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Nursing, leadership and the women’s liberation movement Dubin, Gloria Louise Joachim 1976

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NURSING, LEADERSHIP, AND THE WOMEN'S LIBERATION MOVEMENT by GLORIA LOUISE JOACHIM DUBIN B.S.N., University of Maryland, 1969 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE IN NURSING in THE SCHOOL OF NURSING We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA June, 1976 (c) Gloria Louise Joachim Duhin, 1976-In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of NURSING The University of British Columbia 2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 iii ABSTRACT The concern with the need for leaders in the nursing profession as well as knowledge that many current nursing leaders advocate alliance with the Women's Liberation Movement, gave rise to the study of leader ship characteristics, attitudes towards feminism, and the relationship between these in selected female populations. The samples chosen for study were thirty graduating baccalaureate nursing students, thirty members of organized groups of the Women's Liberation Movement, and as another comparison group, twenty four library science students. Five hypotheses concerning leadership characteristics and attitudes towards feminism were tested. The hypotheses were: 1. There is no significant difference in leadership characteris tics, as measured by scores on the Gordon Personal Profile and the Gordon Personal Inventory, among students graduating from a bacca laureate nursing program, women belonging to organized groups of the Women's Liberation Movement, and students in a library science program. 2. There is no significant difference in attitudes towards feminism, as measured by the FEM scale, among students graduating from a baccalaureate nursing program, women belonging to organized groups of the Women's Liberation Movement, and students in a library science program. 3. There is no significant relationship between attitudes towards feminism, as measured by the FEM scale, and leadership characteris tics, as measured by scores on the Gordon Personal Profile and the Gordon Personal Inventory, in graduating baccalaureate nursing students. IV 4. There is no significant relationship between attitudes towards feminism, as measured by the FEM scale, and leadership characteristics, as measured by scores on the Gordon Personal Profile and the Gordon Personal Inventory, in women belonging to organized groups of the Women's Liberation Movement. 5. There is no significant relationship between attitudes towards feminism, as measured by the FEM scale, and leadership characteristics, as measured by scores on the Gordon Personal Profile and the Gordon Personal Inventory, in students of a library science program. No significant differences in leadership characteristics among the three groups were found. Significant differences in attitudes towards feminism were found with the members of the Women's Liberation Movement differing most from the other two groups. No significant relationships between leadership characteristics and attitudes towards feminism were found in any of the three groups. It was concluded that a belief in feminism does not cause leadership characteristics, and that leadership characteristics do not cause a belief in feminism. Similarly, any other variable common to the three groups could not be considered causal for both the possession of leadership characteristics and the expressed attitudes towards feminism. TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER PAGE I. INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY 1 IntroductionStatement of the Problem 3 Significance of the Problem 4 Statement of Hypotheses 7 Definition of Terms 8 Limitations of the Study 9 Overview of the StudyII. REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE 10 Literature Related to Leadership in General 10 Leadership in Nursing ......... 13 The Women's Liberation Movement 17 The Women's Liberation Movement and Nursing 22 Summary 2III. METHODOLOGY 8 IntroductionThe Samples Studied 28 Tools Used 29 Data Collection 30 Data Analysis 1 vi CHAPTER PAGE IV. DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION 35 Introduction 3Hypothesis I 6 Hypothesis II 7 Hypothesis III 40 Hypothesis IV 2 Hypothesis V 3 Summary of Findings 44 V. SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS 46 Summary 4Limitations of the Study 47 Implications and ConclusionsRecommendations for Further Study 49 BIBLIOGRAPHY • . . 51 APPENDIX 57 vii LIST OF TABLES TABLE PAGE I. Analysis of Variance Comparing Leadership Characteristics among Nursing Students, Members of the Women's Libera tion Movement, and Library Science Students 36 II. Analysis of Variance Comparing Attitudes towards Feminism among Nursing Students, Members of the Women's Libera tion Movement, and Library Science Students. ...... 37 III. Comparison of Attitudes towards Feminism between Nursing Students, Members of the Women's Liberation Movement, and Library Science Students 38 IV. Correlation Coefficient of Leadership Characteristics with Attitudes towards Feminism among Nursing Students. 40 V. Correlation Coefficient of Leadership Characteristics with Attitudes towards Feminism among Members of the Women's Liberation Movement 42 VI. Correlation Coefficient of Leadership Characteristics with Attitudes towards Feminism among Library Science Students 44 1 CHAPTER I Introduction to the Study Introduction Nursing has been slow in attaining the status of a full profession. The first nursing outside the home was begun by Florence Nightingale during the Crimean War. Shortly thereafter, the first nursing schools were esta blished in England. In the United States, nursing schools were created following the Civil War. In early nursing education, housekeeping skills and lady-like behavior received greater emphasis than nursing skills.'' Although the schools endeavored to recruit upper class women as nurse trainees, with the inclusion of more and more housework, lower class women were soon drawn to nursing. Learning behavior characteristic of higher class ladies continued to be emphasized. Florence Nightingale believed that nursing was natural for women and opposed the registration of nurses.2 When it was sug gested that nurses be tested and licensed as doctors were, she replied that nurses could not be examined any more than mothers. As nurses assumed tra ditional feminine roles the image of nursing incorporated the stereotyped image of women. This image and the low status that accompanies it, persists today.3 'Barbara Ehrenreich and Deirdre English, Witches, Midwives, and  Nurses - A History of Women Healers (2nd ed.; Old Westbury, New York; The Feminist Press, 1973), p..35. 2Josephine A. Pol an, History of Nursing (12th ed,; Philadelphia, London, Toronto; W. B. Saunders Co., 1968), p, 221. 3E1 aine E. Beletz, "Is Nursing's Public Image up to Date?" Nursing  Outlook, Vol. 22 No. 7 (July, 1974), 435. o 2 Today, nurses provide comprehensive care to patients. In many areas, the role of the nurse has expanded to give greater scope to nursing care. As the profession of nursing grows, leaders are needed to maintain high professional standards and to guide the profession. Nursing is trying to gain recognition as an independent profession that makes a contribution to 4 the cure of illness and the promotion of health. It may be speculated that with greater nursing leadership, the status of the profession would be raised. A consequence of raised status might be equality among the health professionals and professions. While leaders are needed in nursing, past studies of nurses and nursing students have shown that these women do not possess qualities generally associated with leadership.5*6,7 In considering the need for leadership in nursing, some questions arise: Is a belief in feminism related to the possession of leadership characteristics? Is the lack of leadership in nursing related to the tra ditional female role in society? Since the Women's Liberation Movement has led away from traditional roles assigned to women in society, would women with positive attitudes towards feminism have more leadership characteristics than women who do not have positive attitudes towards feminism? Would women ^Muriel Uprichard, "Ferment in Nursing," International Nursing Review, Vol. 16 No. 3 (1969), 222. 5M. A. Bailey, "An Obverse Factor Analytic Study of Values in Psycho logists, Psychiatrists, Social Workers and Nurses," Journal of Clinical Psy  chology, Vol. 19 No. 1 (January3963), 120-124. 6june Bailey and Karen Claus, "Comparative Analysis of the Personality Structure of Nursing Students," Nursing Research, Vol. 18 No. 4 (July, 1969), 320-326. 7Helmut Hoffman, "Note on Personality Traits of Student Nurses, "Psycho  logical Reports, Vol. 27 No. 3 (December, 1970), 1004. 3 involved in organized Women's Liberation Movement groups have leadership characteristics similar to women in nursing? Would women in other tradi tionally female professions have leadership characteristics similar to women in nursing? The writer became interested in studying leadership characteristics in hopes of identifying correlated attributes which might, in further study, be casually linked with leadership. Such attributes may be either pre requisites for leaders or consequences of the possession of certain leader ship characteristics. Should they be prerequisites, the implications for nursing in its search for leaders are clear. Nursing has traditionally been a woman's profession which carries with it the image of women. Leadership is not inherent in this image. Since the Women's Liberation Movement has led away from the traditional roles and expectations of women, perhaps its adherents demonstrate more leadership characteristics than women who are not members. Perhaps certain leadership characteristics are a result of the consciousness raising practiced by the Women's Liberation Movement. Statement of the Problem The need for leadership is a concern to the nursing profession. The development of characteristics of leadership will determine the direction and future of the profession. It is important to determine the presence/ absence of leadership characteristics in groups of students graduating from a baccalaureate nursing program since they will be practicing members of the profession. A comparison with women involved in the Women's Liberation Move ment, who might already possess leadership characteristics, could evidence 4 differences between the groups. A further comparison with female library science students, who are also members of a women's profession, would in crease the size of the sample and help to determine whether both groups of female students entering women's professions differed significantly from women involved in the Women's Liberation Movement. Thus, the problem of the study can be focused by the questions: 1. Is there a difference in leadership characteristics among graduating baccalaureate nursing- students, members of the Women's Liberation Movement, and students in a library science program (comparison group)? 2. Is there a difference in attitudes towards feminism among the three groups? 3. Is there a relationship between leadership characteristics and attitudes towards feminism within each of the three groups? Significance of the Problem In general, the public retains the image of the nurse as handmaiden to the doctor. In a sample of eighteen hospitalized patients, their composite image of the nurse was that of a female nurturer, medicator, physician's o assistant, maid and administrator. The expansion of nursing practice is influenced by the way in which the public perceives it. A study that investi gated the image of the nurse held by baccalaureate nursing students concluded that most students viewed the nurse as a technical worker.^ These images of the nurse combined with low status do not attract career minded women and hold aBeletz, "Nursing's Public Image," p. 434. ^D. L. Collins, et al., "The Image of Nursing is Not Changing," Nursing Outlook, Vol. 19 No. 7 (July, 1971), 459. 5 much in common with the stereotyped image of women. It seems that the assumption of leadership positions within nursing is crucial for the future development of the profession. Angela McBride has said that the quality of health care is related to the quality of leader ship.^ She has explained the lack of nursing leadership as a rejection by nurses of a leader role that they view as masculine. Virginia Cleland has pointed to the need for nurse leaders as well as the need for more autonomous behavior for nurses.^ Rozella Schlotfeldt has called for nurse leaders so that the scope of nursing practice can be defined and new nurses prepared to assume their roleJ2 Schlotfeldt summed up her ideas by saying, "The need as I see it is for enlightened, visionary, courageous leadership that will be effective in releasing the tremendous potential possessed by nurses for improving the lot of their fellow man."13 Although great leaders such as Florence Nightingale, Lavinia Dock, Adelaide Nutting, and Lillian Wald have influenced nursing, clearly more leadership is required today. A belief in feminism, which promotes freedom from sex role stereo typing, might be a way of changing the image of nursing. If the nursing profession and nurses.themselves were not assigned an inferior submissive role characteristic of the stereotype of women, perhaps leaders would emerge ^"Leadership Problems and Possibilities in Nursing," American Journal  of Nursing, Vol. 72 No. 8 (August, 1972), 1445. irginia Cleland, "Sex Discrimination: Nursing's Most Pervasive Problem," American Journal of Nursing, Vol. 71 No. 8 (August, 1971), 1545-6. 12R0zella Schlotfeldt, "On the Professional Status of Nursing," Nursing Forum, Vol. 13 No. 1 (1974), 27. 13Ibid., p. 31. 6 and the status of nursing would become elevated. Involvement in the Women's Liberation Movement, which believes in feminism, might help nurses gain power in influencing the quality of health care.^ Several nursing leaders have advocated the alliance of nursing with the Women's Liberation Movement. Wilma Scott Heide, nurse and past president of the National Organization for Women, has said that the feminist Movement relates to all people and very 1 c much pertains to nurses. She feels that since nursing is characterized by the feminine traits and suffers from the general oppression of women, nurses should identify with the Movement. She feels that this identification would help nurses gain control of themselves and of the nursing profession. Karen Lamb stated that the status of women must be improved before nursing can assume its rightful place in relation to other professions.^ In view of the importance of developing leadership characteristics within the nursing profession, it appears that an investigation into relationships between leadership characteristics and a belief in feminism might be helpful. A demonstrated relationship might suggest implications for nursing education and hence the development of more leaders in nursing. l^Joan j> Roberts and Thetis M. Group, "The Women's Movement and Nursing," Nursing Forum, Vol. 12 No. 3 (1973), 321. ^Wilma Scott Heide, "Nursing and Women's Liberation a Parallel," American Journal of Nursing, Vol. 73 No. 5 (May, 1973), 824. ^Karen T. Lamb, "Freedom for Our Sister, Freedom for Ourselves: Nursing Confronts Social Change," Nursing Forum, Vol. 12 No. 4 (1973), 328. 7 Statement of Hypotheses 1. There is no significant difference in leadership characteristics, as measured by scores on the Gordon Personal Profile and the Gordon Personal Inventory, among students graduating from a baccalaureate nursing program, women belonging to organized groups of the Women's Liberation Movement, and students in a library science program. 2. There is no significant difference in attitudes towards feminism, as measured by the FEM scale, among students graduating from a baccalaureate nursing program, women belonging to organized groups of the Women's Liberation Movement, and students in a library science program. 3. There is no significant relationship between attitudes towards femi nism, as measured by the FEM scale, and leadership characteristics, as measured by scores on the Gordon Personal Profile and the Gordon Personal Inventory, in graduating baccalaureate nursing students. 4. There is no significant relationship between attitudes towards femi nism, as measured by the FEM scale, and leadership characteristics, as measured by scores on the Gordon Personal Profile and the Gordon Personal Inventory, in women belonging to organized groups of the Women's Liberation Movement. 5. There is no significant relationship between attitudes towards femi nism, as measured by the FEM scale, and leadership characteristics, as 8 measured by scores on the Gordon Personal Profile and the Gordon Personal Inventory, in students of a library science program. Definition of Terms Femininity - traditionally defined as qualities of modesty, tenderness, coyness, regarded as usual characteristics of women. Feminism - a belief in equality between the sexes and freedom from sex role stereotypes. Leadership - an interaction process in which an individual influences 17 the behavior of others toward an end. Leadership Characteristics - attributes that differentiate potentially effective leaders from followers. (For more specific definition of terms on Gordon tests, see p. 70.) Sex Role Stereotypes - rigid definitions of behavior according to sex. Female sex role stereotypes do not distinguish between biological femaleness and femininity. Women's Liberation Movement - an organized effort dedicated to the poli tical, economic, and social equality of the sexes. The Women's Liberation Movement espouses a belief in freedom from sex role stereotypes, equality of human beings, and has produced organized groups or activities which support its beliefs. Haiman in Ralph M. Stogdill, Handbook of Leadership, A Survey of  Theory and Research (New York and London: The Free Press, 1974), p.10. 9 Limitations of the Study There were recognized limitations to the study: 1. The participants in the study were selected nursing students, selected library science students, and selected members of the Women's Liberation Movement. Since nursing students from only one school were involved, the findings are not generalizable to nursing students in general. 2. If a correlation exists between leadership characteristics and atti tudes towards feminism, causal inferences cannot be drawn. Overview of the study Chapter II contains a review of the literature pertaining to leader ship, leadership in nursing and the Women's Liberation Movement. Chapter III includes the plan of the study as well as the methodology used. Hypo theses I and II will be tested using a Kruskal Wallis analysis of variance. Hypotheses III, IV, and V will be tested using a Spearman r correlation ana lysis. The results of the study are analyzed and discussed in chapter IV. The first two hypotheses will be accepted or rejected at the .05 level of significance at the appropriate number of degrees of freedom. The second three hypotheses will be accepted or rejected depending upon the level of correlation. This is followed by a summary and some conclusions. 10 CHAPTER II Review of the Literature Much has been written about leadership in general, leadership in nursing, the Women's Liberation Movement, and its effects upon nursing. A summary of important findings is given. Literature related to Leadership in General Between World War I and World War II, a major interest arose in identifying leadership traits and in studying how people became leaders.^ Most of these studies were concerned with the military or with industry. According to Gibb, there are three theoretical frameworks dealing with leadership.2 One framework deals with leadership as a1 single descriptor that characterizes leaders wherever they are found. Subscribing to this point of view leads to the conclusion that all leaders in all situations exhibit the same quality. While it is unlikely that a single trait is common to all leaders, certain traits common to leaders have been found. The second framework is the constellation-of-traits theory. According to this viewpoint, each leader has a pattern of traits which comprise his ability to lead. This theory suggests that a basic personality pattern exists for leaders and that its elements are personality traits. The traits iFred E. Fiedler, Leadership and Effective Management (Glenview, Illinois and Brighton, England: Scott, Foresman, and Co., 1974), p. 1. 2Cecil A. Gibb, "Leadership," in The Handbook of Social Psychology, ed. by Gardner Lindzey and Elliot Aronson (4th Vol. 2nd ed.; Reading, Mass., Menlo Park, Calif.: Addison-Wesley Publishing Co., 1969), pp. 267-268. 11 are adaptable and vary. The third framework is the interaction theory. It describes leadership as the product of the personality of the leader, the needs and attributes of the followers, the group structure, and the situation at hand. While situational factors often enter into the determination of a leader, relationships have been found between leadership characteristics and leadership status.^ A review of literature by R. D. Mann in 1959 con cluded that a relationship exists between an individual's personality and his status in groups. Mann documented that intelligence, adjustment, and extroversion were related to leadership status.^ Fred Fiedler stated that traits such as intelligence, sociability, initiative, and others were re lated to leadership.^ He also stated that leadership effectiveness traits are consistent, reliable personality attributes that differentiate effective from ineffective leaders, but that these traits are manifest only under appropriate conditions. Ralph Stogdill reviewed leadership trait studies conducted between 1904 and 1947. Methods used in the studies included observation of behavior in group situations, choice of associates, observer ratings, selection of persons into leadership positions, analysis of case histories, listing traits 3Fiedler, Leadership and Effective Management, p. 23. 4R. D. Mann, "A Review of the Relationships Between Personality and Performance in Small Groups," Psychological Bulletin, Vol. 56 No. 4 (1959), 264-266. ^Fiedler, "Leadership and Leadership Effectiveness Traits: A Recon-ceptualization of the Leadership Trait Problem," in Leadership and Inter  personal Behavior, ed. by Luigi Petrullo and Bernard M. Bass (New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, Inc., 1961), p. 181. 12 considered to be essential for leadership, personality tests, and inter views. ^ Specific traits common to most studies were initiative, intelli gence, and responsibility.7 Other factors associated with leadership in several studies were capacity, achievement, responsibility, participation, o status, and situation. Stogdill also concluded that the personal charac teristics of the leader must be related to the characteristics, activities, and goals of the followers.9 More recent research pertaining to characteristics of leaders has been conducted largely within industry. Projects have been completed by Henry (1963, 1964) in Standard Oil of New Jersey, Bentz (1964) in Sears Roebuck, Bray and Grant (1966) in American Telephone and Telegraph, and MacKinney (1968) in Owens Illinois.10 In 1970, Stogdill completed a review of 163 studies of leadership characteristics conducted since his 1947 review. He compared the results of the surveys and summarized leader characteristics. Stogdill concluded that qualities typifying leaders were a drive for respon sibility and task completion, vigor and perserverance for goal attainment, originality in problem solving, a drive to exercise initiative in social situations, self confidence and a sense of personal identity, willingness to accept consequences of decision and action, readiness to absorb inter personal stress, willingness to tolerate frustration and delay, ability to influence other persons' behavior, and capacity to structure social inter action systems to the purpose at hand.^ 6Ralph M. Stogdill, Handbook of Leadership A Survey of Theory and  Research (New York and London: The Free Press, 1974), p. 36. 7lbid., p. 36. 9lbid., p. 64. 8Ibid., p. 63. IQlbid., p. 73. 11 Ibid., p. 81. 13 Leadership in Nursing Within the nursing profession, various ideas exist regarding leader ship. Donna Diers expressed the opinion that finding leaders is a problem in nursing because women with poor self concepts enter nursing, are educated within a system that discourages independence, and are then graduated into a disorganized profession.^ Ann Slavinsky said that a leadership problem exists in nursing due to a confusion regarding nursing theory to guide the 1 o profession.10 In an analysis of nursing leadership style, Luther Christman advocated an open systems approach to nursing leadership. This approach, he felt, would enhance professional maturity and innovativeness.^ Christman also forecast an optimistic future for nursing should more effective leader ship emerge. Madeline Leininger has written about changes in leadership style due to changing technology, social structure, values, and managerial 1 jr styles.1 She stated that nursing leaders are needed with political and social science knowledge to further nursing's professional interests. With the interest given to leadership in nursing, schools of nursing have '^"Leadership Problems and Possibilities in Nursing," American  Journal of Nursing, Vol. 72 No. 8 (1972), 1447. 13Ibid.,.p. 1448. ^Luther B. Christman, "Nursing Leadership - Style and Substance," American Journal of Nursing, Vol. 67 No. 10 (October, 1967), 2093. ^Madeline Leininger, "The Leadership Crisis in Nursing: A Critical Problem and Challenge," Journal of Nursing Administration, (March-April, 1974), 28. 14 incorporated leadership experience into their curriculumsJ6,17 Clearly, nursing leaders are needed. Very little literature exists regarding leadership characteristics of nurses and nursing students. Much literature exists regarding person ality characteristics of nurses and nursing students. Those personality studies applicable to leadership are summarized. June Bailey and Karen Claus compared certain personality character istics of nursing students with women students not in nursing. The nursing students demonstrated higher scores in nurturance, succorance, deference, and affiliation but lower scores in autonomy, dominance, exhibition and aggres sion J8 Helmut Hoffman compared personality characteristics of nursing students with the general norms. The nursing students scored above the norms in harm avoidance, nurturance, desirability and order, but below the norms in aggression, dominance, impulsivity, and understanding.^ Jeanne Smith investigated various personality factors among beginning nursing students. Factor analysis re vealed an emphasis on concern for others, desire to help others, and a need ^Hilda Francis, "Leadership Experience for ADN Students," American  Journal of Nursing, Vol. 72 No. 7 (July, 1972), 1264-1265. 17Mary C. Jones, "Leadership Experience for Senior Students," Nursing  Outlook, Vol. 22 No. 6 (June, 1974), 394-397. ISjune Bailey and Karen Claus, "Comparative Analysis of the Personality Structure of Nursing Students," Nursing Research, Vol. 18 No. 4 (July, 1969), 320-326. ^Helmut Hoffman, "Note on Personality Traits of Student Nurses," Psychological Reports, Vol. 27 No. 3 (December, 1970), 1004. 15 for dependency.20 Sylvia Lande found that students in Roman Catholic High Schools who had definite plans to enter schools of nursing viewed themselves as lower achievers than students not planning to enter nursing.21 Anne Davis explored the difference in self concept between nursing students and social work students. Nursing students described themselves as dependable, metho dical, and able to assume responsibility, while social work students des cribed themselves as independent, spontaneous, and assertive.22 William Kelly administered four psychological inventories to employed nurses to determine which traits predicted promotion. In his study, Kelly equated promotion with leadership. Three distinguishing traits of promoted nurses were capacity for status, femininity, and a relaxed demeanor.23 Marie Gilbert compared leader ship potential of medical surgical nursing graduate students with psychiatric nursing graduate students. No difference was found between the two groups. Within the groups, students exhibiting the highest leadership potential were also found to have optimal personality development.2^ 20Jeanne E. Smith, "Personality Structure in Beginning Nursing Students: A Factor Analytic Study," Nursing Research, Vol. 17 No. 2 (March-April, 1968), 143. 21Sylvia Lande, "Nursing Career Perceptions Among High School Students," Nursing Research, Vol. 15 (Fall, 1966), 337-342. 22Anne Davis, "Self Concept, Role Expectation, and Occupational Choice in Nursing and Social Work Students," Nursing Research, Vol. 18 No. 1 (January-February, 1969), 55-59. 23William L. Kelly, "Psychological Prediction of Leadership in Nursing," Nursing Research, Vol. 23 No. 1 (January-February, 1974), 41. 2^Marie A. Gilbert, "Personality Profiles and Leadership Potential of Medical-Surgical and Psychiatric Nursing Graduate Students/' Nursing  Research, Vol. 24 No. 2 (March-April, 1975), 128. 16 Mary Ann Richards attempted to assess differences in leadership potential and certain other attributes among nursing graduates of baccalaureate, associate degree, and diploma nursing programs. No differences were found among the groups. The groups scored higher in responsibility and emotional stability than the average female college students.25 Many of these studies lead to the conclusion that nurses and nursing students do not exhibit leadership qualities. One explanation offered for this apparent lack of leadership has been sex discrimination. Richard Levinson stated, "Males and females are socialized into traditional roles and taught to make choices as adults. The choices women learn to make are not those leading to occupational and educational advancement."26 Bonnie Bullough and Vern Bullough further stated, "In short, the process of sex segregation is a circular, self-fulfilling perpetuation of female inferi ority."^ They concluded by saying, "The male-female game is deeply ingrained in our society. Even when there is appearance of equality there is often a lack of realy equality. If the health fields are any indication, there is still a long way to go to equality. When and if we move toward more effective use of women power, we might also move toward more effective medical care, since masculine bias is present even in treatment."28 2$Mary Ann Bruegel Richards, "A Study of Differences in Psychological Characteristics of Students Graduating from Three Types of Basic Nursing Pro grams," Nursing Research,.Vol. 21.No. 3 (May-June, 1972), 259. 26Richard Levinson, "Sexism in Medicine," America! Journal of Nursing, Vol. 76 No. 3 (March, 1976), 431. 27Bonnie Bullough and Vern Bullough, "Sex Discrimination in Health Care," Nursing Outlook, Vol. 23 Mo. 1 (January, 1975), 45. 28Ibid., p. 45. 17 The Women's Liberation Movement The Women's Liberation Movement has had a relatively brief history in society. Before the Industrial Revolution, women were needed to repro duce, care for children, and work at home. Women worked beside men on farms sharing the responsibilities. As men changed from farming to urban work, women continued with the work at home but their social needs were not met. A lack of adult companionship and psychic satisfaction contributed to their interest in paid employment.29 By the mid nineteenth century, a feminist rebellion against Victorian society was underway. The rebellion grew from ideas about equality of early abolitionists like William Lloyd Garrison.30 Although women were rebelling, the Civil War in the U.S. made it necessary for American women to redirect their efforts to sewing, farming, and nursing. The Women's Liberation Movement lost strength as women directed their attention away from it. After the War, in the late nineteenth century, colleges began to admit women.31 As a result, women formed cultural interest groups. Even though some women were educated, jobs open to them were usually those with low pay and prestige. As women became more educated and wanted increased responsi bility along with men, they worked to obtain the right to vote. Once this ^Gladys E. Harbeson, Choice and Challenge for the American Woman (Cambridge, Massachusetts: Schenkman Publishing Co., 1967), p. 27. 30shulamitt Firestone, "On American Feminism Women in Sexist Society," in Studies in Power and Power!essness, ed. by Vivian Gornick and Barbara K. Moran (3rd printing: New York: Basic Books Inc., 1971), p. 66. 3lHarbeson, Choice and Challenge, p. 29. 18 battle had been won, the Women's Liberation Movement became less visible. In 1942, Farnham and Lundberg warned that "careers and higher edu cation were leading to the masculinization of women with enormously dan gerous consequences to the home, children dependent on it, and to the ability of the woman as well as her husband to obtain sexual gratifica-tion."' During the 1950's, the feminine mystique was sold to society. According to Betty Friedan, "The feminine mystique says that the highest value and the only commitment for women is the fulfillment of their own femininity."33 The feminine mystique implies that femininity is a mysteri ous thing based purely on intuition. It pertains only to women and makes women less subject to comprehension than men. Feminists and the Women's Liberation Movement have rebelled against forcing women into certain roles purely because of their sex. Friedan said that women must reject the feminine mystique in order to become complete human beings.3^ She further expressed the opinion that women must refuse to accept the housewife image, that marriage, motherhood, and a career can be combined, and that women need creative work of their own. The present phase of the Women's Liberation Movement grew out of the protest movements of the sixties. Although the protests were dedicated to S^Marynia Farnham and Ferdinand Lundberg, Modern Woman: The Lost Sex (New York and London: Harper and Brothers Co., 1947), p. 121. 33Betty Friedan, The Feminine Mystique (New York: W. W. Norton and Co., 1963), p. 110. 34ibid., p. 374. 19 egalitarian causes, women noticed that they were not treated as equals with men.35 Kate Millett defined politics as "power-structured relationships, arrangements whereby one group of persons is controlled by another."3^ Millett feels that the relationship between the sexes is political and that men, because of their birthright, have power over women. Millett stated, "Sexual politics obtains consent through the socialization of both sexes to basic patriarchal politics with regard to temperament, role, and social status."37 Elizabeth Janeway described the Women's Liberation Movement as a diverse movement which challenges some assumptions basic to society. The Women's Liberation Movement stresses equality for women in opportunities and wages. Issues are work, the roles of wife and mother, and sexual re lationships.38 It seeks to redefine the roles of wife and mother so that women can respond to present life circumstances.39 The Women's Liberation Movement professes a belief in a fundamental equality of talent, mental ability, and character strength of men and women. It opposes sex role stereotyping and encourages individual differences as great for women as •^Editorial Research Reports on The Women's Movement (Washington, D.C: Congressional Quarterly Inc., 1973), p. 14. 36Kate Millett, Sexual Politics (Garden City, New York: Doubleday and Co., Inc., 1970), p. 24. 37Ibid., p. 26. OQ Elizabeth Janeway, Between Myth and Morning Women Awakening (New York: William Morrow and Co., Inc., 1974), p. 65. 391bid. , p. 72. 20 for men.4U It strives for equality of the sexes not supremacy of one sex over the other. Carl Degler stated that the goal of the Women's Liberation Movement is "the reconditioning of the American to accept sex equality as the norm of social and personal behavior."41 Konrad Kellen forsees the incorporation of feminism into society leading to a more humane and intel ligent society.^ Several studies have been done which investigated the type of person who joins the Women's Liberation Movement. Jean Goldschmidt et al. measured personality traits, ideas about the Women's Liberation Movement, and investi gated the backgrounds of 448 females in four different educational settings.43 The sample was further divided into women involved in the Women's Liberation Movement and women not involved. Women involved in the Women's Liberation Movement were found to be heterosexual, motivated by professional aspirations, having liberal to radical political leanings, and aggressive. Carlos Goldberg tested conformity of males and females. He noted that subjects characterized as feminine by the Gough Adjective Check List conformed more to male and fe male related items than subjects characterized as masculine. Female members of the National Organization for Women conformed less than a control group of women. Goldberg concluded that the greater the rejection of the traditional 40lbid., p. 74. 41 Editorial Research Reports, p. 3. 42Konrad Kellen, The Coming of Age of Woman Power (New York: Peter H. Wyden, Inc. , 1972), p. 72. 43j ean Goldschmidt, Mary M. Gergen, Karen Quigley, and Kenneth J. Gergen, "The Women's Liberation Movement: Attitudes and Action," The Journal  of Personality, Vol. 42 No. 4 (December, 1974), 602-603. 21 female role and involvement with the Women's Liberation Movement, the less conformity.44 Celia Hal as administered an attitude toward women scale and a questionnaire that she developed to sixty-three mature female community college students and to an equal number of their acquaintances not enrolled in school. Results indicated that subjects who recalled wider, less sex role stereotyped social experiences as children reflected more liberal atti tudes and behaviors as adults.45 Women students generally had more liberal attitudes than non students. Carolyn Stoloff studied the background, poli tical involvement, attitudes and behaviors related to the Women's Liberation Movement of twenty-two female graduate students involved in the Women's Liberation Movement and twenty-two not involved in the Movement. Subjects in both groups said that they adhered to the views of the Women's Liberation Movement.46 Subjects involved in the Movement demonstrated higher test scores in leadership, aggression, and popularity than subjects not involved. Robert Pavlicki and Carol Almquist attempted to determine whether or not supporters of the Women's Liberation Movement and nonsupporters of the Women's Liberation Movement differed demographically and whether or not demographic differences accounted for differences on personality measures. Pavlicki and Almquist found that the Women's Liberation Movement supporters had more favorable 44Ca rlos Goldberg, "Conformity to Majority Type as a Function of Task and Acceptance of Sex Related Stereotypes," The Journal of Psychology, Vol. 89 No. 1 (January, 1975), 25. 45celia M. Hal as, "Sex Role Stereotypes: Perceived Childhood Soci alization Experiences and the Attitudes and Behavior of Adult Women," The  Journal of Psychology Vol. 88 No. 9 (September, 1974), 271. 46carolyn Stoloff, "Who Joins Women's Liberation?," Psychiatry, Vol. 36 (August, 1973), 334. 22 attitudes towards the Movement, lower levels of authoritarianism, a feeling of more control over their environment, and a higher tolerance of ambiguity.4? Carol Tavis surveyed readers of a psychology periodical with regard to their attitudes about the role of women and the Women's Liberation Movement. Seventy-two percent of the sample were women. Primary factors associated with support of the Women's Liberation Movement for both sexes were political activism, religious liberalism, and the perception of sex role differences as cultural rather than genetic.^ For women, higher education was found to be an important predictor of support for the Women's Liberation Movement.^9 The Women's Liberation Movement and Nursing Cynthia Fuchs Epstein has said that sex role stereotyping in occu pations makes sex status prominent.50 She elaborated by saying that sex role stereotyping reflects sex ranking, and that since men rank first, they get first ranking jobs.5! Virginia Cleland said that nursing is weak because of its lack of men. She stated, "Today there is no doubt in my mind that 47Robert Pavlicki and Carol Almquist, "Authoritarianism, Locus of Con trol, and Tolerance of Ambiguity as Reflected in Membership and Non-Membership in a Women's Liberation Group," Psychological Reports, Vol. 32 (June, 1973), 1337. 48Carol Tavis, "Who Likes Women's Liberation - and Why: A Case of the Uniiberated Liberals," Journal of Social Issues, Vol. 29 No. 4 (1973), 181. 49ibid., p. 197. 50Cynthia Fuchs Epstein, Woman's Places Options and Limits in Profes  sional Careers (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1970), p. 152. 51 Ibid., p. 1543. 23 our most fundamental problem in nursing is that we are members of a woman's occupation in a male dominated culture."52 "Nursing in its utter isolation from all vestiges of power except within its own group can be likened to the exploitation of Negroes in our culture."53 Cleland continued, "The general lack of leadership in nursing, I believe, derives directly from the social position of women in society."54 she related the problems in nursing today to the issue of women's rights. Cleland believes that sex discrimi nation can be attacked by ignoring the marital status of women, providing equal salaries for equal work regardless of sex, and by evolving new employ ment styles which consider pregnancy and young children.55 Joan Roberts and Thetis Group described the historical process in which men assumed control of the practice of medicine. They discussed the way in which nurses have been cast into dependent and submissive roles by male physicians. Roberts and Group felt that nurses could correct this pro cess by working with the Women's Movement. They stated, "... it is clear that if a profession is going to be run by women, fully acceptable to all, the attitudes toward women will have to change or 'we'll never make it, baby!1"55 Roberts and Group remarked that strong leadership is needed by women who know what they are as nurses and as women.57 ^Virginia Cleland, "Sex Discrimination: Nursing's Most Pervasive Problem," American Journal of Nursing, Vol. 71 No. 8 (August, 1971), 1542. 53Ibid. , p. 1543. 54ibid. , 1545. 55Ibid., p. 1546-1547. 55Joan T. Roberts and Thetis M. Group, "The Women's Movement and Nursing," Nursing Forum, Vol. 12 No. 3 (1973), 320. 57Ibid., p. 321. 24 Karen Lamb stated, "It is impossible for nursing to achieve real professionalization and lower the drastic dropout rate among our practir tioners, or for us to assume control over ourselves as individuals and as a collectivity, to take more active roles as innovators and instigators of social change, and to develop a career-orientation until we have elevated the position of all women and of nurses."58 She sees alliance with the Women's Liberation Movement as the route to needed social change. Jo Ann Ashley discussed the need for power and freedom in nursing and indicated that many of nursing's problems are due to the social position of women. She stated, "Society does not yet value independence of mind for women and most especially for nurses. Authority is still the main value subscribed to and upheld in health care delivery systems. It is this very authority that prevents nurses from moving more rapidly toward the goal of intellectual freedom and independence in their practice. If we do not obtain the power to reach this goal, we cannot hope to improve the quality of nursing care made available to the American public."59 in reference to nursing prior to World War I, Ashley stated, "The failure of nurses to identify with radical feminists seeking to change the social order led to the failure of the nursing profession to liberate both education and practice."60 in the past, sexual 58«aren T. Lamb, "Freedom for Our Sister, Freedom for Ourselves: Nursing Confronts Social Change," Nursing Forum, Vol. 12 No. 4 (1973), 328. 59jo Ann Ashley, "Power, Freedom and Professional Practice in Nursing," Supervisor Nurse, Vol. 6 No. 1 (January, 1975), 29. 6uAshley, "Nursing and Early Feminism," American Journal of Nursing, Vol. 75 No. 9 (September, 1975), 1465. 25 prejudices were not questioned and therefore paternalism was legalized. Ashley feels that this has resulted in the continuing low status of nurses 61 and economic discrimination in nursing. In order to make changes and stop the oppression of women and nurses, Ashley suggested working with the Women's Liberation Movement. She said, "Today identification with the feminist cause 62 and obtaining equality with men in the health field is a must." Ruth Edelstein discussed the role of leaders in the history of nursing. Referring to the present, she stated, "It is likely that most of today's nursing leaders and the young nurses now coming out of nursing schools will be 'new feminists' who think sex roles at work obsolete. The future direction of the profession rests in their hands." In a publication which documented the existence of health care sex discrimination in Canada, examples were given. Nurses working together to eradicate the feminine mystique was a solution.. offered.64 Wilma Scott Heide cited ways in which health care would be upgraded by ascribing to feminism. She discussed freeing women for decision making and independent thinking and freeing men to experience nurturance. Heide stated, "To truly humanize society, the traditional feminine qualities must 65 be released publicly in everyone." Heide said that some of the results of Ibid., p. 1466. "Ibid., p. 1467. Ruth Greenberg Edelstein, "Equal Rights for Women: Perspectives," American Journal of Nursing, Vol. 71 No.2 (February, 1971), 298. 64 "Is there Sex Discrimination in Health Care?," The Canadian Nurse, Vol. 71 No. 12 (December, 1975), 18. 65 Wilma Scott Heide, "Nursing and Women's Liberation, a Parallel," American Journal of Nursing, Vol. 73 No. 5 (May, 1973), 824. 26 the liberation of nurses and of nursing would be budgets controlled by nurses, better salaries and equal opportunities for male and female nurses, representation of women on health advisory committees, the end of a sub servient role of nurses, and recognition that nursing and medicine are com plementary. 56 Judith Shockley outlined the roles of women from before World War II through the late sixties when women began to realize that the feminine mys tique had been sold to them. Shockley suggested that support of the Women's Liberation Movement might help nursing to resolve many of its internal and external conflicts. She expressed the opinion that nurses who agree with the beliefs of the Women's Liberation Movement will be better able to help women clients dealing with the wife and mother role and to assist women clients experiencing identity crises.67 Barbara Madden explained that sex discri mination and the problems that it causes in nursing can be dealt with by the incorporation of feminist ideology into nursing curriculum. She outlined ways in which this could be accomplished.68 66lbid., p. 826. 67Judith Salmon Shockley, "Perspectives in Femininity Implications for Nursing," Nursing Digest, Vol. 3 No. 6 (November-December, 1975), 52. 68Barbara P. Madden, "Raising the Consciousness of Nursing Students," Nursing Outlook, Vol. 23 No. 5 (May, 1975), 292. 27 Summary The nursing profession is in need of leaders. Sex discrimination and the socialization of women into an inferior role have been cited as possible causes of nurses and women remaining in subordinate positions without power. It appears that the role of woman in society contributes to the lack of nursing leaders today. The Women's Liberation Movement provides an alternative to the tra ditional view of women in society. The benefits to women, nurses, and society in general of following the philosophy of the Women's Liberation Movement were discussed. Various prominent nursing authors listed ways in which they felt alliance with the Women's Liberation Movement would benefit nursing. In view of the need for leaders in nursing, the current roles of women, and the speculated benefits derived from a belief in feminism, it appears reasonable to investigate whether a difference in leadership charac teristics exists among members of the Women's Liberation Movement, nurses, and another group of women, and whether or not leadership characteristics and a belief in feminism are related, as such differences or relationships could be seen to hold implications for generating nursing leadership through planned change. 28 CHAPTER III Methodology Introduction After the literature related to leadership, and the Women's Liber ation Movement had been reviewed, the three samples to be studied were selected, and the tools chosen. Three questionnaires were used to measure leadership characteristics and attitudes towards feminism. The Gordon Personal Profile (GPP) and selected scales of the Gordon Personal Inventory (GPI) were used to measure leadership characteristicsJ (See Appendix A) The FEM scale was used to measure attitudes toward feminism.2 (See Appen dix B) The data were then collected and analyzed. The Sample Three groups of women in the Lower Mainland were selected for this study: 1) graduating baccalaureate nursing students; 2) members of the Women's Liberation Movement; 3) women students in a University library science program (another comparison group). Thirty nursing students par ticipated on a voluntary basis from the entire class of graduating students Leonard V. Gordon, Gordon 'Personal Profile, Gordon Personal Inven  tory (New York: Harcourt, Brace and World, Inc., 1963). p Elliot R. Smith et al., "A Short Scale of Attitudes Toward Feminism," Representative Research in Social Psychology, Vol. 6 (1975), 54-55. 29 numbering ninety nine. The members of the Women's Liberation Movement were chosen from Women's Liberation centers in the community. The sample of thirty was obtained from four women's centers during meetings. Twenty four library science students were obtained from two classes of students numbering thirty combined. All women included in the sample had at least thirteen years of education. Seventy eight percent of the total sample had full time work experience. Tools Used The GPP and selected scales of the GPI were used to measure leader ship characteristics. These tools were chosen because they closely measured the characteristics identified by Stogdill as being characteristics of leaders.3 Both Gordon questionnaires have been developed according to scales that re present measured characteristics. The scales used and a description of each is given. (See Appendix C) Stogdill's composite of leadership characteristics as well as the scales used to measure each characteristic are included in Appendix D. Each question of both Gordon tests consisted of a set of four descrip tors. Each subject was asked to choose one statement most like himself and one least like himself. In addition to the tests, subjects were also asked whether or not they had full time work experience and if so for how long. They were also asked to state the number of years of education that they had completed. This was done as a check for homogeneity of the sample. 3Ralph M. Stogdill, Handbook of Leadership A Survey of Theory and Re  search (New York and London: The Free Press, 1974), p. 81. " 30 The FEM scale, in Appendix B, was used to measure attitudes towards feminism. The FEM scale is a twenty items scale which uses a Likert format. It deals with agreement or disagreement of the central beliefs of feminism. Its correlates include activism and subjective identification with the Women's Liberation Movement.4 The FEM scale is a revised up to date version of Kirkpatrick's Belief-Pattern Scale for Measuring Attitudes Towards Femi-nism. In 1936, Clifford Kirkpatrick developed a tool to assess a cultural pattern, that would be valid in measuring agreement or disagreement with g issues, and avoid forcing alternatives on the subjects. Data Collection The nursing students were asked to participate in the study one week before the data were collected. Each of the different questionnaires was completed following class. The Women's Liberation groups were contacted by telephone. The purpose of the research was briefly explained. The data were collected at four Women's Liberation meetings in various communi ties in the Lower Mainland. The library science students, who were another group, were asked to participate at the conclusion of a class. The questionnaires for each respective group were analyzed separately. Smith, et al., "A Short Scale of Attitudes," p. 51. 5 Ibid., p. 51. c Clifford Kirkpatrick, "The Construction of a Belief-Pattern Scale for Measuring Attitudes Towards Feminism," Journal of Social Psychology, Vol. 7 (1936), 421. 31 Data Analysis The data were analyzed using nonparametric statistics. Nonparametric tests were chosen because the data obtained were ordinal. The two statis tics used were the Kruskal Wallis analysis of variance for hypotheses I and II and the Spearman coefficient of rank correlation for hypotheses III, IV, and V. The Kruskal Wallis test was used because its use of rank order of a given criterion does not assume underlying normality or homogeneity of variance. In comparison with the F test, the Kruskal Wallis test has a re lative asymptotic efficiency of 3/TT = 95.5 per cent.^ Although not generally used with ordinal data, the F test was computed due to the ease and speed of an available computer program. The test F ratio was compared to the critical value of F, namely 3.11 at the .05 level of significance, for two degrees of freedom for treatment and eighty one degrees of freedom for within group variance. An F ratio exceeding the critical value of 3.11 would therefore indicate significance at the five per cent level. This would lead to rejection of the null hypothesis. The Kruskal Wallis analysis of variance was computed by ranking the scores on leadership characteristics and attitudes towards feminism in the three groups. Following the ranking, the H statistic was calculated for leadership characteristics and attitudes towards feminism. The formula for 7George A. Ferguson, Statistical Analysis in Psychology and Education (3rd ed.; Mew York: McGraw-Hill Book Co., 1971), p. 333. 32 the H statistic8is H = 3 (N+l) where k = number of groups n^ = number of cases in the .th sample J N = En-, the number of cases in all samples combined R. = sum of ranks in ^th sample (column) k E = the sum of j=l from j=l to k t = number of tied ranks within a group T = t3 - t The H statistic of the Kruskal Wall is analysis of variance is distributed as a chi square distribution with K-l degrees of freedom.9 At the .05 level of significance using K-l namely, 2 degrees of freedom and the chi square distribution, the critical value is 5.99. Thus, an H statistic with a value exceeding the critical value of 5.99 indicates statistical significance at or beyond the five per cent level and would lead to rejection of the null hypothesis. A Scheffe test was performed in order to contrast each possible pair of samples when both the F ratio and the H statistic demonstrated significance. 8Sidney Sieqel, Nonparametric Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences, (New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co., Inc., 1956), p. 185. : ~ 9Ibid., p. 18®. 33 The Scheffe' test used the estimated error variances previously obtained from the parametric analysis of variance. The formula for the Scheffe/ 10 test is F = (xT - xp2 sw2/ + sw2/ where XT = mean of the n-th group Xj = mean of the jth group sw2 = estimate of the within group variance n-j = number in the ^th group n^ = number in the jth group F = ratio of variance estimates between groups to within groups sb2/sw2 Following computation of the F ratio, the F table was consulted to obtain a critical value for F at the .05 level of significance for df^ = k - 1 = 3 - 1 = 2, and df2 = n - k = 84 - 2 = 82. The critical value was found to be 3.11. F' was calculated at (k - 1) F , namely 6.22. Significance at the .05 level was attained when the value of F was greater than or equal to that of F' or 6.22. The Spearman coefficient of rank correlation was used to determine the relationship between attitudes towards feminism and leadership character-l°George A. Ferguson, Statistical Analysis In Psychology and Education 4th ed.; New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co., 1976), p. 296. 34 istics in each of the three groups. The Spearman rank order correlation coefficient package of the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences was used. The Spearman statistic was used because it is a measure of association in which both variables are measured on an ordinal scale and the subjects are ranked.^ In order to compute the statistic, raw scores were changed into 12. ranks. The formula for the Spearman coefficient of rank order correlation is . , 6Zd2  rh0 = 1 " N(N*- 1) where N = number of paired ranks d = difference between pairs of ranks The critical value at the .05 level of significance was obtained on the basis of the number of subjects in each group using the table of critical values for the Spearman rank order correlation coefficientJ3 Critical values of rho for different sample sizes were computed by determining the critical value at the five per cent level of significance for t and then transforming the t value into rho: rho = 1 t2 t* + (n-2) ^Siegel, Nonparametric Statistics, p. 202. ^Curtis D. Hardyck and Lewis F. Petrinovich, Introduction to Statistics  for the Behavioral Sciences (Philadelphia and London: W. B. Saunders Co., 1969), p. 221. l^Siegel, Nonparametric Statistics, p. 284. 35 CHAPTER IV Data Analysis and Interpretation Introduction Data analysis and interpretation centered around testing the five hypotheses. Data consisting of eighty four sets of questionnaires were collected. The data were collected in three groups of thirty graduating baccalaureate nursing students, thirty members of the Women's Liberation Movement, and twenty four library science students. The participants in this study were all female. Permission from a teacher of the nursing stu dents and a teacher of the library science students was obtained in order to ask the students to take part in the study. Participation was voluntary. In order to locate groups of the Women's Liberation Movement, a directory entitled Guide to the British Columbia Women's Movement, was used to iden tify Women's Liberation groups in the Lower Mainland.^ Following a tele phone explanation of the study to one member of each group, the writer at tended four Women's Liberation Movement meetings in four communities of the Lower Mainland. Again, participation was voluntary. Participants consisted of groups of six, ten, ten, and four women respectively. All subjects in volved in the study had at least thirteen years of education and seventy eight per cent had full time work experience varying from one to twenty five years. •1 Guide to the British Columbia Women's Movement (3rd printing; British Columbia: Western Canadian Women's News, 1976), pp. 13, 15, 17. 36 Hypothesis I There is no significant difference in leadership charac teristics, as measured by scores on the Gordon Personal Profile and the Gordon Personal Inventory, among students graduating from a baccalaureate nursing program, women.belonging to organ ized groups of the Women's Liberation Movement, and students in a library science program. A parametric analysis of variance of the leadership characteristic scores of all three groups, was first computed because of availability and ease of the calculation. The results were as follows: TABLE I Analysis of Variance comparing Leadership Characteristics  among Nursing Students, Members of the Women's Liberation Movement, and Library Science Students Source df SS MS Total 83 25421.95 Treatment (betn' 2 874.25 437.12 Error (within) 81 24547.70 303.05 1.44 An F ratio of 1.44 was computed. This was not significant at the .05 level. Although the Kruskal Wall is test is less powerful, it was computed because of the need for a nonparametric measure in dealing with ordinal data. The leadership characteristic scores of the three groups were pooled and ranked. The ranking is contained in Appendix E. The results of the H statistic were 10.45. This value was greater than the critical value of 5.99 and was signi ficant beyond the .01 level. The discrepancy in significance is probably due 37 to the differences in efficiency of the two tests. The more powerful parametric analysis of variance indicated that there was no difference among the three groups in leadership characteristics while the less power ful nonparametric analysis of variance indicated that there was a stgni.fi ^ cant difference among the groups in leadership characteristics. Since the parametric analysis of variance did not appear significant, comparisons between the various groups could not be computed. Hypothesis II There is no significant difference in attitudes towards feminism, as measured by the FEM scale, among students gradua ting from a baccalaureate nursing program, women belonging to organized groups of the Women's Liberation Movement, and students in a library science programm. For reasons explained previously, a parametric analysis of variance of the scores on the FEM scale was first computed. The results were as follows: TABLE II Analysis of Variance comparing Attitudes towards Feminism  among Nursing Students, Members of the Women's Liberation Movement, and Library Science Students. Source df SS MS Total 83 8174.95 Treatment (between) 2 2903.29 1451.64 Error (within) 81 5271.65 65.08 38 An F ratio of 22.30, significant at the .01 level was found. The H statistic of the Kruskal Wallis analysis of variance was then computed. The FEM scale scores of the three groups were ranked. The ranking is contained in Appendix F. The results of the H statistic were found to be 31.90. This value was greater than the critical value of 5.99 and was signi ficant beyond the .01 level. The null hypothesis was therefore rejected. These findings indicate that the three groups do not originate from the same population with respect to attitudes towards feminism. Since both the F ratio and the H statistic were significant, a Scheffe' test was performed in order to contrast each possible pair of samples. The mean of the scores of each group was computed and parametric mean square values used. The results of the Scheffe test are as follows: TABLE III Comparison of Attitudes towards Feminism, between Nursing Students,  Members of the Women's Liberation Movement, and Library Science Students. Comparison F ratio Group I/Group II Nursing Students/ Members of the Women's Liberation Movement 23.13 Group I/Group II Nursing Students/ Library Science Students .026 Group II/Group III Members of the Women's Liberation Movement/ Library Science Students 30.82 39 The F ratio of the comparison between the nursing students and members of the Women's Liberation Movement exceeded the critical value of 6.22 and was considered significant at the .05 level. There was no significant dif ference between the nursing students and the library science students. Again, the comparison between members of the Women's Liberation Movement and library science students was significant at the .05 level. The null hypothesis was rejected and the alternative hypothesis that the three groups come from different populations was accepted. The greatest differences in attitudes towards feminism were found between the group of members of the Women's Liberation Movement and the other two groups. Although all participants in the study were women, the group belonging to the Women's Liberation Movement probably differed from the other groups either as an ante cedent condition to or as a result of their involvement in the Women's Liber ation Movement. Since one of the basic tenets of the Women's Liberation Move ment is a belief in feminism, it seems logical that this group would differ from the others in their attitudes towards feminism. It may be speculated, therefore, that the members of the Women's Liberation Movement believe more in freedom from sex role stereotypes and greater career orientation for women than the other groups. Although the results indicating a difference in attitudes towards femi nism were highly significant, it is possible that some women in the groups of nursing students and library science students were also members of the Women's Liberation Movement. Conversely, it is possible that some members of the Women's Liberation Movement were nursing students or library science students although no subject participated twice in this study. If this were true, an even greater difference regarding attitudes towards feminism may exist between 40 nursing students and library science students who are not members of the Women's Liberation Movement and women who are members. Further study dif ferentiating more clearly between members of the Women's Liberation Movement and non members might be helpful in clarifying this point. Hypothesis III There is no significant relationship between attitudes towards feminism, as measured by the FEM scale, and leader ship characteristics, as measured by scores on the Gordon Personal Profile and Gordon Personal Inventory, in graduating baccalaureate nursing students. Scores on the FEM scale were calculated. Scores on the ascendancy, responsibility, sociability, emotional stability, and originality scales of the GPP and the GPI were tabulated. In addition, another variable composed of the combination of scores on each of these scales and named total opper-ationally defined leadership characteristics. The Spearman coefficient of rank order correlation was computed. Each variable, ascendancy, responsi bility, sociability, emotional stability, originality, and total was corre lated with attitudes towards feminism. The results were as follows: TABLE IV Correlation Coefficient of Leadership Characteristics with  Attitudes towards Feminism among Nursing Students. Ascendancy Responsibility Sociability Emotional Originality Total with with with Stabi1ity with wi th Feminism Feminism Feminism with Feminism Feminism r= -0.08 r= -0.18 r= -0.02 Feminism r= -0.10 r= -0.16 r= -0.28 41 None of the correlation coefficients reached the critical value of 0.36 at the .05 level of significance. This indicates that there is no re lationship between leadership characteristics and attitudes towards femi nism in graduating baccalaureate nursing students. The null hypothesis was therefore accepted. In view of the literature review regarding characteristics of nurses and nursing students as well as a mean score on the FEM scale of 19.6 from a possible positive or negative 38, it is possible that so few nurses have strong positive attitudes towards feminism that to correlate leadership characteristics with attitudes towards feminism is of little use. This sample is a select sample of nursing students in that it is composed of students graduating from a baccalaureate program. The sample is further composed of students who have not yet worked as nurses and registered nurses who have returned to school to obtain a bachelors degree. A woman who chooses a baccalaureate program for her basic education rather than a diploma program may possess more leadership characteristics than a diploma nursing student. It is possible that she chose a baccalaureate education in order to perform as a nursing leader after graduation. A registered nurse returning to school may have come back because of frustration in her work and a desire to assume more responsibility and hence exercise more leadership in her job. Therefore, if these women possessed more leadership characteristics than other nursing students and very slight positive attitudes towards feminism, the relationship between the two variables would not be significant. Perhaps the socialization of nursing students and practicing nurses with value often placed on the sub ordinate role is related to their attitudes towards feminism.and their leader-42 ship characteristics. Since the development of leaders within the nursing profession is crucial, the question of finding leadership characteristics again arises. It would be of great importance to identify those nursing students posses sing leadership characteristics and to develop these characteristics. Hypothesis IV There is no significant relationship between attitudes towards feminism, as measured by the FEM scale, and leadership characteristics, as measured by scores on the Gordon Personal Profile and Gordon Personal Inventory, in women belonging to organized groups of the Women's Liberation Movement. Scores on the FEM scale were calculated. Scores on the various scales of the GPP and GPI were tabulated. The variable named total was made up of the scores on the GPP and the GPI and defined leadership characteristics. The Spearman coefficient of rank order correlation was computed. The com puter ranked the data and correlated all variables with attitudes towards feminism. The results were as follows: TABLE V Correlation Coefficient of Leadership Characteristics with Attitudes  towards Feminism among Members of the Women's Liberation Movement. Ascendancy Responsibility Sociability Emotional Originality Total with with with Stability wi th with Feminism Feminism Femi ni sm with Feminism Femi ni sm r= 0.26 r= 0.27 r= 0.23 Feminism r= 0.20 r= 0.33 r= 0.07 None of the correlation coefficients reached the critical value of 0.36 at 43 the .05 level of significance. Although the r value of .33 for the total correlated with attitudes towards feminism approaches significance at the .05 level, the null hypothesis was accepted. The correlation coefficients indicate that no relationship exists between leadership and attitudes towards feminism among members of organized groups of the Women's Liberation Movement. Although members of the Women's Liberation Movement differed signifi cantly in attitudes towards feminism from other groups, perhaps this is re lated to a more humanistic attitude or any one of many other variables rather than leadership characteristics. It was assumed that women in the Women's Liberation Movement exhibited leadership characteristics, but it is possible that a few aggressive and dominant leaders have greatly influenced this image. A larger sample size and sampling a larger geographical area may confirm this assumption. A belief in feminism would be demonstrated in a belief that people, regardless of sex, are free to behave in either the so called masculine or feminine ways. Possibly this group of feminists chose a less forceful mode of performance than a leadership role to demonstrate their belief in feminism. Hypothesis V There is no significant relationship between attitudes towards feminism, as measured by the FEM scale, and leadership characteristics, as measured by scores on the Gordon Personal Profile and Gordon Personal Inventory, in students of a library science program. Scores on the FEM scale were calculated. The scores from the scales of the GPP and GPI were tabulated. Again, the variable total consisted of 44 a combination of scores from the scales of the GPP and the GPI and defined leadership characteristics. The Spearman rank order correlation coefficient was computed. Data were ranked by the computor and all variables correlated with attitudes towards feminism. The results were as follows: TABLE VI Correlation Coefficient of Leadership Characteristics with Attitudes  towards Feminism among Library Science Students. Ascendancy Responsibility Soci abi1i ty Emotional Originality Total with with with Stability with • with Feminism Feminism Feminism with Feminism Femini sm r= 0.27 r= 0.36 r= 0.08 Feminism r= 0.19 r= 0.38 r= 0.28 None of the correlated coefficients reached the critical value of 0.39 needed for significance at the .05 level. The null hypothesis that no relationship exists between leadership characteristics and attitudes towards feminism was accepted. The group of library science students showed no difference from the other two groups. Summary of Findings Two hypotheses were tested to determine whether graduating baccalaureate nursing students, members of the Women's Liberation Movement, and Library science students differed in terms of leadership characteristics and attitudes towards feminism. While no significant differences in leadership character istics were found, the members of the Women's Liberation Movement differed significantly from the other two groups in attitudes towards feminism. Three hypotheses were tested to find out whether significant relationships between 45 leadership characteristics and attitudes towards feminism existed within the groups of graduating baccalaureate nursing students, members of the Women's Liberation Movement, and library science students. Mo significant relationships were found. The problem of finding leadership characteristics within the nursing profession remains. 46 CHAPTER V Summary, Conclusions, and Recommendations Summary The purpose of this study was to determine whether a belief in feminism correlated with leadership characteristics. It was thought that if such a correlation was evidenced, some of the components of feminism, such as consciousness raising, might ultimately be incorporated into nursing in hopes of developing and providing more nursing leaders. The review of the literature focused on leadership in general, leadership in nursing, the Women's Liberation Movement, and the Women's Liberation Movement and nursing. Themes from the literature included the pressing need for nurse leaders and the opinions of some current nurse leaders who felt that the nursing pro fession would benefit from an awareness of and a belief in the feminist movement. Since it was also questioned whether women who believe in feminism and join Women's Liberation Movements demonstrate leadership characteristics, the attribute studied in relation to leadership characteristics was a belief in feminism. Thirty graduating baccalaureate nursing students, thirty members of the Women's Liberation Movement, and twenty four library science students were tested to measure their leadership characteristics as well as their attitudes towards feminism. When statistical tests were applied, the three groups were found to differ little in their leadership characteristics but to differ significantly in their attitudes towards feminism. The greatest differences in attitudes towards feminism were found between the group of members of the Women's Liberation Movement and the other two groups. No significant relationships were found between attitudes towards feminism and leadership characteristics within any of the three groups. Limitations of the Study There were a number of limitations encountered in conducting this study. The major limitations were: 1. The work experience in the three groups varied from no experience to twenty five years of experience. This may have affected the subjects' leadership characteristics and belief in feminism. 2. The educational levels varied within the Women's Liberation Move ment group and were not necessarily consistent with the other two groups. 3. The age range of the three groups varied widely. Life's experiences may have affected the subjects' leadership characteristics and be lief in feminism. 4. The socialization of nursing students into the professional nurse role might mask the demonstration of positive attitudes towards feminism. 5. It was necessary to use convenience sample population groups rather than random assessment of individuals from the total popula tion of the three groups. Implications and Conclusions Because a survey of the literature indicated a great need for nursing leaders as well as the speculated benefits to the nursing profession that a belief in feminism might bring, the question of whether or not a belief in 48 feminism might be related to leadership characteristics arose. The three groups studied were first tested to determine differences in leadership characteristics and then tested to assess relationships between attitudes to wards feminism and leadership characteristics within each group. This study showed that there was no difference in leadership charac teristics among graduating baccalaureate nursing students, members of the Women's Liberation Movement, and library science students. While the GPP and the GPI have been tested for reliability and validity, only one study was found which used the GPP as a measurement of leadership potentialJ In this study the ascendancy scale of the GPP was used to define leadership potential. No significant differences were found among nursing graduates of baccalaureate, associate degree, and diploma programs in terms of leader ship potential. It would be of interest to compare the scores of the graduating nursing students in this study with those of college students. There was, however, a difference in attitudes towards feminism with the members of the Women's Liberation Movement differing most from the other two groups. There were no significant relationships between attitudes to wards feminism and leadership characteristics within any of the three groups. The difference in attitudes towards feminism seemed accounted for by the be lief in feminism professed by the Women's Liberation Movement. It seemed reasonable to expect that its members would differ from other women in their 'Mary Ann Bruegel Richards, "A Study of Differences in Psychological Characteristics of Students Graduating from Three Types of Basic Nursing Programs," Nursing Research, Vol. 21 No. 3 (May-June, 1972), 258-261. 49 attitudes towards feminism. Since there were no significant relationships between attitudes towards feminism and leadership characteristics, it can be concluded that leadership characteristics are not caused by a belief in feminism, a belief in feminism is not caused by the possession of leader ship characteristics, and a belief in feminism and leadership characteris tics are not caused by some other variable, common to all three groups. Recommendations for Further Study Some recommendations for further study include: (1) Replication of this study would help to attain greater validity in the results. Perhaps repeating the study in another geographical location might lead to other results since it is possible that, due to socialization, students in one area are similar in certain attitudes. Knowledge about generalizabi1ity would be acquired this way. (2) Identifying other tools to measure leadership characteristics might help to better assess this area. It would be important to develop a list of leadership qualities needed specifically by the nursing profession and then to create or locate a tool which specifically measures these. Although the Gordon tools measure leadership characteristics in general, something more pertinent to nursing might be needed. (3) Identifying leadership characteristics in persons demonstrating leadership in nursing might be a useful way of determining those leadership characteristics needed by the nursing profession. If these attributes could be identified and provided that leadership characteristics are at least par tially environmentally determined, a strategy for assessing the presence of 50 these traits in beginning nursing students would be important. A method of teaching which maximizes leadership characteristics followed by an assessment of leadership characteristics at the end of the program as well as in five years time might be helpful in the development of leaders in the nursing pro fession. (4) Specifying demographic characteristics of the subject in the study would be important since it is possible that some of these, such as the amount of education and work experience, could influence both leadership characteristics and a belief in feminism. In conclusion, no significant differences were found in leadership characteristics among the three groups. Significant differences in atti tudes towards feminism were found as expected. Mo significant relation ships between attitudes towards feminism and leadership characteristics were found. It was therefore concluded that no causal relationships exist between a belief in feminism and leadership characteristics. Suggestions for further study were offered. 51 BIBLIOGRAPHY 52 BIBLIOGRAPHY Books Dolan, Josephine A. History of Nursing. 12th ed. Philadelphia, London and Toronto: W. B. Saunders Co., 1968. Editorial Research Reports on The Women's Movement. Washington, D. C: Congressional Quarterly, Inc., 1973. Ehrenreich, Barbara, and English, Deirdre. Witches, Midwives, and Nurses - A History of Women Healers. 2nd ed. Westbury, New York: The Feminist Press, 1973. Epstein, Cynthia Fuchs. Woman's Place Options and Limits in Professional  Careers. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1970. Ferguson, George A. Statistical Analysis in Psychology and Education. 3rd ed. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co., 1971. Ferguson, George A. Statistical Analysis in Psychology and Education. 4th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co., 1976. Fiedler, Fred E. and Chemers, Martin A. Leadership and Effective Manage  ment. Glenview, Illinois and Brighton, England: Scott Foresman ancTCo., 1974. Fiedler, Fred E. "Leadership and Leadership Effectiveness Traits: A Reconceptualization of the Leadership Trait Problem." Leadership  and Interpersonal Behavior. Edited by Luigi Petrullo and Bernard M. Bass. New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, Inc., 1961. Firestone, Shulamith. "On American Feminism Women in Sexist Society." Studies in Power and Powerlessness. Edited by Vivian Gornich and Barbara K. Moran. 3rd ed. New York: Basic Books, Inc., 1971. Friedan, Betty. The Feminine Mystique. New York: W. W. Norton and Co., 1963. Gibb, Cecil A. "Leadership." The Handbook of Social Psychology. Edited by Gardner Lindzey and Elliot Aronson. 4th volume 2nd ed. Reading, Massachusetts and Menlo Park, California: Addison-Wesley Publishing Co., 1969. 53 Guide to the British Columbia Women's Movement. 3rd printing. British Columbia: Western Canadian Women's News, 1976. Harbeson, Gladys E. Choice and Challenge for the American Woman. Cam bridge, Massachusetts: Schenkman Publishing Co., 1967. Hardyck, Curtis D., and Petrinovich, Lewis F. Introduction to Statistics  for the Behavioral Sciences. Philadelphia and London, Toronto: W. B. Saunders Co., 1969. Janeway, Elizabeth. Between Myth and Morning Women Awakening. New York: William Morrow and Co., Inc., 1974. Kellen, Konrad. The Coming of Age of Woman Power. New York: Peter H. Wyden, Inc., 1972. Millet, Kate. Sexual Politics. Garden City, Mew York: Doubleday and Co. Inc. , 1970. Siege!, Sidney. Nonparametric Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences. New York and Toronto: McGraw-Hill Book Co., Inc., 1956. Stogdill, Ralph M. Handbook of Leadership A Survey of Theory and Research. New York and London: The Free Press, 1974. Turabian, Kate L. A Manual for Writers of Term Papers, Theses, and Dis  sertations. 3rd ed. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1967. Periodicals Ashley, Jo Ann. "Nursing and Early Feminism." American Journal of  Nursing, Vol. 75 No. 1 (September, 1975), 1465-1467. Ashley, Jo Ann. "Power, Freedom and Professional Practice in Nursing." Supervisor Nurse, Vol. 6 No. 1 (January, 1975), 12-14, 17-29. Bailey, June, and Claus, Karen. "Comparative Analysis of the Personality Structure of Nursina Students." Nursing Research, Vol. 18 No. 4 (July, 1969), 320-326. Bailey, M. A. "An Obverse Factor Analytic Study of Values in Psychologists, Psychiatrists, Social Workers, and Nurses." Journal of Clinical Psy chology, Vol. 19 No. 1 (1963), 120-124. 54 Beletz, Elaine E. "Is Nursing's Public Image Up to Date?" Nursing Out look, Vol. 22 No. 7 (July, 1974), 432-435. Bullough, Bonnie, and Bullough, Vern. "Sex Discrimination in Health Care." Nursing Outlook, Vol. 23 No. 1 (January, 1975), 40-45. Christman, Luther. "Nursing Leadership - Style and Substance." American  Journal of Nursing, Vol. 67 No. 10 (October, 1967), 2091-2093. Cleland, Virginia. "Sex Discrimination: Nursing's Most Pervasive Problem." American Journal of Nursing, Vol. 71 No. 8 (August, 1971), 1542-1547. Collins, D. L. et al. "The Image of the Nurse is Mot Changing." Nursing  Outlook, Vol. 19 No. 7 (July, 1971), 456-459. Davis* Anne. "Self Concept, Occupational Role Expectations and Occupa tional Choice in Nurses and Social Work Students." Nursing Research, Vol. 18 No. 1 (January-February, 1969), 55-59. Edelstein, Ruth Greenberg. "Equal Rights for Women: Perspectives." American Journal of Nursing, Vol. 71 No. 2 (February, 1971), 294-298. Francis, Hilda. "Leadership Experience for ADN Students." American  Journal of Nursing, Vol. 72 No. 7 (July, 1972), 1264-1265. Gilbert, Marie A. "Personality Profiles and Leadership Potential of Medical-Surgical and Psychiatric Nursing Graduate Students." Nursing  Research, Vol. 24 No. 2 (March-April, 1975), 125-130. Goldberg, Carlos. "Conformity to Majority Type as a Function of Task and Acceptance of Sex Related Stereotypes." The Journal of Psychology, Vol. 89 No. 1 (January, 1975), 25-37. Goldschmidt, Jean, et al. "The Women's Liberation Movement: Attitudes and Action." The Journal of Personality, Vol. 42 No. 4 (December, 1974), 601-607. Hal as, Celia M. "Sex Role Stereotypes: Perceived Childhood Socialization Experiences and the Attitudes and Behavior of Adult Women." The Journal of Psychology, Vol. 88 No. 9 (September, 1974), 261-275. Heide, Wilma Scott. "Nursing and Women's Liberation a Parallel." American  Journal of Nursing, Vol. 73 No. 5 (May, 1973), 824-827. Hoffman, Helmut. "Note on Personality Traits of Student Nurses." Psycho logical Reports, Vol. 27 No. 3 (December, 1970), 1004. "Is There Sex Discrimination In Health Care?" The Canadian Nurse, Vol. 71 No. 12 (December, 1975), 15-18. 55 Jones, Mary. "Leadership Experience for Senior Students." Nursing  Outlook, Vol. 22 No. 6 (June, 1974), 394-397. Kelly, William L. "Psychological Prediction of Leadership in Nursing." Nursing Research, Vol. 23 No. 1 (January-February, 1974), 38-41. Kirkpatrick, Clifford. "The Construction of a Belief-Pattern Scale for Measuring Attitudes Towards Feminism." Journal of Social Psychology, Vol. 7 (1936), 421-437. Lamb, Karen. "Freedom for Our Sister, Freedom for Ourselves: Nursing Confronts Social Change." Nursing Forum, Vol. 12 No. 4 (1973), 328-352. Lande, Sylvia. "Nursing Career Perceptions Among High School Students." Nursing Research, Vol. 15 No. 4 (Fall, 1966), 337-342. "Leadership Problems and Possibilities in Nursing." American Journal of  Nursing, Vol. 72 No. 8 (August, 1972), 1445-1456. Leininger, Madeline. "The Leadership Crisis in Nursing: A Critical Prob lem and Challenqe." Journal of Nursing Administration, (March-April, 1974), 28-34. Levinson, Richard. "Sexism in Medicine." American Journal of Nursing, Vol. 76 No. 3 (March, 1976), 426-431. Madden, Barbara P. "Raisinq the Consciousness of Nursing Students." Nursing Outlook, Vol. 23 No. 5 (May, 1975), 292-296'. Mann, R. D. "A Review of the Relationships Between Personality and Perfor mance in Small Groups." Psychological Bulletin, Vol. 56 Mo. 4 (1959), 241-270. Pavlicki, Robert, and Almquist, Carol. "Authoritarianism, Locus of Control, and Tolerance of Ambiguity as reflected in Membership and Non Member ship in a Women's Liberation Group." Psychological Reports, Vol. 32 (June, 1973), 1331-1337. Richards, Mary Ann Bruegel. "A Study of Differences in Psychological Charac teristics of Students Graduating from Three Types of Basic Nursing Pro grams." Nursing Research, Vol. 21 No. 3 (May-June, 1972), 258-261. Roberts, Joan T., and Group, Thetis M. "The Women's Movement and Nursing." Nursing Forum, Vol. 12 No. 3 (1973), 303-322. Schlotfeldt, Rozella. "On the Professional Status of Nursing." Nursing Forum, Vol. 13 No. 1 (1974), 16-37. 56 Shockley, Judith Salmon. "Perspectives in Femininity Implications for Nursinq." Nursing Digest, Vol. 3 No. 6 (November-December, 1975), 49-52.~ Smith, Elliot R. et a1. "A Short Scale of Attitudes Toward Feminism." Representative Research In Social Psychology, Vol. 6 (1975), 51-56. Smith, Jeanne. "Personality Structure in Beginning Nursing Students: A Factor Analytic Study." Nursing Research, Vol. 17 No. 2 (March-April, 1968), 140-145. Stoloff, Carolyn. "Who Joins Women's Liberation?" Psychiatry, Vol. 36 (August, 1973), 325-340. Tavis, Carol. "Who Likes Women's Liberation - and Why: A Case of the Unliberated Liberals." Journal of Social Issues, Vol. 29 No. 4 (1973), 175-198. Uprichard, Muriel. "Ferment in Nursing." International Nursing Review, Vol. 16 No. 3 (1969), 222-234. Personal Communication Gordon, Leonard V. January 22nd, 1976, personal communication. 57 APPENDIX APPENDIX A THE GPP AND THE GPI Leonard V. Gordon, Gordon Personal Profile and Gordon  Personal Inventory, Mew York: Harcourt, Brace and World, Inc., 1963. The Gordon Personal Profile and Gordon Personal Inventory were obtained from the Guidance Centre, Faculty of Education, Uni versity of Toronto, 1000 Yonge Street, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M4W 2K8. The cost of one hundred and five Gordon Personal Profile and one hundred and five Gordon Personal Inventories was $47.70. A fifty per cent research discount was given. Harcourt, Brace and World, Inc., Publishers, would not grant permission to reproduce the Gordon Personal Profile and Gordon Personal Inventory. Copies may be obtained from Harcourt, Brace and World, Inc., New York, New York. APPENDIX B THE FEM SCALE 61 Opinion Questionnaire Please indicate agreement or disagreement with each of the following items according to one of the responses A-Strongly agree B-Agree C-Undecided D-Disagree E-Strongly disagree 1. Women have the right to compete with men in every sphere of acti vi ty. _2. As the head of the household, the father should have final authority over his children. 3. A woman who refuses to give up her job to move with her husband would be to blame if the marriage broke up. 4. A woman who refuses to bear children has failed in her duty to her husband. 5. A woman should be expected to change her name when she marries. 6. Whether or not they realize it, most women are exploited by men. 7. Women who join the Women's Liberation Movement are typically frustrated and unattractive people who feel they lose out by the current rules of society. 8. A working woman who sends her six month old baby to a day care center is a bad mother. 9. A woman to be truly womanly should gracefully accept the chivalrous attentions from men. 10. It is absurd to regard obedience as a wifely virtue. 11. One should never trust a woman's account of another woman. 12. The unmarried mother is morally a greater failure than the unmarried father. 13. The "clinging vine" wife is justified provided she clings sweetly enough to please her husband. 14. A woman should not expect to go to the same places or have the same freedom of action as a man. 15. Realistically speaking, most progress so far has been made by men and we can expect it to continue that way. 16. It is desirable that women be appointed to police forces with the same duties as men. 17. Women are basically more unpredictable than men. 18. It is all right for women to work but men will always be the basic breadwinners. 19. A woman should not expect to go to the same places or have the same freedom of action as a man. 20. Profanity sounds worse generally coming from a woman. APPENDIX C THE MEANING OF THE SCALES OF THE GPP AND THE GPI 64 The Meaning of the Scales of the GPP and the GPI Ascendancy Those individuals who adopt an active role in group situations, who are self assured and assertive in relationships with others, and who tend to make independent decisions, make high scores on this scale. Responsibility Those individuals who take responsibilities seriously, who are able to stick to any job and get it done, who are perservering and determined, score high on this scale. Emotional Stability High scores on this scale characterize individuals who are well balanced, emotionally stable, and relatively free from anxiety and ner vous tension. Sociability High scores on this scale are made by individuals who like to be with people and work with people, who are gregarious and sociable. Original Thinking Those who tend to be original in their thinking, like to work with ideas, enjoy difficult problems, and are reflective, score high on this scale. APPENDIX D STOGDILL1S COMPOSITE OF LEADERSHIP CHARACTERISTICS AS MEASURED BY THE GPP AND THE GPI STOGDILL'S COMPOSITE OF LEADERSHIP CHARACTERISTICS AS MEASURED BY THE GPP AMD THE GPI CHARACTERISTIC 1. Strong drive for responsibility and task completion 2. Vigor and persistence in pursuit of goals 3. Venturesomeness and originality in problem solving 4. Drive to exercise initiative in social situations 5. Self confidence and a sense of personal identity 6. Willingness to accept consequences of a decision and action 7. Readiness to absorb interpersonal stress 8. Willingness to tolerate frustration and delay 9. Capacity to structure social interaction to the purpose at hand 10. Ability to influence another person's behavior SCALE Responsibility Responsibility Original Thinking Sociabi 1 ity Emotional Stability and Ascendancy Responsibility Emotional Stability Responsibility Ascendancy Ascendancy APPENDIX E RANKED LEADERSHIP SCORES OF GRADUATING NURSING STUDENTS, MEMBERS OF THE WOMEN'S LIBERATION MOVEMENT, AND LIBRARY SCIENCE STUDENTS. 68 RANKING OF LEADERSHIP SCORES Group j Nursing Students Group TT Members 11 the WLM of Group UJ Library Science 11 Students Rank Leadership Score Rank Leadership Score Rank Leadership Score 46 57 36.5 81.5 76 26 53 2 3 5.5 7.5 38.5 73.5 28 63 38.5 33 69 7.5 17 23.5 61.5 76 25 55.5 30 59 41.5 28 83 121 126 116 141 138 111 124 72 79 87 91 117 137 112 129 117 115 133 91 101 109 128 138 no 125 113 127 118 112 144 ZRl = 1245 41.5 5.5 41.5 64 13 66.5 41.5 59 84 48.5 69 10.5 81.5 59 71 4 10.5 12 78 76 44.5 53 69 79 72 . 66.5 36.5 73.5 44.5 19.5 118 87 118 130 96 132 118 127 145 122 133 93 141 127 135 83 93 95 139 138 120 124 133 139 136 132 116 137 120 103 ZRII= 1494 5 48.5 31 21 78 53 33 61.5 19.5 14.5 28 33 51 48.5 48.5 65 18 9 1 14.5 22 80 16 55.5 23.5 122 114 104 139 124 115 128 103 97 112 115 123 122 122 131 102 92 71 97 108 140 99 125 109 ERIM = 873.5 APPENDIX.F RANKED FEM SCALE SCORES OF GRADUATING NURSING STUDENTS, MEMBERS OF THE WOMEN'S LIBERATION MOVEMENT, AND LIBRARY SCIENCE STUDENTS. 70 RANKING OF FEM SCORES Group I Nursing Students Group II Members of the WLM Group III Library Science Students Rank FEM Score Rank FEM Score Rank FEM Score 60 9.5 40 15.5 2 45.5 3.5 21.5 50 38 57.5 5.5 50 11.5 38 >52 13.5 13.5 18.5 57.5 32.5 72 24.5 24.5 9.5 48 24.5 7.5 50 60 31 10 23 15 0 25 4 17 27 22 30 5 27 12 22 28 14 14 16 30 21 35 18 18 10 26 18 9 27 31 SRI = 956 30 20 45.5 25 18.5 16 78 37 70.5 34 78 1 66.5 33 82 8 62.5 32 27.5 19 54.5 29 82 38 70.5 34 66.5 33 74.5 36 54.5 29 62.5 32 38 274.5 36 74.5 36 42.5 24 60 31 66.5 33 82 8 45.5 25 54.5 29 78 37 82 8 66.5 33 82 8 ZRII= 1870.5 30 24.5 40 32.5 40 74.5 66.5 27.5 7.5 1 66.5 11.5 42.5 38 38 18.5 54.5 18.5 15.5 5.5 45. 21 30 3. ,5 .5 20 18 23 21 23 36 33 19 9 -2 33 12 24 22 22 16 29 16 15 5 25 17 20 4 ER IH=753.5 

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