UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

The effects on residential opportunity structures on participation patterns in voluntary organizations Scheu, William John 1975

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Notice for Google Chrome users:
If you are having trouble viewing or searching the PDF with Google Chrome, please download it here instead.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-UBC_1975_A1 S34_9.pdf [ 4.99MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0100061.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0100061-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0100061-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0100061-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0100061-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0100061-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0100061-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0100061-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0100061.ris

Full Text

THE EFFECTS OF itESIDEKTTAL OPPORTUNITY STRUCTURES PARTICIPATION PATTERNS IN VOLUNTARY ORGANIZATION h y W i l l i a m J o h n S c h e u B.S., M.S. A THESIS SUEMITTEC IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOS THE DEGREE OF DOCTCB CF PHILOSOPHY i n t h e d e p a r t m e n t o f ANTHROPOLOGY AND SOCIOLOGY We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o £ne r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d . The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a A p r i l 1975 In presenting th i s thes is in p a r t i a l fu l f i lment o f the requirements for an advanced degree at the Univers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L i b r a r y sha l l make i t f ree ly ava i lab le for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of th i s thes is for s cho lar ly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representat ives . It is understood that copying or pub l i ca t ion of th is thesis for f inanc ia l gain sha l l not be allowed without my writ ten permission. Department of Anthropology/Sociology The Univers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada Date A p r i l 9. 1975 ABSTRACT The major f o c u s of t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n i s to e x p l o r e two a l t e r n a t i v e models o f i n d i v i d u a l - e n v i r o n m e n t a r t i c u l a t i o n f o r e x p l a i n i n g i n d i v i d u a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s . The pr imary q u e s t i o n posed i s whether v a r y i n g v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t y d e n s i t i e s of l o c a l r e s i d e n t i a l areas operate to encourage o r g a n i z a t i o n a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n to the same degree f o r a l l r e s i d e n t s ; or whether the dens i t y of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t y e l i c i t s d i f f e r e n t i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n depending upon an i n d i v i d u a l ' s p e r s o n a l r e s o u r c e s , or a t tachments to the l o c a l r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a . The development and a n a l y s i s o f the problem i s in formed by the t h e o r y and methods o f " c o n t e x t u a l a n a l y s i s . " The hypotheses were t e s t e d with data from 822 respondents randomly s e l e c t e d from e i g h t d i f f e r e n t " s o c i a l areas" i n M e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver . The a r e a s were p u r p o s i v e l y chosen from a s t r a t i f i e d t y p o l o g y — s i m i l a r i n na ture to Wendal l B e l l ' s S o c i a l A r e a T y p o l o g y . I n g e n e r a l , the a n a l y s i s sugges t s t h a t the o p p o r t u n i t y d e n s i t i e s o f a r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s do not a c t i n d e p e n d e n t l y o f , but i n combinat ion wi th d i f f e r e n t i n d i v i d u a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s to produce d i f f e r e n c e s i n o r g a n i z a t i o n a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n of urban r e s i d e n t s . I n c r e a s e d o r g a n i z a t i o n a l i i D p p o r t u n i t i e s present i n t h e immediate r e s i d e n t i a l environment only c o n d i t i o n a l l y a f f e c t an i n c r e a s e i n o r g a n i z a t i o n a l memberships fo r t h e b e t t e r educated o r the a i o r e wealthy. i i i TABLE OF CONTENTS Page L i s t o f T a b l e s v L i s t o f F i g u r e s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . v i CHAPTER 1 I n t r o d u c t i o n 1 T h e o r e t i c a l Framework. 6 The L o c a l R e s i d e n t i a l Area 8 P o p u l a t i o n Type , L i f e S t y l e , and the O r g a n i z a t i o n a l S t r u c t u r e Of R e s i d e n t i a l Areas 11 The L o c a l R e s i d e n t i a l Area As An E n v i r o n m e n t a l O p p o r t u n i t y S t r u c t u r e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 L o c a l R e s i d e n t i a l O p p o r t u n i t y S t r u c t u r e s and C o n t e x t u a l A n a l y s i s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 Problem F o r m u l a t i o n and H y p o t h e s i s Development . . . . . 18 O p p o r t u n i t y D e n s i t y - A C o n t e x t u a l E f f e c t . . . . . . . 19 I n d i v i d u a l C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s 20 The E f f e c t s of a C o n t e x t u a l C o n d i t i o n a l . . . . . . . 22 2 Methodology . . . . . 2 5 Research Des ign 25 Sampling Frame . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 Stage One: S e l e c t i o n Of Pr imary Sampling U n i t s 27 Stage Two: S e l e c t i o n Of Households . . . . . . . . 30 , Stage Three : S e l e c t i o n Of Respondents . . . . . . 30 D i s p o s i t i o n Of Sample . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 I m p l i c a t i o n s Of Sampling Des ign 33 Means Of Data C o l l e c t i o n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 The In terv i ew 34 C r e a t i n g An O p p o r t u n i t y S u r f a c e Of V o l u n t a r y O r g a n i z a t i o n s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 i v TABLE OF CONTENTS (continued) Chapter Page O p e r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n s Of The Concepts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 O p p o r t u n i t y D e n s i t y . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 1 P a r t i c i p a t i o n In V o l u n t a r y O r g a n i z a t i o n s . . . . . . 44 Stage In F a m i l y L i f e C y c l e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 S o c i a l Rank Of R e s i d e n t i a l Area . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 F a m i l y L i f e C y c l e Of R e s i d e n t i a l Area . . . . . . . . . 48 Age Of R e s i d e n t i a l Area . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 S t a t i s t i c a l Methods Of Data A n a l y s i s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 C o v a r i a n c e A n a l y s i s S t r a t e g y Employed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 1 3 The A n a l y s i s 54 E c o l o g i c a l Tes t Of The M a c r o - P r o c e s s e s . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 L i m i t a t i o n s Of The E c o l o g i c a l C o v a r i a t i o n T e s t 58 Model S p e c i f i c a t i o n of the M i c r o - P r o c e s s e s . . . . . . . . . 59 Model E v a l u a t i o n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 C o v a r i a n c e A n a l y s i s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 3 Sex and O p p o r t u n i t y Dens i ty 6 3 Stage i n F a m i l y L i f e C y c l e and O p p o r t u n i t y D e n s i t y . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 E d u c a t i o n and O p p o r t u n i t y D e n s i t y . . . . . . . . . 68 Income and O p p o r t u n i t y Dens i ty . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 Summary Of C o v a r i a n c e A n a l y s i s . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 R e g r e s s i o n A n a l y s i s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 4 Summary and C o n c l u s i o n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 Study Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 P r a c t i c a l I m p l i c a t i o n s — a n Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 C o n c l u s i o n 92 B i b l i o g r a p h y 94 V LIST OF TABLES TABLE Page 1 D i s p o s i t i o n Of Sampl ing Response . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 2 Summary Of 3 - s tage S tep-wise R e g r e s s i o n A n a l y s i s Of O p p o r t u n i t y D e n s i t y Regressed On Means Of S o c i a l Rank, Family L i f e C y c l e , and Res idence S t a b i l i t y . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 3 C o v a r i a n c e A n a l y s i s Of Sex, With The Number Of V o l u n t a r y O r g a n i z a t i o n Memberships Regressed On O p p o r t u n i t y D e n s i t y 63 4 C o v a r i a n c e A n a l y s i s Of Stage Of F a m i l y L i f e C y c l e , With The Number Of V o l u n t a r y O r g a n i z a t i o n Memberships Regressed On O p p o r t u n i t y D e n s i t y . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 5 C o v a r i a n c e A n a l y s i s Of E d u c a t i o n , Wi th The Number Of V o l u n t a r y O r g a n i z a t i o n Memberships Regressed Cn The C o v a r i a t e , O p p o r t u n i t y Dens i ty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 6 C o v a r i a n c e A n a l y s i s Of Income, With The Number Cf V o l u n t a r y O r g a n i z a t i o n Memberships Regressed On The C o v a r i a t e , O p p o r t u n i t y D e n s i t y . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 1 7 Summary Of Step-Wise Regres s ion A n a l y s i s Of T o t a l O r g a n i z a t i o n a l Memberships Regressed On EOD, I C D , F L C , F L C 2 , LR AND OD 77 v i LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE Page 1 Sampling Typo logy Used To C o n t r o l The M aero-demographic C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Of The R e s i d e n t i a l Areas Chosen In Stage One. 28 2 S p a t i a l L o c a t i o n Of The E i g h t Pr imary Sampling U n i t s W i t h i n The G r e a t e r Vancouver M e t r o p o l i t a n Reg ion . . . . . 29 3 S p a t i a l D i s t r i b t u i o n Of V o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s W i t h i n The M e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver Region In 1971 39 4 Enumerat ion Of V o l u n t a r y O r g a n i z a t i o n C l a s s i f i c a t i o n . . . 40 5 G r a p h i c a l P r e s e n t a t i o n Of I d e a l - T y p i c a l C o v a r i a n c e R e l a t i o n s D e p i c t i n g V a r i o u s Outcomes o f C o n t e x t u a l A n a l y s i s 61 6 R e g r e s s i o n L i n e s of O r g a n i z a t i o n a l Memberships By O p p o r t u n i t y Dens i ty F o r Males And Females . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 4 7 R e g r e s s i o n L i n e s Of O r g a n i z a t i o n a l Memberships By O p p o r t u n i t y D e n s i t y F o r The F i v e Stage I n F a m i l y Cyc le Groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 8 R e g r e s s i o n L i n e s Of O r g a n i z a t i o n a l Memberships Ey O p p o r t u n i t y D e n s i t y For The Four E d u c a t i o n a l Groups . . . 69 9 R e g r e s s i o n L i n e s Of O r g a n i z a t i o n a l Memberships Ey O p p o r t u n i t y D e n s i t y For The Four Income Groups 72 v i i i. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I w o u l d l i k e t o t a k e t h i s o p p o r t u n i t y t o t h a n k a l l t h o s e p e o p l e who w e r e i n v o l v e d i n c a r r y i n g o u t t h e i n i t i a l s t a g e s o f t h e V a n c o u v e r U r b a n S t u d i e s P r o j e c t , o f w h i c h t h i s t h e s i s i s o n l y a p a r t . S p e c i a l t h a n k s m u s t go t o G e o r g e G r a y , S c o t t M e i s a n d K a t h y S t o r i e f o r t h e i r c o n t r i b u t i o n a s c o - p r i n c i p a l s i n t h e s t u d y . I w o u l d a l s o l i k e t o t h a n k G e o r g e G r a y a n d M a r t i n M e i s s n e r f o r t h e e n c o u r a g e m e n t a n d c o n s t r u c t i v e c r i t i c i s m t h e y o f f e r e d i n t h e w r i t i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s . I a l s o a p p r e c i a t e t h e t i m e a n d v e r y h e l p f u l s u g g e s t i o n p r o v i d e d b y B r a x t o n A l f r e d a n d R o b e r t K e l l y . 1 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION The purpose of t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n i s to e x p l o r e how and to what degree t h e s o c i o - e c o l o g i c a l c o n t e x t of a r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a , c o n c e p t u a l i z e d as an o p p o r t u n i t y s t r u c t u r e a f f e c t s r e s i d e n t memberships i n v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s . The problem i s p a r t of a g e n e r a l s o c i a l s c i e n t i f i c i n t e r e s t i n the r e l a t i o n s h i p between i n d i v i d u a l s and t h e i r environment . The a n a l y s i s of the problem i s in formed by the t h e o r y and methods o f " c o n t e x t u a l a n a l y s i s . " 1 Survey s t u d i e s o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s have , f o r the most p a r t , been l i m i t e d to the i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f i n d i v i d u a l c o r r e l a t e s to the p o i n t of d i m i n i s h i n g r e t u r n s . 2 Except to r e p l i c a t e p r e v i o u s f i n d i n g s , l i t t l e new theory has been c o n t r i b u t e d . Moreover , these s t u d i e s have tended to n e g l e c t the s o c i a l c o n t e x t s i n which a c t i v i t i e s occur and p r o v i d e d inadequate e x p l a n a t i o n s f o r * B l a u , 1 9 5 7 ; Coleman,1958; L a z a r s f e l d , 1 9 5 9 ; B l a u , 1 9 6 0 ; D a v i s , Spaeth and Huson,1961; Greer and O r l e a n s , 1962; Tannenbaum and Bachman, 1964 ; v a l k o n e n , 1 969; Scheuch,1969; 3reen ,1971; Hauser ,1971 . 2 Komarovsky, 1946; S c a f f , 1952, F o s k e t t , 1 955; A x e l r o d , 1956 ; S c o t t , 1 9 5 7 ; Wright and Hyman,1958; Babchuk and Booth,1969; Hyman and W r i g h t , 1 9 7 1 ; R e i d and F r i d e r e s , 1 9 7 1 ; and B o o t h , 1972. 2 t h a t reason (Nohar, 1968). Coleman (1961 :607) has commented on the i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c b i a s t h a t has c h a r a c t e r i z e d much survey r e s e a r c h : The t y p i c a l s u r v e y a n a l y s i s i n f e r r e d causes and p r o c e s s e s i n t e r n a l to the i n d i v i d u a l , s i m p l y because the v a r i a b l e s being c r o s s -t a b u l a t e d were a t t r i b u t e s of the same i n d i v i d u a l . G a l t a n g ( 1967: 150) adds: t h i s i n d i v i d u a l i s m i s f u r t h e r emphasized by b u i l d i n g a p r o b a b i l i t y model i n t o the sampling p r o c e d u r e , so t h a t the i n d i v i d u a l i s t o r n out of h i s s o c i a l c o n t e x t . . . The sampl ing s t r a t e g y of drawing a few respondent s a t each of a great number o f very d i s p e r s e d sampling p o i n t s makes i t i m p o s s i b l e . . . t o account s y s t e m a t i c a l l y f o r the e f f e c t s of the s o c i a l c o n t e x t i n which a person f i n d s h i m s e l f . The e f f e c t o f l o c a l community s t r u c t u r e or l o c a l l y based f o r m a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s cannot be deduced from data t h a t i g n o r e s these v a r i a b l e s (Segal and Meyer, 1969: 219) . A t the same t ime , a " f i x a t i o n on aggregates" ( M i c h e l s o n , 1970) has prevented most of the human e c o l o g y s t u d i e s from s e p a r a t i n g the e f f e c t s o f s o c i o - s p a t i a l contex t from i n d i v i d u a l e f f e c t s on b e h a v i o r , because e c o l o g i c a l data do not f u r n i s h i n f o r m a t i o n about i n d i v i d u a l s except i n the a g g r e g a t e ( B l a u , 1960; G r e e r , 1 9 6 0 ; Hobinson,1 950) . A good example i s F a c t o r i a l E c o l o g y . Emerging from a s y n t h e s i s o f the C h i c a g o Schoo l of Human E c o l o g y and S o c i a l Area A n a l y s i s , i t i s one o f the most popu lar forms of urban eco logy c a r r i e d out t o d a y . C o l l e c t i o n s of census da ta 3 aggregated to the l e v e l of m e t r o p o l i t a n census t r a c t s are f a c t o r - a n a l y z e d to e m p i r i c a l l y i s o l a t e the b a s i c d imensions of urban s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e . F o r g e t t i n g p h y s i c a l space f o r the moment, the c i t y or m e t r o p o l i s i s viewed as a d i s t r i b u t i o n o f "neighborhoods" (census t r a c t s ) , each ranked a long what u s u a l l y t u r n s out to be the d imensions of s o c i o -economic, f a m i l y , and e t h n i c s t a t u s e s . T h i s rank ing of ne ighborhoods i n a three d i m e n s i o n a l a t t r i b u t e space c r e a t e s a c o n s t e l l a t i o n of r e l a t i v e l y homogeneous s u b - a r e a p o p u l a t i o n s or s o c i a l a r e a s . The focus o f a n a l y s i s then s h i f t s to mapping t h e s e ne ighborhoods s p a t i a l l y and t e s t i n g the degree to which these t h r e e s o c i a l d imensions r e s p e c t i v e l y f i t the c l a s s i c a l urban s p a t i a l models of c o n c e n t r i c zones (Burges, 1925) , s e c t o r s (Hoyt, 1933, 1939), and m u l t i p l e n u c l e i ( H a r r i s and O i l m a n , 1945) . But here the i n v e s t i g a t i o n s t o p s . 1 The q u e s t i o n o f what consequences or e f f e c t s t h i s s p a t i a l l y p a t t e r n e d s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e has f o r the i n h a b i t a n t s of the c i t y i s very r a r e l y r a i s e d , F o r t u n a t e l y , another form of i n v e s t i g a t i o n emerging from s o c i a l area a n a l y s i s has posed j u s t such a q u e s t i o n . S o c i a l areas have been p o s i t e d as "independent v a r i a b l e s " a f f e c t i n g the area r e s i d e n t s a t t i t u d e s and b e h a v i o r . 1 Anderson and E g l a n d , 1961; Berry and Rees, 1969; Murdie ,1969; Hunter and L a t i f , 1973; P a t t e r s o n , 1974. 4 In the proces s of e m p i r i c a l l y v a l i d a t i n g the c o n s t r u c t s of s o c i a l area a n a l y s i s by demons tra t ing t h a t t h e r e were d i f f e r e n c e s i n p a r t i c i p a t i o n p a t t e r n s between ne ighborhoods , B e l l (1953), B e l l and F o r c e (1956) and, Greer and Kube (1959) d i s c o v e r e d what they c o n s i d e r e d to be independent area e f f e c t s . In a s e r i e s of i n v e s t i g a t i o n s d i s t i n g u i s h i n g ne ighborhoods on the b a s i s of s o c i a l rank and f a m i l i s m , and h o l d i n g i n d i v i d u a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s c o n s t a n t , these authors founfl what they c o n s i d e r e d to be s i g n i f i c a n t ne ighborhood d i f f e r e n c e s i n p a r t i c i p a t i o n wi th f r i e n d s , n e i g h b o r s , k i n and v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s . They saw the s o c i a l c o n t e x t s o f t h e ne ighborhoods or r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s as a f f e c t i n g i n d i v i d u a l b e h a v i o r i n a manner independent from the e f f e c t s of i n d i v i d u a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s (Be l l ,1969:132) . At the same t i m e , however, there was l i t t l e e x p l a n a t i o n o f f e r e d as to how t h e s o c i a l c o n t e x t of r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s produced d i f f e r e n c e s i n the b e h a v i o r o f r e s i d e n t s . N e v e r t h e l e s s , the m e t h o d o l o g i c a l and t h e o r e t i c a l p r o c e d u r e s of i n v e s t i g a t i n g i n d i v i d u a l behav ior w i t h i n a s o c i o - s p a t i a l contex t was underway. The m e t h o d o l o g i c a l procaedure was one of combining the use o f aggregate census s t a t i s t i c s and the sample survey i n s t u d y i n g the b e h a v i o r of urban r e s i d e n t s . Aggregate census s t a t i s t i c s were used to d e l i n e a t e and c h a r a c t e r i z e the s o c i a l context of r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s , whi le the sample survey was used to gather i n f o r m a t i o n on i n d i v i d u a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and b e h a v i o r p a t t e r n s w i t h i n these d i f f e r e n t c o n t e x t s . The t h e o r e t i c a l 5 ta sk was one o f t r y i n g to deve lop an adequate t h e o r y of how the s o c i a l c o n t e x t produced b e h a v o r i a l v a r i a t i o n s from one l o c a l r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a to a n o t h e r . S ince these e a r l y s t u d i e s o f the f i f t i e s , work on both Df the se p o i n t s has not s tood s t i l l . I n t e r e s t i n the m e t h o d o l o g i c a l f r o n t i s ev idenced by the Symposium on Q u a n t i t a t i v e E c o l o g i c a l A n a l y s i s a t E v i a n , France i n 1966., One of the major o b j e c t i v e s o f t h i s symposium was: . . . t o review the p o s s i b i l i t i e s of j o i n t s t r a t e g i e s of s e v e r a l l e v e l s o f a g g r e g a t i o n , p a r t i c u l a r l y the p o s s i b i l i t i e s of combining sample surveys o f v a r i a t i o n s at the l e v e l o f the i n d i v i d u a l w i th the e c o l o g i c a l a n a l y s e s of the p r o x i m a l contex t s o f such v a r i a t i o n s (Dogan and Rokkan, 1969:12) . In i number of papers coming out o f the symposium, t h i s j o i n t s t r a t e g y r e c e i v e d c o n s i d e r a b l e e l a b o r a t i o n when viewed from the p o i n t of " c o n t e x t u a l a n a l y s i s " — a form of a n a l y s i s that e x p l o r e s the q u e s t i o n of whether p e o p l e ' s b e h a v i o r i s e f f e c t e d more by t h e i r own c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , more by the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f a group or environment i n which they are members, or more by some c o m b i n a t i o n o f both (Valkonen, 1969; L i n z , 1969; Scheuch , 1 969) . I n t e r e s t i n the t h e o r e t i c a l t a s k o f a c c o u n t i n g f o r how the s o c i a l context o f r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s a f f e c t e d i n d i v i d u a l b e h a v i o r was pursued by Greer and h i s c o l l a b o r a t o r s (Greer, 1960; G r e e r , 1962b; Greer and O r l e a n s , 1962). Al though t h i s t h e o r y was not e l a b o r a t e d or t e s t e d from w i t h i n the p e r s p e c t i v e o f " c o n t e x t u a l a n a l y s i s , " a pass ing f o o t n o t e i n 6 Greer and O r l e a n s (1962:637) p o i n t s to i t s p o s s i b i l i t y : The d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n o f s u b - p o p u l a t i o n s , aggregated and c a t e g o r i z e d a c c o r d i n g t o sub-area c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , e n a b l e s the d e s c r i p t i o n of e m p i r i c a l r e g u l a r i t i e s which may be viewed as s t r u c t u r a l or c o m p o s i t i o n a l e f f e c t s . . . They go on to note t h a t : Whereas b e h a v i o r a l v a r i a t i o n s from one to another d i f f e r e n t i a t e d s u b - p o p u l a t i o n may be a f u n c t i o n of the l o c a t i o n of each i n c o n c e p t u a l l y d i s t a n t and d i s t i n c t i v e s o c i a l areas (or s o c i a l c o n t e x t s ) , an e x p l a n a t i o n o f how and why these v a r i a t i o n s occur w i l l depend upon an adequate theory of s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n . Be fore f o r m u l a t i n g the problem a t hand w i t h i n the c o n t e x t u a l parad igm, t h e n , the t h e o r y o f " s p a t i a l l y based s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n " of the l o c a l r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s w i th in a m e t r o p o l i s should be o u t l i n e d . 1 THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK Urban p o p u l a t i o n s , s o c i a l l y and s p a t i a l l y d i f f e r e n t i a t e d i n t o r e l a t i v e l y homogenous c l u s t e r s a c r o s s the m e t r o p o l i t a n landscape forming a mosaic of l o c a l r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s , i s a w e l l documented phenomenon w i t h i n urban ecology (Duncan and Duncan, 1955; M u r d i e , 1969; 1 G r e e r ' s development of s p a t i a l l y based o r g a n i z a t i o n a c t u a l l y i n c l u d e s f o u r l e v e l s : the household , ne ighborhood , l o c a l r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a , and the m u n i c i p a l i t y . He saw these i n a s c e n d i n g o r d e r as to s i z e or s p a t i a l s c a l e , and descend ing o r d e r as t o the p r o b a b i l i t y of face to f a c e or pr imary r e l a t i o n s . In t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n however, we are o n l y concerned w i t h e l a b o r a t i n g the r e l a t i o n between the i n d i v i d u a l and the l o c a l r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a . 7 P a t t e r s o n , 1974) . Moreover , many o f the s o c i a l proces se s o p e r a t i n g to c r e a t e and main ta in these d i f f e r e n t r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s have r e c e i v e d c o n s i d e r a b l e a t t e n t i o n , with the r e s u l t that some are q u i t e w e l l u n d e r s t o o d (Gans, 1967; M i c h e l s o n , 1973, R o s s i , 1955; Simmons, 1968). But an o u t l i n e of a g e n e r a l theory a c c o u n t i n g f o r the r e l a t i o n s between the gross v a r i a t i o n s of s u b - a r e a p o p u l a t i o n types and the c o r r e s p o n d i n g s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n found w i t h i n these ne ighborhoods , and what consequences t h i s s o c i o - s p a t i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n has on the p a t t e r n e d behav ior o f r e s i d e n t s , awa i t ed the work of G r e e r . One of G r e e r ' s expressed concerns when he began i n v e s t i g a t i n g urban s t r u c t u r e s i n 1952, was t h a t "between the masses d e s c r i b e d c o n v e n i e n t l y by census d a t a , and the i n d i v i d u a l psyche p o s t u l a t e d by s o c i a l psycho logy there seemed a miss ing c o n n e c t i o n : tha t c o n n e c t i o n was the s o c i a l aggregates i n which men l i v e d and d i d most of the work of the wor ld" (Greer , 1972:6) . He b e l i e v e d i t was p o s s i b l e to o b t a i n a g r e a t e r sense o f o r d e r and unders tand ing of the urban t e x t u r e of the m e t r o p o l i s and a c q u i r e a b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the r e l a t i o n between i n d i v i d u a l s and t h e i r urban c o n t e x t , i f t h e o r y f o r m u l a t i o n and e m p i r i c a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n were to focus on the s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l l e v e l of a n a l y s i s . He adopted t h i s s t r a t e g y i n h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n s o f urban r e s i d e n t i a l communit ies . He approached the r e s i d e n t i a l community wi th a c o n c e p t u a l scheme a p p r o p r i a t e to i t s own c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s as a f i e l d f o r 8 s o c i a l a c t i o n by c o n c e n t r a t i n g upon the e x p l a n a t i o n of the immediate o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e , which i s the s p a t i a l l y d e f i n e d group as i t e x i s t s i n the m e t r o p o l i s (Greer , 1960) . The L o c a l R e s i d e n t i a l Area But what i s the b a s i s o f t h i s s p a t i a l l y based s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n ? For c e r t a i n l y the g e o g r a p h i c a l c o n t i g u i t y of m e t r o p o l i t a n s u b - p o p u l a t i o n s has no n e c e s s a r y , s e l f - e v i d e n t bas i s for forming a community i n " s o c i a l f a c t . " Qui te the c o n t r a r y , i t i s c l a i m e d t h a t the r e s i d e n t i a l area i s becoming l e s s important i n urban s o c i e t y . S t e i n (1964) argues t h a t there has been an " e c l i p s e o f community," whi le Webber ( 1963) argues t h a t what community does e x i s t i s "wi thout p r o p i n q u i t y . " The "p lace community" r e p r e s e n t s on ly a l i m i t e d and s p e c i a l case of the l a r g e r genus of communit ies d e r i v i n g i t s bas i s from the common i n t e r e s t s that a t t a c h t o p r o p i n q u i t y a l o n e . But these p l a c e - r e l a t e d i n t e r e s t s are supposed to r e p r e s e n t a d e c r e a s i n g p r o p o r t i o n o f t h e t o t a l bundle of i n t e r e s t s tha t m e t r o p o l i t a n i n h a b i t a n t s h o l d . I t i s reasoned t h a t the " a c c e s s i b i l i t y " c a t h e r than t h e " p r o p i n q u i t y " a s p e c t of p lace i s the n e c e s s a r y c o n d i t i o n f o r the b a s i s o f community; and as a c c e s s i b i l i t y becomes f u r t h e r f r e e d from p r o p i n q u i t y , c o h a b i t a t i o n of a t e r r i t o r i a l p l a c e w i l l become l e s s i m p o r t a n t as the b a s i s o f s o c i a l communit ies (Webber, 1963) . I t i s f u r t h e r reasoned t h a t i n d i v i d u a l a f f i l i a t i o n with 9 m u l t i p l e groups t r a n s c e n d i n g l o c a l i t y , removes from the l o c a l community many of the a c t i v i t i e s and meaningful i n t e r a c t i o n i t once had, r e s u l t i n g , f o r example , i n bedroom suburbs (Coleman, 1966). N e v e r t h e l e s s , most people do not i n h a b i t the c i t y or m e t r o p o l i s as a whole, but l i v e i n o n l y a s m a l l p a r t o f i t (Gans, 1968; Wayne, 1972) . While most workers are not employed i n t h e i r immediate r e s i d e n t i a l area i t i s m i s l e a d i n g to speak of many l o c a l r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s as o n l y d o r m i t o r y communi t i e s : They are the s e a t of most men's t r e a s u r e — t h e s i t e f o r the home to which he i s committed and the s e t t i n g f o r the everday l i f e of h i s wife and c h i l d r e n . T h e i r work, e d u c a t i o n , p lay and s o c i a l c i r c l e a l l c e n t e r on the suburban community. find the breadwinner h i m s e l f , w i th d i m i n i s h i n g work weeks i n most o c c u p a t i o n s , spends more o f h i s waking hours i n the suburb than i n the c e n t r a l c i t y where he works (Greer , 1962a). And even though the c e n t r a l c i t y with i t s c o l l e c t i o n of c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s i s a v a i l a b l e to the s u b u r b a n i t e , " . . . i t i s f a r away i n t ime and space a t the end of the working day. I t i s an e x p e d i t i o n to a t t e n d a c u l t u r a l event r a t h e r than a n o r m a l l y expected a c t i v i t y " (Greer ,1 962a) . G r a n t e d , the l o c a l r e s i d e n t i a l area i s no l o n g e r the l o c a t i o n o f a l l s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s of i t s r e s i d e n t s , but i t s t i l l encompases some very c r u c i a l a c t i v i t i e s , g i v i n g r i s e to what Janowi tz (1955) c a l l s the "community of l i m i t e d l i a b i l i t y . " Warren (1963) r e f e r s to some of these b a s i c s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s ( in s c h o o l s , community c e n t e r s , d i s t r i c t 10 shopping c e n t e r s , p a r k s , s u p e r v i s e d p l a y g r o u n d s , p u b l i c l i b r a r i e s and the l i k e ) as " l o c a l i t y r e l e v a n t f u n c t i o n s " t h a t compose the n u c l e i o f l o c a l r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s . In many i n s t a n c e s the s e r v i c e s o f s c h o o l s , community c e n t e r s , and v a r i o u s governmental programs are a v a i l a b l e to i n d i v i d u a l s o n l y by v i r t u e of t h e i r r e s i d e n c e i n g e o g r a p h i c a l l y d e l i m i t e d a r e a s . T h i s common dependence of a l o c a l r e s i d e n t i a l p o p u l a t i o n on v i t a l r e s o u r c e s forms a b a s i s f o r t h e i r " f u n c t i o n a l i n t e r d e p e n d e n c e . " Of c o u r s e , i n r e l a t i v e l y homogenous r e s i d e n t i a l areas t h e p r e r e q u i s i t e s o f l i f e s t y l e can g ive r i s e to s i m i l a r a c t i v i t i e s a t s i m i l a r s o c i a l events where peop le can enjoy each o t h e r ' s company, and c r e a t e bonds of mutual unders tand ing (Coleman, 1966). But t h e r e i s more to the development o f a l o c a l r e s i d e n t i a l community from a l o c a l i t y than j u s t s i m i l a r i t y of i n t e r e s t s . There i s the common dependence o f a c t i v i t i e s on the same e v e n t s — o r the f u n c t i o n a l i n t e r d e p e n d e n c e i s mentioned above. The o r g a n i z a t i o n of a c t i v i t y i n v o l v e d i n c r e a t i n g and m a i n t a i n i n g such t h i n g s as e d u c a t i o n and r e c r e a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s , and ne ighborhood improvement a s s o c i a t i o n are examples where s i m i l a r i n d i v i d u a l i n t e r e s t s can be t r a n s f o r m e d i n t o common i n t e r e s t s . Most of t h i s a c t i v i t y i s conducted through l o c a l v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s whose members and or b e n e f i c i a r i e s a r e l a r g e l y l i m i t e d to those l i v i n g i n a p a r t i c u l a r l o c a l a r e a (Wi lkenson , 1970). As 11 3 r e a r ( 1960) p o i n t s o u t , the " i n c l u s i v e s p a t i a l group" does s t i l l e x i s t s w i t h i n the m e t r o p o l i t a n area , d e r i v i n g i t s b a s i s from the common c o n c e r n s , c o l l e c t i v e commitments and a b i l i t i e s of i t s r e s i d e n t s to o r g a n i z e , a t t r a c t , and su p p or t v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s w i t h i n t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e l o c a l r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s . But i t i s known t h a t the nature and degree of community o r g a n i z a t i o n vary from one l o c a l r e s i d e n t i a l area to a n o t h e r . The q u e s t i o n i s what accounts f o r t h i s v a r i a t i o n i n s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n a c r o s s the m e t r o p o l i t a n s u r f a c e . P o p u l a t i o n Type , L i f e S t y l e , And the O r g a n i z a t i o n a l S t r u c t u r e Of R e s i d e n t i a l Areas The b a s i c r e l a t i o n between the s o c i a l l y and s p a t i a l l y d i f f e r e n t i a t e d s u b - p o p u l a t i o n s , and the n a t u r e of the s p a t i a l l y grounded s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n found i n r e s p e c t i v e r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s , r e s t s on the f o l l o w i n g t e n e t : The s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n of a l o c a l r e s i d e n t i a l area may be d e r i v e d from a c o n g e r i e o f s i g n i f i c a n t s o c i a l a t t r i b u t e s of s p e c i f i c s u b - a r e a p o p u l a t i o n aggregates , f o r c o n t i g u i t y i n d i c a t e s the l i k e l i h o o d of c o n t a c t , homogeneity i n d i c a t e s the l i k e l i h o o d o f s i m i l a r i n t e r e s t s , and p o p u l a t i o n type i n d i c a t e s the s p e c i f i c contex t t h a t may be i n f e r r e d from those i n t e r e s t s ( G r e e r , 1960:516) . Greer p o i n t s out t h a t "the l i f e w a y s of urban p o p u l a t i o n s have become d i f f e r e n t i a t e d a lon g two q u i t e s e p a r a t e and independent c o n t i n u a : one r a n g i n g frcm a f a m i l i s t i c to an 1 2 extremely urban mode of l i f e ; and the o t h e r r a n g i n g from low t o h i g h s o c i a l r a n k , with a l l i t s s o c i a l c u l t u r a l and economic r a m i f i c a t i o n s . A l o n g the f i r s t c o n t i n u u m , At the h i g h urbanism p o l e we f i n d ne ighborhoods of apartment houses where s i n g l e p e r s o n s , c h i l d l e s s c o u p l e s , and one c h i l d f a m i l i e s predominate . At the o p p o s i t e end we f i n d the s i n g l e f a m i l y d w e l l i n g u n i t s i n h a b i t e d by f a m i l i e s with s e v e r a l c h i l d r e n , where the woman's r o l e i s t h a t o f wi fe and mother i n s t e a d of p a r t i c i p a n t i n the l a b o u r f o r c e (Greer ,1962b ,109) . At t h e f a m i l y - c e n t e r e d end of the c o n t i n u u m , extreme importance i s p l a c e d on the d w e l l i n g u n i t , ne ighborhood , and the l o c a l r e s i d e n t i a l community f o r p r o v i d i n g the a p p r o p r i a t e p h y s i c a l and s o c i a l f a c i l i t i e s f or c h i l d r e a r i n g and homemaking. At the urban end of the continuum the unmarr ied and c h i l d l e s s c o u p l e s are more detached from the l o c a l r e s i d e n t i a l area due to t h e i r l i f e c y c l e s t a g e . Freed from many o f the fami ly r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s e n t a i l i n g more r e l a t i o n s h i p s to the l o c a l a r e a , they are l e s s concerned about the a v a i l a b i l i t y and g u a l i t y of l o c a l community s e r v i c e s (Gans, 1968 :102). Moreover, the u n m a r r i e d and young c h i l d l e s s c o u p l e s are more t r a n s i e n t . T h e i r h igh m o b i l i t y , combined with t h a t o f s i m i l a r n e i g h b o r s , l eads to h i g h p o p u l a t i o n t u r n o v e r , c r e a t i n g even f u r t h e r detachment from the l o c a l r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a . T h i s cons tant t u r n o v e r of people i n a r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a , most of whom have few reasons f o r be ing i n v o l v e d i n the immediate community, makes i t v e r y d i f f i c u l t t o ma in ta in 13 v i a b l e v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n an a r e a . At the aggregate l e v e l then— The more f a m i l i s t i c a s u b - a r e a p o p u l a t i o n i s , the g r e a t e r the number of v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s s i t u a t e d i n the immediate r e s i d e n t i a l env ironment . C o n v e r s e l y , The mora urban the s u b - a r e a p o p u l a t i o n , the fewer the number of v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s s i t u a t e d i n the l o c a l r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a . C r o s s c u t t i n g the s p a t i a l d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n of urban and f a m i l i s t i c l i f e s t y l e s i s the s p a t i a l d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n stemming from s o c i a l r a n k . The soc io -economic rank of a s u b - a r e a p o p u l a t i o n i s expected to make an important d i f f e r e n c e i n the degree to which the s t r u c t u r e of l o c a l o p p o r t u n i t y i s d e v e l o p e d , f o r i t i s i n d i c a t i v e of the p e r s o n a l as w e l l as c o l l e c t i v e r e s o u r c e s , or " c u l t u r a l equipment" a v a i l a b l e to the l o c a l r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a . Thus, at the aggregate l e v e l . As the s o c i a l rank o f a r e s i d e n t i a l p o p u l a t i o n i n c r e a s e s , the number of a c t i v e v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s s i t u a t e d i n the l o c a l r e s i d e n t i a l area shou ld i n c r e a s e . The c o i n c i d e n c e of these two s u b - a r e a p o p u l a t i o n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s s h o u l d go a long way i n a c c o u n t i n g f o r the v a r i a b l e nature of the s p a t i a l l y - b a s e d s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n found throughout the m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a . For example , the number of v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s found i n a r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a , whose r e s i d e n t s are predominate ly c h i l d l e s s c o u p l e s w i th low to moderate l e v e l s of e d u c a t i o n and income, should 14 be c o n s i d e r a b l y s m a l l e r when compared with the number of o r g a n i z a t i o n s s i t u a t e d i n a r e s i d e n t i a l area whose r e s i d e n t s are p r e d o m i n a t e l y r a i s i n g s e v e r a l c h i l d r e n , have u n i v e r s i t y e d u c a t i o n and s i z e a b l e incomes at t h e i r d i s p o s a l . Given t h i s account c f the s p a t i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n of s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n of m e t r o p o l i t a n r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s , how i s i t t h a t these s t r u c t u r e s , i n t u r n , a f f e c t the p a t t e r n e d b e h a v i o r of the people l i v i n g i n these v a r i e d neighborhoods? The L o c a l R e s i d e n t i a l Area As An E n v i r o n m e n t a l O p p o r t u n i t y S t r u c t u r e It i s sugges ted t h a t the l o c a l r e s i d e n t i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n a f f e c t s i t s r e s i d e n t s by a c t i n g as an " o p p o r t u n i t y s t r u c t u r e . " V a r i a t i o n s i n the s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l topography of m e t r o p o l i t a n r e s i d e n t i a l areas p r e s e n t t h e i r r e s i d e n t s w i t h d i f f e r e n t o p p o r t u n i t i e s . As Greer and O r l e a n s ( 1962: 636) s t a t e : . . . t h e aggregated s o c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f s p a t i a l l y d i s t i n c t s u b - a r e a p o p u l a t i o n s denote the p r e v a i l i n g c o n d i t i o n s for s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n (the s t r u c t u r e of a v a i l a b l e s o c i a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s ) . For example, the more women i n a r e s i d e n t i a l area tha t work away from home, the fewer the chances women who s tay a t home have t o v i s i t w i t h n e i g h b o u r s . Thus the p a r t i c u l a r s p a t i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n of p a r t i c u l a r p o p u l a t i o n t y p e s and the r e s u l t i n g s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s e t s " l i m i t s " on the k i n d of 15 i n t e r a c t i o n p o s s i b l e . M i c h e l s o n a l s o argues that env ironments se t broad l i m i t s on the range and i n t e n s i t y of a c t i v i t i e s t a k i n g p l a c e w i t h i n t h e i r i n f l u e n c e . Beyond t h i s l i m i t , an environment may make some p h e n o m e n a . , . e i t h e r e a s i e r or more d i f f i c u l t t o m a i n t a i n , so t h a t , a l l e l s e e q u a l , these phenomena w i l l t end t o be found s u c c e s s f u l l y m a i n t a i n i n g themselves more i n some t y p e s o f s e t t i n g than i n o t h e r s ( M i c h e l s o n , 1970 :25) . V i e w i n g the o r g a n i z a t i o n of the r e s i d e n t i a l environment as a se t of l i m i t i n g c o n d i t i o n s (Schnore, 1958; B e s h e r s , 1962) avo ids the s t r i c t de termin i sm of c l a s s i c a l e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t s . But there i s more to both Greer or M i c h e l s o n * s p r o p o s a l than j u s t f o c u s i n g on the l i m i t i n g c o n d i t i o n s of an environment a l l e l s e be ing e q u a l , f o r o ther t h i n g s are not e q u a l . I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t the way people r e a c t to a p a r t i c u l a r environment v a r i e s w i th t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s (Gans,1968:112) . Greer and O r l e a n s (1962:363) s t a t e t h a t : the s o c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of i n d i v i d u a l r e s i d e n t s are i n d i c a t i v e o f t h e i r p o t e n t i a l f o r i n t e r a c t i o n ( t h e i r a c c e s s to the s t r u c t u r e of s o c i a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s ) . Given a c o l l e c t i o n o f i n d i v i d u a l s i n d i f f e r e n t s tages of the f a m i l y l i f e c y c l e , or p o s s e s s i n g d i f f e r e n t s e t s o f s o c i a l s k i l l s , they may w e l l be expected to " a r t i c u l a t e d i f f e r e n t i a l l y " (Miche l son , 1970) w i t h , or have " d i f f e r e n t i a l access" (Greer and O r l e a n s , 1962) to an e n v i r o n m e n t a l o p p o r t u n i t y s t r u c t u r e . 16 C o n c e p t u a l i z i n g the r e s i d e n t i a l o r a n i z a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t y s t r u c t u r e as an e n v i r o n m e n t a l e f f e c t i n v o l v e s more than merely c h a r a c t e r i z i n g the n a t u r e of the e n v i r o n m e n t a l v a r i a b l e , or the i n d i v i d u a l v a r i a b l e s f o r tha t m a t t e r . D e c i d i n g which v a r i a b l e s to i n c l u d e i n a model i s on ly par t o f the t a s k ; combining them i s a n o t h e r . I t must be d e c i d e d which f u n c t i o n a l form best d e s c r i b e s the i n t e r r e l a t i o n o f i n d i v i d u a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and the r e s i d e n t i a l o p p o r t u n i t y s t r u c t u r e t a k e i n p r o d u c i n g e f f e c t s i n v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n p a r t i c i p a t i o n . Qui t e a s y s t e m a t i c d i s c u s s i o n of a l t e r n a t i v e forms o f i n d i v i d u a l - e n v i r o n m e n t c e l a t i o n s - - a s w e l l as the a n a l y t i c a l procedures to t e s t these f o r m s — i s at hand i f the problem i s f u r t h e r developed w i t h i n the " c o n t e x t u a l paradigm." L o c a l R e s i d e n t i a l O p p o r t u n i t y S t r u c t u r e s and C o n t e x t u a l A n a l y s i s B a s i c to the c o n t e x t u a l paradigm i s the n o t i o n o f the " c o n t e x t u a l c o n d i t i o n a l " ( H a r p e r , 1961); the p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t i n d i v i d u a l b e h a v i o r may r e s u l t not j u s t from " i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s " or " e n v i r o n m e n t a l d i f f e r e n c e s , " but from a c o m b i n a t i o n o f the two. For i n s t a n c e , the r e s i d e n t i a l o p p o r t u n i t y s t r u c t u r e may i n f l u e n c e the p r o b a b i l i t y of b e l o n g i n g to v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s , but d i f f e r e n t l y depending upon an i n d i v i d u a l ' s sex. Gans 17 (1 967:61 ) p o i n t s out many community o r g a n i z a t i o n s are used as " s o r t i n g " groups through which people expres s t h e i r d i v e r s i t y . But whi l e men are a b l e to s o r t themse lves i n t h e i r work, women have to r e l y on community a c t i v i t i e s — a n d i n L e v i t t o w n the " t o t a l a r r a y o f women's groups o f f e r e d the o p p o r t u n i t y for extremely f i n e s o r t i n g . T h i s may be thought of as " d i f f e r e n t i a l s u s c e p t i b i l i t y " s i n c e such a r e l a t i o n s h i p sugges t s t h a t the men or women d i f f e r i n t h e i r r e a c t i o n to v a r i a t i o n i n the c o m p o s i t i o n o f the r e s i d e n t i a l env ironment . A l t e r n a t i v e l y , a p e r s o n ' s age may i n c r e a s e or decrease t h e p r o b a b i l i t y o f o r g a n i z a t i o n a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n , but d i f f e r e n t i a l l y a t d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s o f " o p p o r t u n i t y d e n s i t y " . T h i s can be thought of as a " c o n d i t i o n a l i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e " s i n c e such a r e l a t i o n s h i p suggests t h a t the s i z e o f the i n d i v i d u a l l e v e l e f f e c t i s c o n t i n g e n t upon the nature of the environment (Davis , S p a e t h , and Huson, 1961:218). Both o f these j o i n t e f f e c t s a r e l o g i c a l l y e q u i v a l e n t , however. I t s i m p l y depends on whether you are l o o k i n g at t h e c o n d i t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p from the p o i n t of view of the i n d i v i d u a l , or from the p o i n t o f view o f the env ironment . In any case , the i d e n t i c a l l o g i c behind the e f f e c t of the c o n t e x t u a l c o n d i t i o n a l and the " d i f f e r e n t i a l r e l a t i o n " of i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h r e s i d e n t i a l environments p o s i t e d by Gans, M i c h e l s o n , G r e e r , and O r l e a n s s h o u l d be immediate ly o b v i o u s . 18 The " c o n t e x t u a l e f f e c t " s tands i n c o n t r a s t to the e f f e c t o f the c o n t e x t u a l c o n d i t i o n a l . Here e n v i r o n m e n t a l d i f f e r e n c e s are thought to produce d i f f e r e n c e s i n p e o p l e ' s b e h a v i o r i n d e p e n d e n t l y o f any c f t h e i r own p e r s o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . Put another way, the e n v i r o n m e n t a l d i f f e r e n c e s are thought to a f f e c t b e h a v i o r i n " a d d i t i o n to" r a t h e r than i n "combinat ion wi th" i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s . T h i s d i f f e r e n c e between the c o n t e x t u a l e f f e c t and the e f f e c t of the c o n t e x t u a l c o n d i t i o n a l i s b a s i c to the two d i f f e r e n t models o f i n d i v i d u a l - e n v i r o n m e n t a r t i c u l a t i o n u n d e r l y i n g the development of hypotheses to f o l l o w . PROBLEM FORMULATION AND HYPOTHESIS DEVELOPMENT In the p r o c e s s of a d e q u a t e l y d e v e l o p i n g the two a l t e r n a t i v e e x p l a n a t o r y modes o f i n d i v i d u a l - e n v i r o n m e n t l i n k a g e as they r e l a t e to the problem a t hand , i t i s n e c e s s a r y to c o n s i d e r t h r e e d i f f e r e n t types o f p r o p o s i t i o n s : (a) p r o p o s i t i o n s of the e f f e c t of e n v i r o n m e n t a l or r e s i d e n t i a l o p p o r t u n i t y s t r u c t u r e s on i n d i v i d u a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s ; (b) p r o p o s i t i o n s of the e f f e c t s of i n d i v i d u a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s on i n d i v i d u a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s ; and (c) p r o p o s i t i o n s s p e c i f y i n g the j o i n t e f f e c t s i n d i v i d u a l and e n v i r o n m e n t a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s have on i n d i v i d u a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s . 19 O p p o r t u n i t y D s n s i t y - A C o n t e x t u a l E f f e c t The more v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s there are l o c a t e d i n a r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a , t h e g r e a t e r a r e the o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r i n d i v i d u a l r e s i d e n t s to j o i n . Wore o r g a n i z a t i o n s mean an i n c r e a s e d chance t h a t r e s i d e n t s w i l l run a c r o s s , or be exposed to i n f o r m a t i o n about the e x i s t e n c e and nature of p a r t i c u l a r o r g a n i z a t i o n s (Cox, 1969; G r e e n , 1971) , Chances are b e t t e r to be i n t r o d u c e d to them through ne ighbors or f r i e n d s l i v i n g i n the a r e a , or to be sought out by the o r g a n i z a t i o n s themselves . With l a r g e r numbers of o r g a n i z a t i o n s t o choose f r o m , i t i s a l s o more l i k e l y tha t r e s i d e n t s w i l l f i n d t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t s r e p r e s e n t e d i n one or more o f them (Lee , 1968) . The a l t e r n a t i v e argument , o f c o u r s e , i s t h a t membership i n v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s i s o p t i m a l l y o b t a i n a b l e by a l l who want them r e g a r d l e s s of whether l o c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s are a v a i l a b l e or not . Supposedly the h i g h m o b i l i t y of urban r e s i d e n t s and the i n c r e a s e d f low cf i n f o r m a t i o n i n l a r g e urban c e n t e r s , make i t p o s s i b l e f o r peop le t o e x e r c i s e a freedom o f c h o i c e over a wider a r e a . The e n t i r e c i t y becomes an o p p o r t u n i t y s t r u c t u r e (Webber, 1963). To u n d e r s t a n d the nature c f the c o n t e x t u a l e f f e c t , i t i s i m p o r t a n t to note t h a t p r o p o s i t i o n s r e l a t i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t y d e n s i t i e s to i n d i v i d u a l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n r e f e r s i m p l y t o the e x i s t e n c e of o p p o r t u n i t i e s , not the l i k l e l i h o o d o f p a r t i c u l a r types of 20 peop le making use o f them—these are c o v e r e d i n the p r o p o s i t i o n s r e l a t i n g i n d i v i d u a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s to o r g a n i z a t i o n a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n . I f , the e f f e c t i s c o n t e x t u a l , then , i n c r e a s i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s should i n f l u e n c e a l l people the same way r e g a r d l e s s of who they a r e . H e r e t o f o r e , i n v e s t i g a t o r s have merely assumed tha t d i f f e r e n t r e s i d e n t i a l o p p o r t u n i t y s t r u c t u r e s vary with d i f f e r e n t sub-area p o p u l a t i o n t y p e s . The o n l y e m p i r i c a l measures for t e s t i n g the e f f e c t of o p p o r t u n i t y s t r u c t u r e s on b e h a v i o r , have been aggregate census i n d i c e s o f the s o c i a l rank and f a m i l i s m o f s u b - a r e a s (Greer and O r l e a n s , 1962; Robson , 1969; G r e e n , 1971). These , o f c o u r s e , i n d i c a t e the r e s i d e n t i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n of c e r t a i n p o p u l a t i o n t y p e s , but not the degree of s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n or a c t u a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s s i t u a t e d i n p a r t i c u l a r a r e a s . These must s t i l l be i n f e r r e d . But by employing the " g l o b a l " concept of " o p p o r t u n i t y d e n s i t y " ( C h a p i n , 1972) or " o r g a n i z a t i o n a l d e n s i t y " (Coleman, 1957) a s h o r t e r c h a i n o f i n f e r e n c e (Scheuch, 1969) can be made. The e m p i r i c a l r e f e r e n t of these c o n c e p t s i s the a c t u a l number o f v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s l o c a t e d w i t h i n each r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a . T h i s i s the s t r a t e g y f o l l o w e d i n the p r e s e n t i n v e s t i g a t i o n . I n d i v i d u a l C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s The h i g h e r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n r a t e s of h igher s o c i a l s t r a t a have been documented i n s tudy a f t e r s t u d y . 21 The more wea l thy , the b e t t e r e d u c a t e d , and those wi th h igher o c c u p a t i o n a l s t a t u s are the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l j o i n e r s . P r o p o s i t i o n s r e l a t i n g i n d i v i d u a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s to p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s g e n e r a l l y d e a l with an i n d i v i d u a l ' s m o t i v a t i o n , s k i l l s , and r e s o u r c e s . I t i s t h i s t y p e o f p r o p o s i t i o n t h a t abounds i n the l i t e r a t u r e on p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s . The i n d i v i d u a l c o r r e l a t e s o f sex (Babchuck and B o o t h , 1969; B o o t h , 1972), age o r f a m i l y l i f e c y c l e (Wright and Flyman, 1958; Babchuck, 1969), e d u c a t i o n ( C u r t i s , 1971; Hyman and W r i g h t , 1971) , and income (Hodge and T r e i m a n , 1968; Hyman and W r i g h t , 1971) are a l l w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d i n the l i t e r a t u r e as b e i n g d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d to v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n p a r t i c i p a t i o n . In the present i n v e s t i g a t i o n , however, these r e l a t i o n s a r e not r e a l l y be ing c a l l e d i n t o q u e s t i o n . Ins tead the pr imary focus i s on s p e c i f y i n g and t e s t i n g the a l t e r n a t i v e forms of the e f f e c t t h a t the i n t e r r e l a t i o n between i n d i v i d u a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and l o c a l r e s i d e n t i a l o p p o r t u n i t y s t r u c t u r e s may have cn i n d i v i d u a l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n . The pr imary q u e s t i o n be ing posed i s whether t h e o p p o r t u n i t y d e n s i t y o f a r e s i d e n t i a l area g e n e r a l l y o p e r a t e s i n s u p p o r t i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n to the same degree for a l l r e s i d e n t s ; or whether the d e n s i t y of o p p o r t u n i t y e l i c i t s d i f f e r e n t amounts o f o r g a n i z a t i o n a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n , depending upon an i n d i v i d u a l ' s p e r s o n a l r e s o u r c e s or "attachments" to the l o c a l r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a . 22 However, w i t h i n both the models o f the c o n t e x t u a l e f f e c t and the e f f e c t o f the c o n t e x t u a l c o n d i t i o n a l , p e o p l e ' s i n d i v i d u a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s are viewed as d e t e r m i n i n g t h e i r i n t e r e s t i n , as w e l l as c a p a c i t y f o r e x p l o i t i n g an a v a i l a b l e o p p o r t u n i t y s t r u c t u r e . The E f f e c t s of a C o n t e x t u a l C o n d i t i o n a l I n the extreme c a s e , i n d i v i d u a l m o t i v a t i o n s remain i n a c t i v e i f t h e r e are nc o p p o r t u n i t i e s , and o p p o r t u n i t i e s remain unused i f there i s no m o t i v a t i o n . It would f o l l o w t h a t p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s l i k e l y to be c o m p a r a t i v e l y g r e a t e r o n l y when both c o n d i t i o n s are p r e s e n t : (a) many a s s o c i a t i o n s i n the a r e a , and (b) i n d i v i d u a l s are mot ivated by t h e i r s o c i a l p o s i t i o n to j o i n and m a i n t a i n m e m b e r s h i p . 1 For example, i f an i n d i v i d u a l l a c k s the e d u c a t i o n a l m o t i v a t i o n and s k i l l s , or an adequate d i s p o s a b l e income needed to p a r t i c i p a t e i n many v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s , an i n c r e a s e d o p p o r t u n i t y to p a r t i c i p a t e may w e l l have l i t t l e or no consequence whatsoever i n e l i c i t i n g or s u p p o r t i n g an i n d i v i d u a l ' s o r g a n i z a t i o n a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n . On the o ther 1 To say t h a t A and B are both necessary f o r C i m p l i e s tha t C w i l l not occur i f e i t h e r A or B i s absent . However, one need not s t a t e a p r o p o s i t i o n i n a b s o l u t e terms, i m p l y i n g neces sary c o n d i t i o n s or s t r i c t dependency; one can a l l o w f o r the o p e r a t i o n of o t h e r v a r i a b l e s and measurement e r r o r by f o r m u l a t i n g the r e l a t i o n s i n s t a t i s t i c a l and p r o b a b i l i s t i c terms ( B l a l o c k , 1955:375). 23 hand, i n d i v i d u a l s p o s s e s s i n g an e d u c a t i o n a l p r e d i s p o s i t i o n , necessary s o c i a l s k i l l s , c r adeguate f i n a n c i a l r e s o u r c e s when faced by an i m p o v e r i s h e d o p p o r t u n i t y s t r u c t u r e may p a r t i c i p a t e t o a c o n s i d e r a b l y l e s s e r ex ten t when compared with i n d i v i d u a l s with s i m i l a r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s but s i t u a t e d i n a more opportune env ironment . T h i s l a s t type of p r o p o s i t i o n dea l s w i t h the e f f e c t of the c o n t e x t u a l c o n d i t i o n a l . Such p r o p o s i t i o n s s p e c i f y the way o r g a n i z a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t y d e n s i t y i s seen to a c t i n c o m b i n a t i o n wi th d i f f e r e n t i n d i v i d u a l c o r r e l a t e s thereby produc ing j o i n t e f f e c t s on o r g a n i z a t i o n a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n . In c o n t r a s t to the c o n t e x t u a l r e l a t i o n that i s a d d i t i v e i n n a t u r e , the r e l a t i o n s o f the c o n t e x t u a l c o n d i t i o n a l are n o n a d d i t i v e . The n o t i o n t h a t two f a c t o r s must be present b e f o r e b e h a v i o r i s a f f e c t e d can be t r a n s t a t e d i n t o m u l t i p l i c a t i v e models employing i n t e r a c t i o n terms ( B l a l o c k 1 965; S o n g u i s t , 1970). The f o l l o w i n g hypotheses s t a t e d as a l t e r n a t i v e forms of the e f f e c t of the c o n t e x t u a l c o n d i t i o n a l and the c o n t e x t u a l e f f e c t are c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the p r e v i o u s d i s c u s s i o n . The e f f e c t s of an i n d i v i d u a l a t t r i b u t e and o r g a n i z a t i o n a l d e n s i t y are e i t h e r i n t e r a c t i v e or a d d i t i v e . The i n d i v i d u a l a t t r i b u t e s c o n s i d e r e d a r e : 1. Sex 2. Stage i n f a m i l y l i f e c y c l e 3. E d u c a t i o n 4. Income 24 I f the e f f e c t s are i n t e r a c t i v e , i t i s expected t h a t : As o r g a n i z a t i o n a l d e n s i t y i n c r e a s e s , the r a t e o f i n c r e a s e i n o r g a n i z a t i o n a l memberships w i l l be g r e a t e r f o r : 1 . Women ; 2. P a r e n t s r a i s i n g c h i l d r e n ; 3 . The more e d u c a t e d ; 4. The w e a l t h i e r . I f the e f f e c t s are a d d i t i v e , i t i s expected t h a t : As o r g a n i z a t i o n a l d e n s i t y i n c r e a s e s , the r a t e of i n c r e a s e i n o r g a n i z a t i o n a l memberships w i l l be the same f o r every group of p e o p l e : 1. No matter what t h e i r sex; 2. Whether or not they are r a i s i n g c h i l d r e n ; 3. Whether they have a c o l l e g e e d u c a t i o n or d i d not graduate from high s c h o o l ; 4. Whether they a r e q u i t e wealthy or not very w e l l to d o . Moreover , i f the e f f e c t s are a d d i t i v e , t h e n : These d i f f e r e n t i n d i v i d u a l a t t r i b u t e s w i l l i n c r e a s e o r g a n i z a t i o n a l memberships, over and above the i n c r e a s e s stemming from the e f f e c t s of o p p o r t u n i t y d e n s i t y . the t h e A f t e r d e s c r i b i n g the r e s e a r c h d e s i g n , o p e r a t i o n a l i z i n g v a r i a b l e s , and e x p l a i n i n g the s t r a t e g y of a n a l y s i s i n next c h a p t e r , these hypotheses w i l l be t e s t e d i n Chapter 25 CHAPTER 2 METHODOLOGY RESEARCH DESIGN I n o r d e r to t e s t the d i f f e r e n t models o f i n d i v i d u a l -environment l i n k a g e put forward i n Chapter 1, i t i s n e c e s s a r y t h a t the r e s e a r c h des ign make the f o l l o w i n g t e s t s p o s s i b l e : (1) to e s t a b l i s h c o n t e x t u a l e f f e c t s i t must be demonstrated t h a t people with d i f f e r e n t s o c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s behave s i m i l a r l y i n the same c o n t e x t ; (2) to e s t a b l i s h i n d i v i d u a l e f f e c t s i t must be demonstrated t h a t people s h a r i n g s i m i l a r s o c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s behave s i m i l a r l y i n d i f f e r e n t c o n t e x t s ; and (3) to e s t a b l i s h the e f f e c t of a ' c o n t e x t u a l c o n d i t i o n a l ' i t must be demonstrated that d i f f e r e n t t y p e s o f i n d i v i d u a l s r e a c t d i f f e r e n t l y to the same c o n t e x t . The c o n d i t i o n s of these t e s t s made i t c l e a r t h a t the r e s e a r c h d e s i g n had to p r o v i d e a way o f s e l e c t i n g a number o f r e s i d e n t i a l areas v a r y i n g i n the d e n s i t y of v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s . At the same t ime each o f the r e s i d e n t i a l areas had to c o n t a i n i n d i v i d u a l s with d i f f e r e n t s o c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . 26 The r e s e a r c h des ign was based on the assumption t h a t aggregate i n d i c e s d e r i v e d from census data may be used to d e s c r i b e c o n d i t i o n s where d i f f e r e n t s p a t i a l l y d e f i n e d , r e l a t i v e l y homogeneous s u b - p c p u l a t i o n s are l o c a t e d w i t h i n the m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a . F u r t h e r d i r e c t i o n was taken from hypotheses advanced i n C h a p t e r I as to the way s p a t i a l l y based sub-area p o p u l a t i o n types and s p a t i a l l y d e l i m i t e d v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n d e n s i t i e s would c o - v a r y a c r o s s the m e t r o p l i t a n s u r f a c e . These two hypotheses a r e : 1 ) As the f a m i l i s m of a r e s i d e n t i a l s u b - a r e a p o p u l a t i o n i n c r e a s e s , the number of l o c a l v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n c r e a s e s . 2) As the s o c i a l rank of a r e s i d e n t i a l s u b - a r e a p o p u l a t i o n i n c r e a s e s , the number of l o c a l v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n c r e a s e s . The i n t e n t t h e n , was to s y s t e m a t i c a l l y s e l e c t r e s i d e n t i a l environments with d i f f e r e n t demographic c o m p o s i t i o n s r e p r e s e n t i n g the d i f f e r e n t c e l l s of a sampling t y p o l o g y s i m i l a r to the f a m i l i a r s o c i a l space or f a c t o r i a l eco logy t y p o l o g i e s ( B e l l , 1 9 6 9 ; Robson, 1969) . And i f the h y p o t h e s i z e d r e l a t i o n s h i p s h o l d , the r e s i d e n t i a l areas chosen w i l l have a s s o c i a t e d with them v a r y i n g v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t y d e n s i t i e s . 27 Sampling Frame The sample frame employed a m u l t i - s t a g e , p u r p o s i v e l y s t r a t i f i e d , unequal c l u s t e r , random sampl ing d e s i g n . T h i s p r o c e d u r e i n v o l v e d , f i r s t , the purpos ive s e l e c t i o n of r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s as Pr imary Sampl ing u n i t s ; second , a candom s e l e c t i o n of households w i t h i n the P S U ' s ; and t h i r d , a s e l e c t i o n of respondents w i t h i n e l i g i b l e househo lds . F u r t h e r d i s c u s s i o n of these t h r e e s tages f o l l o w s below. Stage One: S e l e c t i o n Of Primary, Sambl ing U n i t s A n i n e - c e l l e d sampl ing t y p o l o g y was c o n s t r u c t e d to s y s t e m a t i c a l l y c o n t r o l two macrodimensions of the demographic c o m p o s i t i o n o f r e s i d e n t i a l areas : s t a g e s - i n -f a m i l y - l i f e - c y c l e and s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s t a t u s (See F i g u r e 1) . Using a f a c t o r e c o l o g y i n c o n j u n c t i o n with an i s c p l e t h mapping t e c h n i q u e , two maps were produced , one d i s p l a y i n g the s p a t i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n of the m e t r o p o l i t a n p o p u l a t i o n by s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s t a t u s (See Meis and Scheu;1972) , and the o t h e r d i s p l a y i n g the s p a t i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n by s tage i n f a m i l y - l i f e - c y c l e . These maps were o v e r l a y e d and the boundar i e s o f e ight P r i m a r y Sampling Areas chosen such t h a t each area would r e p r e s e n t a p a r t i c u l a r c e l l i n the s o c i a l ar ea t y p o l o g y . 28 STAGE IN FAMILY LIFE CYCLE Young M i d d l e Mature Age SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS ( B l i s h e n Sca le ) High Medium Low (9) 8 | 7 <4 | 6 f j. j. 4 FIGURE 1. Sampling Typology Used To C o n t r o l demographic C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Of The Areas Chosen In Stage One. The Macro-R e s i d e n t i a l Only e i g h t , r a t h e r than n i n e areas were chosen, however, f o r t h e r e was no e m p i r i c a l i n s t a n c e of a r e s i d e n t i a l area with a c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f young marr ied coup l e s w i t h h igh s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s t a t u s . P u r p o s i v e l y c h o o s i n g these e i g h t a r e a s i n the above manner e s s e n t i a l l y s t r a t i f i e d the sample a l ong the two d imens ions of stage i n f a m i l y - l i f e - c y c l e and s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s t a t u s and conc luded t h e f i r s t s tage o f s a m p l i n g . The number i n each o f the c e l l s i n F i g u r e 1 u n i q u e l y i d e n t i f i e s each o f the e i g h t s e l e c t e d a r e a s , and i n F i g u r e 2 these same numbers i d e n t i f y the e i g h t r e s p e c t i v e s p a t i a l l o c a t i o n s o f the areas w i t h i n the M e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver a r e a . , 29 F I G . 2: P R I M A R Y S A M P L I N G U N I T S 30 St age Two:, S e l e c t i o n of Households In t h e second s tage a sample c f households was randomly s e l e c t e d from each of the s t r a t i f i e d sample a r e a s . Using the 1970 C i t y D i r e c t o r i e s for the M e t r o p o l i t a n area as s o u r c e s , every household w i t h i n the b o u n d a r i e s of each of the e i g h t P r i m a r y Sampling U n i t s was enumerated. T h i s p r o c e s s produced e i g h t s e p a r a t e enumerat ion l i s t s . From these . l i s t s an i n i t i a l sample o f households from each area was randomly drawn u s i n g a t a b l e of random numbers. Af t er s e l e c t i n g an i n i t a l sample from each l i s t , the l a s t random sequence number was a p p r o p r i a t e l y i d e n t i f i e d so tha t supplementary sampl ing c o u l d be resumed without d e s t r o y i n g the e q u a l p r o b a b i l i t y of s e l e c t i n g each h o u s e h o l d . St age Three^ S e l e c t i o n Of Respondents In a d d i t i o n to the above sampl ing c r i t e r i a , f u r t h e r c r i t e r i a of sample e l i g i b i l i t y were employed t o f a c i l i t a t e two a d d i t i o n a l s tudy o b j e c t i v e s of the l a r g e r r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t of which t h i s t h e s i s i s o n l y p a r t : (1) the nature of p e o p l e ' s work e x p e r i e n c e and t h e i r non-work a c t i v i t i e s , and (2) the nature of i n t e r d e p e n d e n c e between husbands' and wives ' d a i l y a c t i v i t y s c h e d u l e s . In t h i s s e l e c t i o n p r o c e s s , a household was c o n s i d e r e d " e l i g i b l e " i f i t c o n s i s t e d of at l e a s t one m a r r i e d c o u p l e , one member of which had c u r r e n t f u l l - t i m e employment. Upon e s t a b l i s h i n g t h e e l i g i b i l i t y of a househo ld , the i n t e r v i e w e r s then s e l e c t e d the wife and husband as the o n l y two e l i g i b l e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s to be 31 i n t e r v i e w e d . Moreover , both had to consent to and complete an i n t e r v i e w b e f o r e the household i n t e r v i e w c o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d "completed" . D i s p o s i t i o n Of Sample P r i o r t o i n i t i a l c o n t a c t , each s e l e c t e d household r e c e i v e d a l e t t e r e x p l a i n i n g the purposes of the s tudy and a d v i s i n g the r e s i d e n t s t h a t they would be c o n t a c t e d to se t up an appointment f o r an i n t e r v i e w when both the husband and wife c o u l d be p r e s e n t . , I f i n i t i a l c o n t a c t was not e s t a b l i s h e d , the number of c a l l s to a r e s i d e n c e was l i m i t e d to t h r e e . Each i n t e r v i e w e r kept a r e c o r d o f the outcome c f each c a l l on the face sheet of each r e s p o n d e n t ' s i n t e r v i e w . The d i s p o s i t i o n o f t h i s sample , i n c l u d i n g the c o m p l e t i o n r a t e and a breakdown of those i n t e r v i e w s attempted but not completed i s presented i n T a b l e 1. The t o t a l r e f u s a l r a t e of 26.3% deserves comment. F u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n of the reasons f o r r e f u s a l r e c o r d e d by the i n t e r v i e w e r s i n d i c a t e d t h a t i n a t l e a s t 59 h o u s e h o l d s , 8.3% of the t o t a l sample drawn, or 3']% o f those households tha t r e f u s e d , one o f the two respondents was w i l l i n g to complete the i n t e r v i e w . I t would appear, t h e n , t h a t the e l i g i b i l i t y c r i t e r i a o f s tage 3 , r e q u i r i n g both respondents t o submit to l e n g t h y time budget i n t e r v i e w s , i s a p r i n c i p a l reason f o r the r e l a t i v e l y h igh r e f u s a l ra t e i n the s t u d y . 32 TABLE 1 D i s p o s i t i o n Of Sampling Response COMPLETED 57.8 REFUSED Not I n t e r e s t e d 18.3 Too Busy 4. 2 H o s t i l e 3 ..8 INACCESSIBLE D i d n ' t Speak E n g l i s h 1.0 Not At Home-3 C a l l b a c k s - 2.2 Extended V a c a t i o n 2^8 INELIGIBLE R e t i r e d 3.6 Unemployed 1.2 Deceased 1 .0 D i v o r c e d - s e p a r a t e d 1.4 I l l n e s s - d i s a b i l i t y 2^7 TOTAL 100 % N (711)* 26.3% 6.0% 9.9% * T h i s N r e f e r s to number o f househo lds , not r e s p o n d e n t s . Other c o n d i t i o n s p r e v a i l i n g i n the Vancouver community must have had an e f f e c t , however. I n t e r v i e w e r s f o r the p r e s e n t s tudy were i n the f i e l d at the same t ime as the 1971 Canadian Census . The i n t e r v i e w i n g p e r i o d a l s o c o i n c i d e d with the f i e l d work of two o t h e r major s t u d i e s i n the a r e a , and l e t t e r s t o the e d i t o r of l o c a l newspapers , and "ta lk show" c o n v e r s a t i o n s p o i n t e d to the f a c t t h a t many people f e l t t h e i r r i g h t s t o p r i v a c y were b e i n g imposed upon. 33 The completed i n t e r v i e w l a s t e d an average of one hour and f o r t y minutes . A t o t a l o f 822 were completed d u r i n g the i n t e r v i e w p e r i o d from J u l y , 1971 to F e b r u a r y , 1972. I m p l i c a t i o n s Of Sampling Design Juan L i n z (1969) has p o i n t e d to t h e d i f f i c u l t y i n c r e a t i n g a sample d e s i g n t h a t i s , on the one hand, adequate f o r a n a l y z i n g the impact o f a s e t o f s p e c i f i c a l l y d e f i n e d e c o l o g i c a l c o n t e x t s on t h e i r i n h a b i t a n t s b e h a v i o r , and i s , on the o ther hand, s t i l l s t a t i s t i c a l l y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the l a r g e r community i n which these e c o l o g i c a l areas are l o c a t e d . These c o n f l i c t i n g o b j e c t i v e s produce the f o l l o w i n g di lemma. S ince randomly s e l e c t i n g s a m p l i n g p o i n t s p r o p o r t i o n a l to t h e p o p u l a t i o n w i t h i n the l a r g e r community g e n e r a l l y f a i l s to a d e q u a t e l y r e p r e s e n t e c o l o g i c a l areas d e f i n e d by d i f f e r e n t c o m b i n a t i o n s of s o c i o - e c o n o m i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , over and under sampl ing o f t h e d i f f e r e n t areas i s u s u a l l y n e c e s s a r y . But when the sampling areas have been p u r p o s i v e l y s e l e c t e d on the b a s i s o f e c o l o g i c a l r a t h e r , than random c r i t e r i a , as i s the case i n t h i s s t u d y , i n f e r e n c e s are r e s t r i c t e d to the p o p u l a t i o n s o f the s m a l l e r e c o l o g i c a l areas and cannct l e g i t i m a t e l y be extended to the l a r g e r community i n g e n e r a l . Of c o u r s e t h i s dilemma may be r e s o l v e d by s i m u l t a n e o u s l y e x e c u t i n g a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e sample survey of the l a r g e r community i n c o n j u n c t i o n with the c o n t e x t - o r i e n t e d sample s u r v e y , but t h i s g e n e r a l l y r e q u i r e s 34 an extremely l a r g e sample and a s i m i l a r l y l a r g e budge t . G i v e n the r e s e a r c h budget , o n l y the e i g h t chosen e c o l o g i c a l areas c o u l d be sampled . T h u s , because the P r i m a r y Sampling U n i t s were p u r p o s i v e l y chosen, the f i n d i n g s o f t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n s are not t o t a l l y g e n e r a l i z a b l e to the e n t i r e Vancouver M e t r o p o l i t a n p o p u l a t i o n . The gener a l i z a b i l i t y o f r e s u l t s i s f u r t h e r r e s t r i c t e d by the p u r p o s i v e sampling c r i t e r i a employed i n s tage 3 which e s s e n t i a l l y exc luded c h i l d r e n , as w e l l as unmarr i ed , d i v o r c e d o r s e p a r a t e d , unemployed, or r e t i r e d a d u l t s from the sample . MEANS OF DATA COLLECTION Two d i f f e r e n t k i n d s of data were c o l l e c t e d t o t e s t the hypotheses put toward i n t h i s t h e s i s . Data on t h e s p e c i f i c i n d i v i d u a l a t t r i b u t e s of re spondents were gathered us ing a s t r u c t u r e d i n t e r v i e w . Data r e g a r d i n g the t y p e , number, and g e o g r a p h i c l o c a t i o n o f v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s w i t h i n the Vancover M e t r o p o l i t a n area had to be gathered from numerous s o u r c e s . These d i f f e r e n t data c o l l e c t i o n procedures are d e s c r i b e d i n t u r n . The I n t e r v i e w A s t r u c t u r e d i n t e r v i e w was used i n g a t h e r i n g i n f o r m a t i o n on the v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n as 35 w e l l as s o c i o - e c o n o m i c and demographic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the sampled respondents . I n t e r v i e w s were conducted by i n t e r v i e w i n g teams composed c f one member of each sex. Each member of the team i n t e r v i e w e d s e p a r a t e l y , but s i m u l t a n e o u s l y , the member o f the sampled c o u p l e o f t h e i r own sex . Throughout the s t u d y , a l l of the i n t e r v i e w e r s were f a m i l i a r i z e d with the s t u d y o b j e c t i v e s and the i n s t r u m e n t i n s e v e r a l o r i e n t a t i o n and t r a i n i n g s e s s i o n s d u r i n g which each was g i v e n an i n t e r v i e w e r s manual . T h i s manual o u t l i n e d the f u n c t i o n s and expected i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f each q u e s t i o n , as w e l l as the k inds o f probes to be used and the i n f o r m a t i o n to be probed f o r i n each i n s t a n c e . A completed i n t e r v i e w c o n s i s t e d o f a s e r i e s of t o p i c s t h a t i n c l u d e d : A . A d e s c r i p t i o n of the household which r e s u l t e d i n t h e i r i n c l u s i o n or r e j e c t i o n from the sample ; B . A d e s c r i p t i o n o f i n d i v i d u a l and household c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ; C . Two a c t i v i t y l o g r e c o n s t r u c t i o n s o f the l a s t workday or weekday and the l a s t dayof f or weekend da y; D. A d e s c r i p t i o n of the i n d i v i d u a l ' s invo lvement i n v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s ; E . A d e s c r i p t i o n of the i n d i v i d u a l ' s i n v o l v e m e n t i n the most r e c e n t l o c a l , p r o v i n c i a l and f e d e r a l e l e c t i o n s ; F . A d e s c r i p t i o n of the i n d i v i d u a l ' s work e x p e r i e n c e ; G. S p e c i f i c a t i o n of the i n d i v i d u a l s ' s o c i a l network and s o c i a l a c t i v i t y i n t h e l a s t week; 36 H . S p e c i f i c a t i o n o f the i n d i v i d u a l ' s r e s i d e n t i a l h i s t o r y ; I . A d e s c r i p t i o n of the i n d i v i d u a l ' s r e s i d e n c e . The s e c t i o n o f the i n t e r v i e w used i n g a t h e r i n g i n f o r m a t i o n on p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s employed the f o l l o w i n g s e r i e s of q u e s t i o n s to f a c i l i t a t e respondent r e c a l l : A. Are you a member of any p r o f e s s i o n a l s o c i e t i e s , t rade a s s o c i a t i o n s , or unions? Probe: A r e you a member of any o t h e r o r g a n i z a t i o n s t h a t are p r i m a r i l y f o r people i n your l i n e of work? B . Do you a t t e n d or are you a member o f a church or o t h e r r e l i g i o u s groups? C . Are you a member of any o t h e r o r g a n i z a t i o n s or groups such as: 1) s p o r t s , r e c r e a t i o n or hobby c l u b s 2) f r a t e r n a l , c i v i c or c h a r i t a b l e o r g a n i z a t i o n s 3) s o c i a l or c u l t u r a l s o c i e t i e s 4) PTA or o t h e r c h i l d r e n a c t i v i t y o r g a n i z a t i o n s 5) o r g a n i z a t i o n s o f r a t e p a y e r s , or t e n a n t s I f they answered yes to any of these q u e s t i o n s the respondent was asked to name the o r g a n i z a t i o n , i t s meeting l o c a t i o n and o t h e r d e t a i l e d i n f o r m a t i o n about t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n c l u d i n g a t t e n d a n c e , o f f i c e s h e l d , l e n g t h of membership, and how they came to j o i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n . As Babchuk and Booth ( 1969) p o i n t o u t , t h i s use of a i d e d r e c a l l undoubted ly h e l p s a respondent p r o v i d e a more complete and a c c u r a t e p r o f i l e of memberships than would otherwise be the case : f o r example , a s k i n g the q u e s t i o n "Do you happen to be long to any groups or o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n the community here?" second to the l a s t i n an i n t e r v i e w c o n t a i n i n g 136 37 q u e s t i o n s (Wright-and Hyman, 1958). C r e a t i n g An O p p o r t u n i t y Sur face Of V o l u n t a r y O r g a n i z a t i o n s The i n f o r m a t i o n needed i n c o n s t r u c t i n g an " o p p o r t u n i t y s u r f a c e " c o n s i s t i n g of the a c t u a l number, type and geographic l o c a t i o n of v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n the m e t r o p o l i t a n area was i n s t r u m e n t a l i n o p e r a t i o n a l i z i n g the c o n c e p t of " o p p o r t u n i t y d e n s i t y " f u r t h e r e l a b o r a t e d i n the s e c t i o n on o p e r a t i o n a l i z i n g concept s below. An i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f p r i v a t e , p u b l i c and l o c a l governmenta l sources q u i c k l y i n d i c a t e d t h a t c o n s t r u c t i n g any s o r t o f comprehensive l i s t of v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s a c t i v e i n the Vancouver M e t r o p o l i t a n areas was not go ing to be easy . S e v e r a l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l d i r e c t o r i e s and l i s t s d i d e x i s t , but because they were c o m p i l e d to meet s p e c i f i c and l i m i t e d needs the number and types of o r g a n i z a t i o n s enumerated were l i k e w i s e l i m i t e d . . So l i m i t e d i n f a c t , t h a t they only began i d e n t i f y i n g the v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n e x i s t e n c e . To compi le a more comprehensive l i s t the f o l l o w i n g s o u r c e s were used: a) The d i r e c t o r y of s e r v i c e s compi led by the Uni ted Community S e r v i c e s o f G r e a t e r Vancouver; b) The Vancouver and other M e t r o p o l i t a n C i t y D i r e c t o r i e s ; c) The Lyn Morrow C l u b D i r e c t o r y ; d) M e t r o p o l i t a n t e l e p h o n e d i r e c t o r i e s ; e) L i b a r i e s i n the d i f f e r e n t m u n i c i p a l i t i e s ; 38 f) L o c a l newspapers i n the d i f f e r e n t m u n i c i p a l i t i e s ; g) Community c e n t e r s i n the d i f f e r e n t m u n i c i p a l i t i e s ; h) P l a n n i n g boards i n the d i f f e r e n t m u n i c i p a l i t i e s ; i ) The 822 survey i n t e r v i e w s . When c o n s u l t i n g each of these sources the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l name and address o f i t s most f r e q u e n t meeting p l a c e were r e c o r d e d . Each o r g a n i z a t i o n was then c l a s s i f i e d i n t o one of the types enumerated i n F i g u r e 4, and the address a s s igned a two d imens ion X and ¥ geograph ic c o o r d i n a t e s t h a t f i x e d i t s s p a t i a l l o c a t i o n w i t h i n the M e t r o p o l i t a n area to the n e a r e s t tenth m i l e . } T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n was punched on d a t a cards and t r a n s f e r e d to computer d i s k f i l e s . From here the m u l t i p l e source f i l e of o r g a n i z a t i o n s was s o r t e d by computer a c c o r d i n g to o r g a n i z a t i o n name, t y p e and l o c a t i o n . L i s t s were p r i n t e d and a l l d u p l i c a t i o n s and anomal ies noted , and updated: t h i s f i l e o f 3,415 unique v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s , t h e n , became the data base f o r c o n s t r u c t i n g a G r e a t e r Vancouver m e t r o p o l i t a n o p p o r t u n i t y s u r f a c e of v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s . T h i s o p p o r t u n i t y s u r f a c e can be mapped by computer (See F i g u r e 3) as a two or three d i m e n s i o n a l s u r f a c e t h a t p i c t o r i a l l y d i s p l a y s what Greer r e f e r s to as "a snapshot of the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l topography of a modern c i t y " ( G r e e r , 1958) . 1 T h i s same g r i d system was a l s o used to f i x a l l sampled r e s p o n d e n t s ' home l o c a t i o n s . 39 F I G . 3: V O L U N T A R Y O R G A N I Z A T I O N A L T O P O G R A P H Y 40 CODE ORGANIZATIONAL TYPE 1. F r a t e r n a l and Veterans 2. C i v i c and S e r v i c e 3. H e a l t h and C h a r i t y 4 . Church and R e l i g i o u s 5. C u l t u r a l and E d u c a t i o n a l 6. Bus iness and P r o f e s s i o n a l 7. S p o r t s and R e c r e a t i o n 8. C h i l d ' O r i e n t e d 9. P o l i t i c a l 10. Unions 11. E t h n i c 12. S o c i a l FIGURE 4. Enumerat ion Of V o l u n t a r y O r g a n i z a t i o n C l a s s i f i c a t i o n 41 QEIRAIIONALIGATIONS ^ j ^ E CONCEPTS O p p o r t u n i t y D e n s i t y A major problem a r i s e s , i n measuring the d e n s i t y of v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n i n d i f f e r e n t r e s i d e n t i a l areas throughout a m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a , f o r how are the a r e a s to be s p a t i a l l y bounded? What p roced u re i s a p p r o p r i a t e f o r i d e n t i f y i n g i n t e r a c t i o n aggregated a t the community l e v e l wi thout f i r s t a r b i t r a r i l y s p e c i f y i n g a g e o g r a p h i c a l area and p r e c l u d i n g e m p i r i c a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n of the boundary problem ( S e i b e r and Summers,1974)? From an e c o l o g i c a l r e s e a r c h p o i n t o f v iew, Va lkonen (1969: 61) notes t h a t t h e : . . . d i f f e r e n c e between a r e a l u n i t s and o t h e r types o f c o l l e c t i v e s used i n c o n t e x t u a l a n a l y s i s seems to be tha t a r e a l u n i t s are as a r u l e , " m o d i f i a b l e u n i t s " : a set of a r e a s i s not the o n l y p o s s i b l e one, but the aggregates can be c o n s t r u c t e d i n o t h e r ways. In t y p i c a l c o n t e x t u a l a n a l y s i s , the u n i t s can be d e f i n e d more c l e a r l y . Of c o u r s e , p a r t of the problem of m o d i f i a b l e and a r b i t r a r y boundar i e s o f e c o l o g i c a l s t u d i e s stems from data a v a i l a b i l i t y being r e s t r i c t e d w i t h i n t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e boundar ie s o f r e s p e c t i v e c o l l e c t i n g a g e n c i e s . However, when d e a l i n g with g l o b a l e f f e c t s , the "best" or most r e l e v a n t a r e a u n i t s are those t o which the g l o b a l phenomenon a p p l i e s (Va lkonen ,1969) . Along t h i s l i n e Greer p o i n t s out t h a t the s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e of l o c a l r e s i d e n t i a l areas i n a m e t r o p o l i s " . . . f r e q u e n t l y resemble S t . A u g u s t i n e ' s 42 d e f i n i t i o n of God, an i n f i n i t e c i r c l e whose c e n t e r i s everywhere and whose p e r i p h e r y i s nowhere (Greer,1960) W i l k i n s o n c o n c u r s , c l a i m i n g t h i s as ev idence t h a t the o r g a n i z a t i o n s o f these areas be approached as s o c i a l f i e l d s . A l though no s t r i c t boundary demarcat ion o f a s o c i a l f i e l d i s p o s s i b l e the q u e s t i o n of e s t a b l i s h i n g boundar i e s . . . m a y g e n e r a l l y be answered through i m p o s i t i o n o f a r t i f i c a l b o u n d a r i e s by the o b s e r v e r a t a p o i n t beyond which the mutual a c t i o n c o n t i n g e n c i e s ( i n t e r a c t i o n s ) of the e lements are r e g a r d e d as r e l a t i v e l y weak and i n s i g n i f i c a n t i n c o n t r i b u t i o n to the dominant observed c h a r a c t e r o f the f i e l d . The c o n n e c t i o n s which s t r u c t u r e an i n t e r a c t i o n a l nexus o b v i o u s l y vary i n " s t r e n g t h " and i n r e l e v a n c e to the t o t a l ; and the absence o f n a t u r a l a b s o l u t e boundar ies i n no way p r e c l u d e s i d e n t i t y . T h i s means t h a t , i n o p e r a t i o n , s tudy o f a f i e l d must proceed from the core outward , as i t were, r a t h e r than from the borders which do not e x i s t inward(Wi lk inson ,1970;p313) . I n the problem a t hand the "elements" c o n s i s t o f the se t o f i n d i v i d u a l s i n each of the e i g h t sampled r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s and the a s s o c i a t e d se t o f s p a t i a l l y p o s i t i o n e d v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s to which the group of i n d i v i d u a l s i n each of the a r e a s b e l o n g . The " i n t e r a c t i o n " o f the elements i s c o n c e i v e d t o be the " s p a t i a l a c t i v i t y l ink"(Hemmens, 1966) t r a v e r s e d by i n d i v i d u a l s t r a v e l i n g from home to v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n a l meeting p l a c e s . Thus the s p a t i a l d imens ion of the s o c i a l f i e l d s s u r r o u n d i n g each of the r e s i d e n t i a l areas i s c o n s i d e r e d to be tha t common g e o g r a p h i c a l a r e a s t r a v e r s e d by the r e s i d e n t s i n a t t e n d i n g t h e meetings o f the v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n which they 43 h o l d memberships. To determine the s p a t i a l boundar ie s at the g e n e r a l p o i n t beyond which the s o c i a l f i e l d s are to be regarded as weak, the mean and s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s were c a l c u l a t e d on the d i s t a n c e s the e n t i r e sample t r a v e l s t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s . The mean d i s t a n c e p lus two s tandard d e v i a t i o n s or 3.2 m i l e s (encompasing 95% of the s p a t i a l a c t i v i t y l i n k a g e s ) were en tered i n t o a computer program as the r a d i u s parameter o f a c i r c l e . B u i l d i n g on W i l k i n s o n ' s n o t i o n t h a t the p e r i m e t e r of a f i e l d must be e s t a b l i s h e d from the core outward the program a l g o r i t h m (us ing the r a d i u s parameter) computed the c i r c u m f e r e n c e of a c i r c l e around the g e o g r a p h i c c e n t r o i d o f each r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a , and then c a l c u l a t e d the t o t a l number of v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s f a l l i n g w i t h i n each o f the e i g h t p e r i m e t e r s . Data i n p u t to the program was the e n t i r e m e t r o p o l i t a n o p p o r t u n i t y s u r f a c e o f v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s d e s c r i b e d above. I n summary, the d e n s i t y o f v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s was opera t i o n a l i z ed i n a v a r i a b l e with e i g h t va lues tha t i n d i c a t e the number of o r g a n i z a t i o n s w i t h i n a r a d i u s of 3.2 mi les from the c e n t r e of each a r e a . T h i s i s the f i r s t t ime t h a t the r e s i d e n t i a l o p p o r t u n i t y s t r u c t u r e has been c h a r a c t e r i z e d and i n d e p e n d e n t l y o p e r a t i o n a l i z e d as a "pr imary g l o b a l v a r i a b l e . " That i s , t h e o p p o r t u n i t y s t r u c t u r e i n each c f the e i g h t r e s i d e n t i a l 44 areas has been c h a r a c t e r i z e d and measured us ing the a t t r i b u t e s of the a r e a s as a whole ( i . e . the a c t u a l number of o r g a n i z a t i o n s s i t u a t e d i n each area) ; r a t h e r than be ing a n a l y t i c a l l y d e r i v e d as some s o r t o f s t a t i s t i c a l l y aggregated summary measure of the i n d i v i d u a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of area r e s i d e n t s . T h i s makes i t p o s s i b l e for the present a n a l y s i s to s i d e - s t e p the major problem of having to i d e n t i f y the s u b s t a n t i v e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f a " c o n t e x t u a l e f f e c t " w i t h an unmeasured or r e s i d u a l l y d e f i n e d v a r i a b l e (Hauser , 1971; 1974) . P a r t i c i p a t i o n In v o l u n t a r y O r g a n i z a t i o n s There are a number of ways c f measuring o r g a n i z a t i o n a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n . T h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n i s l i m i t e d to the number of memberships i n v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s . To have a l s o looked a t a c t u a l a t t endance as a measure o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n would l o g i c a l l y e n t a i l c a l c u l a t i n g the "temporal o p p o r t u n i t y " i n each of the e i g h t r e s i d e n t i a l environments and t h i s was not p o s s i b l e . When t o t a l l i n g i n d i v i d u a l memberships, a l l job r e l a t e d o r g a n i z a t i o n s such as p r o f e s s i o n a l , b u s i n e s s and union o r g a n i z a t i o n s have been exc luded w h i l e church memberships have been inc luded . . The focus c f t h i s s tudy i s l i m i t e d to l o o k i n g a t o n l y l o c a l r e s i d e n t i a l o p p o r t u n i t y s t r u c t u r e s . Churches are p r i m a r i l y l o c a t e d i n l o c a l r e s i d e n t i a l areas 45 and are thus i n c l u d e d . The meeting s i t e s of many j o b -r e l a t e d o r g a n i z a t i o n s are c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o the work l o c a t i o n and g i v e n the s p a t i a l b i f u r c a t i o n o f work and r e s i d e n c e l o c a t i o n s , these o r g a n i z a t i o n s have been exc luded from c o n s i d e r a t i o n . A l s o , t o the ex tent t h a t j o b - r e l a t e d o r g a n i z a t i o n a l meeting s i t e s were l o c a t e d w i t h i n the r e s i d e n t i a l community, they have been i g n o r e d f o r they were s i m i l a r l y e x c l u d e d from the e n t i r e m e t r o p o l i t a n o p p o r t u n i t y s u r f a c e be fore the o p p o r t u n i t y d e n s i t y measures f o r each of the e i g h t r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s were c a l c u l a t e d . Stage In F a m i l y L i f e C y c l e Stage i n f a m i l y l i f e c y c l e has been o p e r a t i o n a l i z e d i n a number o f d i f f e r e n t ways depending on the c r i t e r i o n v a r i a b l e with which i t i s be ing r e l a t e d and the nature of the e x p l a n a t i o n s be ing employed ( D u v a l l , 1957 ; Feldman, 1961; Rodgers , 1962). In t h i s case , the age o f the e l d e s t c h i l d i s taken t o i n d i c a t e the l i f e c y c l e stage of the f a m i l y . As the o l d e s t c h i l d e n t e r s s c h o o l age and begins engaging i n i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d a c t i v i t i e s o u t s i d e the home, p a r e n t s become i n c r e a s i n g l y i n v o l v e d i n youth s e r v i n g g r o u p s . A f t e r the c h i l d has passed through the teen years and f i n a l l y l e a v e s home, t h e r e are d e c r e a s i n g demands f o r the p a r e n t s t o be a c t i v e i n the r e s i d e n t i a l community. 46 The s tage i n f a m i l y l i f e c y c l e v a r i a b l e i s used i n two types of a n a l y s i s i n Chapter 3. In both cases , however, i t i s a c o n d i t i o n a l v a r i a b l e formed from the present age of the o l d e s t c h i l d l i v i n g a t home, combined wi th the age o f the w i f e . In the r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s , the v a r i a b l e i s t r e a t e d as a d i s c r e t e c o n t i n u o u s v a r i a b l e bounded at the low end by the case where an i n d i v i d u a l i s a member of a f a m i l y with no c h i l d r e n , and a wife e q u a l to or under the age o f f o r t y ; the upper bond i s c r e a t e d by an i n d i v i d u a l who i s a member of a f a m i l y with no c h i l d r e n l i v i n g at home, and a w i f e over the age o f f o r t y . A l l i n t e r v e n i n g v a l u e s of the v a r i a b l e take the age of the o l d e s t c h i l d . As the r e l a t i o n s h i p of f a m i l y l i f e c y c l e with p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s i s expected to be c u r v i l i n e a r (Babchuk, 1969; C u r t i s , 1971) , a n o t h e r v a r i a b l e was formed by s q u a r i n g the va lues o f the v a r i a b l e " f a m i l y l i f e c y c l e . " T h i s s e c o n d - o r d e r v a r i a b l e i s then used i n the p o l y n o m i a l r e g r e s s i o n e q u a t i o n s 1 o f Chapter 3. When s tage o f f ami ly l i f e c y c l e i s used as a " f a c t o r " i n the c o v a r i a n c e a n a l y s i s , the f o l l o w i n g c u t t i n g p o i n t s are us ed: - Wife 40 years or l e s s , o l d e s t c h i l d 0 to 3 y e a r s o l d - Wife 40 y e a r s or l e s s , o l d e s t c h i l d 4 to 12 years o l d - Wife 40 years or l e s s , o l d e s t c h i l d 13 to 15 y e a r s o l d - Wife 40 y e a r s or l e s s , e l d e s t c h i l d 16 + years o l d - Wife o l d e r than f o r t y y e a r s , no c h i l d l i v i n g at home 1 For f u r t h e r d i s c u s s i o n s of us ing g u a d r a t i c e q u a t i o n s i n h a n d l i n g c u r v i l i n e a r r e l a t i o n s , see B l a l o c k (1 972:408) . 47 S o c i a l Rank Of R e s i d e n t i a l Area The s o c i a l rank o f the r e s i d e n t i a l areas i s an a n a l y t i c a l l y d e r i v e d v a r i a b l e ( L a z a r s f e l d and Rosenberg, 1955; Dogan and Rokkan, 1969). The e i g h t s t a t e s or va lues o f the v a r i a b l e are s t a t i s t i c a l means d e r i v e d by a g g r e g a t i n g ( i . e . summing and d i v i d i n g ) , s e p a r a t e l y for each of the d i f f e r e n t r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s , the B l i s h e n (1968) s o c i o -economic s c o r e s of those i n d i v i d u a l s sampled and i n t e r v i e w e d w i t h i n each of the a r e a s . Thus the s o c i a l rank of the r e s i d e n t i a l area i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a summary measure of t h e t h e i n d i v i d u a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of people r e s i d i n g i n t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a . T h i s v a r i a b l e , a long with the next two to be d i s c u s s e d a r e combined with the " g l o b a l v a r i a b l e " , r e s i d e n t i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t y d e n s i t y , i n an e c o l o g i c a l r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s c a r r i e d out i n Chapter 3 as a p a r t i a l t e s t o f G r e e r ' s assumption t h a t the aggregate r e s i d e n t i a l o p p o r t u n i t y s t r u c t u r e and s p e c i f i c aggregate p o p u l a t i o n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f r e s p e c t i v e r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s c o v a r y a c r o s s the m e t r o p o l i t a n s u r f a c e . 48 F a m i l y L i f e C y c l e Of R e s i d e n t i a l Area The o p e r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n of t h i s v a r i a b l e f o l l o w s the same s t a t i s t i c a l procedures j u s t o u t l i n e d . The i n d i v i d u a l f a m i l y l i f e c y c l e v a r i a b l e (d i s cus sed above) , was aggregated to form an e igh t s t a t e v a r i a b l e , where each value c h a r a c t e r i z e s the average f a m i l y l i f e c y c l e s tage of the r e s i d e n t s i n each o f the e i g h t a r e a s . Age Of R e s i d e n t i a l Area Here aga in the same s t a t i s t i c a l procedures was f o l l o w e d . Only t h i s t ime the a c t u a l l e n g t h o f t ime the r e s i d e n t s had l i v e d i n the area were aggregated to c r e a t e the average l e n g t h of time the p o p u l a t i o n had been r e s i d e n t s i n each o f the a r e a s . STATISTICAL METHODS OF DAT A ANALYSIS C o v a r i a n c e a n a l y s i s i s the pr imary s t a t i s t i c a l p r o c e d u r e adopted i n the data a n a l y s i s and hypothes i s t e s t i n g c a r r i e d out in Chapter 3 . T h i s t echn ique i s employed because of i t s s u p e r i o r i t y i n h a n d l i n g s e v e r a l i m p o r t a n t problems encountered i n a n a l y z i n g any c o n t e x t u a l argument: these problems are (1) a f a i l u r e to s t a t i s t i c a l l y c o n t r o l the p r o p e r t i e s o f i n d i v i d u a l s s t r i c t l y enough with a p o s s i b l e r e s u l t t h a t p a r t or a l l o f the c o n t e x t u a l e f f e c t observed i s not genuine (Tannenbaum and Bachman ;1964 :585-49 588); (2) a f a i l u r e to adequate ly s p e c i f y and s t a t i s t i c a l l y c o n t r o l o ther i n d i v i d u a l f a c t o r s s i m u l t a n e o u s l y r a i s i n g the p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t the observed s t r u c t u r a l e f f e c t i s i n f a c t n o t h i n g but r e s i d u a l i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s and thus s p u r i o u s (Hauser, 1970 ;658-662 ; and (3) a f a i l u r e to t e s t the f u n c t i o n a l form o f the model r e l a t i n g the e f f e c t s of i n d i v i d u a l and e n v i r o n m e n t a l f a c t o r s on i n d i v i u a l b e h a v i o r r e s u l t i n g i n a m i s - s p e c i f i e d model tha t produces downward b i a s i n the e s t i m a t e s o f the e f f e c t s o f the v a r i a b l e s i n v o l v e d as w e l l as r a i s i n g the p o s s i b i l i t y of be ing m i s l e a d about the s u b s t a n t i v e meaning o f the a n a l y s i s (Sonquis t , 1970; 29-46) . The a n a l y t i c a l t e c h n i q u e s o f d e t e r m i n i n g " s t r u c t u r a l " or " c o m p o s i t i o n a l " e f f e c t s ( B l a u , 1957,1 9 6 0 : D a v i s , S p a e t h and Huson,1961) deve loped s p e c i f i c a l l y f o r a s s e s s i n g the i n f l u e n c e group c o m p o s i t i o n or group s t r u c t u r e s have on i n d i v i d u a l b e h a v i o r have been shown s t a t i s t i c a l l y wanting i n t h e i r a b i l i t y to r i g o r o u s l y c o n t r o l the v a r i a b l e s i n v o l v i n g i n d i v i d u a l p r o p e r t i e s . Tannenbaum and Bachman (1964) demonstrate t h a t for any v a r i a b l e s o t h e r than those t h a t are n a t u r a l l y d ichotmous (such as sex) the t e c h n i q u e of d i chotomos ly c o n t r o l l i n g i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s f a i l s to a d e q u a t e l y e l i m i n a t e the c o n t a m i n a t i o n o f i n d i v i d u a l e f f e c t s i n i n t e r - g r o u p c o m p a r i s o n s . Where the data meet the n e c e s s a r y s t a t i s t i c a l r e q u i r e m e n t s , i t i s suggested t h a t c o r r e l a t i o n a n a l y s i s , m u l t i p l e or p a r t i a l r e g r e s s i o n or c o v a r i a n c e a n a l y s i s are a l l t e c h n i q u e s capab le of p rod u c in g 50 g r e a t e r s t a t i s t i c a l c o n t r o l s i n both the i n d i v i d u a l and s t r u c t u r a l v a r i a b l e s i n v o l v e d i n an a n a l y s i s . T h i s g r e a t e r c o n t r o l reduces the chances c f e i t h e r wrongly a s s e s s i n g i n d i v i d a l d i f f e r e n c e s as l e g i t i m a t e c o n t e x t u a l e f f e c t s , or i n f l a t i n g the c o n t e x t u a l e f f e c t s with o n l y p a r t i a l l y c o n t r o l l e d i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s (Schues s l er , 1969: Hauser , 1970: V a l k o n e n , 1969) . To separate a genuine c o n t e x t u a l e f f e c t from a s p u r i o u s one and a v o i d what Hauser i d e n t i f i e s as the " c o n t e x t u a l f a l l a c y " g e n e r a l l y r e q u i r e s the s imul taneous s t a t i s t i c a l c o n t r o l o f o ther i n d i v i d u a l f a c t o r s . T h i s should be the case because , r e g a r d l e s s o f the number o f c a t e g o r i e s or s t a t e s o f the c o n t e x t u a l v a r i a b l e , group c o m p o s i t i o n on an i n d i v i d u a l p r e d i c t o r may be c o r r e l a t e d with r e s i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s among the groups on the dependent v a r i a b l e (Hauser,1973 ;663 ) . Before a s s e s s i n g r e s i d u a l group d i f f e r e n c e s as a l e g i t i m a t e c o n t e x t u a l e f f e c t , t h e n , one should be prepared to argue t h a t h i s t h e o r y of r e l a t i o n s among i n d i v i d u a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i s c o r r e c t and a d e q u a t e l y accounted f o r by proper s t a t i s t i c a l c o n t r o l s . Compared to cros s t a b u l a t i o n , the t e c h n i q u e s c f m u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n or c o v a r i a n c e a n a l y s i s have advantages i n be ing a b l e to c o n t r o l s t a t i s t i c a l l y wi thout hav ing to make use of an ex tremely l a r g e number of c a s e s : t h i s more e f f i c i e n t use o f data makes i t p o s s i b l e t o take more independant v a r i a b l e s i n t o account a t the same time (Valkonen, 1969 ;64 : B l a l o c k , 1972; 474) . S p e c i f y i n g and s t a t i s t i c a l l y t e s t i n g the f u n c t i o n a l 51 form o f any c o n t e x t u a l argument i s p a r t i c u l a r l y important because the presence of s t a t i s t i c a l i n t e r a c t i o n terms has become one of the c e n t r a l i d e a s i n studying the d i f f e r e n t i a l e f f e c t s o f v a r i o u s s o c i a l environments on behavior (Sonquist,1970). Faced with the n e c e s s i t y of t e s t i n g f o r s t a t i s t i c a l i n t e r a c t i o n , c o v a r i a n c e a n a l y s i s becomes most a p p r o p r i a t e given i t s c a p a c i t y f o r producing more i n f o r m a t i o n than i s p o s s i b l e with e i t h e r p a r t i a l c o r r e l a t i o n or r e g r e s s i o n (Blalock,1972 ;474). I t s a b i l i t y t o t e s t f o r the presence and s i g n i f i c a n c e cf s t a t i s t i c a l i n t e r a c t i o n as w e l l as g r a p h i c a l l y d i s p l a y s e p a r a t e c o r r e l a t i o n s and slope e s t i m a t e s within each category of a c o n t r o l v a r i a b l e makes c o v a r i a n c e a n a l y s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y a p p r o p r i a t e f o r t e s t i n g the f u n c t i o n a l form of c o n t e x t u a l arguments (Blalock, 1972) . The c o v a r i a n c e a n a l y s i s s t r a t e g y employed i n Chapter 3 i s d e t a i l e d i n the next s e c t i o n . COVARIANCE ANALYSIS STRATEGY EMPLOYED The b a s i c o b j e c t i v e of the i n i t i a l c o v a r i a n c e a n a l y s i s i s to s t a t i s t i c a l l y determine which of the a l t e r n a t i v e forms of i n d i v i d u a l - e n v i r o n m e n t l i n k a g e hypothesised i n Chapter 1 h o l d : the a d d i t i v e i n d i v i d u a l - c o n t e x u t a l r e l a t i o n or the c o n t e x t u a l c o n d i t i o n a l r e l a t i o n . The f i r s t s t e p e n t a i l s t e s t i n g f o r the presence of i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t s . E s s e n t i a l l y t h i s t e s t determines whether the s e t of c o v a r i a t e r e g r e s s i o n s l o p e s computed f o r each l e v e l of the i n d i v i d u a l a t t r i b u t e v a r i a b l e s d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y from a 52 common s lops (Walker and L e v , 1 9 5 3 ; 3 9 0 - 3 9 2 ) . I f the d e c i s i o n i s t o r e j e c t the h y p o t h e s i s of e q u a l r e g r e s s i o n s l o p e s (or one common slope) because o f i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t s , s eparate a n a l y s e s should be c a r r i e d out w i t h i n each ca tegory of the c o n t r o l v a r i a b l e (B l a l o c k , 1972; 474) . In p a r t , t h i s e n t a i l s t e s t i n g to see which o f the r e g r e s s i o n s s l o p e s d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y from z e r o . The presence o f s t a t i s t i c a l i n t e r a c t i o n i s ev idence that the c o r r e c t form of the r e l a t i o n s i s a c o n t e x t u a l c o n d i t i o n a l and not a d d i t i v e : the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t y d e n s i t y does not e l i c i t or support a l l i n d i v i d u a l s e q u a l l y , but d i f f e r e n t i a l l y i n t h e i r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n . I f the h y p o t h e s i s of e q u a l r e g r e s s i o n s s l o p e s i s a c c e p t e d , a common s lope may be assumed, and the a n a l y s i s takes a d i f f e r e n t d i r e c t i o n . I t must be e s t a b l i s h e d t h a t the common s lope d i f f e r s s i g n i f i c a n t l y from zero (Walker and L e v , 1953; 393) . E s t a b l i s h i n g a common s lope d i f f e r i n g s i g n i f i c a n t l y from zero does not mean t h a t a s i n g l e r e g r e s s i o n l i n e has been e s t a b l i s h e d , however, f o r the r e g r e s s i o n l i n e s w i t h i n each l e v e l o f the c o n t r o l v a r i a b l e need not be i d e n t i c a l or c o i n c i d e n t . They may be p a r a l l e l t o one a n o t h e r d i f f e r i n g s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n t h e i r " a M -i n t e r c e p t s . The presence of p a r a l l e l r e g r e s s i o n l i n e s a l l with the same s l o p e , but d i f f e r e n t i n t e r c e p t s i s ev idence t h a t the c o r r e c t form of the r e l a t i o n i s a d d i t i v e : the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l 53 o p p o r t u n i t y d e n s i t y e l i c i t s or s u p p o r t s a l l i n d i v i d u a l s e q u a l l y and i n a d d i t i o n to i n d i v i d u a l e f f e c t s . 1 The v a r i a b l e s o p e r a t i o n a l i z e d i n t h i s c h a p t e r , combined wi th the method of c o v a r i a n c e a n a l y s i s j u s t o u t l i n e d are used i n i n v e s t i g a t i n g the hypotheses i n the next c h a p t e r . 1 A s i n g l e r e g r e s s i o n l i n e may be assumed, then , on ly a f t e r e s t a b l i s h i n g a common s l o p e as w e l l as a common i n t e r c e p t (Walker & L e v , 1953; 393-394) . 54 CHAPTER 3 THE ANALYSIS I n t h i s c h a p t e r the method and o p e r a t i o n a l i z e d v a r i a b l e s developed i n C h a p t e r 2 are used to t e s t the hypotheses advanced i n Chapter 1. Reviewing b r i e f l y , the major focus o f t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n i s to e x p l o r e two a l t e r n a t i v e models of i n d i v i d u a l - e n v i r o n m e n t a r t i c u l a t i o n as they r e l a t e to e x p l a i n i n g i n d i v i d u a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s . More s p e c i f i c a l l y , the pr imary q u e s t i o n being posed i s whether v a r y i n g v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t y d e n s i t i e s i n l o c a l r e s i d e n t i a l areas o p e r a t e i n s u p p o r t i n g or e l i c i t i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n to the same degree f o r a l l i n d i v i d u a l s ; or whether the de ns i ty o f o r g a n i z a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t y suppor t s or e l i c i t s o r g a n i z a t i o n a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n d i f f e r e n t i a l l y depending upon an i n d i v i d u a l ' s p e r s o n a l r e s o u r c e s or a t tachments to the l o c a l r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a . These a l t e r n a t i v e forms of a r t i c u l a t i o n have been more s p e c i f i c a l l y i d e n t i f i e d w i t h i n the c o n t e x t u a l paradigm as a c o n t e x t u a l e f f e c t , and the e f f e c t of a c o n t e x t u a l c o n d i t i o n a l . Moreover , us ing a n a l y s i s o f c o v a r i a n c e , t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e s t a t i s t i c a l forms have been s p e c i f i e d as 5 5 r e n d e r i n g e i t h e r a r e l a t i o n o f a d d i t i v i t y , or a r e l a t i o n i n v o l v i n g s t a t i s t i c a l i n t e r a c t i o n . The a d d i t i v e r e l a t i o n of the c o n t e x t u a l e f f e c t i n d i c a t e s t h a t o p p o r t u n i t y d e n s i t y ac ts i n d e p e n d e n t l y and i n a d d i t i o n to i n d i v i d u a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n a c c o u n t i n g f o r the degree o f i n d i v i d u a l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n . The s t a t i s t i c a l i n t e r a c t i o n of the c o n t e x t u a l c o n d i t i o n a l i n d i c a t e s t h a t o p p o r t u n i t y d e n s i t y ac ts d i f f e r e n t i a l l y or i n c o m b i n a t i o n with i n d i v i d u a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n a c c o u n t i n g for the degree of i n d i v i d u a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s . ECOLOGICAL TEST OF THE MACRO-PROCESSES Before proceed ing with the c o n t e x t u a l a n a l y s i s , however, i t i s i m p e r a t i v e t h a t the b a s i c p r o p o s i t i o n tha t the r e s i d e n t i a l v o l u n t a r y o p p o r t u n i t y s t r u c t u r e and s p e c i f i c aggregate p o p u l a t i o n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of r e s i d e n t i a l areas c o v a r y a c r o s s the m e t r o p o l i t a n s u r f a c e be put to the t e s t . It w i l l be r e c a l l e d from the d i s c u s s i o n i n Chapter 1 tha t t h i s c r i t i c a l r e l a t i o n has never been e m p i r i c a l l y d e t e r m i n e d : i t i s merely assumed. The b a s i c p r o p o s i t i o n s to be t e s t e d are the f o l l o w i n g : 1) As the f a m i l i s m of a r e s i d e n t i a l s u b - a r e a p o p u l a t i o n i n c r e a s e s , the number o f l o c a l v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s l o c a t e d i n the area i n c r e a s e s . 2) As the s o c i a l rank of a r e s i d e n t i a l sub-area p o p u l a t i o n i n c r e a s e s , the number o f l o c a l v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s l o c a t e d i n the area i n c r e a s e s . 56 One f u r t h e r r e l a t i o n w i l l be taken i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n t h i s " e c o l o g i c a l " r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s : 3) As the average l e n g t h of r e s i d e n c e i n a l o c a l area i n c r e a s e s , t h e number o f l o c a l v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n the area i n c r e a s e s . L o c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s are i n p a r t a "residuum of past a c t i o n " (Coleman, 1966). Many o r g a n i z a t i o n s , once i n e x i s t e n c e , t end t o p e r p e t u a t e themse lves . Even o r g a n i z a t i o n s t h a t have accompl i shed the s i n g l e g o a l f o r which they were c r e a t e d o f t en manage a c o n t i n u e d e x i s t e n c e . The bonds of sent iment formed between the members h e l p m a i n t a i n such groups whi le new causes are i d e n t i f i e d . However, as p o i n t e d out i n C h a p t e r 1, r a p i d t u r n o v e r r a t e s o f c e r t a i n s u b - a r e a p o p u l a t i o n s must c e r t a i n l y have an e f f e c t on the v i a b i l i t y of l o c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s . T a b l e 2 p r e s e n t s a 3 - s tage s tep-wise r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s of the three hypotheses p o s t u l a t e d above. The r e s u l t s c l e a r l y bear out the b a s i c p r o p o s i t i o n s tha t o r g a n i z a t i o n a l d e n s i t i e s do c o v a r y i n the expected way with, r e s i d e n t i a l s o c i a l rank and f a m i l y s t a t u s . Al though l e n g t h of r e s i d e n c e and s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s t a t u s are more important i n a c c o u n t i n g for the d e n s i t y of o p p o r t u n i t y i n an a r e a , the average f a m i l y - l i f e - c y c l e - s t a g e o f the r e s i d e n t s i n an area a l s o c o n t r i b u t e s an independent e f f e c t . 57 TABLE 2 Summary Of 3 - s tage S tep -wi se R e g r e s s i o n A n a l y s i s Of O p p o r t u n i t y D e n s i t y Regressed On {leans Of S o c i a l Rank, Family L i f e C y c l e , and Res idence S t a b i l i t y E f f e c t On D e n s i t y Of O r g a n i z a t i o n s -Independent V a r i a b l e s : (Step) R Square B e t a * Mean C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of Squared Changed R e s i d e n t i a l Areas Soc io -economic S t a t u s 1 0.57 — .70 S t a b i l i t y 2 0.81 0.24 .74 Family L i f e C y c l e 3 0.91 0.10 - . 4 2 *The s t a n d a r d i z e d p a r t i a l r e g r e s s i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s are taken from the l a s t s tage i n the s t e p - w i s e r e g r e s s i o n . The n e g a t i v e s i g n a s s o c i a t e d with the mean r e s i d e n t i a l f a m i l y l i f e c y c l e s h o u l d be e x p e c t e d , of c o u r s e , d u e . t o the way the v a r i a b l e i s o p e r a t i o n a l i z e d . T h i s p a r t i c u l a r r e l a t i o n s h i p a c t u a l l y i n d i c a t e s t h a t as more f a m i l i e s i n a r e s i d e n t i a l area approach the "mature" or "empty nest" s tage o f the f a m i l y l i f e c y c l e the number of v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s s i t u a t e d i n the l o c a l r e s i d e n t i a l area d e c r e a s e s . 58 L i m i t a t i o n s O f The E c o l o g i c a l C o v a r i a t i o n T e s t T h i s p a r t i c u l a r t e s t cannot be c o n s i d e r e d the s t r o n g e s t t e s t o f these r e l a t i o n s g i v e n the l i m i t e d number of o b s e r v a t i o n s o f e i g h t . 1 Nor can i t be c o n s i d e r e d a d e f i n i t i v e at tempt a t e x p l a i n i n g a l l a s p e c t s o f the l o c a t i o n a l p r o f i l e of a m e t r o p o l i t a n o p p o r t u n i t y s u r f a c e of v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s . Other dimensions c o u l d be taken i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n . 2 N e v e r t h e l e s s , i t p a r t i a l l y t e s t s what merely has been assumed i n p r e v i o u s i n s t a n c e s , and the p o s i t i v e outcome i s s u f f i c i e n t to l e t us proceed with the c o n t e x t u a l a n a l y s i s . 1 A more a p p r o p r i a t e t e s t would e n t a i l aggregate s o c i a l rank and f a m i l i s m measures d e r i v e d from the 1971 census f o r a l l census t r a c t s t h a t c o u l d then be r e l a t e d to the s p a t i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n o f v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s . 2 The scope of the argument put forward here g i v e s major emphasis to " l o c a l " o r i e n t e d v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s (Greer and O r l e a n s , 1962) and does not p r o p o r t t o e x p l a i n the l o c a t i o n o f more s p e c i a l i z e d o r g a n i z a t i o n s t h a t must c e n t r a l i z e l o c a t i o n to maximize a c c e s s i b i l i t y f o r a s e l e c t membership. 59 MODEL SPECIFICATION OF THE MICRO-PROCESSES In o r d e r t o t e s t the a l t e r n a t i v e hypothes i zed forms of i n d i v i d u a l - e n v i r o n m e n t l i n k a g e , they must be s t a t i s t i c a l l y s p e c i f i e d . T h i s may be dene i n terms of the f o l l o w i n g c o v a r i a n c e a q u a t i o n : Ygi=ag+BgXgi+egi where: " i g i " i s a measure of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l memberships f o r i n d i v i d u a l I i n group g "ag" i s the i n t e r c e p t of group g on the o r d i n a t e ; "Bg" i s the s t a n d a r d i z i e d r e g r e s s i o n s lope f o r each group g " x g i " i s a measure of the d e n s i t y of v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s o f the r e s i d e n t i a l area i n which the i ' t h i n d i v i d u a l i n group g re s i d e s "eg i" i s an e r r o r term a nd iig« w i l l r e p r e s e n t i n t u r n the s o c i a l g r o u p i n g s of sex , s t a g e i n f a m i l y l i f e c y c l e , e d u c a t i o n , and income. Before e n t e r i n g d i r e c t l y i n t o the a n a l y s i s i t might be i n s t r u c t i v e to combine t h i s b a s i c c o v a r i a n c e e q u a t i o n with the c o v a r i a n c e a n a l y s i s s t r a t e g y d i s c u s s e d i n Chapter 2, and to graph some p r o t o t y p e s of the a l t e r n a t i v e hypotheses , u s i n g two h y p o t h e t i c a l groups o f peop le with d i f f e r e n t 60 i n d i v i d u a l a t t r i b u t e s : G1 and G2 (see F i g u r e 5 ) . F i g u r e 5 a d e p i c t s the outcome where o n l y the main e f f e c t stems from o p p o r t u n i t y d e n s i t y . As o p p o r t u n i t y d e n s i t y i n c r e a s e s , an i n d i v i d u a l ' s t o t a l number of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l memberships i n c r e a s e s . T h i s may be observed from the f a c t t h a t there i s o n l y one common r e g r e s s i o n e q u a t i o n because both l i n e s have the same s lopes (b i=b^) and the same i n t e r c e p t s (a 1 = a^). There are no e f f e c t s due to i n d i v i d u a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , nor are there any i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t s r e s u l t i n g from the d i f f e r e n t i a l e f f e c t s of o p p o r t u n i t y d e n s i t y and i n d i v i d u a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . The e x a c t o p p o s i t e e f f e c t i s d e p i c t e d i n F i g u r e 5 b . Here the e f f e c t o f i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s i s i d e n t i f i e d by the s e p a r a t i o n of the two r e g r e s s i o n l i n e s . O r g a n i z a t i o n a l d e n s i t y has no e f f e c t because both l i n e s are h o r i z o n t a l , and there are no i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t s as the s l o p e s of the two l i n e s are the same. The case where both the i n d i v i d u a l e f f e c t and o p p o r t u n i t y d e n s i t y ac t i n an a d d i t i v e f a s h i o n to produce an i n c r e a s e i n o r g a n i z a t i o n a l memberships i s shown i n F i g u r e 5 c . The i n d i v i d u a l e f f e c t i s a g a i n i n d i c a t e d by the d i f f e r e n c e i n i n t e r c e p t s , whi le the same e f f e c t of d e n s i t y on both groups o f i n d i v i d u a l s i s shown by the same s l o p e s of the two l i n e s . 61 0 r g a n i z a t i o a a 1 A. S i n g l e E f f e c t of Opportunity D e n s i t y Only a 1=a 2; b 1 = b 2 > 0 G 1 = G 2 • + + + +-Opportunity Density O r g a n i z a t i o n a 1 B. E f f e c t of I n d i v i d u a l C h a r a c t e r i s t i c Only a^ j <a 2 ; bj =b2 = 0 G 2 <5l + + + + . Opportunity D e n s i t y C. A d d i t i v e E f f e c t s of Opportunity Density and I n d i v i d u a l C h a r a c t e r i s t i c D. I n t e r a c t i v e E f f e c t s of Opportunity D e n s i t y and I n d i v i d u a l C h a r a c t e r i s t i c a i < a 2 ; b-| = b 2 > 0 0 r g a n i z a t i o n a 1 H e m b e r s h i P s G 2 + + + +--Opportunity Density 0 r 9 a n i z a t i o n a 1 a 1 = a 2 ; b-|<b2 H e m b e r s h i P s G2 Opportunity E e n s i t y FIGURE 5. G r a p h i c a l P r e s e n t a t i o n of I d e a l - T y p i c a l Covariance R e l a t i o n s D e p i c t i n g Various Outcomes Of Contextual A n a l y s i s 62 The l a s t case i n F i g u r e 5d d e p i c t s t h e e f f e c t of the c o n t e x t u a l c o n d i t i o n a l . G r e a t e r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l d e n s i t y tends to i n c r e a s e o r g a n i z a t i o n a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n f o r i n d i v i d u a l s i n Group 2 , but f a i l s to make a d i f f e r e n c e f o r i n d i v i d u a l s i n Group 1. Thus the two r e g r e s s i o n l i n e s no l o n g e r have the same s l o p e . MODEL EVALUATION. A n a l y s i s w i l l proceed through each of the f o u r s e t s of hypotheses i n o r d e r to determine t h e i n i t i a l form of the i n d i v i d u a l - e n v i r o n m e n t r e l a t i o n s . With the a p p r o p r i a t e forms s p e c i f i e d , the i n v e s t i g a t i o n w i l l s h i f t t o r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s . Here the a l t e r n a t i v e models are r e v i e w e d , and the r e l a t i v e e f f e c t s of the r e m a i n i n g components of the f i n a l model are e s t a b l i s h e d . A summary i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the r e s u l t s w i l l be found i n the f i r s t s e c t i o n o f Chapter 4. 63 C o v a r i a n c e A n a l y s i s Sex and O p p o r t u n i t y D e n s i t y T a b l e 3 p r e s e n t s the c o v a r i a n c e t e s t s for the number of v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n memberships r e g r e s s e d on r e s i d e n t i a l o p p o r t u n i t y d e n s i t y f o r females and males . The t e s t of d i f f e r e n c e s among the r e g r e s s i o n s l o p e s due to s t a t i s t i c a l i n t e r a c t i o n i s not s i g n i f i c a n t , i n d i c a t i n g no d i f f e r e n t i a l use of the r e s i d e n t i a l environment f o r men or women when p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n l o c a l v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s . TABLE 3 C o v a r i a n c e A n a l y s i s Of Sex, With The Number Of V o l u n t a r y O r g a n i z a t i o n Memberships Regressed On O p p o r t u n i t y D e n s i t y Tes t For Test For D i f f e r e n c e s D i f f e r e n c e s Common S lope Sex Among Among B (Factor ) S lopes B ' s I n t e r c e p t , A ' s ( C o v a r i a t e ) ( I n t e r a c t i o n ) Fema l e & F(1 ,818)=0 .5 F(1 ,819)=0 .2 . 32* Male N .S . N. S. • S i g n i f i c a n t p<.00? The t e s t f o r d i f f e r e n c e s among the " a n - i n t e r c e p t s of t h e two r e g r e s s i o n s l o p e s a l s o f a i l s s i g n i f i c a n c e and may t h e r e f o r e be c o n s i d e r d the same, i n d i c a t i n g t h a t there are 64 4.0 + 0 I R M 3.0 + G B | A N | N B | 1 E I 0.0 + + + + + 0.0 100 200 300 400 OPPORTUNITY DENSITY FIGURE 6. R e g r e s s i o n L i n e s Of O r g a n i z a t i o n a l Memberships By O p p o r t u n i t y Dens i ty For Males And Females 65 nc e f f e c t s due to sex e i t h e r . 1 The r e s u l t s of these two t e s t s i n d i c a t e , t h e n , t h a t there i s a common r e g r e s s i o n s lope f o r sex (see F i g u r e 6), which shows t h a t f o r both men and women, e q u a l l y , as the r e s i d e n t i a l o p p o r t u n i t y d e n s i t y i n c r e a s e s , o r g a n i z a t i o n a l memberships i n c r e a s e . Stage i n F a m i l y L i f e C^cle and O £ £ o r t u n i t y _ Dens i ty T a b l e 4 p r e s e n t s the c o v a r i a n c e t e s t s on the number o f v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n memberships r e g r e s s e d on o p p o r t u n i t y d e n s i t y f o r d i f f e r e n t s tages i n the f a m i l y l i f e c y c l e . The t e s t f o r the d i f f e r e n c e among r e g r e s s i o n s l o p e s due to s t a t i s t i c a l i n t e r a c t i o n i s not s i g n i f i c a n t i n d i c a t i n g no d i f f e r e n t i a l use o f the r e s i d e n t i a l environment by people i n d i f f e r e n t s tages of f a m i l y l i f e c y c l e when i t comes to b e l o n g i n g to v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s . The t e s t f o r d i f f e r e n c e s among the ' ^ " - i n t e r c e p t s of the f i v e r e g r e s s i o n s l o p e s i s s i g n i f i c a n t , however, i n d i c a t i n g the presence of a d d i t i v e e f f e c t s between s tage i n f a m i l y l i f e c y c l e and o p p o r t u n i t y d e n s i t y . 1 The b i v a r i a t e r e l a t i o n s h i p between sex and the number of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l memberships h e l d by an i n d i v i d u a l d i s a p p e a r s i n t h i s data se t when a l l b u s i n e s s , p r o f e s s i o n a l and union o r g a n i z a t i o n s are e x c l u d e d . When these are i n c l u d e d back i n t o the dependent v a r i a b l e men, a g a i n , have more o r g a n i z a t i o n a l memberships than women as g e n e r a l l y e s t a b l i s h e d i n the l i t e r a t u r e . However, i t i s very i n t e r e s t i n g to note t h a t when C u r t i s (1971) exc luded a l l union memberships from h i s n a t i o n a l Canadian sample , sex d i f f e r e n c e s i n o r g a n i z a t i o n a l memberships a l s o c o m p l e t l y d i s a p p e a r e d . 66 TABLE 4 Covariance A n a l y s i s Of Stage Of Family L i f e C y c l e , With The Number Of Voluntary O r g a n i z a t i o n Memberships Regressed On Opportunity D e n s i t y Family L i f e Cyc l e (Factor) Test For D i f f e r e n c e s Among Slopes B's (I n t e r a c t i o n ) Test For D i f f e r e n c e s Among I n t e r c e p t , A Common Slope B (Covariate) Wife<40 6 C h i l d : 0-3 4-12 13-15 F(4,812) = 0.2 F (4 , 8 16) 11. 13 .22* . ™ . + N - s . P<.001 No C h i l d 6 wife>40 • S i g n i f i c a n t p<.001 The r e s u l t s of these two t e s t s i n d i c a t e t h a t though each f a m i l y stage may be c o n s i d e r e d to have the same r e g r e s s i o n s l o p e , t h e r e i s no common r e g r e s s i o n equation f o r the i n t e r c e p t s are not c o i n c i d e n t . T h i s r e s u l t lends evidence t o the hypothesis t h a t stage i n f a m i l y l i f e c y c l e and o p p o r t u n i t y d e n s i t y a c t i n an a d d i t i v e f a s h i o n t o e f f e c t i n d i v i d u a l ' s o r g a n i z a t i o n a l memberships. C l o s e r o b s e r v a t i o n of the ^ " - i n t e r c e p t s (see F i g u r e 7) f o r each f a m i l y stage d i s c l o s e s the expected c u r v i l i n e a r r e l a t i o n between f a m i l y l i f e c y c l e and o r g a n i z a t i o n a l memberships. People i n the e a r l y and l a t e stages of the f a m i l y l i f e c y c l e have fewer memberships than those i n d i v i d u a l s i n v o l v e d i n 67 4 . 0 + FIGURE 7. Regres s ion L i n e s Of O r g a n i z a t i o n a l Memberships By O p p o r t u n i t y D e n s i t y For The F i v e Stage In F a m i l y C y c l e Groups 68 the middle s t a g e s ; but no matter which s t a g e i n d i v i d u a l s a r e i n , the number o f o r g a n i z a t i o n a l memberships i n c r e a s e s a t the same r a t e , as the r e s i d e n t i a l o p p o r t u n i t y d e n s i t y i n c r e a s e s. E d u c a t i o n and O p p o r t u n i t y D e n s i t y Tab le 5 p r e s e n t s the c o v a r i a n c e t e s t s on the number of v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n memberships r e g r e s s e d on o p p o r t u n i t y d e n s i t y f o r d i f f e r e n t i n d i v i d u a l e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l s . The t e s t f o r the d i f f e r e n c e among r e g r e s s i o n s l o p e s due to s t a t i s t i c a l i n t e r a c t i o n between e d u c a t i o n and o p p o r t u n i t y d e n s i t y i s very s i g n i f i c a n t , i n d i c a t i n g c o n s i d e r a b l e d i f f e r e n t i a l use o f the r e s i d e n t i a l environment i n b e l o n g i n g to v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s , depending on an i n d i v i d u a l ' s e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l . TABLE 5 C o v a r i a n c e A n a l y s i s Of E d u c a t i o n , With The Number Cf V o l u n t a r y O r g a n i z a t i o n Memberships Begressed On The C o v a r i a t e , O p p o r t u n i t y D e n s i t y Educa t i o n (Factor ) Tes t For D i f f e r e n c e s S l o p e s B ' s A mong With in Group Slopes B's Tes t For S i g n i f i c a n c e f o r With in Group S l o p e s ( I n t e r a c t i o n ) 0-11 Y r s 12 Yrs .00 .09 F (3, 800)=8.26 .30 p<.001 .36 F (1 ,283)= 0.01 S.S. F( 1, 237) = 1. 88 N . S . F (1 ,156) = 15.86 P<.001 F (1, 121) = 18.35 P<.001 13-15 Y r s 16 Y r s + 6 9 4.0 + 0.0 + 0.0 100 200 300 400 OPPORTUNITY DENSITY FIGURE 8. Regress ion L i n e s Of O r g a n i z a t i o n a l Memberships By O p p o r t u n i t y D e n s i t y F o r The Four E d u c a t i o n a l Groups 70 F o r i n d i v i d u a l s with 0-11 years o f e d u c a t i o n (see T a b l e 5 , l a s t two columns and F i g u r e 8) there i s no r e l a t i o n between o p p o r t u n i t y d e n s i t y and o r g a n i z a t i o n a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n . Much the same i s true f o r i n d i v i d u a l s who have j u s t completed a h i g h s c h o o l e d u c t i o n . A l though there appears to be a s l i g h t tendency toward i n c r e a s e d p a r t i c i p a t i o n as o p p o r t u n i t y d e n s i t i e s i n c r e a s e , i t i s not s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t . On the o t h e r h a n d , f o r those people with 13 to 15 years o f e d u c a t i o n , the o p p o r t u n i t i e s presen t i n the immediate r e s i d e n t i a l environment have a pronounced e f f e c t on i n c r e a s i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n a l memberships. The r a t e o f o r g a n i z a t i o n a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s even more pronounced f o r i n d i v i d u a l s with 16 or more y e a r s of e d u c a t i o n . I t a p p e a r s , t h e n , t h a t the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s present i n the immediate r e s i d e n t i a l environment have no e f f e c t on i n c r e a s i n g one ' s o r g a n i z a t i o n a l memberships when e d u c a t i o n i s r e l a t i v e l y low, but makes a c o n s i d e r a b l e d i f f e r e n c e f o r i n d i v i d u a l s with h i g h e d u c a t i o n . The e f f e c t o f o r g a n i z a t i o n d e n s i t y i n c r e a s e s w i t h each s t e p up the l a d d e r of e d u c a t i o n . Income and O p p o r t u n i t y D e n s i t y T a b l e 6 p r e s e n t s the c o v a r i a n c e t e s t s on the number o f v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n memberships r e g r e s s e d on the c o v a r i a t e , r e s i d e n t i a l o p p o r t u n i t y d e n s i t y f o r i n d i v i d u a l s with d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s of income. The t e s t f o r the d i f f e r e n c e among r e g r e s s i o n s l o p e s due to s t a t i s t i c a l 71 i n t e r a c t i o n between i n d i v i d u a l income and o p p o r t u n i t y d e n s i t y i s a l s o s i g n i f i c a n t , i n d i c a t i n g that the r e s i d e n t i a l o p p o r t u n i t y s t r u c t u r e e l i c i t s d i f f e r e n t i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n depending on an i n d i v i d u a l ' s economic r e s o u r c e s . Moreover , i t i s not u n t i l an i n d i v i d u a l ' s income reaches the t h r e s h o l d l e v e l o f $13,000 or more, t h a t there i s a s i g n i f i c a n t r a t e of i n c r e a s e i n o r g a n i z a t i o n a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n as o p p o r t u n i t y d e n s i t i e s i n c r e a s e . TABLE 6 C o v a r i a n c e A n a l y s i s Of Income, With The Number Of V o l u n t a r y O r g a n i z a t i o n Memberships Regressed On The C o v a r i a t e , O p p o r t u n i t y D e n s i t y T e s t For Within Tes t For D i f f e r e n c e s Group S i g n i f i c a n c e Income Among S lopes f o r With in (Factor) S l o p e s B ' s B's Group S l o p e s (Int e r a c t ion) $0-4 ,999 .06 F (1 ,46) = 0.15 N. S. $5-8,999 .09 F(1 , 238) = 1.94 N . S . $9-12,999 F ( 3 , 776) =3.07 .09 F (1 ,258)= 1 .71 N. S. $13,000 + P<.03 . 27 F ( 1 , 234) =17.88 P<.001 Summary. Of C o v a r i a n c e A n a l y s i s In summary, the a n a l y s i s of c o v a r i a n c e has a i d e d i n d e t e r m i n i n g the form of a r t i c u l a t i o n between a se t of i n d i v i d u a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and the r e s i d e n t i a l environment o f o r g a n i z a t i o n a l d e n s i t y . I t has been e s t a b l i s h e d t h a t an 72 0 I R M 3.0 + G E | AM | N B I 0.0 + • + + + 0.0 100 200 300 400 OPPORTUNITY DENSITY FIGURE 9. Regression L i n e s Of By Opportunity Density O r g a n i z a t i o n a l Memberships For The Four Income Groups 73 i n d i v i d u a l ' s income and e d u c a t i o n a r t i c u l a t e d i f f e r e n t i a l l y w i th o p p o r t u n i t y d e n s i t y . An i n d i v i d u a l ' s s tage i n f a m i l y l i f e c y c l e appears to a r t i c u l a t e i n an a d d i t i v e f a s h i o n with o p p o r t u n i t y d e n s i t y . And l a s t l y , t h a t sex and o p p o r t u n i t y d e n s i t y do not r e a l l y a r t i c u l a t e a t a l l f o r there i s no r e l a t i o n s h i p between sex and o r g a n i z a t i o n a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n . 1 With the forms of these p a r t i c u l a r r e l a t i o n s e s t a b l i s h e d , i t i s now a p p r o p r i a t e to r a i s e the q u e s t i o n s of r e l a t i v e e f f e c t s , and the v a r i a n c e e x p l a i n e d by the above components when c o n s i d e r e d w i t h i n a m u l t i d i m e n s i o n a l model. For t h i s we t u r n to m u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s . Regress ion A n a l y s i s As was p o i n t e d out i n C h a p t e r 2, very l i t t l e i s accompl i shed i n a t t e m p t i n g to e s t i m a t e the r e l a t i v e e f f e c t s o f a number o f component v a r i a b l e s i n a m u l t i d i m e n s i o n a l r e g r e s s i o n model i f i t has been i n c o r r e c t l y s p e c i f i e d . The f i n d i n g s o f the p r e v i o u s s e c t i o n can a i d us c o n s i d e r a b l y i n d e c i d i n g the nature of the v a r i a b l e s to be en tered i n to the f o l l o w i n g e q u a t i o n s . 1 S t r i c t l y s p e a k i n g , t h i s i s an a d d i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p , except t h a t the e f f e c t of sex i s z e r o . 74 I t i s known t h a t the r e l a t i o n between e d u c a t i o n , o p p o r t u n i t y d e n s i t y , and o r g a n i z a t i o n a l memberships i s a c o n t e x t u a l c o n d i t i o n a l i n v o l v i n g s t a t i s t i c a l i n t e r a c t i o n , and the same h o l d s f o r income. One o f the most common ways o f h a n d l i n g s t a t i s t i c a l i n t e r a c t i o n i n a r e g r e s s i o n model i s t o c r e a t e a new v a r i a b l e t h a t i s the product 1 o f the two v a r i a b l e s i n v o l v e d i n the c o n d i t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p ( B l a l o c k , 1 972 ; S o n q u i s t , 1 9 7 0 ) . Employing t h i s procedure wi th income, e d u c a t i o n and o p p o r t u n i t y d e n s i t y c r e a t e s the f o l l o w i n g v a r i a b l e s f o r i n c l u s i o n i n the r e g r e s s i o n model: E d u c a t i o n * O p p o r t u n i t y D e n s i t y = EOD Income * O p p o r t u n i t y D e n s i t y = IOD Next , i t i s known t h a t an i n d i v i d u a l ' s s tage i n f a m i l y l i f e c y c l e and r e s i d e n t i a l o p p o r t u n i t y d e n s i t y appear to be r e l a t e d i n an a d d i t i v e f a s h i o n — s o two f u r t h e r c a n d i d a t e s may be i n c l u d e d : Stage i n F a m i l y L i f e C y c l e = FLC R e s i t e n t i a l O p p o r t u n i t y Dens i ty = OD However, FLC needs f u r t h e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n be fore i n c l u d i n g i t as a v a r i a b l e , f o r i t w i l l be r e c a l l e d from the c o v a r i a n c e a n a l y s i s t h a t i t has a c u r v i l i n e r r e l a t i o n to o r g a n i z a t i o n a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n . T h i s c u r v i l i n e a r r e l a t i o n can be taken i n t o account by i n t r o d u c i n g FLC i n t o the r e g r e s s i o n 1 The symbol »*• w i l l be used to denote the mathemat ica l o p e r a t i o n of m u l t i p l i c a t i o n . 75 e q u a t i o n a l ong with i t s second o r d e r or q u a d r a t i c complement ( B l a l o c k , 1972:408) .* T h i s i s accompl i shed by i n t r o d u c i n g FLC * FLC = F L C 2 One f u r t h e r v a r i a b l e to be c o n s i d e r e d i s the l e n g t h of time an i n d i v i d u a l has l i v e d i n a p a r t i c u l a r r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a . "Length o f r e s i d e n c e " i s a v a r i a b l e tha t has r e c e i v e d c o n s i d e r a b l e a t t e n t i o n in the l i t e r a t u r e (Babchuk, 1969 ; Wright and hyman, 1958; C u r t i s , 1 9 7 1 ; Gans, 1967), and i s i m p o r t a n t enough to be c o n s i d e r e d i n the present model because of i t s p o s s i b l e r e l a t i o n wi th t h e e n v i r o n m e n t a l v a r i a b l e o p p o r t u n i t y d e n s i t y . The n o t i o n was o r g i n a l l y e n t e r t a i n e d t h a t an i n d i v i d u a l ' s l e n g t h o f r e s i d e n c e i n a p a r t i c u l a r area might a r t i c u l a t e i n a c o n d i t i o n a l way wi th a l o c a l o p p o r t u n i t y s t r u c t u r e . For example, people new to an a r e a , presented with numerous o r g a n i z a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s , might very w e l l make c o n s i d e r a b l y more use of them as a way of s e t t l i n g i n t o the new a r e a , than people who had a l r e a d y been r e s i d e n t s i n t h e a r e a for some t ime and presumably deve loped a l o c a l f r i e n d s h i p network ( L i t w a k , 1 9 6 1 ) . Though not d i s c u s s e d i n the s e c t i o n on c o v a r i a n c e a n a l y s i s , t h i s c o n d i t i o n a l 1 When both FLC and F L C 2 a re i n t r o d u c e d i n t o the same r e g r e s s i o n e q u a t i o n , o r d i n a r y r e g r e s s i o n procedures of parameter e s t i m a t i o n become u n s t a b l e because of the h igh m u l t i c o l i n e a r i t y between the two v a r i a b l e s . Such a problem i s overcome by u s i n g a computer a l g o r i t h m t h a t handles o r t h o g o n a l p o l y n o m i a l r e g r e s s i o n . Such a program was used i n t h i s a n a l y s i s . See T r i p T r i a n g u l a r R e g r e s s i o n Package , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Co lumbia . 76 r e l a t i o n was t e s t e d and found u n s u p p o r t a b l e : the r e l a t i o n s h i p between l e n g t h o f r e s i d e n c e , o p p o r t u n i t y d e n s i t y and v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n a l memberships was found to be a d d i t i v e . Thus the l a s t c a n d i d a t e f o r the r e g r e s s i o n model i s : L e n g t h of Res idence = LR Reviewing q u i c k l y , the components f o r the m u l t i d i m e n s i o n a l model are as f e l l o w s : E d u c a t i o n * O p p o r t u n i t y Dens i ty = EOD Income * O p p o r t u n i t y D e n s i t y = IOD Stage In F a m i l y L i f e C y c l e = FLC Family C y c l e * F a m i l y C y c l e = F L C 2 R e s i d e n t i a l O p p o r t u n i t y Dens i ty = OD Length Of R e s i d e n c e = LR T o t a l # Of O r g a n i z a t i o n a l Memberships = I C r e a t i n g the f o l l o w i n g r e g r e s s i o n e g u a t i o n : Y = a+B t E 0 D+B£ l 0 D + B j F L C+Bi ( F L C 2 + Bj0D + BfcLR+e ( 1 . 1 ) T a b l e 7 summarizes the r e s u l t s of a s t ep-wise m u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n f o r the e q u a t i o n j u s t s p e c i f i e d . The f i r s t t h i n g to note i s the s t r o n g r e l a t i v e importance o f the two m u l i p l i c a t i v e components EOD and IOD, f o l l o w e d i n o r d e r by the l e s s e r e f f e c t s of l e n g t h o f r e s i d e n c e and s tage i n f a m i l y l i f e c y c l e . Note a l s o t h a t o p p o r t u n i t y d e n s i t y was unable to make any f u r t h e r s i g n i f i c a n t c o n t r i b u t i o n of i t s own to the o v e r a l l v a r i a n c e e x p l a i n e d by the o t h e r . v a r i a b l e s i n the e q u a t i o n . I t may t h e r e f o r e be dropped from e q u a t i o n 1.1, l e a v i n g us w i t h the c o n c l u s i o n t h a t the v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t y d e n s i t i e s o f r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s do 77 not a c t i n d e p e n d e n t l y o f , and i n a d d i t i o n to i n d i v i d u a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n i n c r e a s i n g the chances tha t r e s i d e n t s ho ld memberships i n v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s . I t appears tha t on the one hand, g i v e n the m u l t i p l e a t t r i b u t e s used to c h a r a c t e r i z e i n d i v i d u a l s i n t h i s s t u d y , the e f f e c t s of o p p o r t u n i t y d e n s i t y are c o n d i t i o n e d by the e d u c a t i o n or income l e v e l s of i n d i v i d u a l s . On the o t h e r hand, r e g a r d l e s s o f r e s i d e n t i a l o p p o r t u n i t y d e n s i t i e s , the l onger i n d i v i d u a l s r e s i d e i n an a r e a , or i f they are i n the middle y e a r s of the f a m i l y l i f e c y c l e , they a r e more l i k e l y to be long to v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s . TABLE 7 Summary Of S tep-Wise R e g r e s s i o n A n a l y s i s Of T o t a l O r g a n i z a t i o n a l Memberships Regressed On EOD, IOD, F L C , F L C 2 , LB AND OD Dependent V a r i a b l e : T o t a l # Of VO Memberships B INDEPENDENT VARIABLES (Step) B Square Squared Changed EOD 1 13.7 EOD+IOD 2 22. 1 8.4 EOD+IOD+LR 3 24.8 2.7 EOD+IOD+LR+ (FLC+FLC 2 ) 4 26. 6 1.8 EOD + IOD+LR + (FLC+FLC 2 ) +OD 5 26.6 0.003 * *OD c o u l d make no r e a l c o n t r i b u t i o n to R 2 at t h i s s tage . 78 Before c o n c l u d i n g with t h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , however, i t i s i n s t r u c t i v e t o compare the o v e r a l l performance of e q u a t i o n 1.1 with an a l t e r n a t i v e l y s p e c i f i e d e q u a t i o n t h a t s imply i n c l u d e s a l l i n d i v i d u a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s as we l l as o p p o r t u n i t y d e n s i t y i n a s t r a i g h t forward a d d i t i v e model of the f o r m : Y = a+B^E+Bal + B j F L C + B i f F L C Z + B^LR + B^OD+e (1 .2) However, g iven the s t r o n g s t a t i s t i c a l i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t found i n the c o v a r i a n c e a n a l y s i s t e s t s , i t shou ld be expected t h a t eguat ion 1 .2 w i l l not f i t the data near as w e l l as e q u a t i o n 1.1. The r e l a t i v e f i t o f the two e q u a t i o n s to the data may be e v a l u a t e d by comparing the m u l t i p l e c o r r e l a t i o n s (R's) or the c o e f f i c i e n t s of d e t e r m i n a t i o n (R 2 ) f o r each e q u a t i o n . The R ' s f o r e q u a t i o n 1.1 and 1 .2 are r e s p e c t i v e l y .42 and .52 , while the o v e r a l l v a r i a n c e e x p l a i n e d by the two models a r e 17.7% and 26.6%. T h i s c o m p a r a t i v e l y poor f i t o f the a d d i t i v e model l e n d s f u r t h e r s u p p o r t t c model 1,1 and i t ' s consequent i n t e r p r e ta t i o n . T h i s c o n c l u d e s the h y p o t h e s i s t e s t i n g and model e v a l u a t i o n . A summary i n t e r p r e t a t i o n and p r a c t i c a l a p p l i c a t i o n o f the present f i n d i n g s f o l l o w i n Chapter 4. 7 9 CHAPTER 4 SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION STUDY SU MMARY T h i s s tudy set out to e x p l o r e how and to what degree , t h e s o c i o - e c o l o g i c a l c o n t e x t of a r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a , c o n c e p t u a l i z e d as an o p p o r t u n i t y s t r u c t u r e a f f e c t s r e s i d e n t memberships i n v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n . We have seen tha t to a c e r t a i n e x t e n t , the urban s p a t i a l s t r u c t u r e and the s p a t i a l behav ior o f urban r e s i d e n t i a l p o p u l a t i o n s form a c i r c l e of c a u s a l i t y . The s o c i o - s p a t i a l l o c a t i o n of urban r e s i d e n t s , i n p a r t , determine the l o c a t i o n a l arrangement of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s . At the same t ime , o r g a n i z a t i o n a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s c o n s t r a i n e d or f a c i l i t a t e d by the l o c a t i o n of e x i s t i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s ; a l t h o u g h the e f f e c t s are not the same f o r everyone as we have j u s t found o u t . The o r g a n i z a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t y d e n s i t i e s of d i f f e r e n t r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s throughout the m e t r o p o l i t a n area have been shown to be a f u n c t i o n c f the c o l l e c t i v e c o n c e r n s , commitments and a b i l i t i e s of i t s r e s i d e n t s to o r g a n i z e , a t t r a c t and support v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s w i t h i n t h e i r 80 r e s p e c t i v e l o c a l r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s . Moreover these s o c i a l p r o c e s s e s p a r t l y depend upon the aggregate c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the r e s i d e n t i a l p o p u l a t i o n — t h e l e n g t h of time they have r e s i d e d i n an a r e a , t h e i r c o l l e c t i v e l e v e l s o f e d u c a t i o n a l and economic r e s o u r c e s , p lu s t h e i r r a s i n g of c h i l d r e n , a l l c o n t r i b u t e to a more v i a b l e v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t y s t r u c t u r e . However, the way t h i s e n v i r o n m e n t a l o p p o r t u n i t y s t r u c t u r e , i n t u r n , a f f e c t s r e s i d e n t memberships i n v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s i s i n no way s i m p l e and s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d . In g e n e r a l , i t appears t h a t the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t y d e n s i t i e s of r e s i d e n t i a l areas do not ac t i n a d d i t i o n t o , but i n combinat ion with d i f f e r e n t i n d i v i d u a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s to produce changes i n urban r e s i d e n t s ' o r g a n i z a t i o n a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n . O r g a n i z a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s presen t i n the immediate r e s i d e n t i a l environment have l i t t l e or no e f f e c t on i n c r e a s i n g the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l memberships o f i n d i v i d u a l s , u n l e s s they have had some c o l l e g e e d u c a t i o n . These o p p o r t u n i t i e s f a i l to e l i c i t o r g a n i z a t i o n a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n from those t h a t are not e d u c a t i o n a l l y pred i sposed or l a c k the s o c i a l s k i l l s g e n e r a l l y c o n s i d e r e d u s e f u l i n o r g a n i z a t i o n a l i n v o l v e m e n t . A t the same t ime , people with h i g h e r l e v e l s of e d u c a t i o n l i v i n g i n l e s s opportune env ironments , do appear to be e n v i r o n m e n t a l y c o n s t r a i n e d to t h e degree tha t they have fewer o r g a n i z a t i o n a l memberships, 81 when compared to people with s i m i l a r e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l s but l i v i n g i n more opportune s u r r o u n d i n g s . The same c o n d i t i o n a l e n v i r o n m e n t a l r e l a t i o n s h i p i s pre sen t when an i n d i v i d u a l ' s economic r e s o u r c e s are c o n s i d e r e d , a l t h o u g h i t s r e l a t i v e importance i s l e s s than t h e i n t e r a c t i o n o f e d u c a t i o n and o p p o r t u n i t y . I n c r e a s e s i n r e s i d e n t i a l o p p o r t u n i t y d e n s i t i e s , produce l i t t l e or no s i g n i f i c a n t i n c r e a s e i n o r g a n i z a t i o n a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n u n t i l an i n d i v i d u a l ' s income reaches the t h r e s h o l d l e v e l of $ 1 3,000 or more. I t i s e s p e c i a l l y i n t e r e s t i n g to note t h a t c o n t r a r y to some e x p e c t a t i o n s (Webber, 1964) , i n d i v i d u a l s do not g e n e r a l l y take advantage o f t h e i r h i g h m o b i l i t y , or e x e r c i s e freedom o f c h o i c e over a wide m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a , a t l e a s t when i t comes to p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s . Even those i n d i v i d u a l s most expected to have s p a t i a l l y e x t e n s i v e a c t i v i t y sys tems—those wi th h igh l e v e l s of e d u c a t i o n a l and economic r e s o u r c e s — d o not have and f o r two r e a s o n s . , On the one hand, i n d i v i d u a l s with h igh l e v e l s of e d u c a t i o n or income, l i v i n g i n r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s with low o p p o r t u n i t y d e n s i t i e s , r a t h e r than seek ing out o r g a n i z a t i o n s w i t h i n the l a r g e r m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a , j u s t do not p a r t i c i p a t e much, i f a t a l l i n v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s . On the o ther hand, i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h s i m i l a r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , but l i v i n g i n a r e a s with very h igh o p p o r t u n i t y have a c o n s i d e r a b l e v a r i e t y o f o r g a n i z a t i o n s r i g h t at t h e i r d o o r - s t e p and do not 82 have to t r a v e l f a r . Thus i t appears tha t the tendency to j o i n o r g a n i z a t i o n s i s a c t u a l l y i n f l u e n c e d by the i n c r e a s i n g number of a m e n i t i e s p r o v i d e d i n the immediate l o c a l i t y ; but a g a i n , i t i s on ly t h o s e wi th a h i g h l e v e l of e d u c a t i o n , or h i g h income t h a t are r e a l l y i n f l u e n c e d . When i t comes to c o n s i d e r i n g an i n d i v i d u a l ' s stage i n f a m i l y l i f e c y c l e , i t seems t h a t o p p o r t u n i t y d e n s i t y has l i t t l e or no e f f e c t i n i n c r e a s i n g p e o p l e ' s o r g a n i z a t i o n a l memberships. I t was o r g i n a l l y h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t i n d i v i d u a l s i n the middle s t a g e s o f the c y c l e , g i v e n t h e i r i n t e r e s t and concern about the r e s i d e n t i a l environment as a p l a c e to r a i s e c h i l d r e n , would be long to an i n c r e a s i n g l y g r e a t e r number o f l o c a l v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s i f g iven the i n c r e a s e d o p p o r t u n i t y . E s p e c i a l l y , when compared to i n d i v i d u a l s i n the e a r l y and l a t e s tages o f the c y c l e who, not h a v i n g c h i l d r e n i n the home, have fewer reasons f o r be ing a t t a c h e d to the l o c a l r e s i d e n t i a l community. But t h i s does not appear t o be the c a s e . I n d i v i d u a l s i n the middle s tages do have more memberships than those i n o t h e r s t a g e s , but not i n i n c r e a s i n g l y l a r g e r numbers . , A c l o s e r look at the t y p e s of o r g a n i z a t i o n s parent s have a g r e a t e r chance of j o i n i n g , shows them to be y o u t h - s e r v i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n s (brownies , s c o u t s , PTA, l i t t l e l eague s p o r t s , e t c . ) i n which they are committed f o r o n l y a l i m i t e d t ime . However, t h i s e f f e c t of stage i n f a m i l y l i f e c y c l e appears to ac t i n d e p e n d e n t l y of any r e s i d e n t i a l o p p o r t u n i t y s t r u c t u r e , whi le i t s r e l a t i v e e f f e c t i s even l e s s than t h a t of l eng th 83 o f r e s i d e n c e . The l e n g t h of t ime people r e s i d e i n a r e s i d e n t i a l community a l s o appears to o p e r a t e i n d e p e n d e n t l y o f the l o c a l o p p o r t u n i t y s t r u c t u r e . Newcomers to an a r e a , even i n areas of h i g h o p p o r t u n i t y , g e n e r a l l y do not seem to use v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s as a way of g e t t i n g e s t a b l i s h e d i n an a r e a . On the c o n t r a r y , the l o n g e r i n d i v i d u a l s l i v e i n an a r e a , the more l i k e l y they a r e to become members of a v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n . An i n d i v i d u a l ' s s ex , i t was f o u n d , had n e i t h e r an independent nor a c o n d i t i o n a l e f f e c t wi th o p p o r t u n i t y d e n s i t y i n p r o d u c i n g a d i f f e r e n c e i n i n d i v i d u a l s ' o r g a n i z a t i o n a l memberships. , The n o t i o n was o r i g i n a l l y e n t e r t a i n e d t h a t women and men would r e l a t e d i f f e r e n t l y to the l o c a l r e s i d e n t i a l o p p o r t u n i t y s t r u c t u r e , because women, more than men, r e l i e d on l o c a l community a c t i v i t i e s as a way of e x p r e s s i n g i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s . Men are a b l e to use t h e i r work and c l o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d a c t i v i t i e s f o r e x p r e s s i n g t h e i r d i v e r s i t y . Greer (1956) even found t h a t husband's o r g a n i z a t i o n s more o f t e n met o u t s i d e the l o c a l a r e a . N e v e r t h e l e s s , when f o c u s i n g merely cn the i n f l u e n c e of the l o c a l o p p o r t u n i t y s t r u c t u r e , and e x c l u d i n g p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a l l work r e l a t e d o r g a n i z a t i o n s , men as we l l as women have e q u a l numbers of memberships r e g a r d l e s s o f sex or d e n s i t y of o p p o r t u n i t y . T h i s i s not to s a y , however, t h a t men and women do not d i f f e r e n t i a l l y r e l a t e to the l o c a l o p p o r t u n i t y 84 s t r u c t u r e . They might w e l l be long to d i f f e r e n t types o f v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s , or have a d i s p r o p o r t i n a t e number o f memberships i n d i f f e r e n t types o f o r g a n i z a t i o n s . I n t e r e s t i n g l y enough, t h i s l a s t p o i n t r a i s e s the l i m i t a t i o n s of the present a n a l y s i s and at the same time p o i n t s out the d i r e c t i o n of f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h . In the p r e s e n t i n v e s t i g a t i o n we have not asked the more r e f i n e d q u e s t i o n o f who p a r t i c i p a t e s i n hew many of what type of o r g a n i z a t i o n s , and where; nor have the r e s i d e n t i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t y s t r u c t u r e s yet been r e f i n e d to the p lace where they d e a l wi th the i n c i d e n c e of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r c e r t a i n types of o r g a n i z a t i o n s . When t h i s k i n d o f i n v e s t i g a t i o n i s c a r r i e d o u t , i t i s c e r t a i n to shed f u r t h e r l i g h t o n , as we l l as q u a l i f y the present f i n d i n g s . At t h i s s t a g e , however, i t may be conc luded t h a t from a t h e o r e t i c a l p o i n t of v iew, f o c u s i n g on the i n d i v i d u a l c o r r e l a t e s o f v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n , whi le i g n o r i n g the s o c i o - s p a t i a l contex t i n which t h i s type of a c t i v i t y takes p l a c e , does indeed make f o r inadequate e x p l a n a t i o n . Moreover , to focus on d e s c r i b i n g , a n a l y z i n g , and mapping t h e urban morphology or s p a t i a l l y p a t t e r n e d s t r u c t u r e s of urban r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s , wi thout i n t u r n , a s k i n g what v a r i e d consequences they have f o r d i f f e r e n t s o c i a l groups i n h a b i t i n g the c i t y i s t o i g n o r e a c r i t i c a l area i n need of f u r t h e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g . The p r e s e n t f i n d i n g s 8 5 p o i n t to the f a c t t h a t more adequate e x p l a n a t i o n s and i n c r e a s e d u n d e r s t a n d i n g may r e s u l t from f o c u s i n g on the l i n k a g e s between i n d i v i d u a l s and t h e i r env ironment . PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS--AN EXAMPLE From an a p p l i e d p o i n t of view what has been l e a r n e d about the b a s i s f o r , and the conseguences of r e s i d e n t i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t y s t r u c t u r e s may have p r a c t i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s t h a t are q u i t e immediate . C i t y and r e g i o n a l p l a n n e r s are c o n s t a n t l y t r y i n g to determine how people use urban areas and how t h e i r s p a t i a l b e h a v i o r might respond to both changes i n the urban s t r u c t u r e , as w e l l as changes i n p o e p l e s ' own c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . C ha p i n (1970) suggests t h a t urban p l a n n e r s can beg in b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g and g e t t i n g a hand le on t h i s problem by f o c u s i n g on urban a c t i v i t y sys tems. But i f t h i s i s s o , c e r t a i n a s p e c t s of urban a c t i v i t y systems have to be capab le of m a n i p u l a t i o n : there must be " l e v e r s " of some s o r t t h a t a l low p l a n n e r s to a f f e c t the urban env ironment . Brown, Homes and Jakubs (197 1) s u g g e s t , however, t h a t with o n l y a coup le o f e x c e p t i o n s , t h e r e seem to be few a c t i v i t y system l e v e r s p l a n n e r s can use . One e x c e p t i o n i s the p o s s i b i l i t y o f m a n i p u l a t i n g the " o p p o r t u n i t y s t r u c t u r e " or " o p p o r t u n i t y sets" a s s o c i a t e d w i t h s p e c i f i c a c t i v i t i e s . . 86 One does not have to look v e r y f a r to f i n d p l a n n e r s f a c e d w i t h the problem of t r y i n g to manipulate a R e g i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t y s t r u c t u r e . For example , the G r e a t e r Vancouver R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t and a s s o c i a t e d m u n i c i p a l i t i e s are faced wi th a prob lem, as they d e f i n e i t , of " d e c e n t r a l i z i n g c u l t u r e " throughout the Reg ion , or o f p r o v i d i n g c u l t u r a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s near where people l i v e . A t the p r e s e n t t ime the C i t y o f Vancouver c o u t i n u e s to be t h e center o f c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t y 1 while the major p o p u l a t i o n growth i s now o c c u r i n g i n t h e s u b u r b s . As the l a t e s t d r a f t r e p o r t on c u l t u r a l d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n (Fawcet t , 1974) p o i n t s o u t : As more and more f a m i l i e s move to suburbs they must t r a v e l i n c r e a s i n g l y g r e a t e r d i s t a n c e s to r e a c h a d i v e r s i t y of l e i s u r e a c t i v i t i e s . The c o s t o f c u l t u r a l commuting i n c l u d e s t i m e , p a r k i n g , e a t i n g out , baby-s i t t i n g , mi l eage , and wear and t e a r on the nervous system. These t h i n g s are p a r t of commuting to work but there they are r a t i o n a l i z e d by the n e c e s s i t i e s o f e a r n i n g a wage. When i t comes to c u l t u r a l and r e c r e a t i o n a l p u r s u i t s , the se e x t r a c o s t s and r i s k s combine to de feat one of the pr imary purposes : r e l a x a t i o n and enjoyment. The problem i s exacerbated by the f a c t tha t m u n i c i p a l per c a p i t a e x p e n d i t u r e s on c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s are lowest i n the areas o f the Region e x p e r i e n c i n g the most r a p i d r e s i d e n t i a l growth . 1 T h i s i s e a s i l y conf i rmed by g l a n c i n g at the uneven o r g a n i z a t i o n a l topography i n the M e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a shown i n F i g u r e 3 . 8 7 The GVRD p r o p o s a l suggests t h a t t h i s u n f o r t u n a t e t rend can be r e v e r s e d wi th "a v i g o r o u s program o f c u l t u r a l e x p a n s i o n , " and t h a t the " R e g i o n a l Town Center program f o r d e c e n t r a l i z i n g growth w i t h i n the r e g i o n o f f e r s an e f f e c t i v e v e h i c l e to d e c e n t r a l i z e s u b - r e g i o n a l c u l t u r a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s . P a r e n t h e t i c a l l y , the R e g i o n a l Town Center program i s an e x t e n s i v e p l a n n i n g p r o p o s a l be ing forged and forwarded by t h e GVRD to c o n t r o l growth and main ta in or i n c r e a s e the " l i v a b i l i t y " of the r e g i o n to 1986: the p l a n e n t a i l s m u n i c i p a l "growth s h a r i n g " of the p o p u l a t i o n , f o c u s i n g the growth around a d i s p e r s e d se t o f R e g i o n a l Town C e n t e r s , f i n a n c e s h a r i n g o f these growth p o l e s , compact r e s i d e n t i a l communi t i e s , open space and r e c r e a t i o n c o n s e r v a t i o n , and an i n t e g r a t e d r e g i o n a l t r a n s p o r t a t i o n p lan (GVRD, 1974). I t i s r a t h e r d i f f i c u l t at t h i s s tage , though, f o r the reader to s h a r e the r a t h e r o p t i m i s t i c tone of t h i s i n i t i a l c u l t u r a l d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n r e p o r t , for a l t h o u g h i t has g e n e r a l l y d e f i n e d some of the t h i n g s a d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n p o l i c y s h o u l d , and shou ld not e n t a i l , the " l e v e r s " to be used i n implement ing such a p o l i c y have yet to be i d e n t i f i e d or d e a l t with i n any depth . In f a c t the o v e r a l l d i r e c t i o n o f t h e proposed p o l i c y does away with some of the more t r a d i t i o n a l " l e v e r s " m u n i c i p a l p l a n n e r s unders tand b e s t -b u i l d i n g b u i l d i n g s or f a c i l i t i e s . The r e p o r t says f o r example: Making s u b - r e g i o n a l c u l t u r a l focuses of the R e g i o n a l Town C e n t e r s does not mean c r e a t i n g a b lock o f b u i l d i n g s s p e c i f i c a l l y des igned 88 to house a c t i v i t i e s . What i s more impor tant i s i n t e g r a t i n g the f a c i l i t i e s and a c t i v i t i e s i n such a way t h a t the o p p o r t u n i t i e s are p a r t i c u l a r to the area and a v a i l a b l e . . . B u i l d i n g s do not p a r t i c i p a t e i n or c r e a t e programs, people d o . . . t o o much i s spent on b u i l d i n g s and not enough on a c t i v i t i e s . The r e p o r t goes on to suggest t h a t a process o f " c u l t u r a l z o n i n g " s h o u l d be deve loped to c o i n c i d e with o t h e r zoning c o n c e p t s — s u c h as t r a f f i c and sewage. There i s a l s o the s u g g e s t i o n t h a t m u n i c i p a l i t i e s h i r e c u l t u r a l c o - o r d i n a t o r s to work on e g u a l terms with the c o - o r d i n a t o r s of r e c r e a t i o n . These are i n t e r e s t i n g s u g g e s t i o n s , but sugges t ions i s a l l they are a t t h i s s tage f o r they r e c e i v e l i t t l e development w i t h i n the r e p o r t . The i n t e g r a t i o n and c o - o r d i n a t i o n of c u l t u r a l and r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s a t the m u n i c i p a l and r e g i o n a l l e v e l would c e r t a i n l y seem i n o r d e r as p a r t o f any c u l t u r a l d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n s t r a t e g y . But a "v igorous program" must e n t a i l more than i n t e g r a t i o n and c o - o r d i n a t i o n , f o r the r e p o r t i t s e l f p o i n t s o u t , a major a s p e c t of the problem i n many p a r t s of the Region i s a s c a r c i t y o f a c t i v i t i e s to co-o r d i n a t e i n the f i r s t p l a c e . I n t h i s d i r e c t i o n , we have seen t h a t the v i t a l i t y of a r e s i d e n t i a l o p p o r t u n i t y s t r u c t u r e depends i n p a r t upon the c o l l e c t i v e r e s o u r c e s of i t s r e s i d e n t s t o o r g a n i z e and support l o c a l a c t i v i t i e s , but not a l l a r e a s have the same r e s o u r c e s a t t h e i r d i s p o s a l . The r e p o r t a l s o r e c o g n i z e s t h i s f a c t : 89 the i d e a t h a t suburban communit ies are composed whol ly o f a s o c i a l l y and e c o n o m i c a l l y mobile middle c l a s s which has chosen i t s s i t u a t i o n i s l e s s and l e s s t rue each year . Pockets o f r e l a t i v e pover ty (economic, s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l ) have emerged i n v a r i o u s suburban communit ies i n GVRD, some o f i t i n d i g e n o u s and some of i t c r e a t e d by the squeeze on cheap f a m i l y accomodations i n V a n c o u v e r . I t would seem, t h e n , t h a t p a r t o f any c u l t u r a l z o n i n g p o l i c y s h o u l d attempt to d e a l with e q u a l i z i n g "resource" d e f i c i e n c i e s w i t h i n d i f f e r e n t p a r t s o f the r e g i o n . S u c e s s f u l implementa t ion of such a p o l i c y , however, would c e r t a i n l y not be without i t s enormous problems f o r both r e g i o n a l and m u n i c i p a l p l a n n e r s and p o l i t i c i a n s . S h a r i n g the d o l l a r burden o f growth between m u n i c i p a l i t i e s as a means of f i n a n c i a l l y s u p p o r t i n g r a p i d growth a r e a s h a s , as y e t , not been s p e c i f i c a l l y r a i s e d i n r e g a r d to c u l t u r a l d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n ; even though i t i s r e c o g n i z e d t h a t m u n i c i p a l per c a p i t a e x p e n d i t u r e s on c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s are lowest i n the a r e a s of the r e g i o n e x p e r i e n c i n g the f a s t e s t growth. From the p o i n t o f view of many newly forming v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s , there i s a c h r o n i c l a c k of economic r e s o u r c e s a v a i l a b l e to accompl i sh t h e i r o b j e c t i v e s ( F r i z z e l l , 1973) . From the p o i n t o f view o f t h e R e g i o n a l and M u n i c i p a l governments , though , there i s a c h r o n i c a l l y s m a l l base from which they can l e g a l l y g e n e r a t e r e s o u r c e s . Thus any d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n program would d e f i n i t e l y need h e l p from other l e v e l s o f government, but g iven t h e complex d i v i s i o n of r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s between the 90 d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s of government, o r c h e s t r a t i n g any f i n a n c e program would be very d i f f i c u l t and i n v o l v e d — e s p e c i a l l y when t h e r e d o s e n ' t seem to be a c l e a r and p u b l i c a l l y a r t i c u l a t e d p o l i c y o f f i n a n c i a l a i d to v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s even a t the F e d e r a l l e v e l ( F r i z z e l , 1973). Economic r e s o u r c e s are not the on ly k i n d s of r e s o u r c e s l a c k i n g i n many r e s i d e n t i a l p o p u l a t i o n s , new or o l d . There a r e a l s o the c o l l e c t i v e s o c i a l and o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s k i l l s needed i n c r e a t i n g a v i a b l e o p p o r t u n i t y s t r u c t u r e . A l t h o u g h " c u l t u r a l c o - o r d i n a t o r s " have been suggested a t the m u n i c i p a l l e v e l , s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l "animateurs" would seem to be more what i s needed i n many p a r t s of the r e g i o n . Eut here a g a i n , implementa t ion o f such programs by the GVBD or t h e M u n i c i p a l i t i e s , are faced with very c o m p l i c a t i n g problems as i s e v i d e n c e d by the r e c e n t p a s t . T a k e , f o r example , the GVRD's r e c e n t e x p e r i e n c e wi th p a r t o f t h e i r L i v a b l e Regions Program. A "program c o -o r d i n a t o r " was h i r e d to run the P u b l i c P a r t i c i p a t i o n Program that was to i n v o l v e and r e c e i v e i n f o r m a t i o n from the p u b l i c about the d i f f e r e n t problems they faced l i v i n g i n t h e i r p a r t o f the r e g i o n . I t i s very c l e a r , however, tha t the c o -o r d i n a t o r saw h i s r o l e as more than s i m p l y t h a t . In h i s c o n t a c t s w i t h numerous v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s he d i d more than s o l i c i t t h e i r v iews, and many o f the o r g a n i z a t i o n s r e c e i v e d more than a h e a r i n g . Many found him to be a s o c i a l "animateur" par e x c e l l e n c e , and as a r e s u l t became much more 91 e f f e c t i v e i n o r g a n i z i n g to a c h i e v e t h e i r ends. E f f e c t i v e enough anyway t h a t the GVRD d i s c o n t i n u e d the program. As the " c o - o r d i n a t o r " e x p l a i n e d i n an i n t e r v i e w to the Vancouver Sun, problems began to a r i s e because t h e c i t i z e n s a c t u a l l y began p r o d u c i n g the i n p u t they had been asked to s u p p l y . "The GVRD s t r u c t u r e was j u s t not geared to a t r u e g o v e r n m e n t a l - c i t i z e n r e l a t i o n s h i p " ( O b e r f e l d , 1974) . I t would seem, t h e n , t h a t the " l e v e r s " f o r m a n i p u l a t i n g the r e g i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t y s t r u c t u r e toward a d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n o f c u l t u r e and the e q u a l i z i n g o f o p p o r t u n i t y , are c e r t a n i n l y not the t r a d i t i n a l l e v e r s r e g i o n a l and m u n i c i p a l p l a n n e r s a r e accustomed t o h a n d l i n g . As the r e p o r t a d m i t s : The problem to put i t b l u n t l y , has been the l a c k o f or b e l a t e d r e c o g n i t i o n that c u l t u r a l p l a n n i n g i s a s p e c i a l i z e d area which l e g i t i m a t e l y r e q u i r e d r e s e a r c h and e x p e r t i s e as much as any o ther area o f m u n i c i p a l or r e g i o n a l c o n c e r n . When i t comes to d i s c u s s i n g the p o s s i b l e consequence of a s u b - r e g i o n a l c u l t u r a l d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n p o l i c y the r e p o r t sugges t s t h a t : The p r o x i m i t y of a h e a l t h y s u b - r e g i o n a l l e v e l of c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t y w i l l l end i t s e l f to a d i s p e r s a l of the c u l t u r a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s a t a ne ighborhood l e v e l . But i t i s not immedia te ly obv ious tha t i n c r e a s i n g any sub-r e g i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t y s t r u c t u r e w i l l n e c e s s a r i l y i n c r e a s e the " l i v a b i l i t y " o f the s u r r o u n d i n g a r e a , to the same degree f o r a l l people anyway. In f a c t , i f the p r e s e n t f i n d i n g s can be g e n e r a l i z e d at a l l , i t should be 92 c l e a r t h a t c u l t u r a l d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n as i t r e l a t e s t o v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s i s rcuch more l i k e l y t o e q u a l i z e o p p o r t u n i t e s f o r l o c a l e l i t e s , t h a n e q u a l i z e o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r a l l . CONCLUSION I n c o n c l u s i o n , b o t h p l a n n e r s and u r b a n s o c i o l c g i s t s must b e g i n t o c o n s i d e r a mere c o m p l e t e s e t o f a l t e r n a t i v e i n d i v i d u a l - e n v i r o n m e n t l i n k a g e s i n o r d e r t o b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d how s o c i o - e c o l o g i c a 1 e n v i r o n m e n t s a f f e c t t h e p a t t e r n e d b e h a v i o r o f u r b a n r e s i d e n t s i n t h e i r u s e o f t h e c i t y . O n l y r e c e n t l y , I a n C u l l s n (1973) e c h o e d what h a s been f o u n d h e r e , n a mely t h a t t h e r e i s no s i m p l e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h a e n v i r o n m e n t a l c o n t e x t and t h e b e h a v i o r i t c o n t a i n s , and t h a t p l a n n e r s must s t o p l o o k i n g f o r s i m p l e s o l u t i o n s . As f o r s o c i o l o g i s t s , i t i s s t i l l t o o f r e q u e n t an o c c u r r e n c e t o r u n a c r o s s o r i e n t a t i o n s s u c h a s t h e one a d v a n c e d by R o b e r t H a u s e r (1974: 369) i n a d e b a t e w i t h F a r k a s o v e r t h e c e n t r a l i s s u e o f c o n t e x t u a l a n a l y s i s . H a u s e r t h i n k s t h e : . . . q u e s t i o n i s n o t w h e t h e r g r o u p c o m p o s i t i o n a f f e c t s a n y t h i n g . Of c o u r s e i t d o e s . . . t h e i s s u e i s w h e t h e r t h e r e a r e n e t o r d i r e c t e f f e c t s o f g r o u p c o m p o s i t i o n w h i c h p e r s i s t a b o v e and beyond t h o s e o f i n d i v i d u a l v a r i a t e s . . . B u t t o c e n t r a l l y f o c u s on t h e d i r e c t e f f e c t s c f c o n t e x t u a l v a r i a b l e s i s t c n e c e s s a r i l y r e s t r i c t t h e p o s s i b l e f o r m s o f i n d i v i d u a 1 -env i r c n t r e n t r e l a t i o n s . I t i s q u i t e p o s s i b l e , i n f a c t q u i t e probab le t h a t many i n d i v i d u a l -environment r e l a t i o n s are c o n d i t i o n a l i n n a t u r e . The way i n which a p a r t i c u l a r e n v i r o n m e n t a l f a c t o r i n f l u e n c e s a s p e c i f i c behav ior p a t t e r n may w e l l depend on o ther e n v i r o n m e n t a l f a c t o r s , or on the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the i n d i v i d u a l , or on b o t h . B l a l o c k (1965) has noted t h a t while a d d i t i v e models seem to approximate r e a l i t y w e l l i n many cases , common sense c o n s i d e r a t i o n s o f t en suggest s p e c i f i c t ypes of n o n - a d d i t i v e models as a l t e r n a t i v e s . These a l t e r n a t i v e f o r m u l a t i o n s of i n d i v i d u a l - e n v i r o n m e n t r e l a t i o n s stand i n need of more i n v e s t i g a t i o n . BIBLIOGRAPHY A n d e r s o n , Theodore R. and J a n i c e A. Egeland 1961 " S p a t i a l a s p e c t s of s o c i a l area a n a l y s i s , " American S o c i o l o g i c a l Review 26:39 2-398 A x e l r o d , M o r r i s 1956 "Urban s t r u c t u r e and s o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n , " A merican S o c i o l o g i c a l Review^ 21:13-19 Babchuk, N i c h o l a s and A l a n Booth 1969 " V o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n memberships: a l o n g i t u d i n a l a n a l y s i s , " Am§£i2I£ S o c i o l o g i c a l Reviewj_ 34:31-45 B e l l , W. and Boat , 1957 "Urban ne ighborhoods and i n f o r m a l s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s , " American J o u r n a l Of Soc io logy , . 62:391-398 B e l l , W. and M . T . Force 1956 "Urban neighborhood types and p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n forman a s s o c i a t i o n s , " American S o c i o l og i c a l R e v i e w 2 1 ; 2 5 - 3 4 B e l l , W. and M . t . F o r c e 1957 " S o c i a l s t r u c t u r e and p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n d i f f e r e n t t y p e s of f o r m a l a s s o c i a t i o n , " S o c i a l Forces . . 34: 345-350 B e l l , Wendell 1953 "The s o c i a l areas of the San F r a n c i s c o Bay R e g i o n , " American S o c i o l o g i c a l Review. 20:39-47 B e l l , Wendel l 1969 "Urban ne ighborhoods and i n d i v i d u a l b e h a v i o r , " i n P a u l Meadow ( e d . ) , Urbanism^ y E i S S l z a t i o n x And Change^ Comparat ive P§£5£§2 t i v e S j , R e a d i n g : Addison-Wesley P u b l i s h i n g ~ C o . Pp . 120-146 95 B e r r y , B r i a n J . L . and P h i l l i m H . Rees 1969 "The f a c t o r i a l e co logy of C a l c u t t a , " American J o u r n a l Of S o c i o l o g y . , 74 :445-491 B e s h e r s , James M 1962 Urban S o c i a l S t r u c t u r e , G l e n c o e : The Free Pres s B l a l o c k , Hubert M. 1965 "Theory b u i l d i n g and the concept o f i n t e r a c t i o n , " American S o c i c l o g i c a l Review. 30:374-380 B l a l o c k , Hubert M. 1972 S o c i a l S t a t i s t i c s ^ New Y o r k : M c G r a w - H i l l Book Company B l a u , Peter M. . 1957 "Formal o r g a n i z a t i o n : d imens ions of a n a l y s i s , " American J o u r n a l Of S o c i o l o g y . 63 :58-59 B l a u , P e t e r M. 1960 " S t r u c t u r a l e f f e c t s , " M e i l S l i l S o c i o l o c j i c a l Review. 25: 170-193 B l i s h e n , Bernard 1967 "A s o c i o - e c o n o m i c index o f o c c u p a t i o n s i n Canada ," Canadian Review Of S o c i o l o g y And Anthropology , . 41:41-53 B o o t h . A l a n 1972 "Sex and s o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n , " American S o c i o l o g i c a l Review^ 37:183-93 Bowlby , Sophia R 1969 " P a t t e r n s o f change i n the a c c e s s i b i l i t y of r e t a i l s t o r e s i n urban househo lds ," Research R e p o r t No. 56 Northwestern Uni v e r s i t y Boyce, Ronald R. 1969 " R e s i d e n t i a l m o b i l i t y and i t s i m p l i c a t i o n s for urban s p a t i a l change ," P r o c e e d i n g s ^ A s s o c i a t i o n Of American Geographers. . T:22 I26 B r e t o n , Raymond 1964 " I n s t i t u t i o n a l completeness of e t h n i c communit ies and the p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s of i m m i g r a n t s , " American J o u r n a l Of S o c i o l o g y 70: 193-205~ Brown, Lawarence , John Holmes and John Jakubs 1971 "Urban a c t i v i t y systems i n a p l a n n i n g c o n t e x t , " EDEft I I Proceedings pp. 102-110 C a m b e l l , E . Q . and C . N . A l e x a n d e r 1965 " S t r u c t u r a l e f f e c t s and i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s , " American J o u r n a l Of S o c i o l o g y 71:284-289 C h a p i n F . S t u a r t J r . 1970 " A c t i v i t y systems and urban s t r u c t u r e : a working schema," J o u r n a l Of American I n s t i t u t e of Planners . . 34 :11-T8 Coleman James S. 1957 Community, C c n f l i c t ^ . The Free P r e s s a C o r p o r a t i o n Coleman James S. 1958 " r e l a t i o n a l a n a l y s i s : the s tudy of s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s with survey methods," Human 2 E 3 ^ U i S I i i ° £ j i 17:28-36 Coleman, James S. 1966 "Community d i s o r g a n i z a t i o n , " i n Rober t K Merton and Robert A N i s b e t , ( e d s . ) , Contemporary, S o c i a l Problems. , H a r c o u r t . Brace And W o r l d , Inc : New Y o r k , pp. 670-722 Coleman, James S. 1970 " P r o p e r t i e s of c o l l e c t i v e n e s s , " J2a.c.E2§°£i°i.°-9.v.i. Research And T heory_. Boston; A l l l y n And Bacon pp. 5-10 1 C o x , Kev in R. 1969 "The e n e s i s of a c q u a i n t a n c e f i e l d s p a t i a l s t r u c t u r e s : a c o n c e p t u a l model and e m p i r i c a l t e s t , " i n K . R . Cox and R . G . G o l l e d g e ( e d s . ) . B e h a v i o r a l Problems In Geography a Symposium., Evanston I l l i n o i s : Northwes tern U n i v e r s i t y C u l l e n , Ian 1973 "A h i e r a r c h i c a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of everday l i f e , " J o i n t U n i t f o r P l a n n i n g R e s e a r c h , London C u r t i s , James 1971 " V o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n j o i n i n g : a c r o s s -n a t i o n a l comparat ive n o t e , " American S o c i o l o g i c a l Review.. 36:872-880 D a v i s , James A . , Joe L . Spaeth and C a r o l y n Huson 1961 "A technique f o r a n a l y s i n g the e f f e c t s of group c o m p o s i t i o n , " American S o c i o l o g i c a l Review. 26 :215-225 Dogan, M a t t e i and S t e i n Rokkan, eds . 1969 Q u a n t i t a t i v e E c o l o g i c a l A n a l y s i s i n the S o c i a l Sciences . . Cambridge: The M, I . T . P r e s s . Duncan, O t i s D, and B e v e r l y Duncan 1955 " R e s i d e n t i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n and o c c u p a t i o n a l s t r a t i f i c a t i o n , " American S o c i o l o g i c a l Review^ 60:4 93-5 03 D u v a l l , E v e l y n 1969 F a m i l y Develo^ment^ P h i l a d e l p h i a : L i p p i n c o t t F a r k a u s , George 1974 " S p e c i f i c a t i o n r e s i d u a l s , and c o n t e x t u a l e f f e c t s , " S o c i o l o g i c a l Methods And Research . 2 :333-361 Fawcet t , B r i a n 1974 " C u l t u r a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s i n G r e a t e r Vanoucver ," unpubl i shed d r a f t . G r e a t e r Vancouver R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t P l a n n i n g Department F r i z z e l , A l a n 1973 " S o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n and v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s : the Canadian p e r s p e c t i v e , " Research Monograph, Queen's Research Team 3 VRD 1974 "Second seminar and management of g r o w t h , " G r e a t e r Vancouver R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t L i v a b l e Reg ion Programme G a l t u n g , John 1967 Theory And Methods Of S o c i a l R e s e a r c h r New Y o r k : Columbia U n i v e r s i t y Press Cans , H. J . 1967 The L e v i t t o w n e r s . New York Pantheon Books 3 a n s , H . J . 1968 "Urbanism and suburbanism as ways o f l i f e , " i n R . E . P a h l , (ed.) Readings In Urban Socio logy. . O x f o r d : Pergomen P r e s s , ppT ~ 9 5 r i r 7 3 r e e n , Bryan S . R . 1971 " S o c i a l a r e a a n a l y s i s and s t r u c t u r a l e f f e c t s , " The J o u r n a l Of The B r i t i s h S o c i o l o g i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n ^ 5:2-17 G r e e r , S c o t t 1956 "Urbanism r e c o n s i d e r e d : a comparat ive s tudy of l o c a l a r e a s i n a m e t r o p o l i s , " American S o c i o l o g i c a l Rey iew t 21: 19-25 G r e e r , S c o t t 1958 " I n d i v i d u a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n mass s o c i e t y , " i n Roland Young (ed.) , £ £ £ £ 2 1 1 2 . k § § To The Study Of P o l i t ics . . Evans ton: Northwestern U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s G r e e r , S c o t t 1959 "Urbanism and s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e : a Los Angeles s t u d y , " i n M a r v i n Sussman (ed, ) Community. S t r u c t u r e And A n a l y s i s . . New Y o r k : Thomas Y. C r c w e l l and Co. G r e e r , S c o t t 1960 "The s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e and p o l i t i c a l proces s of s u b u r b i a , " American S o c i o l o g i c a l Review.. 25:514-516 G r e e r , S c o t t 1962 The Emercjing. C i t y . . G l e n c o e : The Free P r e s s G r e e r , S c o t t 1962 " D i s p e r s i o n and the c u l t u r e o f urban man," i n T . E . H . W i l l i a m s , (ed.) Urban S u r v i v a l And T r a f f i c . . E v a n s t o n : Northwestern U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s G r e e r , S c o t t 1962 "The s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e and p o l i t i c a l proces s of s u b u r b i a : an e m p i r i c a l t e s t , " R u r a l S o c i o l o g y ^ 27:438-459 G r e e r , S c o t t 1972 The Urban View. London: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y Pres s 2lTl9-25~ G r e e r , Sco t t and P e t e r O r l e a n s 1962 "The mass s o c i e t y and the p a r a p o l i t i c a l s t r u c t u r e , " American S o c i o l o g i c a l Review.. 27: 643-46 Hammer, P h i l i p G. J r . and F . S t u a r t Chapin J r . 1972 "Human time a l l o c a t i o n : a case s tudy of W a s h i n g t o n , D . C . " A T e c h n i c a l Monograph. C e n t e r For Urban And R e g i o n a l S t u d i e s : C h a p e l H i l l H a r p e r , D . H . 1961 "Some new a p p l i c a t i o n s of dichotomous a l g e b r a to survey a n a l y s i s and l a t e n t s t r u c t u r e a n a l y s i s . " Unpubl i shed P h . d . D i s s e r t a t i o n H a r r i s , C . D . and E . L , Oilman 1945 "The nature o f c i t i e s , " Annals o f the American Academy of P o l i t i c a l S c i e n c e . 242 :7-17 H a u s e r , Robert M . 1970 "Context and consex: a c a u t i o n a r y t a l e , " American J o u r n a l Of S o c i o l o g y 75:645-664 H a u s e r , Robert M. 1971 Soc ioeconomic Backgournd And E d u c a t i o n a l £S£Jormancej_ The A r n o l d And C a r o l i n e Rose Monograph S e r i e s In S o c i o l o g y . H a u s e r , Robert M• 1974 " C o n t e x t u a l a n a l y s i s r e v i s i t e d , " S o c i o l o g i c a l Methods And R e s e a r c h . 2:365-375 Hemmens, George C. 1966 "The s t r u c t u r e o f urban a c t i v i t y l i n k a g e s , " An Urban S t u d i e s Research Monograph.. C e n t e r F o r Urban And R e g i o n a l S t u d i e s , C h a p e l H i l l Hodge, R.W. and D . J . Treiioan 1968 " S o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n and s o c i a l s t a t u s , " American S o c i o l o g i c a l Review.. 33:72 2-740 Hodge, Robert W. and Dona l s J . T r e i m a n 1968 " S o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n and s o c i a l s t a t u s , " Amer i can S o c i o l o g i c a l Re v i e w.. 33: 72 2-740 H o r t o n , Frank E . and David R. Reyno lds 1971 " E f f e c t s of urban s p a t i a l s t r u c t u r e i n i n d i v i d u a l b e h a v i o r , " Economic Geography. J a n u a r y : 36-48 Hoyt, H. 1933 One Hundred Years Of Land Chicago. . C h i c a g o : U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s Va lues In Of C h i c a g o Hoyt, Homer 1939 The S t r u c t u r e And fi®i3i}bor hoods I n Washington D . C : A d m i n i s t r a t i o n Growth Of R e s i d e n t i a l A me r i c a n C i t i e F e d e r a l Housing Hunter , A . A . and A . H . L a t i f 1973 " s t a b i l i t y and change i n the e c o l o g i c a l s t r u c t u r e of Winnipeg: a mult i -method a p p r o a c h , " The Canadian Review Of S o c i o l o g y And AnthrcjDologXt 10:308-3 33 Hyman, Herbert H. And C h a r l e s R. Wright 1971 Trends i n v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n memberships o f American a d u l t s : r e p l i c a t i o n based cn secondary a n a l y s i s of n a t i o n a l . sample s u r v e y s , " American S o c i o l o g i c a l Review.. 36:191-206 ~ J a n o w i t z , M o r r i s 1967 The Community P r e s s In An Oban S e t t i n g . ; Second E d i t i o n , C h i c a g o : U n i v e r s i t y Cf Chicago P r e s s Komarovsky, 1946 La z a r s f e l d M i r r a "The v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s of urban d w e l l e r s , " American S o c i o l o g i c a l Review^ 1 1 : 686-6 98 1959 P . F . "Problems Today^ In I l l i n o i s : The i n methodology," S o c i o l o g y R . K . Merton ( e d . ) , Glencoe Free Press L a z a r s f e l d , 1955 P . F . and M. Rosenberg (eds.) The Language Of S o c i a l Research^ G l e n c o e : Free Press L e e , T e r e n c e 1963 "The optimum p r o v i s i o n and s i t i n g o f s o c i a l c l u b s , " Durham Res.. Rev.. 4%53-61 L e e , Terence 1968 "Urban ne ighborhood: a schema," Human R e l a t i o n s . s o c i a l - s p a t i a l 21:241-268 L i n z , Juan J . 1969 " E c o l o g i c a l a n a l y s i s and survey r e s e a r c h , " i n Dogan & Rokkan ( e d s . ) , Q u a n t i t a t i v e l £ 2 i 2 2 k £ § l A n a l y s i s In The S o c i a l S c i e n c e s T Cambridge:~The M . I . T P r e s s , pp 91-T31 L i t w a k , Eugene 1961 " V o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s and neighborhood c o h e s i o n , " American S o c i o l o g i c a l Review. 26: 258-271 Meis , S . M . And W . J . Scheu 1972 "An i s o m e t r i c mapping o f the e c o l o g i c a l d i s t r i b u t i o n of soc ioeconomic s t a t u s i n M e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver ," Vancouver Urban S t u d i e s P r o j e c t : Research Report No. 1. Department Of A n t h r o p o l o g y / S o c i o l o g y , U n i v e r s i t y Of B r i t i s h Columbia , Vancouver M i c h e l s o n , W i l l i a m H. 1970 Man And H i s Urban Environment^ A S o c i o l o g i c a l h.££I2£h±. Read ing , M a s s a c h u s e t t s : Add i son-Wes l ey P u b l i s h i n g C o . W i l l i a m H. " R e s i d e n t i a l m o b i l i t y as a d e f i c i t compensat ing p r o c e s s , " paper p r e s e n t e d to the Canadian S o c i o l o g y and Anthropo logy A s s o c i a t i o n , Kings ton O n t a r i o M u r d i e , Robert A . 1969 " F a c t o r i a l e c o l o g y o f m e t r o p o l i t a n T o r o n t o , 1951- 1961: an essay on the s o c i a l geography o f the c i t y , " C h i c a g o : U n i v e r s i t y Of C h i c a g o , Department Of Geography Research Paper No. 116 Nohara , Shigeo 1968 " S o c i a l c o n t e x t and n e i g h b o u r l i n e s s : the negro i n S t . L o u i s , " i n The New H £ f e = 2 i 2 ^ t i o n _ . s . G r e e r , Minar M c E l r a t h and P. O r l e a n s ( e d s . ) . New York: S t . M a r t i n s P r e s s , Pp. 179-188 M i c h e l s o n , 1973 O b e r f e l d , Harvey 1974 " P l a n n e r s shut you out because they f e a r you ," Vancouver Sun Newspaper (Thursday, November 14th) . O r l e a n s , P e t e r 1966 "Robert Park and s o c i a l area a n a l y s i s : a convergence of t r a d i t i o n s i n urban s o c i o l o g y , " Urban A f f a i r s Q u a r t e r l y . 1:5-19 P a h l , R . E . , ed. 1968 Readings In Urban Soc io logy . . O x f o r d : Pergaman P r e s s P a r k , Robert E . And E r n e s t w. Burgess (eds.) 1925 The C i t y . . C h i c a g o P a t t e r s o n , M. 1974 "The f a c t o r i a l urban e c o l o g y of G r e a t e r Vancouver: c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the da ta b a s e , " P h . d . D i s s e r t a t i o n Vancouver: U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia R e i d , A. and J . F r i d e r e s 1971 " F a c t o r s a f f e c t i n g membership i n v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s i n C h u r c h i l l M a n i t o b a , " Research Report No. 5, S e r i e s 2, Center f o r Se t t l ement S t u d i e s , U n i v e r s i t y o f Manitoba Rob inson , W.S. 1950 " E c o l o g i c a l c o r r e l a t i o n s and t h e behav ior o f i n d i v i d u a l s , " American S o c i o l o g i c a l Review.. 15: 351-357 Robson , B . T . 1969 Urban A n a l y s i s ^ Cambridge: The U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s R o s s i , P e t e r 1955 Why Peop le Move.. G l e n c o e , I l l i n o i s : The Free P r e s s S c a f f , A l v i n H. 1952 "The e f f e c t of commuting on p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s , " American S o c i o l o g i c a l Review.. 17:215-220 S cheu c h , Erwin K . 1969 " S o c i a l c o n t e x t and i n d i v i d u a l b e h a v i o r , " i n Dogan & Rokkan ( e d s . ) , Qua n t i t a t i y e g e o l o g i c a l A n a l y s i s In The S o c i a l S c i e n c e s . Cambridge: The M . I . T , P r e s s . Pp7 ~13 3 r 155 103 Schnor e, Leo F. 1958 " S o c i a l morphology and human e c o l o g y , " American J o u r n a l Of S o c i o l o g j ^ 6 3:6 20-634 S c h u e s s l e r , K a r l 1969 "Covar iance a n a l y s i s i n s o c i o l o g i c a l r es earc h," S o c i c l o g i c a l Methodolog In E . F . B o r g a t t a ~ 7 e d . ) , ~ P p . 219-244~ S c o t t , John C. 1957 "Membership and p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s , " American S o c i o l o g i c a l Review^ 22:315-326 S e g a l David R. and M.W, Meyer 1969 "The s o c i a l contex t of p o l i t i c a l p a r t i s a n s h i p , " i n M. Dogan and S. Rokkan ( e d s . ) , Q u a n t i t a t i v e E c o l o g i c a l A n a l y s i s . . Cambridge: The M . I . T Press S e i b e r , L a u r e n H. and G. F . Summers 1974 " L o c a t i n g community b o u n d a r i e s : an i n t e g r a t i o n o f t h e o r y and e m p i r i c a l t e c h n i q u e , " S o c i o l o g i c a l Meth ods And Research. . 2:259-280 S e w e l l , W.H. And J . M . Armer 1966 "Neighborhood c o n t e x t and c o l l e g e p l a n s , " American S o c i o l o g i c a l Review.. 31:159-168 Simmons, James W. 1968 "Changing r e s i d e n c e i n the c i t y , a review of i n t r a u r b a n m o b i l i t y , " The G e o g r a p h i c a l Review., 58 :622-651 S o n q u i s t , John A . 1970 M u l t i v a r i a t e Model B u i l d i n g ^ . Ann A r b o r : I n s t i t u t e f o r S o c i a l Research St inchcombe, A r t h u r L . 1968 C o n s t r u c t i n g S o c i a l T h e o r i e s . . New Y o r k : H a r c o u r t , Brace And W c r l , I n c . Tannenbaum, A r n o l d S. And G e r a l d G. Bachman 1963 " S t r u c t u r a l v e r s u s i n d i v i d u a l e f f e c t s , " American J o u r n a l Of Soc ic lcgy^. 6 9:585-595 Tomeh, Aida K. 1964 " I n f o r m a l group p a r t i c i p a t i o n and r e s i d e n t i a l p a t t e r n s , " American J o u r n a l Of S o c i o l o g y 70 :28-35 104 U y e k i , Eugene S. 1964 " R e s i d e n t i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n and s t r a t i f i c a t i o n , " Rmerican J o u r n a l Of S o c i o l o g y . . 6 9:491-498 Vankonen, T a p a n i 1969 " I n d i v i d u a l and s t r u c t u r a l e f f e c t s i n e c o l o g i c a l r e s e a r c h , " i n Dogan S Rokkan ( e d s . ) , Q u a n t i t a t i v e E c o l o g i c a l A n a l y s i s I i i l ! l§. S o c i a l S c i e n c e s ^ Cambridge: The HT ITTT " p r e s s , ppT ~53-68 W a l k e r , Helen M and Joseph Lev 19 53 S t a t i s t i c a l I n f e r e n c e . New York: H o l t , l i n e h a r t S Winston Warren , Rona ld L . 1963 The Community i n America C h i c a g o , 111: Rand McNal ly and Company Wayne, J a c k 1972 "The case of the f r i e n d l e s s u r b a n i t e , " i n A l a n P o w e l l (ed.) , Urban Mjths and R e a l i t i e s . . T o r o n t o : M c C l e l l a n d and Stewart Webber, M e l v i n M. 1963 "Order i n d i v e r s i t y community without p r o p i n q u i t y , " i n Lowdon Wingo ( e d . ) , C i t i e s And Space,. B a l t i m o r e : Johns Hopkins Press Webber, M e l v i n M. 1964 " C u l t u r e , t e r r i t o r i a l i t y , and the e l a s t i c m i l e , " Papers Of The R e g i o n a l S c i e n c e A s s o c i a t i o n ^ 13:59-69 Webber, M e l v i n M. 1964 "The urban p l a c e and the nonplace urban r e a l m , " i n M e l v i n M. Webber e t . a l . , JJSElo r a t i o n s Into Urban S t r u c t u r e ^ P h i l a d e l p h i a W i l k i n s o n , Kenneth P . 1970 "The community as a s o c i a l f i e l d , " S o c i a l F o r c e s . 48: 311-322 W r i g h t , C h a r l e s R. And Herbert H . Hyman 1958 " V o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n memberships of American a d u l t s : e v i d e n c e from n a t i o n a l sample s u r v e y s , " American S o c i o l o g i c a l Review. 23:284-294 

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            data-media="{[{embed.selectedMedia}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
https://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0100061/manifest

Comment

Related Items