e s G a s c o i g n e ' s 20 remark ( i n t h e f i f t h n o t e ) t h a t m o n o s y l l a b l e s " w i l l more e a s i l y f a l l t o be s h o r t e o r l o n g as o c c a s i o n r e q u i r e t h , o r w i l b e a d a p t e d t o become 21 c i r c u m f l e x e o r o f an i n d i f f e r e n t sounde." The n e x t o b s e r v a t i o n t h a t G a s c o i g n e makes i n t h e f o u r t h note i s one t h a t i s a t once a comment on contemporary p r a c t i c e , and an e x p l i c i t p a r t o f h i s own p o e t i c (as h i s r u l e o f m e t r i c a l c o n s i s t e n c y was seen to b e ) . T h i s a t once i m p e r s o n a l and p e r s o n a l note i s e x p r e s s e d when Gas c o i g n e w r i t e s : note you t h a t comonly now a dayes i n e n g l i s h rimes ( f o r I d a r e n o t c a l them E n g l i s h v e r s e s ) we use none o t h e r o r d e r but a f o o t e o f two s i l l a b l e s , wherof t h e f i r s t i s d e p r e s s e d o r made s h o r t , &^the second i s e l e v a t e o r made l o g : and t h a t sound o r s c a n i n g c o n t i n u e t h t h r o u g h o u t the v e r s e . We have used i n times p a s t o t h e r k i n d e s o f Meeters . . . [ G a s c o i g n e then g i v e s an example o f t h e a l t e r n a t e use o f iambs and a n a p a e s t s ] . (p. 467) T h i s passage s t a t e s t h a t t h e iamb has i n p r a c t i c e come t o be, u n f o r t u n a t e l y , t h e o n l y f o o t g e n e r a l l y employed. In the c r i t i c a l l i t e r a t u r e , however, t h i s s i m p l e s t a t e m e n t has provoked a t l e a s t two s t r a n g e c o n c l u s i o n s --c o n c l u s i o n s which I f e a r have had some " s u b l i m i n a l " e f f e c t i n prompting u n warranted n e g a t i v e c r i t i c i s m o f G a s c o i g n e , and t o w h i c h , t h e r e f o r e , I want t o respond b r i e f l y . The f i r s t i s t h a t G a s c o i g n e viewed t h e iamb as both t h e o n l y d e s i r a b l e f o o t , and t h e o n l y " n e c e s s a r y " o n e . ^ N o t h i n g more i s needed t o r e f u t e t h i s than t o p o i n t t o h i s o b s e r v a t i o n t h a t "We have used i n times p a s t o t h e r k i n d e s o f M e e t e r s , " and t o note h i s e x p r e s s i o n o f r e g r e t a t t h e u n i f o r m i t y o f p r o s o d i c p r a c t i c e s , when he w r i t e s l a t e r i n Note 4: And s u r e l y I can lament t h a t wee a r e f a l l e n i n t o suche a p l a y n e and s i m p l e manner o f w r y t i n g , t h a t t h e r e i s none o t h e r f o o t e used but one. (p. 468) 21 As S a i n t s b u r y o b s e r v e s , G a s c o i g n e "laments t h e t y r a n n y o f t h e Iamb.'"1,3 G a s c o i g n e ' s r e s p o n s e t o t h a t " t y r a n n y , " a l t h o u g h i t was one o f u l t i m a t e a c c e p t a n c e i n t h e f a c e o f i n s u r m o u n t a b l e odds -- "But s i n c e i t i s s o , l e t us take the f o r d e as we f i n d e i t " (p. 468), c o n c l u d e s G a s c o i g n e , as S a i n t s b u r y ^ and J . W. H. A t k i n s ^ emphasize -- was n o t u n c o n d i t i o n a l . I t was a p r a c t i c a l a c c e p t a n c e , as was h i s a c c e p t a n c e o f "common E n g l i s h usage i n p r o n u n c i a t i o n " 6 0 i n t h e f i r s t p a r t o f Note 4, as Ing p o i n t s o u t , and as was h i s a c c e p t a n c e o f h i s own l i f e ' s work, as seen when, i n the " E p i s t l e t o the Reverend D i v i n e s , " he defends the s i n c e r i t y o f one o f h i s r e a s o n s f o r p u b l i s h i n g the P o s i e s : To the . . . r e a s o n may be o b j e c t e d , t h a t i f I were so d e s i r o u s t o have my c a p a c i t i e knowne, I s h o u l d e have done much b e t t e r t o have t r a v e l l e d i n some n o t o r i o u s peece o f worke, which might g e n e r a l l y have s p r e d my commendation. The which I c o n f e s s e . But y e t i s i t t r u e t h a t I must t a k e t h e Foord as I f i n d e i t : Sometimes n o t as I woulde, but as I may. ( p . 6) A p p r e c i a t i o n o f t h i s i n t e n s e l y p r a c t i c a l s t r a i n i n G a s c o i g n e , i n c i d e n t a l l y --when c o u p l e d w i t h a p p r e c i a t i o n o f t h e o f t e n e x p l i c i t l y p r a c t i c a l n a t u r e o f t h e Notes (as has been seen a l r e a d y , and as a note such as the s e v e n t h one c l e a r l y i l l u s t r a t e s ) -- makes i t a l l the more i r o n i c t h a t the Notes have n o t been p r a c t i c a l l y a p p l i e d t o G a s c o i g n e ' s p o e t r y . The second c r i t i c a l p o s i t i o n t h a t I t h i n k "misses t h e mark" when i t comes to a n a l y s i s o f t h e " i a m b i c " passage i n the f o u r t h note i s t h a t which c r i t i c i z e s G a s c o i g n e f o r n o t f o l l o w i n g h i s own a d v i c e i n " t a k i n g the f o r d as he f i n d s i t . " T h i s p o s i t i o n i s r e p r e s e n t e d by B. A. P. Van Dam, who c r i t i c i z e s G a s c o i g n e f o r n o t always employing theiamb. In a r g u i n g t h i s , however, Van Dam r e f u t e s t h i s c r i t i c i s m , f o r , i r o n i c a l l y , he emphasizes i n t h e c o u r s e o f h i s argument G a s c o i g n e ' s t e r m i n g the iamb as 22 "comonly" used. I f i t i s "comonly" used, i t i s n o t , o f c o u r s e , always used -- hence, " t a k i n g the f o r d " as i t i s f o u n d does n o t r e q u i r e e x c l u s i v e use o f t h e iamb. B e f o r e l e a v i n g the "iamb" p a s s a g e , one o t h e r p o i n t s h o u l d be t r e a t e d . As n o t e d , t h e r e i s one p o s s i b l e d i f f i c u l t y i n h e r e n t i n i t : t h i s a r i s e s when Ga s c o i g n e speaks o f f - h a n d e d l y a b o u t " e n g l i s h rimes ( f o r I d a r e n o t c a l them E n g l i s h v e r s e s ) . " Does he mean, by t h i s , t o condemn t h e use o f rhyme? Examining t h e s t a t e m e n t c l o s e l y , one sees t h a t G a s c o i g n e may o r may n o t i n t e n d rhyme t o have a c a u s a l . c o n n e c t i o n w i t h the f a c t t h a t "I dare n o t c a l them . . . v e r s e s , " s i n c e t h e c o n j u n c t i o n " f o r " may c o n j o i n e i t h e r " r i m e s " o r some o t h e r a n t e c e d e n t t o "not . ... v e r s e s . " In t h i s s i t u a t i o n , I t h i n k c o n t e x t i s a l l - i m p o r t a n t . Up t o t h i s p o i n t , G a s c o i g n e has s a i d n o t h i n g i n the f o u r t h note a b o u t rhyme; he has, however, s a i d a g r e a t d e a l about m e t r i c l i m i t a t i o n s . A c c o r d i n g l y , I t h i n k i t f a r more l i k e l y t h a t he sees t h e cause o f h i s i n a b i l i t y t o c r e d i t E n g l i s h p o e t r y w i t h the term " v e r s e " t o be t h e m e t r i c l i m i t a t i o n o f t h a t p o e t r y (which i s , as w e l l , a more a p p r o p r i a t e cause f o r p o e t r y n o t t o be " v e r s e " --which i s a m e t r i c term d e s i g n a t i n g a m e t r i c u n i t o f c o m p o s i t i o n , as a l l d e f i n i t i o n s g i v e n i n the O x f o r d E n g l i s h D i c t i o n a r y o f t h e d i f f e r e n t senses o f the term c o n c u r -- than i s rhyme). T h i s l i m i t a t i o n l e a v e s t h a t p o e t r y , t h e n , "rhyming" but n o t s i g n i f i c a n t l y " v e r s i f y i n g " ; l i n e s o f i t , consequent! may be spoken o f as " r i m e s , " even though they c a n n o t be spoken o f as " v e r s e s As Ing s t a t e s : G a s c o i g n e has no f e e l i n g t h a t rime i n i t s e l f means bad v e r s e s ; he s i m p l y d e p l o r e s t h e l a c k o f i n t e r e s t i n s t r u c t u r e w i t h i n the l i n e i n contemporary E n g l i s h p o e t r y . He sees no r e a s o n why the p l e a s u r e o f rime s h o u l d n o t c o - e x i s t w i t h t h e p l e a s u r e o f i n t r i c a t e s t r u c t u r e . 2 8 23 A l t h o u g h she does n o t g i v e d i r e c t r e a s o n s f o r her o b s e r v a t i o n , Ing i s , I t h i n k , c o r r e c t . We come now t o the n e x t p a r t o f Note 4, which G a s c o i g n e i n t r o d u c e s i n s u p p o r t o f h i s s t a t e m e n t t h a t "We have used i n times p a s t o t h e r k i n d e s o f M e e t e r s " : A l s o our f a t h e r Chaucer hath used t h e same l i b e r t i e i n f e e t e and measures t h a t t h e L a t i n i s t s do use: and who so e v e r do peruse and w e l l c o n s i d e r h i s workes, he s h a l l f i n d e t h a t a l t h o u g h h i s l i n e s a r e n o t alwayes o f one s e l f e same number o f S y l l a b l e s , y e t beyng redde by one t h a t hath u n d e r s t a n d i n g , t h e l o n g e s t v e r s e and t h a t which hath most S y l l a b l e s i n i t , w i l l f a l l ( t o the e a r e ) c o r r e s p o n d e n t unto t h a t whiche hath f e w e s t s i l l a b l e s i n i t : and l i k e w i s e t h a t whiche hath i n i t f e w e s t s y l l a b l e s , s h a l b e founde y e t t o c o n s i s t o f woordes t h a t have suche n a t u r a l l sounde, as may seeme eq u a l 1 i n l e n g t h t o a v e r s e which hath many moe s i l l a b l e s o f l i g h t e r a c c e n t e s . (pp. 467-68) I t h i n k t h i s passage i s b e s t approached i f i t i s t h o u g h t o f i n two p a r t s : as a p r o s o d i c t h e o r y , and as a s t a t e m e n t about Chaucer. As a p r o s o d i c t h e o r y , i t i s s i m p l y and s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d l y a s t a t e m e n t o f c l a s s i c a l q u a n t i t a t i v e e q u i v a l e n c e . As a s t a t e m e n t a b o u t Chaucer, i t i s e r r o n e o u s . As M a u r i c e Evans w r i t e s , The s i x t e e n t h - c e n t u r y w r i t e r s seem to have had l i t t l e c o n c e p t i o n o f what i n f a c t was h a p p e n i n g , and Chaucer's d e c a s y l l a b i c l i n e , i t s f i n a l 'e' f o r g o t t e n , was r e a d as an i r r e g u l a r f o u r - s t r e s s l i n e g e n e r a l l y known as 'Ryding Rhyme' a f t e r the supposed metre o f t h e P r o l o g u e to t h e C a n t e r b u r y T a l e s . 2 9 N e i t h e r o f t h e s e p a r t s i s o f too g r e a t i m p o r t a n c e h e r e , however, f o r , as has been s e e n , G a s c o i g n e i s p r i m a r i l y c o n c e r n e d w i t h " t a k i n g t h e f o r d as he f i n d s i t " -- and n e i t h e r c l a s s i c a l q u a n t i t a t i v e e q u i v a l e n c e nor G e o f f r e y Chaucer was a c t i v e l y i n w a i t f o r him a t t h e f o r d i n 1575. A f t e r r e i t e r a t e d r e f e r e n c e t o the f a c t t h a t "our Poemes may j u s t l y be c a l l e d Rithmes, and c a n n o t by any r i g h t c h a l l e n g e t h e name o f a V e r s e " 24 (p. 468) -- the change o f w o r d i n g n o t b e i n g s i g n i f i c a n t , s i n c e , as Ing p o i n t s o u t , " t h e s p e l l i n g ' r i t h m e 1 i s f o r G a s c o i g n e s i m p l y an a l t e r n a t i v e t o 'rime' o r 'ryme': i t does n o t mean 'rhythm'"3° (a f a c t which may be c o n f i r m e d by e x a m i n i n g G a s c o i g n e ' s l a t e r r e f e r e n c e s t o "Rithme r o y a l ! " i n Notes 13 and 14) -- G a s c o i g n e comes to h i s f i n a l o b s e r v a t i o n i n t h e f o u r t h n o t e . While i n s i s t i n g t h a t words r e t a i n i n v e r s e t h e i r normal p r o n u n c i a t i o n s , he w r i t e s , I do n o t meane hereby t h a t you may use none o t h e r wordes but o f twoo s i l l a b l e s , f o r t h e r e i n you may use d i s c r e t i o n a c c o r d i n g t o o c c a s i o n o f m a t t e r : but my meaning i s , t h a t a l l t h e wordes i n y o u r v e r s e be so p l a c e d as t h e f i r s t s i l l a b l e may sound s h o r t o r be d e p r e s s e d , t h e second l o n g o r e l e v a t e , the t h i r d s h o r t e , t h e f o u r t h l o n g , t h e f i f t h s h o r t e , &c. (p. 468) As Ing a g a i n n o t e s , "He knows q u i t e w e l l t h a t m e t r i c a l d i v i s i o n s must be i n d e p e n d e n t o f word d i v i s i o n s i f t h e y a r e t o have any s t r u c t u r a l s i g n i f i c a n i n v e r s e . G a s c o i g n e ' s f i f t h n o t e i s a s h o r t and d i r e c t one, c o n s i s t i n g o f n o t h i n g more than t h e a d v i c e , " t h r u s t as few wordes o f many s i l l a b l e s i n t o y o u r v e r s e as may be" (p. 4 6 8 ) , and two r e a s o n s f o r t h e a d v i c e . The f i r s t i s t h a t , as "the most a u n c i e n t E n g l i s h wordes a r e o f one s i l l a b l e . . t h e more m o n a s y l T a b l e s . . . y o u use, t h e t r u e r Englishman you s h a l l seeme, and t h e l e s s e you s h a l l s m e l l o f t h e Inkehorne" (p. 468). The s e c o n d , a l l u d e d t o e a r l i e r , i s t h a t as "wordes o f many s y l l a b l e s do c l o y e a v e r s e and make i t u n p l e a s a n t " (p. 4 6 9 ) , so "woordes o f one s y l l a b l e w i l l more e a s i l y f a l l t o be s h o r t e o r l o n g as o c c a s i o n r e q u i r e t h , o r w i l b e adapted t o become c i r c u m f l e x e o r o f an i n d i f f e r e n t sounde" (p. 469). The next " e x p r e s s i v e " note i s Note 7, and t h i s , as m e n t i o n e d , i s an e x t r e m e l y p r a c t i c a l l i t t l e n o t e w h e r e i n G a s c o i g n e s i m p l y a d v i s e s one, 25 when l o o k i n g f o r a rhyme word, to go t h r o u g h t h e a l p h a b e t , t h i n k i n g o f words b e g i n n i n g w i t h each l e t t e r which rhyme w i t h t h e word d e s i r e d . "Of a l l t h e s e , " c o n c l u d e s G a s c o i g n e , "take t h a t which b e s t may s e r v e y o u r p u r p o s e , c a r r y i n g r e a s o n w i t h r i m e " (p. 469) -- a p r o v e r b i a l i n j u n c t i o n --"and i f none o f them w i l l s e r v e s o , then a l t e r t h e l a s t e worde o f y o u r f o r m e r v e r s e , but y e t do n o t w i l l i n g l y a l t e r t he meanyng o f y o u r I n v e n t i o n " (p. 469). The n e x t n o t e , Note 8, appears a t f i r s t s i g h t t o say n o t h i n g more than t h a t one "may use t h e same F i g u r e s o r Tropes i n v e r s e which a r e used i n p r o s e , and i n my judgement they s e r v e more a p t l y , and have g r e a t e r g r a c e i n v e r s e than ... i n p r o s e " (p. 469). T h i s i s n o t a l l t h a t i s s a i d , however, f o r i n c l u d e d i n i t i s the " o l d adage, Ne q u i d n i m i s " (p. 469), which G a s c o i g n e r e f e r s t o -- as he has so many o t h e r noteworthy p o i n t s -- a l m o s t en p a s s a n t . Here he i n c l u d e s i t t o q u a l i f y t h e use o f " F i g u r e s o r T r o p e s " g e n e r a l l y , and a l l i t e r a t i o n , s p e c i f i c a l l y : y e t t h e r e i n remembre t h i s o l d adage ... as many w r y t e r s which do n o t know t h e use o f any o t h e r f i g u r e than [ a l l i t e r a t i o n ] . . . t h e whiche (beyng m o d e s t l y used) l e n d e t h good g r a c e t o a v e r s e : but they do so hunte a l e t t e r t o d e a t h , t h a t they make i t Crambe 1, and Crambe b i s p o s i t u m mors e s t : t h e r e f o r e Ne q u i d  n i m i s . ( p . 469) That i t has b r o a d e r a p p l i c a t i o n t o h i s p o e t i c t h e o r y , however, i s c o n f i r m e d by the f a c t t h a t t h e r u l e Ne q u i d n i m i s forms t h e i m p l i c i t b a s i s f o r h i s w i d e - r a n g i n g comments i n Note 12: T h i s p o e t i c a l l l i c e n c e i s a shrewde f e l l o w , and c o v e r e t h many f a u l t s i n a v e r s e , i t maketh wordes l o n g e r , s h o r t e r , o f mo s i l l a b l e s , o f fewer, newer, o l d e r , t r u e r , f a l s e r , and t o c o n c l u d e i t t u r k e n e t h [ t w i s t s ] a l l t h i n g s a t p l e a s u r e . 3 2 (p. 470) 26 A l t h o u g h Note 9 c o n s i s t s o f b u t one s e n t e n c e -- " A l s o asmuche as may be, eschew s t r a u n g e words, o r o b s o l e t a & i n u s i t a t a , u n l e s s e the Theame do g i v e j u s t o c c a s i o : m a r i e i n some p l a c e s a s t r a u n g e worde doth drawe a t t e n t i v e r e a d i n g , but y e t I woulde have you t h e r e i n t o use d i s c r e t i o n " (pp. 469-70) — f o u r t h i n g s ( b e s i d e s t h e s t a t e m e n t c o n c e r n i n g d i c t i o n t h a t i t makes) s h o u l d be n o t e d about i t . F i r s t o f a l l , i t makes y e t a n o t h e r r e i t e r a t i o n o f the " I n v e n t i o n b e f o r e e x p r e s s i o n " r u l e . Second, i t re-emphasizes the f a c t t h a t a poem must draw the r e a d e r ' s a t t e n t i o n . T h i r d , i t r e i t e r a t e s the Ne q u i d n i m i s d i c t u m . F i n a l l y , i t " p i c k s up" the n a t i o n a l i s t i c u n d e r c u r r e n t a p p a r e n t , f o r example, i n Note 5. T h a t u n d e r c u r r e n t s t o p s b e i n g an u n d e r c u r r e n t , however, and becomes c e n t r a l when i n Note 11 G a s c o i g n e w r i t e s , "You s h a l l do v e r y w e l l to use y o u r v e r s e a f t e r t h e n g l i s h e p h r a s e , and n o t a f t e r the maner o f o t h e r l a n g u a g e s " (p. 470). G a s c o i g n e then g i v e s a s p e c i f i c example o f what he i s t h i n k i n g of,when he c o n t i n u e s : The L a t i n i s t s do commoly s e t the a d j e c t i v e a f t e r the S u b s t a n t i v e . . . but i f we s h o u l d say i n E n g l i s h a woman f a y r e , a house h i g h , &c. i t would have but s m a l l g r a c e : f o r we say a good man, and n o t a man good, &c. (p. 470) The note i s c o n c l u d e d by a r e s t a t e m e n t o f t h e Ne q u i d n i m i s d i c t u m (as was d i s c u s s e d i n f o o t n o t e 32), and by an e x p l i c i t c o n n e c t i n g o f t h i s note to the e a r l i e r a c c e p t a n c e o f common p r o n u n c i a t i o n -- " T h e r e f o r e even as I have a d v i s e d you t o p l a c e a l l wordes i n t h e i r n a t u r a l 1 o r most common and u s u a l l p r o n u n c i a t i o n , so would I wishe you t o frame a l l s e n t e n c e s i n t h e i r mother phrase and p r o p e r Idioma" (p. 470) -- which s e r v e s r e t r o a c t i v e l y both t o c o n n e c t Note 4 (where common p r o n u n c i a t i o n i s d i s c u s s e d ) t o t h i s note ( t h e r e b y i m p l i c i t l y i n d i c a t i n g t h a t the emphasis 27 on common p r o n u n c i a t i o n t h e r e s h o u l d be viewed, a t l e a s t i n p a r t , i n the " n a t i o n a l i s t i c " terms o f Note 11 ) , and t o h i n t t h a t G a s c o i g n e i s a g a i n c o n t e m p l a t i n g t he f o r d he has fo u n d . The n e x t note c o n c e r n e d w i t h " e x p r e s s i v e " m a t t e r s i s Note 13, wh e r e i n G a s c o i g n e t r e a t s c a e s u r a . When he d e f i n e s c a e s u r a s as " c e r t a y n e pauses o r r e s t e s i n a v e r s e " (p. 470) and r e l a t e s t h e i r o r i g i n t o music (p. 4 7 1 ) , he c o n f u s e s , as Ing n o t e s , the m u s i c a l terms "pause" and " r e s t " : " c a e s u r a , s t r i c t l y s p e a k i n g , " o b s e r v e s Ing, " c o r r e s p o n d s more c l o s e l y t o pause than t o r e s t -- t h a t i s , i t i s a p r o l o n g a t i o n o f , o r s i l e n c e a f t e r , a c e r t a i n sound, which i s n o t r e c k o n e d i n m e a s u r i n g t he 34 d u r a t i o n o f t h e whole l i n e o r phr a s e o f which i t forms a p a r t . " When he t r e a t s t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f c a e s u r a , G a s c o i g n e b e g i n s w i t h a r u b r i c --" i t i s a t d i s c r e t i o n o f the w r y t e r " (p. 471) -- b u t then p r o c e e d s t o g i v e "mine o p i n i o n " (p. 471), which i s t h a t i n o c t o s y l l a b i c and d e c a s y l l a b l i n e s i t s h o u l d come a f t e r t h e f o u r t h s y l l a b l e , i n l i n e s o f t w e l v e s y l l a b l e s a f t e r t h e s i x t h , i n p o u l t e r ' s measure a f t e r t h e s i x t h i n the f i r s t l i n e and a f t e r t h e e i g h t h i n the second l i n e o f each p a i r , and i n "Rithme r o y a l l , i t i s a t the w r y t e r s d i s c r e t i o n , and f o r c e t h n o t where the pause be u n t i l ! t h e ende o f the l i n e " (p. 471) -- a l l o f which d e s c r i p t i o n s i t s h o u l d be n o t e d , i n c i d e n t a l l y , admit t h e p o s s i b i l i t y ( i n a t r u l y m u s i c a l way) o f a c a e s u r a w i t h i n a word o f more than one s y l l a b l e . As G a s c o i g n e by h i s own a d m i s s i o n r e c o g n i z e s t h a t i n the s i x t e e n t h n o t e , which c o n c l u d e s t h e Notes, he r e c o r d s what he "had b e f o r e f o r g o t t e n t o w r y t e " ( p . 4 7 3 ) , and as the n e x t note (Note 14) i s the note t o which the l a s t note -- which s h o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d here l a s t o f a l l -- i s j o i n e d , I s h a l l here n o t t r e a t t h e l a s t t h r e e notes i n the o r d e r i n which t h e y 28 a p p e a r , but s h a l l b r i e f l y c o n s i d e r Note 15 b e f o r e t r e a t i n g Notes 14 and 16 t o g e t h e r . T h a t Note 15 does i n d e e d not " f i t " t h e l a s t s e c t i o n o f the Notes i s e v i d e n c e d n o t o n l y by the f a c t t h a t t h e n o t e s which s u r r o u n d i t a r e r e a l l y p a r t o f a s i n g l e s e t o f o b s e r v a t i o n s , and t h a t t h o s e o b s e r v a -t i o n s a r e o f a d i f f e r e n t o r d e r than t h o s e found i n the f i f t e e n t h n o t e , but a l s o by t h e f a c t t h a t t h e two o b s e r v a t i o n s made i n t h a t note a r e , r e s p e c t i v e l y , a p a r t o f , and a c o n t i n u a t i o n o f , o b s e r v a t i o n s d i r e c t l y made i n o t h e r n o t e s . Thus, we see t h a t t h e f i r s t p o i n t i n Note 15 -- an i n j u n c t i o n t o t h e e f f e c t t h a t "when s o e v e r you u n d e r t a k e to w r i t e , avoyde p r o l i x i t i e and t e d i o u s n e s s " (p. 472) -- i s an echo o f the f i r s t p o i n t made i n Note 10, and t h e second p o i n t made i n t h i s note -- "ev e r as neare as you c a n , do f i n i s h t h e s e n t e n c e and meaning a t the end o f e v e r y s t a f f e where you w r i g h t s t a v e s , & a t the end o f e v e r y two l i n e s where you w r i t e by c o o p l e s o r p o u l t e r s measure" (p. 472) -- i s a c o n t i n u a t i o n o f a l l the i n j u n c t i o n s made e a r l i e r t o l e t e x p r e s s i o n " f i t " i n v e n t i o n ( f o r the p a r a l l e l i s m o f the two i s c l e a r l y e x p r e s s e d i n t h i s second p o i n t , and the p r e v i o u s and r e p e a t e d i n j u n c t i o n s t o make e x p r e s s i o n f o l l o w i d e a n e c e s s i t a t e r e a d i n g t h i s s t a t e m e n t t h i s way, even though G a s c o i g n e ' s w o r d i n g l i t e r a l l y s u g g e s t s t h e o p p o s i t e p r o c e d u r e ) . Coming now t o Notes 14 and 16, one sees n o t o n l y t h a t t h e l a t t e r note i s r e a l l y a p a r t o f the f o r m e r , b u t t h a t both n o t e s a r e c o m p r i s e d i n t e r n a l l y o f p a r a l l e l s e t s o f for m a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s . S i n c e t h i s i s the c a s e , I t h i n k t h e c l e a r e s t and most s u c c i n c t way o f summarizing t h e c o n t e n t s o f t h e s e n o t e s i s t o f i t t h e form o f the summary t o t h a t o f the i d e a s summarized and p r e s e n t t h e f o l l o w i n g summary. In i t , each o f Ga s c o i g n e ' s terms f o r d i f f e r e n t p o e t i c forms, e t y m o l o g i c a l hypotheses 29 c o n c e r n i n g t h o s e terms, c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n s o f each form, and comments c o n c e r n i n g t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f each form, a r e r e s p e c t i v e l y l i s t e d i n s e r i e s , s e p a r a t e d by dashes. G a s c o i g n e ' s d i r e c t r emarks, as u s u a l , a r e p l a c e d i n q u o t a t i o n marks. My p a r a p h r a s e s o f h i s remarks a r e n o t so p l a c e d , but a r e f o l l o w e d by page c i t a t i o n s , and my comments on h i s remarks -- which a p p e a r wherever a p p r o p r i a t e -- a r e p l a c e d i n p a r e n t h e s e s . My summary i s i t e m i z e d as f o l l o w s : 1) "Rythme r o y a l l " (p. 471) -- " i t i s a r o y a l l k i n d e o f v e r s e " (p. 471) — c h a r a c t e r i z e d by G a s c o i g n e as we s t i l l c h a r a c t e r i z e i t (p. 471) --" b e s t f o r grave d i s c o u r s e s " (p. 471). 2) " B a l l a d e " (p. 471) -- " d e r i v e d o f t h i s worde i n I t a l i a n B a l l a r e , whiche s i g n i f i e t h t o daunce" (p. 471) — " t h e r e o f a r e s u n d r i e s o r t e s " (p. 4 7 1 ) , w r i t e s G a s c o i g n e : a l l a r e w r i t t e n " i n a s t a f f e o f s i x e l i n e s " (p. 471) and a l l have a rhyme scheme o f ababcc, but the l i n e s may c o n t a i n s i x , e i g h t , o r t e n s y l l a b l e s , a l t h o u g h t h e l a s t was l e s s common than the o t h e r s (p. 471) -- " b e s t e f o r daunces o r l i g h t m a t t e r s " (p. 471) and a l s o " b e s t e o f m a t t e r s o f l o v e " (p. 473). 3) " r o n d l e t t e " ( p . 471) -- "doth alwayes end w i t h one s e l f same f o o t e o r r e p e t i c i o n " (p. 471) -- " T h i s may c o n s i s t o f such measure as b e s t l i k e t h t h e w r y t e r " (p. 471) -- "moste a p t f o r t h e b e a t i n g o r h a n d l y n g o f an adage o r common p r o v e r b e " (p. 473). 4) "Sonnets" (p. 471) -- " i t i s a d i m i n u t i v e worde d e r i v e d o f Sonare" (p. 471) -- G a s c o i g n e r e c o g n i z e s t h a t "some t h i n k e t h a t a l l Poemes ( b e i n g s h o r t ) may be c a l l e d S o n e t s " (p. 4 7 1 ) , and i l l u s t r a t e s t h i s by n o t i n g t h a t "There a r e Dyzaynes, & S y x a i n e s which a r e o f t e n l i n e s , and o f s i x e l i n e s , cumonly used by t h e F r e n c h , which some E n g l i s h 30 w r i t e r s do a l s o terme by t h e name o f S o n e t t e s " (p. 4 7 2 ) , and t h e s e , he says ( u s i n g a term t h e meaning o f which w i l l be c l a r i f i e d by my t r e a t m e n t o f G a s c o i g n e ' s s o n n e t - w r i t i n g ) , s e r v e b e s t " f o r s h o r t e F a n t a z i e s " (p. 4 7 3 ) , but he a l s o says t h a t he can " b e s t e a l l o w e t o c a l l t h o s e S o n e t s " (p. 471) which f a l l i n t o t h e p a t t e r n t o d a y termed " E n g l i s h " (pp. 471-72) -- " s e r v e as w e l l i n m a t t e r s o f l o v e as o f d i s c o u r s e " (p. 473). " V e r l a y e s " (p. 472) -- " d e r i v e d (as I have redde) o f t h i s worde Verd whiche b e t o k e n e t h Greene, and Laye whiche b e t o k e n e t h a Song, as i f you would say greene Songes" (p. 472)36 »i n e v e r redde any v e r s e which I saw by a u c t h o r i t i e c a l l e d V e r l a y , b u t one, and t h a t was a l o n g d i s c o u r s e i n v e r s e s o f tenne s i l l a b l e s , whereof t h e f o u r e f i r s t d i d ryme a c r o s s e , and the f i f t h d i d aunswere t o the f i r s t e and t h i r d e , b r e a k i n g o f f t h e r e , and so g o i n g on t o a n o t h e r t e r m i n a t i o n . Of 37 t h i s I c o u l d shewe example o f i m i t a t i o n i n mine own v e r s e s w r i t t e n to y e r i g h t h o n o r a b l e y e L o r d Grey o f W i l t o n upon my j o u r n e y i n t o H o l l a n d , &c." (p. 472) — b e s t " f o r an e f f e c t u a l 1 p r o p o s i t i o n " (p. 473). " c e r t a i n e Poemes . . . n e y t h e r can I t e l l r e a d i l y what name t o g i v e them" (p. 47 2 ) . - - (no etymology i s g i v e n by G a s c o i g n e , o f c o u r s e ) --" d e v i s e d o f tenne s y l l a b l e s , wherof t h e f i r s t aunswereth i n t e r m i n a t i o n w i t h t h e f o u r t h , and t h e second and t h i r d e answere eche o t h e r " (p. 472) (G a s c o i g n e seems t o be d e s c r i b i n g t h e q u a t r a i n s o f a P e t r a r c h a n s o n n e t ) -- "th e s e a r e more used by o t h e r n a t i o n s than by us" (p. 4 7 2 ) , i s a l l t h a t G a s c o i g n e says c o n c e r n i n g t h e i r employment. " P o u l t e r s measure" (p. 472) -- i t " g i v e t h x i i . f o r one doze and x i i i i . f o r a n o t h e r " (p. 472) -- " t h e l o n g v e r s e o f t w e l v e and f o u r t e n e 31 s i l l a b l e s " (p. 472) -- " a l t h o u g h i t be now adayes used i n a l l Theames, y e t i n my judgement i t would s e r v e b e s t f o r Psalmes and Himpnes" (p. 473). 8) " r y d i n g r i m e " (p. 472) — "suche as o u r M a y s t e r and F a t h e r Chaucer used i n h i s C a n t e r b u r i e t a l e s " (p. 472) — ( t h e e r r o n e o u s c o n c e p t i o n o f Chaucer's v e r s e has been d i s c u s s e d above) -- " s e r v e t h most a p t l y t o w r y t e a merie t a l e " (p. 473). With t h i s , G a s c o i g n e c o n c l u d e s h i s Notes. B e f o r e c o n c l u d i n g o u r c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f t h i s work, however, i t might be b e s t t o summarize b r i e f l y the p r i n c i p l e s e n u n c i a t e d t h e r e i n , as they a p p e a r . i n t h e f o r e g o i n g d i s c u s s i o n o f them. T h i s might b e s t be done by o b s e r v i n g what the " I n v e n t i o n " o f each note i s , and what t h e " I n v e n t i o n " i s o f the whole. A l t h o u g h G a s c o i g n e a p p l i e s the term " I n v e n t i o n " o n l y when he i s t r e a t i n g v e r s e , i t s h o u l d be c l e a r , I t h i n k , t h a t he does g i v e t o each n o t e , and t o the work as a whole, i t s own " I n v e n t i o n " - - a f a c t which he h i m s e l f u n d o u b t e d l y r e a l i z e d , f o r he s p e a k s , f o r example, i n the l a s t note (en p a s s a n t , as u s u a l ) o f t e l l i n g t h e r e a d e r "a c o n c e i p t whiche I had b e f o r e f o r g o t t e n t o w r y t e " (p. 4 7 3 ) , t h e r e b y i m p l y i n g n o t o n l y t h a t what f o l l o w s i s a " c o n c e i p t " but-,that Vin what has p r e c e d e d more than one " c o n c e i p t " has been p r e s e n t e d . The f o l l o w i n g , t h e n , a r e what I would t a k e t o be the i n v e n t i o n s o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l n o t e s , i n o r d e r o f t h e i r c o n s i d e r a t i o n above: Note 1: A poem must be based on an i d e a , and, t o be good, on an i d e a which i s a t once m o r a l l y good and a e s t h e t i c a l l y a t t r a c t i v e , n o v e l , and w o r t h w h i l e . To be m o r a l l y good, however, a poem need n o t d e s c r i b e d i r e c t l y t h a t which i s commendable -- i t may d e s c r i b e i m p e r f e c t i o n , by way o f p r o v i d i n g a m i r r o r o f t h a t which 32 s h o u l d be a v o i d e d , t h e r e b y l e a d i n g t o a m o r a l l y good a v o i d a n c e o f t h e i m p e r f e c t i o n . T h i s i s the most i m p o r t a n t r u l e ; from t he i d e a , a l l t h a t i s e x p r e s s i v e i n a poem s h o u l d f l o w . Note :2: Once t h e i n v e n t i o n i s e s t a b l i s h e d , f a c t o r s s e c o n d a r y t o i t s h o u l d n o t a l t e r i t . Note 6: As i n Note 2. Note 10: A poem s h o u l d be a t t r a c t i v e ( " f i n e " i n i n v e n t i o n and w e l l -e x e c u t e d ) i n o r d e r t o encourage the a t t e n t i v e r e a d i n g o f i t t h a t w i l l make p o s s i b l e communication o f t h e good i d e a . Note 3: A poem s h o u l d m a i n t a i n t he metre w i t h which i t b e g i n s (which was i n t h e f i r s t p l a c e " f i t t e d " t o t h e i d e a ) . Note 4: a) The p r o n u n c i a t i o n o f a word (which may be d e s c r i b e d i n terms o f t h r e e t y p e s o f a c c e n t ) s h o u l d n o t be d i s t o r t e d i n v e r s e . b) The iamb i s the usu a l f o o t used. c) The use o f the iamb, however, does n o t mean t h a t o n l y words o f two s y l l a b l e s may be employed i n i a m b i c v e r s e . Note 5: E x c e s s i v e use o f p o l y s y l l a b i c words s h o u l d be a v o i d e d . Note 7: Do n o t "rhyme w i t h o u t r e a s o n . " Note 8: a) The f i g u r e s o f p r o s e may be employed i n v e r s e . b) Ne q u i d n i m i s . Note 12: Beware o f e x c e s s i v e p o e t i c a l l i c e n c e -- a l t h o u g h p o e t i c a l l i c e n c e may i t s e l f h e l p one a v o i d r i g i d i t y . Note 9: A v o i d s t r a n g e o r o b s o l e t e words. Note 11: One s h o u l d be as " E n g l i s h " as p o s s i b l e when w r i t i n g v e r s e . Note 13: Cae s u r a s may be employed i n v e r s e , e s s e n t i a l l y a t the. p o e t ' s d i s c r e t i o n , a l t h o u g h t h e r e a r e u s u a l p a t t e r n s . 33 Note 15: a) Be c o n c i s e . b) L e t s t a n z a i c d i v i s i o n s p a r a l l e l d i v i s i o n s o f t h o u g h t . Notes 14 and 16: D i f f e r e n t forms o f p o e t r y s h o u l d be employed f o r d i f f e r e n t t y p e s o f i d e a . These i d e a s n o t o n l y f a l l h i s t o r i c a l l y i n t o a st r e a m o f a r s p o e t i c a (and so may be l o g i c a l l y r e l a t e d t o Horace's A r s p o e t i c a ) , but i n t r i n s i c a l l y s u g g e s t t h e c l a s s i c a l t e x t . T h a t t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t s , and what t h e n a t u r e o f i t i s , i s perhaps b e s t seen by p a r a l l e l i n g t h e l i s t o f G a s c o i g n e ' s p o e t i c p r i n c i p l e s w i t h a l i s t o f i d e a s found i n t h e A r s p o e t i c a . R e f e r e n c e s on t h e l e f t - h a n d s i d e o f t h e f o l l o w i n g t a b l e a r e t o t h e Notes, and the q u o t a t i o n s f o l l o w i n g on t h e r i g h t c o n s i s t o f t h e passages i n the A r s p o e t i c a which c o n t a i n s u b s t a n t i a l l y t h e same i d e a s as t h o s e found i n the r e s p e c t i v e n o t e s o f G a s c o i g n e , l i s t e d i n o r d e r o f t h e i r appearance i n t h e Horace t e x t (and l i s t e d w i t h o u t comment s i n c e t h e i r r e l e v a n c e i s , 38 I t h i n k , s e l f - e v i d e n t ) . Note 1: i ) A e m i l i u m c i r c a ludum f a b e r imus e t un g u i s e x p r i m e t e t m o l l i s i m i t a b i t u r a e r e c a p i l l o s , i n f e l i x open's summa, q u i a ponere t o turn n e s c i e t . hunc ego me, s i q u i d componere curem, non magis e s s e v e l i m , quam naso v i v e r e p r a v o , spectandum n i g r i s o c u l i s n i g r o q u e c a p i l l o (11. 32-37). i i ) Non s a t i s e s t p u l c h r a e s s e poemata; d u l c i a s u n t o e t quocumque v o l e n t animum a u d i t o r i s agunto. ut r i d e n t i b u s a r r i d e n t , i t a f l e n t i b u s a d s u n t humani v o l t u s : s i v i s me f l e r e , dolendum e s t primum i p s i t i b i : t unc t u a me i n f o r t u n i a l a e d e n t , T e l e p h e v e l P e l e u ; male s i mandata l o q u e r i s , aut d o r m i t a b o a u t r i d e b o . t r i s t i a maestum vo l turn v e r b a d e c e n t , i r a t u m p l e n a minarum, ludentem l a s c i v a , severum s e r i a d i c t u . f o r m a t enim N a t u r a p r i u s nos i n t u s ad omnem f o r t u n a r u m habitum; i u v a t a u t impel l i t ad i r a m , au t ad humum maerore g r a v i d e d u c i t e t a n g i t ; p o s t e f f e r t animi motus i n t e r p r e t e l i n g u a , s i d i c e n t i s e r u n t f o r t u n i s absona d i c t a , Romani t o l l e n t e q u i t e s p e d i t e s q u e cachinnum. i n t e r e r i t multum, d i v u s n e l o q u a t u r an h e r o s , maturusne senex an adhuc f l o r e n t e i u v e n t a f e r v i d u s , e t matrona potens an s e d u l a n u t r i x , 34 m e r c a t o r n e vagus c u l t o r n e v i r e n t i s a g e l l i , C o l c h u s an A s s y r i u s , T h e b i s n u t r i t u s an A r g i s (11. 99-118). i i i ) Aut famam s e q u e r e a u t s i b i convenient!'a f i n g e . s c r i p t o r honoratum s i f o r t e r e p o n i s A c h i l l e m , i m p i g e r , i r a c u n d u s , i n e x o r a b i l i s , a c e r , i u r a n e g e t s i b i n a t a , n i h i l non a r r o g e t a r m i s . s i t Medea f e r o x i n v i c t a q u e , f l e b i l i s Ino, p e r f i d u s I x i o n , l o vaga, t r i s t i s O r e s t e s . s i q u i d i n e x p e r t u m scaenae c o m m i t t i s e t audes personam formare novam, s e r v e t u r ad imum, q u a l i s ab i n c e p t o p r o c e s s e r i t , e t s i b i c o n s t e t (11. 119-27). i v ) Tu q u i d ego e t p o p u l u s mecum d e s i d e r e t a u d i , s i p l o s o r i s eges a u l a e a manentis e t usque s e s s u r i , donee c a n t o r "vos p l a u d i t e " d i c a t , a e t a t i s c u i u s q u e n o t a n d i s u n t t i b i mores, m o b i l i b u s q u e d e c o r n a t u r i s dandus e t a n n i s (11. 153-57). v) i l l e b o n i s f a v e a t q u e e t c o n s i l i e t u r amice, e t r e g a t i r a t o s e t amet p e c c a r e t i m e n t i s ; i l l e dapes l a u d e t mensae b r e v i s , i l l e s a l u b r e m i u s t i t i a m l e g e s q u e e t a p e r t i s o t i a p o r t i s ; i l l e t e g a t commissa deosque p r e c e t u r e t o r e t u t r e d e a t mi s e n ' s , a b e a t f o r t u n a s u p e r b i s (11. 196-201 ). v i ) ex noto f i c t u m carmen s e q u a r , u t s i b i q u i v i s s p e r e t idem, s u d e t multum f r u s t r a q u e l a b o r e t ausus idem: tantum s e r i e s i u n c t u r a q u e p o i l e t , tantum de medio sumptis a c c e d i t h o n o r i s (11. 240-43). v i i ) S c r i b e n d i r e c t e s a p e r e e s t e t p r i n c i p i u m e t f o n s . rem t i b i S o c r a t i c a e p o t e r u n t o s t e n d e r e c h a r t a e , verbaque p r o v i s a m rem non i n v i t a s e q u e n t u r (11. 309-11). v i i i ) r e s p i c e r e exemplar v i t a e morumque i u b r b o doctum i m i t a t o r e m e t v i v a s h i n c d u c e r e v o c e s . i n t e r d u m s p e c i o s a l o c i s morataque r e c t e f a b u l a n u l l i u s v e n e r i s , s i n e pondere e t a r t e , v a l d i u s o b l e c t a t populum m e l i u s q u e m o ratur quam v e r s u s i n o p e s rerum nugae que ca n o r a e (11. 317-22). i x ) G r a i s ingenium, G r a i s d e d i t o r e rotundo Musa l o q u i , p r a e t e r laudem n u l l i u s a v a r i s . Romani p u e r i l o n g i s r a t i o n i b u s assem d i s c u n t i n p a r t i s centum d i d u c e r e (11. 323-26). x) an, haec animos aerugo e t c u r a p e c u l i cum semel i m b u e r i t , speramus c a r m i n a f i n g i posse l i n e n d a c e d r o e t l e v i s e r v a n d a c u p r e s s o ? Aut p r o d e s s e v o l u n t a u t d e l e c t a r e poetae a u t simul e t i u c u n d a e t i d o n e a d i c e r e v i t a e . q u i d q u i d p r a e c i p i e s , e s t o b r e v i s , u t c i t o d i c t a p e r c i p i a n t animi d o c i l e s t e n e a n t q u e f i d e l e s : omne supervacuum p l e n o de p e c t o r e manat. f i c t a v o l u p t a t i s c a u s a s i n t proxima v e r i s , ne quodcumque v e l i t p o s c a t s i b i f a b u l a c r e d i , neu p r a n s a e Lamiae vivum puerum e x t r a h a t a l v o (11. 330-40). 35 x i ) c e n t u r i a e s e n i o r u m a g i t a n t e x p e r t i a f r u g i s , e e l s i p r a e t e r e u n t a u s t e r a poemata Ramnes: omne t u l i t punctum qui m i s c u i t u t i l e d u l c i , l e c t o r e m d e l e c t a n d o p a r i t e r q u e monendo (11. 341-44). x i i ) S i l v e s t r i s homines s a c e r i n t e r p r e s q u e deorum c a e d i b u s e t v i c t u foedo d e t e r r u i t Orpheus, d i c t u s ob hoc l e n i r e t i g r i s r a b i d o s q u e l e o n e s . d i c t u s e t Amphion, Thebanae c o n d i t o r u r b i s , saxa movere sono t e s t u d i n i s e t p r e c e b l a n d a d ucere quo v e l l e t . f u i t haec s a p i e n t i a quondam p u b l i c a p r i v a t i s s e c e r n e r e , s a c r a p r o f a n i s , c o n c u b i t u p r o h i b e r e vago, d a r e i u r a m a r i t i s , o p p i d a m o l i r i , l e g e s i n c i d e r e l i g n o . s i c honor e t nomen d i v i n i s v a t i b u s atque c a r m i n i b u s v e n i t . p o s t hos i n s i g n i s Homerus T y r t a e u s q u e mares animos i n M a r t i a b e l l a v e r s i b u s e x a c u i t ; d i c t a e per c a r m i n a s o r t e s , e t v i t a e m o n s t r a t a v i a e s t , e t g r a t i a regum P i e r i i s temptata modis, ludusque r e p e r t u s e t longorum operum f i n i s : ne f o r t e p u d o r i s i t t i b i Musa l y r a e s o l l e r s e t c a n t o r A p o l l o (11. 391-407). x i i i ) N a t u r a f i e r e t l a u d a b i l e carmen an a r t e , q u a e s i t u m e s t : ego nec s t u d i u m s i n e d i v i t e vena, nec rude q u i d p r o s i t v i d e o ingenium: a l t e r i u s s i c a l t e r a p o s c i t opem r e s e t c o n i u r a t amice (11. 408-11). i ) denique s i t quod v i s , s i m p l e x dumtaxat e t unum. Maxima p a r s vatum, p a t e r e t i u v e n e s p a t r e d i gni, d e c i p i m u r s p e c i e r e c t i , b r e v i s e s s e l a b o r o , o b s c u r u s f i o ; s e c t a n t e m l e v i a n e r v i d e f i c i u n t a n i m i q u e ; p r o f e s s u s g r a n d i a t u r g e t ; s e r p i t humi t u t u s nimium t i m i d u s q u e p r p c e l l a e : qui v a r i a r e c u p i t rem p r o d i g i a l i t e r unam, delphinum s i 1 v i s a p p i n g i t , f l u c t i b u s aprum. i n v i t i u m d u c i t c u l p a e f u g a , s i c a r e t a r t e (11. 23-31). i i ) As i n 1 ( i i i ) . i i i ) atque i t a m e n t i t u r , s i c v e r i s f a l s a r e m i s c e t , primo ne medium, medio ne d i s c r e p e t imum (11. 151-52). i ) As i n 1 ( i i ) . i i ) As in 1 ( i v ) . i i i ) As i n 1 ( v i ) . i v ) As i n 1 ( v i i i ) . v) As i n 1 ( x i ) . i ) As i n 2 ( i ) . Note 2: Note 10: Note 3: Note 8: ( a ) : i ) s i n g u l a quaeque locum t e n e a n t s o r t i t a decentem. i n t e r d u m tamen e t vocem Comoedia t o l l i t , i r a t u s q u e Chremes tumido d e l i t i g a t o r e ; 36 e t t r a g i c u s plerumque d o l e t sermone p e d e s t r i T e l e p h u s e t P e l e u s , cum pauper e t e x s u l u t e r q u e p r o i c i t a m p u l las e t s e s q u i p e d a l i a v e r b a , s i c u r a t c o r s p e c t a n t i s t e t i g i s s e q u e r e l l a (11. 92-98). i i ) a m b i t i o s a r e c i d e t ornamenta, parum Claris lucem dare c o g e t , a r g u e t ambigue d i c t u m , mutanda n o t a b i t , f i e t A r i s t a r c h u s (11. 447-450). ( b ) : i ) As in 2 ( i ) . i i ) As i n 8a ( i ) . i i i ) Sunt d e l i c t a tamen q u i b u s i g n o v i s s e v e l i m u s : nam neque ch o r d a sonum r e d d i t , quern v o l t manus e t mens, p o s c e n t i q u e gravem p e r s a e p e r e m i t t i t acutum; nec semper f e r i e t quodcumque m i n a b i t u r a r c u s . verum ubi p l u r a n i t e n t i n c a r m i n e , non ego p a u c i s o f f e n d a r m a c u l i s , quas a u t i n c u r i a f u d i t a u t humana parum c a v i t n a t u r a . q u i d e r g o e s t ? u t s c r i p t o r s i p e c c a t idem l i b r a r i u s usque, quamvis e s t m o n i t u s , v e n i a c a r e t , e t c i t h a r o e d u s r i d e t u r , c h o r d a qui semper o b e r r a t eadem: < s i c m i h i , qui multum c e s s a t , f i t C h o e r i l u s i l l e , quern b i s t e r v e bonum cum r i s u m i r o r ; e t idem i n d i g n o r quandoque bonus d o r m i t a t Homerus, verum o p e r i l o n g o f a s e s t o b r e p e r e somnum (11. 347-60). i v ) 0 m a i o r iuvenum, quamvis e t voce p a t e r n a f i n g e r i s ad rectum e t p e r t e s a p i s , hoc t i b i d i c t u m t o i l e memor, c e r t i s medium e t t o l e r a b i l e rebus r e c t e c o n c e d i . c o n s u l t u s i u r i s e t a c t o r causarum m e d i o c r i s a b e s t v i r t u t e d i s e r t i M e s s a l l a e , nec s c i t quantum C a s c e l l i u s A u l u s , sed tamen i n p r e t i o e s t : m e d i o c r i b u s e s s e p o e t i s non homines, non d i , non c o n c e s s e r e columnae. u t g r a t a s i n t e r mensas symphonia d i s c o r s e t crassum unguentum e t Sardo cum m e l l e p a p a v e r o f f e n d u n t , p o t e r a t d u c i q u i a cena s i n e i s t i s : s i c a n i m i s natum inventumque poema i u v a n d i s , s i paulum summo d e c e s s i t , v e r g i t ad imum (11. 366-78). Note 12: i ) As i n 2 ( i ) . i i ) As i n 8a ( i ) . i i i ) As i n 8b ( i i i ) . Note 9: i ) As i n 2 ( i ) . i i ) m o r t a l i a f a c t a p e r i bunt, nedum sermonum s t e t honos e t g r a t i a v i v a x . multa r e n a s c e n t u r quae iam c e c i d e r e , cadentque quae nunc s u n t i n honore v o c a b u l a , s i v o l e t u s u s , quern penes a r b i t r i u m e s t e t i u s e t norma l o q u e n d i (11. 68-72) i i i ) As i n 1 ( v i ) . i v ) As i n 8a ( i i ) . Note 11: i ) As i n 9 ( i i ) . i i ) As i n 1 ( v i ) . 37 Note 15: ( a ) : i ) As i n 2 ( i ) . i i ) As i n 1 ( x ) . i i i ) As i n 8b ( i i i ) . ( b ) : i ) As i n 2 ( i ) . Notes 14 and 16: i ) As i n 2 ( i ) . i i ) v e r s i b u s i m p a r i t e r i u n c t i s q u e r i m o n i a primum, p o s t e t i a m i n c l u s a e s t v o t i s e n t e n t i a compos (11. 75-76). i i i ) As i n 8a ( i ) . i v) As i n 1 ( i i ) . These, t h e n , a r e the i n v e n t i o n s o f the r e s p e c t i v e n o t e s . A g l a n c e down the l i s t shows t h a t a l t h o u g h t h e y a r e p a r t i c u l a r , t h e y a r e n o t " i s o l a t e d , " f o r e a c h , c l e a r l y , e x p r e s s e s i n i t s own p a r t i c u l a r way t h e i n i t i a l " I n v e n t i o n . " Each i s a p a r t i c u l a r a p p l i c a t i o n p f the c o n c e p t t h a t i d e a i n a poem i s p r i m a r y , and t h a t a l l e l s e i n the poem f o l l o w s from the i d e a f i r s t e s t a b l i s h e d . The Notes as a whole, t h e n , i s a u n i f i e d work. I f i t i s o b j e c t e d t h a t t h e o r d e r o f t h e n o t e s had t o be changed i n o r d e r t o demonstrate a l i n e a r u n i t y i n the work, my r e s p o n s e would be t h a t the work need n o t have l i n e a r u n i t y i n o r d e r t o be u n i f i e d . I have r e - o r d e r e d the n o t e s i n my d i s c u s s i o n i n such a way t h a t something l i k e a l i n e a r u n i t y was shown s i m p l y to examine t h e work as s u c c i n c t l y as p o s s i b l e . A second g l a n c e down t h e l i s t w i l l d e m o n s t r a t e , however, t h a t , b e g i n n i n g w i t h t h e f i r s t , n o t e , a b s o l u t e l y any sequence o f e x a m i n a t i o n c o u l d have been employed, and the c o n c l u s i o n t h a t t h e work as a whole i s u n i f i e d would no t have been a l t e r e d i n the l e a s t , f o r each note -- as the i n v e n t i o n o f each d e m o n s t r a t e s -- i s i t s e l f bound i n e x t r i c a b l y t o the i n i t i a l " I n v e n t i o n . " I f i t i s then asked why G a s c o i g n e f o l l o w e d t h e s e l f - c o n f e s s e d l y i r r e g u l a r path t h a t he took -- and a c t u a l l y c a l l e d e s p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n t o i t by use o f terms such as " p r e p o s t e r o u s o r d r e " -- I t h i n k a v e r y 38 s i m p l e answer i s p o s s i b l e . He used t h e i r r e g u l a r i t y o f p a t t e r n t o p o i n t the r e a d e r t o the f a c t t h a t he c o u l d i n d e e d i n t h e f u l l e s t sense " p r a c t i c e what he p r e a c h e d " : a p p l y h i s t h e o r y t o p r a c t i c e , and a c h i e v e i n p r a c t i c e the u l t i m a t e goal t h a t h i s t h e o r y s a i d s h o u l d be a c h i e v e d , t h a t o f a t t r a c t i v e t e a c h i n g . He s a i d i n c o n c l u s i o n t o h i s f i r s t note t h a t , the i n v e n t i o n b e i n g f o u n d , " p l e a s a n t woordes w i l l f o l l o w w e l l inough and f a s t i n o u g h . " By c a s t i n g h i s t r e a t i s e i n a c o n v e r s a t i o n a l manner, he communicates t o the r e a d e r t h e sense t h a t h i s words a r e " f o l l o w i n g f a s t , " and t h e r e b y s u g g e s t s , t hrough form, what the r e a d e r must c e r t a i n l y have a p p r e c i a t e d t h rough t h e m e - - n a m e l y , t h a t h i s work i s w e l l - g r o u n d e d on an i n v e n t i o n . A t t h e same t i m e , he dem o n s t r a t e s t h a t t h i s " g r o u n d i n g on i n v e n t i o n " i s n o t t h e u n p l e a s a n t o r r e s t r i c t i v e t h i n g one might take i t t o be. By g r o u n d i n g e v e r y n ote o f t h e Notes on h i s i n v e n t i o n , he i s f r e e t o f o l l o w a c o u r s e as i r r e g u l a r as he p l e a s e s . When he i n f a c t does s o , he q u i c k l y t u r n s a t r e a t i s e t h a t c o u l d e a s i l y " s m e l l o f the Inkehorne" i n t o a work o f pure d e l i g h t , which i n t u r n encourages t h e r e a d e r t o " r e a d on." I f t h e r e a d e r then does r e a d on - - a s he p r o b a b l y w i l l do, g i v e n t h e encouragement he has r e c e i v e d ( p l u s t h e encouragement o f t h e a p p l i c a t i o n i n p r a c t i c e o f o t h e r f a c t o r s d i s c u s s e d i n the Notes, such as c o n c i s e n e s s ) --he w i l l come i n d e e d , as I hope I have d e m o n s t r a t e d , upon an e x t r a o r d i n a r y amount o f "matter as be worth t h e marking." CHAPTER I I I Having examined G a s c o i g n e ' s N o t e s , I s h a l l now de m o n s t r a t e t h a t the p r i n c i p l e s s e t f o r t h i n them have i n t e r p r e t a t i v e v a l u e when a p p l i e d t o G a s c o i g n e ' s p o e t r y . G a s c o i g n e e s t a b l i s h e s i n the Notes seven c l e a r forms i n which an i n v e n t i o n can be e x p r e s s e d : "Rythme r o y a l l , " " B a l l a d e , " " r o n d l e t t e , " "Sonnets," " V e r l a y e s , " " c e r t a i n e Poemes [ P e t r a r c h a n s o n n e t q u a t r a i n s ] , " and " P o u l t e r s measure." 1 To be r e p r e s e n t a t i v e , a c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f h i s p o e t i c p r i n c i p l e s i n h i s p o e t r y s h o u l d c o n t a i n a t l e a s t one example o f each o f t h e s e p o e t i c t y p e s . F or t h i s r e a s o n , I s h a l l c o n s i d e r i n t h i s c h a p t e r seven poems which e x p r e s s each o f t h e s e t y p e s , r e s p e c t i v e l y : t h e " E p i t a p h upon C a p t a i n e B o u r c h e r , " ^ "The L o v e r encouraged by fo r m e r examples,"^ t he second poem o f " G a s c o i g n e s Memories" ( t h e one w r i t t e n " a t r e q u e s t o f Antony Kinwelmarshe""*), the f o u r t h poem o f " G a s c o i g n e s Memories" ( t h e "seven Sonets i n s e q [ u ] e n c e " on a theme " d e l i v e r e d him" by " A l e x a n d e r N e v i l e " 5 ) , t h e t h i r d poem o f "G a s c o i g n e s Memories" (on the theme " d e l i v e r e d him" by "John V a u g h a n " 6 ) , " G a s c o i g n e s De profundi's" ( i n c l u d i n g "The i n t r o d u c t i o n " 7 ) , and "The R e c a n t a c i o n o f a L o v e r . " 8 As t h e r e a r e w i t h i n t h e framework o f t h e Flowers no o t h e r poems o f the f o u r t h , f i f t h , and s i x t h c a t e g o r i e s , which c l e a r l y o r i n t e r e s t i n g l y use o r r e f l e c t t h e p r i n c i p l e s o f the Notes i n ways s u b s t a n t i a l l y d i f f e r e n t - 39 -40 from t h o s e used o r r e f l e c t e d i n t h e poems n o t e d above as r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h o s e c l a s s e s , t h e r e i s no need here t o r e p r e s e n t t h o s e c a t e g o r i e s by poems a d d i t i o n a l t o t h o s e a l r e a d y s e l e c t e d . S i n c e s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t usage o r r e f l e c t i o n o f t h e p r i n c i p l e s c o n t a i n e d i n the Notes i s found i n some o f t h e poems b e l o n g i n g t o t h e o t h e r c a t e g o r i e s , however, I s h a l l a l s o t r e a t t h o s e poems i n t h i s c h a p t e r . The poems i n t h e f i r s t c a t e g o r y a r e , s p e c i f i c a l l y , " G a s c o i g n e ' s Memory No.2" (which I t r e a t here as w e l l as i n t h e t h i r d c a t e g o r y s i n c e i t i s n o t o n l y a " r o n d l e t t e , " b ut i s w r i t t e n 9 i n "Rythme r o y a l l " ) , t h e second poem o f "The l o o k e s o f a L o v e r f o r s a k e n , " and t he f o u r t h and f i f t h poems o f "The l o o k e s o f a L o v e r e n a m o r e d . " ^ The a d d i t i o n a l poems t h a t I s h a l l c o n s i d e r under t h e second c a t e g o r y a r e "The a r r a i g n e m e n t e o f a L o v e r , a n d "The L u l l a b i e o f a l o v e r , " ^ ^ w h i l e I s h a l l t r e a t " G a s c o i g n e ' s Memory No.4" under t h e t h i r d c a t e g o r y ( f o r , a l t h o u g h I t r e a t i t i n the f o u r t h c a t e g o r y as w e l l , i t r e p r e s e n t s n o t o n l y t h e e x p r e s s i o n o f s o n n e t - w r i t i n g , but a l s o t h a t o f r o n d l e t t e - w r i t i n g ) . Under t h e f i n a l c a t e g o r y I s h a l l add two poems f o r c o n s i d e r a t i o n -- the f i f t h poem o f "Gascoignes Memories" ( t h e theme o f which was g i v e n by " R i c h a r d e C o u r t o p " ) , 1 3 and "The Anatomye o f a L o v e r . " 1 4 The n e x t and l a s t o b s e r v a t i o n s t o be made abo u t t h i s c h a p t e r c o n c e r n the t h r e e b a s i c r e f e r e n c e t e x t s t h a t I s i l e n t l y employ. For the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f t h e p r o n u n c i a t i o n o f any words t h a t I t h i n k d o u b t f u l o r e r r o n e o u s i n G a s c o i g n e , I employ two a u t h o r i t i e s : Helge K o k e r i t z 1 ^ and E. J . D o b s o n J ^ I f e i t h e r o f t h e s e a u t h o r i t i e s upholds a dubio u s p r o n u n c i a t i o n , I a c c e p t i t . I f n e i t h e r t r e a t s t he p r o n u n c i a t i o n i n q u e s t i o n , however, I r e f e r t o t h a t p r o n u n c i a t i o n as " p o s s i b l y " e r r o n e o u s . I f both t e x t s ( o r one t e x t , i f the o t h e r does n o t t r e a t t h e p r o n u n c i a t i o n ) 41 i n d i c a t e i m p l i c i t l y o r e x p l i c i t l y t h a t the p r o n u n c i a t i o n i s e r r o n e o u s , I so r e f e r t o t h a t p r o n u n c i a t i o n i n my t e x t . Q u e s t i o n s a b o u t t h e etymology, o b s o l e s c e n c e , c u r r e n c y , usage, and s p e l l i n g o f words a r e i n a s i m i l a r way s i l e n t l y r e f e r r e d t o t h e O x f o r d E n g l i s h D i c t i o n a r y . 1 7 Q u e s t i o n s o f s y n t a x and i d i o m I have r e f e r r e d t o John N i s t ' s A S t r u c t u r a l 1 o H i s t o r y o f E n g l i s h . T u r n i n g , t h e n , t o the poems o f the f i r s t f o r m a l c a t e g o r y t o be examined -- t h a t i s , t o the poems s e l e c t e d as r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f G a s c o i g n e ' s use o f "Rythme r o y a l l " -- and t u r n i n g t o t h e f i r s t o f t h e s e , " B o u r c h e r , " we f i n d a poem t h e c e n t r a l theme o f which i s e x p r e s s e d i n i t s second s t a n z a : B o u r c h e r i s dead, whome eche o f you dyd knowe, Yet no man w r i t e s one worde t o p a i n t h i s p r a i s e , H i s s p r i t e on h i g h e , h i s c a r k a s s e here belowe, Doth both condemne y o u r d o t i n g y d l e d a y e s : Yet c e a s s e they n o t t o sounde h i s worthy wayes, Who l i v e d t o dye, and dyed a g a i n e t o l i v e , With death deere bought, he dyd h i s d e a t h f o r g i v e . (11. 8-14) T h a t t h i s c e n t r a l i d e a i s m o r a l l y good i s seen i n the f a c t t h a t the n e g l e c t o f a c l e a r l y C h r i s t i a n hero i s condemned i n i t , and t h a t i t i s a e s t h e t i c a l l y f i n e i s seen i n t h e f a c t t h a t i t p a r t a k e s o f t h e t r a d i t i o n a l l y f i n e e l e g i a c genre. One may r e a d i l y see t h a t t h e i n v e n t i o n o f the poem i s m a i n t a i n e d t h r o u g h o u t by comparing t h e f i r s t l i n e o f i t -- "Fye C a p t a i n e s f i e , y o u r tongues a r e t y e d t o c l o s e " -- w i t h i t s l a s t l i n e s : "When men c r y e mumme and keepe such s i l e n c e long,/Then s t o n e s must speake, e l s dead men s h a l l have wrong." The moral and a e s t h e t i c n a t u r e o f the i n v e n t i o n , t h e n , i s a prime f a c t o r i n making t h e poem " a t t r a c t i v e . " G iven G a s c o i g n e ' s d e s c r i p t i o n 42 o f "Rythme r o y a l l " as "a r o y a l l k i n d e o f v e r s e " and as one t h a t i s " b e s t f o r g r a v e d i s c o u r s e s , " however, we can see t h a t t h e poem must have p o s s e s s e d m e t r i c a l a t t r a c t i v e n e s s , as w e l l , i n G a s c o i g n e ' s eyes (and i n o u r s , i f we a c c e p t -- as I p e r s o n a l l y do -- G a s c o i g n e ' s a s s e s s m e n t o f t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t h e v a r i o u s m e t r i c a l f o r m s ) . The c a s t i n g o f t h e poem i n t o i t s p a r t i c u l a r form e m p h a s i z e s , a c c o r d i n g t o G a s c o i g n e ' s p r i n c i p l e s , the r o y a l t y and g r a v i t y i n h e r e n t i n t h e moral and a e s t h e t i c a t t r i b u t e s o f i t s i n v e n t i o n . T h a t t h e r o y a l t y and g r a v i t y o f t h e v e r s e form i s f u l l y b r o u g h t t o b e a r i n t h e e x p r e s s i o n o f t h o s e e l e m e n t s o f i t s c e n t r a l i d e a i s f u r t h e r emphasized when i t i s seen t h a t t h e more p a r t i c u l a r i z e d " d e t a i l s " o f t h e poem a c c o r d w i t h t h e more p a r t i c u l a r i z e d p r i n c i p l e s s e t f o r t h i n the Notes. We see t h a t t h e poem m a i n t a i n s t h r o u g h o u t i t s i n i t i a l meter, w i t h a l l o f i t s l i n e s b e i n g i n pure i a m b i c pentameter ( e x c e p t f o r i n i t i a l t r o c h a i c s u b s t i t u t i o n s i n 11. 1 and 20, and p o s s i b l y i n 11. 8 and 28). S i m i l a r l y , we see t h a t i t s rhyme i s i n v a r i a b l y " r e a s o n a b l e , " and t h a t i t s s t a n z a i c d i v i s i o n s p a r a l l e l d i v i s i o n s o f t h o u g h t w i t h i n t h e work. In "Rythme r o y a l l " the c a e s u r a can be p l a c e d anywhere a c c o r d i n g t o G a s c o i g n e , so t h a t i t s p l a c i n g i s n o t a f a c t o r i n the emphatic e x p r e s s i o n o f i t s i n v e n t i o n , but t h e f a c t t h a t t h e poem i s c o n c i s e , t h a t i t makes use o f words o t h e r than t h o s e o f two s y l l a b l e s ( a l t h o u g h a l m o s t a l l f e e t i n i t a r e i a m b i c ) w h i l e n o t e m p l o y i n g p o l y s y l l a b l e s e x c e s s i v e l y , t h a t i t i s w r i t t e n i n i d i o m a t i c E n g l i s h u s i n g E n g l i s h d i c t i o n t h a t a l s o a v o i d s s t r a n g e o r o b s o l e t e words, t h a t i t does n o t d i s t o r t the p r o n u n c i a t i o n o f any words i n i t by i t s rhythm, rhyme, o r o r t h o g r a p h y , and t h a t i t a v o i d s e x c e s s i v e p o e t i c a l l i c e n c e w h i l e i t a t t h e same time a v o i d s r i g i d i t y , 43 t r u l y r e a l i z i n g t h e r u l e o f Ne q u i d n i m i s -- a l l t h e s e o b s e r v a t i o n s i n t h e poem o f t h e r u l e s f o r good p o e t i c c o m p o s i t i o n as e s t a b l i s h e d i n the Notes p o i n t t o the f a c t t h a t the form o f the poem i s most e m p h a t i c a l l y used t o emphasize d i r e c t l y the " r e g a l and g r a v e " a t t r i b u t e s o f the poem's i n v e n t i o n -- an emphasis, i n c i d e n t a l l y , which i s e p i t o m i z e d i n the c o n c l u d i n g " p o s y " 1 ^ w h i c h , as i t shows the p e r s o n a o f the poem to be a " M a r b l e s t o n e , " emphasizes t h e e l e g i a c n a t u r e o f the poem and which a l s o , as i t c h a r a c t e r i z e s t h e p e r s o n a as a mere and f i g u r a t i v e "Marmaduke," emphasizes the moral e r r o r o f t h o s e who, g r e a t e r than such a p e r s o n a , f a i l t o g i v e t o h e r o i s m the p r a i s e t h a t i t d e s e r v e s . E x a m i n a t i o n o f " B o u r c h e r , " t h e n , i n terms o f t h e p o e t i c p r i n c i p l e s e n u n c i a t e d i n the Notes, n o t o n l y p r o v i d e s a method o f a n a l y s i s o f the ?0 work t h a t a c c o r d s w i t h p r i n c i p l e s t h a t i t s a u t h o r would a c c e p t , but p o i n t s to t h o s e a t t r i b u t e s o f t h e poem t h a t he c l e a r l y would wish to have emphasized -- i t s d i r e c t emphatic e x p r e s s i o n o f moral and a e s t h e t i c elements b e s t d e s c r i b e d as r e g a l and g r a v e . Not a l l o f G a s c o i g n e ' s poems composed i n "Rythme r o y a l l " -- o r i n the o t h e r forms -- use, however, the q u a l i t i e s o f the form t o e x p r e s s i d e a s t h e moral and a e s t h e t i c a t t r i b u t e s o f which a r e so i m m e d i a t e l y c o n g r u e n t w i t h t h e a t t r i b u t e s o f t h e form. The n e x t poem t h a t I s h a l l c o n s i d e r , " G a s c o i g n e ' s Memory No.2," Pi does n o t seem a t f i r s t t o p o s s e s s a grave and r e g a l theme: S a t i s s u f f i c i t i s i t s theme. T h i s theme permeates the poem w i t h o u t s i g n i f i c a n t a l t e r a t i o n , as e v i d e n c e d by t h e r e p e t i t i o n t h r o u g h o u t the poem o f the c o u p l e t , "Wherfore t o l a c k e the moste, and l e a v e t h e l e a s t , / I coumpt enough as good as any f e a s t . " J u s t enough a t t r a c t i v e v a r i a t i o n , however, i s i n t r o d u c e d ( i n the form o f t h e c o n c l u d i n g c o u p l e t , "That I sayde l a s t , and 44 though you l i k e i t l e a s t , , / I t i s enough and as good as a f e a s t , " and i n t h e form o f a r e a l i z i n g o f t h e i d e a o f S a t i s s u f f i c i t by means o f p o r t r a y a l o f t h e i l l consequences o f t h e f a i l u r e o f i t s a p p l i c a t i o n , p r i o r t o the s t a t e m e n t and r e s t a t e m e n t o f t h e p o s i t i v e moral b a s i s o f the poem, i n each s t a n z a ) t o p r e v e n t t h e poem's becoming r i g i d i n i t s a t t r a c t i v e s u s t a i n i n g o f t h e i d e a w i t h which i t b e g i n s . When i t i s a p p r e c i a t e d , however, t h a t t h e poem i s i n f a c t w r i t t e n i n "Rythme r o y a l l , " G a s c o i g n e ' s a s s e r t i o n t h a t t h a t v e r s e form i s "a r o y a l l k i n d e " and t h a t i t i s " b e s t f o r grave d i s c o u r s e s " f o r c e s one t o an i n t e r p r e t a t i v e c o n c l u s i o n t h a t i s n o t s e l f - e v i d e n t : namely, t h a t G a s c o i g n e must view t h e p r i n c i p l e o f " f o l l o w i n g t h e mean" as a g l o r i o u s 77 and p r o f o u n d p r i n c i p l e -- must view i t , i n f a c t , i n a H o r a t i a n manner, as t he a u r e a m e d i o c r i t a s . An e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e " p a r t i c u l a r s " o f the poem as d i s c u s s e d i n t h e Notes d e m o n s t r a t e s t h a t t h e r o y a l g r a v i t y o f e x p r e s s i o n o f t h e i d e a o f S a t i s s u f f i c i t i s emphasized a t a l l l e v e l s i n the work, pure i a m b i c pentameter meter i s m a i n t a i n e d t h r o u g h o u t t h e poem ( e x c e p t f o r i n i t i a l t r o c h a i c s u b s t i t u t i o n i n 1. 15 and f o r a n a p a e s t i c s u b s t i t u t i o n i n t h e f o u r t h f o o t o f 1. 12 and i n t h e l a s t f o o t o f 1. 3 9 ) ; s t a n z a i c d i v i s i o n s i n i t m i r r o r d i v i s i o n s o f i t s i d e a s ; rhyme i s n e v e r " w i t h o u t r e a s o n " i n t h e poem; both i d i o m and d i c t i o n a r e e n t i r e l y E n g l i s h ; no s t r a n g e o r o b s o l e t e words appear i n the poem; t h e p r o n u n c i a t i o n o f no words i n the poem i s d i s t o r t e d -- w i t h t h e one p o s s i b l e e x c e p t i o n o f " f o y l e d " (1. 3 8 ) , the o r t h o g r a p h y o f which s u g g e s t s d i s t o r t e d p r o n u n c i a t i o n ; words o t h e r than d i s y l l a b i c a r e used i n t h e poem ( a l t h o u g h a l m o s t a l l f e e t i n i t a r e i a m b i c ) ; e x c e s s i v e use o f p o l y s y l l a b l e s i s a v o i d e d , a l t h o u g h the poem does c o n t a i n p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y more p o l y s y l l a b i c words than do many 45 o f G a s c o i g n e ' s poems; and, f i n a l l y -- what perhaps b e s t i l l u s t r a t e s t h e formal r o y a l t y o f e x p r e s s i o n o f an i d e a o f m e d i o c r i t y ( i n t h e b e s t sense) --c o n c i s e n e s s o f e x p r e s s i o n i s a c h i e v e d i n the poem, but j u s t b a r e l y ( t h e r e p e t i t i o n o f i n v e n t i v e i l l u s t r a t i o n b e i n g i l l u m i n a t i n g , but a l m o s t , by t h e c o n c l u s i o n o f the poem, e x c e s s i v e ) . In t h e l a s t s t a n z a , t h e p e r s o n a h i m s e l f says o f t h e poem And o f enough, enough, and nowe no more, Bycause my braynes no b e t t e r can d e v i s e , When t h i n g e s be badde, a s m a l l summe maketh s t o r e , So o f suche v e r s e a fewe maye soone s u f f i c e : Y e t s t i l l t o t h i s my weary penne r e p l y e s . T h a t I sayde l a s t , and though you l i k e i t l e a s t , I t i s enough and as good as a f e a s t . T h i s may v e r y w e l l be t a k e n as a d e s c r i p t i o n o f both t h e i n v e n t i v e and the e x p r e s s i v e a t t r i b u t e s o f t h i s poem. When we t u r n t o the " L o v e r f o r s a k e n No.2," we f i n d a l i t t l e work t h a t p o r t r a y s t h e p e n a l t y f o r , and r e a l i z a t i o n o f , an e r r o r — the e r r o r h a v i n g been i n the p e r s o n a ' s f a l l i n g i n t o p a s s i o n a t e l o v e (as i s made c l e a r by t h e sequence i m m e d i a t e l y p r e c e d i n g t h e one i n which t h i s poem i s p l a c e d , "The l o k e s o f a l o v e r enamoured," and as i s made c l e a r by t h e t i t l e o f t h i s sequence i t s e l f , "The l o o k e s o f a l o v e r f o r s a k e n " ) . In p o r t r a y i n g t h e payment f o r an e r r o r , t h e n , the " L o v e r f o r s a k e n No.2" t e a c h e s a moral l e s s o n both by i m p l i c i t l y s t a t i n g what s h o u l d be a v o i d e d , and by i m p l i c i t l y s t a t i n g what s h o u l d be f o l l o w e d . In so d o i n g , i t p r o v i d e s an i n t e r e s t i n g p r e s e n t a t i o n o f i t s moral — a moral w h i c h , i n c i d e n t a l l y , i s p o i n t e d t o i n a l l the seven l i n e s o f t h e poem w i t h o u t v a r i a t i o n , but w i t h o u t monotony. Because t h i s poem p o r t r a y s the s u f f e r i n g c o n s e q u e n t upon e r r o r , r a t h e r than e r r o r i t s e l f o r r i g h t a c t i o n i t s e l f , i t may be c o n s i d e r e d as 46 a " b o r d e r l i n e " poem, t e a c h i n g e n t i r e l y by i n d i r e c t s t a t e m e n t . As i t n e v e r " f a l l s b e n e a t h " t h a t b o r d e r l i n e , however, i n t o t h e d i r e c t d e p i c t i o n o f e r r o r , i t s c o n t e n t may be s a i d t o be "not n e g a t i v e . " S i n c e t h a t i s s o , the c a s t i n g o f t h e poem i n "Rythme r o y a l l " c a n n o t be l o o k e d upon as an i r o n i c commentary on t h e poem's c o n t e n t , even i f i t c a n n o t be r e g a r d e d i n t h e d i r e c t l y h e r o i c terms o f " B o u r c h e r . " R a t h e r , i t must be viewed more i n t h e way t h a t " G a s c o i g n e ' s Memory No.2" was viewed, a l t h o u g h w i t h a p p r o p r i a t e a d j u s t m e n t ( g i v e n t h e absence i n i t o f e x p l i c i t moral p r e c e p t , as found i n t h a t poem). T h e r e f o r e i t may be s a i d t h a t the form o f t h e poem s u g g e s t s ( i f we a p p l y t h e terms o f t h e Notes) t h a t t h e r e i s a k i n d o f r o y a l t y and g r a v i t y t o be found i n the payment f o r , and c o n s c i o u s n e s s o f , e r r o r s (Ne q u i d n i m i s , i n d e e d ) . T h a t t h i s q u a l i f i e d r e g a l g r a v i t y , the p r o d u c t o f an i n t e r a c t i o n between t h e poem's i d e a and i t s form, permeates t h e poem, can be seen by n o t i n g t h a t a l l o f i t s l i n e s a r e i a m b i c pentameters which a r e " r e a s o n a b l y " rhymed, e x p r e s s i n g a complete t h o u g h t i n t h e one s t a n z a , and by n o t i n g t h a t the poem i s c o n c i s e l y e x p r e s s e d i n d i s t i n c t i v e l y E n g l i s h i d i o m and d i c t i o n ( w i t h no words i n i t b e i n g o b s o l e t e o r s t r a n g e , o r d i s t o r t e d i n p r o n u n c i a t i o n ) , e m p l o y i n g words o t h e r than d i s y l l a b i c a l t h o u g h a l l f e e t a r e i a m b i c ( b u t a v o i d i n g e x c e s s i v e use o f p o l y s y l l a b l e s ) . ^ I f t h e use o f "Rythme r o y a l l " i n the " L o v e r f o r s a k e n No.2" l e n d s a q u a l i f i e d u p l i f t i n g t o t h e theme o f t h e poem, i t u n d e r c u t s t h e d e p i c t i o n s found i n t h e n e x t two poems, t h e " L o v e r enamoured No.4" and the " L o v e r enamoured No.5," which t o g e t h e r form a p a i r . In both t h e s e poems, novel s i t u a t i o n s p o r t r a y t h r o u g h o u t base p a s s i o n s and j e a l o u s i e s , s t a t e s o f b e i n g t h a t a r e most c e r t a i n l y t o be a v o i d e d . Use o f "Rythme r o y a l l " t o 47 e x p r e s s such p a l t r y e r r o r s , t h e n , cannot e x a l t them, b u t o n l y emphasize t h e i r t r i v i a l i t y and t h e i r repugnance. The form c a l l s t o mind t h e h i g h e s t i d e a s , a g a i n s t which t he baseness o f t h e p o r t r a i t s i n t h e two poems l o s e a l l a t t r a c t i v e n e s s , w i t h t h a t l o s s - i m p l y i n g and pro m o t i n g a moral o p p o s i t i o n to t h e e r r o r s d e p i c t e d i n t h e l i n e s . In t h i s i n t e r e s t i n g r e l a t i n g o f form t o i d e a , t h e poems become p a r a d o x i c a l l y a t t r a c t i v e . The c o n t r a s t between t h e v i c i s s i t u d e s p o r t r a y e d and t h e r e g a l i t y o f the v e r s e i s f u r t h e r h e i g h t e n e d by t h e p u r i t y o f the e x p r e s s i o n . With the e x c e p t i o n o f t h e s i x t h and s e v e n t h l i n e s o f t h e f i r s t poem (each o f which ends w i t h an e x t r a u n s t r e s s e d s y l l a b l e , making the l i n e s a p p r o p r i a t e l y m i r r o r i n t h e i r c o n s e q u e n t f e m i n i n e e n d i n g s t he weakness o f the debased 25 p e r s o n a ) , a l l t he l i n e s o f both poems a r e i n s t r i c t i a m b i c pentameter. A complete t h o u g h t i s c o n t a i n e d i n each o f t h e s e s i n g l e - s t a n z a poems. The rhyming o f words i n each poem a g r e e s w i t h t h e demands o f se n s e ( e x c e p t , p e r h a p s , f o r t h e r a t h e r f o r c e d rhyme i n t h e second l i n e o f the second poem), and both poems a r e n o t h i n g i f n o t c o n c i s e . The d i c t u m Ne  q u i d n i m i s i s c e r t a i n l y a p p l i c a b l e t o both poems, and i s i l l u s t r a t e d v e r b a l l y by t h e f a c t t h a t , a l t h o u g h the m e t r i c a l f e e t o f both poems a r e i a m b i c , the words c o m p r i s i n g t h e poems a r e n o t a l l d i s y l l a b i c ( a l t h o u g h e x c e s s i v e use o f p o l y s y l l a b i c words i s a v o i d e d i n b o t h ) . S y n t a x , d i c t i o n , and t h e p r o n u n c i a t i o n o f words a r e a l l r e g u l a r l y E n g l i s h , and t h e use o f s t r a n g e o r o b s o l e t e words i s eschewed i n b o t h . These "Rythme r o y a l 1" poems, t h e n , e i t h e r g i v e n o b l e e x p r e s s i o n t o n o b l e p o r t r a y a l , o r mock baseness o f p o r t r a y a l w i t h i r o n i c n o b i l i t y o f e x p r e s s i o n . The form o f e x p r e s s i o n o f them e i t h e r s u p p o r t s o r u n d e r c u t s t h e i r d e p i c t i o n s , i n a c c o r d w i t h t he moral i d e a s a t t h e h e a r t o f each o f 48 them, i n s u p p o r t o f m o r a l l y good c o n c l u s i o n s . In t h e n e x t s e t o f poems to be c o n s i d e r e d , t h o s e w r i t t e n i n " B a l l a d e " form (which G a s c o i g n e terms " b e s t e f o r daunces o r l i g h t m a t t e r s " and " b e s t e o f m a t t e r s o f l o v e " ) , a r e v e r s a l o f t h i s p a t t e r n o f i n f l u e n c e between form and p o r t r a i t u r e ( a l t h o u g h n o t between form and i d e a ) i s , I t h i n k , seen. T h i s i s b e s t a p p r e c i a t e d by l o o k i n g c l o s e l y a t the poems I have s e l e c t e d as r e p r e s e n t a -t i v e o f t h e v a r i e t y o f uses t o which t h i s form i s p u t . The f i r s t o f t h e s e poems i s "The l o v e r e n c o u r a g e d , " and i t s i n v e n t i o n i s b e s t e x p r e s s e d i n i t s c o n c l u d i n g s t a n z a : So t h a t to ende my t a l e as I began, I see the good, the w i s e , the s t o u t e , t h e b o l d e : The s t r o n g e s t champion and t h e l e a r n e d s t man, Have bene and bee, by l u s t o f l o v e c o n t r o l d e . Which when [ I ] t h i n k e , I h o l d me w e l l c o n t e n t , To l i v e i n l o v e , and never t o r e p e n t . As t h e per s o n a ' s moral c o n c l u s i o n i s the p r o d u c t o f a non s e q u i t u r ( t h e d e b a s i n g c o n t r o l o f good and g r e a t men "by l u s t o f l o v e " i l l u s t r a t e d t h r o u g h o u t t h e poem l o g i c a l l y i m p l i e s n e i t h e r t h a t t h a t c o n t r o l i s good nor t h a t i t i s p l e a s a n t ) , h i s c o n c l u s i o n s a r e c l e a r l y i n v a l i d . C o n s e q u e n t l y , they become models o f i m p e r f e c t i o n t o be a v o i d e d ( t h e p o i n t i n g t o which becomes t h e moral b a s i s o f t h e poem). S i n c e t h e i d e a o f t h e poem, t h e n , i s m o r a l l y good a l t h o u g h t h e p o r t r a i t c o n t a i n e d i n i t i s t o be condemned, one must c o n c l u d e t h a t t h e v e r s e form, " b e s t e f o r m a t t e r s o f l o v e , " i s t o be viewed as a d i r e c t e x p r e s s i o n and emphasis o f t h e per s o n a ' s u n e x p e c t e d l y i m p e r f e c t s t a t e o f b e i n g and p e r c e p t i o n . A c c o r d i n g l y , the more pure i t i s as " B a l l a d e , " t h e more e m p h a t i c a l l y does i t d e l i n e a t e t h e s t a t e o f b e i n g to be a v o i d e d . T h a t i t i s q u i t e pure as " B a l l a d e " i s c o n f i r m e d when i t i s examined c l o s e l y . Such e x a m i n a t i o n r e v e a l s t h e s e a t t r i b u t e s : a l l l i n e s o f the poem a r e w r i t t e n i n u n a d u l t e r a t e d i a m b i c 49 p e n t a m e t e r s ; s t a n z a i c d i v i s i o n s c o i n c i d e w i t h d i v i s i o n s o f t h e poem's i d e a s ; rhyme i s " r e a s o n a b l e " i n t h e work; the poem as a whole a v o i d s p o e t i c e x c e s s e s (even i f t h e p e r s o n a does n o t a v o i d p e r s o n a l ones) and i s c o n c i s e l y e x p r e s s e d ; t he c a e s u r a comes a f t e r t h e f o u r t h s y l l a b l e o f e v e r y l i n e , e x c e p t i n 11. 30, 34, and 45; a l t h o u g h e v e r y f o o t o f i t i s i a m b i c , words o t h e r than t h o s e o f two s y l l a b l e s a r e employed ( b u t p o l y s y l l a b i c words a r e n o t used e x c e s s i v e l y , a l t h o u g h t h e i r p r o p o r t i o n here i s g r e a t e r than i n many o f G a s c o i g n e ' s poems); t h e i d i o m and t h e d i c t i o n o f t h e poem i s E n g l i s h , and s t r a n g e o r o b s o l e t e words a r e n o t used ( e x c e p t f o r "nam" i n 1. 23, which Gas c o i g n e g l o s s e s f o r c l a r i t y ) ; and, f i n a l l y , t h e p r o n u n c i a t i o n o f words w i t h i n i t i s n o t d i s t o r t e d --e x c e p t , p e r h a p s , t h a t o f t h e p r o p e r name " D a l i 1 a" ( 1 . 35) as a f u n c t i o n o f rhythm, and t h a t o f t h e p r o p e r names "Bersa b e " ( 1 . 1 4 ) , " H o i i f e m e " (1. 2 9 ) , and " C r e s s i d e s " ( 1 . 42) as a f u n c t i o n o f s p e l l i n g . "The a r r a i g [ n ] m e n t o f a L o v e r " i s , I t h i n k , a v e r y complex p a r a l l e l to t h e c o m p a r a t i v e l y s i m p l e "The l o v e r encouraged" -- but i t i s , n o n e t h e l e s s , a p a r a l l e l . In i t s t i t l e , t h e poem e x p r e s s e s i t s c e n t r a l i n v e n t i o n . The p a r t i c u l a r e x p r e s s i o n o f the i n v e n t i o n here t a k e s the form o f a l l e g o r y : t the p e r s o n a i s p l a c e d on t r i a l " At Beautyes b a r r e " ( 1 . 1 ) , b e i n g " a r r a i g n d e o f F l a t t e r y e " ( 1 . 4 ) . When he i s asked how he " w y l t bee t r y d e " ( 1 . 5 ) , he r e q u e s t s t h a t the o b j e c t o f h i s p r a i s e s t r y him (11. 7-12), but " B e a u t i e " 2 6 ( 1 . 13) d e n i e s h i s s u i t and i n s i s t s t h a t he be t r i e d by " w y l l " ( 1 . 1 5 ) . In t h e t r i a l , t h e w i t n e s s e s a r e c a l l e d by " c r a f t e " ( 1 . 19) and a r e f a l s e (amongst whom "was f a l s h o o d e f o r m o s t " as seen i n 1. 2 0 ) , as a r e t h e j u r y 2 7 and t h e j u d g e . The pers o n a i s condemned on t h e ch a r g e and i s bound by j e a l o u s y (11. 24 and 2 5 ) , but p l e a d s t h a t i f he has "beene u n t r u e , / I t 50 was i n too much p r a y s i n g " B e a u t i e (11. 35-36). F i n a l l y , h i s s e n t e n c e i s rev o k e d on c o n d i t i o n t h a t he become " B e a u t i e s bounden t h r a l l " ( 1 . 5 3 ) , which he swears t o be, s a y i n g , " t h a t I s h a l l , / L o e f a y t h and t r u e t h my s u e r t i e s " (11. 49-50). S i n c e t h i s poem i s a l l e g o r i c a l , one need c o n s i d e r o n l y t h e moral s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e i d e a s conveyed by the a l l e g o r i c r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s t o de t e r m i n e i f t h e i n v e n t i o n o f i t i s a m o r a l l y good one. Summarizing t h e f o r e g o i n g o u t l i n e o f t h e a l l e g o r i c a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i n terms o f t h e i d e a s r e p r e s e n t e d , one might say t h a t t h e pe r s o n a o f t h e poem d e s c r i b e s a sequence o f c h o i c e s and co n s e q u e n c e s , t he s i g n i f i c a n c e o f which he f a i l s t o a p p r e c i a t e : he p o r t r a y s h i s i n n e r m o t i v e s f o r p r a i s i n g a l a d y , i s per s u a d e d by h e r beauty to a c c e p t as t h e b a s i s f o r judgment h i s w i l l f u l e v a l u a t i o n o f h e r ( r a t h e r t h a n an o b j e c t i v e v i e w ) , r e c e i v e s f a l s e 28 e s t i m a t e s o f h i s c o n d i t i o n i n consequence, f a l l s i n t o r e s u l t a n t j e a l o u s y , and, f i n a l l y , e s c a p e s consequent death o n l y by an i r o n i c commission o f t h e v e r y c r i m e o f which he so u g h t to c l e a r h i m s e l f a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e poem: he f l a t t e r s t h e l a d y i n the w o r s t way p o s s i b l e , m o r a l l y , becoming " B e a u t i e s bounden t h r a l l . " The a r r a i g [ n ] m e n t o f a L o v e r , " t h e n , p o r t r a y s an i m p e r f e c t s t a t e o f b e i n g t o be a v o i d e d by t h e r e a d e r ; by i r o n i c i n d i r e c t i o n , i t e s t a b l i s h e s a m o r a l l y sound p r e m i s e which i t i m p l i c i t l y a d v o c a t e s by d e m o n s t r a t i n g t h e f a i l u r e o f t h e p r e m i s e t h a t would be i t s o p p o s i t e . The r e a d e r , t h e r e f o r e , i s e n j o i n e d t o a v o i d w i l l f u l n e s s i n l o v e , i f he i s t o a t t a i n an a c c u r a t e p e r c e p t i o n o f h i s l o v e , and i s t o e n j o y t h a t l o v e w i t h o u t b e i n g bound by j e a l o u s y , and w i t h o u t a b d i c a t i n g h i s freedom and moral r e c t i t u d e . T h i s c o n c l u s i o n i s v e r y s i m i l a r t o t h a t fou n d i n "The l o v e r e n c o u r a g e d " and s i m i l a r l y 51 f u l f i l l s t h e r e q u i r e m e n t t h a t t h e i d e a o f a poem promote moral e x c e l l e n c e . T h a t the i n v e n t i o n upon which "The a r r a i g [ n ] m e n t o f a L o v e r " i s based i s a e s t h e t i c a l l y f i n e i s e a s i l y seen by t h e f a c t t h a t the t h e m a t i c b a s i s o f the poem i s a t once s u c c e s s f u l l y communicated and a t t r a c t i v e l y communicated i n the e x p r e s s i o n o f the i d e a i n the form o f a t r i a l o f a l o v e r : the a l l e g o r y conveys a c l e a r argument ( w i t h the one e x c e p t i o n n o t e d i n f o o t n o t e no. 2 7 ) , and the argument i s c o l o u r f u l l y e x p r e s s e d i n an a l l e g o r y which i s i n t e r n a l l y c o n s i s t e n t , c l e a r and a t t r a c t i v e . "The a r r a i g [ n ] m e n t o f a L o v e r " c e r t a i n l y f u l f i l l s i t s a u t h o r ' s own r e q u i r e m e n t s ( i n Notes 2 and 6) t h a t i t r e t a i n i t s o r i g i n a l i n v e n t i o n ( f o r n o t h i n g does, i n f a c t , appear i n the poem e x t r a n e o u s t o the c o n t e x t e s t a b l i s h e d by an a l l e g o r i c a l " a r r a i g [ n ] m e n t o f a L o v e r " ) . I t a l s o f u l f i l l s t h e poe t ' s r e q u i r e m e n t ( i n Note 10) t h a t i t i n g e n e r a l e x e c u t e w e l l i t s e x p r e s s i o n o f i t s c e n t r a l i n v e n t i o n ( f o r t h e dual a l l e g o r i c v i r t u e s a t t r i b u t e d above t o t h e i d e a permeate t h e e n t i r e poem i n ' i t s c o n c e p t u a l e x p r e s s i o n , t h e argument b e i n g a l m o s t always c l e a r l y e x p r e s s e d and the a l l e g o r y b e i n g a l m o s t always c o n s i s t e n t i n t e r n a l l y and c o n s i s t e n t i n i t s e x p r e s s i o n o f the a l l e g o r i c c o r r e s p o n d e n c e s ) . As t h e c a s t i n g o f t h e poem i n " B a l l a d e " form, t h e r e f o r e , emphasizes the p e r s o n a ' s amatory s u b j e c t , t h e r e i s l i t t l e doubt, I t h i n k , t h a t t h e e x c e l l e n c e o f i n v e n t i o n and g e n e r a l e x e c u t i o n o f t h i s poem encourages an a t t e n t i v e r e a d i n g o f i t i n such a way t h a t t h e i n v e n t i o n w i l l be i m p r e s s e d on any r e a d e r ' s mind. T h a t t h e d i r e c t f o r m a l e x p r e s s i o n o f the s u b j e c t i s a pure one i n a l l o f i t s p a r t s i s seen by the f a c t t h a t a l l o f t h e p a r t i c u l a r i z e d d i r e c t i v e s i n the Notes f o r t h e f i n e e x p r e s s i o n o f an i d e a a r e f o l l o w e d i n a d i r e c t manner i n the poem: a l l l i n e s o f i t a r e i n i a m b i c t e t r a m e t e r 52 ( w i t h b ut s t a n d a r d i n i t i a l t r o c h a i c s u b s t i t u t i o n i n 11. 3, 15, 18, 24, 25, and 2 7 ) ; s t a n z a i c d i v i s i o n s o f t h e poem p a r a l l e l i t s d i v i s i o n s o f t h o u g h t ; w h i l e the f e e t o f t h e poem a r e c o n s i s t e n t l y i a m b i c , words o t h e r than t h o s e o f one o r two s y l l a b l e s a re employed, a l t h o u g h such p o l y s y l l a b i c words ar e n o t used e x c e s s i v e l y ; t h e r e i s no "rhyme w i t h o u t r e a s o n " t o be fou n d ; t h e p r o n u n c i a t i o n o f the words t h a t c o m p r i s e the poem i s n e v e r d i s t o r t e d ; no words i n i t s a r e f o r e i g n , and none were e n t i r e l y s t r a n g e o r o b s o l e t e i n G a s c o i g n e ' s t i m e ; w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f p o s s i b l y u n i d i o m a t i c s y n t a c t i c p a t t e r n s i n 11. 12 and 31, the v e r s e i s d i s t i n c t i v e l y E n g l i s h i n p a t t e r n ; w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f t h o s e found i n 11. 33 and 49, each c a e s u r a i s p l a c e d a f t e r the f o u r t h s y l l a b l e o f the r e s p e c t i v e l i n e i n which i t o c c u r s ; t he e x p r e s s i o n o f t h e i n v e n t i o n o f the poem i s c o n c i s e ; and, f i n a l l y , e x c e s s i v e p o e t i c l i c e n s e i s a v o i d e d ( a l t h o u g h t h e r e i s j u s t enough, as seen i n the e x c e p t i o n s t o the r u l e s n o t e d above, to p e r m i t the poem to a v o i d seeming m e c h a n i s t i c , t h e r e b y f u l f i l l i n g t h e d i c t u m , Ne  q u i d n i m i s ) . The l a s t o f the " B a l l a d e s " t h a t I s h a l l c o n s i d e r , "The L u l l a b i e o f a L o v e r , " i s , l i k e "The l o v e r e n c o u r a g e d " and u n l i k e "The a r r a i g [ n ] m e n t o f a L o v e r , " c o m p a r a t i v e l y s i m p l e . U n l i k e both o f t h e o t h e r " B a l l a d e s , " however, i t s s u b j e c t - m a t t e r i s n o t e n t i r e l y to be condemned. The moral i n v e n t i o n o f t h i s poem i s n o t a d i r e c t a n t i t h e s i s t o the v i s i b l e s u b j e c t -m a t t e r o f t h e poem. L i k e t h e "Lover f o r s a k e n No.2," "The L u l l a b i e o f a L o v e r " i s a w e l l -c o n t r o l l e d " b o r d e r l i n e " poem. In i t , both t he p a s t commission o f s i n and t h e p r e s e n t p a y i n g f o r t h a t s i n , a r e d e p i c t e d -- and, as i n the "Lover f o r s a k e n No.2," t h e moral i n v e n t i o n o f the poem r e s t s t h r o u g h o u t 53 on a condemnation o f p a s t " f a l l i n g away" and on a c o r r e s p o n d e n t commendation o f t h e p e r c e p t i o n o f e r r o r . U n l i k e the p e r s o n a o f t h e " L o v e r f o r s a k e n No.2," however, the p e r s o n a i n "The L u l l a b i e o f a L o v e r " i s n o t on the h e a v e n l y s i d e o f t h e b o r d e r . Three elements o f the poem demonstrate t h i s , two o f which r e q u i r e an a p p r e c i a t i o n o f p r i n c i p l e s i n the Notes t o be p e r c e i v e d . The e l e m e n t i n t h e poem t h a t r e q u i r e s no r e f e r e n c e t o the Notes to be a p p r e c i a t e d i s i t s tone o f w i s t f u l n e s s ; a l t h o u g h t h e p e r s o n a p e r c e i v e s the t r a n s i e n c e . o f m a t e r i a l e x i s t e n c e , he views t h a t t r a n s c i e n c e w i t h s o r r o w f u l r e g r e t , i n d i c a t i n g t h e r e b y h i s c o n t i n u e d a t t a c h m e n t i t o the t h i n g s o f t h i s w o r l d . An a p p r e c i a t i o n o f the f a c t t h a t the d e v i c e whereby t h e i n v e n t i o n i s e x p r e s s e d i s , a l o n g w i t h the moral i d e a o f the i n v e n t i o n , o f p r i m a r y importance t o t h e poem (as i n d i c a t e d i n t h e f i r s t o f the Notes) a l s o f o r c e s the r e a d e r , however, to emphasize t h e f a c t t h a t the p e r s o n a i s termed a " L o v e r " i n the t i t l e , and i s so termed i m p l i c i t l y i n t h e p r e s e n t t e n s e ( i n c o n t r a s t t o the "Lover f o r s a k e n " whose " l o v i n g " a t t r i b u t e s are i m p l i c i t l y l i n k e d i n time t o the p a s t t e n s e o f the m o d i f y i n g p a r t i c i p l e ) . F i n a l l y , an o b s e r v a n c e o f the f a c t t h a t t h e poem i s composed by t h e p e r s o n a i n " B a l l a d e " form ( w i t h the a d d i t i o n o f a rhymed c o u p l e t t o each s t a n z a ) i n d i c a t e s t h a t he i s n o t w h o l l y f r e e from " m a t t e r s o f l o v e , " s i n c e he chooses to compose i n a form t h a t i s b e s t s u i t e d t o e x p r e s s such " m a t t e r s . " E x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e " d e t a i l s " o f t h e form r e v e a l s t h a t h i s use o f i t i s i n s u f f i c i e n t l y s t r i c t a c c o r d w i t h the p r i n c i p l e s e n u n c i a t e d i n t h e Notes to b r i n g o u t i t s q u a l i t i e s t o the f u l l e s t : a l l 29 l i n e s i n i t a r e i n i a m b i c t e t r a m e t e r ; s t a n z a i c d i v i s i o n s p a r a l l e l t he poem's d i v i s i o n s o f t h o u g h t ; rhyme i s n e v e r p u t b e f o r e r e a s o n ; each c a e s u r a 54 comes a f t e r t h e f o u r t h s y l l a b l e o f each l i n e ; t h e poem i s c o n c i s e ; words o t h e r than t h o s e o f two s y l l a b l e s a r e used, d e s p i t e t he f a c t t h a t t he f e e t o f t h i s poem a r e i a m b i c , w h i l e p o l y s y l l a b i c usage i s n o t e x c e s s i v e ( a l t h o u g h t h e poem does c o n t a i n a h i g h e r p e r c e n t a g e o f p o l y s y l l a b i c words than do many o f G a s c o i g n e ' s poems, and more than might be e x p e c t e d o f a " s i m p l e " l u l l a b y ) ; d i c t i o n and s y n t a x a r e d i s t i n c t i v e l y E n g l i s h , w i t h s t r a n g e o r o b s o l e t e terms b e i n g a v o i d e d ; and, f i n a l l y , t h e p r o n u n c i a t i o n o f a l l words i n t h e poem i s r e g u l a r . T h i s c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f t h e " B a l l a d e s " d e m o n s t r a t e s , I t h i n k , t h a t t h e " B a l l a d e " form i s i n d e e d used i n a way t h a t i s d i f f e r e n t from t h e use t o which "Rythme r o y a l l " i s p u t . Whereas t h a t form emphasized t he e x c e l l e n c e o f a good p o r t r a i t , u p l i f t e d a b a r e l y - g o o d d e p i c t i o n , o r made i r o n i c any p o r t r a y a l o f baseness by way o f s u p p o r t i n g a good moral i d e a , t he " B a l l a d e " form -- as might be deduced from i t s b e i n g termed " b e s t e f o r daunces o r l i g h t m a t t e r s " and " b e s t e o f m a t t e r s o f l o v e " — s u p p o r t s t h e moral u p r i g h t n e s s o f each i n v e n t i o n by e m p h a s i z i n g the i m p e r f e c t i o n s t o be a v o i d e d i n any d e p i c t i o n o f b a s e n e s s , and by e m p h a s i z i n g t h e i n a d e q u a c y o f any s t a t e wherein something l e s s than an a c c e p t a b l e s t a n d a r d o f moral r e a l i z a t i o n and p r a c t i c e has been a c h i e v e d . I f we t u r n now t o i n s t a n c e s o f G a s c o i g n e ' s use o f t h e " r o n d l e t t e " ( w h i c h , he s a y s , i s "moste a p t f o r the b e a t i n g o r h a n d l y i n g o f an adage o r common p r o v e r b e " ) , we see i m m e d i a t e l y t h a t " G a s c o i g n e ' s Memory No.2" employs t h e p r a c t i c e o f e n d i n g " w i t h one s e l f same f o o t e o r r e p e t i c i o n " t o b e a t o u t an adage -- s p e c i f i c a l l y , t h e adage t h a t " t o l a c k e t he moste, and l e a v e t h e l e a s t , / I coumpt enough as good as any f e a s t . " As t h i s poem has been a n a l y z e d i n d e t a i l above i n terms o f i t s a p p l i c a t i o n o f the 55 "Rythme r o y a l l " i n which i t i s composed, no more need be s a i d o f i t h e r e , o t h e r than t o n o t e t h a t t h e p u r i t y o f i t s "Rythme r o y a l l " l i n e s emphasizes t h e adage t h a t t h o s e l i n e s r e p e a t . S i n c e t h e o t h e r " r o n d l e t t e " poem t o be d i s c u s s e d , " G a s c o i g n e ' s Memory No.4," a l s o b e l o n g s t o a second c l a s s i f i -c a t i o n , and as the p o e t i c e x e m p l i f i c a t i o n o f t h a t c l a s s i f i c a t i o n — the E n g l i s h s o n n e t -- has y e t t o be d i s c u s s e d , I s h a l l t r e a t t h e poem as a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f both c a t e g o r i e s a t once. Gas c o i g n e d e s c r i b e s t h e E n g l i s h s o n n e t as b e s t " f o r s h o r t F a n t a z i e s " and good f o r e x p r e s s i n g "matters o f l o v e as o f d i s c o u r s e . " An e x a m i n a t i o n o f h i s "Memory No.4" r e v e a l s t h a t w h i l e i t s d e v i c e o f i n v e n t i v e e x p r e s s i o n c a l l s f o r t h e p o r t r a y a l o f a s t a t e o f " F a n t a z i e " and " l o v e , " i t does so o n l y t o p o i n t t o the p a y i n g o f a p e n a l t y f o r t h a t f a n c i f u l l o v e , e x p r e s s e d i n an adage -- "No h a s t e b u t good, where wisdome makes t h e waye" -- t h a t i s the c u l m i n a t i o n o f i n c r e a s i n g l y c o r r e c t moral adages t h a t t o g e t h e r form an on g o i n g and u n d e r l y i n g moral " d i s c o u r s e " from s t a n z a t o s t a n z a , 30 v e r y much i n S o c r a t i c f a s h i o n . The dou b l e r e p e i t i o n o f the c u m u l a t i v e adage i n t h e s i x t h and s e v e n t h s o n n e t s composing t h e poem i s p r e c e d e d by s i n g l y - r e p e a t e d o b s e r v a t i o n s t h a t i n t e r l o c k t h e s o n n e t s : " [ b a y t e s . . . b l a z e d ] B e f o r e mine eye t o f e e d e my greedy w i l l " ; "And e v e r y y e a r e a w o r l d e my w i l l d i d deeme"; " [ a l l was good . . . g o t i n h a s t e ] To p r i n c k e me up, and make me h i g h e r p l a s t e " ; " A l l were t o l i t t l e f o r t h e merchauntes hande"; " t h e g a i n e s doth seeldome q u i t t e the c h a r g e . " The s o n n e t sequence m i g h t , t h e r e f o r e , be c l a s s e d m o r a l l y as on a " b o r d e r l i n e " s i n c e i t p o r t r a y s b o t h e r r o r and t h e p e n a l t y p a i d f o r e r r o r . Because i t a l s o p o r t r a y s n o t o n l y . t h e p e r s o n a ' s p e r c e p t i o n o f e r r o r , b u t h i s p e r c e p t i o n o f t r u t h (as embodied i n t h e f i n a l adage) and c o r r e c t a c t i n g upon t h a t 56 p e r c e p t i o n , i t i s c l e a r t h a t t h e n a r r a t i v e d e p i c t i o n s i n the poem a r e , i n t o t o , p o s i t i v e . S i n c e they a r e p o s i t i v e , t h e n , i t i s c l e a r t h a t both t h e employment o f " r o n d l e t t e " t e c h n i q u e t o e x p r e s s a moral and t h e use o f E n g l i s h s o n n e t t e c h n i q u e t o e x p r e s s a d i s c o u r s e about l o v e c o n s t i t u t e d i r e c t a p p l i c a t i o n s t o t h i s w e l l - c o n t r o l l e d b i p a r t i t e poem o f t h e r e l e v a n t p o e t i c p r i n c i p l e s e s t a b l i s h e d i n t h e Notes. S i n c e G a s c o i g n e i n c l u d e s i n h i s Notes no s p e c i f i c a t i o n s f o r a " r o n d l e t t e " o t h e r than t h a t i t c o n t a i n r e p e t i t i o n a t t h e end o f s e c t i o n s , p o i n t i n g t o an adage, i t may than be s a i d t h a t , as t h e l a s t two sonnets -- t h e s e c t i o n s o f t h i s poem -- do so i n pure " r o n d l e t t e " form and as t h e o t h e r s o n n e t s do so i n q u a s i - " r o n d l e t t e " f a s h i o n , the poem p a r t a k e s o f " r o n d l e t t e " form o r e l e m e n t s . T h a t i t s E n g l i s h s o n n e t s e c t i o n s a r e e m p h a t i c a l l y E n g l i s h s o n n e t s i s seen when t h e f o l l o w i n g a t t r i b u t e s o f each o f t h e so n n e t s c o m p r i s i n g t h e poem a r e n o t e d ( b e s t p r e s e n t e d i n t a b u l a r f o r m ) : Sonnet 1: a) A l l l i n e s a r e i n pure i a m b i c pentameter ( e x c e p t f o r i n i t i a l t r o c h a i c s u b s t i t u t i o n i n 1. 13). b) S t a n z a i c d i v i s i o n s p a r a l l e l d i v i s i o n s o f t h o u g h t . c) Rhyme i s " r e a s o n a b l e . " d) The c a e s u r a always comes a f t e r t h e f o u r t h s y l l a b l e o f each l i n e . e) T h i s poem -- and the o t h e r s o n n e t s f o l l o w i n g i t -- i s n o t o n l y c o n c i s e , b u t i s c o n c i s e v i r t u a l l y by. l i t e r a r y d e f i n i t i o n , f ) A l t h o u g h a l m o s t e v e r y f o o t i s i a m b i c , n o n - d i s y l l a b i c words a r e employed -- w h i l e p o l y s y l l a b i c ones a r e n o t used e x c e s s i v e l y . 57 g) Idiom and d i c t i o n a r e E n g l i s h . h) No words i n the poem a r e s t r a n g e o r o b s o l e t e . i ) The p r o n u n c i a t i o n o f t h e words c o m p r i s i n g the poem i s r e g u l a r . Sonnet 2: a) A l l l i n e s a r e pure i a m b i c p e n t a m e t e r s , e x c e p t f o r t h e t r o c h a i c s u b s t i t u t i o n s i n the f i r s t two f e e t o f 1. 11. b and c) As i n s o n n e t 1. d) The c a e s u r a f a l l s a f t e r t h e f o u r t h s y l l a b l e o f each l i n e , e x c e p t i n T. 10. e-h) As i n s o n n e t 1. i ) The p r o n u n c i a t i o n o f words i n t h i s s o n n e t i s r e g u l a r , e x c e p t , p e r h a p s , f o r t h a t o f " d e l i c a t e s " ( 1 . 4) as a f u n c t i o n o f rhyme. Sonnet 3: a) A l l l i n e s a r e i n pure i a m b i c pentameter, b and c) As i n s o n n e t 1. d) The c a e s u r a comes a f t e r t h e f o u r t h s y l l a b l e o f each l i n e , e x c e p t f o r 11. 6 and 7. e - i ) As i n sonnet 1. Sonnet 4: a) A l l l i n e s a r e i n u n a d u l t e r a t e d i a m b i c pentameter, e x c e p t f o r i n i t i a l t r o c h a i c s u b s t i t u t i o n s i n 11. 3 and 14. b and c) As i n s o n n e t 1. d) The c a e s u r a f a l l s a f t e r the f o u r t h s y l l a b l e o f each l i n e , e x c e p t i n 1. 13. e - i ) As i n s o n n e t 1. Sonnet 5: a) A l l l i n e s a r e i n pure i a m b i c pentameter, e x c e p t f o r i n i t i a l t r o c h a i c s u b s t i t u t i o n s i n 11. 1 and 12. 58 b - i ) As i n s o n n e t 1. Sonnet 6: a) A l l l i n e s a r e i a m b i c p e n t a m e t e r s , b and c) As i n s o n n e t 1. d) The c a e s u r a i n each l i n e f a l l s a f t e r t h e f o u r t h s y l l a b l e , e x c e p t i n 1. 5. e - i ) As i n sonnet 1. Sonnet 7: a) A l l l i n e s a r e pure i a m b i c p e n t a m e t e r s , b and c) As i n so n n e t 1. d) The c a e s u r a f a l l s a f t e r t h e f o u r t h s y l l a b l e o f each l i n e , e x c e p t i n 1. 10. e - i ) As i n so n n e t 1. "G a s c o i g n e ' s Memory No.4," t h e n , i s most v i s i b l y a w e l l - c o n t r o l l e d , c o n s i s t e n t , and i n t e r e s t i n g poem. I t i l l u s t r a t e s the f a c t t h a t t h e E n g l i s h s o n n e t form may be used t o e x p r e s s both t he b a s e r p a s s i o n s o f l o v e , and t h e i r w o r k i n g - o u t , w h i l e a l s o i l l u s t r a t i n g t h e use o f " r o n d l e t t e " t e c h n i q u e t o emphasize d i r e c t l y a p o s i t i v e moral i d e a . The poem t h a t p r e c e d e s t h i s i n the F l o w e r s , " G a s c o i g n e ' s Memory No.3," i l l u s t r a t e s i t s a u t h o r ' s use o f the form termed by him, " V e r l a y e . " G a s c o i g n e says t h a t i t i s b e s t " f o r an e f f e c t u a l p r o p o s i t i o n , " and t h i s usage o f t h e form he e x e m p l i f i e s by a p p l y i n g i t t o " t h i s theame. Magnum  v e c t i g a l p a r c i m o n i a , " as he e x p l i c i t l y o b s e r v e s i n t h e poem's headnote. S i n c e G a s c o i g n e ' s d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e form's use p e r m i t s i t t o be used to e x p r e s s e i t h e r a m o r a l l y good o r a m o r a l l y bad p r o p o s i t i o n ( p o i n t i n g u l t i m a t e l y , o f c o u r s e , t o a m o r a l l y good u p h o l d i n g o f t h e for m e r and d o w n c a s t i n g o f t h e l a t t e r ) , and s i n c e G a s c o i g n e does i n f a c t make two such p a r a l l e l p r o p o s i t i o n s i n the poem ("The common speech i s , 59 spend and God w i l l send," and "Who s p a r e s t h e f i r s t and keepes t h e l a s t u n s p e n t , / S h a l l f i n d e t h a t s p a r i n g y e e l d e s a g o o d l y r e n t " ) which demonstrate t h e f a l l a c y o f t h e one and t h e c o r r e c t n e s s o f t h e o t h e r w i t h o u t , however, showing a p e r s o n a t o move th r o u g h t h e one t o t h e o t h e r (as i n " L o v e r f o r s a k e n No.2"), i t s h o u l d not be s u r p r i s i n g t o f i n d t h e u n s y n t h e s i z e d j u x t a p o s i t i o n i n g o f good and bad p r o p o s i t i o n s e x p r e s s e d by a " V e r l a y e " form t h a t i t s e l f c o n t a i n s good and bad s t y l i s t i c e lements ( w i t h i n t h e terms o f t h e N o t e s ) . T h a t t h i s i s so i s seen when the t e x t o f the poem i s c l o s e l y examined. On t h e one hand, a l l o f i t s l i n e s a r e composed i n pure i a m b i c pentameter ( e x c e p t f o r i n i t i a l t r o c h a i c s u b s t i t u t i o n s i n 11. 42 and 49) — a f a c t t h a t does n o t p r e c l u d e t h e use o f words o t h e r than t h o s e o f two s y l l a b l e s , b u t does n o t l e a d , e i t h e r , t o an e x c e s s i v e use o f p o l y s y l l a b i c words -- i n an i d i o m t h a t i s p e r f e c t l y E n g l i s h , w i t h no s t r a n g e o r o b s o l e t e words b e i n g used, b u t w i t h c o r r e c t l y - p r o n o u n c e d E n g l i s h d i c t i o n b e i n g employed. On t h e o t h e r hand, the s t y l i s t i c f e a t u r e s t h a t a r e l a r g e l y c o n c e r n e d w i t h e x p r e s s i n g t h e l a r g e r u n i t s o f t h o u g h t r e f l e c t s t r i k i n g d i c h o t o m i e s : i n an e x p r e s s i o n t h a t i s a n y t h i n g but c o n c i s e , rhyme i s found t o be " p l a c e d b e f o r e r e a s o n " i n s i x l i n e s (11. 16-20 and 32-34), c a e s u r a placements i r r e g u l a r l y f a i l t o come a f t e r t h e f o u r t h s y l l a b l e o f each l i n e i n f i v e l i n e s (11. 1, 3, 30, 39, and 5 0 ) , w h i l e t h e r e e x i s t s a c o n s i s t e n t l a c k o f p a r a l l e l i s m between s t a n z a i c d i v i s i o n s (11. 1-5, 6-10, 11-15, 16-20, 21-25, 26-30, 31-35, 36-40, 41-45, 46-50, 51-52) and the d i v i s i o n s o f t h o u g h t i n the poem (11. 1-4, 5-7, o r 11, 12-15, 16-19, 20-22 o r 25, 26-28, 29-31, 32-35, 36-44, 45-46 o r 48 o r 50, 51-52). Both t h e d e p i c t i o n s c o n t a i n e d i n t h i s s u p e r b l y w e l l - c o n t r o l l e d and c r a f t e d poem, t h e n , and t h e forms i n which they a r e 60 e x p r e s s e d , p o i n t t o the dual usages to which t h e " V e r l a y e " may be p l a c e d i n i t s e x p r e s s i o n o f " E f f e c t u a l p r o p o s i t i o n s . " The use made by G a s c o i g n e o f P e t r a r c h a n s o n n e t q u a t r a i n s i s w e l l -e x e m p l i f i e d i n h i s "De p r o f u n d i s " ( i n c l u d i n g i t s i n t r o d u c t i o n ) , s i n c e what he says o f them i s t h a t " t h e s e a r e more used by o t h e r n a t i o n s than by us," and he uses them i n t h i s , h i s v e r s i o n o f t h e L a t i n ( h e nce, " f o r e i g n " -- and, more s p e c i f i c a l l y , I t a l i a n ) t e x t o f Psalm 130. I f G a s c o i g n e knew the use t o which P e t r a r c h a n s t a n z a s were s p e c i f i c a l l y p ut by P e t r a r c h , an a d d i t i o n a l i n t e r p r e t a t i v e i m p l i c a t i o n m i g h t be s u g g e s t e d by h i s use o f t h i s - f o r m -- namely, t h a t i t s u g g e s t s what i t i s t h a t he t r u l y l o v e s . The i d e a s " c a r r i e d " by the form would then s u g g e s t t h e m o r a l l y i n c o m p a r a b l e i d e a t h a t h i s l o v e i s d i r e c t e d t o God, n o t t o any e a r t h l y L a u r a . In any c a s e , the m a s t e r f u l usage o f t h e P e t r a r c h a n q u a t r a i n s ( f o l l o w e d i n the main poem a f t e r abbaaccd p a t t e r n i n g i n each s t a n z a by a rhymed c o u p l e t and an unrhymed l i n e , and a f t e r a b b a c d d c e f f g p a t t e r n i n g i n t h e s o n n e t by an eg p a i r o f l i n e s ) o f t h e poem emphasizes i t s c o n t e n t . In t h e i n t r o d u c t o r y "Psalme," the p e r s o n a ' s tendency toward s e c u l a r " r u d e n e s s e " i s m i r r o r e d i n a dichotomy between s t a n z a i c d i v i s i o n s and d i v i s i o n s o f t h o u g h t s i m i l a r t o t h a t found i n " G a s c o i g n e ' s Memory No.3" ( t h e s t a n z a i c d i v i s i o n s b e i n g 11. 1-4, 5-8, 9-11, 12-14, but t h e d i v i s i o n s o f t h o u g h t b e i n g 11. 1-3, 4-7, 8-11, 12-14). The poem's f u n c t i o n as an i n t r o d u c t i o n t o a r e l i g i o u s song, however, i s a l s o m i r r o r e d i n the b e t t e r elements o f i t s s t y l e ; a l l l i n e s a r e i n pure i a m b i c pentameter ( w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f 1. 3, which c o n t a i n s an i n i t i a l t r o c h a i c s u b s t i t u t i o n ) ; rhyme i s n e v e r s e t b e f o r e r e a s o n ; the c a e s u r a appears a f t e r the f o u r t h s y l l a b l e o f e v e r y l i n e ; t he poem as a whole i s c e r t a i n l y c o n c i s e ; t h e f a c t t h a t a l m o s t e v e r y 61 f o o t o f i t i s i a m b i c does n o t p r e v e n t t h e r e b e i n g i n i t words o t h e r than d i s y l l a b i c ( a l t h o u g h the e x c e s s i v e employment o f p o l y s y l l a b i c words i s a v o i d e d ) ; s y n t a x , d i c t i o n , and t h e p r o n u n c i a t i o n o f words i s E n g l i s h ; and no words i n the poem a r e e i t h e r s t r a n g e o r o b s o l e t e . The main body o f t h e poem r e a l i z e s the t h e m a t i c and s t y l i s t i c move-ments o f t h e I n t r o d u c t i o n , f o r i t i s a t h o r o u g h l y r e l i g i o u s t e x t ( b e i n g a p e r s o n a l a d a p t a t i o n o f a P s a l m ) , p r e s e n t e d w i t h a p p r o p r i a t e l y r i g o r o u s adherence t o the r u l e s o f good s t y l e . The f i r s t e i g h t l i n e s and t h e l a s t l i n e o f each s t a n z a a r e i n pure i a m b i c pentameter, w h i l e the n i n t h and t e n t h l i n e s o f each s t a n z a are always i n i a m b i c d i m e t e r . In t h e i r d i v i s i o n s , t h e s t a n z a s most e m p h a t i c a l l y do p a r a l l e l t he d i v i s i o n s o f t h o u g h t i n the poem. Rhyme i s n e v e r put b e f o r e r e a s o n , and c a e s u r a p l a c e -ment always comes a f t e r t h e f o u r t h s y l l a b l e o f each l i n e o f t h e f i r s t 31 e i g h t l i n e s and the l a s t l i n e o f each s t a n z a . The poem as a whole e x p r e s s e s w i t h r e m a r k a b l e c o n c i s e n e s s t h o u g h t s and y e a r n i n g s t h a t a r e by d e f i n i t i o n n o t t h e m s e l v e s " c o n c i s e , " u s i n g words o t h e r than t h o s e o f two s y l l a b l e s ( a l t h o u g h e v e r y f o o t o f t h e poem i s i a m b i c ) but n e v e r u s i n g p o l y s y l l a b i c words e x c e s s i v e l y , and u s i n g t r u e E n g l i s h i d i o m and c o r r e c t l y -pronounced d i c t i o n , but a v o i d i n g words t h a t a r e s t r a n g e ( w i t h the p o s s i b l e e x c e p t i o n o f " B r a t t e s " i n t h e c o n t e x t o f 1. 68) o r o b s o l e t e . T h i s b e a u t i f u l l y - c o n t r o l l e d and a r t i c u l a t e d u n i f i e d poem i l l u s t r a t e s one t y p e o f a p p l i c a t i o n o f a mode "more used by o t h e r n a t i o n s than by us" and used (as G a s c o i g n e might have known) f o r t h e e x p r e s s i o n o f l o v e . The r e l i g i o u s b a s i s o f i t , however, need n o t be e x p r e s s e d o n l y i n such a mode. I f a sense o f t r a n s l a t i o n need n o t be i m p a r t e d t o i t , a r e l i g i o u s poem might b e s t be c a s t i n the l a s t o f t h e v e r s e - f o r m s t h a t I s h a l l 62 c o n s i d e r , " P o u l t e r s measure." The r e a s o n f o r t h i s i s c l e a r . As G a s c o i g n e s a y s , " a l t h o u g h i t be now adayes used i n a l l Theames, y e t i n my judgement i t would s e r v e b e s t f o r Psalmes and Himpnes." In "The R e c a n t a c i o n o f a L o v e r , " a d i r e c t a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h i s view o f p o u l t e r ' s measure i s c l e a r l y made. The i n v e n t i o n o f t h i s poem i s an a l m o s t - m e d i a e v a l r e n u n c i a t i o n o f s e c u l a r l o v e : "I saye t h e n and p r o f e s s e , w i t h f r e e and f a i t h f u l 1 h e a r t , / T h a t womes vowes a r e n o t h i n g e l s , but s n a r e s o f s e c r e t smart." I t s p l a c i n g i n a v e r s e form b e s t f o r r e l i g i o u s p o e t r y emphasizes t h e r e l i g i o u s n a t u r e o f t h e s e c u l a r r e c a n t a t i o n . The form i t s e l f i s an a l m o s t - p e r f e c t model o f good w r i t i n g , a c c o r d i n g t o t h e p r i n c i p l e s found i n t h e Notes: t h r o u g h o u t t h e poem l i n e s o f pure i a m b i c hexameter and heptameter a r e a l t e r n a t e d ; s t a n z a i c d i v i s i o n s always p a r a l l e l d i v i s i o n s o f t h o u g h t ; rhyme i s n e v e r p l a c e d b e f o r e r e a s o n ( e x c e p t f o r 1. 8 ) ; the c a e s u r a always comes a f t e r the s i x t h s y l l a b l e o f t h e f i r s t l i n e and a f t e r t h e e i g h t h o f t h e second l i n e o f each p a i r o f l i n e s ; t he poem i s c o n c i s e ; e v e r y f o o t o f t h e poem i s i a m b i c , but n o t a l l words a r e d i s s y l l a -b i c (and t h e r e i s no e x c e s s i v e use o f p o l y s y l l a b i c words t o be f o u n d ) ; i d i o m , d i c t i o n , and t h e p r o n u n c i a t i o n o f words a r e a l l p e r f e c t l y E n g l i s h ; no words i n the poem a r e s t r a n g e ( e x c e p t , p e r h a p s , the " t u r n i n g cap" c o m b i n a t i o n f o u n d i n 1. 8 ) , and no words i n the poem a r e o b s o l e t e . "The R e c a n t a t i o n o f a L o v e r " i s , t h e r e f o r e , a f i n e l y - w r o u g h t p i e c e o f u n i f i e d a r t , and has the a t t r a c t i v e n e s s t h a t any such p i e c e has. " G a s c o i g n e ' s Memory No.5," by c o n t r a s t , i s a w e l l - w r o u g h t p i e c e o f u n i f i e d a r t i n the s e n s e t h a t i t i s c o n s i s t e n t l y -- b u t d e l i b e r a t e l y --clumsy. The d e l i b e r a t e n a t u r e o f t h e c l u m s i n e s s (and, hence, the a r t i s t i c m e r i t o f t h e poem) i s p o i n t e d t o i n i t s c o n c l u d i n g c o u p l e t : "And thus 63 t h i s f o o l i s h e j e s t , I put i n d o g r e l l rime,/Because a c r o s i e r s t a f f e i s b e s t , f o r such a c r o o k e d t i m e . " T h i s i s n o t t o say t h a t t h e i n v e n t i o n o f t h e poem l a c k s m o r a l i t y -- the theme o f i t i s , as G a s c o i g n e makes e x p l i c i t i n the headnote, Durum aeneum & m i s e r a b i l e aevum -- but i t i s to say t h a t G a s c o i g n e has e x p r e s s e d t h i s moral b a s i s w i t h an a e s t h e t i c d e v i c e t h a t i s l a c k i n g i n i n v e n t i v e " f i n e s s e , " i n a c c o r d w i t h the v e r y t imes t h a t he i s d i s c u s s i n g . The i n v e n t i o n , a l t h o u g h m o r a l , i s n o t f i n e a e s t h e t i c a l l y . I t i s t h i s a e s t h e t i c weakness o f t h e i n v e n t i o n t h a t must a c c o u n t f o r t h e a e s t h e t i c weaknesses o f t h e form f o r , as p o u l t e r ' s measure, i t c o n t a i n s numerous f l a w s . E l e v e n l i n e s w i t h i n t h e poem a r e n o t pure i a m b i c hexameters o r heptameters (11. 14, 20, 21, 22, 26, 30, 31, 32, 34, 41, 42). Up t o t h e e l e v e n t h l i n e , s t a n z a i c d i v i s i o n s do n o t p a r a l l e l d i v i s i o n s o f t h o u g h t : the s t a n z a i c d i v i s i o n s t h e r e a r e by c o u p l e t whereas t h e d i v i s i o n s o f t h o u g h t a r e 11. 1-4 ( a l t h o u g h 11. 1-2 and 3-4 a r e p o s s i b l e u n i t s ) and 11. 5-10 ( a l t h o u g h 11. 5-6 and 7-10 a r e p o s s i b l e u n i t s ) . The rhyming o f the poem i s " r e a s o n a b l e , " b ut t h e r u l e t h a t t he c a e s u r a s h o u l d f a l l a f t e r the s i x t h s y l l a b l e o f t h e f i r s t l i n e and a f t e r t h e e i g h t h o f the second l i n e o f each c o u p l e t i s broken i n 11. 4, 22, 32, and 39. A l t h o u g h the poem i s c o n c i s e , and a l t h o u g h a l l t he words i n i t . a r e n o t d i s s y l l a b i c , i t s use o f p o l y s y l l a b i c words i s a l m o s t e x c e s s i v e . W hile the s y n t a x o f t h e poem i s E n g l i s h , and s t r a n g e o r o b s o l e t e words a r e not t o be found i n i t , one word i s , p e r h a p s , n o t E n g l i s h i n G a s c o i g n e ' s time ( " c l i f f e " i n 1. 4 0 ) , and t h e p r o n u n c i a t i o n o f t h r e e words -- " a m b i t i o n " (1. 2 0 ) , " p r o m o t i o n " ( 1 . 2 2 ) , and " d e v o t i o n " ( 1 . 22) — i s , p e r h a p s , d i s t o r t e d by t h e r h y t h m i c a l demands o f t h e r e s p e c t i v e l i n e s . 64 The c h o i c e o f p o i n t e r ' s measure f o r t h i s poem depends, I t h i n k , both upon the moral n a t u r e o f t h a t which i s p r e s e n t e d i n the theme o f t h e poem, and t h e d e l i b e r a t e l y f a n c i f u l — e c c e n t r i c , i n terms o f t h e Notes — emphasis on t h e f a c t t h a t the q u a n t i t a t i v e d i f f e r e n c e i n the number o f f e e t c o n t a i n e d i n each l i n e o f e v e r y p a i r makes the v e r s e form appear as a " c r o s i e r s t a f f e . " The measure, l i k e a c r o s i e r , s i g n i f i e s m o r a l i t y --b u t , a l s o l i k e a c r o s i e r , i t i s l i t e r a l l y " c r o o k e d , " j u s t as a r e t h e times a l s o p o r t r a y e d i n t h e poem. Both moral p o l a r i t i e s a r e d e p i c t e d i n t h i s poem, j u s t as t h e y were i n " G a s c o i g n e ' s Memory No.3." As was a l s o t h e case i n " G a s c o i g n e ' s Memory No.3," t h e i n v e n t i o n o f t h e poem as a whole i s m o r a l l y sound, commending as i t does t h e b e t t e r moral p r i n c i p l e o f t h e two. In "The Anatomye o f a L o v e r , " we f i n d p o u l t e r ' s measure b e i n g employed i n r e l a t i o n t o a v e r y d i f f e r e n t i n v e n t i v e b a s i s . U n l i k e t h e case w i t h the l a s t poem, no e l e m e n t d e p i c t e d i n t h i s i s i t s e l f m o r a l l y good: t h e o b j e c t o f t h e poem, as s t a t e d i n i t s v e r y f i r s t l i n e , i s "To make a L o v e r knowne, by p l a i n e Anatomie." Now, whether t h i s d e p i c t i o n s e r v e s a moral end o r n o t i s , I t h i n k , answered e x p l i c i t l y by the n e x t t h r e e l i n e s --which c o n c l u d e , i t s h o u l d be n o t e d , w i t h a r e s t a t e m e n t o f t h e i n v e n t i o n , t h e r e b y d i r e c t l y i n d i c a t i n g t h a t t h e e l a b o r a t i o n o f i d e a i n them i s an e l a b o r a t i o n o f the p r i m a r y i d e a o f t h e poem: You l o v e r s a l l t h a t l i s t beware, l o e here b e h o l d you me. Who though mine o n e l y l o o k e s , y o u r p i t t i e wel might move, Ye t e v e r y p a r t s h a l l p l a y e h i s p a r t , t o p a i n t t h e panges o f l o v e . (11. 2-4) In the f i r s t Note G a s c o i g n e s t a t e s t h a t an i n v e n t i o n , to be good, need n o t d i r e c t l y p o r t r a y what i s good p r o v i d e d t h a t i t , i f i t p o r t r a y s i m p e r f e c t i o n , 65 p o r t r a y s i t i n o r d e r t o a c h i e v e t h e m o r a l l y good end o f w a r n i n g r e a d e r s t o a v o i d t h a t i m p e r f e c t i o n . The i n v e n t i o n o f t h i s poem i s i n d e e d good: i t w i l l "make a L o v e r knowne, by p l a i n e Anatomie" i n o r d e r " t o p a i n t the panges o f l o v e , " and, t h e r e b y , warn r e a d e r s to a v o i d t h a t l o v e d e s c r i b e d i n the poem. The d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h a t l o v e which f o l l o w s i s t h e key t o d e c i d i n g whether o r n o t the i n v e n t i o n i s a e s t h e t i c a l l y a " f i n e " one as Ga s c o i g n e c h a r a c t e r i z e s the term. A r e a d i n g o f the r e s t o f t h e poem w i l l , I t h i n k , c o n f i r m t h a t i t i s a l l o f t h e s e . A l t h o u g h i t i s composed o f P e t r a r c h a n e p i t h e t s t h a t might be t r i t e i n and o f t h e m s e l v e s (suc h as "hollow e d a z l e d e y e s " i n 1. 7 ) , i t c a r r i e s t h e P e t r a r c h a n a n a t o m i z i n g t o an a b s u r d and unusual p a r t i c u l a r i z i n g ("My s e c r e e t e p a r t e s a r e so w i t h s e c r e e t e sorrowe soken," i n 1. 19, f o r exa m p l e ) , on t h e one hand, and a t th e same time g e n e r a l i z e s i t i n an unusual m i x i n g o f metaphors f o r s t a t e s o f t h e l o v e r ' s anatomy — metaphors t h a t a r e c o n v e n t i o n a l taken s i n g l y , b u t most unusual when mixed -- when, t h e l o v e r ' s head h a v i n g a l r e a d y been termed " p a t t e r n e o f a g h o s t " ( 1 . 10), the l o v e r says "The A n v i l e i s my h e a r t , my tho u g h t e s they s t r i k e t h e stroake,/My l i g h t s and l u n g e s l i k e b e l l o w e s blow, & s i g h e s a s cend f o r smoake" (11. 17-18). One does n o t e n c o u n t e r s p i r i t s b e a t i n g a n v i l s e v e r y day, as a metaphor f o r t h e l o v e r , t h i s mixed p i c t u r e i s a t once f r i g h t e n i n g and l u d i c r o u s -- i n s h o r t , s u r r e a l . As s u c h , and c o u p l e d t o t h e a n a t o m i z i n g which i s as o n g o i n g as i t i s , t h e a e s t h e t i c e f f e c t o f t h e poem's i n v e n t i o n , i t s p o r t r a y a l o f "The Anatomye o f a L o v e r , " i s seen to be o r i g i n a l and not e w o r t h y , something t h a t w i l l c e r t a i n l y a t t r a c t an a t t e n t i v e r e a d i n g o f t h e poem. A t h e m a t i c and a e s t h e t i c r e a d i n g o f the poem, t h e n , p o i n t s t o the f a c t t h a t i t does f u l f i l t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s o f the most i m p o r t a n t o f the Notes: 66 i t p o r t r a y s , w i t h c o n s i d e r a b l e n o v e l t y , n o t e w o r t h i n e s s , and l i t e r a l " a t t r a c t i v e n e s s , " an i m p e r f e c t s t a t e which the r e a d e r s h o u l d a v o i d . S i n c e G a s c o i g n e i n s i s t s t h a t e x p r e s s i o n s h o u l d " f o l l o w " i n v e n t i o n , and as t h e i n v e n t i o n here m o r a l l y condemns i t s own d e v i c e which p o r t r a y s i m p e r f e c t i o n (which s u g g e s t s a d i r e c t moral by a n t i t h e s i s ) , and as t h e i m p e r f e c t i o n i s embodied i n the p e r s o n a (whether G a s c o i g n e o r n o t ) who " w r i t e s " t h e poem, the c a s t i n g o f t h i s poem i n p o u l t e r ' s measure ("best f o r Psalmes and Himpnes") i s n o t h i n g i f n o t i r o n i c . The p e r s o n a ' s s t a t e i s most c e r t a i n l y downgraded by the form o f t h e poem i n a t r u l y moral way — j u s t as the s t a t e s o f t h e personae were i n the f o u r t h and f i f t h o f t h e " L o v e r enamored" poems. A d e t a i l e d e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e poem s t y l i s t i c a l l y then r e v e a l s the f o l l o w i n g noteworthy p o i n t s c o n c e r n i n g i t s s t y l e : the poem m a i n t a i n s the metre w i t h which i t b e g i n s ; t h e p r o n u n c i a t i o n o f " s u s t a i n e " (1. 2 3 ) , i s perhaps d i s t o r t e d ; a l l f e e t i n the poem a r e i a m b i c ; words o t h e r than those o f two s y l l a b l e s a r e o f t e n used; p o l y s y l l a b i c words a r e n o t used e x c e s s i v e l y ; t h e rhyming o f "soken" (1. 19) and "spoken" (1. 20) v i r t u a l l y p u t s "rhyme b e f o r e r e a s o n " ; c o m p a r a t i v e l y l i t t l e v e r b a l p o e t i c l i c e n c e i s f o u n d ; s t r a n g e and o b s o l e t e words a r e n o t employed; s y n t a x i s E n g l i s h ; t h e c a e s u r a i s p l a c e d i r r e g u l a r l y i n one l i n e ( 1 . 2 2 ) , where i t comes a f t e r t h e s i x t h s y l l a b l e i n s t e a d o f a f t e r the e i g h t h ; the poem i s n o t " c o n c i s e " ; and s t a n z a i c d i v i s i o n s ( i . e . , by c o u p l e t s ) do p a r a l l e l the t h o u g h t . The p o u l t e r ' s measure o f t h e poem i s thus seen n o t o n l y to downgrade by i t s s u p e r i o r i t y the i n f e r i o r s t a t e o f t h e p e r s o n a , but t o r e f l e c t i n i t s e l f ( r e c a l l t h a t i t i s " w r i t t e n " by the p e r s o n a ) the p e r s o n a ' s t e n d e n c i e s toward v i c i s s i t u d e . 67 With t h i s poem, I c o n c l u d e my e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e r e l a t i o n between the p r i n c i p l e s o f the Notes and G a s c o i g n e ' s p o e t i c p r a c t i c e . I f i t has seemed t h a t t h e i n t e r r e l a t i n g s have come e a s i l y , t h a t i s what one s h o u l d have e x p e c t e d i f i n d e e d , as I have a r g u e d , t he Notes as a whole may be viewed as an " I n v e n t i o n " : they t o g e t h e r c o n s t i t u t e an i d e a — an i d e a d i r e c t e d toward t h e making, and by r e v e r s e a p p l i c a t i o n , toward t h e r e a d i n g , o f poems. I f an i d e a which d i r e c t s one how t o r e a d a poem i s then superimposed on a poem, G a s c o i g n e ' s t h e o r y o f i n v e n t i v e p r e c e d e n c e " f i t t i n g " a l l t o i t , i f c o r r e c t and i n f a c t a p p l i c a b l e , w i l l n e c e s s a r i l y l e a d t o the c o n c l u s i o n t h a t i n t e r p r e t a t i v e "woordes w i l l f o l l o w . " Nor i s t h i s t o say t h a t "woordes w i l l f o l l o w " because t h e d i r e c t i v e i n v e n t i o n b l i n d s one t o the " f a c t s " o f t h e poem, f o r t h e paradox here i s t h a t i n em p l o y i n g G a s c o i g n e ' s d i r e c t i v e i n v e n t i o n one does i n f a c t b e g i n w i t h the poem, s i n c e t h e f i r s t demand o f t h a t i n v e n t i o n i s t h a t one i n i t i a l l y e s t a b l i s h t h e i d e a o f each poem, and then examine t h e s t y l e o f i t . What the i n v e n t i o n does then do i s a c t as a g u i d e t o , o r measure o f , p r o b a b i l i t y : i f s e v e r a l p o s s i b l e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s emerge from a r e a d i n g o f t h e poem, i t p o i n t s t o the most p r o b a b l e . In a n a l y z i n g "The Anatomye o f a L o v e r , " f o r example, I have, f o r b r e v i t y ' s s a k e , made t h a t q u i t e l o n g p r o c e s s o f e l i m i n a t i o n b e f o r e h a n d , and s i m p l y a t t e mpted t o de m o n s t r a t e t h a t a p r o b a b l e r e a d i n g o f t h e poem i s p o s s i b l e by a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e Notes t o i t . T h a t t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h i s poem which I have come t o i s n o t the o n l y one p o s s i b l e i s , however, e a s i l y seen: one might r e a d the poem and, amongst o t h e r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s p o s s i b l e , d e c i d e t h a t t h e s t a t e m e n t t h a t t h e poem w i l l " p a i n t t h e panges o f l o v e " i s c o n v e n t i o n a l and i r r e l e v a n t , and t h a t t h e poem i s an a t t e m p t t o i m i t a t e P e t r a r c h a n 68 c o n v e n t i o n s -- and t h a t , as s u c h , i t i s clumsy i n t h a t i t c a r r i e s t h o s e c o n v e n t i o n s t o a r i d i c u l o u s extreme and mixes metaphor. T h a t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e poem, however, a l t h o u g h p o s s i b l e , i s n o t p r o b a b l e . I t i s n o t t h e p r o d u c t o f a r e a d i n g which i s any c l o s e r t o t h e t e x t than t h a t which I have p r o v i d e d ; i t i s , however, a r e a d i n g which i s much f a r t h e r from the t e x t o f G a s c o i g n e ' s s t a t e d p o e t i c p r i n c i p l e s than i s mine. As s u c h , the onus l i e s on t h e r e a d e r who would n o t employ t h o s e p r i n c i p l e s t o s t a t e why t h e i r a u t h o r d i d n o t h i m s e l f employ them i n h i s own work, r a t h e r than on t h e i n t e r p r e t e r who comes t o h i s c o n c l u s i o n s by e q u a l l y c l o s e r e a d i n g o f the t e x t , but employs the p a r t i c u l a r p r i n c i p l e s o f the Notes as an "Ockham's r a z o r " toward t h e s u b s e q u e n t e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f t h e most p r o b a b l e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , t o say why he r e a d t h e t e x t c l o s e l y -- as the Notes i n s i s t he must -- and then s e l e c t e d from t h e group o f p o s s i b l e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s g e n e r a t e d by t h e r e a d i n g t h a t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n most i n a c c o r d w i t h t h e s p e c i f i c p r i n c i p l e s s e t f o r t h i n t h e Notes as t h e most p r o b a b l e i n t e r p r e t a -t i o n o f t h e poem. I f t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e Notes to the f o r e g o i n g poems,then, has seemed "easy," i t i s o n l y t h a t , I t h i n k , i t has proven i t s e l f t o be p r a c t i c a l -- w h i c h , a g a i n , i s something one s h o u l d e x p e c t from t h e e m i n e n t l y p r a c t i c a l n a t u r e o f t h e Notes. A p p l i c a t i o n o f George G a s c o i g n e ' s Notes to h i s p o e t r y , t h e r e f o r e , i s i n d e e d — i f my a n a l y s i s has been c o r r e c t --n o t o n l y c r i t i c a l l y i l l u s t r a t i v e , b u t i n t e r p r e t a t i v e l y p r a c t i c a l and i n t e r p r e t a t i v e l y v a l u a b l e . FOOTNOTES P r e f a c e and A b s t r a c t 1 T h i s w i l l h e r e a f t e r be r e f e r r e d t o as Notes. p A t the v e r y l e a s t , i t c o u l d be s a i d t h a t t h e N o t e s , i f w r i t t e n a f t e r t h e p o e t r y , must n o t c o n f l i c t w i t h the p r a c t i c e s f o u n d i n t h e p o e t r y . Of c o u r s e , even i f the Notes were not w r i t t e n a f t e r t h e p o e t r y , the a t t e m p t t o a p p l y the p r i n c i p l e s i t c o n t a i n s t o the l a t t e r would be one t h a t s h o u l d n a t u r a l l y s u g g e s t i t s e l f -- perhaps t h e i r d e d u c t i v e o b s e r v a t i o n s were c o n s c i o u s l y a p p l i e d t o the p o e t r y by G a s c o i g n e , o r a t l e a s t k e p t i n mind by him when w r i t i n g h i s poems, o r , p e r h a p s , they g u i d e d him s u b c o n s c i o u s l y . John W. C u n l i f f e , i n h i s a r t i c l e , "George G a s c o i g n e " -- which a p p e a r s i n The Cambridge H i s t o r y o f E n g l i s h L i t e r a t u r e , V o l . I l l , ed. A. W. Ward and A. R. W a l l e r (Cambridge: U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1909) --s u g g e s t s the l a t e d a t e o f i t s c o m p o s i t i o n when he o b s e r v e s (on p. 206) t h a t i t was "appended to t h e e d i t i o n o f 1575, a p p a r e n t l y as an a f t e r t h o u g h t , f o r i t i s l a c k i n g i n some c o p i e s . " The N o t e s , t h e n , d i d n o t appear u n t i l a p p r o x i m a t e l y two y e a r s a f t e r most o f t h e p o e t r y i n the P o s i e s had appeared i n t h e f i r s t e d i t i o n , under t h e t i t l e , A Hundreth s u n d r i e Flowres  bounde vp i n one s m a l l P o e s i e : G a t h e r e d p a r t e l y (by t r a n s l a t i o n ) i n the f y n e o u t l a n d i s h G a r d i n s o f E u r i p i d e s , O v i d , P e t r a r k e , A r i o s t o , and - 69 -70 o t h e r s : and p a r t l y by i n u e n t i o n , o u t o f our owne f r u i t e f u l 1 O r c h a r d e s  i n Englande: Y e l d i n g s u n d r i e sweete s a u o u r s o f T r a g i c a l , C o m i c a l , and  Moral 1 D i s c o u r s e s , bothe p l e a s a u n t and p r o f i t a b l e t o t h e wel1 s m e l l y n g  noses o f l e a r n e d Readers (1573) -- which has been e d i t e d by C. T. P r o u t y under t h e t i t l e George G a s c o i g n e ' s A Hundreth S u n d r i e F l o w r e s , as V o l . XVII, No. 2 o f The U n i v e r s i t y o f M i s s o u r i S t u d i e s ( C o l u m b i a : U n i v e r s i t y o f M i s s o u r i , 1942). Even t h e n , the Notes might have been appended a t the l a s t m inute. 3 George G a s c o i g n e , The P o s i e s , ed. John W. C u n l i f f e (Cambridge: U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1907), p. 17. A l l q u o t a t i o n s from G a s c o i g n e w i l l be from t h i s e d i t i o n u n l e s s o t h e r w i s e n o t e d , and no f u r t h e r c i t a t i o n s w i l l be g i v e n ( e x c e p t f o r page o r l i n e r e f e r e n c e s ) . 71 C h a p t e r I 1 R u b e l , P o e t i c D i c t i o n i n the E n g l i s h R e n a i s s a n c e from S k e l t o n  through S p e n s e r (New York: Modern Language A s s o c i a t i o n o f A m e r i c a , 1941), p. 107. Rubel does, however, admit t h a t G a s c o i g n e f o l l o w s two o f h i s p r i n c i p l e s (see pp. 192, 231n). •p Van Dam, Wi11iam S h a k e s p e a r e : Prosody and T e x t : An E s s a y i n  C r i t i c i s m , B e i n g an I n t r o d u c t i o n t o a B e t t e r E d i t i n g and a_ more adequate  a p p r e c i a t i o n o f the works o f t h e E l i z a b e t h a n p o e t s , ed. C. S t o f f e l (London: W i l l i a m s & N o r g a t e , 1900), p. 253. Van Dam does, however, examine one work -- the S t e e l G l a s s -- i n " t h e o r e t i c a l " terms, b u t d e a l s w i t h i t o n l y g e n e r a l l y , o n l y p r o s o d i c a l l y (and t h a t g e n e r a l l y ) , and i n i s o l a t i o n . Smart, " E n g l i s h Non-Dramatic Blank V e r s e i n t h e 16. C e n t u r y , " A n g l i a , 61 ( 1 9 3 7 ) , 384-86. 4 S a i n t s b u r y , A H i s t o r y o f E n g l i s h Prosody from t h e T w e l f t h C e n t u r y to the P r e s e n t Day (1906-10; r p t . New York: R u s s e l l & R u s s e l l , 1961), I I , 191. 5 S a i n t s b u r y , H i s t o r y o f E n g l i s h P r o s o d y , p. 195. 6 S a i n t s b u r y , A H i s t o r y o f C r i t i c i s m and L i t e r a r y T a s t e i n Europe from the E a r l i e s t T e x t s to the P r e s e n t day (1900-06; r p t . London: W i l l i a m Blackwood, 1949), I I , 164. S a i n t s b u r y w r i t e s : The c h i e f p o i n t s about t h i s r e a l l y c a p i t a l b o o k l e t a r e as f o l l o w s : - G a s c o i g n e ' s r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e i m p o r t a n c e 72 o f o v e r h a u l i n g E n g l i s h Prosody; h i s good sense on the m a t t e r o f the c a e s u r a , and o f . . . the p r i n c i p l e s o f e q u i v a l e n c e d s c a n s i o n ; h i s acknowledgment, w i t h r e g r e t , o f the impoverishment w h i c h , i n the s t e r i l i t y o f t h e m i d - s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y b e f o r e S p e n s e r , was a f a c t , as r e s u l t i n g from the Tyranny o f t h e iamb; t h e shrewdness o f h i s g e n e r a l remarks, and, l a s t but n o t l e a s t , h i s e n t i r e s i l e n c e about t h e new v e r s i f y i n g , t he ' D r a n t i n g o f V e r s e s . 1 7 Thompson, The Founding o f E n g l i s h Metre (London: R o u t l e d g e & Kegan P a u l , 1961), p. 69. 8 M c C l u r e , e d . , S i x t e e n t h - C e n t u r y E n g l i s h P o e t r y (New York: Harper & B r o t h e r s , 1954), p. 137. 9 M c C l u r e , p. 137. 10 P r o u t y , George G a s c o i g n e : E l i z a b e t h a n C o u r t i e r , S o l d i e r , and  Poet (New York: Benjamin Blom, 1942), pp. 120-22 and 210-11. 1 1 Cohen, The B a l l a d e (New York: Columbia U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1915), pp. 294-95. 12 S c h e l l i n g , The L i f e and W r i t i n g s o f George G a s c o i g n e w i t h t h r e e  poems h e r e t o f o r e n o t r e p r i n t e d , P u b l i c a t i o n s o f t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f P e n n s y l v a n i a : S e r i e s i n P h i l o l o g y , L i t e r a t u r e , and A r c h a e o l o g y , V o l . I I , No. 4 ( B o s t o n : G i n n , 1893), p. 29. 1 3 S c h e l l i n g , p. 30. 1 4 S c h e l l i n g a c t u a l l y c r i t i c i z e s G a s c o i g n e f o r f o l l o w i n g h i s own a d v i c e about making s t a n z a i c d i v i s i o n s p a r a l l e l d i v i s i o n s o f t h o u g h t , and a t once commends and c r i t i c i z e s G a s c o i g n e f o r e m p l o y i n g a l l i t e r a t i o n . 73 1 Johnson, George G a s c o i g n e , Twayne's E n g l i s h A u t h o r s S e r i e s , No. 133 (New York: Twayne, 1972), C h a p t e r V. 1 6 Johnson, pp. 38-43. 1 7 Johnson, pp. 20 and 26. 1 8 Johnson, p. 74. 74 C h a p t e r II 1 Murphy, R h e t o r i c i n t h e M i d d l e Ages: A H i s t o r y o f R h e t o r i c a l  T h e o r y from S a i n t A u g u s t i n e t o the R e n a i s s a n c e ( B e r k e l e y : U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s , 1974), pp. 3-193 and 357-374. I am i n d e b t e d — e x c e p t where o t h e r w i s e n o t e d -- t o Murphy's s t u d y i n my d i s c u s s i o n a t t h i s p o i n t o f t h e h i s t o r i c a l development o f the a r t s o f r h e t o r i c and grammar. Murphy, p. 42. T h i s c i t a t i o n a l s o a p p l i e s t o the n e x t q u o t a t i o n . 3 Murphy, see e s p . pp. 43-88, 130-131, 135, 167, 173, 177, and 180. Murphy, i n t h e s e pages, demonstrates t h a t the p r i m a r y t e x t s i n t h i s grammatical t r a n s m i s s i o n a r e M a r t i a n u s C a p e ! l a ' s De n u p t i i s  P h i l o l o g i a e e t M e r c u r i i , F l a v i u s C a s s i o d o r u s S e n a t o r ' s I n s t i t u t i o n e s  d i v i n a r u m e t s a e c u l a r i u m l i t t e r a r u m , P r i s c i a n ' s I n s t i t u t i o n u m grammaticae (and h i s De m e t r i s f a b u l a r u m T e r e n t i i and P a r t i t i o n e s duodecim versum  A e n e i d e s p r i n c i p a l i u r n ) , I s i d o r e o f S e v i l l e ' s O r i g i n e s ( o r E t y m o l o g i a e ) , Bede's L i b e r de s chematibus e t t r o p i s (and h i s De a r t e m e t r i c a ) , Rabanus Maurus' De i n s t i t u t i o n e c l e r i c o r u m , Matthew o f Vendome's A r s  v e r s i f i c a t o r i a , G e o f f r e y o f V i n s a u f ' s P o e t r i a nova and Documentum de  modo e t a r t e d i c t a n d i e t v e r s i f i c a n d i , Gervase o f M e l k l e y ' s A r s  v e r s i f i c a r i a , John o f G a r l a n d ' s De a r t e p r o s a y c a , m e t r i c a , e t r i t h m i c a , and E b e r h a r d the German's L a b o r i n t u s . 4 Murphy, p. 130. 75 See S p i n g a r n ' s t r e a t m e n t o f R e n a i s s a n c e c r i t i c s i n F r a n c e i n A H i s t o r y o f L i t e r a r y C r i t i c i s m i n the R e n a i s s a n c e (New York: Columbia U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1924), passim. '• i S p i n g a r n , p. 256. 7 S m i t h , e d . , E l i z a b e t h a n C r i t i c a l E s s a y s (London: Humphrey M i l f o r d , 1904), I , l x x i v - l x x v . 8 C l a r k , R h e t o r i c and P o e t r y i n the R e n a i s s a n c e : A Study o f  R h e t o r i c a l Terms i n E n g l i s h R e n a i s s a n c e L i t e r a r y C r i t i c i s m (New York: Columbia U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1922), p. 67. 9 I f i t i s o b j e c t e d t h a t R i c h a r d W i l l s ' De r e p o e t i c a -- which has been e d i t e d by A. D. S. Fowler as t h e s e v e n t e e n t h volume i n the L u t t r e l l R e p r i n t s s e r i e s ( O x f o r d : B a s i l B l a c k w e l l , 1958), and which Smith f i r s t s u g g e s t e d (p. 46, n. 1) be j u x t a p o s e d w i t h G a s c o i g n e ' s work, a l t h o u g h n o t n e c e s s a r i l y be seen as an i n f l u e n c e upon i t -- c o n t a i n s A r i s t o t e l i a n e l e m e n t s , I would r e s p o n d w i t h t h r e e o b s e r v a t i o n s . F i r s t o f a l l , t h e t e x t o f t h a t work was n o t p r i n t e d when i t c o u l d have had any l i k e l y i n f l u e n c e on G a s c o i g n e . Second, the b a s i n g o f t h a t work on i d e a s c o n t a i n e d i n P l a t o ' s Ion ( s e e , f o r example, W i l l s ' s e c t i o n A causa  e f f e c t r i c e , pp. 72-77) makes i t d i f f e r e n t i n type from G a s c o i g n e ' s work, which n e v e r s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e poet must a c h i e v e a s t a t e o f " f r e n z y " t h a t p e r m i t s him t o d i s p e n s e w i t h r u l e s o f a r t as P l a t o ' s t h e s i s s u g g e s t s . G a s c o i g n e ' s work i s based on the i d e a t h a t the p o e t must f o l l o w some r u l e s o f a r t , i f n o t n e c e s s a r i l y h i s own r u l e s . For t h i s r e a s o n , I t h i n k i t u n l i k e l y t h a t the A r i s t o t e l i a n i s m o f the De r e p o e t i c a o f 76 W i l l s would have been an i n f l u e n c e on G a s c o i g n e , s i n c e I doubt t h a t the work as a whole was an i n f l u e n c e . F i n a l l y , i f i t s h o u l d be e s t a b l i s h e d t h a t the work were i n f l u e n t i a l , my t h e s i s t h a t H o r a t i a n i d e a s were o f ; the g r e a t e s t prominence i n G a s c o i g n e ' s a e s t h e t i c m i l i e u would n o n e t h e l e s s n o t be n u l l i f i e d , f o r t h r e e r e a s o n s . F i r s t o f a l l , what A r i s t o t e l i a n i d e a s t h e r e a r e i n W i l l s ( t h e s e a r e most s u c c i n c t l y e x p r e s s e d on pp. 52-57) may be r e f e r r e d , I would s u g g e s t , t o th e s e two passages i n A r i s t o t l e , which I quote from pp. 4 and 34, r e s p e c t i v e l y , o f th e second e d i t i o n o f W. Ha m i l t o n F y f e ' s e d i t i o n o f A r i s t o t l e ' s P o e t i c s i n A r i s t o t l e :  The P o e t i c s . " L o n g i n u s " : On the S u b l i m e . D e m e t r i u s : On S t y l e , i n the Loeb C l a s s i c a l L i b r a r y s e r i e s (1932; r p t . London: W i l l i a m Heinemann, 1965): Wort OLIO, 6\ K * ! n M S T ^ c V c F / c U ' Tf&t^tTLS e re <5c Kw/tcjj'cUei kotX n 4 i V X f e L V r n KMI Kieoi/OLirviKAi, wSfoo. and 0 Wo'wiS {(fvcfloiS i<r-cuv n ,weY faf On pp. 5 and 35, r e s p e c t i v e l y , F y f e t r a n s l a t e s t h e s e passages t h u s : E p i c p o e t r y , t h e n , and the p o e t r y o f t r a g i c drama, and, moreover, comedy and d i t h y r a m b i c p o e t r y , and most f l u t e -p l a y i n g and h a r p - p l a y i n g , t h e s e , s p e a k i n g g e n e r a l l y , may a l l be s a i d t o be " r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s o f l i f e . " and For t h i s r e a s o n p o e t r y i s something more s c i e n t i f i c and s e r i o u s than h i s t o r y , because p o e t r y tends t o g i v e g e n e r a l t r u t h s w h i l e h i s t o r y g i v e s p a r t i c u l a r f a c t s . 77 These two passages a r e s i m i l a r t o Horace's s t a t e m e n t -- on p. 476 (11. 309-11) o f H. Rushton F a i r c l o u g h ' s e d i t i o n o f t h e A r s P o e t i c a ( f r o m which a l l q u o t a t i o n s w i l l be taken w i t h o u t f u r t h e r c i t a t i o n , e x c e p t f o r l i n e r e f e r e n c e s ) under t he t i t l e S a t i r e s , E p i s t l e s , and A r s P o e t i c a , i n the Loeb C l a s s i c a l L i b r a r y s e r i e s (London: W i l l i a m Heinemann, 1926) -- t h a t S c r i b e n d i r e c t e s a p e r e e s t e t p r i n c i p i u m e t f o n s . rem t i b i S o c r a t i c a e p o t e r u n t o s t e n d e r e c h a r t a e , verbaque p r o v i s a m rem non i n v i t a s e q u e n t u r . F a i r c l o u g h t r a n s l a t e s t h i s passage as f o l l o w s : Of good w r i t i n g t h e s o u r c e and f o u n t i s wisdom. Your m a t t e r t h e S o c r a t i c pages can s e t f o r t h , and when m a t t e r i s i n hand words w i l l n o t be l o a t h t o f o l l o w . A c c o r d i n g l y , I t h i n k i t r e a s o n a b l e t o c o n c l u d e t h a t t h e p r e s e n c e o f numerous H o r a t i a n p a r a l l e l s and l a c k o f f r e q u e n t A r i s t o t e l i a n ones i n the N o t e s , and the much g r e a t e r i n f l u e n c e o f Horace's than o f A r i s t o t l e ' s p o e t i c t h e o r y up t o t h e time o f G a s c o i g n e ' s w r i t i n g t h e Notes , q u a l i f i e s t e r m i n g t h e s e i d e a s " H o r a t i a n , " whether o r n o t they were d i r e c t l y d e r i v e d from Horace's own e x p r e s s i o n o f them. The second r e a s o n f o r my t h i n k i n g t h a t my t h e s i s c o n c e r n i n g Horace's i n f l u e n c e would n o t be n u l l i f i e d s h o u l d t h e W i l l s t e x t e v e r be de m o n s t r a t e d an i n d i s p u t a b l e s o u r c e f o r G a s c o i g n e ' s work, i s t h a t t h e De r e p o e t i c a i t s e l f c o n t a i n s e x p l i c i t r e f e r e n c e t o Horace, as i n the passage, "Quid quod a l i o r u m e t i a m vatum o r a c u l a v e r s i b u s a e d i t a s u n t , quod L a c t a t i u s a i t , & H o r a t i u s i n a r t e P o e t . " ( p . 66) -- which Fowler t r a n s l a t e s t h u s : In a d d i t i o n , t h e o r a c l e s o f o t h e r s e e r s a l s o were g i v e n o u t i n v e r s e , as L a c t a n t i u s s a y s , and Horace i n h i s A r t o f P o e t r y F i n a l l y , my s t r o n g e s t r e a s o n f o r t h i n k i n g t h a t Horace i s i n f a c t t h e 78 p r i m a r y h i s t o r i c a l i n f l u e n c e on G a s c o i g n e ' s work i s , as s u g g e s t e d , the v e r y e v i d e n c e o f t h e H o r a t i a n p a r a l l e l s t h e m s e l v e s i n t h e t e x t o f G a s c o i g n e ' s Notes ( c o u p l e d t o the f a c t t h a t I do n o t see i n the work a c o r r e s p o n d i n g s e t o f p a r a l l e l s t o A r i s t o t l e ) . ^ c. S. L e w i s , E n g l i s h L i t e r a t u r e i n t h e S i x t e e n t h C e n t u r y  E x c l u d i n g Drama, The O x f o r d H i s t o r y o f E n g l i s h L i t e r a t u r e , V o l . I l l , e d. F. P. W i l s o n and Bonamy Dobree ( O x f o r d : C l a r e n d o n P r e s s , 1954), ] p. 271. 1 1 Harvey, i n E l i z a b e t h a n C r i t i c a l E s s a y s , ed. G. G r e g o r y S m i t h , I, 360. I quote Harvey's m a r g i n a l n o t a t i o n s from t h i s e d i t i o n r a t h e r than from G. C. Moore Smith's e d i t i o n , G a b r i e l Harvey's M a r g i n a l i a , because, a f t e r c a r e f u l c o l l a t i o n o f the two e d i t i o n s , I found t h a t a l l the n o t e s I w i s h e d t o quote from the M a r g i n a ! i a e d i t i o n were t o be found i n the E l i z a b e t h a n C r i t i c a l E s s a y s e d i t i o n , whereas some no t e s which I w i s h e d t o quote from the l a t t e r ( n o t e s by "N." -- which appear on the Harvey copy, as G. Gregory Smith d i s c u s s e s on p. 358 -- and n o t e s by G. Gregory Smith h i m s e l f ) were n o t t o be found i n the f o r m e r . 1 2 G a b r i e l Harvey, i n S m i t h , p. 359. 1 3 "N.," i n S m i t h , p. 360. 1 4 S i r P h i l i p S i d n e y , M i s c e l l a n e o u s P r o s e o f S i r P h i l i p S i d n e y , ed- K a t h e r i n e Duncan-Jones and Jan Van D o r s t e n ( O x f o r d : C l a r e n d o n P r e s s , 1973), p. 80. ^ Ing, E l i z a b e t h a n L y r i c s : A Study i n the Development o f E n g l i s h 79 Metres and T h e i r R e l a t i o n t o P o e t i c E f f e c t (London: C h a t t o & Windus, 1951), p. 66. 1 6 Ing, p. 67. 1 7 Ing, p. 67. 1 8 Ing, p. 70. 1 Q Thompson, p. 72. Thompson, p. 72. 21 Thompson, p. 72. 22 For example, see Thompson, p. 69. p-3 S a i n t s b u r y , H i s t o r y o f C r i t i c i s m and L i t e r a r y T a s t e , I I , 163. S a i n t s b u r y , H i s t o r y o f C r i t i c i s m and L i t e r a r y T a s t e , I I , 163. 25 j . w. H. A t k i n s , E n g l i s h L i t e r a r y C r i t i c i s m : The Renascence (London: Methuen, 1947), p. 142. 26 Ing, p. 33. 2 7 Van Dam, p. 253. 28 Ing, p. 37. 2 9 Evans, E n g l i s h P o e t r y i n t h e S i x t e e n t h C e n t u r y (London: H u t c h i n s o n , 1967), p. 41. 3 0 Ing, p. 36n. 80 Ing, p. 37. 32 I t s h o u l d be noted t h a t t h i s a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e r u l e Ne q u i d  n i m i s i s r e a l l y an a p p l i c a t i o n o f Ne_ q u i d n i m i s t o Ne_ q u i d n i m i s ! The r e a s o n f o r t h i s i s t h a t " T h i s p o e t i c a l l l i c e n c e " i s a r e f e r e n c e by G a s c o i g n e to h i s s t a t e m e n t , i n Note 11, t h a t h i s r u l e may be q u a l i f i e d "per l i c e n t i a m P o e t icam;" "per l i c e n t i a m P o e t i c a m, " hence, was o r i g i n a l l y i n t r o d u c e d as an a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e Ne q u i d n i m i s r u l e ! T h i s i s s i m i l a r t o Horace's remark i n 11. 368-69 o f the Ars P o e t i c a t h a t " c e r t i s medium  e t t o l e r a b i l e rebus r e c t e c o n c e d i " ( i . e . , as F a i r c l o u g h t r a n s l a t e s i t , " o n l y some t h i n g s r i g h t l y brook t h e medium and t h e b e a r a b l e " ) . I t s h o u l d a l s o be n o t e d t h a t G a s c o i g n e c o n c l u d e s Note 12 w i t h the f o l l o w i n g examples o f " p o e t i c a l 1 l i c e n c e " : "ydone f o r done, adowne f o r downe, orecome f o r overcome, tane f o r t a k e n , power f o r powre, heaven f o r heavn, thewes f o r good p a r t e s o r good q u a l i t i e s , and a numbre o f o t h e r whiche were but t e d i o u s and n e e d e l e s s e t o r e h e a r s e " (p. 470). 3 3 T h i s c o n n e c t i n g o f t h e n o t e s g e t s G a s c o i g n e i n t o a b i t o f t r o u b l e t h a t he e v i d e n t l y was n o t aware o f , f o r , i n Note 4, he a l s o commends Chaucer f o r u s i n g " t h e same l i b e r t i e i n f e e t e and measures t h a t the L a t i n i s t s do use" (p. 467). T h i s c o n t r a d i c t i o n i s n o t r e a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t , however, s i n c e -- as has been seen -- h i s a n a l y s i s o f Chaucer i s e r r o n e o u s anyway, h i s a n a l y s i s o f " t h e L a t i n i s t s " i s n o t o f c e n t r a l i m p o r t a n c e , and the c o n t r a d i c t i o n i t s e l f i s o n l y i m p l i c i t and " r e t r o s p e c t i v e . " 3 4 Ing, p. 35. 81 T h i s must be the passage t h a t Ing i s t h i n k i n g o f when she speaks o f " c a e s u r a o f t h e c l a s s i c a l t y p e , which d i v i d e s a word" (p. 86) and s a y s , somewhat a m b i g u o u s l y , t h a t "Gascoigne d e s c r i b e s i t i n the t h i r t e e n t h p a r a g r a p h o f C e r t a y n e Notes o f I n s t r u c t i o n , b u t g i v e s no examples, and i s , p r o b a b l y , n o t t a k i n g i t v e r y s e r i o u s l y ; he does n o t i n f a c t s t a t e whether t h e break i s t o o c c u r w i t h i n a word o r between words" (p. 86n). J b "Gascoigne i s o f c o u r s e o u t i n h i s etymology," w r i t e s G. Gregory S m i t h , s a y i n g , "The o l d e r F r e n c h form v i r e l i was f a l s e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h v i r e r and l a i " ( p. 361). 6 1 G a s c o i g n e ' s use o f " i m i t a t i o n " i n r e f e r e n c e t o h i s " v e r s e s " i s c e r t a i n l y n o teworthy. 6 i i F a i r c l o u g h t r a n s l a t e s t h e s e passages from Horace, as f o l l o w s : Note 1: i ) Near t h e A e m i l i a n S c h o o l , a t the bottom o f the row, t h e r e i s a c r a f t s m a n who i n b r o n z e w i l l mould n a i l s and i m i t a t e waving l o c k s , but i s unhappy i n the t o t a l r e s u l t , because he c a n n o t r e p r e s e n t a whole f i g u r e . Now i f I wanted t o w r i t e something, I s h o u l d no more wish t o be l i k e him, than t o l i v e w i t h my nose t u r n e d askew, though admired f o r my b l a c k eyes and b l a c k h a i r , i i ) Not enough i s i t f o r poems to have b e a u t y : they must have charm, and l e a d the h e a r e r ' s s o u l where t h e y w i l l . As men's f a c e s s m i l e on t h o s e who s m i l e , so t h e y respond t o t h o s e who weep. I f you would have me weep, you must f i r s t f e e l g r i e f y o u r s e l f : t h e n , 0 T e l e p h u s o r P e l e u s , w i l l y o u r m i s f o r t u n e s h u r t me: i f t h e words you u t t e r a r e i l l s u i t e d , I s h a l l l augh o r f a l l a s l e e p . Sad tones b e f i t t h e f a c e o f sorrow; b l u s t e r i n g a c c e n t s t h a t o f anger; j e s t s become t h e merry, solemn words the g r a v e . For Nature f i r s t shapes us w i t h i n t o meet e v e r y change o f f o r t u n e : she b r i n g s j o y o r i m p e l s to a n g e r , o r bows us t o the ground and t o r t u r e s us under a l o a d o f g r i e f ; t h e n , w i t h t h e tongue f o r i n t e r p r e t e r , she p r o c a l i m s t h e emotions o f t h e s o u l . I f t h e s p e a k e r ' s words sound d i s c o r d a n t w i t h h i s f o r t u n e s , the Romans, 82 i n boxes and p i t a l i k e , w i l l r a i s e a l o u d guffaw. V a s t d i f f e r e n c e w i l l i t make, whether a god be s p e a k i n g o r a h e r o , a r i p e o l d man o r one s t i l l i n t h e f l o w e r and f e r v o u r o f y o u t h , a dame o f rank o r a b u s t l i n g n u r s e , a roaming t r a d e r o r t h e t i l l e r o f a v e r d a n t f i e l d , a C o l c h i a n o r an A s s y r i a n , one b r e d a t Thebes o r a t A r g o s . i i i ) E i t h e r f o l l o w t r a d i t i o n o r i n v e n t what i s s e l f -c o n s i s t e n t . I f h a p l y , when you w r i t e , you b r i n g back to the s t a g e t h e h o n o u r i n g o f A c h i l l e s , l e t him be i m p a t i e n t , p a s s i o n a t e , r u t h l e s s , f i e r c e ; l e t him c l a i m t h a t laws a r e n o t f o r him, l e t him e v e r make appeal to the sword. L e t Medea be f i e r c e and u n y i e l d i n g , Ino t e a r f u l , I x i o n f o r s w o r n , Io a wanderer, O r e s t e s s o r r o w f u l . I f i t i s an u n t r i e d theme you e n t r u s t t o the s t a g e , and i f you b o l d l y f a s h i o n a f r e s h c h a r a c t e r , have i t kept t o t h e end even as i t came f o r t h a t the f i r s t , and have i t s e l f - c o n s i s t e n t . i v ) Now h e a r what I , and w i t h me t h e p u b l i c , e x p e c t . I f you want an a p p r o v i n g h e a r e r , one who w a i t s f o r the c u r t a i n , and w i l l s t a y i n h i s s e a t t i l l the s i n g e r c r i e s "Give y o u r a p p l a u s e , " * y o u must n o t e t h e manners o f each age, and g i v e a b e f i t t i n g tone t o s h i f t i n g n a t u r e s and t h e i r y e a r s , v) I t s h o u l d s i d e w i t h t h e good and g i v e f r i e n d l y c o u n s e l ; sway the angry and c h e r i s h t h e r i g h t e o u s . I t s h o u l d p r a i s e t h e f a r e o f a modest b o a r d , p r a i s e wholesome j u s t i c e , law, and peace w i t h h e r open g a t e s ; s h o u l d keep s e c r e t s , and pray and beseech t h e gods t h a t f o r t u n e may r e t u r n t o the unhappy, and d e p a r t from t h e p r oud. v i ) My aim s h a l l be p o e t r y , so moulded from the f a m i l i a r t h a t anybody may hope f o r the same s u c c e s s , may sweat much and y e t t o i l i n v a i n when a t t e m p t i n g t h e same: such i s t h e power o f o r d e r and c o n n e x i o n , such t h e beauty t h a t may crown the commonplace, v i i ) Of good w r i t i n g the s o u r c e and f o u n t i s wisdom. Your m a t t e r the S o c r a t i c pages can s e t f o r t h , and when m a t t e r i s i n hand words w i l l n o t be l o a t h t o f o l l o w , v i i i ) I would a d v i s e one who has l e a r n e d t h e i m i t a t i v e a r t to l o o k t o l i f e and manners f o r a model, and draw from thence l i v i n g words. A t times a p l a y marked by a t t r a c t i v e passages and c h a r a c t e r s f i t l y s k e t c h e d , though l a c k i n g i n charm, though w i t h o u t f o r c e and a r t , g i v e s t h e p e o p l e more d e l i g h t and h o l d s them b e t t e r than v e r s e s v o i d o f t h o u g h t , and sonorous t r i f l e s . i x ) To the Greeks the Muse gave n a t i v e w i t , to t h e Greeks she gave speech i n w e l l - r o u n d e d p h r a s e ; they c r a v e d naught but g l o r y . Our Romans, by many a l o n g sum, l e a r n i n c h i l d h o o d t o d i v i d e the a £ i n t o a hundred p a r t s , x) When once t h i s c a n k e r , t h i s l u s t o f p e t t y g a i n has s t a i n e d the s o u l , can we hope f o r poems to be f a s h i o n e d , worthy to be smeared w i t h c e d a r - o i l , and k e p t i n p o l i s h e d c y p r e s s ? 83 Poets aim e i t h e r t o b e n e f i t , o r t o amuse, o r t o u t t e r words a t once both p l e a s i n g and h e l p f u l t o l i f e . Whenever you i n s t r u c t , be b r i e f , so t h a t what i s q u i c k l y s a i d t h e mind may r e a d i l y g r a s p and f a i t h f u l l y h o l d : e v e r y word i n e x c e s s f l o w s away from t h e f u l l mind. F i c t i o n s meant to p l e a s e s h o u l d be c l o s e t o t h e r e a l , so t h a t y o u r p l a y must n o t ask f o r b e l i e f i n a n y t h i n g i t c h o o s e s , n o r from the O g r e s s ' s b e l l y , a f t e r d i n n e r , draw f o r t h a l i v i n g c h i l d , x i ) The c e n t u r i e s o f t h e e l d e r s chase from t h e s t a g e what i s p r o f i t l e s s ; t he proud Ramnes d i s d a i n poems d e v o i d o f charms. He has won e v e r y v o t e who has b l e n d e d p r o f i t and p l e a s u r e , a t once d e l i g h t i n g and i n s t r u c t i n g t h e r e a d e r . x i i ) W h ile men s t i l l roamed t h e woods, Orpheus, the h o l y p r o p h e t o f t h e gods, made them s h r i n k from b l o o d s h e d and b r u t a l l i v i n g ; hence t h e f a b l e t h a t he tamed t i g e r s and r a v e n i n g l i o n s ; hence too t h e f a b l e t h a t Amphion, b u i l d e r o f Thebes's c i t a d e l , moved s t o n e s by t h e sound o f h i s l y r e , and l e d them w h i t h e r he would be h i s s u p p l i -c a t i n g s p e l l . In days o f y o r e , t h i s was wisdom, to draw a l i n e between p u b l i c and p r i v a t e r i g h t s , between t h i n g s s a c r e d and t h i n g s common, to check v a g r a n t u n i o n , to g i v e r u l e s f o r wedded l i f e , to b u i l d towns, and grave laws on t a b l e s o f wood; and so honour and fame f e l l t o bards and t h e i r s o n gs, as d i v i n e . A f t e r t h e s e Homer won h i s renown, and T y r t a e u s w i t h h i s v e r s e s f i r e d manly h e a r t s f o r b a t t l e s o f Mars. In song o r a c l e s were g i v e n , and the way o f l i f e was shown; t h e f a v o u r o f k i n g s was s o u g h t i n P i e r i a n s t r a i n s , and m i r t h was f o u n d t o c l o s e t o i l ' s l o n g s p e l l . So you need n o t b l u s h f o r t h e Muse s k i l l e d i n the l y r e , and f o r A p o l l o , god o f song. x i i i ) O f t e n i t i s asked whether a p r a i s e w o r t h y poem be due t o Nature o r t o a r t . For my p a r t , I do n o t see o f what a v a i l i s e i t h e r s t u d y , when n o t e n r i c h e d by N a t u r e ' s v e i n , o r n a t i v e w i t , i f u n t r a i n e d ; so t r u l y does each c l a i m the o t h e r ' s a i d , and make w i t h i t a f r i e n d l y l e a g u e . Note 2: i ) In s h o r t , be the work what you w i l l , l e t i t a t l e a s t be s i m p l e and u n i f o r m . Most o f the p o e t s , 0 f a t h e r and y e sons worthy o f t h e f a t h e r , d e c e i v e o u r s e l v e s by t h e semblance o f t r u t h . S t r i v i n g t o be b r i e f , I become o b s c u r e . A i m i n g a t smoothness, I f a i l i n f o r c e and f i r e . One p r o m i s i n g g r a n d e u r , i s b o m b a s t i c ; a n o t h e r , o v e r - c a u t i o u s and f e a r f u l o f t h e g a l e , c r e e p s a l o n g the ground. The man who t r i e s to v a r y a s i n g l e s u b j e c t i n monstrous f a s h i o n , i s l i k e a p a i n t e r a d d i n g a d o l p h i n t o the woods, a boar t o the waves. Shunning a f a u l t may l e a d t o e r r o r , i f t h e r e be l a c k o f a r t . 84 Note 10: i i ) i i i ) i ) i i ) i i i ) i v ) v) As i n 1 ( i i i ) . and so s k i l f u l l y does he i n v e n t , so c l o s e l y does he b l e n d f a c t s and f i c t i o n , t h a t t h e m i d d l e i s n o t d i s c o r d a n t w i t h the b e g i n n i n g , n o r the end w i t h t h e m i d d l e . Note 3: Note 8: As As As As As i n i n i n i n i n ( i i ) . ( i v ) . ( v i ) . ( v i i i ) , ( x i ) . i ) As i n 2 ( i ) . (a) : i ) L e t each s t y l e keep the becoming p l a c e a l l o t t e d i t . Y e t a t times even Comedy r a i s e s h e r v o i c e , and and angry Chremes storms i n s w e l l i n g t o n e s ; s o , t o o , i n Tragedy T e l e p h u s and P e l e u s o f t e n g r i e v e i n the language o f p r o s e , when, i n p o v e r t y and e x i l e , e i t h e r hero throws a s i d e h i s bombast and B r o b d i n g -n a g i a n words, s h o u l d he want h i s lament t o to u c h the s p e c t a t o r ' s h e a r t , i i ) he w i l l c u t away p r e t e n t i o u s ornament; he w i l l f o r c e you t o f l o o d t h e o b s c u r e w i t h l i g h t , w i l l c o n v i c t t h e d o u b t f u l p h r a s e , w i l l mark what s h o u l d be changed, w i l l prove an A r i s t a r c h u s . (b) : i ) As i n 2 ( i ) . i i ) As i n 8a ( i ) . i i i ) Y e t f a u l t s t h e r e a r e which we can g l a d l y "pardon; f o r t h e s t r i n g does n o t always y i e l d the sound which hand and h e a r t i n t e n d , b u t when you c a l l f o r a f l a t o f t e n r e t u r n s you a s h a r p ; nor w i l l t h e bow always h i t whatever mark i t t h r e a t e n s . But when the b e a u t i e s i n a poem a r e more i n number, I s h a l l n o t take o f f e n c e a t a few b l o t s which a c a r e l e s s hand has l e t d r o p , o r human f r a i l t y has f a i l e d t o a v e r t . What, t h e n , i s t h e t r u t h ? As a c o p y i n g c l e r k i s w i t h o u t excuse i f , however much warned, he always makes the same m i s t a k e , and a h a r p e r i s l a u g h e d a t who always b l u n d e r s on t h e same s t r i n g : so t he poet who o f t e n d e f a u l t s , becomes, m e t h i n k s , a n o t h e r C h o e r i l u s , whose one o r two good l i n e s cause l a u g h t e r and s u r p r i s e ; and y e t I a l s o f e e l a g g r i e v e d , whenever good Homer "nods," b u t when a work i s l o n g , a drowsy mood may w e l l c r e e p o v e r i t . i v ) 0 you e l d e r y o u t h , though wi s e y o u r s e l f and t r a i n e d t o r i g h t judgement by a f a t h e r ' s v o i c e , take t o h e a r t and remember t h i s s a y i n g , t h a t o n l y some t h i n g s r i g h t l y brook t h e medium and t h e b e a r a b l e . A l a w y e r and p l e a d e r o f m i d d l i n g rank f a l l s s h o r t o f the m e r i t o f e l o q u e n t M e s s a l l a , and knows n o t 85 as much as A u l u s C a s c e l l i u s , y e t he has a v a l u e . But t h a t p o e t s be o f m i d d l i n g r a n k , n e i t h e r men nor gods n o r b o o k s e l l e r s e v e r b r o o k e d . As a t p l e a s a n t banquets an o r c h e s t r a o u t o f t u n e , an unguent t h a t i s t h i c k , and poppy-seeds s e r v e d w i t h S a r d i n i a n honey, g i v e o f f e n c e , because t h e f e a s t m i ght have gone on w i t h o u t them: so a poem, whose b i r t h and c r e a t i o n a r e f o r t h e s o u l ' s d e l i g h t , i f i n aught i t f a l l s s h o r t o f t h e t o p , s i n k s t o the bottom. Note 12: i ) 11.) i i i ) As i n 2 ( i ) . As i n 8a ( i ) . As i n 8b ( i i i ) . Note 9: i ) As i n 2 ( i ) . i i ) a l l m o r t a l t h i n g s s h a l l p e r i s h , much l e s s s h a l l t h e g l o r y and glamour o f speech endure and l i v e . Many terms t h a t have f a l l e n o u t o f use s h a l l be born a g a i n , and t h o s e s h a l l f a l l t h a t a r e now i n r e p u t e , i f Usage so w i l l i t , i n whose hands l i e s t h e judgement, t he r i g h t and t h e r u l e o f speech, i i i ) As i n 1 ( v i ) . i v ) As i n 8a ( i i ) . Note 11: i ) As i n 9 ( i i ) . i i ) As i n 1 ( v i ) . Note 15: ( a ) : i ) As i n 2 ( i ) . i i ) As i n 1 ( x ) . i i i ) As i n 8b ( i i i ) . ( b ) : i ) As i n 2 ( i ) . Notes 14 and 16: i ) As i n 2 ( i ) . i i ) V e r s e s yoked u n e q u a l l y f i r s t embraced l a m e n t a t i o n , l a t e r a l s o the s e n t i m e n t o f g r a n t e d p r a y e r . . . . i i i ) As i n 8a ( i ) . i v ) As i n 1 ( i i ) . ' 86 C h a p t e r I I I 1 As has been s e e n , G a s c o i g n e ' s d e s c r i p t i o n o f an e i g h t h t y p e , " r y d i n g r i m e , " i s n o t c l e a r even to h i m s e l f , f o r i t depends on a b e l i e f t h a t t h i s form p e r m i t s " l i b e r t i e i n f e e t e and measures." As t h i s t h e s i s i s c o n c e r n e d w i t h e x a m i n i n g G a s c o i g n e ' s p o e t r y i n terms o f what G a s c o i g n e b e l i e v e d , t he i n t r o d u c t i o n o f what we now b e l i e v e about Chaucer's v e r s e i s i r r e l e v a n t t o t h i s s t u d y . G a s c o i g n e b e l i e v e d " r y d i n g r i m e " t o be an i r r e g u l a r f orm; a c c o r d i n g l y , h i s c o n c e p t o f i t i s t o o ambiguous t o be used i n t e r p r e t a t i v e l y , o r t o be d e r i v e d from a poem o f h i s . I s h a l l n o t , t h e r e f o r e , d i s c u s s " r y d i n g rime" i n t h i s c h a p t e r . 2 T h i s poem w i l l h e r e a f t e r be r e f e r r e d t o as " B o u r c h e r . " The t e x t o f i t s appears on pp. 73-74 o f t h e C u n l i f f e e d i t i o n o f The P o s i e s . 3 T h i s poem w i l l h e r e a f t e r be r e f e r r e d t o as "The L o v e r e n c o u r a g e d . " The t e x t o f i t appears on pp. 94-95 o f t h e C u n l i f f e e d i t i o n . 4 T h i s poem w i l l h e r e a f t e r be r e f e r r e d t o as " G a s c o i g n e ' s Memory No.2." The t e x t o f i t appears on pp. 63-64 o f t h e C u n l i f f e e d i t i o n . 5 T h i s poem w i l l h e r e a f t e r be r e f e r r e d t o as " G a s c o i g n e ' s Memory No.4." The t e x t o f i t appears on pp. 66-68 o f t h e C u n l i f f e e d i t i o n . 6 T h i s poem w i l l h e r e a f t e r be r e f e r r e d t o as " G a s c o i g n e ' s Memory No.3." The t e x t o f i t appears on pp. 64-66 o f the C u n l i f f e e d i t i o n . 87 T h i s poem w i l l h e r e a f t e r be r e f e r r e d t o as "De p r o f u n d i s . " The t e x t o f i t appears on pp. 59-62 o f t h e C u n l i f f e e d i t i o n . Q The t e x t o f t h i s poem appears on pp. 51-2 o f t h e C u n l i f f e e d i t i o n . Q T h i s poem w i l l h e r e a f t e r be r e f e r r e d t o as " L o v e r f o r s a k e n No.2." The t e x t o f i t appears on p. 50 o f t h e C u n l i f f e e d i t i o n . ^ These poems w i l l h e r e a f t e r be r e f e r r e d t o as " L o v e r enamored No.4" and " L o v e r enamored No.5," r e s p e c t i v e l y . The t e x t o f t h e f i r s t a p pears on p. 48, and t h a t o f t h e second appears on p. 49, o f the C u n l i f f e e d i t i o n . 1 1 The t e x t o f t h i s poem appears on pp. 38-39 o f t h e C u n l i f f e e d i t i o n . 1 2 The t e x t o f t h i s poem appears on pp. 44-45 o f t h e C u n l i f f e e d i t i o n . 1 3 T h i s poem w i l l h e r e a f t e r be r e f e r r e d t o as " G a s c o i g n e ' s Memory No.5." The t e x t o f i t appears on pp. 69-70 o f t h e C u n l i f f e e d i t i o n . 1 4 The t e x t o f t h i s poem appears on p. 37 o f t h e C u n l i f f e e d i t i o n . ^ K o k e r i t z , S h a kespeare's P r o n u n c i a t i o n (New Haven: Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1953). ^ Dobson, E n g l i s h P r o n u n c i a t i o n : 1500-1700 ( O x f o r d : C l a r e n d o n P r e s s , 1968). 1 7 The O x f o r d E n g l i s h D i c t i o n a r y , ed. James A. H. Murray, Henry B r a d l e y , W. A. C r a i g i e , C. T. Onions ( O x f o r d : C l a r e n d o n P r e s s , 1933). 88 1 8 N i s t , A S t r u c t u r a l H i s t o r y o f E n g l i s h (New York: S t . M a r t i n ' s P r e s s , 1966). | y F o r a d i s c u s s i o n o f t h i s term and an a p p l i c a t i o n o f i t t o the s e n t e n t i a e t h a t f o l l o w G a s c o i g n e ' s poems, see pp. 28-39 o f P r o u t y ' s e d i t i o n o f George G a s c o i g n e ' s A Hundreth S u n d r i e F l o w r e s . In h i s s t u d y o f G a s c o i g n e ' s use o f p o s i e s , P r o u t y c o n v i n c i n g l y d e m o n s t r a t e s t h a t they i n g e n e r a l ( u n l i k e t h e posy appended t o " B o u r c h e r " ) have an a u t o b i o g r a p h i c a l g e n e s i s and s i g n i f i c a n c e . As P r o u t y n o t e s on pp. 36-37: the v a r i o u s p o s i e s r e p r e s e n t s u c c e s s i v e p e r i o d s i n G a s c o i g n e ' s l i f e and t h e reason f o r d i s t u r b i n g t h i s o r g a n i c r e l a t i o n s h i p i n h i s r e v i s e d e d i t i o n becomes d i s c e r n a b l e . . . F i r s t o f a l l , we have our young l o v e r o f "The A d v e n t u r e s o f M a s t e r F. J . " Next we see him as t h e young c o u r t i e r ("Si f o r t u n a t u s i n f o e l i x " ) . . . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , he f a l l s s e r i o u s l y i n l o v e w i t h a l a d y who t r e a t s him s h a b b i l y ("Spreta tamen v i v u n t " ) . E i t h e r she e x c u s e s h e r s e l f o r he does, on t h e grounds t h a t she i s n o t d u p l i c i t o u s , r a t h e r she i s but a weak woman g i v e n t o v a c i l l a t i o n by h e r v e r y n a t u r e ("Ferenda N a t u r a " ) . Having r e c o v e r e d from t h i s a f f a i r he d e v o t e s h i m s e l f t o s e e k i n g p r e f e r m e n t ("Meritum p e t e r e , g r a v e " ) . A l r e a d y he i s b e g i n n i n g to r e a l i z e w i t h b i t t e r n e s s t h a t he has r u i n e d h i s o p p o r t u n i t i e s and so we have an e a r l y appearance o f "Haud i c t u s s a p i o . " For some time t h e r e i s a v a c i l l a t i o n among t h e two p o s i e s , " E v e r o r Never" and "Haud i c t u s s a p i o , " w h i l e a l l poems s i g n e d " S i c t u l i , " r e p r e s e n t i n g n o t o n l y a sense o f burden b u t a l s o a s e n s e o f p u r p o s e , appear i n a group i n t h e m i d s t o f t h i s m i n g l i n g o f t h e o t h e r two. The p e r i o d o f i n s t a b i l i t y i n d i c a t e d by t h i s m i n g l i n g o f p o s i e s i s f o l l o w e d by the emer-gence o f "Haud i c t u s s a p i o " as h i s g e n e r a l a t t i t u d e i n t h o s e y e a r s b e f o r e he went t o H o l l a n d f o r the second t i m e . P r o u t y a l s o n o t e s on p. 39: As f a r as the g e n e r a l r e a s o n f o r g r o u p i n g the poems o f A Hundreth S u n d r i e F l o w r e s goes, I t h i n k we may s a f e l y a r r i v e a t a c o n c l u s i o n . The use o f p o s i e s was a v e r y r e a l p a r t o f the s o c i a l p a t t e r n o f the c o u r t l y w o r l d and George Ga s c o i g n e was both proud o f and t r u e t o the c o n v e n t i o n s . E v e r y c o u r t i e r s h o u l d have a posy d e n o t i n g t h e c u r r e n t s t a t e o f h i s a f f a i r s . O n l y George G a s c o i g n e , however, s i g n e d h i s posy to a l l h i s poems and thus r e v e a l e d n o t o n l y h i s c o n n e c t i o n w i t h the l a d i e s and e v e n t s o f which he wrote but as w e l l 89 gave t h e s c a n d a l mongers a h o l i d a y by g i v i n g them the means to know the ap p r o x i m a t e time r e l a t i o n s h i p o f t h e v a r i o u s a f f a i r s . H i s m i s t a k e was, o f c o u r s e , h i s d e c i s i o n t o p u b l i s h so many poems t h a t d e a l t w i t h l a d i e s and gentlemen o f h i g h s t a t i o n . Having p u b l i s h e d , he d i d h i s b e s t t o remedy h i s l i a b i l i t y t o f u r t h e r c e n s o r s h i p by c o n c e a l i n g , t h r o u g h t h e a l t e r a t i o n o f the o r i g i n a l o r d e r , as much as he c o u l d . As t h e t r e a t m e n t o f b i o g r a p h i c a l i n c o r p o r a t i o n s i n G a s c o i g n e ' s p o e t r y i s n o t embraced by a s t u d y o f the r e l a t i o n between G a s c o i g n e ' s p o e t i c p r i n c i p l e s and h i s p o e t i c p r a c t i c e , I s h a l l n o t , t h e r e f o r e , c o n s i d e r the " a u t o b i o g r a p h i c a l " p o s i e s t h a t a r e appended t o the poems t r e a t e d h e r e i n . Of) T h i s a l o n e i s v e r y i m p o r t a n t s i n c e t h e " b r e a k i n g up" o f a work o f l i t e r a t u r e can be a v e r y dangerous p r o c e s s i f t h e r e a r e no g u i d e l i n e s t o e s t a b l i s h l i n e s o f c l e a v a g e . 21 T h a t t h i s i s the poem's c e n t r a l i n v e n t i o n i s made e x p l i c i t i n G a s c o i g n e ' s headnote t o t h e poem. 22 T h i s c o n c l u s i o n i s p o s s i b l e s i n c e t h e i n v e n t i o n i s s e i f - e v i d e n t l y " p o s i t i v e " m o r a l l y and a e s t h e t i c a l l y . Were i t " n e g a t i v e , " however, one would have t o c o n c l u d e t h a t t h e form o f t h e poem was used t o make an i r o n i c commentary on i t s c o n t e n t . 23 C a e s u r a p l a c e m e n t s , o f c o u r s e , do n o t m a t t e r i n a poem w r i t t e n i n "Rythme r o y a l 1." 24 As n o t e d i n t h e d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e p r e v i o u s poems, c a e s u r a placement does n o t m a t t e r i n "Rythme r o y a l l . " 25 A g a i n , the p l a c i n g o f c a e s u r a i s i r r e l e v a n t i n "Rythme r o y a l l " poems. 90 *b T h a t " B e a u t i e " i s meant t o c o r r e s p o n d t o t h e "Lady" i s i n d i c a t e d by two s u b s t i t u t i o n s : i n l i n e 14 B e a u t i e terms t he Lady "A P r i n c e " ( r e c a l l i n g t h a t t h e p e r s o n a i s "At Beautyes b a r r e , " i t i s c l e a r t h a t t h e " P r i n c e " o f t h i s c o u r t must be B e a u t i e h e r s e l f ) , and i n l i n e 33 t h e pe r s o n a terms B e a u t i e "good Ladye." 2 7 T h i s , a t l e a s t , i s my i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f 11. 21-23: A packe o f p i c k e t h a n k e s were t h e r e s t , Which came f a l s e w i t n e s s e f o r t o b e a r e , The J u r y e s u c h e , t he Judge u n j u s t . . . . A l t h o u g h an i n i t i a l r e a d i n g o f t h i s m i ght s u g g e s t t h a t "The J u r y e suche" s h o u l d be r e a d i n a p p o s i t i o n t o t h e d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e "packe o f p i c k e t h a n k e s , " such a r e a d i n g would, o f c o u r s e , be i n c o r r e c t , as a j u r y cannot bear " f a l s e w i t n e s s e " -- i t can o n l y e v a l u a t e t h e t e s t i m o n y o f w i t n e s s e s . Thus, i t must be t h a t t h a t e v a l u a t i o n i s t o be r e g a r d e d as s i m i l a r to t h a t t e s t i m o n y -- t h a t i s , as f a l s e . The f a c t t h a t t he components o f t h e s e t o f w i t n e s s e s a r e d e s c r i b e d , and t h a t t h e judge i s d e s c r i b e d , w h i l e t h e c o m p o s i t i o n o f t h e j u r y i s n o t (which o m i s s i o n i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r one's i n c l i n a t i o n t o r e a d t h e f i r s t p a r t o f l i n e 23 i n a p p o s i t i o n t o l i n e s 21 and 22, t h e r e b y u s i n g t h o s e l i n e s t o s u p p l y what i s l a c k i n g i n d e s c r i p t i o n ) p o i n t s t o a weakness i n t h e a l l e g o r i c a l s t r u c t u r e o f t h e poem. I say a "weakness" r a t h e r than a " d e f e c t " because t h e n a t u r e o f the j u r y c a n, p e r h a p s , be d e t e r m i n e d by e x t r a p o l a t i n g from t he pe r s o n a ' s i n i t i a l r e q u e s t t h a t h i s much-admired l a d y "bee Judge and J u r o u r boathe" ( 1 . 1 1 ) . When " B e a u t i e " r e j e c t s t he r e q u e s t , she s u b s t i t u t e s " W y l l " f o r t h e l a d y , who thus must become, i m p l i c i t l y , "Judge and J u r o u r boathe." The a l l e g o r i c a l s t r u c t u r e o f t h e poem, t h e n , does n o t break down by the f a i l u r e t o denote e x p l i c i t l y t h e i d e a t o which t he 91 j u r y i s meant t o c o r r e s p o n d ( i f my r e a d i n g o f an i m p l i c i t c o r r e s p o n d e n c e i s c o r r e c t ) , b u t t h e f a i l u r e t o use the f i g u r e d i s t i n c t l y does l e s s e n the c l a r i t y o f t h e a l l e g o r y . po The f a l s i t y o f h i s e s t i m a t e s i s emphasized n o t o n l y by t h e f a c t t h a t i t i s d e s c r i b e d c l e a r l y i n the poem as b e i n g f a l s e , b u t a l s o by the f a c t t h a t t h e f a l s i t y o f r e p o r t and judgment i s d e s c r i b e d i n i t as b e i n g t r i p a r t i t e -- the w i t n e s s e s , j u r y , and j u dge a r e f a l s e -- a f a c t t h a t i s o f s i g n i f i c a n c e because i t s u g g e s t s , g i v e n t h a t i t s c o n t e x t i s one o f e x a m i n a t i o n o f the i n n e r s e l f , an a l l e g o r i c a l e q u a t i o n o f t h e s e terms w i t h t h e e s s e n t i a l l y t r i p a r t i t e d i v i s i o n s o f t h e mind as c o n c e i v e d i n E l i z a b e t h a n t i m e s . The f a c t t h a t the j u r o r s and t h e j u dge a l r e a d y p o s s e s s a l l e g o r i c a l e q u i v a l e n c i e s i n Beauty does n o t weaken, but h e i g h t e n s the a l l e g o r i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e o f the poem -- s i n c e i t s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e p e r s o n a has been e n t i r e l y overcome by the f o r c e o f the l a d y ' s b e auty. 2 9 C u n l i f f e ' s t e x t u a l emendation i n l i n e 12 ( s u p p l y i n g " w i t h i n " ) i s c l e a r l y i n c o r r e c t , s i n c e i t would d i s t o r t t h e rhythm o f the l i n e . S i n c e s u p p l y i n g the p r e p o s i t i o n " i n " i n p l a c e o f " w i t h i n " would a c h i e v e t h e c o m p l e t i o n o f s ense sought by C u n l i f f e w i t h o u t d i s t o r t i n g t h e l i n e m e t r i c a l l y , I would s u g g e s t t h a t emendation and say t h a t the rhythm o f the l i n e i s i n i a m b i c t e t r a m e t e r , as i s t h a t o f each o f the o t h e r l i n e s i n the poem. 30 As G a s c o i g n e w r i t e s i n the headnote t o t h i s poem, " A l e x a n d e r  N e v i l e d e l i v e r e d him t h i s theame, S a t c i t o , s i s a t bene, whereupon hee c o m p i l e d t h e s e seven Sonets i n s e q [ u ] e n c e , t h e r e i n bewraying h i s owne 92 Nimis c i t o : and t h e r w i t h h i s V i x bene, as f o l o w e t h . 3 1 I t can come anywhere i n l i n e s 9 and 10 o f each s t a n z a . WORKS CITED A r i s t o t l e : The P o e t i c s . " L o n g i n u s " : On the Sub!ime. D e m e t r i u s : On  S t y l e . Ed. W. H a m i l t o n F y f e . Loeb C l a s s i c a l L i b r a r y . 2nd ed., 1932; r p t . London: W i l l i a m Heinemann, 1965. A t k i n s , J . W. H. E n g l i s h L i t e r a r y C r i t i c i s m : The Renascence. London: Methuen, 1947. C l a r k , Donald L. R h e t o r i c and P o e t r y i n the R e n a i s s a n c e : A Study o f  R h e t o r i c a l Terms i n E n g l i s h R e n a i s s a n c e L i t e r a r y C r i t i c i s m . New York: Columbia U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1922. Cohen, Helen L o u i s e . The B a l l a d e . New York: Columbia U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1915. C u n l i f f e , John W. "George G a s c o i g n e . " The Cambridge H i s t o r y o f E n g l i s h L i t e r a t u r e . Ed. A. W. Ward and A. R. W a l l e r . Cambridge: U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1909. V o l . I l l , Ch. X. Dobson, E. J . E n g l i s h P r o n u n c i a t i o n : 1500-1700. 2 v o l s . 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" E n g l i s h Non-Dramatic Blank V e r s e i n the 16. C e n t u r y . " A n g l i a , 61 ( 1 9 3 7 ) , 384-86. S p i n g a r n , J . E. A H i s t o r y o f L i t e r a r y C r i t i c i s m i n the R e n a i s s a n c e . New York: Columbia U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1924. Thompson, John. The F o u n d i n g o f E n g l i s h Metre. London: R o u t l e d g e & Kegan P a u l , 1961. Van Dam, B. A. P. W i l l i a m S h a k e s p e a r e : Prosody and T e x t : An Essay  i n C r i t i c i s m , B e i n g an I n t r o d u c t i o n t o A B e t t e r E d i t i n g and a_ 96 more adequate a p p r e c i a t i o n o f t h e works o f the E l i z a b e t h a n p o e t s . Ed. C. S t o f f e l . London: W i l l i a m s & N o r g a t e , 1900. W i l l s , R i c h a r d . De Re P o e t i c a . Ed. A. D. S. F o w l e r . L u t t r e l l R e p r i n t s No.17. O x f o r d : B a s i l B l a c k w e l l , 1958. 

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