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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Du Plaisir as theoretician and practitioner of the novel form Hunter, Ellen Janet 1974

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DU PLAISIR AS THEORETICIAN AND  PRACTITIONER  OP THE NOVEL FORM by  ELLEN JANET HUNTER B . A . , ' U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1968  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL'FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY  i n the Department of FRENCH  We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming t o the r e q u i r e d standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA December, 1974  P_F,  In presenting this thesis  in partial  fulfilment of the requirements for  an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this  thesis  for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representatives.  It  is understood that copying or publication  of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission.  Department of  FRENCH  The University of B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada  Date  20 December 1974  £  Supervisor:  Dr. H a r o l d C. Knutson  ABSTRACT T h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n seeks t o a n a l y z e two works by the 1 7 t h - c e n t u r y French w r i t e r , Du P l a i s i r , and t o d e f i n e t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p t o each o t h e r . through the c r i t i c a l  By v i e w i n g L a Duchesse d'Estramene  t h e o r y of i t s author as expressed i n Les  Sentimens s u r l e s L e t t r e s . we a r e a b l e t o come t o terms w i t h Du P l a i s i r ' s f o r m a l d e f i n i t i o n of the p e t i t roman, nouveau roman or n o u v e l l e as he c o n c e i v e d i t .  Because the e n t i r e  l i t e r a r y p r o d u c t i o n a t t r i b u t e d t o Du P l a i s i r c o n s i s t s s o l e l y of  these two s h o r t t e x t s , the f a c t t h a t the one a n a l y z e s the  s a l i e n t f e a t u r e s of the o t h e r i s s t r o n g l y a c c e n t u a t e d .  Although  the p r e s e n t study devoted more a t t e n t i o n t o the s t r u c t u r a l a n a l y s i s o f La Duchesse d'Bstramene than t o the  Sentimens....  the l a t t e r work i s c o n s i d e r e d as a h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t r e f e r e n c e . T h i s study i s d i v i d e d i n t o two major s e c t i o n s . I i s e n t i t l e d The Sentimens s u r 1 ' H i s t o i r e : a n a l y s i s of the c r e a t i v e p r o c e s s .  Section  an a u t h o r ' s  The f i r s t c h a p t e r of t h i s  s e c t i o n i s devoted t o the background t o the study of the Sentimens...;  Du P l a i s i r ' s t r e a t i s e i s c o n s i d e r e d i n the p e r -  s p e c t i v e of the r i s e of the p e t i t roman i n seventeenth-century France, and seen t o share many s i m i l a r i t i e s w i t h the content of  t h e o r e t i c a l works on the n o v e l w r i t t e n contemporaneously  to  it.  The second c h a p t e r of t h i s f i r s t s e c t i o n concerns  Du  P l a i s i r ' s t h e o r y of the a n t i - n o v e l as presented i n P a r t I I of the Sentimens....  I n p a r t i c u l a r , he condemns the  voluminous  and r a m b l i n g h e r o i c n o v e l s w r i t t e n a t the b e g i n n i n g of the  ii s e v e n t e e n t h - c e n t u r y i n France; c o n c i s i o n o f form and c o n t e n t comprises the f o c a l p o i n t of h i s t h e o r e t i c a l  remarks.  S e c t i o n I I o f t h i s study d e a l s w i t h t h e s t r u c t u r a l a n a l y s i s o f L a Duchesse d'Estramene, which c o u l d be s u b - t i t l e d : "The dilemma o f the honnete femme as seen by Du P l a i s i r . "  In  the f i r s t c h a p t e r o f t h i s s e c t i o n , a resume o f t h e a c t i o n i s f o l l o w e d by a d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e r o l e o f h i s t o r y i n L a Duchesse d'Estramene.  Chapters I I ( N a r r a t i v e Technique) and I I I  ( C h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n ) concern t h e t e c h n i c a l a s p e c t s o f Du P l a i s i r ' s novel.  By examining t h e methods which Du P l a i s i r uses t o  present t h e c h a r a c t e r s i n h i s n o v e l , and t h e h i e r a r c h y which he observes i n so d o i n g , we a r e a b l e t o a p p r e c i a t e t h e d e l i b e r a t e s t r u c t u r e o f L a Duchesse d'Estramene.  A l l of the per-  sonages p o p u l a t i n g t h e work, b o t h major and minor a l i k e , a r e c o n c e i v e d and presented by t h e author w i t h a view t o h i g h l i g h t ing  p e r t i n e n t a s p e c t s o f the h e r o i n e ' s complex p e r s o n a l i t y .  Du  P l a i s i r ' s s k i l f u l use o f t h e t e c h n i q u e o f moving p o i n t o f view s e r v e s n o t o n l y t o make t h e c h a r a c t e r whose o p t i c he adopts more b e l i e v a b l e , but a l s o t o l e n d t o h i s n a r r a t i v e a depth o f p e r s p e c t i v e which i t might n o t o t h e r w i s e have had. succeeds  Du P l a i s i r  i n conveying t o t h e r e a d e r a nuanced, e v o c a t i v e  p o r t r a i t o f a woman who chooses t o subjugate h e r p e r s o n a l wishes t o t h e demands o f bienseance. i n an e f f o r t t o m a i n t a i n her r e p u t a t i o n a t court. I n t h e C o n c l u s i o n , t h e bond u n i t i n g t h e o r y and p r a c t i c e i n t h e work o f Du P l a i s i r i s u n d e r l i n e d , as t h e o r e t i c a l remarks made i n t h e Sentimens s u r 1 ' H i s t o i r e a r e r e l a t e d t o L a Duchesse  iii d'Estramene,  The l a t t e r work i s seen t o be an almost p e r f e c t  example o f t h e i d e a l p e t i t roman as Du P l a i s i r conceived i t .  himself  iv  TABLE OF  CONTENTS Page  INTRODUCTION  •  1  SECTION I : THE SENTIMENS SUR L'HISTOIRE: ANALYSIS OF THE CREATIVE PROCESS  AN AUTHOR'S 15  CHAPTER I : . BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY OF THE SSN'TIMENS SUR L'HISTOIRE  16  CHAPTER I I : SENT I. MENS SUR L'HISTOIRE (PART I I OF THE SENTIMENS...): DU P L A I S I R ' S THEORY OF THE ANTI-NOVEL  33  SECTION I I : LA DUCHESSE D'ESTRAMENE: THE DILEMMA OF THE HONNETE FEMME AS SEEN BY DU P L A I S I R CHAPTER I :  75  BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY OF LA  DUCHESSE D'ESTRAMENE CHAPTER I I : NARRATIVE TECHNIQUE CHAPTER I I I :  .  CHARACTERIZATION  77 97 117  CONCLUSION: THE RELATIONSHIP OF THEORY TO PRACTICE I N THE WORK OF DU P L A I S I R : THE SBNTIMENS SUR L'HISTOIRE AND LA DUCHESSE D'ESTRAMENE  162  BIBLIOGRAPHY  171  V  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  I  s h o u l d l i k e t o thank the f o l l o w i n g : - The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, f o r f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e i n the form o f a M a c M i l l a n F a m i l y F o u n d a t i o n F e l l o w s h i p and a t e a c h i n g a s s i s t a n t s h i p , and the Canada Council, for Doctoral Fellowships. - Dr. H a r o l d C. Knutson, my" t h e s i s d i r e c t o r , f o r h i s p a t i e n c e and h i s guidance i n the p r e p a r a t i o n and r e v i s i o n o f the m a n u s c r i p t . - Dr. Dorothy F. D a l l a s , former p r o f e s s o r and f r i e n d , f o r h a v i n g i n t r o d u c e d me t o the i n f i n i t e l y r i c h w o r l d of seventeenth-century French L i t e r a t u r e . - My p a r e n t s , f o r h a v i n g p r o v i d e d a f i n e environment i n which t o s t u d y . And l a s t l y , W i l l i a m , w i t h o u t whose c o n s t a n t encouragement t h i s work would no doubt not have reached c o m p l e t i o n .  INTRODUCTION In the l a s t t h i r t y - f i v e y e a r s , scholars on both sides of the  A t l a n t i c have shown i n t e r e s t i n two r e l a t i v e l y obscure  seventeenth-century t e x t s which the e d i t o r of Le Mercure Galant. Donneau de  Y±B6,  ascribed to a w r i t e r known by the  somewhat strange name of Du P l a i s i r .  La Duchesse d Estramene 1  was published f o r the f i r s t time i n May 1682 by Claude Blageart i n P a r i s , and the Sentimens sur l e s L e t t r e s . et sur 1 * H i s t o i r e , avec des scrupules sur l e S t i l e was a l s o brought out i n P a r i s the  f o l l o w i n g year by the same p u b l i s h e r . La Duchesse d Estramene underwent three, and perhaps 1  f o u r , p r i n t i n g s i n France during the seventeenth century.  A  Dutch e d i t i o n , published by A. Wolfgang, "suivant l a copie imprimde a P a r i s , was brought out i n Amsterdam i n 1684, 11  according to the Catalogue of P r i n t e d Books of the B r i t i s h Museum.  The E x t r a i t du P r i v i l e g e du Roy provides us w i t h the  d e t a i l s of the f i r s t and second p r i n t i n g s of the work:  Claude  Blageart, who brought i t out f o r the f i r s t time i n P a r i s i n the  s p r i n g of 1682, passed the P r i v i l e g e on t o Thomas Amaulry,  and he i n turn p r i n t e d a second e d i t i o n , without notable v a r i a n t s , i n Lyons the same year.  The catalogue of the  Bibliotheque de 1'Arsenal l i s t s yet another P a r i s e d i t i o n , 1684.  Two volumes from the personal l i b r a r y of the Marquise  de Pompadour, housed today i n the Reserve holdings of the Bibliotheque Nationale represent p o s s i b l y a f o u r t h French p r i n t i n g of the work.  The f i r s t volume of t h i s s e t , from the  press of G a b r i e l Qui.net, P a r i s , bears the p u b l i c a t i o n date of 1683, w h i l e the second volume published by Claude B l a g e a r t , a l s o i n P a r i s , bears the date of 1682 on i t s f r o n t i s p i e c e . These two volumes may not comprise a separate e d i t i o n at a l l , as a f a i r l y common p r a c t i c e of publishers of the time was t o r e p r i n t only the t i t l e page of the work i n order t o create the impression that popular demand n e c e s s i t a t e d a r e - e d i t i o n . I t . i s . of p a r t i c u l a r importance to note i n t h i s regard that the pagination of these two volumes i s i d e n t i c a l to that of the i n i t i a l Paris edition.  Although J.-F. de B a s t i d e i n s e r t e d an  abridged form of La. Duchesse d' Estramene i n t o h i s Contes^ i n -  the  eighteenth century, n e i t h e r of the two works a s c r i b e d t o  Du P l a i s i r has been republished i n i t s complete form since the seventeenth century. The p u b l i c a t i o n d e t a i l s regarding the Sentimens... present somewhat l e s s of a c h r o n o l o g i c a l enigma f o r the presentday scholar.  Offered to the reading p u b l i c j u s t one year  a f t e r h i s Duchesse d'Estramene. Du P l a i s i r ' s  theoretical  treatise-cum-handbook on s o c i a l e t i q u e t t e underwent three p r i n t i n g s i n 1683:  two i n P a r i s , a t h i r d i n Lyons.  The two  t h e a t r i c a l a l l u s i o n s which Du P l a i s i r makes t o "Ariane" and 2 to "Andromede" i n the Sentimens...  allow us to date h i s work  f a i r l y a c c u r a t e l y , as P. Hourcade has attempted t o show i n h i s recent e d i t i o n of the work. Donneau de Vise' records i n the May and June 1683 e d i t i o n s of Le Mercure G-alant that La, Duchesse d'Estramene was widely read from i t s i n i t i a l date of p u b l i c a t i o n ; the  Sentimens.... on the contrary, d i d not meet w i t h the same degree of success.  Some three c e n t u r i e s l a t e r , i n h i s 4  a n a l y s i s of the Sentimens.... Arpad S t e i n e r  brings to our  a t t e n t i o n an important f a c t o r which may serve i n part to e x p l a i n the l a c k of c r i t i c a l acclaim met by t h i s work.  He  suggests that the Sentimens... could have f a l l e n i n t o o b l i v i o n simply because of the misleading t i t l e , as the author uses the term " h i s t o i r e " t o mean " f i c t i o n " .  The  prospective  reader, g i v i n g the t i t l e a cursory glance, might cast the t r e a t i s e aside merely due to a m i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of Du P l a i s i r ' s intentions. Yet another f a c t o r serves to e x p l a i n the r e l a t i v e l y negligible  c r i t i c a l a t t e n t i o n accorded the Sentimens....  Du P l a i s i r i s not an o r i g i n a l t h i n k e r ; from a purely t e c h n i c a l point of view, the s t r u c t u r e and content of h i s t r e a t i s e are n e i t h e r superior nor i n f e r i o r to the numerous works on l i t e r a r y theory published p r i o r to and during the same h i s t o r i c a l period i n France.  In Du P l a i s i r ' s t e r s e t h e o r e t i c a l  o f f e r i n g we can see the i n f l u e n c e of Madeleine de Scude"ry's Preface d'Ibrahim (1641), C l ^ l i e (1660) and Conversations  sur  d i v e r s su.iets (1663), as w e l l as Jean Regnaud de Segrais' Nouvelles f r a n c o i s e s (1657).  In f a c t the most s t r i k i n g  impression the present-day reader r e t a i n s even a f t e r only scanning the Sentimens... i s that of Du P l a i s i r ' s a b i l i t y as an organizer, capable of making s u c c i n c t syntheses, r a t h e r than that of an innovator i n the f i e l d of n o v e l i s t i c theory  4  or s o c i a l e t i q u e t t e .  The advice which Du P l a i s i r o f f e r s t o  the honnete homme (to whom he addresses h i m s e l f ) was expounded c o u n t l e s s times i n l i t e r a r y t r a c t s and i n l i v r e s de conversation' published  p r i o r t o t h e Sentimens....  As f o r b i o g r a p h i c a l and h i s t o r i c a l d e t a i l s p e r t a i n i n g t o Du P l a i s i r , we a r e no more enlightened l a t t e r ' s contemporaries.  today than were t h e  J u s t who, e x a c t l y , was t h i s  e f f a c i n g , u n p r o l i f i c w r i t e r , who was a p p a r e n t l y passing  self-  successful i n  o f f h i s Duchesse d'Estramene as t h e product o f a  feminine hand? he frequent,  What s o c i a l c i r c l e s o r l i t e r a r y c6teries d i d  i f indeed any a t a l l ?  These questions  of a socio-  b i o g r a p h i c a l nature, o f undoubted value and i n t e r e s t i n t h e study o f the p s y c h o l o g i c a l o r i g i n s o f the c r e a t i v e work, c o u l d quite conceivably extant  go unanswered i n d e f i n i t e l y .  today as proof  A l l t h a t remains  o f Du P l a i s i r ' s e x i s t e n c e , by c h o i c e a  s e c r e t i v e one, a r e the two works a s s o c i a t e d w i t h h i s name. It  i s o f some s i g n i f i c a n c e t o note t h a t the u s u a l l y w e l l  informed i f not always t o t a l l y r e l i a b l e l i t e r a r y  critic,  Lenglet-Dufresnoy, wondered, some f i f t y y e a r s a f t e r t h e i n i t i a l p u b l i c a t i o n o f L a Duchesse d'Estramene. whether the a p p e l l a t i o n Du P l a i s i r was indeed a r e a l o r a supposed one.  Referring to  the two t h i n duodecimo volumes, he has the f o l l o w i n g remarks t o make: On l i t dans l e s 'Oeuvres' de P a v i l i o n une l e t t r e de c e t academicien a M. de Vis£ s u r l e meme roman, que l ' o n a t t r i b u a i t a une femme. L a p r e v e n t i o n p a r a i s s a i t f o n d l e a cause de l a v i v a c i t e des sentiments, de l a d ^ l i c a t e s s e du s t y l e e t de l ' i n t ^ r e t des situations.'  I  5 The author's p l e a f o r anonymity, expressed  in a letter  a t the beginning of La Duchesse d'Estramene. was h i s e d i t o r s ; yet we are a b l e to determine the R ^ g i s t r e des p r i v i l e g e s q s y n d i c a l e des l i b r a i r e s . buted t o Du  8  inserted  r e s p e c t e d by  from two  sources,  and the L i v r e de l a Chambre  t h a t both works are i n f a c t  attri-  Plaisir.  P. Hourcade, i n h i s r e c e n t a r t i c l e on Du P l a i s i r and  the  problems of the n o v e l , summarizes b r i e f l y the £tat present of Du P l a i s i r r e s e a r c h , w h i l e o u t l i n i n g s u c c i n c t l y the work which l i e s ahead f o r the c r i t i c , with regard t o La Duchesse d'Estramene i n p a r t i c u l a r . Hourcade "Un nom,  "Qu'est-ce que du P l a i s i r ? " ,  et r i e n que c e l a .  D e r r i e r e ce v o c a b l e  asks un  peu comique, un peu Strange, Stranger p e u t - e t r e , 1'auteur s ' e s t esquive" un d o i g t sur l e s l e v r e s .  I I nous r e s t e  l ' o e u v r e fermee, s e c r e t e en apparence. . . . T h e study w i l l be devoted  present  to the a n a l y s i s of t h i s "oeuvre fermee",  and, more s p e c i f i c a l l y , t o the r e l a t i o n s h i p of the two works composing i t .  The p a u c i t y o f h i s t o r i c a l f a c t s  concerning  these two c r e a t i o n s and the author w i t h whom they are a s s o c i ated makes a s t r u c t u r a l approach not only d e s i r a b l e but necessary.  La Duchesse d'Estramene i s t o be c o n s i d e r e d as  an example of the short prose form,. w h i l e the Sentimens... w i l l be viewed as a t h e o r e t i c a l commentary on t h i s  specific  work and on a p a r t i c u l a r h i s t o r i c a l p e r i o d i n the development of f i c t i o n a l prose i n the seventeenth century i n France. One may  w e l l ask why  a t t e n t i o n should be devoted  to the  6  analysis  of these two r e l a t i v e l y unknown works a t t r i b u t e d  Du P l a i s i r .  to  The n o v e l , e i t h e r the grand roman or the p e t i t  roman. depending  on the c u r r e n t l i t e r a r y vogue, was c o n s i d e r e d  i n the seventeenth century t o be an i n f e r i o r genre, and  was  more o f t e n than not the product of d i l e t t a n t e s whose use of pseudonyms bore witness t o what was endeavour.  c o n s i d e r e d t o be a f r i v o l o u s  In s p i t e of the low r e g a r d f o r the f i c t i o n a l  prose form d u r i n g the seventeenth century, however, t r e a t i s e s on the a r t of w r i t i n g n o v e l s and what l a t e r came t o be known as n o u v e l l e s or p e t i t s romans abound.  In f a c t , as D.F.  Dallas  has noted, " l e chercheur e s t frapp£ de l a q u a n t i t y enorme de ces volumes dont bon nombre sont r e s t d s peu connus ou n'ont 6t6  que vaguement t r a i t e V ' . ^ "  Many, and indeed most, of these  n o v e l s and t h e o r e t i c a l works a r e , as one might expect, of i n f e r i o r q u a l i t y ; consequently they have almost a l l f a l l e n into oblivion. r e c e n t times.  Such was  the f a t e of Du P l a i s i r ' s work up t o  Yet the Sentimens...  m e r i t more than a c u r s o r y  glance as a h i s t o r i c a l document, f o r the v e r y reason t h a t i t comprises a l a u d a b l y c o n c i s e account of the s t r u c t u r a l and thematic e v o l u t i o n of the f i c t i o n a l prose form i n France up u n t i l the year 1683.  The s e c o n d . s e c t i o n i n p a r t i c u l a r of  t h i s t h e o r e t i c a l work i s v a l u a b l e as a key which a l l o w s us t o explore the c r e a t i v e v i s i o n of the a r t i s t who Duchesse d'Estramene. other r i c h l y .  produced  Du P l a i s i r ' s two works complement  La each  By viewing La Duchesse d'Estramene through the  c r i t i c a l o p t i c of i t s author, we are a b l e t o come t o terms  7 w i t h Du P l a i s i r * s f o r m a l d e f i n i t i o n of the p e t i t roman. nouveau roman or n o u v e l l e as he conceived i t .  I n o r d e r t o put i n p e r s p e c t i v e Du P l a i s i r ' s  creative  and t h e o r e t i c a l c o n t r i b u t i o n s to the f i c t i o n a l prose form i n Prance, one must c o n s i d e r the e v o l u t i o n o f l i t e r a r y forms and the ever-changing t a s t e of. what was  a select reading public.  One must a l s o c o n s i d e r the metamorphosis b e i n g e f f e c t e d i n s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e s i n Prance up u n t i l the year 1683, the p u b l i c a t i o n of the Sentimens.•.  date o f  .  The bond u n i t i n g l i t e r a r y and s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e s was e s p e c i a l l y s t r i k i n g one i n seventeenth-century France. d i v i s i o n of l i t e r a t u r e i n t o genres, each w i t h i t s own r u l e s , may of the age.  an The  set of  be envisaged as a p a r a l l e l t o the s o c i a l h i e r a r c h y The c o n t r a s t i n the moral c l i m a t e which c h a r a c t e r -  i z e s the years p r e c e d i n g and f o l l o w i n g 1660  i s likewise  s t r o n g l y r e f l e c t e d i n changing f o r m a l and thematic  literary  12 works.  As P a u l Benichou,  and more r e c e n t l y  Jean-Claude  13 Tournand  have shown, the moral c l i m a t e i n France a f t e r  d i f f e r e d immensely from that of the h e r o i c and  1660  optimistic  golden e r a a t the beginning of the seventeenth c e n t u r y , when the p o l i t i c a l power of the a r i s t o c r a c y was  at i t s z e n i t h .  A f t e r the p e r i o d o f c i v i l s t r i f e i n France d u r i n g the 1640's, the opulent palace of V e r s a i l l e s r e p l a c e d P a r i s and the Louvre as the c e n t r e of s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i t y .  With  the removal of the governing body from P a r i s t o V e r s a i l l e s ,  8 the s e p a r a t i o n between " l a cour" and " l a v i l l e " , sketched by L a Bruyere, was complete. d e f i n e d borders o f the e l i t i s t  so admirably-  Within the s t r i c t l y -  s o c i e t y thereby c r e a t e d , t h e  r e s o u r c e f u l c o u r t i e r was quick t o assume h i s r o l e i n what Peter Brooks has c a l l e d a "world o f v o y e u r s " . ^  The honnete  homme. l u c i d and d i s i l l u s i o n e d , had more need o f p e r f e c t i n g his  i n t e l l e c t u a l prowess than of c o n t i n u i n g t o observe the  e t i q u e t t e o f h i s predecessors  p r i o r t o the Fronde; as J.-C.  Tournand s t a t e s , i n r e f e r r i n g t o the c o u r t i e r o f L o u i s XIV, "l'escrime q u ' i l pratique, plus d i f f i c i l e est  que c e l l e du f e r ,  c e l l e du mot, du regard, des manieres, ou l e moindre 15  d e t a i l manque" peut d e t r u i r e l e f r u i t d'un l o n g t r a v a i l " . Care should be taken, however, not t o over-emphasize t h i s phenomenon o f r o l e - p l a y i n g w i t h i n the boundaries  of a  w e l l - d e f i n e d s o c i a l enclave; i t i s not p a r t i c u l a r t o the c o u r t l y m i l i e u which serves as h i s t o r i c a l decor f o r L a Duchesse d'Estramene.  As S y l v e r e L o t r i n g e r has i m p l i e d ,  echoing t o a c e r t a i n extent s i m i l a r statements Bernard  Pingaud  made by  i n h i s study o f Madame de L a F a y e t t e , the  d e f i n i t i o n of s o c i e t y and the r o l e which the i n d i v i d u a l p l a y s w i t h i n t h a t s o c i e t y i s e s s e n t i a l l y an a r c h e t y p a l one. R e f e r r i n g t o t h e accepted s o c i a l norm and i n d i v i d u a l d e v i a t i o n s from i t , she w r i t e s ; R i e n ne passe i n a p e r c u c a r tout d o i t e t r e l i v r e a 1 ' a t t e n t i o n publique, o f f e r t a s a participation. Peu importe, au n i v e a u de l a s t r u c t u r e , l a v a r i a t i o n e x p l i c i t e des  \  9 i n s t i t u t i o n s envisage'es: l a cour du r o i Marc ou d A r t h u r e s t a c e l l e d'Henri I I ou de F r a n c o i s I I ce que l e s assemblages p r i m i t i f s ( L e v i - S t r a u s s ) sont aux c d t e r i e s hautement e'labore'es de l a Recherche. Une meme l o i s*y a f f i r m e , c e l l e de l'Echange. R i e n ne peut se s i t u e r en dehors du c e r c l e s o c i a l , t i r e r de soi-meme sa propre v a l e u r ; t o u t d o i t au c o n t r a i r e c i r c u l e r de inaniere a imprimer sur chaque a r t i c u l a t i o n p a r t i c u l i e r e l e sceau du groupe. La norme repose sur un a c t e d'allegeance, q u i e s t avant t o u t a c t e de presence, f j . 7} Le p a r f a i t c o u r t i s a n , que ce s o i t aupres du r o i A r t h u r ou des V e r d u r i n , n'est pas juge en f o n c t i o n de c r i t e r e s p e r s o n n e l s : i l e s t au c o n t r a i r e c e l u i q u i adopte sans r e s e r v e l e code en vigueur; un e t r e 'borne' dont 1'horizon ne depasse pas l a norme. Son i n d i v i d u a l i t e t i e n t seulement a l a maniere dont i l absorbe c e l l e - c i . ? 1  1  As the s u b j e c t of t h i s study i s t o be the a n a l y s i s of a n o u v e l l e or p e t i t roman supposedly  presented from a  feminine  p o i n t of view, a t o p i c of p a r t i c u l a r importance to t h i s merits e l u c i d a t i o n at t h i s point:  study  the s t a t u s of women and  r o l e they played i n the h i g h l y s t r u c t u r e d c o u r t m i l i e u of seventeenth-century  mid-  France.  The t i t l e s of numerous t r e a t i s e s p u b l i s h e d between and 1680  the  on the theme of the honnete femme. explored by  P l a i s i r i n La Duchesse d'Estramene and by Mme  1660 Du  de La F a y e t t e  i n La P r i n c e s s e de Cleves, a t t e s t to i t s p o p u l a r i t y as m a t e r i a l f o r f i c t i o n a l works.  C h a r l e s S o r e l ' s D i s c o u r s pour et contre  l ' a m i t i ^ tendre hors du mariage. of 1663,  the Abbe" d'Aubignac's  C o n s e i l s d ' A r i s t e k C^limene sur l e s moyens de conserver r e p u t a t i o n , of 1666,  and the anonymous f i c t i o n a l work,  Amelonde. h i s t o i r e de n o s t r e temps ou l ' o n v o i t qu'une  sa  honnete femme e s t heureuse guand e l l e s u i t un c o n s e i l sage et vertueux. of 1669,  provide e n l i g h t e n i n g documentation on  the p l a c e o f women i n s o c i e t y d u r i n g t h i s h i s t o r i c a l p e r i o d . Beginning approximately i n the 1660's, marriage was no l o n g e r regarded as the t r a d i t i o n a l s t o c k ending i n n o v e l s and s h o r t prose works.  Up u n t i l the middle o f the seventeenth  century,  h e r o i c n o v e l s such as L ' A s t r e e , L a C l d l i e and Le Grand  Cyrus  a l l end w i t h the d e p i c t i o n of n u p t i a l harmony, the supreme recompense accorded mounting seemingly obstacles.  the hero a f t e r he has succeeded  i n sur-  i n t e r m i n a b l e p s y c h o l o g i c a l and p h y s i c a l  Authors  of the t r a d i t i o n a l roman d'aventures and  the p a s t o r a l romance as w e l l seek i n the denouement o f t h e i r a c t i o n a s i m i l a r s t a t e o f harmony. F u r e t i e r e i n 1666,  The s i g n a l g i v e n by  a t the end o f the f i r s t book o f h i s Roman  bourgeois, suggests t h a t the woman a l r e a d y u n h a p p i l y  fettered  by the bonds of an o f t e n p o l i t i c a l l y and f i n a n c i a l l y  motivated  marriage, and not h e r unmarried  s i s t e r , was t o become one o f  the major s u b j e c t s o f n o v e l s and p e t i t s romans i n y e a r s following:  " S ' i l s v^curent b i e n ou mal ensemble, vous l e  pourrez v o i r quelque des femmes marines".  jour s i l a mode v i e n t d e c r i r e l a v i e 1  By the 1670's, f a s h i o n a b l e n o v e l s no  l o n g e r r e l a t e the t a l e o f the proud and b e a u t i f u l woman who recompenses h e r l o v e r w i t h marriage  only a f t e r he has e x p e r i -  enced a l o n g s e r i e s o f t r i a l s and adventures;  r a t h e r , we have  the s t o r y of the woman unhappy i n marriage, who seeks s o l a c e o u t s i d e the c o n n u b i a l bonds.  11 Du P l a i s i r ' s l i t e r a r y l e g a c y i s a r i c h world which lends i t s e l f tical  to multi-levelled interpretation.  His theore-  c o n t r i b u t i o n s e r v e s , as we have noted, the t w o - f o l d  purpose  o f an a f t e r - t h e - f a c t commentary on h i s work and a  d e f i n i t i o n of the i d e a l p e t i t roman as he h i m s e l f envisaged it.  F o r the v e r y reason t h a t h i s e n t i r e p r o d u c t i o n ( o r  r a t h e r , that a t t r i b u t e d to him) c o n s i s t s s o l e l y o f these two s h o r t works, the f a c t that the one analyzes the s a l i e n t f e a t u r e s o f the other w i l l be s t r o n g l y accentuated.  Although  I s h a l l devote more a t t e n t i o n t o the s t r u c t u r a l a n a l y s i s o f La Duchesse d'Estramene than t o the Sentimens..., I s h a l l endeavour t o c o n s i d e r the Sentimens.•. as a h i g h l y  significant  r e f e r e n c e work. —-  The f o l l o w i n g study i s d i v i d e d i n t o two major s e c t i o n s ,  with a Conclusion.  In the f i r s t chapter of S e c t i o n I , I  s h a l l be c o n s i d e r i n g Du P l a i s i r ' s Sentimens... i n the p e r s p e c t i v e o f the r i s e o f the p e t i t roman i n seventeenth-century France.  In the second chapter o f t h i s f i r s t  section, I s h a l l  be d i s c u s s i n g i n d e t a i l Du P l a i s i r ' s t h e o r e t i c a l remarks r e g a r d i n g t h i s s h o r t f i c t i o n a l prose form as presented i n Part I I o f the Sentimens.... study w i l l be devoted d'Estramene. chapters.  The second s e c t i o n o f t h i s  t o a s t r u c t u r a l a n a l y s i s of La Duchesse  T h i s a n a l y s i s w i l l be d i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e major  The f i r s t  chapter w i l l d e a l w i t h the background t o  the study of La Duchesse d'Estramene, the second w i t h n a r r a t i v e technique and the t h i r d w i t h c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n .  In the  12 C o n c l u s i o n , I s h a l l attempt t o examine the bond which u n i t e s theory and p r a c t i c e i n the work o f Du P l a i s i r , by r e l a t i n g h i s t h e o r e t i c a l remarks made i n the Sentimens s u r 1 ' H i s t o i r e to l a Duchesse d'Estramene.  13  INTRODUCTION:  FOOTNOTES  ( P a r i s , 1763).  1  (Paris:  2  B l a g e a r t , 1683), p. 181.  -^Sentiments s u r l e s l e t t r e s e t s u r 1 ' h i s t o i r e avec des s c r u p u l e s s u r l e s t y l e . E d i t i o n c r i t i q u e avec n o t e s e t commentaire ( D i s s . P a r i s , 1970). " A F r e n c h P o e t i c s o f t h e N o v e l i n 1683," Romanic Review. XXX (1939), pp. 235-43. 4  5  I b i d . . p. 236.  ^The f o l l o w i n g " c o n v e r s a t i o n " books, a l l by Rene" B a r y , were w i d e l y r e a d : L ' E s p r i t de cour ou l e s c o n v e r s a t i o n s g a l a n t e s ( P a r i s , 1662). L a F i n e P h i l o s o p h i e accommod^e a 1' i n t e l l i g e n c e des dames " ( P a r i s , 1660). J o u r n a l de c o n v e r s a t i o n ( P a r i s . l673Ti Nouveau J o u r n a l de c o n v e r s a t i o n ( P a r i s , 1675). 7  De 1'Usage des romans (Amsterdam, 1734), v o l . I I , p. 3. % . A . F . 21.  946 (BN)  M.N.F. 2. 490 (BN) ^ " D u P l a i s i r e t l e s problemes du roman: E s q u i s s e de 1 * e x p e r i e n c e l i t t e " r a i r e d'un £crivain v e r s 1683," X V I I S i e c l e . 96 (1972), p. 56. 9  i : L  L e Roman f r a n c a i s de 1660 a 1680 ( P a r i s , 1932), p. 7.  12 M o r a l e s du grand s i e c l e ( P a r i s , 1948). ^ I n t r o d u c t i o n a l a v i e l i t t e r a i r e du X V I I ( P a r i s , 1970). ~ 1 4  e  siecle  T h e N o v e l o f W o r l d l i n e s s (New J e r s e y , 1969), p. 72.  15 ^ I n t r o d u c t i o n a l a v i e l i t t e r a i r e . . . . p. 143.  14 16  Madame de La F a v e t t e par elle-meme ( P a r i s , 1965).  "^S. L o t r i n g e r , "Le Homan i m p o s s i b l e , " P o ^ t i q u e : Revue de Theorie et d'Analyse l i t t e r a i r e s . I ( 3 ) , 1970, p. 298. 18  De l a Connoissance des bons l i v r e s , p. 168. D.F. D a l l a s , Le Roman f r a n c a i s . •... p. 169.  C i t e d by  SECTION I THE SENTIMENS SUR L'HISTOIRE: AN AUTHOR'S ANALYSIS OF THE CREATIVE PROCESS  16  CHAPTER I BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY OF THE  SENTIMENS SUR  L'HISTOIRE  Before c o n s i d e r i n g i n d e t a i l the form and content of the Sentimens sur 1 ' H i s t o i r e , l e t us review b r i e f l y the r i s e of what has been r e f e r r e d to as the p e t i t roman (as opposed t o the grands romans) i n seventeenth-century  France.  With r e g a r d  t o the s t a t u s of the n o v e l as a l i t e r a r y form from 1660  on,  Georges May's remarks on the r e l a t i o n s h i p of the n o v e l and h i s t o r y are i l l u m i n a t i n g . ^  A l l u d i n g t o an o b s e r v a t i o n made  by the e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y w r i t e r , Duclos, who  contended  because the r e a d i n g p u b l i c found h i s t o r i c a l accounts  that  too  simple i n nature, w r i t e r s d e s i r o u s of s a t i s f y i n g t h e i r r e a d i n g p u b l i c consequently f e l t o b l i g e d to " a l t d r e r May  l'histoire",  remarks t h a t soon the i n e v i t a b l e happened and w r i t e r s of  n o v e l s became c a r r i e d away; as Duclos s t a t e s , " l e s romans 2 d e v i n r e n t s i extravagants q u ' i l s tomberent dans l e m^pris." As a r e a c t i o n t o t h i s , the r e a d i n g p u b l i c of the time  "exigea  p l u s de v r a i s e m b l a b l e ; et b i e n t o t , pour p l a i r e , i l f a l l u t  que  l e roman p r i t l e ton de l ' h i s t o i r e et cherchat a l u i ressembler. Ce f u t une  espece d'hommage que l e mensonge r e n d i t a l a v6r±t6,  et l ' h i s t o i r e r e n t r a presque dans ses d r o i t s sous un nom poseV'  y  May  remarks consequently  sup-  that a f t e r the p u b l i c a t i o n  o f L'Astre'e. and more s p e c i f i c a l l y a f t e r 1660,  w r i t e r s of  n o v e l s demonstrated a marked p r e d i l e c t i o n f o r v e r i s i m i l i t u d e . T h i s concern f o r semblance of a c t u a l i t y was medium of the t h e a t r e as w e l l :  "De  e v i d e n t i n the  l a meme maniere, apres  17 e n v i r o n 1640, l a t r a g e d i e se p r e t e n d i t de p l u s en p l u s conforme aux donndes des h i s t o i r e s et se p u b l i a a l ' a b r i de l*£pais b o u c l i e r d'une p r e f a c e v o l o n t i e r s pedante e t c i t a n t ses r e f e r e n c e s  comme une these de d o c t o r a t . " ^  Because w r i t e r s o f novels wished t o e l e v a t e the s t a t u s of t h e i r c r e a t i o n s from what was c o n s i d e r e d  a t t h e time t o be  a "genre r o t u r i e r " , they sought t o a t t a c h t h e i r c r e a t i v e works to h i s t o r i c a l w r i t i n g , which, u n l i k e t h e n o v e l form which l a c k e d models from Greco-Roman a n t i q u i t y , had t h e d u a l advantage of guaranteeing v e r i s i m i l i t u d e and h a v i n g produced i l l u s t r i o u s works.  Two o f the most p r o l i f i c w r i t e r s o f what  G. May r e f e r s t o as "ce genre h y b r i d e  qui est a l a fois  roman h i s t o r i q u e et h i s t o i r e romanceV^ were the Abbe de Saint-Real  and C o u r t i l z de Sandras, both of whom had innum-  erable i m i t a t o r s .  The d e f i n i t i o n o f " h i s t o r y " f u r n i s h e d by  the Abbe de S a i n t - R e a l  i n 1671 i n d i c a t e s that the n a t u r a l  f r o n t i e r s which separate non-existent Saint-Real,  h i s t o r y and the n o v e l were p r a c t i c a l l y  a t t h i s time i n France.  History, according to  i s "une anatomie s p i r i t u e l l e des a c t i o n s humaines":  Savoir l H i s t o i r e , c'est connoitre l e s hommes, q u i en f o u r n i s s e n t l a m a t i e r e , c ' e s t juger de ces hommes sainement; etudier 1 ' h i s t o i r e , c'est etudier l e s m o t i f s , l e s opinions et l e s passions des hommes, pour en c o n n o i t r e tous l e s r e s s o r t s , l e s t o u r s et l e s detours, e n f i n toutes l e s i l l u s i o n s q u ' e l l e s savent f a i r e aux e s p r i t s , et l e s s u r p r i s e s q u ' e l l e s f o n t aux coeurs.' 1  One might wonder e x a c t l y what occasioned  the p r o l i f i c  18 p r o d u c t i o n of h i s t o r i c a l novels from mid-century onward i n France.  An e x p l a n a t i o n of t h i s phenomenon i s provided i n  May's c o n c l u d i n g remarks on the r e l a t i o n s h i p between h i s t o r y and  the n o v e l ; as the works of h i s t o r i a n s of the time bore  s t r i k i n g resemblance to n o v e l s , the reader was i n c l i n e d t o t r e a t them as such and  consequently  to doubt h i s t o r y .  It i s  c o n c e i v a b l e t h a t t h i s a t t i t u d e , t h e r e f o r e , guaranteed the p r o s p e r i t y of the n o v e l , and, more p a r t i c u l a r l y , the  historical  novel.^ Moving from a c o n s i d e r a t i o n of s u b j e c t matter and  content  to form, one might ask i f the r i s e of the n o u v e l l e or p e t i t roman was  considered by seventeenth-century  readers t o be  a s t o n i s h i n g a phenomenon as c e r t a i n l i t e r a r y c r i t i c s claimed.  as  had  Ren£ Godenhe d e a l s w i t h t h i s q u e s t i o n i n an  infor-  Q  mative a r t i c l e and book.  The problem i n v o l v i n g the a c t u a l  n o v e l t y of the s h o r t f i c t i o n a l work which r e p l a c e d the v o l u minous productions of such w r i t e r s as Honors d ' U r f e  and  Mademoiselle de Scudery a r i s e s mainly from a c o n f u s i o n o f t e c h n i c a l terms and a l a c k of c o n s i s t e n c y i n l i t e r a r y t i o n s i n the seventeenth  century.  As R.  defini-  Godenne emphasizes,  many c r i t i c s f a i l t o r e c o g n i z e t h a t one must not  attribute  t o the term n o u v e l l e the modern d e f i n i t i o n of the s h o r t n o v e l as we know i t from the n i n e t e e n t h century, t h a t i s "un  re"cit  q u i exige l a c o n c i s i o n dans 1 ' e x p o s i t i o n et l a c o n c e n t r a t i o n dans l e s u j e t , un r e c i t q u i se developpe s e l o n un p o i n t de totalement  d i f f e r e n t de c e l u i du roman".  As Godenne has  vue  19 demonstrated, and as the u n d i s c r i m i n a t i n g use of the terms h i s t o i r e g a l a n t e , roman nouveau. and n o u v e l l e by Du P l a i s i r shows, the s h o r t n o v e l form a t i t s apogee i n the 1670*s and 80's  i n France cannot be conceived o f as a separate n a r r a t i v e  genre w i t h r u l e s t h a t apply t o i t a l o n e .  1 1  A gap o f c o n s i d e r -  a b l e p r o p o r t i o n s separates theory and p r a c t i c e ; although L a Duchesse d'Estramene serves t o i l l u s t r a t e Du P l a i s i r ' s theory o f the n o u v e l l e . n o v e l i s t s contemporary t o him d i d not f o l l o w h i s precepts r i g o r o u s l y .  The f o r m a l and thematic  elements c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the h e r o i c n o v e l a r e s t i l l  very  much i n evidence i n the s h o r t e r n o v e l o f the 1670's and 1680's. The change n o t i c e a b l e i n the n o v e l form might i n f a c t be termed an i n t e r n a l i z a t i o n and a condensation  of structures,  f o r writers are l e s s interested i n depicting physical, heroic a c t i o n s than the f e e l i n g s and the i n n e r workings o f the c h a r a c t e r s ' mind.  I t must not be f o r g o t t e n t h a t although the  focus o f a t t e n t i o n i s moved from p h y s i c a l t o p s y c h o l o g i c a l , a c t i o n , the v e s t i g e s o f the h e r o i c n o v e l a r e nonetheless s t i l l present t o some extent i n t h i s new form o f the n o v e l . Even i n La Duchesse d'Estramene. which i s d i s t i n c t i v e f o r i t s extreme s i m p l i c i t y o f s t r u c t u r e , the Due d'Olsingam bears a s t r o n g resemblance t o h i s k n i g h t l y c o u n t e r p a r t i n the h e r o i c n o v e l and the scene i n which the Due d'Estramene and the l a t t e r meet i n Savoy i s r e m i n i s c e n t of s i m i l a r f o r t u i t o u s events i n the grands romans.  What i s important  i s n o t t h a t the s h o r t  n o v e l i s a completely new genre which has emerged, but, r a t h e r ,  20 t h a t i t i s a condensed, r e f i n e d v e r s i o n o f i t s many-volumed heroic counterpart.  Du P l a i s i r d e f i n e s c o n c i s e l y the  s t r u c t u r a l e v o l u t i o n of the n o v e l form i n remarking t h a t , a t the time he i s w r i t i n g , "on ne cherche p o i n t i n c i d e n s s u r l e s Mers, ou dans l a Cour d'un  £./]  des  Tyran.  L'action  12 l a p l u s l e g e r e peut former une One  might ask,  then,  action  admirable."  j u s t what e x a c t l y are the  t e r i s t i c s which serve to d i s t i n g u i s h the new  charac-  n o v e l from i t s  cou nt er pa rt which f l o u r i s h e d i n the f i r s t h a l f of the  century.  In the second p a r t of h i s Sentimens.... Du P l a i s i r answers t h i s question i n d e t a i l , n o t i n g p a r t i c u l a r l y the  structural  d i f f e r e n c e s i n the two n o v e l forms; however, the m o d i f i c a t i o n s brought about i n the s t r u c t u r e of the n o v e l of the 1670's and 1680's are not, as we  s h a l l see i n p e r s p e c t i v e , as g r e a t  the author of the Sentimens... claimed  them to be.  as  In f a c t ,  as e a r l y as the e i g h t e e n t h century, l i t e r a r y t h e o r e t i c i a n s r e a l i z e d that t h i s e v o l u t i o n was  not as r a d i c a l as i t had  appeared to be i n the preceding century. a c c o r d i n g to Rene" Godenne, was de formes:  r e a l l y "une  What took p l a c e , simple s u b s t i t u t i o n  1 ' h i s t o i r e du genre, pendant ce s i e c l e ,  1 ' h i s t o i r e du roman q u i ne pretend  c'est 13  pas d i r e son nom".  c r i t i c p o i n t s to the r e v e a l i n g o b s e r v a t i o n s made i n 1716  This by  the author of L ' H i s t o i r e du Marquis de Clemes et du C h e v a l i e r de Pervans i n h i s p r e f a c e : C e l a n'osta p o i n t aux Autheurs de f a i r e des romans, mais i l s tacherent de l e s deguiser. I l s ne se contenterent d'abord de changer de t i t r e s . On ne v i t p l u s a l a t e s t e de l e u r l i v r e s , que Nouvelles  21 du temps, Avantures g a l a n t e s , H i s t o i r e s v e r i t a b l e s . Le P u b l i c n'en f u t p o i n t dupe, i l reconnut l e s romans sous de nouveaux noms.14 Whether the p u b l i c was supposedly  indeed not f o o l e d by  i n n o v a t i v e c h a r a c t e r of the new  novels i s debatable.  Du P l a i s i r d e f i n i t e l y envisaged a completely new emerging i n h i s time, as d i d most of h i s  the  n o v e l form  contemporaries.  Jean Regnaud de S e g r a i s , i n h i s Nouvelles f r a n c o i s e s (1657) sees as w e l l a d i s t i n c t dichotomy:  the l o n g and the s h o r t  n o v e l are d i a m e t r i c a l l y opposed, both from the p o i n t of view of form and of content.  With the p e r s p e c t i v e of the  e i g h t e e n t h century, however, r e a d e r s and w r i t e r s a l i k e c o u l d b e t t e r judge i n r e t r o s p e c t the a c t u a l extent of i n n o v a t i o n in this  genre.  Du P l a i s i r envisages the n o u v e l l e as an a n t i - n o v e l , as i s evident i n h i s constant use of p a r a l l e l i s m and c o n t r a s t i n comparing the productions o f the f i r s t h a l f of the c e n t u r y w i t h those w r i t t e n by him and by h i s contemporaries,  but, i t  must be noted, t h i s does not prevent h i s a n a l y z i n g the s h o r t e r n o v e l form u s i n g the c r i t e r i a of the l o n g n o v e l f a s h i o n a b l e i n the e a r l i e r p a r t of the century.  In more  p r e c i s e terms, the n o u v e l l e . or a n t i - n o v e l as d e f i n e d by  Du  P l a i s i r draws i t s d i s t i n c t i d e n t i t y from i t s o p p o s i t i o n t o the grand roman.  The advantage of temporal p e r s p e c t i v e  a l l o w s the twentieth-century reader t o take stock of the e v o l u t i o n o f the n o v e l form i n the seventeenth century, to agree w i t h Godenne t h a t the n o v e l w r i t t e n by Du  and  Plaisir's  22 contemporaries  r e s e r v e s f o r i t s e l f the p r i n c i p a l f u n c t i o n of  b e i n g a condensed f o r n of the grand roman, as bear  witness  15 the terms n o u v e l l e and  p e t i t roman.  The  remarks of C h a r l e s  S o r e l r e v e a l the w i l l on the p a r t of w r i t e r s t o a b r i d g e to  s i m p l i f y the complicated  and  s t r u c t u r e of the grand roman:  "Les n o u v e l l e s q u i sont un peu longues et q u i r a p p o r t e n t aventures  x  des  de p l u s i e u r s personnes ensemble sont p r i s e s pour  de p e t i t s romans." ^ 1  Several recent twentieth-century l i t e r a r y n o t a b l y F. D e l o f f r e ,  1 7  A.K.  Varga  1 8  and R.  critics,  Godenne,  19  have  made an e f f o r t to f u r n i s h p r e c i s e d e f i n i t i o n s f o r c e r t a i n literary  terms of the p e r i o d designated  "classical"  i n France,  g e n e r a l l y as  and p a r t i c u l a r l y those terms used  Du P l a i s i r i n h i s Sentimens..•.  D e l o f f r e maintains  term h i s t o i r e as used by Du P l a i s i r r e f e r s to an  by  t h a t the  intermediate  20 genre. sandwiched between the n o u v e l l e and the roman. Research by Varga and Godenne causes one t o q u e s t i o n  the  validity  Du  of D e l o f f r e ' s statement; even the f a c t t h a t  P l a i s i r uses i n t u r n the three terms, h i s t o i r e g a l a n t e . roman nouveau. and n o u v e l l e i n referring to the same type 'Story, bestows upon them a c e r t a i n e q u a l i t y and changeability.  of  inter-  Varga s t a t e s t h a t i n Du P l a i s i r ' s  the terms n o u v e l l e and h i s t o i r e seem t o blend; he  treatise, observes  t h a t , i n g e n e r a l , a t the time, " l a variete" de l a t e r m i n o l o g i e encore assez f f u s e de d e r des formes 'art t^moigne [~...7d i avant toutc r d'un malaise et d de l a neuves". volonte  21  23 In summary, then, we may  agree that the ambiguity i n the  d e f i n i t i o n and i n the use of l i t e r a r y terms by w r i t e r s of the seventeenth century i l l u s t r a t e s the f a c t that these d e f i n i t i o n s a r e , f o r the most p a r t , p e r s o n a l , and must be i n t e r p r e t e d w i t h r e g a r d t o each i n d i v i d u a l author's p r o d u c t i o n . I n any event, as Varga has demonstrated,  the p o s s i b l e  meanings of the term n o u v e l l e f o r d i f f e r e n t authors of the seventeenth century serve to i l l u s t r a t e a c e r t a i n uneasiness f e l t by the w r i t e r s o f the time and a wish to c r e a t e new a r t forms; i n other words, a d e s i r e t o break f r e e from the bondage of the many-volumed romans.  M. Varga c o n t i n u e s t o  e l a b o r a t e on t h i s problem of d e f i n i t i o n i n s t a t i n g t h a t a t the time n o u v e l l e s were b e g i n n i n g t o be p u b l i s h e d , they were considered an a r t form which expressed a r e a c t i o n a g a i n s t the l a c k o f v e r i s i m i l i t u d e i n the h e r o i c n o v e l of the p r e c e d i n g 22  generation.  In the eyes of the contemporaries of Du  P l a i s i r , of S e g r a i s and of Madame de La P a y e t t e , the n o u v e l l e r e p r e s e n t e d , then, a r e a c t i o n a g a i n s t the roman h l a Scude'ry. One need only t h i n k of the complaints r e g i s t e r e d by L e n g l e t D u f r e s n o y , ^ by S o r e l ^ and by the Abb£ J a q u i n , ^ among 2  2  2  o t h e r s , to r e a l i z e t h a t the roman a v i d l y read by the contemp o r a r i e s of Mademoiselle de Scud^ry and by the h a b i t u e s of the chambre bleue enamoured of Honore" d'Urf£ had indeed i n t o d i s f a v o u r w i t h the r e a d i n g p u b l i c by  mid-century.  As Varga p o i n t s out, the term n o u v e l l e may s u b t l e nuances i n meaning.  fallen  have numerous  Considered on the b a s i s of form,  24 t h e n o u v e l l e may  be o f t h r e e k i n d s :  " i n t e r c a l e V as a  d i g r e s s i o n i n a l o n g e r work; "encadree" as a p a r t o f a s e r i e s o f t a l e s , as seen f o r example i n S e g r a i s ' N o u v e l l e s f r a n c o i s e s ...;  "independante" as one complete e n t i t y i n i t s e l f ,  according  t o the d e f i n i t i o n o f S o r e l ("Depuis quelques annees  o n  a compost p l u s i e u r s p e t i t e s H i s t o i r e s detachees qu'on a 27  a p p e l d e s des N o u v e l l e s ou des H i s t o i r e s " ) . y e t a n o t h e r d i s t i n c t i o n , based on tone:  Varga  envisages  the " n o u v e l l e "  may  be s e r i o u s , a f t e r the f a s h i o n o f Du P l a i s i r , o r comic, a f t e r t h e f a s h i o n o f Donneau de V i s e .  Commenting f u r t h e r on  the  s e r i o u s form, or the " n o u v e l l e g r a v e " , the same c r i t i c makes t h r e e more s u b d i v i s i o n s , these b e i n g " h i s t o r i q u e " ( f o r example, S a i n t - R e a l ' s  Pom  C a r l o s ) , " t r a g i q u e " ( f o r example,  Madame de La P a y e t t e ' s Comtesse de Tende) o r " g a l a n t e " ( f o r 28 example, L I l l u s t r e 1  The  G-enoise).  Sentimens s u r l e s L e t t r e s . et s u r l ' H i s t o i r e . avec  des S c r u p u l e s s u r l e S t i l e , i s d i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e major sections.  The  f i r s t , i n w h i c h Du P l a i s i r d e a l s w i t h e p i s t o -  l a r y t h e o r y , and the second, i n which he p r e s e n t s a d e t a i l e d a n a l y s i s o f the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the n o u v e l l e ,  thereby  o u t l i n i n g c o n c i s e l y the e v o l u t i o n o f the F r e n c h n o v e l u n t i l 1683,  a r e almost e q u a l i n l e n g t h .  up  Section three, i n  w h i c h he d e a l s w i t h problems of s t y l e , i s s l i g h t l y  longer  and somewhat more d i f f u s e than the two p r e c e d i n g s e c t i o n s o f the t r e a t i s e .  B e f o r e d e a l i n g w i t h the second p a r t o f t h e  Sentimens.... the one germaine t o our purpose, l e t us  consider  25 i n a summary f a s h i o n the f i r s t and the t h i r d s e c t i o n s . The les  first  p a r t o f the monograph, e n t i t l e d Sentimens s u r  L e t t r e s . i s of i n t e r e s t to twentieth-century  readers as  a s o c i a l document, r a t h e r than f o r the theory  expounded  therein.  s e c t i o n with  Du P l a i s i r i s d e a l i n g i n t h i s f i r s t  the a r t o f w r i t i n g l e t t e r s :  d e d i c a t o r y p r e f a c e s i n books,  b i l l e t s - d o u x , e p i s t l e s t o the k i n g and t o c o u r t i e r s . i n t e r e s t i n g t o note t h a t , although Du P l a i s i r * s p r i v a t e l i f e ,  It i s  we know almost n o t h i n g o f  we a r e g i v e n some i n d i c a t i o n o f  the s t a t u s o f the s o c i a l group f o r which he wrote, t o which he probably content chapter, £..]]  belonged, and which c o n c e i v a b l y c o n d i t i o n e d t h e  o f h i s work.  In the opening pages o f t h i s  Du P l a i s i r s t a t e s :  first  " j e me borne a ce q u i peut  e s t r e connu d'une Dame, ou d'un C a v a l i e r " . (4) Du  P l a i s i r i s w r i t i n g , then, f o r the s o c i a l e l i t e o f the P a r i s i a n salons and o f the c o u r t .  He i s a d d r e s s i n g the same s o c i o -  economic segment of s o c i e t y as d i d h i s predecessor,  Madeleine  de ScudeVy, who, i n h e r p r e f a t o r y remarks t o Ibrahim, p u b l i s h e d i n 1641,  demands t h a t the s t y l e o f the n a r r a t i v e  not be i n f l a t e d , and t h a t the c h a r a c t e r s , s t r i v i n g t o a t t a i n i n t h e i r expression  "une j u s t e m e d i o c r i t e " , should  speak  29 "comme l e s honnestes gens". • The French a r e a s o c i a l l y - o r i e n t e d people,  and t h i s i s  a f a c t o r which i s conducive t o l e t t e r w r i t i n g , remarks Du P l a i s i r , who observes t h a t the language o f h i s countrymen "se trouve l e p l u s dans une mediocrite" r a i s o n n a b l e " . (4-5)  26 In the t r a d i t i o n of Montaigne and B o i l e a u , the author of the Sentimens... opts f o r a s t y l e that i s simple, without  excess,  and that i s n a t u r a l , s p e c i f i c a l l y p a t t e r n e d a f t e r t h a t of the A n c i e n t s . (5)  Besides d e v e l o p i n g a n a t u r a l s t y l e ,  the  l e t t e r - w r i t e r should s t r i v e c o n s t a n t l y t o be c o n c i s e and t o m a i n t a i n c l a r i t y ; he must a l s o a l l o w h i m s e l f ample time to r e c a s t h i s l e t t e r s , Du P l a i s i r warns. (7-8)  He a d v i s e s the  p o t e n t i a l w r i t e r of l e t t e r s not to go about h i s task i n a h u r r i e d f a s h i o n , thus reminding the reader of the c l a s s i c a l 30 dictum f e s t i n a l e n t e a l s o touched upon by B o i l e a u . In the t h i r d p a r t of h i s t r e a t i s e , which r a i s e s q u e s t i o n s of a s t y l i s t i c nature, Du P l a i s i r s t a t e s t h a t he w i l l h i m s e l f w i t h speaking and w i t h w r i t i n g w e l l .  concern  (184-185) 31  Again, he echoes B o i l e a u , and a l s o La Bruyere,  i n proclaiming  t h a t the a r t of w r i t i n g i s not an easy one, but t h a t , nonet h e l e s s , there i s no excuse f o r w r i t e r s who  do not take the  t r o u b l e t o f i n d the c o r r e c t e x p r e s s i o n f o r t h e i r (186-187)  thought.  "Rien ne tombe dans l i m a g i n a t i o n , q u i ne p u i s s e 1  e s t r e exprime" rdgulierement," announces c a t e g o r i c a l l y Plaisir.  (190)  Du  The q u e s t i o n of usage, touched upon b r i e f l y  i n P a r t I of the Sentimens.... (24) i s a g a i n d e a l t w i t h i n t h i s l a s t p a r t of the t r e a t i s e ; once more, the r e a d e r i s reminded of s i m i l a r thoughts expressed by the author of the 32 Art Poetique.  when Du P l a i s i r condemns i n the p r o s p e c t i v e  w r i t e r the use of t e c h n i c a l language  known only to a p a r t i -  c u l a r group of people i n i t i a t e d to a p a r t i c u l a r a r t .  Not  27  everyone understands t h e terms p e c u l i a r t o a g i v e n a r t , c l a i m s Du P l a i s i r :  " j e c r o y que l ' H i s t o r i e n ne peut l e s  employer qu'autant q u ' i l s sont en usage parmy l e s honnestes Gens". (195-196)  The r e s t r i c t e d range o f Du P l a i s i r ' s  vision,  apparent i n t h e opening pages o f h i s t r e a t i s e , i s r e d e f i n e d i n t h i s statement:  writing  f o r an e l i t e o f w h i c h he i s  perhaps a p a r t , h i s c o n c e p t i o n o f t h e u n i v e r s e does n o t go beyond t h e s o c i a l c o n f i n e s o f t h i s s e l e c t m i l i e u .  Quite  s i m p l y , t h e w o r l d beyond Du P l a i s i r ' s own s o c i a l e n c l a v e does n o t e x i s t .  As t h e s t u d i e s o f Roland B a r t h e s , J e a n - P a u l 33  S a r t r e , E r i c h Auerbach, and P e t e r B r o o k s ^ have demonstrated, -  t h i s l i m i t e d s o c i a l v i s i o n was common t o most w r i t e r s i n t h e second h a l f o f s e v e n t e e n t h - c e n t u r y F r a n c e , f o r t h e y i n d e e d were p a r t o f an e l i t e , as t h e c o n t e n t o f t h e i r work p r o v e s . People o u t s i d e t h e i r sphere, f o r example t h o s e o f t h e l o w e r s o c i a l o r d e r s , were p r e s e n t e d merely as o b j e c t s o f c u r i o s i t y ; 34  one t h i n k s , f o r example,  of L a Bruyere's Les Caracteres.  The r o l e o f t h e w r i t e r ,  considered i n d e t a i l i n the  second p a r t o f t h e Sentimens..., w h i c h w i l l be a n a l y z e d l a t e r , i s redefined i n t h i s l a s t part of the t r e a t i s e ; the a u t h o r must be i m p a r t i a l ,  h i s task being t o "raconter l e s  choses nuement", i n such a manner t h a t he does n o t i n f l u e n c e the  reader.  (225)  In addition t o reconsidering the role of  the a u t h o r i n t h e c o n c l u d i n g s e c t i o n o f h i s Sentimens.... Du P l a i s i r e s t a b l i s h e s a d i s t i n c t i o n between t h e spoken and the w r i t t e n word.  W h i l e t h e speaker cannot p e r f e c t o r c o r r e c t  28 h i s s t y l e while he i s i n the process of speaking, has u n l i m i t e d time to improve h i s composition, manner that i f h i s usage i s f a u l t y , those who has w r i t t e n have only to conclude w r i t i n g a n y t h i n g more e l e g a n t :  the w r i t e r  i n such a read what he  t h a t he i s i n c a p a b l e of  " l ' H i s t o r i e n ne peut  ecrire  avec t r o p d ' e x a c t i t u d e , parce q u ' i l ne p o u r r a i t t r o u v e r d'excuse a ses f a u t e s " , concludes Du P l a i s i r , i n u r g i n g once a g a i n t h a t the w r i t e r adopt a simple, n a t u r a l v o c a b u l a r y . In s p i t e of h i s apparent the two  indebtedness  (225)  to B o i l e a u i n  s e c t i o n s of the Sentimens... which have been b r i e f l y  d i s c u s s e d above, the i n n o v a t i v e thought  w i t h which Du  concludes h i s t r e a t i s e i s worthy of note.  Plaisir  He g i v e s h i s nod  of approval to g r o u p - w r i t i n g ventures, commenting t h a t i f s e v e r a l w r i t e r s were to undertake to produce a work t o g e t h e r i n what has become today's  "workshop" environment, u n i f o r m i t y  o f - s t y l e would r e s u l t , i n the sense t h a t t h e r e would not be • an i n d i v i d u a l s t y l e f o r each of the w r i t e r s p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the experiment. (299) i n 1683,  This thought  i s undoubtedly n o v e l  but i t a l s o b r i n g s to our a t t e n t i o n a p o s s i b l e  e x p l a n a t i o n of Du P l a i s i r ' s l a c k of a c c l a i m as a c r e a t i v e writer.  He takes one  step f u r t h e r i n t o anonymity as a  w r i t e r by e x p r e s s i n g h i s approval of group-produced work devoid of those s t y l i s t i c p e c u l i a r i t i e s which would b e t r a y the p e r s o n a l touch of each w r i t e r concerned  The  i n such a venture.  three p a r t s of the Sentimens... form a cohesive  29 whole; the themes of c o n c i s i o n , n a t u r a l n e s s of e x p r e s s i o n , s i m p l i c i t y of s t r u c t u r e and  p e r f e c t i o n of the f i n i s h e d  product  l e n d a s t r o n g sense of u n i t y to Du P l a i s i r * s remarks on the epistolary  a r t , on the theory of the n o u v e l l e and on s t y l e .  F o r t h i s reason, then, the second p a r t of the t r e a t i s e , t h a t which proves  of a p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t f o r the r e a d e r of La  Duchesse d'Estramene. should he considered as an  integral  p a r t of the t r e a t i s e as a whole, r a t h e r than as a entity.  Although  separate  each of the three s e c t i o n s of the Sentimens  could c o n c e i v a b l y be read s e p a r a t e l y , they are  mutually  e n r i c h i n g when considered as i n t e g r a l p a r t s of a whole work.  30  CHAPTER I :  FOOTNOTES  " I * H i s t o i r e a - t - e l l e engendr£ l e roman? A s p e c t s f r a n c a i s de l a q u e s t i o n au s e u i l du s i e c l e des l u m i e r e s , " Revue d ' H i s t o i r e l i t t e r a i r e de l a France. LV ( a v r i l - j u i n 19551, pp. 155-76. 2  " L e t t r e a 1'auteur de Madame de Luz." i n Oeuvres completes ( P a r i s , 1820-21), v o l . I I , pp. 317-19. C i t e d by G-. May, " L ' H i s t o i r e a - t - e l l e engendre l e roman?...," p. 157. ^loc. c i t . ^ " L ' H i s t o i r e a - t - e l l e engendre* l e roman?...," p. 157. -\Loc. c i t . ^ " L ' H i s t o i r e a - t - e l l e engendre l e roman?...," p. 161. C i t e d by a . May, " L ' H i s t o i r e a - t - e l l e engendre l e roman?...," p. 167, who c i t e s G. Dulong, L'Abbe de S a i n t Rj£al. Etude sur l e s r a p p o r t s de l ' h i s t o i r e e t du roman au XVIIe s i e c l e TParis, 1921), v o l . I , p. 105. 7  " L ' H i s t o i r e a - t - e l l e engendre l e roman?...," pp. 167-68. q " L ' A s s o c i a t i o n 'nouvelle-petit-roman' entre 1650 e t 1750," C a h i e r s de 1 ' A s s o c i a t i o n I n t e r n a t i o n a l e des Etudes F r a n c a i s e s . XVIII Tmars 1966), pp. 67-78. H i s t o i r e de l a n o u v e l l e f r a n c a i s e aux XVIIe et XVIIIe s i e c l e s (Geneva. 1970). J  ^"L Association 1  1 1  ' n o u v e l l e - p e t i t - r o m a n ' . . . , " pp. 69-70.  I b i d . . p. 76.  12 Sentimens s u r l e s l e t t r e s . e t s u r 1 ' h i s t o i r e . avec des s c r u p u l e s sur l e s t i l e ( P a r i s . 1683), p. 104. I am r e s p e c t i n g f u l l y the t e x t of t h i s e d i t i o n . References t o the t e x t w i l l be noted i n the body o f the d i s s e r t a t i o n . 13  •"'L'Association 1 4  Cited  'nouvelle-petit-roman'...," p. 75.  by R. Godenne, I b i d . . p. 75.  15 ^ H i s t o i r e de l a n o u v e l l e f r a n c a i s e . . . .  p. 120.  31 L a B i b l i o t h e q u e f r a n c o i s e . . . ' . pp. 158-62. R. Godenne, I b i d . , p. 74. 1 6  1 7  La  C i t e d by  N o u v e l l e en France a l ' a g e c l a s s i q u e ( P a r i s , 1967).  "Pour une d e f i n i t i o n de l a n o u v e l l e a l'^po„que c l a s s i q u e , " C a h i e r s de 1 ' A s s o c i a t i o n I n t e r n a t i o n a l e des Etudes F r a n c a i s e s , X V I I I (mars, 1966), pp. 53-65. ^"L'Association  'nouvelle-petit-roman ...". 1  20  L a N o u v e l l e en F r a n c e . . • . p. 44. 21  "Pour une d e f i n i t i o n de l a n o u v e l l e . . . , " p. 54. 2 2  Ibid.,  p.  56.  ^ L ' H i s t o i r e j u s t i f i e e c o n t r e l e s romans (Amsterdam, 1735). De 1'Usage des romans. Avec une b i b l i o t h e q u e des romans (Amsterdam, 1734), 2 v o l s . 2  ^ L a B i b l i o t h e q u e f r a n c o i s e ( P a r i s , 1664). De l a Connoissance des bons l i v r e s . ou examen de p l u s i e u r s a u t h e u r s (Amsterdam. 1672). 2  25 ^ E n t r e t i e n s s u r l e s romans. ouvrage m o r a l e t c r i t i q u e dans l e q u e l on t r a i t e de 1 ' o r i g i n e des romans e t de l e u r s d i f f e r e n t e s especes ( P a r i s . 1755). 26  "Pour une d e f i n i t i o n de l a n o u v e l l e . . . , " pp. 63-65. 27 De l a Connoissance des bons l i v r e s . . . . pp. 183-4. C i t e d i n I b i d . , p. 63. po  "Pour une d e f i n i t i o n de l a n o u v e l l e . . . , " p. 64. 29 •'Work n o t p a g i n a t e d . 5  °L'Art p o e t i o u e . Chant I , 1.  170.  B o i l e a u , L ' A r t p o e t i q u e . Chant I , 11. 172-73. B r u y e r e , Les C a r a c t e r e s . Pes ouvrages de 1 ' e s p r i t . 3. 5 1  La  32 ^Pr£face,  1701.  ^R. Barth.es, E s s a i s c r i t i q u e s ( P a r i s , 1964). J.-P.. S a r t r e , Qu'est-ce que l a l i t t e r a t u r e ? ( P a r i s , 1948). E. Auerbach, Mimesis. Trans. W. Trask (New York, 1957). P. Brooks, The Novel of V/orldliness (New J e r s e y , 1969). 5 4  D e 1'Homme. 128.  33  CHAPTER I I SENTIMENS SUR L'HISTOIRE (PART I I OF THE SENTIMENS...): DU PLAISIR'S THEORY OF THE ANTI-NOVEL Now  t h a t we have touched b r i e f l y on the main p o i n t s  d i s c u s s e d i n s e c t i o n s I and I I I of Du P l a i s i r ' s  treatise,  l e t us c o n s i d e r i n d e t a i l the second s e c t i o n o f the work, entitled  "Sur 1 ' H i s t o i r e " .  I have drawn a t t e n t i o n a l r e a d y ,  i n my i n t r o d u c t o r y note t o t h i s s e c t i o n , t o the c o n f u s i o n which has r e s u l t e d from an i m p r e c i s e d e f i n i t i o n of terms by seventeenth-century authors, and t o the o b s e r v a t i o n s made on the s u b j e c t by c r i t i c s Varga and Godenne.  As Du P l a i s i r uses  i n t e r c h a n g e a b l y the terms nouveau roman, p e t i t roman, n o u v e l l e and h i s t o i r e g a l a n t e t o d e f i n e the new  n o v e l form which he  by i m p l i c a t i o n suggests has d e r i v e d i t s i d e n t i t y from i t s o p p o s i t i o n t o the grands romans, the t w e n t i e t h - c e n t u r y r e a d e r may  c o n c e i v a b l y assume that f o r Du P l a i s i r these terms have  more or l e s s the same meaning, and t h a t he i s merely  trying  to achieve v a r i e t y of e x p r e s s i o n . P r a c t i s i n g the c o n c i s i o n which he preaches, Du s t a t e s s u c c i n c t l y h i s purpose:  Plaisir  because the h i s t o i r e g a l a n t e  has become so popular a t the time he i s w r i t i n g , he w i l l undertake t o show the d i f f e r e n c e s as w e l l as the common p o i n t s shared by t h i s new "1'Histoire veritable".  l i t e r a r y form and what he  calls  (86-87)  Before the time of Du P l a i s i r , noted l i t e r a r y  theoreti-  c i a n s such as Madeleine de Scudery"*" and Jean Regnaud de  Segrais  pondered the q u e s t i o n of v e r i s i m i l i t u d e i n the  form, f o r i t was  a t o p i c of prime concern  novel  and i n c r e a s i n g  importance as the nouveau roman of t h a t p e r i o d emerged.  No  l o n g e r enamoured of the super-human e x p l o i t s of the e p i c hero, the reader of f i c t i o n a l prose works i n the middle years the seventeenth  of  century d e r i v e s v i c a r i o u s p l e a s u r e from b e i n g  a b l e to i d e n t i f y w i t h the hero of the "new"  n o v e l ; hence the  importance of events and c h a r a c t e r s drawn from r e c e n t h i s t o r y . For Du P l a i s i r , v e r i s i m i l i t u d e " c o n s i s t e a. ne d i r e que (96)  e s t moralement c r o y a b l e " . between "vraysemblance" and  ce q u i  I t i s on the d i s t i n c t i o n  " v e r i t e " that hinges f o r him  d i f f e r e n c e between the h i s t o r i a n and  the  the w r i t e r of n o u v e l l e s .  Let us pause f o r a moment to c o n s i d e r t h i s  distinction.  In s p i t e of the f a c t that t r u t h , as A r i s t o t l e and  Boileau  have remarked, i s not always b e l i e v a b l e , the h i s t o r i a n i s not o b l i g e d to modify events i n order to render them c r e d i b l e . A c c o r d i n g to Du P l a i s i r :  " I I n'est pas garand de l e u r  vray-  semblance, parce q u ' i l d o i t l e s r a p o r t e r t e l l e s q u ' e l l e s se sont passers, & parce q u ' e l l e s sont connues de p l u s i e u r s " . (96-97)  On the other hand, he continues, the author  of  "une  h i s t o i r e f a b u l e u s e " c r e a t e s both h i s hero and h i s hero's a c t i o n s , t h e r e f o r e he does not l e a v e h i m s e l f i n danger of being repudiated.  (97)  The  c o n c l u s i o n t h a t we may  draw from  Du P l a i s i r * s d i s t i n c t i o n i s t h a t the h i s t o r i a n i s allowed  to  r e l a t e u n b e l i e v a b l e adventures because he can prove t h a t they are t r u e , while the t a s k of the w r i t e r of novels i s not  such  35  an easy one. ma^  Just because actions considered  appear to be morally unbelievable  out of context  (hence l a c k i n g i n  v e r i s i m i l i t u d e , according to Du P l a i s i r s d e f i n i t i o n of the 1  term), these actio is must not be regarded by the reader defects i n the narrative.  as  The l a t t e r i s required to suspend  h i s judgment until.he has read and comprehended the complete work; only then msy  he fcrm ah opinion regarding i t s q u a l i t y .  On the contrary, l u P l a i s i r f e e l s that i f the writer can successfully incorporate into h i s t a l e events which, considered apart from the ma: n body of the story, are unbelievable, he; w i l l surely demonstrate l i s s k i l l i n the l i t e r a r y a r t . (98--99) Du P l a i s i r ' s remark;:- on " 1 ' h i s t o i r e " , i . e . f i c t i t i o u s history, w i l l be ihs  >ased primarily on the differences between  "old" and the "new"  aovels.  "Ce qui a f a i t h a i r l e s  anciens Romans, est. ce qie l'on doit d'abord e v i t e r dans 1 3 s Hemans nouveaux".  (89)  The basis f o r the argument i n favour  of a shorter novel form is given here i n a single sentence, ir. which Du P l a i s i r enumerates the t r a i t s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the "old" novels the following:  to be avoided i n the "new" "Leur  Icngpsur  form, namely  prodigieuse, ce melange de tant  d'histoires diverses, l e u r grand nombre d'Acteurs, l a trop grands antiquite ce leurs sujets, l'embarras de l e u r construction, leur peu de vraysemblance, l'exces dans l e u r caractere [Z. ZJ " (39-90)  S i m p l i c i t y of form i s the key-note in" Du P l a i s i r ' s .  t r e a t i s e ; each oi the points t e r s e l y touched upon i n the opening paragraphs of t a i s second section of the Sentimens„.. w i l l be taken up i n d e t a i l i n the pages to follow, often with a pertinent example to serve as i l l u s t r a t i o n .  36  At a time when the h e r o i c n o v e l i s no l o n g e r i n vogue, j u s t how  does Du P l a i s i r make h i s d i s t i n c t i o n between t h i s  form and i t s a b r i d g e d c o u n t e r p a r t o f the 1660's?  Before  p o i n t i n g out t h e i r opposing t r a i t s , he touches upon t h e i r similarities. "new"  ^The main o b j e c t i v e o f b o t h the " o l d " and  the  n o v e l forms i s t o p l e a s e the r e a d e r by the manner i n  w h i c h the p l o t i s d e v i s e d ( " 1 ' i n v e n t i o n des i n c i d e n s " ) , the c o n s i s t e n c y o f c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n , by the n o b l e n e s s thought expressed  by  of  t h e r e i n and by the a c c u r a c y w i t h w h i c h the  w r i t e r d e p i c t s the emotions o f the c h a r a c t e r s .  (103-104)  The d i f f e r e n c e s i n the two forms a r e , however, m a n i f e s t , i t i s by the use of p a r a l l e l i s m i n d i s c u s s i n g these  and  opposing  f a c t o r s t h a t Du P l a i s i r w i l l succeed i n g i v i n g an a c c u r a t e and d e t a i l e d p i c t u r e of the "new"  n o v e l o f the 1660's.  A c c o r d i n g t o Du P l a i s i r , the s u b j e c t m a t t e r o f the  "new"  n o v e l s has changed a p p r e c i a b l y s i n c e the time o f the h e r o i c novels.  The a u t h o r no l o n g e r has t o r e l a t e f a b u l o u s  o f shipwreck and c o r r u p t i o n i n e x o t i c c o u r t s , f o r , he the s u b j e c t of the "new"  n o v e l need no l o n g e r be  The success of h i g h l i g h t i n g an a c t i o n w h i c h may  tales contends,  grandiose. have appeared  i n s i g n i f i c a n t i n the l o n g n o v e l s depends, r a t h e r , on the a u t h o r ' s u n d e r s t a n d i n g the m o t i v a t i o n o f h i s c h a r a c t e r s and his  a b i l i t y t o g i v e t o each o f them a s t r o n g p e r s o n a l i t y . A word o f c a u t i o n i s i n o r d e r h e r e :  l e t us not l o s e  s i g h t o f the temporal p e r s p e c t i v e through which we view P l a i s i r ' s statements.  Du  As t w e n t i e t h - c e n t u r y r e a d e r s of t h i s  37 l i t e r a t u r e , we must not f o r g e t t h a t although p h y s i c a l a c t i o n p l a y s a good d e a l more important r o l e i n the h e r o i c n o v e l than i n the productions of Madame de L a F a y e t t e , Madame de V i l l e d i e u and Du P l a i s i r , D'Urfe and h i s f o l l o w e r s were not unaware of the importance  of psychological a n a l y s i s .  Madeleine  de Scud^ry was a p p r e c i a t i v e of the p s y c h o l o g i c a l s e n s i t i v i t y of D'TJrfd of whom she says, " [T. fj  entre t a n t de r a r e s  choses, c e l l e que j'estime l e p l u s , e s t q u ' i l s a i t  toucher  s i delicatement l e s passions qu'on peut l e nommer l e P e i n t r e de l'ame.  I I cherche dans l e fonds des coeurs l e s p l u s  s e c r e t s sentimens £7. Tj " What happens when Du P l a i s i r and h i s contemporaries  come  t o produce novels i s t h a t they s t r i p t h e i r works of p h y s i c a l a c t i o n , thus f o c u s i n g t h e i r a t t e n t i o n on the a n a l y s i s of the c h a r a c t e r s ' r e a c t i o n s t o d i v e r s e s t i t u a t i o n s , and e s t a b l i s h i n g an emotional r a p p o r t between the c h a r a c t e r s and the r e a d e r . Du P l a i s i r i s aware of t h i s emotional l i n k which must be e s t a b l i s h e d i f the n o v e l i s t o c r e a t e a l a s t i n g i m p r e s s i o n ; almost A r i s t o t e l i a n i n h i s vocabulary, he s t a t e s c a t e g o r i c a l l y : "ces d i v e r s mouvemes de c r a i n t e ou de p i t i e d  pene'treront  davantage dans nos coeurs, que quand nous voyons, ou un P r i n c e s e u l attaqud par un grand nombre d'Ennemis, ou une P r i n c e s s e exposee sur l e s a b l e au f l u x des eaux, ou a l a r e n c o n t r e des Bestes farouches".  (106-107)  Du P l a i s i r f o l l o w s t h i s  state-  ment by touching a g a i n on the q u e s t i o n of s u b j e c t matter and a c t i o n ; he enumerates the reasons u n d e r l y i n g the s h i f t i n  38  emphasis from p h y s i c a l a c t i o n t o t h e a n a l y s i s o f t h e psychol o g i c a l import o f that a c t i o n .  The r e a d e r o f t h e h e r o i c n o v e l  cannot p o s s i b l y r e c e i v e t h e p l e a s u r e o f i d e n t i f i c a t i o n , f o r , s u g g e s t s Du P l a i s i r , "nous ne nous a p p l i q u o n s p o i n t c e s p r o d i g e s , & c e s grands excds".  (107) On t h e c o n t r a r y ,  however, an a c t i o n which i s " n a t u r e l l e " and " f a m i l i e r e " s a t i s f i e s a l l r e a d e r s because everyone can p r o j e c t h i m s e l f i n t o t h e a c t i o n about w h i c h he i s r e a d i n g . Another main s t r u c t u r a l d i s s i m i l a r i t y w h i c h Du P l a i s i r draws t o t h e a t t e n t i o n o f t h e r e a d e r i s t i e d i n as w e l l w i t h the  theme o f n a t u r a l n e s s .  "new"  n o v e l , he s a y s :  Speaking of the i n t r i g u e i n the  "On s u i t  {J.^  l e c o u r s o r d i n a i r e de  l a N a t u r e ; on n'y avance r i e n q u i ne s o i t fonde, on y f u i t l e s mesmes coups de h a z a r d " .  (108) Du P l a i s i r o b v i o u s l y has  i n mind here t h e many i n c i d e n t s o f t h e h e r o i c n o v e l t h a t a r e e x p l a i n e d by chance o r f o r t u n e ; what he r e c o g n i z e s as a change of major importance i n t h e n o v e l s b e i n g produced by h i s c o n t e m p o r a r i e s i s an e f f o r t t o pare down t h e a c t i o n t o i t s e s s e n t i a l elements, t h e r e b y a r r i v i n g a t a n a r r a t i v e form w h i c h seems s u f f i c i e n t l y r e a l i s t i c  t o f a l l w i t h i n the experience of  the  reader.  I f t h e c h a r a c t e r s must be absented from t h e scene,  the  s k i l f u l a u t h o r w i l l p r e p a r e t h e i r d e p a r t u r e w e l l i n advance.  The example which he g i v e s i s worthy o f our a t t e n t i o n , f o r i t b r i n g s t o mind a s i t u a t i o n commonly evoked i n b o t h t h e h e r o i c n o v e l and i n i t s s h o r t e r c o u n t e r p a r t o f t h e 1660's: £.. pour e c r i r e , qu'un P r i n c e roanqua de se t r o u v e r aupres d'une P r i n c e s s e , parce  39 q u ' i l re?eut ordre du Roy pour se rendre aupres de l u y , on p r e p a r e r o i t de l o i n l e d e s s e i n du Roy & c e t ordre, en s o r t e que l e L e c t e u r ne pust s ' a p e r c e v o i r q u ' i l s eussent este uniquement imaginez pour empescher l ' e n t r e v e u e de deux Amans. (108-109) We  see then that as Du P l a i s i r l e a d s i n t o h i s formula  f o r w r i t i n g a " n o u v e l l e " and h i s d e f i n i t i o n of " 1 ' H i s t o i r e g a l a n t e " , he emphasizes i n c r e a s i n g l y the f a c t t h a t what i s needed i f the n o v e l form i s to be s u c c e s s f u l i s a p a r i n g down and a refinement of the voluminous p r o d u c t i o n s p r i o r t o mid-century.  He expresses astonishment  t h a t the t e n - and  twelve-volume productions enjoyed such l o n g e v i t y , p o i n t i n g out however that a t the time he i s w r i t i n g , " n o u v e l l e s " have j u s t l a t e l y come i n t o e x i s t e n c e .  (108)  This abbreviated  n a r r a t i v e form i s indeed compatible w i t h the temperament o f the French f o r , he observes, h i s countrymen are by impatient.  (89)  nature  Novels of f o u r to s i x volumes and more i n  l e n g t h he c o n s i d e r s e x c e s s i v e ; the w r i t e r i s a d v i s e d t o adopt as h i s s u b j e c t one p r i n c i p a l event and no i n c i d e n t a l a c t i o n s t h a t would make the work s t r e t c h to more than two volumes. (90-91)  I t i s a g a i n s t the d e s i r e of the impetuous r e a d e r f o r  the author to i n c l u d e d i g r e s s i o n s , and indeed, the v e r y  title  of the work should exclude a l l that i s not necessary to i t s composition.  (91)  Again, the n a t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r of the  French serves to e x p l a i n the need f o r a s i m p l i f i c a t i o n and  a  condensation of the a c t i o n , f o r Du P l a i s i r b e l i e v e s t h a t any d i g r e s s i o n which h a l t s the progress of the main a c t i o n annoys  40  the reader.  An example s e r v e s t o i l l u s t r a t e Du P l a i s i r ' s  b e l i e f i n the n e c e s s i t y of maintaining a simple  plot-line.  I n a r a r e d i s p l a y o f humour, he p r o c l a i m s : Le melange d ' H i s t o i r e s p a r t i c u l i e r e s avec 1 ' H i s t o i r e p r i n c i p a l e , e s t c o n t r e l e gre" du L e c t e u r . Le t i t r e d'une N o u v e l l e , e x c l u t t o u t ce q u i n'est pas n e c e s s a i r e pour l a composer, en s o r t e que ce qu'on y a j o u t e , a r r e s t e l e cours de l a premiere H i s t o i r e . Les L e c t e u r s se r e b u t e n t , i l s s o n t f a c h e z de se v o i r i n t e r r o m p u s p a r l e d e t a i l des a v a n t u r e s de Personnes pour q u i i l s s ' i n t e r e s s e n t peu, & i l a r r i v e que dans l a c r a i n t e de p e r d r e de veue, & d ' o u b l i e r un commencement de l e c t u r e q u i ne manque p o i n t de l e s a t t a c h e r aux p r e m i e r s Heros, i l s n e g l i g e n t de l i r e ce q u i ne l e s r e g a r d e pas, c ' e s t a d i r e , l e s t r o i s q u a r t s de toute l a Fable.  ^  (91-92)  By r e d u c i n g t h e number o f c h a r a c t e r s i n t h e n o v e l , c o n t i n u e s Du P l a i s i r ,  the w r i t e r w i l l avoid causing confusion i n the  mind and i n t h e memory o f h i s r e a d e r .  By t h e same t o k e n ,  g r e a t e r u n i t y w i l l be m a i n t a i n e d i n t h e n o v e l s t r u c t u r e , r e a d e r s w i l l n o t c o n s t a n t l y be plagued by h a v i n g f o r g o t t e n the i d e n t i t y o f c h a r a c t e r s mentioned, and every c h a r a c t e r w i l l be b e t t e r d e f i n e d . A l t h o u g h many o f t h e statements which Du P l a i s i r c o n c e r n i n g t h e n o v e l may be t r a c e d back t o M a d e l e i n e Scud^ry's  makes de  p r e f a t o r y remarks t o I b r a h i m , t o h e r C o n v e r s a t i o n s . . .  and t o t h e t e n t h volume o f C i e i i e . we may note i n p a s s i n g t h a t he chooses t o d i f f e r from h i s p r o l i f i c  p r e d e c e s s o r on  the q u e s t i o n o f s t r u c t u r e i n t h e new n o v e l form o f w h i c h he i s speaking.  Mademoiselle  de Scudery p r o c l a i m s i n h e r p r e f a c e  to Ibrahim that i t i s the d i g r e s s i o n s s u c c e s s f u l l y i n t e g r a t e d  41 i n t o the main a c t i o n which enhance the work.  F o l l o w i n g the  example o f the Greeks, whom she d e c l a r e s t o be "nos  premiers  M a i s t r e s " , she a t t r i b u t e s t o secondary a c t i o n s the purpose o f enhancing the main a c t i o n ; she s t a t e s t h a t t h e r e s h o u l d be 1 ' i m i t a t i o n du Poeme Epique  [7..]  une a c t i o n p r i n c i p a l e ,  "a  ou  t o u t e s l e s a u t r e s sont a t t a c h e e s ; q u i regne p a r t o u t 1'ouvrage; & q u i f a i t q u e l l e s n'y 1  a sa p e r f e c t i o n " .  4  sont employees, que  pour l a c o n d u i r e  E l a b o r a t i n g f u r t h e r on the q u e s t i o n  of  secondary a c t i o n s , she s t a t e s : I I e s t t o u j o u r s n e c e s s a i r e , que 'adresse de c e l u y q u i l e s employe, l e s ff ar..l c e t e n i r en quelque f a g o n a. c e t t e a c t i o n p r i n c i p a l e a f i n que par c e t enchainement i n g e n i e u x t o u t e s l e s p a r t i e s ne f a c e n t qu'un c o r p s ; & que l ' o n n'y p u i s s e r i e n v o i r de ddtache n'y d' i n u t i l e . - *  C o n t i n u i n g h i s remarks on the h o l d i n g o f the  reader's  a t t e n t i o n , Du P l a i s i r s t a t e s c a t e g o r i c a l l y t h a t "jamais H i s t o r i e n ne peut a s s e z a t t a c h e r l e s L e c t e u r s " .  (93)  un With  a view t o a c h i e v i n g t h i s g o a l , the n o v e l i s t must a v o i d d r a w i n g his  s u b j e c t s from a n c i e n t h i s t o r y , as d i d t h e n o v e l i s t s i n  the f i r s t h a l f of the c e n t u r y .  E c h o i n g the recommendations  of S e g r a i s ' a r i s t o c r a t i c c h a r a c t e r s i n t h e N o u v e l l e s ...,  francoises  Du P l a i s i r p r o c l a i m s t h a t even i n a w e l l - w r i t t e n s t o r y ,  "un nom  b a r b a r e e s t s e u l capable de L~la] f a i r e h a i r " .  Du P l a i s i r a l s o denounces the use of t i r a d e s and  (94) confidant  c h a r a c t e r s w h i c h a r e , however, s t i l l t o be found i n p l a y s a t t h e time he i s w r i t i n g .  I t i s up t o the w r i t e r t o assume  greater r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n t h i s regard to i n s u r e that  there  42 will  no l o n g e r be c o n f u s i o n a s  or the c o n f i d a n t . necessary  t o who i s  speaking,  R e p e a t e d l y , Du P l a i s i r  underlines  the  s i m p l i f i c a t i o n o f f o r m w h i c h must be e f f e c t e d  t h e "new" n o v e l . principally  in  The a t t e n t i o n o f t h e r e a d e r must be f o c u s e d  on t h e m e r i t and on t h e c o n d i t i o n o f t h e h e r o ;  t h e s e two f a c t o r s ,  when s u c c e s s f u l l y h i g h l i g h t e d ,  t h e r e a d e r e a g e r l y a n t i c i p a t e t h e outcome o f Plaisir  the w r i t e r  develops t h i s  will  make  the s t o r y .  i d e a o f a r a p i d and c o n c i s e  Du  plot  d e v e l o p m e n t by c o n d e m n i n g i n t h e new n o v e l f o r m one o f  the  characteristic  theory  of  the e p i c ,  traits  o f t h e h e r o i c n o v e l b a s e d on t h e  namely t h e b e g i n n i n g  r e f e r s r a t h e r humorously as 1  the Sentimens...  Scude*ry, who l a u d s  chooses  res,  "cette fatigante  commencer l o u v r a g e p a r s a f i n " . of  i n medias  (95-96)  t o w h i c h he  b e a u t e de  A g a i n the  author  to d i f f e r from Mademoiselle  the Ancients f o r beginning  de  t h e i r works  in  7 this  fashion. We have a l r e a d y t o u c h e d upon t h e f a c t  histoire galante,  the  terms  n o u v e a u roman. n o u v e l l e and p e t i t  roman  a s u s e d b y Du P l a i s i r  may be c o n s t r u e d a s  i n meaning because of the f a c t interchangeably. definition  Such i s  of l ' h i s t o i r e  writing a nouvelle. characterizes  almost  synonymous  t h e l a t t e r u s e s them so  t h e c a s e when h e e l a b o r a t e s .sealante and g i v e s h i s  the t e r s e , almost  on t h e  formula  laconic style  the b i n a r y s t r u c t u r e o f the o p e n i n g pages  the second p a r t the necessary  In  that  that  of the S e n t i m e n s . . . .  Du P l a i s i r  components o f t h e n o u v e l l e :  for which of  enumerates  the e f f e c t i v e use  43 of the imagination, a simple recounting of f a c t s , the d e p i c t i o n o f n a t u r a l events and c h a r a c t e r s :  "enfin d'ecrire  & de f a i r e p a r l e r d'une maniere n o b l e , sans e n t r e r dans aucunes r e f l e x i o n s  ... "  (115-116)  The H i s t o i r e  galante  o r n o u v e l l e a c c o r d i n g to Du P l a i s i r * s d e f i n i t i o n i s an assemblage o f d i v e r s e f e a t u r e s w h i c h a r e h e l d t o g e t h e r by the u n i f y i n g f a c t o r o f t i m e , and by t h e backdrop a g a i n s t which the a c t i o n takes place.  (117) The w r i t e r o f t h e  H i s t o i r e g a l a n t e i s urged t o d e f i n e i n h i s f i r s t sentence t h e s e t t i n g and t h e r e i g n d u r i n g w h i c h t h e s t o r y w i l l t a k e p l a c e , as w e l l as t o i n d i c a t e whether i t w i l l be i n peace-time o r i n wartime t h a t t h e p r i n c i p a l i n t r i g u e s ( " l e s p r i n c i p a u x noeuds") w i l l d e v e l o p .  (117) Du P l a i s i r u r g e s t h e w r i t e r t o  provide h i s reader w i t h a d e t a i l e d p i c t u r e of court or of the State's progress  i n b a t t l e , depending on whether he has g i v e n  h i s t a l e a peace-time o r a wartime s e t t i n g .  (118) The p o i n t  w h i c h t h e a u t h o r o f the Sentimens... u n d e r l i n e s here i s t h a t i n e i t h e r case t h e a u t h o r must s t a t e i n t h e s e opening l i n e s of h i s s t o r y o n l y t h a t which i s a b s o l u t e l y i n d i s p e n s a b l e t o the p r e p a r a t i o n and u n d e r s t a n d i n g  o f t h e t a l e w h i c h i s about  to unfold.  From t h e c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f such f o r m u l a i c s t a t e m e n t s c o n c e r n i n g t h e w r i t i n g o f t h i s type o f c r e a t i v e work, Du P l a i s i r moves on t o speak o f c r e a t i v e a b i l i t y and l i t e r a r y genius.  Once a g a i n , t h e p r e c e p t s s e t down by B o i l e a u i n h i s  A r t Po^tique  (1674)° f i n d an echo i n the Sentimens....  P l a i s i r proclaims t h a t genius alone can produce the to t h i n k c r e a t i v e l y , and that the i n d i v i d u a l may be n a t u r a l l y endowed.  (112-113)  Du  ability  or may  not  The imagery, r e l i g i o u s i n  tone, which Du P l a i s i r uses here i s n o t a b l e simply because it  i s rare i n his usually clipped s t y l e .  One  may  become  knowledgeable by t a x i n g the memory w i t h thousands of f a c t s , but the t a l e n t f o r c r e a t i v e thought Du P l a i s i r , who  i s God-given,  qualifies graphically his belief i n stating:  "C'est une rosee benigne,  c ' e s t une manne d'or, q u ' i l  ne re"pand que dans de c e r t a i n e s ames", chosen few  contends  (113)  [God]  I t i s t o these  that Du P l a i s i r addresses h i s remarks.  Du P l a i s i r continues a l o n g the same l i n e s i n s t a t i n g t h a t one must be g i f t e d i n order to p e n e t r a t e the mystery t h a t i s the human h e a r t .  He s t i p u l a t e s t h a t a t the time  i s w r i t i n g , there are few  terms to d e s c r i b e the emotions  experienced by man, t i o n , i s recent.  f o r t h e i r d i s c o v e r y , hence t h e i r  he  defini-  He i s o b v i o u s l y r e f e r r i n g t o the v e r y  r e s t r i c t e d v o c a b u l a r y of the l i t t l e n o v e l s b e i n g produced the 1660's onward; even the acknowledged masterpiece  from  of t h i s  group of n o v e l s , La P r i n c e s s e de C l e v e s , cannot be lauded f o r a v a r i e d and v i s u a l l y r i c h v o c a b u l a r y .  We  must keep i n mind,  however, that r i c h n e s s of vocabulary i n a l i t e r a r y work i s a r e l a t i v e c o n s i d e r a t i o n ; by t w e n t i e t h - c e n t u r y standards (not by seventeenth-century  ones), i s the v o c a b u l a r y  Madame de La F a y e t t e and her f o l l o w e r s poor.  of  only  45 Du P l a i s i r a d v i s e s those who f e e l  t h a t they do n o t have  t h i s f a c u l t y o f p s y c h o l o g i c a l p e n e t r a t i o n t o espouse t h e t a s k of the h i s t o r i a n , r a t h e r than t h a t o f t h e c r e a t i v e w r i t e r ; i n the f a c t u a l h i s t o r i c a l verite  work " l ' o n s'y c o n t e n t e davantage d'une  t o u t e nue, & seulement e m b e l l i e par l ' o r d r e des m a t i e r e s ,  par l a n o b l e s s e des e x p r e s s i o n s , & par 1 * e x a c t i t u d e  du s t i l e " .  (115)  One  o f the g r e a t t a s k s o f a n o v e l i s t i s t o c r e a t e  c r e d i b l e c h a r a c t e r s , and Du P l a i s i r g i v e s a p p r o p r i a t e emphasis t o c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n and methods o f p r e s e n t a t i o n .  For the  g i f t e d w r i t e r , he upon whom God has s m i l e d , the a s p e c t o f the n o v e l which must be g i v e n the most a t t e n t i o n i s c h a r a c t e r ization.  General remarks on the p r e s e n t a t i o n o f the hero and  h e r o i n e precede a d e t a i l e d c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f o t h e r a s p e c t s o f characterization.  I n d i r e c t opposition t o the p r a c t i c e  f o l l o w e d i n the h e r o i c n o v e l , Du P l a i s i r recommends t h a t t h e h e r o o f the new n o v e l be n a t u r a l , and not pompous. hero, a c t i o n s o r t r a i t s considered admirable interessement"  I n the  would be "des-  and "d£licatesse", w h i l e t h e i d e a l  heroine  would be worthy o f her r o l e due t o t h e importance w h i c h she a t t a c h e s t o " s c r u p u l e s " and " r e c o n n o i s s a n c e " . Above a l l , he i n s i s t s ,  (109-110)  the main personages o f the "new"  n o v e l must be g i v e n a w e l l - d e f i n e d c h a r a c t e r , one t h a t i s "precis,  & sensiblement  marqud". (110)  of Honore de B a l z a c , Du P l a i s i r i n s i s t s  l o n g b e f o r e t h e time that the characters  46  have a dominating  t r a i t or f e a t u r e w h i c h w i l l d e t e r m i n e  and  e x p l a i n t h e i r a c t i o n s from b e g i n n i n g t o end o f the n o v e l . (110)  On the o t h e r hand, of c o u r s e , the i d e a of m a i n t a i n i n g  d i v e r s i t y and c o n s i s t e n c y of c h a r a c t e r by no means o r i g i n a t e d w i t h Du P l a i s i r .  F o l l o w i n g the p r e c e p t s o f Horace, M a d e l e i n e  de Scud^ry, i n h e r C o n v e r s a t i o n s . . . ,  drawn from volume t e n  o f h e r C i e i i e . recommends t h a t the w r i t e r adhere s t r i c t l y t o t h e p o r t r a y a l o f d i s t i n c t l y i n d i v i d u a l and  consistent  9  c h a r a c t e r s i n the n o v e l . Du P l a i s i r e l a b o r a t e s a t l e n g t h on t h i s a s p e c t terization.  of  charac-  Not o n l y the q u a l i t i e s of c h a r a c t e r as d e p i c t e d  i n the n o v e l , but a l s o h i s a c t i o n s make t h e r e a d e r admire t h e h e r o ; but more i m p o r t a n t  than these a r e n o b l e n e s s of thought  and the a c c u r a c y w i t h which the emotions o f the h e a r t  are  p o r t r a y e d , f o r these q u a l i t i e s cause the r e a d e r t o admire t h e writer.  A c t i o n s and q u a l i t i e s of c h a r a c t e r produce l i t t l e  more t h a n c u r i o s i t y , i m p a t i e n c e  f o r the outcome o f the s t o r y ;  as a m a t t e r o f f a c t , i f t h e s t o r y ends i n the way  the  reader  e x p e c t s , he i s not l i k e l y t o r e r e a d i t ; but Du P l a i s i r maint a i n s t h a t the a u t h o r who  i s s u c c e s s f u l i n c u l t i v a t i n g noble  t h o u g h t s i n h i s c h a r a c t e r s and who  i s a b l e t o express w e l l  the emotions f e l t by them i s l i k e l y t o have h i s work r e r e a d . C o n s e q u e n t l y , he who  r e l a t e s a t a l e t h a t i s r e a d o n l y once  has not much r e a s o n t o be p l e a s e d w i t h h i s c r e a t i o n . (111-112) Moving from a g e n e r a l d i s c u s s i o n of c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n t o more d e t a i l e d c o n s i d e r a t i o n s , Du P l a i s i r e l a b o r a t e s f i r s t  of  47 a l l on the d i s t i n c t i o n between main and secondary c h a r a c t e r s i n the n o v e l .  Secondary c h a r a c t e r s a r e d e f i n e d by Du  Plaisir  as those whose o n l y f u n c t i o n i n the s t o r y i s t o t i e t h e i n t r i g u e together.  These personages of l e s s e r importance  must be d e s c r i b e d as e a r l y on i n the t a l e as p o s s i b l e , i n o r d e r t h a t by the knowledge  of t h e i r r e l a t i v e m e r i t , t h e  r e a d e r may h i m s e l f determine whether t o a t t a c h importance to t h e i r r o l e i n the i n t r i g u e .  (119)  I t i s n o t good  p r a c t i c e t o p r a i s e the p h y s i c a l a t t r i b u t e s o f t h e s e secondary characters.  Du P l a i s i r g i v e s two reasons f o r t h i s o p i n i o n .  I n the f i r s t p l a c e , he f e e l s t h a t t h e r e a r e not i n the v o c a b u l a r y o f h i s day terms n o b l e enough t o r e n d e r t h i s d e s c r i p t i o n p l e a s i n g , and, i n the second p l a c e , such l a u d a t o r y  remarks  would cause t h e r e a d e r t o doubt the t r u t h o f what t h e a u t h o r i s proposing.  The r e a d e r , s t a t e s Du P l a i s i r , i s aware t h a t  t h e s e t r a i t s e x i s t o n l y i n t h e i m a g i n a t i o n o f the w r i t e r . The d e s i r e t o p l e a s e u n i v e r s a l l y , expounded as a p r i n c i p l e by B o i l e a u , ^ i s e x p r e s s e d a l s o by the a u t h o r o f the S e n t i 1  mens. ... who d i s s u a d e s t h e w r i t e r from employing s u c h f l a t t e r i n g d e s c r i p t i o n s , on the grounds t h a t such a p r a c t i c e would be d e s t r u c t i v e t o the d e s i g n o f the w r i t e r , w h i c h must be t o produce a work t h a t i s p l e a s i n g t o everyone.  (120-121)  What Du P l a i s i r i s i n f a c t recommending here i s an i n t e r n a l i z a t i o n of the n o v e l form.  He i s d e s c r i b i n g a phenomenon  t h a t e x i s t e d a l r e a d y a t the time he p r e s e n t e d h i s t h e o r e t i c a l o b s e r v a t i o n s on the n o v e l form; p h y s i c a l d e s c r i p t i o n i s k e p t  48  t o the minimum and l a c k s i n d i v i d u a l i z a t i o n , w h i l e a t t e n t i o n i s drawn t o the h i g h l y s t y l i z e d p o r t r a y a l of mental a t t r i b u t e s and p s y c h o l o g i c a l r e a c t i o n s .  Du P l a i s i r contends t h a t  the  d e p i c t i o n of t h e q u a l i t i e s of the s o u l or the mind g i v e s p l e a s u r e t o a l l r e a d e r s , t h a t these q u a l i t i e s a l o n e d e t e r m i n e c h a r a c t e r , and t h e r e f o r e they a l o n e s h o u l d be d e s c r i b e d  in  d e t a i l , w h i l e g e n e r a l terms w i l l s u f f i c e f o r p h y s i c a l d e s cription. U n l i k e M a d e l e i n e de Scudery, who,  i n her preface  to  I b r a h i m c o n t e n d s t h a t the h e r o ' s c h a r a c t e r i s u n v e i l e d  to  the r e a d e r not by r e c o u n t i n g h i s a d v e n t u r e s , but by the cont e n t of h i s " d i s c o u r s " , Du P l a i s i r b e l i e v e s t h a t i n the d e p i c t i o n of the main c h a r a c t e r s a t l e a s t a c t i o n s o n l y must speak.  The  example which he uses t o i l l u s t r a t e h i s statement  i s noteworthy, f o r i t c o u l d apply t o h i s own d'Estramene as w e l l as t o any  Duchesse  of the p e t i t s romans which  may  be a r b i t r a r i l y grouped under the r u b r i c of " l e dilemme de 1'honnete femme".  Du P l a i s i r s t a t e s :  Un Hdros se p e i n t par ses e f f e t s ; & s i on v o i t une femme r a i s o n n a b l e p e r d r e des l e p r e m i e r moment ou e l l e l ' a p p e r g o i t une f i e r t e " , & un repos q u ' e l l e a v o i t conserve aupres du r e s t e des Hommes, i l s e r a b i e n mieux d e p e i n t que par tous ces mots de bonne mine, d'agrement, & de m a j e s t e . (124) Concerned as he i s w i t h v e r i s i m i l i t u d e i n t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n  of  c h a r a c t e r s , Du P l a i s i r i n s i s t s t h a t t h e r e be c o n s i s t e n c y i n the a c t i o n s and i n the moral make-up of the main c h a r a c t e r s . I n v a i n w i l l the a u t h o r speak of the m e r i t o r i o u s m o r a l  49  a t t r i b u t e s of h i s c h a r a c t e r i f the a c t i o n s of the l a t t e r not conform t o these l a u d a b l e  do  qualities.  H a v i n g d e a l t w i t h the d i f f e r e n t methods which must be employed t o p r e s e n t main and secondary c h a r a c t e r s , Du  Plaisir  n e x t broaches the s u b j e c t of the o r d e r i n w h i c h t h e s e  characters  s h o u l d i d e a l l y be p r e s e n t e d .  Because of the n e c e s s i t y of  r e n d e r i n g the main c h a r a c t e r s p r a i s e w o r t h y ,  the w r i t e r i s  a d v i s e d t o p r e s e n t them o n l y a f t e r he has d e s c r i b e d  the  secondary c h a r a c t e r s , f o r i f the main c h a r a c t e r s were t o come on stage r i g h t a t the b e g i n n i n g o f t h e s t o r y , t h e secondary c h a r a c t e r s would not be s u f f i c i e n t l y "on s ' a p p e r c o i t peu d'un p l e i n e d'un  distinctive:  m e r i t e mediocre, quand on a l ' i d e e  merite e x t r a o r d i n a i r e " .  (126)  The m a t t e r of the d i v e r s i t y and the c o n s i s t e n c y c h a r a c t e r s upon which Du P l a i s i r has a l r e a d y touched echoing to a c e r t a i n extent precepts presented  of lightly,  by M a d e l e i n e  de Scud^ry, i s c o n s i d e r e d i n more d e t a i l here i n r e l a t i o n t o methods of c h a r a c t e r p r e s e n t a t i o n . s u c c e s s f u l l y balanced  D i v e r s i t y i s the key t o a  work; the a u t h o r of the Sentimens...  contends t h a t the c h a r a c t e r s must not a l l be o f e q u a l goodness, even though they are a l l of course genereux, b r a v e s " .  (126)  "supposez r a i s o n n a b l e s ,  The main m o t i v a t i n g c h a r a c t e r  trait  must be c o n s i s t e n t w i t h and complementary t o the secondary character  traits.  A f t e r h a v i n g made g e n e r a l remarks r e g a r d i n g the main and secondary c h a r a c t e r s , Du P l a i s i r devotes s e v e r a l pages t o the  50  s t u d y o f t h e h s r o and h e r o i n e i n p a r t i c u l a r .  The main  c h a r a c t e r s o f the new n o v e l form a r e n o t t o be superhumani n d i v i d u a l s , m a i n t a i n s t h e a u t h o r o f t h e Sentimens.... 12 Already i n her Conversations...,  Madeleine  de Scudery was  c a l l i n g f o r a balance o f n a t u r a l and marvelous events i n t h e novel.  Some twenty y e a r s l a t e r , Du P l a i s i r goes one s t e p  f u r t h e r i n a d v o c a t i n g t h e complete e l i m i n a t i o n o f m i r a c l e s w h i c h had beer, t h e trademark o f t h e n o v e l i n t h e f i r s t of t h e c e n t u r y , and opts s u b s e q u e n t l y more n a t u r a l i n c h a r a c t e r .  half  f o r heroes and h e r o i n e s  Du P l a i s i r a d v i s e s t h e w r i t e r  n o t t o o v e r - t a x t h e v i r t u e o f t h e female c h a r a c t e r s ,  while  the courage o f t h e male c h a r a c t e r s i s measured by t h e i r e x p l o i t s and by t h e numerous dangers w h i c h they may overcome, a >fosian whose v i r t u e appears t o be i r f e p r o a c h a b l e a f t e r many o n s l a u g h t s i s indeed t o be s u s p e c t e d  o f d e c e p t i o n , f o r Du  P l a i s i r i s o f t h e o p i n i o n t h a t God a l o n e i s c a p a b l e o f recomp e n s i n g exemplary v i r t u e , "parce que l u y s e u l ne juge p o i n t selon. 1'usage, ou l e s apparences".  (101)  E l a b o r a t i n g on t h e s u b j e c t o f t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e hero and the^ h e r o i n e a c c o r d i n g t o h i s i d e a l c o n c e p t i o n , Du P l a i s i r a l l u d e 3 t o one o f t h e s t o c k d e v i c e s used by t h e w r i t e r s of the h e r o i c novel, a device which i s c e r t a i n l y s t i l l v e r y much i n evidence a f t e r 1660, c a t e d P r i n c e s s e de C l e v e s .  even i n t h e s o p h i s t i -  The p r a c t i c e o f a b s e n t i n g t h e  h e r o i n e from t h e scene s u p p o s e d l y  because o f an i n d i s p o s i -  t i o n c a l l s f o r t h the f o l l o w i n g observation:  51 Ce p r ^ t e x t e , o u t r e q u ' i l s e r o i t t r o p u n i f o r m e , s e r o i t encor degoutant. Un des grands t r a i t s de beauts dans une Femme, e s t d ' e s t r e p r o p r e ; i l e s t i m p o s s i b l e de 1 ' e s t r e quand on e s t souvent m a l - s a i n e . Une i n d i s p o s i t i o n dans t o u t e une H i s t o i r e , peut donner de l a piti£: mais une r e c h u t e commence a d ^ p l a i r e . (142) The young people o f t h e day h o l d i n h i g h esteem a h e a l t h y body, s t a t e s Du P l a i s i r .  One cannot h e l p b u t t h i n k t h a t he  i s here making an i r o n i c a l l u s i o n t o t h e p r d c i e u s e s when he p o r t r a y s these young people who, "en h a i n e des P o t i o n s , des Remedes, ou du Regime, (7«^) f u ' i r o i e n t l a Femme de t o u t P a r i s l a plus s p i r i t u e l l e " .  (143)  Now t h a t we have c o n s i d e r e d  Du P l a i s i r ' s c o n c e p t i o n o f  the i d e a l s t r u c t u r e o f t h e "new" n o v e l and t h e methods o f p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e c h a r a c t e r s t h e r e i n , l e t us l o o k a t t h e r o l e o f t h e a u t h o r i n h i s work a s he d e f i n e s i t , and t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p he e n v i s a g e s between t h e c r e a t o r and h i s c r e a t i o n . Du P l a i s i r ' s c a r d i n a l r u l e i s t h a t the w r i t e r must remain i m p a r t i a l toward h i s c r e a t i o n s .  He may use h i s s k i l l t o p o i n t  out t h e f i n e r q u a l i t i e s o f h i s hero a t t h e b e g i n n i n g  of the  t a l e he i s about t o r e l a t e ; however, such l a u d a t o r y remarks are permitted  o n l y b e f o r e t h e a c t i o n b e g i n s because t h e y form  as i t were a n e c e s s a r y p o r t r a i t .  Once the w r i t e r b e g i n s t o  r e l a t e i n d e t a i l t h e a c t i o n s o f t h e h e r o , he must n o t e x p r e s s h i s opinion concerning  his character.  (127-128)  We n o t e i n  p a s s i n g t h a t t h e a u t h o r of t h e Sentimens... has a v e r y  strong  sense o f t h e importance o f t i m i n g i n the n o v e l ; t h e p e r f e c t i o n  52 of the shor ; n o v e l form as he c o n c e i v e s i t i s based upon an -  a c u t e awareness of chronology and the arrangement of time sequences i n the development o f the a c t i o n .  Making use once  more of the metaphor of p a i n t i n g , Du P l a i s i r contends t h a t once the p o r t r a i t of the h e r o has been o u t l i n e d , no r e t o u c h i n g i s p e r m i t t e d , f o r such a d d i t i o n a l b r u s h - s t r o k e s would i n d i c a t e t h a t the w r i t e r had e i t h e r n e g l e c t e d t o f i n i s h h i s p a i n t i n g p r o p e r l y i n the f i r s t p l a c e or t h a t he i s making  unnecessary  and redundant a l t e r a t i o n s . Du P l a i s i r c o n t i n u e s h i s d i s c u s s i o n o f the r o l e o f the a u t h o r by r e l a t i n g i t to t h a t of the r e a d e r .  I n s i s t i n g upon  the n e c e s s a r y i m p a r t i a l i t y of the a u t h o r , he contends, t h a t the l a t t e r .should not use a f l a t t e r i n g e p i t h e t even chough such a remark made, i n r e l a t i o n t o the hero might be justified;  entirely  oy so c o m m i t t i n g h i m s e l f , the w r i t e r would v i o l a t e  h i s necessary  "indifference".  (129-130)  I t i s not t h e  author's  p l a c e t o judge the m e r i t of the hero; w h i l e the a u t h o r ' s  only  t a s k i s t o i e p i c t the hero's f e e l i n g s and conduct, i t i s the r e a d e r alon-3 who due t o him. may  can r e m i t t o the hero whatever p r a i s e may  be  Du P l a i s i r does however concede t h a t the w r i t e r  be p e r m i t t e d to show h i s complaisance  toward h i s c h a r a c t e r s  a f t e r what he terms a sad and d i s t r e s s i n g d e s c r i p t i o n . Concerning  the a t t i t u d e which-the  (130-131)  w r i t e r should, adopt, t o -  ward h i s r e a d e r , Du P l a i s i r demands t h a t he be p o l i t e , but n e c e s s a r i l y always w i t t y .  (134-135)  The w r i t e r i s n o t  not  per-  m i t t e d t o e n t e r i n t o l e n g t h y r e f l e x i o n s ; the one p o s s i b l e  exception  ;o t h i s r u l e o c c u r s when t h e w r i t e r i s a t p a i n s t o  p r e s e n t t h 3 a c t i o n from t h e hero's p o i n t o f v i e w . may be not ;d t h a t , a c c o r d i n g t o t h e p r e c e d i n g  (135) I t  statement,  a l t h o u g h t i e a u t h o r does n o t make h i s presence o b s t r u s i v e i n h i s wor.c, he ±3 n o n e t h e l e s s t h e r e m a n i p u l a t i n g t:ie c h a r a c t e r s who a r e h i s puppets,  f o r he s k i l f u l l y would adopt  t h e i r p o i n t o f v i a w , and p r e s e n t i t t o t h e r e a d e r . The w r i t e r siaould not be e n t i r e l y s u b m i s s i v e ,  maintains  Du P l a i s i r ; he s h o u l d show h i s s k i l l i n s e t t i n g up a n a t u r a l c o n v e r s a t i o n between h i s c h a r a c t e r s , i n s t e a d o f d e s c r i b i n g t h e i r thoughts. his  The s k i l f u l w r i t e r i s c a p a b l e o f l e a d i n g  readers t o b e l i e v e that i t i s a c t u a l l y the character  h i m s e l f s p a a k i n g , and n o t t h e w r i t e r who has g i v e n l i m l i f e . (137)  Onei t h e w r i t e r has i n i t i a t e d a c o n v e r s a t i o n between  c h a r a c t e r s , he s h o u l d f i n i s h i t w i t h o u t i n t e r r u p t i o n , pauses being generally disagreable.'to the reader.  (137-138) I f  the author h i m s e l f should not i n t r u d e i n the conversations of his  c h a r a c ;ers,  inclusion  n e i t h e r s h o u l d he break t h e i r momentum by t h e  )f f o r t u i t o u s events.^  The b r e a k i n g o f t h e l i m p i d  and r a p i d movement o f t h e n a r r a t i v e i s a grave e r r o r , a c c o r d i n g t o Du P l a i s i r ; t h e r e a d e r who a w a i t s i m p a t i e n t l y t h e outcome of t h e s t o r y w i l l f e e l o n l y contempt, e i t h e r f o r t h e w r i t e r , o r f o r t h e person i n t e r r u p t i n g t h e c o n v e r s a t i o n .  (140)  One f a c t o r w h i c h s e r v e s t o d i s t i n g u i s h t h e a u t h o r his  from  c h a r a c t e r s i s t h a t they do n o t n e c e s s a r i l y e x p r e s s them-  s e l v e s i n t h e same manner.  As t h e hero i s supposed t o be i n  54  the a c t u a l presence o f the p e r s o n t o whom he i s s p e a k i n g , his  tone w i l l as a r e s u l t be c o n v e r s a t i o n a l .  On t h e o t h e r  hand, t h e w r i t e r composes i n s o l i t u d e , and can p o l i s h h i s speech and e x p r e s s i o n a t l e i s u r e .  Whereas t h e e x p r e s s i o n o f  the w r i t e r may,, and s h o u l d , be s t u d i e d , t h a t o f h i s h e r o s h o u l d a t a l l c o s t s be n a t u r a l , and a v o i d what Du  Plaisir  c a l l s "Etude, P o e s i e , D e c l a r a t i o n , langage c o n t r e l e n a t u r e l " . (148) S i n c e Du P l a i s i r e n v i s a g e s i t as t h e a u t h o r ' s d u t y t o observe a t a l l times t h e r u l e s o f M e n s e a n c e and s i n c e r i t y , t h e hero as he c o n c e i v e s him w i l l have c e r t a i n p r i v i l e g e s which h i s c r e a t o r does n o t .  (150)  These p r i v i l e g e s a r e  e f f e c t e d p r i n c i p a l l y i n speeches d e a l i n g w i t h the s u b j e c t s of l o v e and c o u r t e s y , i n which the hero i s p e r m i t t e d might be c o n s i d e r e d  what  excesses i n the mouth o f t h e w r i t e r .  The r o l e o f the a u t h o r i n h i s work, the r e l a t i o n s h i p w h i c h e x i s t s between the c r e a t o r and t h e work w h i c h he has c r e a t e d and between the c r e a t o r and h i s r e a d e r , l e a d s t o a d i s c u s s i o n o f d i g r e s s i o n s and t h e i r p l a c e i n t h e n o v e l .  Du  P l a i s i r devotes a number o f pages t o t h i s s u b j e c t . Du P l a i s i r argues t h a t d i g r e s s i o n s must n o t d e t r a c t from the main a c t i o n , and t h a t vague o r extraneous s u b j e c t s must n o t , t h e r e f o r e , be i n t r o d u c e d i n t o c o n v e r s a t i o n s i n the new n o v e l .  He r e f e r s I n d i r e c t l y t o t h e l o n g d i s c u s s i o n s o f  p r e c i e u x g a l l a n t r y which had encumbered t h e movement o f the grands romans:  55  On n ' e c r i t p l u s r i e n dans une H i s t o i r e q u i ne l u y s o i t i n d i s p e n s a b l e m e n t n e c e s s a i r e , & j e c r o y q u ' i l s e r o i t d i f f i c i l e d'y i n t r o d u i r e une Q u e s t i o n a d e c i d e r , quelque g a l a n t e q u ' e l l e pust e s t r e . (162) U s i n g e f f e c t i v e l y the image of the v o i d ("des  espaces v u i d e s " ,  163), Du P l a i s i r argues t h a t these d i g r e s s i o n s a r e  infinitely  t i r i n g ; t o the r e a d e r , and t h a t the end r e s u l t . i s d e s t r u c t i v e , f o r wh.en they do not make him l o s e s i g h t of the main c h a r a c t e r s , t h e y weaken ~hexr presence and s e r v e t o suspend the  reader's  s a t i s f a c t i o n a t b e i n g a b l e t o proceed, u n i n t e r r u p t e d , t o denouement.  (162-163)  Adamant on t h i s p o i n t , Du  the  Plaisir  contends t h a t the main o b j e c t i v e of t h e s e workn i s t o make the r e a d e r aware of the p l i g h t of the c h a r a c t e r s .  Du  opts :.'or the most d i r e c t r o u t e t o the denouement:  "les plus  beaux chemins par l e s q u e l s on m a r c h e r o i t  v e r s ce but  fatigrms, s ' i l s n'estoient l e s plus courts". conversations  (164)  Plaisir  seroient Those  a b s o l u t e l y n e c e s s a r y t o the n o v e l must t h e r e f o r e  •be s h o r t , f o r the v e r y reason t h a t i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o  culti-  v a t e a t l e n g t h a n a t u r a l , b e l i e v a b l e c o n v e r s a t i o n between peopl.j'.  Because the r e a d e r d e r i v e s v i c a r i o u s p l e a s u r e  two  from  i d e n t i f y i n g w i t h the c h a r a c t e r s , the c o n v e r s a t i o n s must be n a t u r a l enough t o enable the r e a d e r t o b e l i e v e t h a t were he i n the same p o s i t i o n as the c h a r a c t e r s , he would e x p r e s s the same : sentiments. How  t h e n should the w r i t e r go about h o l d i n g the a t t e n t i o n  of the r e a d e r ? near r.he end  The recommendation which Du P l a i s i r makes  of the second s e c t i o n of the Sentimens... would  56 appear t o be a c o n t r a d i c t i o n o f e a r l i e r remarks.  He i m p l i e s  t h a t the w r i t e r must d i r e c t , and t h e r e f o r e p l a y an a c t i v e p a r t i n s e t t i n g up the c o n v e r s a t i o n s i n h i s work, which must not, however, be w r i t t e n i n the form o f an every-day The w r i t e r must make h i s presence  dialogue.  f e l t from time t o time i n  the course o f these c o n v e r s a t i o n s t o make comments and t o m a i n t a i n the f i r s t  impression which he has sought t o c r e a t e .  By showing us the mental o r p s y c h o l o g i c a l a t t i t u d e o f t h e c h a r a c t e r s , he w i l l succeed replies.  (165-166)  i n p r e p a r i n g us t o accept  their  What Du P l a i s i r c o u l d be s a i d t o be  commenting upon here i s the technique  of the s h i f t i n g view-  p o i n t p r a c t i s e d by Madame de L a F a y e t t e i n h e r P r i n c e s s e de 13 Cleves  and by h i m s e l f i n La Duchesse d'Estramene.  I t must  not be f o r g o t t e n that h i s theory o f the n o v e l appeared  just  one year a f t e r the p u b l i c a t i o n o f the c r e a t i v e work a t t r i b u t e d t o him. A f t e r having provided a lengthy example t o i l l u s t r a t e h i s statement,  Du P l a i s i r comments t h a t the c o n v e r s a t i o n a l p a r t s  o f the e x t r a c t quoted a r e n o t l o n g , but t h a t they would be b o r i n g i f not p r e f a c e d by remarks which, he contends, the a t t e n t i o n o f the reader.  capture  (177)  The author o f the Sentimens... envisages two d i s t i n c t types o f c o n v e r s a t i o n s s u i t a b l e f o r i n c o r p o r a t i o n i n t o the novel.  The short ones, to which he has made r e f e r e n c e i n  the p r e c e d i n g pages, a r e those which serve t o h o l d the i n t r i g u e together; the second type must c e r t a i n l y not be  57 l e n g t h y , because the r e a d e r i s not a t t h i s p o i n t w e l l enough acquainted  w i t h the hero t o i d e n t i f y w i t h h i s language.  the o t h e r hand, when a d i s c u s s i o n r e p l a c e s an  On  important  adventure or when i t i s i n the denouement, i t may S t i l l concerned w i t h v e r i s i m i l i t u d e and w i t h the  be l o n g . maintaining  of a n a t u r a l tone i n the n o v e l , Du P l a i s i r argues t h a t i n conversations  of t h i s second t y p e , " c ' e s t l a . que  a b e s o i n d'une grande adresse  l'Historien  pour i m i t e r l a Nature dans l e  d i s c o u r s , & pour r e n o u v e l l e r t o u t e 1 ' a t t e n t i o n , & t o u t 1'attachement des L e c t e u r s " .  (179-180)  I n a more g e n e r a l v e i n , Du P l a i s i r ' s apparent l a c k o f esteem f o r books of conversation"*"  4  seems t o stem f r o m t h e  f a c t t h a t such works are not n a t u r a l i n t h e i r  expression.  I n t e l l i g e n t people take l i t t l e p l e a s u r e i n r e a d i n g works of t h i s t y p e , because, he s t i p u l a t e s , c o n v e r s a t i o n s s h o u l d r e l a t e d to a n a r r a t i v e context.  be  Banning maxims, remarks o f  a p o l i t i c a l n a t u r e and m o r a l i z i n g speeches from t h e n o v e l , he p o i n t s out t h a t , a f t e r a l l , one does not n o r m a l l y o n e s e l f i n such a manner.  express  E c h o i n g once more M a d e l e i n e de  15 Scudery,  Du P l a i s i r argues t h a t the i d e a l n o u v e l l e  only  i n s t r u c t s i n a p l e a s i n g manner, and t h a t a m o r a l commentary w h i c h would have a p r o p e r p l a c e i n a work o f i n s t r u c t i o n should not be appended t o any work of a d e s c r i p t i v e n a t u r e . He q u a l i f i e s h i s statements on t h i s m a t t e r by r e m a r k i n g t h a t i f n o v e l s do c o n t a i n g e n e r a l i n s t r u c t i o n , i t i s t o be found i n the s i t u a t i o n s which the author r e c o u n t s , r a t h e r than i n  58 meditations  or i n p r e c e p t s  extraneous t o the n a r r a t i v e .  t h i s r e g a r d , Du P l a i s i r * s i n s i s t e n c e upon u n o b t r u s i v e  In  moral  i n s t r u c t i o n c o i n c i d e s w i t h the d e f i n i t i o n o f the n o u v e l l e  as  g i v e n by R i c h e l e t , t h a t i s , " l e r£cit i n g e i i i e u x d'une a v a n t u r e agreable".  1 6  As w e l l as r e f r a i n i n g from making m o r a l commentaries on the a c t i o n , the a u t h o r must c o n t r o l r i g o r o u s l y the momentum of h i s t a l e .  A c c o r d i n g t o the author o f t h e Sentimens....  a c e r t a i n d i f f u s e n e s s i s p e r m i s s i b l e at the beginning  o f the  s t o r y ; i n f a c t , i n the opening pages of h i s t a l e , the  author  may  p r e s e n t h i m s e l f t o h i s own  advantage and demonstrate h i s  knowledge of human emotions or o f l i f e i n g e n e r a l .  The  must n o t , however, be a l l o w e d t o become t o o i m p a t i e n t ;  reader there-  f o r e the a u t h o r must permit h i s n a r r a t i o n t o g a i n momentum f a i r l y rapidly.  He must "peu a. peu o u b l i e r sa p r o p r e  s a t i s f a c t i o n , & se s o u v e n i r davantage de [".. j) marquer de l a c o m p l a i s a n c e " toward h i s r e a d e r s . he c o n c l u d e s ,  (156-157)  For t h i s  reason,  the w r i t e r must not s t r i k e p o r t r a i t s n e a r the  end of h i s s t o r y , f o r a t t h a t p o i n t the r e a d e r d e s i r e s o n l y a c t i o n l e a d i n g t o the denouement.  (157)  I n c o n t r a s t t o the g e n e r a l l y l a c o n i c s t y l e o f Du t r e a t i s e on the n o v e l , h i s c o n c l u d i n g remarks p r e s e n t f r e s h i n g metaphors and s u r p r i s i n g images.  Plaisir's re-  F o r example, when  Du P l a i s i r contends t h a t the s t o r y must a l w a y s have a c o n c l u s i o n , he employs a commonplace n a u t i c a l metaphor:  " l e plus  grand p l a i s i r que p u i s s e gouter 1 ' e s p r i t a p r e s t o u t e s l e s  59  i n q u i e t u d e s , & t o u t e s l e s i m p a t i e n c e s que donne une  longue  s u i t e d ' i n t r i g u e s & d'evenemens, e s t de v o i r e n f i n l e s Heros, ou e n t r e r au P o r t , ou f a i r e n a u f r a g e " .  (180)  always t o p l e a s e h i s r e a d e r , the a u t h o r o f t h e  Careful  Sentimens...  seeks t o c r e a t e a f e e l i n g of r e s p i t e a t t h e end of the n o v e l , o b t a i n e d perhaps by t h e heros* d e a t h , o r , p r e f e r a b l y , t h e i r union i n marriage.  (181)  w i t h the h e r o i c n o v e l .  Du P l a i s i r shows here h i s t i e s 17  For Madeleine de Scudery  as w e l l ,  t h e end r e s u l t o f a l l the a c t i o n s d e s c r i b e d i n the n o v e l i s marriage.  I t i s perhaps because Du P l a i s i r m a i n t a i n s t h a t  one s h o u l d l e a v e n o t h i n g t o the i m a g i n a t i o n o f one's r e a d e r t h a t h i s t h e o r y w i l l not be put i n t o p r a c t i c e by the w r i t e r s who  f o l l o w him.  The t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y i n p a r t i c u l a r  has  w i t n e s s e d the r i s e o f the n o v e l i n which more r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i s p l a c e d on the s h o u l d e r s of the r e a d e r w i t h r e g a r d t o the p o s s i b l e denouement o f the a c t i o n . The c o n c l u d i n g l i n e s o f the second s e c t i o n of the Sentimens...  s e r v e t o c o n f i r m us i n our judgment of i t s v a l u e  as a h i s t o r i c a l document r a t h e r than as a f o r m u l a f o r a n o v e l form t o be adopted  by w r i t e r s a f t e r 1683.  Du  new  Plaisir  p l a c e s the n o v e l i n the same c a t e g o r y as the t h e a t r e , s t a t i n g t h a t the o b j e c t o f both genres i s e d i f i c a t i o n ; t h e n o v e l must t h e r e f o r e have a c l e a r l y expressed moral i n i t s c o n c l u s i o n . E c h o i n g once a g a i n Madeleine de Scudery,  who  i s quoted  almost v e r b a t i m by Huet i n t h e p r e f a t o r y remarks t o Madame 19 de L a F a y e t t e ' s Zayde. Du P l a i s i r demands t h a t v i c e be  60 punished and that v i r t u e triumph.  (183)  So ends part two o f the Sentimens.... a l b e i t on a somewhat u n o r i g i n a l m o r a l i s t i c note.  We must not, however, judge  t h i s work too h a r s h l y , f o r u n l i k e i t s author and h i s contemp o r a r i e s , we have today the advantage o f three c e n t u r i e s o f c r i t i c a l perspective.  We w i l l e n r i c h t h i s p e r s p e c t i v e by  examining what the contemporaries o f the author thought o f the Sentimens.... f o r t h i s w i l l serve  t o g i v e us an i n d i c a t i o n  o f the c r i t i c a l awareness of the time, as w e l l as t o add yet another dimension t o our a p p r e c i a t i o n o f the work.  Three e n t r i e s i n the Mercure Galant o f February, A p r i l and May 1683 a r e p e r t i n e n t , f o r they r e v e a l the f a c t t h a t the work was being d i s c u s s e d i n manuscript form. has  by the l i t e r a t i w h i l e i t was s t i l l  I n the February e d i t i o n , Donneau de V i s e  the f o l l o w i n g t o say about the manuscript: Je me s u i s inform^, Madame, comme vous l ' a v e z voulu, du manuscrit i n t i t u l e Sentiments sur l e s l e t t r e s e t l e s h i s t o i r e s galantes. Ce sont des preceptes j u s t e s pour e c r i r e les-unes et l e s a u t r e s . On d i t q u ' i l s sont tournes d'une maniere q u i f a i t c r o i r e que l e u r auteur n'est pas un homme seulement de c a b i n e t . I I y a grande apparence q u ' i l s seront b i e n recus du p u b l i c , p u i s q u ' i l s f o n t une r e g i e , ou pour E c r i r e ces s o r t e s d'ouvrages, ou pour a i d e r l e s personnes q u i l e s l i r o n t , a c o n n a i t r e quel en sera l e m<§rite. On m'a p a r l e d'un t r o i s i e m e a r t i c l e de ce manuscrit. I I t r a i t e de l a c o n s t r u c t i o n des mots, et ne c o n t i e n t que d i x ou douze observations qui expliquent l e s s c r u p u l e s de 1'auteur sur quelques manieres d'e"crire.  61 S i ces observations passaient pour l o i , e l l e s p o u r r a i e n t f a i r e quelque beaute dans l e s t y l e , mais je doute que l a p r a t i q u e en f u t f o r t a i s e e . V o i l a tout ce que j ' a i pu en apprendre. Quand 1'ouvrage p a r a i t r a , j e vous en a v e r t i r a i . 2 0 A s i d e from g i v i n g us a s l e n d e r s t a t u s of Du P l a i s i r  i n d i c a t i o n o f the s o c i a l  ( o b v i o u s l y Donneau de V i s e sees him as  a mondain r a t h e r than a pedant) t h i s statement provides i n s i g h t i n t o p u b l i c t a s t e i n 1683.  an  Based on i t s p o s s i b l e use  e i t h e r as a s e t of r u l e s f o r p r o s p e c t i v e w r i t e r s or as an explanatory  t o o l f o r readers,  the e d i t o r of the Mercure Galant  seems able to p r e d i c t the success of the Sentimens.... must not, however, take h i s judgment  We  too s e r i o u s l y , f o r  e v i d e n t l y he i s only r e p o r t i n g on the work from second hand knowledge. The second of the reviews devoted t o the Sentimens... appears two months l a t e r , i n the A p r i l 1683 e d i t i o n of the Mercure Galant, immediately p r i o r to i t s p u b l i c a t i o n . second a r t i c l e i s of c o n s i d e r a b l e  This  historical interest, for i t  i n d i c a t e s t o us t h a t i n 1683, Donneau de V i s e was not aware of the l i n k between the a u t h o r s h i p  apparently  of La Duchesse  d'Estramene and that of the Sentimens..., as the  concluding  l i n e s of the a r t i c l e i n d i c a t e : Dans h u i t ou d i x j o u r s , Madame, j e vous e n v e r r a i l e l i v r e i n t i t u l e Sentiments sur l e s l e t t r e s et sur l e s h i s t o i r e s . dont j e vous p a r l a i i l y a deux mois. Le s i e u r B l a g e a r t l e d e b i t e r a en ce temps-la. On en a l a i s s e £chapper quelques copies q u i l u i ont donne de l a r e p u t a t i o n . Je c r o i s vous a v o i r deja marque ce q u ' i l c o n t i e n t .  62 Ce sont des p r e c e p t e s t r e s u t i l e s pour E c r i r e avec j u s t e s s e des l e t t r e s g a l a n t e s e t ces s o r t e s d ' h i s t o i r e s que nous a p p e l o n s n o u v e l l e s . On y t r a i t e a u s s i de 1 ' h i s t o i r e v e r i t a b l e . Tous l e s exemples d o n t se s e r t 1'auteur pour prouver ce q u ' i l a v a n c e , s o n t t r e s agreablement t o u r n e s . I I y a meme s u j e t de c r o i r e que dans q u e l q u e s uns i l e n t r e un peu de s a t i r e , dont l e s personnes q u i voudront 1'entendre p o u r r o n t p r o f i t e r . Les s c r u p u l e s q u ' i l propose s u r l e s t y l e nous f o n t c o n n a i t r e l a d e i i c a t e s s e de s o n e s p r i t , e t i l s e r a i t f o r t a. s o u h a i t e r q u ' i l nous donnat quelque ouvrage ou i l se s e r v i t de ses p r o p r e s r e g i e s . On l e l i r a i t avec grand p l a i s i r . 2 1 I t i s somewhat a s t o n i s h i n g t h a t any w r i t e r a s aware o f l i t e r a r y t r e n d s and c o t e r i e s as was Donneau de V i s e s h o u l d not have r e c o g n i z e d t h e p o s s i b l e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f t h e two works  attri-  buted t o Du P l a i s i r , L a Duchesse d'Estramene h a v i n g appeared one y e a r p r i o r t o t h e t h e o r e t i c a l work w h i c h can be a p p l i e d almost p e r f e c t l y t o i t .  The e d i t o r o f t h e Mercure G a l a n t  does, however, b e l i e v e h i m s e l f t o be on t h e r i g h t t r a c k i n c o n n e c t i n g t h e o r y and p r a c t i c e i n a n o t h e r way, f o r i n t h e paragraph f o l l o w i n g t h e above s t a t e m e n t , he i n t r o d u c e s t h u s t h e p u b l i c a t i o n o f the L e t t r e s g a l a n t e s d u C h e v a l i e r d'Her I I p a r a i t r a dans l e meme temps u n a u t r e l i v r e q u i vous donnera l i e u d e x a m i n e r s i l e s r e g i e s que p r e s c r i t I ' a u t e u r . d e s Sentiments y sont o b s e r v e r s ff.. /j ^2 1  The f i n a l r e v i e w devoted t o the Sentimens..• appears i n the May 1683 e d i t i o n o f t h e Mercure G a l a n t : Je vous e n v o i e un a u t r e ouvrage q u i se vend au meme l i e u . C'est c e l u i dont vous m'avez p l u s i e u r s f o i s demande des n o u v e l l e s , e t q u i a pour t i t r e Sentiments s u r l e s l e t t r e s e t s u r 1 ' h i s t o i r e , avec des s c r u p u l e s s u r l e s t y l e . I I semble que ce d e r n i e r a i t e t e  :  f a i t pour donner l e s moyens d examiner 1'autre p l u s f a c i l e m e n t . Cependant, c ' e s t par un pur e f f e t dU h a s a r d que ces deux l i v r e s q u i s o n t de deux d i f f e r e n t s a u t e u r s , ont e t e mis en v e n t e l e meme j o u r e t p a r l e meme l i b r a i r e . Dans l a p r e m i e r e p a r t i e de ce d e r n i e r , on v o i t beaucoup d'exemples des choses que 1'auteur avance, t i r e e s de l e t t r e s q u i ont f a i t du b r u i t dans l e monde. I I y en a d ' a u t r e s s u r l e s m a t i e r e s q u ' i l a i n v e n t d e s . I I p a r l e a u s s i dans c e t t e premiere p a r t i e des b i l l e t s e t des e p i t r e s d d d i c a t o i r e s , e t l ' o n y t r o u v e des manieres de r e g i e s , q u i peuvent e t r e d'une grande u t i l i t e a ceux q u i v e u l e n t e c r i r e dans ce genre. L a seconde p a r t i e c o n t i e n t l a maniere d ' e c r i r e l e s h i s t o i r e s que l ' o n a p p e l l e n o u v e l l e s . On y v o i t des exemples de c h o s e s , q u i peuvent s e r v i r de r e g i e s e t de c e l l e s qu'on d o i t e v i t e r , avec une maniere de s a t i r e t r e s a g r e a b l e c o n t r e l e s romans. Le t r a v a i l de l a t r o i s i e m e p a r t i e e s t d ' a u t a n t p l u s grand, q u ' i l f a u t a v o i r pour c e l a une p a r f a i t e c o n n a i s s a n c e de l a l a n g u e . I I y a dans c e t t e p a r t i e un grand nombre de p e i n t u r e s pour s e r v i r d'exemples. Ce s o n t des morceaux qu'on ne c r o i t pas sans mystere. Toutes ces choses sont a s s e z c a p a b l e s d ' e x c i t e r l a c u r i o s i t y , sans que j e cherche a vous en donner. J e ne vous d i s p o i n t s i ce l i v r e e s t b i e n <£crit: ceux q u i se melent d ' e n s e i g n e r une s c i e n c e , l e d o i v e n t s a v o i r p l u s p a r f a i t e m e n t que ceux q u i l e p r a t i q u e n t avec succes.23 1  I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o note that i n s p i t e o f the s t r o n g r e l a t i o n s h i p which Donneau de V i s e sees between t h e Sentimens... and the L e t t r e s g a l a n t e s du C h e v a l i e r d ' H e r  g 3 £ X  . he i s aware  t h a t t h e two works, one t h e o r e t i c a l , t h e o t h e r c r e a t i v e , a r e by d i f f e r e n t a u t h o r s .  C a r e f u l not t o judge t h e i r  literary  v a l u e , as t h e l a s t l i n e s o f t h i s r e v i e w i n d i c a t e , the e d i t o r o f t h e Mercure G a l a n t seems n o n e t h e l e s s t o deem t h e Sentimens  J^J^ worthy o f n o t e ; h i s s t a t e m e n t s would have c a r r i e d more weight f o r t h e t w e n t i e t h - c e n t u r y r e a d e r were t h e y not r e a d  64  i n conjunction with the other two references i n the Mercure Galant, f o r these indicate, as we have noted above, that Donneau de Visd quite probably gleaned h i s information from a second-hand source. The only other contemporary c r i t i c a l review devoted to the Sentimens.•. known to us appears i n the Journal des Savants of June 1683;  i t i s not a p a r t i c u l a r l y favourable  one, as the following extract indicates: Quand on veut donner des regies sur ces t r o i s sortes de sujets, on doit avoir une s i grande delicatesse d'esprit, tant de penetration sur l e s a f f a i r e s du monde, une s i profonde i n t e l l i g e n c e des historiens qui nous ont devances, et enfin un gout s i p a r t i c u l i e r sur l a maniere d'e"crire, qU'on peut dire que dans tous l e s s i e c l e s i l s'est toujours trouve peu de personnes capables de donner la-dessus des regies certaines et immanquables. On jugera aisement de c e l l e s qui sont i c i prescrites, mais peut-etre l e s sentiments de 1'auteur et l e s exemples q u ' i l propose pour modeles, ne seront pas du gout de tout l e monde.24 Again we might ask ourselves i f the reviewer had a c t u a l l y read the Sentimens... himself, f o r , l i k e Donneau de Vise (or perhaps through having read him), he f a i l s to quote the correct t i t l e of the work. I f Du P l a i s i r ' s theoretical work was not favourably enough received by the reviewers to be read first-hand, and i f i t did not provoke as l i v e l y a discussion amongst h i s contemporaries as did La Duchesse d'Estramene, i t s influence was unquestionably f e l t i n the eighteenth century.  In 1702  Morvan de Bellegarde plagiarized major segments of i t , hardly  b o t h e r i n g t o change the w o r d i n g , i n h i s Deuxieme l e t t r e 25 c u r i e u s e de l i t t e r a t u r e et de morale. Two  ."  more e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y r e f e r e n c e s t o the Sentimens.. ,  cause the s c h o l a r t o wonder i f the r e v i e w e r s i n q u e s t i o n even r e a d t h e work, f o r b o t h quote the erroneous t i t l e as g i v e n by Donneau de V i s e i n the Mercure G-alant. des Romans, L e n g l e t - D u f r e s n o y  I n h i s Bibljotheque  i d e n t i f i e s Du P l a i s i r as t h e  a u t h o r , and makes the f o l l o w i n g remarks: S e n t i m e n t s s u r l e s l e t t r e s et l a s h i s t o i r e s g a l a n t e s , par l e s i e u r du P l a i s i r , i n 12. P a r i s 1683. Ce n'est pas un l i v r e b i e n recherche. Le s i e u r du P l a i s i r , s i ce nom e s t v r a i ou suppose, a p u b l i e encore q u e l ques ouvrages mediocres.26 T h i s statement c e r t a i n l y shows no evidence  of an  unbiased,  c r i t i c a l judgment o f the Sentimens. • . , f but i s o f n o t e because of i t s h i s t o r i c a l v a l u e , L e n g l e t - D u f r e s n o y  b e i n g the f i r s t t o  a t t a c h t h e name of an a u t h o r t o the work.  This discovery i s  however ox l i t t l e h e l p t o the r e s e a r c h e r , f o r the c r i t i c  fails  t o quote the source of h i s i n f o r m a t i o n . I n t h e f i r s t volume o f the B i b l i o t h e q u e U n i v e r s e l l e des Romans, p u b l i s h e d i n 1776, d'Estramene was notice:  an a b r i d g e d v e r s i o n o f L a Duchesse  p r i n t e d w i t h the f o l l o w i n g i n t r o d u c t o r y •  On a s u , d e p u i s que c e t a u t e u r n ' e t a i t a u t r e que du P l a i s i r q u i p u b l i a un an '-. a p r e s , 1'ouvrage i n t i t u l e : Sentiments sur l e s l e t t r e s et l e s h i s t o i r e s galantes.2 < :  A g a i n the m i s q u o t a t i o n o f the t i t l e of Du P l a i s i r ' s  theoretical  work l e a d s us t o b e l i e v e t h a t the Sentimens... was not w i d e l y  66  r e a d ; from the time of Donneau de V i s e , one wonders, i n f a c t , i f i t was The  read a t a l l ! only nineteenth-century  r e f e r e n c e t o e i t h e r of  Du  P l a i s i r * s works i s the s h o r t n o t e found i n B a r b i e r ' s 28  D i c t i o n n a i r e des ouvrages anonymes;  a g a i n the misquoted  t i t l e of the Sentimens... l e a d s us t o s u r m i s e t h a t the m a t i o n was  o b t a i n e d by B a r b i e r second-hand, p r o b a b l y  infor-  from  lenglet-Dufresnoy. 29  Arpad S t e i n e r  was  t  the f i r s t c r i t i c i n the  present  c e n t u r y t o acknowledge the v a l u e of the Sentimens.... and  to  s i t u a t e Du P l a i s i r ' s t r e a t i s e i n a p r o p e r h i s t o r i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e by showing i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p t o the l i t e r a r y t h e o r i e s o f M a d e l e i n e de Scudery and Jean Regnaud de S e g r a i s .  While  p o i n t i n g out t h a t Du P l a i s i r cannot be c r e d i t e d w i t h e x p r e s s i o n of o r i g i n a l thought, S t e i n e r m a i n t a i n s may  the  that  he  indeed be p r a i s e d f o r p r e s e n t i n g what i s t o some e x t e n t  the f i r s t g e n e r a l p o e t i c s of the modern n o v e l .  Commenting  on Du P l a i s i r ' s i n d e b t e d n e s s t o S e g r a i s , S t e i n e r q u a l i f i e s statement made by W.  T i p p i n g , who  contends t h a t  the  Segrais  founded "the p o e t i c s of the n o u v e l l e by s e p a r a t i n g i t from the n o v e l " ; S t e i n e r adds t h a t "Du  P l a i s i r has  h a v i n g g e n e r a l i z e d S e g r a i s ' p r i n c i p l e s and  the m e r i t  of h a v i n g  of  applied  30  them t o a l l f i c t i o n " .  I t i s a l l v e r y w e l l t o show Du  P l a i s i r ' s i n d e b t e d n e s s t o Mademoiselle de Scuddry, but  the  p o i n t of major importance which S t e i n e r r i g h t l y b r i n g s t o  our  a t t e n t i o n i s t h a t the l a t t e r ' s w r i t i n g s comprise l i t t l e more  67  t h a n a t h e o r y n o t put i n t o p r a c t i c e , w h i l e t h e f o r m e r ' s i s i n f a c t an a c t u a l commentary on, o r account o f t h e e v o l u t i o n w h i c h has taken p l a c e i n t h e s t r u c t u r e o f t h e F r e n c h n o v e l : Sappho's i d e a s were j u s t t h e o r y , w h i c h , i n p r a c t i c e , were t u r n e d i n t o as many c a r i c a t u r e s ; here, i n t h e Sentimens... we a r e c o n f r o n t e d w i t h e m p i r i c a l e x p e r i e n c e deduced from a t l e a s t one a c t u a l n o v e l , t h e P r i n c e s s e de C l e v e s , w h i c h c o u l d i l l u s t r a t e v i r t u a l l y every s t a t e ment and every demand o f Du P l a i s i r . 3 1 The  o n l y f a u l t o f which we might perhaps a c c u s e S t e i n e r i s  h i s l i n k i n g o f Du P l a i s i r ' s t h e o r e t i c a l work t o Madame de L a F a y e t t e ' s P r i n c e s s e de C l e v e s r a t h e r t h a n e x c l u s i v e l y t o Du P l a i s i r ' s own c r e a t i v e endeavour. contending  Steiner i s j u s t i f i e d i n  t h a t L a Duchesse d'Estramene i s "the f i n e s t echo o f  the P r i n c e s s e de C l e v e s " , and t h a t " a l t h o u g h D.F. D a l l a s may have been r i g h t i n c o n c l u d i n g t h a t Mme de L a F a y e t t e ' s  master-  p i e c e marked r a t h e r t h e end than t h e b e g i n n i n g o f i t s g e n r e , i t may be s a f e l y s t a t e d t h a t w i t h t h e p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h e P r i n c e s s e de C l e v e s t h e modern n o v e l was b o r n n o t o n l y i n •52  p r a c t i c e but i n t h e o r y as w e l l " . A r n a l d o P i z z o r u s s o acknowledges h i s i n d e b t e d n e s s t o 33  S t e i n e r i n h i s s e n s i t i v e book and a r t i c l e of t h e n o v e l i n France from 1660 t o 1685.  on t h e p o e t i c s I t i s of importance  t o n o t e t h e p a r a l l e l which P i z z o r u s s o draws between Du P l a i s i r ' s predilection for natural, believable n o v e l , r a t h e r than m i r a c u l o u s Fontenelle.  events" i n t h e  happenings, and t h a t shown by  P i z z o r u s s o p r e f a c e s h i s e x t r a c t from F o n t e n e l l e ' s  L e t t r e de M. F o n t e n e l l e s u r l e L i v r e i n t i t u l e L e s Malheurs de  68 l Amour, ou Ele"onor d'Yvr£e, w i t h t h e f o l l o w i n g a l l u s i o n t o 1  Du P l a i s i r ' s p o e t i c s : La concezione d e l romanzo e s p r e s s a n e i Sentimens d i Du P l a i s i r s i r i s o l v e n e l l a e l a b o r a z i o n e d i un meccanisimo p s i c o l o g i c o r a f f i n a t o ed a s t r a t t o . L a ' s c i e n z a d e l cuore' conduce a l gusto d e l l ' i n g e g n o s i t a , a l i a ricerca della singolarita, e dell'eccezione n e l l ' o r d i n e d e l sentimento.34 He then quotes a passage from t h e Mercure G a l a n t o f September 1687,  showing t h e s i m i l a r i t y between F o n t e n e l l e ' s and Du  P l a i s i r ' s poetics of the novel. coeur" w h i c h i s m a n i f e s t  R e f e r r i n g t o t h e " s c i e n c e du  i n t h e P r i n c e s s e de C l e v e s ,  F o n t e n e l l e ' s words echo t o a c e r t a i n e x t e n t t h e t h e o r y o f Du Plaisir: Je vous p a r l e d ' E l ^ o n o r e d'Yvr^e que j e vous envoye. C'est un p e t i t s u j e t peu charge d ' i n t r i g u e s , mais ou l e s sentimens sont t r a i t e z avec t o u t e l a f i n e s s e p o s s i b l e . Or sans p r d t e n d r e r a v a l e r l e m e r i t e q u ' i l y a a b i e n nouer une i n t r i g u e , e t a d i s poser l e s evenemens, de s o r t e q u ' i l en r e s u l t s de c e r t a i n s e f f e t s s u r p r e n a n s , j e vous avoue que j e s u i s beaucoup p l u s touche" de v o i r r ^ g n e r dans un Roman une c e r t a i n e s c i e n c e du coeur, t e l l e q u ' e l l e e s t , p a r exemple, dans L a P r i n c e s s e de C l e v e s . Le m e r v e i l l e u x des i n c i d e n s me f r a p p e une f o i s ou deux, e t p u i s me r e b u t e , au l i e u que l e s p e i n t u r e s f i d e l l e s de l a n a t u r e , e t s u r t o u t c e l l e s de c e r t a i n s mouvemens du coeur presque i m p e r c e p t i b l e s a cause de l e u r d e l i c a t e s s e , ont un d r o i t de p l a i r e q u ' e l l e s ne perdent j a m a i s . On ne se sent dans l e s a v a n t u r e s que 1 ' e f f o r t de 1 ' i m a g i n a t i o n de l ' A u t e u r , e t dans l e s choses de p a s s i o n , ce n ' e s t que l a n a t u r e s e u l e q u i se f a i t s e n t i r , quoy q u ' i l en a i t coftte a l ' A u t e u r un e f f o r t d ' e s p r i t que j e c r o y p l u s grand.35 P i z z o r u s s o a l s o b r i n g s t o l i g h t an e q u a l l y i m p o r t a n t  criticism  69  o f Qu P l a i s i r ' s l a Duchesse d'Estramene. made i n 1685 P i e r r e Bayle.  P o i n t i n g out t h a t "non  by  t u t t i i contemporanei  erano p r o n t i ad a c c e t t a r e q u e s t a p a r t i c o l a r e v i s i o n e d e l l a 'natura'" and  ( i . e . t h a t shared by Du P l a i s i r and  Fontenelle),  r e f e r r i n g t o the a n a l o g y drawn by B a y l e between La  P r i n c e s s e de C l e v e s and La Duchesse d'Estramene,  Pizzorusso  c i t e s B a y l e ' s c r i t i c i s m of Du P l a i s i r ' s c h a r a c t e r s  stemming  from t h e i r o v e r l y - v i r t u o u s , and hence u n b e l i e v a b l e ,  nature.  I t i s on Du P l a i s i r ' s m e r i t as a s e n s i t i v e o b s e r v e r of the e v o l u t i o n of the n o v e l i n France r.hat s c h o l a r s have r e c e n t l y applauded him.  R e f e r r i n g t o the Sentimens•..,  Henri Coulet  s i t u a t e s Du P l a i s i r s t r e a t i s e i n h i s t o r i c a l  perapective,  and  1  has  the f o l l o w i n g remarks t o make:  S e u l ce d e r n i e r t e x t e o f f r e une d o c t r i n e c o h e r e n t e de l a n o u v e l l e (appelee h i s t o i r e ) : ses ressemblances et ses d i f f e r e n c e s avec l e roman h e r o i q u e sont methodiquement a n a l y s e e s ; on peut r e p r o c h e r a. Du P l a i s i r d'etre trop systematique, trop theorique, d'un c l a s s i c i s m e (au sens l a r g e du mot) t r o p d e p o u i l l e , et d ' e c r i r e un roman i d e a l en n e g l i g e a n t l e s tendances c o n f u s e s e t c o n t r a d i c t o i r e s du roman i d e a l . Mais en f a i t , l e genre nouveau, c e t t e ' i n v e n t i o n de nos j o u r s ' comme 1 * a p p e l l e l'abbe de Charnes, s'oppose b i e n p o i n t par p o i n t au genre a n c i e n , et ce q u i r a p p e l l e t r o p l e roman h e r o i q u e , meme dans des oeuvres a nos yeux c a r a c t e r i s e e s par l e u r n a t u r e l , e s t denonce.,comme une t a r e par l e s contemporains. T h i s b e l i e f t h a t Du P l a i s i r ' s work i s v a l u a b l e as  a  documentary account i s shared as w e l l by Jean Rousset and Frederic Deloffre. l i k e S t e i n e r and  by  I t i s t o be noted t h a t b o t h t h e s e c r i t i c s ,  Pizzorusso,  i n s i s t upon the e v i d e n t  relation-  70 s h i p between t h e o r y and and  p r a c t i c e i n La P r i n c e s s e de  Cleves  the Sentimens..., r a t h e r than upon the l i n k between t h e o r y  and l i t e r a r y c r e a t i o n i n Du P l a i s i r ' s own  output.  Rousset contends t h a t Du P l a i s i r has been too much v  i g n o r e d , and l a u d s h i s p e r c e p t i v e n e s s that " i l  e s t , parmi l e s c r i t i q u e s du  annees 80, c e l u i q u i a l a c o n s c i e n c e  as an o b s e r v e r ,  stating  'nouveau roman' des l a p l u s n e t t e des  caracteres  q u i l e d i s t i n g u e n t de l ' a n c i e n roman, i l degage avec s a g a c i t e l a t h e o r i e de l ' h i s t o i r e  £.. rj ".38  D e l o f f r e i s of the same  o p i n i o n as R o u s s e t c o n c e r n i n g t h e v a l u e o f t h e Sentimens... as a h i s t o r i c a l document r a t h e r than as a t o o l f o r p r o s p e c t i v e w r i t e r s of n o v e l s ; h i s g e n e r a l remarks comprise i n f a c t a c o n c i s e summary of the a t t i t u d e of t w e n t i e t h - c e n t u r y  critics  from S t e i n e r onward toward Du P l a i s i r ' s c o n t r i b u t i o n t o the t h e o r y of the n o v e l i n France.  D e l o f f r e t a k e s Du P l a i s i r a t  h i s word and c o n s i d e r s the Sentimens... an unassuming but s u b s t a n t i a l work:  "Ouvrage sans p r e t e n t i o n , q u i  pretend  p r o p o s e r e t d i s c u t e r p l u s que l e g i f ^ r e r , l e t r a i t e de  Du  P l a i s i r e s t s u r t o u t a nos yeux un b i l a n i n t e l l i g e n t du genre 39 n a r r a t i f b r e f en France a 1'epoque c l a s s i q u e " . P r e c i s e l y because l i t e r a r y c r i t i c s have not  insisted  upon e s t a b l i s h i n g a p a r a l l e l between the Sentimens... and  La  Duchesse d'Estramene, b u t , r a t h e r , between t h e Sentimens... and La P r i n c e s s e de C l e v e s , the s t r o n g t i e s w h i c h b i n d P l a i s i r ' s t h e o r e t i c a l statements and h i s own have not been f u l l y e x p l o r e d .  Du  c r e a t i v e output  A c l o s e a n a l y s i s o f Du  Plaisir's  71  c r e a t i v e i m a g i n a t i o n , seen i n p a r t through a study o f La Duchesse d'Estramene, w i l l enable us t o o b t a i n y e t  another  e n r i c h i n g p e r s p e c t i v e of the Sentimens.•., f o r we s h a l l have d e l v e d i n t o the c r e a t i v e p r o c e s s which gave b i r t h t o t h e work of a r t which was  t o s e r v e , we b e l i e v e , as a b a s i s f o r Du  P l a i s i r ' s t h e o r y o f the n o u v e l l e or h i s t o i r e g a l a n t e . us t h e n , i n the f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n of our s t u d y , l o o k i n d e t a i l a t t h i s p e t i t roman too l o n g i g n o r e d by the wide reading public.  Let  72  CHAPTER I I :  FOOTNOTES  ^Conver sat ions s u r d i v e r s s u j e t s ( P a r i s , 1680). ou l ' l l l u s t r e Bassa (Rouen, 1665).  Ibrahim  2 Les Nouvelles f r a n c a i s e s ou l e s d i v e r t i s s e m e n s de l a P r i n c e s s e A u r e l i e ( P a r i s , 1722). •^Preface t o Ibrahim. •.. not paginated. ^ I b i d . . not paginated. 5  I_bid., not paginated. ( P a r i s , 1722), v o l . I, p. 1 9 f f .  6  'Preface t o Ibrahim.... 8  9  C h a n t I , 11.  not paginated.  1-6.  V o l . I I , p. 471.  L ' A r t Poetique, P r e f a c e , 1701. "^Not paginated.  1 Q  1 2  V o l I I , pp. 460-68.  13 "Tor a d i s c u s s i o n o f t h i s technique, see J . Rousset, "La P r i n c e s s e de C l e v e s , " i n Forme et s i g n i f i c a t i o n : essais sur l e s s t r u c t u r e s l i t t e r a i r e s de C o r n e i l l e a C l a u d e l ( P a r i s ,  196*47T~PP. 17-44. ^See  I n t r o d u c t i o n , n. 6.  15 ^Conversations.... v o l . I I , p. 482. " ^ C i t e d by Varga, "Pour une d e f i n i t i o n de l a n o u v e l l e . . . , " p. 64.  17 18  Preface t o Ibrahim.... I b i d . , not paginated.  not paginated.  73 1 9  ( P a r i s , 1670).  20  p p . 325-27.  2 1  p.  361.  2 2  p.  361.  2 3  p p . 332-35.  2  ^ l u n d i 14 j u i n , p. 173.  An extract o f t h i s Lettre. .. i s c i t e d by P. Hourcti.de, sentiments sur l e s l e t t r e s et sur l ' h i s t o i r e avec des scruttules sur l e s t y l e : edition c r i t i q u e avec notes et commentaire (Diss. Paris, 1970), pp. 155-66. The r e l a t i o n ship of the Abbe de Bellegarde's work to Du P l a i s i r ' s i s also discussed by H. Coulet, Le Roman, .jusqu'a l a revolution (Paris, 1967), v o l . I, p. 209, and by P. Deloffre, La Nouvelle en P r a n c e . . . p . 57. 26  Vol. I I , p. 3. Cited by P. Hourcade, Sentiments : ur les l e t t r e s . . . . p. 167. 2 7  p.  166.  ( r p t - . Hildesheim, 19=3), v o l . I, pp. 1127-28: "Duchesse (la) d*Estramene. (Par Du P l a i s i r , auteur des 'Sentiments sur l e s l e t t r e s et l e s h i s t o i r e s galantes'.). Lyon, Thomas Anaulry, 1682, 2 parties in-12. Voy. un e x t r a i t de ce roman par Eastide dans l e s douxieme et treizieme volumes du 'Choix des Mercures' et dans l a 'Bibliotheque universelle des romans', octobre 1776, premiere volume, p. 166 et suiv. On l i t dans l e s 'Oeuvres' de P a v i l i o n une l e t t r e de cet aeademicien a M. de Vise sur l e meme roman, que l'on a t t r i b u a i t a une femiue. La prevention paroissoit fondee a cause de l a v i v a c i t e des sentiments, de l a delicatesse du style et de I'interet des s i t u a t i o n s . " 28  OG  XXX  A French Poetics of the Novel i n 1683," Romanic Review. (1939), pp. 235-43. 3 0  I b i d . , P- 237.  5 1  I b i d . , P. 243.  5 2  I b i d . , P. 243.  74  La P o e t i c a d e l romanzo i n Franc i a , 1660-1685 (Rome, 1962). "La Conpezione d e l l ' a r t e n a r r a t i v a n e l l a seconda meta d e l seicento francese," btudi M e d i o l a t i n i e v o l g a r i , I I I (1955), pp. 149-57. ^ "La 4  Concezione d e l l ' a r t e n a r r a t i v a . . . , " pp. 155-56.  35  - ^ " L e t t r e de M. de F o n t e n e l l e sur l e L i v r e i n t i t u l e Les Malheurs de 1'Amour, ou Eleonore d'Yvr£e," Le Mercure g a l a n t , septembre 1687 (Premiere P a r t i e ) , p. 324ff. C i t e d by A. P i z z o r u s s o , I b i d . . p. 156. 36  "La Concezione d e l l a r t e n a r r a t i v a . . . , " p. 156. 1  37  Le Roman .jusqu'a l a r e v o l u t i o n , pp. 209-10. Forme et s i g n i f i c a t i o n . . . . p. 31. 39  La Nouvelle en France.... p. 51.  SECTION I I LA DUCHESSE D'ESTRAMENE; HE DILEMMA Of THE HONNETE FEMME AS SEEN BY DU PLAISIR  76  "La Duchesse d'Estramene a l a d e s t i n e e des L i v r e s heureuses [ s i c ] on prend p a r t y pour et c o n t r e , e t e l l e s e r t d ' e n t r e t i e n dans l e s Compagnies que l ' o n c r o i t l e p l u s en d r o i t de d e c i d e r souverainement de l a beaute des Ouvrages." Donneau de V i s e Le Mercure G a l a n t , j u i n 1682, p. 27.  77  CHAPTER I BACKGROUND TO THE' STUDY OP LA DUCHESSE D'ESTRAMENE " J a m a i s l a F r a n c e n'a p a r u a v e c t a n t de g r a n d e u r , que pandant  ces dernieres guerres."  (..I, l ) W i t h t h i s b e g i n n i n g ,  r e m i n i s c e n t o f t h e h y p e r b o l i c s t y l . e u s e d b y Madame d e L u F a y e t t e i n t h e o p e n i n g l i n e s o f L a P r i n c e s s e d e C l e v e s , * Du Plaisir  sketches r a p i d l y , i n the f i r s t  Duchesse  d'Estramene,  sentence o f h i s  t h e h i s t o r i c a l framework  which  will  s e r v e a s a m o r a l d e c o r f o r t h e drama a b o u t t o u n f o l d . d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e c o u r t s e t t i n g i n L a Duchesse is  Che  d'Estra.aene  l e s s s p e c i f i c t h a n Madame de L a F a y e t t e ' s d e p i c t i o n i f  the g l i t t e r i n g court of Henri I I . N e v e r t h e l e s s , t h e reader i s a b l e t o s i t u a t e t h e work w i t h i n a f a i r l y framework.  precise  historical  Du P l a i s i r h a s c h o s e n a s t h e b a c k d r o p f o r tae  t a l e he i s about t o r e l a t e t h e z e n i t h o f L o u i s X I V ' s career.  Judging from the h i s t o r i c a l a l l u s i o n s ,  military  t h e wars  mentioned  a t . t h e b e g i n n i n g ox t h e n o v e l w o u l d p r o b a b l y oe t h e  campaigns  w h i c h L o u i s X I V waged a g a i n s t t h e S p a n i a r d s i n t h e  N e t h e r l a n d s i n t h e e a r l y 1670's;  the young E n g l i s h noblemen  d e p i c t e d as having crossed t h e Channel t o j o i n t h e French armies would  t h e n be t h e t r o o p s o f C h a r l e s I I o f E n g l a n d .  We a r e f u r t h e r a b l e t o s i t u a t e Du P l a i s i r ' s d e c o r f r o m t h e r e f e r e n c e h e makes t o " l e s d e r n i e r s d'Angleterre" d'Olsingam's  historically  troubles  ( I , 1 0 ) , i n t h e c o u r s e o f w h i c h t h e Due f a t h e r s u p p o s e d l y d i e d t r y i n g t o a i d Madame  d'Hennebury*s husband.  Du P l a i s i r i s probably a l l u d i n g here  t o the c i v i l wars i n England,  begun i n 1642,  of C h a r l e s I , and ending i n 1649.  d u r i n g the r e i g n  He mentions the K i n g and  Queen o f England without naming them s p e c i f i c a l l y ; t h e models f o r these c h a r a c t e r s a r e e a s i l y enough r e c o g n i z a b l e as C h a r l e s I I and h i s w i f e , C a t h e r i n e of Braganza.  Prom the a f o r -  mentioned h i s t o r i c a l d e t a i l s , the reader i s a b l e then t o s i t u a t e t h i s p s y c h o l o g i c a l drama i n the years 1672 t o 1673. La Duchesse d'Estramene i s , then, l i k e La P r i n c e s s e de Cleves, a h i s t o r i c a l novel.  But a s i s the case f o r Madame  de La F a y e t t e , h i s t o r i c a l decor i s important  only insomuch  as i t serves as a backdrop f o r the p s y c h o l o g i c a l a c t i o n , which occupies s t a g e - c e n t r e i n the moral drama.  I n both L a  P r i n c e s s e de Cleves and L a Duchesse d'Estramene, comments o f h i s t o r i c a l import prepare the moral c l i m a t e of the work. Jean Fabre has observed c u l a r r o y a l household  that i t i s not important what p a r t i -  c o u r t s e t t i n g Madame de L a F a y e t t e  chooses t o d e p i c t i n La P r i n c e s s e de C l e v e s . it  He s t a t e s t h a t  i s a n o v e l which r e f u s e s h i s t o r y , and t h a t "a p a r t l a  •magnificence', Madame de La F a y e t t e ne demandera r i e n a l a r e a l i t e de l ' h i s t o i r e " .  The same may be s a i d of Du P l a i s i r ,  who does not even t r o u b l e h i s reader with the names of the French and E n g l i s h r u l e r s d u r i n g whose r e i g n s the a c t i o n takes p l a c e .  But apart from t h i s p a r a l l e l , one must take  care not t o a s s i m i l a t e completely the use of h i s t o r i c a l a l l u s i o n i n La P r i n c e s s e de Cleves and i n L a Duchesse  79  d'Estramene.  In a perceptive a r t i c l e ,  J e a n R o u s s e t has  shown t h a t f o r Madame de L a F a y e t t e , h i s t o r y a c t s a s a c o u n t e r point to the n a r r a t i v e .  I t i s e v i d e n t , b e f o r e we r e a d  past  the f i r s t paragraphs o f L a Duchesse d'Estramene, t h a t Du P l a i s i r does n o t make o f t h e h i s t o r i c a l  setting a carefully  o r c h e s t r a t e d c o u n t e r p o i n t w i t h t h e m o r a l dilemma o f h i s heroine.  As t h e s t o r y o f M a d e m o i s e l l e d'Hennebury  develops,  the d e s c r i p t i o n o f e x t e r n a l events g i v e s way almost e x c l u s i v e l y t o t h e d e p i c t i o n o f an i n t e r n a l c r i s i s , whereas i n L a P r i n c e s s e de C l e v e s , t h e study o f Madame de C l e v e s ' m o r a l dilemma a l t e r n a t e s w i t h a commentary on t h e r o l e she must p l a y i n society. I n L a Duchesse d'Estramene, h i s t o r y w i l l n o t s e r v e ,  then,  as an r h y t h m i c a l s y n c o p a t i o n t o t h e m i r r o r - l i k e c o n f r o n t a t i o n of t h e s e l f ,  but, q u i t e s i m p l y , as a p o i n t o f d e p a r t u r e  the p s y c h o l o g i c a l a d v e n t u r e .  for  I t i s o n l y t h e presence o f t h e  u n s c r u p u l o u s Madame d ' H i l m o r r e ,  an e n t i r e l y  fictitious  c r e a t i o n ( l i k e t h e o t h e r main c h a r a c t e r s i n t h e n o v e l ) , which serves t o r e i n f o r c e during the r a p i d u n f o l d i n g of the moral dilemma t h e w a r l i k e atmosphere o f c o u r t i n t r i g u e suggested i n t h e i n i t i a l paragraphs o f L a Duchesse d'Estramene. Both Du P l a i s i r and Madame de L a F a y e t t e a r e concerned w i t h a study o f t h e c o n f r o n t a t i o n o f p r i v a t e and p u b l i c m o r a l v a l u e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y as seen i n a h e r o i n e whose a c t i o n s , innocent  i n themselves, a r e e v a l u a t e d by a s o c i a l group whose  prime o c c u p a t i o n i s t o observe and t o i n t e r p r e t .  Madame de  30  La P a y e t t e ' s for  c r e a t i o n i s o f course t h e more r i c h o f t h e two,  by t h e use o f h i s t o r i c a l o r f i c t i o n a l commentaries  d i g r e s s i n g from t h e main p l o t - l i n e , she i s a b l e t o show e f f e c t i v e l y t h a t t h e dilemma o f h e r h e r o i n e  i s not without  p r e c e d e n t ; t h e c u m u l a t i v e e f f e c t o f t h e s e d i g r e s s i o n s and h i s t o r i c a l a l l u s i o n s serves t o r e i n f o r c e the f a c t that the dichotomy between appearance and r e a l i t y i s i n e v i t a b l e , f o r no member o f such a s o c i e t y i s a b l e t o succeed f o r l o n g In f u s i n g t h e two s k i l f u l l y .  One c o u l d o n l y w i s h t h a t D i P l a i s i r  had made more e f f e c t i v e use o f h i s t o r i c a l a l l u s i o n t o ?cho i n • chronological perspective of h i s h e r o i n e .  t h e m o r a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l dilemma  An e x p l a n a t i o n o f t h i s s t r u c t u r a l weikness  may perhaps be found i n t h e Sentiment...; Du P l a i s i r ,  as a  t r u e exponent o f t h e a n t i - n o v e l . o p t s ^ f o r t h e s t r a i g h t - l i n e ;  theory i n p l o t s t r u c t u r e , i n r e a c t i o n t o the often extraneous, b a d l y i n t e g r a t e d d i g r e s s i o n s fo-.md i n t h e n o v e l s preceding The  of t i e  generation. . war s e t t i n g , d e p i c t e d ever so t e r s e l y i n t h e o p e n i n g  pages o f L a Duchesse d'Estramene. l e a d s u s t h e n t o i n n e r p s y c h o l o g i c a l t u r m o i l as t h e s t o r y u n f o l d s ; t h e campaigns o f Turenne and t h e F r e n c h K i n g w i l l p l a y a minor, a l t h o u g h supplementary r o l e t o t h e i n t e r n a l c o n f l i c t o f t h e h e r o i n e . The  a c t i o n w i l l unfold p a r t i a l l y at the court of Louis XIV,  p a r t i a l l y at the court of Charles the c i v i l wars i n England. n o b i l i t y , impatient  II i n the years f o l l o w i n g  The young men o f t h e E n g l i s h  because t h e i r homeland i s a t peace once  81 more, and eager t o take p a r t i n m i l i t a r y combat, a r e c r o s s i n g the  Channel t o j o i n t h e F r e n c h a r m i e s .  Among t h e s e young men  come t o i n s t a l l themselves i n P a r i s a r e t h e Due d'Estramene, accompanied by h i s mother, Madame d ' H i l m o r r e , and t h e Comte d'Hennebury, t o g e t h e r w i t h h i s mother, Madame d'Hennebury and h i s s i s t e r , Mademoiselle d'Hennebury. Madame d'Hennebury has p e r m i t t e d t h e Queen o f England t o choose a husband f o r h e r d a u g h t e r , f o r t h i s a s t u t e monarch "ne v o u l u t pas s'exposer a p e r d r e ce q u i e s t o i t l e p l u s c a p a b l e de f a i r e honneur a. s a Cour".  ( I , 12) Even b e f o r e  the a r r i v a l o f t h e Due d'Olsingam, whose m o r a l q u a l i t i e s a l l a t c o u r t admire, M a d e m o i s e l l e d'Hennebury f a l l s i n l o v e w i t h h i s p o r t r a i t w h i c h , as t h e a u t h o r w i l l l a t e r r e v e a l , does n o t i n f a c t do j u s t i c e t o t h e p h y s i c a l a t t r i b u t e s o f t h i s o r d i n a r y young man.  extra-  M a d e m o i s e l l e d'Hennebury i s , however,  e x t r e m e l y s e n s i t i v e on t h e s u b j e c t o f h e r r e p u t a t i o n , h e r " g l o i r e " , and i s ashamed t h a t she s h o u l d l o v e a man t o whom she  has n o t y e t been f o r m a l l y i n t r o d u c e d —  a f r a i d too that  she  might be s u s p e c t e d by o t h e r s o f h a r b o u r i n g an i n c l i n a t i o n  f o r t h e Due d'Olsingam, an i n c l i n a t i o n c o n t r a r y t o t h e p r e c e p t s o f bienscjance e s t a b l i s h e d by t h e s o c i e t y i n t o w h i c h she has been p r e c i p i t a t e d s i n c e h e r i n t r o d u c t i o n a t c o u r t . These two a t t r a c t i v e young people see each o t h e r f o r t h e f i r s t time i n t h e J a r d i n du Roy under f o r t u i t o u s c i r c u m s t a n c e s r e m i n i s c e n t o f t h e a n c l e n s romans. the  We cannot deny, however,  importance o f t h i s scene where each e s p i e s t h e o t h e r and  82  experiences point  feelings  i n the u n f o l d i n g  of p s y c h o l o g i c a l The i n i t i a l will  of  for i t  import takes  not l o g i c a l ;  Due d ' O l s i n g a m " c r u t  born  strolling choisir  t o u t e s nos  q u i nous  subsequently Princesse plays  to  conduisent  In  de C l e v e s ,  the r o l e  of  this  addition,  (I,  que  35)  consent she i s  for  is  the  marriage  taken i l l  f i g u r e who  of  chosen as  who i s  as  afraid  her son-in-law soon a s of the  a f t e r h e r r e c e n t b e r e a v e m e n t , begs h e r f i a n c e to r e t u r n to the ranks  to  obtain  possible.  In  unflattering  r o l e as  desires  obedient l o v e r ,  of his  t o obey  r a t h e r t h a n go t o  c o u r t t o c a r r y out Madame d ' H e n n e b u r y ' s his  La  simultaneously  o p i n i o n w h i c h would be g e n e r a t e d by s u c h a p r e c i p i t o u s  orders  and  m o t h e r t o t h e Due d ' O l s i n g a m a s k s  the marriage  her daughter,  the  mother o f the h e r o i n e ,  saintly  surrogate  for  heart  a scene once a g a i n r e m i n i s c e n t  t h e y o u n g man whom she h a s r o y a l permission  of the  pour des d e s s e i n s  t h e Due d ' O l s i n g a m ,  dies.  does  c h o i s i t - i l p a r un de  t h e Queen o f E n g l a n d ' s  of her daughter  As  humeur c e t t e  l u m i e r e s ne p e u v e n t p e n e t r e r " .  to obtain  action.  i n the J a r d i n du Roy,  par mauvaise  B e f o r e Madame d ' H e n n e b u r y , able  action  instantaneously,  the reasoning  promenade e c a r t d e ; m a i s p e u t - e s t r e l a c e s mouvemens  this  the i n t e r n a l  o v e r by t h e h e r o i n e .  suggests that  while  p r e c i s e l y at  precedence over p h y s i c a l  e n c o u n t e r , when l o v e i s  Du P l a i s i r  is  t h e drama t h a t  be r e l i v e d many t i m e s  Pascal, is  of l o v e ,  the  union Turenne's  English  death-bed wish.  t h e Due d ' O l s i n g a m s u b m i t s  f i a n c e e , who w o u l d be ashamed  t o have  In to  given  the  83 h e r s e l f t o him "sans g l o i r e & sans r e p u t a t i o n " . I t i s immediately  a f t e r the departure  ( I , 87)  o f the Due  d'Olsingam t h a t Madame d ' H i l m o r r e s e t s out t o .aarry h e r s o n , the Due d'Estramene, t o Mademoiselle d'Hennebury, who has come t o s t a y w i t h h e r f o l l o w i n g t h e d e a t h o f Madame d'Hennebury. The Due d'Estramene i s by no means o f t h e same mind as h i s scheming mother w i t h r e g a r d t o m a r r i a g e , v r a y e i n c l i n a t i o n que pour l e s armes.  f o r " i l n ' a v o i t de  l a galanterie l u i  p l a i s o i t sans l ' a t t a c h e r , & i l a v o i t une avert i o n i n v i n c i b l e pour t o u t ce q u i demande de longues e x a c t i t u d e s " .  ( I , 9)  A f t e r h a v i n g r e f u s e d t h e o f f e r o f t h e Comte d ' E n g l a s t r e , whose daughter " e t o i t d e j a dans s a v i n g t i e m e  annee" ( I , 70),  and whose c h a r a c t e r i s ? s a r e s u l t a l r e a d y t o o f i r m l y moulded t o p l e a s e t h e devious Madame d ' H i l m o r r e ,  the 3 a t t e r  envisages  the p o s s i b i l i t y o f m a i n t a i n i n g t h e good r e p u t a t i o n w h i c h she has e s t a b l i s h e d a t c o u r t by m a r r y i n g d'Hennebury.  h e r son "o Mademoiselle  Madame d ' H i l m o r r e i s c e r t a i n l y n o t unaware o f  her s o n s a t t i t u d e toward- m a r r i a g e , 1  but, as Du P l a i s i r  h a s t e n s t o u n d e r l i n e , "ce F i l s e t o i t unique. se d i s p e n s e r d'une a l l i a n c e . "  I I ne p o u v a i t  ( I , 68)  I n o r d e r t o e x t r i c a t e h i m s e l f from a marriage t o Mademoiselle d'Englastre, the prospect  o f which f i l l s h i m  w i t h h o r r o r , and i n o r d e r t o m a i n t a i n h i s r e p u t a t i o n a t c o u r t , the Due d'Estramene f e i g n s an. i n c l i n a t i o n f o r Mademoiselle . d'Hennebury, and "sans aimer, i l ne n e g l i g e o i t r i e n de t o u t ce q u i p o u v o i t j u s t i f i e r l e p r e t e x t e de son r e f u s " .  ( I , 95)  84 He p e r s u a d e s h i m s e l f  that  " l e temps,  l e hazard,  ou s o n  lui  d o n n e r o i t des moyens de s o r t i r de s a f e i n t e a v e c  (I,  92-93)  s o r t e d out  D e s t i n y would n o t ,  honneur".  u n f o r t u n a t e l y , have the m a t t e r  i n s u c h an i d e a l f a s h i o n .  In  the course of  Madame d ' H i l m o r r e r e v e a l s h e r c a r e f u l l y c o n c e i v e d p l a n Mademoiselle  d'Hennebury,  of the marriage royal  A l t h o u g h t h u n d e r s t r u c k by  news,  that  is  Mademoiselle d'Hennebury i s mother w i l l  an a c c o m p l i c e t o the n a r r a t o r ,  is,  unfortunately, not As a r e s u l t ,  Du P l a i s i r ' s  b a s e d upon a under the  for this  impression him  The r e a d e r , this  so.  t h e Due d ' E s t r a m e n e  Mademoiselle d'Hennebury  t h e Due d ' E s t r a m e n e ,  is  not In  t h e o n l y one  order to  believing herself  assure  safe  an  inclination  in'donning  she assumes t h a t Madame d ' H i l m o r r e w i l l  a r e c o n d i t i o n e d by t h e s o c i e t y  of  f o r t h e Due  simulates  have t o l d h e r son of the planned m a r r i a g e . actions  misunder-  knows i n a d v a n c e t h a t  c h a r a c t e r s to f e i g n l o v e .  mask, f o r  The  s u r e l y have t o l d  her p e r s o n a l triumph over her t r u e f e e l i n g s d'Olsingam,  original  the o t h e r .  o f h e r p r o p o s e d m a r r i a g e w i t h t h e Due d ' O l s i n g a m . as  her  t h e s e two y o u n g p e o p l e who h a v e  events which ensues  t h e Due d ' E s t r a m e n e ' s  to l e t  and t o f o l l o w h e r  a b s o l u t e l y no i n c l i n a t i o n w h a t s o e v e r one f o r unhappy c h a i n o f  gain  Mademoiselle  Madame d ' H i l m o r r e c h o o s e s n o t  of u n i t i n g i n marriage  standing:  to  o n l y t o be t o l d by t h e y o u n g woman  s o n know o f t h e y o u n g woman's p l a n s , project  time,  f o r w h i c h Madame d ' H e n n e b u r y had h o p e d t o  approval.  d'Hennebury's  adresse  certainly  Marionnettes  of which they are  whose a  85  p a r t , b o t h Mademoiselle d'Hennebury and t h e Due d'Estramene respond l i g h t h e a r t e d l y t o each o t h e r ' s c o u r t s h i p , c o m p l e t e l y unaware o f t h e consequences  of t h e i r behavior; i t i s t h i s  u n f o r t u n a t e m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g which w i l l l e a d them i n t o a m a r r i a g e based n o t on l o v e , b u t on t h e d e s i r e t o keep honour and r e p u t a t i o n i n t a c t . When t h e Due d'Olsingam r e t u r n s t o P a r i s a f t e r t h e b a t t l e s f o u g h t under Turenne, Mademoiselle d'Hennebury b e l i e v e s h e r s e l f f r e e t o c a r r y out t h e proposed m a r r i a g e  arrangements,  f o r she deems h e r s e l f t o have been s u c c e s s f u l i n d i s s i m u l a t i n g from t h e c o u r t t h e d i s r u p t i n g e f f e c t s o f u n s a n c t i o n e d p a s s i o n . But t h e u n s c r u p u l o u s Madame d ' H i l m o r r e c o n t i n u e s t o p r o s e c u t e her plan w i t h vigour.  A p e r s p i c a c i o u s o b s e r v e r , she b e l i e v e s  t h a t Mademoiselle d'Hennebury i s e x p e r i e n c i n g a r e n e w a l o f i n t e r e s t toward h e r son —  a t l e a s t she uses t h i s p r e t e x t  f o r t i f i e d w i t h c o n s i d e r a b l e bad f a i t h t o j u s t i f y t o h e r s e l f the s t e p s which she has j u s t t a k e n i n o b t a i n i n g r o y a l approb a t i o n f o r t h e m a r r i a g e o f h e r son w i t h M a d e m o i s e l l e d'Hennebury. A f r a g i l e pawn w i t h o u t w o r l d l y e x p e r i e n c e i n t h e hands o f such a c a l c u l a t i n g woman, Mademoiselle d'Hennebury r e a l i z e s t h a t h e r d e c i s i o n t o marry t h e Due d'Olsingam i s doomed.  Love,  j u s t i f i e d by t h e v e r y i n s t a n t a n e i t y o f i t s c o n c e p t i o n , l o s e s t o a s e l f - c o n s u m i n g d e s i r e t o keep up appearances.  So ends  the f i r s t volume o f t h i s f a s t - m o v i n g n a r r a t i v e , on a tone o f mutual d e s p a i r , h o r r o r and even h a t r e d , w i t h t h e u n i o n o f  36  Mademoiselle  d'Hennebury and the Due  d'Estramene.  "Ils  t r o u v e r e n t que 1'importance des maux q u ' i l s avoient v o u l u e v i t e r , n ' a v o i t aucune e g a l i t e avec ceux ou i l s e t o i e n t tombez".  ( I , 200)  T h e i r d i s t a s t e one f o r the other does not,  however, stop them from g i v i n g others "quelques p r e t e x t e s " ( I , 200)  mauvais  So e x p l a i n t h e i r immediate estrangement.  The c h o i c e of the word " p r e t e x t e s " t o end the n a r r a t i o n of the f i r s t volume of La Duchesse d' Sstramen.i i s indeed f e l i c i tous.  Du P l a i s i r has chosen h i s vocabular;/ with care,  consequently u n d e r l i n i n g the f a c t t h a t i n ;he b a t t l e waged c o n t i n u a l l y between 1 ' e t r e and l e p a r a i t r e i n t h i s  frivolous  and somewhat shallow s o c i a l m i l i e u , i t i s always l e p a r a i t r e which emerges as v i c t o r . The d e s p a i r i n g tone w i t h which the f i r s t volume of La Duchesse d'Estramene ends continues to be .jehoed i n the opening pages of the second volume.  I t i s of importance  to  note t h a t as we progress i n t o the second h a l f of the n o v e l , a l l u s i o n s to decor and to h i s t o r i c a l events become i n c r e a s i n g l y s c a r c e ; as the drama u n f o l d s , the a c t i o n becomes more i n t e r n a l i z e d , more p s y c h o l o g i c a l — ressemblances  another of the many  w i t h La P r i n c e s s e de Cleves.  Mademoiselle  d'Hennebury and her husband are thus u n i t e d  i n aeternam, although they h a r d l y know each other and  are  completely unaware of the f a c t that t h e i r a v e r s i o n i s mutual. Madame d'Estramene can only l o o k upon h e r s e l f w i t h h o r r o r : "sans cesse e l l e avOit devant  l e s yeux c e t t e foy q u ' e l l e  87 a v o i t accordee a un a u t r e qu'au Due d'Olsingam".  ( I I , 3)  S i n c e r e and v i r t u o u s , she c o n s i d e r s as c r i m i n a l h e r t h o u g h t s concerning  t h e man she l o v e s ; she t h e r e f o r e b e g i n s t o make an  e f f o r t to recognize  i n h e r husband "des s o i n s & des c o m p l a i s a n c e s  dont l e c o e u r l e p l u s porte" a 1 ' a s s u j e t i s s e m e n t & a. l a p a s s i o n , n ' a u r o i t jamais ete" c a p a b l e " .  ( I I , 5-6)  Soon, however, b o t h t h e Due and t h e Duchesse d'Estramene r e a l i z e t h a t n e i t h e r o f them i s happy i n t h i s new arrangement, and  each b e l i e v e s h i m s e l f t o be t h e cause o f t h e unhappiness  of the other. Due  Unable t o c o n c e a l any l o n g e r h e r l o v e f o r t h e  d'Olsingam, Madame d'Estramene throws h e r s e l f a t h e r  husband's f e e t , prepared t o r e v e a l h e r p a s s i o n .  This  confes-  s i o n i s , however, s t i f l e d by t h e Due d'Estramene's a d m i s s i o n t h a t he i s i n c a p a b l e o f l o v i n g h e r , o r any woman, f o r t h a t matter.  The s t a r k scene which ensues i s r i c h l y e v o c a t i v e ; a  c e r t a i n p o e t i c beauty c h a r a c t e r i z e s t h e t r e m b l i n g remarks o f the Due d'Estramene, a l l t h e more s i g n i f i c a n t and p o i g n a n t since the author i n f r e q u e n t l y allows t h i s character t o express himself i n direct discourse.  G r e a t l y d i s t u r b e d , t h e Due  d'Estramene sees no s o l u t i o n t o h i s p e r s o n a l problem t h a n t h a t o f f l e e i n g t h e presence o f h i s w i f e .  other  "Je p a r s " ,  he d e c l a r e s , "& j e p a r s Egalement penetre" de l a d o u l e u r ,  &  de vous a v o i r rendu malheureuse, & de ne p o u v o i r moy-mesme e s t r e heureux de vous posseder".  ( I , 25)  The immediate  r e a c t i o n o f Madame d'Estramene upon h e a r i n g t h e unexpected c o n f e s s i o n i s one o f j o y i n t h e a s s u r a n c e t h a t h e r husband  88  i s not, as she had f e a r e d , aware o f her l o v e f o r the Due d'Olsingam.  Such i s her r e l i e f i n t h i s regard  that she i s  s c a r c e l y aware of h e r husband's l a c k o f f e e l i n g and attachment f o r her and f o r women i n g e n e r a l . Madame d'Estramene's reasoning  The n o t a b l e aspect of  i s t h a t she no l o n g e r , f o r the  moment, regards her i n c l i n a t i o n f o r the Due d'Olsingam as a crime,  a c o n c l u s i o n c o n d i t i o n e d by the f a c t t h a t her husband  does not l o v e her. Due  S e c r e t l y , i n an apostrophe t o the absent  d'Olsingam, Madame d'Estramene u t t e r s w i t h a c e r t a i n  relief:  "Je pourray me souvenir de vous,  £ •U  J® pourray y  penser sans c r a i n d r e q u ' i l m'en coute des crimes". The news of the Due d'Estramene's departure however, e q u a l l y p l e a s i n g t o Madame d'Hilmorre;  ( I I , 28)  i s not, she sees i n  her son's r a s h a c t i o n the imminent d e s t r u c t i o n of the r e p u t a t i o n which she has b u i l t up f o r h e r s e l f a t c o u r t . completely  She i s  unconcerned by the unhappiness which she has  caused; n e v e r t h e l e s s , as Du P l a i s i r remarks, " 1 ' i n t e r e s t de sa r e p u t a t i o n l u y donnoit pesante".  encor une s o r t e d ' a f f l i c t i o n  plus  ( I I , 35)  The heroine  soon r e a l i z e s however that the e r r a t i c  conduct of her husband does not r e l i e v e her o f her r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s as a w i f e .  She consequently  asks h e r mother-in-law  to l e a v e P a r i s and t o accompany her back t o the E n g l i s h c o u r t , "puis qu'apparement son Mary y r e t o u r n o i t " .  ( I I , 37-38)  In  s p i t e of her s c r u p l e s r e g a r d i n g v i r t u e , and her acceptance o f the r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of marriage, Madame d'Estramene does not  89  r e a c t toward t h e s i t u a t i o n e n t i r e l y . i n good f a i t h .  Upon  l e a r n i n g t h a t h e r husband i s n o t i n England, she " s e n t i t quelque s o r t e de r e p o s , d ' a v o i r s a t i s f a i t s a v e r t u , sans e s t r e a une veue q u ' e l l e a v o i t e n t i e r e m e n t apprehende".  exposde  Madame  d ' H i l m o r r e , n o r m a l l y calm and c a l c u l a t i n g , demonstrates a l a r m : " e l l e t r o u v o i t q u ' e l l e n ' e t o i t revenue a l o n d r e s que pour e s t r e p r e s e n t e a. l ' e n t i e r e r u i n e de s a g l o i r e , & de l a reputation qu'elle avoit acquise".  ( I I , 41-42)  Not l a c k i n g  i n e x p e r i e n c e o f c o u r t l i f e , Madame d ' H i l m o r r e i s e x t r e m e l y s e n s i t i v e t o t h e way i n which a c t i o n s may be m i s i n t e r p r e t e d by o t h e r s .  B e f o r e l o n g , Madame d'Estramene becomes aware  t h a t she has n o t succeeded i n k e e p i n g s e c r e t t h e p r o j e c t e d m a r r i a g e t o t h e Due d'Olsingam; i t i s t h e p e r s p i c a c i o u s Queen of England who (not u n l i k e t h e Dauphine  i n L a P r i n c e s s e de  C l e v e s ) remarks upon t h i s f a c t , and who succeeds i n making the  young woman drop h e r f e e b l e d e f e n c e s and b e t r a y h e r t r u e  f e e l i n g s by a d i s p l a y o f u n c o n t r o l l e d weeping. the  Once a g a i n ,  e x p e r i e n c e d Madame d ' H i l m o r r e comes t o t h e r e s c u e , t o  c a r r y o f f s u c c e s s f u l l y y e t another of her c a r e f u l l y  worked-  out schemes; t h i s hardened woman o f t h e c o u r t succeeds i n s t i f l i n g any h i n t o f p a s s i o n between h e r d a u g h t e r - i n - l a w and the  Due d'Olsingam.  S t i l l i n t e n t on p r e s e r v i n g h e r own  r e p u t a t i o n , Madame d ' H i l m o r r e does n o t h e s i t a t e t o t e l l t h e Queen o f h e r son's a t t i t u d e toward women and m a r i t a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , which has caused him t o l e a v e h i s w i f e of a few days.  To t h e Queen, n o t so e a s i l y d i s s u a d e d from h e r i n i t i a l  90 o p i n i o n , Madame d ' H i l m o r r e p o i n t s out t h a t t h e sadness o f t h e Duchesse d'Estramene i s o c c a s i o n e d o n l y by " l a c o n d u i t e de son Mary, l a d o u l e u r d'en e t r e h a i e , & d'en e t r e d e l a i s s e e " . ( I I , 70) So c o n v i n c i n g i s t h e argument o f Madame d ' H i l m o r r e  *  t h a t t h e Queen ceases t o pursue f u r t h e r t h e q u e s t i o n and r e v i s e s as a r e s u l t h e r i n i t i a l o p i n i o n ; once more, Madame d'Estramene i s n e c e s s a r i l y i n d e b t e d  t o , and hence i n c r e a s i n g l y  r e l i a n t upon, h e r u n s c r u p u l o u s m o t h e r - i n - l a w . A f t e r b e i n g concerned p r i m a r i l y w i t h t h e dilemma o f t h e w i f e , t h e a u t h o r now s h i f t s h i s f o c u s o f p s y c h o l o g i c a l a t t e n t i o n t o t h e husband and t o t h e d e s e r t e d  fiance\  In a small  I t a l i a n v i l l a g e , t h e Due d'Estramene and t h e Due d'Olsingam meet.  The e f f e c t c r e a t e d i s s t r u c t u r a l l y and v i s u a l l y  dyptical:  t h e i r r e s p o n s i b l e husband e n s l a v e d  by h i s egocen-  t r i c i t y i n one p a n e l o f t h e p a i n t i n g , p o u r s out t h e d e t a i l s of h i s p e r s o n a l dilemma t o t h e n o b l e young c o u r t i e r i n t h e o t h e r p a n e l , who, arms o u t s t r e t c h e d  i n understanding, o f f e r s  a p o s s i b l e s o l u t i o n without r e v e a l i n g t o the other h i s i d e n t i t y o r h i s i n t i m a t e i n v o l v e m e n t i n t h e a f f a i r a t hand.  The Due  d'Olsingam, who has consented t o l i s t e n t o t h e Due d'Estramene: o n l y because he f e a r s f o r t h e h e a l t h o f M a d e m o i s e l l e d'Hennebury, wisely advises  t h e Due d'Estramene t o r e t u r n t o h i s w i f e and  to accept the r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s o f marriage, i n order t o avoid the i n d i g n a t i o n o f K i n g and c o u r t i e r a l i k e .  The fianc£ p o i n t s  out t o t h e husband "tous l e s malheurs £.\} q u i d o i v e n t  estre  ( I I , 85)  Thus  d v i t e z p a r un Homme d'honneur e t de q u a l i t y " .  91  reminded o f h i s duty as a husband, t h e Due d'Estramene  leaves  I t a l y prepared t o p l a y h i s r o l e i n t h e show o f appearances i n w h i c h he i s engaged w i t h h i s w i f e .  In spite of f a i l i n g health,  the Due d'Olsingam i n t u r n l e a v e s p o s t h a s t e t o ensure t h a t the Due d'Estramene  does n o t renege on h i s promise o f c o n j u g a l  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and f i d e l i t y . setting f o r the action.  Once more, London becomes t h e  I t i s i n t h e home o f t h e h e r o i n e ' s  b r o t h e r , t h e Comte d'Hennebury, t h a t two scenes t a k e p l a c e , r i c h i n pathos l a r g e l y because o f t h e use o f d i r e c t d i s c o u r s e , a t e c h n i q u e r a r e l y employed i n t h i s n o v e l . I n t h e f i r s t o f t h e s e two s c e n e s , Madame  d'Bstramene  a r r i v e s a t h e r b r o t h e r ' s home t o f i n d , t o h e r g r e a t s u r p r i s e , t h e Due d'Olsingam i n bed, g r a v e l y i l l and n e a r d e a t h . A l l r e s o l u t i o n s o f r e n u n c i a t i o n a r e broken as soon a s t h e h e r o i n e ' s eyes p e r c e i v e once a g a i n t h e Due d'Olsingam.  We w i t n e s s t h e  re-enactment o f t h e scene i n t h e J a r d i n du Roy.  In spite of  the p h y s i c a l changes brought about i n t h e Due d'Olsingam by h i s r e c e n t i l l n e s s , Madame d'Estramene  recognizes i n her  f i a n c e "ces mesmes t r a i t s , dont l a p r e m i e r e veue 1 ' a v o i t touched pour l e r e s t e de s e s j o u r s , & dont l e s o u v e n i r t r o p n a t u r e l & t r o p a i m a b l e , l u y c o u t o i t sans c e s s e t a n t de combats, c r u e l s & i n u t i l e s " .  ( I I , 104-105)  The young w i f e  speaks t o t h e Due d'Olsingam o f t h e " p r o f o n d e u r de l'abysme" ( I I , 118) i n t o which she has been p r e c i p i t a t e d because o f h e r i n c l i n a t i o n f o r him.  S t i l l concerned w i t h h e r p e r s o n a l  r e p u t a t i o n and t h e e s t i m e i n which she i s h e l d a t c o u r t ,  92  Madame d'Estramene f e a r s t h a t t h e i r l o v e , w h i c h s t i l l  persists,  and t h e f a c t t h a t they have seen each o t h e r , w i l l be found o u t . "Vous pouvez vous r e p r e s e n t e r  fj.  ce que me peut  couter  v o t r e veue du cote de ma g l o i r e ; mais vous ne pouvez ce q u ' e l l e me c o u t e r a du cote de ma t e n d r e s s e " ,  concevoir  she e x c l a i m s .  ( I I , 121) The o n l y p o s s i b l e s o l u t i o n w h i c h Madame d'Estramene e n v i s a g e s a t t h i s time i s f l i g h t .  She t h e r e f o r e a s k s t h e  Due d'Olsingam t o l e a v e England as soon as he has s u f f i c i e n t l y regained h i s strength.  When t h e l a t t e r r e p l i e s t h a t he w i l l  not have need t o l e a v e the c o u n t r y , f o r h i s d e a t h i s imminent, Madame d'Estramene breaks once more h e r r e s o l u t i o n n o t t o g i v e i n t o h e r f e e l i n g s and throws h e r s e l f upon him " t o u t e eperdue", a d r a m a t i c  g e s t u r e , e f f e c t i v e because i t i s r a r e  i n t h i s v e r y r e s t r a i n e d work.  The Due d'Olsingam r e a d s i n t o  t h i s f r e n e t i c , d e s p e r a t e movement a s i n c e r e d e s i r e on t h e p a r t o f Madame d'Estramene t h a t he should n o t d i e , and, more importantly, the r e v e l a t i o n that h i s love i s reciprocated. B u r n i n g w i t h f e v e r and f e e l i n g d e a t h draw ever c l o s e r , he a s k s Madame d'Estramene n o t t o p i t y him:  " j e ne s u i s p l u s  malheureux p u i s q u e j e s£ay que vous ne m'avez jamais hay; & s i j e ne p u i s vous aimer longtemps, au moins e m p o r t e r a y - j e l a c o n s o l a t i o n de vous a v o i r aimee jusqu'au d e r n i e r moment de ma v i e " .  ( I I , 139-140)  F e a r i n g t h a t h e r presence w i l l  augment t h e s u f f e r i n g o f t h e Due d'Olsingam, Madame d'Estramene l e a v e s h e r b r o t h e r ' s house, l i t t l e aware o f t h e f a c t t h a t she has  seen h e r former f i a n c e f o r t h e l a s t  time.  93  S h o r t l y a f t e r the departure of Madame d'Estramene, the Comte d'Hennebury sees h i s b r o t h e r - i n - l a w a r r i v e on the scene. The Due d'Sstrarnene i s of course s u r p r i s e d t o see i n England, and e s p e c i a l l y a t the home of the Comte d'Hennebury, the melancholy, a i l i n g c o u r t i e r w i t h whom he had r e c e n t l y  talked  i n Savoy.  explains  Without naming h i m s e l f , the Due d'Olsingam  to the Due d'Estramene his. engagement w i t h Mademoiselle d'Hennebury. emphasizes  Magnanimous and s e l f l e s s ,  the Due d'Olsingam  again the n e c e s s i t y of keeping up a pretense t o  Madame d'Estramene, and counsels the Due d'Estramene that h i s only task i s the f o l l o w i n g : toute l a t e r r e adore".  "aimer, & aimer une Personne que  ( I I , 149)  Content i n the knowledge  t h a t Madame d'Sstrarnene w i l l no l o n g e r s u f f e r as a r e s u l t o f u n j u s t conduct on the part of her husband, the Due d'Olsingam d i e s i n a s a i n t l y f a s h i o n which harmonizes w i t h the i d e a l i z a t i o n of h i s c h a r a c t e r .  The r e l i g i o u s vocabulary which Du P l a i s i r  uses t o n a r r a t e the death scene serves t o u n d e r l i n e the pious d i g n i t y of t h i s c h a r a c t e r , more pure perhaps than any common mortal could hope t o be. A f t e r h i s death, "ses yeux, sans a v o i r c e t a i r a f f r e u x de l a mort, demeurerent  e l e v e z au C i e l  avec une douceur q u i temoignoit b i e n que son ame dans c e t t e s e p a r a t i o n n ' a v o i t p o i n t e t e t r o u b i e e par l e remords d'une conscience malheureuse".  ( I I , 152-153)  The ending of the second volume i s u n f o r t u n a t e l y by the m o r a l i z i n g a t t i t u d e of the author.  marred  The Due d'Estramene,  we a r e t o l d , begins t o accept h i s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y toward h i s  94  w i f e , who i s i n t u r n g r a t e f u l t o him f o r t h e e f f o r t which he makes, and f e e l s c o n s e q u e n t l y t h e b e g i n n i n g o f "une v e r i t a b l e a f f e c t i o n " f o r him.  The r e a d e r i s l e f t w i t h t h e d i s t i n c t  i m p r e s s i o n t h a t t h e a u t h o r f i n d s more worthy a m a r r i a g e  based  on mutual esteem than a u n i o n based on a coup de f o u d r e ; t h e Due and t h e Duchesse d'Bstramene, a c c o r d i n g t o Du P l a i s i r , "par c e s mutuels egards f o r m a i e n t dans l e u r s coeurs une a m i t i e e g a l e a l ' e s t i m e q u ' i l [ s i c ] a v o i e n t l ' u n pour 1 ' a u t r e . C e t t e a m i t i e augmentoit  tous l e s j o u r s , & e l l e e s t  aujourd'huy  en un e"tat q u i peut b i e n montrer que l a r a i s o n & l a v e r t u peuvent former des noeuds a u s s i f o r t s que ceux q u i sont formez p a r 1 ' i n c l i n a t i o n l a p l u s v i o l e n t e & l a p l u s n a t u r e l l e " . ( I I , 185-186)  The work thus ends on a somewhat honeyed n o t e ,  w i t h a d e p i c t i o n o f t h e happy c o u p l e l i v i n g n o t a t c o u r t , b u t , s i g n i f i c a n t l y , i n a house i n t h e London suburbs, "avec  cette  douceur & c e t t e p a i x que l ' o n goute dans l e s Mariages q u i sont 1'ouvrage du C i e l " .  R a t h e r than take h e r p l a c e i n s o c i e t y ,  and t h e r e b y r i s k h a v i n g h e r every a c t i o n observed and m i s i n t e r p r e t e d , Du P l a i s i r ' s h e r o i n e chooses t h e i s o l a t i o n o f c o u n t r y l i f e , where t h e presence o f h e r husband w i l l , she t h i n k s , prevent h e r from p o n d e r i n g on a p a s t which has f o r h e r c r i m i n a l implications.  I t i s t o be noted t h a t t h e l a s t p o r t r a i t we  have o f Madame d'Estramene i s t h a t o f a young woman l a n g u i s h i n g away.  The author a t t r i b u t e s t h i s l a n g u o r n o t t o "quelque  r e s t e d ' a f f e c t i o n " f o r t h e Due d'Olsingam, b u t , r a t h e r , t o " l a honte d ' a v o i r 6t6 un temps sans aimer son Mary". ( I I ,  190)  On t h i s n o t e , not e n t i r e l y c o n v i n c i n g , the n o v e l ends.  96  CHAPTER I :  FOOTNOTES  "•"(Paris, 1678). 2  "L'Art de 1'analyse dans L a P r i n c e s s e de C l e v e s . " C a h i e r s de L i t t e r a t u r e . mai 1966, pp. 15-17. 'La P r i n c e s s e de C l e v e s . " Forme e t s i g n i f i c a t i o n : e s s a i s s u r l e s s t r u c t u r e s l i t t e r a i r e s de C o r n e i l l e a C l a u d e l ( P a r i s , 196477 pp. 17-44.  97  CHAPTER I I NARRATIVE TECHNIQUE We might b e g i n our d i s c u s s i o n of n a r r a t i v e t e c h n i q u e w i t n a remark by Georges P o u l e t r e g a r d i n g L a P r i n c e s s e de Cleves. to  He contends t h a t the aim o f Madame de L a F a y e t t e i s  e s t a b l i s h the r e l a t i o n s h i p between p a s s i o n and existence,"*"  and t h a t the main q u e s t i o n f o r w h i c h she endeavours t o f i n d a r e p l y i n L a P r i n c e s s e de C l e v e s i s the f o l l o w i n g : Comment e t a b l i r ou r e t a b l i r une c o n t i n u i t y dans 1 ' e x i s t e n c e parmi 1 ' i r r u p t i o n a n a r c h i q u e et d e s t r u c t i v e , l a d i s c o n t i n u i t e r a d i c a l e ^ q u i e s t 1'essence meme de l a passion? P o u l e t ' s remarks c o u l d p e r t a i n as w e l l t o L a d'Estramene.  Duchesse  The h e r o i n e ' s m o r a l dilemma c o n s i s t s  essentially  i n h e r h a v i n g t o come t o terms w i t h h e r f e e l i n g s f o r the Due d'Olsingam, f e e l i n g s which have so t o speak broken the cont i n u i t y o f h e r e x i s t e n c e and r e n d e r e d h e r u n a b l e t o f u n c t i o n i n a s o c i e t y b u i l t on e x t e r n a l . d i s p l a y .  Thus, L a  Duchesse  d'Estramene i s , l i k e La P r i n c e s s e de C l e v e s , a n o v e l o f " v i s i o n " i n w h i c h the element of time p l a y s a d e c i s i v e r o l e : l o v e born of the i n i t i a l g l a n c e shared by two persons i s i r r e v e r s i b l e and w i t h o u t a p a s t .  The drama o f M a d e m o i s e l l e  d'Hennebury about t o u n f o l d i n Du P l a i s i r ' s two t h i n  volumes  c o u l d be c a l l e d a drama of o b s e r v e r and observed, f o r once l o v e has i n s t a l l e d i t s e l f i n the h e a r t of the h e r o i n e , no l o n g e r w i l l i t be p o s s i b l e f o r h e r t o hide i t from o t h e r s any more than from h e r s e l f , f o r j>assion which o v e r - r u l e s r e a s o n d i s o r g a n i z e s on the p h y s i c a l l e v e l as w e l l .  J.-P. S a r t r e has  98  d e f i n e d h e l l as omnipresent  observers, "others".  I n La  Duchesse d'Estramene h e l l i s u n q u e s t i o n a b l y the caged f e e l i n g e x p e r i e n c e d by man  forced to play a r o l e i n a r e s t r i c t i v e  s o c i a l s e t t i n g , but more s p e c i f i c a l l y , i t i s t h e absence o f o t h e r s , f o r s o l i t a r y confinement  i n s t i g a t e s on the p a r t o f Du  P l a i s i r ' s h e r o i n e an u n c o m f o r t a b l y n a r c i s s i s t i c descent the s e l f .  A comparison  into  w i t h P a s c a l ' s conception of d i v e r t i s s e -  ment i s p e r t i n e n t i n Du P l a i s i r ' s n o v e l ; the h e l l o f Madame d'Estramene i s p r e c i s e l y t h a t o f man  as P a s c a l d e f i n e s him: v  an e x i l e who  becomes aware o f the m i s e r y of t h e human c o n d i t i o n  the moment he i s w i t h o u t d i v e r s i o n s . Du P l a i s i r p r e s e n t s us i n the opening pages o f h i s work w i t h the p o r t r a i t o f a young woman who love:  has never  experienced  " i l l u y e t o i t a i s e de r e p o s e r confidemment s u r l e  n a i s s a n t e t a t de son coeur.  E l l e i g n o r o i t encore l a f o r c e  des i n c l i n a t i o n s , & e l l e eust ete b i e n e l o i g n e d de c r a i n d r e que l ' o n pust a v o i r p l u s que de l ' e s t i m e pour un Homme qu'on n'a p o i n t veu".  (I, 21)  He q u e s t i o n s i n f a c t the p r e c i e u x  l o v e e t h i c , a c c o r d i n g t o which r e a s o n , c h o i c e and o f the b e l o v e d determine  connaissance  the b l o s s o m i n g of p a s s i o n .  As  P o u l e t p o i n t s out, f o r the P.ambouillet group " l ' o n n'aime que ce qu'on admire, et l ' o n n'admire que ce que l ' o n c o n n a i t deja".  Such i s not the c o n t e n t i o n expressed by Du  Plaisir.  From the moment h i s h e r o i n e r e a l i z e s the overwhelming s i g n i f i c a n c e o f f e e l i n g s aroused when she f i r s t sees the  Due  d'Olsingam, the l i n e a r movement of La Duchesse d'Sstrarnene i s  99 c h a r a c t e r i z e d by what c o u l d g r a p h i c a l l y spiral  descent  i n time.  series  o f c i r c u l a r movements t h a t  the s t r u c t u r e of h i s impart  to his  It  by t h e r e p e t i t i o n o f Du P l a i s i r  is  a  this  able  to  fuse  work and t h e meaning he e n d e a v o u r s  to  reader.  One c a n n o t t h e n speak events  is  be i l l u s t r a t e d a s  i n L a Duchesse  of a c h r o n o l o g i c a l p r o g r e s s i o n  d'Estramene.  Bernard Pingaud's  of  remarks  on t h e u s e o f t i m e as a l i t e r a r y t e c h n i q u e by Madame de L a F a y e t t e a r e a p p l i c a b l e a l s o t o Du P l a i s i r ' s of the h e r o i n e ' s first  gradual  self-discovery  e n c o u n t e r w i t h Nemours,  he n o t e s  work.  Speaking  i n r e l a t i o n to  her  that:  I I n ' y a u r a pas de p r o g r e s a p r o p r e m e n t parler: Mime de C l e v e s n ' a i m e pas d a v a n t a g e Nemours a. l a f i n du l i v r e q u ' a u debut. S e u l e m e n t , e l l e se c o n n a i t m i e u x . Au l i e u de se p r e s e n t e r comme un i t i n e r a i r e j a l o n n e p a r des a c q u i s i t i o n s successives q u i p r o v o q u e r a i e n t a u t a n t de changements dans l e s p e r s o n n a g e s , l ' h i s t o i r e de 1*amour s e r a done c e l l e d ' u n e d ^ c o u v e r t e que 1 ' h e r o i n e a c c o m p l i t en q u e l q u e s o r t e s u r place. Chaque e f f o r t q u ' e l l e f e r a p o u r a b o l i r l ' e v e n e m e n t i n i t i a l ne s e r v i r a qu'a l e rendre plus p r e s t i g i e u x . L'amour n ' y g a g n e r a r i e n , s i n o n l a c o n s c i e n c e de p l u s en p l u s e f f r a y a n t e de s e s f a i b l e s s e s . L e s E p i s o d e s s u c c e s s i f s de c e t t e d ^ c o u v e r t e sont l e s etapes d'une descente h e s i t a n t e , d o u l o u r e u s e ; chacun d ' e u x r £ p e t e exactement c e l u i q u i l ' a p r e c e d e , a un n i v e a u p l u s profond.4 A c l o s e d , c e l l u l a r t i m e , i n which the o r d e r of events less  importance than t h e i r r e p e t i t i o n , such i s  w h i c h Madame D ' E s t r a m e n e , t h e Due  too,  is  is  of  the p r i s o n  c o n f i n e d by h e r l o v e  to  for  d'Olsingam.  W h i l e we c a n n o t  trace a chronological  progression  of  the  100  development o f l o v e i n L a Duchesse d'Estramene, we c a n , as G. P o u l e t has done f o r L a P r i n c e s s e de C l e v e s , d i s t i n g u i s h an a c c u m u l a t i o n  of successive experiences  on t h e p a r t o f t h e c e n t r a l c h a r a c t e r .  and s e l f - d i s c o v e r i e s  P o u l e t remarks t h a t i n  L a P r i n c e s s e de C l e v e s t h i s s i m u l t a n e o u s movement  "s'accomplit  en une double s e r i e d'etapes d i s t i n c t e s , dont chacune a son c a r a c t e r e propre mais q u i ont t o u t e s pour t r a i t commun l a p r i o r i t y du movement du coeur s u r c e l u i de 1 ' e s p r i t " . time t h e h e r o i n e r e - e x p e r i e n c e s w i t h the beloved,  t h e moment o f i n i t i a l  Each encounter  she d i s c o v e r s something new about h e r  f e e l i n g s while simultaneously  r e a l i z i n g t h a t she i s p o w e r l e s s  t o c o n t r o l t h e s e f e e l i n g s which she i s e x p e r i e n c i n g : C'est c o n n a i t r e que l ' o n ne peut pas ne pas aimer, c o n n a i t r e qu'on n ' e s t pas m a i t r e de s e s s e n t i m e n t s , p u i s qu'on n ' e s t p l u s m a i t r e de s e s g e s t e s , n i de son v i s a g e , . n i de s e s p a r o l e s ; p u i s c ' e s t c o n n a i t r e qu'on ne peut p l u s c o n n a i t r e , que l a c o n s c i e n c e se t r o u b l e , que l e c e n t r e de l a c i t a d e l l e e s t d e j a comme l e r e s t e , e n t r e l e s mains de l ' e n n e m i . " There remains b u t one road open t o t h e woman condemned because of h e r i n c l i n a t i o n t o h e r own p r i v a t e h e l l : s e c r e t t o h e r husband. the h e r o i n e s  confession of the  T h i s i s t h e s o l u t i o n adopted by b o t h  o f Madame de L a P a y e t t e and Du P l a i s i r ,  i n an  attempt t o r e g a i n what P o u l e t c a l l s " c e t t e c o n t i n u i t y de s o i , c e t t e f i d e l i t y a. s o i , q u i f o n t de l a v i e , non un chaos 7  d ' i n s t a n t s mais une u n i t e t e m p o r e l l e " .  The o n l y means by  w h i c h t h e h e r o i n e can a r r e s t h e r s p i r a l d e s c e n t i n t o t h e m o r a l abyss t o which she r e f e r s w i t h t r e p i d a t i o n i s t o f o r b i d  101 h e r s e l f v i s u a l a c c e s s t o the b e l o v e d . i s the o n l y guarantee  T h i s s o r t of d e p r i v a t i o n  f o r the t r a n q u i l l i t y o f the s o u l .  The q u e s t i o n of the use o f time as a t e c h n i c a l d e v i c e by Du P l a i s i r i s r e l a t e d t o t h a t of a u t h o r i a l presence.  For  t h i s r e a s o n , i t s h o u l d be f u r t h e r examined i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h the c r e a t i v e p r o c e s s and the work c r e a t e d , Du P l a i s i r a u t h o r and the personages who B e f o r e examining  the  inhabit h i s c r e a t i v e world.  the s p e c i f i c methods w h i c h Du P l a i s i r uses  t o p r e s e n t h i s c h a r a c t e r s and t o h i g h l i g h t t h e i r  inter-  r e l a t i o n s h i p s , l e t us l o o k a t two a s p e c t s of n a r r a t i v e t e c h n i q u e which m e r i t e l u c i d a t i o n :  the r o l e of the  author  and h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p t o h i s work, and, f o l l o w i n g t h i s , p o i n t o f view and temporal Two  awareness.  terms which should be d e f i n e d a t t h i s p o i n t a r e  "summary" and "scene".  A c l e a r d e f i n i t i o n o f "summary" and  i t s purpose i s g i v e n by F i e l d i n g i n Tom  Jones:  We i n t e n d i n i t [ t h e novel] r a t h e r t o pursue the method of those w r i t e r s who p r o f e s s t o d i s p o s e the r e v o l u t i o n s o f c o u n t r i e s , than t o i m i t a t e the p a i n f u l and voluminous h i s t o r i a n , who, t o p r e s e r v e the r e g u l a r i t y of h i s s e r i e s , t h i n k s h i m s e l f o b l i g e d t o f i l l up as much paper w i t h the d e t a i l s of months and y e a r s i n which n o t h i n g remarkable happened, as he employs upon those n o t a b l e eras when the g r e a t e s t scenes have been t r a n s a c t e d on the human s t a g e . Such h i s t o r i e s as these do i n r e a l i t y v e r y much resemble a newspaper, which c o n s i s t s of j u s t the same number of words, whether t h e r e be any news i n i t or n o t . . . Now i t i s our purpose i n the e n s u i n g pages t o pursue a c o n t r a r y method: when  102 any e x t r a o r d i n a r y scene p r e s e n t s i t s e l f , as we t r u s t w i l l o f t e n be the case, we s h a l l spare no p a i n s n o r paper t o open i t a t l a r g e t o our r e a d e r ; b u t i f whole y e a r s s h o u l d pass w i t h o u t p r o d u c i n g anyt h i n g worthy o f h i s n o t i c e , we s h a l l n o t be a f r a i d o f a chasm i n our h i s t o r y , but s h a l l h a s t e n on t o m a t t e r s o f consequence. (Book I I , c h a p t e r i . ) Good w r i t e r s w i l l , i n d e e d , do w e l l t o i m i t a t e the i n g e n i o u s t r a v e l l e r . . . who always p r o p o r t i o n s h i s s t a y a t any p l a c e t o t h e b e a u t i e s , e l e g a n c e s , and c u r i o s i t i e s which i t a f f o r d s . o (Book X I , c h a p t e r i x . ) "Summary" i s then t h e method o f a u t h o r i a l commentary used when a n o v e l i s t wishes t o convey t o h i s r e a d e r events  which  took p l a c e over a r e l a t i v e l y l o n g space o f t i m e , b u t w h i c h , i n themselves, do n o t m e r i t a p r e c i s e d e s c r i p t i o n .  A further  r e f i n e m e n t o f t h i s term i s p r o v i d e d by P h y l l i s B e n t l e y , who p o i n t s out t h a t summary can go "down t h e s l i d i n g s c a l e o f q s p e c i f i c i t y towards t h e scene", q u o t i n g as an example t h e f o l l o w i n g passage from Storm Jameson's The L o v e l y S h i p : Mary spent h e r f i r s t week i n London v e r y q u i e t l y . She v i s i t e d a few shops, but f o r t h e most p a r t she s t a y e d i n h e r rooms, and r e a d , o r thought o f John. . . . A t t h e end o f a week she wanted a c t i o n . She ordered h e r s e l f a plum-coloured h a b i t and h i r e d a horse and a groom t o r i d e w i t h h e r i n the P a r k . 1 0  As B e n t l e y p o i n t s o u t , we see t h a t t h e f i r s t two sentences i n t h e above e x t r a c t p r e s e n t a h i g h l y condensed summary, t h e f o l l o w i n g sentences l e s s so.  I n t h e sentence  immediately  f o l l o w i n g t h e l a s t sentence quoted above, a s p e c i f i c  time i s  g i v e n by t h e a u t h o r , and a "scene" i s d e s c r i b e d ("The morning  103 of h e r f i r s t r i d e was c o l d . . . " ) . • A s i m i l a r t e c h n i q u e i s used by Du P l a i s i r as he begins h i s tale* and i n t r o d u c e s h i s c h a r a c t e r s t o the r e a d e r : Jamais l a Prance n'a paru o.vec t a n t de grandeur, que pandant ces d e r n i e r e s g u e r r e s . Ses succes ^ g a l o i e n t ses dessexns. E l l e s e u l e f a i s o i t s a f o r c e c o n t r e 1'Europe presque e n t i e r e ; & l e s Couronnes q u i ne s ' e t o i e n t p o i n t d e c l a r e s , ses <;nnemies, ne l a r e g a r d o i e n t qu'avec i n q u i e t u d e . D ' A n g l e t e r r e j o u i s s o i t a l o r s d'un repos que ses V o i s i n s n ' o s o i e n t p l u s e s p e r e r . Ce repos ne f a i s o i t pas un bonheu* aux jeunes S e i g n e u r u . L ' A d m i r a t i o n que l o u r d o n n o i t l e b r u i t de nos conquestes, le** i n t e r e s s o i t pour n o u : 5 ; & honteux de v i v r e o a i s i b l e s en un temps ou. i l s pouvoient acqu ,>rir de I'honneur, i l s b r u l o i e n t d ' e s t r e dans nos Armees. Ce n ' e t o i t que t r i s t e ^ s e a. l a Cour dans 1 ' e s p r i t de l a p l u s jrande p a r t i e des Meres, l a t e n d r e s s e d e p l o / o i t a. l e u r i m a g i n a t i o n t o u t e s l e s a s s i s t a n c e s dont l e u r s P i l s p o u v o i e n t a v o i r bes \>in p a r l e s dangers de l a g u e r r e ; & quelques-unes de c e l l e s q u i e t o i e n t demeurees Ve i v e s , r e s o l u r e n t de l e s accompagner jusqu'oii l a bienseance p o u r r o i t l e permettre. L a Contesse d'Hennebury, & l a Contesse d ' H i l m o r r e , f u r e n t de ce nombre. (I, 1-4) Du P l a i s i r f i r s t of a l l s e t s the scene h i s t o r i c a l l y , i n a s u c c i n c t i n t r o d u c t o r y paragraph.  He t h e n becomes more s p e c i -  f i c i n d e s c r i b i n g the f e e l i n g s e x p e r i e n c e d by the young E n g l i s h noblemen w i t h r e g a r d t o the s i t u a t i o n , and a l s o the f e e l i n g s o f sadness which the mothers of t h e s e young were u n d e r g o i n g .  soldiers  Then s p e c i f i c c h a r a c t e r s a r e mentioned, and  i n the paragraphs which f o l l o w , t h e s e two mothers a r e described i n d e t a i l psychologically; eventually, other characters are  i n t r o d u c e d , and t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r r e l a t i o n s h i p t o e i t h e r  104  m a t r i a r c h a l camp i s d e s c r i b e d .  We see t h a t "summary" as used  by Jameson and by Du P l a i s i r i n h i s opening pages a r e not' i d e n t i c a l b u t , r a t h e r , p a r a l l e l i n form.  Whereas Jameson  d i r e c t s h e r summary toward a "scene" i n v o l v i n g one c h a r a c t e r , Du P l a i s i r summarizes t h e background c f h i s t a l e c h r o n o l o g i c a l l y and h i s t o r i c a l l y i n o r d e r t o go.on.to t h e d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e a c t i o n s end a t t i t u d e s o f s e v e r a l c h a r a c t e r s w i t h i n t h a t h i s t o r i c a l framework.  Du P l a i s i i  does however use summary  i n a s i m i l a r way t o Jameson when he i n t r o d u c e s scenes o t h e r then t h i s i n i t i a l p r e s e n t a t i o n of general s e t t i n g .  Numerous  examples may be found i n the t e x t .  Lr-.t us t a k e f o r i n s t a n c e  t h e b e g i n n i n g pages o f volume two.  The p a i n f u l e x p e r i e n c e o f  t h e young c o u p l e d u r i n g the e a r l y day:' o f m a r r i a g e i s summarized, i n t h e f o l l o w i n g f a s h i o n by Du P l a i s i r : Le Due d'Estramene 8c s a Femme p a s s e r e n t ensemble quelques j o u r s ; mair. i l s l e s p a s s e r e n t dans un accablement p i r e m i l l e f o i s que l a p l u s c r u e l l e - d e s - - u n i o n . L a t r i s t e s s e donx i l s e t o i e n t p n n e t r e z * l e s empeschoit d ' a v o i r de 1 ' a t t e n t i o n 1'un pour 1'autre, & i l s ignoroiei'.t que l e u r a v e r s i o n e t o i t m u t u e l l e . Madame d'Estramene a v o i t h o r r e u r d'elle-meme. Sans c e s s e e l l e a v o i t devant l e s yeux c e t t e f o y q u ' e l l e a v o i t accordee a un a u t r e qu'au Due d'Olsingam; mais e n f i n , quelque d i s s i p e e q u ' e l l e f u s t par sa d o u l e u r & par s a t e n d r e s s e , e l l e r e v i n T ; b i e n t o s t a ces sentimens de sagesse & d ' a u s t e r i t e qui l u y etoient s i naturels. E l l e v i t q u ' e l l e e t o i t e n t r e e dans un e t a t q u i l u y f a i s o i t un crimn de l a moindre d i s t r a c t i o n de son e s p r i t envers l e Due d'Olsingam, &.qu'apres a v o i r t a n t a p p r e hende d ' e s t r e soupgonnee de peu d ' a f f l i c t i o n pour l a mort de s a Mere, & de peu de r e s p e c t pour l e s v o l o n t e z de l a Reyne,  105 e l l e p a r o i t r o i t a v e c une v i o l e n t e i n c l i n a t i o n p o u r un a u t r e cue p o u r un . M a r y . E l l e t a c h a de se l i r e q u ' e l l e ne d e v o i t p o i n t s'estimer malheureuse d ' a v o i r e p o u s e l e Due d ' S s t r a m e n e . Elle se s o u v i n t que l a d i s t i n c t i o n qu'il a v o i t eue p o u r e l l e a v o i t e t e s o u t e n u e p a r des s o i n s & des c o m p l a i s a n c e s d o n t l e coeur l e plus porte a 1'assujetissement & a. l a p a s s i o n , n ' a u r o i t j a m a i s e t e c a p a b l e ; mais sur t o u t e l l e admira l a c o n s i d e r a t i o n q u ' i l a v o i t eue de ne l u y a v o i r p o i n t marque de r e s s e n t i m e n t p o u r l e peu d ' a g r e m e n t & de t e n d r e s s e q u ' e l l e l u y a v o i t temoigne d e p u i s l e u r mariage; & c e t egarci l u y p a r u t d'un p r i x i n f i n y en v e u e de I ' e m b a r r a s ou. e l l e s e r o i t tombee, s i e l l e a v o i t e t e e x p o s e e a. des r e p r o c h . e s . A u s s i t o s t q u ' e l l e cemmenga a se c c n t r a i n d r e s u r une a f f l i c t i o n q u i I ' e l o i g n o i t t r o p de l u y , e l l e s ' a p p e r - , c e u t q u ' i l e t o i t luy-mesme m o r t e l l e m e n t aiflige. E l l e s e n t i t a l o r s 1'imprudence q u ' e l l e a v o i t eue de s ' a b a n d o n n e r a i n s i aux •mcuvemens de son c o e u r ; & p e r s u a d e e d ' a v o i r c a u s e p a r l e t o r r e n t de s a t e n d r e s s e & de s a d o u l e u r l ' e t a t ou. e l l e l e v o y o i t , e l l e se t r o u v a m a l h e u r e u s e d a v o i r c o n n u l e Due d ' O l s i n g a m , & i l s'en f a l l o i t peu q u ' e l l e ne c r u s t l e h a i r . E l l e ne put s u p o r t e r l a p e n s e e que son M a r y e u s x l i e u de c h e r c h e r l a c a u s e q u i l a r e n d o i t s i t r i s t e . ; & d a n s l e s r e m o r s que . . l u y d o n n o i t son i n c l i n a t i o n , e l l e c r u t q u ' e l l e p o u r r o i t sans p e i n e prendre aupres de l u y des a p p a r e n c e s p l u s f a v o r a b l e s & olus obligeantes.  •  ;  (II,  The  n a r r a t c r then mentions a s p e c i f i c  "une  lettre  ecrite"  cue  son  ( I I , 8-9)  Erere luy  v i t pleurer  eu un  d e l u g e de  event, the  arrival  [Madame d ' E s t r a m e n e ]  w h i c h s e r v e s as a p o i n t  d e t a i l e d n a r r a t i v e of a s p e c i f i c "on  2-8)  avoit  of d e p a r t u r e f o r  s a i s i s s e m e n s & des  a. r e p a n d r e , & e l l e p a r u t a v e c  transports  a  a c t i o n , or scene, i n which  ["Madame d ' B s t r a m e n e ] a u t a n t que. s i e l l e pleurs  of  q u i d o n n e r e n t de  cruels  avoit  des remors  106 au Due  d'Sstrarnene."  (II,  11)  As wa examine more f u l l y t i e s t r u c t u r e of l a Duchesse d'Bstrameae, we see that Du P l a i s i r uses a l t e r n a t e l y  scene  and summary ( o r what Percy -Bub .lock c a l l s " r e t r o s p e c t " ) to move hack and f o r t h i n time as he r e l a t e s h i s t a l e .  Any  i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g a c h a r a c t e r ' s past h i s t o r y i s g i v e n i n a t e r s e , schematic sketch i n v o l v i n g the bare minimum of detail.  Perhaps  the most s t r i k i n g example of t h i s  stark  n a r r a t i o n i s found i n Du P l a i s i r ' - s a l l u s i o n to the of the Due  d'Olsingam,  who  i s i n t r o d u c e d i n two  background  sentences:  l e Due d'Olsingam, apres a v o i r perdu son Pere & sa Mere dans ui_ age ou. a peine i l pouvoit e s t r e s e n s i b l e a c e t t e . p e r t e , e t o i t venu en Prance, & a v o i t t r e s - p e u repas3e a. l o n d r e s . Son Pere" mourut pendant l e s d e r n i e r s t r o u b l e s d ' A n g l e t e r r e , dans un danger d' ou. i l v o u l o i t o t e r l e Mary de Madame d' fienneburv,. 1  ( I , 15-16) Sumiiary, then, as used to convey h i s t o r i c a l  background  i s employed i n f r e q u e n t l y as a n a r r a t i v e technique by Plaisir.  Du  It. i s used r a t h e r to form a t r a n s i t i o n between  events experienced contemporaneously  by the c h a r a c t e r s , and  a l i n k between these events i s a u t o m a t i c a l l y c r e a t e d i n the mind of the reader.  A d i s t i n c t i o n must be made between these  two d e f i n i t i o n s of summary, f o r the second could more p r e c i s e l y be l a b e l l e d  " d e s c r i p t i o n " , w h i l e the f i r s t  only the i d e a of the i m p a r t i n g of h i s t o r i c a l or data.  conveys background  2he balance between scene and summary ( i n the  sense  of " d e s c r i p t i o n " ) i s l e s s harmonious as the n o v e l draws to a  107 c l o s e , f o r at the end of the second volume i n p a r t i c u l a r ,  Du  P l a i s i r uses more and mora frequently, d i r e c t d i s c o u r s e to convey  the thoughts of h i s c h a r a c t e r s .  Having evaluated to what extent or i n what p r o p o r t i o n Du P l a i s i r uses commentary ( d e s c r i p t i o n ) , summary and we w i l l now  concern o u r s e l v e s with the p o i n t of view  scene, from  which he presents these scenes, and what techniques he uses i n so doing. one may  For an e n l i g h t e n i n g d i s c u s s i o n of p o i n t of view,  t u r n to Wayne C. Booth's  Point-of-View:  essay e n t i t l e d  An Essay i n C l a s s i f i c a t i o n . " ' " 1  1  "Distance and The  first  p o i n t d e a l t w i t h by Booth concerns the n a r r a t o r of the t a l e . The narrator,' a c c o r d i n g to Booth, may or undramatized; always  be e i t h e r dramatized  the d r a n a t i z e d n a r r a t o r ("I" or "We")  (and the undramatized  is  narrator usually) d i s t i n c t  from  12 the i m p l i e d author who  gi ves them being.  The i m p l i e d  author  i s i n f a c t a s o r t of "second s e l f " , d i s t i n c t from and more kncwledgea.ble  than the r e a l man.  But most important of a l l ,  as Booth continues to e l a b o r a t e , are the "unacknowledged narrators":  many dramatized n a r r a t o r s are never l a b e l l e d as  such, yet are used by the author to impart knowledge t o the 13 reader w h i l e seemingly a c t i n g out t h e i r r o l e s . person "centres of consciousness" ( c a l l e d Henry James) f i l l  These t h i r d -  " r e f l e c t o r s " by  the f u n c t i o n of avowed n a r r a t o r s ; i t i s  through them that the author f i l t e r s h i s n a r r a t i v e . ^ " 1  Following Booth s^terminology, 1  the n a r r a t o r of l a  Duchesse d'Estramene can be s a i d to be  undramatized.  108  A l t e r n a t i n g h i s commentary w i t h scenes or summaries i n w h i c h t h i r d - p e r s o n unacknowledged n a r r a t o r - a g e n t s  t a k e p a r t , he i s  a b l e t o p r e s e n t from v a r i o u s p o i n t s of v i e w and from v a r i o u s d i s t a n c e s the dilemma of h i s h e r o i n e .  What d i s t i n g u i s h e s the  undramatized n a r r a t o r from the n a r r a t o r - a g e n t s  i n La Duchesse  d E s t r a m e n e i s the e x t e n t t o which t h e i r knowledge of the 1  situation i s limited.  The undramatized n a r r a t o r of L a  Duchesse d'Estramene i s o m n i s c i e n t ,  t h a t i s , he has  complete  p r i v i l e g e t o know b e f o r e h i s c e n t r a l c h a r a c t e r does what she o r the o t h e r c h a r a c t e r s c o u l d not l e a r n by s t r i c t l y means.  The  observers  natural  or n a r r a t o r - a g e n t s , on the o t h e r hand,  have t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n l i m i t e d t o probable v i s i o n and The most important  inference.  s i n g l e p r i v i l e g e of a l l , t h a t of o b t a i n i n g  an i n s i d e view of the workings of the c e n t r a l c h a r a c t e r ' s mind, belongs t o the undramatized n a r r a t o r a l o n e . L e t us l o o k more c l o s e l y a t some examples of Du  Plaisir's  use of moving p o i n t o f view t o h i g h l i g h t s y s t e m a t i c a l l y a p s y c h o l o g i c a l dilemma which c o u l d best be d e s c r i b e d as  a  s e r i e s of moments of awareness, p a i n f u l because t h e y come as a p o s t e r i o r i acknowledgements of the v i c t o r y of p a s s i o n  over  reason. The  c h a r a c t e r whose p s y c h o l o g i c a l dilemma w i l l f i l l  volumes i s f i r s t presented  by the undramatized n a r r a t o r ,  two who  n o t e s the r e a c t i o n caused by the young woman's p h y s i c a l beauty i n the eyes of the Queen who,  "quelque accoutumee q u ' e l l e  f u s t a v o i r des Beautez p a r f a i t e s , n ' a v o i t jamais pu  regarder  109 Mademoiselle d'Hennebury sans un extreme etonnement." ( I , 11-12.) Du P l a i s i r c o n t i n u e s t o m a i n t a i n a c e r t a i n d i s t a n c e between h i s c e n t r a l c h a r a c t e r and h i m s e l f and between h i s c e n t r a l c h a r a c t e r and h i s r e a d e r by next commenting upon h e r r e a c t i o n s , a g a i n as a p r i v i l e g e d o b s e r v e r , t h e undramatized narrator.  B e f o r e t h e p o r t r a i t o f t h e Due d'Olsingam, t h e  n a r r a t o r remarks, " e l l e e n t r a dans un e t a t q u i l u y eust donne de s e n s i b l e s d e p l a i s i r s , s i e l l e se f u s t examinee. aimoit l a g l o i r e .  Elle  E l l e a v o i t travaill£ a s ' a c q u e r i r une  p a r f a i t e e s t i m e , avant mesme q u ' e l l e en pust c o n n o i s t r e l e p r i x ; & e l l e e t o i t d e l i c a t e sur l a r e p u t a t i o n , jusqu'a t r e m b l e r & e t r e embarassee dans l e s a c t i o n s l e s p l u s i n d i f e r entes C i c 3 . " s  (I» 20-21)  Because Du P l a i s i r has d e l e g a t e d  t o t h e undramatized n a r r a t o r t h e power o f o m n i s c i e n c e , he i s a b l e t o know and t o i m p a r t t o t h e r e a d e r , b e f o r e t h e h e r o i n e h e r s e l f i s c o n s c i o u s o f i t , t h e e f f e c t which p a s s i o n has a l r e a d y had i n h e r h e a r t . Moving from t h e p e r i p h e r y o f t h e p o r t r a i t which he i s g r a d u a l l y b u i l d i n g up o f Mademoiselle d'Hennebury, Du P l a i s i r next adopts t h e o p t i c a l . p o s i t i o n o f an o b s e r v e r whose comments r e g a r d i n g t h e h e r o i n e ' s r e a c t i o n s a r e c o n s i d e r a b l y more p e r s o n a l than those o f t h e Queen, namely Madame d'Hennebury. Du P l a i s i r has n o t y e t endowed h i s c e n t r a l c h a r a c t e r w i t h d i r e c t d i s c o u r s e , o r even w i t h thoughts expressed t h r o u g h s o l i l o q u y , y e t he i s a b l e t o convey h e r g r a d u a l awakening t o l o v e by v i e w i n g h e r from t h e a n g l e o f the mother whose thoughts  110 he i s a b l e t o p e n e t r a t e  because he i s o m n i s c i e n t :  Madame d'Hennebury remarqua b i e n - t o s t quelque chan^ement dans 1'humeur de s a F i l l e & peu a peu ,\a causa d'ou i l p a r t o i t . Elle eust b i e n v o u l u l u y apprendre que ce q u ' e l l e s e n t o i t , e s t o i t un panchant; mais e l l e c r a i g n o i t qui; s a t e n d r e s s e & s a p i t i e ne l u y l a i s s a s s o n t pas l a f o r c e de l e c o n damner. E l l o c r a i g n i t de l u y f a i r e p e r d r e de s a c o n f i a n c e & de son a m i t i e , p a r l a d o u l e u r de s a v o i r qu'on l u y a v o i t remarque une f o i b l e s s f ; . I I l u y sembla, dans l a c o n n o i s s a n c e q u ' e l l e a v o i t de s o n humeur, que l a c r a i n ; e de p o u v o i r e s t r e blamee d e t r u i r o i t c o t t e i m p r e s s i o n avant l e r e t o u r du Due d' 01s;.ngam. Enf i n e l l e r e s o l u t d ' a t t e n d r e ei.cor, & de d i s s i m u l e r . ( I , 22-24) The  above mentioned f o c a l a n g l e s o r p o i n t s o f view adopted  by t h e a u t h o r have om- common a s p e c t , a l t h o u g h t h e y d i f f e r i n t h e d i s t a n c e which, the n a r r a t o r m a i n t a i n s between h i m s e l f and h i s c e n t r a l c h a r a c t e r ; i n a l l o f them, t h e n a r r a t o r ' s p e r c e p t i o n i s g r e a t e r t h a n t h a t o f M a d e m o i s e l l e d'Hennebury, i n t h a t she h e r s e l f i f n o t y e t aware o f t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f the f e e l i n g s w h i c h she i s e x p e r i e n c i n g She  f o r t h e Due d'Olsingam.  i s c o n s c i o u s t h a t she ..is u n d e r g o i n g a change p s y c h o l o g i -  c a l l y , , but s h e does n e t y e t comprehend t h e i m p o r t o f t h a t change f o r h e r s e l f . Constantly and  moving toward a p o i n t a t which c o n s c i o u s n e s s  comprehension w i l l c o i n c i d e i n t h e mind o f Mademoiselle  d'Hennebury, Du P l a i s i r uses t h e d e v i c e o f t h e l e t t e r t o evoke t h i s f i r s t moment o f awareness f o r t h e h e r o i n e . i n h i s c a p a c i t y as o m n i s c i e n t commentator, t h e n a r r a t o r us:  Acting tells  Ill  L'exces de t r i s t e s s e & de f r a y e u r avec l e q u e l Mademoiselle d'Hennebury l u t c e t t e L e t t r e , l u y donna l i e u de penser pour l a p r e m i e r e f o i s a s'examiner. Ses c r a i n t e s & ses larmes ne l u y p a r u r e n t p o i n t e s t r e uniquement pour un F r e r e . E l l e se s o u v i n t de t o u t e 1 * a t t e n t i o n & de t o u t 1 ' i n t e r e s t avec l e s q u e l s e l l e a v o i t n o u v e l l e m e n t p o r t e ses pensees v e r s l e Due d'Olsingam. Toutes choses e n f i n l u y marquerent l a pente que son coeur a v o i t deja, p r i s e . ( I , 29-30)  The o p p o s i n g adverbs ( " e n f i n " , "de"ja") w i t h w h i c h the above commentary ends s e r v e t o h i g h l i g h t t h e p r o f o u n d e f f e c t w h i c h t h i s i n i t i a l moment o f t e m p o r a l awareness has f o r M a d e m o i s e l l e d'Hennebury.  What measures w i l l she t a k e , now t h a t she i s  aware o f the s i g n i f i c a n c e of h e r f e e l i n g s f o r the Due d'Olsingam?  The n a r r a t o r o b s e r v e s , s h o r t l y a f t e r t h i s scene,  t h a t " e l l e p a r l o i t peu.  II l u y sembloit  q u ' e l l e ne  p l u s sans l a i s s e r v o i r quelque d e s o r d r e . " The n a r r a t o r has now f o c u s s e d  parloit  ( I , 33-34)  on the c e n t r e o f t h e  p o r t r a i t which he i s p r e s e n t i n g from d i f f e r e n t a n g l e s ; he has conveyed t o t h e r e a d e r the p s y c h o l o g i c a l awareness w h i c h the c e n t r a l c h a r a c t e r has of h e r p a r t i c u l a r s i t u a t i o n and, subsequently,  the measures which she knows t h a t she must t a k e  i n order not t o have her f e e l i n g s d i s c o v e r e d At t h i s p o i n t i n the development Duchesse d'Estramene.  by t h e c o u r t .  o f the a c t i o n of La  a d e f i n i t e " p a t t e r n " , t o use  E.M.  15 F o r s t e r ' s terminology, structure.  becomes apparent i n the  novel's  By " p a t t e r n " , F o r s t e r means t h a t i f we compare  the n o v e l t o a p i c t o r i a l o b j e c t , a t a n g i b l e s t r u c t u r e , which  112 draws i t s after  nourishment from the p l o t ,  the p l o t  "pattern"  itself  has  which develops  remains  "visible"  even  gone f r o m t h e r e a d e r ' s m i n d . ^  The  1  i n Du P l a i s i r ' s  n o v e l may,  to  take  17 a n image d e v e l o p e d a b o v e , series  of c i r c l e s ,  be g r a p h i c a l l y  s p i r a l l i n g downward a s  e a c h moment o f a w a r e n e s s a l s o a n acknowledgement  the p l o t  of powerlessness,  a  develops;  which the h e r o i n e e x p e r i e n c e s  c o n t a c t w i t h members o f t h e o b s e r v a n t a  i l l u s t r a t e d as  is  repeated a f t e r  each  s o c i e t y o f w h i c h she  is  part. let  us l o o k more c l o s e l y a t  time segments,  one o f t h e s e  and t h e moments w h i c h c o m p r i s e i t .  one o f t h e most s t r i k i n g  of these scenes  a f t e r Madame d ' E s t r a m e n e  becomes aware t h a t  has  left  f o r t h e c o n t i n e n t , has  loving her.  "circles"  She a p o s t r o p h i z e s  takes  or  Perhaps  place  shortly  her husband,  always been i n c a p a b l e  who  of  t h e a b s e n t Duo d ' O l s i n g a m  in  t h e s o l i t u d e o f h e r room: J e p o u r r a y me s o u v e n i r de v o u s , Q • *3 J p o u r r a y y p e n s e r s a n s c r a i n d r e q u ' i l m'en c o u t e des c r i m e s . L ' a f f e c t i o n d ' u n Mary a u r o i t deu r e c u e i l l i r pour l u y s e u l t o u t e s mes p e n s e e s . Son a v e r s i o n m'en d e g a g e ; & ce que j e me d o i s a moy-mesme, ne p e u t m'empescher de p l a i n d r e v o s m a l h e u r s & l e s miens. (II, 28) e  But  she q u i c k l y r e a l i z e s  let  these f e e l i n g s  connut b i e n t o s t s o n Mary ne l a  that  she c a n n o t ,  be known t o o t h e r s :  p a r s a v e r t u que l e s dispensoient  conforme a l ' e t a t  as  a m a r r i e d woman,  "Madame  etranges  d'Estramene  sentimens  de  p o i n t de p r e n d r e une c o n d u i t e  ou e l l e se v o y o i t  engaged."  (II,  36-37)  113  She then r e s o l v e s t o l e a v e f o r E n g l a n d , accompanied by Madame d ' H i l m o r r e , " p u i s qu' apparemment son Mary y r e t o u r n o i t . " (II,  37-38)  A f t e r a c o n v e r s a t i o n w i t h h e r b r o t h e r , she i s  aware of t h e conduct she must adopt, and makes r e s o l u t i o n s accordingly: ([Son f r e r e j e n t r a dans l e mesme e s p r i t que s a Soeur, & i l demeura d'accord avec e l l e , que sans e s t r e o b l i g e e de f o r c e r son coeur a aimer' l e Due d Estramene, e l l e d e v o i t d'autant p l u s o b s e r v e r une conduite exacte & rigoureuse, q u ' e l l e a v o i t a. apprehender que l ' o n ne v i n s t a c o n n o i s t r e q u ' e l l e a i m o i t encor l e Due d'Olsingam. 1  (II,  57-58)  But h e r r e s o l u t i o n s a r e t o no a v a i l , f o r a t t h e mention o f the  Due d'Olsingam's name by t h e Queen, Madame  d i s p l a y s uncontrolled anguish.  d'Estramene  She r e a l i z e s o n l y a f t e r  this  p u b l i c d i s p l a y o f emotion t h e i m p o r t which h e r a c t i o n s have for  o t h e r s , and i s g r a t e f u l t h a t Madame d ' H i l m o r r e , u n l i k e  h e r s e l f , i s a b l e t o perform i n p u b l i c w i t h o u t l e t t i n g t h e mask o f appearances s l i p .  We have come f u l l c i r c l e i n t h e  p a t t e r n o f b e h a v i o u r which c h a r a c t e r i z e s t h e c e n t r a l  personage  whose m o r a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l dilemma forms t h e m a t e r i a l o f La Duchesse d'Estramene:  a f t e r h e r s e l f becoming aware o f a  s i t u a t i o n , she makes a r e s o l u t i o n t o h i d e from o t h e r s t h e e f f e c t which t h a t s i t u a t i o n has had on h e r ; she s u b s e q u e n t l y l e t s h e r p r i v a t e l y c o n c e i v e d defence mechanisms f a l l i n p u b l i c ; t h e n , once a g a i n , i n s o l i t u d e , she becomes aware t h a t she has n o t succeeded i n m a i n t a i n i n g t h e facade o f appearances,  114 and vows c o n s e q u e n t l y  t o s u c c e e d i n so d o i n g  encounter with court s o c i e t y . England,  6t6  l'effet  d'Estramene  tries  d'elle-mesme, pour p o u v o i r  it,  "elle avoit  esperer q u ' i l Ses  qu'elle  que s a p a s s i o n  devoit  precedente  that  Sharing  although  de s o n p r e m i e r  about  dependoit d ' e l l e  en p u t r e c e v o i r ,  i l l h e a l t h has  fut  de  considerably,  Madame d ' E s t r a m e n e  d'Olsingam "ces  mesmes  touched pour l e r e s t e  traits, de s e s  n a t u r e l & trop aimable,  luy  a g a i n the terminology  recognizes  dont l a  jours, coutoit  cruels & inutiles." o f E.M.  physical  qu'elle  sienne." again  appearance, behaviour  comments  that,  i n t h e Due  p r e m i e r e veue  1'avoit  souvenir  sans c e s s e  (II, 104-105)  in  appearance  & dont l e  Porster,  plus  puis  fail  the n a r r a t o r  aimer  connoitre  que d a n s l a does  for  maitresse  & le  t h e same c h a r a c t e r i s t i c  altered his  Madame  de ne p l u s  l u y d o n n e r peu de h o n t e ,  t o be d i s p l a y e d ;  -  engagement,  soins etoient i n u t i l e s ,  that  assez  to act  t r o p peu  et6  B e f o r e Madame d ' E s t r a m e n e  aware  to  n'avoit  (II, 99)  t o h i d e t h e b r e a c h between r e a l i t y and  the reader i s  combats,  return  toward h e r husband,  dans l e s v o l o n t e z du C i e l ,  (II, 100-101)  next  l e monde,  powerless  comments  dans l a n a i s s a n c e  grand, a v a n t a g e  although  is  t o show t e n d e r n e s s  l e Due d ' O l s i n g a m .  pattern is  reason  the n a r r a t o r  she f e e l s he m e r i t s  her e f f o r t  que s a t r i s t e s s e  the b e l i e f that  against passion,  plus  paroltre a tout  que de 1'absence de ce D u e . "  with Pascal  etoit  Upon h e r h u s b a n d ' s  " e l l e t a c h a de f a i r e  de j o y e p o u r p e r s u a d e r  i n her  tant  de  To a d o p t  the o v e r a l l  trop  once  "pattern"  115 or c h a r a c t e r i s t i c when v i e w e d as orchestrated  structural  a whole,  commentary  that  supports  the s t r u g g l e  quently repeated, while futility  of  quickly  a  cesse"  o f Du P l a i s i r * s  "inutiles"  d'Estramene,  carefully rhythms.  and i n d e e d s u g g e s t s  "sans  t h e s e r e p e a t e d moments  by a r e s o l u t i o n  as  of repeated i d e n t i c a l  i d e a of r h y t h m i c a l r e p e t i t i o n ; impression  of L a Duchesse  c a n be e n v i s a g e d  p i e c e composed  The n a r r a t o r ' s  movement  serves  to  creates  the  the  heroine is emphasize  of i n n e r t u r m o i l  frethe  followed  b r o k e n and t h r o w n once more i n t o  chaos.  116 CHAPTER I I :  ^"Etudes s u r l e 2  Ibid.,  p.  126.  5  l_bid.,  p.  122.  FOOTNOTES  temps huinain ( P a r i s ,  1950),  ^Madame de L a F a y e t t e p a r e l l e - m e m e ( P a r i s ,  p.  122.  1965),  p.  91.  5  ^ E t u d e s s u r l e temps h u m a i n , p. 6  Ibid..  p.  127.  7  Ibid.,  p.  128.  126.  8 Quoted by P h y l l i s B e n t l e y i n "Use o f Summary," The T h e o r y o f t h e flovel ( e d . P h i l i p S t e v i c k ) (New Y o r k , 1 9 6 7 ) , p. 4 7 . 9  "Use  o f Summary,"  "^loc. in:  i : L  p.  48.  cit. The T h e o r y o f t h e N o v e l  ( e d . P.  Stevick),  pp.  1964),  154.  87-107. 1 2  Ibid..  p.  92.  1 5  Ibid.,  p.  94.  1 4  loc.  cit.  15  ^Aspects  of the Novel  (Harmondsworth,  p.  "^loc. cit. See a l s o a s i m i l a r v i e w e x p r e s s e d by J . R o u s s e t i n Forme e t s i g n i f i c a t i o n . . • , I n t r o d u c t i o n , I - X X I I I . 1 7  p.  99.  117  CHAPTER  III  CHARACTERIZATION A d h e r i n g t o t h e p r e c e p t s w h i c h he was f o l l o w i n g year i n h i s develops h i s  Sentimens  characters  to advocate  sur 1'Histoire,  to v a r y i n g degrees  on a d i s t i n c t l y h i e r a r c h i c a l s c a l e . c h a r a c t e r i n the development,  or to her  W h i l e Du P l a i s i r gift his  The l e s s  as  populate h i s novel,  strictly  characters,  Yet, his  story  sparely  while is  of be  his  remarkable  imagination,  of the c h a r a c t e r s  certainly striking.  There i s  conception of  elements  of  the p h y s i c a l  free  who  nothing  character  c o n t e m p o r a r i e s , he g i v e s  leaving himself  l a b y r i n t h of t h e i r  i n the r e a d e r ' s  observer  l i k e his  necessary  detail will  does n o t a d m i t t e d l y p o s s e s s a  on t h e o t h e r h a n d , i n  presentation for,  the  portrait.  a sensitive work i s  important  e x p o s i t i o n and r e s o l u t i o n  f o r creating r i c h tableaux talent  Plaisir  psychologically  t h e m o r a l dilemma o f t h e h e r o i n e , t h e l e s s devoted to h i s  Du  the  only  portraits  to explore the  the  of  his  complex  minds.  t h e economy w i t h w h i c h Du P l a i s i r  develops  an improvement o v e r t h e h e r o i c n o v e l s ,  the  s k e t c h e d m i n o r c h a r a c t e r s w h i c h he draws f r o m r e c e n t  French h i s t o r y certain lack  s u f f e r nonetheless  f r o m a s h a l l o w n e s s and a  of presence t y p i c a l of t h e i r c o u n t e r p a r t s  t h e many-volumed  exploits  r e l a t e d by w r i t e r s  de S c u d e r y and G o m b e r v i l l e .  The h i s t o r i c a l  Duchesse  the only  d'Estramene  are not  s u c h as  in  Madeleine  characters  ones t o s u f f e r as  in a  La  118 result other  of l a c k of  letail  i n presentation.  "flat""'' secondary characters  who  There a r e  p l a y no  also  other  role  than t h a t of sounding-boards i n the development of the  heroine'  character. Du  P l a i s i r maies o c c a s i o n a l r e f e r e n c e  F r a n c e and  t o M o n s i e u r de  Turenne w i t h o u t  with distinguishing physical t r a i t s . a c t e r s are presented with  the  first  to the K i n g  of  endowing e i t h e r  T h e s e two  of a l l to the reader  minor in  char-  connection  sons: CLe Due d ' E s t r a m e n e , l e Comte d ' H e n n e b u r y ] s e r e n d i r e n t l ' u n & 1 ' a u t r e en de d i f e r e n t e s •• Armees du Roy. Le Due d ' E s t r a m e n e r e m p l y , comme t r a n s p o r t s d ' a r d e u r p a r l a r a p i d i t e des s u c c e s que l ' o n a v o i t d e j a eus en F l a n d r e , c h o i s i t c e l l e qui etoit destinee a l e s c o n t i n u e r ; & l e Comte d ' H e n n e b u r y , d o n t 1 ' e s p r i t • modere l u y a v o i t t o u j o u r s donne . de 1 i n c l i n a t i o n p o u r M o n s i e u r de T u r e n n e , s e d e t e r m i n a d ' a u t a n t p l u s a a l l e r en A l l e m a g n e , que l e s T r o u p e s A n g l o i s e s y servoient. 1  (I,  13-14)  E s s e n t i a l l y , t h e r o l e o f t h e F r e n c h K i n g and fold:  these h i s t c r i c a l  f i g u r e s serve  Turenne-is'two-  t o embody on  the  p h y s i c a l l e v e l the m e n t a l i t y of a w a r r i o r s o c i e t y which i s t r a n s f i g u r e d , i n t o a s t a t e o f p s y c h o l o g i c a l t e n s i o n as a c t i o n u n f o l d s , and,, as w e l l , traits in  of the  s o n s , who  the  they h i g h l i g h t s a l i e n t . c h a r a c t e r  have each b e e n . d i f f e r e n t l y  motivated  t h e c h o i c e : o f t h e army i n w h i c h . t h e y - w i l l s e r v e . , / The :  French king disappears  a l m o s t e n t i r e l y f r o m t h e n a r r a t i o n ..  a f t e r h i s b r i e f i n i t i a l appearance, but p l a y a minor but  .•  structurally  Turenne c o n t i n u e s  significant role.  "Monsieur  to  119 de T u r e n n e a s s i e g a N .  .  . & i l  avertit  l e Due d ' O l s i n g a m de  s e r e n d r e a u p r e s de l u y a f i n de se t r o u v e r a une  Bataille  q u ' i l m e d i t o i t de d o n n e r a l a  ( I , 82)  f i n de c e S i e g e . "  o b e y i n g T u r e n n e ' s o r d e r , t h e Due d ' O l s i n g a m i n f a c t m o t i o n t h e whole t r a g e d y ,  for,  acquiesing simultaneously  d'Hennebury's  demands,  England  t o ask  absenting point  in  A l t h o u g h Turenne i s  t h e drama,  "flat"  off  however i n d i s p e n s a b l e  f o r he p r o v i d e s a means  focal  a crucial  the a c t i o n .  or one-dimensional personages.  be c a t e g o r i z e d  Both E n g l i s h  w h i l e t h e Queen embodies f o r an i n s t a n t  point  o f t h e a u t h o r as he a d o p t s h e r a n g l e  t o observe the workings  to  of  r e p r e s e n t t h e power o f t h e c o u r t and o f a c c e p t e d p u b l i c values,  for  a cardboard character  The K i n g and Queen o f E n g l a n d may a l s o as  return  Mademoiselle  t h e Due d ' O l s i n g a m f r o m t h e s c e n e a t the u n f o l d i n g of  in  p e r m i s s i o n f o r t h e y o u n g woman's  w i t h no p s y c h o l o g i c a l d e p t h , he i s the development o f  to  he .would have b e e n a b l e t o s e t  the Queen's  hand i n m a r r i a g e .  sets  had he n o t a c c e p t e d t o  to the f r o n t ,  By  o f Madame d ' E s t r a m e n e * s  monarchs moral  the  moving  of  vision  mind:  L a Reyne a p r e s s e s p r e m i e r e s c a r e s s e s , e n t r a dans s o n C a b i n e t , & r e g a r d a n t en s u i t e Madame d ' E s t r a m e n e a v e c a t t e n t i o n ; Vous r e v e n e z p l u s b e l l e que v o u s ne l ' a v e z j a m a i s e t £ , d i t - e l l e ; mais i l me s e m b l e que j e m'en d o i s p e u r e j o u i r , & j e s u i s tromp^e s i c e t t e n o u v e l l e d o u c e u r que j e v o u s v o i s n ' e s t p o i n t l ' e f f e t de quelque t r i s t e s s e . £~. . rj Je n'en d o u t e p l u s r e p r i t - e l l e , vous e s t i e z d e s t i n e e a u Due d ' O l s i n g a m , & t o u t e ma v i e j ' a u r a y done a me r e p r o c h e r de v o u s a v o i r rendu malheureuse? Pourquoi avezv o u s s o u f f e r t que j e v o u s aye a r r a c h e e  120 a. c e que v o u s a i m i e z ? A v o i s - j e un a u t r e d e s s e i n que de v o u s r e n d r e c o n t e n t e ; & e t o i t - c e du b o n h e u r de v o s t r e Mary que j e ra'etois chargee? A h , ma F i l l e , que v o u s a v e z eu t o r t de me l a i s s e r i g n o r e r v o s sentimens! (II, 62-65) The s k i l f u l u s e o f d i r e c t d i s c o u r s e  in this  scene l e n d s  t h e Queen a l o n e a v e r i s i m i l i t u d e w h i c h t h e o t h e r personages  do n o t  share.  The s t a c a t t o  to  historical  rhythm of h e r  sentences,  a c h i e v e d by t h e t e c h n i q u e s o f i n v e r s i o n and r e p e t i t i o n ("Avois-je", distinctly  "etoit-ce")  i n t h e above e x e r p t e m p h a s i z e  human t o u c h w h i c h Du P l a i s i r  has  succeeded  i m p a r t i n g t o h e r a l o n e among t h e m i n o r h i s t o r i c a l  to that  p l a y e d by t h e D a u p h i n e  P r i n c e s s e de C l e v e s . Plaisir of  physical manifestations  to highlight  such a r i g i d l y  of p a s s i o n .  that  In  defined social  of those  in  a more g e n e r a l  system,  personal desires  daughter:  to  honour  intact  the i n d i v i d u a l  is  and t o s u b m i t  to  characters i n  d ' E s t r a m e n e whose r o l e s a r e l i m i t e d b e c a u s e  are not developed p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y and h i s  work s e r v e  a r e t h e Comte  the  sense,  power.  Two o t h e r m i n o r a l t h o u g h n e c e s s a r y Duchesse  aspect  to suppress  i n order to preserve h i s  obliged to s a c r i f i c e his the wishes  Fayette's  an i m p o r t a n t  t h e E n g l i s h K i n g and Queen i n Du P l a i s i r ' s  in  notably  i n Madame de L a  t h e h e r o i n e ' s d i l e m m a , namely h e r i n a b i l i t y  the f a c t  is  B o t h Madame de L a F a y e t t e and Du  u s e t h e Queen f i g u r e  underline  in  characters.  The Q u e e n ' s r o l e i n r e l a t i o n t o Madame d ' E s t r a m e n e similar  the  La they  d'Englastre  121  Le Comte d ' E n g l a s t r e , fameux p a r s a f i d e l i t e envers son P r i n c e , dc p a r m i l l e preuves de v a l e u r & do prudence, . TJ a v o i t p l u s i e u r s f o i s f a i t entendre a Madame d ' H i l m o r r e q u ' i l l u y d o n n e r o i t s a F i l l e avec p l u s de j o y e , qu'a aucun Seigneur de l a Cour. Mademoiselle d ' E n g l a s t r e e t o i t d'un sang q u i en r e c o n n o i s s o i t peu de p l u s i l l u s t r e . Elle e t o i t unique, & e l l e a t t i r o i t p l u s encore l e s yeux p a r l e m e r i t e de s a personne, que par s a n a i s s a n c e & s a f o r t u n e . (I,  7-9)  But, as Du P l a i s i r l a t e r adds: Mademoiselle d ' E n g l a s t r e n ' a v o i t pas a l'£gard de Madame d ' H i l m o r r e , l e m e r i t e de l a beaute & de l a douceur q u ' a v o i t Mademoiselle d'Hennebury. E l l e e t o i t d e j a dans s a v i n g t i e m e annee. Son e s p r i t forme se f u s t d i f f i c i l e m e n t soumis a. l a c o n d u i t e & aux c o n s e i l r s i c j d'une B e l l e mere. Son Pere v i v o i t encor; s a f o r t u n e a i n s i n ' e t o i t ny p r e s e n t e ny c e r t a i n e . E n f i n Madame d'Hilmorre ne se t r o u v a aucune d i s p o s i t i o n pour 1 ' o f f r e du Comte d'Englastre. (I, 70-71) The r o l e o f these two personages, whose words a r e never d i r e c t l y r e p o r t e d by Du P l a i s i r , i s t w o - f o l d .  They s e r v e  f i r s t o f a l l , i n t h e i r f u n c t i o n as f o i l s , t o h i g h l i g h t undes i r a b l e c h a r a c t e r t r a i t s i n Madame d ' H i l m o r r e , who "espera neanmoins t i r e r de c e t t e o f f r e [ t h a t o f t h e Comte d'Englastre] un usage f a v o r a b l e a son d e s s e i n . "  (I, 71)  They a l s o  i n f l u e n c e f u n d a m e n t a l l y t h e development o f t h e p l o t , f o r , had Madame d ' H i l m o r r e  seen f i t t o accept t h e " o f f r e " o f t h e  Comte d ' E n g l a s t r e , she would n o t have had t o impose on Mademoiselle  d'Hennebury a u n i o n based e n t i r e l y on h e r own  egocentric desire t o maintain her reputation a t court. The E n g l i s h Ambassador f u l f i l l s as w e l l t h e f u n c t i o n o f  122 psychological  foil;  like  t h e Queen, who s e n s e s  the h e r o i n e ' s unhappiness, spicacious is  c o u r t i e r , suspects  displaying  brother's.  In  his  restricted  social  r o l e as  t h a t he d e v e l o p s  enclave.  yet  We must h e r e c r e d i t Du  Ambassador  is  and Madame  When he a s k s M a d e m o i s e l l e  avez veu Monsieur  qu'il  aimast  d'Olsingam,  sans e s t r e a i m e ? " ,  on t h e s t a g e i n a s h o r t  more  croyez-vous  but tense scene d e v o i d o f  laisser  cette pensee".  Madame d ' H i l m o r r e  and t a k e s  & une i n g e n u i t y  detailed  A good  (I,  110)  deal  Mademoiselle  pas l u y (I,  characters  [.the  109)  embraces t h e  With a  young physical  over the c o n v e r s a t i o n w i t h "un  admirables",  upon  impossible  woman who has a l r e a d y b e t r a y e d h e r e m o t i o n by h e r comportment,  foil  point-blank  there are only three  1  gesture,  a  sophisticated  d'Hennebury  "Madame d H i l m o r r e ne v o u l u t  ambassado£J  inter-  d'Hilmorre  more c o n c e r n e d w i t h h e r own r e p u t a t i o n t h a n w i t h  theatrical  Plaisir  i n the  but i n f i n i t e l y r i c h p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y .  d ' Hennebury' s,  of  a  e v o l v e i n o r d e r t o throw l i g h t  of a p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y  "vous  English  the  once more t h e theme  of the t h e a t r i c a l , f o r i t  c h a r a c t e r who d o e s n o t  backdrop,  c o n c e r n when t h e Due  e f f e c t i v e l y the technique of u s i n g  aspects  per-  d'Hennebury  a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e member o f  highlights  p l a y between t h e E n g l i s h  character.  Mademoiselle  and  b r e a c h between r e a l i t y and a p p e a r a n c e i n  w i t h a keen sense  pertinent  b e i n g a seasoned  of  mentioned i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h h e r  t h e Ambassador  the constant  that  more t h a n s i s t e r l y  d ' O l s i n g a m ' s name i s  court,  he t o o ,  the cause  sSrieux  i n s u c h a way t h a t  she  123 erases  any s u s p i c i o n  harboured.  which the E n g l i s h statesman  The q u i c k - w i t t e d woman o f e x p e r i e n c e  i n m a k i n g t h e E n g l i s h ambassador Mademoiselle  believe that  t h e same t r o o p s This dramatic  safety,  as  for  the a c t i o n s  scene s e r v e s ,  his  incidentally, follows  closest  Upon r e a d i n g t h i s  episode,  i n the A r i s t o t e l i a n theory that of the c h a r a c t e r s  sur  will  1 'Histoire.  p i t y and f e a r f o r  physical  the  Plaisir's  need n o t n e c e s s a r i l y  by t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f v i o l e n t  in  friend.  t h e p r e c e p t s w h i c h he  we a r e r e m i n d e d o f Du  of  fear  to i l l u s t r a t e  down i n t h e s e c o n d s e c t i o n o f hi,s S e n t i m e n s  well-being  succeeds  t h e y o u n g man had e n l i s t e d  t h e Due d ' O l s i n g a m ,  c a r e w i t h w h i c h Du P l a i s i r  belief  have  d ' H e n n e b u r y a r e i n d e e d c o n d i t i o n e d by h e r  f o r her b r o t h e r ' s  set  might  actions,  be  the  aroused  but  rather  2 by t h e s u b t l e s t  of  psychological  As was n o t e d e a r l i e r ,  nuances.  the s o c i a l  h i e r a r c h i c a l m i l i e u w h i c h Du P l a i s i r  structure is  of  the  depicting is  reflected  i n t h e o r d e r e d method a c c o r d i n g t o w h i c h t h e c h a r a c t e r s presented;  it  is  not u n t i l a l l  of  these secondary  w i t h the e x c e p t i o n of the E n g l i s h Ambassador, d e s c r i b e d or at appear  on s t a g e .  least In  alluded this  to that  respect,  characters,  have  t h e two main  Du P l a i s i r  been characters  follows  closely/  t h e r e c o m m e n d a t i o n w h i c h he w i l l make t h e f o l l o w i n g y e a r his  Sentimens  sur 1 ' H i s t o i r e ,  namely  that  if  the  are  in  main  c h a r a c t e r s were t o be p r e s e n t e d b e f o r e t h e s e c o n d a r y  ones,  t h e l a t t e r would make l i t t l e  the  reader,  for  lasting  t h e y would r e m a i n i n  i m p r e s s i o n upon  t h e shadow o f  the  necessarily  124 more i n t e r e s t i n g main c h a r a c t e r s Now t h a t we have c o n s i d e r e d  initially  depicted.  3  t h e r o l e s and t h e f u n c t i o n a l  importance o f t h e secondary c h a r a c t e r s  i n L a Duchesse  d'Estramene, l e t us examine t h e f u n c t i o n o f t h e main  characters  i n t h e n o v e l and t h e methods which t h e a u t h o r uses t o p r e s e n t them.  I t w i l l become e v i d e n t  have t h e same e x t r a o r d i n a r y  t h a t Du P l a i s i r ' s main  characters  p h y s i c a l a t t r i b u t e s a s do t h o s e  i n the w r i t i n g s o f h i s contemporaries.  T h e i r extreme beauty  i s i n tune w i t h , and p a r a l l e l s , t h e extreme m o r a l r e s o l u t i o n s which t h e y w i l l be o b l i g e d t o make. and  Du P l a i s i r ' s p h y s i c a l l y  psychologically exceptional characters  twentieth-century  remind t h e  r e a d e r o f a p a r a l l e l e s t a b l i s h e d by S.  Doubrovsky between O o r n e i l l e ' s and Madame de La F a y e t t e ' s creations:  b o t h a u t h o r s embody b e l i e v a b l e human f e e l i n g s i n  i d e a l i s e d l i t e r a r y personages.  4  This observation  could  also  be a p p l i e d t o L a Duchesse d'Estramene; i n f a c t one might argue t h a t Du P l a i s i r " s c h a r a c t e r s t h a n those o f Madame de L a F a y e t t e . the hero and t h e h e r o i n e ,  a r e even more m o r a l l y  ideal  I n our d i s c u s s i o n o f  we w i l l see t h a t a t l e a s t one  s e v e n t e e n t h - c e n t u r y c r i t i c , E t i e n n e P a v i l i o n , found them t o be t o o f l a w l e s s t o a l l o w i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h t h e r e a d e r . L e t us b e g i n w i t h t h e mothers, Madame d ' H i l m o r r e and Madame d'Hennebury. presentation, his  By t h e use o f p a r a l l e l i s m i n t h e i r  Du P l a i s i r e s t a b l i s h e s i n t h e f i r s t pages o f  work an e x p l i c i t o p p o s i t i o n between t h e two f a m i l y  groups.  I n t h e one m a t r i a r c h a l l y - o r i e n t e d camp, we f i n d t h e  125 Kennebury f a m i l y , c o n s i s t i n g o f the widowed Madame d'Hennebury, her daughter end her.son, the Comte d'Hennebury.  In the  other camp, even more dominated by the mother, we f i n d Madame d'Hilmorre, a widow of some c o n s i d e r a b l e means, and p o l i t i c a l i n f l u e n c e , anu her f o p p i s h son, f o r whom she has a c q u i r e d , at  an e a r l y a*;e, the t i t l e  o f Due d'Estramene. . Madame  d'Hennebury, up u n t i l the time o f h e r death it),  (and even a f t e r  and Madame d'Hilmorre, who subsequently takes up r e s i -  dence a t the E n g l i s h country home of her son and d a u g h t e r - i n law, w i l l , un-:il the l a s t pages of the n o v e l , a l t e r n a t e l y h o l d the s t r i n g s w i i c h determine like  the movements o f t h e i r m a r i o n e t t e -  offspring. The i n i t i a l r a p i d sketch which Du P l a i s i r g i v e s o f the  c h a r a c t e r o f Madame d'Hilmorre  c o n s i s t s o f a s h o r t , balanced  sentence, h i g . i i y suggestive p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y , which s e r v e s as a s u b t l e foreshadowing  of the r o l e which the f u t u r e mother-  in-law w i l l , p l a y i n the l i f e of Mademoiselle She  i s , a c c o r d i n g t o Du P l a i s i r ,  d'Hennebury.  "de ces Meres t e n d r e s , mais  h a b i l e s , & q u i s'accusent de f o i b l e s s e quand i l l e u r echappe un mouvement de l a nature."  ( I , 4-5)  I f t h i s experienced  woman of the court i s u n w i l l i n g t o show h e r t r u e f e e l i n g s . , f r e e l y t o her own son, as i s suggested i n t h i s q u o t a t i o n , she w i l l be even l e s s i n c l i n e d t o r i s k the l o s s . o f her r e p u t a t i o n f c r the sake of. her best f r i e n d ' s (Mademoiselle  d'Hennebury).  daughter  C a r e f u l above a l l not t o t a r n i s h  the r e p u t a t i o n which she has so c a r e f u l l y e s t a b l i s h e d f o r  126 h e r s e l f a t c o u r t , Madame d ' H i l m o r r e g l o s s e s over t h e a c t s sn c o m p l i s h e d w i t h a view t o h e r own betterment w i t h a t h i n veneer o f m a t e r n a l a f f e c t i o n . . She i s t h e l e a s t  likeable  personage i n L a Duchesse d'Estramene because o f h e r c o n s i s t e n t bad f a i t h towards t h e o t h e r c h a r a c t e r s .  She succeeds per-  f e c t l y i n w e a r i n g t h e mask n e c e s s a r y f o r s u r v i v a l i n a s o c i e t y w.Lose v e r y essence i s d i s g u i s e and r u s e ; ae t h e a u t h o r remarks,  a i d i n g y.*t more d e f t and e v o c a t i v e b r u s h - s t r o k e s t o h e r p>rtrait.  " [ e l l e ] n ' e t o i t pas h a b i l e seulement dans s a  f a m i l l e ; e l l e a v o i t encor a c q u i s p a r une c e n d u i t e t o u j o u r s a-iairabl-T un p u i s s a n t c r e d i t dans 1 ' e s p r i t du Roy, & c ' e t o i t a c e t t e haute- f a v e u r que son f i l s d e v o i t l'honneur d ' e s t r e d-jja cre<4 Due d 'Estramene." . ( I , 6)  By t h e use o f a d v e r b i a l  m )d.ifie-rs which a p p r o x i m a t e l y b a l a n c e and complement each oaher w i t h i n t h e sentence ( "seulement"/"encor" ; " t o u j o u r s " / "ueja") .Du P l a i s i r . i s a b l e t o suggest t h i s p o w e r f u l c h a r a c t e r ' s awareness o f t i m i n g w h i c h e n a b l e s h e r t o reap optimum, b e n e f i t s s o c i a l l y and p o l i t i c a l l y . The a g g r e s s i v e c h a r a c t e r o f Madame d ' H i l m o r r e l e n d s itself  to an i n t e r e s t i n g a r c h e t y p a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n .  She i s  o:." t h e same r a c e o f women as R a c i n e ' s A g r i p p i n e , t h e type o f 5  woman R. B a r t h e s p l a c e s under t h e h e a d i n g o f "maratre": h e r . sex i s determined by h e r s i t u a t i o n , -by t h e r o l e which she ~  :  -plays i n an e x t r e m e l y h i e r a r c h i c a l s o c i e t y ,  w i t h o u t a husband,  she a p p r o p r i a t e s t h e power o f t h e f a t h e r , towards h e r son who i s l i t t l e - p r e p a r e d t o a c c e p t t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s o f h i s age  127 or h i s  rank i n s o c i e t y .  desire  t o d o m i n a t e and hence s u b j u g a t e  underlining  Du P l a i s i r  the opposing  traits  of  highlights  the  mother's  h e r f e e b l e s o n by  t h e i r two c h a r a c t e r s .  Madame d ' H i l m o r r e n e e d s t o be t h e more p o w e r f u l p a r t n e r such a r e l a t i o n s h i p i s Mademoiselle after  demonstrated i n her a c t i o n s  d ' H e n n e b u r y , whom she s u c c e e d s  That in  toward  i n cowing  totally  t h e d e a t h o f t h e o t h e r d o m i n a n t m o t h e r , Madame  d'Hennebury.  The two y o u n g p e o p l e , M a d e m o i s e l l e  and t h e Due d ' E s t r a m e n e , i n the o p e n i n g pages o f to t h i s  worldly,  whose c h a r a c t e r s a r e n o t y e t the n a r r a t i v e ,  inevitably  e x p e r i e n c e d woman o f t h e c o u r t ;  b e c a u s e he r e a l i z e s t h a t he w i l l n e e d h i s financial  aid  if  d'Hennebury  he i s  t o k e e p up h i s  the f u t u r e d a u g h t e r - i n - l a w where h e r r e p u t a t i o n i s  capitulate the  mother's  existing  because her h e a r t i s  formed  son  ample  life-style, vulnerable  concerned.  F o l l o w i n g t h e d e a t h - s c e n e o f Madame d ' H e n n e b u r y , Plaisir  develops h i s  Du  i n i t i a l s k e t c h o f Madame d ' H i l m o r r e  with  s e v e r a l r i c h l y s u g g e s t i v e remarks r e g a r d i n g h e r p r o j e c t s . B u t b e f o r e she c a n e x e r t h e r b e n e f i c i a l i n f l u e n c e on t h e heroine's "toutes  f u t u r e , Madame d ' H e n n e b u r y d i e s ,  ses  d'Hilmorre  pensees v e r s l e C i e l " is  (I,  Meanwhile,  66).  d ' H e n n e b u r y and h e r s o n .  o p p o s i t i o n o f t h e two movements s u g g e s t e d a t t e n t i o n o f Madame d ' H e n n e b u r y , ties;  turned  a l r e a d y r u m i n a t i n g t h e m a r r i a g e w h i c h she  planned f o r Mademoiselle  earthly  having  has subtle  (heavenward  who w i s h e s  materialistic attitude  The  Madame  to renounce  all  o f Madame d ' H i l m o r r e )  is  128 h i g h l i g h t e d by t h e adverb b e g i n s h i s remarks  " a u s s i t o s t " , w i t h w h i c h Du P l a i s i r  c o n c e r n i n g Madame d ' H i l m o r r e :  A u s s i t o s t que Madame d ' H i l m o r r e e n v i s a g e a c e t t e i n f i n i t e de g r a n d s P a r t i s d o n t •Madem o i s e l l e d'Hennebury s e r o i t b i e n t o s t r e c h e r c h e e , e l l e m e d i t a de l a f a i r e epouser a u Due d ' E s t r a m e n e . E l l e n ' i g n o r o i t p a s 1 * a v e r s i o n que s o n F i l s a v o i t p o u r t o u s l e s er.gagemens d u r a b l e [ s i c ] ; m a i s . e e . F i l s e t o i t unique. II ne p o u v o i t s e d i s p e n s e r d'une a l l i a n c e , & d a n s c e t t e n e c e s ; i t e d'un j o u g o d i e u x , e l l e n e v o y o i t p o i n t e n c o r une P e r s o n n e q u i p u s t a u t a n t que M a d e m o i s e l l e d'Hennebury.le l u y ac.oucir p a r l a douceur & p a r l a beauti-. (I, 67-68) The  image o f t h e y o k e , d e n o t i n g m e t a p h o r i c a l l y t h e r o l e o f  t h e s u b s e r v i e n t c o u r t i e r , who i s b y d e f i n i t i o n a s l a v e t o his reputation  u n d e r l i n e s a s w e l l on a more i n d i v i d u a l  t h e e x t r e m e c o n c e r n w h i c h Madame d ' H i l m o r r e d e m o n s t r a t e s  level with  regard t o h e r personal reputation. I t i s mainly, by t h i s d e p i c t i o n o f t h e mother-son tionship-  rela-  t h a t t h e a u t h o r e l a b o r a t e s on t h e m o r a l p o r t r r - . i t o f  Madame d ' H i l m o r r e .  Homan r e l a t i o n s h i p s  (even m a t e r n a l  and- i n d i v i d u a l f e e l i n g s h a v e no p l a c e i n t h e s y s t e m  ones)  which  Madame d ' H i l m o r r e e s t a b l i s h e s t o a s s u r e h e r s u c c e s s a t c o u r t . As  t h e author suggests, i t i s o f s m a l l consequence indeed t o  Madame d ' H i l m o r r e t h a t h e r s o n i s l i t t l e  prepared t o accept  the r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of a w i f e : Le Duo d ' E s t r a m e n e r e v i n t a. P a r i s , & l a i s s a r e v o i r t o u t e s a premiere repugnance pour l e Mariage. Madame d ' H i l m o r r e e n e u t p e u d'inquietude. E l l e avoit deja ses projets pour l e f a i r e i n e v i t a b l e m e n t tomber dans s o n d e s s e i n : m a i s e l l e a v o i t b e s o i n de  129 l e l u y c a c h e r e x a c t e m e n t , de c r a i n t e q u ' .1' n'y f i s t n a i t r e d e n o b s t a c l e s ; & e l l e s e c o n t e n t a de l u y f a i r e e n v l s a g e r l a n e c e s s i t e oil l ' o n e s t de r e d o u b l e r s e s s o i n s a u p r e s d'une b e l l e P e r s o n n e a f f l i g e e , quand on l a possede chez s o y . (I, Onee a g a i n , Du P l a i s i r  89-90)  i s a b l e t o u n d e r l i n e one o ! Madame  d ' H i l m o r r e ' s main s t r e n g t h s , namely h e r e x q u i s i t e sense o f t i m i n g , by t h e use o f a d v e r o i a l m o d i f i e r s "inevitablement"). and  the verbs  C o u p l e d w i t h t h e u s e o f t h e nDun  "tomber" and 'cacher",  adverb placed'to  the a r r i v a l  f o r her son t o f a l l laid  the technique  o b t a i n optimum e f f e c t p e r m i t s  suggest the metaphorical anticipated  ("deja", "dessein"  of the  t h 3 author t o  s i t u a t i o n o f t h e h u n t e r who h a s of l i s prey:  Madame d ' H i l m o r r e  waits  i n t o t h e t r a p which she has c a r e f u l l y  f o r him. 'The  b a d f a i t h and s e l f - l o v e o f Madame. d ' H i l m o r r e a r e  f u r t h e r brought out i n the f o l l o w i n g e x t r a c t , i n which the author she  a l l u d e s t o the observer-observed  r e l a t i o n s h i p which  shares w i t h M a d e m o i s e l l e d'Hennebury.  feigned  R e f e r r i n g to the  i n t e r e s t w h i c h t h e a e r o i n e d i s p l a y s f o r t h e Due  d'Sstrarnene,  Du P l a i s i r  notes:  Madame d ' H i l m o r r e a p p e r c e u t c e t t e n o u v e l l e conduite. E l l e l a r e g a r d a comme l ' e f f e t d'une i n c l i n a t i o n n o u v e l l e . I I l u y parut que s a n s i n j u s t i c e e l l e p o u v o i t r e c e v o i r . l e f r u i t d'une l e g e r t e , o u CsicTJ e l l e n ' a v o i t c o n t r i b u e d'aucunes p e r s u a s i o n s ; & c e f u t p o u r e l l e une s a t i s f a c t i o n s e n s i b l e , de r e m a r q u e r que c e t t e s a c o n d e a f f e c t i o n j u s t i f i e r o i t e n t i e r e m e n t a l a Cour & dans l e monde, l e p r e t e x t e d o n t e l l e s ' e t o i t s e r v y p o u r r e f u s e r l a P i l l e d u Comte d'Englastre. ( I , 121-122)  130 The r e a l actions  motivating f a c t o r of Mademoiselle is  of l i t t l e  the author leads d'Hilmorre i s  w h i c h Madame d ' H i l m o r r e Mademoiselle  d'Estramene,  enrich this  serve to  l'assortiment  a passer  of the  t h e u s e o f t h e noun " p r e t e x t e "  cerning both p a r t i e s ,  que f u s t  1  la vie  young indicates.  experiences  con-  d ' H e n n e b u r y and t h e Due moral p o r t r a i t .  de deux P e r s o n n e s  "Quelque  si  peu  e n s e m b l e , Madame d ' H i l m o r r e  q u i t t a p o i n t l e d e s s e i n de l e s  and  t h a t Madame  w e l l aware o f t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e  The f e e l i n g s  disposees  1  c o n s e q u e n c e t o Madame d ' H i l m o r r e ,  the reader to understand  woman's c o n d u c t , a s  triste  d Hennebury s  unir".  (I,  ne  Constantly  136)  aware o f t h e n e c e s s a r y b a l a n c e w h i c h she must m a i n t a i n b e t w e e n reality  and a p p e a r a n c e , Madame d ' H i l m o r r e  laisser  p a r o i s t r e a Mademoiselle  la  c o n t r a i n d r e , & de l u y  "ne v o u l u t  d'Hennebury l e  faire violence."  (I,  t h e i m p o r t a n c e w h i c h t h e young woman a t t a c h e s gloire court  and p u b l i c a p p r o b a t i o n , knows t h a t  d'Hennebury with make h e r a c t a s  she h a s  only  d e s s e i n de  to  personal  to provide  the  Mademoiselle  (I,  137)  in  order  Following another dramatic  i n which Mademoiselle  d'Hennebury f i n d s  Madame d ' H i l m o r r e has  a l r e a d y gone ahead and a s k e d  a p p r o v a l o f t h e Queen and r e l a t i v e s , will  Knowing  137)  t h e e x p e r i e n c e d woman o f  "de grands s c r u p u l e s " she w i s h e s .  pas  out  t i o n e d r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h t h e Due d ' O l s i n g a m ,  scene  to her h o r r o r  and r e a l i z e s  c o n s e q u e n t l y be p u b l i c l y shamed b e c a u s e  to  that  the that  of her  she  unsanc-  we a r e t o l d  that  "Madame d ' H i l m o r r e ne put se d e f e n d r e de q u e l q u e mouvement de  pitie.  Neanmoins  d'appuyer  ce q u ' e l l e a v o i t  demonstrates adverb  e l l e demeura f o r t e m e n t a t t a c h e d a u  once m o r e , h i s  "ndanmoins"  this  141)  Du  Plaisir  of l i t e r a r y technique; his  the  statement  about  moment o f human c o n c e r n d i m i n i s h e s  any  o f a d m i r a t i o n w h i c h t h e r e a d e r m i g h t have f e l t  for  personage.  actions:,  " . r  scrupules,  Madame d ' H i l m o r r e  . .J e l l e v o u l u t  easily  bien,  se d i r e que M a d e m o i s e l l e  e s t r e malheureuse, (I,  sense  (I,  w i t h w h i c h he q u a l i f i e s  Madame d ' H i l m o r r e ' s feeling  commence."  dessein  d'avoir  justifies  pour d i m i n u e r  ses  d ' H e n n e b u r y ne  p o u r Mary l e Due  her  pouvoit  d'Estramene."  141) In  c o n c l u d i n g our remarks  Madame d ' H i l m o r r e , either  we n o t e  that  character. adopting  because  . The a u t h o r has  as h i s  she s h a r e s to  commentary  character  her actions  facets  in  exploration which  is  ideally  precisely  because  demonstrated  o f Madame d ' H i l m o r r e ' s  a r e d e v e l o p e d on a c a n v a s perspectives,  Madame d ' H e n n e b u r y , sense.  choice  her  T h i s method i s  personage,  are  in  interactions.  the d i v e r s e  psychological  inherent i n  on t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p  the p r e s e n t a t i o n of t h i s  of  Duchesse  main method o f p r e s e n t i n g h e r t h e  the s e l f - l o v e which motivates  While  of La  made a f e l i c i t o u s  w i t h the other c h a r a c t e r s .  personal  the p r e s e n t a t i o n  more c r e d i b l e t h a n  of the c o n t r a d i c t i o n s  o f and t h e s u b s e q u e n t  these  she i s  o f t h e two p r i n c i p a l p e r s o n a g e s  d'Estramene  suited  regarding  The o p p o s i t e  is  with m u l t i p l e moral  the c h a r a c t e r of  relatively  evolving  "flat",  o f Madame d ' H i l m o r r e  the other  i n E.M.  and mother,  Forster's  i n e v e r y way,  the  m o t h e r o f t h e h e r o i n e "au c o n t r a i r e a v o i t  elev-e s e s E n f a n s  a v e c un - c o n t i n u e l epanchemens [ s i c ] d e s o n a f f e c t i o n ; & ' • a u s s i t o s t q u ' e l l e c r u t v o i r en eux t o u t l e me-rite q u ' e l l e p o u v o i t l e u r donner,  i l sembla  Mere p o u r d e v e n i r l e u r A m i e . "  qu'elle cessasb d'estre l e u r The f u n d a m e n t a l  opposition of  t h e c h a r a c t e r s o f t h e two m o t h e r s i s s u g g e s t e d l>y t h e n u a n c e s in  Du P l a i s i r ' s d e s c r i p t i v e v o c a b u l a r y .  c o n t r i v e d conduct  The  artificial,  o f Madame d ' H i l m o r r e c o n t r a s t s  directly  w i t h t h e n a t u r a l s p o n t a n e i t y c f Madame d ' H e n n e b u r y . verb i n t h e i n i t i a l moral p o r t r a i t  The k e y  o f Madame d ' H i l m o r r e ,  "echappe", s u g g e s t s a c o n s t a n t d i s s i m u l a t i o n o f n a t u r a l maternal- f e e l i n g s .  T h i s forms  a s t r i k i n g c o n t r a s t with t h e  noun "epanchement", w h i c h i n t u r n g o v e r n s portrait  o f Madame d'He.mebury.  the i n i t i a l  I n another evident  moral ressem-  b l a n c e w i t h . L a P r i n c e s s e de C l e v e s , t h e m o t h e r o f t h e h e r o i n e in  Du P l a i s i r ' s D u c h e s s e d ' E s t r a m e n e , l i k e Malame de C h a r t r e s ,  plays a s t r i c t l y  one-dimensional f u n c t i o n a l r o l e .  her death, which occurs f a i r l y  Without  early i n the unfolding of the  a c t i o n , t h e s t o r y w h i c h Du P l a i s i r n a r r a t e s o b v i o u s l y c o u l d .not h a v e t a k e n p l a c e . d'Hennebury  .Also, l i k e Madame d e C h a r t r e s , Madame  p a r a d o x i c a l l y e x e r t s an i n c r e a s i n g  over h e r daughter a f t e r h e r death.  influence  The s i m i l a r i t i e s  shared  b y t h e s e two w o r k s d i d n o t i n f a c t go u n n o t i c e d b y t h e contemporaries of t h e i r respective authors. century l i t e r a r y  critic,  Etienne P a v i l i o n ,  .The s e v e n t e e n t h " l o u e e t blame en  meme terns L a D u c h e s s e d' E s t r a m e n e de r e s s e m b l e r a. l a P r i n c e s s e  133 de C l e v e s " . ^ subtleties  t h e sane  i n both works:  he s t a t e s de l a  He f i n d s  that  r e f e r r i n g to  i n La Duchesse  Princesse  c o n c i s i o n and  de C l e v e s " .  these  d'Estramene, Indeed,  evocative two  "tout  these  qualities, cela a  similarities  u n d e r l i n e d i n t h e c h a r a c t e r o f Madame d ' H e n n e b u r y : m a i s a u s s i c e q u i a un peu t r o p l ' a i r " , le  c a r a c t e r e de Madame d ' H e n n e b u r y ,  l'air  "  . •}  he c o n t e n d s ,  & sa mort,  are  qui  "c'est  tiennent 8  b e a u c o u p du c a r a c t e r e & de l a mort de Madame de  Chartres".  A comparative  of  mothers  study  of the r o l e s  i n L a P r i n c e s s e de C l e v e s and L a D u c h e s s e  g i v e s weight de C h a r t r e s  to P a v i l i o n ' s  t o an i n g e n u e  daughter  choose not  bond o f  This  whose a w a k e n i n g  to l o v e  of  initially,  lest  principal character t r a i t  the e s s e n t i a l l y novels.  is  However o b v i o u s  t h e mother i s  necessary  heroine's  greatest of  of  d'Sstramene,•for  f r i e n d and mentor s e r v e s  t h e y o u n g woman who w i l l  contemplating  of  relationship they  observe  they break with  the  their  of maternal  sensicomment  the u n f o l d i n g  though,  to the s t r u c t u r e  and L a D u c h e s s e  Madame  i n t e r n a l i z e d a c t i o n of  the p a r a l l e l ,  de C l e v e s  d'Sstrarnene  and Madame de L a F a y e t t e  of major importance i n  psychological,  two  the a t t i t u d e  parent i n  w h i c h b o t h Du P l a i s i r  upon e x p l i c i t l y ,  solitude  adopt  of dominating  t o speak  the  Both mothers,  c o n f i d e n c e w h i c h t h e y have e s t a b l i s h e d  daughters. tivity,  accusation.  and Madame d ' H e n n e b u r y ,  f r i e n d r a t h e r than that  but  and c h a r a c t e r s  both  the death  both La  of  of  Princesse  the absence  of  to h i g h l i g h t  the the  e x p e r i e n c e the dismay  f r o m t h e edge o f a m o r a l p r e c i p i c e h e r  of  impending  134 loss  of s o c i a l  status.  even more s t r i k i n g l y than i s stage, of  significant  from a s t r u c t u r a l  is  viewpoint  t h e r e m o v a l o f Madame de L a F a y e t t e ' s m o t h e r f r o m t h e for it  serves  t o e m p h a s i z e as w e l l t h e t o t a l  t h e o r p h a n e d Due d ' O l s i n g a m ,  d'Hennebury (I,  The d e a t h o f Madame d ' H e n n e b u r y  solitude  who had l o o k e d upon  "comme une Mere p l u t o s t  Madame  que comme une A m i e " .  59) F o r Du P l a i s i r ,  figure  is  bility  i n marriage.  as  f o r Madame de L a F a y e t t e , t h e  the i n c a r n a t i o n of r e l i g i o u s Her l a s t  words  values  and  mother  responsi-  to her daughter  are  the  following: J e ne v o u s r e p r e s e n t e p o i n t c o m b i e n v o u s devrez e s t r e a t t a c h e e a v o s t r e Mary. Je connois toute vostre r a i s o n ; & d ' a i l l e u r s j e s u i s c e r t a i n e s [ s i c ] que l ' a m i t i e d ' u n e femme n ' a u r a p o i n t b e s o i n a u p r e s d u Due d ' O l s i n g a m d ' e s t r e s o u t e n u e du d e v o i r & de l a s a g e s s e . (I, 62) T h e s e words  o f Madame d ' H e n n e b u r y w i l l  resound i n the  mind and c a u s e h e r t o remember w i t h r e m o r s e t h e b e f i t t i n g a d u t i f u l w i f e worthy  of r e s p e c t .  o f Madame d ' H e n n e b u r y and h e r d a u g h t e r of  that  s h a r e d by Madame de C l e v e s  expresses  herself  in  the f o l l o w i n g  is  of  The  conduct relationship  course  and h e r m o t h e r , way b e f o r e  heroine's  reminiscent who  dying:  I I y a d e j a l o n g t e m p s que j e me s u i s a p e r c u e de c e t t e i n c l i n a t i o n ; m a i s j e ne v o u s en a i pas v o u l u p a r l e r d ' a b o r d , de p e u r de v o u s en f a i r e a p e r c e v o i r vous-meme. Vous ne l a c o n n a i s s e z que t r o p presentement; vous e t e s sur l e bord du p r e c i p i c e : i l f a u t de g r a n d s e f f o r t s e t de g r a n d e s v i o l e n c e s p o u r v o u s r e t e n i r . Songez ce que v o u s d e v e z a v o t r e m a r i ;  135 s o n g e z c e que v o u s v o u s d e v e z a. v o u s meme, e t p e n s e z que v o u s a l l e z p e r d r e c e t t e r e p u t a t i o n que vous v o u s e t e s a c q u i s e e t que j e vous a i t a n t s o u h a i t e e . ° • Indeed,  the death scenes  s k e t c h e d by Du P l a i s i r f o r us  of  t h e two m a t e r n a l f i g u r e s  and Madame de L a P a y e t t e a r e t o o  t o p a s s o v e r them w i t h o u t  Chartres  comment.  B o t h Madame  and Madame d ' H e n n e b u r y r e f u s e t o a l l o w  t o be p r e s e n t d u r i n g t h e l a s t death of  moments  t h e mother i n b o t h c a s e s  become aware  of the f a c t  moral support  or a d v i c e ,  that,  their lives.  forces  the daughter  i n d e p e n d e n t o f any  she must  either risk  r e p u t a t i o n by e n t e r i n g i n t o a r e l a t i o n s h i p terous,  o r keep h e r h o n o u r i n t a c t  acceptable marriage  What i s using  remarkable,  is  felt  rather,  simple vocabulary,  is  to  not  de C l e v e s  g a i n s p r o m i n e n c e as conduct her  only a f t e r  of l i t t l e  have s u c c e e d e d i n  a motivating  a  socially-  in  love. plagiarism  evoking the  assumed  In  d'Estramene,  f o r c e i n the a role in  her  consequence.  beyond d e a t h .  and L a D u c h e s s e  she has  of  t h e way i n w h i c h t h e two  bond u n i t i n g mother and d a u g h t e r Princesse  to  t o be a d u l -  by c o n s e n t i n g  in fact  The  the l o s s  t o a man w i t h whom she i s  o f Du P l a i s i r  children  external  Whether we a r e d e a l i n g h e r e w i t h an example o f on t h e p a r t  alike de  their  of  as  authors, strong  both La  the  mother  heroine's t h e memory  of  daughter. As  i n the case  Du P l a i s i r  gives  of the sons,  Comte d ' H e n n e b u r y , m o r a l as  of the mothers,  are almost  to the p h y s i c a l  the i n i t i a l  sketches  t h e Due d ' E s t r a m e n e as  traits  and  nebulous  with respect  described.  The Due  which  the to  the  d'Estramene  136  is  c h a r a c t e r i z e d i n the f o l l o w i n g  way:  Ce Due a v o i t une e n t i e r e d i s p o s i t i o n p o u r l e s grandes choses. On l u y v o y o i t en t o u s s e s e x e r c i c e s une a d r e s s e p r e s q u e i n c o m p a r a b l e ; & son c o u r a g e r e p o n d o i t a s o n adresse. Peu d Homines p o u v o i e n t l u y o s t e r l a g l o i r e d e s t r e l e mieux f a i t du monde. II c h a r m o i t dans l a c o n v e r s a t i o n . 11 e s t o i t ne a v e c une f a c i l i t e de p e r s u a d e r qu'on n ' a v o i t point encor veue. II etoit i n a g n i f i q u e , l i b e r a l , p l e i n de f e u , p l e i n d'esprit. (I, 6-7) 1  1  As f o r  t h e Comte  d'Hennebury:  II e t o i t de c e s Hommes q u i i n t e r e s s e n t d ' a b o r d , & que l ' o n ne p e u t r e g a r d e r a v e c indifference. On l u y v o y o i t une c o m p l a i s a n c e & une s i n c e r i t e q u i s e u l e s l ' e u s s e n t f a i t aimer. II a v o i t de l a v a l e u r , & c e t t e v a l e u r e t o i t j o i n t e a une s a g e s s e b i e n p l u s a v a n c e e que s o n a g e . Sa r e c o n n o i s s a n c e estoit vive & agissante. II e t o i t t o u j o u r s r a i s o n n a b l e , t o u j o u r s f i d e l l e a ses Amis, t o u j o u r s a r d e n t a marquer s o n a m i t i e . (I, 10-11) Though b r i e f , highly  suggestive,  preview of  t h e two w o r d - p o r t r a i t s  nonetheless  and s e r v e t o p r o v i d e t h e r e a d e r w i t h  t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c c o n d u c t o f t h e Comte  and t h e Due d ' E s t r a m e n e . sentation  are  The f i r s t  of  a  d'Hennebury  the s u b t l e t i e s  of  o f w h i c h t h e r e a d e r becomes i m m e d i a t e l y aware  the v a r i a t i o n portraits.  i n d e t a i l with which the author  Du P l a i s i r  t h e Due d ' E s t r a m e n e  underlines  the g r e a t e r  by d e v e l o p i n g h i s  fully  t h a n t h e Comte d ' H e n n e b u r y ' s .  tions  are laudatory, Du P l a i s i r  d'Estramene  Estramene's  makes h i s  initial  paints  preis  the  importance  i n i t i a l portrait  two of  more  Though b o t h c h a r a c t e r i z a -  c l e a r l y stands  out.  presentation of  immediately a f t e r d e s c r i b i n g  the  the c h a r a c t e r  Due of  137 his  mother,  Madame d ' H i l m o r r e .  two p o r t r a i t s remarks  is  not  with regard  This  fortuitous.  Du P l a i s i r ' s  t o Madame d ' H i l m o r r e  prepare the reader f o r the p o r t r a i t demonstrates  i n his  juxtaposition  of  Madame d ' H i l m o r r e  r e c e i v e s from the K i n g  serve  it  is  due t o t h e  that  "devoit l ' h o n n e u r d ' e s t r e  dSja  (I,  O n l y t h e n does Du P l a i s i r  proceed to  In  Due's his  pour l e s  t o be somewhat  i n keeping with the n o v e l i s t i c vocabulary merits  a closer  d e p i c t i n g a high-powered  i n which r e p u t a t i o n s  sacrifices.  tives  "grandes",  "magnifique"  in this  in this  style  the  that of  the  The u s e  initial  it  atmosphere,  quite  the  Du  Plaisir  a court  setting  t h e most p a r t substantives  d e s c r i p t i o n of  appear  Plaisir's  highlights  to u n f o l d .  "incomparable",  first  the  e x t r a c t would  for  about  of  all  and c o n s e q u e n t l y  examination,  social  he h a s the  about  "une  o f t h e t i m e , Du  are preserved f o r  extraordinary s u c h as  Although  general,  d e c o r o f t h e m o r a l drama w h i c h i s is  d'Estramene."  present  grandes choses",  of the p e r f e c t c o u r t i e r .  glance  c r e e Due  young  b e i n g endowed w i t h  d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e Due d ' E s t r a m e n e first  this  which  y e t g i v i n g any p r e c i s e d e t a i l s  c o n c e r n i n g women:  entiere disposition  at  faveur"  the p e r t i n e n t moral aspects  character, without  qualities  the  t h e e x t r a c t q u o t e d a b o v e , we s e e  pens r a p i d l y  attitude  to  husband.  considering  Du P l a i s i r  in fact  "haute  gallant  future  closing  l i f e s t y l e a certain insouciance:  that  heroine's  the  t h e y o u n g nobleman who  a u t h o r r e m i n d s us  6)  of  "gloire" t h e Due  by  and  adjec-  and d'Estramene  138 serves  t o foreshadow  effort  which t h i s  to repress his  on t h e l e v e l  c h a r a c t e r w i l l be r e q u i r e d t o make i n  natural feelings  and i n a more a b s t r a c t  sense,  r e g a r d i n g women and  the extreme n a t u r e o f  d e c i s i o n which the h e r o i n e w i l l On t h e l e v e l  of language the c o n c e r t e d  o f l a n g u a g e as w e l l , Du P l a i s i r  "on l u y v o y o i t  the  en t o u s  ses  uses e f f e c t i v e l y  the admirable  image w h i c h t h e Due d ' E s t r a m e n e h a s  maintain:  marriage,  s e e h e r s e l f f o r c e d t o make.  the technique of r e p e t i t i o n to h i g h l i g h t public  been a b l e  e x e r c i c e s une  c h a r m o i t dans l a  une f a c i l i t e de p e r s u a d e r liberal  . 7j ".  Du P l a i s i r  (I, 7; o u r  adresse  II e s t o i t  . rj  magnifique,  d'Estramene  c e s s a neantmoins  d'Englastre  aussitost  femme.  II n ' a v o i t  galanterie  luy  one,  by p o i n t i n g out h i s  and h i s  daughter.  [T . 7]  sans l ' a t t a c h e r ,  Mademoiselle devenir La  avoit  une  ce q u i demande de is  relation-  armes.  et i l  This b r i e f a l l u s i o n  pre-  d'Estramene w i l l  an i m p o r t a n t a s p e c t namely h i s  lack  of  take,  for  it  an  throws  o f t h e Due d ' E s t r a m e n e ' s interest  i n women and h i s  sa  longues important  and d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o t h e movement w h i c h t h e p l o t  the Duchesse  avec  " L e Due  regarder  d ' i n c l i n a t i o n que p o u r l e s  (I, 9)  of h i s  q u ' i l pensa q u ' e l l e p o u v o i t  plaisoit  ne  underlining)  de  a v e r s i o n i n v i n c i b l e pour t o u t exactitudes."  II e t o i t  concludes the second paragraph  t o t h e Comte d ' E n g l a s t r e  adresse.  conversation.  s e n t a t i o n o f t h e Due d ' E s t r a m e n e ship  outward  to  p r e s q u e i n c o m p a r a b l e ; e t son c o u r a g e r e p o n d o i t a s o n j~> •  order  light  of upon  character, unwillingness  139 to accept the r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s station the  in society.  Is  t h a t accompany h i s  the n a r r a t o r  in fact  suggesting  Due d ' E s t r a m e n e has h o m o s e x u a l t e n d e n c i e s ?  later  point  his  that  He d o e s ,  i n t h e n o v e l , have t h e Due make t h e  c o n f e s s i o n to h i s  age and  at  a  following  wife:  F a i t e s - m o y s e u l e m e n t l a g r a c e de c r o i r e que 1 ' i n j u s t i c e q u i v o u s p a r o i s t en moy, n ' e s t p o i n t a t t a c h e d a vous p a r t i c u l i e r e ment. S i l a rigueur d'un joug e t e r n e l , & d ' u n j o u g i n v o l o n t a i r e , me f a i t manquer de p a s s i o n p o u r v o u s , e l l e m ' a u r o i t donne de l ' h o r r e u r p o u r t o u t e a u t r e .  ( I I , 21-22) The  character t r a i t s  d'Estramene are not, throughout  w h i c h Du P l a i s i r however,  consistently  t o t h e Due  enough m a i n t a i n e d  t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e a c t i o n t o e n a b l e us t o make  such a c a t e g o r i c a l statement.  As  approaches,  Du P l a i s i r  that  significant  c h a r a c t e r change w h i c h , i f  inference  attributes  relates  t h e denouement o f t h e  tale  t h e Due has u n d e r g o n e we a c c e p t t h e  o f h o m o s e x u a l t e n d e n c i e s , seems  somewhat  take i n t o account the f a c t  of course,  possible  f o r t h e a u t h o r t o be more o u t s p o k e n w i t h o u t  proprieties.  The D u c h e s s e d ' E s t r a m e n e  her  true f e e l i n g s  r e g a r d i n g t h e Due d ' O l s i n g a m ,  that  having  initial  unrealistic.  We must,  the  a  it  was  not  breaking  confessed  the  narrator  comments: D e p u i s ce j o u r i l ne p o u v o i t p r e s q u e p l u s l a r e g a r d e r , sans l a i s s e r s u r p r e n d r e ses y e u x p a r q u e l q u e s l a r m e s , ob i l p r i t une h a b i t u d e de s ' a t t e n d r i r , q u i peu a. peu f i t n a i t r e dan3 s o n c o e u r une s o r t e de s e n s i b i l i t e dont i l a v o i t t o u j o u r s paru i n c a p a b l e . I I s ' e n apperceut avec j o y e . I I employa m i l l e r a i s o n s p o u r f o r t i f i e r c e s commencemens,  140 & i l eust b i e n s o u h a i t e p o u v o i r a c q u e r i r une a s s e z g r a n d e p a s s i o n , p o u r c o n s o l e r Madaine d ' S s t r a r n e n e de l a p e r t e q u ' e l l e a v o i t f a i t e , cb pour g o u t e r t o u t l e b o n h e u r de p o s s e d e r une P e r s o n n e comme e l l e .  (II, 181-182) The Due d ' E s t r a m e n e ' s  c h a r a c t e r must have been  somewhat  o f an enigma f o r t h e a u t h o r ' s  c o n t e m p o r a r i e s as w e l l ,  Pavilion's  T h i s a u t h o r , whose c r i t i c i s m  remarks i n d i c a t e .  L a D u c h e s s e d ' E s t r a m e n e has perplexed:  as  a l r e a d y been t o u c h e d u p o n ,  of  is  " L e Due d ' E s t r a m e n e me p a r o i t un homme b i e n  extraordinaire.  Ne p o u v o i r pas  s e u l e m e n t s o u f f r i r s a femme,  10 elle,  qui etoit s i  Pavilion is for his  aimable!  Cela est  of the o p i n i o n t h a t  etrange."  Yet  t h e Due d ' E s t r a m e n e ' s  aversion  w i f e p r o d u c e s what he c o n s i d e r s t o be a d m i r a b l e [J. . 7) e t p a r l ' e m b a r a s r e c i p r o q u e , ou i l s s o n t t o u s deux, et p a r l e s c o n s e i l s g e n e r e u x e t d e s i n t e r e s s e s que l e Due d ' O l s i n g a m donne a u m a r i de l a P e r s o n n e q u ' i l a i m e . Ces deux t r a i t s sont a d m i r a b l e s . Le p r e m i e r f a i t un j e u f o r t f i n , e t donne l i e u a. d e m e l e r des sentimens t r e s d e l i c a t s , et t r e s n a t u r e l s . Le second pousse j u s q u ' a u p l u s haut p o i n t l a g r a n d e u r d'ame d u Due d ' O l s i n g a m . II n ' a p a r t i e n t qu'a. v o u s , Madame, de f a i r e d e s H £ r o s e t des H e r o i n e s . H  W h i l e P a v i l i o n m e r e l y c h i d e s Du P l a i s i r Due d ' E s t r a m e n e Pierre Bayle,  an i n c o n s i s t e n t  for giving  character, another  does n o t e i n t h e husband  "S'il  of the h e r o i n e a  f a u t de 1'amour dans un Roman,  y en i n e t t e , mais q u ' o n y m e t t e a u s s i l e s o r d i n a i r e s de 1'amour.  the  critic,  c h a r a c t e r d e v i a t i o n w h i c h he terms u n n a t u r a l , as he categorically:  effects:  states qu'on  effets naturels  et  Pour r e v e n i r au p e r s o n n a g e de c e m a r i  141 d e g o u t e , s o n c a r a c t e r e e s t s i e x c e s s i f , q u ' o n n'a p u s'empecher 12 de  s'en p l a i n d r e The  friend,  publiquement."  Due d ' E s t r a m e n e i s t h e o p p o s i t e t h e Comte d ' H e n n e b u r y .  i n e v e r y way t o h i s  The a t t i t u d e o f t h e Due  d'Estramene c o n t r a s t s w i t h t h e r e a s o n a b l e , s t y l e o f t h e Comte.  even p r o s a i c  F o l l o w i n g t h e p r o c e d u r e w h i c h he a d o p t s  for  t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e Due d'Estrar-iene, Du P l a i s i r  his  initial  by  life-  begins  d e s c r i p t i o n ( s e e p. 136) o f t h e C o n t e d ' H e n n e b u r y  c o m m e n t i n g upon, t h e m o t h e r - s o n r e l a t i o n s h i p .  The s o n i s  c l e a r l y l i t t l e more t h a n a d o c i l e r e f l e c t i o n o f . h i s m o t h e r . H i s l a c k o f d a s h i s s u g g e s t e d by t h e use o f s u c h b a n a l t i v e s and nouns.as " c o m p l a i s a n c e " , . " i n d i f f e r e n c e " , "sagesse", "raisocnable", and " f i d e l l e " . repetition  adjec-  "sincerite",  The t e c h n i q u e s  of  ( " I I a v o i t de l a v a l e u r , e t c e t t e v a l e u r .  our u n d e r l i n i n g ) and t e r n a r y rhythm ( " t o u j o u r s " )  constitute  n u a n c e s i n a. p a s t e l p o r t r a i t w h i c h l a c k : ; t h e s p l a s h e s  of colour,  b r i l l i a n t b y c o m p a r i s o n , f o u n d i n t h e Due d ' E s t r a m e n e ' s description.The  Comte d ' H e n n e b u r y f u l f i l l s  a single function i n  c o n t i n u i n g h i s mother's m o r a l i n f l u e n c e over t h e h e r o i n e a f t e r Madame d'Henne-bury' s d e a t h , a n d d o e s n o t u n d e r g o a n y character  evolution during  represents, homme.  •  t h e c o u r s e ox the, a c t i o n .  by ..his . r e a s o n a b l e n e s s ,  the i d e a l o f the  H i s l o v e o f moderation and h i s i n h e r e n t  h i g h l i g h t e d b y Du P l a i s i r ' s u s e o f o p p o s i t i o n :  :  He honnete-  sagacity are t h e Due  d ' E s t r a m e n e a n d t h e Comte d ' H e n n e b u r y " s e r e n d i r e n t l ' u n e t  142  l'autre  en de d i f e r e n t e s arrnees d u R o y . "  ( I , 13)  The n a t u r a l  m o d e r a t i o n o f t h e Hennebury f a m i l y and t h e i m p u l s i v e ,  ego-  centric  a t t i t u d e d i s p l a y e d by t h e Due d ' E s t r a m e n e  his  mother,  already  rapidly-penned i n the l e s s  e s t a b l i s h e d by t h e o p p o s i t i o n sketches  obviously  of the mothers,  of the  two  thus r e i n f o r c e d  contrasting water-colour portraits  t h e Comte d ' H e n n e b u r y and t h e Due However " f l a t "  are  and  his  of  d'Estramene.  c h a r a c t e r , though,  t h e Comte  is  n e c e s s a r y i n L a Duchesse d ' E s t r a m e n e  to h i g h l i g h t  of  the f u t i l i t y  calls  o f what B e r n a r d P i n g a u d  "les  d'Hennebury t h e theme  bonnes  13 resolutions". novel,  ^  At  Du P l a i s i r  d'Estramene  the b e g i n n i n g  of  t h e s e c o n d volume o f  p r e s e n t s a s c e n e i n w h i c h we s e e Madame  p a s s i n g o v e r i n h e r mind t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e  i n c l i n a t i o n f o r t h e Due d ' O l s i n g a m . b e l i e v e s h e r s e l f t o be f u l l y husband a c o n v i n c i n g mask, plus  obligeantes."  (II,  apparences plus  for  the r e c e n t marriage  of  serves  t o c a n c e l any e f f o r t on t h e p a r t  she her  qu'elle elle at  point  t h e two y o u n g p e o p l e , of the heroine  passage,  for  psychological  dans  encor mariee, l u y  se c r o y o i t c a p a b l e . "  this  real  n'etoit  l u y a\Doit e c r i t e ,  in it  (II,  8-9)  to "Une  l'esperance  ota cette force  L e t u s l o o k more  dont closely  t h e a u t h o r comes t o t e r m s w i t h  dilemma f a c i n g t h e h e r o i n e , n a m e l y  problem of r e p u t a t i o n versus  love.  et  d'Hennebury,  h i d e f r o m h e r husband h e r l o v e f o r t h e Due d ' O l s i n g a m : que s o n f r e r e  her  favorables  A l e t t e r f r o m t h e Comte  unaware o f  of  of remorse,  capable of adopting  "des  8)  Full  who i s  Lettre  the  The b r o t h e r :  the  the  143 £*. . 7] l u y p a r l a i t er. des teriaes p l e i n s d ' a f f l i c t i o n et d'amisie. I I l u y p r i o i t de v c u l o i r b i e n t r o u v e r quelque d i f e r e n c e e n t r e l e Due d 0 1 sing;;,.in, e t c e l u y q u ' e l l e luy preferoit. I I lu;: r e p r e s e n t o i t l e d e s e s p o i r d'un Homme r.ont e l l e e t o i t aimee jusqu'a 1 ' a d o r a t i o n . E n f i n i l l u y f a i s o i t entendre q u ' i l d e p e n d t i t d.'elle d ' o b t e n i r de l a Reyne un commanuement de se r e n d r e au Due d'Olsingam. J u s q u e - l a Madame 11' Estramene a v o i t s u p o r t e son mariage avec quelque p a t i e n c e , parce q u ' i l l a m e t t o i t hors d ' e t a t de r i e n f a i r e c o n t r e s a g l o i r s ; mais quand e l l e connut que s i e l l e l*;:ust d i f ere j u s q u ' a l o r s , e l l e a u r o i t pu sans a icune honte se c o n s e r v e r au Due d'Olsingam, e t se r e n d r e heureuse elle-mesme, e l l e f u t . i n c o n s o l a b l e . On l a v i t p l e u r e r a u t a n t qu ; s i e l l e a v o i t eu un deluge de p l e u r s a. r e t a n d r e , et e l l e p a r u t avec des s a i s i s s e m e n s et des t r a n s p o r t s q u i donnerent de c r u e l s remors an Due d'Bstramene. 1  (II,  9-11)  W h i l e b e i n g e n s l a v e d t o h e r r e f u t a t i o n s Madame d'Estramene i s as w e l l , a v i c t i m of t i m e .  'The v e r y t h i n l i n e which  separates  h a p p i n e s s w i t h o u t l o s s of honour and m i s e r y i n a u n i o n , a l b e i t h o n o u r a b l e , w i t h an i n c o m p a t i b l e p a r t n e r i s e v o k e d by f  P l a i s i r ' e . use of the adverb  Du  " ' j u s q u ' a l o r s " . The p r i c e t o pay  f o r an i m p u l s i v e attempt t o pro-serve r e p u t a t i o n i s p a i n t e d i n a v i v i d f a s h i o n by the use of- a b s t r a c t nouns  ("saisissemens",  " t r a n s p o r t s " ) and by the e v o c a t i v e a l t h o u g h somewhat b a n a l image c f the "deluge de pleurs''. The p r o s a i c Comte d'Hennebury does s t r i k e t h e r e a d e r as l a c k i n g i n v e r i s i m i l i t u d e because o f h i s e x c e s s i v e goodness. Du P l a i s i r never adopts h i s o p t i c a l a n g l e as he moves h i s p o i n t of view t o comment on the h e r o i n e ' s moral dilemma, nor does he ever a n a l y z e h i s thoughts t o convey them.to the r e a d e r .  144 He g i v e s him t h e power o f d i r e c t speech o n l y when he has hie, c o n f r o n t h i s s i s t e r a t t h e moment o f the Due d'Olsingam'sdeath.  Had Du P l a i s i r e x p l o r e d more f u l l y t h e l a t e n t p o s s i -  b i l i t i e s o f some o f h i s more prominent c h a r a c t e r t r a i t s , anc. had he g i v e n him a l e s s s e l f - e f f a c i n g p e r s o n a l i t y , t h e Comto d'Hennebury would have a c h i e v e d as a f i c t i o n a l  personage a  more d e s i r a b l e b a l a n c e between b e i n g merely a s t r u c t u r a l t o o l and r e m a i n i n g an i n d i v i d u a l i n h i s own r i g h t .  I t i s o n l y a f t e r t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f the mothers and the sons t h a t Du P l a i s i r i n t r o d u c e s h i s two main c h a r a c t e r s to  the r e a d e r .  .He thus succeeds i n u n d e r l i n i n g , i n t h e ver;  r  s t r u c t u r e which he has g i v e n t o h i s wprk, t h e f a c t t h a t , the hero and t h e h e r o i n e ' s mutual a f f i n i t y d i v o r c e s them f r o m e i t h e r o f t h e two main groups o f c h a r a c t e r s ( t h e mother-son groups). By v i r t u e o f h e r b i r t h , Mademoiselle d'Hennebury c o u l d be p l a c e d , i n . t h e o r y , alongside h e r mother and h e r b r o t h e r ; t h e d e a t h o f h e r mother, however, puts h e r i n t h e c a t e g o r y wher>; we f i n d d'Olsingam from t h e s t a r t , he h a v i n g "perdu s o n p e r ? et s a mere dans un age. ou a. peine i l p o u v o i t e s t r e s e n s i b l e k cette perte."  ( I , 15-16)' By the use a g a i n o f p a r a l l e l i s m ,  t h e n , t h e author succeeds i n h i g h l i g h t i n g the unique r e l a t i o n s h i p shared by t h e hero and t h e h e r o i n e . As b e f i t s t h e p r i n c i p a l c h a r a c t e r s o f t h e n o v e l , t h e Duo d'Olsingam's and Mademoiselle d'Hennebury's e n t r y onto s t a g e  145 centre i s  prepared w e l l i n advance.  the h e r o i n e i s  The p h y s i c a l  announced i n d i r e c t l y t o t h e r e a d e r b e f o r e  c h a r a c t e r makes h e r i n i t i a l a p p e a r a n c e . court  is  portrait  r e f l e c t e d i n that  of  of  the  The r e a c t i o n o f  the  t h e Queen:  l a Reyne, quelque acc6utum£e q u ' e l l e f u s t a v o i r des B e a u t e z p a r f a i t e s , n ' a v o i t j a m a i s pu r e g a r d e r M a d e m o i s e l l e d ' H e n n e b u r y s a n s un extreme e t o n n e m e n t . E l l e c r a i g n i t que c e t t e jeune personne dont l e coeur n ' e s t o i t p o i n t e n c o r a t t a c h e ne t r o u v a s t en P r a n c e q u e l q u e c h o s e de t r o p a i m a b l e .  (I, The f i r s t  d e s c r i p t i o n of  the h e r o i n e i s  c o u n t e r p a r t i n L a P r i n c e s s e de C l e v e s , traits. regard  No p r e c i s e d i s t i n g u i s h i n g to Mademoiselle  The v o c a b u l a r y ,  f l a t t e r i n g and somewhat the h i g h l y  conscious  which the superfluous  first  arrangement  the dominant  technique  d'HenneburyJ donnoit  t o be  overly  illustrate work,  of  in  rapidly  crisis.  d'Hennebury  is  one  of  the n a r r a t o r . q u i t e d e l i b e r a t e l y uses a  p r e c i s e l y that  with  i m p r e s s i o n c r e a t e d i n t h e Queen's mind  i n adopting the point  young E n g l i s h  appears  o f Du P l a i s i r ' s  of view of  upon s e e i n g the h e r o i n e f o r the f i r s t is  its  description.  n e v e r mars t h e c o n c i s e and  by t h e p r e s e n c e o f M a d e m o i s e l l e "etonnement",  to  individualistic  are given  s e r v e s however t o  f l o w i n g account of a p s y c h o l o g i c a l As  devoid of  physical  glance  banal,  rather similar  details  d'Hennebury's  which at  11-12)  t h e Queen.  aristocrat  In  d'Olsingam  Por h i s  the  [Mademoiselle  etonnement p r o d i g i e u x  a. ceux de q u i e l l e p o u v o i t  reaction  the J a r d i n du Roy,  "l'appergeut  aux marques d ' u n  time.  t h e Due  parallel  estre veue."  (I,  qu'elle 36)  146 T h e s e examples  serve to i l l u s t r a t e  a u t h o r of La Duchesse Rather  d'Estramene  than announcing-in  the heroine surpasses  has  chosen h i s  a d i r e c t manner t h a t  that  vocabulary.  t h e b e a u t y ..of  o f any y o u n g woman a t  d o e s Madame de L a P a y e t t e , route for  the care with which the  Du P l a i s i r  chooses  court,  a more  i n d i c a t i n g to the r e a d e r the remarkable  attributes  of Mademoiselle  d'Hennebury,  subtle  physical  by s p e a k i n g  of  the  r e a c t i o n e x p e r i e n c e d by t h o s e who see h e r f o r  the f i r s t  A g a i n the importance of v i s u a l  stressed.  To a p p l y Plaisir's  once more E.M.  Forster's  n o v e l , Mademoiselle  character,  impressions  is  terminology  d'Hennebury i s  one who e v o l v e s p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y  of the a c t i o n .  Du P l a i s i r  is  a  to  time.  Du  "round"  d u r i n g the  able to insure  as  the  course  complexity  o f h e r c h a r a c t e r by v i e w i n g h e r e v o l u t i o n f r o m d i f f e r e n t vantage  points,  narrative  as we have s e e n i n o u r g e n e r a l d i s c u s s i o n  technique.  d'Hennebury's  An o v e r - a l l v i e w o f  psychological  t h e same way t h a t  Mademoiselle  d e v e l o p m e n t p e r m i t s us  h e r p r e s e n c e , h e r v e r i s i m i l i t u d e as  the l e v e l s  observes  t h e m a i n c h a r a c t e r t e n d as w e l l t o  scenes  it  In  develops  t h e m o r a l dilemma o f  heroine,  or p e r s p e c t i v e s from which the  r e a c t i o n s r a t h e r t h a n on p h y s i c a l  Du P l a i s i r  assess  internalized, h i s t o r i c a l references  g i v i n g way t o t h e d e p i c t i o n o f  logical  to  a literary creation.  the a c t i o n o f the s t o r y as  becomes i n c r e a s i n g l y  of  maintains  focus  the author  on  psycho-  actions.  authorial distance  i n these  o f t h e n o v e l by t h e t e c h n i q u e o f commentary,  opening  while  147 a c h i e v i n g at  t h e same t i m e a c e r t a i n c o m p l i c i t y w i t h  r e a d e r who, as  a result,  d o e s what i s  happening  d'Hennebury,  at  portrait duced,  of  will  able  to  see b e f o r e the  to her p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y .  t h e moment o f f i r s t  catching  t h e y o u n g man t o whom s h e w i l l  does n o t y e t u n d e r s t a n d  p h o s i s w h i c h has itself  is  —remorse  come o n l y as  heroine  Mademoiselle  sight  of  the  shortly  be  intro-  the meaning o f  begun t o t a k e p l a c e  the  metamor-  i n her h e a r t ,  f o r h a v i n g y i e l d e d t o such an a delayed r e a c t i o n .  love  inclination  Du P l a i s i r  anticipates  t h e imminent r e a l i z a t i o n w h i c h t h e y o u n g woman w i l l by r e m a r k i n g t h a t  "quand  elle  e n c o r 1'Homme du monde l e  vertu,  e l l e e n t r a dans un e t a t si  e l l e se f u s t  undergo  p e n s a que c e t Homme s i  etoit  deplaisirs,  the  plus  beau  remply d ' e s p r i t  qui luy  examinee."  eust (I,  & de  donne de 20)  sensibles  But:  E l l e i g n o r o i t encor l a f o r c e des i n c l i n a t i o n s , & e l l e e u s t e t e b i e n e l o i g n e e de c r a i n d r e que l ' o n p u s t a v o i r p l u s que de l ' e s t i m e p o u r un Homme q u ' o n n ' a p o i n t v e u . Sans c e s s e l e Due d ' O l s i n g a m se p r e s e n t o i t a son e s p r i t . E l l e l u i a p p l i q u o i t , avec c e t t e imprudence d ' u n coeur nouveau, l e s t r a i t s de s o n P o r t r a i t ; & e l l e a v o i t de l a j o y e de p o u v o i r se d i r e q u ' e l l e n ' a v o i t r i e n veu encor q u i pust l u y e s t r e comparable. (I, 21-22) Mademoiselle  d'Hennebury  is,  without  realizing it,  trembling  on t h e edge o f a p r e c i p i c e ; t h e t w i c e - r e p e a t e d a d v e r b i n the paragraph o f l o v e up t o through h i s its  c i t e d above h i g h l i g h t s  t h e moment o f  portrait,  mark i n h e r h e a r t ,  encounter with  a l o v e which has as  her t o t a l  ("encor")  inexperience  the Due  already l e f t  d'Olsingam forever  u n d e r l i n e d by t h e a d v e r b i a l  expression  148 "sans c e s s e " .  In  a l e i t - m o t i f as  fact,  this  expression takes  the a c t i o n develops  for,  anticipate,  t h e dilemma o f M a d e m o i s e l l e  d'Estramene  is  p r e c i s e l y that  as  How i s introduced?  she m i g h t  of being unable to erase  Du P l a i s i r  and i n t e r i o r monologue  effectively, i f  the i n t r i g u e  inability  t o c a r r y out i n p u b l i c ,  p r e s e n c e o f t h e Due d ' O l s i n g a m ,  develops,  L e t us  discourse heightens scene i s  thus  g  He  t h e drama a b o u t  views  s e t t i n g and  her  in  w h i c h she h a s  t a k e as  the made  a n example  scene i n  The u s e o f  to u n f o l d .  in  increasing  which  t h e home o f h e r b r o t h e r  t o s e e t h e Due d ' O l s i n g a m n e a r d e a t h .  the  discourse  o r more i m p o r t a n t l y ,  a l t e r n a t i n g p r e s e n t a t i o n the poignant at  what  mainly  sparingly.  resolutions  i n t h e p r i v a c y o f h e r own room.  arrives  the  initially  though he a l s o u s e s d i r e c t  noting,  Madame d ' E s t r a m e n e  been  shows h e r e v o l u t i o n u s i n g  central character alternately i n a s o c i a l as  will  take.  solitude,  this  no m a t t e r  t h e h e r o i n e p r e s e n t e d once she h a s  t e c h n i q u e o f commentary,  his  the reader  of  d*Kennebury/Madame  Due d ' O l s i n g a m f r o m h e r mind and h e r h e a r t , d e s p e r a t e measures  on t h e v a l u e  only  direct  This  prepared:  . rj quand [Madame d ' E s t r a m e n q ] e n t r a hez s o n frere} e l l e trouva q u ' i l dtoit a u p r e s d ' u n Homme couched & q u i s a n s l e r e g a r d e r l u y t e n o i t une m a i n . S i son c o e u r ne l u y d i t pas p a r a v a n c e q u i e t o i t c e t Homme, s e s y e u x ne l e l u y l a i s s e r e n t pas l o n g t e m p s i g n o r e r ; & m a l g r e 1'extreme changeraent q u i p o u v o i t e s t r e en l u y , e l l e r e c o n n u t b i e n t o s t c e s mesmes t r a i t s , d o n t l a p r e m i e r e veue 1 ' a v o i t t o u c h e e p o u r l e r e s t e de s e s j o u r s , & d o n t l e s o u v e n i r  tense  of  149 trop n a t u r e l & trop aimable, luy c o u t o i t s a n s c e s s e t a n t de c o m b a t s , c r u e l s & inutiles. (II, 104-105) Madame d ' E s t r a m e n e but,  allows  h e r eyes t o s e t t l e  on t h e d y i n g man,  t h e moment she becomes aware t h a t he knows she i s  gazing  at him,  " e l l e c e s s a a v e c p r e c i p i t a t i o n de l e r e g a r d e r .  rougit;  e l l e f u t h o n t e u s e de p a r o i t r e d e v a n t un Homme,  1 inclination & la 1  exposoit elle  sa g l o i r e ;  & f o r c e e par s a honte & par son i n q u i e t u d e ,  The s c e n e becomes even more i n t e n s e as discourse.  Hurt at  q u e l q u e p u n i t i o n " , he s a y s ,  of t h i s  (II,  haine?"  111-112)  introduces d'Estramene,  c e t amour  meritoit  que j e  (II,  d e s p e r a t e p l e a , Madame d ' E s t r a m e n e  t o l e a v e t h e room, f o r r e a s o n i s for  "si  " s e r o i t - c e de v o u s  recevoir, & m e r i t e r o i t - i l vostre  result  the author  t h e r e a c t i o n o f Madame  t h e Due d ' O l s i n g a m begs h e r t o s t a y :  la  dont  p r e s e n c e l u y r e p r o c h o i e n t l e h a z a r d ou e l l e  se l e v a p o u r s o r t i r du l i e u ou e l l e e t o i t . "  direct  Elle  devrois  115) is  As  not  p o w e r l e s s where h e r  a  able  feelings  t h e Due d ' O l s i n g a m a r e c o n c e r n e d : Madame d ' E s t r a m e n e e t o i t comme d S c h i r e e p a r ces r e p r o c h e s . E l l e r e g a r d a l e Due d ' O l s i n gam a v e c des yeux q u i n ' a v o i e n t p r e s q u e p l u s de v i e ; & s a n s s g a y o i r s i e l l e a v o i t d e s s e i n de d e m e u r e r , e l l e s e t r o u v a dans une s o r t e de f o i b l e s s e & d ' e p u i s e m e n t q u i l ' y f i r e n t consentir. (II, 115-116)  In  one o f t h e l o n g e s t  Madame d ' E s t r a m e n e  passages  spells  of d i r e c t speech i n the n o v e l ,  out t o t h e Due d ' O l s i n g a m  exactly  i n what way h e r good r e p u t a t i o n would be d e s t r o y e d were i t be known t h a t  she had s p e n t  s u c h t e n d e r moments w i t h h i m :  to  150 "ne v o y e z - v o u s  pas  la  torribee, que j e n ' e n deplorable  sortiray  jamais:  c o n j o n c t u r e ou j e s u i s ,  sommes v e u s ,  & que v o u s  reputation!" her  p r o f o n d e u r de l'ab'ysm'e  (II,  m'aimez  118)  & si  dans  on s y a i t  encor,  je  suis  cette  que nous  nous  q u e l l e a t t e i n t e a ma  The y o u n g woman i s  c a l m e x t e r i o r , and begs  ou [ s i c ]  unable  t h e Due d ' O l s i n g a m  to  to  maintain  leave  England: H e l a s , s ' e c r i a - t - e l l e , a v e c un t r a n s p o r t q u i l u y echappa malgre l e d e s s e i n q u ' e l l e a v o i t de ne t e m o i g n e r que du calme & de l a f o r c e , d e p u i s l e moment q u i m ' o t a l ' e s p e r a n c e de v i v r e avec vous, i l s r n ' a u r o i e n t f a i t m o u r i r c e n t f o i s , s i ma d e s t i n e (jsicT) p a r une s u i t e v i s i b l e de s a c r u a u t e , ne m ' a v o i t nalgre" moy a t t a c h e e c o n t i n u e l l e m e n t a l a v i e . C* • D Vous t r o u v e r e z a i s e m e n t dans t o u s l e s e n d r o i t s du monde q u e l q u e c h o s e de p l u s a i m a b l e que ce que v o u s a v e z p e r d u ; mais s ' i l m ' e s t e n c o r p e r m i s de v o u s demander d e s g r a c e s , ne l e c h e r c h e z p o i n t en A n g l e terre! Je s e r o i s t r o p malheureuse d ' e t r e s o u v e n t e x p o s e e a. v o u s v o i r . (II, The l a s t  sentence i n  Madame d ' E s t r a m e n e m o r a l dilemma —  this  is  that  quotation underlines  no l o n g e r  well  true feelings aware  of  f o r him show.  the measures  her reputation i n t a c t , near death causes fallut rien  unaware  Ironically,  she must  t h e mere s i g h t  her such p a i n that  pour l e  take of  if  will hot  although she i s  t h e Due  "c'est  la  that  particular  of her r e s o l u t i o n s  peu q u ' e l l e mesme n ' e x p i r a s t ,  epargner  of her  the f a c t  b e h o l d i n g t h e Due d ' O l s i n g a m  s e r v e t o undo e v e n t h e f i r m e s t her  127-150)  to  only  to'let she  is  preserve  d'Olsingam  qu'il  s'en  & q u ' e l l e c r u t ne d e v o i r  faire revivre. ' Elle  se  jetta a  luy  151 t o u t e eperdue  .  . . .'*  a c l i m a x as Madame d ' S s t r a r n e n e for  the l a s t  time.  addresses  tense scene t h e Due  reaches  d'Olsingam  The d r a m a t i c a c t i o n o f h e r t h r o w i n g  s e l f a t him " 1 ' e m b r a s s a n t douleur"  This  ( I I , 136)  expresses  a v e c de v i o l e n s  transports  on t h e p h y s i c a l , v i s u a l l e v e l ,  d e s p e r a t i o n t o which she g i v e s  her-  de  the  the f o l l o w i n g u t t e r a n c e :  Ah, Monsieur, l u y d i t - e l l e d'une v o i x e l e v d e , v o u s ne m'aimez p l u s , v o u s v o u l e z m o u r r i r , & v o s t r e v i e est l a s e u l e chose q u i s o u t i e n t l a mienne. S p a r g n e z - m o y t a n t d ' h o r r e u r , & de remords. L a i s s e z - m o y 1 ' i n n o c e n c e de m o u r i r a v a n t v o u s ; o u , s i mon i n t e r e s t ne v o u s t o u c h e pas a s s e z , au moins p r e n e z s o i n d u vostre. R e v e n e z a f i n de me v o i r v i v r e p o u r vous. R e v e n e z en e t a t de m ' e n t e n d r e d i r e t o u s l e s j o u r s que j e vous aime p l u s que toutes choses. Mon c o e u r e s t a v o u s ; v o u s v i v r e z a u p r e s de moy. Vous mesme v o u s s e r e z j u g e d e s c o m p l a i s a n c e s que j e v o u s d o i s , e n f i n j e ne t r o u v e r a y j a m a i s de d i f f i c u l t y dans t o u t c e que v o u s p o u r r e z souhaiter.  (II, 136-138) By t h e now f a m i l i a r Du P l a i s i r  t e c h n i q u e s o f r e p e t i t i o n and  r e f l e c t s i n Mademoiselle d'Hennebury's  outpouring her complete l a c k when she f e a r s  that  reflected also  This lack  about  to die  f o r he i s  she t o o may as  takes her l e a v e .  a<j r e s u l t  self  is  the  short  o n l y c a u s e t h e Due  cognisant  because  of concern f o r  a t o t a l of twelve times i n t h i s  Aware t h a t h e r p r e s e n c e w i l l  that  is  i n the f r e q u e n c y w i t h which she uses  pronoun " v o u s " ,  f u r t h e r worry,  breathless  o f c o n c e r n f o r h e r own r e p u t a t i o n  t h e man she l o v e s  of h e r apparent c a l l o u s n e s s .  fears  parallelism,  speech. d'Olsingam  now o f h e r l o v e f o r h i m and fall  i l l , Madame  Y e t one more s i g n i f i c a n t  action is  d'Estramene described  152 by Du P l a i s i r ;  as  t h e y o u n g woman i s  toraber s u r £ h e r b r o t h e r ] " that  (II,  he b e f r i e n d h e r h u s b a n d ,  Madame d E s t r a m e n e ' s 1  with those  leaving,  141-142), if  f o r him w h i c h a t  merits,  of  c h a r a c t e r i n L a Duchesse d ' E s t r a m e n e ,  The r e a d e r i s  of  t h e Due  novel.  In  suggests  that  Du P l a i s i r ' s  the m o r a l as w e l l as be i s  work,  as  shared when  introduces d'Estramene  i n Madame de L a  Fayette's  i n Madame de L a F a y e t t e ' s ,  the p h y s i c a l p o r t r a i t  of  the  husband-to-  c o m p l e t e d b e f o r e t h e more d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n o f  lover, well  o f Nemours  prin-  d'Olsingam.  d'Estramene  the p r e s e n t a t i o n of the l o v e r i n La Duchesse  obviously  whose a r r i v a l  i n advance.  lookout  for this  a u t h o r has  on s t a g e ,  on t h e o t h e r h a n d ,  The r e a d e r r e m a i n s  is  since physical attributes  prepared  c o n s e q u e n t l y on t h e  surprise  as  an o b s e r v e r i s  about  courtiers.  i n the r o y a l c i r c l e Although  the  intense  o f t h e Due d ' O l s i n g a m a r e i n d e e d  g r e a t e r t h a n t h o s e s u g g e s t e d by t h e p a i n t e d p o r t r a i t s passed  the  e x t r a o r d i n a r y c h a r a c t e r t o whose m e r i t s  a l l u d e d , and h i s  to  their  the other  e x a m i n i n g i n d e t a i l t h e manner i n w h i c h Du P l a i s i r him;  has,  a g a i n r e m i n d e d o f t h e many s i m i l a r i t i e s  by L a P r i n c e s s e de C l e v e s -and L a D u c h e s s e  of  respect.  L e t us now c o n s i d e r t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f cipal  favour,  been a b l e  the b e g i n n i n g  b o r d e r e d on h a t r e d i n t o f e e l i n g s  a  comparison  i n t h e n o v e l ; she  t h r o u g h b e c o m i n g aware o f h e r h u s b a n d ' s  marriage  as  laissa  The e v o l u t i o n  r e m a r k a b l e by  of the o t h e r personages  transform feelings  and a s k s ,  possible.  character is  " e l l e se  the a r t i s t ' s  and by t h e r e m a r k s likeness  of  of  t h e Due  far  being the d'Olsingam  153 g i v e s r i s e t o f e e l i n g s of l o v e i n M a d e m o i s e l l e d'Hennebury, it  i s not u n t i l she i s a c t u a l l y i n ' t h e p h y s i c a l presence of  the young man  t h a t she w i l l f e e l f o r him t r u e p a s s i o n , which  i s , a c c o r d i n g t o the c o n v e n t i o n s of the t i m e , b o r n of t h e i r i n i t i a l glance shared. J u 3 t as the Due d*Olsingam's  r e a c t i o n upon s e e i n g  M a d e m o i s e l l e d Hennebury f o r t h e f i r s t time i n t h e J a r d i n du Roy i s one of ''etonnement", so the h e r o i n e ' s a s t o n i s h m e n t b e f o r e t h e p o r t r a i t of the Due d'Olsingam i s a m p l i f i e d when she f i r s t , sees him i n the J a r d i n du Roy.  By h i s use of  temporal p a r a l l e l i s m (the p r e s e n t a t i o n of Mademoiselle d'Hennebury anr the Due d'Olsingam b e i n g s i m u l t a n e o u s ) end by what we m i g h t c a l l p a r a l l e l i s m of r e a c t i o n as w e l l ,  caused  by t h e i n i t i a l view of the b e l o v e d , Du P l a i s i r succeeds i n h i g h l i g h t i n g t h e unreasoned, spontaneous l o v e of t h e Due d'Olsingam and M a d e m o i s e l l e d'Hennebury. "demeura. iuy-mesme etrangement  The Due  d'Olsingam  s u r p r i s " and " q u o i q u ' i l l a  v i s t confusemerit, ce- q u ' i l v i t . passa t o u t d'un coup juscu'a. son coeur-. e t h i c o n c e u t d'abord des sentimens d'amour e t d'estime que 1 on n'exprime p o i n t , parce q u ' i l s s u r p a s s e n t l a croyance."  (I.. 36-37)  identical:  Du P l a i s i r n o t e s t h a t she "apperSeut a u s s i £"le  d'OlsingamJ  a c e s marques e g a l e s p e u t - e s t r e a c e l l e s q u i l a  The r e a c t i o n of the h e r o i n e i s  luy avoient f a i t appercevoir."  Due  ( I , 37)  Du P l a i s i r uses c o n t r a s t as h i s main t e c h n i q u e i n p r e s e n t i n g t h e Due d'Olsingam.  The r e a d e r i s c o n s t a n t l y aware  154 t h a t t h i s c h a r a c t e r i s i m p l i c i t l y compared w i t h the husband, wh?  heroine's  i s seen t o be c h i l d i s h and i r r e s p o n s i b l e u n t i l  h i s somewhat f o r t u i t o u s meeting w i t h the Due  d'Olsingam.  In  the s m a l l I t a l i a n v i l l a g e , of N . . . the scene w h i c h ensues s e r v e s to h i g h l i g h t the e f f i c a c y w i t h which Du P l a i s i r i s a b l e t o suggest the i n h e r e n t goodness of the Luc f o r he a l l e y s the Due  d'Olsingam,  d'Estramene t o speak of h i s p e r s o n a l  dilemma, a l t h o u g h he has every  reason to r e f u s e to l i s t e n to  a t a l e which can o a l y cause him a n g u i s h . r e a c t i o n i t , understandably,  one  The Due  d'Olsingam's  of "etonnement" and  "rage"  ( I I , S 3 ) , g i v e n the f a c t t h a t he i s s p e a k i n g w i t h a man  who,  "apres 1 *'a\oir d e t r u i t , e t o i t encor a Mademoiselle' d'Hennebury un Ennemy ete'rnel rc s o u v e r a i n . " as Du P l a i s i r h a s t e n s to add,  "il  ( I I , 83-84)  Nevertheless,  connut a u s s i t o s t par "les  mouvemens c r d i n a i r e s de son amour, l e p a r t y q u ' i l d e v o i t prendre",  ( I I , - 8 4 ) and proceeds t o a d v i s e the Due  on the conduct he. should adopt w i t h r e g a r d  to h i s wife,  p o i n t i n g out "tous l e s malheurs e n f i n q u i d o i v e n t e v i t e z par un Homme d'honneur & de q u a l i t e . " Due  d'Estramene  estre  ( I I , 85)  The  d'01sir.gam does l i m i t here the e x t e n t of h i s a d v i c e ;  f o l l o w s up t h i s i n i t i a l c o n v e r s a t i o n by a v i s i t t h e next and  " i l l u y p a r l a dans une  f o i s , .& i l  une  day,  plus grande etendue que l a premiere  acheva de l u y f a i r e c o n n o i t r e l e s m a l h e u r s , - q u i  s u i v r o i e n t one the Due  he  p l u s l o n g u e - i n j u s t i c e . " . ( I I , 87)  Pear that  d'Eetramene w i l l go back on h i s word t o " e f a c e r par  conduite plus raisonnable, l e s impressions  qu'il  pouvoit  155 a v o i r donnees" up t h i s  (II,  88)  causes  t h e Due d ' O l s i n g a m t o  second meeting w i t h a t r i p  to England  to insure  t h e woman he l o v e d and s t i l l  loves  "quelque a f f o i b l y  p a r l a v i o l e n c e de s a  il  r^solut  etre  de p a r t i r  sur l e s  t e m o i n d u changement  ou p o u r l e It that  q u ' i l fust  is  w i l l not  pas de ce Due,  suffer  mainly  w i t h t h e Due  dealings  t h e Due d ' O l s i n g a m d i s p l a y s  i(  his  gically  vient  Du P l a i s i r  His  in  je  a f f i n i t y with the  indignation  is  .  qu'il etoit  heros  psycholohe  f)  d ' ou  Mademoiselle  pour l a p e r s u a d e r , des  Vous d i t e s  r  The c r i t i c  shown as  que l e Due d ' O l s i n g a m q u i aime eperdument  t r o u v e , b i e n , moi?  u  d'Estramene  t h e f o l l o w i n g way:  d ' H e n n e b u r y , ne t r o u v e pas  o  inspire,  him " t r o p v e r t u e u x " ^ and t o o s i m i l a r  to the h e r o i n e .  addresses  P  89-90)  genereux of the p r e c e d i n g g e n e r a t i o n of w r i t e r s . Pavilion finds  douleur,  favorable q u ' i l luy avoit (II,  that  unduly:  £s D  ou  p u n i r de s a r e c h u t e " . in his  follow  raisons,  sounds  que  et 15  d^sinteresse  mais j e vous reponds q u ' i l e t o i t amant."  t h e added p e r s p e c t i v e o f reader i s hero, as h i s  like  It  the  a b l e t o r e a l i z e t h a t Du P l a i s i r ' s  present-day  docile,  t h e m e d i e v a l c h e v a l i e r , who w o r s h i p s  his  submissive beloved  g o d , w o u l d h a v e r e c e i v e d a more c o r d i a l a p p r o v a l  the .readers of the f i r s t still  three centuries,  With  half  of  t h e s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y , who  b e l i e v e d i n t h e supremacy o f m a n ' s w i l l  must be remembered, however,  was w r i t i n g , remained, manservant  w h i l e the forms  the s p i r i t  that  of t h i s  had a t r o p h i e d .  warns him t h a t  from  at  over the  t h e t i m e Du  Plaisir  courtly etiquette The Due  passions.  still  d'Olsingam's  the journey to England  could prove  156  t o be f a t a l f o r him, and the Due, aware o f t h e f u t i l i t y o f reason i n matters o f the i e a r t , r e p l i e s :  "ce que vous me  d i t e s , j e me l e s u i s moy—aesme d i t c e n t f o i s ; a u s s i e s t - c e malgre moy que ma d o u l e u r c o n t i n u e t o u s l e s j o u r s .  J'ai  employe t o u t e ma r a i s o n pour l a d e t r u i r e £7 . JJ E n f i n  j'ai  de grandes c o n n o i s s a n c e s , mais j ' a y encor p l u s de f o i b l e s s e ; . & quelques e f f o r t s que j e f a s s e pour n ' e n v i s a g e r M a d e m o i s e l l e d'Hennebury  que comme une Personne q u i m'a t r a h y , j e l a r e g a r d e  t o u j o u r s comme une P e r s o r a e que j ' a y perdue."  (II,  94-95)  W h i l e P a v i l i o n acknowledges t h e magnanimity o f t h e Due d'Olsingam, he m a i n t a i n s t h a t Du P l a i s i r would have been w e l l a d v i s e d t o show i t i n a n o t h e r way: b i j e l i s o i s C l e o p a t r e ou C i r u s , e t que j e v i s s e un h e r o s p a r t i peur f a i r e v o i a g e , j e s e r o i s b i e n s u r q u ' i l ne manqueroit pas de r e n c o n t r e r tous ceux des Romans q u i s e s e r o i e n t e g a r e s , ou dont on n ' a v o i t p o i n t de n o u v e l l e s . I I n ' e s t pas meme permis aux Personnages de ces gros L i v r e s - l a , de f a i r e une promenade, q u i se t e r m i n e sans a v e n t u r e , e t q u i ne s o i t qu'une s i m p l e promenade. Mais i i n'en v a pas a i n s i dans . l e s p e t i t e s N o u v e l l e s , q u i sont devenues a. l a mode. On y a ramene l e s choses a. un v r a i s e m b l a b l e p l u s n a t u r e l . Un Heros s'y peut promener, e t v o i a g e r sans f a i r e aucune r e n c o n t r e ; e t meme i l l e d o i t pour ne pas r e s s e m b l e r aux Heros a n t i q u e s . A u s s i e u t i l p e u t - e t r e ete mieux de c o n s e r v e r l a g e n e r o s i t e du Dvc d'Olsingam, e t de f a i r e t r o u v e r ensemble l e s deux R i v a u x p a r une v o i e p l u s simple.16 In s p i t e of h i s unfortunate a f f i n i t y with the l e s s natural,' l e s s b e l i e v a b l e character t r a i t s o f h i s counterparts i n t h e e p i c romance, t h e Due d'Olsingam remains n o n e t h e l e s s  ; 157 a t t r a c t i v e as a f i c t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r p r e c i s e l y because of h;..s i n h e r e n t g e n e r o s i t e and s e l f l e s s n e s s . .  A l t h o u g h he f e e l s h<-)  cannot bear t o remain i n P a r i s when he l e a r n s o f Mad e mois e l . . l e d'Hennebury's  m a r r i a g e p l a n s , h i s • fl.Lght i s not a c o w a r d l y . ,  i r r e s p o n s i b l e one, as i s t h e Due d'Estramene s. 1  I f he p r e f e r s  n e t t o be "temoin d'une chose dont l a vu'e ne l u y p o u v o i t e s t r e s u p p o r t a b l e " , (I,.177) he does n o t harbour any f e e l i n g s of i l l - w i l l o r even j e a l o u s y toward the h e r o i n e and t h e man scon t o become h e r husband.  P-ather, he a c c e p t s h i s .misfortune  by r a t i o n a l i s i n g t h a t t h e h e r o i n e "se d e v o i t a. elle-mesme son crangement," and t h a t he was unworthy o f h e r a f f e c t i o n . I i h i s mind, t h e beloved woman i s w i t h o u t f l a w . d'01singam.even  The Due  c a r r i e s h i s nobleness of s o u l t o the point of  demanding o f the h e r o i n e ' s b r o t h e r t h a t he a l s o s h o u l d n o t l o o k d i s a p p r o v i n g l y on M a d e m o i s e l l e d'Hennebury's c o n d u c t : "Souvenez-vous que dans l ' e t a t ou. j e s u i s , s i j ' e t o i s c a p a b l e d'une n o u v e l l e a f f l i c t i o n , ce s e r o i t pour l u y a v o i r a t t i r e vostre haine. (I,  Aimex {Jsicj - l a comme vous 1'aimiez r j .  ".  173) Du P l a i s i r e x p l o r e s f u r t h e r h i s hero's magnanimity  i n commenting upon h i s a t t i t u d e t o t h e Due d'Estramene.  3 ich  a s e l f l e s s a t t i t u d e does, however, reduce t h e v e r i s i m i l i t u d e of Du P l a i s i r ' s personage: t h e complete absence o f any f e e l i n g of j e a l o u s y o r d e s i r e f o r revenge p u t s t h e Due d'Olsingam i n t o the morally irreproachable' category of the f a i r y - t a l e prince. However, u n l i k e t h e hero o f t h e f a i r y t a l e , whose  158 character usually  remains  evolve psychologically imperceptible death,  change  as  is  static,  Du P l a i s i r ' s  the a c t i o n u n f o l d s .  underlined just  a s he d e m o n s t r a t e s a s l i g h t  as  h e r o i n e d i d i n d e e d l o v e him a l t h o u g h  total  t h e Due d ' O l s i n g a m on h i s  "Paut-il  qu'apres  je  avoir  tant  j ' a y e encor plus  sorsl  childish refusal  t o know t h a t  Que ne s u i s - j e  psychological proclaims:  par 1'opinion  e n c o r dans  un b o n h e u r ;  le  de v o s t r e  the adverb  de  desespoir  d'ou  e t q u ' i l me s e r o i t  doux d ' e s t r e m i s e r a b l e p a r une h a i n e c e r t a i n e que a i m £ au p r i x de c e q u ' i l en c o u t e . "  (II,  to  of  a s o u f f r i r par l a connoissance  J e m'en f e r o i s  r e p e t i t i o n of  the  in a state  death-bed  souffert  d'estre  123-124)  " e n c o r " demonstrates  plus  The  on t h e p a r t  t h e Due d ' O l s i n g a m an e x p r e s s d e s i r e t o r e t u r n t o a ' p a s t i n w h i c h he s u f f e r e d l e s s heroine's the h e r o ' s  b e c a u s e he was unaware  real inclination. actions  moments o f h i s  The l a t e n t  i n b a t t l e manifests  l i f e as  "lassitude"  to  The  she m a r r i e d a n o t h e r  d e n o t i n g extreme  despair,  vostre amitie?  he h o v e r s - n e a r  t o t h e h e r o i n e , who i s  physical disarray  haine,  almost  s h a r e w i t h t h e woman he l o v e s .  Due d ' O l s i n g a m would have p r e f e r r e d n o t  preserve her honour;  This  does  t e n d a n c y toward what we  t o d a y would c a l l masochism and a somewhat f a c e a f u t u r e he c a n n o t  personage  of  death-wish itself  (II,  state  the conditioning  i n the  and."ennui"  of  last 108),  or, 17  a s modern c r i t i c s would put i t ,  a d e s i r e not  The Due d ' O l s i n g a m t o o may t h u s character,  to a past  state  'become'.  be d e f i n e d a s  i n t h a t he does n o t r e m a i n s t a t i c ,  the d e s i r e to regress  to  but  a "round" expresses  i n w h i c h he had  known  159 happiness.  He i s  Madame d ' S s t r a r n e n e  less  complex p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y  or her husband,  presence of  structural  the problems  t h e Luc d ' O l s i n g a m .  n o t however b e " r e g a r d e d o n l y as  creation increases  as  caused  a psychologically  His  d'Estramene.  v e r i s i m i l i t u d e as  the s t o r y  d o e s he e x p r e s s h i m s e l f  by  shallow In  o t h e r two c h a r a c t e r s , he d o e s  a b e l i e v a b l e personage.  precisely  The Due d ' O l s i n g a m must  convenience i n La Duchesse  l i m i t e d way t h a n t h e s e  either  b o t h o f whom e v o l v e  b e c a u s e t h e y have each t o d e a l w i t h the  than  exist  for  never  direct discourse  he d o e s when c o n f r o n t e d by Madame d ' E s t r a m e n e  as  a literary  draws t o a c l o s e ,  so f u l l y u s i n g  a more  at  as  t h e home  of  her b r o t h e r . Having present  examined t h e methods w h i c h Du P l a i s i r  the c h a r a c t e r s i n h i s  he o b s e r v e s berate  in  so d o i n g ,  populating  we a r e a b l e  to a p p r e c i a t e the  d'Estramene.  t h e work,  All  of  personality. comprises narrator of  pertinent aspects  b o t h m a j o r and m i n o r  The m o r a l dilemma o f  the c e n t r a l f o c a l p o i n t is,  t h e work:  groups serves  alike,  of  this  the d i v i s i o n  y o u n g woman w h i c h  o f t h e t a l e r e l a t e d by  of the c h a r a c t e r s i n t o  t o p o i n t up Madame d ' E s t r a m e n e ' s a s o c i a l mask and t o b r i d g e  a p p e a r a n c e and r e a l i t y .  the t e c h n i q u e o f moving p o i n t  to  complex  as we have s e e n , r e f l e c t e d i n t h e v e r y  wear s u c c e s s f u l l y separates  of the h e r o i n e ' s  deli-  the  a r e c o n c e i v e d and p r e s e n t e d by t h e a u t h o r w i t h a v i e w highlighting  to  n o v e l , and t h e h i e r a r c h y w h i c h  s t r u c t u r e of La Duchesse  personages  uses  structure  two m a j o r  inability t h e gap  Du P l a i s i r ' s of view s e r v e s  the  which  skilful not  to  only  use to  160 make t h e c h a r a c t e r whose also  to lend to h i s  might  not  n a r r a t i v e a depth of  o t h e r w i s e have h a d .  L a Duchesse historical however,  d'Estramene  suffers  t h a t Du P l a i s i r ,  i n conveying to  court.  it  through h i s  it  may be a r g u e d of  must be  mastery  it  that  non-linear  of  agreed, narrative succeeds  evocative p o r t r a i t  her p e r s o n a l wishes  i n an e f f o r t  but  p e r s p e c t i v e which  of character presentation,  to subjugate  of bienseance,  more b e l i e v a b l e ,  from a l a c k  the r e a d e r a nuanced,  a woman who c h o o s e s  at  Although  and a n e c d o t a l d i g r e s s i o n s ,  t e c h n i q u e and methods  demands  o p t i c he a d o p t s  to maintain her  to  of the  reputation  161 CHAPTER I I I : ^"In pp.  E.M.  Forster's  sense.  FOOTNOTES See A s p e c t s  of  the N o v e l ,  75-85.  " O n t h e A r t o f P o e t r y , " C h a p t e r XIV. Quoted i n : C l a s s i c a l Literary C r i t i c i s m . T r a n s . T . S . D o r s c h (Harmondsworth, 1967), pp. 49-51. See p. 3 6 , a b o v e . 2  5  (Paris,  1683),  ^Corneille p.  pp.  125-26.  e t l a d i a l e c t i q u e du h e r o s  (Paris,  1963),  432. ^Sur R a c i n e ^Qeuvres  (Paris,  1963),  (Amsterdam,  p.  1750),  25..  p.  52.  7 loc.  cit.  Oeuvres,  pp.  52-3.  •Romans e t n o u v e l l e s "^Oeuvres. ^rbid.,  pp.  pp.  (Paris,  1961),  pp.  277-78.  53-4.  55-6.  12 N o u v e l l e s L e t t r e s de 1' a u t e u r de l a " C r i t i q u e ge"nerale de l ' H i s t o i r e du C a l v i n i s m e du Mr. MaimbourgT" (Villefranche, 16*85), v o l . I I , pp. 658-59. C i t e d by D . F . D a l l a s , L e Roman f r a n c a i s de 1660 a 1680 ( P a r i s , 1 9 3 2 ) , p. 233, n . 2 .  13  •^Madame de L a F a y e t t e p a r e l l e - m e m e , p p .  • ^ O e u v r e s , p. ^Ibid.. l 6  Ibid..  p. pp.  90-101.  47.  48. 56-7.  17 F o r an e l a b o r a t i o n o f t h i s theme, s t u d i e d i n r e l a t i o n s h i p t o t h e c h a r a c t e r o f t h e P r i n c e de C l e v e s , s e e S. D o u b r o v s k y , C o r n e i l l e e t l a d i a l e c t i q u e d u h e r o s . p p . 445-51.  162 CONCLUSION THE RELATIONSHIP OF THEORY TO PRACTICE I N THE' WORK OF .DO P L A I S I R : THE SBNTII'iBNS SUR  L'HISTOIRE  AND LA .DUCHESSE D'SSTRAMBNB The. g u l f b e t w e e n n o v e l i s t i c  t h e o r y and p r a c t i c e i s  g e n e r a l l y c o n c e d e d t o be g r e a t i n t h e s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y .  As  a number o f rapprochement,'; i n t h e p r e c e d i n g pag-as. h a v e h i n t e d a t , h o w e v e r , t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f L a D u c h e s s e d ' E s t r a m e n e and t h e Sentimens s u r 1 ' H i s t o i r e i s u n u s u a l l y close,. i s m a i n l y because o f correspondences l i k e  In fact, i t  the o.ies noted  that  c r i t i c s c a n f i n d some j u s t i f i c a t i o n in/ a t t r i b u t i n g t h e two w o r k s t o t h e same a u t h o r . methods a r e c f l i t t l e  B i b l i o g r a p h i c a l and  historical  c o n s e q u e n c e i n an e f f o r t t o  justify  t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p ; a comparison of the theory developed i n P a r t Two  o f t h e S e n t i m e n s , . . and t h e s t r u c t u r e '".if L a D u c h e s s e  d ' E s t r a m e n e d o e s , on t h e c o n t r a r y , s e r v e t o h i g h l i g h t t h e f a c t t h a t t h e one work e n r i c h e s i n f i n i t e l y  the understanding of the  o t h e r , and t h a t t h e y were v e r y l i k e l y w r i t t e n by t h e same, person. W i t h a few n o t a b l e e x c e p t i o n s , Du P l a i s i r o b s e r v e s f a i t h f u l l y i n h i s c r e a t i v e w o r k t h e p r e c e p t s w h i c h he a d v o cates i n h i s t h e o r e t i c a l t r e a t i s e .  La Duchesse d'Estramene,  a n a l m o s t p e r f e c t e x a m p l e o f what t h e a u t h o r o f t h e S e n t i m e n s s u r I ' H i s t o i r e d e f i n e s as a n . h i s t o i r e g a l a n t e , a nouveau or a nouvelle, i s ,  roman,  by v i r t u e o f i t s t e c h n i c a l c o n s t r u c t i o n and  163  its  subject matter,  an a n t i - n o v e l ,  s t r u c t u r a l and . t h e m a t i c voluminous  opposite  heroic novels  and m i d d l e o f Almost  of  the anciens  every major c h a r a c t e r i s t i c  is  absent  from L a Duchesse  in  two t h i n duodecimo v o l u m e s  heroine i s  concisely  The e x t e r n a l s t r u c t u r e  is  a linear  basically  of the i n t r i g u e .  romans,  Plaisir  whimsically  r e f e r s as  the p h y s i c a l  setting  stage-centre  of L a Duchesse  the p r i n c i p l e s  of h i s  for  is  setting  characters  any and a l l There a r e ,  The  or  of  moreover,  t o w h i c h Du beaute"  the moral problem about d'Estramene.  in  to  Adhering  the g r e a t e r at  part  his  a time i n  faithfully  which might o b s t r u c t  the  notably  action  history  times  of nor  overcoming  their  r e l a t i v e l y few c h a r a c t e r s is  sur  the p u b l i c a t i o n date  of  of  occupy  of  thus not from c l a s s i c a l  and t h e c o n f i d a n t  the  r e p l a c e d by a r a p i d s k e t c h  situates  is  chrono-  rapid  earmark  a "fatigante  related  d'Estramene  t h e l i m p i d and  res  story  two h u n d r e d  digression  superhuman b e i n g s c a p a b l e  obstacles  d'Estramene,  sur  and s u c c i n c t l y  i n medias  w h i c h p r e c e d e s by o n l y a few y e a r s  are h i s  anciens  t o be e n u n c i a t e d i n t h e S e n t i m e n s  Du P l a i s i r  his  the  of La Duchesse  n o v e l i n F r a n c e and i n E n g l a n d  t h e work;  of  Sentimens  The s t r u c t u r a l  the beginning  sur 1 'Histoire"*",  l'Histoire,  the  beginning  d'Estramene.  one; not a s i n g l e  r e t r o g r a d e movement impedes  anciens  to  the  roraans,  the  of approximately  pages e a c h .  Sentimens  at  trait  denounces i n h i s  t h e eponymous  unfolding  to say,  which f l o u r i s h e d  of  logical  is  the s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y .  romans w h i c h Du P l a i s i r 1'Histoire  that  progress.  i n La  absent.  Du  Duchesse Plaisir  is  above a l l  concerned with  being related; i n fact,  the v r a i s e m b l a n c e  La Duchesse  the d e f i n i t i o n of v e r i s i m i l i t u d e  Sentimens  sur  i.e.  the  d'Hstraniene  perfectly  1'Histoire,  of  tale  illustrates  given  in  an a c t i o n w h i c h i s  the  "moralement  2 croyable". As we have s e e n above i n o u r d i s c u s s i o n s e c t i o n of the Sentimens Plaisir  takes  issue  with his  frequently  in their  tions.  La Duchesse  In  sur  1'Histoire.  (p.  predecessors  tale with personal d'Estramene,  tale  c a r e f u l l y to f i n d  o f Madame d ' E s t r a m e n e ;  c e d i n g p a g e s , he i s skilfully  as  I  manipulating  facet  of  equal importance  to note  down i n t h e S e n t i m e n s clear  distinction  that,  of view  faithful  sur 1 ' H i s t o i r e ,  more e v i d e n t  undoubtedly critics  i n the p h y s i c a l  as  pre-  scenes  creations, secondary salient It  is  own d e l i b e r a t e  of set  language of  the " s t y l e  his  du c o e u r "  of the  the author  a  statements  t r u e t h a t what h a s  comportment  t h a n i n t h e i r manner o f s p e a k i n g ,  the  t h e n a r r a t o r makes  is  is  action.  to the precepts  characters.  t o by l i t e r a r y  the  of a  reader a  h e n c e more n a t u r a l ,  referred  the  in  main c h a r a c t e r .  o f t o n e between h i s  it  of  of h i s  and t h e l e s s - s t u d i e d , While  explana-  presence  there behind the  elucidate for his of h i s  part  or  t h e a u t h o r who r e l a t e s  the g u i d e - s t r i n g s  the p e r s o n a l i t y  Du  who i n t e r v e n e d  the a u t h o r ' s  a d o p t i n g from time to time the p o i n t character i n order to  second  51ff.)  have s t r e s s e d  nevertheless  the  commentary  completely u n o b t r u s i v e d u r i n g the g r e a t e r We have t o l o o k  of  been is  characters  of La  Duchesse  165 d'Estramene their  succeeds  inner psychological  he a l l o w s as  nevertheless  them t o speak  a creative author,  rendered a l l  in highlighting  t u r m o i l i n the r a r e scenes  using  direct discourse.  obviously  realizes  t h e more moving f o r  that  Du  As r e g a r d s  style,  Du P l a i s i r  we r e c a l l  the r e a d e r i f  w h i c h he condemns  in his  he  quality,  the r u b r i c  of  l'agreable"^  Duchesse  as w e l l as  "reflexions  that  "les  was a n  insistence  of the  writer.  expressions  sur 1 ' H i s t o i r e  statements  rule  for  their  w h i c h he l i s t s  ne m o n t r e n t 1 ' u t i l e  i n f a c t make any s t a t e m e n t s  justifiable Sentimens statements fact  que of  sur 1 ' H i s t o i r e ,  however,  par a  f o r Du P l a i s i r  The  theoretically the  contends t h a t  of a m o r a l i z i n g nature are p e r m i s s i b l e  fulfill  such  and must  the r o l e of c o n c l u d i n g element i n the n o v e l i d e a l l y be e n v i s a g e d  t h e component  neat knot.  is,  a c c o r d i n g to the p r e c e p t s enunciated i n  ending should all  d'Estramene  under  The t h e o r e t i c i a n who  m o r a l i z i n g n a t u r e u n t i l t h e f i n a l pages o f t h e n o v e l . e n d i n g o f L a Duchesse  are  the detached  d'Estramene,  generales".  nouvelles  does n o t  Plaisir,  comments  the c a r d i n a l  on t h e p a r t  i n the Sentimens  maxim-like  maintains  that  sur 1 ' H i s t o i r e  of expression  avoids,  which  observer-commentator.  expounded i n t h e S e n t i m e n s upon n a t u r a l n e s s  in  such scenes  upon them i n a measured t o n e o f v o i c e , a d o p t i n g view of the omnipresent  brilliantly  strings  of  as  a focal point  the a c t i o n converge  is  left  whose  which  to form a  The r e a d e r h a v i n g r e a c h e d t h e c o n c l u d i n g  o f L a D u c h e s s e d'Esjtramene  at  in  sentence  with the i m p r e s s i o n  that  166 there is  absolutely  nothing l e f t  dilemma o f t h e h e r o i n e . evocativeness  While  and m y s t e r y a t  say  c o n c e r n i n g the moral  one c o u l d have d e s i r e d more  t h e end o f t h e n o v e l ,  t r a d i t i o n o f l e a v i n g no l o o s e s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y and i s  to  ends  is  this  very evident  in  the  p a r t i c u l a r l y noteworthy i n  classical  theatre. With regard Duchesse  to character p o r t r a y a l ,  d'Estramene  observes  down i n t h e S e n t i m e n s  and h e n c e h i g h l i g h t e d , Du P l a i s i r portraits  In  order that  from the secondary  provided his  Du P l a i s i r  should  e n d e a v o u r t o d e p i c t man i n a g e n e r a l way; he d e s c r i b e s  m a i n and s e c o n d a r y  ideals  i n L a Duchesse  d'Estramene  t h e a u t h o r as  rapidly  neither is  his  traits  the  circonstances",  theo-  personages  specified  The h e r o o f  female counterpart a morally  which the a u t h o r  the  La  irreproach-  under the of  by  seven-league  The m o r a l d i l e m m a  be c l a s s i f i e d  aspects  individualized  n o t a super-human b e i n g i n  t h e y must r e s o l v e may i n f a c t  his  Like their  a r e c h a r a c t e r i z e d and  a b l e woman o f Amazonian p r o p o r t i o n s .  "petites  in  writer  the p h y s i c a l  b e i n g p e c u l i a r t o them a l o n e . is  the  sur 1 ' H i s t o i r e ,  r a t h e r t h a n by p h y s i c a l  Duchesse d'Estramene  of  that  characters.  i n the Sentimens  by t h e i r a c t i o n s ,  boots,  prescribes  by  important  characters.  retical  t h e y may  reader with word-  of v a r y i n g d e t a i l d e s c r i b i n g the l e s s  of both h i s  set  t h e h e r o and h e r o i n e a r e d e s c r i b e d  o n l y a f t e r he has  d'Estramene,  La  characters,  'foil'  Duchesse  of  to the l e t t e r the p r e c e p t s  sur 1 ' H i s t o i r e .  be c l e a r l y d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e  the author  which  rubric  Sentimens  167 sur 1 ' H i s t o i r e fictional  work.  maintains  is  ample s u b j e c t m a t t e r f o r a  5  F o r t h e most p a r t ,  then,  d'Estramene  to the Sentimens  Du P l a i s i r ,  h o w e v e r , has  he c o n s i d e r s  arguments In  the r e l a t i o n s h i p of l a sur 1 ' H i s t o i r e  been c r i t i c i z e d  for  is  the use of f o r t u i t o u s  to e x p l a i n or to support  particular,  Duchesse  quite  close.  committing  t o be one o f t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n s  a n c i e n s romans:  short  events or  of  what  the  specious  the a c t i o n b e i n g r e l a t e d .  t h e scene i n which he d e p i c t s  the encounter of  t h e husband and t h e r e j e c t e d l o v e r i n a l i t t l e I t a l i a n was  singled  logically,  out by P a v i l i o n i n t h i s this  scene has,  from our p o i n t  however, a p o e t i c meaning. a c t i o n takes  Du P l a i s i r  p l a c e i n an i s o l a t e d  o f t h e Due d ' O l s i n g a m ,  and y e t a t  us  gratuitous  today,  that  l o n e l y as  the  the h e a r t  t h e same t i m e we a r e made  the a r r i v a l of s p r i n g t i m e  reflection  on t h e d e s c r i p t i v e l e v e l  hopes f o r  Though  of view  tells  spot,  aware t h a t  o f t h e Due d ' O l s i n g a m ,  regard.^  village  who h a r b o u r s  is  imminent —  again a  of the p s y c h o l o g i c a l  state  perhaps  of  the f a i n t e s t  the f u t u r e .  R e l a t e d t o t h e i n t e r v e n t i o n o f somewhat insufficiently  irrational  p r e s e n t e d e l e m e n t s i n t h e n o v e l a r e Du  comments i n t h e S e n t i m e n s . . .  i n . w h i c h he d e n o u n c e s  or  Plaisir's  arguments  7 which are  "peu specieux"  c h a r a c t e r s from the stage. should  prepare h i s  i n e x p l a i n i n g the absenting W h i l e he m a i n t a i n s  r e a d e r i n advance f o r  that  of  the w r i t e r  the disappearance  a c h a r a c t e r , t h e d e a t h o f Madame d ' H e n n e b u r y as  depicted  in  of  168 L a D u c h e s s e d ' E s t r a m e n e t a k e s t h e r e a d e r somewhat b y s u r p r i s e , as s h e i s n o t shown t o be a i l i n g f o r a l o n g w h i l e b e f o r e t h e somewhat a b r u p t d e a t h s c e n e . and  subsequent understanding  removal  the heroine's discovery  o f s e l f a r e dependent upon t h e  o f Madame d ' H e n n e b u r y f r o m t h e s t a g e , Du P l a i s i r c a n  a g a i n be a c c u s e d this  While  of invraisemblance i n the presentation of  scene. To r e c a p i t u l a t e b r i e f l y  t h e arguments j u s t p r e s e n t e d i n  t h e p r e c e d i n g p a g e s , we s e e t h a t , w i t h f e v e x c e p t i o n s , t h e o r y and  p r a c t i c e c o i n c i d e i n t h e w o r k o f Du P l a i s i r .  I n form, as  w e l l as i n c o n t e n t , t h e Sentimens s u r 1 ' H i s t o i r e r e p r e s e n t a remarkably  p e r c e p t i v e a n a l y s i s and t h e o r e t i c a l d e s c r i p t i o n o f  La Duchesse d'Estramene. The  q u e s t i o n then a r i s e s ,  of course:  i f L a Duchesse  d ' E s t r a m e n e and L a P r i n c e s s e - de C l e v e s b o t h i l l u s t r a t e , more or l e s s p e r f e c t l y was  the formula f o r the i d e a l n o u v e l l e as i t  c o n c e i v e d i n 1663,  unqualified literary is  why i s t h e l a t t e r > 0 r k c o n s i d e r e d a h  success, a masterpiece, w h i l e the former  only a t the present time a t t r a c t i n g the a t t e n t i o n o f a s m a l l  scholarly public?  A p a r t i a l answer t o t h i s  question i s i n  f a c t s u p p l i e d by t h e a u t h o r o f t h e S e n t i m e n s s u r 1 ' H i s t o i r e ; Q  we r e c a l l t h a t , e c h o i n g a s i m i l a r s t a t e m e n t Du  P l a i s i r contended  that true creative genius  'learned', f o r i t i s a divine g i f t , While  Du P l a i s i r  made b y B o i l e a u ,  succeeds  c o n f o r m s t o h i s own i d e a l ,  "une r o s e e  cannot  be  benigne".  i n p r o d u c i n g a c r e a t i v e work  9  which  t h e f o r m o f Madame de L a P a y e t t e ' s  169 Princesse Rousset  de C l e v e s  maintains," " 1  described Fayette  follows  too,  the p a t t e r n of  0  i n the Sentimens  is,  awareness, i n t o what  of c o u r s e ,  sur  the g r e a t e r  essentially  retrospective  t h e most  part,  as  the i d e a l n o u v e l l e  1'Histoire;  s p e c i f i c a l l y an a b i l i t y is  critical  for  writer.  as  b u t Madame de L a An i n t e n s e  to i n t e g r a t e  a linear unfolding  of  temporal  successfully the  action  chronological allusions,  justifies  the  high  o p i n i o n i n which La P r i n c e s s e  de C l e v e s  has  been h e l d  b y most l i t e r a r y  critics:  S i c e t t e o e u v r e e s t r e s t e e j e u n e a cote" d e s c e n t a i n e s de b o u q u i n s tombes dans l ' o u b l i , c ' e s t p a r c e que s a c r e a t r i c e a p p a r t i e n t a ces ' e x c e l l e n s G-enies', comme d i t S o r e l , ' q u i s g a v e n t composer des l i v r e s , l e s q u e l s , p o u r e s t r e a l a mode ne l a i s s e n t pas de s u i v r e l e s bonnes e t e t e r n e l l e s r e g i e s du v r a y a r t d ' e c r i r e et l e u r merite s e r a t o u s i o u r s d i s t i n g u e de 1 ' i m p e r t i n e n c e des m a u v a i s e s c r i t s . 'H To c o n c l u d e : Princesse best  of  depict  is  cant  L a Duchesse  t h e . m o r a l dilemma o f standards  Du P l a i s i r ' s  genius it  de C l e v e s ,  shortcomings  t h e numerous a t t e m p t s  society's that  Whatever i t s  is  not  a Princesse  should  a work w h i c h g a i n s backdrop  of i t s  is,  it  be made a v a i l a b l e in  it  own t h e o r y .  To  say  without  contrary,  must  signifibe  to a w i d e r ' r e a d i n g  i m p o r t a n c e when v i e w e d a g a i n s t  author's  to  by  f o r the extremely  a work w h i c h ,  the  a f t e r 1678  de C l e v e s on t h e  la  probably  relationship.  l i t e r a r y worth;  it  of  t h e h o n n e t e femme g u i l t y  creation is  c r e a t i v e work t h a t  is  made by n o v e l i s t s  t o r e c o g n i z e and t o a c c e p t  emphasized,  d'Estramene  of an a d u l t e r o u s  t o deny i t s  i n the l i g h t  the  public,  170  CONCLUSION:  1  2  5  ( P a r i s , 1683), p p . 95-6. p.  96.  p . 150.  V 5  153.  p . 105.  ^Oeuvres 7  FOOTNOTES  (Amsterdam, 1750), p p . 56-7.  See p. 156, above.  p . 141.  8 L ' A r t p o e t i q u e , Chant I, 9  1 1 . 1-6.  p . 113.  Forme et s i g n i f i c a t i o n : essais sur l e s structures l i t t e r a i r e s de C o r n e i l l e a C l a u d e l ^ P a r i s , 1964), p. 31. 10  "^D.F. 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