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Nursing, leadership and the women’s liberation movement 1976

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NURSING, LEADERSHIP, AND THE WOMEN'S LIBERATION MOVEMENT by GLORIA LOUISE JOACHIM DUBIN B.S.N., U n i v e r s i t y o f Maryland, 1969 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE IN NURSING i n THE SCHOOL OF NURSING We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the req u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA June, 1976 (c) G l o r i a Louise Joachim Duhin, 1976- In presenting th i s thes is in pa r t i a l fu l f i lment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the Un ivers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L ibrary sha l l make it f ree l y ava i l ab le for reference and study. I fur ther agree that permission for extensive copying of th is thes is for scho lar ly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representat ives. It is understood that copying or pub l i ca t ion of th is thes is for f i nanc ia l gain sha l l not be allowed without my wr i t ten permission. Department of NURSING The Univers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 i i i ABSTRACT The concern with the need f o r leaders i n the nursing p r o f e s s i o n as well as knowledge that many cu r r e n t nursing leaders advocate a l l i a n c e with the Women's L i b e r a t i o n Movement, gave r i s e to the study o f l e a d e r - ship c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , a t t i t u d e s towards feminism, and the r e l a t i o n s h i p between these i n s e l e c t e d female populations. The samples chosen f o r study were t h i r t y graduating baccalaureate nursing students, t h i r t y members o f organized groups o f the Women's L i b e r a t i o n Movement, and as another comparison group, twenty four l i b r a r y science students. Five hypotheses concerning l e a d e r s h i p c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and a t t i t u d e s towards feminism were t e s t e d . The hypotheses were: 1. There i s no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n l e a d e r s h i p c h a r a c t e r i s -t i c s , as measured by scores on the Gordon Personal P r o f i l e and the Gordon Personal Inventory, among students graduating from a bacca-laureate nursing program, women belonging to organized groups o f the Women's L i b e r a t i o n Movement, and students i n a l i b r a r y science program. 2. There i s no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n a t t i t u d e s towards feminism, as measured by the FEM s c a l e , among students graduating from a baccalaureate nursing program, women belonging to organized groups o f the Women's L i b e r a t i o n Movement, and students i n a l i b r a r y s cience program. 3. There i s no s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between a t t i t u d e s towards feminism, as measured by the FEM s c a l e , and l e a d e r s h i p c h a r a c t e r i s -t i c s , as measured by scores on the Gordon Personal P r o f i l e and the Gordon Personal Inventory, i n graduating baccalaureate nursing students. IV 4. There i s no s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between a t t i t u d e s towards feminism, as measured by the FEM s c a l e , and l e a d e r s h i p c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , as measured by scores on the Gordon Personal P r o f i l e and the Gordon Personal Inventory, i n women belonging to organized groups of the Women's L i b e r a t i o n Movement. 5. There i s no s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between a t t i t u d e s towards feminism, as measured by the FEM s c a l e , and l e a d e r s h i p c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , as measured by scores on the Gordon Personal P r o f i l e and the Gordon Personal Inventory, i n students o f a l i b r a r y science program. No s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n l e a d e r s h i p c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s among the three groups were found. S i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n a t t i t u d e s towards feminism were found with the members o f the Women's L i b e r a t i o n Movement d i f f e r i n g most from the other two groups. No s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s between lea d e r s h i p c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and a t t i t u d e s towards feminism were found i n any o f the three groups. I t was concluded that a b e l i e f i n feminism does not cause l e a d e r s h i p c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , and that l e a d e r s h i p c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s do not cause a b e l i e f i n feminism. S i m i l a r l y , any other v a r i a b l e common to the three groups could not be considered causal f o r both the possession o f l e a d e r s h i p c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and the expressed a t t i t u d e s towards feminism. TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER PAGE I. INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY 1 Introduction 1 Statement o f the Problem 3 S i g n i f i c a n c e o f the Problem 4 Statement o f Hypotheses 7 D e f i n i t i o n of Terms 8 Li m i t a t i o n s o f the Study 9 Overview o f the Study 9 II . REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE 10 L i t e r a t u r e Related to Leadership i n General 10 Leadership i n Nursing . . . . . . . . . 13 The Women's L i b e r a t i o n Movement 17 The Women's L i b e r a t i o n Movement and Nursing 22 Summary 27 I I I . METHODOLOGY 28 Introduction 28 The Samples Studied 28 Tools Used 29 Data C o l l e c t i o n 30 Data A n a l y s i s 31 vi CHAPTER PAGE IV. DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION 35 Introduction 35 Hypothesis I 36 Hypothesis II 37 Hypothesis III 40 Hypothesis IV 42 Hypothesis V 43 Summary of Findings 44 V. SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS 46 Summary 46 L i m i t a t i o n s of the Study 47 Implications and Conclusions 47 Recommendations f o r Further Study 49 BIBLIOGRAPHY • . . 51 APPENDIX 57 v i i LIST OF TABLES TABLE PAGE I. A n a l y s i s of Variance Comparing Leadership C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s among Nursing Students, Members of the Women's L i b e r a - t i o n Movement, and L i b r a r y Science Students 36 II. A n a l y s i s o f Variance Comparing A t t i t u d e s towards Feminism among Nursing Students, Members of the Women's L i b e r a - t i o n Movement, and L i b r a r y Science Students. ...... 37 I I I . Comparison of A t t i t u d e s towards Feminism between Nursing Students, Members of the Women's L i b e r a t i o n Movement, and L i b r a r y Science Students 38 IV. C o r r e l a t i o n C o e f f i c i e n t of Leadership C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s with A t t i t u d e s towards Feminism among Nursing Students. 40 V. C o r r e l a t i o n C o e f f i c i e n t of Leadership C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s with A t t i t u d e s towards Feminism among Members of the Women's L i b e r a t i o n Movement 42 VI. C o r r e l a t i o n C o e f f i c i e n t of Leadership C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s with A t t i t u d e s towards Feminism among L i b r a r y Science Students 44 1 CHAPTER I Introduct i o n to the Study Introduction Nursing has been slow i n a t t a i n i n g the status o f a f u l l p r o f e s s i o n . The f i r s t nursing outside the home was begun by Florence Nightingale during the Crimean War. Sho r t l y t h e r e a f t e r , the f i r s t nursing schools were e s t a - b l i s h e d i n England. In the United S t a t e s , nursing schools were created f o l l o w i n g the C i v i l War. In e a r l y nursing education, housekeeping s k i l l s and l a d y - l i k e behavior received g r e a t e r emphasis than nursing s k i l l s . ' ' Although the schools endeavored to r e c r u i t upper c l a s s women as nurse t r a i n e e s , with the i n c l u s i o n o f more and more housework, lower c l a s s women were soon drawn to nursing. Learning behavior c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of higher c l a s s l a d i e s continued to be emphasized. Florence Nightingale b e l i e v e d t h a t nursing was natural f o r women and opposed the r e g i s t r a t i o n of n u r s e s . 2 When i t was sug- gested that nurses be teste d and l i c e n s e d as doctors were, she r e p l i e d that nurses could not be examined any more than mothers. As nurses assumed t r a - d i t i o n a l feminine r o l e s the image of nursing incorporated the stereotyped image o f women. This image and the low status that accompanies i t , p e r s i s t s today. 3 'Barbara Ehrenreich and Deirdre E n g l i s h , Witches, Midwives, and  Nurses - A Hi s t o r y o f Women Healers (2nd ed.; Old Westbury, New York; The Feminist Press, 1973), p..35. 2Josephine A. Pol an, H i s t o r y o f Nursing (12th ed,; P h i l a d e l p h i a , London, Toronto; W. B. Saunders Co., 1968), p, 221. 3E1 aine E. B e l e t z , "Is Nursing's P u b l i c Image up to Date?" Nursing  Outlook, Vol. 22 No. 7 ( J u l y , 1974), 435. o 2 Today, nurses provide comprehensive care to p a t i e n t s . In many areas, the r o l e o f the nurse has expanded to give g r e a t e r scope to nursing care. As the p r o f e s s i o n of nursing grows, leaders are needed to maintain high p r o f e s s i o n a l standards and to guide the p r o f e s s i o n . Nursing i s t r y i n g to gain r e c o g n i t i o n as an independent p r o f e s s i o n that makes a c o n t r i b u t i o n to 4 the cure of i l l n e s s and the promotion o f health. I t may be speculated that with greater nursing l e a d e r s h i p , the status o f the p r o f e s s i o n would be r a i s e d . A consequence of r a i s e d status might be e q u a l i t y among the health p r o f e s s i o n a l s and p r o f e s s i o n s . While leaders are needed i n nursing, past s t u d i e s of nurses and nursing students have shown that these women do not possess q u a l i t i e s g e n e r a l l y a s s o c i a t e d with leadership.5*6,7 In c o n s i d e r i n g the need f o r l e a d e r s h i p i n nursing, some questions a r i s e : Is a b e l i e f i n feminism r e l a t e d to the possession o f le a d e r s h i p c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ? Is the lack of le a d e r s h i p i n nursing r e l a t e d to the t r a - d i t i o n a l female r o l e i n so c i e t y ? Since the Women's L i b e r a t i o n Movement has led away from t r a d i t i o n a l r o l e s assigned to women i n s o c i e t y , would women with p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e s towards feminism have more lea d e r s h i p c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s than women who do not have p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e s towards feminism? Would women ^Muriel Uprichard, "Ferment i n Nursing," I n t e r n a t i o n a l Nursing Review, V o l . 16 No. 3 (1969), 222. 5M. A. B a i l e y , "An Obverse Factor A n a l y t i c Study o f Values i n Psycho-l o g i s t s , P s y c h i a t r i s t s , S o c i a l Workers and Nurses," Journal of C l i n i c a l Psy- chology, V o l . 19 No. 1 ( J a n u a r y 3 9 6 3 ) , 120-124. 6june B a i l e y and Karen Claus, "Comparative A n a l y s i s of the P e r s o n a l i t y S t r u c t u r e o f Nursing Students," Nursing Research, Vo l . 18 No. 4 ( J u l y , 1969), 320-326. 7Helmut Hoffman, "Note on P e r s o n a l i t y T r a i t s o f Student Nurses, "Psycho- l o g i c a l Reports, V o l . 27 No. 3 (December, 1970), 1004. 3 involved i n organized Women's L i b e r a t i o n Movement groups have l e a d e r s h i p c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s s i m i l a r to women in nursing? Would women i n other t r a d i - t i o n a l l y female professions have l e a d e r s h i p c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s s i m i l a r to women i n nursing? The w r i t e r became i n t e r e s t e d i n studying l e a d e r s h i p c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n hopes of i d e n t i f y i n g c o r r e l a t e d a t t r i b u t e s which might, i n f u r t h e r study, be c a s u a l l y l i n k e d with l e a d e r s h i p . Such a t t r i b u t e s may be e i t h e r pre- r e q u i s i t e s f o r leaders or consequences of the possession of c e r t a i n leader- ship c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . Should they be p r e r e q u i s i t e s , the i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r nursing i n i t s search f o r leaders are c l e a r . Nursing has t r a d i t i o n a l l y been a woman's p r o f e s s i o n which c a r r i e s with i t the image of women. Leadership i s not inherent i n t h i s image. Since the Women's L i b e r a t i o n Movement has led away from the t r a d i t i o n a l r o l e s and expectations of women, perhaps i t s adherents demonstrate more le a d e r s h i p c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s than women who are not members. Perhaps c e r t a i n l e a d e r s h i p c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s are a r e s u l t of the consciousness r a i s i n g p r a c t i c e d by the Women's L i b e r a t i o n Movement. Statement of the Problem The need f o r le a d e r s h i p i s a concern to the nursing p r o f e s s i o n . The development of c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of l e a d e r s h i p w i l l determine the d i r e c t i o n and f u t u r e of the p r o f e s s i o n . I t i s important to determine the presence/ absence of l e a d e r s h i p c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n groups of students graduating from a baccalaureate nursing program since they w i l l be p r a c t i c i n g members of the pr o f e s s i o n . A comparison with women involved i n the Women's L i b e r a t i o n Move- ment, who might already possess l e a d e r s h i p c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , could evidence 4 d i f f e r e n c e s between the groups. A f u r t h e r comparison with female l i b r a r y s c ience students, who are also members of a women's p r o f e s s i o n , would i n - crease the s i z e of the sample and help to determine whether both groups of female students entering women's prof e s s i o n s d i f f e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y from women involved i n the Women's L i b e r a t i o n Movement. Thus, the problem o f the study can be focused by the questions: 1. Is there a d i f f e r e n c e i n lead e r s h i p c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s among graduating baccalaureate nursing- students, members of the Women's L i b e r a t i o n Movement, and students i n a l i b r a r y science program (comparison group)? 2. Is there a d i f f e r e n c e i n a t t i t u d e s towards feminism among the three groups? 3. Is there a r e l a t i o n s h i p between l e a d e r s h i p c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and a t t i t u d e s towards feminism w i t h i n each o f the three groups? S i g n i f i c a n c e of the Problem In g e n e r a l , the p u b l i c r e t a i n s the image of the nurse as handmaiden to the doctor. In a sample of eighteen h o s p i t a l i z e d p a t i e n t s , t h e i r composite image of the nurse was that o f a female n u r t u r e r , medicator, p h y s i c i a n ' s o a s s i s t a n t , maid and admi n i s t r a t o r . The expansion of nursing p r a c t i c e i s in f l u e n c e d by the way i n which the p u b l i c perceives i t . A study that i n v e s t i - gated the image of the nurse held by baccalaureate nursing students concluded that most students viewed the nurse as a t e c h n i c a l worker.^ These images of the nurse combined with low status do not a t t r a c t career minded women and hold a B e l e t z , "Nursing's P u b l i c Image," p. 434. ^D. L. C o l l i n s , et a l . , "The Image of Nursing i s Not Changing," Nursing Outlook, V o l . 19 No. 7 ( J u l y , 1971), 459. 5 much i n common with the stereotyped image of women. It seems that the assumption of le a d e r s h i p p o s i t i o n s w i t h i n nursing i s c r u c i a l f o r the f u t u r e development of the p r o f e s s i o n . Angela McBride has s a i d that the q u a l i t y o f health care i s r e l a t e d to the q u a l i t y of leader- s h i p . ^ She has explained the lack of nursing l e a d e r s h i p as a r e j e c t i o n by nurses of a leader r o l e that they view as masculine. V i r g i n i a Cleland has pointed to the need f o r nurse leaders as well as the need f o r more autonomous behavior f o r n u r s e s . ^ R o z e l l a S c h l o t f e l d t has c a l l e d f o r nurse leaders so that the scope of nursing p r a c t i c e can be defined and new nurses prepared to assume t h e i r r o l e J 2 S c h l o t f e l d t summed up her ideas by saying, "The need as I see i t i s f o r enlightened, v i s i o n a r y , courageous l e a d e r s h i p that w i l l be e f f e c t i v e i n r e l e a s i n g the tremendous p o t e n t i a l possessed by nurses f o r improving the l o t of t h e i r f e l l o w man."13 Although great leaders such as Florence N i g h t i n g a l e , L a v i n i a Dock, Adelaide Nutting, and L i l l i a n Wald have in f l u e n c e d n u r s i n g , c l e a r l y more le a d e r s h i p i s requ i r e d today. A b e l i e f i n feminism, which promotes freedom from sex r o l e s t e r e o - t y p i n g , might be a way o f changing the image of nursing. I f the nursing p r o f e s s i o n and nurses.themselves were not assigned an i n f e r i o r submissive r o l e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the stereotype of women, perhaps leaders would emerge ^ " L e a d e r s h i p Problems and P o s s i b i l i t i e s i n Nursing," American Journal  of Nursing, V o l . 72 No. 8 (August, 1972), 1445. i r g i n i a C l e l a n d , "Sex D i s c r i m i n a t i o n : Nursing's Most Pervasive Problem," American Journal of Nursing, V o l . 71 No. 8 (August, 1971), 1545-6. 1 2 R 0 z e l l a S c h l o t f e l d t , "On the Pr o f e s s i o n a l Status of Nursing," Nursing Forum, Vol. 13 No. 1 (1974), 27. 1 3 I b i d . , p. 31. 6 and the status of nursing would become elevated. Involvement i n the Women's L i b e r a t i o n Movement, which b e l i e v e s i n feminism, might help nurses gain power in i n f l u e n c i n g the q u a l i t y of health c a r e . ^ Several nursing leaders have advocated the a l l i a n c e of nursing with the Women's L i b e r a t i o n Movement. Wilma S c o t t Heide, nurse and past president of the National Organization f o r Women, has s a i d that the f e m i n i s t Movement r e l a t e s to a l l people and very 1 c much perta i n s to nurses. She f e e l s that s i n c e nursing i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by the feminine t r a i t s and s u f f e r s from the general oppression o f women, nurses should i d e n t i f y with the Movement. She f e e l s that t h i s i d e n t i f i c a t i o n would help nurses gain c o n t r o l of themselves and of the nursing p r o f e s s i o n . Karen Lamb st a t e d that the status o f women must be improved before nursing can assume i t s r i g h t f u l p l a c e i n r e l a t i o n to other p r o f e s s i o n s . ^ In view of the importance of developing l e a d e r s h i p c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w i t h i n the nursing p r o f e s s i o n , i t appears that an i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n t o r e l a t i o n s h i p s between lead e r s h i p c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and a b e l i e f i n feminism might be h e l p f u l . A demonstrated r e l a t i o n s h i p might suggest i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r nursing education and hence the development o f more leaders i n nursing. l^Joan j > Roberts and T h e t i s M. Group, "The Women's Movement and Nursing," Nursing Forum, V o l . 12 No. 3 (1973), 321. ^Wilma Scott Heide, "Nursing and Women's L i b e r a t i o n a P a r a l l e l , " American Journal of Nursing, V o l . 73 No. 5 (May, 1973), 824. ^ K a r e n T. Lamb, "Freedom f o r Our S i s t e r , Freedom f o r Ourselves: Nursing Confronts S o c i a l Change," Nursing Forum, V o l . 12 No. 4 (1973), 328. 7 Statement o f Hypotheses 1. There i s no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n le a d e r s h i p c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , as measured by scores on the Gordon Personal P r o f i l e and the Gordon Personal Inventory, among students graduating from a baccalaureate nursing program, women belonging to organized groups of the Women's L i b e r a t i o n Movement, and students i n a l i b r a r y science program. 2. There i s no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n a t t i t u d e s towards feminism, as measured by the FEM s c a l e , among students graduating from a baccalaureate nursing program, women belonging to organized groups o f the Women's L i b e r a t i o n Movement, and students i n a l i b r a r y science program. 3. There i s no s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between a t t i t u d e s towards femi- nism, as measured by the FEM s c a l e , and l e a d e r s h i p c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , as measured by scores on the Gordon Personal P r o f i l e and the Gordon Personal Inventory, i n graduating baccalaureate nursing students. 4. There i s no s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between a t t i t u d e s towards femi- nism, as measured by the FEM s c a l e , and lead e r s h i p c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , as measured by scores on the Gordon Personal P r o f i l e and the Gordon Personal Inventory, i n women belonging to organized groups of the Women's L i b e r a t i o n Movement. 5. There i s no s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between a t t i t u d e s towards femi- nism, as measured by the FEM s c a l e , and le a d e r s h i p c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , as 8 measured by scores on the Gordon Personal P r o f i l e and the Gordon Personal Inventory, i n students o f a l i b r a r y science program. D e f i n i t i o n o f Terms Femininity - t r a d i t i o n a l l y d e f i ned as q u a l i t i e s o f modesty, tenderness, coyness, regarded as usual c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f women. Feminism - a b e l i e f i n e q u a l i t y between the sexes and freedom from sex ro l e stereotypes. Leadership - an i n t e r a c t i o n process i n which an i n d i v i d u a l i n f l u e n c e s 17 the behavior o f others toward an end. Leadership C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s - a t t r i b u t e s t h at d i f f e r e n t i a t e p o t e n t i a l l y e f f e c t i v e leaders from f o l l o w e r s . (For more s p e c i f i c d e f i n i t i o n of terms on Gordon t e s t s , see p. 70.) Sex Role Stereotypes - r i g i d d e f i n i t i o n s o f behavior according to sex. Female sex r o l e stereotypes do not d i s t i n g u i s h between b i o l o g i c a l femaleness and f e m i n i n i t y . Women's L i b e r a t i o n Movement - an organized e f f o r t dedicated to the p o l i - t i c a l , economic, and s o c i a l e q u a l i t y o f the sexes. The Women's L i b e r a t i o n Movement espouses a b e l i e f i n freedom from sex r o l e s tereotypes, e q u a l i t y o f human beings, and has produced organized groups or a c t i v i t i e s which support i t s b e l i e f s . Haiman i n Ralph M. S t o g d i l l , Handbook of Leadership, A Survey o f  Theory and Research (New York and London: The Free Press, 1974), p.10. 9 Li m i t a t i o n s of the Study There were recognized l i m i t a t i o n s to the study: 1. The p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the study were s e l e c t e d nursing students, s e l e c t e d l i b r a r y science students, and s e l e c t e d members of the Women's L i b e r a t i o n Movement. Since nursing students from only one school were i n v o l v e d , the f i n d i n g s are not g e n e r a l i z a b l e to nursing students i n general. 2. If a c o r r e l a t i o n e x i s t s between l e a d e r s h i p c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and a t t i - tudes towards feminism, causal inferences cannot be drawn. Overview of the study Chapter II contains a review of the l i t e r a t u r e p e r t a i n i n g to leader- s h i p , l e a d e r s h i p i n nursing and the Women's L i b e r a t i o n Movement. Chapter III includes the plan of the study as well as the methodology used. Hypo- theses I and II w i l l be te s t e d using a Kruskal W a l l i s a n a l y s i s o f var i a n c e . Hypotheses I I I , IV, and V w i l l be t e s t e d using a Spearman r c o r r e l a t i o n ana- l y s i s . The r e s u l t s of the study are analyzed and discussed i n chapter IV. The f i r s t two hypotheses w i l l be accepted or r e j e c t e d at the .05 l e v e l of s i g n i f i c a n c e a t the appropriate number of degrees o f freedom. The second three hypotheses w i l l be accepted or r e j e c t e d depending upon the l e v e l of c o r r e l a t i o n . This i s followed by a summary and some conclusions. 10 CHAPTER II Review of the L i t e r a t u r e Much has been w r i t t e n about l e a d e r s h i p i n ge n e r a l , l e a d e r s h i p i n nursing, the Women's L i b e r a t i o n Movement, and i t s e f f e c t s upon nursing. A summary o f important f i n d i n g s i s given. L i t e r a t u r e r e l a t e d to Leadership i n General Between World War I and World War I I , a major i n t e r e s t arose i n i d e n t i f y i n g l e a d e r s h i p t r a i t s and i n studying how people became leaders.^ Most o f these s t u d i e s were concerned with the m i l i t a r y or with i n d u s t r y . According to Gibb, there are three t h e o r e t i c a l frameworks d e a l i n g with l e a d e r s h i p . 2 One framework deals with l e a d e r s h i p as a1 s i n g l e d e s c r i p t o r that c h a r a c t e r i z e s leaders wherever they are found. Subscribing to t h i s point of view leads to the conclus i o n that a l l leaders i n a l l s i t u a t i o n s e x h i b i t the same q u a l i t y . While i t i s u n l i k e l y that a s i n g l e t r a i t i s common to a l l l e a d e r s , c e r t a i n t r a i t s common to leaders have been found. The second framework i s the c o n s t e l l a t i o n - o f - t r a i t s theory. According to t h i s viewpoint, each leader has a patt e r n of t r a i t s which comprise his a b i l i t y to lead. This theory suggests that a ba s i c p e r s o n a l i t y pattern e x i s t s f o r leaders and that i t s elements are p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s . The t r a i t s i F r e d E. F i e d l e r , Leadership and E f f e c t i v e Management (Glenview, I l l i n o i s and Brighton, England: S c o t t , Foresman, and Co., 1974), p. 1. 2 C e c i l A. Gibb, "Leadership," i n The Handbook of So c i a l Psychology, ed. by Gardner Lindzey and E l l i o t Aronson (4th V o l . 2nd ed.; Reading, Mass., Menlo Park, C a l i f . : Addison-Wesley Pu b l i s h i n g Co., 1969), pp. 267-268. 11 are adaptable and vary. The t h i r d framework i s the i n t e r a c t i o n theory. I t describes l e a d e r s h i p as the product of the p e r s o n a l i t y o f the l e a d e r , the needs and a t t r i b u t e s of the f o l l o w e r s , the group s t r u c t u r e , and the s i t u a t i o n at hand. While s i t u a t i o n a l f a c t o r s o f t e n enter i n t o the determination of a leader, r e l a t i o n s h i p s have been found between l e a d e r s h i p c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and l e a d e r s h i p s t a t u s . ^ A review of l i t e r a t u r e by R. D. Mann i n 1959 con- cluded that a r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t s between an i n d i v i d u a l ' s p e r s o n a l i t y and his status i n groups. Mann documented that i n t e l l i g e n c e , adjustment, and e x t r o v e r s i o n were r e l a t e d to l e a d e r s h i p s t a t u s . ^ Fred F i e d l e r stated that t r a i t s such as i n t e l l i g e n c e , s o c i a b i l i t y , i n i t i a t i v e , and others were r e - l a t e d to l e a d e r s h i p . ^ He also s t a t e d that l e a d e r s h i p e f f e c t i v e n e s s t r a i t s are c o n s i s t e n t , r e l i a b l e p e r s o n a l i t y a t t r i b u t e s that d i f f e r e n t i a t e e f f e c t i v e from i n e f f e c t i v e l e a d e r s , but that these t r a i t s are manifest only under appropriate c o n d i t i o n s . Ralph S t o g d i l l reviewed l e a d e r s h i p t r a i t s t u d i e s conducted between 1904 and 1947. Methods used i n the s t u d i e s included observation of behavior i n group s i t u a t i o n s , choice of a s s o c i a t e s , observer r a t i n g s , s e l e c t i o n of persons i n t o l e a d e r s h i p p o s i t i o n s , a n a l y s i s of case h i s t o r i e s , l i s t i n g t r a i t s 3 F i e d l e r , Leadership and E f f e c t i v e Management, p. 23. 4R. D. Mann, "A Review of the R e l a t i o n s h i p s Between P e r s o n a l i t y and Performance i n Small Groups," Psychological B u l l e t i n , V o l . 56 No. 4 (1959), 264-266. ^ F i e d l e r , "Leadership and Leadership E f f e c t i v e n e s s T r a i t s : A Recon-c e p t u a l i z a t i o n o f the Leadership T r a i t Problem," i n Leadership and I n t e r - personal Behavior, ed. by L u i g i P e t r u l l o and Bernard M. Bass (New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, Inc., 1961), p. 181. 12 considered to be e s s e n t i a l f o r l e a d e r s h i p , p e r s o n a l i t y t e s t s , and i n t e r - views. ̂  S p e c i f i c t r a i t s common to most studies were i n i t i a t i v e , i n t e l l i - gence, and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . 7 Other f a c t o r s a s s o c i a t e d with l e a d e r s h i p i n several studies were c a p a c i t y , achievement, r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , p a r t i c i p a t i o n , o s t a t u s , and s i t u a t i o n . S t o g d i l l a l s o concluded that the personal charac- t e r i s t i c s of the leader must be r e l a t e d to the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , a c t i v i t i e s , and goals of the f o l l o w e r s . 9 More recent research p e r t a i n i n g to c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f leaders has been conducted l a r g e l y w i t h i n i n d u s t r y . P r o j e c t s have been completed by Henry (1963, 1964) i n Standard O i l o f New Jer s e y , Bentz (1964) i n Sears Roebuck, Bray and Grant (1966) i n American Telephone and Telegraph, and MacKinney (1968) i n Owens I l l i n o i s . 1 0 In 1970, S t o g d i l l completed a review of 163 stud i e s of le a d e r s h i p c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s conducted s i n c e his 1947 review. He compared the r e s u l t s o f the surveys and summarized leader c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . S t o g d i l l concluded that q u a l i t i e s t y p i f y i n g leaders were a d r i v e f o r respon- s i b i l i t y and task completion, vigor and perserverance f o r goal attainment, o r i g i n a l i t y i n problem s o l v i n g , a d r i v e to e x e r c i s e i n i t i a t i v e i n s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n s , s e l f confidence and a sense of personal i d e n t i t y , w i l l i n g n e s s to accept consequences of d e c i s i o n and a c t i o n , readiness to absorb i n t e r - personal s t r e s s , w i l l i n g n e s s to t o l e r a t e f r u s t r a t i o n and delay, a b i l i t y to i n f l u e n c e other persons' behavior, and c a p a c i t y to s t r u c t u r e s o c i a l i n t e r - a c t i o n systems to the purpose at hand.^ 6Ralph M. S t o g d i l l , Handbook of Leadership A Survey of Theory and  Research (New York and London: The Free Press, 1974), p. 36. 7 l b i d . , p. 36. 9 l b i d . , p. 64. 8 I b i d . , p. 63. I Q l b i d . , p. 73. 11 I b i d . , p. 81. 13 Leadership i n Nursing Within the nursing p r o f e s s i o n , various ideas e x i s t regarding leader- s h i p . Donna Diers expressed the opinion that f i n d i n g leaders i s a problem i n nursing because women with poor s e l f concepts enter n u r s i n g , are educated w i t h i n a system that discourages independence, and are then graduated i n t o a d i s o r g a n i z e d p r o f e s s i o n . ^ Ann S l a v i n s k y s a i d that a l e a d e r s h i p problem e x i s t s i n nursing due to a confusion regarding nursing theory to guide the 1 o p r o f e s s i o n . 1 0 In an a n a l y s i s of nursing l e a d e r s h i p s t y l e , Luther Christman advocated an open systems approach to nursing l e a d e r s h i p . This approach, he f e l t , would enhance p r o f e s s i o n a l maturity and i n n o v a t i v e n e s s . ^ Christman a l s o f o r e c a s t an o p t i m i s t i c f u t u r e f o r nursing should more e f f e c t i v e leader- ship emerge. Madeline Leininger has w r i t t e n about changes i n l e a d e r s h i p s t y l e due to changing technology, s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e , values, and managerial 1 jr s t y l e s . 1 She s t a t e d that nursing leaders are needed with p o l i t i c a l and s o c i a l science knowledge to f u r t h e r nursing's p r o f e s s i o n a l i n t e r e s t s . With the i n t e r e s t given to l e a d e r s h i p i n nursing, schools of nursing have '^"Leadership Problems and P o s s i b i l i t i e s i n Nursing," American  Journal of Nursing, V o l . 72 No. 8 (1972), 1447. 1 3 I b i d . , . p . 1448. ^ L u t h e r B. Christman, "Nursing Leadership - S t y l e and Substance," American Journal of Nursing, V o l . 67 No. 10 (October, 1967), 2093. ^ M a d e l i n e L e i n i n g e r , "The Leadership C r i s i s i n Nursing: A C r i t i c a l Problem and Challenge," Journal of Nursing A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , (March-April, 1974), 28. 14 incorporated l e a d e r s h i p experience into t h e i r c urriculumsJ6,17 C l e a r l y , nursing leaders are needed. Very l i t t l e l i t e r a t u r e e x i s t s regarding leadership c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f nurses and nursing students. Much l i t e r a t u r e e x i s t s regarding person- a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of nurses and nursing students. Those p e r s o n a l i t y studies a p p l i c a b l e to l e a d e r s h i p are summarized. June B a i l e y and Karen Claus compared c e r t a i n p e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r - i s t i c s of nursing students with women students not i n nursing. The nursing students demonstrated higher scores i n nurturance, succorance, deference, and a f f i l i a t i o n but lower scores i n autonomy, dominance, e x h i b i t i o n and aggres- si o n J 8 Helmut Hoffman compared p e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of nursing students with the general norms. The nursing students scored above the norms i n harm avoidance, nurturance, d e s i r a b i l i t y and order, but below the norms in aggression, dominance, i m p u l s i v i t y , and u n d e r s t a n d i n g . ^ Jeanne Smith i n v e s t i g a t e d various p e r s o n a l i t y f a c t o r s among beginning nursing students. Factor a n a l y s i s re- vealed an emphasis on concern f o r others, d e s i r e to help o t h e r s , and a need ^ H i l d a F r a n c i s , "Leadership Experience f o r ADN Students," American  Journal of Nursing, V o l . 72 No. 7 ( J u l y , 1972), 1264-1265. 17Mary C. Jones, "Leadership Experience f o r Senior Students," Nursing  Outlook, V o l . 22 No. 6 (June, 1974), 394-397. ISjune B a i l e y and Karen Claus, "Comparative A n a l y s i s of the P e r s o n a l i t y S t r u c t u r e of Nursing Students," Nursing Research, V o l . 18 No. 4 ( J u l y , 1969), 320-326. ^Helmut Hoffman, "Note on P e r s o n a l i t y T r a i t s of Student Nurses," Psychological Reports, V o l . 27 No. 3 (December, 1970), 1004. 15 f o r dependency. 2 0 S y l v i a Lande found that students i n Roman C a t h o l i c High Schools who had d e f i n i t e plans to enter schools o f nursing viewed themselves as lower achievers than students not planning to enter n u r s i n g . 2 1 Anne Davis explored the d i f f e r e n c e i n s e l f concept between nursing students and s o c i a l work students. Nursing students described themselves as dependable, metho- d i c a l , and able to assume r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , while s o c i a l work students des- c r i b e d themselves as independent, spontaneous, and a s s e r t i v e . 2 2 W i l l i a m K e l l y administered four p s y c h o l o g i c a l i n v e n t o r i e s to employed nurses to determine which t r a i t s p r e d i c t e d promotion. In his study, K e l l y equated promotion with l e a d e r s h i p . Three d i s t i n g u i s h i n g t r a i t s o f promoted nurses were c a p a c i t y f o r s t a t u s , f e m i n i n i t y , and a relaxed demeanor. 2 3 Marie G i l b e r t compared leader- ship p o t e n t i a l o f medical s u r g i c a l nursing graduate students with p s y c h i a t r i c nursing graduate students. No d i f f e r e n c e was found between the two groups. Within the groups, students e x h i b i t i n g the highest l e a d e r s h i p p o t e n t i a l were al s o found to have optimal p e r s o n a l i t y development. 2^ 2 0 J e a n n e E. Smith, " P e r s o n a l i t y S t r u c t u r e i n Beginning Nursing Students: A Factor A n a l y t i c Study," Nursing Research, V o l . 17 No. 2 (March-A p r i l , 1968), 143. 21Sylvia Lande, "Nursing Career Perceptions Among High School Students," Nursing Research, V o l . 15 ( F a l l , 1966), 337-342. 2 2Anne Davis, " S e l f Concept, Role Expectation, and Occupational Choice i n Nursing and S o c i a l Work Students," Nursing Research, V o l . 18 No. 1 (January-February, 1969), 55-59. 2 3 W i l l i a m L. K e l l y , "Psychological P r e d i c t i o n of Leadership i n Nursing," Nursing Research, V o l . 23 No. 1 (January-February, 1974), 41. 2 ^ M a r i e A. G i l b e r t , " P e r s o n a l i t y P r o f i l e s and Leadership P o t e n t i a l of M e d i c a l - S u r g i c a l and P s y c h i a t r i c Nursing Graduate Students/' Nursing  Research, V o l . 24 No. 2 (March-April, 1975), 128. 16 Mary Ann Richards attempted to assess d i f f e r e n c e s i n le a d e r s h i p p o t e n t i a l and c e r t a i n other a t t r i b u t e s among nursing graduates of baccalaureate, a s s o c i a t e degree, and diploma nursing programs. No d i f f e r e n c e s were found among the groups. The groups scored higher i n r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and emotional s t a b i l i t y than the average female c o l l e g e students.25 Many of these studies lead to the conclusion that nurses and nursing students do not e x h i b i t l e a d e r s h i p q u a l i t i e s . One explanation o f f e r e d f o r t h i s apparent lack of lea d e r s h i p has been sex d i s c r i m i n a t i o n . Richard Levinson s t a t e d , "Males and females are s o c i a l i z e d i n t o t r a d i t i o n a l r o l e s and taught to make choices as a d u l t s . The choices women l e a r n to make are not those leading to occupational and educational advancement."26 Bonnie Bullough and Vern Bullough f u r t h e r s t a t e d , "In sh o r t , the process of sex segregation i s a c i r c u l a r , s e l f - f u l f i l l i n g perpetuation of female i n f e r i - o r i t y . " ^ They concluded by saying, "The male-female game i s deeply ingrained i n our s o c i e t y . Even when there i s appearance of e q u a l i t y there i s often a lack o f r e a l y e q u a l i t y . I f the health f i e l d s are any i n d i c a t i o n , there i s s t i l l a long way to go to e q u a l i t y . When and i f we move toward more e f f e c t i v e use o f women power, we might a l s o move toward more e f f e c t i v e medical care, s i n c e masculine bias i s present even i n treatment."28 2$Mary Ann Bruegel Richards, "A Study o f D i f f e r e n c e s i n Psychological C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f Students Graduating from Three Types of Basic Nursing Pro-grams," Nursing Research,.Vol. 21.No. 3 (May-June, 1972), 259. 26Richard Levinson, "Sexism i n Medicine," America! Journal of Nursing, Vol. 76 No. 3 (March, 1976), 431. 27Bonnie Bullough and Vern Bullough, "Sex D i s c r i m i n a t i o n i n Health Care," Nursing Outlook, V o l . 23 Mo. 1 (January, 1975), 45. 2 8 I b i d . , p. 45. 17 The Women's L i b e r a t i o n Movement The Women's L i b e r a t i o n Movement has had a r e l a t i v e l y b r i e f h i s t o r y i n s o c i e t y . Before the I n d u s t r i a l Revolution, women were needed to repro- duce, care f o r c h i l d r e n , and work at home. Women worked beside men on farms sharing the r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . As men changed from farming to urban work, women continued with the work at home but t h e i r s o c i a l needs were not met. A lack of adult companionship and psychic s a t i s f a c t i o n c o n t r i b u t e d to t h e i r i n t e r e s t i n paid employment.29 By the mid nineteenth century, a f e m i n i s t r e b e l l i o n against V i c t o r i a n s o c i e t y was underway. The r e b e l l i o n grew from ideas about e q u a l i t y o f e a r l y a b o l i t i o n i s t s l i k e William Lloyd G a r r i s o n . 3 0 Although women were r e b e l l i n g , the C i v i l War in the U.S. made i t necessary f o r American women to r e d i r e c t t h e i r e f f o r t s to sewing, farming, and nursing. The Women's L i b e r a t i o n Movement l o s t s trength as women d i r e c t e d t h e i r a t t e n t i o n away from i t . A f t e r the War, i n the l a t e nineteenth century, c o l l e g e s began to admit women.31 As a r e s u l t , women formed c u l t u r a l i n t e r e s t groups. Even though some women were educated, jobs open to them were u s u a l l y those with low pay and p r e s t i g e . As women became more educated and wanted increased r e s p o n s i - b i l i t y along with men, they worked to obtain the r i g h t to vote. Once t h i s ^ G l a d y s E. Harbeson, Choice and Challenge f o r the American Woman (Cambridge, Massachusetts: Schenkman Pub l i s h i n g Co., 1967), p. 27. 30shulamitt F i r e s t o n e , "On American Feminism Women i n S e x i s t S o c i e t y , " i n Studies i n Power and Power!essness, ed. by V i v i a n Gornick and Barbara K. Moran (3rd p r i n t i n g : New York: Basic Books Inc., 1971), p. 66. 3lHarbeson, Choice and Challenge, p. 29. 18 b a t t l e had been won, the Women's L i b e r a t i o n Movement became l e s s v i s i b l e . In 1942, Farnham and Lundberg warned that "careers and higher edu- c a t i o n were leading to the m a s c u l i n i z a t i o n of women with enormously dan- gerous consequences to the home, c h i l d r e n dependent on i t , and to the a b i l i t y of the woman as well as her husband to obt a i n sexual g r a t i f i c a - t i o n . " ' During the 1950's, the feminine mystique was s o l d to s o c i e t y . According to Betty F r i e d a n , "The feminine mystique says that the highest value and the only commitment f o r women i s the f u l f i l l m e n t of t h e i r own f e m i n i n i t y . " 3 3 The feminine mystique implies that f e m i n i n i t y i s a mysteri- ous thing based purely on i n t u i t i o n . It pe r t a i n s only to women and makes women l e s s subject to comprehension than men. Feminists and the Women's L i b e r a t i o n Movement have r e b e l l e d a g a i n s t f o r c i n g women i n t o c e r t a i n r o l e s purely because of t h e i r sex. Friedan s a i d that women must r e j e c t the feminine mystique i n order to become complete human b e i n g s . 3 ^ She f u r t h e r expressed the opinion that women must refuse to accept the housewife image, that marriage, motherhood, and a career can be combined, and that women need c r e a t i v e work of t h e i r own. The present phase of the Women's L i b e r a t i o n Movement grew out of the pr o t e s t movements of the s i x t i e s . Although the pro t e s t s were dedicated to S^Marynia Farnham and Ferdinand Lundberg, Modern Woman: The Lost Sex (New York and London: Harper and Brothers Co., 1947), p. 121. 3 3 B e t t y F r i e d a n , The Feminine Mystique (New York: W. W. Norton and Co., 1963), p. 110. 3 4 i b i d . , p. 374. 19 e g a l i t a r i a n causes, women no t i c e d that they were not tr e a t e d as equals with men. 3 5 Kate M i l l e t t defined p o l i t i c s as "power-structured r e l a t i o n s h i p s , arrangements whereby one group of persons i s c o n t r o l l e d by another." 3^ M i l l e t t f e e l s that the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the sexes i s p o l i t i c a l and that men, because o f t h e i r b i r t h r i g h t , have power over women. M i l l e t t s t a t e d , "Sexual p o l i t i c s obtains consent through the s o c i a l i z a t i o n of both sexes to b a s i c p a t r i a r c h a l p o l i t i c s with regard to temperament, r o l e , and s o c i a l s t a t u s . " 3 7 E l i z a b e t h Janeway described the Women's L i b e r a t i o n Movement as a div e r s e movement which challenges some assumptions b a s i c to s o c i e t y . The Women's L i b e r a t i o n Movement s t r e s s e s e q u a l i t y f o r women i n o p p o r t u n i t i e s and wages. Issues are work, the r o l e s o f wife and mother, and sexual re- l a t i o n s h i p s . 3 8 I t seeks to r e d e f i n e the r o l e s o f wife and mother so that women can respond to present l i f e c i r c u m s t a n c e s . 3 9 The Women's L i b e r a t i o n Movement professes a b e l i e f i n a fundamental e q u a l i t y of t a l e n t , mental a b i l i t y , and charact e r strength of men and women. It opposes sex r o l e s t e r e o t y p i n g and encourages i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s as great f o r women as • ^ E d i t o r i a l Research Reports on The Women's Movement (Washington, D.C: Congressional Quarterly Inc., 1973), p. 14. 3 6 K a t e M i l l e t t , Sexual P o l i t i c s (Garden C i t y , New York: Doubleday and Co., Inc., 1970), p. 24. 3 7 I b i d . , p. 26. O Q E l i z a b e t h Janeway, Between Myth and Morning Women Awakening (New York: Will i a m Morrow and Co., Inc., 1974), p. 65. 3 9 1 b i d . , p. 72. 20 f o r men. 4 U I t s t r i v e s f o r e q u a l i t y of the sexes not supremacy of one sex over the other. Carl Degler stated that the goal o f the Women's L i b e r a t i o n Movement i s "the r e c o n d i t i o n i n g o f the American to accept sex e q u a l i t y as the norm o f s o c i a l and personal behavior."41 Konrad Kellen forsees the in c o r p o r a t i o n o f feminism i n t o s o c i e t y leading to a more humane and i n t e l - l i g e n t s o c i e t y . ^ Several studies have been done which i n v e s t i g a t e d the type of person who j o i n s the Women's L i b e r a t i o n Movement. Jean Goldschmidt et a l . measured p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s , ideas about the Women's L i b e r a t i o n Movement, and i n v e s t i - gated the backgrounds o f 448 females i n four d i f f e r e n t educational s e t t i n g s . 4 3 The sample was f u r t h e r d i v i d e d i n t o women involved i n the Women's L i b e r a t i o n Movement and women not invo l v e d . Women involved i n the Women's L i b e r a t i o n Movement were found to be heterosexual, motivated by p r o f e s s i o n a l a s p i r a t i o n s , having l i b e r a l to r a d i c a l p o l i t i c a l l e a n i n g s , and aggressive. Carlos Goldberg teste d conformity o f males and females. He noted that subjects c h a r a c t e r i z e d as feminine by the Gough A d j e c t i v e Check L i s t conformed more to male and f e - male r e l a t e d items than subjects c h a r a c t e r i z e d as masculine. Female members of the National Organization f o r Women conformed l e s s than a co n t r o l group of women. Goldberg concluded that the gre a t e r the r e j e c t i o n o f the t r a d i t i o n a l 4 0 l b i d . , p. 74. 41 E d i t o r i a l Research Reports, p. 3. 4 2 K o n r a d K e l l e n , The Coming of Age of Woman Power (New York: Peter H. Wyden, Inc. , 1972), p. 72. 43j ean Goldschmidt, Mary M. Gergen, Karen Quigley, and Kenneth J . Gergen, "The Women's L i b e r a t i o n Movement: A t t i t u d e s and A c t i o n , " The Journal  of P e r s o n a l i t y , V o l . 42 No. 4 (December, 1974), 602-603. 21 female r o l e and involvement with the Women's L i b e r a t i o n Movement, the les s conformity.44 C e l i a Hal as administered an a t t i t u d e toward women s c a l e and a que s t i o n n a i r e that she developed to s i x t y - t h r e e mature female community c o l l e g e students and to an equal number of t h e i r acquaintances not e n r o l l e d i n s chool. Results i n d i c a t e d that subjects who r e c a l l e d wider, l e s s sex r o l e stereotyped s o c i a l experiences as c h i l d r e n r e f l e c t e d more l i b e r a l a t t i - tudes and behaviors as adults.45 Women students g e n e r a l l y had more l i b e r a l a t t i t u d e s than non students. Carolyn S t o l o f f s t u d i e d the background, p o l i - t i c a l involvement, a t t i t u d e s and behaviors r e l a t e d to the Women's L i b e r a t i o n Movement o f twenty-two female graduate students i n v o l v e d i n the Women's L i b e r a t i o n Movement and twenty-two not involved i n the Movement. Subjects i n both groups s a i d that they adhered to the views o f the Women's L i b e r a t i o n Movement.46 Subjects involved i n the Movement demonstrated higher t e s t scores i n l e a d e r s h i p , aggression, and p o p u l a r i t y than subjects not inv o l v e d . Robert P a v l i c k i and Carol Almquist attempted to determine whether or not supporters of the Women's L i b e r a t i o n Movement and nonsupporters o f the Women's L i b e r a t i o n Movement d i f f e r e d demographically and whether or not demographic d i f f e r e n c e s accounted f o r d i f f e r e n c e s on p e r s o n a l i t y measures. P a v l i c k i and Almquist found that the Women's L i b e r a t i o n Movement supporters had more f a v o r a b l e 4 4 C a r l o s Goldberg, "Conformity to M a j o r i t y Type as a Function o f Task and Acceptance of Sex Related Stereotypes," The Journal o f Psychology, V o l . 89 No. 1 (January, 1975), 25. 4 5 c e l i a M. Hal as, "Sex Role Stereotypes: Perceived Childhood S o c i -a l i z a t i o n Experiences and the A t t i t u d e s and Behavior of Adult Women," The  Journal o f Psychology V o l . 88 No. 9 (September, 1974), 271. 46carolyn S t o l o f f , "Who Joins Women's L i b e r a t i o n ? , " P s y c h i a t r y , Vo l . 36 (August, 1973), 334. 22 a t t i t u d e s towards the Movement, lower l e v e l s o f a u t h o r i t a r i a n i s m , a f e e l i n g o f more c o n t r o l over t h e i r environment, and a higher t o l e r a n c e o f ambiguity.4? Carol Tavis surveyed readers o f a psychology p e r i o d i c a l with regard to t h e i r a t t i t u d e s about the r o l e of women and the Women's L i b e r a t i o n Movement. Seventy-two percent o f the sample were women. Primary f a c t o r s a s s o c i a t e d with support o f the Women's L i b e r a t i o n Movement f o r both sexes were p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i s m , r e l i g i o u s l i b e r a l i s m , and the perception o f sex r o l e d i f f e r e n c e s as c u l t u r a l r a t h e r than g e n e t i c . ^ For women, higher education was found to be an important p r e d i c t o r o f support f o r the Women's L i b e r a t i o n Movement.^ 9 The Women's L i b e r a t i o n Movement and Nursing Cynthia Fuchs Epstein has s a i d that sex r o l e s t e r e o t y p i n g i n occu- pations makes sex status p r o m i n e n t . 5 0 She elaborated by saying t h a t sex r o l e s t e r e o t y p i n g r e f l e c t s sex ranking, and that s i n c e men rank f i r s t , they get f i r s t ranking j o b s . 5 ! V i r g i n i a Cleland s a i d that nursing i s weak because o f i t s lack o f men. She s t a t e d , "Today there i s no doubt i n my mind that 47Robert P a v l i c k i and Carol Almquist, " A u t h o r i t a r i a n i s m , Locus o f Con-t r o l , and Tolerance o f Ambiguity as R e f l e c t e d i n Membership and Non-Membership i n a Women's L i b e r a t i o n Group," Psychological Reports, V o l . 32 (June, 1973), 1337. 48Carol T a v i s , "Who Likes Women's L i b e r a t i o n - and Why: A Case o f the Uniiberated L i b e r a l s , " Journal o f S o c i a l Issues, V o l . 29 No. 4 (1973), 181. 4 9 i b i d . , p. 197. 5 0 C y n t h i a Fuchs E p s t e i n , Woman's Places Options and Limits i n Profes- s i o n a l Careers (Berkeley and Los Angeles: U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a Press, 1970), p. 152. 5 1 I b i d . , p. 1543. 23 our most fundamental problem i n nursing i s that we are members of a woman's occupation i n a male dominated culture."52 "Nursing i n i t s u t t e r i s o l a t i o n from a l l v e s t i g e s o f power except w i t h i n i t s own group can be li k e n e d to the e x p l o i t a t i o n of Negroes i n our c u l t u r e . " 5 3 Cleland continued, "The general lack o f leadership i n nursing, I b e l i e v e , derives d i r e c t l y from the s o c i a l p o s i t i o n of women i n society."54 she r e l a t e d the problems i n nursing today to the issue of women's r i g h t s . C l e l a n d b e l i e v e s that sex d i s c r i m i - nation can be attacked by ignori n g the mar i t a l status o f women, providing equal s a l a r i e s f o r equal work regardless of sex, and by evolving new employ- ment s t y l e s which consider pregnancy and young c h i l d r e n . 5 5 Joan Roberts and T h e t i s Group described the h i s t o r i c a l process i n which men assumed con t r o l of the p r a c t i c e o f medicine. They discussed the way i n which nurses have been c a s t i n t o dependent and submissive r o l e s by male p h y s i c i a n s . Roberts and Group f e l t that nurses could c o r r e c t t h i s pro- cess by working with the Women's Movement. They s t a t e d , "... i t i s c l e a r that i f a p r o f e s s i o n i s going to be run by women, f u l l y acceptable to a l l , the a t t i t u d e s toward women w i l l have to change or 'we'll never make i t , b a b y ! 1 " 5 5 Roberts and Group remarked that strong l e a d e r s h i p i s needed by women who know what they are as nurses and as women. 5 7 ^ V i r g i n i a C l e l a n d , "Sex D i s c r i m i n a t i o n : Nursing's Most Pervasive Problem," American Journal of Nursing, V o l . 71 No. 8 (August, 1971), 1542. 5 3 I b i d . , p. 1543. 5 4 i b i d . , 1545. 5 5 I b i d . , p. 1546-1547. 5 5 J o a n T. Roberts and T h e t i s M. Group, "The Women's Movement and Nursing," Nursing Forum, V o l . 12 No. 3 (1973), 320. 5 7 I b i d . , p. 321. 24 Karen Lamb s t a t e d , " I t i s impossible f o r nursing to achieve r e a l p r o f e s s i o n a l i z a t i o n and lower the d r a s t i c dropout r a t e among our p r a c t i r t i o n e r s , or f o r us to assume control over ourselves as i n d i v i d u a l s and as a c o l l e c t i v i t y , to take more a c t i v e r o l e s as innovators and i n s t i g a t o r s of s o c i a l change, and to develop a c a r e e r - o r i e n t a t i o n u n t i l we have elevated the p o s i t i o n of a l l women and of nurses."58 She sees a l l i a n c e with the Women's L i b e r a t i o n Movement as the route to needed s o c i a l change. Jo Ann Ashley discussed the need f o r power and freedom in nursing and i n d i c a t e d that many of nursing's problems are due to the s o c i a l p o s i t i o n of women. She s t a t e d , "Society does not yet value independence of mind f o r women and most e s p e c i a l l y f o r nurses. A u t h o r i t y i s s t i l l the main value subscribed to and upheld i n health care d e l i v e r y systems. I t i s t h i s very a u t h o r i t y t hat prevents nurses from moving more r a p i d l y toward the goal of i n t e l l e c t u a l freedom and independence i n t h e i r p r a c t i c e . If we do not obtain the power to reach t h i s g o a l , we cannot hope to improve the q u a l i t y of nursing care made a v a i l a b l e to the American public."59 in reference to nursing p r i o r to World War I, Ashley s t a t e d , "The f a i l u r e of nurses to i d e n t i f y with r a d i c a l f e m i n i s t s seeking to change the s o c i a l order l e d to the f a i l u r e of the nursing p r o f e s s i o n to l i b e r a t e both education and p r a c t i c e . " 6 0 i n the past, sexual 58«aren T. Lamb, "Freedom f o r Our S i s t e r , Freedom f o r Ourselves: Nursing Confronts S o c i a l Change," Nursing Forum, V o l . 12 No. 4 (1973), 328. 59jo Ann Ashley, "Power, Freedom and P r o f e s s i o n a l P r a c t i c e i n Nursing," Supervisor Nurse, V o l . 6 No. 1 (January, 1975), 29. 6 uAshley, "Nursing and E a r l y Feminism," American Journal of Nursing, Vol . 75 No. 9 (September, 1975), 1465. 25 p r e j u d i c e s were not questioned and the r e f o r e paternalism was l e g a l i z e d . Ashley f e e l s that t h i s has r e s u l t e d i n the continuing low status o f nurses 61 and economic d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i n nursing. In order to make changes and stop the oppression o f women and nurses, Ashley suggested working with the Women's L i b e r a t i o n Movement. She s a i d , "Today i d e n t i f i c a t i o n with the f e m i n i s t cause 62 and o b t a i n i n g e q u a l i t y with men i n the health f i e l d i s a must." Ruth E d e l s t e i n discussed the r o l e o f leaders i n the h i s t o r y o f nursing. R e f e r r i n g to the present, she s t a t e d , " I t i s l i k e l y t h at most o f today's nursing leaders and the young nurses now coming out o f nursing schools w i l l be 'new f e m i n i s t s ' who think sex r o l e s at work obsolete. The future d i r e c t i o n o f the pro f e s s i o n r e s t s i n t h e i r hands." In a p u b l i c a t i o n which documented the existence o f health care sex d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i n Canada, examples were given. Nurses working together to e r a d i c a t e the feminine mystique was a solution.. o f f e r e d . 6 4 Wilma S c o t t Heide c i t e d ways i n which health care would be upgraded by a s c r i b i n g to feminism. She discussed f r e e i n g women f o r d e c i s i o n making and independent t h i n k i n g and f r e e i n g men to experience nurturance. Heide s t a t e d , "To t r u l y humanize s o c i e t y , the t r a d i t i o n a l feminine q u a l i t i e s must 65 be r e l e a s e d p u b l i c l y i n everyone." Heide s a i d that some o f the r e s u l t s o f I b i d . , p. 1466. " I b i d . , p. 1467. Ruth Greenberg E d e l s t e i n , "Equal Rights f o r Women: Per s p e c t i v e s , " American Journal o f Nursing, V o l . 71 No.2 (February, 1971), 298. 64 "Is there Sex D i s c r i m i n a t i o n i n Health Care?," The Canadian Nurse, Vol. 71 No. 12 (December, 1975), 18. 65 Wilma S c o t t Heide, "Nursing and Women's L i b e r a t i o n , a P a r a l l e l , " American Journal o f Nursing, V o l . 73 No. 5 (May, 1973), 824. 26 the l i b e r a t i o n of nurses and of nursing would be budgets c o n t r o l l e d by nurses, b e t t e r s a l a r i e s and equal o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r male and female nurses, r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of women on health advisory committees, the end of a sub- s e r v i e n t r o l e o f nurses, and r e c o g n i t i o n that nursing and medicine are com- plementary. 56 J u d i t h Shockley o u t l i n e d the r o l e s o f women from before World War II through the l a t e s i x t i e s when women began to r e a l i z e that the feminine mys- tique had been so l d to them. Shockley suggested that support o f the Women's L i b e r a t i o n Movement might help nursing to r e s o l v e many of i t s i n t e r n a l and external c o n f l i c t s . She expressed the opinion that nurses who agree with the b e l i e f s of the Women's L i b e r a t i o n Movement w i l l be b e t t e r able to help women c l i e n t s d e a l i n g with the wife and mother r o l e and to a s s i s t women c l i e n t s experiencing i d e n t i t y c r i s e s . 6 7 Barbara Madden explained that sex d i s c r i - mination and the problems that i t causes i n nursing can be d e a l t with by the in c o r p o r a t i o n of f e m i n i s t ideology i n t o nursing curriculum. She o u t l i n e d ways i n which t h i s could be accomplished.68 6 6 l b i d . , p. 826. 6 7 J u d i t h Salmon Shockley, "Perspectives i n Femininity Implications f o r Nursing," Nursing D i g e s t , V o l . 3 No. 6 (November-December, 1975), 52. 68Barbara P. Madden, "Raising the Consciousness of Nursing Students," Nursing Outlook, V o l . 23 No. 5 (May, 1975), 292. 27 Summary The nursing p r o f e s s i o n i s i n need of leader s . Sex d i s c r i m i n a t i o n and the s o c i a l i z a t i o n of women in t o an i n f e r i o r r o l e have been c i t e d as p o s s i b l e causes o f nurses and women remaining i n subordinate p o s i t i o n s without power. It appears that the r o l e of woman i n s o c i e t y c o n t r i b u t e s to the lack o f nursing leaders today. The Women's L i b e r a t i o n Movement provides an a l t e r n a t i v e to the t r a - d i t i o n a l view of women i n s o c i e t y . The b e n e f i t s to women, nurses, and s o c i e t y i n general o f f o l l o w i n g the philosophy o f the Women's L i b e r a t i o n Movement were discussed. Various prominent nursing authors l i s t e d ways i n which they f e l t a l l i a n c e with the Women's L i b e r a t i o n Movement would b e n e f i t nursing. In view of the need f o r leaders i n nursing, the current r o l e s o f women, and the speculated b e n e f i t s derived from a b e l i e f i n feminism, i t appears reasonable to i n v e s t i g a t e whether a d i f f e r e n c e i n le a d e r s h i p charac- t e r i s t i c s e x i s t s among members o f the Women's L i b e r a t i o n Movement, nurses, and another group of women, and whether or not le a d e r s h i p c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and a b e l i e f i n feminism are r e l a t e d , as such d i f f e r e n c e s or r e l a t i o n s h i p s could be seen to hold i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r generating nursing l e a d e r s h i p through planned change. 28 CHAPTER III Methodology Introduction A f t e r the l i t e r a t u r e r e l a t e d to leadership, and the Women's L i b e r - a t i o n Movement had been reviewed, the three samples to be studied were s e l e c t e d , and the t o o l s chosen. Three questionnaires were used to measure le a d e r s h i p c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and a t t i t u d e s towards feminism. The Gordon Personal P r o f i l e (GPP) and s e l e c t e d s c a l e s of the Gordon Personal Inventory (GPI) were used to measure l e a d e r s h i p c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s J (See Appendix A) The FEM s c a l e was used to measure a t t i t u d e s toward feminism. 2 (See Appen- dix B) The data were then c o l l e c t e d and analyzed. The Sample Three groups of women i n the Lower Mainland were s e l e c t e d f o r t h i s study: 1) graduating baccalaureate nursing students; 2) members of the Women's L i b e r a t i o n Movement; 3) women students i n a U n i v e r s i t y l i b r a r y science program (another comparison group). T h i r t y nursing students par- t i c i p a t e d on a voluntary basis from the e n t i r e c l a s s o f graduating students Leonard V. Gordon, Gordon 'Personal P r o f i l e , Gordon Personal Inven- tory (New York: Harcourt, Brace and World, Inc., 1963). p E l l i o t R. Smith et a l . , "A Short Scale of A t t i t u d e s Toward Feminism," Representative Research i n So c i a l Psychology, V o l . 6 (1975), 54-55. 29 numbering ninety nine. The members of the Women's L i b e r a t i o n Movement were chosen from Women's L i b e r a t i o n centers i n the community. The sample o f t h i r t y was obtained from f o u r women's centers during meetings. Twenty four l i b r a r y s c ience students were obtained from two c l a s s e s of students numbering t h i r t y combined. A l l women included i n the sample had at l e a s t t h i r t e e n years o f education. Seventy e i g h t percent of the t o t a l sample had f u l l time work experience. Tools Used The GPP and s e l e c t e d s c a l e s o f the GPI were used to measure leader- ship c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . These t o o l s were chosen because they c l o s e l y measured the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i d e n t i f i e d by S t o g d i l l as being c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of l e a d e r s . 3 Both Gordon questionnaires have been developed according to sc a l e s that r e- present measured c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . The scal e s used and a d e s c r i p t i o n of each i s given. (See Appendix C) S t o g d i l l ' s composite o f lea d e r s h i p c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s as well as the scal e s used to measure each c h a r a c t e r i s t i c are included i n Appendix D. Each question of both Gordon t e s t s c o n s i s t e d o f a set of four d e s c r i p - t o r s . Each subject was asked to choose one statement most l i k e himself and one l e a s t l i k e himself. In a d d i t i o n to the t e s t s , subjects were a l s o asked whether or not they had f u l l time work experience and i f so f o r how long. They were als o asked to s t a t e the number of years of education that they had completed. This was done as a check f o r homogeneity of the sample. 3Ralph M. S t o g d i l l , Handbook of Leadership A Survey of Theory and Re- search (New York and London: The Free Press, 1974), p. 81. " 30 The FEM s c a l e , i n Appendix B, was used to measure a t t i t u d e s towards feminism. The FEM sca l e i s a twenty items s c a l e which uses a L i k e r t format. I t deals with agreement or disagreement o f the cent r a l b e l i e f s o f feminism. It s c o r r e l a t e s include a c t i v i s m and su b j e c t i v e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n with the Women's L i b e r a t i o n Movement. 4 The FEM s c a l e i s a r e v i s e d up to date version of K i r k p a t r i c k ' s B e l i e f - P a t t e r n Scale f o r Measuring A t t i t u d e s Towards Femi- nism. In 1936, C l i f f o r d K i r k p a t r i c k developed a tool to assess a c u l t u r a l p a t t e r n , that would be v a l i d i n measuring agreement or disagreement with g i s s u e s , and avoid f o r c i n g a l t e r n a t i v e s on the sub j e c t s . Data C o l l e c t i o n The nursing students were asked to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the study one week before the data were c o l l e c t e d . Each o f the d i f f e r e n t questionnaires was completed f o l l o w i n g c l a s s . The Women's L i b e r a t i o n groups were contacted by telephone. The purpose o f the research was b r i e f l y explained. The data were c o l l e c t e d at four Women's L i b e r a t i o n meetings i n various communi- t i e s in the Lower Mainland. The l i b r a r y science students, who were another group, were asked to p a r t i c i p a t e at the conclusion o f a c l a s s . The questionnaires f o r each r e s p e c t i v e group were analyzed s e p a r a t e l y . Smith, e t a l . , "A Short Scale o f A t t i t u d e s , " p. 51. 5 I b i d . , p. 51. c C l i f f o r d K i r k p a t r i c k , "The Construction o f a B e l i e f - P a t t e r n Scale f o r Measuring A t t i t u d e s Towards Feminism," Journal o f S o c i a l Psychology, Vol. 7 (1936), 421. 31 Data A n a l y s i s The data were analyzed using nonparametric s t a t i s t i c s . Nonparametric t e s t s were chosen because the data obtained were o r d i n a l . The two s t a t i s - t i c s used were the Kruskal W a l l i s a n a l y s i s of variance f o r hypotheses I and II and the Spearman c o e f f i c i e n t of rank c o r r e l a t i o n f o r hypotheses I I I , IV, and V. The Kruskal W a l l i s t e s t was used because i t s use of rank order of a given c r i t e r i o n does not assume underlying normality or homogeneity of variance. In comparison with the F t e s t , the Kruskal W a l l i s t e s t has a r e - l a t i v e asymptotic e f f i c i e n c y of 3 / T T = 95.5 per cent.^ Although not g e n e r a l l y used with o r d i n a l data, the F t e s t was computed due to the ease and speed of an a v a i l a b l e computer program. The t e s t F r a t i o was compared to the c r i t i c a l value of F, namely 3.11 at the .05 l e v e l of s i g n i f i c a n c e , f o r two degrees o f freedom f o r treatment and e i g h t y one degrees of freedom f o r w i t h i n group variance. An F r a t i o exceeding the c r i t i c a l value of 3.11 would th e r e f o r e i n d i c a t e s i g n i f i c a n c e at the f i v e per cent l e v e l . This would lead to r e j e c t i o n of the n u l l hypothesis. The Kruskal W a l l i s a n a l y s i s of variance was computed by ranking the scores on l e a d e r s h i p c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and a t t i t u d e s towards feminism i n the three groups. Following the ranking, the H s t a t i s t i c was c a l c u l a t e d f o r l e a d e r s h i p c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and a t t i t u d e s towards feminism. The formula f o r 7George A. Ferguson, S t a t i s t i c a l A n a l y s i s i n Psychology and Education (3rd ed.; Mew York: McGraw-Hill Book Co., 1971), p. 333. 32 the H s t a t i s t i c 8 i s H = 3 (N+l) where k = number of groups n^ = number of cases i n the .th sample J N = En-, the number of cases i n a l l samples combined R. = sum of ranks i n ^th sample (column) k E = the sum of j=l from j=l to k t = number of t i e d ranks w i t h i n a group T = t 3 - t The H s t a t i s t i c of the Kruskal Wall i s a n a l y s i s of variance i s d i s t r i b u t e d as a chi square d i s t r i b u t i o n with K-l degrees of freedom. 9 At the .05 l e v e l of s i g n i f i c a n c e using K-l namely, 2 degrees of freedom and the chi square d i s t r i b u t i o n , the c r i t i c a l value i s 5.99. Thus, an H s t a t i s t i c with a value exceeding the c r i t i c a l value of 5.99 i n d i c a t e s s t a t i s t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e at or beyond the f i v e per cent l e v e l and would lead to r e j e c t i o n o f the n u l l hypothesis. A Scheffe t e s t was performed i n order to con t r a s t each p o s s i b l e p a i r of samples when both the F r a t i o and the H s t a t i s t i c demonstrated s i g n i f i c a n c e . 8 S i d n e y S i e q e l , Nonparametric S t a t i s t i c s f o r the Behavioral Sciences, (New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co., Inc., 1956), p. 185. : ~ 9 I b i d . , p. 18®. 33 The Scheffe' t e s t used the estimated e r r o r variances p r e v i o u s l y obtained from the parametric a n a l y s i s of variance. The formula f o r the S c h e f f e / 10 t e s t i s F = (xT - xp2 sw 2/ + sw 2/ where XT = mean of the n-th group Xj = mean of the j t h group sw 2 = estimate of the w i t h i n group variance n-j = number i n the ^th group n^ = number in the j t h group F = r a t i o of v a r i a n c e estimates between groups to w i t h i n groups sb 2/sw 2 Following computation of the F r a t i o , the F t a b l e was consulted to obtain a c r i t i c a l value f o r F at the .05 l e v e l of s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r df^ = k - 1 = 3 - 1 = 2, and d f 2 = n - k = 84 - 2 = 82. The c r i t i c a l value was found to be 3.11. F' was c a l c u l a t e d at (k - 1) F , namely 6.22. S i g n i f i c a n c e at the .05 l e v e l was a t t a i n e d when the value of F was g r e a t e r than or equal to that of F' or 6.22. The Spearman c o e f f i c i e n t of rank c o r r e l a t i o n was used to determine the r e l a t i o n s h i p between a t t i t u d e s towards feminism and l e a d e r s h i p c h a r a c t e r - l°George A. Ferguson, S t a t i s t i c a l A n a l y s i s In Psychology and Education 4th ed.; New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co., 1976), p. 296. 34 i s t i c s i n each of the three groups. The Spearman rank order c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t package of the S t a t i s t i c a l Package f o r the S o c i a l Sciences was used. The Spearman s t a t i s t i c was used because i t i s a measure of a s s o c i a t i o n i n which both v a r i a b l e s are measured on an o r d i n a l s c a l e and the subjects are r a n k e d . ^ In order to compute the s t a t i s t i c , raw scores were changed i n t o 12. ranks. The formula f o r the Spearman c o e f f i c i e n t of rank order c o r r e l a t i o n i s . , 6Zd 2 r h 0 = 1 " N(N*- 1) where N = number of paired ranks d = d i f f e r e n c e between p a i r s of ranks The c r i t i c a l value at the .05 l e v e l of s i g n i f i c a n c e was obtained on the basis of the number of subjects i n each group using the t a b l e of c r i t i c a l values f o r the Spearman rank order c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t J 3 C r i t i c a l values of rho f o r d i f f e r e n t sample s i z e s were computed by determining the c r i t i c a l value at the f i v e per cent l e v e l o f s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r t and then transforming the t value i n t o rho: rho = 1 t 2 t * + (n-2) ^ S i e g e l , Nonparametric S t a t i s t i c s , p. 202. ^ C u r t i s D. Hardyck and Lewis F. P e t r i n o v i c h , Introduction to S t a t i s t i c s  f o r the Behavioral Sciences ( P h i l a d e l p h i a and London: W. B. Saunders Co., 1969), p. 221. l ^ S i e g e l , Nonparametric S t a t i s t i c s , p. 284. 35 CHAPTER IV Data Analysis and Interpretation Introduction Data analysis and interpretat ion centered around test ing the f i ve hypotheses. Data consist ing of eighty four sets of questionnaires were co l lected. The data were col lected in three groups of t h i r t y graduating baccalaureate nursing students, t h i r t y members of the Women's L iberat ion Movement, and twenty four l i b r a r y science students. The part ic ipants in th is study were a l l female. Permission from a teacher of the nursing s tu - dents and a teacher of the l i b r a r y science students was obtained in order to ask the students to take part in the study. Par t i c ipat ion was voluntary. In order to locate groups of the Women's L iberat ion Movement, a d irectory en t i t l ed Guide to the B r i t i s h Columbia Women's Movement, was used to iden- t i f y Women's Liberation groups in the Lower Mainland.^ Following a t e l e - phone explanation of the study to one member of each group, the wr i te r a t - tended four Women's L iberat ion Movement meetings in four communities of the Lower Mainland. Again, par t i c ipat ion was voluntary. Part ic ipants consisted of groups of s i x , ten, ten, and four women respect ively. A l l subjects i n - volved in the study had at least th i r teen years of education and seventy eight per cent had f u l l time work experience varying from one to twenty f i v e years. •1 Guide to the B r i t i s h Columbia Women's Movement (3rd p r i n t i ng ; B r i t i s h Columbia: Western Canadian Women's News, 1976), pp. 13, 15, 17. 36 Hypothesis I There i s no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n l e a d e r s h i p charac-t e r i s t i c s , as measured by scores on the Gordon Personal P r o f i l e and the Gordon Personal Inventory, among students graduating from a baccalaureate nursing program, women.belonging to organ- ized groups o f the Women's Liberation Movement, and students in a l ibrary science program. A parametric a n a l y s i s o f variance of the l e a d e r s h i p c h a r a c t e r i s t i c scores o f a l l three groups, was f i r s t computed because of a v a i l a b i l i t y and ease of the c a l c u l a t i o n . The r e s u l t s were as f o l l o w s : TABLE I An a l y s i s of Variance comparing Leadership C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s among Nursing Students, Members o f the Women's L i b e r a t i o n Movement, and L i b r a r y Science Students Source df SS MS Total 83 25421.95 Treatment (betn' 2 874.25 437.12 Er r o r (within) 81 24547.70 303.05 1.44 An F r a t i o of 1.44 was computed. This was not s i g n i f i c a n t at the .05 l e v e l . Although the Kruskal Wall i s t e s t i s l e s s powerful, i t was computed because of the need f o r a nonparametric measure i n deal i n g with o r d i n a l data. The lead e r s h i p c h a r a c t e r i s t i c scores of the three groups were pooled and ranked. The ranking i s contained i n Appendix E. The r e s u l t s of the H s t a t i s t i c were 10.45. This value was gre a t e r than the c r i t i c a l value of 5.99 and was s i g n i - f i c a n t beyond the .01 l e v e l . The discrepancy i n s i g n i f i c a n c e i s probably due 37 to the d i f f e r e n c e s i n e f f i c i e n c y o f the two t e s t s . The more powerful parametric a n a l y s i s o f variance i n d i c a t e d that there was no d i f f e r e n c e among the three groups i n l e a d e r s h i p c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s while the l e s s power- fu l nonparametric a n a l y s i s o f variance i n d i c a t e d that there was a stgni.fi ̂ cant d i f f e r e n c e among the groups i n l e a d e r s h i p c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . Since the parametric a n a l y s i s o f variance d i d not appear s i g n i f i c a n t , comparisons between the various groups could not be computed. Hypothesis II There i s no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n a t t i t u d e s towards feminism, as measured by the FEM s c a l e , among students gradua-t i n g from a baccalaureate nursing program, women belonging to organized groups o f the Women's L i b e r a t i o n Movement, and students i n a l i b r a r y science programm. For reasons explained p r e v i o u s l y , a parametric a n a l y s i s o f variance o f the scores on the FEM sc a l e was f i r s t computed. The r e s u l t s were as fo l l o w s : TABLE II An a l y s i s o f Variance comparing A t t i t u d e s towards Feminism among Nursing Students, Members o f the Women's L i b e r a t i o n Movement, and L i b r a r y Science Students. Source df SS MS Total 83 8174.95 Treatment (between) 2 2903.29 1451.64 E r r o r (within) 81 5271.65 65.08 38 An F r a t i o of 22.30, s i g n i f i c a n t at the .01 level was found. The H s t a t i s t i c of the Kruskal Wallis analysis of variance was then computed. The FEM scale scores of the three groups were ranked. The ranking i s contained in Appendix F. The re s u l t s of the H s t a t i s t i c were found to be 31.90. This value was greater than the c r i t i c a l value of 5.99 and was s i g n i - f i c a n t beyond the .01 l e v e l . The null hypothesis was therefore rejected. These findings indicate that the three groups do not orig i n a t e from the same population with respect to attitudes towards feminism. Since both the F r a t i o and the H s t a t i s t i c were s i g n i f i c a n t , a Scheffe' te s t was performed in order to contrast each possible pair of samples. The mean of the scores of each group was computed and parametric mean square values used. The res u l t s of the Scheffe t e s t are as follows: TABLE III Comparison of Attitudes towards Feminism, between Nursing Students, Members of the Women's Liberation Movement, and Library Science Students. Comparison F r a t i o Group I/Group II Nursing Students/ Members of the Women's Liberation Movement 23.13 Group I/Group II Nursing Students/ Library Science Students .026 Group II/Group III Members of the Women's Liberation Movement/ Library Science Students 30.82 39 The F r a t i o o f the comparison between the nursing students and members of the Women's L i b e r a t i o n Movement exceeded the c r i t i c a l value o f 6.22 and was considered s i g n i f i c a n t at the .05 l e v e l . There was no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f - ference between the nursing students and the l i b r a r y s c i e n c e students. Again, the comparison between members of the Women's L i b e r a t i o n Movement and l i b r a r y s c ience students was s i g n i f i c a n t at the .05 l e v e l . The n u l l hypothesis was r e j e c t e d and the a l t e r n a t i v e hypothesis that the three groups come from d i f f e r e n t populations was accepted. The g r e a t e s t d i f f e r e n c e s i n a t t i t u d e s towards feminism were found between the group o f members of the Women's L i b e r a t i o n Movement and the other two groups. Although a l l p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the study were women, the group belonging to the Women's L i b e r a t i o n Movement probably d i f f e r e d from the other groups e i t h e r as an ante- cedent c o n d i t i o n to or as a r e s u l t of t h e i r involvement i n the Women's L i b e r - a t i o n Movement. Since one of the ba s i c tenets of the Women's L i b e r a t i o n Move- ment i s a b e l i e f i n feminism, i t seems l o g i c a l that t h i s group would d i f f e r from the others i n t h e i r a t t i t u d e s towards feminism. I t may be speculated, t h e r e f o r e , that the members of the Women's L i b e r a t i o n Movement b e l i e v e more i n freedom from sex r o l e stereotypes and greater career o r i e n t a t i o n f o r women than the other groups. Although the r e s u l t s i n d i c a t i n g a d i f f e r e n c e i n a t t i t u d e s towards femi- nism were h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t , i t i s p o s s i b l e that some women i n the groups of nursing students and l i b r a r y science students were al s o members o f the Women's L i b e r a t i o n Movement. Conversely, i t i s p o s s i b l e that some members of the Women's L i b e r a t i o n Movement were nursing students or l i b r a r y s c ience students although no subject p a r t i c i p a t e d twice i n t h i s study. If t h i s were t r u e , an even g r e a t e r d i f f e r e n c e regarding a t t i t u d e s towards feminism may e x i s t between 40 nursing students and library science students who are not members of the Women's Liberation Movement and women who are members. Further study d i f - ferentiating more clearly between members of the Women's Liberation Movement and non members might be helpful in clar ify ing this point. Hypothesis III There is no significant relationship between attitudes towards feminism, as measured by the FEM scale, and leader- ship characteristics, as measured by scores on the Gordon Personal Profi le and Gordon Personal Inventory, in graduating baccalaureate nursing students. Scores on the FEM scale were calculated. Scores on the ascendancy, responsibil ity, soc iab i l i ty , emotional s tab i l i t y , and or ig inal i ty scales of the GPP and the GPI were tabulated. In addition, another variable composed of the combination of scores on each of these scales and named total opper- ationally defined leadership characteristics. The Spearman coefficient of rank order correlation was computed. Each variable, ascendancy, responsi- b i l i t y , soc iabi l i ty, emotional s tab i l i t y , or ig ina l i ty , and total was corre- lated with attitudes towards feminism. The results were as follows: TABLE IV Correlation Coefficient of Leadership Characteristics with Attitudes towards Feminism among Nursing Students. Ascendancy Responsibility Sociabil ity Emotional Originality Total with with with Stabi1ity with wi th Feminism Feminism Feminism with Feminism Feminism r= -0.08 r= -0.18 r= -0.02 Feminism r= -0.10 r= -0.16 r= -0.28 41 None of the c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s reached the c r i t i c a l value of 0.36 at the .05 l e v e l of s i g n i f i c a n c e . This i n d i c a t e s that there i s no r e - l a t i o n s h i p between l e a d e r s h i p c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and a t t i t u d e s towards femi- nism i n graduating baccalaureate nursing students. The n u l l hypothesis was th e r e f o r e accepted. In view of the l i t e r a t u r e review regarding c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f nurses and nursing students as well as a mean score on the FEM s c a l e of 19.6 from a p o s s i b l e p o s i t i v e or negative 38, i t i s p o s s i b l e that so few nurses have strong p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e s towards feminism that to c o r r e l a t e le a d e r s h i p c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s with a t t i t u d e s towards feminism i s o f l i t t l e use. This sample i s a s e l e c t sample of nursing students i n that i t i s composed o f students graduating from a baccalaureate program. The sample i s f u r t h e r composed of students who have not y e t worked as nurses and r e g i s t e r e d nurses who have returned to school to obtain a bachelors degree. A woman who chooses a baccalaureate program f o r her ba s i c education rather than a diploma program may possess more lea d e r s h i p c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s than a diploma nursing student. I t i s p o s s i b l e that she chose a baccalaureate education i n order to perform as a nursing leader a f t e r graduation. A r e g i s t e r e d nurse r e t u r n i n g to school may have come back because of f r u s t r a t i o n i n her work and a d e s i r e to assume more r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and hence e x e r c i s e more l e a d e r s h i p i n her job. Therefore, i f these women possessed more l e a d e r s h i p c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s than other nursing students and very s l i g h t p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e s towards feminism, the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the two v a r i a b l e s would not be s i g n i f i c a n t . Perhaps the s o c i a l i z a t i o n o f nursing students and p r a c t i c i n g nurses with value often placed on the sub- ordinate r o l e i s r e l a t e d to t h e i r a t t i t u d e s towards feminism.and t h e i r l e a der- 42 ship c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . Since the development of leaders w i t h i n the nursing p r o f e s s i o n i s c r u c i a l , the question o f f i n d i n g l e a d e r s h i p c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s again a r i s e s . I t would be o f great importance to i d e n t i f y those nursing students posses- sing l e a d e r s h i p c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and to develop these c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . Hypothesis IV There i s no s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between a t t i t u d e s towards feminism, as measured by the FEM s c a l e , and le a d e r s h i p c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , as measured by scores on the Gordon Personal P r o f i l e and Gordon Personal Inventory, i n women belonging to organized groups o f the Women's L i b e r a t i o n Movement. Scores on the FEM s c a l e were c a l c u l a t e d . Scores on the various s c a l e s o f the GPP and GPI were tabulated. The v a r i a b l e named t o t a l was made up of the scores on the GPP and the GPI and defined l e a d e r s h i p c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . The Spearman c o e f f i c i e n t of rank order c o r r e l a t i o n was computed. The com- puter ranked the data and c o r r e l a t e d a l l v a r i a b l e s with a t t i t u d e s towards feminism. The r e s u l t s were as f o l l o w s : TABLE V C o r r e l a t i o n C o e f f i c i e n t of Leadership C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s with A t t i t u d e s towards Feminism among Members of the Women's L i b e r a t i o n Movement. Ascendancy R e s p o n s i b i l i t y S o c i a b i l i t y Emotional O r i g i n a l i t y Total with with with S t a b i l i t y wi th with Feminism Feminism Femi ni sm with Feminism Femi ni sm r= 0.26 r= 0.27 r= 0.23 Feminism r= 0.20 r= 0.33 r= 0.07 None of the c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s reached the c r i t i c a l value of 0.36 at 43 the .05 l e v e l of s i g n i f i c a n c e . Although the r value o f .33 f o r the t o t a l c o r r e l a t e d with a t t i t u d e s towards feminism approaches s i g n i f i c a n c e a t the .05 l e v e l , the n u l l hypothesis was accepted. The c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s i n d i c a t e that no r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t s between l e a d e r s h i p and a t t i t u d e s towards feminism among members of organized groups of the Women's L i b e r a t i o n Movement. Although members of the Women's L i b e r a t i o n Movement d i f f e r e d s i g n i f i - c a n t l y i n a t t i t u d e s towards feminism from other groups, perhaps t h i s i s r e - la t e d to a more humanistic a t t i t u d e or any one of many other v a r i a b l e s rather than l e a d e r s h i p c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . It was assumed that women i n the Women's L i b e r a t i o n Movement e x h i b i t e d l e a d e r s h i p c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , but i t i s p o s s i b l e that a few aggressive and dominant leaders have g r e a t l y i n f l u e n c e d t h i s image. A l a r g e r sample s i z e and sampling a l a r g e r geographical area may confirm t h i s assumption. A b e l i e f i n feminism would be demonstrated i n a b e l i e f that people, regardless o f sex, are f r e e to behave i n e i t h e r the so c a l l e d masculine or feminine ways. P o s s i b l y t h i s group of f e m i n i s t s chose a l e s s f o r c e f u l mode of performance than a lead e r s h i p r o l e to demonstrate t h e i r b e l i e f i n feminism. Hypothesis V There i s no s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between a t t i t u d e s towards feminism, as measured by the FEM s c a l e , and lea d e r s h i p c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , as measured by scores on the Gordon Personal P r o f i l e and Gordon Personal Inventory, i n students o f a l i b r a r y science program. Scores on the FEM s c a l e were c a l c u l a t e d . The scores from the sc a l e s o f the GPP and GPI were tabulated. Again, the v a r i a b l e t o t a l c o n s i s t e d of 44 a combination of scores from the scal e s of the GPP and the GPI and defined l e a d e r s h i p c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . The Spearman rank order c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t was computed. Data were ranked by the computor and a l l v a r i a b l e s c o r r e l a t e d with a t t i t u d e s towards feminism. The r e s u l t s were as f o l l o w s : TABLE VI C o r r e l a t i o n C o e f f i c i e n t of Leadership C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s with A t t i t u d e s towards Feminism among L i b r a r y Science Students. Ascendancy R e s p o n s i b i l i t y Soci a b i 1 i ty Emotional O r i g i n a l i t y Total with with with S t a b i l i t y with • with Feminism Feminism Feminism with Feminism Femini sm r= 0.27 r= 0.36 r= 0.08 Feminism r= 0.19 r= 0.38 r= 0.28 None of the c o r r e l a t e d c o e f f i c i e n t s reached the c r i t i c a l value o f 0.39 needed f o r s i g n i f i c a n c e at the .05 l e v e l . The n u l l hypothesis that no r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t s between lea d e r s h i p c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and a t t i t u d e s towards feminism was accepted. The group of l i b r a r y science students showed no d i f f e r e n c e from the other two groups. Summary of Findings Two hypotheses were teste d to determine whether graduating baccalaureate nursing students, members of the Women's L i b e r a t i o n Movement, and L i b r a r y science students d i f f e r e d i n terms of le a d e r s h i p c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and a t t i t u d e s towards feminism. While no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n lead e r s h i p character- i s t i c s were found, the members of the Women's L i b e r a t i o n Movement d i f f e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y from the other two groups i n a t t i t u d e s towards feminism. Three hypotheses were teste d to f i n d out whether s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s between 45 l e a d e r s h i p c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and a t t i t u d e s towards feminism e x i s t e d w i t h i n the groups o f graduating baccalaureate nursing students, members of the Women's L i b e r a t i o n Movement, and l i b r a r y science students. Mo s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s were found. The problem of f i n d i n g l e a d e r s h i p c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w i t h i n the nursing p r o f e s s i o n remains. 46 CHAPTER V Summary, Conclusions, and Recommendations Summary The purpose of t h i s study was to determine whether a b e l i e f i n feminism c o r r e l a t e d with l e a d e r s h i p c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . I t was thought that i f such a c o r r e l a t i o n was evidenced, some of the components of feminism, such as consciousness r a i s i n g , might u l t i m a t e l y be incorporated i n t o nursing i n hopes of developing and providing more nursing l e a d e r s . The review of the l i t e r a t u r e focused on lead e r s h i p i n g e n e r a l , l e a d e r s h i p i n nursing, the Women's L i b e r a t i o n Movement, and the Women's L i b e r a t i o n Movement and nursing. Themes from the l i t e r a t u r e included the pressing need f o r nurse leaders and the opinions o f some current nurse leaders who f e l t that the nursing pro- f e s s i o n would b e n e f i t from an awareness of and a b e l i e f i n the f e m i n i s t movement. Since i t was als o questioned whether women who b e l i e v e i n feminism and j o i n Women's L i b e r a t i o n Movements demonstrate l e a d e r s h i p c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , the a t t r i b u t e studied i n r e l a t i o n to le a d e r s h i p c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s was a b e l i e f i n feminism. T h i r t y graduating baccalaureate nursing students, t h i r t y members of the Women's L i b e r a t i o n Movement, and twenty four l i b r a r y science students were teste d to measure t h e i r l e a d e r s h i p c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s as well as t h e i r a t t i t u d e s towards feminism. When s t a t i s t i c a l t e s t s were a p p l i e d , the three groups were found to d i f f e r l i t t l e i n t h e i r l e a d e r s h i p c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s but to d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n t h e i r a t t i t u d e s towards feminism. The gr e a t e s t d i f f e r e n c e s i n a t t i t u d e s towards feminism were found between the group of members o f the Women's L i b e r a t i o n Movement and the other two groups. No s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s were found between a t t i t u d e s towards feminism and l e a d e r s h i p c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w i t h i n any o f the three groups. L i m i t a t i o n s o f the Study There were a number o f l i m i t a t i o n s encountered i n conducting t h i s study. The major l i m i t a t i o n s were: 1. The work experience i n the three groups v a r i e d from no experience to twenty f i v e years o f experience. This may have a f f e c t e d the subje c t s ' l e a d e r s h i p c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and b e l i e f i n feminism. 2. The educational l e v e l s v a r i e d w i t h i n the Women's L i b e r a t i o n Move- ment group and were not n e c e s s a r i l y c o n s i s t e n t with the other two groups. 3. The age range o f the three groups v a r i e d widely. L i f e ' s experiences may have a f f e c t e d the s u b j e c t s ' l e a d e r s h i p c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and be- l i e f i n feminism. 4. The s o c i a l i z a t i o n o f nursing students i n t o the p r o f e s s i o n a l nurse r o l e might mask the demonstration o f p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e s towards feminism. 5. I t was necessary to use convenience sample population groups r a t h e r than random assessment o f i n d i v i d u a l s from the t o t a l popula- t i o n o f the three groups. Implications and Conclusions Because a survey o f the l i t e r a t u r e i n d i c a t e d a great need f o r nursing leaders as well as the speculated b e n e f i t s to the nursing p r o f e s s i o n that a b e l i e f i n feminism might b r i n g , the question o f whether or not a b e l i e f i n 48 feminism might be r e l a t e d to le a d e r s h i p c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s arose. The three groups studie d were f i r s t t e s t e d to determine d i f f e r e n c e s i n le a d e r s h i p c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and then t e s t e d to assess r e l a t i o n s h i p s between a t t i t u d e s t o - wards feminism and le a d e r s h i p c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w i t h i n each group. This study showed that there was no d i f f e r e n c e i n lead e r s h i p charac- t e r i s t i c s among graduating baccalaureate nursing students, members of the Women's L i b e r a t i o n Movement, and l i b r a r y science students. While the GPP and the GPI have been t e s t e d f o r r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y , only one study was found which used the GPP as a measurement of le a d e r s h i p p o t e n t i a l J In t h i s study the ascendancy s c a l e of the GPP was used to def i n e leadership p o t e n t i a l . No s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s were found among nursing graduates of baccalaureate, a s s o c i a t e degree, and diploma programs i n terms of leader- ship p o t e n t i a l . It would be of i n t e r e s t to compare the scores of the graduating nursing students i n t h i s study with those of c o l l e g e students. There was, however, a d i f f e r e n c e i n a t t i t u d e s towards feminism with the members of the Women's L i b e r a t i o n Movement d i f f e r i n g most from the other two groups. There were no s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s between a t t i t u d e s t o - wards feminism and le a d e r s h i p c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w i t h i n any o f the three groups. The d i f f e r e n c e i n a t t i t u d e s towards feminism seemed accounted f o r by the be- l i e f i n feminism professed by the Women's L i b e r a t i o n Movement. I t seemed reasonable to expect that i t s members would d i f f e r from other women i n t h e i r 'Mary Ann Bruegel Richards, "A Study o f Di f f e r e n c e s i n Psychological C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f Students Graduating from Three Types of Basic Nursing Programs," Nursing Research, Vo l . 21 No. 3 (May-June, 1972), 258-261. 49 a t t i t u d e s towards feminism. Since there were no s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s between a t t i t u d e s towards feminism and lead e r s h i p c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , i t can be concluded that l e a d e r s h i p c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s are not caused by a b e l i e f i n feminism, a b e l i e f i n feminism i s not caused by the possession of leader- ship c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , and a b e l i e f i n feminism and le a d e r s h i p c h a r a c t e r i s - t i c s are not caused by some other v a r i a b l e , common to a l l three groups. Recommendations f o r Further Study Some recommendations f o r f u r t h e r study i n c l u d e : (1) R e p l i c a t i o n of t h i s study would help to a t t a i n greater v a l i d i t y i n the r e s u l t s . Perhaps repeating the study i n another geographical l o c a t i o n might lead to other r e s u l t s s i n c e i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t , due to s o c i a l i z a t i o n , students i n one area are s i m i l a r i n c e r t a i n a t t i t u d e s . Knowledge about g e n e r a l i z a b i 1 i t y would be acquired t h i s way. (2) I d e n t i f y i n g other t o o l s to measure le a d e r s h i p c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s might help to b e t t e r assess t h i s area. It would be important to develop a l i s t o f lea d e r s h i p q u a l i t i e s needed s p e c i f i c a l l y by the nursing p r o f e s s i o n and then to create or l o c a t e a tool which s p e c i f i c a l l y measures these. Although the Gordon t o o l s measure lea d e r s h i p c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n g e n e r a l , something more pe r t i n e n t to nursing might be needed. (3) I d e n t i f y i n g l e a d e r s h i p c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n persons demonstrating l e a d e r s h i p i n nursing might be a useful way of determining those leadership c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s needed by the nursing p r o f e s s i o n . I f these a t t r i b u t e s could be i d e n t i f i e d and provided that l e a d e r s h i p c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s are at l e a s t par- t i a l l y environmentally determined, a str a t e g y f o r assessing the presence of 50 these t r a i t s i n beginning nursing students would be important. A method of teaching which maximizes l e a d e r s h i p c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s followed by an assessment of l e a d e r s h i p c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s at the end of the program as well as i n f i v e years time might be h e l p f u l i n the development of leaders i n the nursing pro- f e s s i o n . (4) S p e c i f y i n g demographic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the subject i n the study would be important s i n c e i t i s p o s s i b l e that some of these, such as the amount of education and work experience, could i n f l u e n c e both l e a d e r s h i p c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and a b e l i e f i n feminism. In c o n c l u s i o n , no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s were found i n le a d e r s h i p c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s among the three groups. S i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n a t t i - tudes towards feminism were found as expected. Mo s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n - ships between a t t i t u d e s towards feminism and l e a d e r s h i p c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s were found. I t was t h e r e f o r e concluded that no causal r e l a t i o n s h i p s e x i s t between a b e l i e f i n feminism and le a d e r s h i p c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . 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"Sexism i n Medicine." American Journal of Nursing, V o l . 76 No. 3 (March, 1976), 426-431. Madden, Barbara P. "Raisinq the Consciousness of Nursing Students." Nursing Outlook, V o l . 23 No. 5 (May, 1975), 292-296'. Mann, R. D. "A Review of the R e l a t i o n s h i p s Between P e r s o n a l i t y and P e r f o r -mance i n Small Groups." Psychological B u l l e t i n , V o l . 56 Mo. 4 (1959), 241-270. P a v l i c k i , Robert, and Almquist, C a r o l . " A u t h o r i t a r i a n i s m , Locus of C o n t r o l , and Tolerance of Ambiguity as r e f l e c t e d i n Membership and Non Member-ship i n a Women's L i b e r a t i o n Group." Psychological Reports, V o l . 32 (June, 1973), 1331-1337. Richards, Mary Ann Bruegel. "A Study of D i f f e r e n c e s i n Psychological Charac-t e r i s t i c s o f Students Graduating from Three Types of Basic Nursing Pro-grams." Nursing Research, Vol. 21 No. 3 (May-June, 1972), 258-261. Roberts, Joan T., and Group, T h e t i s M. "The Women's Movement and Nursing." Nursing Forum, Vol . 12 No. 3 (1973), 303-322. S c h l o t f e l d t , R o z e l l a . "On the Pr o f e s s i o n a l Status o f Nursing." Nursing Forum, Vol . 13 No. 1 (1974), 16-37. 56 Shockley, J u d i t h Salmon. "Perspectives i n Femininity Implications f o r Nursinq." Nursing D i g e s t , Vol. 3 No. 6 (November-December, 1975), 49-52.~ Smith, E l l i o t R. et a1. "A Short Scale of A t t i t u d e s Toward Feminism." Representative Research In S o c i a l Psychology, Vol. 6 (1975), 51-56. Smith, Jeanne. " P e r s o n a l i t y Structure i n Beginning Nursing Students: A Factor A n a l y t i c Study." Nursing Research, Vol. 17 No. 2 (March-April, 1968), 140-145. S t o l o f f , Carolyn. "Who Joi n s Women's L i b e r a t i o n ? " P s y c h i a t r y , V o l . 36 (August, 1973), 325-340. T a v i s , C a r o l . "Who Likes Women's L i b e r a t i o n - and Why: A Case of the Unli b e r a t e d L i b e r a l s . " Journal of S o c i a l Issues, V o l . 29 No. 4 (1973), 175-198. Uprichard, M u r i e l . "Ferment i n Nursing." I n t e r n a t i o n a l Nursing Review, Vol. 16 No. 3 (1969), 222-234. Personal Communication Gordon, Leonard V. January 22nd, 1976, personal communication. 57 APPENDIX APPENDIX A THE GPP AND THE GPI Leonard V. Gordon, Gordon Personal P r o f i l e and Gordon Personal Inventory, Mew York: Harcourt, Brace and World, Inc., 1963. The Gordon Personal P r o f i l e and Gordon Personal Inventory were obtained from the Guidance Centre, Faculty of Education, Uni- v e r s i t y of Toronto, 1000 Yonge S t r e e t , Toronto, O n t a r i o , Canada M4W 2K8. The cost of one hundred and f i v e Gordon Personal P r o f i l e and one hundred and f i v e Gordon Personal Inventories was $47.70. A f i f t y per cent research discount was given. Harcourt, Brace and World, Inc., P u b l i s h e r s , would not grant permission to reproduce the Gordon Personal P r o f i l e and Gordon Personal Inventory. Copies may be obtained from Harcourt, Brace and World, Inc., New York, New York. APPENDIX B THE FEM SCALE 61 Opinion Questionnaire Please i n d i c a t e agreement or disagreement with each of the f o l l o w i n g items according to one of the responses A-Strongly agree B-Agree C-Undecided D-Disagree E-Strongly disagree 1. Women have the r i g h t to compete with men i n every sphere of a c t i vi ty. _2. As the head o f the household, the f a t h e r should have f i n a l a u t h o r i t y over his c h i l d r e n . 3. A woman who refuses to give up her job to move with her husband would be to blame i f the marriage broke up. 4. A woman who refuses to bear c h i l d r e n has f a i l e d i n her duty to her husband. 5. A woman should be expected to change her name when she marries. 6. Whether or not they r e a l i z e i t , most women are e x p l o i t e d by men. 7. Women who j o i n the Women's L i b e r a t i o n Movement are t y p i c a l l y f r u s t r a t e d and u n a t t r a c t i v e people who f e e l they l o s e out by the current rules o f s o c i e t y . 8. A working woman who sends her s i x month o l d baby to a day care center i s a bad mother. 9. A woman to be t r u l y womanly should g r a c e f u l l y accept the chi v a l r o u s a t t e n t i o n s from men. 10. I t i s absurd to regard obedience as a w i f e l y v i r t u e . 11. One should never t r u s t a woman's account o f another woman. 12. The unmarried mother i s moral l y a gr e a t e r f a i l u r e than the unmarried f a t h e r . 13. The " c l i n g i n g v i n e " wife i s j u s t i f i e d provided she c l i n g s sweetly enough to please her husband. 14. A woman should not expect to go to the same places or have the same freedom o f a c t i o n as a man. 15. R e a l i s t i c a l l y speaking, most progress so f a r has been made by men and we can expect i t to continue that way. 16. I t i s d e s i r a b l e that women be appointed to p o l i c e forces with the same duties as men. 17. Women are b a s i c a l l y more unpredictable than men. 18. It i s a l l r i g h t f o r women to work but men w i l l always be the b a s i c breadwinners. 19. A woman should not expect to go to the same places or have the same freedom o f a c t i o n as a man. 20. P r o f a n i t y sounds worse g e n e r a l l y coming from a woman. APPENDIX C THE MEANING OF THE SCALES OF THE GPP AND THE GPI 64 The Meaning of the Scales o f the GPP and the GPI Ascendancy Those i n d i v i d u a l s who adopt an a c t i v e r o l e i n group s i t u a t i o n s , who are s e l f assured and a s s e r t i v e i n r e l a t i o n s h i p s with o t h e r s , and who tend to make independent d e c i s i o n s , make high scores on t h i s s c a l e . R e s p o n s i b i l i t y Those i n d i v i d u a l s who take r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s s e r i o u s l y , who are able to s t i c k to any job and get i t done, who are pers e r v e r i n g and determined, score high on t h i s s c a l e . Emotional S t a b i l i t y High scores on t h i s s c a l e c h a r a c t e r i z e i n d i v i d u a l s who are well balanced, emotionally s t a b l e , and r e l a t i v e l y f r e e from anxiety and ner- vous tension. S o c i a b i l i t y High scores on t h i s s c a l e are made by i n d i v i d u a l s who l i k e to be with people and work with people, who are gregarious and s o c i a b l e . O r i g i n a l Thinking Those who tend to be o r i g i n a l i n t h e i r t h i n k i n g , l i k e to work with ideas, enjoy d i f f i c u l t problems, and are r e f l e c t i v e , score high on t h i s s c a l e . APPENDIX D STOGDILL1S COMPOSITE OF LEADERSHIP CHARACTERISTICS AS MEASURED BY THE GPP AND THE GPI STOGDILL'S COMPOSITE OF LEADERSHIP CHARACTERISTICS AS MEASURED BY THE GPP AMD THE GPI CHARACTERISTIC 1. Strong d r i v e f o r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and task completion 2 . Vigor and p e r s i s t e n c e i n p u r s u i t o f goals 3. Venturesomeness and o r i g i n a l i t y i n problem s o l v i n g 4 . Drive to e x e r c i s e i n i t i a t i v e i n s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n s 5. S e l f confidence and a sense of personal i d e n t i t y 6. W i l l i n g n e s s to accept consequences of a d e c i s i o n and a c t i o n 7. Readiness to absorb i n t e r p e r s o n a l s t r e s s 8. W i l l i n g n e s s to t o l e r a t e f r u s t r a t i o n and delay 9. Capacity to s t r u c t u r e s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n to the purpose at hand 10. A b i l i t y to i n f l u e n c e another person's behavior SCALE R e s p o n s i b i l i t y R e s p o n s i b i l i t y O r i g i n a l Thinking Sociabi 1 i t y Emotional S t a b i l i t y and Ascendancy R e s p o n s i b i l i t y Emotional S t a b i l i t y R e s p o n s i b i l i t y Ascendancy Ascendancy APPENDIX E RANKED LEADERSHIP SCORES OF GRADUATING NURSING STUDENTS, MEMBERS OF THE WOMEN'S LIBERATION MOVEMENT, AND LIBRARY SCIENCE STUDENTS. 68 RANKING OF LEADERSHIP SCORES Group j Nursing Students Group T T Members 1 1 the WLM of Group U J L i b r a r y Science 1 1 Students Rank Leadership Score Rank Leadership Score Rank Leadership Score 46 57 36.5 81.5 76 26 53 2 3 5.5 7.5 38.5 73.5 28 63 38.5 33 69 7.5 17 23.5 61.5 76 25 55.5 30 59 41.5 28 83 121 126 116 141 138 111 124 72 79 87 91 117 137 112 129 117 115 133 91 101 109 128 138 n o 125 113 127 118 112 144 ZRl = 1245 41.5 5.5 41.5 64 13 66.5 41.5 59 84 48.5 69 10.5 81.5 59 71 4 10.5 12 78 76 44.5 53 69 79 72 . 66.5 36.5 73.5 44.5 19.5 118 87 118 130 96 132 118 127 145 122 133 93 141 127 135 83 93 95 139 138 120 124 133 139 136 132 116 137 120 103 ZRII= 1494 5 48.5 31 21 78 53 33 61.5 19.5 14.5 28 33 51 48.5 48.5 65 18 9 1 14.5 22 80 16 55.5 23.5 122 114 104 139 124 115 128 103 97 112 115 123 122 122 131 102 92 71 97 108 140 99 125 109 ERIM = 873.5 APPENDIX.F RANKED FEM SCALE SCORES OF GRADUATING NURSING STUDENTS, MEMBERS OF THE WOMEN'S LIBERATION MOVEMENT, AND LIBRARY SCIENCE STUDENTS. 70 RANKING OF FEM SCORES Group I Nursing Students Group II Members of the WLM Group III L i b r a r y Science Students Rank FEM Score Rank FEM Score Rank FEM Score 60 9.5 40 15.5 2 45.5 3.5 21.5 50 38 57.5 5.5 50 11.5 38 >52 13.5 13.5 18.5 57.5 32.5 72 24.5 24.5 9.5 48 24.5 7.5 50 60 31 10 23 15 0 25 4 17 27 22 30 5 27 12 22 28 14 14 16 30 21 35 18 18 10 26 18 9 27 31 SRI = 956 30 20 45.5 25 18.5 16 78 37 70.5 34 78 31 66.5 33 82 38 62.5 32 27.5 19 54.5 29 82 38 70.5 34 66.5 33 74.5 36 54.5 29 62.5 32 38 22 74.5 36 74.5 36 42.5 24 60 31 66.5 33 82 38 45.5 25 54.5 29 78 37 82 38 66.5 33 82 38 ZRII= 1870.5 30 24.5 40 32.5 40 74.5 66.5 27.5 7.5 1 66.5 11.5 42.5 38 38 18.5 54.5 18.5 15.5 5.5 45. 21 30 3. ,5 .5 20 18 23 21 23 36 33 19 9 -2 33 12 24 22 22 16 29 16 15 5 25 17 20 4 ER IH=753.5

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