UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

Natural revegetation of disturbed sites in British Columbia Errington, John Charles 1975

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-UBC_1975_A1 E77_5.pdf [ 11.15MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0100059.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0100059-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0100059-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0100059-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0100059-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0100059-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0100059-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0100059-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0100059.ris

Full Text

NATURAL REVEGETATION OF DISTURBED SITES IN BRITISH COLUMBIA  JOHN CHARLES ERRINGTON B.Sc. University of Victoria, 1967 M.Phil. University of York (England), 1970  A thesis submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in the Department of Forestry  We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard-  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA July, 1975  In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make i t freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representatives.  It is understood that copying or publication of this  thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission.  Department of Forestry The University of British Columbia Vancouver, B. C.  Date  <%+  2.5"'  \yi  ii  ABSTRACT Chairman:  Dr. J. V. Thirgood  Factors affecting the natural revegetation of areas disturbed by airborne emissions were studied at the Anyox smelter on the northern coast of British Columbia. Revegetation of areas where vegetation and soil were removed by industry were studied on mine waste dumps on Vancouver Island, on mine wastes in the West Kootenays, and on abandoned logging roads on Vancouver Island and near Lumby. At Anyox, much of the direct evidence of fume damage was eradicated by a fire in 1942, which occurred eight years after smelting operations ceased. the smelter.  This fire encompassed a five-mile radius surrounding  Tree-ring analysis on surviving western hemlock trees,  extending from the edge of the fire to the head of Alice Arm, showed a strong relationship between the tonnage of ore smelted and the radial increment. Tree growth was initially depressed when smelting began in 1914 and remained low until smelter operations ceased. At this time the growth dramatically increased;, but by 1970 the annual radial increment had returned to a slow rate similar to before smelting operations began. Western hemlock was much less susceptible to fume damage than western red cedar.  Although total fume kill occurred on western red  cedar as far south as the Nass River, north to the head of Hastings Arm and East to the head of Alice Arm, total kill on hemlock took place within a few miles of the smelter.  Fume damage was the heaviest near the  smelter and near the head of Alice Arm where the topography confined the fumes, rendering them more effective.  iii  Within the area affected by the 1942 fire, revegetation was slow near the smelter and was more rapid near the mature vegetation. Seeds which are easily dispersed by light wind, were responsible for the majority of colonizing species many of which were found rarely in the surrounding unburned vegetation. On logging roads and mine waste materials, seed source availability appeared to be the major factor in determining the colonizing species. Light wind-blown seeds were the initial colonizers on coastal logging roads, and adjacent vegetation supplied the seed source for the interior'logging roads.  The establishment of salal through vegetative  means was' observed to occur on coastal logging roads.  Species  with the  ability to fix nitrogen, with the exception of alder, played a minor role in natural revegetation of most areas.  Slow revegetation of large-  scale disturbances was attributed partly to the lack of adequate seed. The most common cause of slow revegetation in most areas was moisture deficiency. Moisture availability on mine wastes at Cumberland appeared to be determined by slope, aspect, color, shading and mound height.  On logging road surfaces, in both Lumby and coastal areas, a  reduction in plant growth on steeper slopes was attributed to reduced moisture.  Wind exposure was found to be the most important factor  governing revegetation of mine wastes in the West Kootenays. Coarse textured material was related to a lower percentage cover of vegetation on the surface of coastal logging roads.  Uniformly  coarse textured material on the waste dumps in the West Kootenays precluded any significant statistical relationships. Coarse textured materials, nevertheless, had a general inhibitory effect on the rate of  iv  revegetation of many of the mine waste dumps. Steep unstable slopes were a major factor which prevented revegetation of West Kootenay mine wastes and on the upslope of road cuts. The scale of disturbance was found to magnify or obscure many of the factors important to successful plant colonization. The chemical composition of waste material, although studied only peripherally, did not appear to be a major factor in determining the revegetation of disturbed areas at the sites studied.  Low pH values,  which are often taken as a barometer of mine waste toxicity, occurred rarely.  In many instances, high  pH values may have prevented the success-  ful invasion of acid-loving species. In applied reclamation procedures, i t is mandatory that objectives for future land use be incorporated into planning, along with the anticipation of inhibiting factors. If no conditions are left which prevent plant growth, then reclamation will be straightforward and land use goals will be more easily satisfied.  TABLE OF CONTENTS  List of Tables . List of Figures Acknowledgement  • .  Chapter 1 Introduction Chapter 2 Methods  • •  Chapter 3 Anyox Copper Smelter 3.1  Introduction  3.2  Literature Review . . . . .  3.3  Description of Study Area .  3.4  History . . . .  3.5  Sampling Methods  . .. .  3.6 Arrangement of Data  3.7  3.8  3.6.1  Introduction  3.6.2  Methods  3.6.3  Results and Discussion . . . . . . . . . .  Hemlock Type 3.7.1  Introduction  3.7.2  Methods  3.7.3  Results  3.7.4  Discussion  ..... '• •  Factors Determining the Revegetation of the Burne Area • • ' 3.8.1  Introduction  3.8.2  Methods . . . . . . . . . .  3.8.3  Results  J  vi  TABLE OF CONTENTS (continued) Page 3.8.4 Discussion  .  .  37  3.9 Discussion  40  3.9.1  41  Spread of Smelter Fumes . . . .  3.9.2 Time of Fume Damage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  43  3.9.3 Relative Sensitivity of Trees to Fume Damage :  43  3.9.4 The Effect of Fire  45  3.9.5 Lasting Effects of Smelter Activities . . .  45  Chapter 4 Disturbances Involving the Total Removal of Soil Matter  47  4.1  Introduction . .  47  4.2 Sampling Methods  50  4.3 Coastal Areas  54  4.3.1  .  Logging Roads  54  4.3.1.1  54  Methods  4.3.1.2 Results  .  4.3.2 Mine Sites 4.3.2.1  71  Introduction  .  4.3.2.2 Methods 4.3.2.3 Results 4.4  71 7 8  .............  78  .....  85  Interior Areas 4.4.1  54  Logging Roads  85  4.4.1.1  85  Introduction  4.4.1.2 Methods  85  vii  TABLE OF CONTENTS (continued) Pagje 4.4.1.3 Results.  86  4.4.1.4 Discussion  88  4.4.2 Mine Waste Dumps 4.4.2.1  .....  .....  90  .  90  Introduction  4.4.2.2 Methods  90  4.4.2.3 Results and Discussion  93  4.5 Discussion 4.5.1  Species Composition  99 .. .  4.5.2 Factors Determining Plant Survival on Waste Materials  99 100  Chapter 5 Conclusions  105  Literature Cited  109  Appendices I II III  IV V VI  VII VIII IX  Detailed record of climatic data from Alice Arm and Mill Bay . . . . . . .  116  Plot data recorded at Anyox, B. C  118  Species plot matrix of Anyox cover data, the species arranged in order of frequency, the plots by vegetation type  121  A synthesis of plot data from disturbed portions of coastal logging roads, Vancouver Island  124  Vegetation found on abandoned logging roads, Vancouver Island ......... ...  129  A synthesis of plot data from coal mine wastes, Cumberland, B. C  132  Plant species recorded on Vancouver Island mine wastes . .  134  A synthesis of plot data from disturbed portions of interior logging roads near Lumby, B. C. . . Vegetation found on abandoned logging roads near Lumby, B. C  137 139  viii  TABLE OF CONTENTS (continued) Page X XI  A synthesis of plot data collected from mine wastes in the Ainsworth, Sandon and New Denver area  141  Plant species found on mine wastes in the Ainsworth, Sandon and New Denver area.  144  is  h LIST OF TABLES Table  Page  1  A summary of the Western hemlock trees used for treering analysis  29  2  Correlation matrix between measured variables in the burned areas surrounding Anyox (22 degrees of freedom) . . .  38  3  Average percentage cover of major species occurring on Vancouver Island logging roads according to their position on the road . . .  57  Correlation coefficients between the cover of a species in the upper control plots and the cover of species on the other plots with 50 degrees of freedom  64  Correlation coefficients between the cover of a species in the lower control plots and the cover of the other plots with 50 degrees of freedom  65  6  A description of the variables measured from coastal logging road plots  67  7 ,  Correlation coefficients between total plant cover and measured variables on coastal logging roads. . . . . . .  70  8  Mine dumps examined on Vancouver Island  72  9  A description of the plot variables, Cumberland coal mine wastes (from #5 and #4 mines)--67 plots  82  Correlation coefficients showing the relation between total species cover and a number, of physical variables (on both No. 4 and No. 5 dumps, Cumberland) with 65 degrees of freedom  83  A description of the variables measured in. the Interior Logging road plots near Lumby, B. C.--road surface data (23 observations)  87  Correlation coefficients between total plant cover and measured variables on logging roads in the Interior Douglas f i r zone using all disturbed surfaces and the road surface only ....... . . . . . .  89  13  The mine dumps sampled in the Ainsworth/New Denver area . .  91  14  Description of measured variables from the mine dumps in the Ainsworth/New Denver area  95  4  5  10  11  12  • \ X  I  LIST OF TABLES (continued) Table 15 Correlation coefficients between total cover and measured variables based on 59 samples from mine waste materials in the Ainsworth/New Denver area  Page 96  xi • I.  LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1  Page Location map of Anyox showing the extent of the 1942 fire (—). Fume damage occurred from the Mass River north to the head of both Hastings Arm and Alice Arm .  4  2  The Anyox smelter, 1923 (reproduced from Ternan 1923) . ,  5  3  The abandoned Anyox smelter, June 1971  5  4  A synthesis of weather records at Alice Arm and Mill Bay stations. Mill Bay was recorded for a minimum of 43 years, and Alice Arm for 15  10  5  Map of the Anyox'study area showing plot layout  15  6  The relationship of Anyox plots using principal component analysis  7  ....  The relationship of Anyox plots using Williams and Lambert normal association analysis . .  21 ...  22  8  The relationship of Anyox species using principal component analysis .  25  9  Approximate location of plot 15 in the hemlock vegetation type. Note the western redcfrdar snags . . . .  26  a. Average radial increment per year based on 19 hemlock trees for the years 1903 to 1970 and annual tonnages of ore smelted 1914 to 1935 . . . . .  30  10  b. Standardized average radial increment per year c.  . ..  Average yearly temperature for Prince Rupert from 1911 to 1970 and .Anyox from 1914 to 1933. . . .  d. Total annual precipitation for Prince Rupert from 1911 to 1970 and Anyox from 1914 to 1933. . . . 11  Sedge vegetation type (Plot 10) and abandoned Anyox mine workings in the background  35  12  The Alder vegetation type (Plot 26) . . . . . . . . . . . .  36  13 14  The Willow vegetation type (Plot 17) The relationship between the time of revegetation (tree age) and the distance from the smelter in the areas burned in 1942 ......  36 39  -i  i  LIST OF FIGURES  (continued)  Figure 15 16  17  Page Schematic cross-section of a road constructed on a hill side  52  The relationship, for road surface data, between the percentage cover of several species, and the age of logging road abandonment on Vancouver Island  59  The relationship, for road surface data, between the percentage frequency of several species, and the age of logging road abandonment on Vancouver Island.  . .  18  Recently abandoned logging road near Port Renfrew  19  Logging road near Port Renfrew abandoned. 15 years ago. .  62  20  East side of conical coal waste dump at South Wellington. The south facing slope is bare of vegetation  74  Map of Cumberland area coal dumps traced from airphoto BC 5097-018, showing roads and an abandoned railway grade  76  22  Argonaut Mine at Upper Quinsam Lake, abandoned in 1957. .  77  23  Scale diagram cf transects running north to south across the No. 5 mine waste at Cumberland showing the tree species. The age is shown at the apex of each . . . . .  79  24  Steep unstable slope, Wonderful mine, Sandon  98  25  Coarse textured slope, Wonderful mine, Sandon .  21  ...  61  . . . . . .  62  98  xii - •  xiii  ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I would like to express my sincere appreciation to Dr. J. V. Thirgood, Faculty  of Forestry, for his interest, direction and assistance throughout  the study. Thanks are also due to my committee members, Dr. T. Ballard, Dr. A. Kozak, Dr. V. J. Krajina and Dr. D. Lacate for critical review of the manuscript. I would like to thank Mr. C. Penney, B. C. Molybdenum Limited for financial support during the field studies at Anyox. Financial support from the Pacific Forest Research Center, Victoria, during the survey of mine wastes and abandoned logging roads is also gratefully acknowledged. Financial support afrom Kaiser Resources Limited Fellowship and H . R. MacMillan Family Fellowship  are greatefully acknowledged.  I am also indebted to Mrs. E. Tusko for measuring tree rings and to my typist Miss E. Cbrbett. Finally, I would like to thank my wife for her help in data collection and her unfailing encouragement throughout the duration of my studies.  1  Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION During the past few years in British Columbia, there has been much concern over Industrial land disturbance.  Public outcry has been  directed largely towards the mining industry, especially since the development of methods for large-scale surface mining of coal and the open pit mining of low-grade metallic ore deposits.  Large-scale  mining activities have resulted in major changes in land configuration, the formation of huge dumps of waste rock and in large areas being entirely stripped of vegetation.  Smelter activities in British Columbia have also resulted in the destruction of vegetation in several locations, the best known being the smelter at Trail.  The Trail smelter received considerable attention  during the 1930's when i t was found that fume damage was occurring across the border in the United States.  Because of the American complaints, a  joint commission was set up to study the problem (Katz et_al_, 1939), and measures were taken to reduce the incidence of damage.  ^  Annual disturbance by the forest industry through road construction is also considerable, but has received  comparatively  l i t t l e adverse criticism because of the dispersion of logging roads as compared to the concentrated disturbance of mine sites. The mining industry is now required to reclaim their disturbed areas and is responding, 1n many cases, with an "instant green" covering of grass-legume mixtures. Similarly, forest roads, on abandonment, are required to be "put to bed", primarily for reasons of watershed protection, by sowing a suitable grassland seed mixture. Whereas the  2  short-term stabilizing effects of grass cannot be underrated, long-term land use goals are generally disregarded. Assuming that natural processes of succession will eventually take over, the land may revegetate in a much more satisfactory manner. Throughout this province there are many areas  of past  disturbance which have been allowed to revegetate naturally.  Knowledge of  the species composition, together with the physical and chemical parameters of these sites would be useful for predicting the natural revegetation of presentday disturbances. An understanding of conditions amenable to natural revegetation will also aid in programs of assisted revegetation as well. The objectives of this thesis are to identify species that naturally revegetate disturbed land, to assess rates of succession and to denote problem areas where revegetation has not occurred, and to assess the  factors responsible. The information gained from this study  may hopefully facilitate the development of procedures for revegetating disturbed areas.  Chapter 2 METHODS Areas on which past disturbances have occurred were selected for study.  The original plan called for a study of areas damaged by  mining activities only, and the Anyox copper smelter was selected for detailed examination in the  summer of 1971. Field facilities and  financing ended after one field season with the closure of an adjacent mine and more sites were selected to include- other kinds of industrial  3  land disturbance. Mine waste dumps and roads of varying ages of deposition were surveyed during the 1972 field season.  The Anyox  smelter study is presented in Chapter 3; whereas, disturbances involving either the total removal of soil and vegetation or the dumping of waste are dealt with in Chapter 4.  Chapter 3 ANYOX COPPER SMELTER 3.1 Introduction The Anyox copper smelter, situated on Observatory Inlet 80 miles north of Prince Rupert (Figure 1), operated from 1914 to 1935 and resulted in extensive damage to vegetation. The ore mined at Anyox contained an abundance of sulphur.  During the smelting process, the ore  was roasted using coke and the sulphur was driven off as sulphur dioxide (Figure 2). Damage caused by these fumes was largely confined to the narrow, steep sided inlet and its upper reaches.  The smelter  was closed in 1935 and finally abandoned in 1942 when the area was engulfed in an extensive fire.  Because of its complete isolation, the  area has been largely untouched since this time; thus, i t was thought to be an ideal area for studying; the effects of large-scale smelter denudation (Figure 3). 3.2 Literature Review The release of sulphur dioxide into the air constitutes a major source of world air pollution.  Emissions of sulphur dioxide have  occurred from smelters of sulphide ores (Katz et aV,1939; Linzon,1958;  Alice Arm Kitsault  Scale  FIGURE 1 Location map of Anyox showing the extent of the 1942 fire ( — ) . Fume damage occurred from the Nass River north to the head of both Hastings Arm and Alice Arm.  5  Figure 3 The abandoned Anyox smelter, June, 1971.  6 LeBlanc et Rao,1966), petroleum refineries (Linzon,1965; Klemm, 1972) and from combustion of coal containing sulphur. THs latter class has Included large cities which utilize coal for domestic heating (Gilbert, 1970) and coal-fired power stations (Gilbert, 1971b) . Canadian smelting activities have resulted in several major areas of high pollution including Trail, British Columbia and the several smelters in the Sudbury, Ontario region. Sulphur dioxide is an important pollutant because i t injures vegetation. As an airborne form, sulphur dioxide may come in direct contact with vegetation or may undergo changes into sulphurous acid, sulphuric acid or sulphate salts (Cadle and Allen,1970).  In vascular  plants, sulphur dioxide enters through the stomata and may become toxic to mesophyll cells.  Toxicity can be either acute, i f a large concen-  tration of sulphur dioxide is absorbed by the tissue, or chronic. A chronic condition occurs i f low concentrations are continually accumulating as sulphate salts in the tissue.  Once the sulphate level becomes  high, water is pulled from the cells by osmotic pressure, and plasmolys1s occurs (Linzon, 1972). Not all species are equally sensitive to sulphur dioxide. Generally, lichens are very sensitive and have been used as indicators of minor amounts (Rao and LeBlanc,1967; Coker,1967; Hawksworth and Rose,1970; Pyatt,1970; Gilbert, 1970). Vascular plants, on the other hand, are generally more tolerant to sulphur dioxide but the degree of tolerance among species may vary considerably. Lists showing relative sensitivity of a number of vascular plant species have been prepared from field observations and fumigation tests (Gordon and Gorham.1963; Linzon.1972; Katz et al_»1939).  Each species, however,  7 may exhibit considerable variation 1n tolerance depending upon geographical location, climate and plant stage of growth and maturation (Linzon,1972). The actual cause of species susceptibility is uncertain. Zimmerman and Hitchcock (1956) could find no relationship between the stomatal number and resistance to sulphur dioxide.  Biochemical  factors are suspected to be related to sensitivity of plants to air pollution (Linzon, 1972). A species is most susceptible to injury during the time stomata are open (Katz et al,1939).  Thus, when plants are at an opti-  mum condition for growth, they are also most sensitive to air pollutants. At night, when stomata are closed, plants are more resistant to sulphur dioxide. Lichens, unlike vascular species which are protected by cuticle and stomata, absorb pollutants continuously.  This is thought  to be the major reason for lichen sensitivity to sulphur dioxide (Puckett et alj 1973). In addition, deciduous vascular plants are able to shed injured leaves annually, unlike lichens which are unable to discard damaged tissue. The movement of air pollutants in the atmosphere is controlled by climatic and meterological factors. Dispersal is dependent upon wind direction and, consequently, areas downwind from sulphur dioxide .sources are mainly affected (Gordon and Gorham, 1963). Maximum concentrations occur when pollutants remain undispersed. Lawrence (1962) cited atmospheric stability and its associated conditions of low rainfall, low wind speed and short days as the most important factor causing high concentrations of air pollutants.  Rao  8  and LeBlanc (1967) found high concentrations of pollutants remaining close to the ground during winter cold temperature inversions. Rao and LeBlanc (1967) have shown that orographic barriers concentrate pollutants.  They attribute this to topographical aberra-  tions which increase the chance of an inversion, and thus increase the concentration of pollutants. In addition to damaging vegetation, sulphur dioxide has been shown to affect other components of the ecosystem. Additions of sulphur dioxide to the soil as a result of smelter emissions have resulted 1n a lower soil pH, an increase in sulphate concentration, and a decrease in calcium values (Gordon and Gorham,1963). Runoff waters also showed signs of a fall in pH and a rise in sulphate concentrations as well as additions in calcium, indicative of increased Teachings from the soil (Gorham and Gordon,1960). These, in turn, had a deleterious effect on the aquatic vegetation (Gorham and Gordon,1963). Gilbert (1971a) studied the effect of high pollutant concentrations on bark living invertebrates and  found a decline in the  herbivore segment of the food chain as a result of decreased productivity of the autotrophic vegetation. Studies dealing with the effect of smelting operations on surrounding vegetation usually have been conducted during the time of sulphur dioxide emissions.  Such studies have documented the immediate  effects of a continuous blanket of sulphurous fumes. They have not, however, recorded the effects which will persist once the smelter operations have ceased.  9 3.3  Description of Study Area Anyox is situated on tidewater not far from the junction of  Hastings and Alice Arm on Observatory Inlet (Figure 1) on the northern coast of British Columbia, 120 miles north of Prince Rupert (Map reference 55* 22' N and 129" 50' W).  Access to all portions of the  Inlet is usually by boat or airplane and, with the exception of fishing 1n these waters, few people have ever visited this area. Two small communities lie at the head of Alice Arm (Alice Arm and Kitsault) and to the south, the nearest settlement is at Mill Bay at the mouth of the Nass River. The study area is dominated by the main valley which contains Observatory Inlet.  In its upper reaches, the inlet divides  Into two branches—Hastings Arm and Alice Arm.  The entire inlet is  generally steep sided, although there is a more gentle relief in the Anyox, Granby Peninsula and Larcom Island areas. Mountains of 5,000 to 6,000 feet flank the inlet. The climate of the study area is classified after Koppen as Cfb and is characterized by mild wet winters and moderate wet summers. Long-term weather measurements are available at Mill Bay and Alice Arm. A synthesis of the data 1s presented in Figure 4 and a detailed synthesis 1s contained in Appendix I. The data recorded at each location are similar.  The Alice Arm station, however, is at a higher elevation  and thus has recorded slightly  lower winter temperatures and,  consequently, greater proportions of snow in the winter months. The months from April to October are generally free from snow (Figure 4b). During every month of the year, precipitation occurs at a minimum an average of 14 days each month. Precipitation occurs more frequently from October to December (Figure 4c).  10 Alice Arm  Mill Bay 70-, 60 504030 2010i — I — I — I — I — i — i — r 1—I—I J F M A M J J A S 0 N D  1—I—I—I—I—I—I—I—I—I—1 J F M A M J J A S O N D MONTH M 0> 15 H  I5H  10 H  lOH  < St < UI  5 -i  111 CC  So-  T — I — I — I — I — I — I — I — I J F M A M J J A S O N D  30 H  1*30-1 "V3  20 H  UJO20-I  3D-  i i i—i i i i i — i — r n J F M A M J J A S O N D  10  io H  o  <UI UJQ: So.  J F M A M J J A S O N D FIGURE 4  J F M A M J J A S O N D  A synthesis of weather records at Alice Arm and Mill Bay stations. Mill Bay was recorded for a minimum of 43 years, and Alice Arm for 15.  11 Although the bedrock geology in the study area is complex, three main units: can be described (Canada Department of Mines, 1935). The bedrock in the immediate vicintiy of Anyox is composed of Jurassic sediments in various stages of metamorphism and includes argillite, greywacke, quartzite, limestone and tuff.  Coast Range intrusives  (granite, granodiorite and quartz diorite) occur over much of the lower half of Alice Arm, the upper two-thirds of Hastings Arm and the southern sections of Observatory Inlet w hich l i e to the south of Brooke Island.  To the west of Anyox lie igneous rocks composed of amphibolite  and minor amounts of fragmental amphibolite, as well as sediments mainly as inclusions.  These adjoin the sedimentary rocks to the east and it is  at the contact of these two groups that the highly mineralized zone of the Anyox copper deposit occurs. Glacial action is evident over the entire area.  It appears  that a main valley glacier ran down Observatory Inlet as well as a large secondary glacier in the Alice Arm Valley.  Glacial action  occurred in many of the small valleys running perpendicular to the main valley. Ablation t i l l covers most areas, although some marine clays are present at or near sea level. deltas, and outwash terraces.  Other glacial deposits include  Colluvial fans and aprons occur in some  of the steeper upland areas. The vegetation of this area can be classified as the Coastal Western Hemlock Biogeoclimatic Zone (Krajina, 1969) and is characterized by western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla^), western red cedar,(Thuja plicata), Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis) and Pacific silver f i r (Abies amabilis), as the predominant tree species. 1. Authors of species' names are listed in the appendix.  12 3.4 History The story of Anyox is essentially the story of a mine. When the mine was 1n production and the price of copper was high, Anyox thrived but when the economic ore was depleted, Anyox was abandoned. During the time of peak activity, 2700 people lived and worked in Anyox. The history of Anyox has been well documented by two authors (Hutchings, 1966; Loudon, 1972). The Granby Mining and Smelti'ng Company purchased the Anyox property in 1909 and by 1914 the mine and smelter complex were completed.  Production continued until 1935 when Anyox was sold.  During  the years of operation, the mine-at Anyox produced 25,000,000 tons of ore and this yielded 700,000,000 pounds of copper along with 140,000 ounces of gold and 8,000,000 ounces of silver.  In addition to the ore  mined at Anyox, the smelter treated much "custom ore" from other mines 1n the area. A coke plant was also established at Anyox and utilized coal shipped from the Vancouver Island coal fields. From 1914 until 1926 the smelter roasted untreated ore from the mine. In 1926, however, i t was found necessary to construct a concentrator for the remaining lower grade ore. At the same time, the number of furnaces in the smelter was reduced from five to one, which lowered the volumes of sulphur dioxide that were emitted.  During the  peak years of operation and before the concentrator was constructed, about 800,000 tons of ore were smelted each year.  The smelter con-  tinued to treat the concentrated ore until 1935 when Anyox was dismantled and abandoned.  13 Within this basic framework, tree damage near the smelter can be traced through the records kept by the British Columbia Forest Service. These records, however, are variable in their assessment of the fume damage. As early as 1916 a report indicated extensive damage and predicted a total tree kill over all of Observatory Inlet by the following year. This overstated the case, but i t did show the speed with which the fumes affected the standing timber.  In 1921 a  report cited destruction for several miles in the immediate vicinity of the smelter and considerable fume damage to timber at the head of Alice Arm.  In 1923 the most detailed report, following a cruise to  assess smelter damage, documented severe damage to Alice Arm timber as well as some damage extending 30 miles south. Terhan (1923), who accompanied this cruise, discusses the effect on timber.  He noted  extensive damage both north and south of the smelter on the west side of the inlet.  He was unable to differentiate between fume and fire  killed timber in this area.  Dead timber was found to occur at the end  of both inlets, at Alice Arm and at the head of Hastings Arm, but along the edge of Alice Arm and on the east side of Observatory Inlet, the timber was not yet affected by fumes. Extensive soil erosion was noted near Anyox itself. In the British Columbia Forest Service records, there 1s also a documentation of species susceptibility.  Hemlock was observed to be  the most fume resistant and red cedar the least.  Pacific silver fir  and Sitka spruce were intermediate in their resistance. The dead standing forest resulting from fume kill was very susceptible to forest fires and, as a result, by the early 1920's some  areas 1n the immediate vicinity of Anyox had been burned up to four times. There were no other fires until 1942 when a lightning fire started 1n the dead timber.  This was such a large fire i t not only  totally destroyed the townsite but covered an area which encompassed all previous burnings (Figure 1).  3.5  Sampling Methods In order to study the natural revegetation process at Anyox,  a system of sampling was designed to cover the area on the western side of Hastings Arm from south of the smelter, north to the head of the Inlet.  This sampling system was designed to include both burned  and unburned areas and to study the smelter effects at an increasing distance from the source in the direction of the prevailing wind. The samples were systematic and consisted of plots along transects running east-west.  Transects were laid out two miles apart, with plots every  quarter mile along their length. After the first transect, however, the layout was re-examined and, instead of covering the area to the north, i t was decided to continue the transects east towards Alice Arm and to sample on Granby Peninsula and Larcom Island. In addition, plots 37 to 40 were added to cover the area to the head of Alice Arm, making a total of 40 plots which were studied (Figure 5). There were a number of reasons for changing the original sample design. First of a l l , the topography in the Hastings Arm area proved to be too steep and the vegetation too thick to permit travel over a reasonable distance. Also, travel in the area is only possible by boat and, with a tide fall of 20 feet, i t was impossible to anchor in a safe place because of the steep drop-off along the  16 precipitous shoreline.  Finally, an accident resulting in the burning  of the boat used initially as a field base for the study led to the establishment of field headquarters at Kltsault at the head of Alice Arm. From here travel time by boat up Hastings Arm would have been prohibitive. Each sample plot was located first on a map, transferred to an aerial photograph and then located on the ground either by chaining from some recognizable natural feature or by pacing. Some judgement was used when placing the boundaries of the plot on the ground so as to make the plot as uniform as possible within the vegetation type Indicatedon the air photo.  It was necessary to readjust boundaries in  only a few cases. Plot size was one square chain but this was modified to one-half this size when vegetation was homogeneous and trees were dense. Methods of plot description were similar to those documented by Bell (1964), although, some modifications were made. Within each plot the following data were recorded: Location (plotted on a map) Elevation Plot size Topography a.  profile (concave, convex, complex, flat, neutral)  b. contour (concave, convex, complex, flat, neutral) c. microrelief (flat, neutral, hummocky, irregular, outcrop, gully or undulating) Drainage (Canada Department of Agriculture, 1970) Rapidly drained  1  Well drained  2  17 Moderately well drained  3  Imperfectly drained  4  Poorly drained  5  Very poorly drained  6  Percentage slope Aspect (0° to 360°)— later transformed  2  Percentage covered by dead wood and rock Plot history (burned or unburned) Sketch of plot These plot data are presented in Appendix II. The description of vegetation followed the methods outlined by Bell (1964) after Krajina (1933).  The percentage cover,  sociability and vigour for all species of trees, shrubs, herbs and bryophytes were recorded in each of the tree, shrub and herb layers. When a species was present in more than one  of these layers, i t was  given an overall plot value. The species/plot data are presented in Appendix III 2  transformed aspect =  | 180 - aspect |  The amount of irradiance from the sun reaching an area is governed to some extent by the aspect. As a 360° measurement the east (90°) and west (270°) are numerically different but are identical in'terms of their irradiance. In its transformed state, aspect has more ecological meaning by presenting the variable as the departure from due south where a south aspect is 0, a north aspect 180 and either an east or west 90. Biologically, this is not an exact transformation because the southwest aspects are usually drier than the southeast. Under the conditions of this study, however, this transformation is sufficiently accurate.  The diameter at breast height of all trees was measured and the heights and ages of 15 sample trees were recorded. These 15 trees were selected to give a complete range in size including the smallest and largest trees in the plot.  The trees were bored at breast height  on their south side and the increment cores were retained in plastic straws. Soil description followed the methods outlined by the Canada Department of Agriculture (1970). In each plot, a representative soil pit was dug, a profile description made and soil samples collected from each horizon. These were analyzed for pH using a 2:1 water/soil suspension (Jackson 1953). After viewing the entire collection of soil data, i t was decided to dispense with further soil analyses. The heterogeneity of soil, parent material encountered in the samples was the major reason. Moreover, the entire soil body including the parent material was probably affected by acid Teachings to some extent.  Thus, the use of the underlying  parent material as a control was probably not valid. 3.6 Arrangement of Data 3.6.1 Introduction Within the forty plots described in the Anyox study area, there were several obvious divisions based on floristic composition.  The most  distinct difference was the division between the old growth communities and those communities which had regenerated following the fire in 1942. It was not known, however, i f all the plots within these two groups  19 were floristically alike.  Thus, i t was decided to analyze the data to  see 1f any other groupings were present. Numerous schemes have been used for the classification of vegetation and the relative merits of many have been freely discussed 1n the ecological literature (Greig-Smith, 1964; Kershaw, 1964).  The  methods are either subjective, where the species groupings are delineated in the field and then sampled, or objective, where the vegetation is sampled in an unbiased fashion. Due to the systematic sampling procedure employed in gathering the Anyox data, objective methods were used to arrange the plots and species into similar groups. Objective schemes for classification of vegetation are usually dimensional or hierarchical. Dimensional analyses begin with a matrix of species/plot data and calculate a correlation matrix.  Then, the  variables (species or plots) are arranged according to their correlation with each other.  In a two-dimensional arrangement, the data can be  plotted manually, (Agnew, 1961; DeVries, 1953; Welch, 1960) or by principal component analysis (Goodall, 1954; Phipps, 1972).  In essence,  the variables with the highest degree of positive correlation are plotted close together, and those with the highest negative correlation furthest apart. Hierarchical methods are mostly based on the work of Goodall (1953) and later on Williams and Lambert (1959).  These methods  are either monothetic divisive (Williams and Lambert, 1959) or polythetlc agglomerative (Williams, Lambert and Lance, 1966) and can be analyzed normally (where the plots are grouped in homogeneous units according to the most heterogeneous species) or inversely (where the species are grouped together).  3.6.2  20  Methods  Two main systems, a hierarchical method of classification (Williams and Lambert, 1959) and a principal component analysis were used to analyze the Anyox plot data. The Williams and Lambert normal association analysis that was used is a monothetic divisive system which uses presence or absence data. A chi-square matrix of species correlations is calculated using a two-by-two contingency table and the species with the highest sum  of  chi-square values is taken as the major source of heterogeneity. Thus, all those plots containing this species are separated from the remaining plots.  The two new groupings of plots are individually treated in  a similar way until the heterogeneity is reduced and homogeneous groupings result.. The results are plotted using the maximum chi-square value to indicate the level of heterogeneity. A program was written for the IBM 360/67-computer to calculate this entire analysis and the data were analyzed normally. The principal component or factor analysis that was used is a multivariate technique.  In general, a principal component analysis  begins with a data matrix, a correlation matrix is calculated, and from this,the variables are arranged using latent roots and vectors. Plotting the result of component I against component II shows the relationship between variables along the major axes of heterogeneity. Program UBC FACTO was used for all principal component analysis calculations. 3.6.3  The data were analyzed normally and inversely.  Results and Discussion The principal component analysis gives an arrangement of  plots (Figure 6) similar to the Williams and Lambert normal association analysis (Figure 7). In both analyses, the plots which contain  Factor I  o-3o  21 n  t 36  \ 29  \ 40 \  \  28  Hemlock  16  \ \  38  0-20-J  \  39 2  \ \  X\  \ \  \  N  ,3\  N \  \ 15 \  o i o  Alder Type 14 \ 34  27  Factor 2  S3.  o-o  I 9 \  / 21  *  /  —i 0-20  _8_  o i o  10 \  i 7 /  25\  / 33  Sedge Type  24  \  -O l o J / 20  13 23^2  22,' 30' 12 y  35 19  - 0-20-J  18  17  FIGURE 6 The relationship of Anyox plots using principal component analysis.  6  81 i  Willow Type  • •  Type  Sc!iX 2pp  Clintonia uniflora  Atnus rubra  Lycopcdium clavcturn  Calypogeia muelleriana dilatatum J2Maianthemum  |Drepanocladus sp.|  13  17 18  12] 13  24 33  21 22  35  23 25 30 3 I  6 7  14 26  8 9  27 34  TYPE  5  16  10 39  28 23  20  36 3 7 3 8 4TJ  I willow  3  4 15  2  ALDER TYPE  |L HEMLOCK  TYPE  FIGURE 7 The relationship of Anyox plots using Williams and Lambert normal association analysis  old-growth hemlock form similar groups, while the plots studied in the burned areas yield slightly different groupings. The principal component analysis produces a system which spacially relates the plots in a more realistic fashion. The unique plots (number 9 and 10), for example, appear to be more suitably placed in the principal component analysis than the Williams and Lambert analysis. Because each analysis treats  the data differently (the  Williams and Lambert analysis used presence or absence data, while the principal component analysis uses quantitative values) the principal component analysis is expected to give the most reliable results. For this reason, the groupings based on the principal component analysis were accepted. The vegetation types were named by using the dominant species (in terms of cover) which was consistently present in each (Appendix III).  Thus, the major vegetative types are:  Vegetation Type Hemlock type  Plot Numbers 2, 3, 4, 5, 15, 16, 28, 29, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40  billow type  1, 6, 7, 11, 12, 13, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 30, 31, 32, 33, 35  ftlder type  8, 9, 14, 26, 27, 34  Sedge type  10  Often the "factors" in a principal component analysis can be Interpreted to give some meaning.  The first "factor" appears to  separate the plots along a moisture gradient. The sedge plot (the wettest) is on the left (Figure 6), the Alder type (slightly drier) is next, and the Hemlock type and the Willow type, which are about equal in moisture status are to the right of the diagram. The second major degree of heterogeneity or "factor II" can be described as an age factor.  The oldest communities are at the top, the alder communities,  which were quick to revegetate, are next, and the burned areas (containing the youngest communities) are on the bottom. In addition to the groupings of plots by the Williams and Lambert and Principal Component analyses, the species were grouped using principal component analysis.  Three species groups, which  correspond to the three major groupings of plots were found (Figure 8). The species associated with the Willow type form the most closely knit group which indicates that many of the burned area species occur together in most of the area sampled.  Clear groupings of species  associated with the Hemlock type and the Alder type are also evident. The factors which separate the species groupings are similar to those which separate the plot data.  The first factor appears to be age;  whereas,the second factor is moisture.  The interpretation of these  factors is, by nature, very arbitrary and was done only to show that the components can have meaning. The major benefit of the analysis 1s to provide homogeneous units based on- statistical methods.  3.7 3.7.1  Hemlock Type Introduction The plots in the Hemlock type were unaffected by the 1942  fire and are floristically dissimilar from the other plots (Figure 9).  FIGURE 8 The relationship of Anyox species using principal component analysis. Foctor  Specles ossocioted with the Alder type /  /  ®  0.30  ©  (10)  /  JI  /  © /  /  /  03)  (34) +0.10  \  Species ossocioted \with the Hemlo-k type  \ \ Foctor  TREE LAYER 1 2 3 4 5 6  Abies Alrws Plcea Sallx Tsuga Tsuga  amabllls rubra sltchensls spp. heterophylla Mertensiana  SHRUB LAYER 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17  Cladothamnus p y r o l a e f l o r u s Ledum p a l u s t r e Hen*1es1a f e r r u g l n e a Oploplanax h o r r i d u s Rlbes bracteosum Rubus p a r v l f l o r u s Rubus s p e c t a b t l i s Sambucus racemosa S p i r a e a Dougl.T.11 Vacclnlum oval1fol1um Vacclnlum p a r v l f o l i u m  Species ossocioted with the Willow type  N  \  ®  HERB LAYER  MOSS LAYER  18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38  39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63  Anaphalls margaritacea Leutkea p e c t i n a t a Athyrium f i l i x - f e m i n a Blechnum s p i c a n t C a r e x s p . L. Casslope Mertensiana Cllntonla uniflora Comus canadensis Dryopteris d i l a t a t a Eplloblum angustlfollum Gymnocarpium d r y o p t e r i s L y c o p o d i u n c l a v a turn L y c o p o d l u m complanaturn Lycopodlum obscurum Lycopodlum s l t c h e n s e L y s l c h l t o n amerlcanum Halanthemum d i l a t a t u m Phyllorlocea a l c u t l c a Pterldium aqulHnum Saxlfraga ferruglnea S t r e p t o p u s amp I e x 1 f o i l us  \  \  0.20  Barb1lophoz1a h a t c h e r i Blepharostoma t r i c h o p h y l l u m Calypogeia muelleriana Dlcranum f u s c e s c e n s Dlcranum majus Orepanocladus s p . Gymnocolea s p . Hylocomium s p l e n d e n s Hypnum d r c l n a l e Isottiedum stoloniferum Lepldozia reptans Lophozia s p . RMzomnlum g l a b r e s c e n s Kyi l a t a y l o r l P l a g l o t h c c i u m undulatum Pleurozlum schreberl Pohl l a n u t a n s Polytrlchum Junlperlnum PUUum crlsta-castrensls Racom1tr1un c a n e s c e n s Rhytldladelphus loreus Scapanla bolanderl Sphagnum g l r g p n s o h n l 1 • letraphls pellucida Ulota obtusluscula  26  Figure 9  Approximate l o c a t i o n of p l o t 15 in the hemlock vegetation type. Note the western redcedar snags.  27  Within the Hemlock type, i t is impossible to determine the effect of smelter fumes on past or present species composition. is evidence that red cedar was killed,  Although there  many other species would have  been affected by smelter fumes but were not recorded at the time of smelter damage. Thus, the only possible method of determining both past and present smelter effects.would be through methods of tree-ring analysis. The study of factors which affect tree growth in relation to tree rings has been useful in assessing past growth conditions (Fritts ejt al_, 1971). Generally, i t has been shown that growth ring widths can be related to one or more-climatic variables (Fritts, 1970). In essence, the set of variables which control growth are mirrored in the tree ring widths.  Air pollutants, which injure leaf tissue and reduce  photosynthetic activity, have been shown to alter tree ring widths. Linzon (1958) recorded a gradual decline in growth increment of white pine on areas adjacent to smelters in the Sudbury, Ontario region. Similar effects on tree growth have been recorded near the Trail smelter (Lathe and McCallum, 1939) and near a railroad roundhouse where the locomotives burned coal that contained sulphur (Linzon, 1961). Vins (1970) described methods used to assess the increment loss in Czechoslovakian forests resulting from smoke damage. This evaluation has been used for an economic assessment of the degree of damage to forests from air pollutants. Of the major tree species in the Anyox area, western red cedar was the most susceptible to fume damage; whereas western hemlock was the most resistant. Western red cedar was killed 30 miles away from the smelter, although western hemlock probably survived  within two or three miles.  Today, because of the 1942 fire, the nearest  surviving hemlock are about four miles from the smelter.  Pacific  silver f i r and Sitka spruce were intermediate in their tolerances but were distributed so sparsely that they need not concern us here. As western hemlock was the dominant species of the region and survived the sulphur dioxide emissions during the period of smelter activity, i t was selected for tree-ring analysis. 3.7.2. Methods Nineteen western hemlock tree cores were chosen from the mature plots at distances ranging from 4.4 to 13.7 miles away from the smelter (Table 1). Cores with growth rings ing activity commenced were selected.  occurring well before smelt-  These 5-mm  cores were measured  for their yearly radial increments in earlywood and latewood, using an Addo-x Swedish tree-ring measuring instrument.  In order to assess  the factors determining the radial increments, data on as many environmental parameters as possible were collected. No precise data giving accurate smelter emissions are available.  However, the amount of ore smelted should give a reliable  estimate of the fume quantities (Reports to the Minister of Mines, 1914 to 1934). Data on precipitation and mean monthly temperature are available for Prince Rupert from 1910 until the present. Weather records are available for Anyox during a limited period and show trends similar to those of Prince Rupert (Figures 10C and D). As the Prince Rupert data were far more complete than Anyox, Mill Bay or Alice Arm, the Prince Rupert data were used to indicate yearly climatic trends. Five-year moving averages were used to smooth the radial growth graph, and then this graph was standardized by plotting the residuals.  Table 1 A SUMMARY OF THE WESTERN HEMLOCK TREES USED FOR TREE-RING ANALYSIS Plot Number ..  Tree . Number  D.B.H. (inches)  Age (years)  5  1  12.8  175  72  5  2  20.2  122+  84  15  3  11.0  146+  43  15  4  10.5  191  29  16  5  12.1  84  84  16  6  12.6  230  79  28  7  11.7  85  ,100  28  8  16.1  87  100  36  9  5.4  79  46  36  10  20.3  78  80  36  11  16.4  206  53  37  12  12.7  88+  54 .  37  13  7.2  77  44  38  14  147  101  38  15  5.8  135  44  39  16  5.5  100  38  39  17  15.9 .  330  63  40  18  19.0.  198+  74  40  19  22.1  219+  94  11.9  Height (feet)  ' I 'T — I — | I 1910 1920 O ui  2 O  5 20 <  2  uw5 <r ^ s  <  , /  e  1 I I |  I I I  1930  I | I  1940  I  I  |  1950  I  I  i  I | I I960  I  I  I 1970  /V A A A J\ v/Ayv/' \ '/'V/ 'V\'/ A/^^X/ '  /S.A.  \ysi^-j^'\/' i\ if\J  \ / Y i  //  >^ »  Ui  UI  f.  z tr < a ui ui. I30H 5 '20ui o z HOz o I00Q. O UJ  a.  908070  I /'  d  \••  I  N  In  ' i\ ' A  " II  • i  i  I  1  1 1  <  /  1' A / J> \  V ./i  1  A  -i  #  ' l \ \  • /  i\  1  /  I  J  \ I  *  i \  1  <  i \ A  I  * 1 /\  1 / \ , i i Ij I  \ /V  M FIGURE 10  a. Average radial increment per year based on 19 hemlock trees for the years 1903 to 1970 ( ) and annual tonnages of ore smelted 1914 to 1935 ( ). b. Standardized average radial increment per year. c. Average yearly temperature for Prince Rupert from 1911 to 1970 ( ) and Anyox from 1914 to 1933 ( ). d. Total annual precipitation for Prince Rupert (. -) from 1911 to 1970 and Anyox from 1914 to 1933 ( ).  3.7.3. Results The graphs (Figure 10A) show the relationship between tonnage of ore treated and radial increment (based on the average of 19 trees) from 1914 until 1935. This relationship is highly significant(99.9% l e v e l ) (r  = -0.89 with 20 degrees of freedom). As similar results were  obtained with earlywood, latewood and yearly radial growth the latter was used for all statistical tests.  No significant relationship could  be found between the radial increment and the distance from the smelter. Any combination of values for precipitation and temperature at Prince Rupert could not be related to the major change in radial growth during and after the smelter operation. Although there is some indication that temperature and precipitation could account for some of the minor fluctuations, this was not possible to demonstrate statistically even when the graphs were smoothed and standardized using five-year moving averages. 3.7.4. Discussion The radial growth of the sampled western hemlock trees seems to indicate a strong relationship with smelter output.  It is unfortu-  nate that no control trees were bored where the smelter effects were not present.  Nevertheless, a partial control is" provided by the  stable radial growth measured prior to the smelter emissions. The decrease in growth in 1914 when the smelter began and the marked release in 1925 when the concentrator was installed must reflect smelter effects.  Several minor growth fluctuations also can be  related to changes in smelter emissions.  In 1918 and 1921 there was  a large amount of ore roasted which corresponds to sharp decreases in growth, whereas in 1919 a decrease of ore smelted resulted in an  32 Increase 1n growth. In 1925, and in subsequent years, the quantities of smelted ore were reduced. Associated with this was a sharp increase in hemlock growth. Perhaps increased growth could be attributed to the presence of some nutrient in~ the fumes which was deficient under natural conditions, and resulted in stimulated growth once the high sulphur dioxide emissions had subsided. Although this is a plausible explanation, i t would be extremely difficult to prove, especially after this lapse of time.  An alternative explanation stems from the association  of hemlock and red cedar in most of the stands. The red cedar trees, being more susceptible to sulphur dioxide fumes, were killed quickly. They were generally very large trees and, once dead, the reduced competition with the hemlock could have produced a growth response of the type recorded from 1925 onwards. The climatic data were included primarily to show that major variations in radial growth were not related to overall, large-scale changes in weather patterns.  The possibility of climatic factors  being related to the small-scale fluctuations in radial growth was investigated using five-year moving averages to standardize the curves. However, no significant correlations were obtained. It 1s not surprising that there was no relationship between distance and radial growth at Anyox when, under normal circumstances, smelter effects would be expected to decrease with an increasing distance from the source. Areas where a distance gradient has been observed were flat (Gordon and Gorham, 1963) and did not have the typographical restrictions created by a narrow coastal inlet with steep sided walls.  Whenever topographical discontinuities were  33 encountered 1n other studies, increased pollutant concentrations have been observed (Rao and LeBlanc, 1967). Moreover, the British Columbia Forest Service documented a marked increase in fume killed timber at the head of Alice Arm.while alongside the inlet the timber was relatively unaffected. Thus, the lack of a significant statistical correlation between the radial growth and distance from the smelter supports the early observations and would be expected because of the topographical confines of the narrow steep-sided inlet. 3.8 3.8.1  Factors Determining the Revegetation of the Burned Area Introduction The fire, in 1942, which burned much of the area surrounding  Anyox was only one of four or five burnings. However, i t was by far the largest and encompassed all areas previously burned during the early years of smelter activity. In terms of assessing the effects of the Anyox fumes on the vegetation, the 1942 fire was unfortunate in several ways. It created a vegetation much different from the surrounding area and eliminated any remaining evidence of smelter fume damage. As i t was within this burned area that the smelter fumes had their major Influence (where there was total fume kill as well as only partial fume k i l l ) , the fire eliminated any chance to assess the direct effect of the smelter fumes near the source of emissions.  In addition, during  the time of reduced emissions from 1925 until 1934, there was probably some recovery of vegetation in the area that was totally fume killed but this, and further recovery when the fumes ceased in 1934, was eradicated by the 1942 fire.  Consequently, the study of this area  Includes fire succession as well as recovery following smelter damage.  3.8.2  Methods The plots sampled in the burned area fall into three types  based on floristic composition, which in turn reflects soil moisture; the Sedge type (Figure 11), the Alder type (Figure 12) and the Willow type (Figure 13). Measured plot variables were analyzed to assess the most significant factors affecting the revegetation in the burned areas. The time required for each species to successfully colonize the area would have been the most useful index of revegetation, unfortunately, with only one sampling period, this information was impossible to obtain. Instead, an indication of the rate of revegetation was calculated  by  using tree ages (the average and the oldest age of conifers and alder trees) found in each plot. A matrix of correlation coefficients between all variables was calculated. Two of the plots in the Alder  type (numbers 26 and 34)  contained trees that survived the 1942; fire.  These plots were probably  burned, to some extent, as only a few older trees were found in each, the rest establishing after the fire.  These two plots were discarded  in the analysis of the burned area data, leaving only four plots in the Alder type.  In addition, the Sedge type (plot 10) was  considered  floristically different from the rest and was omitted. The remaining plots were analyzed as one set of data (24 plots) and as the Willow type alone (20 plots) .  Figure 11  Sedge vegetation type (Plot 10) and abandoned Anyox mine workings in the background.  36  Figure 13  The willow vegetation type  (Plot 17).  3.8.3. Results There was considerable similarity between the correlation matrix generated from the entire set of plots and the matrix from the Willow type alone. Consequently, only the matrix using the entire set of plots is presented (Table 2). The relationship between the tree ages and the other variables 1s of particular importance.  The highest correlation occurs between  the tree age (oldest tree in the plot and average tree age in the plot) and the distance from the smelter. This relationship is shown in Figure 14.  Of secondary importance may be the effect of slope and  aspect on the tree ages. 3.8.4. Discussion The most important factor affecting the rate of revegetation (as given by the tree ages) appears to be the distance from the smelter. There are two possible Interpretations of this relationship.  Either  the availability of seed was important in determining the rate of revegetation, or permanent smelter damage persisted in areas close to the emission source.  Both interpretations are possible, however, the  availability of seed source has been shown to be an important factor 1n the natural revegetation of western hemlock and other west coast species in clear cut regions (Hetherington, 1965; James and Gregory, 1959). Nevertheless, the possibility of permanent soil damage on areas near the smelter cannot be discounted.  In areas surrounding smelter  activity near Sudbury, Ontario, major soil degradation occurs within five miles of the emission source corresponding to regions of total vegetation kill (Gorham and Gordon, 1960; Gordon and Gorham, 1963). Of the three smelters at Sudbury (Falconbridge, Copper Cliff and Coniston)  Table 2 CORRELATION MATRIX BETWEEN MEASURED VARIABLES IN THE BURNED AREAS SURROUNDING ANYOX (22 DEGREES OF FREEDOM).  o c fO  CU  4->  </) •r— Q Distance Elevation  1.000  +-> (O  >  * -0.440 1.000  Slope Aspect % Deadwood % Rock pH top of soil profile pH bottom of soil profile Drai n age Average tree age  cu  CL  o  + -> o Ol Q.  to  -o o o •a cu Q  cu  o oSCL Q. o 4-> i—  4- M-  — «§  •f—  rn o  o •— *f—  B M-  O O 4-> S_ •M Q. O  X3 •— •r-  o  IC D- (/)  c o to c •f— OJ  fO  Q . V)  cu  <u c n c n to  s- cu CU CU > s-  cu  cn +-> fO  CU QJ  •a cu i— so +->  -0.143 * 0.509  -0.361  -0.018  -0.124  -0.030  -0.246  -0.313  *** 0.630  *** •0.701  0.422  0.131  0.274  -0.115  -0.346  -0..185  -0.342  -0.347  1 .000  0.346  -0.034  0.359  -0.124  -0.265  -0.406  -0.276  1 .000  -0.001  -0.073  0.186 ** 0.532  0.056  0.301  -0.338  -0.412  1.000  -0.089  0.037  0.236  0.438  0.069  -0.069  1.000  0.021  -0.412  -0.469  -0.148  -0.048  1.000  0.374  0.267  -0.022  -0.203  1.000  0.306  0.270  0.325  1.00  -0.003  -0.213  1.000  *** 0.766  -  Oldest tree age  1.000 Significance of correlation coefficients to 95% level = *, 99% = ** and 99.9% = ***  39  The relationship between the time of revegetation (tree age) and the distance from the smelter in the areas burned in 1942  the yearly ore treated ranged from 231,000 to 4,149,000 tens compared . with a maximum of 800,000 tons at Anyox.  Although this sort of compari-  son is often dangerous, with different ore processes, sulphur contents, climates, topographies, wind speeds and directions and smelter stack heights, the maximum soil degradation at Anyox was probably not greater than five miles and, most likely, considerably less.  Thus, as the  plots which were sampled in the burned area at Anyox ranged from 0.69 to 4.24 miles from the smelter, the sample would probably encompass an area including maximum soil degradation as well as a relatively unaffected area. Therefore, a combination of both the effect of soil degradataion near the smelter, as well as the distance from available seed source, probably accounts for the distance relationship. The relationship between the average tree age and slope is significant and indicates  a preference for the flat areas to have a  higher average tree age.  Moisture abundance in the wetter sites could  account for this relationship. Aspect and the oldest tree found in the plot are also related, although the reason is unclear. In general, the most important relationship is between the tree age and distance from the smelter, and all others appear to be of secondary importance. 3.9  Discussion From field results, other smelter studies, records of the  British Columbia Forest Service, and personal communications, the effects of the Anyox smelter fumes can be ascertained.  41 3.9.1  Spread of Smelter Fumes The two major factors which determined the dissipation of  smelter fumes 1n the Anyox area were topography and climate. The topography of Observatory Inlet influenced the spread of fumes to a large extent. The prevailing westerly winds, which occur for much of the summer months, were modified by the inlet walls and resulted in a flow along  Observatory Inlet from south to north.  In the winter months,  however, cold Arctic air flowing from the interior and onto the coast would have dispersed the fumes towards the mouth of Observatory Inlet. Accompanying this cold air mass would have been inversion conditions which would have concentrated the fumes in the inlet bottom. As precipitation would have removed the fumes from the air, the frequency of rainfall would have a major effect on the extent of fume spread.  During the growing season, rainfall occurs frequently and  an average of 14 days rain each month is the minimum average recorded. Thus, extended dry periods, which could have enabled the fumes to disperse widely, were not frequent in the Anyox area. The extent of fume spread was ascertained by observing the effect on vegetation and not through analysis of. air concentrations. Thus, a high fume concentration in mid winter when the plants were dormant would not be nearly as severe as one in early spring when the plant was respiring at a maximum and new tissue was forming. It 1s difficult to assess the extent of the fume kill near the smelter because of the influence of fires; however, during  the period  of maximum emissions all vegetation was probably killed within one to two miles. Sensitive species would have been affected at much greater distances.  Red cedar was reported dead up to a distance of 30 miles. .  Lichens, regarded as the most sensitive of all plant species were, no doubt, Injured even further away from the smelter, although there is no reference to this.  Many other species would have been damaged at  various distances. Following the fires and the reduced emissions in the mid 1920's, species began to colonize the areas near the smelter.  In the  area northeast of the townsite at about one mile from the smelter, blueberries were collected during the 1930's (Loudon personal communication).  It was also during this latter period that gardens were being  kept in the townsite (Hutchings, 1966), which suggests reduced emissions. The two major weather flow patterns resulted in fume dispersal and injury to vegetation in two directions.  When the flow was westerly,  the vegetation to the north along Hastings Arm and to the northeast up Alice Arm were affected.  When the flow was northeasterly, the  vegetation to the south was damaged. Damage as far south as the mouth of the Nass River and reported by the British Columbia Forest Service was not covered by the author's field surveys. fumes in this direction.  Nevertheless, there was certainly a spread of In the winter months, the northeasterly winds  result from cold air flowing from the inland areas.  Such cold air  would produce an inversion which could trap the fumes at low elevations. This inversion is a winter phenomenon, but could occur during the early spring when plants are respiring and new tissue is forming, and are most, susceptible to damage from air pollutants. The westerly weather flow pattern and the resulting effect of fumes on vegetation was covered by the author's survey. Tree-ring  analysis, and the British Columbia Forest Service records indicate a fume spread in this direction. The lack of any relationship between ring width and distance from the smelter indicates that the mountains  ;  at the head of Alice Arm formed a pocket and restricted further fume spread and concentrated the fumes. 3.9.2 Time of Fume Damage It is expected that the major plant tissue damage occurred during the spring season. The maximum injury would have occurred when the plants were growing well (Katz, 1939), and that they would be susceptible in the spring when new tissue was forming.  As earlywood  and latewood gave similar results when correlated to yearly ore smelted, this would seem to indicate that hemlock tissue was injured in the spring and this injury would have affected growth for the entire summer. The years of maximum fume damage occurred during the peak smelting activity in the early 1920's. After the installation of a concentrator, however,the fume production and damage appear to have subsided. 3.9.3 Relative Sensitivity of Trees to Fume Damage The relative sensitivity of trees to sulphur dioxide can be ascertained for the Anyox area.  The two major species present were  western hemlock and western red cedar and there is no doubt that the former was much more tolerant to fumes than the latter.  This statement  1s supported by British Columbia Forest Service observations in the early days of smelter emissions and from observations by the author in 1971.  In 1971, very few living red cedar could be found anywhere in the  inlet; although many dead red cedar snags remained.  Hemlock, on the  other hand, survived well at the limits of the fire and no trees which could be attributed to fume kill appeared in the plots. These observations on the relative sensitivity of these two species contradict the reports of workers elsewhere.  Linzon (1972) suggests that  hemlock is less tolerant to sulphur dioxide than western red cedar. Katz (1939) also believes this, based on observations near Trail, British Columbia.  These varying results illustrate the danger of  comparing species sensitivity in different geographical regions. The Trail area, lying in the Interior Douglas Fir and Engelmann Spruce Subalpine Fir biogeoclimatic zones, is unsuited for hemlock growth and hemlock has a very limited distribution in these zones (Krajina, 1969).  On the other hand, red cedar occurs in wetter  habitats and grows well in the Columbia Valley.  Thus, as hemlock was  at the limit of its range, i t may be assumed that i t would be more susceptible to damage by an outside agent.  Katz supports his field  observation by controlled fume experimentation. These experiments are suspect as they were conducted at Peachland, in an area even more unsuited for hemlock, with the trees being grown under ambient conditions. On the other hand, the Anyox area lies within the Coastal Western Hemlock biogeoclimatic zone.  Here, western hemlock is well  within the limits of its range while red cedar is approaching its northernmost limits.  In this situation the sulphur dioxide fumes were  most harmful to western red cedar rather than western hemlock.  3.9.4  The Effect of Fire Separation of the long-term effects of fire and fume damage  1s extremely difficult.  Because the fire masked the most important  area, the land where there was a transition between total fume kill and partial k i l l , i t is difficult to assess the magnitude of fume damage. Fires, nevertheless, are an integral part of the effects of smelter activity because of the hazardous nature of standing, dead fume killed timber and cannot be divorced from such activity. It is unknown i f the species which colonized the area surrounding Anyox (which was disturbed by both fumes and fire) are any different than those which would have revegetated an area only affected by fire.  Fumes, no doubt, would have eliminated species from areas  further from the smelter than the limits of the fire,and eliminated a potential seed source for recolonization of the burned area.  The  lack of red cedar as a component in much of the burned area can be attributed partially to this. Many of the species found colonizing the burned area have seeds which are easily disseminated.  Willow, for example, has seeds  which are dispersed over long distances. It is found rarely in the mature forest of the inlet, yet i t is dominant on the burned area. 3.9.5  Lasting Effects- of Smelter Activities The lasting effects will be largely dependent upon the extent  of damage to the soil body. No doubt, the removal of organic matter through fire activity has been important.  The major smelter effects  would have occurred within a few miles of the smelter and would have caused a nutrient loss through acidic leaching of the soil.  Sulphate  -accumulation would have been heavy at first, however, sulphate would  46 have leached from the soil quite rapidly. Within the burned area i t is uncertain whether the majority of damage was caused by fire or fume damage. The successlonal rates are not dissimilar from a burn. In the unburned portion of the fume affected area, there was a loss of sensitive species such as red cedar and lichens. Hemlock suffered an initial depression of growth and then a release but has now returned to the slow rate of growth that is characteristic of unmanaged stands of these north coast areas.  It is doubtful that the plant  community structure has altered considerably except through the possible elimination of sensitive species with slow revegetation mechanisms.  47 CHAPTER 4 DISTURBANCES INVOLVING THE TOTAL REMOVAL OF SOIL MATTER 4.1  Introduction This chapter will be concerned with the recovery of disturbances  resulting from the removal of both vegetation and developed soil. In marked contrast to the large body of literature available on artificial revegetation of mine wastes, studies of natural succession on these sites have been few.  There have, however, been excellent studies  dealing with post glacial plant invasion on glacial t i l l in Alaska (Cooper, 1939; Crocker and Major, 1955). But this research, while showing in detail the successional processes over a long period of time, does not relate to many of the problems that are associated with man-made disturbance. Studies have been made on the ecology of deep mined pit heaps in England (Brierley, 1956; Hall, 1957), natural revegetation of mine wastes in the United States (Croxton, 1928; Bramble and Ashley, 1955; Byrnes and Miller, 1973; Schramm ,1966), and mine wastes in Germany (Bauer, 1973). This research has outlined many of the problems associated with mine waste revegetation and has noted conditions affecting plant colonization. Species which colonize waste areas have a number of characteristics which enable them to become successfully established. Those with wind disseminated seeds have been observed to be the major primary colonizers in several instances (Crocker and Major, 1955; Brierley, 1956; Schramm, 1966). Grasses and herbs were the first species to become successfully established in several waste areas in England (Richardson, 1958; Whyte and Sisam, 1949), however, there was no mention of the mode of seed transport.  Vegetative means of plant colonization,  48 onto waste materials immediately adjacent to undisturbed areas, has been observed (Schramm, 1966). Species which have the ability to fix nitrogen play a dominant role in plant succession following glacial retreat (Crocker and Major, 1955), but have not proved to be an important constituent in colonization of man-made disturbances.  Their use in  reclamation, however, has been widespread (Knabe, 1964b; Limstrom, 1960; Kohnke, 1950). The factors which limit survival of vegetation planted on waste material have been the subject of numerous review articles (Bramble, 1952; Knabe, 1964a; Kohnke, 1950; Limstrom, 1960, 1964; Murray, 1973; Peterson and Etter, 1970). Although there are a large number of parameters which have been shown to affect the establishment of vegetation on waste dumps, the limiting factors can be grouped into three major categories: moisture factors, slope stability factors and chemical factors. The lack of available moisture for successful plant growth is a limiting factor which is affected by a large number of variables. Slope, aspect, texture and color can all influence temperature and hence, the moisture status of waste materials (Bramble, 1952; Richardson, 1958; Schramm, 1966). Wind exposure influences transpiration as well as soil moisture evaporation (Eramble, 1952). Climate exerts an important influence on moisture relations but has received only cursory mention 1n the American reclamation literature.  Nevertheless, drought conditions  are one of the major limiting factors in revegetating coal wastes in Montana (Hodder et al_, 1971; 1972). Steep unstable slopes have been shown to inhibit plant establishment (Brierley, 1956). Much of the presently available  49 literature has discussed revegetation in relatively flat land situations and has alluded to slope stability problems only generally.  Under these  flat land conditons, levelling the waste material is an obvious, simple solution and one which is usually carried out in reclamation procedures (Kohnke, 1950).  In more mountainous areas, however, steep slopes become  a major factor limiting plant growth (Peterson and Etter, 1970)  and the  problem is not so easily solved. Nutritional factors account for plant growth failures in many instances.  As a medium for plant growth, waste material may be deficient  in one or more elements essential for plant survival. Of the three macronutrients, nitrogen is usually deficient, whereas, phosphorus and potassium may be present in varying amounts. In reclamation procedures, fertilizer treatments are used to correct these deficiencies (Kohnke, 1950; Knabe, 1964). When species revegetate naturally, they must survive on low quantities of these nutrients, or, in the case of nitrogen-fixing species, must provide their own. While deficiencies are often a problem, excess quantities of -  several toxic elements can inhibit plant growth. Heavy metals have been found to be toxic in several instances (Peterson and Nielson, 1973; Chadwick, 1973). Coal mine spoils containing high concentrations of sulfur may become acidic.  When these acidic conditions occur, manganese  and aluminum become soluble, are absorbed by plants, and result in plant mortality (Berg and Vogel, 1973). The preceding paragraphs have described the principal factors that have been found to influence reclamation of waste materials in other regions.  The remainder of this chapter will describe the natural  revegetation of waste materials in several areas of British Columbia and  50  assess the factors which determined the rate of species colonization. The major emphasis was directed towards studying mine waste materials, however, logging roads provided a similar waste environment and are much more common and widespread. Thus, both were used to assess the natural revegetation of waste materials. 4.2  Sampling Methods Logging roads were surveyed at two areas on Vancouver Island  and one area in the Interior near Lumby, B. C.  Mine sites were surveyed  both on Vancouver Island and in the West Kootenays. As i t Was possible to visit only a limited number of logging roads in the province, three specific areas were chosen and studied in some detail. criteria.  These areas were selected according to the following  Firstly, the area had to include a large number of completely  abandoned roads.  These had to be completely abandoned in order to avoid  road maintenance effects on vegetation. Secondly, the area had to contain roads which were variable in age, slope and aspect.  Thirdly,  suitable areas must not have been subjected to any treatment such as dormancy sprays or artificial seeding. Within each of the three areas a number of abandoned roads were selected to give a range in age and aspect.  On each, three or more  sample locations were systematically placed every 100 or 200 meters depending on the length of the road.  The number of sample locations  depended, to some extent, on the heterogeneity of the road and its associated vegetation. At each location,  a belt transect four meters wide was laid out  51 perpendicular to the direction of the road.  This transect was divided  into two control plots and a number of disturbed plots based on topographic discontinuities. sections:  In general, the transect was divided into five  the upslope control plot, the upslope plot, the road surface  plot, the downslope plot, and the downslope control plot (Figure 15). The dimensions of the two control plots were always four meters wide and four meters long:  the other plots were of variable length,  although their widths remained a constant four meters. For each plot the following data were recorded:  position,  plot length , percent slope, aspect, texture, age, erosion, and percent cover for each plant species. following:  Position was recorded on one of the  upslope control (1), upslope (2), road surface (3),  downslope (4), and downslope control (5). • The measurement of plot length, percent slope and aspect were straightforward,  Aspect as a 360° measure-  ment was transformed to give a variable from 0 to ISO.  Whenever aspect  is used statistically, i t will be as the transformed variable. Texture was subjectively quantified on the following scale: 1  clay, less than 10% gravel  2  -  s i l t , less than 10% gravel  3  •  sand, less than 10% gravel'  4  --  10-20% gravel  5  -  21-40% gravel  6  -  41-60% gravel  7  •  61-80% gravel  8  ••  81-99% gravel  9  -  100% gravel up to 5" diameter  10  -  all large boulders greater than 5" diameter  FIGURE 15 Schematic cross-section of a road constructed on a hill side  53 The age of coastal logging roads was taken as the age of the oldest  adjacent second growth tree, which was assumed to have  become established after logging and soon after abandonment.  For more  recently abandoned roads, Douglas f i r was used for determining their age by counting branch whorls.  Erosion was assessed for the road  surface only and on the following scale: 0  - no apparent erosion  1  - an erosion channel less than 3" deep  2  - an erosion channel 3-6"  3  - an erosion channel 7-9" deep  4  - an erosion channel 10-12" deep  5  - an erosion channel more than 12" deep  deep  Percentage cover was assessed for all plants that were rooted within the plot.  For example, a specimen of alder (Alnus rubra) shading the  upslope but rooted on the road surface, would not be included in the upslope but would b.e included in the road surface plot.  The diverse nature of mine waste materials prevented the adoption of one standard : method of sampling.  Many dumps were too young  for detailed sampling, consequently only species lists were prepared. Where mine wastes were extensively sampled, four meter square plots were used and assessed in a manner similar to the methodology used for the plots on the logging roads.  54 4.3 Coastal Areas 4.3.1 Logging Roads 4.3.1.1 Methods On Vancouver Island, two main areas were selected for study. These were the Haslam Creek watershed near Ladysmith (49° latitude, 124° longitude SE) between 2000' and 2500' elevation on the eastern side of Vancouver Island and the San Juan Valley on the v/est coast (49° latitude, 124° longitude SW).  The Haslam Creek watershed,  involving 24 locations on 6 abandoned roads, is classified as the Coastal Western Hemlock biogeoclimatic zone (drier subzone)^, although there is some indication that a few of the samples could be included in the Coastal Douglas Fir Zone (wetter subzone). All the roads sampled in this area were constructed on glacial t i l l materials. In the San Juan Valley a total of 28 locations were sampled from 300' to 1050' elevation. This area is classified as the Coastal Western Hemlock Zone (wetter subzone).  The logging  roads studied  here were also situated entirely on glacial t i l l materials.  Logging  activities in the San Juan Valley date back a considerable time. Railway logging occurred until the late 1950's and, consequently, many of the sites studied were not, in fact, logging truck roads but were abandoned railway grades. 4.3.1.2 Results The logging road data are presented in Appendices IV and V.  3  Study areas in this chapter will be classified according to the scheme of biogeoclimatic zones proposed by Krajina (1969).  55 Species Composition In order to document the differences between the species which revegetate disturbed sites on the east and west coasts of Vancouver Island, the data have been considered separately. The data are presented by listing both the percentage frequency on the disturbed plots and the percentage total cover. Both figures are necessary to gain a total picture of the importance of a species. If cover is used, for example, alder is the most important tree species covering 28.5 percent of the total road area in the west of the island and 11.7 percent in the east. On the other hand, i f percent frequency is used, alder is fourth in importance in the east and ties with Douglas f i r (Pseudotsuga menziesii) and western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla) for first place in the west (Appendix V). Both east and west coast logging roads have many species in common, but differences in cover and frequency are apparent.  The age of  the sampled sites within each area can account for some of these differences.  Those logging roads from the Haslam Creek area tended to  be more recent (average age 16.2 years), while those in the San Juan area were older (average age 17.5). Willow (Salix spp) occurs in 16 percent and 58 percent and alder occurs in 49 percent and 26 percent of the plots on the west and east areas respectively.  Because willow can  be regarded as an early colonizer and alder a later arrival, these differences will likely reflect the length of time since abandonment. Western hemlock, western red cedar (Thuja plicata) and Douglas f i r occur quite frequently in both areas.  Slight differences, especially in cover,  would tend to indicate that age and not area is causing these discrepancies. The only major difference is in three less dominant species. Both Pinus monticola and Populus trichocarpa occur only in the east and Picea  56 sitchensis  occurs only in the west. In each area, shrub species are  generally similar with Gaultheria shallon, Rubus ursinus, Rubus parviflorus, Rubus leucodermis and Vaccinium parvifolium occurring in both, whereas Linnaea boreal is occurs only in the east and Rubus spectabilis occurs only in the west. Herbs, ferns and mosses are generally similar. On the basis of floristic composition there does not appear to be a major difference between these two areas, at least during the first 30 years after abandonment. Therefore, in the following sections, the data will be combined and will be referred to as "coastal logging road" data. The Effect of Position on Species Composition The location of the disturbed surface on the road (upslope, road surface, or downslope) has an effect on the species which revegetate (Table 3)."  Th e road surface, for example, is much more  amenable to the growth of alder than the upslope or downslope. To some extent, the same is true for willow and a number of minor species. On the other hand, the remaining tree species favor the upslope and downslope. This probably reflects the absence of competition from alder rather than a preference for these conditions. Salal (G_. shalIon) is the only species which definitely favors the downslope portion of the disturbed road materials.  A simple  explanation for this phenomenon may be advanced, which arises from a difference in the extent of disturbance of the surrounding vegetation at the time of road construction.  When the road is constructed, the  plants growing above the upslope (i.e., in the upslope control plot) have their rooting zone exposed.  This does not occur below the  downslope (i.e., in the downslope control plot) where, in forming a  Table 3 AVERAGE PERCENTAGE COVER OF MAJOR SPECIES OCCURRING ON VANCOUVER ISLAND LOGGING ROADS ACCORDING TO THEIR POSITION ON THE ROAD % Cover Upslope  % Cover Surface  % Cover Downslope  12.98  38.54  11.63  Pseudotsuga menziesii  8.38  2.79  11.63  Salix spp  3.62  5.90  5.61  Thuja plicata  1.96  0.96  6.41  Tsuga heterophylla  6.83  2.48  10.78  Gaultheria:shall on  4.40  1.17  11.59  Rubus ursinus  0.06  0.19  0.04  Vaccinium parvifolium  0.87  0.37  0.43  Achlys triphylla  0.19  0.06  0.19  Anaphalis margaritacea  4.79  1.83  3.17  Epilobium angustifolium  1.11  0.17  1.80  Hieracium albiflorum  0.21  0.37  0.20  Lactuca biennis  1.15  1.23  0.67  Taraxacum spp  1.58  2.87  2.13  Polytrichum juniperinum  0.68  0.27  0.20  Rhacomitrium canescens  0.02  0.42  0.07  Species Alnus rubra  downslope, the road materials are piled on top of the vegetation leaving their root systems s t i l l intact.  As salal often spreads by  rooting, i t is able to colonize from the base of the road more easily than from the upper slopes from which the surface soil and the associated •kick  plant materials are removed. A correlation (r = 0.604  with 50 degrees  of freedom) between the cover of salal in the downslope control and the cover of salal in the downslope plots adds weight to this argument. Succession on Road Materials The disturbed portions of the coastal logging roads were divided according to position (upslope, road surface, downslope) and were then partitioned into five-year age classes, and average species frequency^ and cover, were calculated for each. A graph showing the cover of tree species and their relation to the age of abandonment is presented for the road surface (Figure 16). Graphs showing the relation between the cover of tree species and the age of abandonment for the upslope and downslope are not presented, but are similar for all species except alder, which was not nearly as well represented as on the road surface. The tree species, with the exception of alder, were identical on all three disturbed portions, indicating that the alder dominance on the road surface also affected the adjacent upslope and downslope. The road surface is completely dominated by alder from an early age onwards. All species seem to increase their cover until the fifteenth or twentieth years when alder becomes dominant and prevents any further increases. The herb and shrub species were not plotted on this graph because of their insignificant contribution to cover. It would be a mistake to look at cover only in assessing the  80  / / 60  /  / 5  /  o 4oH o o c  / S  o a.  20i  Ass  of  Abandonment  FIGURE 16 The relationship, for road surface data, between the percentage cover of Alnus rubra ( ), Salix spp, Tsuga heterophylla ( ~), Pseudotsuga menziesii ( ), and Thuja plicata (• •), and the age of logging road abandonment on Vancouver Island.  60 invasion of species onto disturbed sites.  If frequency is used, a  different perspective is gained especially in the early stages of colonization.  When the frequency is plotted against age,many more species  become important (Figure 17). Anaphalis margaritacea, Taraxacum spp, Salix spp and P_. menziesii are all present more frequently than alder until the twentieth year, but once alder attains its dominance, the rest of the species are removed as a result of competitive factors. It is possible, then, to speak of succession of species on abandoned logging roads, and to divide the first thirty years into two stages.  The first stage (Figure 18) is characterized by four main species:  A. margaritacea, Taraxacum spp, Salix spp and P_. menziesii; and the second by A. rubra. The first three of the species named in the first stage have seeds which are easily disseminated by wind and are able to colonize quickly following disturbance and, no doubt, many plants of these species are already established at the time of abandonment. Douglas f i r , on the other hand, would have a readily available seed source from the surrounding forest.  However, i t grows poorly and never attains dominance  on the road surfaces, probably through lack of nutrients.  Once alder  becomes established, i t is able to outgrow Douglas f i r which is shaded out quickly.  The second stage in logging road succession  entirely by alder (Figure 19).  is dominated  From the data, i t is impossible to determine  for how long alder will dominate an abandoned logging road.  Nevertheless,  i t may be assumed that the road will be effectively removed from production of coniferous species other than as a rooting zone because, by the time the alder dies out, the surface will be effectively shaded by the canopy closure of the adjacent forest. Site Variation For the purpose of this study "site" will be considered in  0  5  10  15 A53  of  20  25  30  Abandonment  FIGURE 17 The relationship, for road surface data, between the percentage frequency of Alnus rubra ( ), Salix spp (• Pseudotsuga menziesii ( ), Anaphalis margaritacea ( ) and Taraxacum spp ( ), and the age of logging road abandonment on Vancouver Island. -  Figure 19  Logging road near Port Renfrew abandoned 15 years ago.  63 q u a l i t a t i v e rather than quantitative terms.  The species composition on  the upper and lower control plots w i l l r e f l e c t the s i t e adjacent to the logging road. In order to discover i f the species growing beside the road were in any way related to the colonizing vegetation, a series of c o r r e l ation c o e f f i c i e n t s were calculated between the cover of the more important species in the downslope control plots and t h e i r corresponding covers on the disturbed surfaces  (Table 4). S i m i l a r l y , c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s  were calculated between the cover of the more important species in the downslope control plots and t h e i r corresponding covers on the disturbed surfaces (Table 5). These results show q u i t e . c l e a r l y the influence of surrounding vegetation on the road surface.  Generally, there is a good c o r r e l a t i o n  between the quantities of a species occurring on both the upper and lower control p l o t s , which indicates that  as a road is constructed through a  plant community, s i m i l a r species remain both above and below the road. There are also a number of s i g n i f i c a n t  p o s i t i v e correlations be-  tween the vegetation growing on the undisturbed s o i l beside the road, and those species occurring on the disturbed areas.  While, these c o r r e l a -  tions can be interpreted in a number of ways, they a l l  r e f l e c t the  influence of the surrounding vegetation, and hence the s i t e , on the colonizing species. . Thus, the adjacent s i t e w i l l in a number of ways.  influence the road vegetation  F i r s t l y , there is an increased l i k e l i h o o d that a  nearby plant w i l l supply the seed f o r the colonizing species.  Secondly,  i f s u i t a b l e conditions for growth of a p a r t i c u l a r species are present in the area adjacent to a road, then there i s every reason to expect that these conditions w i l l prevail to some extent on the  Table 4 CORRELATION COEFFICIENTS BETWEEN THE COVER OF A SPECIES IN THE UPPER CONTROL PLOTS AND THE COVER OF SPECIES ON THE OTHER PLOTS WITH.50 DEGREES OF FREEDOM Alnus rubra  Pinus Pseudotmonticola suga menziesii  Thuja plicata  Tsuga heterophylla  Upper disturbed  0.493***  0.000  0.159  0.084  0.213  -0.021  0.350*  Road surface  0.170  0.057  -0.100  -0.311*  0.099  -0.140  0.308*  Lower disturbed  0.166  0.028  0.282*  0.091  0.346*  0.369**  0.513***  0.630***  0.277*  Species  Salix spp.  Gaultheria shallon  _ Rubus_ twviflorus  Position  Lower control  -0.056  0.449*** 0.214  -0.099  Significance of correlation coefficients to 95% level = *, 99% = ** and 99.9% = ***  0.408**  0.327* -0.081 -0.015 0.341*  Table 5 CORRELATION COEFFICIENTS BETWEEN THE COVER OF A SPECIES IN THE LOWER CONTROL PLOTS AND THE COVER OF THE OTHER PLOTS WITH 50 DEGREES OF FREEDOM  Species  Alnus rubra  PseudotPinus . monticola suga menziesii  Thuja pi icata  Tsuga heterdphylla  Salix spp  0.277*  -0.099  Gaultheria shallon  Rubus parviflorus  Position Upper control  -0.056  0.369**  0.513*** -0.630***  Upper disturbed  0.200  -0.051  0.127  Road surface  0.324*  0.081  -0.137  0.526***  -0.040  -0.163  Lower disturbed  0.408**  0.341* 0.371*  0.166  0.283*  0.271  -0.030  0.189  0.147  0.325*  0.081  0.269  -0.020  0.555***  -0.023  0.604***' -0.026  Significance of correlation coefficients to 95% level = * 99% = ** and 99.9% = ***  cn  disturbed areas. Moisture effects, for example, will undoubtedly carry over onto the road and the significant correlations obtained for species such as western redcedar and alder are probably due to this effect. Thus, a combination of seed availability and similar conditions for growth would serve to promote the same set of species on both the adjacent relatively undisturbed areas and the disturbed road materials. Finally, spread of salal by rooting from adjacent areas onto the mineral surfaces would occur only in a salal site.  This gradual invasion  of salal from the roadside is emphasized by the decrease in significance of the correlation coefficient when the plots are further away from the source of colonization.  The correlation between the lower control and  the adjacent downslope plot is highly significant (0.604***), between the lower control and surface significant (0.325*) and between the lower control and upslope (0.271) not significant. Other Factors Influencing Revegetation of Roads A general description of the characteristics of the plot variables can be found in Table 6 while a detailed documentation is presented in Appendix IV. Total cover found on each plot was used to calculate relationships with other variables.  Obviously, species do not all react in  the same way to different conditions. Total cover should, however, take into account  dominance, diversity and performance, and as a result  should be a good indication of controlling factors. It has already been noted that there are great differences in the ecology of the different positions on the disturbed road areas; thus, relationships were determined by splitting the data into three positions: upslope, road surface, and downslope. Correlation coefficients between  67 Table 6 A DESCRIPTION OF THE VARIABLES MEASURED FROM COASTAL LOGGING ROAD PLOTS  S  i * Size  m p l e  Mean  , , Standard Deviation  M i n i m u n i  Maximum  Coefficient of Variation  Upslope 0.5  1.59  8.0  52 .56  Plot length (meters)  50  3.0  Percentage slope  50 .  6.7  20 .9  0  150  31 .02  Aspect  50  186.9  104 .1  0  354  55 .71  Transformed aspect  50  86.4  57.3  2  180  66 .30  Texture  38  4.1  1.1  2  7  26 .82  Elevation (feet)  50  300  2500  55.57  Age  50  17.3  7.1  5  30  40 .80  Total cover  50  71.4  43.9  5  158  61 .50  Plot length (meters)  52  5.5  1.9  4.0  11.0  34.98  Percentage slope  52  9.3  9 .2  0  55  98 .48  Aspect  52  148.3  107.5  0  354  72.52  Transformed aspect  52  99.4  50.1  0  180  50.38  Texture  43  4.9  3  7  17.14  760 .0  300  2500  54.75  7.1  5  30  40 .66  1.1  0  5  155 .94  51 .1  1  186  69 .60  1360  756  jrface  Elevation  (feet)  52  Age  52  Erosion  52  Total cover  52  1388 17.4 0.73 73.5  0 .84  '  68  Table 6 (continued)  M e a  "  S«?»«nn Deviation  Size  M 1 n i m U m  M a X l m U m  of Variation  C O e f f  1 e n t  Downslope Plot length (meters)  46  3.8  1.9  Percentage slope  46  57.1  25.3  3  140  44 .30  Aspect  46  173 .1  102.8  0  354  59 .42  Transformed aspect  46  85 .2  56.7  2  180  66 .52  Texture  30  4 .6  3  7  25 .87  Elevation (feet)  46  735.9  300  2500  58 .77  Age  46  16 .2  6.7  5  25  41 .25  Total cover  46  90 .3  53.9  7  195  59 .69  1252  1.19  1.5  9.5  49 .53  69 total cover and the following variables were determined: plot length, slope, texture, age of abandonment, erosion, aspect and aspect multiplied by slope (Table 7). Plot length provides a measure of the size of the road and, in effect, the scale of disturbance.  It is anticipated that as the size of  the disturbance increases, the vegetation will require a longer period to revegetate and a negative correlation between cover and plot length should occur. found.  For the downslope, however, a positive correlation was  There is also a positive correlation between plot length and  age of abandonment; thus, there is a positive relationsnip between plot length, total cover and age of abandonment.  The relation between total  cover and age is expected and the relation between plot length and total cover is seen as merely a result of sampling steep road banks (large plot length) only on those roads which had been abandoned for a considerable period of time. For the road surface at least, the slope is negatively correlated to the total cover of vegetation.  The slope is unrelated to the age  of abandonment and, as such, would seem to strengthen this possible relationship. No relationship between aspect and total cover could be found; however, i t is expected that some species will be affected by change of aspect. Texture and vegetation are negatively correlated on the road surface only. This is expected as large size materials will not have the same growth capabilities as finer textured materials. No textural relationship could be found on either the upslope or downslope, but any number of factors could be compensating for textural differences.  70  Table 7 CORRELATION COEFFICIENTS BETWEEN TOTAL PLANT COVER AND MEASURED VARIABLES ON COASTAL LOGGING ROADS Road Surface  Downslope  48  50  44  146  Plot length  0.241  0.168  0.398**  0.221*  Percent slope  0.001  -0.360**  -0.114  =0.033  -0.310  -0.371*  0.111  -0.162  Position  Upslope  Degrees of freedom  Texture ' 1  Age of abandonment Erosion Aspect  t  0.516***  0.667***  All Data  0.700*** .  -  -0.140  -  0.255  0.203  -0.014  0.605***  0.130  Texture has 36, 41, 28 and 109 degrees of freedom for the upslope, road surface, downslope and all data respectively.  * ** ***  = Significance of correlation coefficients to 95% level = 99% = 99.9%  71 Erosion was only measured for the road surface and usually resulted from the roadbed being the path of least resistance for water flowing from the hillsides.  No relation between erosion and vegetation  could be found although, in sites studied,erosion did not seem to be a major problem. There was, however, a positive correlation between erosion and slope (0.384** with 50 degrees of freedom) which .indicates the increased danger of erosion on steeper road grades. The most important factor governing the revegetation of logging roads is the age of abandonment. Highly significant correlations were obtained between total cover and age of abandonment for all road positions.  Logging road succession has been documented earlier and  shows this relationship in more detail; nevertheless, it is important to compare age/cover relationships with the other measured parameters to show their relative magnitudes. Age of abandonment is, therefore, the major determining factor regardless of plot length, slope, aspect, texture and erosion.  4.3.2  Mine Sites  4.3.2.1 Introduction Major mining activity on Vancouver Island has centered around the coal deposits on the east  coast; consequently waste dumps resulting  from this industry feature largely in the sites studied, and the only other mine wastes examined were at two open pit iron mines. A l i s t of the mines is presented in table 8. The coal mine wastes near Nanaimo have been generally disturbed since abandonment by human activities, such as rifle ranges,  Table 8 MINE DUMPS EXAMINED ON VANCOUVER ISLAND  Area Cumberland  Mi ne No. 4  II  No. 5  II  No. 5, 7, 8 young  n H  Map Reference  Mineral  (50° 125° SW)  Coal  n  No. 5, 7, 8 old  Biogeoclimatic Zone  Date Of Abandonment  CDF (wet)  before 1918  n  n  H  n  ?  II  n  ?  II  before 1922  Tsable River  (50° 125° SE)  II  South Wellington  No. 5 and No.10  (49° 124° NE)  H  Extension  White Rapids  (49° 124° NE)  H  CDF (dry)  1950  Campbell River  Upper Quinsam  (49° 125° NW)  Iron  CDF (wet)  1957  Kennedy Lake  Kennedy Lake  (49° 125° SE)  CWH (wet)  1968  CDF (dry)  1960 1935 and 1951  ^ 1 ro  73 motorcycle tracks or other uses. The Cassidy tip, in particular, was impossible to sample for vegetation as much of the material had been removed and used for road aggregate.  Thus, waste dumps near Nanaimo  received only cursory treatment in this study and only to the extent of the preparation of species lists and some initial soil samples. The South Wellington No. 5 and No. 10 dumps are approximately seven miles south of Nanaimo and are in the form of conical mounds 100 to 200 feet high (Figure 20).  Vegetatively this area can be classified  as falling within the Coastal Douglas Fir Zone (drier subzone) although farmland is adjacent to both waste piles.  Only species lists were  prepared. The White Rapids (Extension) mine (Coastal Douglas Fir Zone, drier subzone) is situated approximately nine miles by road from Nanaimo. The waste dump lies near the Nanaimo River and, compared to the South Wellington dumps, is relatively small with a broken, low, plateaulike configuration. Since the mine was closed in 1950, this dump has been continually disturbed by human activity; therefore, only a species l i s t was prepared. Near Cumberland, however, the coal dumps were comparatively undisturbed and could be sampled more extensively. Two waste dumps studied in detail originated from the Canadian Collieries (Dunsmuir) Limited No.4 mine at Comox Lake and the No. 5 mine near Cumberland. The No. 4 mine was in continuous operation from at least 1901 to 1932; thereafter production declined until the mine was finally closed in 1935. However, the No. 5 mine, near Cumberland, operated from at least 1901 until 1947 with a break of two years in 1930 and 1931.  Unfortunately,  these dates cannot be used to estimate the age of the dumps. These waste  Figure 20 East side of conical coal waste dump at South Wellington. The southfacing slope is bare of vegetation.  75 materials, or portions of them, could have been deposited at any time during the life of the mine. A 54-year-old Douglas f i r was growing on the No. 4 mine dump, so this portion, at least, must have been abandoned prior to 1918.  The No. 5 mine dump was also abandoned long before the  mine closed; here the oldest tree dates from 1922. Two other dumps in this area were given minor attention but were much younger than the No. 4 and No. 5 dumps. Here also, the ages of abandonment are uncertain; both were likely used as waste dumps for mines No. 5, No. 7 and No. 8 but are of different ages. For the purpose of this study, they have been labelled No. 5, 7, 8 old and No. 5, 7, 8 young. The location of the sampled dumps near Cumberland is shown in Figure 21. The entire Cumberland area is situated in the Coastal Douglas f i r zone (wetter subzone). The mine dumps studied, with the exception of No. 4 dump, were all placed on top of gravel materials (a pitted outwash landform).  The No. 4 dump lies on the lakeside at Comox Lake with  one side of the dump forming the lake shore. The Argonaut Mine at Upper Quinsam Lake (49° latitude 125° longitude NW).was visited and a species list prepared (Figure 22).  This mine  is situated in the wetter subzone of the Coastal Douglas Fir Zone. The entire operation was large-scale but short-term and began in 1951 and was concluded in 1957.  The open pit is now a lake and the waste dumps  generally consist of steep, coarse-textured materials. Only the flatter terraces and road surfaces were colonized at this site. The Kennedy Lake mine seven miles east of Ucluelet (49° latitude 125° longitude  SE) is in the Coastal Western Hemlock Zone  (wetter subzone). This, too, was a short-term but large-scale operation  FIGURE 21 Map of Cumberland area coal dumps traced from airphoto BC 5C97-C18, showing roads and an abandoned railway grade (+++). Scale: 2 inches = 1 mile.  77  Figure 22 Argonaut mine at Upper Quinsam Lake, abandoned in 1957.  78 which was worked from 1963 to 1967.  The open pit is now largely filled  with water while the waste dumps, although large, have a plateau-like configuration. The vegetation cover was sparse and only a species list was prepared.  4.3.2.2. Methods Contiguous plots of four meters square were laid out in transects across the No. 4 mine dump at Comox Lake and the No. 5 mine dump near Cumberland. recorded:  In each quadrat the following data were  percent slope, aspect, age of trees, and cover values for all  species of trees, shrubs, herbs and bryophytes.  One transect of 17  plots was described for the No. 4 dump and three transects totalling 50 plots were described for the No. 5 dump. Species lists only were prepared for the other two dumps. One soil pit was dug in each of the No. 4 and No. 5 dumps while samples of the other two dumps were limited to seven inches in depth. Hydrogen ion concentration was measured on.the unsifted sample on a Radiometer pH meter 28 using a 2:1 water/soil suspension (Jackson 1958).  4.3.2.3. Results Species Composition Species composition was calculated for the No. 4 and No. 5 dumps together and, as with the logging roads, has been presented using both percent frequency and percent cover (Appendix VII). Pseudotsuga menziesii Thuja piicata, Tsuga heterophylla and Pinus monticola are well represented on coal tips (Figure 23). Western hemlock and Douglas f i r are the only two species of any consequence when percentage cover is studied. Of the  79  South  1029 29'  t 1 r 20 30 40 Transect Length (meters)  FIGURE 23 Scale diagram of transects running north to south across the #5 mine waste at Cumberland showing the following tree species: Pseudotsuga menziesii, | ; Tsuga heterophylla j ; Pinus monticola j ; Picea sitchensis { ; Alnus rubra Q ; Populus trichocrirpa (j ; ar.d Populus tremuloides f . The age is shown at the apex of each.  80 shrubs, Linnaea boreal is, Vaccinium parvifolium and Mahonia nervosa occur frequently but do not account for any significant cover. Goodyera oblongifolia, Achlys triphylla, Lactuca biennis and Pteridium aquilinum account for l i t t l e cover but occur often.  Of the mosses Eurhyncium  oreganum and Hylocomnium splendens account for 9.2 and 4.1 percent cover and occur frequently.  Many of the other bryophytes listed occur  frequently but have only small cover values. The results from general species lists of the other coastal mine sites are presented in Appendix VII. No clear time sequence could be established for the coal wastes at Cumberland. Nevertheless, vegetational changes can be observed by noting the age distribution of the.trees on the dumps (Figure 23). If the age of Douglas f i r is assessed in relation to the distance from the base of the mound, a significant negative correlation is found (r = -0.458* with 24 degrees of freedom).  Presumably then, Douglas f i r  colonizes the upper slopes only after these areas have become shaded by the surrounding vegetation. Also, general observations can be made as to the time sequence 1n relation to colonization of other mine dumps. In general, the natural revegetation of waste dumps is quite slow in comparison to logging roads. The iron mine dumps exhibit the early colonization stage that characterized logging roads but will most certainly require much more time to accomplish total plant coverage.  The Argonaut mine has been abandoned  16 years and s t i l l the vegetation is sparse. Factors Influencing Colonization of Waste Dumps Total species cover on both the No. 4 and No. 5 dumps was calculated by summing the cover of every species occurring in each plot.  81  The vertical distance to the base of the waste dump, vertical distance to the top of a minor slope, and vertical distance to the bottom of a minor slope were calculated from field measurements of slope and aspect. A detailed description of these values can be found in Appendix VI and a synthesis in Table 9.  Correlation coefficients were determined between  the total species cover and the plot variables(Table)10).  The correla-  tion between aspect and total cover is the most significant. Although slopes do not significantly affect total cover, they may interact with the aspect.  On south-facing slopes, for example, an increase in slope  to the point where the sun's rays are perpendicular to the surface would increase the sun's effectiveness in drying out the upper few inches of the waste material. This effect is enhanced greatly by the dark coloration of the coal wastes which absorb the heat energy. A significant negative correlation was found between total cover and the distance to the base of the coal mound. This, too, can be linked to the availability of water. The Cumberland dumps were generally smaller than those near Nanaimo, and the profusion of plant growth on the Cumberland wastes can be attributed, to some extent, to their low configuration.  Even with this low configuration, the .relationship  is s t i l l evident, probably because the water table would be nearer the surface at the foot of a waste dump and would be more useful for plant survival.  Also, shelter from the sun's rays increases near the base of  the dump) on the north aspects due to the shading effect of the mound itself.  The base of the mound on the southern aspects is sheltered by  vegetation growing beside the dump. The above evidence all points to the fact that moisture is a  82  Table 9 , A DESCRIPTION OF THE PLOT VARIABLES, CUMBERLAND COAL MINE WASTES (FROM #5 AND #4 MINES) - 67 PLOTS  Variable  Percentage slope  Mean  StanHarH  Deviation  M i n i m u m  Maximum  LOetflCien  of Variation  33.3  24.9  0  75  74.88  Aspect  132.7  113.9  0  360  85.87  Transformed aspect  104.7  64.3  14  180  61.40  Vertical distance to top of minor slope  1.9  2.2  0  9  112.61  Vertical distance to bottom of minor slope  2.2  2.1  0  9  97.57  Vertical distance to base of waste  6.4  3.2  1  12  49.62  72.3  56.1  0  221  77.61  Total cover  Table 10 CORRELATION COEFFICIENTS SHOWING THE RELATION BETWEEN TOTAL SPECIES COVER AND A NUMBER OF PHYSICAL VARIABLES, (ON BOTH NO. 4 AND NO. 5 DUMPS, CUMBERLAND) WITH 65 DEGREES OF FREEDOM Variable  Total Cover  Percent slope  0.181  Aspect  0.451***  Distance to top of minor slope  0.165  Distance to bottom of minor slope  0.018  Distance to base of waste dump  0.452***  Correlation coefficient significant to the 99.9% level = ***  84 major factor in determining the colonization of these coal mine wastes. Moisture availability would have been compounded by adverse conditions of slope and aspect as well as the height of the mounds. A species such as western hemlock, which is drought intolerant, would not to occur on these waste dumps to any extent. percent of the sampled plots.  be expected  In fact, i t occurs in 88  The diagrammatic cross-sections of the  mine wastes help to explain this anomaly and show that this species grows only on north-facing slopes unless i t has been shaded by trees to the south (Figure 23). The pH status of the coal tips was examined and recorded from the following locations: Depth  pH  Cassidy  0-3"  7.4  South Wellington  0-3"  6.3  Tsable River (burned)  0-3"  4.9  Tsable River (unburned)  Q-3"  2.1  No. 5, 7, 8 young  0-3"  3.5  3-7"  3.3  0-3"  3.7  3-7"  3.8  0-3"  6.0  3.6"  6.5  6-9"  6.9  Nanaimo area coal dumps  Cumberland area coal dumps  No. 5, 7, 8 old  No. 4 waste dump  85 Cumberland area coal dumps (continued)  Depth  pH  No.5 waste dump.  0-3"  4.5  3-6"  4.5  6-9"  5.0  In the Nanaimo area the coal wastes are circumneutral and in this case pH would not be detrimental to plant establishment.  The Cumberland  situation is somewhat different. The No. 4 and No. 5 dumps indicate no problem with acidities, but the No. 5, 7, 8 old and young wastes are much more acidic and this may have inhibited plant growth to some extent. The Tsable River dump proved to be extremely acid, although portions of the material have been oxidized  through burning when the pH is raised  substantially.  4.4  Interior Areas  4.4.1. Logging Roads 4.4.1.1 Introduction Logging roads in the Harris Creek Valley (50° latitude 119° longitude NE), near Lumby, between 2,900' and 3,700' elevation, were sampled with ages of abandonment varying from five to twenty-four years. This area can be classified as the Interior.Douglas Fir biogeoclimatic zone (wetter subzone). Most roads have been constructed on fine-textured soils.  Cattle grazing occurred on many of these roads.  4.4.1.2 Methods Roads were selected and sampled in exactly the same manner as on the coast.  Twenty-three sites consisting of 100 plots were  described. The age of abandonment was more difficult to ascertain in this  zone as the area was selectively logged and regeneration was not immediate. Ages were found by boring the relict trees and noting any sudden changes in growth ring pattern. 4.4.1.3 Results Species Composition Species composition of disturbed portions of the logging roads was analyzed using percent cover and percent frequency as before (Appendix IX). No particular species attains any degree of dominance; nevertheless, there are a large number of species represented on logging roads in this area.  The following occur in more than thirty  percent of the disturbed plots:  Pseudotsuga menziesii, Rosa gymnocarpa,  Mahonia aquifolium, Spiraea lucida, Trifolium repens, Fragaria vlrginiana, Hieracium albiflorum, Achillea millefolium, Festuca spp, Calamagrostis rubescens and Dactyl is glomerata. Most species tend to favor the road surface rather than the upslope or downslope. As the sample size was relatively small no data on species succession can be shown. Nevertheless, as no one species is dominant the pattern of succession would be difficult to document on these sites. Factors Determining Revegetation A description of the measured plot variables can be found in Appendix VIII while a synthesis is presented in Table 11. By using total plant cover as an index of site suitability for revegetation, and relating cover to the measured plot variables, i t was possible to obtain an idea of the important factors that determine plant colonization of roads in this area.  Correlation coefficients  between total cover and the measured variables were calculated for all  87 Table 11 A DESCRIPTION OF THE VARIABLES MEASURED IN THE INTERIOR LOGGING ROAD PLOTS NEAR LUMBY, B. C—ROAD SURFACE DATA (23 OBSERVATIONS)  Mp;  Plot length (meters)  ,  n  3.8  Standard Deviation  . . u' i  M Mlnim  T  „ . Maximum  Coefficient of Variation  0.7  3  6  18.74  11.7  11 .1  0  41  94 .59  Aspect  148.2  116 .2  0  320  78,.44  Transformed aspect  107.2  50.5  0  180  47,.09  2.7  1.2  0  5  42.,94  17.8  5..1  5  24  28. 72  0.7  1..6  0  5  228. 57  51.4  25..7  8  94  50.04  Percentage slope  Texture Age Erosion Total cover  88  disturbed sites and also the road surface sites alone (Table. 12). These results show the importance of the age of abandonment in determining the abundance of colonizing vegetation.  The position on the  road (upslope, road surface and downslope) is also important; the colonizing species favor the road surface.  Because position is important,  correlations of total cover with the measured variables have l i t t l e meaning when the data are combined and only become significant by analyzing the road surface data alone.  Differences in vegetation on the  road surface could not be related to texture, erosion, aspect or scale (plot length). The  percent slope, however, is significant.  4.4.1.4 Discussion As on the coast, the revegetation of interior logging roads is governed largely according to the length of time since abandonment. On road surfaces, a reduction in plant cover occurs on the steeper gradients. As these steeper gradients are not of sufficient slope to prevent revegetation through downslope soil movement, the cause of this reduced plant cover is probably a result of moisture deficiency. The great variety of species that occur on logging roads in the interior is a result of no one species' reaching dominance. The area is too dry for any tree species to dominate quickly; thus, the road is invaded by native grassland species.  In the coastal region there is a  great difference between the conditions on the adjacent forest soil and those of the bare road surface.  These coastal forest soils have a  89  Table 12 CORRELATION COEFFICIENTS BETWEEN TOTAL PLANT COVER AND MEASURED VARIABLES ON LOGGING ROADS IN THE INTERIOR DOUGLAS FIR ZONE USING ALL DISTURBED SURFACES AND THE ROAD SURFACE ONLY  Variable  All Surfaces 48 d.f.  Position on road  0.358**  Plot length  0.114  Road Surface Only 21 d.f. • —..  0.199  Percent slope  -0.269  -0.523*  Texture  ... "\hs- •  -0.253  Age of abandonment  0.580***  0.744***  Erosion Aspect  -0.329 o.on  -0.162  Significance of correlation coefficients to 95% level = *, 99% = **, and 99.9% = ***  "'  r  ;  • •  90 thick humus layer, and the species which survive under these more acidic conditions may not necessarily do well on the more neutral road surfaces.  In the interior zone, on the other hand, the adjacent  undisturbed soil and that on the road surfaces are similar and, as a result, many of the species occurring on the natural surfaces adjacent to the road are able to grow on the disturbed sites.  The fine-textured  materials forming the road surface are also similar to the surrounding materials, and in this area would aid the establishment of the native species.  4.4.2  Mine Waste Dumps  4.4.2.1  Introduction In the Nelson area, mining activities have been continuous  since the late 19th Century, with much of the activity centering around the small communities of Ainsworth, Sandon and New Denver. Many small waste dumps are scattered throughout this region providing a unique opportunity to study mine waste vegetation. The mine dumps studied occur within the Interior Western Hemlock Zone. Mines varied from 2,600' to 5,400' in elevation with only two occurring above 4,000'. These two are close to the Engelmann Spruce-Subalpine f i r zone.  4.4.2.2 Methods Fifteen mine dumps (Table 13) were sampled in this area using sixty-three, four-meter-square plots. Plots were subjectively placed to insure a wide variation in slope, aspect and vegetative cover. A wide range in these variables increases the possibility of finding any  Table 13 THE MINE DUMPS SAMPLED IN THE AINSWORTH/NEW DENVER AREA  Name  Map Reference  Lot  Ore Mined  Ruth-Hope Hewitt Wonderful  49° 117° NE 49° 117° NE 49° 117° NE  L841  Ag/Pb  L4440  Ag/Pb Galena  Trinket  49° 116° NW 49° 116° NW  L213  Spokane Danira  Age of Main Abandonment  Altitude  Age of Last Working  3900 3700  1930 1930  1965 1958  4300  1929  1957  Pb/Zn  3000  L212  Ag/Pb/Zn  3000  1922 1922  1955 1955  L299  Ag/Pb/Zn  2600  1901  1955  L90 L258  Ag/Pb  1920 1912  1959  Ag/Pb  3000 3100  L143  Ag/Pb/Zn  3600  1913  1961 1955  L6327  Ag/Pb/Zn  3500  1900  1955  Maestro  49° 116° NW 49° 116° NW  Highlander  49° 116° NW  Ayesha Buckeye  49° 116° NW 49° 116° NW  Black Prince  49° 117° NE  Pb ore + carbonates  3700  1912  1955  Caledonia  50° 117° SE  Ag/Pb  3100  1943  1962  Monitor  50° 117° SE  Ag/Pb/Zn  3000  1941  1953  Black Colt Altoona  49° 117° NE 49° 117° NE  Ag/Pb/Zn  • 5400  1937  1951  Ag/Pb/Zn  3900  1952  1967  -  92  significant relationships.  However, by subjectively positioning the  plots, an unknown bias is introduced, and accuracy concerning the true mean and variation of the sample may suffer.  Thus, a greater knowledge  of the factors determining the vegetation of waste dumps is sacrificed for less information on their true composition. Within each plot the following data were recorded:  percent  slope, aspect, texture, wind exposure, elevation, age of major abandonment, age of last abandonment, and cover for each plant species. The texture was subjectively quantified according to the method cited previously (Section 4.2.1). Wind exposure is a new variable introduced for the purpose of sampling this area and was evaluated subjectively for each plot using a number from 1 to 5. A waste dump situated in a small valley and surrounded by a heavy tree cover would be classed as 1 whereas, a dump located on a convex slope on a bare hillside would be classed as 5 exposure. Determining the age of mine dumps in this region proved very difficult.  The Report to the Minister of Mines (1900-1972) indicates  the dates of operation for each mine, but reworkings and subsequent disturbances have made i t very difficult to give an accurate age to many of the dumps.. In addition, i t is impossible to determine i f remining resulted in disturbance to the entire dump or a small portion. In the Ainsworth and New Denver area, mining began at the end of the 19th Century and numerous small mines flourished until about 1930 when low metal prices forced many to close down. After the Second World War mechanical equipment was readily available and was used to rework many of the old mines as well as parts of their dumps. For example, the Monitor mine (lead and zinc) near Three Forks was one of the  93 earlier mines being worked in the years 1899-1906, 1922-29 and 1934-41, depending upon the state of the metal market.  In later years (1950-52)  the dumps and mine were reworked, and again in 1958 there was minor activity.  These intermittent operating periods are duplicated in most  other mines of this area and serve to complicate the determination of the age of the waste materials. In the case of the Monitor, 1952 was the last date of abandonment but the time of major abandonment was 1941.  Thus, the  reliability of either of these two dates to describe the age of these waste dumps is questionable. A composite sample of soil from the top eight inches was obtained in each plot unl ess the material was too coarse textured to sample. The soil sample was air dried, sieved through a 2-mm mesh screen and the 2-mm  fraction was analyzed for pH as before. Weights of.  both sieved fractions were also recorded.  4.4.2.3 Results and Discussion Species Composition The prominent species which revegetate mine sites in this area are listed in Appendix XI.  No particular tree species was found to be  dominant on these mine dumps, although the following species occur quite frequently:  Pseudotsuga menziesii, Thuja plicata, Pinus monticola,  Betula papyrifera, Populus trichocarpa, Picea glauca, Salix spp. and Alnus tenufolia.  Pachystima myrsinites and Rubus parviflorum are the  only shrub species of any importance. also of limited cover.  Herb species are common but.are  Epilobium angustifolium, Anaphalis margaritaceae,  Hleracium albiflorum, Fragaria virginiana, Galium triflorum and Cerastium vulgatum (from highest to lowest importance) are the only species to  94  occur in more than ten percent of the plots.  Grass and Carex species  occur often but include numerous specific types, none of which is Important by itself.  Rhacomitrium canescens and Polytrichum juniperinum  are the only moss species of any importance.  Factors Determining Plant Colonization on Mine Wastes A description of the measured plot variables can be found in Appendix X while a synthesis is presented in Table 14.  Again, total cover  was used as an index of site suitability for vegetative colonization. Correlation coefficients between total cover and the measured variables , were calculated, omitting the four plots from which soils data were not calculated (Table 15). There are probably two reasons why, in this area, total cover cannot be related to the year of abandonment. First of a l l , the age was difficult to determine, both in identifying those sections of the waste material which had been redisturbed and in establishing the date when final disturbance ceased.  Secondly, as growth does not appear to be very rapid  (only five plots exceeded 100 percent cover) there are probably important factors other than age which effectively control the vegetation invading these dumps. Elevation varied from 2,600' to 5,400' but did not appear to affect the total cover of vegetation occurring on the mine dumps. Slope varied from zero to ninety-two percent and is negatively correlated with total cover.  Generally, the dumps in this area are very  steep (the average slope of the plots examined was 51 percent). This average value is probably biased and should, in fact, be higher. Often only a small proportion of the dump area was flat and, as a maximum  95  Table 14 DESCRIPTION OF MEASURED VARIABLES FROM THE MINE DUMPS IN THE AINSWORTH/NEW DENVER AREA  Variable  Sample Size  Mean  Standard Deviation  Minimum  Maximum  Coefficient of Variation  Age of main abandonment  59  1924.1  13.8  1900  1952  57.37  Age of last abandonment  59  1957.6  44.5  1951  1967  7.74  Elevation  59  3617  714.7  2600  5400  19.76  Slope (%)  59  51 .5  33.8  0  92  65.60  Aspect  54  157.7  115.4  2  358  Texture  59  5.4  1.1  4  9  21 .11  Wind exposure  59  2.9  0.87  1  5  30.11  pH  59  7.2  1.21  2.8  8.6  16.80  Percent soil > 2 mm  59  68.3  10.84  50  89  15.87  Total plant cover  59  30.0  39.19  0  151  130.63  96 Table 15 CORRELATION COEFFICIENTS BETWEEN TOTAL COVER AND MEASURED VARIABLES BASED ON 59 SAMPLES FROM MINE WASTE MATERIALS IN THE AINSWORTH/NEW DENVER AREA  Variable  Total Plant Cover  Year of main abandonment  -0.037  Year of last abandonment  -0.230  Elevation  0.062  Percent slope  -0.315*  Texture  0.094  Wind exposure  -0.552***  P  -0.048  H  Percent of  soil  fraction greater than 2 mm  Aspect  0.245 0.116  Significance of correlation coefficients to 95% level = *, 99% level = **, and 99.9% level = ***.  variation in slope was sampled, flat areas were always included within the sample. The overall steep configuration of these mounds, resulting in unstable slopes, is probably one of the major reasons why plant colonization is slow (Figure 24).  With the high winter snowfall in this  area, snow slides likely continually remove any vegetation which may have developed on the steep slopes. The overall frequency of these slopes, and the considerable time which i t takes to vegetate them, could be one reason why the relationship between total cover and age is insignificant. Aspect had no significant effect on vegetation.  Texture was measured both subjectively and also by calculating the percentage, by weight, of particle size greater than 2 mm.  The  subjective assessment and the weighed measure are correlated well together ( 0 . 5 5 5 * * * with 57 degrees of freedom) but neither of them could be related to the total cover. All the materials studied on these dumps were of a coarse .texture (varied from class 4 to class 9) and, as such, detrimental to plant growth (Figure 25).  Thus, while the coarse  textured nature of these mine wastes could not be related to plant colonization, texture is probably an important factor nevertheless. Wind exposure had the highest correlation with total cover. Unfortunately, wind exposure had to be measured on a subjective basis; nevertheless, the result obtained is probably reliable.  An exposed  mine waste is susceptible to wind desiccation, frost heaving and excess light; all are factors that inhibit the establishment of plaits. Waste dump acidity did not appear to be a major factor in these mine dumps. Only two samples showed a strong acid reaction (pH 3.1 and 2.8) while the remainder were between 4.5 and 8.6.  The two plots  Figure 24 Steep unstable slope, Wonderful mine, Sandon.  Figure 25 Coarse textured slope, Wonderful mine, Sandon.  which indicated a low pH had limited cover, were flat, and were of average exposure. Thus, in these two plots pH could have been a determining factor, but overall the wastes were not influenced to any extent by acid materials.  4.5  Discussion Throughout British Columbia, there is a wide variation in  climate, topography and vegetation. Disturbed areas were studied at a number of different locations and, although the species composition and factors determining plant succession have been assessed within each area, a comparison between them is needed.  4.5.1  Species Composition The species which colonize disturbed surfaces are generally  present in the adjacent plant communities.  If not, they have light wind-  blown seed dispersal mechanisms which enable plant colonization to be initiated a long distance from the disturbance. The reliance of seed either from the nearby plant community or from further away, through light wind-blown seed dispersal mechanisms, has several ramifications. If the adjacent flora is diverse, i t will provide a greater variety of available seed and the probability of successful colonization will be greater than an adjacent flora with only a few species. Also, once a disturbance covers a large area, the adjacent vegetation will be ineffective as a seed source and there will be a greater reliance on the wind-blown seed as a source for colonizing species. Therefore, in a  100 large disturbance both the seed diversity and availability will be reduced. In addition to colonization by seed, vegetative reproduction has been observed to occur.  Salal, and its progressive colonization from  the undisturbed communities at the base of coastal logging roads, was the only species observed to establish through vegetative means. Again, both the adjacent community and the size of the disturbance will govern the rate of colonization by vegetative means. For successful colonization of waste materials, the ability to withstand nitrogen deficient soils is important.  Species which have the  ability to fix nitrogen would be expected to be an important constituent 1n the natural revegetation of wastes. With the exception of alder, however, this is not the case.  Alder is the only nitrogen fixing species  to attain any degree of dominance and is only present on coastal logging road surfaces.  It is relatively absent on the upslope or downslope of  roads and scarce on mine dumps, indicating that i t will not tolerate areas where moisture is deficient.  In the interior, although nitrogen  fixing species are present, none are dominant.  4.5.2  Factors Determining Plant Survival on Waste Materials The three major categories of factors limiting growth on  disturbed materials are moisture, slope stability and nutrients. These were found to be important in varying degrees in the areas surveyed. From the sites studied, i t would appear that water deficiencies constitute the most important factor in inhibiting natural revegetation. There are numerous parameters which, in turn, affect the moisture status of wastes, and all  of these may potentially form  101  barriers to plant establishment. The climate of an area may influence the moisture status of a waste material.  Areas with drier summers are more likely to have  problems associated with water deficiencies. The slope and aspect of a disturbed surface are factors which can influence the moisture of a waste material. A sloping surface will have an increased water runoff and, in combination with aspect, is important in determining the amount of sun energy striking the surface. Reduced plant cover found on steep gradients of logging road surfaces cannot be attributed to slope instability and is probably related to reduced moisture conditions. Aspect has l i t t l e effect on the colonization of.logging roads because of the shading by adjacent vegetation which protects the road surface from the direct rays of the sun.  In the  Cumberland sites, however, with the disturbance larger and the climate slightly drier than coastal logging roads, the aspect becomes more important.  Here, moisture deficiencies on southern aspects are made  more extreme because of the heat-absorptive capability of the blackcolored materials. No effect from aspect was found in the Sandon mine dumps, reflecting either the wet climate of the area or that other factors are more important than the desiccation problems resulting from aspect. Wind exposure is another parameter which can affect the moisture of a waste material. Water will evaporate more reaidiTy from a surface  102 which is exposed to wind than from a similar sheltered area.  Snow would  be blown free and would not be available for plant growth on the exposed wastes during the spring and early summer period. Also, exposed surfaces would be more readily frozen. The variable wind exposure was measured only in the West Kootenay mine wastes but was found to be the most important parameter here. The size of a disturbed area may either magnify or obscure many of the factors important to successful revegetation.  In terms of  moisture, adverse conditions of slope and aspect may be minimized i f a waste area is small. For example, on the Cunberland dumps, evidence suggests that vegetation only began growing' in the uppermost portions following colonization of the lower slopes.  Once vegetation had  established on the lower slopes, i t provided shade for the other areas of the dumps and allowed more species to invade.  Had the dump been  smaller, total coverage would have occurred within a short period of time. On road areas, the shading of adjacent vegetation is probably one of the major reasons that revegetation is rapid. Plant succession on large-scale disturbances will usually require more time. If the invasion of plants is through vegetative means, then only the edges will.be colonized. For a small waste dump or a logging road, this would mean entire plant coverage in a short period of time.  If plant invasion is through seed dispersal, a large-scale  disturbance will not have an adequate seed source nearby. Species with seeds which are not easily dispersed would only be able to colonize the waste material which is close to the seed source.  Thus, the only species  with a potential of revegetating a large proportion of the waste would be those with easily dispersed seeds.  103  Revegetation is influenced by the texture of waste materials. Texture was related to plant cover for the coastal logging road surfaces but generally could not be statistically related to vegetation in other sites studied.  This, however, does not indicate the lack of importance  of texture but rather the lack of variability within each area sampled. The mine dumps in the Sandon area were all coarse textured and as such particle size was an important factor, although there was no basis for comparison with smaller size material.  On the other hand, coal wastes  were uniformly composed of fine materials. Texture becomes a major factor inhibiting plant growth as material sizes become larger. A dump composed of large rock fragments will not be able to retain moisture or nutrients and is, therefore, a very poor growth medium. On such materials, vegetation has l i t t l e chance of survival. The mine waste rock surveyed from the West Kootenays and the coal deposits on Vancouver Island were discarded from underground workings and were composed of relatively fine materials.  The Kennedy  Lake and Upper Quinsam mines were open pit operations and the waste rock appeared to be composed of much larger materials. Another factor which influences the moisture content of the dumps is the color of the material.  Color was not measured but  undoubtedly affected vegetation on the coal waste materials and will be an important consideration wherever materials are dark. If the slope is very steep, i t may also be unstable and the constantly shifting material will inhibit the establishment of plant life.  It is possible that slope stability is partly responsible for  the different quantities of vegetation between the upslope and downslope  104 of a logging road. Often the upslope has been cut, leaving a vertical slope which continually crumbles and falls resulting 1n a mobile surface. The downslope, on the other hand, has only the road surface above and is not as liable to movement. On the dumps studied in the Kootenays, the importance of steep slopes has been established, and there is l i t t l e doubt but that these slopes are very unstable and that the continual movement of rock is inhibiting vegetation. The chemical composition of waste materials was studied only peripherally and parameters have been assumed rather than measured in most cases.  Organic matter, for example, was low following disturbance  and there was an obvious build-up once vegetation had become established. A barometer of waste toxicity has been soil acidity (Schramm, 1966) and pK was measured on waste dumps only when there was a strong possibility for toxic elements occurring. Generally, low pH values did not occur except in a few instances. If anything, the higher pH values Indicating the calcareous nature of many waste areas, would have resulted in low survival of acid loving species. Many of those species formed the available seed source from adjacent undisturbed land.  105 CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSIONS The study  of the factors determining natural revegetation of  disturbed areas becomes valuable, when a knowledge of these factors is used to aid the planning and implementation of reclamation programs. The optimum management of man-made disturbances, in order that the minimum environmental degradation occurs in conjunction with the maximum mitigation potential, is one of the major tasks facing resource developers today.  The factors controlling revegetation, therefore, must be clearly  understood and must be recognized and acknowledged as an integral part of the planning for any industrial disturbance. The implication of the Anyox smelter study and a knowledge of the factors which controlled both, the initial smelter damage and the subsequent revegetation could have an effect on future smelter location and design in British Columbia. No doubt, the large quantity of sulphur dioxide which was emitted from the Anyox smelter would not be duplicated under present environmental policies i f another smelter were constructed in British Columbia. • From an overall environmental standpoint, however, the location of the Anyox smelter was very good. Other land uses Were few, and conflicts between resources were restricted to forest uses only. The fumes were confined largely to Observatory Inlet due to the valley topography. Furthermore, the precipitation would have reduced the ambient fume concentrations at frequent intervals.  Hemlock, the dominant species in  the region, was observed to be unusually resistant to fume damage. If another smelter is installed in British Columbia, the extent and concentration of fumes and their effect on vegetation will have to be  106 assessed before construction, and the record of the Anyox damage could provide a guide to expected future damage. Although smelter effects may be felt over extensive areas, smelters themselves occur infrequently. Disturbances associated with mine wastes and road construction, however, are common and result in a great deal of environmental damage. Waste disposal options will not be available in road construction to any extent, but for mine waste, disposal and amelioration potential is varied and leaves much room for the environmental planner. A major step in the planning process is to first define the land use objectives. These may vary from no objective at a l l , to the restoration of prime agricultural land. The pit area in an open pit operation could conceivably come under the first objective for, generally,  any other  intended land use is often wishful thinking. The objective of restoration of agricultural land has not been met in British Columbia but is often achieved in the eastern United States (Kohnke, 1950). Generally, the future or intended land use should be tailored to the present or potential use of the land, and objectives designed to equal or exceed these values would seem to be satisfactory.  In British Columbia,  however, land use objectives are rarely defined, although most mines hope to achieve a ground covering of plants. This could be considered as the low level objective of stabilization  or watershed protection.  On any disturbance, i f the conditions are unfavorable for revegetation, land use objectives cannot be fulfilled.  If the conditions  are modified so that revegetation is barely possible, then land use options are increased.  As waste dumps become modified so that plant.  107 growth conditions become more and more favorable, a greater number of land use options become available. Thus, in planning a mine reclamation program, the dump must be designed so that conditions for  revegetation  are suitable for the future or intended land use by obtaining the most . favorable growth conditions. In the planning of a reclamation program the factors limiting revegetation must be anticipated and waste materials designed to eliminate these adverse conditions. This thesis documents some of the conditions which were found to limit natural revegetation on .waste material.  These conditions are moisture, stability and nutrients, and  the parameters affecting each of these have been described.  The  reclamation officer must, therefore, anticipate the limiting factors and modify the parameters such that growth conditions are optimized. If a water deficiency will be a factor limiting revegetation, then there are a number of parameters that can be modified to increase water availability.  The climate is one parameter which cannot be  modified; however, i t is conceivable that, where a mine occupies a large range in elevation, that dumps could be disposed in the more favorable climate. Dumps exposed to wind can be modified by decreasing their size and putting them in more sheltered locations. The major management process will be in the modification of dump slope and aspect.  In general,  level slopes, and aspects away from the southern direction, will achieve greater mois,ture availability;  The inducement of micro-relief  is another way of conserving moisture through slope and aspect manipula-1 tion, although this is on a smaller scale. The actual composition of the waste can be modified in order . that material more favorable to moisture retention will be left on the  108 surface. Materials of coarse texture and black color should be avoided, especially on southern aspects.  As organic matter has the capacity for  water retention, this can be stripped, stockpiled and replaced as a top dressing for the reclamation program. Slope stability will always be a problem when material is dumped because material at or near the angle of repose will be liable to downslope movement. This problem is easily solved in flat-land areas but not in mountainous regions.  In either situation, recontouring the dumps  will be necessary. Thus, the final configuration of the waste material must be planned before the initial dumping so that recontouring and, therefore, costs will be minimized. Where the chemical makeup of the waste material could limit plant growth, there are several means of modifying the dump design to overcome the problem.  If toxic wastes are a problem, they can be  segregated and buried beneath more favorable materials, or modified through fertilizer treatments. In conclusion, four steps to successful reclamation are presented. 1. Establish objectives for future land use. 2.  Assess the major problems for revegetation (moisture status, slope stability, nutrient status).  3.  Modify waste dumping procedures to minimize as many of the critical factors as possible.  4.  Plant the species which will satisfy objectives for the future land use.  109 LITERATURE CITED Agnew, A.D.Q. 1961. The ecology of Juncus effusus L. in North Wales J. Ecol. 49:83-102. British Columbia Forest Service Records, Anyox files 1914-1934. Bauer, H. J. 1973. Ten years' studies of biocenological succession in the excavated mines of the Cologne lignite district. In" Ecology and Reclamation of Devastated Land. Edit, by R. J. Hutnik and G. Davis Vol. 1:271-283. Bell, M.A.M. 1964. Phytocoenoses in the dry subzone of the interior western hemlock zone of British Columbia Ph.D. Thesis, U.B.C. 246 pp. Berg, W. A. and W. G. Vogel 1973. Toxicity of acid coal-mine spoils to plants. In: Ecology and Reclamation of Devastated Land. Edited by R. J. Hutnik and G. Davis. Vol. 1:57-68. Bramble, W. C. 1952. Reforestation of strip-mined bituminous coal land in Pennsylvania. J. Forestry 50:308-314. Bramble, W. C. and R. H. Ashley. 1955. Natural revegetation of spoil banks in central Pennsylvania. Ecology 36:417-423. Brierley, J. K. 1956. Some preliminary observations on the ecology of pit heaps. J. Ecol. 44:383-390. Byrnes, W. R. and J. H. Miller 1973. Natural revegetation and cast overburden properties of surface-mined coal lands in southern Indiana.In:Ecology and Reclamation of Devastated Land. Edited by R. J. Hutnik and G. Davis Vol. 1_:285-306. Cadle, R. D. and E. R. Allen 1970. Science 167(3916):243-249.  Atmospheric photochemistry.  Canada Department of Agriculture 1970. classification for Canada 249 pp.  The system of soil  Canada Department of Mines 1935. Portland Canal Area, Cassiar District, B. C. Map 307A.1 Inch to 4 miles. Chadwick, M. J. 1973. Methods of assessment of acid colliery spoil as a medium for plant growth. In Ecology and Reclamation of Devastated Land. Edited by R. J. Hutnick and G. Davis Vol. 1:81-91. Coker, P. D. 1967. The effects of sulphur dioxide pollution on bark epiphytes, Trans. Br. Brydl.Soc. 5_:341-347. Cooper, W. S. 1939. A fourth expedition to Glacier Bay, Alaska. Ecology 20:130-159.  no  Crocker, R. L. and J. Major 1955. Soil development in relation to vegetation and surface age at Glacier Bay, Alaska. J. Ecol. 43:427-448. Croxton, W. C. 1928. Revegetation of Illinois coal stripped lands. Ecology IX(2):155-175. DeVries, D. M. 1953. Objective combinations of species. Acta. Bot. neerl. l_:497-499. Fritts, H. C. 1970. Tree-ring analysis and reconstruction of past environments. In: Tree-ring analysis with special reference to North America. Univ. of B. C. Faculty of Forestry Bull. No. 7, 92-98. Fritts, H. C , T. J. Biasing, B. P. Hayden and J.I.E. Kutzbach 1971. Multivariate techniques for specifying tree growth and climate relationships and for reconstructing anomalies in paleoclimate. J . of Applied Meteorology 10(5):845-864. Gilbert, 0. L. (I) Further studies on the effect of sulphur dioxide on lichens and bryophytes. (II) A biological scale for the estimation of sulphur dioxide pollution. Mew Phytol. 69(3):605-634. Gilbert, 0. L. 1971(a). Some indirect effects of air pollution on bark-living invertebrates. J. appl. Ecol. 8_(l):77-84. Gilbert, 0. L. 1971(b). Studies along the edge of a lichen desert. Lichenologist 5_:11-17. Goodall, D. W. 1953. Objective methods for the classification of vegetation. I. The use of positive interspecific correlation. Aust. J. Bot. 1_:39-63. Goodall, D. W. 1954. Objective methods for the classification of vegetation. III. An essay in the use of factor analysis. Aust. J . Bot. 2_:304-324. Gordon,'A. G. and E. Gorham 1963. Ecological aspects of air pollution from an iron sintering plant at Wawa, Ontario. Canad. J. Bot. 41(7): 1063-1078. Gorham, E., and A. G. Gordon 1960. The influence of smelter fumes upon the chemical composition of lake waters near Sudbury, Ontario and upon the surrounding vegetation. Canad. J. Bot. 38(4):477-487. Gorham, E. and A. G. Gordon 1963. Some effects of smelter pollution upon aquatic vegetation near Sudbury, Ontario. Can. J. Bot. 41: 371-378. Greig-Smith, P. 1964.  Quantitative Plant Ecology. London. 256 pp.  Hall, I. G. 1957. The ecology of disused pit heaps in England. J. Ecol. 689-720.  m Hawksworth, D. L., and F. Rose 1970. Qualitative scale for estimating sulphur dioxide air pollution in England and Wales using epiphytic lichens. Nature, Lond. . 227.(5254): 145-148. ., Hetherington, J. C. 1965. The' dissemination, germination and survival of seed on the west coast of Vancouver Island from western hemlock and associated species. B.C.F.S. Research Note No. 39, 22 pp. Hitchcock, C. L., A. Cronguist, M. Ownbey and J. W. Thompson 1955-1969. Vascular plants of the Pacific Northwest Vol. 1 - 5. University of Washington Press. Hodder, R. L., B. W. Sindelar, J. Buchholz and D. E. Ryerson 1971. Coal mine land reclamation research, Western Energy Company, Colstrip, Montana. Montana Agric. Exp. St a. Research Report 20, '15 pp Hodder, R. L. and B. W. Sindelar 1972. Coal mine land reclamation research, Decker, Montana. Montana Agric. Exp. Sta. Research Report 21, 29 pp-. Hulten, E. 1968. Flora of Alaska and Neighboring Territories. Stanford University Press, Stanford, California, 1008 pp. Hutchings, C. J. 1966. History of Anyox (Hidden Creek) Mining District. B. C. Prov. Archives 244 pp. Jackson, M. L. 1958.  Soil Chemistry Analysis. Prentice Hall 498 pp.  James, C. A. and R. A. Gregory 1959. Natural stocking of a milesquare clear cutting in southeast Alaska. Station Paper No. 12 U.S.D.A. Alaska Forest Research Center, Juneau, Alaska. Katz, M. et al_ 1939. Effect of sulphur dioxide on vegetation. Res. Counc. No. 815, Ottawa, Canada. Kershaw, K. A. 1964. Quantitative and Dynamic Ecology. Arnold, London. 183 pp.  Nat.  Edward  Klemm, R. F. 1972. Environmental effects of the operation of sulphur extraction gas plants. Consultant Report to Alberta Environment Conservation Authority. 115 pp. Knabe, W. 1964a. A visiting scientist's observations and recommendations concerning strip-mine reclamation in Ohio. Ohio J. Sci. 64(2):132Knabe, W. 1964b. Methods and results of strip-mine reclamation in Germany 64(2):75-105. Kohnke, H. 1950. The reclamation of coal mine spoils. Agron. 2:317-349.  Adv. in  112 Krajina, V. J. 1933. Die Pflanzengesellschaften der Mlynica—Tales in den Vysoke Tatry (Hohoe tatra) Mit besondere Berucksichtigung der okologischen Verhaltnisse. Bot. Centralbl ., Beih., Abt. 2, 50:774-957; 5J_: 1-224. Krajina, V. J. 1969. Ecology of Forest Trees in British Columbia, Ecology of Western North America 2_(1):147 pp. Lathe, F. E. and A. W. McCallum 1939. The effect of sulphur dioxide on the diameter increment of conifers. In Katz, M. et al_ The effect of sulphur dioxide on vegetation. Nat. Res. Counc. No. 815. Ottawa, Canada 174-206. Lawerence, E. N. 1962. Atmospheric pollution (sulphur dioxide) in hilly terrain. Int. J. Air Wat. Poll. 6_:5-26. Lawton, E. 1971. Moss flora of the Pacific Northwest. Nichinan, Miyazaki, Japan, Hattori Botanical Laboratory 362 pp. LeBlanc, F. et D. N. Rao 1966. Reaction de quelques Lichens et Mousses epiphytiques a 1'anhydride sulfureux dan la region de Sudbury, Ontario. The Bryologist 69_:338-345. Limstrom, G. A. 1960. Forestation of strip-mined land in the Central States. U. S. Dep. Agr., Agr. Handbook 166 74 pp. Limstrom, G. A. 1964. Revegetation of Ohio's strip-mined land. Ohio J. Sci. 64(.2):112-119. Linzon, S. M. 1958. The influence of smelter fumes on the growth of white pine in the Sudbury region. Joint Pub. Ont. Dep. Lands and Forests, Ont. Dep. Mines, Toronto, Ontario. Linzon, S. N. 1961. Locomotive smoke damage to Jack Pine. Chron. 37(2):102-106.  For.  Linzon, S. M. 1965. Sulphur dioxide injury to trees in the vicinity of petroleum refineries. Forest. Chron. 41:245-250. Linzon, S. N. 1972. Effects of sulphur oxides on vegetation. try Chronicle (Aug.. ) 182-185. Loudon, P. 1972. Sidney, B. C.  The town that got lost.  Fores-  Gray's Publishing,  Murray, D. R. 1973. Vegetation of mine waste embankments in Canada. Canadian Mines Branch Info. Circular IC301 . 54 pp. Peterson, E. B. and H. M.Etter 1970. A background for disturbed land reclamation and research in the Rocky Mountain region of Alberta. Canadian Forestry Service. Info. Report A-X-34. 45 pp. Peterson, H. B. and R. F. Nielson 1973. Toxicities and deficiencies in mine tailings. In:Ecology and Reclamation of Devastated Land. Edited by R. J. Hutnik and G. Davis. Vol. 1:15-25.  113 Phipps, J. B. 1972. Studies in the Arundinelleae (Gramineae). XI. Taximetrics of changing classifications. Can. J. Bot. 50:787802. Puckett, K. J., E. Nieboar, W. P. Flora and D.H.S. Richardson 1973. Sulphur dioxide: its effect on photosynthetic ' C fixation in lichens and suggested mechanisms of phytotoxicity. New Phytol. 72:141-154. 4  Pyatt, F. B. 1970. Lichens as indicators of air pollution in a steel producing town in South Wales. Environ. Pollut T_:45-56. Rao, D. N. and F. LeBlanc 1967. Influence of an iron sintering plant on corticolous epiphytes in Wawa, Ontario. The Bryologist 70(2):141-157. Richardson, J. A. 1958. The effect of temperature on the growth of plants on pit heaps. J. Ecol. 46_( 3): 537-546. Schofield, W. B. 1968a. A checklist of Hepaticae and Anthocerotae of British Columbia. Syesis. 1_:157-162. Schofield, W. B. 1968b. A selectively annotated check l i s t of British Columbia mosses. Syesis. 1_: 163-175. Schramm, J. R. 1966. Plant colonization studies cn black wastes from anthracite mining in Pennsylvania. Trans. Amer. Phil. Soc. 56(0:1-194.. Ternan, C. (1923). Observations and cruise of fume infected area at Anyox, B. C, U.B.C. Department of Forestry, Summer Essay. Vins, B. 1970. Methods and use of tree-ring analysis in Czechoslovakia. In: Tree-ring analysis with special reference to Northwest America. U.B.C. Faculty of Forestry. Bull. No. 7, 67-73. Watson, E. V. 1968. British mosses and liverworts. Cambridge University Press, 495 pp. Welch, J. R. 1960. Observations on deciduous woodland in the eastern province of Tanganyika. J. Ecol. 48:557-573. Whyte, R. 0. and J.W.B. Sisam 1949. The establishment of vegetation on industrial waste land. Commonwealth Agr. Bur. Joint Pub!. 14 78 pp. Williams, W. T. and J. M. Lambert. 1959. Multivariate methods in plant ecology. I. Association-analysis in plant communities. J. Ecol. 47:83-101. Williams, W. T., J. M. Lambert and G. N. Lance 1966. Multivariate methods in plant ecology. V. Similarity analysis and informationanalysis. J. Ecol. 54:427-445.  Zimmerman, P. W. and A. E. Hitchcock 1956. Susceptibility of plants hydrofluoric acid and sulphur dioxide gases. Contrib. Boyce Thompson Inst. l_8_:263-279.  115 APPENDICES Plant Species Cover Data The species cover data are presented using two systems. The Anyox data used the following method of recording plant cover: Value  Cover  1  Seldom, cover negligible  2  Very scattered, cover negligible  3  Scattered, cover up to 5% of plot  4  Common, cover 5-10% of plot  5 .  Often, cover 10-20% of plot  6  Very often, cover 20-35% of plot  7  Abundant, cover 35 - 50% of plot  8  Abundant, cover 50 - 75% of plot  9  Abundant, cover 75 - 95% of plot  10  Abundant, cover 95 - 100% of plot  For the remaining study areas, a direct value for percent cover was used. Species Identification At Anyox, vascular species were identified and named according to Hulten (1968). For the remaining study areas, Hitchcock et. aj_ (1955-1969) was used. Mosses were identified using Lawton (1971) in combination with Schofield (1968b); and liverworts using Watson (1968) with Schofield (1968a).  APPENDIX I DETAILED RECORD OF CLIMATIC DATA FROM ALICE ARM AND MILL BAY  +  Jan.  Feb. Mar.  Apr. May  June  July  Aug.  Sept. Oct.  Nov.  Dec.  Year  Mean daily temperature (Deg. F) Mean daily maximum temperature Mean daily minimum temperature  21.1 25.8 16.3  26.5 31.8 21.3  31.4 38.1 24.6  38.2 46.5 30.0  46.2 57.4 35.0  53.4 64.8 42.0  57.9 68.7 46.7  57.0 67.3 47.0  50.6 59.1 42.2  40.5 45.6 35.3  31.2 34.9 27.4  25.4 29.0 22.1  40.4 47.4 32.5  Extreme maximum temperature No. of years of record Extreme minimum temperature No. of years of record  46 16 -13 16  55 16 -11 17  61 17 -9 17  78 17 -8 17  83 17 19 17  93 17 31 17  93 17 37 17  89 17 33 17  85 17 28 17  62 16 18 16  56 16 -1 16  41 16 -9 16  93  30  27  29  23  7  *  0  0  1  9  23  30  Alice Arm  No. of days of frost  -13 179  Mean snowfall (inches) Mean snowfall Mean total precipitation  1.60 2.16 2.63 3.71 2.58 2.27 3.08 4.18 7.12 13.04 4.89 2.06 49.32 0.4 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 8.2 46.2 83.6 312.2 71.7 53.1 38.9 10.0 8.77 7.47 6.52 4.71 2.62 2.27 3.08 4.18 7.18 13.86 9.51 10.42 80.59  Greatest rainfall in 24 hrs No. of years of record Greatest snowfall in 24 hrs No.of years of record Greatest precipitation in 24 hr No. of years of record  3.55 3.77 2.75 2.43 1.03 1.10 1.98 2.26 3.68 5.84 2.71 3.38 5.84 17 17 16 15 16 17 17 17 17 16 16 17 1.9 0.0 0.0 0.0 2.0 12.0 27.2 33.4 36.2 36.2 22.4 16.0 12.0 17 17 17 17 16 16 16 17 17 16 16 17 3.62 3.77 2.85 2.43 1.13 1.10 1.98 2.26 3.68 5.84 2.72 3.38 5.84 16 16 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 16 15 16  No. of days with measurable rain No. of days with measurable snow No. of days with M.precipitation  4 15 17  6 15 18  .7 12 16  13 6 15  14 1 15  14 0 14  15 0 15  15 0 15  18 *  18  22 3 24  + Adapted from the Canadian Atmospheric Environment Service, Department of the Environment. Precipitation 1941-1970".  13 13 22  6 17 21  147 82 210  "Temperature  and  APPENDIX I continued  ' Mill Bay  Jan.  Feb. Mar. Apr. May.  July Aug.  Sept. Oct. Nov.  Dec.  Year  37.4 43.6 31.2  42.8 50.5 34.9  51.1 60.4 41.8  55.8 64.4 47.2  58.3 66.2 50.6  58.8 66.6 50.7  53.9 60.8 46.9  45.1 50.6 40.1  36.9 40.9 32.7  29.8 33.5 26.0  44.0 50.4 37.6  57 45 -10 45  68 45 0 45  76 44 20 44  87 44 28 43  94 44 31 43  90 44 35 42  88 44 31 43  87 44 32 43  72 44 19 43  59 43 6 44  53 44 -9 44  94  21  18  9  1  0  0  0  0  3  12  24  Mean daily temperature (Deg. F) Mean daily maximum temperature Mean daily minimum temperature  •26.2 32.0 30.5 37.1 21.9 26.8  Extreme maximum temperature No. of years of record Extreme minimum temperature No. of years of record  52 45 -18 45 25  No. of days with frost  June  -18 113  Mean rainfall (inches) Mean snowfall Mean total precipitation  3.42 4.08 4.62 4.37 3.01 2.93 3.51 4.48 6.94 11.91 8.01 5.43 62.71 60.2 40.7 26.9 2.5 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 1.8 19.7 48.9 200.9 9.45 8.16 7.29 4.61 3.01 2.93 3.51 4.48 6.95 12.10 9.98 10.32 82.19  Greatest rainfall in 24 hrs No. of years of record Greatest snowfall in 24 hrs No. of years of record Greatest precipitation in 24 hrs No. of years of record  2.50 5.60 4.29 2.35 1.73 1.22 2.76 2.41 2.58 4.97 4.53 4.47 5.60 44 44 45 44 44 44 44 44 44 45 . 45 44 0.5 0.0 0.0 0.0 2.0 8.2 18.0 35.0 54.0 38.0 54.0 37.5 10.0 44 44 45 45 44 44 44 44 44 44 43 45 3.80 5.60 4.29 2.35 1.73 1 .22 2.76 2.41 2.58 4.97 4.53 4.47 5.60 44 44 45 45 44 44 44 44 44 44 43 45  No. of days with masurable rain No. of days with measurable snow No. of days with M. precipitation  8 9 16  10 7 15  12 6 16.  15 1 15  15 15  15 0 15  15 0 15  14 0 14  16  *  16  23 1 23  16 5 20  10 11 19  169 40 199 -  APPENDIX  II  PLOT DATA RECORDED AT ANYOX, B . C . H P l o t Hunter Distance from s m e l t e r ( m l l e s ) Elevation (feet) Plot size (sq. chains) S l o p e {%) Aspect (0-360°) Topography p r o f i l e contour microrellef Percent Percent  Wood rock  F1re h i s t o r y unburned) Soil  (burned  E  M  L  0  C  K  36 6.41 100 0.5 30 0 neutral neutral undulating 75 0  29 6.31 150 0.5 15 15 neutral concave humraocky 55 0  40 13.69 600 1 10 283 neutral neutral undulating 60 0  28 5.43 40 0.5 3 90 concave concave hummocky 35 0  U  U  U  U  U  U  3.5 4.6  3.2 4.6  3.8 4.7  3.7 4.9  4.1 3.3  3.6 3.6  3.4 5.4  3.0 4.0  3  2  2  2  3  2  1  1  54.1 175  47.7 75  82.3 230  42.4 80  67.2 200  86.6 110  91.4 320  35.6 40  16 37 6.36 9.00 50 150 0.5 0.5 57 65 260 0 neutral neutral complex neutral outundulating crop 65 40 5 45  39 13.54 300 1 76 285 convex complex outcrop 70 20  2 3.70 40 1 30 120 concave concave hummocky 70 0  U  U  T  Y  38 11.10 75 0.5 67 350 convex convex outcrop 35 5  P  E 3 3.90 150 0.5 20 260 concave complex hummocky 50 0  4 4.12 200 0.5 15 220 complex concave undulating 40 0  B  U  U  U  3.4 3.6  3.4 4.0  3.0 3.6  3.0 3.7  2  2  1  2  33.5 37  33.3 39  69.3 233  84.9 223  15 4.61 125 1 53 228 convex convex httiimocky 35 0  5 4.39 40 1 31 20 concave concave undulating 15 0  or  pH t o p pH b o t t o m drainage—very well drained(l) to p o o r l y dra1ned(6)  Average t r e e age (above 3 i n . d.b.h.) O l d e s t t r e e 1n p l o t  U 3.7 3.7 1  121.3 131  *?«f; o ^— *o ~ £ o ' a o» o o »*J> O tf> J C V C C\J  •# « «l o c *-  *-  •  c u a  ^SGlf*-* ^ 0  r» t o o *  *> nSn *Ji ^ 3 o O O r-* -—ovrOa>Ofc.i>au • t Q«> > w  r»  c  CM  S COIA*-NO 0 . 0 . 3 •**»  9 ( 0  o  0 MJ  O  3»— CM 0  o  * 3  o» o m  tz —  _  Ei-O  _ C  CM  r^. CM  '  O >«' • i r= ciE:•—i —• L  n c u «J *M O A> J q -  •  < cnn *o n co  3 tn gi  o > Q. m c N O o  cn  KX cu > * - n oa*>  «*> v  CM  co —  CO C C I •— O O I  - o o  ci a  cn  3  n o  en co • C M  <n o o c ~~  r*> co o  —- r-  < o " in o — —< > rCM  •«—  — • •—  co co LT» ;  O O .  c o ri> cn  -~~»cowc cwi w OO ei«— L 31 3  CM  O  CM  O  Or- »> a. =J o  1 O  O  OO — « I: LI t (71 »n o * —cue-yoae«Jc— — t; TJ  3  CM  - —  cn «n  *r  in  *n O • — in tn o. • at*, o n.  -  CM  -  o  3  3  t  u u o o  "COOO -' O O (J on <n oo cn Nno to c u t CM  —«* ** U  f •»  or gt<  >*" c — »«• \ r— JC* . W O  o  *  ou .T  o  o  c  x a : v.  .8  i-  o  q  £ ^ cu  APPENDIX II  35 0  8 0.74 360 1 17 70 concave concave hummocky 15 0  26 3.92 50 1 7 330 convex complex h ummo cky 15 0  27 4.24 50 1 5 138 neutral neutral undulating 30 1  9 0.69 50 0.5 7 115 concave concave h ultimo cky 10 0  SEDGE TYPE 10 0.76 50 1 0 0 flat flat undulating 5 0  B  B  B  B  B  B  B  4.2 4.8  5.0 5.3  5.0 5.2  3.7 4.6  4.2 5.3  3.9 3.4  3.9 3.6  1  5  4  3  4  4  6  16.5 25  30.1 43  15.0 15  28.0 38  27.2 30  10.3 12  0 0  A L D 14 Plot Number Distance from smelter (miles) 3.77 150 Elevation (feet) 0.5 Plot size (sq. chains) 50 Slope (%) Aspect (0-360°) 150 Topography profile convex complex contour undulamicrorelief ting 10 Percent Wood 1 Percent rock Fire history (burned or unburned) Soil pH top ph bottom drainage--very well drained (1) to poorly drained (6) Average tree age (above 3 in. d.b.h.) Oldest tree in plot  -  continued  E R 34 3.67 75 1 7 350 neutral neutral neutral  T Y  P E  121  APPENDIX  III  SPECIES/PLOT MATRIX OF ANYOX DATA, THE SPECIES ARRANGED IN ORDER OF FREQUENCY, THE PLOTS BY VEGETATION TYPE HEMLOCK TYPE Plot Number Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg. Dicranum fuscescens Turn. Menziesia f e r r u g i n e a Sm. Vaccinium o v a l i f o i l urn Sm. Athyrium f i l i x - f e m i n a ( L . ) Roth. Cornus canadensis L. P o l y t r i c h u m juniperinum Hedw. Rhytidiadelphus l o r e u s (Hedw.) Warrtst. Blechnum s p i c a n t (L.) Roth. Scapania b o l a n d e r i A u s t . SaTiFsppT~T Vaccinium p a r v i f o l i u m Sm. PTagiothecium undulatum (Hedw.) B.S.G. D r y o p t e r i s d i l a t a t a (Hoffm.) Gray Calypogeia mueller-iana ( S c h i f f n . ) K.Mull Picea s i t c h e n s i s (Bong.) Carr. EmH^hnJm~!p.gustifolium L. Pleurozium s c h r e b e r i (B>id.) Mitt. Lophozia sp. Dumort. Rubus s p e c t a b i l i s Pursh. E y T i c h i t o n americanum H u l t & St.John. Gynmocolea sp. Dumort. Maianthemum d i l a t a t u m (How.) Niels & Macbr. P t e r i d i u m a q u i l i n u m (L.) Kuhn L e p i d o z i a reptans ( L . ) Dumort. Ey^opodTuVclavatum L. Hyloconiiuin splendens (Hedw.) B.S.G. Tsuga Mertensiana (Bong.) Sarg. Rhlzomnium glabrescens (Kindb.) Koponen Tetraphis p e l l u c i d a Hedw. Hypnum c T r c i n a l e Hook. fracomitrium canescens (Hedw.) Brid. Lycopodi uiTcomplanatum L. Streptopus amplexi f o l ius ( L . ) D C ATrius rubra Bong. Carex sp. L.  36 • 29  40  28  16  8 8 9 8 8 3 3 3 1 1 4 0 0 0 0 0 1 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 2 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 2 2 2 1 0 0 0 0 0 5 3 4 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 6 7 5 4 2 2 0 2 1 0 3 1 4 1 1 0 0 0.0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 2 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 5 2 2 3 1 3 3 2 1 0 3 2 3 2 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  37  39  8 5 3 2 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 4 4 0 0 1 2 3 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 3 2 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0  WILLOW TYPE 2  38  8  3  4  8 2  8 4  1 0  0  0 0 0 0  0  0 0 0 0  0 0 1 0 0 0 4 1 0 0 2 1  0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0  0 2  0 0  0 1  0 2  0 0  0  0 1 0 0 0 3 3 0 2 1 0 0 0 1 0 0  0 3 2 0 0 0 0 0 0  15  5  21 8 0 3 2 2 0 3 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 4 1 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 2' 1 0 1 1  25 7 1 2 2 1 3 5 1 0 1 4 4 1 1 1 0 1 2 1 1 0 1 1 2 0 3 1 0 0 0 0 2 2 0 0 0  33 6 1 3 1 1 6 3 2 3 1 1 3 0 1 0 3 1 3 0 2 0 0 8 2 0 2 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 2 7  0  24 6 2 2 3 0 3 5 0 1 1 2 2 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 5 6 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 3 0 0 0  7  31  11  4 1  6 1  5 1 6 2 3 2 2 0 2 1 3 2 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 2 3 1 2 0 0 0 0  1  0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1  1  0 4 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 2 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 0  1 0 0 0 0 0 1 3 3  13 5 1 8 2 1 3 3 1 1 1 2 2 1 1 0 1 2 1 0 0 0 1 3 4 1 1 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 3 1 0  20  23  32  4 0 3. 2 2 1 2 0 2 0 2 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 2 1 4 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1  4 1 1 5 6 4 3 1 1 1 4 2 4 0 1 2 2 2. 0 1 1 2 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 2 1 1 1 3 1 5 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 4 1 0 0 3 1 0 0 2 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 2 0 0 4 0 0 0  SEDGE JYPE__  ALDER TYPE 1  22  4 1  6 1  1 1 4 0 0 0 0 1 2 1 0 1 0  0 0 0 0 2 1  1 1 2 0 0 0 1 2 2 1 2 1 1  1 0 0 0 2 1  35 3 1 7 4 2 5 5 1 2 1 2 3 1 1 1 1 3 2 1 1 0 .1 5 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 2 2 0 0  19  12  5 2 4 4 3 2 2 0 4 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 2 2 4 2 3 1 0 3 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 2  4 1 6 5 1 3 3 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1  30 4 2 5 4 3 3 3 0 2 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 2 2 1 0 1 2 0 2 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 2  6  17  1 1 0 0 0 1 1  0 0 0 1 3  0 0 0 0  1 0 0 0  0 0 1  0 0 1  18 3 1 5 5 2 2 1 0 3 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 2 2 1 2 3 1 0 1 0 2  0  3 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1  14  34 6 1 6 3 3 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 2 3 2 0 0 0 0 2 6 2 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 2 1 0 0 3 8 0  8  25  27  9  3  4  0 6 0 0  0 2 0 0 0 2 0  1 4  0 2  1 1  1  0 0 0  1  2  1 0  1  1 3  1  0  1 1 1  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0  3,  4 1 1  0 0 0 2 2 0 2 0  1  0 0 0  1 1  0 0 0 2 8 0  0  1  1 1  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2  7  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  ,  0  0 0 0 0 0 0 4 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0  c  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 8  F r e  _  quency  122  APPENDIX  III  HEMLOCK TYPE Plot Number Blepharostoma t r i c h o p h y l l u m (L.) Dutnort. O p l o p l anax h o r r i d u s ( S m . ) M1q. A n a p h a l i s m a r g a r i t a c e a ( L . ) Benth. & Hook.f. C a s s i o p e M e r t e n s i a n a (Bong.) D.Don C l i n t o n i a u n i f l o r a ( S c h u l t . ) Kunth P h y l l o d o c e a a l e u t i c a ( S p r e n g . ) Heller P o h l i a nutans (Hedw.) L i n d b . B a r b i l o p h o z i a h a t c h e r i ( E v a n s ) Loeske Sambucus r a c e m o s a L. Gramineae Sphagnum g i r g e n s o h n i l Russow Gymnocarpiurn d r y o p t e r i s ( L . ) Newm. Drepanocladus•sp. C . M u l l . Myl i a t a y l o r i ( H o o k . ) S.F.Gray T l a d o t h a m n u s p y r o l a e f l o r u s Bong. S p i r a e a D o u g l a s i i Hook. Lycopodium s i t c h e n s e Rupr. A b i e s a m a b i l i s ( G o u g l . ) Forbes Ledum p a l u s t r e L. S a x i f r a g a f e r r u g i n e a Graham L u e t k e a p e c t i n a t a ( P u r s h ) Ktze C a r e x s p . L. Dicranum majus T u r n . i s o t h e c i u m s t o l o n i f e r u m (Hook.) B r i d . Rubus p a r v i f l o r u s N u t t . .. Ribes bracteosum Dougl. L y c o p o d i u m o b s c u r u m L. U l o t a o b t u s i u s c u l a C . M u l l . & K1ndb. P t i l i u m c r i s t a - c a s t r e n s i s (Hedw.) DeNot. T h u j a p l i c a t a D. Don. B e t u l a p a p y r i f e r a Marsh. K a l m i a p o l i f o l i a Wang. E q u i s e t u m a r v e n s e L. Poqonatum m a c o u n i i ( K i n d b . ) Kiridb. & Mac. O l i g o t r i c h u m p a r a l l e l u m (Mitt.) K i n d b . R h y t i d i a d e l p h u s t r i q u e t r u s (Hedw.) Warnst.  WILLOW TYPE  36  29  40  28  16  37  39  2  38  3  4  15  5  21  25  33  3 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 2  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0  1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 1 0 0  0 1 0 0 0 0  3 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0  0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0  1 1 0 0 0 0  0 0  1 0 2 0 0  0 0 1 0 3 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 0' 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0  0 0 0  0 0  0 0 0 0 0 0  0 1 0 0 0 0 0  '0  0  0 0 0  0 1 0 0  continued  0 0 0 0 1  0 0  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0  0 1  0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 0  0  0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0  0 0 0  0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 1 0 0 0 0 1 0  0 0 0 0 1 4  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  0  0  0 0 0 0 2 0 0 3 0 0  0 0 0 0  1 1 0 2 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 1  0 0  0 0 0 0  0 2 0 0  0 2  0  0  0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0  0 0 0  0  0 1 0  0 1 0 1  0 0  0  0  0  0 0  0 0 0  0 0  3  0 0 0 0 0  0  0  0 0 0 0  0  .0 0 0  0  0  0  0 0  0 0 0 0 0 0  1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 0  24  7  31  11  13  20  23  32  1  22  35  19  12  30  6  17  18  14  34  8  1 0 0 0 2 0 0 1 0 0 0. 1 0 0 0 1 .0 0 0 0 1 0  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0  0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  1 1 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 5 0 0 1 0 0 0  0 0 1 1 0 1 3 1 0 0 0  0  0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 0 0 0  2 0 1 1 0 0 2 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0  3 0 0 1 0 1 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0  0 1 0 0 2 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0  0 0 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  1 0 1 0 2 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 1 2 0 2 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0  0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  0 1 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 1 0 1 2 1 0 2 2 0 1 0 3 0 1 0 1 0 2 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 2 1 2 0 3 5 1 0 3 0 0 1 0 0 . 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 2 0 1 0 0 0 00 0 1 0  0 0 0 4 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 0 0 0 0 0 2 2 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 4 O 0 0 0 0 1 0  0 0 0  0 0 o• 0 1 1  0 0 0 2  0 0 0  0  0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  0  0 0 0  0  0 0  0 0  0 0 0  0 2  0  0 0 0  0  0  0 0  0 0 0  0 0  0 0 0 0 0  0  0 0  0 0 0  0 0 1 0  0  0 0 0 2 0 2 0  0 • 0  0 0 0  0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0  0  0 0  0 0 0 0  0 3 0 0  0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0  0  0  1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  SEDGE TYPE  ALDER TYPE  o • 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0  0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1  26  27 0 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 3 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0  9  10  0 0 0 1 0 2 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0. 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  Frequency  11 10 10 10 9 9 9 9 i 0 8 8 7 7 , 7 6 6 6 i 5 5 , 5 ! 5 5 5 5 1 4 4 i 4 4 4 3 3 3 3 3 3 3  1  123  APPENDIX  III  HEMLOCK TYPE Plot Number Aulacomnium palustre (Hedw.) Schwaegr. Brachythecium sp. B.S.G. Oligotrichum aligerum Mitt. •Plagiotheciuin denticulatum (Hedw.) B.S.G. Bazzania TrTTbbata (L.) S.F. Gray Sorbus sitchensis Roem. Tiarella t r i f o l i a T a L. Eriophorum sp. .Hieracium albiflorum Hook. Pogonatum laterale (Brid.) Br1d. Plagiotheciuin laetum B. S. G. Unidentified moss Pohlia cruda (Hedw.) Lindb. Unidentified lichen Unidentified 1 ichen Scapania umbrosa (Schrad.) Dumort. Warchantia polymorpha L. Bazzania denudata (Torr.) Trevis Eriophorum russeoTum E. Fries  36  29  40  28  16  37  39  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 0  0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0  continued  WILLOW TYPE 2  0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  38  3  4  15  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 0  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  5  21  25  33  24  7  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  1 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 4 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  31 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  11 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  0  0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0  0  0  13 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 .0 0 0 0 0  20  23  0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  32 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  SEDGE TYPE  ALDER TYPE 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0  22  35  19  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  12 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  30 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  6  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  17  0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 0  18 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0  14  34 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  8 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 2 0 0  26  27  9  10  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 3 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3  . quency F r e  3 3 3 3 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1  APPENDIX IV A SYNTHESIS OF PLOT DATA FROM DISTURBED PORTIONS OF COASTAL LOGGING ROADS, VANCOUVER ISLAND Plot Haslam Creek  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11  Position  2 3 4 2 3 4 2 3 4 2 3 4 2 3 4 2 3 2 3 4 2 3 4 2 3 4 3 2 3 4  Plot length (metres)  Percentage Slope  2 4 3 3 3 5 0.5 4 4 1.5 4 2 1.5 5 2 3 4 1 5 4 4 8 4 4 4 4 4 2 4 4  76 8 60 68 15 50 70 15 75 70 6 60 0 5 45 80 15 150 18 72 70 15 80 70 12 80 55 55 25 25  Aspect  300 210 300 320 20 320 300 15 280 150 240 150 130 220 130 140 220 300 30 300 300 15 300 330 60 330 180 145 145 145  Texture  4 5 5 7 7 7 6 7 6 6 4 6 4 5 5 6 6 3 4 3 3 4 3 6 5 6 6  -  5  -  Elevation (feet) 2000 II  Age Erosion Total Cover (percent) 8 n  II  2000 II  II  n  2300 H  0 -  n II  2000  _  II  " 15  n  -  1  -  -  1  -.  -  0 -  M  II  "  -  II  II  -  2200 2100 II  2300 II  II  2200  15 15 16 16 II  n  II  H  H  n  2100  n  1  2  -  0 -  0 -  -  n  n  n  II  -  18  1  2000 2000  II  II  II  1  -  1  -  18 24 . 13 7 7 26 53 8 21 28 20 157 118 36 67 6 14 79 34 7 46 15 11 26 25 23 10 23 38 109  APPENDIX Plot  12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 42 43 44 45  Position  2 3 4 2 3 4 2 3 2 3 2 3 3 2 3 4 2 3 4 2 3 4 2 3 4 2 3 4 2 3 4 2 3  IV  Plot Percentage Aspect length Slope (metres) 1.5 4 1.5 2 4 2 ' 1.5' 5 1.5 6 1 7 .4 1.5 5 3 2 6 4 2 6 4 ; 4 9 4 4 6 3 2 6 3 2 6  60 1 10 60 2 40 30 8 35 4 70 0 30 80 13 64 55 15 65 30 15 30 65 12 44 60 14 50 70 13 50 90 15  145 145 325 135 135 135 315 55 320 40 294 0 320 16 .94 16 20 120 20 70 332 70 153 70 140 160 70 164 162 70 160 160 60  continued Texture Elevation (feet)  4 4 5  2000 " " " 2300 "  Age Erosion  18 "  " 30 " "  2  2  "  3 4 4  " "  " 15 "  4 4 4 4 5  2200 " " 2100 "  " " " " "  2 5 5 4  2500 " " " " " 2200 " " 2050  " " " " " " " " " "  4 4 4  0 3 .  1  1  0 4 2 1 1 0 3  Total Cover (percent) 79 38 90 58 134 88 94 83 108 104 99  125 85 15 18 131 22 19 48 5 109 76 105 158 113 25 121 102 36 64 60 78 128  APPENDIX Plot  Position  Plot length (metres)  Percentage Slope  21  2 3 4 2 3 4 2 3 4 2 3 4 2 3 4 3 4 2 3 4 2 3 2 4 2 3 4 2 3 4  8 6 5 . 4 6 6 3 4 6 7 5 7 3 10 1.5 4 7 1 4 2 3 9 4 7 4 7 4 3  68 4 80 70 8 75 55 0 140 70 2 115 70 8 70 7 60 100 0 75 70 2 63 70 66 2 50 80 1 75  San Juan Valley  22 23 24 25 26 27 28  29 30  6  5  IV  continued  Aspect Texture  54 154 72 60 148 70 50 0 50 44 130 44 268 354 86 334 310 255 0 264 60 332 240 64 70 36 70 70 332 80  Elevation (feet)  Age  Erosion  6  300  7 5  II  II  II  n  _  -  n  n  0  -  n  -  II  II  5  II  II  6  300 900  •-  5 5  -  3 4  II  25  n II  n  II  II  25 18 n  -  860  H  n  II  -  II  ti  800  n  II  H  II  ii  II  23  5  4 4 6 3 4 3 3 3 5 3 3 5 5  II  II  II  H  II  n  760  n  n  II  II  720  •I  M  II  ' II  II  0 _  -  _  0 _  0  -  0 _  0  _  0 _  -  0 —  -  0 _  -  0  -  Total Cover (perc<  114 159 156 158 186 140 158 122 111 142 112 123 60 109 12 121 170 120 136 120 137 99 70 143 130 86 163 99 133 169  APPENDIX Plot  Position  31  2 3 4 2 3 4 2 3 4 2 3 4 2 3 4 2 3 4 2 3 4 2 3 4 2 3 4 2 3 4 2 3 4  32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41  Plot Percentage length Slope (metres) 2.5 9 2 1.5 6 1.5 3.5 4 3 3.5 5 9.5 3.5 5 6 4 6 4 7 4 8 4 4 2 3 4 6 4 5 4 1.5 4 1.5  80 2 85 50 4 53 85 9 40 80 8 40 62 4 55 78 5 10 60 3 3 70 9 30 60 5 40 65 4 30 80 8 65  IV Aspect  0 270 0 354 90 354 330 70 • 156 348 70 348 350 70 340 190 100 190 190 100 190 178 266 178 184 270 140 170 266 170 160 250 160  continued Texture  3 4 4 3 5 5 5 5 4 3 5 3 4 5 4 4 4 4 4 6 -  4 5  Elevation (feet) 650  Age  23 n  n  II  600  H  H  II  n  II  it  II  n  II  n  n  700  H  II  n  H  H  II  II  n  II  II  II  800 II  20 n  II  n  850 850  H  II  900 n  20 II  n  -  II  5 6  950  II  H  H  n  II  -  4 6  -•  6 -  1000  II  II  II  II  II  1050 n n  20 n  n  Erosion  0  -• -  1  -  0 -  0 -  0 -  0 -  0 _  2 -  2 _ _  0 -  0 -  Total Cover (perce 109 130 117 55 110 153 69 51 110 126 108 151 127 85 106 20 118 145 116 103 146 61 91 60 50 60 117 51 98 195 62 98 90  APPENDIX Plot  Position  Plot length (metres)  46  2 4 3 4 2 .3 2 2 3 4 3 4 2 4 3 4 2 3 4 2 3 4  2 2 5 2 3 5 4 6 8 3 8 3 3.5 1.5 5 3 3 6 4 4 11 3.5  47 48 49 50  51 52  Percentage Slope 87 48 4 70 70 4 90 48 18 50 0 73 45 48 12 30 74 11 73 56 9 72  IV  continued  Aspect Texture  227 44 154 226 12 274 190 264 250 194 0 202 232 48 132 207 226 132 220 206 260 200  4  5  5 4 4 5 4 5 5 4 5 5  5 3 _  -  5  Elevation (feet) 900  Age Erosion  5  -  II II  800 II  0  II  -  II  0  n  II  700  II  II  II  n  II  600  5  700  n  -  ti  H  II  II  0  II  II  n  II  II  II II II  II  II  II  -  0  5  -  _  _  0  -  _  0  Total Cover (percent) 109 22 6 48 65 10 65 103 18 69 7 73 24 21 1 32 17 8 27 24 39 23  ro co  129 APPENDIX V VEGETATION FOUND ON ABANDONED LOGGING ROADS, VANCOUVER ISLAND San Juan Valley %  freq.  %  cover  Haslam Creek %  freq.  %  cover  Trees Abies amabilis (Doug!.) Forbes Acer macrophvllurn Pursh. Alnus rubra Bong. Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carr. Pinus mo-nticola Doug!. Populu?? trichocarpa Tnrr:ft Gray Pseudotsuga meziesii (Mirb.) Franco Salix spp. L. Thuia piicata Donn. Tsuga heterophil la (Ra'f.) Sarg.  1 1 49 6  0.1 0.1 28.5 0.2  26  11.7  15 6  0.9 0.1  .49 16 40 49  9.8 4.2 3.6 11.0  44 58 35 21  5.1 6.1 2.7 1.6  37  2.8  44 4  9.4 0.1  Shrubs Gaultheria shallon Pursh. Linnaea boreal is L. Mahonia nervosa Nutt. Rubus leucodermis Dougl. ex T. & G. R_. parviflorus Nutt. R. spectabilis Pursh. R. ursinus Cham. & Schlecht. Vaccinium parvifolium Smith .  1 2 18 28 36 16  0.2 1.1 1.0 2.2 0.5  2 37 8  1 v - '• 3  0.2  22 15  0.5 0.6  0.1 3.6  7 71  0.3 2.9  0.1  22 1 11 26 4 25  0.4  Herbs Achlvs triphvlla (Smith) DC. Anaphalis margaritacea (L.) B. & H. Carex spp. L. Chimaphila umbellata (L.) Bart. Cirslum spp. Mill . Epilobium angustifolium L. Galium triflorum Michx. Gramineae  7 18 15 .; 38  0.1 1.4 0.5 1.7  0.2 0.6 0.1 1.0  APPENDIX  V  continued  San Juan Valley %  freq.  %  cover  Haslam Creek %.  %  freq.  cover  Herbs (cont.) Heuchera glabra Wi11d. Heracleum 1anatum Michx. Hieracium albiflorum Hook. Juncus spp. L. Lactuca biennis (Moench.) Fern. Maianthemum di1atatum (Wood) Nels. & Macbr. Montia siberica (L.) Howell Osmorhiza chilensis H. & A. Plantago ma.ior L. Soli dago canadensis L. Stellaria sp. L. Streptopus amplexifolius (L.) DC. Taraxacum spp. Hall. Trientalfs latifolia Hook. Trifolium sp. L. Trillium ovatum Pursh.  13 1 1 2  0.1  23  0.5  3 6  0.1  2 2 7  0.1 0.4 0.1  30 10  2.5 0.2  0.5 0.1  0.2  1 32  0.6  33  1.6  56 3 1  1.8 0.3  Ferns and Fern Allies Adiantum pedatum L. Athyrium filix-femina• (L.) Roth. Blechnum spicant (L.) Roth, Drvopteris austriaca (Jacq.) Woynar Equisetum arvense L. Lycopodium clavatum L. Polystichum munitum (Kaulf.) Presl.  2 3  0.4  4  28  3.1  13  0.4  5 6 3  0.2 0.1  3 7 3  0.4  47  9.5  11  0.2  5  0.1  0.2  Bryophytes Atrichum selwynii Aust. Brachythecium velutinum (Hedw.) B.S.G. Eurhynchium oreganum (Sull.) Jaeg. & Sauerb Hylocomium splendens (Hedw.) B.S.G.  1 36  1.9  3  3  0.1  1  APPENDIX  V  Continued  San Juan Valley %  freq.  %  cover  Bryophytes (cont.) Isqpterygium elegans (Hook.) Lindb. Leucolepis menziesii (Hook.) Steere 01igotrichum aligerum Mitt. PIagiomnium insigne (Mitt.) Kopenen Plagiothecium undulatum (Hedw.) B.S.G. Pogonatum laterale (Brid.) Brid. P_. macounii (Kindb.) Kindb. & Mac. P_. urnigerum (Hedw.)-P. Beauv. Polytrichum juniperinum Hedw. Racomi t n urn canescens (Hedw.) Brid. Rhizomnium qlabrescens (Kindb.) Koponen Rhytidiadelphus loreus (Hedw.) Warnst. Ulota obtusiuscula C. Mull. & Kindb  2  ,0.1  6 1  0.2 0.1  2  0.1  3  0.1  1  0.1  1 6 14  0.1 0.2 0.4  3  0.1  5  0.2  6  0.1  2  132 APPENDIX VI A SYNTHESIS OF DATA FROM COAL MINE WASTES, CUMBERLAND, B.C. #5 Mine Waste Plot Transect 1  Transect 2  Vertical Distance to bottom of minor slope (metres)  Vertical Distance to base of waste (metres)  Tota Covei  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15  35 23 5 35 24 4 15 60 0 15 50 68 64 30 14  360 38 45 232 220 236 200 26 0 210 210 200 194 260 270  1 0 0 0 1 2 2 1 0 0 2 4 7 8 9  1 2 3 2 1 0 0 . 1 2 9 8 5 3 1 0  9 10 10 10 9 9 9 10 11 10 9 7 4 3 2  127 16 25 5 6 93 82 111 61 5 2 5 11 19 98  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 l  63 60 20 20 33 40 0 55 45 0 20 0 64 10 15 0 60 10 28  20 14 100 30 44 24 0 356 360 0 194 0 218 110 200 0 210 140 270  8 6 4 3 2 1 0 3 1 0 1 1 2 3 2 0 2 4 1  1 3 5 6 7 8 0 1 3 0 2 2 1 0 1 3 2 0 0  1 3 5 6 . 7 8 9 9 11 12 11 11 10 9 10 12 11 9 9  139 156 169 97 174 148 18 8 93 30 10 7 0 28 0 41 14 77 62  1 2 3 4  55 40 0 58  38 30 0 24  3 1 0 2  1 3 0 1  1 3 4 5  147 89 36 92  9  g  Transect 3  Vertical Distance Percentage Aspect to top of Slope minor slope (metres)  APPENDIX  Plot  #4Mine Waste  Percentage Slope  Aspect  VI  133  continued  Vertical Distance to top of minor slope (metres)  Vertical Distance to bottom of minor slope (metres)  Vertical Distance to base of waste (metres)  Tota' Covei  5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16  58 10 10 7 35 50 60 40 50 50 30 35  24 48 80 250 200 220 210 200 28 28 230 220  0 0 0 0 1 2 4 6 3 1 1 2  3 0 0 0 7 5 3 1 1 3 2 1  7 7 7 7 7 5 3 1 1 3 3 2  104 . 94 85 95 38 36 40 99 164 142 78 20  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 . 16 17  55 5 50 0 0 0 0 5 5 55 55 70 70 70 70 75 75  246 340 50 0 0 0 0 360 195 196 196 20 20 200 200 24 24  1 2 0 0 0 .0 0 0 0 1 3 4 1 1 3 4 1  1 0 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 1 0 3 4 2 2 4  5 4 5 6 6 6 6 6 6 5 3 2 5 4 2 2 5  27 180 93 45 42 36 91 182 44 40 45 221 134 58 55 108 145  APPENDIX  VII  PLANT SPECIES RECORDED ON VANCOUVER ISLAND MINE WASTES.*  #4 & 5 % freq.  #4 & 5 % cover  #5, 7, 8 young  05, 7, 8, old  Tsable River  White Rapids  South Wellington  Upper Qulnsam  Kennedy Lake  TREES Abies grandls (Dougl.) Linen. Acer macrophyllum Pursh. Aesculus hippocastanutn L. Alnus rubra Bong. Arbutus menziesii Pursh. Cornus n u t t a l l i i Audubon Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carr. Pinus contorta Dougl. Pinus nioiiticola Dougl. Populus tremuloides Michx. Populus trichocarpa Torr. and Gray • Prunus emarginata Dougl. ex Eaton Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mlrb.) Franco Salix sp. L. Sorbus sitchensis Roemer Thuja pTicata Donn. Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg.  + +  2 2  + + +  12 2  0.5 0.3  52 8 10 8  8.0 0.9 3.7  10 1  +  66  27.0  +  2 22 88  10 1  0.8 30.2  +  SHRUBS Amelanchier a l n i f o l i a Nutt. Arctostaphylos uva-ursl (L.) Spreng Cytisus scoparius (L.) Link.  0.1  Species present but not quantitatively assessed are Indicated by "+",  APPENDIX H tt 5 H &5 % freq. % cover GaultheHa shallon Pursh. Unnaea boreal is L. Nahonia nervosa Nutt. Ribes bracteosum Douql.ex Hook. Rubus parviflorus Nutt. Rubus spectabilis Pursh. Rubus ursinus Cham. & Schlecht. Vaccinium parvifolium Smith  2 52 12 4 2 2 20  #5,7,8 young  0.1 1.0 0.3 '  VII  continued  #5, 7, 8, old  Tsable River  White Rapids  South Wellington  Upper Quinsam  Kennedy Lake  l + + .  0.3  HERBS Achlys triphylla (Smith)DC Anaphalis margaritacea (L.) B. & H. Carex spp. L. Cirsium spp. M i l l . Epilobium angustifolium L. Fragaria chiloensis (L.) Duchesne Goodyera oblongiforia Raf. Gramineae Hieracium albiflorum Hook. Lactuca biennis (Moench.) Fern. Plantago major L. Pyrola sp. L. Rumex. acetosella L. Streptopus amplexifolius (L.) DC. Taraxacum spp. Hal 1. Trifolium sp. L. Tri 11 ium ova turn Pursh.  16 4  0.2 '  2 32 2 12 12 2 2 2 2  1  1  1  +  +  +  +  +  +  +  +  i  1  o 3  + +  1 0.5 0.1 o!l o!2 '.  +  1 •+  1  +'  + +  + +  1 1  co cn  APPENDIX VII  FERN'S AND FERN ALLIES Adlantum pedatum L. Blechnum spicant (L.) Roth. Equisetum arvense L. PolysticKum mum turn (Kaulf.) Presl. PteridiunTaqui 1 inum (L.) Kuhn  '#4  & 5 Sfreg.  #4 8 5 % cover  2 50  0.9  34  1.0  88 52 4 2 10  9.2 4.1 0.1 0.5  10 46 24 18  0.3 1.9 0.9 0.7  8  0.1  40  0.7  #5, 7,8 young  continued #5,7, 8, old  Tsable River  White" Rapids  SoUtii  Wellington  U^Tr  Qulnsam  Kennedy Lake*  BRYOPHYTES Dicranum fuscescens Turn. Eurhynchiuni oreganum (Sul 1.) Jaeg. & Sauerb. Hylocomium splendens (Hedw.) B.S.G. Leucolepis menziesii (Hook.) Steere Mnium spinulosum B.S.G. Plagiothecium undulatum (Hedw.) B.S.G. Pohlia nutans (Hedw.) Lindb. Polytrichia juniperinum Hedw. Rhacomitrium canescens (Hedw.) Brid. Rhizonmium glabrescens (Kindb.) .Koponen Rhytidiadelphus loreus (Hedw.) Warnst. Rhytidiadelphus triquetrus (Hedw.) Warnst.  1 1  +  1  APPENDIX  137  VIII  A SYNTHESIS OF PLOT DATA FROM DISTURBED PORTIONS OF INTERIOR LOGGING ROADS NEAR LUMBY, B. C. Plot length (meters) 3 4 4 4  Percentage slope  . Aspect  ^ Texture  T  4  16 9 16 11 72  246 230 20 234 334  3 3 4 5  1 4 2  80 3 50  320 230 320  2 4 3  100 0 80  2 3 1  .  • Age  Erosion  Total cover (percent)  16 16 16 16 16  35 40 22 41 60  3  21 21 21  95 79 67  300 0 300  3  21 21 21  90 50 90  50 0 no  335 0 335  4  21 21 21  73 79 37  1 3 2  80 4 65  162 76 162  5  -  16 16 16  31 45 60  2 4 2  120 6 80  186 276 186  -  16 If16  17 47 86  4 1 5 2  13 75 12 90  306 100 180 100  2  16 16 16 16  16 16 51 87  1 4 2  65 10 60  132 44 132  2  20 20 20  14' 74 37  1 3 2  75 7 80  115 33 115  2  20 20 20  14 30 34  1 3 2  80 3 35  152 60 152  2  20 20 20  23 45 62  -  4  _  -  APPENDIX  Plot  Position  "^length  Percentage  15  2 3  4  2  70 2 70 75 3 60 5 18 11 150 40 60 150 41 80 100 14 14 26  16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23  4 2 3  4 3 3 3 2 3  4 2 3  4  2 3 4 3  2 1  4  3 3  4  4 5 3 3 1  4  5 .5 4 4 6  VIII  138  continued  A s p e c t  238 320 238 196 92 196 315 270 240 86 24 86 78 30 78 30 30. 30 152  T e x t u r e  ,- •  2  -  2  -  2 2 2 - •  2  -_  2  -  2  -  3  A g e  E r o s i o n  20 20 20 23 23 23 24 24 24 5 5 5 5 5 5 13 13 13 20  _  0 .  -  -  0  .  0 0 0 _  0 0 _ -  0 _  0  recover  44 91 70 61 73 73 94 82 44 2 8 10 6 9 4 8 48 124 30  APPENDIX IX VEGETATION FOUND ON ABANDONED LOGGING ROADS NEAR LUMBY, B.C. %  %  freq.  cover  Trees Acer glabrum Torr. AJ.nusHnFnulTolia' Nutt. Betula papyrifera Marsh. Larix occidental is Nutt. Picea e"nge'lmannii~Parry Pjnus contorta Doug!. Populus tremuloides Michx. Populus trichocarpa Torr. and Gray Pseudotsuaa menziesii (Mirb.) Franco Salix sp. L. Thu.ia pi icata Donn.  16.7 11.1 9.3 11.1 3.7 7.4 3.7 13.0 33.3. 1.9 7.4  0.43 1.74 0.17 0.48 0.04 0.19 0.04 0.41 2.30 0.07 0.30  16.7 7.5 1.9 9.3 1.9 33.3 1.9 24.1 46.3 9.3 20.4 5.6 42.6 29.6  0.43 0.23 0.06 0.19 0.02 1.04 0.09 0.35 3.91 0.33 3.94 0.07 1.28 3.22  Shrubs Arctostaohvlos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng. Ceanothus sanguineus Pursh. " Junioerus communis L.• • Linnaea boreal is L. Lonicera utahensis Wats. Mahonia aquifolium (Pursh.) Nutt. Oplopanax horridun (Sm.) Miq. Pachistima myrsinites (Pursh.) Raf. Rosa gymnocarpa Nutt. Rubus idaeus L. Rubus parviflorus Nutt. Shepherdia. canadensis Nutt. Spiraea lucida Doug!. ex Hook. Symphoricarpos albus (L.) Blake  .  '  Herbs Achillea millefolium L. Antennaria racemosa Hook. A. rosea (Green) Pitt. Arnica cordifolia Hook. Cerastium vulgatum L. Cirsium sp. Mill. Clintonia uniflora (Schult.) Kunth. Cornus canadensis L.  31.5. 14.8 . 25.9 ' 25.9 24.1 29.6 1.9 5.6  '  0.61 1.70 0.78 0.48 0.30 1.37 0.04 0.19  140 APPENDIX  IX  continued % freq.  % cover  Herbs (cont) Epilobium angustifolium L. Epilobium sp. L. Fragaria"~virginiana Duchesne Galium triflorum Michx. Goodyera obiongifolia Raf. Hieracium albiflorum Hook. Lathyrus~sp. L. Lupinus sp. L. Madia gracilis (Sm.) Keck. Montia~sTbirica (L.) Howell. PlantagcTmajor L. Sedum stenopetalum Pursh. Smilacina stellata (L.) Desf. Streptopus amplexifolius (L.) D.C. Taraxacum officinale Weber Tiarella unifoliata Hook. Trifolium repens L. Verbascum thapsus L. Viola sp. L. Misc. species  5.6 20.4 64.8 18.5 1.9 42.6 5.6 7.4 9.3 3.7 22.2 3.7 1.9 5.6 27.8 1.9 50.0 9.3 13.0 20.4  0.09 0.37 2.11 0.41 0.02 0.80 0.13 0.15 0.19 0.04 0.76 0.07 0.02 0.09 0.57 0.06 . 4 . 3 3 0.57 0.35 0.72  3.7 3.7 .9.3 24.1 5.6 33.3 16.7 42.6 37.0 18.5 37.0  0.07 0.04 0.24 0.52 0.13 1.65 0.20 0.98 1.26 0.46 1.67  7.4 18.5 3.7 16.7 7.4  0.07 0.65 0.11 0.52 0.17  Grass and Sedge Agropyron caninum (L.). Beauv. A. cristatum (L.) Gaertn. spicatum (Pursh.) Scribn. & Smith. Bromus carinatus Hook. & Arn. B_. tectorum L. Calamagrostis rubescens Buck!. Carex spp. L. Dactyl is glomerata L. Festuca spp. L. Phleum pratense L. Poa spp. L. Mosses Atrichum selwynii Aust. Brachytheciurn albicans (Hedw.) B.S.G. Pleurozium schreberi (Brid.) Mitt. Polytrichum juniperinum Hedw. Other brybphytes  APPENDIX X A SYNTHESIS OF PLOT DATA COLLECTED FROM MINE WASTES IN THE AINSWORTH, SANDON AND NEW DENVER AREA  VARIABLE  D A T  Mine  Trinket  Spokane  Year of main abandonment  1922  1922  Year of last working  1955  Elevation  3000  Plot Slope  1 (percent)  Aspect (0-360°)  0  -  2  3  4  5  6  74  73  84  74  74  200  200  100  58  358  A  Danira  Maestro  Highlander  Ayesha  1901  1920  1912  1913  1955  1955  1959  1961  1955  3000  2600  3000  3100  3600  1  2 0  -  92 90  2  1 0  -  0  -  3  4  64  74  160  318  1  2 0  -  3  2  1  3  4  1  2  3  3  5  3  3  74  70  76  35  90  170  84  132  132  132  132  134  168  168  5  5  6  6  4  9  5  5  4  1  3  2  3  3  2  2  2  8.0  8.3  8.5  Texture  7  8  5  5  5  .6 •  4  5  5  5  5  6  6  Wind Exposure  3  3  3  3  3  2  2  3  1  3  3  2  1 1  5.9  5.2  2.8  6.9  6.7  6.6  7.5  7.8  8.2  7.9  -  75  82  70  62  76  89  73  55  79  71  58  56  66  70  -  25  18  30  38  24  11  27  45  21  29  42  44  34  30  0  84  19  10  36  150  68  64  20  37  27  120  22  2  pH  8.1  7.4  6.5  8.4  8.0  6.9  Percent s o i l greater than 2 mm  77  77  65  84  59  70  Percent soil less than 2 mm  23  23  35  16  41  30  Total plant cover  93  2  42  0  9  118  '  56  8.1  -  0  APPENDIX  VARIABLE  X  continued  D A T A Buckeye  Black Prince  Caledonia  Monitor  Black Colt  1912  1943  1941  1937  Year of main abandonment  1900  Year of last working  1955  1955  1962  1953  1951  Elevation  3500  3700  3100  3000  5400  Plot  1  •  2  3  2  1  3  4  5  6  7  1  2  3  4  3  1  2  3  4  5  2  79  91  20  75  80  58  72  220  10  10  10  52  6  40  78  40  6  5  5  5  5  6  5  5  5  5  3  2  3  3  3  3  3  2  4  2  4  7.7  8.3  8.0  8.3  -  53  58  80  70  44  -  47  42  20  0  0  41  2  36  0  68  40  0  37  5  70  75  73  75  3  3  50  76  Aspect (0-360°)  -  150  10  -  256  2  300  305  318  305  280  168  246  Texture  5  8  6  7  7  6  5  5  4  9  5  5  Wind Exposure  3  2  2  3  3  3  3  3  3  3  3  7.3  8.0  8.3  8.3  6.4  8.0  6.4  7.3  5.9  -  Percent soil greater than 2 mm  65  72  73  83  73  72  56  66  56  Percent s o i l less than 2 mm  35  28  27  17  27  28  44  34  9  27  25  10  6  20  42  5  PH  Total plant cover  1  2  (percent)  Slope  7.1  7.4  7.6  6.7  6.7  63  47  70  85  73  80  89  64  30  37  53  30  15  27  20  11  36  0  25  13  2  145  38  15  151  21  7.7  7.7  8.6  -Pi  ro  APPENDIX VARIABLE  D A T  Mine  X continued A  Altoona  Ruth-Hope  Hewitt  Wonderful  Year of main abandonment  1952  1930  1930  1929  Year of last working  1967  1965  1958  1957  Elevation  3900  3900  3700  4300  Plot Slope  1  2  3  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  1  2  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  74  77  80  72  74  72  80  82  73  80  73  67  358  68  90  336  310  275  30  98  352  32  86  20  (percent)  0  80  83  10  76  72  Aspect (0-360°)  -  260  228  358  35  40  Texture  5  4  4  5  5  7  6  6  6  6  6  4  4  4  4  5  4  6  6  Wind Exposure  3  3  3  4  4  4  4  4  4  4  3  2  3  5  4  3  5  3  4  -  6.8  6.9  pH  3.1  6.3  4.5  8.0  8.1  0  7.9  8.1  8.1  8.1 • 8.1  7.7  7.5  6.8  5.7  5.3  7.0  69  57  59  66  59  69  73  81  26  41  43  41  34  41  31  27  19  0  34  35  7  2  0  8  0  0  Percent soil greater than 2 mm  55  52  40  65  50  77  79  76  76  74  Percent soil less than 2 mm  45  48  60  35  50  23  21  24  24  Total plant cover  47  23  0  26  32  1  0  0  0  0  \  144 APPENDIX XI PLANT SPECIES FOUND ON MINEWASTES IN THE AINSWORTH, SANDON AND NEW DENVER AREA %  freq.  %  cover  TREES Abies qrandis (Douql.) Lindl. A. lasiocarpa (Hook.) Nutt. Acer qlabrum Torr. Alnus crispa (Ait.) Pursh. Alnus tenuifolia Nutt. Betula pap.yrifera Marsh. Larix occidental is Nutt. Picea engelmannii Parry Pinus contorta Doug!. P. monticola Dougl. Populus tremuloides-Michx. P. trichocarpa Torr. and Gray Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco Salix sp. L. Thu.ia pi icata Donn. Tsuga heterophvlia (Raf.) Sarg.  1.59 7.94 7.94 1.59 11.11 26.98 3.17 19.05 3.17 36.51 3.17 20.63 42.86 12.70 38.10 7.94  0.03 0.38 0.13 0.05 0.44 3.00 0.24 0.48 0.03 0.70 0-03 0.67 4.00 1.14 3.68 0.32  3.17 1.59 3.17 6.35 3.17 23.81 1.59 3.17 22.22 3.17 6.35  0.03 0.06 0.22 0.08 0.03 0.59 0.03 0.08 1.17 0.10 0.21  1.59 20.63 6.35 17.46 7.94 12.70  0.03 0.41 0.10 0.21 0.19 0.48  SHRUBS Amelanchier alnifolia Nutt. Ceanothus sanguineus Pursh. Cornus stolonifera Michx. Linnaea boreal is L. Mahonia aquifolium (Pursh.) Nutt. Pachi stima myrsimtes (Pursh.) Raf. Rosa gymnocarpa Nutt. Rubus idaeus L. R. parviflorus Nutt. Shepherdia canadensis Nutt. Symphoricarpos albus (L.) Blake HERBS Achillea millefolium L. Anaphalis margaritacea (L.)B. & H. Aster conspicuus Lindl. Carex spp. L. Caryophyllaceae (1 species) Cerastium vulgatum L.  APPENDIX  XI  continued %  %  HERBS (continued)  freq.  cover  Chrysanthemum leucanthemum L. Cirsium vulgare (Savi) Tenore Epilobium angustifolium L. Epilobium sp. L. Fragaria virginiana Duchesne Galium triflorum Michx. Goodyera oblongifolia Raf. Gramineae Hieracium albiflorum Hook. P1antago~major L. Solidago canadensis L. Streptopus amplexifolius (L.) DC Taraxacum sp. Hall . Tiarella"TjrTifoliata Hook. Trifolium repens 17  9.52 6.35 23.81 4.76 15.87 12.70 6.35 42.86 20.63 4.76 1.59 4.76 3.17 6.35 3.17  0.30 0.08 0.71 0.06 0.35 0.48 0.08 1.90 0.27 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.03 0.08 0.10  1.59 1.59 3.17 3.17 4.76  0.02 0.02 0.05 0.03 0.16  11.11 28.57 41.27  0.17 1.03 2.08  FERNS Adiantum pedatum L. Athyrium filix-femina L. Roth. Gymnocarpium dryopteris (L.) Newm. Pteridium aquilinum (L.) Kuhn. Other herbs and ferns (3 species) MOSSES Polytrichum juniperinum Hedw. Racomitrium canescens (Hedw.) Brid. Other bryophytes (13 species)  

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
http://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0100059/manifest

Comment

Related Items