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A resource and visitor inventory of Yoho Valley, Yoho National Park, British Columbia Vold, Terje 1976

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A RESOURCE AND V I S I T O R INVENTORY OF YOHO V A L L E Y , YOHO NATIONAL P A R K , B R I T I S H COLUMBIA by TERJE VOLD B . S c , U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a , 1971 A THESIS SUBMITTED I N P A R T I A L FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF FORESTRY i n t h e F a c u l t y o f F o r e s t r y We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d (Cha i rman s T h e s i s S u p e r v i s o r ) THE UNIVERSITY OF B R I T I S H COLUMBIA S e p t e m b e r , 1975 In presenting th i s thes is in pa r t i a l fu l f i lment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the Univers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L ibrary sha l l make it f ree ly ava i l ab le for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of th is thes is for scho lar ly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representat ives. It is understood that copying or pub l i ca t ion of this thes is for f i nanc ia l gain sha l l not be allowed without my writ ten pe rm i ss i on . Department of f-QCeo.V<-x^_ The Univers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia 2 0 7 5 W e s b r o o k P l a c e V a n c o u v e r , C a n a d a V 6 T 1W5 Date Ibl ~X ABSTRACT The s t u d y o b j e c t i v e was t o i n v e n t o r y n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s , u se p a t t e r n s , and v i s i t o r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n Yoho V a l l e y , Yoho N a t i o n a l P a r k , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , and t o o f f e r some management c o n s i d e r a t i o n s f o r t h e a r e a . I n t h e n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e i n v e n t o r y , r e s e a r c h e m p h a s i s was p l a c e d on a s o i l and l a n d f o r m s u r v e y w h i c h r e s u l t e d i n a s o i l s map o f Yoho V a l l e y . S o i l map u n i t s a r e d i s c u s s e d i n d e t a i l , and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s a r e d e v e l o p e d o n t h e s u i t a b i l i t y o f s o i l t y p e s t o s u p p o r t t r a i l a n d campground u s e r s . S o i l map u n i t d e s c r i p t i o n s i n c l u d e i n f o r m a t i o n on s o i l p a r e n t m a t e r i a l , h o r i z o n a t i o n , d e p t h , t e x t u r e , c o a r s e f r a g m e n t s , d r a i n a g e , s l o p e , e l e v a t i o n r a n g e , and a s s o c i a t e d v e g e t a t i o n . The s o i l s o f Yoho V a l l e y w e r e d i v i d e d , i n t o 13 s o i l map u n i t s c o n s i s t i n g o f 6 d i f f e r e n t l a n d f o r m s and 5 s e p a r a t e s o i l o r d e r s . Humo-F e r r i c . P o d z o l s o c c u r r e d i n t h e E n g e l m a n n s p r u c e - s u b a l p i n e f i r f o r e s t zone o h m o r a i n a l l a n d f o r m m a t e r i a l . D e g r a d e d E u t r i c B r u n i s o l s were f o u n d o n r e l a t i v e l y s t a b l e c o l l u v i a l m a t e r i a l and g l a c i o - f l u v i a l d e p o s i t s i n t h e same f o r e s t z o n e . A l p i n e E u t r i c B r u n i s o l s o c c u r r e d o n b o t h t i l l and c o l l u v i u m i n t h e a l p i n e zone above 7200 f e e t e l e v a t i o n . C u m u l i c a n d O r t h i c R e g o s o l s o c c u r r e d on b o t h s t e e p c o l l u v i u m a n d . o n r e l a t i v e l y f l a t f l u v i a l d e p o s i t s . S m a l l amounts o f O r g a n i c s and G l e y s o l i c s w e r e a l s o f o u n d i n t h e s t u d y a r e a . S t e e p s l o p e s w e r e f o u n d t o be t h e m a j o r s o i l l i m i t a t i o n f o r b o t h t r a i l s and campgrounds ; o v e r 90% o f t h e s t u d y a r e a o c c u r s on g r e a t e r t h a n 30% s l o p e s , and n e a r l y 60% o f t h e v a l l e y i s on g r e a t e r t h a n 60% s l o p e s . I n f o r m a t i o n r e l a t e d t o t h e c l i m a t e , g e o l o g y , f l o r a , and f a u n a o f t h e s t u d y a r e a was e x a m i n e d as b a c k g r o u n d . P h o t o g r a p h s w e r e s y s t e m a t i c a l l y t a k e n a l o n g t r a i l s t o document v i s u a l c o n d i t i o n s o f t r a i l s i d e s . i i i A v i s i t o r s u r v e y was u n d e r t a k e n t o a s s e s s t h e amounts and d i s -t r i b u t i o n . o f \ r o a d , c a m p g r o u n d , and b a c k c o u n t r y u s e . T r a f f i c c o u n t e r r e c o r d i n g d e v i c e s were i n s t a l l e d on t h e Yoho V a l l e y r o a d and c a l i b r a t e d t o d e t e r m i n e v i s i t o r - d a y s o f r o a d u s e . The Takakkaw F a l l s campground i n Yoho V a l l e y was v i s i t e d e a c h day i n 1972 t o d e t e r m i n e c a m p e r - n i g h t s o f u s e . R a t e s o f r e g i s t r a t i o n were c a l c u l a t e d f o r t h e t r a i l k i o s k f o r b a c k c o u n t r y u s e e s t i m a t e s . Use d a t a w e r e c o m p a r e d , o v e r t i m e t o d e t e r m i n e g r o w t h t r e n d s . I t was e s t i m a t e d t h a t a p p r o x i m a t e l y 7 1 , 3 0 0 v i s i t o r s e n t e r e d Yoho V a l l e y by r o a d i n 1974 . A p p r o x i m a t e l y 79% o f t h e v i s i t o r s w e r e day u s e r s , w h i l e 21% were o v e r n i g h t u s e r s . Road u s e i n c r e a s e d a t t h e a v e r a g e a n n u a l r a t e o f 10% s i n c e 1 9 6 9 . Campground use i n 1974 was 6 , 0 7 5 campers % use i n c r e a s e d 20 t o 25% p e r y e a r f r o m 1968 t o 1972 u n t i l u se r e s t r i c t i o n m e a s u r e s were i m p l e m e n t e d i n 1 9 7 3 . An e s t i m a t e d 8,40.0 v i s i t o r s h i k e d i n t h e v a l l e y ' s b a c k c o u n t r y i n 1974 . A p p r o x i m a t e l y 74% o f t h e s e v i s i t o r s were day h i k e r s . B a c k c o u n t r y u s e h a s i n c r e a s e d a t t h e a v e r a g e r a t e o f 20% p e r y e a r s i n c e 1 9 6 5 . A r o a d and b a c k c o u n t r y s u r v e y o f v i s i t o r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s was c o n d u c t e d i n 1972 b y e m p l o y i n g o n - s i t e p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w s . Two h u n d r e d p a r t i e s w e r e i n t e r v i e w e d o n t h e Y o h o V a l l e y r o a d and 193 p a r t i e s were s a m p l e d o n b a c k c o u n t r y t r a i l s . The s u r v e y q u e s t i o n n a i r e p r o v i d e d i n f o r m a t i o n o n t h e d e m o g r a p h i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , t r i p c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , p r e f e r e n c e s and o p i n i o n s o f t h e s t u d y a r e a , u s e r s . The r e s u l t s a r e d i s c u s s e d and compared w i t h o t h e r r e l a t e d r e s e a r c h . Yoho V a l l e y u s e r s were f o u n d t o h a v e d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y more income and more f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n t h a n t h e C a n a d i a n p o p u l a t i o n . U s e r s were a l s o more l i k e l y t o have a ' p r o f e s s i o n a l ' o c c u p a t i o n and t o r e s i d e i n a l a r g e c i t y . i v Backcountry users, r e l a t i v e to road users, were more l i k e l y to be male, to be between 10 to 39 years o l d , to have l e s s income, to have more education, to be a 'p r o f e s s i o n a l ' , to be from a large c i t y , and to be Canadian and Albertan. The median distance traveled by road users from t h e i r place of residence was 2000 miles, while i t was h a l f that or 1000 miles for back-country users. Most road users spent l e s s than two hours i n the study area, while hikers u s u a l l y spent between f i v e to twelve hours i n the area. Questions r e l a t e d to v i s i t o r preference i n d i c a t e d a f a i r l y high l e v e l of s a t i s f a c t i o n by both v i s i t o r groups. Over two-thirds of the v a l l e y ' s road users and nearly one-half of the backcountry users s a i d there was 'nothing at a l l ' that they d i s l i k e d about t h e i r v i s i t . Most v i s i t o r s a c t u a l l y preferred the v a l l e y ' s present gravel road to a paved road. Seventy-five percent of the v a l l e y ' s road users and 89% of the backcountry users opposed the idea of paving the Yoho V a l l e y road. Most v i s i t o r s were concerned that paving the road would lead to overcrowding and over-development i n the study area. Although several p o s s i b l e backcountry modifications were shown on the questionnaire form to h i k e r s , a l l were rejected by most backcountry users. Changes that received the most support r e l a t e d to the hikers need for more and better backcountry information This background resource and v i s i t o r inventory i s examined with respect to campground and t r a i l f a c i l i t y proposals made by Parks Canada i n 1972. The intent i s to show how the resource and v i s i t o r inventories can a s s i s t i n the evaluation of park planning proposals. I t i s hoped that the inventory information presented w i l l be u s e f u l to park managers and planners i n a general way, and s p e c i f i c a l l y i n the formulation of land use decisions for Yoho V a l l e y . TABLE OF CONTENTS Page No• CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION 1 I . S t u d y O b j e c t i v e and A p p r o a c h 1 I I . S t u d y A r e a 5 I I I . L a n d Use H i s t o r y 14 A . Y o h o N a t i o n a l P a r k 14 B . Yoho V a l l e y Road 15 C . Takakkaw F a l l s A r e a 16 D . Yoho V a l l e y B a c k c o u n t r y 16 CHAPTER TWO: RESOURCES OF YOHO V A L L E Y 18 I . P h y s i c a l R e s o u r c e s 18 A . C l i m a t e 18 B . B e d r o c k G e o l o g y 21 C . S o i l s and L a n d f o r m s 24 1. I n t r o d u c t i o n 24 2 . P r o c e d u r e s 25 3 . R e s u l t s " 27 4 . I n t e r p r e t a t i o n s 47 I I . B i o l o g i c a l R e s o u r c e s 56 A . F l o r a 56 1. I n t r o d u c t i o n 56 2 . A l p i n e Zone 57 3 . S p r u c e - F i r Zone 59 B . F a u n a 61 1. Mammals 61 2 . B i r d s 65 3 . F i s h 65 4 . O t h e r A n i m a l s 66 I I I . V i s u a l R e s o u r c e s 67 I V . Summary 68 V I - I T : ; ; : : / . ' . : ' ! : : :' ;' :<'•• ' \^ ' Page No. CHAPTER THREE: RECREATIONAL USE AND USERS OF YOHO VALLEY 73 I. Recreational Use Information 73 A. Yoho Valley Road Use 73 B. Takakkaw Falls Campground Use 75 C. Yoho Valley Backcountry Use 76 D. Summary 79 II. Recreational User Information 80 A. Procedure 80 1. Road Interviews 82 2. Backcountry Interviews 83 B. Results 85 1. User Demographic Characteristics 85 2. User Trip Characteristics 98 3. User Management Preferences and Opinions 111 a. Visito r Likes and Dislikes 111 b. Road Issues 115 c. Backcountry Issues 121 d. Campground Issues 129 III. Summary 130 CHAPTER FOUR: MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS 137 I. Approach 137 II. Takakkaw Falls Campground Area 140 III. Fairy Lake Backcountry Area 143 IV. Summary 147 CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY 149 I. Introduction 149 II. Resource Inventory 150 III. Visitory Inventory 154 IV. Management Considerations 159 LITERATURE CITED 161 APPENDIX I: MAPS OF YOHO VALLEY (1:50,000) i n pocket APPENDIX II: YOHO VALLEY ROAD AND BACKCOUNTRY USER • 169 SURVEY FORMS v i i L I S T OF FIGURES F i g u r e N o . Page N o . F i g u r e 1: Yoho N a t i o n a l P a r k 6 F i g u r e 2 : Takakkaw F a l l s 7 F i g u r e 3 : T w i n F a l l s 9 F i g u r e 4 : W a t e r f a l l V a l l e y f r o m Yoho P e a k 9 F i g u r e 5 : L i t t l e Yoho V a l l e y f r o m M t . K e r r 10 F i g u r e 6 : M t . K e r r f r o m L i t t l e Yoho V a l l e y . 10 F i g u r e 7 : M t . Wapta and Y o h o L a k e 11 F i g u r e 8 : M t . B a l f o u r and F a i r y L a k e 11 F i g u r e 9 : V i c e - P r e s i d e n t M t n . and E m e r a l d G l a c i e r 12 F i g u r e 1 0 : W a p u t i k I c e f i e l d 12 F i g u r e 1 1 : M t . G o r d o n and Waves C r e e k i n Yoho G l a c i e r A r e a 13 F i g u r e 1 2 : I n c l u s i o n o f S o i l Map U n i t 1 31 F i g u r e 1 3 : S o i l Map U n i t 3 / C 31 F i g u r e 14 : S o i l Map U n i t 5 / G 35 F i g u r e 1 5 : S o i l Map U n i t 6 / H 35 F i g u r e 16 : S o i l Map U n i t 8 / G 40 F i g u r e 1 7 : S o i l Map U n i t 1 0 / G 40 F i g u r e 1 8 : S o i l Map U n i t 1 2 / E 43 F i g u r e 1 9 : S o i l Map U n i t s 1 2 / f , 1 0 / G ; M i s c e l l a n e o u s Map 43 U n i t s R / H , M / g , I c e F i g u r e 2 0 : E l k . 6 3 F i g u r e 2 1 : G r o u s e Hen 63 v i i i F i g u r e 2 2 : P e r c e n t D i s t r i b u t i o n by Sex o f Road and B a c k c o u n t r y 87 U s e r s o f Yoho V a l l e y , Yoho N a t i o n a l P a r k , 1972 F i g u r e 2 3 : P e r c e n t D i s t r i b u t i o n by E d u c a t i o n A t t a i n m e n t L e v e l 91 o f Road and B a c k c o u n t r y U s e r s o f Yoho V a l l e y , Yoho N a t i o n a l P a r k , 1972 F i g u r e 2 4 : P e r c e n t D i s t r i b u t i o n by S i z e o f P l a c e o f R e s i d e n c e 95 o f Road and B a c k c o u n t r y U s e r s o f Yoho V a l l e y , Yoho N a t i o n a l P a r k , 1972 F i g u r e 2 5 : P e r c e n t D i s t r i b u t i o n by M i l e s f r o m P l a c e o f R e s i d e n c e 99 o f Road and B a c k c o u n t r y U s e r s o f Yoho V a l l e y , Yoho N a t i o n a l P a r k , 1972 F i g u r e 2 6 : P e r c e n t D i s t r i b u t i o n by P a r t y S i z e o f Road and B a c k - 100 c o u n t r y U s e r s o f Y o h o V a l l e y , Yoho N a t i o n a l P a r k , 1972 F i g u r e 2 7 : P e r c e n t D i s t r i b u t i o n by P a r t y Type o f Road and B a c k - 102 c o u n t r y U s e r s o f Yoho V a l l e y , Yoho N a t i o n a l P a r k , 1972 F i g u r e 2 8 : P e r c e n t D i s t r i b u t i o n by L e n g t h o f S t a y o f Road and 103 B a c k c o u n t r y U s e r s o f Yoho V a l l e y , Yoho N a t i o n a l P a r k , 1972 F i g u r e 2 9 : R e c r e a t i o n A c t i v i t y P r o f i l e s o f Road and B a c k c o u n t r y 105 U s e r s o f Yoho V a l l e y , Yoho N a t i o n a l P a r k , 1972 F i g u r e 3 0 : A t t i t u d e s and P r e f e r e n c e s o f Road and B a c k c o u n t r y 116 V i s i t o r s Towards t h e Yoho V a l l e y R o a d , 1972 F i g u r e 3 1 : C r i t e r i a f o r Road B u i l d i n g W i t h i n N a t i o n a l P a r k s a s 120 by Road and B a c k c o u n t r y U s e r s , Yoho V a l l e y , 1972 i x L I S T OF TABLES T a b l e N o . Page N o . T a b l e 1: A v e r a g e M o n t h l y C l i m a t i c D a t a a t B o u l d e r C r e e k 19 Compound, 1968 , 1969 , and 1973 T a b l e 2 : L e g e n d f o r G e o l o g y Map o f Yoho V a l l e y 22 T a b l e 3 : L e g e n d f o r S o i l Map o f Yoho V a l l e y 28 T a b l e 4 : L a n d f o r m and L a n d s c a p e U n i t s i n Yoho V a l l e y by A r e a 46 T a b l e 5 : S o i l Map U n i t s and S o i l O r d e r s by A r e a 46 T a b l e 6 : S o i l L i m i t a t i o n s f o r Campgrounds f o r Yoho V a l l e y 52 T a b l e 7 : S o i l L i m i t a t i o n s f o r T r a i l s f o r Yoho V a l l e y 53 T a b l e 8 : L i m i t a t i o n s o f M a p p i n g U n i t s f o r T r a i l s and Campgrounds 55 T a b l e 9 : D i s t r i b u t i o n o f F i s h i n Y o h o V a l l e y 66 T a b l e 1 0 : Yoho V a l l e y Road One-Way T r a f f i c C o u n t s , 1969-1974 74 T a b l e 1 1 : T o t a l Number o f P a i d C a m p e r - P a r t y N i g h t s o f Use a t 76 Takakkaw F a l l s Campground f o r P e r i o d J u l y - A u g u s t , 1 9 6 8 - 1 9 7 4 . T a b l e 1 2 : E s t i m a t e d B a c k c o u n t r y Use f o r Yoho V a l l e y , 1971-1974 79 T a b l e 1 3 : E s t i m a t e d R o a d , Campground , and B a c k c o u n t r y Use f o r 80 Yoho V a l l e y , 1974 T a b l e 14 : P e r c e n t D i s t r i b u t i o n by Age o f Yoho V a l l e y Road and 88 B a c k c o u n t r y U s e r s , 1972 T a b l e 1 5 : P e r c e n t D i s t r i b u t i o n by Income o f Yoho V a l l e y Road and 90 B a c k c o u n t r y U s e r s , 1972 T a b l e 16 : P e r c e n t D i s t r i b u t i o n by E d u c a t i o n o f Yoho V a l l e y Road 90 and B a c k c o u n t r y U s e r s , 1972 T a b l e 17 : P e r c e n t D i s t r i b u t i o n by O c c u p a t i o n o f Y o h o V a l l e y Road 93 and B a c k c o u n t r y U s e r s , 1972 T a b l e 1 8 : P e r c e n t D i s t r i b u t i o n by O r i g i n o f Yoho V a l l e y R o a d , 97 Campground , and B a c k c o u n t r y U s e r s , 1972 T a b l e 1 9 : T r i p D e s t i n a t i o n o f Yoho V a l l e y Road U s e r s , 1972 106 T a b l e 2 0 : Why Yoho V a l l e y S e l e c t e d by Road and B a c k c o u n t r y U s e r s , 1972 107 T a b l e 2 1 : Type o f V i s i t o r A c c o m m o d a t i o n U s e d i n Y o h o N a t i o n a l P a r k , 1972 108 T a b l e 2 2 : A r e a s V i s i t e d b y Yoho V a l l e y B a c k c o u n t r y U s e r s , 1972 108 T a b l e 2 3 : P e r c e n t D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Yoho V a l l e y B a c k c o u n t r y U s e , 109 1972 T a b l e 2 4 : What Yoho V a l l e y Road U s e r s L i k e d M o s t A b o u t T h e i r V i s i t t o Yoho N a t i o n a l P a r k , 1972 T a b l e 2 5 : What Yoho V a l l e y Road U s e r s D i s l i k e d M o s t A b o u t T h e i r V i s i t t o Yoho N a t i o n a l P a r k , 1972 T a b l e 2 6 : What Yoho V a l l e y B a c k c o u n t r y U s e r s L i k e M o s t A b o u t T h e i r V i s i t t o Yoho V a l l e y , 1972 112 112 113 T a b l e 2 7 : What Y o h o V a l l e y B a c k c o u n t r y U s e r s D i s l i k e d M o s t A b o u t 113 T h e i r V i s i t t o Yoho V a l l e y , 1972 T a b l e 2 8 : R e a s o n s f o r Road C o n d i t i o n P r e f e r e n c e s o f Yoho V a l l e y 117 Road and B a c k c o u n t r y U s e r s , 1972 T a b l e 2 9 : Changes D e s i r e d b y Yoho V a l l e y B a c k c o u n t r y U s e r s , 1972 121 T a b l e 3 0 : Why I n t e r v i e w L o c a t i o n Was a W i l d e r n e s s E x p e r i e n c e f o r 124 Yoho V a l l e y B a c k c o u n t r y U s e r s so i d e n t i f y i n g , 1972 T a b l e 3 1 : Why I n t e r v i e w L o c a t i o n Was N o t a W i l d e r n e s s E x p e r i e n c e 124 f o r Yoho V a l l e y B a c k c o u n t r y U s e r s so I d e n t i f y i n g , 1972 T a b l e 3 2 : L o c a t i o n Where W i l d e r n e s s Began, f o r Y o h o V a l l e y 125 B a c k c o u n t r y U s e r s , 1972 T a b l e 3 3 : D i s t a n c e a t W h i c h W i l d e r n e s s Began f o r Y o h o V a l l e y B a c k c o u n t r y U s e r s , 1972 T a b l e 3 4 : M e a n i n g o f W i l d e r n e s s t o Yoho V a l l e y B a c k c o u n t r y U s e r s , 1972 T a b l e 3 5 : Number o f P r e v i o u s Y e a r s B a c k c o u n t r y H i k i n g E x p e r -i e n c e o f Yoho V a l l e y B a c k c o u n t r y U s e r s , 1972 T a b l e 3 6 : How Y o h o V a l l e y B a c k c o u n t r y U s e r s Were I n t r o d u c e d t o B a c k c o u n t r y H i k i n g T a b l e 3 7 : S e l e c t e d D e m o g r a p h i c C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f Y o h o V a l l e y Road and B a c k c o u n t r y U s e r s , 1972 125 125 127 128 132 x i ACKNOWLEDGMENTS S i n c e r e g r a t i t u d e i s e x p r e s s e d t o D r . P e t e r J . D o o l i n g , D r . A l a n Chamber s , and D r . D o u g l a s L a c a t e , c o m m i t t e e members , f o r t h e i r a s s i s t a n c e d u r i n g t h e p r o j e c t and f o r t h e i r r e v i e w o f t h i s t h e s i s . I am v e r y g r a t e f u l t o D r . G e r a l d C o e n , o f t h e Canada D e p a r t m e n t o f A g r i c u l t u r e , f o r summer employment and p e r m i s s i o n t o u s e s o i l s d a t a c o l l e c t e d u n d e r h i s s u p e r v i s i o n . I w o u l d a l s o l i k e t o t h a n k t h e e m p l o y e e s i n Y o h o N a t i o n a l P a r k f o r t h e i r c o o p e r a t i o n t h r o u g h o u t t h i s s t u d y . S p e c i a l a p p r e c i a t i o n goes t o my w i f e , C e c i l y , f o r h e r u n i q u e u n d e r s t a n d i n g , a s s i s t a n c e , and e n c o u r a g e m e n t . C H A P T E R O N E INTRODUCTION I . STUDY O B J E C T I V E AND APPROACH N a t i o n a l p a r k a r e a s t h r o u g h o u t N o r t h A m e r i c a a r e f a c i n g p r e s s u r e s and c o n f l i c t s as a r e s u l t o f t h e r a p i d l y i n c r e a s i n g u s e t h e y a r e r e c e i v i n g I n many p a r k a r e a s , t h e v a l u e s t h a t v i s i t o r s s e e k a r e b e i n g d e s t r o y e d b y o v e r c r o w d i n g and d e t e r i o r a t i o n o f p a r k r e s o u r c e s and f a c i l i t i e s . I t h a s become o b v i o u s t h a t p a r k s h a v e t o be managed and t h a t l e v e l s o f p a r k u s e f o r some p a r k s c a n . n o t c o n t i n u e t o grow w i t h o u t s a c r i f i c i n g q u a l i t y . P a r k management and p l a n n i n g must t a k e f o r m , d i r e c t i o n ' , and f o r e s i g h t _ i f ; " i t i s t o remedy these p r o b l e m s . A c c o r d i n g t o T h o r s e l l ( 1 9 6 8 a , p . I ) , " c o m p r e h e n s i v e p a r k p l a n n i n g b e g i n s w i t h two s e t s o f i n f o r m a t i o n : a k n o w l e d g e d f t h e n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s o f . the : park i n ' question, and an understattdimg; o f the- p u b l i c , thatc uae-. t h a t : p a r k . " The r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e n u m b e r s , d e s i r e s , h a b i t s , and t a s t e s o f p a r k v i s i t o r s and t h e r e c o g n i t i o n o f p a r k r e s o u r c e a t t r a c t i o n s , and l i m i t a -t i o n s a r e b o t h c r i t i c a l t o management and p l a n n i n g . The p r i m a r y s t u d y o b j e c t i v e was t o d e v e l o p a. c o m p r e h e n s i v e i n v e n t o r y o f t h e n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s , u s e p a t t e r n s , a n d v i s i t o r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f Yoho V a l l e y and t o i n t e r p r e t t h e i n f o r m a t i o n i n a manner u s e f u l t o p a r k management . Y o h o V a l l e y , i n Yoho N a t i o n a l P a r k s B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , became t h e s t u d y a r e a s i n c e P a r k s Canada was p a r t i c u l a r l y c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e e x i s t i n g and p o t e n t i a l u s e c o n f l i c t s i n t h a t a r e a , and t h e s o c i a l and e n v i r o n m e n t a l e f f e c t s o f v a r i o u s p a r k p r o p o s e d m o d i f i c a t i o n s f o r t h e v a l l e y . x ' . : .1 A secondary study objective was to examine the resource and v i s i t o r i n ventories with respect to campground and t r a i l f a c i l i t y proposals made by Parks Canada. The intent was to show how the resource and v i s i t o r inventories can a s s i s t i n -the evaluation of j park planning proposals. A t e r t i a r y o b j e c t i v e was to review various research procedures r e l a t e d to the development of the resource and v i s i t o r i n v e n t o r i e s . For example, some advantages and disadvantages of the two p r i n c i p l e v i s i t o r survey techniques - the personal interview and the mail-back questionnaire - are discussed. The study i s divided i n t o f i v e chapters. This chapter i s introductory, dealing with the objectives and approach of the study and with a b r i e f d e s c r i p t i o n of the study area and i t s land use h i s t o r y . The resource inventory of Yoho V a l l e y i s presented i n chapter two, while the t h i r d chapter deals with the v i s i t o r inventory. Management considerations, and recommendations are discussed i n chapter four. The l a s t chapter summarizes the study and i t s major fin d i n g s and observations. Research emphasis i n chapter two was- placed on. a s o i l and landform survey of Yoho V a l l e y conducted i n 1973 and r e f i n e d i n 1974. S o i l s and landforms were described and c l a s s i f i e d by f i e l d techniques, and mapped 1/ Parks Canada requested that the Canadian W i l d l i f e Service contract out a research study i n Yoho V a l l e y i n 1972. Dr. P.J. Dooling, A s s i s t a n t Professor, Faculty of Forestry, U.B.C, received the contract; the author was a research a s s i s t a n t on that study. Some parts of the report by Dooling and Void (1973) form portions of t h i s t h e s i s . 3 o n a s e m i - c o n t r o l l e d a i r - p h o t o m o s a i c ( s c a l e 1 : 5 0 , 0 0 0 ) . S o i l map u n i t d e s c r i p t i o n s i n c l u d e i n f o r m a t i o n o n s o i l p a r e n t m a t e r i a l , h o r i z o n a t i o n , d e p t h , t e x t u r e , c o a r s e f r a g m e n t s , d r a i n a g e , s l o p e , e l e v a t i o n r a n g e , and a s s o c i a t e d v e g e t a t i o n . S o i l s w e r e c l a s s i f i e d a t t h e s u b g r o u p l e v e l u s i n g The S y s t e m o f S o i l C l a s s i f i c a t i o n f o r Canada ( C a n a d a , D e p t . o f A g r i c . 1 9 7 4 ) . I n t e r p r e t a t i o n s r e g a r d i n g t h e r e l a t i v e l i m i t a t i o n s ( i e . s l i g h t , m o d e r a t e , o r s e v e r e ) o f s o i l m a p p i n g u n i t s f o r t r a i l s and campgrounds w e r e d e v e l o p e d . S o i l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s s u c h a s d r a i n a g e * f l o o d i n g h a z a r d , s l o p e , t e x t u r e , d e p t h , c o a r s e f r a g m e n t s , r o c k i n e s s , and e l e v a t i o n w e r e e v a l u a t e d b e f o r e 2 a s s e s s i n g o v e r a l l s o i l l i m i t a t i o n s f o r u s e . I n f o r m a t i o n r e l a t e d t o t h e c l i m a t e , b e d r o c k g e o l o g y , f l o r a , and f a u n a o f t h e s t u d y a r e a was e x a m i n e d p r i m a r i l y f r o m a r e v i e w o f t h e p e r t i n e n t l i t e r a t u r e w i t h some f i e l d o b s e r v a t i o n s . The b e d r o c k g e o l o g y o f Yoho V a l l e y was a l s o mapped o n a n a i r - p h o t o m o s a i c ( s c a l e 1 : 5 0 , 0 0 0 ) ; t h e map was a d a p t e d f r o m a Y o h o N a t i o n a l P a r k g e o l o g y map p r e p a r e d b y t h e Yoho P a r k - .S taf f . ( 1 9 7 2 ) . P h o t o g r a p h s w e r e s y s t e m a t i c a l l y t a k e n a l o n g t r a i l s t o r e c o r d b a c k -c o u n t r y c o n d i t i o n s and t o i n v e n t o r y v i s u a l r e s o u r c e s . P h o t o - p o i n t s w e r e m a r k e d s o t h a t s u b s e q u e n t s t u d i e s c o u l d , compare v i s u a l c h a n g e s o v e r t i m e . A v i s i t o r u s e s u r v e y was u n d e r t a k e n i n 1972 t o a s s e s s t h e a m o u n t s , d i s t r i b u t i o n , and t y p e s o f r o a d , b a c k c o u n t r y , and campground u s e i n t h e s t u d y a r e a . M a g n e t i c - l o o p t r a f f i c c o u n t e r s w e r e i n s t a l l e d o n t h e Yoho V a l l e y r o a d and c a l i b r a t e d t o d e t e r m i n e use l e v e l s . The Takakkaw \ F a l l s campground i n Yoho V a l l e y was v i s i t e d e a c h day t o d e t e r m i n e camper - n i g h t s o f u s e . The r e g i s t r a t i o n r a t e s o f day and 2 / S o i l s i n f o r m a t i o n was c o l l e c t e d w h i l e t h e a u t h o r was emp loyed b y D r . G e r a l d M . C o e n , R e s e a r c h S c i e n t i s t , S o i l S u r v e y , A g r i c u l t u r e Canada i n E d m o n t o n , A l b e r t a . 4 o v e r n i g h t b a c k c o u n t r y u s e r s were d e t e r m i n e d f o r t h e t r a i l k i o s k f o r b a c k -c o u n t r y u s e e s t i m a t e s . S i n c e b a c k c o u n t r y u s e i s p a r t i c u l a r l y d i f f i c u l t t o a s s e s s , a r e v i e w o f v a r i o u s r e s e a r c h p r o c e d u r e s r e l a t e d t o b a c k c o u n t r y u s e e s t i m a t i o n was u n d e r t a k e n . R o a d , c ampground , and b a c k c o u n t r y u s e d a t a c o l l e c t e d i n 1972 w e r e compared w i t h p a r k c o l l e c t e d s t a t i s t i c s t o d e t e r m i n e g r o w t h t r e n d s o v e r t i m e . A r o a d and b a c k c o u n t r y s u r v e y o f v i s i t o r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s was c o n d u c t e d i n 1972 b y e m p l o y i n g o n - s i t e p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w s . V a r i o u s r e s e a r c h methods and p r o b l e m s r e l a t e d t o v i s i t o r s u r v e y s a r e r e v i e w e d . Two h u n d r e d p a r t i e s w e r e i n t e r v i e w e d o n t h e Yoho V a l l e y r o a d and 193 p a r t i e s w e r e s a m p l e d o n b a c k c o u n t r y t r a i l s . The p u r p o s e o f t h e s u r v e y was t o a n s w e r some o f t h e f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n s : What k i n d s o f p e o p l e v i s i t Yoho V a l l e y ? Who a r e t h e y ? Where do t h e y come from? Why d i d t h e y v i s i t t h e a r e a ? What d i d t h e y l i k e and d i s l i k e a b o u t t h e a r e a ? What d i d t h e y want i n t h e a r e a i n t e r m s o f management p r e f e r e n c e s ? A r e r o a d and b a c k c o u n t r y v i s i t o r s t o t h e a r e a d i f f e r e n t ? I f s o , how a r e t h e y d i f f e r e n t ? How do Y o h o V a l l e y v i s i t o r s compare t o o t h e r p a r k v i s i t o r s ? A c c o r d i n g l y , t h e s u r v e y q u e s t i o n n a i r e p r o v i d e d i n f o r m a t i o n o n t h e s o c i o - e c o n o m i c - d e m o g r a p h i c c h a r a c t e r i s i t i c s ; t r i p c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ; and management p r e f e r e n c e s and o p i n i o n s o f t h e s t u d y a r e a ' s u s e r s . The r e s u l t s a r e d i s c u s s e d and compared w i t h o t h e r r e l a t e d r e s e a r c h . U n l i k e o t h e r t y p e s o f i n v e n t o r y i n f o r m a t i o n w h i c h a r e r e l a t i v e l y s t a t i c o v e r t i m e ( e g . b e d r o c k g e o l o g y , s o i l s , and t o a l e s s e r e x t e n t , v e g e t a t i o n ) , i n f o r m a t i o n r e l a t e d t o v i s i t o r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and a t t i t u d e s i s c o n s i d e r e d r e l a t i v e l y d y n a m i c . Thus t h e v i e w s e x p r e s s e d b y p a r k v i s i t o r s i n Yoho V a l l e y i n 1972 may n o t a c c u r a t e l y r e p r e s e n t t h e v i e w s o f i t s v i s i t o r s i n t h e f u t u r e . The v a l u e o f t h i s v i s i t o r s u r v e y , t a k e n a t one p o i n t i n t i m e , i s l i m i t e d ; s u b s e q u e n t s t u d i e s r e v e a l i n g t h e d y n a m i c s o f v i s i t o r 5 c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and a t t i t u d e s over time should prove more rewarding f o r park management and planning. Management considerations for Yoho V a l l e y are discussed i n chapter four. The resource and v i s i t o r inventories were examined and the impacts of v i s i t o r use on park f a c i l i t i e s such as a Parks Branch proposed t r a i l to F a i r y Lake and a proposed r e - l o c a t i o n of the Takakkaw F a l l s Campground are assessed. I I . STUDY AREA Yoho National Park i s a 507 square mile area located i n the Rocky Mountains j u s t west of the c o n t i n e n t a l d i v i d e and adjacent to Banff and Kootenay National Park (see Figure 1). The Trans-Canada Highway and the Canadian P a c i f i c Railroad d i v i d e the park along the Kicking Horse River. The F i e l d townsite l i e s approximately i n the middle of the park along t h i s major transportation c o r r i d o r . Golden i s located 16 miles west of the park, while Calgary l i e s 130 miles to the southeast. D i v i d i n g the region i n t o northwest-southeast v a l l e y s and subranges are seven major side v a l l e y s : the Yoho, Amiskwi, Otterhead, and Porcupine i n the northern p o r t i o n ; and the Cataract, O t t e r t a i l , and Beaverfoot-Ice i n the southern p o r t i o n . These v a l l e y s converge on the Kicking Horse River V a l l e y , which b i s e c t s the park i n a northeast-southwest d i r e c t i o n . This study focused on Yoho V a l l e y , which i s situated i n the northeast corner of the park and i s approximately 86 square miles i n area (see Appendix I , Map A for topographic map). A gravel road penetrates eight miles i n t o the v a l l e y , from the Trans-Canada Highway to the base of Takakkaw F a l l s (see Figure 2). T r a i l s leading into the backcountry begin at the end of the road. (mi 1 es) F I G U R E I: Yoho National Park X • Y.H, X A.C.C. Trans-Canada Highway Secondary Road Walking or Hiking Trail Railroad Lake, River, Creek Glacier Provincial Border Mountain Warden's Cabin Picnic Area Accommodation Campground Nature Trail Youth Hostel Fire Lookout Alpine Club Cabin Outdoor Theatre Figure 2 : Takakkaw F a l l s The p r i n c i p a l a t t r a c t i o n o f Yoho V a l l e y i s i t s s p e c t a c u l a r s c e n e r y . M o u n t a i n s , g l a c i e r s , r i v e r s , l a k e s , and w a t e r f a l l s a l l p l a y a r o l e i n t h e v a l l e y ' s l a n d s c a p e c h a r a c t e r . The two m a i n m o u n t a i n r a n g e s a r e t h e W a p u t i k M o u n t a i n s i n t h e e a s t , and t h e P r e s i d e n t ' s Range i n t h e w e s t . N i n e p e a k s i n t h e v a l l e y a r e o v e r 1 0 , 0 0 0 f e e t , w h i l e 19 a r e o v e r 9 , 0 0 0 f e e t . The s e a r c h f o r a r o u t e up M t . B a l f o u r ( s ee F i g u r e 8 ) , t h e t a l l e s t peak a t 1 0 , 7 4 1 f e e t , l e d t o t h e d i s c o v e r y o f Y o h o V a l l e y b y J e a n H a b e l i n 1897 . T o d a y , t h e P r e s i d e n t and t h e V i c e - P r e s i d e n t ( s ee F i g u r e 9) a r e p a r t i c u l a r l y p o p u l a r c l i m b s i n t h e L i t t l e Yoho V a l l e y a r e a ( s e e F i g u r e s 5 and 6 ) . The two m a i n i c e f i e l d s s u r r o u n d i n g Yoho V a l l e y a r e t h e W a p u t i k and W a p t a . The W a p u t i k I c e f i e l d i s t h e s o u r c e o f D a l y G l a c i e r ( s e e F i g u r e 1 0 ) , w h i l e t h e Wapta i s t h e s o u r c e o f Yoho G l a c i e r and G l a c i e r des P o i l u s n e a r W a t e r f a l l V a l l e y ( s e e F i g u r e 4 ) . E m e r a l d G l a c i e r l i e s o n t h e n o r t h e a s t f a c i n g s l o p e o f t h e V i c e - P r e s i d e n t ( s e e F i g u r e 9 ) . The p r i n c i p a l d r a i n a g e i n t h e v a l l e y i s b y t h e Yoho R i v e r . Waves C r e e k ( s e e F i g u r e 1 1 ) , F a i r y C r e e k , and Takakkaw F a l l s f l o w i n t o t h e Yoho f r o m t h e e a s t , w h i l e T w i n F a l l s C r e e k and L i t t l e Yoho R i v e r merge i n t o i t f r o m t h e w e s t i n t h e L a u g h i n g F a l l s a r e a . A t t h e " M e e t i n g o f t h e W a t e r s " v i e w p o i n t o n t h e Yoho V a l l e y r o a d , i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o o b s e r v e t h e c l e a r K i c k i n g H o r s e R i v e r , w h i c h i s l a r g e l y f e d b y snow m e l t , empty i n t o t h e m u r k y , s i l t - r i d d e n Y o h o R i v e r , w h i c h i s f e d l a r g e l y b y g l a c i e r s . T h e m a i n l a k e s o f Yoho V a l l e y a r e D u c h e s n a y L a k e ( e l e v a t i o n 5 2 5 0 ' ) , H i d d e n L a k e s ( 5 3 1 0 ' ) , M a r p o l e L a k e ( 5 7 0 0 ' ) , Yoho L a k e ( 5 9 6 0 ' , see F i g u r e 7 ) , L a k e C e l e s t e ( 6 5 5 0 ' ) , and K i w e t n o k L a k e ( 8 0 5 0 ' ) o n t h e w e s t ; and F a i r y L a k e ( 7 3 0 0 ' , see F i g u r e 8) o n t h e e a s t . O n l y F a i r y L a k e c a n n o t be r e a c h e d b y t r a i l . The f e a t u r e t h a t p e r h a p s s e t s Y o h o V a l l e y a p a r t f r o m t h e r e s t o f t h e p a r k i s i t s many and v a r i e d w a t e r f a l l s . Takakkaw F a l l s ( s e e F i g u r e 2) i s Figure 3 : Twin F a l l s Figure 4 : W a t e r f a l l V a l l e y from Yoho Peak F i g u r e 6: M t . K e r r f r o m L i t t l e Y o h o V a l l e y ( A u g u s t snow) i 1 Figure 9: Vice-President Mtn. and Emerald G l a c i e r I  Figure 10: Waputik I c e f i e l d (Daly G l a c i e r , bottom; Mt. Balfour, l e f t ) Figure 1 1 : Mt. Gordon and Waves Creek i n Yoho G l a c i e r area 14 t h e l a r g e s t , p l u n g i n g 1248 f e e t t o t h e v a l l e y f l o o r , w h i l e t h e o d d l y b e a u t i f u l T w i n F a l l s ( s e e F i g u r e 3) d r o p s 273 f e e t . L a u g h i n g F a l l s , P o i n t L a c e F a l l s , A n g e l ' s S t a i r c a s e F a l l s , F a l l o f t h e Waves , and D i a b l e r e t F a l l s a r e some o f t h e o t h e r named f a l l s i n Yoho V a l l e y . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e r e a r e c o u n t l e s s unnamed f a l l s and c a s c a d e s t h r o u g h o u t t h e a r e a . I I I . LAND USE HISTORY The f o l l o w i n g r e f e r e n c e s w e r e r e v i e w e d i n o r d e r t o summar ize t h e l a n d u s e h i s t o r y o f Yoho V a l l e y : B r o o k s ( 1 9 6 7 ) ; C a n a d a , D e p a r t m e n t o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s and N o r t h e r n D e v e l o p m e n t , P a r k s B r a n c h ( 1 9 7 0 ) ; G e t t y ( 1 9 7 2 ) ; L o t h i a n ( 1 9 6 9 ) ; and Yoho P a r k S t a f f ( 1 9 7 2 ) . A . Yoho N a t i o n a l P a r k The f i r s t r e s e r v a t i o n o f wha t i s now Yoho N a t i o n a l P a r k , t h e 10 s q u a r e m i l e M t . S t e p h e n N a t i o n a l R e s e r v e , was e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1896 u n d e r t h e a u t h o r i t y o f t h e D o m i n i o n L a n d s A c t . I n 1 9 0 1 , t h e Yoho P a r k R e s e r v e , c o n t a i n i n g 828 s q u a r e m i l e s , was e s t a b l i s h e d b y O r d e r - i n - C o u n c i l . S i x y e a r s l a t e r , t h e r e s e r v e was r e d u c e d t o 723 s q u a r e m i l e s so t h a t a n a r e a i n t h e C o l u m b i a R i v e r V a l l e y c o u l d be u s e d f o r a g r i c u l t u r e . A f t e r t h e D o m i n i o n F o r e s t R e s e r v e s and P a r k s A c t i n 1 9 1 1 , Yoho N a t i o n a l P a r k was o f f i c i a l l y e s t a b l i s h e d , w i t h t h e b o u n d a r i e s f u r t h e r r e d u c e d t o 560 s q u a r e m i l e s so t h a t m a j o r t i m b e r p r o d u c i n g w a t e r s h e d s c o u l d become a v a i l a b l e f o r c o m m e r c i a l u s e . L a t e r a d j u s t m e n t s l e f t t h e p a r k w i t h an a r e a o f 507 s q u a r e m i l e s . A l t h o u g h " Y o h o " i s a C r e e I n d i a n w o r d s i g n i f y i n g " w o n d e r " o r " a s t o n i s h -m e n t " , no n a t i v e I n d i a n s w e r e known t o r e s i d e i n t h e Yoho a r e a ( L o y 1 9 7 2 ) . The l a n d u s e h i s t o r y o f t h e p a r k c a n , t h e r e f o r e , b e d i v i d e d i n t o f i v e o r 15 s i x p o s t - E u r o p e a n e r a s . The i n i t i a l e x p l o r a t i o n s o f Yoho b e g a n i n 1858 when James H e c t o r , a member o f t h e P a l l i s e r E x p e d i t i o n , d i s c o v e r e d K i c k i n g H o r s e P a s s w h i l e i n s e a r c h o f an a c c e s s r o u t e t o t h e P a c i f i c O c e a n . The s e c o n d e r a , f r o m 1875 t o 1 9 0 0 , m a r k e d t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e C a n a d i a n P a c i f i c R a i l r o a d ( C . P . R . ) and i t s i n i t i a l i n f l u e n c e s upon t h e l a n d s c a p e . The t h i r d p e r i o d , f r o m 1900 t o t h e G r e a t D e p r e s s i o n , marked a d e v e l o p m e n t - o r i e n t e d p e r i o d i n t h e p a r k ' s h i s t o r y c o n c e n t r a t i n g o n t h e p r o m o t i o n o f t o u r i s m . The f o u r t h e r a , f r o m 1929 t o t h e t e r m i n a t i o n o f W o r l d War I I , was a q u i e t p e r i o d when l i t t l e money was a v a i l a b l e f o r p a r k d e v e l o p m e n t . The p e r i o d f r o m 1947 t o 1971 marked t h e s e c o n d b i g s u r g e i n p a r k d e v e l o p m e n t , c e n t e r e d a r o u n d t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e T r a n s - C a n a d a H i g h w a y ( T . C . H . ) . S i n c e t h e p u b l i c h e a r i n g s o n C a n a d a ' s f o u r c o n t i g u o u s w e s t e r n m o u n t a i n n a t i o n a l p a r k s were h e l d i n 1971 ( C a n a d a , D e p t . o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s and N o r t h e r n D e v e l o p m e n t , P a r k s B r a n c h , 1 9 7 2 ) , t h e p l a n n i n g p h i l o s o p h y i n Y o h o seems t o be l e s s d e v e l o p m e n t - o r i e n t e d . B . Yoho V a l l e y Road S h o r t l y a f t e r J e a n H a b e l d i s c o v e r e d Yoho V a l l e y and T a k a k k a w F a l l s i n 1897 , t h e C . P . R . b e g a n p u b l i c i z i n g and d e v e l o p i n g t h e a r e a i n o r d e r t o a t t r a c t t o u r i s t s f r o m t h r o u g h o u t N o r t h A m e r i c a and E u r o p e . B y 1 9 0 9 , s i x y e a r s a f t e r c o n s t r u c t i o n commenced, t h e C . P . R . h a d c o m p l e t e d a c a r r i a g e r o a d t o t h e f a l l s . T e n y e a r s l a t e r , t h e Yoho V a l l e y r o a d was u p g r a d e d and opened t o m o t o r i s t s . W i t h t h e o p e n i n g o f t h e famed " K i c k i n g H o r s e T r a i l " i n 1927 , a u t o m o b i l e t o u r i n g i n Y o h o P a r k and Yoho V a l l e y became p o p u l a r . A f t e r t h e T . C . H . was c o m p l e t e d i n 1958 , t h e a u t o m o b i l e became t h e d o m i n a n t v i s i t o r f o r c e . Now, i n a d d i t i o n t o t h e d e s t i n a t i o n - o r i e n t e d p a r k v i s i t o r , came t h e t r a n s i e n t u s e r . The Y o h o V a l l e y r o a d i s p r e s e n t l y g r a v e l s u r f a c e d , e x t e n d i n g 8 m i l e s f r o m t h e K i c k i n g H o r s e Campground t o T a k a k k a w F a l l s Campground . The 16 p r i n c i p a l a t t r a c t i o n s a l o n g t h e r o a d , p r i o r t o r e a c h i n g s p e c t a c u l a r T a k a k k a w F a l l s , a r e t h e " S p i r a l T u n n e l s " v i e w p o i n t , t h e " M e e t i n g o f t h e W a t e r s " v i e w p o i n t , and t h e r o a d s w i t c h b a c k s . C . T a k a k k a w F a l l s A r e a T h r e e y e a r s a f t e r c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e Yoho V a l l e y r o a d i n 1 9 0 9 , t h e C . P . R . b u i l t a one a c r e summer camp n e a r Takakkaw F a l l s . W i t h t h e a d v e n t o f t h e a u t o m o b i l e , t h e C . P . R . i n 1922 r e p l a c e d t h e camp w i t h t h e Yoho V a l l e y L o d g e . T a k a k k a w F a l l s Campground was t h e n b u i l t i n i t s p r e s e n t l o c a t i o n . A d d i t i o n a l b u n g a l o w s w e r e added t o t h e l o d g e b e f o r e a l a r g e snow a v a l a n c h e damaged t h e a r e a i n 1938 . The l o d g e and b u n g a l o w s g r a d u a l l y d e t e r i o r a t e d due t o s u c c e s s i v e a v a l a n c h e s a f t e r t h e 1938 i n c i d e n t . F i n a l l y , i n 1 9 6 7 , t h e l o d g e was removed b y . t h e P a r k s B r a n c h , w i t h t h e r e m a i n i n g b u i l d i n g s c o n v e r t e d i n t o a Y o u t h H o s t e l . A f t e r a n o t h e r snow a v a l a n c h e i n 1 9 7 2 , one b u i l d i n g was d e s t r o y e d ; now o n l y one Y o u t h H o s t e l b u i l d i n g r e m a i n s . The campground r e p r e s e n t s t h e o n l y o t h e r means o f o v e r n i g h t a c c o m m o d a t i o n n e a r Takakkaw F a l l s . I t p r e s e n t l y c o n t a i n s an " o p t i m u m c a p a c i t y " o f 50 u n d e s i g n a t e d c a m p s i t e s (Lockwood 1 9 7 0 ) . Two t e n t h s o f a m i l e f r o m t h e r o a d t e r m i n u s i s t h e T a k a k k a w F a l l s v i e w p o i n t and p a r k i n g a r e a . A s h o r t p a v e d t r a i l b e g i n s h e r e t o t h e b a s e o f t h e f a l l s . A w a r d e n ' s c a b i n i s l o c a t e d n e a r t h e f a l l v i e w p o i n t . D . Yoho V a l l e y B a c k c o u n t r y The C . P . R . b e g a n c o n s t r u c t i n g p a c k t r a i l s i n Y o h o V a l l e y i n 1900 i n o r d e r t o p r o m o t e t o u r i s m . By 1 9 1 1 , n e a r l y a l l t h e e x i s t i n g t r a i l s i n t h e v a l l e y w e r e c o m p l e t e d (a number o f t h e t r a i l s w e r e s u b s e q u e n t l y r e - r o u t e d ) . A s a r e s u l t , t h e v a l l e y ' s b a c k c o u n t r y r a p i d l y became p o p u l a r . The A l p i n e C l u b o f Canada h e l d i t s f i r s t summer camp a t Yoho L a k e i n 1 9 0 6 ; C . P . R . b u i l t a t e a h o u s e n e a r t h e b a s e o f T w i n F a l l s i n 1 9 2 3 ; and t h e A l p i n e C l u b 17 o f Canada c o n s t r u c t e d t h e S t a n l e y M i t c h e l l Hu t i n t h e L i t t l e Yoho V a l l e y i n 1 9 3 9 . The b a c k c o u n t r y c o n t a i n s 27 m i l e s o f t r a i l s . Two h e a v i l y u s e d a c c e s s t r a i l s s t a r t a t t h e campground and Y o u t h H o s t e l a r e a . A t h i r d a c c e s s t r a i l a t Y o h o P a s s c o n v e r g e s E m e r a l d L a k e and B u r g e s s P a s s t r a i l u s e t r a f f i c . 18 C H A P T E R T W O RESOURCES OF YOHO V A L L E Y I . P H Y S I C A L RESOURCES A . C l i m a t e , *} A c c o r d i n g t o H e u s s e r ( 1 9 5 6 ) , t h e d o m i n a n t a i r masses a f f e c t i n g t h e C a n a d i a n R o c k i e s a r e t h e p o l a r m a r i n e . These a i r masses o r i g i n a t e i n t h e N o r t h P a c i f i c O c e a n and b r i n g p r e c i p i t a t i o n t o t h e m o u n t a i n s , p a r t i c u l a r l y t o t h e w e s t e r n and w e s t - f a c i n g s l o p e s o f t h e R o c k i e s . A s a r e s u l t , O g i l v i e (1967) n o t e s t h a t a r e a s l i k e Yoho N a t i o n a l P a r k h a v e a more m a r i t i m e - t y p e o f c l i m a t e , w i t h l e s s e x t r e m e t e m p e r a t u r e s , a n d h i g h e r p r e c i p i t a t i o n t h a n a r e a s o f c o m p a r a b l e e l e v a t i o n o n t h e e a s t e r n s i d e o f t h e c o n t i n e n t a l d i v i d e . The c l i m a t e o f t h e R o c k i e s i s h i g h l y v a r i a b l e due t o t o p o g r a p h y . T e m p e r a t u r e u s u a l l y d e c r e a s e s a t t h e r a t e o f 3 ° F . f o r e v e r y 1000 f e e t i n c r e a s e i n e l e v a t i o n . T h i s phenomenon i s c a l l e d t h e l a p s e r a t e . B e c a u s e o f t h e l i m i t i n g e f f e c t t h i s h a s o n t h e g r o w i n g s e a s o n o f p l a n t s , t h i s i s a m a j o r c l i m a t i c i n f l u e n c e on t h e v e g e t a t i o n o f t h e R o c k i e s ( O g i l v i e 1 9 6 7 ) . The Y o h o N a t i o n a l P a r k P r o v i s i o n a l M a s t e r P l a n . ( C a n a d a , D e p t . o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s and N o r t h e r n D e v e l o p m e n t , P a r k s B r a n c h , ' 1 9 7 0 , p . 14) s u m m a r i z e s some c l i m a t i c d a t a f r o m two p a r k s t a t i o n s now no l o n g e r i n u s e : The O t t e r t a i l s t a t i o n [ [ e l e v a t i o n 3920 feet3 r e c o r d s a n a n n u a l t e m p e r a t u r e r a n g e f r o m - 1 2 ° F . t o 8 8 ° F . R a i n f a l l v a r i e s f r o m 15 t o 16 i n c h e s i n a d d i t i o n t o a n a v e r a g e s n o w f a l l o f a b o u t 98 i n c h e s . The H e c t o r s t a t i o n [ [ e l e v a t i o n 5200 f e e t ] r e c o r d s , a t a h i g h e r e l e v a t i o n , show t e m p e r a t u r e s o f - 2 6 ° F . t o 8 2 ° F . and a p p r o x i m a t e l y t h e same r a i n f a l l o f 15 i n c h e s . The s n o w f a l l was 294 and 252 i n c h e s i n 1965 and 1966 r e s p e c t i v e l y . i y T A B L E 1 : AVERAGE MONTHLY CLIMATIC DATA AT BOULDER CREEK COMPOUND, 1 9 6 8 , 1969 , AND 1 9 7 3 . M o n t h Mean Maximum Mean Min imum T e m p e r a t u r e T e m p e r a t u r e < ° F . ) ( ° F . ) Mean T e m p e r a t u r e (*.) R a i n f a l l ( i n c h e s ) S n o w f a l l ( i n c h e s ) J a n u a r y F e b r u a r y M a r c h A p r i l May J u n e J u l y A u g u s t Sep t ember O c t o b e r November December 17 32 42 49 58 66 73 68 57 46 31 20 1 11 22 27 32 43 43 43 37 30 15 7 9 22 32 34 45 54 58 56 48 38 24 13 0 . 5 1.8 3 . 0 2 . 7 2 . 4 2 . 4 1.5 0 . 3 20 10 7 3 3 1 3 11 16 T o t a l 46 26 36 1 4 . 6 74 S o u r c e : U n p u b l i s h e d Yoho P a r k f i l e s . 20 Some a v e r a g e m o n t h l y c l i m a t i c d a t a f r o m t h e B o u l d e r C r e e k Compound S t a t i o n ( e l e v a t i o n 3930 f e e t ) f o r t h e y e a r s 1 9 6 8 , 1 9 6 9 , and 1973 a r e p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e 1 . I n c o m p l e t e d a t a f r o m 1970 t o 1972 a r e n o t u s e d i n t h e t a b l e . On t h e a v e r a g e , t e m p e r a t u r e s i n c r e a s e 8 ° F . p e r month f r o m m i d - J a n u a r y t o m i d - J u l y . L a n d a l s and S c o t t e r (1973) r e c o r d e d some c l i m a t i c d a t a f r o m J u l y 1 t o Sep tember 7 , 1972 i n two h i g h e l e v a t i o n meadows i n t h e L a k e O ' H a r a a r e a . The mean maximum t e m p e r a t u r e was 5 8 ° F . o n t h e S c h a f f e r meadow ( e l e v a t i o n 7100 f e e t ) and 5 5 ° F . o n t h e O ' H a r a meadow ( e l e v a t i o n 6700 f e e t ) . Mean minimum t e m p e r a t u r e s w e r e 3 6 ° F . a t S c h a f f e r and 3 2 ° F . a t O ' H a r a . T h e r e w e r e 60 f r o s t f r e e d a y s on t h e S c h a f f e r meadow, w h i l e o n l y 28 f r o s t f r e e d a y s w e r e r e c o r d e d o n t h e O ' H a r a meadow. A c c o r d i n g t o L a n d a l s and S c o t t e r , s i n c e " S c h a f f e r meadow i s a p p r o x i m a t e l y 400 f e e t h i g h e r t h a n O ' H a r a meadow, t h e d i f f e r e n c e i n t e m p e r a t u r e c a n be a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e d r a i n a g e o f c o l d a i r w h i c h becomes ponded i n t h e O ' H a r a b a s i n . " I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o n o t e , h o w e v e r , t h a t a l t h o u g h summer t e m p e r a t u r e s a r e l o w e r i n t h e O ' H a r a meadow, S c h a f f e r meadow e x p e r i e n c e s a s h o r t e r s n o w - f r e e s e a s o n . S i n c e no w e a t h e r s t a t i o n e x i s t s i n Y o h o V a l l e y , c l i m a t i c i n f o r m a t i o n c a n o n l y be e s t i m a t e d f r o m t h e s e somewhat a n a l a g o u s a r e a s . Takakkaw F a l l s campground ( e l e v a t i o n 5000 f e e t ) may h a v e f a i r l y s i m i l a r c l i m a t e t o t h e o l d H e c t o r s t a t i o n . C l i m a t i c c o n d i t i o n s i n t h e L i t t l e Yoho s u b a l p i n e meadows b y t h e A . C . C . h u t ( e l e v a t i o n 6750 f e e t ) , a l s o l o c a t e d i n a c o l d a i r d r a i n a g e b a s i n , a r e p r o b a b l y s i m i l a r t o t h o s e a t t h e O ' H a r a meadow. L i k e w i s e , t h e P r e s i d e n t S k y l i n e a l p i n e meadow ( e l e v a t i o n 7200 f e e t ) p r o b a b l y h a s c l i m a t i c c o n d i t i o n s s i m i l a r t o S c h a f f e r meadow. B . B e d r o c k G e o l o g y A c c o u n t s o f t h e g e o l o g i c a l h i s t o r y o f Yoho N a t i o n a l P a r k and Yoho V a l l e y h a v e b e e n f o r w a r d e d b y s e v e r a l s o u r c e s : A i t k e n ( 1 9 6 6 , 1 9 7 1 ) ; A i t k e n and G r e g g s ( 1 9 6 7 ) ; B a i r d ( 1 9 6 2 ) ; Chapman and N i e l s e n ( 1 9 7 2 , 1 9 7 3 ) ; Drew ( 1 9 7 3 b ) ; and F o s k e t t ( 1 9 6 7 ) . D u r i n g t h e C a m b r i a n P e r i o d , w h i c h b e g a n a b o u t 600 m i l l i o n y e a r s ago and l a s t e d f o r a p p r o x i m a t e l y 100 m i l l i o n y e a r s , t h e Yoho V a l l e y a r e a was• a t t h e b o t t o m o f a s h a l l o w s e a . A p p a r e n t l y t h e a r e a was n e a r t h e s h o r e -l i n e o f t h e s e a d u r i n g t h e E a r l y (Lower ) C a m b r i a n and r e c e i v e d t h i c k d e p o s i t s o f s a n d t h a t was l a t e r metamorphosed t o t h e q u a r t z i t i c s a n d s t o n e s o f t h e Gog F o r m a t i o n . A s m a l l p o r t i o n o f t h i s e x t e n s i v e f o r m a t i o n l i e s i n t h e s o u t h e r n end o f Yoho V a l l e y . F i n e r s e d i m e n t s s e t t l e d i n t h e a r e a d u r i n g t h e M i d d l e and L a t e (Uppe r ) C a m b r i a n when t h e s h o r e l i n e o f t h i s v a s t s e a a d v a n c e d e a s t w a r d t o w a r d s t h e C a n a d i a n S h i e l d . A l l o f t h e r e s t o f t h e r o c k f o r m a t i o n s e x p o s e d i n Yoho V a l l e y a r e t h e r e l a t i v e l y f i n e - g r a i n e d l i m e s t o n e s , d o l o m i t e s , s h a l e s , and s i l t s t o n e s t h a t r e s u l t e d f r o m d e p o s i t i o n s d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d o f t i m e . The r o c k f o r m a t i o n s a p p l i c a b l e t o Y o h o N a t i o n a l P a r k w e r e f i r s t d e s c r i b e d by A l l a n ( 1 9 1 4 ) , and l a t e r b y A i t k e n (1966) and A i t k e n and G r e g g s ( 1 9 6 7 ) . The Yoho P a r k S t a f f (1972) h a v e mapped t h e s e f o r m a t i o n s f o r t h e p a r k . T h e i r map was m o d i f i e d and r e d r a w n o n a p h o t o m o s a i c o f Yoho V a l l e y f o r t h e p u r p o s e s o f t h i s t h e s i s ( s e e A p p e n d i x I , Map B f o r G e o l o g y Map a t s c a l e o f 1 : 5 0 , 0 0 0 ; and T a b l e 2 f o r map l e g e n d ) . 22 -1 TABLE 2 : LEGEND FOR GEOLOGY MAP OF YOHO V A L L E Y * Age Map U n i t N o . F o r m a t i o n Maximum T h i c k n e s s ( f e e t ) L i t h o l o g i c a l C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s 11 M i s t a y a 500 L i m e s t o n e & d o l o m i t e U p p e r 10 9 B i s o n C r e e k L y e l l 650 1100 M a i n l y s h a l e ; some l i m e s t o n e D o l o m i t e & l i m e s t o n e C a m b r i a n 8 S u l l i v a n 1400 M a i n l y s h a l e ; some l i m e s t o n e & d o l o m i t e ? 7 W a t e r f o w l 700 M a i n l y d o l o m i t e & l i m e s t o n e ; some s h a l e & s i l t s t o n e — — — — — 6 A r c t o m y s 800 M a i n l y s h a l e & s i l t s t o n e ; some d o l o m i t e M i d d l e 5 4 P i k a E l d o n 900 1100 M a i n l y l i m e s t o n e ; some s h a l e L i m e s t o n e & d o l o m i t e C a m b r i a n 3 S t e p h e n 450 M a i n l y s h a l e ; some l i m e s t o n e 2** C a t h e d r a l 1200 D o l o m i t e & l i m e s t o n e \ ? 2** M t . Whyte 450 M a i n l y s h a l e & s i l t s t o n e ; some l i m e s t o n e L o w e r 1 Gog 2700 M a i n l y q u a r t z i t i c s a n d s t o n e C a m b r i a n & s h a l e S o u r c e s : A i t k e n ( 1 9 6 6 ) ; A i t k e n and G r e g g s ( 1 9 6 7 ) ; A l l a n ( 1 9 1 4 ) ; and Yoho P a r k S t a f f ( 1 9 7 2 ) . * See A p p e n d i x I Map B f o r G e o l o g y Map ( S c a l e : 1 : 5 0 , 0 0 0 ) . * * Map U n i t 2 c o n s i s t s o f a t h i n l a y e r o f M t . Whyte F o r m a t i o n u n d e r -l y i n g t h e C a t h e d r a l F o r m a t i o n . 23 B e d r o c k g e o l o g y i n f o r m a t i o n p r o v i d e s one c r i t e r i o n f o r t h e r a t i n g o f r e l a t i v e s u i t a b i l i t y o f t e r r a i n f o r r e c r e a t i o n a l p u r p o s e s . Drew (1973a) r a t e s t h e m a i n b e d r o c k t y p e s f o u n d i n Yoho V a l l e y a s f o l l o w s : I n t e r p r e t a t i o n D o l o m i t e & R e s i s t a n t and r u g g e d b u t s u i t a b l e f o r t r a i l s L i m e s t o n e and c o n s t r u c t i o n where n o t t o o s t e e p . S h a l e S o f t e r r o c k , e a s i l y e r o d e d and s u b j e c t t o s l u m p i n g when w e t . Can u s u a l l y c a r r y f o o t t r a i l s , b u t p o o r f o r h o r s e t r a i l s and c o n s t r u c t i o n . Q u a r t z i t e V e r y r e s i s t a n t and u s u a l l y r u g g e d . S u i t a b l e f o r t r a i l s and c o n s t r u c t i o n w h e r e n o t t o o s t e e p . A c c o r d i n g t o t h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , i f m o d e r a t e l y s l o p i n g , q u a r t z i t i c s a n d s t o n e s o f t h e Gog F o r m a t i o n a r e b e s t s u i t e d f o r m o s t r e c r e a t i o n a l p u r p o s e s . H o w e v e r , t h e r e s i s t a n c e o f t h e f o r m a t i o n t e n d s t o r e s u l t i n c l i f f - f o r m a t i o n o r e x c e s s i v e s t e e p n e s s r e l a t i v e t o t h e o t h e r f i n e r g r a i n e d , l e s s r e s i s t a n t f o r m a t i o n s . L i m e s t o n e s and d o l o m i t e s o f t h e C a t h e d r a l , E l d o n , P i k a , W a t e r f o w l , L y e l l , and M i s t a y a F o r m a t i o n s r a t e as m o d e r a t e l y s u i t a b l e f o r t r a i l s and c o n s t r u c t i o n . S h a l e s o f t h e M t . W h y t e , S t e p h e n , A r c t o m y s , S u l l i v a n , and B i s o n C r e e k F o r m a t i o n s a r e l e a s t s u i t a b l e f o r mos t r e c r e a t i o n a l p u r p o s e s r e l a t i v e t o t h e c o a r s e r g r a i n e d , more r e s i s t a n t b e d r o c k o f t h e o t h e r f o r m a t i o n s . C. S o i l s ^nd Landforms''' 1. Introduction The s o i l resources of Yoho Valley were inventoried and evaluated i n 1973 and 1974. This inventory was made to provide some basic s o i l and landform Information f o r management interpretations related to park recreation. The following section deals with the s o i l inventory procedures. The s o i l s of Yoho Valley are described, c l a s s i f i e d , and mapped i n the t h i r d section e n t i t l e d ' r esults'. In the l a s t section on 'interpretations', s o i l map units are evaluated to determine degree and nature of s o i l l i m i t a t i o n s for t r a i l and campground use. No systematic s o i l s or landform investigations had been previously .,. done i n either Yoho Valley or Yoho National Park. And, as Stevens (1966) aptly points out, s o i l surveys can be one of the most important c r i t e r i a management has to design, develop, and maintain recreation areas. Although Heusser (1956) studied some p o s t g l a c i a l environments i n the Canadian Rockies, no attempt was made to map landforms. His work included a thorough review of the l i t e r a t u r e . Some areas i n the Canadian Rockies where landforms have been mapped include Waterton Lakes National Park (Stalker 1958, 1961), Banff area (Rutter 1972 ) , , upper North Saskatchewan River Valley (McPherson 1970), and the Lake Louise -Eisenhower Junction area (Harris et a l 1973). 1/ A s o i l survey of Yoho National Park was i n i t i a t e d i n 1973 under the di r e c t i o n of Dr. Gerald M. Coen, Research S c i e n t i s t , Canada Depart-ment of Agriculture, S o i l Survey, Edmonton, Alberta. The project was commissioned by Parks Canada as part of t h e i r continuing program to develop a comprehensive resource inventory and assessment of national parks. Data presented i n t h i s section were col l e c t e d while the author was employed by Dr. Coen. 25 L o c a t i o n s w h e r e s o i l s have b e e n mapped i n t h e C a n a d i a n R o c k i e s i n c l u d e t h e N o r t h S a s k a t c h e w a n R i v e r V a l l e y ( P e t t a p i e c e 1 9 7 1 ) , W a t e r t o n L a k e s N a t i o n a l P a r k (Coen and H o l l a n d , i n p r e s s ) , K o o t e n a y N a t i o n a l P a r k ( B . C . D e p t . o f A g r i c u l t u r e , S o i l S u r v e y 1 9 7 3 ) , and t h e L a k e L o u i s e -E i s e n h o w e r J u n c t i o n a r e a ( H a r r i s e t a l 1 9 7 3 ) . . ' 2 . P r o c e d u r e s The p r o c e d u r e f o r s o i l m a p p i n g w a s , b a s i c a l l y , a s f o l l o w s : (1) e s t a b l i s h i n g a map l e g e n d a n d d e l i n e a t i n g map u n i t a r e a s w i t h s i m i l a r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t h r o u g h a i r p h o t o - i n t e r p r e t a t i o n ; and (2) f i e l d c h e c k i n g t h e a c c u r a c y o f m a p p i n g w h i l e d e s c r i b i n g and 2 c l a s s i f y i n g map u n i t a r e a s . The r e f e r e n c e u s e d f o r s o i l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n was Canada D e p a r t m e n t o f A g r i c u l t u r e ' s (1974) The S y s t e m o f S o i l C l a s s i f i c a t i o n f o r C a n a d a . . The t e r m i n o l o g y u s e d t o d e s c r i b e s o i l s a r e d e f i n e d i n t h i s p u b l i c a t i o n . M u n s e l l S o i l C o l o r C h a r t s (1954) were u s e d f o r s o i l c o l o r d e s c r i p t i o n s . F i e l d d e s c r i p t i o n s p r o v i d e d i n f o r m a t i o n o n s u c h i n t e r n a l s o i l p r o p e r t i e s a s h o r i z o n a t i o n , d e p t h , c o l o r , t e x t u r e , and d r a i n a g e . E x t e r n a l s o i l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s s u c h a s s l o p e , e l e v a t i o n , r o c k i n e s s , and a s s o c i a t e d v e g e t a t i o n o f e a c h map u n i t w e r e a l s o n o t e d . A b r i e f p r o f i l e d e s c r i p t i o n , b a s e d o u t h e m o d a l c o n c e p t o f a s o i l map u n i t , 3 i s . p r e s e n t e d f o r mos t map u n i t s . I n g e n e r a l , ' s o i l map u n i t s w e r e 2 / I t i s e m p h a s i z e d t h a t t h e s o i l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n and d e s c r i p t i o n s made i n t h i s t h e s e s a r e b a s e d o n f i e l d t e c h n i q u e s and p h o t o - i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . C o e n ' s r e p o r t ( i n p r o g r e s s ) on t h e s o i l s o f Y o h o N a t i o n a l P a r k w i l l c o n t a i n a d d i t i o n a l p h y s i c a l and c h e m i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n b a s e d o n l a b o r a t o r y a n a l y s i s . T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n may r e s u l t i n changes i n t h e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f some s o i l s i n Y o h o V a l l e y . 3 / D e t a i l e d s o i l p r o f i l e d e s c r i p t i o n s t h a t i n c l u d e i n f o r m a t i o n s u c h a s s o i l s t r u c t u r e , c o n s i s t e n c e , r o o t s and p o r e s , and r e a c t i o n c l a s s w i l l be p r e s e n t e d as a n a p p e n d i x t o C o e n ' s r e p o r t ( i n p r o g r e s s ) . 26 b r o a d l y d e f i n e d t o i n c l u d e a number o f d i f f e r e n t a r e a s i n t h e v a l l e y . I t was f e l t t h a t t o o many d i f f e r e n t m a p p i n g u n i t s w o u l d be d i f f i c u l t f o r p a r k p l a n n e r s and managers t o use and i n t e r p r e t . S o i l map u n i t s w e r e i n i t i a l l y s e p a r a t e d o n t h e b a s i s o f l a n d f o r m . They w e r e f u r t h e r c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y a d o m i n a n t t a x o n o m i c u n i t and b y a l i m i t e d v a r i a t i o n i n s u c h s o i l p r o p e r t i e s a s t e x t u r e and d r a i n a g e . The l a n d f o r m s e p a r a t i o n i s r o u g h l y e q u i v a l e n t t o t h e L e v e l 3 ( L a n d Sys t em) c a t e g o r y o f t h e B i o - p h y s i c a l L a n d C l a s s i f i c a t i o n ( L a c a t e 1 9 6 9 ) . The map u n i t s t h e m s e l v e s a r e s i m i l a r t o L e v e l 4 ( L a n d Type ) o f t h a t c l a s s -i f i c a t i o n s y s t e m . " B e c a u s e s l o p e i s a n i n t e g r a l p a r t o f t h e c o n c e p t o f a s o i l m a p p i n g u n i t " ( K n a p i k and Coen 1974 , p . 9 ) , s e p a r a t i o n s were a l s o made on t h e b a s i s o f t o p o g r a p h i c c l a s s e s . S l o p e a l s o a f f e c t s t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f s o i l s f o r r e c r e a t i o n (Montgomery and E d m i n s t e r 1 9 6 6 ) . A l t h o u g h a map u n i t c o n t a i n s a s i n g l e d o m i n a n t r e c o g n i z a b l e s o i l , i n c l u s i o n s o f o t h e r k i n d s o f s o i l s o r m i s c e l l a n e o u s l a n d t y p e s a c c o u n t f o r up t o 20% o f t h e m a p p i n g u n i t a r e a . Where a s o i l i n c l u s i o n a c c o u n t s f o r 20 - 50% o f a map u n i t , t h e s y m b o l r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e d o m i n a n t s o i l t y p e o n t h e s o i l map i s m o d i f i e d by a n o t h e r s y m b o l i n d i c a t i n g wha t t h e m a j o r i n c l u s i o n i s . F o r e x a m p l e , map u n i t " 8 R / G " i n d i c a t e s t h a t s o i l " 8 " a c c o u n t s f o r 50 - 80% o f t h e map u n i t , w h i l e m i s c e l l a n e o u s u n i t " R " ( b e d r o c k ) a c c o u n t ? f o r 20 - 50% o f t h e u n i t ; t h e d e n o m i n a t o r " G " i n d i c a t e s t h e d o m i n a n t t o p o g r a p h i c c l a s s o f t h e u n i t ( s e e T a b l e 3^  o r s o i l map u n i t l e g e n d ) . I n t h e c a s e o f map u n i t " R 8 / G " , t h e s i t u a t i o n i s r e v e r s e d w h i l e t h e t o p o g r a p h i c c l a s s r e m a i n s " G " . 27 3 . R e s u l t s A s o i l map o f Yoho V a l l e y and an a c c o m p a n y i n g l e g e n d a r e p r e s e n t e d i n A p p e n d i x I , Map C ( see r e a r j a c k e t ) and T a b l e 3 r e s p e c t i v e l y . The s o i l map i s p r e s e n t e d o n a s e m i - c o n t r o l l e d p h o t o - m o s a i c a t t h e s c a l e o f 1 : 5 0 , 0 0 0 . The l e g e n d c o n t a i n s s h o r t d e s c r i p t i o n s o f e a c h s o i l m a p p i n g u n i t ' s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , l a n d f o r m , h o r i z o n s e q u e n c e , t e x t u r e , c o a r s e f r a g -m e n t s , d r a i n a g e c l a s s , t o p o g r a p h y c l a s s , e l e v a t i o n r a n g e , and a s s o c i a t e d 4 5 v e g e t a t i o n . A d i s c u s s i o n and b r i e f p r o f i l e d e s c r i p t i o n o f e a c h m a p p i n g u n i t f o l l o w s . Map U n i t D e s c r i p t i o n s S o i l Map U n i t 1 ( G l e y s o l o r O r g a n i c ) : T h e s e p o o r l y and v e r y p o o r l y d r a i n e d s o i l s o c c u r on we t s u b a l p i n e meadows b e t w e e n 4500 and 6800 f e e t i n e l e v a t i o n ( s ee F i g u r e 1 2 ) . The s o i l p r o f i l e c o n s i s t s o f one o r more o f t h e f o l l o w i n g h o r i z o n s : O f , O h , A h , C k g . S o i l s i n t h i s u n i t a r e c l a s s i f i e d , a t t h e s o i l o r d e r l e v e l , as e i t h e r G l e y s o l s o r Q r g a h i c s , d e p e n d i n g on d e p t h of o r g a n i c m a t e r i a l . Thes e . s o i l s a r e s e p a r a t e d f r o m o t h e r map u n i t s o n t h e b a s i s o f d r a i n a g e , and d e p t h and amount o f o r g a n i c m a t t e r . G l e y i n g o r m o t t l i n g i s p r e s e n t i n t h e C J h o r i z o n due t o a n a e r o b i c c o n d i t i o n s c a u s e d b y a h i g h w a t e r t a b l e . P a r e n t m a t e r i a l i s a l l u v i u m o r t i l l s l o p e w a s h i n t h e c a s e o f G l e y s o l s ^ . The t e x t u r e o f t h e p a r e n t m a t e r i a l i s s i l t l o a m o r f i n e s a n d y l o a m w i t h few c o a r s e f r a g m e n t s . A l l u v i u m o r t i l l s l o p e w a s h m a t e r i a l may a l s o u n d e r l i e t h e o r g a n i c p a r e n t m a t e r i a l o f s o i l s m a k i n g t h e O r g a n i c o r d e r . 4 / P l a n t n o m e n c l a t u r e i s a c c o r d i n g t o H i t c h c o c k and C r o n q u i s t ( 1 9 7 3 ) . 5 / See M u n s e l l S o i l C o l o r C h a r t s (1954) f o r s o i l c o l o r d e f i n i t i o n s . TABLE 3 : LEGEND FOR SOIL MAP OF YOHO VALLEY Map . t Unit S o l i Subgroup Number C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Landform t Topo- Elevation t t Coarse ^ Drainage graphy Range Horizons Texture Fragments Class Class (feet) Dominant Vegetation ** Clcysol or Organic** A l l u v i a l Plain or Organic (Of), (Oh), S i l t o F S L , (Ah),(Ckg) Organic Cuoulic Regosol A l l u v i a l Plain Cumulic Regosol A l l u v i a l Fan Degraded Eutric Glacio-Fluvial Brunisol Plain Cumulic Regosol C o l l u v l a l Slope Cumulic Regosol Colluvlal Slope L-F, Ck L-F, Ck L-F, Ac, Bm, Ck (I,-H),Ah,Ck L-F, Ck FSL / LS 0-5X / > 50% L to SL 20-50X SL to LS L to SL SL 0- 5X D5-D6 B to E 4500-6800 D2-D4 B 4500-6800 D3 C to F 4500-6500 20-50X ' D2 B to C 4500-5500 20-50Z D2 . G to H 4500-6500 > 502 D2 G to H 4500-6500 7 Degraded Eutric C o l l u v l a l Slope L-F, Aej, L to SL 20-50Z D2 G to H 4500-6500 Brunisol Bm, Ck 8 Orthlc Humo- Moralnal Slope L-H, Ae, SiL to L 20-50X D2 E to H 4500-6500 Ferric Podzol Bf.BC.Ck Degraded Eutric C o l l u v l a l Slope L-F,(Ah), L to SL 20-50X D2 C to H 6500-7200 Brunisol or Regosol (Aej),(Bm),Ck 10 Mini Humo- Moralnal Slope L-F, (Ah), SiL to L 20-50X D2 F to H 6500-7200 . Ferric Podzol AeJ.Bf.BC.Ck 11 Alpine Eutric C o l l u v l a l Slope (L-F),Ah, L to SL 20-50* D2 G to H > 7200 Brunisol Bm, Ck 12 Alpine Eutric Moralnal Slope (L-F),All, SiL to L 20-50Z • D2 F to H > 7200 Brunisol Bm,(BC),Ck 13 L i t h i c Alpine Moralnal or (L-F),Ah, SiL to SL 20-50* D2-D3 F to H >7200 Eutric Brunisol Colluvlal Slope Bm,Bedrock Miscellaneous Map Units Texture Drainage Class Topography Class H Moraine SIL: s i l t loam D2:-Wcll Drained B : 0 - 2Z ES : P Cobble Land FSL : fine Bandy D3: Moderately Well Drained C ! 2 - 5 1 SF : T Talus loam U4: Imperfectly Drained D : 5 - n Lf : R Bedrock L 1 loam Di: Poorly Drained E : 9 - 15* L Lake SL : sandy loam D6: Very Poorly Drained F : 15 - 30Z Ice Icefield or . LS : loamy sand G : 30 - 60X Clacier H : > 60% Sedges and sphagnum mosses LP, ES, juniper, dryaa Varinble ES, SF, LP, Menzlesia, Rhododendron Alder, avalanche area Variable ES, SF, Mcnziesla, Rhododendron ES, SF, Menzlesia, Rhododendron ES, SF, Heathers, Vacclnlum ES, SF, Heathers, Vacclnlum Heathers, Vacclnlum Heathers, Vacclnlum Heathers, Vacclnlum Ablea laslocarpa Pinus contorta 9 Example: 8R. m s o l i + Inclusion. " . G topography class ; also see pw 26. * See Canada Department of Agriculture (1974) for further def i n i t i o n s . ** Classified at S o i l Order l e v e l . O r g a n i c s o i l s and mos t G l e y s o l s o c c u r i n d e p r e s s i o n a l b a s i n s t h a t a r e g e n t l y t o v e r y g e n t l y s l o p i n g . Some G l e y s o l s o c c u r i n a r e a s o f g r o u n d -w a t e r d i s c h a r g e t h a t a r e m o d e r a t e l y t o s t r o n g l y s l o p i n g . The s m a l l wet meadows t h a t c o m p r i s e t h i s u n i t a c c o u n t f o r a r o u n d 0 . 2 s q u a r e m i l e s . The d o m i n a n t v e g e t a t i o n o f map u n i t 1 c o n s i s t s o f s e d g e s ( C a r e x s p p . ) , and sphagnum mosses (Sphagnum s p p . ) , w i t h some s t u n t e d and w i d e l y s p a c e d s p r u c e ( P i c e a s p . ) . A s s o c i a t e d s h r u b s i n c l u d e s c r u b b i r c h ( B e t u l a  g l a n d u l o s a ) , L a b r a d o r t e a (Ledum s p . ) , and w i l l o w s ( S a l i x s p p . ) . H e r b a c e o u s p l a n t s t h a t grow o n t h e s e s o i l s i n c l u d e w h i t e r e i n o r c h i d ( H a b e n a r i a d i l a t a t a ) and c o t t o n g r a s s ( E r i o p h o r u m s p . ) . The h i g h w a t e r t a b l e t h r o u g h o u t t h e s e a s o n o f summer u s e and t h e h i g h o r g a n i c m a t t e r c o n t e n t o f t h e s e s o i l s r e s u l t s i n l o w b e a r i n g c a p a c i t y and r e d u c e d s o i l s t r e n g t h . These p r o p e r t i e s s e v e r e l y r e s t r i c t t h i s u n i t ' s c a p a b i l i t y t o s u p p o r t most r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s . S o i l Map U n i t 2 ( C u m u l i c R e g o s o l on a l l u v i a l p l a i n ) : T h e s e w e l l t o i m p e r f e c t l y d r a i n e d s o i l s o c c u r o n r e c e n t a l l u v i u m m a t e r i a l m a r g i n a l t o ' s t r e a m : ^ e f i a h n e l s ' ' b e t w e e n ' 4 5 0 0 ; and 6800: f e e t i n e l e v a - ' t i o n . H o r i z o n d e v e l o p m e n t i s weak due t o p e r i o d i c f l o o d i n g w i t h r e d e p o s i -t i o n o f p a r e n t m a t e r i a l . S o i l p r o f i l e c o n s i s t s o f a t h i n undecomposed o r p a r t i a l l y decomposed l i t t e r l a y e r ( L - F ) , and a s t r o n g l y c a l c a r e o u s m i n e r a l h o r i z o n (Ck) c o m p a r a t i v e l y u n a f f e c t e d b y p e d o g e n i c p r o c e s s e s . These s o i l s a r e c l a s s i f i e d a s C u m u l i c R e g o s o l s . I m p e r f e c t l y d r a i n e d s o i l s i n t h i s u n i t a r e c l a s s i f i e d a s G l e y e d R e g o s o l s when t h e C h o r i z o n i s m o t t l e d . The f o l l o w i n g i s a b r i e f p r o f i l e d e s c r i p t i o n t y p i c a l o f t h i s u n i t : * H o r i z o n D e p t h (cm) T e x t u r e C . F . (%) C o l o r L - F C k l Ck2 2 - 0 0 - 2 5 25+ f s l I s 5 70 y e l l o w i s h b r o w n * C o a r s e F r a g m e n t s 30 The s o i l s o f map u n i t 2 d e v e l o p on a v e r y g e n t l y s l o p i n g a l l u v i a l p l a i n l a n d f o r m . The t e x t u r e o f t h e s e s o i l s u s u a l l y c o n s i s t s o f a s h a l l o w f i n e s andy l o a m l a y e r o v e r l y i n g v e r y g r a v e l l y l o a m y sand m a t e r i a l a t l e s s t h a n 75 c e n t i m e t e r s i n d e p t h . T h i s u n i t a c c o u n t s f o r a p p r o x i m a t e l y 0 . 2 s q u a r e m i l e s o f a r e a i n Y o h o V a l l e y . V e g e t a t i o n o n t h i s s o i l v a r i e s c o n s i d e r a b l y d e p e n d i n g o n a number o f e n v i r o n m e n t a l f a c t o r s s u c h a s f r e q u e n c y o f f l o o d i n g , d e p t h t o g r a v e l , and d e p t h t o w a t e r t a b l e . S t u n t e d l o d g e p o l e p i n e ( P i n u s c o n t o r t a ) and s p r u c e a r e t h e m a i n t r e e s p e c i e s e n c o u n t e r e d . O t h e r v e g e t a t i o n t h a t c a n be f o u n d i n c l u d e common j u n i p e r ( J u n i p e r u s c o m m u n i s ) , s h r u b b y c i n q u e f o i l ( P o t e n t i l l a  f r u t i c o s a ) , s c r u b b i r c h , w i l l o w s , y e l l o w d r y a s ( D r y a s d r u m m o n d i i ) , and s t r a w b e r r y ( F r a g a r i a v e s c a ) . The h i g h s u s c e p t i b i l i t y o f t h e s e s o i l s t o f l o o d i n g d u r i n g t h e summer s e a s o n o f u s e p r e s e n t s a l i m i t a t i o n f o r mos t r e c r e a t i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t . V i s i t o r s a f e t y c o u l d a l s o be a p r o b l e m due t o u n e x p e c t e d f l a s h f l o o d s . S o i l Map U n i t 3 ( C u m u l i c R e g o s o l o n a l l u v i a l f a n ) : T h e s e m o d e r a t e l y w e l l d r a i n e d s o i l s o c c u r o n a l l u v i a l f a n s l o c a t e d b e t w e e n 4500 and 6500 f e e t i n e l e v a t i o n ( s e e F i g u r e 1 3 ) . P r o f i l e s c o n s i s t o f an L - F h o r i z o n o v e r l y i n g one o r more Ck h o r i z o n s . T h e s e s o i l s a r e c l a s s i f i e d as C u m u l i c R e g o s o l s . T h e y a r e d i f f e r e n t i a t e d f r o m o t h e r C u m u l i c R e g o s o l s on t h e b a s i s o f l a n d f o r m and t o p o g r a p h y . W h i l e map u n i t 2 o c c u r s o n v e r y g e n t l y s l o p i n g (B) a l l u v i a l p l a i n s and map u n i t 5 and 6 o c c u r o n v e r y s t e e p l y t o e x t r e m e l y s l o p i n g (G t o H) c o l l u v i a l s l o p e s , map u n i t 3 o c c u r s on g e n t l y t o s t e e p l y s l o p i n g (C t o F ) a l l u v i a l f a n s . The t e x t u r e o f t h i s u n i t , when d e s c r i b e d a t m i d - f a n p o s i t i o n , i s g e n e r a l l y g r a v e l l y l o a m . S o i l t e x t u r e , h o w e v e r , v a r i e s c o n s i d e r a b l y F i g u r e 1 2 : I n c l u s i o n o f S o i l Map U n i t 1 F i g u r e 1 3 : S o i l Map U n i t 3 / C f r o m f a n t o f a n and i n t e r n a l l y w i t h i n a p a r t i c u l a r f a n . C o a r s e r m a t e r i a l c o n c e n t r a t e s a l o n g s t r e a m c h a n n e l s w i t h f i n e r m a t e r i a l s p r e a d i n g o u t f r o m t h e r e . T h u s , mos t f a n s c a n v a r y f r o m c o b b l e l a n d a t i t s a p e x t o s i l t l o a m w i t h few c o a r s e f r a g m e n t s a t t h e f a n a p r o n . V e g e t a t i v e a s s o c i a t i o n s v a r y c o n s i d e r a b l y on a l l u v i a l f a n s . T h i s u n i t a c c o u n t s f o r a p p r o x i m a t e l y 0 . 3 s q u a r e m i l e s o f a r e a i n Yoho V a l l e y . The a r e a a r o u n d t h e s t r e a m c h a n n e l o f a f a n i s more u n s t a b l e and more s u b j e c t t o e r o s i o n t h a n t h e o u t e r edge o f t h e f a n as i t i s more s u s c e p t i b l e t o f l o o d i n g and s t e e p e r . F i n e t e x t u r e s and i m p e r f e c t d r a i n a g e a r e common l i m i t a t i o n s t o r e c r e a t i o n use on the f a n a p r o n . S o i l Map U n i t 4 ( D e g r a d e d E u t r i c B r u n i s o l on g l a c i o - f l u v i a l p l a i n ) : T h e s e w e l l d r a i n e d s o i l s o c c u r o n g l a c i o - f l u v i a l m a t e r i a l b e t w e e n 4500 a n d 6500 f e e t i n e l e v a t i o n . The s o i l p r o f i l e c o n s i s t s o f a L - F , A e , Bm, I I B C , and I I C ^ h o r i z o n s e q u e n c e . The t h i n Ae and Bm h o r i z o n s a r e g e n e r a l l y d e v e l o p e d i n s i l t l o a m t e x t u r e d a e o l i a n m a t e r i a l o v e r l y i n g g r a v e l l y s a n d y l o a m o u t w a s h . T h e s e g e n t l y and v e r y g e n t l y s l o p i n g s o i l s a r e c l a s s i f i e d a s D e g r a d e d E u t r i c B r u n i s o l s . The f o l l o w i n g i s a b r i e f p r o f i l e d e s c r i p t i o n o f a t y p i c a l u n i t 4 : H o r i z o n D e p t h (cm) C o l o r T e x t u r e C . F . (%) T r e e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h i s u n i t a r e s p r u c e ( P i c e a e n g e l m a n n i i ) , s u b a l p i n e f i r ( A b i e s l a s i o c a r p a ) , and some l o d g e p o l e p i n e . M e n z i e s i a ( M e n z i e s i a f e r r u g i n e a ) , w h i t e r h o d o d e n d r o n ( R h o d o d e n d r o n a l b i f l o r u m ) , L - F Ae Bm 3 - 0 0 - 2 2 - 1 5 15 - 25 25+ l i g h t g r a y s t r o n g b r o w n y e l l o w i s h b r o w n l i g h t o l i v e b r o w n L S i L SL SL <5 5 20 40 33 c o p p e r b u s h ( C l a d o t h a m u s p y r o l a e f l o r u s ) , and g r o u s e b e r r y ( V a c c i n i u m  s c o p a r i u m ) a r e some o f t h e d o m i n a n t s h r u b s f o u n d h e r e . G r o u n d c o v e r p l a n t s i n c l u d e b u n c h b e r r y o r d w a r f dogwood (Cpr r ius c a n a d e n s i s ) , s t r a w b e r r y , c l u b m o s s ( L y c o p o d i u m s p p ' . ) , a r n i c a ( A r n i c a s p p . ) , f r i n g e c u p ( L i t h o p h r a g m a s p . ) , and a s p h o d e l ( T o f i e l d i a s p . ) . L i k e f l u v i a l map u n i t s 1, 2 , and 3 , t h i s g l a c i o - f l u v i a l u n i t i s o f m i n o r a r e a l e x t e n t , c o m p r i s i n g a p p r o x i m a t e l y 0 . 3 s q u a r e m i l e s o f a r e a . The p r o p e r t i e s o f t h e s e s o i l s p r e s e n t few l i m i t a t i o n s f o r r e c r e a t i o n a l u s e . S o i l Map U n i t 5 ( C u m u l i c R e g o s o l o n c o l l u v i a l a v a l a n c h e s l o p e ) : T h e s e w e l l d r a i n e d s o i l s o c c u r o n c o l l u v i a t e d m o u n t a i n s i d e s , b e t w e e n 4500*and 6 5 0 0 ' ( s e e F i g u r e 1 4 ) , t h a t h a v e b e e n p e r i o d i c a l l y d i s t u r b e d b y snow a v a l a n c h e s . The s o i l s a r e c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a d a r k c o l o r e d , r e l a t i v e l y d e e p , n o n t u r f y A h h o r i z o n . T h e y a r e c l a s s i f i e d a s C u m u l i c R e g o s o l s . The f o l l o w i n g i s a b r i e f p r o f i l e d e s c r i p t i o n : H o r i z o n D e p t h (cm) C o l o r T e x t u r e C . F . (%) L - H 2 - 0 A h 0 - 1 5 b l a c k L 20 A C k 1 5 - 3 0 d a r k g r a y i s h b r o w n L 30 C k 30+ l i g h t o l i v e b r o w n L 40 The s o i l s o f t h i s u n i t d e v e l o p o n g r e a t e r t h a n 30% s l o p e s . T h i s u n i t c o m p r i s e s a p p r o x i m a t e l y 2 s q u a r e m i l e s o f Yoho V a l l e y . The v e g e t a t i o n a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h i s u n i t i s v e r y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c , c o n s i s t i n g o f dense s c r u b b y a l d e r ( A l n u s s p p . ) s t a n d s and open a r e a s l u x u r i o u s l y c o v e r e d w i t h a v a r i e t y o f p l a n t s . A l t h o u g h s c r u b b y s p r u c e and s u b a l p i n e f i r c a n o c c u r , no t r e e c o v e r e x i s t s due t o p e r i o d i c w i n t e r snow a v a l a n c h e s . P l a n t s f o u n d h e r e i n c l u d e cow p a r s n i p ( H e r a c l e u m l a n a t u m ) , b l a c k t w i n b e r r y ( L o n i c e r a i n v o l u c r a t a ) , y a r r o w ( A c h i l l e a m i l l e f o l i u m ) , D e v i l ' s c l u b ( O p l o p a n a x h o r r i d u s ) , meadow r u e ( T h a l i c t r u m s p . ) , B i s h o p ' s cap ( M i t e l l a s p . ) , s t r a w b e r r y , c u r r e n t s ( R i b e s s p p . ) , r u b u s (Rubus s p p . ) , v a c c i n i u m ( V a c c i n i u m s p p . ) , and t h e f o l l o w i n g m o n o c o t s : t w i s t e d s t a l k ( S t r e p t o p u s a m p l e x i f o l i u s ) , f a l s e S o l o m o n ' s s e a l ( S m i l a c i n a a m p l e x i c a u l i s ) , and I n d i a n h e l l e b o r e ( V e r a t r u m s p . ) . B r a c k e n f e r n ( P t e r i d i u m a q u i l i n u m ) i s a l s o a b u n d a n t h e r e . The s o i l s o f map u n i t 5 a r e c o n s i d e r e d v e r y u n s t a b l e due t o h i g h a v a l a n c h e h a z a r d and v e r y s t e e p t o e x t r e m e s l o p e s . The c o n s i d e r a b l e s o i l c r e e p t h a t c a n b e o b s e r v e d i s e v i d e n c e o f t h i s i n s t a b i l i t y . T h e n o n - t u r f y A h , w i t h a l o w b u l k d e n s i t y , i s e a s i l y e r o d e d on t h e s e v e r y s t e e p s l o p e s once t h e s u r f a c e i s d i s t u r b e d and a r t i f i c i a l d r a i n a g e c h a n n e l s ( l i k e h i k i n g t r a i l s ) a r e e s t a b l i s h e d . S o i l Map U n i t 6 ( C u m u l i c R e g o s o l on c o l l u v i a l s l o p e ) : T hese w e l l d r a i n e d s o i l s o c c u r on g r a v e l l y c o l l u v i u m b e t w e e n 4500 a n d 6500 f e e t i n e l e v a t i o n ( s e e F i g u r e 1 5 ) . The s o i l s a r e c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y a h i g h p e r c e n t a g e o f c o a r s e f r a g m e n t s ( g r e a t e r t h a n 50%). S o i l s a r e c l a s s i -f i e d a s C u m u l i c R e g o s o l s , w i t h a L - F , n o n - t u r f y A h k , Ck t y p e o f p r o f i l e . V e g e t a t e d t a l u s a c c u m u l a t i o n s u n d e r b e d r o c k c l i f f s r e p r e s e n t s t h e c e n t r a l c o n c e p t o f t h i s m a p p i n g u n i t . The f o l l o w i n g i s a b r i e f p r o f i l e d e s c r i p t i o n o f map u n i t 6 : H o r i z o n D e p t h (cm) C o l o r T e x t u r e C . F . (%) L - F 3 - 0 Ahk 0 -5 d a r k g r a y i s h b r o w n SL 75 Ck 5+ o l i v e g r a y SL 85 J O The s o i l s o f t h i s u n i t d e v e l o p on g r e a t e r t h a n 30% s l o p e s . T h i s u n i t a c c o u n t s f o r a p p r o x i m a t e l y 2 s q u a r e m i l e s o f a r e a . The v e g e t a t i o n i s e x t r e m e l y v a r i e d d e p e n d i n g on t h e d e g r e e o f c o l l u v i a l a c t i v i t y and m o i s t u r e b a l a n c e . The s c a t t e r e d t r e e l a y e r i n c l u d e s s p r u c e , s u b a l p i n e f i r , and some p i n e and a l d e r . The s t e e p s l o p e s and h i g h p e r c e n t a g e o f c o a r s e f r a g m e n t s t h a t c h a r a c -t e r i z e t h i s u n i t p r e s e n t s e v e r e l i m i t a t i o n s f o r r e c r e a t i o n a l u s e . The s o i l i s h i g h l y u n s t a b l e w i t h o u t f i n e t e x t u r e d s o i l m a t e r i a l t o b i n d t h e p r e d o m -i n a n t l y c o b b l e - s i z e d f r a g m e n t s t o g e t h e r . S o i l Map U n i t 7 (Deg raded E u t r i c B r u n i s o l o n c o l l u v i a l s l o p e ) : T h e s e w e l l d r a i n e d s o i l s d e v e l o p o n c o l l u v i u m o r s t e e p l a n d d r i f t p a r e n t m a t e r i a l b e t w e e n 4500 and 6500 f e e t i n e l e v a t i o n . Compared t o map u n i t s 5 and 6 , map u n i t 7 i s r e l a t i v e l y s t a b l e , w i t h enough s o i l d e v e l o p -ment o c c u r r i n g t o g i v e r i s e t o a n A e j and Bm h o r i z o n s . The B h o r i z o n i s u s u a l l y a m i x t u r e o f a e o l i a n and t i l l m a t e r i a l t h a t h a s s u b s e q u e n t l y b e e n r e d e p o s i t e d d o w n s l o p e b y g r a v i t a t i o n a l a c t i o n . Th es e s o i l s a r e c l a s s i f i e d as D e g r a d e d E u t r i c B r u n i s o l s . The f o l l o w i n g i s a b r i e f p r o f i l e d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h i s u n i t : H o r i z o n D e p t h (cm) C o l o r T e x t u r e C . F . ( % ) L - F 3 - 0 A e j 0 - 1 l i g h t g r a y L <5 Bm 1-15 y e l l o w i s h b r o w n t o s t r o n g b r o w n L 10 Ck 15+ l i g h t y e l l o w i s h b r o w n L 40 These s o i l s a r e v e r y s t e e p l y t o e x t r e m e l y s l o p i n g . T h i s u n i t a c c o u n t s f o r a p p r o x i m a t e l y 1 s q u a r e m i l e o f a r e a i n Yoho V a l l e y . P l a n t s p e c i e s commonly o b s e r v e d o n t h e s e s o i l s a r e s i m i l a r t o t h o s e l i s t e d w i t h map u n i t 8 . B e c a u s e o f s o i l c r e e p , g r o u n d c o v e r i s more d i s t u r b e d i n t h i s u n i t , and s h r u b b y s p e c i e s l i k e m e n z i e s i a and w h i t e r h o d o d e n d r o n a r e r e l a t i v e l y more d o m i n a n t h e r e . 37 The steep c o l l u v i a l slopes and r e s u l t i n g s o i l i n s t a b i l i t y character-i s t i c of t h i s u n i t are the major l i m i t i n g f a c t o r s to r e c r e a t i o n a l use. The removal of p r o t e c t i v e plant cover w i l l r e s u l t i n a high s u s c e p t i b i l i t y to erosion. S o i l Map Unit 8 (Orthic Humo-Ferric Podzol on morainal sl o p e ) : These w e l l drained s o i l s have developed on morainal slopes between 4500 and 6500 f e e t i n e l e v a t i o n (see Figure 16). The morphological expressions of these s o i l s are strong r e l a t i v e to other s o i l s presumably because these s o i l s are r e l a t i v e l y s t a b l e . S o i l s i n t h i s u n i t are characterized by an L-H, Ae, Bf, IIBm and/or IIBCk, and IlCk horizon sequence, with the Ae and Bm horizons u s u a l l y developed i n aeo l i a n overlay m a t e r i a l , or an a e o l i a n - t i l l mixture. The lower horizons are^ developed i n g r a v e l l y s i l t loam t i l l . These s o i l s are c l a s s i f i e d as Orthic Humo-F e r r i c Podzols > with some Degraded E u t r i c B r u n i s o l s . The f o l l o w i n g i s a b r i e f p r o f i l e description of t h i s uniti; Horizon Depth (cm) Color Texture C.F.(%) The strongly to extremely sloping s o i l s i n t h i s u n i t represent the l a r g e s t area of any s o i l map u n i t i n Yoho V a l l e y . Approximately 8 square miles of the v a l l e y are mapped e i t h e r as map un i t 8 or 8R. The two main trees associated with these s o i l s are spruce and subalpine f i r . The dominant shrubs include menziesia, white rhododendron, copper bush, grouseberry, black twinberry, and rubus. The ground cover i s commonly composed of the following p l a n t s : bunchberry, twin flower (Linnaea  b o r e a l i s ) , k i n n i k i n n i c k (Arctostaphylos u v a - u r s i ) , meadow rue, mountain L-H \ 3-0 Ae 0- 3 Bf 3-15 IIBm (IIBCk) 15-30 IlCk • 30+ l i g h t gray strong brown to yellowish red yellowish brown l i g h t o l i v e brown SiL SiL SiL L <5 5 20 30 v a l e r i a n ( V a l e r i a n s i t c h e n s i s ) , g l o b e f l o w e r ( T r o l l i u s l a x u s ) , foam f l o w e r ( T i a r e l l a s p . ) , b u t t e r c u p ( R a n u n c u l u s s p p . ) » c o l t s f o o t ( P e t a s i t e s s p . ) > p e d i c u l a r i s ( P e d i c u l a r i s s p p . ) , f r i n g e c u p , a s p h o d e l , B i s h o p ' s c a p , a r n i c a , c u r r e n t s , c l u b m o s s , m o s s e s , and l i c h e n s . S t e e p s l o p e s a r e t h e p r i m e l i m i t i n g f a c t o r f o r r e c r e a t i o n a l u se i n t h i s map u n i t . The s t e e p e r t h e s l o p e , t h e l e s s s t a b l e t h e s o i l r e s u l t i n g i n a h i g h e r s u s c e p t i b i l i t y t o e r o s i o n . W i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f map u n i t 4 , t h e s e s o i l s , i n g e n e r a l , a r e b e t t e r s u i t e d f o r r e c r e a t i o n a l u s e t h a n a n y o t h e r map u n i t i n Y o h o V a l l e y . S o i l Map U n i t 9 (Deg raded E u t r i c B r u n i s o l o n c o l l u v i a l s l o p e ) : T h e s e w e l l d r a i n e d s o i l s o c c u r o n c o l l u v i a l s l o p e s b e t w e e n 6500 and 7200 f e e t i n e l e v a t i o n . B e c a u s e o f t h e p r e s e n c e o f a m a t t e d h e a t h e r g r o u n d c o v e r a t t h e s e e l e v a t i o n s , a t u r f y Ah h o r i z o n u s u a l l y d e v e l o p s . T h i s t u r f y A h s u r f a c e a c t s t o h o l d t h e s o i l t o g e t h e r , e v e n o n v e r y s t e e p l y and e x t r e m e l y s l o p i n g t e r r a i n , t h u s r e s i s t i n g w i n d and w a t e r e r o s i o n and p e r m i t t i n g t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f a Bm h o r i z o n . M o s t s o i l s d e v e l o p e d o n h i g h e l e v a t i o n ( t i m b e r l i n e o r n e a r t i m b e r l i n e ) c o l l u v i u m , t h e r e f o r e , make a D e g r a d e d E u t r i c o r O r t h i c E u t r i c B r u n i s o l . L i k e map u n i t 7 , t h e B h o r i z o n i s u s u a l l y a m i x t u r e o f a e o l i a n and t i l l m a t e r i a l t h a t h a s s u b s e q u e n t l y b e e n moved d o w n s l o p e . Some v e r y u n s t a b l e , e x t r e m e l y s l o p i n g s o i l s i n t h i s m a p p i n g u n i t , i n t a l u s - l i k e l a n d s c a p e p o s i t i o n s ( l i k e map u n i t 6 ) , a r e c l a s s i f i e d a s C u m u l i c R e g o s o l s . The f o l l o w i n g i s a b r i e f p r o f i l e d e s c r i p t i o n o f s o i l map u n i t 9 : H o r i z o n D e p t h (cm) C o l o r T e x t u r e C . F . (%) L - F 1 - 0 Ah 0 - 2 d a r k b r o w n L <5 A e j 2 - 3 p i n k i s h g r a y L <5 Bm 3 - 1 5 y e l l o w i s h b r o w n L 10 Ck 15+ l i g h t o l i v e b r o w n L 40 3 9 The vegetation associated with t h i s u n i t i s s i m i l a r to that described i n map u n i t 1 0 . The increased s o i l creep associated with these c o l l u v i a l slopes r e s u l t i n more scattered or sparser vegetation than with map u n i t 1 0 . A l a r g e r v a r i e t y of vegetative patterns also r e s u l t , depending on the i n t e n s i t y and frequency o f downslope s o i l movement. Map u n i t 9 accounts f o r approximately 3 square miles of area i n Yoho V a l l e y . These s o i l s are generally unsuitable f o r r e c r e a t i o n a l use. Once the t h i n , t u r f y Ah i s removed, as i t i s with t r a i l c o nstruction, the exposed mineral horizons become h i g h l y susceptible to erosion, e s p e c i a l l y on the very steep c o l l u v i a l slopes c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of t h i s map u n i t . S o i l Map Unit 10 (Mini Humo-Ferric Podzol on morainal sl o p e ) : These w e l l drained s o i l s develop OK: high, e l e v a t i o n t i l l between 6 5 0 0 and 7 2 0 0 f e e t i n e l e v a t i o n (see Figure 1 7 ) . As with map u n i t 9 , a t u r f y Ah horizon u s u a l l y develops. In t h i s u n i t , the Ah generally o v e r l i e s the following horizon sequence: Aej, ! Bf, IIBm or IlBClc,, and TICk.. Life©, map u n i t 8 , the Bf horizon generally develops In aeoli a n . material- or a a e o l i a n -t i l l mixture. Most of the s o i l s a ssociated with map u n i t 1 0 are c l a s s i f i e d as Mini Humo-Ferric Podzols with some Orthic Humo-Ferric Podzols and Degraded E u t r i c Brunisols as i n c l u s i o n s . The f o l l o w i n g i s a b r i e f p r o f i l e d e s c r i p t i o n of t h i s u n i t : Horizon Depth (cm) Color Texture C.F.(%) The s o i l s of map u n i t 10 occur on slopes of greater than 15%. The u n i t accounts f o r approximately 4 square miles of area, i n Yoho V a l l e y . L-F 1 - 0 Ah 0 - 4 Aej 4 - 6 Bf(h) 6 - 1 5 IIBm (IIBCk) 1 5 - 3 0 dark reddish brown p i n k i s h gray reddish brown to brown yellowish brown l i g h t o l i v e brown SiL SiL SiL L L <5 < 5 5 2 0 3 0 F i g u r e 16-: S o i l Map U n i t 8 / G ( S p r u c e - F i r , M e n z i e s i a , R h o d o d e n d r o n ) F i g u r e 17 : S o i l Map U n i t 1 0 / G ( S p r u c e - F i r , H e a t h e r s ) •41 S p r u c e and s u b a l p i n e f i r a r e t h e two d o m i n a n t t r e e s p e c i e s f o u n d ; w h i t e b a r k p i n e ( P i n u s a l b i c a u l i s ) c a n a l s o o c c u r . Due t o a s h o r t e r p l a n t g r o w i n g s e a s o n , t h e s i t e i n d e x o f t h i s n e a r - t i m b e r l i n e f o r e s t i s l o w e r t h a n t h a t o f map u n i t 8 ( s e e s e c t i o n on f l o r a ) . C o n s e q u e n t l y , t r e e s a r e r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l e r and more w i d e l y s p a c e d , whereas t h e u n d e r s t o r y o f map u n i t 8 i s d o m i n a t e d b y s h r u b s , t h e u n d e r s t o r y o f u n i t 10 i s d o m i n a t e d more b y h e a t h e r s and o t h e r l o w - g r o w i n g h e r b a c e o u s p l a n t s . H e a t h e r s commonly o b s e r v e d h e r e i n c l u d e w h i t e h e a t h e r ( C a s s i o p e m e r t e n s i a n a ) , r e d h e a t h e r ( P h y l l o d o c e e m p e t r i f o r m i s ) , k i n n i k i n n i c k , t w i n f l o w e r , and v a c c i n i u m . O t h e r p l a n t s f o u n d h e r e i n c l u d e p e d i c u l a r i s , I n d i a n p a i n t b r u s h ( C a s t i l l e j a s p . ) , snow l i l y ( E r y t h r o n i u m g r a n d i f l o r u m ) , anemone (Anemone s p p . ) , a s t e r A s t e r s p p . ) , a r n i c a , and s c r u b s l i k e m e n z i e s i a , w h i t e r h o d o d e n d r o n , and g r o u s e b e r r y . A s w i t h map u n i t 9 , t h e s e s o i l s become s u s c e p t i b l e t o e r o s i o n and r u n - o f f once t h e t h i n , t u r f y Ah h o r i z o n i s r e m o v e d . T h i s p r o b l e m i n t e n s i f i e s as s l o p e s g e t s t e e p e r . On F s l o p e s b e t w e e n 15-30%, t h i s does n o t p r e s e n t a s e v e r e l i m i t a t i o n f o r t r a i l u s e . S o i l Map U n i t 11 ( A l p i n e E u t r i c B r u n i s o l on c o l l u v i a l s l o p e ) : T h e s e w e l l d r a i n e d s o i l s d e v e l o p o n c o l l u v i u m i n a l p i n e a r e a s o v e r 7200 f e e t i n e l e v a t i o n . A r e l a t i v e l y t h i c k , t u r f y Ah s u r f a c e h o r i z o n o v e r l i e s a Bm and Ck h o r i z o n . A l a r g e amount o f t h e m a t e r i a l i n t h e B h o r i z o n o r i g i n a t e d f r o m a e o l i a n d e p o s i t s . T h i s u n i t i s d i f f e r e n t i a t e d f r o m map u n i t 9 b y t h e t h i c k n e s s o f t h e Ah h o r i z o n , b y t h e l a c k o f a n L - F h o r i z o n , b y t h e u s u a l l a c k o f a n Ae h o r i z o n , and b y o c c u r r i n g above t i m b e r l i n e w i t h a l p i n e v e g e t a t i o n . S o i l s i n t h i s u n i t a r e c l a s s i f i e d as A l p i n e E u t r i c B r u n i s o l s . 42 The f o l l o w i n g i s a b r i e f p r o f i l e d e s c r i p t i o n t y p i c a l o f t h e u n i t : H o r i z o n D e p t h (cm) C o l o r T e x t u r e C . F . (%) Ah 0 - 1 0 d a r k b r o w n . L 5 Bm 10 -25 b r o w n L 5 Ck 25+ l i g h t y e l l o w i s h b r o w n . L 30 T h i s u n i t o c c u r s i n one l o c a t i o n , a 0 . 5 s q u a r e m i l e a r e a o n t h e w e s t f a c i n g s l o p e s o f M t . Ogden i n t h e s o u t h e r n end o f t h e v a l l e y . The s o i l s h e r e a r e , h o w e v e r , s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h e a l p i n e s o i l s d e v e l o p e d on t i l l p a r e n t m a t e r i a l (map u n i t 12) o r l i t h i c a l p i n e s o i l s w i t h b e d r o c k c o n t a c t a t l e s s t h a n 50 c e n t i m e t e r s i n d e p t h (map u n i t 1 3 ) . No t r e e s grow o n t h e s e s o i l s . V e g e t a t i o n c o n s i s t s l a r g e l y o f t h e u n d e r s t o r y h e a t h e r s l i s t e d f o r s o i l , map u n i t 10 and a g a i n m e n t i o n e d i n t h e v e g e t a t i v e d e s c r i p t i o n o f map u n i t 1 2 . The s o i l s a r e l i m i t e d f o r r e c r e a t i o n b e c a u s e o f t h e v e r y s t e e p s l o p e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f t h i s u n i t . I f t h e t u r f y Ah i s removed o r d e s t r o y e d , s o i l s become v u l n e r a b l e t o e r o s i o n . S o i l Map U n i t 12 ( A l p i n e E u t r i c B r u n i s o l on m o r a i n a l s l o p e ) : T h e s e w e l l d r a i n e d s o i l s d e v e l o p on m o r a i n a l s l o p e s i n a l p i n e v e g e t a -t i o n above 7200 f e e t i n e l e v a t i o n ( s e e F i g u r e s 18 and 1 9 ) . The Ah and Bm h o r i z o n s a r e u s u a l l y d e v e l o p e d i n a e o l i a n m a t e r i a l , w h i l e t h e I I B C ( o r t IBm) and I l C k h o r i z o n s a r e d e v e l o p e d i n g l a c i a l t i l l d e p o s i t s . The t u r f y Ah i s mos t d e v e l o p e d i n t h i s u n i t . T h e s e s o i l s a r e c l a s s i f i e d as A l p i n e E u t r i c B r u n i s o l s . The f o l l o w i n g i s a b r i e f p r o f i l e d e s c r i p t i o n o f s o i l map u n i t 1 2 : H o r i z o n D e p t h (cm) C o l o r T e x t u r e C . F . (%) Ah 0 -15 d a r k b r o w n L <5 Bm 15 -25 b r o w n S i L 5 I I B C 2 5 - 3 0 y e l l o w i s h b r o w n . S i L 20 I l C k 30+ l i g h t o l i v e b r o w n S i L 30 43 _] Figure 18:' S o i l Map Unit 12/E (Alpine Heather Meadow Community) Figure 19: S o i l Map Units 12/f, 10/G; Miscellaneous Map Units R/H, M/g, Ice These s t e e p l y t o e x t r e m e l y s l o p i n g s o i l s a c c o u n t f o r a p p r o x i m a t e l y 1.5 s q u a r e m i l e s o f t h e t o t a l a r e a o f Y o h o V a l l e y . The d o m i n a n t v e g e t a t i o n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h i s u n i t i n c l u d e s t h e f o l l o w i n g l o w - g r o w i n g p l a n t s : w h i t e h e a t h e r , r e d h e a t h e r , I n d i a n p a i n t -b r u s h , and anemone. A l t h o u g h no t r e e s grow h e r e , s c r u b b y s p r u c e and s u b a l p i n e f i r may i n h a b i t t h e l o w e r e l e v a t i o n r e a c h e s o f t h i s u n i t . I f s l o p e s a r e n o t t o o s t e e p and some c a r e i s t a k e n i n m a i n t a i n i n g a s much o f t h e s u r f a c e Ah h o r i z o n as p o s s i b l e , t h e n some s o i l s i n t h i s u n i t c a n be r a t e d as m o d e r a t e l y s u i t a b l e f o r e x t e n s i v e r e c r e a t i o n use l i k e b a c k c o u n t r y h i k i n g . S o i l Map U n i t 13 ( L i t h i c A l p i n e E u t r i c B r u n i s o l s o n m o r a i n a l o r c o l l u v i a l s l o p e s ) : T h e s e w e l l t o m o d e r a t e l y w e l l d r a i n e d s o i l s o c c u r i n a l p i n e a r e a s above 7200 f e e t i n e l e v a t i o n . They a r e d i f f e r e n t i a t e d f r o m map u n i t s 11 and 12 b e c a u s e b e d r o c k ( l i t h i c ) c o n t a c t i s s h a l l o w ( l e s s t h a n 50 cm) f r o m t h e m i n e r a l s u r f a c e . These s o i l s h a v e a n A h and Bm h o r i z o n s e q u e n c e o v e r l y i n g b e d r o c k . The p a r e n t m a t e r i a l o f t h e B h o r i z o n v a r i e s , c o n s i s t i n g o f one o r more o f t h e f o l l o w i n g m a t e r i a l s : a e o l i a n , t i l l , c o l l u v i u m , and w e a t h e r e d b e d r o c k . T h e s e s o i l s a r e c l a s s i f i e d a s L i t h i c A l p i n e E u t r i c B r u n i s o l s . The f o l l o w i n g i s a b r i e f p r o f i l e d e s c r i p t i o n o f map u n i t 1 3 : H o r i z o n D e p t h (cm) C o l o r T e x t u r e C . F . (%) A h 0 - 1 0 d a r k b r o w n L <5 Bm 10 -25 b r o w n S i L 5 B e d r o c k 25+ These s t e e p l y t o v e r y s t e e p l y s l o p i n g s o i l s a c c o u n t f o r 2 . 5 s q u a r e m i l e s . V e g e t a t i o n i s u s u a l l y s p a r s e r h e r e t h a n f o u n d o n map u n i t 1 2 , b u t c o n s i s t s o f many s i m i l a r p l a n t s p e c i e s . See t h e m a t - h e r b a g e and m a t -g r a s s l a n d c o m m u n i t i e s i n t h e n e x t s e c t i o n on f l o r a f o r more d e t a i l . I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e s o i l l i m i t a t i o n s e x p r e s s e d f o r o t h e r a l p i n e map u n i t s , t h e s h a l l o w d e p t h t o b e d r o c k c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f t h i s u n i t p r e s e n t s a d d i t i o n a l l i m i t a t i o n s f o r r e c r e a t i o n a l u s e . The b e d r o c k r e s t r i c t s i n t e r n a l d r a i n a g e b y a c t i n g as a n i m p e r m e a b l e l a y e r . A l l o f t h e s o i l s i n Yoho V a l l e y w e r e f o u n d t o d e v e l o p o n c a l c a r e o u s p a r e n t m a t e r i a l . A l t h o u g h some b e d r o c k f o r m a t i o n s i n t h e v a l l e y a r e p r e -d o m i n a t e l y n o n - c a l c a r e o u s s h a l e s , m i x i n g w i t h c a l c a r e o u s l i m e s t o n e s and d o l o m i t e s h a s a p p a r e n t l y o c c u r r e d i n a l l o f t h e u n c o n s o l i d a t e d t i l l , c o l l u v i u m , and a l l u v i u m m a t e r i a l . The f o l l o w i n g o b s e r v a t i o n b y P e t t a p i e c e i ( 1 9 7 1 , p . 24) i n t h e N o r t h S a s k a t c h e w a n R i v e r V a l l e y a l s o a p p l i e s t o Yoho V a l l e y : The v e r y h i g h c a r b o n a t e c o n t e n t o f t h e m a j o r i t y o f p a r e n t m a t e r i a l s s e v e r e l y l i m i t s t h e d e p t h o f p e d o g e n i c a c t i v i t y . T h i s i s a p p a r e n t f r o m t h e v e r y s h a l l o w n a t u r e o f t h e s o i l s w h i c h a r e m a i n l y d e v e l o p e d i n l e s s c a l c a r e o u s l o e s s m a t e r i a l . P e t t a p i e c e ' s r e p o r t a l s o i n c l u d e s an i n f o r m a t i v e r e v i e w o f how s o i l s have d e v e l o p e d o v e r t h e l a s t 1 0 , 0 0 0 y e a r s s i n c e t h e l a s t m a j o r d e g l a c i a t i o n . I n summary, Y o h o V a l l e y c a n be r o u g h l y d i v i d e d i n t o f o u r b r o a d l y d e f i n e d l a n d f o r m u n i t s and two m i s c e l l a n e o u s l a n d u n i t s ; o r i n t o s e v e n d i f f e r e n t l a n d s c a p e u n i t s ( a s p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e 4 ) . S o i l s ( e g . f o r e s t and a l p i n e l a n d s c a p e s ) a c c o u n t f o r a p p r o x i m a t e l y 2 5 . 5 s q u a r e m i l e s o r n e a r l y 30% o f t h e t o t a l a r e a o f t h e v a l l e y . The a r e a r e p r e s e n t e d b y e a c h s o i l map u n i t and s o i l o r d e r i s p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e 5 . The d o m i n a n t s o i l o r d e r i s P o d z o l , o r s p e c i f i c a l l y H u m o - F e r r i c P o d z o l , w h i c h r e p r e s e n t s n e a r l y h a l f (47%) o f t h e t o t a l s o i l a r e a i n t h e v a l l e y . T A B L E 4 : LANDFORM AND LANDSCAPE UNITS I N YOHO V A L L E Y BY AREA L a n d f o r m o r M i s c e l l a n e o u s U n i t A r e a ( s q . m i l e s ) P e r c e n t o f T o t a l A r e a I c e f i e l d o r G l a c i e r 3 0 . 0 3 5 . 0 M o r a i n a l S l o p e 2 0 . 5 2 4 . 0 R o c k 2 0 . 0 2 3 . 0 C o l l u v i a l S l o p e ( i n c l . T a l u s ) 1 4 . 0 1 6 . 0 A l l u v i a l P l a i n and F a n 1 .0 1.5 G l a c i o - F l u v i a l P l a i n 0 . 5 0 . 5 L a n d s c a p e U n i t I c e f i e l d o r G l a c i e r 3 0 . 0 3 5 . 0 F o r e s t 2 1 . 0 2 4 . 0 R o c k 2 0 . 0 2 3 . 0 R e c e n t M o r a i n e ( u n v e g e t a t e d ) 6 . 0 7 . 0 A l p i n e 4 . 5 5 . 5 T a l u s ( u n v e g e t a t e d ) 4 . 0 5 . 0 O t h e r ( C o b b l e l a n d , L a k e , e t c . ) 0 . 5 0 . 5 # T o t a l a r e a o f Y o h o V a l l e y i s a p p r o x i m a t e l y 86 s q u a r e m i l e s . T A B L E 5 : SOIL MAP UNITS AND SOIL ORDERS BY AREA S o i l Map U n i t Number A r e a ( s q . m i l e s ) P e r c e n t o f ^ S o i l A r e a 1 0 . 2 1 2 0 . 2 1 3 . 0 . 3 1 • ..V 0 . 3 . -v.. . •' ':" 1 \ • ' 5 2 . 0 8 6 2 . 0 8 7 1 .0 4 8 8 . 0 31 9 3 . 0 12 10 4 . 0 16 11 0 . 5 2 12 1.5 6 13 2 . 5 10 S o i l O r d e r P o d z o l s 1 2 . 0 47 R e g o s o l s 4 . 5 18 B r u n i s o l s ( F o r e s t ) 4 . 3 17 B r u n i s o l s ( A l p i n e ) 4 . 5 18 G l e y s o l s o r O r g a n i c s 0 . 2 1 * Sums t o g r e a t e r t h a n 100% due t o r o u n d i n g e r r o r . # T o t a l i s a p p r o x i m a t e l y 2 5 . 5 s q u a r e m i l e s . 4 . I n t e r p r e t a t i o n s The s o i l s o f Yoho V a l l e y a r e i n t e r p r e t e d i n t h i s s e c t i o n i n t e r m s o f t h e i r l i m i t a t i o n s f o r campgrounds and t r a i l s . Th es e u s e s a r e o f m a j o r c o n c e r n t o P a r k s C a n a d a , a s e x p r e s s e d i n t h e p a r k p r o p o s a l f o r t h e v a l l e y (Yoho P a r k S t a f f 1 9 7 2 ) . C o e n ' s r e p o r t ( i n p r o g r e s s ) w i l l p r o v i d e s o i l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s f o r o t h e r r e c r e a t i o n u s e s s u c h a s p i c n i c a r e a s , b u i l d i n g s , r o a d s and p a r k i n g l o t s . The n a t u r e and l i m i t a t i o n s o f s o i l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s and t h e s o i l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t o be c o n s i d e r e d a r e d i s c u s s e d and t h i s i s ' f o l l o w e d b y i n t e r p r e t i v e r a t i n g s f o r campgrounds and t r a i l s . A a n d a h l ( 1 9 5 8 , p . 152) p o i n t s o u t t h a t s o i l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s "mus t be c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e n a t u r e o f s o i l and w i t h t h e n a t u r e o f human w a n t s and p r e f e r e n c e s . " A C a n a d a , D e p a r t m e n t o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s and N o r t h e r n D e v e l o p -m e n t , P a r k s B r a n c h ( 1 9 6 4 , p . 3) p o l i c y s t a t e m e n t r e v e a l s t h a t " r e c r e a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s i n harmony w i t h t h e p u r p o s e and p r e s e r v a t i o n o f a p a r k may be i n t r o d u c e d . . . b u t a l w a y s so a s t o m i n i m i z e i m p a i r m e n t and n o t a t a l l i f s u b s t a n t i a l i m p a i r m e n t i s i n e v i t a b l e . " A l t h o u g h t h e amount o f e n v i r o n m e n t a l d e g r a d a t i o n w i t h i n a p a r k a r e a t h a t w o u l d c o n s t i t u t e " s u b s t a n t i a l i m p a i r -men t" i s n o t d e f i n e d , i t i s c l e a r l y a p r i m a r y p a r k r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o m i n i m i z e e n v i r o n m e n t a l damages r e s u l t i n g f r o m r e c r e a t i o n a l u s e . Any i n t e r p r e t i v e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s y s t e m f o r r e c r e a t i o n o c c u r r i n g w i t h i n n a t i o n a l p a r k s s h o u l d t a k e t h i s i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n . U s e r s a t i s f a c t i o n and c o s t c o n s i d e r a t i o n s a r e a l s o i m p o r t a n t , t h o u g h p r e s u m a b l y s e c o n d a r y t o m i n i m i z i n g i m p a i r m e n t t o t h e e n v i r o n m e n t . B o h a r t ( 1 9 6 8 , p . 22) c o n t e n d s t h a t " s o i l s i n f o r m a t i o n and l o c a t i o n o f u n i q u e f e a t u r e s h e l p i d e n t i f y t h e mos t f e a s i b l e " a r e a s f o r r e c r e a t i o n a l u s e . The Canada L a n d I n v e n t o r y (1969) c o m b i n e d t h e s e two v a r i a b l e s when t h e y c l a s s i f i e d l a n d o n i t s a b i l i t y t o g e n e r a t e and s u s t a i n r e c r e a t i o n u s e . Most i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of s o i l s are expressed i n terms of the nature and degree of s o i l l i m i t a t i o n s f o r the intended use. These i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s are u s u a l l y based on s o i l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s only and do not include such f a c t o r s as a t t r a c t a b i l i t y and a c c e s s i b i l i t y . They are intended to provide a s o i l "input i n t o the planning process", and are not intended "as recommendations f o r land use" (Knapik and Coen 1974, p. 37). When using i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s , the U.S.D.A. S o i l Conservation Service (1967, p. i i ) cautions that " o n - s i t e s o i l i n v e s t i g a t i o n s are necessary before d e t a i l e d land use decisions are made." In developing i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s f or campgrounds and t r a i l s , researchers have u s u a l l y considered the following s o i l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s : s o i l wetness or drainage, f l o o d i n g hazard, texture, coarse fragments, depth to bedrock, rockiness or stoniness, and slope,(Carey 1965; U. S. Health, Education and Welfare, P u b l i c Health Service 1965; Montgomery and Edminster 1966; U.S.D.A. S o i l Conservation Service 1967; Brocke 1970; Snyder and Wade 1970; Root •and Knapik 1972: Greenlee 1973; Lesko 1 9 7 3 ; Dooling and Turner 1972; • Knapik and Coen 1974; and Coen and Holland, i n p r i n t ) . Other s o i l charac-t e r i s t i c s such as rooting depth, thickness of f o r e s t f l o o r (L-H), and thickness of Ah horizon have also been considered (Lesko 1973), The i n v e s t i g a t o r s c i t e d u s u a l l y assume that the s o i l p r o p e r t i e s they consider are the most s i g n i f i c a n t . They usua3.1y base t h e i r assumptions on t h e i r own extensive knowledge of s o i l s and observations of the p h y s i c a l impacts of r e c r e a t i o n a l use. The s o i l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s considered, in. determining l i m i t a t i o n s f o r campground and t r a i l use i n Yoho V a l l e y were based on the previous works l i s t e d and modified by su b j e c t i v e evaluations of s o i l and r e c r e a t i o n i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s made over the course of the study. These c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s are s o i l drainage, f l o o d i n g hazard, texture, coarse fragments, rockiness, slope, and ele v a t i o n . S o i l d r a i n a g e i s p r o b a b l y t h e most i m p o r t a n t s o i l p r o p e r t y a f f e c t i n g t h e s u i t a b i l i t y o f ; " a / s o i l f o r r e c r e a t i o n u s e . I n we t s o i l s , t h e r e s i s t a n c e o f p a r t i c l e s t o r e a r r a n g e m e n t i s l o w due t o t h e l u b r i c a t i n g a f f e c t o f w a t e r ; t h u s , t h e y a r e most s u s c e p t i b l e t o c o m p a c t i o n . The m a j o r e f f e c t o f s o i l c o m p a c t i o n " i s t o d r a s t i c a l l y r e d u c e p o r e s p a c e t h r o u g h w h i c h w a t e r moves i n t o and t h r o u g h t h e s o i l , t h e r e b y r e d u c i n g i n f i l t r a t i o n and p e r c o l a t i o n , i n c r e a s i n g s u r f a c e r u n o f f , and e n c o u r a g i n g e r o s i o n " ( L u l l 1 9 5 9 , p . 2 7 ) . O f t e n a s s o c i a t e d w i t h p o o r d r a i n a g e i s a s o u r c e o f r u n n i n g w a t e r , w h i c h i n t u r n a c c e n t u a t e s s u r f a c e r u n o f f and t h e e r o s i o n o f s o i l p a r t i c l e s . P o o r l y and v e r y p o o r l y d r a i n e d s o i l s a r e r a t e d a s a s e v e r e l y l i m i t i n g p r o p e r t y f o r campgrounds and t r a i l s . S o i l s s u b j e c t t o f l o o d i n g a r e n o t s u i t a b l e f o r r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s ( s u c h a s campgrounds ) t h a t r e q u i r e r e l a t i v e l y e l a b o r a t e s t r u c t u r e s . O c c a s i o n a l l i g h t f l o o d s o v e r h i k i n g t r a i l s c o n s t i t u t e s a m o d e r a t e l i m i t a -t i o n f o r t h a t u s e b e c a u s e m a i n t e n a n c e c o s t s r e s u l t i n g f r o m f l o o d i n g a r e r e l a t i v e l y l o w ( B r o c k e 1 9 7 0 ) . " F l o o d i n g h a z a r d " w r i t e s K n a p i k and Coen ( 1 9 7 4 , p . 38) " c a n b e p r e d i c t e d f r o m s o i l p r o p e r t i e s and l a n d s c a p e p o s i t i o n . " S o i l t e x t u r e i s d e f i n e d a s t h e r e l a t i v e p r o p o r t i o n o f s a n d , s i l t , and c l a y s i z e d p a r t i c l e s . S o i l s w i t h a r e l a t i v e l y h i g h c l a y o r s i l t c o n t e n t a r e e s p e c i a l l y s u s c e p t i b l e t o e r o s i o n a s t h e f i n e g r a i n e d p a r t i c l e s a r e e a s i l y s u s p e n d e d i n r u n n i n g w a t e r . A l s o , when d r y , t h e y c a n c r e a t e a d u s t p r o b l e m . E x c e s s i v e l y s a n d y s o i l s , w i t h o u t some c l a y s and s i l t s t o b i n d s and p a r t i c l e s t o g e t h e r , a r e u n d e s i r a b l e b e c a u s e t h e y a r e u n s t a b l e . S o i l s w i t h a m i x t u r e o f c l a y , s i l t , and s a n d - s u c h as a l o a m o r s a n d y l o a m - a r e b e s t s u i t e d f o r t r a i l and campground u s e (Montgomery and E d m i n s t e r 1966; R o o t and K n a p i k 1 9 7 2 ) . Loamy s o i l s a r e a l s o c o n s i d e r e d b e s t f o r p l a n t g r o w t h (U .S.D .A . F o r e s t S e r v i c e 1 9 6 9 ) . -The best s o i l s f o r road subgrades, according to the AASHO and U n i f i e d S o i l C l a s s i f i c a t i o n System, are those with adequate amounts of g r a v e l - s i z e d coarse fragments (Asphalt I n s t i t u t e 1969). S o i l s best suited f o r road subgrades should also be w e l l suited as subgrade material f o r t r a i l s and campgrounds. C i e s l i n s k i and Wagar (1970) suggest that s o i l coarseness, to a c e r t a i n extent, may be p o s i t i v e l y r e l a t e d to s i t e d u r a b i l i t y . From study observations, i t i s expected that the e r o d i b i l i t y of a s o i l with some coarse fragments i s lower than a comparable s o i l with no coarse f r a g -ments. Coarse fragments are l e s s l i k e l y to be moved by running water and can help thwart the movement of f i n e r p a r t i c l e s . However, i f the coarse fragment content i s excessive, the few f i n e r p a r t i c l e s w i l l not bind the coarser ones together. As a r e s u l t , the coarse fragments are hazardous i f walked on, e s p e c i a l l y on steep slopes. Slope i s also very important to consider when evaluating s o i l l i m i t a t i o n s f o r r e c r e a t i o n a l use. Due to the accelerated i n f l u e n c e of gr a v i t y and running water, steep slopes are l e s s p h y s i c a l l y s u i t a b l e f o r h i k i n g and camping as they are more unstable or erodable, and are more d i f f i c u l t to negotiate. Meeuwig (1971) concluded that erosion r a t e s double f o r each 10% Increase i n slope when the vegetation and l i t t e r cover of the s o i l i s l e s s than 50%. S o i l s with f u l l vegetative cover were found to have s i m i l a r rates of erosion regardless of slope. Because widespread l o s s of vegetative cover i s expected and i n e v i t a b l e on campgrounds, the erosion hazard due to slope i s a n t i c i p a t e d to be higher for the a c t i v i t y of camping than for h i k i n g . Also, since t r a i l s are narrow and can be designed to follow contours, the a c c e p t i b l e slope l i m i t s are higher f o r t r a i l s . Slopes greater than 15% are rated very uncomfortable f o r campers. Bedrock presents an obstacle to campground and t r a i l construction as layout must negotiate around rock outcrops. In the study area, rocky soils are usually relatively shallow. This shallow, impervious rock layer can result in more frequent imperfectly drained inclusions. Magill and Nord (1963) often found campground conditions on soils with rock outcroppings particularly "bleak, poorly shaded, and devoid of screening vegetation". Rocks can also present a safety hazard, especially on steep slopes. Elevation, particularly i n mountainous terrain of high r e l i e f , i s another factor to consider. Although elevation i s not a s o i l property per se, i t influences pedogenic processes through climatic controls to the extent that soils can often be characterized by their elevation ranges. This has been the case in the study area, where elevation has influenced the depth of the Ah horizon, the degree of podzolization, the rooting depth, and the thickness of the forest floor (L-H). Cieslinski and Wagar (1970) found a significant negative correlation between elevation and site durability due to a shorter plant growing season. Bell and Bliss (1973) concluded that within high elevation alpine areas, the probability of damage resulting from recreational use is greater than i n most other environments due to the severe environment and short growing season of plants which effectively reduces the plant's a b i l i t y to withstand use., For this study, elevations between 6500 to 7200 feet were considered to impose moderate limitations for t r a i l s and campgrounds. Elevations above 7200 feet were considered to have severe limitations for campgrounds, but only moderate limitations for t r a i l s because of the transient and restricted nature of that use. These aforementioned properties were a l l evaluated before rating each mapping unit and topographic class into one of three categories (see Tables 6 and 7). These categories, based on s o i l limitations for TABLE 6: SOIL LIMITATIONS FOR CAMPGROUNDS FOR YOHO V A L L E Y S o i l P r o p e r t y A f f e c t i n g U s e D e g r e e o f S o i l L i m i t a t i o n S l i g h t M o d e r a t e S e v e r e D r a i n a g e C l a s s F l o o d i n g S l o p e T e x t u r e C o a r s e F r a g m e n t s R o c k i n e s s E l e v a t i o n W e l l t o M o d e r a t e l y W e l l D r a i n e d None 0 - 5 % (A t o C) S L , F S L , L 10 - 50% I m p e r f e c t l y D r a i n e d , N . A . A* 5 - 15% (D t o E) S i L , L S 0 - 10%; 50 - 75% R o c k e x p o s u r e s R o c k e x p o s u r e s c o v e r l e s s > c o v e r f r o m t h a n 5% o f a r e a L e s s t h a n : 6 5 0 O ; f e e t ; 5 - 20% o f a r e a 6500 t o /7mQ f e e t , . P o o r l y t o V e r y P o o r l y D r a i n e d F l o o d s d u r i n g s e a s o n o f u s e 15%+ (F t o H) S , S i , C , o r g a n i c 75%+ R o c k e x p o s u r e s c o v e r g r e a t e r t h a n 20% o f a r e a G r e a t e r t h a n 7 200; f e e l : \ * See C a n a d a , D e p a r t m e n t o f A g r i c u l t u r e (1974) f o r d e f i n i t i o n s . * * N o t A p p l i c a b l e . T A B L E 7 : SOIL LIMITATIONS FOR T R A I L S FOR YOHO V A L L E Y S o i l P r o p e r t y D e g r e e o f S o i l L i m i t a t i o n  A f f e c t i n g Use S l i g h t M o d e r a t e S e v e r e D r a i n a g e C l a s s F l o o d i n g S l o p e * T e x t u r e C o a r s e F r a g m e n t s R o c k i n e s s E l e v a t i o n W e l l t o M o d e r a t e l y W e l l D r a i n e d None 0 - 15% ; (A t o E ) S L , F S L , L 10 - 50% R o c k e x p o s u r e s c o v e r l e s s t h a n 20% o f a r e a L e s s t h a n : €500 f e e t ' -I m p e r f e c t l y D r a i n e d L i g h t f l o o d s c a n o c c u r e v e r y 3 - 4 y e a r s 15 - 60% (E t o G) S i L , L S 0 - 10%; 50 - 75% R o c k e x p o s u r e s c o v e r f r o m 20 - 50% o f a r e a G r e a t e r t h a n 6500 f e e t ' " P o o r l y t o V e r y P o o r l y D r a i n e d F l o o d s d u r i n g e a c h s e a s o n o f u s e 60%+ (H) S , S i , C , o r g a n i c 75%+ R o c k e x p o s u r e s c o v e r g r e a t e r t h a n 50% o f a r e a N . A . . * * : * See C a n a d a , D e p a r t m e n t o f A g r i c u l t u r e (1974) f o r d e f i n i t i o n s . * * N o t A p p l i c a b l e . 54 t r a i l s and campgrounds, are s l i g h t , moderate, and severe. I n t e r p r e t a t i v e maps can be prepared from the s o i l s map of Yoho V a l l e y by c o l o r i n g u n i t s according to t h e i r l i m i t a t i o n s f o r t r a i l s and campgrounds (see Table 8 ) . S o i l s with s l i g h t l y l i m i t e d r a t i n g s f o r campgrounds and t r a i l s are p h y s i c a l l y w e l l suited f o r these r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s . The l i m i t a t i o n s are r e l a t i v e l y easy to overcome with good f a c i l i t y design and proper management. Recreational use should r e s u l t i n minimal environmental damage. The cost of constructing and maintaining use on these s o i l s i s a n t i c i p a t e d to. be r e l a t i v e l y low. S o i l s that are rated as "moderate" have some s i g n i f i c a n t l i m i t a t i o n s f o r use, l i k e excessive slopes, rocky t e r r a i n , Or imperfect drainage. These s o i l s require cautious development and maintenance which u s u a l l y requires more expensive i n s t a l l a t i o n s . Recreational use w i l l cause a s i g n i f i c a n t , but not excessive amount of s o i l damage. For instance, t r a i l use might r e s u l t i n removal of l i t t e r l ayer and some l o s s of s o i l material due to trampling and subsequent erosion by running water. S o i l s that have severe l i m i t a t i o n s are p h y s i c a l l y i l l - s u i t e d f o r the intended use. Normally, recreational.use on these s o i l s w i l l r e s u l t i n unacceptable s o i l d e t e r i o r a t i o n . S o i l erosion on t r a i l s w i l l r e s u l t i n severe g u l l y i n g . This damage can be overcome i f t r a i l or campground constru c t i o n standards are high. For example, provided a corduroy t r a i l i s b u i l t , h i k i n g can occur on very poorly drained s o i l s . I f a campground or t r a i l i s to be b u i l t on a s o i l with severe l i m i t a t i o n s , construction and maintenance costs w i l l l i k e l y be very high. The i n t e r p r e t i v e table (see Table 8 ) i s intended f o r use i n Yoho V a l l e y as a general t o o l at the master or overview planning l e v e l . For s i t e s p e c i f i c developments, s i t e planners must consider other f a c t o r s within each mapping unit that could not be expressed at the present scale TABLE 8: L IMITATIONS OF MAPPING UNITS FOR T R A I L S AND CAMPGROUNDS M a p p i n g U n i t / D e g r e e o f S o i l L i m i t a t i o n  . S l o p e T r a i l s Campgrounds 1 /BE S e v e r e S e v e r e 2 / B S l i g h t M o d e r a t e 3 / C S l i g h t S l i g h t 3 / D E S l i g h t M o d e r a t e 3 / F M o d e r a t e S e v e r e A / B C S l i g h t S l i g h t 5 / G M o d e r a t e S e v e r e 5 - 5 R / H S e v e r e S e v e r e 6 / G M o d e r a t e S e v e r e 6 - 6R - R 6 / H S e v e r e S e v e r e 7 - 7 R / G M o d e r a t e S e v e r e 7 - 7 R / H S e v e r e S e v e r e 8 / E S l i g h t M o d e r a t e 8 - 8 R / F G M o d e r a t e S e v e r e 8 - 8R - R 8 / H S e v e r e S e v e r e 9 - 9 R / G M o d e r a t e S e v e r e 9 - 9 R / H S e v e r e S e v e r e 10 - 1 0 R / F G M o d e r a t e S e v e r e 10 - 10R - R 1 0 / H . S e v e r e S e v e r e 1 1 / G M o d e r a t e S e v e r e 12 - 1 2 R / F G M o d e r a t e S e v e r e .12 - 12R - R 1 2 / H S e v e r e S e v e r e 13 - 1 3 R / F G M o d e r a t e S e v e r e R 1 3 / G S e v e r e S e v e r e 13 - 13R - R 1 3 / H S e v e r e S e v e r e M - M T / G M o d e r a t e S e v e r e M - MT - T / H S e v e r e S e v e r e I c e - P - L - R S e v e r e S e v e r e // E x a m p l e : Map u n i t " 8 R " w i t h " H " t o p o g r a p h y h a s s e v e r e l i m i t a t i o n s f o r b o t h t r a i l s and campgrounds ( a l s o see p . 5 4 ) . o f m a p p i n g . T h e s e f a c t o r s i n c l u d e t h e number o f s t r e a m c r o s s i n g s w i t h i n a n a r e a , a v a l a n c h e p a t h s , m i n o r s l o p e b e n c h e s , and s m a l l s e epage a r e a s . F o r e x a m p l e , m i n o r s l o p e b e n c h e s w i t h i n a n e x t r e m e l y s t e e p map u n i t may make a l i m i t e d a r e a w i t h i n t h a t u n i t s u i t a b l e f o r t r a i l s . The g e n e r a l r a n g e s g i v e n f o r e a c h s o i l p r o p e r t y w i t h i n e a c h i n t e r -p r e t i v e c a t e g o r y may be a p p l i c a b l e e l s e w h e r e i n t h e C a n a d i a n R o c k i e s . The i n t e r p r e t i v e t a b l e i s i n t e n t i o n a l l y g e n e r a l b e c a u s e t h e r e i s no l o n g t e r m r e c o r d o r e v a l u a t i o n o f how s o i l s and r e c r e a t i o n i n t e r a c t . A l s o , k n o w l e d g e o f t h e s o i l s i n Yoho V a l l e y i s s t i l l o n l y p r e l i m i n a r y and l i m i t e d . ^ I I . BIOLOGICAL RESOURCES No a t t e m p t i s made t o map o u t o r t o d e s c r i b e i n any d e t a i l t h e p l a n t and a n i m a l c o m m u n i t i e s f o u n d i n Yoho V a l l e y . ^ O n l y a b r i e f d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e g e n e r a l f l o r a l and f a u n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e v a l l e y a r e g i v e n . Some v e g e t a t i v e i n f o r m a t i o n h a s a l r e a d y b e e n p r o v i d e d a l o n g w i t h t h e s o i l s i n v e n t o r y . A . F l o r a . 1. I n t r o d u c t i o n U l k e ' s (1934) r e s e a r c h i n Y o h o i n t h e 1 9 2 0 ' s r e p r e s e n t s t h e f i r s t m a jo r b o t a n i c a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n t h e p a r k . H i s w o r k , h o w e v e r , was o r i e n t e d j>/ See C o e n ' s r e p o r t ( i n p r o g r e s s ) ; i t w i l l p r o v i d e a d d i t i o n a l s o i l s i n f o r m a t i o n and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s f o r o t h e r r e c r e a t i o n a l u s e s . 77 The f l o r a l and f a u n a l r e s o u r c e s o f Yoho N a t i o n a l P a r k w i l l be d e s c r i b e d i n d e t a i l i n t h e n e x t few y e a r s . The v e g e t a t i o n o f t h e p a r k i s b e i n g mapped by P e t e r K u c h a r ; t h e f i e l d w o r k i s c o m p l e t e w i t h a r e p o r t e x p e c t e d i n 1 9 7 5 . The w i l d l i f e s u r v e y o f t h e p a r k i s e x p e c t e d t o b e g i n i n 1975 . T h e s e s t u d i e s have b e e n c o n t r a c t e d o u t by P a r k s Canada a s p a r t o f t h e i r r e s o u r c e a s s e s s m e n t p r o g r a m . T h e r e f o r e , t h e p r e s e n t r e v i e w a i m s . m e r e l y t o s k e t c h t h e s a l i e n t b i o l o g i c a l f e a t u r e s o f t h e s t u d y r e g i o n . t o w a r d s d e v e l o p i n g a p l a n t c h e c k l i s t and n o t t o w a r d s i d e n t i f y i n g o r m a p p i n g p l a n t c o m m u n i t i e s . The B . C . F o r e s t S e r v i c e , I n v e n t o r y D i v i s i o n (1958) p r e p a r e d a n i n t e r i m f o r e s t c o v e r map f o r t h e p a r k ; t h e i r a i m , h o w e v e r , was t o i d e n t i f y c o m m e r c i a l f o r e s t s t a n d s . U n t i l K u c h a r ' s ( i n p r o g r e s s ) r e p o r t , no m a j o r p l a n t i n v e s t i g a t i o n s o f a n e c o l o g i c a l c h a r a c t e r had b e e n c a r r i e d o u t d i r e c t l y i n Yoho P a r k . O t h e r b o t a n i c a l w o r k i n Y o h o i n c l u d e s a v i s i t o r i m p a c t s t u d y on a l p i n e and s u b a l p i n e meadows n e a r L a k e O ' H a r a ( L a n d a l s and S c o t t e r 1 9 7 3 ) ; a f o r e s t f u n g i s u r v e y ( L a w r e n c e and H i r a t s u k a 1 9 7 2 ) ; and a v e r y b r i e f f o r e s t d i s e a s e s u r v e y ( S m i t h 1 9 7 3 ) . L e w i s (1917) made a s u r v e y o f some p l a n t a s s o c i a t i o n s i n B a n f f N a t i o n a l P a r k . S i g n i f i c a n t c o n t r i b u t i o n s w e r e made b y L e w i s t o w a r d s u n d e r s t a n d i n g p l a n t s u c c e s s i o n i n t h e a r e a . M o r e r e c e n t w o r k b y Cormack ( 1 9 5 3 , 1956) and O g i l v i e ( 1 9 6 2 , 1967) h a v e g i v e n f u r t h e r i n s i g h t i n t o p l a n t a s s o c i a t i o n s and s u c c e s s i o n i n t h e e a s t e r n C a n a d i a n R o c k i e s . H e u s s e r (1956) i n c l u d e s a r e v i e w o f t h e b o t a n i c a l l i t e r a t u r e r e l a t e d t o t h e C a n a d i a n R o c k i e s . D a u b e n m i r e (1943) p r o p o s e d a s y s t e m o f v e g e t a t i o n a l z o n a t i o n i n t h e R o c k y M o u n t a i n s . Two o f t h e s e z o n e s a r e f o u n d i n Y o h o V a l l e y : t h e A l p i n e a n d S p r u c e - F i r z o n e s . Two o f K r a j i n a ' s (1969) b i o g e o c l i m a t i c z o n e s a l s o o c c u r i n Yoho V a l l e y : t h e A l p i n e - T u n d r a (AT) z o n e and t h e E n g e l m a n n S p r u c e - S u b a l p i n e F i r (ESSF) z o n e . F o r Yoho V a l l e y , D a u b e n m i r e ' s a n d K r a j i n a ' s z o n e s a r e e s s e n t i a l l y t h e same. 2 . A l p i n e Zone The A l p i n e zone i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y s p a r s e and i o w - g r o w i n g p e r e n n i a l v e g e t a t i o n . The zone g e n e r a l l y o c c u r s above 7200 f e e t d e p e n d i n g o n a s p e c t . Moss (1955) p r o p o s e s s i x m a i n communi ty t y p e s w i t h i n t h e A l p i n e z o n e . T h e s e h a v e b e e n m o d i f i e d t o s u i t t h e s t u d y r e g i o n w i t h t h r e e commun i ty 58 types proposed: the heather meadows; the alpi n e meadows; and the open communities c o n s i s t i n g of rock and ta l u s . Heather meadows, the most common alpin e community i n the v a l l e y , occurs j u s t above timberline and usu a l l y on g l a c i a l t i l l m a t e r i a l . S o i l s associated with t h i s community are r e l a t i v e l y deep Alpine E u t r i c Brunisols (usually s o i l map u n i t s 12 and 13) with aeolian material i n the upper horizons. Vegetation i s dominated by the fo l l o w i n g ericaceous plants: red mountain heather (Phyllodoce empetriformis), yellow mountain heather (P. g l a n u i f l o r a ) , white moss heather (Cassiope mertensiana), lapland moss heather (C. tetragona), dwarf huckleberry (Vaccinium caespitosum), and grouse huckleberry (V. scoparium). Other plants associated with these heathers include wood betony ( P e d i c u l a r i s bracteosa), paintbrush ( C a s t i l l e j a spp.), and black crowberry (Empetrum nigrum). Alpine meadow communities are also common. They can be divided into two subcommunities: the mat-grassland subcommunity, dominated, by grasses with scattered herbs, occurs i n lower a l p i n e elevations near timberline; and the mat-herbage subcommunity, which co n s i s t s p r i m a r i l y of herbaceous plants with some grasses and occurs u s u a l l y above the mat-grassland. The mat-grassland subcommunity u s u a l l y occurs on c o l l u v i a l snow avalanched m a t e r i a l . The s o i l s are generally c l a s s i f i e d as Alpine E u t r i c Brunisols. The subcommunity represents the dominant vegetation i n s o i l map u n i t 11, i s common i n map unit 13, and i s a vegetative i n c l u s i o n i n s o i l map u n i t 12. The following grasses can occur: bluegrasses (Poa spp.), fescue-grasses (Festuca spp.), spike trisetum (Trisetum spicatum), and rye grass (Elymus innovatus). The following herbaceous plants may be associated with these grasses: b l u e l e a f c i n q u e f o i l ! ( P o t e n t i l l a d i v e r s i - f o l i a ) , shrubby c i n q u e f o i l (P_. f r u t i c o s a ) , Drummond's anemone (Anemone  drummondii), coiled-beak lousewort ( P e d i c u l a r i s contorta), a l p i n e b i s t o r t (Polygonum viviparum), and alpine forget-me-not (Myosotis a l p e s t r i s ) . The mat h e r b a g e subcommuni ty o c c u r s i n h i g h e r e l e v a t i o n s o n e i t h e r t i l l o r c o l l u v i a l m a t e r i a l . B e d r o c k i s o f t e n s h a l l o w t o t h e s u r f a c e . S o i l s a r e c l a s s i f i e d a s ( L i t h i c ) A l p i n e E u t r i c B r u n i s o l s t h a t a r e commonly a s s o c i a t e d w i t h s o i l map u n i t 1 3 , a l t h o u g h a l s o o c c u r s i n map u n i t s 11 and 12 . A h i g h p r o p o r t i o n o f p l a n t s i n t h i s subcommuni ty b e l o n g t o t h e C o m p o s i t a e and C y p e r a c e a f a m i l i e s . Common p l a n t s f o u n d i n c l u d e : f l e a b a n e ( E r i g e r o n s p p . ) , many r a y e d g o l d e n r o d ( S o l i d a g o m u l t i r a d i a t a ) , a l p i n e p u s s y t o e s ( A n t e n n a r i a m e d i a ) , a l p i n e s age ( A r t e m e s i a b o r e a l i s ) , s l e n d e r hawkweed ( H i e r a c i u m g r a c i l e ) , k o b r e s i a ( K o b r e s i a m y o s u r o i d e s ) , s i b b a l d i a ( S i b b a l d i a p r o c u m b e n s ) , a l p i n e d r y a d ( D r y a s o c t o p e t a l a ) , s e d g e s ( C a r e x s p p . ) , and s a x i f r a g e ( S a x i f r a g a s p p . ) . The o p e n communi ty i n r o c k and t a l u s e n v i r o n m e n t s c o n s i s t s o f s u c h p l a n t s a s a l p i n e s o r r e l ( O x y r i a d i g y n a ) , a l p i n e d r y a d ( D r y a s o c t o p e t a l a ) , m o u n t a i n a v e n s ( D r y a s i n t e g r i f o l i a ) , p u r p l e s a x i f r a g e ( S a x i f r a g a o p p o s i t i - f o l i a ) , y e l l o w c o l u m b i n e ( A q u i l e g i a f l a v e s c e n s ) , moss c a m p i o n ( S i l e n e  a c a u l i s ) , and a l p i n e l o c o w e e d ( O x y t r o p i s p o d o c a r p a ) . Some s m a l l i n c l u s i o n s w i t h i n t h e a f o r e m e n t i o n e d c o m m u n i t i e s may o c c u r i n s h a l l o w d e p r e s s i o n s w h e r e snow r e m a i n s l a t e i n t h e summer s e a s o n . T h e s e p o o r l y d r a i n e d snow p a t c h c o m m u n i t i e s c a n c o n s i s t o f t h e f o l l o w i n g s p e c i e s : s e d g e s ( C a r e x s p p . ) , snow l i l y ( E r y t h r o n i u m g r a r i d i f l o r u m ) , w e s t e r n anemone (Anemone o c c i d e n t a l i s ) , snowbed b u t t e r c u p ( R a n u n c u l u s e s c h s c h o l t z i i ) , m o u n t a i n v a l e r i a n ( V a l e r i a n s i t c h e n s i s ) , snow w i l l o w ( S a l i x n i v a l i s ) , a r c t i c w i l l o w ( S a l i x a r c t i c a ) , and b l u e w i l l o w ( S a l i x g l a u c a ) . 3 . S p r u c e - F i r Zone The S p r u c e - F i r z o n e , l o c a t e d b e t w e e n 4500 and 7200 f e e t e l e v a t i o n , i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y i t s m a i n t r e e s p e c i e s : E n g e l m a n n s p r u c e ( P i c e a e n g e l -m a n i i ) , and s u b a l p i n e f i r ( A b i e s l a s i o c a r p a ) . A c t u a l l y , m o s t s p r u c e s i n Y o h o V a l l e y have b e e n p a r t i a l l y h y b r i d i z e d w i t h w h i t e s p r u c e ( P i c e a  g l a u c a ) . A l t h o u g h s p r u c e i s g e n e r a l l y t h e p r e d o m i n a n t t r e e , s u b a l p i n e f i r i s c o n s i d e r e d more shade t o l e r a n t . S p r u c e , h o w e v e r , g r o w s f a s t e r , l i v e s l o n g e r , a n d i s l e s s d i s e a s e p r o n e t h a n f i r . Thus b o t h s p e c i e s r e p r e s e n t c l i m a t i c c l i m a x c o n d i t i o n s ( O g i l v i e 1 9 6 7 ) . I n t h e u p p e r e l e v a t i o n s o f t h e S p r u c e - F i r f o r e s t , b e t w e e n 6500 and 7200 f e e t , t h e d o m i n a n t s p r u c e t r e e s a r e r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l ( 5 0 - 7 5 f e e t h i g h and 1.5 f e e t d i a m e t e r b r e a s t h e i g h t ) , b u t o f t e n q u i t e o l d ( o v e r 600 y e a r s ) . F i r i s g e n e r a l l y s m a l l e r and s p i n d l y , o c c a s i o n a l l y f o r m i n g d e n s e t h i c k e t s t h a t shade and e x c l u d e h e r b s and s c r u b s ( H e u s s e r 1 9 5 6 ) . On d i s t u r b e d s i t e s , w h i t e b a r k p i n e ( P i n u s a l b i c a u l i s ) a n d , r a r e l y , l i m b e r p i n e ( P i n u s f l e x i l i s ) , a r e p r e s e n t . L y a l l ' s l a r c h ( L a r i x l y a l l i i ) o c c u r s i n t h e v e r y s o u t h e r n end o f t h e v a l l e y o n t h e e a s t f a c i n g s l o p e s o f M t . F i e l d n e a r t i m b e r l i n e . T h i s o c c u r r e n c e r e p r e s e n t s one o f t h e mos t n o r t h e r n r e a c h e s o f t h e s p e c i e s . The u n d e r s t o r y v e g e t a t i o n i n t h e u p p e r S p r u c e - F i r f o r e s t i s s i m i l a r t o t h a t d e s c r i b e d f o r t h e h e a t h e r meadow commun i ty o f t h e A l p i n e z o n e . B e s i d e s t h e s p e c i e s l i s t e d t h e r e , some s p e c i e s f o u n d h e r e a r e l i s t e d w i t h t h e l o w e r S p r u c e - F i r f o r e s t s u b z o n e . E s s e n t i a l l y , g r o u n d c o v e r v e g e t a t i o n , p r e d o m i n a t e s o v e r s c r u b v e g e t a t i o n i n t h i s s u b z o n e , w h i l e j u s t t h e o p p o s i t e i s t h e c a s e i n t h e l o w e r e l e v a t i o n s u b z o n e . I n t h e l o w e r e l e v a t i o n o f t h e S p r u c e - F i r z o n e , b e t w e e n 4500 and 6500 f e e t e l e v a t i o n , t r e e s a r e u s u a l l y y o u n g e r (300 y e a r s o l d ) , b u t l a r g e r ( o v e r 100 f e e t h i g h and 2 . 5 f e e t , d i a m e t e r b r e a s t h e i g h t ) t h a n f o u n d a t h i g h e r e l e v a t i o n s . The h e a t h s , so a b u n d a n t i n t h e g r o u n d c o v e r a t h i g h e r e l e v a t i o n s , a r e r e p l a c e d b y t a l l , a l m o s t i m p e n e t r a b l e s h r u b s l i k e m e n z i e s i a ( M e n z i e s i a f e r r u g i n e a ) , w h i t e r h o d o d e n d r o n ( R h o d o d e n d r o n a l b i f l o r u m ) , b l a c k m o u n t a i n h u c k l e b e r r y ( V a c c i n i u m membranaceum), and w i l l o w s ( S a l i x s p p . ) . O t h e r s h r u b s f o u n d i n t h i s s u b z o n e i n c l u d e c o p p e r b u s h ( C l a d o t h a m n u s  p y r o l a e f l o r u s ) , b u f f a l o b e r r y ( S h e p h e r d i a c a n a d e n s i s ) , m o u n t a i n a l d e r ( A l n u s t e n u i f o l i a ) , t r a i l i n g r u b u s (Rubus p e d a t u s ) , s h r u b b y c i n q u e f o i l ( P o t e n t i l l a f r u t i c o s a ) , and swamp g o o s e b e r r y ( R i b e s l a c u s t r e ) . H e r b a c e o u s p l a n t s i n c l u d e w h i t e p u s s y t o e s ( A n t e n n a r i a l a n a t a ) , k i n n i k i n n i c k ( A r c t o s t a p h y l o s u v a - u r s i ) , a r n i c a s ( A r n i c a s p p . ) , a s t e r s ( A s t e r s p p . ) , s e d g e s ( C a r e x s p p . ) , b u n c h b e r r y ( C o r n u s c a n a d e n s i s ) , y e l l o w d r y a s ( D r y a s  d r u m m o n d i i ) , h o r s e t a i l s ( E q u i s e t u m s p p . ) , s t r a w b e r r i e s ( F r a g a r i a s p p . ) , r u s h e s ( J u n c u s s p p . ) , f r i n g e c u p s ( L i t h o p h r a g m a s p p . ) , c l u b m o s s ( L y c o p o d i u m  a n n o t i n u m ) , t w i n f l o w e r ( L i n n a e a b o r e a l i s ) , B i s h o p ' s cap ( M i t e l l a s p p . ) , p e d i c u l a r i s ( P e d i c u l a r i s s p p . ) , c o l t s f o o t ( P e t a s i t e s s p p . ) , b l u e g r a s s e s (Poa s p p . ) , w i n t e r g r e e n s ( P y r o l a s p p . ) , g r o u n d s e l s ( S e n e c i a s p p . ) , g o l d e n r o d ( S o l i d a g o m u l t i r a d i a t a ) , t w i s t e d s t a l k ( S t r e p t o p u s a m p l e x i f o l i u s ) , a s p h o d e l s ( T o f i e l d i a s p p . ) , m o u n t a i n v a l e r i a n ( V a l e r i a n a s i t c h e n s i s ) , f l e a b a n e s ( E r i g e r o n s p p . ) , v i b u r n u m ( V i b u r n u m s p p . ) , anemone (Anemone s p p . ) , foam f l o w e r ( T i a r e l l a s p p . ) , c l i n t o n i a ( C l i n t o n i a s p p . ) , and v a c c i n i u m s ( V a c c i n i u m s p p . ) . L o d g e p o l e p i n e ( P i n u s c o n t o r t a ) i s a l s o p r e s e n t i n t h e l o w e r e l e v a t i o n s o f t h e S p r u c e - F i r z o n e . I n t h e s t u d y r e g i o n , l o d g e p o l e p i n e u s u a l l y o c c u r s o n r e c e n t a l l u v i u m m a t e r i a l b e l o w 5500 f e e t , and s e l d o m o c c u r s on t i l l o r ; c o l l u v i u m m a t e r i a l . One s p e c i m e n o f w e s t e r n w h i t e p i n e ( P i n u s m o n t i c o l a ) was e n c o u n t e r e d n e a r t h e M e e t i n g o f t h e Wa te r s , r o a d v i e w p o i n t ; t h i s r e p r e s e n t s a v e r y r a r e w e s t e r l y o b s e r v a t i o n o f t h i s s p e c i e s . B. Fauna Mammals The mammals of Yoho V a l l e y have not been the subject of published research. The following account of t h e i r abundance and d i s t r i b u t i o n i n t h e v a l l e y i s b a s e d o n (1) s t u d y o b s e r v a t i o n s , 1972 - 1974 ; (2) u n p u b l i s h e d r e c o r d s b y t h e Yoho P a r k S t a f f ; and (3) p u b l i s h e d r e s e a r c h i n n e i g h b o r i n g e n v i r o n m e n t s (Cowan and G u i g u e t 1956 ; S o p e r 1 9 7 0 ) . F o u r s p e c i e s o f u n g u l a t e s ( O r d e r A r t i o d a c t y l a ) have b e e n s i g h t e d i n Yoho V a l l e y : e l k ( C e r v i s c a n a d e n s i s ) , moose ( A l c e s a l c e s ) , m u l e d e e r ( O d o c o i l e u s h e m i o n u s ) , and m o u n t a i n g o a t (Oreamnos a m e r i c a n u s ) . A s m a l l h e r d o f a r o u n d 8 -15 e l k r e s i d e i n t h e v a l l e y f r o m J u n e t o O c t o b e r ( s e e F i g u r e 2 0 ) . The h e r d i s u s u a l l y s e e n n e a r t h e r o a d i n J u n e , Sep t ember and O c t o b e r ; and i n t h e b a c k c o u n t r y , u s u a l l y n e a r t h e L i t t l e Yoho V a l l e y , d u r i n g J u l y and A u g u s t . Two t o f o u r moose r a n g e f r o m D u c h e s n a y L a k e t o t h e r o a d s w i t c h b a c k s i n t h e summer m o n t h s . M u l e d e e r may wander i n t h e v a l l e y , a l t h o u g h s i g h t i n g s a r e v e r y r a r e . One m u l e d e e r was s i g h t e d b y Y o h o L a k e i n 1971 and a n o t h e r one i n L i t t l e Yoho V a l l e y i n 1 9 7 3 . The mos t a b u n d a n t and w i d e s p r e a d u n g u l a t e i n t h e v a l l e y i s t h e m o u n t a i n g o a t . A h e r d o f a r o u n d 20 g o a t s have b e e n o b s e r v e d n e a r Yoho P a s s . G o a t s o r g o a t s i g n s h a v e a l s o b e e n s i g h t e d o n t h e s l o p e s and p a s s e s o f M t . Ogden , n e a r F a i r y L a k e , n e a r D i a b l e r e t F a l l s , on W h a l e b a c k M t n . , and o n t h e Y o h o V a l l e y r o a d . O n l y f o u r c a r n i v o r o u s s p e c i e s ( O r d e r C a r n i v o r a ) h a v e b e e n s i g h t e d i n Yoho V a l l e y , a l t h o u g h up t o e l e v e n o t h e r s p e c i e s may a l s o o c c u r . B l a c k b e a r ( U r s u s a m e r i c a n u s ) , s e l d o m o b s e r v e d i n t h e b a c k c o u n t r y o r i n t h e T a k a k k a w F a l l s campground a r e a , a r e f r e q u e n t l y s e e n i n t h e K i c k i n g H o r s e campground a t t h e head o f t h e v a l l e y w i t h some o b s e r v a t i o n s up t o t h e r o a d s w i t c h b a c k s . G r i z z l y b e a r ( U r s u s a r c t o s ) , t h o u g h p r e s e n t e l s e w h e r e i n t h e p a r k , do n o t , a s y e t , r a n g e i n Y o h o V a l l e y . Paw p r i n t s o f g r i z z l i e s h a v e b e e n o b s e r v e d a r o u n d K i w e t n o k P a s s . D J Figure 2 1 : Grouse Hen b4 One c o y o t e ( C a n i s l a t r a n s ) was s i g h t e d n e a r t h e Yoho V a l l e y r o a d i n 1972 . A b a c k c o u n t r y camper c l a i m e d t o h a v e s e e n a g r a y w o l f ( C a n i s  l u p u s ) n e a r Yoho L a k e i n 1972 , and t r a c k s t h a t a p p e a r t o b e l o n g t o w o l f w e r e o b s e r v e d b y a w a r d e n n e a r L a k e C e l e s t e i n 1 9 7 3 . W o l f may h a v e b e e n f o l l o w i n g t h e w a n d e r i n g s o f t h e v a l l e y ' s e l k h e r d . A l t h o u g h n e v e r s i g h t e d , r e d f o x ( V u l p e s v u l p e s ) may a l s o wander i n t o t h e v a l l e y o n o c c a s i o n . A n o t h e r p a r k v i s i t o r r e p o r t e d s e e i n g a l y n x ( L y n x c a n a d e n s i s ) h e a r P o i n t L a c e F a l l s i n 1 9 7 2 . Of t h e m u s t e l i d s , o n l y m a r t e n ( M a r t e s a m e r i c a n a ) h a s b e e n p o s i t i v e l y i d e n t i f i e d . A m a r t e n r e s i d e s a r o u n d t h e S t a n l e y M i t c h e l l H u t i n L i t t l e Y o h o V a l l e y , w h e r e he no d o u b t f e a s t s o n t h e h i g h p o p u l a t i o n o f g r o u n d s q u i r r e l s i n t h e s u r r o u n d i n g meadows. M a r t e n h a v e a l s o b e e n s i g h t e d n e a r P o i n t L a c e F a l l s and b y t h e Y o u t h H o s t e l . W e a s e l ( M u s t e l a s p . ) h a v e b e e n s i g h t e d by t h e S t a n l e y M i t c h e l l H u t and on t h e Yoho V a l l e y r o a d . W o l v e r i n e ( G u l o l u s c u s ) , s i g h t e d in. e v e r y o t h e r ma j o r v a l l e y i n Yoho P a r k , i s l i k e l y t o o c c u r i n t h e s t u d y r e g i o n a s w e l l . Ten s p e c i e s o f r o d e n t s ( O r d e r R o d e n t i a ) h a v e b e e n s i g h t e d i n t h e v a l l e y : h o a r y marmot (Marmota c a l i g a t a ) , Columbian g r o u n d s q u i r r e l ( C i t e l l u s c o l u m b i a n u s ) , g o l d e n - m a n t l e d g r o u n d s q u i r r e l ( C i t e l l u s l a t e r a l i s ) , l e a s t c h i p m u n k ( E u t a m i a s m i n i m u s ) , b u f f - b e l l i e d c h i p m u n k ( E u t a m i a s  amoenus, r e d s q u i r r e l ( T a m i a s c i u r u s h u d s o h i c u s ) , p o r c u p i n e ( E r e t h i z o n  d o r s a t u r n ) , w h i t e - f o o t e d mouse ( P e r o m y s c u s m a n i c u l a t u s ) , wood r a t (Neotoma c i n c e r e a ) , and t h e house mouse (Mus m u s c u l u s ) . The f l y i n g j s q u i r r e l ( G l a u c o m y s s a b r i n u s ) p r o b a b l y a l s o o c c u r s i n t h e v a l l e y , b u t b e i n g n o c t u r n a l , t h e y have n o t y e t b e e n s i g h t e d . R o d e n t s a r e t h e mos t commonly s e e n mammals i n Y b h o v V a l l e y . O t h e r s i g h t e d mammals i n c l u d e : p i k a ( O c h b t o n a p r i n c e p s ) , w h i c h commonly r e s i d e s i n r o c k s l i d e s a t a l p i n e e l e v a t i o n s , and t h e snowshoe h a r e ( L e p u s a m e r i c a n u s ) . S h r e w s , v o l e s , b a t s , and some o t h e r f mammals may a l s o o c c u r i n t h e v a l l e y , b u t t h e y have n o t a s y e t b e e n i d e n t i f i e d . 2 . B i r d s No p u b l i s h e d r e s e a r c h h a s f o c u s e d o n t h e b i r d l i f e o f Y o h o V a l l e y . The C a n a d a , D e p a r t m e n t o f I n d i a n and N o r t h e r n A f f a i r s , P a r k s B r a n c h (1974) h a s p u b l i s h e d a b i r d c h e c k l i s t f o r Y o h o P a r k . B i r d s t h a t may be f o u n d i n t h e v a l l e y i n c l u d e h a w k s , o w l s , s p r u c e and r u f f e d g r o u s e ( s ee F i g u r e 2 1 ) , r u f o u s h u m m i n g b i r d , n o r t h e r n t h r e e - t o e d w o o d p e c k e r , f l y c a t c h e r s , h o r n e d l a r k , s w a l l o w s , g r a y j a y , common r a v e n , C l a r k ' s n u t c r a c k e r , c h i c k a d e e s , r e d - b r e a s t e d n u t h a t c h , w i n t e r w r e n , r o b i n , t h r u s h e s , Townsend, ' s s o l i t a i r e , k i n g l e t s , v i r e o s , w a r b l e r s , w e s t e r n t a n a g e r , p i n e g r o s b e a k , p i n e s i s k i n , w h i t e - w i n g e d c r o s s b i l l , j u n c o s , and s p a r r o w s . Some b i r d s f o u n d i n t h e A l p i n e zone i n c l u d e t h e snow b u n t i n g , w h i t e -t a i l e d p t a r m i g a n , g r a y - c r o w n e d r o s y ' f i n c h , and w a t e r p i p i t . The r o u g h - w i n g e d s w a l l o w , o l i v e - s i d e d f l y c a t c h e r , s p o t t e d s a n d p i p e r , common s n i p e , k i l l d e e r , b e l t e d k i n g f i s h e r , and w a t e r o u z e l o r d i p p e r a r e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e v a l l e y ' s l a k e s and s t r e a m s . A l t h o u g h r a r e l y s i g h t e d , w a t e r f o w l s u c h a s t h e m a l l a r d , common l o o n , h a r l e q u i n d u c k , and common m e r g a n s e r may a l s o be f o u n d a l o n g r i v e r s and l a k e s o f t h e s t u d y r e g i o n . 3 . F i s h The d i s t r i b u t i o n o f f i s h p l a n t e d b y P a r k s Canada i n Yoho V a l l e y l a k e s s i n c e 1928 a r e l i s t e d i n T a b l e 9. The r e p r o d u c t i v e s u c c e s s o f t h e f i s h a r n o t known; r e c e n t w o r k b y M u d r y ( i n p r o g r e s s ) may r e s u l t i n some a n s w e r s . 66 TABLE 9 : DISTRIBUTION OF F I S H I N YOHO VALLEY L a k e F i s h Y e a r P l a n t e d D u c h e s n a y B r o o k T r o u t 1963 H i d d e n B r o o k T r o u t 1963 R a i n b o w T r o u t 1 9 6 9 , 1972 K i w e t n o k B r o o k T r o u t 1963 R a i n b o w T r o u t • ? M a r p o l e B r o o k T r o u t 1964 C u t t h r o u t T r o u t 1968 R a i n b o w T r o u t 1 9 3 2 - 6 3 , 1972 Yoho B r o o k T r o u t 1956 C u t t h r o u t T r o u t 1950 R a i n b o w T r o u t 1 9 2 8 - 6 9 , 1972 S o u r c e s : A n d e r s o n ( 1 9 6 8 ) ; C o c h r a n e ( 1 9 7 2 ) ; S c h u l z ( 1 9 5 3 ) ; and Ward ( 1 9 7 4 ) . No s t r e a m s i n t h e v a l l e y a r e know t o h a v e f i s h . Yoho R i v e r i s t o o s i l t e d w i t h g l a c i a l f l o u r ; t h e t r i b u t a r i e s c a s c a d e t o o s t e e p l y o r a r e a l s o l a d e n e d w i t h g l a c i a l s i l t . R o c k y m o u n t a i n w h i t e f i s h , p o s s i b l y a n a t i v e t o t h e a r e a , i s common a l o n g t h e K i c k i n g H o r s e R i v e r and may o c c u r a t t h e l o w e r end o f t h e Yoho R i v e r (Ward 1 9 7 4 ) . 4 . O t h e r A n i m a l s P r o b a b l y t h e mos t commonly r e c o g n i z e d f l i g h t l e s s a n i m a l i n Yoho V a l l e y , b e s i d e s t h e g r o u n d s q u i r r e l s , i s t h e w e s t e r n t o a d ( B u f o b o r e a s ) . F i f t e e n p e r c e n t o f a l l i n t e r v i e w e d b a c k c o u n t r y p a r t i e s i n 1972 s a i d t h e y saw t h e t o a d . No o t h e r a m p h i b i a n s o r r e p t i l e s w e r e o b s e r v e d t h e v a l l e y . F o r e s t i n s e c t s i n Y o h o P a r k h a v e b e e n s t u d i e d b y S m i t h ( 1 9 7 3 ) , w h i l e a l i m n o l o g i c a l s t u d y i n t h e p a r k and i n Yoho V a l l e y w i l l p r o v i d e i n f o r m a -t i o n on w a t e r - b a s e d i n s e c t s ( M u d r y , i n p r o g r e s s ) . i l l . V I S U A L RESOURCES _ I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e b i o p h y s i c a l r e s o u r c e s , t h e r e i s a n o t h e r , more i n t a n g i b l e r e s o u r c e t h a t h a s t o o o f t e n b e e n i g n o r e d . The v i s u a l l a n d -s c a p e i s p e r c e i v e d b y t h e u s e r s o f Yoho V a l l e y t o be one o f i t s mos t i m p o r t a n t r e s o u r c e s . S c e n e r y was t h e g r e a t e s t s i n g l e r e s p o n s e b y b o t h i n t e r v i e w e d r o a d and b a c k c o u n t r y u s e r s t o t h e q u e s t i o n : "What h a v e y o u e s p e c i a l l y e n j o y e d d u r i n g y o u r v i s i t ? " S c e n e r y i s t h r e e - d i m e n s i o n a l a n d , a s s u c h , i t s q u a l i t i e s c a n n o t be e x a c t l y r e p r o d u c e d i n a r e p o r t . H o w e v e r , p h o t o g r a p h s c o n t a i n a c l o s e t w o - d i m e n s i o n a l a p p r o x i m a t i o n o f t h e ' s c e n e ' ( S h a f e r and M i e t z 1 9 7 0 ) . P h o t o g r a p h s a r e a l s o a u s e f u l g u i d e f o r r e c o r d i n g b i o l o g i c a l and p h y s i c a l c h a n g e s ( M a g i l l and T w i s s 1965) and f o r i n v e n t o r y i n g and m o n i t o r i n g man-made i m p a c t s u p o n a p a r t i c u l a r e n v i r o n m e n t ( P o t t e r a n d Wagar 1 9 7 1 ; L i t t o n 1 9 7 3 ) . The l a n d s c a p e s o r v i s u a l r e s o u r c e s o f Yoho V a l l e y w e r e d e s c r i b e d by u s i n g a m o d i f i e d v e r s i o n o f t h e L i t t o n (1968) t e c h n i q u e . P a r t o f t h e L i t t o n a p p r o a c h i n v o l v e s t h e u s e o f p h o t o g r a p h s . S i n c e t h e s c e n i c r e s o u r c e i s d e p e n d e n t u p o n b o t h t h e p h y s i c a l s c e n e and t h e p e r c e p t i o n s o f t h e v i e w e r , p h o t o g r a p h s a r e b u t p a r t o f t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e l a n d s c a p e . T h a t i s , s i n c e v i e w e r s t e n d t o a b s t r a c t e l e m e n t s f r o m t h e l a n d s c a p e i n t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n s , i t c a n be a r g u e d t h a t t h e i n v e n t o r y o f l a n d s c a p e s o u g h t t o a s w e l l . T h u s , L i t t o n a l s o p r o p o s e d t h e u s e o f v i s u a l a b s t r a c t i o n s o r s k e t c h e s and p i c t o g r a p h s t o d e p i c t l a n d s c a p e s and l a n d s c a p e c h a n g e s a l o n g a t r a v e l c o r r i d o r . A p h o t o g r a p h i c s t a n d a r d p e r m i l e o f t r a i l was u s e d t o s y s t e m a t i c a l l y r e c o r d t h e v i s u a l r e s o u r c e w i t h i n t h e t r a i l c o r r i d o r s o f t h e Y o h o V a l l e y . (as p r e s e n t e d i n D o o l i n g and V o i d 1 9 7 3 ) . The t r a i l n e t w o r k was d i v i d e d 68 i n t o e i g h t t r a i l segments c a l l e d " p h o t o - s e q u e n c e s " f o r e a se i n p r e s e n t a t i o n . A p h o t o - s t a n d a r d o f one p h o t o g r a p h p e r o n e - h a l f m i l e o f t r a i l was e m p l o y e d o n mos t b a c k c o u n t r y t r a i l s . A p h o t o - s t a n d a r d o f one p h o t o g r a p h p e r o n e -q u a r t e r m i l e o f t r a i l was e m p l o y e d f r o m T a k a k k a w F a l l s campground t o L a u g h i n g F a l l s , w h e r e mos t t r a i l u s e o c c u r s . A wooden s u r v e y s t i c k was p l a c e d a l o n g s i d e t h e t r a i l w h e r e e a c h p h o t o g r a p h was t a k e n so t h a t e a c h p h o t o - p o i n t c o u l d be p e r m a n e n t l y m a r k e d . The m a i n o b j e c t i v e o f t h e p h o t o g r a p h s was t o r e c o r d t h e t r a i l c o n d i - •: t i o n s f o u n d a t e a c h p h o t o - p o i n t . Whenever p o s s i b l e , t h e v i s u a l a t t r a c t i o n s s e e n f r o m t h e p h o t o - p o i n t w e r e a l s o r e c o r d e d w i t h i n t h e same p h o t o g r a p h . O f t e n t h i s was no p r o b l e m a s t h e s c e n e w i t h i n a c a n o p i e d , f o c a l l a n d s c a p e was t h e e n v i r o n m e n t s u r r o u n d i n g t h e t r a i l . The b e s t p r o c e d u r e w o u l d h a v e b e e n t o t a k e two s e p a r a t e p h o t o g r a p h s : one r e p r e s e n t i n g t r a i l c o n d i t i o n s and one r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e s c e n e r y . T h i s p r o c e d u r e w a s t o o c o s t l y f o r t h i s p a r t i c u l a r s t u d y . I V . SUMMARY The r e s o u r c e i n v e n t o r y c o n s i s t e d o f g a t h e r i n g i n f o r m a t i o n r e l a t e d t o t h e c l i m a t e , b e d r o c k g e o l o g y , s o i l s and l a n d f o r m s , f l o r a , f a u n a , and v i s u a l r e s o u r c e s o f t h e s t u d y a r e a . The mean y e a r l y t e m p e r a t u r e s r e c o r d e d a t one o f t h e p a r k s t a t i o n s "a t 4000 f e e t e l e v a t i o n was 36° F . , w i t h 15 i n c h e s o f r a i n f a l l a n d 74 i n c h e s o f s n o w f a l l r e c o r d e d , o n t h e a v e r a g e , a n n u a l l y . J u l y - A u g u s t mean maximum t e m p e r a t u r e i n t h e p a r k was 70° F . a t 4000 f e e t and a p p r o x i m a t e l y 58° F . a t 7100 f e e t ; w h i l e t h e mean minimum t e m p e r a t u r e s w e r e 43° F . and 36° F . r e s p e c t i v e l y ( L a n d a l s and S c o t t e r 1973). The b e d r o c k o f Y o h o V a l l e y c o n s i s t s p r i m a r i l y o f r e l a t i v e l y f i n e -g r a i n e d l i m e s t o n e s , d o l o m i t e s , s h a l e s , and' s i l t s t o n e s o f t h e M i d d l e and oy Late Cambrian. The 12 formations found i n the study area were mapped by the Yoho Park S t a f f (1972); t h e i r map was adapted to a semi-controlled photo-mosaic (scale 1:50,000) shown i n Appendix I (see Table 2 f o r legend). Since 20 square miles i n the study area c o n s i s t s of exposed bedrock, some in t e r p r e t a t i o n s of bedrock types to support r e c r e a t i o n a l use were made. Since no previous s o i l or landform i n v e s t i g a t i o n s had been done, a major study e f f o r t was placed on inventorying and'interpreting the s o i l and landform resources of Yoho V a l l e y . F i e l d d e s c r i p t i o n s provided information on s o i l parent m a t e r i a l , horizonation, depth, c o l o r , texture, coarse f r a g -ments, drainage, slope, rockiness, e l e v a t i o n range, and associated vegeta-t i o n . S o i l s were c l a s s i f i e d at the subgroup l e v e l according to The System  of S o i l C l a s s i f i c a t i o n f o r Canada (Canada, Dept. of A g r i c u l t u r e 1974). The s o i l s were mapped on a photo-mosaic (scale 1:50>000) presented i n Appendix I (see Table 3 f o r legend). The s o i l s of Yoho V a l l e y , which account for approximately 25.5 square miles of area, were di v i d e d i n t o 13 s o i l map u n i t s c o n s i s t i n g of 6 d i f f e r e n t landforms and 5 separate s o i l orders. The s o i l map u n i t s are presented below with approximate area and a b r i e f d e s c r i p t i o n : S o i l Map Area Unit (sq.miles) B r i e f D e s c r i p t i o n 1 0.2 G l e y s o l or Organic (poorly drained). 2 0.2 Cumulic Regosol on recent alluvium. 3 0.3 Cumulic Regosol on a l l u v i a l fan. 4 0.3 Degraded E u t r i c B r u n i s o l on outwash. 5 2.0 Regosol on colluvium below 6500' with <50% C.F. 6 2.0 Regosol on colluvium below 6500' with >50% C.F. 7 1.0 Degraded E u t r i c B r u n i s o l on colluvium below 6500'. 8 8.0 Orthic Humo-Ferric Podzol on t i l l below 6500' . 9 3.0 Degraded E u t r i c B r u n i s o l or Regosol on colluvium between 6500'-7200'. 10 4.0 M i n i Humo-Ferric Podzol on t i l l between 6500'-7200'. 11 0.5 Alpine E u t r i c B r u n i s o l on colluvium above 7200'. 12 1.5 Alpine E u t r i c B r u n i s o l on t i l l above 7200'. 13 2.5 L i t h i c Alpine E u t r i c B r u n i s o l on t i l l or colluvium above 7200' (bedrock <50 cm from surface). The o t h e r 6 0 . 5 s q u a r e m i l e s i n Yoho V a l l e y a r e a c c o u n t e d f o r i n t h e f o l l o w i n g m i s c e l l a n e o u s map u n i t s : i c e f i e l d s o r g l a c i e r s (30 s q . m i l e s ) , r o c k (20 s q . m i l e s ) , r e c e n t m o r a i n e (6 s q . m i l e s ) , t a l u s (4 s q . m i l e s ) , and l a k e s and c o b b l e l a n d ( 0 . 5 s q . m i l e s ) . M o s t o f t h e p a r e n t m a t e r i a l i n t h e s t u d y a r e a i s s t r o n g l y c a l c a r e o u s . A s a r e s u l t , t h e d e p t h o f p e d o g e n i c a c t i v i t y i s l i m i t e d , w i t h t h e Ck h o r i z o n o c c u r r i n g u s u a l l y a t l e s s t h a n 30 c e n t i m e t e r s i n d e p t h . A and B h o r i z o n s a r e mos t d e v e l o p e d i n a e o l i a n o v e r l a y m a t e r i a l common o n s t a b l e t i l l s o i l s , e s p e c i a l l y i n a l p i n e e n v i r o n m e n t s . T h e s o i l s o f Y o h o V a l l e y w e r e i n t e r p r e t e d i n t e r m s o f t h e i r l i m i t a t i o n s f o r t r a i l s and c a m p g r o u n d s . The i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s made a r e m o s t u s e f u l a t t h e m a s t e r o r o v e r v i e w p l a n n i n g l e v e l . S o i l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s s u c h as d r a i n a g e , f l o o d i n g h a z a r d , s l o p e , t e x t u r e , c o a r s e f r a g m e n t s , r o c k i n e s s , and e l e v a t i o n w e r e e v a l u a t e d b e f o r e r a t i n g e a c h m a p p i n g u n i t ' s l i m i t a t i o n s f o r t r a i l s and campgrounds a s e i t h e r s l i g h t , m o d e r a t e o r s e v e r e . The a p p r o x i m a t e a r e a l d i s t r i b u t i o n o f e a c h i n t e r p r e t i v e c a t e g o r y i s a s f o l l o w s : S l i g h t L i m i t a t i o n s M o d e r a t e L i m i t a t i o n s S e v e r e L i m i t a t i o n s T r a i l s 1 .0 s q . m i l e 3 5 . 0 s q . m i l e s 5 0 . 0 s q . m i l e s Campgrounds 0 . 5 s q . m i l e s 0 . 5 s q . m i l e s 8 5 . 0 s o . m i l e s S i n c e o v e r 98% o f t h e s t u d y a r e a o c c u r s o n g r e a t e r t h a n 15% (F t o H) s l o p e s , e x c e s s i v e l y s t e e p s l o p e s r e p r e s e n t t h e most s e v e r e l i m i t a t i o n f o r c a m p g r o u n d s . S t e e p s l o p e s a r e a l s o t h e m a j o r l i m i t a t i o n f o r t r a i l s , s i n c e o v e r 90% o f t h e s t u d y a r e a o c c u r s on g r e a t e r t h a n 30% (G t o H) s l o p e s , and n e a r l y 60% o f t h e v a l l e y i s o n g r e a t e r t h a n 60% (H) s l o p e s . D r a i n a g e , f l o o d i n g h a z a r d , r o c k i n e s s , and e l e v a t i o n a r e t h e m a i n l i m i t i n g f a c t o r s a f f e c t i n g t h e s u i t a b i l i t y o f more g e n t l y s l o p i n g a r e a s . S o i l map u n i t 4 i s t h e mos t p h y s i c a l l y s u i t a b l e u n i t f o r b o t h t r a i l s and c a m p g r o u n d s . 71 The v e g e t a t i o n c o m m u n i t i e s i n Y o h o V a l l e y w e r e d e s c r i b e d by f i e l d o b s e r v a t i o n s r e l a t e d t o t h e s o i l i n v e n t o r y and a r e v i e w o f t h e p e r t i n e n t l i t e r a t u r e . The v e g e t a t i o n o f t h e v a l l e y was n o t mapped as i t w i l l be i n K u c h a r ' s r e p o r t ( i n p r o g r e s s ) . The v e g e t a t i o n o f t h e a r e a was f i r s t d i v i d e d i n t o two m a j o r z o n e s a c c o r d i n g t o D a u b e n m i r e (1943) and K r a j i n a ( 1 9 6 9 ) : t h e A l p i n e zone and t h e E n g e l m a n n S p r u c e - S u b a l p i n e F i r z o n e . The A l p i n e z o n e u s u a l l y o c c u r s a b o v e 7200 f e e t i n t h e s t u d y a r e a . The m a i n c o m m u n i t i e s w i t h i n t h e zone w e r e d e s c r i b e d ; t h e y a r e t h e h e a t h e r meadow c o m m u n i t y , t h e m a t - g r a s s l a n d a l p i n e meadow s u b c o m m u n i t y , t h e m a t -h e r b a g e a l p i n e meadow s u b c o m m u n i t y , t h e snow p a t c h c o m m u n i t y , and t h e ' o p e n ' communi ty i n r o c k and t a l u s e n v i r o n m e n t s . The S p r u c e - F i r zone was d i v i d e d i n t o two s u b z o n e s : t h e h i g h e r e l e v a t i o n o r u p p e r s u b z o n e b e t w e e n 6500 - 7200 f e e t , and t h e l o w e r e l e v a t i o n s u b z o n e b e t w e e n 4500 - 6500 f e e t . The u p p e r zone c o n s i s t s o f r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l and w i d e l y s p a c e d t r e e s ; t h e u n d e r s t o r y i s p r e d o m i n a t e l y an e r i c a c e o u s g r o u n d c o v e r w i t h few s h r u b s . The l o w e r s u b z o n e i s t y p i f i e d b y l a r g e r t r e e s and a d e n s e s h r u b b y u n d e r s t o r y c o n s i s t i n g p r i m a r i l y o f m e n z i e s i a and w h i t e r h o d o d e n d r o n . The s t u d y a r e a h a s a r e l a t i v e l y l o w abundance and d i v e r s i t y o f w i l d l i f e s p e c i e s . T h e e x c e p t i o n a l l y s t e e p t e r r a i n and h i g h e l e v a t i o n s l i m i t t h e a r e a ' s c a p a b i l i t y t o s u p p o r t mos t s p e c i e s o f w i l d l i f e . M o u n t a i n g o a t i s t h e mos t a b u n d a n t and w i d e s p r e a d u n g u l a t e i n t h e v a l l e y . A l t h o u g h s e l d o m s e e n , a r o u n d 25 - 40 g o a t s wander i n and o u t o f t h e a r e a . A s m a l l h e r d o f a r o u n d 8 - 1 5 e l k a l s o r e s i d e i n t h e v a l l e y d u r i n g t h e summer. One o r two moose may a l s o be o b s e r v e d . M a r t e n , w e a s e l s , h o a r y marmot , C o l u m b i a n g r o u n d s q u i r r e l , g o l d e n -m a n t l e d g r o u n d s q u i r r e l , c h i p m u n k s , r e d s q u i r r e l , p i k a , p o r c u p i n e , wood r a t , and snowshoe h a r e a r e some o f t h e mos t common mammals o f t h e v a l l e y . A 72 common a m p h i b i a n o b s e r v e d i s t h e w e s t e r n t o a d . S e v e r a l b i r d s p e c i e s i n h a b i t t h e v a l l e y ; t h e C l a r k ' s n u t c r a c k e r and g r a y j a y a r e mos t commonly s e e n . The v a l l e y ' s f i s h s p e c i e s c o n s i s t o f b r o o k , c u t t h r o a t , and r a i n b o w t r o u t t h a t h a v e b e e n p l a n t e d i n f i v e o f t h e a r e a ' s l a k e s . P h o t o g r a p h s w e r e t a k e n o n e v e r y 0.5 m i l e s o f t r a i l (0.25 m i l e s o n t h e m a i n t r a i l t o L a u g h i n g F a l l s ) i n o r d e r t o r e c o r d b a c k c o u n t r y •:: • c o n d i t i o n s and t o i n v e n t o r y v i s u a l r e s o u r c e s (as p r e s e n t e d i n D o o l i n g and V o i d 1 9 7 3 ) . ' P h o t o - p o i n t s were marked so t h a t - s u b s e q u e n t s t u d i e s c o u l d compare v i s u a l c h a n g e s o v e r t i m e . 73 C H A P T E R T H R E E RECREATIONAL USE AND USERS OF YOHO V A L L E Y I. RECREATIONAL USE INFORMATION A . Y o h o V a l l e y Road Use The amount o f Y o h o V a l l e y r o a d u s e i n 1972 was d e t e r m i n e d f o r t h i s s t u d y b y two m a g n e t i c l o o p c o u n t e r d e v i c e s . One c o u n t e r was i n s t a l l e d above t h e r o a d s w i t c h b a c k s and one b e l o w . T h i s was done t o s e r v e as a c h e c k s h o u l d one c o u n t e r s t o p f u n c t i o n i n g , and t o d e t e r m i n e how many o f t h e v e h i c l e s e n t e r i n g t h e r o a d a c t u a l l y go t o Takakkaw F a l l s . The ' u p p e r ' c o u n t e r r e a d i n g s w e r e r e c o r d e d d a i l y , w h i l e t h e ' l o w e r ' c o u n t e r t r a f f i c c o u n t s w e r e r e c o r d e d o n r o a d u s e r s u r v e y d a y s o n l y . T h r e e p n e u m a t i c c o u n t e r s w e r e i n s t a l l e d o n t h e r o a d b y t h e P a r k s B r a n c h ; t h e s e were a l s o r e c o r d e d o n r o a d u s e r s u r v e y d a y s f o r c o m p a r a t i v e p u r p o s e s . S t u d y f i n d i n g s i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e m a g n e t i c c o u n t e r s w o r k e d more r e l i a b l y t h a n t h e p n e u m a t i c c o u n t e r s . Road u s e f i n d i n g s i n d i c a t e t h a t a p p r o x i m a t e l y 95% o f a l l v e h i c l e s e n t e r i n g t h e Y o h o V a l l e y r o a d go t h e f u l l e i g h t m i l e s t o T a k a k k a w F a l l s . O f t h e 5% t h a t do n o t , most w e r e e i t h e r P a r k s B r a n c h s e r v i c e v e h i c l e s o r v e h i c l e s w i t h v i s i t o r s whose p l a n n e d d e s t i n a t i o n was o n l y t o t h e S p i r a l T u n n e l v i e w p o i n t . A r o a d u s e r s t u d y r e v e a l e d t h a t l e s s t h a n 1% o f a l l v e h i c l e s e n t e r i n g t h e r o a d c o n t a i n v i s i t o r s who t u r n a r o u n d due t o t h e s w i t c h b a c k s o r o t h e r r o a d c o n d i t i o n s . T a b l e 10 shows one way t r a f f i c c o u n t s r e c o r d e d f o r t h e Yoho V a l l e y r o a d . The 1969 - 71 t r a f f i c c o u n t d a t a was b a s e d upon P a r k s B r a n c h p n e u m a t i c c o u n t e r s i n s t a l l e d a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e r o a d , w h i l e t h e 1972 c o u n t was b a s e d upon t h e s t u d y m a g n e t i c c o u n t e r i n s t a l l e d a t t h e 74 end o f t h e r o a d . No c o u n t was t a k e n i n 1973 ; b u t a P a r k s B r a n c h m a g n e t i c c o u n t e r was i n s t a l l e d i n 1 9 7 4 . I n t o t a l , a p p r o x i m a t e l y 2 3 , 0 0 0 v e h i c l e s e n t e r e d Y o h o V a l l e y i n 1 9 7 4 . B a s e d o n t h e r o a d u s e s u r v e y o f v i s i t o r s t o t h e v a l l e y i n 1 9 7 2 , i t was f o u n d t h a t t h e a v e r a g e p a r t y s i z e was 3 .1 p e r s o n s w i t h an a v e r a g e l e n g t h o f s t a y o f 1.2 d a y s p e r p a r t y . T h e r e f o r e , t h e t o t a l v i s i t a t i o n t o Y o h o V a l l e y i n 1974 , a s s u m i n g t h a t p a r t y s i z e and l e n g t h o f s t a y a v e r a g e s h a v e h e l d c o n s t a n t , was a b o u t 7 1 , 3 0 0 v i s i t o r s , w h i l e t o t a l u s e a p p r o x i m a t e d 8 5 , 5 0 0 v i s i t o r - d a y s . I n c o m p a r i s o n w i t h p r e v i o u s y e a r s ' f i n d i n g s , r o a d u s e h a s i n c r e a s e d a t t h e a v e r a g e r a t e o f a r o u n d 10 - 15% p e r y e a r . Weekend and h o l i d a y t r a f f i c o n t h e r o a d ( b e t w e e n J u n e 29 and A u g u s t 2 5 , 1974) a v e r a g e d 325 one way v e h i c l e s p e r day o r 25% more t h a n t h e weekday a v e r a g e o f 260 v e h i c l e s p e r d a y . N e a r l y 75% o f a l l r o a d u s e o c c u r r e d b e t w e e n t h e h o u r s o f 10 am t o 6 pm. T a b l e 1 0 : Y o h o V a l l e y Road .One-Way T r a f f i c C o u n t s T r a f f i c C o u n t P e r i o d 1969 1970 1971 1.972 1974 J u n e 15 -30 1000 1175 1230 2000 2840 J u l y 1-31 4050 5190 5850 8 5 0 0 8660 A u g u s t 1-31 6735 8700 9910 9380 8600 Sep tember 1-15 1100 1780 2035 2120 2900 T o t a l 12885 16845 19025 22000 23000 SADT* 140 183 207 238 250 % A n n u a l Change 31% 13% 13% 3% * S e a s o n a l A v e r a g e D a i l y T r a f f i c ( June 15 t o S e p t e m b e r 15) B. Takakkaw F a l l s Campground Use The Takakkaw F a l l s campground was v i s i t e d each evening or e a r l y morning i n J u l y and August, 1972. Vehicle type, l i c e n s e p l a t e , and place 0 f o r i g i n were recorded. From t h i s i t was p o s s i b l e to determine how long each v e h i c l e stayed i n the campground. Campground use s t a t i s t i c s based on paid r e c e i p t s have been gathered by the park s t a f f i n Yoho. In campgrounds l i k e the K i c k i n g Horse, where resident wardens make sure that campers pay, these s t a t i s t i c s are quite accurate. At Takakkaw F a l l s , however, where camp u n i t s are not c l e a r l y designated and there i s no resident warden, campground fee c o l l e c t i o n i s f a r more haphazard. Here, recorded s t a t i s t i c s underestimate a c t u a l use i n the area. Comparing study counts with park r e c e i p t s i n 1972 ind i c a t e d that about 17% of a l l Takakkaw campers do not pay camping fees. Table 11 summarizes campground use s t a t i s t i c s at Takakkaw from 1968 to 1974. The t o t a l number of camper party-nights of use for 1974 was about 2,500, when J u l y and September r e s u l t s are also taken into account. Since the average party s i z e of campers i s about 3.0 (party s i z e was recorded on fee r e c e i p t s u n t i l 1971), the t o t a l camper-nights of use was 7,500. Considering the length of stay information given i n the user s e c t i o n of t h i s chapter, t h i s represents roughly 6.07-5 campers and 13,640 camper-days of use. From 1968 to 1972, there had been a 25 - 30% annual increase i n use of the Takakkaw F a l l s campground. Since 1972, use has s t a b i l i z e d due to c o n t r o l measures enforced by the parks s t a f f . Whenever use reached the recommended capacity, the campground was closed. Average Saturday use i n 1974 was 37 camper-parties or 85% more than average Wednesday use of 20 camper-parties. 76 T a b l e 1 1 : T o t a l Number of P a i d C a m p e r - P a r t y N i g h t s of Use at Takakkaw F a l l s Campground f o r P e r i o d J u l y - A u g u s t , 1968 to 1974 P e r i o d 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972# 1973* 1974* J u l y 321 244 559 696 707 808 743 A u g u s t 264 332 619 764 968 785 857 T o t a l 585 576 1178 1460 1675 1593 1600 A c t u a l U s e E s t . * * 7 0 2 691 1414 1752 2010 1912 1920 SADC*** 11 11 23 28 32 31 31 % A n n u a l Change - 1 % 104% 24% 15% - 1 % 0% # 1972 d a t a p r e s e n t e d i n D o o l i n g and V o i d (1973) i s d i f f e r e n t due t o a c o m p u t a t i o n e r r o r , * Campground c l o s e d when u s e r e a c h e d recommended c a p a c i t y . k * B a s e d on 1972 f i n d i n g s t h a t t h e r e a r e 20% more campers t h a n p a i d r e c e i p t s i n d i c a t e . * * S e a s o n a l A v e r a g e D a i l y C a m p e r - P a r t i e s o f u s e p e r e v e n i n g ( J u l y - A u g u s t ) . C . Yoho V a l l e y B a c k c o u n t r y Use O b t a i n i n g r e l i a b l e r e c r e a t i o n u s e d a t a i s e s p e c i a l l y d i f f i c u l t i n w i l d e r n e s s o r b a c k c o u n t r y a r e a s . " W i l d e r n e s s u s e i s r e l a t i v e l y l i g h t , h i g h l y v a r i a b l e i n s p a c e and t i m e , and u s e r s a r e m o b i l e and o f t e n d i s p e r s e d i n h a r d t o r e a c h p l a c e s " ( L u c a s and O l t m a n 1971, p . 2 8 ) . T r a i l r e g i s t r a t i o n b o o t h s a r e n o t s i g n e d b y a l l e n t e r i n g p a r t i e s . The r a t e o f r e g i s t r a t i o n v a r i e s d e p e n d i n g on p l a c e m e n t o f k i o s k ( a t t r a i l h e a d o r i n t e r i o r o f w i l d e r n e s s a r e a ) , t h e t y p e o f k i o s k and s i g n u s e , t h e t y p e s o f u s e r s (ho r semen v e r s u s h i k e r s , day u s e r s v e r s u s o v e r n i g h t u s e r s , e t c . ) , and t h e t y p e o f w i l d e r n e s s a r e a ( h e a v i l y u s e d v e r s u s l i g h t l y u s e d r emo te a r e a s ) . T h u s , r e g i s t e r e d h i k e r s o n l y r e p r e s e n t a p o r t i o n o f t h e a c t u a l u s e o f a n a r e a . A l s o s e e Wenger ( 1 9 6 4 ) ; Wenger and G r e g e r s e n ( 1 9 6 4 ) ; and L u c a s , S c h r e u d e r , and James (1971) f o r b a c k c o u n t r y r e g i s t r a t i o n i n f o r m a t i o n . 77 I n Y o h o N a t i o n a l P a r k , t h e o b j e c t i v e o f r e g i s t r a t i o n k i o s k s i s t o o n l y r e g i s t e r o v e r n i g h t , o f f - t r a i l , a n d c l i m b i n g u s e . The k i o s k s a r e i n t e n d e d f o r t h e p r o t e c t i o n and s a f e t y o f t h e s e t y p e s o f b a c k c o u n t r y u s e r s . D a y h i k e r s who u s e t h e p a r k t r a i l s a r e n o t s u p p o s e d t o r e g i s t e r ; t h o u g h many i n f a c t d o . S i n c e mos t o f t h e b a c k c o u n t r y u s e i n Yoho V a l l e y i s b y d a y h i k e r s , t h e k i o s k ' s r e c o r d s a r e a n e s p e c i a l l y s m a l l and b i a s e d s a m p l e o f a c t u a l u s e . '• >_ A way o f o v e r c o m i n g t h i s b i a s , i n o r d e r t o e s t i m a t e a c t u a l u s e , i s t o d e t e r m i n e t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f d a y u s e r s and o v e r n i g h t u s e r s t h a t r e g i s t e r . One method o f a c c o m p l i s h i n g t h i s i s b y i n c o n s p i c u o u s l y v i e w i n g h i k e r s a s t h e y e n t e r t h e a r e a t o see who r e g i s t e r s a n d who does n o t . T h o s e who do n o t r e g i s t e r c o u l d t h e n b e a s k e d i f t h e i r v i s i t i s o f d a y o r o v e r n i g h t d u r a t i o n . T h i s w o u l d have b e e n d i f f i c u l t t o do i n Yoho V a l l e y , f o r one k i o s k i s i n t e n d e d f o r b o t h t h e h i k e r who s t a r t s o f f a t t h e T a k a k k a w F a l l s campground t r a i l h e a d , w h e r e t h e k i o s k i s l o c a t e d , and t h e h i k e r who b e g i n s a t t h e t r a i l h e a d b y t h e Y o u t h H o s t e l a h a l f a m i l e t o t h e s o u t h . I t w o u l d h a v e b e e n v e r y h a r d t o c h e c k t h e l a t t e r u s e r . T h e r e l a t i v e t i m e e x p e n d i -t u r e f o r f i n d i n g t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n a l o n e w o u l d h a v e b e e n p r o h i b i t i v e for-c h i s s t u d y . A n o t h e r me thod o f o b t a i n i n g p u r e l y q u a n t i t a t i v e b a c k c o u n t r y u s e d a t a w o u l d h a v e b e e n t o u s e a n e l e c t r i c - e y e c o u n t e r d e v i c e . A u n i t c o u l d h a v e b e e n p l a c e d a t e a c h a c c e s s t r a i l t o t h e b a c k c o u n t r y t o d e t e r m i n e t h e number o f v i s i t s t o t h e a r e a . T h i s w o u l d b e - i n o r d i n a t e l y e x p e n s i v e i n mos t b a c k c o u n t r y a r e a s w i t h s e v e r a l a c c e s s r o u t e s . H o w e v e r , t h e Yoho V a l l e y h a s o n l y t h r e e m a i n t r a i l a c c e s s e s . E l e c t r i c e y e c o u n t e r s a r e now made f o r b a c k c o u n t r y u s e measurement (James and S c h r e u d e r 1 9 7 2 ) ; u n f o r t u n a t e l y , o n e n q u i r y t h e s e u n i t s w e r e n o t a v a i l a b l e i n t i m e f o r ' use i n t h i s s t u d y ! The method employed t o e s t i m a t e u s e was t o d e t e r m i n e t h e p e r c e n t r e g i s t r a t i o n o f t h e 193 b a c k c o u n t r y u s e r p a r t i e s i n t e r v i e w e d i n 1972 and t h e n r e l a t e t h i s r a t e t o t h e Takakkaw F a l l s r e g i s t r a t i o n k i o s k c o u n t s f o r t h e same p e r i o d . The e s t i m a t e d r e g i s t r a t i o n r a t e i n 1972 was 23%; 45 o f t h e 193 i n t e r v i e w e d p a r t i e s h a v i n g r e g i s t e r e d . S i n c e 3400 v i s i t o r - d a y s o f b a c k c o u n t r y u s e i n Yoho V a l l e y was r e g i s t e r e d , t h i s e s t i m a t e i n d i c a t e s t h a t a c t u a l b a c k c o u n t r y u s e was a r o u n d 1 4 , 8 0 0 v i s i t o r - d a y s i n 1 9 7 2 . A n o t h e r , p r o b a b l y more a c c u r a t e , me thod o f e s t i m a t i n g a c t u a l b a c k c o u n t r y u s e w o u l d be t o s t r a t i f y t h e r e s p e c t i v e r e g i s t r a t i o n r a t e s o f day and o v e r n i g h t u s e r s . Of t h e 145 i n t e r v i e w e d day u s e r p a r t i e s , 17 o r 12% r e g i s t e r e d ; w h i l e 28 o r 58% o f t h e i n t e r v i e w e d o v e r n i g h t u s e r p a r t i e s r e g i s t e r e d . Of t h e 3400 v i s i t o r - d a y s o f r e g i s t e r e d u s e , 2645 o f t h e s e d a y s w e r e f r o m r e g i s t e r e d o v e r n i g h t u s e r s , w h i l e day u s e r s a c c o u n t e d f o r 755 v i s i t o r - d a y s o f u s e . T h u s , u s i n g t h e r e s p e c t i v e r e g i s t r a t i o n r a t e s , i t i s e s t i m a t e d t h a t Y o h o V a l l e y b a c k c o u n t r y u s e i n 1972 was r e p r e s e n t e d b y 6300 v i s i t o r - d a y s o f day u s e and 4600 v i s i t o r - d a y s o f o v e r n i g h t u s e . T o t a l e s t i m a t e d u s e i n 1972 was 1 0 , 9 0 0 v i s i t o r - d a y s . A s s u m i n g t h i s l a t e r f i g u r e i s more a c c u r a t e , a n d t h a t t h e r e g i s t r a t i o n r a t e s e s t i m a t e d f o r 1972 r e f l e c t 1 9 7 1 , 1973 and 1974 u s e as w e l l , T a b l e 12 r e p r e s e n t s two p a r a m e t e r s o f Yoho V a l l e y b a c k c o u n t r y u s e f o r t h e s e f o u r y e a r s . 79 T a b l e 12 : E s t i m a t e d B a c k c o u n t r y Use f o r Y o h o V a l l e y , 1971 - 1974# Use 1971 1972 1973 1974 V i s i t o r s 4010 7760 5980 8400 Day 2860 6300 4080 6200 O v e r n i g h t 1150 1460 1900 2200 V i s i t o r - d a y s 6500 10900 10500 13450 Day 2860 6300 4080 6200 O v e r n i g h t 3640 4600 6420 7250 % A n n u a l Change ( V i s i t o r - d a y s ) 68% -4% . 28% # B a s e d o n a 12% r e g i s t r a t i o n r a t e f o r day u s e and a 58% r a t e f o r o v e r n i g h t u s e . P r i o r t o 1 9 7 1 , t h e r e g i s t r a t i o n fo rms w e r e a v a i l a b l e o n l y a t t h e Warden s t a t i o n i n F i e l d ; t h u s t h e a v a i l a b l e d a t a i s s c a r c e and n o t c o m p a r a b l e t o t h e more r e c e n t b a c k c o u n t r y u s e r e g i s t r a t i o n d a t a . A s s u m i n g s t a b i l i t y i n t h e r e g i s t r a t i o n r a t e o f h i k e r s i n Y o h o P a r k , a v a i l a b l e d a t a d e p i c t s a n a v e r a g e a n n u a l i n c r e a s e o f a r o u n d 20 - 25% o v e r a s i x y e a r p e r i o d f r o m 1965 t o 1 9 7 0 . The number o f e s t i m a t e d v i s i t o r s t o t h e Y o h o V a l l e y b a c k c o u n t r y h a s a l s o i n c r e a s e d a t a n a v e r a g e r a t e o f 20 - 25% p e r y e a r s i n c e 1 9 7 1 . Thus t h e p r o j e c t e d a v e r a g e a n n u a l i n c r e a s e i n Y o h o V a l l e y b a c k c o u n t r y u s e c a n b e c o n s e r v a t i v e l y p u t a t 20%. D . Summary I n o r d e r t o g e t some n o t i o n o f t h e r e l a t i v e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f u s e i n Y o h o V a l l e y , t h e e s t i m a t e d r o a d , c a m p g r o u n d , and b a c k c o u n t r y u s e f i g u r e s a r e s u m m a r i z e d b e l o w i n T a b l e 1 3 . I t s h o u l d be remembered t h a t t h e Y o h o V a l l e y r o a d u s e e s t i m a t e s r e p r e s e n t s e s s e n t i a l l y t h e e n t i r e p o p u l a t i o n o f Y o h o V a l l e y ; w h e r e a s campground and b a c k c o u n t r y u s e f i g u r e s r e p r e s e n t s u b g r o u p s o f t h i s p o p u l a t i o n . 80 T a b l e 13: E s t i m a t e d R o a d , Campground , and B a c k c o u n t r y Use f o r Y o h o V a l l e y , 1974 Use * Road ** Campground B a c k c o u n t r y V i s i t o r s 7 1 , 3 0 0 6 , 0 7 5 ; . 8 , 4 0 0 Day 5 6 , 4 0 0 (79%) . -• 6 , 2 0 0 (74%) O v e r n i g h t 1 4 , 9 0 0 (21%) 6 , 0 7 5 2 , 2 0 0 (26%) V i s i t o r - d a y s 8 5 , 5 0 0 1 3 , 6 4 0 1 3 , 4 5 0 Day 5 6 , 0 0 0 (66%) - 6 , 2 0 0 (4.6%) O v e r n i g h t 2 9 , 1 0 0 (34%) 1 3 , 6 4 0 7 , 2 5 0 (54%) A v e r a g e A n n u a l P r o j e c t e d I n c r e a s e 10% <5%** 20% * Road o v e r n i g h t u s e n o t a c c o u n t e d f o r i n campground and b a c k c o u n t r y u s e f i g u r e s r e p r e s e n t s (1) Y o u t h H o s t e l o v e r n i g h t u s e and (2) e s t i m a t e e r r o r s . * * A s s u m i n g campground c o n t r o l m e a s u r e s p e r s i s t . * * * Assumes b a c k c o u n t r y r e g i s t r a t i o n r a t e s i n 1974 w e r e t h e same a s i n 1972 ( i e . 12% f o r day u s e r s and 58% f o r o v e r n i g h t u s e r s ) . I I . RECREATIONAL USER INFORMATION A . P r o c e d u r e s T h e two p r i n c i p a l me thods o f s e c u r i n g u s e r i n f o r m a t i o n a r e t h e m a i l q u e s t i o n n a i r e and t h e p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w t e c h n i q u e s . The l a t t e r me thod was u s e d t o s e c u r e i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t t h e r o a d , campground and b a c k c o u n t r y u s e r s o f Y o h o V a l l e y . T h i s i n c l u d e d i n f o r m a t i o n o n a r e a u s e ; u s e r ' s t r i p o r i g i n -m e a n s - e n d s scheme; u s e r s o c i o - e c o n o m i c - d e m o g r a p h i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ; u s e r r e a c t i o n s t o p r e s e n t l e v e l s o f u s e and management; u s e r o p i n i o n s r e g a r d i n g p r o p o s e d c h a n g e s i n t h e a r e a ; and u s e r i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f m a j o r componen t s o f r e c r e a t i o n a l q u a l i t y , b o t h p o s i t i v e and n e g a t i v e . The s u r v e y f o r m s u s e d a r e p r e s e n t e d i n A p p e n d i x I I . 81 The p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w method was c h o s e n b e c a u s e more i n - d e p t h , s i t e s p e c i f i c r e s p o n s e s c o u l d be g a i n e d p e r q u e s t i o n n a i r e . The i n t e r v i e w e r c o u l d h a v e a f i r s t hand c o n t a c t w i t h t h e i n t e r v i e w e e s and t h e i r r e a c t i o n s t o Yoho V a l l e y w h i l e t h e y w e r e i n t h e a r e a . E x p e r i e n c e h a s shown t h a t t h e p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w t e c h n i q u e , b e s i d e s g e n e r a t i n g a p s y c h o l o g i c a l p r e s s u r e t o r e s p o n d t o q u e s t i o n s a s k e d , t e n d s t o a s s u r e g r e a t e r c o n t r o l o v e r r e s p o n s e s and makes p o s s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n s o f any q u e s t i o n s o r a n s w e r s a p p e a r i n g a m b i g u o u s . The p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w method a l s o r e d u c e s t h e r e c a l l b i a s i m p l i c i t i n m a i l - b a c k q u e s t i o n n a i r e s . R e c a l l o f t h e m a i n g i s t o f a r e c r e a t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e a f f o r d e d b y m a i l q u e s t i o n n a i r e s may be u s e f u l i n l a r g e p a r k p o l i c y m a t t e r s , b u t f o r more s p e c i f i c m a t t e r s on s i t e management and i m p r o v e m e n t , t h e p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w t e c h n i q u e w o u l d a p p e a r t o be more a p p r o p r i a t e . F o r a more d e t a i l e d d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e r e l a t i v e a d v a n t a g e s and d i s a d v a n t a g e s o f t h e p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w method and t h e m a i l - b a c k q u e s t i o n n a i r e m e t h o d , s e e F e r b e r ( 1 9 4 8 ) ; S h a f e r and H a m i l t o n ( 1 9 6 7 ) ; L u c a s and O l t m a n ( 1 9 7 1 ) ; P o t t e r e t a l ( 1 9 7 2 ) ; and S e l l t i z e t a l ( 1 9 6 7 ) . The s e l e c t i o n o f wha t p a r t y s h o u l d be i n t e r v i e w e d was made b e f o r e t h e p a r t y was e n c o u n t e r e d so t h a t t h e s e l e c t i o n was n o t b a s e d o n p a r t y a p p e a r -a n c e . The p r o b l e m o f d e c i d i n g what members o f t h e p a r t y t o i n t e r v i e w was more d i f f i c u l t . P a r t y members may n o t s h a r e t h e same f e e l i n g s a s p a r t y ' l e a d e r s ' . W i v e s may n o t f e e l t h e same as h u s b a n d s , t h e y o u n g members may n o t r e a c t t h e same as p a r t y e l d e r s , e t c . One method o f o v e r c o m i n g t h i s p r o b l e m c o u l d h a v e b e e n t o r a n d o m l y d e c i d e w h i c h one o f t h e p a r t y members s h o u l d be i n t e r v i e w e d . T h i s w o u l d have y i e l d e d v a l u a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t t h a t i n d i v i d u a l a l o n e . H o w e v e r , i t w o u l d n o t have y i e l d e d i n s i g h t i n t o how . a p a r t y g r o u p r e a c t s . A l s o , t h e p r o c e s s o f i s o l a t i n g one i n d i v i d u a l o u t o f a p a r t y may have b e e n r e s e n t e d by o t h e r p a r t y members a s t h e y may h a v e f e l t l e f t o u t , a l i e n a t e d , o r i m p a t i e n t d u r i n g t h e t i m e o f t h e i n t e r v i e w . T h u s , i t was d e c i d e d t o a s k t h e q u e s t i o n s t o t h e g roup a s a w h o l e , w a i t u n t i l a g e n e r a l c o n c e n s u s o f o p i n i o n emerged and j o t down t h e a n s w e r . I n d i v i d u a l v a r i a t i o n s w e r e a l s o n o t e d when no c o n c e n s u s c o u l d be f o r m e d . T h i s some-t i m e s meant l i s t e n i n g t o a l o t o f a rgument and d e b a t e b y p a r t y members o v e r some o f t h e q u e s t i o n s , w i t h a l e s s t h a n s p o n t a n e o u s a n s w e r r e s u l t i n g . 1. Road I n t e r v i e w s I n t e r v i e w i n g t o o k p l a c e a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e Y o h o V a l l e y r o a d and was a d m i n i s t e r e d t o o u t g o i n g t r a f f i c . A s i g n r e a d i n g " r e c r e a t i o n a r e a c h e c k p o i n t " was p l a c e d a t t h e i n t e r v i e w s i t e , w h i l e a " s u r v e y a h e a d " s i g n was p l a c e d as a w a r n i n g s i g n a p p r o x i m a t e l y 100 y a r d s up t h e r o a d . A f t e r t h e s i g n s w e r e s e t u p , t h e f i r s t o u t g o i n g v e h i c l e was a p p r o a c h e d a s a p r o s p e c t i v e i n t e r v i e w e e p a r t y , a n d , i f g r a n t e d , t h e i n t e r v i e w was t h e n a d m i n i s t e r e d . One member was r e q u e s t e d t o f i l l o u t t h e " s o c i o l o g i c a l a s p e c t s o f v i s i t o r s " f o r m , w h i l e t h e o t h e r members o f t h e p a r t y were a s k e d t h e p r e p a r e d q u e s t i o n s o n t h e s u r v e y f o r m . The n e x t o u t g o i n g c a r , a f t e r an i n t e r v i e w had b e e n c o m p l e t e d and t h e i n t e r v i e w e r had r e c o v e r e d h i s c o m p o s u r e , was a p p r o a c h e d f o r t h e n e x t i n t e r v i e w . Two h u n d r e d i n t e r v i e w s , f o r a n a p p r o x i m a t e s u r v e y s a m p l e o f 1% o f a l l Yoho V a l l e y r o a d u s e i n 1 9 7 2 , w e r e c o m p l e t e d . T w e n t y - t h r e e o f t h e 223 p r o s p e c t i v e i n t e r v i e w e e p a r t i e s r e f u s e d t o be i n t e r v i e w e d , f o r a n o n -r e s p o n s e r a t e o f 10%. R e f u s a l s t e n d e d t o be f r o m p e r s o n s i n a h u r r y who had s p e n t l e s s t h a n two h o u r s i n t h e s t u d y a r e a . The n o n - r e s p o n s e may be e x p l a i n e d , i n p a r t , b y t h e f o l l o w i n g r e a s o n s : (1) a n o t h e r i n t e r v i e w was b e i n g c o n d u c t e d o n t h e T r a n s - C a n a d a H i g h w a y , t h u s some Y o h o V a l l e y u s e r s may h a v e b e e n t i r e d o f b e i n g i n t e r v i e w e d ; and (2) t h e i n t e r v i e w e r had no o f f i c i a l u n i f o r m , t h u s u s e r s may have f e l t t h e s u r v e y t o be u n i m p o r t a n t . E i g h t r o a d s u r v e y s a m p l e d a y s w e r e a s s i g n e d : f o u r o n weekends and f o u r o n weekdays so a s t o o b t a i n . a f a i r r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f summer u s e . A s a ^ r e s u l t , 49% o f t h e i n t e r v i e w s were o b t a i n e d o n w e e k d a y s , w h i l e 51% w e r e f r o m w e e k e n d s . 2 . B a c k c o u n t r y I n t e r v i e w s I n t e r v i e w i n g t o o k p l a c e f r o m m i d - J u l y t o t h e end o f A u g u s t , : r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e p e a k u s e o f t h e b a c k c o u n t r y a r e a . S e v e n h u n d r e d a n d e i g h t y v i s i t o r - d a y s o f u s e w e r e r e p r e s e n t e d i n t h e 193 i n t e r v i e w f o r m s c o m p l e t e d , r e p r e s e n t i n g a p p r o x i m a t e l y a 7% s a m p l e s i z e . Due t o t h e l i m i t e d number o f a c c e s s e s t o a r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l v a l l e y , and t h e . r e l a t i v e l y s h o r t s e a s o n , t h e t i m e e x p e n d i t u r e p e r i n t e r v i e w o b t a i n e d i n t h i s s t u d y was n o t a s h i g h a s i n mos t o t h e r p a s t s t u d i e s ( O u t d o o r R e c r e a t i o n R e s o u r c e s R e v i e w C o m m i s s i o n 1 9 6 2 ; L u c a s and O l t m a n 1 9 7 1 ; and M e r r i a m and Ammons 1 9 6 7 ) . The 193 i n t e r v i e w s r e p r e s e n t a p p r o x i m a t e l y 250 m a n - h o u r s o r r o u g h l y 31 m a n - d a y s o f w o r k ; o r a b o u t s i x c o m p l e t e d i n t e r v i e w s p e r m a n - d a y . A w e a k n e s s i n o b t a i n i n g b a c k c o u n t r y u s e r i n f o r m a t i o n i s t h a t a s t a t i s t i c a l l y p u r e s a m p l e s i z e i s p r a c t i c a l l y i m p o s s i b l e t o a c h i e v e . To know w h e t h e r one a r e a o r t y p e ' o f u s e r i s b e i n g o v e r s a m p l e d w o u l d r e q u i r e a p r i o r k n o w l e d g e o f t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n a l p a t t e r n s o f b a c k c o u n t r y u s e i n t h e v a l l e y . T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n was o n l y r o u g h l y known t h r o u g h r e g i s t r a t i o n i n f o r m a t i o n . Thus t h e s a m p l i n g method o f i n t e r v i e w i n g h a d t o be b a s e d l a r g e l y o n t h e common s e n s e o f t h e i n t e r v i e w e r . The more h e a v i l y u s e d T a k a k k a w F a l l s t o T w i n F a l l s t r a i l was s a m p l e d more t h a n t h e l i g h t l y u s e d S k y l i n e , H i l i n e , and W h a l e b a c k t r a i l s . A m i x t u r e o f t h e r o a m i n g t e c h n i q u e i n t h e more r e m o t e a r e a s and t h e w a i t i n g \ 84 t e c h n i q u e i n p o p u l a r r e s t i n g s p o t s was u s e d . B a c k c o u n t r y u s e r s s a m p l e d a r e b e l i e v e d t o be f a i r l y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f a c t u a l u s e r s . A n i n h e r e n t c o n f l i c t t h a t may r e s u l t f r o m u s i n g t h e p e r s o n a l i n t e r -v i e w method i n w i l d e r n e s s o r b a c k c o u n t r y a r e a s i s t h a t t h e p e o p l e c o n t a c t e d may r e s e n t b e i n g i n t e r v i e w e d a s i t w o u l d be an unwelcomed i n t r u s i o n i n t o t h e s o l i t u d e and u n s t r u c t u r e d f r e e d o m t h e y s e e k . M o s t r e s e a r c h e r s u s i n g t h e t e c h n i q u e s a y t h e y h a v e n o t s e n s e d s u c h r e s e n t m e n t ( L u c a s and O l t m a n 1971; M e r r i a m s and Ammons 1967). I n Yoho V a l l e y , mos t p e r s o n s c o n t a c t e d seemed q u i t e p l e a s e d , i f a t f i r s t s u r p r i s e d , w i t h t h e i n t e r v i e w . I n f a c t , i f a n y t h i n g , t h e d e e p e r t h e i n t e r v i e w e r g o t i n t o t h e b a c k c o u n t r y , t h e g r e a t e r seemed t o be t h e s a t i s f a c t i o n o f t h e i n t e r v i e w e d p a r t y a t b e i n g a b l e t o e x p r e s s t h e i r a t t i t u d e s and o p i n i o n s a b o u t t h e s t u d y r e g i o n . Some r e s p o n s e s t o t h e q u e s t i o n "What a r e y o u r f e e l i n g s a b o u t my i n t e r v i e w i n g y o u ? " seemed t o be c o n t i n g e n t o n a n a s s u r a n c e f r o m t h e i n t e r v i e w e r t h a t t h e i n f o r m a t i o n g a t h e r e d w o u l d be p u t t o some r e a l u s e w i t h o n - t h e - g r o u n d r e s u l t s . I n o t h e r w o r d s , i f i t was u n d e r s t o o d b y t h e i n t e r v i e w e e t h a t the purpos®. of the-^interview^ .was purely academic, then the interview• may-no t h a v e b e e n s o w e l l r e c e i v e d . M o s t b a c k c o u n t r y u s e r s were w i l l i n g t o t a l k a t g r e a t l e n g t h w i t h t h e i n t e r v i e w e r p r o v i d i n g t h e y f e l t t h a t t h e i n t e r v i e w w a s \ a n i n t e g r a l p a r t o f t h e d e c i s i o n-making process f o r t h e a r e a . T h e r e w e r e no r e f u s a l s t o answer q u e s t i o n s , and only a c o u p l e o f i n d i v i d u a l s s t a t e d t h a t t h e i n t e r v i e w was annoying o r d i s r u p t i v e t o t h e i r h i k e . 85 B . R e s u l t s Q u e s t i o n n a i r e r e s u l t s a r e d i v i d e d i n t o t h e f o l l o w i n g t h r e e s e c t i o n s : (1) u s e r d e m o g r a p h i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ; (2) u s e r t r i p c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ; and (3) u s e r p r e f e r e n c e s and o p i n i o n s . 1. U s e r D e m o g r a p h i c C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s D e m o g r a p h i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f Y o h o V a l l e y r o a d and b a c k c o u n t r y u s e r s w e r e i d e n t i f i e d t h r o u g h t h e u s e o f t h e " s o c i o l o g i c a l a s p e c t s o f v i s i t o r s " f o r m ( s e e A p p e n d i x I I I ) . A t t r i b u t e s compared a r e s e x , a g e , i n c o m e , e d u c a t i o n , o c c u p a t i o n , s i z e o f p r e s e n t r e s i d e n c e , and o r i g i n . Whenever p o s s i b l e , t h e s e f i n d i n g s a r e compared w i t h 1971 C a n a d i a n c e n s u s d a t a and w i t h o t h e r r e l e v a n t r e s e a r c h . Sex A s o b s e r v e d i n F i g u r e 22 , Y o h o V a l l e y b a c k c o u n t r y u s e r s w e r e more p r e d o m i n a t e l y m a l e (58%) t h a n w e r e Y o h o V a l l e y r o a d u s e r s (51% m a l e ) . M o s t s t u d i e s o f b a c k c o u n t r y u s e r s i n d i c a t e t h a t b a c k c o u n t r y u s e i s p r e d o m i n a t e l y a m a l e a c t i v i t y . S h a f e r and M i e t z (1969) f o u n d t h a t 77.6% o f t h e w i l d e r n e s s u s e r s i n t h e A d i r o n d a c k s and W h i t e M o u n t a i n s o f n o r t h -e a s t e r n U n i t e d S t a t e s were m a l e . T h o r s e l l ' s (1971) f i n d i n g s i n t h r e e B . C . p r o v i n c i a l p a r k s ( G a r i b a l d i , Bowren L a k e s , and M t . R o b s o n ) i n d i c a t e s t h a t 70% o f w i l d e r n e s s u s e r s t h e r e w e r e m a l e . A s t u d y o f p r e d o m i n a t e l y d a y - u s e b a c k c o u n t r y u s e r s i n B a n f f a n d Y o h o N a t i o n a l P a r k s i n 1967 ( T h o r s e l l 1968a) i n d i c a t e d t h a t 61% o f t h e s e u s e r s w e r e m a l e . T h i s compares v e r y c l o s e l y w i t h t h e f i n d i n g s o f t h i s s t u d y . I n c o m p a r i s o n w i t h T h o r s e l l ' s (1967) s t u d y i n W a t e r t o n L a k e s N a t i o n a l P a r k , Nagy and S c o t t e r ' s ( 1 9 7 3 , 1974) s t u d i e s i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e s e x d i s t r i b u t i o n o f b a c k c o u n t r y u s e r s t h e r e i s . f a i r l y c o n s t a n t o v e r t i m e . 86 Road Users Backcountry Users (N= 612) (N = 545) Figure 22- Percent distribution by sex of road and backcountry users of Yoho Valley,Yoho National Park 9 1972-87 T h o r s e l l f o u n d t h a t 61% o f b a c k c o u n t r y u s e was ma le i n 1966 , w h i l e Nagy and S c o t t e r f o u n d t h a t 59% was m a l e i n b o t h 1972 a n d . 1 9 7 3 . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , few s t u d i e s g i v e an i n d i c a t i o n o f t h e s e x d i s t r i b u -t i o n o f p a r k u s e r s i n a more d e v e l o p e d r e c r e a t i o n s e t t i n g . T h o r s e l l ' s (1968b) 1966 s t u d y o f campers i n W a t e r t o n L a k e s N a t i o n a l P a r k , h o w e v e r , f o u n d t h a t 51% o f t h o s e u s e r s were m a l e . A s m e n t i o n e d , Yoho V a l l e y r o a d u s e r s w e r e a l s o 51% m a l e . T h e s e f i n d i n g s seem t o show t h a t f o r mos t d e v e l o p e d o r e a s y - a c c e s s p a r k a c t i v i t i e s , t h e s e x d i s t r i b u t i o n o f u s e r s i s a b o u t e q u a l l y m a l e and f e m a l e . Why do b a c k c o u n t r y u s e r s a p p e a r t o be more o f t e n m a l e t h a n r o a d u s e r s ? The answer seems t o be t h a t , f o r e i t h e r c u l t u r a l o r p h y s i c a l r e a s o n s , more f e m a l e s f e e l t h a t b a c k c o u n t r y t r a v e l i s t o o s t r e n u o u s f o r them. T h i s w o u l d e x p l a i n why t h e f i n d i n g s o f S h a f e r and M i e t z (1969) and T h o r s e l l (1971) i n r e l a t i v e l y more r e m o t e w i l d e r n e s s a r e a s d i f f e r s f r o m f i n d i n g s i n p r e d o m i n a t e l y d a y - u s e b a c k c o u n t r y a r e a s s u c h as Yoho V a l l e y . Age Many r e c r e a t i o n s t u d i e s s u c h a s H e n d e e , C a t t o n , M a r l o w , and B r o c k m a n (1968) g i v e t h e age d i s t r i b u t i o n o f p e r s o n s r e g i s t e r e d as " h e a d o f t h e p a r t y " arid t h e n go on t o compare t h e i r b i a s e d r e s u l t s w i t h t h o s e o f t h e g e n e r a l p o p u l a t i o n t o d e t e r m i n e wha t age g r o u p s a r e o v e r and u n d e r r e p r e s e n t e d i n t h e r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t y . A more a c c u r a t e measurement o f t h e age r e p r e s e n t a t i v e n e s s o f a r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t y i n a p a r t i c u l a r a r e a w o u l d be t o d e t e r m i n e t h e ages o f a l l s amp l e p a r t y members who p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e a c t i v i t y . T h i s was done i n t h i s s t u d y and i n T h o r s e l l ' s (1971) b a c k c o u n t r y s t u d y i n B . C . p r o v i n c i a l p a r k s . Y o h o V a l l e y r o a d and b a c k c o u n t r y age d i s t r i b u t i o n r e s u l t s a r e l i s t e d i n T a b l e 14 and compared w i t h T h o r s e l l ' s (1971) f i n d i n g s and t h e 1971 C a n a d i a n c e n s u s . T a b l e 1 4 : P e r c e n t D i s t r i b u t i o n b y Age o f Y o h o V a l l e y R o a d and B a c k c o u n t r y U s e r s , 1 9 7 2 . Age G r o u p s 0 - 9 • : 1 0 - 1 9 2 0 - 2 9 3 0 - 3 9 4 0 - 4 9 5 0 - 5 9 6 0 - 6 9 o v e r 7 0 Y o h o V a l l e y Road U s e r s 1 1 1 7 2 8 1 2 1 2 1 0 7 3 Yoho V a l l e y * B a c k c o u n t r y U s e r s 7 . 2 3 3 6 1 3 1 1 9 2 0 C a n a d i a n P o p ' l . * 1 9 7 1 C e n s u s 1 9 2 1 1 6 1 2 1 2 9 7 5 B . C . P a r k * # B a c k c o u n t r y U s e r s ( T h o r s e l l 1 9 7 1 ) * 3 1 3 4 1 4 1 2 c 5 J ~ OUUlt> LU g L c a i - t i * „ # Age g r o u p c a t e g o r i e s h e r e a r e a c t u a l l y 0 - 1 0 , 1 1 - 2 0 , . . . . Y o h o V a l l e y r o a d u s e r s a r e w e l l r e p r e s e n t e d i n mos t age g r o u p s , w i t h t h e v e r y y o u n g age g r o u p ( 0 - 9 ) u n d e r r e p r e s e n t e d and t h e y o u n g m i d d l e age g r o u p ( 2 0 - 2 9 ) o v e r r e p r e s e n t e d . B a c k c o u n t r y u s e r s o f Yoho V a l l e y , h o w e v e r , a r e more o v e r r e p r e s e n t e d i n t h e y o u n g m i d d l e age g r o u p , and more u n d e r r e p r e s e n t e d i n b o t h t h e v e r y y o u n g age g roup and t h e o l d age g r o u p s ( 6 0 + ) . T h o r s e l l ' s ( 1 9 7 1 ) b a c k c o u n t r y f i n d i n g s a r e s i m i l a r t o t h i s , b u t e v e n more e x t r e m e i n t h e r e l a t i v e o v e r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e n e s s and u n d e r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e n e s s o f t h e v a r i o u s age g r o u p s . T h i s d i f f e r e n c e c a n p r o b a b l y be e x p l a i n e d b y t h e f a c t t h a t mos t Y o h o V a l l e y b a c k c o u n t r y u s e r s a r e day h i k e r s , w h i l e mos t o f T h o r s e l l ' s s a m p l e c o n s i s t e d o f o v e r n i g h t u s e r s . T h i s i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e s t r e n u o u s -n e s s o f b a c k p a c k i n g e i t h e r p h y s i c a l l y o r c u l t u r a l l y i n h i b i t s t h e o l d e r and t h e v e r y y o u n g age g r o u p s f r o m p a r t i c i p a t i n g . A l i m i t e d number o f s t u d i e s o v e r t i m e i n d i c a t e t h a t b a c k p a c k e r s i n t h e C a n a d i a n R o c k i e s a r e b e c o m i n g more r e p r e s e n t e d i n t h e " a d u l t " age g r o u p t h a n t h e " u n d e r 1 6 " age g r o u p . Whereas T h o r s e l l ( 1 9 6 7 ) f o u n d t h a t 89 62% o f W a t e r t o n b a c k c o u n t r y u s e r s i n 1966 were a d u l t , Nagy and S c o t t e r ( 1 9 7 3 , 1974) f o u n d t h a t 67% w e r e a d u l t i n 1972 and 69% w e r e a d u l t i n 1 9 7 3 . T h o r s e l l (1968a) f o u n d t h a t B a n f f and Yoho b a c k c o u n t r y u s e r s w e r e 73% a d u l t ( o v e r 15 y e a r s o l d ) i n 1967 . P r o b a b l y a l a r g e r p e r c e n t a g e o f Yoho V a l l e y b a c k c o u n t r y u s e r s i n 1972 w o u l d make t h e ' o v e r 15 y e a r s o l d ' c a t e g o r y , a s 71% a r e o v e r 19 y e a r s o l d . Income B u r c h and Wenger (1967 . p . 1 9 ) c o n c l u d e d i n t h e i r s t u d y o f t h r e e s t y l e s o f f a m i l y c a m p i n g i n O r e g o n t h a t a l t h o u g h f a m i l i e s who camp t e n d t o h a v e h i g h e r i n c o m e s t h a n t h e g e n e r a l p o p u l a t i o n , " w i l d e r n e s s campers -are n o t d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y more w e a l t h y t h a n r o a d s i d e c a m p e r s " . The income d i s t r i b u t i o n o f r o a d and b a c k c o u n t r y u s e r s i n Yoho V a l l e y t e n d s t o b e a r t h i s o u t ( s ee T a b l e 15 ) . A l t h o u g h b o t h u s e r g r o u p s h a v e above a v e r a g e i n c o m e s , r o a d u s e r s w e r e a c t u a l l y more w e a l t h y t h a n b a c k -c o u n t r y u s e r s . S i x t y - t w o p e r c e n t o f r o a d u s e r s have i n c o m e s g r e a t e r t h a n $ 1 0 , 0 0 0 , w h i l e 48% o f b a c k c o u n t r y u s e r s have i n c o m e s t h a t h i g h ; o n l y 11% o f t h e C a n a d i a n p o p u l a t i o n i n ' 1 9 7 1 had i n c o m e s o f t h a t amount . Many s o c i o - e c o n o m i c a rgumen t s h a v e b e e n made f o r and a g a i n s t w i l d e r n e s s o r b a c k c o u n t r y u s e . I t i s p o i n t e d o u t b y p r o t a g o n i s t s a g a i n s t w i l d e r n e s s u s e t h a t w i l d e r n e s s u s e r s r e p r e s e n t a w e a l t h y e l i t e . I f t h e f i n d i n g s o f t h i s s t u d y and B u r c h and W e n g e r ' s (1967) a r e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e , t h o s e a r g u m e n t s c a n n o t i s o l a t e o u t w i l d e r n e s s u s e , b u t w o u l d h a v e t o a p p l y t o o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n i s t s a s a w h o l e . B e c a u s e o f t h e l a c k o f u n i f o r m i t y i n t h e i ncome c a t e g o r i e s u s e d i n v a r i o u s r e c r e a t i o n a l r e s e a r c h s t u d i e s , a s n o t e d b y S t a n k e y ( 1 9 7 0 ) , no a t t e m p t w i l l b e made t o compare t h i s s t u d y ' s f i n d i n g s w i t h t h o s e o f o t h e r s t u d i e s t h a t u s e d i f f e r e n t i n c o m e c a t e g o r i e s ( l i k e T h o r s e l l 1 9 7 1 ) . The 90 T a b l e 15 : P e r c e n t D i s t r i b u t i o n b y Income o f Yoho V a l l e y Road and B a c k c o u n t r y U s e r s , 1 9 7 2 * • , r 1 u n d e r $1000 $3000 $6000 $8000 $10000 $15000 i n c o m e Class $1000 - 2 9 9 9 - 5 9 9 9 - 7 9 9 9 - 9 9 9 9 - 1 4 9 9 9 and o v e r Road U s e r f 3'1 3 A 8 A U A U ' 6 3 3 . 0 2 8 . 7 Yoho V a l l e y 5 > 4 g > 6 • 9 . 6 1 6 . 0 2 4 . 6 2 3 . 6 B a c k c o u n t r y U s e r s C a n a d i a n P o p u l a t i o n 2 U ( > g _ ? ? _ ? " " 1971 c e n s u s * R e f e r s t o f a m i l y i n c o m e o r i ncome o f ' h e a d o f h o u s e h o l d ' . i n c o m e c a t e g o r i e s u s e d i n t h i s s t u d y a r e t h e same a s t h o s e u s e d b y S t a t i s t i c s Canada i n t h e i r 1971 c e n s u s o f C a n a d i a n s . I t i s u r g e d t h a t o t h e r C a n a d i a n r e c r e a t i o n a l r e s e a r c h s t u d i e s u s e s i m i l a r i n c o m e c a t e g o r i e s . E d u c a t i o n The e d u c a t i o n a l a t t a i n m e n t o f Yoho V a l l e y r o a d and b a c k c o u n t r y u s e r s i s g r a p h i c a l l y p r e s e n t e d i n F i g u r e 2 3 , and p r e s e n t e d i n a b b r e v i a t e d f o r m f o r c o m p a r a t i v e p u r p o s e s w i t h o t h e r s t u d y f i n d i n g s i n T a b l e 16 b e l o w . T a b l e 16 : P e r c e n t D i s t r i b u t i o n by E d u c a t i o n o f Yoho V a l l e y Road and B a c k c o u n t r y U s e r s , 1972 — ; H i g h S c h o o l E d u c a t i o n L e v e l C o l l e g e P o s t - g r a d u a t e o r l e s s Y o h o V a l l e y Road U s e r s 35 34 31 Yoho V a l l e y B a c k c o u n t r y U s e r s 25 39 36 B a n f f / Y o h o B a c k c o u n t r y U s e r s , 1967 27 42 ( T h o r s e l l 1968a) 31 B . C . P a r k s B a c k c o u n t r y U s e r s , 1970 32 24 44 ( T h o r s e l l 1971) C a n a d i a n P o p u l a t i o n , 1971 C e n s u s 92 6 2 91 Legend : Elementary § T" 6 High School |/.:»V::/:;.-| Collegef-v.-100 • r. ........ ..»6-f-T3 C o < > O c o o o Z3 TJ U i Road Users (N=I97) Non-response =3 Backcountry Users (N=I9I) Non-response = 2 Figure 23= Percent distribution by education attainment level of road and backcountry users of Yoho V a l l e y , Yoho Nat ional Pa rk , 1972-92 B u r c h and Wenger (1967) f o u n d t h a t r emo te o r b a c k c o u n t r y campers i n O r e g o n h a v e a s l i g h t l y h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n a l a t t a i n m e n t t h a n do e a s y -a c c e s s o r r o a d s i d e c a m p e r s . T h i s s t u d y s u b s t a n t i a t e s t h e s e f i n d i n g s . S e v e n t y - f i v e p e r c e n t o f a l l s a m p l e d b a c k c o u n t r y u s e r s and 65% o f a l l s a m p l e d r o a d u s e r s i n Yoho V a l l e y h a d some c o l l e g e e d u c a t i o n . The e d u c a t i o n o f Yoho V a l l e y b a c k c o u n t r y u s e r s i n 1972 i s f a i r l y c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e f i n d i n g s o f T h o r s e l l (1968a) i n h i s 1967 s u r v e y o f B a n f f and Yoho N a t i o n a l P a r k b a c k c o u n t r y u s e r s . A s T h o r s e l l (1971) p o i n t s o u t , i f t h e a p p e a l o f o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n , and b a c k c o u n t r y u s e i n p a r t i c u l a r , i s c o n t i n g e n t o n a h i g h l e v e l o f e d u c a t i o n , t h e n i t w o u l d seem t h a t as t h e e d u c a t i o n a l a t t a i n m e n t s o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n a t l a r g e i n c r e a s e s , t h e demands f o r t h e s e u s e s w i l l i n c r e a s e a c c o r d i n g l y . O c c u p a t i o n : O c c u p a t i o n s h a v e b e e n g r o u p e d i n a number o f d i f f e r e n t w a y s , t h u s i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o compare a c c u r a t e l y one s t u d y ' s f i n d i n g s w i t h a n o t h e r ' s . The o c c u p a t i o n a l g r o u p s u s e d f o r t h i s s t u d y a r e t h e same a s t h o s e u s e d i n t h e 1971 c e n s u s o f C a n a d i a n s ( s e e T a b l e 17 ) . P r o f e s s i o n a l o c c u p a t i o n s i n t e a c h i n g , n a t u r a l s c i e n c e s , m a t h , and e n g i n e e r i n g a r e o v e r r e p r e s e n t e d among Yoho V a l l e y r o a d u s e r s (33.3%) and v e r y o v e r r e p r e s e n t e d among b a c k c o u n t r y u s e r s (42.3%) when compared w i t h t h e C a n a d i a n p o p u l a t i o n ( 6 . 7 % ) . C l e r i c a l , s a l e s , and s e r v i c e o c c u p a t i o n s , o n t h e o t h e r h a n d , a r e v e r y u n d e r r e p r e s e n t e d among r o a d (11.0%) and b a c k c o u n t r y u s e r s (12.4%) when compared w i t h t h e g e n e r a l p o p u l a t i o n ( 3 6 . 6 % ) . S i n c e a h i g h p e r c e n t a g e o f Yoho V a l l e y v i s i t o r s came f r o m A l b e r t a and s i n c e t h e a v e r a g e A l b e r t a n i s more l i k e l y t o be a f a r m e r t h a n t h e a v e r a g e C a n a d i a n , i t was v e r y s u r p r i s i n g t o f i n d f a r m e r s so u n d e r r e p r e s e n t e d 93 T a b l e 17 : P e r c e n t D i s t r i b u t i o n b y O c c u p a t i o n o f Yoho V a l l e y Road and B a c k c o u n t r y U s e r s , 1972 O c c u p a t i o n Yoho V a l l e y Road U s e r s Y o h o V a l l e y B a c k c o u n t r y U s e r s C a n . P o p ' l . 1971 Census M a n a g e r i a l & a d m i n i s t r a t i v e 1 0 . 6 5 . 4 4 . 3 N a t u r a l s c i e n c e s , ma th & e n g i n e e r i n g 1 3 . 6 1 9 . 3 2 . 7 S o c i a l s c i e n c e s 4 . 0 1.6 0 . 9 R e l i g i o n 0 . 5 1.1 0 . 3 T e a c h i n g 19 .7 2 3 . 0 4 . 0 M e d i c i n e & h e a l t h 4 . 0 4 . 8 3 . 8 A r t i s t i c & l i t e r a r y 2 . 5 5 . 4 0 . 9 C l e r i c a l 2 . 0 4 . 3 1 6 . 0 S a l e s 2 . 0 2 . 7 9 . 4 F a r m i n g & h o r t i c u l t u r e 1.5 0 . 5 6 . 0 F o r e s t r y & l o g g i n g 0 . 5 0 . 5 0 . 8 F i s h i n g & h u n t i n g - • - 0 . 3 M i n i n g - 0 . 5 0 .7 P r o c e s s i n g 3 . 0 • 0 . 5 • •'. 3 . 9 M a c h i n i n g 3 . 0 1.6 2 . 8 P r o d u c t f a b r i c a t i n g 3 . 5 1.1 7 . 3 C o n s t r u c t i o n t r a d e s 5 . 6 2 . 7 6 . 6 T r a n s p o r t e q u i p m e n t o p e r a t i n g 2 . 5 2 . 1 3 . 9 S e r v i c e s 7 . 0 5 . 4 1 1 . 2 S t u d e n t s 9 . 6 1 5 . 0 N / A * R e t i r e d 3 . 5 1.6 N / A * Unemployed 0 . 5 1-1 N / A * O t h e r o c c u p a t i o n s 0 . 9 - 1 4 . 2 * N / A = n o t a v a i l a b l e 94 among b o t h r o a d (1.5%) and b a c k c o u n t r y u s e r s (0.5%) when compared w i t h t h e C a n a d i a n p o p u l a t i o n ( 6 . 0 % ) . B u r c h and Wenger ( 1 9 6 7 , p . 1 3 ) c o n c l u d e d t h a t " r u r a l r e s i d e n t s h a v e l i t t l e i n t e r e s t i n s p e n d i n g t h e i r l e i s u r e t i m e i n f o r e s t c a m p i n g " . T h i s m i g h t e x p l a i n why r u r a l - r e l a t e d o c c u p a t i o n s ( f a r m i n g , f o r e s t r y , f i s h i n g , m i n i n g , e t c . ) a r e so u n d e r -r e p r e s e n t e d i n t h e s t u d y a r e a . B u r c h and Wenger (1967) a l s o c o n c l u d e d t h a t b a c k c o u n t r y camper s a r e more l i k e l y t o be p r o f e s s i o n a l and t e c h n i c a l p e r s o n s and l e s s l i k e l y t o be m a n u a l w o r k e r s t h a n a r e e a s y - a c c e s s o r r o a d s i d e c a m p e r s . S t u d y f i n d i n g s i n Y o h o V a l l e y seem t o b e a r t h e s e c o n c l u s i o n s o u t . R o a d u s e r s a r e more t h a n t w i c e as l i k e l y t o be i n t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n and m a n u f a c t u r i n g t r a d e s t h a n a r e b a c k c o u n t r y u s e r s . S i z e o f P l a c e o f R e s i d e n c e The O u t d o o r R e c r e a t i o n R e s o u r c e s R e v i e w C o m m i s s i o n ( 1 9 6 2 ) , B u r c h and Wenger ( 1 9 6 7 ) , T h o r s e l l ( 1 9 6 8 a ) , and T h o r s e l l (1971) a l l f o u n d b a c k c o u n t r y u s e r s t o be more o f t e n f r o m a m e t r o p o l i t a n r e s i d e n c e t h a n t h e g e n e r a l p o p u l a t i o n . Hendee e t a l (1968) f o u n d , h o w e v e r , t h a t G l a c i e r P e a k W i l d e r n e s s u s e r s i n W a s h i n g t o n a r e f a i r l y e q u a l l y r e p r e s e n t e d i n a l l t h r e e " s i z e o f p r e s e n t r e s i d e n c e " c a t e g o r i e s ( i e . r u r a l , s m a l l t o w n , and c i t y ) . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , most o f t h e s e s t u d i e s l a c k a d e f i n i t i v e d e f i n i t i o n f o r t h e c a t e g o r i e s t h e y u s e . T h a t i s , i t i s up t o t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e r e s p o n d a n t t o d e c i d e wha t c o n s t i t u t e s a c i t y , s m a l l t o w n , o r r u r a l r e s i d e n c e . T h i s f l a w r e s t r i c t s a n y u s e f u l c o m p a r i s o n o f s t u d y f i n d i n g s w i t h p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h . The s i z e o f p l a c e o f r e s i d e n c e o f Yoho V a l l e y r o a d and b a c k c o u n t r y u s e r s i s p r e s e n t e d i n F i g u r e 24 w i t h a s p e c i f i c p o p u l a t i o n r a n g e g i v e n f o r e a c h c a t e g o r y u s e d . 95 L e g e n d R o a d Users § § ( N = 199) Backcountry Users M ( N = I 9 2 ) Farm Ru ra l Town Town Ci ty C i ty C i ty C i ty C i ty N o n - less 1,000 2 , 5 0 0 10 M 5 0 M 2 5 0 M over f o rm than to to to to to iUM 1,000 2 , 5 0 0 10 M 5 0 M 2 5 0 M I M M S i te of P r e s e n t R e s i d e n c e Figure 24- Percent distribution by size of place of residence of road and backcountry users of Yoho Valley, Yoho National Park, 1972-96 S t u d y f i n d i n g s i n d i c a t e t h a t b o t h Y o h o V a l l e y u s e r g r o u p s a r e p r e d o m i n a t e l y f r o m l a r g e c i t i e s , t h u s c o n c u r r i n g w i t h mos t p r e v i o u s s t u d i e s . A l t h o u g h t a l a r g e 65% o f t h e C a n a d i a n p o p u l a t i o n i n 1971 r e s i d e d i n c i t i e s w i t h 1 0 , 0 0 0 o r more p e o p l e , 71% o f r o a d u s e r s and 75% o f b a c k c o u n t r y u s e r s a l s o r e s i d e d i n c i t i e s t h a t l a r g e . I n g e n e r a l , r o a d and b a c k c o u n t r y u s e r s w e r e s i m i l a r l y d i s t r i b u t e d among t h e s i z e o f p l a c e o f r e s i d e n c e c a t e g o r i e s . O r i g i n T a b l e 18 i n d i c a t e s t h e o r i g i n o f Y o h o V a l l e y r o a d , c a m p g r o u n d , and b a c k c o u n t r y u s e r s i n 1972 , and t h e o r i g i n o f B a n f f and Y o h o h i k e r s i n 1967 ( T h o r s e l l 1 9 6 8 a ) . Y o h o V a l l e y b a c k c o u n t r y u s e r s w e r e l o c a l A l b e r t a n s more o f t e n t h a n r o a d and campground u s e r s . T h o r s e l l ( 1 9 6 7 , 1968b) a l s o f o u n d t h a t i n 1966 W a t e r t o n L a k e s N a t i o n a l P a r k h i k e r s (45%) were more o f t e n l o c a l A l b e r t a n s t h a n w e r e W a t e r t o n r o a d s i d e campers ( 3 0 % ) . Y o h o V a l l e y r o a d u s e r s w e r e more o f t e n f r o m t h e e a s t t h a n w e r e t h e o t h e r u s e r g r o u p s ; w h i l e campground u s e r s w e r e d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y f r o m t h e w e s t e r n U n i t e d S t a t e s . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o n o t e t h a t , a s a w h o l e , t h e r e w e r e a s many A m e r i c a n u s e r s as t h e r e were C a n a d i a n u s e r s t o t h e v a l l e y ; and t h a t , among A m e r i c a n u s e r s , t h e y t e n d t o be a b o u t e q u a l l y f r o m t h e e a s t and w e s t . T h i s c e r t a i n l y d e m o n s t r a t e s t h e w i d e a p p e a l t h e C a n a d i a n R o c k i e s h a v e t o a t t r a c t t o u r i s t s f r o m t h r o u g h o u t N o r t h A m e r i c a . T h i s c o n t r a s t s c o n s i d e r a b l y f r o m T h o r s e l l ' s (1971) f i n d i n g s i n t h r e e B . C . p r o v i n c i a l p a r k b a c k c o u n t r y a r e a s w h i c h i n d i c a t e t h a t u s e r s t h e r e a r e p r e d o m i n a t e l y (62%) B . C . r e s i d e n t s w i t h a r o u n d 23% A m e r i c a n s . 97 In comparison with a study conducted i n Lake O'Hara i n 1972 (Canada Dept. Indian and Northern A f f a i r s , Parks Branch 1973) ',' the o r i g i n of Yoho V a l l e y users i s more widely d i s t r i b u t e d . Lake O'Hara users are more often Albertan (39%) and Canadian (66%) than are Yoho V a l l e y users. In comparison with T h o r s e l l ' s (1968a) study i n Banff and Yoho Park i n 1967, i t may be concluded that the r e l a t i v e o r i g i n of Yoho V a l l e y backcountry users has been f a i r l y constant over time. In contrast, Nagy and Scotter (1974) observed an o r i g i n s h i f t , i n Waterton backcountry use favoring l o c a l Albertans. T h o r s e l l (1967) observed 45% Albertans i n Waterton's backcountry areas i n 1966, while Nagy and Scotter (1974) found that 64% were Albertans i n 1973. Table 18 : Percent D i s t r i b u t i o n by O r i g i n of Yoho V a l l e y Road, Campground and Backcountry Users, 1972 O r i g i n Yoho V a l l e y Road Users Yoho V a l l e y Campers Yoho V a l l e y Hikers Yoho/Banff* 1967 Hikers A l b e r t a 21.5 22.0 32.4 31.6 B r i t i s h Columbia 13.6 9.0 Ontario 9.5 7.5 6.5 6.6 Other Canada 8.0 6.5 5.4 5.2 CANADA 49.5 48.0 57.3 52.4 Western U.S. 17.5 27.0 18.9 20.0 Eastern U.S. 31.5 25.0 21.1 21.8 UNITED STATES 49.0 52.0 40.0 41.8 OTHER FOREIGN 1-5 - 2.7 4.7 The 98.9% sum suggests a s l i g h t computation e r r o r i n T h o r s e l l ' s (1968a) report.. 98 2 . U s e r T r i p C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s V a r i o u s t r i p c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f Yoho V a l l e y r o a d and b a c k c o u n t r y u s e r s w e r e compared w i t h one a n o t h e r a n d , where a p p r o p r i a t e , w i t h o t h e r r e l e v a n t r e s e a r c h . T r i p c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s compared a r e : d i s t a n c e f r o m p l a c e o f r e s i d e n c e ; p a r t y s i z e ; p a r t y t y p e ; l e n g t h o f s t a y ; r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t y p r o f i l e s ; t r i p d e s t i n a t i o n ; r e a s o n why s t u d y a r e a s e l e c t e d ; t y p e o f a c c o m o d a t i o n u s e d ; b a c k c o u n t r y a r e a s v i s i t e d ; and p r e v i o u s v i s i t s . D i s t a n c e f r o m P l a c e o f R e s i d e n c e F i g u r e 25 s u b s t a n t i a t e s t h e m a j o r f i n d i n g s o b s e r v e d i n t h e o r i g i n s e c t i o n . Yoho V a l l e y r o a d u s e r s , who a r e l e s s o f t e n A l b e r t a n , have t r a v e l l e d , o n t h e a v e r a g e , f u r t h e r t h a n b a c k c o u n t r y u s e r s . T h e m e d i a n r o a d u s e r i s n e a r l y 2000 m i l e s f r o m home, w h i l e t h e m e d i a n b a c k c o u n t r y u s e r i s a p p r o x i m a t e l y 1000 m i l e s f r o m home. P a r t y S i z e The p a r t y s i z e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f Yoho V a l l e y r o a d and b a c k c o u n t r y u s e r s i s p r e s e n t e d i n F i g u r e 2 6 . Road u s e r s had a l a r g e r a v e r a g e p a r t y s i z e ( 3 . 1 ) t h a n d i d b a c k c o u n t r y u s e r s ( 2 . 8 ) . The m a i n p a r t y s i z e g roup f o r b o t h u s e r g r o u p s was t w o , w i t h 43% o f r o a d u s e r s and 52% o f b a c k c o u n t r y u s e r s t r a v e l l i n g i n p a i r s . O n l y a s m a l l number o f u s e r s v i s i t e d Y o h o V a l l e y a l o n e . C o m p l e t e s o l i t u d e was c e r t a i n l y n o t t h e m a i n o b j e c t i v e o f b a c k c o u n t r y u s e r s a s o n l y 9% h i k e d a l o n e . T h o r s e l l ( 1 9 6 8 a ) f o u n d t h e a v e r a g e p a r t y s i z e o f B a n f f and Y o h o P a r k b a c k c o u n t r y u s e r s t o b e 3 . 2 i n 1967 . I f t h a t i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f Y o h o V a l l e y , t h e a v e r a g e p a r t y s i z e h a s gone down o v e r t h e . y e a r s t o 2 . 8 . W a t e r t o n L a k e s N a t i o n a l P a r k h a s a p p a r e n t l y h a d a d e c l i n e i n t h e a v e r a g e p a r t y s i z e o f i t s b a c k c o u n t r y u s e r s . T h o r s e l l (1967) f o u n d t h e a v e r a g e Figure 25= Percent distribution by miles from place of residence of Yoho Val ley road and backcountry users,Yoho National Park, 1972-100 Percent Backcountry Users (N=I93) Mean Party Size = 2-8 Figure 26 = Percent distribution by party s ize of road and backcountry users of Yoho Valley,Yoho National Road Users (N=I99) Mean Party Size = 3-1 Park, 1972-101 p a r t y s i z e t o be 3 . 8 i n 1966 , w h i l e Nagy and S c o t t e r (1974) f o u n d i t t o be 3 . 5 i n 1 9 7 3 . P e r h a p s as b a c k o u n t r y a r e a s have become more c r o w d e d , t h e p e r c e i v e d need f o r a l a r g e p a r t y s i z e among h i k e r s , f o r s a f e t y r e a s o n s , h a s d e c l i n e d . T h o r s e l l (1971) f o u n d t h e a v e r a g e p a r t y s i z e i n t h r e e B . C . p r o v i n c i a l p a r k b a c k c o u n t r y a r e a s t o be 4 . 2 . The u s e i n t h e s e a r e a s , u n l i k e i n Y o h o V a l l e y , i s p r i m a r i l y o f o v e r n i g h t d u r a t i o n . Yoho V a l l e y ' s o v e r n i g h t h i k e r s h a d a l a r g e r a v e r a g e p a r t y s i z e t h a n d i d i t s day h i k e r s . Nagy and S c o t t e r (1974) a l s o f o u n d t h i s i n W a t e r t o n . P r a c t i c a l r e a s o n s s u c h a s g r o u p h i k i n g o f f e r i n g g r e a t e r s a f e t y and l i g h t e r p a c k s may a c c o u n t f o r t h i s d i f f e r e n c e . P a r t y T y p e F i g u r e 27 i l l u s t r a t e s t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f p a r t y t y p e s among Yoho V a l l e y r o a d and b a c k c o u n t r y u s e r s . B a c k c o u n t r y u s e r s a r e more l i k e l y t o b e b y t h e m s e l v e s , i n a n o r g a n i z e d g r o u p , o r w i t h a g roup o f f r i e n d s t h a n a r e r o a d u s e r s . Road u s e r s a r e more l i k e l y t o be p a r t o f a s i n g l e f a m i l y w i t h c h i l d r e n , o r w i t h two o r more c o u p l e s t h a n a r e b a c k c o u n t r y u s e r s . I n c o m p a r i s o n w i t h T h o r s e l l , ' s ( 1971) s t u d y i n : t h r e e B . C . p r o v i n c i a l p a r k b a c k c o u n t r y a r e a s , t h e m a i n d i f f e r e n c e i n p a r t y t y p e i s t h a t Yoho V a l l e y b a c k c o u n t r y p a r t i e s a r e t w i c e as l i k e l y t o be j u s t one c o u p l e . L e n g t h o f S t a y M o s t p a r k v i s i t o r s ( a r o u n d 65%) t o Yoho V a l l e y , a s r e p r e s e n t e d b y t h e r o a d u s e r s u r v e y , s p e n t l e s s t h a n two h o u r s i n t h e s t u d y a r e a . A s F i g u r e 28 i n d i c a t e s , o n l y 21% o f a l l s a m p l e d r o a d v i s i t o r s s p e n t a t l e a s t one n i g h t i n t h e v a l l e y . 1 0 2 Type of Party Figure 27 • Percent distribution by party type of road and back-country users of Yoho Valley, Yoho National Park, 1972-103 LEGEND Road Campground Backcountry (N= 182) (N=983) (N= 193) 16 4-5 I day or less 2-2 0 6 or more nights I night 2 nights 3 nights 4 nights 5 nights Length of Stay Figure 28= Percent distribution by length of stay of road,camp-ground and backcountry users of Yoho Valley.Yoho National Park , 1972-104 M o s t o v e r n i g h t v i s i t o r s s t a y e d a t T a k a k k a w F a l l s c a m p g r o u n d , w h e r e t h e a v e r a g e l e n g t h o f s t a y was 1.3 n i g h t s p e r camper p a r t y , w i t h 80% o f t h e campers j u s t s p e n d i n g one n i g h t a t t h e c a m p g r o u n d . A t L a k e O ' H a r a , L a n d a l s and S c o t t e r (1973) f o u n d t h e a v e r a g e l e n g t h o f s t a y o f w a l k - i n camper s t h e r e t o b e 2 . 7 n i g h t s . Y o h o V a l l e y b a c k c o u n t r y u s e r s a r e p r i m a r i l y t h e r e f o r t h e d a y : 75% a r e day h i k e r s , w i t h 29% a v e r a g i n g h i k e s o f l e s s t h a n 5 h o u r s d u r a t i o n . Of t h e 25% o v e r n i g h t h i k e r s , t h e a v e r a g e l e n g t h o f s t a y was 2 . 1 n i g h t s , w i t h mos t o v e r n i g h t h i k e r s j u s t s p e n d i n g one n i g h t i n t h e a r e a . T h o r s e l l (1968a) f o u n d t h a t 94% o f a l l s a m p l e d B a n f f and Y o h o P a r k h i k e r s w e r e day u s e r s ; w h i l e Nagy and S c o t t e r (1974) f o u n d t h a t 89% o f W a t e r t o n P a r k b a c k c o u n t r y u s e r s w e r e day h i k e r s . I n c o m p a r i s o n , t h e r e i s a c t u a l l y a h i g h e r r e l a t i v e p e r c e n t a g e o f o v e r n i g h t b a c k c o u n t r y u s e i n Y o h o V a l l e y . R e c r e a t i o n A c t i v i t y P r o f i l e s The r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t y p r o f i l e s o f Yoho V a l l e y r o a d and b a c k c o u n t r y u s e r s a r e g r a p h i c a l l y d i s p l a y e d i n F i g u r e 2 9 . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , mos t s t u d i e s o f p a r k v i s i t o r s t o t h e C a n a d i a n R o c k i e s do n o t i n c l u d e a c t i v i t y p r o f i l e s p e r s e . A c t i v i t y p r o f i l e s c a n , h o w e v e r , be i n f e r r e d f r o m ; * q u e s t i o n s l i k e : What i s t h e p u r p o s e ( s ) o f t h i s h i k e ? ( T h o r s e l l 1 9 6 8 a ) . Y o h o V a l l e y b a c k c o u n t r y u s e r s were g e n e r a l l y i n v o l v e d i n more a c t i v i t i e s t h a n were r o a d u s e r s . T h i s was e x p e c t e d as (1) most b a c k c o u n t r y u s e r s s t a y e d l o n g e r i n t h e s t u d y a r e a and (2) b a c k c o u n t r y u s e i s b y n a t u r e more ' a c t i v e ' t h a n r o a d u s e . The a v e r a g e b a c k c o u n t r y u s e r was more t h a n t w i c e as l i k e l y as t h e a v e r a g e r o a d u s e r t o s t u d y n a t u r e , m o u n t a i n c l i m b , s w i m , f i s h , p a i n t , and s k e t c h . 105 lOOr- IOOO L E G E N D Activities engaged in by Road Users Activities engaged in by Backcountry Users (N = I66) ( N = I92) Picnicking is principal "other"'activity of road users- Picnicking and walking to Takakkawa Falls probably larger than re-ported since these were volunteered and not explicitly asked as the other listed activities-490 3 C % — m 5 o a> -— > s o • S o ^ *v O rj> — - j T3 CJ> — — o *-O JC O ^ CO a. c Q. E o o e E o .c E E 5 C/) c0 o> cn c c c <— d) -C ™ o .c to c a> -*— O iZ a CL 00 Activities c o a x o a> CC 05 w cu CC Figure 29 = Recreation activity profiles of road and backcountry users of Yoho Valley,Yoho National Park, 1972-106 T h o r s e l l (1968a) f o u n d t h a t 30% o f B a n f f and Y o h o P a r k h i k e r s i n 1967 f e l t t h a t n a t u r e s t u d y was one o f t h e p u r p o s e s o f t h e i r b a c k c o u n t r y t r a v e l . N e a r l y h a l f (49%) o f a l l s a m p l e d Yoho V a l l e y h i k e r s m e n t i o n e d n a t u r e s t u d y a s a n a c t i v i t y o f t h e i r s w h i l e i n t h e s t u d y r e g i o n . T h i s seems t o i n d i c a t e an i n c r e a s e i n n a t u r e l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t y , p e r h a p s a r e s u l t o f t h e i n c r e a s i n g a t t e n t i o n e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s s u e s h a v e b e e n r e c e i v i n g i n r e c e n t y e a r s . T r i p D e s t i n a t i o n Y o h o V a l l e y r o a d u s e r s w e r e a s k e d f o r t h e i r v a c a t i o n t r i p d e s t i n a -t i o n ( s e e T a b l e 1 9 ) . O n l y 5.5% o f t h e s ampled v i s i t o r s c o n s i d e r e d t h e v a l l e y t o be t h e i r o v e r a l l t r i p d e s t i n a t i o n . N e a r l y a l l o f t h e s e v i s i t o r s w e r e l o c a l A l b e r t a n s on s h o r t weekend v a c a t i o n s . M o s t v i s i t o r s (59.9%) t o Y o h o V a l l e y c o n s i d e r e d t h e C a n a d i a n R o c k i e s t o be t h e i r t r i p d e s t i n a t i o n . T a b l e 19 : T r i p D e s t i n a t i o n o f Yoho V a l l e y Road U s e r s , 1972 D e s t i n a t i o n Road U s e r s (%) M o u n t a i n N a t i o n a l P a r k s o f Canada 5 9 . 9 V a n c o u v e r o r o t h e r B . C . l o c a t i o n s 1 8 . 1 Yoho V a l l e y 5.5. . , Y o h o N a t i o n a l P a r k 5 . 0 A l a s k a 2 . 0 Nowhere i n p a r t i c u l a r 1.5 O t h e r 8 . 0 107 Why Y o h o V a l l e y S e l e c t e d R o a d and b a c k c o u n t r y u s e r s w e r e a s k e d t o g i v e t h e one m a i n r e a s o n why t h e y s e l e c t e d t o v i s i t Y o h o V a l l e y ( s e e T a b l e 20 ) . N e a r l y t w i c e a s many r o a d u s e r s t h a n b a c k c o u n t r y u s e r s gave t h e c a s u a l answer t h a t t h e y w e r e p a s s i n g t h r o u g h s o t h e y w a n t e d t o see t h e a r e a . B a c k c o u n t r y u s e r s more o f t e n s a i d t h e y came b e c a u s e t h e a r e a was recommended t o them o r b e c a u s e o f wha t t h e y r e a d a b o u t t h e a r e a . T a b l e 20 : Why Yoho V a l l e y S e l e c t e d b y Road and B a c k c o u n t r y U s e r s , 1 9 7 2 R e a s o n s G i v e n R o a d U s e r s ( P e r c e n t ) B a c k c o u n t r y U s e r s ( P e r c e n t ) P a s s i n g t h r o u g h Yoho P a r k , w a n t e d t o s e e t h e a r e a 3 5 . 4 1 8 . 2 E n j o y e d p r i o r v i s i t t o a r e a 1 8 . 2 2 2 . 5 A r e a recommended b y f r i e n d s o r p a r k s t a f f 1 6 . 2 2 8 . 9 Read a b o u t a r e a 5 . 5 1 2 . 3 J u s t h a p p e n e d h e r e , u n i n t e n t i o n a l 4 . 0 4 . 3 L o v e m o u n t a i n s c e n e r y 7 . 6 — Wanted t o show f r i e n d s t h e a r e a 5 . 5 E s c a p e B a n f f P a r k and c rowds - 4 . 8 P a r t o f s c h e d u l e d , o r g a n i z e d t o u r - 4 . 3 O t h e r 7 . 6 4 . 7 T y p e o f A c c o m m o d a t i o n U s e Y o h o V a l l e y r o a d u s e r s w e r e a s k e d wha t t y p e o f o v e r n i g h t a c c o m m o d a t i o n t h e y u s e d , i f a n y , w h i l e t h e y were i n Yoho P a r k ( s ee T a b l e 21 ) . N e a r l y t w o - t h i r d s (63.2%) o f a l l r e s p o n d a n t s w e r e j u s t day v i s i t o r s t o t h e p a r k , s t a y i n g o v e r n i g h t somewhere o u t s i d e t h e p a r k ( u s u a l l y i n B a n f f P a r k ) . O f t h o s e v i s i t o r s who d i d s p e n d a t l e a s t one n i g h t i n Y o h o F a r k , 83% s t a y e d i n one o f t h e p a r k ' s f o u r r o a d s i d e c a m p g r o u n d s . 108 T a b l e 21 : Type o f V i s i t o r A c c o m m o d a t i o n U s e d i n Yoho N a t i o n a l P a r k Type o f A c c o m m o d a t i o n R o a d U s e r s ( p e r c e n t ) Campgrounds 3 0 . 6 Takakkaw F a l l s 14.5% K i c k i n g H o r s e 10.9% Hoodoos o r C h a n c e l l o r P e a k 5.2% Road p u l l o u t s o r v i e w p o i n t s 2 . 6 Yoho V a l l e y b a c k c o u n t r y 2 . 1 S t a f f o r p r i v a t e home 0 . 5 O t h e r 1.0 N o t s t a y i n g i n Yoho N a t i o n a l P a r k 6 3 . 2 A r e a s V i s i t e d i n t h e B a c k c o u n t r y Y o h o V a l l e y b a c k c o u n t r y u s e r s w e r e a s k e d what a r e a s t h e y u s e d w i t h i n t h e s t u d y a r e a ( s e e T a b l e 22 ) . N e a r l y a l l s a m p l e d b a c k c o u n t r y u s e r s (90%) h i k e d a t l e a s t t h e f i v e m i l e r o u n d t r i p t r a i l t o L a u g h i n g F a l l s ; 52% o f t h e h i k e r s saw T w i n F a l l s f r o m t h e t e a h o u s e , a t e n m i l e h i k e ; and a s i z e a b l e p e r c e n t a g e (19%) o f u s e r s h i k e d an a r d u o u s 14 m i l e s t o t h e t o p o f T w i n F a l l s v i a t h e W h a l e b a c k M t n . S k y l i n e t r a i l . T a b l e 22 : A r e a s V i s i t e d b y Yoho V a l l e y B a c k c o u n t r y U s e r s , 1972 A r e a s V i s i t e d P o i n t L a c e F a l l s L a u g h i n g F a l l s - D u c h e s n a y L a k e T w i n F a l l s - M a r p o l e L a k e Y o h o G l a c i e r a r e a W h a l e b a c k M t n . - Top o f T w i n F a l l s L i t t l e Yoho V a l l e y P r e s i d e n t ' s S k y l i n e H i l i n e T r a i l - L a k e C e l e s t e Yoho L a k e - H i d d e n L a k e s O f f t r a i l s ( i e . c l i m b i n g ) One-way B a c k c o u n t r y U s e r s m i l e a g e ( p e r c e n t ) 1 9 3 . 3 2 . 5 9 0 . 2 5 5 1 . 8 5 1 0 . 9 7 1 8 . 7 6 9 . 8 7 6 . 2 5 9 . 3 2 . 5 1 9 . 2 ? 5 . 2 109 D i s t a n c e T r a v e l l e d i n B a c k c o u n t r y The b a c k c o u n t r y p e n e t r a t i o n (one-way d i s t a n c e ) o f Yoho V a l l e y h i k e r s i n 1972 r e l a t i v e t o Yoho and B a n f f N a t i o n a l P a r k h i k e r s i n 1967 ( T h o r s e l l 1968a) a r e g i v e n b e l o w : O n e - W a y Yoho V a l l e y Y o h o & B a n f f P a r k D i s t a n c e H i k e r s , 1972 H i k e r s , 1967 l e s s t h a n 2 m i l e s 5% 35% 2 - 6 m i l e s 70% 60% more t h a n 6 m i l e s 25% 5% E i t h e r more b a c k c o u n t r y u s e r s h i k e d f u r t h e r i n 1972 t h a n i n 1967 , o r t h e a v e r a g e Y o h o V a l l e y h i k e r h i k e s more t h a n t h e a v e r a g e Y o h o and B a n f f P a r k h i k e r . P r o b a b l y t h e answer l i e s somewhere b e t w e e n b o t h e x p l a n a t i o n s . B a c k c o u n t r y O v e r n i g h t Use The 51 s a m p l e d o v e r n i g h t b a c k c o u n t r y p a r t i e s i n Y o h o V a l l e y were a s k e d t o l o c a t e t h e a r e a s where t h e y had s p e n t a n i g h t and a r e a s where t h e y w e r e p l a n n i n g t o spend n i g h t s w h i l e i n t h e b a c k c o u n t r y . The r e s u l t s a r e l i s t e d b e l o w i n T a b l e 23 ; w i t h 103 v i s i t o r - p a r t y n i g h t s o f u s e s a m p l e d , T a b l e 23 : P e r c e n t D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Yoho V a l l e y B a c k c o u n t r y U s e , 1972 A ~ t \ o 4- - I . . . V i s i t o r - P a r t y N i g h t s A r e a ( s ) S p e n t O v e r n i g h t , v ,• . . .. , .... .. - . (percent) • L i t t l e Yoho V a l l e y meadows 22 * T w i n F a l l s Teahouse 13 * S t a n l e y M i t c h e l l ( A . C . C . ) Hu t 14 T w i n F a l l s - Yoho G l a c i e r t r a i l j u n c t i o n a r e a T l Y o h o L a k e a r e a 9 Top o f T w i n F a l l s 9 L a u g h i n g F a l l s 7 T w i n F a l l s a r e a n e a r t e a h o u s e 4 M a r p o l e L a k e a r e a 4 L a k e C e l e s t e a r e a 2 D u c h e s n a y L a k e meadow a r e a 1 * O v e r n i g h t u s e n o t s p e n t c a m p i n g . 110 Over two-thirds (68%) of sampled v i s i t o r - p a r t y nights of use were spent camping, while around one-third (32%) were spent i n Twin F a l l s Teahouse (18%) or i n the Stanley M i t c h e l l Hut (14%). The L i t t l e Yoho meadows received the greatest concentration of overnight use, with over one-third (36%) of sampled v i s i t o r - p a r t y nights being spent e i t h e r i n the hut or camping i n the meadows surrounding the hut. The next greatest concentration of use was spent near or i n the Twin F a l l s teahouse. Previous V i s i t s Yoho V a l l e y road and backcountry users were asked i f they had been i n the study area before. The percentages.of f i r s t time v i s i t o r s to Yoho V a l l e y were nearly exactly the same for both user groups, with •7.1.5% of a l l road users and 71.7% of a l l backcountry users making t h e i r f i r s t v i s i t to Yoho V a l l e y . In comparison, 58% of Lake O'Hara v i s i t o r s made t h e i r f i r s t v i s i t to that area (Canada Dept. of Indian and No. A f f a i r s , Parks Branch 1973). Both t h i s study and the Lake O'Hara study found that day users were more l i k e l y to be f i r s t time v i s i t o r s than overnight users. I l l 3 . U s e r Management P r e f e r e n c e s and O p i n i o n s Q u e s t i o n s r e l a t e d t o t h e p r e f e r e n c e s and o p i n i o n s o f Y o h o V a l l e y v i s i t o r s a r e p r e s e n t e d i n t h i s s e c t i o n u n d e r f o u r h e a d i n g s . The f i r s t p a r t w i l l be i n t r o d u c t o r y , d e a l i n g w i t h wha t r o a d u s e r s and h i k e r s e s p e c i a l l y l i k e d and d i s l i k e d a b o u t t h e i r v i s i t . The s e c o n d p a r t w i l l d e a l w i t h how v i s i t o r s f e e l a b o u t t h e c o n d i t i o n o f t h e Yoho V a l l e y r o a d and a b o u t r o a d s i n n a t i o n a l p a r k s i n g e n e r a l . The t h i r d p a r t f o c u s e s o n some b a c k c o u n t r y i s s u e s ; w h i l e t h e f o u r t h p a r t d e a l s w i t h campground u s e r p r e f e r e n c e s . a . V i s i t o r L i k e s and D i s l i k e s Road u s e r s were a s k e d what t h e y e s p e c i a l l y l i k e d and d i s l i k e d a b o u t t h e i r v i s i t t o Y o h o N a t i o n a l P a r k ( s ee T a b l e s 24 and 25 ) , w h i l e h i k e r s were a s k e d wha t t h e y e s p e c i a l l y l i k e d and d i s l i k e d a b o u t t h e i r Yoho V a l l e y b a c k c o u n t r y v i s i t ( s ee T a b l e s 26 and 27 ) . Road u s e r s g e n e r a l l y gave s h o r t , s i m p l e a n s w e r s r e l a t i v e t o t h e l o n g e r and more c o m p l e x b a c k c o u n t r y u s e r r e s p o n s e s . F o r e x a m p l e , t y p i c a l r o a d u s e r r e s p o n s e s t o wha t was e s p e c i a l l y l i k e d a b o u t t h e i r v i s i t w o u l d b e : "The s c e n e r y i s j u s t g r e a t ; we r e a l l y e n j o y i t " ; o r " S e e i n g t h a t huge f a l l s i s c e r t a i n l y t h e h i g h l i g h t o f o u r s t a y " . A t y p i c a l b a c k c o u n t r y r e s p o n s e w o u l d b e : "The s c e n e r y h e r e i s so b e a u t i f u l - t h e w a t e r f a l l s , t h e c o l o r f u l w i l d -f l o w e r s , t h e c l e a n a i r - we j u s t l i k e i t a l l 5 t n e t r a i l s a r e k e p t up w e l l t o o . " Many r o a d u s e r s seemed t o be i n a h u r r y , t h u s g i v i n g s h o r t a n s w e r s ; w h i l e b a c k c o u n t r y u s e r s g e n e r a l l y s p e n t more t i m e and t h o u g h t on e a c h q u e s t i o n a s k e d . T h i s may r e f l e c t t h e i n t e r v i e w e n v i r o n m e n t s : a b u s y r o a d v e r s u s a q u i e t t r a i l . The d i f f e r e n t i n t e n s i t y o f r e s p o n s e s , h o w e v e r , more l i k e l y r e f l e c t s t h e d i f f e r e n t e x p e r i e n c e s t h e two u s e r g r o u p s h a d . M o s t r o a d u s e r s s p e n t j u s t enough t i m e i n t h e v a l l e y (2 h o u r s ) 112 T a b l e 24 : What Yoho V a l l e y Road U s e r s L i k e d M o s t a b o u t t h e i r V i s i t t o Y o h o N a t i o n a l P a r k , 1972* I t e m M o s t L i k e d Road U s e r s * ( p e r c e n t ) S c e n e r y ; t h e g e n e r a l p a r k e n v i r o n m e n t 3 5 . 3 T a k a k k a w F a l l s 2 7 . 8 H i k i n g i n a r e a 1 0 . 1 E m e r a l d L a k e o r N a t u r a l B r i d g e a r e a 6 .1 W i l d l i f e o b s e r v e d 5 .1 G e t t i n g away f r o m i t a l l ; away f r o m p e o p l e ; 2 5 e s c a p e c i v i l i z a t i o n N a t u r a l s t a t e o f t h i n g s 2 . 5 S p i r a l t u n n e l s 2 . 0 Q u i e t and s o l i t u d e 1.5 N o t h i n g 0 . 5 O t h e r 6 . 6 * O n l y one i t e m p e r r e s p o n d a n t l i s t e d . T a b l e 25 : What Yoho V a l l e y Road U s e r s D i s l i k e M o s t a b o u t t h e i r V i s i t t o Yoho N a t i o n a l P a r k , 1972* - r - ™ +- • -i • i J Road U s e r s * I t e m M o s t D i s l i k e d , . ( p e r c e n t ) N o t h i n g 6 8 . 0 O t h e r v i s i t o r s - t h e i r numbers o r b e h a v i o r 8 . 0 I n a d e q u a t e f a c i l i t i e s 5 . 5 B a d w e a t h e r 5 . 5 O t h e r 1 3 . 0 * O n l y one i t e m p e r r e s p o n d a n t l i s t e d . 113 T a b l e 26 : What Yoho V a l l e y B a c k c o u n t r y U s e r s L i k e d M o s t a b o u t t h e i r B a c k c o u n t r y V i s i t , 1972* I t e m s M o s t L i k e d B a c k c o u n t r y U s e r s * ( p e r c e n t ) B e a u t i f u l s c e n e r y ; t h e m o u n t a i n s 32 W a t e r f a l l s o r p a r t i c u l a r w a t e r f a l l 31 T r a i l c o n d i t i o n s 10 A l p i n e meadows; w i l d f l o w e r s 10 R i v e r s a n d / o r l a k e s 9 V e g e t a t i o n a l t y p e s o r c h a n g e s 9 E v e r y t h i n g 6 Few p e o p l e e n c o u n t e r e d 6 W i l d l i f e 5 P e a c e , q u i e t and s o l i t u d e 5 No l i t t e r o n t r a i l s 4 W i l d e r n e s s h e r e , a n u n d e v e l o p e d a r e a 3 / . Y o h o G l a c i e r a r e a , t h e r u g g e d n e s s t h e r e 3 C l e a r a i r and w a t e r ; u n p o l l u t e d a r e a . 3 E a s y a c c e s s t o a r e a ; e a s y t r a i l s 3 G e o l o g y ; i n t e r e s t i n g r o c k s 3 E x e r c i s e 3 G e t t i n g away f r o m i t a l l ( c r o w d s and c i v i l i z a t i o n ) 2 T r a i l l o c a t i o n 2 I n f o r m a t i v e n a t u r a l i s t w a l k 2 W e a t h e r 2 C o l o r s and f r a g r a n c e s 2 O t h e r 8 * More t h a n one i t e m p e r r e s p o n d a n t l i s t e d T a b l e 27 : What Yoho V a l l e y B a c k c o u n t r y U s e r s D i s l i k e M o s t a b o u t t h e i r B a c k c o u n t r y V i s i t , 1972* I t e m s M o s t D i s l i k e d B a c k c o u n t r y U s e r s * ( p e r c e n t ) N o t h i n g a t a l l 46 M o s q u i t o e s o r b l a c k f l i e s 16 T r a i l s i g n s : i n a c c u r a t e o r i n s u f f i c i e n t 11 H o r s e s ; h o r s e d r o p p i n g s ; h o r s e damage t o t r a i l s 6 T r a i l c o n d i t i o n s : p o o r , m u c k y , e t c . . •• 5 L i t t e r o r c a m p s i t e mess l e f t b y o t h e r s 4 T r a i l o r b r i d g e r e p a i r s n e e d e d 5 Need map o r b e t t e r i n f o r m a t i o n f r o m p a r k s 3 T r a i l d i f f i c u l t y ; s t e e p n e s s 3 P e o p l e c u t t i n g s w i t c h b a c k s 3 B a d w e a t h e r 2 T r a i l t o o w i d e 2 O t h e r 12 M o r e t h a n one i t e m p e r r e s p o n d a n t l i s t e d 114 t o d r i v e t o Takakkaw F a l l s , s t r e t c h t h e i r l e g s , t a k e a p h o t o g r a p h , and d r i v e o u t . M o s t b a c k c o u n t r y u s e r s , on t h e o t h e r h a n d , g o t more i n v o l v e d w i t h t h e a r e a , u s u a l l y s p e n d i n g more t h a n f i v e h o u r s h i k i n g t e n m i l e s , i n a more d i r e c t e n c o u n t e r w i t h n a t u r e . G e n e r a l l y s p e a k i n g , t h e more t i m e a r o a d o r b a c k c o u n t r y r e s p o n d a n t s p e n t i n t h e a r e a ( t h e g r e a t e r t h e e x p e r i e n c e ) , t h e l o n g e r and more c o m p l e x t h e r e s p o n s e . N e a r l y a l l r o a d and b a c k c o u n t r y u s e r s had s o m e t h i n g t h a t t h e y e s p e c i a l l y l i k e d a b o u t t h e i r v i s i t , w i t h o n l y one r o a d u s e r g i v i n g t h e a c i d a n s w e r : " n o t h i n g " . The m o u n t a i n s c e n e r y o r p a r t i c u l a r o b j e c t s i n n a t u r e l i k e Takakkaw F a l l s was t h e mos t common r e s p o n s e . R e l a t i v e l y few r e s p o n d a n t s m e n t i o n e d p a r k f a c i l i t i e s a s a n i t e m mos t l i k e d . When a s k e d wha t t h e y e s p e c i a l l y d i s l i k e d a b o u t t h e i r v i s i t , 46% o f a l l b a c k c o u n t r y r e s p o n d a n t s s a i d " n o t h i n g a t a l l " , w h i l e a n e v e n l a r g e r p e r c e n t a g e (68%) o f r o a d u s e r s gave t h a t r e s p o n s e . T h i s i n d i c a t e s a r e l a t i v e l y h i g h l e v e l o f v i s i t o r s a t i s f a c t i o n . I n c o n t r a s t , o n l y 22% o f B . C p r o v i n c i a l p a r k b a c k c o u n t r y u s e r s i n 1970 had no c o m p l a i n t s ( T h o r s e l l 1 9 7 1 ) . Those u s e r s were mos t annoyed a t b a c k c o u n t r y l i t t e r p r o b l e m s (27%); i n c o m p a r i s o n , o n l y 4% o f Yoho V a l l e y h i k e r s h a d t h a t c o m p l a i n t . B e s i d e s t h e j o k i n g r e s p o n s e o f " m o s q u i t o e s " , b a c k c o u n t r y u s e r s w e r e . m o s t annoyed a t p o o r t r a i l f a c i l i t i e s . 115 b . Road I s s u e s Yoho V a l l e y Road C o n d i t i o n Yoho V a l l e y r o a d u s e r s w e r e a s k e d i f t h e y knew a b o u t t h e r o a d t o Takakkaw F a l l s b e f o r e t h e y a r r i v e d i n Yoho N a t i o n a l P a r k . I f t h e y had p r i o r k n o w l e d g e o f t h e r o a d , t h e y w e r e a s k e d how t h e y knew a b o u t i t . The r e s u l t s a r e p r e s e n t e d b e l o w : D i d n o t know o f r o a d 52.0% D i d know o f r o a d 48.0% B e e n o n r o a d b e f o r e 28.5% F r i e n d s t o l d us a b o u t r o a d 12.0% Read a b o u t r o a d 3.5% O t h e r 4.0% A b o u t h a l f t h e v i s i t o r s knew o f t h e r o a d , w h i l e h a l f d i d n o t . R o a d and b a c k c o u n t r y u s e r s were a s k e d w h e t h e r t h e y f e l t t h e Yoho V a l l e y r o a d c o n d i t i o n was a d e q u a t e o r i n a d e q u a t e ; and wha t t y p e o f r o a d c o n d i t i o n t h e y w o u l d p r e f e r f o r t h e a r e a and why ( s e e F i g u r e 30, T a b l e 2 8 ) . The d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e r e s p o n s e s g i v e n b y Yoho V a l l e y r o a d u s e r s t o t h e s e r o a d r e l a t e d q u e s t i o n s i n d i c a t e s , i n p a r t , t h e p e r s o n a l c o n f l i c t s t h e u s e r s had i n d e c i d i n g wha t r o a d c o n d i t i o n and d e v e l o p m e n t l e v e l s w e r e a p p r o p r i a t e f o r t h e a r e a . When f i r s t a s k e d w h e t h e r t h e y f e l t t h e r o a d c o n d i t i o n was a d e q u a t e o r i n a d e q u a t e , 95% o f t h e r o a d u s e r s r e s p o n d e d t h a t i t was a d e q u a t e o r c o n d i t i o n a l l y a d e q u a t e , w h i l e o n l y 5% f e l t t h e r e a d c o n d i t i o n was i n a d e q u a t e . T h i s seems t o i n d i c a t e t h a t , b y and l a r g e , t h e Y o h o V a l l e y r o a d c o n d i t i o n was a c c e p t a b l e t o n e a r l y a l l r o a d u s e r s . When a s k e d wha t r o a d c o n d i t i o n t h e y p r e f e r r e d , more r o a d u s e r s e x p r e s s e d a d e s i r e f o r some r o a d i m p r o v e m e n t s . H o w e v e r , e v e n t h e n , n e a r l y o n e - h a l f o r 44 .5% s t i l l w a n t e d t h e r o a d c o n d i t i o n as i t was w i t h no i m p r o v e m e n t s . The m a i n r e a s o n s f o r t h i s seemed t o be (1) t h e d e s i r e o f t h e s e v i s i t o r s t o g e t o f f t h e m a i n h i g h w a y i n t o a d i f f e r e n t , more p r i m i t i v e 116 100-0 - 5 % -92-84-76 H 68-60H tn v 52H 3 c 44-4 <a o <o CL 36-] 2 8 -2 0 -16-1 2 -8-4 4 - 6 % j • 1.. 1. ,*4-4%* »'•* V "90-57J I-2 6 ° / o ^ Adequate i>?%; 5-4 % 87-7% * • ' » < • » * » . LEGEND (N=I99) (N=I87) Conditionally Adequate Conditionally Inadequate Inadequate L EGEND Leave road in present condition No opinion r — i Slightly up-grade road, but keep gravel • t.'J Pave Pave and widen Make worse or remove Road Backcountry Users Users 5-5% 29-5 % • 5 % 4 4 - 5 % 2 - 0 % • • *V *. • • \ • • •-• • • X I v (N=200) Road Users 9 - 5 % 2 2 - 6 % 5-3% 5 6 - 8 % minim • • ••»•, »• •. • •» - * • • • •• • • • • • •84 r-76 68 h-60 4 - 7 % ; f f l p 100 • 92 -o h-52 -i o ro h-44 c v> co • L-36 f-28 .-.*:-20 -16 - 12 8 (N = I90) Backcountry Users 4 0 Figure 30,; Attitudes and preferences of road and backcountry visitors towards the Yoho Valley Road, 1972-117 T a b l e 28 : R e a s o n s f o r Road C o n d i t i o n P r e f e r e n c e s o f Yoho V a l l e y Road and B a c k c o u n t r y U s e r s , 1972* Road U s e r s B a c k c o u n t r y U s e r s R e a s o n s G i v e n * , .s ' , . s ( p e r c e n t ) ( p e r c e n t ) Road t o o r o u g h : w a s h b o a r d i n g b a d ; f i l l p o t h o l e s ; remove f a l l e n r o c k s 3 3 . 8 1 8 . 9 S w i t c h b a c k s u n s a f e 1 7 . 3 1 2 . 4 •@ Good r o a d , p e r f e c t l y a d e q u a t e as i s 12 . 2 1 3 . 1 @ Keep a r e a p r i m i t i v e 8 . 6 1 1 . 0 # Road t o o d u s t y 7 . 9 1 3 . 1 I f r o a d i m p r o v e d , a r e a w i l l become o v e r c r o w d e d 4 . 3 14 . 6 <a Keep t r a i l e r s o u t 4 . 3 7 . 3 @ I f i m p r o v e d , p e o p l e w i l l d r i v e t o o f a s t 5 . 8 2 . 2' @ R o a d i m p r o v e m e n t u n e c o n o m i c a l due t o t e r r a i n o f a r e a and s h o r t s e a s o n o f u s e 3 . 2 . 2 # Road t o o r e s t r i c t i v e f o r l a r g e t r a v e l v e h i c l e s l i k e t r a i l e r s 1. 4 0 . 7 O t h e r 0 . .7 4 . ,4 * Some r e s p o n d a n t s . g a v e more t h a n one r e a s o n ; p e r c e n t a g e s n o t w e i g h t e d p e r r e s p o n d a n t . # R e a s o n s i n d i c a t i n g some i m p r o v e m e n t s d e s i r e d . @ R e a s o n s i n d i c a t i n g e s s e n t i a l l y no i m p r o v e m e n t s d e s i r e d . a r e a (as r e p r e s e n t e d , i n p a r t , b y t h e g r a v e l r o a d ) , and (2) a f e e l i n g t h a t any s u b s t a n t i a l r o a d i m p r o v e m e n t s w o u l d c a u s e o v e r c r o w d i n g o r b r i n g w i t h i t i n a p p r o p r i a t e t y p e s o r l e v e l s o f u s e and f a c i l i t i e s . Road u s e r s o v e r w h e l m i n g l y p r e f e r r e d a g r a v e l r o a d c o n d i t i o n t o a p a v e d Yoho V a l l e y r o a d . S e v e n t y - f o u r p e r c e n t o f r e s p o n d a n t s f e l t t h a t t h e r o a d s h o u l d e i t h e r be l e f t i n i t s p r e s e n t c o n d i t i o n (44.5%) o r s l i g h t l y u p g r a d e d , b u t n o t paved ( 2 9 . 5 % ) . O n l y 25% o f t h e r o a d u s e r s f e l t t h a t t h e r o a d s h o u l d be p a v e d . A s e x p e c t e d , b a c k c o u n t r y u s e r s w e r e e v e n more i n f a v o u r o f a g r a v e l r o a d c o n d i t i o n t h a n r o a d u s e r s . E i g h t y - f o u r p e r c e n t d e s i r e d a g r a v e l r o a d w h i l e o n l y 10.6% w a n t e d a paved r o a d . N e a r l y 57% 118 o f t h e s e b a c k c o u n t r y u s e r s f e l t t h e r o a d s h o u l d be l e f t i n i t s p r e s e n t c o n d i t i o n . A s i g n i f i c a n t f i n d i n g f r o m t h e s u r v e y o f r o a d and b a c k c o u n t r y u s e r s was t h a t v i s i t o r s i n 1972 d i d n o t want a paved o r w i d e n e d Yoho V a l l e y r o a d . P a r k B u s i n g i n Yoho V a l l e y Y o h o V a l l e y b a c k c o u n t r y u s e r s w e r e a s k e d t h e i r f e e l i n g s a b o u t i m p l e m e n t i n g a f r e e p a r k b u s s e r v i c e f r o m t h e T r a n s - C a n a d a H i g h w a y t o T a k a k k a w F a l l s i n p l a c e o f p r i v a t e v e h i c l e a c c e s s up t h e v a l l e y ; 40% o f t h e r e s p o n d a n t s w e r e i n f a v o r o f t h e i d e a , 55% w e r e a g a i n s t i t , and 5% h a d no o p i n i o n . W h i l e many v i s i t o r s a g r e e d t h a t e l i m i n a t i n g t h e c a r w o u l d b e good f o r t h e v a l l e y b y m a k i n g i t l e s s u n s i g h t l y , l e s s p o l l u t e d ( a i r , d u s t , and n o i s e ) , and l e s s c r o w d e d ; mos t p e r s o n s w e r e , a s y e t , r e l u c t a n t t o g i v e up t h e i r f r e e d o m o f c o m i n g and g o i n g when t h e y p l e a s e d i n t h e c o m f o r t and c o n v e n i e n c e o f t h e i r own c a r s . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o n o t e t h a t t h o s e p e r s o n s f a m i l i a r x ^ i t h t h e p r o b l e m s i n Y o s e m i t e and w i t h t h e r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d t h e r e b y p a r k b u s i n g t e n d e d t o be i n f a v o r o f t h e i d e a , w h i l e t h o s e f a m i l i a r w i t h c o n c e s s i o n a i r e o p e r a t e d b u s i n g i n a r e a s l i k e L a k e O ' H a r a t e n d e d t o be a g a i n s t t h e i d e a f o r Y o h o V a l l e y . Thus p u b l i c a c c e p t a n c e o f t h e i d e a may g e n e r a t e i f b u s i n g i s p r o p e r l y i m p l e m e n t e d and e x p l a i n e d t o t h e p a r k v i s i t o r . T h a t i s , p r o v i d e d t h e r e a s o n s a r e c l e a r l y s t a t e d why t h e r e i s a need f o r b u s i n g , and p r o v i d e d b u s i n g i s f r e q u e n t and f r e e o r o f m i n o r e x p e n s e , t h e n mos t Yoho V a l l e y v i s i t o r s w o u l d p r o b a b l y a c c e p t t h e i d e a . 119 P a r k Roads Y o h o V a l l e y r o a d and b a c k c o u n t r y u s e r s w e r e a s k e d t o r a n k f i v e s u g g e s t e d r o a d c r i t e r i a i n t h e s u r v e y f o r m i n t e r m s o f t h e m o s t t o l e a s t i m p o r t a n t c o n s i d e r a t i o n s t o k e e p i n m i n d when c o n s t r u c t i n g , m a i n t a i n i n g , and i m p r o v i n g n a t i o n a l p a r k r o a d s ( s ee F i g u r e 3 1 ) . W i l d l i f e was p e r c e i v e d b y b o t h u s e r g r o u p s a s b e i n g t h e m o s t i m p o r t a n t c r i t e r i o n t o c o n s i d e r . I n t e r e s t i n g l y , v e g e t a t i o n was f e l t t o be n e a r l y a s i m p o r t a n t a s s a f e t y c o n s i d e r a t i o n t o r o a d u s e r s , and more i m p o r t a n t t h a n s a f e t y t o b a c k c o u n t r y u s e r s . I t seems t h a t p r e s e r v i n g t h e n a t u r a l e n v i r o n m e n t o f p a r k s was p e r c e i v e d b y Yoho V a l l e y u s e r s t o be o f p r i m a r y i m p o r t a n c e and e v e n g r e a t e r t h a n t h e v e r y s a f e t y o f t h e u s e r s t h e m s e l v e s . C o s t c o n s i d e r a t i o n s were u s u a l l y r a n k e d f o u r t h , and q u i c k t r a v e l was u s u a l l y r a n k e d t h e l e a s t i m p o r t a n t c r i t e r i a ( o f t h o s e l i s t e d o n t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e fo rm) t o c o n s i d e r . B a c k c o u n t r y u s e r s r a n k e d w i l d l i f e and v e g e t a t i o n c o n s i d e r a t i o n s h i g h e r t h a n r o a d u s e r s . S a f e t y , c o s t , and q u i c k t r a v e l c o n s i d e r -a t i o n s w e r e u s u a l l y r a t e d s l i g h t l y h i g h e r by r o a d u s e r s t h a n b a c k c o u n t r y u s e r s . A l t h o u g h t h e s e d i f f e r e n c e s a r e s l i g h t , t h e y i n d i c a t e t h a t b a c k c o u n t r y u s e r s were more o f t e n c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e i m p a c t o f r o a d d e v e l o p m e n t on t h e p a r k s ' n a t u r a l e n v i r o n m e n t . 120 L E G E N D Most Important = 10 Least Important = 5-0 (based on average rating ) Road (N = 88) Backcountry (N=40) Scenic values most commonly mentioned "other" criterion-4-0 4 -7 Wildlife Vegetation Safety Cost Quick Travel Criter ia Figure 31: : Cr iter ia for road building within National Parks as ranked by road and backcountry users,Yoho Val ley, I972-121 c . B a c k c o u n t r y I s s u e s D e s i r e d Changes Yoho V a l l e y h i k e r s w e r e a s k e d wha t c h a n g e s , i f a n y , t h e y f e l t o u g h t t o be c o n s i d e r e d f o r t h e b a c k c o u n t r y ( s e e T a b l e 29 ) . E i g h t d i f f e r e n t i t e m s w e r e shown t o t h e r e s p o n d a n t s t o e i t h e r a c c e p t a s d e s i r a b l e c h a n g e s o r r e j e c t a s u n d e s i r a b l e f o r t h e a r e a . R e s p o n s e s t h a t w e r e v o l u n t e e r e d and n o t on t h e s u r v e y f o r m a r e l i s t e d b e l o w ; however i t c a n n o t be assumed f o r t h e s e i t e m s t h a t n o n r e s p o n s e s r e p r e s e n t r e j e c t i o n s . R e s u l t s f r o m two o t h e r s t u d i e s ( T h o r s e l l 1 9 6 8 a , 1971) a r e a l s o l i s t e d f o r c o m p a r a t i v e p u r p o s e s . T a b l e 29 : Changes D e s i r e d b y Y o h o V a l l e y B a c k c o u n t r y U s e r s , 1972 I t e m s I d e n t i f i e d Y o h o V a l l e y Y o h o / B a n f f B . C . P a r k H i k e r s 1967 H i k e r s 1970 H i k e r s ( p e r c e n t ) ( p e r c e n t ) ( p e r c e n t ) None a t a l l , a r e a f i n e t h e way i t i s M o r e d i r e c t i o n a l s i g n s w i t h m i l e a g e s M o r e p r i m i t i v e campgrounds I n t e r p r e t i v e s i g n s * I m p r o v e d s i g n s w i t h c o r r e c t m i l e a g e s P r i m i t i v e s h e l t e r s * T r a i l b r o c h u r e o r map; need more i n f o . T r a i l i m p r o v e m e n t s needed *More t r a i l s needed W i d e r t r a i l s * N a r r o w e r t r a i l s * E l i m i n a t e h o r s e u s e M o r e c o n c e s s i o n s P r i m i t i v e r o a d ; b e t t e r a c c e s s r o a d * P i t t o i l e t s * 0 t h e r 3 9 . 0 3 1 . 0 2 2 . 0 1 6 . 0 1 3 . 0 1 0 . 0 8 . 0 5 . 0 4 . 0 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.0 1.0 1.0 3 . 5 4 0 . 5 1 4 . 5 . # 1 6 . 5 # 5 . 5 # » 5 . 5 1.5 # 2 9 . 0 2 3 . 0 # 3 3 . 0 # 1 7 . 0 5 1 . 0 6 . 5 4 1 . 0 # = I t e m s w e r e v o l u n t e e r e d and n o t l i s t e d on s u r v e y f o r m f o r Yoho V a l l e y . = I t e m s n o t v o l u n t e e r e d and n o t l i s t e d on s u r v e y f o r m . 122 No s i n g l e i t e m l i s t e d on t h e s u r v e y f o r m was d e s i r e d by a m a j o r i t y o f r e s p o n d a n t s . N e a r l y 40% o f t h e u s e r s f e l t t h a t t h e Yoho V a l l e y b a c k c o u n t r y was f i n e a s i t was and s h o u l d n o t c h a n g e . T h i s compares v e r y c l o s e l y w i t h T h o r s e l l ' s (1968a) f i n d i n g s among B a n f f and Y o h o P a r k h i k e r s i n 1967 , and w i t h a p r e v i o u s l y m e n t i o n e d s t u d y f i n d i n g t h a t 46% o f Y o h o V a l l e y ' s h i k e r s had no c o m p l a i n t s ( " n o t h i n g d i s l i k e d " ) a b o u t t h e i r b a c k c o u n t r y v i s i t . Changes t h a t r e c e i v e d t h e mos t s u p p o r t were o f t e n r e l a t e d t o t h e h i k e r ' s n e e d f o r more and b e t t e r i n f o r m a t i o n . The need f o r d i r e c t i o n a l s i g n s w i t h c o r r e c t m i l e a g e s was a common c o m p l a i n t b e c a u s e many s i g n s gave i n c o r r e c t m i l e a g e s o r no m i l e a g e s a t a l l . An e x t e n d e d p r i m i t i v e r o a d p r o v i d i n g b e t t e r b a c k c o u n t r y a c c e s s and more c o n c e s s i o n s s u c h as t e a h o u s e s w e r e changes most r e j e c t e d by b a c k -c o u n t r y u s e r s i n Yoho V a l l e y i n 1 9 7 2 , a n d B a n f f and Yoho P a r k h i k e r s i n 1967 ( T h o r s e l l 1 9 6 8 a ) . B a c k c o u n t r y E x p e c t a t i o n s H i k e r s w e r e a s k e d how t h e b a c k c o u n t r y a r e a o f Yoho V a l l e y was d i f f e r e n t f r o m whait t h e y e x p e c t e d b e f o r e e n t e r i n g t h e a r e a . The r e s p o n s e s w e r e as f o l l o w s : I t w a s n ' t d i f f e r e n t 54.6% A r e a more s p e c t a c u l a r t h a n e x p e c t e d 13.7% Had no p r i o r e x p e c t a t i o n s 4.9% A r e a more d e v e l o p e d t h a n e x p e c t e d 4.4% M o r e p e o p l e i n a r e a t h a n e x p e c t e d 4.4% P o o r e r t r a i l c o n d i t i o n s t h a n e x p e c t e d 1.6% Fewer p e o p l e t h a n e x p e c t e d 1.6% M o r e p r i m i t i v e ( l e s s d e v e l o p e d ) a r e a t h a n e x p e c t e d 1.1% O t h e r 13.7% 100.0% 123 Wilderness Experience Backcountry users were asked i f they f e l t they had a wilderness experience at-..the l o c a t i o n where, they; were interviewed, v Wilderness was not defined by the interviewer; i t was l e f t up to the interviewee to decide what i t meant. Of the 137 h i k e r - p a r t i e s sampled f o r t h i s question, 44% responded "yes" and 56% said "no". T h o r s e l l (1968a) had a f a i r l y s i m i l a r f i n d i n g i n h i s 1967 study of Banff and Yoho Park h i k e r s , with 46.6% saying "yes", 48.8% answering "no", and 5.6% responding that they "do not know". The reasons why hi k e r s i n the study area responded as they d i d are l i s t e d i n Tables 30 and 31. I r o n i c a l l y , h i k e r s not having a wilderness experience most often mentioned that they had. encountered too many people; while hikers having a. wilderness experience often said that i t was because they encountered so. few people. This apparent c o n t r a d i c t i o n can be p a r t i a l l y explained: by' the d i f f e r e n t interview-, l o c a t i o n s (heavily used areas near the road versus remoter l o c a t i o n s ) , and by the wide range i n v i s i t o r perceptions o f what constitutes. wilderness. Hikers were then asked where, i f a t a l l , d i d the wilderness experience begin f o r them,(see Table 32 ). Many hikers (30%) f e l t they were i n wilderness as soon as they l e f t the road and s t a r t e d on the t r a i l , while a number bf other hikers (23%) f e l t : they never were i n wilderness. The mean point of wilderness entry f o r Yoho V a l l e y h i k e r s was 5 miles,(see -Table 3 3 ) . This i s very s i m i l a r to T h o r s e l l ' s (1971) fin d i n g s among B.C. p r o v i n c i a l park hikers,, where the mean, distance was 5.5 miles. Both studies r e v e a l a bimodal d i s t r i b u t i o n , where many h i k e r s 124 T a b l e 30 : Why I n t e r v i e w L o c a t i o n Was a W i l d e r n e s s E x p e r i e n c e f o r Y o h o V a l l e y B a c k c o u n t r y U s e r s so I d e n t i f y i n g , 1972 R e a s o n s G i v e n p e r c e n t * (N = 60) Few p e o p l e e n c o u n t e r e d 27 I t ' s s e m i - w i l d e r n e s s 21 O f f m a i n h i g h w a y and away f r o m t o u r i s t s 19 N o t c o m m e r c i a l o r o v e r l y d e v e l o p e d 15 Out i n t h e f o r e s t , f e e l i n g s o f b e i n g i n n a t u r e ' \ , ' 1 3 J u s t a t r a i l h e r e . 1 0 S c e n e r y , t h e t y p e o f c o u n t r y h e r e 7 C l e a n t r a i l , no l i t t e r 3 O t h e r 11 * Sums t o g r e a t e r t h a n 100% as m u l t i p l e r e a s o n s g i v e n . T a b l e 31 : Why I n t e r v i e w L o c a t i o n Was N o t a W i l d e r n e s s E x p e r i e n c e f o r Y o h o V a l l e y B a c k c o u n t r y U s e r s s o I d e n t i f y i n g , 1972 R e a s o n s G i v e n p e r c e n t * (N = 77) Too many p e o p l e e n c o u n t e r e d 64 T r a i l s t o o d e v e l o p e d ( b r i d g e s , e t c . ' ) 31. " T r a i l s t o o u s e d ( e r o s i o n , e t c . ) 10 N o t f a r enough i n b a c k c o u n t r y y e t 9 T r a i l t o o w i d e 8 T w i n F a l l s T e a h o u s e 3 Day h i k e r s e n c o u n t e r e d 3 Too c l o s e t o A . C . C . H u t 3 O t h e r 10 * Sums t o g r e a t e r t h a n 100% a s m u l t i p l e r e a s o n s g i v e n * T a b l e 32 : L o c a t i o n Where W i l d e r n e s s Began f o r Yoho V a l l e y B a c k c o u n t r y U s e r s , 1972 p e r c e n t P l a c e I d e n t i f i e d (N = 150) R i g h t a w a y , a s we s t a r t e d t r a i l 3 0 . 0 I t n e v e r d i d 2 3 . 1 P a s t T w i n F a l l s T e a h o u s e 1 1 . 9 P a s t P o i n t L a c e F a l l s 9 . 4 On t h e H i l i n e T r a i l 5 . 0 P a s t L a u g h i n g F a l l s 4 . 4 O f f t h e t r a i l s 3 . 8 I n Y o h o G l a c i e r a r e a 3 . 1 P a s t A . C . C . H u t 3 . 1 P a s t H i d d e n L a k e s 3 . 1 P a s t t h e Y o h o G l a c i e r / T w i n F a l l s t r a i l j u n c t i o n 2 . 5 A t Y o h o L a k e and b e y o n d 0 . 6 T a b l e 33 : D i s t a n c e A t W h i c h W i l d e r n e s s B e g a n f o r Yoho V a l l e y B a c k c o u n t r y U s e r s , 1972 D i s t a n c e Yoho V a l l e y H i k e r s ( p e r c e n t ) B . C . P r o v . P a r k * H i k e r s , 1970 ( p e r c e n t ) J u s t b e y o n d t r a i l h e a d 3 0 . 0 1 5 . 9 W i t h i n f i r s t 2 m i l e s 1 2 . 5 1 7 . 5 2 - 4 m i l e s 5 . 0 9 . 2 5 - 6 m i l e s 2 5 . 6 1 4 . 8 7 m i l e s + N . A . 2 6 . 7 N e v e r o c c u r r e d 2 3 . 1 1 1 . 1 O t h e r a n s w e r ( i e . o f f t r a i l s ) 3 . 8 4 . 7 M e d i a n D i s t a n c e ( m i l e s ) 5 5 * S o u r c e : T h o r s e l l ( 1 9 7 1 ) . 126 f e e l w i l d e r n e s s b e g i n s e i t h e r w i t h i n two m i l e s b f t h e t r a i l h e a d o r more t h a n f i v e m i l e s away , w i t h r e l a t i v e l y few h i k e r s c h o o s i n g a d i s t a n c e o f 2 - 4 m i l e s . M o r e Yoho V a l l e y h i k e r s f e l t t h e y n e v e r g o t i n t o w i l d e r n e s s v e r s u s B . C . p a r k u s e r s ; t h i s i s p r o b a b l y b e c a u s e no s e c t i o n o f t r a i l w i t h i n t h e s t u d y a r e a i s g r e a t e r t h a n 7 m i l e s f r o m t h e r o a d . When a s k e d wha t w i l d e r n e s s means t o them ( see T a b l e 34 b e l o w ) , h i k e r s mos t o f t e n r e l a t e d t h e c o n c e p t t o t h e r e l a t i v e l a c k o f p e o p l e o r m a n - r e l a t e d d i s t u r b a n c e s . I t u s u a l l y w a s n ' t t h e q u a l i t i e s i n t h e n a t u r a l e n v i r o n m e n t so much a s t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h t h o s e n a t u r a l q u a l i t i e s w e r e a l t e r e d b y man t h a t d e f i n e d w i l d e r n e s s . T a b l e 3 4 : M e a n i n g o f W i l d e r n e s s t o Yoho V a l l e y B a c k c o u n t r y U s e r s , 1972 p e r c e n t * M e a n i n g m = , q o s Few, i f a n y , p e o p l e e n c o u n t e r e d 34 N o t h i n g e s s e n t i a l l y a l t e r e d b y man; n a t u r a l 21 Few c o n v e n i e n c e s ; l i m i t a t i o n o f c o m m e r c i a l i s m 14 No t r a i l s o r c a m p s i t e s 12 M o r e p r i m i t i v e - l i k e t r a i l s ( e g . n a r r o w e r ) 11 No r o a d s ; n o n - m o t o r i z e d a r e a 10 D i s t a n c e and e f f o r t t o g e t t o ; a r e a o f o v e r n i g h t u s e 10 Q u i e t , p e a c e , and s o l i t u d e 10 Away f r o m c i v i l i z a t i o n and i t s p r e s s u r e s 8 F o r e s t e d a r e a w i t h b e a u t i f u l s c e n e r y 8 C l o s e t o ' n a t u r e ' o r ' G o d ' ; w i l d f e e l i n g 4 S e e i n g w i l d l i f e 4 O t h e r 7 * Sums t o g r e a t e r t h a n 100% a s m u l t i p l e a n s w e r s g i v e n . I t s h o u l d be m e n t i o n e d , a s a p o i n t o f g e n e r a l o b s e r v a t i o n , t h a t n o t a l l b a c k c o u n t r y v i s i t o r s w e r e l o o k i n g f o r a w i l d e r n e s s e x p e r i e n c e . The r e a s o n f o r h i k i n g i n Yoho V a l l e y f o r many day h i k e r s was j u s t t o h a v e a n e a s y w a l k i n n a t u r e t o w i t n e s s b e a u t i f u l s c e n e r y . 127 U s e r s ' B a c k c o u n t r y B a c k g r o u n d Y o h o V a l l e y b a c k c o u n t r y u s e r s w e r e a s k e d how many y e a r s o f p r e v i o u s b a c k c o u n t r y h i k i n g e x p e r i e n c e t h e y h a d ( s ee T a b l e 35 b e l o w ) . A r o u n d 12% o f t h e h i k e r s had no p r e v i o u s y e a r s e x p e r i e n c e , w h i l e 13% h a d o v e r 20 y e a r s e x p e r i e n c e . The m e d i a n h i k e r had f o u r y e a r s e x p e r i e n c e . S t u d y f i n d i n g s aire r e m a r k a b l y c l o s e t o t h o s e o f T h o r s e l l (1971) among B . C . p r o v i n c i a l p a r k u s e r s i n 1 9 7 0 . T h o r s e l l (1968a) f o u n d t h a t 14% o f B a n f f and Y o h o P a r k h i k e r s i n 1967 and Nagy and S c o t t e r (1973) f o u n d t h a t 16% o f W a t e r t o n P a r k h i k e r s h a d no p r e v i o u s y e a r s o f w i l d e r n e s s e x p e r i e n c e . T h e s e r e s u l t s a r e a l s o q u i t e s i m i l a r t o t h e s t u d y f i n d i n g o f 12%. T a b l e 3 5 : Number o f P r e v i o u s Y e a r s B a c k c o u n t r y H i k i n g E x p e r i e n c e o f Yoho V a l l e y B a c k c o u n t r y U s e r s , 1972 Y o h o V a l l e y B . C . P r o v . P a r k * Y e a r s o f E x p e r i e n c e H i k e r s H i k e r s , 1970 ( p e r c e n t ) ( p e r c e n t ) None ( f i r s t h i k e o r f i r s t s e a s o n ) 1 2 . 4 1 2 . 2 S e c o n d Y e a r 1 9 . 1 1 6 . 5 3 - 4 y e a r s 1 8 . 1 2 0 . 9 5 - 10 y e a r s 2 3 . 3 2 0 . 8 11 - 20 y e a r s 1 3 . 8 1 9 . 7 o v e r 20 y e a r s 1 3 . 3 9 . 9 * S o u r c e : T h o r s e l l ( 1 9 7 1 ) . ~ " When a s k e d who i n t r o d u c e d them t o b a c k c o u n t r y h i k i n g ( s e e T a b l e 36 ) , 44% i d e n t i f i e d a member o f t h e f a m i l y s u c h as s p o u s e , p a r e n t s , o r o t h e r r e l a t i v e . A r o u n d 17% o f s a m p l e d h i k e r s were i n t r o d u c e d t o b a c k c o u n t r y h i k i n g b y a n o r g a n i z e d g r o u p and 7% i n t r o d u c e d t h e m s e l v e s t o t h e a c t i v i t y . T h o r s e l l ' s (1971) f i n d i n g s a r e f a i r l y s i m i l a r ; t h e m a j o r d i f f e r e n c e i s t h a t n e a r l y t w i c e a s many B . C . p r o v i n c i a l p a r k h i k e r s were i n t r o d u c e d t o t h e a c t i v i t y b y t h e i r p a r e n t s t h a n w e r e Yoho V a l l e y h i k e r s . 128 T a b l e 36 : How Yoho V a l l e y B a c k c o u n t r y U s e r s Were I n t r o d u c e d t o B a c k c o u n t r y H i k i n g Yoho V a l l e y B . C . P r o v . P a r k * S o u r c e H i k e r s H i k e r s , 1970 ( p e r c e n t ) ( p e r c e n t ) 3 3 . 1 N . A . 1 6 . 6 2 1 . 6 N . A . N . A . N . A . 2 8 . 1 * S o u r c e : T h o r s e l l ( 1 9 7 1 ) . B a c k c o u n t r y u s e r s w e r e a s k e d n e a r t h e end. o f t h e i n t e r v i e w how t h e y f e l t a b o u t b e i n g i n t e r v i e w e d . The a n s w e r s were as f o l l o w s : OK: d o n ' t o b j e c t 48.9% Good i d e a , g l a d t o h e l p 34.4% G r e a t i d e a ; n e e d more o f t h e s e 7.5% I n d i f f e r e n t , no f e e l i n g s a b o u t i t 3.2% Bad i d e a , f e l t i n t r u d e d o n 1 .1%. O t h e r 4.8% N e a r l y h a l f o f t h e r e s p o n d a n t s s a i d t h a t t h e y d i d n ' t o b j e c t t o b e i n g i n t e r v i e w e d ; a r o u n d 42% w e r e s l i g h t l y more e n t h u s i a s t i c , s a y i n g t h a t t h e s u r v e y was a good i d e a and t h a t t h e y w e r e g l a d t o h e l p out. . E i g h t s a m p l e p a r t i e s (4%) s a i d t h a t t h e y d i d n ' t l i k e b e i n g i n t e r v i e w e d o r w e r e i n d i f f e r e n t t o t h e i n t e r v i e w . F r i e n d s 2 9 . 2 Spouse 2 2 . 6 O r g a n i z e d g roup 1 6 . 9 P a r e n t s 1 1 . 3 O t h e r r e l a t i v e 9 . 7 S e l f 7 . 2 C a n ' t remember 3 . 1 129 d . Campground I s s u e s I n t e r v i e w e d r o a d u s e r s who h a d camped a t T a k a k k a w F a l l s w e r e a s k e d q u e s t i o n s a b o u t t h e i r campground e x p e r i e n c e i n Yoho V a l l e y . O n l y 28 o f t h e 200 p a r t i e s i n t e r v i e w e d i n t h e r o a d u s e r s u r v e y h a d camped a t Takakkaw F a l l s ; t h i s s a mp le r e p r e s e n t s a b o u t 1.3% o f t h e t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n o f campers u s i n g t h e a r e a i n 1 9 7 2 . Campers w e r e f i r s t a s k e d wha t t h e y l i k e d b e s t a b o u t t h e Takakkaw F a l l s c a m p g r o u n d . The r e s p o n s e was a s f o l l o w s : M o s t campers e s p e c i a l l y l i k e d t h a t t h e a r e a was c l o s e t o T a k a k k a w F a l l s , was n o t o v e r c r o w d e d , and was w e l l m a i n t a i n e d . Campers w e r e t h e n a s k e d wha t t h e y t h o u g h t c o u l d b e done t o i m p r o v e t h e c a m p g r o u n d . The r e s p o n s e was a s f o l l o w s : No s i n g l e l i s t e d p o s s i b l e ' i m p r o v e m e n t ' on t h e s u r v e y f o r m r e c e i v e d any s i z e a b l e s u p p o r t , w h i c h s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e y w e r e a l l i m p l i c i t l y r e j e c t e d . * I t e m s w e r e v o l u n t e e r e d and n o t l i s t e d on v i s i t o r s u r v e y f o r m . C l o s e t o f a l l s A r e a n o t o v e r c r o w d e d A r e a w e l l m a i n t a i n e d A f f o r d s p r i v a c y A r e a w e l l s e r v i c e d F a c i l i t i e s Shade *No t r a i l e r s h e r e * A r e a p r i m i t i v e O t h e r 64% 61% 50% 25% 21% 11% 7% 7% 7% 17% * N o t h i n g , a r e a i s f i n e a s i t i s A d d i t i o n a l t o i l e t b u i l d i n g s F l u s h t o i l e t s Shower b u i l d i n g s M o r e p i c n i c t a b l e s * C a m p s i t e s need g r e a t e r s p a c i n g * A r e a needs t o be k e p t c l e a n e r M o r e shade needed Campground r e - d e s i g n needed E l e c t r i c i t y and w a t e r h o o k - u p s O t h e r 44% 15% 15% 15% 15% 11% 11% 11% 7% 7% 15% 130 A r o u n d 44% o f r e s p o n d a n t s s a i d t h a t n o t h i n g a t a l l c o u l d i m p r o v e t h e a r e a . Campers w e r e f i n a l l y a s k e d wha t t y p e o f campground t h e y c o u l d e n v i s i o n f o r t h e Takakkaw F a l l s a r e a . M o s t r e s p o n d a n t s (52%) p r e f e r r e d t o see t h e campground a r e a r e m a i n j u s t a s p r i m i t i v e as i t was d u r i n g t h e i r v i s i t . A r o u n d 41% o f t h e campers w o u l d p r e f e r t h e a r e a t o be e v e n more p r i m i t i v e . Many o f t h e s e campers s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e campground be f o r t e n t e r s o n l y o r be a w a l k - i n c ampground . A r o u n d 7% o f t h e campers w a n t e d t h e Takakkaw F a l l s a r e a t o have a more d e v e l o p e d campground w i t h more f a c i l i t i e s . I I I . SUMMARY A v i s i t o r u s e s u r v e y was c o n d u c t e d i n t h e summer o f 1972 t o d e t e r m i n e t h e a m o u n t s , d i s t r i b u t i o n , and t y p e s o f r o a d , c a m p g r o u n d , and b a c k c o u n t r y use i n Y o h o V a l l e y . M a g n e t i c l o o p t r a f f i c c o u n t e r s were i n s t a l l e d on t h e Yoho V a l l e y r o a d and c a l i b r a t e d t o e s t i m a t e r o a d u s e . The Takakkaw F a l l s campground was v i s i t e d e a c h day t o d e t e r m i n e campground u s e . R a t e s o f r e g i s t r a t i o n were c a l c u l a t e d f o r t h e t r a i l k i o s k f o r b a c k c o u n t r y u s e e s t i m a t e s . S i n c e b a c k c o u n t r y use i s p a r t i c u l a r l y d i f f i c u l t t o a s s e s s , a r e v i e w o f v a r i o u s r e s e a r c h p r o c e d u r e s r e l a t e d t o b a c k c o u n t r y use e s t i m a t i o n was u n d e r t a k e n . R o a d , c a m p g r o u n d , and b a c k c o u n t r y use d a t a c o l l e c t e d i n 1972 was compared t o p a r k c o l l e c t e d s t a t i s t i c s t o d e t e r m i n e u s e l e v e l s i n 1974 and t o e s t i m a t e g r o w t h t r e n d s o v e r t i m e . I t was e s t i m a t e d t h a t a p p r o x i m a t e l y 7 1 , 3 0 0 v i s i t o r s v i s i t e d Yoho V a l l e y by r o a d i n 1974 . T h i s a v e r a g e s o u t t o 800 v i s i t o r s o r 250 v e h i c l e s p e r day f r o m J u n e 15 t o Sep tember 1 5 . A p p r o x i m a t e l y 79% o f t h e v i s i t o r s w e r e day u s e r s , w h i l e 21% w e r e o v e r n i g h t u s e r s . Day u s e r s a c c o u n t e d f o r 66% o f t h e e s t i m a t e d 8 5 , 5 0 0 v i s i t o r - d a y s o f t o t a l use r e c o r d e d f o r t h e a r e a i n 1974 . Road o r t o t a l u s e h a s i n c r e a s e d a t t h e a v e r a g e r a t e o f 131 10% p e r y e a r s i n c e 1969 . Campground u s e i n 1974 was 6,07.5. campers and 1 3 , 6 4 0 c a m p e r - d a y s . Campground u s e i n c r e a s e d a t t h e a v e r a g e r a t e o f 20 t o 25% p e r y e a r f r o m 1968 t o 1972 . T h e n , i n 1 9 7 3 , Yoho P a r k r e s t r i c t e d campground u s e a t Takakkaw b y c l o s i n g t h e campground when i t was c o n s i d e r e d f u l l . Campground u s e , c o n s e q u e n t l y , h a s s t a b i l i z e d t o 31 c a m p e r - p a r t i e s o f u s e p e r e v e n i n g f r o m J u l y t o A u g u s t . A n e s t i m a t e d 8 , 4 0 0 v i s i t o r s h i k e d i n t h e b a c k c o u n t r y a r e a i n 1974 . A p p r o x i m a t e l y 6,200 o r 74% o f t h e s e v i s i t o r s were d a y h i k e r s . Day h i k e r s r e p r e s e n t 46% o f t h e e s t i m a t e d 1 3 , 4 5 0 v i s i t o r - d a y s o f b a c k c o u n t r y u s e . On t h e a v e r a g e , 200 v i s i t o r s p e r day c o u l d be f o u n d i n t h e b a c k c o u n t r y f r o m J u l y t o A u g u s t i n 1974 . I t i s e s t i m a t e d t h a t b a c k c o u n t r y u s e i n Yoho V a l l e y h a s i n c r e a s e d a t t h e a v e r a g e r a t e o f 20% p e r y e a r s i n c e 1 9 6 5 . R o a d , c a m p g r o u n d , and b a c k c o u n t r y u s e a l l p e a k d u r i n g weekends and h o l i d a y s i n l a t e J u l y and e a r l y A u g u s t . T h i s i s due t o t h e i n f l u x o f A l b e r t a n s l a r g e l y f r o m C a l g a r y . D e p e n d i n g on w e a t h e r c o n d i t i o n s , S a t u r d a y u s e i s f r o m 50 t o 100% l a r g e r t h a n Wednesday u s e . A r o a d and b a c k c o u n t r y v i s i t o r s u r v e y was c o n d u c t e d i n 1972 t o f i n d o u t who t h e v i s i t o r s w e r e ; what a t t r a c t e d them t o t h e a r e a ; and w h a t t h e i r p r e f e r e n c e s f o r t h e . a r e a w e r e . S i n c e v i s i t o r i n f o r m a t i o n , was d e s i r e d o n s p e c i f i c m a t t e r s r e l a t e d t o s i t e management and i m p r o v e m e n t , t h e o n - s i t e p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w t e c h n i q u e was c h o s e n i n s t e a d o f t h e m a i l - b a c k q u e s t i o n n a i r e t e c h n i q u e . N e a r l y 400 v i s i t o r - p a r t i e s w e r e s a m p l e d i n 1 9 7 2 : 200 i n t e r v i e w s w e r e c o n d u c t e d o n t h e Y o h o V a l l e y r o a d and 193 i n t e r v i e w s w e r e c o n d u c t e d on b a c k c o u n t r y t r a i l s . The s u r v e y q u e s t i o n n a i r e p r o v i d e d i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e s o c i o - e c o n o m i c - d e m o g r a p h i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , t r i p c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , and management p r e f e r e n c e s and o p i n i o n s o f t h e u s e r s o f Y o h o V a l l e y . 132 Table 37: Selected Demographic C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of Yoho V a l l e y Road and Backcountry Users, 1972 and the Canadian Population, 1971 Demographic C h a r a c t e r i s t i c Road Backcountry Can.Pop'l. 1971 Sex (%Male/%Female) 51%/49% 58%/42% 50%/50% 1 Age (Mean) 27 years 25 years 26 years Age (% 10-39 years) 57% 72% ! 49% *Income (Mean) $11,700 $9,800 $4,000 *Income (% over $10,000) 62% 48% 11% Education (Mean) 3 y r s . c o l l e g e 3 y r s . c o l l e g e N.A.** Education (% @ colle g e ) 65% 75% 8% Occupation (% 'professional') 42% 50% 12% Size of Place of Residence (% c i t i e s 10,000 or more) 71% 75% 65% //Origin (% Canadian) 50% 57% N.A-.** //Origin (% Albertan) 22% 32% N.A.** * Refers to income of 'head of household'. #:Q.rigiTi ,qf ^Campground; Hsfr.s:,;/ Cana^iara^. 22%. A l b e r t a n . . . ,•, ; .** N o t A p p i i c a b l e . • "' v . ^ - ' . Selected demographic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of road users, backcountry users and the Canadian population (1971 census) are presented above i n table 37 Yoho V a l l e y users i n 1972 were very d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y more wealthy and. educated than the Canadian population. Yoho V a l l e y users were a l s o more l i k e l y to have a ' p r o f e s s i o n a l ' occupation and to be from a large c i t y of 10,000 or more people. Backcountry users, r e l a t i v e to road users, were more l i k e l y to be male, to be between 10-39 years o l d , to be l e s s wealthy, to be more educated, to be a ' p r o f e s s i o n a l 1 , to be from a large c i t y , and to be Canadian and A l b e r t a n c The demographic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the study area's users were compared to other studies done i n western mountain parks of Canada. 133 Various t r i p c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of Yoho V a l l e y road and backcountry users were compared. The median distance t r a v e l l e d by road users from t h e i r place of residence was 2000 miles, while i t was h a l f that or 1000 miles f o r backcountry users. Average party s i z e of road users was 3.1 or s l i g h t l y higher than the 2.8 average s i z e of backcountry p a r t i e s . The modal party type of both user groups was one couple only. The average length of stay of backcountry users was 1.4 days, or s l i g h t l y more than the 1.2 day average of road users. Most road users (65%) spent l e s s than two hours i n the study area, while hikers more often spent (46%) between f i v e and twelve hours i n the area. Not s u r p r i s i n g l y then, the average backcountry user engaged i n more a c t i v i t i e s than, did the average road users ( i . e . nature study,'•climbing, f i s h i n g , swimming, pa i n t i n g and sketching). The expressed t r i p d e s t i n a t i o n of most (60%) interviewed road users was the mountain n a t i o n a l parks of Canada..Only 5.5% of the respondants sa i d that Yoho V a l l e y was the o v e r a l l t r i p d e s t i n a t i o n of t h e i r vacation. The percentage of f i r s t time v i s i t o r s to the study area was i d e n t i c a l (72%) f o r both road and backcountry users. Yoho V a l l e y was s e l e c t e d by 35.4% of the road users because they were passing through Yoho Park • and decided to see the study area. Backcountry users more of t e n s a i d they came because the study area was recommended to them or because of what they read about the area. Most (63%) road users to the study area were j u s t day v i s i t o r s to Yoho National Park; however, 15% of those sampled d i d spend at l e a s t one night i n Takakkaw F a l l s campground. Over 90% of the sampled backcountry users hiked the f i v e mile round t r i p distance to Laughing F a l l s , while over h a l f viewed Twin F a i l s from the teahouse (a ten mile round t r i p h i k e ) . Over two-thirds (68%) of the overnight backcountry use was spent camping, while 32% was spent e i t h e r 134 i n t h e T w i n F a l l s t e a h o u s e (18%) o r i n t h e A . C . C . h u t (14%) . L i t t l e Yoho V a l l e y r e c e i v e d t h e l a r g e s t p e r c e n t a g e (36%) o f o v e r n i g h t b a c k -c o u n t r y u s e . The s t u d y a r e a u s e r s w e r e a l s o a s k e d q u e s t i o n s r e l a t e d t o t h e i r l i k e s and d i s l i k e s , management p r e f e r e n c e s and o p i n i o n s . When a s k e d what t h e y e s p e c i a l l y l i k e d a b o u t t h e i r v i s i t t o Y o h o N a t i o n a l P a r k , r o a d u s e r s mos t o f t e n s a i d t h e s c e n e r y (35%) o r T a k a k k a w F a l l s ( 28%) . O v e r t w o - t h i r d s (68%) s a i d t h e r e was n o t h i n g a t a l l t h a t t h e y d i s l i k e d a b o u t t h e i r p a r k e x p e r i e n c e . When a s k e d wha t t h e y l i k e d a b o u t t h e i r b a c k -c o u n t r y v i s i t , h i k e r s a l s o o f t e n s a i d " t h e b e a u t i f u l s c e n e r y " (32%) o r t h e w a t e r f a l l s (31%) . N e a r l y h a l f (46%) o f b a c k c o u n t r y u s e r s c o u l d t h i n k o f n o t h i n g t h a t t h e y d i s l i k e d a b o u t t h e i r b a c k c o u n t r y v i s i t . T h i s i n d i c a t e s a f a i r l y h i g h l e v e l o f s a t i s f a c t i o n b y b o t h v i s i t o r g r o u p s . When a s k e d wha t t y p e o f r o a d c o n d i t i o n t h e y p r e f e r r e d f o r Y o h o V a l l e y , 74% o f t h e r o a d u s e r s s a i d a g r a v e l r o a d and 25% d e s i r e d a p a v e d r o a d ; w h i l e 84% o f t h e b a c k c o u n t r y u s e r s p r e f e r r e d a g r a v e l r o a d v e r s u s 1 o n l y 11% w a n t i n g a p a v e d r o a d . A g r a v e l r o a d c o n d i t i o n was a p p a r e n t l y . p r e f e r r e d b y t h e u s e r s b e c a u s e t h e y f e l t t h a t t h e e x i s t i n g g r a v e l r o a d s e t a ' p r i m i t i v e ' t o n e f o r t h e s t u d y a r e a and t h e y w e r e a f r a i d t h a t a p a v e d r o a d w o u l d c a u s e o v e r c r o w d i n g b y a t t r a c t i n g more p e o p l e t o t h e a r e a . P r e s e r v i n g t h e n a t u r a l e n v i r o n m e n t ( w i l d l i f e and v e g e t a t i o n ) o f p a r k s was p e r c e i v e d b y b o t h r o a d and b a c k c o u n t r y u s e r s a s b e i n g t h e mos t i m p o r t a n t c r i t e r i a ( e v e n g r e a t e r t h a n u s e r s a f e t y ) t o c o n s i d e r b e f o r e c o n s t r u c t i n g o r m a i n t a i n i n g n a t i o n a l p a r k r o a d s . M o s t (55%) i n t e r v i e w e d b a c k c o u n t r y u s e r s w e r e a g a i n s t ( v e r s u s 40% f o r ) i m p l e m e n t i n g a p a r k b u s s e r v i c e t h a t w o u l d r e p l a c e p r i v a t e v e h i c l e a c c e s s t o t h e s t u d y a r e a . 135 A l t h o u g h s e v e r a l p o s s i b l e b a c k c o u n t r y m o d i f i c a t i o n s w e r e shown o n t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e f o r m t o h i k e r s , a l l w e r e r e j e c t e d by mos t b a c k -c o u n t r y u s e r s . N e a r l y 40% o f t h e u s e r s f e l t t h a t t h e Yoho V a l l e y b a c k c o u n t r y was f i n e a s i t was and s h o u l d n o t c h a n g e . Changes t h a t r e c e i v e d t h e mos t s u p p o r t r e l a t e d t o the h i k e r s n e e d f o r more a n d b e t t e r b a c k c o u n t r y i n f o r m a t i o n . M o s t (56%) h i k e r s d i d n o t f e e l t h e i n t e r v i e w l o c a t i o n i n t h e b a c k c o u n t r y r e p r e s e n t e d a ' w i l d e r n e s s e x p e r i e n c e ' f o r them; ' t o o many p e o p l e e n c o u n t e r e d ' was t h e m o s t o f t e n e x p r e s s e d r e a s o n . Of t h e 44% o f t h e h i k e r s who d i d f e e l t h e y w e r e i n w i l d e r n e s s , mos t f e l t t h e w i l d e r n e s s b e g a n r i g h t away a s t h e y s t a r t e d o n t h e t r a i l and l e f t t h e r o a d . The m e d i a n d i s t a n c e a t w h i c h w i l d e r n e s s b e g a n was a p p r o x i m a t e l y f i v e m i l e s . M o s t i n t e r v i e w e d h i k e r s r e l a t e d t h e c o n c e p t o f w i l d e r n e s s t o t h e r e l a t i v e l a c k o f p e o p l e o r m a n - r e l a t e d d i s t u r b a n c e s r a t h e r , t h a n t o p a r t i c u l a r q u a l i t i e s i n t h e n a t u r a l e n v i r o n m e n t . The m e d i a n y e a r s o f p r e v i o u s b a c k c o u n t r y h i k i n g e x p e r i e n c e f o r i n t e r v i e w e d h i k e r s was f i v e y e a r s . A p p r o x i m a t e l y 12% had no p r e v i o u s y e a r s ' e x p e r i e n c e . When a s k e d who i n t r o d u c e d them t o b a c k c o u n t r y h i k i n g , 44% i d e n t i f i e d a member o f t h e f a m i l y l i k e p a r e n t , s p o u s e , o r o t h e r r e l a t i v e . A l i m i t e d number o f r o a d u s e r s who had camped a t T a k a k k a w F a l l s campground w e r e a s k e d q u e s t i o n s r e l a t e d t o t h e i r campground e x p e r i e n c e s i n t h e s t u d y a r e a . M o s t campers e s p e c i a l l y l i k e d t h a t t h e campground was c l o s e t o T a k a k k a w F a l l s and was n o t o v e r c r o w d e d . No s i n g l e l i s t e d p o s s i b l e campground ' i m p r o v e m e n t ' on t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e f o r m r e c e i v e d a n y s i z e a b l e s u p p o r t . M o s t r e s p o n d a n t s (52%) p r e f e r r e d t o s e e t h e campground a r e a r e m a i n j u s t a s p r i m i t i v e as i t was d u r i n g t h e i r v i s i t ; a r o u n d 41% p r e f e r r e d t o see t h e a r e a even more p r i m i t i v e 7% w a n t e d t h e a r e a more d e v e l o p e d . 13 / C H A P T E R F O U R MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS I . APPROACH P l a n n i n g and management d e c i s i o n s i n p a r k a r e a s s h o u l d c o n s i d e r a v a r i e t y o f p a r a m e t e r s i n c l u d i n g s o i l s and l a n d f o r m s , c l i m a t e , v e g e t a t i o n , w i l d l i f e , w a t e r and a i r q u a l i t y , v i s u a l and a e s t h e t i c q u a l i t i e s , u s e r p r e f e r e n c e s , h i s t o r i c a l and a r c h a e o l o g i c a l d a t a , and b e n a f i t / c o s t d a t a ; a l s o t h e p l a n n i n g p h i l o s o p h y i t s e l f n e c e s s a r i l y i n f l u e n c e s d i r e c t i o n o f d e c i s i o n s . I n f o r m a t i o n on s o i l s and l a n d f o r m s i s b a s i c t o a s s e s s i n g p h y s i c a l s u i t a b i l i t y o f l a n d f o r p a r k d e v e l o p m e n t s s u c h as t r a i l s , c a m p g r o u n d s , r o a d s and p a r k i n g a r e a s ; s u c h i n f o r m a t i o n may r e v e a l i n t e r p r e t i v e v a l u e s f o r an a r e a as w e l l . C l i m a t o l o g i c a l d a t a on p r e c i p i t a t i o n , t e m p e r a t u r e , and w i n d s may h e l p i d e n t i f y a r e a s w i t h h e a v i e r snowpack , u n u s u a l l y h e a v y r a i n f a l l , o r p i n p o i n t s i t e s w h e r e t r e e w i n d f a l l s may be a r e c r e a t i o n h a z a r d . V e g e t a t i o n can, o f f e r i n d i c a t i o n s o f s i t e t o l e r a n c e t o u s e and s i t e a t c r a c t i v i . t y , and may s e r v e a s an i n d i c a t o r o f w i l d l i f e s p e c i e s t o be f o u n d i n a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h p l a n t c o m m u n i t i e s p r e s e n t . W i l d l i f e i n f o r m a t i o n i s n e c e s s a r y t o o f f e r t h e p a r k p l a n n e r o r manager t h e f a u n a l d i m e n s i o n o f i n t e r p r e t i v e v a l u e s and f o r i d e n t i f y i n g p o s s i b l e w i l d l i f e / u s e r c o n f l i c t s t h a t may o c c u r i n an a r e a . H i s t o r i c a l and a r c h a e o l o g i c a l . da t a a l s o a l l o w t h e p l a n n e r t o f o c u s on i n t e r p r e t i v e v a l u e s b e f o r e a s i t e i s a l t e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y . W a t e r and a i r q u a l i t y as w e l l a s v i s u a l and a e s t h e t i c a s p e c t s o f a p a r k a r e a s h o u l d be u n d e r s t o o d t o a v e r t u n n e c e s s a r y p o l l u t i o n i n p a r k d e v e l o p m e n t . 138 V i s i t o r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and preferences should be known before t a i l o r i n g a park development to user needs. Since user tastes may co n t i n u a l l y s h i f t , i t i s desi r a b l e to understand the dynamics of v i s i t o r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and preferences over time. Benefit/cost considerations should also be a constraint on park managers and planners. I d e a l l y , some philosophy or planning d i r e c t i o n should form the basis for decisions i n a park area. In 1972, the Yoho Park S t a f f (1972) prepared some preliminary proposals for Yoho V a l l e y which received approval i n p r i n c i p l e from the western r e g i o n a l o f f i c e of Parks Canada i n Calgary, Alberta. The proposals were made without the benefit of much of the resource and v i s i t o r use information presented e a r l i e r i n t h i s t h e s i s . These proposed modifications were that: (1) No upgrading, extensions, or re-alignment of the Yoho Valley road be considered except f o r hard surfacing of the e x i s t i n g alignment and rock b o l t i n g of the switchback faces. (2) The e x i s t i n g campground at Takakkaw F a l l s be removed. (3) A small walk-in campground (40 s i t e s ) as w e l l as a p r i m i t i v e group camp (capacity 35) be provided i n the area previously occupied by the old h o s t e l . (4) The e x i s t i n g parking l o t be removed, reclaimed, and a new f a c i l i t y be provided i n the area 4/10 of a mile south of the present f a c i l i t y . (5) Vehicular t r a f f i c be terminated at the new parking f a c i l i t y and the road from t h i s point be converted to t r a i l status. (6) The new viewpoint of the f a l l s be constructed 2/10 of a mile from the new parking l o t along the t r a i l to the F a l l s . (7) This complete t r a i l from the parking l o t to the F a l l s be s e l f -i n t e r p r e t i n g and contain a s e r i e s of plaques f o r v i s i t o r education and information. (8) A pump-out t o i l e t b u i l d i n g be provided i n the v i c i n i t y of the new parking area. 1 3 9 I n a d d i t i o n , t h e f o l l o w i n g b a c k c o u n t r y m o d i f i c a t i o n s were p r o p o s e d : (1) The c o n s t r u c t i o n and d e s i g n a t i o n o f f i v e b a c k c o u n t r y campground a r e a s . (2) The c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e G r e a t D i v i d e T r a i l t h r o u g h K i w e t n o k P a s s and c o n n e c t i n g w i t h t h e P r e s i d e n t ' s S k y l i n e T r a i l t o Yoho P a s s . (3) The c o n s t r u c t i o n o f a t r a i l o n t h e e a s t s i d e o f Y o h o V a l l e y t o F a i r y L a k e . Two o f t h e s e p r e l i m i n a r y p a r k p r o p o s a l s w i l l b e e v a l u a t e d i n t h i s c h a p t e r by c o n s i d e r i n g t h e r e s o u r c e and v i s i t o r u s e and u s e r i n f o r m a t i o n a l r e a d y p r e s e n t e d . The p r o p o s a l s t o be r e v i e w e d a r e : (1) t h a t t h e e x i s t i n g Takakkaw F a l l s campground be r e l o c a t e d ; and (2) t h a t a new t r a i l be c o n s t r u c t e d t o F a i r y L a k e . The o b j e c t i v e o f t h e r e v i e w i s t o d e m o n s t r a t e how t h e r e s o u r c e and v i s i t o r u s e i n f o r m a t i o n p r e s e n t e d c a n be u s e d t o e v a l u a t e p a r k p l a n n i n g p r o p o s a l s . S i n c e t h e p l a n n i n g p h i l o s o p h y f o r a p a r t i c u l a r p a r k a r e a s h o u l d f o r m t h e b a s i s o r f r amework f o r d e c i s i o n s made i n t h a t a r e a , a p l a n n i n g p h i l o s o p h y i s p r e s e n t e d f o r t h e Yoho V a l l e y a r e a . T h i s p l a n n i n g p h i l o s o p h y o r c o n c e p t p l a n s u p p o r t s , i f r e q u i r e d , i n t e n s i v e - u s e d e v e l o p m e n t a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e Yoho V a l l e y r o a d and a d j a c e n t t o t h e T r a n s - C a n a d a H i g h w a y . L e s s e m p h a s i s w o u l d be p l a c e d o n d e v e l o p m e n t i n t h e more r emote b a c k c o u n t r y a r e a s a t t h e end o f t h e v a l l e y . The p l a n n i n g f r a m e w o r k w o u l d t h u s a l l o w f o r a v a r i e t y o f r e c r e a t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e s by c o n t r o l l i n g . t h e l o c a t i o n o f f a c i l i t i e s . Wap ta L a k e , L a k e O ' H a r a , E m e r a l d L a k e , F i e l d t o w n s i t e , and t h e T r a n s - C a n a d a H i g h w a y c o r r i d o r p r o v i d e l e v e l s o f d e v e l o p e d p a r k e n v i r o n m e n t . C o n v e r s i o n o f v a r i o u s f i r e r o a d s t o t r a i l s w o u l d p r o v i d e d e g r e e s o f b a c k c o u n t r y o r w i l d e r n e s s e x p e r i e n c e s i n t h e I c e , B e a v e r f o o t , P o r c u p i n e , A m i s k w i , O t t e r h e a d , and O t t e r t a i l R i v e r V a l l e y s . Yoho V a l l e y w i l l p r o b a b l y a l w a y s be h e a v i l y u s e d a s i t i s one o f t h e most u n i q u e a r e a s i n Yoho N a t i o n a l P a r k ; however i t need n o t be d e v e l o p e d 140 i n t e n s i v e l y , I I . TAKAKKAW F A L L S CAMPGROUND LOCATION Takakkaw F a l l s campground p r e s e n t l y c o n t a i n s a r o u n d 50 u n d e s i g n a t e d c a m p i n g s i t e s . Campers a r e f r e e t o c h o o s e where t h e y w o u l d l i k e t o camp, p a r k t h e i r c a r s , s e t up t h e i r t e n t s , and p l a c e t h e i r o t h e r c a m p i n g e q u i p m e n t . The campground i s t h e t e r m i n u s p o i n t o f t h e Yoho V a l l e y r o a d . C u r i o u s day v i s i t o r s d r i v e p a s t t h e Takakkaw F a l l s v i e w p o i n t a r e a t o t h e campground where t h e y e i t h e r d r i v e t h r o u g h o r g e t o u t t o e x p l o r e a r o u n d o r p i c n i c . H i k e r s a l s o d r i v e t h r o u g h t h e campground and p a r k t h e i r c a r s a t t h e s m a l l p a r k i n g a r e a p r o v i d e d n e a r t h e t r a i l k i o s k . T h u s v w i t h t h e camper , h i k e r , and day u s e r a l l c o n v e r g i n g on t h i s r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l a r e a , t h e r e i s s u b s t a n t i a l t r a f f i c c o n g e s t i o n , d u s t , n o i s e , and o t h e r human i m p a c t s i n t h e c a m p g r o u n d . Some v e g e t a t i o n i s damaged d i r e c t l y by v i s i t o r s ; damage may be e i t h e r d e l i b e r a t e as a camper d r i v i n g a n a i l i n t o a t r e e , o r a c c i d e n t a l l i k e v e g e t a t i o n b e i n g c r u s h e d by t h e f e e t o f c a m p e r s . V e h i c l e s o p e r a t e d and p a r k e d h a p h a z a r d l y a r o u n d t h e campground c a u s e s e v e r e damage t o v e g e t a t i o n . The i n d i s c r i m i n a t e p l a c e m e n t o f t e n t s and o t h e r c a m p i n g g e a r t e n d s t o s p r e a d t h i s f o r m o f i m p a c t t h r o u g h o u t t h e campground a r e a . V e g e t a t i v e v i g o r c a n a l s o be r e d u c e d by human i m p a c t s o n t h e s o i l . S o i l s c a n be a f f e c t e d by t r a m p l i n g w h i c h compac t s s o i l s , i n c r e a s e s b u l k d e n s i t y , r e d u c e s s o i l p o r o s i t y and p e r m e a b i l i t y , and c o n s e q u e n t l y i n c r e a s e s s u r f a c e r u n - o f f and e r o s i o n . S o i l m o i s t u r e c a p a c i t y i s u s u a l l y r e d u c e d . These i m p a c t s u s u a l l y l e a d t o d e c r e a s e d p l a n t v i g o r ( i n c r e a s i n g s u s c e p t i b i l i t y t o d i s e a s e ) o r p l a n t d e a t h ( w h i c h r e d u c e s p l a n t c o v e r ) , and d e c r e a s e d p r o d u c t i v i t y o f s o i l f o r p l a n t g r o w t h . The u n c o n t r o l l e d s p r e a d o f v e h i c l e s and c a m p i n g t h r o u g h o u t t h e Takakkaw F a l l s campground 141 a r e a i s p r o b a b l y t h e m a j o r s o u r c e o f t r a m p l i n g . T h i s h a s p r o b a b l y r e s u l t e d i n t h e r u s t d i s e a s e t h a t h a s i n f e c t e d n e a r l y e v e r y l o d g e p o l e p i n e t r e e and s e e d l i n g i n t h e a r e a . Takakkaw F a l l s campground i s p r e s e n t l y l o c a t e d o n c o a r s e t e x t u r e d a l l u v i a l " f a n m a t e r i a l . The campground i s s i t u a t e d i n m i d - f a n p o s i t i o n , o n a 5% s l o p e , where s o i l t e x t u r e i s g r a v e l l y s a n d y l o a m t o g r a v e l l y f i n e s a n d y l o a m w i t h 20 t o 50% c o a r s e f r a g m e n t s . A l l o f t h e p h y s i c a l p a r a m e t e r s o f t h e s i t e a r e c o n s i d e r e d f a v o r a b l e f o r campground u s e ( s e e T a b l e 6 , page 5 2 ) . The p a r k p r o p o s e d campground i s l o c a t e d on t h e a p r o n o f t h e same f a n j u s t s o u t h o f t h e p r e s e n t campground and n o r t h o f t h e w a r d e n ' s c a b i n . H e r e t h e s o i l c o n s i s t s o f t h e s i l t l o a m t o f i n e s a n d y l o a m f a n m a t e r i a l w i t h l e s s t h a n 5% c o a r s e f r a g m e n t s . The s i t e i s l o c a t e d o n a 2% s l o p e . M o s t o f t h e p h y s i c a l p a r a m e t e r s o f t h i s s i t e a r e c o n s i d e r e d f a v o r a b l e f o r campground u s e . The f i n e s o i l t e x t u r e and few c o a r s e f r a g m e n t s a r e , h o w e v e r , c o n s i d e r e d m o d e r a t e s o i l l i m i t a t i o n s . F r o m o b s e r v a t i o n s ffla4e- o a ' t h e n o r t h '^rv;6p^6's-it(B'~eftd o f t h e farx, t r a i l i m p a c t s ' a r e mos t s e v e r e o n t h e f i n e t e x t u r e d f a n a p r o n where t h e r e a r e f ew c o a r s e f r a g m e n t s . Thus i t seems t h e p r e s e n t s i t e w o u l d be b e t t e r p h y s i c a l l y s u i t e d f o r campground u s e t h a n t h e p a r k p r o p o s e d s i t e . The e f f e c t s o f t r a m p l i n g , t h o u g h a p p a r e n t now i n t h e p r e s e n t s i t e , w o u l d l i k e l y be more s e v e r e o n t h e p a r k p r o p o s e d r e l o c a t i o n s i t e . The v e g e t a t i o n o f t h e p r e s e n t campground c o n s i s t s o f r e l a t i v e l y o p e n and d i s e a s e d l o d g e p o l e p i n e w i t h v e r y few s h r u b s . The p a r k p r o p o s e d s i t e i s d o m i n a n t l y composed o f m o d e r a t e l y open E n g e l m a n n s p r u c e and s u b a l p i n e f i r w i t h some l o d g e p o l e p i n e and a d e n s e r u n d e r s t o r y o f s h r u b s . The v e g e t a t i o n o f b o t h s i t e s i s d e s c r i b e d i n more d e t a i l b y D o o l i n g and V o i d ( 1 9 7 3 ) . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , i t i s n o t known w h i c h o f t h e s e two s i t e s h a s 142 v e g e t a t i o n more t o l e r a n t t o campground u s e . O t h e r d e f i c i e n c i e s i n b i o p h y s i c a l d a t a i n c l u d e m i c r o c l i m a t i c i n f o r m a t i o n and p a r a m e t e r s o f w i l d l i f e e c o l o g y . I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t t h e d e n s e r f o r e s t e d p a r k p r o p o s e d s i t e may have t e m p e r a t u r e , h u m i d i t y , p r e c i p i t a t i o n f a c t o r s d i f f e r e n t t h a n t h e p r e s e n t c a m p g r o u n d . These f a c t o r s c o u l d a f f e c t u s e r s a t i s f a c t i o n , t o l e r a n c e o f v e g e t a t i o n t o u s e , and w i l d l i f e d i s t r i b u t i o n . B i o p h y s i c a l d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n t h e p r e s e n t campground l o c a t i o n and t h e p a r k p r o p o s e d l o c a t i o n a r e o n l y one a s p e c t o f campground l o c a t i o n c o n s i d e r a t i o n s . I t i s a l s o i m p o r t a n t t o c o n s i d e r u s e r s a t i s f a c t i o n . The l i m i t e d r o a d s u r v e y q u e s t i o n s t o 28 Takakkaw F a l l s camper p a r t i e s i n d i c a t e d t h a t campers were s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e p r e s e n t campground l o c a t i o n . O n l y one camper s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e campground s h o u l d be r e l o c a t e d t o a d i f f e r e n t a r e a " i n t h e f o r e s t " . Campground u s e r s w e r e a s k e d w h e t h e r t h e y n o t i c e d any " d i s t u r b i n g o r u n u s u a l v e g e t a t i o n " c o n d i t i o n s i n t h e campground a r e a . O n l y one camper m e n t i o n e d t h a t t h e t r e e s seemed d i s e a s e d . ! M o s t campers a p p a r e n t l y c a n n o t d i s t i n g u i s h c l e a r l y b e t w e e n a h e a l t h y f o r e s t s t a n d and a d i s e a s e d s t a n d (Ap t 1 9 6 8 ) . Thus t h e d i s e a s e d p i n e p r o b a b l y does n o t d i r e c t l y a f f e c t t h e c a m p i n g en joymen t o f most Takakkaw F a l l s campground u s e r s . O t h e r v a r i o u s a d v a n t a g e s and d i s a d v a n t a g e s be tween t h e two s i t e s i n c l u d e : (1) t h e p r e s e n t l o c a t i o n h a s a b e t t e r v i e w o f T a k a k k a w F a l l s t h a n t h e more f o r e s t e d p a r k p r o p o s e d l o c a t i o n ; (2) t h e p r e s e n t a r e a h a s l e s s v e g e t a t i v e s c r e e n i n g f o r l e s s a s e n s e o f p r i v a c y t h a n does t h e p a r k p r o p o s e d l o c a t i o n ; (3) t h e p r e s e n t s i t e i s more e x p o s e d and w i n d y and p r o b a b l y more c h i l l y t o camp i n t h a n t h e p a r k p r o p o s e d a r e a ; and (4) t h e p r e s e n t l o c a t i o n i s d r i e r and more w i n d y ( b e i n g more e x p o s e d ) t h u s r e d u c i n g t h e i r r i t a t i o n o f m o s q u i t o e s somewhat more t h a n the p a r k p r o p o s e d l o c a t i o n . 143 O t h e r v i s u a l and a e s t h e t i c q u a l i t i e s n o t y e t c o n s i d e r e d m i g h t be r e v i e w e d ; a i r , w a t e r , and n o i s e p o l l u t i o n d i f f e r e n c e s be tween t h e two s i t e s may a l s o p r o v e t o be i m p o r t a n t b e f o r e a s i t e r e l o c a t i o n d e c i s i o n i s made . The p a r k p r o p o s e d campground l o c a t i o n , t h o u g h h a v i n g i t s own u n i q u e a d v a n t a g e s and d i s a d v a n t a g e s , a p p e a r s no b e t t e r , c o n s i d e r i n g u s e r s a t i s -f a c t i o n , t h a n t h e p r e s e n t l o c a t i o n . F rom a s o i l s a s p e c t , t h e p r e s e n t s i t e a p p e a r s s l i g h t l y more f a v o r a b l e t h a n t h e p a r k p r o p o s e d s i t e . T h u s , i n s t e a d o f r e m o v i n g t h e campground and s u b j e c t i n g more a c r e a g e t o t r a m p l i n g , i t w o u l d be a d v i s a b l e t o r e s t o r e t h e e x i s t i n g s i t e . R e s t o r a t i o n o f t h e e x i s t i n g s i t e may be p a s s i v e l y o r a c t i v e l y p u r s u e d . M a g i l l (1970) d i s c e r n e d an improvement i n t h e c o n d i t i o n o f campground v e g e t a t i o n ( b a s e d o n a f i v e y e a r C a l i f o r n i a s t u d y ) a f t e r campground management measu re s had r e s t r i c t e d fo rms o f u s e w i t h s e v e r e i m p a c t s ( s u c h as p u t t i n g l o g b a r r i e r s t o c o n t r o l v e h i c u l a r t r a f f i c ) . T h e r e f o r e , t h e v e g e t a t i v e c o n d i t i o n s o f t h e p r e s e n t s i t e c o u l d i m p r o v e once c o n v e r t e d i n t o a w a l k - i n campground a r e a . Much o f t h e s p e c i a l i z e d m i s u s e o f t h e campground e n v i r o n m e n t as a r e s u l t o f v e h i c u l a r a c c e s s t o and t h r o u g h t h e a r e a c o u l d be e l i m i n a t e d . I f campground c o n d i t i o n s c o n t i n u e t o d e t e r i o r a t e , t h e n o t h e r management m e a s u r e s l i k e r e s t r i c t i n g t h e numbers o f o v e r n i g h t u s e r s , t e m p o r a r y c l o s u r e o f t h e s i t e , o r a c t i v e s i t e r e h a b i l i t a t i o n may become n e c e s s a r y ( s ee B e a r d s l e y e t a l 1974 ; James 1 9 7 4 ) . I I I . F A I R Y L A K E AREA The p r e l i m i n a r y p a r k p r o p o s a l t o c o n s t r u c t a t r a i l on t h e e a s t s i d e o f Yoho V a l l e y t o F a i r y L a k e w i l l now be e v a l u a t e d . The t r a i l w o u l d be a p p r o x i m a t e l y s i x m i l e s l o n g f r o m t h e Takakkaw F a l l s campground and w o u l d r e q u i r e a n a s c e n t o f 2300 f e e t i n e l e v a t i o n . Few h i k e r s w o u l d 144 be a b l e t o make t h e t w e l v e m i l e r o u n d t r i p i n one d a y . I f t h e t r a i l i s c o n s t r u c t e d , F a i r y L a k e w o u l d u n d o u b t e d l y be u s e d as an o v e r n i g h t d e s t i n a t i o n a r e a r e q u i r i n g some k i n d o f p r i m i t i v e campground f a c i l i t y . A c c o r d i n g t o t h e s o i l map o f Yoho V a l l e y and t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s made on s o i l map u n i t s , a l l o f t h e s o i l s t h a t s u r r o u n d F a i r y L a k e h a v e s e v e r e l i m i t a t i o n s f o r campground u s e due t o e x c e s s i v e s l o p e and e l e v a t i o n . O n - s i t e i n v e s t i g a t i o n s i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e r e i s a s m a l l m o d e r a t e l y s l o p i n g (5% t o 9%) a l p i n e meadow i n c l u s i o n w i t h i n map u n i t 1 3 / G on t h e w e s t s i d e o f t h e l a k e . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , t h e s m a l l a r e a s b e t w e e n s h a l l o w - t o - b e d r o c k o r l i t h i c s o i l s a p p e a r t o be i m p e r f e c t l y d r a i n e d . Thus d r a i n a g e and e l e v a t i o n l i m i t a t i o n s combined p r o b a b l y s t i l l make t h i s s m a l l a r e a u n s u i t a b l e f o r p r i m i t i v e campground d e v e l o p m e n t . The s o i l s map w i t h map u n i t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i n d i c a t e s t h a t s o i l s s u r r o u n d i n g F a i r y L a k e a r e a l s o s e v e r e l y l i m i t e d f o r t r a i l d e v e l o p m e n t due t o e x c e s s i v e s l o p e s . I f a t r a i l w e r e t o be c o n s t r u c t e d , a p p r o x i m a t e l y two m i l e s o f t r a i l s w o u l d have t o be b u i l t on g r e a t e r t h a n 60% ( o r H) s l o p e s where c o n s t r u c t i o n and m a i n t e n a n c e c c o s t s a r e e x p e c t e d t o be v e r y h i g h r e l a t i v e t o a r e a s w i t h more s u i t a b l e s o i l s . The p r o p o s e d t r a i l f r o m Yoho R i v e r t o F a i r y L a k e goes t h r o u g h t h r e e v e g e t a t i o n z o n e s : t h e Enge lmann s p r u c e — s u b a l p i n e f i r f o r e s t z o n e w i t h a d e n s e u n d e r s t o r y o f s h r u b s t o a p p r o x i m a t e l y 6500 f e e t e l e v a t i o n ; t h e E n g e l m a n n s p r u c e - s u b a l p i n e f i r p a r k l a n d f o r e s t zone w i t h few s h r u b s and a p r e d o m i n a n t e l y e r i c a c e o u s u n d e r s t o r y mat o f h e a t h e r s and v a c c i n i u m f r o m a p p r o x i m a t e l y 6500 f e e t t o 7200 f e e t ; and t h e a l p i n e z o n e a b o v e 7200 f e e t . L i t t l e i s known a b o u t how t h e s e v e g e t a t i o n zones i n - - Y o h o ' V a l l e y - ' - r e s p o n d "to r e c r e a t i o n u s e , b u t i t i s p resumed a s a g e n e r a l r u l e , b a s e d on o b s e r v a t i o n s i n t h e a r e a , t h a t t h e h i g h e r t h e e l e v a t i o n , , t h e s h o r t e r t h e g r o w i n g s e a s o n and t h e l e s s t o l e r a n t t h e p l a n t communi ty t o r e c r e a t i o n u s e . N a t u r a l l y , 145 l o c a l e d a p h i c c o n d i t i o n s and o t h e r e n v i r o n m e n t a l c o n d i t i o n s may m o d i f y t h i s r u l e f o r s p e c i f i c s i t e s . A p p r o x i m a t e l y h a l f o f t h e p r o p o s e d t r a i l w o u l d t r a v e l t h r o u g h r e l a t i v e l y f r a g i l e p a r k l a n d and a l p i n e v e g e t a t i o n . The p r i m i t i v e campground w o u l d p r o b a b l y o c c u r i n t h e v e r y f r a g i l e a l p i n e a r e a s u r r o u n d i n F a i r y L a k e i t s e l f . I n t e r m s o f t r a i l and campground l o c a t i o n d e c i s i o n s , v e g e t a t i o n s h o u l d n o t be c o n s i d e r e d j u s t f r o m t h e p o i n t o f v i e w o f communi ty t o l e r a n c t o u s e , b u t a l s o f r o m t h e p o i n t o f v i e w o f p r o v i d i n g an i n t e r e s t i n g and a e s t h e t i c e n v i r o n m e n t f o r t h e a c t i v i t y . I n t h i s s e n s e , t h e p r o p o s e d r o u t e w o u l d be i n t e r e s t i n g i n s o f a r a s i t w o u l d t r a v e l t h r o u g h t h r e e z o n e s . The p r o p o s e d t r a i l , i f d e v e l o p e d , w o u l d have an unknown, i m p a c t on w i l d l i f e . The o n l y l a r g e mammal l i k e l y t o be a f f e c t e d w o u l d be m o u n t a i n g o a t , t h a t now r a n g e s v i r t u a l l y w i t h o u t human i n t e r f e r e n c e on the e a s t s i d e o f t h e v a l l e y . The p r o p o s e d t r a i l t o F a i r y L a k e w o u l d have some h i s t o r i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e i n s o f a r a s M t . B a l f o u r l i e s w i t h i n v i e w j u s t t o t h e e a s t o f t h e l a k e . A s e a r c h f o r a r o u t e up M t . B a l f o u r , t h e h i g h e s t p e a k i n Yoho V a l l e y , l e d t o t h e d i s c o v e r y o f t h e v a l l e y b y J e a n H a b e l i n 1897 . S i n c e c l i m a t o l p g i c a l c o n d i t i o n s i n Yoho V a l l e y a r e n o t w e l l u n d e r -s t o o d , t h i s r e p r e s e n t s a m a j o r gap i n k n o w l e d g e a b o u t t h e F a i r y L a k e a r e a . A n s w e r s t o t h e f o l l o w i n g t y p e s o f q u e s t i o n s w o u l d b e u s e f u l : What w o u l d t h e a v e r a g e a n n u a l snow f r e e p e r i o d f o r t h e p r o p o s e d F a i r y L a k e t r a i l be? A r e s o u t h w e s t a s p e c t s i n Yoho V a l l e y more f a v o r a b l e f o r t r a i l and p r i m i t i v e campground d e v e l o p m e n t and u s e t h a n n o r t h t o n o r t h e a s t a s p e c t s ? S i n c e F a i r y L a k e i s l o c a t e d on t h e w i n d w a r d , r a i n - s h e d d i n g s i d e o f t h e c o n t i n e n t a l d i v i d e , i s p r e c i p i t a t i o n g r e a t e r t h a n on t h e o t h e r s i d e o f Yoho V a l l e y ? 146 Yoho V a l l e y b a c k c o u n t r y u s e r s i n 1972 were a s k e d what c h a n g e s t h e y d e s i r e d f o r t h e b a c k c o u n t r y a r e a ( s ee T a b l e 2 9 , p . 1 2 1 ) . R e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t 22% o f t h e r e s p o n d a n t s f a v o u r e d more p r i m i t i v e campground d e v e l o p m e n t w h i l e 78% were a g a i n s t i t . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , b e c a u s e t h e u s e r s u r v e y was i n i t i a t e d b e f o r e p r e l i m i n a r y p a r k p r o p o s a l s were k n o w n , t h e i s s u e o f c o n s t r u c t i n g more t r a i l s was n o t l i s t e d on t h e s u r v e y f o r m . N o n e t h e l e s s , f o u r p e r c e n t o f t h e r e s p o n d a n t s v o l u n t e e r e d t h a t t h e y f a v o u r e d more t r a i l s f o r t h e v a l l e y . S i n c e none o f t h e " c h a n g e s " l i s t e d on t h e s u r v e y f o r m r e c e i v e d more t h a n 31% s u p p o r t , i t i s e x p e c t e d t h a t a p p r o x i m a t e l y 70% t o 90% o f t h e b a c k c o u n t r y u s e r s w o u l d have o p p o s e d more t r a i l d e v e l o p m e n t . T h e r e f o r e , c o n s i d e r i n g b o t h t h e r e s o u r c e and u s e r s o f t h e v a l l e y , t h e p r e l i m i n a r y p a r k p r o p o s a l t o c o n s t r u c t a t r a i l t o F a i r y L a k e does n o t a p p e a r t o be a good i d e a . B o t h s o i l and v e g e t a t i o n r e s o u r c e s a p p e a r f r a g i l e and s u s c e p t i b l e t o r e l a t i v e l y h i g h i m p a c t s as a r e s u l t o f t r a i l and p r i m i t i v e campground u s e . B a c k c o u n t r y i n t e r v i e w r e s u l t s , a l t h o u g h n o t d i r e c t l y a p p l i c a b l e t o t h e F a i r y L a k e t r a i l p r o p o s a l , i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e r e w o u l d l i k e l y be l i t t l e s u p p o r t f o r t h e i d e a . Some f u r t h e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n s a r e p r e s e n t e d a t t h i s p o i n t . C u r r e n t l y s i x o f t h e s e v e n l ake ' s i n Yoho V a l l e y a r e a c c e s s i b l e by t r a i l . These s i x l a k e s a r e l o c a t e d on t h e r e l a t i v e l y ' d e v e l o p e d ' w e s t s i d e o f t h e v a l l e y , w h i l e no t r a i l s have b e e n c o n s t r u c t e d on t h e v a l l e y ' s e a s t s i d e . The e a s t s i d e o f Yoho V a l l e y c a n c o n s t i t u t e a w i l d e r n e s s e x p e r i e n c e f o r t h o s e who make t h e e f f o r t t o l e a v e t h e c o n v e n i e n c e o f t r a i l s . T h i s ' u n t o u c h e d ' v a l u e i s p r o b a b l y v i c a r i o u s l y e n j o y e d b y many more t r a i l h i k e r s on the v a l l e y ' s w e s t s i d e . W i t h b a c k c o u n t r y u s e i n c r e a s i n g a t t h e a v e r a g e a n n u a l r a t e o f 20% t o 25%, t h e d e c i s i o n o f c o n s t r u c t i n g a t r a i l t o t h e o n l y 147 t r a i l l e s s lake i n the v a l l e y may be unwise. I t would seem e s p e c i a l l y important for Parks Canada to keep t h e i r options open i n the face of increasing backcountry use pressures and possible r e s u l t i n g changes i n backcountry use demands (e.g. to t r a i l l e s s areas). IV. SUMMARY Bio p h y s i c a l , h i s t o r i c a l , a r c h a e l o g i c a l , and aesthetic data per t a i n i n g to park areas as w e l l as user c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and preferences form the required information base upon which planners and managers should formulate d e c i s i o n s . Management philosophy also a f f e c t s the d i r e c t i o n of the decision-making process. In t h i s chapter, two management proposals were discussed: 1) that the Takakkaw F a l l s campground be relocated, and 2) that a new t r a i l be constructed to F a i r y Lake. Ana l y s i s of the campground and t r a i l proposals brought several information d e f i c i e n c i e s i n t o focus. V i s i t o r survey questions were not..focused s p e c i f i c a l l y on these management proposals... For both campground s i t e s and the proposed t r a i l route, microclimatic and macroclimatic information was l a c k i n g ; information p e r t a i n i n g to tolerance of vegetation to use i n these locat i o n s i s sparse; f i n a l l y , parameters of w i l d l i f e ecology have not been i d e n t i f i e d i n these areas. Although some data i s l a c k i n g , i t i s p o s s i b l e to formulate decisions based on the information a v a i l a b l e . S o i l development r e f l e c t s , i n part, c l i m a t i c conditions, and s o i l properties may be i n t e g r a l l y r e l a t e d to the a b i l i t y of vegetation to withstand use. I n t e r p r e t a t i o n of s o i l s data presented i n d i c a t e d that the park proposed campground was l e s s p h y s i c a l l y suited f or use than the present 148 s i t e . A n a l y s i s o f s o i l s i n f o r m a t i o n i n t h e F a i r y L a k e a r e a r e v e a l e d s e v e r e l i m i t a t i o n s f o r b o t h t r a i l and p r i m i t i v e campground c o n s t r u c t i o n and u s e . V i s i t o r s u r v e y i n f o r m a t i o n i n d i c a t e s , by i n f e r e n c e , t h a t mos t . b a c k c o u n t r y u s e r s w o u l d p r o b a b l y p r e f e r t h a t no new t r a i l s be b u i l t i n Yoho V a l l e y . No s t r o n g p r e f e r e n c e f o r r e l o c a t i n g t h e campground was i n d i c a t e d by t h e l i m i t e d number o f campground u s e r s i n t e r v i e w e d . T h u s , o n t h e b a s i s o f t h e l i m i t e d b i o p h y s i c a l and v i s i t o r u s e i n f o r m a t i o n p r e s e n t e d , i t was recommended t h a t no t r a i l be b u i l t t o F a i r y L a k e and t h a t t h e Takakkaw F a l l s campground n o t be r e l o c a t e d . 149 C H A P T E R F I V E SUMMARY INTRODUCTION Many n a t i o n a l park areas are f a c i n g pressures and c o n f l i c t s as a r e s u l t of increased v i s i t o r use on f i n i t e and often f r a g i l e park resources. To help remedy these problems, park managers and planners w i l l r e quire r e l a t i v e l y d e t a i l e d information on park resources and t h e i r l i m i t a t i o n s to support use; on the abundance, d i s t r i b u t i o n , and growth of v i s i t o r use; and on the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and management preferences, of jpark v i s i t o r s . ... - • • The main study o b j e c t i v e was to inventory n a t u r a l and v i s u a l resources, use patterns, and v i s i t o r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n Yoho V a l l e y , Yoho National Park, '-British Columbia. '• .k^s^condary'^bjective was- to -develop 'managaaea-t;. •reco^enda'tioris';''bajs.cd.. -on'- ah evaluation of the inventory information and an assessment of V i s i t o r impacts on resources and f a c i l i t i e s (such as t r a i l s ) . Another o b j e c t i v e was to review various research procedures r e l a t e d to the development of the inventory ( i e . v i s i t o r use estimation-techniques, v i s i t o r survey techniques, etc.) Yoho V a l l e y , an 86 square mile area i n the northeast corner of the park adjacent to the c o n t i n e n t a l d i v i d e , was chosen as the study area because park use c o n f l i c t s were considered by Parks Canada to be p o t e n t i a l l y acute there. The p r i n c i p a l a t t r a c t i o n of the study area i s i t s spectacular mountain scenery ( e l e v a t i o n ranges from 4300 to 10,741 feet) with g l a c i e r s , lakes, a l p i n e meadows, and w a t e r f a l l s -p a r t i c u l a r l y Takakkaw F a l l s which plunges 1248 f e e t to the v a l l e y f l o o r An 8 mile gravel road begins at the Trans-Canada Highway and ends at 150 the base of Takakkaw F a l l s where a small campground i s located. The backcountry t r a i l system i n the v a l l e y begins at the campground. I I . RESOURCE INVENTORY The resource inventory consisted of gathering information r e l a t e d to the climate, bedrock geology, s o i l s and landforms, f l o r a , fauna, and v i s u a l resources of the study area. The mean y e a r l y temperature recorded at one Yoho Park s t a t i o n at 4000 fee t e l e v a t i o n was 36° F., with 15 inches of r a i n f a l l and 74 inches of snowfall recorded, on the average, annually. July-August mean maximum temperature i n the park was 70° F. at 4000 feet and approximately,58° F.- at -7100 feet5-while"'msaa minimus* ieiaperafcaxes « were 43° F. and 36° F. r e s p e c t i v e l y (Landals and Scotter 1973)„ The bedrock of Yoho V a l l e y c o n s i s t s p r i m a r i l y of r e l a t i v e l y f i n e -grained limestones, dolomites, shales, and. s i l t s t o n e s of the Middle and Late Cambrian. The 12 formations found i n t h e s t u d y area-were mapped by the Yoho Park S t a f f (1972); t h e i r map was adapted to a semi-controlled photo-mosaic (scale 1:50,000) shown i n appendix IV. Since 20 square miles i n the study area c o n s i s t s of exposed bedrock, some i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of bedrock types-to support r e c r e a t i o n a l . u s e 3?ere made. Since no previous s o i l or landform i n v e s t i g a t i o n s had been done, a major study e f f o r t was placed on inventorying and i n t e r p r e t i n g the s o i l and landform resources of Yoho V a l l e y . F i e l d d e s c r i p t i o n s provided information on s o i l parent m a t e r i a l , h o r i z o n a t i o n , c o l o r , depth, texture, coarse fragments, drainage, slope, rockiness, e l e v a t i o n range, and associated vegetation. S o i l s were c l a s s i f i e d at the subgroup l e v e l using "The System of S o i l C l a s s i f i c a t i o n f o r Canada" (Canada, 151 Dept. of A g r i c . 1974). The s o i l s were mapped on a photo-mosaic (scale 1:50,000) presented i n appendix IV. The s o i l s of Yoho V a l l e y , which account f o r approximately 25.5 square miles of area, were divided i n t o 13 s o i l map u n i t s c o n s i s t i n g of 6 d i f f e r e n t landforms and 5 separate s o i l orders. The s o i l map u n i t s are presented below with approximate area and a b r i e f d e s c r i p t i o n : S o i l Map ' Area Unit (sq.miles) B r i e f D e s c r i p t i o n 1 0.2 Gleysol or Organic (poorly drained). 2 0.2 Cumulic Regosol on recent alluvium. 3 0.3 Cumulic Regosol on a l l u v i a l fan. 4 0.3 Degraded E u t r i c B r u n i s o l on outwash. 2.0 / ';/'Regosol on .collavium below 6500' ,witfc.£50% C.F. I 6 2.0 Regosol' on colluvium below 6500' with 7 56%' C.F. 7 1.0 Degraded E u t r i c B r u n i s o l on colluvium below 6500'„ 8 8.0 O r t h i c Humo-Ferric Podzol on t i l l below 6500' „ 9 •' 3 . 0 ' ' - "^Degraded E u t r i c ^ or Regosol b r a /colluvium : between 6500-7200'. 10 4.0 M i n i Humo-Ferric' Podzol oh t i l l between 6500-7200^ 11 0.5 A l p i n e E u t r i c B r u n i s o l on colluvium above 7200'. 12 1.5 A l p i n e E u t r i c B r u n i s o l on t i l l above 7200'. 13 2.5 L i t h i c A l p ine E u t r i c B r u n i s o l on t i l l or colluvium above 7200' (bedrock <50 cm from s u r f a c e ) . The other 60.5 square miles i n Yoho V a l l e y are accounted for i n the f o l l o w i n g miscellaneous map u n i t s : i c e f i e l d s or g l a c i e r s (30 sq. m i l e s ) , rock (20 sq. m i l e s ) , recent moraine (6 sq. m i l e s ) , t a l u s (4 sq. m i l e s ) , and lakes and cobbleland (0.5 sq. m i l e s ) . Most of the parent m a t e r i a l (Ck) i n the study area i s strongly calcareous. As a r e s u l t , the depth of pedogehic a c t i v i t y i s l i m i t e d , with the Ck horizon occurring at l e s s than 30 cm i n depth. A and B horizons are most developed i n a e o l i a n overlay m a t e r i a l common on s t a b l e s o i l s , e s p e c i a l l y i n a l p i n e environments. 152 The s o i l s o f Y o h o V a l l e y w e r e i n t e r p r e t e d i n t e r m s o f t h e i r l i m i t a t i o n s f o r t r a i l s and c a m p g r o u n d s . The i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s made a r e mos t u s e f u l a t t h e m a s t e r o r o v e r v i e w p l a n n i n g l e v e l . S o i l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s s u c h a s d r a i n a g e , f l o o d i n g h a z a r d , s l o p e , t e x t u r e , c o a r s e f r a g m e n t s , r o c k i n e s s , a n d e l e v a t i o n w e r e e v a l u a t e d b e f o r e r a t i n g e a c h m a p p i n g u n i t ' s l i m i t a t i o n s f o r t r a i l s and campgrounds a s e i t h e r s l i g h t , m o d e r a t e , o r s e v e r e . The a p p r o x i m a t e a r e a l d i s t r i b u t i o n o f e a c h i n t e r p r e t a t i v e c a t e g o r y i s a s f o l l o w s : Campgrounds 0.5 s q . m i l e s 0.5 s q . m i l e s 85.0 s q . m i l e s S i n c e o v e r 98% o f t h e s t u d y a r e a o c c u r s o n g r e a t e r t h a n 15% (F t o H) s l o p e s , e x c e s s i v e l y s t e e p s l o p e s r e p r e s e n t t h e mos t s e v e r e l i m i t a t i o n f o r c a m p g r o u n d s . S t e e p s l o p e s a r e a l s o the. m a j o r l i m i t a t i o n f o r t r a i l s a s o v e r 90% o f t h e s t u d y a r e a o c c u r s o n g r e a t e r t h a n 30% (G t o H) s l o p e s , a n d n e a r l y 60% o f t h e v a l l e y i s o n g r e a t e r t h a n 60% (H) s l o p e s . D r a i n a g e and f l o o d i n g h a z a r d a r e t h e m a i n l i m i t i n g f a c t o r s a f f e c t i n g t h e s u i t a b i l i t y o f more g e n t l y s l o p i n g a r e a s . S o i l map u n i t 4 i s t h e mos t p h y s i c a l l y s u i t a b l e u n i t f o r t r a i l s and c a m p g r o u n d s . The v e g e t a t i o n c o m m u n i t i e s i n Y o h o V a l l e y w e r e d e s c r i b e d b y f i e l d o b s e r v a t i o n s r e l a t e d t o t h e s o i l i n v e n t o r y and a r e v i e w o f t h e p e r t i n e n t l i t e r a t u r e . The v e g e t a t i o n o f t h e v a l l e y was n o t mapped a s i t w i l l b e b y K u c h a r ( i n p r o g r e s s ) . The v e g e t a t i o n o f t h e a r e a was f i r s t d i v i d e d i n t o two m a j o r z o n e s a c c o r d i n g to K r a j i n a (1969): t h e A l p i n e -T u n d r a Z o n e and t h e E n g e l m a n n S p r u c e - S u b a l p i n e F i r Z o n e . T r a i l s S l i g h t l i m i t a t i o n s 1 s q . m i l e M o d e r a t e l i m i t a t i o n s 35 s q . m i l e s S e v e r e l i m i t a t i o n s 50 s q . m i l e s 153 The Alpine Zone u s u a l l y occurs above 7200 feet i n the study area. The main communities wi t h i n the zone were described; they are the heather meadow community, the mat-grassland meadow subcommunity, the mat-herbage meadow subcommunity, the snow patch community, and the 'open' community i n rock and t a l u s environments. The Spruce-Fir Zone was div i d e d i n t o two subzones: the higher e l e v a t i o n or upper subzone between 6500 - 7200 f e e t , and the lower e l e v a t i o n subzone between 4500 - 6500 f e e t . The upper zone c o n s i s t s of r e l a t i v e l y small and widely spaced tr e e s ; the understory i s predominately an ericaceous ground cover with few shrubs. The lower subzone i s t y p i f i e d by l a r g e r trees and. a dense shrubby understory c o n s i s t i n g p r i m a r i l y of menziesia and whits rhododendron. . • N - v The study area has a r e l a t i v e l y low abundance and d i v e r s i t y of w i l d l i f e species. The e x c e p t i o n a l l y steep, t e r r a i n and. high : e l e v a t i o n s l i m i t the area's c a p a b i l i t y to support most species of w i l d l i f e . Mountain goat i s the most abundant and widespread ungulate i n the v a l l e y . Although seldom seen, around 25 - 40 goats wander i n and out of the area. A small herd of around 8 - 1 5 e l k a l s o r e s i d e i n the v a l l e y during the summer. One or two moose may al s o be observed. Marten, weasels, hoary marmot, Columbian ground s q u i r r e l , golden-mantled ground s q u i r r e l , chipmunks, red s q u i r r e l , p i k a , porcupine, wood r a t , and snowshoe are some of the most common mammals of the v a l l e y . A common amphibian observed i s the western toad. Several b i r d species i n h a b i t the v a l l e y ; the Clark's nutcracker and gray j a y are most commonly seen. The v a l l e y ' s f i s h species c o n s i s t of brook, cutthroat, and rainbow t r o u t . 154 Photographs were taken on every 0 . 5 miles of t r a i l ( 0 . 2 5 miles on the main t r a i l to Laughing F a l l s ) i n order to record backcountry conditions and to inventory v i s u a l resources (as presented i n Dooling and Void 1 9 7 3 ) . Photo-points were marked so that subsequent studies could compare v i s u a l changes over time. I I I . VISITOR INVENTORY A road, campground, and. backcountry survey was conducted i n the summer of 1972 to determine the amounts and d i s t r i b u t i o n of v i s i t o r use. T r a f f i c counters were i n s t a l l e d on the Yoho V a l l e y road and c a l i b r a t e d to estimate road use (which roughly represents t o t a l use i n the study a r e a ) . The campground i n Yoho V a l l e y was v i s i t e d e a c h day t o determine campground use. T r a i l kiosk r e g i s t r a t i o n rates w e r e c a l c u l a t e d f o r backcountry use estimates. Road, campground, and backcountry use data c o l l e c t e d i n 1972 w e r e compared t o p a r k c o O e c t e d s t a t i s t i c s -to determine use l e v e l s i n 1974 and to estimate growth t r e n d s over time. ' -Approximately 7 1 , 3 0 0 v i s i t o r s entered Yoho V a l l e y by road i n 1974 ; t h i s averages out to 800 - v i s i t o r s or 250 vehicles p e r day d u r i n g : t h e . summer season of use. Nearly f o u r - f i f t h s (79%) of the v i s i t o r s were day users; day users also accounted f or two-thirds (66%) of the estimated 8 5 , 5 0 0 v i s i t o r - d a y s of use recorded f o r t h e a r e a . Road use h a s increased at the average rate of 10% per year since 1969 . Campground use i n 1974 was 6075 campers and 1 3 , 6 4 0 camper-days. Campground use increased at the average annual rate of 20 to 25% from 1968 to 1972 . Parks Canada r e s t r i c t e d campground use i n 1973 by c l o s i n g the campground when i t was considered f u l l . Campground use, consequently, has s t a b i l i z e d to 31 camper=parties of use p e r evening from J u l y to August. 155 N e a r l y t h r e e - f o u r t h s (74%) o f t h e 8,400 b a c k c o u n t r y v i s i t o r s i n 1974 w e r e day h i k e r s . Day h i k e r s r e p r e s e n t 46% o f t h e e s t i m a t e d 13,450 v i s i t o r - d a y s o f b a c k c o u n t r y use r e c o r d e d f o r t h e s t u d y a r e a . On t h e a v e r a g e , 200 v i s i t o r s p e r day c o u l d be f o u n d i n t h e b a c k c o u n t r y f r o m J u l y t o A u g u s t i n 1974. B a c k c o u n t r y use i n Yoho V a l l e y h a s i n c r e a s e d a t t h e a v e r a g e r a t e o f 20% p e r y e a r s i n c e 1965. R o a d , c a m p g r o u n d , and b a c k c o u n t r y use a l l p e a k d u r i n g weekends and h o l i d a y s i n l a t e J u l y and e a r l y A u g u s t . T h i s i s due t o t h e i n f l u x o f A l b e r t a n s l a r g e l y f r o m C a l g a r y . D e p e n d i n g o n w e a t h e r c o n d i t i o n s , S a t u r d a y use i s f r o m 50 t o 100% l a r g e r t h a n Wednesday u s e . A r o a d and b a c k c o u n t r y v i s i t o r s u r v e y was c o n d u c t e d i n 1972 t o f i n d o u t who the. v i s i t o r s were; what a t t r a c t e d there to the area; and what t h e i r p r e f e r e n c e s and o p i n i o n s f o r t h e a r e a w e r e . The o n - s i t e p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w t e c h n i q u e was c h o s e n i n s t e a d o f the m a i l - b a c k q u e s t i o n n a i r e technique .becausevisitor•• ;xnfdrmatiQn>was^'desU rred. .on s p e c i f i c matters r e l a t e d to s i t e " management:. Two hundred interviews w e r e c o n d u c t e d on the Yoho V a l l e y r o a d & a n d 1 9 3 interviews w e r e c o n d u c t e d o n b a c k c o u n t r y t r a i l s . The s u r v e y q u e s t i o n n a i r e p r o v i d e d i n f o r m a t i o n o n t h e socio -economic-demographic, c h a r a c t e r i s t c s , t r i p c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , and management p r e f e r e n c e s and o p i n i o n s o f t h e u s e r s o f Y o h o V a l l e y . S e l e c t e d d e m o g r a p h i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of road and b a c k c o u n t r y users i n 1972 we re compared w i t h t h o s e o f t h e C a n a d i a n p o p u l a t i o n i n 1971 ( s e e T a b l e 37, p . 132). Yoho V a l l e y u s e r s h a d d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y more i n c o m e and more f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n t h a n t h e C a n a d i a n p o p u l a t i o n . Yoho V a l l e y u s e r s w e r e a l s o more l i k e l y t o h a v e a ' p r o f e s s i o n a l ' o c c u p a t i o n and t o be f r o m a l a r g e c i t y o f 10,000 o r more p e o p l e . B a c k c o u n t r y u s e r s , 156 r e l a t i v e t o r o a d u s e r s , w e r e more l i k e l y t o be m a l e , t o be b e t w e e n 10 t o 39 y e a r s o l d , t o h a v e l e s s i n c o m e , t o h a v e more f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n , t o be a ' p r o f e s s i o n a l ' , t o be f r o m a l a r g e c i t y , t o be C a n a d i a n , a n d t o be A l b e r t a n . The d e m o g r a p h i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e s t u d y a r e a u s e r s were compared t o o t h e r s t u d i e s i n t h e w e s t e r n m o u n t a i n p a r k s o f C a n a d a . V a r i o u s t r i p c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f r o a d and b a c k c o u n t r y u s e r s w e r e c o m p a r e d . The m e d i a n d i s t a n c e t r a v e l l e d b y r o a d u s e r s f r o m t h e i r p l a c e o f r e s i d e n c e was 2000 m i l e s , w h i l e i t was h a l f t h a t o r 1000 m i l e s f o r b a c k c o u n t r y u s e r s . A v e r a g e p a r t y s i z e o f b a c k c o u n t r y u s e r s was 2 . 8 o r s l i g h t l y l o w e r , t h a n t h e 3 . 1 a v e r a g e s i z e o f r o a d u s e r s . The a v e r a g e l e n g t h o f s t a y o f b a c k c o u n t r y u s e r s was 1.4 days o r s l i g h t l y more t h a n t h e 1.2 day a v e r a g e o f r o a d u s e r s . Most r o a d u s e r s (65%) s p e n t l e s s t h a n two h o u r s i n t h e s t u d y a r e a , w h i l e h i k e r s more o f t e n s p e n t (46%) b e t w e e n f i v e and t w e l v e h o u r s i n t h e a r e a . N o t s u r p r i s i n g l y t h e n , t h e a v e r a g e b a c k c o u n t r y u s e r engaged i n moire a c t i v i t i e s than, t h e a v e r a g e r o a d u s e r ( i . e . n a t u r e s t u d y , c l i m b i n g , f i s h i n g ) . The e x p r e s s e d t r i p d e s t i n a t i o n of most (60%) i n t e r v i e w e d r o a d u s e r s was t h e m o u n t a i n n a t i o n a l p a r k s o f C a n a d a . O n l y 5.5% o f t he r e s p o n d a n t s s a i d t h a t Y o h o V a l l e y was t h e o v e r a l l t r i p d e s t i n a t i o n o f t h e i r v a c a t i o n . The p e r c e n t a g e o f f i r s t t i m e v i s i t o r s t o t h e s t u d y a r e a was i d e n t i c a l f o r b o t h r o a d and b a c k c o u n t r y u s e r s (72%). Yoho V a l l e y was s e l e c t e d b y 35% o f t h e r o a d u s e r s b e c a u s e t h e y w e r e p a s s i n g t h r o u g h Yoho N a t i o n a l P a r k a n d d e c i d e d t o s e e t h e v a l l e y . B a c k c o u n t r y u s e r s more o f t e n s a i d t h e y came b e c a u s e t h e s t u d y a r e a was recommended t o them o r b e c a u s e o f wha t t h e y r e a d a b o u t t h e a r e a . M o s t (63%) r o a d u s e r s t o t h e s t u d y a r e a w e r e day v i s i t o r s t o Yoho P a r k ; h o w e v e r 15% o f t h o s e s a m p l e d d i d s p e n d a t l e a s t one n i g h t i n Takakkaw F a l l s c a m p g r o u n d . 157 O v e r 90% o f t h e s a m p l e d b a c k c o u n t r y u s e r s h i k e d t h e f i v e m i l e r o u n d t r i p d i s t a n c e t o L a u g h i n g F a l l s , w h i l e o v e r h a l f v i e w e d T w i n F a l l s f r o m t h e t e a h o u s e ( a t e n m i l e r o u n d t r i p h i k e ) . O v e r t w o - t h i r d s (68%) o f t h e o v e r n i g h t b a c k c o u n t r y use was s p e n t c a m p i n g , w h i l e 32% was s p e n t e i t h e r i n t h e T w i n F a l l s t e a h o u s e (18%) o r i n t h e A . C . C . h u t (14%). L i t t l e Y o h o V a l l e y r e c e i v e d t h e l a r g e s t p e r c e n t a g e (36%) o f o v e r n i g h t b a c k -c o u n t r y u s e . When a s k e d wha t t h e y e s p e c i a l l y l i k e d a b o u t t h e i r v i s i t t o Yoho P a r k , r o a d u s e r s mos t o f t e n s a i d t h e s c e n e r y (35%) o r Takakkaw F a l l s (28%) . O v e r t w o - t h i r d s (68%) s a i d t h e r e was n o t h i n g a t a l l t h a t t h e y d i s l i k e d a b o u t t h e i r p a r k e x p e r i e n c e . When a s k e d wha t t h e y l i k e d a b o u t t h e i r b a c k c o u n t r y v i s i t , h i k e r s also often said: the " b e a u t i f u l scenexy'1 (32%) o r t h e w a t e r f a l l s (31%) . N e a r l y h a l f (46%) o f t h e b a c k c o u n t r y u s e r s c o u l d t h i n k o f n o t h i n g . t h a t t h e y d i s l i k e d a b o u t t h e i r b a c k c o u n t r y v i s i t . This i n d i c a t e s a f a i r l y high l e v e l o f s a t i s f a c t i o n by both, v i s i t o r groups* When asked what type of r o a d condition, tbey p r e f e r r e d f o r Yoho V a l l e y j n e a r l y t h r e e - f o u r t h s (74%) o f t h e road users said: a g r a v e l road 3 while o n l y o n e - f o u r t h (25%) d e s i r e d a p a v e d r o a d . B a c k c o u n t r y u s e r s w e r e e v e n more i n f a v o r (84%) o f a g r a v e l r o a d versus a. paved; r o a d (11%) » A g r a v e l r o a d c o n d i t i o n was a p p a r e n t l y p r e f e r r e d by the u s e r s b e c a u s e t h e y f e l t t h a t t h e e x i s t i n g g r a v e l r o a d s e t a ' p r i m i t i v e ' t o n e f o r t h e s t u d y a r e a and t h e y were a f r a i d t h a t a p a v e d r o a d w o u l d c a u s e o v e r c r o w d i n g b y a t t r a c t i n g more p e o p l e t o t h e a r e a . P r e s e r v i n g t h e n a t u r a l e n v i r o n m e n t ( w i l d l i f e a n d v e g e t a t i o n ) o f p a r k s was p e r c e i v e d b y b o t h r o a d and b a c k c o u n t r y u s e r s as b e i n g t h e mos t i m p o r t a n t c r i t e r i o n ( e v e n g r e a t e r t h a n u s e r s a f e t y ) t o c o n s i d e r b e f o r e c o n s t r u c t i n g o r m a i n t a i n i n g n a t i o n a l p a r k r o a d s . 158 Although s e v e r a l p o s s i b l e backcountry m o d i f i c a t i o n s were shown on the questionnaire form to h i k e r s , a l l were r e j e c t e d by most back-country users. Nearly 40% of the users f e l t that the Yoho V a l l e y backcountry was f i n e as i t was and should not change. Changes that r e c e i v e d the most support r e l a t e d to the hikers need f o r more and b e t t e r backcountry information. , • • .. Most (56%) h i k e r s d i d not f e e l the int e r v i e w l o c a t i o n i n the backcountry represented a 'wilderness experience' f o r thera; 'too many people encountered' was the most o f t e n expressed reason* Of the 44% of the h i k e r s who d i d f e e l they were i n wilderness, most f e l t the wilderness began r i g h t away as they s t a r t e d on the t r a i l and l e f t the road.. The median d i s t a n c e a t which wild&rraess began • was-...fpp.ra^mately;.. f i v e m i l e s . Most interviewed h i k e r s r e l a t e d the concept of wilderness to the r e l a t i v e l a c k of people or man~rela,ted disturbances r a t h e r than to p a r t i c u l a r q u a l i t i e s i n the natural, environment.. • The median years of previous'backc©.iatttry h i k l a g experlEe^xeet foi?\ interviewed h i k e r s was f i v e y e a r s . .Approximately 12%. had. no. previous, years' experience. When asked who introduced them to backcountry h i k i n g 44% i d e n t i f i e d a member of the f a m i l y l i k e : parent,, spouse, o r other r e l a t i v e . A l i m i t e d number of road users who had camped at Takakkaw F a l l s campground were asked questions related, to t h e i r campground experiences i n the study area. Most campers e s p e c i a l l y l i k e d that the campground was c l o s e to Takakkaw F a l l s and was not overcrowded. No s i n g l e l i s t e d p o s s i b l e campground 'improvement' on the questionnaire form r e c e i v e d any s i z e a b l e support. Most respondants (52%) p r e f e r r e d to see the campground area remain j u s t as p r i m i t i v e as i t was during t h e i r v i s i t ; .159 a r o u n d 41% p r e f e r r e d t o s e e t h e a r e a e v e n more p r i m i t i v e ; w h i l e o n l y 7% w a n t e d t h e a r e a more d e v e l o p e d . I V . MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS B i o p h y s i c a l , h i s t o r i c a l , a r c h a e o l o g i c a l , and a e s t h e t i c d a t a p e r t a i n i n g t o p a r k a r e a s a s w e l l a s u s e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and p r e f e r e n c e s f o r m t h e r e q u i r e d i n f o r m a t i o n b a s e u p o n w h i c h p l a n n e r s s h o u l d f o r m u l a t e management d e c i s i o n s . Management p h i l o s o p h y a l s o a f f e c t s t h e d i r e c t i o n o f t h e d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s . I n c h a p t e r f o u r , two management p r o p o s a l s were d i s c u s s e d : 1) t h a t t h e Takakkaw F a l l s campground be r e l o c a t e d , and 2) t h a t a new t r a i l be c o n s t r u c t e d t o F a i r y L a k e . A n a l y s i s o f t h e campground and t r a i l proposals b r o u g h t s e v e r a l i n f o r m a t i o n d e f i c i e n c i e s i n t o f o c u s . V i s i t o r survey q u e s t i o n s were n o t f o c u s e d s p e c i f i c a l l y on t h e s e management p r o p o s a l s . F o r b o t h campground s i t e s and the p r o p o s e d t r a i l r o u t e , microclimatic and.macroclimatic i n f o r m a t i o n was l a c k i n g ; i n f o r m a t i o n p e r t a i n i n g t o t o l e r a n c e o f v e g e t a t i o n t o u s e i n t h e s e l o c a t i o n s i s s p a r s e ; f i n a l l y , parameters of w i l d l i f e e c o l o g y h a v e n o t b e e n i d e n t i f i e d i n t h e s e a r e a s . A l t h o u g h some d a t a i s l a c k i n g , i t i s p o s s i b l e t o f o r m u l a t e d e c i s i o n s b a s e d o n t h e i n f o r m a t i o n a v a i l a b l e . S o i l d e v e l o p m e n t r e f l e c t s , i n p a r t , c l i m a t i c c o n d i t i o n s , and s o i l p r o p e r t i e s may be i n t e g r a l l y r e l a t e d t o t h e a b i l i t y o f v e g e t a t i o n t o w i t h s t a n d u s e . I n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f s o i l s d a t a p r e s e n t e d i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e p a r k p r o p o s e d campground was l e s s p h y s i c a l l y s u i t e d f o r u s e t h a n t h e p r e s e n t s i t e . A n a l y s i s o f s o i l s i n f o r m a t i o n i n t h e F a i r y L a k e a r e a r e v e a l e d s e v e r e l i m i t a t i o n s f o r b o t h t r a i l and p r i m i t i v e campground c o n s t r u c t i o n and u s e . 160 V i s i t o r s u r v e y i n f o r m a t i o n i n d i c a t e s , by i n f e r e n c e , t h a t most b a c k c o u n t r y u s e r s w o u l d p r o b a b l y p r e f e r t h a t no new t r a i l s be b u i l t i n Yoho V a l l e y . No s t r o n g p r e f e r e n c e f o r r e l o c a t i n g t h e campground was i n d i c a t e d b y t h e l i m i t e d number o f campground u s e r s i n t e r v i e w e d . T h u s , on t h e b a s i s o f t h e l i m i t e d b i o p h y s i c a l and v i s i t o r u s e i n f o r m a t i o n p r e s e n t e d , i t was recommended t h a t no t r a i l be b u i l t t o F a i r y L a k e a n d t h a t t h e Takakkaw F a l l s campground n o t be r e l o c a t e d . LITERATURE CITED Aandahl, A.R. 1958. So i l Survey Interpretations: Theory and Purpose. Soi l Sci. Soc. Amer. Proc. 22: 152-154. Aitken, J.D. 1966. Middle Cambrian to Middle Ordovician Cyclic Sedimentation, Southern Rocky Mountains of Alberta. Bull. Can. Pet. Geol. 14 (4): 405-444. Aitken, J.D. 1971. Control of Lower Paleozoic Sedimentary Facies by the Kicking Horse Rim, Southern Rocky Mountains, Canada. Bull. Can. Pet. Geol. 19 (3): 557-569. Aitken, J.D. and R.G. Greggs. 1967. Upper Cambrian Formations, Southern Rocky Mountains of Alberta - Interim Report. Geol. Surv. Can. Paper 66-49. Queen's Printer. Ottawa. 91 p. Allan, J.A. 1914. Geology of Field Map-area, B.C. and Alberta. Geol. Surv. 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Wilderness Users in the Pacific Northwest - Their Characteristics, Values, and Management Preferences. U.S.D.A. For. Serv. Res. Paper PNW-61. Portland, Oregon. 92 p. Heusser, C. 1956. Postglacial environments in the Canadian Rocky Mountains. Ecol. Monogr. 26 (4): 263-302. Hitchcock, CL. and A. Cronquist. 1973. Flora of the Pacific Northwest. Univ. Wash. Press. Seattle, Wash. 730 p. James, CA. 1974. Physical Site Management. In Outdoor Recreation Research: Applying the Results. U.S.D.A. For. Serv. Gen. Tech. Report NC-9. St. Paul, Minn. pp. 67-82. James, CA. and H.T. Schreuder. 1972. Estimating Dispersed Recreation Use Along Trails and in General Undeveloped Areas with Electric-Eye Counters: Some Preliminary Findings. U.S.D.A. For. Serv. Res. Note SE-181. Asheville, N.C 8 p. Knapik, L. and G. Coen. 1974. Detailed Soil Survey of the Mount Revelstoke Summit Area. Alta. Inst. Ped. Rep. No. M-74-3. Edmonton, Alta. 118 p. Krajina, V.J. 1969. Ecology of Western North America Vol. 2, No. 1. Dept. Bot., U.B.C Vancouver, B.C. 147 p. Kuchar, P. in progress. The Vegetation of Yoho National Park. Parks Canada report. Calgary, Alta. Lacate, D.S. 1969. Guidelines for Bio-Physical Land Classification. Can. For. Serv. Publ. No . 1264. Queen's Printer. Ottawa. 61 p. Landals, M. and G. Scotter. 1973. Visitor Impact on Meadows Near Lake O'Hara, Yoho National Park. Can. Wild. Serv. report. Edmonton, Alta. 184 p. Lawrence, J.J. and Y. Hiratsuka. 1972. Forest Fungi Collected in Yoho National Park, British Columbia. Can. For. Serv. Info. Report NOR-X-27. No. For. Res. Centre. Edmonton, Alta. 8 p. Lesko, CL. 1973. A Preliminary Site Capability Rating System for Camp-ground Use in Alberta. Can. For. Serv. Info. Rep. NOR-X-45. No. For. Res. Centre. Edmonton, Alta. 16 p. Lewis, F.J. 1917. Vegetation Distribution in the Rocky Mountains Park. Can. Alpine Jour. 8: 87-95. 165 Litton, R.B., Jr. 1968. Forest Landscape Description and Inventories -A Basis for Land Planning and Design. U.S.D.A. For. Serv. Res. Paper PSW-49. Berkeley, Calif. 64 p. Litton, R.B., Jr. 1973. Landscape Control Points: A Procedure for Predicting and Monitoring Visual Impacts. U.S.D.A. For. Serv. Res. Paper PSW-91. Berkeley, Calif. 22 p. Lockwood, D. 1970. National Park Campgrounds 1969: Statistics on Use and Users - A Planning Reference. Parks Canada report. Ottawa. 223 p. Lothian, W.F. 1969. Yoho National Park: A Brief Historical Outline. Yoho National Park paper. Field, B.C. 18 p. Loy, T.H. 1972. Archaelogical Survey of Yoho National Park: 1971. Parks Canada report. Ottawa. 163 p* Lucas, R.C. and J.L. Oltman. 1971. Survey Sampling Wilderness Visitors. Jour. Leis. Res. 3 (1): 28-43. Lucas, R.C, H.T. Schreuder, and G.A. James. 1971. Wilderness Use Estimation: A Pilot Text of Sampling Procedures on the Mission Mountains Primitive Area. U.S.D.A. For. Serv. Res. Paper INT-109. Ogden, Utah. 44 p. Lull, H.W. 1959. Soil Compaction on Forest and Range Lands. U.S.D.A. For. Serv. Misc. Paper 768. Washington, D.C. 33 p. Magill, A. 1970. Five California Campgrounds Conditions Improve After Five Years' Recreational Use. U.S.D.A. For. Serv. Res. Paper PSW-62. Berkeley, Calif. 18 p. Magill, A. and E. Nord. 1963. An Evaluation of Campground Conditions and Needs for Research. U.S.D.A. For. Serv. Res. Note PSW-4. Berkeley, Calif. 8 p. Magill, A. and R.H. Twiss. 1965. A Guide for Recording Esthetic and Biologic Changes with Photographs. U.S.D.A. For. Serv. Res. Note PSW-77. Berkeley, Calif. 7 p. McPherson, H.J. 1970. Landforms and Glacial History of the Upper North Saskatchewan Valley, Alberta, Canada. Can. Geog. 14 (1): 10-26. Meeuwig, R.O. 1971. Soil Stability on High Elevation Rangeland in the Inter-Mountain Area. U.S.D.A. For. Res. Paper INT-94. Ogden, Utah. 10 p. Merriam, L.C., Jr. and R.B. Ammons. 1967. The Wilderness User in Three Montana Areas. Sch. For., Univ. Minn. St. Paul, Minn. 54 p. 166 Montgomery. P.H. and F.C. Edminster. 1966. Use of Soil Surveys in Planning for Recreation. In Soil Surveys and Land Use Planning, Bartelli, L.J. et al (ed.). Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. and Amer. Soc. Agron. p. 104-112. Moss, E.H. 1955. The Vegetation of Alberta. Bot. Rev. 21: 493-567. Mudry, D. in progress. Limnological Study of Yoho National Park. Can. Wild. Serv. report. Calgary, Alta. Munsell Soil Color Charts. 1954. Munsell Color Co. Inc. Baltimore, Md. Nagy, J.A.S. and G.W. Scotter. 1973. Some Implications of Wilderness Recreation in Waterton Lakes National Park. Can. Wild. Serv. report. Edmonton, Alta. 175 p. Nagy, J.A.S. and G.W. Scotter. 1974. A Survey of Visitor Use in Back-country Areas of Waterton Lakes National Park. Can. Wild. Serv. report. Edmonton, Alta. 60 p. Ogilvie, R.T. 1962. Notes on Plaint Distribution in the Rocky Mountains of Alberta. Can. Jour. Bot. 40: 1091-1094. Ogilvie, R.T. 1967. Ecology of Vegetation in Banff National Park. Dept. Biol., Univ. Calgary paper. Calgary, Alta. 21 p. Outdoor Recreation Resources Review Commission. 1962. Wilderness and Recreation - A Report on Resources, Values, and Problems. Wildland Research Center Study Report No. 3. U.S. Gov't. Print. Office. Washington, D.C. 352 p. Ovanin, T.K. 1972. Introduction to Some of the Physical Effects of Non-Motorized Wildland Recreation on Soil, Water, and Vegetation - A Literature Review. Graduate Studies paper, Fac. For., U.B.C. | Vancouver, B.C. 80 p. Pettapiece, W.W. 1971. Land Classification and Soils in the Rocky Mountains of Alberta along the North Saskatchewan River Valley. Alta. Inst. Ped. Report #S=71=31. Edmonton, Alta. 39 p. Potter, D.R., K.M. Sharpe, J.C. Hendee, and R.N. Clark. 1972. Question-naires for Research: An Annotated Bibliography on Design, Construction and Use. U.S.D.A. For. Serv. Res. Paper PNW-140. Portland, Oregon. 80 p. Potter, D.R. and J.A. Wagar. 1971. Technique for Inventorying Manmade Impacts in Roadway Environments. U.S.D.A. For. Serv. Res. Paper PNW-121. Portland, Oregon. 12 p. Root, J. and L. Knapik. 1972. Trail Conditions Along a Portion of the Great Divide Trail Route, Alberta and British Columbia, Rocky Mountains. Can. Wild. Serv. report. Edmonton, Alta. 40 p. 167 R u t t e r , N.W. 1972. Geomorphology and M u l t i p l e G l a c i a t i o n o f the Area o f Banff, A l b e r t a . Geol. Surv. Can. B u l l . 206. Queen's P r i n t e r . , Ottawa. 54 p. S e l l t i z , C., M. Jahoda, M. Deutsch, and S.W. Cook. 1959. Research Methods i n S o c i a l R e l a t i o n s . H o l t , R i n e h a r t , and Winston. N.Y., N.Y. 622 p. Schulz, F.H. 1953. A L i m n o l o g i c a l Study of Lake and Streams i n Yoho N a t i o n a l Park. Parks Canada r e p o r t . C a l g a r y , A l t a . 80 p. Shafer, E.L., J r . and J.F. Hamilton, J r . 1969. A Comparison of Four Survey Techniques Used i n Outdoor R e c r e a t i o n Research. U.S.D.A. For. Serv. Res. Paper NE-86. Upper Darby, Pa. 22 p. Shafer, E.L., J r . , and J . M i e t z . 1969. A e s t h e t i c and Emotional Experiences Rate High w i t h Northeast Wilderness H i k e r s . E n v i r o n , and Behavior 1 ( 2 ) : 187-197. Shafer, E.L., J r . , and J . M i e t z . 1970. I t Seems P o s s i b l e t o Quantify Scenic Beauty i n Photographs. U.S.D.A. For. Serv. Res. Paper NE-162. Upper Darby, Pa. 12 p. Smith, G.J. 1973. F o r e s t I n s e c t s and Diseases i n Yoho N a t i o n a l Park, 1972. In F o r e s t I n s e c t s and Diseases i n Nine o f the Western Canadian N a t i o n a l P arks, 1972. P a t t e r s o n , V.B. e t a l . Can. For. Serv. I n f o . Rep. N0R-X-62. No. For. Res. Centre. Edmonton, A l t a . p. 20-21. Snyder, R.V. and J.M. Wade. 1970. Mt. Baker N a t i o n a l F o r e s t S o i l Resource Inventory. U.S.D.A. For. Serv., Pac. NW Reg., Washington. 267 p. Soper, J.D. 1970. The Mammals of Jasper N a t i o n a l Park, A l b e r t a . Can. Wi l d . Serv. Report S e r i e s No. 10. Queen's P r i n t e r . Ottawa. 80 p. S t a l k e r , A.M. 1958. S u r f i c i a l Geology, Fo r t McLeod, A l b e r t a . Geol. Surv. Can. Map 21-1958. S t a l k e r , A.M. 1961. S u r f i c i a l Geology, F e r n i e , B.C. Geol. Surv. Can. Map 31-1961. Stankey, G.H. 1970. An Appeal f o r Uniform Income Ca t e g o r i e s i n Outdoor Re c r e a t i o n S t u d i e s . Jour. L e i s . Res. 2 ( 1 ) : 88. Stevens, M.E. 1966. S o i l Surveys as A p p l i e d to R e c r e a t i o n S i t e P l a n n i n g . Jour. For. 64: 314-316. ;' 168 T h o r s e l l , J.W. 1967. Wilderness R e c r e a t i o n a l Use, Waterton Lakes N a t i o n a l Park, 1966, P a r t I I . Parks Canada, P l a n n i n g D i v . , Rec. Research Report 24. Ottawa. 57 p. T h o r s e l l , J.W. 1968a. A T r a i l Use Survey: Banff and Yoho N a t i o n a l Parks, 1967. Parks Canada, P l a n n i n g D i v . , Rec. Res. Report 33. Ottawa. 41 p. T h o r s e l l , J.W. 1968b. 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Div. E n v i r o n . Engin. and Food P r o t . , Spec. Engin. Serv. Br. Washington, D.C. 134 p. United S t a t e s Department of A g r i c u l t u r e , S o i l Conservation S e r v i c e . 1967. S o i l S u i t a b i l i t y f o r Land Use P l a n n i n g i n Maine. Maine Agr. Exp. S t a . , Misc. P u b l . 667. 77 p. Ward, J.C. 1974. The Fi s h e s and T h e i r D i s t r i b u t i o n i n the Mountain N a t i o n a l Parks of Canada. Can. W i l d . Serv. r e p o r t . Calgary, A l t a . 41 p. Wenger, W.D., J r . 1964. A Test of Unmanned R e g i s t r a t i o n S t a t i o n s on Wilderness T r a i l s : F a c t o r s I n f l u e n c i n g E f f e c t i v e n e s s . U.S.D.A. For. Serv. Res. Paper PNW-16. P o r t l a n d , Oregon. 48 p. Wenger, W.D., J r . and H.M. Gregersen. 1964. The E f f e c t s of Nonresponse on Representiveness of Wilderness - T r a i l R e g i s t e r Information. U.S.D.A. For. Serv. Res. Paper PNW-17. P o r t l a n d , Oregon. 20 p. Yoho N a t i o n a l Park S t a f f . 1972a. Geology Map of Yoho N a t i o n a l Park. Yoho N a t i o n a l Park map. F i e l d , B.C. Yoho N a t i o n a l Park S t a f f . 1972b. Human H i s t o r y of Yoho N a t i o n a l Park. Yoho N a t i o n a l Park r e p o r t . F i e l d , B.C. 7 v o l . Yoho N a t i o n a l Park S t a f f . 1972c. Park Comments and P r o p o s a l s : Yoho V a l l e y . Yoho N a t i o n a l Park r e p o r t . F i e l d , B.C. 9 p. APPENDIX I I : YOHO VALLEY ROAD AND BACKCOUNTRY USER SURVEY FORMS 170 The University of B r i t i s h Columbia Faculty of Forestry Park and Forest Recreation Research Program Yoho Valley Road User Survey, 1972 Road Tr a v e l S e c t i o n Code Column 1. a. Did you drive to Takakkaw Falls? Yes _____ No • b. i f yes. did you find the condition of the Yoho Valley Road to be: adequate inadequate c. I f no, what made you turn around before reaching the Falls? (1) not enough time . (2) switchbacks ' (3) condition of road (4) not that interested (5) other (specify) 2. Should this road be: Yes No (1) l e f t i n i t s present condition ; (2) s l i g h t l y upgraded ______ (3) paved ' • ' ' . (4) paved and widened 3. a. What, i f anythrngr'was-there on or along this park road that you thought was disturbing or unpleasant? . b. What did you find most attractive on or along this road? 4. Rank what you f e e l to be-the most important c r i t e r i a to road location and construction i n national parks (most important =» 1; least important =5). (1) 'cost (2) safety (3.)._quick travel • •: (4.) _affect on w i l d l i f e • (5) .affect on vegetation ' (6) . .Cither (specify) " • . 5. Any other comments, and criticisms on the Yoho Valley Road? 171 Yoho Valley Road User Survey, 1972 6. a. Had you heard of this road to Takakkaw Fal l s before arriving i n the park? ,, », c Yes No b. I f so, how? ' .' . c. What type of road condition did you expect? (1) paved (2) gravel (3) other C o d e C o l u m n General Section 7. a. Have you vis i t e d Yoho National park i n the past? Yes No b. i f so, how often? . . . _ 8. Why did you select this area? . ', , .  9. What I:.~.ve you enjoyed most during your v i s i t to Yoho National Park? 10. Has there been anything you disliked about your v i s i t here? 11. What i s your destination for this trip? 12. Last evening, what type of accomodation were you staying in? (1) campground . _____ (4) other (2) hotel or motel (3)' staff or private home (5) not staying i n Yoho Park A c t i v i t y and Preference Section (to terminus user group only) 13. a. How long were you i n the Takakkaw Falls/Yoho Valley area? b. How long had'you intended to stay i n the area? .  c. What factor (s) limited/extended your anticipated stay i n the area? 14. a. What were your expectations for. the Takakkaw F a l l s area? b. Were these expectations f u l f i l l e d ? 15. What recreational a c t i v i t i e s did you engage i n while i n the Takakkaw Falls/Yoho Valley area? • (1) viewing scenic beauty (6) hiking ( t r a i l use) (2) fishing (7) climbing _ (3) camping (8) nature study (4) swimming (9) painting & sketching . (5) photography (10) rest and relaxation (11) other (specify) 16. a. Did you co hiking while i n the area? Yes ______ No b. I f yes, where did you hike from and to? 172 Yoho Valley Road User Survey, 1972 Code Column c. How long were you out hiking? (specify) •  d. How did you find the condition of the t r a i l s ? (specify i n each zone) i . I f no, why didn't you hike i n the area? 17. a. i f camping, what type of equipment did you bring? (1) tent <4) camper (2) house t r a i l e r , (5) other (3) tent t r a i l e r b. Did you camp i n either the Kicking Horse Campground or Takakkaw F a l l s Campground? • - • : - • - , c. What did you l i k e best about camping here? (1) f a c i l i t i e s . (6) area well maintained (2) not overcrowded (7) affords privacy (3) close to F a l l s (8) only area available (4) shade (9) well serviced (5) close to access road (10) other (specify) . d. What do you think could be done to make this a better camping area? (1) sewer hookups (6) flush t o i l e t s (2) e l e c t r i c i t y & water (7) shower bldg. (3) additional t o i l e t bldgs. (8) more picnic tables (4) keep grounds cleaner (9) campground re-design (5) more shade (10) other (specify) e. What type of campground, i f any, could you envision for the Takakkaw Fa l l s area? • f. Was your day use of this area dependent upon the provision of overnight accomodation? .  18. a. Did you see any w i l d l i f e on your t r i p here? b. What did you see (be specific as you can). 19, Did you notice any unusual vegetation conditions within Takakkaw Campground? ****Thank you for your cooperation **** Notes: Date: Hour Place Weather No. i n vehicle: Male Female License Remarks: 173 The University of Br i t i s h Columbia Faculty of Forestry Park and Forest Recreation Research Program Yoho Valley Backcountry Questionnaire, 1972 1. a. When did you enter the backcountry? Date b. When do you expect to leave? Date Time. Time am pm am . pra 2. a. What are the number or numbers of zones that you have''visited* on this backcountry trip? __ ; .. . • , —— b. What are the number or numbers of zones that you plan to v i s i t on this backcountry trip? • : ... 3. a. If you have spent the night in the backcountry, name' the places you have camped and the number of nights spent at".each place. b. Now name the places you'plan to camp and the number of. nights.-planned for each place. . .. Code Column 4. a. What have you especially likefj so far about this backcountry t r i p (specify In zone)? -h. What have you especially disliked? . 5 . a. Is this location a wilderness experience for you.now? b. If yea» why? • :  . c. If no, why? • : •"• - • • d. Where, i f at a l l , did the wilderness experience begin for you? . e. What does wilderness mean to you? 174 Yoho Backcountry Questionnaire, 1972 f. In your opinion, what are the most important factors to enjoying a wilderness experience? Be specific. _ 6. a. Have you been in this backcountry area before? b. Why did you come to this backcountry area? 7. a. Was this backcountry area different from what you had expected? b. If yes, how? 8. In your opinion, what changes, i f any, ought to be considered for this backcountry area? (1) wider t r a i l s i (6) t r a i l improvements (2) primitive campgrounds (7) more iraterpretive signs (3) more primitive shelters (8) primitive road (4) more concessions (tea huts) -.. • (9) other (specify) (5) more directional signs ____ 9. a, .Have you had any previous backcountry experience? b. How many years? a  c. With whom did you go on your f i r s t backcountry hike? 10, Which of the following a c t i v i t i e s do you plan on engaging i n during this backcountry trip? (1) viewing scenic beauty (2) fishing (3) camping (4) swimming (5) photography 11. a. Did you see any w i l d l i f e on your t r i p here? b. What did you see? 12. Did you notice any unusual or disturbing vegetation conditions on this trip? ;  Code Column (6) hiking ( t r a i l use) (7) climbing (8) nature study (9) painting and sketching (10) other (specify) 13. What are your feelings about ray interviewing you? 175 Yoho Backcountry Questionnaire, 1972 Code Road T r a v e l S e c t i o n Column 14. Did you f i n d the c o n d i t i o n o f the Yoho V a l l e y Road to be: adequate • or inadequate ________ 15. Should t h i s road be Yes No (1) l e f t i n i t s present c o n d i t i o n . (2) s l i g h t l y upgraded (3) paved . (4) paved and widened 16. a. What, i f anything, was there on or along t h i s park road that you f e l t was d i s t u r b i n g or unpleasant? b. What d i d you f i n d most a t t r a c t i v e on or along t h i s road? 17. Rank what you f e e l t o be the most important c r i t e r i a t o road l o c a t i o n and c o n s t r u c t i o n i n n a t i o n a l parks (most important = 1; l e a s t important = 5). (1) cost (4) a f f e c t on w i l d l i f e (2) s a f e t y , (5) a f f e c t on vegetation _____ (3) quick t r a v e l (6) other (specify) 18. Any other comments or c r i t i c i s m s on the Yoho V a l l e y Road? **** Thank you f o r your cooperation **** Notest Date: ' Hour: . . Place: Weather No. i n party: , Male: Female: Method o f t r a v e l : Hiking R i d i n g No. o f saddle animals No. o f pack animals Equipment Remarks 176 PARK AND FOREST RECREATION RESEARCH PROGRAM UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA SURVEY OF THE SOCIOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF VISITORS TO YOHO VALLEY, 1972 INTERVIEW CODE NO. Please complete now and return to the interviewer. Be assured that a l l material i n this questionnaire w i l l be STRICTLY CONFIDENTIAL. Most questions of this section are Name of sample person: provided with checktype questions. Read the questions carefully, then mark an "X" opposite the most Present mailing address: accurate answer. 1. Your sex 1) Male 5. Which best describes the total* "annual 2) Female income of this family during'"the year „ of .1971. This includes wages and salaries. 2. Your age of l a s t birthday. business p r o f i t s , net farm-income, 1) under 20 5) 50 - 59 pensions, rents, and any other money 2) 20 - 29 6) 60 - 69 received by the members of tliis family. 3) 30 - 39 7) 70 and over 1) under $1,000 4) 40 - 49 2) $1,000 - $2,999 3) $3,000 - $5,999 3. What does the "head of the party" 4) $6,000 - $7,999 do for a living? 5) $8,000 - $9,999 6) $10,000 - $14,999 occupation - type of industry 7) $15,000 and over (please be specific) 4. Which below best describes the 6. Is your present residence: education of the head of the party. (choose one) 1) On a ffirm 1) Never attended school 2) on rural non-farm acreage 2) Kindergarten 3) In a town less than 1,000 3) Elementary school 1 4) In a town 1,000 - 2,5000 C) In a c i t y 2,500 - 10,000 • 6) In a c i t y 10,000 - 50,000 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 7) In a c i t y 50,000 - 250,000 8) In a big c i t y 250,000 - 1 mUlicn 9) In a metropolis (over 1 million) 4) High School 1 2 3 4 5) University 1 2 3 4 PLEASE COMPLETE _ — REVERSE SIDE 5 6 or more 177 7. What i s the approximate distance from your present residence to this stop? 1) 0 - 100 miles 2) 101 - 300 3) 301 - 600 4) 601 - 1,000 5) 1,001 - 2,000 6) over 2,000 Which of the following best describes the group i n this vehicle? 1) one person alone 2) one family with children 3) two or more families with children 4) organized group (tea», club, etc.) 5) one couple only 6) two or more couples 7) group of friends 8) other (specify) Please indicate the ages of the members of your group under the following categories. Number .0 - 9 Years Number 1 0 - 1 9 Number 2 0 - 2 9 Number 3 0 - 3 9 Number 4 0 - 4 9 Number 5 0 - 5 9 Number 6 0 - 6 9 Number 70 and over Comments: * YOUR COOPERATION IN THIS SURVEY IS APPRECIATED * THANK YOU 

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