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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Urban housing quality : the importance of attitudes in the decision to rehabilitate Phillips, Deborah Anne 1976

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URBAN HOUSING QUALITY: THE IMPORTANCE OF ATTITUDES IN THE DECISION TO REHABILITATE b y DEBORAH ANNE PHILLIPS B.A., U n i v e r s i t y C o l l e g e London, 1974 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n t h e Department of GEOGRAPHY He accept t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o the r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA SEPTEMBER 1976 @ Deborah Anne P h i l l i p s , 1976 In presenting th i s thes is in pa r t i a l fu l f i lment o f the requirements for an advanced degree at the Un ivers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L ibrary shal l make it f ree ly ava i l ab le for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of th is thesis for scho lar ly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representat ives. It is understood that copying or pub l i ca t ion of this thes is for f inanc ia l gain sha l l not be allowed without my written permission. Department of Q g Q Q VktVPUN The Univers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 i i JBSTEACT The p e r s i s t e n c e of s u b s t a n d a r d housing i n many o l d e r Canadian c i t i e s has prompted the F e d e r a l government to i n t e r v e n e in the p r i v a t e p r o c e s s of renewal. E a r l y p u b l i c programmes c o n c e n t r a t e d on neighbourhood redevelopment, as had p r i v a t e e n t e r p r i s e . However, a r e c e n t r e v i s i o n in F e d e r a l p o l i c y has l e d to a g r e a t e r emphasis cn r e h a b i l i t a t i o n , the g o a l b e i n g to p r e s e r v e e l d e r r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s t h r o u g h a programme cf Neighbourhood Improvement (NIP) and R e s i d e n t i a l R e h a b i l i t a t i o n A s s i s t a n c e (RRAP). T h i s change in p o l i c y has i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r t h e f u t u r e c h a r a c t e r of d e c l i n i n g a r e a s and t h e e v o l u t i o n of t h e urban s p a t i a l s t r u c t u r e . S i n c e p a r t i c i p a t i o n in BRAP i s v o l u n t a r y , t h e s u c c e s s cf t h i s programme and the u l t i m a t e improvement of these neighbourhoods depends on r e s i d e n t s 1 a t t i t u d e s towards r e h a b i l i t a t i o n and t h e i r eagerness to r e n o v a t e . The purpose of t h i s s t u d y i s to examine f a c t o r s i n f l u e n c i n g the owner's d e c i s i o n to r e h a b i l i t a t e h i s p r o p e r t y . The c o n v e r s i o n zones cf t h e t h r e e Vancouver i n n e r c i t y neighbourhoods of K i t s i l a n o , Cedar C o t t a g e and Grandview have been s e l e c t e d f o r the purpose of t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n . In the p a s t , these zones have been c o n s i d e r e d impermanent and t h e i r redevelopment seen as i n e v i t a b l e . However, t h e y a r e now to be c o n s e r v e d , a l t h o u g h at the t i m e of the r e s e a r c h , o n l y K i t s i l a n o and Cedar Cot t a g e had been d e s i g n a t e d f o r F e d e r a l a s s i s t a n c e through NIP and RRflP, The data f o r t h i s s t u d y were p r i n c i p a l l y c o l l e c t e d t h r c u g h a q u e s t i o n n a i r e survey conducted i n January and F e b r u a r y , 19 76. i i i R e s i d e n t homeowners were i n t e r v i e w e d , w h i l e a s m a l l sample of absentee owners were s e n t m a i l q u e s t i o n n a i r e s . Non-parametric s t a t i s t i c s were t s e d t o a n a l y s e t h e d a t a . The s u r v e y i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e d e c i s i o n t o r e h a b i l i t a t e i s based not o n l y on f i n a n c i a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s , but a l s o owners' a t t i t u d e s towards t h e i r neighbourhood, t h e i r p r o p e r t y and the n o t i o n o f improvement. While l o w e r income r e s i d e n t s h a v i n g t o make mortgage payments d i d encounter f i n a n c i a l c o n s t r a i n t s t o home improvements, income per se d i d not s i g n i f i c a n t l y a f f e c t r e h a b i l i t a t i o n a c t i v i t y . P o s s i b l e p r o p e r t y t a x i n c r e a s e s n e v e r t h e l e s s d i d c o n s t i t u t e a d i s i n c e n t i v e t o improvement f o r many owners, p r o f i t o r i e n t e d l a n d l o r d s a l s o b e i n g d i s c o u r a g e d by P r o v i n c i a l r e n t c o n t r o l s . However, most r e s p o n d e n t s s u p p o r t e d the n o t i o n of r e s i d e n t i a l r e h a b i l i t a t i o n and wanted more improvement i n t h e i r neighbourhood. K i t s i l a n o r e s i d e n t s f e a r e d t h a t f u r t h e r d e c l i n e would l e a d to t h e d i s i n t e g r a t i o n of t h e i r community and c u l m i n a t e i n apartment redevelopment, w h i l e Cedar C o t t a g e r e s p o n d e n t s were concerned f o r t h e s o c i a l s t a t u s of t h e i r a r e a . A s m a l l p r o p o r t i o n of homeowners i n these two neighbourhoods c o n s i d e r e d f u r t h e r d e t e r i o r a t i o n i n e v i t a b l e and p e r c e i v e d t h i s as a d i s i n c e n t i v e t o r e h a b i l i t a t i o n . However, most regarded r e s i d e n t i a l improvement as an e f f e c t i v e means of m a i n t a i n i n g the d e s i r a b i l i t y o f t h e s e neighbourhoods and p r o t e c t i n g them from f u r t h e r u n d e s i r a b l e changes. I n a l l a r e a s , r e s p o n d e n t s e x h i b i t i n g p r i d e and c o n f i d e n c e i n t h e i r n e ighbourhood and a sense of p e r s o n a l e f f i c a c y a c h i e v e d the h i g h e s t l e v e l s o f r e h a b i l i t a t i o n . Many r e s i d e n t owners were a l s o m o t i v a t e d by p r i d e i n t h e i r p r o p e r t y . However, f o r most absentee i v l a n d l o r d s , the i n c e n t i v e t o improve was p u r e l y economic. D e s p i t e a g e n e r a l l y p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e towards improvement, few p e r c e i v e d ERAP as an i n c e n t i v e t o r e h a b i l i t a t e . L a n d l o r d s d i s l i k e d t h e a s s o c i a t e d r e n t c o n t r o l s and many homeowners were d i s c o u r a g e d by the f i n a n c i a l burden of a REAP l o a n , p r i d e i n t h e i r s e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y , and a n e g a t i v e a t t i t u d e towards the neighbourhood and improvement. REAP t h e r e f o r e seems u n l i k e l y t o s i g n i f i c a n t l y c o n t r i b u t e t o the improvement of o l d e r , d e t e r i o r a t i n g n eighbourhoods, a l t h o u g h r e c e n t programme r e v i s i o n s may s t i m u l a t e more a c t i v i t y . Some of Vancouver's d e c l i n i n g i n n e r c i t y neighbourhoods have at l e a s t t e m p o r a r i l y been upgraded through r e s i d e n t s ' e f f o r t s t o r e h a b i l i t a t e and government c o n t r o l s on re d e v e l o p m e n t . The p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e of most r e s p o n d e n t s s u g g e s t s t h a t p r i v a t e r e h a b i l i t a t i o n w i l l c o n t i n u e as l o n g as owners ' remain c o n f i d e n t i n the f u t u r e of t h e i r a r e a . Neighbourhoods t h a t would o t h e r w i s e have been r e d e v e l o p e d have hence been p r e s e r v e d . However, u n l e s s t h e government c o n t i n u e s t o i n t e r v e n e i n t h e d e t e r i o r a t i o n p r o c e s s , p r i v a t e redevelopment w i l l l i k e l y ensue and the urban s p a t i a l s t r u c t u r e c o n t i n u e to e v o l v e as b e f o r e . V SlBiJ-SI-CONTENTS P age A b s t r a c t ...... i i L i s t o f T a b l e s v i i L i s t o f F i g u r e s . . . v i i i Acknowledgements i x Chapter I INTRODUCTION 1 Purpose of Research 3 S p a t i a l V a r i a t i o n s i n Housing Q u a l i t y ................ 7 The D e t e r i o r a t i o n P r o c e s s 10 The Redevelopment P r o c e s s 15 O r g a n i z a t i o n of T h e s i s 18 I I THE URBAN REGENERATION PROCESS 19 Government Improvement P o l i c i e s P r i o r t o 196 9 20 C l e a r a n c e and Redevelopment 20 Urban Renewal 23 R e h a b i l i t a t i o n i n t h e Nineteen S e v e n t i e s : A Mechanism f o r Improvement 28 P u b l i c R e h a b i l i t a t i o n Programmes 30 P r i v a t e R e h a b i l i t a t i o n A c t i v i t y 37 I I I METHODOLOGY 41 Data Sources 44 The Survey Q u e s t i o n n a i r e s 47 The House t o House Q u e s t i o n n a i r e 47 The M a i l Q u e s t i o n n a i r e 57 Data P r o c e s s i n g and A n a l y s i s 61 TV THE SURVEY AREAS 64 The NIP Survey Areas 68 K i t s i l a n o ......................................... 68 Cedar Cottage 75 The C o n t r o l Area: Grandview-woodlands ................ 82 V ATTITUDES TOWARDS RESIDENTIAL REHABILITATION 92 The D e c i s i o n t o R e h a b i l i t a t e 98 The F i n a n c i a l C o n s t r a i n t 98 A t t i t u d e s Towards t h e Neighbourhood ............... 102 A t t i t u d e s Towards P r o p e r t y 116 VI THE ROLE OF THE RESIDENTIAL REHABILITATION ASSISTANCE PROGRAMME 123 A t t i t u d e s Towards P u b l i c l y A s s i s t e d R e h a b i l i t a t i o n 124 E l i g i b l e Owners: ERAP Users and Non-users 130 The Impact o f REAP 139 v i VII CONCLUSIONS 143 A Summary of the F i n d i n g s 143 A t t i t u d e s Towards R e h a b i l i t a t i o n 143 The Hole c f RRAP 147 The I m p l i c a t i o n s of t h e F i n d i n g s ..................... 148 D i r e c t i o n s For F u t u r e Research ....................... 155 B i b l i o g r a p h y 157 Appendix A W i n d s h i e l d Housing Q u a l i t y Assessment 166 B The L i k e r t S c a l e 167 (1) Composing t h e A t t i t u d e Statements ................ 167 (2) The L i k e r t " D i s c r i m i n a t o r y Power" Technique ...... 168 C The Survey Q u e s t i o n n a i r e s 173 (1) The House t o House Q u e s t i o n n a i r e 174 (2) The H a i l Q u e s t i o n n a i r e 182 D S t a t i s t i c a l A n a l y s i s o f the Survey Data .............. 185 E Chi-Square T a b l e s f o r Cha p t e r s V and VI .............. 187 v i i LIST OF TABLES T a b l e Page I P o p u l a t i o n C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s • 55 I I Sample S i z e 56 I I I Trends i n the K i t s i l a n o Survey Area 70 IV Trends i n t h e Cedar Cottage Survey Area .............. 78 V Trends i n t h e Grandview-woodlands Survey Area ........ 84 VI Need f o r Housing Improvement 93 VI I P r e f e r r e d Mechanism f o r Improvement .................. 95 V I I I D i s t r i b u t i o n of Income 98 IX Neighbourhood Changes P e r c e i v e d by R e s i d e n t Owners ...... 103 X A t t i t u d e s of Homeowners Towards t h e i r P r o p e r t y ....... 117 XI E x p e n d i t u r e cn R e p a i r s , 1971-6 119 X I I E l i g i b i l i t y of Survey Respondents f o r RRAP ........... 124 X I I I P r e f e r r e d Method of R e h a b i l i t a t i o n ................... 127 XIV REAP A p p l i c a t i o n s and P e r c e i v e d P h y s i c a l Neighbourhood Change 137 XV P r o p e r t y Improvements and E x p e n d i t u r e 140 v i i i F i g u r e Page 1 The Survey a r e a s ..................................... 66 2 K i t s i l a n o Housing Q u a l i t y Assessment ................. 72 3 Cedar Cottage Housing Q u a l i t y Assessment 80 4 Gra.ndv.iew Housing Q u a l i t y Assessment 86 5 D i s t r i b u t i o n of RRAP Users i n K i t s i l a n o 1.31 6 D i s t r i b u t i o n of R RAP Users i n Cedar Cottage 132 ix ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS S p e c i a l g r a t i t u d e i s extended t o my s u p e r v i s o r , Dr. John Mercer , f o r h i s v a l u a b l e s u g g e s t i o n s , h e l p and c o n t i n u i n g i n t e r e s t t h r o u g h o u t t h e p r e p a r a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s . I would a l s o l i k e t o thank L r . David Ley f o r h i s a s s i s t a n c e i n the c o n s t r u c t i o n o f the sur v e y q u e s t i o n n a i r e , and t h e l o c a l p l a n n e r s and r e s i d e n t s of K i t s i l a n o , Grandview and Cedar C o t t a g e f o r t h e i r e n t h u s i a s m and c o - o p e r a t i o n i n t h i s r e s e a r c h . F i n a l l y , I wish t o thank my husband, Simon, f o r h i s h e l p w i t h the computer programmes used f o r data a n l a y s i s . X " In o r d e r t o understand the s p a t i a l s t r u c t u r e . . . . we must know something of the antec e d e n t d e c i s i o n s and b e h a v i o u r s which a r r a n g e phenomena i n space" K. Cox and E. G o l l e d g e , Behayioura1,,Problems 1 CHJPTEB_I INTRODUCTION V a r i a t i o n s i n urban h o u s i n g q u a l i t y and t h e p e r s i s t e n c e c f d e t e r i o r a t e d s t o c k have l c n g been a cause f o r c o n c e r n . P u b l i c a t t e n t i o n was f i r s t drawn t o the need f o r s u b s t a n t i a l housing improvement i n many Canadian c i t i e s by e a r l y t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y p h i l a n t h r o p i s t s . P a r t i c u l a r emphasis was p l a c e d on the inadequacy of lower income hou s i n g and t h e need f o r s o c i a l r e f o r m . The F e d e r a l government, however, was slow t o undertake any r e m e d i a l a c t i o n , d i s p l a y i n g a g e n e r a l r e l u c t a n c e t o i n t e r v e n e i n t h e e s t a b l i s h e d p r i v a t e market p r o c e s s . L i t t l e p u b l i c a c t i v i t y was t h e r e f o r e e v i d e n t u n t i l t h e n i n e t e e n f o r t i e s when, d e s p i t e the r a p i d d e t e r i o r a t i o n o f the urban f a b r i c i n i t i a t e d by t h e D e p r e s s i o n and t h e Second H c r l d War, p r i v a t e i n d u s t r y c o n t i n u e d t o devote more a t t e n t i o n t c new c o n s t r u c t i o n on t h e urban p e r i p h e r y t h a n t o r e j u v e n a t i n g o l d e r c i t y s t o c k . However, government programmes over th e next two decades c o n t r i b u t e d l i t t l e t o the a m e l i o r a t i o n o f t h e lower income l i v i n g e n v i r o n m e n t . B l i g h t e d a r e a s were c l e a r e d and r e d e v e l o p e d w i t h l i t t l e c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f the s o c i a l c o s t s , most emphasis b e i n g p l a c e d on the f u l f i l m e n t of economic g o a l s . The n i n e t e e n s e v e n t i e s , however, have w i t n e s s e d a g r a d u a l change i n government p o l i c y , the f o c u s now b e i n g on r e s i d e n t i a l r e h a b i l i t a t i o n r a t h e r t h a n redevelopment. I t i s hoped t h a t t h i s w i l l prove a more s e n s i t i v e and s o c i a l l y o r i e n t e d approach t o t h e improvement of the urban housing s t o c k . 2 R e h a b i l i t a t i o n e n t a i l s a thorough u p g r a d i n g of s u b s t a n d a r d or d e t e r i o r a t i n g p r o p e r t y through "the r e p l a c e m e n t of subsystems or major components" 1. The g e n e r a l aim i s t o extend the b u i l d i n g ' s u s e f u l l i f e by f i f t e e n t o twenty y e a r s . R e s i d e n t i a l r e h a b i l i t a t i o n f r e q u e n t l y demands a s u b s t a n t i a l f i n a n c i a l i n v e s t m e n t and s h o u l d be d i s t i n g u i s h e d from minor r e p a i r s e n s u i n g from g e n e r a l p r o p e r t y maintenance. N e v e r t h e l e s s , r e g u l a r maintenance f o l l o w i n g r e n o v a t i o n s h o u l d c o n s t i t u t e an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f t h e r e h a b i l i t a t i o n p r o c e s s i f b u i l d i n g s t a n d a r d s are t o be m a i n t a i n e d . T e c h n i c a l l y , i t i s p o s s i b l e t o r e h a b i l i t a t e any s t r u c t u r e , a l t h o u g h beyond a c e r t a i n l e v e l of d e t e r i o r a t i o n , i t may not be e c o n o m i c a l l y f e a s i b l e t o do s o 2 . Hence, a l t h o u g h l i m i t e d c l e a r a n c e and redevelopment s t i l l c o n s t i t u t e an i m p o r t a n t component of government improvement p o l i c i e s , the f o c u s i s on r e n o v a t i o n r a t h e r than removal. I n 1973, the F e d e r a l government i n t r o d u c e d a programme of R e s i d e n t i a l R e h a b i l i t a t i o n A s s i s t a n c e (R.R.&.P.), designed t o f a c i l i t a t e the r e n o v a t i o n of o l d e r h o u s i n g i n d e s i g n a t e d Neighbourhood Improvement Programme (N.I.P.) a r e a s . However, p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n R.R.A.P. i s v o l u n t a r y and i t s s u c c e s s t h e r e f o r e l a r g e l y depends on t h e a t t i t u d e s of r e s i d e n t s towards the improvement of t h e i r neighbourhood. 1 B a r n a r d , P., I n t r o d u c t i o n t o t h e R e h a b i l i t a t i o n P r o c e s s . CM.B.C., To r o n t o . Nov. 1S73 2 Chung, H., The Economics o f R e s i d e n t i a l R e h a b i i i t a t i e n . P r a e g e r P u b l i s h e r s . N.Y. 1973. 3 PSJPOSJ-OFJRESJARCH T h i s s t u d y a t t e m p t s t o i s o l a t e and examine f a c t o r s g o v e r n i n g the r e h a b i l i t a t i o n behaviour o f p r o p e r t y owners i n Vancouver's o l d e r r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s . The t h r e e i n n e r c i t y neighbourhoods o f K i t s i l a n o , Cedar C o t t a g e and Grandview-Roodlands have been s e l e c t e d f o r i n v e s t i g a t i o n . Each i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a moderate income p o p u l a t i o n , mixed q u a l i t y h o u s i n g and a low l e v e l o f community s e r v i c e s , a t t e n t i o n w i l l be f o c u s e d on the s u b s t a n t i a l p r o p o r t i o n of each neighbourhood zoned f o r d u p l e x and c o n v e r s i o n accommodation (RT-2 and RS-2) s i n c e , i n t h e p a s t , t h e s e zones were g e n e r a l l y regarded as Impermanent, a t r a n s i t i o n s t a g e p r e c e d i n g r e d e v e l o p m e n t 3 . These a r e a s are now t o be c o n s e r v e d t h r o u g h r e h a b i l i t a t i o n , a l t h o u g h at t h e t i m e o f t h e s t u d y o n l y K i t s i l a n o and Cedar C o t t a g e had been d e s i g n a t e d as N. I . P. areas and t h e r e f o r e a l l o c a t e d f e d e r a l a s s i s t a n c e f o r housing and neighbourhood improvement. Loans and g r a n t s have been made a v a i l a b l e t o e l i g i b l e p r o p e r t y owners i n t h e s e a r e a s through t h e R e s i d e n t i a l R e h a b i l i t a t i o n a s s i s t a n c e Programme. However, t h e response to t h i s programme has been poorer than a n t i c i p a t e d . S i n c e t h e o f f e r o f f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e has not g r e a t l y i n c r e a s e d r e h a b i l i t a t i o n a c t i v i t y , i t may be suggested t h a t t h e d e c i s i o n t o r e n o v a t e i s governed not o n l y by economic c o n s i d e r a t i o n s , but perhaps more i m p o r t a n t l y by owners' a t t i t u d e s towards improvement, t h e i r p r o p e r t y and the neighbourhood i n which i t i s s i t u a t e d . An i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f t h e s e 3 Vancouver C i t y P l a n n i n g Dept., Vancouver Urban Renewal S t u d j . T e c h n i c a l Report no. 5. 1968. 4 a t t i t u d e s and t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p to r e h a b i l i t a t i o n b e h a v i o u r i s c e n t r a l t o t h i s s t u d y . A t t i t u d e s c o n s t i t u t e a c o g n i t i v e e x p r e s s i o n of an i n d i v i d u a l ' s v a l u e s , p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e s and c u l t u r a l b e l i e f s * . While t h e y a r e g e n e r a l l y r e c o g n i s e d as an i m p o r t a n t component of b e h a v i o u r , t h e n a t u r e o f the r e l a t i o n s h i p between a t t i t u d e s and beh a v i o u r i s complex and has been the s u b j e c t c f much d e b a t e s . N e v e r t h e l e s s , i t i s g e n e r a l l y agreed t h a t a l t h o u g h a t t i t u d e s cannot be used to a c c u r a t e l y p r e d i c t o v e r t b e h a v i o u r , t h e y c o n s t i t u t e v a l u a b l e i n d i c a t o r s of an i n d i v i d u a l ' s b e h a v i o u r a l d i s p o s i t i o n . I n o r d e r t o e x p l o r e the a t t i t u d e s of r e s i d e n t s towards the r e h a b i l i t a t i o n of t h e i r p r o p e r t y i t i s n e c e s s a r y to draw on t h e t e c h n i q u e s of t h e p s y c h o l o g i s t ; l i t t l e work has been done by the geographer i n t h i s f i e l d 6 . The b a s i s c f t h i s r e s e a r c h i s n e v e r t h e l e s s g e o g r a p h i c a l and has r a m i f i c a t i o n s f c r the c h a r a c t e r and development o f the i n t e r n a l s t r u c t u r e o f the c i t y . T h i s w i l l be i l l u s t r a t e d i n the r e m a i n i n g s e c t i o n s c f t h i s c h a p t e r , which are devoted t o a d i s c u s s i o n of the t h e o r e t i c a l f o u n d a t i o n s of t h i s work. 4 A c l a s s i c a l a r t i c l e on t h e n a t u r e of a t t i t u d e s has been w r i t t e n by G. W. A l l p o r t . ( A l l p o r t , G. W. , " A t t i t u d e s " . I n M. F i s h b e i n ( e d . ) , Readings i n A t t i t u d e Theory and Measurements John W i l e y and Sons. N.Y. 1967. p.3 J 5 Lewin, K., P r i n c i p l e s i n T o p o l o g i c a l P s i c h c l o g j ; . N.Y. McGraw H i l l . 1936. * T i t t l e , C. and H i l l , P.., " A t t i t u d e Measurement and P r e d i c t i o n of B e h a v i o u r . " Sociometry_ 30. p.199. W e i n s t e i n , A . , " P r e d i c t i n g B e h a v i o u r from A t t i t u d e s " . P u b l i c 0£ili2H £uarterl_y 36. (1972) p.355. 6 The meth o d o l o g i e s u t i l i z e d i n t h i s r e s e a r c h a re d i s c u s s e d i n Cha p t e r I I I . 5 I n an attempt t o f u l l y examine the r e l a t i o n s h i p between a t t i t u d e s and r e h a b i l i t a t i o n b e h a v i o u r , t h e f o l l o w i n g r e s e a r c h o b j e c t i v e s have been f o r m u l a t e d . (1) To e x p l o r e the a t t i t u d e s o f p r o p e r t y owners towards the concept o f r e h a b i l i t a t i o n , w i t h p a r t i c u l a r r e f e r e n c e t o t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s own neighbourhood. (2) To i d e n t i f y the i m p o r t a n c e o f housing and neighbourhood improvement t o owners i n g e n e r a l l y d e c l i n i n g a r e a s . T h i s «ill be examined i n the c o n t e x t of (a) t h e owners' co limit me nt to the neighbourhood and t h e i r a t t i t u d e to p h y s i c a l and s o c i a l changes w i t h i n i t , (b) t h e owners' a t t i t u d e s towards t h e i r p r o p e r t y , (c) the p r e f e r r e d method of improvement, i . e . t h e d e s i r e f o r r e h a b i l i t a t i o n or redevelopment, and (d) t h e p e r c e i v e d q u a l i t y of h o u s i n g and need f o r improvement w i t h i n the neighbourhood. (3) To i d e n t i f y the p e r c e i v e d c o n s t r a i n t s and i n c e n t i v e s to r e h a b i l i t a t e . (4) To a s s e s s t h e impact of the R e s i d e n t i a l R e h a b i l i t a t i o n A s s i s t a n c e Programme on r e h a b i l i t a t i o n b e h a v i o u r i n N.I. P. a r e a s . T h i s r e s e a r c h e r contends t h a t t h e a t t i t u d e s o f p r o p e r t y owners a r e c e n t r a l t o t h e i r r e h a b i l i t a t i o n b e h a v i o u r and hence t o the q u a l i t y of h o u s i n g w i t h i n the neighbourhood. A c o n v i n c i n g argument f o r t h e s t u d y o f a t t i t u d e s i n r e l a t i o n to housing d e t e r i o r a t i o n has been advanced by P e t e r New7 but very l i t t l e r e s e a r c h has been undertaken i n t h i s a r e a e i t h e r i n the 7 New, P., The Gr ay. Area Dilemma:, A Study, of J t t i t u d e s Towards Housing. Univ. of P i t t s b u r g h . 1965. 6 U.S.A. o r Canada. Although s t u d i e s by N a s h 8 , K e y e s 9 and M c F a r l a n d 1 0 have made b r i e f r e f e r e n c e t o the a t t i t u d e s and o p i n i o n s of r e s i d e n t s w i t h i n a more g e n e r a l a p p r a i s a l of r e h a b i l i t a t i o n , few have p a i d more than p a s s i n g a t t e n t i o n t o the s u b j e c t . An e x c e p t i o n to t h i s i s t h e work of A l b e r t Rose undertaken i n 1966 i n T o r o n t o 1 1 . I n a d e t a i l e d e x a m i n a t i o n of t h r e e d e t e r i o r a t i n g i n n e r c i t y n e ighbourhoods, Rose attempted to e x p l o r e t h e a t t i t u d e s of r e s i d e n t owners and l a n d l o r d s towards neighbourhood and p r o p e r t y r e n o v a t i o n . His r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d a g e n e r a l u n w i l l i n g n e s s c f owners ' t o i n c u r debt i n order t o upgrade t h e i r p r o p e r t y and a h i g h l y f a v o u r a b l e a t t i t u d e towards neighbourhood improvement. However, f u r t h e r work i s r e q u i r e d to s u b s t a n t i a t e t h e s e f i n d i n g s and r e l a t e them the a t t i t u d e s of r e s i d e n t s i n o t h e r Canadian c i t i e s . A deeper a n a l y s i s c f f e e l i n g s t o w a r d s p r o p e r t y r e h a b i l i t a t i o n i s t h e r e f o r e e s s e n t i a l f o r an u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the p r o c e s s by which homes are p e r m i t t e d t o d e c l i n e and f o r t h e purpose o f f u t u r e programme f o r m u l a t i o n . P e t e r B a r n a r d s u p p o r t s the l a t t e r p e r s p e c t i v e when he ccmments t h a t "Canada can h a r d l y be s a i d t o have had e x t e n s i v e r e h a b i l i t a t i o n e x p e r i e n c e . Most of i t has been a s c a t t e r i n g o f d e m o n s t r a t i o n 8 Nash, 8. , R e s i d e n t i a l R e h a b i l i t a t i o n . : P r i v a t e P r o f i t s and P u b l i c P u r poses. N .Y. McGr aw~H i l l 7 ~ ~ 1 9 6 4 . ~ ' 9 Keyes, 1., The Boston R e h a b i l i t a t i o n P rogramje^ An Independent A n a l y s i s . MIT. 1970. 10 M c F a r l a n d , M., R e s i d e n t i a l R e h a b i l i t a t i o n . Uni of M i n n e s o t a . 1965 11 Rose, A., P r o s p e c t s f o r the R e h a b i l i t a t i o n of Housing, i n C e n t r a l T o r o n t o . U n i . of T oronto. 1966 7 p r o j e c t s .. The v e r j f a c t t h a t a l l t h e r e s u l t s have been p i e c e d t o g e t h e r as an a f t e r t hought I s a sound argument f o r an ongoing m o n i t o r i n g and e v a l u a t i o n procedure from the s t a r t o f N.I. P. and H.E.A.P. so we can f i n a l l y l e a r n from our past m i s t a k e s as w e l l as our s u c c e s s e s " 1 2 . Although t h i s study does not propose t o undertake a comprehensive e v a l u a t i o n of R.R.A.P., i t i s hoped t h a t seme u s e f u l comments on i t s impact and r o l e i n the r e h a b i l i t a t i o n p r o c e s s can be made. SPATIAL VARIATIONS IN HOUSING QUA1ITY: A,THEORETICAL_ FRAMEWORK The r i s i n g i n t e r e s t of e a r l y t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y p h i l a n t h r o p i s t s i n the v a r i a b l e q u a l i t y of urban h o u s i n g was p a r a l l e l e d by t h a t o f academic i n v e s t i g a t o r s . In an attempt t o d e s c r i b e t h e s p a t i a l v a r i a t i o n i n housing g u a l i t y and understand the dynamic p r o c e s s e s by which i t had e v o l v e d , r e s e a r c h e r s sought t o o r d e r and s i m p l i f y the r e a l w o r l d through the c o n s t r u c t i o n of models. Some o f the e a r l i e s t c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n s o f t h e i n t e r n a l s t r u c t u r e of the c i t y emerged not from geography, but w i t h the c l a s s i c a l models o f urban e c o l o g i s t s and l a n d e c o n o m i s t s working i n Chicago i n the n i n e t e e n t w e n t i e s . E a r l y g e o g r a p h i c a l c o n t r i b u t i o n s t o urban s t u d i e s were l a r g e l y e m p i r i c a l as opposed t o t h e o r e t i c a l and f o c u s e d cn the s i g n i f i c a n c e of urban l o c a t i o n s and systems r a t h e r than the i n t e r n a l s t r u c t u r e of the c i t y . The c o n c e p t s advanced by o t h e r d i s c i p l i n e s n e v e r t h e l e s s p r o v i d e d an i m p o r t a n t framework f o r the f u t u r e s t u d i e s of urban geographers. 12 B a r n a r d , P., Op c i t 1973. 8 The f i r s t o f the c l a s s i c a l models of urban s p a t i a l s t r u c t u r e was propounded by the urban e c o l o g i s t E. W. B u r g e s s 1 3 . U t i l i z i n g P a r k * s 1 4 e c o l o g i c a l l y based c o n c e p t s of dominance, i n v a s i o n and s u c c e s s i o n , Burgess f o r m u l a t e d a d e s c r i p t i v e framework f o r t h e s p a t i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n of urban l a n d use through h i s w e l l known model of c o n c e n t r i c r i n g s . Each zone i s c h a r a c t e r i s e d by a d i f f e r e n t l a n d use and i t s a s s o c i a t e d a c t i v i t i e s , and a d i s t i n c t i v e s o c i a l p a t t e r n based on a s p a t i a l v a r i a t i o n i n housing q u a l i t y i s p o s t u l a t e d . T h i s p a t t e r n i s n e v e r t h e l e s s p e r c e i v e d as dynamic, s u c c e s s i v e uses and changes i n q u a l i t y b e i n g a t t r i b u t e d t o urban growth t h r o u g h c o m p e t i t i o n . 'A second c l a s s i c model was f o r w a r d e d by Homer Hoyt, who drew on t h e p r i n c i p l e s of t h e urban l a n d economics t r a d i t i o n f i r s t f o r m u l a t e d by Hurd i n 1 9 0 3 1 5 . Hoyt c o n c e p t u a l i z e d the e v o l v i n g urban s p a t i a l s t r u c t u r e i n terms of s e c t o r s e x t e n d i n g from th e c e n t r a l c i t y t o t h e p e r i p h e r y and, u n l i k e B u r g e s s , f o c u s e d on housing c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and r e n t i n p a r t i c u l a r r a t h e r than l a n d use i n g e n e r a l 1 6 . He a s c r i b e d t h e s p a t i a l p a t t e r n of urban r e s i d e n t i a l neighbourhoods t o the dynamic c h a r a c t e r of 13 B u r g e s s , E., "The Growth of C i t i e s . " In P a r k , R. et a l , The C i t y . C hicago: Univ. o f C h i c a g o P r e s s . 1925. 14 Park, R., " S u g g e s t i o n s f o r t h e I n v e s t i g a t i o n of Human B e h a v i o u r i n the Urban Environment". In P a r k , R. et a l , The C i t y . C hicago P r e s s . 1925 15 Hoyt, H., The S t r u c t u r e and Growth of R e s i d e n t i a l Ngiahbourhoods i n I s e r i c a n C i t i e s . Washington D.C. U.S. Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e . 1939. Hurd, R. , P r i n c i p l e s o f City. Land V a l u e s . N.I.: The R e c c i d and Guide. 1903. £ 16 Hoyt used r e n t as a s u r r o g a t e f o r l a n d v a l u e . 9 h i g h r e n t h o u s i n g d i s t r i c t s , which were seen t o g r a v i t a t e towards t h e areas o f h i g h e s t amenity as t h e c i t y expanded. As i n Bur g e s s ' model, a c l e a r s p a t i a l v a r i a t i o n i n t h e housing g u a l i t y was p o s t u l a t e d . These two e a r l y models have been c r i t i c i z e d f o r t h e i r a s s u m p t i v e , r a t h e r s i m p l i s t i c approach and t h e i r p o o r l y d eveloped t h e o r e t i c a l base. N e v e r t h e l e s s , t h i s e a r l y work d i d p r o v i d e an i m p o r t a n t s e t of i d e a s about the urban s p a t i a l s t r u c t u r e and a framework f o r f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n . Many attempt s have been made t o r e f i n e t h e s e models, I n c l u d i n g t h o s e of two g e o g r a p h e r s , C. H a r r i s and E. Oilman, whose more f l e x i b l e ' m u l t i p l e n u c l e i ' model has l o n g been c o n s i d e r e d a t h i r d c l a s s i c a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of the i n t e r n a l c i t y s t r u c t u r e 1 7 . N o t a b l e t h e o r e t i c a l c o n t r i b u t i o n s i n t h e l a n d economics t r a d i t i o n have been made by L. Wingo and H. A l o n s o , t h e work c f urban e c o l o g i s t s Hawley, and Duncan and Schnore a l s o b e i n g of i m p o r t a n c e 1 8 . However, a l t h o u g h t h e r e have been s i g n i f i c a n t advances and m o d i f i c a t i o n s of Burgess* o r i g i n a l c o n c e n t r i c model, the c o n c e p t u a l f o u n d a t i o n s f o r r e s e a r c h on t h e urban s p a t i a l s t r u c t u r e were undoubtedly e s t a b l i s h e d I n t h e n i n e t e e n 17 H a r r i s , C. and Ull m a n , E., "The Nature of C i t i e s " . JLSjals c f t h e A mer i c a n Academy, c f P o l i t i c a l and S o c i a l S c i e n c e . 242 (1945) p.7." 18 B i n g o , L . f T r a n s p o r t a t i o n and Urban Land Use. Washington. 1961. A l o n s o , w. , "The H i s t o r i c a l and S t r u c t u r a l T h e o r i e s of Urban Land Form". Land Economics. XL (1964) p.227 Hawley, A., Human E c o l o g y A Theory, o f Community, S t r u c t u r e . N. Y .: Ronald P r e s s . " 9 5 0 . Duncan, 0. and Schnore, L., " C u l t u r a l , B e h a v i o u r a l and E c o l o g i c a l P e r s p e c t i v e s i n the Study of S o c i a l O r g a n i z a t i o n " . American J o u r n a l o f S o c i o l o g y . 1959. p.132. 10 t w e n t i e s . Even c r i t i c s o f t h e e c o l o g i c a l a p p r o a c h , such as I . R e i s s m a n 1 9 , have s u p p o r t e d t h i s n o t i o n and f e l t c o m p e l l e d t o admit t h a t , " i n s p i t e o f i t s e r r o r s , e c o l o g y i s s t i l l the c l o s e s t we have t o a s y s t e m a t i c t h e o r y of the c i t y " . IIJ_ D J T E R I 0 E A T I O N _ r j O C E S S A l t h o u g h Burgess' r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e urban s p a t i a l p a t t e r n i s c l e a r l y d i f f e r e n t from t h a t of Hoyt, the u n d e r l y i n g p r o c e s s e s d e t e r m i n i n g the n a t u r e o f t h e v a r i a t i o n are c o n c e p t u a l l y s i m i l a r . Two concepts shared by the models have i m p o r t a n t i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r t h e changing c h a r a c t e r o f r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s and t h e f r e q u e n t l y a s s o c i a t e d d e c l i n e i n hous i n g q u a l i t y . The f i r s t p e r t a i n s t o t h e n o t i o n o f ' f i l t e r i n g ' and the impact o f ' b l i g h t i n g elements' on p r o p e r t y maintenance i n the s u r r o u n d i n g a r e a , and t h e second r e l a t e s t o the redevelopment c y c l e . Each w i l l be examined i n g r e a t e r d e t a i l i n an attempt t o account f o r t h e g r a d u a l d e t e r i o r a t i o n of the housing s t o c k . The dynamic framework o f t h e s e models p e r m i t s a s p a t i a l d e s c r i p t i o n of the consequences o f urban growth and change. In both c a s e s , g r e a t importance i s a t t r i b u t e d t o the f i l t e r i n g down of o l d e r houses t o l o w e r income groups as h i g h e r s t a t u s f a m i l i e s v a c a t e them i n p r e f e r e n c e f o r newly c o n s t r u c t e d homes u s u a l l y on the urban p e r i p h e r y . While f i l t e r i n g i s d e s c r i b e d i n s i m p l i f i e d , r a t h e r m e c h a n i s t i c terms i n the s e e a r l y models, much a t t e n t i o n has s i n c e been devoted t o t h e proc e s s and, d e s p i t e some c o n f l i c t i n i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , i t i s g e n e r a l l y r e c o g n i s e d as a s i g n i f i c a n t 19 Reissman, L., The Urban P r o c e s s . F r e e P r e s s . 1964. 11 element i n t h e d e t e r i o r a t i o n of the housing s t o c k 2 0 . Lowry has a t t r i b u t e d f i l t e r i n g and t h e a s s o c i a t e d d e p r e c i a t i o n of p r o p e r t y t o the v a c a t i o n of h o u s i n g , which i s deemed l e s s d e s i r a b l e due t o o b s e l e s c e n c e o f s t y l e , t e c h n o l o g y , s i t e o r l o c a t i o n 2 1 . However, a l t h o u g h t h e s e f a c t o r s a re c l e a r l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the d e c l i n i n g amenity v a l u e of r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s , they do not i n themselves account f o r the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c d e t e r i o r a t i o n c f f i l t e r e d s t o c k . Of c r u c i a l importance i n t h i s r e s p e c t i s the n a t u r e o f the change i n occupance. F i l t e r e d d w e l l i n g s are g e n e r a l l y o l d and have e x p e r i e n c e d some d e c l i n e and t h e r e f o r e r e q u i r e h i g h e r than average r e p a i r l e v e l s t o m a i n t a i n a s t a n d a r d q u a l i t y . However, lower income households o c c u p y i n g t h e f i l t e r e d p r o p e r t y a r e o f t e n f i n a n c i a l l y unable t o u n d e r t a k e t h e r e q u i r e d l e v e l o f maintenance, "and f u r t h e r d e t e r i o r a t i o n i n e v i t a b l y e n s u e s 2 2 . I r o n i c a l l y , t h e p r i v a t e s e c t o r has p l a c e d g r e a t emphasis on f i l t e r i n g as a means o f p r o v i d i n g s t a n d a r d l o w e r income d w e l l i n g u n i t s 2 3 , the r a t i o n a l e b e i n g t h a t t h e p o o r e s t q u a l i t y p r o p e r t y w i l l g r a d u a l l y be vacated and can s u b s e q u e n t l y 20 The v a r y i n g i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s p l a c e d on t h e f i l t e r i n g concept as a p r o c e s s o f change have been reviewed by W a l l a c e Smith. ( S m i t h , W., F i l t e r i n g , and Neighbourhood Change. Research Report No. 24. Univ. of C a l i f o r n i a : I n s t i t u t e of Urban and R e g i o n a l Development. 1964.) 21 Lowry, I . , " F i l t e r i n g and Housing S t a n d a r d s " , l a n d Economics 36 (1560). p.370. 22 G r i g s b y , W. and Rosenburg, L., Urban Housing P o l i c y . C entre f o r Urban P o l i c y R e s e a r c h , R u t g e r s . APS P u b l i c a t i o n s . 1975. 23 L a n s i n g has demonstrated t h a t some lower income f a m i l i e s do i n d i r e c t l y b e n e f i t from new c o n s t r u c t i o n through f i l t e r i n g . L a n s i n g , J , e t a l , New Homes and Poor P e o p l e ^ A Study, c f Chain Moves, ISR, Univ. o f M i c h i g a n . 1969. 12 be removed from the s t o c k . In p r a c t i c e however, s u b s t a n d a r d h o u s i n g t e n d s t o p e r s i s t , s i n c e o n l y a s m a l l p r o p o r t i o n o f the d w e l l i n g s f i l t e r down t o lower income groups and housing p r e s s u r e s r a r e l y p e r m i t the abandonment o f h o u s e s 2 4 . Hence, to d a t e , many f a m i l i e s have been f o r c e d t o l i v e i n l e s s d e s i r a b l e h o u s i n g or perhaps t o r e l o c a t e through c l e a r a n c e programmes designed t o d e m o l i s h not aba.ndo.nned, but o c c u p i e d homes. Burgess and Hoyt e n v i s a g e d a c l e a r s p a t i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n o f the d e c l i n i n g urban r e s i d e n t i a l d i s t r i c t s around the c e n t r a l c o r e . Such i n n e r c i t y neighbourhoods i n Vancouver as K i t s i l a n o , F a i r v i e w , Mount P l e a s a n t and Grandview f a l l i n t o t h i s c a t e g o r y . The housing s t o c k i n t h e s e areas i s c l e a r l y d e t e r i o r a t i n g , but the p r o c e s s may be a t t r i b u t e d not o n l y t o f i l t e r i n g ( a l t h o u g h t h i s has c e r t a i n l y o c c u r r e d ) , but a l s o to the presence of b l i g h t i n g elements w i t h i n t h e neighbourhood, fill b u i l d i n g s w i l l d e t e r i o r a t e t h r o u g h wear and t e a r w i t h the passage of t i m e , but t h e r a t e o f d e c l i n e i s l a r g e l y determined by the maintenance b e h a v i o u r of the i n d i v i d u a l p r o p e r t y owner. The s i g n i f i c a n c e c f t h i s has been s t r e s s e d by S t e r n l i e b , G r e b l e r and wingo, whose i n v e s t i g a t i o n s i n t o owner b e h a v i o u r i n slum a r e a s have r e v e a l e d t h e u n d e s i r a b l e impact o f n o x i o u s elements or ' b l i g h t i n g f a c t o r s ' on t h e maintenance d e c i s i o n 2 5 . B l i g h t i s n e v e r t h e l e s s 24 S i l v e r , I . and S m i t h , I . , "Housing Needs of t h e Poor: A H e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n " . I n D. Reeb (ed) , Housing the Poor. P r a e g e r , N.Y. 1973. 25 S t e r n l i e b , G., The Tenement L a n d l o r d . New B r u n s w i c k , USC. 1966. G r e b l e r , L., Housing Market B e h a v i o u r i n a D e c l i n g Area. N.Y.: Columbia Univ. P r e s s . 1952 Wingo, L., "Urban Renewal". J A I P . 32 (1966) p.146 13 d i f f i c u l t t o d e f i n e i n o b j e c t i v e t e r m s , a l t h o u g h i t has o f t e n been d e s c r i b e d as an a c t i v e agent i n t h e d e t e r i o r a t i o n p r o c e s s . T h i s n o t i o n i s s u p p o r t e d by the f o l l o w i n g statement i s s u e d by the C i t y of Vancouver P l a n n i n g D e p t 2 6 . " B l i g h t u n f o r t u n a t e l y i s not a s e l f l i q u i d a t i n g p r o c e s s , nor does i t remain c o n f i n e d t o one p a r t i c u l a r a r e a . I t s e f f e c t i s c o n t a g i o u s , and one d e r e l i c t p r o p e r t y or t h e i n t r u s i o n o f an u n s u i t a b l e i n d u s t r i a l c r c o mmercial use can be s u f f i c i e n t t o s e t In motion t h e f o r c e s l e a d i n g t o the d e c l i n e o f an area and the i n e v i t a b l e d e p r e c i a t i o n o f p r o p e r t y . " p. 28. "The f o r c e s " however, were never c l e a r l y i d e n t i f i e d and programmes designed t o a r r e s t d e t e r i o r a t i o n f o c u s e d on the i n d i s c r i m i n a t e s o l u t i o n of t o t a l c l e a r a n c e . There was a g e n e r a l f a i l u r e t o r e c o g n i s e t h a t t h e presence of n o x i o u s elements was i n f a c t l e s s s i g n i f i c a n t than th e a t t i t u d e s o f p r o p e r t y owners towards them and whether they were p e r c e i v e d as a d i s i n c e n t i v e t o maintenance. As s u g g ested e a r l i e r i n t h i s c h a p t e r , i t i s the c o n t e n t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s t h a t the a t t i t u d e of the p r o p e r t y owner, as r e f l e c t e d In h i s maintenance b e h a v i o u r , i s a key element i n t h e p r e s e r v a t i o n of good g u a l i t y housing and a w e l l m a i n t a i n e d neighbourhood. As t h e number of p e r c e i v e d d i s i n c e n t i v e s i n c r e a s e s and the m o t i v a t i o n or f i n a n c i a l a b i l i t y t o u n d e r t a k e r e p a i r s d e c l i n e s , t h e owner may cease t o i n v e s t i n p r o p e r t y maintenance, a l l o w i n g d e t e r i o r a t i o n to p r o g r e s s . Areas o f net d i s i n v e s t m e n t and p r o p e r t y d e c l i n e have a t t r a c t e d the a t t e n t i o n cf both p u b l i c and 26 C i t y o f Vancouver, Vancouver Redevelopment S t u d j . Dept, of Housing Research Committee. 19 57. p.28. 14 p r i v a t e c o n cerns and a s t r o n g case f o r the r e m o v a l c f s u b s t a n d a r d p r o p e r t y has been advanced on b o t h s o c i a l and economic grounds. N e v e r t h e l e s s , t h e i s s u e has been f r a u g h t w i t h problems. A l t h o u g h o f f i c i a l government s t a n d a r d s have been d e r i v e d 2 7 , t h e r e i s s t i l l much debate over a m e a n i n g f u l , • o b j e c t i v e * d e f i n i t i o n o f s u b s t a n d a r d h o u s i n g 2 8 . An i n c o n s i s t e n t d e f i n i t i o n o f q u a l i t y and a r e - e v a l u a t i o n of minimum d w e l l i n g s t a n d a r d s through time has c o n s e q u e n t l y i m p a i r e d the u t i l i t y c f much r e s e a r c h i n t o t h e e f f e c t s of d e t e r i o r a t e d p r o p e r t y . While the economic i n e f f i c i e n c y o f s u b s t a n d a r d s t r u c t u r e s on h i g h c o s t l a n d has been argued f a i r l y c o n v i n c i n g l y 2 9 , the s o c i a l r e p e r c u s s i o n s of a d e c l i n i n g r e s i d e n t i a l environment a r e l e s s c o n c l u s i v e . A l t hough poor q u a l i t y housing has been condemned as u n d e s i r a b l e by a number c f w r i t e r s such as P l a n t , w i l n e r and S c h o r r , o n l y I n the case o f g r o s s l y d e t e r i o r a t e d l i v i n g e n vironments were they a b l e t c support t h e i r case w i t h 27 N a t i o n a l Research C o u n c i l , Canadian Code f o r R e s i d e n t i a l C o n s t r u c t i o n . A s s o c i a t e Committee on N a t i o n a l B u i l d i n g Code. 1970 CMHC, Minimum P r o p e r t y Standards f o r E x i s t i n g R e s i d e n t i a l l i i i i i i n a s . Ottawa. 1971. 28 Moore, E. e t a l , Comments on D e f i n i t i o n and Measurement of Housing fijjalitjx. U n p u b l i s h e d r e p o r t . Dept. of Geography, North-Western U n i v . 1968. T w i c h e l l , A., "Measuring t h e Q u a l i t y o f Housing". I n C. Woodbury, Urban l i l - i i i i e l o p i e n t : . Problems and P r a c t i c e s , C h i c a g o : Univ o f Chicago Piress. 1953. P.11. 29 Rothenberg, J . , An Economic E v a l u a t i o n of Urban Renewal. Washington: B r o c k i n g s I n s t i t u t e . 1967. 15 s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t data on mental and p h y s i c a l h e a l t h 3 0 . T h e i r argument i s n e v e r t h e l e s s v a l i d from a moral s t a n d p o i n t and i l l u m i n a t e s t h e b a s i c s o c i a l and s p a t i a l i n e q u i t y i n urban h o u s i n g c o n d i t i o n s . I n a p r e d o m i n a n t l y p r i v a t e , c o m p e t i t i v e market, i t i s t h e lower income consumer, c o n s t r a i n e d by a l i m i t e d p u r c h a s i n g power, who i s f r e q u e n t l y f o r c e d t o s e l e c t h o u s i n g from a narrow, g e n e r a l l y l e s s d e s i r a b l e s e c t o r of the housing market. He i s c o n s e q u e n t l y d e p r i v e d o f t h e good g u a l i t y h o u s i n g t o which , i t may be argued, he i s e n t i t l e d as a matter of b a s i c human r i g h t s 3 1 . TEE_ REDEVELOPMENT^ PROCESS In t h e p a s t , both p u b l i c and p r i v a t e a g e n c i e s have f a v o u r e d redevelopment as a s o l u t i o n t o the s o c i a l and economic problems of d e c l i n i n g s t o c k . T h i s may be i d e n t i f i e d as the f i n a l stage i n the neighbourhood d e t e r i o r a t i o n p r o c e s s and i s c h a r a c t e r i s e d by a c h a n g i n g p h y s i c a l and s o c i o - e c o n o m i c environment. The t r a n s i t i o n o f Vancouver's West End from s i n g l e f a m i l y d w e l l i n g i n t h e n i n e t e e n hundreds t o d e t e r i o r a t e d c o n v e r t e d p r o p e r t y i n the n i n e t e e n f i f t i e s c l e a r l y e x e m p l i f i e s t h i s p r o c e s s , redevelopment and the c o n s t r u c t i o n of l u x u r y apartments h a v i n g completed the c y c l e i n the e a r l y n i n e t e e n s i x t i e s . E f f o r t s t o 30 P l a n t , J . , "Some P s y c h i a t r i c A s p e c t s of Crowded L i v i n g C o n d i t i o n s " . American J o u r n a l c f Psy.chia t r Y. IX (1930) P. 84 9. W i l n e r , D. e t a l , " E f f e c t s o f Housing on H e a l t h and Performance". I n D u h l , I . , The Urban C o n d i t i o n . N.Y. B a s i c Books. 1962. S c h o r r , A., Slums and S o c i a l I n s e c u r i t y . U.S. Dept. o f H e a l t h R e p o r t . 1963. 31 T h i s n o t i o n was u n d e r l i n e d i n the r e p o r t o f The F e d e r a l Task F o r c e on Housing i n 1969. ( H e l l y e r , P . , Report of the F e d e r a l Task F o r c e on Housing; and Urban Development. Ottawa. 1 969) 16 r e v i t a l i z e the urban f a b r i c s u b s t a n t i a t e an i m p o r t a n t u n d e r l y i n g a s sumption o f the t r a d i t i o n a l models of Burgess and Hoyt, both o f whom e n v i s a g e d t h e c i t y as a dynamic s t r u c t u r e r e q u i r i n g c o n s t a n t r e n e w a l . The redevelopment p r o c e s s has s i n c e been more e x p l i c i t l y f o r m u l a t e d by C o l e a n and Bourne, showing t h e e a r l y c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n s of the c l a s s i c a l models t o be o v e r s i m p l i s t i c 3 2 . N e v e r t h e l e s s , s t u d i e s of major Canadian c i t i e s such as Vancouver and Toronto have r e v e a l e d t h a t past redevelopment has b r o a d l y f o l l o w e d t h e p a t t e r n s u g g e s t e d by Burgess and Hoyt, A c c o r d i n g t o the c l a s s i c a l models, redevelopment w i l l c o n t i n u e t o p r o g r e s s outwards from the c i t y c e n t r e as s t o c k c o n t i n u e s t o d e t e r i o r a t e . S i n c e e x t e n s i v e redevelopment has been und e r t a k e n i n t h e downtown and West End o f Vancouver's i n n e r c o r e , the t r a n s i t i o n a l i n n e r c i t y neighbourhoods s h o u l d t h e o r e t i c a l l y be t h e f o c u s of r e n e w a l a c t i v i t y i n t h e near f u t u r e . The i n t i a l s t a g e s of r e s i d e n t i a l redevelopment are i n f a c t a l r e a d y e v i d e n t , a s m a l l a r e a o f the o l d e r , f a i r l y d e s i r a b l e neighbourhood o f K i t s i l a n o h a v i n g been r e d e v e l o p e d f o r hi g h c o s t a p a r t m e n t s . Other i n n e r c i t y neighbourhoods t h r o u g h o u t Canada have a l s o undergone redevelopment f o r h i g h e r income h o u s i n g . U n l i k e t h e i r c i d e r U.S. c o u n t e r p a r t s , Canadian c e n t r a l a r e a s a r e o f t e n s t i l l c o n s i d e r e d d e s i r a b l e r e s i d e n t i a l d i s t r i c t s and hence e x p e r i e n c e many p r e s s u r e s f o r p h y s i c a l and s o c i a l 32 C o l e a n , H. , R§newinc[ our C i t i e s . N.Y.: The T w e n t i e t h Century Fund. 1953 Bourne, L., P r i v a t e Redevelopment of t h e C e n t r a l City.. Dept of Geography Research Paper. No. 112. Univ. o f C h i c a g o . 1967. 17 change. T h i s has r e s u l t e d i n some "upwards" f i l t e r i n g c f e x i s t i n g i n n e r c i t y s t o c k and s t i m u l a t e d the p r i v a t e redevelopment of mere d e t e r i o r a t e d c e n t r a l a r e a s . However, t h e r e a r e two i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r s impeding the redevelopment process i n the Canadian c i t y . The f i r s t p e r t a i n s t o the high c o s t of s t o c k r e p l a c e m e n t , redevelopment o n l y b e i n g e c o n o m i c a l l y f e a s i b l e i n areas where a high revenue i s a s s u r e d through a more i n t e n s i v e l a n d use. Zoning f o r apartment c o n s t r u c t i o n i s t h e r e f o r e o f t e n a p r e r e q u i s i t e . The second c o n s t r a i n t has o n l y become e f f e c t i v e w i t h i n t h e l a s t few y e a r s , but has succeeded i n s l o w i n g widespread urban redevelopment i n some a r e a s . T h i s b a r r i e r has bean e r e c t e d by l o c a l r e s i d e n t s and c i t i z e n s * groups, who f i r s t p r e s e n t e d an o r g a n i z e d o p p o s i t i o n t o t h e d e s t r u c t i o n o f t h e i r n eighbourhoods i n the l a t e n i n e t e e n s i x t i e s . C i t i z e n r e s i s t a n c e i n T r e f a n n C o u r t i n T o r o n t o , P o i n t e S t . C h a r l e s i n M o n t r e a l and S t r a t h c o n a i n Vancouver e v e n t u a l l y won the p r e s e r v a t i o n of t h e s e n e i g h b o u r h o o d s 3 3 . However, t h e i r a c t i o n s a l s o i n e f f e c t won a f a r more i m p o r t a n t b a t t l e . C r i t i c i s m of the government's redevelopment p o l i c y had been mounting and t h e r e was a growing demand f o r a more s o c i a l l y o r i e n t e d programme c f re n e w a l . C i t i z e n o p p o s i t i o n i n c r e a s e d t h e p r e s s u r e f o r reform and u l t i m a t e l y r e s u l t e d i n a change o f government p o l i c y . I n an attempt t o p r e s e r v e t h e o l d e r i n n e r c i t y n eighbourhoods, a g r e a t e r emphasis has now been p l a c e d on p u b l i c a l l y a s s i s t e d 33 D e t a i l e d a c c o u n t s of t h e growth of c i t i z e n r e s i s t a n c e may be found i n G. E r a s e r ' s ' F i g h t i n g Back' ( H a k k e r t , T o r o n t o . 1972) and B. E i c h a r d s o n * s 'The F u t u r e of Canadian C i t i e s * ( T o r o n t o . New P r e s s . 1S72) 18 r e h a b i l i t a t i o n i n t h e s e a r e a s . The government has thereby p r e s e n t e d a s i g n i f i c a n t o b s t a c l e t o the t r a d i t i o n a l redevelopment p r o c e s s , and hence emerges as a more p o w e r f u l agent of s p a t i a l change. 21GflNIZATigj_0F„THJSIS A d e t a i l e d d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e e v o l v i n g p o l i c y of p u b l i c i n t e r v e n t i o n i n t h e p r i v a t e market p r o c e s s w i l l be presented i n Chapter I I . Emphasis i s p l a c e d on the p r o c e s s c f r e h a b i l i t a t i o n i n Canadian c i t i e s and a d i s c u s s i o n of the r e c e n t F e d e r a l programmes of Neighbourhood Improvement and R e s i d e n t i a l R e h a b i l i t a t i o n A s s i s t a n c e . C h a p t e r I I I examines the methods used f o r c o l l e c t i n g and a n a l y s i n g the survey d a t a , p a r t i c u l a r a t t e n t i o n b e i n g f o c u s e d on t h e house t o house and m a i l q u e s t i o n n a i r e s . The p h y s i c a l and s o c i o - e c o n o m i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e s u r v e y a r e a s o f K i t s i l a n o , Cedar C o t t a g e and Grandview are examined i n Chapter IV. The survey r e s u l t s a r e p r e s e n t e d i n C h a p t e r s V and VI. The former examines r e s p o n d e n t s ' a t t i t u d e s towards improvement i n t h e i r neighbourhood, and d i s c u s s e s f a c t o r s a f f e c t i n g t h e i r d e c i s i o n t o r e h a b i l i t a t e . Chapter VI e x p l o r e s the a t t i t u d e s of K i t s i l a n o and Cedar C o t t a g e r e s i d e n t s toward RRAP, and examines p e r c e i v e d i n c e n t i v e s and d i s i n c e n t i v e s to p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n t h i s programme. F i n a l l y , some c o n c l u d i n g comments on the s t u d y ' s f i n d i n g s and t h e i r i m p l i c a t i o n s a r e p r e s e n t e d i n Chapter V I I . 19 CHJPTES_II T H E _ D j B ^ - B ^ E N E R a T I O N ^ ^ f ^ S S "..... We know t h e r e i s no a u t o m a t i c p r i v a t e market p r o c e s s which r e g e n e r a t e s urban a r e a s as they d e c l i n e . T h e r e f o r e , t h e government b e l i e v e s t h a t i f t h e r e i s t o be such a r e g e n e r a t i v e p r o c e s s , i t must be developed as a matter of p u b l i c p o l i c y " 1 . The p r e s e n t s p a t i a l p a t t e r n of h o u s i n g s t o c k i n Canadian c i t i e s i s a product o f both p u b l i c and p r i v a t e a c t i v i t i e s , government i n t e r v e n t i o n i n t h e p r i v a t e market p r o c e s s h a v i n g v a r i e d i n c h a r a c t e r and i n t e n s i t y over the y e a r s . The f e d e r a l g o v e r n m e n t s g o a l has been t o compensate f o r t h e f a i l u r e c f the n a t u r a l p r o c e s s of l a n d use s u c c e s s i o n t o e l i m i n a t e the problems o f urban b l i g h t . Numerous c o n t r o l s d e s i g n e d t o r e g u l a t e the q u a l i t y , l o c a t i o n and d e n s i t y o f p r i v a t e development have been i n t r o d u c e d , l a n d use z o n i n g , code e n f o r c e m e n t , t a x a t i o n and urban r e n e w a l a l l h a v i n g been w i d e l y u t i l i z e d 2 . Each has a f f e c t e d t h e n a t u r e and r a t e c f change i n the urban s p a t i a l p a t t e r n o f N o r t h amerlean c i t i e s . However, p u b l i c i n t e r v e n t i o n p r i o r t o 1969 l a r g e l y p e r p e t u a t e d t h e p r i v a t e market p r o c e s s c f c l e a r a n c e and redevelopment i n d e t e r i o r a t e d a r e a s . The s p a t i a l 1 N i c h o l s o n , J . , " A Fre s h Approach t o Canada's Housing". Statement d e l i v e r e d i n t h e House of Commons, May 28th 1964. 2 Wheaton, W. , " P u b l i c and P r i v a t e Agents o f Change i n Urban E x p a n s i o n " . In Webber, H., E x p l o r a t i o n s i n t o Urban S t r u c t u r e . P h i l a d e l p h i a : U n i v . o f P h i l a d e l p h i a P r e s s . 1968. P.154. Czamanski, S., " E f f e c t s o f P u b l i c Investment on Urban Land V a l u e s " . JAIP 32 (1966) P.204 20 p a t t e r n as d e s c r i b e d i n Burgess' and Hoyt's models, although, m o d i f i e d , has t h e r e f o r e not been r a d i c a l l y t r a n s f o r m e d . I t may be p o s t u l a t e d however, t h a t the r e c e n t change i n emphasis from government redevelopment t o r e h a b i l i t a t i o n has s i g n i f i c a n t i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r t h e e v o l v i n g s t r u c t u r e of Canadian c i t i e s . In o r d e r t o i l l u s t r a t e the n a t u r e and importance of t h i s t r a n s i t i o n , Canadian improvement p o l i c i e s s i n c e World War I I w i l l be examined. P a r t i c u l a r a t t e n t i o n w i l l be devoted t o the changing r o l e of r e h a b i l i t a t i o n and t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f the government as an agent of s p a t i a l change. C1e a rance m a nd _Redevelopment P r i o r t o the Second World War, p u b l i c i n t e r v e n t i o n i n the p a t t e r n of urban development was l i m i t e d and few c l e a r p o l i c i e s f o r improvement were e v o l v e d . The n i n e t e e n f o r t i e s however w i t n e s s e d a suburban h o u s i n g boom, which s t i m u l a t e d p r i v a t e companies t o d i v e r t many o f t h e i r r e s o u r c e s from t h e h i g h e r r i s k c e n t r a l urban a r e a s t o t h e bouyant market on t h e p e r i p h e r y 3 . Many o l d e r i n n e r c i t y d i s t r i c t s were c o n s e q u e n t l y l e f t to s t a g n a t e , p r o g r e s s i v e d e t e r i o r a t i o n p r o v i d i n g a f u r t h e r d i s i n c e n t i v e t o p r i v a t e i n v e s t m e n t . The government responded to the growing economic and s o c i a l problems o f the c e n t r a l a r e a s w i t h a p o l i c y of c l e a r a n c e and redevelopment , which was to c o n s t i t u t e the b a s i s f o r most improvement programmes p r i o r to 3 P i c k e t t , S., An A p p r a i s a l o f Urban Renewal Programmes i n Canada. I n Sayegh, K. , Canadian Housincjj. A Reader. Univ c f W a t e r l o o , O n t a r i o . 1972. 21 1969. The g o a l was one of economic r e v i t a l i z a t i o n , designed t o once a g a i n s t i m u l a t e p r i v a t e development i n the c i t y c o r e . L i t t l e a t t e n t i o n was devoted to t h e s o c i a l i m p l i c a t i o n s c f h o u s i n g c l e a r a n c e , slums and o t h e r d e t e r i o r a t e d p r o p e r t y g e n e r a l l y b e i n g r e g a r d e d as b l i g h t t h a t must be removed*. Most government i n t e r v e n t i o n t o date has f o c u s e d on t h e r e j u v e n a t i o n of c e n t r a l c i t y a r e a s , a l t h o u g h s u c c e s s has been v a r i e d . The e a r l y redevelopment programmes e v o l v e d under the 1944 and 1954 N a t i o n a l Housing A c t s were p o o r l y a d m i n i s t e r e d and funded, and c o n s e q u e n t l y a t t r a c t e d v e r y l i t t l e p r i v a t e investment and a c c o m p l i s h e d o n l y minor improvements' 5. However, an amendment t o the NHA In 1956 i n c o r p o r a t e d a number of l e g i s l a t i v e changes, which s t i m u l a t e d g r e a t e r i n t e r e s t from l o c a l government a g e n c i e s and gave r i s e t o a s i g n i f i c a n t i n c r e a s e i n redevelopment a c t i v i t y . A t o t a l o f 600 a c r e s c f c e n t r a l l y l o c a t e d , d e t e r i o r a t e d l a n d was d e s i g n a t e d f o r c l e a r a n c e and s e r v i c i n g i n s e v e r a l o l d e r Canadian c i t i e s w h i ch, i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h a t t r a c t i v e f i n a n c i a l arrangements, l e d t o a r e s u r g e n c e o f p r i v a t e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the c o r e redevelopment p r o c e s s . However, a l t h o u g h redevelopment o r i e n t e d p o l i c i e s were t o c o n t i n u e f o r a n o t h e r decade, by the l a t e n i n e t e e n f i f t i e s , a number of m u n i c i p a l governments were e x h i b i t i n g a growing 4 Cans, H., P e o p l e and P l a n s . Random House. N.Y. 1968. Adamson, P., Housing P o l i c y and Urban Renewal. In N. L i t h w i c k (ed) , Or ban Studies:, A Canadian P e r s p e c t i v e . T o r o n t o ; Methuen.~"l968. Ch. 9. 5 C r o s s , K. and C o l l i e r , R., The Urban Renewal P r o c e s s i n Canada. S c h o o l of R e g i o n a l and Community P l a n n i n g , UEC Research P r o j e c t No. 3. 1967 22 awareness o f t h e need t o r e v i s e improvement s t r a t e g i e s . T h i s i s e x e m p l i f i e d by t h e appracch t o redevelopment a t t h i s time i n Vancouver and Toronto. Redevelopment was i n i t i a t e d i n Vancouver i n 1955 under the then c i t y p l a n n e r , G e r a l d S u t t o n Brown. By 1957, the Vancouver C i t y P l a n n i n g Department had e v o l v e d a redevelopment programme, which made a d i s t i n c t i o n between "Comprehensive Redevelopment a r e a s " , where t o t a l c l e a r a n c e was t o be u n d e r t a k e n as b e f o r e , and t h e newly d e f i n e d a r e a s of " L i m i t e d Redevelopment" 6. I t was a s s e s s e d t h a t the l a t t e r , a l t h o u g h not p r e s e n t l y b l i g h t e d , were l i a b l e t o d e t e r i o r a t i o n w i t h i n t h e next twenty y e a r s and a p o l i c y o f spot c l e a r a n c e and r e h a b i l i t a t i o n was a d v o c a t e d . T h i s r e p r e s e n t e d one of the f i r s t attempts t o i n t r o d u c e improvement measures which not o n l y removed b l i g h t e d s t r u c t u r e s , but a l s o endeavoured t o p r e v e n t f u t u r e d e t e r i o r a t i o n . U n f o r t u n a t e l y however, the advance a t t h i s s t a g e was l i t t l e more t h a n c o n c e p t u a l , s i n c e most a t t e n t i o n was devoted t o t h e c l e a r a n c e of the Comprehensive Redevelopment a r e a s . I r o n i c a l l y , a r e a s such as Lower Mount P l e a s a n t and E a s t K i t s i l a n o , which had been sch e d u l e d f o r r e h a b i l i t a t i o n , were l a r g e l y i g n o r e d and d e t e r i o r a t i o n c o n t i n u e d as b e f o r e 7 . A s i m i l a r attempt t o r e f o r m u l a t e the past p o l i c y o f t o t a l redevelopment was e v i d e n t i n t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l A l e x a n d r a Park Redevelopment P r o j e c t , 6 C i t y o f Vancouver, Vancouver Redevelopment Study. Dept. of Housing Resea r c h . 1957. 7 Vancouver Housing a s s o c i a t i o n , The Case f o r a ElaSLEgd Nei3b.b0urh.00d Il££02gffl§Si P£ogramme. Community P l a n n i n g a s s o c i a t i o n B u l l e t i n . 1963. 23 Toronto i n t h e n i n e t e e n s i x t i e s . A g a i n , t h e r e h a b i l i t a t i o n c f p r o p e r t y a s s e s s e d t o be i n f a i r c o n d i t i o n was s t a t e d as an i n t e g r a l p a r t of a g e n e r a l "Improvement Programme" 8, but i n p r a c t i c e r e c e i v e d very l i t t l e emphasis. Hence, p r o g r e s s i n t h i s a r e a was slow and t h e concept c f r e h a b i l i t a t i o n remained g e n e r a l l y unaccepted as a v i a b l e mechanism c f improvement f o r a number o f y e a r s . T h i s may be a t t r i b u t e d t o both the importance p l a c e d on s t i m u l a t i n g p r i v a t e i n v e s t m e n t i n t h e c e n t r a l core and t h e inadequacy of programme g u i d e l i n e s . A l t h o u g h the 1956 NHA had i n f a c t i n t r o d u c e d r e h a b i l i t a t i o n as a t o o l o f the new urban renewal programme, no l e g l i s l a t i v e framework f o r the e x e c u t i o n c f r e h a b i l i t a t i o n p r o j e c t s was p r o v i d e d u n t i l an amendment o f the Act i n 1964. In t h i s r e v i s i o n o f f e d e r a l p o l i c y , the term "urban redevelopment" was f i n a l l y s u p p l a n t e d by "urban r e n e w a l " i n an attempt t o convey a more comprehensive approach t o improvement. R e h a b i l i t a t i o n was s t r e s s e d as one o f s e v e r a l t o o l s o f r e n e w a l . Illba n_Rene wal The g o a l o f t h e newly f o r m u l a t e d urban r e n e w a l programme was t o guide "the p u b l i c and p r i v a t e p r o c e s s cf redevelopment, r e h a b i l i t a t i o n and c o n s e r v a t i o n i n the l i g h t of s o c i a l , economic and p h y s i c a l o b j e c t i v e s agreed on by the community, as opposed to merely a l l o w i n g the market t o take i t s c o u r s e " 9 . Large a r e a s 8 Rose, A., P r o s p e c t s f o r t h e R e h a b i l i t a t i o n of Housing, i n C e n t r a l T o r o n t o . Univ of T o r o n t o . 1966. 9 C r o s s , K. and C o l l i e r , R., Op c i t . P.1. 24 o f the c i t y c o r e were d e s i g n a t e d f o r r e n e w a l i n an attempt t o extend p u b l i c i n f l u e n c e beyond the s c a t t e r e d p l o t s s e l e c t e d f o r redevelopment p r i o r t o 196 4. Urban r e n e w a l t h e r e f o r e became an i m p o r t a n t d e t e r m i n a n t of s p a t i a l change, s t i m u l a t i n g p r i v a t e i n v e s t m e n t i n c e n t r a l urban a r e a s t h a t h i t h e r t o had been c o n s i d e r e d u n a t t r a c t i v e f o r p r i v a t e redevelopment . The f u n c t i o n o f urban r e n e w a l was t h e r e f o r e e s s e n t i a l l y s i m i l a r t o t h a t o f t h e former redevelopment programmes, a l t h o u g h t h e more comprehensive approach promised a new c h a r a c t e r f o r renewal a r e a s . However, as t h e programme p r o g r e s s e d , the s u p e r f i c i a l i t y o f the change became ap p a r e n t . As i n t h e e a r l i e r programmes, redevelopment emerged as t h e p r i n c i p l e mechanism of improvement and the " s o c i a l o b j e c t i v e s agreed on by the community" were f r e q u e n t l y overwhelmed by t h e d e s i r e f o r economic e f f i c i e n c y 1 0 . I t was c l e a r t h a t v ery l i t t l e r e f o r m u l a t i o n of t h e u n d e r l y i n g improvement p o l i c y had been undertaken and t h a t t h e c h a r a c t e r c f the renewed a r e a s was u n l i k e l y t o be s i g n i f i c a n t l y changed. A l t h o u g h h o u s i n g r e h a b i l i t a t i o n was s t r e s s e d as an i m p o r t a n t component of urban r e n e w a l , few e f f e c t i v e programmes were d e v e l o p e d and i t s c o n t r i b u t i o n t o improvement was l i m i t e d . P a r t i c u l a r emphasis was p l a c e d on f o r c e d r e h a b i l i t a t i o n through code enforcement, w h i c h , due t o poor a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , c o n t r i b u t e d l i t t l e but s o c i a l h a r d s h i p t o t h e p r o c e s s o f urban r e n e w a l 1 1 . 10 C o l l , A., Neighbourhood Improvement and C o n s e r v a t i o n . CMHC Ottawa. 1974." 11 F i t z p a t r i c k , G., Towards a P o s i t i v e L o c a l Government P o l i c y f o r R e s i d e n t i a l R e h a b i l i t a t i o n . U n p u b l i s h e d t h e s i s . Dept. o f Community and R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g , UBC. 1963. Each m u n i c i p a l i t y had the a u t h o r i t y t o l e g i s l a t e improvement i n p a r t i c u l a r l y d e t e r i o r a t e d a r e a s , nut a g e n e r a l apathy caused fcy a d m i n i s t r a t i v e problems brought an uneven response from l o c a l governments and l i t t l e a m e l i o r a t i o n i n t h e housi n g q u a l i t y , a l t e r n a t i v e p r o v i s i o n s f o r r e h a b i l i t a t i o n were made through the Home Improvement Loans scheme, which had i n f a c t been o p e r a t i n g s i n c e t h e n i n e t e e n f i f t i e s 1 2 . However, the c o n t r i b u t i o n to r e n o v a t i o n was a g a i n m i n i m a l , an e x a m i n a t i o n of s t a t i s t i c s up to 1970 i n d i c a t i n g t h a t t h e s e l e a n s were m a i n l y used f o r s t r u c t u r a l a d d i t i o n s r a t h e r than r e h a b i l i t a t i o n per s e 1 3 . F u r t h e r m o r e , s i n c e l o a n s had t o be s e c u r e d from a bank o r c r e d i t u n i o n , they were f r e q u e n t l y u n a v a i l a b l e to the low income homeowners who were i n g r e a t e s t need of t h e m 1 4 . Nc a l t e r n a t i v e means of f u n d i n g was a r r a n g e d f o r t h e s e i n d i v i d u a l s and no p r o v i s i o n s were made f o r f i n a n c i a l l y a s s i s t i n g p r o p e r t y improvements undertaken by the p r i v a t e owner. F e d e r a l r e h a b i l i t a t i o n a s s i s t a n c e however was a v a i l a b l e , t o p r o v i n c i a l or m u n i c i p a l a u t h o r i t i e s wishing t o ren o v a t e b u i l d i n g s i n d e s i g n a t e d urban r e n e w a l a r e a s . However, w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f Quebec, few p r o v i n c e s were i n t e r e s t e d i n u n d e r t a k i n g any s u b s t a n t i a l r e h a b i l i t a t i o n programmes, the pr e s s u r e f o r redevelopment s t i l l , assuming precedence over 12 Bunge, J . , Urban Renewal i n Canada:. An Assessment of C u r r e n t P r a c t i c e . U n p u b l i s h e d t h e s i s . Dept. o f Community and R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g , UBC. 1967. 13 D e n n i s , M. and F i s h , S., Programmes i n Search o f a P o l i c y . H a k k e r t , T o r o n t o . 1972 ~ 14 The CMHC i s o n l y a u t h o r i s e d t o i n s u r e Home Improvement Loans • s e c u r e d from an approved c r e d i t agency. I t does not' a c t u a l l y p r o v i d e any f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e t h rough t h i s scheme t o those i n need. 26 r e n o v a t i o n 1 5 . Hence, d e s p i t e government l e g i s l a t i o n and t h e h i g h f i n a n c i a l and s o c i a l c c s t s c f r e m o v a l , t h e r e were t o be few comprehensive r e h a b i l i t a t i o n programmes f o r m u l a t e d under the 1964 NHA. P u b l i c h o u s i n g was regarded as a more e f f i c i e n t s o l u t i o n t o the p r o v i s i o n o f s t a n d a r d , lower income accommodation, t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n of housing p r o j e c t s such as Regent Park i n T o r o n t o 1 6 , and Baymur P l a c e i n V a n c o u v e r 1 7 b e i n g a c t i v e l y encouraged by f e d e r a l g r a n t s , w h i l e some l o w e r income f a m i l i e s undoubtedly o b t a i n e d b e t t e r accommodation, many e x p e r i e n c e d an unwelcome i n c r e a s e i n r e n t and a sense c f l o s s and p s y c h o l o g i c a l u p h e a v a l as a r e s u l t o f d i s l o c a t i o n through urban r e n e w a l 1 8 . A h i g h p r o p o r t i o n o f the d i s p l a c e d f a m i l i e s r e c e i v e d l i t t l e or no government a s s i s t a n c e and were f r e g u e n t l y l e f t t o r e l o c a t e i n s i m i l a r l y b l i g h t e d , low r e n t a r e a s 1 9 . T h i s s i t u a t i o n i s c l e a r l y e x e m p l i f i e d i n t h e c a s e of Vancouver, where 3500 people were d i s p l a c e d by urban r e n e w a l between 1961 and 15 D e n n i s , M. and F i s h , S., Or c i t , 16 Rose, A., Op c i t . 17 Vancouver C i t y P l a n n i n g Dept., C i t y o f Vancouver Redevelopment P r o j e c t No x 1± Redeyelopment x A c q u i s i t i o n and C l e a r a n c e . T e c h n i c a l P l a n n i n g Beard. 1959. 18 Gans, H., "The Human I m p l i c a t i o n s o f C u r r e n t Redevelopment and R e l o c a t i o n P l a n n i n g . " JAIP 25 (195 9) p. 15-25. F r i e d , M., " G r i e v i n g f o r a L o s t Home." In D u h l , I . , The Urban C o n d i t i o n . B a s i c Books. N.Y. 1963. 19 C o a t e s , J . , Tenancy and B l i g h t y i£ E x a m i n a t i o n of T h e i r C a u s a l R e l a t i o n s h i p i n a S i n g l e F a m i l y R e s i d e n t i a l Area of y.§.Ii£oHyer. U n p u b l i s h e d t h e s i s . Dept. o f Community and R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g , UBC. 1964. 27 1 9 6 9 2 0 . Seven hundred of t h e s e i n d i v i d u a l s were a l l o c a t e d p u b l i c h o u s i n g , but t h e C i t y has no r e c o r d of a f u r t h e r 17 00 who were l e f t t o f i n d t h e i r own accommodation. S o c i a l c o n c e r n s were a p p a r e n t l y o f low p r i o r i t y i n a r e n e w a l scheme which t o many, i n c l u d i n g t h e C h i e f P l a n n e r , was c h i e f l y "a matter cf e c o n o m i c s " 2 1 . As more urban r e n e w a l programmes were i n i t i a t e d , the government's f a i l u r e t o c o n s i d e r t h e h o u s i n g needs and w e l f a r e o f t h e lower income consumer drew s e v e r e c r i c i s m from b o t h c i t i z e n s and p l a n n e r s . By t h e l a t e n i n e t e e n s i x t i e s , a h i g h l e v e l o f d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h government p o l i c y was e v i d e n t and t h e r e was growing p r e s s u r e t o e v o l v e an e f f e c t i v e s t r a t e g y f o r r e h a b i l i t a t i o n . The i n i t i a l government response c e n t r e d on the r e n o v a t i o n of s u b s t a n d a r d r u r a l h o u s i n g , but as r e s i s t a n c e towards r e n e w a l from c i t i z e n s ' groups a c r o s s the c o u n t r y c o n t i n u e d t o mount, the p r i m a r y f o c u s became urban. The p r e s s u r e c u l m i n a t e d i n 1969 w i t h the c o m p l e t i o n of the F e d e r a l Task F o r c e ' s r e p o r t on Housing and Urban D e v e l o p m e n t 2 2 , which s t r o n g l y c r i t i c i z e d p a s t renewal a c t i v i t i e s . The government f i n a l l y succumbed t o the p r e s s u r e f o r r e f o r m and the then Housing M i n i s t e r andras suspended a l l urban r e n e w a l programmes. Over two decades of redevelopment o r i e n t e d p o l i c i e s had n e v e r t h e l e s s made an i m p r e s s i o n on both the urban s t r u c t u r a l development and the i n n e r c i t y i n h a b i t a n t s . The i i p a c t on the 20 Vancouver Sun, August 3 0 t h , 1969. P.1. 21 Statement i s s u e d by C h i e f Vancouver P l a n n e r , G e r a l d S u t t o n Brown t o the Vancouver Sun, august 30th, 1969. 22 H e l l y e r , P., Report o f t h e F e d e r a l Task F o r c e on Housing and Urban Development. Ottawa. 1969. 28 former was not g r e a t , government i n t e r v e n t i o n h a v i n g merely p r o v i d e d a s l i g h t l y m o d i f i e d framework t o t h e o p e r a t i o n o f the p r i v a t e market. However, many lower income f a m i l i e s had been g r e a t l y a f f e c t e d ty redevelopment. An e s t i m a t e d 15,000 had been d i s p l a c e d from t h e i r homes, o n l y 10,000 o f whom had been a d e q u a t e l y r e h o u s e d 2 3 . l I J i J I L M A T J O N _ I N _ T H E _ N I N E IMPROVEMENT " I f the aim o f a decent home f o r eve r y Canadian i s t o be r e a l i z e d , h o u s i n g p o l i c y must p l a c e f a r g r e a t e r emphasis on c o n s e r v i n g and r e c y c l i n g our e x i s t i n g h o u s i n g r e s o u r c e s " 2 4 . As i n d i c a t e d i n t h e p r e c e d i n g s e c t i o n s , the s t a t u s of r e h a b i l i t a t i o n as a t o o l f o r government improvement p o l i c i e s has changed over t h e y e a r s . E a r l y p l a n n e r s r e g a r d e d r e h a b i l i t a t i o n merely as a temporary measure, which would u l t i m a t e l y g i v e way t o redevelopment. However, a g r a d u a l r e a p p r a i s a l ' of improvement t e c h n i q u e s i n the l i g h t of mounting p u b l i c c r i t i c i s m r e v e a l e d r e h a b i l i t a t i o n as a v i a b l e , more s o c i a l l y a c c e p t a b l e a l t e r n a t i v e t o t o t a l redevelopment. Not on l y does h o u s i n g r e n o v a t i o n c o n s t i t u t e an i m p o r t a n t means of p r e s e r v i n g the d i v e r s i t y o f the housing s t o c k , but i t a l s o i n c r e a s e s t h e number of s t a n d a r d 23 L i t h w i c k , N, H., Urban P o v e r t y . Research Monograph No. 1, In L i t h w i c k , N., Urban Canada^ Problems and P r o s p e c t s , Ottawa, C.M.H.C. 1971. 24 Baker, J . , I n t r o d u c t i o n t o the P r o c e e d i n g s c f the Housing. R e h a b i l i t a t i o n C o n f e r e n c e . Nov. 1973, 29 d w e l l i n g s a v a i l a b l e t o the consumer. T h i s has p a r t i c u l a r s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r t h e hous i n g market of the n i n e t e e n s e v e n t i e s , s i n c e i n c r e a s i n g p r e s s u r e s have r e s u l t e d i n a demand f o r even poor q u a l i t y accommodation i n the l a r g e r urban c e n t r e s 2 5 . F u r t h e r m o r e , p u b l i c h o u s i n g i s no l o n g e r always c o n s i d e r e d an a c c e p t a b l e housing a l t e r n a t i v e 2 6 . T h i s was i l l u s t r a t e d i n a st u d y o f a p o r t i o n o f the Vancouver i n n e r c i t y neighbourhood of Grandview-Wccdlands, which r e v e a l e d t h a t r e s i d e n t s g e n e r a l l y p r e f e r r e d t o remain i n below average d w e l l i n g s than t o move to p u b l i c h o u s i n g p r o j e c t s such as Baymur P l a c e 2 7 . Redevelopment and t h e p r o v i s i o n of p u b l i c h o u s i n g i n e v i t a b l y s t i l l have an i m p o r t a n t r o l e t o p l a y , but an i n c r e a s i n g emphasis must be p l a c e d on r e h a b i l i t a t i o n as a complementary mechanism f o r improvement. The r e c e n t change i n government p o l i c y r e p r e s e n t s t h e f i r s t t ime t h a t any s i g n i f i c a n t attempt has been made t o r e h a b i l i t a t e o l d e r neighbourhoods and ho u s i n g s p e c i f i c a l l y f o r lo w e r income f a m i l i e s . Such o f the l a r g e s c a l e r e h a b i l i t a t i o n i n the p a s t was undertaken by p r i v a t e a g e n c i e s , which c o n s i d e r e d i t e c o n o m i c a l l y prudent t o c a t e r f o r t h e h i g h e r income consumer, r e g a r d l e s s of 25 T h i s i s s u b s t a n t i a t e d by a vacancy r a t e o f l e s s than 1% i n Vancouver i n 1975, w h i l e t h e p r o p o r t i o n of s u b s t a n d a r d d w e l l i n g u n i t s was a p p r o x i m a t e l y 41. ( L i o y , M. , S o c i a l Trends I S G r e a t e r Vancouver. U n i t e d Way: S o c i a l P o l i c y and Research DeptT T975.) 26 findrassy, M., "Report on Canadian Co n f e r e n c e on Housing R e h a b i l i t a t i o n " . Joying. P l a c e s 9 No. 4. P. 8. B a r n a r d , P., R e h a b i l i t a t i o n Programmes: R a t i o n a l e s and Problems. R e h a b i l i t a t i o n . H a b i t a t P u b l i c a t i o n , C.M.H.C. 1975. 27 UCS Research Dept., The C l a r k D r i v e Study. UCS of G r e a t e r Vancouver. 1967. 30 t h e needs of l e s s p r i v i l e g e d g r o u p s 2 8 . The government's d e c i s i o n t o p r e s e r v e o l d e r c i t y neighbourhoods t h r o u g h a programme c f r e h a b i l i t a t i o n t h e r e f o r e has i m p o r t a n t s o c i a l i m p l i c a t i o n s and may a l s o i n f l u e n c e the development o f the urban s t r u c t u r e . The government may emerge as an i m p o r t a n t agent of s p a t i a l change i f r e h a b i l i t a t i o n programmes c o n t i n u e t o i n h i b i t the fundamental development p r o c e s s e s d e s c r i b e d i n t h e t r a d i t i o n a l models. F u r t h e r c o n s t r a i n t s have been imposed on p r i v a t e redevelopment by p r o h i b i t i n g the r e z o n i n g o f many o l d e r ' c o n v e r s i o n ' d i s t r i c t s f o r more i n t e n s i v e apartment use. Large s c a l e p r i v a t e redevelopment i n many such a r e a s has t h e r e f o r e been r e n d e r e d e c o n o m i c a l l y u n a t t r a c t i v e , e s p e c i a l l y where neighbourhoods have a l s o been d e s i g n a t e d f o r p u b l i c a l l y a s s i s t e d improvement through NIP and RRAP* Publ i c J e h a b i l i t at i o n P r o g r a mmes F o l l o w i n g the s u s p e n s i o n of urban renewal i n 1969, t h e r e was a marked h i a t u s i n f e d e r a l improvement programming. S e v e r a l i s o l a t e d schemes such as Vancouver's Gastown-Cordova p r o j e c t 2 9 were funded t h r o u g h a $2m programme i n i t i a t e d i n 1970, but no comprehensive g u i d e l i n e s f o r the r e h a b i l i t a t i o n of i n n e r c i t y n eighbourhoods were e v o l v e d u n t i l 1972. These e a r l y schemes s t i l l p l a c e d a major emphasis cn the p r i v a t e d e v e l o p e r , o n l y 2 8 F u r t h e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n w i l l be g i v e n t o the r o l e c f p r i v a t e i n d u s t r y In t h e r e h a b i l i t a t i o n p r o c e s s towards t h e end of t h i s c h a p t e r . 29 Hoodie, B., Gastown^ Pa s t j , P r e s e n t and F u t u r e . U n p u b l i s h e d t h e s i s . Dept. o f Community and R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g , UBC. 197 1. 31 minimal a s s i s t a n c e h a v i n g been a l l o c a t e d t o the i n d i v i d u a l o w n e r 3 0 . T h i s c l e a r l y i l l u s t r a t e s the r e l u c t a n c e o f t h e F e d e r a l government t o t o t a l l y e x c l u d e the p r i v a t e agent from the improvement p r o c e s s . The P r o v i n c i a l and M u n i c i p a l governments, however, d i d make a s i g n i f i c a n t c o n t r i b u t i o n t o r e h a b i l i t a t i o n a c t i v i t y and hence to t h e p a t t e r n c f urban development w i t h i n t h i s t h r e e year p e r i o d . They u t i l i z e d t h e i r own i n i a t i v e s to i n s t i g a t e l o c a l improvement programmes and by 1971 r e h a b i l i t a t i o n p r o j e c t s were underway i n most major Canadian c i t i e s . These u l t i m a t e l y accounted f o r the r e n o v a t i o n cf 17,000 d w e l l i n g u n i t s i n a number of d i s p e r s e d l o c a t i o n s 3 1 . Vancouver's s u c c e s s f u l S t r a t h c o n a R e h a b i l i t a t i o n Programme c o n s t i t u t e s j u s t one example of t h i s 3 2 . I n most c a s e s , h i g h p r i o r i t y was g i v e n t o a s s i s t i n g l o w e r income homeowners w i t h r e h a b i l i t a t i o n , g r a n t s a v e r a g i n g 25% of t h e c o s t s b e i n g a l l o c a t e d on t h e b a s i s of income i n a r a r e l y p r e c e d e n t e d attempt t o c a s t the i n d i v i d u a l owner as an a c t o r r a t h e r than a pawn i n t h e improvement game. T h i s approach f i n a l l y r e c e i v e d f e d e r a l endorsement i n 197 2, the 33 proposed programmes o f Neighbourhood Improvement and R e s i d e n t i a l 30 Gut man, E., Housing;. Problems i n S k i d Row R e h a b i l i t a t i o n . U n p u b l i s h e d t h e s i s . Dept. of Community and R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g , UBC. 1972. 31 B a r n a r d , P., I n t r o d u c t i o n t o t h e R e h a b i l i t a t i o n P r o c e s s . CMHC. T o r o n t o . "1973. 3 2 B e l l , I . , The S t r a t h c o n a R e h a b i l i t a t i o n P r o j e c t ^ Document at i o n and fina l y s i s . U n i t e d way. 19 75. 33 NHA, 1973, Neighbourhood Improvement Programme. P a r t I I I 1. S e c t i o n 27. 1. NHA, 1973, R e h a b i l i t a t i o n and C o n v e r s i o n of E x i s t i n g B u i l d i n g s . P a r t IV 1. S e c t i o n 34.1. 32 R e h a b i l i t a t i o n A s s i s t a n c e i n c o r p o r a t i n g many elements o f t h e s e e a r l i e r schemes. I n J u l y 1974, a number o f o l d e r i n n e r c i t y neighbourhoods were s e l e c t e d f o r r e n o v a t i o n t h r o u g h the Neighbourhood Improvement Programme (NIP), By c o n c e n t r a t i n g on the r e h a b i l i t a t i o n of an e n t i r e neighbourhood, the F e d e r a l government has now extended i t s area o f d i r e c t i n f l u e n c e beyond t h e few b l o c k s f o r m e r l y d e s i g n a t e d f o r urban r e n e w a l , p e r m i t t i n g g r e a t e r p u b l i c c o n t r o l o v er t h e development of the urban s t r u c t u r e . Neighbourhoods were p r i m a r i l y s e l e c t e d on t h e b a s i s o f t h e i r s u b s t a n d a r d h o u s i n g and i n a d e q u a t e m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e s . However, neighbourhood s t a b i l i t y and absence o f redevelopment p r e s s u r e s a l s o c o n s t i t u e i m p o r t a n t c o n s i d e r a t i o n s , r e h a b i l i t a t i o n e x p e r i e n c e i n t h e USA h a v i n g i n d i c a t e d t h a t a t t e m p t s t o r e v e r s e t h e d e t e r i o r a t i o n p r o c e s s i n u n s t a b l e a r e a s r a r e l y s u c c e e d 3 * . Hence, t h e purpose of NIP i s not t o d e a l w i t h g r o s s l y d e t e r i o r a t e d urban a r e a s , but t o improve l i v i n g c o n d i t i o n s i n o l d but v i a b l e neighbourhoods. F e d e r a l f u n d s are a v a i l a b l e f o r the p r o v i s i o n of s o c i a l a m e n i t i e s , t h e removal of u n d e s i r a b l e l a n d uses and the c l e a r a n c e o f a r e a s f o r new h o u s i n g . P r i o r i t i e s f o r each p a r t i c u l a r community a r e j o i n t l y e s t a b l i s h e d by l o c a l r e s i d e n t s and p l a n n e r s . In c o n t r a s t t o the more r i g i d programmes of urban r e n e w a l , these l o c a l p l a n s are i n t e n d e d t o be f l e x i b l e and r e s p o n s i v e t o c h a n g i n g neighbourhood c o n d i t i o n s . A l t h o u g h NIP a l l o c a t e s some funds t o the a c g u i s i t i o n cf 34 B a r n a r d , P., Op. c i t 1975. 33 l a n d f o r low c o s t accommodation, f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e f o r h o u s i n g improvement i s p r o v i d e d through REAP. The o b j e c t i v e of R.S.A.P. I s " t o improve the h o u s i n g c o n d i t i o n s of lew and moderate income people by a s s i s t i n g i n t h e r e p a i r and/or c o n v e r s i o n o f e x i s t i n g r e s i d e n t i a l b u i l d i n g s " 3 S . G r a n t s and low i n t e r e s t l o a n s are a v a i l a b l e t o e l i g i b l e homeowners and l a n d l o r d s i n NIP neighbourhoods and " S p e c i a l A r e a s " d e s i g n a t e d by F e d e r a l / P r o v i n c i a l a g r e e m e n t 3 6 , and t o n o n - p r o f i t groups t h r o u g h o u t Canada. While l a n d l o r d s u t i l i z i n g BRAP must agree t o r e n t c o n t r o l s , e l i g i b i l i t y f o r t h e homeowner at t h e t i m e c f t h i s s t u d y was determined on t h e b a s i s of a d j u s t e d a n n u a l income. Loans of up t o $5000 were a v a i l a b l e t o p e o p l e e a r n i n g l e s s t h a n $11,000 p. a., and t h o s e w i t h an income o f l e s s t h a n $600G were e l i g i b l e f o r up t o $2500 g r a n t . However, due t o p r o l o n g e d c r i t i c i s m , these income l i m i t s have r e c e n t l y been r e v i s e d i n an attempt t o i n c r e a s e t h e l e v e l of p u b l i c l y a s s i s t e d r e h a b i l i t a t i o n i n t h e s e n e i g h b o u r h o o d s 3 7 . U n l i k e t h e e a r l i e r improvement programmes, p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n RRAP i s v o l u n t a r y . I t s s u c c e s s t h e r e f o r e depends on p r e s e n t i n g t h e r e s i d e n t s w i t h an e f f e c t i v e i n c e n t i v e t o r e h a b i l i t a t e , t h e f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e 35 NHA, 1973, R e h a b i l i t a t i o n and C o n v e r s i o n o f E x i s t i n g B u i l d i n g s . P a r t IV 1. S e c t i o n 34.1. 36 Don V a l e i n Toronto c o n s t i t u t e s one such " S p e c i a l A r e a " , but i n p r a c t i c e v e r y few neighbourhoods have been d e s i g n a t e d f o r RRAP f u n d i n g under t h i s c a t e g o r y . None e x i s t s i n Vancouver. 37 E i g h t e e n months a f t e r the commencement of RRAP, i t was announced t h a t a l l NIP a r e a p r o p e r t y owners s h o u l d be e l i g i b l e f o r RRAP a s s i s t a n c e , and g r a n t s a v a i l a b l e to those e a r n i n g l e s s than $11,000 p. a. The maximum l o a n was i n c r e a s e d t o $10,000 and the g r a n t t o $3,700. 34 o f f e r r e d t h r o u g h REAP and the accompanying programme c f Neighbourhood Improvement both b e i n g d e s i g n e d t o f u l f i l l t h i s f u n c t i o n . The impact o f each on r e h a b i l i t a t i o n b e h a v i o u r w i l l be a s s e s s e d i n a l a t e r c h a p t e r . The combined o b j e c t i v e s of NIP and REAP are t o r e v i t a l i z e and s t a b i l i z e l o w e r inccme neighbourhoods by e n c o u r a g i n g community p a r t i c i p a t i o n and d i s r u p t i n g t h e c y c l e c f .events l e a d i n g t o d e t e r i o r a t i o n and redevelopment. C o n t r a r y t o the e a r l i e r urban renewal p o l i c y , the programmes a r e s p e c i f i c a l l y o r i e n t e d towards the improvement o f the lower inccme i n d i v i d u a l ' s l i v i n g e nvironment. R e s i d e n t s are a c t i v e l y encouraged t o s t a y r a t h e r than being d i s p l a c e d by the e r e c t i o n o f h i g h c o s t h o u s i n g , a l t h o u g h some c o n c e r n has been e x p r e s s e d over the l e n g t h o f time NIP a r e a s w i l l a c t u a l l y remain a s o u r c e of lower income h o u s i n g . I f l a r g e s c a l e improvement s u f f i c i e n t l y enhances the d e s i r a b i l i t y o f t h e s e c e n t r a l l y l o c a t e d n e i g h b o u r h o o d s , r i s i n g house p r i c e s may w e l l i n i t i a t e a change i n the economic s t a t u s of t h e a r e a . I t i s f o r t h i s r e a s o n t h a t G r i g s b y 3 8 has condemned th e r e h a b i l i t a t i o n of lower income a r e a s as y e t a n o t h e r p o l i c y which f a v o u r s t h e h i g h inccme consumer by i m p e d i n g t h e f i l t e r i n g p r o c e s s . H i s f e e l i n g s a r e echoed by R i c h a r d s o n 3 9 , who s t a t e s , "There has h a r d l y ever been a r e h a b i l i t a t i o n scheme t h a t d i d not end up i n a change i n t h e c l i e n t e l e . T r a d i t i o n a l l y i n North 38 G r i g s b y , H., I2ii§il3 Markets and P u b l i c P o l i c y . P h i l a d e l p h i a : U n i v of Penn. P r e s s . T9637 - - -39 E i c h a r d s o n , B., The F u t u r e o f Canadian C i t i e s . T o r o n t o : New P r e s s . 1972. 35 A m e r i c a , r e h a b i l i t a t i o n has meant u p g r a d i n g t h e q u a l i t y of an area so t h a t i t c o u l d be handed over t o middle c l a s s c i t i z e n s " . Indeed, M u n i c i p a l governments have no power t o p r o t e c t the l o w e r income NIP a r e a r e s i d e n t s a g a i n s t t h i s phenomenon of " w h i t e p a i n t i n g " , t h i s feeing one o f the main rea s o n s f o r the w i t h d r a w a l of T o r o n t o ' s South C a r l t o n neighbourhood from t h e s c h e m e 4 0 . However, p l a n n e r s i n most o l d e r neighbourhoods have e x p r e s s e d i n t e r e s t i n f e d e r a l a s s i s t a n c e f o r r e h a b i l i t a t i o n , and f e e l t h a t g r e a t e r s t a b i l i t y and i n c r e a s i n g c i t i z e n i n v o l v e m e n t i n the neighbourhood w i l l m i n imize the r a t e of t u r n o v e r 4 1 . R e h a b i l i t a t i o n has t h e r e f o r e been g e n e r a l l y welcomed by c i t i z e n s and p l a n n e r s as "a fundamental i n s t r u m e n t of a t r u l y s o c i a l h o u s i n g p o l i c y " 4 2 . However, w h i l e many agree w i t h the u n d e r l y i n g p h i l o s o p h y o f NIP and REAP, t h e r e has been much c r i t i c i s m of the way i n which t h e programmes have been f o r m u l a t e d and implemented. Concern has been e x p r e s s e d o v e r d e l a y s i n p r o c e s s i n g NIP a p p l i c a t i o n s 4 3 , an overemphasis on 40 T h i s w i t h d r a w a l was i n i t i a t e d by t h e South C a r l t o n working Committee of p l a n n e r s and r e s i d e n t s i n 1975. G u t s t e i n , D., Neighbourhood Improvement: what I t Means In C a l g a r y , Vancouver and T o r o n t o . C i t y Magazine. Sept. 1975. 41 RRAP p r o j e c t s are now under way i n 75 NIP a r e a s a c r o s s Canada. ( G a u t h i e r , J . , P r e s e n t a t i o n a t the meeting of the Canadian Assoc. o f Renewal O f f i c e r s . Edmonton, A l b e r t a . May 4, 1976.) 42 B a k e r , J . , P r e f a c e to the Proceedd.ncjs of t h e Housing R e h a b i l i t a t i o n Conference. Sponsored by the Canadian C o u n c i l o f S o c i a l Development. 1973. p . V I I I . T h i s s t r o n g l y c o n t r a s t s w i t h G r i g s b y ' s a p p r a i s a l of r e h a b i l i t a t i o n . 43 C i t y o f Toronto P l a n n i n g Board, Housing Programmes^ IMSLESix P r o v i n c i a l and M u n i c i p a l . Research B u l l e t i n No. 11. 1974. 36 p h y s i c a l improvement to the d e t r i m e n t of s o c i a l p l a n n i n g * 4 and the absence of p r o v i s i o n s f o r t e n a n t s w i s h i n g t o r e g u e s t RRAP a s s i s t a n c e . There has a l s o been debate over the m e r i t s of d e s i g n a t i n g ERAP funds on a neighbourhood b a s i s . I h i l e mcst p l a n n e r s would agree t h a t an a s s o c i a t e d programme of neighbourhood improvement i s Important t o the s u c c e s s of housing r e h a b i l i t a t i o n , many have endorsed t h e s e n t i m e n t s e x p r e s s e d by Dennis and F i s h i n t h e i r c o n t r o v e r s i a l r e p o r t on government p o l i c y * 5 . I n a d e t a i l e d p r o p o s a l f o r a r e h a b i l i t a t i o n scheme, they warned t h a t " i f a r e h a b i l i t a t i o n programme i s t o be e s t a b l i s h e d , c a r e must be t a k e n t o a v o i d the p i t f a l l s of area d e s i g n a t i o n as seen i n t h e urban renewal programme,..,...... What i s r e q u i r e d i s a p o l i c y of u n i v e r s a l a s s i s t a n c e f o r h ouseholds q u a l i f y i n g f o r i t , with the p o s s i b i l i t y o f a d d i t i o n a l h e l p where more comprehensive e f f o r t s a r e i n t e n d e d t o upgrade community s e r v i c e s and f a c i l i t i e s , as w e l l as i n d i v i d u a l homes". T h i s would suggest t h a t NIP s h o u l d be r e t a i n e d i n poorer q u a l i t y areas and RRAP a i d c o u l d s i m p l y be a l l o c a t e d on a b r o a d e r b a s i s . Other c r i t i c i s m has f o c u s e d on t h e modest a l l o c a t i o n of funds t o REAP. By t h e end of 1975, over s e v e n t y RRAP p r o j e c t s were under way a c r o s s Canada, T o t a l F e d e r a l government f u n d i n g f o r t h e s e schemes at t h e end o f t h i s year was $12.5 m i l l i o n , o n l y $8 m i l l i o n o f which c o n s t i t u t e d n o n - r e p a y a b l e a s s i s t a n c e * 6 . 44 Chan, S., S o c i a l Aspects of R e h a b i l i t a t i o n . In R e h a b i l i t a t i o n . H a b i t a t P u b l i c a t i o n . CMHC. 1975. 45 D e n n i s , M. and F i s h , S., Oc c i t . P. 304. I t s h o u l d be noted t h a t Dennis and F i s h were w r i t i n g p r i o r to the i n t r o d u c t i o n of NIP and REAP. 46 C e n t r a l Mortgage and Housing C o r p o r a t i o n , Annual R e p o r t 19 75. 37 G u t s t e i n and D r a p e r 4 7 have argued t h a t t h i s w i l l have v e r y l i t t l e i mpact on the o v e r a l l q u a l i t y o f lower income h o u s i n g . N e v e r t h e l e s s , d e s p i t e i t s l i m i t a t i o n s , RRAP has c o n t r i b u t e d t o the p r e s e r v a t i o n o f many l o w e r income i n n e r c i t y neighbourhoods t h a t may o t h e r w i s e have been c l e a r e d and r e d e v e l o p e d . P r i o r t o the commencement of RRAP i n 1974, most r e h a b i l i t a t i o n a c t i v i t y was undertaken by p r i v a t e e n t e r p r i s e or t h e i n d i v i d u a l homeowner. The r o l e of each i n the r e h a b i l i t a t i o n p r o c e s s w i l l be b r i e f l y examined, p a r t i c u l a r a t t e n t i o n b e i n g devoted t o t h e i r c o n t r i b u t i o n t o the improvement of l o w e r income hous i n g q u a l i t y . P r i v a t e i n d u s t r y i s f o r c e d t o o p e r a t e w i t h i n a number of economic and market c o n s t r a i n t s , which i n h i b i t the n a t u r e and l o c a t i o n o f i t s a c t i v i t y . Cost and revenue a r e of p r i m a r y importance and "as a b u s i n e s s p r o p o s i t i o n , r e h a b i l i t a t i o n can be c o n s i d e r e d p r a c t i c a b l e o n l y i f the fundamental norms of r e a l e s t a t e i n v e s t m e n t are m e t " 4 8 . R e h a b i l i t a t i o n i s f r e q u e n t l y a t i m e consuming, complex p r o c e s s , n e c e s s i t a t i n g a h i g h l e v e l of 47 G u t s t e i n , D., Cp c i t . Draper et a l , E l a b o r a t i o n c f S p e c i f i c G o a l V a r i a b l e s f o r NIP. Report t o t h e MUSA~"(draf t) "197 5? 48 Herman, R., P r o s p e c t s f o r R e h a b i l i t a t i o n . Housing Rent Commission, N.Y. 1960. P.40. ~ 49 Chung, H., The Economics o f R e s i d e n t i a l R e h a b i l i t a t i o n . P raeger P u b l i s h e r s , N.Y..1973. Shannon, C , The Economic F e a s i b i l i t y of R e h a b i l i t a t i o n . In M. M c F a r l a n d , R e s i d e n t i a l Re h a j b i l i t at i o n . Oniv. of M i n n e s o t a . 1965. 38 i n p u t but r e c o u p i n g m i n i m a l r e t u r n s 4 9 . Work i s impeded by s t r u c t u r a l and space c o n s t r a i n t s and s i n c e each d w e l l i n g i s unique i n i t s d e f e c t s , the use of more e f f i c i e n t mass t e c h n o l o g y i s g e n e r a l l y p r o h i b i t e d 5 0 . R e h a b i l i t a t i o n i s t h e r e f o r e o f t e n regarded by p r i v a t e e n t e r p r i s e as a h i g h r i s k , u n a t t r a c t i v e endeavour, p a r t i c u l a r l y when the p r o p e r t y i s l o c a t e d i n a d e t e r i o r a t e d neighbourhood 5 1-. I t i s t h e r e f o r e n e g l e c t e d i n p r e f e r e n c e f o r more p r o f i t a b l e c o n s t r u c t i o n i n t h e suburbs c r c e n t r a l c i t y redevelopment. Hence, the c a p a c i t y of t h e i n d u s t r y i s s m a l l and the o v e r a l l o u t p u t low. When p r i v a t e r e h a b i l i t a t i o n i s u n d e r t a k e n , i t i s p r i m a r i l y o r i e n t e d towards the h i g h e r income consumer, r e g a r d l e s s of the s o c i a l c o s t s . There i s l i t t l e i n c e n t i v e f o r an i n d u s t r y m o t i v a t e d by p r o f i t t c engage i n the r e h a b i l i t a t i o n o f lew r e n t h o u s i n g . Hence, except when work i s p u b l i c l y f i n a n c e d as i n the case o f RRAP, p r i v a t e e n t e r p r i s e makes l i t t l e c o n t r i b u t i o n t o the improvement of the l o w e r income housing environment. In t h e absence of l a r g e s c a l e government and p r i v a t e r e h a b i l i t a t i o n , improvement of e x i s t i n g h o u s i n g r e s t s m a i n l y w i t h t h e i n d i v i d u a l owner. However, t h e v a r i a b l e q u a l i t y of the r e s i d e n t i a l s t o c k s u g g e s t s t h a t , once a g a i n , r e h a b i l i t a t i o n .50 B a r n a r d , P., " I n n o v a t i o n s i n Housing Technology". In K. Sayegh, Canadian H o u s i n g ^ A Reader. U n i v . of W a t e r l o o , O n t a r i o , "l972. Keyes, I . , The Boston R e h a b i l i t a t i o n Programme:. An Independent A n a l y s i s . MIT. 1970. ~ 51 J o n e s , M., The R o l e of P r i v a t e E n t e r p r i s e i n Urban Renewal. To r o n t o P l a n n i n g Board. 1966. ~ " ~ ~ Dawson, W., The Role of B u s i n e s s i n R e h a b i l i t a t i o n . In R e h a b l l i t a t i o n . Habitat. P u b l i c a t i o n . 1975. 39 l e v e l s a r e g r e a t e s t i n h i g h e r income a r e a s . Any owner w i s h i n g t o undertake a major r e n o v a t i o n of h i s p r o p e r t y i s l i k e l y to en c o u n t e r a number of c o n s t r a i n t s , t h e most i m p o r t a n t o f which i s c o s t . However, t h i s p r e s e n t s t h e most s e r i o u s o b s t a c l e t o the lower income i n d i v i d u a l . Although HEAP a s s i s t a n c e i s new a v a i l a b l e t o some lower inccme homeowners, many people r e s i d i n g o u t s i d e NIP a r e a s may f i n d t h e high c o s t s of r e h a b i l i t a t i o n p r o h i b i t i v e . Home Improvement Loans may p r o v i d e an a l t e r n a t i v e s ource o f f u n d i n g , but h i g h i n t e r e s t r a t e s a re l i k e l y t o d i s c o u r a g e t h e i r use by lower income owners. Lack of e x p e r t i s e may a l s o c o n s t i t u t e a s i g n i f i c a n t c o n s t r a i n t t o r e h a b i l i t a t i o n and s e e k i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l a d v i c e can once a g a i n i n c u r h i g h c o s t s . N o n - p r o f i t groups such as the Urban D e s i g n C e n t r e and the A r c h i t e c t u r a l I n s t i t u t e of B.C. i n Vancouver, and t h e Community Workshop Design Group i n M o n t r e a l have made an i m p o r t a n t c o n t r i b u t i o n i n t h i s a r e a by p r o v i d i n g l ower income owners w i t h f r e e r e h a b i l i t a t i o n a d v i c e . However, th e s e o r g a n i z a t i o n s are r a r e and t h e i r f u t u r e u n c e r t a i n s i n c e they depend e n t i r e l y on s h o r t term government schemes such as t h e L o c a l I n i a t i v e s Programme f o r f i n a n c i a l s u p p o r t . Furthermore, s i n c e t h e s e groups have l i t t l e money f o r a d v e r t i s i n g , i t i s l i k e l y t h a t o n l y a s m a l l p r o p o r t i o n of the people needing such h e l p even know of t h e i r e x i s t e n c e . P u b l i c a s s i s t a n c e i s t h e r e f o r e e s s e n t i a l t o t h e improvement of low r e n t housing a r e a s . I n the p a s t , t h e lo w e r inccme owner has f r e q u e n t l y l a c k e d both the knowledge and t h e f i n a n c i a l a b i l i t y t o engage i n r e h a b i l i t a t i o n . RRAP has attempted t o remove t h e s e c o n s t r a i n t s through t h e p r o v i s i o n of f i n a n c i a l no a s s i s t a n c e and p r o f e s s i o n a l a d v i c e . However, a n o t h e r s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r which i s o f t e n o v e r l o o k e d i s t h e p o s s i b l e l a c k of enthusiasm of many i n d i v i d u a l s . I f REAP i s t o be s u c c e s s f u l , i t must s t i m u l a t e a new i n t e r e s t i n improvement. T h i s i s an i m p o r t a n t i s s u e and w i l l be f u l l y e x p l o r e d l a t e r i n t h i s work. 41 CHAPTER I I I METHODOLOGY S o c i a l s c i e n t i s t s engaging i n t h e s t u d y c f man's b e h a v i o u r and h i s impact on t h e p h y s i c a l environment have l o n g been p r e s e n t e d w i t h a m e t h o d o l o g i c a l dilemma. The w o r l d which t h e y seek t o s t u d y i s complex, r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h i n i t i n t r i c a t e and man's b e h a v i o u r o f t e n seemingly i r r a t i o n a l . I n o r d e r t o a n a l y s e and u n d e r s t a n d t h i s w o r l d , t h e r e s e a r c h e r i s com p e l l e d t o s i m p l i f y and s t r u c t u r e i t , e x t r a c t i n g o n l y those elements which he deems s a l i e n t . However, t h e a p p r o p r i a t e approach t o t h i s t a s k remains a matter f o r debate i n a l l s o c i a l s c i e n c e d i s c i p l i n e s . Much g e o g r a p h i c a l r e s e a r c h i n t h e p a s t has f o l l o w e d the p o s i t i v i s t t r a d i t i o n and adherred t o an o b j e c t i v e , q u a n t i t a t i v e approach. R e s e a r c h e r s such as Harvey have attempted t o r e p l i c a t e t h e p r e c i s e methodology o f the p h y s i c a l s c i e n c e s through the use of r i g o u r o u s s t a t i s t i c a l t e c h n i q u e s 1 . However, t h e s e t o o l s g e n e r a l l y p l a c e d s t r i c t demands on the nature c f the data , which f r e q u e n t l y encouraged a s e l e c t i v e e x a m i n a t i o n o f v a r i a b l e s t h a t were more amenable t o a n a l y s i s . The- st u d y o f p e r s o n a l v a l u e s , a t t i t u d e s and p e r c e p t i o n was t h e r e f o r e g e n e r a l l y a v o i d e d and 1 Harvey, E., E x p l a n a t i o n i n Geopraphx. Edward A r n o l d . 1969, 42 much o f the c o m p l e x i t y of t h e r e a l w o r l d i g n o r e d 2 . C o n c l u s i o n s were o f t e n based on g r o s s b e h a v i o u r a l a s s u m p t i o n s , which p o r t r a y e d man as an o b j e c t i v e , r a t i o n a l b e i n g . O v e r a l l , g r e a t e r emphasis was devoted t o the p h y s i c a l a t t r i b u t e s c f the environment and an a n a l y s i s of s p a t i a l p a t t e r n s r a t h e r t h a n an u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the p r o c e s s through which they had e v o l v e d . By t h e e a r l y n i n e t e e n s e v e n t i e s , the narrow p o s i t i v i s t approach t o many i n v e s t i g a t i o n s i n urban and human geography was b e i n g c r i t i c a l l y r e - e x a m i n e d 3 . Geographers such as Tuan and Helph argued t h a t a more h o l i s t i c , h u m a n i s t i c methodology was e s s e n t i a l t o the u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f man's be h a v i o u r and i t s impact on t h e s p a t i a l s t r u c t u r e * . They f a v o u r e d an approach which e x p l o r e d " t h e o r i g i n a l w o r l d s o f man's e x p e r i e n c e , w h i l e r e j e c t i n g the approaches of a m e c h a n i s t i c s c i e n c e and t h e s e a r c h f o r s c i e n t i f i c laws which have no meaning f o r man. 1 , 5 A p h e n o m e n o l o g i c a l a p p r e c i a t i o n o f r e a l i t y was ad v o c a t e d , i n which the environment was examined not i n o b j e c t i v e , p h y s i c a l 2 Some e x c e p t i o n s t o t h i s were L o w e n t h a l , B., "Geography, E x p e r i e n c e and I m a g i n a t i o n " , A A AG 51. 1969. B o u l d i n g , K., The Iroage.1 Knowledge i n l i f e and S o c i e t y . Ann A r b o r : U n i v . of M i c h i g a n P r e s s . 1969. Jo n e s , E., S o c i a l Geography of E e l f a s t . London: O x f o r d Univ. P r e s s . 1960. 3 Mercer, D. and P o w e l l , J . , PheEcmenglogj? and B e l a t e d Non-P o s i t i y i s t i c V i e w p o i n t s i n the S o c i a l S c i e n c e s . Monash P u b l i c a t i o n s i n Geography. No. 1. 1972 4 Tuan, Y i - F u , "Geography, Phenomenology and t h e Study of Human Na t u r e " . Canadian Geographer 15 (1971). P.181. E e l p h , E., "An I n q u i r y i n t o the E e l a t i o n s Eetween Phenomenology and Geography". Canadian Geographer 14. (1970). P.193. " 5 E e l p h , E., I b i d . p.193 43 terms but as t h e p r i v a t e , s u b j e c t i v e w o r l d o f man. V a r i a b i l i t y , i r r a t i o n a l i t y and p e r s o n a l v a l u e s became i m p o r t a n t elements i n the i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f t h e environment as p e r c e i v e d by man 6. Research t h e r e f o r e began t o i n c o r p o r a t e i n t a n g i b l e v a r i a b l e s , many of which d e f i e d p r e c i s e s t a t i s t i c a l measurement. T h i s c o n s t i t u t e d a s i g n i f i c a n t d e p a r t u r e from th e e a r l i e r p o s i t i v i s t approach. The aim became not o n l y t o a n a l y s e , but t o understand the p a t t e r n of s p a t i a l v a r i a t i o n i n terms o f the r i c h n e s s of human e x p e r i e n c e . The proposed t r a n s i t i o n from o b j e c t i v e t o s u b j e c t i v e l y o r i e n t e d r e s e a r c h has n e v e r t h e l e s s p r e s e n t e d m e t h o d o l o g i c a l problems. An e x p e r i e n t i a l approach based on o b s e r v a t i o n and community p a r t i c i p a t i o n y i e l d s r i c h and v a l u a b l e data and i s a commonly used t o o l of p h e n o m e n o l o g i c a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n s . However, the v a l i d i t y o f a study based on i n t u i t i o n and s u b j e c t i v e l y d e r i v e d d a t a may be q u e s t i o n e d . U n l e s s the work i s c a r e f u l l y p r e s e n t e d and a t l e a s t p a r t l y v e r i f i e d by o b j e c t i v e i n f o r m a t i o n , t h e r e may be l i t t l e i n d i c a t i o n of whether th e c o n c l u s i o n s c o n s t i t u t e an a u t h e n t i c r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f r e a l i t y or the b i a s e d i m p r e s s i o n s o f the r e s e a r c h e r . w i l l i a m Bunge's 7 r e s e a r c h i n " F i t z g e r a l d " s u f f e r s from t h i s l i m i t a t i o n , h i s h i g h l e v e l c f 6 Downs, R., " G e o g r a p h i c a l Space P e r c e p t i o n " . P r o g r e s s i n Geography. 2 (1970). P.65. 7 Bunge, F i t z g e r a l d : Geography o f a R e v o l u t i o n . Cambridge, Mass.: Schenkman P u b l i s h i n g Co. 1971. Bunge c o n s t i t u t e s a good example of a geographer who has p e r s o n a l l y p r o g r e s s e d from the p o s i t i v i s t t r a d i t i o n (as e x e m p l i f i e d i n Bunge's p u b l i c a t i o n e n t i t l e d T h e o r e t i c a l G e o a ^ a i l l l ( l u n d : G l e e r u p . 1962)) t o t h e e x p e r i e n t i a l p e r s p e c t i v e . 44 p e r s o n a l i n v o l v e m e n t w i t h h i s s u b j e c t s d e t r a c t i n g from the g e n e r a l u s e f u l n e s s of the s t u d y . Care must t h e r e f o r e be taken t o ensure t h a t t h i s more r e c e n t and s e n s i t i v e b e h a v i o u r a l approach t o g e o g r a p h i c a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n s does not assume a b i a s e d p e r s p e c t i v e , as was c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i n the e a r l i e r p o s i t i v i s t t r a d i t i o n . A p u r e l y a n a l y t i c a l o r w h o l l y i n t u i t i v e approach t o the u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the s p a t i a l p a t t e r n and p r o c e s s c l e a r l y has l i m i t a t i o n s . However, s u b j e c t i v e and o b j e c t i v e methods of d a t a c o l l e c t i o n can be j o i n t l y used to compensate f o r the i n h e r e n t weaknesses i n each. I n o r d e r t o s a t i s f a c t o r i l y f u l f i l l the r e s e a r c h o b j e c t i v e s as o u t l i n e d i n Chapter I , i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o u t i l i z e a v a r i e t y of data s o u r c e s . The g o a l I s t o o b t a i n the r i c h n e s s of data e s s e n t i a l t o a f u l l u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the r e h a b i l i t a t i o n d e c i s i o n making p r o c e s s , b u t , where p o s s i b l e , to s u b s t a n t i a t e i n t u i t i v e c o n c l u s i o n s w i t h s t a t i s t i c a l d a t a . filll-SOUECES In o r d e r t o examine the a t t i t u d e s and u n d e r s t a n d the r e h a b i l i t a t i o n b e h a v i o u r of p r o p e r t y owners i n o l d e r r e s i d e n t i a l n e i g h b o u r h o o d s , f o u r major a r e a s of i n q u i r y were i d e n t i f i e d . These were (1 ) the p h y s i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the s u r v e y a r e a s , i . e . K i t s i l a n o , Cedar C o t t a g e and Grandview, (2) the s o c i o -economic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the survey area r e s i d e n t s , (3) r e h a b i l i t a t i o n l e v e l s w i t h i n t h e s e neighbourhoods, and (4) a t t i t u d e s of the s u r v e y a r e a s * i n h a b i t a n t s towards improvement. (1 ) P h y s i c a l C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s P a r t i c u l a r a t t e n t i o n was f o c u s e d on the q u a l i t y of housing 45 and neighbourhood f a c i l i t i e s , and p r e s e n t and f u t u r e p l a n s f o r improvement and development i n the s u r v e y d i s t r i c t s . The c h a r a c t e r and p o t e n t i a l i n f l u e n c e o f a d j a c e n t a r e a s was a l s o n o t e d . Most o f t h e s e data were a v a i l a b l e from the Vancouver P l a n n i n g Department, which has conducted a number cf comprehensive s t u d i e s i n each o f t h e s e a r e a s , and t h e l o c a l a r e a p l a n n i n g o f f i c e s i t u a t e d w i t h i n the neighbourhood. However, d i f f i c u l t y was e x p e r i e n c e d i n o b t a i n i n g a d e t a i l e d , up to d a t e assessment o f h o u s i n g q u a l i t y i n each a r e a . Although " w i n d s h i e l d * ' s u r v e y s had been undertaken by the C i t y P l a n n i n g Department i n 1973, the d a t a was e i t h e r u n a v a i l a b l e or h i g h l y a g g r e g a t e d , t h e o n l y d e t a i l e d e v a l u a t i o n h a v i n g been executed i n Cedar C o t t a g e p r i o r t o 1968 8. A l s o , a l t h o u g h t h e C i t y assessment r e c o r d s p r o v i d e a good i n d i c a t i o n of i n t e r n a l h o u s i n g q u a l i t y , t h e s e a r e not a v a i l a b l e t o the p u b l i c . A b l o c k by b l o c k " w i n d s h i e l d " q u a l i t y assessment of each s u r v e y area was t h e r e f o r e conducted by t h e r e s e a r c h e r f o r the purpose of t h i s s t u d y . The c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f h o u s i n g q u a l i t y u s u a l l y employed by t h e Vancouver C i t y P l a n n i n g Department was u t i l i z e d and i s O u t l i n e d i n Appendix A. 9 (2) S o c i o - e c o n o m i c C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Data on income, e t h n i c mix, h o u s e h o l d c o m p o s i t i o n and 8 C i t y P l a n n i n g Dept., Cedar Cottage^Renfrew Study. Vancouver P l a n n i n g Dept. May 1968. 9 I t i s r e c o g n i s e d t h a t a " w i n d s h i e l d " s u r v e y s u f f e r s from a number o f l i m i t a t i o n s and g i v e s o n l y a s u p e r f i c i a l assessment of q u a l i t y . However, i n t h e absence of any o t h e r s o u r c e of d a t a , i t was f e l t t h a t t h i s p r o v i d e d an adequate i n d i c a t i o n of the g e n e r a l p a t t e r n o f neighbourhood q u a l i t y . 46 l e n g t h of r e s i d e n c e were o b t a i n e d from the 1971 Census, T h i s d a t a s o u r c e n e v e r t h e l e s s s u f f e r s from s e v e r a l l i m i t a t i o n s , s i n c e census t r a c t b o u n d aries do not always c o i n c i d e w i t h these of the survey a r e a s and the s t a t i s t i c s a r e now f i v e y e a r s out of d a t e . Hence, where p o s s i b l e , t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n was supplemented by more r e c e n t P l a n n i n g Department s t a t i s t i c s and d a t a c o l l e c t e d through the s u r v e y q u e s t i o n n a i r e developed f o r t h i s s t u d y , (3) B e h a b i l i t a t i o n L e v e l s While CMHC r e c o r d s p r o v i d e d d e t a i l e d i n f o r m a t i o n on the number and d i s t r i b u t i o n o f p r o p e r t i e s r e h a b i l i t a t e d t h r o u g h REAP, a c c u r a t e s t a t i s t i c s on p r i v a t e l y funded r e h a b i l i t a t i o n were much more d i f f i c u l t t o o b t a i n . The use o f Development P e r m i t s and L i c e n s e s data d i d p e r m i t a g e n e r a l a p p r e c i a t i o n of the l e v e l and n a t u r e of r e h a b i l i t a t i o n a c t i v i t y w i t h i n each neighbourhood, t u t more v a l u a b l e and d e t a i l e d i n f o r m a t i o n was d e r i v e d from the q u e s t i o n n a i r e , U n f o r t u n a t e l y , CMHC d a t a cn the use o f Home Improvement Loans f o r p r i v a t e r e h a b i l i t a t i o n was not s u f f i c i e n t l y d i s a g g r e g a t e d f o r t h e purposes o f t h i s s t u d y . (4) R e s i d e n t s * A t t i t u d e s R e s i d e n t s ' a t t i t u d e s towards t h e i r n e i g h b o u r h o o d , t h e i r house and t h e concept o f improvement were c o n s i d e r e d i m p o r t a n t components o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s f e e l i n g s towards r e h a b i l i t a t i o n and the d e c i s i o n t o r e n o v a t e . A number o f i n t u i t i v e c o n c l u s i o n s c o n c e r n i n g t h e n a t u r e of these a t t i t u d e s were drawn from i n f o r m a l c o n v e r s a t i o n s w i t h c i t i z e n s and l o c a l p l a n n e r s i n the survey n e i ghbourhoods. Community newspapers a l s o p r o v i d e d u s e f u l i n d i c a t o r s of the g e n e r a l c u r r e n t o f f e e l i n g towards the a r e a and i t s improvement. However, the major s o u r c e o f a t t i t u d i n a l 47 data c o n s t i t u t e d the survey q u e s t i o n n a i r e , which was designed t o e x p l o r e t h e " b e h a v i o u r a l e n v i r o n m e n t " * 0 of the i n d i v i d u a l i n terms of h i s p e r c e i v e d and p r i v a t e w o r l d . 2 I J _ S U l V E Y _ i 2 U E S T I G l M I l E S The q u e s t i o n n a i r e t h e r e f o r e emerges as t h e s i n g l e most i m p o r t a n t s o u r c e o f s u r v e y data i n t h i s r e s e a r c h . I t p r o v i d e d a u n i f y i n g e l e m e n t , s e r v i n g not o n l y t o v i n d i c a t e and e l a b o r a t e cn o f t e n i n c o m p l e t e or aggregated o f f i c i a l d a t a s o u r c e s , but a l s o to i n v e s t i g a t e p o o r l y documented a s p e c t s of r e h a b i l i t a t i o n b e h a v i o u r . Eoth a m a i l q u e s t i o n n a i r e and a house t o house survey o f p r o p e r t y owners were u t i l i z e d , but most emphasis was p l a c e d on the l a t t e r . ( 1) The House, t o House.Quest i o n n a i r e (a) The_Design A house t o house q u e s t i o n n a i r e was d e s i g n e d on t h e b a s i s of t h e s u r v e y o b j e c t i v e s f o r m u l a t e d i n C h a p t e r I . E a r l i e r f i e l d work w i t h i n the neighbourhoods had p r o v i d e d an i n d i c a t i o n o f t h e a p p r o p r i a t e d i r e c t i o n of i n q u i r y and p o t e n t i a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t 10 The term " b e h a v i o u r a l e n vironment" was f i r s t c o i n e d by K i r k i n 1951 ( K i r k , W., " H i s t o r i c a l Geography and t h e Concept of the B e h a v i o u r a l Environment", I n d i a n G e o g r a p h i c a l J o u r n a l , S i l v e r J u b i l e e Volume. 1951. P.152.7 and the c o n c e p t was d e v e l o p e d i n l a t e r works. In d i s t i n g u i s h i n g i t from the p h y s i c a l " p h e n o m e n o l o g i c a l environment", K i r k d e f i n e s the " b e h a v i o u r a l environment" as a " p s y c h o - p h y s i c a l f i e l d i n which phenomenal f a c t s are a r r a n g e d i n t o p a t t e r n s or s t r u c t u r e s and a c g u i r e v a l u e s i n c u l t u r a l c o n t e x t s " . ( K i r k , W. , "Problems i n Geography". Geography 48 (196.3). P.357.) 48 i s s u e s which s h o u l d be e x p l o r e d 1 1 . P a r t i c u l a r a t t e n t i o n was f o c u s e d on t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the survey r e s p o n d e n t s , t h e i r p a s t r e h a b i l i t a t i o n a c t i v i t y and t h e i r a t t i t u d e s towards housing and neighbourhood improvement. However, whereas i n f o r m a t i o n r e l a t i n g t o the re s p o n d e n t s and t h e i r improvements c o u l d be r e a d i l y c o l l e c t e d t h r o u g h d i r e c t q u e s t i o n i n g , a c c u r a t e a t t i t u d i n a l d a t a were more d i f f i c u l t t o a c q u i r e . A t t i t u d e s are h i g h l y v a r i a b l e and c o n s t i t u t e a complex c o g n i t i v e e x p r e s s i o n of an i n d i v i d u a l ' s v a l u e s , o p i n i o n s and b e l i e f 1 2 . T h e i r measurement i s t h e r e f o r e c o m p l i c a t e d , and i n t h e absence of the c o m p l e x i t y o f t h e r e a l w o r l d s i t u a t i o n , the c o n t r i v e d q u e s t i o n n a i r e may y i e l d l i t t l e more than an o v e r s i m p l i f i e d r e s p o n s e . Great care i s t h e r e f o r e needed I n t h e f o r m u l a t i o n of a t t i t u d e o r i e n t e d q u e s t i o n s , a l t h o u g h r e l i a b i l i t y can be i n c r e a s e d by t h e use of more than one method of a t t i t u d e assessment w i t h i n a g i v e n s u r v e y 1 3 . T h i s r e s e a r c h u t i l i z e d two approaches. The f i r s t a ttempted s i m p l y t o i d e n t i f y r e s i d e n t s ' a t t i t u d e s through open-ended q u e s t i o n s r e l a t e d t o h o u s i n g and neighbourhood improvement i n g e n e r a l and REAP i n p a r t i c u l a r . T h i s form of q u e s t i o n p e r m i t s a r e l a t i v e l y f r e e response and can p r o v i d e a r i c h d a t a b a se, a l t h o u g h d i f f i c u l t i e s may a r i s e when s u b j e c t s a r e unable t o a c c u r a t e l y v e r b a l i z e t h e i r o p i n i o n s . I t a l s o poses problems c f comparison between r e s p o n d e n t s and p r o v i d e s o n l y a s u b j e c t i v e 11 The f i e l d work was d e s i g n e d t o o b t a i n c o n t e x t u a l d a t a on each o f t h e survey a r e a s . 12 Rokeach, M. ,' The Nature o f Human Valu e s N.Y. Free P r e s s . 1973. 13 While t h i s may l e a d t o some redundancy w i t h i r the q u e s t i o n n a i r e , i t p r o v i d e s a b a s i s f o r comparison and a v a l u a b l e v a l i d i t y check. 49 i n d i c a t i o n o f t h e i n t e n s i t y c f t h e f e e l i n g s e x p r e s s e d . However, these l i m i t a t i o n s were o b v i a t e d i n t h i s r e s e a r c h by t h e use o f a second more r i g o u r c u s approach; t h a t of a t t i t u d e measurement. Much a t t e n t i o n has been devoted t o t h e c r e a t i o n of s c a l e s which d i s c r i m i n a t e between i n d i v i d u a l s o f d i f f e r i n g a t t i t u d e s . Bogardus, T h u r s t o n e , Guttman and L i k e r t a r e w e l l known f o r t h e i r c o n t r i b u t i o n s i n t h i s f i e l d 1 - * . These s c a l e s a r e w i d e l y used w i t h i n s o c i a l s c i e n c e r e s e a r c h s i n c e they not o n l y p r o v i d e a measure o f a t t i t u d e i n t e n s i t y , but a l s o p e r m i t a h i g h e r l e v e l c f r e s e a r c h e r c o n t r o l than open-ended q u e s t i o n i n g . There i s c o n s e q u e n t l y a qood b a s i s f o r comparison between s u b j e c t s . I t i s a l s o argued t h a t a t t i t u d e s c a l e s p r e s e n t l e s s o p p o r t u n i t y f o r r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n and d e c e p t i o n by t h e respondent than open g u e s t i o n s and are hence more l i k e l y t o e l i c i t t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s ' t r u e ' a t t i t u d e 1 5 . However, t h i s a s s e r t i o n has l i t t l e s u b s t a n t i v e f o u n d a t i o n , and t h e p o s s i b i l i t y c f an i n c o r r e c t or c a l c u l a t e d response s h o u l d always be c o n s i d e r e d a l i m i t a t i o n i n a t t i t u d e assessment. Perhaps t h e most p o p u l a r of t h e a t t i t u d e s c a l i n g t e c h n i q u e s 14 Boqardus, E . , "Measuring S o c i a l D i s t a n c e . " J o u r n a l of iP.Ei.ied S o c i o l o g y 9 ( 1 9 2 5 ) p . 2 9 9 . T h u r s t o n e , L., " A t t i t u d e s Can Be Measured." American J o u r n a l of S o c i o l o g y 3 3 ( 1 9 2 8 ) p . 5 2 9 . Gutmann, L., "A B a s i s f o r S c a l i n g Q u a l i t a t i v e D a t a . " American S o c i o l o g i c a l Review 9 ( 1 9 4 4 ) p. 1 3 9 . L i k e r t , B., "A Technique f o r t h e Measurement of A t t i t u d e s " . A r c h i v e s of P s y c h o l o g y 140 ( 1 9 3 2 ) p. 5.5. 15 T h i s argument i s based on t h e n o t i o n t h a t a q u i c k response to a q u e s t i o n w i l l r e v e a l what i s upper most i n the s u b j e c t ' s mind. S i n c e a t t i t u d e s c a l i n q t e s t s a r e i n t e n d e d t o be completed w i t h speed, t h e r e i s l i t t l e time f o r a c o n s i d e r e d and perhaps d e c e p t i v e r e s p o n s e . (Oppenheim, A., Q u e s t i o n n a i r e Design and A t t i t u d e Measurement. Heinemann:London. 196 6 . ) 50 i s t h e L i k e r t s c a l e 1 6 ; t h i s was s e l e c t e d f o r t h e purpose of t h i s s t u d y . W h i l e i t y i e l d s o n l y o r d i n a l data i n c o n t r a s t t o the i n t e r v a l Thurstone measure, i t has t h e advantage o f b e i n g r e l a t i v e l y easy t o c o n s t r u c t and a d m i n i s t e r . A s e r i e s of r e l a t e d a t t i t u d e s t a t e m e n t s was de s i g n e d t o e l i c i t f e e l i n g s towards the neighbourhood and housing r e h a b i l i t a t i o n , and p o r t r a y e d both a p o s i t i v e and n e g a t i v e p e r s p e c t i v e . A b r i e f d i s c u s s i o n of the way i n which t h e s e s t a t e m e n t s were composed i s undertaken In Appendix B ( s e c t i o n 1 ) . S u b j e c t s responded t o the s t a t e m e n t s on the b a s i s o f a f i v e p o i n t s c a l e c f agreement/disagreement, and the r e s p o n s e s were s c o r e d so t h a t the most f a v o u r a b l e r e a c t i o n was a s s i g n e d the h i g h e s t v a l u e ( 5 ) and v i c e v e r s a . The sum o f the i n d i v i d u a l statement s c o r e s was c o n s i d e r e d a measurement of the re s p o n d e n t ' s g e n e r a l a t t i t u d e towards t h e s t a t e d t o p i c . However, s i n c e d i f f e r e n t r e s p o n s e s may r e s u l t i n the same t o t a l s c o r e , c a r e was taken not t o overemphasize the s i g n i f i c a n c e of t h i s v a l u e . A l s o , s i n c e a t t i t u d e s are so complex and h i g h l y v a r i a b l e , such s c a l e s s h o u l d o n l y be regarded a s " t h e roug h e s t a p p r o x i m a t i o n s of the way i n which a t t i t u d e s a c t u a l l y e x i s t i n th e mental l i f e of t h e i n d i v i d u a l " 1 7 . N e v e r t h e l e s s , t h e p a t t e r n of r e s p o n s e s y i e l d e d t h r o u g h a t t i t u d e t e s t s does c o n s t i t u t e an i m p o r t a n t s o u r c e o f d a t a , from which some m e a n i n g f u l c o m p a r a t i v e s t a t e m e n t s can be made. 16 L i k e r t , R., Op.. C i t . . . 17 A l l p o r t , G., " A t t i t u d e s " . I n F i s h b e i n , M. (ed.) Readings i n A t t i t u d e Theory and Measurement. John Wiley and Sons:N.Y. 1967T~P.12. 51 (b) The_House_to_Hcuse_£uestionnaire_as_ The s u r v e y q u e s t i o n n a i r e conducted on a p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w b a s i s can prove a r i c h s o u r c e of d a t a . Face t o f a c e c o n t a c t f r e q u e n t l y e n a b l e s the r e s e a r c h e r t o e s t a b l i s h a sense of r a p p o r t w i t h t h e s u b j e c t , p a r t i c u l a r l y i f the i n t e r v i e w i s conducted i n the r e s p o n d e n t ' s home. T h i s h e l p s t o d i s p e l the image o f a " t e s t " s i t u a t i o n and encourages the s u b j e c t t o respond f r e e l y and n a t u r a l l y t o the t o p i c i n q u e s t i o n . The q u e s t i o n n a i r e u t i l i z e d i n t h i s r e s e a r c h c o n t a i n e d both c l o s e d and open-ended q u e s t i o n s , p e r m i t t i n g the i n t e r v i e w e r t o develop any p a r t of the d i s c u s s i o n a t h i s d i s c r e t i o n . I t was hoped t h a t t h i s c o m b i n a t i o n would p r o v i d e both a r i g c u r o u s b a s i s f o r comparison and s u f f i c i e n t f l e x i b i l i t y t o e x p l o r e the v a r i a b l e p e r c e i v e d w o r l d of the i n d i v i d u a l . The s u r v e y q u e s t i o n n a i r e i s n e v e r t h e l e s s a t i m e consuminq r e s e a r c h t o o l which, l i k e most t e c h n i q u e s , has some l i m i t a t i o n s . D e s p i t e a t t e m p t s to c r e a t e a r e l a x e d , i n f o r m a l atmosphere, the accu r a c y o f the data may be a f f e c t e d by t h e r e s p o n d e n t ' s awareness o f b e i n g m o n i t o r e d . T h i s may in d u c e a " d e s i r e d " o r " p u b l i c " response r a t h e r than a spontaneous d i s c l o s u r e c f the s u b j e c t ' s t r u e f e e l i n g s . A l s o , l o n g g u e s t i c n n a i r e s i n v o l v i n g obscure or complex i s s u e s may f a i l t o s u s t a i n t h e i n t e r e s t c f t h e respondent and p o s s i b l y l e a d t o q u i c k , i l l c o n s i d e r e d r e p l i e s aimed at b r i n g i n g t h e i n t e r v i e w t o a c l o s e . The i n t e r v i e w e r s h o u l d t h e r e f o r e be aware t h a t a house t o house survey c o n s t i t u t e s an i m p o s i t i o n i n terms of time and an i n v a s i o n of p r i v a c y and attempt t o m i n i m i z e t h e s e where 52 p o s s i b l e 1 8 . F i n a l l y , l e a d i n g and imbalanced q u e s t i o n i n g r e q u i r i n g a h i g h l e v e l o f p e r s o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n may we'll g i v e r i s e t o d a t a d i s t o r t e d by a guided p a t t e r n of response and a number of r e f u s a l s , account must be taken o f t h e s e l i m i t a t i o n s i n t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the survey d a t a and c o n c l u s i o n s drawn w i t h c a r e . N e v e r t h e l e s s , many of thes e d i s a d v a n t a g e s can be mi n i m i z e d by s e n s i t i v e s u r v e y d e s i g n and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , and thorough p r e - t e s t i n g . (c) The_i.guesf 1 o n n a i re Survey a p i l o t s u r v ey was conducted i n December 1975, u s i n g a s m a l l randomly s e l e c t e d sample from the K i t s i l a n o r e s e a r c h a r e a . The f u n c t i o n of the p r e - t e s t was t h r e e f o l d . F i r s t l y , i t was e s s e n t i a l t o a s c e r t a i n whether the q u e s t i o n n a i r e was y i e l d i n g adeguate and a p p r o p r i a t e i n f o r m a t i o n t o f u l f i l l the s u r v e y o b j e c t i v e s o u t l i n e d i n Chapter I . S e c o n d l y , a t t e n t i o n was f o c u s e d on t h e s t r u c t u r e of the s u r v e y , c a r e b e i n g taken t o ensure t h a t g u e s t i o n s were unambiguous, c o m p r e h e n s i b l e and i n o f f e n s i v e . F i n a l l y , t he p i l o t t e s t c o n s t i t u t e d a c r i t i c a l s tage i n the c o n s t r u c t i o n of the L i k e r t s c a l e . The s e r i e s cf a t t i t u d e s t a t e m e n t s was t e s t e d f o r t h e i r a b i l i t y t o d i s c r i m i n a t e between r e s p o n d e n t s w i t h opposxng a t t i t u d e s . The procedure and 18 The s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t s h o u l d always be aware o f the e t h i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s o f h i s mode c f r e s e a r c h . I n v a s i o n of p r i v a c y , v i o l a t i o n of the s u b j e c t ' s anonymity and a f a i l u r e t o e x p l a i n t h e way i n which p e r s o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n w i l l be u t i l i z e d c o n s t i t u t e i m p o r t a n t c o n s i d e r a t i o n s i n t h e use of the survey q u e s t i o n n a i r e . 19 F u r t h e r d e t a i l s c o n c e r n i n g a t t i t u d e s c a l e t e s t i n g may be fo u n d i n S e l l t i z , C., Research Methods i n S o c i a l R e l a t i o n s . H o l t , R i n e h a r t and W i l s o n ? N.Y.~195"l7 53 r e s u l t s o f t h i s t e s t a r e o u t l i n e d i n Appendix B ( s e c t i o n 2) In o r d e r t o i n c r e a s e the v a l i d i t y and r e l i a b i l i t y of the L i k e r t measure, i t e m s w i t h a low " d i s c r i m i n a t o r y power" were e l i m i n a t e d from t h e f i n a l s c a l e . T h i s ensured t h a t the a t t i t u d e t e s t was i n t e r n a l l y c o n s i s t e n t and t h a t every s t a t e m e n t was r e l a t e d to t h e same g e n e r a l theme. R e v i s i o n s were made on the b a s i s o f the p i l o t data and an example o f t h e f i n a l q u e s t i o n n a i r e i s i n c l u d e d i n Appendix C. S i n c e the q u e s t i o n n a i r e took an average o f 30 t o 45 minutes to c o n d u c t , a number c f r e f u s a l s were e x p e c t e d on the b a s i s of t i m e . However, t h e p i l o t t e s t r e v e a l e d t h a t most of the i n d i v i d u a l s who r a i s e d t h i s o b j e c t i o n were w i l l i r g t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n the survey i f they c o u l d complete the q u e s t i o n n a i r e a t t h e i r own c o n v e n i e n c e . Hence, t h e format was r e v i s e d t o accommodate t h i s a l t e r n a t i v e , a l t h o u g h a p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w was s t i l l c o n s i d e r e d p r e f e r a b l e and conducted where p o s s i b l e 2 0 . I n t h e f i n a l s t a g e s of p r e p a r a t i o n f o r t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s u r v e y , a sample was drawn from th e c o n v e r s i o n zones o f the t h r e e Vancouver i n n e r c i t y neighbourhoods o f K i t s i l a n o , Cedar C o t t a g e and Grandview-Woodlands. To d a t e , o n l y K i t s i l a n o and Cedar C o t t a g e have been a l l o c a t e d NIP and RRAP a s s i s t a n c e . Grandview-Woodlands, a l t h o u g h a s i m i l a r l y d e c l i n i n g a r e a , i s l a r g e l y c h a r a c t e r i z e d by p r i v a t e l y funded r e h a b i l i t a t i o n and 20 The self-comp.let.icn a l t e r n a t i v e was o n l y o f f e r r e d i f a r e f u s a l seemed imminent. Where p o s s i b l e , arrangements were made f o r the r e s e a r c h e r t o conduct t h e i n t e r v i e w a t a mere c o n v e n i e n t t i m e . 54 t h e r e f o r e s e r v e d as an i m p o r t a n t c o n t r o l i n a s s e s s i n g the impact o f BBAP. S i n c e t h e d e c i s i o n t o r e h a b i l i t a t e r e s t s p r i m a r i l y w i t h the p r o p e r t y owner and ERAP i s o n l y a v a i l a b l e t o t h e s e i n d i v i d u a l s , no attempt was made to i n c l u d e t e n a n t s w i t h i n the s u r v e y . While the l a t t e r undoubtedly c o n t r i b u t e t o the upkeep of r e s i d e n t i a l s t r u c t u r e s , work i s mere l i k e l y t o t a k e the form of g e n e r a l maintenance than r e h a b i l i t a t i o n per s e . Maintenance r e p a i r s a r e on a s m a l l e r s c a l e , more r e a d i l y undertaken and n e c e s s i t a t e l e s s f i n a n c i a l e x p e n d i t u r e than the attempt at major p r o p e r t y improvement w i t h which t h i s r e s e a r c h i s concerned. B s s i d e n t homeowners i n each neighbourhood were i d e n t i f i e d t hrough the Vancouver C i t y D i r e c t o r y , which p r o v i d e s a d e t a i l e d a d d r ess l i s t o f Vancouver r e s i d e n t s . I t i s l e s s time consuming t o use than the C i t y assessment r e c o r d s , but has the d i s a d v a n t a g e o f b e i n g i n c o m p l e t e and q u i c k l y going cut o f d a t e . The sample was s e l e c t e d on t h e b a s i s o f a s t r a t i f i e d random framework. The i n d i v i d u a l survey neighbourhoods were d i v i d e d i n t o ten s u b - a r e a s of s i m i l a r s i z e and an e g u a l p r o p o r t i o n of r e s i d e n t owners was s e l e c t e d from each. T h i s approach has the advantage o f e n s u r i n g a r e a s o n a b l y even d i s t r i b u t i o n of r e s p o n d e n t s throughout the neighbourhood, t h e r e b y i n c r e a s i n g the chance o f i n c l u d i n g a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e from each major s o c i o -economic group i n the sample. T a b l e I i n d i c a t e s some b i a s i n the sample towards i n d i v i d u a l s who have l i v e d i n t h e i r p r e s e n t d w e l l i n g and hence the neighbourhood f o r a l o n g p e r i o d of t i m e . The r e s p o n s e from s h o r t term r e s i d e n t s ( l e s s than one year) i n Cedar C o t t a g e and K i t s i l a n o was p a r t i c u l a r l y poor as newcomers to the neighbourhood f e l t unable t o a c c u r a t e l y answer the 55 TABLE :I POPULATION^ CHARACTERISTICS K i t s i l a n o Cedar C o t t a g e Grandview T o t a l Sample T o t a l Sample T o t a l ~ Sample • % % % % % % F a m i l y 58.0 47 74.8 68 83.0 80 Households Length of Res i d e n c e under 1 y r . 27.7 0 19. 9 8 13. 2 12 1-2 y r s 17.0 18 15. 8 7 11. 8 10 3-5 y r s 13.1 13 15. 8 20 13. 8 13 6-10 y r s 16.2 25 14. 8 22 15. 8 15 over 10 y r s 26. 0 43 33. 7 43 45. 4 50 : h n i c i t y A s i a n 3.4 2 17. 6 15 16. 7 17 B r i t i s h 56.5 60 39. 1 48 34. 3 45 French 3.4 0 •3 2 2 1. 9 0 German 9.0 8 7. 3 5 3. 6 0 I t a l i a n 1.7 0 7. 3 7 23. 6 23 S c a n d i n a v i a n 4.6 3 4. 0 2 3. 1 0 U k r a i n i a n 2.4 2 2. 9 0 3. 2 3 Portuguese b 0 b 8 b 3 Greek b 5 b 0 b 0 Other 19.0 20 18. 6 13 13. 6 10 Oc c u p a t i o n M a n a g e r i a l 6 25.2 23 7.6 8 6. 9 8 P r o f e s s i o n a l E d u c a t i o n grade 1-8 25.2 27 48.3 42 51, 4 47 grade 9-13 50.9 51 44.8 48 41.9 38 post s c h o o l 23.9 22 6.9 8 6.7 15 Household Income 0 under $7000 46.9 13 44.8 17 40.1 25 $7000-9999 21.6 20 25.8 32 24,3 35 $10000-14999 19.1 49 20.4 38 24.1 23 over $15000 12.4 18 9.0 13 11.5 17 RRAP a a RRAP u s e r s 7.9 18 7.5 15 not e l x g x b l e (a) 1971 Census d a t a , (b) no Census data c a t e g o r y p r o v i d e d , (c) th e income c a t e g o r i e s d e v i s e d f o r the survey were s i m i l a r , but not d i r e c t l y comparable w i t h t h e Census c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , (d) CMHC d a t a . 56 q u e s t i o n n a i r e . The correspondence between t h e t o t a l and sample p o p u l a t i o n i n Grandview-Woodlands was c l o s e r , s i n c e most of the r e s p o n d e n t s f a l l i n g i n t o t h i s c a t e g o r y had l i v e d i n t h e a r e a b e f o r e . The s u r v e y r e s p o n d e n t s were g e n e r a l l y c o n s i d e r e d t o be f a i r l y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n i n each a r e a . However, the sample s i z e was r e s t r i c t e d by c o n s t r a i n t s c f time and money; a t o t a l of 160 completed q u e s t i o n n a i r e s was c o l l e c t e d from the t h r e e s u r v e y a r e a s . S i n c e an assessment of REAP c o n s t i t u t e d an i m p o r t a n t survey o b j e c t i v e , the sample was s l i g h t l y b i a s e d towards the two NIP a r e a s o f K i t s i l a n o and Cedar C o t t a g e (see T a b l e I I ) . A t o t a l of s i x t y q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were conducted i n each o f t h e s e n e i g h b o u r h o o d s , and f o r t y i n the c o n t r o l a r e a of Grandview-Woodlands, I t i s f u l l y r e c o g n i s e d t h a t T A B L J L I I SAMPLE_SIZE T o t a l Number T o t a l Number of Households 0 1 o f I n t e r v i e w s K i t s i l a n o 3500 60 Cedar C o t t a g e 4300 60 Grandview 4000 40 Sampled Households % 1.7 1. 4 1 . 0 (a) L o c a l a r e a p l a n n i n g o f f i c e d a t a . t h i s sample c o n s t i t u t e s a s m a l l e r p r o p o r t i o n of the t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n t h a n i s u s u a l l y d e s i r a b l e 2 1 . I t was hoped t h a t the 21 A minimum sample of 5% of the t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n i s g e n e r a l l y c o n s i d e r e d d e s i r a b l e . 57 use o f t h e r i g o r o u s s e l e c t i o n p r o c e d u r e and r e f e r e n c e t c e t h e r a v a i l a b l e d a t a s o u r c e s would p a r t i a l l y a l l e v i a t e t h i s problem. While i t i s p o s s i b l e t o draw m e a n i n g f u l c o n c l u s i o n s from the survey d a t a , i t i s c l e a r t h a t some c a u t i o n must be e x e r c i s e d i n the s t a t i s t i c a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f r e s u l t s . T h i s has p a r t i c u l a r s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r t h e e x a m i n a t i o n of s m a l l e r sub-groups w i t h i n the sample. The q u e s t i o n n a i r e survey was un d e r t a k e n by the a u t h o r i n January and Fe b r u a r y of 1976, Each respondent was a s s u r e d of anonymity and a b r i e f e x p l a n a t i o n o f t h e purpose o f the s t u d y and use o f t h e data was g i v e n p r i o r t o the i n t e r v i e w . Most of the i n t e r v i e w s were conducted w i t h i n t h e re s p o n d e n t ' s home, a l t h o u g h 12S e l e c t e d t o f i l l i n t h e form t h e m s e l v e s a t t h e i r own co n v e n i e n c e . The completed q u e s t i o n n a i r e was c o l l e c t e d from these r e s p o n d e n t s a f t e r a two t o t h r e e day p e r i o d , when the o p p o r t u n i t y was p r o v i d e d f o r a d i s c u s s i o n of i s s u e s r a i s e d by the s u r v e y . The f i n a l t o t a l of 160 q u e s t i o n n a i r e s r e p r e s e n t e d a re s p o n s e r a t e o f 64.5%. (2) T h e _ M a i l M - Q u / e s t i o n n a i r e (a) The_pesign A m a i l q u e s t i o n n a i r e was de s i g n e d s p e c i f i c a l l y t o e x p l o r e the a t t i t u d e s and past r e h a b i l i t a t i o n a c t i v i t y of absentee l a n d l o r d s owning p r o p e r t y i n t h e two NIP survey a r e a s of K i t s i l a n o and Cedar Co t t a g e . Although absentee owners are e l i g i b l e f o r ERAP a s s i s t a n c e r e g a r d l e s s of t h e i r income, the p a r t i c i p a t i o n r a t e s r e c o r d e d by CMHC have been low. The r e s e a r c h e r was t h e r e f o r e p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t e r e s t e d i n t h i s group's 58 r e a c t i o n towards th e programme and p e r c e i v e d d i s i n c e n t i v e s t o r e h a b i l i t a t e . The q u e s t i o n n a i r e was n e v e r t h e l e s s designed t o examine s i m i l a r a s p e c t s of t h e r e s e a r c h problem t o t h o s e c f the house t o house q u e s t i o n n a i r e and was c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o the r e s e a r c h o b j e c t i v e s . Where p o s s i b l e , q u e s t i o n s were s t a n d a r d i z e d between t h e two q u e s t i o n n a i r e s i n o r d e r t o c r e a t e some b a s i s f o r c o m p a r i s o n . However, as i s c l e a r from th e example of t h i s q u e s t i o n n a i r e i n Appendix C, t h e m a i l s u r v e y was l e s s comprehensive and c o n s i d e r a b l y s h o r t e r t h a n t h e home based i n t e r v i e w s . T h i s r e d u c t i o n was n e c e s s a r y t o ensure an adequate response r a t e . I t i s w e l l known t h a t r e c i p i e n t s of m a i l q u e s t i o n n a i r e s o f t e n f e e l l e s s o b l i g e d t o respond than the i n d i v i d u a l who i s p e r s o n a l l y approached f o r an i n t e r v i e w . To a v o i d a t i m e consuming, demanding form, o n l y the most i m p o r t a n t a r e a s of i n q u i r y were i n c l u d e d . P e r s o n a l q u e s t i o n s p e r t a i n i n g to o c c u p a t i o n , e d u c a t i o n and income were o m i t t e d and the r e s p o n d e n t ' s anonymity was s t r e s s e d i n an attempt to p r e c l u d e any p e r c e p t i o n o f t h r e a t by the r e s p o n d e n t . Due t o f i n a n c i a l and time c o n s t r a i n t s , no p i l o t s u r v ey was u n d e r t a k e n . I t was t h e r e f o r e i m p o s s i b l e t o check whether the m a i l q u e s t i o n n a i r e was a p p r o p r i a t e l y d e s i g n e d f o r t h e absentee l a n d l o r d group. However, s i n c e the m a j o r i t y of the q u e s t i o n s were ta k e n from the f i n a l p r e - t e s t e d house t o house q u e s t i o n n a i r e , t h e r e s e a r c h e r was c o n f i d e n t t h a t the m a i l s u r v e y c o n s t i t u t e d a f a i r l y w e l l f o r m u l a t e d r e s e a r c h f o o l . (b) T h e _ M a i l _ 2 s e s t i o n n a i S i n c e t h e absentee l a n d l o r d s w i t h i n t h i s s u r v e y l i v e d i n w i d e l y d i s p e r s e d l o c a t i o n s r a n g i n g from C o q u i t l a m , B.C., to the 59 G u l f I s l a n d s , the m a i l q u e s t i o n n a i r e c o n s t i t u t e d t h e o n l y f e a s i b l e r e s e a r c h t o o l . I t has the advantage of b e i n g r e l a t i v e l y easy and cheap to a d m i n i s t e r , and r e s p o n d e n t s a r e g e n e r a l l y c o n f i d e n t i n t h e i r anonymity. T h i s h o p e f u l l y encourages a f r a n k r e s p o n s e . A l s o , s i n c e such s u r v e y s a re conducted on an i m p e r s o n a l b a s i s , t h e r e i s a high l e v e l of s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n f o r purposes c f c o m p a r i s o n , and no p o s s i b i l i t y o f i n t e r v i e w e r b i a s . However, t h e absence o f an i n t e r v i e w e r can a l s o be a d i s a d v a n t a g e , s i n c e t h e r e i s no means of p r o b i n g an open-ended q u e s t i o n i n g r e a t e r depth or c o n t r o l l i n g t h e sequence i n which q u e s t i o n s are answered. T h i s may l e a d t o r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n and b i a s the response. F u r t h e r m o r e , i f t h e respondent i s not p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t e r e s t e d i n the s u r v e y , he may o n l y p a r t i a l l y answer some q u e s t i o n s and i g n o r e o t h e r s c o m p l e t e l y . Hence, w i t h l e s s i n t e r v i e w e r c o n t r o l and the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y s h o r t e r n a t u r e of t h e m a i l q u e s t i o n n a i r e , t h i s t o o l f r e q u e n t l y p r o v i d e s a l e s s r i c h s o u r c e o f d a t a than t h e more f l e x i b l e s u r v e y i n t e r v i e w . Perhaps t h e g r e a t e s t d i s a d v a n t a g e o f t h e m a i l q u e s t i o n n a i r e i s t h e g e n e r a l l y poor response r a t e and the l e n g t h o f time f o r r e t u r n . The response can va r y from 10 t o 50%, a r a t e o f more than 60% b e i n g f a i r l y r a r e 2 2 . T h i s not o n l y n e c e s s i t a t e s s e n d i n g out a l a r g e number o f q u e s t i o n n a i r e s , but has the more s e r i o u s i m p l i c a t i o n of p o s s i b l y b i a s i n g t h e sample. S i n c e nonrespcnse i s r a r e l y a random p r o c e s s i t i s u n l i k e l y t h a t the r e t u r n s w i l l be 2 2 S e l l t i z , C., Op c i t . 60 r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the o r i g i n a l s a m p l e 2 3 . While i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o e l i m i n a t e t h i s b i a s , t h e r e a re a number of says t c encourage r e s p o n s e 2 4 . Some o f t h e s e were a l l u d e d t o i n the p r e v i o u s s e c t i o n and p e r t a i n t o t h e l e n g t h and n a t u r e c f the q u e s t i o n n a i r e and the importance of anonymity. Others i n c l u d e f i n a n c i a l inducements, m a i l i n g r e m i n d e r s , e n c l o s i n g a stamped addressed e n v e l o p e f o r t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e ' s r e t u r n and i n c l u d i n g an i n t r o d u c t o r y l e t t e r e x p l a i n i n g the purpose of the study. The l a t t e r two methods were u t i l i z e d i n t h i s r e s e a r c h . Hence, w h i l e t h e m a i l g u e s t i o n n a i r e i s undoubtedly an i n f e r i o r t o o l compared w i t h t h e i n t e r v i e w based s u r v e y , a number of i t s l i m i t a t i o n s can be minimized t o p r o v i d e an i m p o r t a n t complementary source c f d a t a . (c) The_Survey F o r t y absentee l a n d l o r d s owning p r o p e r t y i n e i t h e r Cedar C o t t a g e or K i t s i l a n o ( t w e n t y i n each neighbourhood) were randomly s e l e c t e d from t h e C i t y assessment r e c o r d s . T h i s s o u r c e had the advantage o f i d e n t i f y i n g both the absentee owner and h i s permanent p l a c e o f r e s i d e n c e f o r e v e r y r e n t e d p r o p e r t y i n Vancouver. The l a n d l o r d s s e l e c t e d l i v e d t h r o u g h o u t t h e Lower M a i n l a n d , but t h e m a j o r i t y were l o c a t e d w i t h i n the C i t y of Vancouver o r i t s suburbs. The sample s i z e was s m a l l as a r e s u l t o f f i n a n c i a l c o n s t r a i n t s and i t must be s t r e s s e d t h a t t h i s d a t a i s m a i n l y i n t e n d e d t o complement t h e main body of i n f o r m a t i o n c o l l e c t e d t h r o u g h t h e house to house q u e s t i o n n a i r e . 23 I t i s h i g h l y l i k e l y t h a t t h e group of l e s s i n t e r e s t e d n onrespondents w i l l have a number o f c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n common. These would vary w i t h the s t u d y . 24 S c o t t , C , "Research on M a i l Surveys". J o u r n a l o f t h e R o j a l S t a t i s t i c a l S o c i e t y . XXIV. S e r i e s A. 1961. p.143. 61 The m a i l g u e s t i o n n a i r e , accompanied by a l e t t e r and a stamped addressed e n v e l o p e , was sent t o t h e sample a t the end of Ja n u a r y 1976. By t h e end o f F e b r u a r y , seventeen u s a b l e r e s p o n s e s had been r e t u r n e d , g i v i n g a response r a t e of 42.2%. S i n c e t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were anonymous, t h e r e was no e v i d e n c e of the na t u r e o f t h e response b i a s . F u r t h e r m o r e , i t was i m p o s s i b l e t o a s s e s s the e x t e n t t o which the sample was r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the t o t a l body o f K i t s i l a n o and Cedar Cot t a g e l a n d l o r d s , s i n c e t h e r e was no o b j e c t i v e s o u r c e of data f o r comparison. Due t o t h e s e l i m i t a t i o n s and t h e s m a l l s i z e of the sample, t h i s d a t a was not s t a t i s t i c a l l y a n a l y s e d but used as a g e n e r a l i n d i c a t i o n o f the s e n t i m e n t s of the absentee l a n d l o r d group. Mll-RM>Q.ESSlM-£^-kMLI§.I§. The q u e s t i o n n a i r e p r o v i d e d both q u a l i t a t i v e and q u a n t i t a t i v e d a t a , which was coded and s t o r e d on IBM computer c a r d s f o r a n a l y s i s , w h i l e t h e c o d i n g f o r t h e c l o s e d , f i x e d answer q u e s t i o n s and t h e a t t i t u d e s c a l e was a l r e a d y p r e d e t e r m i n e d , i t was n e c e s s a r y t o d e v i s e a c o d i n g frame f o r the more f l e x i b l e open-ended q u e s t i o n s . T h i s p r o c e d u r e must be undertaken w i t h some c a r e and be based on a c l e a r c o n c e p t i o n of the r e s e a r c h problem and o b j e c t i v e s , s i n c e t h e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n w i l l g r e a t l y i n f l u e n c e t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the r e s u l t s . Gnce a s e r i e s of c a t e g o r i e s i s imposed on a r i c h and v a r i e d s e t c f d a t a , some i n f o r m a t i o n i s i n e v i t a b l y l o s t l e a v i n g a mere s i m p l i f i e d r e p r e s e n t a t i o n c f r e a l i t y . The l o s s o f i n f o r m a t i o n must o c c u r where i t m a t t e r s l e a s t i n o r d e r t o a v o i d any s i g n i f i c a n t r e d u c t i o n I n v a l i d i t y or u n d e r s t a n d i n g . 62 The n a t u r e o f t h e s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s was l a r g e l y d e t ermined by t h e c h a r a c t e r c f t h e d a t a . As i n most s o c i a l s c i e n c e s u r v e y s , t h i s r e s e a r c h y i e l d e d a h i g h p r o p o r t i o n of lew or d e r q u a n t i t a t i v e d a t a . T h i s l a c k s a d d i t i v e and o f t e n o r d i n a l p r o p e r t i e s and i s t h e r e f o r e best approached by no n p a r a m e t r i c s t a t i s t i c a l t e c h n i q u e s , which p l a c e r e l a t i v e l y few s t r i n g e n t r e g u i r e m e n t s on the d a t a . A n a l y s i s i s g e n e r a l l y based on d i s c r e t e c a t e g o r i e s of f r e q u e n c i e s , about which o f t e n o n l y c o m p a r a t i v e s t a t e m e n t s can be made. Higher c r d e r q u a n t i t a t i v e d a t a , however, such as income and f a m i l y s i z e , a r e c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a d d i t i v e p r o p e r t i e s , e q u a l i n t e r v a l s and g e n e r a l l y have a zero p o i n t . They may c o n s e q u e n t l y be a n a l y s e d by more demanding s t a t i s t i c s , p e r m i t t i n g a h i g h l e v e l of p r e c i s i o n and a b s o l u t e measurement. S t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s i n t h i s r e s e a r c h was un d e r t a k e n on the computer w i t h the use of the SPSS s t a t i s t i c a l p a c k a g e 2 5 . T h i s c o l l e c t i o n of commonly used s t a t i s t i c a l t e c h n i q u e s i s o r i e n t e d towards s o c i a l s c i e n c e i n v e s t i g a t i o n s and p r o v i d e s a number c f s u b r o u t i n e s designed t o f a c i l i t a t e a n a l y s i s . One such f e a t u r e i s r e l a t e d t o the p r o c e s s i n g of m i s s i n g d a t a , a common pheconenon i n s o c i a l s c i e n c e r e s e a r c h . A p p r o p r i a t e programmes were s e l e c t e d from w i t h i n t h i s package f o r the a n a l y s i s o f t h e d a t a . F i r s t l y , f r e q u e n c i e s were computed f o r e v e r y v a r i a b l e i n o r d e r to examine t h e i r d i s t r i b u t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . The r e l a t i o n s h i p between these v a r i a b l e s was then examined t h r o u g h c r o s s t a b u l a t i c n and 25 N i e , N. e t a l , SPSS:. S t a t i s t i c a l Package f o r the S o c i a l S c i e n c e s . HcGraw H i l l T 19707 ~ ~ ' 63 t h e c o m p u t a t i o n cf n o n p a r a m e t r i c s t a t i s t i c s . The c h i - s g u a r e t e s t and a r e l a t e d measure of a s s o c i a t i o n ( P h i c r Cramer's V) were s e l e c t e d f o r t h i s purpose. F i n a l l y , an attempt was made to a s s e s s t h e s t r e n g t h o f a s s o c i a t i o n between t h e few s u r v e y v a r i a b l e s based cn o r d i n a l data through t h e c o m p u t a t i o n c f Spearman's r 5 . Such v a r i a b l e s i n c l u d e d o c c u p a t i o n , income, e x p e n d i t u r e s on r e p a i r s and a r a n k e d q u a l i t y assessment. A more d e t a i l e d r e v i e w of these s t a t i s t i c s i s u n d e r t a k e n i n Appendix D. I t must be s t r e s s e d t h a t the s i z e of the subgroups w i t h i n the sample d i d not always p e r m i t as d e t a i l e d an a n a l y s i s as would have been l i k e d . However, where p o s s i b l e , I n t u i t i v e and s u b j e c t i v e c o n c l u s i o n s were v e r i f i e d w i t h s t a t i s t i c a l e v i d e n c e , p r o v i d i n g a u s e f u l and sound data base, 64 CH&PTER_IV 1SI_S2RVEY_AREAS In February 1974, t h e Vancouver C i t y P l a n n i n g Department recommended e i g h t i n n e r c i t y a r e a s i n Vancouver as p o t e n t i a l r e c i p i e n t s o f f u n d i n g under the Neighbourhood Improvement Programme 1. These were K i t s i l a n o , F a i r v i e w , Mount P l e a s a n t , Cedar C o t t a g e , R i l e y P a r k , S t r a t h c o n a , Grandview and H a s t i n g s -S u n r i s e . The s e l e c t i o n was based on p r e v i o u s l y i d e n t i f i e d a r e a s of need, a l r e a d y d e s i g n a t e d f o r r e n o v a t i o n under t h e proposed l o c a l programme c f Community Improvement and Development 2. Each i s c h a r a c t e r i s e d by o l d e r , o f t e n d e t e r i o r a t i n g h o u s i n g , a low to moderate income p o p u l a t i o n , s u b s t a n d a r d community f a c i l i t i e s and inadequate m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e s . By J u l y 1974, the P r o v i n c e of B.C. and CMHC had approved the d e s i g n a t i o n o f the whole c f K i t s i l a n o and p a r t of Cedar C o t t a g e as NIP a r e a s . Programmes were i n i t i a t e d i m m e d i a t e l y , with the a l l o c a t i o n of $1.2 m i l l i o n and $1.8 m i l l i o n t o each a r e a r e s p e c t i v e l y . As noted i n Chapter I , t h e s e NIP a r e a s c o n s t i t u t e two of the t h r e e s u r v e y d i s t r i c t s . The t h i r d , the c o n t r o l n eighbourhood, i s Grandview-Hoodlands, which at t h e time o f r e s e a r c h had r e c e i v e d no NIP f u n d i n g . Due t o f i n a n c i a l and time l i m i t a t i o n s , t h e s t u d y f o c u s e d on the 1 C i t y P l a n n i n g Dept., Neighbour hood Improvement i n Vancouver. Vancouver, B.C. F e b r u a r y , 1974. 2 C i t y P l a n n i n g Dept. , The Vancouver Urtjan Renewal Stud^. Vancouver, B.C. 1970. 65 c o n v e r s i o n a r e a s (zoned BT-2 and RS-2) w i t h i n each neighbourhood. These zones a r e c h a r a c t e r i s e d by a h i g h p r o p o r t i o n of w e l l - b u i l t but o l d e r , o f t e n s u b d i v i d e d homes and are f r e q u e n t l y s u b j e c t t o a number of p r e s s u r e s f o r development. In the p a s t , such d i s t r i c t s have g e n e r a l l y been regard e d as " t r a n s i t i o n a l zones". However, a r e c e n t e v a l u a t i o n of both the economic and s o c i a l r o l e of c o n v e r s i o n h o u s i n g has l e d to a r e a p p r a i s a l of the f u t u r e of t h e s e a r e a s 3 . P l a n n e r s i n many of t h e major Canadian c i t i e s now r e c o g n i s e t h a t the c o n v e r s i o n zones make a s i g n i f i c a n t c o n t r i b u t i o n t o t h e lower c o s t housing s t o c k and have p l a c e d h i g h p r i o r i t y on t h e i r i mprovement 4. I t may be noted from F i g u r e 1 t h a t t h e r e are t h r e e s e p a r a t e a r e a s of c o n v e r s i o n h o u s i n g i n K i t s i l a n o , but t h a t o n l y the West zone (bounded by Alma, Broadway, L a r c h / V i n e and the w a t e r f r o n t ) was chosen f o r i n v e s t i g a t i o n . The aim was t o m a i n t a i n some homogeneity w i t h i n the survey a r e a s e l e c t e d from each neighbourhood so as t o f a c i l i t a t e a comparison between the r e s p o n d e n t s . S i n c e t h e t h r e e K i t s i l a n o c o n v e r s i o n a r e a s are p h y s i c a l l y i s o l a t e d , i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t r e s i d e n t s 1 a t t i t u d e s and r e h a b i l i t a t i o n b e h a v i o u r c o u l d be i n f l u e n c e d by d i f f e r e n t e x t e r n a l f a c t o r s i n each case. The South East c o n v e r s i o n zone i s surr o u n d e d on two s i d e s by apartments, but i s bounded to the 3 Western R e a l e s e a r c h Corp., Study o f the Economics of C o n v e r s i o n Housing^ K i t s i l a n o P l a n n i n g A r e a , c i t y " p l a n n i n g Dept., Vancouver, 1 9 7 5 . 4 C i t y P l a n n i n g Dept., Core Area Housing Study. C i t y of Toronto P l a n n i n g Board. 1 9 7 4 . ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ C i t y P l a n n i n g Dept., O l d e r Neighbourhoods i n Edmonton: A S l i S H i s a lS£§£££tIye. E d m o n t o n ~ P l a n n i n g ~ D e p t , ~ 1 9 7 5 ™ FIG. I Key EZZ neighbourhood boundary survey area boundary conversion zoning RM-3 apartment zoning RS-1 single family zoning scale in fe^r "0 10,000' 67 South by t h e h i g h income r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a of Shaughnessy. Any "neighbourhood e f f e c t " from t h e l a t t e r c o u l d d i s t o r t the r e s u l t s . The K i t s i l a n o P o i n t zone, l o c a t e d i n the North East of the NIP a r e a , has a h i g h e r l e v e l o f h o u s i n g g u a l i t y than the Western zone and i s a r e l a t i v e l y d i s t i n c t i v e community w i t h i n K i t s i l a n o . I t s unique c h a r a c t e r i s ' a l s o acknowledged by t h e l o c a l a r e a p l a n n i n g team, who, i n t h e i r c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f the c o n v e r s i o n a r e a s , f o r m u l a t e d a s e p a r a t e p l a n f o r t h e P o i n t . The l a r g e , c o n t i g u o u s a r e a o f West K i t s i l a n o was t h e r e f o r e chosen f o r a n a l y s i s . I n both K i t s i l a n o and Grandview-Woodiands, the s e l e c t e d c o n v e r s i o n zones p r e s e n t a p h y s i c a l and s o c i a l b u f f e r between the a r e a s of s i n g l e f a m i l y hemes and apartment development and t h e r e f o r e p r o v i d e w e l l d e f i n e d u n i t s f o r t h i s r e s e a r c h ( s e e F i g u r e 1 ) s . However, the c o n v e r s i o n zone w i t h i n Cedar Cottage does not form a d i s t i n c t i v e sub-area and hence emerges as a l e s s c o h e s i v e s p a t i a l u n i t f o r a n a l y s i s . No good purpose would be served by e x c l u d i n g the s m a l l p o c k e t s o f s i n g l e f a m i l y housing encompassed w i t h i n t h e Neighbourhood Improvement d i s t r i c t from t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n . Hence, the NIP boundary ( i . e . Broadway, Nanaimo, Kingsway and C l a r k / K n i g h t Drive) was used to d e f i n e t h i s s u r v e y d i s t r i c t . The remainder of the c h a p t e r w i l l be devoted t o a c o n c i s e d e s c r i p t i o n c f t h e t h r e e r e s e a r c h a r e a s , the aim b e i n g t o p r o v i d e a b a s i s f o r u n d e r s t a n d i n g and i n t e r p r e t i n g the survey 5 The Grandview c o n v e r s i o n zone i s bounded by Commercial, H a s t i n g s , Templeton and Broadway. 68 r e s u l t s , An a p p r e c i a t i o n o f t h e environment i n t o which the F e d e r a l NIP and ERAP programmes were i n t r o d u c e d i s c o n s i d e r e d p a r t i c u l a r l y i m p o r t a n t . The d i s t i n c t i v e s o c i a l and p h y s i c a l m i l i e u of each neighbourhood w i l l t h e r e f o r e be examined through d a t a c o l l e c t e d from t h e l o c a l a r e a p l a n n i n g o f f i c e s , community newspapers and the su r v e y q u e s t i o n n a i r e . Some c o n c l u d i n g comments on t h e su r v e y a r e a s as a group w i l l be made towards the end o f t h e c h a p t e r , TIE_NIP_SUE¥EY_AEEAS KITSILANO R e s i d e n t i a l c o n s t r u c t i o n i n K i t s i l a n o commenced i n the e a r l y n i n e t e e n hundreds and by 1910, most o f t h e area between Alma, F o u r t h Avenue, Blenheim and the w a t e r f r o n t had been developed with l a r g e , wood-frame houses. A l t h o u g h K i t s i l a n o c o u l d not compete w i t h t h e e l i t i s t a r e a s of Shaughnessy and the West End, l a r g e numbers o f middle income f a m i l i e s were a t t r a c t e d by t h e p l e a s a n t l o c a t i o n , t h e presence of a s t r e e t c a r l i n e t o c e n t r a l Vancouver and t h e w a t e r f r o n t . By 1940, the d e s i r a b i l i t y of K i t s i l a n o had i n c r e a s e d and the r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a had extended t o t h e South. S i n c e i t s e a r l y y e a r s , r e s i d e n t s have e x h i b i t e d a s t r o n g p r i d e i n t h e i r neighbourhood. T h i s i s r e f l e c t e d i n the f o u n d a t i o n of the K i t s i l a n o R a t e p a y e r s ' A s s o c i a t i o n i n 1907 and th e Chamber of Commerce i n 1935. Both these groups have endeavoured t o p r e s e r v e K i t s i l a n o as a middle c l a s s , f a m i l y o r i e n t e d a r e a and p r o t e c t i t from e x t e r n a l t h r e a t s of p h y s i c a l development and s o c i a l change. T h i s p r i d e and image of K i t s i l a n o as a d e s i r a b l e r e s i d e n t i a l neighbourhood I s s t i l l e v i d e n t 69 amongst many owners w i t h i n t h e survey area and c o n s t i t u t e s a s t r o n g m o t i v a t i n g f o r c e f o r improvement. The redevelopment c f East K i t s i l a n o f o r apartment l i v i n g i n the e a r l y n i n e t e e n s i x t i e s was a p a r t i c u l a r l y i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r im r e i n f o r c i n g t h i s p e r c e i v e d need t o p r o t e c t and p r e s e r v e the c h a r a c t e r of the neighbourhood. U n l i k e t h e apartment zone, the K i t s i l a n o c o n v e r s i o n a r e a has not y e t undergone a major p h y s i c a l t r a n s f o r m a t i o n . Most c f t h e h o u s i n g s t o c k i s at l e a s t f i f t y y e a r s o l d and c o m p r i s e s l a r g e l y of s i n g l e f a m i l y homes and d u p l e x e s . A s m a l l number of apartment b u i l d i n g s and townhouses are a l s o e v i d e n t , but are u n l i k e l y to s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n c r e a s e under the p r e s e n t 2oning, which p e r m i t s them o n l y as a c o n d i t i o n a l l a n d use. However, a l t h o u g h t h i s zone s t i l l has the g e n e r a l appearance of a s i n g l e f a m i l y a r e a , many of the l a r g e , o l d e r houses have been sub-d i v i d e d d u r i n g the l a s t f i f t e e n to twenty y e a r s . T h i s has accounted f o r much of t h e i n c r e a s e i n apartment u n i t s s i n c e 1951 (see T a b l e I I I ) and g i v e n r i s e to a s i g n i f i c a n t growth i n r e n t a l accommodation. T h i s has encouraged a h i g h e r p r o p o r t i o n cf young, s i n g l e a d u l t s to s e t t l e i n the a r e a and l e d t o a d e c l i n e i n f a m i l y h ouseholds of n e a r l y 40% s i n c e 1951. As i n d i c a t e d i n T a b l e I I I , t h e o n l y groups t o I n c r e a s e d u r i n g t h e s e two decades were t h o s e between the ages c f f i f t e e n and t h i r t y - f o u r . The r e s i d e n t s of the K i t s i l a n o s u r v e y area are p r e d o m i n a n t l y Anglo Saxon i n o r i g i n (see Table I , Chapter I I I ) , a l t h o u g h Germans and Greeks c o n s t i t u t e two dominant e t h n i c groups. In t h e absence of adequate Census d a t a , s t a t i s t i c s from the Vancouver C i t y P l a n n i n g Department suggest t h a t the Greeks , 70 TABLE,III 1951 1961 1971 change 1951-71 % % % % F a m i l y Households 97.0 81.0 58.0 -39.0 Age 0 -14 y e a r s 18.6 21.1 16.2 -2.4 15-19 y e a r s 4.5 6.0 6.2 1.7 20-34 y e a r s 26.4 22.8 33.7 7.3 35-54 y e a r s 25.6 26.4 20.0 -5.6 55-64 y e a r s 11.3 9.0 10.5 -0.8 over 65 y e a r s 13.6 14.7 13.4 -0.2 M a r i t a l S t a t u s S i n g l e 37.0 41.0 44.0 7.0 M a r r i e d 54.0 49.0 44.0 -10.0 D w e l l i n g s Apartments 34.0 42.0 56.0 22.0 Owner Occupied 56.9 55.4 38.2 -18.7 Rented 43. 1 44.6 61. 8 18.7 (a) 1971 Census d a t a who c l u s t e r i n t h e c e n t r e o f the c o n v e r s i o n zone, c o n s t i t u t e a p p r o x i m a t e l y 4% o f t h e t o t a l r e s i d e n t s 6 . The 1971 Census d a t a i n d i c a t e t h a t 68.5% of the survey a r e a p o p u l a t i o n earned l e s s t h a n $10,000 p.a. (see T a b l e I , Chapter I I I ) and t h a t the average income was j u s t below t h a t f o r V a n c c u v e r 7 . The change i n the s o c i a l c h a r a c t e r o f t h e s u r v e y a r e a o v e r t h e p a s t f i f t e e n t o twenty y e a r s has been p a r a l l e l e d by an o v e r a l l d e c l i n e i n h o u s i n g q u a l i t y . T h i s may be p a r t l y 6 C i t y P l a n n i n g Dept., Vancouver L o c a l A r e a s . C i t y of Vancouver P l a n n i n g Dept., A p r i l 1975. The Census d a t a p r o v i d e s no s e p a r a t e c a t e g o r y f o r the enumeration o f t h e Greek p o p u l a t i o n . 7 The average f a m i l y income f o r t h e s u r v e y a r e a i n 1971 was $9525, compared w i t h t h e Vancouver average o f $10,4 22. (Census d a t a , 1971.) 71 a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e n a t u r a l d e t e r i o r a t i o n p r o c e s s , s i n c e about 40% o f t h e d w e l l i n g s were c o n s t r u c t e d p r o i r t o 18 1 5 8 . However, the d e c l i n e I s p r o b a b l y a l s o r e l a t e d t o t h e n a t u r e o f the s o c i a l c h ange 9. The younger, s i n g l e newcomers a r e o f t e n t r a n s i e n t and re g a r d K i t s i l a n o as an Impermanent home. Ind e e d , Table I (Chapter I I I ) i n d i c a t e s t h a t o v e r h a l f the su r v e y a r e a p o p u l a t i o n has l i v e d i n t h e i r d w e l l i n g f o r l e s s than f i v e y e a r s and 27.7% f o r under a year. Many o f t h e s e r e s i d e n t s are p r o b a b l y r e n t i n g and have l i t t l e f e e l i n g of attachment to t h e i r p r o p e r t y or i n c e n t i v e t o a r r e s t t h e d e t e r i o r a t i o n p r o c e s s . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e s u b d i v i s i o n o f o l d e r p r o p e r t i e s has f r e q u e n t l y been accompanied by a change from r e s i d e n t t o absentee ownership. An assessment of the p r e s e n t housing q u a l i t y i n the area r e v e a l e d t h a t p r o p e r t y maintenance i n the l a t t e r case was o f t e n p o o r , absentee ownership on the p o o r e s t b l o c k s a v e r a g i n g 7 6% (see F i g u r e 2 ) . T h i s s h a r p l y c o n t r a s t s w i t h a mean o f 19% on b l o c k s a s s e s s e d as "good" or " v e r y good". The o v e r a l l q u a l i t y of hous i n g i n t h e K i t s i l a n o survey a r e a i s average and c o n t a i n s o n l y pockets of above and below s t a n d a r d d w e l l i n g s . There i s n e v e r t h e l e s s a g e n e r a l t r a n s i t i o n from f a i r l y good h o u s i n g i n the west o f the a r e a , a d j a c e n t t o the s i n g l e f a m i l y zone, t o mixed and p o o r e r q u a l i t y b l o c k s i n the E a s t . The "mixed" areas l a r g e l y c o i n c i d e w i t h housing b u i l t 8 K i t s i l a n o P l a n n i n g Committee, K i t s i l a n o v j\n I n f o r m a t i o n Handbook. C i t y P l a n n i n g Dept., Vancouver, B.C. 1974. 9 T h i s i s s u p p o r t e d by the p l a n n e r s i n t h e K i t s i l a n o l o c a l p l a n n i n g o f f i c e . ( P e r s o n a l communication with R i c k G a t e s , 17th J u l y , 19 75.) FIG. 2 KITSILANO HOUSING QUALITY ASSESSMENT ^ S3 n i J L 3 C 1 f 1( II II I D C 1 1 — i n n r v S J 1 i i J J u H c = ii IU n i 11—X, i 11 1 i i i ' 1 1 i i n . . II 11 1 k \ _ J C ^ J I I 1 - u U H N M M V ! « b 1 •, c— 1 '—r 1 f 1 Key: very good good average poor very poor mixed 2nd &~^rafalgar 73 p r i o r t o 1915 and a r e c h a r a c t e r i s e d by both r e n o v a t e d and d e t e r i o r a t e d s t r u c t u r e s . A l l the b l o c k s c l o s e t o the c o n v e r s i o n zone boundary are s u b j e c t t c p r e s s u r e s from the a d j a c e n t r e c e n t l y d e v e l o p e d apartment a r e a . T h i s has been s u b s t a n t i a t e d by an i n v e s t i g a t i o n c l o s e to the c o n v e r s i o n zone l i m i t , which has r e v e a l e d t h a t 15% of the p r o p e r t y owners around Second Avenue and T r a f a l g a r S t r e e t have been approached by d e v e l o p e r s and asked t o s e l l (see F i g u r e 2 ) 1 0 . S p e c u l a t i v e b e h a v i o u r based on a n t i c i p a t e d z o n i n g changes g e n e r a l l y l e a d s t c l o w e r maintenance l e v e l s and a q u a l i t y d e c l i n e . However, i t i s i n t e n d e d t h a t p l a n s d e v i s e d under the Neighbourhood Improvement Programme w i l l o b v i a t e any p o s s i b i l i t y o f r e z o n i n g i n t h e near f u t u r e . S p e c u l a t i o n s h o u l d t h e r e b y become a l e s s a t t r a c t i v e p r o p o s i t i o n and the p r o s p e c t o f i n c r e a s e d n e i g h b c u r h c c d s t a b i l i t y s h o u l d h o p e f u l l y encourage more p r o p e r t y maintenance. The Neighbourhood Improvement p l a n f o r the s u r v e y a r e a was f o r m u l a t e d i n e a r l y 1976. The aim i s t o p r e s e r v e t h e c h a r a c t e r of t h e a r e a , m a i n t a i n i n g both i t s p h y s i c a l and s o c i a l d i v e r s i t y , w h i l e a l l o w i n g f o r a s m a l l i n c r e a s e i n d e n s i t y 1 * . The l o c a l p l a n n e r s a r e working i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h t h r e e sub-committees r e p r e s e n t i n g r e s i d e n t s from the c o n v e r s i o n a r e a to implement the p l a n . These committees a r o s e from t h e d e s i r e t o i n v o l v e mere l o c a l c i t i z e n s i n the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . However, not o n l y do 10 Harriman, N. et a l , Neighbourhood Commitment and Land Use P r e f e r e n c e s . U n p u b l i s h e d r e p o r t . Dept. of Geography, UBC. 197U7~ 11 K i t s i l a n o P l a n n i n g Committee, P l a n f o r the C o n v e r s i o n Areas of Kj.tsila.no ( d r a f t ) . C i t y P l a n n i n g Dept., Vancouver, B.C. 1976." in they s e r v e a d e m o c r a t i c f u n c t i o n , but they a l s o h e l p t o i n c r e a s e t h e g e n e r a l l e v e l o f p u b l i c awareness w i t h r e g a r d t o the improvement programme. T h i s has i m p o r t a n t i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r the v o l u n t a r y p a r t i c i p a t i o n of r e s i d e n t s i n RRAP. A b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e g o a l s and a c h ievements of t h e l o c a l p l a n n i n g team may w e l l p r o v i d e a s t i m u l u s t o r e h a b i l i t a t i o n by the i n d i v i d u a l . I t i s t h e a u t h o r ' s i m p r e s s i o n t h a t K i t s i l a n o r e s i d e n t s are g e n e r a l l y aware o f i s s u e s , programmes and a c t i v i t i e s c o n c e r n i n g t h e i r l o c a l a r e a 1 2 . The spread c f I n f o r m a t i o n i s f a c i l i t a t e d by the two l o c a l newspapers, t h e "western News" and t h e "West S i d e C o u r i e r " , and c i t i z e n s 1 groups such as the R a t e p a y e r s ' a s s o c i a t i o n s and the t e n a n t s ' o r g a n i z a t i o n , R e n t e r s U n i t e d f o r Secure Housing ("RUSH"). Although the groups r e p r e s e n t d i f f e r e n t f a c t i o n s o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n and t h e r e i s o f t e n d i s s e n s i o n between them, t h e y are m o t i v a t e d by a common co n c e r n f o r the neighbourhood. A n x i e t y over t h e a r e a ' s f u t u r e development i s e v i d e n t i n the l o c a l news media and from t h e r e l a t i v e l y good a t t e n d a n c e at p u b l i c meetings. Most r e s i d e n t s i n the c o n v e r s i o n zone f e e l f a i r l y a t t a c h e d t o t h e area and are proud t o be p a r t o f t h e neighbourhood of K i t s i l a n o , w i t h which they s t r o n g l y i d e n t i f y . Owners do not g e n e r a l l y l i k e t h e p h y s i c a l and s o c i a l changes t h a t have t a k e n p l a c e , but many f e e l t h a t a remnant o f t h e i r neighbourhood community s t i l l p e r s i s t s and t h a t i t must be 12 Comments r e l a t e d t o c i t i z e n awareness and p r i d e i n t h e i r l o c a l community are l a r g e l y i n t u i t i v e . The i m p r e s s i o n s were f o r m u l a t e d through t a l k i n g w i t h l o c a l p l a n n e r s and r e s i d e n t s , and l i v i n g c l o s e t o t h e survey a r e a . 75 p r e s e r v e d . T h i s c o n v i c t i o n p l a y s an i m p o r t a n t p a r t i n the d e c i s i o n t o r e h a b i l i t a t e , as w i l l be shown i n Chapter V. CJEAR_C0TTAGE U n l i k e most Vancouver i n n e r c i t y neighbourhoods which de v e l o p e d as a l o g i c a l e x t e n s i o n of the o l d e r c i t y c o r e . Cedar C o t t a g e grew from a s e p a r a t e n u c l e u s based on a s t o p on the I n t e r u r b a n r a i l w a y l i n e l i n k i n g Vancouver t o New Westminster. Commercial development a t t h i s p o i n t {now 18th Avenue and Commercial) commenced i n t h e e i g h t e e n n i n e t i e s , t h e shops b e i n g w e l l p a t r o n i s e d by passengers w a l k i n g between the i n t e r u r b a n s t e p and the F o u r t h Avenue s t e e t c a r . R e s i d e n t i a l c o n s t r u c t i o n began around t h i s c e n t r e p r i o r t o World War One, and by 1920, a number o f s i n g l e f a m i l y homes had been b u i l t a l o n g the t r a n s i t l i n e . D u r i n g these e a r l y s t a g e s o f development, Cedar C o t t a g e came under t h e South Vancouver D i s t r i c t M u n i c i p a l i t y . P r o v i s i o n of m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e s o t h e r t h a n water s u p p l y and s c h o o l s was poor and t h e s u b d i v i s i o n o f la n d c a r e l e s s . T h i s gave r i s e to narrow s t r e e t s and i r r e g u l a r l o t s , t h e l e a s t a t t r a c t i v e of which remained vacant f o r s e v e r a l decades. A l t h o u g h improvements d i d o c c u r a f t e r amalgamation w i t h Vancouver i n 1928, t h e l e g a c y c f t h i s e a r l y e r a o f poor p l a n n i n g remains. A sense of n e g l e c t has p e r s i s t e d f o r many o l d e r r e s i d e n t s , who remain s u s p i c i o u s of government a c t i o n s 1 3 . T h i s has i m p o r t a n t i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r the 13 G i b s o n , E., "Lot u s E a t e r s , Loggers and the Vancouver Landscape". I n L, Evenden and F. Cunningham ( e d . ) , C u l t u r a l D i s c o r d i n t h e Modern World. Vancouver: T a n t a l u s R e s e a r c h . 1974. 76 acceptance of the F e d e r a l REAP programme w i t h i n t h i s a r e a . While the commercial c e n t r e t h r i v e d , i t p r o v i d e d Cedar Cottage w i t h a s t r o n g c e n t r a l c o r e and an i m p o r t a n t b u s i n e s s f u n c t i o n . However, by the n i n e t e e n f o r t i e s , the p r i v a t e car was more w i d e l y used and Kingsway g r a d u a l l y g a i n e d importance as an i n t e r u r b a n r o u t e and commercial a r e a . The e a r l y c e n t r e c o n s e q u e n t l y d e c l i n e d , a l t h o u g h t h e r e s i d e n t i a l area c o n t i n u e d to grow. As Vancouver expanded, Cedar C o t t a g e was e n g u l f e d . The neighbourhood c o n s e q u e n t l y l o s t i t s c l e a r and s e p a r a t e i d e n t i t y , something which i t has never managed t o r e p l a c e . The s u r v e y q u e s t i o n n a i r e i n d i c a t e d t h a t many r e s i d e n t s i n t h i s n eighbourhood c o u l d not i d e n t i f y t hemselves w i t h an a r e a named Cedar C o t t a g e , but f e l t more c l o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d to s u r r o u n d i n g neighbourhoods such as Mount P l e a s a n t and G r a n d v i e w i * . U n l i k e K i t s i l a n o , where the c i t i z e n s ' groups and l o c a l media p r o v i d e r e s i d e n t s w i t h c o n s t a n t r e m i n d e r s of neighbourhood i s s u e s and a c t i v i t i e s , t h e r e i s l i t t l e i n Cedar Cott a g e t o g e n e r a t e a f e e l i n g o f b e l o n g i n g t o t h i s neighbourhood. U n t i l the l a s t few months, t h e r e has been no l o c a l newspaper s p e c i f i c a l l y o r i e n t e d towards Cedar C o t t a g e , the Grandview based " H i g h l a n d Echo" b e i n g the most w i d e l y read i n t h e area. T h i s has o n l y l e d t o f u r t h e r c o n f u s i o n over t h e s e p a r a t e i d e n t i t y of the neighbourhood. In 1975, a I I P g r a n t a p p l i c a t i o n t o s t a r t a l o c a l newspaper was r e f u s e d on the b a s i s t h a t Cedar Cott a g e was not a s t r o n g community w i t h any c e n t r a l i n t e r e s t s . However, the l o c a l 14 T h i s i s s u p p o r t e d by t h e former chairman of t h e Cedar C o t t a g e - K e n s i n g t o n Area C o u n c i l , H a r o l d D a y k i n . (Vancouver Sun, August 1 1 t h , 1975). 77 i n f o r m a t i o n c e n t r e has r e c e n t l y r e l e a s e d t h e f i r s t i s s u e s o f a neighbourhood paper, the "Cedar C o t t a g e C h r o n i c l e " . While i t s f u t u r e i s perhaps u n c e r t a i n , i t r e p r e s e n t s an i m p o r t a n t attempt to s t i m u l a t e community i n t e r e s t . The f a i l u r e of many r e s i d e n t s t o i d e n t i f y w i t h the neighbourhood of Cedar Cot t a g e p a r t l y e x p l a i n s t h e low l e v e l of c i t i z e n o r g a n i z a t i o n and p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n community b u s i n e s s . The l o c a l Area C o u n c i l i s one o f t h e most p o o r l y a t t e n d e d i n Vancouver and t h e r e a r e no a c t i v e c i t i z e n groups t o p r o v i d e a f o c u s f o r a t t e n t i o n . The i n t r o d u c t i o n o f t h e l o c a l area p l a n n i n g team I n t o t h e neighbourhood w i t h the commencement of RIP has s t i m u l a t e d more i n t e r e s t i n Cedar Cottage i n the past c o u p l e of y e a r s and t w e l v e r e s i d e n t s now p a r t i c i p a t e i n an ad hoc p l a n n i n g committee. However, whether t h i s I n t e r e s t w i l l c o n t i n u e t o grew once t h e Neighbourhood Improvement Programme i s completed remains t o be seen. The neighbourhood of Cedar C o t t a g e c o n s t i t u t e s a p h y s i c a l r a t h e r than a s o c i a l e n t i t y . The l a c k o f s o c i a l c c h e s i c n i s e x a c e r b a t e d by t h e d i v e r s i t y of e t h n i c groups l i v i n g w i t h i n the a r e a and the r e l a t i v e l y low l e v e l o f communication between t h e m 1 5 . A g a i n , t h e d i f f e r e n t groups appear t c be more d i r e c t l y concerned w i t h I s s u e s a f f e c t i n g t h e i r e t h n i c community than the neighbourhood i n which t h e y l i v e . T h e i r i n t e r e s t i s t h e r e f o r e o f t e n d i r e c t e d away f r o n Cedar C o t t a g e , t h e I t a l i a n s b e i n g more aware o f t h e a c t i v i t i e s o f t h e i r community i n Grandview and many 15 P h i l l i p s , D. , I n f o r m a t i o n D i f f u s i o n Withijn an I n n e r C i t j ^ Neighbourhood. U n p u b l i s h e d r e p o r t . Dept. of Geography, UBC, 19757 78 C h i n e s e a r e more i n v o l v e d i n the s o c i a l l i f e of S t r a t h c o n a . U n l i k e K i t s i l a n o , Cedar C o t t a g e i s a r e l a t i v e l y s t a b l e a r e a i n terms of s o c i a l c o m p o s i t i o n and the 1971 Census d a t a i n d i c a t e s t h a t n e a r l y 50% o f t h e r e s i d e n t s have l i v e d i n the same d w e l l i n g f o r more than f i v e y e a r s (see Table I , C h a p t e r I I I ) , Although t h e r e has been an o v e r a l l decrease i n t h e p r o p o r t i o n of f a m i l y h o u s e h o l d s , t h e r e has been l i t t l e change i n the age s t r u c t u r e of the Cedar C o t t a g e p o p u l a t i o n (see T a b l e I V ) . F a m i l i e s s t i l l TABLJ_.IV TRENDS IN THE CEDAR COTTAGE SURVEY AREA 19 51 1961 1971 Chan ge 1951-71 F a m i l y Households Age 0 -14 y e a r s 15-19 y e a r s 20-34 y e a r s 35-54 y e a r s 55-64 y e a r s over 65 y e a r s M a r i t a l S t a t u s S i n g l e M a r r i e d D w e l l i n g s Owner Occupied Rented 98. 2 25. 2 5.5 23.6 25. 3 9. 1 11.3 39.6 53. 8 70. 6 29. 4 86. 7 26. 1 6. 5 21.5 25. 8 8.7 11.4 42.5 49. 6 65. 9 34. 1 74. 8 26.4 8. 0 23.5 23. 0 9.7 9.0 45.7 45.8 60. 3 39.7 -23 .4 1 2 -0 , -2 0 -2 2 5 1 3 6 3 6.1 -8.0 10 .3 10 .3 (a) 1971 Census d a t a comprise 75^1 o f the t o t a l households and, i n c o n t r a s t to K i t s i l a n o , t h e r e has even been a s l i g h t i n c r e a s e i n the number of c h i l d r e n i n t h e a r e a . A high p r o p o r t i o n o f t h e f a m i l i e s are engaged i n semi s k i l l e d or manual jobs and o n l y about 1% are employed i n m a n a g e r i a l or p r o f e s s i o n a l o c c u p a t i o n s o r have been 79 i n v o l v e d i n post s c h o o l e d u c a t i o n . T h i s c o n t r a s t s w i t h a p p r o x i m a t e l y 25% o f t h e K i t s i l a n o p o p u l a t i o n . The mean f a m i l y income i s $7,303, j u s t over two t h i r d s the Vancouver average ($10,442) . Not o n l y has t h e r e been l i t t l e s o c i a l change i n Cedar C o t t a g e , but i t has remained p h y s i c a l l y s t a b l e s i n c e t h e r e a re few p r e s s u r e s f o r growth or redevelopment. The area i s c h a r a c t e r i s e d by a h i g h p r o p o r t i o n of s i n g l e f a m i l y d w e l l i n g s (64%) and d u p l e x e s , 60% of which a r e owner o c c u p i e d . Although z o n i n g p e r m i t s c o n v e r s i o n s i n most o f the ne i g h b o u r h o o d , many s t r u c t u r e s are r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l and t h e r e f o r e l e s s amenable t o s u b d i v i s i o n than t h o s e i n K i t s i l a n o . Apartments c o n s e q u e n t l y account f o r o n l y 9% of the d w e l l i n g u n i t s . As i n d i c a t e d i n F i g u r e 3, t h e p r o p e r t y q u a l i t y t h r o u g h o u t Cedar Cottage i s g e n e r a l l y mixed, w i t h many of the poorest, b l o c k s o c c u r r i n g In t h e areas o f o l d e s t h o u s i n g c l o s e t o the former i n t e r u r b a n l i n e 1 6 . The l e v e l of absentee ownership on t h e s e b l o c k s i s about 58%, w hich, w h i l e h i g h e r than f o r a r e a s of b e t t e r q u a l i t y housing i n Cedar C o t t a g e , i s lower than i n K i t s i l a n o . I t has been a s s e s s e d t h a t 67% c f the s t r u c t u r e s i n Cedar Cott a g e are i n need o f seme r e p a i r and 15% r e q u i r e major r e n o v a t i o n s 1 7 . T h i s was one of the major c r i t e r i a f o r the a l l o c a t i o n o f NIP and REAP funds t o t h i s a r e a . However, ev i d e n c e s u g g e s t s t h a t housing r eplacement r a t h e r than r e h a b i l i t a t i o n has been an i m p o r t a n t 16 T h i s f o l l o w e d Vanness West t o S t a i n s b u r y and t h e n proceeded North p a r a l l e l t o Commercial D r i v e . 17 C i t y P l a n n i n g Dept., Op. c i t . 1970. FIG. 3 CLDAR COTTAGE HOUSING QUALITY ASSESSMENT L<ey: mmm very good poor good — very poor — average — . mixed 81 s o l u t i o n t o d e t e r i o r a t i o n i n t h e p a s t . On many s t r e e t s , o l d e r homes a r e i n t e r s p e r s e d w i t h s i n g l e f a m i l y d w e l l i n g s c o n s t r u c t e d w i t h i n t h e l a s t t e n t o f i f t e e n y e a r s 1 8 . T h i s would l e a d one t o suggest t h a t t h e economics of repla c e m e n t a r e more f a v o u r a b l e i n the E a s t c f the C i t y than i n K i t s i l a n o , where t h e r e i s mere p r e s s u r e f o r apartment than s i n g l e f a m i l y home redevelopment. U n l i k e K i t s i l a n o , Cedar C o t t a g e had no area p l a n n i n g programme p r i o r t o the i n t r o d u c t i o n o f NIP, However, i t had been the s u b j e c t o f a number o f C i t y s t u d i e s , which f a c i l i t a t e d the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of p l a n n i n g p r i o r i t i e s . S i n c e t h e a r e a i s r e l a t i v e l y f r e e from p r e s s u r e s f o r development, t h e r e has been l e s s c o n s i d e r a t i o n of z o n i n g and d e n s i t y changes th a n i n K i t s i l a n o . Most a t t e n t i o n has been devoted t o the improvement of r e c r e a t i o n and neighbourhood f a c i l i t i e s and upgrading the g e n e r a l appearance c f t h e a r e a . The f o r m u l a t i o n of these p l a n s has undoubtedly been a i d e d by t h e ar e a ' s p r e s e n t s t a b i l i t y . However, l o n g term p r o p o s a l s f o r Vancouver's t r a n s p o r t a t i o n system i n d i c a t e t h a t a r a p i d t r a n s i t l i n e i s l i k e l y to pass through the c e n t r e of Cedar Cottage. The i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r the neighbourhood's f u t u r e c h a r a c t e r and s t a b i l i t y a r e enormous. 18 Examples o f t h i s r e placement may be found on t h e 3200 and 3300 b l o c k s of Dumfries and Fle m i n g S t r e e t s . The 1971 Census i n d i c a t e s t h a t 12% of the d w e l l i n g s i n Cedar C o t t a g e have been c o n s t r u c t e d s i n c e 1960. 82 IME_CCJTECL_AEE1 Grandview-Wcodlands i s l o c a t e d i n the East End o f Vancouver and c o n s t i t u t e s t h e C i t y ' s e a r l i e s t suburb. fiesidential development commenced i n the p r e s e n t apartment zone i n t h e West o f t h e area w i t h t h e c o m p l e t i o n of the I n t e r u r b a n r a i l w a y i n 1891, and by the end of the decade had p r o g r e s s e d eastwards t o t h e s u r v e y c o n v e r s i o n zone. R e s i d e n t i a l c o n s t r u c t i o n was r e l a t i v e l y dense i n t h i s zone, l a r g e woodframe houses b e i n g b u i l t on s m a l l l e t s . A f t e r 1912, development was t e m p o r a r i l y slowed by t h e e x p a n s i o n of t h e Western suburbs of K i t s i l a n o , P o i n t Grey and Shaughnessy and i t became c l e a r from t h i s e a r l y s t a g e t h a t t h e West was p e r c e i v e d as a more d e s i r a b l e r e s i d e n t i a l environment. For some y e a r s , Grandview remained r e l a t i v e l y i s o l a t e d from th e r e s t c f t h e C i t y , which may have c o n t r i b u t e d t o the l o c a l p r i d e and sense o f i n d i v i d u a l i t y s t i l l e v i d e n t t o d a y . P r i o r t o World War One, r e s i d e n t s were mostly " w o r k i n g c l a s s " i n d i v i d u a l s o f Anglo-Saxon d e s c e n t . However, by the l a t e n i n e t e e n t h i r t i e s and f o r t i e s , t h e I t a l i a n s and C h i n e s e had become s i g n i f i c a n t components of t h e p o p u l a t i o n . The r e l a t i v e s i z e of t h e s e groups has f l u c t u a t e d o v e r t h e y e a r s , an i n c r e a s e i n t h e C hinese p o p u l a t i o n i n t h e n i n e t e e n f i f t i e s and s i x t i e s b e i n g p a r a l l e l l e d by t h e movement cf some of the more prosperous I t a l i a n s t o Buraaby. N e v e r t h e l e s s , as i n d i c a t e d i n T able I (Chapter I I I ) , t h e I t a l i a n s a l o n g w i t h the Chinese s t i l l c o n s t i t u t e a l a r g e e t h n i c component w i t h i n the survey a r e a . A l s o , a l t h o u g h i t i s not c l e a r from t h e Census d a t a , s i n c e no 83 s e p a r a t e c a t e g o r y i s p r o v i d e d , t h e r e i s e v i d e n c e t h a t an i n c r e a s i n g number of Ea s t I n d i a n immigrants are b e i n g a t t r a c t e d t o t h e a r e a by t h e low r e n t b o u s i n g 1 9 . D e s p i t e s l i g h t f l u c t u a t i o n s i n t h e e t h n i c c o m p o s i t i o n , the c o n v e r s i o n zone of Grandview c o n s t i t u t e s an a r e a of s o c i a l s t a b i l i t y , t h e r e b e i n g a h i g h p r o p o r t i o n (45.5%) of r e s i d e n t s who have l i v e d i n the same d w e l l i n g f o r more t h a n ten y e a r s . As i n a l l t h e s u r v e y a r e a s , t h e r e has been a d e c r e a s e i n the number of f a m i l i e s over t h e past two decades (see Table V ) . However, such households s t i l l c o n s t i t u t e a more i m p o r t a n t component c f t h e p o p u l a t i o n than i n t h e o t h e r two survey neighbourhoods. T h i s may p a r t l y be a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e l a r g e e t h n i c p o p u l a t i o n , the extended f a m i l i e s of t h e C h i n e s e , I t a l i a n and E a s t I n d i a n i m m i g r a n t s h a v i n g been a t t r a c t e d by the l a r g e c i d e r homes w i t h i n the c o n v e r s i o n a r e a . T h e i r demand f o r space has i n h i b i t e d the s a l e o f t h e s e p r o p e r t i e s f o r s u b d i v i s i o n i n t o s m a l l e r r e n t a l u n i t s and t h e r e b y avoided t h e p o p u l a t i o n t u r n o v e r e x p e r i e n c e d i n K i t s i l a n o . T h i s i s e v i d e n t from the d e c l i n e r a t h e r than i n c r e a s e i n the twenty t o t h i r t y f o u r year o l d age group. T a b l e V a l s o i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e r e has been l i t t l e change i n p r o p e r t y t e n u r e over t h e past two decades, 7 8% of the d w e l l i n g s s t i l l b e i n g owner o c c u p i e d (compared w i t h 38% i n K i t s i l a n o ) . T h i s has f a v o u r a b l e i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r p r o p e r t y maintenance, a l t h o u g h t h i s may be o f f s e t by r e l a t i v e l y low incomes. I n 1971, a p p r o x i m a t e l y 64% e a r n e d l e s s than $10,000 p.a., t h e l a b o u r f o r c e b e i n g 19 C i t y P l a n n i n g Dept., Grandview-Woodland An I n f o r m a t i o n Handbook. Vancouver P l a n n i n g Dept., J u l y 1975. TABLE_V TRENDS IN THE GRANDVIEW-WOODLANDS SDRVEY AREA 1951 1961 1971 84 Chan ge 1951-71 Fa roily Households Age 0 -14 y e a r s 15-19 y e a r s 20-34 y e a r s 35-54 y e a r s 55-6 4 y e a r s over 65 y e a r s M a r i t a l S t a t u s S i n g l e M a r r i e d D w e l l i n g s Apartment s Owner Occupied Rented 97.3 24. 2 5. 9 24. 0 27. 2 8.9 9. 8 39.3 54.6 18. 5 77.4 22.6 93. 9 27. 2 6. 9 19.6 26. 7 9.0 10. 6 42.5 50. 9 13. 4 81.6 18.4 83.0 25.7 8. 0 20.6 24. 4 10.0 11.3 43.8 48. 8 18. 1 78.0 22.0 -14.3 1 2. -3 . -2 1 . 1 1 .5 4.5 -5.8 -0 . .3 0.6 -0.6 (a) 1971 Census data p r i n c i p a l l y engaged i n manual j o b s i n m a n u f a c t u r i n g , c o n s t r u c t i o n and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i n d u s t r i e s . Of t h e s o c i a l groups w i t h i n the Grandview s u r v e y a r e a , the I t a l i a n s have made the most s i g n i f i c a n t impact on t h e p h y s i c a l e n vironment. The g r e a t i n f l u x c f t h e s e i m m i g r a n t s a f t e r World War Two was accompanied by e x t e n s i v e r e n o v a t i o n of sound but f r e q u e n t l y p o o r l y m a i n t a i n e d s i n g l e f a m i l y d w e l l i n g s . The wooden e x t e r i o r s were g e n e r a l l y r e p l a c e d w i t h s t u c c o and masonry and the i n t e r i o r s r e f i t t e d 2 0 . The p r o p e n s i t y o f t h e I t a l i a n s t o l i v e i n c l o s e l y k n i t groups has l e d t o the t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of e n t i r e c i t y b l o c k s . Hence, a l t h o u g h most of the s t r u c t u r e s i n t h e a r e a 20 C i t y P l a n n i n g Dept., I b i d . 85 were b u i l t i n t h e n i n e t e e n t w e n t i e s , many b l o c k s may be c l a s s i f i e d as "good" or "average" q u a l i t y (see F i g u r e 4 ) . The p o o r e s t and mixed q u a l i t y housing i n t h e c e n t r e o f the survey d i s t r i c t c l o s e l y c o r r e s p o n d s to t h e a r e a of c o n v e r t e d s i n g l e f a m i l y homes. Although owners o f t h i s p r o p e r t y g e n e r a l l y do not l i v e on t h e p r e m i s e s , many r e s i d e w i t h i n two t o t h r e e b l o c k s . T h e i r l e v e l of maintenance n e v e r t h e l e s s p a r a l l e l s t h a t c f the absentee owners In t h e o t h e r two s u r v e y neighbourhoods. I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o note t h a t , as i n K i t s i l a n o , p r o p e r t y a d j a c e n t to the apartment zone i n t h e West i s g e n e r a l l y p o o r e r than t h a t c l o s e t o t h e s i n g l e f a m i l y zone t o the East of the a r e a . T h i s i s not o n l y r e l a t e d t o t h e d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s o f absentee ownership, but a l s o t o the "neighbourhood e f f e c t " of the a d j a c e n t zones. The p r o x i m i t y of t h e commercial a r e a (along Commercial D r i v e ) and the r e d e v e l o p i n g apartment zone i n t h e West i s l e s s c o n d u c i v e t o h i g h l e v e l s c f p r o p e r t y maintenance than the s t a b i l i t y of the E a s t . P r e s s u r e s f o r the redevelopment of the Grandview c o n v e r s i o n a r e a a r e p r e s e n t l y l e s s s e v e r e t h a n i n K i t s i l a n o . There i s s t i l l much p o t e n t i a l f o r apartment development on l a n d zoned f o r t h i s p u r p o s e 2 1 . N e v e r t h e l e s s , t h i s h i t h e r t o s t a b l e a r e a may e x p e r i e n c e some m o d i f i c a t i o n w i t h i n t h e near f u t u r e 2 2 . There are 21 An exce s s o f apartment zoned l a n d i n Grandview r e s u l t e d i n t h e downzoning o f a p o r t i o n c f t h e p r e s e n t c o n v e r s i o n a r e a from EM-3 t o HT-2. Some apartments had a l r e a d y been c o n s t r u c t e d and are now regarded a s l e g a l non-conforming uses i n an a r e a of p r e d o m i n a n t l y s i n g l e f a m i l y homes. 22 P e r s o n a l communication w i t h B i l l B u h o l z e r , l o c a l a r e a p l a n n n e r f o r Grandview-Woodlands. (17th F e b r u a r y , 1976.). 86 FIG. 4 GRANDVIEW HOUSING QUALITY ASSESSMENT 1 1 1 T TT — H Lou IX DC N 1 1 I II V, ni— in ( 'iK 1 0 I 1. A V ( T 5 t » 1 1 I 1 SBI Key i very good good average poor very poor mixed 87 two elements t o the s o c i a l n a t u r e c f t h i s change. F i r s t l y , t h e r e has r e c e n t l y been an i n c r e a s e i n lower income i n d i v i d u a l s and w e l f a r e r e c i p i e n t s i n t h i s a r e a , most of whom have been encouraged by the r e l a t i v e l y cheap accommodation. S e c o n d l y , as t h e apartment area c o n t i n u e s t o r e d e v e l o p , Grandview i s becoming i n c r e a s i n g l y a t t r a c t i v e t o younger, downtown o r i e n t e d p e o p l e 2 3 , a l t h o u g h t h i s neighbourhood i s l i k e l y t o remain l e s s d e s i r a b l e than K i t s i l a n o , the r e c e n t r e a p p r a i s a l o f Grandview has i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r the f u t u r e o f t h i s moderate income, f a m i l y o r i e n t e d d i s t r i c t . as i n K i t s i l a n o , p r i v a t e d e v e l o p e r s are a l r e a d y d i s p l a y i n g more i n t e r e s t i n t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n of s m a l l e r townhouses (a c o n d i t i o n a l l a n d use) th a n s i n g l e f a m i l y d w e l l i n g s i n t h e c o n v e r s i o n zone. However, area p l a n n i n g has j u s t commenced i n Grandview and by J u l y 1976, t h e survey area s h o u l d have r e c e i v e d F e d e r a l a s s i s t a n c e under t h e Neighbourhood Improvement Programme. The p l a n n i n g team aims t o upgrade the p h y s i c a l environment and p r e s e r v e t h e s o c i a l c h a r a c t e r of the a r e a . where p o s s i b l e , i t proposes t o i n h i b i t development t h a t w i l l d e f e a t t h i s g o a l . Grandview r e s i d e n t s have a l r e a d y e x p r e s s e d i n t e r e s t i n the n o t i o n of area p l a n n i n g and i m p r o v e m e n t 2 4 . C i t i z e n s a re m o t i v a t e d by a f e e l i n g of p r i d e i n t h e i r community and t h e i r s e l f s u f f i c i e n c y . D e s p i t e t h e i r e t h n i c d i f f e r e n c e s , they are 23 Vancouver Sun, "Grandview-Woodlands". January 1 9 t h , 1974. 24 T h i s i s e x e m p l i f i e d by t h e i r eagerness t o s e l e c t community r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s f o r t h e NIP p l a n n i n g team. R e s i d e n t s h e r e were e l e c t e d to the team s e v e r a l months p r i o r t o the i n i t i a t i o n o f NIP. T h i s c o n t r a s t s w i t h the more c a s u a l s e l e c t i o n of v o l u n t e e r s i n o t h e r NIP a r e a s . S8 prepared t o u n i t e t o a c h i e v e a s p e c i f i c g o a l o r defend t h e neighbourhood w i t h which they s t r o n g l y i d e n f i f y 2 S . T h i s was e x e m p l i f i e d i n 1969, when a number of l o c a l groups f o u g h t t o p r e v e n t an e x t e n s i o n of the freeway t h r o u g h t h e i r a r e a to the downtown. R e s i d e n t s have been f a i r l y w e l l o r g a n i s e d f o r decades, the f i r s t c i t i z e n s ' group emerging i n 1907 w i t h the Grandview P r o g r e s s A s s o c i a t i o n . S i n c e t h e n i n e t e e n f o r t i e s , an a c t i v e Chamber o f Commerce and Grandview R a t e p a y e r s ' A s s o c i a t i o n have helped t o upgrade the a r e a , having g a i n e d much s u p p o r t from the l o c a l c i t i z e n s and groups such as t h e Area C o u n c i l . S i n c e the r e s i d e n t s of Grandview have g e n e r a l l y e x h i b i t e d a g r e a t concern f o r the improvement o f t h e i r environment, i t seems l i k e l y t h a t t h e programme of R e s i d e n t i a l R e h a b i l i t a t i o n A s s i s t a n c e w i l l be w e l l r e c e i v e d . However, t o d a t e , t h e i r achievements have been based on t h e i r own r e s o u r c e s and p r i d e i n t h e i r s e l f s u f f i c i e n c y . I t w i l l t h e r e f o r e be i n t e r e s t i n g t o note t h e i r r esponse t o a government scheme o f f e r r i n g o u t s i d e a i d . I t i s evident, from t h e p r e c e d i n g d i s c u s s i o n t h a t the t h r e e Vancouver s u r v e y d i s t r i c t s do not conform to the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c image o f i n n e r c i t y neighbourhoods as b a d l y d e t e r i o r a t e d , o f t e n 25 T h i s s t r o n g l y c o n t r a s t s w i t h Cedar C o t t a g e , where e t h n i c groups p e r c e i v e d nc common b a s i s upon which t o u n i t e . 26 T h i s image has been p o r t r a y e d i n t h e N o r t h American urban l i t e r a t u r e , f o r example, J a c o b s , J . , The Death and l i f e of G r e a t American C i t i e s . V i n t a g e Books, N.Y. 1961; S t e r n l i e b ? G»/ lll§ Tenemant l a n d l o r d . New B r u n s w i c k , UCS. 1966; Krohn, R., The Other Economy and t h e Urban Housing; Problem. Centre f o r Urban S t u d i e s , MIT. 1S72." 89 p o v e r t y s t r i c k e n areas -„ A l t h o u g h each s u f f e r s from some d e f i c i e n c y i n m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e s and p o c k e t s o f b l i g h t , most b u i l d i n g s are s u b s t a n t i a l and the q u a l i t y of the p h y s i c a l environment f a i r . T h i s sound p h y s i c a l base i s e s s e n t i a l t o the s u c c e s s o f NIP and RRAP, which do not attempt t o r e d e v e l o p but r e j u v e n a t e an a r e a . Perhaps more s u r p r i s i n g i n view o f t h e g o a l s o f RRAP i s t h e income l e v e l w i t h i n the two NIP a r e a s . The averaqe e a r n i n g s a r e i n d e e d below th e C i t y average, b u t the p r o p o r t i o n of lower income i n d i v i d u a l s i s l e s s t h a n i n o t h e r areas d e s i g n a t e d as p o t e n t i a l c a n d i d a t e s f o r N I P 2 7 . The s e l e c t i o n of Cedar Cott a g e and K i t s i l a n o over o t h e r neighbourhoods f o r a s s i s t a n c e i s p a r t l y r e l a t e d t o the l o b b y i n g and i n i t i a t i v e of t h e s e a r e a s ' l o c a l p l a n n e r s . A l t h o u g h t h e s u r v e y areas a r e s i m i l a r i n terms o f t h e i r i n n e r c i t y l o c a t i o n and c o n v e r s i o n z o n i n g , t h e r e a r e seme i m p o r t a n t and b a s i c d i f f e r e n c e s between them. Some o f t h e s e d i s p a r i t i e s were e l u c i d a t e d w i t h i n t h e p r e c e d i n g d i s c u s s i o n , but t h e y w i l l be b r i e f l y r e s t a t e d here s i n c e they are i m p o r t a n t f o r t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the r e s u l t s i n the next c h a p t e r . The r e s i d e n t s of both K i t s i l a n o and Grandview are g e n e r a l l y s o c i a l l y c o h e s i v e and w e l l o r g a n i s e d , w i t h a sense of neighbeurhced i d e n t i t y and commitment. T h i s has i m p o r t a n t i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n neighbourhood improvement a c t i v i t i e s and s t r o n g l y c o n t r a s t s w i t h t h e p o o r l y u n i t e d a r e a of Cedar C o t t a g e . However, perhaps the most s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e r e l a t e s t o the 27 Mount P l e a s a n t , F a i r v i e w , S t r a t h c o n a and Grandview-Woodlands a l l had a h i g h e r p r o p o r t i o n o f i n d i v i d u a l s e a r n i n g l e s s t h a n $7000 p.a. i n 1971. 90 s t a b i l i t y o f each neighbourhood, as measured i n terms of l e n g t h of r e s i d e n c e , changes i n s o c i a l c h a r a c t e r and p r e s s u r e s f o r development. K i t s i l a n o i s c l e a r l y the l e a s t s t a b l e a r e a , h a v i n g e x p e r i e n c e d a h i g h t u r n o v e r of p o p u l a t i o n i n the l a s t decade and a c o n c o m i t a n t s o c i a l change. T h i s c o n t r a s t s w i t h t h e r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l v a r i a t i o n i n the c h a r a c t e r of the f a m i l y o r i e n t e d neighbourhoods of Grandview and Cedar C o t t a g e and i s r e l a t e d t o t h e lower r a t e o f p r o p e r t y s u b d i v i s i o n i n t h e s e E a s t e r n a r e a s . A l s o a l t h o u g h both the c o n v e r s i o n zones of Grandview and K i t s i l a n o a r e l i k e l y t o e x p e r i e n c e some p r e s s u r e s f o r change i n the near f u t u r e , the l i k e l i h o o d of redevelopment i s undoubtedly s t r o n g e r i n the l a t t e r . In view o f K i t s i l a n o ' s i n s t a b i l i t y , i t s d e s i g n a t i o n f o r NIP i s r a t h e r e n i g m a t i c . One o f t h e mcst i m p o r t a n t c r i t e r i a f o r the s e l e c t i o n of these a r e a s was neighbourhood s t a b i l i t y , which, i n t h e case o f t h i s n e ighbourhood, appears t o have been o v e r l o o k e d 2 8 . L o c a l p l a n n e r s a r e p r e s e n t l y a t t e m p t i n g t o s t o p any f u r t h e r t r a n s i t i o n w i t h i n t h e K i t s i l a n o s u r v ey a r e a . However, u n l e s s t h e y a re s u c c e s s f u l i n c u r b i n g redevelopment, the money a l l o c a t e d t o improvement through NIP and BE AP may w e l l be wasted. The p r e s e n t l a c k c f S t a b i l i t y c o n s t i t u t e s an i m p o r t a n t o b s t a c l e t o overcome. The f o l l o w i n g two c h a p t e r s a r e devoted t o a p r e s e n t a t i o n of the s u r v e y r e s u l t s . C h a p t e r V d i s c u s s e s r e s p o n d e n t s ' f e e l i n g s towards r e s i d e n t i a l improvement and r e l a t e s them t o the 28 However, t h e term "neighbourhood s t a b i l i t y " has never been c l e a r l y d e f i n e d . 91 r e h a b i l i t a t i o n a c t i v i t y o f both r e s i d e n t and absentee owners. Chapter VI examines p e r c e i v e d i n c e n t i v e s and d i s i n c e n t i v e s to p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n BRAP and a s s e s s e s t h e impact o f t h i s F e d e r a l programme on r e h a b i l i t a t i o n b e h a v i o u r i n the two NIP s u r v e y a r e a s . 92 CHAPTER V j^2ITUpES_T0WAEpS_E " K i t s i l a n o i s s t i l l a b e a u t i f u l p l a c e t o l i v e , the envy of most of the c i t y . But i t ' s g o i n g d o w n h i l l . . . we've got t o improve the h o u s i n g and the s u r r o u n d i n g a r e a soon o r the d e v e l o p e r s w i l l move i n , won't t h e y ? Then where w i l l we be? On the e i g h t e e n t h f l o o r of a h i g h r i s e I suppose." K i t s i l a n o homeowner "Most of t h e area i s p r e t t y good, but t h e r e i s a g r e a t need f o r improvement i n some p l a c e s around here. Bad ( q u a l i t y ) p r o p e r t y a t t r a c t s bad p e o p l e , j u s t l i k e t h e slums." Cedar C o t t a g e homeowner "we've done a l o t to improve Grandview. S u r e , we want t o c a r r y on i m p r o v i n g . There i s s t i l l room f o r i t . We want our a r e a t o l o c k r e a l l y good." Grandview homeowner Many i n n e r c i t y homeowners acknowledged the need f o r housing improvements (see Table V I ) . Of the t h r e e survey a r e a s , the g r e a t e s t o v e r a l l concern was d i s p l a y e d i n K i t s i l a n o , where t h e r a p i d t u r n o v e r i n p o p u l a t i o n i n t h e l a s t decade has a c c e l e r a t e d t h e r a t e of p r o p e r t y d e c l i n e i n many p a r t s o f the neighbourhood. Much o f t h i s d e t e r i o r a t i o n has o c c u r r e d i n the East o f t h e survey a r e a , a d j a c e n t t o the apartment zone. Homeowners here were d i s s a t i s f i e d w i t h h o u s i n g s t a n d a r d s i n t h e i r immediate neighbourhood and g e n e r a l l y r a t e d them as l o w e r than i n an o b j e c t i v e q u a l i t y a s s e s s m e n t 1 . Many f e a r e d t h a t 1 Throughout the r e s t o f t h e K i t s i l a n o s u r v e y a r e a , t h e r e was a f a i r l y good c o r r e s p o n d e n c e between r e s i d e n t s ' p e r c e p t i o n c f h o u s i n g q u a l i t y and t h e o b j e c t i v e assessment undertaken f o r the s u r v e y (see Chapter I I I ) . 93 TABLJ_VI IJJ£-I '0S-J0JSING_II1PR0VE^NT K i t s i l a n o Cedar Grandview C o t t a g e % % % F e e l improvements ar e needed 72 59 63 S a t i s f i e d w i t h p r e s e n t c o n d i t i o n s 28 41 37 i n c r e a s i n g d e t e r i o r a t i o n would s u b s e q u e n t l y l e a d to apartment redevelopment as i n the E a s t of K i t s i l a n o . T h i s t h r e a t was p e r c e i v e d throughout th e c o n v e r s i o n zone, but i t was of l e s s immediate c o n c e r n to homeowners i n t h e more s t a b l e Western a r e a where r e s p o n d e n t s d i s p l a y e d the h i g h e s t l e v e l s of s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h h o u s i n g q u a l i t y . N o n e t h e l e s s , t h e f e a r of redevelopment p l a y e d an i m p o r t a n t but v a r y i n g r o l e i n most r e s i d e n t s * d e c i s i o n t o r e h a b i l i t a t e , as w i l l be shown l a t e r i n t h i s c h a p t e r . As i n K i t s i l a n o , homeowners l i v i n g i n what were o b j e c t i v e l y a s s e s s e d as the p o o r e s t q u a l i t y a r e a s i n Cedar Cottage and Grandview i n d i c a t e d t h e most d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h housing q u a l i t y . However, t h e r e was an anomaly i n the p a t t e r n of response amongst the e t h n i c groups. A s m a l l p e r c e n t a g e c f the Cedar C o t t a g e and Grandview r e s i d e n t s ( a p p r o x i m a t e l y 13%) i n d i c a t i n g a g e n e r a l s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h h o u s i n g c o n d i t i o n s were i n f a c t r e s i d i n g w i t h i n t h e poorer s e c t i o n s of t h e s e neighbourhoods. However, t h e s e r e s p o n d e n t s had a s s e s s e d the q u a l i t y o f t h e same a r e a as "good" o r "average". C l o s e r s c r u t i n y r e v e a l e d t h a t t h i s m i n o r i t y comprised o f C h i n e s e and East I n d i a n r e s i d e n t s o n l y , and i t was f e l t t h a t t h e d i s p a r i t y c o u l d be a t t r i b u t e d t o c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n q u a l i t y assessment. 9n U n f o r t u n a t e l y , i t was not p o s s i b l e t o s u b s t a n t i a t e t h e s e f i n d i n g s s t a t i s t i c a l l y due t o the l i m i t e d s i z e of the sub-group. While a l l the East I n d i a n survey r e s p o n d e n t s were f a i r l y c o n s i s t e n t i n t h e i r a c c e p tance o f l o w e r s t a n d a r d accommodation, o n l y t h e r e l a t i v e l y r e c e n t C hinese i m m i g r a n t s f e l l w i t h i r t h i s c a t e g o r y . I t may be p o s t u l a t e d t h a t a r e a p p r a i s a l of a c c e p t a b l e h o u s i n g s t a n d a r d s o c c u r s w i t h t h e i r c u l t u r a l a s s i m i l a t i o n t h r o u g h t i m e . I n c o n t r a s t to the A s i a n s , the o t h e r e t h n i c r e s p o n d e n t s d i s p l a y e d l i t t l e group v a r i a t i o n i n t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n o f housing q u a l i t y , each showing a s i m i l a r a p p r e c i a t i o n of the need f o r improvement. The r e h a b i l i t a t i o n o f o l d e r houses emerged as the p r e f e r r e d mechanism f o r r e s i d e n t i a l improvement, t h e g r e a t e s t s u p p o r t coming from Grandview r e s p o n d e n t s . A h i g h l e v e l of neighbourhood commitment s t r e n g t h e n e d t h e d e s i r e t o p r e s e r v e both the p h y s i c a l and f a m i l y c h a r a c t e r o f t h i s a r e a , many r e s i d e n t s f e a r i n g t h a t c l e a r a n c e would l e a d t o the replacement of l a r g e homes w i t h s m a l l e r n o n - f a m i l y u n i t s . Support f o r r e h a b i l i t a t i o n was a l s o based on c o n f i d e n c e I n the a b i l i t y of r e s i d e n t s t o improve t h e i r n e i ghbourhood. The i n f l u x of I t a l i a n s i n t h e n i n e t e e n f o r t i e s was f o l l o w e d by widespread r e n o v a t i o n t h r o u g h o u t t h e a r e a , which s t i m u l a t e d a f e e l i n g of p r i d e and p e r s o n a l e f f i c a c y amongst Grandview r e s i d e n t s . T h i s p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e was r e f l e c t e d i n the hi g h mean f o r t h e housing based L i k e r t Score i n t h i s n e i g h b o u r h o o d 2 . However, a s m a l l m i n o r i t y o f r e l a t i v e newcomers 2 A mean s c o r e of f o r t y n i n e out o f a maximum of s i x t y was o b t a i n e d by Grandview respo n d e n t s on t h e ho u s i n g o r i e n t e d L i k e r t S c a l e . 95 to t h e ar e a d i d s u p p o r t the concept o f removal and r e p l a c e m e n t , w i t h o u t e x c e p t i o n , t h e s e r e s p o n d e n t s l i v e d c l o s e t o East F i r s t Avenue and G r a v e l e y S t r e e t i n t h e Western p o r t i o n of the su r v e y a r e a . These c o n s t i t u t e some of t h e p o o r e s t q u a l i t y b l o c k s i n the c o n v e r s i o n zone and i t i s p r o b a b l e t h a t they d i r e c t l y i n f l u e n c e d t h e a t t i t u d e s of t h i s m i n o r i t y towards improvement. TABLILyll K i t s i l a n o . Cedar Grandview C o t t a g e % % % I n f a v o u r of r e h a b i l i t a t i n g o l d h o u s i n g 75 59 83 I n f a v o u r of removal and c l e a r a n c e 10 24 17 Not sure 15 17 0 K i t s i l a n o r e s p o n d e n t s a l s o f a v o u r e d t h e r e h a b i l i t a t i o n r a t h e r t h a n removal of c i d e r d w e l l i n g s (Table V I I ) . As p r e v i o u s l y n o t e d , the o v e r r i d i n g c o n c e r n of many K i t s i l a n o owners was not o n l y t o improve but p r o t e c t t h e neighbourhood from t h e s p r e a d o f b l i g h t and p o s s i b l e apartment redevelopment. The s e n t i m e n t s of many r e s i d e n t s were e x p r e s s e d i n the e d i t o r i a l o f a l o c a l K i t s i l a n o newspaper which r e a d , "Today, the f o r c e s o f change are p r e s s i n g t h e K i t s i l a n o d i s t r i c t . But K i t s i l a n o people a r e f i g h t i n g back. They r e j e c t t h e metamorphosis t h a t a few y e a r s back t r a n s f o r m e d Vancouver's West End i n t o something d i f f e r e n t . " 3 3 Western News, E d i t o r i a l column. June 19th, 1975. 96 P r i d e i n t h e neighbourhood has r e i n f o r c e d the d e s i r e of many people t o p r e s e r v e the a r e a and r e s i s t t h e f o r c e s o f change. F c r most r e s p o n d e n t s , the replacement of s c a t t e r e d h o u s i n g was c o n s i d e r e d the i n i t i a l s t e p i n t h e redevelopment c y c l e which they sought t o p r e v e n t . However, f o r t h e 10% of the r e s i d e n t s f a v o u r i n g r e m o v a l , replacement r e p r e s e n t e d the o n l y e f f e c t i v e means of improvement. Each o f t h e s e i n d i v i d u a l s c l a s s i f i e d p a r t o f t h e s u r v e y area as a sl u m , w i t h b o t h p h y s i c a l and s o c i a l problems. One owner d e s c r i b e d t h e s e slums as " r e n t a l p r o p e r t i e s , where t h e l a n d l o r d s t a k e i n anybody and the t e n a n t s are d i r t y and low c l a s s " . I t was f e l t t h a t r e h a b i l i t a t i o n would not remove t h i s unwanted s o c i a l change. A s i m i l a r , but more widespread s e n t i m e n t was e v i d e n t i n t h e t h i r d survey a r e a of Cedar C o t t a g e . P h y s i c a l improvement i n Cedar C o t t a g e was seen as e s s e n t i a l t o m a i n t a i n i n g t h e s o c i a l s t a t u s o f t h e a r e a , which was p e r c e i v e d as d i s t i n c t l y " m i d d l e c l a s s ' * * . Many r e s i d e n t s seemed p r e o c c u p i e d w i t h the p r e s e r v a t i o n o f t h i s image and g r e a t l y r e s e n t e d r e c e n t s o c i a l changes which t h r e a t e n e d the c h a r a c t e r of the neighbourhood. For many, improvement t h r o u g h r e s i d e n t i a l r e h a b i l i t a t i o n was c o n s i d e r e d an a p p r o p r i a t e means of upg r a d i n g t h e p h y s i c a l s t o c k and a t t r a c t i n g r e s i d e n t s who were not at t h e "bottom o f t h e s o c i a l s c a l e " . However, o t h e r s f e l t t h a t the c l e a r a n c e of o l d e r p r o p e r t i e s was t h e o n l y s o l u t i o n . T h i s was 4 T h i s image emerged t h r o u g h t h e q u e s t i o n a s k i n g r e s i d e n t s t o d e s c r i b e the t y p e o f a r e a they l i v e d i n ( q u e s t i o n 10). Whereas few of the K i t s i l a n o or Grandview r e s i d e n t s made any r e f e r e n c e t o the s o c i a l s t a t u s of t h e i r neighbourhood, 63% of t h e Cedar Cottage respondents d e s c r i b e d t h e i r a r e a as "middle c l a s s " . 97 s t r o n g l y s u p p o r t e d by w h i t e r e s i d e n t s i n t h e South E a s t p o r t i o n of t h e neighbourhood, where a number of E a s t - I n d i a n f a m i l i e s o c c u p y i n g b a d l y d e t e r i o r a t e d h o u s i n g d e t r a c t from the middle c l a s s image. I t s h o u l d be s t r e s s e d , however, t h a t not a l l o f the 24% f a v o u r i n g removal were m o t i v a t e d by t h e d e s i r e t o keep c u t " u n d e s i r a b l e " s o c i a l groups. O t h e r s saw redevelopment a s a l o n g term, e f f i c i e n t means o f i m p r o v i n g t h e a r e a . C l e a r a n c e t o d a t e i n Cedar C o t t a g e has r e s u l t e d i n the c o n s t r u c t i o n of more s i n g l e f a m i l y t h a n apartment b u i l d i n g s . Hence, a l t h o u g h l e s s i m p o r t a n t then r e h a b i l i t a t i o n , r e p l a c e m e n t i s more r e a d i l y a c c e p t e d i n Cedar C o t t a g e than i n t h e o t h e r s u r v e y a r e a s , where i t i s p e r c e i v e d as a t h r e a t t o the c h a r a c t e r o f t h e neighbourhood. The need f o r Improvement through r e s i d e n t i a l r e h a b i l i t a t i o n was t h e r e f o r e g e n e r a l l y r e c o g n i s e d i n a l l of t h e s e i n n e r c i t y neighbourhoods. In each c a s e , most o f t h e r e s p o n d e n t s acknowledged t h a t the I n i t i a t i v e f o r improvement s h o u l d come from the i n d i v i d u a l r e s i d e n t . Many homeowners made r e f e r e n c e t o th e " i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y " of people who l e t t h e i r p r o p e r t y d e c l i n e and t h e r e was l i t t l e s u p p ort f o r t h e n o t i o n t h a t community improvement s h o u l d be l e f t i n the hands c f the p l a n n e r s . However, the p e r s i s t e n c e o f d e t e r i o r a t e d p r o p e r t y s u g g e s t s t h a t not a l l owners are w i l l i n g t o assume t h e i r r o l e i n the r e h a b i l i t a t i o n p r o c e s s . The f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n s w i l l examine f a c t o r s g o v e r n i n g the d e c i s i o n t o p r o g r e s s from a p a s s i v e acceptance o f t h e need f o r improvement to the a c t o f r e s i d e n t i a l r e h a b i l i t a t i o n . 98 lhg^fi.BaIl£ial^ C o n s t r a i n t S i n c e p r o p e r t y r e n o v a t i o n demands a high l e v e l of f i n a n c i a l e x p e n d i t u r e , i t might be expected t h a t t h e household income would impose some c o n s t r a i n t on the d e c i s i o n to r e h a b i l i t a t e . I n deed, an assumption of the F e d e r a l programme of R e s i d e n t i a l R e h a b i l i t a t i o n A s s i s t a n c e i s t h a t f i n a n c i a l a i d w i l l remove such a c o n s t r a i n t and s t i m u l a t e maintenance a c t i v i t y . However, the survey d a t a i n d i c a t e t h a t income per se c o n s t i t u t e s a poor s u r r o g a t e of h o u s i n g q u a l i t y and r e h a b i l i t a t i o n b e h a v i o u r . A c h i - s g u a r e t e s t and Spearman's c o r r e l a t i o n r e v e a l e d t h a t no r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t e d between income and h o u s i n g q u a l i t y i n any o f t h e s u r v e y a r e a s . As might be expected from t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n of incomes i n d i c a t e d In T a b l e V I I I , f i n a n c i a l c o n s t r a i n t s were p e r c i e v e d as a g r e a t e r d i s i n c e n t i v e t o r e h a b i l i t a t i o n by Cedar C o t t a g e and Grandview r e s i d e n t s (54% and 43% r e s p e c t i v e l y ) t h a n i n K i t s i l a n o {2.3% of t h e r e s p o n d e n t s ) . However, t h e r e was s t i l l TABLE V I I I DISTRIBUTION OF INCOME K i t s i l a n o Cedar C o t t a g e % Grandview % % Less t h a n $6,000 $6,000 -$10,999 $11,000-$15,999 Over $16,000 13 20 49 18 17 32 38 13 25 35 23 17 no s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between income and r e p a i r s i n t h e s e two neighbourhoods. However, t h e r e was a c l o s e r r e l a t i o n s h i p between income and 99 h o u s i n g q u a l i t y when the e x i s t e n c e o f a mortgage was taken i n t o a c c o u n t 5 . The f i n a n c i a l burden imposed by t h e s e payments cn households e a r n i n g l e s s than $11,000 p.a. was o f t e n g r e a t and l e f t l i t t l e money a v a i l a b l e f o r improvements. A c h i - s q u a r e a n a l y s i s r e v e a l e d t h a t a s i g n i f i c a n t l y s m a l l e r p r o p o r t i o n c f owners i n t h i s group had r e c e n t l y undertaken any major r e p a i r s (X- 2 = 16.5) and t h a t t h e i r h o u s i n g q u a l i t y was q e n e r a l l y l o w e r t h a n f o r t h e r e s t o f t h e sample ( x 2 = 15.6) & . The problems f a c e d by t h e s e i n d i v i d u a l s were s i m p l y and f e e l i n g l y s t a t e d by ens l o w e r income homeowner i n Cedar C o t t a g e , " the mortgage i s our b i g g e s t payment each month. Then a f t e r t h e b i l l s are p a i d and money has gene f o r f o o d and the k i d s * c l o t h e s , what i s l e f t f o r home improvements? Not much, I can t e l l you." I t would appear t h a t households i n t h e s e c i r c u m s t a n c e s c o u l d g r e a t l y b e n e f i t from a i d t h rough REAP. However, t h i s programme has f a i l e d t o take any account of mortgage payments i n the assessment of the a p p l i c a n t ' s " a d j u s t e d income". The need f o r f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e has t h e r e f o r e o n l y been p a r t i a l l y e v a l u a t e d . A l t h o u g h t h e r e i s e v i d e n t l y a r e l a t i o n s h i p between p r o p e r t y q u a l i t y and the f i n a n c i a l c o n s t r a i n t s imposed by inccme and mortgage payments, a Spearman's r s of o n l y 0.5 s u g g e s t s t h a t o t h e r v a r i a b l e s a l s o i n f l u e n c e t h e r e h a b i l i t a t i o n d e c i s i o n . 5 The c o r r e l a t i o n of o b j e c t i v e p r o p e r t y q u a l i t y with income w h i l e c o n t r o l l i n g f o r a mortgage y i e l d e d a Spearman's c o e f f i c i e n t o f 0.5. 6 A l l c h i - s q u a r e s t a t i s t i c s are s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e 0.001 l e v e l u n l e s s o t h e r w i s e s t a t e d . The t a b l e s f o r these a n a l y s e s are i n Appendix E. 100 Owners a s s e s s e d the f i n a n c i a l burden imposed by improvements not o n l y i n terms of t h e c o s t o f r e p a i r s per s e , but a l s o on the b a s i s of an a s s o c i a t e d i n c r e a s e i n p r o p e r t y t a x e s , whereas t h i s t a x i n c r e m e n t was not a s e r i o u s d e t e r r e n t t o r e h a b i l i t a t i o n i n K i t s i l a n o , over 60% o f the Cedar C o t t a g e and Grandview r e s p o n d e n t s c o n s i d e r e d i t a d i s i n c e n t i v e . C l o s e t o h a l f t h e s e owners earned l e s s than $11,000 p.a. and had r e c e n t l y undertaken major improvements which had w a r r a n t e d a t a x i n c r e a s e . However, i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t t h i s f e a r was not always based on e x p e r i e n c e , s i n c e not a l l improvements n e c e s s i t a t e a t a x r e a s s e s s m e n t 7 . There i s n e v e r t h e l e s s some m e r i t i n the s u g g e s t i o n t h a t t a x e s s h o u l d encourage r e n o v a t i o n and p e n a l i s e those who a l l o w t h e i r p r o p e r t y t o d e t e r i o r a t e 8 . T h i s would perhaps p r o v i d e a s t i m u l u s t o r e h a b i l i t a t i o n f o r both r e s i d e n t and absentee owners. However, the l a t t e r a s s e s s e d the economic v i a b i l i t y of improvement not o n l y i n terms o f i n c r e a s e d p r o p e r t y f a x e s , but a l s o i n r e l a t i o n to P r o v i n c i a l r e n t c o n t r o l s 9 . Over 7 Major s t r u c t u r a l Improvements, i n c l u d i n g a d d i t i o n s , are l i k e l y t o r a i s e t h e a s s e s s e d p r o p e r t y v a l u e and t h e r e f o r e t a x e s . D e c o r a t i n g or r e p a i r s t o u t i l i t i e s are l e s s l i k e l y t o warrant a r e a s s e s s m e n t . The n a t u r e of the i n c r e a s e v a r i e s w i t h t h e age of the p r o p e r t y , the v a l u e of the l a n d on which i t i s s i t u a t e d , e t c . ( P e r s o n a l communication w i t h an employee of the P r o v i n c i a l Assessment O f f i c e . May 1 1 t h , 1976.) 8 T h i s argument has been p r e s e n t e d by a number of a u t h o r s . See f o r example Freeman, W., The Housing C r i s i s and Government Response. I n Sayegh, K, , Canadian Housing.: A Reader. Univ. of W a t e r l o o , O n t a r i o . 1972. 9 The a d v e r s e r e p e r c u s s i o n s o f r e n t c o n t r o l s on l a n d l o r d maintenance b e h a v i o u r a r e w e l l known. Hayek, F . ( e d . ) , V e r d i c t on Rent C o n t r o l . I n s t i t u t e of Economic A f f a i r s , London. 1972. A c h t e n b e r g , E., The S o c i a l U t i l i t y of Rent C o n t r o l . In J. Pynoos ( e d . ) , Housj.ng Urban America, A l d i n e . 1973. 101 h a l f the l a n d l o r d s m a i n t a i n e d t h a t a d e c r e a s e i n t a x e s and the r e t u r n t o a f r e e r e n t a l market would i n f a c t encourage p r o p e r t y r e h a b i l i t a t i o n . One respondent s u c c i n c t l y s t a t e d the l a n d l o r d s ' p o s i t i o n when he d e c l a r e d , "We are not a c h a r i t y o r g a n i z a t i o n . We want t c make a l i v i n g l i k e everyone e l s e . What i s t h e p o i n t o f making improvements when your t a x e s go up and your r e n t s d o n ' t ? . . . . I t s a c r a z y s i t u a t i o n . " P r o p e r t y owners are undoubtedly p r e s e n t e d w i t h seme i m p o r t a n t f i n a n c i a l c o n s t r a i n t s . However, the amount owners spend on t h e i r p r o p e r t y i s not o n l y d e t e r m i n e d by what they can a f f o r d i n o b j e c t i v e terms, but a l s o by what they a r e w i l l i n g t o a l l o c a t e t o improvements. For the l a n d l o r d , t h i s i s l a r g e l y governed by t h e n a t u r e of the f i n a n c i a l r e t u r n on i n v e s t m e n t , but f o r the r e s i d e n t owner, th e d e c i s i o n i s more complex. The average household f a c e s a number of p o s s i b l e expenses each y e a r o u t s i d e t h e s e i n c u r r e d by day t o day l i v i n g 1 0 . F o r the moderate income f a m i l y , t r a d e o f f s between h i g h l e v e l e x p e n d i t u r e s must f r e q u e n t l y be made. C o n s t r a i n t s on r e s i d e n t i a l r e h a b i l i t a t i o n may c o n s e q u e n t l y be s e l f imposed. In t h e c o u r s e o f the s u r v e y , r e s p o n d e n t s were p r e s e n t e d w i t h a h y p o t h e t i c a l s i t u a t i o n and asked to i n d i c a t e t h e i r p r i o r i t i e s f o r e x p e n d i t u r e . Over h a l f the K i t s i l a n o and Grandview r e s p o n d e n t s p l a c e d home improvements as t h e i r h i g h e s t p r i o r i t y , whereas a s i m i l a r p r o p o r t i o n o f Cedar C o t t a q e owners a s s i g n e d g r e a t e r i m p o r t a n c e to t h e purchase of 10 These a d d i t i o n a l expenses are l i k e l y t o be p r e s e n t e d by home improvements, the f a m i l y v a c a t i o n , household purchases such as a c a r or t e l e v i s i o n , and r e c r e a t i o n . 102 household g o o d s 1 1 . The p r e f e r e n c e s r e f l e c t t h e v a l u e p l a c e d by t h e owner on a good q u a l i t y home, i t s worth b e i n g measured i n both economic and p s y c h o l o g i c a l terms. T h i s i n t u r n i s c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s a t t i t u d e towards h i s p r o p e r t y and the neighbourhood i n which i t i s s i t u a t e d . A t t i t u d e s . . To w a r d s _ t fa e _ N e i g hjb c ur h o g d One o f t h e most i m p o r t a n t i n f l u e n c e s on t h e d e c i s i o n t o r e h a b i l i t a t e i s the p r o p e r t y owner's a t t i t u d e towards h i s neighbourhood. The c o n v e r s i o n zones are t r a n s i t i o n a l d i s t r i c t s and, as d e s c r i b e d i n Chapter IV, each s u r v e y area has been s u b j e c t e d t o some p h y s i c a l and s o c i a l change i n t h e l a s t decade. Most o f t h e r e s p o n d e n t s i n d i c a t e d an awareness of e i t h e r long or s h o r t term p h y s i c a l changes w i t h i n t h e i r neighbourhood and a f a i r l y h i g h p r o p o r t i o n p e r c e i v e d some m o d i f i c a t i o n i n s o c i a l c h a r a c t e r (see T a b l e I X ) . The a t t i t u d e s o f r e s i d e n t s towards t h e s e changes are c r u c i a l to the n a t u r e of r e h a b i l i t a t i o n b e h a v i o u r . Of t h e t h r e e survey a r e a s , K i t s i l a n o has e x p e r i e n c e d the g r e a t e s t p h y s i c a l and s o c i a l t r a n s f o r a t i o n i n r e c e n t y e a r s . The changes have l a r g e l y been p e r c e i v e d as u n d e s i r a b l e , w h i l e t h e r e has been a l o c a l p l a n n i n g programme o p e r a t i n g i n t h e area s i n c e 1970, o n l y 3536 of the r e s p o n d e n t s n o t i c e d any o v e r a l l improvement i n the p h y s i c a l c o n d i t i o n o f t h e neighbourhood. Of g r e a t c o n c e r n t o many r e s i d e n t s was t h e g e n e r a l d e t e r i o r a t i o n o f 11 On a v e r a g e , the Cedar Cottage r e s p o n d e n t s had purchased more consumer goods i n t h e l a s t f i v e y e a r s than o t h e r s i n the sample. 103 TJBLJL IX |JEIGfiBGOBHOgD_CHM K i t s i l a n o Cedar Grandview C o t t a g e % % % P h y s i c a l Change R e s i d e n t s p e r c e i v i n g p h y s i c a l change P e r c e i v e d change as u n d e s i r a b l e U n d e s i r a b l e change a t t r i b u t e d t o r -L a n d l o r d s Newcomers Homeowner n e g l e c t P e r c e i v e d change as d e s i r a b l e D e s i r a b l e change a t t r i b u t e d t o : -l o c a l a r e a p l a n n i n g I n d i v i d u a l e f f o r t P r i v a t e development S o c i a l Change R e s i d e n t s p e r c e i v i n g s o c i a l changes For those p e r c e i v i n g s o c i a l change, t r e n d s seen as d e s i r a b l e Changes p e r c e i v e d as u n d e s i r a b l e Changes a t t r i b u t e d t o t -E t h n i c groups Young newcomers 100 83 100 65 58 25 62 28 25 15 48 0 12 18 0 35 42 75 30 40 5 12 8 73 0 12 0 53 45 83 6 28 80 94 72 20 27 86 96 73 19 4 p r o p e r t y , which was mai n l y a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e s p e c u l a t i v e b e h a v i o u r of l a n d l o r d s . T h i s i n c r e a s e i n r e n t a l accommodation was b i t t e r l y r e s e n t e d by most owners, as was the a s s o c i a t e d growth of the younger t e n a n t p o p u l a t i o n . The L i k e r t S c a l e a n a l y s i s i n d i c a t e d t h a t many owners h e l d the t e n a n t s p a r t l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the a r e a ' s p h y s i c a l d e c l i n e . Nany a l s o 104 c r i t i c i s e d the l a c k o f neighbourhood commitment e x h i b i t e d by t h i s t r a n s i e n t group and f e l t t h e y were g r a d u a l l y d e s t r o y i n g the community s p i r i t i n K i t s i l a n o * 2 . The comments of one homeowner were t y p i c a l , "They (the t e n a n t s ) do not c a r e about t h e neighbourhood and dcn't seem t o p u l l t o g e t h e r as a u n i t l i k e the r e s t of us. They are s l o w l y b r e a k i n g up our community." T h i s has i m p o r t a n t i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r t h e p r e s e r v a t i o n o f the a r e a , s i n c e improvement i s p r e s e n t l y based on a community r e s i s t a n c e t o exogenous change. The a t t i t u d e of many K i t s i l a n o r e s i d e n t s towards the p e r c e i v e d p h y s i c a l and s o c i a l d e t e r i o r a t i o n was r e f l e c t e d i n t h e i r r e h a b i l i t a t i o n b e h a v i o u r . However, t h e i r r e s ponse was not u n i f o r m , but r e l a t e d t o t h e i r c o n f i d e n c e i n t h e p o s s i b i l i t y of h a l t i n g or c o n t r o l l i n g the f o r c e s f o r c h a n g e 1 3 . A s m a l l p r o p o r t i o n (28%) o f the owners who had p e r c e i v e d an o v e r a l l d e c l i n e i n t h e q u a l i t y o f t h e neighbourhood b e l i e v e d the changes t o be i r r e v e r s i b l e and were r e s i g n e d t o c o n t i n u i n g d e t e r i o r a t i o n . A p p r o x i m a t e l y h a l f o f them a l r e a d y c o n s i d e r e d p a r t s o f K i t s i l a n o t o be a slum. The f e e l i n g t h a t they had no c o n t r o l o v er t h e i r environment or e v e nts t h a t o c c u r r e d w i t h i n i t 12 T h i s i s commonly e x p e r i e n c e d i n communities where t h e r e has been a sudden i n c r e a s e i n the t e n a n t p o p u l a t i o n . In h i s e a r l y w r i t i n g s , W i r t h d e s c r i b e d t e n a n t s as i n d i v i d u a l s who " f a i l t o t a k e r o o t . . . . . . . They f e e l no r e s p o n s i b i l i t y because they are n e i t h e r owners of p r o p e r t y nor s h a r e r s i n the t r a d i t i o n s of the community". ( S l r t h , L. , Community, L i f e and S o c i a l P o l i c y . Univ. of Chicago P r e s s . 1 938"p72l"3 .) 13 The i m p o r t a n c e of a sense o f p e r s o n a l e f f i c a c y and c o n t r o l over th e p h y s i c a l environment i n the d e c i s i c n t o r e h a b i l i t a t e has a l s o been s t r e s s e d i n New, P., The Gray Area Dilemma. P i t t s b u r g h : U n i v e r s i t y o f P i t t s b u r g h P r e s s . 1965. 105 had d i s c o u r a g e d r e h a b i l i t a t i o n . A l l a s s e s s e d home improvements as low p r i o r i t y , owned average o r poor q u a l i t y p r o p e r t y (a c h i -square a n a l y s i s i n d i c a t i n g a s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between the p r i o r i t y o f improvements and h o u s i n g q u a l i t y ( X 2 = 1 5 . 0 ) ) and had no f u t u r e p l a n s f o r major s t r u c t u r a l r e p a i r s . None had spent more than $1000 on r e h a b i l i t a t i o n over the l a s t f i v e y e a r s and a c h i - s q u a r e t e s t r e v e a l e d a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the l e v e l o f e x p e n d i t u r e by t h e s e owners and the r e s t of the K i t s i l a n o s u r v ey p o p u l a t i o n ( X 2 = 3 9 , 8 ) . Most of these r e s p o n d e n t s l i v e d c l o s e to the boundary of the c o n v e r s i o n zone and had w i t n e s s e d the r e c e n t t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of the a d j a c e n t apartment zone. C o n s e q u e n t l y , a l l responded a f f i r m a t i v e l y t o the L i k e r t statement t h a t " t h e r e i s t o o much r i s k of redevelopment t o make improvements w o r t h w h i l e " . They d i s p l a y e d l i t t l e f a i t h i n t h e v i t a l i t y o f the neighbourhood o r the p o s s i b l e s t a b i l i z i n g e f f e c t s of l o c a l a r e a p l a n n i n g , and i n d i c a t e d a l a c k c f commitment t o t h e a r e a . About a t h i r d of t h i s group proposed to move o u t s i d e the neighbourhood w i t h i n t h e next f i v e y e a r s and may c o n s e q u e n t l y p r o v i d e mere o p p o r t u n i t y f o r t h e s p e c u l a t i v e a c q u i s i t i o n of p r o p e r t y and t h e a c c e l e r a t i o n of the redevelopment c y c l e . F o r many of the r e m a i n i n g r e s p o n d e n t s p e r c e i v i n g p h y s i c a l changes i n K i t s i l a n o as u n d e s i r a b l e , t h e i n c r e a s i n g number of l a n d l o r d s and t e n a n t s undoubtedly c o n s t i t u t e d a s t i m u l u s r a t h e r than a d i s i n c e n t i v e t o r e h a b i l i t a t i o n . The image of the p r i v a t e d e v e l o p e r and the p o s s i b i l i t y of apartment redevelopment was c l e a r i n t h e i r minds, but the t h r e a t was net regarded as overwhelming. These respon d e n t s were g e n e r a l l y c o n f i d e n t t h a t 106 t h e r e c e n t p h y s i c a l and s o c i a l changes c o u l d be r e t a r d e d both by t h e i r own e f f o r t s to improve and through t h e work of the a r e a p l a n n e r s . Most were c h a r a c t e r i s e d by a s t r o n g sense of p e r s o n a l e f f i c a c y and neighbourhood commitment, and f a i t h i n t h e a b i l i t y of r e s i d e n t s t o p r e s e r v e t h e i r community. A l l were motivated by p r i d e i n t h e i r a r e a and d i s a g r e e d (52% s t r o n g l y ) t h a t i t was p o i n t l e s s making improvements i f o t h e r p r o p e r t y w i t h i n the v i c i n i t y was d e t e r i o r a t e d . T h e i r f e e l i n g s a r e i l l u s t r a t e d by one respondent who m a i n t a i n e d , " C i t i z e n s are r e s i s t i n g b l o c k - b u s t i n g w i t h a l l t h e i r might. The r e n t a l p r o p e r t y around here i s d i s g r a c e f u l . . . . . The l a n d l o r d s a r e r u i n i n g a b e a u t i f u l a r e a " . However, a number of t h e s e i n d i v i d u a l s a l s o f e l t t h a t t h e l o c a l government s h o u l d assume a g r e a t e r r o l e i n t h e p r e s e r v a t i o n of t h i s a r e a . W h i l e NIP and RRAP were g e n e r a l l y a c c l a i m e d as p o s i t i v e s t e p s towards improvement, some c o n c e r n was e x p r e s s e d over t h e p e r s i s t e n c e o f d e t e r i o r a t e d r e n t a l and owner o c c u p i e d p r o p e r t y i n the neighbourhood. T h i s group gave overwhelming s u p p o r t t o t h e n o t i o n o f f o r c e d r e h a b i l i t a t i o n , f e e l i n g t h i s was t h e o n l y way the e n t i r e a r e a would be i m p r o v e d 1 * . I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t t h e r e c e n t l y i n t r o d u c e d M u n i c i p a l " Standards o f Maintenance Bylaw" w i l l p a r t l y f u l f i l l t he demands of these K i t s i l a n o r e s i d e n t s 1 5 . However, s i n c e t h i s i s e n f o r c e d on a c o m p l a i n t b a s i s o n l y , i t i s u n l i k e l y t o have a widespread e f f e c t on the 14 In t h i s r e s p e c t , t h i s group of r e s p o n d e n t s i s s i m i l a r t o the K i t s i l a n o s u r v e y p o p u l a t i o n as a whole. 68% of the l a t t e r s u p p o r t e d the n o t i o n of f o r c e d r e h a b i l i t a t i o n . 15 C i t y o f Vancouver Bylaw No. 4888, "S t a n d a r d s of Maintenance Bylaw". I n t r o d u c e d October 1 s t , 1975. 107 improvement o f b l i g h t e d p r o p e r t y 1 6 . U n l e s s t h e d e t e r i o r a t i o n p r o c e s s i n K i t s i l a n o i s a r r e s t e d , r e s i d e n t i a l r e h a b i l i t a t i o n may w e l l d e c l i n e . P r e s e n t a c t i v i t y and e n t h u s i a s m f o r the neighbourhood's p r e s e r v a t i o n i s based on r e s i d e n t s ' c o n f i d e n c e i n the f u t u r e s t a b i l i t y o f the a r e a . At the moment, t h e r e seems t o be a f a i r l y s t r o n g sense of community amongst t h e owners i n K i t s i l a n o and t h e r e i s a c l e a r f e e l i n g of attachment and commitment t o the neighbourhood. Over two t h i r d s o f the r e s p o n d e n t s were a t t r a c t e d to t h e a r e a by i t s beauty and very few f e l t t h e y would l e a v e g i v e n the chance. However, i f the community c o n t i n u e s t o d e t e r i o r a t e and t h e neighbourhood morale d e c l i n e s , t h e r e w i l l be l i t t l e m o t i v a t i o n t o r e s i s t f u t u r e neighbourhood change. Indeed, about a t h i r d of t h e p o p u l a t i o n m a i n t a i n e d t h a t f u r t h e r d e t e r i o r a t i o n would p r o b a b l y p r o v i d e a d i s i n c e n t i v e t o f u t u r e home improvements. Host of t h e r e s i d e n t s of Cedar C o t t a g e were a l s o aware of some p h y s i c a l change w i t h i n t h e neighbourhood. However, the s c a l e and n a t u r e o f the p e r c e i v e d m o d i f i c a t i o n was d i f f e r e n t from K i t s i l a n o . The growth o f s p e c u l a t i o n i n t h e l a t t e r i m p l i e d the t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of an e n t i r e neighbourhood and r e s i d e n t s were g e n e r a l l y aware o f the widespread i m p l i c a t i o n s of i n c r e a s i n g s p e c u l a t i o n . I n c o n t r a s t , Cedar C o t t a g e f a c e d no o v e r a l l t h r e a t t o t h e f u t u r e c h a r a c t e r of the a r e a a'nd r e s i d e n t s here were t r o u b l e d by more v a r i e d and i s o l a t e d i n c i d e n t s o f u n d e s i r a b l e p h y s i c a l change. None of t h e survey r e s p o n d e n t s here p e r c e i v e d 16 The f o r m a t i o n of a c i t i z e n "watch dog" group c o u l d perhaps f a c i l i t a t e more widespread enforcement o f t h i s bylaw. 108 any r i s k from redevelopment and, as a r e s u l t of the s l o w e r and more l i m i t e d n a t u r e of d e t e r i o r a t i o n , t h e r e was a w i d e r a p p r e c i a t i o n o f t h e a m e l i o r a t i n g e f f e c t s of the Neighbourhood Improvement Programme than i n K i t s i l a n o . Almost h a l f t h e Cedar C o t t a g e r e s i d e n t s p e r c e i v i n g change f e l t t h a t t h e r e had been a g e n e r a l improvement i n neighbourhood c o n d i t i o n s (Table I X , p. 103) and t h e m a j o r i t y , a t l e a s t i n p a r t , a t t r i b u t e d i t t o a r e a p l a n n i n g . I t may be p o s t u l a t e d t h a t NIP d i d p r o v i d e an i n c e n t i v e t o r e h a b i l i t a t e f o r t h e s e owners w i t h "average" or "poor" q u a l i t y homes, s i n c e 90% of them had p l a n s f o r f u t u r e r e p a i r s 1 7 . A s m a l l p r o p o r t i o n a l s o c i t e d the r e p l a c e m e n t o f d e t e r i o r a t e d p r o p e r t y by new s i n g l e f a m i l y d w e l l i n g s as an improvement i n t h e a r e a 's appearance. In s h a r p c o n t r a s t , p r i v a t e development i n K i t s i l a n o and Grandview was not viewed as a d e s i r a b l e change (Table I X ) . Replacement i n t h e s e neighbourhoods g e n e r a l l y e n t a i l s the c o n s t r u c t i o n o f s m a l l e r townhouses, which d r a s t i c a l l y a l t e r s both the p h y s i c a l and s o c i a l c h a r a c t e r of the a r e a . Many o f the newly c o n s t r u c t e d homes i n Cedar C o t t a g e , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t h e North o f the neighbourhood, are o c c u p i e d by w e l l a c c u l t u r a t e d C h i n e s e f a m i l i e s who have moved f r o m S t r a f h c o n a 1 8 . They f r e q u e n t l y have a b e t t e r t h a n average income 17 I f NIP i s t o be r e g a r d e d as an i n c e n t i v e t o t h i s group, one must assume t h a t t h e m a j o r i t y of t h e s e p l a n s w i l l e v e n t u a l l y be e x e c u t e d . 109 and t h e i r l e v e l s o f p r o p e r t y maintenance are h i g h 1 9 . I t would appear t h a t some owners of c i d e r d w e l l i n g s sere m o t i v a t e d t o r e h a b i l i t a t e when such a replacement o c c u r r e d on t h e i r b l o c k , a l t h o u g h i t was not p o s s i b l e t o s u b s t a n t i a t e t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p s t a t i s t i c a l l y due to the s m a l l s i z e o f t h e group. One respondent on Dumfries S t r e e t e x p l a i n e d the n a t u r e of t h i s i n c e n t i v e i n the f o l l o w i n g terms, " I wasn't too bo t h e r e d about t h e appearance o f our house u n t i l those new homes were b u i l t on t h e b l o c k . Then o u r s l o o k e d shabby i n c omparison. I t h i n k many of the n e i g h b o u r s f e l t t h e same way. Most o f us have done g u i t e a l o t t o our homes now.... I t ' s become a s o r t o f c o m p e t i t i o n t o see who can do most." Hence, i n some c a s e s , owners c o n t i n u e t o s t i m u l a t e r e h a b i l i t a t i o n by s e t t i n g new s t a n d a r d s f o r each o t h e r 2 0 . The m a j o r i t y of Cedar C o t t a g e r e s i d e n t s were however more p r e o c c u p i e d w i t h i n c r e a s i n g l e v e l s o f d e t e r i o r a t i o n i n c e r t a i n s e c t o r s o f t h e neighbourhood. The p r o p o r t i o n of r e n t a l p r o p e r t y i n Cedar C o t t a g e i s low and l a n d l o r d s viewed as l e s s o f a t h r e a t t h a n In K i t s i l a n o . N e v e r t h e l e s s , 28% o f the r e s p o n d e n t s p e r c e i v i n g change, most of whom r e s i d e d i n t h e Nor t h E a s t cf Cedar C o t t a g e , d i d f e e l t h a t l a n d l o r d s were mai n l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r d e t e r i o r a t i o n In t h e i r a r e a . w h i l e most o t h e r r e s i d e n t s 18 T h i s o b s e r v a t i o n was s u p p o r t e d by c o n v e r s a t i o n s w i t h r e s i d e n t s and l o c a l p l a n n e r s . 19 A l l o f the Chinese Cedar C o t t a g e r e s p o n d e n t s l i v i n g i n t h e s e more r e c e n t l y c o n s t r u c t e d d w e l l i n g s earned more than $16,000 p.a. T h i s s m a l l group o f Chinese immigrants c o n t r a s t s w i t h many o f t h e s h o r t e r term c r o l d e r O r i e n t a l h o u s e h o l d s , who f r e q u e n t l y l i v e i n very poor hou s i n g . T h i s t r a n s i t i o n may be a t t r i b u t e d t o a c c u l t u r a t i o n and " d e l a y e d g r a t i f i c a t i o n " . 20 Such b e h a v i o u r has a l s o been r e p o r t e d i n o t h e r s t u d i e s . See f o r example M l l l s p a u g h , M., The Human S i d e of Drban Renewal. B a l t i m o r e , F i g h t - B l i g h t . 1958. 110 t h r o u g h o u t t h e neighbourhood d i d not a t t r i b u t e t h e o v e r a l l d e c l i n e t o t h e s e owners i n p a r t i c u l a r , the l i k e r t S c a l e r e v e a l e d t h a t o ver h a l f f e l t t h a t l a n d l o r d s d i d not a d e q u a t e l y m a i n t a i n t h e i r p r o p e r t y . However, w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n of I s o l a t e d c a s e s , t h i s d i d not a d v e r s e l y a f f e c t t h e i r r e h a b i l i t a t i o n b e h a v i o u r . Of g r e a t e r g e n e r a l concern was the i n f l u x o f u n d e s i r a b l e e t h n i c newcomers, which was not o n l y seen as a t h r e a t t o the appearance but a l s o t h e s o c i a l s t a t u s of t h e a r e a . Cedar C o t t a g e has l o n g been an e t h n i c a l l y mixed neighbourhood and c e r t a i n groups, s u c h as the P o r t u g u e s e , Germans and C h i n e s e , a r e w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d i n the a r e a . L i t t l e a n i m o s i t y was e x p r e s s e d towards th e growing Portuguese p o p u l a t i o n , s i n c e most d i s p l a y g r e a t i n t e r e s t and commitment t o the maintenance o f t h e i r homes. Some c r i t i c i s m was d i r e c t e d towards the C h i n e s e p o p u l a t i o n , whose o l d e r , more t r a d i t i o n a l members f r e q u e n t l y i n h a b i t p o o r l y d e t e r i o r a t e d h o u s i n g , but most a t t e n t i o n was f o c u s e d on t h e i n c u r s i o n c f E a s t I n d i a n i m m i g r a n t s i n the South East of the a r e a 2 * . As i n K i t s i l a n o , r e s i d e n t s have responded t o t h i s p e r c e i v e d t h r e a t i n two d i f f e r e n t ways. The m a j o r i t y o f the r e s p o n d e n t s e x h i b i t i n g c oncern over t h i s change f e l t s u r e t h a t t h e i r own e f f o r t s t o improve would m a i n t a i n t h e appearance of t h e a r e a and p r o v i d e l e s s o p p o r t u n i t y f o r the e n t r y of t h i s u n d e s i r a b l e e t h n i c group. These owners were c h a r a c t e r i s e d by a p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e towards r e h a b i l i t a t i o n (as i n d i c a t e d by t h e i r h i g h L i k e r t S c o r e ) , a f a i r l y h i g h l e v e l of p r o p e r t y e x p e n d i t u r e (many 21 A r e c e n t i n c r e a s e i n East I n d i a n i m m i g r a n t s has s t i m u l a t e d i l l f e e l i n g i n a number of neighbourhoods t h r o u g h o u t Vancouver. 111 had spent over $2500 i n the past f i v e years) and most had p l a n s f o r f u t u r e r e p a i r s . However, work i n some c a s e s was l i m i t e d by the mortgage c o n s t r a i n t . There was n e v e r t h e l e s s s t i l l a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between t h e amount spent by these owners and t h o s e who f e l t t h e y had no c o n t r o l over t h e u n d e s i r a b l e change (%-2 = 12.2). I n g e n e r a l , the r e s i d e n t s d i s p l a y e d more co n c e r n f o r the p r e s e r v a t i o n of t h e few b l o c k s s u r r o u n d i n g t h e i r home than the p r o t e c t i o n of the whole "neighbourhood" as i n K i t s i l a n o 2 2 . T h e i r a c t i o n s were n e v e r t h e l e s s based on a common f e a r t h a t the area would d e c l i n e from what i s p e r c e i v e d a s a "middle c l a s s " s t a t u s t o a " s l u m " . While academics f r e q u e n t l y e n c o u n t e r problems when a t t e m p t i n g t o d e f i n e t h e l a t t e r , the Cedar C o t t a g e r e s p o n d e n t s h e l d a c l e a r image of what t h e y b e l i e v e d t o be a s l u m 2 3 . They e x e m p l i f i e d i t w i t h r e f e r e n c e to t h e Downtown E a s t s i d e , which over 10% of t h e r e s p o n d e n t s f e l t was c h a r a c t e r i s e d by " t e r r i b l e , rundown houses... and s l o v e n l y , w e l f a r e dependent r e s i d e n t s " . The o v e r r i d i n g c oncern o f t h e s e r e s p o n d e n t s was t o ensure t h a t Cedar C o t t a g e was i n no way a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h i s a r e a o f Vancouver, Great emphasis was p l a c e d on t h e need f o r i n d i v i d u a l e f f o r t i n improvement, and the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c l a z i n e s s and n e g l e c t of "slum" d w e l l e r s was condemned. However, a s m a l l p r o p o r t i o n of the Cedar Cottage 22 The c o n t r a s t i n g a t t i t u d e towards t h e s e two a r e a s was d i s c u s s e d i n Chapter IV. Many of t h e Cedar C o t t a g e r e s i d e n t s do not I d e n t i f y t h e m s e l v e s w i t h t h i s "neighbourhood". 23 There a r e many d i s c u s s i o n s of t h e "concept o f slum" i n the l i t e r a t u r e . A g e n e r a l r e v i e w of these i s p r e s e n t e d i n Friedman, L, , Government and Slum Hgusinc[j_ A Century, of I l l u s t r a t i o n . C h i c a g o , Band McNally and Co. 1968. 1 1 2 r e s i d e n t s (20%) a l r e a d y p e r c e i v e d t h e i r a r e a as a slum. None f e l t t h a t o t h e r owners had done t h e i r b e s t t o m a i n t a i n t h e i r p r o p e r t y and a p p r o x i m a t e l y h a l f were c o n v i n c e d t h a t the u n d e s i r a b l e changes were u n c o n t r o l l a b l e . As i n K i t s i l a n o , t h i s was r e f l e c t e d i n t h e r e h a b i l i t a t i o n b e h a v i o u r o f t h i s group. None had p l a n s f o r f u t u r e r e p a i r s o t h e r than minor I n t e r i o r d e c o r a t i n g and most were a n t i c i p a t i n g moving o u t s i d e the neighbourhood w i t h i n the next t h r e e y e a r s . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o note t h a t o n l y 12% of t h e t o t a l Cedar Cott a g e survey r e s p o n d e n t s p e r c e i v e d the neighbourhood d e t e r i o r a t i o n p r o c e s s as i r r e v e r s i b l e , compared wit h 28% i n K i t s i l a n o . T h i s r e l a t e s t o t h e n a t u r e o f t h e t h r e a t i n each, the p o t e n t i a l i n f l u e n c e o f t h e s p e c u l a t i v e l a n d l o r d b e i n g p e r c e i v e d as a more f o r m i d a b l e f o r c e than t h e e t h n i c i n t r u s i o n i n Cedar C o t t a g e . Whether i n t h e f a c e of a more s e r i o u s t h r e a t to the n e ighbourhood. Cedar C o t t a g e r e s i d e n t s would d i s p l a y the same r e s i s t a n c e as i n K i t s i l a n o i s d o u b t f u l . O p p o s i t i o n t o change i n the l a t t e r a r ea i s based on a s t r o n g sense of neighbourhood i d e n t i t y , p r i d e and commitment. Cedar C o t t a g e r e s p o n d e n t s conveyed few of these t h i n g s . Bather than b e i n g a t t r a c t e d t o the a r e a f o r i t s a e s t h e t i c q u a l i t i e s , the m a j o r i t y of r e s i d e n t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t t hey had chosen t o l i v e i n Cedar Cot t a g e under t h e p r e s s u r e o f economic c o n s t r a i n t s 2 * . A l t hough 73% o f the r e s p o n d e n t s f e l t t h a t most people were a t t a c h e d t o t h e i r homes, a q u a r t e r s t a t e d t h a t t h e y would move from Cedar C o t t a g e g i v e n the chance. A more s e r i o u s t h r e a t to t h e area c o u l d p r o v i d e the 24 T h i s i s one o f the cheaper a r e a s of housing i n the c i t y . 113 s t i m u l u s f o r such a move. Grandview r e s p o n d e n t s a l s o a s c r i b e d much of t h e a r e a ' s p h y s i c a l change to the i n f l u e n c e of an e t h n i c group. However, i n c o n t r a s t t o t h e two NIP survey a r e a s , the m a j o r i t y of the i n d i v i d u a l s i n t h i s neighbourhood (75%) f e l t t h e r e had been an o v e r a l l improvement r a t h e r than d e t e r i o r a t i o n i n q u a l i t y (Table I X ) . C r e d i t was g i v e n t o t h e i n d i v i d u a l e f f o r t of Grandview r e s i d e n t s i n g e n e r a l , but t h e r e was a c l e a r a p p r e c i a t i o n c f the s t i m u l u s f o r improvement p r o v i d e d by t h e neighbourhood's I t a l i a n p o p u l a t i o n . As d e s c r i b e d i n Chapter I V , t h i s group was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r much of t h e housing r e n o v a t i o n t h a t took p l a c e i n t h i s area i n t h e n i n e t e e n f i f t i e s and s i x t i e s and c o n s e q u e n t l y t h e change i n t h e neighbourhood's s o c i a l c h a r a c t e r was l a r g e l y welcomed. The e d i t o r of the l o c a l newspaper e x p r e s s e d a commonly h e l d a t t i t u d e when he s a i d , "When t h e I t a l i a n s s t a r t e d t o move i n here i n numbers, people were concerned t h a t t h e y would do a l l manner o f t h i n g s t o t h e a r e a ' s d e t r i m e n t . But i t i s t h e best t h i n g t h a t c o u l d have happened. No o t h e r group o r c o n d i t i o n c o u l d have f u l f i l l e d t h e need f o r th e r e s t o r a t i o n of the d i s t r i c t " 2 5 . I n sharp c o n t r a s t t o Cedar C o t t a g e , 90% of t h e r e s p o n d e n t s d i s a g r e e d w i t h t h e L i k e r t statement t h a t "newcomers a r e s p o i l i n g the appearance o f the a r e a " 2 6 . I n s t e a d , t h e I t a l i a n s ' 25 B u r c h , J a c k , e d i t o r o f t h e " H i g h l a n d Echo". I n t e r v i e w i n the Vancouver Sun, January 19th, 1974. 26 5% o f t h e r e s p o n d e n t s agreed w i t h t h i s s t a t e m e n t ( 5 % were "not sure") and 20% p e r c e i v e d t h e s o c i a l changes t h a t had ta k e n p l a c e a s u n d e s i r a b l e (Table I X ) . However, t h e a t t e n t i o n o f most o f t h e s e r e s i d e n t s was d i r e c t e d not a t the I t a l i a n but the E a s t I n d i a n and o c c a s i o n a l l y C h i n e s e groups i n the a r e a . 114 improvements i n s p i r e d c o n f i d e n c e and p r i d e i n most of t h e o t h e r r e s i d e n t s , many of whom were s u b s e q u e n t l y m o t i v a t e d t o r e h a b i l i t a t e . As one respondent p r o u d l y d e c l a r e d , " I t (Grandview) used t o be c a l l e d "the back y a r d o f the c i t y " . But you c o u l d n ' t c a l l i t t h a t now.... We've a l l h e l p e d t o improve i t . " There were n e v e r t h e l e s s some Grandview r e s i d e n t s (25%) who f e l t t h a t t h e neighbourhood had s u f f e r e d a d e c l i n e i n q u a l i t y . A l l t h e s e i n d i v i d u a l s l i v e d i n t h e c e n t r e o r West of the s u r v e y a r e a , where t h e r e i s a h i g h e r p r o p o r t i o n o f b l i g h t e d r e n t a l p r o p e r t y , and a t t r i b u t e d the d e t e r i o r a t i o n to l a n d l o r d n e g l i g e n c e . However, u n l i k e K i t s i l a n o , t h e absentee owner was not c o n s i d e r e d a t h r e a t t o t h e f u t u r e c h a r a c t e r of t h e a r e a , and the p e r c e i v e d d e c l i n e i n q u a l i t y d i d not s i g n i f i c a n t l y a f f e c t r e s i d e n t s ' r e h a b i l i t a t i o n b e h a v i o u r . A l l r e s p o n d e n t s were c h a r a c t e r i s e d by a sense of p e r s o n a l e f f i c a c y and a h i g h l e v e l o f commitment both towards t h e i r neighbourhood and i t s improvement. Only one respondent f e l t t h a t i t was p o i n t l e s s making improvements t o one's home i f s u r r o u n d i n g p r o p e r t y was i n bad c o n d i t i o n . T h e i r p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e was l a r g e l y based on p r i d e and attachment t o the neighbourhood, which was s t r e n g t h e n e d by a s t r o n g community s p i r i t 2 7 . I n most c a s e s , neighbourhood changes had served o n l y to s t i m u l a t e r e h a b i l i t a t i o n , 93% of t h e r e s p o n d e n t s h a v i n g undertaken some 27 The h i g h l e v e l of attachment i s e x e m p l i f i e d by the s t a b i l i t y of the a r e a , c l o s e t o h a l f of the r e s i d e n t s h a v i r g l i v e d h ere f o r more than t e n y e a r s , and the low p r o p o r t i o n of r e s p o n d e n t s who f e l t t h e y would move away from the neighbourhood g i v e n the chance ( 1 0 % ) . 115 major r e p a i r s i n t h e l a s t f i v e y e a r s . However, d e s p i t e t h i s p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e towards r e h a b i l i t a t i o n , not a l l of the owner o c c u p i e d p r o p e r t y was of good q u a l i t y . T h i s apparent d i s c r e p a n c y may be e x p l a i n e d by the mortgage c o n s t r a i n t p l a c e d on t h e l o w e r income i n d i v i d u a l . The e x i s t e n c e o f t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p between ho u s i n g q u a l i t y and t h e owners* f i n a n c i a l l i m i t a t i o n s was p a r t l y s u p p o r t e d by a c h i - s q u a r e t e s t , a l t h o u g h t h e r e s u l t i n g v a l u e c f 8.0 was s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t o n l y at the 0.2 l e v e l . The p r e c e d i n g d i s c u s s i o n has i n d i c a t e d t h a t a t t i t u d e s towards s o c i a l and p h y s i c a l change can p l a y an i m p o r t a n t r o l e i n t h e r e h a b i l i t a t i o n d e c i s i o n of the r e s i d e n t p r o p e r t y owner. The i n d i v i d u a l ' s response i s not o n l y r e l a t e d t o t h e p e r c e i v e d n a t u r e o f the change, but more i m p o r t a n t l y t o t h e i r c c n f i d e n c e t h a t " u n d e s i r a b l e " t r e n d s c o u l d be r e v e r s e d o r c o n t r o l l e d . T h i s b e l i e f i s f r e q u e n t l y r e i n f o r c e d by p r i d e i n t h e a r e a and a sense o f community and neighbourhood commitment. The absentee owner, however, i s u n l i k e l y t o e x p e r i e n c e many o f t h e s e s e n t i m e n t s and, i n t h e absense of any p r e s s u r e from r e f e r e n c e groups w i t h i n t h e community, may p e r c e i v e few non-economic i n c e n t i v e s t o r e h a b i l i t a t e . The survey r e s u l t s s u g g ested t h a t t h i s i s t r u e f o r both Cedar Cott a g e and K i t s i l a n o l a n d l o r d s 2 8 . These r e s p o n d e n t s were s m a l l e n t r e p r e n e u r s , owning one t o t h r e e p r o p e r t i e s . These 28 Q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were o n l y m a i l e d t o absentee l a n d l o r d s i n these two a r e a s . Cue to the s m a l l s i z e o f t h i s group and the u n i f o r m n a t u r e of t h e r e s p o n s e s , no d i s t i n c t i o n was made between t h e Cedar C o t t a g e and K i t s i l a n o l a n d l o r d s i n the a n a l y s i s . 116 had been h e l d f o r an average o f f i f t e e n y e a r s 2 9 . A p p r o x i m a t e l y 70% f e l t , t h a t t h e a r e a s u r r o u n d i n g t h e i r p r o p e r t y had d e t e r i o r a t e d b u t , as might be e x p e c t e d , t h e y e x h i b i t e d l i t t l e c o n c ern o v e r t h e p r e s e r v a t i o n o f the neighbourhood's community or c h a r a c t e r per s e . Of g r e a t e r consequence was t h e e f f e c t of t h i s d e t e r i o r a t i o n on t h e i r i n v e s t m e n t . The a t t i t u d e o f t h i s group towards the neighbourhood and changes w i t h i n i t was t h e r e f o r e based on economic c o n s i d e r a t i o n s and t h e i r motives f o r improvement were very d i f f e r e n t f r c m t h e s e of the homeowner. A 1 1 i t u d e s ?pwards P r o p e r t y As p r e v i o u s l y i l l u s t r a t e d , t h e p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e o f most survey r e s p o n d e n t s towards r e s i d e n t i a l r e h a b i l i t a t i o n c o u l d p a r t l y be a t t r i b u t e d t o a d e s i r e t o p r e s e r v e or improve the neighbourhood. The u n d e r l y i n g motives were d i f f e r e n t i n each survey a r e a , r a n g i n g from t h e p e r c e i v e d need t o p r e s e r v e the f a m i l y o r i e n t e d community o f K i t s i l a n o t o t h e c o n c e r n f c r s o c i a l s t a t u s i n Cedar C o t t a g e . In each c a s e , these common g o a l s r e f l e c t e d not o n l y the v a l u e s p l a c e d on t h e neighbourhoed, but a l s o r e s i d e n t s ' a t t i t u d e s towards t h e i r p r o p e r t y . The l a t t e r were an i m p o r t a n t i n f l u e n c e on the n a t u r e o f the r e p a i r s undertaken. Housing o b v i o u s l y f u l f i l l s t h e b a s i c p h y s i o l o g i c a l need f o r s h e l t e r , but f o r many, p r o p e r t y p l a y s more than a f u n c t i o n a l r o l e . Not o n l y does i t become a f i n a n c i a l a s s e t , but a r e p o s i t o r y of meaning, f r e q u e n t l y r e f l e c t i n g t h e v a l u e s and 29 T h i s r e l a t i v e l y l o n g p e r i o d c f ownership s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e s e l a n d l o r d s were not i n v o l v e d i n the s p e c u l a t i v e a c q u i s i t i o n c f p r o p e r t y . 117 a s p i r a t i o n s o f i t s i n h a b i t a n t s 3 0 . a l l t h e survey r e s p o n d e n t s c i t e d at l e a s t one reason o t h e r than s h e l t e r f o r which t h e y v a l u e d t h e i r home. The range of response i s i n d i c a t e d i n T a b l e X. A s u r p r i s i n g l y low p r o p o r t i o n of homeowners i n each a r e a TABLE X ATTITUDES CF HOMEOWNERS TO WAR DS_THEIR_ P BOPE.BT Y K i t s i l a n o Cedar C o t t a g e Grandv iew Meaning of House F i n a n c i a l a s s e t Source of p r i d e S t a t u s symbol F a m i l y c e n t r e P r o p e r t y R e l a t e d M o t i v e s t o R e h a b i l i t a t e °-P r i d e i n the home I n c r e a s e d s a l e v a l u e 30 50 43 57 48 13 33 48 57 43 42 8 28 45 33 68 63 10 (a) These emerged from Q u e s t i o n 24 ( i . e . I s t h e r e a n y t h i n g t h a t might encourage you t o make improvements t o your p r o p e r t y ? ) r e f e r r e d t o t h e i r p r o p e r t y as a f i n a n c i a l a s s e t , and i t i s r a t h e r hard t o b e l i e v e t h a t more d i d not r e g a r d i t as s u c h 3 1 . I t i s p r o b a b l e t h a t a h i g h e r p e r c e n t a g e o f t h e r e s p o n d e n t s would have conceded t h i s i f asked d i r e c t l y . However, t h e f a i l u r e c f a p p r o x i m a t e l y t w o - t h i r d s of the owners t o c i t e t h i s of t h e i r own a c c o r d s u g g e s t s t h a t i t was not f o r e m o s t i n t h e i r minds. R e l a t e d 30 Burns, L., Housings Symbol and S h e l t e r . Graduate S c h o o l of B u s i n e s s A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , U.C.L.A. 1970. 31 There was no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between e x p e n d i t u r e or t h e n a t u r e of home improvements undertaken by t h i s group and the r e s t of the s u r v e y p o p u l a t i o n . 118 t o t h i s i s t h e lew p r o p o r t i o n c f homeowners who s t a t e d a p u r e l y f i n a n c i a l motive f o r r e h a b i l i t a t i o n ( l e s s than 13% I n each neighbourhood) and the s m a l l number b e l i e v i n g p r o p e r t y improvements were o n l y w o r t h w h i l e f o r s a l e p u r p o s e s 3 2 . T h e i r a t t i t u d e s t r o n g l y c o n t r a s t s w i t h t h a t of the absentee l a n d l o r d s , whose r e h a b i l i t a t i o n b e h a v i o u r was governed p r i n c i p a l l y by f i n a n c i a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s . The p r o p e r t y owned by t h e l a t t e r was endowed w i t h no e m o t i o n a l c o n n o t a t i o n s . On the c o n t r a r y , p e r c e i v e d m o t i v e s or d i s i n c e n t i v e s t o improve were r e l a t e d to t h e p o t e n t i a l r e t u r n on t h e owner's i n v e s t m e n t . While o n l y a few l a n d l o r d s c l a i m e d t h a t t h e i r r e n t a l p r o p e r t y was p r e s e n t l y i n need o f major r e p a i r , o v e r 90% m a i n t a i n e d t h a t they were now f i n d i n g t h e c o s t o f improvements p r o h i b i t i v e as a r e s u l t o f t a x e s and r e n t c o n t r o l s . The m a j o r i t y o f t h e work undertaken i n t h e l a s t f i v e y e a r s had been minor or of a c o s m e t i c n a t u r e . The p r o p e r t y was regarded by some as a poor economic p r o p o s i t i o n and, as a r e s u l t , 30% o f t h e s e l a n d l o r d s had d e c i d e d t o s e l l and a f u r t h e r 30% were c o n s i d e r i n g t h e p o s s i b i l i t y . Improvements by t h e homeowners, however, n o t o n l y c o n s t i t u t e d a f i n a n c i a l but a l s o an e m o t i o n a l i n v e s t m e n t . The main non-economic s t i m u l u s t o r e h a b i l i t a t i o n c i t e d by t h e s e r e s p o n d e n t s was " p r i d e i n the home". T h i s f a t h e r n e b u l o u s i n c e n t i v e c o u l d be r e l a t e d to o t h e r meanings a s c r i b e d t o the p r o p e r t y based on the f e e l i n g of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r one's f a m i l y and the n o t i o n of s t a t u s . For many r e s i d e n t s , the home was 32 I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t more of t h e r e s p o n d e n t s were I n f a c t m o t i v a t e d by f i n a n c i a l g a i n but were not w i l l i n g t o o penly admit i t . 119 p e r c e i v e d as a f a m i l y c e n t r e . T h i s was c o n s i d e r e d p a r t i c u l a r l y i m p o r t a n t i n K i t s i l a n o , where the f a m i l y based community i s b e i n g g r a d u a l l y e r o d e d , and i n Grandview-Woodlands. A good q u a l i t y home was of h i g h p r i o r i t y t o many Grandview r e s p o n d e n t s , e s p e c i a l l y t h e I t a l i a n s . The l a t t e r e x h i b i t e d a h i g h l e v e l of p r i d e and attachment t o t h e i r p r o p e r t y , which t o many c o n s t i t u t e d not o n l y t h e c e n t r e o f f a m i l y l i f e b ut a l s o t h e i r s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s 3 3 . G r e a t e s t p r i o r i t y i n t h e neighbourhood . i n terms of e x p e n d i t u r e was p l a c e d on i n t e r i o r improvements (see Ta b l e X I ) . T h i s may be r e l a t e d t o both t h e h i g h p r o p o r t i o n of TJBLE_XI K i t s i l a n o Cedar Grandview C o t t a g e Mean e x p e n d i t u r e on o u t s i d e r e p a i r s $1772 $1772 $134 7 Mean e x p e n d i t u r e on i n s i d e r e p a i r s $1562 $1079 $1610 (a) E x p e n d i t u r e e s t i m a t e d by r e s p o n d e n t s . time spent i n t h e home and the d e s i r e t o p r o v i d e a good l i v i n g environment f o r the f a m i l y . The survey r e s u l t s s u g g e s t e d t h a t a l l t h e respond e n t s v a l u i n g t h e home as a f a m i l y c e n t r e had a 33 H i e r and E l l a s have noted t h a t the s o c i a l networks of I t a l i a n s r a r e l y e x t e n d beyond t h e i r immediate neighbourhood and t h a t a h i g h p r o p o r t i o n of t h e i r time i s spent i n the home. H i e r , M., E t h n i c i t y and R e s i d e n t i a l l o c a t i o n . U n p u b l i s h e d t h e s i s . S c h o o l of S o c i a l «ork,~DBC. ?9737 E l l a s , C. (ed) , M e t r o p o l i s ^ V a l u e s i n C o n f l i c t . Hadsworth P u b l i s h i n g Co., C a l i f o r n i a , 1964. 120 g r e a t e r p r o p e n s i t y to undertake i n t e r i o r r a t h e r than e x t e r n a l r e h a b i l i t a t i o n . However, a c h i - s g u a r e t e s t d i d not i n d i c a t e any s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the r e h a b i l i t a t i o n a c t i v i t y of t h i s group and the r e s t o f t h e survey p o p u l a t i o n . T h i s may be a t t r i b u t e d t o two f a c t o r s . F i r s t l y , most owners tend t o p l a c e more emphasis on t h e improvement of t h e i r l i v i n g space w i t h i n the home tha n the more i m p e r s o n a l e x t e r i o r 3 4 . S e c o n d l y , many resp o n d e n t s r e f e r r i n g t o t h e i r home as a f a m i l y c e n t r e a l s o a s c r i b e d i t o t h e r meanings, which encouraged e x t e r n a l r e p a i r s as w e l l . The most i m p o r t a n t o f t h e s e was the f e e l i n g t h a t the home c o n s t i t u t e d a symbol of s o c i a l s t a t u s . The h i g h e s t p r o p o r t i o n of homeowners e n v i s a g i n g t h e i r p r o p e r t y as a s t a t u s symbol l i v e d i n Cedar C o t t a g e . As p r e v i o u s l y i n d i c a t e d , r e s i d e n t s i n t h i s area made a g r e a t attempt t o p r e s e n t a "middle c l a s s " image to o u t s i d e r s . Many owners r e c o g n i s e d t h a t p r o p e r t y appearance c o n s t i t u t e d an i m p o r t a n t component o f t h i s image. T h i s was v e r i f i e d by t h e h i g h p r o p o r t i o n (80%) of r e s i d e n t s who f e l t i t was p o s s i b l e t o judge an owner by the o u t s i d e of h i s home. For many, the house became a symbol of r e s p e c t a b i l i t y and an o b j e c t of p r i d e , and g r e a t emphasis was p l a c e d on the maintenance of the p u b l i c e x t e r i o r 3 5 . 34 Bose , A., P r o s p e c t s f o r the B e h a b i l i t a t i o n o f Housing i n C e n t r a l T o r o n t o . U n i . of Toronto. 1966. ~ 35 The p r o p e n s i t y o f s t a t u s c o n s c i o u s " l o w e r - m i d d l e c l a s s " owners t o c o n c e n t r a t e on e x t e r i o r improvements has been noted by the f o l l o w i n g a u t h o r s . Gans, H., The L e v i t t o w n e r s . NY: Pantheon Books. 1967. Werthman, C., The S o c i a l Meaning of the P h y s i c a l Environment. Univ. o f C a l i f o r n i a , B e r k e l e y . PhD t h e s i s ? 1968. 7tnicrofilmf Cooper, C , The House as Symbol of S e l f . I n s t i t u t e o f Urban and R e g i o n a l Development, B e r k e l e y . 1971. 121 In c o n t r a s t t o Grandview, the average e x p e n d i t u r e on e x t e r n a l improvements i n Cedar C o t t a g e was s u b s t a n t i a l l y h i g h e r than on i n t e r i o r r e p a i r s ( s e e T able X I ) , and a g r e a t e r importance was p l a c e d on o u t s i d e d e c o r a t i n g than i n o t h e r neighbourhoods. T h i s p a t t e r n o f e x p e n d i t u r e was c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f a l l the s u r v e y r e s p o n d e n t s a s c r i b i n g the home no o t h e r meaning than a s t a t u s symbol. A h i g h p r o p o r t i o n o f the I t a l i a n and Chi n e s e r e s p o n d e n t s v a l u e d t h e i r home as an i n d i c a t o r of s o c i a l s t a t u s , a l t h o u g h t o the I t a l i a n s t h i s was of secondary i m p o r t a n c e t o the r o l e o f a f a m i l y c e n t r e . I n hoth c a s e s , a gocd q u a l i t y heme was regarde d as a symbol of achievement, o f b e i n g w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d i n the North American s o c i e t y 3 6 . As one I t a l i a n respondent e x p l a i n e d , ".... i f you l e t your home_run down, nobody w i l l r e s p e c t you. They w i l l " t h i n k you a r e out of a job and can ' t manage." The d e s i r e f o r esteem from one's r e f e r e n c e group t h e r e f o r e became an a d d i t i o n a l i n c e n t i v e f o r i m p r o v e m e n t 3 7 . As e s t a b l i s h e d a t the b e g i n n i n g o f t h i s c h a p t e r , most r e s i d e n t s i n t h e t h r e e survey areas were f a v o u r a b l y d i s p o s e d towards t h e n o t i o n of housing improvement through 36 Rosen, B., "Race, E t h n i c i t y and t h e Achievement Syndrome". American S o c i o l o g i c a l Review. 24 (1959) p.47. 37 The f o l l o w i n g a u t h o r s have a l s o noted t h e e f f e c t of a r e f e r e n c e group on b e h a v i o u r . Lewin, K., Group D e c i s i o n s and S o c i a l Change. I n E. Kaccoby e t a l ( e d ) , l e a d i n g s j.n S o c i a l P s y c h o l o g y . N.Y.: H o l t , R i n e h a r t and Winston. 1958. C o a t e s , J . , Tenancy and B l i g h t j . An E x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e i r C a u s a l E e l a t i o n s h l p , i n a S i n g l e famj.ly. R e s i d e n t i a l Area o f l a n c o u v e r . U n p u b l i s h e d t h e s i s . Dept. of Community and R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g , UBC. 1964. 122 r e h a b i l i t a t i o n . However, t h e r e a r e numerous and o f t e n c o n f l i c t i n g f a c t o r s which i n f l u e n c e t h e d e c i s i o n o f t h e p r o p e r t y owner on whether or not t o r e n o v a t e . The p r i o r i t y p l a c e d on good q u a l i t y p r o p e r t y , f e e l i n g s towards one's home and n eighbourhood, and p e r c e i v e d i n c e n t i v e s and c o n s t r a i n t s a l l p l a y a r o l e i n t h i s d e c i s i o n and govern t h e c h a r a c t e r of any r e h a b i l i t a t i o n a c t i v i t y t a l c i n g p l a c e . The i n t r o d u c t i o n of the R e s i d e n t i a l R e h a b i l i t a t i o n A s s i s t a n c e Programme i n 1974 p r e s e n t e d l o w e r income K i t s i l a n o and Cedar C o t t a g e r e s i d e n t s w i t h an a d d i t i o n a l v a r i a b l e i n the r e h a b i l i t a t i o n d e c i s i o n making p r o c e s s . I t s impact on r e h a b i l i t a t i o n b e h a v i o u r i n t h e NIP s u r v e y a r e a s w i l l be a s s e s s e d i n Chapter V I . 123 CHAPTES_VI IIJ_EOLJ_0F_THE_BESIDENTIAL_E In t h e p a s t , most h o u s i n g r e h a b i l i t a t i o n has been p r i v a t e l y i n i t i a t e d and funded. C o n s e q u e n t l y , i t was not known hew the i n t r o d u c t i o n of F e d e r a l a i d t o K i t s i l a n o and Cedar Cottage through the v o l u n t a r y R e s i d e n t i a l R e h a b i l i t a t i o n A s s i s t a n c e Programme (REAP) would be r e c e i v e d 1 . I t was n e v e r t h e l e s s hoped t h a t t h i s a l t e r n a t e s o u r c e o f f u n d i n g would remove the f i n a n c i a l b a r r i e r t o r e h a b i l i t a t i o n and s t i m u l a t e a c t i v i t y . The s urvey r e s u l t s have c l e a r l y i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e r e i s a need f o r f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e amongst some i n n e r c i t y r e s i d e n t s ; l o w e r income households w i t h a mortgage f r e g u e n t l y e n c ountered s e r i o u s f i n a n c i a l c o n s t r a i n t s t o r e h a b i l i t a t i o n , and 54% of t h e Cedar C o t t a g e r e s p o n d e n t s c i t e d economic l i m i t a t i o n s as a d i s i n c e n t i v e . Given t h e g e n e r a l l y p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e towards r e s i d e n t i a l r e h a b i l i t a t i o n and t h a t a t h i r d o f t h e K i t s i l a n o r e s p o n d e n t s and a p p r o x i m a t e l y h a l f the Cedar C o t t a g e r e s i d e n t s were, e l i g i b l e f o r a s s i s t a n c e (see T a b l e X I I ) , one might have expected a good response t o RRAP. C l o s e t o h a l f t h e r e s p o n d e n t s m a i n t a i n e d t h a t the a v a i l a b i l i t y o f f u n d s would i n f a c t encourage them t c r e h a b i l i t a t e . However, p a r t i c i p a t i o n r a t e s a t t h e t i m e o f t h e survey were o n l y 8% and 7.55? i n K i t s i l a n o and 1 The F e d e r a l government made no attempt t o a s s e s s the number of p r o p e r t y owners who wculd be i n t e r e s t e d i n t h i s a s s i s t a n c e p r i o r t o the i n t r o d u c t i o n o f t h i s programme. 124 TABLE XXI E£IGIBIJ_ITT_OF_S0^ K i t s i l a n o % Cedar Cottage % b E a r n i n g under $6,000 E a r n i n g under $11,000' 13 33 17 4 9 (a) E l i g i b i l i t y i s based on the l i m i t s i n e f f e c t a t the time of the s u r v e y (Jan-Feb 1976) (b) E l i g i b l e f o r g r a n t (c) E l i g i b l e f o r l o a n Cedar C o t t a g e r e s p e c t i v e l y . While CMHC has e s t a b l i s h e d no st a n d a r d s by which t o judge t h e s e r a t e s , t h e y seem s u r p r i s i n g l y low. The poor response i n t h e e a r l y s t a g e s of REAP c o u l d be a t t r i b u t e d t o a low l e v e l of programme a w a r e n e s s 2 . However, s i n c e t h e n , a l a r g e s c a l e p u b l i c i t y campaign has been undertaken and a l a c k of i n f o r m a t i o n can no l o n g e r be c o n s i d e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t . A high p r o p o r t i o n o f the r e s i d e n t s i r both K i t s i l a n o (79%) and Cedar C o t t a g e (89%) a r e now c o g n i z a n t of RRAP and w e l l aware of programme d e t a i l s , However, t h e d e c i s i o n t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h i s programme i s governed by a number c f f a c t o r s . As suggested by t h e more g e n e r a l f i n d i n g s i n Chapter V, th e s e are both f i n a n c i a l and non-economic. ATTITUDES TOWARDS PUBLICLY ASSISTED REHABILITATION The m a j o r i t y o f K i t s i l a n o and Cedar C o t t a g e r e s p o n d e n t s were f a v o u r a b l y d i s p o s e d towards t h e n o t i o n of government a s s i s t e d r e h a b i l i t a t i o n t h r ough REAP. The g e n e r a l acceptance o f the programme i n Cedar Cottage was p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t e r e s t i n g 2 P h i l l i p s , D., I n f o r m a t i o n D i f f u s i o n W i t h i n an In n e r C i t y Neighbourhood. U n p u b l i s h e d r e p o r t , Dept. of Geography, UBC. 1 9757 125 s i n c e , i n t h e p a s t , t h i s a r e a has bean noted f o r i t s s u s p i c i o n o f government a c t i v i t i e s 3 . C o n f i d e n c e has c h i e f l y been i n s p i r e d by l o c a l p l a n n e r s o p e r a t i n g through a s t o r e f r o n t o f f i c e w i t h i n t h e neighbourhood and the v o l u n t a r y b a s i s f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n ERAP. However, f o r some 20$ of the r e s p o n d e n t s , t h i s s u s p i c i o n remained and p r e s e n t e d a b a r r i e r t o the a c c e p t a n c e of the programme. T h e i r s e n t i m e n t s .are c l e a r l y e x e m p l i f i e d i n the f o l l o w i n g comments, "There I s bound t o be a c a t c h i n i t (REAP) somewhere. I haven't f i g u r e d i t out y e t , b u t I wouldn't l e t t h e government touch our house." " I ' v e heard the government can take away your house once you've used t h e i r money t o Improve i t ..... No f e a r , t h i s RRAP i s not f o r me." None of t h e s e owners b e l i e v e d t h a t the government was more t r u s t w o r t h y t h a n a p r i v a t e f i n a n c e company f o r a l o a n and a l l m a i n t a i n e d t h e y would not recommend RRAP to t h e i r f r i e n d s , Many of t h e s e i n d i v i d u a l s were o l d e r , l o n g e r term r e s i d e n t s o f Cedar C o t t a g e , but t h e r e was a l s o a g e n e r a l u n e a s i n e s s about RRAP amongst the I t a l i a n p o p u l a t i o n . Some had used p u b l i c a s s i s t a n c e to undertake r e n o v a t i o n s , but many were d i s c o u r a g e d not o n l y by t h e i r s u s p i c i o n o f the government but a l s o by t h e i r p r i d e and sense o f s e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y . A l t h o u g h t h e I t a l i a n s f r e q u e n t l y 3 G i b s o n , E., " L o t u s E a t e r s , Loggers and the Vancouver Landscape". I n Evenden, L. and Cunningham, F. ( e d ) , C u l t u r a l D i s c o r d i n t h e Modern World. V a n c o u v e r : T a n t a l u s Research. 197^7" Dr. W, Hardwick (Geography Dept., O.B.C.) has p o s t u l a t e d t h a t some E a s t s i d e r e s i d e n t s f e a r i n v o l v e m e n t w i t h the C i t y government because they have something t o h i d e , f o r example, i l l e g a l h ousing c o n v e r s i o n s , l a r g e s c a l e wine-making by I t a l i a n groups. ( P e r s o n a l communication) 126 borrow money f o r r e s i d e n t i a l r e h a b i l i t a t i o n , the t r a n s a c t i o n u s u a l l y o c c u r s w i t h i n t h e i r own community. The n o t i o n of o u t s i d e a i d i s t h e r e f o r e f o r e i g n and c o n s i d e r e d u n d e s i r a b l e by many. T h i s has i m p o r t a n t i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r t h e f u t u r e response to R 8IP i n Grandview, where a p p r o x i m a t e l y a q u a r t e r of t h e p o p u l a t i o n i s I t a l i a n . The p r o p e n s i t y o f t h i s group t o c l u s t e r i n a f a i r l y t i g h t l y k n i t community r e i n f o r c e s t h e t r a d i t i o n a l e t h n i c v a l u e p l a c e d on s e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y 4 . Hence, t h e h i g h l e v e l of r e h a b i l i t a t i o n a c t i v i t y e x h i b i t e d by the Grandview r e s i d e n t s i n the past i s not n e c e s s a r i l y i n d i c a t i v e o f a p o t e n t i a l l y s t r o n g , p o s i t i v e r e s p o n s e t o RRAP. While Cedar C o t t a g e r e s i d e n t s were f a i r l y c a u t i o u s i n t h e i r a c c e p t a n c e of government i n t e r v e n t i o n i n t h e r e h a b i l i t a t i o n p r o c e s s , most K i t s i l a n o r e s i d e n t s f a v o u r e d s t r o n g e r p u b l i c a c t i o n . T h i s r e l a t e s t o t h e i r d e s i r e t o p r e s e r v e the c h a r a c t e r o f K i t s i l a n o . These r e s p o n d e n t s e x p e r i e n c e d l i t t l e f e a r or s u s p i c i o n of the government and e x p r e s s e d a c l e a r a p p r e c i a t i o n o f i t s p o t e n t i a l r c l e i n a r r e s t i n g the d e t e r i o r a t i o n p r o c e s s . Not o n l y d i d r e s i d e n t s s u p p o r t more d i r e c t government c o n t r o l c f s p e c u l a t i v e a c t i v i t y by the p r i v a t e d e v e l o p e r , but 6 8?? a l s o f a v o u r e d f o r c e d r e h a b i l i t a t i o n {Table X I I I ) . T h i s s t r o n g l y c o n t r a s t e d w i t h Cedar C o t t a g e and Grandview r e s p o n d e n t s , who p r e f e r r e d v o l u n t a r y a c t i o n . Most c f t h e Cedar C o t t a g e r e s i d e n t s 4 The p e r p e t u a t i o n o f t r a d i t i o n a l v a l u e s and norms th r o u g h c l u s t e r i n g has been d i s c u s s e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g works. K e l l e y , H. , The R e s i s t a n c e t o Change of Group Anchored A t t i t u d e s . American S o c i o l o g i c a l Review 17 (1952) p.453. Gans, H., The Urban V i l l a g e r s ? Free P r e s s , Glencoe. 1962. Richmond, A., Immigrants and E t h n i c Groups i n M e t r o p o l i t a n T o r o n t o . I n s t i t u t e f o r B e h a v i o u r a l ~ R e s e a r c h . Y o r k ~ U n i v . " 9 6 7 ? 127 TAELE X I I I PEEFEBBED METHOD OF BEHABILITATICN K i t s i l a n o Favoured f o r c e d r e h a b i l i t a t i o n 68 For good of the neighbourhood 68 Only e f f e c t i v e method of improvement f o r r e n t a l 50 p r o p e r t y Favoured v o l u n t a r y r e h a b i l i t a t i o n 32 Enforcement c a u s e s economic h a r d s h i p 10 B e l i e f i n freedom t o do as choose 27 Cedar C o t t a g e % 23 8 18 77 67 10 Grandview % 25 25 75 60 18 s u p p o r t i n g f o r c e d r e h a b i l i t a t i o n owned good q u a l i t y p r o p e r t y , and a c h i - s g u a r e a n a l y s i s suggested a r e l a t i o n s h i p between q u a l i t y and t h e d e s i r e f o r enforcement (X 2 = 12.1, s i g n i f i c a n c e l e v e l •= 0.01). However, most r e s i d e n t s i n Cedar C o t t a g e and Grandview f e l t enforcement would impose economic h a r d s h i p on l o w e r income i n d i v i d u a l s c o m p e l l e d to make r e p a i r s . T h i s was g i v e n l i t t l e c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n K i t s i l a n o , where r e s p o n d e n t s b e l i e v e d t h a t owners of s u b s t a n d a r d p r o p e r t y s h o u l d be f o r c e d t o r e n o v a t e f o r the good of the neighbourhood. H a l f of these homeowners a l s o f e l t t h a t t h i s was the o n l y means of e n s u r i n g a g e n e r a l improvement of r e n t a l accommodation. I r o n i c a l l y , few c o n s i d e r e d the p o s s i b l e r e p e r c u s s i o n s o f enforcement on the s t a b i l i t y of the a r e a . A widespread programme of compulsory r e h a b i l i t a t i o n c o u l d l e a d t o t h e s a l e o f r e n t a l p r o p e r t y and an 128 exodus o f some lo w e r income households 3. T h i s might p r o v i d e more o p p o r t u n i t y f o r the e n t r y o f both s p e c u l a t i v e l a n d l o r d s and h i g h e r income groups. Such a change i n s o c i a l c h a r a c t e r would c o n t r a v e n e th e r e s i d e n t s * g o a l o f p r e s e r v i n g t h i s moderate income neighbourhood. The K i t s i l a n o r e s i d e n t s * c o n c e r n over th e p o t e n t i a l e f f e c t i v e n e s s of t h e v o l u n t a r y REAP programme i s n e v e r t h e l e s s v a l i d . T h i s improvement scheme has f a i l e d t o i n d u c e a number c f r e s i d e n t and absentee owners t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n the r e h a b i l i t a t i o n of t h e i r n e i g h b o u r h o o d 6 . The s u c c e s s of a v o l u n t a r y programme depends on both an awareness of t h e need f o r improvement through r e h a b i l i t a t i o n and an a c t i v e enthusiasm on t h e p a r t o f r e s i d e n t s . I n many d e c l i n i n g neighbourhoods, apathy has been l a r g e l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the c o n t i n u i n g d e t e r i o r a t i o n c f much p r o p e r t y . In t h e s e c a s e s , a programme based on the v o l u n t a r y c o - o p e r a t i o n of owners i s c l e a r l y i n a p p r o p r i a t e . F e s t i n g e r has argued t h a t a f o r c e d change i n b e h a v i o u r can l e a d t o a m o d i f i c a t i o n i n a t t i t u d e s 7 . T h i s would s u p p o r t th e demand f o r c o e r c i v e government a c t i o n at an e a r l y s t a g e i n the improvement p r o c e s s i n t h e hope t h a t an a m e l i o r a t e d environment 5 The s u r v e y data s uggest t h a t code enforcement would i n d u c e a number of s m a l l s c a l e l a n d l o r d s i n K i t s i l a n o to s e l l . Many are a l r e a d y concerned about t h e low r e t u r n on t h e i r i n v e s t m e n t and are a n t i c i p a t i n g r e l i n q u i s h i n g t h e i r p r o p e r t y . 6 The r e a s o n s f o r t h i s l a c k of response from some e l i g i b l e owners w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n a l a t e r s e c t i o n . 7 F e s t i n g e r , L., A Theory c f C o g n i t i v e D i s s o n a n c e . E v a n s t o n ; Row, P e t e r s o n 5 Co. 1957. 129 w i l l i n s p i r e r e s i d e n t s t o c o n t i n u e t o r e h a b i l i t a t e 8 . The problems o f p o p u l a t i o n t u r n o v e r and t h e h i g h e r r e n t s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h enforcement n e v e r t h e l e s s remain. The s u r v e y data p r e s e n t e d i n Chapter V suggest t h a t many of the K i t s i l a n o and Cedar Cottage r e s i d e n t s were c h a r a c t e r i s e d by a p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e and the enthusiasm n e c e s s a r y f o r a s u c c e s s f u l programme of v o l u n t a r y improvement. F u r t h e r m o r e , w h i l e some apathy was e x p r e s s e d , most i n d i v i d u a l s were not a v e r s e t o t h e n o t i o n of government r e h a b i l i t a t i o n a s s i s t a n c e . However, d e s p i t e the l a t e n t p o t e n t i a l f o r FRAP, t h e programme has had l i m i t e d use. T h i s i s shown by the survey d a t a which r e v e a l e d t h a t 59% of the e l i g i b l e r e s p o n d e n t s had not responded t o RRAP. Only one o f t h e s e r e s i d e n t s f e l t h i s home r e q u i r e d no r e p a i r s , w h i l e h a l f a d m i t t e d t h a t t h e i r p r o p e r t y needed majcr r e n o v a t i o n . Hence, t h e r e was a g e n e r a l r e c o g n i t i o n of the need f o r improvement. F u r t h e r m o r e , a l l were aware of t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y o f RRAP f u n d i n g (18% c o u l d have s e c u r e d a g r a n t ) and were i n t e n d i n g t o remain i n t h e i r p r e s e n t d w e l l i n g f o r a t l e a s t f i v e y e a r s . They n e v e r t h e l e s s chose t o i g n o r e t h i s o f f e r of a s s i s t a n c e . I n A p r i l 1976, CMHC responded t o the low p a r t i c i p a t i o n r a t e s by removing the income l i m i t a t i o n s on l o a n s to homeowners and e a s i n g the r e s t r i c t i o n s on g r a n t s . However, t h e d e c i s i o n t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n RRAP i s r e l a t e d to s e v e r a l f a c t o r s . Hence, t h i s may be o n l y a p a r t i a l s o l u t i o n t o the problem. 8 M i l l s p a u g h , M., The Human S i d e of Urban Renewal^ A st u d y of A t t i t u d e Changes Produced by Neighbourhood R e h a b i i i t a t i o n . B a l t i m o r e , F i g h t - B l i g h t . 1S5 8. 130 At t h e t i m e of t h e s u r v e y , j u s t under f o u r hundred p r o p e r t y owners i n K i t s i l a n o and Cedar C o t t a g e had a p p l i e d f o r RRAP a s s i s t a n c e . F i g u r e s 5 and 6 i n d i c a t e a f a i r l y even d i s t r i b u t i o n of t h e s e u s e r s t h r o u g h o u t the two NIP d i s t r i c t s . However, t h e r e a r e r e l a t i v e l y few p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h e p o o r e r South East c c r n e r o f K i t s i l a n o . T h i s a r e a i s c h a r a c t e r i s e d by h i g h absentee ownership and g e n e r a l l y lower l e v e l s of maintenance than the r e s t of t h e c o n v e r s i o n zone. Although over 80% of t h e l a n d l o r d s i n t he sample m a i n t a i n e d t h a t b e t t e r f i n a n c i a l r e s o u r c e s or a s s i s t a n c e would encourage them t o r e h a b i l i t a t e , t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n EEAP has been poor. I n c o n t r a s t t o t h e r e s i d e n t p r o p e r t y owners, almost a t h i r d o f the l a n d l o r d s were unaware of REAP. One absentee owner m a i n t a i n e d , " I would c e r t a i n l y have t a k e n advantage o f REAP i f I had heard about i t so o n e r , but now I'm g e t t i n g r i d of t h e p r o p e r t y .... I have always m a i n t a i n e d f a i r r e n t s anyway. T h i s p r o b a b l y would have made the d i f f e r e n c e between s e l l i n g and not s e l l i n g " . Hence, i n t h i s case, RRAP c o u l d have p o s s i b l y p l a y e d an i m p o r t a n t r o l e i n the p r e s e r v a t i o n o f r e a s o n a b l y p r i c e d r e n t a l accommodation. However, o n l y t h r e e o f the absentee r e s p o n d e n t s aware of RRAP had a c t u a l l y a p p l i e d f o r l o a n s , s i n c e the remainder were not prepared t o t o l e r a t e the " f a i r r e n t " LCI 132 KEY: RRAP USER - - S U R V E Y AREA BOUNDARY 133 agreement a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h i s f u n d i n g 9 . These owners f e e l t h a t t h e r e i s "no a p p r e c i a t i o n of the l a n d l o r d ' s p o s i t i o n " and t h a t " f o r minor b o r r o w i n g the government wants major c o n t r o l " . I f EHAP i s t o make a s i g n i f i c a n t c o n t r i b u t i o n t o the improvement o f r e n t a l p r o p e r t y , t h e r e must be more p u b l i c i t y aimed s p e c i f i c a l l y a t t h i s group and p o s s i b l y some r e l a x a t i o n of r e n t c o n t r o l s . However, t h e l a t t e r i s a c o n t e n t i o u s i s s u e . I n c r e a s e d r e n t s may i n i t i a t e a t u r n o v e r i n t e n a n t s f a v o u r i n g h i g h e r inccme i n d i v i d u a l s , which would d e f e a t EBAP's g o a l t o improve the r e s i d e n t i a l environment of t h e low and moderate income groups. F i n a n c i a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s were a l s o p a r t l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e poor response from r e s i d e n t owners. A l t h o u g h i n t e r e s t r a t e s on ERAP l o a n s are low (8%) compared w i t h p r i v a t e companies, many res p o n d e n t s d i d not p e r c e i v e them as an i n c e n t i v e to r e h a b i l i t a t e . S i m i l a r f i n d i n g s were r e p o r t e d by Bose, who i n t e r v i e w e d homeowners i n Toronto p r i o r t o the c o n c e p t i o n of EE AP. A p p r o x i m a t e l y 60% of h i s r e s p o n d e n t s m a i n t a i n e d t h a t lew i n t e r e s t l o a n s would not induce them t o r e h a b i l i t a t e * ° . The r e t i c e n c e of Vancouver r e s i d e n t s may be a s c r i b e d t c two f a c t o r s . 9 The l a n d l o r d must agree t o r e n t c o n t r o l s f o r up t o ten y e a r s . These would n o r m a l l y c o v e r i n c r e a s e d o p e r a t i n g and maintenance c o s t s . I n the case of B.C. and o t h e r P r o v i n c e s where P r o v i n c i a l r e n t c o n t r o l s are a l r e a d y i n o p e r a t i o n , CMHC i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r e n f o r c i n g these f o r BBAP a s s i s t e d p r o p e r t y . However, t h e r e i s evi d e n c e t h a t the m o n i t o r i n g of r e n t i n c r e a s e s has been r a t h e r l a x t o date ( P e r s o n a l communication w i t h a K i t s i l a n o p l a n n e r , J a n u a r y 23rd, 1976). I f P r o v i n c i a l r e n t c o n t r o l s were d i s c o n t i n u e d or none was i n e x i s t e n c e a t the time o f t h e BBAP agreement, r e s t r i c t i o n s would be imposed by CMHC. 10 Eose, A., P r o s p e c t s f o r t h e E e h a b i l i t a t i o n o f Housing i n C e n t r a l Toronto. Univ. o f Toronto. 196 6. 134 F i r s t l y , many lo w e r income owners p e r c e i v e d a l o a n as an a d d i t i o n a l f i n a n c i a l burden, p a r t i c u l a r l y i f they bad a mortgage. I t emerged t h a t 65% c f t h e e l i g i b l e non-users f e l l w i t h i n t h i s c a t e g o r y , and few were even c o n s i d e r i n g a p p l y i n g f o r RRAP a s s i s t a n c e . R e p a i r s undertaken by t h i s group i n t h e l a s t f i v e y e a r s have been funded by s a v i n g s o r c u r r e n t income and most agreed t h a t i t was not worth i n c u r r i n g d e b t s f o r home improvements. A h i g h e r p r o p o r t i o n o f t h e non-users who had no mortgage were c o n s i d e r i n g t h e use of RRAP f u n d s i n the f u t u r e and a c h i - s q u a r e a n a l y s i s r e v e a l e d a r e l a t i v e l y s t r o n g r e l a t i o n s h i p between the mortgage c o n s t r a i n t and the l i k e l i h o o d of a f u t u r e a p p l i c a t i o n by these e l i g i b l e non-users ( X 2 = 7.8, s i g n i f i c a n c e l e v e l = 0.01). The importance o f t h i s f i n a n c i a l c o n s t r a i n t was s u p p o r t e d by the f i n d i n g t h a t over t h r e e q u a r t e r s of the u s e r s had no mortqage and f e l t more.capable of c a r r y i n g a l o a n 1 1 . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e r e was a h i g h p r o p o r t i o n of s e n i o r c i t i z e n s w i t h i n t h i s group ( 4 0 % ) , most o f whom were not o n l y f r e e from d e b t s , but e l i g i b l e f o r a g r a n t o f up t o $2500 on the b a s i s o f t h e i r lew i n c o m e 1 2 . The survey r e v e a l e d t h a t few s e n i o r c i t i z e n s i n f a c t a p p l i e d f o r a l o a n as w e l l as t h e g r a n t . The second d e t e r r e n t from a p p l y i n g t o RRAP was based on p e r s o n a l p r i d e and a g e n e r a l a v e r s i o n t o l o a n s per se. One owner ex p r e s s e d a common s e n t i m e n t when she d e c l a r e d , 11 There was a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between t h e mortgage payments of u s e r s and n o n - u s e r s , t h e c h i - s q u a r e v a l u e c f 10.4 be i n g j u s t below t h e 0.001 l e v e l . 12 At the time of t h e s u r v e y , g r a n t s were a v a i l a b l e only to i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h an income of l e s s than $6000 p.a. 1 3 5 "We have never had a l o a n yet and we don't want t o s t a r t now ... I t ' s a matter c f p r i d e ... We can s t a n d on our own two l e g s " . Only 20% o f t h e K i t s i l a n o and 13% of t h e Cedar Cottage r e s p o n d e n t s had used a p r i v a t e company l o a n t c f i n a n c e r e h a b i l i t a t i o n over t h e past f i v e y e a r s , income and s a v i n g s b e i n g the most common s o u r c e s o f f u n d i n g . A c o n f l i c t i n v a l u e s was e v i d e n t from response t o the L i k e r t s t a tement " I t i s not worth p u t t i n g y o u r s e l f i n debt t o improve your home". C l o s e t o 30% o f t h e K i t s i l a n o respondents were "not s u r e " , being caught between the d e s i r e f o r a good q u a l i t y home and t h e i r a v e r s i o n to d e b t . The Cedar Cottage r e s i d e n t s , however, were more c o n s i s t e n t i n t h e i r r e s p o n s e , over h a l f f e e l i n g t h a t improvements do not warrant a l o a n . The s u r v e y r e s p o n d e n t s not o n l y p r e f e r r e d to use p e r s o n a l f i n a n c i a l r e s o u r c e s f o r r e h a b i l i t a t i o n , but a l s o t h e i r cwn l a b o u r . W h i l e mcst owners had r e c e i v e d some h e l p from f r i e n d s , r e l a t i v e s o r a c o n t r a c t o r f o r p a s t r e h a b i l i t a t i o n , l e s s t han 10% had r e l i e d c o m p l e t e l y on the l a t t e r . T h i s was r e l a t e d to both economic c o n s i d e r a t i o n s , many o f the r e s p o n d e n t s h a v i n g the s k i l l s t o undertake r e n o v a t i o n s more c h e a p l y than a c o n t r a c t o r , and the s a t i s f a c t i o n d e r i v e d from a c c o m p l i s h i n g such improvements. T h i s f e e l i n g o f p r i d e and achievement o f t e n i n c r e a s e s t h e owner's sense of commitment t o h i s p r o p e r t y and may encourage more c o n s c i e n t i o u s maintenance. E x p e r i m e n t s have shown t h a t p r i v a t e r e h a b i l i t a t i o n schemes u t i l i z i n g the concept of "sweat e q u i t y " have been more s u c c e s s f u l t h a n t h o s e e x c l u d i n g 136 owner p a r t i c i p a t i o n 1 3 . REAP dees i n f a c t p e r m i t c a p a b l e a p p l i c a n t s t o undertake r e h a b i l i t a t i o n f i n a n c e d t h r o u g h t h i s scheme 1*. However, very few are aware of t h i s o p t i o n b e f o r e t h e y aPPly» and s e v e r a l e l i g i b l e non-users m a i n t a i n e d t h a t t h e y had p a r t l y been d i s c o u r a g e d by the h i g h e r c o s t s i n c u r r e d by o u t s i d e l a b o u r . S u r p r i s i n g l y , o n l y 20% of the owners u s i n g RRAP had p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h e r e n o v a t i o n s . T h i s can p r o b a b l y be a t t r i b u t e d to t he h i g h p r o p o r t i o n of s e n i o r c i t i z e n a p p l i c a n t s , most of whom were unable t o undertake the work. RRAP c o u l d d o u b t l e s s b e n e f i t from g r e a t e r p u b l i c i t y o f the "sweat e q u i t y " p r i n c i p l e , p a r t i c u l a r l y when i n t r o d u c e d t o areas such as Grandview-woodlands. Most of the I t a l i a n r e s i d e n t s here have b c t h the s k i l l s and d e s i r e t o under t a k e t h e i r own r e n o v a t i o n s . I t i s q u i t e p r o b a b l e t h a t a scheme o r i e n t e d towards o u t s i d e l a b o u r would not be w e l l r e c e i v e d . A f i n a l but i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r i n e l i g i b l e r e s i d e n t s ' d e c i s i o n t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n RRAP was t h e i r a t t i t u d e towards the neighbourhood. As i n d i c a t e d i n Chapter V, owners' f e e l i n g s towards t h e i r s u r r o u n d i n g area and changes w i t h i n i t a r e o f t e n r e f l e c t e d i n t h e i r r e h a b i l i t a t i o n b e h a v i o u r . S i n c e RRAP i s u s u a l l y implemented i n ar e a s undergoing improvement through' NIP, one might expect a p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e towards both the neighbourhood and i t s r e h a b i l i t a t i o n . However, as p r e v i o u s l y 13 T u r n e r , J . and F i c h t e r , R,, The Freedom t o B u i l d : I w e l l e r C o n t r o l c f the Housing P r o c e s s . M a c M i l l a n Co., N.Y. 1972. "Sweat e q u i t y " i n v o l v e s t h e use o f r e s i d e n t s ' l a b o u r to cut t h e r e h a b i l i t a t i o n c o s t s , 14 In t h e s e c a s e s , l o a n s or g r a n t s w i l l o n l y have t o c o v e r the c o s t s of m a t e r i a l s . A l l work must meet CMHC's s t a n d a r d s . 137 i n d i c a t e d , the m a j o r i t y of t h e r e s i d e n t s i n K i t s i l a n o and Cedar C o t t a g e s t i l l f e l t t h a t the p h y s i c a l environment was d e c l i n i n g e i g h t e e n months a f t e r t h e commencement of NIP, Although money has been a l l o c a t e d f o r NIP schemes i n each a r e a , t o date t h e r e i s v e ry l i t t l e v i s i b l e e v i d e n c e o f improvement, NIP undoubtedly has an i m p o r t a n t r o l e t o p l a y i n the d e c i s i o n to r e h a b i l i t a t e , but as yet i t s impact has been s l i g h t . The d i f f e r e n c e i n a t t i t u d e s towards the neighbourhood between t h e REAP a p p l i c a n t s and e l i g i b l e non-users i s c l e a r (Table X I V ) . A l l users were c h a r a c t e r i s e d by a s t r o n g p o s i t i v e HEAP APPLICATIO NS AN D_P EEC EI VEp_ PHYSIC ^ _HE I S S f i 2 2 f iHOOB_£SMSE P h y s i c a l change p e r c e i v e d as u n d e s i r a b l e 65 58 20 87 U n d e s i r a b l e change seen as u n c o n t r o l l a b l e 28 12 0 65 P h y s i c a l change p e r c e i v e d as d e s i r a b l e • 35 42 80 13 a t t i t u d e towards t h e i r a r e a , as e x e m p l i f i e d by t h e i r h i g h L i k e r t s c o r e and f a v o u r a b l e d e s c r i p t i o n of the neighbourhood. They g e n e r a l l y e x h i b i t e d a f e e l i n g o f p r i d e and attachment t o t h e i r a r ea and were c o n f i d e n t i n i t s f u t u r e s t a b i l i t y . Over h a l f t h e s e owners had observed some p h y s i c a l change w i t h i n the neighbourhood, but most p e r c e i v e d i t as d e s i r a b l e . The m a j o r i t y a t t r i b u t e d t h i s improvement to NIP. A s m a l l p r o p o r t i o n o f u s e r s TABLE XIV T o t a l Sample K i t s i l a n o Cedar BE A F U s e r s % EEAP Non-users % C o t t a g e % % 138 d i d , however, f e e l t h e i r neighbourhood had d e t e r i o r a t e d , but a l l viewed t h e s e changes as c o n t r o l l a b l e 1 5 . C o n s e q u e n t l y , the p e r c e i v e d d e c l i n e d i d not a d v e r s e l y a f f e c t t h e i r d e c i s i o n to r e h a b i l i t a t e . T h i s s t r o n g l y c o n t r a s t e d w i t h t h e e l i g i b l e ncn-u s e r s who h e l d a more n e g a t i v e , p e s s i m i s t i c view of the neighbourhood. The m a j o r i t y p e r c e i v e d r e c e n t p h y s i c a l changes as u n d e s i r a b l e , 60% f e e l i n g t h a t p a r t s of the neighbourhood had a l r e a d y d e g e n e r a t e d t o a slum. U n l i k e the ERAP a p p l i c a n t s , many of t h e non-users f e l t the d e t e r i o r a t i o n p r o c e s s was u n c o n t r o l l a b l e and p e r c e i v e d i t as a major d i s i n c e n t i v e to r e h a b i l i t a t i o n . Many r a t e d home improvements as a f a i r l y lew p r i o r i t y e x p e n d i t u r e and a p p r o x i m a t e l y a q u a r t e r m a i n t a i n e d t h a t r e h a b i l i t a t i o n was p o i n t l e s s when o t h e r p r o p e r t y i n t h e v i c i n i t y was d e c l i n i n g . For about a t h i r d c f t h i s group, the c l e a r a n c e and r e p l a c e m e n t cf o l d e r h o u s i n g was seen as t h e o n l y v i a b l e means o f improvement. Over h a l f the homeowners e l i g i b l e f o r REAP (both a p p l i c a n t s and non-users) had observed s o c i a l changes w i t h i n t h e i r neighbourhood. Few i n e i t h e r a r e a p e r c e i v e d t h e s e as d e s i r a b l e . For t h e e l i g i b l e n c n - u s e r , t h e i n v a s i o n of Cedar Cottage by u n d e s i r a b l e e t h n i c groups and the i n c r e a s i n g l a n d l o r d and t e n a n t p o p u l a t i o n i n K i t s i l a n o c o n s t i t u t e d a f u r t h e r d i s i n c e n t i v e to r e h a b i l i t a t i o n . However, t h e s e changes were c o n s i d e r e d a s t i m u l u s t o improvement by the REAP a p p l i c a n t s . As conveyed i n Chapter V, many r e s p o n d e n t s i n both K i t s i l a n o and Cedar Cottage 15 The i m p o r t a n c e of a sense c f c o n t r o l o v er t h e environment was more f u l l y d i s c u s s e d i n Chapter V. 139 b e l i e v e d t h a t r e h a b i l i t a t i o n c o u l d h e l p e x c l u d e u n d e s i r a b l e groups from the area by a t t r a c t i n g more a f f l u e n t buyers. A p p l i c a n t s f e l t t h a t improvements t h r o u g h RRAP c o u l d play an i m p o r t a n t r o l e i n t h i s " p r o t e c t i o n " of the neighbourhood. THE_IMPACT_^F_SRAP The impact of RRAP on t h e r e h a b i l i t a t i o n b e h a v i o u r o f t h e s e i n n e r c i t y r e s i d e n t s appears t o have been s l i g h t . A c h i - s g u a r e t e s t i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e r e was no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the number of i n t e r i o r and e x t e r i o r r e p a i r s u ndertaken i n the two NIP areas and the c o n t r o l neighbourhood of Grandview-Woodlands. I f c o u l d be argued t h a t t h e l e v e l of p r i v a t e r e h a b i l i t a t i o n i n Grandview i s u n u s u a l l y h i g h and a comparison of t h i s n a t u r e i s i n v a l i d . However, f u r t h e r a n a l y s i s r e v e a l e d t h a t t h e r e was a l s o no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the number of r e p a i r s done by homeowners u s i n g RRAP and t h o s e u s i n g t h e i r own r e s o u r c e s i n t h e twc NIP a r e a s . The absentee r e s p o n d e n t s p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the programme d i d i n f a c t a c h i e v e a h i g h e r l e v e l o f r e h a b i l i t a t i o n t h a n o t h e r l a n d l o r d s , but the s m a l l s i z e of the group makes t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p d i f f i c u l t t o s u b s t a n t i a t e . N e v e r t h e l e s s , RRAP d i d have an i n f l u e n c e on the type of work undertaken by the r e s i d e n t owner. The F e d e r a l l y a s s i s t e d r e h a b i l i t a t i o n scheme g i v e s p r i o r i t y t o s t r u c t u r a l d e f i c i e n c i e s t h a t a r e l i a b l e t o a f f e c t t h e l i f e of the b u i l d i n g . A h i g h e r p r o p o r t i o n o f the RRAP u s e r s undertook and spent more on e x t e r n a l s t r u c t u r a l work, such as f o u n d a t i o n , w a l l and r o o f r e p a i r s , t h a n t h e p r i v a t e i m p r o v e r s (see T a b l e XV). A l s o , l e s s emphasis was p l a c e d on d e c o r a t i n g and a s u b s t a n t i a l l y s m a l l e r 140 TABLE_XV T o t a l Sample K i t s i l a n o Cedar RRAP Cottag e Users Percentage doing major o u t s i d e s t r u c t u r a l r e p a i r s 80 77 9 5 P e r c e n t a g e d o i n g o u t s i d e d e c o r a t i n g 64 82 4 6 Average e x p e n d i t u r e on o u t s i d e r e p a i r s * $1,772 $1,772 $2,100 Average e x p e n d i t u r e on i n s i d e r e p a i r s 0 - $1,562 $1,079 $918 (a) E x p e n d i t u r e s a r e e s t i m a t e d by respondents amount was spent on i n t e r i o r r e p a i r s . S t u d i e s have shown t h a t owners u n d e r t a k i n g p r i v a t e r e h a b i l i t a t i o n a s s i g n h i g h e r p r i o r i t y t o a e s t h e t i c than f u n c t i o n a l r e p a i r s (except i n t h e case c f g r e a t d e t e r i o r a t i o n ) and p l a c e most im p o r t a n c e on i n t e r i o r improvements 1 6.. C l o s e t o h a l f o f the REAP u s e r s had p l a n s t o use t h e i r own funds t o d e c o r a t e i n t h e near f u t u r e , s u g g e s t i n g t h a t RRAP does not a d e q u a t e l y f u l f i l l t h i s need. While t h i s s tudy has made no attempt t o e v a l u a t e RRAP per s e , i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o b r i e f l y c o n s i d e r the programme's impact i n terms of i t s g o a l s . ERAP's p r i n c i p a l aim i s t c a s s i s t moderate income homeowners i n the r e n o v a t i o n o f t h e i r d w e l l i n g s . The programme seems t o have b e n e f i t t e d t h e s e n i o r c i t i z e n u s e r s i n p a r t i c u l a r , many o f whom f e l t they had n e i t h e r the f i n a n c i a l 16 B a r k e r , E., Report on t h e R e h a b i l i t a t i o n o f O l d e r Houses i n a Lower Income C i t y D i s t r i c t . I n s t i t u t e of Urban S t u d i e s . Univ. of Winnipeg. 1971. E p s t e i n , D., Housing I n n o v a t i o n s and Neighbourhood IlR£<22£ie£li Changes i n Winnigeg^s I n n e r C i t ^ . I n s t i t u t e o f Urban S t u d i e s . Univ. of Winnipeg. 1974. 141 r e s o u r c e s nor the energy t o undertake major r e p a i r s . A l l the survey r e s p o n d e n t s were p l e a s e d w i t h the scheme and t h e work done, and most m a i n t a i n e d t h a t they would not have made the same improvements w i t h o u t t h i s a s s i s t a n c e 1 7 . S i n c e a l l t h e u s e r s were f a v o u r a b l y d i s p o s e d towards r e h a b i l i t a t i o n , i t i s l i k e l y t h a t some work would have been und e r t a k e n i n the absence o f REAP. However, t h i s would p r o b a b l y have been of a more minor or c o s m e t i c n a t u r e . RRAP i s a l s o i n t e n d e d t o s e r v e as an a d j u n c t t o NIP i n the r e v i t a l i z a t i c n o f d e c l i n i n g urban neighbourhoods. I f the g e n e r a l q u a l i t y o f an ar e a i s t o be improved, t h e r e must be widespread r e h a b i l i t a t i o n . However, t h e p r o p o r t i o n of owners r e s p o n d i n g t o RRAP i s low and p a r t i c i p a n t s a r e t o o w i d e l y s c a t t e r e d to have any g r e a t e f f e c t . I t has been argued t h a t the improved appearance o f d w e l l i n g s r e n o v a t e d through REAP w i l l s t i m u l a t e more p r i v a t e l y funded a c t i v i t y 1 8 . However, t h e r e i s l i t t l e e v i d e n c e t o support t h i s 1 9 . Some su r v e y r e s p o n d e n t s even co m p l a i n e d about the e x t e r i o r o f n e i g h b o u r s ' houses, unaware t h a t t h e s e owners had made i n t e r n a l and s t r u c t u r a l improvements w i t h RRAP. Hence, i t seems more l i k e l y t h a t p r i v a t e l y i n i t i a t e d 17 Only one of the twenty u s e r s would not recommend the use of FRAP t o h i s f r i e n d s . H i s o b j e c t i o n s were based on i n e f f i c i e n t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the programme. 18 P e r s o n a l communication w i t h CflHC REAP r e p r e s e n t a t i v e , J u l y 2 8 t h , 1975. 19 REAP d i d have an i n d i r e c t impact on t h e r e h a b i l i t a t i o n b e h a v i o u r of p r o p e r t y owners on 2000 and 2100 b l o c k s East 27th Avenue, Cedar C o t t a g e . S e v e r a l r e s p o n d e n t s here who were i n e l i g i b l e f o r REAP a i d a t the time of the survey had been encouraged t o r e h a b i l i t a t e by F e d e r a l l y a s s i s t e d r e n o v a t i o n on the b l o c k . However, t h i s i s o n l y an i s o l a t e d example. 142 r e h a b i l i t a t i o n v i l l have a g r e a t e r impact on the o v e r a l l q u a l i t y o f K i t s i l a n o and Cedar C o t t a g e than t h i s F e d e r a l programme. The c o n t r i b u t i o n o f 'REAP t o t h e p r e s e r v a t i o n and improvement of o l d e r i n n e r c i t y neighbourhoods t h e r e f o r e appears t o have been s l i g h t . 143 CHAPTER im VII CONCLDSICNS T h i s s t u d y has attempted t o i s o l a t e and examine f a c t o r s g o v e r n i n g t h e d e c i s i o n of Vancouver i n n e r c i t y r e s i d e n t s to r e h a b i l i t a t e . P a r t i c u l a r emphasis was p l a c e d on owners' f e e l i n g s towards t h e i r neighbourhood, t h e i r p r o p e r t y and t h e concept c f improvement. These were found t o be c e n t r a l to t h e owners' r e h a b i l i t a t i o n b e h a v i o u r and hence t o t h e q u a l i t y of p r o p e r t y i n t h e s e neighbourhoods. The F e d e r a l government's scheme to improve o l d e r r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s through v o l u n t a r y r e h a b i l i t a t i o n has p l a c e d g r e a t emphasis on the a c t i v i t y of these i n d i v i d u a l p r o p e r t y owners. Success depends on t h e ent h u s i a s m of r e s i d e n t s f o r improvement and t h e i r w i l l i n g n e s s t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n the r e n o v a t i o n of t h e i r neighbourhood. P e r c e i v e d c o n s t r a i n t s and I n c e n t i v e s t o improve were i d e n t i f i e d and the r o l e of the R e s i d e n t i a l R e h a b i l i t a t i o n A s s i s t a n c e Programme i n t h e d e c i s i o n t o r e h a b i l i t a t e was a s s e s s e d . The f o l l o w i n g d i s c u s s i o n p r o v i d e s a summary o f the f i n d i n g s and e x p l o r e s t h e i r i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r the f u t u r e o f o l d e r r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s i n an e v o l v i n g urban s p a t i a l s t r u c t u r e . P o s s i b l e d i r e c t i o n s f o r f u t u r e r e s e a r c h i n t h i s f i e l d w i l l then be proposed. 4_^MMARY_CT_THJ_FINDINGS Most of the r e s i d e n t s i n the t h r e e i n n e r c i t y s u r v e y a r e a s r e c o g n i s e d the need t o upgrade t h e i r neighbourhood, the 144 r e h a b i l i t a t i o n of o l d e r houses b e i n g t h e p r e f e r r e d mechanism f o r improvement. Many r e s i d e n t s , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n K i t s i l a n o and Grandview, were opposed t o t h e n o t i o n c f c l e a r a n c e , and r e p l a c e m e n t , a l t h o u g h Cedar Cottage owners more r e a d i l y a c c e p t e d such a c t i v i t y . T h i s may be a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e g r e a t e r t h r e a t posed by redevelopment t o the c h a r a c t e r o f K i t s i l a n o and Grandview. N e v e r t h e l e s s , t h e r e was some support f o r housing replacement from r e s p o n d e n t s who f e l t t h a t at l e a s t p a r t c f t h e i r neighbourhood was c h a r a c t e r i s e d by the s o c i a l and p h y s i c a l problems of a slum. These i n d i v i d u a l s c o n s i d e r e d the r e h a b i l i t a t i o n o f t h e p h y s i c a l environment as o n l y a p a r t i a l s o l u t i o n t o t h e i r a r e a ' s d e c l i n e . D e s p i t e a p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e towards r e h a b i l i t a t i o n and a g e n e r a l enthusiasm f o r improvement, o n l y a t h i r d of the res p o n d e n t s owned "ve r y good" or "good" q u a l i t y p r o p e r t y . The a t t i t u d e s of respond e n t s towards r e n o v a t i o n were t h e r e f o r e net t r u l y r e f l e c t e d i n t h e i r r e h a b i l i t a t i o n b e h a v i o u r . The su r v e y r e v e a l e d t h a t the d e c i s i o n t o r e h a b i l i t a t e was governed by a s e r i e s of o f t e n c o n f l i c t i n g i n c e n t i v e s and c o n s t r a i n t s . Many res p o n d e n t s p l a c e d g r e a t importance on good q u a l i t y p r o p e r t y and over h a l f r a t e d home improvements as one o f t h e i r h i g h e s t p r i o r i t y e x p e n d i t u r e s . Rather s u r p r i s i n g l y , income per se was not s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d t o the l e v e l o f r e h a b i l i t a t i o n or housing q u a l i t y , a l t h o u g h a p p r o x i m a t e l y h a l f of t h e Cedar Cottage and Grandview r e s p o n d e n t s d i d c i t e l i m i t e d f i n a n c i a l r e s o u r c e s as a p o s s i b l e d i s i n c e n t i v e t o Improvement. The r e h a b i l i t a t i o n a c t i v i t y of owners e a r n i n g l e s s than $11,000 p.a. was s i g n i f i c a n t l y c u r t a i l e d by the f i n a n c i a l burden imposed 145 by a mortgage, and p r o p e r t y g u a l i t y f o r t h i s group was s u b s t a n t i a l l y lower than f o r the r e s t o f the sample. The l i k e l i h o o d of i n c r e a s e d p r o p e r t y f a x e s c o n s t i t u t e d a f u r t h e r f i n a n c i a l c o n s t r a i n t t o both homeowners ( p a r t i c u l a r l y those w i t h a low income) and l a n d l o r d s . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , many r e s p o n d e n t s were unaware t h a t some r e p a i r s do not warrant a t a x r e a s s e s s m e n t . More i n f o r m a t i o n on the b a s i s f o r p r o p e r t y e v a l u a t i o n and t a x a t i o n s h o u l d t h e r e f o r e be d i s t r i b u t e d to owners, and some t a x r e l i e f f o r t h o s e u n d e r t a k i n g major r e n o v a t i o n s may s t i m u l a t e more improvement 1. The d e c i s i o n of the r e s i d e n t owner t o r e h a b i l i t a t e was not o n l y based on f i n a n c i a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s , but a l s o on f e e l i n g s towards p r o p e r t y , the neighbourhood and changes w i t h i n i t . Many re s p o n d e n t s i n each a r e a were c h a r a c t e r i s e d by a s i m i l a r m o t i v e f o r improvement, which i n f l u e n c e d b oth the l e v e l and n a t u r e of t h e i r r e h a b i l i t a t i o n a c t i v i t y . In both K i t s i l a n o and Cedar C o t t a g e , r e s i d e n t s r e g a r d e d r e n o v a t i o n as a means of p r o t e c t i n g t h e neighbourhood a g a i n s t f u r t h e r u n d e s i r a b l e p h y s i c a l and s o c i a l changes, whereas most Grandview homeowners had p e r c e i v e d an o v e r a l l improvement i n housing g u a l i t y o v e r th e l a s t few y e a r s , t h e m a j o r i t y of the K i t s i l a n o and Cedar Cottage r e s p o n d e n t s f e l t d e t e r i o r a t i o n had o c c u r r e d . Most K i t s i l a n o r e s i d e n t s were w e l l aware of the d e c l i n e i n h o u s i n g g u a l i t y t h a t had preceded apartment redevelopment i n the a r e a a d j a c e n t t o the 1 I t i s n e v e r t h e l e s s d i f f i c u l t t o g i v e p r e c i s e and d e t a i l e d i n f o r m a t i o n on the e f f e c t s o f home improvements on p r o p e r t y assessment and t a x a t i o n s i n c e t h i s would vary w i t h the l o c a t i o n and age of t h e b u i l d i n g . 146 c o n v e r s i o n zone. Many respond e n t s were t h e r e f o r e c o n c e r n e d about the i n c r e a s e i n p o o r l y m a i n t a i n e d r e n t a l accommodation and i t s i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r the p r e s e r v a t i o n of the "community" and t h e s i n g l e f a m i l y c h a r a c t e r o f t h e neighbourhood. Cedar Cottage r e s i d e n t s , however, p e r c e i v e d l i t t l e t h r e a t from redevelopment. Of g r e a t e r concern was t h e i n v a s i o n of " u n d e s i r a b l e " e t h n i c groups (mainly E a s t I n d i a n s ) , which were f e l t t o j e o p a r d i z e t h e s o c i a l s t a t u s o f t h i s neighbourhood. Many r e s p o n d e n t s here were p r e o c c u p i e d w i t h t h e p r e s e r v a t i o n of a "middle c l a s s " image and, as a r e s u l t , p l a c e d g r e a t i m p o r t a n c e on m a i n t a i n i n g t h e o u t s i d e appearance o f t h e i r d w e l l i n g . I n both t h e s e survey a r e a s , r e s p o n d e n t s b e l i e v e d t h a t r e s i d e n t i a l r e h a b i l i t a t i o n would enhance t h e d e s i r a b i l i t y of the neighbourhood and thereby a t t r a c t h i g h e r income p r o p e r t y owners. I t was hoped t h a t t h i s would p r o v i d e l e s s o p p o r t u n i t y f o r t h e s p e c u l a t i v e a c q u i s i t i o n o f p r o p e r t y i n K i t s i l a n o and t h e e n t r y of lower Income e t h n i c groups t o Cedar C o t t a g e . However, w h i l e an I n c r e a s e i n h i g h e r income r e s i d e n t s would d o u b t l e s s h e l p Cedar C o t t a g e owners t o m a i n t a i n o r enhance t h e i r "middle c l a s s " image, t h e c h a r a c t e r of th e community which K i t s i l a n o r e s i d e n t s want t o p r e s e r v e may w e l l be changed. The r e s p o n d e n t s e x p r e s s i n g the most e n t h u s i a s m f o r r e h a b i l i t a t i o n were c h a r a c t e r i s e d by a p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e towards t h e n eighbourhood, a sense of p e r s o n a l e f f i c a c y and f a i t h i n the a b i l i t y of r e s i d e n t s t o improve t h e i r p h y s i c a l environment. In K i t s i l a n o , t h e d e s i r e t o r e h a b i l i t a t e was s t r o n g l y r e i n f o r c e d by a f e e l i n g o f neighbourhood p r i d e and commitment. However, i n both th e s e a r e a s , a s m a l l p r o p o r t i o n o f owners ( l e s s t h a n 3 0%) 147 b e l i e v e d t h a t u n d e s i r a b l e neighbourhood changes c o u l d not be c o n t r o l l e d and saw them as a d i s i n c e n t i v e t o r e h a b i l i t a t i o n . Most o f t h e s e r e s p o n d e n t s owned poor q u a l i t y p r o p e r t y , p l a c e d a low p r i o r i t y on improvements and had undertaken few major r e p a i r s i n t h e l a s t f i v e y e a r s . They l a c k e d any sense of p e r s o n a l e f f i c a c y or i n t e r e s t i n t h e neighbourhood. In Grandview, however, o n l y a q u a r t e r of the r e s p o n d e n t s p e r c e i v e d any u n d e s i r a b l e changes and a l l c o n s i d e r e d them t o be c o n t r o l l a b l e . Hence, t h i s d e c l i n e had no d e t r i m e n t a l e f f e c t on t h e s e owners' r e h a b i l i t a t i o n b e h a v i o u r . N e a r l y a l l the Grandview r e s p o n d e n t s e x h i b i t e d a s t r o n g sense o f p e r s o n a l achievement, a commitment t o t h e neighbourhood and i t s improvement, and a f a i r l y h i g h l e v e l of r e h a b i l i t a t i o n a c t i v i t y . However, e x p e n d i t u r e f o r some was c u r t a i l e d by t h e mortgage c o n s t r a i n t . l!i§_!ol§_2f_II£!i! The s t u d y s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e r e i s a c o n s i d e r a b l e p o t e n t i a l f o r r e h a b i l i t a t i o n i n t h e two NIP su r v e y a r e a s . For some r e s i d e n t s , t h e f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e o f f e r r e d t h r o u g h RRAP had p r o v i d e d a d d i t i o n a l i n c e n t i v e t o r e h a b i l i t a t e . However, g i v e n the p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e towards improvement and t h a t few owners were a v e r s e t o the n o t i o n o f government a s s i s t a n c e , p a r t i c i p a t i o n r a t e s i n RRAP ( a p p r o x i m a t e l y 8%) seem d i s t u r b i n g l y low. D e s p i t e the need f o r r e n o v a t i o n s , many e l i g i b l e homeowners were d i s c o u r a g e d from a p p l y i n g f o r a s s i s t a n c e by t h e f i n a n c i a l burden imposed by a l o a n . S i n c e t h i s s t u d y was c o n d u c t e d , the income r e s t r i c t i o n s f o r g r a n t s t h r o u g h REAP have been r a i s e d from $6,000 t o $11,000 p..a. Hence, some o f t h i s group may now respond t o the programme. However, i n c r e a s e d t a x e s c o n s t i t u t e d a 148 f u r t h e r d i s i n c e n t i v e t o improvement f o r many owners and i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t s p e c i a l arrangements f o r t a x a t i o n on r e p a i r s made th r o u g h REAP would p r o v i d e a g r e a t e r s t i m u l u s t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h i s programme. T h i s c o u l d be o f p a r t i c u l a r importance to l a n d l o r d s , whose motives t o r e h a b i l i t a t e are l a r g e l y economic. However, the advantages of such an arrangement may w e l l be o f f s e t by r e n t c o n t r o l s , which a l s o c o n s t i t u t e d a d i s i n c e n t i v e t o p a r t i c i p a t i o n In RRAP. While i t i s i m p o r t a n t t h a t the c o s t of r e h a b i l i t a t i o n i s not passed on t o the t e n a n t , some m o d i f i c a t i o n o f t h i s p o l i c y i s e s s e n t i a l i f RRAP i s t o c o n t r i b u t e to the improvement of moderate income r e n t a l accommodation, an Important element o f t h e i n n e r c i t y housing s t c c k . R e s i d e n t s ' p r i d e i n t h e i r a b i l i t y t o f i n a n c e and c a r r y out r e p a i r s t h e m s e l v e s , and a n e g a t i v e a t t i t u d e towards the neighbourhood and i t s improvement c o n s t i t u t e d f u r t h e r d i s i n c e n t i v e s t o p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n RRAP. NIP sponsored a c t i v i t y c o u l d p l a y an i m p o r t a n t r o l e i n c h a n g i n g t h i s a t t i t u d e and h e l p t o i n s p i r e c o n f i d e n c e i n t h e area's f u t u r e s t a b i l i t y . However, t o d a t e , t h i s programme has had l i t t l e v i s i b l e i m p a c t on the survey neighbourhoods ( e s p e c i a l l y i n K i t s i l a n c ) and appears t o have encouraged few t o r e h a b i l i t a t e . Survey r e s p o n d e n t s r e a c t e d t o the p e r c e i v e d t h r e a t s i n each neighbourhood i n d i f f e r e n t ways, t h e i r a t t i t u d e s b e i n g r e f l e c t e d i n t h e i r r e h a b i l i t a t i o n b e h a v i o u r . The v a r y i n g r e s p o n s e s t o the same neighbourhood change s u p p o r t the s u g g e s t i o n i n Chapter I t h a t the e x i s t e n c e of " b l i g h t i n g e lements", which are so o f t e n 149 d i r e c t l y blamed f o r d e t e r i o r a t i o n , i s l e s s s i g n i f i c a n t than the a t t i t u d e s of p r o p e r t y owners towards them. The m a j o r i t y c f the r e s p o n d e n t s , however, d i d not c o n s i d e r the t h r e a t s as a d i s i n c e n t i v e t o r e h a b i l i t a t i o n and t h e i r e n t h u s i a s m f o r improvement s u g g e s t s t h a t p r i v a t e r e n o v a t i o n i s l i k e l y t o c o n t i n u e i n a l l survey a r e a s . T h i s has i m p o r t a n t i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r t h e p r e s e r v a t i o n of the s e " t r a n s i t i o n a l " neighbourhoods. Few Grandview r e s i d e n t s needed any a d d i t i o n a l i n c e n t i v e t o und e r t a k e improvements. However, some lower income owners w i t h a mortgage e n c o u n t e r e d d i f f i c u l t i e s i n f i n a n c i n g r e p a i r s and i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t t h e s e owners w i l l welcome t h e o f f e r o f REAP a s s i s t a n c e w i t h the i n t r o d u c t i o n o f NIP i n t h e near f u t u r e . However, as i n o t h e r a r e a s , these owners may be d i s c o u r a g e d from a p p l y i n g by t h e f i n a n c i a l burden of a n o t h e r l o a n . F u r t h e r m o r e , many Grandview r e s i d e n t s a re c h a r a c t e r i s e d by a s t r o n g p r i d e i n t h e i r s e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y , which may a l s o c o n s t i t u t e a d i s i n c e n t i v e t o p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n RRAP. D e s p i t e some p r e s s u r e f o r t h e re p l a c e m e n t o f s i n g l e f a m i l y homes w i t h s m a l l e r n o n - f a m i l y u n i t s , the c o n v e r s i o n zone o f Grandview i s f a i r l y s t a b l e and seems u n l i k e l y t o e x p e r i e n c e much d e c l i n e I n the f u t u r e . Even- i f t h i s a r e a i s e v e n t u a l l y p r e s e n t e d w i t h a more s e r i o u s t h r e a t c f re d e v e l o p m e n t , i t i s l i k e l y t h a t t h i s c l o s e l y k n i t community w i l l s t r o n g l y r e s i s t and p o s s i b l y slow the p r o c e s s of 2 At p r e s e n t , t h e r e i s l i t t l e p r e s s u r e f o r apartment redevelopment i n t h e c o n v e r s i o n zone c f Grandview, s i n c e t h e r e i s s t i l l l a n d a v a i l a b l e i n t h e a r e a zoned f o r t h i s p u r pose. A more d e t a i l e d d i s c u s s i o n of the p o t e n t i a l p r e s s u r e s on t h e c o n v e r s i o n area was p r e s e n t e d i n Chapter I I I . 150 t r a n s f o r m a t i o n . P r e s s u r e s f o r redevelopment a r e g r e a t e r i n t h e more d e s i r a b l e a r e a o f K i t s i l a n o . The e a r l y s t a g e s of s o c i a l change and p h y s i c a l d e c l i n e are a l r e a d y e v i d e n t i n the c o n v e r s i o n zone, which i s c h a r a c t e r i s e d by a h i g h p r o p o r t i o n o f p o o r l y m a i n t a i n e d r e n t a l p r o p e r t y and r a p i d p o p u l a t i o n t u r n o v e r . A l t h o u g h K i t s i l a n o homeowners are c o n f i d e n t i n t h e i r a b i l i t y to improve the n e i g h b o u r h o o d , i t i s c l e a r t h a t t h e r e must be some s t r o n g e r government a c t i o n I f t h i s zone i s t c be p r e s e r v e d f o r more than j u s t a few y e a r s . SIP and REAP are i n t e n d e d t o s t a b i l i z e and r e v i t a l i z e t h e a r e a . However, few r e s i d e n t s have observed any r e c e n t improvement i n t h e neighbourhood and some re s p o n d e n t s c l o s e t o t h e apartment zone s t i l l see the r i s k of redevelopment as a d i s i n c e n t i v e t o r e h a b i l i t a t i o n . P l a n s have i n f a c t been f o r m u l a t e d under NIP f o r p r e s e r v i n g t h e c u r r e n t z o n i n g of the c o n v e r s i o n a r e a , t h e r e b y at l e a s t t e m p o r a r i l y p r o h i b i t i n g w i d e s p r e a d apartment redevelopment. However, u n l e s s r e s i d e n t s a r e made aware o f t h i s , i t i s u n l i k e l y t o d i s p e l t h e i r concern or a f f e c t t h e i r a t t i t u d e s towards home improvements. Indeed, many of t h e owners l a c k i n g c o n f i d e n c e i n t h e f u t u r e c f t h e a r e a were a n t i c i p a t i n g moving and may c o n s e q u e n t l y p r o v i d e mere o p p o r t u n i t y f o r the s p e c u l a t i v e a c q u i s i t i o n of p r o p e r t y and neighbourhood d e c l i n e 3 . T h i s may i n t u r n a d v e r s e l y a f f e c t the 3 A l t h o u g h p l a n s t o m a i n t a i n the p r e s e n t z o n i n g i n the c o n v e r s i o n a r e a are Intended t o s t o p s p e c u l a t i o n , i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t some s p e c u l a t o r s w i l l c o n s i d e r i t prudent to a c q u i r e p r o p e r t y i n t h i s d e s i r a b l e area o f K i t s i l a n o . As the p r o p o r t i o n o f r e n t a l p r o p e r t y i n c r e a s e s , t h e r e w i l l p r o b a b l y be l e s s r e s i s t a n c e t o f u t u r e a t t e m p t s t o rezone f o r redevelopment. 151 maintenance b e h a v i o u r of o t h e r owners. Hence, t h e r e must be more c i t i z e n i n v o l v e m e n t i n t h e l o c a l a r ea p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s and g r e a t e r p u b l i c i t y o f NIP^s g o a l s and a c h i e v e m e n t s 4 . A s u b s t a n t i a l improvement i n the g u a l i t y cf r e n t a l accommodation would a l s o h e l p m a i n t a i n c o n f i d e n c e i n the neighbourhood. E i t h e r g r e a t e r economic i n c e n t i v e s t o r e h a b i l i t a t e s h o u l d be o f f e r r e d t o l a n d l o r d s t h r o u g h RRAP or a comprehensive programme of code enforcement should be i n i t i a t e d . I t i s u n l i k e l y t h a t t h e present c o m p l a i n t o r i e n t e d M u n i c i p a l " S t a n d a r d s o f Maintenance" by-law w i l l have a g r e a t impact on the o v e r a l l improvement c f d e t e r i o r a t e d p r o p e r t y i n t h i s a r e a . The f u t u r e of Cedar Cottage i s more c e r t a i n than t h a t of K i t s i l a n o ; t h e r e i s l i t t l e i n d i c a t i o n t h a t t h i s a r e a w i l l d e c l i n e i n the near f u t u r e . There are no p r e s s u r e s f o r w i d e s p r e a d redevelopment and l i t t l e p o t e n t i a l f o r the c o n v e r s i o n of e x i s t i n g housing i n t o m u l t i p l e r e n t a l u n i t s by p r o f i t o r i e n t e d l a n d l o r d s . The g r a d u a l r e p l a c e m e n t of seme o l d e r housing w i t h modern s i n g l e f a m i l y d w e l l i n g s has improved the appearance o f t h e a r e a and encouraged o t h e r owners to r e h a b i l i t a t e . However, of i m p o r t a n c e t o the l o n g term p r e s e r v a t i o n o f an a r e a i s a sense of community and neighbourhood commitment. T h i s c l e a r l y e x i s t s i n K i t s i l a n o , where most r e s i d e n t s a r e u n i t e d i n t h e i r f i g h t t o p r e s e r v e t h e i r community. However, Cedar C o t t a g e owners f e e l l i t t l e attachment 4 W h i l e more c i t i z e n i n v o l v e m e n t i s undoubtedly i m p o r t a n t , i t i s not always easy t o b r i n g about. T h i s I s p a r t i c u l a r l y t r u e i n K i t s i l a n o , where t h e r e are a number of v o c a l groups w i t h o p p o s i n g i d e o l o g i e s . 152 to t h e i r neighbourhood. Their present enthusiasm for improvement i s based on an i n d i v i d u a l concern for s o c i a l status and i t i s doubtful i f they have the potential to r e s i s t any major threat to the character of the neighbourhood. The survey suggested that t h e i r reaction would be to move from the area. In t h i s respect, NIP and HEAP have proved Inadequate. They have concentrated on rejuvenating the physical environment with l i t t l e apparent concern for s o c i a l considerations or the long term maintenance of the neighbourhood. As Axworthy stated at a Canadian conference on housing r e h a b i l i t a t i o n , "Probably the best kind of community renewal i s not simply physical renewal, but the kind of a c t i v i t y that stimulates the formation of community groups and a c t i v i t i e s . This can give a community strength, a sense of dire c t i o n and hope; i t can halt ccmmunity deterioration. " 5 Whereas t h i s i s less important for the united neighbourhoods of Ki t s i l a n o and Grandview, greater community involvement i n Cedar Cottage may be v i t a l to the future preservation of the neighbourhood. This again points to the need for more c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n in l o c a l area planning and suggests that REAP should have drawn on s k i l l e d labour from within the community rather than brinoing in outside contractors. A r e h a b i l i t a t i o n scheme using l o c a l labour proved successful i n c e n t r a l Winnipeg and stimulated both pride and inter e s t i n the community6. A 5 Axworthy, L., Address to the Housing E e h a b i l i t a t i c n Conference. (Baker, J . , Proceedings of the Housing £§habilitatign Conference. Montreal. Nov. 1973.) 6 Epstein, B., Housing Innovations and Neighbourhood I|!££21§iSentj_ Changes in Winnigeg^s Central City.. Institute cf Urban Studies. Univ. of Winnipeg. 1974. 153 programme f o r m u l a t e d on t h i s b a s i s might a l s o be more a c c e p t a b l e t o t h e s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t community of Grandview-Woodlands, where r e s i d e n t s have both the s k i l l s and e n t h u s i a s m t o c a r r y cut the work. The f i n d i n g s o f t h i s s t u d y not o n l y have i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r t h e f u t u r e c h a r a c t e r o f these p a r t i c u l a r neighbourhoods, but a l s o f o r the g e n e r a l development o f Canadian i n n e r c i t y a r e a s . As d i s c u s s e d i n Chapter I , " c o n v e r s i o n " a r e a s have t r a d i t i o n a l l y been c o n s i d e r e d t r a n s i t i o n a l zones. A c c o r d i n g t o t h e c l a s s i c a l models of urban s t r u c t u r e , the areas o f Vancouver examined i n t h i s t h e s i s are the most l i k e l y t o undergo redevelopment. The r e v i s i o n of government p o l i c y s i n c e 196 9 has attempted t o a l t e r t h i s e v o l u t i o n of t h e urban s t r u c t u r e , and NIP and RRAP were f o r m u l a t e d as a means c f i m p r o v i n g t h e s e o l d e r i n n e r c i t y n eighbourhoods. However, o n l y areas c o n s i d e r e d as e s s e n t i a l l y s t a b l e and p h y s i c a l l y sound were t o be s e l e c t e d f o r F e d e r a l a s s i s t a n c e , g r o s s l y d e t e r i o r a t e d neighbourhoods such as most of Vancouver's Downtown E a s t s i d e b e i n g l e f t t o e x p e r i e n c e t h e c y c l e of d e c l i n e and redevelopment as d e s c r i b e d i n t h e models. The survey s u g g e s t e d t h a t the a r e a s chosen f o r NIP and HEAP a s s i s t a n c e w i l l , at l e a s t t e m p o r a r i l y , be upgraded and p r e s e r v e d , w i t h o u t government i n t e r v e n t i o n and p l a n s f o r c u r b i n g s p e c u l a t i o n t h r o u g h p r e s e r v i n g t h e c o n v e r s i o n z o n i n g , the c y c l e o f redevelopment i n a r e a s such as K i t s i l a n o would be more advanced. However, much of the housing improvement which has t a k e n p l a c e I n NIP a r e a s can not be d i r e c t l y a t t r i b u t e d t o the F e d e r a l RRAP programme, which was found t o have v e r y l i t t l e i n f l u e n c e on r e s i d e n t s ' r e h a b i l i t a t i o n b e h a v i o u r . Of mere 154 importance are the p r i v a t e e f f o r t s of i n d i v i d u a l owners. The r e c e n t r e v i s i o n o f income r e s t r i c t i o n s on REAP g r a n t s and l o a n s (as o u t l i n e d i n C h a p t e r I) may s t i m u l a t e more r e h a b i l i t a t i o n a c t i v i t y i n t h e c o n v e r s i o n a r e a s . I f widespread improvement o c c u r s , t h e s e neighbourhoods c o u l d become more a t t r a c t i v e t o h i g h e r income groups who would g r a d u a l l y f o r c e out moderate income r e s i d e n t s 7 . T h i s t r a n s i t i o n would be f a c i l i t a t e d by t h e h i g h p r o p o r t i o n of s e n i o r c i t i z e n s who have r e n o v a t e d t h r ough REAP and may soon s e l l t h e i r p r o p e r t y , and i s a p a r t i c u l a r danger i n t h e d e s i r a b l e r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a of K i t s i l a n o . Hence, w h i l e r e h a b i l i t a t i o n p r e v e n t s the major p h y s i c a l t r a n s f o r m a t i o n a s s o c i a t e d w i t h redevelopment, normal p o p u l a t i o n t u r n o v e r may s t i l l r e s u l t i n a change i n s o c i a l s t a t u s . Even i f t h e a r e a s r e h a b i l i t a t e d through RE AE remain s o c i a l l y s t a b l e and r e t a i n t h e i r moderate income i n h a b i t a n t s , t h e i r l o n g term f u t u r e i s s t i l l u n c e r t a i n . R e h a b i l i t a t i o n t h r ough t h i s programme i s i n t e n d e d to e x t e n d t h e l i f e of the s t r u c t u r e by f i f t e e n y e a r s , However, i t makes no p r o v i s i o n s f o r t h e e s s e n t i a l maintenance of the b u i l d i n g a f t e r t h i s major r e n o v a t i o n . The d w e l l i n g s o f lower income households f a c i n g 7 Such a change i n s o c i a l s t a t u s has been i n i t i a t e d by o t h e r r e h a b i l i t a t i o n schemes i n E a s t e r n Canada and the U n i t e d S t a t e s . B e r n a r d , P. , R e h a b i l i t a t i o n Programmes; R a t i o n a l e s and Problems, R e h a p i l i t a t i o n . CMHC P u b l i c a t i o n , 197 5. "Monsieur Drapeau's R e s i d e n t i a l R e h a b i l i t a t i o n Programme". l e D e v o i r , May 2 2nd, 1975. 155 f i n a n c i a l problems may t h e r e f o r e d e c l i n e as b e f o r e 8 . N e v e r t h e l e s s , t h e p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e e x h i b i t e d by most c f the survey r e s p o n d e n t s s u g g e s t s t h a t o t h e r owners w i l l c o n t i n u e to improve t h e i r p r o p e r t y as l o n g as they remain c o n f i d e n t i n the f u t u r e o f t h e i r neighbourhood. I t i s t h e r e f o r e e s s e n t i a l t h a t t h e s e a r e a s remain s t a b l e and e x p e r i e n c e no f u r t h e r d e c l i n e . A l t h ough many responde n t s were unaware of improvements through NIP, t h i s programme has h e l p e d t o t e m p o r a r i l y slow the proc e s s of d e t e r i o r a t i o n . However, once the t h r e e year NIP programmes ar e c o m p l e t e , much of the f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e f o r neighbourhood improvement w i l l be withdrawn and area p l a n n i n g reduced to a minimum. U n l e s s the c h a r a c t e r and z o n i n g o f t h e s e a r e a s remain s t a b l e and c o n t r o l s on s p e c u l a t i o n a re e n f o r c e d , i t seems i n e v i t a b l e t h a t neighbourhoods such as K i t s i l a n o w i l l e v e n t u a l l y g i v e way t o redevelopment. Hence, I n t i m e , the urban s p a t i a l s t r u c t u r e may c o n t i n u e t o e v o l v e i n a way s i m i l a r t c t h a t d e s c r i b e d i n t h e e a r l y models. U n l e s s the Canadian government c o n t i n u e s t o i n t e r v e n e i n t h e neighbourhood d e t e r i o r a t i o n p r o c e s s , t h e impact o f r e h a b i l i t a t i o n on the s p a t i a l p a t t e r n and q u a l i t y of the housing s t o c k may only be temporary. 2 I £ S£TipjS^CB^ U T 0 B E_JESEABCH T h i s s t u d y has attem p t e d t c p r o v i d e a g r e a t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g of t h e p r o c e s s of urban d e t e r i o r a t i o n and r e h a b i l i t a t i o n . However, r e s e a r c h i s s t i l l needed i n t h i s f i e l d t o v a l i d a t e the f i n d i n g s . Some suggested a r e a s of i n v e s t i g a t i o n a r e as f o l l o w s : -8 I f l i t t l e maintenance i s undertaken f o r s e v e r a l y e a r s , the r a t e o f d e c l i n e may be even f a s t e r than b e f o r e due to the i n c r e a s e d age o f the b u i l d i n g . 156 (1) F u r t h e r m o n i t o r i n g and e v a l u a t i o n of r e h a b i l i t a t i o n a c t i v i t y i n the Vancouver survey a r e a s i s r e q u i r e d . Some s u g g e s t i o n s have been fo r w a r d e d as t o the l o n g term e f f e c t s of p r i v a t e and government a s s i s t e d improvement I n t h e s e c o n v e r s i o n a r e a s , but t h e s e need t o be s u b s t a n t i a t e d . More c o n c l u s i v e d a t a i s c e r t a i n l y needed on whether r e h a b i l i t a t i o n can s t o p the redevelopment c y c l e i n a d e s i r a b l e a r e a such as K i t s i l a n o . (2) The s t u d y was conducted b e f o r e CMHC's m o d i f i c a t i o n c f income r e s t r i c t i o n s on REAP g r a n t s and l o a n s . F u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n s a r e now r e g u i r e d t o a s s e s s the impact of t h i s r e v i s i o n on r e h a b i l i t a t i o n b e h a v i o u r and housing g u a l i t y i n t h e NIP a r e a s . (3) Due t o time c o n s t r a i n t s , t h i s s t u d y has p r i n c i p a l l y f o c u s e d on the a t t i t u d e s and r e h a b i l i t a t i o n b e h a v i o u r of r e s i d e n t owners. Less d e t a i l e d d a t a were p r e s e n t e d on the absentee l a n d l o r d s . However, more i n f o r m a t i o n on the a t t i t u d e s o f t h i s group towards r e h a b i l i t a t i o n would be u s e f u l , (4) A more d e t a i l e d a n a l y s i s of r e h a b i l i t a t i o n a t t i t u d e s and b e h a v i o u r i n terms of s p e c i f i c v a r i a b l e s such as age and e t h n i c i t y would be of i n t e r e s t , (5) F i n a l l y , w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n of Rose's s t u d y i n T o r o n t o , t h e r e have been very few i n v e s t i g a t i o n s o f t h i s n a t u r e i n e t h e r Canadian c i t i e s 9 . More work i s needed i n o t h e r d e c l i n i n g I n n e r c i t y neighbourhoods t o s u b s t a n t i a t e t h e Vancouver f i n d i n g s . 9 Rose, A., P r o s p e c t s f o r t h e R e h a b i l i t a t i o n c f Housing, i n C e n t r a l T o r o n t o . O n i . of Toronto. 1966. 157 BIBLIOGRAPHY A c h t e n b e r g , E., The S o c i a l U t i l i t y of Rent C o n t r o l . I n J . 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T e c h n i c a l R e p o r t s . 1969.) A b l o c k was a s s e s s e d as " v e r y good", "good" e t c i f a t l e a s t 60% of the p r o p e r t i e s on t h a t b l o c k f e l l w i t h i n one g u a l i t y c a t e g o r y . B l o c k s which were comprised o f a f a i r l y e q u a l p r o p o r t i o n o f "good" and " p o o r " p r o p e r t i e s were a s s e s s e d as "mixed". Cjual i t y _ A s s e s s m e n t _ C a t e g o r i e s Very Good Good s t r u c t u r e s and h i g h maintenance l e v e l s . F r e e from d e f i c i e n c e s . Good S o l i d s t r u c t u r e s , which are g e n e r a l l y f r e e f r c m d e t e r i o r a t i o n . Not n e c e s s a r i l y modern or p e r f e c t l y m a i n t a i n e d . Average M e d i o c r e . No s e r i o u s s t r u c t u r a l d e f i c i e n c e s , but low l e v e l o f maintenance. Poor O l d , some s t r u c t u r a l d e f i c i e n c e s and e v i d e n c e of d i s r e p a i r . Very Poor S e r i o u s s t r u c t u r a l d e f i c i e n c e s and marked d i l a p i d a t i o n . 167 APPENDIX_B JSI_II£Ei2_ SCALE SECTI0N_1 Composing t h e A t t i t u d e ^ s t a t g - f l e a t s The a t t i t u d e s c a l e used i n t h i s r e s e a r c h was f o r m u l a t e d on the b a s i s of a s e r i e s o f a t t i t u d e s t a t e m e n t s c o n c e r n i n g the r e s p o n d e n t s ' neighbourhood and the n o t i o n of r e s i d e n t i a l r e h a b i l i t a t i o n . P e r t i n e n t phrases were c o l l e c t e d from the l i t e r a t u r e and i n f o r m a l c o n v e r s a t i o n s w i t h neighbourhood r e s i d e n t s i n an attempt t o d e v i s e an i n t e r e s t i n g , m e a n i n g f u l p o o l o f a t t i t u d e s t a t e m e n t s . P r e f e r e n c e was g i v e n to s h o r t , f a i r l y s i m p l e p h r a s e s , c a r e b e i n g t a k e n t o a v o i d ambiguous double n e g a t i v e s and s u b - o r d i n a t e c l a u s e s 1 . The l a t t e r may o n l y c o n f u s e t h e r e s p o n d e n t , p a r t i c u l a r l y i f he a g r e e s w i t h one p a r t of the statement and not the o t h e r . T h i s may l e a d t o a h i g h p r o p o r t i o n o f "not s u r e " r e s p o n s e s . I t was a l s o c o n s i d e r e d d e s i r a b l e t o have a f a i r l y b a l a n c e d m i x t u r e of p o s i t i v e and n e g a t i v e a t t i t u d e s t a t e m e n t s , a l t h o u g h Adorno has argued t h a t the former c o n s t i t u t e s u p e r i o r d i s c r i m i n a t o r s 2 . However, i t was f e l t t h a t t h i s m i x t u r e p r o v i d e d one i m p o r t a n t s a f e g u a r d a g a i n s t the " r e s p o n s e s e t " 3 . The tendency f o r t h e respondent t c agree 1 Edwards, A., Techniques o f A t t i t u d e S c a l e C o n s t r u c t i o n . N . Y . : A p p l e t o n - C e n t u r y - C r o f t s . 1957. 2 Adorno, T., The A u t h o r i t a r i a n P e r s o n a l i t y . Harper Bros. N.Y. 1950 3 Cronbach, L., "Response Set and T e s t V a l i d i t y " . E d u c a t i o n a l and P s y c h o l o g i c a l Measurement VI (1946). P.475. 168 w i t h s o c i a l l y d e s i r a b l e a t t i t u d e s or t o a c g u i e s e r e g a r d l e s s of h i s t r u e f e e l i n g s c o n s t i t u t e s a s i g n i f i c a n t problem i n a t t i t u d e s c a l i n g t e c h n i q u e s * . However, t h e presence o f a response s e t i s hard t o d e t e c t and v e r y d i f f i c u l t t o e l i m i n a t e c o m p l e t e l y . SECTI0N_2 1 h E -1 J- JS e £ % ,.„" . nir r JL ? i n a t o r j jin P g w e r *± mi T ec h n i g u e. Respondents i n t h e p i l o t s u r v e y were asked t o i n d i c a t e t h e i r r e a c t i o n t o each a t t i t u d e s t a t e m e n t on a 1 t o 5 s c a l e c f aqreement/disaqreement. L i k e r t s c o r e s were then computed f o r each i n d i v u d u a l . The f i r s t was based on t h e t o t a l s c o r e f o r s t a t e m e n t s 1 t o 19 (see Table A a t the end of t h i s appendix) and r e f l e c t e d the r e s p o n d e n t ' s a t t i t u d e towards housing r e h a b i l i t a t i o n i n g e n e r a l . Statements 20 t o 28, however, were designed t o e l i c i t r e s p o n d e n t ' s a t t i t u d e s towards t h e i r own ne i g h b o u r h o o d , p a r t i c u l a r l y w i t h r e s p e c t t o i t s d e t e r i o r a t i o n . In o r d e r t o i n c r e a s e the r e l i a b i l i t y o f the L i k e r t s c a l e , a measure o f " i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y " was u n d e r t a k e n u s i n g the L i k e r t " D i s c r i m i n a t o r y Power" t e c h n i q u e 5 . Two mean s c o r e s were d e r i v e d f o r each a t t i t u d e s t atement u s i n q (a) t h e 24% c f the s u b j e c t s who s c o r e d t h e h i g h e s t t o t a l f o r the t e s t and (b) the 4 Edwards, A., The S o c i a l D e s i r a b i l i t y V a r i a b l e i n P e r s o n a l i t y Assessment and Research. N.Y.:The Dryden P r e s s . 1957. ~ M a r t i n , J . , " A c g u i e s c i e n c e ; Measurement and Theory". B r i t i s h J o u r n a l o f S o c i a l and C l i n i c a l P s y c h o l o g y I I I (1964) P T 2 1 6 " 5 Murphy, G. and l i k e r t , R. , P u b l i c O p i n i o n and t h e I n d i v i d u a l . N.Y.:Harper B r o s . 1938. P.2887 169 24% who s c o r e d the l o w e s t 6 . The a b i l i t y of each statement to d i s c r i m i n a t e between the extreme groups was a s s e s s e d by s u b t r a c t i n g the two means. The r e s u l t s f o r the l i k e r t s c a l e used i n the p i l o t s u r v e y are i n d i c a t e d i n T a b l e A. I t was assumed t h a t a group mean f a l l i n g between 2 and 4 was i n d i c a t i v e o f a wide range o f r e s p o n s e s ( i . e. between 1 and 5) from the s u b j e c t s . Hence, s t a t e m e n t s c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o t h e s e group v a l u e s were c o n s i d e r e d as p o t e n t i a l l y e f f e c t i v e d i s c r i m i n a t o r s and a p p r a i s e d on t h e b a s i s o f t h e i r " d i s c r i m i n a t o r y power". Statements w i t h a power va l u e c f l e s s t h a n 2.0 7 were f e l t to p r o v i d e o n l y a weak d i s t i n c t i o n between o p p o s i n g groups and to d e t r a c t from the " i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y " o f t h e t e s t . These i t e m s were e l i m i n a t e d from t h e s c a l e , l e a v i n g twenty L i k e r t s t a t e m e n t s f o r t h e f i n a l g u e s t i o n n a i r e . 6 Anywhere between 20 and 25% of the two extremes may be used. I n t h i s c a s e , 24% was e q u i v a l e n t t o s i x p i l o t survey r e s p o n d e n t s . 7 T h i s v a l u e i s tantamount to two c a t e g o r i e s on the L i k e r t s c a l e . F u r t h e r d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e s t r e n g t h c f the " d i s c r i m i n a t o r y power" value i s undertaken by Adorno. (Adorno, T., The A u t h o r i t a r i a n P e r s o n a l i t y . Harper Bros. N.Y. 1950.) 170 TABJLE_A Statement Upper 24% 1. Old houses i n t h i s a r e a a r e 4.5 no t worth f i x i n g up. 2. The c i t y s h o u l d t e a r down o l d e r houses and b u i l d new 4.6 apartments i n t h e i r p l a c e . 3. I t i s i m p o r t a n t to f i x up t h e house b e f o r e s p e n d i n g money 4.0 on r e c r e a t i o n . 4. I t i s not worth p u t t i n g y o u r s e l f i n t o debt t o improve 4.1 your home. 5. P e o p l e around here s h o u l d 3.3 spend more time on home r e p a i r s . 6. There i s no p o i n t i n making improvements t o your home i f 3.8 o t h e r houses on the same b l o c k are i n poor c o n d i t i o n . 7. I t i s more i m p o r t a n t t o spend money on keeping your 3.8 home i n good c o n d i t i o n than t o have a f a m i l y h o l i d a y . 8. An owner can r e a l l y f e e l proud o f h i s home when i t 4.5 l o c k s good. 9. I t i s a waste o f money f o r t h e government t o make l o a n s t o 4.8 r e n o v a t e o l d e r h o u s i n g . 10. There i s no need t o f i x up your p r o p e r t y u n l e s s you want 4.2 t o s e l l i t . 11. As l o n g as you are happy i n your home, i t s o u t s i d e appear- 4.3 ance does n o t matter t h a t much. 12. P e o p l e i n t h i s area r e s e n t 3.8 government a s s i s t a n c e . POWESf_TEST Lower D i s c r i m i n - Group 24% a t c r y Power Mean 1.6 2.9 3.2 2.0 2.6 2.9 1.5 2.5 2,9 2.0 2.1 3.2 2. 1 1.2 2.0 1.8 2.0 2.7 3.3 0.5 3.9 4.5 0.0 4.7 2.0 2,8 3.6 2.1 2.1 2.9 2.3 2.0 2.7 1.9 1.9 2.0 13. There i s t o o much r i s k of redevelopment t o make improvements worth w h i l e . 14. P e o p l e t r u s t t h e government more than f i n a n c e companies when t a k i n g a l o a n . 15. P e o p l e are a f r a i d t o f i x up t h e i r homes because o f i n c r e a s e d t a x e s . 16. I t i s best to s t a y out of debt because you never know what t h e f u t u r e might b r i n g . 17. community improvement i s bes t l e f t i n t h e hands of t h e p l a n n e r s . 18. You can f e l l a l o t about a person from t h e way he keeps the o u t s i d e o f h i s house. 19. Neighbours have a r i g h t t o expect you t o keep your house and y a r d i n good c o n d i t i o n . 20. Most p e o p l e on t h i s b l o c k have done t h e i r b e s t t o m a i n t a i n t h e i r p r o p e r t y . 21. P e o p l e around here spend a l o t of time d o i n g r e p a i r s . 2 2 . l a n d l o r d s are l e t t i n g h o u s i n g i n t h i s a r e a run down. 23. Most p e o p l e moving i n t o t h i s a r e a a r e not p l a n n i n g on p u t t i n g down r o o t s . 24. Houses a r e g e n e r a l l y w e l l m a i n t a i n e d around here. 25. Many p e o p l e would move away from t h i s a r e a g i v e n the chance. 26. Tenants a r e r e s p o n s i b l e f o r much o f t h e d e t e r i o r a t i o n o f ho u s i n g i n t h i s a r e a . 27. Newcomers are s p o i l i n g t h e appearance of t h e a r e a . 171 4.5 1 .8 2.7 2 .9 4.2 2.1 2.1 2.4 3.8 1 .5 2.3 2.8 3.3 1.6 1.7 2,1 4.0 2.0 2.0 3.3 4.8 2.8 2.0 3.7 3.6 1.5 2.1 2.8 4. 3 1. 5 2.8 3 .1 3.3 2.8 0.5 2 .4 4.3 2.3 2.0 3.3 3.8 3.8 0.0 4.1 4.5 3.8 0.7 4.4 4.1 2.0 2.1 3.2 4.8 1 .5 3.3 3 .1 4.6 2. 5 2. 1 3.6 172 28.People around here f e e l very 4.3 2.3 2.0 3.2 a t t a c h e d t o t h e i r homes. 173 APPENpIX_C THE SURVEY n QUESTIONNAIRES (1) The House To House Q u e s t i o n n a i r e pp. 174-181 (2) The M a i l Q u e s t i o n n a i r e pp. 182-184 The f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n n a i r e s a r e c o p i e s of tho s e used i n the survey ( J a n u a r y - F e b r u a r y , 1976). 174 1, HOUSE TO HOUSE QUESTIONNAIRE 1. PLEASE CHECK APPROPRIATE BOX T. HOW LONG HAVE YOU LIVED IN THIS HOUSE? • UNDER 1 YEAR 1-2 YEARS 3-5 YEARS . 6-10 YEARS | j OVER 10 YEARS (please specify how many years) 2.a: HOW MANY PEOPLE LIVING I F THIS HOUSE ARE IN THE FOLLOWING AGE AGE NUMBER 0-5 YEARS 6-16 17-25 26-35 36-54 55-64 65 AND OVER b. ARE ALL THESE PEOPLE MEMBERS OF YOUR OWN FAMILY? NO l _ I YES | / HOW MANY? 3. HOW LONG HAVE YOU LIVED IN (insert survey area's name)?—, UNDER 1 YEAR ' 1-2 YEARS I 3-5 YEARS ! 6-10 YEARS ! OVER 10 YEARS (please specify how, many years) 4. DO YOU OWN ANY OTHER HOUSING IN" VANCOUVER? NO \ J YES IF "YES" WHERE IS IT LOCATED? (Give i n t e r s e c t i o n , e.g. Alma. & 4th) 5. ARE YOU PAYING OFF A MORTGAGE ON YOUR HOUSE? NO YES I F " Y E S " IN HOW MANY YEARS FROM NOW DO YOU'PLAN TO HAVE THE MORTGAGE ON YOUR HOUSE PAID OFF? 6. ARE YOU THINKING OP SELLING THIS PROPERTY WITHIN THE NEXT 5 YEARS? NO j j YES j IF "YES" ' 1 a. HOW SOON DO YOU THINK YOU WILL BE SELLING? UNDER 6 MONTHS ! 6 MONTHS -2 YEARS j 3-5 YEARS l _ J b. WHY ARE YOU PLANNING TO SELL? C. WHERE ARE YOU THINKING OF MOVING TO? 175 2. 7. WHY DID YOU CHOOSE TO LIVE IN (insert survey area's name)? 8. HAVE YOU NOTICED ANY CHANGES IN THE PHYSICAL APPEARANCE OP ( insert, survey area's name)WHILE YOU HAVE LIVED HEBE? NO | I YES IP "YES" a>. WHAT ARE THESE CHANGES? b. WHY DO YOU SUPPOSE THEY HAVE OCCURRED? c. HOW DO YOU PEEL ABOUT THESE CHANGES? 9. DO YOU PEEL THAT THE SOCIAL CHARACTER OP (in s e r t survey area's name) IS CHANGING? NO | j YES | | IP "YES" a. HOW IS IT CHANGING? b. HOW DO YOU PEEL ABOUT THESE CHANGES? 10. HOW WOULD YOU DESCRIBE WHAT TYPE OP AREA (i n s e r t survey area's name) IS TO A PRIEND? ; 11. WOULD YOU SAY THAT: IN. GENERAL THE HOUSING QUALITY WITHIN 3 BLOCKS OP YOUR PROPERTY WAS ^ ^ — GOOD AVERAGE POOR REALLY POOR 1 12. WOULD YOU SAY THAT IN GENERAL THE HOUSING QUALITY ON THIS BLOCK W A S VERY GOOD GOOD AVERAGE POOR REALLY POOR t , 13. DO YOU PEEL THAT IT IS IMPORTANT TO TRY AND IMPROVE THE HOUSING QUALITY IN'THIS NEIGHBOURHOOD OR ARE YOU SATISPIED WITH PRESENT CONDITIONS? SATISFIED J ! IMPROVEMENT NEEDED j j 176 IP Y O U FEEL THAT IMPROVEMENT IS NEEDED WHAT WOULD ToTj L T K E ~ T O SEE~DOlfE? 14. WHICH OF THESE STATEMENTS MOST ACCURATELY DESCRIBES YOUR PROPERTY? (a) NO REPAIR WORK IS NEEDED (b) A FEW MINOR REPAIRS ARE NEEDED (c) STRUCTURALLY SOUND, BUT SOME LARGE REPAIRS NEEDED 1 1 (d) N33DS SUBSTANTIAL STRUCTURAL | 1 IMPROVEMENT & CONSIDERABLE REPAIRS 1 J 15. I AM INTERESTED IN HOW YOU FEEL ABOUT HOUSING I IT OTHER PARTS OF THE CITY. DO YOU FEEL THERE ARE ANY SLUMS IN VANCOUVER? NO I } YES i 1 IF "YES" ' ' ! -a. WHERE ABOUTS IN VANCOUVER ARE THESE SLUMS? b . WHY DO YOU FEEL THEY ARE SLUMS? 16"-. SUPPOSE YOU UNEXPECTEDLY RECEIVE $1000 WHICH YOU ARE ASKED TO SPEND. WHICH 2 THINGS LISTED BELOW WOULD YOU WANT TO SPEND THE MONEY ON:? CHECK YOUR FIRST AND SECOND CHOICE. FIRST SECOND PUT TOWARDS A BETTER CAR BUY HOUSEHOLD APPLIANCES HAVE A GOOD VACATION PUT TOWARDS A MORTGAGE PAY BILLS \ MAKE HOME IMPROVEMENTS OTHER (please specify) 17. HAVE YOU BOUGHT ANY OF THE FOLLOWING IN THE LAST 5, YEARS? STOVE I I REFRIGERATOR Q TELEVISION O CAR l ~ l RECORD PLAYER [ZD WASHING MACHINE C7J DISH WASHER ! I 18;a*. HAVE YOU MADE ANY MAJOR IMPROVEMENTS TO THE OUTSIDE OF YOUR PROPERTY IN THE LAST 5 YEARS?(Please place a check where appropriate). EAVESTROUGHS L J PAINT WORK 'CD PORCH Cj _STEPS I—I ROOF Q CHIMNEY O WALLS Q WOODWORK ! I WINDOWS Q HONE Q OTHER(Please specify) b . APPROXIMATELY HOW MUCH DID YOU SPEND ON THESE IMPROVEMENTS? under-$500 $500 - $999 $1000 - §1,999 $2000 - $2,999 $3000 - $3J999 $4000 - $4,999 $5000 and aver i i 177 4. 19.a. H A V E YOU MADE A N Y M A J O R IMPROVEMENTS TO T H E I N S I D E O F YOUR P R O P E R T Y I N T H E L A S T 5 Y E A R S ?(Please check where appropriate.) ' "J H E A T I N G O P L U M B I N G IZJ. F L O O R I N G I ' WINDOWS I ! INSULATION ! I STAIRS ! J WIRING LZJ CUPBOARDS d l OTHERS (please specify) BI _ PLASTERING L NONE l ' ~ D E C O R A T I N G CJ -1 b. A P P R O X I M A T E L Y HOW MUCH D I D YOU S P E N D ON T H E S E IMPROVEMENTS ? under $500 $5,00 - $999 $1000 - $1999 $2000 - $2999 $3000 - $3999 $4000 - $4999 $5000 and over I B R E P A I R S C A R R I E D OUT C O N T I N U E . I F NOT, L E A V E OUT QUEST IONS 20 A N D 21 A N D C O N T I N U E W ITH 22' 20. WH ICH OF T H E F O L L O W I N G D I D YOU U S E . T O DO Y O U R R E P A I R S ? I N C O M E A N D S A V I N G S B A N K OR C R E D I T UN ION LOAN GOVERNMENT L O A N GOVERNMENT GRANT MONEY BORROWED FROM F R I E N D S OTHER (please specify) 21. F O R MOST OF T H E R E P A I R S DONE ON YOUR P R O P E R T Y , D I D YOU DO T H E WORK Y O U R S E L F , D I D YOU HAVE T H E H E L P OF F R I E N D S OR F A M I L Y , OR D I D YOU B R I N G I N A CONTRACTOR? A L L M Y S E L F M Y S E L F & F A M I L Y M Y S E L F & F R I E N D S M Y S E L F & CONTRACTOR ONLY A CONTRACTOR OTHER (please specify) 22. DO YOU PLAIT TO MAKE A N Y OTHER IMPROVEMENTS I N THE NEXT 2 Y E A R S ? NO I Y E S j | NOT SURE I F " Y E S " ' WHAT DO YOU P L A N TO DO? 2"3. I S THERE A N Y T H I N G THAT M I G H T D I S C O U R A G E YOU FROM M A K I N G IMPROVEMENTS TO Y O U R P R O P E R T Y ? NO j I Y E S I I NOT SURE I j I F " Y E S " 1 J 1 WHAT I S T H I S ? 178 5. 24. IS THERE ANYTHING THAT MIGHT ENCOURAGE YOU TO MAKE IMPROVEMENTS TO YOUR PROPERTY? NO I I YES I i NOT SURE I ! IF "YES" WHAT IS THIS? 25. WHY D&°THINK SOME PROPERTY IN THIS AREA HAS BEEN ALLOWED TO DETERIORATE? 26. WOULD YOU PREFER (a) TO SEE HOUSING IMPROVEMENTS DONE THROUGH VOLUNTARY PROGRAMMES, OR (b) SHOULD PEOPLE BE FORCED TO MAKE REPAIRS TO THEIR PROPERTY IP IT IS IN POOR CONDITION?(Check either (a) or (b) ). (a)VOLUNTARY ! [ (b)FORCED | J WHY DO YOU FEEL THIS WAY? 27. MOST PEOPLE WOULD AGREE THAT HOUSING IS IMPORTANT FOR SHELTER.ARE THERE ANY OTHER REASONS THAT A HOME IS IMPORTANT TO YOU? 28. WE WOULD LIKE TO KNOW HOW YOU FEEL ABOUT THE FOLLOWING STATEMENTS. PLEASE INDICATE YOUR FEELINGS BY PLACING A CHECK (J) IN THE APPROPRIATE FOX NEXT TO THE STATEMENT. STATEMENTS STRONGLY AGREE AGREE NOT SURE DISAGREE- STRONGLY DISAGREE 1. OLD HOUSES IN THIS AREA ARE NOT WORTH FIXING UP. 2'. THE CITY SHOULD TEAR DOWN OLD HOUSES AND BUILD NEW ONES IN THEIR PLACE. % IT IS IMPORTANT TO FIX UP THE HOUSE BEFORE SPENDING MONEY ON RECREATION. 4i. IT IS NOT WORTH PUTTING YOUR-SELF IN DEBT TO IMPROVE YOUR HOME 5. THERE IS NO POINT IN MAKING IMPROVEMENTS TO YOUR HOME IF OTHER HOUSES ON THE SAME BLOCK ARE III POOR CONDITION. 6. MOST PEOPLE ON THIS BLOCK HAVE DONE THEIR BEST TO MAINTAIN THEIR PROPERTY. 7. THE GOVERNMENT IS WASTING THE TAXPAYERS' MONEY WHEN IT MAKES LOANS TO RENOVATE OLDER HOUSING". 179 6 . 2B. continued' STATEMENTS {STRONGLY AGREE 8. THERE IS NO KEEL TO FIX UP YOUR PROPERTY UNLESS YOU WANT TO S E L L IT. 9~AS LONG AS YOU ARE HAPPY IN YOUR HOME ITS OUTSIDE APPEARANCE DOES NOT MATTER THAT MUCH' AGREE!HOT ' SURE 1~N E T G ! U 3 0 T J R S HAVE A RIGHT. 1 0 E X P E C T YOU TO KEEP Y O U R HinTSE A N D Y A R D IN GOOD C O N D I T I O N J\ LANDLORDS ARE LETTING HOUSING IN°THIS AREA RUN DOWN. 12 MANY PEOPLElfOULD MOVE AWAY FROM THIS AREA GIVEN THE CHANCE. "\k TENANTS ARE RESPONSIBLE FOR MUCH OP THE DETERIORATION-OP HOUSING IN THIS A R E A ^ U 7 NEWCOMERS'ARE SPOILING THE APPEARANCE OF THE AREA. T B T l E O P L E AROUND HERE FEEL VJSilX ATTACHED TO THEIR HOMES.  16 THERE IS TOO MUCH RISK OF REDEVELOPMENT TO MAKE IMPROVEMENTS WORTff.THILE^ 17 PEOPLE 4.RE AFRAID TO FIX UP THEIR HOMES BECAUSE OP INCREASED TAXES DISAGREE|STRONGLY DISAGREE '18TC0MMUNITY IMPROVEMENT IS BEST LEFT IN THE HANDS OF THE PLANNERS j. rg—PEOPLE TRUST THE GOVERNMENT MORE THAN FINANCE COMPANIES WHEN TAKING A LOAN. 2 0 YOU "CAN' TELL A LOT ABOUT A PERSON FROM THE WAY HE KEEPS THE OUTSIDE OF HIS HOUSE. FOR GRANDVIEW WOODLANDS RESPONDENTS ONLY, SKIP TO QUESTION 36 . THERE IS A GOVERNMENT PROGRAMME OF RESIDENTIAL R E H A B I L I T A T I O N ASSISTANCE DESIGNED TO HELP MODERATE INCOME HOMEOWNERS AND LANDLORDS I N THIS AREA WITH PROPERTY IMPROVEMENTS. IT IS SOMETIMES REFERRED TO AS "R.R.A.P." 29. HAVE YOU HEARD OF THIS FORM OP ASSISTANCE? NO J^J YES ] ] IP "NO" , LEAVE OUT QUESTIONS 30 - 34 AND CONTINUE WITH QUESTION 35-IF "YES~!?OlmlfUE~ 30. HAVE YOU APPLIED FOR FUNDS FROM THIS PROGRAMME TO MAKE REPAIRS TO YOUR PROPERTY? NOj |-DO YOU THINK YOU MIGHT APPLY FOR FUNDS.,IN THE FUTURE? NO | ] YES f 1 NOT SURE j j Y E S Q -WOULD YOU HAVE MADE SIMILAR IMPROVEMENTS WITHOUT THIS ASSISTANCE? n o a YES j 1 NOT SURE r — J 180 7. 31 . WOULD YOU IffiCOMMEND THIS ASSISTANCE 'PROGRAMME TO A FRIEND? No / j YES ! j NOT SURE I ! IF "NO" WHY IS" THIS? : 32. MS R.R.A.P. ENCOURAGED ANY OF YOUR FRIENDS OR NEIGHBOURS TO MAKE HOME IMPROVEMENTS? , ,-—, NO 1 I YES I I HOW MANY? 33. IS THERE ANYTHING YOU PARTICULARLY LIKE OR DISLIKE ABOUT R.R.A.P.? 34. ARE THERE ANY OTHER COMMENTS YOU WOULD LIKE TO MAKE ABOUT THIS ASSISTANCE PROGRAMME? ; LEAVE OUT QUESTION 35 AND CONTINUE WITH QUESTION 36. FOR THOSE PEOPLE WHO HAVE NOT HEARD OF R.R.A.P. THIS PROGRAMME OFFERS LOANS OF UP TO 35000 TO LANDLORDS, REGARDLESS OF THEIR INCOME, AND TO HOMEOWNERS V/ITH AN ADJUSTED INCOME OF LESS THAN 351 1 ,000. FOR THOSE WITH AN ANNUAL INCOME OF LESS THAN $6000, A GRANT OF $2,500 FOR HOME IMPROVEMENTS MAY BE MADE. 35. DO YOU THINK THIS WILL ENCOURAGE PEOPLE IN THIS AREA TO MICE REPAIRS TO THEIR HOMES? WHY? : :  36. WHAT SORT OF WORK DOES THE HEAD OF THE HOUSEHOLD DO? 37. WHAT IS YOUR COUNTRY OF ORIGIN? IF NOT CANADA HOW LONG "HAVE YOU LIVED IN CANADA? 38. WHAT WAS THE LAST GRADE OF SCHOOL THAT THE HEAD OF THE HOUSEHOLD COMPLETED? „ 39. PLEASE CHECK THE CATEGORY DESCRIBING YOUR TOTAL FAMILY INCOME. UNDER $5,999 $6,000 - $10,999 $11,000 - $15,999 OVER $16,000 THANK YOU VERY MUCH FOR YOUR CO-OPERATION 181 TO BE COMPLETED AFTER THE INTERVIEW' ( i ) SEX OF RESPONDENT , . (I I ) APPROXIMATE. AGE OF RESPONDENT U N D E R 2 Q YEARS 21 - 35 YEARS 36 - 49 YEARS OVER 50 YEARS ( i i i ) TYPE OF HOUSING OWNED BY RESPONDENT SINGLE FAMILY DWELLING DUPLEX_PUR?OSE BUILT _CONVERSION OTHER _ (i v ) APPROXIMATE AGE OF DWELLING. PRE 1910 1910 - 1945 1946 - 1960 AFTER 1960 8* (v) GENERAL QUALITY ASSESSMENT BASED ON THE APPEARANCE OF THE EXTERIOR AND INTERIOR(WHERE POSSIBLE) OF THE DWELLING. (DESCRIPTIVE COMMENTS RATHER THAN VALUE JUDGEMENTS ARE REQUIRED). ( v i ) HOW WELL DID THE RESPONDENT SEEM TO UNDERSTAND THE QUESTIONS? COMPLETELY C~] MINOR LIMITATIONS { ~ l CONSIDERABLE DIFFICULTY j j ( v i i ) REMARKS ON THE RESPONDENT (I.E. CO-OPERATION, INTEREST.) 183. c « 2 ' THE MAIL QUESTIONNAIRE ************************************************************ YOU ARE NOT ASKED TO WRITE .YOUR NAME OR ADDRESS ON THIS FORI,! ************************************************************ PLEASE CHECK APPROPRIATE BOX 1. HOW MANY . PROPERTIES IN VANCOUVER-DO YOU OWN? [ ' 2. WHERE ARE THESE PROPERTIES LOCATED? (Please give n e a r e s t i n t e r s e c t i o n e.g. 4th & Alma) ' ' 3. HOW LONG HAVE YOU OWNED THESE PROPERTIES IN KIISILANO/CEDAR COTTAGE? 4. DO YOU PLAN TO SELL ANY OP YOUR PROPERTIES IN KITSILANO/CEDAR COTTAGE IN THE NEXT 5 YEARS? YES r — ( NO r — j NOT SURE i IF "YES" WHY ARE YOU PLANNING TO SELL? 5.(a) HAVE YOU NOTICED ANY' CHANGES IN THE AREA AROUND YOUR PROPERTIES IN KITSILANO/CEDAR COTTAGE SINCE YOU HAVE OWNED TZZEH? WHAT ARE THESE? (b) HOW DO YOU PEEL ABOUT 'THESE CHANGES? 6. WHICH OP THESE STATEMENTS OF YOUR PROPERTIES IN KIT3II MOST ACCURATELY DESCRIBES THE CONDITION NO/CEDAR COTTAGE? (a) NO REPAIR WORK NEEDED. (b) A FEW MINOR REPAIRS NEEDED. (c) STRUCTURALLY SOUND,BUT SOME LARGE REPAIRS NEEDED. (d) NEEDS SUBSTANTIAL STRUCTURAL IMPROVEMENT a CONSIDERABLE REPAIR. Q 7. IS THERE ANYTHING THAT MIGHT DISCOURAGE YOU PROM MAKING IMPROVEMENTSS TO YOUR PROPERTIES? WHAT IS THIS? 1184 2. 8, IS THERE ANYTHING THAT MIGHT ENCOURAGE YOU TO MAKE IMPROVEMENTS TO YOUR PROPERTY? WHAT IS THIS? 9. HAVE YOU MADE ANY OP THE FOLLOWING IMPROVEMENTS TO THE OUTSIDE OP ANY OP YOUR PROPERTIES IN THE LAST 5 YEARS? (Please indicate how many of your properties you have made each improvement to by w r i t i n g the apriropriate number in_the box e.g. i f you have painted 3 properties, write PAINT WORK \ 3 I ) EA/ESTROUGHS Q PAINT WORK £J PORCH Q STEPS Q ROOP | j CHIMNEY WALLS \~\ WOODWORK j~j WINDOWS Q NONE 1 \ OTHER (Please specify) 10. HAVE YOU MADE ANY OP THE FOLLOWING IMPROVEMENTS TO THE INSIDE OF ANY OF YOUR PROPERTIES IN THE LAST. 5 YEARS? (Please indicate number, in. box as- im question 9) INSULATION Q HEATING Q PLUMBING (~~j FLOORING f I STAIRS Q ^ j WINDOWS r — J • PLASTERING r — ) DECORATING r ~ j WIRING CUPBOARDS f^J NONE ( ~J OTHER(specify) .  THERE IS A GOVERNMENT PROGRAMME OP RESIDENTIAL REHABILITATION ASSISTANCE DESIGNED TO HELP LANDLORDS WILLING TO AGREE TO RENT CONTROLS WITH PROPERTY IMPROVEMENTS. IT IS SOMETIMES REFERRED TO AS RRAP. 11. HAVE YOU HEARD OP THIS FORM OF ASSISTANCE? NO CD YES I ) IF "NO", LEAVE OUT QUESTIONS 12 AND 13 AND CONTINUE WITH 14. IF "YES" CONTINUE. 12. HAVE YOU APPLIED FOR FUNDS FROM THIS PROGRAMME TO MAKE REPAIRS TO ANY OF YOUR PROPERTIES? NO JDJ _ DO YOU THINK YOU MIGHT APPLY FOR FUNDS IN THE FUTURE? NO Q j YES • NOT SURE CD Y E S Q _ WOULD YOU HAVE MADE SIMILAR REPAIRS WITHOUT THIS AID? m C Z J Y E S IZIJ N 0 T S U R E C D 13. IS THERE ANYTHING YOU PARTICULARLY LIKE OR DISLIKE ABOUT RRAP? SKIP TO QUESTION 15. 14. WOULD YOU BE ENCOURAGED TO MAKE ANY NECESSARY IMPROVEMENTS TO YOUR PROPERTY BY THIS OFFER OF LOW INTEREST LOANS? WHY? 15. ARE THERE ANY OTHER COMMENTS YOU WOULD LIKE TO MAKE? 185 A P E J J p i x _ p Thg.Chi Square T e s t The Pearson's c h i - s q u a r e t e s t o f a s s o c i a t i o n can be used f o r nominal d a t a . I t s purpose i s t o d e t e r m i n e whether the d i f f e r e n c e between t h e o r e t i c a l and o b s e r v e d f r e q u e n c i e s i s s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t or whether i t may o n l y be a t t r i b u t e d t o a chance v a r i a t i o n i n s a m p l i n q . The f o r m u l a f o r c h i - s q u a r e i s x 2 = [ £^ ( 0-e)2 ]/e where o = observed f r e q u e n c i e s , and e = e x p e c t e d f r e q u e n c i e s . The a c c u r a c y of the c h i - s q u a r e t e s t i n c r e a s e s w i t h t h e s i z e o f t h e sample. when ex p e c t e d f r e q u e n c i e s a r e s m a l l ( i . e . l e s s than 5) t h e Yate's c o r r e c t i o n f o r c o n t i n u i t y s h o u l d be used. T h i s i n v o l v e s s u b t r a c t i n g 0.5 from the d i f f e r e n c e between th e observed and expected f r e q u e n c i e s i n each c e l l . W hile the c h i - s q u a r e t e s t d e t e r m i n e s whether a r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t s between two v a r i a b l e s , t h e r e a r e s e v e r a l r e l a t e d measures which i n d i c a t e t h e s t r e n g t h o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p . 0 ( i . e X z/N ) may be used w i t h 2 by 2 t a b l e s , and has a v a l u e r a n g i n g from 0 (no r e l a t i o n s h i p ) t o u n i t y (a p e r f e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p ) . For l a r g e r t a b l e s , Cramer's V may be c a l c u l a t e d i n the p l a c e of 0, where v = 0/1 min (r-1 ,c-1) ] V z 8 F u r t h e r d e t a i l s and d i s c u s s i o n c f the f o l l o w i n g t e c h n i q u e s may be found i n B l a l o c k , H., S o c i a l S t a t i s t i c s . McGraw-H i l l : L o n d o n . 1960; M i l l e r , D., Handbook o f S o c i a l Research D e s i g n and Measurement. Van Rees Press:N.Y. 1964. 186 where m i n ( r - 1 , c - 1 ) = the minimum v a l u e o f (r-1) or (c- 1) , whichever i s s m a l l e r . S£gar man 2. s _ r s Spearman's r s may be used t o c o r r e l a t e the r e l a t i o n s h i p between v a r i a b l e s based on rank o r d e r o r o r d i n a l s c a l e s . I t s v a l u e ranges from +1.0 (a p e r f e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p ) t o -1.0 ( t o t a l d i s a g r e e m e n t ) . ft v a l u e o f 0 i n d i c a t e s t h a t no r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t s between t h e v a r i a b l e s . The f o r m u l a i s r s = 1-[ 6 £ D.Lx/N(N2-1) ] where D-t2.= the d i f f e r e n c e between any p a i r of r a n k e d v a r i a b l e s . 187 CHAPTER V APFENDIX_E iABLE A JIIICT_OE_INCOHE_AJp_|!OJT Major R e p a i r s i n L a s t F i v e Y e a r s ^ R e p a i r s undertaken No r e p a i r s done Low income owners wit h a mortgage*" Remainder o f sample 44 23 — j 85 67 93 129 31 160 d . f . = 1 %• 2 = 16.5 s i g . l e v e l = 0.001 j3 = 0. 1 (a) D e c o r a t i n g and minor r e p a i r s e x c l u d e d (b) Income l e s s t h a n $11,000 p.a. TABLE E O b j e c t i v e P r o p e r t y Q u a l i t y Good Average Poor Low Income owners w i t h mortgage' Remainder of sample I 9 I ~r-I I 40 | 18 | 67 I I I I I I | 39 ] 41 | 13 | 93 I I I I 1 X L 1 48 81 31 160 d.f. = 2 X 2 = 15.6 s i g . l e v e l = 0.001 V = 0.1 (a) Income l e s s than $11,000 p. a. 188 O b j e c t i v e P r o p e r t y Q u a l i t y R e h a b i l i t a t i o n ranked as f i r s t p r i o r i t y expense R e h a b i l i t a t i o n ranked as l o s e r p r i o r i t y expense 41 I 83 Good Average Poor f T I i I ! I I | 14 ] 4 0 | 23 ! 77 1 I ! 1 t i J 1 48 81 31 160 d . f . •= 2 ^ 2 = 15.0 s i g . l e v e l = 0.001 V = 0.1 TABLE D Changes p e r c e i v e d U n d e s i r a b l e as good changes p e r c e i v e d or c o n t r o l l a b l e as u n c o n t r o l l a b l e T o t a l e x p e n d i t u r e l e s s t h a n $1000 (1971-6) 17 I 23 T o t a l e x p e n d i t u r e more than $1000 (1971-6) ! 37 I 37 43 17 60 d.f. = 1 X 2 = 39.8 s i g . l e v e l = 0.001 % = 0.7 189 JABLE_E U n d e s i r a b l e U n d e s i r a b l e changes p e r c e i v e d changes p e r c e i v e d as c o n t r o l l a b l e as u n c o n t r o l l a b l e T o t a l e x p e n d i t u r e l e s s j j I than $1000 (1971-6) j 2 j 6 | T o t a l e x p e n d i t u r e more J I I than $1000 (1971-6) ( 2 0 1 1 I 21 ! I J 22 7 29 d . f . = 1 y-z = 12.2 s i g . l e v e l = 0.001 0 = 0.4 TABLE I 1IQ0SIN G_QUALIT Y_ AND O b j e c t i v e P r o p e r t y Q u a l i t y Good Average Poor Remainder o f Grandview sample ex. Low income owners w i t h mortgage I 3 12 i I 12 | 6 I 21 ! I + ^ i I 6 | 1 I 19 15 18 40 d . f . = 2 ' x~ z = 8.0 s i g . l e v e l = 0 . 0 2 V = 0, 2 (a) Income l e s s than $11,000 p.a. 190 CHAPTEH_VI TABLE_G HCUSING_2UALITY_AND CEDAjJzOTTJGE O b j e c t i v e P r o p e r t y Q u a l i t y Good Average Poor I ~T 1 1 I I I I Favoured f o r c e d r e h a b i l i t a t i o n I 10 | 4 I 0 J 14 I I I I Y + + \ I I I I Favoured v o l u n t a r y r e h a b i l i t a t i o n | 8 | 28 j 10 \ 46 I I I I L L 1 » 18 32 10 60 d . f . = 2 = 12.1 s i g . l e v e l = 0.01 V = 0.2 IABLE_H MORTGAGE PAYMENTS AND LIKELIHOOD OF FUTURE RRAP APPLICATION F u t u r e RRAP a p p l i c a t i o n p o s s i b l e F u t u r e RRAP a p p l i c a t i o n u n l i k e l y E l i g i b l e non-users With mortgage Without mortgage T~ I 1 I - — 17 I 9 20 19 10 29 d. f. = 1 X a = 7. 8 s i g . l e v e l = 0.01 j& = 0.3 191 TjUBLE_I MORTGAGE PAYMENTS AND REAP APPLICATIONS E l i g i b l e REAP u s e r s non-users r [ ~ i Mortgage t o pay 1 3 I 19 I 22 ! I I j. + 1 I I I No mortgage payments ] 17 l 10 I 27 I I ) I L 1 20 29 49 a . f . = 1 X 2 = 10.4 s i g . l e v e l = 0 . 0 1 j> - 0.2 

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