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Nursing, leadership and the women’s liberation movement Dubin, Gloria Louise Joachim 1976

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NURSING, LEADERSHIP, AND THE WOMEN'S LIBERATION MOVEMENT by GLORIA LOUISE JOACHIM DUBIN B.S.N., U n i v e r s i t y o f Maryland, 1969  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE IN NURSING in THE SCHOOL OF NURSING  We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming t o t h e r e q u i r e d standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA June, 1976 (c)  G l o r i a L o u i s e Joachim Duhin,  1976-  In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s  thesis  an advanced degree at the L i b r a r y s h a l l I  f u r t h e r agree  in p a r t i a l  fulfilment of  the requirements f o r  the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia,  make i t  freely available  that permission  for  I agree  r e f e r e n c e and  f o r e x t e n s i v e copying o f  this  that  study. thesis  f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h i s of  this  written  representatives. thesis  It  is understood that copying or p u b l i c a t i o n  f o r f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l  permission.  Department of  NURSING  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h 2075 W e s b r o o k P l a c e V a n c o u v e r , Canada V6T 1W5  Columbia  not be allowed without my  iii  ABSTRACT  The concern with the need f o r leaders i n the nursing p r o f e s s i o n as well as knowledge t h a t many c u r r e n t nursing leaders advocate a l l i a n c e with the Women's L i b e r a t i o n Movement, gave r i s e t o the study o f l e a d e r ship c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , a t t i t u d e s towards feminism, and the r e l a t i o n s h i p between these i n s e l e c t e d female p o p u l a t i o n s .  The samples chosen f o r  study were t h i r t y graduating baccalaureate nursing students, t h i r t y members o f organized groups o f the Women's L i b e r a t i o n Movement, and as another comparison  group, twenty four l i b r a r y science students.  Five hypotheses concerning l e a d e r s h i p c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and a t t i t u d e s towards feminism were t e s t e d .  The hypotheses were:  1. There i s no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n l e a d e r s h i p c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , as measured by scores on the Gordon Personal P r o f i l e and the Gordon Personal Inventory, among students graduating from a baccal a u r e a t e nursing program, women belonging to organized groups o f the Women's L i b e r a t i o n Movement, and students i n a l i b r a r y science program. 2. There i s no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n a t t i t u d e s towards feminism, as measured by the FEM s c a l e , among students graduating from a baccalaureate n u r s i n g program, women belonging to organized groups o f the Women's L i b e r a t i o n Movement, and students i n a l i b r a r y s c i e n c e program. 3. There i s no s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between a t t i t u d e s towards feminism, as measured by the FEM s c a l e , and l e a d e r s h i p c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , as measured by scores on the Gordon Personal P r o f i l e and the Gordon Personal Inventory, i n graduating baccalaureate n u r s i n g students.  IV  4. There i s no s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between a t t i t u d e s towards feminism, as measured by the FEM s c a l e , and l e a d e r s h i p c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , as measured by scores on the Gordon Personal P r o f i l e and the Gordon Personal Inventory, i n women belonging to organized groups o f the Women's L i b e r a t i o n Movement. 5. There i s no s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between a t t i t u d e s towards feminism, as measured by the FEM s c a l e , and l e a d e r s h i p c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , as measured by scores on the Gordon Personal P r o f i l e and the Gordon Personal Inventory, i n students o f a l i b r a r y science program. No s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n l e a d e r s h i p c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s among the three groups were found.  S i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n a t t i t u d e s towards feminism  were found with the members o f the Women's L i b e r a t i o n Movement d i f f e r i n g most from the other two groups.  No s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s between  l e a d e r s h i p c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and a t t i t u d e s towards feminism were found i n any o f the three groups.  I t was concluded that a b e l i e f i n feminism does  not cause l e a d e r s h i p c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , and that l e a d e r s h i p c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s do not cause a b e l i e f i n feminism.  S i m i l a r l y , any other v a r i a b l e common  to the three groups could not be considered causal f o r both the possession o f l e a d e r s h i p c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and the expressed a t t i t u d e s towards feminism.  TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER I.  II.  PAGE  INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY  1  Introduction  1  Statement o f the Problem  3  S i g n i f i c a n c e o f the Problem  4  Statement o f Hypotheses  7  D e f i n i t i o n o f Terms  8  L i m i t a t i o n s o f the Study  9  Overview o f the Study  9  REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE  10  L i t e r a t u r e Related t o Leadership i n General  10  Leadership i n Nursing  13  .........  The Women's L i b e r a t i o n Movement  17  The Women's L i b e r a t i o n Movement and Nursing  22  Summary  27  I I I . METHODOLOGY  28  Introduction  28  The Samples Studied  28  Tools Used  29  Data C o l l e c t i o n  30  Data A n a l y s i s  31  vi  CHAPTER IV.  V.  PAGE  DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION  35  Introduction  35  Hypothesis I  36  Hypothesis II  37  Hypothesis I I I  40  Hypothesis IV  42  Hypothesis V  43  Summary o f Findings  44  SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS  46  Summary  46  L i m i t a t i o n s o f the Study  47  Implications and Conclusions  47  Recommendations f o r Further Study  49  BIBLIOGRAPHY APPENDIX  •. .  51 57  vii  LIST OF TABLES  TABLE I.  PAGE A n a l y s i s o f Variance Comparing Leadership C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s among Nursing Students, Members o f the Women's L i b e r a t i o n Movement, and L i b r a r y Science Students  II.  36  A n a l y s i s o f Variance Comparing A t t i t u d e s towards Feminism among Nursing Students, Members o f the Women's L i b e r a t i o n Movement, and L i b r a r y Science Students. ......  III.  37  Comparison o f A t t i t u d e s towards Feminism between Nursing Students, Members o f the Women's L i b e r a t i o n Movement, and L i b r a r y Science Students  IV.  C o r r e l a t i o n C o e f f i c i e n t o f Leadership C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s with A t t i t u d e s towards Feminism among Nursing Students.  V.  38  40  C o r r e l a t i o n C o e f f i c i e n t o f Leadership C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s with A t t i t u d e s towards Feminism among Members o f the Women's L i b e r a t i o n Movement  VI.  42  C o r r e l a t i o n C o e f f i c i e n t o f Leadership C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s with A t t i t u d e s towards Feminism among L i b r a r y Science Students  44  1  CHAPTER I I n t r o d u c t i o n to the Study Introduction Nursing has been slow i n a t t a i n i n g the s t a t u s o f a f u l l p r o f e s s i o n . The f i r s t nursing o u t s i d e the home was begun by Florence N i g h t i n g a l e during the Crimean War. S h o r t l y t h e r e a f t e r , the f i r s t nursing schools were e s t a b l i s h e d i n England.  In t h e United S t a t e s , nursing schools were created  f o l l o w i n g the C i v i l War. In e a r l y nursing education, housekeeping s k i l l s and l a d y - l i k e behavior r e c e i v e d g r e a t e r emphasis than nursing s k i l l s . ' ' Although the schools endeavored to r e c r u i t upper c l a s s women as nurse t r a i n e e s , with the i n c l u s i o n o f more and more housework, lower c l a s s women were soon drawn to nursing.  Learning behavior c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f higher c l a s s l a d i e s  continued to be emphasized.  Florence N i g h t i n g a l e b e l i e v e d t h a t nursing was  natural f o r women and opposed the r e g i s t r a t i o n o f n u r s e s .  2  When i t was sug-  gested t h a t nurses be t e s t e d and l i c e n s e d as doctors were, she r e p l i e d that nurses could not be examined any more than mothers.  As nurses assumed t r a -  d i t i o n a l feminine r o l e s the image o f nursing i n c o r p o r a t e d t h e stereotyped image o f women. This image and the low s t a t u s that accompanies i t , p e r s i s t s today.  3  'Barbara Ehrenreich and Deirdre E n g l i s h , Witches, Midwives, and Nurses - A H i s t o r y o f Women Healers (2nd ed.; O l d Westbury, New York; The Feminist P r e s s , 1973), p..35. J o s e p h i n e A. Pol an, H i s t o r y o f Nursing (12th ed,; P h i l a d e l p h i a , London, Toronto; W. B. Saunders Co., 1968), p, 221. 2  3E1 aine E. B e l e t z , "Is Nursing's P u b l i c Image up to Date?" Nursing Outlook, V o l . 22 No. 7 ( J u l y , 1974), 435. o  2 Today, nurses provide comprehensive care to p a t i e n t s .  In many areas,  the r o l e o f t h e nurse has expanded t o g i v e g r e a t e r scope to nursing care. As the p r o f e s s i o n o f nursing grows, leaders are needed to maintain p r o f e s s i o n a l standards and to guide the p r o f e s s i o n .  high  Nursing i s t r y i n g to  g a i n r e c o g n i t i o n as an independent p r o f e s s i o n that makes a c o n t r i b u t i o n t o 4 the cure o f i l l n e s s and t h e promotion o f h e a l t h .  I t may be speculated that  with g r e a t e r nursing l e a d e r s h i p , the status o f t h e p r o f e s s i o n would be r a i s e d . A consequence o f r a i s e d status might be e q u a l i t y among the health p r o f e s s i o n a l s and p r o f e s s i o n s .  While leaders a r e needed i n n u r s i n g , past s t u d i e s o f nurses  and nursing students have shown that these women do not possess q u a l i t i e s g e n e r a l l y a s s o c i a t e d with  leadership.5*6,7  In c o n s i d e r i n g the need f o r l e a d e r s h i p i n n u r s i n g , some questions arise:  Is a b e l i e f i n feminism r e l a t e d to t h e possession o f l e a d e r s h i p  characteristics?  Is the lack o f l e a d e r s h i p i n nursing r e l a t e d t o t h e t r a -  d i t i o n a l female r o l e i n s o c i e t y ?  Since the Women's L i b e r a t i o n Movement has  led away from t r a d i t i o n a l r o l e s assigned t o women i n s o c i e t y , would women with p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e s towards feminism have more l e a d e r s h i p c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s than women who do not have p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e s towards feminism?  Would women  ^Muriel Uprichard, "Ferment i n Nursing," I n t e r n a t i o n a l Nursing Review, V o l . 16 No. 3 (1969), 222. M. A. B a i l e y , "An Obverse Factor A n a l y t i c Study o f Values i n Psychol o g i s t s , P s y c h i a t r i s t s , S o c i a l Workers and Nurses," Journal of C l i n i c a l Psychology, V o l . 19 No. 1 ( J a n u a r y 3 9 6 3 ) , 120-124. 5  6june B a i l e y and Karen Claus, "Comparative A n a l y s i s o f t h e P e r s o n a l i t y S t r u c t u r e o f Nursing Students," Nursing Research, V o l . 18 No. 4 ( J u l y , 1969), 320-326. Helmut Hoffman, "Note on P e r s o n a l i t y T r a i t s o f Student Nurses, "Psychol o g i c a l Reports, V o l . 27 No. 3 (December, 1970), 1004. 7  3  i n v o l v e d i n organized Women's L i b e r a t i o n Movement groups have l e a d e r s h i p c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s s i m i l a r t o women i n nursing?  Would women i n other t r a d i -  t i o n a l l y female p r o f e s s i o n s have l e a d e r s h i p c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s s i m i l a r t o women i n nursing? The w r i t e r became i n t e r e s t e d i n studying l e a d e r s h i p c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n hopes of i d e n t i f y i n g c o r r e l a t e d a t t r i b u t e s which might, i n f u r t h e r study, be c a s u a l l y l i n k e d with l e a d e r s h i p .  Such a t t r i b u t e s may be e i t h e r pre-  r e q u i s i t e s f o r leaders or consequences of the possession o f c e r t a i n leadership c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . Should they be p r e r e q u i s i t e s , the i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r nursing i n i t s search f o r leaders a r e c l e a r .  Nursing has t r a d i t i o n a l l y been  a woman's p r o f e s s i o n which c a r r i e s with i t t h e image of women. i s not inherent i n t h i s image.  Leadership  Since the Women's L i b e r a t i o n Movement has  led away from the t r a d i t i o n a l r o l e s and expectations o f women, perhaps i t s adherents demonstrate more l e a d e r s h i p c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s than women who a r e not members.  Perhaps c e r t a i n l e a d e r s h i p c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a r e a r e s u l t of the  consciousness  r a i s i n g p r a c t i c e d by the Women's L i b e r a t i o n Movement.  Statement of the Problem The need f o r l e a d e r s h i p i s a concern t o the nursing p r o f e s s i o n . The development of c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of l e a d e r s h i p w i l l determine the d i r e c t i o n and f u t u r e of the p r o f e s s i o n .  I t i s important t o determine the presence/  absence of l e a d e r s h i p c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n groups o f students graduating from a baccalaureate nursing program s i n c e they w i l l be p r a c t i c i n g members of the profession.  A comparison with women i n v o l v e d i n the Women's L i b e r a t i o n Move-  ment, who might already possess l e a d e r s h i p c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , could  evidence  4 d i f f e r e n c e s between the groups.  A f u r t h e r comparison with female l i b r a r y  s c i e n c e students, who are also members o f a women's p r o f e s s i o n , would i n crease the s i z e o f t h e sample and help t o determine whether both groups o f female students e n t e r i n g women's p r o f e s s i o n s d i f f e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y from women i n v o l v e d i n t h e Women's L i b e r a t i o n Movement. Thus, the problem o f the study can be focused by t h e q u e s t i o n s : 1.  Is there a d i f f e r e n c e i n l e a d e r s h i p c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s among graduating  baccalaureate nursing- students, members o f the Women's L i b e r a t i o n Movement, and students i n a l i b r a r y s c i e n c e program (comparison 2.  group)?  Is there a d i f f e r e n c e i n a t t i t u d e s towards feminism among t h e three  groups? 3.  Is there a r e l a t i o n s h i p between l e a d e r s h i p c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and  a t t i t u d e s towards feminism w i t h i n each o f t h e three groups?  S i g n i f i c a n c e o f the Problem In g e n e r a l , the p u b l i c r e t a i n s t h e image o f t h e nurse as handmaiden to the doctor.  In a sample o f eighteen h o s p i t a l i z e d p a t i e n t s , t h e i r  composite  image o f the nurse was t h a t o f a female n u r t u r e r , medicator, p h y s i c i a n ' s o  a s s i s t a n t , maid and a d m i n i s t r a t o r .  The expansion o f nursing p r a c t i c e i s  i n f l u e n c e d by the way i n which the p u b l i c perceives i t . A study t h a t i n v e s t i gated the image o f t h e nurse held by baccalaureate nursing students concluded t h a t most students viewed t h e nurse as a t e c h n i c a l worker.^  These images o f  the nurse combined with low s t a t u s do not a t t r a c t career minded women and hold a  B e l e t z , "Nursing's P u b l i c Image," p. 434.  ^D. L. C o l l i n s , e t a l . , "The Image o f Nursing i s Not Changing," Nursing Outlook, V o l . 19 No. 7 ( J u l y , 1971), 459.  5 much i n common with the stereotyped image o f women. It seems t h a t the assumption o f l e a d e r s h i p p o s i t i o n s w i t h i n nursing i s c r u c i a l f o r the f u t u r e development o f the p r o f e s s i o n .  Angela McBride  has s a i d that the q u a l i t y o f health care i s r e l a t e d to the q u a l i t y o f l e a d e r ship.^  She has explained the lack o f nursing l e a d e r s h i p as a r e j e c t i o n by  nurses o f a leader r o l e that they view as masculine.  V i r g i n i a C l e l a n d has  pointed to the need f o r nurse leaders as well as the need f o r more autonomous behavior f o r n u r s e s . ^  R o z e l l a S c h l o t f e l d t has c a l l e d f o r nurse leaders so  that the scope o f nursing p r a c t i c e can be defined and new nurses prepared t o assume t h e i r r o l e J  2  S c h l o t f e l d t summed up her ideas by s a y i n g , "The need  as I see i t i s f o r e n l i g h t e n e d , v i s i o n a r y , courageous l e a d e r s h i p that w i l l be e f f e c t i v e i n r e l e a s i n g t h e tremendous p o t e n t i a l possessed by nurses f o r improving the l o t o f t h e i r f e l l o w man."13 Although great leaders such as Florence N i g h t i n g a l e , L a v i n i a Dock, Adelaide Nutting, and L i l l i a n Wald have i n f l u e n c e d n u r s i n g , c l e a r l y more l e a d e r s h i p i s r e q u i r e d  today.  A b e l i e f i n feminism, which promotes freedom from sex r o l e s t e r e o t y p i n g , might be a way o f changing the image o f nursing.  I f the nursing  p r o f e s s i o n and nurses.themselves were not assigned an i n f e r i o r  submissive  r o l e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f the stereotype o f women, perhaps leaders would emerge  ^ " L e a d e r s h i p Problems and P o s s i b i l i t i e s i n Nursing," American Journal of Nursing, V o l . 72 No. 8 (August, 1972), 1445. i r g i n i a C l e l a n d , "Sex D i s c r i m i n a t i o n : Nursing's Most Pervasive Problem," American Journal o f Nursing, V o l . 71 No. 8 (August, 1971), 1545-6. R z e l l a S c h l o t f e l d t , "On the P r o f e s s i o n a l Status o f Nursing," Nursing Forum, V o l . 13 No. 1 (1974), 27. 1 2  0  1 3  I b i d . , p. 31.  6 and the status o f nursing would become e l e v a t e d .  Involvement i n the Women's  L i b e r a t i o n Movement, which b e l i e v e s i n feminism, might help nurses g a i n power in i n f l u e n c i n g the q u a l i t y of health c a r e . ^  Several nursing leaders have  advocated the a l l i a n c e o f nursing with the Women's L i b e r a t i o n Movement. Wilma S c o t t Heide, nurse and past p r e s i d e n t o f the National O r g a n i z a t i o n f o r Women, has s a i d that the f e m i n i s t Movement r e l a t e s t o a l l people and very 1c  much p e r t a i n s t o nurses.  She f e e l s t h a t s i n c e nursing i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by  the feminine t r a i t s and s u f f e r s from the general oppression o f women, nurses should i d e n t i f y with the Movement.  She f e e l s that t h i s i d e n t i f i c a t i o n would  help nurses gain c o n t r o l o f themselves  and o f the nursing p r o f e s s i o n .  Karen  Lamb s t a t e d that the status o f women must be improved before nursing can assume i t s r i g h t f u l p l a c e i n r e l a t i o n t o other p r o f e s s i o n s . ^  In view o f  the importance o f developing l e a d e r s h i p c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w i t h i n the nursing p r o f e s s i o n , i t appears t h a t an i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n t o r e l a t i o n s h i p s between l e a d e r s h i p c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and a b e l i e f i n feminism might be h e l p f u l . A demonstrated r e l a t i o n s h i p might suggest i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r nursing education and hence the development o f more leaders i n nursing. l^Joan j Roberts and T h e t i s M. Group, "The Women's Movement and Nursing," Nursing Forum, V o l . 12 No. 3 (1973), 321. >  ^ W i l m a S c o t t Heide, "Nursing and Women's L i b e r a t i o n a P a r a l l e l , " American Journal o f Nursing, V o l . 73 No. 5 (May, 1973), 824. ^ K a r e n T. Lamb, "Freedom f o r Our S i s t e r , Freedom f o r Ourselves: Nursing Confronts S o c i a l Change," Nursing Forum, V o l . 12 No. 4 (1973), 328.  7  Statement o f Hypotheses 1.  There i s no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n l e a d e r s h i p c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ,  as measured by scores on t h e Gordon Personal P r o f i l e and the Gordon Personal Inventory, among students graduating from a baccalaureate nursing program, women belonging to organized groups o f the Women's L i b e r a t i o n Movement, and students i n a l i b r a r y s c i e n c e program.  2.  There i s no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n a t t i t u d e s towards feminism, as  measured by the FEM s c a l e , among students graduating from a baccalaureate nursing program, women belonging t o organized groups o f t h e Women's L i b e r a t i o n Movement, and students i n a l i b r a r y s c i e n c e program.  3.  There i s no s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between a t t i t u d e s towards femi-  nism, as measured by the FEM s c a l e , and l e a d e r s h i p c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , as measured by scores on the Gordon Personal P r o f i l e and the Gordon Personal Inventory, i n graduating baccalaureate nursing students.  4.  There i s no s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between a t t i t u d e s towards femi-  nism, as measured by t h e FEM s c a l e , and l e a d e r s h i p c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , as measured by scores on the Gordon Personal P r o f i l e and the Gordon Personal Inventory, i n women belonging t o organized groups o f the Women's L i b e r a t i o n Movement.  5.  There i s no s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between a t t i t u d e s towards femi-  nism, as measured by the FEM s c a l e , and l e a d e r s h i p c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , as  8 measured by scores on the Gordon Personal P r o f i l e and the Gordon Personal Inventory, i n students o f a l i b r a r y science program. D e f i n i t i o n o f Terms F e m i n i n i t y - t r a d i t i o n a l l y d e f i n e d as q u a l i t i e s o f modesty, tenderness, coyness, regarded as usual c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f women. Feminism - a b e l i e f i n e q u a l i t y between the sexes and freedom from sex role stereotypes. Leadership - an i n t e r a c t i o n process i n which an i n d i v i d u a l i n f l u e n c e s 17 the behavior o f others toward an end. Leadership C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s - a t t r i b u t e s t h a t d i f f e r e n t i a t e p o t e n t i a l l y e f f e c t i v e l e a d e r s from f o l l o w e r s .  (For more s p e c i f i c d e f i n i t i o n  of terms on Gordon t e s t s , see p. 70.) Sex Role Stereotypes - r i g i d d e f i n i t i o n s o f behavior according t o sex. Female sex r o l e stereotypes do not d i s t i n g u i s h between b i o l o g i c a l femaleness and f e m i n i n i t y . Women's L i b e r a t i o n Movement - an organized e f f o r t dedicated t o the p o l i t i c a l , economic, and s o c i a l e q u a l i t y o f the sexes.  The Women's  L i b e r a t i o n Movement espouses a b e l i e f i n freedom from sex r o l e s t e r e o t y p e s , e q u a l i t y o f human beings, and has produced organized groups o r a c t i v i t i e s which support i t s b e l i e f s . Haiman i n Ralph M. S t o g d i l l , Handbook o f Leadership, A Survey o f Theory and Research (New York and London: The Free Press, 1974), p.10.  9 L i m i t a t i o n s o f the Study There were recognized l i m i t a t i o n s t o the study: 1. The p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the study were s e l e c t e d nursing students, s e l e c t e d l i b r a r y s c i e n c e students, and s e l e c t e d members o f the Women's L i b e r a t i o n Movement.  Since nursing students from only one school were i n v o l v e d , the  f i n d i n g s are not g e n e r a l i z a b l e t o nursing students i n general.  2.  I f a c o r r e l a t i o n e x i s t s between l e a d e r s h i p c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and a t t i -  tudes towards feminism, causal i n f e r e n c e s cannot be drawn.  Overview o f the study Chapter II contains a review o f the l i t e r a t u r e p e r t a i n i n g to l e a d e r s h i p , l e a d e r s h i p i n nursing and the Women's L i b e r a t i o n Movement. III includes the plan o f the study as well as the methodology used.  Chapter Hypo-  theses I and II w i l l be t e s t e d using a Kruskal W a l l i s a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e . Hypotheses I I I , IV, and V w i l l be t e s t e d using a Spearman r c o r r e l a t i o n analysis.  The r e s u l t s o f t h e study are analyzed and discussed i n chapter IV.  The f i r s t two hypotheses w i l l be accepted o r r e j e c t e d a t the .05 l e v e l o f s i g n i f i c a n c e a t the appropriate number of degrees o f freedom.  The second  three hypotheses w i l l be accepted or r e j e c t e d depending upon the l e v e l of correlation.  This i s f o l l o w e d by a summary and some c o n c l u s i o n s .  10  CHAPTER II Review o f t h e L i t e r a t u r e Much has been w r i t t e n about l e a d e r s h i p i n g e n e r a l , l e a d e r s h i p i n n u r s i n g , the Women's L i b e r a t i o n Movement, and i t s e f f e c t s upon nursing.  A  summary o f important f i n d i n g s i s given.  L i t e r a t u r e r e l a t e d t o Leadership i n General Between World War I and World War I I , a major i n t e r e s t arose i n i d e n t i f y i n g l e a d e r s h i p t r a i t s and i n studying how people became leaders.^ Most o f these s t u d i e s were concerned with the m i l i t a r y o r with i n d u s t r y . According to Gibb, there a r e three t h e o r e t i c a l frameworks d e a l i n g with leadership.  2  One framework deals with l e a d e r s h i p as a s i n g l e d e s c r i p t o r 1  that c h a r a c t e r i z e s leaders wherever they are found.  Subscribing t o t h i s  point o f view leads t o t h e c o n c l u s i o n that a l l leaders i n a l l s i t u a t i o n s e x h i b i t the same q u a l i t y . While i t i s u n l i k e l y that a s i n g l e t r a i t i s common to a l l l e a d e r s , c e r t a i n t r a i t s common t o leaders have been found. The second framework i s the c o n s t e l l a t i o n - o f - t r a i t s theory.  According to  t h i s viewpoint, each leader has a p a t t e r n o f t r a i t s which comprise his a b i l i t y to lead.  This theory suggests that a b a s i c p e r s o n a l i t y pattern  e x i s t s f o r leaders and that i t s elements a r e p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s .  The t r a i t s  i F r e d E. F i e d l e r , Leadership and E f f e c t i v e Management (Glenview, I l l i n o i s and Brighton, England: S c o t t , Foresman, and Co., 1974), p. 1. C e c i l A. Gibb, "Leadership," i n The Handbook o f S o c i a l Psychology, ed. by Gardner Lindzey and E l l i o t Aronson (4th V o l . 2nd ed.; Reading, Mass., Menlo Park, C a l i f . : Addison-Wesley P u b l i s h i n g Co., 1969), pp. 267-268. 2  11 are adaptable and vary.  The t h i r d framework i s the i n t e r a c t i o n theory.  It  describes l e a d e r s h i p as the product o f the p e r s o n a l i t y o f the l e a d e r , the needs and a t t r i b u t e s o f the f o l l o w e r s , the group s t r u c t u r e , and the s i t u a t i o n at hand. While s i t u a t i o n a l f a c t o r s o f t e n enter i n t o the determination of a leader, r e l a t i o n s h i p s have been found between l e a d e r s h i p c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and l e a d e r s h i p s t a t u s . ^  A review of l i t e r a t u r e by R. D. Mann i n 1959 con-  cluded that a r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t s between an i n d i v i d u a l ' s p e r s o n a l i t y and his status i n groups.  Mann documented that i n t e l l i g e n c e , adjustment, and  e x t r o v e r s i o n were r e l a t e d to l e a d e r s h i p s t a t u s . ^  Fred F i e d l e r s t a t e d that  t r a i t s such as i n t e l l i g e n c e , s o c i a b i l i t y , i n i t i a t i v e , and others were r e l a t e d to l e a d e r s h i p . ^  He also s t a t e d that l e a d e r s h i p e f f e c t i v e n e s s t r a i t s  are c o n s i s t e n t , r e l i a b l e p e r s o n a l i t y a t t r i b u t e s that d i f f e r e n t i a t e e f f e c t i v e from i n e f f e c t i v e l e a d e r s , but that these t r a i t s are manifest only under appropriate c o n d i t i o n s . Ralph S t o g d i l l reviewed l e a d e r s h i p t r a i t s t u d i e s conducted between 1904 and 1947.  Methods used i n the s t u d i e s included observation of behavior  i n group s i t u a t i o n s , choice of a s s o c i a t e s , observer r a t i n g s , s e l e c t i o n o f persons i n t o l e a d e r s h i p p o s i t i o n s , a n a l y s i s o f case h i s t o r i e s , l i s t i n g t r a i t s  3 F i e d l e r , Leadership and E f f e c t i v e Management, p. 23. R. D. Mann, "A Review of the R e l a t i o n s h i p s Between P e r s o n a l i t y and Performance i n Small Groups," P s y c h o l o g i c a l B u l l e t i n , V o l . 56 No. 4 (1959), 264-266. 4  ^ F i e d l e r , "Leadership and Leadership E f f e c t i v e n e s s T r a i t s : A Reconc e p t u a l i z a t i o n o f the Leadership T r a i t Problem," i n Leadership and I n t e r personal Behavior, ed. by L u i g i P e t r u l l o and Bernard M. Bass (New York: Holt, R i n e h a r t , and Winston, Inc., 1961), p. 181.  12 considered to be e s s e n t i a l f o r l e a d e r s h i p , p e r s o n a l i t y t e s t s , and i n t e r views. ^  S p e c i f i c t r a i t s common to most studies were i n i t i a t i v e , i n t e l l i -  gence, and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y .  Other f a c t o r s a s s o c i a t e d with l e a d e r s h i p i n  7  several studies were c a p a c i t y , achievement, r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , p a r t i c i p a t i o n , o  s t a t u s , and s i t u a t i o n .  S t o g d i l l a l s o concluded  that the personal  charac-  t e r i s t i c s o f the leader must be r e l a t e d to the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , a c t i v i t i e s , and goals o f the f o l l o w e r s .  9  More recent research p e r t a i n i n g to c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f leaders has been conducted l a r g e l y w i t h i n i n d u s t r y .  P r o j e c t s have been completed by  Henry (1963, 1964) i n Standard O i l o f New J e r s e y , Bentz (1964) i n Sears Roebuck, Bray and Grant (1966) i n American Telephone and Telegraph, and MacKinney (1968) i n Owens I l l i n o i s .  1 0  In 1970, S t o g d i l l completed a review  of 163 s t u d i e s o f l e a d e r s h i p c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s conducted s i n c e h i s 1947 review. He compared the r e s u l t s o f the surveys and summarized leader c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . S t o g d i l l concluded  that q u a l i t i e s t y p i f y i n g leaders were a d r i v e f o r respon-  s i b i l i t y and task completion,  vigor and perserverance  f o r goal  attainment,  o r i g i n a l i t y i n problem s o l v i n g , a d r i v e to e x e r c i s e i n i t i a t i v e i n s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n s , s e l f confidence and a sense o f personal i d e n t i t y , w i l l i n g n e s s to accept consequences o f d e c i s i o n and a c t i o n , readiness to absorb i n t e r personal s t r e s s , w i l l i n g n e s s to t o l e r a t e f r u s t r a t i o n and delay, a b i l i t y to i n f l u e n c e other persons' behavior, and c a p a c i t y to s t r u c t u r e s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n systems to the purpose a t h a n d . ^ 6Ralph M. S t o g d i l l , Handbook o f Leadership A Survey o f Theory and Research (New York and London: The Free Press, 1974), p. 36. I b i d . , p. 63.  7 l b i d . , p. 36.  8  9 l b i d . , p. 64.  I Q l b i d . , p. 73.  11 I b i d . , p. 81.  13 Leadership i n Nursing Within the nursing p r o f e s s i o n , various ideas e x i s t regarding l e a d e r ship.  Donna Diers expressed the o p i n i o n t h a t f i n d i n g leaders i s a problem  in nursing because women with poor s e l f concepts enter n u r s i n g , are  educated  w i t h i n a system that discourages independence, and are then graduated i n t o a d i s o r g a n i z e d p r o f e s s i o n . ^ Ann S l a v i n s k y s a i d that a l e a d e r s h i p problem e x i s t s i n nursing due to a confusion regarding nursing theory to guide the 1 o  profession.  1 0  In an a n a l y s i s o f nursing l e a d e r s h i p s t y l e , Luther  advocated an open systems approach to nursing l e a d e r s h i p .  This  Christman approach,  he f e l t , would enhance p r o f e s s i o n a l maturity and i n n o v a t i v e n e s s . ^  Christman  a l s o f o r e c a s t an o p t i m i s t i c f u t u r e f o r nursing should more e f f e c t i v e l e a d e r ship emerge.  Madeline L e i n i n g e r has w r i t t e n about changes i n l e a d e r s h i p  s t y l e due to changing technology, s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e , v a l u e s , and  managerial  1 jr  styles.  1  She s t a t e d that nursing leaders are needed with p o l i t i c a l and  s o c i a l s c i e n c e knowledge to f u r t h e r nursing's p r o f e s s i o n a l i n t e r e s t s .  With  the i n t e r e s t given to l e a d e r s h i p i n n u r s i n g , schools o f nursing have '^"Leadership Problems and P o s s i b i l i t i e s i n Nursing," American Journal of Nursing, V o l . 72 No. 8 (1972), 1447. 1 3  Ibid.,.p.  1448.  ^ L u t h e r B. Christman, "Nursing Leadership - S t y l e and Substance," American Journal of Nursing, V o l . 67 No. 10 (October, 1967), 2093. ^ M a d e l i n e L e i n i n g e r , "The Leadership C r i s i s i n Nursing: A C r i t i c a l Problem and Challenge," Journal of Nursing A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , ( M a r c h - A p r i l , 1974), 28.  14  i n c o r p o r a t e d l e a d e r s h i p experience into t h e i r c u r r i c u l u m s J 6 , 1 7  Clearly,  nursing leaders are needed. Very l i t t l e l i t e r a t u r e e x i s t s regarding l e a d e r s h i p c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of nurses and nursing students.  Much l i t e r a t u r e e x i s t s regarding person-  a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of nurses and nursing students.  Those p e r s o n a l i t y  s t u d i e s a p p l i c a b l e to l e a d e r s h i p are summarized. June B a i l e y and Karen Claus compared c e r t a i n p e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of nursing students with women students not i n n u r s i n g .  The nursing  students demonstrated higher scores i n nurturance, succorance, deference, and a f f i l i a t i o n but lower scores i n autonomy, dominance, e x h i b i t i o n and aggression J  8  Helmut Hoffman compared p e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f nursing students  with the general norms.  The nursing students scored above the norms i n harm  avoidance, nurturance, d e s i r a b i l i t y and o r d e r , but below the norms i n a g g r e s s i o n , dominance, i m p u l s i v i t y , and u n d e r s t a n d i n g . ^  Jeanne Smith i n v e s t i g a t e d v a r i o u s  p e r s o n a l i t y f a c t o r s among beginning nursing students.  Factor a n a l y s i s r e -  vealed an emphasis on concern f o r o t h e r s , d e s i r e to help o t h e r s , and a need  ^ H i l d a F r a n c i s , "Leadership Experience f o r ADN Students," Journal of Nursing, V o l . 72 No. 7 ( J u l y , 1972), 1264-1265.  American  17Mary C. Jones, "Leadership Experience f o r Senior Students," Nursing Outlook, V o l . 22 No. 6 (June, 1974), 394-397. ISjune B a i l e y and Karen C l a u s , "Comparative A n a l y s i s o f the P e r s o n a l i t y S t r u c t u r e of Nursing Students," Nursing Research, V o l . 18 No. 4 ( J u l y , 1969), 320-326. ^ H e l m u t Hoffman, "Note on P e r s o n a l i t y T r a i t s o f Student P s y c h o l o g i c a l Reports, V o l . 27 No. 3 (December, 1970), 1004.  Nurses,"  15 f o r dependency.  20  S y l v i a Lande found t h a t students i n Roman C a t h o l i c High  Schools who had d e f i n i t e plans to enter schools o f nursing viewed  themselves  as lower achievers than students not planning to enter n u r s i n g .  Anne Davis  21  explored the d i f f e r e n c e i n s e l f concept between nursing students and s o c i a l work students.  Nursing students d e s c r i b e d themselves as dependable, metho-  d i c a l , and able to assume r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , while s o c i a l work students desc r i b e d themselves as independent, spontaneous, and a s s e r t i v e .  2 2  William Kelly  administered f o u r p s y c h o l o g i c a l i n v e n t o r i e s to employed nurses t o determine which t r a i t s p r e d i c t e d promotion. leadership.  In h i s study, K e l l y equated promotion with  Three d i s t i n g u i s h i n g t r a i t s o f promoted nurses were c a p a c i t y f o r  s t a t u s , f e m i n i n i t y , and a r e l a x e d demeanor.  23  Marie G i l b e r t compared l e a d e r -  ship p o t e n t i a l o f medical s u r g i c a l nursing graduate students with p s y c h i a t r i c nursing graduate students.  No d i f f e r e n c e was found between the two groups.  Within the groups, students e x h i b i t i n g the highest l e a d e r s h i p p o t e n t i a l were a l s o found to have optimal p e r s o n a l i t y development. ^ 2  J e a n n e E. Smith, " P e r s o n a l i t y S t r u c t u r e i n Beginning Nursing Students: A Factor A n a l y t i c Study," Nursing Research, V o l . 17 No. 2 (MarchA p r i l , 1968), 143. 20  21Sylvia Lande, "Nursing Career Perceptions Among High School Students," Nursing Research, V o l . 15 ( F a l l , 1966), 337-342. A n n e Davis, " S e l f Concept, Role E x p e c t a t i o n , and Occupational Choice i n Nursing and S o c i a l Work Students," Nursing Research, V o l . 18 No. 1 (January-February, 1969), 55-59. 22  W i l l i a m L. K e l l y , " P s y c h o l o g i c a l P r e d i c t i o n of Leadership i n Nursing," Nursing Research, V o l . 23 No. 1 (January-February, 1974), 41. 2 3  ^ M a r i e A. G i l b e r t , " P e r s o n a l i t y P r o f i l e s and Leadership P o t e n t i a l o f M e d i c a l - S u r g i c a l and P s y c h i a t r i c Nursing Graduate Students/' Nursing Research, V o l . 24 No. 2 ( M a r c h - A p r i l , 1975), 128. 2  16 Mary Ann Richards attempted to assess d i f f e r e n c e s i n l e a d e r s h i p p o t e n t i a l and c e r t a i n other a t t r i b u t e s among nursing graduates o f b a c c a l a u r e a t e , a s s o c i a t e degree, and diploma nursing programs. among the groups.  No d i f f e r e n c e s were found  The groups scored higher i n r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and emotional  s t a b i l i t y than the average female c o l l e g e students.25 Many o f these s t u d i e s l e a d to the c o n c l u s i o n t h a t nurses and nursing students do not e x h i b i t l e a d e r s h i p q u a l i t i e s .  One e x p l a n a t i o n o f f e r e d f o r  t h i s apparent l a c k o f l e a d e r s h i p has been sex d i s c r i m i n a t i o n .  Richard  Levinson s t a t e d , "Males and females are s o c i a l i z e d i n t o t r a d i t i o n a l r o l e s and taught to make choices as a d u l t s . The choices women l e a r n to make are not those l e a d i n g to occupational and educational advancement."26  Bonnie  Bullough and Vern Bullough f u r t h e r s t a t e d , "In s h o r t , the process o f sex segregation i s a c i r c u l a r , s e l f - f u l f i l l i n g p e r p e t u a t i o n o f female ority."^  inferi-  They concluded by s a y i n g , "The male-female game i s deeply i n g r a i n e d  in our s o c i e t y . Even when there i s appearance of e q u a l i t y there i s o f t e n a lack o f r e a l y e q u a l i t y . I f the h e a l t h f i e l d s are any i n d i c a t i o n , there i s s t i l l a long way to go to e q u a l i t y . When and i f we move toward more e f f e c t i v e use o f women power, we might a l s o move toward more e f f e c t i v e medical c a r e , s i n c e masculine bias i s present even i n treatment."28  2$Mary Ann Bruegel Richards, "A Study o f D i f f e r e n c e s i n P s y c h o l o g i c a l C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f Students Graduating from Three Types o f Basic Nursing Programs," Nursing Research,.Vol. 21.No. 3 (May-June, 1972), 259. 26Richard Levinson, "Sexism i n Medicine," America! Journal o f Nursing, Vol. 76 No. 3 (March, 1976), 431. 27Bonnie Bullough and Vern Bullough, "Sex D i s c r i m i n a t i o n i n Health Care," Nursing Outlook, V o l . 23 Mo. 1 (January, 1975), 45. 2 8  I b i d . , p. 45.  17 The Women's L i b e r a t i o n Movement The Women's L i b e r a t i o n Movement has had a r e l a t i v e l y b r i e f h i s t o r y i n s o c i e t y . Before the I n d u s t r i a l R e v o l u t i o n , women were needed t o reproduce, care f o r c h i l d r e n , and work a t home. Women worked beside men on farms sharing the r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s .  As men changed from farming to urban  work, women continued with the work a t home but t h e i r s o c i a l needs were not met. A lack o f a d u l t companionship to t h e i r i n t e r e s t i n paid employment.29  and psychic s a t i s f a c t i o n c o n t r i b u t e d By the mid nineteenth century, a  f e m i n i s t r e b e l l i o n a g a i n s t V i c t o r i a n s o c i e t y was underway. The r e b e l l i o n grew from ideas about e q u a l i t y o f e a r l y a b o l i t i o n i s t s l i k e W i l l i a m Lloyd Garrison.  3 0  Although women were r e b e l l i n g , the C i v i l War i n the U.S. made  i t necessary f o r American women t o r e d i r e c t t h e i r e f f o r t s t o sewing, farming, and n u r s i n g .  The Women's L i b e r a t i o n Movement l o s t s t r e n g t h as women d i r e c t e d  t h e i r a t t e n t i o n away from i t . A f t e r the War, i n the l a t e nineteenth century, c o l l e g e s began t o admit women.31  As a r e s u l t , women formed c u l t u r a l i n t e r e s t groups.  Even though  some women were educated, jobs open to them were u s u a l l y those with low pay and p r e s t i g e . As women became more educated and wanted increased r e s p o n s i b i l i t y along with men, they worked to o b t a i n the r i g h t to vote.  Once t h i s  ^ G l a d y s E. Harbeson, Choice and Challenge f o r the American Woman (Cambridge, Massachusetts: Schenkman P u b l i s h i n g Co., 1967), p. 27. 30shulamitt F i r e s t o n e , "On American Feminism Women i n S e x i s t S o c i e t y , " in Studies i n Power and Power!essness, ed. by V i v i a n Gornick and Barbara K. Moran (3rd p r i n t i n g : New York: Basic Books Inc., 1971), p. 66. 3lHarbeson, Choice and Challenge, p. 29.  18 b a t t l e had been won, the Women's L i b e r a t i o n Movement became l e s s v i s i b l e . In 1942, Farnham and Lundberg warned t h a t "careers and higher educ a t i o n were leading to the m a s c u l i n i z a t i o n o f women with enormously dangerous consequences t o t h e home, c h i l d r e n dependent on i t , and t o t h e a b i l i t y o f the woman as well as her husband t o o b t a i n sexual g r a t i f i c a tion."'  During t h e 1950's, the feminine mystique was s o l d to s o c i e t y .  According to Betty F r i e d a n , "The feminine mystique says that the highest value and t h e only commitment f o r women i s the f u l f i l l m e n t o f t h e i r own femininity."  3 3  The feminine mystique implies that f e m i n i n i t y i s a m y s t e r i -  ous t h i n g based purely on i n t u i t i o n .  I t p e r t a i n s only t o women and makes  women l e s s s u b j e c t t o comprehension than men. Feminists and the Women's L i b e r a t i o n Movement have r e b e l l e d a g a i n s t f o r c i n g women i n t o c e r t a i n r o l e s purely because o f t h e i r sex.  Friedan s a i d  t h a t women must r e j e c t the feminine mystique i n order t o become complete human b e i n g s . ^ 3  She f u r t h e r expressed t h e o p i n i o n t h a t women must r e f u s e  to accept t h e housewife image, that marriage, motherhood, and a career can be combined, and t h a t women need c r e a t i v e work o f t h e i r own. The present phase o f the Women's L i b e r a t i o n Movement grew out o f t h e p r o t e s t movements o f the s i x t i e s .  Although the p r o t e s t s were dedicated to  S^Marynia Farnham and Ferdinand Lundberg, Modern Woman: The Lost Sex (New York and London: Harper and Brothers Co., 1947), p. 121. B e t t y F r i e d a n , The Feminine Mystique Co., 1963), p. 110. 3 3  3 4 i b i d . , p. 374.  (New York: W. W. Norton and  19 e g a l i t a r i a n causes, women n o t i c e d that they were not t r e a t e d as equals with men.  Kate M i l l e t t defined p o l i t i c s as "power-structured r e l a t i o n s h i p s ,  35  arrangements whereby one group o f persons i s c o n t r o l l e d by a n o t h e r . " ^ 3  M i l l e t t f e e l s that the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the sexes i s p o l i t i c a l and t h a t men, because o f t h e i r b i r t h r i g h t , have power over women. M i l l e t t s t a t e d , "Sexual p o l i t i c s o b t a i n s consent through the s o c i a l i z a t i o n o f both sexes to b a s i c p a t r i a r c h a l p o l i t i c s with regard to temperament, r o l e , and s o c i a l status."  3 7  E l i z a b e t h Janeway described the Women's L i b e r a t i o n Movement as a d i v e r s e movement which c h a l l e n g e s some assumptions b a s i c to s o c i e t y . The Women's L i b e r a t i o n Movement s t r e s s e s e q u a l i t y f o r women i n o p p o r t u n i t i e s and wages.  Issues are work, t h e r o l e s o f w i f e and mother, and sexual r e -  lationships.  3 8  I t seeks to r e d e f i n e the r o l e s o f w i f e and mother so that  women can respond to present l i f e c i r c u m s t a n c e s .  39  The Women's L i b e r a t i o n  Movement p r o f e s s e s a b e l i e f i n a fundamental e q u a l i t y o f t a l e n t , mental a b i l i t y , and c h a r a c t e r strength o f men and women.  I t opposes sex r o l e  s t e r e o t y p i n g and encourages i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s as g r e a t f o r women as  • ^ E d i t o r i a l Research Reports on The Women's Movement (Washington, D.C: Congressional Q u a r t e r l y Inc., 1973), p. 14. K a t e M i l l e t t , Sexual P o l i t i c s (Garden C i t y , New York: Doubleday and Co., Inc., 1970), p. 24. 3 6  3 7  I b i d . , p. 26.  OQ  E l i z a b e t h Janeway, Between Myth and Morning Women Awakening (New York: W i l l i a m Morrow and Co., Inc., 1974), p. 65. 3 9  1 b i d . , p. 72.  20 f o r men.  4U  I t s t r i v e s f o r e q u a l i t y o f the sexes not supremacy o f one sex  over the other.  Carl Degler s t a t e d that the goal o f t h e Women's L i b e r a t i o n  Movement i s "the r e c o n d i t i o n i n g o f t h e American t o accept sex e q u a l i t y as the norm o f s o c i a l and personal behavior."41  Konrad Kellen forsees t h e  i n c o r p o r a t i o n o f feminism i n t o s o c i e t y leading t o a more humane and i n t e l ligent s o c i e t y . ^ Several studies have been done which i n v e s t i g a t e d the type o f person who j o i n s the Women's L i b e r a t i o n Movement. Jean Goldschmidt e t a l . measured p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s , ideas about the Women's L i b e r a t i o n Movement, and i n v e s t i gated the backgrounds o f 448 females i n four d i f f e r e n t educational  settings.43  The sample was f u r t h e r d i v i d e d i n t o women i n v o l v e d i n the Women's L i b e r a t i o n Movement and women not i n v o l v e d .  Women i n v o l v e d i n the Women's L i b e r a t i o n  Movement were found to be heterosexual, motivated  by p r o f e s s i o n a l a s p i r a t i o n s ,  having l i b e r a l to r a d i c a l p o l i t i c a l l e a n i n g s , and aggressive. t e s t e d conformity o f males and females.  Carlos Goldberg  He noted t h a t subjects  characterized  as feminine by the Gough A d j e c t i v e Check L i s t conformed more t o male and f e male r e l a t e d items than subjects c h a r a c t e r i z e d as masculine.  Female members  of the National Organization f o r Women conformed l e s s than a c o n t r o l group o f women. Goldberg concluded  that the g r e a t e r the r e j e c t i o n o f the t r a d i t i o n a l  4 0 l b i d . , p. 74. 41 E d i t o r i a l Research Reports, p. 3. K o n r a d K e l l e n , The Coming o f Age o f Woman Power (New York: Peter H. Wyden, Inc. , 1972), p. 72. 42  43j ean Goldschmidt, Mary M. Gergen, Karen Quigley, and Kenneth J . Gergen, "The Women's L i b e r a t i o n Movement: A t t i t u d e s and A c t i o n , " The Journal of P e r s o n a l i t y , V o l . 42 No. 4 (December, 1974), 602-603.  21  female r o l e and involvement with t h e Women's L i b e r a t i o n Movement, t h e l e s s conformity.44  C e l i a Hal as administered an a t t i t u d e toward women s c a l e and  a q u e s t i o n n a i r e that she developed to s i x t y - t h r e e mature female community c o l l e g e students and to an equal number o f t h e i r acquaintances not e n r o l l e d in s c h o o l . R e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t s u b j e c t s who r e c a l l e d wider, l e s s sex r o l e stereotyped s o c i a l experiences as c h i l d r e n r e f l e c t e d more l i b e r a l a t t i tudes and behaviors as adults.45 a t t i t u d e s than non students.  Women students g e n e r a l l y had more l i b e r a l  Carolyn S t o l o f f s t u d i e d the background,  poli-  t i c a l involvement, a t t i t u d e s and behaviors r e l a t e d to the Women's L i b e r a t i o n Movement o f twenty-two female graduate students i n v o l v e d i n the Women's L i b e r a t i o n Movement and twenty-two not i n v o l v e d i n the Movement.  Subjects  in both groups s a i d that they adhered to the views o f t h e Women's L i b e r a t i o n Movement.46  Subjects i n v o l v e d i n the Movement demonstrated higher t e s t scores  in l e a d e r s h i p , a g g r e s s i o n , and p o p u l a r i t y than s u b j e c t s not i n v o l v e d .  Robert  P a v l i c k i and Carol Almquist attempted to determine whether o r not supporters of the Women's L i b e r a t i o n Movement and nonsupporters o f the Women's L i b e r a t i o n Movement d i f f e r e d demographically and whether or not demographic d i f f e r e n c e s accounted f o r d i f f e r e n c e s on p e r s o n a l i t y measures.  P a v l i c k i and Almquist  found t h a t the Women's L i b e r a t i o n Movement supporters had more f a v o r a b l e  4 4 r l o s Goldberg, "Conformity to M a j o r i t y Type as a Function o f Task and Acceptance o f Sex Related Stereotypes," The Journal o f Psychology, Vol. 89 No. 1 (January, 1975), 25. C a  4 5 c e l i a M. Hal as, "Sex Role Stereotypes: Perceived Childhood S o c i a l i z a t i o n Experiences and the A t t i t u d e s and Behavior o f A d u l t Women," The Journal o f Psychology V o l . 88 No. 9 (September, 1974), 271. Vol.  46carolyn S t o l o f f , "Who J o i n s Women's L i b e r a t i o n ? , " P s y c h i a t r y , 36 (August, 1973), 334.  22 a t t i t u d e s towards the Movement, lower l e v e l s o f a u t h o r i t a r i a n i s m , a f e e l i n g o f more c o n t r o l over t h e i r environment, and a higher t o l e r a n c e o f ambiguity.4? Carol Tavis surveyed readers o f a psychology p e r i o d i c a l with regard t o t h e i r a t t i t u d e s about the r o l e o f women and the Women's L i b e r a t i o n Movement. Seventy-two percent o f the sample were women. Primary f a c t o r s a s s o c i a t e d with support o f the Women's L i b e r a t i o n Movement f o r both sexes were p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i s m , r e l i g i o u s l i b e r a l i s m , and the perception o f sex r o l e d i f f e r e n c e s as c u l t u r a l r a t h e r than g e n e t i c . ^  For women, higher education was found t o  be an important p r e d i c t o r o f support f o r t h e Women's L i b e r a t i o n Movement.^  9  The Women's L i b e r a t i o n Movement and Nursing Cynthia Fuchs E p s t e i n has s a i d that sex r o l e s t e r e o t y p i n g i n occupations makes sex status p r o m i n e n t .  50  She elaborated by saying t h a t sex  r o l e s t e r e o t y p i n g r e f l e c t s sex ranking, and that s i n c e men rank f i r s t , they get f i r s t ranking j o b s . ! 5  V i r g i n i a C l e l a n d s a i d that nursing i s weak because  o f i t s lack o f men. She s t a t e d , "Today there i s no doubt i n my mind that  47Robert P a v l i c k i and Carol Almquist, " A u t h o r i t a r i a n i s m , Locus o f Cont r o l , and Tolerance o f Ambiguity as R e f l e c t e d i n Membership and Non-Membership i n a Women's L i b e r a t i o n Group," Psychological Reports, V o l . 32 (June, 1973), 1337. 48Carol T a v i s , "Who Likes Women's L i b e r a t i o n - and Why: A Case o f t h e U n i i b e r a t e d L i b e r a l s , " Journal o f S o c i a l Issues, V o l . 29 No. 4 (1973), 181. 4 9 i b i d . , p. 197. C y n t h i a Fuchs E p s t e i n , Woman's Places Options and Limits i n Profess i o n a l Careers (Berkeley and Los Angeles: U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a Press, 1970), p. 152. 50  51  I b i d . , p. 1543.  23 our most fundamental problem i n nursing i s that we are members o f a woman's occupation i n a male dominated culture."52  "Nursing i n i t s u t t e r i s o l a t i o n  from a l l v e s t i g e s o f power except w i t h i n i t s own group can be l i k e n e d to the e x p l o i t a t i o n o f Negroes i n our c u l t u r e . "  5 3  C l e l a n d continued, "The  general lack o f l e a d e r s h i p i n n u r s i n g , I b e l i e v e , d e r i v e s d i r e c t l y from the s o c i a l p o s i t i o n o f women i n society."54  she r e l a t e d t h e problems i n nursing  today t o the i s s u e o f women's r i g h t s . C l e l a n d b e l i e v e s that sex d i s c r i m i nation can be attacked by i g n o r i n g the m a r i t a l status o f women, providing equal s a l a r i e s f o r equal work regardless o f sex, and by evolving new employment s t y l e s which consider pregnancy and young c h i l d r e n .  5 5  Joan Roberts and T h e t i s Group described the h i s t o r i c a l process i n which men assumed c o n t r o l o f the p r a c t i c e o f medicine.  They discussed the  way i n which nurses have been c a s t i n t o dependent and submissive r o l e s by male p h y s i c i a n s .  Roberts and Group f e l t that nurses could c o r r e c t t h i s pro-  cess by working with the Women's Movement. They s t a t e d , "... i t i s c l e a r that i f a p r o f e s s i o n i s going t o be run by women, f u l l y acceptable to a l l , the a t t i t u d e s toward women w i l l have t o change o r 'we'll never make i t , baby! " 1  55  Roberts and Group remarked that strong l e a d e r s h i p i s needed by  women who know what they a r e as nurses and as women.  57  ^ V i r g i n i a C l e l a n d , "Sex D i s c r i m i n a t i o n : Nursing's Most Pervasive Problem," American Journal o f Nursing, V o l . 71 No. 8 (August, 1971), 1542. 5 3  I b i d . , p. 1543.  5 5  I b i d . , p. 1546-1547.  5 4 i b i d . , 1545.  J o a n T. Roberts and T h e t i s M. Group, "The Women's Movement and Nursing," Nursing Forum, V o l . 12 No. 3 (1973), 320. 5 5  5 7  I b i d . , p. 321.  24 Karen Lamb s t a t e d , " I t i s impossible f o r nursing to achieve real p r o f e s s i o n a l i z a t i o n and lower the d r a s t i c dropout r a t e among our p r a c t i r t i o n e r s , or f o r us to assume c o n t r o l over o u r s e l v e s as i n d i v i d u a l s and as a c o l l e c t i v i t y , to take more a c t i v e r o l e s as innovators and i n s t i g a t o r s o f s o c i a l change, and to develop a c a r e e r - o r i e n t a t i o n u n t i l we have e l e v a t e d the p o s i t i o n of a l l women and of nurses."58  She sees a l l i a n c e with the  Women's L i b e r a t i o n Movement as the route to needed s o c i a l change. Jo Ann Ashley d i s c u s s e d the need f o r power and freedom i n nursing and i n d i c a t e d t h a t many of nursing's problems are due to the s o c i a l p o s i t i o n of women. She s t a t e d , " S o c i e t y does not y e t value independence of mind f o r women and most e s p e c i a l l y f o r nurses.  A u t h o r i t y i s s t i l l the main value  subscribed to and upheld i n h e a l t h care d e l i v e r y systems.  I t i s t h i s very  a u t h o r i t y t h a t prevents nurses from moving more r a p i d l y toward the goal of i n t e l l e c t u a l freedom and independence i n t h e i r p r a c t i c e . I f we do not o b t a i n the power to reach t h i s g o a l , we cannot hope to improve the q u a l i t y of nursing care made a v a i l a b l e to the American p u b l i c . " 5 9  i n r e f e r e n c e to nursing p r i o r  to World War I, Ashley s t a t e d , "The f a i l u r e of nurses to i d e n t i f y with r a d i c a l f e m i n i s t s seeking to change the s o c i a l order l e d to the f a i l u r e of the nursing p r o f e s s i o n to l i b e r a t e both education and p r a c t i c e . " 6 0  i the past, sexual n  58«aren T. Lamb, "Freedom f o r Our S i s t e r , Freedom f o r O u r s e l v e s : Nursing Confronts S o c i a l Change," Nursing Forum, V o l . 12 No. 4 (1973), 328. 59jo Ann Ashley, "Power, Freedom and P r o f e s s i o n a l P r a c t i c e i n Nursing," Supervisor Nurse, V o l . 6 No. 1 (January, 1975), 29. 6 A s h l e y , "Nursing and E a r l y Feminism," American Journal of Nursing, V o l . 75 No. 9 (September, 1975), 1465. u  25 p r e j u d i c e s were not questioned and t h e r e f o r e paternalism was l e g a l i z e d . Ashley f e e l s that t h i s has r e s u l t e d i n the c o n t i n u i n g low s t a t u s o f nurses 61 and economic d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i n nursing.  In order t o make changes and stop  the oppression o f women and nurses, Ashley suggested working with the Women's L i b e r a t i o n Movement.  She s a i d , "Today i d e n t i f i c a t i o n with the f e m i n i s t cause 62  and o b t a i n i n g e q u a l i t y with men i n the health f i e l d i s a must." Ruth E d e l s t e i n d i s c u s s e d the r o l e o f leaders i n the h i s t o r y o f n u r s i n g . R e f e r r i n g t o the present, she s t a t e d , " I t i s l i k e l y t h a t most o f today's n u r s i n g leaders and the young nurses now coming out o f n u r s i n g schools w i l l be 'new f e m i n i s t s ' who think sex r o l e s a t work o b s o l e t e . o f the p r o f e s s i o n r e s t s i n t h e i r hands."  The f u t u r e d i r e c t i o n  In a p u b l i c a t i o n which documented  the e x i s t e n c e o f health care sex d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i n Canada, examples were given. Nurses working together t o e r a d i c a t e the feminine mystique was a solution.. offered.  6 4  Wilma S c o t t Heide c i t e d ways i n which health care would be upgraded by a s c r i b i n g to feminism. and independent  She d i s c u s s e d f r e e i n g women f o r d e c i s i o n making  t h i n k i n g and f r e e i n g men to experience nurturance.  Heide  s t a t e d , "To t r u l y humanize s o c i e t y , the t r a d i t i o n a l feminine q u a l i t i e s must 65 be r e l e a s e d p u b l i c l y i n everyone." Heide s a i d t h a t some o f the r e s u l t s o f I b i d . , p. 1466.  " I b i d . , p. 1467.  Ruth Greenberg E d e l s t e i n , "Equal Rights f o r Women: P e r s p e c t i v e s , " American Journal o f Nursing, V o l . 71 No.2 (February, 1971), 298. 64  "Is there Sex D i s c r i m i n a t i o n i n Health Care?," V o l . 71 No. 12 (December, 1975), 18. 65  The Canadian Nurse,  Wilma S c o t t Heide, "Nursing and Women's L i b e r a t i o n , a P a r a l l e l , " American Journal o f Nursing, V o l . 73 No. 5 (May, 1973), 824.  26  the l i b e r a t i o n o f nurses and o f nursing would be budgets c o n t r o l l e d by nurses, b e t t e r s a l a r i e s and equal o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r male and female nurses, r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f women on health advisory committees, the end o f a subs e r v i e n t r o l e o f nurses, and r e c o g n i t i o n that nursing and medicine a r e complementary. 56 J u d i t h Shockley o u t l i n e d the r o l e s o f women from before World War II through the l a t e s i x t i e s when women began to r e a l i z e that t h e feminine myst i q u e had been s o l d to them.  Shockley suggested t h a t support o f the Women's  L i b e r a t i o n Movement might help nursing t o r e s o l v e many o f i t s i n t e r n a l and external c o n f l i c t s .  She expressed the opinion that nurses who agree with the  b e l i e f s o f the Women's L i b e r a t i o n Movement w i l l be b e t t e r able t o help women c l i e n t s d e a l i n g with the wife and mother r o l e and t o a s s i s t women c l i e n t s experiencing i d e n t i t y c r i s e s . 6 7  Barbara Madden explained that sex d i s c r i -  mination and the problems that i t causes i n nursing can be d e a l t with by t h e i n c o r p o r a t i o n o f f e m i n i s t ideology i n t o nursing c u r r i c u l u m .  She o u t l i n e d ways  i n which t h i s could be accomplished.68  6 6 l b i d . , p. 826. 6 J u d i t h Salmon Shockley, "Perspectives i n F e m i n i n i t y Implications f o r Nursing," Nursing D i g e s t , V o l . 3 No. 6 (November-December, 1975), 52. 7  68Barbara P. Madden, "Raising the Consciousness Nursing Outlook, V o l . 23 No. 5 (May, 1975), 292.  o f Nursing  Students,"  27  Summary The nursing p r o f e s s i o n i s i n need o f l e a d e r s .  Sex d i s c r i m i n a t i o n and  the s o c i a l i z a t i o n o f women i n t o an i n f e r i o r r o l e have been c i t e d as p o s s i b l e causes o f nurses and women remaining i n subordinate p o s i t i o n s without power. It appears t h a t the r o l e o f woman i n s o c i e t y c o n t r i b u t e s t o t h e lack o f nursing leaders today. The Women's L i b e r a t i o n Movement provides an a l t e r n a t i v e t o t h e t r a d i t i o n a l view o f women i n s o c i e t y .  The b e n e f i t s t o women, nurses, and  s o c i e t y i n general o f f o l l o w i n g t h e philosophy o f t h e Women's L i b e r a t i o n Movement were discussed.  Various prominent nursing authors l i s t e d ways i n  which they f e l t a l l i a n c e with the Women's L i b e r a t i o n Movement would b e n e f i t nursing. In view o f t h e need f o r leaders i n nursing, the current r o l e s o f women, and the speculated b e n e f i t s derived from a b e l i e f i n feminism, i t appears reasonable t o i n v e s t i g a t e whether a d i f f e r e n c e i n l e a d e r s h i p  charac-  t e r i s t i c s e x i s t s among members o f the Women's L i b e r a t i o n Movement, nurses, and another group o f women, and whether or not l e a d e r s h i p c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and a b e l i e f i n feminism a r e r e l a t e d , as such d i f f e r e n c e s o r r e l a t i o n s h i p s could be seen t o hold i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r generating nursing l e a d e r s h i p through planned change.  28  CHAPTER I I I  Methodology Introduction A f t e r the l i t e r a t u r e r e l a t e d t o leadership, and the Women's L i b e r a t i o n Movement had been reviewed, the three samples to be s t u d i e d were s e l e c t e d , and the t o o l s chosen.  Three q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were used to measure  l e a d e r s h i p c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and a t t i t u d e s towards feminism.  The Gordon  Personal P r o f i l e (GPP) and s e l e c t e d s c a l e s o f the Gordon Personal Inventory (GPI) were used t o measure l e a d e r s h i p c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s J (See Appendix A) The FEM s c a l e was used t o measure a t t i t u d e s toward feminism.  2  (See Appen-  dix B) The data were then c o l l e c t e d and analyzed.  The Sample Three groups o f women i n the Lower Mainland were s e l e c t e d f o r t h i s study:  1) graduating baccalaureate nursing students; 2) members o f the  Women's L i b e r a t i o n Movement; 3) women students i n a U n i v e r s i t y l i b r a r y s c i e n c e program (another comparison group).  T h i r t y nursing students par-  t i c i p a t e d on a v o l u n t a r y b a s i s from the e n t i r e c l a s s o f graduating students  Leonard V. Gordon, Gordon 'Personal P r o f i l e , Gordon Personal Invent o r y (New York: Harcourt, Brace and World, Inc., 1963). p  E l l i o t R. Smith e t a l . , "A Short S c a l e o f A t t i t u d e s Toward Feminism," Representative Research i n S o c i a l Psychology, V o l . 6 (1975), 54-55.  29 numbering n i n e t y nine. The members o f the Women's L i b e r a t i o n Movement were chosen from Women's L i b e r a t i o n centers i n the community. was obtained from f o u r women's c e n t e r s during meetings.  The sample o f t h i r t y Twenty f o u r l i b r a r y  s c i e n c e students were obtained from two c l a s s e s o f students numbering t h i r t y combined.  A l l women i n c l u d e d i n the sample had a t l e a s t t h i r t e e n years o f  education.  Seventy e i g h t percent o f the t o t a l sample had f u l l time work  experience.  Tools Used The GPP and s e l e c t e d s c a l e s o f the GPI were used t o measure l e a d e r ship c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s .  These t o o l s were chosen because they c l o s e l y measured  the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i d e n t i f i e d by S t o g d i l l as being c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f l e a d e r s . Both Gordon q u e s t i o n n a i r e s have been developed a c c o r d i n g t o s c a l e s that r e present measured c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . is given.  The s c a l e s used and a d e s c r i p t i o n o f each  (See Appendix C) S t o g d i l l ' s composite o f l e a d e r s h i p c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  as well as the s c a l e s used t o measure each c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a r e i n c l u d e d i n Appendix D. Each question o f both Gordon t e s t s c o n s i s t e d o f a s e t o f f o u r d e s c r i p tors.  Each s u b j e c t was asked t o choose one statement most l i k e h i m s e l f and  one l e a s t l i k e h i m s e l f . In a d d i t i o n to the t e s t s , s u b j e c t s were a l s o asked whether o r not they had f u l l time work experience and i f so f o r how long. They were a l s o asked to s t a t e the number o f y e a r s o f education t h a t they had completed.  T h i s was done as a check f o r homogeneity o f the sample.  R a l p h M. S t o g d i l l , Handbook o f Leadership A Survey o f Theory and Research (New York and London: The Free P r e s s , 1974), p. 81. " 3  3  30 The FEM s c a l e , i n Appendix B, was used to measure a t t i t u d e s towards feminism.  The FEM s c a l e i s a twenty items s c a l e which uses a L i k e r t format.  I t deals with agreement o r disagreement o f the central b e l i e f s o f feminism. Its c o r r e l a t e s include a c t i v i s m and s u b j e c t i v e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n with the Women's L i b e r a t i o n Movement.  The FEM s c a l e i s a r e v i s e d up to date version  4  of K i r k p a t r i c k ' s B e l i e f - P a t t e r n Scale f o r Measuring A t t i t u d e s Towards Feminism.  In 1936, C l i f f o r d K i r k p a t r i c k developed a tool t o assess a c u l t u r a l  p a t t e r n , that would be v a l i d i n measuring agreement o r disagreement with g i s s u e s , and avoid f o r c i n g a l t e r n a t i v e s on the s u b j e c t s . Data C o l l e c t i o n The nursing students were asked to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the study one week before the data were c o l l e c t e d . completed f o l l o w i n g c l a s s . by telephone.  Each o f the d i f f e r e n t questionnaires was  The Women's L i b e r a t i o n groups were  contacted  The purpose o f the research was b r i e f l y explained.  The  data were c o l l e c t e d a t four Women's L i b e r a t i o n meetings i n various communit i e s i n the Lower Mainland.  The l i b r a r y science students, who were another  group, were asked to p a r t i c i p a t e a t the conclusion o f a c l a s s . questionnaires  f o r each r e s p e c t i v e group were analyzed  The  separately.  Smith, e t a l . , "A Short Scale o f A t t i t u d e s , " p. 51. 5 c  I b i d . , p. 51.  C l i f f o r d K i r k p a t r i c k , "The Construction o f a B e l i e f - P a t t e r n Scale f o r Measuring A t t i t u d e s Towards Feminism," Journal o f S o c i a l Psychology, Vol. 7 (1936), 421.  31 Data A n a l y s i s The data were analyzed using nonparametric s t a t i s t i c s . t e s t s were chosen because the data obtained were o r d i n a l .  Nonparametric  The two s t a t i s -  t i c s used were the Kruskal W a l l i s a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e f o r hypotheses I and II and the Spearman c o e f f i c i e n t o f rank c o r r e l a t i o n f o r hypotheses I I I , IV, and V.  The Kruskal W a l l i s t e s t was used because i t s use o f rank order o f a  given c r i t e r i o n does not assume u n d e r l y i n g n o r m a l i t y or homogeneity o f variance.  In comparison with the F t e s t , the Kruskal W a l l i s t e s t has a r e -  l a t i v e asymptotic e f f i c i e n c y o f / T T = 95.5 per cent.^ Although not g e n e r a l l y 3  used with o r d i n a l d a t a , the F t e s t was computed due to the ease and speed of an a v a i l a b l e computer program.  The t e s t F r a t i o was compared to the  c r i t i c a l value o f F, namely 3.11 at the .05 l e v e l of s i g n i f i c a n c e , f o r two degrees o f freedom f o r treatment and e i g h t y one degrees of freedom f o r w i t h i n group v a r i a n c e . An F r a t i o exceeding the c r i t i c a l value o f 3.11 would t h e r e f o r e i n d i c a t e s i g n i f i c a n c e at the f i v e per cent l e v e l .  T h i s would lead  to r e j e c t i o n o f the n u l l hypothesis. The Kruskal W a l l i s a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e was computed by ranking the scores on l e a d e r s h i p c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and a t t i t u d e s towards feminism i n the three groups.  F o l l o w i n g the r a n k i n g , the H s t a t i s t i c was c a l c u l a t e d f o r  l e a d e r s h i p c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and a t t i t u d e s towards feminism.  The formula f o r  George A. Ferguson, S t a t i s t i c a l A n a l y s i s i n Psychology and Education (3rd ed.; Mew York: McGraw-Hill Book Co., 1971), p. 333. 7  32 the H s t a t i s t i c i s 8  3 (N+l)  H =  where k = number o f groups n^ = number o f cases i n the .th sample J  N = En-, the number o f cases i n a l l samples combined R. = sum o f ranks i n ^th sample  (column)  k from j = l to k E = the sum o f j=l t = number o f t i e d ranks w i t h i n a group T = t - t 3  The H s t a t i s t i c of the Kruskal Wall i s a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e i s d i s t r i b u t e d as a c h i square d i s t r i b u t i o n with K-l degrees o f freedom.  9  At the .05 l e v e l  of s i g n i f i c a n c e using K-l namely, 2 degrees o f freedom and the c h i square d i s t r i b u t i o n , the c r i t i c a l value i s 5.99. Thus, an H s t a t i s t i c with a value exceeding the c r i t i c a l value o f 5.99 i n d i c a t e s s t a t i s t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e a t o r beyond the f i v e per cent l e v e l and would lead to r e j e c t i o n o f the n u l l hypothesis. A S c h e f f e t e s t was performed i n order to c o n t r a s t each p o s s i b l e p a i r o f samples when both the F r a t i o and the H s t a t i s t i c demonstrated s i g n i f i c a n c e .  S i d n e y S i e q e l , Nonparametric S t a t i s t i c s f o r the Behavioral S c i e n c e s , (New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co., Inc., 1956), p. 185. : ~ 8  9  I b i d . , p. 18®.  33 The Scheffe' t e s t used the estimated e r r o r variances p r e v i o u s l y obtained from the parametric a n a l y s i s of variance. 10 test is F =  /  (xT - xp  2  sw /  +  2  where  The formula f o r the S c h e f f e  sw / 2  XT = mean o f the -th group n  Xj = mean of the j t h group sw  2  = estimate of the w i t h i n group variance  n-j = number i n the ^th group n^ = number i n the j t h group F = r a t i o of v a r i a n c e estimates between groups to w i t h i n groups  sb /sw 2  Following computation  2  of the F r a t i o , the F t a b l e was consulted to o b t a i n  a c r i t i c a l value f o r F at the .05 l e v e l of s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r df^ = k - 1 = 3 - 1 = 2, and d f = n - k = 84 - 2 = 82. 2  be 3.11.  The c r i t i c a l value was found to  F' was c a l c u l a t e d at (k - 1) F , namely 6.22.  S i g n i f i c a n c e at the  .05 l e v e l was a t t a i n e d when the value of F was g r e a t e r than or equal to t h a t o f F' or  6.22.  The Spearman c o e f f i c i e n t of rank c o r r e l a t i o n was used to  determine  the r e l a t i o n s h i p between a t t i t u d e s towards feminism and l e a d e r s h i p c h a r a c t e r -  l°George A. Ferguson, S t a t i s t i c a l A n a l y s i s In Psychology and 4th ed.; New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co., 1976), p. 296.  Education  34 i s t i c s i n each of the three groups.  The Spearman rank order c o r r e l a t i o n  c o e f f i c i e n t package of the S t a t i s t i c a l Package f o r the S o c i a l Sciences was used.  The Spearman s t a t i s t i c was used because i t i s a measure o f a s s o c i a t i o n  in which both v a r i a b l e s are measured on an o r d i n a l s c a l e and the s u b j e c t s are r a n k e d . ^ ranks.  In order to compute the s t a t i s t i c , raw scores were changed i n t o 12. The formula f o r the Spearman c o e f f i c i e n t of rank order c o r r e l a t i o n i s .  rh0  , 6Zd " N(N*- 1) 2  =  1  where N = number of p a i r e d ranks d = d i f f e r e n c e between p a i r s o f ranks The c r i t i c a l value at the .05 l e v e l of s i g n i f i c a n c e was obtained on the b a s i s of the number o f s u b j e c t s i n each group using the t a b l e o f c r i t i c a l values f o r the Spearman rank order c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t J  3  C r i t i c a l values of rho f o r  d i f f e r e n t sample s i z e s were computed by determining the c r i t i c a l value at the f i v e per cent l e v e l o f s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r t and then transforming the t value i n t o rho: rho =  t t * + (n-2) 2  1  ^ S i e g e l , Nonparametric S t a t i s t i c s , p. 202. ^ C u r t i s D. Hardyck and Lewis F. P e t r i n o v i c h , I n t r o d u c t i o n to S t a t i s t i c s f o r the Behavioral Sciences ( P h i l a d e l p h i a and London: W. B. Saunders Co., 1969), p. 221. l ^ S i e g e l , Nonparametric S t a t i s t i c s , p. 284.  35  CHAPTER IV  Data Analysis and Interpretation Introduction Data analysis and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n centered around t e s t i n g the f i v e hypotheses.  Data consisting of eighty four sets of questionnaires were  collected.  The data were c o l l e c t e d i n three groups of t h i r t y graduating  baccalaureate nursing students, t h i r t y members of the Women's L i b e r a t i o n Movement, and twenty four l i b r a r y science students. t h i s study were a l l female.  The p a r t i c i p a n t s i n  Permission from a teacher of the nursing s t u -  dents and a teacher of the l i b r a r y science students was obtained i n order to ask the students to take part i n the study.  P a r t i c i p a t i o n was voluntary.  In order to locate groups of the Women's L i b e r a t i o n Movement, a d i r e c t o r y e n t i t l e d Guide to the B r i t i s h Columbia Women's Movement, was used to ident i f y Women's L i b e r a t i o n groups i n the Lower Mainland.^  Following a t e l e -  phone explanation of the study to one member of each group, the w r i t e r a t tended four Women's L i b e r a t i o n Movement meetings i n four communities of the Lower Mainland.  Again, p a r t i c i p a t i o n was voluntary.  P a r t i c i p a n t s consisted  of groups of s i x , t e n , t e n , and four women r e s p e c t i v e l y .  A l l subjects i n -  volved i n the study had at l e a s t t h i r t e e n years of education and seventy eight per cent had f u l l time work experience varying from one to twenty f i v e years.  •1 Guide to the B r i t i s h Columbia Women's Movement (3rd p r i n t i n g ; B r i t i s h Columbia: Western Canadian Women's News, 1976), pp. 13, 15, 17.  36  Hypothesis I There i s no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n l e a d e r s h i p charact e r i s t i c s , as measured by scores on the Gordon Personal P r o f i l e and the Gordon Personal Inventory, among students graduating from a baccalaureate nursing program, women.belonging t o organized groups o f the Women's Liberation Movement, and students in a library s c i e n c e program. A parametric a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e o f the l e a d e r s h i p c h a r a c t e r i s t i c scores o f a l l three groups, was f i r s t computed because o f a v a i l a b i l i t y and ease o f the c a l c u l a t i o n .  The r e s u l t s were as f o l l o w s :  TABLE I A n a l y s i s o f Variance comparing Leadership C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s among Nursing Students, Members o f the Women's L i b e r a t i o n Movement, and L i b r a r y Science Students Source  df  Total  83  25421.95  2  874.25  437.12  81  24547.70  303.05  Treatment (betn' E r r o r (within)  SS  An F r a t i o o f 1.44 was computed.  MS  1.44  This was not s i g n i f i c a n t a t the .05 l e v e l .  Although the Kruskal Wall i s t e s t i s l e s s powerful, i t was computed because of the need f o r a nonparametric measure i n d e a l i n g with o r d i n a l data. The l e a d e r s h i p c h a r a c t e r i s t i c scores o f the three groups were pooled and ranked. The ranking i s contained i n Appendix E. The r e s u l t s o f the H s t a t i s t i c were 10.45.  This value was g r e a t e r than the c r i t i c a l value o f 5.99 and was s i g n i -  f i c a n t beyond the .01 l e v e l .  The d i s c r e p a n c y i n s i g n i f i c a n c e i s probably due  37 to the d i f f e r e n c e s i n e f f i c i e n c y o f the two t e s t s .  The more powerful  parametric a n a l y s i s o f variance i n d i c a t e d t h a t there was no d i f f e r e n c e among the three groups i n l e a d e r s h i p c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s while the l e s s powerful nonparametric a n a l y s i s o f variance i n d i c a t e d t h a t there was a stgni.fi ^ cant d i f f e r e n c e among t h e groups i n l e a d e r s h i p c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . the parametric a n a l y s i s o f variance d i d not appear s i g n i f i c a n t ,  Since comparisons  between the various groups could not be computed.  Hypothesis II There i s no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n a t t i t u d e s towards feminism, as measured by the FEM s c a l e , among students graduat i n g from a baccalaureate n u r s i n g program, women belonging to organized groups o f the Women's L i b e r a t i o n Movement, and students i n a l i b r a r y s c i e n c e programm. For reasons e x p l a i n e d p r e v i o u s l y , a parametric a n a l y s i s o f variance o f the scores on the FEM s c a l e was f i r s t computed.  The r e s u l t s were as  follows:  TABLE II A n a l y s i s o f Variance comparing A t t i t u d e s towards Feminism among Nursing Students, Members o f the Women's L i b e r a t i o n Movement, and L i b r a r y Science Students. Source  df  SS  Total  83  8174.95  2  2903.29  1451.64  81  5271.65  65.08  Treatment  (between)  E r r o r (within)  MS  38  An  F r a t i o o f 22.30, s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e .01 l e v e l was found. The  computed.  H s t a t i s t i c o f t h e Kruskal W a l l i s a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e was then The FEM s c a l e s c o r e s o f t h e t h r e e groups were ranked.  i s contained 31.90.  i n Appendix F.  The r a n k i n g  The r e s u l t s o f t h e H s t a t i s t i c were found  T h i s v a l u e was g r e a t e r than t h e c r i t i c a l  f i c a n t beyond t h e .01 l e v e l .  The n u l l  t o be  v a l u e o f 5.99 and was s i g n i -  h y p o t h e s i s was t h e r e f o r e r e j e c t e d .  These f i n d i n g s i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e t h r e e groups do not o r i g i n a t e from t h e same p o p u l a t i o n with r e s p e c t t o a t t i t u d e s towards S i n c e both  feminism.  t h e F r a t i o and t h e H s t a t i s t i c were s i g n i f i c a n t , a Scheffe'  t e s t was performed i n o r d e r t o c o n t r a s t each p o s s i b l e p a i r o f samples. mean o f t h e s c o r e s o f each group was computed and p a r a m e t r i c mean values used.  square  The r e s u l t s o f t h e S c h e f f e t e s t a r e as f o l l o w s :  TABLE I I I Comparison o f A t t i t u d e s towards Feminism, between Nursing Members o f the Women's L i b e r a t i o n Movement, and  L i b r a r y Science  Comparison Group I/Group II Nursing Students/ Members o f the Women's L i b e r a t i o n Movement Group I/Group II Nursing Students/ L i b r a r y Science Students Group II/Group I I I Members o f t h e Women's L i b e r a t i o n Movement/ L i b r a r y S c i e n c e Students  Students. F ratio  23.13  .026  30.82  The  Students,  39  The F r a t i o o f the comparison between the nursing students and members of the Women's L i b e r a t i o n Movement exceeded the c r i t i c a l value o f 6.22 and was considered s i g n i f i c a n t a t the .05 l e v e l .  There was no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f -  ference between the nursing students and the l i b r a r y s c i e n c e students.  Again,  the comparison between members o f the Women's L i b e r a t i o n Movement and l i b r a r y s c i e n c e students was s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e .05 l e v e l . The n u l l hypothesis was r e j e c t e d and the a l t e r n a t i v e hypothesis t h a t the three groups come from d i f f e r e n t populations was accepted.  The g r e a t e s t  d i f f e r e n c e s i n a t t i t u d e s towards feminism were found between the group o f members o f the Women's L i b e r a t i o n Movement and the other two groups.  Although  a l l p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the study were women, the group belonging to the Women's L i b e r a t i o n Movement probably d i f f e r e d from the other groups e i t h e r as an antecedent c o n d i t i o n to o r as a r e s u l t o f t h e i r involvement i n the Women's L i b e r a t i o n Movement.  Since one o f the b a s i c tenets o f the Women's L i b e r a t i o n Move-  ment i s a b e l i e f i n feminism, i t seems l o g i c a l t h a t t h i s group would d i f f e r from the others i n t h e i r a t t i t u d e s towards feminism.  I t may be s p e c u l a t e d ,  t h e r e f o r e , t h a t the members o f the Women's L i b e r a t i o n Movement b e l i e v e more i n freedom from sex r o l e stereotypes and g r e a t e r career o r i e n t a t i o n f o r women than the other groups. Although the r e s u l t s i n d i c a t i n g a d i f f e r e n c e i n a t t i t u d e s towards feminism were h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t , i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t some women i n the groups o f nursing students and l i b r a r y s c i e n c e students were a l s o members o f the Women's L i b e r a t i o n Movement.  Conversely, i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t some members o f t h e  Women's L i b e r a t i o n Movement were nursing students o r l i b r a r y s c i e n c e students although no s u b j e c t p a r t i c i p a t e d twice i n t h i s study.  I f t h i s were t r u e , an  even g r e a t e r d i f f e r e n c e regarding a t t i t u d e s towards feminism may e x i s t between  40  nursing students and library science students who are not members of the Women's Liberation Movement and women who are members.  Further study d i f -  ferentiating more clearly between members of the Women's Liberation Movement and non members might be helpful in c l a r i f y i n g this point.  Hypothesis  III  There is no significant relationship between attitudes towards feminism, as measured by the FEM scale, and leadership characteristics, as measured by scores on the Gordon Personal P r o f i l e and Gordon Personal Inventory, in graduating baccalaureate nursing students. Scores on the FEM scale were calculated.  Scores on the ascendancy,  responsibility, s o c i a b i l i t y , emotional s t a b i l i t y , and o r i g i n a l i t y scales of the GPP and the GPI were tabulated.  In addition, another variable composed  of the combination of scores on each of these scales and named total opperationally defined leadership characteristics. rank order correlation was computed.  The Spearman coefficient of  Each variable, ascendancy, responsi-  b i l i t y , s o c i a b i l i t y , emotional s t a b i l i t y , o r i g i n a l i t y , and total was correlated with attitudes towards feminism.  The results were as follows:  TABLE IV Correlation Coefficient of Leadership Characteristics with Attitudes towards Feminism among Nursing Students. Ascendancy with Feminism r= -0.08  Responsibility with Feminism r= -0.18  Sociability with Feminism r= -0.02  Emotional Stabi1ity with Feminism r= -0.28  Originality with Feminism r= -0.10  Total wi th Feminism r= -0.16  41 None o f the c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s reached the c r i t i c a l value o f 0.36 at the .05 l e v e l o f s i g n i f i c a n c e .  This i n d i c a t e s t h a t there i s no r e -  l a t i o n s h i p between l e a d e r s h i p c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and a t t i t u d e s towards feminism i n graduating baccalaureate nursing students.  The n u l l hypothesis  was t h e r e f o r e accepted. In view o f the l i t e r a t u r e review regarding c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f nurses and nursing students as well as a mean score on the FEM s c a l e o f 19.6 from a p o s s i b l e p o s i t i v e o r negative 38, i t i s p o s s i b l e that so few nurses have strong p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e s towards feminism that to c o r r e l a t e l e a d e r s h i p c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s with a t t i t u d e s towards feminism i s o f l i t t l e use. This sample i s a s e l e c t sample o f nursing students i n t h a t i t i s composed o f students graduating from a baccalaureate program.  The sample i s f u r t h e r  composed o f students who have not y e t worked as nurses and r e g i s t e r e d nurses who have returned to school to o b t a i n a bachelors degree.  A woman who chooses  a baccalaureate program f o r her b a s i c education r a t h e r than a diploma program may possess more l e a d e r s h i p c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s than a diploma nursing student. I t i s p o s s i b l e that she chose a baccalaureate education i n order t o perform as a nursing l e a d e r a f t e r graduation.  A r e g i s t e r e d nurse r e t u r n i n g to school  may have come back because o f f r u s t r a t i o n i n her work and a d e s i r e to assume more r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and hence e x e r c i s e more l e a d e r s h i p i n her j o b .  Therefore,  i f these women possessed more l e a d e r s h i p c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s than other nursing students and very s l i g h t p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e s towards feminism, the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the two v a r i a b l e s would not be s i g n i f i c a n t .  Perhaps the s o c i a l i z a t i o n  o f nursing students and p r a c t i c i n g nurses with value o f t e n placed on the subo r d i n a t e r o l e i s r e l a t e d to t h e i r a t t i t u d e s towards feminism.and  their leader-  42 ship c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . Since the development o f leaders w i t h i n the nursing p r o f e s s i o n i s c r u c i a l , the question o f f i n d i n g leadership c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s again a r i s e s . It would be o f great importance to i d e n t i f y those nursing students possessing l e a d e r s h i p c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and to develop these c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s .  Hypothesis IV There i s no s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between a t t i t u d e s towards feminism, as measured by the FEM s c a l e , and l e a d e r s h i p c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , as measured by scores on the Gordon Personal P r o f i l e and Gordon Personal Inventory, i n women belonging to organized groups o f the Women's L i b e r a t i o n Movement. Scores on the FEM s c a l e were c a l c u l a t e d . o f the GPP and GPI were tabulated.  Scores on t h e various  scales  The v a r i a b l e named t o t a l was made up o f  the scores on the GPP and the GPI and defined l e a d e r s h i p c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . The Spearman c o e f f i c i e n t o f rank order c o r r e l a t i o n was computed.  The com-  puter ranked the data and c o r r e l a t e d a l l v a r i a b l e s with a t t i t u d e s towards feminism.  The r e s u l t s were as f o l l o w s : TABLE V  C o r r e l a t i o n C o e f f i c i e n t o f Leadership C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s with A t t i t u d e s towards Feminism among Members o f the Women's L i b e r a t i o n Movement. Ascendancy with Feminism r= 0.26  Responsibility with Feminism r= 0.27  Sociability with Femi ni sm r= 0.23  Emotional Stability with Feminism r= 0.07  Originality wi th Feminism r= 0.20  Total with Femi ni sm r= 0.33  None o f the c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s reached the c r i t i c a l value o f 0.36 a t  43 the .05 l e v e l o f s i g n i f i c a n c e .  Although the r value o f .33 f o r the t o t a l  c o r r e l a t e d with a t t i t u d e s towards feminism approaches s i g n i f i c a n c e a t the .05 l e v e l , the n u l l hypothesis  was accepted.  The c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s  i n d i c a t e that no r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t s between l e a d e r s h i p and a t t i t u d e s towards feminism among members o f organized groups o f the Women's L i b e r a t i o n Movement. Although members o f the Women's L i b e r a t i o n Movement d i f f e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n a t t i t u d e s towards feminism from other groups, perhaps t h i s i s r e l a t e d to a more humanistic a t t i t u d e o r any one o f many other v a r i a b l e s than l e a d e r s h i p c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s .  rather  I t was assumed that women i n the Women's  L i b e r a t i o n Movement e x h i b i t e d l e a d e r s h i p c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , but i t i s p o s s i b l e that a few aggressive and dominant leaders have g r e a t l y i n f l u e n c e d t h i s image. A l a r g e r sample s i z e and sampling a l a r g e r geographical assumption.  area may confirm t h i s  A b e l i e f i n feminism would be demonstrated i n a b e l i e f that people,  regardless o f sex, are f r e e to behave i n e i t h e r the so c a l l e d masculine o r feminine ways.  P o s s i b l y t h i s group o f f e m i n i s t s chose a l e s s f o r c e f u l mode o f  performance than a leadership r o l e t o demonstrate t h e i r b e l i e f i n feminism.  Hypothesis V There i s no s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between a t t i t u d e s towards feminism, as measured by the FEM s c a l e , and l e a d e r s h i p c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , as measured by scores on t h e Gordon Personal P r o f i l e and Gordon Personal Inventory, i n students o f a l i b r a r y science program. Scores on the FEM s c a l e were c a l c u l a t e d . o f the GPP and GPI were tabulated.  The scores from the s c a l e s  Again, t h e v a r i a b l e t o t a l c o n s i s t e d o f  44  a combination o f scores from the scales o f the GPP and the GPI and defined leadership c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . The Spearman rank order c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t was computed.  Data were ranked by the computor and a l l v a r i a b l e s c o r r e l a t e d  with a t t i t u d e s towards feminism.  The r e s u l t s were as f o l l o w s :  TABLE VI C o r r e l a t i o n C o e f f i c i e n t o f Leadership C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s with A t t i t u d e s towards Feminism among L i b r a r y Science Students. Ascendancy with Feminism r= 0.27  Responsibility with Feminism r= 0.36  Soci a b i 1 i ty with Feminism r= 0.08  Emotional Stability with Feminism r= 0.28  Originality with Feminism r= 0.19  Total • with Femini sm r= 0.38  None o f the c o r r e l a t e d c o e f f i c i e n t s reached the c r i t i c a l value o f 0.39 needed f o r s i g n i f i c a n c e a t the .05 l e v e l . The n u l l hypothesis that no r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t s between leadership c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and a t t i t u d e s towards feminism was accepted.  The group o f l i b r a r y science students showed no d i f f e r e n c e from  the other two groups.  Summary o f Findings Two hypotheses were tested t o determine whether graduating baccalaureate nursing students, members o f the Women's L i b e r a t i o n Movement, and L i b r a r y science students d i f f e r e d i n terms o f l e a d e r s h i p c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and a t t i t u d e s towards feminism.  While no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n leadership  character-  i s t i c s were found, the members o f the Women's L i b e r a t i o n Movement d i f f e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y from the other two groups i n a t t i t u d e s towards feminism.  Three  hypotheses were tested t o f i n d out whether s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s between  45  l e a d e r s h i p c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and a t t i t u d e s towards feminism e x i s t e d w i t h i n the groups o f graduating baccalaureate nursing students, members o f the Women's L i b e r a t i o n Movement, and l i b r a r y science students. r e l a t i o n s h i p s were found.  Mo s i g n i f i c a n t  The problem o f f i n d i n g l e a d e r s h i p c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  w i t h i n the nursing p r o f e s s i o n remains.  46  CHAPTER V Summary, Conclusions, and Recommendations Summary The purpose o f t h i s study was t o determine whether a b e l i e f i n feminism c o r r e l a t e d with l e a d e r s h i p c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . I t was thought that i f such a c o r r e l a t i o n was evidenced, some o f the components o f feminism, such as consciousness  r a i s i n g , might u l t i m a t e l y be incorporated i n t o nursing  in hopes o f developing and providing more nursing l e a d e r s .  The review o f  the l i t e r a t u r e focused on l e a d e r s h i p i n g e n e r a l , l e a d e r s h i p i n n u r s i n g , the Women's L i b e r a t i o n Movement, and the Women's L i b e r a t i o n Movement and nursing. Themes from the l i t e r a t u r e included the pressing need f o r nurse leaders and the opinions o f some current nurse leaders who f e l t that the nursing prof e s s i o n would b e n e f i t from an awareness o f and a b e l i e f i n t h e f e m i n i s t movement. Since i t was a l s o questioned whether women who b e l i e v e i n feminism and j o i n Women's L i b e r a t i o n Movements demonstrate l e a d e r s h i p c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , the a t t r i b u t e s t u d i e d i n r e l a t i o n t o l e a d e r s h i p c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s was a b e l i e f in feminism. T h i r t y graduating baccalaureate nursing students, t h i r t y members o f the Women's L i b e r a t i o n Movement, and twenty four l i b r a r y science  students  were t e s t e d t o measure t h e i r l e a d e r s h i p c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s as well as t h e i r a t t i t u d e s towards feminism.  When s t a t i s t i c a l t e s t s were a p p l i e d , the three  groups were found t o d i f f e r l i t t l e i n t h e i r l e a d e r s h i p c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s but to d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n t h e i r a t t i t u d e s towards feminism.  The g r e a t e s t  d i f f e r e n c e s i n a t t i t u d e s towards feminism were found between the group o f  members o f the Women's L i b e r a t i o n Movement and the other two groups. s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s were found between a t t i t u d e s towards  No  feminism  and l e a d e r s h i p c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w i t h i n any o f the three groups. L i m i t a t i o n s o f the Study There were a number o f l i m i t a t i o n s encountered i n conducting t h i s study. 1.  The major l i m i t a t i o n s were: The work experience i n the three groups v a r i e d from no experience to twenty f i v e years o f experience.  This may have a f f e c t e d the  s u b j e c t s ' l e a d e r s h i p c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and b e l i e f i n feminism. 2.  The educational l e v e l s v a r i e d w i t h i n the Women's L i b e r a t i o n Movement group and were not n e c e s s a r i l y c o n s i s t e n t with the o t h e r two groups.  3.  The age range o f the three groups v a r i e d widely.  L i f e ' s experiences  may have a f f e c t e d the s u b j e c t s ' l e a d e r s h i p c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and bel i e f i n feminism. 4.  The s o c i a l i z a t i o n o f n u r s i n g students i n t o the p r o f e s s i o n a l nurse r o l e might mask the demonstration o f p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e s towards feminism.  5.  I t was necessary t o use convenience sample population groups r a t h e r than random assessment o f i n d i v i d u a l s from the t o t a l populat i o n o f the three groups. I m p l i c a t i o n s and Conclusions Because a survey o f the l i t e r a t u r e i n d i c a t e d a great need f o r n u r s i n g  leaders as well as the speculated b e n e f i t s to the n u r s i n g p r o f e s s i o n t h a t a b e l i e f i n feminism might b r i n g , the question o f whether o r not a b e l i e f i n  48  feminism might be r e l a t e d t o l e a d e r s h i p c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s arose.  The three  groups s t u d i e d were f i r s t t e s t e d to determine d i f f e r e n c e s i n l e a d e r s h i p c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and then t e s t e d t o assess r e l a t i o n s h i p s between a t t i t u d e s t o wards feminism and l e a d e r s h i p c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w i t h i n each group. This study showed that there was no d i f f e r e n c e i n l e a d e r s h i p charact e r i s t i c s among graduating baccalaureate nursing students, members o f the Women's L i b e r a t i o n Movement, and l i b r a r y science students.  While the GPP  and the GPI have been t e s t e d f o r r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y , only one study was found which used the GPP as a measurement o f l e a d e r s h i p p o t e n t i a l J In t h i s study the ascendancy s c a l e o f t h e GPP was used t o d e f i n e l e a d e r s h i p potential.  No s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s were found among nursing  graduates  of baccalaureate, a s s o c i a t e degree, and diploma programs i n terms o f leadership p o t e n t i a l .  I t would be o f i n t e r e s t t o compare the scores o f t h e  graduating nursing students i n t h i s study with those o f c o l l e g e students. There was, however, a d i f f e r e n c e i n a t t i t u d e s towards feminism with the members o f the Women's L i b e r a t i o n Movement d i f f e r i n g most from t h e other two groups.  There were no s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s between a t t i t u d e s t o -  wards feminism and l e a d e r s h i p c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w i t h i n any o f t h e three groups. The d i f f e r e n c e i n a t t i t u d e s towards feminism seemed accounted l i e f i n feminism professed by the Women's L i b e r a t i o n Movement.  f o r by the beI t seemed  reasonable t o expect that i t s members would d i f f e r from other women i n t h e i r  'Mary Ann Bruegel Richards, "A Study o f D i f f e r e n c e s i n P s y c h o l o g i c a l C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f Students Graduating from Three Types o f Basic Nursing Programs," Nursing Research, V o l . 21 No. 3 (May-June, 1972), 258-261.  49  a t t i t u d e s towards feminism.  Since there were no s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s  between a t t i t u d e s towards feminism and l e a d e r s h i p c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , i t can be concluded that l e a d e r s h i p c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a r e not caused by a b e l i e f i n feminism, a b e l i e f i n feminism i s not caused by the possession of leadership c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , and a b e l i e f i n feminism and l e a d e r s h i p c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a r e not caused by some other v a r i a b l e , common t o a l l three groups.  Recommendations f o r Further Study Some recommendations f o r f u r t h e r study i n c l u d e : (1)  R e p l i c a t i o n o f t h i s study would help to a t t a i n greater v a l i d i t y i n  the r e s u l t s . Perhaps repeating the study i n another geographical  location  might lead t o other r e s u l t s s i n c e i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t , due t o s o c i a l i z a t i o n , students i n one area a r e s i m i l a r i n c e r t a i n a t t i t u d e s .  Knowledge about  g e n e r a l i z a b i 1 i t y would be acquired t h i s way. (2)  I d e n t i f y i n g other t o o l s t o measure l e a d e r s h i p c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s might  help to b e t t e r assess t h i s area.  I t would be important t o develop a l i s t o f  l e a d e r s h i p q u a l i t i e s needed s p e c i f i c a l l y by the nursing p r o f e s s i o n and then to create o r l o c a t e a tool which s p e c i f i c a l l y measures these.  Although t h e  Gordon t o o l s measure l e a d e r s h i p c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n g e n e r a l , something more p e r t i n e n t to nursing might be needed. (3)  I d e n t i f y i n g l e a d e r s h i p c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n persons  l e a d e r s h i p i n nursing might be a useful way o f determining c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s needed by the nursing p r o f e s s i o n .  demonstrating those  leadership  I f these a t t r i b u t e s could  be i d e n t i f i e d and provided that l e a d e r s h i p c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s are a t l e a s t part i a l l y environmentally  determined, a s t r a t e g y f o r assessing t h e presence o f  50  these t r a i t s i n beginning nursing students would be important.  A method o f  teaching which maximizes l e a d e r s h i p c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s followed by an assessment o f l e a d e r s h i p c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s at the end o f the program as well as i n f i v e years time might be h e l p f u l i n the development o f leaders i n the nursing profession. (4)  S p e c i f y i n g demographic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the s u b j e c t i n the study  would be important s i n c e i t i s p o s s i b l e that some o f these, such as the amount o f education and work experience, could i n f l u e n c e both l e a d e r s h i p c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and a b e l i e f i n feminism.  In c o n c l u s i o n , no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s were found i n l e a d e r s h i p c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s among the three groups.  Significant differences i n a t t i -  tudes towards feminism were found as expected. Mo s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n ships between a t t i t u d e s towards feminism and l e a d e r s h i p c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s were found.  I t was t h e r e f o r e concluded that no causal r e l a t i o n s h i p s e x i s t  between a b e l i e f i n feminism and l e a d e r s h i p c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . f o r f u r t h e r study were o f f e r e d .  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Nursing Research, V o l . 17 No. 2 ( M a r c h - A p r i l , 1968), 140-145. S t o l o f f , Carolyn. "Who J o i n s Women's L i b e r a t i o n ? " P s y c h i a t r y , V o l . 36 (August, 1973), 325-340. T a v i s , C a r o l . "Who Likes Women's L i b e r a t i o n - and Why: A Case o f the U n l i b e r a t e d L i b e r a l s . " Journal o f S o c i a l Issues, V o l . 29 No. 4 (1973), 175-198. Uprichard, M u r i e l . "Ferment i n Nursing." V o l . 16 No. 3 (1969), 222-234.  I n t e r n a t i o n a l Nursing Review,  Personal Communication Gordon, Leonard V. January 22nd, 1976, personal communication.  57  APPENDIX  APPENDIX A  THE GPP AND THE GPI  Leonard V. Gordon, Gordon Personal P r o f i l e and Gordon Personal Inventory, Mew York:  Harcourt, Brace and World, Inc.,  1963. The Gordon Personal P r o f i l e and Gordon Personal Inventory were obtained from the Guidance Centre, F a c u l t y o f Education, Univ e r s i t y of Toronto, 1000 Yonge S t r e e t , Toronto, O n t a r i o , Canada M4W  2K8.  The cost o f one hundred and f i v e Gordon Personal P r o f i l e and one hundred and f i v e Gordon Personal Inventories was $47.70. A f i f t y per cent research discount was given. Harcourt, Brace and World, Inc., P u b l i s h e r s , would not grant permission to reproduce the Gordon Personal P r o f i l e and Gordon Personal Inventory.  Copies may be obtained from Harcourt,  Brace and World, Inc., New York, New  York.  APPENDIX B  THE FEM SCALE  61  Opinion Q u e s t i o n n a i r e  Please i n d i c a t e agreement o r disagreement with each o f the f o l l o w i n g items according to one o f the responses A-Strongly agree B-Agree C-Undecided D-Disagree E-Strongly d i s a g r e e 1.  Women have the r i g h t to compete with men i n every sphere o f a c t i vi t y .  _2.  As the head o f the household, the f a t h e r should have f i n a l a u t h o r i t y over h i s c h i l d r e n .  3.  A woman who refuses t o g i v e up her job to move with her husband would be t o blame i f the marriage broke up.  4.  A woman who refuses to bear c h i l d r e n has f a i l e d i n her duty to h e r husband.  5.  A woman should be expected t o change her name when she marries.  6. Whether o r not they r e a l i z e i t , most women a r e e x p l o i t e d by men. 7.  Women who j o i n the Women's L i b e r a t i o n Movement are t y p i c a l l y f r u s t r a t e d and u n a t t r a c t i v e people who f e e l they l o s e out by the c u r r e n t rules o f s o c i e t y .  8.  A working woman who sends her s i x month o l d baby to a day care center i s a bad mother.  9.  A woman to be t r u l y womanly should g r a c e f u l l y accept the c h i v a l r o u s a t t e n t i o n s from men.  10. I t i s absurd to regard obedience as a w i f e l y v i r t u e . 11. One should never t r u s t a woman's account o f another woman.  12. The unmarried mother i s m o r a l l y a g r e a t e r f a i l u r e than the unmarried f a t h e r . 13. The " c l i n g i n g v i n e " wife i s j u s t i f i e d provided she c l i n g s sweetly enough to please her husband. 14. A woman should not expect t o go to the same places o r have the same freedom o f a c t i o n as a man. 15. R e a l i s t i c a l l y speaking, most progress so f a r has been made by men and we can expect i t to continue t h a t way. 16. I t i s d e s i r a b l e t h a t women be appointed to p o l i c e f o r c e s with the same d u t i e s as men. 17. Women a r e b a s i c a l l y more u n p r e d i c t a b l e than men. 18. I t i s a l l r i g h t f o r women to work but men w i l l always be the b a s i c breadwinners. 19. A woman should not expect to go to the same places o r have the same freedom o f a c t i o n as a man. 20. P r o f a n i t y sounds worse g e n e r a l l y coming from a woman.  APPENDIX C  THE MEANING OF THE SCALES OF THE GPP AND THE GPI  64  The Meaning o f the Scales o f the GPP and the GPI  Ascendancy Those i n d i v i d u a l s who adopt an a c t i v e r o l e i n group s i t u a t i o n s , who are s e l f assured and a s s e r t i v e i n r e l a t i o n s h i p s with o t h e r s , and who tend to make independent d e c i s i o n s , make high scores on t h i s s c a l e . Responsibility Those i n d i v i d u a l s who take r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s s e r i o u s l y , who are able to s t i c k to any j o b and g e t i t done, who are p e r s e r v e r i n g and determined, score high on t h i s s c a l e . Emotional S t a b i l i t y High scores on t h i s s c a l e c h a r a c t e r i z e i n d i v i d u a l s who are well balanced, emotionally s t a b l e , and r e l a t i v e l y f r e e from a n x i e t y and nervous t e n s i o n . Sociability High scores on t h i s s c a l e are made by i n d i v i d u a l s who l i k e to be with people and work with people, who are gregarious and s o c i a b l e . O r i g i n a l Thinking Those who tend to be o r i g i n a l i n t h e i r t h i n k i n g , l i k e to work with i d e a s , enjoy d i f f i c u l t problems, and are r e f l e c t i v e , score high on t h i s scale.  APPENDIX D  STOGDILL S COMPOSITE OF LEADERSHIP CHARACTERISTICS 1  AS MEASURED BY THE GPP AND THE GPI  STOGDILL'S COMPOSITE OF LEADERSHIP CHARACTERISTICS AS MEASURED BY THE GPP AMD THE GPI  SCALE  CHARACTERISTIC 1.  Strong d r i v e f o r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and task completion  Responsibility  2.  Vigor and p e r s i s t e n c e i n p u r s u i t o f goals  Responsibility  3.  Venturesomeness and o r i g i n a l i t y i n problem solving  Original  4.  Drive to e x e r c i s e i n i t i a t i v e i n s o c i a l situations  Sociabi 1 i t y  5.  S e l f confidence identity  Emotional S t a b i l i t y and Ascendancy  6.  W i l l i n g n e s s to accept consequences o f a d e c i s i o n and a c t i o n  Responsibility  7.  Readiness to absorb i n t e r p e r s o n a l  Emotional S t a b i l i t y  8.  W i l l i n g n e s s to t o l e r a t e f r u s t r a t i o n and delay  Responsibility  9.  Capacity to s t r u c t u r e s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n to the purpose at hand  Ascendancy  and a sense o f personal  stress  10. A b i l i t y to i n f l u e n c e another person's behavior  Thinking  Ascendancy  APPENDIX E  RANKED LEADERSHIP SCORES OF GRADUATING NURSING STUDENTS, MEMBERS OF THE WOMEN'S LIBERATION MOVEMENT, AND LIBRARY SCIENCE STUDENTS.  68  RANKING OF LEADERSHIP SCORES Nursing Group j Students Rank 46 57 36.5 81.5 76 26 53 2 3 5.5 7.5 38.5 73.5 28 63 38.5 33 69 7.5 17 23.5 61.5 76 25 55.5 30 59 41.5 28 83  Group  Leadership Score Rank 121 126 116 141 138 111 124 72 79 87 91 117 137 112 129 117 115 133 91 101 109 128 138 no  125 113 127 118 112 144 ZRl = 1245  41.5 5.5 41.5 64 13 66.5 41.5 59 84 48.5 69 10.5 81.5 59 71 4 10.5 12 78 76 44.5 53 69 79 72 . 66.5 36.5 73.5 44.5 19.5  TT 11  Members of the WLM  Group U J 1 1  Leadership Score Rank 118 87 118 130 96 132 118 127 145 122 133 93 141 127 135 83 93 95 139 138 120 124 133 139 136 132 116 137 120 103 ZRII= 1494 5  48.5 31 21 78 53 33 61.5 19.5 14.5 28 33 51 48.5 48.5 65 18 9 1 14.5 22 80 16 55.5 23.5  L i b r a r y Science Students  Leadership Score 122 114 104 139 124 115 128 103 97 112 115 123 122 122 131 102 92 71 97 108 140 99 125 109 ERIM = 873.5  APPENDIX.F  RANKED FEM SCALE SCORES OF GRADUATING NURSING STUDENTS, MEMBERS OF THE WOMEN'S LIBERATION MOVEMENT, AND LIBRARY SCIENCE STUDENTS.  70  RANKING OF FEM SCORES Group I  Nursing Students  Group II  Members of the WLM  Group I I I  L i b r a r y Science Students  Rank  FEM Score  Rank  FEM Score  Rank  FEM Score  60 9.5 40 15.5 2 45.5 3.5 21.5 50 38 57.5 5.5 50 11.5 38 >52 13.5 13.5 18.5 57.5 32.5 72 24.5 24.5 9.5 48 24.5 7.5 50 60  31 10 23 15 0 25 4 17 27 22 30 5 27 12 22 28 14 14 16 30 21 35 18 18 10 26 18 9 27 31  30 45.5 18.5 78 70.5 78 66.5 82 62.5 27.5 54.5 82 70.5 66.5 74.5 54.5 62.5 38 74.5 74.5 42.5 60 66.5 82 45.5 54.5 78 82 66.5 82  20 25 16 37 34 31 33 38 32 19 29 38 34 33 36 29 32 22 36 36 24 31 33 38 25 29 37 38 33 38  30 24.5 40 32.5 40 74.5 66.5 27.5 7.5 1 66.5 11.5 42.5 38 38 18.5 54.5 18.5 15.5 5.5 45.,5 21 .5 30 3.  20 18 23 21 23 36 33 19 9 -2 33 12 24 22 22 16 29 16 15 5 25 17 20 4  SRI = 956  ZRII= 1870.5  ER IH=753.5  

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