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UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Du Plaisir as theoretician and practitioner of the novel form Hunter, Ellen Janet 1974

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DU PLAISIR AS THEORETICIAN AND PRACTITIONER OP THE NOVEL FORM by ELLEN JANET HUNTER B.A.,'University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1968 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL'FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY i n the Department of FRENCH We accept t h i s thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA December, 1974 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of FRENCH The University of British Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada Date 20 December 1974 P_F, £ Supervisor: Dr. Harold C. Knutson ABSTRACT This d i s s e r t a t i o n seeks to analyze two works by the 17th-century French w r i t e r , Du P l a i s i r , and to define t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p to each other. By viewing La Duchesse d'Estramene through the c r i t i c a l theory of i t s author as expressed i n Les  Sentimens sur l e s L e t t r e s . we are able to come to terms with Du P l a i s i r ' s formal d e f i n i t i o n of the p e t i t roman, nouveau  roman or nouvelle as he conceived i t . Because the e n t i r e l i t e r a r y production a t t r i b u t e d to Du P l a i s i r c o n s i s t s s o l e l y of these two short t e x t s , the f a c t that the one analyzes the s a l i e n t features of the other i s s t r o n g l y accentuated. Although the present study devoted more a t t e n t i o n to the s t r u c t u r a l a n a l y s i s of La Duchesse d'Bstramene than to the Sentimens.... the l a t t e r work i s considered as a h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t reference. This study i s d i v i d e d i n t o two major s e c t i o n s . Section I i s e n t i t l e d The Sentimens sur 1 ' H i s t o i r e : an author's a n a l y s i s of the c r e a t i v e process. The f i r s t chapter of t h i s s e c t i o n i s devoted to the background to the study of the Sentimens...; Du P l a i s i r ' s t r e a t i s e i s considered i n the per-spective of the r i s e of the p e t i t roman i n seventeenth-century France, and seen to share many s i m i l a r i t i e s w i t h the content of t h e o r e t i c a l works on the novel w r i t t e n contemporaneously to i t . The second chapter of t h i s f i r s t s e c t i o n concerns Du P l a i s i r ' s theory of the a n t i - n o v e l as presented i n Part I I of the Sentimens.... In p a r t i c u l a r , he condemns the voluminous and rambling heroic novels w r i t t e n at the beginning of the i i seventeenth-century i n France; c o n c i s i o n of form and content comprises the f o c a l point of h i s t h e o r e t i c a l remarks. Section I I of t h i s study deals w i t h the s t r u c t u r a l a n a l y s i s of La Duchesse d'Estramene, which could be s u b - t i t l e d : "The dilemma of the honnete femme as seen by Du P l a i s i r . " In the f i r s t chapter of t h i s s e c t i o n , a resume of the a c t i o n i s followed by a d i s c u s s i o n of the r o l e of h i s t o r y i n La Duchesse d'Estramene. Chapters I I (Narrative Technique) and I I I ( C h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n ) concern the t e c h n i c a l aspects of Du P l a i s i r ' s novel. By examining the methods which Du P l a i s i r uses to present the characters i n h i s novel, and the hierarch y which he observes i n so doing, we are able to appreciate the d e l i b -erate s t r u c t u r e of La Duchesse d'Estramene. A l l of the per-sonages populating the work, both major and minor a l i k e , are conceived and presented by the author w i t h a view to h i g h l i g h t -i n g p e r tinent aspects of the heroine's complex p e r s o n a l i t y . Du P l a i s i r ' s s k i l f u l use of the technique of moving point of view serves not only to make the character whose o p t i c he adopts more b e l i e v a b l e , but a l s o to lend to h i s n a r r a t i v e a depth of perspective which i t might not otherwise have had. Du P l a i s i r succeeds i n conveying to the reader a nuanced, evocative p o r t r a i t of a woman who chooses to subjugate her personal wishes to the demands of bienseance. i n an e f f o r t to maintain her r e p u t a t i o n at court. In the Conclusion, the bond u n i t i n g theory and p r a c t i c e i n the work of Du P l a i s i r i s underlined, as t h e o r e t i c a l remarks made i n the Sentimens sur 1 ' H i s t o i r e are r e l a t e d to La Duchesse i i i d'Estramene, The l a t t e r work i s seen to be an almost perfect example of the i d e a l p e t i t roman as Du P l a i s i r himself conceived i t . i v TABLE OF CONTENTS Page INTRODUCTION • 1 SECTION I : THE SENTIMENS SUR L'HISTOIRE: AN AUTHOR'S ANALYSIS OF THE CREATIVE PROCESS 15 CHAPTER I : . BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY OF THE SSN'TIMENS SUR L'HISTOIRE 16 CHAPTER I I : SENT I. MENS SUR L'HISTOIRE (PART I I OF THE SENTIMENS...): DU PLAISIR'S THEORY OF THE ANTI-NOVEL 33 SECTION I I : LA DUCHESSE D'ESTRAMENE: THE DILEMMA OF THE HONNETE FEMME AS SEEN BY DU PLAISIR . 75 CHAPTER I : BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY OF LA DUCHESSE D'ESTRAMENE 77 CHAPTER I I : NARRATIVE TECHNIQUE 97 CHAPTER I I I : CHARACTERIZATION 117 CONCLUSION: THE RELATIONSHIP OF THEORY TO PRACTICE IN THE WORK OF DU PLAISIR: THE SBNTIMENS SUR L'HISTOIRE AND LA DUCHESSE D'ESTRAMENE 162 BIBLIOGRAPHY 171 V ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I should l i k e to thank the f o l l o w i n g : - The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, f o r f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e i n the form of a MacMillan Family Foundation F e l l o w s h i p and a teaching a s s i s t a n t s h i p , and the Canada C o u n c i l , f o r Doctoral F e l l o w s h i p s . - Dr. Harold C. Knutson, my" t h e s i s d i r e c t o r , f o r h i s patience and h i s guidance i n the p r e p a r a t i o n and r e v i s i o n of the manuscript. - Dr. Dorothy F. D a l l a s , former professor and f r i e n d , f o r having introduced me to the i n f i n i t e l y r i c h world of seventeenth-century French L i t e r a t u r e . - My parents, f o r having provided a f i n e environment i n which to study. And l a s t l y , W i l l i a m , without whose constant encouragement t h i s work would no doubt not have reached completion. INTRODUCTION In the l a s t t h i r t y - f i v e years, scholars on both sides of the A t l a n t i c have shown interest i n two r e l a t i v e l y obscure seventeenth-century texts which the editor of Le Mercure  Galant. Donneau de Y±B6, ascribed to a w r i t e r known by the somewhat strange name of Du P l a i s i r . La Duchesse d 1Estramene was published for the f i r s t time i n May 1682 by Claude Blageart i n P a r i s , and the Sentimens sur l e s Lettres. et sur 1*Histoire, avec des scrupules sur l e S t i l e was also brought out i n Paris the following year by the same publisher. La Duchesse d1Estramene underwent three, and perhaps four, printings i n France during the seventeenth century. A Dutch ed i t i o n , published by A. Wolfgang, "suivant l a copie imprimde a Pa r i s 1 1 , was brought out i n Amsterdam i n 1684, according to the Catalogue of Printed Books of the B r i t i s h Museum. The E x t r a i t du P r i v i l e g e du Roy provides us with the d e t a i l s of the f i r s t and second printings of the work: Claude Blageart, who brought i t out f o r the f i r s t time i n Paris i n the spring of 1682, passed the P r i v i l e g e on to Thomas Amaulry, and he i n turn printed a second ed i t i o n , without notable variants, i n Lyons the same year. The catalogue of the Bibliotheque de 1'Arsenal l i s t s yet another Paris e d i t i o n , 1684. Two volumes from the personal l i b r a r y of the Marquise de Pompadour, housed today i n the Reserve holdings of the Bibliotheque Nationale represent possibly a fourth French p r i n t i n g of the work. The f i r s t volume of t h i s set, from the press of Gabriel Qui.net, Pa r i s , bears the publication date of 1683, while the second volume published by Claude Blageart, also i n Pa r i s , bears the date of 1682 on i t s f r o n t i s p i e c e . These two volumes may not comprise a separate e d i t i o n at a l l , as a f a i r l y common practice of publishers of the time was to reprint only the t i t l e page of the work i n order to create the impression that popular demand necessitated a r e - e d i t i o n . It. i s . of p a r t i c u l a r importance to note i n t h i s regard that the pagination of these two volumes i s i d e n t i c a l to that of the i n i t i a l Paris e d i t i o n . Although J.-F. de Bastide inserted an abridged form of La. Duchesse d' Estramene into h i s Contes^- i n the eighteenth century, neither of the two works ascribed to Du P l a i s i r has been republished i n i t s complete form since the seventeenth century. The publication d e t a i l s regarding the Sentimens... present somewhat less of a chronological enigma for the present-day scholar. Offered to the reading public just one year a f t e r h i s Duchesse d'Estramene. Du P l a i s i r ' s t h e o r e t i c a l treatise-cum-handbook on s o c i a l etiquette underwent three printings i n 1683: two i n Pa r i s , a t h i r d i n Lyons. The two t h e a t r i c a l a l l u s i o n s which Du P l a i s i r makes to "Ariane" and 2 to "Andromede" i n the Sentimens... allow us to date h i s work f a i r l y accurately, as P. Hourcade has attempted to show i n his recent e d i t i o n of the work. Donneau de Vise' records i n the May and June 1683 editions of Le Mercure G-alant that La, Duchesse d'Estramene was widely read from i t s i n i t i a l date of publication; the Sentimens.... on the contrary, did not meet with the same degree of success. Some three centuries l a t e r , i n h i s 4 analysis of the Sentimens.... Arpad Steiner brings to our attention an important factor which may serve i n part to explain the lack of c r i t i c a l acclaim met by t h i s work. He suggests that the Sentimens... could have f a l l e n i n t o o b l i v i o n simply because of the misleading t i t l e , as the author uses the term " h i s t o i r e " to mean " f i c t i o n " . The prospective reader, giving the t i t l e a cursory glance, might cast the t r e a t i s e aside merely due to a misinterpretation of Du P l a i s i r ' s intentions. Yet another factor serves to explain the r e l a t i v e l y n e g l i g i b l e c r i t i c a l attention accorded the Sentimens.... Du P l a i s i r i s not an o r i g i n a l thinker; from a purely technical point of view, the structure and content of h i s t r e a t i s e are neither superior nor i n f e r i o r to the numerous works on l i t e r a r y theory published p r i o r to and during the same h i s -t o r i c a l period i n France. In Du P l a i s i r ' s terse t h e o r e t i c a l o f f e r i n g we can see the influence of Madeleine de Scude"ry's Preface d'Ibrahim (1641), C l ^ l i e (1660) and Conversations sur  divers su.iets (1663), as w e l l as Jean Regnaud de Segrais' Nouvelles francoises (1657). In fact the most s t r i k i n g impression the present-day reader retains even a f t e r only scanning the Sentimens... i s that of Du P l a i s i r ' s a b i l i t y as an organizer, capable of making succinct syntheses, rather than that of an innovator i n the f i e l d of n o v e l i s t i c theory 4 or s o c i a l etiquette. The advice which Du P l a i s i r o f f e r s to the honnete homme (to whom he addresses himself) was expounded countless times i n l i t e r a r y tracts and i n l i v r e s de conversation' published p r i o r to the Sentimens.... As f o r biographical and h i s t o r i c a l d e t a i l s pertaining to Du P l a i s i r , we are no more enlightened today than were the l a t t e r ' s contemporaries. Just who, exactly, was t h i s s e l f -effacing, u n p r o l i f i c writer, who was apparently successful i n passing o f f h i s Duchesse d'Estramene as the product of a feminine hand? What s o c i a l c i r c l e s or l i t e r a r y c6teries did he frequent, i f indeed any at a l l ? These questions of a soc i o -biographical nature, of undoubted value and int e r e s t i n the study of the psychological origins of the creative work, could quite conceivably go unanswered i n d e f i n i t e l y . A l l that remains extant today as proof of Du P l a i s i r ' s existence, by choice a secretive one, are the two works associated with h i s name. I t i s of some sign i f i c a n c e to note that the usually well informed i f not always t o t a l l y r e l i a b l e l i t e r a r y c r i t i c , Lenglet-Dufresnoy, wondered, some f i f t y years a f t e r the i n i t i a l p u b lication of La Duchesse d'Estramene. whether the appellation Du P l a i s i r was indeed a r e a l or a supposed one. Referring to the two thin duodecimo volumes, he has the following remarks to make: On l i t dans l e s 'Oeuvres' de P a v i l i o n une l e t t r e de cet academicien a M. de Vis£ sur l e meme roman, que l'on a t t r i b u a i t a une femme. La prevention p a r a i s s a i t fondle a cause de l a v i v a c i t e des sentiments, de l a d^licatesse du style et de l ' i n t ^ r e t des situa t i o n s . ' I 5 The author's plea f o r anonymity, expressed i n a l e t t e r inserted at the beginning of La Duchesse d'Estramene. was respected by h i s editors; yet we are able to determine from two sources, 8 the R^gistre des p r i v i l e g e s and the L i v r e de l a Chambre q syndicale des l i b r a i r e s . that both works are i n f a c t a t t r i -buted to Du P l a i s i r . P. Hourcade, i n h i s recent a r t i c l e on Du P l a i s i r and the problems of the novel, summarizes b r i e f l y the £tat present of Du P l a i s i r research, while o u t l i n i n g s u c c i n c t l y the work which l i e s ahead f o r the c r i t i c , with regard to La Duchesse d'Estramene i n p a r t i c u l a r . "Qu'est-ce que du P l a i s i r ? " , asks Hourcade "Un nom, et r i e n que ce l a . Derriere ce vocable un peu comique, un peu Strange, Stranger peut-etre, 1'auteur s'est esquive" un doigt sur l e s levres. I I nous reste l'oeuvre fermee, secrete en apparence. . . . T h e present study w i l l be devoted to the analysis of t h i s "oeuvre fermee", and, more s p e c i f i c a l l y , to the r e l a t i o n s h i p of the two works composing i t . The paucity of h i s t o r i c a l f a c t s concerning these two creations and the author with whom they are a s s o c i -ated makes a s t r u c t u r a l approach not only desirable but necessary. La Duchesse d'Estramene i s to be considered as an example of the short prose form,. while the Sentimens... w i l l be viewed as a t h e o r e t i c a l commentary on t h i s s p e c i f i c work and on a p a r t i c u l a r h i s t o r i c a l period i n the development of f i c t i o n a l prose i n the seventeenth century i n France. One may well ask why attention should be devoted to the 6 analysis of these two r e l a t i v e l y unknown works attributed to Du P l a i s i r . The novel, either the grand roman or the p e t i t  roman. depending on the current l i t e r a r y vogue, was considered i n the seventeenth century to be an i n f e r i o r genre, and was more often than not the product of d i l e t t a n t e s whose use of pseudonyms bore witness to what was considered to be a f r i v o l o u s endeavour. In spite of the low regard f o r the f i c t i o n a l prose form during the seventeenth century, however, t r e a t i s e s on the art of writing novels and what l a t e r came to be known as nouvelles or p e t i t s romans abound. In f a c t , as D.F. Dallas has noted, " l e chercheur est frapp£ de l a quantity enorme de ces volumes dont bon nombre sont restds peu connus ou n'ont 6t6 que vaguement t r a i t e V ' . ^ " Many, and indeed most, of these novels and t h e o r e t i c a l works are, as one might expect, of i n f e r i o r quality; consequently they have almost a l l f a l l e n i n t o o b l i v i o n . Such was the fate of Du P l a i s i r ' s work up to recent times. Yet the Sentimens... merit more than a cursory glance as a h i s t o r i c a l document, fo r the very reason that i t comprises a laudably concise account of the s t r u c t u r a l and thematic evolution of the f i c t i o n a l prose form i n France up u n t i l the year 1683. The second.section i n p a r t i c u l a r of t h i s t h e o r e t i c a l work i s valuable as a key which allows us to explore the creative v i s i o n of the a r t i s t who produced La Duchesse d'Estramene. Du P l a i s i r ' s two works complement each other r i c h l y . By viewing La Duchesse d'Estramene through the c r i t i c a l optic of i t s author, we are able to come to terms 7 with Du P l a i s i r * s formal d e f i n i t i o n of the p e t i t roman. nouveau roman or nouvelle as he conceived i t . In order to put i n perspective Du P l a i s i r ' s creative and t h e o r e t i c a l contributions to the f i c t i o n a l prose form i n Prance, one must consider the evolution of l i t e r a r y forms and the ever-changing taste of. what was a select reading public. One must also consider the metamorphosis being effected i n s o c i a l structures i n Prance up u n t i l the year 1683, date of the publication of the Sentimens.•. . The bond un i t i n g l i t e r a r y and s o c i a l structures was an esp e c i a l l y s t r i k i n g one i n seventeenth-century France. The d i v i s i o n of l i t e r a t u r e into genres, each with i t s own set of rules, may be envisaged as a p a r a l l e l to the s o c i a l hierarchy of the age. The contrast i n the moral climate which character-izes the years preceding and following 1660 i s likewise strongly r e f l e c t e d i n changing formal and thematic l i t e r a r y 12 works. As Paul Benichou, and more recently Jean-Claude 13 Tournand have shown, the moral climate i n France a f t e r 1660 d i f f e r e d immensely from that of the heroic and optimistic golden era at the beginning of the seventeenth century, when the p o l i t i c a l power of the aristocracy was at i t s zenith. A f t e r the period of c i v i l s t r i f e i n France during the 1640's, the opulent palace of V e r s a i l l e s replaced Paris and the Louvre as the centre of s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i t y . With the removal of the governing body from Paris to V e r s a i l l e s , 8 the separation between " l a cour" and " l a v i l l e " , so admirably-sketched by La Bruyere, was complete. Within the s t r i c t l y -defined borders of the e l i t i s t society thereby created, the resourceful courtier was quick to assume h i s r o l e i n what Peter Brooks has cal l e d a "world of voyeurs".^ The honnete  homme. l u c i d and d i s i l l u s i o n e d , had more need of perfecting his i n t e l l e c t u a l prowess than of continuing to observe the etiquette of his predecessors p r i o r to the Fronde; as J.-C. Tournand states, i n r e f e r r i n g to the co u r t i e r of Louis XIV, "l'escrime q u ' i l pratique, plus d i f f i c i l e que c e l l e du f e r , est c e l l e du mot, du regard, des manieres, ou l e moindre 15 d e t a i l manque" peut detruire l e f r u i t d'un long t r a v a i l " . Care should be taken, however, not to over-emphasize t h i s phenomenon of role-playing within the boundaries of a well-defined s o c i a l enclave; i t i s not p a r t i c u l a r to the courtly milieu which serves as h i s t o r i c a l decor f o r La  Duchesse d'Estramene. As Sylvere Lotringer has implied, echoing to a cer t a i n extent s i m i l a r statements made by Bernard Pingaud i n his study of Madame de La Fayette, the d e f i n i t i o n of society and the ro l e which the i n d i v i d u a l plays within that society i s e s s e n t i a l l y an archetypal one. Referring to the accepted s o c i a l norm and i n d i v i d u a l d e v i -ations from i t , she writes; Rien ne passe inapercu car tout doi t etre \ l i v r e a 1'attention publique, o f f e r t a sa pa r t i c i p a t i o n . Peu importe, au niveau de l a structure, l a v a r i a t i o n e x p l i c i t e des 9 i n s t i t u t i o n s envisage'es: l a cour du r o i Marc ou d 1Arthur est a c e l l e d'Henri II ou de Francois II ce que l e s assemblages p r i m i t i f s (Levi-Strauss) sont aux cdteries hautement e'labore'es de l a Recherche. Une meme l o i s*y affirme, c e l l e de l'Echange. Rien ne peut se s i t u e r en dehors du cercle s o c i a l , t i r e r de soi-meme sa propre valeur; tout doit au contraire c i r c u l e r de inaniere a imprimer sur chaque a r t i c u l a t i o n p a r t i c u -l i e r e l e sceau du groupe. La norme repose sur un acte d'allegeance, qui est avant tout acte de presence, fj . 7} Le p a r f a i t courtisan, que ce s o i t aupres du r o i Arthur ou des Verdurin, n'est pas juge en fonction de c r i t e r e s personnels: i l est au contraire c e l u i qui adopte sans reserve l e code en vigueur; un etre 'borne' dont 1'horizon ne depasse pas l a norme. Son i n d i v i d u a l i t e t i e n t seulement a l a maniere dont i l absorbe c e l l e - c i . 1 ? As the subject of t h i s study i s to be the analysis of a nouvelle or p e t i t roman supposedly presented from a feminine point of view, a topic of p a r t i c u l a r importance to t h i s study merits elucidation at t h i s point: the status of women and the r o l e they played i n the highly structured court m i l i e u of mid-seventeenth-century France. The t i t l e s of numerous tr e a t i s e s published between 1660 and 1680 on the theme of the honnete femme. explored by Du P l a i s i r i n La Duchesse d'Estramene and by Mme de La Fayette i n La Princesse de Cleves, attest to i t s popularity as material f o r f i c t i o n a l works. Charles Sorel's Discours pour et contre l ' a m i t i ^ tendre hors du mariage. of 1663, the Abbe" d'Aubignac's Conseils d'Ariste k C^limene sur l e s moyens de conserver sa  reputation, of 1666, and the anonymous f i c t i o n a l work, Amelonde. h i s t o i r e de nostre temps ou l'on v o i t qu'une honnete femme est heureuse guand e l l e s u i t un con s e i l sage  et vertueux. of 1669, provide enlightening documentation on the place of women i n society during t h i s h i s t o r i c a l period. Beginning approximately i n the 1660's, marriage was no longer regarded as the t r a d i t i o n a l stock ending i n novels and short prose works. Up u n t i l the middle of the seventeenth century, heroic novels such as L'Astree, La C l d l i e and Le Grand Cyrus a l l end with the depiction of nuptial harmony, the supreme recompense accorded the hero a f t e r he has succeeded i n sur-mounting seemingly interminable psychological and physical obstacles. Authors of the t r a d i t i o n a l roman d'aventures and the pastoral romance as well seek i n the denouement of t h e i r action a sim i l a r state of harmony. The si g n a l given by Furetiere i n 1666, at the end of the f i r s t book of h i s Roman  bourgeois, suggests that the woman already unhappily fettered by the bonds of an often p o l i t i c a l l y and f i n a n c i a l l y motivated marriage, and not her unmarried s i s t e r , was to become one of the major subjects of novels and pet i t s romans i n years following: " S ' i l s v^curent bien ou mal ensemble, vous l e pourrez v o i r quelque jour s i l a mode vient d 1 e c r i r e l a v i e des femmes marines". By the 1670's, fashionable novels no longer r e l a t e the tale of the proud and be a u t i f u l woman who recompenses her lover with marriage only a f t e r he has experi-enced a long series of t r i a l s and adventures; rather, we have the story of the woman unhappy i n marriage, who seeks solace outside the connubial bonds. 11 Du P l a i s i r ' s l i t e r a r y legacy i s a r i c h world which lends i t s e l f to mul t i - l e v e l l e d i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . His theore-t i c a l contribution serves, as we have noted, the two-fold purpose of an after-the-fact commentary on h i s work and a d e f i n i t i o n of the i d e a l p e t i t roman as he himself envisaged i t . For the very reason that h i s entire production (or rather, that attributed to him) consists s o l e l y of these two short works, the fact that the one analyzes the s a l i e n t features of the other w i l l be strongly accentuated. Although I s h a l l devote more attention to the s t r u c t u r a l analysis of La Duchesse d'Estramene than to the Sentimens..., I s h a l l endeavour to consider the Sentimens.•. as a highly s i g n i f i c a n t reference work. —- The following study i s divided into two major sections, with a Conclusion. In the f i r s t chapter of Section I, I s h a l l be considering Du P l a i s i r ' s Sentimens... i n the per-spective of the r i s e of the p e t i t roman i n seventeenth-century France. In the second chapter of t h i s f i r s t section, I s h a l l be discussing i n d e t a i l Du P l a i s i r ' s t h e o r e t i c a l remarks regarding t h i s short f i c t i o n a l prose form as presented i n Part II of the Sentimens.... The second section of t h i s study w i l l be devoted to a s t r u c t u r a l analysis of La Duchesse d'Estramene. This analysis w i l l be divided into three major chapters. The f i r s t chapter w i l l deal with the background to the study of La Duchesse d'Estramene, the second with narrative technique and the t h i r d with characterization. In the 12 Conclusion, I s h a l l attempt to examine the bond which unites theory and practice i n the work of Du P l a i s i r , by r e l a t i n g h i s t h e o r e t i c a l remarks made i n the Sentimens sur 1'Histoire to l a Duchesse d'Estramene. 13 INTRODUCTION: FOOTNOTES 1 ( P a r i s , 1763). 2 ( P a r i s : B l a g e a r t , 1683), p. 181. -^Sentiments sur l e s l e t t r e s et sur 1 ' h i s t o i r e avec des  scrupules sur l e s t y l e . E d i t i o n c r i t i q u e avec notes et  commentaire (D i s s . P a r i s , 1970). 4"A French P o e t i c s of the Novel i n 1683," Romanic  Review. XXX (1939), pp. 235-43. 5 I b i d . . p. 236. ^The f o l l o w i n g "conversation" books, a l l by Rene" Bary, were widely read: L ' E s p r i t de cour ou l e s conversations  galantes ( P a r i s , 1662). La Fine P h i l o s o p h i e accommod^e a 1' i n t e l l i g e n c e des dames "(Paris, 1660). Jour n a l de conver-s a t i o n ( P a r i s . l673Ti Nouveau Jo u r n a l de conversation ( P a r i s , 1675). 7 De 1'Usage des romans (Amsterdam, 1734), v o l . I I , p. 3. %.A.F. 21. 946 (BN) 9M.N.F. 2. 490 (BN) ^"Du P l a i s i r et l e s problemes du roman: Esquisse de 1 *experience l i t t e " r a i r e d'un £crivain vers 1683," XVII  S i e c l e . 96 (1972), p. 56. i : LLe Roman f r a n c a i s de 1660 a 1680 ( P a r i s , 1932), p. 7. 12 Morales du grand s i e c l e ( P a r i s , 1948). ^ I n t r o d u c t i o n a l a v i e l i t t e r a i r e du X V I I e s i e c l e ( P a r i s , 1970). ~ 1 4 T h e Novel of Worldliness (New Jersey, 1969), p. 72. 15 ^ I n t r o d u c t i o n a l a v i e l i t t e r a i r e . . . . p. 143. 14 16Madame de La Favette par elle-meme (Paris, 1965). "^S. Lotringer, "Le Homan impossible," Po^tique: Revue de Theorie et d'Analyse l i t t e r a i r e s . I (3), 1970, p. 298. 1 8 De l a Connoissance des bons l i v r e s , p. 168. Cited by D.F. Dallas, Le Roman francais. •... p. 169. SECTION I THE SENTIMENS SUR L'HISTOIRE: AN AUTHOR'S ANALYSIS OF THE CREATIVE PROCESS 16 CHAPTER I BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY OF THE SENTIMENS SUR L'HISTOIRE Before considering i n d e t a i l the form and content of the Sentimens sur 1'Histoire, l e t us review b r i e f l y the r i s e of what has been referred to as the p e t i t roman (as opposed to the grands romans) i n seventeenth-century France. With regard to the status of the novel as a l i t e r a r y form from 1660 on, Georges May's remarks on the r e l a t i o n s h i p of the novel and h i s t o r y are i l l u m i n a t i n g . ^ Alluding to an observation made by the eighteenth-century writer, Duclos, who contended that because the reading public found h i s t o r i c a l accounts too simple i n nature, writers desirous of s a t i s f y i n g t h e i r reading public consequently f e l t obliged to "a l t d r e r l ' h i s t o i r e " , May remarks that soon the inevitable happened and writers of novels became carried away; as Duclos states, "les romans 2 devinrent s i extravagants q u ' i l s tomberent dans l e m^pris." As a reaction to t h i s , the reading public of the time "exigea plus de vraisemblable; et bientot, pour p l a i r e , i l f a l l u t que l e roman p r i t l e ton de l ' h i s t o i r e et cherchat a l u i ressembler. Ce fut une espece d'hommage que l e mensonge rendit a l a v6r±t6, et l ' h i s t o i r e rentra presque dans ses d r o i t s sous un nom sup-poseV' y May remarks consequently that a f t e r the publication of L'Astre'e. and more s p e c i f i c a l l y a f t e r 1660, writers of novels demonstrated a marked p r e d i l e c t i o n f o r v e r i s i m i l i t u d e . This concern for semblance of a c t u a l i t y was evident i n the medium of the theatre as well: "De l a meme maniere, apres 17 environ 1640, l a tragedie se pretendit de plus en plus conforme aux donndes des h i s t o i r e s et se publia a l ' a b r i de l*£pais bouclier d'une preface volontiers pedante et c i t a n t ses references comme une these de doctorat."^ Because writers of novels wished to elevate the status of t h e i r creations from what was considered at the time to be a "genre r o t u r i e r " , they sought to attach t h e i r creative works to h i s t o r i c a l writing, which, unlike the novel form which lacked models from Greco-Roman antiquity, had the dual advantage of guaranteeing v e r i s i m i l i t u d e and having produced i l l u s t r i o u s works. Two of the most p r o l i f i c writers of what G. May refers to as "ce genre hybride qui est a l a f o i s roman historique et h i s t o i r e romanceV^ were the Abbe de Saint - R e a l and C o u r t i l z de Sandras, both of whom had innum-erable imitators. The d e f i n i t i o n of "history" furnished by the Abbe de Saint - R e a l i n 1671 indicates that the natural f r o n t i e r s which separate h i s t o r y and the novel were p r a c t i c a l l y non-existent at t h i s time i n France. History, according to Sa i n t - R e a l , i s "une anatomie s p i r i t u e l l e des actions humaines": Savoir l 1 H i s t o i r e , c'est connoitre l e s hommes, qui en fournissent l a matiere, c'est juger de ces hommes sainement; etudier 1'histoire, c'est etudier l e s motifs, l e s opinions et l e s passions des hommes, pour en connoitre tous l e s ressorts, l e s tours et l e s detours, enfin toutes l e s i l l u s i o n s qu'elles savent f a i r e aux e s p r i t s , et l e s sur-prises qu'elles font aux coeurs.' One might wonder exactly what occasioned the p r o l i f i c 18 production of h i s t o r i c a l novels from mid-century onward i n France. An explanation of t h i s phenomenon i s provided i n May's concluding remarks on the r e l a t i o n s h i p between h i s t o r y and the novel; as the works of h i s t o r i a n s of the time bore s t r i k i n g resemblance to novels, the reader was consequently i n c l i n e d to treat them as such and to doubt h i s t o r y . I t i s conceivable that t h i s attitude, therefore, guaranteed the prosperity of the novel, and, more p a r t i c u l a r l y , the h i s t o r i c a l novel.^ Moving from a consideration of subject matter and content to form, one might ask i f the r i s e of the nouvelle or p e t i t roman was considered by seventeenth-century readers to be as astonishing a phenomenon as c e r t a i n l i t e r a r y c r i t i c s had claimed. Ren£ Godenhe deals with t h i s question i n an i n f o r -Q mative a r t i c l e and book. The problem inv o l v i n g the actual novelty of the short f i c t i o n a l work which replaced the volu-minous productions of such writers as Honors d ' U r f e and Mademoiselle de Scudery arises mainly from a confusion of technical terms and a lack of consistency i n l i t e r a r y d e f i n i -tions i n the seventeenth century. As R. Godenne emphasizes, many c r i t i c s f a i l to recognize that one must not a t t r i b u t e to the term nouvelle the modern d e f i n i t i o n of the short novel as we know i t from the nineteenth century, that i s "un re"cit qui exige l a concision dans 1'exposition et l a concentration dans l e sujet, un r e c i t qui se developpe selon un point de vue totalement d i f f e r e n t de c e l u i du roman". As Godenne has 19 demonstrated, and as the undiscriminating use of the terms h i s t o i r e galante, roman nouveau. and nouvelle by Du P l a i s i r shows, the short novel form at i t s apogee i n the 1670*s and 80's i n France cannot be conceived of as a separate narrative genre with rules that apply to i t a l o n e . 1 1 A gap of consider-able proportions separates theory and practice; although La Duchesse d'Estramene serves to i l l u s t r a t e Du P l a i s i r ' s theory of the nouvelle. novelists contemporary to him did not follow his precepts rigorously. The formal and thematic elements c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the heroic novel are s t i l l very much i n evidence i n the shorter novel of the 1670's and 1680's. The change noticeable i n the novel form might i n fac t be termed an i n t e r n a l i z a t i o n and a condensation of structures, f o r writers are l e s s interested i n depicting physical, heroic actions than the feelings and the inner workings of the characters' mind. It must not be forgotten that although the focus of attention i s moved from physical to psychological, action, the vestiges of the heroic novel are nonetheless s t i l l present to some extent i n t h i s new form of the novel. Even i n La Duchesse d'Estramene. which i s d i s t i n c t i v e f o r i t s extreme s i m p l i c i t y of structure, the Due d'Olsingam bears a strong resemblance to his knightly counterpart i n the heroic novel and the scene i n which the Due d'Estramene and the l a t t e r meet i n Savoy i s reminiscent of similar fortuitous events i n the grands romans. What i s important i s not that the short novel i s a completely new genre which has emerged, but, rather, 20 that i t i s a condensed, refined version of i t s many-volumed heroic counterpart. Du P l a i s i r defines concisely the s t r u c t u r a l evolution of the novel form i n remarking that, at the time he i s writing, "on ne cherche point £./] des incidens sur l e s Mers, ou dans l a Cour d'un Tyran. L'action 12 l a plus legere peut former une action admirable." One might ask, then, just what exactly are the charac-t e r i s t i c s which serve to d i s t i n g u i s h the new novel from i t s counterpart which flourished i n the f i r s t h a l f of the century. In the second part of his Sentimens.... Du P l a i s i r answers thi s question i n d e t a i l , noting p a r t i c u l a r l y the s t r u c t u r a l differences i n the two novel forms; however, the modifications brought about i n the structure of the novel of the 1670's and 1680's are not, as we s h a l l see i n perspective, as great as the author of the Sentimens... claimed them to be. In f a c t , as early as the eighteenth century, l i t e r a r y theoreticians r e a l i z e d that t h i s evolution was not as r a d i c a l as i t had appeared to be i n the preceding century. What took place, according to Rene" Godenne, was r e a l l y "une simple s u b s t i t u t i o n de formes: 1'histoire du genre, pendant ce s i e c l e , c'est 13 1'histoire du roman qui ne pretend pas dire son nom". This c r i t i c points to the revealing observations made i n 1716 by the author of L'Histoire du Marquis de Clemes et du Chevalier de Pervans i n h i s preface: Cela n'osta point aux Autheurs de f a i r e des romans, mais i l s tacherent de l e s deguiser. I l s ne se contenterent d'abord de changer de t i t r e s . On ne v i t plus a l a teste de leur l i v r e s , que Nouvelles 21 du temps, Avantures galantes, H i s t o i r e s v e r i t a b l e s . Le Public n'en fut point dupe, i l reconnut l e s romans sous de nouveaux noms.14 Whether the public was indeed not fooled by the supposedly innovative character of the new novels i s debatable. Du P l a i s i r d e f i n i t e l y envisaged a completely new novel form emerging i n his time, as did most of his contemporaries. Jean Regnaud de Segrais, i n his Nouvelles francoises (1657) sees as well a d i s t i n c t dichotomy: the long and the short novel are diametrically opposed, both from the point of view of form and of content. With the perspective of the eighteenth century, however, readers and writers a l i k e could better judge i n retrospect the actual extent of innovation i n t h i s genre. Du P l a i s i r envisages the nouvelle as an anti-novel, as i s evident i n h i s constant use of parallelism and contrast i n comparing the productions of the f i r s t h a l f of the century with those written by him and by his contemporaries, but, i t must be noted, t h i s does not prevent h i s analyzing the shorter novel form using the c r i t e r i a of the long novel fashionable i n the e a r l i e r part of the century. In more precise terms, the nouvelle. or anti-novel as defined by Du P l a i s i r draws i t s d i s t i n c t i d e n t i t y from i t s opposition to the grand roman. The advantage of temporal perspective allows the twentieth-century reader to take stock of the evolution of the novel form i n the seventeenth century, and to agree with Godenne that the novel written by Du P l a i s i r ' s 22 contemporaries reserves for i t s e l f the p r i n c i p a l function of being a condensed forn of the grand roman, as bear witness 15 the terms nouvelle and p e t i t roman. The remarks of Charles Sorel reveal the w i l l on the part of writers to abridge and to simplify the complicated structure of the grand roman: x "Les nouvelles qui sont un peu longues et qui rapportent des aventures de plusieurs personnes ensemble sont prises pour de p e t i t s romans."1^ Several recent twentieth-century l i t e r a r y c r i t i c s , notably F. D e l o f f r e , 1 7 A.K. V a r g a 1 8 and R. Godenne, 1 9 have made an e f f o r t to furnish precise d e f i n i t i o n s for c e r t a i n l i t e r a r y terms of the period designated generally as " c l a s s i c a l " i n France, and p a r t i c u l a r l y those terms used by Du P l a i s i r i n h i s Sentimens..•. Deloffre maintains that the term h i s t o i r e as used by Du P l a i s i r refers to an intermediate 20 genre. sandwiched between the nouvelle and the roman. Research by Varga and Godenne causes one to question the v a l i d i t y of Deloffre's statement; even the f a c t that Du P l a i s i r uses i n turn the three terms, h i s t o i r e galante. roman nouveau. and nouvelle i n referring to the same type of 'Story, bestows upon them a c e r t a i n equality and i n t e r -changeability. Varga states that i n Du P l a i s i r ' s t r e a t i s e , the terms nouvelle and h i s t o i r e seem to blend; he observes that, i n general, at the time, " l a variete" de l a terminologie t^moigne [~...7 avant tout d'un malaise et de l a volonte 21 encore assez d i f f u s e de crder des formes d'art neuves". 23 In summary, then, we may agree that the ambiguity i n the d e f i n i t i o n and i n the use of l i t e r a r y terms by writers of the seventeenth century i l l u s t r a t e s the f a c t that these d e f i n i t i o n s are, f o r the most part, personal, and must be interpreted with regard to each i n d i v i d u a l author's production. In any event, as Varga has demonstrated, the possible meanings of the term nouvelle f o r d i f f e r e n t authors of the seventeenth century serve to i l l u s t r a t e a c e r t a i n uneasiness f e l t by the writers of the time and a wish to create new a r t forms; i n other words, a desire to break free from the bondage of the many-volumed romans. M. Varga continues to elaborate on t h i s problem of d e f i n i t i o n i n s t a t i n g that at the time nouvelles were beginning to be published, they were considered an art form which expressed a reaction against the lack of v e r i s i m i l i t u d e i n the heroic novel of the preceding 22 generation. In the eyes of the contemporaries of Du P l a i s i r , of Segrais and of Madame de La Payette, the nouvelle represented, then, a reaction against the roman h l a Scude'ry. One need only think of the complaints registered by Lenglet-Dufresnoy, 2^ by S o r e l 2 ^ and by the Abb£ Jaquin, 2^ among others, to r e a l i z e that the roman avidly read by the contem-poraries of Mademoiselle de Scud^ry and by the habitues of the chambre bleue enamoured of Honore" d'Urf£ had indeed f a l l e n into disfavour with the reading public by mid-century. As Varga points out, the term nouvelle may have numerous subtle nuances i n meaning. Considered on the basis of form, 24 the nouvelle may be of three kinds: " i n t e r c a l e V as a d i g r e s s i o n i n a longer work; "encadree" as a part of a s e r i e s of t a l e s , as seen f o r example i n Segrais' Nouvelles f r a n c o i s e s ...; "independante" as one complete e n t i t y i n i t s e l f , a ccording to the d e f i n i t i o n of S o r e l ("Depuis quelques annees o n a compost p l u s i e u r s p e t i t e s H i s t o i r e s detachees qu'on a 27 appeldes des Nouvelles ou des H i s t o i r e s " ) . Varga envisages yet another d i s t i n c t i o n , based on tone: the "nouvelle" may be s e r i o u s , a f t e r the f a s h i o n of Du P l a i s i r , or comic, a f t e r the f a s h i o n of Donneau de V i s e . Commenting f u r t h e r on the s e r i o u s form, or the "nouvelle grave", the same c r i t i c makes three more s u b d i v i s i o n s , these being " h i s t o r i q u e " ( f o r example, S a i n t - R e a l ' s Pom C a r l o s ) , "tragique" ( f o r example, Madame de La Payette's Comtesse de Tende) or "galante" ( f o r 28 example, L 1 I l l u s t r e G-enoise). The Sentimens sur l e s L e t t r e s . et sur l ' H i s t o i r e . avec  des Scrupules sur l e S t i l e , i s d i v i d e d i n t o three major s e c t i o n s . The f i r s t , i n which Du P l a i s i r deals w i t h e p i s t o -l a r y theory, and the second, i n which he presents a d e t a i l e d a n a l y s i s of the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the n o u v e l l e , thereby o u t l i n i n g c o n c i s e l y the e v o l u t i o n of the French novel up u n t i l 1683, are almost equal i n l e n g t h . S e c t i o n three, i n which he deals w i t h problems of s t y l e , i s s l i g h t l y longer and somewhat more d i f f u s e than the two preceding s e c t i o n s of the t r e a t i s e . Before d e a l i n g w i t h the second part of the Sentimens.... the one germaine to our purpose, l e t us consider 25 i n a summary fashion the f i r s t and the t h i r d sections. The f i r s t part of the monograph, e n t i t l e d Sentimens sur le s Lettres. i s of interest to twentieth-century readers as a s o c i a l document, rather than f o r the theory expounded therein. Du P l a i s i r i s dealing i n t h i s f i r s t section with the art of writing l e t t e r s : dedicatory prefaces i n books, billets-doux, e p i s t l e s to the king and to cou r t i e r s . It i s in t e r e s t i n g to note that, although we know almost nothing of Du P l a i s i r * s private l i f e , we are given some i n d i c a t i o n of the status of the s o c i a l group f o r which he wrote, to which he probably belonged, and which conceivably conditioned the content of his work. In the opening pages of t h i s f i r s t chapter, Du P l a i s i r states: "je me borne a ce qui peut £..]] estre connu d'une Dame, ou d'un Cavalier". (4) Du P l a i s i r i s writing, then, f o r the s o c i a l e l i t e of the Pa r i s i a n salons and of the court. He i s addressing the same socio-economic segment of society as did his predecessor, Madeleine de ScudeVy, who, i n her prefatory remarks to Ibrahim, published i n 1641, demands that the st y l e of the narrative not be i n f l a t e d , and that the characters, s t r i v i n g to a t t a i n i n t h e i r expression "une juste mediocrite", should speak 29 "comme l e s honnestes gens". • The French are a soci a l l y - o r i e n t e d people, and t h i s i s a factor which i s conducive to l e t t e r writing, remarks Du P l a i s i r , who observes that the language of his countrymen "se trouve l e plus dans une mediocrite" raisonnable". (4-5) 26 In the t r a d i t i o n of Montaigne and Boileau, the author of the Sentimens... opts for a s t y l e that i s simple, without excess, and that i s natural, s p e c i f i c a l l y patterned a f t e r that of the Ancients. (5) Besides developing a natural s t y l e , the l e t t e r - w r i t e r should s t r i v e constantly to be concise and to maintain c l a r i t y ; he must also allow himself ample time to recast his l e t t e r s , Du P l a i s i r warns. (7-8) He advises the po t e n t i a l writer of l e t t e r s not to go about h i s task i n a hurried fashion, thus reminding the reader of the c l a s s i c a l 30 dictum f e s t i n a lente also touched upon by Boileau. In the t h i r d part of h i s t r e a t i s e , which raises questions of a s t y l i s t i c nature, Du P l a i s i r states that he w i l l concern himself with speaking and with writing well. (184-185) 31 Again, he echoes Boileau, and also La Bruyere, i n proclaiming that the art of writing i s not an easy one, but that, none-theless, there i s no excuse f o r writers who do not take the trouble to f i n d the correct expression f o r t h e i r thought. (186-187) "Rien ne tombe dans l 1imagination, qui ne puisse estre exprime" rdgulierement," announces c a t e g o r i c a l l y Du P l a i s i r . (190) The question of usage, touched upon b r i e f l y i n Part I of the Sentimens.... (24) i s again dealt with i n t h i s l a s t part of the t r e a t i s e ; once more, the reader i s reminded of s i m i l a r thoughts expressed by the author of the 32 Art P o e t i q u e . when Du P l a i s i r condemns i n the prospective writer the use of technical language known only to a p a r t i -cular group of people i n i t i a t e d to a p a r t i c u l a r a r t . Not 27 everyone understands the terms p e c u l i a r to a given a r t , claims Du P l a i s i r : " j e croy que l ' H i s t o r i e n ne peut l e s employer qu'autant q u ' i l s sont en usage parmy l e s honnestes Gens". (195-196) The r e s t r i c t e d range of Du P l a i s i r ' s v i s i o n , apparent i n the opening pages of h i s t r e a t i s e , i s rede f i n e d i n t h i s statement: w r i t i n g f o r an e l i t e of which he i s perhaps a p a r t , h i s conception of the universe does not go beyond the s o c i a l confines of t h i s s e l e c t m i l i e u . Quite simply, the world beyond Du P l a i s i r ' s own s o c i a l enclave does not e x i s t . As the stu d i e s of Roland Barthes, Jean-Paul 33 S a r t r e , E r i c h Auerbach, and Peter B r o o k s - ^ have demonstrated, t h i s l i m i t e d s o c i a l v i s i o n was common to most w r i t e r s i n the second h a l f of seventeenth-century France, f o r they indeed were part of an e l i t e , as the content of t h e i r work proves. People outside t h e i r sphere, f o r example those of the lower s o c i a l orders, were presented merely as objects of c u r i o s i t y ; 34 one t h i n k s , f o r example, of La Bruyere's Les Caracteres. The r o l e of the w r i t e r , considered i n d e t a i l i n the second part of the Sentimens..., which w i l l be analyzed l a t e r , i s redefined i n t h i s l a s t part of the t r e a t i s e ; the author must be i m p a r t i a l , h i s task being to "raconter l e s choses nuement", i n such a manner that he does not i n f l u e n c e the reader. (225) In a d d i t i o n to r e c o n s i d e r i n g the r o l e of the author i n the concluding s e c t i o n of h i s Sentimens.... Du P l a i s i r e s t a b l i s h e s a d i s t i n c t i o n between the spoken and the w r i t t e n word. While the speaker cannot p e r f e c t or c o r r e c t 28 his s t y l e while he i s i n the process of speaking, the writer has unlimited time to improve his composition, i n such a manner that i f his usage i s f a u l t y , those who read what he has written have only to conclude that he i s incapable of writing anything more elegant: " l ' H i s t o r i e n ne peut e c r i r e avec trop d'exactitude, parce q u ' i l ne pourrait trouver d'excuse a ses fautes", concludes Du P l a i s i r , i n urging once again that the writer adopt a simple, natural vocabulary. (225) In spite of his apparent indebtedness to Boileau i n the two sections of the Sentimens... which have been b r i e f l y discussed above, the innovative thought with which Du P l a i s i r concludes h i s t r e a t i s e i s worthy of note. He gives h i s nod of approval to group-writing ventures, commenting that i f several writers were to undertake to produce a work together i n what has become today's "workshop" environment, uniformity o f - s t y l e would r e s u l t , i n the sense that there would not be • an i n d i v i d u a l s t y l e for each of the writers p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the experiment. (299) This thought i s undoubtedly novel i n 1683, but i t also brings to our attention a possible explanation of Du P l a i s i r ' s lack of acclaim as a creative writer. He takes one step further into anonymity as a writer by expressing his approval of group-produced work devoid of those s t y l i s t i c p e c u l i a r i t i e s which would betray the personal touch of each writer concerned i n such a venture. The three parts of the Sentimens... form a cohesive 29 whole; the themes of concision, naturalness of expression, s i m p l i c i t y of structure and perfection of the f i n i s h e d product lend a strong sense of unity to Du P l a i s i r * s remarks on the epistolary a r t , on the theory of the nouvelle and on s t y l e . For t h i s reason, then, the second part of the t r e a t i s e , that which proves of a p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t f o r the reader of La  Duchesse d'Estramene. should he considered as an i n t e g r a l part of the t r e a t i s e as a whole, rather than as a separate e n t i t y . Although each of the three sections of the Sentimens could conceivably be read separately, they are mutually enriching when considered as i n t e g r a l parts of a whole work. 30 CHAPTER I : FOOTNOTES " I * H i s t o i r e a - t - e l l e engendr£ l e roman? Aspects francais de l a question au s e u i l du s i e c l e des lumieres," Revue d'Histoire l i t t e r a i r e de l a France. LV ( a v r i l - j u i n 19551, pp. 155-76. 2 "Lettre a 1'auteur de Madame de Luz." i n Oeuvres  completes (Paris, 1820-21), v o l . I I , pp. 317-19. Cited by G-. May, "L'Histoire a - t - e l l e engendre l e roman?...," p. 157. ^l o c . c i t . ^"L'Histoire a - t - e l l e engendre* l e roman?...," p. 157. -\Loc. c i t . ^"L'Histoire a - t - e l l e engendre l e roman?...," p. 161. 7 C i t e d by a. May, "L'Histoire a - t - e l l e engendre l e roman?...," p. 167, who c i t e s G. Dulong, L'Abbe de Saint-Rj£al. Etude sur l e s rapports de l 'histoire et du roman au  XVIIe s i e c l e TParis, 1921), v o l . I, p. 105. "L'Histoire a - t - e l l e engendre l e roman?...," pp. 167-68. q J"L'Association 'nouvelle-petit-roman' entre 1650 et 1750," Cahiers de 1'Association Internationale des Etudes Francaises. XVIII Tmars 1966), pp. 67-78. H i s t o i r e de l a nouvelle francaise aux XVIIe et XVIIIe s i e c l e s (Geneva. 1970). ^ " L 1 A s s o c i a t i o n 'nouvelle-petit-roman'...," pp. 69-70. 1 1 I b i d . . p. 76. 12 Sentimens sur l e s l e t t r e s . et sur 1' h i s t o i r e . avec  des scrupules sur l e s t i l e (Paris. 1683), p. 104. I am respecting f u l l y the text of thi s e d i t i o n . References to the text w i l l be noted i n the body of the d i s s e r t a t i o n . 1 3 •"'L'Association 'nouvelle-petit-roman'...," p. 75. 1 4 C i t e d by R. Godenne, Ibid.. p. 75. 15 ^Histoire de l a nouvelle francaise.... p. 120. 31 1 6 L a B i b l i o t h e q u e francoise...'. pp. 158-62. C i t e d by R. Godenne, I b i d . , p. 74. 1 7 L a Nouvelle en France a l'age c l a s s i q u e ( P a r i s , 1967). "Pour une d e f i n i t i o n de l a nouvelle a l'^po„que c l a s s i q u e , " Cahiers de 1'Association I n t e r n a t i o n a l e des  Etudes Fran c a i s e s , XVIII (mars, 1966), pp. 53-65. ^ " L ' A s s o c i a t i o n 'nouvelle-petit-roman 1...". 20 La Nouvelle en France..•. p. 44. 21 "Pour une d e f i n i t i o n de l a n o u v e l l e . . . , " p. 54. 2 2 I b i d . , p. 56. 2 ^ L ' H i s t o i r e j u s t i f i e e contre l e s romans (Amsterdam, 1735). De 1'Usage des romans. Avec une b i b l i o t h e q u e des  romans (Amsterdam, 1734), 2 v o l s . 2 ^ L a B i b l i o t h e q u e f r a n c o i s e ( P a r i s , 1664). De l a Connoissance des bons l i v r e s . ou examen de p l u s i e u r s  autheurs (Amsterdam. 1672). 25 ^E n t r e t i e n s sur l e s romans. ouvrage moral et c r i t i q u e  dans l e q u e l on t r a i t e de 1 ' o r i g i n e des romans et de l e u r s  d i f f e r e n t e s especes ( P a r i s . 1755). 26 "Pour une d e f i n i t i o n de l a n o u v e l l e . . . , " pp. 63-65. 27 De l a Connoissance des bons l i v r e s . . . . pp. 183-4. C i t e d i n I b i d . , p. 63. p o "Pour une d e f i n i t i o n de l a n o u v e l l e . . . , " p. 64. 29 •'Work not paginated. 5°L'Art poetioue. Chant I , 1. 170. 5 1 B o i l e a u , L'Art poetique. Chant I , 11. 172-73. La Bruyere, Les Caracteres. Pes ouvrages de 1 ' e s p r i t . 3. 32 ^Pr£face, 1701. ^R. Barth.es, Essais c r i t i q u e s (Paris, 1964). J.-P.. Sartre, Qu'est-ce que l a l i t t e r a t u r e ? (Paris, 1948). E. Auerbach, Mimesis. Trans. W. Trask (New York, 1957). P. Brooks, The Novel of V/orldliness (New Jersey, 1969). 5 4De 1'Homme. 128. 33 CHAPTER II SENTIMENS SUR L'HISTOIRE (PART II OF THE SENTIMENS...): DU PLAISIR'S THEORY OF THE ANTI-NOVEL Now that we have touched b r i e f l y on the main points discussed i n sections I and I I I of Du P l a i s i r ' s t r e a t i s e , l e t us consider i n d e t a i l the second section of the work, e n t i t l e d "Sur 1'Histoire". I have drawn attention already, i n my introductory note to th i s section, to the confusion which has resulted from an imprecise d e f i n i t i o n of terms by seventeenth-century authors, and to the observations made on the subject by c r i t i c s Varga and Godenne. As Du P l a i s i r uses interchangeably the terms nouveau roman, p e t i t roman, nouvelle and h i s t o i r e galante to define the new novel form which he by implication suggests has derived i t s i d e n t i t y from i t s opposition to the grands romans, the twentieth-century reader may conceivably assume that for Du P l a i s i r these terms have more or less the same meaning, and that he i s merely t r y i n g to achieve variety of expression. Pr a c t i s i n g the concision which he preaches, Du P l a i s i r states succinctly his purpose: because the h i s t o i r e galante has become so popular at the time he i s writing, he w i l l undertake to show the differences as well as the common points shared by t h i s new l i t e r a r y form and what he c a l l s "1'Histoire v e r i t a b l e " . (86-87) Before the time of Du P l a i s i r , noted l i t e r a r y t h e o r e t i -cians such as Madeleine de Scudery"*" and Jean Regnaud de Segrais pondered the question of v e r i s i m i l i t u d e i n the novel form, for i t was a topic of prime concern and increasing importance as the nouveau roman of that period emerged. No longer enamoured of the super-human exploits of the epic hero, the reader of f i c t i o n a l prose works i n the middle years of the seventeenth century derives vicarious pleasure from being able to i d e n t i f y with the hero of the "new" novel; hence the importance of events and characters drawn from recent h i s t o r y . For Du P l a i s i r , v e r i s i m i l i t u d e "consiste a. ne dire que ce qui est moralement croyable". (96) It i s on the d i s t i n c t i o n between "vraysemblance" and " v e r i t e " that hinges f o r him the difference between the h i s t o r i a n and the writer of nouvelles. Let us pause fo r a moment to consider t h i s d i s t i n c t i o n . In spite of the fact that truth, as A r i s t o t l e and Boileau have remarked, i s not always believable, the h i s t o r i a n i s not obliged to modify events i n order to render them credible. According to Du P l a i s i r : "II n'est pas garand de l e u r vray-semblance, parce q u ' i l doit l e s raporter t e l l e s qu'elles se sont passers, & parce qu'elles sont connues de plusieurs". (96-97) On the other hand, he continues, the author of "une h i s t o i r e fabuleuse" creates both his hero and his hero's actions, therefore he does not leave himself i n danger of being repudiated. (97) The conclusion that we may draw from Du P l a i s i r * s d i s t i n c t i o n i s that the h i s t o r i a n i s allowed to r e l a t e unbelievable adventures because he can prove that they are true, while the task of the writer of novels i s not such 35 an easy one. Just because actions considered out of context ma^  appear to be morally unbelievable (hence lacking i n verisimilitude, according to Du P l a i s i r 1 s definition of the term), these actio is must not be regarded by the reader as defects in the narrative. The latter i s required to suspend his judgment until.he has read and comprehended the complete work; only then msy he fcrm ah opinion regarding i t s quality. On the contrary, l u P l a i s i r feels that i f the writer can successfully incorporate into his tale events which, considered apart from the ma: n body of the story, are unbelievable, he; w i l l surely demonstrate l i s s k i l l in the literary art. (98--99) Du Plaisir's remark;:- on " 1'histoire", i.e. f i c t i t i o u s history, w i l l be >ased primarily on the differences between ihs "old" and the "new" aovels. "Ce qui a f a i t hair les anciens Romans, est. ce qie l'on doit d'abord eviter dans 1 3 s Hemans nouveaux". (89) The basis for the argument in favour of a shorter novel form is given here i n a single sentence, ir. which Du P l a i s i r enumerates the traits characteristic of the "old" novels to be avoided i n the "new" form, namely the following: "Leur Icngpsur prodigieuse, ce melange de tant d'histoires diverses, leur grand nombre d'Acteurs, l a trop grands antiquite ce leurs sujets, l'embarras de leur construction, leur peu de vraysemblance, l'exces dans leur caractere [Z. ZJ " (39-90) Simplicity of form i s the key-note in" Du Plaisir's. treatise; each oi the points tersely touched upon in the opening paragraphs of tais second section of the Sentimens„.. w i l l be taken up in detail in the pages to follow, often with a pertinent example to serve as i l l u s t r a t i o n . 36 At a time when the h e r o i c novel i s no longer i n vogue, j u s t how does Du P l a i s i r make h i s d i s t i n c t i o n between t h i s form and i t s abridged counterpart of the 1660's? Before p o i n t i n g out t h e i r opposing t r a i t s , he touches upon t h e i r s i m i l a r i t i e s . ^The main o b j e c t i v e of both the " o l d " and the "new" novel forms i s to please the reader by the manner i n which the p l o t i s devised ("1'invention des i n c i d e n s " ) , by the consistency of c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n , by the nobleness of thought expressed t h e r e i n and by the accuracy w i t h which the w r i t e r d e p i c t s the emotions of the c h a r a c t e r s . (103-104) The d i f f e r e n c e s i n the two forms are, however, manifest, and i t i s by the use of p a r a l l e l i s m i n d i s c u s s i n g these opposing f a c t o r s that Du P l a i s i r w i l l succeed i n g i v i n g an accurate and d e t a i l e d p i c t u r e of the "new" novel of the 1660's. According to Du P l a i s i r , the subject matter of the "new" novels has changed appre c i a b l y since the time of the h e r o i c novels. The author no longer has to r e l a t e fabulous t a l e s of shipwreck and c o r r u p t i o n i n e x o t i c c o u r t s , f o r , he contends, the subject of the "new" novel need no longer be grandiose. The success of h i g h l i g h t i n g an a c t i o n which may have appeared i n s i g n i f i c a n t i n the long novels depends, r a t h e r , on the author's understanding the m o t i v a t i o n of h i s characters and h i s a b i l i t y to give to each of them a strong p e r s o n a l i t y . A word of c a u t i o n i s i n order here: l e t us not l o s e s i g h t of the temporal perspective through which we view Du P l a i s i r ' s statements. As twentieth-century readers of t h i s 37 l i t e r a t u r e , we must not forget that although physical action plays a good deal more important r o l e i n the heroic novel than i n the productions of Madame de La Fayette, Madame de V i l l e d i e u and Du P l a i s i r , D'Urfe and h i s followers were not unaware of the importance of psychological analysis. Madeleine de Scud^ry was appreciative of the psychological s e n s i t i v i t y of D'TJrfd of whom she says, " [T. fj entre tant de rares choses, c e l l e que j'estime l e plus, est q u ' i l s a i t toucher s i delicatement l e s passions qu'on peut l e nommer l e Peintre de l'ame. II cherche dans l e fonds des coeurs l e s plus secrets sentimens £7. Tj " What happens when Du P l a i s i r and his contemporaries come to produce novels i s that they s t r i p t h e i r works of physical action, thus focusing t h e i r attention on the analysis of the characters' reactions to diverse s t i t u a t i o n s , and establishing an emotional rapport between the characters and the reader. Du P l a i s i r i s aware of th i s emotional l i n k which must be established i f the novel i s to create a l a s t i n g impression; almost A r i s t o t e l i a n i n his vocabulary, he states c a t e g o r i c a l l y : "ces divers mouvemes de crainte ou de pitied pene'treront davantage dans nos coeurs, que quand nous voyons, ou un Prince seul attaqud par un grand nombre d'Ennemis, ou une Princesse exposee sur l e sable au fl u x des eaux, ou a l a rencontre des Bestes farouches". (106-107) Du P l a i s i r follows t h i s state-ment by touching again on the question of subject matter and action; he enumerates the reasons underlying the s h i f t i n 38 emphasis from p h y s i c a l a c t i o n to the a n a l y s i s of the psycho-l o g i c a l import of tha t a c t i o n . The reader of the h e r o i c n o v e l cannot p o s s i b l y r e c e i v e the pleasure of i d e n t i f i c a t i o n , f o r , suggests Du P l a i s i r , "nous ne nous appliquons point ces prodiges, & ces grands excds". (107) On the co n t r a r y , however, an a c t i o n which i s " n a t u r e l l e " and " f a m i l i e r e " s a t i s f i e s a l l readers because everyone can p r o j e c t h i m s e l f i n t o the a c t i o n about which he i s reading. Another main s t r u c t u r a l d i s s i m i l a r i t y which Du P l a i s i r draws to the a t t e n t i o n of the reader i s t i e d i n as w e l l w i t h the theme of naturalness. Speaking of the i n t r i g u e i n the "new" nov e l , he says: "On s u i t { J.^ l e cours o r d i n a i r e de l a Nature; on n'y avance r i e n q u i ne s o i t fonde, on y f u i t l e s mesmes coups de hazard". (108) Du P l a i s i r o b viously has i n mind here the many i n c i d e n t s of the h e r o i c novel t h a t are explained by chance or fortune; what he recognizes as a change of major importance i n the novels being produced by h i s contemporaries i s an e f f o r t to pare down the a c t i o n to i t s e s s e n t i a l elements, thereby a r r i v i n g at a n a r r a t i v e form which seems s u f f i c i e n t l y r e a l i s t i c to f a l l w i t h i n the experience of the reader. I f the characters must be absented from the scene, the s k i l f u l author w i l l prepare t h e i r departure w e l l i n advance. The example which he gives i s worthy of our a t t e n t i o n , f o r i t brings to mind a s i t u a t i o n commonly evoked i n both the h e r o i c novel and i n i t s shorter counterpart of the 1660's: £.. pour e c r i r e , qu'un Pri n c e roanqua de se trouver aupres d'une P r i n c e s s e , parce 39 q u ' i l re?eut ordre du Roy pour se rendre aupres de luy, on prepareroit de l o i n l e dessein du Roy & cet ordre, en sorte que l e Lecteur ne pust s'apercevoir q u ' i l s eussent este uniquement imaginez pour empescher l'entreveue de deux Amans. (108-109) We see then that as Du P l a i s i r leads into h i s formula for writing a "nouvelle" and h i s d e f i n i t i o n of "1'Histoire galante", he emphasizes increasingly the f a c t that what i s needed i f the novel form i s to be successful i s a paring down and a refinement of the voluminous productions p r i o r to mid-century. He expresses astonishment that the ten- and twelve-volume productions enjoyed such longevity, pointing out however that at the time he i s writing, "nouvelles" have just l a t e l y come into existence. (108) This abbreviated narrative form i s indeed compatible with the temperament of the French f o r , he observes, his countrymen are by nature impatient. (89) Novels of four to s i x volumes and more i n length he considers excessive; the writer i s advised to adopt as his subject one p r i n c i p a l event and no i n c i d e n t a l actions that would make the work stretch to more than two volumes. (90-91) It i s against the desire of the impetuous reader f o r the author to include digressions, and indeed, the very t i t l e of the work should exclude a l l that i s not necessary to i t s composition. (91) Again, the national character of the French serves to explain the need f o r a s i m p l i f i c a t i o n and a condensation of the action, f o r Du P l a i s i r believes that any digression which halts the progress of the main action annoys 40 the reader. An example serves to i l l u s t r a t e Du P l a i s i r ' s b e l i e f i n the n e c e s s i t y of maintaining a simple p l o t - l i n e . In a r a r e d i s p l a y of humour, he proclaims: Le melange d ' H i s t o i r e s p a r t i c u l i e r e s avec 1 ' H i s t o i r e p r i n c i p a l e , est contre l e gre" du Lecteur. Le t i t r e d'une Nouvelle, e x c l u t tout ce qui n'est pas necessaire pour l a composer, en sor t e que ce qu'on y a j o u t e , a r r e s t e l e cours de l a premiere H i s t o i r e . Les Lecteurs se rebutent, i l s sont fachez de se v o i r interrompus par l e d e t a i l des avantures de Personnes pour q u i i l s s ' i n -teressent peu, & i l a r r i v e que dans l a ^ c r a i n t e de perdre de veue, & d ' o u b l i e r un commencement de l e c t u r e q u i ne manque poin t de l e s a t t a c h e r aux premiers Heros, i l s n e g l i g e n t de l i r e ce q u i ne l e s regarde pas, c'est a d i r e , l e s t r o i s quarts de toute l a Fable. (91-92) By reducing the number of characters i n the no v e l , continues Du P l a i s i r , the w r i t e r w i l l avoid causing confusion i n the mind and i n the memory of h i s reader. By the same token, g r e a t e r u n i t y w i l l be maintained i n the n o v e l s t r u c t u r e , readers w i l l not c o n s t a n t l y be plagued by having f o r g o t t e n the i d e n t i t y of characters mentioned, and every character w i l l be b e t t e r d e f i n e d . Although many of the statements which Du P l a i s i r makes concerning the novel may be traced back to Madeleine de Scud^ry's p r e f a t o r y remarks to Ibrahim, to her Conversations... and t o the tenth volume of Cieiie. we may note i n passing that he chooses to d i f f e r from h i s p r o l i f i c predecessor on the question of s t r u c t u r e i n the new novel form of which he i s speaking. Mademoiselle de Scudery proclaims i n her preface to Ibrahim that i t i s the d i g r e s s i o n s s u c c e s s f u l l y i n t e g r a t e d 41 i n t o the main a c t i o n which enhance the work. F o l l o w i n g the example of the Greeks, whom she declares t o be "nos premiers M a i s t r e s " , she a t t r i b u t e s to secondary a c t i o n s the purpose of enhancing the main a c t i o n ; she s t a t e s that there should be "a 1 ' i m i t a t i o n du Poeme Epique [7..] une a c t i o n p r i n c i p a l e , ou toutes l e s autres sont attachees; q u i regne par t o u t 1'ouvrage; & qui f a i t q u 1 e l l e s n'y sont employees, que pour l a conduire a sa p e r f e c t i o n " . 4 E l a b o r a t i n g f u r t h e r on the question of secondary a c t i o n s , she s t a t e s : fr..l I I est toujours n e c e s s a i r e , que 'adresse de celuy q u i l e s employe, l e s face t e n i r en quelque fagon a. c e t t e a c t i o n p r i n c i p a l e a f i n que par cet enchainement ingenieux toutes l e s p a r t i e s ne facent qu'un corps; & que l ' o n n'y puisse r i e n v o i r de ddtache n'y d' i n u t i l e . - * Continuing h i s remarks on the h o l d i n g of the reader's a t t e n t i o n , Du P l a i s i r s t a t e s c a t e g o r i c a l l y that "jamais un H i s t o r i e n ne peut assez attacher l e s Lecteurs". ( 9 3 ) With a view to a c h i e v i n g t h i s g o a l , the n o v e l i s t must avoid drawing h i s s u bjects from ancient h i s t o r y , as d i d the n o v e l i s t s i n the f i r s t h a l f of the century. Echoing the recommendations of Segrais' a r i s t o c r a t i c characters i n the Nouvelles f r a n c o i s e s  ..., Du P l a i s i r proclaims that even i n a w e l l - w r i t t e n s t o r y , "un nom barbare est s e u l capable de L~la] f a i r e h a i r " . ( 9 4 ) Du P l a i s i r a l s o denounces the use of t i r a d e s and confidant characters which are, however, s t i l l t o be found i n plays at the time he i s w r i t i n g . I t i s up to the w r i t e r t o assume greater r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n t h i s regard to i n s u r e that there 42 w i l l no l o n g e r be c o n f u s i o n as to who i s speak ing , the w r i t e r or the c o n f i d a n t . Repea ted l y , Du P l a i s i r u n d e r l i n e s the neces sa ry s i m p l i f i c a t i o n of form which must be e f f e c t e d i n the "new" n o v e l . The a t t e n t i o n o f the r e a d e r must be f ocu sed p r i n c i p a l l y on the mer i t and on the c o n d i t i o n o f the h e r o ; these two f a c t o r s , when s u c c e s s f u l l y h i g h l i g h t e d , w i l l make the r e a d e r e a g e r l y a n t i c i p a t e the outcome o f the s t o r y . Du P l a i s i r deve lops t h i s i d e a o f a r a p i d and c o n c i s e p l o t development by condemning i n the new n o v e l form one o f the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c t r a i t s of the h e r o i c n o v e l based on the theo ry o f the e p i c , namely the beg inn ing i n medias r e s , t o which he r e f e r s r a t h e r humorously as " c e t t e f a t i g a n t e beaute de commencer l 1 o u v r a g e par sa f i n " . (95-96) Aga in the au tho r o f the Sen t imens . . . chooses to d i f f e r from Mademoise l le de Scude*ry, who l auds the A n c i e n t s f o r b e g i n n i n g t h e i r works i n 7 t h i s f a s h i o n . We have a l r e a d y touched upon the f a c t t ha t the terms h i s t o i r e g a l a n t e , nouveau roman. n o u v e l l e and p e t i t roman as used by Du P l a i s i r may be cons t rued as a lmost synonymous i n meaning because of the f a c t t ha t the l a t t e r uses them so i n t e r c h a n g e a b l y . Such i s the case when he e l a b o r a t e s on the d e f i n i t i o n of l ' h i s t o i r e .sealante and g i v e s h i s f o rmu la f o r w r i t i n g a n o u v e l l e . In the t e r s e , a lmost l a c o n i c s t y l e which c h a r a c t e r i z e s the b i n a r y s t r u c t u r e of the opening pages of the second pa r t o f the S e n t i m e n s . . . . Du P l a i s i r enumerates the neces sa ry components o f the n o u v e l l e : the e f f e c t i v e use 43 of the imagination, a simple recounting of f a c t s , the d e p i c t i o n of n a t u r a l events and c h a r a c t e r s : " e n f i n d ' e c r i r e & de f a i r e p a r l e r d'une maniere noble, sans e n t r e r dans aucunes r e f l e x i o n s ... " (115-116) The H i s t o i r e galante or nouvelle according to Du P l a i s i r * s d e f i n i t i o n i s an assemblage of d i v e r s e f e a t u r e s which are he l d together by the u n i f y i n g f a c t o r of time, and by the backdrop aga i n s t which the a c t i o n takes place. (117) The w r i t e r of the H i s t o i r e galante i s urged to de f i n e i n h i s f i r s t sentence the s e t t i n g and the r e i g n d u r i n g which the s t o r y w i l l take p l a c e , as w e l l as to i n d i c a t e whether i t w i l l be i n peace-time or i n wartime that the p r i n c i p a l i n t r i g u e s ("les p r i n c i p a u x noeuds") w i l l develop. (117) Du P l a i s i r urges the w r i t e r to provide h i s reader w i t h a d e t a i l e d p i c t u r e of court or of the State's progress i n b a t t l e , depending on whether he has given h i s t a l e a peace-time or a wartime s e t t i n g . (118) The p o i n t which the author of the Sentimens... u n d e r l i n e s here i s that i n e i t h e r case the author must s t a t e i n these opening l i n e s of h i s s t o r y only that which i s a b s o l u t e l y i n d i s p e n s a b l e to the pr e p a r a t i o n and understanding of the t a l e which i s about to u n f o l d . From the c o n s i d e r a t i o n of such for m u l a i c statements concerning the w r i t i n g of t h i s type of c r e a t i v e work, Du P l a i s i r moves on to speak of c r e a t i v e a b i l i t y and l i t e r a r y genius. Once again, the precepts set down by B o i l e a u i n h i s Art Po^tique (1674)° f i n d an echo i n the Sentimens.... Du P l a i s i r proclaims that genius alone can produce the a b i l i t y to think creatively, and that the i n d i v i d u a l may or may not be naturally endowed. (112-113) The imagery, r e l i g i o u s i n tone, which Du P l a i s i r uses here i s notable simply because i t i s rare i n his usually clipped s t y l e . One may become knowledgeable by taxing the memory with thousands of f a c t s , but the talent f o r creative thought i s God-given, contends Du P l a i s i r , who q u a l i f i e s graphically his b e l i e f i n s t a t i n g : "C'est une rosee benigne, c'est une manne d'or, q u ' i l [God] ne re"pand que dans de certaines ames", (113) It i s to these chosen few that Du P l a i s i r addresses his remarks. Du P l a i s i r continues along the same l i n e s i n s t a t i n g that one must be g i f t e d i n order to penetrate the mystery that i s the human heart. He stipulates that at the time he i s writing, there are few terms to describe the emotions experienced by man, f o r th e i r discovery, hence t h e i r d e f i n i -t i o n , i s recent. He i s obviously r e f e r r i n g to the very r e s t r i c t e d vocabulary of the l i t t l e novels being produced from the 1660's onward; even the acknowledged masterpiece of t h i s group of novels, La Princesse de Cleves, cannot be lauded f o r a varied and v i s u a l l y r i c h vocabulary. We must keep i n mind, however, that richness of vocabulary i n a l i t e r a r y work i s a r e l a t i v e consideration; by twentieth-century standards only (not by seventeenth-century ones), i s the vocabulary of Madame de La Fayette and her followers poor. 45 Du P l a i s i r advises those who f e e l that they do not have t h i s f a c u l t y of p s y c h o l o g i c a l p e n e t r a t i o n to espouse the task of the h i s t o r i a n , r a t h e r than that of the c r e a t i v e w r i t e r ; i n the f a c t u a l h i s t o r i c a l work " l ' o n s'y contente davantage d'une v e r i t e toute nue, & seulement embellie par l ' o r d r e des matieres, par l a noblesse des expressions, & par 1*exactitude du s t i l e " . (115) One of the great tasks of a n o v e l i s t i s t o create c r e d i b l e c h a r a c t e r s , and Du P l a i s i r gives appropriate emphasis to c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n and methods of pr e s e n t a t i o n . For the g i f t e d w r i t e r , he upon whom God has smiled, the aspect of the novel which must be given the most a t t e n t i o n i s c h a r a c t e r -i z a t i o n . General remarks on the p r e s e n t a t i o n of the hero and heroine precede a d e t a i l e d c o n s i d e r a t i o n of other aspects of c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n . I n d i r e c t o p p o s i t i o n t o the p r a c t i c e followed i n the h e r o i c novel, Du P l a i s i r recommends that the hero of the new novel be n a t u r a l , and not pompous. I n the hero, a c t i o n s or t r a i t s considered admirable would be "des-interessement" and "d£licatesse", while the i d e a l heroine would be worthy of her r o l e due to the importance which she attaches to "scrupules" and "reconnoissance". (109-110) Above a l l , he i n s i s t s , the main personages of the "new" novel must be given a w e l l - d e f i n e d character, one that i s " p r e c i s , & sensiblement marqud". (110) l o n g before the time of Honore de Balzac, Du P l a i s i r i n s i s t s that the characters 46 have a dominating t r a i t or f e a t u r e which w i l l determine and e x p l a i n t h e i r a c t i o n s from beginning to end of the n o v e l . (110) On the other hand, of course, the i d e a of maintaining d i v e r s i t y and consistency of character by no means o r i g i n a t e d w i t h Du P l a i s i r . F o l l o w i n g the precepts of Horace, Madeleine de Scud^ry, i n her Conversations..., drawn from volume ten of her Cieiie. recommends that the w r i t e r adhere s t r i c t l y to the p o r t r a y a l of d i s t i n c t l y i n d i v i d u a l and c o n s i s t e n t 9 characters i n the n o v e l . Du P l a i s i r elaborates at l e n g t h on t h i s aspect of charac-t e r i z a t i o n . Not only the q u a l i t i e s of character as depicted i n the novel, but a l s o h i s a c t i o n s make the reader admire the hero; but more important than these are nobleness of thought and the accuracy w i t h which the emotions of the heart are portrayed, f o r these q u a l i t i e s cause the reader to admire the w r i t e r . A c t i ons and q u a l i t i e s of character produce l i t t l e more than c u r i o s i t y , impatience f o r the outcome of the s t o r y ; as a matter of f a c t , i f the s t o r y ends i n the way the reader expects, he i s not l i k e l y to reread i t ; but Du P l a i s i r main-t a i n s that the author who i s s u c c e s s f u l i n c u l t i v a t i n g noble thoughts i n h i s characters and who i s able to express w e l l the emotions f e l t by them i s l i k e l y to have h i s work reread. Consequently, he who r e l a t e s a t a l e that i s read only once has not much reason to be pleased w i t h h i s c r e a t i o n . (111-112) Moving from a general d i s c u s s i o n of c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n to more d e t a i l e d c o n s i d e r a t i o n s , Du P l a i s i r elaborates f i r s t of 47 a l l on the d i s t i n c t i o n between main and secondary characters i n the novel. Secondary characters are define d by Du P l a i s i r as those whose only f u n c t i o n i n the s t o r y i s t o t i e the i n t r i g u e together. These personages of l e s s e r importance must be described as e a r l y on i n the t a l e as p o s s i b l e , i n order t h a t by the knowledge of t h e i r r e l a t i v e m e r i t , the reader may himself determine whether to a t t a c h importance to t h e i r r o l e i n the i n t r i g u e . (119) I t i s not good p r a c t i c e to p r a i s e the p h y s i c a l a t t r i b u t e s of these secondary charac t e r s . Du P l a i s i r gives two reasons f o r t h i s o p i n i o n . In the f i r s t place, he f e e l s that there are not i n the voca-bu l a r y of h i s day terms noble enough to render t h i s d e s c r i p t i o n p l e a s i n g , and, i n the second place, such laudatory remarks would cause the reader to doubt the t r u t h of what the author i s proposing. The reader, s t a t e s Du P l a i s i r , i s aware th a t these t r a i t s e x i s t only i n the imagination of the w r i t e r . The d e s i r e to please u n i v e r s a l l y , expounded as a p r i n c i p l e by B o i l e a u , 1 ^ i s expressed a l s o by the author of the S e n t i -mens. ... who dissuades the w r i t e r from employing such f l a t t e r i n g d e s c r i p t i o n s , on the grounds that such a p r a c t i c e would be d e s t r u c t i v e to the design of the w r i t e r , which must be to produce a work that i s p l e a s i n g to everyone. (120-121) What Du P l a i s i r i s i n f a c t recommending here i s an i n t e r -n a l i z a t i o n of the novel form. He i s d e s c r i b i n g a phenomenon that e x i s t e d already at the time he presented h i s t h e o r e t i c a l observations on the novel form; p h y s i c a l d e s c r i p t i o n i s kept 48 to the minimum and l a c k s i n d i v i d u a l i z a t i o n , w h i l e a t t e n t i o n i s drawn to the h i g h l y s t y l i z e d p o r t r a y a l of mental a t t r i b u t e s and p s y c h o l o g i c a l r e a c t i o n s . Du P l a i s i r contends that the d e p i c t i o n of the q u a l i t i e s of the s o u l or the mind gives pleasure to a l l readers, that these q u a l i t i e s alone determine character, and t h e r e f o r e they alone should be described i n d e t a i l , w hile general terms w i l l s u f f i c e f o r p h y s i c a l des-c r i p t i o n . U n l i k e Madeleine de Scudery, who, i n her preface t o I b r a h i m c o n t e n d s that the hero's c h a r a c t e r i s u n v e i l e d to the reader not by recounting h i s adventures, but by the con-tent of h i s " d i s c o u r s " , Du P l a i s i r b e l i e v e s that i n the d e p i c t i o n of the main characters at l e a s t a c t i o n s only must speak. The example which he uses to i l l u s t r a t e h i s statement i s noteworthy, f o r i t could apply to h i s own Duchesse d'Estramene as w e l l as to any of the p e t i t s romans which may be a r b i t r a r i l y grouped under the r u b r i c of " l e dilemme de 1'honnete femme". Du P l a i s i r s t a t e s : Un Hdros se peint par ses e f f e t s ; & s i on v o i t une femme raisonnable perdre des l e premier moment ou e l l e l ' a p p e r g o i t une f i e r t e " , & un repos q u ' e l l e a v o i t conserve aupres du r e s t e des Hommes, i l sera bien mieux depeint que par tous ces mots de bonne mine, d'agrement, & de majeste. (124) Concerned as he i s w i t h v e r i s i m i l i t u d e i n the p r e s e n t a t i o n of c h a r a c t e r s , Du P l a i s i r i n s i s t s that there be consistency i n the a c t i o n s and i n the moral make-up of the main c h a r a c t e r s . In v a i n w i l l the author speak of the m e r i t o r i o u s moral 49 a t t r i b u t e s of h i s character i f the a c t i o n s of the l a t t e r do not conform to these laudable q u a l i t i e s . Having d e a l t with the d i f f e r e n t methods which must be employed to present main and secondary c h a r a c t e r s , Du P l a i s i r next broaches the subject of the order i n which these characters should i d e a l l y be presented. Because of the n e c e s s i t y of rendering the main characters praiseworthy, the w r i t e r i s advised to present them only a f t e r he has described the secondary charac t e r s , f o r i f the main characters were to come on stage r i g h t at the beginning of the s t o r y , the secondary characters would not be s u f f i c i e n t l y d i s t i n c t i v e : "on s'appercoit peu d'un merite mediocre, quand on a l ' i d e e p l e i n e d'un merite e x t r a o r d i n a i r e " . (126) The matter of the d i v e r s i t y and the consistency of characters upon which Du P l a i s i r has already touched l i g h t l y , echoing to a c e r t a i n extent precepts presented by Madeleine de Scud^ry, i s considered i n more d e t a i l here i n r e l a t i o n to methods of character p r e s e n t a t i o n . D i v e r s i t y i s the key t o a s u c c e s s f u l l y balanced work; the author of the Sentimens... contends that the characters must not a l l be of equal goodness, even though they are a l l of course "supposez r a i s o n n a b l e s , genereux, braves". (126) The main motiva t i n g character t r a i t must be c o n s i s t e n t w i t h and complementary to the secondary character t r a i t s . A f t e r having made general remarks regarding the main and secondary charac t e r s , Du P l a i s i r devotes s e v e r a l pages to the 50 study of the hsro and heroine i n p a r t i c u l a r . The main characters of the new novel form are not to be superhuman-i n d i v i d u a l s , maintains the author of the Sentimens.... 12 Already i n her Conversations..., Madeleine de Scudery was c a l l i n g f o r a balance of n a t u r a l and marvelous events i n the novel . Some twenty years l a t e r , Du P l a i s i r goes one step f u r t h e r i n advocating the complete e l i m i n a t i o n of miracles which had beer, the trademark of the novel i n the f i r s t h a l f of the century, and opts subsequently f o r heroes and heroines more n a t u r a l i n character. Du P l a i s i r advises the w r i t e r not to over-tax the v i r t u e of the female c h a r a c t e r s , while the courage of the male characters i s measured by t h e i r e x p l o i t s and by the numerous dangers which they may overcome, a >fosian whose v i r t u e appears to be i r f e p r o a c h a b l e a f t e r many onslaughts i s indeed to be suspected of deception, f o r Du P l a i s i r i s of the opinion that God alone i s capable of recom-pensing exemplary v i r t u e , "parce que l u y s e u l ne juge p o i n t selon. 1'usage, ou l e s apparences". (101) E l a b o r a t i n g on the subject of the p r e s e n t a t i o n of the hero and the^ heroine according to h i s i d e a l conception, Du P l a i s i r a l l u d e 3 to one of the stock devices used by the w r i t e r s of the he r o i c novel, a device which i s c e r t a i n l y s t i l l very much i n evidence a f t e r 1660, even i n the s o p h i s t i -cated P r i n c e s s e de Cleves. The p r a c t i c e of absenting the heroine from the scene supposedly because of an i n d i s p o s i -t i o n c a l l s f o r t h the f o l l o w i n g observation: 51 Ce p r ^ t e x t e , outre q u ' i l s e r o i t t rop uniforme, s e r o i t encor degoutant. Un des grands t r a i t s de beauts dans une Femme, est d'estre propre; i l est impossible de 1'estre quand on est souvent mal-saine. Une i n d i s p o s i t i o n dans toute une H i s t o i r e , peut donner de l a piti£: mais une rechute commence a d ^ p l a i r e . (142) The young people of the day hold i n high esteem a healthy body, s t a t e s Du P l a i s i r . One cannot help but t h i n k that he i s here making an i r o n i c a l l u s i o n to the prdcieuses when he portrays these young people who, "en haine des Pot i o n s , des Remedes, ou du Regime, (7«^) fu'iroient l a Femme de tout P a r i s l a plus s p i r i t u e l l e " . (143) Now that we have considered Du P l a i s i r ' s conception of the i d e a l s t r u c t u r e of the "new" novel and the methods of pre s e n t a t i o n of the characters t h e r e i n , l e t us loo k at the r o l e of the author i n h i s work as he defines i t , and the r e l a t i o n s h i p he envisages between the c r e a t o r and h i s c r e a t i o n . Du P l a i s i r ' s c a r d i n a l r u l e i s that the w r i t e r must remain i m p a r t i a l toward h i s c r e a t i o n s . He may use h i s s k i l l to point out the f i n e r q u a l i t i e s of h i s hero at the beginning of the t a l e he i s about to r e l a t e ; however, such laudatory remarks are permitted only before the a c t i o n begins because they form as i t were a necessary p o r t r a i t . Once the w r i t e r begins to r e l a t e i n d e t a i l the ac t i o n s of the hero, he must not express h i s opinion concerning h i s character. (127-128) We note i n passing that the author of the Sentimens... has a very s t r o n g sense of the importance of ti m i n g i n the n o v e l ; the p e r f e c t i o n 52 of the shor -; novel form as he conceives i t i s based upon an acute awareness of chronology and the arrangement of time sequences i n the development of the a c t i o n . Making use once more of the metaphor of p a i n t i n g , Du P l a i s i r contends that once the p o r t r a i t of the hero has been o u t l i n e d , no r e t o u c h i n g i s permitted, f o r such a d d i t i o n a l brush-strokes would i n d i c a t e that the w r i t e r had e i t h e r neglected to f i n i s h h i s p a i n t i n g p r o p e r l y i n the f i r s t place or that he i s making unnecessary and redundant a l t e r a t i o n s . Du P l a i s i r continues h i s d i s c u s s i o n of the r o l e of the author by r e l a t i n g i t to that of the reader. I n s i s t i n g upon the necessary i m p a r t i a l i t y of the author, he contends, that the l a t t e r .should not use a f l a t t e r i n g e p i t h e t even chough such a remark made, i n r e l a t i o n to the hero might be e n t i r e l y j u s t i f i e d ; oy so committing h i m s e l f , the w r i t e r would v i o l a t e h i s necessary " i n d i f f e r e n c e " . (129-130) I t i s not the author's place to judge the merit of the hero; while the author's only task i s to i e p i c t the hero's f e e l i n g s and conduct, i t i s the reader alon-3 who can remit to the hero whatever p r a i s e may be due to him. Du P l a i s i r does however concede t h a t the w r i t e r may be permitted to show h i s complaisance toward h i s characters a f t e r what he terms a sad and d i s t r e s s i n g d e s c r i p t i o n . (130-131) Concerning the a t t i t u d e which-the w r i t e r should, adopt, t o -ward h i s reader, Du P l a i s i r demands that he be p o l i t e , but not n e c e s s a r i l y always w i t t y . (134-135) The w r i t e r i s not per-mitted to enter i n t o lengthy r e f l e x i o n s ; the one p o s s i b l e exception ;o t h i s r u l e occurs when the w r i t e r i s at pains to present t h 3 a c t i o n from the hero's point of view. (135) I t may be not ;d t h a t , according t o the preceding statement, although t i e author does not make h i s presence obstrusive i n h i s wor.c, he ±3 nonetheless there manipulating t:ie char-a c t e r s who are h i s puppets, f o r he s k i l f u l l y would adopt t h e i r p o i n t of viaw, and present i t to the reader. The w r i t e r siaould not be e n t i r e l y submissive, maintains Du P l a i s i r ; he should show h i s s k i l l i n s e t t i n g up a n a t u r a l conversation between h i s c h a r a c t e r s , i n s t e a d of d e s c r i b i n g t h e i r thoughts. The s k i l f u l w r i t e r i s capable of l e a d i n g h i s readers to b e l i e v e that i t i s a c t u a l l y the cha r a c t e r h i m s e l f spaaking, and not the w r i t e r who has given l i m l i f e . (137) Onei the w r i t e r has i n i t i a t e d a conversation between c h a r a c t e r s , he should f i n i s h i t without i n t e r r u p t i o n , pauses being g e n e r a l l y d i s a g r e a b l e . ' t o the reader. (137-138) I f the author h i m s e l f should not i n t r u d e i n the conversations of h i s charac ;ers, n e i t h e r should he break t h e i r momentum by the i n c l u s i o n )f f o r t u i t o u s events.^ The breaking of the l i m p i d and r a p i d movement of the n a r r a t i v e i s a grave e r r o r , according to Du P l a i s i r ; the reader who awaits i m p a t i e n t l y the outcome of the s t o r y w i l l f e e l only contempt, e i t h e r f o r the w r i t e r , or f o r the person i n t e r r u p t i n g the conversation. (140) One f a c t o r which serves to d i s t i n g u i s h the author from h i s characters i s that they do not n e c e s s a r i l y express them-selves i n the same manner. As the hero i s supposed to be i n 54 the a c t u a l presence of the person to whom he i s speaking, h i s tone w i l l as a r e s u l t be c o n v e r s a t i o n a l . On the other hand, the w r i t e r composes i n s o l i t u d e , and can p o l i s h h i s speech and expression at l e i s u r e . Whereas the expression of the w r i t e r may,, and should, be s t u d i e d , that of h i s hero should at a l l costs be n a t u r a l , and avoid what Du P l a i s i r c a l l s "Etude, Poesie, D e c l a r a t i o n , langage contre l e n a t u r e l " . (148) Since Du P l a i s i r envisages i t as the author's duty to observe at a l l times the r u l e s of Menseance and s i n c e r i t y , the hero as he conceives him w i l l have c e r t a i n p r i v i l e g e s which h i s c r e a t o r does not. (150) These p r i v i l e g e s are e f f e c t e d p r i n c i p a l l y i n speeches d e a l i n g w i t h the subjects of l o v e and courtesy, i n which the hero i s permitted what might be considered excesses i n the mouth of the w r i t e r . The r o l e of the author i n h i s work, the r e l a t i o n s h i p which e x i s t s between the c r e a t o r and the work which he has created and between the c r e a t o r and h i s reader, leads to a d i s c u s s i o n of d i g r e s s i o n s and t h e i r place i n the novel. Du P l a i s i r devotes a number of pages to t h i s s u bject. Du P l a i s i r argues that d i g r e s s i o n s must not d e t r a c t from the main a c t i o n , and that vague or extraneous subjects must not, t h e r e f o r e , be introduced i n t o conversations i n the new novel. He r e f e r s I n d i r e c t l y to the lo n g d i s c u s s i o n s of precieux g a l l a n t r y which had encumbered the movement of the grands romans: 55 On n ' e c r i t plus r i e n dans une H i s t o i r e q ui ne l u y s o i t indispensablement nec e s s a i r e , & je croy q u ' i l s e r o i t d i f f i c i l e d'y i n t r o -d u i r e une Question a decider, quelque galante q u ' e l l e pust e s t r e . (162) Using e f f e c t i v e l y the image of the v o i d ("des espaces vuides", 163), Du P l a i s i r argues that these d i g r e s s i o n s are i n f i n i t e l y t i r i n g ; to the reader, and that the end r e s u l t . i s d e s t r u c t i v e , f o r wh.en they do not make him l o s e s i g h t of the main c h a r a c t e r s , they weaken ~hexr presence and serve to suspend the reader's s a t i s f a c t i o n at being able to proceed, u n i n t e r r u p t e d , to the denouement. (162-163) Adamant on t h i s p o i n t , Du P l a i s i r contends that the main o b j e c t i v e of these workn i s to make the reader aware of the p l i g h t of the c h a r a c t e r s . Du P l a i s i r opts :.'or the most d i r e c t route to the denouement: " l e s plus beaux chemins par l e s q u e l s on marcheroit vers ce but s e r o i e n t f a t i g r m s , s ' i l s n'estoient l e s plus c o u r t s " . (164) Those conversations a b s o l u t e l y necessary to the novel must t h e r e f o r e •be s h o r t , f o r the very reason that i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o c u l t i -vate at l e n g t h a n a t u r a l , b e l i e v a b l e conversation between two peopl.j'. Because the reader derives v i c a r i o u s pleasure from i d e n t i f y i n g w i t h the c h a r a c t e r s , the conversations must be n a t u r a l enough to enable the reader to b e l i e v e t h a t were he i n the same p o s i t i o n as the c h a r a c t e r s , he would express the same : sentiments. How then should the w r i t e r go about h o l d i n g the a t t e n t i o n of the reader? The recommendation which Du P l a i s i r makes near r.he end of the second s e c t i o n of the Sentimens... would 56 appear to be a contradiction of e a r l i e r remarks. He implies that the writer must d i r e c t , and therefore play an active part i n set t i n g up the conversations i n his work, which must not, however, be written i n the form of an every-day dialogue. The writer must make his presence f e l t from time to time i n the course of these conversations to make comments and to maintain the f i r s t impression which he has sought to create. By showing us the mental or psychological attitude of the characters, he w i l l succeed i n preparing us to accept t h e i r r e p l i e s . (165-166) What Du P l a i s i r could be said to be commenting upon here i s the technique of the s h i f t i n g view-point practised by Madame de La Fayette i n her Princesse de 13 Cleves and by himself i n La Duchesse d'Estramene. I t must not be forgotten that his theory of the novel appeared just one year a f t e r the publication of the creative work attributed to him. After having provided a lengthy example to i l l u s t r a t e h is statement, Du P l a i s i r comments that the conversational parts of the extract quoted are not long, but that they would be boring i f not prefaced by remarks which, he contends, capture the attention of the reader. (177) The author of the Sentimens... envisages two d i s t i n c t types of conversations suitable f o r incorporation into the novel. The short ones, to which he has made reference i n the preceding pages, are those which serve to hold the intrigue together; the second type must c e r t a i n l y not be 57 lengthy, because the reader i s not at t h i s point w e l l enough acquainted w i t h the hero to i d e n t i f y w i t h h i s language. On the other hand, when a d i s c u s s i o n replaces an important adventure or when i t i s i n the denouement, i t may be long. S t i l l concerned w i t h v e r i s i m i l i t u d e and w i t h the m a i n t a i n i n g of a n a t u r a l tone i n the n o v e l , Du P l a i s i r argues t h a t i n conversations of t h i s second type, "c'est la. que l ' H i s t o r i e n a besoin d'une grande adresse pour i m i t e r l a Nature dans l e d i s c o u r s , & pour r e n o u v e l l e r toute 1 ' a t t e n t i o n , & tout 1'attachement des Lecteurs". (179-180) In a more general v e i n , Du P l a i s i r ' s apparent l a c k of esteem f o r books of conversation"*" 4 seems to stem from the f a c t that such works are not n a t u r a l i n t h e i r expression. I n t e l l i g e n t people take l i t t l e pleasure i n reading works of t h i s type, because, he s t i p u l a t e s , conversations should be r e l a t e d to a n a r r a t i v e context. Banning maxims, remarks of a p o l i t i c a l nature and m o r a l i z i n g speeches from the n o v e l , he p o i n t s out t h a t , a f t e r a l l , one does not normally express oneself i n such a manner. Echoing once more Madeleine de 15 Scudery, Du P l a i s i r argues that the i d e a l nouvelle only i n s t r u c t s i n a p l e a s i n g manner, and that a moral commentary which would have a proper place i n a work of i n s t r u c t i o n should not be appended to any work of a d e s c r i p t i v e nature. He q u a l i f i e s h i s statements on t h i s matter by remarking t h a t i f novels do contain general i n s t r u c t i o n , i t i s to be found i n the s i t u a t i o n s which the author recounts, r a t h e r than i n 58 meditations or i n precepts extraneous to the n a r r a t i v e . In t h i s regard, Du P l a i s i r * s i n s i s t e n c e upon unobtrusive moral i n s t r u c t i o n c o i n c i d e s with the d e f i n i t i o n of the nouvelle as given by R i c h e l e t , that i s , " l e r£cit ing e i i i e u x d'une avanture a g r e a b l e " . 1 6 As w e l l as r e f r a i n i n g from making moral commentaries on the a c t i o n , the author must c o n t r o l r i g o r o u s l y the momentum of h i s t a l e . According to the author of the Sentimens.... a c e r t a i n d i f f u s e n e s s i s p e r m i s s i b l e at the beginning of the s t o r y ; i n f a c t , i n the opening pages of h i s t a l e , the author may present h i m s e l f to h i s own advantage and demonstrate h i s knowledge of human emotions or of l i f e i n g e n e r a l . The reader must not, however, be allowed to become too impatient; t h e r e -f o r e the author must permit h i s n a r r a t i o n to g a i n momentum f a i r l y r a p i d l y . He must "peu a. peu o u b l i e r sa propre s a t i s f a c t i o n , & se souvenir davantage de [".. j) marquer de l a complaisance" toward h i s readers. (156-157) For t h i s reason, he concludes, the w r i t e r must not s t r i k e p o r t r a i t s near the end of h i s s t o r y , f o r at that point the reader d e s i r e s only a c t i o n l e a d i n g to the denouement. (157) In c o n t r a s t t o the g e n e r a l l y l a c o n i c s t y l e of Du P l a i s i r ' s t r e a t i s e on the n o v e l , h i s concluding remarks present r e -f r e s h i n g metaphors and s u r p r i s i n g images. For example, when Du P l a i s i r contends that the s t o r y must always have a c o n c l u -s i o n , he employs a commonplace n a u t i c a l metaphor: " l e plus grand p l a i s i r que puisse gouter 1 ' e s p r i t apres toutes l e s 59 inquietudes, & toutes l e s impatiences que donne une longue s u i t e d ' i n t r i g u e s & d'evenemens, est de v o i r e n f i n l e s Heros, ou e n t r e r au P o r t , ou f a i r e naufrage". (180) C a r e f u l always to please h i s reader, the author of the Sentimens... seeks to create a f e e l i n g of r e s p i t e at the end of the n o v e l , obtained perhaps by the heros* death, or, p r e f e r a b l y , t h e i r union i n marriage. (181) Du P l a i s i r shows here h i s t i e s 17 w i t h the h e r o i c novel. For Madeleine de Scudery as w e l l , the end r e s u l t of a l l the a c t i o n s described i n the novel i s marriage. I t i s perhaps because Du P l a i s i r maintains that one should leave nothing to the imagination of one's reader that h i s theory w i l l not be put i n t o p r a c t i c e by the w r i t e r s who f o l l o w him. The twentieth century i n p a r t i c u l a r has witnessed the r i s e of the novel i n which more r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i s placed on the shoulders of the reader w i t h regard to the p o s s i b l e denouement of the a c t i o n . The concluding l i n e s of the second s e c t i o n of the Sentimens... serve to confirm us i n our judgment of i t s value as a h i s t o r i c a l document r a t h e r than as a formula f o r a new novel form to be adopted by w r i t e r s a f t e r 1683. Du P l a i s i r places the novel i n the same category as the t h e a t r e , s t a t i n g that the object of both genres i s e d i f i c a t i o n ; the novel must ther e f o r e have a c l e a r l y expressed moral i n i t s c o n c l u s i o n . Echoing once again Madeleine de Scudery, who i s quoted almost verbatim by Huet i n the p r e f a t o r y remarks to Madame 19 de La Fayette's Zayde. Du P l a i s i r demands that v i c e be 60 punished and that v i r t u e triumph. (183) So ends part two of the Sentimens.... a l b e i t on a some-what unoriginal moralistic note. We must not, however, judge thi s work too harshly, for unlike i t s author and his contem-poraries, we have today the advantage of three centuries of c r i t i c a l perspective. We w i l l enrich t h i s perspective by examining what the contemporaries of the author thought of the Sentimens.... fo r t h i s w i l l serve to give us an i n d i c a t i o n of the c r i t i c a l awareness of the time, as well as to add yet another dimension to our appreciation of the work. Three entries i n the Mercure Galant of February, A p r i l and May 1683 are pertinent, f o r they reveal the fa c t that the work was being discussed by the l i t e r a t i while i t was s t i l l i n manuscript form. In the February edition, Donneau de Vise has the following to say about the manuscript: Je me suis inform^, Madame, comme vous l'avez voulu, du manuscrit i n t i t u l e Sentiments sur les l e t t r e s et les h i s t o i r e s  galantes. Ce sont des preceptes justes pour e c r i r e les-unes et les autres. On d i t q u ' i l s sont tournes d'une maniere qui f a i t c r o i r e que leur auteur n'est pas un homme seulement de cabinet. II y a grande apparence q u ' i l s seront bien recus du public, puisqu'ils font une regie, ou pour Ecrire ces sortes d'ouvrages, ou pour aider l e s personnes qui l e s l i r o n t , a connaitre quel en sera l e m<§rite. On m'a parle d'un troisieme a r t i c l e de ce manuscrit. II t r a i t e de l a construction des mots, et ne contient que dix ou douze observations qui expliquent l e s scrupules de 1'auteur sur quelques manieres d'e"crire. 61 S i ces observations passaient pour l o i , e l l e s pourraient f a i r e quelque beaute dans l e s t y l e , mais je doute que l a pratique en fut f o r t aisee. V o i l a tout ce que j ' a i pu en apprendre. Quand 1'ouvrage par a i t r a , je vous en avertirai.20 Aside from giving us a slender i n d i c a t i o n of the s o c i a l status of Du P l a i s i r (obviously Donneau de Vise sees him as a mondain rather than a pedant) th i s statement provides an insight into public taste i n 1683. Based on i t s possible use either as a set of rules f o r prospective writers or as an explanatory t o o l f o r readers, the editor of the Mercure Galant seems able to predict the success of the Sentimens.... We must not, however, take his judgment too seriously, f o r evidently he i s only reporting on the work from second hand knowledge. The second of the reviews devoted to the Sentimens... appears two months l a t e r , i n the A p r i l 1683 e d i t i o n of the Mercure Galant, immediately p r i o r to i t s publication. This second a r t i c l e i s of considerable h i s t o r i c a l i n t e r e s t , f o r i t indicates to us that i n 1683, Donneau de Vise was apparently not aware of the l i n k between the authorship of La Duchesse d'Estramene and that of the Sentimens..., as the concluding l i n e s of the a r t i c l e indicate: Dans huit ou dix jours, Madame, je vous enverrai l e l i v r e i n t i t u l e Sentiments sur  l e s l e t t r e s et sur l e s h i s t o i r e s . dont je vous p a r l a i i l y a deux mois. Le sieur Blageart l e debitera en ce temps-la. On en a l a i s s e £chapper quelques copies qui l u i ont donne de l a reputation. Je c r o i s vous avoir deja marque ce q u ' i l contient. 62 Ce sont des preceptes t r e s u t i l e s pour E c r i r e avec just e s s e des l e t t r e s galantes et ces sortes d ' h i s t o i r e s que nous appelons nouvelles. On y t r a i t e a u s s i de 1 ' h i s t o i r e v e r i t a b l e . Tous l e s exemples dont se s e r t 1'auteur pour prouver ce q u ' i l avance, sont t r e s agreablement tournes. I I y a meme suj e t de c r o i r e que dans quelques uns i l entre un peu de s a t i r e , dont l e s personnes qui voudront 1'entendre pourront p r o f i t e r . Les scrupules q u ' i l propose sur l e s t y l e nous font connaitre l a d e i i c a t e s s e de son e s p r i t , et i l s e r a i t f o r t a. s o u h a i t e r q u ' i l nous donnat quelque ouvrage ou i l se s e r v i t de ses propres r e g i e s . On l e l i r a i t avec grand p l a i s i r . 2 1 I t i s somewhat a s t o n i s h i n g that any w r i t e r as aware of l i t e r a r y trends and c o t e r i e s as was Donneau de V i s e should not have recognized the p o s s i b l e r e l a t i o n s h i p of the two works a t t r i -buted to Du P l a i s i r , La Duchesse d'Estramene having appeared one year p r i o r to the t h e o r e t i c a l work which can be a p p l i e d almost p e r f e c t l y to i t . The e d i t o r of the Mercure Galant does, however, b e l i e v e himself to be on the r i g h t t r a c k i n connecting theory and p r a c t i c e i n another way, f o r i n the paragraph f o l l o w i n g the above statement, he introduces thus the p u b l i c a t i o n of the L e t t r e s galantes du C h e v a l i e r d'Her : I I p a r a i t r a dans l e meme temps un autre l i v r e q u i vous donnera l i e u d 1examiner s i l e s r e g i e s que p r e s c r i t I'auteur.des Sentiments y sont observers ff.. /j ^2 The f i n a l review devoted to the Sentimens..• appears i n the May 1683 e d i t i o n of the Mercure Galant: Je vous envoie un autre ouvrage q u i se vend au meme l i e u . C'est c e l u i dont vous m'avez p l u s i e u r s f o i s demande des n o u v e l l e s , et q u i a pour t i t r e Sentiments sur l e s l e t t r e s et  sur 1 ' h i s t o i r e , avec des scrupules sur l e s t y l e . I I semble que ce d e r n i e r a i t ete f a i t pour donner l e s moyens d 1 examiner 1'autre plus facilement. Cependant, c'est par un pur e f f e t dU hasard que ces deux l i v r e s q u i sont de deux d i f f e r e n t s auteurs, ont ete mis en vente l e meme jour et par l e meme l i b r a i r e . Dans l a premiere p a r t i e de ce d e r n i e r , on v o i t beaucoup d'exemples des choses que 1'auteur avance, t i r e e s de l e t t r e s q u i ont f a i t du b r u i t dans l e monde. I I y en a d'autres sur l e s matieres q u ' i l a inventdes. II p a r l e a u s s i dans c e t t e premiere p a r t i e des b i l l e t s et des e p i t r e s d d d i c a t o i r e s , et l'o n y trouve des manieres de r e g i e s , q u i peuvent et r e d'une grande u t i l i t e a ceux q u i veulent e c r i r e dans ce genre. La seconde p a r t i e c o n t i e n t l a maniere d ' e c r i r e l e s h i s t o i r e s que l'o n a p p e l l e n o u v e l l e s . On y v o i t des exemples de choses, q u i peuvent s e r v i r de r e g i e s et de c e l l e s qu'on d o i t e v i t e r , avec une maniere de s a t i r e t r e s agreable contre l e s romans. Le t r a v a i l de l a tr o i s i e m e p a r t i e est d'autant plus grand, q u ' i l f a u t a v o i r pour c e l a une p a r f a i t e connaissance de l a langue. II y a dans c e t t e p a r t i e un grand nombre de peintures pour s e r v i r d'exemples. Ce sont des morceaux qu'on ne c r o i t pas sans mystere. Toutes ces choses sont assez capables d ' e x c i t e r l a c u r i o s i t y , sans que je cherche a vous en donner. Je ne vous d i s point s i ce l i v r e est bie n <£crit: ceux qui se melent d'enseigner une sci e n c e , l e doivent s a v o i r plus parfaitement que ceux qui l e pratiquent avec succes.23 I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note that i n s p i t e of the str o n g r e l a -t i o n s h i p which Donneau de Vi s e sees between the Sentimens... and the L e t t r e s galantes du Che v a l i e r d'Her g 3 £ X. he i s aware that the two works, one t h e o r e t i c a l , the other c r e a t i v e , are by d i f f e r e n t authors. C a r e f u l not to judge t h e i r l i t e r a r y v a l u e , as the l a s t l i n e s of t h i s review i n d i c a t e , the e d i t o r of the Mercure Galant seems nonetheless to deem the Sentimens J^J^ worthy of note; h i s statements would have c a r r i e d more weight f o r the twentieth-century reader were they not read 64 i n conjunction with the other two references in the Mercure Galant, for these indicate, as we have noted above, that Donneau de Visd quite probably gleaned his information from a second-hand source. The only other contemporary c r i t i c a l review devoted to the Sentimens.•. known to us appears in the Journal des Savants of June 1683; i t i s not a particularly favourable one, as the following extract indicates: Quand on veut donner des regies sur ces trois sortes de sujets, on doit avoir une s i grande delicatesse d'esprit, tant de penetration sur les affaires du monde, une s i profonde intelligence des historiens qui nous ont devances, et enfin un gout s i particulier sur l a maniere d'e"crire, qU'on peut dire que dans tous les siecles i l s'est toujours trouve peu de personnes capables de donner la-dessus des regies certaines et immanquables. On jugera aisement de celles qui sont i c i prescrites, mais peut-etre les sentiments de 1'auteur et les exemples qu'il propose pour modeles, ne seront pas du gout de tout le monde.24 Again we might ask ourselves i f the reviewer had actually read the Sentimens... himself, for, l i k e Donneau de Vise (or perhaps through having read him), he f a i l s to quote the correct t i t l e of the work. If Du Plaisir's theoretical work was not favourably enough received by the reviewers to be read first-hand, and i f i t did not provoke as l i v e l y a discussion amongst his con-temporaries as did La Duchesse d'Estramene, i t s influence was unquestionably f e l t in the eighteenth century. In 1702 Morvan de Bellegarde plagiarized major segments of i t , hardly b o t h e r i n g to change the wording, i n h i s Deuxieme l e t t r e 25 ." curieuse de l i t t e r a t u r e et de morale. Two more eighteenth-century references to the Sentimens.. , cause the s c h o l a r to wonder i f the reviewers i n question even read the work, f o r both quote the erroneous t i t l e as given by Donneau de Vise i n the Mercure G-alant. In h i s Bibljotheque des Romans, Lenglet-Dufresnoy i d e n t i f i e s Du P l a i s i r as the author, and makes the f o l l o w i n g remarks: Sentiments sur l e s l e t t r e s et l a s h i s t o i r e s  galantes, par l e s i e u r du P l a i s i r , i n 12. P a r i s 1683. Ce n'est pas un l i v r e bien recherche. Le s i e u r du P l a i s i r , s i ce nom est v r a i ou suppose, a p u b l i e encore q u e l -ques ouvrages mediocres.26 This statement c e r t a i n l y shows no evidence of an unbiased, c r i t i c a l judgment of the Sentimens. • . , f but i s of note because of i t s h i s t o r i c a l value, Lenglet-Dufresnoy being the f i r s t to a t t a c h the name of an author to the work. This discovery i s however ox l i t t l e help to the researcher, f o r the c r i t i c f a i l s to quote the source of h i s i n f o r m a t i o n . I n the f i r s t volume of the B i b l i o t h e q u e U n i v e r s e l l e des Romans, published i n 1776, an abridged v e r s i o n of La Duchesse d'Estramene was p r i n t e d w i t h the f o l l o w i n g i n t r o d u c t o r y n o t i c e : • On a su, depuis que cet auteur n ' e t a i t autre que du P l a i s i r q u i p u b l i a un an '-:. apres, 1'ouvrage i n t i t u l e : Sentiments  sur l e s l e t t r e s et l e s h i s t o i r e s galantes.2 < Again the misquotation of the t i t l e of Du P l a i s i r ' s t h e o r e t i c a l work leads us to b e l i e v e that the Sentimens... was not widely 66 read; from the time of Donneau de V i s e , one wonders, i n f a c t , i f i t was read at a l l ! The only nineteenth-century reference to e i t h e r of Du P l a i s i r * s works i s the short note found i n B a r b i e r ' s 28 D i c t i o n n a i r e des ouvrages anonymes; again the misquoted t i t l e of the Sentimens... leads us to surmise that the i n f o r -mation was obtained by B a r b i e r second-hand, probably from lenglet-Dufresnoy. 29 Arpad S t e i n e r was the f i r s t c r i t i c i n the present t century to acknowledge the value of the Sentimens.... and to s i t u a t e Du P l a i s i r ' s t r e a t i s e i n a proper h i s t o r i c a l perspec-t i v e by showing i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p to the l i t e r a r y t h e o r i e s of Madeleine de Scudery and Jean Regnaud de Segrais. While p o i n t i n g out that Du P l a i s i r cannot be c r e d i t e d w i t h the expression of o r i g i n a l thought, S t e i n e r maintains that he may indeed be praised f o r presenting what i s to some extent the f i r s t general p o e t i c s of the modern nove l . Commenting on Du P l a i s i r ' s indebtedness to Segrais, S t e i n e r q u a l i f i e s the statement made by W. Tipping, who contends that Segrais founded "the p o e t i c s of the nouvelle by s e p a r a t i n g i t from the novel"; S t e i n e r adds that "Du P l a i s i r has the merit of having g e n e r a l i z e d Segrais' p r i n c i p l e s and of having a p p l i e d 30 them to a l l f i c t i o n " . I t i s a l l very w e l l to show Du P l a i s i r ' s indebtedness to Mademoiselle de Scuddry, but the point of major importance which S t e i n e r r i g h t l y b r i n g s t o our a t t e n t i o n i s that the l a t t e r ' s w r i t i n g s comprise l i t t l e more 6 7 than a theory not put i n t o p r a c t i c e , while the former's i s i n f a c t an a c t u a l commentary on, or account of the e v o l u t i o n which has taken place i n the s t r u c t u r e of the French novel: Sappho's ideas were j u s t theory, which, i n p r a c t i c e , were turned i n t o as many c a r i c a t u r e s ; here, i n the Sentimens... we are confronted w i t h e m p i r i c a l exper-ience deduced from at l e a s t one a c t u a l novel, the Princesse de Cleves, which could i l l u s t r a t e v i r t u a l l y every s t a t e -ment and every demand of Du P l a i s i r . 3 1 The only f a u l t of which we might perhaps accuse S t e i n e r i s h i s l i n k i n g of Du P l a i s i r ' s t h e o r e t i c a l work to Madame de La Fayette's Princesse de Cleves r a t h e r than e x c l u s i v e l y t o Du P l a i s i r ' s own c r e a t i v e endeavour. S t e i n e r i s j u s t i f i e d i n contending that La Duchesse d'Estramene i s "the f i n e s t echo of the Princesse de Cleves", and that "although D.F. D a l l a s may have been r i g h t i n concluding that Mme de La Fayette's master-piece marked r a t h e r the end than the beginning of i t s genre, i t may be s a f e l y stated that w i t h the p u b l i c a t i o n of the Princesse de Cleves the modern novel was born not only i n •52 p r a c t i c e but i n theory as w e l l " . Arnaldo Pizzorusso acknowledges h i s indebtedness to 33 S t e i n e r i n h i s s e n s i t i v e book and a r t i c l e on the p o e t i c s of the novel i n France from 1660 to 1685. I t i s of importance to note the p a r a l l e l which P i z z o r u s s o draws between Du P l a i s i r ' s p r e d i l e c t i o n f o r n a t u r a l , b e l i e v a b l e events" i n the novel, r a t h e r than miraculous happenings, and that shown by Fo n t e n e l l e . Pizzorusso prefaces h i s e x t r a c t from Fon t e n e l l e ' s L e t t r e de M. Fontenelle sur l e L i v r e i n t i t u l e Les Malheurs de 68 l 1 Amour, ou Ele"onor d'Yvr£e, w i t h the f o l l o w i n g a l l u s i o n t o Du P l a i s i r ' s p o e t i c s : La concezione d e l romanzo espressa n e i Sentimens d i Du P l a i s i r s i r i s o l v e n e l l a elaborazione d i un meccanisimo p s i c o l o g i c o r a f f i n a t o ed a s t r a t t o . La 'scienza d e l cuore' conduce a l gusto d e l l ' i n g e g n o s i t a , a l i a r i c e r c a d e l l a s i n g o l a r i t a , e d e l l ' e c -cezione n e l l ' o r d i n e d e l sentimento.34 He then quotes a passage from the Mercure Galant of September 1687, showing the s i m i l a r i t y between F o n t e n e l l e ' s and Du P l a i s i r ' s p o e t i c s of the novel. R e f e r r i n g t o the "science du coeur" which i s manifest i n the Princesse de Cleves, F o n t e n e l l e ' s words echo t o a c e r t a i n extent the theory of Du P l a i s i r : Je vous p a r l e d'El^onore d'Yvr^e que j e vous envoye. C'est un p e t i t s u j e t peu charge d ' i n t r i g u e s , mais ou l e s sentimens sont t r a i t e z avec toute l a f i n e s s e p o s s i b l e . Or sans prdtendre r a v a l e r l e merite q u ' i l y a a b i e n nouer une i n t r i g u e , et a d i s -poser l e s evenemens, de sorte q u ' i l en r e s u l t s de c e r t a i n s e f f e t s surprenans, j e vous avoue que j e s u i s beaucoup plus touche" de v o i r r^gner dans un Roman une c e r t a i n e science du coeur, t e l l e q u ' e l l e e s t , par exemple, dans La Pr i n c e s s e de  Cleves. Le me r v e i l l e u x des in c i d e n s me frappe une f o i s ou deux, et puis me rebute, au l i e u que l e s peintures f i d e l l e s de l a nature, et sur tout c e l l e s de c e r t a i n s mouvemens du coeur presque imp e r c e p t i b l e s a cause de l e u r d e l i c a t e s s e , ont un d r o i t de p l a i r e q u ' e l l e s ne perdent jamais. On ne se sent dans l e s avantures que 1 ' e f f o r t de 1'imagination de l'Auteur, et dans l e s choses de passion, ce n'est que l a nature seule q u i se f a i t s e n t i r , quoy q u ' i l en a i t coftte a l'Auteur un e f f o r t d ' e s p r i t que j e croy plus grand.35 P i z z o r u s s o a l s o brings to l i g h t an eq u a l l y important c r i t i c i s m 6 9 of Qu P l a i s i r ' s l a Duchesse d'Estramene. made i n 1685 by P i e r r e Bayle. P o i n t i n g out that "non t u t t i i contemporanei erano p r o n t i ad a c c e t t a r e questa p a r t i c o l a r e v i s i o n e d e l l a 'natura'" ( i . e . that shared by Du P l a i s i r and F o n t e n e l l e ) , and r e f e r r i n g to the analogy drawn by Bayle between La Pr i n c e s s e de Cleves and La Duchesse d'Estramene, Pizzorusso c i t e s Bayle's c r i t i c i s m of Du P l a i s i r ' s characters stemming from t h e i r o v e r l y - v i r t u o u s , and hence unbe l i e v a b l e , nature. I t i s on Du P l a i s i r ' s merit as a s e n s i t i v e observer of the e v o l u t i o n of the novel i n France r.hat s c h o l a r s have r e c e n t l y applauded him. R e f e r r i n g to the Sentimens•.., Henri Coulet s i t u a t e s Du P l a i s i r 1 s t r e a t i s e i n h i s t o r i c a l perapective, and has the f o l l o w i n g remarks to make: Seul ce d e r n i e r texte o f f r e une d o c t r i n e coherente de l a nouvelle (appelee h i s t o i r e ) : ses ressemblances et ses d i f f e r e n c e s avec l e roman heroique sont methodiquement analysees; on peut reprocher a. Du P l a i s i r d'etre t r o p systematique, trop theorique, d'un c l a s s i c i s m e (au sens l a r g e du mot) trop d e p o u i l l e , et d ' e c r i r e un roman i d e a l en negligeant l e s tendances confuses et c o n t r a d i c t o i r e s du roman i d e a l . Mais en f a i t , l e genre nouveau, c e t t e 'invention de nos j o u r s ' comme 1*appelle l'abbe de Charnes, s'oppose b i e n point par point au genre ancien, et ce qui r a p p e l l e t r o p l e roman heroique, meme dans des oeuvres a nos yeux c a r a c t e r i s e e s par l e u r n a t u r e l , est denonce.,comme une t a r e par l e s con-temporains. This b e l i e f that Du P l a i s i r ' s work i s valuable as a documentary account i s shared as w e l l by Jean Rousset and by F r e d e r i c D e l o f f r e . I t i s to be noted that both these c r i t i c s , l i k e S t e i n e r and P i z z o r u s s o , i n s i s t upon the evident r e l a t i o n -70 s h i p between theory and p r a c t i c e i n La Princesse de Cleves and the Sentimens..., r a t h e r than upon the l i n k between theory and l i t e r a r y c r e a t i o n i n Du P l a i s i r ' s own output. Rousset contends that Du P l a i s i r has been too much v ignored, and lauds h i s perceptiveness as an observer, s t a t i n g that " i l e s t , parmi l e s c r i t i q u e s du 'nouveau roman' des annees 80, c e l u i q u i a l a conscience l a plus nette des c a r a c t e r e s qui l e d i s t i n g u e n t de l ' a n c i e n roman, i l degage avec s a g a c i t e l a theorie de l ' h i s t o i r e £.. rj ".38 D e l o f f r e i s of the same opinion as Rousset concerning the value of the Sentimens... as a h i s t o r i c a l document r a t h e r than as a t o o l f o r p r o s p e c t i v e w r i t e r s of novels; h i s general remarks comprise i n f a c t a concise summary of the a t t i t u d e of twentieth-century c r i t i c s from S t e i n e r onward toward Du P l a i s i r ' s c o n t r i b u t i o n t o the theory of the novel i n France. D e l o f f r e takes Du P l a i s i r at h i s word and considers the Sentimens... an unassuming but s u b s t a n t i a l work: "Ouvrage sans p r e t e n t i o n , q u i pretend proposer et d i s c u t e r plus que l e g i f ^ r e r , l e t r a i t e de Du P l a i s i r est surtout a nos yeux un b i l a n i n t e l l i g e n t du genre 39 n a r r a t i f b r ef en France a 1'epoque c l a s s i q u e " . P r e c i s e l y because l i t e r a r y c r i t i c s have not i n s i s t e d upon e s t a b l i s h i n g a p a r a l l e l between the Sentimens... and La  Duchesse d'Estramene, but, r a t h e r , between the Sentimens... and La Princesse de Cleves, the strong t i e s which bind Du P l a i s i r ' s t h e o r e t i c a l statements and h i s own c r e a t i v e output have not been f u l l y explored. A c l o s e a n a l y s i s of Du P l a i s i r ' s 71 c r e a t i v e imagination, seen i n part through a study of La Duchesse d'Estramene, w i l l enable us to o b t a i n yet another e n r i c h i n g perspective of the Sentimens.•., f o r we s h a l l have delved i n t o the c r e a t i v e process which gave b i r t h t o the work of a r t which was to serve, we b e l i e v e , as a b a s i s f o r Du P l a i s i r ' s theory of the n o u v e l l e or h i s t o i r e g alante. Let us then, i n the f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n of our study, look i n d e t a i l at t h i s p e t i t roman too l o n g ignored by the wide reading p u b l i c . 72 CHAPTER I I : FOOTNOTES ^Conver sat ions sur divers sujets (Paris, 1680). Ibrahim  ou l ' l l l u s t r e Bassa (Rouen, 1665). 2 Les Nouvelles francaises ou l e s divertissemens de l a Princesse Aurelie (Paris, 1722). •^Preface to Ibrahim. •.. not paginated. ^Ibid.. not paginated. 5 I_bid., not paginated. 6 ( P a r i s , 1722), v o l . I, p. 19ff. 'Preface to Ibrahim.... not paginated. 8Chant I, 11. 1-6. 9 V o l . II, p. 471. 1 Q L ' A r t Poetique, Preface, 1701. "^Not paginated. 1 2 V o l I I , pp. 460-68. 13 "Tor a discussion of thi s technique, see J . Rousset, "La Princesse de Cleves," i n Forme et s i g n i f i c a t i o n : essais sur l e s structures l i t t e r a i r e s de Corneille a Claudel (Paris, 196*47T~PP. 17-44. ^ S e e Introduction, n. 6. 15 ^Conversations.... v o l . I I , p. 482. "^Cited by Varga, "Pour une d e f i n i t i o n de l a nouvelle...," p. 64. 17 Preface to Ibrahim.... not paginated. 1 8 Ibid., not paginated. 73 1 9 ( P a r i s , 1670). 2 0pp. 325-27. 2 1 p . 361. 2 2 p . 361. 2 3pp. 332-35. 2^lundi 14 juin, p. 173. An extract o f this Lettre. .. i s cited by P. Hourcti.de, sentiments sur les lettres et sur l'histoire avec des  scruttules sur le style: edition critique avec notes et  commentaire (Diss. Paris, 1970), pp. 155-66. The relation-ship of the Abbe de Bellegarde's work to Du Plaisir's is also discussed by H. Coulet, Le Roman, .jusqu'a l a revolution (Paris, 1967), vol. I, p. 209, and by P. Deloffre, La Nouvelle en Prance...p. 57. 26 Vol. II, p. 3. Cited by P. Hourcade, Sentiments : ur les lettres.... p. 167. 2 7p. 166. 2 8(rpt-. Hildesheim, 19=3), vol. I, pp. 1127-28: "Duchesse (la) d*Estramene. (Par Du Pl a i s i r , auteur des 'Sentiments sur les lettres et les histoires galantes'.). Lyon, Thomas Anaulry, 1682, 2 parties in-12. Voy. un extrait de ce roman par Eastide dans les douxieme et treizieme volumes du 'Choix des Mercures' et dans l a 'Bibliotheque universelle des romans', octobre 1776, premiere volume, p. 166 et suiv. On l i t dans les 'Oeuvres' de Pavilion une lettre de cet aeademicien a M. de Vise sur le meme roman, que l'on attribuait a une femiue. La prevention paroissoit fondee a cause de l a vivacite des sentiments, de l a delicatesse du style et de I'interet des situations." OG A French Poetics of the Novel in 1683," Romanic Review. XXX (1939), pp. 235-43. 3 0 I b i d . , P- 237. 5 1 I b i d . , P. 243. 5 2 I b i d . , P. 243. 74 La Poetica del romanzo i n Franc i a , 1660-1685 (Rome, 1962). "La Conpezione d e l l ' a r t e narrativa n e l l a seconda meta del seicento francese," btudi Mediolatini e v o l g a r i , III (1955), pp. 149-57. ^ 4"La Concezione d e l l ' a r t e narrativa...," pp. 155-56. 35 -^"Lettre de M. de Fontenelle sur l e Li v r e i n t i t u l e Les  Malheurs de 1'Amour, ou Eleonore d'Yvr£e," Le Mercure galant, septembre 1687 (Premiere P a r t i e ) , p. 324ff. Cited by A. Pizzorusso, Ibid.. p. 156. 36 "La Concezione d e l l 1 arte n a r r a t i v a . . . , " p. 156. 37 Le Roman .jusqu'a l a revolution, pp. 209-10. Forme et s i g n i f i c a t i o n . . . . p. 31. 39 La Nouvelle en France.... p. 51. SECTION I I LA DUCHESSE D'ESTRAMENE; HE DILEMMA Of THE HONNETE FEMME AS SEEN BY DU PLAISIR 76 "La Duchesse d'Estramene a l a destinee des L i v r e s heureuses [sic] on prend party pour et contre, et e l l e s e r t d ' e n t r e t i e n dans l e s Compagnies que l ' o n c r o i t l e plus en d r o i t de decider souverainement de l a beaute des Ouvrages." Donneau de Vise Le Mercure Galant, j u i n 1682, p. 27. 77 CHAPTER I BACKGROUND TO THE' STUDY OP LA DUCHESSE D'ESTRAMENE "Jamais l a F r a n c e n'a paru avec t a n t de gr a n d e u r , que pandant ces d e r n i e r e s g u e r r e s . " (..I, l ) W i t h t h i s b e g i n n i n g , r e m i n i s c e n t o f the h y p e r b o l i c styl.e used by Madame de Lu F a y e t t e i n t h e opening l i n e s of L a P r i n c e s s e de C l e v e s , * Du P l a i s i r s k e t c h e s r a p i d l y , i n the f i r s t s e n t e n c e o f h i s Duchesse d'Estramene, t h e h i s t o r i c a l framework w h i c h w i l l s e r v e as a mora l d e c o r f o r the drama about t o u n f o l d . Che d e s c r i p t i o n o f the c o u r t s e t t i n g i n L a Duchesse d'Estra.aene i s l e s s s p e c i f i c t h a n Madame de L a F a y e t t e ' s d e p i c t i o n i f the g l i t t e r i n g c o u r t o f H e n r i I I . N e v e r t h e l e s s , t h e r e a d e r i s a b l e t o s i t u a t e the work w i t h i n a f a i r l y p r e c i s e h i s t o r i c a l framework. Du P l a i s i r has chosen as t h e backdrop f o r tae t a l e he i s about t o r e l a t e the z e n i t h o f L o u i s XIV's m i l i t a r y c a r e e r . J u d g i n g from the h i s t o r i c a l a l l u s i o n s , t h e wars mentioned at. the b e g i n n i n g ox the n o v e l would p r o b a b l y oe the campaigns w h i c h L o u i s XIV waged a g a i n s t t h e S p a n i a r d s i n the N e t h e r l a n d s i n t h e e a r l y 1670's; the young E n g l i s h noblemen d e p i c t e d as h a v i n g c r o s s e d the Channel t o j o i n t he F r e n c h a r m i e s would t h e n be the t r o o p s o f C h a r l e s I I o f E n g l a n d . We a r e f u r t h e r a b l e t o s i t u a t e Du P l a i s i r ' s d e c o r h i s t o r i c a l l y from the r e f e r e n c e he makes t o " l e s d e r n i e r s t r o u b l e s d ' A n g l e t e r r e " ( I , 1 0 ) , i n the cour s e o f w h i c h t h e Due d'Olsingam's f a t h e r s u pposedly d i e d t r y i n g t o a i d Madame d'Hennebury*s husband. Du P l a i s i r i s probably a l l u d i n g here to the c i v i l wars i n England, begun i n 1642, during the reign of Charles I, and ending i n 1649. He mentions the King and Queen of England without naming them s p e c i f i c a l l y ; the models f o r these characters are eas i l y enough recognizable as Charles II and his wife, Catherine of Braganza. Prom the afor-mentioned h i s t o r i c a l d e t a i l s , the reader i s able then to situate t h i s psychological drama i n the years 1672 to 1673. La Duchesse d'Estramene i s , then, l i k e La Princesse de Cleves, a h i s t o r i c a l novel. But as i s the case f o r Madame de La Fayette, h i s t o r i c a l decor i s important only insomuch as i t serves as a backdrop f o r the psychological action, which occupies stage-centre i n the moral drama. In both La  Princesse de Cleves and La Duchesse d'Estramene, comments of h i s t o r i c a l import prepare the moral climate of the work. Jean Fabre has observed that i t i s not important what p a r t i -cular royal household court s e t t i n g Madame de La Fayette chooses to depict i n La Princesse de Cleves. He states that i t i s a novel which refuses history, and that "a part l a •magnificence', Madame de La Fayette ne demandera r i e n a l a realite de l ' h i s t o i r e " . The same may be said of Du P l a i s i r , who does not even trouble his reader with the names of the French and English r u l e r s during whose reigns the action takes place. But apart from t h i s p a r a l l e l , one must take care not to assimilate completely the use of h i s t o r i c a l a l l u s i o n i n La Princesse de Cleves and i n La Duchesse 79 d'Estramene. In a perceptive a r t i c l e , Jean Rousset has shown that f o r Madame de La Fayette, h i s t o r y a c t s as a counter-point to the n a r r a t i v e . I t i s evident, before we read past the f i r s t paragraphs of La Duchesse d'Estramene, that Du P l a i s i r does not make of the h i s t o r i c a l s e t t i n g a c a r e f u l l y orchestrated counterpoint w i t h the moral dilemma of h i s heroine. As the st o r y of Mademoiselle d'Hennebury develops, the d e s c r i p t i o n of e x t e r n a l events gives way almost e x c l u s i v e l y to the d e p i c t i o n of an i n t e r n a l c r i s i s , whereas i n La Pri n c e s s e de Cleves, the study of Madame de Cleves' moral dilemma a l t e r n a t e s w i t h a commentary on the r o l e she must play i n s o c i e t y . In La Duchesse d'Estramene, h i s t o r y w i l l not serve, then, as an rhythmical syncopation to the m i r r o r - l i k e c o n f r o n t a t i o n of the s e l f , but, q u i t e simply, as a point of departure f o r the p s y c h o l o g i c a l adventure. I t i s only the presence of the unscrupulous Madame d'Hilmorre, an e n t i r e l y f i c t i t i o u s c r e a t i o n ( l i k e the other main characters i n the n o v e l ) , which serves to r e i n f o r c e during the r a p i d u n f o l d i n g of the moral dilemma the w a r l i k e atmosphere of court i n t r i g u e suggested i n the i n i t i a l paragraphs of La Duchesse d'Estramene. Both Du P l a i s i r and Madame de La Fayette are concerned w i t h a study of the c o n f r o n t a t i o n of p r i v a t e and p u b l i c moral values, p a r t i c u l a r l y as seen i n a heroine whose a c t i o n s , innocent i n themselves, are evaluated by a s o c i a l group whose prime occupation i s t o observe and to i n t e r p r e t . Madame de 30 La Payette's c r e a t i o n i s of course the more r i c h of the two, f o r by the use of h i s t o r i c a l or f i c t i o n a l commentaries d i g r e s s i n g from the main p l o t - l i n e , she i s able to show e f f e c t i v e l y that the dilemma of her heroine i s not without precedent; the cumulative e f f e c t of these d i g r e s s i o n s and h i s t o r i c a l a l l u s i o n s serves to r e i n f o r c e the f a c t that the dichotomy between appearance and r e a l i t y i s i n e v i t a b l e , f o r no member of such a s o c i e t y i s able to succeed f o r l o n g In f u s i n g the two s k i l f u l l y . One could only wish t h a t D i P l a i s i r had made more e f f e c t i v e use of h i s t o r i c a l a l l u s i o n to ?cho i n • c h r o n o l o g i c a l perspective the moral and p s y c h o l o g i c a l dilemma of h i s heroine. An explanation of t h i s s t r u c t u r a l weikness may perhaps be found i n the Sentiment...; Du P l a i s i r , as a true exponent of the anti-novel ;. o p t s ^ f o r the s t r a i g h t - l i n e theory i n p l o t s t r u c t u r e , i n r e a c t i o n to the of t e n extraneous, badly i n t e g r a t e d d i g r e s s i o n s fo-.md i n the novels of t i e preceding generation. . The war s e t t i n g , depicted ever so t e r s e l y i n the opening pages of La Duchesse d'Estramene. leads us then to i n n e r p s y c h o l o g i c a l t u r m o i l as the s t o r y u n f o l d s ; the campaigns of Turenne and the French King w i l l play a minor, although supplementary r o l e to the i n t e r n a l c o n f l i c t of the heroine. The a c t i o n w i l l u n f o l d p a r t i a l l y at the court of Loui s X I V , p a r t i a l l y at the court of Charles I I i n the years f o l l o w i n g the c i v i l wars i n England. The young men of the E n g l i s h n o b i l i t y , impatient because t h e i r homeland i s at peace once 81 more, and eager to take part i n m i l i t a r y combat, are c r o s s i n g the Channel to j o i n the French armies. Among these young men come to i n s t a l l themselves i n P a r i s are the Due d'Estramene, accompanied by h i s mother, Madame d'Hilmorre, and the Comte d'Hennebury, together w i t h h i s mother, Madame d'Hennebury and h i s s i s t e r , Mademoiselle d'Hennebury. Madame d'Hennebury has permitted the Queen of England to choose a husband f o r her daughter, f o r t h i s a s tute monarch "ne voulut pas s'exposer a perdre ce qui e s t o i t l e plus capable de f a i r e honneur a. sa Cour". ( I , 12) Even before the a r r i v a l of the Due d'Olsingam, whose moral q u a l i t i e s a l l at court admire, Mademoiselle d'Hennebury f a l l s i n love w i t h h i s p o r t r a i t which, as the author w i l l l a t e r r e v e a l , does not i n f a c t do j u s t i c e to the p h y s i c a l a t t r i b u t e s of t h i s e x t r a -ordinary young man. Mademoiselle d'Hennebury i s , however, extremely s e n s i t i v e on the subject of her r e p u t a t i o n , her " g l o i r e " , and i s ashamed that she should love a man to whom she has not yet been f o r m a l l y introduced — a f r a i d too that she might be suspected by others of harbouring an i n c l i n a t i o n f o r the Due d'Olsingam, an i n c l i n a t i o n contrary to the pre-cepts of bienscjance e s t a b l i s h e d by the s o c i e t y i n t o which she has been p r e c i p i t a t e d s i n c e her i n t r o d u c t i o n at co u r t . These two a t t r a c t i v e young people see each other f o r the f i r s t time i n the J a r d i n du Roy under f o r t u i t o u s circumstances reminiscent of the anclens romans. We cannot deny, however, the importance of t h i s scene where each espies the other and 82 exper i ences f e e l i n g s of l o v e , f o r i t i s p r e c i s e l y a t t h i s p o i n t i n the u n f o l d i n g of the drama that the i n t e r n a l a c t i o n o f p s y c h o l o g i c a l import takes precedence over p h y s i c a l a c t i o n . The i n i t i a l encounter , when l o v e i s born i n s t a n t a n e o u s l y , w i l l be r e l i v e d many t imes over by the h e r o i n e . As does P a s c a l , Du P l a i s i r suggests t h a t the r e a s o n i n g o f the hea r t i s not l o g i c a l ; w h i l e s t r o l l i n g i n the J a r d i n du Roy, the Due d 'O l s ingam " c r u t c h o i s i r par mauvaise humeur c e t t e promenade e c a r t d e ; mais p e u t - e s t r e l a c h o i s i t - i l par un de ces mouvemens qu i nous condu i sent pour des d e s s e i n s que t ou te s nos l u m i e r e s ne peuvent p e n e t r e r " . ( I , 35) B e f o r e Madame d 'Hennebury, mother o f the h e r o i n e , i s a b l e to o b t a i n the Queen of E n g l a n d ' s consent f o r the marr iage o f her daughter t o the Due d 'O l s i ngam, she i s t aken i l l and subsequent l y d i e s . In a scene once a ga in r e m i n i s c e n t o f L a P r i n c e s s e de C l e v e s , t h i s s a i n t l y f i g u r e who s i m u l t a n e o u s l y p l a y s the r o l e of su r roga te mother to the Due d 'O l s i ngam asks the young man whom she has chosen as her s o n - i n - l a w to o b t a i n r o y a l pe rm i s s i on f o r the marr iage as soon as p o s s i b l e . In a d d i t i o n , her daughter , who i s a f r a i d of the u n f l a t t e r i n g o p i n i o n which would be generated by such a p r e c i p i t o u s un ion a f t e r her r e c e n t bereavement, begs her f i a n c e t o obey T u r e n n e ' s o rde r s to r e t u r n to the ranks r a t h e r than go to the E n g l i s h c o u r t to c a r r y out Madame d 'Hennebury ' s death-bed w i sh . In h i s r o l e as obedient l o v e r , the Due d 'O l s ingam submits t o the d e s i r e s o f h i s f i a n c e e , who would be ashamed to have g i v e n 83 h e r s e l f to him "sans g l o i r e & sans r e p u t a t i o n " . ( I , 87) I t i s immediately a f t e r the departure of the Due d'Olsingam that Madame d'Hilmorre sets out to .aarry her son, the Due d'Estramene, to Mademoiselle d'Hennebury, who has come to stay with her f o l l o w i n g the death of Madame d'Hennebury. The Due d'Estramene i s by no means of the same mind as h i s scheming mother w i t h regard to marriage, f o r " i l n'avoit de vraye i n c l i n a t i o n que pour l e s armes. l a g a l a n t e r i e l u i p l a i s o i t sans l ' a t t a c h e r , & i l a v o i t une avert i o n i n v i n c i b l e pour tout ce qui demande de longues exactitudes". ( I , 9) A f t e r having refused the o f f e r of the Comte d'Englastre, whose daughter " e t o i t d e ja dans sa vingtieme annee" ( I , 70), and whose character i s ?s a r e s u l t already too f i r m l y moulded to please the devious Madame d'Hilmorre, the 3 a t t e r envisages the p o s s i b i l i t y of maintaining the good r e p u t a t i o n which she has e s t a b l i s h e d at court by marrying her son "o Mademoiselle d'Hennebury. Madame d'Hilmorre i s c e r t a i n l y not unaware of her son 1s a t t i t u d e toward- marriage, but, as Du P l a i s i r hastens t o u n d e r l i n e , "ce F i l s e t o i t unique. I I ne pouvait se dispenser d'une a l l i a n c e . " ( I , 68) In order to e x t r i c a t e h i m s e l f from a marriage to Mademoiselle d'Englastre, the prospect of which f i l l s him w i t h h o r r o r , and i n order to maintain h i s r e p u t a t i o n at cou r t , the Due d'Estramene f e i g n s an. i n c l i n a t i o n f o r Mademoiselle . d'Hennebury, and "sans aimer, i l ne n e g l i g e o i t r i e n de tout ce q u i pouvoit j u s t i f i e r l e pretexte de son r e f u s " . ( I , 95) 84 He persuades h i m s e l f t ha t " l e temps, l e h a z a r d , ou son ad re s se l u i d o n n e r o i t des moyens de s o r t i r de sa f e i n t e avec honneur " . ( I , 92-93) De s t i ny would n o t , u n f o r t u n a t e l y , have the mat ter s o r t e d out i n such an i d e a l f a s h i o n . In the cour se of t ime , Madame d ' H i l m o r r e r e v e a l s her c a r e f u l l y c o n c e i v e d p l a n to Mademoise l le d 'Hennebury, on ly t o be t o l d by the young woman o f the marr iage f o r which Madame d 'Hennebury had hoped to g a i n r o y a l a p p r o v a l . A l though t h u n d e r s t r u c k by Mademoise l le d 'Hennebury ' s news, Madame d ' H i l m o r r e chooses not t o l e t he r son know of the young woman's p l a n s , and t o f o l l o w her o r i g i n a l p r o j e c t o f u n i t i n g i n marr iage these two young peop le who have a b s o l u t e l y no i n c l i n a t i o n whatsoever one f o r the o t h e r . The unhappy cha in of events which ensues i s based upon a m i sunder -s t a n d i n g : Mademoise l le d 'Hennebury i s under the i m p r e s s i o n t h a t the Due d ' E s t r a m e n e ' s mother w i l l s u r e l y have t o l d him o f her proposed marr iage w i th the Due d 'O l s i ngam. The r e a d e r , as an accomp l i ce to the n a r r a t o r , knows i n advance t h a t t h i s i s , u n f o r t u n a t e l y , not so . As a r e s u l t , the Due d 'Estramene i s not the on l y one o f Du P l a i s i r ' s c h a r a c t e r s to f e i g n l o v e . In o rder to a s su re h e r p e r s o n a l t r iumph over her t r u e f e e l i n g s f o r the Due d 'O l s i ngam, Mademoise l le d 'Hennebury s imu l a te s an i n c l i n a t i o n f o r the Due d 'Es t ramene, b e l i e v i n g h e r s e l f s a fe i n ' d o n n i n g t h i s mask, f o r she assumes tha t Madame d ' H i l m o r r e w i l l c e r t a i n l y have t o l d her son of the p lanned mar r i age . Ma r i onne t te s whose a c t i o n s a re c o n d i t i o n e d by the s o c i e t y of which they a re a 85 p a r t , both Mademoiselle d'Hennebury and the Due d'Estramene respond l i g h t h e a r t e d l y to each other's c o u r t s h i p , completely unaware of the consequences of t h e i r behavior; i t i s t h i s unfortunate misunderstanding which w i l l l e a d them i n t o a marriage based not on l o v e , but on the d e s i r e to keep honour and r e p u t a t i o n i n t a c t . When the Due d'Olsingam r e t u r n s to P a r i s a f t e r the b a t t l e s fought under Turenne, Mademoiselle d'Hennebury b e l i e v e s h e r s e l f f r e e t o c a r r y out the proposed marriage arrangements, f o r she deems h e r s e l f to have been s u c c e s s f u l i n d i s s i m u l a t i n g from the court the d i s r u p t i n g e f f e c t s of unsanctioned passion. But the unscrupulous Madame d'Hilmorre continues to prosecute her plan w i t h vigour. A persp i c a c i o u s observer, she b e l i e v e s that Mademoiselle d'Hennebury i s experiencing a renewal of i n t e r e s t toward her son — at l e a s t she uses t h i s p r e t ext f o r t i f i e d w i t h considerable bad f a i t h to j u s t i f y to h e r s e l f the steps which she has j u s t taken i n o b t a i n i n g r o y a l appro-b a t i o n f o r the marriage of her son wit h Mademoiselle d'Henne-bury. A f r a g i l e pawn without w o r l d l y experience i n the hands of such a c a l c u l a t i n g woman, Mademoiselle d'Hennebury r e a l i z e s that her d e c i s i o n to marry the Due d'Olsingam i s doomed. Love, j u s t i f i e d by the very i n s t a n t a n e i t y of i t s conception, l o s e s t o a self-consuming d e s i r e to keep up appearances. So ends the f i r s t volume of t h i s fast-moving n a r r a t i v e , on a tone of mutual despair, horror and even hatred, w i t h the union of 36 Mademoiselle d'Hennebury and the Due d'Estramene. " I l s trouverent que 1'importance des maux qu'ils avoient voulu ev i t e r , n'avoit aucune egalite avec ceux ou i l s etoient tombez". (I, 200) Their distaste one for the other does not, however, stop them from giving others "quelques mauvais pretextes" (I, 200) So explain t h e i r immediate estrangement. The choice of the word "pretextes" to end the narration of the f i r s t volume of La Duchesse d' Sstramen.i i s indeed f e l i c i -tous. Du P l a i s i r has chosen his vocabular;/ with care, consequently underlining the f a c t that i n ;he battle waged continually between 1'etre and l e paraitre i n t h i s frivolous and somewhat shallow s o c i a l milieu, i t i s always l e paraitre which emerges as v i c t o r . The despairing tone with which the f i r s t volume of La Duchesse d'Estramene ends continues to be .jehoed i n the opening pages of the second volume. It i s of importance to note that as we progress into the second half of the novel, al l u s i o n s to decor and to h i s t o r i c a l events become increas-i n g l y scarce; as the drama unfolds, the action becomes more int e r n a l i z e d , more psychological — another of the many ressemblances with La Princesse de Cleves. Mademoiselle d'Hennebury and her husband are thus united i n aeternam, although they hardly know each other and are completely unaware of the fact that their aversion i s mutual. Madame d'Estramene can only look upon herself with horror: "sans cesse e l l e avOit devant l e s yeux cette foy qu'elle 87 a v o i t accordee a un autre qu'au Due d'Olsingam". (II, 3) Sincere and v i r t u o u s , she considers as c r i m i n a l her thoughts concerning the man she l o v e s ; she th e r e f o r e begins to make an e f f o r t to recognize i n her husband "des soins & des complaisances dont l e coeur l e plus porte" a 1'assujetissement & a. l a passion, n'auroit jamais ete" capable". (II, 5-6) Soon, however, both the Due and the Duchesse d'Estramene r e a l i z e that n e i t h e r of them i s happy i n t h i s new arrangement, and each b e l i e v e s h i m s e l f to be the cause o f the unhappiness of the other. Unable to conceal any longer her love f o r the Due d'Olsingam, Madame d'Estramene throws h e r s e l f a t her husband's f e e t , prepared to r e v e a l her passion. This confes-s i o n i s , however, s t i f l e d by the Due d'Estramene's admission that he i s incapable of l o v i n g her, or any woman, f o r that matter. The s t a r k scene which ensues i s r i c h l y evocative; a c e r t a i n p o e t i c beauty c h a r a c t e r i z e s the tre m b l i n g remarks of the Due d'Estramene, a l l the more s i g n i f i c a n t and poignant si n c e the author i n f r e q u e n t l y allows t h i s c haracter t o express h i m s e l f i n d i r e c t d i s c o u r s e . G r e a t l y d i s t u r b e d , the Due d'Estramene sees no s o l u t i o n to h i s personal problem other than that of f l e e i n g the presence of h i s w i f e . "Je pars", he d e c l a r e s , "& je pars Egalement penetre" de l a douleur, & de vous a v o i r rendu malheureuse, & de ne pouvoir moy-mesme es t r e heureux de vous posseder". (I, 25) The immediate r e a c t i o n of Madame d'Estramene upon hearing the unexpected confession i s one of joy i n the assurance that her husband 88 i s not, as she had feared, aware of her love f o r the Due d'Olsingam. Such i s her r e l i e f i n t h i s regard that she i s scarcely aware of her husband's lack of f e e l i n g and attachment for her and for women i n general. The notable aspect of Madame d'Estramene's reasoning i s that she no longer, f o r the moment, regards her i n c l i n a t i o n f o r the Due d'Olsingam as a crime, a conclusion conditioned by the fact that her husband does not love her. Secretly, i n an apostrophe to the absent Due d'Olsingam, Madame d'Estramene utters with a ce r t a i n r e l i e f : "Je pourray me souvenir de vous, £ •U J® pourray y penser sans craindre q u ' i l m'en coute des crimes". (II, 28) The news of the Due d'Estramene's departure i s not, however, equally pleasing to Madame d'Hilmorre; she sees i n her son's rash action the imminent destruction of the reputa-t i o n which she has b u i l t up for herself at court. She i s completely unconcerned by the unhappiness which she has caused; nevertheless, as Du P l a i s i r remarks, "1'interest de sa reputation luy donnoit encor une sorte d ' a f f l i c t i o n plus pesante". (II, 35) The heroine soon r e a l i z e s however that the e r r a t i c conduct of her husband does not r e l i e v e her of her responsi-b i l i t i e s as a wife. She consequently asks her mother-in-law to leave Paris and to accompany her back to the English court, "puis qu'apparement son Mary y retournoit". (II, 37-38) In spite of her scruples regarding v i r t u e , and her acceptance of the r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of marriage, Madame d'Estramene does not 89 r e a c t toward the s i t u a t i o n e n t i r e l y . i n good f a i t h . Upon l e a r n i n g that her husband i s not i n England, she " s e n t i t quelque sor t e de repos, d'avoir s a t i s f a i t sa v e r t u , sans e s t r e exposde a une veue q u ' e l l e a v o i t entierement apprehende". Madame d'Hilmorre, normally calm and c a l c u l a t i n g , demonstrates alarm: " e l l e t r o u v o i t q u ' e l l e n ' e t o i t revenue a londres que pour e s t r e presente a. l ' e n t i e r e r u i n e de sa g l o i r e , & de l a r e p u t a t i o n q u ' e l l e a v o i t acquise". (II, 41-42) Not l a c k i n g i n experience of court l i f e , Madame d'Hilmorre i s extremely s e n s i t i v e to the way i n which a c t i o n s may be m i s i n t e r p r e t e d by others. Before l o n g , Madame d'Estramene becomes aware that she has not succeeded i n keeping secret the pro j e c t e d marriage to the Due d'Olsingam; i t i s the perspicacious Queen of England who (not u n l i k e the Dauphine i n La Princesse de  Cleves) remarks upon t h i s f a c t , and who succeeds i n making the young woman drop her fee b l e defences and betray her t r u e f e e l i n g s by a d i s p l a y of u n c o n t r o l l e d weeping. Once again, the experienced Madame d'Hilmorre comes to the rescue, to ca r r y o f f s u c c e s s f u l l y yet another of her c a r e f u l l y worked-out schemes; t h i s hardened woman of the court succeeds i n s t i f l i n g any h i n t of passion between her daughter-in-law and the Due d'Olsingam. S t i l l i n t e n t on pre s e r v i n g her own r e p u t a t i o n , Madame d'Hilmorre does not h e s i t a t e to t e l l the Queen of her son's a t t i t u d e toward women and m a r i t a l respon-s i b i l i t y , which has caused him to leave h i s wife of a few days. To the Queen, not so e a s i l y dissuaded from her i n i t i a l 90 opin i o n , Madame d'Hilmorre points out that the sadness of the Duchesse d'Estramene i s occasioned only by " l a conduite de son Mary, l a douleur d'en etr e h a i e , & d'en etr e d e l a i s s e e " . ( I I , 70) So convincing i s the argument of Madame d'Hilmorre * that the Queen ceases to pursue f u r t h e r the question and r e v i s e s as a r e s u l t her i n i t i a l o p inion; once more, Madame d'Estramene i s n e c e s s a r i l y indebted t o , and hence i n c r e a s i n g l y r e l i a n t upon, her unscrupulous mother-in-law. A f t e r being concerned p r i m a r i l y w i t h the dilemma of the w i f e , the author now s h i f t s h i s focus of p s y c h o l o g i c a l a t t e n -t i o n to the husband and to the deserted f i a n c e \ In a sm a l l I t a l i a n v i l l a g e , the Due d'Estramene and the Due d'Olsingam meet. The e f f e c t created i s s t r u c t u r a l l y and v i s u a l l y d y p t i c a l : the i r r e s p o n s i b l e husband enslaved by h i s egocen-t r i c i t y i n one panel of the p a i n t i n g , pours out the d e t a i l s of h i s personal dilemma to the noble young c o u r t i e r i n the other panel, who, arms outstretched i n understanding, o f f e r s a p o s s i b l e s o l u t i o n without r e v e a l i n g to the other h i s i d e n t i t y or h i s i n t i m a t e involvement i n the a f f a i r a t hand. The Due d'Olsingam, who has consented to l i s t e n to the Due d'Estramene: only because he f e a r s f o r the h e a l t h of Mademoiselle d'Hennebury, w i s e l y advises the Due d'Estramene to r e t u r n to h i s w i f e and to accept the r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of marriage, i n order to avoid the i n d i g n a t i o n of King and c o u r t i e r a l i k e . The fianc£ po i n t s out t o the husband "tous l e s malheurs £.\} q u i doivent e s t r e d v i t e z par un Homme d'honneur et de q u a l i t y " . ( I I , 85) Thus 91 reminded of h i s duty as a husband, the Due d'Estramene leaves I t a l y prepared to play h i s r o l e i n the show of appearances i n which he i s engaged w i t h h i s w i f e . In s p i t e of f a i l i n g h e a l t h , the Due d'Olsingam i n t u r n leaves posthaste to ensure that the Due d'Estramene does not renege on h i s promise of conjugal r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and f i d e l i t y . Once more, London becomes the s e t t i n g f o r the a c t i o n . I t i s i n the home of the heroine's brother, the Comte d'Hennebury, that two scenes take p l a c e , r i c h i n pathos l a r g e l y because of the use of d i r e c t d i s c o u r s e , a technique r a r e l y employed i n t h i s novel. In the f i r s t of these two scenes, Madame d'Bstramene a r r i v e s at her brother's home to f i n d , to her great s u r p r i s e , the Due d'Olsingam i n bed, gravely i l l and near death. A l l r e s o l u t i o n s of r e n u n c i a t i o n are broken as soon as the heroine's eyes perceive once again the Due d'Olsingam. We witness the re-enactment of the scene i n the J a r d i n du Roy. In s p i t e of the p h y s i c a l changes brought about i n the Due d'Olsingam by h i s recent i l l n e s s , Madame d'Estramene recognizes i n her f i a n c e "ces mesmes t r a i t s , dont l a premiere veue 1'avoit touched pour l e r e s t e de ses j o u r s , & dont l e souvenir t r o p n a t u r e l & t r o p aimable, l u y c o u t o i t sans cesse tant de combats, c r u e l s & i n u t i l e s " . ( I I , 104-105) The young w i f e speaks to the Due d'Olsingam of the "profondeur de l'abysme" ( I I , 118) i n t o which she has been p r e c i p i t a t e d because of her i n c l i n a t i o n f o r him. S t i l l concerned w i t h her personal r e p u t a t i o n and the estime i n which she i s held at co u r t , 92 Madame d'Estramene f e a r s that t h e i r l o v e , which s t i l l p e r s i s t s , and the f a c t that they have seen each other, w i l l be found out. "Vous pouvez vous representer f j . ce que me peut couter v o t r e veue du cote de ma g l o i r e ; mais vous ne pouvez concevoir ce q u ' e l l e me coutera du cote de ma tendresse", she exclaims. ( I I , 121) The only p o s s i b l e s o l u t i o n which Madame d'Estramene envisages at t h i s time i s f l i g h t . She th e r e f o r e asks the Due d'Olsingam to leave England as soon as he has s u f f i c i e n t l y regained h i s strength. When the l a t t e r r e p l i e s that he w i l l not have need to leave the country, f o r h i s death i s imminent, Madame d'Estramene breaks once more her r e s o l u t i o n not to give i n to her f e e l i n g s and throws h e r s e l f upon him "toute eperdue", a dramatic gesture, e f f e c t i v e because i t i s r a r e i n t h i s very r e s t r a i n e d work. The Due d'Olsingam reads i n t o t h i s f r e n e t i c , desperate movement a si n c e r e d e s i r e on the part of Madame d'Estramene that he should not d i e , and, more importantly, the r e v e l a t i o n that h i s love i s r e c i p r o c a t e d . Burning w i t h fever and f e e l i n g death draw ever c l o s e r , he asks Madame d'Estramene not to p i t y him: " j e ne s u i s plus malheureux puisque je s£ay que vous ne m'avez jamais hay; & s i je ne puis vous aimer longtemps, au moins emporteray-je l a c o n s o l a t i o n de vous a v o i r aimee jusqu'au d e r n i e r moment de ma v i e " . ( I I , 139-140) Fearing that her presence w i l l augment the s u f f e r i n g of the Due d'Olsingam, Madame d'Estramene leaves her brother's house, l i t t l e aware of the f a c t that she has seen her former f i a n c e f o r the l a s t time. 93 Shortly af t e r the departure of Madame d'Estramene, the Comte d'Hennebury sees his brother-in-law ar r i v e on the scene. The Due d'Sstrarnene i s of course surprised to see i n England, and especially at the home of the Comte d'Hennebury, the melancholy, a i l i n g courtier with whom he had recently talked i n Savoy. Without naming himself, the Due d'Olsingam explains to the Due d'Estramene his. engagement with Mademoiselle d'Hennebury. Magnanimous and s e l f l e s s , the Due d'Olsingam emphasizes again the necessity of keeping up a pretense to Madame d'Estramene, and counsels the Due d'Estramene that h i s only task i s the following: "aimer, & aimer une Personne que toute l a terre adore". (II, 149) Content i n the knowledge that Madame d'Sstrarnene w i l l no longer suffer as a r e s u l t of unjust conduct on the part of her husband, the Due d'Olsingam dies i n a s a i n t l y fashion which harmonizes with the i d e a l i z a t i o n of his character. The r e l i g i o u s vocabulary which Du P l a i s i r uses to narrate the death scene serves to underline the pious dignity of thi s character, more pure perhaps than any common mortal could hope to be. After his death, "ses yeux, sans avoir cet a i r affreux de l a mort, demeurerent elevez au C i e l avec une douceur qui temoignoit bien que son ame dans cette separation n'avoit point ete troubiee par l e remords d'une conscience malheureuse". (II, 152-153) The ending of the second volume i s unfortunately marred by the moralizing attitude of the author. The Due d'Estramene, we are t o l d , begins to accept his r e s p o n s i b i l i t y toward his 94 w i f e , who i s i n tu r n g r a t e f u l to him f o r the e f f o r t which he makes, and f e e l s consequently the beginning of "une v e r i t a b l e a f f e c t i o n " f o r him. The reader i s l e f t w i t h the d i s t i n c t impression that the author f i n d s more worthy a marriage based on mutual esteem than a union based on a coup de foudre; the Due and the Duchesse d'Bstramene, according t o Du P l a i s i r , "par ces mutuels egards formaient dans l e u r s coeurs une ami t i e egale a l'estime q u ' i l [ s i c ] avoient l ' u n pour 1'autre. Cette a m i t i e augmentoit tous l e s j o u r s , & e l l e est aujourd'huy en un e"tat qui peut bien montrer que l a r a i s o n & l a v e r t u peuvent former des noeuds a u s s i f o r t s que ceux qui sont formez par 1 ' i n c l i n a t i o n l a plus v i o l e n t e & l a plus n a t u r e l l e " . ( I I , 185-186) The work thus ends on a somewhat honeyed note, w i t h a d e p i c t i o n of the happy couple l i v i n g not at cou r t , but, s i g n i f i c a n t l y , i n a house i n the London suburbs, "avec c e t t e douceur & c e t t e paix que l' o n goute dans l e s Mariages q u i sont 1'ouvrage du C i e l " . Rather than take her place i n s o c i e t y , and thereby r i s k having her every a c t i o n observed and m i s i n t e r -preted, Du P l a i s i r ' s heroine chooses the i s o l a t i o n of country l i f e , where the presence of her husband w i l l , she t h i n k s , prevent her from pondering on a past which has f o r her c r i m i n a l i m p l i c a t i o n s . I t i s to be noted that the l a s t p o r t r a i t we have of Madame d'Estramene i s that of a young woman l a n g u i s h i n g away. The author a t t r i b u t e s t h i s languor not to "quelque r e s t e d ' a f f e c t i o n " f o r the Due d'Olsingam, but, r a t h e r , to " l a honte d'avoir 6t6 un temps sans aimer son Mary". ( I I , 190) On t h i s note, not e n t i r e l y convincing, the novel ends. 96 CHAPTER I: FOOTNOTES "•"(Paris, 1678). 2 "L'Art de 1'analyse dans La Princesse de Cleves." Cahiers de L i t t e r a t u r e . mai 1966, pp. 15-17. 'La Princesse de Cleves." Forme et s i g n i f i c a t i o n : e s s a i s sur l e s s t r u c t u r e s l i t t e r a i r e s de C o r n e i l l e a Cl a u d e l ( P a r i s , 196477 pp. 17-44. 97 CHAPTER I I NARRATIVE TECHNIQUE We might begin our d i s c u s s i o n of n a r r a t i v e technique w i t n a remark by Georges Poulet regarding La Prin c e s s e de Cleves. He contends that the aim of Madame de La Fayette i s to e s t a b l i s h the r e l a t i o n s h i p between passion and existence,"*" and that the main question f o r which she endeavours t o f i n d a r e p l y i n La Princesse de Cleves i s the f o l l o w i n g : Comment e t a b l i r ou r e t a b l i r une c o n t i n u i t y dans 1'existence parmi 1 ' i r r u p t i o n anar-chique et d e s t r u c t i v e , l a d i s c o n t i n u i t e r a d i c a l e ^ q u i est 1'essence meme de l a passion? Poulet's remarks could p e r t a i n as w e l l to La Duchesse d'Estramene. The heroine's moral dilemma c o n s i s t s e s s e n t i a l l y i n her having to come to terms w i t h her f e e l i n g s f o r the Due d'Olsingam, f e e l i n g s which have so to speak broken the con-t i n u i t y of her existence and rendered her unable to f u n c t i o n i n a s o c i e t y b u i l t on e x t e r n a l . d i s p l a y . Thus, La Duchesse d'Estramene i s , l i k e La Princesse de Cleves, a novel of " v i s i o n " i n which the element of time plays a d e c i s i v e r o l e : l o v e born of the i n i t i a l glance shared by two persons i s i r r e v e r s i b l e and without a past. The drama of Mademoiselle d'Hennebury about to unfold i n Du P l a i s i r ' s two t h i n volumes could be c a l l e d a drama of observer and observed, f o r once love has i n s t a l l e d i t s e l f i n the heart of the heroine, no longer w i l l i t be p o s s i b l e f o r her to hide i t from others any more than from h e r s e l f , f o r j>assion which ov e r - r u l e s reason di s o r g a n i z e s on the p h y s i c a l l e v e l as w e l l . J.-P. S a r t r e has 98 defined h e l l as omnipresent observers, "others". In La Duchesse d'Estramene h e l l i s unquestionably the caged f e e l i n g experienced by man forced to play a r o l e i n a r e s t r i c t i v e s o c i a l s e t t i n g , but more s p e c i f i c a l l y , i t i s the absence of others, f o r s o l i t a r y confinement i n s t i g a t e s on the part of Du P l a i s i r ' s heroine an uncomfortably n a r c i s s i s t i c descent i n t o the s e l f . A comparison w i t h Pascal's conception of d i v e r t i s s e -ment i s p e r t i n e n t i n Du P l a i s i r ' s n ovel; the h e l l of Madame d'Estramene i s p r e c i s e l y that of man as P a s c a l d e f i n e s him: v an e x i l e who becomes aware of the misery of the human c o n d i t i o n the moment he i s without d i v e r s i o n s . Du P l a i s i r presents us i n the opening pages of h i s work w i t h the p o r t r a i t of a young woman who has never experienced l o v e : " i l l u y e t o i t a i s e de reposer confidemment sur l e naissant etat de son coeur. E l l e i g n o r o i t encore l a f o r c e des i n c l i n a t i o n s , & e l l e eust ete bien eloigned de c r a i n d r e que l ' o n pust a v o i r plus que de l'estime pour un Homme qu'on n'a point veu". ( I , 2 1 ) He questions i n f a c t the precieux lov e e t h i c , according to which reason, choice and connaissance of the beloved determine the blossoming of passion. As Poulet points out, f o r the P.ambouillet group " l ' o n n'aime que ce qu'on admire, et l ' o n n'admire que ce que l'on connait deja". Such i s not the contention expressed by Du P l a i s i r . From the moment h i s heroine r e a l i z e s the overwhelming s i g n i -f i c a n c e of f e e l i n g s aroused when she f i r s t sees the Due d'Olsingam, the l i n e a r movement of La Duchesse d'Sstrarnene i s 99 c h a r a c t e r i z e d by what cou ld g r a p h i c a l l y be i l l u s t r a t e d as a s p i r a l descent i n t ime. I t i s by the r e p e t i t i o n o f t h i s s e r i e s of c i r c u l a r movements tha t Du P l a i s i r i s a b l e to f u se the s t r u c t u r e o f h i s work and the meaning he endeavours t o impar t t o h i s r e a d e r . One cannot then speak of a c h r o n o l o g i c a l p r o g r e s s i o n o f events i n La Duchesse d 'E s t ramene. Bernard P ingaud ' s remarks on the use o f t ime as a l i t e r a r y techn ique by Madame de L a F a y e t t e a re a p p l i c a b l e a l s o to Du P l a i s i r ' s work. Speak ing o f the h e r o i n e ' s g r adua l s e l f - d i s c o v e r y i n r e l a t i o n to her f i r s t encounter w i t h Nemours, he notes t h a t : I I n ' y aura pas de progres a proprement p a r l e r : Mime de C l eve s n 'a ime pas davan -tage Nemours a. l a f i n du l i v r e q u ' a u debut . Seulement, e l l e se c o n n a i t mieux. Au l i e u de se p r e s e n t e r comme un i t i n e r a i r e j a l onne par des a c q u i s i t i o n s s u c c e s s i v e s qu i p rovoquera ien t autant de changements dans l e s personnages, l ' h i s t o i r e de 1*amour s e r a done c e l l e d 'une d^couverte que 1'heroine a ccomp l i t en quelque s o r t e sur p l a c e . Chaque e f f o r t q u ' e l l e f e r a pour a b o l i r l 'evenement i n i t i a l ne s e r v i r a q u ' a l e rendre p lu s p r e s t i g i e u x . L 'amour n ' y gagnera r i e n , s i non l a con sc i ence de p lu s en p l u s e f f r a y a n t e de ses f a i b l e s s e s . Les Ep i sodes s u c c e s s i f s de c e t t e d^couverte sont l e s etapes d 'une descente h e s i t a n t e , dou loureuse ; chacun d ' eux r £ p e t e exactement c e l u i q u i l ' a p recede , a un n i v e a u p l u s p ro fond.4 A c l o s e d , c e l l u l a r t ime, i n which the o rde r o f events i s o f l e s s importance than t h e i r r e p e t i t i o n , such i s the p r i s o n to which Madame D 'Estramene, t oo , i s c o n f i n e d by her l o v e f o r the Due d 'O l s ingam. Whi le we cannot t r a c e a c h r o n o l o g i c a l p r o g r e s s i o n o f the 100 development of love i n La Duchesse d'Estramene, we can, as G. Poulet has done f o r La Princesse de Cleves, d i s t i n g u i s h an accumulation of successive experiences and s e l f - d i s c o v e r i e s on the part of the c e n t r a l character. Poulet remarks th a t i n La Princesse de Cleves t h i s simultaneous movement "s'accomplit en une double s e r i e d'etapes d i s t i n c t e s , dont chacune a son caractere propre mais qui ont toutes pour t r a i t commun l a p r i o r i t y du movement du coeur sur c e l u i de 1 ' e s p r i t " . Each time the heroine re-experiences the moment of i n i t i a l encounter w i t h the beloved, she discovers something new about her f e e l i n g s while simultaneously r e a l i z i n g that she i s powerless to c o n t r o l these f e e l i n g s which she i s experiencing: C'est connaitre que l'o n ne peut pas ne pas aimer, connaitre qu'on n'est pas maitre de ses sentiments, puis qu'on n'est plus maitre de ses gestes, n i de son vis a g e , . n i de ses paroles; puis c'est connaitre qu'on ne peut plus c o n n a i t r e , que l a conscience se t r o u b l e , que l e centre de l a c i t a d e l l e est deja comme l e r e s t e , entre l e s mains de l'ennemi." There remains but one road open to the woman condemned because of her i n c l i n a t i o n to her own p r i v a t e h e l l : c o n fession of the secret to her husband. This i s the s o l u t i o n adopted by both the heroines of Madame de La Payette and Du P l a i s i r , i n an attempt to r e g a i n what Poulet c a l l s " c e t t e c o n t i n u i t y de s o i , c e t t e f i d e l i t y a. s o i , qui font de l a v i e , non un chaos 7 d ' i n s t a n t s mais une u n i t e temporelle". The only means by which the heroine can a r r e s t her s p i r a l descent i n t o the moral abyss to which she r e f e r s w i t h t r e p i d a t i o n i s to f o r b i d 101 h e r s e l f v i s u a l access to the beloved. This s o r t of d e p r i v a t i o n i s the only guarantee f o r the t r a n q u i l l i t y of the s o u l . The question of the use of time as a t e c h n i c a l device by Du P l a i s i r i s r e l a t e d to that of a u t h o r i a l presence. For t h i s reason, i t should be f u r t h e r examined i n connection w i t h the c r e a t i v e process and the work created, Du P l a i s i r the author and the personages who i n h a b i t h i s c r e a t i v e world. Before examining the s p e c i f i c methods which Du P l a i s i r uses to present h i s characters and to h i g h l i g h t t h e i r i n t e r -r e l a t i o n s h i p s , l e t us look at two aspects of n a r r a t i v e technique which merit e l u c i d a t i o n : the r o l e of the author and h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p to h i s work, and, f o l l o w i n g t h i s , p o i n t of view and temporal awareness. Two terms which should be defined at t h i s point are "summary" and "scene". A c l e a r d e f i n i t i o n of "summary" and i t s purpose i s given by F i e l d i n g i n Tom Jones: We intend i n i t [the novel] r a t h e r to pursue the method of those w r i t e r s who profess to dispose the r e v o l u t i o n s of c o u n t r i e s , than to i m i t a t e the p a i n f u l and voluminous h i s t o r i a n , who, to preserve the r e g u l a r i t y of h i s s e r i e s , t h i n k s h i m s e l f obliged to f i l l up as much paper w i t h the d e t a i l s of months and years i n which nothing remarkable happened, as he employs upon those notable eras when the greatest scenes have been transacted on the human stage. Such h i s t o r i e s as these do i n r e a l i t y very much resemble a news-paper, which c o n s i s t s of j u s t the same number of words, whether there be any news i n i t or not. . . Now i t i s our purpose i n the ensuing pages to pursue a contrary method: when 102 any e x t r a o r d i n a r y scene presents i t s e l f , as we t r u s t w i l l often be the case, we s h a l l spare no pains nor paper to open i t at l a r g e to our reader; but i f whole years should pass without producing any-t h i n g worthy of h i s n o t i c e , we s h a l l not be a f r a i d of a chasm i n our h i s t o r y , but s h a l l hasten on to matters of consequence. (Book I I , chapter i . ) Good w r i t e r s w i l l , indeed, do w e l l to i m i t a t e the ingenious t r a v e l l e r . . . who always proportions h i s stay at any place t o the beauties, elegances, and c u r i o s i t i e s which i t a f f o r d s . o (Book XI, chapter i x . ) "Summary" i s then the method of a u t h o r i a l commentary used when a n o v e l i s t wishes to convey to h i s reader events which took place over a r e l a t i v e l y l o n g space of time, but which, i n themselves, do not merit a p r e c i s e d e s c r i p t i o n . A f u r t h e r refinement of t h i s term i s provided by P h y l l i s Bentley, who points out that summary can go "down the s l i d i n g s c a l e of q s p e c i f i c i t y towards the scene", quoting as an example the f o l l o w i n g passage from Storm Jameson's The Lovely Ship: Mary spent her f i r s t week i n London very q u i e t l y . She v i s i t e d a few shops, but f o r the most part she stayed i n her rooms, and read, or thought of John. . . . At the end of a week she wanted a c t i o n . She ordered h e r s e l f a plum-coloured h a b i t and h i r e d a horse and a groom t o r i d e w i t h her i n the P a r k . 1 0 As Bentley points out, we see that the f i r s t two sentences i n the above e x t r a c t present a h i g h l y condensed summary, the f o l l o w i n g sentences l e s s so. In the sentence immediately f o l l o w i n g the l a s t sentence quoted above, a s p e c i f i c time i s given by the author, and a "scene" i s described ("The morning 103 of her f i r s t r i d e was c o l d . . . " ) . • A s i m i l a r technique i s used by Du P l a i s i r as he begins h i s tale* and introduces h i s characters to the reader: Jamais l a Prance n'a paru o.vec tant de grandeur, que pandant ces dernieres guerres. Ses succes ^ g a l o i e n t ses dessexns. E l l e seule f a i s o i t sa f o r c e contre 1'Europe presque e n t i e r e ; & l e s Couronnes q u i ne s'e t o i e n t point d e c l a r e s , ses <;nnemies, ne l a regardoient qu'avec inquietude. D'Angleterre j o u i s s o i t a l o r s d'un repos que ses V o i s i n s n'osoient plus esperer. Ce repos ne f a i s o i t pas un bonheu* aux jeunes Seigneuru. L'Admiration que l o u r donnoit l e b r u i t de nos conquestes, le** i n t e r e s s o i t pour nou : 5 ; & honteux de v i v r e o a i s i b l e s en un temps ou. i l s pouvoient acqu ,>rir de I'honneur, i l s b r u l o i e n t d'estre dans nos Armees. Ce n ' e t o i t que t r i s t e ^ s e a. l a Cour dans 1 ' e s p r i t de l a plus jrande p a r t i e des Meres, l a tendresse d e p l o / o i t a. l e u r imagination toutes l e s a s s i s t a n c e s dont l e u r s P i l s pouvoient a v o i r bes \>in par l e s dangers de l a guerre; & quelques-unes de c e l l e s q u i e t o i e n t demeurees Ve ives, r e s o l u r e n t de l e s accompagner jusqu'oii l a bienseance p o u r r o i t l e permettre. La Contesse d'Hennebury, & l a Contesse d'Hilmorre, furent de ce nombre. (I, 1-4) Du P l a i s i r f i r s t of a l l sets the scene h i s t o r i c a l l y , i n a s u c c i n c t i n t r o d u c t o r y paragraph. He then becomes more s p e c i -f i c i n d e s c r i b i n g the f e e l i n g s experienced by the young E n g l i s h noblemen wi t h regard to the s i t u a t i o n , and a l s o the f e e l i n g s of sadness which the mothers of these young s o l d i e r s were undergoing. Then s p e c i f i c characters are mentioned, and i n the paragraphs which f o l l o w , these two mothers are des-c r i b e d i n d e t a i l p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y ; e v e n t u a l l y , other characters are introduced, and t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r r e l a t i o n s h i p to e i t h e r 1 0 4 m a t r i a r c h a l camp i s described. We see that "summary" as used by Jameson and by Du P l a i s i r i n h i s opening pages are not' i d e n t i c a l but, r a t h e r , p a r a l l e l i n form. Whereas Jameson d i r e c t s her summary toward a "scene" i n v o l v i n g one ch a r a c t e r , Du P l a i s i r summarizes the background c f h i s t a l e c h r o n o l o g i -c a l l y and h i s t o r i c a l l y i n order to go.on.to the d e s c r i p t i o n of the a c t i o n s end a t t i t u d e s of s e v e r a l characters w i t h i n that h i s t o r i c a l framework. Du P l a i s i i does however use summary i n a s i m i l a r way to Jameson when he introduces scenes other then t h i s i n i t i a l p r e s e n t a t i o n of general s e t t i n g . Numerous examples may be found i n the t e x t . Lr-.t us take f o r instance the beginning pages of volume two. The p a i n f u l experience of the young couple during the e a r l y day:' of marriage i s summarized, i n the f o l l o w i n g f a s h i o n by Du P l a i s i r : Le Due d'Estramene 8c sa Femme passerent ensemble quelques j o u r s ; mair. i l s l e s passerent dans un accablement p i r e m i l l e f o i s que l a plus cruelle-des--union. La t r i s t e s s e donx i l s e t o i e n t pnnetrez* l e s empeschoit d'avoir de 1 ' a t t e n t i o n 1'un pour 1'autre, & i l s ignoroiei'.t que l e u r a v e r s i o n e t o i t mutuelle. Madame d'Estramene a v o i t horreur d'elle-meme. Sans cesse e l l e a v o i t devant l e s yeux c e t t e foy q u ' e l l e a v o i t accordee a un autre qu'au Due d'Olsingam; mais e n f i n , quelque d i s s i p e e q u ' e l l e f u s t par sa douleur & par sa tendresse, e l l e r e v i n T ; b i e n t o s t a ces sentimens de sagesse & d ' a u s t e r i t e qui l u y e t o i e n t s i n a t u r e l s . E l l e v i t q u ' e l l e e t o i t entree dans un etat q u i l u y f a i s o i t un crimn de l a moindre d i s t r a c t i o n de son e s p r i t envers l e Due d'Olsingam, &.qu'apres a v o i r tant appre-hende d'estre soupgonnee de peu d ' a f f l i -c t i o n pour l a mort de sa Mere, & de peu de respect pour l e s volontez de l a Reyne, 105 e l l e p a r o i t r o i t avec une v i o l e n t e • i n c l i n a t i o n pour un a u t r e cue pour un . Mary. E l l e t a c h a de se l i r e q u ' e l l e ne d e v o i t p o i n t s ' e s t i m e r malheureuse d ' a v o i r epouse l e Due d'Sstramene. E l l e se s o u v i n t que l a d i s t i n c t i o n q u ' i l a v o i t eue pour e l l e a v o i t e t e soutenue par des s o i n s & des c o m p l a i s a n c e s dont l e coeur l e p l u s p o r t e a 1 ' a s s u j e t i s s e m e n t & a. l a p a s s i o n , n ' a u r o i t j a m a i s e t e c a p a b l e ; mais s u r t o u t e l l e admira l a c o n s i d e r a t i o n q u ' i l a v o i t eue de ne l u y a v o i r p o i n t marque de r e s s e n t i m e n t pour l e peu d'agrement & de t e n d r e s s e q u ' e l l e l u y a v o i t temoigne d e p u i s l e u r mariage; & c e t egarci l u y p a r u t d'un p r i x i n f i n y en veue de I'embarras ou. e l l e s e r o i t tombee, s i e l l e a v o i t e t e exposee a. des reproch.es. A u s s i t o s t q u ' e l l e cemmenga a se c c n t r a i n d r e s u r une a f f l i c t i o n q u i I ' e l o i g n o i t t r o p de l u y , e l l e s'apper-, ceut q u ' i l e t o i t luy-mesme m o r t e l l e m e n t a i f l i g e . E l l e s e n t i t a l o r s 1'imprudence q u ' e l l e a v o i t eue de s'abandonner a i n s i aux •mcuvemens de son coeur; & persuadee d ' a v o i r cause par l e t o r r e n t de s a t e n d r e s s e & de s a d o u l e u r l ' e t a t ou. e l l e l e v o y o i t , e l l e se t r o u v a malheureuse d ; a v o i r connu l e Due d'Olsingam, & i l s'en f a l l o i t peu q u ' e l l e ne c r u s t l e h a i r . E l l e ne put s u p o r t e r l a pensee que son Mary eusx l i e u de c h e r c h e r l a cause q u i l a r e n d o i t s i t r i s t e . ; & dans l e s remors que . . l u y d o n n o i t son i n c l i n a t i o n , e l l e c r u t q u ' e l l e p o u r r o i t sans p e i n e p r e n d r e aupres de l u y des apparences p l u s f a v o r a b l e s & o l u s o b l i g e a n t e s . ( I I , 2-8) The n a r r a t c r then mentions a s p e c i f i c e v e n t , t h e a r r i v a l o f "une l e t t r e cue son E r e r e l u y [Madame d'Estramene] a v o i t e c r i t e " (II, 8-9) which s e r v e s as a p o i n t o f d e p a r t u r e f o r a d e t a i l e d n a r r a t i v e o f a s p e c i f i c a c t i o n , o r scene, i n w h i c h "on v i t p l e u r e r ["Madame d'Bstramene] a u t a n t que. s i e l l e a v o i t eu un deluge de p l e u r s a. r e p a n d r e , & e l l e p a r u t avec des s a i s i s s e m e n s & des t r a n s p o r t s q u i donnerent de c r u e l s remors 106 au Due d'Sstrarnene." ( I I , 11) As wa examine more f u l l y t i e structure of l a Duchesse d'Bstrameae, we see that Du P l a i s i r uses alternately scene and summary (or what Percy -Bub .lock c a l l s "retrospect") to move hack and fort h i n time as he relates his t a l e . Any information regarding a character's past history i s given i n a terse, schematic sketch involving the bare minimum of d e t a i l . Perhaps the most s t r i k i n g example of t h i s stark narration i s found i n Du Plaisir'-s a l l u s i o n to the background of the Due d'Olsingam, who i s introduced i n two sentences: l e Due d'Olsingam, apres avoir perdu son Pere & sa Mere dans ui_ age ou. a peine i l pouvoit estre sensible a cette.perte, e t o i t venu en Prance, & avoit tres-peu repas3e a. londres. Son Pere"1 mourut pendant l e s derniers troubles d'Angleterre, dans un danger d' ou. i l vouloit oter l e Mary de Madame d' fienneburv,. ( I , 15-16) Sumiiary, then, as used to convey h i s t o r i c a l background i s employed infrequently as a narrative technique by Du P l a i s i r . It. i s used rather to form a t r a n s i t i o n between events experienced contemporaneously by the characters, and a l i n k between these events i s automatically created i n the mind of the reader. A d i s t i n c t i o n must be made between these two d e f i n i t i o n s of summary, fo r the second could more pre-c i s e l y be l a b e l l e d "description", while the f i r s t conveys only the idea of the imparting of h i s t o r i c a l or background data. 2he balance between scene and summary (i n the sense of "description") i s le s s harmonious as the novel draws to a 107 close, f o r at the end of the second volume i n p a r t i c u l a r , Du P l a i s i r uses more and mora frequently, d i r e c t discourse to convey the thoughts of his characters. Having evaluated to what extent or i n what proportion Du P l a i s i r uses commentary (description), summary and scene, we w i l l now concern ourselves with the point of view from which he presents these scenes, and what techniques he uses i n so doing. For an enlightening discussion of point of view, one may turn to Wayne C. Booth's essay e n t i t l e d "Distance and Point-of-View: An Essay i n Clas s i f i c a t i o n . " ' 1 " 1 The f i r s t point dealt with by Booth concerns the narrator of the t a l e . The narrator,' according to Booth, may be either dramatized or undramatized; the dranatized narrator ("I" or "We") i s always (and the undramatized narrator usually) d i s t i n c t from 12 the implied author who gi ves them being. The implied author i s i n f a c t a sort of "second s e l f " , d i s t i n c t from and more kncwledgea.ble than the r e a l man. But most important of a l l , as Booth continues to elaborate, are the "unacknowledged narrators": many dramatized narrators are never l a b e l l e d as such, yet are used by the author to impart knowledge to the 13 reader while seemingly acting out t h e i r r o l e s . These t h i r d -person "centres of consciousness" (called " r e f l e c t o r s " by Henry James) f i l l the function of avowed narrators; i t i s through them that the author f i l t e r s his narrative. 1^" Following Booth 1s^terminology, the narrator of l a Duchesse d'Estramene can be said to be undramatized. 108 A l t e r n a t i n g h i s commentary w i t h scenes or summaries i n which th i r d - p e r s o n unacknowledged narrator-agents take p a r t , he i s able to present from various points of view and from v a r i o u s distances the dilemma of h i s heroine. What d i s t i n g u i s h e s the undramatized n a r r a t o r from the narrator-agents i n La Duchesse d 1Estramene i s the extent to which t h e i r knowledge of the s i t u a t i o n i s l i m i t e d . The undramatized n a r r a t o r of La  Duchesse d'Estramene i s omniscient, that i s , he has complete p r i v i l e g e to know before h i s c e n t r a l character does what she or the other characters could not l e a r n by s t r i c t l y n a t u r a l means. The observers or narrator-agents, on the other hand, have t h e i r perception l i m i t e d to probable v i s i o n and i n f e r e n c e . The most important s i n g l e p r i v i l e g e of a l l , that of o b t a i n i n g an i n s i d e view of the workings of the c e n t r a l character's mind, belongs to the undramatized n a r r a t o r alone. Let us look more c l o s e l y at some examples of Du P l a i s i r ' s use of moving point of view to h i g h l i g h t s y s t e m a t i c a l l y a p s y c h o l o g i c a l dilemma which could best be described as a s e r i e s of moments of awareness, p a i n f u l because they come as a p o s t e r i o r i acknowledgements of the v i c t o r y of passion over reason. The character whose p s y c h o l o g i c a l dilemma w i l l f i l l two volumes i s f i r s t presented by the undramatized n a r r a t o r , who notes the r e a c t i o n caused by the young woman's p h y s i c a l beauty i n the eyes of the Queen who, "quelque accoutumee q u ' e l l e f u s t a v o i r des Beautez p a r f a i t e s , n'avoit jamais pu regarder 109 Mademoiselle d'Hennebury sans un extreme etonnement." (I, 11-12.) Du P l a i s i r continues to maintain a c e r t a i n d i s t a n c e between h i s c e n t r a l character and him s e l f and between h i s c e n t r a l character and h i s reader by next commenting upon her r e a c t i o n s , again as a p r i v i l e g e d observer, the undramatized n a r r a t o r . Before the p o r t r a i t of the Due d'Olsingam, the na r r a t o r remarks, " e l l e entra dans un eta t q ui l u y eust donne de s e n s i b l e s d e p l a i s i r s , s i e l l e se f u s t examinee. E l l e aimoit l a g l o i r e . E l l e a v o i t travaill£ a s'acquerir une p a r f a i t e estime, avant mesme q u ' e l l e en pust connoistre l e p r i x ; & e l l e e t o i t d e l i c a t e sur l a r e p u t a t i o n , jusqu'a trembler & etr e embarassee dans l e s a c t i o n s l e s plus i n d i f e r -entes C sic3." (I» 20-21) Because Du P l a i s i r has delegated t o the undramatized n a r r a t o r the power of omniscience, he i s able to know and to impart to the reader, before the heroine h e r s e l f i s conscious of i t , the e f f e c t which passion has already had i n her heart. Moving from the periphery of the p o r t r a i t which he i s gr a d u a l l y b u i l d i n g up of Mademoiselle d'Hennebury, Du P l a i s i r next adopts the o p t i c a l . p o s i t i o n of an observer whose comments regarding the heroine's r e a c t i o n s are considerably more personal than those of the Queen, namely Madame d'Hennebury. Du P l a i s i r has not yet endowed h i s c e n t r a l character w i t h d i r e c t d i s c o u r s e , or even w i t h thoughts expressed through s o l i l o q u y , yet he i s able t o convey her gradual awakening to love by viewing her from the angle of the mother whose thoughts 110 he i s able to penetrate because he i s omniscient: Madame d'Hennebury remarqua b i e n - t o s t quelque chan^ement dans 1'humeur de sa F i l l e & peu a peu ,\a causa d'ou i l p a r t o i t . E l l e eust bien voulu l u y apprendre que ce q u ' e l l e s e n t o i t , e s t o i t un panchant; mais e l l e c r a i g n o i t qui; sa tendresse & sa p i t i e ne l u y l a i s s a s s o n t pas l a f o r c e de l e con-damner. E l l o c r a i g n i t de l u y f a i r e perdre de sa confiance & de son a m i t i e , par l a douleur de s a v o i r qu'on l u y a v o i t remarque une f o i b l e s s f ; . I I l u y sembla, dans l a connoissance q u ' e l l e a v o i t de son humeur, que l a c r a i n ; e de pouvoir e s t r e blamee d e t r u i r o i t c o t t e impression avant l e r e t o u r du Due d' 01s;.ngam. Enf i n e l l e r e s o l u t d'attendre ei.cor, & de d i s s i m u l e r . ( I , 22-24) The above mentioned f o c a l angles or points of view adopted by the author have om- common aspect, although they d i f f e r i n the distance which, the n a r r a t o r maintains between him s e l f and h i s c e n t r a l c h a r a c t e r ; i n a l l of them, the n a r r a t o r ' s perception i s greater than that of Mademoiselle d'Hennebury, i n that she h e r s e l f i f not yet aware of the s i g n i f i c a n c e of the f e e l i n g s which she i s experiencing f o r the Due d'Olsingam. She i s conscious that she ..is undergoing a change p s y c h o l o g i -c a l l y , , but she does net yet comprehend the import of that change f o r h e r s e l f . Constantly moving toward a point at which consciousness and comprehension w i l l c o i n c i d e i n the mind of Mademoiselle d'Hennebury, Du P l a i s i r uses the device of the l e t t e r to evoke t h i s f i r s t moment of awareness f o r the heroine. A c t i n g i n h i s c a p a c i t y as omniscient commentator, the n a r r a t o r t e l l s us: I l l L'exces de t r i s t e s s e & de f r a y e u r avec l e q u e l Mademoiselle d'Hennebury l u t c e t t e L e t t r e , l u y donna l i e u de penser pour l a premiere f o i s a s'examiner. Ses c r a i n t e s & ses larmes ne l u y parurent point e s t r e uniquement pour un Frere. E l l e se souvint de toute 1 * a t t e n t i o n & de tout 1 ' i n t e r e s t avec l e s q u e l s e l l e a v o i t nouvellement porte ses pensees vers l e Due d'Olsingam. Toutes choses e n f i n l u y marquerent l a pente que son coeur a v o i t deja, p r i s e . ( I , 29-30) The opposing adverbs ("enfin", "de"ja") w i t h which the above commentary ends serve t o h i g h l i g h t the profound e f f e c t which t h i s i n i t i a l moment of temporal awareness has f o r Mademoiselle d'Hennebury. What measures w i l l she take, now that she i s aware of the s i g n i f i c a n c e of her f e e l i n g s f o r the Due d'Olsingam? The n a r r a t o r observes, s h o r t l y a f t e r t h i s scene, that " e l l e p a r l o i t peu. II l u y sembloit q u ' e l l e ne p a r l o i t plus sans l a i s s e r v o i r quelque desordre." (I, 33-34) The n a r r a t o r has now focussed on the centre of the p o r t r a i t which he i s presenting from d i f f e r e n t angles; he has conveyed to the reader the p s y c h o l o g i c a l awareness which the c e n t r a l character has of her p a r t i c u l a r s i t u a t i o n and, sub-sequently, the measures which she knows that she must take i n order not to have her f e e l i n g s discovered by the co u r t . At t h i s point i n the development of the a c t i o n of La Duchesse d'Estramene. a d e f i n i t e " p a t t e r n " , to use E.M. 15 F o r s t e r ' s terminology, becomes apparent i n the novel's s t r u c t u r e . By " p a t t e r n " , F o r s t e r means that i f we compare the novel to a p i c t o r i a l o b ject, a t a n g i b l e s t r u c t u r e , which 112 draws i t s nourishment from the p l o t , remains " v i s i b l e " even a f t e r the p l o t i t s e l f has gone from the r e a d e r ' s m i n d . 1 ^ The " p a t t e r n " which deve lops i n Du P l a i s i r ' s n o v e l may, to take 17 an image deve loped above, be g r a p h i c a l l y i l l u s t r a t e d as a s e r i e s o f c i r c l e s , s p i r a l l i n g downward as the p l o t d e v e l o p s ; each moment of awareness which the h e r o i n e e x p e r i e n c e s i s a l s o an acknowledgement of power les sness , r epea ted a f t e r each con tac t w i th members of the observant s o c i e t y o f which she i s a p a r t . l e t us l o o k more c l o s e l y at one of these " c i r c l e s " or t ime segments, and the moments which comprise i t . Perhaps one o f the most s t r i k i n g of these scenes takes p l a c e s h o r t l y a f t e r Madame d 'Estramene becomes aware tha t her husband, who has l e f t f o r the c o n t i n e n t , has always been i n c a p a b l e o f l o v i n g h e r . She a p o s t r o p h i z e s the absent Duo d 'O l s ingam i n the s o l i t u d e o f her room: Je pourray me souven i r de vous, Q • *3 J e pourray y penser sans c r a i n d r e q u ' i l m'en coute des c r imes . L ' a f f e c t i o n d ' u n Mary a u r o i t deu r e c u e i l l i r pour l u y s e u l t ou te s mes pensees. Son a v e r s i o n m'en degage; & ce que je me d o i s a moy-mesme, ne peut m'empescher de p l a i n d r e vos malheurs & l e s miens. ( I I , 28) But she q u i c k l y r e a l i z e s that she cannot, as a mar r ied woman, l e t these f e e l i n g s be known to o t h e r s : "Madame d 'Es t ramene connut b i e n t o s t par sa v e r t u que l e s e t ranges sent imens de son Mary ne l a d i s p e n s o i e n t po in t de prendre une condu i t e conforme a l ' e t a t ou e l l e se v o y o i t engaged." ( I I , 36-37) 113 She then r e s o l v e s to leave f o r England, accompanied by Madame d'Hilmorre, "puis qu' apparemment son Mary y r e t o u r n o i t . " (II, 37-38) A f t e r a conversation w i t h her brother, she i s aware of the conduct she must adopt, and makes r e s o l u t i o n s a c c o r d i n g l y : ([Son f r e r e j entra dans l e mesme e s p r i t que sa Soeur, & i l demeura d'accord avec e l l e , que sans es t r e obligee de f o r c e r son coeur a aimer' l e Due d 1 Estramene, e l l e devoit d'autant plus observer une conduite exacte & rigoureuse, q u ' e l l e a v o i t a. apprehender que l'on ne v i n s t a connoistre q u ' e l l e aimoit encor l e Due d'Olsingam. (II, 57-58) But her r e s o l u t i o n s are to no a v a i l , f o r at the mention of the Due d'Olsingam's name by the Queen, Madame d'Estramene d i s p l a y s u n c o n t r o l l e d anguish. She r e a l i z e s only a f t e r t h i s p u b l i c d i s p l a y of emotion the import which her a c t i o n s have f o r others, and i s g r a t e f u l that Madame d'Hilmorre, u n l i k e h e r s e l f , i s able to perform i n p u b l i c without l e t t i n g the mask of appearances s l i p . We have come f u l l c i r c l e i n the pa t t e r n of behaviour which c h a r a c t e r i z e s the c e n t r a l personage whose moral and p s y c h o l o g i c a l dilemma forms the m a t e r i a l of La Duchesse d'Estramene: a f t e r h e r s e l f becoming aware of a s i t u a t i o n , she makes a r e s o l u t i o n to hide from others the e f f e c t which that s i t u a t i o n has had on her; she subsequently l e t s her p r i v a t e l y conceived defence mechanisms f a l l i n p u b l i c ; then, once again, i n s o l i t u d e , she becomes aware that she has not succeeded i n maintaining the facade of appearances, 114 and vows consequent ly to succeed i n so d o i n g i n her next encounter w i t h cou r t s o c i e t y . Upon h e r husband ' s r e t u r n t o Eng land, " e l l e tacha de f a i r e p a r o l t r e a t ou t l e monde, a s sez de joye pour persuader que sa t r i s t e s s e precedente n ' a v o i t 6t6 l ' e f f e t que de 1'absence de ce Due. " (II, 99) S h a r i n g w i th P a s c a l the b e l i e f tha t reason i s power less to a c t -a g a i n s t p a s s i o n , the n a r r a t o r comments tha t a l though Madame d 'Es t ramene t r i e s to show tenderness toward her husband, f o r she f e e l s he m e r i t s i t , " e l l e a v o i t et6 t r o p peu m a i t r e s s e d ' e l l e -mesme, dans l a na i s s ance de son premier engagement, pour pouvo i r e spe re r q u ' i l dependo i t d ' e l l e de ne p l u s a imer l e Due d 'O l s i ngam. Ses s o i n s e t o i e n t i n u t i l e s , & l e p l u s grand, avantage q u ' e l l e en put r e c e v o i r , f u t de c o n n o i t r e que sa pa s s i on d e v o i t l u y donner peu de honte , pu i s q u ' e l l e etoit p l u s dans l e s v o l o n t e z du C i e l , que dans l a s i e n n e . " (II, 100-101) Be fo re Madame d 'Es t ramene does f a i l a g a i n i n her e f f o r t to h i d e the breach between r e a l i t y and appearance, the reade r i s aware tha t the same c h a r a c t e r i s t i c behav iour p a t t e r n i s about to be d i s p l a y e d ; the n a r r a t o r comments t h a t , a l though i l l h e a l t h has a l t e r e d h i s p h y s i c a l appearance c o n s i d e r a b l y , Madame d 'Es t ramene r e c o g n i z e s i n the Due d 'O l s ingam "ces mesmes t r a i t s , dont l a premiere veue 1'avoit touched pour l e r e s t e de ses j o u r s , & dont l e s o u v e n i r t r o p n a t u r e l & t r o p a imab le , l u y c o u t o i t sans ces se t an t de combats, c r u e l s & i n u t i l e s . " (II, 104-105) To adopt once aga in the te rmino logy of E.M. P o r s t e r , the o v e r a l l " p a t t e r n " 115 or c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t r u c t u r a l movement of La Duchesse d ' E s t ramene, when viewed as a whole, can be env isaged as a c a r e f u l l y o r c h e s t r a t e d p i e c e composed o f repeated i d e n t i c a l rhythms. The n a r r a t o r ' s commentary suppor t s and indeed suggests the i d e a of r h y t h m i c a l r e p e t i t i o n ; "sans c e s s e " c r e a t e s the impre s s i on tha t the s t r u g g l e o f Du P l a i s i r * s h e r o i n e i s f r e -quen t l y r e p e a t e d , wh i l e " i n u t i l e s " se rves to emphasize the f u t i l i t y o f these repeated moments of i n n e r t u r m o i l f o l l o w e d by a r e s o l u t i o n q u i c k l y broken and thrown once more i n t o chaos . 116 CHAPTER I I : FOOTNOTES ^"Etudes sur l e temps huinain ( P a r i s , 1950) , p. 122. 2 I b i d . , p. 126. 5 l _ b i d . , p. 122. ^Madame de La F a y e t t e par el le-meme ( P a r i s , 1965), p. 91. 5 ^Etudes su r l e temps humain, p. 126. 6 I b i d . . p. 127. 7 I b i d . , p. 128. 8 Quoted by P h y l l i s B e n t l e y i n "Use of Summary," The  Theory of the flovel (ed. P h i l i p S t e v i c k ) (New York , 1967), p. 47. 9 " U s e o f Summary," p. 48. " ^ l o c . c i t . i : L i n : The Theory of the Nove l (ed. P. S t e v i c k ) , pp. 87-107. 1 2 I b i d . . p. 92. 1 5 I b i d . , p. 94. 1 4 l o c . c i t . 15 ^Aspects o f the Nove l (Harmondsworth, 1964), p. 154. " ^ l o c . c i t . See a l s o a s i m i l a r view expressed by J . Rousset i n Forme et s i g n i f i c a t i o n . . • , I n t r o d u c t i o n , I-XXII I. 1 7 p . 99. 117 CHAPTER I I I CHARACTERIZATION Adher ing to the p recept s which he was to advocate the f o l l o w i n g year i n h i s Sentimens sur 1'H i s t o i r e , Du P l a i s i r deve lops h i s c h a r a c t e r s to v a r y i n g degrees p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y on a d i s t i n c t l y h i e r a r c h i c a l s c a l e . The l e s s impor tant the c h a r a c t e r i n the development, e x p o s i t i o n and r e s o l u t i o n of the mora l dilemma o f the h e r o i n e , the l e s s d e t a i l w i l l be devoted to h i s or t o her p o r t r a i t . Whi le Du P l a i s i r does not a d m i t t e d l y possess a remarkab le g i f t f o r c r e a t i n g r i c h t ab leaux i n the r e a d e r ' s i m a g i n a t i o n , h i s t a l e n t as a s e n s i t i v e observer o f the c h a r a c t e r s who popu la te h i s work i s c e r t a i n l y s t r i k i n g . There i s n o t h i n g n o v e l , on the o ther hand, i n h i s c o n c e p t i o n o f c h a r a c t e r p r e s e n t a t i o n f o r , l i k e h i s con temporar ie s , he g i v e s on l y the s t r i c t l y neces sa ry elements of the p h y s i c a l p o r t r a i t s o f h i s c h a r a c t e r s , l e a v i n g h i m s e l f f r e e to exp lo re the complex l a b y r i n t h of t h e i r minds. Y e t , w h i l e the economy w i t h which Du P l a i s i r deve lops h i s s t o r y i s an improvement over the h e r o i c n o v e l s , the s p a r e l y sketched minor c h a r a c t e r s which he draws from r e c e n t F rench h i s t o r y s u f f e r none the le s s from a sha l lowness and a c e r t a i n l a c k o f presence t y p i c a l of t h e i r c o u n t e r p a r t s i n the many-volumed e x p l o i t s r e l a t e d by w r i t e r s such as Made le ine de Scudery and G o m b e r v i l l e . The h i s t o r i c a l c h a r a c t e r s i n La Duchesse d 'Estramene are not the on ly ones to s u f f e r as a 118 r e s u l t o f l a c k of l e t a i l i n p r e s e n t a t i o n . There a r e a l s o o t h e r " f l a t " " ' ' secondary c h a r a c t e r s who p l a y no o t h e r r o l e t h a n t h a t o f sounding-boards i n the development of t h e h e r o i n e ' c h a r a c t e r . Du P l a i s i r maies o c c a s i o n a l r e f e r e n c e t o the K i n g o f F r a n c e and t o Monsieur de Turenne w i t h o u t endowing e i t h e r w i t h d i s t i n g u i s h i n g p h y s i c a l t r a i t s . These two minor c h a r -a c t e r s a r e p r e s e n t e d f i r s t o f a l l t o the r e a d e r i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h the sons: CLe Due d'Estramene, l e Comte d'Hennebury] se r e n d i r e n t l ' u n & 1'autre en de d i f e r e n t e s •• Armees du Roy. Le Due d'Estramene remply, comme t r a n s p o r t s d'ardeur par l a r a p i d i t e des s u c c e s que l ' o n a v o i t d e j a eus en F l a n d r e , c h o i s i t c e l l e q u i e t o i t d e s t i n e e a l e s c o n t i n u e r ; & l e Comte d'Hennebury, dont 1 ' e s p r i t • modere l u y a v o i t t o u j o u r s donne . de 1 1 i n c l i n a t i o n pour Monsieur de Turenne, se d e t e r m i n a d'autant p l u s a a l l e r en Allemagne, que l e s Troupes A n g l o i s e s y s e r v o i e n t . ( I , 13-14) E s s e n t i a l l y , the r o l e o f the F r e n c h K i n g and T u r e n n e - i s ' t w o -f o l d : t h e s e h i s t c r i c a l f i g u r e s s e r v e t o embody on t h e p h y s i c a l l e v e l the m e n t a l i t y o f a w a r r i o r s o c i e t y w h i c h i s t r a n s f i g u r e d , i n t o a s t a t e of p s y c h o l o g i c a l t e n s i o n as the a c t i o n u n f o l d s , and,, as w e l l , t hey h i g h l i g h t s a l i e n t . c h a r a c t e r t r a i t s o f the sons, who have each b e e n . d i f f e r e n t l y m o t i v a t e d i n t h e c h o i c e : o f t h e army i n which . t h e y : - w i l l serve.,/ The . • F r e n c h k i n g d i s a p p e a r s almost e n t i r e l y from th e n a r r a t i o n .. a f t e r h i s b r i e f i n i t i a l appearance, but Turenne c o n t i n u e s t o p l a y a minor but s t r u c t u r a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t r o l e . "Monsieur 119 de Turenne a s s i e g a N . . . & i l a v e r t i t l e Due d 'O l s i ngam de se rendre aupres de l u y a f i n de se t r o u v e r a une B a t a i l l e q u ' i l m e d i t o i t de donner a l a f i n de ce S i e g e . " ( I , 82) By obey ing Turenne ' s o r d e r , the Due d 'O l s ingam i n f a c t s e t s i n mot ion the whole t r agedy , f o r , had he not a ccep ted to r e t u r n to the f r o n t , a c q u i e s i n g s imu l t aneous l y t o Mademoise l le d 'Hennebury ' s demands, he .would have been a b l e to s e t o f f f o r England to ask the Queen's pe rm i s s i on f o r the young woman's hand i n mar r i age . A l though Turenne i s a cardboard c h a r a c t e r w i t h no p s y c h o l o g i c a l dep th , he i s however i n d i s p e n s a b l e to the development o f the drama, f o r he p r o v i d e s a means of a b s e n t i n g the Due d 'O l s ingam from the scene a t a c r u c i a l po i n t i n the u n f o l d i n g of the a c t i o n . The K ing and Queen of England may a l s o be c a t e g o r i z e d as " f l a t " or one -d imens iona l personages. Both E n g l i s h monarchs r e p r e s e n t the power of the cou r t and of accepted p u b l i c mora l v a l u e s , wh i l e the Queen embodies f o r an i n s t a n t the moving f o c a l p o i n t of the author as he adopts her ang le o f v i s i o n t o observe the workings o f Madame d 'E s t ramene*s mind: La Reyne apres ses premieres c a r e s s e s , e n t r a dans son C a b i n e t , & regardant en s u i t e Madame d 'Es t ramene avec a t t e n t i o n ; Vous revenez p lu s b e l l e que vous ne l ' a v e z jamais e t £ , d i t - e l l e ; mais i l me semble que j e m'en d o i s peu r e j o u i r , & je s u i s tromp^e s i c e t t e n o u v e l l e douceur que je vous v o i s n ' e s t p o i n t l ' e f f e t de quelque t r i s t e s s e . £~. . rj Je n ' e n doute p l u s r e p r i t - e l l e , vous e s t i e z d e s t i n e e au Due d 'O l s ingam, & t ou te ma v i e j ' a u r a y done a me r e p r o c h e r de vous a v o i r rendu malheureuse? Pourquo i a v e z -vous s o u f f e r t que j e vous aye a r r achee 120 a. ce que vous a im iez? A v o i s - j e un a u t r e d e s s e i n que de vous rendre c o n t e n t e ; & e t o i t - c e du bonheur de v o s t r e Mary que j e ra'etois chargee? Ah, ma F i l l e , que vous avez eu t o r t de me l a i s s e r i g n o r e r vos sent imens! ( I I , 62-65) The s k i l f u l use of d i r e c t d i s c o u r s e i n t h i s scene l e n d s to the Queen a lone a v e r i s i m i l i t u d e which the o the r h i s t o r i c a l personages do not sha re . The s t a c a t t o rhythm of her sen tences , ach ieved by the techn iques of i n v e r s i o n and r e p e t i t i o n ( " A v o i s - j e " , " e t o i t - c e " ) i n the above exerpt emphasize the d i s t i n c t l y human touch which Du P l a i s i r has succeeded i n i m p a r t i n g to her a lone among the minor h i s t o r i c a l c h a r a c t e r s . The Queen's r o l e i n r e l a t i o n to Madame d 'Es t ramene i s n o t a b l y s i m i l a r to tha t p layed by the Dauphine i n Madame de La F a y e t t e ' s P r i n c e s s e de C l e v e s . Both Madame de La F a y e t t e and Du P l a i s i r use the Queen f i g u r e to h i g h l i g h t an impor tant a spec t o f the h e r o i n e ' s di lemma, namely her i n a b i l i t y to suppress the p h y s i c a l m a n i f e s t a t i o n s of p a s s i o n . In a more g e n e r a l sense , the E n g l i s h K i n g and Queen i n Du P l a i s i r ' s work se rve to u n d e r l i n e the f a c t t ha t i n o rder to p re se rve h i s honour i n t a c t i n such a r i g i d l y d e f i n e d s o c i a l system, the i n d i v i d u a l i s o b l i g e d to s a c r i f i c e h i s p e r s o n a l d e s i r e s and to submit t o the wishes of those i n power. Two o ther minor a l though neces sa ry c h a r a c t e r s i n La  Duchesse d 'Estramene whose r o l e s a re l i m i t e d because they a re not developed p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y are the Comte d ' E n g l a s t r e and h i s daughter : 121 Le Comte d'Englastre, fameux par sa f i d e l i t e envers son P r i n c e , dc par m i l l e preuves de va l e u r & do prudence, . TJ a v o i t p l u s i e u r s f o i s f a i t entendre a Madame d'Hilmorre q u ' i l l u y donneroit sa F i l l e avec plus de joye, qu'a aucun Seigneur de l a Cour. Mademoiselle d'Englastre e t o i t d'un sang qui en re c o n n o i s s o i t peu de plus i l l u s t r e . E l l e e t o i t unique, & e l l e a t t i r o i t plus encore l e s yeux par l e merite de sa personne, que par sa naissance & sa fortune. (I, 7 -9) But, as Du P l a i s i r l a t e r adds: Mademoiselle d'Englastre n'avoit pas a l'£gard de Madame d'Hilmorre, l e merite de l a beaute & de l a douceur qu'avoit Mademoiselle d'Hennebury. E l l e e t o i t deja dans sa vingtieme annee. Son e s p r i t forme se f u s t d i f f i c i l e m e n t soumis a. l a conduite & aux c o n s e i l rsicj d'une B e l l e -mere. Son Pere v i v o i t encor; sa fortune a i n s i n ' e t o i t ny presente ny c e r t a i n e . E n f i n Madame d'Hilmorre ne se trouva aucune d i s p o s i t i o n pour 1'offre du Comte d'Englastre. (I, 70-71) The r o l e of these two personages, whose words are never d i r e c t l y reported by Du P l a i s i r , i s two-fold. They serve f i r s t of a l l , i n t h e i r f u n c t i o n as f o i l s , to h i g h l i g h t unde-s i r a b l e character t r a i t s i n Madame d'Hilmorre, who "espera neanmoins t i r e r de c e t t e o f f r e [that of the Comte d'Englastre] un usage favorable a son dessein." (I, 71) They a l s o i n f l u e n c e fundamentally the development of the p l o t , f o r , had Madame d'Hilmorre seen f i t to accept the " o f f r e " of the Comte d'Englastre, she would not have had to impose on Mademoiselle d'Hennebury a union based e n t i r e l y on her own egocentric d e s i r e to maintain her r e p u t a t i o n at court. The E n g l i s h Ambassador f u l f i l l s as w e l l the f u n c t i o n of 122 p s y c h o l o g i c a l f o i l ; l i k e the Queen, who senses the cause o f the h e r o i n e ' s unhappiness , he too , b e i n g a seasoned and p e r -s p i c a c i o u s c o u r t i e r , suspect s t ha t Mademoise l le d 'Hennebury i s d i s p l a y i n g more than s i s t e r l y concern when the Due d ' O l s i n g a m ' s name i s mentioned i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h he r b r o t h e r ' s . In h i s r o l e as a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e member of the c o u r t , the Ambassador h i g h l i g h t s ye t once more the theme o f the cons tant b reach between r e a l i t y and appearance i n a r e s t r i c t e d s o c i a l e n c l a v e . We must here c r e d i t Du P l a i s i r w i t h a keen sense of the t h e a t r i c a l , f o r i t i s i n the i n t e r -p l a y between the E n g l i s h Ambassador and Madame d ' H i l m o r r e tha t he deve lops e f f e c t i v e l y the techn ique o f u s i n g a f o i l c h a r a c t e r who does not evo lve i n o rder to throw l i g h t upon p e r t i n e n t a spec t s o f a p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y more s o p h i s t i c a t e d c h a r a c t e r . When he asks Mademoise l le d 'Hennebury p o i n t - b l a n k "vous avez veu Mons ieur d 'O l s ingam, c royez - vou s i m p o s s i b l e q u ' i l a imast sans e s t r e a ime? " , t he re a re on l y t h r e e c h a r a c t e r s on the s tage i n a sho r t but tense scene devo id o f d e t a i l e d backdrop, but i n f i n i t e l y r i c h p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y . A good d e a l more concerned w i th her own r e p u t a t i o n than w i t h Mademoise l le d ' Hennebury' s, "Madame d 1 H i lmor re ne v o u l u t pas l u y [.the E n g l i s h ambassado£J l a i s s e r c e t t e pensee " . ( I, 109) With a t h e a t r i c a l g e s t u r e , Madame d ' H i l m o r r e embraces the young woman who has a l r e a d y bet rayed her emotion by her p h y s i c a l comportment, and takes over the c o n v e r s a t i o n w i t h "un s S r i e u x & une i n g e n u i t y a d m i r a b l e s " , ( I, 110) i n such a way tha t she 123 erases any s u s p i c i o n which the E n g l i s h statesman might have harboured . The q u i c k - w i t t e d woman o f expe r i ence succeeds i n making the E n g l i s h ambassador b e l i e v e tha t the a c t i o n s of Mademoise l le d 'Hennebury a re indeed c o n d i t i o n e d by her f e a r f o r her b r o t h e r ' s s a f e t y , f o r the young man had e n l i s t e d i n the same t roops as the Due d 'O l s ingam, h i s c l o s e s t f r i e n d . T h i s dramat ic scene s e r v e s , i n c i d e n t a l l y , t o i l l u s t r a t e the ca re w i t h which Du P l a i s i r f o l l o w s the p r e c e p t s which he w i l l se t down i n the second s e c t i o n o f hi,s Sentimens sur 1 ' H i s t o i r e . Upon r e a d i n g t h i s ep i sode , we are reminded of Du P l a i s i r ' s b e l i e f i n the A r i s t o t e l i a n theory tha t p i t y and f e a r f o r the w e l l - b e i n g o f the c h a r a c t e r s need not n e c e s s a r i l y be aroused by the p r e s e n t a t i o n o f v i o l e n t p h y s i c a l a c t i o n s , but r a t h e r 2 by the s u b t l e s t of p s y c h o l o g i c a l nuances. As was noted e a r l i e r , the s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e of the h i e r a r c h i c a l m i l i e u which Du P l a i s i r i s d e p i c t i n g i s r e f l e c t e d i n the ordered method a c c o r d i n g to which the c h a r a c t e r s a re p r e s e n t e d ; i t i s not u n t i l a l l o f these secondary c h a r a c t e r s , w i t h the e x c e p t i o n of the E n g l i s h Ambassador, have been d e s c r i b e d or a t l e a s t a l l u d e d to tha t the two main c h a r a c t e r s appear on s t age . In t h i s r e s p e c t , Du P l a i s i r f o l l o w s c l o se l y / the recommendation which he w i l l make the f o l l o w i n g y e a r i n h i s Sentimens sur 1 ' H i s t o i r e , namely tha t i f the main c h a r a c t e r s were to be presented be fo re the secondary ones, the l a t t e r would make l i t t l e l a s t i n g i m p r e s s i o n upon the r e a d e r , f o r they would remain i n the shadow of the n e c e s s a r i l y 124 3 more i n t e r e s t i n g main characters i n i t i a l l y d e picted. Now that we have considered the r o l e s and the f u n c t i o n a l importance of the secondary characters i n La Duchesse d'Estramene, l e t us examine the f u n c t i o n of the main characters i n the novel and the methods which the author uses to present them. I t w i l l become evident that Du P l a i s i r ' s main characters have the same ex t r a o r d i n a r y p h y s i c a l a t t r i b u t e s as do those i n the w r i t i n g s of h i s contemporaries. T h e i r extreme beauty i s i n tune w i t h , and p a r a l l e l s , the extreme moral r e s o l u t i o n s which they w i l l be obliged to make. Du P l a i s i r ' s p h y s i c a l l y and p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y e x c e p t i o n a l characters remind the twentieth-century reader of a p a r a l l e l e s t a b l i s h e d by S. Doubrovsky between O o r n e i l l e ' s and Madame de La Fayette's c r e a t i o n s : both authors embody b e l i e v a b l e human f e e l i n g s i n i d e a l i s e d l i t e r a r y personages. 4 This observation could a l s o be a p p l i e d to La Duchesse d'Estramene; i n f a c t one might argue that Du P l a i s i r " s characters are even more morally i d e a l than those of Madame de La Fayette. In our d i s c u s s i o n of the hero and the heroine, we w i l l see that at l e a s t one seventeenth-century c r i t i c , Etienne P a v i l i o n , found them to be too f l a w l e s s to allow i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h the reader. Let us begin w i t h the mothers, Madame d'Hilmorre and Madame d'Hennebury. By the use of p a r a l l e l i s m i n t h e i r p r e s e n t a t i o n , Du P l a i s i r e s t a b l i s h e s i n the f i r s t pages of h i s work an e x p l i c i t o p p o s i t i o n between the two f a m i l y groups. In the one m a t r i a r c h a l l y - o r i e n t e d camp, we f i n d the 125 Kennebury family, consisting of the widowed Madame d'Hennebury, her daughter end her.son, the Comte d'Hennebury. In the other camp, even more dominated by the mother, we f i n d Madame d'Hilmorre, a widow of some considerable means, and p o l i t i c a l influence, anu her foppish son, for whom she has acquired, at an early a*;e, the t i t l e of Due d'Estramene. . Madame d'Hennebury, up u n t i l the time of her death (and even a f t e r i t ) , and Madame d'Hilmorre, who subsequently takes up r e s i -dence at the English country home of her son and daughter-in-law, w i l l , un-:il the l a s t pages of the novel, a l t e r n a t e l y hold the strings wiich determine the movements of t h e i r marionette-l i k e offspring. The i n i t i a l rapid sketch which Du P l a i s i r gives of the character of Madame d'Hilmorre consists of a short, balanced sentence, hig.iiy suggestive psychologically, which serves as a subtle foreshadowing of the ro l e which the future mother-in-law will, play i n the l i f e of Mademoiselle d'Hennebury. She i s , according to Du P l a i s i r , "de ces Meres tendres, mais habiles, & qui s'accusent de foiblesse quand i l le u r echappe un mouvement de l a nature." (I, 4-5) I f t h i s experienced woman of the court i s unwilling to show her true feelings., f r e e l y to her own son, as i s suggested i n t h i s quotation, she w i l l be even le s s i n c l i n e d to r i s k the los s . o f her reputation f c r the sake of. her best friend's daughter (Mademoiselle d'Hennebury). Careful above a l l not to tarnish the reputation which she has so c a r e f u l l y established f o r 126 h e r s e l f at cou r t , Madame d'Hilmorre glosses over the acts sn complished w i t h a view to her own betterment w i t h a t h i n veneer of maternal a f f e c t i o n . . She i s the l e a s t l i k e a b l e personage i n La Duchesse d'Estramene because of her consistent bad f a i t h towards the other characters. She succeeds per-f e c t l y i n wearing the mask necessary f o r s u r v i v a l i n a s o c i e t y w.Lose very essence i s d i s g u i s e and ruse; ae the author remarks, a i d i n g y.*t more d e f t and evocative brush-strokes to her p > r t r a i t . " [ e l l e ] n ' e t o i t pas h a b i l e seulement dans sa f a m i l l e ; e l l e a v o i t encor acquis par une cenduite toujours a-iairabl-T un puissant c r e d i t dans 1' e s p r i t du Roy, & c ' e t o i t a c e t t e haute- faveur que son f i l s d evoit l'honneur d'estre d-jja cre<4 Due d 'Estramene." . ( I , 6) By the use of ad v e r b i a l m )d.ifie-rs which approximately balance and complement each oaher w i t h i n the sentence ( "seulement"/"encor" ; "toujours"/ "ueja") .Du P l a i s i r . i s able to suggest t h i s powerful character's awareness of t i m i n g which enables her to reap optimum, b e n e f i t s s o c i a l l y and p o l i t i c a l l y . The aggressive character of Madame d'Hilmorre lends i t s e l f to an i n t e r e s t i n g a rchetypal i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . She i s o:." the same race of women as Racine's Agrippine, the type of 5 woman R. Barthes places under the heading of "maratre": her. sex i s determined by her s i t u a t i o n , -by the r o l e which she ~: -plays i n an extremely h i e r a r c h i c a l s o c i e t y , without a husband, she appropriates the power of the father, towards her son who i s l i t t l e - p r e p a r e d to accept the r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of h i s age 127 or h i s rank i n s o c i e t y . Du P l a i s i r h i g h l i g h t s the mother ' s d e s i r e to dominate and hence subjugate her f e e b l e son by u n d e r l i n i n g the oppos ing t r a i t s of t h e i r two c h a r a c t e r s . That Madame d ' H i l m o r r e needs to be the more power fu l p a r t n e r i n such a r e l a t i o n s h i p i s demonstrated i n her a c t i o n s toward Mademoise l le d 'Hennebury, whom she succeeds i n cowing t o t a l l y a f t e r the dea th of the o the r dominant mother, Madame d 'Hennebury. The two young peop le , Mademoise l le d 'Hennebury and the Due d 'Es t ramene, whose c h a r a c t e r s a re not ye t formed i n the opening pages o f the n a r r a t i v e , i n e v i t a b l y c a p i t u l a t e to t h i s w o r l d l y , exper ienced woman of the c o u r t ; the son because he r e a l i z e s tha t he w i l l need h i s mother ' s ample f i n a n c i a l a i d i f he i s to keep up h i s e x i s t i n g l i f e - s t y l e , the f u t u r e d a u g h t e r - i n - l a w because her hea r t i s v u l n e r a b l e where her r e p u t a t i o n i s concerned. F o l l o w i n g the death - scene of Madame d 'Hennebury, Du P l a i s i r deve lops h i s i n i t i a l s ke t ch of Madame d ' H i l m o r r e w i t h s e v e r a l r i c h l y sugges t i ve remarks r e g a r d i n g her p r o j e c t s . But be fo re she can exer t her b e n e f i c i a l i n f l u e n c e on the h e r o i n e ' s f u t u r e , Madame d 'Hennebury d i e s , h a v i n g tu rned " t o u t e s ses pensees ve r s l e C i e l " ( I, 66). Meanwhile, Madame d ' H i l m o r r e i s a l r e a d y rumina t i ng the marr iage which she has p lanned f o r Mademoise l le d 'Hennebury and her son . The s u b t l e o p p o s i t i o n of the two movements suggested (heavenward a t t e n t i o n o f Madame d 'Hennebury, who wishes to renounce a l l e a r t h l y t i e s ; m a t e r i a l i s t i c a t t i t u d e of Madame d ' H i l m o r r e ) i s 128 h i g h l i g h t e d by the adverb " a u s s i t o s t " , w i t h w h i c h Du P l a i s i r b e g i n s h i s remarks c o n c e r n i n g Madame d ' H i l m o r r e : A u s s i t o s t que Madame d ' H i l m o r r e e n v i s a g e a c e t t e i n f i n i t e de grands P a r t i s dont •Made-m o i s e l l e d'Hennebury s e r o i t b i e n t o s t r e -cherchee, e l l e m e d i ta de l a f a i r e epouser au Due d'Estramene. E l l e n ' i g n o r o i t pas 1 * a v e r s i o n que son F i l s a v o i t pour t o u s l e s er.gagemens d u r a b l e [ s i c ] ; mais.ee . F i l s e t o i t u n i q u e . II ne p o u v o i t se d i s -penser d'une a l l i a n c e , & dans c e t t e neces; i t e d'un j o u g o d i e u x , e l l e ne v o y o i t p o i n t encor une Personne q u i pust a u t a n t que Ma d e m o i s e l l e d'Hennebury.le l u y ac.oucir par l a douceur & p a r l a beauti-. (I, 67-68) The image o f the yoke, d e n o t i n g m e t a p h o r i c a l l y t h e r o l e o f the s u b s e r v i e n t c o u r t i e r , who i s by d e f i n i t i o n a s l a v e t o h i s r e p u t a t i o n u n d e r l i n e s as w e l l on a more i n d i v i d u a l l e v e l t h e extreme c o n c e r n which Madame d ' H i l m o r r e demonstrates w i t h r e g a r d t o h e r p e r s o n a l r e p u t a t i o n . I t i s mainly, by t h i s d e p i c t i o n o f the mother-son r e l a -t i o n s h i p - t h a t t h e a u t h o r e l a b o r a t e s on the m o r a l p o r t r r - . i t o f Madame d ' H i l m o r r e . Homan r e l a t i o n s h i p s (even m a t e r n a l ones) and- i n d i v i d u a l f e e l i n g s have no p l a c e i n t h e system which Madame d ' H i l m o r r e e s t a b l i s h e s t o a s s u r e h e r s u c c e s s a t c o u r t . As t h e a u t h o r s u g g e s t s , i t i s o f s m a l l consequence in d e e d t o Madame d ' H i l m o r r e t h a t h e r son i s l i t t l e p r e p a r e d t o a c c e p t the r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of a w i f e : Le Duo d'Estramene r e v i n t a. P a r i s , & l a i s s a r e v o i r t o u t e sa premi e r e repugnance pour l e Ma r i a g e . Madame d ' H i l m o r r e en eut peu d ' i n q u i e t u d e . E l l e a v o i t d e j a ses p r o j e t s pour l e f a i r e i n e v i t a b l e m e n t tomber dans son d e s s e i n : mais e l l e a v o i t b e s o i n de 129 l e l u y c a c h e r exactement, de c r a i n t e qu' .1' n'y f i s t n a i t r e den o b s t a c l e s ; & e l l e se c o n t e n t a de l u y f a i r e e n v l s a g e r l a neces s i t e oil l ' o n e s t de r e d o u b l e r ses s o i n s aupres d'une b e l l e Personne a f f l i g e e , quand on l a possede chez soy. ( I , 89-90) Onee a g a i n , Du P l a i s i r i s a b l e t o u n d e r l i n e one o ! Madame d ' H i l m o r r e ' s main s t r e n g t h s , namely h e r e x q u i s i t e sense o f t i m i n g , by the use of a d v e r o i a l m o d i f i e r s ("deja", " i n e v i t a b l e m e n t " ) . Coupled w i t h the use of t h e nDun " d e s s e i n " and t h e v e r b s "tomber" and 'cacher", the t e c h n i q u e o f the adverb p l a c e d ' t o o b t a i n optimum e f f e c t p e r m i t s t h 3 a u t h o r t o suggest t h e m e t a p h o r i c a l s i t u a t i o n of t h e h u n t e r who has a n t i c i p a t e d the a r r i v a l o f l i s p r e y : Madame d ' H i l m o r r e w a i t s f o r h e r son t o f a l l i n t o the t r a p which she has c a r e f u l l y l a i d f o r him. 'The bad f a i t h and s e l f - l o v e o f Madame. d ' H i l m o r r e a r e f u r t h e r brought out i n the f o l l o w i n g e x t r a c t , i n which the a u t h o r a l l u d e s t o the o b s e r v e r - o b s e r v e d r e l a t i o n s h i p which she shares w i t h M a d e m o i s e l l e d'Hennebury. R e f e r r i n g t o the f e i g n e d i n t e r e s t w h i c h the a e r o i n e d i s p l a y s f o r t h e Due d'Sstrarnene, Du P l a i s i r n o t e s : Madame d ' H i l m o r r e apperceut c e t t e n o u v e l l e c o n d u i t e . E l l e l a r e g a r d a comme l ' e f f e t d'une i n c l i n a t i o n n o u v e l l e . I I l u y p a r u t que sans i n j u s t i c e e l l e p o u v o i t r e c e v o i r . l e f r u i t d'une l e g e r t e , ou CsicTJ e l l e n ' a v o i t c o n t r i b u e d'aucunes p e r s u a s i o n s ; & ce f u t pour e l l e une s a t i s f a c t i o n s e n s i b l e , de remarquer que c e t t e saconde a f f e c t i o n j u s t i f i e r o i t e n t i e r e m e n t a l a Cour & dans l e monde, l e p r e t e x t e dont e l l e s ' e t o i t s e r v y pour r e f u s e r l a P i l l e du Comte d ' E n g l a s t r e . ( I , 121-122) 130 The r e a l m o t i v a t i n g f a c t o r o f Mademoise l le d 1 H e n n e b u r y 1 s a c t i o n s i s of l i t t l e consequence to Madame d ' H i l m o r r e , and the author l e a d s the reade r to understand t h a t Madame d ' H i l m o r r e i s w e l l aware of the s i g n i f i c a n c e of the young woman's conduct , as the use of the noun " p r e t e x t e " i n d i c a t e s . The f e e l i n g s which Madame d ' H i l m o r r e exper i ences c o n -c e r n i n g both p a r t i e s , Mademoise l le d 'Hennebury and the Due d 'E s t ramene, serve to e n r i c h t h i s mora l p o r t r a i t . "Quelque t r i s t e que f u s t l ' a s s o r t i m e n t de deux Personnes s i peu d i spo sees a pas ser l a v i e ensemble, Madame d ' H i l m o r r e ne q u i t t a p o i n t l e d e s s e i n de l e s u n i r " . ( I , 136) C o n s t a n t l y aware of the neces sa ry ba lance which she must m a i n t a i n between r e a l i t y and appearance, Madame d ' H i l m o r r e "ne v o u l u t pas l a i s s e r p a r o i s t r e a Mademoise l le d 'Hennebury l e d e s s e i n de l a c o n t r a i n d r e , & de l u y f a i r e v i o l e n c e . " ( I , 137) Knowing the importance which the young woman a t t a c h e s to p e r s o n a l g l o i r e and p u b l i c a p p r o b a t i o n , the exper ienced woman o f the c o u r t knows tha t she has on ly to p rov i de Mademoise l le d 'Hennebury w i th "de grands s c r u p u l e s " ( I , 137) i n o rde r to make her a c t as she w i shes . F o l l o w i n g another d ramat i c scene i n which Mademoise l le d 'Hennebury f i n d s out to her h o r r o r tha t Madame d ' H i l m o r r e has a l r e a d y gone ahead and asked the a p p r o v a l of the Queen and r e l a t i v e s , and r e a l i z e s tha t she w i l l consequent ly be p u b l i c l y shamed because of her unsanc -t i o n e d r e l a t i o n s h i p w i th the Due d 'O l s ingam, we a re t o l d t h a t "Madame d ' H i l m o r r e ne put se de fendre de quelque mouvement de p i t i e . Neanmoins e l l e demeura fortement a t t a c h e d au d e s s e i n d ' appuyer ce q u ' e l l e a v o i t commence." ( I , 141) Du P l a i s i r demonstrates once more ,h i s sense of l i t e r a r y t e c h n i q u e ; the adverb "ndanmoins" w i th which he q u a l i f i e s h i s s tatement about Madame d ' H i l m o r r e ' s moment of human concern d i m i n i s h e s any f e e l i n g of a d m i r a t i o n which the reade r might have f e l t f o r t h i s personage. Madame d ' H i l m o r r e e a s i l y j u s t i f i e s her a c t i o n s : , " r . . .J e l l e v o u l u t b i e n , pour d im inuer ses s c r u p u l e s , se d i r e que Mademoise l le d 'Hennebury ne pouvo i t e s t r e malheureuse, d ' a v o i r pour Mary l e Due d ' E s t r a m e n e . " ( I , 141) In c o n c l u d i n g our remarks r e g a r d i n g the p r e s e n t a t i o n o f Madame d ' H i l m o r r e , we note that she i s more c r e d i b l e than a re e i t h e r of the two p r i n c i p a l personages of La Duchesse d 'Es t ramene because of the c o n t r a d i c t i o n s i n h e r e n t i n her c h a r a c t e r . . The author has made a f e l i c i t o u s c h o i c e i n a d o p t i n g as h i s main method of p r e s e n t i n g her the e x p l o r a t i o n o f and the subsequent commentary on the r e l a t i o n s h i p which she shares w i th the o ther c h a r a c t e r s . T h i s method i s i d e a l l y s u i t e d to the p r e s e n t a t i o n of t h i s personage, p r e c i s e l y because the s e l f - l o v e which mot i va tes her a c t i o n s i s demonstrated i n these p e r s o n a l i n t e r a c t i o n s . Whi le the d i v e r s e f a c e t s of Madame d ' H i l m o r r e ' s e v o l v i n g c h a r a c t e r are deve loped on a canvas w i th m u l t i p l e mora l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e s , the c h a r a c t e r of the o ther mother, Madame d 'Hennebury, i s r e l a t i v e l y " f l a t " , i n E.M. F o r s t e r ' s sense. The oppos i t e of Madame d ' H i l m o r r e i n every way, the mother of t h e h e r o i n e "au c o n t r a i r e a v o i t elev-e ses Enfans avec un - c o n t i n u e l epanchemens [ s i c ] de son a f f e c t i o n ; & ' • a u s s i t o s t q u ' e l l e c r u t v o i r en eux t o u t l e me-rite q u ' e l l e p o u v o i t l e u r donner, i l sembla q u ' e l l e c e s s a s b d ' e s t r e l e u r Mere pour d e v e n i r l e u r Amie." The fun d a m e n t a l o p p o s i t i o n o f the c h a r a c t e r s of the two mothers i s suggested l>y t h e nuances i n Du P l a i s i r ' s d e s c r i p t i v e v o c a b u l a r y . The a r t i f i c i a l , c o n t r i v e d conduct o f Madame d ' H i l m o r r e c o n t r a s t s d i r e c t l y w i t h t h e n a t u r a l s p o n t a n e i t y c f Madame d'Hennebury. The key v e r b i n t h e i n i t i a l m o r a l p o r t r a i t of Madame d ' H i l m o r r e , "echappe", s u g g e s t s a c o n s t a n t d i s s i m u l a t i o n of n a t u r a l maternal- f e e l i n g s . T h i s forms a s t r i k i n g c o n t r a s t with the noun "epanchement", wh i c h i n t u r n governs the i n i t i a l m o r a l p o r t r a i t of Madame d'He.mebury. I n a n o t h e r e v i d e n t ressem-b l a n c e with. L a P r i n c e s s e de C l e v e s , the mother of t h e h e r o i n e i n Du P l a i s i r ' s Duchesse d'Estramene, l i k e Malame de C h a r t r e s , p l a y s a s t r i c t l y o n e - d i m e n s i o n a l f u n c t i o n a l r o l e . W ithout h e r d e a t h , w h i c h o c c u r s f a i r l y e a r l y i n t h e u n f o l d i n g o f the a c t i o n , the s t o r y which Du P l a i s i r n a r r a t e s o b v i o u s l y c o u l d .not have t a k e n p l a c e . .Also, l i k e Madame de C h a r t r e s , Madame d'Hennebury p a r a d o x i c a l l y e x e r t s an i n c r e a s i n g i n f l u e n c e over h e r daughter a f t e r h e r d e a t h . The s i m i l a r i t i e s shared b y t h e s e two works d i d not i n f a c t go u n n o t i c e d by t h e c o n t e m p o r a r i e s o f t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e a u t h o r s . .The s e v e n t e e n t h -c e n t u r y l i t e r a r y c r i t i c , E t i e n n e P a v i l i o n , " l o u e e t blame en meme terns La Duchesse d' Estramene de r e s s e m b l e r a. l a P r i n c e s s e 133 de C l e v e s " . ^ He f i n d s the sane c o n c i s i o n and e v o c a t i v e s u b t l e t i e s i n both works: r e f e r r i n g to these two q u a l i t i e s , he s t a t e s tha t i n La Duchesse d ' E s t ramene, " t o u t c e l a a l ' a i r de l a P r i n c e s s e de C l e v e s " . Indeed, these s i m i l a r i t i e s a re u n d e r l i n e d i n the c h a r a c t e r of Madame d 'Hennebury: " . •} mais a u s s i ce q u i a un peu t r o p l ' a i r " , he contends , " c ' e s t l e c a r a c t e r e de Madame d 'Hennebury, & sa mort, q u i t i e n n e n t 8 beaucoup du c a r a c t e r e & de l a mort de Madame de C h a r t r e s " . A comparat ive study of the r o l e s and c h a r a c t e r s of the two mothers i n La P r i n c e s s e de C l eve s and La Duchesse d 'Sstrarnene g i ve s weight to P a v i l i o n ' s a c c u s a t i o n . Both mothers, Madame de C h a r t r e s and Madame d 'Hennebury, adopt the a t t i t u d e o f f r i e n d r a t h e r than tha t of dominat ing parent i n r e l a t i o n s h i p to an ingenue daughter whose awakening to l o v e they observe but choose not to speak of i n i t i a l l y , l e s t they break the bond of c o n f i d e n c e which they have e s t a b l i s h e d w i t h t h e i r daughte r s . T h i s p r i n c i p a l c h a r a c t e r t r a i t o f materna l s e n s i -t i v i t y , which both Du P l a i s i r and Madame de La F a y e t t e comment upon e x p l i c i t l y , i s o f major importance i n the u n f o l d i n g of the e s s e n t i a l l y p s y c h o l o g i c a l , i n t e r n a l i z e d a c t i o n o f both n o v e l s . However obv ious the p a r a l l e l , though, the death of the mother i s neces sa ry to the s t r u c t u r e of both La P r i n c e s s e  de C leves and La Duchesse d ' S s t r a m e n e , • f o r the absence of the h e r o i n e ' s g r e a t e s t f r i e n d and mentor s e r ve s to h i g h l i g h t the s o l i t u d e of the young woman who w i l l exper i ence the dismay o f con temp la t i ng from the edge of a mora l p r e c i p i c e her impending 134 l o s s o f s o c i a l s t a t u s . The death of Madame d 'Hennebury i s even more s t r i k i n g l y s i g n i f i c a n t from a s t r u c t u r a l v i e w p o i n t than i s the removal of Madame de La F a y e t t e ' s mother f rom the s t age , f o r i t se rves to emphasize as w e l l the t o t a l s o l i t u d e o f the orphaned Due d 'O l s ingam, who had l ooked upon Madame d 'Hennebury "comme une Mere p l u t o s t que comme une Amie " . ( I , 59) For Du P l a i s i r , as f o r Madame de La F a y e t t e , the mother f i g u r e i s the i n c a r n a t i o n of r e l i g i o u s v a l u e s and r e s p o n s i -b i l i t y i n mar r i age . Her l a s t words to her daughter a re the f o l l o w i n g : Je ne vous r e p r e s e n t e p o i n t combien vous devrez e s t r e a t t a chee a v o s t r e Mary. Je conno i s t ou te v o s t r e r a i s o n ; & d ' a i l l e u r s j e s u i s c e r t a i n e s [ s i c ] que l ' a m i t i e d 'une femme n ' a u r a p o i n t b e s o i n aupres du Due d 'O l s ingam d ' e s t r e soutenue du d e v o i r & de l a sagesse. ( I , 62) These words of Madame d 'Hennebury w i l l resound i n the h e r o i n e ' s mind and cause her to remember w i th remorse the conduct b e f i t t i n g a d u t i f u l w i f e worthy of r e s p e c t . The r e l a t i o n s h i p o f Madame d 'Hennebury and her daughter i s o f course r e m i n i s c e n t o f t ha t shared by Madame de C leves and her mother, who expresses h e r s e l f i n the f o l l o w i n g way b e f o r e d y i n g : I I y a d e j a longtemps que je me s u i s apercue de c e t t e i n c l i n a t i o n ; mais j e ne vous en a i pas v o u l u p a r l e r d ' a b o r d , de peur de vous en f a i r e a p e r c e v o i r vous-meme. Vous ne l a conna i s sez que t r o p presentement; vous e tes sur l e bord du p r e c i p i c e : i l f a u t de grands e f f o r t s et de grandes v i o l e n c e s pour vous r e t e n i r . Songez ce que vous devez a v o t r e m a r i ; 135 songez ce que vous vous devez a. vous meme, et pensez que vous a l l e z perdre c e t t e r e p u t a t i o n que vous vous e tes a c q u i s e et que je vous a i t ant s o u h a i t e e . ° • Indeed, the death scenes of the two mate rna l f i g u r e s as sketched by Du P l a i s i r and Madame de La P a y e t t e a r e too a l i k e f o r us t o pass over them wi thout comment. Both Madame de C h a r t r e s and Madame d 'Hennebury r e f u s e to a l l o w t h e i r c h i l d r e n to be p resent d u r i n g the l a s t moments of t h e i r l i v e s . The death of the mother i n both cases f o r c e s the daughter t o become aware o f the f a c t t h a t , independent of any e x t e r n a l mora l support or a d v i c e , she must e i t h e r r i s k the l o s s o f he r r e p u t a t i o n by e n t e r i n g i n t o a r e l a t i o n s h i p f e l t t o be a d u l -t e r o u s , or keep her honour i n t a c t by c o n s e n t i n g to a s o c i a l l y -a c c e p t a b l e marr iage to a man w i t h whom she i s not i n l o v e . Whether we are d e a l i n g here w i t h an example o f p l a g i a r i s m on the p a r t of Du P l a i s i r i s i n f a c t of l i t t l e consequence. What i s remarkab le , r a t h e r , i s the way i n which the two a u t h o r s , u s i n g s imp le v o c a b u l a r y , have succeeded i n evok ing the s t r o n g bond u n i t i n g mother and daughter beyond d e a t h . In both La  P r i n c e s s e de C leves and La Duchesse d 'E s t ramene, the mother ga ins prominence as a m o t i v a t i n g f o r c e i n the h e r o i n e ' s conduct on ly a f t e r she has assumed a r o l e i n the memory of her daughter . As i n the case of the mothers, the i n i t i a l sketches which Du P l a i s i r g i ve s o f the sons, the Due d 'Es t ramene and the Comte d 'Hennebury, a re a lmost as nebulous w i t h r e s p e c t t o the mora l as to the p h y s i c a l t r a i t s d e s c r i b e d . The Due d 'Es t ramene 136 i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d i n the f o l l o w i n g way: Ce Due a v o i t une e n t i e r e d i s p o s i t i o n pour l e s grandes choses . On l u y v o y o i t en tous ses e x e r c i c e s une adresse presque incompa-r a b l e ; & son courage repondo i t a son ad re s se . Peu d 1 Homines pouvoient l u y o s t e r l a g l o i r e d 1 e s t r e l e mieux f a i t du monde. I I charmoi t dans l a c o n v e r s a t i o n . 11 e s t o i t ne avec une f a c i l i t e de per suader qu ' on n ' a v o i t po in t encor veue. I I e t o i t inagn i f ique, l i b e r a l , p l e i n de f e u , p l e i n d ' e s p r i t . ( I , 6-7) As f o r the Comte d 'Hennebury: I I e t o i t de ces Hommes qu i i n t e r e s s e n t d ' a b o r d , & que l ' o n ne peut r e g a r d e r avec i n d i f f e r e n c e . On l u y v o y o i t une c o m p l a i -sance & une s i n c e r i t e qu i s e u l e s l ' e u s s e n t f a i t a imer . I I a v o i t de l a v a l e u r , & c e t t e v a l e u r e t o i t j o i n t e a une sagesse b i e n p lu s avancee que son age. Sa reconno i s s ance e s t o i t v i v e & a g i s s a n t e . I I e t o i t t o u j o u r s r a i s o n n a b l e , t o u j o u r s f i d e l l e a ses Amis, t o u j o u r s ardent a marquer son a m i t i e . ( I, 10-11) Though b r i e f , the two w o r d - p o r t r a i t s a re n o n e t h e l e s s h i g h l y s u g g e s t i v e , and serve to p r o v i d e the r e a d e r w i t h a prev iew of the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c conduct o f the Comte d 'Hennebury and the Due d 'E s t ramene. The f i r s t of the s u b t l e t i e s o f p r e -s e n t a t i o n o f which the reader becomes immediate ly aware i s the v a r i a t i o n i n d e t a i l w i th which the author p a i n t s the two p o r t r a i t s . Du P l a i s i r u n d e r l i n e s the g r e a t e r importance o f the Due d 'Es t ramene by d e v e l o p i n g h i s i n i t i a l p o r t r a i t more f u l l y than the Comte d ' H e n n e b u r y ' s . Though both c h a r a c t e r i z a -t i o n s a re l a u d a t o r y , E s t ramene ' s c l e a r l y s tands out . Du P l a i s i r makes h i s i n i t i a l p r e s e n t a t i o n o f the Due d 'Estramene immediate ly a f t e r d e s c r i b i n g the c h a r a c t e r o f 137 h i s mother, Madame d ' H i l m o r r e . T h i s j u x t a p o s i t i o n o f the two p o r t r a i t s i s not f o r t u i t o u s . Du P l a i s i r ' s c l o s i n g remarks w i t h regard to Madame d ' H i l m o r r e serve i n f a c t to prepare the reader f o r the p o r t r a i t of the young nobleman who demonstrates i n h i s l i f e s t y l e a c e r t a i n i n s o u c i a n c e : the author reminds us t h a t i t i s due to the "haute f a v e u r " which Madame d ' H i l m o r r e r e c e i v e s from the K i n g tha t t h i s young g a l l a n t " d e v o i t l ' h o n n e u r d ' e s t r e dS j a c ree Due d ' E s t r a m e n e . " ( I , 6) Only then does Du P l a i s i r proceed to p resent the h e r o i n e ' s f u t u r e husband. In c o n s i d e r i n g the e x t r a c t quoted above, we see tha t Du P l a i s i r pens r a p i d l y the p e r t i n e n t mora l a spec t s o f the Due ' s c h a r a c t e r , w i thout ye t g i v i n g any p r e c i s e d e t a i l s about h i s a t t i t u d e c o n c e r n i n g women: be ing endowed w i t h "une e n t i e r e d i s p o s i t i o n pour l e s grandes c h o s e s " , he has a l l the q u a l i t i e s o f the p e r f e c t c o u r t i e r . A l though the i n i t i a l d e s c r i p t i o n of the Due d 'Estramene i n t h i s e x t r a c t would appear at f i r s t g l ance to be somewhat g e n e r a l , and consequent l y q u i t e i n keep ing w i th the n o v e l i s t i c s t y l e of the t ime, Du P l a i s i r ' s v o c a b u l a r y m e r i t s a c l o s e r examinat ion , f o r i t h i g h l i g h t s the decor o f the mora l drama which i s about to u n f o l d . Du P l a i s i r i s d e p i c t i n g a h igh-powered s o c i a l atmosphere, a c o u r t s e t t i n g i n which r e p u t a t i o n s are p re se rved f o r the most p a r t by e x t r a o r d i n a r y s a c r i f i c e s . The use of s u b s t a n t i v e s and a d j e c -t i v e s such as " g r andes " , " i n c o m p a r a b l e " , " g l o i r e " and "magn i f i que " i n t h i s f i r s t d e s c r i p t i o n of the Due d 'Es t ramene 138 serves to foreshadow on the l e v e l of language the c o n c e r t e d e f f o r t which t h i s c h a r a c t e r w i l l be r e q u i r e d to make i n o rde r to r e p r e s s h i s n a t u r a l f e e l i n g s r e g a r d i n g women and mar r i age , and i n a more a b s t r a c t sense, the extreme na tu re o f the d e c i s i o n which the h e r o i n e w i l l see h e r s e l f f o r c e d to make. On the l e v e l of language as w e l l , Du P l a i s i r uses e f f e c t i v e l y the techn ique of r e p e t i t i o n to h i g h l i g h t the admirab le outward p u b l i c image which the Due d 'Es t ramene has been a b l e to m a i n t a i n : "on l u y v o y o i t en tous ses e x e r c i c e s une adres se presque incomparab le ; et son courage r e p o n d o i t a son a d r e s s e . j~> • charmoit dans l a c o n v e r s a t i o n . II e s t o i t ne avec une f a c i l i t e de persuader . rj II e t o i t magn i f i que , l i b e r a l . 7j ". (I, 7; our u n d e r l i n i n g ) Du P l a i s i r conc ludes the second paragraph of h i s p r e -s e n t a t i o n of the Due d 'Estramene by p o i n t i n g out h i s r e l a t i o n -s h i p to the Comte d ' E n g l a s t r e and h i s daughter . " Le Due d 'Estramene ce s sa neantmoins de [T . 7] r e g a r d e r Mademoise l le d ' E n g l a s t r e a u s s i t o s t q u ' i l pensa q u ' e l l e pouvo i t d e v e n i r sa femme. II n ' a v o i t d ' i n c l i n a t i o n que pour l e s armes. La g a l a n t e r i e l u y p l a i s o i t sans l ' a t t a c h e r , et i l a v o i t une a v e r s i o n i n v i n c i b l e pour t ou t ce q u i demande de longues e x a c t i t u d e s . " (I, 9) T h i s b r i e f a l l u s i o n i s an impor tant one, and d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d to the movement which the p l o t o f the Duchesse d 'Estramene w i l l t ake , f o r i t throws l i g h t upon an important a spec t of the Due d ' E s t r a m e n e ' s c h a r a c t e r , namely h i s l a c k of i n t e r e s t i n women and h i s u n w i l l i n g n e s s 139 to accept the r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s tha t accompany h i s age and h i s s t a t i o n i n s o c i e t y . Is the n a r r a t o r i n f a c t s u g g e s t i n g t h a t the Due d 'Es t ramene has homosexual t endenc ie s ? He does , a t a l a t e r p o i n t i n the n o v e l , have the Due make the f o l l o w i n g c o n f e s s i o n to h i s w i f e : Fa i te s -moy seulement l a g race de c r o i r e que 1' i n j u s t i c e q u i vous p a r o i s t en moy, n ' e s t p o i n t a t t ached a vous p a r t i c u l i e r e -ment. S i l a r i g u e u r d ' un joug e t e r n e l , & d ' un joug i n v o l o n t a i r e , me f a i t manquer de pa s s i on pour vous, e l l e m ' a u r o i t donne de l ' h o r r e u r pour t ou te a u t r e . ( I I , 21-22) The c h a r a c t e r t r a i t s which Du P l a i s i r a t t r i b u t e s to the Due d 'Es t ramene are no t , however, c o n s i s t e n t l y enough ma in ta ined throughout the development of the a c t i o n to enable us to make such a c a t e g o r i c a l s ta tement. As the denouement of the t a l e approaches, Du P l a i s i r r e l a t e s tha t the Due has undergone a s i g n i f i c a n t c h a r a c t e r change which, i f we accept the i n i t i a l i n f e r e n c e of homosexual t e n d e n c i e s , seems somewhat u n r e a l i s t i c . We must, of cou r se , take i n t o account the f a c t t h a t i t was not p o s s i b l e f o r the author to be more outspoken wi thout b r e a k i n g the p r o p r i e t i e s . The Duchesse d 'Es t ramene hav ing con fe s sed her t rue f e e l i n g s r e g a r d i n g the Due d 'O l s i ngam, the n a r r a t o r comments: Depuis ce j ou r i l ne pouvo i t presque p lu s l a r e g a r d e r , sans l a i s s e r su rprendre ses yeux par quelques l a rmes, ob i l p r i t une hab i tude de s ' a t t e n d r i r , qu i peu a. peu f i t n a i t r e dan3 son coeur une s o r t e de s e n s i b i -l i t e dont i l a v o i t t o u j o u r s paru i n c a p a b l e . I I s ' e n apperceut avec j o y e . I I employa m i l l e r a i s o n s pour f o r t i f i e r ces commencemens, 140 & i l eust b i en souha i te pouvo i r a c q u e r i r une assez grande p a s s i o n , pour c o n s o l e r Madaine d'Sstrarnene de l a pe r te qu ' e l l e a v o i t f a i t e , cb pour gouter t ou t l e bonheur de posseder une Personne comme e l l e . (II, 181-182) The Due d ' E s t r amene ' s c h a r a c t e r must have been somewhat o f an enigma f o r the a u t h o r ' s contemporar ies as w e l l , as P a v i l i o n ' s remarks i n d i c a t e . T h i s au tho r , whose c r i t i c i s m o f La Duchesse d 'Es t ramene has a l r e a d y been touched upon, i s p e r p l e x e d : "Le Due d 'Estramene me p a r o i t un homme b i e n e x t r a o r d i n a i r e . Ne pouvo i r pas seulement s o u f f r i r s a femme, 10 e l l e , q u i e t o i t s i a imab le ! C e l a es t e t r a n g e . " Yet P a v i l i o n i s of the o p i n i o n tha t the Due d ' E s t r a m e n e ' s a v e r s i o n f o r h i s w i f e produces what he c o n s i d e r s t o be admi rab le e f f e c t s : [J. . 7) et par l ' embaras r e c i p r o q u e , ou i l s sont tous deux, et par l e s c o n s e i l s genereux e t d e s i n t e r e s s e s que l e Due d 'O l s i ngam donne au mar i de l a Personne q u ' i l a ime. Ces deux t r a i t s sont admi rab le s . Le premier f a i t un j e u f o r t f i n , et donne l i e u a. demeler des sentimens t r e s d e l i c a t s , et t r e s n a t u r e l s . Le second pousse j u s q u ' a u p lu s haut p o i n t l a grandeur d'ame du Due d 'O l s i ngam. II n ' a p a r t i e n t qu'a. vous, Madame, de f a i r e des H £ r o s et des H e r o i n e s . H Whi le P a v i l i o n merely ch ides Du P l a i s i r f o r g i v i n g the Due d 'Es t ramene an i n c o n s i s t e n t c h a r a c t e r , another c r i t i c , P i e r r e B a y l e , does note i n the husband of the h e r o i n e a c h a r a c t e r d e v i a t i o n which he terms u n n a t u r a l , as he s t a t e s c a t e g o r i c a l l y : " S ' i l f au t de 1'amour dans un Roman, qu ' on y en inette, mais qu ' on y mette a u s s i l e s e f f e t s n a t u r e l s et o r d i n a i r e s de 1'amour. Pour r e v e n i r au personnage de ce mar i 141 degoute, son c a r a c t e r e e s t s i e x c e s s i f , qu'on n'a pu s'empecher 12 de s'en p l a i n d r e publiquement." The Due d'Estramene i s the o p p o s i t e i n e v e r y way t o h i s f r i e n d , t he Comte d'Hennebury. The a t t i t u d e of t h e Due d'Estramene c o n t r a s t s w i t h the r e a s o n a b l e , even p r o s a i c l i f e -s t y l e of t h e Comte. F o l l o w i n g t h e procedure w h i c h he adopts f o r t he p r e s e n t a t i o n o f the Due d'Estrar-iene, Du P l a i s i r b e g i n s h i s i n i t i a l d e s c r i p t i o n (see p. 136) o f t h e Conte d'Hennebury by commenting upon, the mother-son r e l a t i o n s h i p . The son i s c l e a r l y l i t t l e more t h a n a d o c i l e r e f l e c t i o n o f . h i s mother. H i s l a c k of dash i s suggested by t h e use o f such b a n a l a d j e c - • t i v e s and nouns.as " c o m p l a i s a n c e " , . " i n d i f f e r e n c e " , " s i n c e r i t e " , " s a gesse", " r a i s o c n a b l e " , and " f i d e l l e " . The t e c h n i q u e s o f r e p e t i t i o n ( " I I a v o i t de l a v a l e u r , e t c e t t e v a l e u r . our u n d e r l i n i n g ) and t e r n a r y rhythm ( " t o u j o u r s " ) c o n s t i t u t e nuances i n a. p a s t e l p o r t r a i t w hich lack:; t h e s p l a s h e s o f c o l o u r , b r i l l i a n t by comparison, found i n the Due d'Estramene's d e s c r i p t i o n . -The Comte d'Hennebury f u l f i l l s a s i n g l e f u n c t i o n i n c o n t i n u i n g h i s mother's m o r a l i n f l u e n c e o ver t h e h e r o i n e a f t e r Madame d'Henne-bury' s d e a t h , and does n ot undergo any c h a r a c t e r e v o l u t i o n d u r i n g the co u r s e ox the, a c t i o n . He r e p r e s e n t s , by ..his . r e a s o n a b l e n e s s , the i d e a l o f t h e : honnete-homme. H i s l o v e o f mode r a t i o n and h i s i n h e r e n t s a g a c i t y a r e h i g h l i g h t e d by Du P l a i s i r ' s use o f o p p o s i t i o n : t h e Due d'Estramene and the Comte d'Hennebury "se r e n d i r e n t l ' u n e t 142 l ' a u t r e en de d i f e r e n t e s arrnees du Roy . " ( I , 13) The n a t u r a l moderat ion of the Hennebury f a m i l y and the i m p u l s i v e , ego -c e n t r i c a t t i t u d e d i s p l a y e d by the Due d 'Es t ramene and h i s mother, a l r e a d y e s t a b l i s h e d by the o p p o s i t i o n of the two r a p i d l y - p e n n e d sketches of the mothers, a re thus r e i n f o r c e d i n the l e s s o b v i o u s l y c o n t r a s t i n g w a t e r - c o l o u r p o r t r a i t s o f the Comte d 'Hennebury and the Due d 'E s t ramene. However " f l a t " h i s c h a r a c t e r , though, the Comte d 'Hennebury i s neces sa ry i n La Duchesse d 'Es t ramene to h i g h l i g h t the theme o f the f u t i l i t y of what Bernard Pingaud c a l l s " l e s bonnes 13 r e s o l u t i o n s " . ^ At the b e g i n n i n g o f the second volume o f the n o v e l , Du P l a i s i r p re sen t s a scene i n which we see Madame d 'Es t ramene p a s s i n g over i n her mind the s i g n i f i c a n c e of her i n c l i n a t i o n f o r the Due d 'O l s ingam. F u l l o f remorse, she b e l i e v e s h e r s e l f to be f u l l y capab le of a d o p t i n g f o r her husband a c o n v i n c i n g mask, "des apparences p l u s f a v o r a b l e s et p lu s o b l i g e a n t e s ." ( I I , 8) A l e t t e r from the Comte d 'Hennebury, who i s unaware of the r e c e n t marr iage of the two young p e o p l e , se rves to c a n c e l any e f f o r t on the par t of the h e r o i n e to h i d e from her husband her l o v e f o r the Due d 'O l s i ngam: "Une L e t t r e que son f r e r e l u y a\Doit e c r i t e , dans l ' e s p e r a n c e q u ' e l l e n ' e t o i t po in t encor mar iee, l u y o t a c e t t e f o r c e dont e l l e se c r o y o i t c a p a b l e . " ( I I , 8-9) Le t us l o o k more c l o s e l y a t t h i s passage, f o r i n i t the author comes to terms w i t h the r e a l p s y c h o l o g i c a l dilemma f a c i n g the h e r o i n e , namely the problem of r e p u t a t i o n ver sus l o v e . The b r o t h e r : 143 £*. . 7] l u y p a r l a i t er. des teriaes p l e i n s d ' a f f l i c t i o n et d'amisie. I I l u y p r i o i t de v c u l o i r bien trouver quelque d i f e r e n c e entre l e Due d 1 0 1 sing;;,.in, et celuy q u ' e l l e l u y p r e f e r o i t . I I lu;: r e p r e s e n t o i t l e desespoir d'un Homme r.ont e l l e e t o i t aimee jusqu'a 1'adoration. E n f i n i l l u y f a i s o i t entendre q u ' i l dependtit d.'elle d'obtenir de l a Reyne un commanuement de se rendre au Due d'Olsingam. Jusque-la Madame 11' Estramene a v o i t suporte son mariage avec quelque patience, parce q u ' i l l a m e t t o i t hors d'etat de r i e n f a i r e contre sa g l o i r s ; mais quand e l l e connut que s i e l l e l*;:ust d i f ere j u s q u ' a l o r s , e l l e a u r o i t pu sans a icune honte se conserver au Due d'Olsingam, et se rendre heureuse elle-mesme, e l l e f u t .inconsolable. On l a v i t p l e u r e r autant qu ; s i e l l e a v o i t eu un deluge de pleurs a. retandre, et e l l e parut avec des saisissemens et des t r a n s p o r t s qui donnerent de c r u e l s remors an Due d'Bstramene. ( I I , 9-11) While being enslaved to her r e f u t a t i o n s Madame d'Estramene i s as well, a v i c t i m of time. 'The very t h i n l i n e which separates happiness without l o s s of honour and misery i n a union, a l b e i t honourable, w i t h an incompatible partner is fevoked by Du P l a i s i r ' e . use of the adverb "'jusqu'alors". The p r i c e to pay f o r an impulsive attempt to pro-serve r e p u t a t i o n i s painted i n a v i v i d f a s h i o n by the use of- a b s t r a c t nouns ("saisissemens", " t r a n s p o r t s " ) and by the evocative although somewhat banal image c f the "deluge de pleurs''. The prosaic Comte d'Hennebury does s t r i k e the reader as l a c k i n g i n v e r i s i m i l i t u d e because of h i s excessive goodness. Du P l a i s i r never adopts h i s o p t i c a l angle as he moves h i s point of view to comment on the heroine's moral dilemma, nor does he ever analyze h i s thoughts to convey them.to the reader. 144 He gives him the power of d i r e c t speech only when he has hie, confront h i s s i s t e r at the moment of the Due d'Olsingam's-death. Had Du P l a i s i r explored more f u l l y the l a t e n t p o s s i -b i l i t i e s of some of h i s more prominent character t r a i t s , anc. had he given him a l e s s s e l f - e f f a c i n g p e r s o n a l i t y , the Comto d'Hennebury would have achieved as a f i c t i o n a l personage a more d e s i r a b l e balance between being merely a s t r u c t u r a l t o o l and remaining an i n d i v i d u a l i n h i s own r i g h t . I t i s only a f t e r the p r e s e n t a t i o n of the mothers and the sons that Du P l a i s i r introduces h i s two main characters to the reader. .He thus succeeds i n u n d e r l i n i n g , i n the ver; r s t r u c t u r e which he has given to h i s wprk, the f a c t that, the hero and the heroine's mutual a f f i n i t y d ivorces them from e i t h e r of the two main groups of characters (the mother-son groups). By v i r t u e of her b i r t h , Mademoiselle d'Hennebury could be placed, in. theory, alongside her mother and her brother; the death of her mother, however, puts her i n the category wher>; we f i n d d'Olsingam from the s t a r t , he having "perdu son per? et sa mere dans un age. ou a. peine i l pouvoit e s t r e s e n s i b l e k c e t t e perte." ( I , 15-16)' By the use again of p a r a l l e l i s m , then, the author succeeds i n h i g h l i g h t i n g the unique r e l a t i o n -s h i p shared by the hero and the heroine. As b e f i t s the p r i n c i p a l characters of the novel, the Duo d'Olsingam's and Mademoiselle d'Hennebury's entry onto stage 145 c e n t r e i s p repared w e l l i n advance. The p h y s i c a l p o r t r a i t o f the he ro ine i s announced i n d i r e c t l y to the r e a d e r b e f o r e the c h a r a c t e r makes her i n i t i a l appearance. The r e a c t i o n o f the cour t i s r e f l e c t e d i n tha t of the Queen: l a Reyne, quelque acc6u tum£e q u ' e l l e f u s t a v o i r des Beautez p a r f a i t e s , n ' a v o i t jamais pu r e ga rde r Mademoise l le d 'Hennebury sans un extreme etonnement. E l l e c r a i g n i t que c e t t e jeune personne dont l e coeur n ' e s t o i t p o i n t encor a t t ache ne t r o u v a s t en Prance quelque chose de t r o p a imab le . (I, 11-12) The f i r s t d e s c r i p t i o n of the h e r o i n e i s r a t h e r s i m i l a r to i t s c o u n t e r p a r t i n La P r i n c e s s e de C l e v e s , d e v o i d o f i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c t r a i t s . No p r e c i s e d i s t i n g u i s h i n g d e t a i l s a re g i v e n w i t h regard to Mademoise l le d 'Hennebury ' s p h y s i c a l d e s c r i p t i o n . The v o c a b u l a r y , which at f i r s t g l ance appears to be o v e r l y f l a t t e r i n g and somewhat b a n a l , se rves however to i l l u s t r a t e the h i g h l y consc ious arrangement of Du P l a i s i r ' s work, i n which the s u p e r f l u o u s never mars the c o n c i s e and r a p i d l y f l o w i n g account o f a p s y c h o l o g i c a l c r i s i s . As the dominant impre s s i on c r e a t e d i n the Queen 's mind by the presence of Mademoise l le d 'Hennebury i s one o f "etonnement" , the n a r r a t o r . q u i t e d e l i b e r a t e l y uses a p a r a l l e l techn ique i n adop t i ng the po in t of view of the Due d 'O l s ingam upon s e e i n g the h e r o i n e f o r the f i r s t t ime . Por h i s r e a c t i o n i s p r e c i s e l y tha t of the Queen. In the Jardin du Roy, the young E n g l i s h a r i s t o c r a t " l ' a p p e r g e u t [Mademoise l le d'HenneburyJ aux marques d ' un etonnement p r o d i g i e u x q u ' e l l e donno i t a. ceux de qu i e l l e pouvo i t e s t r e v e u e . " ( I , 36) 146 These examples serve to i l l u s t r a t e the care w i th which the author of La Duchesse d 'Estramene has chosen h i s v o c a b u l a r y . Rather than announc ing - in a d i r e c t manner tha t the beauty ..of the h e r o i n e surpasses tha t of any young woman a t c o u r t , as does Madame de La P a y e t t e , Du P l a i s i r chooses a more s u b t l e r o u t e f o r i n d i c a t i n g to the r e a d e r the remarkab le p h y s i c a l a t t r i b u t e s of Mademoise l le d 'Hennebury, by speak ing of the r e a c t i o n exper ienced by those who see her f o r the f i r s t t ime . Aga in the importance of v i s u a l impres s i ons i s s t r e s s e d . To app ly once more E.M. F o r s t e r ' s t e rm ino logy to Du P l a i s i r ' s n o v e l , Mademoise l le d 'Hennebury i s a " r ound " c h a r a c t e r , one who evo l ves p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y d u r i n g the course of the a c t i o n . Du P l a i s i r i s a b l e to i n s u r e the comp lex i t y of her c h a r a c t e r by v iew ing her e v o l u t i o n from d i f f e r e n t vantage p o i n t s , as we have seen i n our g e n e r a l d i s c u s s i o n of n a r r a t i v e t e c h n i q u e . An o v e r - a l l view of Mademoise l le d 'Hennebury ' s p s y c h o l o g i c a l development permi t s us to a s ses s her p resence , her v e r i s i m i l i t u d e as a l i t e r a r y c r e a t i o n . In the same way tha t the a c t i o n o f the s t o r y as i t deve lops becomes i n c r e a s i n g l y i n t e r n a l i z e d , h i s t o r i c a l r e f e r e n c e s g i v i n g way to the d e p i c t i o n of the moral dilemma of the h e r o i n e , the l e v e l s or p e r s p e c t i v e s from which the author observes the main c h a r a c t e r tend as w e l l to focus on p sycho -l o g i c a l r e a c t i o n s r a t h e r than on p h y s i c a l a c t i o n s . Du P l a i s i r ma in ta in s a u t h o r i a l d i s t a n c e i n these opening scenes of the n o v e l by the techn ique of commentary, w h i l e 147 a c h i e v i n g at the same time a c e r t a i n c o m p l i c i t y w i t h the reader who, as a r e s u l t , i s ab le to see b e f o r e the h e r o i n e does what i s happening to her p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y . Mademoise l le d 'Hennebury, at the moment o f f i r s t c a t c h i n g s i g h t o f the p o r t r a i t o f the young man to whom she w i l l s h o r t l y be i n t r o -duced, does not ye t understand the meaning o f the metamor-phos i s which has begun to take p l a c e i n her h e a r t , l o v e i t s e l f — r e m o r s e f o r hav ing y i e l d e d to such an i n c l i n a t i o n w i l l come on ly as a de layed r e a c t i o n . Du P l a i s i r a n t i c i p a t e s the imminent r e a l i z a t i o n which the young woman w i l l undergo by remark ing tha t "quand e l l e pensa que ce t Homme s i beau e t o i t encor 1'Homme du monde l e p lu s remply d ' e s p r i t & de v e r t u , e l l e e n t r a dans un e t a t qu i l u y eust donne de s e n s i b l e s d e p l a i s i r s , s i e l l e se f u s t examinee." ( I , 20) Bu t : E l l e i g n o r o i t encor l a f o r c e des i n c l i n a t i o n s , & e l l e eust ete b i e n e l o i g n e e de c r a i n d r e que l ' o n pust a v o i r p lu s que de l ' e s t i m e pour un Homme qu 'on n ' a po in t veu . Sans cesse l e Due d 'O l s ingam se p r e s e n t o i t a son e s p r i t . E l l e l u i a p p l i q u o i t , avec c e t t e imprudence d ' u n coeur nouveau, l e s t r a i t s de son P o r t r a i t ; & e l l e a v o i t de l a joye de pouvo i r se d i r e q u ' e l l e n ' a v o i t r i e n veu encor q u i pust l u y e s t r e comparable. ( I , 21-22) Mademoise l le d 'Hennebury i s , w i thout r e a l i z i n g i t , t r e m b l i n g on the edge o f a p r e c i p i c e ; the t w i c e - r e p e a t e d adverb ( " e n c o r " ) i n the paragraph c i t e d above h i g h l i g h t s her t o t a l i n e x p e r i e n c e o f l o v e up to the moment of encounter w i t h the Due d 'O l s ingam through h i s p o r t r a i t , a l o v e which has a l r e a d y l e f t f o r e v e r i t s mark i n her h e a r t , as u n d e r l i n e d by the a d v e r b i a l e x p r e s s i o n 148 "sans c e s s e " . In f a c t , t h i s e x p r e s s i o n takes on the v a l u e o f a l e i t - m o t i f as the a c t i o n deve lops f o r , as the r e a d e r w i l l a n t i c i p a t e , the dilemma of Mademoise l le d*Kennebury/Madame d 'Es t ramene i s p r e c i s e l y t ha t o f be ing unab le to e ra se the Due d 'O l s ingam from her mind and her h e a r t , no matter what de spera te measures she might t ake . How i s the h e r o i n e p resented once she has been i n i t i a l l y i n t r o d u c e d ? Du P l a i s i r shows her e v o l u t i o n u s i n g ma in l y the techn ique o f commentary, though he a l s o uses d i r e c t d i s c o u r s e and i n t e r i o r monologue e f f e c t i v e l y , i f s p a r i n g l y . He v iews h i s c e n t r a l c h a r a c t e r a l t e r n a t e l y i n a s o c i a l s e t t i n g and i n s o l i t u d e , n o t i n g , as the i n t r i g u e deve l op s , her i n c r e a s i n g i n a b i l i t y to c a r r y out i n p u b l i c , or more i m p o r t a n t l y , i n the presence o f the Due d 'O l s ingam, r e s o l u t i o n s which she has made i n the p r i v a c y o f her own room. Le t us take as an example of t h i s a l t e r n a t i n g p r e s e n t a t i o n the po ignant scene i n which Madame d 'Es t ramene a r r i v e s at the home o f he r b r o t h e r o n l y t o see the Due d 'O l s ingam near d e a t h . The use o f d i r e c t d i s c o u r s e he i gh tens the drama about to u n f o l d . T h i s tense scene i s thus p repa red : g . rj quand [Madame d 'Estramenq] e n t r a hez son frere} e l l e t r o u v a q u ' i l d t o i t aupres d ' u n Homme couched & q u i sans l e r e g a r d e r l u y t e n o i t une main. S i son coeur ne l u y d i t pas par avance q u i e t o i t c e t Homme, ses yeux ne l e l u y l a i s s e r e n t pas longtemps i g n o r e r ; & malgre 1'extreme changeraent qu i pouvo i t e s t r e en l u y , e l l e reconnut b i e n t o s t ces mesmes t r a i t s , dont l a premiere veue 1'avoit touchee pour l e r e s t e de ses j o u r s , & dont l e s ouven i r 149 t r o p n a t u r e l & t r o p a imab le , l u y c o u t o i t sans cesse tant de combats, c r u e l s & i n u t i l e s . ( I I , 104-105) Madame d 'Estramene a l l ows her eyes to s e t t l e on the d y i n g man, bu t , the moment she becomes aware tha t he knows she i s g a z i n g a t him, " e l l e ce s sa avec p r e c i p i t a t i o n de l e r e g a r d e r . E l l e r o u g i t ; e l l e f u t honteuse de p a r o i t r e devant un Homme, dont 1 1 i n c l i n a t i o n & l a presence l u y r e p r o c h o i e n t l e hazard ou e l l e expo so i t sa g l o i r e ; & f o r c e e par sa honte & par son i n q u i e t u d e , e l l e se l e v a pour s o r t i r du l i e u ou e l l e etoit." ( I I , 111-112) The scene becomes even more i n t e n s e as the author i n t r o d u c e s d i r e c t d i s c o u r s e . Hurt at the r e a c t i o n of Madame d 'E s t ramene, the Due d 'O l s ingam begs her to s t a y : " s i c e t amour m e r i t o i t quelque p u n i t i o n " , he says , " s e r o i t - c e de vous que j e d e v r o i s l a r e c e v o i r , & m e r i t e r o i t - i l v o s t r e ha i ne ? " ( I I , 115) As a r e s u l t of t h i s desperate p l e a , Madame d 'Es t ramene i s not a b l e t o l e a v e the room, f o r reason i s power less where her f e e l i n g s f o r the Due d 'O l s ingam are concerned: Madame d 'Estramene e t o i t comme d S c h i r e e par ces r e p r o c h e s . E l l e rega rda l e Due d ' O l s i n -gam avec des yeux qu i n ' a v o i e n t presque p l u s de v i e ; & sans s g a y o i r s i e l l e a v o i t d e s s e i n de demeurer, e l l e se t rouva dans une s o r t e de f o i b l e s s e & d 'epuisement qu i l ' y f i r e n t c o n s e n t i r . ( I I , 115-116) In one o f the l onge s t passages of d i r e c t speech i n the n o v e l , Madame d 'Estramene s p e l l s out to the Due d 'O l s ingam e x a c t l y i n what way her good r e p u t a t i o n would be de s t royed were i t t o be known tha t she had spent such tender moments w i th h im: 150 "ne voyez-vous pas l a pro fondeur de l'ab'ysm'e ou [ s i c ] je s u i s torribee, que j e n ' en s o r t i r a y jama i s : & s i dans c e t t e d e p l o r a b l e con jonc tu re ou je s u i s , on s y a i t que nous nous sommes veus, & que vous m'aimez encor , q u e l l e a t t e i n t e a ma r e p u t a t i o n ! " ( I I , 1 1 8 ) The young woman i s unab le to m a i n t a i n her calm e x t e r i o r , and begs the Due d 'O l s ingam to l e a v e Eng land: H e l a s , s ' e c r i a - t - e l l e , avec un t r a n s p o r t q u i l u y echappa malgre l e d e s s e i n q u ' e l l e a v o i t de ne temoigner que du calme & de l a f o r c e , depu i s l e moment qu i m'ota l ' e s p e r a n c e de v i v r e avec vous, i l s rn 'auro ient f a i t mour i r cent f o i s , s i ma d e s t i n e (jsicT) par une s u i t e v i s i b l e de sa c r u a u t e , ne m 'avo i t nalgre" moy a t t a chee con t i nue l l ement a l a v i e . C* • D Vous t r o u v e r e z aisement dans tous l e s e n d r o i t s du monde quelque chose de p lus a imable que ce que vous avez perdu; mais s ' i l m'est encor permis de vous demander des g r ace s , ne l e cherchez po in t en A n g l e -t e r r e ! Je s e r o i s t r o p malheureuse d ' e t r e souvent exposee a. vous v o i r . ( I I , 1 2 7 - 1 5 0 ) The l a s t sentence i n t h i s q u o t a t i o n u n d e r l i n e s the f a c t t ha t Madame d 'Es t ramene i s no l onge r unaware of her p a r t i c u l a r moral dilemma — tha t b e h o l d i n g the Due d 'O l s ingam w i l l on l y se rve to undo even the f i r m e s t of her r e s o l u t i o n s hot t o ' l e t her t r u e f e e l i n g s f o r him show. I r o n i c a l l y , a l though she i s w e l l aware of the measures she must take i f she i s to p r e s e r v e her r e p u t a t i o n i n t a c t , the mere s i g h t of the Due d 'O l s ingam near death causes her such pa in that " c ' e s t l a q u ' i l s ' e n f a l l u t peu q u ' e l l e mesme n ' e x p i r a s t , & q u ' e l l e c r u t ne d e v o i r r i e n epargner pour l e f a i r e r e v i v r e . ' E l l e se j e t t a a l u y 151 t ou te eperdue . . . .'* (II, 136) Th i s tense scene reaches a c l imax as Madame d'Sstrarnene addresses the Due d 'O l s i ngam f o r the l a s t t ime. The d r a m a t i c a c t i o n of her throwing h e r -s e l f a t him "1 'embrassant avec de v i o l e n s t r a n s p o r t s de d o u l e u r " expresses on the p h y s i c a l , v i s u a l l e v e l , the d e s p e r a t i o n to which she g i v e s the f o l l o w i n g u t t e r a n c e : Ah, Mons ieur , l u y d i t - e l l e d 'une v o i x e l e v d e , vous ne m'aimez p l u s , vous v o u l e z m o u r r i r , & v o s t r e v i e est l a s eu l e chose q u i s o u t i e n t l a mienne. Spargnez-moy t a n t d ' h o r r e u r , & de remords. La i s sez -moy 1' innocence de mour i r avant vous; ou, s i mon i n t e r e s t ne vous touche pas a s s e z , au moins prenez s o i n du v o s t r e . Revenez a f i n de me v o i r v i v r e pour vous . Revenez en e t a t de m'entendre d i r e tous l e s j ou r s que j e vous aime p l u s que t ou te s choses . Mon coeur e s t a vous ; vous v i v r e z aupres de moy. Vous mesme vous s e rez juge des compla i sances que j e vous d o i s , e n f i n je ne t r ouve ray jamais de d i f f i c u l t y dans t ou t ce que vous pour rez s o u h a i t e r . (II, 136-138) By the now f a m i l i a r techn iques of r e p e t i t i o n and p a r a l l e l i s m , Du P l a i s i r r e f l e c t s i n Mademoise l le d 'Hennebury ' s b r e a t h l e s s ou tpour ing her complete l a c k of concern f o r her own r e p u t a t i o n when she f e a r s tha t the man she l o v e s i s about to d i e because of her apparent c a l l o u s n e s s . T h i s l a c k o f concern f o r s e l f i s r e f l e c t e d a l s o i n the f requency w i t h which she uses the pronoun " v o u s " , a t o t a l o f twelve t imes i n t h i s s ho r t speech . Aware that her presence w i l l on ly cause the Due d 'O l s i ngam f u r t h e r worry, f o r he i s cogn i sant now of her l o v e f o r him and f e a r s tha t she too may as a<j r e s u l t f a l l i l l , Madame d 'Es t ramene takes her l e a v e . Yet one more s i g n i f i c a n t a c t i o n i s d e s c r i b e d 152 by Du P l a i s i r ; as the young woman i s l e a v i n g , " e l l e se l a i s s a toraber sur £ h e r b r o t h e r ] " ( I I , 141-142) , and a sks , as a f a v o u r , tha t he b e f r i e n d her husband, i f p o s s i b l e . The e v o l u t i o n o f Madame d 1 E s t r a m e n e ' s c h a r a c t e r i s remarkable by compar ison w i t h those of the o ther personages i n the n o v e l ; she has, through becoming aware o f her husband ' s m e r i t s , been a b l e to t r an s fo rm f e e l i n g s f o r him which at the b e g i n n i n g of t h e i r marr iage bordered on h a t r e d i n t o f e e l i n g s o f r e s p e c t . L e t us now c o n s i d e r the p r e s e n t a t i o n o f the o the r p r i n -c i p a l c h a r a c t e r i n La Duchesse d 'E s t ramene, the Due d 'O l s i n gam. The r e a d e r i s a ga in reminded of the many s i m i l a r i t i e s shared by La P r i n c e s s e de C l eve s -and La Duchesse d 'Es t ramene when examining i n d e t a i l the manner i n which Du P l a i s i r i n t r o d u c e s h im; the p r e s e n t a t i o n of the l o v e r i n La Duchesse d 'Es t ramene o b v i o u s l y suggests tha t of Nemours i n Madame de La F a y e t t e ' s n o v e l . In Du P l a i s i r ' s work, as i n Madame de La F a y e t t e ' s , the mora l as w e l l as the p h y s i c a l p o r t r a i t of the h u s b a n d - t o -be i s completed b e f o r e the more d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n o f the l o v e r , whose a r r i v a l on s tage , on the o ther hand, i s p repared w e l l i n advance. The reade r remains consequent l y on the l ookout f o r t h i s e x t r a o r d i n a r y c h a r a c t e r to whose m e r i t s the author has a l l u d e d , and h i s s u r p r i s e as an obse rver i s i n t e n s e s i n c e p h y s i c a l a t t r i b u t e s o f the Due d 'O l s ingam are indeed f a r g r e a t e r than those suggested by the p a i n t e d p o r t r a i t s b e i n g passed about i n the r o y a l c i r c l e and by the remarks of the c o u r t i e r s . A l though the a r t i s t ' s l i k e n e s s o f the Due d 'O l s i ngam 153 gives r i s e to f e e l i n g s of love i n Mademoiselle d'Hennebury, i t i s not u n t i l she i s a c t u a l l y i n ' t h e p h y s i c a l presence of the young man that she w i l l f e e l f o r him true passion, which i s , according to the conventions of the time, born of t h e i r i n i t i a l glance shared. Ju3t as the Due d*Olsingam's r e a c t i o n upon seeing Mademoiselle d Hennebury f o r the f i r s t time i n the J a r d i n du Roy i s one of ''etonnement", so the heroine's astonishment before the p o r t r a i t of the Due d'Olsingam i s a m p l i f i e d when she f i r s t , sees him i n the J a r d i n du Roy. By h i s use of temporal p a r a l l e l i s m (the pr e s e n t a t i o n of Mademoiselle d'Hennebury anr the Due d'Olsingam being simultaneous) end by what we might c a l l p a r a l l e l i s m of r e a c t i o n as w e l l , caused by the i n i t i a l view of the beloved, Du P l a i s i r succeeds i n h i g h l i g h t i n g the unreasoned, spontaneous love of the Due d'Olsingam and Mademoiselle d'Hennebury. The Due d'Olsingam "demeura. iuy-mesme etrangement s u r p r i s " and "quoi q u ' i l l a v i s t confusemerit, ce- q u ' i l v i t . passa tout d'un coup juscu'a. son coeur-. et h i conceut d'abord des sentimens d'amour et d'estime que 1 on n'exprime p o i n t , parce q u ' i l s surpassent l a croyance." (I.. 36-37) The r e a c t i o n of the heroine i s i d e n t i c a l : Du P l a i s i r notes that she "apperSeut a u s s i £"le Due d'OlsingamJ a ces marques egales peut-estre a c e l l e s qui l a l u y avoient f a i t appercevoir." ( I , 37) Du P l a i s i r uses contrast as h i s main technique i n pre-se n t i n g the Due d'Olsingam. The reader i s c o n s t a n t l y aware 154 that t h i s character i s i m p l i c i t l y compared with the heroine's husband, wh? i s seen to be c h i l d i s h and i r r e s p o n s i b l e u n t i l h i s somewhat f o r t u i t o u s meeting w i t h the Due d'Olsingam. In the small I t a l i a n v i l l a g e , of N . . . the scene which ensues serves to h i g h l i g h t the e f f i c a c y w i t h which Du P l a i s i r i s able to suggest the inherent goodness of the Luc d'Olsingam, f o r he a l l e y s the Due d'Estramene to speak of h i s personal dilemma, although he has every reason to refuse to l i s t e n to a t a l e which can oaly cause him anguish. The Due d'Olsingam's r e a c t i o n i t , understandably, one of "etonnement" and "rage" ( I I , S3), given the f a c t that he i s speaking w i t h a man who, "apres 1 *'a\oir d e t r u i t , e t o i t encor a Mademoiselle' d'Hennebury un Ennemy ete'rnel rc souverain." ( I I , 83-84) Nevertheless, as Du P l a i s i r hastens to add, " i l connut a u s s i t o s t par "les mouvemens c r d i n a i r e s de son amour, l e party q u ' i l d e v oit prendre", (II,-84) and proceeds to advise the Due d'Estramene on the conduct he. should adopt w i t h regard to h i s w i f e , p o i n t i n g out "tous l e s malheurs e n f i n qui doivent e s t r e e v i t e z par un Homme d'honneur & de q u a l i t e . " ( I I , 85) The Due d'01sir.gam does l i m i t here the extent of h i s advice; he f o l l o w s up t h i s i n i t i a l conversation by a v i s i t the next day, and " i l l uy p a r l a dans une plus grande etendue que l a premiere f o i s , .& i l acheva de l u y f a i r e connoitre l e s malheurs,-qui s u i v r o i e n t one plus l o n g u e - i n j u s t i c e . " . ( I I , 87) Pear that the Due d'Eetramene w i l l go back on h i s word t o "efacer par une conduite plus raisonnable, l e s impressions q u ' i l pouvoit 155 a v o i r donnees" ( I I , 88) causes the Due d 'O l s ingam to f o l l o w up t h i s second meet ing w i t h a t r i p to England to i n s u r e tha t the woman he l o ved and s t i l l l o v e s w i l l not s u f f e r undu ly : "que lque a f f o i b l y q u ' i l f u s t par l a v i o l e n c e de sa d o u l e u r , i l r ^ s o l u t de p a r t i r sur l e s pas de ce Due, ou £s i (D P o u r e t r e temoin du changement f a v o r a b l e q u ' i l l u y a v o i t i n s p i r e , ou pour l e p u n i r de sa r e c h u t e " . ( I I , 89-90) I t i s ma in ly i n h i s d e a l i n g s w i th the Due d 'Es t ramene tha t the Due d 'O l s ingam d i s p l a y s h i s a f f i n i t y w i t h the heros  genereux of the p r e c e d i n g g e n e r a t i o n of w r i t e r s . The c r i t i c P a v i l i o n f i n d s him " t r o p v e r t u e u x " ^ and too s i m i l a r p s y c h o l o -g i c a l l y to the h e r o i n e . H i s i n d i g n a t i o n i s shown as he addresses Du P l a i s i r i n the f o l l o w i n g way: . f) d ' ou v i e n t que l e Due d 'O l s ingam q u i aime eperdument Mademoise l le d 'Hennebury, ne t rouve pas pour l a pe r suader , des r a i s o n s , que je t r o u v e , b i e n , moi? Vous d i t e s q u ' i l e t o i t sounds et 1 5 d ^ s i n t e r e s s e mais j e vous reponds q u ' i l e t o i t amant." With the added p e r s p e c t i v e of th ree c e n t u r i e s , the p r e s e n t - d a y r e a d e r i s a b l e to r e a l i z e tha t Du P l a i s i r ' s d o c i l e , submi s s i ve he ro , l i k e the med ieva l c h e v a l i e r , who worsh ips h i s be loved as h i s god, would have r e c e i v e d a more c o r d i a l a p p r o v a l from the .readers of the f i r s t h a l f of the seventeenth c e n t u r y , who s t i l l b e l i e v e d i n the supremacy o f man's w i l l over the p a s s i o n s . I t must be remembered, however, tha t at the t ime Du P l a i s i r was w r i t i n g , wh i l e the forms of t h i s c o u r t l y e t i q u e t t e s t i l l remained, the s p i r i t had a t r o p h i e d . The Due d ' O l s i n g a m ' s manservant warns him tha t the journey to England c o u l d prove 156 to be f a t a l f o r him, and the Due, aware of the f u t i l i t y of reason i n matters of the i e a r t , r e p l i e s : "ce que vous me d i t e s , je me l e s u i s moy—aesme d i t cent f o i s ; a u s s i est-ce malgre moy que ma douleur continue tous l e s j o u r s . J ' a i employe toute ma r a i s o n pour l a d e t r u i r e £7 . JJ E n f i n j ' a i de grandes connoissances, mais j'ay encor plus de f o i b l e s s e ; . & quelques e f f o r t s que je fasse pour n'envisager Mademoiselle d'Hennebury que comme une Personne q u i m'a trahy, je l a regarde toujours comme une Persorae que j'ay perdue." ( I I , 94-95) While P a v i l i o n acknowledges the magnanimity of the Due d'Olsingam, he maintains that Du P l a i s i r would have been w e l l advised to show i t i n another way: b i je l i s o i s Cleopatre ou C i r u s , et que j e v i s s e un heros p a r t i peur f a i r e voiage, je s e r o i s bien sur q u ' i l ne manqueroit pas de rencontrer tous ceux des Romans qui se seroie n t egares, ou dont on n'avoit point de nouvelles. I I n'est pas meme permis aux Personnages de ces gros L i v r e s - l a , de f a i r e une promenade, q u i se termine sans aventure, et qui ne s o i t qu'une simple promenade. Mais i i n'en va pas a i n s i dans . l e s p e t i t e s Nouvelles, q ui sont devenues a. l a mode. On y a ramene l e s choses a. un vraisemblable plus n a t u r e l . Un Heros s'y peut promener, et voiager sans f a i r e aucune rencontre; et meme i l l e d o i t pour ne pas ressembler aux Heros antiques. A u s s i eut-i l peut-etre ete mieux de conserver l a generosite du Dvc d'Olsingam, et de f a i r e trouver ensemble l e s deux Rivaux par une voie plus simple.16 In s p i t e of h i s unfortunate a f f i n i t y w i t h the l e s s natural,' l e s s b e l i e v a b l e character t r a i t s of h i s counterparts i n the epic romance, the Due d'Olsingam remains nonetheless ; 157 a t t r a c t i v e as a f i c t i o n a l character p r e c i s e l y because of h;..s inherent generosite and selflessness.. Although he f e e l s h<-) cannot bear to remain i n P a r i s when he learn s of Mad e mois e l . .le d'Hennebury's marriage plans, h i s • fl.Lght i s not a cowardly., i r r e s p o n s i b l e one, as i s the Due d'Estramene 1s. I f he p r e f e r s net to be "temoin d'une chose dont l a vu'e ne l u y pouvoit e s t r e supportable", (I,.177) he does not harbour any f e e l i n g s of i l l - w i l l or even jealousy toward the heroine and the man scon to become her husband. P-ather, he accepts h i s .misfortune by r a t i o n a l i s i n g that the heroine "se devoit a. elle-mesme son crangement," and that he was unworthy of her a f f e c t i o n . I i h i s mind, the beloved woman i s without flaw. The Due d'01singam.even c a r r i e s h i s nobleness of s o u l to the point of demanding of the heroine's brother that he a l s o should not look d i s a p p r o v i n g l y on Mademoiselle d'Hennebury's conduct: "Souvenez-vous que dans l ' e t a t ou. je s u i s , s i j ' e t o i s capable d'une nouvelle a f f l i c t i o n , ce s e r o i t pour l u y a v o i r a t t i r e v o s t r e haine. Aimex {Jsicj - l a comme vous 1'aimiez r j . ". ( I , 173) Du P l a i s i r explores f u r t h e r h i s hero's magnanimity i n commenting upon h i s a t t i t u d e to the Due d'Estramene. 3 ich a s e l f l e s s a t t i t u d e does, however, reduce the v e r i s i m i l i t u d e of Du P l a i s i r ' s personage: the complete absence of any f e e l i n g of jealousy or d e s i r e f o r revenge puts the Due d'Olsingam i n t o the morally irreproachable' category of the f a i r y - t a l e p r i n c e . However, u n l i k e the hero of the f a i r y t a l e , whose 158 c h a r a c t e r u s u a l l y remains s t a t i c , Du P l a i s i r ' s personage does evo l ve p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y as the a c t i o n u n f o l d s . T h i s a lmost i m p e r c e p t i b l e change i s u n d e r l i n e d j u s t as he h o v e r s - n e a r dea th , as he demonstrates a s l i g h t tendancy toward what we today would c a l l masochism and a somewhat c h i l d i s h r e f u s a l to f a ce a f u t u r e he cannot share w i t h the woman he l o v e s . The Due d 'O l s ingam would have p r e f e r r e d not to know t h a t the h e r o i n e d i d indeed l o v e him a l though she marr ied another to p re se rve her honour; to the h e r o i n e , who i s i n a s t a t e of t o t a l p h y s i c a l d i s a r r a y deno t i n g extreme p s y c h o l o g i c a l d e s p a i r , the Due d 'O l s ingam on h i s death-bed p r o c l a i m s : " P a u t - i l qu ' ap re s a v o i r tant s o u f f e r t par 1'opin ion de v o s t r e h a i n e , j ' a y e encor p lus a s o u f f r i r par l a conno i s sance de v o s t r e a m i t i e ? Que ne s u i s - j e encor dans l e d e s e s p o i r d ' o u je s o r s l Je m'en f e r o i s un bonheur; et q u ' i l me s e r o i t p lu s doux d ' e s t r e m i s e r a b l e par une ha ine c e r t a i n e que d ' e s t r e a im£ au p r i x de ce q u ' i l en c o u t e . " ( I I , 123-124) The r e p e t i t i o n of the adverb " e n c o r " demonstrates on the pa r t of the Due d 'O l s ingam an express d e s i r e to r e t u r n to a 'past s t a t e i n which he s u f f e r e d l e s s because he was unaware of the h e r o i n e ' s r e a l i n c l i n a t i o n . The l a t e n t dea th -w i sh c o n d i t i o n i n g the h e r o ' s a c t i o n s i n b a t t l e man i fe s t s i t s e l f i n the l a s t moments of h i s l i f e as " l a s s i t u d e " a n d . " e n n u i " ( I I , 108) , o r , 17 as modern c r i t i c s would put i t , a d e s i r e not to ' become ' . The Due d 'O l s ingam too may thus be d e f i n e d as a " r ound " c h a r a c t e r , i n tha t he does not remain s t a t i c , but expresses the d e s i r e to r e g r e s s to a past s t a t e i n which he had known 159 happ ines s . He i s l e s s complex p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y than e i t h e r Madame d'Sstrarnene or her husband, both o f whom evo l ve p r e c i s e l y because they have each to d e a l w i th the problems caused by the presence of the Luc d 'O l s ingam. The Due d 'O l s ingam must not however be " regarded on ly as a p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y sha l low s t r u c t u r a l convenience i n La Duchesse d ' E s t ramene. In a more l i m i t e d way than these o ther two c h a r a c t e r s , he does e x i s t as a b e l i e v a b l e personage. H i s v e r i s i m i l i t u d e as a l i t e r a r y c r e a t i o n i n c r e a s e s as the s t o r y draws to a c l o s e , f o r never does he express h i m s e l f so f u l l y u s i n g d i r e c t d i s c o u r s e as he does when con f ron ted by Madame d 'Es t ramene at the home o f her b r o t h e r . Hav ing examined the methods which Du P l a i s i r uses to present the c h a r a c t e r s i n h i s n o v e l , and the h i e r a r c h y which he observes i n so do ing , we are ab le to a p p r e c i a t e the d e l i -be ra te s t r u c t u r e of La Duchesse d 'E s t ramene. A l l o f the personages p o p u l a t i n g the work, both major and minor a l i k e , a re conce ived and presented by the author w i th a view to h i g h l i g h t i n g p e r t i n e n t a spec t s of the h e r o i n e ' s complex p e r s o n a l i t y . The mora l dilemma of t h i s young woman which compr ises the c e n t r a l f o c a l p o i n t of the t a l e r e l a t e d by the n a r r a t o r i s , as we have seen, r e f l e c t e d i n the v e r y s t r u c t u r e of the work: the d i v i s i o n of the c h a r a c t e r s i n t o two major groups se rves to po in t up Madame d ' E s t r a m e n e ' s i n a b i l i t y to wear s u c c e s s f u l l y a s o c i a l mask and to b r i d g e the gap which separa te s appearance and r e a l i t y . Du P l a i s i r ' s s k i l f u l use of the techn ique o f moving po in t of view se rves not on ly t o 160 make the c h a r a c t e r whose o p t i c he adopts more b e l i e v a b l e , but a l s o to l end to h i s n a r r a t i v e a depth of p e r s p e c t i v e which i t might not o therwise have had. A l though i t may be argued tha t La Duchesse d 'Estramene s u f f e r s from a l a c k of n o n - l i n e a r h i s t o r i c a l and a n e c d o t a l d i g r e s s i o n s , i t must be ag reed , however, tha t Du P l a i s i r , through h i s mastery o f n a r r a t i v e techn ique and methods o f c h a r a c t e r p r e s e n t a t i o n , succeeds i n convey ing to the reader a nuanced, e v o c a t i v e p o r t r a i t of a woman who chooses to subjugate her p e r s o n a l wishes to the demands of b ienseance , i n an e f f o r t to m a i n t a i n her r e p u t a t i o n a t c o u r t . 161 CHAPTER I I I : FOOTNOTES ^"In E.M. F o r s t e r ' s sense. See Aspec t s of the N o v e l , pp. 75-85. 2 " O n the A r t of P o e t r y , " Chapter XIV. Quoted i n : C l a s s i c a l L i t e r a r y C r i t i c i s m . T ran s . T . S . Dorsch (Harmonds-worth , 1967), pp. 49-51. See p. 36, above. 5 ( P a r i s , 1683), pp. 125-26. ^ C o r n e i l l e et l a d i a l e c t i q u e du heros ( P a r i s , 1963) , p. 432. ^Sur Rac ine ( P a r i s , 1963), p. 25.. ^Qeuvres (Amsterdam, 1750), p. 52. 7 l o c . c i t . Oeuvres, pp. 52-3 . •Romans et n o u v e l l e s ( P a r i s , 1961), pp. 277-78. "^Oeuvres . pp. 53-4. ^ r b i d . , pp. 55 -6 . 12 Nouve l l e s L e t t r e s de 1' au teur de l a " C r i t i q u e ge"nerale de l ' H i s t o i r e du Ca l v in i sme du Mr. MaimbourgT" ( V i l l e f r a n c h e , 16*85), v o l . I I, pp. 658-59. C i t e d by D.F. D a l l a s , Le Roman  f r a n c a i s de 1660 a 1680 ( P a r i s , 1932), p. 233, n .2 . 13 •^Madame de La F a y e t t e par e l le -meme, pp. 90-101. •^Oeuvres, p. 47. ^ I b i d . . p. 48. l 6 I b i d . . pp. 56-7 . 17 F o r an e l a b o r a t i o n of t h i s theme, s t u d i e d i n r e l a t i o n -s h i p to the c h a r a c t e r o f the P r i n c e de C l e v e s , see S. Doubrovsky, C o r n e i l l e et l a d i a l e c t i q u e du he ro s . pp. 445-51. 162 CONCLUSION THE RELATIONSHIP OF THEORY TO PRACTICE IN THE' WORK OF .DO PLAISIR: THE SBNTII'iBNS SUR L'HISTOIRE AND LA .DUCHESSE D'SSTRAMBNB The. g u l f between n o v e l i s t i c t h e o r y and p r a c t i c e i s g e n e r a l l y conceded t o be g r e a t i n the s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y . As a number of rapprochement,'; i n t h e p r e c e d i n g pag-as. have h i n t e d a t , however, the r e l a t i o n s h i p o f La Duchesse d'Estramene and t h e Sentimens s u r 1 ' H i s t o i r e i s u n u s u a l l y close,. I n f a c t , i t i s m a i n l y because o f correspondences l i k e the o . i e s noted t h a t c r i t i c s can f i n d some j u s t i f i c a t i o n in/ a t t r i b u t i n g t h e two works to t h e same a u t h o r . B i b l i o g r a p h i c a l and h i s t o r i c a l methods a r e c f l i t t l e consequence i n an e f f o r t t o j u s t i f y t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p ; a comparison o f the t h e o r y d e v e l o p e d i n P a r t Two o f t h e Sentimens,.. and the s t r u c t u r e ' ".if L a Duchesse d'Estramene does, on the c o n t r a r y , s e r v e t o h i g h l i g h t t h e f a c t t h a t the one work e n r i c h e s i n f i n i t e l y the u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e o t h e r , and t h a t t h e y were v e r y l i k e l y w r i t t e n by t h e same, p e r s o n . W i t h a few n o t a b l e e x c e p t i o n s , Du P l a i s i r o b s erves f a i t h f u l l y i n h i s c r e a t i v e work t h e p r e c e p t s w h i c h he advo-c a t e s i n h i s t h e o r e t i c a l t r e a t i s e . L a Duchesse d'Estramene, an a l m o s t p e r f e c t example o f what the a u t h o r o f t h e Sentimens  s u r I ' H i s t o i r e d e f i n e s as a n . h i s t o i r e g a l a n t e , a nouveau roman, o r a n o u v e l l e , i s , by v i r t u e o f i t s t e c h n i c a l c o n s t r u c t i o n and 163 i t s s ub jec t mat ter , an a n t i - n o v e l , t ha t i s to say, the s t r u c t u r a l and .thematic oppos i t e of the anc iens roraans, the voluminous h e r o i c nove l s which f l o u r i s h e d at the b e g i n n i n g and middle of the seventeenth c e n t u r y . Almost every major c h a r a c t e r i s t i c t r a i t o f the anc ien s  romans which Du P l a i s i r denounces i n h i s Sentimens sur 1 ' H i s t o i r e i s absent from La Duchesse d 'E s t ramene. The s t o r y of the eponymous he ro ine i s c o n c i s e l y and s u c c i n c t l y r e l a t e d i n two t h i n duodecimo volumes of approx imate l y two hundred pages each. The e x t e r n a l s t r u c t u r e of La Duchesse d 'Es t ramene i s b a s i c a l l y a l i n e a r one; not a s i n g l e d i g r e s s i o n or c h r o n o -l o g i c a l r e t r o g r a d e movement impedes the l i m p i d and r a p i d u n f o l d i n g of the i n t r i g u e . The s t r u c t u r a l earmark of the anc ien s romans, the b e g i n n i n g i n medias r e s t o which Du P l a i s i r w h i m s i c a l l y r e f e r s as a " f a t i g a n t e beaute " i n h i s Sentimens sur 1 'H isto ire"* " , i s r e p l a c e d by a r a p i d s k e t c h o f the p h y s i c a l s e t t i n g f o r the mora l problem about to occupy s t a g e - c e n t r e of La Duchesse d 'E s t ramene. Adher ing f a i t h f u l l y t o the p r i n c i p l e s to be enunc ia ted i n the Sentimens sur l ' H i s t o i r e , Du P l a i s i r s i t u a t e s the g r e a t e r pa r t of the a c t i o n o f h i s n o v e l i n France and i n England at a t ime i n h i s t o r y which precedes by on ly a few year s the p u b l i c a t i o n date o f the work; h i s s e t t i n g i s thus not from c l a s s i c a l t imes nor a re h i s c h a r a c t e r s superhuman be ings capab le of overcoming any and a l l o b s t a c l e s which might o b s t r u c t t h e i r p r o g r e s s . There a r e , moreover, r e l a t i v e l y few c h a r a c t e r s i n La Duchesse d 'Es t ramene, and the c o n f i d a n t i s no tab l y absent . Du P l a i s i r i s above a l l concerned w i th the v ra i semb lance of the t a l e b e i n g r e l a t e d ; i n f a c t , La Duchesse d 'Hstraniene i l l u s t r a t e s p e r f e c t l y the d e f i n i t i o n of v e r i s i m i l i t u d e g i v e n i n the Sentimens sur 1 ' H i s t o i r e , i . e . an a c t i o n which i s "moralement 2 c r o y a b l e " . As we have seen above i n our d i s c u s s i o n of the second s e c t i o n o f the Sentimens sur 1 ' H i s t o i r e . (p. 5 1 f f . ) Du P l a i s i r takes i s s u e w i th h i s p redeces so r s who i n t e r v e n e d f r e q u e n t l y i n t h e i r t a l e w i th p e r s o n a l commentary or e x p l a n a -t i o n s . In La Duchesse d 'E s t ramene, the a u t h o r ' s p resence i s comp le te l y unob t ru s i ve d u r i n g the g r e a t e r pa r t of the a c t i o n . We have to l o o k c a r e f u l l y t o f i n d the author who r e l a t e s the t a l e of Madame d 'Es t ramene; as I have s t r e s s e d i n the p r e -c e d i n g pages, he i s n e v e r t h e l e s s there behind the scenes s k i l f u l l y m a n i p u l a t i n g the g u i d e - s t r i n g s of h i s c r e a t i o n s , a d o p t i n g from t ime to t ime the po in t of view o f a secondary c h a r a c t e r i n o rder to e l u c i d a t e f o r h i s r eade r a s a l i e n t f a c e t of the p e r s o n a l i t y of h i s main c h a r a c t e r . I t i s of equa l importance to note t h a t , f a i t h f u l to the p r e c e p t s se t down i n the Sentimens sur 1 ' H i s t o i r e , the n a r r a t o r makes a c l e a r d i s t i n c t i o n o f tone between h i s own d e l i b e r a t e s tatements and the l e s s - s t u d i e d , hence more n a t u r a l , language of h i s c h a r a c t e r s . Whi le i t i s undoubtedly t r u e tha t what has been r e f e r r e d to by l i t e r a r y c r i t i c s as the " s t y l e du coeur " i s more ev iden t i n the p h y s i c a l comportment o f the c h a r a c t e r s than i n t h e i r manner of speak ing , the author of La Duchesse 165 d 'Estramene n e v e r t h e l e s s succeeds i n h i g h l i g h t i n g b r i l l i a n t l y t h e i r i n n e r p s y c h o l o g i c a l t u r m o i l i n the r a r e scenes i n which he a l l ows them to speak u s ing d i r e c t d i s c o u r s e . Du P l a i s i r , as a c r e a t i v e au thor , o b v i o u s l y r e a l i z e s tha t such scenes a re rendered a l l the more moving f o r the reader i f he comments upon them i n a measured tone o f v o i c e , a d o p t i n g the detached view o f the omnipresent observer -commentator . As regards s t y l e , we r e c a l l tha t the c a r d i n a l r u l e expounded i n the Sentimens sur 1 ' H i s t o i r e was an i n s i s t e n c e upon n a t u r a l n e s s of e x p r e s s i o n on the pa r t of the w r i t e r . Du P l a i s i r a v o i d s , i n h i s Duchesse d 'Es t ramene, exp re s s i on s which he condemns i n the Sentimens sur 1 ' H i s t o i r e f o r t h e i r max im- l i ke q u a l i t y , as w e l l as s tatements which he l i s t s under the r u b r i c of " r e f l e x i o n s g e n e r a l e s " . The t h e o r e t i c i a n who ma in ta ins tha t " l e s n o u v e l l e s ne montrent 1'u t i l e que par l ' a g r e a b l e " ^ does not i n f a c t make any s tatements o f a m o r a l i z i n g na tu re u n t i l the f i n a l pages of the n o v e l . The end ing o f La Duchesse d 'Es t ramene i s , however, t h e o r e t i c a l l y j u s t i f i a b l e a c c o r d i n g to the p recep t s enunc ia ted i n the Sentimens sur 1 ' H i s t o i r e , f o r Du P l a i s i r contends t h a t such s tatements of a m o r a l i z i n g na ture a re p e r m i s s i b l e and must i n f a c t f u l f i l l the r o l e of c o n c l u d i n g element i n the n o v e l whose end ing should i d e a l l y be env isaged as a f o c a l p o i n t a t which a l l the component s t r i n g s of the a c t i o n converge to form a neat knot . The reader hav ing reached the c o n c l u d i n g sentence of La Duchesse d'Esjtramene i s l e f t w i th the impre s s i on tha t 166 the re i s a b s o l u t e l y n o t h i n g l e f t to say c o n c e r n i n g the mora l dilemma of the h e r o i n e . While one cou ld have d e s i r e d more evoca t i venes s and mystery a t the end o f the n o v e l , t h i s t r a d i t i o n of l e a v i n g no l o o s e ends i s v e r y ev iden t i n the seventeenth cen tu ry and i s p a r t i c u l a r l y noteworthy i n c l a s s i c a l t h e a t r e . With regard to c h a r a c t e r p o r t r a y a l , the author o f La Duchesse d 'Estramene observes to the l e t t e r the p recep t s se t down i n the Sentimens sur 1 ' H i s t o i r e . In o rder tha t they may be c l e a r l y d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e from the secondary c h a r a c t e r s , and hence h i g h l i g h t e d , the hero and h e r o i n e a re d e s c r i b e d by Du P l a i s i r on ly a f t e r he has p rov ided h i s r eade r w i t h word-p o r t r a i t s of v a r y i n g d e t a i l d e s c r i b i n g the l e s s important ' f o i l ' c h a r a c t e r s . Du P l a i s i r p r e s c r i b e s tha t the w r i t e r shou ld endeavour to d e p i c t man i n a g e n e r a l way; i n h i s Duchesse d 'Es t ramene, he d e s c r i b e s r a p i d l y the p h y s i c a l a spec t s of both h i s main and secondary c h a r a c t e r s . L i k e t h e i r t h e o -r e t i c a l i d e a l s i n the Sentimens sur 1 ' H i s t o i r e , the personages i n La Duchesse d 'Estramene are c h a r a c t e r i z e d and i n d i v i d u a l i z e d by t h e i r a c t i o n s , r a t h e r than by p h y s i c a l t r a i t s s p e c i f i e d by the author as b e i n g p e c u l i a r to them a l o n e . The hero of La  Duchesse d 'Es tramene i s not a super-human b e i n g i n seven - l eague boo t s , n e i t h e r i s h i s female coun te rpa r t a mora l l y i r r e p r o a c h -a b l e woman o f Amazonian p r o p o r t i o n s . The mora l dilemma which they must r e s o l v e may i n f a c t be c l a s s i f i e d under the r u b r i c of " p e t i t e s c i r c o n s t a n c e s " , which the author o f the Sentimens 167 sur 1 ' H i s t o i r e ma in ta in s i s ample s u b j e c t mat ter f o r a sho r t 5 f i c t i o n a l work. F o r the most p a r t , then , the r e l a t i o n s h i p of l a Duchesse d 'Estramene to the Sentimens sur 1 ' H i s t o i r e i s q u i t e c l o s e . Du P l a i s i r , however, has been c r i t i c i z e d f o r commit t ing what he c o n s i d e r s to be one o f the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n s o f the anc iens romans: the use of f o r t u i t o u s events or spec ious arguments to e x p l a i n or to support the a c t i o n b e i n g r e l a t e d . In p a r t i c u l a r , the scene i n which he d e p i c t s the encounter of the husband and the r e j e c t e d l o v e r i n a l i t t l e I t a l i a n v i l l a g e was s i n g l e d out by P a v i l i o n i n t h i s r e g a r d . ^ Though g r a t u i t o u s l o g i c a l l y , t h i s scene has, from our p o i n t o f view today, however, a p o e t i c meaning. Du P l a i s i r t e l l s us t ha t the a c t i o n takes p l a c e i n an i s o l a t e d spot , l o n e l y as the h e a r t o f the Due d 'O l s ingam, and ye t at the same t ime we a r e made aware that the a r r i v a l of s p r i ng t ime i s imminent — aga in a r e f l e c t i o n on the d e s c r i p t i v e l e v e l of the p s y c h o l o g i c a l s t a t e o f the Due d 'O l s ingam, who harbours perhaps the f a i n t e s t o f hopes f o r the f u t u r e . R e l a t e d to the i n t e r v e n t i o n of somewhat i r r a t i o n a l or i n s u f f i c i e n t l y p resented elements i n the n o v e l a r e Du P l a i s i r ' s comments i n the Sen t imens . . . i n . w h i c h he denounces arguments 7 which are "peu spec ieux " i n e x p l a i n i n g the a b s e n t i n g of c h a r a c t e r s from the s tage . Whi le he ma in ta in s t h a t the w r i t e r should prepare h i s r eade r i n advance f o r the d i sappearance of a c h a r a c t e r , the death of Madame d 'Hennebury as d e p i c t e d i n 168 La Duchesse d'Estramene t a k e s the r e a d e r somewhat by s u r p r i s e , as she i s not shown t o be a i l i n g f o r a l o n g w h i l e b e f o r e the somewhat a b r u p t d e a t h scene. While the h e r o i n e ' s d i s c o v e r y and subsequent u n d e r s t a n d i n g of s e l f a r e dependent upon t h e removal of Madame d'Hennebury from the s t a g e , Du P l a i s i r can a g a i n be accused o f i n v r a i s e m b l a n c e i n the p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h i s scene. To r e c a p i t u l a t e b r i e f l y t h e arguments j u s t p r e s e n t e d i n the p r e c e d i n g pages, we see t h a t , w i t h f e v e x c e p t i o n s , t h e o r y and p r a c t i c e c o i n c i d e i n the work o f Du P l a i s i r . I n form, as w e l l as i n c o n t e n t , the Sentimens s u r 1 ' H i s t o i r e r e p r e s e n t a re m a r k a b l y p e r c e p t i v e a n a l y s i s and t h e o r e t i c a l d e s c r i p t i o n o f La Duchesse d'Estramene. The q u e s t i o n then a r i s e s , o f c o u r s e : i f La Duchesse d 'Estramene and La P r i n c e s s e - de C l e v e s b o t h i l l u s t r a t e , more o r l e s s p e r f e c t l y the f o r m u l a f o r the i d e a l n o u v e l l e as i t was c o n c e i v e d i n 1663, why i s t h e l a t t e r >0rk c o n s i d e r e d ah u n q u a l i f i e d l i t e r a r y s u c c e s s , a m a s t e r p i e c e , w h i l e the former i s o n l y a t the p r e s e n t time a t t r a c t i n g t he a t t e n t i o n o f a s m a l l s c h o l a r l y p u b l i c ? A p a r t i a l answer t o t h i s q u e s t i o n i s i n f a c t s u p p l i e d by t h e a u t h o r o f the Sentimens s u r 1 ' H i s t o i r e ; Q we r e c a l l t h a t , e c h o i n g a s i m i l a r statement made by B o i l e a u , Du P l a i s i r contended t h a t t r u e c r e a t i v e g e n i u s cannot be ' l e a r n e d ' , f o r i t i s a d i v i n e g i f t , "une r o s e e b e n i g n e " . 9 W h i l e Du P l a i s i r succeeds i n p r o d u c i n g a c r e a t i v e work which conforms t o h i s own i d e a l , the form o f Madame de L a P a y e t t e ' s 169 P r i n c e s s e de C leves f o l l o w s t oo , f o r the most p a r t , as Rousset mainta ins , " 1 " 0 the p a t t e r n of the i d e a l n o u v e l l e as d e s c r i b e d i n the Sentimens sur 1 ' H i s t o i r e ; but Madame de La F a y e t t e i s , of c o u r s e , the g r e a t e r w r i t e r . An i n t e n s e tempora l awareness, s p e c i f i c a l l y an a b i l i t y to i n t e g r a t e s u c c e s s f u l l y i n t o what i s e s s e n t i a l l y a l i n e a r u n f o l d i n g of the a c t i o n r e t r o s p e c t i v e c h r o n o l o g i c a l a l l u s i o n s , j u s t i f i e s the h i g h c r i t i c a l o p i n i o n i n which La P r i n c e s s e de C l eve s has been h e l d by most l i t e r a r y c r i t i c s : S i c e t t e oeuvre es t r e s t e e jeune a cote" des c e n t a i n e s de bouquins tombes dans l ' o u b l i , c ' e s t parce que sa c r e a t r i c e a p p a r t i e n t a ces ' e x c e l l e n s G-enies ' , comme d i t S o r e l , ' q u i sgavent composer des l i v r e s , l e s q u e l s , pour e s t r e a l a mode ne l a i s s e n t pas de s u i v r e l e s bonnes et e t e r n e l l e s r e g i e s du v r a y a r t d ' e c r i r e et l e u r m e r i t e s e r a t o u s i o u r s d i s t i n g u e de 1 ' imper t i nence des mauvais e s c r i t s . 'H To c o n c l u d e : Whatever i t s shortcomings i n the l i g h t o f l a  P r i n c e s s e de C l e v e s , La Duchesse d 'Es t ramene i s p robab l y the bes t o f the numerous at tempts made by n o v e l i s t s a f t e r 1678 to d e p i c t t he .mora l dilemma o f the honnete femme g u i l t y by s o c i e t y ' s s tandards of an a d u l t e r o u s r e l a t i o n s h i p . To say tha t Du P l a i s i r ' s c r e a t i o n i s a P r i n c e s s e de C l e v e s w i thout genius i s not to deny i t s l i t e r a r y worth; on the c o n t r a r y , i t i s to r e c o g n i z e and to accept i t f o r the extremely s i g n i f i -cant c r e a t i v e work tha t i t i s , a work which, i t must be emphasized, shou ld be made a v a i l a b l e to a w i d e r ' r e a d i n g p u b l i c , a work which ga ins i n importance when viewed a g a i n s t the backdrop of i t s a u t h o r ' s own theo ry . 170 CONCLUSION: FOOTNOTES 1 ( P a r i s , 1683), pp. 95-6. 2 p . 96. 5 p . 150. 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