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Natural revegetation of disturbed sites in British Columbia Errington, John Charles 1975

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NATURAL REVEGETATION OF DISTURBED SITES IN BRITISH COLUMBIA JOHN CHARLES ERRINGTON B.Sc. University of Victoria, 1967 M.Phil. University of York (England), 1970 A thesis submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in the Department of Forestry We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard-THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA July, 1975 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make i t freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of Forestry The University of British Columbia Vancouver, B. C. Date <%+ 2.5"' \yi i i ABSTRACT Chairman: Dr. J. V. Thirgood Factors affecting the natural revegetation of areas disturbed by airborne emissions were studied at the Anyox smelter on the northern coast of British Columbia. Revegetation of areas where vegetation and soil were removed by industry were studied on mine waste dumps on Vancouver Island, on mine wastes in the West Kootenays, and on abandoned logging roads on Vancouver Island and near Lumby. At Anyox, much of the direct evidence of fume damage was eradicated by a fire in 1942, which occurred eight years after smelting operations ceased. This fire encompassed a five-mile radius surrounding the smelter. Tree-ring analysis on surviving western hemlock trees, extending from the edge of the fire to the head of Alice Arm, showed a strong relationship between the tonnage of ore smelted and the radial increment. Tree growth was initially depressed when smelting began in 1914 and remained low until smelter operations ceased. At this time the growth dramatically increased;, but by 1970 the annual radial increment had returned to a slow rate similar to before smelting operations began. Western hemlock was much less susceptible to fume damage than western red cedar. Although total fume kill occurred on western red cedar as far south as the Nass River, north to the head of Hastings Arm and East to the head of Alice Arm, total kill on hemlock took place within a few miles of the smelter. Fume damage was the heaviest near the smelter and near the head of Alice Arm where the topography confined the fumes, rendering them more effective. i i i Within the area affected by the 1942 fire, revegetation was slow near the smelter and was more rapid near the mature vegetation. Seeds which are easily dispersed by light wind, were responsible for the majority of colonizing species many of which were found rarely in the surrounding unburned vegetation. On logging roads and mine waste materials, seed source availability appeared to be the major factor in determining the coloniz-ing species. Light wind-blown seeds were the initial colonizers on coastal logging roads, and adjacent vegetation supplied the seed source for the interior'logging roads. The establishment of salal through vegetative means was' observed to occur on coastal logging roads. Species with the ability to fix nitrogen, with the exception of alder, played a minor role in natural revegetation of most areas. Slow revegetation of large-scale disturbances was attributed partly to the lack of adequate seed. The most common cause of slow revegetation in most areas was moisture deficiency. Moisture availability on mine wastes at Cumberland appeared to be determined by slope, aspect, color, shading and mound height. On logging road surfaces, in both Lumby and coastal areas, a reduction in plant growth on steeper slopes was attributed to reduced moisture. Wind exposure was found to be the most important factor governing revegetation of mine wastes in the West Kootenays. Coarse textured material was related to a lower percentage cover of vegetation on the surface of coastal logging roads. Uniformly coarse textured material on the waste dumps in the West Kootenays pre-cluded any significant statistical relationships. Coarse textured materials, nevertheless, had a general inhibitory effect on the rate of i v revegetation of many of the mine waste dumps. Steep unstable slopes were a major factor which prevented revegetation of West Kootenay mine wastes and on the upslope of road cuts. The scale of disturbance was found to magnify or obscure many of the factors important to successful plant colonization. The chemical composition of waste material, although studied only peripherally, did not appear to be a major factor in determining the revegetation of disturbed areas at the sites studied. Low pH values, which are often taken as a barometer of mine waste toxicity, occurred rarely. In many instances, high pH values may have prevented the success-ful invasion of acid-loving species. In applied reclamation procedures, it is mandatory that objectives for future land use be incorporated into planning, along with the anticipa-tion of inhibiting factors. If no conditions are left which prevent plant growth, then reclamation will be straightforward and land use goals will be more easily satisfied. TABLE OF CONTENTS List of Tables . List of Figures • Acknowledgement . Chapter 1 Introduction Chapter 2 Methods • • Chapter 3 Anyox Copper Smelter 3.1 Introduction 3.2 Literature Review . . . . . 3.3 Description of Study Area . 3.4 History . . . . 3.5 Sampling Methods . . . . 3.6 Arrangement of Data 3.6.1 Introduction 3.6.2 Methods 3.6.3 Results and Discussion . . . . . . . . . . 3.7 Hemlock Type 3.7.1 Introduction 3.7.2 Methods . . . . . 3.7.3 Results '• • 3.7.4 Discussion 3.8 Factors Determining the Revegetation of the Burne Area • • ' J 3.8.1 Introduction 3.8.2 Methods . . . . . . . . . . 3.8.3 Results v i TABLE OF CONTENTS (continued) Page 3.8.4 Discussion . . 37 3.9 Discussion 40 3.9.1 Spread of Smelter Fumes . . . . 41 3.9.2 Time of Fume Damage ................ 43 3.9.3 Relative Sensitivity of Trees to Fume Damage : 43 3.9.4 The Effect of Fire 45 3.9.5 Lasting Effects of Smelter Activities . . . 45 Chapter 4 Disturbances Involving the Total Removal of Soil Matter 47 4.1 Introduction . . 47 4.2 Sampling Methods 50 4.3 Coastal Areas . 54 4.3.1 Logging Roads 54 4.3.1.1 Methods 54 4.3.1.2 Results . 54 4.3.2 Mine Sites 71 4.3.2.1 Introduction . 71 4.3.2.2 Methods 7 8 4.3.2.3 Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78 4.4 Interior Areas . . . . . 85 4.4.1 Logging Roads 85 4.4.1.1 Introduction 85 4.4.1.2 Methods 85 v i i TABLE OF CONTENTS (continued) Pagje 4.4.1.3 Results. 86 4.4.1.4 Discussion 88 4.4.2 Mine Waste Dumps . . . . . . . . . . 90 4.4.2.1 Introduction . 90 4.4.2.2 Methods 90 4.4.2.3 Results and Discussion 93 4.5 Discussion 99 4.5.1 Species Composition . . . 99 4.5.2 Factors Determining Plant Survival on Waste Materials 100 Chapter 5 Conclusions 105 Literature Cited 109 Appendices I Detailed record of climatic data from Alice Arm and Mill Bay . . . . . . . 116 II Plot data recorded at Anyox, B. C 118 III Species plot matrix of Anyox cover data, the species arranged in order of frequency, the plots by vegetation type 121 IV A synthesis of plot data from disturbed portions of coastal logging roads, Vancouver Island 124 V Vegetation found on abandoned logging roads, Vancouver Island . . . . . . . . . . . . 129 VI A synthesis of plot data from coal mine wastes, Cumberland, B. C 132 VII Plant species recorded on Vancouver Island mine wastes . . 134 VIII A synthesis of plot data from disturbed portions of interior logging roads near Lumby, B. C. . . 137 IX Vegetation found on abandoned logging roads near Lumby, B. C 139 v i i i TABLE OF CONTENTS (continued) Page X A synthesis of plot data collected from mine wastes in the Ainsworth, Sandon and New Denver area 141 XI Plant species found on mine wastes in the Ainsworth, Sandon and New Denver area. 144 i s h LIST OF TABLES Table Page 1 A summary of the Western hemlock trees used for tree-ring analysis 29 2 Correlation matrix between measured variables in the burned areas surrounding Anyox (22 degrees of freedom) . . . 38 3 Average percentage cover of major species occurring on Vancouver Island logging roads according to their position on the road . . . 57 4 Correlation coefficients between the cover of a species in the upper control plots and the cover of species on the other plots with 50 degrees of freedom 64 5 Correlation coefficients between the cover of a species in the lower control plots and the cover of the other plots with 50 degrees of freedom 65 6 A description of the variables measured from coastal logging road plots 67 7 Correlation coefficients between total plant cover , and measured variables on coastal logging roads. . . . . . . 70 8 Mine dumps examined on Vancouver Island 72 9 A description of the plot variables, Cumberland coal mine wastes (from #5 and #4 mines)--67 plots 82 10 Correlation coefficients showing the relation between total species cover and a number, of physical variables (on both No. 4 and No. 5 dumps, Cumberland) with 65 degrees of freedom 83 11 A description of the variables measured in. the Interior Logging road plots near Lumby, B. C.--road surface data (23 observations) 87 12 Correlation coefficients between total plant cover and measured variables on logging roads in the Interior Douglas fir zone using all disturbed surfaces and the road surface only . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 13 The mine dumps sampled in the Ainsworth/New Denver area . . 91 14 Description of measured variables from the mine dumps in the Ainsworth/New Denver area 95 • \ X I LIST OF TABLES (continued) Table Page 15 Correlation coefficients between total cover and measured variables based on 59 samples from mine waste materials in the Ainsworth/New Denver area 96 x i • I. LIST OF FIGURES Figure Page 1 Location map of Anyox showing the extent of the 1942 fire ( — ) . Fume damage occurred from the Mass River north to the head of both Hastings Arm and Alice Arm . 4 2 The Anyox smelter, 1923 (reproduced from Ternan 1923) . , 5 3 The abandoned Anyox smelter, June 1971 5 4 A synthesis of weather records at Alice Arm and Mill Bay stations. Mill Bay was recorded for a minimum of 43 years, and Alice Arm for 15 10 5 Map of the Anyox'study area showing plot layout . . . . 15 6 The relationship of Anyox plots using principal component analysis 21 7 The relationship of Anyox plots using Williams and Lambert normal association analysis . . . . . 22 8 The relationship of Anyox species using principal com-ponent analysis . 25 9 Approximate location of plot 15 in the hemlock vegetation type. Note the western redcfrdar snags . . . . 26 10 a. Average radial increment per year based on 19 hemlock trees for the years 1903 to 1970 and annual tonnages of ore smelted 1914 to 1935 . . . . . 30 b. Standardized average radial increment per year . . . c. Average yearly temperature for Prince Rupert from 1911 to 1970 and .Anyox from 1914 to 1933. . . . d. Total annual precipitation for Prince Rupert from 1911 to 1970 and Anyox from 1914 to 1933. . . . 11 Sedge vegetation type (Plot 10) and abandoned Anyox mine workings in the background 35 12 The Alder vegetation type (Plot 26) . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 13 The Willow vegetation type (Plot 17) 36 14 The relationship between the time of revegetation (tree age) and the distance from the smelter in the areas burned in 1942 . . . . . . 39 -i x i i i - • LIST OF FIGURES (continued) Figure Page 15 Schematic cross-section of a road constructed on a hill side 52 16 The relationship, for road surface data, between the percentage cover of several species, and the age of logging road abandonment on Vancouver Island 59 17 The relationship, for road surface data, between the percentage frequency of several species, and the age of logging road abandonment on Vancouver Island. . . 61 18 Recently abandoned logging road near Port Renfrew . . . 62 19 Logging road near Port Renfrew abandoned. 15 years ago. . 62 20 East side of conical coal waste dump at South Wellington. The south facing slope is bare of vegetation 74 21 Map of Cumberland area coal dumps traced from airphoto BC 5097-018, showing roads and an abandoned railway grade 76 22 Argonaut Mine at Upper Quinsam Lake, abandoned in 1957. . 77 23 Scale diagram cf transects running north to south across the No. 5 mine waste at Cumberland showing the tree species. The age is shown at the apex of each . . . . . 79 24 Steep unstable slope, Wonderful mine, Sandon . . . . . . 98 25 Coarse textured slope, Wonderful mine, Sandon . 98 x i i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I would like to express my sincere appreciation to Dr. J. V. Thirgood, Faculty of Forestry, for his interest, direction and assistance throughout the study. Thanks are also due to my committee members, Dr. T. Ballard, Dr. A. Kozak, Dr. V. J. Krajina and Dr. D. Lacate for critical review of the manuscript. I would like to thank Mr. C. Penney, B. C. Molybdenum Limited for financial support during the field studies at Anyox. Financial support from the Pacific Forest Research Center, Victoria, during the survey of mine wastes and abandoned logging roads is also gratefully acknowledged. Financial support afrom Kaiser Resources Limited Fellowship and H . R. MacMillan Family Fellowship are greatefully acknowledged. I am also indebted to Mrs. E. Tusko for measuring tree rings and to my typist Miss E. Cbrbett. Finally, I would like to thank my wife for her help in data collection and her unfailing encouragement throughout the duration of my studies. 1 Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION During the past few years in British Columbia, there has been much concern over Industrial land disturbance. Public outcry has been directed largely towards the mining industry, especially since the development of methods for large-scale surface mining of coal and the open pit mining of low-grade metallic ore deposits. Large-scale mining activities have resulted in major changes in land configuration, the formation of huge dumps of waste rock and in large areas being entirely stripped of vegetation. Smelter activities in British Columbia have also resulted in the destruction of vegetation in several locations, the best known being the smelter at Trail. The Trail smelter received considerable attention during the 1930's when it was found that fume damage was occurring across the border in the United States. Because of the American complaints, a joint commission was set up to study the problem (Katz et_al_, 1939), and measures were taken to reduce the incidence of damage. ^ Annual disturbance by the forest industry through road construction is also considerable, but has received comparatively little adverse criticism because of the dispersion of logging roads as compared to the concentrated disturbance of mine sites. The mining industry is now required to reclaim their disturbed areas and is responding, 1n many cases, with an "instant green" covering of grass-legume mixtures. Similarly, forest roads, on abandonment, are required to be "put to bed", primarily for reasons of watershed pro-tection, by sowing a suitable grassland seed mixture. Whereas the 2 short-term stabilizing effects of grass cannot be underrated, long-term land use goals are generally disregarded. Assuming that natural processes of succession will eventually take over, the land may revegetate in a much more satisfactory manner. Throughout this province there are many areas of past disturbance which have been allowed to revegetate naturally. Knowledge of the species composition, together with the physical and chemical parameters of these sites would be useful for predicting the natural revegetation of present-day disturbances. An understanding of conditions amenable to natural revegetation will also aid in programs of assisted revegetation as well. The objectives of this thesis are to identify species that naturally revegetate disturbed land, to assess rates of succession and to denote problem areas where revegetation has not occurred, and to assess the factors responsible. The information gained from this study may hopefully facilitate the development of procedures for revegetating disturbed areas. Chapter 2 METHODS Areas on which past disturbances have occurred were selected for study. The original plan called for a study of areas damaged by mining activities only, and the Anyox copper smelter was selected for detailed examination in the summer of 1971. Field facilities and financing ended after one field season with the closure of an adjacent mine and more sites were selected to include- other kinds of industrial 3 land disturbance. Mine waste dumps and roads of varying ages of deposition were surveyed during the 1972 field season. The Anyox smelter study is presented in Chapter 3; whereas, disturbances involv-ing either the total removal of soil and vegetation or the dumping of waste are dealt with in Chapter 4. Chapter 3 ANYOX COPPER SMELTER 3.1 Introduction The Anyox copper smelter, situated on Observatory Inlet 80 miles north of Prince Rupert (Figure 1), operated from 1914 to 1935 and resulted in extensive damage to vegetation. The ore mined at Anyox contained an abundance of sulphur. During the smelting process, the ore was roasted using coke and the sulphur was driven off as sulphur dioxide (Figure 2). Damage caused by these fumes was largely confined to the narrow, steep sided inlet and its upper reaches. The smelter was closed in 1935 and finally abandoned in 1942 when the area was engulfed in an extensive fire. Because of its complete isolation, the area has been largely untouched since this time; thus, it was thought to be an ideal area for studying; the effects of large-scale smelter denudation (Figure 3). 3.2 Literature Review The release of sulphur dioxide into the air constitutes a major source of world air pollution. Emissions of sulphur dioxide have occurred from smelters of sulphide ores (Katz et aV,1939; Linzon,1958; Alice Arm Kitsault Scale FIGURE 1 Location map of Anyox showing the extent of the 1942 fire ( — ) . Fume damage occurred from the Nass River north to the head of both Hastings Arm and Alice Arm. 5 Figure 3 The abandoned Anyox smelter, June, 1971. 6 LeBlanc et Rao,1966), petroleum refineries (Linzon,1965; Klemm, 1972) and from combustion of coal containing sulphur. THs latter class has Included large cities which utilize coal for domestic heating (Gilbert, 1970) and coal-fired power stations (Gilbert, 1971b) . Canadian smelt-ing activities have resulted in several major areas of high pollution including Trail, British Columbia and the several smelters in the Sudbury, Ontario region. Sulphur dioxide is an important pollutant because it injures vegetation. As an airborne form, sulphur dioxide may come in direct contact with vegetation or may undergo changes into sulphurous acid, sulphuric acid or sulphate salts (Cadle and Allen,1970). In vascular plants, sulphur dioxide enters through the stomata and may become toxic to mesophyll cells. Toxicity can be either acute, if a large concen-tration of sulphur dioxide is absorbed by the tissue, or chronic. A chronic condition occurs if low concentrations are continually accumula-ting as sulphate salts in the tissue. Once the sulphate level becomes high, water is pulled from the cells by osmotic pressure, and plasmoly-s1s occurs (Linzon, 1972). Not all species are equally sensitive to sulphur dioxide. Generally, lichens are very sensitive and have been used as indicators of minor amounts (Rao and LeBlanc,1967; Coker,1967; Hawksworth and Rose,1970; Pyatt,1970; Gilbert, 1970). Vascular plants, on the other hand, are generally more tolerant to sulphur dioxide but the degree of tolerance among species may vary considerably. Lists showing relative sensitivity of a number of vascular plant species have been prepared from field observations and fumigation tests (Gordon and Gorham.1963; Linzon.1972; Katz et al_»1939). Each species, however, 7 may exhibit considerable variation 1n tolerance depending upon geographical location, climate and plant stage of growth and maturation (Linzon,1972). The actual cause of species susceptibility is uncertain. Zimmerman and Hitchcock (1956) could find no relationship between the stomatal number and resistance to sulphur dioxide. Biochemical factors are suspected to be related to sensitivity of plants to air pollution (Linzon, 1972). A species is most susceptible to injury during the time stomata are open (Katz et al,1939). Thus, when plants are at an opti-mum condition for growth, they are also most sensitive to air pollutants. At night, when stomata are closed, plants are more resistant to sulphur dioxide. Lichens, unlike vascular species which are protected by cuticle and stomata, absorb pollutants continuously. This is thought to be the major reason for lichen sensitivity to sulphur dioxide (Puckett et alj 1973). In addition, deciduous vascular plants are able to shed injured leaves annually, unlike lichens which are unable to discard damaged tissue. The movement of air pollutants in the atmosphere is controlled by climatic and meterological factors. Dispersal is dependent upon wind direction and, consequently, areas downwind from sulphur dioxide .sources are mainly affected (Gordon and Gorham, 1963). Maximum concentrations occur when pollutants remain undispersed. Lawrence (1962) cited atmospheric stability and its associated conditions of low rainfall, low wind speed and short days as the most important factor causing high concentrations of air pollutants. Rao 8 and LeBlanc (1967) found high concentrations of pollutants remaining close to the ground during winter cold temperature inversions. Rao and LeBlanc (1967) have shown that orographic barriers concentrate pollutants. They attribute this to topographical aberra-tions which increase the chance of an inversion, and thus increase the concentration of pollutants. In addition to damaging vegetation, sulphur dioxide has been shown to affect other components of the ecosystem. Additions of sulphur dioxide to the soil as a result of smelter emissions have resulted 1n a lower soil pH, an increase in sulphate concentration, and a decrease in calcium values (Gordon and Gorham,1963). Runoff waters also showed signs of a fall in pH and a rise in sulphate concentrations as well as additions in calcium, indicative of increased Teachings from the soil (Gorham and Gordon,1960). These, in turn, had a deleterious effect on the aquatic vegetation (Gorham and Gordon,1963). Gilbert (1971a) studied the effect of high pollutant concen-trations on bark living invertebrates and found a decline in the herbivore segment of the food chain as a result of decreased produc-tivity of the autotrophic vegetation. Studies dealing with the effect of smelting operations on surrounding vegetation usually have been conducted during the time of sulphur dioxide emissions. Such studies have documented the immediate effects of a continuous blanket of sulphurous fumes. They have not, however, recorded the effects which will persist once the smelter operations have ceased. 9 3.3 Description of Study Area Anyox is situated on tidewater not far from the junction of Hastings and Alice Arm on Observatory Inlet (Figure 1) on the northern coast of British Columbia, 120 miles north of Prince Rupert (Map reference 55* 22' N and 129" 50' W). Access to all portions of the Inlet is usually by boat or airplane and, with the exception of fishing 1n these waters, few people have ever visited this area. Two small communities lie at the head of Alice Arm (Alice Arm and Kitsault) and to the south, the nearest settlement is at Mill Bay at the mouth of the Nass River. The study area is dominated by the main valley which contains Observatory Inlet. In its upper reaches, the inlet divides Into two branches—Hastings Arm and Alice Arm. The entire inlet is generally steep sided, although there is a more gentle relief in the Anyox, Granby Peninsula and Larcom Island areas. Mountains of 5,000 to 6,000 feet flank the inlet. The climate of the study area is classified after Koppen as Cfb and is characterized by mild wet winters and moderate wet summers. Long-term weather measurements are available at Mill Bay and Alice Arm. A synthesis of the data 1s presented in Figure 4 and a detailed synthe-sis 1s contained in Appendix I. The data recorded at each location are similar. The Alice Arm station, however, is at a higher elevation and thus has recorded slightly lower winter temperatures and, consequently, greater proportions of snow in the winter months. The months from April to October are generally free from snow (Figure 4b). During every month of the year, precipitation occurs at a minimum an average of 14 days each month. Precipitation occurs more frequently from October to December (Figure 4c). 10 Alice Arm M 0> < < UI 111 CC So-1—I—I—I—I—I—I—I—I—I—1 J F M A M J J A S O N D MONTH 15 H 10 H St 5 - i T — I — I — I — I — I — I — I — I J F M A M J J A S O N D Mill Bay 70-, 60 50-40-30 20-10-i — I — I — I — I — i — i — r J F M A M J J A S 1—I—I 0 N D I5H lOH i i i— i i i i i — i — r n J F M A M J J A S O N D 1*30-1 "V3 UJO20-I 3 D - 10 o <UI UJQ: So. 30 H 20 H io H J F M A M J J A S O N D FIGURE 4 J F M A M J J A S O N D A synthesis of weather records at Alice Arm and Mill Bay stations. Mill Bay was recorded for a minimum of 43 years, and Alice Arm for 15. 11 Although the bedrock geology in the study area is complex, three main units: can be described (Canada Department of Mines, 1935). The bedrock in the immediate vicintiy of Anyox is composed of Jurassic sediments in various stages of metamorphism and includes argillite, greywacke, quartzite, limestone and tuff. Coast Range intrusives (granite, granodiorite and quartz diorite) occur over much of the lower half of Alice Arm, the upper two-thirds of Hastings Arm and the southern sections of Observatory Inlet w hich lie to the south of Brooke Island. To the west of Anyox lie igneous rocks composed of amphibolite and minor amounts of fragmental amphibolite, as well as sediments mainly as inclusions. These adjoin the sedimentary rocks to the east and it is at the contact of these two groups that the highly mineralized zone of the Anyox copper deposit occurs. Glacial action is evident over the entire area. It appears that a main valley glacier ran down Observatory Inlet as well as a large secondary glacier in the Alice Arm Valley. Glacial action occurred in many of the small valleys running perpendicular to the main valley. Ablation t i l l covers most areas, although some marine clays are present at or near sea level. Other glacial deposits include deltas, and outwash terraces. Colluvial fans and aprons occur in some of the steeper upland areas. The vegetation of this area can be classified as the Coastal Western Hemlock Biogeoclimatic Zone (Krajina, 1969) and is characterized by western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla^), western red cedar,(Thuja plicata), Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis) and Pacific silver fir (Abies amabilis), as the predominant tree species. 1. Authors of species' names are listed in the appendix. 12 3.4 History The story of Anyox is essentially the story of a mine. When the mine was 1n production and the price of copper was high, Anyox thrived but when the economic ore was depleted, Anyox was abandoned. During the time of peak activity, 2700 people lived and worked in Anyox. The history of Anyox has been well documented by two authors (Hutchings, 1966; Loudon, 1972). The Granby Mining and Smelti'ng Company purchased the Anyox property in 1909 and by 1914 the mine and smelter complex were com-pleted. Production continued until 1935 when Anyox was sold. During the years of operation, the mine-at Anyox produced 25,000,000 tons of ore and this yielded 700,000,000 pounds of copper along with 140,000 ounces of gold and 8,000,000 ounces of silver. In addition to the ore mined at Anyox, the smelter treated much "custom ore" from other mines 1n the area. A coke plant was also established at Anyox and utilized coal shipped from the Vancouver Island coal fields. From 1914 until 1926 the smelter roasted untreated ore from the mine. In 1926, however, it was found necessary to construct a concentrator for the remaining lower grade ore. At the same time, the number of furnaces in the smelter was reduced from five to one, which lowered the volumes of sulphur dioxide that were emitted. During the peak years of operation and before the concentrator was constructed, about 800,000 tons of ore were smelted each year. The smelter con-tinued to treat the concentrated ore until 1935 when Anyox was dismantled and abandoned. 13 Within this basic framework, tree damage near the smelter can be traced through the records kept by the British Columbia Forest Service. These records, however, are variable in their assessment of the fume damage. As early as 1916 a report indicated extensive damage and predicted a total tree kill over all of Observatory Inlet by the following year. This overstated the case, but it did show the speed with which the fumes affected the standing timber. In 1921 a report cited destruction for several miles in the immediate vicinity of the smelter and considerable fume damage to timber at the head of Alice Arm. In 1923 the most detailed report, following a cruise to assess smelter damage, documented severe damage to Alice Arm timber as well as some damage extending 30 miles south. Terhan (1923), who accompanied this cruise, discusses the effect on timber. He noted extensive damage both north and south of the smelter on the west side of the inlet. He was unable to differentiate between fume and fire killed timber in this area. Dead timber was found to occur at the end of both inlets, at Alice Arm and at the head of Hastings Arm, but along the edge of Alice Arm and on the east side of Observatory Inlet, the timber was not yet affected by fumes. Extensive soil erosion was noted near Anyox itself. In the British Columbia Forest Service records, there 1s also a documentation of species susceptibility. Hemlock was observed to be the most fume resistant and red cedar the least. Pacific silver fir and Sitka spruce were intermediate in their resistance. The dead standing forest resulting from fume kill was very susceptible to forest fires and, as a result, by the early 1920's some areas 1n the immediate vicinity of Anyox had been burned up to four times. There were no other fires until 1942 when a lightning fire started 1n the dead timber. This was such a large fire it not only totally destroyed the townsite but covered an area which encompassed all previous burnings (Figure 1). 3.5 Sampling Methods In order to study the natural revegetation process at Anyox, a system of sampling was designed to cover the area on the western side of Hastings Arm from south of the smelter, north to the head of the Inlet. This sampling system was designed to include both burned and unburned areas and to study the smelter effects at an increasing distance from the source in the direction of the prevailing wind. The samples were systematic and consisted of plots along transects running east-west. Transects were laid out two miles apart, with plots every quarter mile along their length. After the first transect, however, the layout was re-examined and, instead of covering the area to the north, it was decided to continue the transects east towards Alice Arm and to sample on Granby Peninsula and Larcom Island. In addition, plots 37 to 40 were added to cover the area to the head of Alice Arm, making a total of 40 plots which were studied (Figure 5). There were a number of reasons for changing the original sample design. First of a l l , the topography in the Hastings Arm area proved to be too steep and the vegetation too thick to permit travel over a reasonable distance. Also, travel in the area is only possible by boat and, with a tide fall of 20 feet, it was impossible to anchor in a safe place because of the steep drop-off along the 16 precipitous shoreline. Finally, an accident resulting in the burning of the boat used initially as a field base for the study led to the establishment of field headquarters at Kltsault at the head of Alice Arm. From here travel time by boat up Hastings Arm would have been prohibitive. Each sample plot was located first on a map, transferred to an aerial photograph and then located on the ground either by chaining from some recognizable natural feature or by pacing. Some judgement was used when placing the boundaries of the plot on the ground so as to make the plot as uniform as possible within the vegetation type Indicatedon the air photo. It was necessary to readjust boundaries in only a few cases. Plot size was one square chain but this was modi-fied to one-half this size when vegetation was homogeneous and trees were dense. Methods of plot description were similar to those documented by Bell (1964), although, some modifications were made. Within each plot the following data were recorded: Location (plotted on a map) Elevation Plot size Topography a. profile (concave, convex, complex, flat, neutral) b. contour (concave, convex, complex, flat, neutral) c. microrelief (flat, neutral, hummocky, irregular, outcrop, gully or undulating) Drainage (Canada Department of Agriculture, 1970) Rapidly drained 1 Well drained 2 17 Moderately well drained 3 Imperfectly drained Poorly drained 4 5 Very poorly drained 6 Percentage slope Aspect (0° to 360°)— later transformed 2 Percentage covered by dead wood and rock Plot history (burned or unburned) Sketch of plot These plot data are presented in Appendix II. The description of vegetation followed the methods outlined by Bell (1964) after Krajina (1933). The percentage cover, sociability and vigour for all species of trees, shrubs, herbs and bryophytes were recorded in each of the tree, shrub and herb layers. When a species was present in more than one of these layers, it was given an overall plot value. The species/plot data are presented in Appendix III 2 transformed aspect = | 180 - aspect | The amount of irradiance from the sun reaching an area is governed to some extent by the aspect. As a 360° measurement the east (90°) and west (270°) are numerically different but are identical in'terms of their irradiance. In its transformed state, aspect has more ecological meaning by presenting the variable as the departure from due south where a south aspect is 0, a north aspect 180 and either an east or west 90. Biologically, this is not an exact transformation because the south-west aspects are usually drier than the southeast. Under the conditions of this study, however, this transformation is sufficiently accurate. The diameter at breast height of all trees was measured and the heights and ages of 15 sample trees were recorded. These 15 trees were selected to give a complete range in size including the smallest and largest trees in the plot. The trees were bored at breast height on their south side and the increment cores were retained in plastic straws. Soil description followed the methods outlined by the Canada Department of Agriculture (1970). In each plot, a representative soil pit was dug, a profile description made and soil samples collected from each horizon. These were analyzed for pH using a 2:1 water/soil suspension (Jackson 1953). After viewing the entire collection of soil data, it was decided to dispense with further soil analyses. The heterogeneity of soil, parent material encountered in the samples was the major reason. Moreover, the entire soil body including the parent material was probably affected by acid Teachings to some extent. Thus, the use of the underlying parent material as a control was probably not valid. 3.6 Arrangement of Data 3.6.1 Introduction Within the forty plots described in the Anyox study area, there were several obvious divisions based on floristic composition. The most distinct difference was the division between the old growth communities and those communities which had regenerated following the fire in 1942. It was not known, however, if all the plots within these two groups 19 were floristically alike. Thus, it was decided to analyze the data to see 1f any other groupings were present. Numerous schemes have been used for the classification of vegetation and the relative merits of many have been freely discussed 1n the ecological literature (Greig-Smith, 1964; Kershaw, 1964). The methods are either subjective, where the species groupings are delinea-ted in the field and then sampled, or objective, where the vegetation is sampled in an unbiased fashion. Due to the systematic sampling procedure employed in gathering the Anyox data, objective methods were used to arrange the plots and species into similar groups. Objective schemes for classification of vegetation are usually dimensional or hierarchical. Dimensional analyses begin with a matrix of species/plot data and calculate a correlation matrix. Then, the variables (species or plots) are arranged according to their correlation with each other. In a two-dimensional arrangement, the data can be plotted manually, (Agnew, 1961; DeVries, 1953; Welch, 1960) or by principal component analysis (Goodall, 1954; Phipps, 1972). In essence, the variables with the highest degree of positive correlation are plotted close together, and those with the highest negative correlation furthest apart. Hierarchical methods are mostly based on the work of Goodall (1953) and later on Williams and Lambert (1959). These methods are either monothetic divisive (Williams and Lambert, 1959) or poly-thetlc agglomerative (Williams, Lambert and Lance, 1966) and can be analyzed normally (where the plots are grouped in homogeneous units according to the most heterogeneous species) or inversely (where the species are grouped together). 20 3.6.2 Methods Two main systems, a hierarchical method of classification (Williams and Lambert, 1959) and a principal component analysis were used to analyze the Anyox plot data. The Williams and Lambert normal association analysis that was used is a monothetic divisive system which uses presence or absence data. A chi-square matrix of species correlations is calculated using a two-by-two contingency table and the species with the highest sum of chi-square values is taken as the major source of heterogeneity. Thus, all those plots containing this species are separated from the remain-ing plots. The two new groupings of plots are individually treated in a similar way until the heterogeneity is reduced and homogeneous groupings result.. The results are plotted using the maximum chi-square value to indicate the level of heterogeneity. A program was written for the IBM 360/67-computer to calculate this entire analysis and the data were analyzed normally. The principal component or factor analysis that was used is a multivariate technique. In general, a principal component analysis begins with a data matrix, a correlation matrix is calculated, and from this,the variables are arranged using latent roots and vectors. Plott-ing the result of component I against component II shows the relation-ship between variables along the major axes of heterogeneity. Program UBC FACTO was used for all principal component analy-sis calculations. The data were analyzed normally and inversely. 3.6.3 Results and Discussion The principal component analysis gives an arrangement of plots (Figure 6) similar to the Williams and Lambert normal associa-tion analysis (Figure 7). In both analyses, the plots which contain Factor 2 o-o / 10 \ Sedge Type Factor I o-3on 21 0 - 2 0-J o i o 27 S3. I 9 \ - O l o J - 0-20-J t 36 \ 29 \ 40 \ 28 \ \ \ 16 Hemlock Type 38 \ \ 39 2 \ X \ \ N N \ \ \ ,3\ \ 15 \ Alder Type 14 \ 34 o i o _8_ — i 0-20 / 21 i 7 / * / 33 2 5 \ 24 \ 81 i / 20 13 • 23^2 • 35 19 2 2 , ' 18 17 6 30' 12 y Willow Type FIGURE 6 The relationship of Anyox plots using principal component analysis. Sc!iX 2pp Clintonia uniflora 13 24 33 35 Lycopcdium clavcturn |Drepanocladus sp.| 17 18 12] 13 21 2 2 23 25 3 0 3 I 6 7 8 9 20 14 26 27 34 Atnus rubra J2 Calypogeia muelleriana Maianthemum dilatatum 2 3 5 4 15 16 2 8 2 3 3 6 3 7 3 8 4TJ 10 39 w i l l o w TYPE I A L D E R | L TYPE HEMLOCK TYPE FIGURE 7 The relationship of Anyox plots using Williams and Lambert normal association analysis old-growth hemlock form similar groups, while the plots studied in the burned areas yield slightly different groupings. The principal component analysis produces a system which spacially relates the plots in a more realistic fashion. The unique plots (number 9 and 10), for example, appear to be more suitably placed in the principal component analysis than the Williams and Lambert analysis. Because each analysis treats the data differently (the Williams and Lambert analysis used presence or absence data, while the principal component analysis uses quantitative values) the princi-pal component analysis is expected to give the most reliable results. For this reason, the groupings based on the principal component analysis were accepted. The vegetation types were named by using the dominant species (in terms of cover) which was consistently present in each (Appendix III). Thus, the major vegetative types are: Vegetation Type Plot Numbers Hemlock type 2, 3, 4, 5, 15, 16, 28, 29, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40 billow type 1, 6, 7, 11, 12, 13, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 30, 31, 32, 33, 35 ftlder type 8, 9, 14, 26, 27, 34 Sedge type 10 Often the "factors" in a principal component analysis can be Interpreted to give some meaning. The first "factor" appears to separate the plots along a moisture gradient. The sedge plot (the wettest) is on the left (Figure 6), the Alder type (slightly drier) is next, and the Hemlock type and the Willow type, which are about equal in moisture status are to the right of the diagram. The second major degree of heterogeneity or "factor II" can be described as an age factor. The oldest communities are at the top, the alder communities, which were quick to revegetate, are next, and the burned areas (con-taining the youngest communities) are on the bottom. In addition to the groupings of plots by the Williams and Lambert and Principal Component analyses, the species were grouped using principal component analysis. Three species groups, which correspond to the three major groupings of plots were found (Figure 8). The species associated with the Willow type form the most closely knit group which indicates that many of the burned area species occur together in most of the area sampled. Clear groupings of species associated with the Hemlock type and the Alder type are also evident. The factors which separate the species groupings are similar to those which separate the plot data. The first factor appears to be age; whereas,the second factor is moisture. The interpretation of these factors is, by nature, very arbitrary and was done only to show that the components can have meaning. The major benefit of the analysis 1s to provide homogeneous units based on- statistical methods. 3.7 Hemlock Type 3.7.1 Introduction The plots in the Hemlock type were unaffected by the 1942 fire and are floristically dissimilar from the other plots (Figure 9). FIGURE 8 The relationship of Anyox species using principal component analysis. F o c t o r JI Specles ossocioted with the Alder type / / ® © / / (10) © \ Species ossocioted \with the Hemlo-k type \ \ \ Foctor Species ossocioted with the Willow type N \ ® \ 0.20 0.30 / / / 03) (34) +0.10 TREE LAYER 1 A b i e s a m a b l l l s 2 A l r w s r u b r a 3 P l c e a s l t c h e n s l s 4 S a l l x s p p . 5 Tsuga h e t e r o p h y l l a 6 Tsuga M e r t e n s i a n a SHRUB LAYER 7 C l a d o t h a m n u s p y r o l a e f l o r u s 8 Ledum p a l u s t r e 9 H e n * 1 e s 1 a f e r r u g l n e a 10 O p l o p l a n a x h o r r i d u s 11 R l b e s b r a c t e o s u m 12 Rubus p a r v l f l o r u s 13 Rubus s p e c t a b t l i s 14 Sambucus r a c e m o s a 15 S p i r a e a Dougl.T.11 16 V a c c l n l u m o v a l 1 f o l 1 u m 17 V a c c l n l u m p a r v l f o l i u m HERB LAYER 18 A n a p h a l l s m a r g a r i t a c e a 19 L e u t k e a p e c t i n a t a 20 A t h y r i u m f i l i x - f e m i n a 21 B l e c h n u m s p i c a n t 22 C a r e x s p . L. 23 C a s s l o p e M e r t e n s i a n a 24 C l l n t o n l a u n i f l o r a 25 C o m u s c a n a d e n s i s 26 D r y o p t e r i s d i l a t a t a 27 E p l l o b l u m a n g u s t l f o l l u m 28 Gymnocarpium d r y o p t e r i s 29 L y c o p o d i u n c l a v a turn 30 L y c o p o d l u m complanaturn 31 L y c o p o d l u m o b s c u r u m 32 L y c o p o d l u m s l t c h e n s e 33 L y s l c h l t o n a m e r l c a n u m 34 Halanthemum d i l a t a t u m 3 5 P h y l l o r l o c e a a l c u t l c a 36 P t e r l d i u m a q u l H n u m 37 S a x l f r a g a f e r r u g l n e a 3 8 S t r e p t o p u s amp I e x 1 f o i l us MOSS LAYER 39 B a r b 1 l o p h o z 1 a h a t c h e r i 40 B l e p h a r o s t o m a t r i c h o p h y l l u m 41 C a l y p o g e i a m u e l l e r i a n a 4 2 D l c r a n u m f u s c e s c e n s 4 3 D l c r a n u m majus 44 O r e p a n o c l a d u s s p . 45 Gymnocolea s p . 46 Hylocomium s p l e n d e n s 47 Hypnum d r c l n a l e 4 8 I s o t t i e d u m s t o l o n i f e r u m 49 L e p l d o z i a r e p t a n s 5 0 L o p h o z i a s p . 51 R M z o m n l u m g l a b r e s c e n s 52 K y i l a t a y l o r l 53 P l a g l o t h c c i u m u n d u l a t u m 54 P l e u r o z l u m s c h r e b e r l 5 5 P o h l l a n u t a n s 56 P o l y t r l c h u m J u n l p e r l n u m 57 P U U u m c r l s t a - c a s t r e n s l s 5 8 Racom1tr1un c a n e s c e n s 59 R h y t l d l a d e l p h u s l o r e u s 6 0 S c a p a n l a b o l a n d e r l 61 Sphagnum g l r g p n s o h n l 1 • 6 2 l e t r a p h l s p e l l u c i d a 6 3 U l o t a o b t u s l u s c u l a 26 Figure 9 Approximate location of plot 15 in the hemlock vegetation type. Note the western redcedar snags. 27 Within the Hemlock type, it is impossible to determine the effect of smelter fumes on past or present species composition. Although there is evidence that red cedar was killed, many other species would have been affected by smelter fumes but were not recorded at the time of smelter damage. Thus, the only possible method of determining both past and present smelter effects.would be through methods of tree-ring analysis. The study of factors which affect tree growth in relation to tree rings has been useful in assessing past growth conditions (Fritts ejt al_, 1971). Generally, it has been shown that growth ring widths can be related to one or more-climatic variables (Fritts, 1970). In essence, the set of variables which control growth are mirrored in the tree ring widths. Air pollutants, which injure leaf tissue and reduce photosynthetic activity, have been shown to alter tree ring widths. Linzon (1958) recorded a gradual decline in growth increment of white pine on areas adjacent to smelters in the Sudbury, Ontario region. Similar effects on tree growth have been recorded near the Trail smelter (Lathe and McCallum, 1939) and near a railroad roundhouse where the locomotives burned coal that contained sulphur (Linzon, 1961). Vins (1970) described methods used to assess the increment loss in Czechoslovakian forests resulting from smoke damage. This evaluation has been used for an economic assessment of the degree of damage to forests from air pollutants. Of the major tree species in the Anyox area, western red cedar was the most susceptible to fume damage; whereas western hemlock was the most resistant. Western red cedar was killed 30 miles away from the smelter, although western hemlock probably survived within two or three miles. Today, because of the 1942 fire, the nearest surviving hemlock are about four miles from the smelter. Pacific silver fir and Sitka spruce were intermediate in their tolerances but were distributed so sparsely that they need not concern us here. As western hemlock was the dominant species of the region and survived the sulphur dioxide emissions during the period of smelter activity, it was selected for tree-ring analysis. 3.7.2. Methods Nineteen western hemlock tree cores were chosen from the mature plots at distances ranging from 4.4 to 13.7 miles away from the smelter (Table 1). Cores with growth rings occurring well before smelt-ing activity commenced were selected. These 5-mm cores were measured for their yearly radial increments in earlywood and latewood, using an Addo-x Swedish tree-ring measuring instrument. In order to assess the factors determining the radial increments, data on as many environmental parameters as possible were collected. No precise data giving accurate smelter emissions are available. However, the amount of ore smelted should give a reliable estimate of the fume quantities (Reports to the Minister of Mines, 1914 to 1934). Data on precipitation and mean monthly temperature are available for Prince Rupert from 1910 until the present. Weather records are available for Anyox during a limited period and show trends similar to those of Prince Rupert (Figures 10C and D). As the Prince Rupert data were far more complete than Anyox, Mill Bay or Alice Arm, the Prince Rupert data were used to indicate yearly climatic trends. Five-year moving averages were used to smooth the radial growth graph, and then this graph was standardized by plotting the residuals. Table 1 A SUMMARY OF THE WESTERN HEMLOCK TREES USED FOR TREE-RING ANALYSIS Plot Number Tree . Number D.B.H. (inches) Age (years) Height (feet) .. 5 1 12.8 175 72 5 2 20.2 122+ 84 15 3 11.0 146+ 43 15 4 10.5 191 29 16 5 12.1 84 84 16 6 12.6 230 79 28 7 11.7 85 ,100 28 8 16.1 87 100 36 9 5.4 79 46 36 10 20.3 78 80 36 11 16.4 206 53 37 12 12.7 88+ 54 . 37 13 7.2 77 44 38 14 11.9 147 101 38 15 5.8 135 44 39 16 5.5 100 38 39 17 15.9 . 330 63 40 18 19.0. 198+ 74 40 19 22.1 219+ 94 ' I ' 1910 T — I — | I 1 I I | I I I I | I 1920 1930 1940 I I | I I i I | I I I I 1950 I960 1970 O u i 2 O < 2 u- 5 ^  w <r s < e 5 20 > ^ » Ui UI f. tr ui. a z < ui I30H 5 '20-ui o HO-z z o Q. O UJ a. I00-90-80-70 , / S . A . /V A A A J \ / \ysi^-j^'\/' / /i\ if\J \ / Y i v/Ayv/' \ '/'V/ 'V\'/ A/^ X^/ ' I /' d A \ • • I n / \ I N ' i\ 1' 1 A / " ' A J> \ ' l \ / I I 1 V . / i 1 # 1 \ I i • i i 1 • / i \ J , < -i \ /V M I I 1 < * I i \ \ A * 1 /\ i 1 / \ i I j I FIGURE 10 a. b. c. d. Average radial increment per year based on 19 hemlock trees for the years 1903 to 1970 ( ) and annual tonnages of ore smelted 1914 to 1935 ( ). Standardized average radial increment per year. Average yearly temperature for Prince Rupert from 1911 to 1970 ( ) and Anyox from 1914 to 1933 ( ). Total annual precipitation for Prince Rupert (. 1970 and Anyox from 1914 to 1933 ( ). -) from 1911 to 3.7.3. Results The graphs (Figure 10A) show the relationship between tonnage of ore treated and radial increment (based on the average of 19 trees) from 1914 until 1935. This relationship is highly significant(99.9% l eve l ) (r = -0.89 with 20 degrees of freedom). As similar results were obtained with earlywood, latewood and yearly radial growth the latter was used for all statistical tests. No significant relationship could be found between the radial increment and the distance from the smelter. Any combination of values for precipitation and temperature at Prince Rupert could not be related to the major change in radial growth during and after the smelter operation. Although there is some indication that temperature and precipitation could account for some of the minor fluctuations, this was not possible to demonstrate statistically even when the graphs were smoothed and standardized using five-year moving averages. 3.7.4. Discussion The radial growth of the sampled western hemlock trees seems to indicate a strong relationship with smelter output. It is unfortu-nate that no control trees were bored where the smelter effects were not present. Nevertheless, a partial control is" provided by the stable radial growth measured prior to the smelter emissions. The decrease in growth in 1914 when the smelter began and the marked release in 1925 when the concentrator was installed must reflect smelter effects. Several minor growth fluctuations also can be related to changes in smelter emissions. In 1918 and 1921 there was a large amount of ore roasted which corresponds to sharp decreases in growth, whereas in 1919 a decrease of ore smelted resulted in an 32 Increase 1n growth. In 1925, and in subsequent years, the quantities of smelted ore were reduced. Associated with this was a sharp increase in hemlock growth. Perhaps increased growth could be attributed to the presence of some nutrient in~ the fumes which was deficient under natural con-ditions, and resulted in stimulated growth once the high sulphur dioxide emissions had subsided. Although this is a plausible explana-tion, it would be extremely difficult to prove, especially after this lapse of time. An alternative explanation stems from the association of hemlock and red cedar in most of the stands. The red cedar trees, being more susceptible to sulphur dioxide fumes, were killed quickly. They were generally very large trees and, once dead, the reduced competition with the hemlock could have produced a growth response of the type recorded from 1925 onwards. The climatic data were included primarily to show that major variations in radial growth were not related to overall, large-scale changes in weather patterns. The possibility of climatic factors being related to the small-scale fluctuations in radial growth was investigated using five-year moving averages to standardize the curves. However, no significant correlations were obtained. It 1s not surprising that there was no relationship between distance and radial growth at Anyox when, under normal circumstances, smelter effects would be expected to decrease with an increasing distance from the source. Areas where a distance gradient has been observed were flat (Gordon and Gorham, 1963) and did not have the typographical restrictions created by a narrow coastal inlet with steep sided walls. Whenever topographical discontinuities were 33 encountered 1n other studies, increased pollutant concentrations have been observed (Rao and LeBlanc, 1967). Moreover, the British Columbia Forest Service documented a marked increase in fume killed timber at the head of Alice Arm.while alongside the inlet the timber was relatively unaffected. Thus, the lack of a significant statistical correlation between the radial growth and distance from the smelter supports the early observations and would be expected because of the topographical confines of the narrow steep-sided inlet. 3.8 Factors Determining the Revegetation of the Burned Area 3.8.1 Introduction The fire, in 1942, which burned much of the area surrounding Anyox was only one of four or five burnings. However, it was by far the largest and encompassed all areas previously burned during the early years of smelter activity. In terms of assessing the effects of the Anyox fumes on the vegetation, the 1942 fire was unfortunate in several ways. It created a vegetation much different from the surrounding area and eliminated any remaining evidence of smelter fume damage. As i t was within this burned area that the smelter fumes had their major Influence (where there was total fume kill as well as only partial fume kill), the fire eliminated any chance to assess the direct effect of the smelter fumes near the source of emissions. In addition, during the time of reduced emissions from 1925 until 1934, there was probably some recovery of vegetation in the area that was totally fume killed but this, and further recovery when the fumes ceased in 1934, was eradicated by the 1942 fire. Consequently, the study of this area Includes fire succession as well as recovery following smelter damage. 3.8.2 Methods The plots sampled in the burned area fall into three types based on floristic composition, which in turn reflects soil moisture; the Sedge type (Figure 11), the Alder type (Figure 12) and the Willow type (Figure 13). Measured plot variables were analyzed to assess the most significant factors affecting the revegetation in the burned areas. The time required for each species to successfully colonize the area would have been the most useful index of revegetation, unfortunately, with only one sampling period, this information was impossible to obtain. Instead, an indication of the rate of revegetation was calculated by using tree ages (the average and the oldest age of conifers and alder trees) found in each plot. A matrix of correlation coefficients between all variables was calculated. Two of the plots in the Alder type (numbers 26 and 34) contained trees that survived the 1942; fire. These plots were probably burned, to some extent, as only a few older trees were found in each, the rest establishing after the fire. These two plots were discarded in the analysis of the burned area data, leaving only four plots in the Alder type. In addition, the Sedge type (plot 10) was considered floristically different from the rest and was omitted. The remaining plots were analyzed as one set of data (24 plots) and as the Willow type alone (20 plots) . Figure 11 Sedge vegetation type (Plot 10) and abandoned Anyox mine workings in the background. 36 Figure 13 The willow vegetation type (Plot 17). 3.8.3. Results There was considerable similarity between the correlation matrix generated from the entire set of plots and the matrix from the Willow type alone. Consequently, only the matrix using the entire set of plots is presented (Table 2). The relationship between the tree ages and the other variables 1s of particular importance. The highest correlation occurs between the tree age (oldest tree in the plot and average tree age in the plot) and the distance from the smelter. This relationship is shown in Figure 14. Of secondary importance may be the effect of slope and aspect on the tree ages. 3.8.4. Discussion The most important factor affecting the rate of revegetation (as given by the tree ages) appears to be the distance from the smelter. There are two possible Interpretations of this relationship. Either the availability of seed was important in determining the rate of revegetation, or permanent smelter damage persisted in areas close to the emission source. Both interpretations are possible, however, the availability of seed source has been shown to be an important factor 1n the natural revegetation of western hemlock and other west coast species in clear cut regions (Hetherington, 1965; James and Gregory, 1959). Nevertheless, the possibility of permanent soil damage on areas near the smelter cannot be discounted. In areas surrounding smelter activity near Sudbury, Ontario, major soil degradation occurs within five miles of the emission source corresponding to regions of total vegetation kill (Gorham and Gordon, 1960; Gordon and Gorham, 1963). Of the three smelters at Sudbury (Falconbridge, Copper Cliff and Coniston) Table 2 CORRELATION MATRIX BETWEEN MEASURED VARIABLES IN THE BURNED AREAS SURROUNDING ANYOX (22 DEGREES OF FREEDOM). CU o c fO 4-> </) •r— Q +-> (O > cu CL o +-> o Ol Q. to -o o o •a cu Q — «§ cu 4- M-o o S-CL Q. o 4-> i— • f — rn o Q . V) o •— * f — B M-O O 4-> S_ •M Q. O X3 •— •r-IC o D- (/) OJ co to c • f — fO cu <u c n c n to s- cu CU CU > s-cu c n +-> fO CU QJ •a cu i— s-o +-> * *** *** Distance 1.000 -0.440 -0.143 * -0.361 -0.018 -0.124 -0.030 -0.246 -0.313 0.630 •0.701 Elevation 1.000 0.509 0.422 0.131 0.274 -0.115 -0.346 -0..185 -0.342 -0.347 Slope 1 .000 0.346 -0.034 0.359 0.186 -0.124 -0.265 -0.406 -0.276 Aspect 1 .000 -0.001 -0.073 ** 0.532 0.056 0.301 -0.338 -0.412 % Deadwood 1.000 -0.089 0.037 0.236 0.438 0.069 -0.069 % Rock 1.000 0.021 -0.412 -0.469 -0.148 -0.048 pH top of soil profile 1.000 0.374 0.267 -0.022 -0.203 pH bottom of soil profile -1.000 0.306 0.270 0.325 Drai n age 1.00 -0.003 -0.213 Average tree age 1.000 *** 0.766 Oldest tree age 1.000 Significance of correlation coefficients to 95% level = *, 99% = ** and 99.9% = *** 39 The relationship between the time of revegetation (tree age) and the distance from the smelter in the areas burned in 1942 the yearly ore treated ranged from 231,000 to 4,149,000 tens compared . with a maximum of 800,000 tons at Anyox. Although this sort of compari-son is often dangerous, with different ore processes, sulphur contents, climates, topographies, wind speeds and directions and smelter stack heights, the maximum soil degradation at Anyox was probably not greater than five miles and, most likely, considerably less. Thus, as the plots which were sampled in the burned area at Anyox ranged from 0.69 to 4.24 miles from the smelter, the sample would probably encompass an area including maximum soil degradation as well as a relatively unaffected area. Therefore, a combination of both the effect of soil degradataion near the smelter, as well as the distance from available seed source, probably accounts for the distance relationship. The relationship between the average tree age and slope is significant and indicates a preference for the flat areas to have a higher average tree age. Moisture abundance in the wetter sites could account for this relationship. Aspect and the oldest tree found in the plot are also related, although the reason is unclear. In general, the most important relationship is between the tree age and distance from the smelter, and all others appear to be of secondary importance. 3.9 Discussion From field results, other smelter studies, records of the British Columbia Forest Service, and personal communications, the effects of the Anyox smelter fumes can be ascertained. 41 3.9.1 Spread of Smelter Fumes The two major factors which determined the dissipation of smelter fumes 1n the Anyox area were topography and climate. The topography of Observatory Inlet influenced the spread of fumes to a large extent. The prevailing westerly winds, which occur for much of the summer months, were modified by the inlet walls and resulted in a flow along Observatory Inlet from south to north. In the winter months, however, cold Arctic air flowing from the interior and onto the coast would have dispersed the fumes towards the mouth of Observatory Inlet. Accompanying this cold air mass would have been inversion conditions which would have concentrated the fumes in the inlet bottom. As precipitation would have removed the fumes from the air, the frequency of rainfall would have a major effect on the extent of fume spread. During the growing season, rainfall occurs frequently and an average of 14 days rain each month is the minimum average recorded. Thus, extended dry periods, which could have enabled the fumes to disperse widely, were not frequent in the Anyox area. The extent of fume spread was ascertained by observing the effect on vegetation and not through analysis of. air concentrations. Thus, a high fume concentration in mid winter when the plants were dormant would not be nearly as severe as one in early spring when the plant was respiring at a maximum and new tissue was forming. It 1s difficult to assess the extent of the fume kill near the smelter because of the influence of fires; however, during the period of maximum emissions all vegetation was probably killed within one to two miles. Sensitive species would have been affected at much greater distances. Red cedar was reported dead up to a distance of 30 miles. . Lichens, regarded as the most sensitive of all plant species were, no doubt, Injured even further away from the smelter, although there is no reference to this. Many other species would have been damaged at various distances. Following the fires and the reduced emissions in the mid 1920's, species began to colonize the areas near the smelter. In the area northeast of the townsite at about one mile from the smelter, blueberries were collected during the 1930's (Loudon personal communica-tion). It was also during this latter period that gardens were being kept in the townsite (Hutchings, 1966), which suggests reduced emissions. The two major weather flow patterns resulted in fume dispersal and injury to vegetation in two directions. When the flow was westerly, the vegetation to the north along Hastings Arm and to the northeast up Alice Arm were affected. When the flow was northeasterly, the vegetation to the south was damaged. Damage as far south as the mouth of the Nass River and reported by the British Columbia Forest Service was not covered by the author's field surveys. Nevertheless, there was certainly a spread of fumes in this direction. In the winter months, the northeasterly winds result from cold air flowing from the inland areas. Such cold air would produce an inversion which could trap the fumes at low elevations. This inversion is a winter phenomenon, but could occur during the early spring when plants are respiring and new tissue is forming, and are most, susceptible to damage from air pollutants. The westerly weather flow pattern and the resulting effect of fumes on vegetation was covered by the author's survey. Tree-ring analysis, and the British Columbia Forest Service records indicate a fume spread in this direction. The lack of any relationship between ring width and distance from the smelter indicates that the mountains; at the head of Alice Arm formed a pocket and restricted further fume spread and concentrated the fumes. 3.9.2 Time of Fume Damage It is expected that the major plant tissue damage occurred during the spring season. The maximum injury would have occurred when the plants were growing well (Katz, 1939), and that they would be susceptible in the spring when new tissue was forming. As earlywood and latewood gave similar results when correlated to yearly ore smelted, this would seem to indicate that hemlock tissue was injured in the spring and this injury would have affected growth for the entire summer. The years of maximum fume damage occurred during the peak smelting activity in the early 1920's. After the installation of a concentrator, however,the fume production and damage appear to have subsided. 3.9.3 Relative Sensitivity of Trees to Fume Damage The relative sensitivity of trees to sulphur dioxide can be ascertained for the Anyox area. The two major species present were western hemlock and western red cedar and there is no doubt that the former was much more tolerant to fumes than the latter. This statement 1s supported by British Columbia Forest Service observations in the early days of smelter emissions and from observations by the author in 1971. In 1971, very few living red cedar could be found anywhere in the inlet; although many dead red cedar snags remained. Hemlock, on the other hand, survived well at the limits of the fire and no trees which could be attributed to fume kill appeared in the plots. These observations on the relative sensitivity of these two species contra-dict the reports of workers elsewhere. Linzon (1972) suggests that hemlock is less tolerant to sulphur dioxide than western red cedar. Katz (1939) also believes this, based on observations near Trail, British Columbia. These varying results illustrate the danger of comparing species sensitivity in different geographical regions. The Trail area, lying in the Interior Douglas Fir and Engelmann Spruce Subalpine Fir biogeoclimatic zones, is unsuited for hemlock growth and hemlock has a very limited distribution in these zones (Krajina, 1969). On the other hand, red cedar occurs in wetter habitats and grows well in the Columbia Valley. Thus, as hemlock was at the limit of its range, it may be assumed that it would be more susceptible to damage by an outside agent. Katz supports his field observation by controlled fume experimentation. These experiments are suspect as they were conducted at Peachland, in an area even more unsuited for hemlock, with the trees being grown under ambient condi-tions. On the other hand, the Anyox area lies within the Coastal Western Hemlock biogeoclimatic zone. Here, western hemlock is well within the limits of its range while red cedar is approaching its northernmost limits. In this situation the sulphur dioxide fumes were most harmful to western red cedar rather than western hemlock. 3.9.4 The Effect of Fire Separation of the long-term effects of fire and fume damage 1s extremely difficult. Because the fire masked the most important area, the land where there was a transition between total fume kill and partial k i l l , it is difficult to assess the magnitude of fume damage. Fires, nevertheless, are an integral part of the effects of smelter activity because of the hazardous nature of standing, dead fume killed timber and cannot be divorced from such activity. It is unknown if the species which colonized the area surrounding Anyox (which was disturbed by both fumes and fire) are any different than those which would have revegetated an area only affected by fire. Fumes, no doubt, would have eliminated species from areas further from the smelter than the limits of the fire,and eliminated a potential seed source for recolonization of the burned area. The lack of red cedar as a component in much of the burned area can be attributed partially to this. Many of the species found colonizing the burned area have seeds which are easily disseminated. Willow, for example, has seeds which are dispersed over long distances. It is found rarely in the mature forest of the inlet, yet it is dominant on the burned area. 3.9.5 Lasting Effects- of Smelter Activities The lasting effects will be largely dependent upon the extent of damage to the soil body. No doubt, the removal of organic matter through fire activity has been important. The major smelter effects would have occurred within a few miles of the smelter and would have caused a nutrient loss through acidic leaching of the soil. Sulphate -accumulation would have been heavy at first, however, sulphate would 46 have leached from the soil quite rapidly. Within the burned area it is uncertain whether the majority of damage was caused by fire or fume damage. The successlonal rates are not dissimilar from a burn. In the unburned portion of the fume affected area, there was a loss of sensitive species such as red cedar and lichens. Hemlock suffered an initial depression of growth and then a release but has now returned to the slow rate of growth that is characteristic of unmanaged stands of these north coast areas. It is doubtful that the plant community structure has altered considerably except through the possible elimination of sensitive species with slow revegetation mechanisms. 47 CHAPTER 4 DISTURBANCES INVOLVING THE TOTAL REMOVAL OF SOIL MATTER 4.1 Introduction This chapter will be concerned with the recovery of disturbances resulting from the removal of both vegetation and developed soil. In marked contrast to the large body of literature available on artificial revegetation of mine wastes, studies of natural succession on these sites have been few. There have, however, been excellent studies dealing with post glacial plant invasion on glacial t i l l in Alaska (Cooper, 1939; Crocker and Major, 1955). But this research, while showing in detail the successional processes over a long period of time, does not relate to many of the problems that are associated with man-made dis-turbance. Studies have been made on the ecology of deep mined pit heaps in England (Brierley, 1956; Hall, 1957), natural revegetation of mine wastes in the United States (Croxton, 1928; Bramble and Ashley, 1955; Byrnes and Miller, 1973; Schramm ,1966), and mine wastes in Germany (Bauer, 1973). This research has outlined many of the problems associated with mine waste revegetation and has noted conditions affecting plant colonization. Species which colonize waste areas have a number of characteristics which enable them to become successfully established. Those with wind disseminated seeds have been observed to be the major primary colonizers in several instances (Crocker and Major, 1955; Brierley, 1956; Schramm, 1966). Grasses and herbs were the first species to become successfully established in several waste areas in England (Richardson, 1958; Whyte and Sisam, 1949), however, there was no mention of the mode of seed transport. Vegetative means of plant colonization, 48 onto waste materials immediately adjacent to undisturbed areas, has been observed (Schramm, 1966). Species which have the ability to fix nitrogen play a dominant role in plant succession following glacial retreat (Crocker and Major, 1955), but have not proved to be an important con-stituent in colonization of man-made disturbances. Their use in reclamation, however, has been widespread (Knabe, 1964b; Limstrom, 1960; Kohnke, 1950). The factors which limit survival of vegetation planted on waste material have been the subject of numerous review articles (Bramble, 1952; Knabe, 1964a; Kohnke, 1950; Limstrom, 1960, 1964; Murray, 1973; Peterson and Etter, 1970). Although there are a large number of para-meters which have been shown to affect the establishment of vegetation on waste dumps, the limiting factors can be grouped into three major categories: moisture factors, slope stability factors and chemical factors. The lack of available moisture for successful plant growth is a limiting factor which is affected by a large number of variables. Slope, aspect, texture and color can all influence temperature and hence, the moisture status of waste materials (Bramble, 1952; Richardson, 1958; Schramm, 1966). Wind exposure influences transpiration as well as soil moisture evaporation (Eramble, 1952). Climate exerts an important influence on moisture relations but has received only cursory mention 1n the American reclamation literature. Nevertheless, drought conditions are one of the major limiting factors in revegetating coal wastes in Montana (Hodder et al_, 1971; 1972). Steep unstable slopes have been shown to inhibit plant establishment (Brierley, 1956). Much of the presently available 49 literature has discussed revegetation in relatively flat land situations and has alluded to slope stability problems only generally. Under these flat land conditons, levelling the waste material is an obvious, simple solution and one which is usually carried out in reclamation procedures (Kohnke, 1950). In more mountainous areas, however, steep slopes become a major factor limiting plant growth (Peterson and Etter, 1970) and the problem is not so easily solved. Nutritional factors account for plant growth failures in many instances. As a medium for plant growth, waste material may be deficient in one or more elements essential for plant survival. Of the three macronutrients, nitrogen is usually deficient, whereas, phosphorus and potassium may be present in varying amounts. In reclamation procedures, fertilizer treatments are used to correct these deficiencies (Kohnke, 1950; Knabe, 1964). When species revegetate naturally, they must survive on low quantities of these nutrients, or, in the case of nitrogen-fixing species, must provide their own. While- deficiencies are often a problem, excess quantities of several toxic elements can inhibit plant growth. Heavy metals have been found to be toxic in several instances (Peterson and Nielson, 1973; Chadwick, 1973). Coal mine spoils containing high concentrations of sulfur may become acidic. When these acidic conditions occur, manganese and aluminum become soluble, are absorbed by plants, and result in plant mortality (Berg and Vogel, 1973). The preceding paragraphs have described the principal factors that have been found to influence reclamation of waste materials in other regions. The remainder of this chapter will describe the natural revegetation of waste materials in several areas of British Columbia and 50 assess the factors which determined the rate of species colonization. The major emphasis was directed towards studying mine waste materials, however, logging roads provided a similar waste environment and are much more common and widespread. Thus, both were used to assess the natural revegetation of waste materials. 4.2 Sampling Methods Logging roads were surveyed at two areas on Vancouver Island and one area in the Interior near Lumby, B. C. Mine sites were surveyed both on Vancouver Island and in the West Kootenays. As i t Was possible to visit only a limited number of logging roads in the province, three specific areas were chosen and studied in some detail. These areas were selected according to the following criteria. Firstly, the area had to include a large number of completely abandoned roads. These had to be completely abandoned in order to avoid road maintenance effects on vegetation. Secondly, the area had to contain roads which were variable in age, slope and aspect. Thirdly, suitable areas must not have been subjected to any treatment such as dormancy sprays or artificial seeding. Within each of the three areas a number of abandoned roads were selected to give a range in age and aspect. On each, three or more sample locations were systematically placed every 100 or 200 meters depending on the length of the road. The number of sample locations depended, to some extent, on the heterogeneity of the road and its associated vegetation. At each location, a belt transect four meters wide was laid out 51 perpendicular to the direction of the road. This transect was divided into two control plots and a number of disturbed plots based on topo-graphic discontinuities. In general, the transect was divided into five sections: the upslope control plot, the upslope plot, the road surface plot, the downslope plot, and the downslope control plot (Figure 15). The dimensions of the two control plots were always four meters wide and four meters long: the other plots were of variable length, although their widths remained a constant four meters. For each plot the following data were recorded: position, plot length , percent slope, aspect, texture, age, erosion, and percent cover for each plant species. Position was recorded on one of the following: upslope control (1), upslope (2), road surface (3), downslope (4), and downslope control (5). • The measurement of plot length, percent slope and aspect were straightforward, Aspect as a 360° measure-ment was transformed to give a variable from 0 to ISO. Whenever aspect is used statistically, i t will be as the transformed variable. Texture was subjectively quantified on the following scale: 1 clay, less than 10% gravel 2 - silt , less than 10% gravel 3 • sand, less than 10% gravel' 4 -- 10-20% gravel 5 - 21-40% gravel 6 - 41-60% gravel 7 • 61-80% gravel 8 • • 81-99% gravel 9 - 100% gravel up to 5" diameter 10 - all large boulders greater than 5" diameter FIGURE 15 Schematic cross-section of a road constructed on a hill side 53 The age of coastal logging roads was taken as the age of the oldest adjacent second growth tree, which was assumed to have become established after logging and soon after abandonment. For more recently abandoned roads, Douglas fir was used for determining their age by counting branch whorls. Erosion was assessed for the road surface only and on the following scale: 0 - no apparent erosion 1 - an erosion channel less than 3" deep 2 - an erosion channel 3-6" deep 3 - an erosion channel 7-9" deep 4 - an erosion channel 10-12" deep 5 - an erosion channel more than 12" deep Percentage cover was assessed for all plants that were rooted within the plot. For example, a specimen of alder (Alnus rubra) shading the upslope but rooted on the road surface, would not be included in the upslope but would b.e included in the road surface plot. The diverse nature of mine waste materials prevented the adoption of one standard : method of sampling. Many dumps were too young for detailed sampling, consequently only species lists were prepared. Where mine wastes were extensively sampled, four meter square plots were used and assessed in a manner similar to the methodology used for the plots on the logging roads. 54 4.3 Coastal Areas 4.3.1 Logging Roads 4.3.1.1 Methods On Vancouver Island, two main areas were selected for study. These were the Haslam Creek watershed near Ladysmith (49° latitude, 124° longitude SE) between 2000' and 2500' elevation on the eastern side of Vancouver Island and the San Juan Valley on the v/est coast (49° latitude, 124° longitude SW). The Haslam Creek watershed, involving 24 locations on 6 abandoned roads, is classified as the Coastal Western Hemlock biogeoclimatic zone (drier subzone)^, although there is some indication that a few of the samples could be included in the Coastal Douglas Fir Zone (wetter subzone). All the roads sampled in this area were constructed on glacial t i l l materials. In the San Juan Valley a total of 28 locations were sampled from 300' to 1050' elevation. This area is classified as the Coastal Western Hemlock Zone (wetter subzone). The logging roads studied here were also situated entirely on glacial t i l l materials. Logging activities in the San Juan Valley date back a considerable time. Railway logging occurred until the late 1950's and, consequently, many of the sites studied were not, in fact, logging truck roads but were abandoned railway grades. 4.3.1.2 Results The logging road data are presented in Appendices IV and V. 3 Study areas in this chapter will be classified according to the scheme of biogeoclimatic zones proposed by Krajina (1969). 55 Species Composition In order to document the differences between the species which revegetate disturbed sites on the east and west coasts of Vancouver Island, the data have been considered separately. The data are presented by listing both the percentage frequency on the disturbed plots and the percentage total cover. Both figures are necessary to gain a total picture of the importance of a species. If cover is used, for example, alder is the most important tree species covering 28.5 percent of the total road area in the west of the island and 11.7 percent in the east. On the other hand, if percent frequency is used, alder is fourth in importance in the east and ties with Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) and western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla) for first place in the west (Appendix V). Both east and west coast logging roads have many species in common, but differences in cover and frequency are apparent. The age of the sampled sites within each area can account for some of these differences. Those logging roads from the Haslam Creek area tended to be more recent (average age 16.2 years), while those in the San Juan area were older (average age 17.5). Willow (Salix spp) occurs in 16 percent and 58 percent and alder occurs in 49 percent and 26 percent of the plots on the west and east areas respectively. Because willow can be regarded as an early colonizer and alder a later arrival, these differences will likely reflect the length of time since abandonment. Western hemlock, western red cedar (Thuja plicata) and Douglas fir occur quite frequently in both areas. Slight differences, especially in cover, would tend to indicate that age and not area is causing these discrepancies. The only major difference is in three less dominant species. Both Pinus  monticola and Populus trichocarpa occur only in the east and Picea 56 sitchensis occurs only in the west. In each area, shrub species are generally similar with Gaultheria shallon, Rubus ursinus, Rubus parviflorus, Rubus leucodermis and Vaccinium parvifolium occurring in both, whereas Linnaea boreal is occurs only in the east and Rubus spectabilis occurs only in the west. Herbs, ferns and mosses are generally similar. On the basis of floristic composition there does not appear to be a major difference between these two areas, at least during the first 30 years after abandonment. Therefore, in the following sections, the data will be combined and will be referred to as "coastal logging road" data. The Effect of Position on Species Composition The location of the disturbed surface on the road (upslope, road surface, or downslope) has an effect on the species which revegetate (Table 3)." Th e road surface, for example, is much more amenable to the growth of alder than the upslope or downslope. To some extent, the same is true for willow and a number of minor species. On the other hand, the remaining tree species favor the upslope and down-slope. This probably reflects the absence of competition from alder rather than a preference for these conditions. Salal (G_. shalIon) is the only species which definitely favors the downslope portion of the disturbed road materials. A simple explanation for this phenomenon may be advanced, which arises from a difference in the extent of disturbance of the surrounding vegetation at the time of road construction. When the road is constructed, the plants growing above the upslope (i.e., in the upslope control plot) have their rooting zone exposed. This does not occur below the downslope (i.e., in the downslope control plot) where, in forming a Table 3 AVERAGE PERCENTAGE COVER OF MAJOR SPECIES OCCURRING ON VANCOUVER ISLAND LOGGING ROADS ACCORDING TO THEIR POSITION ON THE ROAD Species % Cover Upslope % Cover Surface % Cover Downslope Alnus rubra  Pseudotsuga menziesii  Salix spp Thuja plicata  Tsuga heterophylla Gaultheria:shall on Rubus ursinus  Vaccinium parvifolium Achlys triphylla  Anaphalis margaritacea  Epilobium angustifolium  Hieracium albiflorum  Lactuca biennis  Taraxacum spp 12.98 8.38 3.62 1.96 6.83 4.40 0.06 0.87 0.19 4.79 1.11 0.21 1.15 1.58 38.54 2.79 5.90 0.96 2.48 1.17 0.19 0.37 0.06 1.83 0.17 0.37 1.23 2.87 11.63 11.63 5.61 6.41 10.78 11.59 0.04 0.43 0.19 3.17 1.80 0.20 0.67 2.13 Polytrichum juniperinum Rhacomitrium canescens 0.68 0.02 0.27 0.42 0.20 0.07 downslope, the road materials are piled on top of the vegetation leaving their root systems still intact. As salal often spreads by rooting, it is able to colonize from the base of the road more easily than from the upper slopes from which the surface soil and the associated •kick plant materials are removed. A correlation (r = 0.604 with 50 degrees of freedom) between the cover of salal in the downslope control and the cover of salal in the downslope plots adds weight to this argument. Succession on Road Materials The disturbed portions of the coastal logging roads were divided according to position (upslope, road surface, downslope) and were then partitioned into five-year age classes, and average species frequency^ and cover, were calculated for each. A graph showing the cover of tree species and their relation to the age of abandonment is presented for the road surface (Figure 16). Graphs showing the relation between the cover of tree species and the age of abandonment for the upslope and downslope are not presented, but are similar for all species except alder, which was not nearly as well represented as on the road surface. The tree species, with the excep-tion of alder, were identical on all three disturbed portions, indicating that the alder dominance on the road surface also affected the adjacent upslope and downslope. The road surface is completely dominated by alder from an early age onwards. All species seem to increase their cover until the fifteenth or twentieth years when alder becomes dominant and prevents any further increases. The herb and shrub species were not plotted on this graph because of their insignificant contribution to cover. It would be a mistake to look at cover only in assessing the 80 60 5 o 4oH o o c o a. 2 0 i / / / / / / S A s s of Abandonment FIGURE 16 The relationship, for road surface data, between the percentage cover of Alnus rubra ( ), Salix spp, Tsuga heterophylla ( ~), Pseudotsuga menziesii ( ), and Thuja plicata (• •), and the age of logging road abandonment on Vancouver Island. 60 invasion of species onto disturbed sites. If frequency is used, a different perspective is gained especially in the early stages of coloniza-tion. When the frequency is plotted against age,many more species become important (Figure 17). Anaphalis margaritacea, Taraxacum spp, Salix spp and P_. menziesii are all present more frequently than alder until the twentieth year, but once alder attains its dominance, the rest of the species are removed as a result of competitive factors. It is possible, then, to speak of succession of species on abandoned logging roads, and to divide the first thirty years into two stages. The first stage (Figure 18) is characterized by four main species: A. margaritacea, Taraxacum spp, Salix spp and P_. menziesii; and the second by A. rubra. The first three of the species named in the first stage have seeds which are easily disseminated by wind and are able to colonize quickly following disturbance and, no doubt, many plants of these species are already established at the time of abandonment. Douglas fir, on the other hand, would have a readily available seed source from the surrounding forest. However, it grows poorly and never attains dominance on the road surfaces, probably through lack of nutrients. Once alder becomes established, it is able to outgrow Douglas fir which is shaded out quickly. The second stage in logging road succession is dominated entirely by alder (Figure 19). From the data, it is impossible to determine for how long alder will dominate an abandoned logging road. Nevertheless, it may be assumed that the road will be effectively removed from production of coniferous species other than as a rooting zone because, by the time the alder dies out, the surface will be effectively shaded by the canopy closure of the adjacent forest. Site Variation For the purpose of this study "site" will be considered in 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 A53 of A b a n d o n m e n t FIGURE 17 The relationship, for road surface data, between the percentage frequency of Alnus rubra ( ), Salix spp (• Pseudotsuga menziesii ( ), Anaphalis margaritacea ( ) and Taraxacum spp ( ), and the age of logging road abandonment on Vancouver Island. -Figure 19 Logging road near Port Renfrew abandoned 15 years ago. 63 qualitative rather than quantitative terms. The species composition on the upper and lower control plots wi l l ref lect the s i te adjacent to the logging road. In order to discover i f the species growing beside the road were in any way related to the colonizing vegetation, a series of cor re l -ation coeff icients were calculated between the cover of the more important species in the downslope control plots and their corresponding covers on the disturbed surfaces (Table 4). S imilar ly, correlation coefficients were calculated between the cover of the more important species in the downslope control plots and their corresponding covers on the disturbed surfaces (Table 5). These results show quite.clearly the influence of surrounding vegetation on the road surface. Generally, there is a good correlation between the quantities of a species occurring on both the upper and lower control plots, which indicates that as a road is constructed through a plant community, similar species remain both above and below the road. There are also a number of s ignif icant positive correlations be-tween the vegetation growing on the undisturbed soil beside the road, and those species occurring on the disturbed areas. While, these correla-tions can be interpreted in a number of ways, they a l l ref lect the influence of the surrounding vegetation, and hence the s i te , on the colon-izing species. . Thus, the adjacent s i te wi l l influence the road vegetation in a number of ways. F i r s t l y , there is an increased l ikel ihood that a nearby plant wi l l supply the seed for the colonizing species. Secondly, i f suitable conditions for growth of a particular species are present in the area adjacent to a road, then there is every reason to expect that these conditions wi l l prevail to some extent on the Table 4 CORRELATION COEFFICIENTS BETWEEN THE COVER OF A SPECIES IN THE UPPER CONTROL PLOTS AND THE COVER OF SPECIES ON THE OTHER PLOTS WITH.50 DEGREES OF FREEDOM Alnus Pinus Pseudot- Thuja Tsuga Gaul- _ Species rubra monticola suga plicata hetero- Salix theria Rubus_ menziesii phylla spp. shallon twviflorus Position Upper disturbed 0.493*** 0.000 0.159 0.084 0.213 -0.021 0.350* 0.327* Road surface 0.170 0.057 -0.100 -0.311* 0.099 -0.140 0.308* -0.081 Lower disturbed 0.166 0.028 0.282* 0.091 0.346* 0.449*** 0.214 -0.015 Lower control -0.056 0.369** 0.513*** 0.630*** 0.277* -0.099 0.408** 0.341* Significance of correlation coefficients to 95% level = *, 99% = ** and 99.9% = *** Table 5 CORRELATION COEFFICIENTS BETWEEN THE COVER OF A SPECIES IN THE LOWER CONTROL PLOTS AND THE COVER OF THE OTHER PLOTS WITH 50 DEGREES OF FREEDOM Species Alnus rubra Pinus . monticola Pseudot-suga menziesii Thuja pi icata Tsuga heterd-phylla Salix spp Gaul-theria shallon Rubus parviflorus Position Upper control -0.056 0.369** 0.513*** -0.630*** 0.277* -0.099 0.408** 0.341* Upper disturbed 0.200 -0.051 0.127 0.555*** 0.166 0.283* 0.271 0.371* Road surface 0.324* 0.081 -0.137 -0.030 0.189 0.147 0.325* -0.023 Lower disturbed 0.526*** -0.040 -0.163 0.081 0.269 -0.020 0.604*** ' -0.026 Significance of correlation coefficients to 95% level = * 99% = ** and 99.9% = *** cn disturbed areas. Moisture effects, for example, will undoubtedly carry over onto the road and the significant correlations obtained for species such as western redcedar and alder are probably due to this effect. Thus, a combination of seed availability and similar conditions for growth would serve to promote the same set of species on both the adjacent relatively undisturbed areas and the disturbed road materials. Finally, spread of salal by rooting from adjacent areas onto the mineral surfaces would occur only in a salal site. This gradual invasion of salal from the roadside is emphasized by the decrease in significance of the correlation coefficient when the plots are further away from the source of colonization. The correlation between the lower control and the adjacent downslope plot is highly significant (0.604***), between the lower control and surface significant (0.325*) and between the lower control and upslope (0.271) not significant. Other Factors Influencing Revegetation of Roads A general description of the characteristics of the plot variables can be found in Table 6 while a detailed documentation is presented in Appendix IV. Total cover found on each plot was used to calculate relation-ships with other variables. Obviously, species do not all react in the same way to different conditions. Total cover should, however, take into account dominance, diversity and performance, and as a result should be a good indication of controlling factors. It has already been noted that there are great differences in the ecology of the different positions on the disturbed road areas; thus, relationships were determined by splitting the data into three positions: upslope, road surface, and downslope. Correlation coefficients between 67 Table 6 A DESCRIPTION OF THE VARIABLES MEASURED FROM COASTAL LOGGING ROAD PLOTS i , , Coefficient S * m p l e Mean Standard M i n i m u n i Maximum of Size Deviation Variation Upslope Plot length (meters) 50 3.0 1 .59 0.5 8.0 52 .56 Percentage slope 50 . 6.7 20 .9 0 150 31 .02 Aspect 50 186.9 104 .1 0 354 55 .71 Transformed aspect 50 86.4 57 .3 2 180 66 .30 Texture 38 4.1 1 .1 2 7 26 .82 Elevation (feet) 50 1360 756 300 2500 55 .57 Age 50 17.3 7 .1 5 30 40 .80 Total cover 50 71.4 43 .9 5 158 61 .50 jrface Plot length (meters) 52 5.5 1 .9 4.0 11.0 34 .98 Percentage slope 52 9.3 9 .2 0 55 98 .48 Aspect 52 148.3 107 .5 ' 0 354 72 .52 Transformed aspect 52 99.4 50 .1 0 180 50 .38 Texture 43 4.9 0 .84 3 7 17 .14 Elevation (feet) 52 1388 760 .0 300 2500 54 .75 Age 52 17.4 7 .1 5 30 40 .66 Erosion 52 0.73 1 .1 0 5 155 .94 Total cover 52 73.5 51 .1 1 186 69 .60 68 Table 6 (continued) M e a " S«?»«nn M 1 n i m U m M a X l m U m C O e f f o f 1 e n t Size Deviation Variation Downslope Plot length (meters) 46 3 .8 1.9 1.5 9.5 49 .53 Percentage slope 46 57 .1 25.3 3 140 44 .30 Aspect 46 173 .1 102.8 0 354 59 .42 Transformed aspect 46 85 .2 56.7 2 180 66 .52 Texture 30 4 .6 1.19 3 7 25 .87 Elevation (feet) 46 1252 735.9 300 2500 58 .77 Age 46 16 .2 6.7 5 25 41 .25 Total cover 46 90 .3 53.9 7 195 59 .69 69 total cover and the following variables were determined: plot length, slope, texture, age of abandonment, erosion, aspect and aspect multiplied by slope (Table 7). Plot length provides a measure of the size of the road and, in effect, the scale of disturbance. It is anticipated that as the size of the disturbance increases, the vegetation will require a longer period to revegetate and a negative correlation between cover and plot length should occur. For the downslope, however, a positive correlation was found. There is also a positive correlation between plot length and age of abandonment; thus, there is a positive relationsnip between plot length, total cover and age of abandonment. The relation between total cover and age is expected and the relation between plot length and total cover is seen as merely a result of sampling steep road banks (large plot length) only on those roads which had been abandoned for a considerable period of time. For the road surface at least, the slope is negatively correla-ted to the total cover of vegetation. The slope is unrelated to the age of abandonment and, as such, would seem to strengthen this possible relationship. No relationship between aspect and total cover could be found; however, it is expected that some species will be affected by change of aspect. Texture and vegetation are negatively correlated on the road surface only. This is expected as large size materials will not have the same growth capabilities as finer textured materials. No textural relationship could be found on either the upslope or downslope, but any number of factors could be compensating for textural differences. 70 Table 7 CORRELATION COEFFICIENTS BETWEEN TOTAL PLANT COVER AND MEASURED VARIABLES ON COASTAL LOGGING ROADS Position Upslope Road Surface Downslope All Data Degrees of freedom 48 50 44 146 Plot length 0.241 0.168 0.398** 0.221* Percent slope 0.001 -0.360** -0.114 =0.033 Texture1' -0.310 -0.371* 0.111 -0.162 Age of abandonment 0.516*** 0.667*** 0.700*** . 0.605*** Erosion - -0.140 -Aspect 0.255 0.203 -0.014 0.130 t Texture has 36, 41, 28 and 109 degrees of freedom for the upslope, road surface, downslope and all data respectively. * = Significance of correlation coefficients to 95% level ** = 99% *** = 99.9% 71 Erosion was only measured for the road surface and usually resulted from the roadbed being the path of least resistance for water flowing from the hillsides. No relation between erosion and vegetation could be found although, in sites studied,erosion did not seem to be a major problem. There was, however, a positive correlation between erosion and slope (0.384** with 50 degrees of freedom) which .indicates the increased danger of erosion on steeper road grades. The most important factor governing the revegetation of logging roads is the age of abandonment. Highly significant correlations were obtained between total cover and age of abandonment for all road positions. Logging road succession has been documented earlier and shows this relationship in more detail; nevertheless, it is important to compare age/cover relationships with the other measured parameters to show their relative magnitudes. Age of abandonment is, therefore, the major determining factor regardless of plot length, slope, aspect, texture and erosion. 4.3.2 Mine Sites 4.3.2.1 Introduction Major mining activity on Vancouver Island has centered around the coal deposits on the east coast; consequently waste dumps resulting from this industry feature largely in the sites studied, and the only other mine wastes examined were at two open pit iron mines. A list of the mines is presented in table 8. The coal mine wastes near Nanaimo have been generally dis-turbed since abandonment by human activities, such as rifle ranges, Table 8 MINE DUMPS EXAMINED ON VANCOUVER ISLAND Area Mi ne Map Reference Mineral Biogeoclimatic Zone Date Of Abandonment Cumberland No. 4 (50° 125° SW) Coal CDF (wet) before 1918 II No. 5 n n before 1922 II No. 5, 7, 8 young n H n ? n No. 5, 7, 8 old II n ? H Tsable River (50° 125° SE) II II 1960 South Wellington No. 5 and No.10 (49° 124° NE) H CDF (dry) 1935 and 1951 Extension White Rapids (49° 124° NE) H CDF (dry) 1950 Campbell River Upper Quinsam (49° 125° NW) Iron CDF (wet) 1957 Kennedy Lake Kennedy Lake (49° 125° SE) CWH (wet) 1968 1^ ro 73 motorcycle tracks or other uses. The Cassidy tip, in particular, was impossible to sample for vegetation as much of the material had been removed and used for road aggregate. Thus, waste dumps near Nanaimo received only cursory treatment in this study and only to the extent of the preparation of species lists and some initial soil samples. The South Wellington No. 5 and No. 10 dumps are approximately seven miles south of Nanaimo and are in the form of conical mounds 100 to 200 feet high (Figure 20). Vegetatively this area can be classified as falling within the Coastal Douglas Fir Zone (drier subzone) although farmland is adjacent to both waste piles. Only species lists were prepared. The White Rapids (Extension) mine (Coastal Douglas Fir Zone, drier subzone) is situated approximately nine miles by road from Nanaimo. The waste dump lies near the Nanaimo River and, compared to the South Wellington dumps, is relatively small with a broken, low, plateau-like configuration. Since the mine was closed in 1950, this dump has been continually disturbed by human activity; therefore, only a species list was prepared. Near Cumberland, however, the coal dumps were comparatively undisturbed and could be sampled more extensively. Two waste dumps studied in detail originated from the Canadian Collieries (Dunsmuir) Limited No.4 mine at Comox Lake and the No. 5 mine near Cumberland. The No. 4 mine was in continuous operation from at least 1901 to 1932; there-after production declined until the mine was finally closed in 1935. However, the No. 5 mine, near Cumberland, operated from at least 1901 until 1947 with a break of two years in 1930 and 1931. Unfortunately, these dates cannot be used to estimate the age of the dumps. These waste Figure 20 East side of conical coal waste dump at South Wellington. The south-facing slope is bare of vegetation. 75 materials, or portions of them, could have been deposited at any time during the life of the mine. A 54-year-old Douglas fi r was growing on the No. 4 mine dump, so this portion, at least, must have been abandoned prior to 1918. The No. 5 mine dump was also abandoned long before the mine closed; here the oldest tree dates from 1922. Two other dumps in this area were given minor attention but were much younger than the No. 4 and No. 5 dumps. Here also, the ages of abandonment are uncertain; both were likely used as waste dumps for mines No. 5, No. 7 and No. 8 but are of different ages. For the purpose of this study, they have been labelled No. 5, 7, 8 old and No. 5, 7, 8 young. The location of the sampled dumps near Cumberland is shown in Figure 21. The entire Cumberland area is situated in the Coastal Douglas fir zone (wetter subzone). The mine dumps studied, with the exception of No. 4 dump, were all placed on top of gravel materials (a pitted out-wash landform). The No. 4 dump lies on the lakeside at Comox Lake with one side of the dump forming the lake shore. The Argonaut Mine at Upper Quinsam Lake (49° latitude 125° longi-tude NW).was visited and a species list prepared (Figure 22). This mine is situated in the wetter subzone of the Coastal Douglas Fir Zone. The entire operation was large-scale but short-term and began in 1951 and was concluded in 1957. The open pit is now a lake and the waste dumps generally consist of steep, coarse-textured materials. Only the flatter terraces and road surfaces were colonized at this site. The Kennedy Lake mine seven miles east of Ucluelet (49° latitude 125° longitude SE) is in the Coastal Western Hemlock Zone (wetter subzone). This, too, was a short-term but large-scale operation FIGURE 21 Map of Cumberland area coal dumps traced from airphoto BC 5C97-C18, showing roads and an abandoned railway grade (+++). Scale: 2 inches = 1 mile. 77 Figure 22 Argonaut mine at Upper Quinsam Lake, abandoned in 1957. 78 which was worked from 1963 to 1967. The open pit is now largely filled with water while the waste dumps, although large, have a plateau-like configuration. The vegetation cover was sparse and only a species list was prepared. 4.3.2.2. Methods Contiguous plots of four meters square were laid out in transects across the No. 4 mine dump at Comox Lake and the No. 5 mine dump near Cumberland. In each quadrat the following data were recorded: percent slope, aspect, age of trees, and cover values for all species of trees, shrubs, herbs and bryophytes. One transect of 17 plots was described for the No. 4 dump and three transects totalling 50 plots were described for the No. 5 dump. Species lists only were prepared for the other two dumps. One soil pit was dug in each of the No. 4 and No. 5 dumps while samples of the other two dumps were limited to seven inches in depth. Hydrogen ion concentration was measured on.the unsifted sample on a Radiometer pH meter 28 using a 2:1 water/soil suspension (Jackson 1958). 4.3.2.3. Results Species Composition Species composition was calculated for the No. 4 and No. 5 dumps together and, as with the logging roads, has been presented using both percent frequency and percent cover (Appendix VII). Pseudotsuga menziesii  Thuja piicata, Tsuga heterophylla and Pinus monticola are well represented on coal tips (Figure 23). Western hemlock and Douglas fir are the only two species of any consequence when percentage cover is studied. Of the 79 South 1029 29' t 1 r 20 30 40 Transect Length (meters) FIGURE 23 Scale diagram of transects running north to south across the #5 mine waste at Cumberland showing the following tree species: Pseudotsuga menziesii, | ; Tsuga heterophylla j ; Pinus monticola j ; Picea  sitchensis { ; Alnus rubra Q ; Populus trichocrirpa (j ; ar.d Populus tremuloides f . The age is shown at the apex of each. 80 shrubs, Linnaea boreal is, Vaccinium parvifolium and Mahonia nervosa occur frequently but do not account for any significant cover. Goodyera  oblongifolia, Achlys triphylla, Lactuca biennis and Pteridium aquilinum account for little cover but occur often. Of the mosses Eurhyncium  oreganum and Hylocomnium splendens account for 9.2 and 4.1 percent cover and occur frequently. Many of the other bryophytes listed occur frequently but have only small cover values. The results from general species lists of the other coastal mine sites are presented in Appendix VII. No clear time sequence could be established for the coal wastes at Cumberland. Nevertheless, vegetational changes can be observed by noting the age distribution of the.trees on the dumps (Figure 23). If the age of Douglas fir is assessed in relation to the distance from the base of the mound, a significant negative correlation is found (r = -0.458* with 24 degrees of freedom). Presumably then, Douglas fir colonizes the upper slopes only after these areas have become shaded by the surrounding vegetation. Also, general observations can be made as to the time sequence 1n relation to colonization of other mine dumps. In general, the natural revegetation of waste dumps is quite slow in comparison to logging roads. The iron mine dumps exhibit the early colonization stage that character-ized logging roads but will most certainly require much more time to accomplish total plant coverage. The Argonaut mine has been abandoned 16 years and sti l l the vegetation is sparse. Factors Influencing Colonization of Waste Dumps Total species cover on both the No. 4 and No. 5 dumps was calculated by summing the cover of every species occurring in each plot. 81 The vertical distance to the base of the waste dump, vertical distance to the top of a minor slope, and vertical distance to the bottom of a minor slope were calculated from field measurements of slope and aspect. A detailed description of these values can be found in Appendix VI and a synthesis in Table 9. Correlation coefficients were determined between the total species cover and the plot variables(Table)10). The correla-tion between aspect and total cover is the most significant. Although slopes do not significantly affect total cover, they may interact with the aspect. On south-facing slopes, for example, an increase in slope to the point where the sun's rays are perpendicular to the surface would increase the sun's effectiveness in drying out the upper few inches of the waste material. This effect is enhanced greatly by the dark coloration of the coal wastes which absorb the heat energy. A significant negative correlation was found between total cover and the distance to the base of the coal mound. This, too, can be linked to the availability of water. The Cumberland dumps were generally smaller than those near Nanaimo, and the profusion of plant growth on the Cumberland wastes can be attributed, to some extent, to their low configuration. Even with this low configuration, the .relationship is s t i l l evident, probably because the water table would be nearer the surface at the foot of a waste dump and would be more useful for plant survival. Also, shelter from the sun's rays increases near the base of the dump) on the north aspects due to the shading effect of the mound itself. The base of the mound on the southern aspects is sheltered by vegetation growing beside the dump. The above evidence all points to the fact that moisture is a 82 Table 9 , A DESCRIPTION OF THE PLOT VARIABLES, CUMBERLAND COAL MINE WASTES (FROM #5 AND #4 MINES) - 67 PLOTS StanHarH L O e t f l C i e n Variable Mean Deviation M i n i m u m Maximum of Variation Percentage slope 33.3 24.9 0 75 74.88 Aspect 132.7 113.9 0 360 85.87 Transformed aspect 104.7 64.3 14 180 61.40 Vertical distance to top of minor slope 1.9 2.2 0 9 112.61 Vertical distance to bottom of minor slope 2.2 2.1 0 9 97.57 Vertical distance to base of waste 6.4 3.2 1 12 49.62 Total cover 72.3 56.1 0 221 77.61 Table 10 CORRELATION COEFFICIENTS SHOWING THE RELATION BETWEEN TOTAL SPECIES COVER AND A NUMBER OF PHYSICAL VARIABLES, (ON BOTH NO. 4 AND NO. 5 DUMPS, CUMBERLAND) WITH 65 DEGREES OF FREEDOM Variable Total Cover Percent slope 0.181 Aspect 0.451*** Distance to top of minor slope Distance to bottom of minor slope Distance to base of waste dump 0.452*** 0.018 0.165 Correlation coefficient significant to the 99.9% level = *** 84 major factor in determining the colonization of these coal mine wastes. Moisture availability would have been compounded by adverse conditions of slope and aspect as well as the height of the mounds. A species such as western hemlock, which is drought intolerant, would not be expected to occur on these waste dumps to any extent. In fact, it occurs in 88 percent of the sampled plots. The diagrammatic cross-sections of the mine wastes help to explain this anomaly and show that this species grows only on north-facing slopes unless it has been shaded by trees to the south (Figure 23). The pH status of the coal tips was examined and recorded from the following locations: Depth pH Nanaimo area coal dumps Cassidy 0-3" 7.4 South Wellington 0-3" 6.3 Cumberland area coal dumps Tsable River (burned) 0-3" 4.9 Tsable River (unburned) Q-3" 2.1 No. 5, 7, 8 young 0-3" 3.5 3-7" 3.3 No. 5, 7, 8 old 0-3" 3.7 3-7" 3.8 No. 4 waste dump 0-3" 6.0 3.6" 6.5 6-9" 6.9 85 Cumberland area coal dumps (continued) Depth pH No.5 waste dump. 0-3" 4.5 3-6" 4.5 6-9" 5.0 In the Nanaimo area the coal wastes are circumneutral and in this case pH would not be detrimental to plant establishment. The Cumberland situation is somewhat different. The No. 4 and No. 5 dumps indicate no problem with acidities, but the No. 5, 7, 8 old and young wastes are much more acidic and this may have inhibited plant growth to some extent. The Tsable River dump proved to be extremely acid, although portions of the material have been oxidized through burning when the pH is raised substantially. 4.4 Interior Areas 4.4.1. Logging Roads 4.4.1.1 Introduction Logging roads in the Harris Creek Valley (50° latitude 119° longitude NE), near Lumby, between 2,900' and 3,700' elevation, were sampled with ages of abandonment varying from five to twenty-four years. This area can be classified as the Interior.Douglas Fir biogeoclimatic zone (wetter subzone). Most roads have been constructed on fine-textured soils. Cattle grazing occurred on many of these roads. 4.4.1.2 Methods Roads were selected and sampled in exactly the same manner as on the coast. Twenty-three sites consisting of 100 plots were described. The age of abandonment was more difficult to ascertain in this zone as the area was selectively logged and regeneration was not immediate. Ages were found by boring the relict trees and noting any sudden changes in growth ring pattern. 4.4.1.3 Results Species Composition Species composition of disturbed portions of the logging roads was analyzed using percent cover and percent frequency as before (Appendix IX). No particular species attains any degree of dominance; nevertheless, there are a large number of species represented on logging roads in this area. The following occur in more than thirty percent of the disturbed plots: Pseudotsuga menziesii, Rosa gymnocarpa, Mahonia aquifolium, Spiraea lucida, Trifolium repens, Fragaria  vlrginiana, Hieracium albiflorum, Achillea millefolium, Festuca spp, Calamagrostis rubescens and Dactyl is glomerata. Most species tend to favor the road surface rather than the upslope or downslope. As the sample size was relatively small no data on species succession can be shown. Nevertheless, as no one species is dominant the pattern of succession would be difficult to document on these sites. Factors Determining Revegetation A description of the measured plot variables can be found in Appendix VIII while a synthesis is presented in Table 11. By using total plant cover as an index of site suitability for revegetation, and relating cover to the measured plot variables, it was possible to obtain an idea of the important factors that determine plant colonization of roads in this area. Correlation coefficients between total cover and the measured variables were calculated for all 87 Table 11 A DESCRIPTION OF THE VARIABLES MEASURED IN THE INTERIOR LOGGING ROAD PLOTS NEAR LUMBY, B. C—ROAD SURFACE DATA (23 OBSERVATIONS) M p ;, n Standard M. . „ . Coefficient Deviation M l n i mu' Ti Maximum of Variation Plot length (meters) 3.8 0 .7 3 6 18 .74 Percentage slope 11.7 11 .1 0 41 94 .59 Aspect 148.2 116 .2 0 320 78, .44 Transformed aspect 107.2 50 .5 0 180 47, .09 Texture 2.7 1 .2 0 5 42. ,94 Age 17.8 5. .1 5 24 28. 72 Erosion 0.7 1. .6 0 5 228. 57 Total cover 51.4 25. .7 8 94 50. 04 88 disturbed sites and also the road surface sites alone (Table. 12). These results show the importance of the age of abandonment in determining the abundance of colonizing vegetation. The position on the road (upslope, road surface and downslope) is also important; the colonizing species favor the road surface. Because position is important, correlations of total cover with the measured variables have little meaning when the data are combined and only become significant by analyzing the road surface data alone. Differences in vegetation on the road surface could not be related to texture, erosion, aspect or scale (plot length). The percent slope, however, is significant. 4.4.1.4 Discussion As on the coast, the revegetation of interior logging roads is governed largely according to the length of time since abandonment. On road surfaces, a reduction in plant cover occurs on the steeper gradients. As these steeper gradients are not of sufficient slope to prevent revegetation through downslope soil movement, the cause of this reduced plant cover is probably a result of moisture deficiency. The great variety of species that occur on logging roads in the interior is a result of no one species' reaching dominance. The area is too dry for any tree species to dominate quickly; thus, the road is invaded by native grassland species. In the coastal region there is a great difference between the conditions on the adjacent forest soil and those of the bare road surface. These coastal forest soils have a 89 Table 12 CORRELATION COEFFICIENTS BETWEEN TOTAL PLANT COVER AND MEASURED VARIABLES ON LOGGING ROADS IN THE INTERIOR DOUGLAS FIR ZONE USING ALL DISTURBED SURFACES AND THE ROAD SURFACE ONLY Variable All Surfaces 48 d.f. Road Surface Only 21 d.f. Position on road 0.358** • —.. Plot length 0.114 0.199 Percent slope -0.269 -0.523* Texture ... "\hs- • -0.253 Age of abandonment 0.580*** 0.744*** Erosion -0.329 Aspect o.on -0.162 Significance of correlation coefficients to 95% level = *, 99% = **, and 99.9% = *** "'r ; • • 90 thick humus layer, and the species which survive under these more acidic conditions may not necessarily do well on the more neutral road surfaces. In the interior zone, on the other hand, the adjacent undisturbed soil and that on the road surfaces are similar and, as a result, many of the species occurring on the natural surfaces adjacent to the road are able to grow on the disturbed sites. The fine-textured materials forming the road surface are also similar to the surrounding materials, and in this area would aid the establishment of the native species. 4.4.2 Mine Waste Dumps 4.4.2.1 Introduction In the Nelson area, mining activities have been continuous since the late 19th Century, with much of the activity centering around the small communities of Ainsworth, Sandon and New Denver. Many small waste dumps are scattered throughout this region providing a unique opportunity to study mine waste vegetation. The mine dumps studied occur within the Interior Western Hemlock Zone. Mines varied from 2,600' to 5,400' in elevation with only two occurring above 4,000'. These two are close to the Engelmann Spruce-Subalpine fir zone. 4.4.2.2 Methods Fifteen mine dumps (Table 13) were sampled in this area using sixty-three, four-meter-square plots. Plots were subjectively placed to insure a wide variation in slope, aspect and vegetative cover. A wide range in these variables increases the possibility of finding any Table 13 THE MINE DUMPS SAMPLED IN THE AINSWORTH/NEW DENVER AREA Name Map Reference Lot Ore Mined Altitude Age of Main Abandonment Age of Last Working Ruth-Hope 49° 117° NE L841 Ag/Pb 3900 1930 1965 Hewitt 49° 117° NE L4440 Ag/Pb 3700 1930 1958 Wonderful 49° 117° NE Galena 4300 1929 1957 Trinket 49° 116° NW L213 Pb/Zn 3000 1922 1955 Spokane 49° 116° NW L212 Ag/Pb/Zn 3000 1922 1955 Danira 49° 116° NW L299 Ag/Pb/Zn 2600 1901 1955 Maestro 49° 116° NW L90 Ag/Pb 3000 - 1920 1959 Highlander 49° 116° NW L258 Ag/Pb 3100 1912 1961 Ayesha 49° 116° NW L143 Ag/Pb/Zn 3600 1913 1955 Buckeye 49° 116° NW L6327 Ag/Pb/Zn 3500 1900 1955 Black Prince 49° 117° NE Pb ore + carbonates 3700 1912 1955 Caledonia 50° 117° SE Ag/Pb 3100 1943 1962 Monitor 50° 117° SE Ag/Pb/Zn 3000 1941 1953 Black Colt 49° 117° NE Ag/Pb/Zn • 5400 1937 1951 Altoona 49° 117° NE Ag/Pb/Zn 3900 1952 1967 92 significant relationships. However, by subjectively positioning the plots, an unknown bias is introduced, and accuracy concerning the true mean and variation of the sample may suffer. Thus, a greater knowledge of the factors determining the vegetation of waste dumps is sacrificed for less information on their true composition. Within each plot the following data were recorded: percent slope, aspect, texture, wind exposure, elevation, age of major abandonment, age of last abandonment, and cover for each plant species. The texture was subjectively quantified according to the method cited previously (Section 4.2.1). Wind exposure is a new variable introduced for the pur-pose of sampling this area and was evaluated subjectively for each plot using a number from 1 to 5. A waste dump situated in a small valley and surrounded by a heavy tree cover would be classed as 1 whereas, a dump located on a convex slope on a bare hillside would be classed as 5 exposure. Determining the age of mine dumps in this region proved very difficult. The Report to the Minister of Mines (1900-1972) indicates the dates of operation for each mine, but reworkings and subsequent disturbances have made it very difficult to give an accurate age to many of the dumps.. In addition, it is impossible to determine if remining resulted in disturbance to the entire dump or a small portion. In the Ainsworth and New Denver area, mining began at the end of the 19th Century and numerous small mines flourished until about 1930 when low metal prices forced many to close down. After the Second World War mechanical equipment was readily available and was used to rework many of the old mines as well as parts of their dumps. For example, the Monitor mine (lead and zinc) near Three Forks was one of the 93 earlier mines being worked in the years 1899-1906, 1922-29 and 1934-41, depending upon the state of the metal market. In later years (1950-52) the dumps and mine were reworked, and again in 1958 there was minor activity. These intermittent operating periods are duplicated in most other mines of this area and serve to complicate the determination of the age of the waste materials. In the case of the Monitor, 1952 was the last date of abandonment but the time of major abandonment was 1941. Thus, the reliability of either of these two dates to describe the age of these waste dumps is questionable. A composite sample of soil from the top eight inches was obtained in each plot unl ess the material was too coarse textured to sample. The soil sample was air dried, sieved through a 2-mm mesh screen and the 2-mm fraction was analyzed for pH as before. Weights of. both sieved fractions were also recorded. 4.4.2.3 Results and Discussion Species Composition The prominent species which revegetate mine sites in this area are listed in Appendix XI. No particular tree species was found to be dominant on these mine dumps, although the following species occur quite frequently: Pseudotsuga menziesii, Thuja plicata, Pinus monticola, Betula papyrifera, Populus trichocarpa, Picea glauca, Salix spp. and Alnus tenufolia. Pachystima myrsinites and Rubus parviflorum are the only shrub species of any importance. Herb species are common but.are also of limited cover. Epilobium angustifolium, Anaphalis margaritaceae, Hleracium albiflorum, Fragaria virginiana, Galium triflorum and Cerastium  vulgatum (from highest to lowest importance) are the only species to 94 occur in more than ten percent of the plots. Grass and Carex species occur often but include numerous specific types, none of which is Important by itself. Rhacomitrium canescens and Polytrichum juniperinum are the only moss species of any importance. Factors Determining Plant Colonization on Mine Wastes A description of the measured plot variables can be found in Appendix X while a synthesis is presented in Table 14. Again, total cover was used as an index of site suitability for vegetative colonization. Correlation coefficients between total cover and the measured variables , were calculated, omitting the four plots from which soils data were not calculated (Table 15). There are probably two reasons why, in this area, total cover cannot be related to the year of abandonment. First of a l l , the age was difficult to determine, both in identifying those sections of the waste material which had been redisturbed and in establishing the date when final disturbance ceased. Secondly, as growth does not appear to be very rapid (only five plots exceeded 100 percent cover) there are probably important factors other than age which effectively control the vegetation invading these dumps. Elevation varied from 2,600' to 5,400' but did not appear to affect the total cover of vegetation occurring on the mine dumps. Slope varied from zero to ninety-two percent and is negatively correlated with total cover. Generally, the dumps in this area are very steep (the average slope of the plots examined was 51 percent). This average value is probably biased and should, in fact, be higher. Often only a small proportion of the dump area was flat and, as a maximum 95 Table 14 DESCRIPTION OF MEASURED VARIABLES FROM THE MINE DUMPS IN THE AINSWORTH/NEW DENVER AREA Variable Sample Size Mean Standard Deviation Minimum Maximum Coefficient of Variation Age of main abandonment 59 1924.1 13.8 1900 1952 57.37 Age of last abandonment 59 1957.6 44.5 1951 1967 7.74 Elevation 59 3617 714.7 2600 5400 19.76 Slope (%) 59 51 .5 33.8 0 92 65.60 Aspect 54 157.7 115.4 2 358 Texture 59 5.4 1.1 4 9 21 .11 Wind exposure 59 2.9 0.87 1 5 30.11 pH 59 7.2 1.21 2.8 8.6 16.80 Percent soil > 2 mm 59 68.3 10.84 50 89 15.87 Total plant cover 59 30.0 39.19 0 151 130.63 96 Table 15 CORRELATION COEFFICIENTS BETWEEN TOTAL COVER AND MEASURED VARIABLES BASED ON 59 SAMPLES FROM MINE WASTE MATERIALS IN THE AINSWORTH/NEW DENVER AREA Variable Total Plant Cover Year of main abandonment -0.037 Year of last abandonment -0.230 Elevation 0.062 Percent slope -0.315* Texture 0.094 Wind exposure -0.552*** PH -0.048 Percent of s o i l fraction greater than 2 mm 0.245 Aspect 0.116 Significance of correlation coefficients to 95% level and 99.9% level = ***. = *, 99% level = **, variation in slope was sampled, flat areas were always included within the sample. The overall steep configuration of these mounds, resulting in unstable slopes, is probably one of the major reasons why plant colonization is slow (Figure 24). With the high winter snowfall in this area, snow slides likely continually remove any vegetation which may have developed on the steep slopes. The overall frequency of these slopes, and the considerable time which it takes to vegetate them, could be one reason why the relationship between total cover and age is insignificant. Aspect had no significant effect on vegetation. Texture was measured both subjectively and also by calculating the percentage, by weight, of particle size greater than 2 mm. The subjective assessment and the weighed measure are correlated well together ( 0 . 555 * * * with 57 degrees of freedom) but neither of them could be related to the total cover. All the materials studied on these dumps were of a coarse .texture (varied from class 4 to class 9) and, as such, detrimental to plant growth (Figure 25). Thus, while the coarse textured nature of these mine wastes could not be related to plant colonization, texture is probably an important factor nevertheless. Wind exposure had the highest correlation with total cover. Unfortunately, wind exposure had to be measured on a subjective basis; nevertheless, the result obtained is probably reliable. An exposed mine waste is susceptible to wind desiccation, frost heaving and excess light; all are factors that inhibit the establishment of plaits. Waste dump acidity did not appear to be a major factor in these mine dumps. Only two samples showed a strong acid reaction (pH 3.1 and 2.8) while the remainder were between 4.5 and 8.6. The two plots Figure 24 Steep unstable slope, Wonderful mine, Sandon. Figure 25 Coarse textured slope, Wonderful mine, Sandon. which indicated a low pH had limited cover, were flat, and were of average exposure. Thus, in these two plots pH could have been a determining factor, but overall the wastes were not influenced to any extent by acid materials. 4.5 Discussion Throughout British Columbia, there is a wide variation in climate, topography and vegetation. Disturbed areas were studied at a number of different locations and, although the species composition and factors determining plant succession have been assessed within each area, a comparison between them is needed. 4.5.1 Species Composition The species which colonize disturbed surfaces are generally present in the adjacent plant communities. If not, they have light wind-blown seed dispersal mechanisms which enable plant colonization to be initiated a long distance from the disturbance. The reliance of seed either from the nearby plant community or from further away, through light wind-blown seed dispersal mechanisms, has several ramifications. If the adjacent flora is diverse, it will provide a greater variety of available seed and the probability of successful colonization will be greater than an adjacent flora with only a few species. Also, once a disturbance covers a large area, the adjacent vegetation will be ineffective as a seed source and there will be a greater reliance on the wind-blown seed as a source for colonizing species. Therefore, in a 100 large disturbance both the seed diversity and availability will be reduced. In addition to colonization by seed, vegetative reproduction has been observed to occur. Salal, and its progressive colonization from the undisturbed communities at the base of coastal logging roads, was the only species observed to establish through vegetative means. Again, both the adjacent community and the size of the disturbance will govern the rate of colonization by vegetative means. For successful colonization of waste materials, the ability to withstand nitrogen deficient soils is important. Species which have the ability to fix nitrogen would be expected to be an important constituent 1n the natural revegetation of wastes. With the exception of alder, however, this is not the case. Alder is the only nitrogen fixing species to attain any degree of dominance and is only present on coastal logging road surfaces. It is relatively absent on the upslope or downslope of roads and scarce on mine dumps, indicating that it will not tolerate areas where moisture is deficient. In the interior, although nitrogen fixing species are present, none are dominant. 4.5.2 Factors Determining Plant Survival on Waste Materials The three major categories of factors limiting growth on disturbed materials are moisture, slope stability and nutrients. These were found to be important in varying degrees in the areas surveyed. From the sites studied, it would appear that water deficiencies constitute the most important factor in inhibiting natural revegetation. There are numerous parameters which, in turn, affect the moisture status of wastes, and all of these may potentially form 101 barriers to plant establishment. The climate of an area may influence the moisture status of a waste material. Areas with drier summers are more likely to have problems associated with water deficiencies. The slope and aspect of a disturbed surface are factors which can influence the moisture of a waste material. A sloping surface will have an increased water runoff and, in combination with aspect, is important in determining the amount of sun energy striking the surface. Reduced plant cover found on steep gradients of logging road surfaces cannot be attributed to slope instability and is probably related to reduced moisture conditions. Aspect has little effect on the coloniza-tion of.logging roads because of the shading by adjacent vegetation which protects the road surface from the direct rays of the sun. In the Cumberland sites, however, with the disturbance larger and the climate slightly drier than coastal logging roads, the aspect becomes more important. Here, moisture deficiencies on southern aspects are made more extreme because of the heat-absorptive capability of the black-colored materials. No effect from aspect was found in the Sandon mine dumps, reflecting either the wet climate of the area or that other factors are more important than the desiccation problems resulting from aspect. Wind exposure is another parameter which can affect the moisture of a waste material. Water will evaporate more reaidiTy from a surface 102 which is exposed to wind than from a similar sheltered area. Snow would be blown free and would not be available for plant growth on the exposed wastes during the spring and early summer period. Also, exposed surfaces would be more readily frozen. The variable wind exposure was measured only in the West Kootenay mine wastes but was found to be the most important parameter here. The size of a disturbed area may either magnify or obscure many of the factors important to successful revegetation. In terms of moisture, adverse conditions of slope and aspect may be minimized if a waste area is small. For example, on the Cunberland dumps, evidence suggests that vegetation only began growing' in the uppermost portions following colonization of the lower slopes. Once vegetation had established on the lower slopes, it provided shade for the other areas of the dumps and allowed more species to invade. Had the dump been smaller, total coverage would have occurred within a short period of time. On road areas, the shading of adjacent vegetation is probably one of the major reasons that revegetation is rapid. Plant succession on large-scale disturbances will usually require more time. If the invasion of plants is through vegetative means, then only the edges will.be colonized. For a small waste dump or a logging road, this would mean entire plant coverage in a short period of time. If plant invasion is through seed dispersal, a large-scale disturbance will not have an adequate seed source nearby. Species with seeds which are not easily dispersed would only be able to colonize the waste material which is close to the seed source. Thus, the only species with a potential of revegetating a large proportion of the waste would be those with easily dispersed seeds. 103 Revegetation is influenced by the texture of waste materials. Texture was related to plant cover for the coastal logging road surfaces but generally could not be statistically related to vegetation in other sites studied. This, however, does not indicate the lack of importance of texture but rather the lack of variability within each area sampled. The mine dumps in the Sandon area were all coarse textured and as such particle size was an important factor, although there was no basis for comparison with smaller size material. On the other hand, coal wastes were uniformly composed of fine materials. Texture becomes a major factor inhibiting plant growth as material sizes become larger. A dump composed of large rock fragments will not be able to retain moisture or nutrients and is, therefore, a very poor growth medium. On such materials, vegetation has little chance of survival. The mine waste rock surveyed from the West Kootenays and the coal deposits on Vancouver Island were discarded from underground workings and were composed of relatively fine materials. The Kennedy Lake and Upper Quinsam mines were open pit operations and the waste rock appeared to be composed of much larger materials. Another factor which influences the moisture content of the dumps is the color of the material. Color was not measured but undoubtedly affected vegetation on the coal waste materials and will be an important consideration wherever materials are dark. If the slope is very steep, it may also be unstable and the constantly shifting material will inhibit the establishment of plant life. It is possible that slope stability is partly responsible for the different quantities of vegetation between the upslope and downslope 104 of a logging road. Often the upslope has been cut, leaving a vertical slope which continually crumbles and falls resulting 1n a mobile surface. The downslope, on the other hand, has only the road surface above and is not as liable to movement. On the dumps studied in the Kootenays, the importance of steep slopes has been established, and there is little doubt but that these slopes are very unstable and that the continual movement of rock is inhibiting vegetation. The chemical composition of waste materials was studied only peripherally and parameters have been assumed rather than measured in most cases. Organic matter, for example, was low following disturbance and there was an obvious build-up once vegetation had become established. A barometer of waste toxicity has been soil acidity (Schramm, 1966) and pK was measured on waste dumps only when there was a strong possibility for toxic elements occurring. Generally, low pH values did not occur except in a few instances. If anything, the higher pH values Indicating the calcareous nature of many waste areas, would have resulted in low survival of acid loving species. Many of those species formed the available seed source from adjacent undisturbed land. 105 CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSIONS The study of the factors determining natural revegetation of disturbed areas becomes valuable, when a knowledge of these factors is used to aid the planning and implementation of reclamation programs. The optimum management of man-made disturbances, in order that the minimum environmental degradation occurs in conjunction with the maximum miti-gation potential, is one of the major tasks facing resource developers today. The factors controlling revegetation, therefore, must be clearly understood and must be recognized and acknowledged as an integral part of the planning for any industrial disturbance. The implication of the Anyox smelter study and a knowledge of the factors which controlled both, the initial smelter damage and the subsequent revegetation could have an effect on future smelter location and design in British Columbia. No doubt, the large quantity of sulphur dioxide which was emitted from the Anyox smelter would not be duplicated under present environmental policies i f another smelter were constructed in British Columbia. • From an overall environmental standpoint, however, the location of the Anyox smelter was very good. Other land uses Were few, and con-flicts between resources were restricted to forest uses only. The fumes were confined largely to Observatory Inlet due to the valley topography. Furthermore, the precipitation would have reduced the ambient fume concentrations at frequent intervals. Hemlock, the dominant species in the region, was observed to be unusually resistant to fume damage. If another smelter is installed in British Columbia, the extent and concentration of fumes and their effect on vegetation will have to be 106 assessed before construction, and the record of the Anyox damage could provide a guide to expected future damage. Although smelter effects may be felt over extensive areas, smelters themselves occur infrequently. Disturbances associated with mine wastes and road construction, however, are common and result in a great deal of environmental damage. Waste disposal options will not be available in road construction to any extent, but for mine waste, disposal and amelioration potential is varied and leaves much room for the environmental planner. A major step in the planning process is to first define the land use objectives. These may vary from no objective at al l , to the restora-tion of prime agricultural land. The pit area in an open pit operation could conceivably come under the first objective for, generally, any other intended land use is often wishful thinking. The objective of restoration of agricultural land has not been met in British Columbia but is often achieved in the eastern United States (Kohnke, 1950). Generally, the future or intended land use should be tailored to the present or potential use of the land, and objectives designed to equal or exceed these values would seem to be satisfactory. In British Columbia, however, land use objectives are rarely defined, although most mines hope to achieve a ground covering of plants. This could be considered as the low level objective of stabilization or watershed protection. On any disturbance, if the conditions are unfavorable for revegetation, land use objectives cannot be fulfilled. If the conditions are modified so that revegetation is barely possible, then land use options are increased. As waste dumps become modified so that plant. 107 growth conditions become more and more favorable, a greater number of land use options become available. Thus, in planning a mine reclamation program, the dump must be designed so that conditions for revegetation are suitable for the future or intended land use by obtaining the most . favorable growth conditions. In the planning of a reclamation program the factors limiting revegetation must be anticipated and waste materials designed to eliminate these adverse conditions. This thesis documents some of the conditions which were found to limit natural revegetation on .waste material. These conditions are moisture, stability and nutrients, and the parameters affecting each of these have been described. The reclamation officer must, therefore, anticipate the limiting factors and modify the parameters such that growth conditions are optimized. If a water deficiency will be a factor limiting revegetation, then there are a number of parameters that can be modified to increase water availability. The climate is one parameter which cannot be modified; however, it is conceivable that, where a mine occupies a large range in elevation, that dumps could be disposed in the more favorable climate. Dumps exposed to wind can be modified by decreasing their size and putting them in more sheltered locations. The major management pro-cess will be in the modification of dump slope and aspect. In general, level slopes, and aspects away from the southern direction, will achieve greater mois,ture availability; The inducement of micro-relief is another way of conserving moisture through slope and aspect manipula-1 tion, although this is on a smaller scale. The actual composition of the waste can be modified in order . that material more favorable to moisture retention will be left on the 108 surface. Materials of coarse texture and black color should be avoided, especially on southern aspects. As organic matter has the capacity for water retention, this can be stripped, stockpiled and replaced as a top dressing for the reclamation program. Slope stability will always be a problem when material is dumped because material at or near the angle of repose will be liable to downslope movement. This problem is easily solved in flat-land areas but not in mountainous regions. In either situation, recontouring the dumps will be necessary. Thus, the final configuration of the waste material must be planned before the initial dumping so that recontouring and, therefore, costs will be minimized. Where the chemical makeup of the waste material could limit plant growth, there are several means of modifying the dump design to overcome the problem. If toxic wastes are a problem, they can be segregated and buried beneath more favorable materials, or modified through fertilizer treatments. In conclusion, four steps to successful reclamation are presented. 1. Establish objectives for future land use. 2 . Assess the major problems for revegetation (moisture status, slope stability, nutrient status). 3. Modify waste dumping procedures to minimize as many of the critical factors as possible. 4. Plant the species which will satisfy objectives for the future land use. 109 LITERATURE CITED Agnew, A.D.Q. 1961. The ecology of Juncus effusus L. in North Wales J. Ecol. 49:83-102. British Columbia Forest Service Records, Anyox files 1914-1934. Bauer, H. J. 1973. Ten years' studies of biocenological succession in the excavated mines of the Cologne lignite district. In" Ecology and Reclamation of Devastated Land. Edit, by R. J. Hutnik and G. Davis Vol. 1:271-283. Bell, M.A.M. 1964. Phytocoenoses in the dry subzone of the interior western hemlock zone of British Columbia Ph.D. Thesis, U.B.C. 246 pp. Berg, W. A. and W. G. Vogel 1973. Toxicity of acid coal-mine spoils to plants. In: Ecology and Reclamation of Devastated Land. Edited by R. J. Hutnik and G. Davis. Vol. 1:57-68. Bramble, W. C. 1952. Reforestation of strip-mined bituminous coal land in Pennsylvania. J. Forestry 50:308-314. Bramble, W. C. and R. H. Ashley. 1955. Natural revegetation of spoil banks in central Pennsylvania. Ecology 36:417-423. Brierley, J. K. 1956. Some preliminary observations on the ecology of pit heaps. J. Ecol. 44:383-390. Byrnes, W. R. and J. H. Miller 1973. Natural revegetation and cast overburden properties of surface-mined coal lands in southern Indiana.In:Ecology and Reclamation of Devastated Land. Edited by R. J. Hutnik and G. Davis Vol. 1_:285-306. Cadle, R. D. and E. R. Allen 1970. Atmospheric photochemistry. Science 167(3916):243-249. Canada Department of Agriculture 1970. The system of soil classification for Canada 249 pp. Canada Department of Mines 1935. Portland Canal Area, Cassiar District, B. C. Map 307A.1 Inch to 4 miles. Chadwick, M. J. 1973. Methods of assessment of acid colliery spoil as a medium for plant growth. 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Multivariate techniques for specifying tree growth and climate relationships and for reconstructing anomalies in paleoclimate. J . of Applied Meteorology 10(5):845-864. Gilbert, 0. L. (I) Further studies on the effect of sulphur dioxide on lichens and bryophytes. (II) A biological scale for the esti-mation of sulphur dioxide pollution. Mew Phytol. 69(3):605-634. Gilbert, 0. L. 1971(a). Some indirect effects of air pollution on bark-living invertebrates. J. appl. Ecol. 8_(l):77-84. Gilbert, 0. L. 1971(b). Studies along the edge of a lichen desert. Lichenologist 5_:11-17. Goodall, D. W. 1953. Objective methods for the classification of vegetation. I. The use of positive interspecific correlation. Aust. J. Bot. 1_:39-63. Goodall, D. W. 1954. Objective methods for the classification of vegetation. III. An essay in the use of factor analysis. Aust. J . Bot. 2_:304-324. Gordon,'A. G. and E. Gorham 1963. Ecological aspects of air pollution from an iron sintering plant at Wawa, Ontario. 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Vascular plants of the Pacific Northwest Vol. 1 - 5. University of Washington Press. Hodder, R. L., B. W. Sindelar, J. Buchholz and D. E. Ryerson 1971. Coal mine land reclamation research, Western Energy Company, Colstrip, Montana. Montana Agric. Exp. St a. Research Report 20, '15 pp Hodder, R. L. and B. W. Sindelar 1972. Coal mine land reclamation research, Decker, Montana. Montana Agric. Exp. Sta. Research Report 21, 29 pp-. Hulten, E. 1968. Flora of Alaska and Neighboring Territories. Stanford University Press, Stanford, California, 1008 pp. Hutchings, C. J. 1966. History of Anyox (Hidden Creek) Mining District. B. C. Prov. Archives 244 pp. Jackson, M. L. 1958. Soil Chemistry Analysis. Prentice Hall 498 pp. James, C. A. and R. A. Gregory 1959. Natural stocking of a mile-square clear cutting in southeast Alaska. Station Paper No. 12 U.S.D.A. Alaska Forest Research Center, Juneau, Alaska. Katz, M. et al_ 1939. Effect of sulphur dioxide on vegetation. Nat. Res. Counc. No. 815, Ottawa, Canada. Kershaw, K. A. 1964. Quantitative and Dynamic Ecology. Edward Arnold, London. 183 pp. Klemm, R. F. 1972. Environmental effects of the operation of sulphur extraction gas plants. Consultant Report to Alberta Environment Conservation Authority. 115 pp. Knabe, W. 1964a. A visiting scientist's observations and recommendations concerning strip-mine reclamation in Ohio. Ohio J. Sci. 64(2):132-Knabe, W. 1964b. Methods and results of strip-mine reclamation in Germany 64(2):75-105. Kohnke, H. 1950. The reclamation of coal mine spoils. Adv. in Agron. 2:317-349. 112 Krajina, V. J. 1933. Die Pflanzengesellschaften der Mlynica—Tales in den Vysoke Tatry (Hohoe tatra) Mit besondere Berucksichtigung der okologischen Verhaltnisse. Bot. Centralbl ., Beih., Abt. 2, 50:774-957; 5J_: 1-224. Krajina, V. J. 1969. Ecology of Forest Trees in British Columbia, Ecology of Western North America 2_(1):147 pp. Lathe, F. E. and A. W. McCallum 1939. The effect of sulphur dioxide on the diameter increment of conifers. In Katz, M. et al_ The effect of sulphur dioxide on vegetation. Nat. Res. Counc. No. 815. Ottawa, Canada 174-206. Lawerence, E. N. 1962. Atmospheric pollution (sulphur dioxide) in hilly terrain. Int. J. Air Wat. Poll. 6_:5-26. Lawton, E. 1971. Moss flora of the Pacific Northwest. Nichinan, Miyazaki, Japan, Hattori Botanical Laboratory 362 pp. LeBlanc, F. et D. N. Rao 1966. Reaction de quelques Lichens et Mousses epiphytiques a 1'anhydride sulfureux dan la region de Sudbury, Ontario. The Bryologist 69_:338-345. Limstrom, G. A. 1960. Forestation of strip-mined land in the Central States. U. S. Dep. Agr., Agr. Handbook 166 74 pp. Limstrom, G. A. 1964. Revegetation of Ohio's strip-mined land. Ohio J. Sci. 64(.2):112-119. Linzon, S. M. 1958. The influence of smelter fumes on the growth of white pine in the Sudbury region. Joint Pub. Ont. Dep. Lands and Forests, Ont. Dep. Mines, Toronto, Ontario. Linzon, S. N. 1961. 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Observations and cruise of fume infected area at Anyox, B. C, U.B.C. Department of Forestry, Summer Essay. Vins, B. 1970. Methods and use of tree-ring analysis in Czechoslovakia. In: Tree-ring analysis with special reference to Northwest America. U.B.C. Faculty of Forestry. Bull. No. 7, 67-73. Watson, E. V. 1968. British mosses and liverworts. Cambridge University Press, 495 pp. Welch, J. R. 1960. Observations on deciduous woodland in the eastern province of Tanganyika. J. Ecol. 48:557-573. Whyte, R. 0. and J.W.B. Sisam 1949. The establishment of vegetation on industrial waste land. Commonwealth Agr. Bur. Joint Pub!. 14 78 pp. Williams, W. T. and J. M. Lambert. 1959. Multivariate methods in plant ecology. I. Association-analysis in plant communities. J. Ecol. 47:83-101. Williams, W. T., J. M. Lambert and G. N. Lance 1966. Multivariate methods in plant ecology. V. Similarity analysis and information-analysis. J. Ecol. 54:427-445. Zimmerman, P. W. and A. E. Hitchcock 1956. Susceptibility of plants hydrofluoric acid and sulphur dioxide gases. Contrib. Boyce Thompson Inst. l_8_:263-279. 115 APPENDICES Plant Species Cover Data The species cover data are presented using two systems. The Anyox data used the following method of recording plant cover: Value Cover 1 Seldom, cover negligible 2 Very scattered, cover negligible 3 Scattered, cover up to 5% of plot 4 Common, cover 5-10% of plot 5 . Often, cover 10-20% of plot 6 Very often, cover 20-35% of plot 7 Abundant, cover 35 - 50% of plot 8 Abundant, cover 50 - 75% of plot 9 Abundant, cover 75 - 95% of plot 10 Abundant, cover 95 - 100% of plot For the remaining study areas, a direct value for percent cover was used. Species Identification At Anyox, vascular species were identified and named according to Hulten (1968). For the remaining study areas, Hitchcock et. aj_ (1955-1969) was used. Mosses were identified using Lawton (1971) in combination with Schofield (1968b); and liverworts using Watson (1968) with Schofield (1968a). APPENDIX I DETAILED RECORD OF CLIMATIC DATA FROM ALICE ARM AND MILL BAY+ Alice Arm Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June July Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec. Year Mean daily temperature (Deg. F) 21.1 26.5 31.4 38.2 46.2 53.4 57.9 57.0 50.6 40.5 31.2 25.4 40.4 Mean daily maximum temperature 25.8 31.8 38.1 46.5 57.4 64.8 68.7 67.3 59.1 45.6 34.9 29.0 47.4 Mean daily minimum temperature 16.3 21.3 24.6 30.0 35.0 42.0 46.7 47.0 42.2 35.3 27.4 22.1 32.5 Extreme maximum temperature 46 55 61 78 83 93 93 89 85 62 56 41 93 No. of years of record 16 16 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 16 16 16 Extreme minimum temperature -13 -11 - 9 - 8 19 31 37 33 28 18 - 1 - 9 -13 No. of years of record 16 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 16 16 16 No. of days of frost 30 27 29 23 7 * 0 0 1 9 23 30 179 Mean snowfall (inches) 1.60 2.16 2.63 3.71 2.58 2.27 3.08 4.18 7.12 13.04 4.89 2.06 49.32 Mean snowfall 71.7 53.1 38.9 10.0 0.4 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 8.2 46.2 83.6 312.2 Mean total precipitation 8.77 7.47 6.52 4.71 2.62 2.27 3.08 4.18 7.18 13.86 9.51 10.42 80.59 Greatest rainfall in 24 hrs 3.55 3.77 2.75 2.43 1.03 1.10 1.98 2.26 3.68 5.84 2.71 3.38 5.84 No. of years of record 16 16 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 16 15 16 Greatest snowfall in 24 hrs 36.2 22.4 16.0 12.0 1.9 0.0 0.0 0.0 2.0 12.0 27.2 33.4 36.2 No.of years of record 16 16 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 16 16 16 Greatest precipitation in 24 hr 3.62 3.77 2.85 2.43 1.13 1.10 1.98 2.26 3.68 5.84 2.72 3.38 5.84 No. of years of record 16 16 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 16 15 16 No. of days with measurable rain 4 6 . 7 13 14 14 15 15 18 22 13 6 147 No. of days with measurable snow 15 15 12 6 1 0 0 0 * 3 13 17 82 No. of days with M.precipitation 17 18 16 15 15 14 15 15 18 24 22 21 210 + Adapted from the Canadian Atmospheric Environment Service, Department of the Environment. "Temperature and Precipitation 1941-1970". APPENDIX I continued ' Mill Bay Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May. June July Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec. Year Mean daily temperature (Deg. F) •26.2 32.0 37.4 42.8 51.1 55.8 58.3 58.8 53.9 45.1 36.9 29.8 44.0 Mean daily maximum temperature 30.5 37.1 43.6 50.5 60.4 64.4 66.2 66.6 60.8 50.6 40.9 33.5 50.4 Mean daily minimum temperature 21.9 26.8 31.2 34.9 41.8 47.2 50.6 50.7 46.9 40.1 32.7 26.0 37.6 Extreme maximum temperature 52 57 68 76 87 94 90 88 87 72 59 53 94 No. of years of record 45 45 45 44 44 44 44 44 44 44 43 44 Extreme minimum temperature -18 -10 0 20 28 31 35 31 32 19 6 - 9 -18 No. of years of record 45 45 45 44 43 43 42 43 43 43 44 44 No. of days with frost 25 21 18 9 1 0 0 0 0 3 12 24 113 Mean rainfall (inches) 3.42 4.08 4.62 4.37 3.01 2.93 3.51 4.48 6.94 11.91 8.01 5.43 62.71 Mean snowfall 60.2 40.7 26.9 2.5 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 1.8 19.7 48.9 200.9 Mean total precipitation 9.45 8.16 7.29 4.61 3.01 2.93 3.51 4.48 6.95 12.10 9.98 10.32 82.19 Greatest rainfall in 24 hrs 2.50 5.60 4.29 2.35 1.73 1.22 2.76 2.41 2.58 4.97 4.53 4.47 5.60 No. of years of record 45 . 45 45 44 44 44 44 44 44 44 44 44 Greatest snowfall in 24 hrs 38.0 54.0 37.5 10.0 0.5 0.0 0.0 0.0 2.0 8.2 18.0 35.0 54.0 No. of years of record 45 45 45 44 44 44 44 44 44 44 44 43 Greatest precipitation in 24 hrs 3.80 5.60 4.29 2.35 1.73 1 .22 2.76 2.41 2.58 4.97 4.53 4.47 5.60 No. of years of record 45 45 45 44 44 44 44 44 44 44 44 43 No. of days with masurable rain 8 10 12 15 15 15 15 14 16 23 16 10 169 No. of days with measurable snow 9 7 6 1 0 0 0 * 1 5 11 40 No. of days with M. precipitation 16 15 16. 15 15 15 15 14 16 23 20 19 199 -APPENDIX I I PLOT DATA RECORDED AT ANYOX, B . C . H E M L 0 C K T Y P E P l o t H u n t e r 36 29 4 0 28 16 37 39 2 38 3 4 15 5 D i s t a n c e f r o m s m e l t e r ( m l l e s ) 6 . 4 1 6 . 3 1 1 3 . 6 9 5 . 4 3 6 . 3 6 9 . 0 0 1 3 . 5 4 3 . 7 0 1 1 . 1 0 3 . 9 0 4 . 1 2 4 . 6 1 4 . 3 9 E l e v a t i o n ( f e e t ) 100 150 6 0 0 4 0 50 150 300 4 0 75 150 2 0 0 125 4 0 P l o t s i z e ( s q . c h a i n s ) 0 . 5 0 . 5 1 0 . 5 0 . 5 0 . 5 1 1 0 . 5 0 . 5 0 . 5 1 1 S l o p e {%) 30 15 10 3 57 65 76 30 67 20 15 53 31 A s p e c t ( 0 - 3 6 0 ° ) 0 15 283 90 260 0 285 120 350 260 220 228 20 T o p o g r a p h y p r o f i l e n e u t r a l n e u t r a l n e u t r a l c o n c a v e n e u t r a l n e u t r a l c o n v e x c o n c a v e c o n v e x c o n c a v e c o m p l e x c o n v e x c o n c a v e c o n t o u r n e u t r a l c o n c a v e n e u t r a l c o n c a v e c o m p l e x n e u t r a l c o m p l e x c o n c a v e c o n v e x c o m p l e x c o n c a v e c o n v e x c o n c a v e m i c r o r e l l e f u n d u l a - hum- u n d u l a - hum- u n d u l a - o u t - o u t - hum- o u t - hum- u n d u l a - h t t i i - u n d u l a -t i n g raocky t i n g mocky t i n g c r o p c r o p mocky c r o p mocky t i n g mocky t i n g P e r c e n t Wood 75 55 6 0 35 65 40 70 70 35 50 4 0 35 15 P e r c e n t r o c k 0 0 0 0 5 45 20 0 5 0 0 0 0 F 1 r e h i s t o r y ( b u r n e d o r u n b u r n e d ) U U U U U U U U U B U U U S o i l pH t o p 3 . 5 3 . 2 3 . 8 3 . 7 4 . 1 3 . 6 3 . 4 3 . 0 3 . 7 3 . 4 3 . 4 3 . 0 3 . 0 pH b o t t o m 4 . 6 4 . 6 4 . 7 4 . 9 3 . 3 3 . 6 5 . 4 4 . 0 3 . 7 3 . 6 4 . 0 3 . 6 3 . 7 d r a i n a g e — v e r y w e l l d r a i n e d ( l ) 3 2 2 2 3 2 1 1 1 2 2 1 2 t o p o o r l y d r a 1 n e d ( 6 ) A v e r a g e t r e e a g e ( a b o v e 3 i n . d . b . h . ) 5 4 . 1 4 7 . 7 8 2 . 3 4 2 . 4 6 7 . 2 8 6 . 6 9 1 . 4 3 5 . 6 1 2 1 . 3 3 3 . 5 3 3 . 3 6 9 . 3 8 4 . 9 O l d e s t t r e e 1n p l o t 175 75 230 8 0 2 0 0 110 320 4 0 131 37 39 2 3 3 2 2 3 *?«f; o ^— *o ~ £ o ' a o» o o »*J> O tf> J C V C C\J •«# «l o c *-*- • c u a ^SGlf*-*0^ r» t o o * *>*n Q — O O > *J 3 o O r-OS «-> vr c r» i ui ^  w •tn CM o a> fc. a> SCOIA*-NO 0 . 0 . 3 o» om •**» o o tz — 9 ( 0 0 O * _ _ M J 3 Ei-O C CM ' 3»— CM O >«' • i 0 n c u r= «J *M O A> J q ci •— —• - o > Q . 3 • m c E : i tn N O o L gi K X a* cu -*n o > > CO C C I •— O O I - o o ci a 3 cn n o <n o o c ~~ r^ . CM cn <no co cn*n «*> v CM co — en co • CM r*> co o —- r-<"o in o — <-r> LT» ; • « — CM O O . - » w w w 3 O O — ~~ co c c i ei«— • •— CM O O L 31 1 O > a. =J o O OO «— I: LI t (71 »n o *— e- 3 t ; T J c— - — CM cu o e  c y a «J *n O •— in tn o. n . • at*, o - - CM o 3 3 t u u o o co co co CM cn ir> Or- »-cn «n *r in "COO'-OO O (J Nno to CM c u t on <n o  cn «* ** U * f •» or gt< >*" c «»—•— JC* . W O r\ o u o o c i - o x a : v. q —- o £ ^ cu .T .8 APPENDIX II continued A L D E R T Y P E SEDGE TYPE Plot Number 14 34 8 26 27 9 10 Distance from smelter (miles) 3.77 3.67 0.74 3.92 4.24 0.69 0.76 Elevation (feet) 150 75 360 50 50 50 50 Plot size (sq. chains) 0.5 1 1 1 1 0.5 1 Slope (%) 50 7 17 7 5 7 0 Aspect (0-360°) 150 350 70 330 138 115 0 Topography profile convex neutral concave convex neutral concave flat contour complex neutral concave complex neutral concave flat microrelief undula- neutral hum- h um- undula- h ulti- undula-ting mocky mo cky ting mo cky ting Percent Wood 10 35 15 15 30 10 5 Percent rock 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 Fire history (burned or unburned) - B B B B B B B Soil pH top 4.2 5.0 5.0 3.7 4.2 3.9 3.9 ph bottom 4.8 5.3 5.2 4.6 5.3 3.4 3.6 drainage--very well drained (1) 1 5 4 3 4 4 6 to poorly drained (6) Average tree age (above 3 in. d.b.h.) 16.5 30.1 15.0 28.0 27.2 10.3 0 Oldest tree in plot 25 43 15 38 30 12 0 121 APPENDIX III SPECIES/PLOT MATRIX OF ANYOX DATA, THE SPECIES ARRANGED IN ORDER OF FREQUENCY, THE PLOTS BY VEGETATION TYPE HEMLOCK TYPE Plot Number 36 • 29 40 28 16 37 39 2 38 3 4 15 5 Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg. 8 8 9 8 8 8 8 Dicranum fuscescens Turn. 3 3 3 1 1 4 5 Menziesia fer rug inea Sm. 0 0 0 0 0 3 2 Vaccinium o v a l i f o i l urn Sm. 1 2 0 0 0 0 0 Athyrium f i l i x - f e m i n a (L . ) Roth. 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 Cornus canadensis L. 1 0 2 0 1 0 0 Polytr ichum juniperinum Hedw. 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Rhytidiadelphus loreus (Hedw.) Warrtst. 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 Blechnum sp icant (L.) Roth. 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Scapania bolanderi Aust. 5 3 4 0 2 4 4 SaT i F sppT~T 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Vaccinium pa rv i f o l i um Sm. 0 0 0 0 0 1 2 PTagiothecium undulatum (Hedw.) B.S.G. 6 7 5 4 2 3 1 Dryopteris d i l a t a t a (Hoffm.) Gray 2 0 2 1 0 1 0 Calypogeia mueller-iana ( S c h i f f n . ) K.Mull 3 1 4 1 1 1 0 Picea s i t chens i s (Bong.) Carr. 0 0 0 . 0 1 0 0 EmH^hnJm~!p.gustifolium L. 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Pleurozium schreber i (B>id.) Mitt. 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Lophozia sp. Dumort. 3 0 3 0 0 0 0 Rubus s p e c t a b i l i s Pursh. 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 EyT ich i ton americanum Hult & St.John. 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Gynmocolea sp. Dumort. 0 1 3 0 0 0 0 Maianthemum d i latatum (How.) Niels & Macbr. 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Pter id ium aquil inum (L.) Kuhn 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Lep idoz ia reptans (L.) Dumort. 4 3 0 0 0 1 0 Ey^opodTuVclavatum L. 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Hyloconiiuin splendens (Hedw.) B.S.G. 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 Tsuga Mertensiana (Bong.) Sarg. 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Rhlzomnium glabrescens (Kindb.) Koponen 5 2 2 3 1 1 0 Tetraphis pe l l u c i da Hedw. 3 3 2 1 0 0 0 Hypnum cT rc i na le Hook. 3 2 3 2 2 3 2 fracomitrium canescens (Hedw.) Brid. 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Lycopodi uiTcomplanatum L. 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Streptopus amplexi f o l ius (L . )DC 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 ATrius rubra Bong. 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Carex sp. L. 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 1 0 0 2 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 8 8 2 4 1 0 0 1 0 0 2 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 3 3 0 0 2 3 1 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 WILLOW TYPE 21 25 33 24 7 31 11 13 20 23 32 1 22 35 19 12 30 6 17 18 8 0 3 2 2 0 3 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 4 1 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 2' 1 0 1 1 7 1 2 2 1 3 5 1 0 1 4 4 1 1 1 0 1 2 1 1 0 1 1 2 0 3 1 0 0 0 0 2 2 0 0 0 6 1 3 1 1 6 3 2 3 1 1 3 0 1 0 3 1 3 0 2 0 0 8 2 0 2 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 2 7 0 6 2 2 3 0 3 5 0 1 1 2 2 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 5 6 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 3 0 0 0 4 6 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 4 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 2 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 5 1 6 2 3 2 2 0 2 1 3 2 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 2 3 1 2 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 3 3 5 1 8 2 1 3 3 1 1 1 2 2 1 1 0 1 2 1 0 0 0 1 3 4 1 1 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 3 1 0 4 0 3. 2 2 1 2 0 2 0 2 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 2 1 4 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 4 1 5 4 1 1 2 0 2 2 . 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 3 0 0 0 1 2 0 0 0 1 6 3 1 4 4 1 2 0 1 2 0 1 0 2 1 3 5 0 0 0 1 4 0 3 0 2 0 0 0 1 0 0 4 0 4 6 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 2 2 2 1 1 0 2 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 2 1 1 3 1 7 4 2 5 5 1 2 1 2 3 1 1 1 1 3 2 1 1 0 .1 5 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 2 2 0 0 5 2 4 4 3 2 2 0 4 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 2 2 4 2 3 1 0 3 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 2 4 1 6 5 1 3 3 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 4 2 5 4 3 3 3 0 2 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 2 2 1 0 1 2 0 2 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 2 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 3 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 3 1 5 5 2 2 1 0 3 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 2 2 1 2 3 1 0 1 0 2 0 3 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 ALDER TYPE 14 34 8 25 27 9 6 1 6 3 3 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 2 3 2 0 0 0 0 2 6 2 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 2 1 0 0 3 8 0 0 1 3 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 0 3, 3 1 4 0 6 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 2 4 1 1 0 0 0 2 2 0 2 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 2 8 0 4 0 1 0 2 0 0 0 2 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 7 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 SEDGE J Y P E _ _ F r e _ , 0 quency 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 c 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 8 122 APPENDIX I I I continued SEDGE HEMLOCK TYPE WILLOW TYPE ALDER TYPE TYPE Fre-Plot Number 36 29 40 28 16 37 39 2 38 3 4 15 5 21 25 33 24 7 31 11 13 20 23 32 1 22 35 19 12 30 6 17 18 14 34 8 26 27 9 10 quency Blepharostoma t r i c h o p h y l l u m (L.) Dutnort. 3 0 0 0 0 1 0 3 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 2 3 0 0 1 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 11 O p l o p l anax h o r r i d u s ( S m . ) M1q. 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 4 5 0 0 10 A n a p h a l i s m a r g a r i t a c e a ( L . ) Benth. & Hook.f. 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 2 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 10 C a s s i o p e M e r t e n s i a n a (Bong.) D.Don 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 2 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 10 C l i n t o n i a u n i f l o r a ( S c h u l t . ) Kunth 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 3 2 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 2 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 9 P h y l l o d o c e a a l e u t i c a ( S p r e n g . ) Heller 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 2 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 2 0 9 P o h l i a n u t a n s ( H e d w . ) L i n d b . 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 2 0 0 0 0 1 0 3 2 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 3 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 0 9 B a r b i l o p h o z i a h a t c h e r i ( E v a n s ) Loeske 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 2 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0. 9 i Sambucus r a c e m o s a L. 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 5 4 0 0 0 G r a m i n e a e 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 2 0 2 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 8 Sphagnum g i r g e n s o h n i l Russow 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0. 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 2 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 8 G y m n o c a r p i u r n d r y o p t e r i s ( L . ) Newm. 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 2 1 0 0 7 D r e p a n o c l a d u s • s p . C . M u l l . 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 2 1 0 2 2 1 0 0 7 , Myl i a t a y l o r i ( H o o k . ) S . F.Gray 3 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 7 T l a d o t h a m n u s p y r o l a e f l o r u s Bong. 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 3 3 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 6 S p i r a e a D o u g l a s i i H o o k . 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 4 5 0 0 0 0 4 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 6 L y c o p o d i u m s i t c h e n s e R u p r . 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 .0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 6 i A b i e s a m a b i l i s ( G o u g l . ) F o r b e s 1 2 2 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 Ledum p a l u s t r e L. 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 1 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 5 , S a x i f r a g a f e r r u g i n e a Graham 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 2 0 5 ! L u e t k e a p e c t i n a t a ( P u r s h ) Ktze 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 2 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 C a r e x s p . L. 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 5 D i c r a n u m m a j u s T u r n . 2 1 0 1 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 i s o t h e c i u m s t o l o n i f e r u m (Hook.) Brid. 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 . 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 5 1 Rubus p a r v i f l o r u s N u t t . .. 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 ' 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 2 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 R i b e s b r a c t e o s u m D o u g l . 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 2 3 0 0 4 i L y c o p o d i u m o b s c u r u m L. 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 o • 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 o • 2 0 0 2 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 U l o t a o b t u s i u s c u l a C . M u l l . & K1ndb. 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 2 1 0 0 4 P t i l i u m c r i s t a - c a s t r e n s i s (Hedw.) DeNot. 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 T h u j a p l i c a t a D. D o n . 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 1 0 0 0 4 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 B e t u l a p a p y r i f e r a Marsh. 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 3 K a l m i a p o l i f o l i a Wang. 0 0 0 0 0 0 ' 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0- 1 0 0 0 0 3 1 E q u i s e t u m a r v e n s e L. 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 .0 0 2 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 O 0 0 0 3 P o q o n a t u m m a c o u n i i ( K i n d b . ) Kiridb. & Mac. 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 O l i g o t r i c h u m p a r a l l e l u m (Mitt.) K i n d b . 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 3 R h y t i d i a d e l p h u s t r i q u e t r u s (Hedw.) Warnst. 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 • 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 3 123 APPENDIX III continued HEMLOCK TYPE Plot Number 36 29 40 28 16 37 39 2 38 3 4 15 5 Aulacomnium palustre (Hedw.) Schwaegr. Brachythecium sp. B.S.G. Oligotrichum aligerum Mitt. •Plagiotheciuin denticulatum (Hedw.) B.S.G. Bazzania TrTTbbata (L.) S.F. Gray Sorbus sitchensis Roem. Tiarella trifoliaTa L. Eriophorum sp. .Hieracium albiflorum Hook. Pogonatum laterale (Brid.) Br1d. Plagiotheciuin laetum B. S. G. Unidentified moss Pohlia cruda (Hedw.) Lindb. Unidentified lichen Unidentified 1 ichen Scapania umbrosa (Schrad.) Dumort. Warchantia polymorpha L. Bazzania denudata (Torr.) Trevis Eriophorum russeoTum E. Fries 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 WILLOW TYPE 21 25 33 24 7 31 11 13 20 23 32 1 22 35 19 12 30 6 17 18 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 .0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 ALDER TYPE 14 34 8 26 27 9 SEDGE TYPE F r e . quency 10 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 APPENDIX IV A SYNTHESIS OF PLOT DATA FROM DISTURBED PORTIONS OF COASTAL LOGGING ROADS, VANCOUVER ISLAND Haslam Creek Plot Position Plot Percentage Aspect Texture Elevation Age Erosion Total length Slope (feet) Cover (metres) (percent) 1 2 2 76 300 4 2000 8 _ 18 3 4 8 210 5 II n 0 24 4 3 60 300 5 II - . 13 2 2 3 68 320 7 2000 - 7 3 3 15 20 7 II n 1 7 4 5 50 320 7 II - 26 3 2 0.5 70 300 6 2000 II - 53 3 4 15 15 7 II " 1 8 4 4 75 280 6 n - . 21 4 2 1.5 70 150 6 2300 15 - 28 3 4 6 240 4 H 0 20 4 2 60 150 6 n - 157 5 2 1.5 0 130 4 2200 " - 118 3 5 5 220 5 M II 1 36 4 2 45 130 5 II II - 67 6 2 3 80 140 6 2100 15 - 6 3 4 15 220 6 II 15 2 14 7 2 1 150 300 3 2300 16 - 79 3 5 18 30 4 II 16 0 34 4 4 72 300 3 II II - 7 8 2 4 70 300 3 2200 n - 46 3 8 15 15 4 II H 0 15 4 4 80 300 3 H n - 11 9 2 4 70 330 6 2100 n - 26 3 4 12 60 5 n n 1 25 4 4 80 330 6 n II - 23 10 3 4 55 180 6 2000 18 1 10 11 2 2 55 145 - 2000 II - 23 3 4 25 145 5 II 1 38 4 4 25 145 - II - 109 APPENDIX IV continued Plot Position Plot Percentage Aspect length Slope (metres) 12 2 1.5 60 145 3 4 1 145 4 1.5 10 325 13 2 2 60 135 3 4 2 135 4 2 ' 40 135 14 2 1.5' 30 315 3 5 8 55 15 2 1.5 35 320 3 6 4 40 16 2 1 70 294 3 7 0 0 17 3 .4 30 320 18 2 1.5 80 16 3 5 13 .94 4 3 64 16 19 2 2 55 20 3 6 15 120 4 4 65 20 20 2 2 30 70 3 6 15 332 4 4 30 70 42 2 ; 4 65 153 3 9 12 70 4 4 44 140 43 2 4 60 160 3 6 14 70 4 3 50 164 44 2 2 70 162 3 6 13 70 4 3 50 160 45 2 2 90 160 3 6 15 60 Texture Elevation Age Erosion Total (feet) Cover (percent) 2000 18 - 79 4 " " 2 38 90 - 58 4 " 0 134 " " - 88 2300 30 - 94 5 " " 2 83 " - 108 3 104 " . 99 0 125 3 " " 4 85 4 " 15 - 15 4 " 1 18 131 4 2200 " - 22 4 " " 2 19 4 " " - 48 4 2100 " - 5 5 " " 1 109 76 2 2500 " - 105 5 " " 1 158 5 " " - 113 4 " " - 25 " " 1 121 4 " " - 102 4 2200 " - 36 - " " 0 64 4 " " 60 2050 " 78 3 128 APPENDIX IV continued San Juan Valley Plot Position Plot Percentage Aspect Texture Elevation Age Erosion Total length Slope (feet) Cover (metres) (perc< 21 2 8 68 54 6 300 25 114 3 6 4 154 • - II 0 159 4 5 80 72 7 II II _ 156 22 2 . 4 70 60 5 II n _ 158 3 6 8 148 - n n 0 186 4 6 75 70 5 n - 140 23 2 3 55 50 - n II _ 158 3 4 0 0 5 n 0 122 4 6 140 50 - II II _ 111 24 2 7 70 44 5 II II 142 3 5 2 130 - II 0 112 4 7 115 44 6 300 25 - 123 25 2 3 70 268 3 900 18 - 60 3 10 8 354 4 II n 0 109 4 1.5 70 86 - 860 H _ 12 26 3 4 7 334 5 n II 0 121 4 7 60 310 - II ti - 170 27 2 1 100 255 4 800 n _ 120 3 4 0 0 4 II H 0 136 4 2 75 264 6 II ii _ 120 28 2 3 70 60 3 II 23 - 137 3 9 2 332 4 II II 0 99 2 4 63 240 3 II H 70 4 7 70 64 3 II n — 143 29 2 4 66 70 3 760 n - 130 3 7 2 36 5 n 0 86 30 4 4 50 70 3 II II _ 163 2 3 80 70 3 720 •I - 99 3 6 1 332 5 M II 0 133 4 5 75 80 5 ' II II - 169 APPENDIX IV continued Plot Position Plot Percentage Aspect Texture Elevation Age Erosion Total length Slope (feet) Cover (metres) (perce 31 2 2.5 80 0 3 650 23 109 3 9 2 270 4 n 0 130 4 2 85 0 4 n II - - 117 32 2 1.5 50 354 3 600 H • - 55 3 6 4 90 5 H II 1 110 4 1.5 53 354 5 n II - 153 33 2 3.5 85 330 5 it II - 69 3 4 9 70 • 5 n II 0 51 4 3 40 156 4 n n - 110 34 2 3.5 80 348 3 700 H - 126 3 5 8 70 5 II n 0 108 4 9.5 40 348 3 H H - 151 35 2 3.5 62 350 4 II II - 127 3 5 4 70 5 n II 0 85 4 6 55 340 4 II II - 106 36 2 4 78 190 4 800 20 - 20 3 6 5 100 4 II n 0 118 4 4 10 190 4 II n - 145 37 2 7 60 190 4 850 H - 116 3 4 3 100 6 850 20 0 103 4 8 3 190 - II - 146 38 2 4 70 178 4 900 II _ 61 3 4 9 266 5 n n 2 91 4 2 30 178 - II - 60 39 2 3 60 184 5 950 II - 50 3 4 5 270 6 H H 2 60 4 6 40 140 - n II _ 117 40 2 4 65 170 4 1000 II _ 51 3 5 4 266 6 II II 0 98 4 4 30 170 - II II 195 41 2 1.5 80 160 - • 1050 20 - 62 3 4 8 250 6 n n 0 98 4 1.5 65 160 - n n - 90 APPENDIX IV continued Plot Position Plot Percentage Aspect Texture Elevation Age Erosion Total length Slope (feet) Cover (metres) (percent) 46 2 2 87 227 900 5 109 4 2 48 44 - - 22 3 5 4 154 5 II 0 6 4 2 70 226 - II II 48 47 2 3 70 12 4 800 - 65 .3 5 4 274 5 II II 0 10 2 4 90 190 4 n II - 65 48 2 6 48 264 4 700 II - 103 3 8 18 250 5 II II 5 18 4 3 50 194 4 n II - 69 49 3 8 0 0 5 600 5 0 7 4 3 73 202 5 n II - _ 73 50 2 3.5 45 232 4 700 n - 24 4 1.5 48 48 5 II 21 3 5 12 132 5 ti H 0 1 4 3 30 207 - II II - 32 51 2 3 74 226 - II II _ 17 3 6 11 132 5 II 0 8 4 4 73 220 3 II - 27 52 2 4 56 206 _ II II _ 24 3 11 9 260 - II II 0 39 4 3.5 72 200 5 23 ro co APPENDIX V 129 VEGETATION FOUND ON ABANDONED LOGGING ROADS, VANCOUVER ISLAND San Juan Valley Haslam Creek % % % % freq. cover freq. cover Trees Abies amabilis (Doug!.) Forbes Acer macrophvllurn Pursh. Alnus rubra Bong. Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carr. Pinus mo-nticola Doug!. Populu?? trichocarpa Tnrr:ft Gray Pseudotsuga meziesii (Mirb.) Franco Salix spp. L. Thuia piicata Donn. Tsuga heterophil l a (Ra'f.) Sarg. Shrubs Gaultheria shallon Pursh. Linnaea boreal is L. Mahonia nervosa Nutt. Rubus leucodermis Dougl. ex T. & G. R_. parviflorus Nutt. R. spectabilis Pursh. R. ursinus Cham. & Schlecht. Vaccinium parvifolium Smith . Herbs Achlvs triphvlla (Smith) DC. Anaphalis margaritacea (L.) B. & H. Carex spp. L. Chimaphila umbellata (L.) Bart. Cirslum spp. Mill . Epilobium angustifolium L. Galium triflorum Michx. Gramineae 1 0.1 1 0.1 49 28.5 26 11.7 6 0.2 15 0.9 6 0.1 .49 9.8 44 5.1 16 4.2 58 6.1 40 3.6 35 2.7 49 11.0 21 1.6 37 2.8 44 9.4 4 0.1 1 2 0.2 1 18 1.1 v - '• 3 0.2 28 1.0 36 2.2 22 0.5 16 0.5 15 0.6 2 0.1 7 0.3 37 3.6 71 2.9 8 0.1 22 0.4 1 7 0.1 11 0.2 18 1.4 26 0.6 15 .; 0.5 4 0.1 38 1.7 25 1.0 APPENDIX V continued San Juan Valley % % freq. cover Haslam Creek %. % freq. cover Herbs (cont.) Heuchera glabra Wi11d. Heracleum 1anatum Michx. Hieracium albiflorum Hook. Juncus spp. L. Lactuca biennis (Moench.) Fern. Maianthemum di1atatum (Wood) Nels. & Macbr. Montia siberica (L.) Howell Osmorhiza chilensis H. & A. Plantago ma.ior L. Soli dago canadensis L. Stellaria sp. L. Streptopus amplexifolius (L.) DC. Taraxacum spp. Hall. Trientalfs latifolia Hook. Trifolium sp. L. Trillium ovatum Pursh. Ferns and Fern Allies Adiantum pedatum L. Athyrium filix-femina• (L.) Roth. Blechnum spicant (L.) Roth, Drvopteris austriaca (Jacq.) Woynar Equisetum arvense L. Lycopodium clavatum L. Polystichum munitum (Kaulf.) Presl. Bryophytes Atrichum selwynii Aust. Brachythecium velutinum (Hedw.) B.S.G. Eurhynchium oreganum (Sull.) Jaeg. & Sauerb Hylocomium splendens (Hedw.) B.S.G. 13 1 1 2 23 3 6 2 2 7 30 10 2 3 28 5 6 3 47 5 1 36 3 0.5 0.1 0.1 0.5 0.1 0.1 0.4 0.1 2.5 0.2 0.2 0.4 3.1 0.2 0.1 9.5 0.1 1.9 0.1 1 32 33 56 3 1 4 13 3 7 3 11 0.6 1.6 1.8 0.3 0.4 0.4 0.2 3 1 0.2 APPENDIX V Continued Bryophytes (cont.) Isqpterygium elegans (Hook.) Lindb. Leucolepis menziesii (Hook.) Steere 01igotrichum aligerum Mitt. PIagiomnium insigne (Mitt.) Kopenen Plagiothecium undulatum (Hedw.) B.S.G. Pogonatum laterale (Brid.) Brid. P_. macounii (Kindb.) Kindb. & Mac. P_. urnigerum (Hedw.)-P. Beauv. Polytrichum juniperinum Hedw. Racomi tn urn canescens (Hedw.) Brid. Rhizomnium qlabrescens (Kindb.) Koponen Rhytidiadelphus loreus (Hedw.) Warnst. Ulota obtusiuscula C. Mull. & Kindb San Juan Valley % % freq. cover 2 ,0.1 6 0.2 1 0.1 2 0.1 3 0.1 1 0.1 1 0.1 6 0.2 14 0.4 3 0.1 5 0.2 6 0.1 2 132 APPENDIX VI A SYNTHESIS OF DATA FROM COAL MINE WASTES, CUMBERLAND, B.C. #5 Mine Waste Transect 1 Transect 2 Transect 3 Vertical Vertical Vertical Distance Distance Distance Plot Percentage Aspect to top of to bottom of to base Tota Slope minor slope minor slope of waste Covei (metres) (metres) (metres) 1 35 360 1 1 9 127 2 23 38 0 2 10 16 3 5 45 0 3 10 25 4 35 232 0 2 10 5 5 24 220 1 1 9 6 6 4 236 2 0 9 93 7 15 200 2 0 . 9 82 8 60 26 1 1 10 111 9 0 0 0 2 11 61 10 15 210 0 9 10 5 11 50 210 2 8 9 2 12 68 200 4 5 7 5 13 64 194 7 3 4 11 14 30 260 8 1 3 19 15 14 270 9 0 2 98 1 63 20 8 1 1 139 2 60 14 6 3 3 156 3 20 100 4 5 5 169 4 20 30 3 6 6 97 5 33 44 2 7 . 7 174 6 40 24 1 8 8 148 7 0 0 0 0 9 18 8 55 356 3 1 9 8 9 45 360 1 3 11 93 10 0 0 0 0 12 30 11 20 194 1 2 11 10 12 0 0 1 2 11 7 13 64 218 2 1 10 0 14 10 110 3 0 9 28 15 15 200 2 1 10 0 16 0 0 0 3 12 41 17 60 210 2 2 11 14 18 10 140 4 0 9 77 l g 28 270 1 0 9 62 1 55 38 3 1 1 147 2 40 30 1 3 3 89 3 0 0 0 0 4 36 4 58 24 2 1 5 92 APPENDIX VI continued 133 #4Mine Waste Vertical Vertical Vertical Distance Distance Distance Plot Percentage Aspect to top of to bottom of to base Tota' Slope minor slope minor slope of waste Covei (metres) (metres) (metres) 5 58 24 0 3 7 104 6 10 48 0 0 7 . 94 7 10 80 0 0 7 85 8 7 250 0 0 7 95 9 35 200 1 7 7 38 10 50 220 2 5 5 36 11 60 210 4 3 3 40 12 40 200 6 1 1 99 13 50 28 3 1 1 164 14 50 28 1 3 3 142 15 30 230 1 2 3 78 16 35 220 2 1 2 20 1 55 246 1 1 5 27 2 5 340 2 0 4 180 3 50 50 0 1 5 93 4 0 0 0 2 6 45 5 0 0 0 2 6 42 6 0 0 .0 2 6 36 7 0 0 0 2 6 91 8 5 360 0 2 6 182 9 5 195 0 2 6 44 10 55 196 1 3 5 40 11 55 196 3 1 3 45 12 70 20 4 0 2 221 13 70 20 1 3 5 134 14 70 200 1 4 4 58 15 . 70 200 3 2 2 55 16 75 24 4 2 2 108 17 75 24 1 4 5 145 APPENDIX VII PLANT SPECIES RECORDED ON VANCOUVER ISLAND MINE WASTES.* TREES Abies grandls (Dougl.) Linen. Acer macrophyllum Pursh. Aesculus hippocastanutn L. Alnus rubra Bong. Arbutus menziesii Pursh. Cornus n u t t a l l i i Audubon Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carr. Pinus contorta Dougl. Pinus nioiiticola Dougl. Populus tremuloides Michx. Populus trichocarpa Torr. and Gray • Prunus emarginata Dougl. ex Eaton Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mlrb.) Franco Salix sp. L. Sorbus sitchensis Roemer Thuja pTicata Donn. Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg. SHRUBS Amelanchier alnifol ia Nutt. Arctostaphylos uva-ursl (L.) Spreng Cytisus scoparius (L.) Link. #4 & 5 #4 & 5 #5, 7, 8 05, 7, % freq. % cover young 8, old 2 2 12 2 52 8 10 8 66 2 22 88 Tsable White South Upper Kennedy River Rapids Wellington Qulnsam Lake 0.5 0.3 8.0 0.9 3.7 27.0 0.8 30.2 0.1 10 1 10 1 + + + + + + + + Species present but not quantitatively assessed are Indicated by "+", APPENDIX VII continued + H tt 5 H & 5 #5,7,8 #5, 7, Tsable White South Upper Kennedy % freq. % cover young 8, old River Rapids Wellington Quinsam Lake GaultheHa shallon Pursh. 2 0.1 l Unnaea boreal is L. 52 1.0 Nahonia nervosa Nutt. 12 0.3 + Ribes bracteosum Douql.ex Hook. 4 ' Rubus parviflorus Nutt. Rubus spectabilis Pursh. 2 Rubus ursinus Cham. & Schlecht. 2 . Vaccinium parvifolium Smith 20 0.3 HERBS Achlys triphylla (Smith)DC 16 0.2 Anaphalis margaritacea (L.) B. & H. ' + + i o Carex spp. L. 4 1 1 + 1 3 Cirsium spp. M i l l . Epilobium angustifolium L. 2 1 Fragaria chiloensis (L.) Duchesne Goodyera oblongiforia Raf. 32 0.5 Gramineae 2 0.1 1 1 Hieracium albiflorum Hook. 12 o!l Lactuca biennis (Moench.) Fern. 12 o!2 Plantago major L. '. Pyrola sp. L. 2 Rumex. acetosella L. 2 1 Streptopus amplexifolius (L.) DC. 2 Taraxacum spp. Hal 1. Trifolium sp. L. Tri 11 ium ova turn Pursh. 2 + + + + •+ + + + + +' + + 1 + + 1 co cn FERN'S AND FERN ALLIES Adlantum pedatum L. Blechnum spicant (L.) Roth. Equisetum arvense L. PolysticKum mum turn (Kaulf.) Presl. PteridiunTaqui 1 inum (L.) Kuhn BRYOPHYTES Dicranum fuscescens Turn. Eurhynchiuni oreganum (Sul 1.) Jaeg. & Sauerb. Hylocomium splendens (Hedw.) B.S.G. Leucolepis menziesii (Hook.) Steere Mnium spinulosum B.S.G. Plagiothecium undulatum (Hedw.) B.S.G. Pohlia nutans (Hedw.) Lindb. Polytrichia juniperinum Hedw. Rhacomitrium canescens (Hedw.) Brid. Rhizonmium glabrescens (Kindb.) .Koponen Rhytidiadelphus loreus (Hedw.) Warnst. Rhytidiadelphus triquetrus (Hedw.) Warnst. APPENDIX VII continued '#4 & 5 #4 8 5 #5, 7,8 #5,7, Tsable White" SoUtii U^Tr Kennedy S f r e g . % cover young 8, old River Rapids Wellington Qulnsam Lake* 2 50 0.9 34 1.0 88 9.2 52 4.1 4 0.1 2 10 0.5 10 0.3 46 1.9 1 24 0.9 1 + 1 18 0.7 8 0.1 40 0.7 APPENDIX VIII A SYNTHESIS OF PLOT DATA FROM DISTURBED PORTIONS OF INTERIOR LOGGING ROADS NEAR LUMBY, B. C. 137 Plot length Percentage . T ^ . • (meters) slope Aspect Texture Age Erosion Total cover (percent) 3 16 246 3 16 4 9 230 3 16 4 16 20 4 16 4 11 234 5 16 4 72 334 - 16 1 80 320 21 4 3 230 3 21 2 50 320 - 21 2 100 300 21 4 0 0 3 21 3 80 300 - 21 2 50 335 21 3 0 0 4 21 1 n o 335 - 21 1 80 162 16 3 4 76 5 16 2 65 162 - 16 2 120 186 16 4 6 276 If-2 80 186 - 16 4 13 306 4 16 1 75 100 16 5 12 180 2 16 2 90 100 - 16 1 65 132 20 4 10 44 2 20 2 60 132 - 20 1 75 115 _ 20 3 7 33 2 20 2 80 115 - 20 1 80 152 20 3 3 60 2 20 2 35 152 - 20 35 40 22 41 60 95 79 67 90 50 90 73 79 37 31 45 60 17 47 86 16 16 51 87 14' 74 37 14 30 34 23 45 62 APPENDIX VIII continued 138 Plot Position " ^ l e n g t h Percentage A s p e c t T e x t u r e A g e E r o s i o n r e c o v e r 15 2 2 70 238 ,- • 20 _ 44 3 4 2 320 2 20 0 91 4 2 70 238 - 20 . - 70 16 2 1 75 196 - 23 - 61 3 4 3 92 2 23 0 73 4 3 60 196 - 23 . 73 17 3 3 5 315 2 24 0 94 18 3 4 18 270 2 24 0 82 19 3 4 11 240 2 24 0 44 20 2 5 150 86 - • 5 _ 2 3 3 40 24 2 5 0 8 4 3 60 86 - 5 10 21 2 1 150 78 _ 5 6 3 4 41 30 2 5 0 9 4 5 80 78 - 5 _ 4 22 2 .5 100 30 - 13 - 8 3 4 14 30. 2 13 0 48 23 4 4 14 30 - 13 _ 124 3 6 26 152 3 20 0 30 APPENDIX IX VEGETATION FOUND ON ABANDONED LOGGING ROADS NEAR LUMBY, B.C. % % freq. cover Trees Acer glabrum Torr. 16.7 0.43 AJ.nusHnFnulTolia' Nutt. 11.1 1.74 Betula papyrifera Marsh. 9.3 0.17 Larix occidental is Nutt. 11.1 0.48 Picea e"nge'lmannii~Parry 3.7 0.04 Pjnus contorta Doug!. 7.4 0.19 Populus tremuloides Michx. 3.7 0.04 Populus trichocarpa Torr. and Gray 13.0 0.41 Pseudotsuaa menziesii (Mirb.) Franco 33.3. 2.30 Salix sp. L. 1.9 0.07 Thu.ia pi icata Donn. 7.4 0.30 Shrubs Arctostaohvlos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng. 16.7 0.43 Ceanothus sanguineus Pursh. " 7.5 0.23 Junioerus communis L.• • 1.9 0.06 Linnaea boreal is L. 9.3 0.19 Lonicera utahensis Wats. 1.9 . 0.02 Mahonia aquifolium (Pursh.) Nutt. 33.3 1.04 Oplopanax horridun (Sm.) Miq. 1.9 0.09 Pachistima myrsinites (Pursh.) Raf. 24.1 0.35 Rosa gymnocarpa Nutt. 46.3 ' 3.91 Rubus idaeus L. 9.3 0.33 Rubus parviflorus Nutt. 20.4 3.94 Shepherdia. canadensis Nutt. 5.6 0.07 Spiraea lucida Doug!. ex Hook. 42.6 1.28 Symphoricarpos albus (L.) Blake 29.6 3.22 Herbs Achillea millefolium L. 31.5. 0.61 Antennaria racemosa Hook. 14.8 1.70 A. rosea (Green) Pitt. . 25.9 0.78 Arnica cordifolia Hook. ' 25.9 ' 0.48 Cerastium vulgatum L. 24.1 0.30 Cirsium sp. Mill. 29.6 1.37 Clintonia uniflora (Schult.) Kunth. 1.9 0.04 Cornus canadensis L. 5.6 0.19 140 APPENDIX IX continued % % freq. cover Herbs (cont) Epilobium angustifolium L. 5.6 0.09 Epilobium sp. L. 20.4 0.37 Fragaria"~virginiana Duchesne 64.8 2.11 Galium triflorum Michx. 18.5 0.41 Goodyera obiongifolia Raf. 1.9 0.02 Hieracium albiflorum Hook. 42.6 0.80 Lathyrus~sp. L. 5.6 0.13 Lupinus sp. L. 7.4 0.15 Madia gracilis (Sm.) Keck. 9.3 0.19 Montia~sTbirica (L.) Howell. 3.7 0.04 PlantagcTmajor L. 22.2 0.76 Sedum stenopetalum Pursh. 3.7 0.07 Smilacina stellata (L.) Desf. 1.9 0.02 Streptopus amplexifolius (L.) D.C. 5.6 0.09 Taraxacum officinale Weber 27.8 0.57 Tiarella unifoliata Hook. 1.9 0.06 Trifolium repens L. 50.0 . 4 . 3 3 Verbascum thapsus L. 9.3 0.57 Viola sp. L. 13.0 0.35 Misc. species 20.4 0.72 Grass and Sedge Agropyron caninum (L.). Beauv. 3.7 0.07 A. cristatum (L.) Gaertn. 3.7 0.04 spicatum (Pursh.) Scribn. & Smith. .9.3 0.24 Bromus carinatus Hook. & Arn. 24.1 0.52 B_. tectorum L. 5.6 0.13 Calamagrostis rubescens Buck!. 33.3 1.65 Carex spp. L. 16.7 0.20 Dactyl is glomerata L. 42.6 0.98 Festuca spp. L. 37.0 1.26 Phleum pratense L. 18.5 0.46 Poa spp. L. 37.0 1.67 Mosses Atrichum selwynii Aust. 7.4 0.07 Brachytheciurn albicans (Hedw.) B.S.G. 18.5 0.65 Pleurozium schreberi (Brid.) Mitt. 3.7 0.11 Polytrichum juniperinum Hedw. 16.7 0.52 Other brybphytes 7.4 0.17 APPENDIX X A SYNTHESIS OF PLOT DATA COLLECTED FROM MINE WASTES IN THE AINSWORTH, SANDON AND NEW DENVER AREA VARIABLE D A T A Mine Trinket Spokane Danira Maestro Highlander Ayesha Year of main abandonment 1922 1922 1901 1920 1912 1913 Year of last working 1955 1955 1955 1959 1961 1955 Elevation 3000 3000 2600 3000 3100 3600 Plot 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 Slope (percent) 0 74 73 84 74 74 0 92 0 0 64 74 0 3 5 3 3 74 70 76 35 90 Aspect (0-360°) - 200 200 100 58 358 - 90 - - 160 318 - 170 84 132 132 132 132 134 168 168 Texture 7 8 5 5 5 . 6 • 4 5 5 5 5 6 6 5 5 6 6 4 9 5 5 4 Wind Exposure 3 3 3 3 3 2 2 3 1 3 3 2 1 1 1 3 2 3 3 2 2 2 pH 8.1 7.4 6.5 8.4 8.0 6.9 - 5.9 5.2 2.8 6.9 6.7 6.6 7.5 7.8 8.2 7.9 8.1 - 8.0 8.3 8.5 Percent soil greater than 2 mm 77 77 65 84 59 70 ' - 75 82 70 62 76 89 73 55 79 71 58 56 66 70 Percent soil less than 2 mm 23 23 35 16 41 30 - 25 18 30 38 24 11 27 45 21 29 42 44 34 30 Total plant cover 93 2 42 0 9 118 56 0 84 19 10 36 150 68 64 20 37 27 0 120 22 2 APPENDIX X continued VARIABLE D A T A Buckeye Black Prince Caledonia Monitor Black Colt Year of main abandonment 1900 • 1912 1943 1941 1937 Year of last working 1955 1955 1962 1953 1951 Elevation 3500 3700 3100 3000 5400 Plot 1 2 3 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 1 2 3 4 5 Slope (percent) 0 68 40 0 37 5 70 75 73 75 3 3 50 76 2 79 91 20 75 80 58 72 Aspect (0-360°) - 150 10 - 256 2 300 305 318 305 280 168 246 220 10 10 10 52 6 40 78 40 Texture 5 8 6 7 7 6 5 5 4 9 5 5 6 5 5 5 5 6 5 5 5 5 Wind Exposure 3 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 3 3 3 3 3 2 4 2 4 PH 7.3 8.0 8.3 8.3 6.4 8.0 6.4 7.3 5.9 - 7.7 8.3 8.0 8.3 7.1 7.4 7.6 6.7 6.7 7.7 7.7 8.6 Percent soil greater than 2 mm 65 72 73 83 73 72 56 66 56 - 53 58 80 70 63 47 70 85 73 80 89 64 Percent soil less than 2 mm 35 28 27 17 27 28 44 34 44 - 47 42 20 30 37 53 30 15 27 20 11 36 Total plant cover 9 27 25 10 6 20 42 5 0 0 41 2 36 0 25 13 2 145 38 15 151 21 -Pi ro APPENDIX X continued VARIABLE D A T A Mine Altoona Ruth-Hope Hewitt Wonderful Year of main abandonment 1952 1930 1930 1929 Year of last working 1967 1965 1958 1957 Elevation 3900 3900 3700 4300 Plot 1 2 3 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Slope (percent) 0 80 83 10 76 72 0 74 77 80 72 74 72 80 82 73 80 73 67 Aspect (0-360°) - 260 228 358 35 40 358 68 90 336 310 275 30 98 352 32 86 20 Texture 5 4 4 5 5 7 6 6 6 6 6 4 4 4 4 5 4 6 6 Wind Exposure 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 2 3 5 4 3 5 3 4 pH 3.1 6.3 4.5 8.0 8.1 7.9 8.1 8.1 8.1 • 8.1 7.7 7.5 6.8 5.7 5.3 7.0 - 6.8 6.9 Percent soil greater than 2 mm 55 52 40 65 50 77 79 76 76 74 69 57 59 66 59 69 73 81 Percent soil less than 2 mm 45 48 60 35 50 23 21 24 24 26 41 43 41 34 41 31 27 19 Total plant cover 47 23 0 26 32 1 0 0 0 0 34 35 7 2 0 8 0 0 0 \ 144 APPENDIX XI PLANT SPECIES FOUND ON MINEWASTES IN THE AINSWORTH, SANDON AND NEW DENVER AREA % % freq. cover TREES Abies qrandis (Douql.) Lindl. 1.59 0.03 A. lasiocarpa (Hook.) Nutt. 7.94 0.38 Acer qlabrum Torr. 7.94 0.13 Alnus crispa (Ait.) Pursh. 1.59 0.05 Alnus tenuifolia Nutt. 11.11 0.44 Betula pap.yrifera Marsh. 26.98 3.00 Larix occidental is Nutt. 3.17 0.24 Picea engelmannii Parry 19.05 0.48 Pinus contorta Doug!. 3.17 0.03 P. monticola Dougl. 36.51 0.70 Populus tremuloides-Michx. 3.17 0-03 P. trichocarpa Torr. and Gray 20.63 0.67 Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco 42.86 4.00 Salix sp. L. 12.70 1.14 Thu.ia pi icata Donn. 38.10 3.68 Tsuga heterophvlia (Raf.) Sarg. 7.94 0.32 SHRUBS Amelanchier alnifolia Nutt. 3.17 0.03 Ceanothus sanguineus Pursh. 1.59 0.06 Cornus stolonifera Michx. 3.17 0.22 Linnaea boreal is L. 6.35 0.08 Mahonia aquifolium (Pursh.) Nutt. 3.17 0.03 Pachi stima myrsimtes (Pursh.) Raf. 23.81 0.59 Rosa gymnocarpa Nutt. 1.59 0.03 Rubus idaeus L. 3.17 0.08 R. parviflorus Nutt. 22.22 1.17 Shepherdia canadensis Nutt. 3.17 0.10 Symphoricarpos albus (L.) Blake 6.35 0.21 HERBS Achillea millefolium L. 1.59 0.03 Anaphalis margaritacea (L.)B. & H. 20.63 0.41 Aster conspicuus Lindl. 6.35 0.10 Carex spp. L. 17.46 0.21 Caryophyllaceae (1 species) 7.94 0.19 Cerastium vulgatum L. 12.70 0.48 APPENDIX XI continued % % HERBS (continued) freq. cover Chrysanthemum leucanthemum L. 9.52 0.30 Cirsium vulgare (Savi) Tenore 6.35 0.08 Epilobium angustifolium L. 23.81 0.71 Epilobium sp. L. 4.76 0.06 Fragaria virginiana Duchesne 15.87 0.35 Galium triflorum Michx. 12.70 0.48 Goodyera oblongifolia Raf. 6.35 0.08 Gramineae 42.86 1.90 Hieracium albiflorum Hook. 20.63 0.27 P1antago~major L. 4.76 0.05 Solidago canadensis L. 1.59 0.05 Streptopus amplexifolius (L.) DC 4.76 0.05 Taraxacum sp. Hall . 3.17 0.03 Tiarella"TjrTifoliata Hook. 6.35 0.08 Trifolium repens 17 3.17 0.10 FERNS Adiantum pedatum L. 1.59 0.02 Athyrium filix-femina L. Roth. 1.59 0.02 Gymnocarpium dryopteris (L.) Newm. 3.17 0.05 Pteridium aquilinum (L.) Kuhn. 3.17 0.03 Other herbs and ferns (3 species) 4.76 0.16 MOSSES Polytrichum juniperinum Hedw. 11.11 0.17 Racomitrium canescens (Hedw.) Brid. 28.57 1.03 Other bryophytes (13 species) 41.27 2.08 

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