UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Land use and public policy in northern Canada Naysmith, John K. 1975

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LAND USE AND PUBLIC POLICY IN NORTHERN  CANADA  by  John Kennedy Naysmith B.Sc.F., U n i v e r s i t y o f New Brunswick, 1953 M.F.S. Harvard U n i v e r s i t y , 1968  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY  i n t h e Department of Forestry  We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as conforming t o t h e required  standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September 1975  In p r e s e n t i n g  t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r  an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that  the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e  and  study.  I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s .  be  granted by  the Head o f my  I t i s understood t h a t c o p y i n g o r  o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not written  permission  Department of  Forestry  The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h 2075 Westbrook P l a c e Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5  Department  Columbia  or  publication  be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t  my  ABSTRACT  Northern years ago.  The  Canada was  first  occupied by man  f u r t r a d e r , the f i r s t  at l e a s t 25,000  European to l i v e i n what i s  now  the Yukon T e r r i t o r y and Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s , a r r i v e d l e s s  300  y e a r s ago,  and n o r t h e r n  l a n d use, not r e l a t e d  to  subsistence  l i v i n g o r the f u r t r a d e , has a h i s t o r y of l e s s than 100 The n o r t h has  experienced  of  The  use  d i s c o v e r y of g o l d  the subsequent p l a c e r m i n i n g o p e r a t i o n s a t the t u r n  the c e n t u r y marked the b e g i n n i n g o f the  the second world war, n o r t h of 60.  years.  t h r e e d i s t i n c t waves of l a n d  a c t i v i t y w i t h i n the p a s t s e v e n t y - f i v e y e a r s . i n the Yukon and  than  roads, p i p e l i n e s and  Finally,  'development e r a ' .  During  a i r f i e l d s were c o n s t r u c t e d  the e x t e n s i v e o i l , gas and m i n e r a l  which today extends a c r o s s the n o r t h , i n c l u d i n g the A r c t i c  activity, Islands,  began i n the 1960s. The  purpose o f t h i s study i s to a n a l y z e n o r t h e r n l a n d  use  and  r e l a t e d p u b l i c p o l i c y i n Canada n o r t h of 60 degrees n o r t h  and  to propose a course o f a c t i o n f o r the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and management  of  the r e g i o n ' s 1.5 It  latitude  m i l l i o n square m i l e s o f p u b l i c l a n d .  i s shown t h a t s t a r t i n g w i t h the Dominion Lands A c t i n  v i r t u a l l y a l l of the body of law p e r t a i n i n g to n o r t h e r n l a n d has  1872  been a  response to i n c r e a s i n g and/or a l t e r i n g demands f o r the a l i e n a t i o n of p u b l i c l a n d and  associated resources.  the v a r i o u s a c t s and  As a r e s u l t the r e l a t i o n s h i p  r e g u l a t i o n s to each o t h e r grow more complex w h i l e  the r e s p e c t i v e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of the f e d e r a l and territorial  of  governments become l e s s d e f i n a b l e .  iii  two  In a d d i t i o n to the l e g a l and r e l a t e d to n o r t h e r n  administrative  l a n d , t h e r e are the c l a i m s o f the n o r t h ' s  people to s u b s t a n t i a l areas of l a n d , and o f the s o c i a l and  institutions  s o c i e t y ' s growing awareness  c u l t u r a l implications of northern  development.  I f p o l i c y - m a k e r s are to r e s o l v e the complex i s s u e s ing northern  l a n d today they must f i r s t  native  surround-  c o n s i d e r the l a n d i t s e l f  and  develop p o l i c y which i s based on an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f i t s n a t u r e , c a p a b i l i t y and  limitations.  Within respect  t h a t context  the study proposes the f o l l o w i n g  with  to the f u t u r e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and management of n o r t h e r n (1)  a l a n d use p l a n n i n g  process  f o r g u i d i n g and  d e c i s i o n s r e s p e c t i n g land use and (i)  (ii)  determining  a l l o c a t i o n which would:  account f o r the n a t u r a l v a l u e s of the  lands:  and  properties  land;  consider  the p o t e n t i a l uses o f the l a n d and i t s  capabilities; (iii) propose and  assess  the consequences of  forms of l a n d use and ( i v ) monitor and  various  development;  document l a n d  use;  (2)  a l a n d use p l a n n i n g  (3)  a northern  (4)  a mechanism f o r c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the l a n d planning  commission i n each  land c l a s s i f i c a t i o n  territory;  system; use  process;  (5)  a r e v i s e d l e g i s l a t i v e base;  (6)  a s e l e c t i o n process  f o r settlement  iv  of n a t i v e l a n d  claims.  The next l o g i c a l step i n t h e e v o l u t i o n o f t h e t e r r i t o r i a l governments i s an i n c r e a s e d  r o l e i n the management o f n o r t h e r n  land.  The a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f f e d e r a l l a n d l e g i s l a t i o n by a department o f l a n d and  f o r e s t s i n the Yukon T e r r i t o r i a l Government and the Government o f  the Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s i s suggested.  v  TABLE OF CONTENTS INTRODUCTION  1  PART ONE.  HISTORIC PERSPECTIVE  Chapter I  THE ORIGINAL PEOPLE  6  Man's A r r i v a l i n the N o r t h C u l t u r a l E v o l u t i o n and Land Use II  THE INTRODUCTION OF WESTERN CULTURE E a r l y E x p l o r a t i o n , D i s c o v e r y and Enter the T r a d e r Missions Established Changing P a t t e r n s  III  LAND USE AND  THE LAW  32 Occupance  1870-1970  57  Rupert's Land and the N o r t h Western T e r r i t o r y Dominion Lands A c t The Yukon T e r r i t o r y B e f o r e 1900 I n d i a n Lands; T r e a t i e s 8 and 11 Timber, A g r i c u l t u r e and Homesteading Trapping M i n i n g , O i l and Gas  PART TWO.  I  THE PRESENT SETTING  FEDERAL GOVERNMENT LEGISLATION T e r r i t o r i a l Lands A c t T e r r i t o r i a l Land Use R e g u l a t i o n s M i n i n g A c t s and R e g u l a t i o n s O i l and Gas R e g u l a t i o n s Q u a r r y i n g , C o a l and Timber R e g u l a t i o n s T e r r i t o r i a l Land R e g u l a t i o n s  vi  119  Chapter II  TERRITORIAL GOVERNMENT LEGISLATION  136  Commissioner's Lands Area Development Ordinances Other T e r r i t o r i a l Ordinances III  LAND USE TODAY  144  O i l and Gas Mining F o r e s t r y and A g r i c u l t u r e B l o c k Land T r a n s f e r s Roads, R a i l r o a d s and P i p e l i n e s Hunting and T r a p p i n g N a t i o n a l P a r k s , T e r r i t o r i a l Parks and E c o l o g i c a l Reserves IV  LAND ADMINISTRATION IN THE NORTH  192  T e r r i t o r i a l Governments F e d e r a l Government Federal—Territorial Liaison F e d e r a l - T e r r i t o r i a l Lands A d v i s o r y Committee A p p l i c a t i o n Review Committee Land Use A d v i s o r y Committee R e s e a r c h and t h e A d m i n i s t r a t o r  V  ECONOMIC AND POLITICAL FACTORS CONSIDERED  20.6  Population P e r s o n a l Income P r i v a t e and P u b l i c S e c t o r A c t i v i t y The S t a t u s o f T e r r i t o r i a l Government  PART THREE.  I  A FUTURE COURSE  226.  LAND VALUES Natural Values A t t r i b u t e d  vii  Chapter II  250  SOME BASIC APPROACHES TO LAND MANAGEMENT Laissez Faire B u r e a u c r a t i c Management M u l t i p l e Use The E c o l o g i c a l Approach A N o r t h e r n Approach  III  263  LAND USE PLANNING Why- Plan? The P l a n n i n g P r o c e s s Goals F o r m u l a t i o n and Implementation  IV  272  POLICY INTO PRACTICE Underlying P r i n c i p l e s Goals i n N o r t h e r n Lands P o l i c y N o r t h e r n Land Use P l a n n i n g Planning Areas Data C o l l e c t i o n W i t h i n a Conceptual Framework A S i x — S t e p Approach. The N a t i v e C l a i m The P u b l i c ' s R o l e A Planning A u t h o r i t y A Land Use P l a n n i n g A c t Other C o n s i d e r a t i o n s A Northern E c o l o g i c a l S i t e s Act A Northern Forest Act Leases and S a l e s  CONCLUSION •  ,  •  BIBLIOGRAPHY  -  APPENDICES  ,  viii  3  1  7  3  2  8  3  4  8  LIST OF TABLES Number 1  2  3  4  5  6  Description  Page  Land T r a n s a c t i o n s i n the Northwest S e l e c t e d Years  Territories 92  Number o f F u r - B e a r i n g Animals Traded Under Northwest Game L i c e n c e s S e l e c t e d . Years, P o p u l a t i o n o f t h e Yukon T e r r i t o r y Territories  96  and Northwest 108  Number o f O i l and Gas P e r m i t s and Acreage H e l d a t December 31, 1973  147  Number o f O i l and Gas Leases and Acreage H e l d a t December 31, 1973 ..  147  T o t a l Annual Revenue from O i l and Gas I n d u s t r y by Year - Yukon T e r r i t o r y  and Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s  . .  7  Value of M i n e r a l  8  Annual T e r r i t o r i a l Timber P r o d u c t i o n  156  9  Farms i n the Yukon T e r r i t o r y  160  A p p l i c a t i o n s f o r Land f o r A g r i c u l t u r a l Purposes i n t h e Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s between January 1971 and June 1974  163  11  B l o c k Land T r a n s f e r Program  166  12  B i g Game H u n t i n g , Yukon T e r r i t o r y  13  Number and Type of T o u r i s t V i s i t o r s west T e r r i t o r i e s - 1971  10  14  Production  148 153  . . .  180a t o the N o r t h 183  A p p l i c a t i o n s f o r A g r i c u l t u r a l Land, Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s , May 1973 - August 1974  199  15.  P o p u l a t i o n and A r e a  207  16  T e r r i t o r i a l Population; Indian, Inuit,  . .  208  17  V i t a l S t a t i s t i c s , Mackenzie.Area and I n u v i k Zone, 1971 .  210  18  T o t a l Eersomalelncome, R e s i d e n t s of the Yukon and N o r t h west T e r r i t o r i e s , 1971  211  P r i v a t e S e c t o r C o n t r i b u t i o n ( s a l a r i e s and wages) t o Gross Domestic P r o d u c t , 1970/71  213  19  . . .  ix-  . O t h e r s , 1971  LIST OFT-TABLES Number 20  (cont'd)  Description  Page  E x p e r i e n c e d Labour F o r c e by A c t i v i t y , Yukon Territory,  1961 and 1971 . . .  .  214  kl21  T e r r i t o r i a l Government Employees  215  2222  Gross R e g i o n a l E x p e n d i t u r e , Yukon T e r r i t o r y Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s , 1970/71  x  and 216  0  v  U  v  e  f V ^ y Te.i-  cwt  uJ'oif-W  -  P ^ '  LIST OF MAPS Number  Page  Frontispiece  1  The Yukon T e r r i t o r y and Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s  2  Glaciation  10  3  C u l t u r a l Areas  11  4  Approximate D i s t r i b u t i o n of  o f I n d i a n T r i b e s Noirtli  60 i n 1725 A.D  12  5  The Denbigh People 3000 B.C. - 500 B.C., I n u i t  . . . .  20  6  The D o r s e t People 1000 B.C. - A.D. 1100, I n u i t  . . . .  22  7  The T h u l e - I n u i t People A.D. 800 t o P r e s e n t , I n u i t  8  Approximate D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Eskimo i n 1525 A.D  9  Moses Norton's Draught o f the N o r t h e r n P a r t s o f Hudson Bay  .  23 26  43  10  I n t e r n a l Boundaries  11  Areas Ceded Under T r e a t i e s 8 and 11  12  Routes and Dates o f Development the  . . .  '  71 80  o f Fur Trade i n  Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s  95  13  O i l and Gas Land A c q u i s i t i o n s N o r t h o f 60  149  14  S l a v e R i v e r Lowland  162  15  Territorial  Roads  173  16  Mackenzie Highway  186  17  N a t i o n a l Parks o f N o r t h e r n Canada  187  18  The P h y s i o g r a p h i c Regions o f N o r t h e r n Canada  227  19  D i s t r i b u t i o n o f P e r m a f r o s t i n Canada  229  20  D a i l y Mean Temperatures - J u l y  232  21  D a i l y Mean Temperatures - January  234  22  Natural Vegetation  236  23  Mean Annual Length o f Growing xi  Season  238  LIST OF FIGURES Number  Page  1  V a l u e o f M i n e r a l P r o d u c t i o n 1964-1974 . . • . . . \  2  Acreage H e l d Under O i l and Gas P e r m i t s by Year, Yukon T e r r i t o r y and Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s , 1964-1974 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  145  Acreage Under O i l and Gas Lease 1965-1974 Yukon T e r r i t o r y and Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s . . . .  146  3  4  5  6  7  M i n e r a l Claims Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s Yukon T e r r i t o r y by Years . . . . .  115  and '  151  M i n e r a l Claims i n Good S t a n d i n g i n t h e Yukon T e r r i t o r y and Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s . . . . . . .  152  Volume o f Timber H a r v e s t e d A n n u a l l y i n the Yukon T e r r i t o r y and Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s . . . .  157  Approximate A r e a Cut Over A n n u a l l y by Timber O p e r a t i o n s i n the Yukon T e r r i t o r y and N o r t h west T e r r i t o r i e s  8  M i l e s o f N o r t h e r n Road i n Use  9  Number o f P e l t s Traded A n n u a l l y i n Northwest Territories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  • , 158  . .  172  .  the Yukon T e r r i t o r y  180  10  Visitors'to  11  P o p u l a t i o n o f the Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s S i n c e 1911 . . . . . . . ,  209  Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s 1974/75 . . . . . .  219  0  12  13  Yukon T e r r i t o r y  185  E x p e n d i t u r e and Funding  E x p e n d i t u r e and Funding 1974/75 .  xii.  220  PREFACE  For a t l e a s t f o u r c e n t u r i e s o b s e r v a t i o n s o f , and e x p e r i e n c e i n , what i s now we  the Canadian A r c t i c have been documented.  In a d d i t i o n •  are f o r t u n a t e i n h a v i n g a more or l e s s c o n t i n u o u s , a l b e i t  h i s t o r y o f r e s e a r c h and  unheralded,  s c i e n t i f i c r e p o r t i n g f o r nearly a century.  In  the l a s t decade t h e r e has been a p r o l i f e r a t i o n o f w r i t t e n m a t e r i a l about n o r t h e r n Canada. I have c o n t r i b u t e d to the l a t t e r i n what i s g e n e r a l l y c o n s i d e r e d to be the r a t h e r unromantic raged by the response.  area of p u b l i c p o l i c y , and have been encou-  H o p e f u l l y t h i s study w i l l  Canadians w i t h a b a s i s f o r d e b a t i n g one important that r e l a t e d  further provide aspect of p o l i c y ,  to management o f n o r t h e r n l a n d .  P o l i c y , as d e f i n e d by Webster, i s a d e f i n i t e course of a c t i o n s e l e c t e d from among a l t e r n a t i v e s , and i n the l i g h t of g i v e n c o n d i t i o n s to guide and u s u a l l y determine  p r e s e n t and  i n t h a t l i g h t i t behooves Canadians f i r s t and second  future decisions.  Considered  to be aware of the c o n d i t i o n s  to c o n s i d e r the a l t e r n a t i v e s , b e f o r e f o r m u l a t i n g p u b l i c  p o l i c y which i n v o l v e s more than o n e - t h i r d of Canada. During  the course of t h i s study I d i s c u s s e d v a r i o u s a s p e c t s of  the  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and management o f n o r t h e r n l a n d w i t h s e v e r a l c o l l e a g u e s i n the Department of I n d i a n and Northern A f f a i r s . the c o o p e r a t i o n of Mr.  A.B.  Program P l a n n i n g Branch, M c i n t o s h and G.C.  I w i s h t o acknowledge  Y a t e s , D i r e c t o r of the N o r t h e r n P o l i c y  Dr. J . R i d d i c k and Messrs.  Evans i n Ottawa;  xiii  Messrs.  R.J. Goudie,  and W.F.  B.J. T r e v o r , G.A.McIntyre  (now  a member o f t h e C o u n c i l o f t h e Yukon T e r r i t o r y ) , and T. R e t a l l a c k  o f Whitehorse,  Y.T.; Messrs. M.J. MorisOn and N. Adams o f Y e l l o w k n i f e ,  N.W.T.; and Messrs.  G.B. Armstrong and L.V. Brandon b o t h o f whom a r e  now w i t h t h e Canadian Department o f t h e Environment. In a d d i t i o n I w i s h t o thank Mr. James Smith,  Commissioner o f the  Yukon T e r r i t o r y and Mr. John H. P a r k e r , Deputy Commissioner o f the Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s and members o f t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e s t a f f s , i n p a r t i c u l a r Messrs. W.A. h o r s e and Messrs.  B i l a w i c h , G.L. P r i v e t t and R. Raghunathan o f WhiteR.A. C r e e r y , A.E. Ganski and R.B. H a l l o f Y e l l o w k n i f e .  Much o f the f o r m a l p a r t o f t h i s r e s e a r c h was conducted  a t the  U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia t o w h i c h I was seconded by t h e Canadian Department o f I n d i a n and N o r t h e r n A f f a i r s .  While  t h e r e I was f o r t u n a t e  to be a b l e t o c o n f e r on a r e g u l a r b a s i s w i t h s e v e r a l members o f the f a c u l t y i n c l u d i n g Drs. I . McT. Cowan, H.B. Hawthorn, L.M. Lavkulich., J.R.  Mackay, J.K. S t a g e r , and J.V. T h i r g p o d .  I n p a r t i c u l a r I wish, t o  thank Dr. J.H.G. Smith who c o n t r i b u t e d much toward making my s o j o u r n a t the u n i v e r s i t y b o t h p r o d u c t i v e and s t i m u l a t i n g . Much o f the research, f o r t h i s study i s based  on e x p e r i e n c e  gained  over a p e r i o d o f 22 y e a r s d i v i d e d n e a r l y e v e n l y between the f o r e s t i n d u s t r y and the f e d e r a l government.  F o l l o w i n g 12 y e a r s w i t h t h e  A b i t i b i Paper Company i n e a s t e r n Canada I l e f t  t h e r e as Woods S u p e r i n t e n -  dent t o j o i n t h e f e d e r a l department o f N o r t h e r n A f f a i r s and N a t i o n a l Resources,  the p r e d e c e s s o r o f t h e p r e s e n t department o f I n d i a n and  Northern a f f a i r s .  F o r t h e p a s t t e n y e a r s I have been a s s o c i a t e d w i t h  the n o r t h e r n program o f those departments and seven y e a r s ago, became  xiwi  c h i e f of i t s water, f o r e s t s and l a n d I have had t h e o p p o r t u n i t y everyday b u s i n e s s  division.  t o work c l o s e l y w i t h p e o p l e whose  was 'using l a n d ' and i t i s those c o n f r e r e s o f more  than two decades who have unknowingly c o n t r i b u t e d much t o the underl y i n g approaches c o n t a i n e d  herein.  F i n a l l y I w i s h t o thank my family- to whom I am i n d e b t e d .  If  t h i s study makes a c o n t r i b u t i o n i t w i l l be due i n l a r g e p a r t to t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g , encouragement and p r a c t i c a l h e l p o f my w i f e daughters Jean-Ann and Caron, and son John.  xv  Etoile,  ....the genesis of a northern lands p o l i c y should be a thorough understanding of the nature, c a p a b i l i t y and l i m i t a t i o n s of the land; but to understand the human values and attitudes respecting northern land, i s to know i t s essential character.  xvi  INTRODUCTION In the 1870s westward expansion was the f o c a l p o i n t of Canadian public policy.  The admission o f Rupert's Land and the N o r t h Western  T e r r i t o r y i n t o t h e Dominion, B r i t i s h . Columbia's e n t r y i n t o C o n f e d e r a t i o n and t h e promise o f a t r a n s c o n t i n e n t a l r a i l w a y were a l l s a l i e n t issues of that p e r i o d .  I n t u r n these i s s u e s gave impetus to the p a s -  sage o f perhaps Canada's most i n f l u e n t i a l l a n d law - the Dominion Lands A c t o f 1872. For the ensuing s i x t y y e a r s , l a n d p o l i c y was the s e t t l e m e n t  the u l t i m a t e  o f western Canada, and t h e s t a t u t o r y  v e h i c l e was the Dominion Lands A c t . d i e d i n those s e c t i o n s p r o v i d i n g  The s p i r i t o f the A c t was embo-  f r e e homestead g r a n t s  s e t t l e r s i n t o the west and g r a n t i n g v a s t i n the form o f l a n d s u b s i d i e s i n - o r d e r and  goal of f e d e r a l  as an i n c e n t i v e to c o n s t r u c t  to e n t i c e  t r a c t s to railway  t o f u r t h e r encourage  companies settlement  a t r a n s p o r t a t i o n network which would  s u s t a i n the s e t t l e r . In the 1970s n a t i o n a l a t t e n t i o n turned  northward, thus dev-  e l o p i n g f o r Canada a dimension o f depth t o supplement the one o f b r e a d t h which was e s t a b l i s h e d a c e n t u r y questions  earlier.  A l t h o u g h the s p e c i f i c  d i f f e r , t h e i s s u e s remain s u b s t a n t i a l l y the same. In b o t h cases development i m p e l l e d  the use o f v a s t areas o f  land.  Today i t i s the o i l and n a t u r a l gas f i e l d s o f t h e Mackenzie  Delta  and the High A r c t i c I s l a n d s  i n p l a c e o f the f e r t i l e a g r i c u l t u r a l  land o f t h e p r a i r i e s a century ago. Such development can o n l y be supported by e s t a b l i s h i n g major  2  transportation f a c i l i t i e s . for  Now  l a r g e diameter p i p e l i n e s a r e proposed  the Mackenzie V a l l e y and the e a s t e r n A r c t i c , whereas t r a n s c o n t i -  n e n t a l r a i l w a y s were needed  to s u s t a i n s e t t l e m e n t  Today, the two n o r t h e r n r a t h e r than simply  representative  B r i t i s h Columbia b e f o r e  i n western Canada.  t e r r i t o r i e s are seeking government., as was  the p r o v i n c e  of  1871.  F i n a l l y , w h i l e western s e t t l e m e n t  was  stimulated  a l i e n a t i o n o f p u b l i c l a n d , a major i s s u e of n o r t h e r n need to r e c o g n i z e  responsible,  the legitimate c l a i m s  by the  development i s the  to land o f . t h e n o r t h ' s  native  people. But  today t h e r e i s an a d d i t i o n a l f o r c e a t work.  I r e f e r to  a s h i f t i n g sense o f v a l u e s w h i c h i s b r i n g i n g i n t o p e r s p e c t i v e  the s o c i a l  and c u l t u r a l i m p l i c a t i o n s of development as w e l l as the economic and political  ones. The h i s t o r y of l a n d use i n what i s now  and the Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s , may be c o n s i d e r e d  the Yukon T e r r i t o r y i n terms o f  three  . (1) . epochs viz.: (i)  the p r e h i s t o r i c p e r i o d o f h u n t e r s and food g a t h e r e r s ; (ii) the e a r l y f u r t r a d e ; and ( i i i ) the i n d u s t r i a l development o f n a t u r a l  Each epoch i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by d i s t i n c t w e l l as p r e v a i l i n g a t t i t u d e s  (2)  resources*  forms of l a n d use as  and concepts c o n c e r n i n g  the l a n d .  Values  Kuznets (1966: 2) i n d i s c u s s i n g the economic growth of n a t i o n s d e f i n e d an economic epoch as b e i n g a r e l a t i v e l y l o n g p e r i o d , e x t e n d i n g w e l l over a c e n t u r y , p o s s e s s i n g d i s t i n c t i v e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t h a t g i v e i t u n i t y and d i f f e r e n t i a t e i t from epochs t h a t precede or f o l l o w i t . (2) Tuan (1974: 4) i n h i s d i s c u s s i o n o f how s o c i e t y views and e v a l u a t e s n a t u r e , i n c l u d i n g l a n d , d e f i n e d a t t i t u d e as a c u l t u r a l stance formed by a l o n g s e r i e s of p e r c e p t i o n s .  3  which man a t t r i b u t e d t o l a n d d u r i n g i n unwritten formal  policy respecting  the f i r s t  two epochs were r e f l e c t e d  i t s u s e . D u r i n g the t h i r d epoch a more  k i n d o f l a n d p o l i c y , embodied i n l e g a l and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  insti-  t u t i o n s has been i n t r o d u c e d . • What were the p a t t e r n s respecting  land during  each o f these epochs?  to the l a n d p o l i c y which evolved present values  policy f a l l  o f l a n d use and the p r e v a i l i n g a t t i t u d e s What was t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p  i n each case?  To what degree does  s h o r t o f i n c o r p o r a t i n g p r e v a i l i n g a t t i t u d e s and  respecting northern  land?  How can p r e s e n t  be expanded t o reduce";the d i s c r e p a n c i e s  northern  identified?  i f any, between improving t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n  lands p o l i c y  What l i n k i s t h e r e ,  and management o f n o r t h e r n  l a n d and major i s s u e s such as n a t i v e r i g h t s and the e v o l u t i o n o f the t e r ritorial  governments?  These a r e some o f t h e q u e s t i o n s  which I w i s h to  address. The (1)  study i s d i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e major p a r t s , v i z . : H i s t o r i c Perspective  - examines the e v o l u t i o n o f l a n d use  and p o l i c y from the p r e c o n t a c t  p e r i o d t o t h e end pf the  1960s; (2)  The P r e s e n t S e t t i n g - i n c l u d e s use  the current  s t a t u s o f land  and p o l i c y as w e l l as the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  and p o l i t i c a l  s t r u c t u r e i n the n o r t h ; (3)  A F u t u r e Course - considers, s e v e r a l a s p e c t s o f f u t u r e northern in the  lands p o l i c y and suggests some b a s i c r e v i s i o n s  the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and management o f p u b l i c l a n d i n north.  4  It  i s e s t a b l i s h e d , f a i r l y I b e l i e v e , that beginning  with  the Dominion Lands A c t , p u b l i c l a n d p o l i c y i n the n o r t h has been e s s e n t i a l l y a s e r i e s o f responses to demands f o r l a n d , r a t h e r than a framework w i t h i n which d e c i s i o n s r e s p e c t i n g use and management a r e made on the b a s i s of the l a n d  itself.  Thus the study proposes a new course f o r the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and  management o f p u b l i c l a n d i n the n o r t h based f i r s t  a t i o n of the nature,  on a c o n s i d e r -  c a p a b i l i t y and l i m i t a t i o n s o f the l a n d .  E s s e n t i a l l y the approach takes i n t o account the composite value of northern and  determining  l a n d and i n c o r p o r a t e s a course o f a c t i o n f o r g u i d i n g  f u t u r e d e c i s i o n s r e s p e c t i n g i t s use and management.  I t would be i n c o r r e c t to assume t h a t t h i s study s o l v e s t h e complex problems a s s o c i a t e d w i t h  the n a t i v e r i g h t s q u e s t i o n  or the future r o l e  of t h e t e r r i t o r i a l governments i n the a r e a o f n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s . t h e l e s s by p u t t i n g one corner  Never-  o f the house i n o r d e r , namely t h e a d m i n i s -  t r a t i o n and management o f n o r t h e r n of the i s s u e s surrounding  .  land, i t w i l l hopefully c l a r i f y  those q u e s t i o n s  and p r o v i d e  some  a basis for  t a c k l i n g them. F i n a l l y i t i s hoped t h a t t h i s study w i l l encourage debate, b o t h i n and out o f government, and t h e r e b y produce a new e r a i n v p u b l i c p o l i c y f o r t h e 1.5 m i l l i o n square m i l e s  of Canada's n o r t h e r n  land.  5  PART ONE.  HISTORIC PERSPECTIVE  •Thus a t t h e time Pytheas was c a u t i o u s l y o b s e r v i n g the ' f r o z e n n o r t h ' from i t s p e r i p h e r y , p e o p l e o f the D o r s e t c u l t u r e i n the Canadian A r c t i c were m a s t e r i n g i t at i t s centre....  CHAPTER ONE.  (i)  THE  ORIGINAL PEOPLE  Man's A r r i v a l i n the  North  Nomadic h u n t e r s p r o b a b l y entered the Western Hemisphere between 500 and 250  centuries ago.^^  M i g r a t i n g eastward  Canadian A r c t i c from p r e s e n t day B e r i n g S t r a i t and  a c r o s s the  southward up  the  Mackenzie V a l l e y , the n o r t h e r n hunter, over thousands of y e a r s , i m p e r c e p t i b l y e v o l v e d a p a t t e r n of l a n d use which s u c c e s s f u l l y his  needs.  I t i s the t a s k of t h i s chapter, to f o c u s , i n a few  the a c t i v i t i e s of s e v e r a l m i l l e n i a and d e s c r i b e how wrested to  a l i v i n g from the n o r t h e r n l a n d .  early  O b v i o u s l y i t i s not  intended  be a d e f i n i t i v e work but r a t h e r a review of the b a s i c i n g r e d i e n t s ,  n o r t h and h i s c l o s e a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h the l a n d . some o b s e r v a t i o n s on how  The  chapter c l o s e s w i t h  s e r v e l a t e r as a benchmark f o r comparing changing  The  i n the  those n o r t h e r n people viewed the l a n d which  r e s u l t of the European's a r r i v a l and  is  pages,  people  h o p e f u l l y , i n a p a t t e r n which p o r t r a y s the l i f e of e a r l y man  may  met  a t t i t u d e s as a  the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of the f u r t r a d e .  exact t i m i n g of man's a r r i v a l i n the Western Hemisphere  of course unknown but r e c e n t evidence  i n d i c a t e s t h a t he had been on  t h i s c o n t i n e n t a t l e a s t 25,000 y e a r s b e f o r e the f i r s t  European a r r i v e d .  Most a u t h o r i t i e s c i t e t h i s as the p r o b a b l e range, see: Jennings (1974); Haynes (1969); Campbell (1963); MacNeish (1972); and I r v i n g (1971).  7  Irving  (1971:68-72) r e p o r t i n g on h i s own  t h a t t h e r e have been many examples uncovered  f i e l d work s t a t e d  i n the Old Crow F l a t s of  the Yukon T e r r i t o r y , o f human workmanship i n bone and t h a t t h r e e of these have been dated to be between 25,000 and 29,000 y e a r s o l d .  In the southwest  Yukon, Johnson and Raup (1964) and  MacNeish (1964) r e p o r t e d s i t e s excavated  i n the Kluane-Dezadeash area  r e v e a l i n g a s e r i e s of c u l t u r e s d a t i n g back 10,000 y e a r s . Fisherman's  (2)  In the  Lake a r e a , near F o r t L i a r d , Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s ,  (1968) found a s i t e s a i d to be about  15,000 y e a r s o l d .  a v a i l a b l e d a t a a r e too few to e v a l u a t e t h i s f i n d and  Millar  However,  the i d e n t i t y of  the m a t e r i a l has y e t t o be s a t i s f a c t o r i l y e x p l a i n e d ( I r v i n g 1971:71 and Cinq-Mars 1973:13).  Other evidence of man's e a r l y presence America  i n northern North  has been found i n caves near T r a i l Creek of A l a s k a ' s Seward  P e n i n s u l a dated a t about  13,000 y e a r s ago  (Larsen 1968a,1968b) and a  site  near Healy Lake, s o u t h e a s t o f F a i r b a n k s , A l a s k a which has been dated at about  11,000 y e a r s B.P.  (Cook and McKennan, 1970).  Farther east, at  A c a s t a Lake south o f Great Bear Lake, t h e r e i s e v i d e n c e o f man's presence 7,000 y e a r s ago B.P.  (Wright  1970).  McGhee (1970) r e p o r t e d a date o f 2,200  f o r a s i t e a t Bloody F a l l s near the mouth of the Coppermine R i v e r .  Old Crow F l a t s are s t i l l used by, and p a r t i a l l y p r o v i d e a source of l i v e l i h o o d f o r , the Indians of the v i l l a g e o f O l d Crow, s i t u a t e d on the n o r t h bank of the P o r c u p i n e R i v e r , 67 35'N, 139°50'W, see Stager (1974); Naysmith (1971); B a l l k c i (1963); Leechman (1954).  8  The  theory t h a t man migrated  r o u t e i s w i d e l y accepted Wormington 1971:84).  t o the New World v i a a n o r t h e r n  (Jennings 1974:52; Haag 1972:18; and  Haag (1972:15) p o i n t e d out t h a t the W i s c o n s i n  g l a c i e r when i t reached i t s maximum, about 18,000 y e a r s ago,  (3)  lowered  the s e a - l e v e l by as much as -460 fieety.s exposing a c o r r i d o r or l a n d bridge Z3uo3mo;lVs^d2n^Cd-tnle between Alaska and A s i a .  T h i s bridge;,, one  (4) in a series  which allowed the m i g r a t i o n t o North America o f v a r i o u s  animals i n c l u d i n g the mastodon and mammoth, the muskoxen, b i s o n , moose, e l k , mountain sheep and g o a t s , p r o b a b l y a l s o p r o v i d e d the access f o r man t o e n t e r the Western Hemisphere. Although man's m i g r a t i o n from A s i a was p r o b a b l y a r e s u l t o f h i s p u r s u i t o f l a r g e h e r b i v o r e s which were moving eastward, b r i d g e d i d n o t r e p r e s e n t the o n l y means of a c c e s s . and Wormington (1971:85) argued  the l a n d  Both I r v i n g  (1971:72)  t h a t anyone s u f f i c i e n t l y competent to  l i v e i n the n o r t h e r n f o r e s t or tundra was no doubt e q u a l t o making a boat and c r o s s i n g open water or moving a c r o s s t h e w i n t e r i c e .  P e r s . Comm., J.R. Mackay. During the P l e i s t o c e n e a s e r i e s of a t l e a s t f o u r g l a c i a l and i n t e r g l a c i a l p e r i o d s took p l a c e b e g i n n i n g about,one m i l l i o n y e a r s ago ( S o l e c k i , 1932).  9 (ii)  Cultural  E v o l u t i o n and Land  Use  By the time the f i r s t Europeans a r r i v e d p o p u l a t i o n of what i s now  the Yukon and Northwest  the  aboriginal  Territories  p r o b a b l y numbered some 35,000 (Mooney, 1928).  Jenness (1967/:8—14) has c l a s s i f i e d Canada's n a t i v e p o p u l a t i o n on the b a s i s of seven c u l t u r a l a r e a s . T r i b e s of the Mackenzie and Yukon B a s i n s a n d v i r t u a l l y a l l of the two  territories.  Two the  of these,  the  Eskimoscover  A t h i r d , the T r i b e s of  the  C o r d i l l e r a r e p r e s e n t e d by the T a g i s h of Marsh and T a g i s h Lakes i n h a b i t e d a s m a l l r e g i o n i n the southern Yukon (see Map  The T a g i s h , about whom l i t t l e  i s known p r i o r  no.  3),  to a r e p o r t  by Dawson (1888), were p r o b a b l y an Athapaskan t r i b e o r i g i n a l l y . However, by the 19th c e n t u r y t h e i r language was l e s s than 100 were compelled  Tlinkit.  Numbering  they o c c u p i e d a s m a l l a r e a i n the s o u t h - c e n t r a l Yukon and to work f o r the T l i n k i t , p u r c h a s i n g  furs  from the  Indians of the Yukon i n t e r i o r f o r subsequent t r a d e on the P a c i f i c Coast.  T h i s c u l t u r a l area c o n t a i n s n i n e d i s t i n c t t r i b e s of which seven r e s i d e w h o l l y or i n p a r t n o r t h of 60°N l a t . v i z . K u t c h i n , Nahani, S l a v e , D o g r i b , Hare, Y e l l o w k n i f e , and Chipaw^yan (Jenness 196<7:378), see Map no. 4. I n c l u d e s f i v e groups: Mackenzie, Copper, C a r i b o u , C e n t r a l and Labrador Eskimos. A l l but the l a t t e r were l o c a t e d i n the Yukon and Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s i n the 16th c e n t u r y (Jenness 196*7:406), see Map no. 8.  10  Map 2 GLACIATION  MAP  4  APPROXIMATE DISTRIBUTION TRIBES  OF  NORTH  IN 1 7 2 5  INDIAN OF  A.D.  (after Jenness)  60,  13 Indians o f the Mackenzie and Yukon B a s i n s  The T r i b e s o f the Mackenzie and Yukon B a s i n s ranged .from the t r e e l i n e , e x t e n d i n g r o u g h l y from the Mackenzie D e l t a to the p o i n t of i n t e r s e c t i o n o f the 60th degree n o r t h l a t i t u d e w i t h the western shore of Hudson's Bay, south and west over v i r t u a l l y a l l o f the Yukon and  the Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s .  The pre-European popu-lationbin' .this  a r e a was e s t i m a t e d by Mooney (1928) t o be about 12,000.  These t r i b e s c o n s i s t e d m a i n l y o f woodland p e o p l e , and a l t h o u g h l i v i n g near the t r e e l i n e , Nahani r a r e l y v e n t u r e d  some such as the S l a v e , Hare and  i n t o the b a r r e n grounds.  The Chipewyan, D o g r i b ,  K u t c h i n and Y e l l o w k n i v e s when i n p u r s u i t o f game, p a r t i c u l a r l y the m i g r a t i n g b a r r e n ground c a r i b o u , made f r e q u e n t e x p e d i t i o n s i n t o the area n o r t h o f the t r e e l i n e .  These a b o r i g i n a l people as w e l l as the I n u i t  (Eskimos)  f a r t h e r n o r t h were c o m p l e t e l y s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t h a v i n g e v o l v e d a way o f l i f e which r e p r e s e n t e d a t r u e c l o s e d s o c i e t y .  The s e a s o n a l c h a r a c t e r -  i s t i c s o f the game and f i s h upon which they were h e a v i l y dependent were reflected  i n ' t h e i r d w e l l i n g s , h u n t i n g p a t t e r n s and s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n .  • The I n d i a n s o f the Mackenzie V a l l e y and Yukon r e l i e d h e a v i l y upon c a r i b o u f o r f o o d , c l o t h i n g and s h e l t e r . and Dogrib  The Chipewyan, K u t c h i n  a l l hunted the b a r r e n ground c a r i b o u i n the f o r e s t r e g i o n i n  •The f o l l o w i n g d i s c u s s i o n i s drawn p r i m a r i l y from Jenness  (196(7).  14  w i n t e r and n o r t h of the t r e e l i n e i n summer. h u n t i n g the c a r i b o u was and by snare or bow people,  The  t y p i c a l method of  to spear them i n open water d u r i n g the summer  and arrow i n w i n t e r .  Although  'edge-of-the-wood'  t h e i r n a t u r a l r e l u c t a n c e to l e a v e the f o r e s t i s perhaps  t y p i f i e d by the f a c t t h a t the Dogrib packed f u e l wood when going the b a r r e n grounds.  For a l l I n d i a n t r i b e s these n o r t h e r n  were f o r a p a r t i c u l a r purpose and I n d i a n s , who  never l e f t  of s h o r t d u r a t i o n .  The  to  excursions Slave  the f o r e s t r e g i o n , r e l i e d upon woodland c a r i b o u  and moose f o r t h e i r main source of f o o d .  Snares were commonly used by a l l t r i b e s f o r c a p t u r i n g v a r i o u s animals The  i n a d d i t i o n to the c a r i b o u i n c l u d i n g moose, waterfowl  a r t of t r a p p i n g by means of wooden t r a p s , which f o r the  i n c l u d e d the beaver, was  developed  and  hare:  Slave  p r i o r to the a r r i v a l of the f u r -  trader.  F i s h a l s o r e p r e s e n t e d a s u b s t a n t i a l p o r t i o n of the d i e t and as a r e s u l t they had developed,  Indians!  p r i o r t o the a r r i v a l of  the  European, a wide range of f i s h i n g gear which i n c l u d e d s p e a r s , bone hooks and n e t s ,  The  Chipewyan made f i s h n e t s of b a b i c h e whereas the  S l a v e and Hare used w i l l o w bark.  Dogrib,  The Kutchin,who a l s o r e l i e d h e a v i l y  on f i s h , used a l l of the above gear but i n a d d i t i o n had developed  a  double  and  g a f f , perhaps as a r e s u l t of t h e i r c o n t a c t w i t h the I n u i t ,  a f i s h basket  s i m i l a r to t h a t used by the c o a s t a l I n d i a n s .  Because of h i s t o t a l dependence upon c o u n t r y f o o d , n o r t h e r n I n d i a n was  k e e n l y aware of the l i f e  c y c l e of animals  the and  and knew the v a l u e of v a r i o u s p l a n t s from the s t a n d p o i n t of f o o d ,  fish tools  and weapons.  Concerning the j u d i c i o u s use of r e s o u r c e s Jenness  (1967.':  50) made the f o l l o w i n g comment: " c e r t a i n l y they were w a s t e f u l when b u f f a l o and c a r i b o u were p l e n t i f u l and had no c o n c e p t i o n of the c o n s e r v a t i o n of game;  but then no c o n s e r v a t i o n was  n e c e s s a r y as l o n g  as they l a c k e d f i r e arms, f o r n a t u r a l i n c r e a s e more than o f f s e t losses".  Stone t o o l s formed material culture.  the b a s i s of the n o r t h e r n n a t i v e ' s  P r i o r to the European's a r r i v a l the I n d i a n s and  I n u i t of n o r t h e r n Canada had no m e t a l s , except i n some i s o l a t e d where l i m i t e d use was  cases  made of copper, to make t o o l s or weaponry.  V i r t u a l l y a l l o f the Mackenzie  V a l l e y and Yukon I n d i a n s used two  basic  t o o l s , stone adzes mounted on wooden handles and k n i v e s made e i t h e r of bone or c a r i b o u a n t l e r .  With these they were a b l e t o c o n v e r t timber  i n t o rough boards f o r use i n making such items as toboggans and p a d d l e s , and p o l e s f o r t h e i r d w e l l i n g s .  Other wood p r o d u c t s f u r n i s h e d by the n o r t h e r n I n d i a n i n c l u d e d canoes made from spruce bark and l e s s f r e q u e n t l y b i r c h bark  (in 1969  the w r i t e r observed the I n d i a n s of Nahanni B u t t e , N.W.T., u s i n g a spruce-bark cahpe), snow shoes and v a r i o u s e a t i n g u t e n s i l s . bark was  f r e q u e n t l y used to cover p o l e frames  Spruce  i n the c o n s t r u c t i o n of  dwellings.  S p e a r - t i p s , daggers, arrowheads and c h i s e l s were made of bone or c a r i b o u a n t l e r .  Some Chipewyan and  S l a v e h u n t e r s had l e a r n e d  to use copper, a t r a d i n g commodity which p r o b a b l y o r i g i n a t e d w i t h the Eskimos of C o r o n a t i o n G u l f , f o r such items as arrowheads, h a t c h e t s and  knives.  For w i n t e r h a u l i n g the n o r t h e r n I n d i a n developed toboggan made by l a s h i n g p l a n k s  together.  a rough  The K u t c h i n however used  the two-runner s l e d which may have been as a r e s u l t of t h e i r w i t h the I n u i t .  contact  S l e d s were b e s t s u i t e d to the hard packed snow of  the b a r r e n grounds.  The f a c t t h a t other t r i b e s who a l s o o c c a s i o n a l l y  t r a v e l l e d i n the b a r r e n s d i d n o t a l s o usedthe s l e d p r o b a b l y  reflects  the f a c t t h a t t h e i r n o r t h e r n e x c u r s i o n s were l i m i t e d to the summer^and the s o f t e r snow c o n d i t i o n s of the f o r e s t r e g i o n , where they  wintered,  were more s u i t e d to toboggans.  The d w e l l i n g s of the n o r t h e r n I n d i a n r e f l e c t e d h i s m i g r a t o r y life  and movements which were governed by the s e a s o n a l  of the f i s h and game.  Except  characteristics  f o r h i d e c o v e r i n g s which were packed  from one l o c a t i o n t o another,  the b u i l d i n g m a t e r i a l s used were  those  i n the a r e a of the campsite.  Camps o r i n d i v i d u a l d w e l l i n g s were  s t r a t e g i c a l l y l o c a t e d i n o r d e r to c a p i t a l i z e on the p r e s e n c e , i n l a r g e numbers,of f i s h o r game, f o r example a t the t r a d i t i o n a l stream  crossings  of m i g r a t i n g c a r i b o u , and a d j a c e n t to good d r i n k i n g water and f u e l sources.  The  summer d w e l l i n g s of most Mackenzie V a l l e y and Yukon  I n d i a n s c o n s i s t e d of c o n i c a l huts made from p o l e s and covered e i t h e r c a r i b o u h i d e or b r u s h and spruce bark.  with  V a r i a t i o n s o f t h i s were  the l e a n - t o s of the Hare and the dome-shaped lodge of the K u t c h i n . l a t t e r was u s u a l l y 9?4i24fiiS. i n diameter  a t the base and c o n s i s t e d of  arched w i l l o w p o l e s b o t h ends of which were d r i v e n i n t o the ground;  The  17  the frame was and  then covered w i t h c a r i b o u s k i n s , w i t h a h o l e a t the top  c e n t r e to a l l o w smoke to  The K u t c h i n used w i n t e r simply by banking on the f l o o r .  Winter  escape.  the same type of dome-shaped b u i l d i n g i n  snow about i t and s p r e a d i n g c o n i f e r o u s boughs  d w e l l i n g s f o r the b a l a n c e of the n o r t h e r n  Indians  u s u a l l y were low r e c t a n g u l a r c a b i n s c o n s t r u c t e d of p o l e s , the w a l l s chinked w i t h moss and  the r o o f covered w i t h b r u s h , bark o r h i d e s .  The m i g r a t o r y n a t u r e of the n o r t h e r n hunter had e f f e c t upon the s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e i n which he l i v e d . s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n was  a direct  The b a s i c u n i t of  the f a m i l y , d w e l l i n g t o g e t h e r .  In t u r n , r e l a t e d  f a m i l i e s grouped t o g e t h e r i n s m a l l bands i n o r d e r t o hunt and f i s h i n s p e c i f i c geographic  areas.  The band, a l t h o u g h i t was  a r e l a t i v e l y stable unit with  t e r r i t o r i a l boundaries, d i d f l u c t u a t e i n s i z e w i t h f a m i l y groups d i s p e r s i n g and u n i t i n g depending on the season hunt.  The  and  the n a t u r e of the  t r i b e as an amalgamation of s e v e r a l bands d i d not e x i s t i n  the n o r t h e r n c o n t e x t .  Although  s e v e r a l bands might u n i t e f o r a few  d u r i n g a t r i b a l f e s t i v e p e r i o d the o n l y c l e a r l y d e f i n e d p o l i t i c a l was  the band.  days  unit  T r i b e s were n o t h i n g more than groups of s c a t t e r e d bands  w i t h s i m i l a r speech  and  customs and  common i n t e r e s t s due  to i n t e r m a r r i a g e  but w i t h no c e n t r a l governing a u t h o r i t y .  Each f a m i l y group and band had v e s t e d no r e a l a u t h o r i t y . so d i d t h e i r l e a d e r s .  a nominal  l e a d e r i n whom was  Because the composition of the bands v a r i e d ,  During time of war  each band s e l e c t e d  an  e x p e r i e n c e d hunter as i t s l e a d e r but when h o s t i l i t i e s ended so d i d h i s  18 mandate t o l e a d .  Bands were n o r m a l l y  advantage o f the b e s t h u n t i n g i t was d i f f i c u l t  to organize  widely  s c a t t e r e d i n order  areas w i t h i n a r e g i o n .  For t h i s  t o take reason  l a r g e groups t o wage l e n g t h y wars,  p a r t i c u l a r l y when i t r e q u i r e d l e a v i n g known game and f i s h  supplies.  Hence wars were u s u a l l y o f s h o r t d u r a t i o n and l o c a l i n n a t u r e .  Law and order w i t h i n the band was based on p u b l i c o p i n i o n r a t h e r than a l e g i s l a t i v e s t r u c t u r e .  Rules o f conduct were handed down  by word o f mouth and where t h i r d p a r t y i n t e r v e n t i o n was needed an i n f o r m a l c o u n c i l o f hunters was formed t o a i d i n s e t t l i n g l o c a l  The  disputes.  Inuit^  Whereas the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f the n o r t h e r n  I n d i a n was c o n f i n e d  e s s e n t i a l l y t o the Yukon and the f o r e s t r e g i o n of the Northwest tories,  the I n u i t and indeed  y e a r s , were p r e s e n t Alaska  t h e i r ancestors  Terri-  d a t i n g back a t l e a s t 5000  i n v a r i o u s l o c a t i o n s throughout the A r c t i c  from  t o Greenland.  In Canada the Eskimo way o f l i f e ,  d e f i n e d by T a y l o r  (1968:2)  as b e i n g  a d i s t i n c t i v e c u l t u r e and economy adopted t o a t r e e l e s s  country,  d i v i d e s i n t o f o u r major p e r i o d s  Dorset,  Thule,  or stages, v i z : Pre-Dorset,  and C e n t r a l Eskimo o r I n u i t .  The I n u i t o f Canada p r e f e r t o use t h e i r own name f o r themselves r a t h e r than 'Eskimo' which i s a Cree word meaning 'eaters o f raw meat'. Jenness (196'7/:408) p o i n t e d out t h a t d e s p i t e the name, the Eskimo always p r e f e r r e d cooked food and a t e raw meat and f i s h o n l y when d r i v e n by n e c e s s i t y .  19 The p r e d e c e s s o r s  of the P r e - D o r s e t ,  the Denbigh p e o p l e , came  from the B e r i n g Sea r e g i o n (Giddings 1964:243, and T a y l o r 1971:160) and a p p a r e n t l y these n o r t h e r n hunters were w e l l -equipped  to s u r v i v e i n the  (9) Arctic.  In t h i s r e g a r d G i d d i n g s  Denbigh f l i n t  s t a t e d t h a t "The  f l i n t work of  the  complex, the o l d e s t c u l t u r a l h o r i z o n y e t i d e n t i f i e d i n  the B e r i n g S t r a i t r e g i o n , i s n o t . o n l y unique but p o s s i b l y the world's most s o p h i s t i c a t e d . from  I t shows no  s i g n s of b e i n g brought t h e r e i n t o t a l  elsewhere". The Denbigh people moved eastward a c r o s s n o r t h e r n A l a s k a ,  c e n t r a l Canadian A r c t i c , the e a s t e r n a r c t i c i s l a n d s to Greenland u l t i m a t e l y down i n t o Ungava P e n i n s u l a and (see Map  no.  development, through  the west coast of Hudson  Bay  lived  c u l t u r e , which r e f e r s to the eastward  Canada, of the Denbigh F l i n t Complex, i n d i c a t e t h a t  i n s m a l l , w i d e l y s c a t t e r e d , nomadic bands.  s e a s o n a l l y i n order to hunt c a r i b o u and f i s h and b i r d s i n summer, the P r e - D o r s e t 800  and  5).  S i t e s of the Pre-Dorset  those people  the  s e a l probably  Moving  supplemented by  c u l t u r e p e r s i s t e d to about  B.C.  D i s c o v e r e d the 'Denbigh F l i n t Complex' a t Cape Denbigh, A l a s k a , the shore of the B e r i n g Sea i n 1948.  on  Giddings, J.L. " E a r l y Man i n the A r c t i c " , June 1952 i n E a r l y Man America - Readings from S c i e n t i f i c American, edte, R.S. MacNeish, W.H. Freemannand Company, San F r a n c i s c o , 1972.  in  At  one time the Dorset c u l t u r e was  thought to have e v o l v e d  from that o f the I n d i a n t r i b e s of the Great Lakes and S t . Lawrence V a l l e y r e g i o n , however, i t i s now  g e n e r a l l y agreed t h a t i t developed  f i r s t w i t h i n the Canadian E a s t e r n A r c t i c ( T a y l o r 1971:163) (see Map  no. 6 ) .  l i v e d a s e a s o n a l l y nomadic l i f e  from the P r e - D o r s e t  culture  The Dorset people appear  to have  s i m i l a r to t h e i r P r e - D o r s e t a n c e s t o r s .  One  d i s t i n c t i v e d i f f e r e n c e i n the two  c u l t u r e s was  the Dorset a r t which  was  c h a r a c t e r i z e d by d e l i c a t e c a r v i n g s i n i v o r y , a n t l e r , and bone,  d e p i c t i n g a n i m a l s , f i s h , b i r d s and humanssv TKeeDorset b l a d e s of ground  also  developed  and p o l i s h e d s l a t e which seemed t o have no c o n n e c t i o n  w i t h the P r e - D o r s e t c u l t u r e and they may ( T a y l o r 1971:164).  About A.D.  900  have i n v e n t e d the snow house  the D o r s e t . c u l t u r e began.to d i s a p p e a r  and to be r e p l a c e d by the T h u l e c u l t u r e , the t h i r d major p e r i o d i n Canadian Eskimo p r e h i s t o r y .  M i g r a n t s of the Thule c u l t u r e whose o r i g i n .was, of  as i n the case  the P r e - D o r s e t , the r e g i o n of the B e r i n g Sea, began moving  from A l a s k a about  900 A.D.,  through the a r c t i c i s l a n d s b e t t e r equipped  and a l o n g the a r c t i c c o a s t and (see Map  no. 7 ) .  eastward  northward  The T h u l e people were even  to l i y j e - i n a t r e e l e s s c o u n t r y than were t h e i r a n c e s t o r s .  The Thule hunter made e x t e n s i v e use of dogs f o r h u n t i n g and h a u l i n g s l e d s thereby i n c r e a s i n g h i s e f f i c i e n c y and m o b i l i t y , w h e r e a s  there i s  little  dog.  evidence t h a t the Dorset people had domesticated the  Crowe (1969:21) suggested t h a t the r a p i d spread o f the Thule c u l t u r e through the A r c t i c was p r o b a b l y due i n l a r g e p a r t to dogteam transportation.  24 Perhaps was  the most s i g n i f i c a n t f e a t u r e of the T h u l e  culture  the development of gear and e x p e r t i s e w i t h which to hunt  whale.  the b a l e e n  T h i s r e l a t i v e l y l a r g e and c o n s t a n t source of food a v a i l a b l e to  those e a r l y whalers a l l o w e d them t o l e a d l e s s nomadic l i v e s  and  r e s u l t e d i n the c o n s t r u c t i o n of l a r g e r and more permanent s e t t l e m e n t s . The Thule w i n t e r v i l l a g e c c o n s i s t e d of between s i x and t h i r t y houses s o l i d l y b u i l t of stone s l a b s and sod s e t over a whalebone framework. The Thule people a l s o used snowhouses f o r temporary a r t of c o n s t r u c t i o n was  accommodation.  p r o b a b l y l e a r n e d from the D o r s e t c u l t u r e  snowhouses were not an A l a s k a n f e a t u r e ( T a y l o r 1971:167).  The C e n t r a l Eskimo c u l t u r e was T h u l e people from which i t e v o l v e d .  The  since  'I?  v e r y s i m i l a r to t h a t of the  T h i s f o u r t h and f i n a l stage i n the  c u l t u r a l e v o l u t i o n of the Canadian Eskimo appeared  i n the 18th c e n t u r y .  These r e c e n t people d e r i v e d d i r e c t l y from the T h u l e c u l t u r e which ended m a i n l y because  of a marked d e c l i n e i n whale h u n t i n g .  c o n s i d e r e d t h a t the d e c l i n e i n whale h u n t i n g may  T a y l o r (1971:168) ^ ( o  have been i n p a r t a (12)  r e s u l t of a h a r s h e r c l i m a t e d u r i n g the p e r i o d 1650-1850 whales'  summer range;  a l s o the presence of the European  r e d u c i n g the whalers  further  reduced the whale p o p u l a t i o n . With the d e c l i n e i n w h a l i n g the Thule had to r e s o r t to a more nomadic l i f e ,  r e l y i n g upon the more s c a t t e r e d herds of s e a l and  walrus  The ' L i t t l e I c e Age' from 1650 to 1850 may a l s o have been the r e a s o n f o r the T h u l e p o p u l a t i o n withdrawing from the Canadian A r c t i c I s l a n d s of E l l e s m e r e , Devon, Somerset, C o r n w a l l i s and B a t h u r s t ( T a y l o r 1971:168).  25 and  i n the p r o c e s s abandoned t h e i r l a r g e permanent v i l l a g e s and g r a d u a l l y  s h i f t e d to the snowhouse on the sea i c e . C e n t r a l Eskimo c u l t u r e was  completed  The  change from Thule to  w i t h the a r r i v a l of the European.  The pre-European p o p u l a t i o n of Canadian I n u i t was by Mooney (1928) to have been about 28,000.  estimated  N e a r l y a l l of the Eskimo  made t h e i r homes a l o n g the coast where they c o u l d hunt sea mammals y e a r round, and,  i n summer, h a r v e s t the m i g r a t i n g salmon.  U n l i k e the bands of  Indians d e s c r i b e d e a r l i e r the I n u i t d i d not f o l l o w the movements of the c a r i b o u throughout  the year but b a s i c a l l y l i m i t e d the hunt to a two  t h r e e month p e r i o d when the summer m i g r a t i o n took the c a r i b o u to  or  their  n o r t h e r n g r a z i n g and c a l v i n g grounds.  The western  'Caribou' Eskimos, a s m a l l group who  l i v e d i n l a n d from  shore of Hudson Bay d i d r e l y on the barren-ground  the  c a r i b o u as  t h e i r prime food source and v i r t u a l l y never went to the c o a s t f o r sea mammals (see Map  no. 8 ) .  A c c o r d i n g to Jenness  (1967>:407) the b a r r e n -  ground o r 'Caribou' Eskimos c o n s t a n t l y s u f f e r e d from famine d u r i n g the w i n t e r months, s i n c e most of the c a r i b o u migrated the t r e e l i n e . i n l a n d due  southward to graze  C o a s t a l Eskimos were a l s o b e t t e r o f f than those who  lived  to the f a c t t h a t the b l u b b e r of the sea mammals, p a r t i c u l a r l y  the s e a l , p r o v i d e d a f u e l much s u p e r i o r to c a r i b o u f a t . i n soapstone and  near  lamps, was  thus rendered  used  T h i s f u e l , burned  f o r l i g h t and heat as w e l l as f o r cooking  the w i n t e r homes of those on the c o a s t more c o m f o r t a b l e  than those of the i n l a n d Eskimo.  The Eskimos of the Mackenzie D e l t a r e g i o n used n e t s to capture s e a l s but u n l i k e the Indians d i d not use f i s h - n e t s u n t i l a f t e r the  arrival  Map 8  27 of the European, a l t h o u g h the l a t t e r p o i n t has been questioned Mathiassen  (see Jenness 1967<:411) .  the sea was employed.  From roughly  by  October to May,  i c e covered, the b r e a t h i n g h o l e method of s e a l i n g  when  was  D u r i n g open water p e r i o d s , s e a l s were s t a l k e d as they l a y  on the shore or f l o a t i n g i c e .  D u r i n g these p e r i o d s  s e a l s were a l s o  harpooned from kayaks.  The  Eskimo c o u l d not  c o n s t r u c t pounds i n which to  c a r i b o u as d i d the Athapaskan Indians or other woody p l a n t s .  due  to the absence of l a r g e  However, they c o u l d o r g a n i z e  c a r i b o u were herded i n t o the water and  speared.  system whereby c a r i b o u were d r i v e n between two monuments (inukshuks) I t was  (14)  pointed  toward concealed out  group hunts whereby  They a l s o d e v i s e d converging  a  rows of stone  e a r l i e r t h a t j u s t p r i o r to the time of  d w e l l i n g began to undergo change due  snowhouse.  willow  hunters.  the European's a r r i v a l the form o f s e t t l e m e n t  r e t u r n to a more nomadic way  capture  and  s t y l e of the Thule  to a d e c l i n i n g w h a l i n g economy.  of l i f e r e s u l t e d i n an i n c r e a s e d use  Where d r i f t w o o d was  of  The the  a v a i l a b l e , as i n the Mackenzie D e l t a  The kayak was used m a i n l y f o r h u n t i n g and c r o s s i n g s m a l l l a k e s and r i v e r s whereas the umiakjj-,; a l a r g e r , open v e s s e l , p r o p e l l e d by o a r s , was used f o r c o a s t a l t r a v e l . A c c o r d i n g to Jenness (1965:110) the Eskimos were the only n a t i v e people i n Canada to p r o p e l t h e i r boats by o a r s . T a y l o r (1972:77) has hunting.  described  i n d e t a i l t h i s system of  caribou  28 r e g i o n and the Tuktoyaktuk p e n i n s u l a , more permanent were made o f l o g s . subterranean entrances  winter  dwellings  These l o g houses were r e c t a n g u l a r i n shape, semi-  and t u r f - c o v e r e d w i t h  i n the f l o o r .  l o n g underground passageways and  The u n i v e r s a l summer d w e l l i n g was the s k i n  t e n t o f c a r i b o u o r s e a l , c o n i c a l shaped i n the western A r c t i c and w i t h a r i d g e i n the e a s t e r n  Arctic.  Because of t h e p a r t i c u l a r c o n d i t i o n s under which they the d r e s s o f t h e Canadian Eskimo'- was unique compared w i t h of t h e v a r i o u s I n d i a n bands t o t h e south. hoods and extended t a i l s ) ,  breeks and s t o c k i n g s were all'made o f  t h e f u r of t h e i n n e r garment  A l l were worn double i n  against  a l s o used s e a l s k i n s h i r t s d u r i n g wet weather its  f u r w i t h dampness.  about f i v e  The whole o u t f i t ,  the body.  site,  Hunters  since caribou hide  loses  even i n w i n t e r , weighed  only  pounds.  R e f e r e n c e has a l r e a d y been made t o t h e s k i l l s ancestors  the c l o t h i n g  S h i r t s (long p u l l o v e r s with  c a r i b o u f u r , shoes and boots o f s e a l s k i n . winter with  lived  of the e a r l y  of t h e ^rLesentt'Eskimory, as i l l u s t r a t e d by t h e Cape Denbigh  i n chipping f l i n t  f o r blades  and p r o j e c t i l e p o i n t s .  Subsequent  c u l t u r e s , b u i l d i n g o n . t h i s a r t i s a n s h i p , e x c e l l e d i n the manufacture o f v a r i o u s t o o l s , weapons and u t e n s i l s . for  example,  arrowheads,  From f l i n t  speartips, knife blades,  and q u a r t z were made, saws and d r i l l s ;  and  (15)  from ground s l a t e , s i n g l e and double-edged k n i v e s were made.  From  In the C o r o n a t i o n G u l f a r e a , l o c a l copper was s u b s t i t u t e d f o r f l i n t and s l a t e i n a l l c u t t i n g t o o l s .  29 bone, a n t l e r and i v o r y the Eskimo l e a r n e d  to manufacture such items  as: shoeing f o r s l e d r u n n e r s ; i c e - c h i s e l s ; arrows; harpoon p a r t s ; v a r i o u s handles; n e e d l e s and  The  thimbles.  Eskimo t a l e n t f o r c a r v i n g was n o t l i m i t e d to meeting  t h e i r m a t e r i a l needs but i n c l u d e d r e f l e c t e d a love of a r t . Taylor  s c u l p t u r i n g and engraving which  F o r examples of some of t h i s e a r l y work see  (1968:10^11) and Jennings  I t should  be noted  too t h a t t h e i r l i v e s were made r i c h e r through the e x p r e s s i o n  of t h e i r  heritage  (1974:348-349).  i n song, s t o r y g s j and dance and through v a r i o u s  games which  they -played.  General r u l e s o f conduct handed down by each regulated  generation  l i f e w i t h i n the s m a l l but w i d e l y s c a t t e r e d Eskimo groups.  Even l e s s s t r u c t u r e d than the bands o f n o r t h e r n  Indians,  Eskimo  communities r e c o g n i z e d  no c h i e f s and members were never coerced o r made  to comply w i t h p r e - s e t  conditions.  For a n t i - s o c i a l p r a c t i c e s such  as theftoor. murder the p e n a l t y was death e i t h e r by sentence of the group or through the o p e r a t i o n  of a b l o o d - f e u d .  common and there was l i t t l e  However, d i s c o r d was n o t  need f o r e s t a b l i s h e d a u t h o r i t y  (Jenness 196?:  416).  (16) The importance of Eskimo women w i t h i n the f a m i l y group was w e l l r e c o g n i z e d and t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e p o s i t i o n was s u p e r i o r to the women o f the Athapaskan I n d i a n bands t o the south and west. A c c o r d i n g to Jenness (1967>:420) t h i s was due i n l a r g e p a r t t o the i n d i s p e n s a b i l i t y of expert seamstresses f o r making t a i l o r e d c l o t h i n g n e c e s s a r y f o r l i f e i n the A r c t i c . On t h i s p o i n t B i r k e t - S m i t h (1929:1260) s t a t e d "among the C a r i b o u Eskimo t h e r e a r e no c h i e f s , no c l a n system and no l a y bonds upon the i n i t i a t i v e of the i n d i v i d u a l . They know no government."  30 The  s u c c e s s f u l hunter  the group hence, over  time, no i n d i v i d u a l or f a m i l y was  w e l l o f f , than o t h e r s . to any  b e t t e r , or  less  However, because the supply of food a v a i l a b l e  group or community was  possible.  shared h i s c a t c h w i t h o t h e r members of  l i m i t e d , no  long-term  Thus d u r i n g p e r i o d s when food was  "supply it'was sometimes n e c e s s a r y  w e l f a r e program  in particularly  was  short  to r e g u l a t e the number of mouths to  feed> > 8  The  Concept of Land  Both the Indians and the s u p e r n a t u r a l world  Inuit held various b e l i e f s  and p r a c t i s e d c e r t a i n customs w i t h r e g a r d  t h e i r p h y s i c a l and mental w e l l - b e i n g . (1974:83) and  Blue  concerning  Several'authors  to  i n c l u d i n g Tuan  (1974:192) have d i s c u s s e d the n a t i v e ' s p e r c e p t i o n of  l a n d w i t h r e s p e c t to c r e a t i o n a n d Berry ;  (1974:203) s t a t e d t h a t " d e s p i t e  a range of uses of l a n d among n a t i v e peoples  i n Canada, a s t r o n g  c u l t u r a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l attachment to i t i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of most of them."  C o n s i d e r i n g h i s t o t a l dependence upon the l a n d to p r o v i d e f o o d , c l o t h i n g , s h e l t e r and  energy, i t i s not s u r p r i s i n g t h a t i t came to  have a p h i l o s o p h i c a l and r e l i g i o u s meaning f o r n a t i v e people pre-contact period.  For example, the Athabascan's concept  ( d i n e d a h ) , as the woman and  the sky, as the man.  the  of e a r t h  Dinedah was  P o p u l a t i o n c o n t r o l i n c l u d e d female i n f a n t i c i d e , i n v a l i d i c i d e , a d o p t i o n and m i g r a t i o n .  of  considered  senilicide,  31 the b e g i n n i n g , succour  the s p i r i t  came and  from which l i f e came, the p l a c e from which  the p l a c e to'which the s p i r i t r e t u r n e d  With t h i s a l l - i n c l u s i v e concept  (Blue 1974:193).  of l a n d i t i s not  surprising  t h a t n e i t h e r the n o r t h e r n Indians nor the I n u i t c o n s i d e r e d i t i n terms of  p r i v a t e property.  Jenness (196S:124) p o i n t e d out t h a t l a n d  never s o l d or a l i e r i a t e d d i n any  Although  was  way.  p e r s o n a l p r o p e r t y passed between i n d i v i d u a l s  there  were no i n d i v i d u a l owners of r e a l p r o p e r t y s i n c e l a n d used f o r h u n t i n g , t r a p p i n g and for  survival.  f i s h i n g purposes belonged to the band and was Any  a prerequisite  r u l e s p e r t a i n i n g to l a n d were r e a l l y game laws," f o r  example the need f o r a group to o b t a i n p e r m i s s i o n b e f o r e h u n t i n g i n another  group's a r e a .  There appears to be at l e a s t one did  area where the  e x e r c i s e some a u t h o r i t y over n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s .  from the water and up  the shore  a p p l y h i s mark to the wood. u s i n g a stone  adze.  Driftwood  dragged  to a p o i n t above h i g h water became the  property- of the i n d i v i d u a l Eskimo f i n d i n g i t . c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of p r e s e n t day  individual  U s i n g a method  f o r e s t companies, the owner would In the case of the Eskimo t h i s was  then done  32 CHAPTER TWO.  (i)  THE INTRODUCTION OF WESTERN CULTURE  E a r l y Exploration, Discovery  It  and Occupance  i s n e a r l y 400 y e a r s s i n c e F r o b i s h e r ' s voyages t o the  Canadian A r c t i c .  Although  d i s c o v e r y , they had l i t t l e , the n o r t h e r n n a t i v e .  they marked the b e g i n n i n g  i f any, l a s t i n g e f f e c t upon the l i f e of  I t would be another  would a c t u a l l y p e n e t r a t e  of an e r a o f  200 y e a r s b e f o r e Europeans  the c l o s e d system of which the n o r t h e r n  Indians and I n u i t had been a p a r t f o r thousands o f y e a r s .  As a r e s u l t o f the f u r t r a d e , l o n g s t a n d i n g p a t t e r n s of l a n d use began t o change.  T r a d i n g p o s t s , the f i r s t  o f which was e s t a b l i s h e d  n o r t h o f 60 i n 1786, became r e g i o n a l f o c a l p o i n t s and i n some cases provided  the impetus f o r the growth o f s e t t l e m e n t s .  they o f t e n i n c l u d e d church m i s s i o n s ,  thus  As s e t t l e m e n t s  grew  introducing'another  e s t a b l i s h e d element t o a h i t h e r t o nomadic p o p u l a t i o n .  T h i s chapter  c o n s i d e r s the p e r i o d of n e a r l y 300 y e a r s between  F r o b i s h e r ' s d i s c o v e r y and the t e r m i n a t i o n o f the Hudson's Bay Company monopoly.  I t attempts t o p o r t r a y the nature  o f western s o c i e t y ' s e n t r y  i n t o the n o r t h and the r o l e p l a y e d by the e x p l o r e r , t r a d e r and m i s s i o n a r y . That much o f the d i s c u s s i o n c e n t r e s on the Mackenzie V a l l e y and the Yukon T e r r i t o r y r e f l e c t s the f a c t t h a t u n t i l t h i s c e n t u r y t r a d i n g p o s t s i n the t e r r i t o r i e s e a s t o f Great  The  chapter concludes  t h e r e were no  S l a v e Lake (see Map no. 12).  with observations concerning  which took p l a c e d u r i n g and f o l l o w i n g the c o n t a c t p e r i o d .  the changes  It i s  33  important t o bear i n mind t h a t the o b s e r v a t i o n s and  apply  to s p e c i f i c  areas  groups of n a t i v e people, hence i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o e x e r c i s e some,  d i s c r e t i o n when drawing g e n e r a l c o n c l u s i o n s  Not  u n t i l Martin Frobisher's  about the whole o f the n o r t h .  t h i r d e x p e d i t i o n to B a f f i n I s l a n d  i n 1578 A.D. was an attempt made t o e s t a b l i s h a European colony Canadian A r c t i c .  i n the  D u r i n g s e v e r a l c e n t u r i e s p r i o r t o t h i s date,voyages of  d i s c o v e r y had taken p l a c e i n the n o r t h A t l a n t i c and e a s t e r n North America.  The  f i r s t record of p o l a r discovery  Greek c i t i z e n o f c o n s i d e r a b l e colony  of M a s s i l i a r  i s t h a t o f Pytheas, a  and d i v e r s e t a l e n t s , from the M e d i t e r r a n e a n  I n 320 B.C. Pytheas, h a v i n g  completed a commission  f o r the merchants o f M a s s i l i a , s a i l e d n o r t h and west from B r i t a i n f o r ( 1 9 )  s i x days t o T h u l e ,  an A r c t i c  Pytheas d e s c r i b e d (Strabo  Island.  the f r o z e n sea surrounding  Thule as f o l l o w s  c . 7 B.C.:399): " . . . t h e r e was no l o n g e r e i t h e r l a n d p r o p e r l y s o - c a l l e d , or sea, o r a i r , b u t a k i n d o f substance c o n c r e t e d from a l l these elements, resembling a sea-lungs - a t h i n g i n which, he says, the e a r t h , the sea and a l l the elements are h e l d i n suspension; and t h i s i s a s o r t o f bond t o h o l d a l l t o g e t h e r , which you can neither, walk nor. s a i l upon."  ( 1 9 )  Pytheas d e s c r i b e d Thule as b e i n g "...the most n o r t h e r l y o f the B r i t a n n i c I s l a n d s , i s f a r t h e r e s t nor th,, and t h a t t h e r e the c i r c l e o f the summer,tropic i s the same as t h a t of the a r c t i c c i r c l e . " From t h i s Strabo ( c . 0 B.C.:441) deduced the l a t i t u d e of Thuie to be 66° north. Kerwan (1959:16) suggested t h a t Thule was p r o b a b l y I c e l a n d .  34 Convinced t h a t he  c o u l d proceed no  f u r t h e r , he r e t u r n e d  the M e d i t e r r a n e a n . Thus a t the time Pytheas was the  'frozen north'  cautiously  observing  from i t s p e r i p h e r y , people of the D o r s e t c u l t u r e i n  the Canadian A r c t i c were m a s t e r i n g i t a t i t s c e n t r e and would for  to  f u t u r e c i v i l i z a t i o n s proof  leave  of t h e i r c u l t u r e i n the form of  fine  c a r v i n g s of -ivory and a n t l e r .  Following I c e l a n d and A.D.,  the d i s c o v e r y ,  Greenland by  settlement  the V i k i n g s i n the n i n t h and  r e s p e c t i v e l y , the voyages of J e r j u l f s s o n and  d i s c o v e r y of B a f f i n I s l a n d , Labrador and  By had  the  13th c e n t u r y  begun to wane.  c l i m a t e and  Greenland.  centuries  E r i k s s o n l e d to  the  Newfoundland i n about 1000  the Norse c o l o n i e s on I c e l a n d and  A.D.  Greenland  a d e c l i n e i n Norwegian sea-power (Kerwan 1959:18) l e d to century,  However, c o i n c i d e n t w i t h  a c t i v i t i e s i n the n o r t h A t l a n t i c was determination  to f i n d a sea-route  of Norway's crown colony the t e r m i n a t i o n a new  f i r s t h a l f of the  16th  of  in  colonial  t h r u s t , namely Europe's  to the kingdoms.of Cathay.  The voyages of Columbus, Cabot and  in  tenth  F i n a l l y the combination of a p r o g r e s s i v e l y c o l d e r  the abandonment, i n the 15th  and  and- c o l o n i z a t i o n of  c e n t u r i e s had  C a r t i e r i n the l a t e  15th  done l i t t l e to s u s t a i n i n t e r e s t  the p o s s i b i l i t y of a western passage to the O r i e n t .  As a r e s u l t  B r i t a i n turned  her a t t e n t i o n eastward i n s e a r c h of a N o r t h - E a s t Passage,  around R u s s i a ,  and  f o r twenty-five  years  following 1 5 5 1 ^ ^  she  On December 12, 1551, ' T h e M y s t e r i e and Companie of the Merchants A d v e n t u r e r s f o r the D i s c o v e r i e of Regions, Dominions, I s l a n d s and P l a c e s unknown' was e s t a b l i s h e d . T h i s Company of Merchant A d v e n t u r e r s , w i t h S e b a s t i a n Cabot i t s f i r s t governor, d i r e c t e d i t s e a r l i e s t a c t i v i t i e s to the s e a r c h f o r a N o r t h - E a s t Passage (Kerwan 1959:28).  35 a c t i v e l y pursued e x p l o r a t i o n and t r a d e i n t h a t  By 1576  a rekindled interest  region.  i n the p o s s i b i l i t y of a N o r t h -  west r o u t e to Cathay a g a i n s h i f t e d B r i t a i n ' s a t t e n t i o n to the New  World  and the Canadian A r c t i c .  In June of t h a t y e a r M a r t i n F r o b i s h e r , an Englishman i n Y o r k s h i r e about  1538,  s a i l e d f o r the Canadian A r c t i c ,  by the Muscovy Company to s e a r c h f o r a North-West  commissioned  Passage.  C h r i s t o p h e r H a l l , F r o b i s h e r ' s Master aboard the s h i p r e c o r d e d , "The  11 August we  born  Gabriel  found our l a t i t u d e to be 63 degr. and  eight  (21) minutes, and t h i s day we  e n t e r e d the s t r e i g h t " .  August, F r o b i s h e r and h i s men time.  On the 19th of  s i g h t e d Canadian Eskimos  f o r the  first  H a l l continued: "...the C a p t a i n e and I tooke our b o a t e , w i t h e i g h t men i n h e r , to rowe us a shoare, to see i f t h e r e were t h e r e any p e o p l e , or no, and going to the toppe of the I s l a n d , we had s i g h t o f seven b o a t e s , which came rowing from the E a s t S i d e , toward the I s l a n d : whereupon we r e t u r n e d aboard a g a i n e : . . . t h e n I went on shoare my s e l f e , and gave every of them a threadden p o i n t , and brought one of them aboard of me, where hee d i d eate and d r i n k e , and then c a r r i e d him on shoare a g a i n e . " This i n i t i a l  c o r d i a l i t y was  F r o b i s h e r , h a v i n g had f i v e of h i s men Eskimos.,  not s u s t a i n e d however and c a p t u r e d , kidnapped  one of the  U n s u c c e s s f u l i n h i s attempt.to exchange h i s c a p t i v e f o r the  f i v e crew members, F r o b i s h e r s a i l e d f o r England August  26th, 15  after his arrival.  after  The Eskimo d i e d i n England s h o r t l y  Now known as F r o b i s h e r Bay a t the s o u t h - e a s t e r n t i p o f Island.  days  the  Baffin  36 .  e x p e d i t i o n r e t u r n e d October 1576  (22)  (McFee 1928:53).  F r o b i s h e r f u l f i l l e d h i s promise to M i c h a e l Lock, one  of  the  p r i n c i p a l s i n the Muscovy Company, by b r i n g i n g back 'something from the l a n d ' to commemorate h i s f i r s t  l a n d f a l l i n the New  World.  I t happened  to be a p i e c e of b l a c k r o c k a n d ' u l t i m a t e l y r e s u l t e d i n the European l a n d use o p e r a t i o n i n the Canadian  Arctic.  Upon r e c e i v i n g the p i e c e of r o c k , Lock who concerned about h i s s u b s t a n t i a l f i n a n c i a l voyage, wondered about i t s v a l u e .  first  was  no  p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n Frobisher's  Undismayed'by t h r e e independent  assays which showed the r o c k to havenno commercial v a l u e he from a f o u r t h a s s a y e r who 57).  Lock, s u f f i c i e n t l y  detected  'a l i t t l e powder of g o l d '  governor.  from one  w i t h 200  t h e r e he met  more Eskimos but f a i l e d to f i n d any  members l o s t  the p r e v i o u s  than the o r i g i n a l the now  the 200  1928:  the the  to the New  World.  t o n s , o f the b l a c k  of the i s l a n d s near the mouth of F r o b i s h e r Bay.  Although  (McFee  Commissioned by  Queen E l i z a b e t h I, F r o b i s h e r a g a i n s a i l e d  He r e t u r n e d to England i n September 1577 dug  took h e a r t  encouraged, promoted the f o r m a t i o n of  Cathay Company and became i t s f i r s t Company and  doubt  'ore'  While  t r a c e of h i s f i v e crew  year.  tons of r o c k proved to be no more v a l u a b l e  p i e c e , Lock was  a b l e to g a i n a d d i t i o n a l f i n a n c i n g f o r  i n s o l v e n t Cathay Company, and  i n May  1578  F r o b i s h e r once a g a i n  " T h i s was not the f i r s t Eskimo to be so t r e a t e d ; i n 1501 Gaspar C o r t e - R e a l took to P o r t u g a l 50 c a p t u r e d Eskimos, p r o b a b l y from Labrador (Cooke and H o l l a n d 1970:173).  37 s a i l e d f o r the Canadian A r c t i c .  The t h i r d voyage, u n l i k e the f i r s t  two,  was f o r purpose of c o l o n i z a t i o n and i n c l u d e d f i f t e e n s h i p s and 100 men, i n c l u d i n g 30 C o r n i s h miners and a governor f o r the proposed F r o b i s h e r ' s p l a n t o mine g o l d d u r i n g  the w i n t e r  colony.  had t o be.abandoned  when h i s f l e e t was caught i n a storm and he l o s t a s h i p which c a r r i e d h a l f of a p r e f a b r i c a t e d b u i l d i n g , which was t o have housed the m i n e r s .  A f t e r i n a d v e r t e n t l y e n t e r i n g Hudson S t r a i t , which F r o b i s h e r named 'Mistaken S t r a y t e s ' he r e t u r n e d his  t o F r o b i s h e r Bay where he moored  s h i p s near the Countesse of Warwicks I s l a n d , whereupon he  the miners ashore.  Before  l e a v i n g f o r England w i t h  ordered  1000 tons o f the  b l a c k r o c k he b u i l t a s m a l l house and h i s c h a p l a i n h e l d a r e l i g i o u s s e r v i c e on the i s l a n d .  (23)  D u r i n g F r o b i s h e r ' s absence the 'gold o r e ' was proved beyond question  t o be w o r t h l e s s  and the Company of Cathay was p l a c e d i n  receivership.  Thus ended phase one of Europe's presence i n the Canadian Arctic.  Beyond the f a t e s u f f e r e d by the one u n f o r t u n a t e  c a p t i v e , the  Thomas E l l i s , one o f F r o b i s h e r ' s o f f i c e r s , i n h i s account of the t h i r d voyage, s a i d , "But before.we tooke s h i p p i n g , we b u i l d e d a house i n the Countesse o f Warwicks I s l a n d . . . A l s o here we sowed pease, c o m e , and o t h e r g r a i n e , t o prove the f r u i t f u l n e s s o f the s o y l e a g a i n s t the next y e e r e . Master W o l f a l l on W i n t e r s Fprnace, preached a godly sermon, which b e i n g ended, he c e l e b r a t e d a l s o a Communion upon the l a n d . " (Hakluyt 1927:163,265).  38 life  of the Eskimo people was not p a r t i c u l a r l y a f f e c t e d by F r o b i s h e r ' s  three v i s i t s .  Europe's f i r s t  attempt a t l a n d use i n the Canadian  A r c t i c r e s u l t e d i n c o n s i d e r a b l e t r a v a i l and no reward.  However,  there  were g a i n s ; f i r s t - h a n d o b s e r v a t i o n s of the North's o r i g i n a l occupants and  t h e i r way of l i f e were noted,  the entrances  to Hudson S t r a i t and  F r o b i s h e r Bay were mapped and s e v e r a l i s l a n d s on Canada's e a s t e r n A r c t i c shore were d i s c o v e r e d .  The next attempt a t n o r t h e r n  s e t t l e m e n t would n o t come f o r  100 y e a r s but d u r i n g the i n t e r i m the s e a r c h f o r a North-West Passage continued  and much of Canada's e a s t e r n A r c t i c  s h o r e l i n e was  explored.  (24) Between 1585 and 1616, D a v i s , Weymouth, B y l o t and B a f f i n and mapped  the c o a s t of B a f f i n I s l a n d from L a n c a s t e r  northern extremity,  explored  Sound, a t i t s  southward to Hudson S t r a i t , i n c l u d i n g Cumberland  Sound and F r o b i s h e r Bay. (25) Henry Hudson, sponsored by the Northwest Company, the n o r t h shore  explored  of Hudson S t r a i t and f o l l o w e d the e a s t c o a s t of Hudson  Bay  south to James Bay where h i s s h i p the ' D i s c o v e r y ' was caught i n the  ice  i n the w i n t e r  of 1610-11.  Thomas Button,  a l s o sponsored by the  B y l o t and B a f f i n i n 1616 s a i l e d n o r t h as fair as Smith Sound, between Greenland and E l l e s m e r e I s l a n d , about 78° N L a t . and a l s o d i s c o v e r e d Jones Sound between E l l e s m e r e and Devon I s l a n d s where they landed. Not and  to be confused w i t h the 'North West Company', formed i n 1779 discussed l a t e r .  39 Northwest Company, d i s c o v e r e d Coats and Mansel I s l a n d s a t the entrance to Hudson Bay and e x p l o r e d  the west c o a s t o f Hudson Bay between the  C h u r c h i l l R i v e r and Roes Welcome Sound, w i n t e r i n g t h e r e i n 1612-13.  Others,  i n c l u d i n g Foxe and Munk who was sponsored by K i n g  C h r i s t i a n IV o f Denmark, and James added t o the knowledge of Hudson and James Bays w i t h t h e i r e x p e d i t i o n s between 1619 and 1632.  (ii)  E n t e r the Trader  I n d i a n s around the G u l f o f ,St. Lawrence had a l r e a d y been aware o f the European's i n t e r e s t i n f u r s by the time of C a r t i e r ' s a r r i v a l t h e r e i n 1534 (Biggar 1901:49) and d u r i n g the next  100 y e a r s  f u r t r a d i n g f l o u r i s h e d i n the r e g i o n o f the S t . Lawrence and Ottawa River V a l l e y s .  By the middle of the 17th c e n t u r y French-Canadian f u r -  t r a d e r s were t r a v e l l i n g as f a r as Lake Huron and Lake S u p e r i o r i n order to a c q u i r e new sources  o f f u r and m a i n t a i n  Two of these f u r - t r a d e r s - , to expansion  the e x i s t i n g t r a d e i n Canada.  convinced  t h a t the b e s t approach  o f the Canadian f u r - t r a d e l a y v i a Hudson Bay r a t h e r  than  the S t . Lawrence, went t o London where they r e c e i v e d an audience from King C h a r l e s I I .  The two t r a d e r s a p p a r e n t l y made t h e i r p o i n t f o r a  group o f London f i n a n c i e r s , none of whom had to c o n t r i b u t e more than  Medard Chouart, S i e u r des G r o s e i l l i e r s , b o r n i n France, migrated to Canada i n 1641, and P i e r r e E s p r i t Radisson, p r o b a b l y b o r n i n France, m i g r a t e d t o Canada as a boy and was c a p t u r e d by the Mohawk Indians i n a r a i d on T r o i s R i v i e r e s i n 1651.  40 200 pounds each  (Rich 1960:33), p r o v i d e d s u f f i c i e n t funds t o support a  voyage t o Hudson Bay.  In  June 1668, two s h i p s , the Nonsuch and the E a g l e t , l e f t  London bound f o r Hudson Bay.  Only the Nonsuch, w i t h G r o s e i l l i e r s  aboard, reached her d e s t i n a t i o n ; the E a g l e t w i t h R a d i s s o n r e t u r n e d to Plymouth i n August of the same y e a r .  A f o r t w a s . b u i l t a t the mouth of  the Rupert R i v e r ( F o r t C h a r l e s ) and the crew w i n t e r e d t h e r e c a r r y i n g on s u c c e s s f u l t r a d e w i t h the I n d i a n s .  I n October  1669 the Nonsuch  r e t u r n e d t o London where her cargo of f u r was q u i c k l y s o l d f o r £l,379 6s. l O d . ( R i c h 1960:42). a r e a s o n a b l e commercial  A n o r t h e r n f u r - t r a d e appeared r  t o be  v e n t u r e and from t h i s b e g i n n i n g i t proceeded t o  shape the p a t t e r n o f development and l a n d use i n t h e Canadian  North  over the next 200 y e a r s .  F o l l o w i n g the success of the f i r s t  t r a d i n g e x p e d i t i o n , steps  were taken t o safeguard the f u t u r e p o s i t i o n o f the p r o j e c t ' s contributors.  In A p r i l  financial  1670, P r i n c e Rupert, c o u s i n of K i n g C h a r l e s I I ,  put forward t o P r i v y C o u n c i l a d r a f t c h a r t e r on b e h a l f of those who had p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h e f i r s t v e n t u r e and on May 2nd 1670 a C h a r t e r was granted under the  Great S e a l of England.  Under the C h a r t e r the  e i g h t e e n 'Adventurers' who.had by May 1670 s u b s c r i b e d t o support the voyages were i n c o r p o r a t e d by the name of the "Governor and Company of Adventurers o f England was nominated  t r a d e i n g i n t o Hudson's Bay", and P r i n c e Rupert  Governor.  Under the C h a r t e r the Company was granted the " s o l e . T r a d e and Commerce of a l l those Seas S t r e i g h t e s Bayes R i v e r s Lakes Creekes and Soundes i n whatsoever L a t i t u d e  41  they s h a l l bee t h a t l y e w i t h i n the e n t r a n c e of the S t r e i g h t e s commonly c a l l e d Hudsons S t r e i g h t e s t o g e t h e r w i t h a l l the Landes and T e r r i t o r y e s upon the Countryes Coastes and confynes of the Seas Bayes Lakes R i v e r s Creekes and Soundes a f o r e s a i d t h a t are not a c t u a l l y possessed by or granted to any of our S u b j e c t e s or possessed by the S u b j e c t e s of any o t h e r C h r i s t i a n P r i n c e of S t a t e " . These l a n d s , to be known as Rupert's p l a n t a t i o n or c o l o n y and  Land, were c o n s i d e r e d as a  the Company claimed t h e . r i g h t s t t o m i n e r a l s  f i s h as w e l l as the e x c l u s i v e t r a d e and  The  the l a n d  for  itself.  'Company of A d v e n t u r e r s ' moved q u i c k l y to e s t a b l i s h i t s  p o s i t i o n i n the a r e a s u r r o u n d i n g Hudson Bay. 1686  by G r o s e i l l i e r s  and  Fort Charles, b u i l t i n  the crew of the Nonsuch, was  chosen as the  i t s f i r s t , permanent p o s t w i t h the c o n s t r u c t i o n of Rupert's  the f a l l of 1670.  D u r i n g the next t e n y e a r s two  1682,  o t h e r p o s t s were  by t h i s time had l e f t  south of the Nelson R i v e r .  the Hudson's Bay  and of  Two  years  the Hudson's Bay Company b u i l t York F a c t o r y :alongside~. F o r t Bourbon  i n 1685  b u i l t i t s second  f o r t on the Hudson Bay  c o a s t a t the mouth  the Severn R i v e r .  During t h i s e n t i r e p e r i o d the French competed f o r n o r t h e r n  (27)  The  Company and were aware of  i t s p l a n s t o e s t a b l i s h i n the r e g i o n of the Nelson R i v e r . later  (27)  Radisson and G r o s e i l l i e r s b u i l t a t r a d i n g p o s t , F o r t  Bourbon, on the west c o a s t of Hudson Bay, two men  site  House i n  e s t a b l i s h e d i n James Bay and a depot-warehouse to s e r v i c e them.  In  and  Moose F a c t o r y i n 1673; F o r t A l b a n y on C h a r l t o n I s l a n d 1680.  i n 1679;  and a warehouse depot  42 f u r s by sending o v e r l a n d e x p e d i t i o n s from Quebec to James Bay. c o m p e t i t i o n was,not l i m i t e d t o i n t e r c e p t i n g and t r a d i n g w i t h  This  Indians  en r o u t e to Company p o s t s but i n c l u d e d the c a p t u r i n g of p o s t s .  In  1697  and  the T r e a t y of Ryswick gave France  t r a d e i n 'Bottom of the Bay' U t r e c h t i n 1713 former  the r i g h t to F o r t Albany  ( R i c h 1960:347).  However, the T r e a t y of  between B r i t a i n and France r e v e r s e d the terms of the  t r e a t y and p r o v i d e d f o r the r e s t o r a t i o n of Hudson Bay  Great B r i t a i n and o f f i c i a l r e c o g n i t i o n of the Hudson's Bay title  to Rupert's  By  1718  stone b a s t i o n s were planned  Company  f o r s e v e r a l of the and Nelson,  c o n s t r u c t i o n of a stone f o r t r e s s a t C h u r c h i l l was The  to  Land.  t r a d i n g p o s t s , i n c l u d i n g those a t Moose, Albany  1956:130).  to  18th c e n t u r y a l s o saw  and  in  1731  underx^ay ( I n n i s  a renewed i n t e r e s t  i n the n o r t h ' s (28)  mining p o t e n t i a l .  Beginning w i t h Henry K e l s e y ' s voyage i n 1719  l e a s t e i g h t s e p a r a t e mining v e n t u r e s were undertaken, successful  none of which  W i l l i a m Stewart,  the Hudson's Bay Company had  sent one  of i t s  as f a r west as Great Slave Lake, i n o r d e r to  persuade the Chipewyan Indians to t r a d e a t York F a c t o r y . i n 1760  was  (Cooke and H o l l a n d 1971:503,699). As e a r l y as 1715  men,  at  f o r Moses Norton,  A map,  prepared  the Governor of the Company, s i t u a t e d a t  S a i l e d northward a l o n g the west coast of Hudson Bay from C h u r c h i l l as f a r as 62°40'N, i n s e a r c h of copper and to develop t r a d e w i t h the Eskimo.  43  MAP 9 MOSES OF  THE  NORTON'S  DRAUGHT  NORTHERN  PARTS OF  HUDSON AND  BAY, RE-ORIENTED AMENDED BY  R.I. RUGGLES (1971)  44  P r i n c e of Wales F o r t , r e f l e c t s the European's west of Hudson Bay a t t h a t time.  The map  knowledge of Canada  based on the j o u r n e y s of  Norton and Stewart as w e l l as i n f o r m a t i o n p r o v i d e d by the n o r t h e r n Indians and I n u i t covered a c o n s i d e r a b l e a r e a i n c l u d i n g the Coppermine R i v e r , Great S l a v e Lake, Lake Athabasca and the Peace, Athabasca, Saskatchewan,  Nelson and C h u r c h i l l R i v e r s  (Map no. 9 ) .  Having some knowledge of the v a s t r e g i o n to the west of Hudson Bay and encouraged by the r e p o r t s from I n d i a n s t r a d i n g a t the f o r t , Norton commissioned  Samuel Hearne to j o u r n e y to the Coppermine (29)  R i v e r i n s e a r c h o f copper.  In 1772,  a f t e r two e a r l i e r  Hearne reached the Coppermine R i v e r and descended did  attempts,  i t to i t s mouth but  not f i n d copper ore i n s u f f i c i e n t q u a n t i t i e s to warrant  further  interest. I t was  the f o r m a t i o n of the North West Company  which  The i n s t r u c t i o n s to Hearne from Norton dated Nov. 6, 1769 s t a t e d i n p a r t : "...a r i v e r r e p r e s e n t e d by the I n d i a n s to abound w i t h copper ore...and i s supposed by the I n d i a n s to empty i t s e l f i n t o some ocean the A r c t i c Ocean...Be c a r e f u l to examine what mines are near the r i v e r , what water t h e r e i s a t the r i v e r ' s mouth, how f a r the woods are from the s e a - s i d e . . .And i f the s a i d r i v e r be l i k e l y to be of any u t i l i t y , t a k e p o s s e s s i o n of i t on b e h a l f o f the Hudson's Bay Company..." (Hearne 1968). The f i r s t N o r t h West Company c o - p a r t n e r s h i p was formed i n M o n t r e a l i n 1779 (Campbell 1957:1); subsequent r e o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n v o l v i n g c o m p e t i t o r s took p l a c e i n 1787 and 1804 (Stager 1962).  45 e v e n t u a l l y spurred the Hudson's Bay t r a d i n g p a t t e r n around Hudson Bay  Company to a l t e r i t s e s t a b l i s h e d  and expand westward  through/-,  n o r t h e r n Canada.  By  1786  the North West Company had  e s t a b l i s h e d a p o s t on  the  (31) south shore of Great open up new  S l a v e Lake, now  Fort Resolution.  Hoping to  t r a d i n g r o u t e s to the P a c i f i c Ocean on b e h a l f of. the  West Company, Alexander  Mackenzie, i n 1789,  f o l l o w e d the r i v e r which  now .bears h i s name i t s e n t i r e l e n g t h from Great B e a u f o r t Sea.  Although  North West Company had  S l a v e Lake to the  p e r s o n a l l y d i s a p p o i n t e d i n not r e a c h i n g  P a c i f i c , h i s d i s c o v e r y opened up a v a s t new  North  r e g i o n and by  1817  the the  e s t a b l i s h e d s e v e r a l p o s t s down the Mackenzie  (32) River V a l l e y . v  1  Innis  (1956:279-280) r e f e r r e d to the  'violent efforts'  the North West Company to check the westward advancement and encroachment on the Athabasca  (31) (32)  (33)  T h i s was  the f i r s t  (33)  of the Hudson's Bay  of  subsequent  Company d u r i n g  t r a d i n g post to be e s t a b l i s h e d n o r t h of  60.  I n c l u d i n g Lac La Martre 1789, T r o u t Lake R i v e r 1796, Great Bear Lake F o r t 1799, the 'Forks' ( F o r t Simpson)'1803, F o r t Good Hope 1804, F o r t L i a r d 1805, F o r t Norman 1810 and Willow Lake R i v e r 1817. For a d i s c u s s i o n of the h i s t o r y of t r a d i n g p o s t s i n the Mackenzie Region up to 1850 see Stager (1962). The Hudson's Bay Company b u i l t H a r r i s o n s House, near the e a s t e r n end of Lake Athabasca i n 1819, the North West Company having e a r l i e r abandoned i t s post s i t u a t e d nearby (Cooke and H o l l a n d 1971:916).  46 the f i r s t  two decades of the 1800's.  This struggle u l t i m a t e l y l e d  to the amalgamation o f the two companies i n 1821.  One of the f i r s t re-organizing post the  a c t s of the amalgamated  the Mackenzie D i s t r i c t was  Company i n  the c o n s t r u c t i o n of a new  a t the j u n c t i o n of the L i a r d and Mackenzie R i v e r s 'Forks'  b u i l t by the N o r t h West Company i n 1803.  i n 1822 r e p l a c i n g T h i s new  post,  (34) named F o r t Simpson a f t e r Governor George Simpson administrative  became the  c e n t r e and d i s t r i b u t i n g p o i n t f o r other p o s t s  i n the  Mackenzie V a l l e y . :  Between 1823 and 1834, A.R.  9  and J.M. McLeod,  McPherson, and John Hutchinson a l l l e d e x p e d i t i o n s  Murdock  on b e h a l f  of the  Hudson's Bay Company i n t o the r e g i o n o f the L i a r d , Nahanni, Beaver and  Smith R i v e r s .  In 1829 F o r t H a l k e t t was e s t a b l i s h e d on the L i a r d  R i v e r and i n 1832 was r e l o c a t e d a t the j u n c t i o n . o f  the Smith and L i a r d  Rivers.  I t was not u n t i l the 1840's t h a t the Company's extended i n t o the Yukon.  operation  In the f a c e of h o s t i l e o p p o s i t i o n from n a t i v e  F o l l o w i n g amalgamation, March 26, 1821, Governor George Simpson was p l a c e d i n charge of the whole t r a d i n g t e r r i t o r y and f o u r departments were formed: The Canadas; the Southern, e a s t of Hudson Bay; the Western, west o f the R o c k i e s ; the N o r t h e r n , the t e r r i t o r y between Hudson Bay and the mountains and between the U n i t e d S t a t e s and the A r c t i c Ocean ( I n n i s 1956:285).  47 middlemen;, i n 1837,  Robert Campbell  established forts  Frances Lake i n 1842  (35)  a t Dease Lake (B.C.)  ' and F o r t S e l k i r k a t the j u n c t i o n o f  the P e l l y and Lewes (Yukon) R i v e r s i n  1848.  At the same time as e f f o r t s to develop t r a d e i n the s o u t h e r n Yukon were underway, new  p o s t s were b e i n g b u i l t  i n the n o r t h .  P e e l ' s R i v e r p o s t , later;known as F o r t McPherson, was the P e e l R i v e r by John B e l l .  In  established  In 1847 Alexander Murray  1840 on  established  F o r t Yukon f o r the Hudson's Bay Company a t the c o n f l u e n c e of the P o r c u p i n e and Yukon R i v e r s and began t r a d e w i t h the N a t s i t  (Chandalar)  K u t c h i n I n d i a n s i n c o m p e t i t i o n w i t h the R u s s i a n t r a d e r s .  F o l l o w i n g Campbell's  d i s c o v e r y i n 1851  t h a t the P o r c u p i n e  was  a t r i b u t a r y of the Yukon, the d i f f i c u l t L i a r d R i v e r - Frances Lake r o u t e i n t o the Yukon was the Mackenzie  abandoned.  T h e r e a f t e r , goods were taken down  to the P e e l , over the p o r t a g e t o the B e l l and down the  C o n s i d e r i n g the h a r d s h i p and r i s k i n h e r e n t i n the e f f o r t s of men such as Campbell to expand the Company's sphere o f i n f l u e n c e , promotions d i d not come e a s i l y . Governor Simpson i n a l e t t e r to Campbell d a t e d J u l y 4, 1837 s a i d , " . . . p l e a s e d a t your s p i r i t e d tender of your s e r v i c e s to e s t a b l i s h Dease's Lake...which has l e d to your promotion to the r a n k ' o f C l e r k . " Campbell i n h i s J o u r n a l s ~ 1808-1853, noted t h a t h i t h e r t o he had been r a t e d as postmaster. (36)  The f i r s t p o s t e s t a b l i s h e d i n the Yukon T e r r i t o r y .  Porcupine to F o r t Yukon ( I n n i s 1970:291). w e s t e r l y of the Company's p o s t s , was P o r c u p i n e R i v e r when i t was the U.S.-Canadian border  (iii)  '  F o r t Yukon, the most  subsequently moved twice up  the  found twice to be on the A l a s k a s i d e of  (Stager 1974:29).  Missions Established  A l t h o u g h Moravian m i s s i o n a r i e s were a c t i v e w i t h the Eskimos of Labrador as e a r l y as 1752 the f i r s t permanent m i s s i o n was and Northwest  In  i t was  more than a c e n t u r y l a t e r when  e s t a b l i s h e d i n what i s now  the Yukon  Territories.  1820  the Reverend John West, a member o f the  M i s s i o n a r y S o c i e t y , England, was  Church  a p p o i n t e d by the Hudson's Bay  Company,  c h a p l a i n to i t s s e t t l e m e n t on the Red R i v e r south of Lake Winnipeg.  T h i s r o u t e and the c o n f l u e n c e of the P o r c u p i n e and Yukon R i v e r s had been d i s c o v e r e d by John B e l l i n 1845, however i t was not u n t i l Campbell had t r a c e d the Yukon R i v e r from the P e l l y R i v e r to the P o r c u p i n e t h a t i t s importance was r e a l i z e d . On J u l y 31, 1752 John C. E r h a r d t and f o u r o t h e r Moravian m i s s i o n a r i e s landed on the Labrador c o a s t a t about l a t . 55°10'N ( N i s b e t ' s Harbour) where they b u i l t a house and t r a d e d w i t h the Eskimos, l e a v i n g t h e r e i n the f a l l of thessame y e a r (Cooke and H o l l a n d 1971:516). Permanent Moravian m i s s i o n s were e s t a b l i s h e d i n Labrador a t N a i n 1770, Okkak 1775 and Hopedale 1781. Each m i s s i o n c o n t a i n e d a d w e l l i n g , church, t r a d i n g s t o r e and workshop; around t h i s n u c l e u s the m i g r a t o r y Eskimos b u i l t wooden houses f o r the w i n t e r months (Jenness 1964:10).  There he e s t a b l i s h e d a s c h o o l f o r I n d i a n c h i l d r e n and Settlement  the Red  became the h e a d q u a r t e r s of the Church M i s s i o n a r y  North-West Canada M i s s i o n  (Stock 1899:vol 1:246).  River  Society's  From i t s founding  (39) in  1822  the North-West Canada M i s s i o n  expanded northward  and  westward f o l l o w i n g the Hudson's Bay Cposts. In 1849  David Anderson was  Rupert's Land and  a r r i v e d i n Red  consecrated  first  R i v e r i n October of t h a t  Encouraged by r e p o r t s of Anderson the Church M i s s i o n a r y s e v e r a l men  Bishop of year.  S o c i e t y sent-  from England as l a y schoolmasters to r e i n f o r c e the  M i s s i o n at Red W.W. y e a r s a t Red  River. K i r k b y was  one  of these men  and  a f t e r spending seven  R i v e r he proceeded to F o r t Simpson where, i n 1859,  e s t a b l i s h e d the f i r s t permanent A n g l i c a n m i s s i o n Territories  he  i n the Northwest  (Stock 1899:vol 11:328).  In 1858 Company b r i g a d e  Archdeacon Hunter had  from Red  t r a v e l l e d w i t h a Hudson's  R i v e r to F o r t Simpson and  Mackenzie V a l l e y f o r n e a r l y a year  (41)  visiting  Bay  remained i n the  the Company's p o s t s  at  (39) I t was o r i g i n a l l y c a l l e d the North-West American M i s s i o n . (40) Three members o f S i r John R i c h a r d s o n ' s e x p e d i t i o n i n s e a r c h o f F r a n k l i n , w h i l e w i n t e r i n g a t Cumberland House i n 1847,fyworked on the c o n s t r u c t i o n of the church and f u r n i s h i n g s (Boon 1962:62). (41)  ':r  There i s evidence however t h a t the f i r s t m i s s i o n a r i e s i n the Mackenzie R i v e r b a s i n were James and John Hope, two of the f i r s t p u p i l s of the Church M i s s i o n a r y School e s t a b l i s h e d i n the Red R i v e r s e t t l e m e n t i n 1821 (Boon 1962:204).  50 F o r t L i a r d , F o r t Norman and F o r t Good' Hope. he r e t u r n e d to Red  The  f o l l o w i n g summer  R i v e r , meeting K i r k b y en r o u t e .  f i r s t Roman C a t h o l i c m i s s i o n a r y to j o u r n e y  Mackenzie appears to be F a t h e r H. Faraud, R e s o l u t i o n from F o r t Chipewyan i n 1852. own  The  O.M.I., who  In 1858  v i s i t e d Fort  While t h e r e he b u i l t  hands' a m i s s i o n house on an i s l a n d i n Great  m i l e s o f f F o r t R e s o l u t i o n (Duchaussois  to the  'with h i s  S l a v e Lake about  three  1923:201).  F a t h e r H e n r i G r o l l i e r , O.M.I., e s t a b l i s h e d ;St. Joseph's  M i s s i o n a t F o r t R e s o l u t i o n , the M i s s i o n of Immaculate Heart of Mary a t Grande I s l e  ( l a t e r moved to F o r t P r o v i d e n c e ) , and  Heart a t F o r t Simpson. m i s s i o n s a t F o r t Rae,  The  (43)  the M i s s i o n of  Sacred  f o l l o w i n g year he e s t a b l i s h e d a d d i t i o n a l  F o r t NormaSi and F o r t Good Hope and a t F o r t  When Mgr. Tache, Bishop of S t . B o n i f a c e , p a i d h i s f i r s t v i s i t to London, England i n 1856, Lord C o l v i l l e , on b e h a l f of the Hudson's Bay Company, i n v i t e d him to form a Roman C a t h o l i c m i s s i o n a t F o r t Good Hope (Duchaussois 1923:267). An R.C. m i s s i o n was e s t a b l i s h e d t h e r e in 1859. The speed w i t h which m i s s i o n s were e s t a b l i s h e d down the Mackenzie V a l l e y i n the l a t t e r h a l f of the 19th c e n t u r y was p a r t l y due to the element of c o m p e t i t i o n e x i s t i n g between the A n g l i c a n and Roman C a t h o l i c churches, e.g. F a t h e r G r o l l i e r wrote, " I came to F o r t Rae from F o r t Resolution. There are n e a r l y 1200 I n d i a n s about t h i s p o s t . I came as soon as I p o s s i b l y c o u l d , because i t was' r e p o r t e d t h a t Archdeacon Hunter would send a P r o t e s t a n t m i n i s t e r h e r e . . . " S i m i l a r l y Father Groilier i s r e p o r t e d to have s a i d a t a meeting i n F o r t Simpson August 26, 1860 "we s h a l l save the Fort' L i a r d I n d i a n s f o r the Church". On September 4, 1860 F a t h e r Gascon a r r i v e d i n F o r t L i a r d t h r e e days ahead of the A n g l i c a n m i n i s t e r (Duchaussois 1923:198-204). However, t h e r e were many i n s t a n c e s of c o - o p e r a t i o n as w e l l , e.g. i n June 1862 F a t h e r Sequin (who had taken over from G r o l l i e r ) accompanied Reverend K i r k b y to L a p i e r r e House, where he founded a ' l i t t l e ' R.C. m i s s i o n . In the f a l l of the same year F a t h e r 'Sequin accompanied Robert McDonald to F o r t Yukon from F o r t Good Hope.  McPherson i n I860.\.  The  f i r s t post b u i l t  Eskimo t r a d e was MacFarlane, who it  i n the western A r c t i c e x c l u s i v e l y f o r  e s t a b l i s h e d a t F o r t Anderson i n $861. had  explored  the Anderson R i v e r i n 1857  Roderick and  revisited  on s e v e r a l o c c a s i o n s to t r a d e w i t h Eskimos, r e c e i v e d p e r m i s s i o n  the Hudson's Bay of 1861  Company to b u i l d a post t h e r e i n 1859.  he c u t timber  CCaxnw.ath'; R i v e r .  on the upper reaches  He  from  I n the s p r i n g  of the Anderson near  the  then r a f t e d the t'imb.&r; down the Anderson to a  site  some 180 k i l o m e t r e s from i t s mouth a t about l a t . 68°30'N where he c o n s t r u c t e d the f o r t  (Cooke and H o l l a n d  1972:392).  I t was  intended  F o r t Anderson would become a f o c a l p o i n t of Eskimo t r a d e and reduce i n f l u e n c e of R u s s i a n  t r a d e r s who  along the n o r t h c o a s t of A l a s k a . f o r t was  had  In 1862  Rev.  K i r k b y and  the  e s t a b l i s h e d an Eskimo t r a d i n g c h a i n  Stager  (1967:53) suggested  p o o r l y l o c a t e d f o r t h i s purpose and was  d e c i s i o n to abandon the p o s t i n  that  that  the  a s t r o n g f a c t o r i n the  1866.  another  A n g l i c a n clergyman, Robert  (44) McDonald  t r a v e l l e d from F o r t Simpson to F o r t Yukon v i a the  Mackenzie, P e e l and Porcupine until  1871  Rivers.  McDonald remained a t F o r t Yukon  at which time he moved to F o r t MGRher-sbm. where he  remained  McDonald, whose f a t h e r was a Hudson's Bay Company employee and homesteader i n the Red R i v e r V a l l e y and h i s mother a daughter of an o f f i c e r of the Hudson's Bay Co., was educated a t the Red R i v e r Academy and took t h e o l o g i c a l t r a i n i n g from Bishop Anderson who . o r d a i n e d him i n 1852. H i s son, N e i l McDonald, a r e s p e c t e d member of the Yukon (community of Old Crow, s t i l l r e s i d e s t h e r e .  52 f o r 33 y e a r s .  D u r i n g t h i s time he t r a n s l a t e d , w i t h t h e a s s i s t a n c e o f  h i s w i f e , one o f h i s c o n v e r t s whom he m a r r i e d i n 1877, t h e B i b l e , P r a y e r Book and Hymnal i n t o the Tukudh d i a l e c t .  In n e a r l y a l l cases the m i s s i o n s were e s t a b l i s h e d near trading posts. reverse.  active  However, i n the case o f F o r t P r o v i d e n c e i t was the  I n August  1861 Mgr.  Grandin chose a new l o c a t i o n f o r t h e  m i s s i o n which had been e s t a b l i s h e d on Grande I s l e i n Great S l a v e Lake Gpf.o 50 ).  The new s i t e , which e v e n t u a l l y i n c l u d e d an orphanage and a  convent, he named 'Providence M i s s i o n ' .  I t eventually attracted  so many  I n d i a n s t h a t the Hudson's Bay Company e s t a b l i s h e d a p o s t t h e r e , ' F o r t Providence'.  By November 1862 the c h a p e l had been c o n s t r u c t e d and-during  the w i n t e r o f 118635—64 an orphanage and two s t o r e y convent were  completed.  In 1869 t h e r e were 35 c h i l d r e n i n the orphanage^school, which was by then o p e r a t e d by t h e Grey Nuns, who were unable t o a c c e p t more c h i l d r e n due t o l i m i t e d food s u p p l i e s .  The s h o r t a g e o f food was a problem  m i s s i o n s i n the n o r t h .  Reverend  common t o a l l  (45) W.C. Bompas  o f the A n g l i c a n Church  Born i n London, England, January 20, 1834, he a r r i v e d i n F o r t Simpson i n 1865. D u r i n g t h e 41 y e a r s he l i v e d and worked i n the Canadian n o r t h he t r a v e l l e d e x t e n s i v e l y throughout the Mackenzie D i s t r i c t and the Yukon T e r r i t o r y . I n 1874 he was c o n s e c r a t e d as f i r s t Bishop o f Athabasca (an a r e a which covered t h e c u r r e n t D i o c e s e s o f Athabasca, Yukon and Mackenzie R i v e r ) . In 1884 the s o u t h e r n p o r t i o n o f Athabasca was e s t a b l i s h e d as the D i o c e s e o f Athabasca; and t h e Mackenzie a r e a and what i s now the Yukon formed a new D i o c e s e , named Mackenzie R i v e r , w i t h Bompas as i t s B i s h o p . A g a i n a d i v i s i o n took p l a c e i n 1.891 w i t h the f o r m a t i o n o f the D i o c e s e o f the Yukon. Bompas who always chose the more remote p o r t i o n o f a d i v i s i o n became i t s Bishop (Bishop Henry G. Cook, Y e l l o w k n i f e , p e r s . comm., 1974).  53  noted t h a t h i s major concern d u r i n g h i s f i r s t Mackenzie V a l l e y was with a mission  famine and  ten years  s t a t e d "a m i s s i o n  farm i n  connection  seems almost a n e c e s s i t y . . . t h e w i l d animals of the woods  a r e c e a s i n g to y i e l d even a p r e c a r i o u s s u b s i s t e n c e "  (Boon  Emile P e t i t o t , O.M.I., a C a t h o l i c p r i e s t who Mackenzie D e l t a i n 1868, c o a s t of the mainland  was  the f i r s t m i s s i o n a r y  (Jenness 1964:15).  s t a t i o n e d a t F o r t Good Hope, he  1962:214).^^  visited  the  to r e a c h the  Between 1864  and  Arctic  1872,  while  t r a v e l l e d throughout the Mackenzie  D i s t r i c t mapping much of the country language and  i n the  and  c o l l e c t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n on  the  customs of the n a t i v e p e o p l e i n c l u d i n g the c o m p i l a t i o n  of  a grammar of the d i a l e c t of the Mackenzie D e l t a Eskimo.  In 1876  Rev.  aboard a Hudson's Bay among the Eskimo.  Edmund James Peck a r r i v e d i n the e a s t e r n Company supply  Between 1876  F a c t o r y , L i t t l e Whale R i v e r and  and  s h i p to c a r r y out m i s s i o n a r y 1884  work  he t r a v e l l e d between Moose  Great Whale R i v e r and made t h r e e  u n s u c c e s s f u l attempts to c r o s s o v e r l a n d p e r i o d he  Arctic  t r a n s l a t e d p a r t s of the New  to Ungava Bay.  During  Testament i n t o s y l l a b i c  this script  S e v e r a l m i s s i o n farms have operated i n the n o r t h , f o r example, 'St. Bruno's Farm', e s t a b l i s h e d by Bishop Breynat near F o r t Smith, N.W.T., i n 1911 (Duchaussois 1923:205^206). D u r i n g the p e r i o d 1953 to 1959 w h i l e F a t h e r Fumoleau was s t a t i o n e d i n F o r t Good Hope the m i s s i o n garden t h e r e produced as much as 300 sacks of potatoes a n n u a l l y which were shipped w i t h the F o r t Good Hope c h i l d r e n to the r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l i n A k l a v i k . ( p e r s . comm. F. Fumoleau 1974).  54 (Pers. Comm. Cook:1974).  (iv)  (47)  Changing P a t t e r n s  The impact of the Europeans upon the I h u i t and n o r t h e r n Indians d u r i n g the 18th, 19th and e a r l y 20th c e n t u r i e s has been d i s c u s s e d by s e v e r a l a u t h o r s i n c l u d i n g : B a l i k c i 1960, 1966; Honigmann and Honigmann 1965; Jenness 1964,  1968; Hargrave  1968;  Stager  1974;  Vanstone 1963; and W o l f o r t h 1971.  P r i o r to the a r r i v a l o f the f u r t r a d e r and whaler the n o r t h e r n n a t i v e was  self-sufficient,  s u r r o u n d i n g him.  l i v i n g i n b a l a n c e w i t h the n a t u r a l  conditions  To v a r y i n g degrees., he became l e s s independent w i t h the  i n t r o d u c t i o n o f manufactured goods and European food s t a p l e s .  His  n a t u r a l d e s i r e t o a c q u i r e commodities which would a p p a r e n t l y "make l i f e e a s i e r " , i n i t i a t e d a s e r i e s of m a t e r i a l , economic, s o c i a l and  cultural  changes.  T r a d i n g commodities i n c l u d e d guns, ammunition,  steel&topls,  Peck used a s y l l a b i c system i n v e n t e d about 1839 by James Evans, a M e t h o d i s t m i s s i o n a r y , to f a c i l i t a t e h i s work among the Cree I n d i a n s of n o r t h e r n O n t a r i o and Quebec (Jenness 1964:16) . The Eskimo o f the Mackenzie D e l t a l e a r n e d the use o f E n g l i s h c h a r a c t e r s f o r w r i t i n g , p a r t i a l l y from A l a s k a n n a t i v e s who a r r i v e d d u r i n g the w h a l i n g e r a , from t r a d e r s who f o l l o w e d the w h a l e r s , and from A n g l i c a n m i s s i o n a r i e s such as 1.0. S t r i n g e r , who r e s i d e d a t H e r s c h e l I s l a n d between 1896 and 1901 and t r a n s l a t e d p a r t s of the New Testament i n t o Eskimo.  55 f i s h n e t s and implements, such as axes,  i c e c h i s e l s , knives, needles,  metal pots and manufactured c l o t h i n g o f wool and c o t t o n .  These were  f o l l o w e d by food s t a p l e s such as f l o u r , r i c e , sugar and t e a and l a t e r items which p e r t a i n e d s p e c i f i c a l l y to t r a p p i n g such as s t e e l t r a p s , snare w i r e , canvas t e n t s , wooden boats and canvas canoes.  C a r i b o u h u n t i n g and s e a l i n g became much more o f an i n d i v i d u a l e f f o r t when the r i f l e  r e p l a c e d the bow, arrow and spear.  Thus h u n t i n g ,  and f i s h i n g w i t h f i s h n e t s , became l e s s o f a communal u n d e r t a k i n g and, i n many c a s e s , the group o r camp ceased unit.  t o f u n c t i o n , as an economic  T h i s i n t u r n r e s u l t e d i n the replacement  o f the s t r o n g s h a r i n g  and c o - o p e r a t i v e e t h i c w i t h one whereby the hunter r e t a i n e d h i s own catch.  As the hunter became more dependent upon ammunition and more accustomed t o the use o f o t h e r consumables such as imported f o o d s t u f f s and manufactured c l o t h i n g , he became more f i r m l y l o c k e d i n t o the trapper-trader relationship. neighbour,  The t r a p p e r ' s a l l e g i a n c e was l e s s t o h i s  a l t h o u g h , i f p o s s i b l e , no one was a l l o w e d t o s t a r v e , and  more t o the t r a d e r t o whom he was o f t e n , i n debt.  The to  life  of the hunter became more r e g u l a t e d as he  attempted  meet h i s f i n a n c i a l o b l i g a t i o n s and t o p r o v i d e the trade-goods t o  which he and h i s f a m i l y had become accustomed.  In a d d i t i o n to spending  a s u b s t a n t i a l p o r t i o n o f h i s time on the t r a p l i n e i t was n e c e s s a r y to make r e g u l a r p e r i o d i c t r i p s t o the t r a d i n g p o s t .  In d i s c u s s i n g the  I n d i a n s o f O l d Crow,Stager (1974:46) s t a t e d t h a t m a i n t a i n i n g  traplines  r e s u l t e d i n a g r e a t e r dependence upon sled-dogs hence a d d i t i o n a l e n e r g i e s  56 were devoted to p r o v i d i n g meat and  f i s h to feed  them.  T r a p p i n g became a f a m i l y e n t e r p r i s e and of r e d u c i n g  l a n d use.  period.  (See  I t a l s o a l t e r e d the l o n g - s t a n d i n g v  a l s o gar 17St !)'s "--7  r  partner,  became the working u n i t .  of group h u n t i n g areas i n t o t r a p l i n e s .  i n d i v i d u a l r i g h t s and  the concept of  Crow Indians began t r a p p i n g ,  T h i s l e d t t o the, s u b - d i v i s i o n  As w i t h the meat-sharing e t h i c ,  p e r i o d of t i m e " o w n e r s h i p " of any s  trapper  "ownership" of an a r e a  one  A r c t i c had  no  t r a p s near h i s own l a n d but 17).  was  and  l a n d was  the Eskimo t r a p p e r  Eskimo had  trapline. due  also pointed  traplinesaand  or a f a m i l y to l a n d and  applied  informal over a  Eventually  a  i t became known as  not  not u n i v e r s a l .  of P e l l y Bay  i n the  to any  For  eastern  H i s o b j e c t i o n to n o n - r e l a t i v e s  placing  f e e l i n g of l o c a l r i g h t s over  o n l y to a concern t h a t h i s p e l t s might be  I t was  When  1974:40).  1936  specific  Through an  a r e a might v a r y .  T h i s approach to t r a p l i n e s and example as l a t e as  to  agreed upon p e r i o d i c a l l y and,  became i d e n t i f i e d w i t h a c e r t a i n area  ' h i s ' t r a p l i n e (Stager  gave way  'land ownership' developed.  o n l y to the time t h a t a p e r s o n trapped t h e r e . areas were a l l o c a t e d and  •  e i t h e r working a l o n e or  the communal concept of l a n d r i g h t s , i n some i n s t a n c e s ,  process,  effect  concept of  •  I n d i v i d u a l f a m i l i e s , w i t h the t r a p p e r  the Old  the  the c o h e s i v e n e s s of the group or band, c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of  the p r e c o n t a c t  w i t h one  t h i s had  stolen  (Balikci  the 1960:  out by B a l i k c i  (1960:20) t h a t the Povungnituk  indeed r e c o g n i z e d  the r i g h t s of an i n d i v i d u a l  a c c e p t e d the n o t i o n of i n h e r i t i n g a t r a i l  from  57 one's e l d e r s .  Thus, f o l l o w i n g the a r r i v a l of the European, l a n d  assumed another dimension (the means to a c q u i r e and,  i n some cases,  land r i g h t s  the concept of i n d i v i d u a l , as opposed to group,  LAND USE  AND  THE  LAW  1870-1970  Introduction.  The ingredients fur  range of goods)  evolved.  CHAPTER THREE.  Cil  a new  acumen and way  of l i f e  of the n a t i v e hunter were e s s e n t i a l  i n the success of the f u r t r a d e .  Thus i t behooved  the  t r a d e r to minimize the d i s r u p t i v e f o r c e of h i s presence on the man-r  l a n d r e l a t i o n s h i p which had  evolved  i n the n o r t h  over thousands of  years.  I t was l a n d use Put  v i r t u a l l y not u n t i l the d i s c o v e r y  activities  another way,  of gpOld i n 1896  of an exogenous n a t u r e were i n t r o d u c e d  the n o r t h which has  l e a s t 25,000 y e a r s has  to the  that north.  a h i s t o r y of human o c c u p a t i o n  of at  e x p e r i e n c e d i n j u s t 75 y e a r s a range of l a n d  a c t i v i t i e s which i n c l u d e : m i n i n g , o i l and  gas  production,  use  railroads,  highways, p i p e l i n e s , a g r i c u l t u r e a n d f f o r e s t r y .  T h i s chapter c o n s i d e r s lation  as they evolved  during  northern  l a n d use  and  relevant  legis-  the hundred y e a r p e r i o d f o l l o w i n g Canada's  a c q u i s i t i o n of Rupert's Land and  the N o r t h Western T e r r i t o r y .  It  was  58 the e r a of the Dominion Lands A c t . the s e t t l e m e n t 75 y e a r s , and  Designed p r i m a r i l y to encourage  of the Canadian west i t a l s o provided,;LfprKmore than  the l e g a l a u t h o r i t y f o r the d i s p o s i t i o n of n o r t h e r n  associated  The  resources.  v a r i o u s amendments.to the Dominion Lands A c t and  T e r r i t o r i a l Lands A c t which r e p l a c e d new  i f any,  f o r the l a n d i t s e l f .  context  t h a t the n o r t h e r n  Rupert's Land and  Not northern i t was  only was  Thus i t was  w i t h i n that  development t h r u s t of the  legislative  1960's took p l a c e .  the f u r t r a d e the c a t a l y s t i n expanding through the Hudson's Bay  the Company,  a l s o the l y n c h p i n which c o n t r o l l e d s u b s t a n t i a l r i g h t s of Rupert's Land and  Including trading, land, mineral  in  the North Western T e r r i t o r y  s t r e t c h i n g from the A t l a n t i c Ocean to the A l a s k a  (49)  consideration,  the North Western T e r r i t o r y  n a t i v e ' s concept of l a n d b u t ,  the v a s t r e g i o n s  (48)  the  i t , were e s s e n t i a l l y responses to  requirements f o r the conveyance of r i g h t S j W i t h l i t t l e  (ii)  land  and  fishing  border.  (49)  rights.  For a d e s c r i p t i o n of Rupert's Land as d e f i n e d by the Royal C h a r t e r i n c o r p o r a t i n g the Hudson's Bay Company i n 1670, see pg. 49; the North-western T e r r i t o r y was t h a t p o r t i o n of the Company's h o l d i n g s which d i d not d r a i n i n t o Hudson Bay and which i t a c q u i r e d 'through amalgamation w i t h the North West Company in.1821. Amalgamation of the o r g a n i z a t i o n s of the Hudson's Bay Company and the North West Company i n v o l v e d a s e r i e s of f o r m a l agreements drawn up between March 26, 1821 and September 15, 1824, see I n n i s (1962:283-284). In 1825 the B r i t i s h and R u s s i a n governments s i g n e d the S t . P e t e r s b u r T r e a t y which r e c o g n i z e d the 141st m e r i d i a n of west l o n g i t u d e as the boundary between t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e t e r r i t o r i e s (the p r e s e n t YukonA l a s k a boundary).  59 The f i r s t  o f f i c i a l r e c o g n i t i o n t h a t the Company's r o l e as  a d m i n i s t r a t o r of these n o r t h e r n l a n d s was under s c r u t i n y was the appointment  by the B r i t i s h House o f Commons on February 5, 1857 o f a  S e l e c t Committee " t o c o n s i d e r the s t a t e o f those B r i t i s h P o s s e s s i o n s of  N o r t h America, which a r e under the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the Hudson's  Bay Company o r over which they possessed a l i c e n c e t o t r a d e " ( O l i v e r 1915:23).  ( 5 0 )  I t was e v i d e n t t h a t the c i v i l powers o f the f u r company were outdated and t h a t the Company's p r i v i l e g e s under the c h a r t e r would have t o be changed. Act, Act  1867,provided  The draftsmen o f t h e B r i t i s h N o r t h  f o r j u s t such changes.  America  S e c t i o n 146 o f t h a t  made i t l a w f u l f o r Her M a j e s t y on address from the Houses o f t h e  P a r l i a m e n t o f Canada, t o admit Rupert's Land and the North-Western  The Company c o n t i n u e d t o a d m i n i s t e r l a n d even i n the r e l a t i v e l y s e t t l e d r e g i o n s , such as the Red R i v e r S e t t l e m e n t , i n t o the m i d 19th c e n t u r y . The p o i n t may be i l l u s t r a t e d by the 'One Pepper Corn' Deed between the Governor and Company of A d v e n t u r e r s o f England and a Red R i v e r s e t t l e r , Edward Mowat, dated February 28, 1855. Mowat was g r a n t e d a p p r o x i m a t e l y 143 a c r e s f o r the sum o f 47 Pounds 10 S h i l l i n g s and an annual r e n t o f one Pepper Corn f o r the term o f the agreement, namely 1000 y e a r s . The covenants i n c l u d e d t h a t Mowat would s e t t l e on the l a n d and w i t h i n f i v e y e a r s b r i n g a p o r t i o n o f i t under c u l t i v a t i o n and would c o n t i n u e to c u l t i v a t e f o r the term. In a d d i t i o n Mowat was not to " v i o l a t e or evade any o f the c h a r t e r e d or l i c e n c e d p r i v i l e g e s o f the Company" ( O l i v e r 1915:1301). ( 5 1 )  30 & 31 V i c t . , C.3 (Imp.)  60 T e r r i t o r y , or e i t h e r of them, i n t o the Union.  In 1864  the B r i t i s h  Government and the Hudson's Bay Company began n e g o t i a t i n g the s u r r e n d e r of c e r t a i n o f the Company's r i g h t s , and by 1869 had reached agreement.  Under the B r i t i s h N o r t h America A c t , e n a b l i n g l e g i s l a t i o n was  passed J u l y 31, 1868,  c i t e d by the s h o r t t i t l e  "Rupert's Land A c t ,  (52) 1868".  T h i s A c t granted Her M a j e s t y the power to a c c e p t a s u r r e n d e r  of " a l l r i g h t s of government and p r o p r i e t a r y r i g h t s , and a l l o t h e r p r i v i l e g e s , f r a n c h i s e s , powers and a u t h o r i t i e s " , b e l o n g i n g to the Hudson's Bay Company but r e s e r v e d to the Company, the r i g h t to c a r r y on t r a d e and commerce i n Rupert's Land  or elsewhere  S e c t i o n 5 of the A c t , Her M a j e s t y was  Under  granted a u t h o r i t y to d e c l a r e  Rupert's Land a p a r t of the Dominion of Canada by The P a r l i a m e n t of Canada was  (Section 4).  Order-in-Council.  a u t h o r i z e d to "make, o r d a i n , and  w i t h i n the l a n d and t e r r i t o r y so admitted a l l such laws,  establish  institutions  and o r d i n a n c e s and to c o n s t i t u t e such c o u r t s and o f f i c e r s as might  be  n e c e s s a r y f o r the peace, o r d e r and ggfjd government o f Her M a j e s t y ' s s u b j e c t s and o t h e r s t h e r e i n " . The I m p e r i a l O r d e r - i n - C o u n c i l (R.S.C. 1952, pursuant t o the Rupert's Land A c t , 1868,  V I , 6237)  admitted the N o r t h Western  T e r r i t o r y and Rupert's Land i n t o the Dominion.on J u l y  15, 1870  and gave  31 & 32 V i c t . , C.105, S.2 (Imp.) of the Rupert's Land A c t , 1868, s t a t e d t h a t " f o r purposes of t h i s A c t the Term 'Rupert's Land' s h a l l i n c l u d e the whole of the Lands and T e r r i t o r i e s h e l d or claimed to be h e l d by the s a i d Governor and Company". That i s , i n a d d i t i o n to the l a n d s granted under the C h a r t e r of 1670, i t i n c l u d e d the Northwest T e r r i t o r y a c q u i r e d i n 1821.  the P a r l i a m e n t  of Canada f u l l power and  t h e i r f u t u r e w e l f a r e and C o u n c i l was  a u t h o r i t y to l e g i s l a t e f o r  good government.  Schedule  C of the O r d e r - i n - -  the deed of s u r r e n d e r from the Hudson's Bay  Company to the  Queen (see AppendixxA) .  The deed of s u r r e n d e r should pay  i n c l u d e d the f o l l o w i n g terms: Canada  the Company 300,000 pounds s t e r l i n g ;  the Company should  r e t a i n those t r a d i n g p o s t s which i t a c t u a l l y o c c u p i e d Western T e r r i t o r y  (53)  i n the  North  •? and might w i t h i n 12 months of the s u r r e n d e r . s e l e c t  a b l o c k of l a n d a d j o i n i n g each post o u t s i d e of Canada and  British  Columbia; the Company r e t a i n e d the l i b e r t y to c a r r y on t r a d e as a c o r p o r a t i o n ; and  Canada agreed  to r e l i e v e the Company from a l l  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to s a t i s f y I n d i a n c l a i m s to compensation f o r l a n d s r e q u i r e d f o r purposes of a s e t t l e m e n t .  Under A r t i c l e 6 of the deed of s u r r e n d e r  the Company  p e r m i t t e d to c l a i m g r a n t s of l a n d not to. exceed one-twentieth lands d e s i g n a t e d  f o r s e t t l e m e n t w i t h i n the f e r t i l e  belt.  was. of the  (54)  (53) These t o t a l l e d 120 i n the year 1870; the f o l l o w i n g were s i t u a t e d n o r t h of 60° n o r t h l a t i t u d e i n what i s now the Yukon T e r r i t o r y and the Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s : F o r t Simpson, F o r t L i a r d j Hay R i v e r , F o r t R e s o l u t i o n , F o r t Norman, F o r t Good Hope, P e e l ' s R i v e r , L a p i e r r e ' s House, F o r t Rae, F o r t P r o v i d e n c e .  That a r e a bounded by the U n i t e d S t a t e s b o r d e r , the Rocky Mountains, the n o r t h branch of the Saskatchewan R i v e r and Winnipeg and Lake of the Woods.  Lake  -  -  62  The A c t f o r the temporary Government o f Rupert's Land and the  North-Western T e r r i t o r y  when u n i t e d w i t h Canada,  S.C.32 & 33 V i c t . ,  C.3, a s s e n t e d t o June 22, 1869, p r o v i d e d f o r the renaming of Rupert's Land and the North-Western T e r r i t o r y  as the "North West  Territories"  when admitted to the Dominion of Canada ( S . l ) , and f o r the appointment of a L i e u t e n a n t - G o v e r n o r r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the Territories  (S.2).  With passage of the Temporary was  clear  Government A c t , 1869, the way  f o r the f o r m a t i o n of the P r o v i n c e of Manitoba out of the  North-West  Territories.  The Manitoba A c t , 1870^"^ e s t a b l i s h e d and  p r o v i d e d f o r the Government of the P r o v i n c e of Manitoba. p r o v i d e d the f i r s t  authority f o r administering  Italso  the newly a c q u i r e d Crown  l a n d s of the Dominion, under S e c t i o n 33, which s a i d  "the Governor i n  C o u n c i l s h a l l from time to time s e t t l e and a p p o i n t the mode.and form of  Grants o f Land from the Crown, and any O r d e r - i n - C o u n c i l f o r t h a t  purpose when p u b l i s h e d i n the Canada G a z e t t e s h a l l have the same f o r c e and e f f e c t  as i f i t were a p o r t i o n of t h i s A c t " .  dated March  1, 1871  the c o n t r o l  By O r d e r - i n i C o u n c i l  and management of a l l Crown Lands i n  Manitoba.and i n the remaining p a r t o f the North-West  T e r r i t o r i e s were  p l a c e d under the Canadian S e c r e t a r y of S t a t e ,  The a c q u i s i t i o n  of the North-West  Territories  and the  subsequent e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f the P r o v i n c e of Manitoba marked a  S.C.33 V i c t . ,  C.3.  63 fundamental change i n the n a t u r e of C o n f e d e r a t i o n .  The  original  Dominion as e s t a b l i s h e d under the B r i t i s h N o r t h America A c t , 1867,was  a f e d e r a t i o n of p r o v i n c e s and, by v i r t u e o f S e c t i o n 109,  v e s t e d w i t h c o n t r o l over i t s own  lands.  However, f o r the  each  was  new  P r o v i n c e of Manitoba and a l l of the North-West T e r r i t o r i e s u n a l i e n a t e d l a n d s were, by s t a t u t e , to be a d m i n i s t e r e d by the Government of Canada.  With r e s p e c t o t o Manitoba t h i s c o n t i n u e d  to be.the  u n t i l the passage of the Manitoba N a t u r a l Resources A c t which s t i p u l a t e d t h a t pursuant A c t , 1867,  to S.109  of the B r i t i s h North  situation in  1930  America  i n t e r e s t of the Crown i n a l l Crown,lands, mines, m i n e r a l s  ( p r e c i o u s arid base), and s h a l l belong  r o y a l t i e s d e r i v e d therefrom, w i t h i n the  Province  to the P r o v i n c e .  ( i i i ) - Dominion Lands A c t  However, p u b l i c lands i n the North-West T e r r i t o r i e s , which ,t"today comprise the Yukon T e r r i t o r y and Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s , a r e under the c o n t r o l and management of the Government of Canada by of the T e r r i t o r i a l Lands A c t , 1950,  as Amended.  still  virtue  F o r more than t h r e e -  q u a r t e r s of a c e n t u r y p r i o r to the enactmeiit of the T e r r i t o r i a l Lands  Or 'An A c t r e s p e c t i n g the t r a n s f e r of the N a t u r a l Resources of Manitoba' S.C.20-21 George V, \&$9\ S i m i l a r a c t s were passed i n 1930 w i t h r e s p e c t to the P r o v i n c e of Saskatchewan, S.C.20-21 George V, ,'c.41 and the P r o v i n c e of A l b e r t a , S.C.20-21- George V,\c.3.  64 A c t , the Dominion Lands A c t , 1872  (57)  was the s t a t u t o r y v e h i c l e by  which ' f e d e r a l ' lands were a d m i n i s t e r e d .  Under t h i s A c t , Dominion  Lands were a l i e n a t e d under s e v e r a l broad c l a s s e s , v i z : ( i ) r a i l w a y l a n d g r a n t s which p r o v i d e d  the impetus f o r the  c o n s t r u c t i o n of the t r a n s c o n t i n e n t a l r a i l w a y and s e v e r a l ' c o l o n i z a t i o n ' railways.  Martin  (1973:74) p o i n t e d out t h a t n e a r l y 3000 m i l e s o f  r a i l w a y l i n e were b u i l t i n t h e P r a i r i e P r o v i n c e s under a p o l i c y o f l a n d s u b s i d i e s and i n t h e p r o c e s s n e a r l y 32 m i l l i o n a c r e s were to r a i l w a y companies ( i i ) homestead of t h e A c t .  (Ibid:56-57).  g r a n t s o f 160 a c r e s were a u t h o r i z e d under S e c t i o n 33  T h i s was a f r e e g r a n t s u b j e c t t o c e r t a i n - n a t u r a l i z a t i o n ,  r e s i d e n c e , improvement surveyed  granted"  and c u l t i v a t i o n requirements.  Under S e c t i o n 29,  Dominion Lands were opened f o r purchase a t $1.00 p e r a c r e up  to 640 a c r e s .  I n 1874 the A c t p r o v i d e d  f o r pre-emption r i g h t s  a u t h o r i z i n g a homesteader t o occupy and c u l t i v a t e a n d a d j o i n i n g  quarter  s e c t i o n w i t h a r i g h t t o purchase the pre-emption when he had o b t a i n e d Patent  f o r h i s homestead.  January 1, 1890, a l t h o u g h to grant  Pre-emption r i g h t s were f i n a l l y  discontinued  the i n i t i a l attempt t o r e p e a l the a u t h o r i t y  such r i g h t s took p l a c e seven y e a r s  e a r l i e r i n the c o n s o l i d a t e d  Dominion Lands A c t o f 1883 (S.C.46 V i c t . , C.17, S.39).  Martin  (1973:168) e s t i m a t e d  t h a t up t o 1927 t h e r e were n e a r l y  99 m i l l i o n a c r e s o f o r i g i n a l homestead e n t r i e s i n Western Canada.  ^  5 7  ^  / C O  \  S.C.35 V i c t . , C.23. Discontinued  i n 1881.  By  65 comparison the t o t a l acreage o f homesteads p a t e n t e d i n 1930 m i l l i o n acres w i t h an a d d i t i o n a l 6.8 i f P a t e n t was 40 p e r c e n t  Even  r e c e i v e d on a l l of the l a t t e r i t would mean t h a t over  o n l y 60%  s h i p of t h e i r  Put  o f Canadian homesteaders a c t u a l l y a c q u i r e d  Company lands^  a l l o c a t e d under a u t h o r i t y of S e c t i o n  r e f e r r e d to e a r l i e r , were 17 of the Dominion Lands A c t ,  i n accordance w i t h A r t i c l e s 5 and included  6 of the Deed o f S u r r e n d e r .  t r a c t s s u r r o u n d i n g the Company's t r a d i n g p o s t s  listed  i n the Schedule as w e l l as o n e - t w e n t i e t h of the surveyed  i n the  'fertile belt'.  The  seven m i l l i o n a c r e s  Bay  e s t i m a t e d a t s l i g h t l y more than  of which n e a r l y one-half  the b a l a n c e i n Manitoba and  as  land  area of l a n d a l l o c a t e d to the Hudson's  Company under the l a t t e r scheme was  and  owners-  land.^^  ( i i i ) Hudson's Bay  These lands  51  m i l l i o n a c r e s unpatented.  of the o r i g i n a l homestead e n t r i e s were c a n c e l l e d .  another way  1872,  was  was  l o c a t e d i n Saskatchewan  Alberta.  Other c l a s s e s of l a n d a l i e n a t i o n under the Dominion Lands (61) Act  included: school lands;  and  university  (59)  (60)  (61)  half-breed  grants  and  scrip;  swamplands;  grants.  E x p e r i e n c e showed t h a t the homesteader was o f t e n unable to u s e f u l l y use h i s pre-emption r i g h t w i t h the r e s u l t t h a t the l a n d f e l l to s p e c u l a t o r s ( M a r t i n 1973:161). From the Report of the Canadian Department of the I n t e r i o r 1929-30: 26. "No phase of Dominion Lands p o l i c y has commanded wider a d m i r a t i o n than the p r o v i s i o n i n the Dominion Lands A c t of 1872 f o r s e t t i n g a s i d e s e c t i o n s . . . a s an endowment f o r p u b l i c s c h o o l s " ( M a r t i n 1973: 100) .  66 The  o r i g i n a l Dominion Lands A c t and  subsequent amendments  •provided the Governor i n C o u n c i l w i t h a u t h o r i t y to withdraw c e r t a i n areas from d i s p o s a l under homestead or purchase and e s t a b l i s h e d r e s e r v a t i o n s f o r N a t i o n a l Parks, Timber Reserves,  I n d i a n Reserves,  and G r a z i n g Areas, C o a l and M i n e r a l Lands, Town P l o t s , M i l i t a r y o t h e r F e d e r a l Reserves.  Because of these r e s e r v a t i o n s i t was  Hay  and  necessary  to i n s e r t p r o v i s i o n s i n l e t t e r s p a t e n t i n order to e s t a b l i s h c o n t i n u i n g r i g h t s of the Crown. navigable and  waters was  For example the f r e e use of a l l  reserved i n a l l patents.  f i s h i n g were excepted  and  The  r i g h t s of  fishery  g r a n t s were made s u b j e c t to the  p r o v i s i o n s of the I r r i g a t i o n A c t . (62"i The Dominion Lands A c t of 1872 w i t h a u t h o r i t y to s e l l m i n e r a l lands purchase mining  l a n d s " , S.37).  p r o v i d e d the M i n i s t e r  ("any  Although  person may  explore  the M i n i s t e r was  and  a b l e to w i t h -  draw v a l u a b l e l a n d s from s a l e , a n d l e a s e them i n s t e a d , S e c t i o n 36 of the A c t s t a t e d t h a t s u b - s u r f a c e r i g h t s were not to be r e s e r v e d i n p a t e n t s of l a n d s .  These rather•generous  when the Act was  conditions.were  amended/(S.C.43 V i c t . , C.26,  expanded upon i n  S.6)  1879  so t h a t lands  c o n t a i n i n g c o a l or other m i n e r a l s , whether i n surveyed  or unsurveyed  t e r r i t o r y , , were not s u b j e c t to the p r o v i s i o n s of the Act r e s p e c t i n g s a l e or homesteading but would be d i s p o s e d of under r e g u l a t i o n s made  ^ An A c t p r o v i d i n g f o r the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of "The Department of the I n t e r i o r " (S.C.36 V i c t . , C.4), assented to May 3, 1873, made the M i n i s t e r of the Department of the I n t e r i o r r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the Dominion Lands Act (S.5) and the c o n t r o l and management of the a f f a i r s of the North-West T e r r i t o r i e s .  67 by Governor i n C o u n c i l .  (63)  M i n i n g r e g u l a t i o n s to govern the d i s p o s a l of q u a r t z p l a c e r m i n e r a l lands and  e x c l u d i n g c o a l lands were passed  by  and Order-in-  C o u n c i l , March 7 , ' 1 8 8 4 / ^ 6  The  Dominion Lands (Manitoba  and  the North-West T e r r i t o r i e s ) c o n t a i n i n g  gold, s i l v e r , except  l e a d , copper,  r e g u l a t i o n s , which a p p l i e d to a l l  petroleum  c o a l , p r o v i d e d t h a t any person  and o t h e r m i n e r a l d e p o s i t s "may  e x p l o r e vacant  Crown landc  not a p p r o p r i a t e d or r e s e r v e d by Government f o r o t h e r purposes w i t h a view to o b t a i n i n g a mining  claim".  I n c l u d e d i n the R e g u l a t i o n s were  c o n d i t i o n s r e s p e c t ing^ righ.t to e n t e r upon, use and  occupy the s u r f a c e  of a c l a i m , work ,commitments, l e a s e and purchase.  For  S e c t i o n s 5 and mining  example,  6 p r o v i d e d t h a t w i t h i n one year of r e c o r d i n g a q u a r t z  c l a i m (not.more than 40 a c r e s ) and h a v i n g completed $500 work,  the c l a i m c o u l d be purchased  f o r $5.00 per a c r e .  Dominion Lands p o l i c y between 1870  and  1930  was  the management of n o n - a g r i c u l t u r a l or 'marginal' l a n d s ; p e r i o d "the s e t t l e m e n t of Western Canada and Canadian N a t i o n a l i t y was  not geared During  i t s integration  to  this  into  the u l t i m a t e g o a l of a l l l a n d p o l i c y "  (Martin  1973:28).  R e g u l a t i o n s f o r the D i s p o s a l of C o a l Lands were enacted by Orderi n - C o u n c i l dated December 17, 1881 (see S.C.45 V i c t . , p.LV, 1882). See S.C.47 V i c t . , C.47,  pp.  71-92,  1884.  68 With f e r t i l e a g r i c u l t u r a l land as the medium by which g o a l was served  to be  to encourage s e t t l e m e n t .  Lands A c t , for  a t t a i n e d l a n d l e g i s l a t i o n was  1872  was  s e t t l i n g and  The  to p r o v i d e  developing  ( S e c t i o n 1) had  specifically  primary f u n c t i o n of the Dominion  a l e g a l and  a d m i n i s t r a t i v e mechanism  the West's a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d .  t h a t i t a p p l i e d to the P r o v i n c e Territories  enacted which  this  of Manitoba and  l i t t l e relevance  The  fact  a l l of the North-West  to the substance of  the  Act.  The provided  spirit  of the A c t was  f r e e homestead grants  the g r a n t i n g  which  to e n t i c e s e t t l e r s i n t o the west  o f . v a s t t r a c t s of land to r a i l w a y  i n c e n t i v e to c o n s t r u c t . a the  embodied i n t h o s e . s e c t i o n s  companies as  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n network which would  and  an sustain  settlers.  Where the Dominion Lands A c t d i d r e f e r to n o n - a g r i c u l t u r a l lands  i t was  settler. for  o f t e n to p r o v i d e  a d d i t i o n a l i n c e n t i v e and  For example, S e c t i o n 46  settlement  was  to be d i s p o s e d  number of s e t t l e r s .  support to  s t a t e d t h a t timber i n townships open of i n order  to b e n e f i t the l a r g e s t  S i m i l a r l y , an O r d e r s i n - C o u n c i l  of November 11,  provided  f o r the mining of c o a l i f to be used f o r the s e t t l e r s '  purposes  (see S.C.59 V i c t . , p . L I l ) .  base, such as m i n e r a l s , recognition.  I t was  Dominion Lands A c t  the  p e t r o l e u m and  Other v a l u e s n a t u r a l gas  inherent  i n the  1895  own land-  r e c e i v e d even l e s s  not u n t i l seventeen y e a r s a f t e r the p a s s i n g  t h a t mining r i g h t s i n a l l Dominion Lands were  of  the  69 reserved  i n Land P a t e n t s .  The f i r s t  petroleum and n a t u r a l gas were enacted 1898  r e g u l a t i o n s p e r t a i n i n g to  by O r d e r - i n - C o u n c i l  o f August 6,  and s t a t e d i n p a r t t h a t an a r e a n o t g r e a t e r than 640 a c r e s might  be r e s e r v e d  f o r s i x months f o r any p r o s p e c t o r who might then purchase  the l a n d a t $1 an acre s u b j e c t t o r o y a l t i e s o f 2h p e r : c e r i t ( i b i d : 1 9 4 ) .  Dominion Lands l e g i s l a t i o n o f the 1800's was n o t d r a f t e d w i t h the Canadian n o r t h i n mind; however the Dominion Lands A c t was the l e g i s l a t i v e base f o r n o r t h e r n Following  land-use a t the t u r n o f the c e n t u r y .  the passage o f t h e Yukon T e r r i t o r y A c t , June 13, 1898  an O r d e r - i n - C o u n c i l o f J u l y 7, 1898 p r o v i d e d  f o r the d i s p o s i t i o n o f  l a n d s i n the Yukon T e r r i t o r y under r e g u l a t i o n s which a p p l i e d t o t h a t territory  only.  U n t i l the Yukon g o l d r u s h i n 1896-97, n o r t h e r n still  considered  the domain o f h u n t e r s ,  Canada was  t r a p p e r s and m i s s i o n a r i e s .  i s perhaps i n d i c a t i v e of t h i s t h a t the f i r s t p i e c e o f n a t u r a l l e g i s l a t i o n , dealing s p e c i f i c a l l y with  It  resource  the u n s e t t l e d p a r t s of the N o r t h -  west T e r r i t o r i e s , was aVgame p r e s e r v a t i o n A c t , passed by the Canadian ( 67 ^ Government i n 1894.  T h i s A c t , which a p p l i e d t o those p o r t i o n s o f  the North-West T e r r i t o r i e s which were n o t i n c l u d e d i n the p r o v i s i o n a l  (65)  (66)  S o l i d , l i q u i d and gaseous m i n e r a l s were r e s e r v e d i n Grants c o v e r i n g Dominion Lands west o f the 3;rd M e r i d i a n from October 31, 1887 and e a s t of the 3rd M e r i d i a n from September 17, 1889. S.C.61 Vict-., C.6. "An A c t f o r the p r e s e r v a t i o n o f game i n the u n o r g a n i z e d p o r t i o n s o f the North-West T e r r i t o r i e s o f Canada" (S.C.57-58 V i c t . , c",'.35), assented t o J u l y 23, 1894.  70 d i s t r i c t s of A s s i n i b o i a , A l b e r t a and Saskatchewan,  (68)  placed a  r e s t r i c t i o n on the h u n t i n g o f v a r i o u s s p e c i e s o f game and was aimed m a i n l y a g a i n s t t r a n s i e n t s and newcomers.  Ogilvie  (1889:45) had  r e p o r t e d f i v e y e a r s e a r l i e r " t h a t game i s n o t now as abundant ( i n the Yukon) as b e f o r e mining began and i t i s d i f f i c u l t , to  i n fact impossible,  get any c l o s e t o the r i v e r . "  Northern  l a n d use .patterns changed l i t t l e d u r i n g the f i r s t  two decades f o l l o w i n g the a c q u i s i t i o n by Canada i n 1870 o f Rupert's and  the North Western T e r r i t o r y .  D e s p i t e the l o s s o f h e r monopoly  p o s i t i o n the Hudson's Bay Company's f i r s t p r e s e n t Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s appears 1887,  permanent c o m p e t i t i o n i n the  t o have o c c u r r e d as l a t e as  w i t h the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f p o s t s a t O l d F o r t Rae, F o r t  and F o r t Good Hope (Usher  Land  Providence  1970:26).  In 1875 the Canadian P a r l i a m e n t passed the North West T e r r i t o r i e s A c t (S.C.38 V i c t . , C.49) which has been d e s c r i b e d by one h i s t o r i a n as "The Magna C h a r t a o f s e p a r a t e p o l i t i c a l e x i s t e n c e f o r the North West T e r r i t o r i e s " ( O l i v e r 1915:26). The D i s t r i c t o f Keewatin was c r e a t e d i n 1876, those o f A s s i n i b o i a , Saskatchewan, A l b e r t a and Athabaska i n 1882 (see Map no. 10) and those of Ungava, F r a n k l i n , Mackenzie and Yukon i n 1895. The Yukon was made a s e p a r a t e T e r r i t o r y i n 1898, "An A c t t o p r o v i d e f o r the Government of the Yukon D i s t r i c t " o r the "Yukon T e r r i t o r y A c t " (S.C.61 V i c t . , C . 6 ) .  72 (iv)  The Yukon T e r r i t o r y B e f o r e  1900  Due i n p a r t t o the presence  of the A l a s k a Commercial Company  on the Yukon R i v e r f o l l o w i n g the d e p a r t u r e o f the Hudson's Bay Company from F o r t Yukon i n 1 8 6 9 , ^ ^ p r i v a t e t r a d e r s moved i n t o the Yukon T e r r i t o r y more q u i c k l y .  I n 1874, N.L. McQuesten and A r t h u r Harper  founded the t r a d i n g p o s t of F o r t R e l i a n c e on the Yukon R i v e r about s i x m i l e s below the p r e s e n t  s i t e o f Dawson.  b u i l t p o s t s a t the mouth of the Stewart  McQuesten and A.H. Mayo  then  R i v e r and F o r t y m i l e R i v e r and  Harper and Joseph Ladue e s t a b l i s h e d o t h e r p o s t s a t the s i t e of F o r t Selkirk^ ^ 7  subsequently  ( b u i l t by Robert  Campbell f o r the Hudson's Bay Company and  sacked by C h i l k a t I n d i a n middlemen^; i n 1852) and on the  Sixtymile R i v e r . ^ ^ 7 1  The Company's i n t e r e s t i n F o r t Yukon was s o l d f o l l o w i n g the purchase o f A l a s k a by the U n i t e d S t a t e s i n 1867. Harper had o c c u p i e d the F o r t S e l k i r k s i t e s i n c e 1891 a c c o r d i n g t o a d e c l a r a t i o n which he made b e f o r e Wm. O g i l v i e , Dominion Land Surveyor, a t F o r t y m i l e , J u l y 1, 1896. I n a d d i t i o n t o Harper's own d w e l l i n g , t r a d i n g post and garden, the grounds, i n 1896, c o n t a i n e d s e v e r a l c a b i n s o c c u p i e d by p r o s p e c t o r s and I n d i a n s . Harper p r o b a b l y envisaged a major m i g r a t i o n of p r o s p e c t o r s and miners i n t o the Yukon and a p p l i e d June 30, 1896, to the M i n i s t e r o f the I n t e r i o r f o r 640 a c r e s , under the Dominion Lands A c t ( i t was l e s s than two months a f t e r he f i l e d h i s a p p l i c a t i o n , August 17, 1896, t h a t g o l d was d i s c o v e r e d on Bonanza Creek, and the K l o n d i k e g o l d r u s h began). Town-lots were subsequently surveyed and s o l d i n F o r t S e l k i r k ( i t i s now abandoned) a l t h o u g h Harper's a p p l i c a t i o n was not p r o c e s s e d due to h i s death ( P u b l i c A r c h i v e s of Canada, RG 91, Yukon T e r r i t o r y Records, V o l . No. 7, f i l e no. 956).  (71) The names F o r t y m i l e and S i x t y m i l e r e f e r t o the d i s t a n c e i n m i l e s down the Yukon R i v e r from F o r t R e l i a n c e .  73 The ' i n f l u x o f miners i n t o the Yukon i n the 1880's 1968, e s t i m a t e d  (Morrison  t h a t t h e r e were n e a r l y 1000 men i n the F o r t y m i l e Creek  area i n 1885) had. the e f f e c t of t r a n s f o r m i n g g e n e r a l merchant and e n t r e p r e n e u r .  the f u r t r a d e r i n t o a  As such he was i n t e r e s t e d i n  a c q u i r i n g l a n d i n order t o p r o v i d e goods and s e r v i c e s t o a r a p i d l y growing t r a n s i e n t p o p u l a t i o n .  The  first  a p p l i c a t i o n s to purchase l a n d i n Canada n o r t h of  60° n o r t h l a t i t u d e were f i l e d  i n the summer o f 1894;  Thomas W.  O'Brien,  a "merchant and miner", a p p l i e d August 14, 1894, t o purchase 320 a c r e s at  the c o n f l u e n c e o f t h e F o r t y m i l e and Yukon R i v e r s .  83005, dated A p r i l  18, 1900 were subsequently  t r a c t of 160 a c r e s  (Lot 21, Group 1).  and  O'Brien  L e t t e r s Patent  i s s u e d t o O'Brien  for a  s u b d i v i d e d h i s purchase  s o l d l o t s t o " s q u a t t e r s and newcomers".  T;  The second a p p l i c a t i o n was t h a t of John J . Healy,  F o r t Cudahay, Yukon D i s t r i c t , N.W.T., September 3, 1894. " g e n e r a l merchandiser", r e q u e s t e d ,  dated  Healy, a  under S e c t i o n 29 o f the Dominion  Lands A c t , 160 a c r e s a l s o a t the j u n c t i o n o f the F o r t y m i l e and Yukon Rivers.  I n h i s l e t t e r of a p p l i c a t i o n he noted  t h a t he had d e p o s i t e d  w i t h the Dominion Government Agent the sum of one hundred and s i x t y  (72) d o l l a r s , made up- of $155 i n g o l d Appendix B).  L e t t e r s Patent  and $5 i n s i l v e r c o i n s (see  178505 were i s s u e d t o Healy on b e h a l f o f  Coarse g o l d was f i r s t found 1886 ( O g i l v i e 1889:13).  on F o r t y m i l e R i v e r i n the season o f  74 N o r t h American T r a d i n g  and  (Lot 1, Group 1 ) .  b a l a n c e of the  the TGR.  The  Transportation  t o w n s i t e of F o r t Cudahay and was V o l . 7, f i l e no.  By  the  160 not  Company f o r 65.28 a c r e s acres  by  (PAC.  RG91,  956).  1890's the needs of m i n e r s , merchants and  the N o r t h West Mounted P o l i c e ,  dimension to n o r t h e r n r e g i o n and  for,covered  a v a i l a b l e to Healy  companies, the church through i t s m i s s i o n a r i e s , represented  applied  land-usej,and,  the s m a l l p o p u l a t i o n ,  and  (73)  the  government  added another  -ironically, considering  created  trading  the  vast  -(74) c e r t a i n c o n f l i c t s , ; -'  E s t a b l i s h e d i n 1873 under "An A c t r e s p e c t i n g the A d m i n i s t r a t i o n of J u s t i c e and f o r the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of a P o l i c e F o r c e i n the North West T e r r i t o r i e s " (S.C.36 V i c t . , C.35) a s s e n t e d to-May 23, 1873. S e c t i o n 10 o f the A c t s t a t e d t h a t "the Governor i n C o u n c i l may c o n s t i t u t e a P o l i c e F o r c e i n and f o r the N o r t h West T e r r i t o r i e s " . In 1894 I n s p e c t o r C h a r l e s C o n s t a n t i n e t r a v e l l e d t o , and r e p o r t e d on c o n d i t i o n s i n , the Yukon and the f o l l o w i n g year a NWM Police detachment was e s t a b l i s h e d a t F o r t Cudahay ( F o r t y m i l e ) , a u t h o r i z e d under O r d e r - i n - C o u n c i l P.C. 1492. C o n s t a n t i n e ' s main t a s k upon a r r i v i n g i n the Yukon i n J u l y , 1895 was to impress the f a c t of Canadian a u t h o r i t y on the, g o l d miners of the Yukon and to e s t a b l i s h the p r i n c i p l e of, the a u t h o r i t y of the Crown over t h a t of s q u a t t e r sovereignty. T h i s p o i n t was c l e a r l y made when i n J u l y 1896 a f o r c e of NWM P o l i c e , upset an e q u i t a b l e m i n e r s ' c o u r t d e c i s i o n to i n s i s t t h a t a d i s p u t e be s e t t l e d i n accordance w i t h Canadian p r o c e d u r e s (Zaslow 1971:99).  For example, on May 12, 1899, the Reverend R.M. D i c k e y of the P r e s b y t e r i a n Church, "Grand Forks of E l d o r a d o " , YvT. ( s i t u a t e d a t the j u n c t i o n of Bonanza and E l d o r a d o Creeks, Grand F o r k s d i d not e x i s t p r i o r to the go'l'd r u s h ; i n 1898-99 the p o p u l a t i o n of Grand F o r k s and e n v i r o n s was 5500, by 1911 i t had dropped to 62 and soon a f t e r was abandoned) a p p l i e d to the Commissioner,, Dawson, Y.T., f o r a l o t on which to b u i l d a c h u r c h . In a f o l l o w up l e t t e r , Sept. 26, 1899 the Rev. D.G. Cock wrote "the p l a c e of worship i n which we now meet i n t h i s p l a c e (Grand F o r k s ) i s s i t u a t e d on Creek c l a i m no.5 above Bonanza and I have been informed t h a t the owners of t h a t c l a i m propose grounds l u i c i n g the ground on which the chur.cb>is s i t u a t e d , next September. T h i s would n e c e s s i t a t e moving the c h u r c h . Now S i r I pray you to grant me the r i g h t to a p i e c e of ground s u i t a b l e f o r the purposes, of a church b u i l d i n g . . . " (PAC. RG91, YTR).  75 The  f l o w of g o l d seekers was  the I n d i a n s of the K l o n d i k e who t r a d i t i o n a l h u n t i n g and  still  soon to have i t s e f f e c t upon congregated  fishing locations.  i n s m a l l groups a t  Bishop Bompas, i n a p p l y i n g  (75) to  the M i n i s t e r of the I n t e r i o r i n October  l a n d " f o r m i s s i o n purposes situation.  and  1896  I n d i a n o c c u p a t i o n " , d e s c r i b e d the f o l l o w i n g  Twenty or more I n d i a n f a m i l i e s had  camp a t the mouth of the Klondak ( s i c ) R i v e r . the a r e a p r e s s e d the I n d i a n s to s e l l situated  there.  a second  town (the f i r s t  f o r 40 a c r e s of  always hadaa  fishing  The miners coming i n t o  them t h e i r c a b i n s which were  About 15 of the c a b i n s were s o l d w i t h the r e s u l t t h a t b e i n g Dawson C i t y on the n o r t h s i d e of the  K l o n d i k e R i v e r ) emerged i n the midst of t h e . f i s h i n g camp. I n s p e c t o r C. C o n s t a n t i n e , NWM  P o l i c e and A c t i n g Government  Agent, was  not e n t i r e l y sympathetic  Bompas and  i n a l e t t e r to the Deputy M i n i s t e r , Department of the  dated F o r t C o n s t a n t i n e , October recommend t h i s a p p l i c a t i o n  30,  and  1896,  (Bompas').  a p p l i e d f o r by the P o l i c e f o r purposes,  to the p o s i t i o n taken by  The ground asked  t h e i r own  i s s u i t a b l e f o r them.  he s t a t e d " I  I f one  church and a c a b i n i s granted i t i s my  Bishop Interior,  cannot  f o r has been  and" other government l o t l a r g e enough f o r a l o g  opinion quite s u f f i c i e n t . "  L e t t e r from Bishop W.C. Bompas, Oct. 28, 1896, Buxton M i s s i o n , Upper Yukon R i v e r , to the M i n i s t e r of the I n t e r i o r (PAC. RG91, YTR, V o l . 19, f i l e no. 4682).  ^Vp,AC. RG91, 76  YTR,  V o l . 19, f i l e no.  4682.  L e t t e r from C o n s t a n t i n e to Deputy M i n i s t e r , Department of the I n t e r i o r , September 24, 1896 (PAC, RG91, YTR, f i l e no. 4607).  76 C o n s t a n t i n e goes on t o say i n a f o l l o w up l e t t e r November 19,  1896  (see Appendix C), "The  dated  i d e a t h a t the Indians would  be d r i v e n from the neighbourhood by the encroachment of the Whites i s absurd.  There i s p l e n t y of room f o r t h e i r w i n t e r c a b i n s e i t h e r  on  the many w e l l wooded i s l a n d s i n the K l o n d i k e or on i t s banks a little  above the mouth or on a l a r g e i s l a n d d i r e c t l y o p p o s i t e  their  old winter quarters".  F i n a l l y i n June 1897, the S e c r e t a r y of the I n t e r i o r  Constantine reported i n a l e t t e r  to  (see Appendix D) " . . . t h a t arrangements  have been made w i t h the I n d i a n s a t Klondak ( s i c ) w i t h the knowledge and a p p r o v a l of t h e i r m i s s i o n a r i e s whereby they r e l i n q u i s h any c l a i m so f a r as the Department i s concerned V i l l a g e a t Klondak and a r e now.located  to the s i t e of the o l d I n d i a n on a p o i n t about t h r e e m i l e s  below the s i t e of Dawson on the e a s t bank of the Yukon R i v e r " .  By  1899  the j u n c t i o n of the Klondike.and  Yukon R i v e r s had  become the s i t e of a c i t y w i t h a p o p u l a t i o n between 15,000 and  20,000  where f o u r y e a r s e a r l i e r i t had been an I n d i a n f i s h i n g camp of  20  families. wise than  Observed i n t h i s l i g h t C o n s t a n t i n e ' s d e c i s i o n appears autocratic.  In 1898, approximately  7080 boats went down the Yukon R i v e r c a r r y i n g  28,000 people  The r e s u l t of t h i s was  (Report of NWM  Police,  1898:Part 111:83).  t h a t the t r a d i t i o n a l grounds of s e v e r a l I n d i a n  bands i n the Yukon R i v e r v a l l e y were encroached  upon.  In a l e t t e r  the Deputy M i n i s t e r of the Department of the I n t e r i o r , dated May Wm.  more  1,  to 1900,  O g i l v i e , then Commissioner of the Yukon T e r r i t o r y , recommended the  l a y i n g out of a r e s e r v e of 320 Cshorejof Lake Laberge.  a c r e s f o r the Indians  T h i s recommendation was  and by an . O r d e r - i n - C o u n c i l of J u l y 13, 320  a c r e s was  l a i d out and  1900  camping on  the  q u i c k l y acted upon  a t r a c t of l a n d c o n t a i n i n g  s e t a p a r t f o r the Indians i n the  vicinity  of Lake Laberge.  (v)  I n d i a n Lands;  Although  T r e a t i e s 8 and  by  1903  the  11  :-\  'mining' p o p u l a t i o n of the Yukon had  begun to drop, concern w a s ' / s t i l l b e i n g expressed whose t r a d i t i o n a l lands were i n j e o p a r d y . Commissioner, Commanding the NWM  Z.T.  f o r groups of Wood, A s s i s t a n t  P o l i c e , Dawson, i n a l e t t e r to  Commissioner of the Yukon T e r r i t o r y dated May  4,  1903  Indians l i v i n g at the j u n c t i o n of the McQuesten and e x p r e s s i n g h i s concern  area of 320  T h i s and on w h i t e s e t t l e m e n t Indians.  r e f e r r e d to  the  Stewart R i v e r s r  not e s t a b l i s h e d f o r them.  A survey  c a r r i e d out and by O r d e r - i n - C o u n c i l dated June 4, a c r e s was  the  t h a t they c o u l d be ousted by some• t o w n s i t e  s p e c u l a t o r ' i f a r e s e r v e was subsequently  Indians  r e s e r v e d f f o r the use (of the  was  1904  an  Indians.  o t h e r s i m i l a r r e s e r v e s d i d p r o v i d e some c o n s t r a i n t s i n s p e c i f i c and  r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l areas  i n h a b i t e d by  However the more fundamental i s s u e of the r i g h t s of Yukon  PAC. RG91, TGR, V o l . 7, f i l e no. 1331. A s i m i l a r r e q u e s t from O g i l v i e dated J u l y 17, 1900 f o r r e s e r v e s at T a g i s h , T e s l i n , B i g Salmon R i v e r , S e l k i r k , Stewart R i v e r and F o r t y m i l e was approved and by O r d e r - i n - C o u n c i l of September 1, 1900 such r e s e r v e s were set apart ( I b i d . ) .  78 Indians w i t h r e s p e c t t o l a n d was not r e f l e c t e d indeed  i n any T r e a t y and  t o t h i s day the Indians o f the Yukon T e r r i t o r y  ( l i k e the I n u i t  of the Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s ) have signed no t r e a t i e s w i t h the Canadian Government.  Morrow J . (1973:36) p o i n t e d out t h a t i n an address  t o the  Queen by the Senate and House o f Commons o f Canada made i n December 1867 r e s p e c t i n g the a c q u i s i t i o n o f Rupert's Land and the North-Western T e r r i t o r i e s i t was sfeated t h a t " t h e c l a i m s of the I n d i a n t r i b e s t o compensation f o r l a n d s r e q u i r e d f o r the purposes o f s e t t l e m e n t w i l l be c o n s i d e r e d and s e t t l e d  i n c o n f o r m i t y w i t h the e q u i t a b l e p r i n c i p l e s which  have u n i f o r m l y governed the B r i t i s h Crown i n i t s d e a l i n g w i t h the Aborigines".  T h i s p o l i c y statement was l a t e r embodied i n l e g i s l a t i o n  w i t h the p a s s i n g of the Dominion Lands A c t , 1872 which s t a t e d i n S e c t i o n 42, "None of the p r o v i s i o n s of t h i s A c t r e s p e c t i n g the s e t t l e m e n t of a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d s , or the l e a s e o f timber  l a n d s , or t h e purchase and  s a l e of m i n e r a l l a n d s , s h a l l be h e l d t o a p p l y t o t e r r i t o r y the I n d i a n t i t l e o f which s h a l l n o t a t the time have been e x t i n g u i s h e d " .  Prompted by developments i n the D i s t r i c t o f Athabaska an O r d e r - i n - C o u n c i l of January 26, 1891 c o n t a i n e d  the f o l l o w i n g statement:  "the d i s c o v e r y i n the D i s t r i c t o f Athabaska and i n the Mackenzie R i v e r Country t h a t immense q u a n t i t i e s of petroleum  exists within certain  r e g i o n s as w e l l as the b e l i e f t h a t o t h e r m i n e r a l s and substances o f economic v a l u e , such as s u l p h u r on the South Coast and  o f Great  S l a v e Lake  S a l t on the Mackenzie and Slave R i v e r s , a r e t o be found t h e r e i n ,  the development o f which may add m a t e r i a l l y t o the p u b l i c weal, and the f u r t h e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n t h a t s e v e r a l Railway p r o j e c t s i n c o n n e c t i o n  with  79 t h i s p o r t i o n o f the Dominion may be g i v e n e f f e c t it  to...appear t o render  a d v i s a b l e t h a t a t r e a t y o r t r e a t i e s should be made w i t h  Indians who c l a i m those r e g i o n s as t h e i r h u n t i n g to the extinguishment  those  grounds, w i t h a view  o f the I n d i a n t i t l e . . . " .  By O r d e r - i n - C o u n c i l P.C. No. 2749 o f June 27, 1898 a Commission was a u t h o r i z e d to n e g o t i a t e a t r e a t y w i t h the Indians o f the Athabaska and Peace R i v e r d i s t r i c t s and a p o r t i o n of the p r e s e n t Mackenzie D i s t r i c t S l a v e Lake.  of the Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s l y i n g south o f Great  F o l l o w i n g n e g o t i a t i o n s conducted d u r i n g the summer of 1899  a t r e a t y was s i g n e d w i t h v a r i o u s bands r e s i d e n t i n the r e g i o n d e l i n e a t e d as " T r e a t y 8" i n Map no. 11 and an a r e a o f j u s t under 325,000 square m i l e s was ceded t o Canada.  The o n l y o t h e r t r e a t y s i g n e d by n a t i v e  people n o r t h of 60 i s T r e a t y 11 which was n e g o t i a t e d i n 1921 and 1922 w i t h the Indians o f the Mackenzie D i s t r i c t n o t i n c l u d e d i n T r e a t y 8 o f 1899.  Under T r e a t y 11, as shown i n Map no. 11, 372,000 square m i l e s  were-ceded t o Canada.  T r e a t i e s 8 and 11 c o n t a i n e d  several nearly identical  p e r t i n e n t t o the p r e s e n t d i s c u s s i o n , v i z : " . . . I n d i a n s have been n o t i f i e d t h a t i t i s Her Majesty's d e s i r e t o open f o r s e t t l e m e n t , immigration, t r a d e , t r a v e l , m i n i n g , lumbering, and such other purposes..., a t r a c t of l a n d as bounded and d e s c r i b e d and t o o b t a i n the consent t h e r e t o of Her I n d i a n s u b j e c t s i n h a b i t i n g t h e s a i d t r a c t , and to make a t r e a t y , and arrange w i t h them^so t h a t t h e r e may be peace and good w i l l between them and Her M a j e s t y ' s o t h e r s u b j e c t s . . . "...the s a i d Indians do hereby cede, r e l e a s e s u r r e n d e r and y i e l d up t o t h e Government o f t h e Dominion o f Canada...for e v e r , a l l t h e i r r i g h t s , t i t l e s and p r i v i l e g e s whatsoever, to the l a n d s . . .  clauses  81 "And Her Majesty the Queen hereby agrees w i t h the s a i d I n d i a n s t h a t they s h a l l have the r i g h t (to pursue t h e i r u s u a l v o c a t i o n s of h u n t i n g , t r a p p i n g and f i s h i n g throughout , the t r a c t s u r r e n d e r e d . . . s u b j e c t to such r e g u l a t i o n s . . . and e x c e p t i n g such t r a c t s as may be r e q u i r e d f o r s e t t l e m e n t , mining, lumbering, t r a d i n g or o t h e r purposes. "And Her Majesty the Queen hereby agrees to lay aside reserves(79) f h bands as d e s i r e r e s e r v e s the same not to exceed i n a l l one square m i l e f o r each f a m i l y of f i v e . . . f o r such f a m i l i e s o r i n d i v i d u a l I n d i a n s as may p r e f e r to l i v e a p a r t from band r e s e r v e s Her Majesty undertakes to p r o v i d e l a n d i n s e v e r a l t y to the e x t e n t o f 160 a c r e s to each I n d i a n , the l a n d to be conveyed w i t h a p r o v i s o as to n o n - a l i e n a t i o n w i t h o u t the consent o f the Governor i n C o u n c i l of Canada..." o  In March 1973,  r  s u c  16 I n d i a n C h i e f s from the Northwest  Terri-  t o r i e s s i g n e d . a caveat c l a i m i n g an i n t e r e s t i n 400,000 square m i l e s of l a n d i n the Mackenzie D i s t r i c t o f the Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s , an a r e a covered by T r e a t i e s 8 and 11.  When lawyers f o r the I n d i a n s t r i e d  r e g i s t e r the caveat the matter was  r e f e r r e d by the Northwest  t o r i e s Land R e g i s t r y O f f i c e i n Y e l l o w k n i f e to J u s t i c e W.G. the Supreme Court of the Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s , Morrow J . , f i l e d . October  2, 1973  to  Terri-  Morrow of  The Judgement of  (No. 2247), e s t a b l i s h e d i n p a r t t h a t :  "... those same indigenous p e o p l e . . . a r e prima f a c i e owners of the l a n d s covered by the caveat - t h a t they have what d s .known as  (79) To date, o n l y the Hay R i v e r Band has e x e r c i s e d t h i s r i g h t . By O r d e r - i n - C o u n c i l P.C. 1974-387 of February 26, 1974 (see Appendix I) a p p r o x i m a t e l y 52 square m i l e s were s e t a p a r t f o r the use and b e n e f i t of the Hay R i v e r Band of Indians and r e f e r r e d to as Hay R i v e r I n d i a n Reserve Number 1.  82  aboriginal rights"  and  " . . . n o t w i t h s t a n d i n g the language is  o f T r e a t i e s 8 and 11 t h e r e  s u f f i c i e n t doubt on the f a c t s t h a t a b o r i g i n a l T i t l e was  and t h e r e f o r e such c l a i m f o r t i t l e  extinguished  should be p e r m i t t e d to be put  forward by the C a v e a t o r s . "  The Canadian  Government subsequently appealed J u s t i c e Morrow's  d e c i s i o n to the Appeal Court o f the N.W.T., and, w h i l e a w a i t i n g the r e s u l t s of the a p p e a l , has s t a t e d through the M i n i s t e r of I n d i a n A f f a i r s and N o r t h e r n Development, t h a t i t i s prepared to n e g o t i a t e a l a n d s e t t l e m e n t w i t h the Indiansaand  I n u i t n o r t h of 60, but i t i s not  "v.  w i l l i n g to r e n e g o t i a t e T r e a t i e s 8 and  (vi)  11.  Timber, A g r i c u l t u r e and Homesteading  The  first  s i g n i f i c a n t use of n o r t h e r n f o r e s t s f o r the  p r o d u c t i o n of timber came w i t h the K l o n d i k e g o l d r u s h .  Authority for  the d i s p o s a l of timber on Dominion Lands l a y w i t h the Dominion Lands Act.  Timber r i g h t s were a l i e n a t e d e i t h e r through the g r a n t i n g of  b e r t h s o r the i s s u e of timber p e r m i t s .  timber  Timber b e r t h s were awarded  For the argument l e a d i n g to t h i s d e c i s i o n see "Reasons f o r Judgement of the Honourable Mr. J u s t i c e W.G. Morrow (No.2) i n the M a t t e r of an A p p l i c a t i o n by C h i e f F r a n c i s P a u l e t t e e_t a l . to lodge a c e r t a i n Caveat w i t h the R e g i s t r a r of T i t l e s of the Land T i t l e s O f f i c e f o r the Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s " dated Y e l l o w k n i f e , September 6, 1973.y  83 f o l l o w i n g p u b l i c c o m p e t i t i o n and except f o r purposes determined was  c o u l d not exceed  25 square  miles  of c u t t i n g pulpwood i n which case the area  by the Governor i n C o u n c i l .  The  l e s s e e o f a timber  was berth  granted an annual l i c e n c e , renewable from year to y e a r , which  p r o v i d e d a u t h o r i t y to cut and remove timber, a c c o r d i n g to the terms of the l i c e n c e , w i t h i n the l i m i t s of the b e r t h .  Timber b e r t h s f o r purposes  of pulpwood p r o d u c t i o n have y e t to  be granted n o r t h of 60 but as e a r l y as 1900 s a w m i l l o p e r a t o r s i n the Yukon T e r r i t o r y .  b e r t h s were awarded to An O r d e r - i n - C o u n c i l of  (81) March 16,  1901  s t a t e d w i t h r e s p e c t to timber i n the Yukon T e r r i t o r y  t h a t not more than f i v e b e r t h s of f i v e square m i l e s each should granted to any one person or company and  be  t h a t a l i c e n c e e s h o u l d have a  s a w m i l l i n o p e r a t i o n f o r a t l e a s t s i x months of each y e a r .  By  1901  t h e r e had been 97 timber b e r t h s awarded i n the Yukon c o v e r i n g a. t o t a l of 225  square m i l e s . Permits  to cut timber on Dominion Lands were i s s u e d under  of the Dominion Lands A c t to s e t t l e r s f o r b u i l d i n g purposes to p r o s p e c t o r s , miners,  schools^and  f o r s a l e as cordwood and pulpwood.  P e r m i t s were i s s u e d on an annual b a s i s and one  firewood",  steamboat owners; f o r . t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n of p u b l i c  works, r a i l w a y s , churches,  exceeding  and  S.57  f o r t r a c t s of l a n d not  square m i l e u n l e s s by a u t h o r i t y of the Governor i n C o u n c i l .  (81) Canadian Department of the I n t e r i o r Annual Report, ( 8 2 )  Ibid:No.l9,  p.37.  1900/01:xxiv.  84 D u r i n g the g o l d rush- and f o r s e v e r a l y e a r s f o l l o w i n g , much of the timber cut.under permit i n the n o r t h was steamboats which p l i e d  the Yukon R i v e r .  f o r purposes  of supplying  ( 83)  In 1900/01 t h e r e were 69,483 cords of f i r e w o o d , 26,736 housel o g s and 6,234,000 board f e e t of lumber produced  i n the Yukon.  1905/06 the volume of f i r e w o o d c u t had been reduced mainly due  By  to 11,600 c o r d s ,  to the p r o d u c t i o n of c o a l which t h a t year amounted to  12,500 t o n s .  Except when the Canol p i p e l i n e and A l a s k a highway were b e i n g c o n s t r u c t e d d u r i n g the Second World War, lumber and f i r e w o o d prdduced 10 m i l l i o n board  i n the two  the annual t o t a l volume of t e r r i t o r i e s has  f e e t and 20,000 cords r e s p e c t i v e l y .  seldom exceeded  S i n c e the 1950's  timber cut f o r the m i n i n g i n d u s t r y has p r o v i d e d a s u b s t a n t i a l p o r t i o n of the t o t a l timber h a r v e s t e d , w i t h the annual p r o d u c t i o n f o r the t e r r i t o r i e s a v e r a g i n g between two  and  three m i l l i o n l i n e a l  When the T e r r i t o r i a l Lands A c t enacted i n 1950  feet.  (S.C.14 George VI,"C.22)  the Dominion Lands A c t was  r e p e a l e d (S.26).  new  A c t timber d i s p o s a l i n both the Yukon and Northwest  was  p r o v i d e d f o r under S.13  two  was  Under the  Territories  which a u t h o r i z e d the Governor i n C o u n c i l  /oo\  Steamboats were f i r s t used n o r t h of 60 by the Hudson's Bay Company. Between 1883 and 1887 the Company operated t h r e e b o a t s i n the Mackenzie R i v e r b a s i n . One of these, the " W r i g l e y " , served t r a d i n g p o s t s down the Mackenzie R i v e r between. Great Slave Lake-land the A r c t i c Coast (Zaslow 1971:56). ^ ^ 8 4  Can. Dept. of the I n t e r i o r , Annual Report  1900/01, No.19, pp.12-37.  85  to make r e g u l a t i o n s r e s p e c t i n g the i s s u e of p e r m i t s and  to c u t  timber  to p r e s c r i b e the terms and c o n d i t i o n s under w h i c h timber  cut.  A l l r e f e r e n c e to timber b e r t h s and  c o u l d be.  l i c e n c e s were d e l e t e d  i n p r a c t i c e the term 'permit' has been b r o a d l y i n t e r p r e t e d . the T e r r i t o r i a l Lands A c t which p r o v i d e s present-day d i s p o s a l of timber  It is  a u t h o r i t y f o r the  i n the Yukon and Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s .  The use of n o r t h e r n l a n d f o r the p r o d u c t i o n of food dates back to the e a r l y t r a d i n g p o s t s . of making t h e i r p o s t s s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t r e f l e c t e d i n the f a c t t h a t by  1826  D i s c u s s i n g the Hudson's Bay 1852  crops  The Hudson's Bay Company's p o l i c y i n p r o v i s i o n s and  supplies i s  gardens were kept a t a l l of  Company's p o s t s as f a r n o r t h as F o r t Good Hope, 66° 15' n o r t h  in  although  the latitude.  Company, I n n i s (1962:300) p o i n t e d o u t . t h a t  crops a t F o r t Simpson i n c l u d e d 700 b u s h e l s of p o t a t o e s ,  b u s h e l s of t u r n i p s and ^f'armproduction  180 b u s h e l s of b a r l e y , t h a t a t F o r t R e s o l u t i o n  included potatoes,  700 kegs of p o t a t o e s  120  and  t u r n i p s and b u t t e r and  at F o r t L i a r d  500 kegs of t u r n i p s were produced.  Bishop Bompas' r e q u e s t i n 1876  t h a t m i s s i o n farms be  e s t a b l i s h e d i n the D i s t r i c t of Athabaska to supply m i s s i o n s  i n the  Mackenzie D i s t r i c t and h i s p r o p o s a l t h a t steamboat t r a n s p o r t a t i o n be inaugurated north  on the Mackenzie R i v e r to f r e i g h t food s u p p l i e s i n t o  (Boon 1962:214) i l l u s t r a t e s the g e n e r a l concern  shared by a l l e a r l y  n o r t h e r n m i s s i o n a r i e s w i t h r e s p e c t to s u f f i c i e n t food s u p p l i e s .  (85)  the  Department of Resources and Development, Annual Report Ottawa, p.56.  It  1948/49,  was  86 p o i n t e d out ..above- t h a t Bishop  Breynat  i n ,1911  e s t a b l i s h e d a farm  near F o r t Smith, N.W.T., i n order t o supply the Roman C a t h o l i c m i s s i o n s i n the r e g i o n (Duchaussois  The  1923:205-206)/ ^  i n f l u x o f horses  86  t o the Yukon