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The carnivalesque banquet of Béroalde de Verville Fleming, Jean Puleston 1975

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T H E C A R N I V A L E S Q U E B A N Q U E T O F B E R O A L B F . C E V 1 R V I L L E ty J E A N P U 1 E S T C N F L E M I N G B . A . Colorado State University, 1966 ft.A. The University of Colorado, 1968 A thesis submitted in p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in the Department of French We accept t h i s thesis as conforming to the required standard: T H E U N I V E R S I T Y C F B R I T I S H C C I U K B I A M A R C H , 1975 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of French The University of British Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada Date March 4-. 197 5" i ABSTRACT Le Ho^en de P a r v e n i r , one of the l a s t works of Eeroalde de V e r v i l l e , a l a t e XVIth century poet and prose w r i t e r , c o n s i s t s e n t i r e l y of a l i v e l y and disconnected banquet c o n v e r s a t i o n interwoven with an a u t h o r / n a r r a t o r ' s commentaries and a s i d e s to the reader. Through both i t s form and i t s content the book c r e a t e s an atmosphere of profound d i s o r d e r and of mocking i r r e v e r e n c e . The r e s u l t i n g d i f f i c u l t y and apparent f r i v o l i t y of the work have caused i t to be d i s r e g a r d e d by many c r i t i c s . T h i s study seeks to examine Le Mov.en de P a r v e n i r from a new p e r s p e c t i v e , using the elements of d i s o r d e r and i r r e v e r e n c e to d i s c o v e r the unity and purpose behind Beroalde's unusual p r e s e n t a t i o n . To t h i s end i t i s noted t h a t the same d i s t u r b i n g elements a l s o dominate a s o c i a l phenomenon of the time: the popular f e s t i v a l . A r c h e t y p a l f e s t i v a l s such as C a r n i v a l and the Feast of F o o l s , as w e l l as the r e l a t e d f c o l - s o c i e t i e s r e v e a l a f e s t i v e t r a d i t i o n which i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by s p e c i a l l i b e r t i e s and a t t i t u d e s . These f e s t i v e p r i v i l e g e s i n c l u d e f r e e speech, b l a t a n t s e n s u a l i t y , g r a t u i t o u s a c t i o n s , and i i mocking i r r e v e r e n c e , a l l of which combine to c r e a t e a t r a d i t i o n a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of chaos. C l o s e r examination r e v e a l s t h a t Be'roalde's l i t e r a r y work and the s o c i a l phenomenon have much i n common. Both c o n t a i n abundant f e a s t i n g , wine and l a u g h t e r i n an u n i n h i b i t e d atmosphere. The d i s r u p t i o n of everyday time and space, the c o n f u s i o n of i d e n t i t i e s , and the ambivalently mocking a t t i t u d e present i n the f e s t i v a l appear i n s e v e r a l aspects of the t e x t . These i n c l u d e the world c r e a t e d by the author, the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the author and h i s reader, and the act of composition i t s e l f . Be'roalde's c h a r a c t e r s a l s o e x p l o i t the f e s t i v e p r i v i l e g e of s a c r i l e g e , t u r n i n g everyday o b j e c t s of worship and r e s p e c t upside-down and r i d i c u l i n g them. They a l s o use r i d i c u l e and l a u g h t e r to overturn another mainstay of s o c i e t y , the s o c i a l h i e r a r c h y . A l l members of s o c i e t y are made to d i s p l a y t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r f o l l i e s . The g u i d i n g m o r a l i t y i s p h y s i c a l p l e a s u r e , and the banqueters s h a r p l y condemn those who dc net, or who cannot, j o i n i n the s p i r i t of c e l e b r a t i o n . In p l a c e o f r i g i d i t y and r e p r e s s i o n Be'roalde proposes a world of l a u g h t e r and freedom. The f e s t i v e e l a s t i c i t y of both the s o c i a l and the l i t e r a r y frameworks cre a t e d i n h i s t e x t demonstrate t h i s p r o p o s a l . The c a r n i v a l e s q u e p e r s p e c t i v e a l s o g i v e s new meaning to the t i t l e of the book. Beroalde i s shown to provide not enly a "moyen de p a r v e n i r " f o r the i n d i v i d u a l , but f o r the i i i s o c i e t y as a whole, and even for the reader. J u s t as the f e s t i v e o c c a s i o n a l t e r s the everyday environment and permits the i n d i v i d u a l to r e l e a s e t e n s i o n s which are u s u a l l y held i n check by reason or by s o c i a l r e s t r i c t i o n s , so the atmosphere created i n the book provides a s i m i l a r o p p o r t u n i t y f o r both c h a r a c t e r s and reader. Through r e c o g n i t i o n and acceptance c f the i r r a t i o n a l , emotional s i d e of human nature, Bercalde demonstrates an understanding of the s o c i a l purpose c f f e s t i v e d i s o r d e r and i t s p o s i t i v e c o n t r i b u t i o n to the h e a l t h cf the whole s o c i e t y . While Be'roalde the a r t i s t uses the f e s t i v e t r a d i t i o n to re p r e s e n t an aspect cf l i f e around him, Beroalde the humanist uses the same t r a d i t i o n to express h i s d i s c o v e r i e s on human nature and on the nature of s o c i e t y . Thus through the medium of a c a r n i v a l e s g u e banquet, the promise of the t i t l e i s f u l f i l l e d , and the voice of a t o l e r a n t and c o n s e r v a t i v e observer of the human comedy u n v e i l s h i s " s e c r e t " i n Le Mojen de P a r v e n i r . iv TABLE OF CONTENTS I. INTRODUCTION 1 I I . THE POPULAR F E S T I V E SPIRIT 19 I I I . THE CARNIVALESQUE ATMOSPHERE OF BEROALDE * S BANQUET 55 IV. FESTIVE SACRILEGE IN LE HOYEN DE PARVJNIR 116 V. SOCIETY AS CARNIVAL IN LE HOYEN DE PARVENIR 170 VI. CONCLUSION 235 SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY 246 1 CHAPTER I OTRODUCTIOW The c h a o t i c s t r u c t u r e , i r r e v e r e n t tcne and f a s t - p a c e d dialogue of Le .Woven de P a r v e n i r have pleased cr confused many readers s i n c e i t s p u b l i c a t i o n (c. 1610) and have e s t a b l i s h e d the s i n g u l a r r e p u t a t i o n of the author, Francois Beroalde de V e r v i l l e . One c r i t i c pronounces i t the "oddest, queerest bock i n the world", then s t a t e s t h a t he b e l i e v e s i t to be a m a s t e r p i e c e . 1 Another d e s c r i b e s the work as "ferme'e sur elle-me^me, mais ccmme une c a r r o s s e a t r e n t e - s i x p o r t i e r e s " , and f i n d s i t s i r r a t i o n a l q u a l i t i e s to be profoundly d i s t u r b i n g . 2 The apparent chaos w i t h i n the t e x t may have been i n f l u e n c e d by the profoundly unstable r e l i g i o u s , p o l i t i c a l and s o c i a l environment of the times during which the author l i v e d . But the way i n which the impression cf d i s o r d e r i s expressed a l s o c l o s e l y resembles the t r a d i t i o n a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of chaos found i n many 2 f e s t i v a l s of the time with which Beroalde wculd have been f a m i l i a r . The v o l a t i l e , c a r n i v a l e s g u e aspects c f the beck suggest a deeper a s s o c i a t i o n of the l i t e r a r y work and the s o c i a l phenomenon. T h i s study w i l l attempt t c d i s c o v e r and analyse such an a s s o c i a t i o n with the o b j e c t i v e of g i v i n g a new p e r s p e c t i v e on the content and purpose cf B e r c a l d e ' s c o n t r o v e r s i a l work. R e l i g i o u s d i s c o r d and p o l i t i c a l i n s t a b i l i t i y plagued Europe of the l a t e XVIth c e n t u r y . Eeroalde's own l i f e spanned the beginning and the end of the r e l i g i o u s vars i n France, and during t h i s time he was p e r s o n a l l y committed to f i r s t one, then the other of the two major r e l i g i o n s . Born A p r i l 27, 1556 i n t o the P r o t e s t a n t f a m i l y of Marie E l e t z and Matthieu B r o u a r d , . d i t B e r o a l d e , 3 he was c h r i s t e n e d F r a n c o i s . His f a t h e r , a r e s p e c t e d i n t e l l e c t u a l , d i r e c t e d a small s c h o o l f o r boys a t what i s now n° 2 b i s rue des E c c l e s i n P a r i s . Beroalde was a t t e n d i n g h i s f a t h e r ' s c l a s s e s i n company with Agrippa d'Aubigne and P i e r r e l ' E s t c i l e i n 1562 when the outbreak of the f i r s t war f o r c e d the f a m i l y to f l e e to Orleans. There Matthieu Brouard became l e c t u r e r of Hebrew under the p r o t e c t i o n of Ben^e de France. Be"roalde*s mother died of the plague which swept through the c i t y s h o r t l y a f t e r they a r r i v e d , but F r a n c o i s and h i s f a t h e r s u r v i v e d and remained i n Orleans f o r four years, l e a v i n g only when the t h i r d c i v i l war f o r c e d them to move again. From 1568 to 1572 f a t h e r and son changed r e s i d e n c e s s e v e r a l times, and were 3 once again i n Orleans when the Saint-Eartholomew massacre occurred i n August, 1572. Late i n 1572 Beroalde went to Geneva, probably at the urging of h i s f a t h e r who f e l t t h a t h i s P r o t e s t a n t son would be s a f e r there than i n France, E v e n t u a l l y Matthieu Erouard himse l f came to Geneva where he was r e c e i v e d as bourgeois de Geneve. U n t i l h i s death i n 1576 Eeroalde's f a t h e r was a c l o s e f r i e n d of the s t e r n C a l v i n i s t , Th4cdcre de Eeze. Beroalde h i m s e l f remained i n Geneva u n t i l a t l e a s t 1578. H i s i n t e r e s t s during t h i s p e r i o d ranged from medical s t u d i e s to languages, horology and. alchemy. From 1578 to. 1583 Be'roalde did some w r i t i n g , part of which has been l o s t , and t r a v e l l e d between Lyons, Geneva, Anjou and P a r i s , f i n a l l y s e t t l i n g i n Tours. S e v e r a l of h i s works produced during t h i s p e r i o d were pub l i s h e d i n 1583, among them a p h i l o s o p h i c a l essay, L^Id^e i?® 2 l Si-ESkilSiiS which exposes h i s p o l i t i c a l views t o be those of a t o l e r a n t c o n s e r v a t i v e . A s c i e n t i f i c enguiry, Becherches de l a £ierre £hi 1 oso_pha 1 e, and poetry such as Les S o u ^ i r s amoureux and Stances de l a mort were p u b l i s h e d together with s e v e r a l other works under the t i t l e of Les ^££l!k§nsicns s g i r ituel3.es (1583). l a t e r , a f t e r he had become a r e s i d e n t of Tours, and perhaps f o r monetary reasons, he t r a n s l a t e d the Diane of Kontemaycr and a work ty Juste L i p s e , both p u b l i s h e d i n 1592. At t h i s time he was a l s o w r i t i n g h i s long novel i n f i v e p a r t s , Les Ayantures de F l o r i d e (1593-96), i n the f l o r i d s t y l e of Hontemayor. Although born and educated a P r o t e s t a n t , Beroalde renounced t h i s f a i t h and became a C a t h o l i c at a time between h i s f a t h e r ' s death i n 1576, and 1593, the year i n which he was named canon of S a i n t - G a t i e n at Tours. T h i s appointment ensured h i s f i n a n c i a l s e c u r i t y and allowed him to indulge his l i t e r a r y t a l e n t s f o r h i s own pleasure without being f o r c e d to use them f o r f i n a n c i a l gain. Very l i t t l e i s known about t h i s period of h i s l i f e , except that he was able to p u b l i s h s e v e r a l works. Among these are Le Ca b i n e t de Minerve (1596), a r e p u b l i c a t i o n of a few e a r l i e r poems and essays combined with new thoughts on v a r i o u s t o p i c s i n s p i r e d by the memories, readings and g e n e r a l o b s e r v a t i o n s of the author, and £a Serodokimasie (1600), a long poem w r i t t e n to a i d the campaign i n i t i a t e d by Henri IV to promote the d e c l i n i n g s i l k i n d u s t r y of Tours. A t r a n s l a t i o n , Le Soncje de Polyjahile (1600) from the work of the same name by Francesco Cclcnna, demonstrates Beroalde's f a m i l i a r i t y with the Renaissance concept of an i d e a l i z e d past surrounded by a r c h i t e c t u r a l p e r f e c t i o n and d e c o r a t i v e a l l e g o r i e s . Other works of h i s l a t e r p e r i o d are l e Voyage des P r i n c e s f o r t u n e z (1600), i n which the reader i s i n t r o d u c e d t o o r i e n t a l o c c u l t i s m through the a l l e g o r i c a l adventures of Eeroalde's mysterious p r o t a g o n i s t s , Le P a l a i s des Curieux (1612), which touches cn a v a r i e t y of d i s p a r a t e s u b j e c t s , such as etymology, alchemy and P l a t o n i c l o v e , and the c o n t r o v e r s i a l Le Mo_yen de 5 P a r v e n i r (1610?),* a bock which not only dominates Beroalde's l i t e r a r y r e p u t a t i o n , but a l s o c o l o u r s h i s moral r e p u t a t i o n . In t h i s work the a u t h o r / n a r r a t o r , who imagines himself at a banquet with over three hundred g a r r u l o u s guests, records the l i v e l y c o n v e r s a t i o n and f r e g u e n t l y r i b a l d anecdotes being t o l d around him, while adding h i s own commentaries and d i r e c t i n g a s i d e s to the reader. The p r e s e n t a t i o n c r e a t e s the immediate impression of d i s o r d e r as the c o n v e r s a t i o n grows i n t o a compendium cf g r a t u i t o u s a s s o c i a t i o n s , t a n g e n t i a l d i g r e s s i o n s , and p a r a d o x i c a l statements. The mention of Jean Bcdin as one cf those present f o r example (1:19) , s i s enough to d i r e c t the wandering n a r r a t i v e away from the i n t r o d u c t i o n c f the a r r i v i n g guests and i n t o a d i g r e s s i o n on the d e v i l , t a k i n g as a t r a n s i t i o n the f a c t t h a t Bodin had authored a beck cn demons. 6 From there the n a r r a t o r d i s c u s s e s the outward appearance of the d e v i l , and the t r i c k s l i t t l e d e v i l s p lay on chambermaids, before r e t u r n i n g a b r u p t l y to the guest l i s t . S h i f t i n g t r u t h s and p a r a d o x i c a l statements add to the c o n f u s i o n . Beroalde i n t r o d u c e s the guests as "ces gens de bien" (1:43) and l a t e r s t a t e s " i l n'y a p o i n t i c i de gens de b i e n " (11:186). He claims to speak only the t r u t h i n h i s book, under.penalty of death, but then says that even under such a penalty he expects to remain safe and sound: "ce que 6 je vous dis est vray, 6 s ' i l n'est vray, je puisse mourir devant toute l a compagnie, demeurant aussi sain B sauf gue je fus jamais" (1:74). In another passage one speaker threatens to take anachronistic revenge cn a companion f c r an affront which took place, next year: " s i tout e s t o i t permis je vous battrois bien a ceste heure pour me vanger de l ' a f f r o n t que l'annee qui vient vous me f i s t e s en Grece" (1:239). These examples i l l u s t r a t e the mood of the work which gives the impression of being in constant flu x , with truth being as variable as time and place. S t y l i s t i c d e t a i l s , surprising comparisons, exaggerations and constant wordplay add to the unpredictable, playful way i n which the bock develops. Beroalde compares the age of a l c v e l y young lady to that of "un v i e i l bceuf" (1:27), affirming that the comparison i s v a l i d since the g i r l was f i f t e e n cr sixteen years old. The word "vestale" i s f l i p p a n t l y altered to "vesse" (1:288), "stoique" becomes "sotique" (1:283) and "en Suisse" i s changed to "en s o t t i s e " (1:226). Other deta i l s such as an unusually long word, (pseudosevangeliqucl- ipapistoranabaptistiogiesuitanorbiterondepuritain, 11:201), exaggerated numerical pre c i s i o n , (trois mil quatre cens vingt & deux escus dix-sept sols une p i t e , 11:147), and numerous l i s t s of synonyms add a burlesque, and frequently irreverent, element to the text. The s t y l i s t i c and st r u c t u r a l e c c e n t r i c i t i e s of Le May_en 7 ^§ R<iL2f~EiL a r e blended with a humorously ambivalent attitude towards s o c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s and towards human nature i n general. The ambivalence i s fostered by the polyphonic quality of the book which allows various speakers to give the impression of approving f o l l y , self-indulgence, and even corruption, while the attitude cf others i s outrage cr contemptuous cynicism. The.position of the author himself i s d i f f i c u l t to define. He seems to v a c i l l a t e between approval and condemnation of the sacrilegious acts and rib a l d sequences which abound i n the dialogue. At times the author feels obliged to. j u s t i f y the subject matter of his book, but his excuses can leave the reader wondering i f his ra t i o n a l i z a t i o n i s serious, i f i t i s meant as a parody of such an excuse, or i f his intent i s to meek the reader: . . . les paroles ne sont point sales, i l n'y a que 1'intelligence; guand vous ouirez une parole, recevez- la 6 l a portez a une be l l e i n t e l l i g e n c e , S lors e l l e sera belle, nette, S pure. — Mais cela fasche les o r e i l l e s . — S i les o r e i l l e s estoient pures & nettes, cela ne l e s incommoderoit point: . un estron incommode-t•il le S o l e i l , bien que ses rayons s'y jettent? Scachez aussi . . que s i on c s t o i t ces paroles d ' i c i , ce banquet ser o i t imparfait. Seriez-vous bien aise que l'cn vous ostast le c u l pource q u ' i l est puant S l e sera jusqu'a l a mort? Vous seriez un bel homme sans c u l ! I l faut suivre Nature, a i n s i nostre discours l a s u i t . .. (11:76) Beroalde also sidesteps the hypothetical accusation cf irreverence or even atheism by claiming to f a l l upon his topics by chance, l i k e the groping player of blind man's buff: "On m'a d i t q u ' i l y a eu quelques malctrus qui ont 8 d i t , 1 V o i c i l e s t r a i t s d ' A t e i s t e . ' En dea je.n'en sc,ay r i e n , je m'en r a p o r t e a eux: s i j'ay rencontre a d i r e l e u r n a l v e t d , <p'a este' sans l e scjavoir, j e joue' au c o l i m m a i l l a r d , je prens ce que j e t r o u v e " (11:259). Despite Beroalde's e x p l a n a t i o n s and j u s t i f i c a t i o n s , c r i t i c s of Le Moyen de P a r v e n i r have formed t h e i r own d i s c e r n i n g and o f t e n d i s p a r a t e o p i n i o n s . Guillaume C o l l e t e t , a XVIIth century l i t e r a r y biographer who admires Eeroalde f o r h i s i n t e l l i g e n c e and devotion to knowledge, appears nonetheless to be the i n s t i g a t o r of the rumour t h a t Eeroalde led a wild and extravagant l i f e i n the taverns of Tours. This o p i n i o n seems to be based mainly on the tone and s u b j e c t matter of Le Moyen de P a r y e n i r . 7 I t i s s i g n i f i c a n t however, t h a t between the p u b l i c a t i o n of Le Moyen de P a r v e n i r and C o l l e t e t ' s biography (c. 1650), there had been a r e f i n i n g i n f l u e n c e at work i n French l i t e r a r y t a s t e and i n the c u l t u r e d i n d i v i d u a l ' s standard of p r o p r i e t y . V.L. S a u l n i e r , who has done a more rec e n t e v a l u a t i o n o f Le Moyjsn <1§ l3£v§Iii£» c a u t i o n s t h a t C o l l e t e t ' s r e a c t i o n i s most l i k e l y c o n d i t i o n e d by h i s own times.* E v a l u a t i o n s of Ie Koyen de Pa r v e n i r range from extravagant admiration to open d i s a p p r o v a l , the l a t t e r o p i n i o n seeming not to have prevented n e a r l y f o r t y e d i t i o n s from appearing, most of them w i t h i n a century and a h a l f c f f i r s t p u b l i c a t i o n . 9 C o l l e t e t , one of the e a r l i e s t c r i t i c s , deplores the u n r e f i n e d vocabulary and the impiety, 9 q u a l i f y i n g i t as "un c e r t a i n l i v r e non seulement inflime, pour l e s mots de g u e u l l e e t l e s s a l l e t e z q u V i l c o n t i e n t , mais encore abominable pour l e s p r o f a n a t i o n s e t ses i m p i e t e z " . 1 0 C o l l e t e t ' s o p i n i o n i s echoed by h i s contemporary, Charles S o r e l , who wrote an unfavourable e v a l u a t i o n of Le Mc^en de P a r v e n i r some f o r t y years a f t e r the p u b l i c a t i o n of h i s own H a n c i c n which i n tone and s u b j e c t matter could be l i k e n e d i n s e v e r a l places to Beroalde's work. 1 1 H i s o p i n i o n seems to r e f l e c t the change i n l i t e r a r y t a s t e during the f i r s t h a l f of the XVIIth century. The judgements of Niceron i n the X V I l I t h c e n t u r y 1 2 and of Haag i n the X l X t h r e f l e c t the same a t t i t u d e . 1 3 However, contemporaries of Haag were f i n d i n g a new a p p r e c i a t i o n f o r humour and s h o r t t a l e s , a l a v i e i l l e cjauloise, and Le Mo_ye n de, P a r v e n i r b e n e f i t e d from the renewed i n t e r e s t . A. R i v i e r e i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e cf t h i s new o p i n i o n when i n 1885 he i n v i t e s the p u b l i c to read h i s e d i t e d c o l l e c t i o n of t a l e s from Ie Ho^en de P a r v e n i r , promising t h a t they c o n t a i n the r o l l i c k i n g vigour of "pantagruelisme".* * Honore de Balzac i n the XlXth century p r a i s e s Beroalde along with Marguerite de Navarre, Boccaccio, R a b e l a i s , A r i c s t o and La Fontaine i n the p r e f a c e to h i s Contes d r o l a t i g u e s , and p l a c e s Le Mcjen de P a r v e n i r among "ces l i v r e s a n t i q u e s oh r e s p i r e l e parfum d'une nai v e t e jeune. et ou se t r o u v e n t l e nerf comique dont notre t h e a t r e est p r i v e , l ' e x p r e s s i o n v i v e et drue qui p e i n t sans 10 p£riphrase et que personne n'ose plus cser. 1 , 1 5 Much of the c r i t i c a l work devoted to Le Mc_ven de P a r v e n i r c o n c e n t r a t e s on the question of a t t r i b u t i o n , a problem posed by the omission of the author's name i n the e a r l y e d i t i o n s , and by Beroalde's d i s c l a i m e r published i n his work, Le £alais des Curieux ( 1 6 1 2 ) . 1 6 In t h i s statement he denies having w r i t t e n the work e n t i t l e d Le Kcjen de Earyenir c u r r e n t l y i n c i r c u l a t i o n , but admits that he d i d intend to p u b l i s h a book, of that name and that the manuscript had i n f a c t been s t o l e n from him. T h i s d i s c l a i m e r and the f a c t s surrounding i t leave rcom f c r many doubts however, and a d i v e r s i t y of o p i n i o n has formed around the question of a u t h o r s h i p . The c r i t i c a l arguments f o r and agai n s t Beroalde's p a t e r n i t y are summarized i n S a u l n i e r ' s a r t i c l e i n which the c r i t i c c o n v i n c i n g l y concludes, " l e P a r v e n i r e s t l'oeuvre de Beroalde, e t de Ee'roalde s e u l . Rien ne permet d'en douter, t o u t i n v i t e a l e c r o i r e " . 1 7 Among the r e l a t i v e l y recent s t u d i e s of Le Mc^en de P a r v e n i r are s e v e r a l s i g n i f i c a n t c o n t r i b u t i o n s . Herbert Reiche's d i s s e r t a t i o n ( L e i p z i g , 1 9 1 2 ) 1 8 t r e a t s the question of a t t r i b u t i o n and a l s o c o n t a i n s a commentary cn the s t y l e and a v a l u a b l e l i s t i n g of the sources of many of the anecdotes and comments i n the t e x t . In a long a r t i c l e p u blished i n Prcblemes l i t t e r a i r e s du seizieme s i j c l e (1927) , Lazare Sainean examines Ie Ho_y_en de Pa r v e n i r p r i m a r i l y from a p h i l o l o g i c a l p o i n t of view. 1 9 H i s 11 comprehensive a n a l y s i s i s organized around p r o v i n c i a l i s m s , s p e c i a l i z e d vocabulary, e r o t i c a verba, and ether e x p r e s s i o n s . V.L, . S a u l n i e r ' s c o n t r i b u t i o n , "Etude sur Beroalde de V e r v i l l e " (1944), c i t e d above, 2° i s a «ork c f major importance and p r o v i d e s a well-documented base f o r f u r t h e r study of Beroalde and of l e Kojyen de P a r v e n i r . In a s h o r t e r a r t i c l e , Robert de V a l e t t e d e s c r i b e s the bock as deeply d i s t u r b i n g , not because of i t s tone or s u b j e c t matter, but because the i r r a t i o n a l elements of the t e x t f i n a l l y gain the upper hand and engulf the a u t h o r . 2 1 V a l e t t e b e l i e v e s that Be'rcalde's s t a t e d i n t e n t to " f a i r e une s a t i r e u n i v e r s e l l e oh on reprend l e s v i c e s de chascun" i s l o s t i n the t o r r e n t of words. J a n i s P a l l i s t e r ' s Ph.E. d i s s e r t a t i o n (1964, p u b l i s h e d 1971) reviews the problem of a u t h o r s h i p and then c o n c e n t r a t e s on the "baroque" elements of the t e x t . 2 2 Her study ,contains an examination of the t i t l e page and the chapter t i t l e s , as w e l l as a c l o s e reading of the f i r s t and l a s t c hapters. In another Ph.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n (1973), Robert Cohen d i s c u s s e s Beroalde's o r i g i n a l i t y as a r h e t o r i c i a n and as a l i t e r a r y a r t i s t . 2 3 He competently demonstrates that Beroalde's r h e t o r i c i s designed not only to avoid the misfortunes of c e n s o r s h i p , but to i n s t r u c t and t c e n t e r t a i n a p u b l i c cf v a r i e d backgrounds, from the s o p h i s t i c a t e d to the u n l e t t e r e d . The present study of Ie Mo_yen de Parvenir d i f f e r s from previous ones i n t h a t i t focuses s p e c i f i c a l l y cn the 12 i r r a t i o n a l progress of the d i a l o g u e , the c h a o t i c atmosphere and the rowdy r i b a l d r y of the c o n v e r s a t i o n s . These elements have d i s t r e s s e d and d e l i g h t e d g e n e r a t i o n of readers, and have a t t r a c t e d the a t t e n t i o n of l i t e r a r y c r i t i c s , d e s p i t e whose e f f o r t s the v o l a t i l e q u a l i t i e s s t i l l obscure the bock with d i s t u r b i n g and c o n f u s i n g ambivalence. As one concentrates on these elements of d i s o r d e r and l i b e r a t e d s e n s u a l i t y , however, c e r t a i n themes and p a t t e r n s begin to detach themselves from the chaos. As they , emerge, they demonstrate a s t r i k i n g a f f i n i t y with a p a r t i c u l a r a spect cf the s o c i a l and a r t i s t i c l i f e of Eeroalde's time: the exuberant popular f e s t i v a l s and the pervasive c u l t cf f e e l s . F e s t i v a l as a frame of r e f e r e n c e f o r a r t i s t i c e x p r e s s i o n has been explored p r e v i o u s l y by s c h o l a r s such as E. K. Chambers (1903) , 2 * Enid Welsford (1927, 1935) , 2 * C L . Barber (1959), 2& and M i k h a i l B a k h t i n ( 1 9 6 8 ) . 2 7 Chambers's thorough study, The Medieval Stage, documents the c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p between f e s t i v a l s , the f o o l - s o c i e t i e s and the t h e a t r e . Welsford's works emcompass the broad f i e l d c f f e s t i v a l s and f o o l s , and t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p to l i t e r a t u r e and a r t . In The Court Mascjue she t r a c e s the Renaissance customs of c o u r t l y masquerades and e e l e b r a t i e n s from t h e i r o r i g i n s i n e a r l y pagan s o c i e t y to t h e i r v a r i o u s forms i n the XVIth century, c o n c l u d i n g t h a t f e s t i v e customs had a profound e f f e c t on the l i t e r a t u r e of the time. In a l a t e r work e n t i t l e d The F o o l Welsford concentrates on the s o c i a l 13 and l i t e r a r y development of the f o o l and of f c o l - s o c i e t i e s . Of p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t to the present study i s a chapter cn " M i s r u l e " (pp. 376-98). C. L. Barber, i n Shakes_pearej.s F e s t i v e Comedy,, a p p l i e s his t h e o r i e s on the f e s t i v a l and l i t e r a t u r e to the l i g h t - hearted comedies of Shakespeare. He demonstrates that s i m i l a r to many Renaissance f e s t i v a l s , Shakespeare's comedies c o n t a i n " s a t u r n a l i a n " p a t t e r n s which comprise i n v e r s i o n , statement-counterstatement and a mechanism termed "through r e l e a s e to c l a r i f i c a t i o n " . The l a t t e r procedure l e a d s the p a r t i c i p a n t s through a humcrcus and o f t e n c h a o t i c r e l e a s e of emotion to a c l e a r e r understanding of a c e r t a i n s i t u a t i o n . Barber f i n d s t hat the s a t u r n a l i a n patterns came to Shakespeare from many sources, both a r t i s t i c and l i t e r a r y . L i k e Welsford, Barber f i n d s t h a t the patterns were employed by the t h e a t r i c a l f o o l s and can a l s o be found i n the s o c i o - l i t e r a r y c u l t of f o o l s , although he b e l i e v e s the purest e x p r e s s i o n of these p a t t e r n s appears i n the f e s t i v a l i t s e l f . . He i n c l u d e s as examples Candlemas, Halloween, marriages and wakes. Barber shows that i r r a t i o n a l i t y , mirth and l i b e r a t e d s e n s u a l i t y . are i n t e g r a l p a r t s cf the c o m e d y / f e s t i v a l , an o b s e r v a t i o n which i s of i n t e r e s t t o our a n a l y s i s of Le Woyen de P a r v e n i r . Bakhtin's a n a l y s i s of R a b e l a i s , e n t i t l e d R a b e l a i s and Si§ J J 2 l 2 5 » begins with the premise t h a t changes i n c u l t u r a l outlook e s t a b l i s h e d a new sense c f p r o p r i e t y between 14 R a b e l a i s ' time and the XVIIth century. Thus the aspect c f R a b e l a i s ' work i d e n t i f i e d as popular humour was e i t h e r rebuked f o r i t s coarseness by succeeding generations, or glossed over i n attempts to prove that R a b e l a i s was mainly a s e r i o u s author who sometimes c l o t h e d h i s arguments i n broad comedy as a cover. By s t u d y i n g R a b e l a i s i n the l i g h t cf popular c u l t u r e however, Bakhtin r e v e a l s a new depth and u n i t y i n Rabelais as a comic a r t i s t . B a k h t i n t r a c e s the h i s t o r y of l a u g h t e r to Rabelais and beyond, emphasizing the popular t r a d i t i o n which l i n k s R a b e l a i s * work to a n c i e n t as well as contemporary authors and to popular f e s t i v e customs. He b e l i e v e s t h a t popular t r a d i t i o n i s the key tc R a b e l a i s ' work, and that the changing a t t i t u d e towards t h i s t r a d i t i o n accounts f o r the i n a b i l i t y of l a t e r g e n e r a t i o n s to comprehend the popular humour of R a b e l a i s . In h i s d e f i n i t i o n of popular humour, Bakhtin, l i k e Barber, p e r c e i v e s the f e s t i v a l as a paradigm. Although he i n c o r p o r a t e s many t r a d i t o n a l f e s t i v a l s i n t o h i s study, Bakhtin c o n c e n t r a t e s cn C a r n i v a l as the a r c h e t y p a l f e s t i v a l i n h i s a n a l y s i s . Be b e l i e v e s i t to be the s t r o n g e s t and most r e p r e s e n t a t i v e f e s t i v a l of the age, and demonstrates how c a r n i v a l e s g u e behaviour and speech a l s o extend i n t o ether areas cf l i f e , the open marketplace, v i l l a g e f a i r s , or corner t a v e r n s . Bakhtin then shows how t h i s f e s t i v e behaviour appears i n R a b e l a i s ' humour, a p e r s p e c t i v e which g i v e s new depth and c o n t i n u i t y to R a b e l a i s ' work. 15 The provoking d i s c o v e r i e s made i n the above s t u d i e s s t i m u l a t e d an examination of Le Hojen de P a r v e n i r from a s i m i l a r viewpoint. As the a n a l y s i s proceeded, c e r t a i n r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the f e s t i v e event and the images, themes and p a t t e r n s i n Le Mo_yen de P a r v e n i r began to emerge. The present study i s the r e s u l t of t h i s examination, and w i l l attempt to p r o v i d e a new p e r s p e c t i v e on the p u z z l i n g aspects ' of Be'roalde's book. T h i s a n a l y s i s w i l l f i r s t c o n c e n t r a t e on the c u l t u r a l phenomenon of the f e s t i v a l and the r e l a t e d c u l t of f o o l s , demonstrating the h i s t o r i c a l antecedents and the v a r i o u s forms they assumed during the Medieval and Renaissance p e r i o d s . T h i s w i l l be f o l lowed by a comparative . examination of the f e s t i v e atmosphere which Beroalde c r e a t e s i n Ie J o j e n de P a r v e n i r and that of t r a d i t i o n a l popular f e s t i v a l s . The study w i l l then concentrate on the s p i r i t of s a c r i l e g e and i r r e v e r e n c e d i s p l a y e d by Beroalde's speakers and by the c h a r a c t e r s within the anecdotes t o l d at the banquet i n order to r e v e a l another a f f i n i t y with the popular f e s t i v a l and the c u l t of f o o l s . Subsequently, a t t i t u d e s towards s o c i e t y and human nature expressed i n Ie Ko_yen de P a r v e n i r w i l l be examined using the f e s t i v e t r a d i t i o n as a guide, with the i n t e n t i o n of d i s c o v e r i n g not only how, but to what purpose Beroalde uses f e s t i v e p a t t e r n s , themes and images i n h i s work. 16 CHAPTER I: NOTES 1 Arthur Machen, " I n t r o d u c t i o n " to h i s t r a n s l a t i o n of Le Moyen de P a r v e n i r , The Way to A t t a i n (Carbonnek, P r i v . p r i n t . , 1929)" p7 "l3. 2 R. V a l e t t e , "Le Moyen de p a r v e n i r " Cahiers du Sud, 385 (1965) , p. 293. 3 Beroalde's f a t h e r changed h i s name to p l e a s e a patron who found Brouard barbare. See C h a r l e s Rcyer i n h i s e d i t i o n of Le Moyen de Paryenir7~71896; r p t . Geneva: S l a t k i n e , 1970) "Notice",™. X, note 1. * There i s no known f i r s t e d i t i o n of Le £o_yen de Pa r v e n i r , and the e a r l i e s t c o p i e s have nc date i n the f r o n t e s p i e c e . I t i s g e n e r a l l y thought to be between 1610 and 1629, u s u a l l y given as 1610. See V. I. S a u l n i e r , "Etude sur Be'roalde de V e r v i l l e " , Bibliothecjue d^Huja n i s j e e t E S f i a i s s a n e e , 5 (1944), p. 317. 5 References i n parentheses r e f e r to the volume then the page of the Royer e d i t i o n of Ie Koyen de Parvenir (see above note 3). T h i s method w i l l be used throughout. 6 See Jean Bodin, D^monomanie des s o r c i e r s , ( P a r i s : J.DuPuys, 1580). The success of t h i s work can be measured ty the s i x e d i t i o n s which appeared before 1600. 7 Guillaume C o l l e t e t , "Vie de Eeroalde de V e r v i l l e " , i n l i e s des p_oetes toujrana.eaux (B. N. Ms. N. A. F. Fr. 3074) , p. 13. C o l l e t e t s t a t e s , "Jamais l ' a n t i q u e L u c i a n , ne l e moderne R a b e l a i s n'eurent des sentiments plus d e r e g l e z , ny ne l e s d e s c o u v r i r e n t avecgue p l u s de l i b e r t e . . . . Sa d i g n i t e de chanoine ne luy f i t en aucune s o r t e ( g u i t t e r ) sa premiere forme de v i v r e , e t au c o n t r a i r e gu'ayant plus de moyen de f o u r n i r aux f r a i s de ses v c l u p t e z , i l dci-na plus commodement aux movemens imp6tueux de ses sens et de ses passions desr^gle'es tout ce q u ' i l s e x i g e r e n t de l u y " . 8 S a u l n i e r , "Etude", p. 250, s t a t e s : "Edroalde est d'un temps q u i sent l e Bearnais, ou l ' o n mange avec ses d c i g t s e t cu l'on r i t t r e s f o r t . On ne trouve pas inconvenant de passer du c e r c l e ou l'on cause, de l a b i b l i c t h e g u e ou du c a b i n e t de t r a v a i l , v o i r e mime de l a c h a i r e , aux seances de 17 bien b o i r e . Ce genre de g a i t e n'impligue pas p a i l l a r d i s e , mais peut f a c i l e m e n t en f a i r e n a l t r e l a le'gende. " 9 The i n t r o d u c t i o n t o the Royer e d i t i o n c o n t a i n s a d e s c r i p t i v e l i s t i n g of a l l e d i t i o n s of Le Mo^en de P a r v e n i r to 1896. V.L. S a u l n i e r completes t h i s l i s t i n g to 1944 i n h i s a r t i c l e . In 1970 S l a t k i n e R e p r i n t s of Geneva r e i s s u e d the 1896 P a r i s e d i t i o n of C h a r l e s Royer, the e d i t i o n used f o r t h i s study. »o c o l l e t e t , " V i e " , p. 2 1 . 1 1 B i b l i o t hecjue f r a n c h i s e ( P a r i s : Ccmpagnie des l i b r a i r e s du P a l a i s , 1664) , pp. 173-74. 12 "Beroalde de V e r v i l l e " i n KSjocires £Our s e r v i r a l ^ h i s t o i r e des hommes i l l u s t r e s , ( P a r i s : B r i a s s o n , 1736), XXXIv7~232-23 7T 1 3 Eugene and Emile Haag, La France £rotestante (1877; r p t . Geneva: S l a t k i n e , 1966) , I l 7 4077 ' 1 4 Armand R i v i e r e , R a b e l a i s i a n a ( P a r i s : Marpicn et Flammarion, 1885), p. 51. 1 5 Contes drola t i j g u e s , i n Oeuvres completes ( P a r i s : G a l l i m a r d , 196477 Xl7~4337 ~ 1 6 l e P a l a i s des c u r i e u x , ( P a r i s : Guillemot et Thiboust, 1612), p. 461. » 7 S a u l n i e r , "Etude", p. 291. i a "Le Moy_en de P a r v e n i r " von Eeroalde de V e r v i l l e mit ^§§2S^§£§£ Eeruchsicht.icjunc| der £uellen- und Verfasserfrage,: Ein B e i t r a g zur f r a n z o s . N o v e l l i s t i j k . L e i p z i g : Diss. 19 12 (Coburg: Rossteuscher, 1913). 1 9 "Le Moyen de P a r v e n i r " , P a r i s : Boccard, 1927. 2 0 see above note 8. 2* "Le Moyen de P a r v e n i r " , C a h i e r s du Sud, 385 (1965), 283-94. 2 2 The World View of B j r o a l d e de V e r v i l l e D i s s . Minnesota 7964 ( P a r i s : ~ V r i n , ~ 197177 2 3 l'h§ Use of R h e t o r i c i n Beroalde de V e r v i l l e ^ s e Moy_en de P a r v e n i r ^ , D i s s . Chicago 1973. 18 2 * The Medieval Stage, 2 v o l s . (Oxford: Clarendon, 1903). ~ 2 5 31i§ Court Masgue_: a Study i n the Fe l a t i o n s h i j g between Poetry and the Revels (New York: R u s s e l l and R u s s e l l , 1 9 6 2 7 f i r s t p utlished~T 9 2 7 . The F c c l ^ B i s S o c i a l and L i t e r a r y H i s t o r y (Gloucester, Mass.: Peter Smith, 1966), F i r s t p u b l i s h e d 1935. 2 6 Shakes^eare^s F e s t i v e Comedy A Study, of Dramatic Form and i t s R e l a t i o n s to S o c i a l Custom (Cleveland: World Pub. Co7,~T9637."First published 19597 2 7 R a b e l a i s and His World, t r a n s . Helene Iswolsky (Cambridge: M.I.T. P r e s s , 1968J. F i r s t p ublished i n Russian 1965. 19 CHAPTER I I THE POPULAR FESTIVE SPIRIT F e s t i v a l i s a time when people cease t h e i r normal a c t i v i t y and enter i n t o a d i f f e r e n t world, a world where they are allowed to escape from themselves t e m p o r a r i l y and become another. I t i s a time when people give themselves over to excesses of every k i n d , as Roger C a i l l o i s d e s c r i b e s : La fe'te, en e f f e t , ne ccmpcrte pas seulement des debauches de consommation, de l a bouche et du sexe, mais a u s s i des debauches d* e x p r e s s i o n , du verbe cu du geste, C r i s , r a i l l e r i e s , i n j u r e s , v a - e t - v i e n t de p l a i s a n t e r i e s g r o s s i e r e s , obscenes cu s a c r i l e g e s , e ntre un p u b l i c et un cortege q u i l e t r a v e r s e (comme au second j o u r des A n t h e s t e r i e s , aux Len^ennes, aux Grands Mysteres, au c a r n a v a l , a - l a f&te m^die'vale des f o u s ) , assauts de g u o l i b e t s entre l e groupe des femmes e t c e l u i des hommes . . . c o n s t i t u e n t l e s p r i n c i p a u x exc£s de p a r o l e . 1 The shouts, i n s u l t s , o b s c e n i t i e s and s a c r i l e g i o u s remarks which e n l i v e n the Feast of Fo o l s and C a r n i v a l mentioned by C a i l l o i s are a l s o found to some degree i n a l l p u b l i c f e s t i v a l s of the Middle Ages and the Renaissance i n France. 20 They are p a r t of the r i o t o u s d i s o r d e r and debauchery which c h a r a c t e r i z e the popular f e s t i v e s p i r i t . Nearly every f e s t i v a l , whether r e l i g i o u s or s e c u l a r i n o r i g i n , whether predominantly solemn or e s s e n t i a l l y f r i v o l o u s , c o n t a i n s elements of t h i s i r r e v e r e n t exuberance, even i f only cn the f r i n g e s . During such f e s t i v a l s as C a r n i v a l and the Feast cf Foo l s , that d i s o r d e r l y and l i c e n t i o u s s p i r i t dominates the c e l e b r a t i o n , r e s u l t i n g i n s a c r i l e g e and i n v e r s i o n of the s o c i a l h i e r a r c h y . These two f e s t i v a l s , while not t h e . only examples of the popular f e s t i v e s p i r i t , provide the most c l e a r l y d e f i n e d forms of i t , and as such, they w i l l be used as prototypes o f the aspect of the f e s t i v a l which i s of primary i n t e r e s t to t h i s study. Before c o n c e n t r a t i n g on the Feast of F e e l s and cn C a r n i v a l however, i t i s important to emphasize the general r o l e of the f e s t i v a l both as a time of c o l l e c t i v e r e j o i c i n g and as a c o h e s i v e , u n i t i n g c u l t u r a l f o r c e . C e l e b r a t i o n s and d i s p l a y s of pageantry played an : important part i n the f u l f i l m e n t of s o c i e t y ' s s p i r i t u a l and emotional needs i n a way no longer necessary, nor p o s s i b l e today. Jchan Huizinga makes t h i s p o i n t i n d e s c r i b i n g the s i g n i f i c a n c e of the f e s t i v a l i n l a t e XVth century s o c i e t y : . . . i t i s important to r e a l i z e the f u n c t i o n of f e s t i v a l s i n the s o c i e t y of that time. They s t i l l p reserved something of the meaning that they have i n p r i m i t i v e s o c i e t i e s , t h a t of the supreme e x p r e s s i o n cf t h e i r c u l t u r e , the h i g h e s t mode of c o l l e c t i v e enjoyment, and an a s s e r t a t i o n of s o l i d a r i t y . . . . Modern man i s f r e e , when he p l e a s e s , to seek h i s 21 f a v o u r i t e d i s t r a c t i o n s i n d i v i d u a l l y , in books, music, a r t , or nature. On the other hand, at a time when the higher p l e a s u r e s were n e i t h e r numerous nor a c c e s s i b l e to a l l , people f e l t the need of such c o l l e c t i v e r e j o i c i n g s at f e s t i v a l s . The more c r u s h i n g the misery of d a i l y l i f e , the stronger the s t i m u l a n t s that w i l l be needed t o produce t h a t i n t o x i c a t i o n with beauty and d e l i g h t without which l i f e would be u n b e a r a b l e . 2 F e s t i v a l s took p l a c e throughout the year, and many were organized around events i n the C h r i s t i a n l i t u r g i c a l c a l e n d a r . They i n c l u d e the Feast of the N a t i v i t y (December 25) , the Epiphany (January 6) , Candlemas (February 2) , and the Annunciation (March 25). C a r n i v a l i n e a r l y s p r i n g was e s s e n t i a l l y a l a y f e s t i v a l , though c l o s e l y l i n k e d to the annual c y c l e of r e l i g i o u s f e s t i v a l s . I t was f o l l o w e d by the r i g o u r s of . Lent, which i n tu r n l e d to the E a s t e r f e s t i v i t i e s . F o r t y days a f t e r the drama of Holy Week, the Feast of the Ascension took p l a c e , followed by Pen t e c c s t and Corpus C h r i s t i . . The N a t i v i t y of St. John the E a p t i s t was c e l e b r a t e d near the summer s o l s t i c e (June 24). In the f a l l , f e s t i v a l s to the dead, Michaelmas (September 29), A l l S a i n t s (November 1) and A l l Souls (November 2), mingled with harvest c e l e b r a t i o n s and l e d once again i n t o the f e s t i v i t i e s of the Christmas s e a s o n . 3 Although most of these r e l i g i o u s c e l e b r a t i o n s provided the o c c a s i o n f o r pious reverence and contemplation, they a l s o had a l i g h t e r s i d e which was governed by la u g h t e r . The dual nature of these c e l e b r a t i o n s i s noted by Enid Welsford: 22 "The great seasonal f e s t i v a l s i n C h r i s t i a n Europe have a twofold aspect: on the one hand they are o c c a s i o n s f o r solemn worship, on the other hand they are wild times of f e a s t i n g , l a w l e s s n e s s and b u f f o o n e r y " . 4 fit times the s a c r e d aspect of the f e s t i v a l was a l l but engulfed by the i r r e v e r e n t , popular s p i r i t . Huizinga quotes an eyewitness c f the Corpus C h r i s t i p r o c e s s i o n who laments the deeply i n g r a i n e d d i s s o l u t e n e s s of the crowd and the f a c t t h a t "processions were d i s g r a c e d by r i b a l d r y , mcckery and d r i n k i n g " . 5 In a d d i t i o n to the u n i v e r s a l C h r i s t i a n h o l i d a y s , d i f f e r e n t towns and v i l l a g e s had t h e i r own c e l e b r a t i o n s such as patron s a i n t s ' days or the a n n i v e r s a r i e s cf church c o n s e c r a t i o n s . S p e c i a l events, such as the o f f i c i a l entry c f r o y a l t y i n t o a town or an a r i s t o c r a t i c marriage, provided the o c c a s i o n f o r popular r e j o i c i n g a l o n g s i d e the o f f i c i a l ceremonies of a w e - i n s p i r i n g pageantry. V i l l a g e f a i r s , market days, and even i n f o r m a l g a t h e r i n g s i n l o c a l taverns a l s o provided an o p p o r t u n i t y to dip i n t o the vast fund cf f e s t i v e exuberance which c h a r a c t e r i z e d the Feast of Fools and C a r n i v a l . 6 Although not p a r t of the o f f i c i a l r e l i g i o u s c e l e b r a t i o n s , the Feast of Fools was c l o s e l y attached to the Church. In d i f f e r e n t l o c a t i o n s t h i s c o l o u r f u l c e l e b r a t i o n was c a l l e d the . Feast of the Innocents, the F e a s t of the C i r c u m c i s i o n , the Feast of the Sub-deacons, or the Feast c f 23 the Ass, but a l l were placed under a generic t i t l e , the Feast of F o o l s . 7 This f e s t i v a l usually took place between Christmas and Twelfth Night, but was net s t r i c t l y limited to this time period. 8 Except f o r the occasional mock-religious procession through the town, the f e s t i v i t i e s tcck place i n the church i t s e l f , or just outside, and the participants were members of the lower clergy. These celebrants took advantage of the f e s t i v e freedom granted them to mock th e i r superiors, to r i d i c u l e .church, r i t e s and to indulge in gluttonous feasting. The popular tone of the celebration was due not only to the feast's origins in folk f e s t i v a l s , but was also encouraged by the mentality of the participants. E.K. Chambers describes the background cf these men and the resul t i n g e f f e c t cn the f e s t i v a l : The vicars and the i r associates were prcbably an i l l - educated and i l l - p a i d c l a s s . Certainly they were d i f f i c u l t to d i s c i p l i n e ; and i t i s net surprising that their rare holiday, of which the expenses were met partly by the chapter, partly by dues levied upon themselves or upon the bystanders, was an occasion for popular rather than refined merrymaking. That i t should perpetuate or absorb folk customs was also, considering the peasant or small bourgeois extraction cf such men, guite natural. 9 Since the Feast of Fools was celebrated by the clergy, the lay congregation participated mainly as observers. However, t h e i r own f e s t i v a l . Carnival or Shrovetide, soon followed. This f e s t i v a l actually began just a f t e r the Ephiphany, thus technically l a s t i n g for over a month; tut 24 the most i n t e n s e c e l e b r a t i o n took place during the l a s t week before Ash Wednesday, and culminated on Mardi Gras. It ended a b r u p t l y , at l e a s t o f f i c i a l l y , with the commencement of Lent. In the negation of usual s o c i a l v a l u e s , and i n the i r r e v e r e n t parody and l i c e n c e which c h a r a c t e r i z e d the f e s t i v i t i e s , the tone of t h i s c e l e b r a t i o n c l o s e l y resembled the Feast of F o o l s . S i m i l a r to t h a t of the Feast of F o o l s , the C a r n i v a l crowd was l a r g e l y popular. U n l i k e the Feast c f Fools however, C a r n i v a l was predominantly a s e c u l a r f e s t i v a l , but i t was s t i l l i m p o s s i b l e to take i t out of a C h r i s t i a n framework or to separate i t from the i n f l u e n c e cf the Church. C a r n i v a l i s a l s o c l o s e l y l i n k e d to the C h r i s t i a n l i t u r g i c a l c a lendar, and i t s annual c e l e b r a t i o n served as a counter-balance f o r the s t r i n g e n c i e s of l e n t . One of the most c o n s i s t e n t themes cf the popular f e s t i v a l , and one which i s i n evidence i n both the Feast of Fools and C a r n i v a l , i s t h a t of a world turned upside-down. T h i s a l t e r a t i o n cf everyday s o c i a l r o l e s and values i s accomplished not only by d i s t o r t i n g them but by d i r e c t l y r e v e r s i n g them. Even more than the d e s i r e to t r a n s g r e s s the normal s o c i a l s t r i c t u r e s , the e s s e n t i a l mechanism behind the f e s t i v e experience i s to i n v e r t or r e v e r s e the r u l e s . In a study of the f o l k f e s t i v a l , Roger C a i l l o i s a s s e r t s that t h i s behaviour expresses the d e s i r e to r e t u r n to a legendary peri o d of c r e a t i v e chaos: Actes i n t e r d i t s e t a c t e s o u t r e s ne semblent pas s u f f i r e 25 a marguer l a d i f f e r e n c e e n t r e l e temps du de'chainement et l e temps de l a r&gle. On l e u r a d j o i n t l e s actes a rebours. On s ' i n g i n i e a se conduire de fac.cn exactement c c n t r a i r e au comportement normal. L ' i n v e r s i o n de tous l e s r a p p o r t s p a r a l t l a preuve evidente du r e t o u r du Chaos, de l'epogue de l a f l u i d i t y et de l a c o n f u s i o n . 1 0 The Feast of Foo l s and C a r n i v a l exemplify t h i s o b s e r v a t i o n ; the dominant p a t t e r n i n both i s i n v e r s i o n , and the r e s u l t i n g atmosphere i s one of l i b e r a t e d f e s t i v i t y . S i m i l a r l y , as Chambers f i n d s , i n the F e a s t of Foo l s "the r u l i n g idea c f the f e a s t i s the i n v e r s i o n of s t a t u s , and the performance, i n e v i t a b l y b u r lesgue, by the i n f e r i o r c l e r g y of f u n c t i o n s p r o p e r l y belonging t o t h e i r b e t t e r s " . 1 1 In a study devoted to C a r n i v a l , J u l i o Baroja c a l l s a t t e n t i o n to the same pat t e r n i n t h a t f e s t i v a l , and observes t h a t i t extends to an i n v e r s i o n of the normal order of t h i n g s i n g e n e r a l : Desde un punto de v i s t a s o c i a l , l c gue imperaba era una v i o l e n c i a e s t a b l e c i d a , un desertfreno de hechos y de palabras que se ajustaba a formas e s p e c f f i c a s ; a s i , l a i n v e r s i o n d e l orden normal de l a s cosas t e n i a un papel p r i m o r d i a l en l a f i e s t a . . . Es e l mundo en e l que e l orden de l a s cosas esta i n v e r t i d o . 1 2 The c o n t r a s t between the everyday world cf order and the f e s t i v e world of chaos induced s p e c i f i c a l l y by i n v e r s i o n or exchange of o p p o s i t e s .leads many observers cf the popular f e s t i v a l to l i n k the Feast of F o o l s and C a r n i v a l to ancient Greek and Roman f e s t i v a l s . Beginning with an i n v e r s i o n of the s o c i a l h i e r a r c h y , an upside-down atmosphere dominates s e v e r a l a n c i e n t f e s t i v a l s . Masters and s l a v e s exchanged 26 places during the Greek C r c n i a 1 3 and the H y a k i n t h i s , 1 * as wel l as durin g the Roman S a t u r n a l i a and the K a l e n d s . 1 5 Of these, the S a t u r n a l i a n f e s t i v a l i s most o f t e n c i t e d as a d i r e c t ancestor of the Feast of F o o l s and cf C a r n i v a l . 1 6 A b r i e f d e s c r i p t i o n of the S a t u r n a l i a as known to Macrobius suggests the o r i g i n s of s o c i a l i n v e r s i o n and l a v i s h f e a s t i n g . T h i s f e s t i v a l i s a reenactment of the legendary r e i g n of S a t u r n : His r e i g n i s s a i d to have been a time of great happiness, both on account of the u n i v e r s a l p l e n t y t h a t then p r e v a i l e d and because as yet there was no d i v i s i o n i n t o bond and f r e e — a s one may gather from the complete l i c e n s e enjoyed by s l a v e s a t the S a t u r n a l i a . 1 7 For i n houses where r e l i g i o u s usages are observed i t i s the p r a c t i c e a t the S a t u r n a l i a to compliment the s l a v e s by f i r s t p r o v i d i n g f o r them a dinner prepared as though f o r the master, and i t i s not u n t i l t h i s meal i s over t h a t the t a b l e i s spread again f o r the head cf the h o u s e h o l d . 1 8 From t h i s d e s c r i p t i o n i t appears t h a t there was a legendary kingdom of Saturn whom the people worshipped as a god. During h i s r e i g n there had been no s o c i a l h i e r a r c h y , s l a v e r y being i n s t i t u t e d l a t e r a f t e r the departure of the god. Thus, as a t r i b u t e to Saturn s l a v e r y was a b c l i s h e d during the S a t u r n a l i a n f e s t i v a l ; masters and s l a v e s dined together or the masters waited on t h e i r s e r v a n t s . The exchange between masters and s l a v e s was, as mentioned above, a l s o a part of s e v e r a l other f e s t i v a l s . The a n c i e n t theme of s o c i a l i n v e r s i o n a s s e r t s i t s e l f i n the e a r l y moments of the Feast of Foo l s when the e c c l e s i a t i c 27 h i e r a r c h y undergoes an exchange c f top and bottom. As the c e l e b r a n t s chant a verse from the M a g n i f i c a t , "Depcsuit potentes de sede: e t e x a l t a v i t h u m i l e s " , 1 9 a member of the lower c l e r g y i s c o m i c a l l y i n v e s t e d with the powers cf a high o f f i c e such as bis h o p . The mock bishop or mock Pope symbolizes the i n v e r s i o n of everyday s o c i a l ranks. The l i t e r a l a p p l i c a t i o n o f the "Deposuit" s i g n a l s the beginning of the time when the c l e r k s and sub-deaccns, normally on the lower rungs of the church h i e r a r c h y , can parody t h e i r s u p e r i o r s and mock o f f i c i a l r i t e s . While C a r n i v a l does not begin with a B i b l i c a l r e f e r e n c e to the exchange of s o c i a l p o s i t i o n s , i t does share * i t h the Feast of F o o l s the idea of a mock r u l e r and r e v e r s a l of s o c i a l p r i v i l e g e s . Again the dominus f e s t i , cr f e s t i v e r u l e r , symbolizes the i n v e r s i o n of the h i e r a r c h y by h i s very presence, f o r i n him poverty, f o l l y , and the lower c l a s s e s are r a i s e d to the hi g h e s t s o c i a l rank. F o l l o w i n g h i s example the people are urged to mock the a u t h o r i t i e s and to behave i n an i r r a t i o n a l manner. T h i s ephemeral r u l e r d i d not appear suddenly i n the Feast of F o o l s or C a r n i v a l . He had antecedents i n many a n c i e n t f e s t i v a l s as w e l l as i n most other Medieval and Renaissance f o l k f e s t i v a l s . During the Roman S a t u r n a l i a a mock king represented and d i r e c t e d the f o l l y much as d i d h i s Medieval and Renaissance descendants. In Lucian's S a t u r n a l i a the God, Cronus, e x p l a i n s t o the author the f u n c t i o n s and advantages of being the mock k i n g : 28 Again, to become s o l e king of a l l with a win at the knuckle-bones, so t h a t you not only escape s i l l y o r ders but can give them y o u r s e l f , t e l l i n g one man to shout out something d i s g r a c e f u l about h i m s e l f , another to dance naked, pick up the f l u t e - g i r l and c a r r y her three times round the house . . , . 2 0 T h i s mad and merry mock r u l e r has been t r a c e d to an. even e a r l i e r t r a g i c f i g u r e who was b r u t a l l y uncrowned and k i l l e d at the end of the f e s t i v a l because he served as a scapegoat for the i l l s and e v i l s of the s o c i e t y . 2 1 In subsequent Roman f e s t i v a l s the r i t e of e x p i a t i o n was discharged by a dummy, l e a v i n g only the r u l e of f o l l y f o r the f l e s h and blood dominus to c a r r y out. Although f r e e to i n s u l t and deride the mock r u l e r , the crowd no longer harmed him p h y s i c a l l y , and he i n turn mocked and taunted h i s " s u b j e c t s " . The custom cf i n s u l t i n g and d e r i d i n g the mock r u l e r was s t i l l i n e x i s t e n c e i n Medieval and Renaissance f e s t i v a l s . The leader of the f o l l y and the s a c r i f i c i a l v i c t i m thus become two elements o f the f e s t i v a l , and each develops s e p a r a t e l y . In C a r n i v a l an e f f i g y i s beaten or burned i n the l a s t hours before Lent begins. T h i s f i g u r e i s nc lcnger a s a c r i f i c e d k i n g , but becomes the c a r r i e r of e v i l i n the s o c i e t y , a scapegoat. He i s death, darkness, s i n and chaos, and h i s symbolic death s i g n i f i e s the e x p u l s i o n o f these elements from the s o c i e t y . The mock king, however, becomes a l o r d of f o l l y , and the f e s t i v a l i t s e l f . a time of madness f o l l o w i n g h i s example. The King c f C a r n i v a l , the Lord cf M i s r u l e , the Bishop of F o o l s , the Pope of Fools, the May 29 Queen and King, and the many other mad, mock r u l e r s cf the f e s t i v a l s cf Medieval and Renaissance France f o l l o w the t r a d i t i o n a l p a t t e r n s e t by the a n c i e n t dominus f e s t i . The o r i g i n a l f u n c t i o n f o r g o t t e n , the forms c o n t i n u e , developing a l i f e of t h e i r own. Suspension of the h i e r a r c h y d u r i n g popular f e s t i v i t i e s i s a l s o f a c i l i t a t e d by the widespread use of the mask, another a n c i e n t t r a d i t i o n . 2 2 Ose of a mask permitted the r e v e l l e r s to choose t h e i r p o s i t i o n on the s o c i a l ladder, thus i n e f f e c t c o n t r i b u t i n g to the ephemeral o v e r t u r n i n g cf that v e r t i c a l s t r u c t u r e . The wearer of the mask leaves h i s everyday i d e n t i t y behind and assumes another r o l e , perhaps one f o r b i d d e n to him i n everyday l i f e . Curing the Feast c f Fools f o r example a lowly sub-deacon becomes a bishop cr a v i c a r the Pope, and during C a r n i v a l s t a b l e boys play the l o r d , and s t r e e t vendors become l a d i e s . P a r t i c i p a t i n g a r i s t o c r a t s may appear as paupers, vendors or clowns should they wish c e r t a i n i n h a b i t u a l freedoms c f movement. Thus the usual s o c i a l h i e r a r c h y i s negated and r i d i c u l e d as persons of any s t a t i o n , age, or sex appear as beggars, ghosts, c a r i c a t u r e d n o b i l i t y , s t a b l e - b o y s with d u n g - f i l l e d brooms, sharp-tongued s e r v a n t g i r l s , monks, kings cr f e e l s . 2 3 The mask i s a l s o a form of r o l e - p l a y i n g which permits repressed d e s i r e s and f e a r s to be e x t e r i o r i z e d i n a s o c i a l l y a cceptable manner. T h i s f u n c t i o n i s emphasized ty J u l i o B a r o j a : 3 0 E l hecho fundamental de poder enmascarse l e ha permitido a l s e r humano, hombre o mujer, cambiar de c a r a c t e r durante unos d i a s o unas horas . . . , a veces hasta cambiar de sexo, I n v e r s i c n e s de tcdas c l a s e s , " i n t r o y e c c i o n e s " , p r o j e c c i o n e s y o t r o s hechos t u r t i o s , de l o s que nos hablan hoy l o s psic<5lcgos y p s i c o a n a l i s t a s , podrian ser i l u s t r a d o s probatlemente a l a l u z de l a s l i c e n c i a s c a r n a v a l e s c a s . 2 4 A man might dress as an old f o o l or a cuckol d , i n t e n d i n g to parody h i s neighbor i n t h a t costume; or perhaps he i d e n t i f i e s with the cuc k o l d i n order to e x t e r i o r i z e h i s own f e a r s o f becoming o n e . 2 5 Dressing as a d e v i l may express a d e s i r e to manipulate o t h e r s through f e a r , or perhaps t h i s , too, e x t e r i o r i z e s and e x o r c i z e s the wearer's f e a r through i d e n t i f i c a t i o n with the source of t e r r o r . Whatever the mo t i v a t i o n , . i t .could be expressed v i v i d l y and anonymously during C a r n i v a l . D i s g u i s e not only allows the wearer t c assume a d i f f e r e n t p o s i t i o n i n the s o c i a l h i e r a r c h y and to e x t e r i o r i z e normally suppressed f e e l i n g s , but i t a l s c a l l o w s him to do so anonymously. Anonymity assures impunity, even though t h a t freedom i s already granted i n p r i n c i p l e by the f e s t i v a l . The mask f a c i l i t a t e s freedom of movement and u n i n h i b i t e d a c t i o n , as the wearer moves through the C a r n i v a l crowd unrecognized by anyone. In d i s g u i s e an i n d i v i d u a l c o u l d u t t e r i n s u l t s or o b s c e n i t i e s , speak nonsense, or even vo i c e h i s own s e r i o u s and pers o n a l o p i n i o n s with added comfort. T h i s anonymity, which permitted . m o b i l i t y and freedom of e x p r e s s i o n , l e d to an ex t e n s i o n of the mask i n t o 3 1 e x t r a - c a r n i v a l l i f e as w e l l . Outside the f e s t i v a l i t became a f a d , f i r s t i n I t a l y 2 6 and then i n France. During the r e i g n of F r a n c o i s I, d i s g u i s e and c a r n i v a l e s g u e l i b e r t i e s were even used by the king h i m s e l f to gain entrance i n t o the house of l a d i e s whose a t t e n t i o n s he d e s i r e d . 2 7 However, cut cf the context of C a r n i v a l the mask r e t a i n e d only the p r i v i l e g e s of anonymity, and l o s t much of i t s pcwer to transform the p e r s o n a l i t y of the wearer h i m s e l f . Reversal of everyday behaviour begins with the d i s m i s s a l of work, 2 8 f o l l o w e d by a p e r i o d of s a c r i l e g e and s e l f - i n d u l g e n c e which r e v e r s e s everyday r u l e s cf conduct and prudence. A l e t t e r c i t e d below i l l u s t r a t e s the i r r e v e r e n c e and l i c e n s e of the Feast of F o o l s , as d e s c r i b e d i n 1445 by the F a c u l t y of Theology i n P a r i s . In t h i s d e s c r i p t i o n , the dominant p a t t e r n of behaviour i s one of r e v e r s a l ; everyday r o l e s and h a b i t u a l a c t i o n s are r e p l a c e d by t h e i r c p p c s i t e s . The p a r t i c i p a n t s dress as f a n t a s t i c c r e a t u r e s or clowns. Some c l e r i c s wear feminine a t t i r e , and the few laymen among them dress as p r i e s t s and nuns. In t h i s guise they commit b l a t a n t s a c r i l e g e by gorging themselves with feed cn the a l t a r , by bathing themselves i n dung, by assuming indecent postures, and by u t t e r i n g s c u r r i l o u s verses: On v c y c i t l e s C l e r s S l e s Pr&tres f a i r e en c e t t e Fete un melange afreux de f c l i e s S d'impietez pendant l e s e r v i c e D i v i n , ou i l s n * a s s i s t o i e n t ce jour l a gu'en h a b i t s de Mascarade & de Comedie. Les uns e t o i e n t masguez, ou avec des v i s a g e s barbouille's q u i f a i s o i e n t peur, ou q u i f a i s o i e n t r i r e ; l e s a u t r e s en h a b i t s de femmes ou de pantomimes, t e l s que f o n t l e s M i n i s t r e s du 32 Theatre. l i s dansoient dans l e Choeur en e n t r a n t , S chantoi e n t des chansons obscenes. Les Diacres S l e s Sou-diacres prenoient p l a i s i r a manger des bcudins S des s a u c i c e s sur l * A u t e l , au nez du P r ^ t r e c e l e b r a n t : i l s j o u o i e n t a ses yeux aux Car t e s & aux Dez: i l s mettoient dans l ' E n c e n s o i r guelgues morceaux de v i e i l l e s savates, pour l u i f a i r e r e s p i r e r une mauvaise odeur. Apres l a Kesse, chacun c o u r o i t , s a u t o i t & da n s o i t par l ' E g l i s e avec tant d•impudence, que guelgues uns n'avoient pas honte de se p o r t e r a t o u t e s s o r t e s d• inde'cences, S de se d e p c u i l l e r entierement; e n s u i t e i l s se f a i s o i e n t t r a i n e r par l e s rues dans des tonereaux p l e i n e s d'ordures, ou i l s prenoient p l a i s i r d'en j e t t e r a l a populace q u i s'assembloit autour d'eux. I l s s ' a r r e t o i e n t & f a i s o i e n t de l e u r s corps des mouvemens 5 des postures l a s c i v e s , q u ' i l s accompagnoient de p a r o l e s impudiques. Les plus l i b e r t i n s d'entre l e s S e c u l i e r s , se me^loient parmi l e Cle r g e , pour f a i r e a u s s i quelques perscnnages de foux en h a b i t s E c c l e s i a s t i q u e s , de Moines S de R e l i g i e u s e s . 2 9 The s a c r i l e g i o u s a c t s are s t r o n g l y marked by i n v e r s i o n , or an exchange of o p p o s i t e s : obscene songs r e p l a c e pious ones, men dress as women, a f o u l smell r e p l a c e s the scent of incense, and the a u t h o r i t y of the o f f i c i a t i n g p r i e s t i s d i r e c t l y f l o u t e d by the d i c e p l a y e r s . Other a c t i v i t i e s which took p l a c e during the Feast of Foo l s repeat the p a t t e r n ; they i n c l u d e the custom of wearing c l o t h i n g i n s i d e - o u t cr upside-down, of h o l d i n g the prayerbcck upside-down, of p l a c i n g a mock bishop on a donkey f a c i n g the a n i m a l ' s . t a i l 3 0 or c a r r y i n g excrement ceremoniously on a p i l l o w , 3 1 In. the s a c r i l e g i o u s a c t s , i n the r i o t o u s f e a s t , and i n the indecent gestures which took place i n the Fe a s t cf F o o l s , a m a t e r i a l i z i n g and downward s h i f t i n emphasis occurs. From s p i r i t u a l and i n t e l l e c t u a l values u s u a l l y 33 i d e n t i f i e d with the head, attention i s directed towards the tangible, material side of l i f e which has to dc with the digestive and reproductive system. Emphasis turns to the consuming, eliminating, copulating and reproducing body. During the f e s t i v a l , usual rules of continence and repression are suspended, and in t h e i r place an indulgent hedonism appears. Feasting and sexual license characterize the f e s t i v e world in which the functions and s a t i s f a c t i o n s cf the body suddenly become ce n t r a l . Ey eating black-pudding on the a l t a r the celebrants turn an object, which belongs to the s p i r i t u a l and contemplative side of l i f e , into an accessory of a material, sensual experience. The cbscene gestures c a l l attention to the lower body parts which are ignored during normal church ceremonies. Through these and similar actions usual attitudes and roles are r i d i c u l e d , changed and reversed. The feast i t s e l f s i g n i f i e s the replacement of s e l f - denial by self-indulgence. The f e s t i v e banquet i s central to nearly every popular f e s t i v a l . Hunger and the privations cf dai l y l i f e have no place i n t h i s environment, in f a c t , over- eating and over-drinking are encouraged by the abundance gathered together for the occasion. It has been suggested that the over-indulgence o r i g i n a l l y had a symbolic meaning, and that through mimesis,, the participants hcped to "prognosticate or cause a year of p l e n t i f u l f a r e " . 3 2 Other observers consider the ancient feasts tc be a nostalgic 34 r e c r e a t i o n of a d i s t a n t Golden Age cf p l e n t y . 3 3 Eanqueting excesses of C a r n i v a l were no doubt i n t e n s i f i e d by r e c o g n i t i o n of the approaching Lenten f a s t . T h i s atmosphere of c a r n i v a l e s g u e f e a s t i n g i s caught i n a d e s c r i p t i o n cf that f e s t i v a l i n XVIth century England p o r t r a y i n g the banguet as an annual o c c a s i o n f o r over-indulgence and g l u t t o n y , both gastronomical and v e r b a l : Now when at l e n g t h the pleasant time cf Shrovetide comes i n p l a c e . And c r u e l l f a s t i n g dayes at hande apprcch with sclemne grace: Then o l d e and yong are both as mad, as ghestes c f Bacchus f e a s t . And f o u r e dayes long they t i p p l e sguare, and feede and never r e a s t . Downe goes the Hogges i n every p l a c e , and puddings every wheare Do swarme: the Dice are shakte and t o s t , and Cardes apace they t e a r e : In every house are showtes and c r y e s , and mirth, and r e v e l l r o u t e . And d a i n t y t a b l e s spred, and a l l be s e t with ghestes a b o u t e . 3 4 The sexual l i c e n c e apparent d u r i n g C a r n i v a l and r e l a t e d f e s t i v a l s r e p r e s e n t s another aspect of the s e n s u a l , m a t e r i a l s i d e of l i f e which i s given p r i o r i t y by the c e l e b r a t i o n . Like other elements of the f e s t i v a l , i t a l s o stems from a long, t r a d i t i o n o r i g i n a t i n g i n a n c i e n t f e r t i l i t y r i t e s and s p r i n g f e s t i v a l s which continued under d i f f e r e n t names d e s p i t e the d i s a p p r o v a l of the C h r i s t i a n church, Chambers b e l i e v e s t h a t " i t may be taken f o r granted t h a t the summer f e s t i v a l s knew from the beginning that element c f sexual 35 l i c e n s e which f o u r t e e n c e n t u r i e s of C h r i s t i a n i t y have net wholly been a b l e to b a n i s h " . 3 5 But r e g a r d l e s s cf o r i g i n , the r e l a x a t i o n of sexual i n h i b i t i o n s accompanying the other l i b e r t i e s granted by the f e s t i v a l focuses even more a t t e n t i o n on the body. A p a r a l l e l freedom was granted cn the v e r b a l l e v e l where an e r o t i c , s c a t o l o g i c a l vocabulary appears, and s u b j e c t s f o r b i d d e n i n p o l i t e c o n v e r s a t i o n become c e n t r a l . A XVIth century c o n t e u r . Tabouret des Accords, t e s t i f i e s t o the v e r b a l l i b e r t y of C a r n i v a l : "Je scay un ccnte que je ne d i r o i s pas s i je n ' e s t o i s pres de Karesme-presnant, oh l a l i b e r t e du jour permet de p a r l e r un peu grassement". 3 6 iJaogeorgus concurs, s t a t i n g t h a t during C a r n i v a l "The tongue i s s e t at l i b e r t i e , and hath no kinde of s t a y " . 3 7 Unbound by the usual r u l e s of p r o p r i e t y , c a r n i v a l e s g u e speech a l s o f l a u n t e d r u l e s of l o g i c and syntax, and employed not only i n s u l t and o b s c e n i t y , but a l s o nonsense i n the e x p r e s s i o n cf i t s freedom. C a r n i v a l e s g u e d i s c o u r s e abounds with coc£j|- IlEag* r e p e t i t i o n , d e t a i l e d enumeration, p a r a d o x i c a l statements and nonsense words. I t i s the kind of u n i n h i b i t e d speech expected from t h a t favoured f e s t i v e personnage, the f o o l . Such v e r b a l composition i s designed t c s c l i c i t e the sympathy, c o l l a b o r a t i o n and most of a l l the l a u g h t e r of the l i s t e n i n g crowd who d e l i g h t i n the t r a n s g r e s s i o n cf usual norms. B a k h t i n , who d i s c o v e r s t h i s " l i b e r a t e d " speech i n the work of B a b e l a i s , l i n k s i t d i r e c t l y with c a r n i v a l e s g u e f r e e 36 speech which belonged to the popular idiom of the ti m e . 3 8 The tone of the popular f e s t i v a l i s lic e n t i o u s and irreverent, and i t s participants are not kind to those who do not, or who cannot, join in the uninhibited celebration. The s a t i r i c a l mocking of the crowd i s directed at both secular and r e l i g i o u s authorities, as well as at the k i l l - joys who represent the r i g i d attitudes of the extra-festive world i n general. These attitudes cf seriousness, scbriety, piety and hypocrisy are personified by those who abstain from sensual pleasures and adopt an ascetic, self-righteous attitude, or who h y p o c r i t i c a l l y pretend to be pious. This stance contrasts with the popular-festive mentality which urges candid indulgence of the senses, gives free rein to the gastronomic and sexual appetites, and tolerates inebriated i r r a t i o n a l i t y . In 1444 at Troyes, the clergy of St. Stephen's Church were t o l d by the bishop and twc canons to reduce their f e s t i v e a c t i v i t i e s . They did not comply, and even presented a jeu de £€rscnna_ges r i d i c u l i n g the three church o f f i c i a l s under the names of Hypocrisie, F a i n t i s e , and Faux-semblant. 3 9 Bakhtin points cut episodes in the work of Babelais i n which t h i s same attitude i s evident. For example, the k i l l - j o y s who refuse to take part in popular f e s t i v i t i e s are v i o l e n t l y punished in the figure of Tappecoue, the e c c l e s i a s t i c who refuses to lend his o f f i c i a l vestments to the f e s t i v a l . 4 0 Carnival and related f e s t i v a l s created a f l u i d , 37 permissive world f u l l of spontaneous g a i e t y and merriment, but the absence of r e s t r a i n t s a l s o encouraged u n d e r l y i n g c u r r e n t s of a g g r e s s i o n and v i o l e n c e normally held i n check. P h y s i c a l v i o l e n c e and h o s t i l i t y f r e q u e n t l y erupted as i n h i b i t i o n s vanished. At times the v i o l e n c e was u n i n t e n t i o n a l ; the press of the crowd was o f t e n so great that people were c a r r i e d along i n s p i t e c f themselves and even trampled underfoot i f they were unlucky. P h y s i c a l danger was a l s o present due to the absence of law enforcement, and p e r s o n a l vengeance sometimes found an a l l y i n C a r n i v a l . Emotions were c l o s e to the s u r f a c e and a f r i e n d l y c o n f e t t i b a t t l e could develop q u i c k l y i n t o a l a r g e s c a l e r i o t . Thrashings even took place w i t h i n the church w a l l s , a c c o r d i n g to some s o u r c e s . * 1 Given the v i o l e n t u n d e r c u r r e n t s of C a r n i v a l , the f e a r cf imminent death was j u s t i f i e d . The suspension of r u l e s and the subsequent chaos served as a warning cf what can happen in the absence of the e s t a b l i s h e d a u t h o r i t i e s . In t h i s sense, C a r n i v a l , which i s o f t e n seen as the revenge cf the oppressed cn the system which oppresses them, shows i t s e l f to be a c o n s e r v a t i v e agent, r e i n f o r c i n g the e x i s t i n g order by demonstrating the u n d e s i r a b l e aspects of freedom frcm laws and c l a s s s t r u c t u r e . While Bakhtin dees net emphasize t h i s c o n s e r v a t i v e element of , C a r n i v a l i n h i s study, p r e f e r r i n g i n s t e a d t o s t r e s s , the r e v o l u t i o n a r y aspect cf C a r n i v a l , other observers have analysed t h i s concept which 38 w i l l be discussed l a t e r in t h i s chapter. 4 2 On the cosmic l e v e l , death and danger were also thought to threaten the r e v e l l e r s . This feature i s common tc a long l i s t of pagan and Christian f e s t i v a l s . * 3 The spectre cf death and s p i r i t s of the dead were believed tc mingle among the f e s t i v e crowd, p a r t i c u l a r l y during Carnival. This crowd i t s e l f , an unfamiliar sea of masked faces, lent an extra- worldly atmosphere to the f e s t i v a l and added credence to the feeling that s p i r i t s were afoot. The disorderly s i t u a t i o n thus reinforced the impression of chaos on a grand scale.** During Carnival universal superstitions and fear of the unknown found a scapegoat i n the form of the Carnival dummy, a symbol of death and chaos. F i t t i n g l y , one cf the l a s t actions of the Carnival crowd i s to take t h i s e f f i g y to a public place and ceremoniously destroy i t . This i s the symbolic victory of the united community over chaos and fear, and also the s i g n a l for a return tc order. Another symbol of e v i l and i l l - w i l l , the d e v i l , was often given a r e a l i s t i c , nearly human form i n the f e s t i v i t i e s . The person wearing th i s costume danced comically for the people, allowing them to see him as an i n f e r i o r , misshapen version cf themselves, capable only of grotesgue movements. Their laughter arose from t h i s f e e l i n g of superiority ever a ence t e r r i f y i n g and powerful enemy reduced to a ludicrous clown. Also, since laughter implies a complicity with others,* 5 the i n d i v i d u a l could find reassurance and group s o l i d a r i t y as 3 9 the former source of u n i v e r s a l t e r r o r s u f f e r e d the j e e r s , taunts and mockery of the laughing crowd. The v e r b a l c o u n t e r p a r t of p h y s i c a l v i o l e n c e takes form as i n s u l t s and i n v e c t i v e . , antecedents of t h i s form c f c a r n i v a l e s g u e .abuse have been noted i n ether, o l d e r f e s t i v a l s by observers such as C a i l l o i s , who evokes the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c " c r i s , r a i l l e r i e s , i n j u r e s , v a - e t - v i e n t de p l a i s a n t e r i e s g r o s s i e r e s , obsc^nes ou s a c r i l e g e s , entre un p u b l i c e t un cortege q u i l e t r a v e r s e " . 4 6 The tenor cf the i n s u l t s i s d e s c r i b e d i n more d e t a i l by T.0 . Wright, who again draws the p a r a l l e l between an c i e n t p r a c t i c e s and C a r n i v a l : The most popular c e l e b r a t i o n s of the people cf Greece, were the D i o n y s i a c f e s t i v a l s , and the p h a l l i c r i t e s and p r o c e s s i o n s which accompanied them, i n which the c h i e f a c t o r s assumed the d i s g u i s e of s a t y r s and fawns, c o v e r i n g themselves with g o a t - s k i n s , and d i s f i g u r i n g t h e i r f a c e s by rubbing them over with the l e e s of wine. Thus, i n the guise of noisy bacchanals, they d i s p l a y e d an u n r e s t r a i n e d l i c e n t i o u s n e s s of gesture and language, u t t e r i n g indecent j e s t s and abusive speeches, i n which they spared nobody. T h i s p o r t i o n of the ceremony was the e s p e c i a l a t t r i b u t e of a part cf the performers, who accompanied the p r o c e s s i o n i n waggons, and acted something l i k e dramatic performances, i n which they u t t e r e d an abundance of l o o s e extempore s a t i r e on those who passed or who accompanied the p r o c e s s i o n , a l i t t l e i n the s t y l e of the modern c a r n i v a l s . 4 7 Although g e n e r a l l y t o l e r a t e d , the c h a o t i c , i r r e v e r e n t tenor of the popular f e s t i v a l s , and of the Feast of F o o l s i n p a r t i c u l a r , d i d not endear them to the e c c l e s i a s t i c a l a u t h o r i t i e s . The Feast of F o o l s , however, s u r v i v e d c e n t u r i e s 40 of o p p o s i t i o n from c e r t a i n segments of the church. Such d u r a b i l i t y i n the fa c e of long-standing condemnation provides an o b j e c t of s p e c u l a t i o n f o r observers of t h i s phenomenon. One of the e a r l i e s t documented o f f i c i a l o p p o s i t i o n s to the c e l e b r a t i o n of mock ceremonies i n the church took plac e i n 633 at the C o u n c i l cf Toledo, and one of the l a s t condemnations of the Feast of Fools was i s s u e d by the C o u n c i l of Bordeaux i n 1620. Repeated condemnations, which seemed to have l i t t l e or no e f f e c t , are l i s t e d by Du T i l l i o t i n h i s study of the Feast of F o o l s . * 8 There are records of the Feast of F o o l s w i t h i n church w a l l s as l a t e as the XVIIth century, although by the end c f the XVth century many churches had abandoned the p r a c t i c e . * 9 One e x p l a n a t i o n of i t s d u r a b i l i t y i s t h a t wholehearted condemnation was withheld because the credo of the f e s t i v a l , . e x a l t a t i o n of the humble, was too c l o s e t o the Church's own d o c t r i n e to be denied.so L i t e r a l a p p l i c a t i o n of the verse from the J2§31lilic.3£» "Deposuit potentes de sede et e x a l t a v i t humiles", epitomizes the Feast of F o o l s . I n v e r s i o n of the h i e r a r c h y i l l u s t r a t e s the C h r i s t i a n concept of the Day of Judgment when the meek and humble of the earth s h a l l r e p l a c e the mighty on t h e i r thrones. The d u r a b i l i t y of these f e s t i v a l s has a l s o been i n t e r p r e t e d as an attempt on the p a r t of the Church to e x p r o p r i a t e the enthusiasm of the people, t c d i v e r t t h e i r energy i n t o the Church i n s t e a d of a g a i n s t i t . T h i s was f r e q u e n t l y the p o l i c y i n regard to the a s s i m i l a t i o n c f pagan f e s t i v a l s . s i Although many e c c l e s i a s t i c a l a u t h o r i t i e s opposed these " f o o l i s h " o u t b u r s t s , there were defenders who saw a u s e f u l s o c i a l f u n c t i o n i n these c e l e b r a t i o n s : Nos pre'de'cesseurs, . . . gui e'tcient de Grands Personnages, ont permis c e t t e FeHe, vivons comme eux, 8 f a i s o n s ces choses se"rieusement, mais par jeu seulement, S pour nous d i v e r t i r , s e l o n l ' a ncienne coutume; a f i n que l a f o l i e qui nous e s t n a t u r e l l e , S qui semble. ne'e avec nous, s'emporte 8 s»ecoule par l a , du moins une f o i s chaque anne'e. Les Tcnneaux de v i n cre'vercient, s i on ne l e u r o u v r o i t q u e l q u e f o i s l a tcnde ou l e f o s s e t , pour l e u r donner de l ' a i r . Or ncus sommes de vieux vaisseaux S des tonneaux mal r e l i e z , que l e v i n de l a sagesse f e r o i t rompre, s i ncus l e l a i s s i o n s b o u i l l i r - a i n s i par une devotion c o n t i n u e l l e au s e r v i c e D i v i n : 11 l u i faut donner guelgue a i r 8 guelgue relachement, de peur q u * i l ne se perde 8 ne se repande sans p r o f i t . C'est pour c e l a que nous dcnncns quelques jo u r s aux jeux 8 aux b o u f f o n n e r i e s , a f i n de r e t o u r n e r e n s u i t e avec plus de joye 8 de f e r v e u r , a l'etude 8 aux e x c e r c i c e s de l a R e l i g i o n . S 2 The above a p o l o g i s t r e c o g n i z e s a fundamental human need to indulge i n f o l l y , " q u i nous e s t n a t u r e l l e , 8 q u i semble nee avec nous", and sees the annual c e l e b r a t i o n cf the F e a s t of Fool s as a t r a d i t i o n a l l y sanctioned s a f e t y valve f o r tensi o n s which b u i l d up i n the s o c i a l system. I t i s an occasion to r e l e a s e pent-up emotions i n order t h a t the work of the s o c i e t y , and i n p a r t i c u l a r t h a t . o f the Church, might continue with renewed vigour . Far from being r e v o l u t i o n a r y , the f e s t i v a l can serve a c o n s e r v a t i v e f u n c t i o n i n s o c i e t y . In a s t a b l e s o c i e t y with a strong r e l i g i o n common to a l l , the i r r e v e r e n t popular f e s t i v a l thus poses nc s e r i o u s t h r e a t to the s t a t u s guo. In f a c t , as the a p o l o g i s t suggests 42 above, i t strengthens e s t a b l i s h e d values by p r o v i d i n g a temporary r e l e a s e from p r e s s u r e s and t e n s i o n c r e a t e d by d a i l y l i f e . C L . Barber, who has s t u d i e d the popular f e s t i v a l , a l s o notes t h i s phenomenon: In a m o n o l i t h i c s o c i e t y , a Lord of M i s r u l e can be put back i n h i s place a f t e r the r e v e l with r e l a t i v e ease. The f e s t i v e burlesque of solemn s a n c t i t i e s dees net s e r i o u s l y t h r e a t e n s o c i a l values i n a m o n o l i t h i c c u l t u r e , because the l i c e n s e depends u t t e r l y upen what i t mocks: l i b e r t y i s unable to envisage any a l t e r n a t i v e to the accepted order except the standing of i t cn i t s head". 5 3 J. Huizinga concurs, s t a t i n g t h a t "the excesses and abuses r e s u l t i n g from an extreme f a m i l i a r i t y with t h i n g s holy, as well as the i n s o l e n t mingling of pleasure with r e l i g i o n , are g e n e r a l l y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of p e r i o d s of unshaken f a i t h and c f a deeply r e l i g i o u s c u l t u r e " . 5 4 However, as the s o c i e t y of the l a t e Middle Ages witnessed the fragmentation of t h e i r concept cf the u n i v e r s e , the freedoms granted during the popular f e s t i v a l s began to t h r e a t e n the power of the e s t a b l i s h e d a u t h o r i t i e s . An i n c r e a s i n g awareness of t h i s danger helped to d r i v e the Feast of Fools out of the Church i n the l a t e XVth century. But even when e x p e l l e d from the churches, the Feast of Fools did not cease, but s p i l l e d out i n t o the s t r e e t s g i v i n g added l i f e to other popular c e l e b r a t i o n s such as C a r n i v a l . The f e s t i v i t i e s took on a more s e c u l a r g u a l i t y under the l e a d e r s h i p of members of the l a y community who formed themselves i n t o f o o l - s o c i e t i e s c a l l e d the c e n f r e r i e s des 43 sots, or the societes joyeuses. These so c i e t i e s continued the l o n g t r a d i t i o n of mocking celebration in an upside-down environment, while extending t h e i r scope beyond the parody of e c c l e s i a s t i c a l l i f e to include the whole of s o c i e t y . 5 5 Their membership also extended to many prominent bourgeois of the town, and even on occasion included r o y a l t y . 5 6 Some societies such as the Easoche or the Enfants-sans-scuci i n Paris were composed primarily of young clerks or students and grew into semi-professional dramatic t r o u p s . 5 7 Thus, while the tone remained f o o l i s h and irreverent, the s a t i r e took on a more cul t i v a t e d quality which Enid Welsford r e f e r s to as the " i n t e l l e c t u a l i z a t i o n of f o l l y " . 5 8 The f o o l - s o c i e t i e s were also a more permanent organization, and t h e i r reign was extended frcm a short festive period to the whole year. They became the "fools in residence" of the various towns and c i t i e s . Each of these organizations gathered under the tutelage of a leader similar to the Saturnalian mock ruler, the mock bishcp, and the Carnival King and Queen. In the f o o l - s o c i e t i e s t h i s leader was usually known as a "Hoi des Feus", "Le Prince des Sots", "M£re F o l l e " or "He*re S o t t e 5 9 The main a c t i v i t i e s of the fool-society became the organization cf their own banguets, processions and the presentation of short s a t i r i c a l sketches for public occasions. They also helped to organize Carnival masquerades and o f f i c i a l c e l e b r a t i o n s . 6 0 The I H l a£t^£ie J L i j o n n a i s e studied by Du T i l l i c t 44 provides a prototype of these s o c i e t i e s . D i r e c t l y descended from the Feast of Fools e x p e l l e d from the d u c a l c h a p e l i n Burgundy i n 1552, the I n f a n t e r i e D i j o n n a i s e was composed c f s e v e r a l hundred men of v a r i e d p r o f e s s i o n s . They organized an annual p r o c e s s i o n and a banguet as well as performing s h o r t t h e a t r i c a l p r e s e n t a t i o n s f o r the p u b l i c of D i j c n . T h e i r motto was "Stultorum numerus e s t i n f i n i t u s " , s t r e s s i n g the u n i v e r s a l i t y of f o l l y . These s o c i e t i e s were s t i l l a c t i v e a f t e r the p u b l i c a t i o n of Le Moyen de Parvenir about 1610, and while there i s no evidence t h a t Eeroalde was a member of such a s o c i e t y , he would have been aware c f t h e i r e x i s t e n c e and a c t i v i t i e s . The a c t i v i t i e s of the I n f a n t e r i e E i j o n n a i s e , f o r example, are documented u n t i l 1626. 6 1 Although the f e s t i v a l s c o n t i n u e d , by the l a t e XVIth century t h e i r s i t u a t i o n y i s - a - y i s the a u t h o r i t i e s was p r e c a r i o u s . A f t e r a p e r i o d of c i v i l u nrest which l e f t both the p o l i t i c a l as well as the r e l i g i o u s f o u n d a t i o n s of the country shaken, f e s t i v e freedom, though guaranteed by t r a d i t i o n , had to d i s g u i s e i t s e l f more c a r e f u l l y . F o l l y and i n t o x i c a t i o n were s t r e s s e d during the f e s t i v a l s , s i n c e f o o l s and drunkards cannot be held r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e i r b e h a v i o u r . 6 2 Freedom of speech with impunity c o u l d be turned to trenchant s a t i r e and parody of the a u t h o r i t i e s or of o f f i c i a l t r u t h s , with a purpose to permanently changing the s o c i e t y thus mocked and s a t i r i z e d . A l l of t h i s c o u l d be c a r r i e d out under the cover of innocent f e s t i v e l a u g h t e r and f o o l i s h p r a t t l e . U5 The s p i r i t of the Feast of F o o l s , C a r n i v a l , and the f o o l - s o c i e t i e s l e f t i t s mark on many a r t i s t i c c r e a t i o n s c f the time, p a r t i c u l a r l y the comic t h e a t r e . From the s h o r t s t r e e t scenes which accompanied the f e s t i v e p r o c e s s i o n s , t o the s o t i e s , the sermons jo^eux, the monologue, and the f a r c e s , the mocking and i r r e v e r e n t l a u g h t e r of the popular f e s t i v a l i s found, 6? The s a m e . s p i r i t can be i d e n t i f i e d i n other l i t e r a r y genres. In the Roman de Renart, Aucassin e t N i c o l e t t e , the N a r r e n s c h i f f by Sebastian Erandt, Moriae Encomium by Erasmus and i n R a b e l a i s ' works f o r example, the upside-down world of f e s t i v e f o l l y and freedom r e a p p e a r s , 6 4 As demonstrated by the work of Chambers, Welsford, Earber and Bakhtin, an awareness of f e s t i v e p a t t e r n s can provide a new p e r s p e c t i v e on the l i t e r a r y r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of chaos and f o l l y . The present study, w i l l .explore the c a r n i v a l e s g u e elements i n Le Moyen de E a r v e n i r beginning i n the f o l l o w i n g chapter with an examination of the d e t a i l s which c o n t r i b u t e to the f e s t i v e atmosphere of Beroalde's symposium. 46 CHAPTER I I : NOTES 1 Roger C a i l l o i s . LJ.Hojnme et l e Sac r e . ( P a r i s : G a l l i m a r d , 1955) , p. 155. ~ 2 Johan H u i z i n g a , The Waning c f the Middle Ages, (Harmondsworth: Pe r e g r i n e , 1968), p. 239. 3 For a more d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n of C h r i s t i a n f e s t i v i t i e s see E.O. James, Seasonal Feasts and f e s t i v a l s , (London: Thames and Hudson, 196"T)7""p" 200-280. * Enid Welsford, The F o o l , p. 70, continues to des c r i b e t h i s double aspect i n the two major f e s t i v a l seasons: "Shrovetide i s a season when a good C h r i s t i a n c o n f e s s e s h i s s i n s , but i t i s a l s o the C a r n i v a l , when the scber c i t i z e n w i l l put on a mask and adopt the behaviour of the f o o l ; the Christmas season was once an e q u a l l y wild time". 5 H u i z i n g a , Waning, p. 155. 6 See Bakhtin, R a b e l a i s , p. 154 and pp. 219-20. 7 The Feast of the Innocents was so c a l l e d because i t f e l l cn the a n n i v e r s a r y of Herod's legendary s l a y i n g of the innocent c h i l d r e n , December 28. For a s i m i l a r reason the c e l e b r a t i o n was sometimes c a l l e d the Feast of the C i r c u m c i s i o n which f e l l on January 1. The F e a s t of the Sub- Deacons i s named f o r the p a r t i c i p a n t s , while the Feast c f the Ass r e f e r s to the burlesque entry cf an ass i n t o the church "while the prose of the ass was chanted". (Welsford, The F o o l , p. 202). For f u r t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n cn the g e n e r i c t i t l e , F e ast of F o o l s , see Chambers, Stage, V o l . I , pp. 274- 5 and p. 323, and S i r James F r a z e r , The Scapegoat (The GO-l^6.!! I X ) , (London: MacMillan, 1933), p. 334. 8 There are a few r e c o r d s of i t s c e l e b r a t i o n i n May and at other times of the year. See John F l i n n , Le Reman de Renart, (Toronto: 0, s0f T. Pr e s s , 1963), p. 83. 9 E.K. Chambers, Stage, V o l . I , pp. 324-25. 1 0 C a i l l o i s , Sacre, pp. 155-56. He a l s c s t a t e s , pp. 145-46, "Cet e n t r a c t e d»universelle c o n f u s i o n gue c e n s t i t u e l a f£te a p p a r a i t a i n s i re'ellement comme l a duree de l a suspension de l ' o r d r e du monde. C'est pourquoi l e s execs sont a l o r s permis. I l importe d ' a g i r a l'encontre des 47 r e g i e s . Tout d o i t e t r e e f f e c t u e a l ' e n v e r s " . 1 1 Chambers, Stage, I, p. 325. 1 2 J u l i o B a r o j a . E l Carnaval, (Madrid: Taurus, 1965), p. 47. 1 3 The Roman god, Saturn i s the e q u i v a l e n t c f the Greek Cronus, thus the same customs r e g a r d i n g them both are f r e q u e n t l y i d e n t i c a l . 1 4 The H y a k i n t h i s was a Greek f e s t i v a l d edicated t c an a g r a r i a n god of the same name. Held i n May, i t l a s t e d f o r three days. 1 5 The f e s t i v i t i e s cf the Kalends s i g n a l e d the Roman New Year. Chambers, Stage, I, p. 330, b e l i e v e s them t c be the ancestor of the Feast of F o o l s , c i t i r . g as evidence the masks, the exchange of masters and s l a v e s , and the date. 1 6 See Goethe, I t a l i a n Journey, t r a n s . W.B. Auden and E l i z a b e t h Mayer, (London: C o l l i n s , 1962) , p. 446, F r a z e r , §S"a.£e.goat, PP« 313, 346; Welsford, The F o o l , p. 12; James, Seasonal F e a s t s , p. 177; C a i l l o i s , Sacre, p. 157. Others such as Chambers, p r e f e r to c i t e the Roman Kalends as the d i r e c t a n c e s t o r , see above note 15. 1 7 Macrobius, S a t u r n a l i a , Ed. P e r c i v a l Vaughan Davies (New York: Columbia Oniv. Press, 1969), p. 59. 1 8 Macrobius, p. 158. 1 9 see The Holy B i b l e (King James v e r s i o n ) , St. Luke 1:52 "He hath put down the mighty from t h e i r s e a t s , and e x a l t e d them of low degree." 2 0 Lucian, S a t u r n a l i a i n The Works of L u c i a n , VI, ed. A.M. Harmon, (Cambridge: Harvard univ. P r e s s , 1959)", p. 93. 2 1 F r a z e r , Scapegoat, pp. 306-08. 2 2 The mask i s one of the o l d e s t and most u n i v e r s a l devices used to . s y m b o l i c a l l y transform the wearer, as i s demonstrated i n the work of F r a z e r , Scapegoat, who d e s c r i b e s masks used from a n c i e n t Greece to Mexico, pp. 246, 287, 381- 2, 384. H. V i l l e t a r d , Redargues sur l a f | t e des fous ( P a r i s : P i c a r d , 1911), p. 9, and Chambers, Stage, I, p. 330, a s s o c i a t e the medieval custom of masking s p e c i f i c a l l y with the Roman Kalends. In commenting on the use cf masks durin g the Feast of F o o l s , Chambers, p. 327, s t a t e s : "These masks. 48 indeed, are perhaps the one f e a t u r e o f the f e a s t which c a l l e d down the most u n q u a l i f i e d condemnation from the e c c l e s i a s t i c a l a u t h o r i t i e s . We s h a l l net be f a r wrcng i f we assume them to have been beast-masks, and to have taken the place o f the a c t u a l s k i n s and heads of s a c r i f i c i a l animals, here, as so o f t e n , worn at the f e a s t by the worshippers". 2 3 A c o l o u r f u l . d e s c r i p t i o n of xvith century C a r n i v a l masking i s found i n the .Pojaishe J5isa^2S® Naogeorgus (Thomas Kirchmaier) c i t e d here i n the 1570 E n g l i s h t r a n s l a t i o n by B. Googe, from the o r i g i n a l L a t i n e d i t i o n (1553), (London. Trubner, 1879), p. 329 ; The author, a P r o t e s t a n t , takes obvious d e l i g h t i n c i t i n g the f e l l y i n which C a t h o l i c s i n d u l g e on t h i s o c c a s i o n : But some againe the d r e a d f u l l shape cf d e v i l s cn them take, And chase such as they meete, and make pecre bcyes f o r f e a r to guake. Some naked runne about the s t r e e t e s , t h e i r f a c e s h i d alone, With v i s a r s c l o s e , t h a t so d i s g u i s d e , they might be knowne of none. Both men and women chaunge t h e i r weede, the men i n maydes aray, And wanton wenches drest l i k e men, dee t r a v e l l by the way, And to t h e i r neighbours houses gc, or where i t l i k e s them b e s t , Perhaps unto some auncient f r i e n d cr clde acguainted ghest, Unknowne, and speaking but fewe wordes, the meate devour they up, That i s before them s e t , and cleane they swinge cf every cup. Some runne about the s t r e e t s a t t y r d e l i k e Monks, and some l i k e k i n g s . Accompanied with pompe and garde, and ether s t a t e l y t h i n g s . Some hatch yong f o o l e s as hennes dc egges with gcod and speedie l u c k e , Or as the Goose doth use to do, or as the guacking ducke, Some l i k e wilde beastes doe runne abrcde i n skinnes that d i v e r s bee Arayde, and eke with lothsome shapes, that d r e a d f u l l are to see: They c o u n t e r f e t both Beares and Wcolves, and L i o n s f i e r c e i n f i g h t , And r a g i n g B u l l e s . Some play the Cranes with wings 8 s t i l t s u p r i g h t . 49 Some l i k e the f i l t h i e forme o f Apes, and some l i k e f o o l e s are d r e s t . Which best beseeme these P a p i s t e s a l l , t h a t thus keepe Bacchus f e a s t . 2 4 Baroja, C a r n a v a l , p. 23. 2 5 Goethe, pp. 453-4, d e s c r i b e s an ingenious C a r n i v a l mask which he observed a t the Roman C a r n i v a l of 1788. The wearer of t h i s mask stopped i n f r o n t of the houses of c e r t a i n married men, and by a c l e v e r device i n s i d e the mask was able t c cause two l i t t l e horns with t i n y b e l l s to protrude and r e t r a c t , much to the amusement of the onlookers. 2 6 Burckhardt, The C i v i l i z a t i o n of the Renaissance i n I t a l i , (New York: Harper, 1958")", pT 2207~states t h a t ~ a t one time masks i n I t a l y were worn from October to Lent. 2 7 See Marguerite de Navarre, i i H e j t a m e r c n , ed. M i c h e l Fr a n c o i s ( P a r i s : G a m i e r , 1967) XXV N c u v e l l e , p. 204, and H e l s f o r d , The Court Masjgue, p. 137. Edmond Bonnafe, Etudes sur l a v i e _griv4e de l a Renaissance, ( P a r i s : L.H. May, 1898), p. 175, a l s o remarks on the p r i v i l e g e s taken by masked a r i s t o c r a t s . 2 8 B a r o j a , p. 45, comments, "Es e l de Carnaval tambien un tiempo durante e l c u a l no debxan l l e v a r s e a cabo determinados t r a b a j o s . Asx, en A s t u r i a s , l a s mujeres, que comenzaban a h i l a r en reuniones por septiembre, a l l l e g a r e l Carnaval seguxan reuniendose en l o s • f i l a n d c n e s • , perc no h i l a b a n . En C a s t i l l a , . . . c o r r x a n e s t o s r e f r a n e s : »Is tuen h i l a r , de San Miguel a Navidad: de marzc, ayusc, no rabea bien e l huso 1, 'Dia de Santa Ines, mujeres, no b i l e s ' . . • .. En Cataluna han c o r r i d o ideas semejantes." See a l s o Chambers, pp. 146-47. 2 9 Du T i l l i o t , ft4moires _pour s e r v i r a l j h i s t c i r e de l a f e t e des fous (Lausanne: Bosquet, 1741), pp. 5-6. Du T i l l i o t f u r t h e r d e s c r i b e s t h i s f e a s t by c i t i n g a l e t t e r of the P a r i s i a n f a c u l t y of t h e o l o g y , pp. 7-8. 3 0 Chambers, Stage, I, pp. 317-21, c i t e s an account cf the bishop and the beast g i v e n by the reformer John Euss who had taken p a r t i n the Feast of F o o l s as a boy. 3 1 Nacgeorgus, p. 330, r e c o r d s another i r r e v e r e n c e : "But others beare a t o r d e , t h a t on a Cushion s o f t they l a y , / And one there i s t h a t with a f l a p doth keepe the f l i e s away./ I would there might an other be an o f f i c e r of those,/ 50 Whose roome might serve to take away the scent from every nose." 3 2 Chambers, Stage, I, p. 266. C a i l l c i s , Sacre, p. 146, concurs: "Deux r a i s o n s concourent a rendre recommandatle dans ces c i r c o n s t a n c e s l a de'bauche et l a f c l i e . Pcur e*tre plus sur de r e t r o u v e r l e s c o n d i t i o n s d'existence du passe mythigue, on s ' i n g ^ n i e a f a i r e l e c c n t r a i r e de ce gu'cn f a i t h a b i t u e l l e m e n t . D'autre p a r t , toute exuberance manifeste un s u r c r o l t de vigueur q u i ne peut gu'appcrter l'abcndance e t l a prospe'rite' au renouveau attendu". 3 3 Macrobius, S a t u r n a l i a , p. 590, a f f i r m s that the S a t u r n a l i a r e c a l l s the' Golden Age of Saturn; B a k h t i n , J a b e l a i s , PP» 7-10, sees the concept of a Golden Age c o n t i n u i n g i n an unbroken l i n e i n t o medieval and Renaissance f e s t i v a l s . 3 * Naogeorgus,Po£ishe Kingdome, p. 329. 3 5 Chambers, Stage, I , p. 145. 3 6 Tabouret des Accords, E s c r a i g n e s D i j c n n a i s e s , c i t e d by Edmond Huguet, D i e t i o n n a i r e de l a lan^ue f r a n ^ a i s e du XVIe s i e c l e , (Paris:"champion, 1925)", VI,~p7~98. 3 7 Naogeorgus, p. 329. 3 8 B a k h t i n , R a b e l a i s , pp. 187-88, d e s c r i b e s t h i s l i n g u i s t i c freedom as the " u n o f f i c i a l " speech: "Abuses, curses, p r o f a n i t i e s , and i m p r o p r i e t i e s are the u n o f f i c i a l elements of speech. They were and are s t i l l conceived as a breach of the e s t a b l i s h e d norms of v e r b a l address; they r e f u s e to conform to c o n v e n t i o n s , to e t i q u e t t e , c i v i l i t y , r e s p e c t a b i l i t y . These elements of freedom, i f present i n s u f f i c i e n t numbers and with a p r e c i s e i n t e n t i o n , e x e r c i s e a strong i n f l u e n c e on the e n t i r e contents of language. Such speech forms, l i b e r a t e d from norms, h i e r a r c h i e s , and p r o h i b i t i o n s of e s t a b l i s h e d idiom, become themselves a p e c u l i a r argot and c r e a t e a s p e c i a l : c o l l e c t i v i t y , a group c f people i n i t i a t e d i n f a m i l i a r i n t e r c o u r s e , who are frank and f r e e i n e x p r e s s i n g themselves v e r b a l l y . The marketplace crowd was such a c o l l e c t i v i t y , e s p e c i a l l y the f e s t i v e , c a r n i v a l e s g u e crowd at the f a i r " . Julia K r i s t e v a , Le Texte du Roman (The Hague and P a r i s : Mouton, 1970), pp. 65-67, f u r t h e r develops Bakhtin's concept of c a r n i v a l e s g u e speech. See a l s o Lambert P o r t e r , La F a t r a s i e et l e f a t r a s (Geneva: Droz, 1960), pp. 2-68, f o r a d i s c u s s i o n cf nonsense language. 51 3 9 Chambers, Stage, I, p. 296. *o B a k h t i n , R a b e l a i s , pp. 263-68. 4 1 Nacgeorgus, Pojjishe Kingdome, p. 333, d e s c r i b e s Shrovetide t h r a s h i n g s : From Thurseday then t i l l E a s t e r come, the fondest tcyes have place Wherin these c a t h l i k e s t h i n k themselves, g r e a t men cf wondrous grace F i r s t three days space the b e l l e s are wilde, i n s i l e n c e f o r to l i e , When from the toppes of hawtie tcwres, with c l a p p e r s lowd they c r i e . The boyes i n every s t r e a t doe runne, and ncyses g r e a t they make. While as i n c a l l i n g men t o Church t h e i r wccden c l a p p e r s shake. Thre n i g h t e s at midnight up they r i s e , t h e i r Mattens f o r to heare , Appoynted w e l l with clubbes and s t a v e s , and stcnes i n order theare: The Sexten straightwayes putteth out the candles speedely, And s t r a i g h t the P r i e s t with r u s t i e t h r c t e , alowde begins to c r y . Then f u r i o u s rage begins to s p r i n g , and h u r l y b u r l y r i s e , On pewes and deskes and s e a t e s they bounce, 6 beate i n d r e d f u l l w i s e : Thou wouldst suppose they were possest, with s p r i g h t e s and d e v i l l s a l l . Or f u r y such as f o r c e t h them, that upon Bacchus c a l l . Some beaten downe with clubbes and s t a v e s , among the pewes do l y And others almost brainde with stones, or wounded m o r t a l l y . Well serves the darckenesse f o r these deedes, and t h e r e t o doth agree. The f a s h i o n s l i k e of every one, that thus enraged bee. 4 2 See below, pp. 40-42. 4 3 The presence of death or of the s p i r i t s of the dead appear i n many pagan and C h r i s t i a n f e s t i v a l s such as the Greek A n e s t h e r i a , Thesmophcria and E a c c h a n a l i a , the Roman E a r e n t a l i a , Lemuria, L a t u r n a l i a and Kalends, and the C h r i s t i a n Michaelmas, A l l Souls and A l l S a i n t s . See Frazer, Scapegoat, pp. 154-6. 52 4 4 In a s e c t i o n of h i s study c i t e d abcve C a i l l o i s d i s c u s s e s the legendary time of c r e a t i v e chacs which i s i n the mythical past of s e v e r a l d i f f e r e n t a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l groups; see "Chaos et l'age d'or" i n Sacre, pp. 133-36. * s Henri Bergson, Ie E i r e ( E a r i s : F.U.F., 194 0), p. 5. * 6 Sacre, p. 155. 4 7 Thomas 0. Wright, A H i s t o r y of c a r i c a t u r e and grotesque i n l i t e r a t u r e and a r t (London: V i r t u e Eros., 1 8 6 5 7 , 77 11. ' * 8 Du T i l l i o t , M§I2il§s» PP* 3 _ t * a n ( 3 P« 3 I f f . A humourous f o o t n o t e to the o f f i c i a l attempts tc e r a d i c a t e the Feast of F o o l s i s the e l a b o r a t e order i s s u e d at Sens r e g u l a t i n g the f e a s t . Chambers, p. 298, guctes that i mpropriety and d i s s o n a n t s i n g i n g were f o r b i d d e n , and t h a t "not more than t h r e e buckets of water at the most must be poured over the p r e c e n t o r stultorum at Vespers". * 9 Du T i l l i o t , pp. 22-23, quotes an eye-witness account of such a f e s t i v a l i n Antibes around 1643. so V i l l e t a r d , pp. 9-10, s t a t e s t h i s p o s s i b i l t y : "Dans ces f o l i e s et ces l i c e n c e s du peuple, i l se c a c h a i t cependant une pens^e p h i l o s o p h i g u e . C'est que l a s u p e r i o r i t ! des r i c h e s , l a puissance des grands ne s a u r a i t durer t o u j o u r s ; c ' e s t que, aux humbles e t aux p e t i t s , i l d o i t e t r e octroye guelques jours de compensation, I l y a v a i t , dans une t e l l e pensee, trop de conformite avec sa propre d o c t r i n e , pour que l ' E g l i s e s'opposat, du moins en p r i n c i p e , a ces d i s t r a c t i o n s et a ces f e t e s joyeuses". With the advent c f C h r i s t i a n i t y and i t s subsequent o f f i c i a l a d o p t i o n , pagan exuberance was not n e c e s s a r i l y discouraged, but r a t h e r channeled, i n t o C h r i s t i a n forms. New C h r i s t i a n symbols arose to f i l l a l r e a d y developed c u l t u r a l molds. For example, ceremonies surrounding the f a m i l i a r pagan legend of a b e n e f i c e n t god ( O s i r i s , Dionysus) who d i e s , and r e t u r n s with the s p r i n g to the accompaniment of a f e s t i v a l , were e a s i l y adapted to C h r i s t i a n thought. Likeswise the worship c f feminine d e i t i e s reappears i n the Marian c u l t . For f u r t h e r study see F r a z e r , Scajaegcat, p. 328, and J. Seznec, The S u r v i v a l of the Pagan Gods (New York: Harper, 1961). 5 1 See E. 0. James, Seasonal f e a s t s , p. 269. 5 2 Du T i l l i o t , Memoires, p. 30. V i l l e t a r d , Bemargues, p. 7, c i t e s Pope Leon, another a p o l o g i s t who excuses human f o l l y . Jean-Richard B l c c h , a l a t t e r day C a r n i v a l c r i t i c 53 echoes that thought "une f e t e e t a i t une r e s p i r a t i o n e n t r e deux c o u p l e s , une parenthese ouverte pour l a l i b e r t e humaine entre deux t e n t a t i v e s de r e s t r i c t i o n morale". "Carnaval e s t mort" E s s a i s e s t h e t i g u e s ( E a r i s : G a l l i m a r d , 1920), p. 119. 5 3 Barber, Comedy, pp. .213-14., 5 4 Huizinga, Waning, pp. 156-57. 5 5 P e t i t de J u l l e v i l l e , K e ^ e r t o i r e du t h e a t r e comigue en France au moyen-age ( P a r i s : C e r f , 1886), p. /l06, supports t h i s i d e a : "A l a parodie de l a h i e r a r c h i e et de l a l i t u r g i e e c c l e s i a s t i g u e s , i l s (les c c n f r e r i e s des sots] f c n t succeder l a p a rodie de l a s c c i e t e tout e n t i e r e " . 5 6 Du T i l l i o t , pp. 68-70, has r e p r i n t e d the "Acte de r e c e p t i o n de Henri de Bourbon, P r i n c e de Conde, Premier Eri n c e du Sang . . .1626". 5 7 see P e t i t de J u l l e v i l l e , l e s Com|diens en France au moyen-age, ( P a r i s : C e r f , 1885), p. 88 and p. 144. ss welsford, F o o l , p. 318. 5 9 Chambers, Stage, I , p. 373, l i s t s the v a r i o u s t i t l e s given the r u l e r s of the d i f f e r e n t f o o l s o c i e t i e s . so P e t i t de J u l l e v i l l e , Cgmediens, p. 247, and w e l s f o r d , Masgue, p. 22. 6 1 Welsford, F o o l , p. 208, c i t e s s u p p r e s s i o n of the I n f a n t e r i e D i j g n n a i s e ~ b y L o u i s X I I I i n 1630. See a l s o P e t i t de J u l l e v i l l e , Com^die, p. 154. 6 2 Welsford, F o o l , p. 204. 6 3 P e t i t de J u l l e v i l l e , Bi£§rtoire, p. 105, f i n d s the s o t t i e t c be c l o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d with the Feast of F o o l s : " s * i l e s t un genre de comedie dont l ' o r i g i n e peut e t r e cherchee dans ces burlesques s o l e m n i t e s , c ' e s t l a s o t t i e . Les s o t s sont l e s anciens c e l e b r a n t s de l a fe*te des f e u s j e t e s hors de l ' e g l i s e par l e s c o n c i l e s i n d i g n e s ; puis rassemble'es sur l a p l a c e publique ou dans l e prochain c a r r e f o u r pour y c o n t i n u e r l a f e t e " . 6 4 HoEiH Renart, Branches X-XI, ed. Mario Rogues (P a r i s : "champion," 1960). Aucassin e t N i c o l e t t e . Ed. Herman Sucher (New York: G. E. S t e c h e r t and ~CoT, ™ 9 36) . , S h i j c f F o o l s , ( N a r r e n s c h i f f ) , Trans. E.h. Zeydel (New York: Columbia 0nivT~Press7 1936). The P r a i s e cf E e l l j , (Hcriae 54 Encomium), Trans. T. Chaloner (London: Oxford Univ. Press, 1965*7. Rabelais, Oeuvres completes, ed. Pierre Jourda (Paris: Gamier, 1962)". ~ 55 CHAPTER I I I THE CARNIVALESQUE ATMOSPHERE OF BEROALDE'S EANQUET A c a r n i v a l e s g u e mood animates Le Mojen de P a r v e n i r . The s e t t i n g i s a banquet i n which wine and wcrds flow l i b e r a l l y , and the general,atmosphere i s c o n s c i o u s l y one of u n i n h i b i t e d merriment. The guests and the hosts are i n a h o l i d a y mood as t h e i r c o n v e r s a t i o n , t h e i r anecdotes, and the many e x h o r t a t i o n s t o d r i n k r e v e a l . Broad la u g h t e r and r i b a l d t a l e s dominate the f e s t i v i t i e s , and nothing i s sacred before the mocking, i r r e v e r e n t d i a l o g u e of the group assembled. A l l e g o r i c a l c h a r a c t e r s such as " l e Mor t e l " , "Chose" and " l a Bonne I n t e n t i o n " , together with speakers d i s g u i s e d as such famous personages as S o c r a t e s , P e t r o n i u s , R a b e l a i s , and Ronsard evoke the s h i f t i n g i d e n t i t i e s of a C a r n i v a l masquerade. A c a r n i v a l e s g u e r u l i n g couple can be . d i s c e r n e d i n "La Sophie" and " l e pere s p i r i t u e l " 1 who host the banguet and attempt to guide the c o n v e r s a t i o n . Fools and f o l l y 5 6 abound, and at times the banquet very closely resembles a meeting of one of the f o o l - s o c i e t i e s . 2 The heterogeneity cf the group of r e v e l l e r s , composed of ancient philosophers, contemporary poets, Catholics, Protestants, and a variety of others, matches the f e s t i v e chaos of the i r environment. The many voices blend and lose their i n d i v i d u a l i d e n t i t i e s in the inebriated uproar of the feast. Similar to a f e s t i v a l , t h i s v o l a t i l e , uninhibited symposium exposes a sensuous and playful side of human nature. Occasionally, as i n Carnival, the violence which i s normally contained just beneath the surface by s o c i a l i n h i b i t i o n s i s also released. Numerous c a l l s to order are necessary, but they are invariably followed by i n v i t a t i o n s to drink and be merry. The popular preoccupation with the human body and i t s functions frequently provides material for banquet conversations and anecdotes. Stock characters such as the g u l l i b l e cuckold, the pedant scholar, the unfaithful wife, and the l i c e n t i o u s c l e r i c recreate f a m i l i a r comic situations in many short ,narrations during the banguet conversation. These short tales and anecdotes focus the attention and provoke the laughter of the fe s t i v e group gathered at the banquet. These narrations have a p a r a l l e l in Carnival during which an impromptu scene staged on the street or a presentation of popular comic theatre catches the attention of the laughing crowd. The polyphonic narrative i s not woven together into a 5 7 cohesive p l o t , but i s l e f t u n f i n i s h e d l i k e a c o l o u r f u l t a p e s t r y with n a r r a t i v e threads l e f t d a n g l i n g . The o v e r - a l l impression i s of a l i v e l y and i n e b r i a t e d chaos. In h i s p r e s e n t a t i o n of the banguet Beroalde c r e a t e s an upside-down world which e x i s t s apart from o r d i n a r y , everyday l i f e , and which i s i n many ways the world of the f e s t i v a l , . T h i s chapter w i l l examine the d e t a i l s which c o n t r i b u t e to t h i s impression beginning with the d i s l o c a t i o n of time and space. In a l l f e s t i v a l s t h e r e i s a conscious e f f o r t to e s t a b l i s h a new environment a p a r t from the everyday world. One way to accomplish t h i s i s to a l t e r the f a m i l i a r p a t t e r n of normal l i f e by d i s c o n n e c t i n g the c e l e b r a t i o n from o r d i n a r y time and space. C e l e b r a n t s are i n v i t e d to f o r g e t the l i n e a r p r o g r e s s i o n of time and to enjoy the present with no thought f o r the f u t u r e . W i thin the f e s t i v a l , time becomes i r r e l e v a n t and space takes on a new dimension, as r e a l i t y and i m a g i n a t i o n o v e r l a p , While r e a d i n g Le Moyen de P a r v e n i r one has the impression t h a t time and space are d e l i b e r a t e l y i n d e f i n i t e and vague. The author o f f e r s few d e t a i l s of the time of the events which take p l a c e , or of the p h y s i c a l s e t t i n g , and those d e t a i l s which he i n c l u d e s c o n t r i b u t e more to the c o n f u s i o n than to the c l a r i f i c a t i o n o f the n a r r a t i v e . The exact time and p l a c e of the symposium remain obscure throughout, and f a c t s concerning the c r e a t i o n and e x i s t e n c e of the book i t s e l f i n time and space are vague and imprecise as w e l l . In order to s u b s t a n t i a t e the impression c f 58 purposeful temporal and spa c i a l disorder, Beroalde's treatment of time i n le Moyen de Parvenir w i l l be closely examined firs t . , followed by his presentation of spacial references. In the everyday world, time i s conceived as an instrument of measurement and can be used to locate s p e c i f i c events along an advancing l i n e known as h i s t o r i c a l time. The author of Le Moyen de Parvenir however, seeks to deny his reader t h i s instrument by purposely obscuring the value cf time i n his work, and as a result the date of the events which take place at the banguet remain uncertain and enigmatic to the end. The f i r s t references tc a date i n r e l a t i o n to the events of the banquet contain no s p e c i f i c information, even though the author teasingly pretends they do. This occurs i n the opening sentence in which great attention i s given to the s p e c i f i c moment in time when the banguet i n v i t a t i o n s are issued: Car est i l , que ce fut au temps, au s i e c l e , en 1*indication, en l'&ere, en l'Hegire, en l'hebdomade, au l u s t r e , en l'Olimpiade, en l'an, au terme, au mois, en l a sepmaine, au jour, a l'heure, a l a minute, 6 justement a l ' i n s t a n t que par l ' a v i s S prcgres du Daimon des spheres les esteufs descheurent de c r e d i t , S qu'au l i e u d'eux furent avancees les molles b a l l e s , au prejudice de l a noble antiquite, qui se jouoit s i joliment. (1:3-4) The torrent of nouns presumably aims to define a certain date, but i n r e a l i t y points nowhere, surrounding i t with a comic importance. By use of overprecision (from the "Aere" to the "instant") and of exaggerated d i v e r s i t y (from the 5 9 exotic and strange "Hegire", "hebdomade", "Olimpiade" to the common "minute"), the mock d e f i n i t i o n of the date parodies accounts of more serious convocations. The date in guestion i s that upon which the "esteufs descheurent de c r e d i t " , an anticlimax in that i t i s not immediately recognizable as an event of universal importance.? It i s disconcerting, a f t e r the crescendo of introductory nouns, to f i n d their point cf reference i s obscure and seemingly r i d i c u l o u s . The time cf the banquet i s thus l o s t i n a burlesgue mock epic introduction. The i l l - d e f i n e d period i s mentioned a second time in the same paragraph, again with no d e f i n i t e indications: "Et bien en cet excellent periode i l avint ce que vous scavez, 5 je vous jure sans jurer, que tout est vray" (1:4). The "excellent periode" has not yet been defined as the author pretends, and neither can the reader supply the rest cf the information which the author teasingly attributes to him: " i l avint ce que vous scavez". The reader does not know what happened, and the narrator's assurance "que tout est vray", adds a p a r t i c u l a r note of flippancy to this c i r c u l a r statement. The next mention of the date occurs several sentences la t e r and again contains the same p l a y f u l , teasing lack cf information: II fut done en ceste saison sonne, tromp£, trompete', corne', (comme vous voudrez, prenez au goust de vestre ratte) & crie', huche, d i t £ proclame' avec l a trcmpe 60 p h i l o s c p h i g u e , que toutes ames q u i avoi e n t serment a l a Sophie se t r o u v a s s e n t au l i e u s u s d i t . (1:5) The time of the meeting, " c e s t e s a i s o n " , has net been p r e v i o u s l y c l a r i f i e d as the author here assumes, and the date remains ambiguous, i n s p i t e of h i s pretense a t d e f i n i n g i t . In a l l the above comments r e l a t e d to p l a c i n g the a c t i o n of h i s book on s p e c i f i c p o i n t s i n time, the author's i n t e n t i o n seems to be d i r e c t e d towards o b s c u r i n g the time r a t h e r than c l a r i f y i n g i t . While c r e a t i n g an aura of vagueness around the time c f the events w i t h i n the book, the author pursues a s i m i l a r course r e g a r d i n g the composition and p u b l i c a t i o n of the bock i t s e l f . Comments to t h i s e f f e c t are s p r i n k l e d throughout the book from the f i r s t page to the l a s t . Eeroalde makes a p o i n t of mentioning both the p u b l i c a t i o n and composition i i i a s s o c i a t i o n with time, but again the i n f o r m a t i o n he d i v u l g e s i s only p s e u d o - s p e c i f i c , and i n r e a l i t y obscures the i s s u e i n s t e a d of c l e a r i n g i t . The f i r s t i n d i c a t i o n of t h i s a t t i t u d e i s to be found on the t i t l e page,, where i n s t e a d cf g i v i n g the a c t u a l date of p u b l i c a t i o n , the author e q u i v o c a l l y s t a t e s , "Imprimee C e t t e Annee".* The d e l i b e r a t e r e f u s a l to s t a t e an exact date i n d i c a t e s the author's d e s i r e to g i v e h i s book a s p e c i a l temporal s t a t u s . 5 The date of composition i s obscured even more than t h a t of the p u b l i c a t i o n . In the l i m i n a r y q u a t r a i n f o l l o w i n g the t i t l e page Beroalde i n d i c a t e s t h a t the composition of the 61 book may not even have taken p l a c e : S i Madame m'eust sarvescn, J'eusses commence7 c e t ouvrage. This h y p o t h e t i c a l statement lends an a i r of u n c e r t a i n t y to the act of composition. The author i s asking the reader to b e l i e v e that the book p r e s e n t l y being read has not yet been w r i t t e n . He r e p e a t s t h i s u p s e t t i n g c h r o n o l o g i c a l idea i n another passage: Que ne s q a v o i s - j e ces b e l l e s responses, 6 ces d o c t r i n e s , j e s u i s f o r t d e s p l a i s a n t , & meurs de r e g r e t , que je n ' a t t e n d i s a e s c r i r e pour e s t r e l e s e c r e t a i r e de ce sympose, qu i m'eut plus apporte de r e p u t a t i o n , que n'en auront tous l e s e s c r i v a n s ensemble. Or c ' e s t tout un, j'ay l a c o p i e des d i s c o u r s S v o i l a comment je me t i e n s . . . a ces f u t u r e s sentences gui sent ja e s c r i t e s .(1:216) The " b e l l e s responses" and " d o c t r i n e s " to which he r e f e r s are contained i n the c o n v e r s a t i o n s which form the t e x t of Le Moyen de P a r v e n i r . They are a l r e a d y a r e a l i t y i n the same way as the book which the reader holds i s o b v i o u s l y not j u s t a f u t u r e p o s s i b i l i t y as the author suggests i n the opening verse. The " f u t u r e s sentences q u i sont ja e s c r i t e s " cannct be r e l e g a t e d to the problematic f u t u r e e i t h e r , f o r they are a l r e a d y recorded; i n f a c t they c o n s t i t u t e most cf the m a t e r i a l of the Le Moyen de P a r v e n i r which the author does not seem to r e a l i z e he has w r i t t e n . In the l a s t chapter of the book during the author's c l o s i n g statements, t h e r e i s another attempt to place Le I322§li P a r v e n i r i n the i n d e f i n i t e f u t u r e ; i t i s p r o j e c t e d out of the realm of present r e a l i t y and i n t o the world of 62 fantasy and i l l u s i o n , Beroalde w r i t e s : Je me mettray a f a i r e un beau l i v r e , ou je vous d i r a y l a v e r i t e t o u t au rebours des a u t r e s , 6 d'une fagcn s i b e l l e que je l e p u b l i r a y apres ma mort, a f i n que l ' c n voye que j'y d i r a y de bonnes choses, que je n'entendray ncn p l u s que vous a u t r e s . (11:260) I t i s obvious t h a t the "beau l i v r e " which he i n t e n d s someday to w r i t e and p u b l i s h i s none other than the one j u s t drawing to a c l o s e . T h i s paradox i s repeated on the f i n a l page i n a l a s t e f f o r t to d i s p l a c e the t e x t t e m p o r a l l y : Et a f i n gue je p u i s s e un jour commencer ce volume, je mettray i c i un t r o n c , t e l g u ' i l e s t en n o s t r e v i l l e , aupres l e p o r t a i l de l a grande E g l i s e : Vous g u i avez mine d' e s t r e horns, Et gui semblez e s t r e hommasses: Apportez quatre gros 4s t r o n c s , A f i n gue l'oeuvre se parface. Et je vous promets gue vous y g a i g n e r e z : S davantage, y apprendrez tout ce q u ' i l y a de bon en ce mcnde; ce que je vous prouveray en toutes S maintes s o r t e s . (11:261) On t h i s thought the author t e r m i n a t e s the bock which he says someday he intends to begin. The c i r c l e i s complete, and the i s s u e of time has acquired the vague, unstable q u a l i t y which Beroalde d e l i b e r a t e l y s e t about to g i v e i t . The l o c a t i o n of Beroalde's banguet i n space a l s o appears p u r p o s e f u l l y vague, and as such helps to obscure the d i s t i n c t i o n s between r e a l i t y and i m a g i n a t i o n . Again, i t i s a matter of the author's e v a s i v e d e f i n i t i o n . Although a p l a c e i s not p r e v i o u s l y mentioned i n the t e x t , he r e f e r s t c i t i n the f i r s t announcement of the convocation as the " l i e u s u s d i t " ( 1 : 5 ) . 6 A p l a c e i s mentioned soon a f t e r , "nous fusmes tous r e s o l u s de nous tr o u v e r chez l e bon homme nostre 63 pere s p i r i t u e l " (1:5), but t h i s reference to the location leaves too much room for speculation to be of use in establishing a physical s e t t i n g for the banguet. "Nostre pere s p i r i t u e l " implies a s p i r i t u a l leader of some sort, and the meeting which he hosts has been interpreted variously by c r i t i c s as a mock representation of a r e l i g i o u s convocation, a papal symposium,7 or an alchemical congress, 8 a l l timely subjects i n Beroalde's age. The "pere s p i r i t u e l " would then be either a divine leader or an adept i n the occult sciences. If t h i s i s the case, the meeting place would be in a location associated with the designated leader, and a l l members of the invited group would be f a m i l i a r with the place. While the above interpretations of the meeting as a parody of r e l i g i o u s or occult symposiums are indeed plausible sources of i n s p i r a t i o n , there i s also another kind of meeting which i s sim i l a r to that portrayed in Le Mcjen de Parvenir and which i s suggested by the epithet "pere s p i r i t u e l " . This t i t l e may include a deliberate a play cn the word s ^ J L r i t u e l , perhaps r e f e r r i n g to one cf the great wits of the time, such as the leader of a fool-society who was t r a d i t i o n a l l y elected from the most clever and quick- witted members of the company. If. Beroalde's meeting was inspired by the burlesgue reunions of such groups, Eeroalde would not have had to i n i t i a t e parody as a point cf view because these organizations are already dedicated to parody 64 and f o l l y . Le Moyen de P a r v e n i r would then be a v a r i a n t cf an already e s t a b l i s h e d form of parody, and the "pere s p i r i t u e l " , the e q u i v a l e n t of a P r i n c e des Sots who e x e r c i s e d a r e i g n of f o l l y i n the t r a d i t i o n cf the f e s t i v a l ' s mock r u l e r s . 9 T h i s k i n d of " s p i r i t u e l " l e a d e r reigned a l s o over the f o o l - s o c i e t i e s such as the I n f a n t e r i e £iJ2££aise. The i n v i t a t i o n s sent out to t h i s company c f Dijon promise a banquet to be hosted by " l e ben Pere" who promises to encourage the f e s t i v e atmosphere. 1 0 The meeting i n Le Moyen de P a r v e n i r may have been . i n s p i r e d by such reunions which were held i n a s p e c i a l chamber set aside f o r t h e i r r e v e l s . But s i n c e t h i s enigmatic mention of a l o c a t i o n , "chez nostre pere s p i r i t u e l ' . ' , i s one of the few d e t a i l s o f f e r e d concerning the place c f the banguet, any attempt to p r e c i s e l y d e f i n e a l o c a t i o n must n e c e s s a r i l y remain s t u d i e d s p e c u l a t i o n . There - i s , however, a b r i e f d e s c r i p t i o n of the room i n which the symposium i s t o take p l a c e . The immediate impression i t c r e a t e s i s t h a t of a chamber decorated f o r some c o u r t l y f e s t i v a l : Nous fusmes i n t r o d u i t s en une b e l l e grande s a l e paree, comme d i t l ' a u t r e , autant a l ' a n t i g u e gu'a l a moderne, to u t y e s t o i t avec grace f o r t bien retaconne, & avec simmetrie p a r f a i t e , & ce pour donner a u t h c r i t e 8 l u s t r e a l ' a v a n t u r e 8 aux d i s c o u r s , 8 pour e n f l e r n o s t r e d e s s e i n de p l u s de majesty. (1:10) This d e s c r i p t i o n i s r e m i n i s c e n t of the f a r longer passages on a r c h i t e c t u r e and decor which f i l l the pages of the widely 65 read pastoral novels of the time, a form tc which Eeroalde had himself added two well-received contributions. 1 1 The physical setting described above i s one of order and elegance, but t h i s impression i s guickly overturned and forgotten in the chaotic and uneven conversations which follow. There i s no courtly pastoral pageant or orderly display of knowledge in Le Mo_yen de Parvenir; instead the reader i s surrounded with a disorderly and anarchistic babble of voices. It i s as though an elegantly decorated chariot i s glimpsed i n a Carnival precession, but i t s display of a l l e g o r i c a l harmony i s quickly engulfed by the motley crowd as the parade moves on. In this context, Beroalde's misleading description of elegance and harmony can only be construed as another attempt to obscure the setting of the banguet, a setting which remains vague and enigmatic throughout. There i s one aspect of the physical setting which could be c a l l e d precise; that i s the relationship between the chamber and the space around i t . At one point i n the narrative several of the guests leave the banquet h a l l , go into another room, and then return: Quelques uns de la compagnie, pour f a i r e une pause recreative, se donnerent le p e t i t mot du guet; e'estoit l a f l e u r des sages, qui f i r e n t un complct de gayete pour f a i r e r i r e l a compagnie, S a l l e r e n t en une autre chambre inventer une comedie a 1'Italienne. , (1:218) Cette petite bande entra de mesme ... (1:221) The movement to another room indicates the banguet chamber 66 has a s p e c i f i c physical location i n r e l a t i o n to another room. Entries and exits lend a d e f i n i t e a i r cf r e a l i t y to the vaguely described banguet room. 1 2 The r e a l i t y of the space within the h a l l i s also acknowledged by the fact that the speakers at one end of the table cannot hear the others due to the distance between them as one guest remarks: " I l y en a a ce bout de table qui disent possible les, mesmes choses que nous disons i c i , mais i l s les e n f i l e n t d'autre sorte" (II:132). "Erasmus" informs those at his end of the table that "Homer" cannot, hear them: Erasmus "Cheut. i l ftomerej est l a avec du Bartas qui en conte, i l ne nous o i t pas" (1:148). These comments stress the r e l a t i v e distance between the speakers at the table. We also learn that the symposium takes place i n an enclosed space separated from the outside world. However vague i t s physical conditions, the room exists as a f i n i t e space. The host of the banquet emphasizes the d i s t i n c t i o n between the inner and outer space in an announcement to the assembly: J'ay f a i t fermer l a porte, i l n'entrera meshuy personne ceans, nous sommes en l i b e r t e ; l a dispanse. i . le ver r o u i l & l a barre sont mis a la pcrte, aucun n'entrera i c y , s i l e Diable ne l e jette par la cheminee. (1:137) The closed chamber, sealed off from the laws of the outside world, provides the opportunity for participants to speak freely and openly. The freedom afforded by the locked door i s s a t i r i c a l l y likened to the " p e t i t exercise de la 67 r e l i g i o n " during which time the door i s locked and those inside indulge themselves during fast days: C'est gue nous clouons, barrons, bouclons 6 fermons bien l a porte, guand (comme ceux de la Religion) nous voulons manger de l a chair aux jours deffendus: t e l est le p e t i t exercise d'autant gue la grand est a l l e r au presche. (I:138) The locked room provides a l i b e r t y net allowed cn the outside, for once inside the. participants may flout authority with impunity. The freedom created by closing eff relations with the outer world in Le Moyen de Parvenir p a r a l l e l s the freedom effected within the separate world cf the f e s t i v a l as opposed to the constraints of the extra- f e s t i v e world. A l l those who enter into the carnivalesgue world, which i s marked off within a limited time and space, are granted extraordinary freedoms. The cuter world enters into Carnival only to be mocked and derided, or to be driven out. In Le Moyen de Parvenir on one occasion a fleeter from Oxford comes to the door of the banguet room and reguests a word with the host: . . . v o i l a l a serviteuse gui nous vint dire gue guegu'un e s t o i t a la porte, pour entrer ou s o r t i r . Ceste f i l l e nous vint dire g u ' i l y avoit a la pcrte un personnage, qui vouloit parler au bon homme: aussi tost i l a l i a a l u i , puis revint, S ncus d i t . . . C'est un docteur d'Oxfort, gui n'est pas encor resolu s ' i l se doit f a i r e Catholique ou Huguenot; S i l demande a parler a guelgue Apcstre, s ' i l y en a ceans. —Vrayment non, dismes nous, i l n'y en a point i c y , i l s nous empescheroient de f a i r e bonne chere, S puis i l s auroient honte de l'ordre hierarchigue, & du criblement des ministres. (11:236) The English doctor i s not allowed to enter, but the host 68 does leave the room to c o n s u l t with him. T h i s i n c i d e n t again i l l u s t r a t e s the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the f e s t i v e chamber and the r e s t of the world. In keeping with c a r n i v a l e s g u e p r a c t i c e s however, the c o n s c i e n c e - s e a r c h i n g d c c t c r i s sent away. He i s not permitted to e n t e r the f e s t i v e h a l l with h i s d i s t i n c t l y u n c a r n i v a l e s g u e problem, " s ' i l se d o i t f a i r e C a t h o l i g u e ou Huguenot", nor are s e r i o u s a p o s t l e s allowed to enter. S e r i o u s contemplation of r e l i g i o u s matters as well as the o f f i c i a l " ordre h i e r a r c h i g u e " belong to the outer world, and that i s excluded from Le Moy_en de P a r v e n i r as i t i s from C a r n i v a l . Movement i n and out of the e x c l u s i v e space designated f o r the symposium h e l p s to make t h i s space t a n g i b l e and concrete. At v a r i o u s other p o i n t s i n the d i s c u s s i o n , c a l l e r s t r y to enter from the o u t s i d e . Some do so s u c c e s s f u l l y , and others are turned away. Late i n the banguet a great n c i s e i s heard when de Beze, an i n v i t e d guest, a r r i v e s from the o u t s i d e : A u s s i gue je demandois a b o i r e , v o i l a un grand b r u i t . . . C'est de Beze g u i v i e n t d ' a r r i v e r , 8 Aeneas S i l v i u s l * e s t a l l e r e c e v o i r . (11:251-252) At another moment a demonic v i s i t o r gains e n t r y from the o u t s i d e . He e n t e r t a i n s the company i n c o n v e r s a t i o n and subsequently e x i t s (11:129-31). The n a r r a t o r , who i s a guest at the banquet, a l s o leaves at one p o i n t . T h i s departure, while i t does r e i n f o r c e the concept of a c l o s e d chamber, a l s o presents a new s p a c i a l 69 anomaly. Throughout most of the t e x t t h i s n a r r a t o r i s p h y s i c a l l y present i n the banguet h a l l , p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the banquet t a l k , and at the same time d e s c r i b i n g the proceedings to the reader as they happen. However,, i t appears t h a t the reader i s not " p r e s e n t " , but i s o u t s i d e s i n c e the author must subsequently leave the room to speak with him: Or ga, mes bons amis, vivons en l i b e r t e , n o s t r e convive s'acheve, i l s sont sur l e d e s s e r t : je s u i s un peu s c r t i pour l e vous d i r e . (11:259) The key word i n t h i s passage i s " s c r t i " ; why does the n a r r a t o r leave the banguet to come out and speak to the reader at t h i s p o i n t when f o r hundreds c f pages t h i s has net been necessary? I s Beroalde perhaps a l l u d i n g t o an e x i t from the f i c t i o n a l framework he has created? He seems to p l a y f u l l y i n v i t e the reader to watch the c r e a t i v e process, while reminding him of h i s r o l e as passive observer i n c o n t r a s t to the a c t i v e r o l e of the a u t h o r / n a r r a t o r . He may a l s o want to c r e a t e yet another s p a t i a l dimension by s t r e s s i n g the d i s t a n c e between h i m s e l f and h i s c r e a t i o n as well as between t h i s c r e a t i o n . a n d the reader. While t h i s guestion remains unresolved i n the t e x t , the e x i t of the n a r r a t o r adds yet more e l a s t i c i t y to the concept of space i n Le Moyen de P a r v e n i r . The r e l a t i o n s h i p between the author and h i s work suggested above can be taken one step f u r t h e r . The ambiguity of the p h y s i c a l s e t t i n g supports an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the 70 banquet g a t h e r i n g which i s suggested, though net developed, by Paul L a c r o i x i n h i s e d i t i o n of Ie Moyen de P a r v e n i r . , A statement i n Beroalde's f i r s t c h apter, "Parqucy ncus fusmes tous r e s o l u s de nous t r o u v e r chez l e bon homme nost r e pere s p i r i t u e l . . . ." (1:5), prompts l a c r o i x ' s statement: "C'est de lui-raeme sans doute gue B^roalde de V e r v i l l e veut p a r l e r sous le- nom du Bonhomie, pere s p i r i t u e l . II e t a i t a l o r s chanoine de S a i n t - G a t i e n de T o u r s " . 1 3 In an ex t e n s i o n of t h i s i d e a the e p i t h e t "pere s p i r i t u e l " may indeed apply to Bexoalde h i m s e l f , host to a mental s a t u r n a l i a and s p i r i t u a l f a t h e r and c r e a t o r of h i s c h a r a c t e r s . The meeting could take pl a c e i n h i s mind, with the author himself as leader cf the f o l l y . Support f o r t h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n can be found one chapter a f t e r the f i r s t mention of the "pere s p i r i t u e l " when the n a r r a t o r mentions the r e l a t i o n s h i p between himself and the banguet guests awaiting the opening of the f e s t i v i t i e s : "Mes gens sont l a g u i m'attendent" (1:9). I t i s as thcugh they are waiting f o r the author t o begin c r e a t i n g r c l e s f c r " h i s " c h a r a c t e r s : Mes gens sont l a q u i m'attendent; sent messieurs dea, i l s sont a moy, e s t i l pas vray, ne sommes nous pas l e s uns aux au t r e s , d i t t e s vous pas bon jour monsieur? i l est done v o s t r e s i e u r , 6 p a r t a n t vous l e maistre du c h a n t i e r ou l'on s i e : a i n s i nous disens bon j o u r , cu adieu Madame, ma comere, 6 on nous d i t mon amy, mon hoste; & de mesmes nous sommes aux a u t r e s , 6 ncus a eux, & pource i l s sont a moy, i l s sont done mes gens, qu i avec moy & moy avec eux ncus trcuvasmes tous, 8 t o u t e s , chez nostre pere se P u i s s e t u e r , 1 4 que Madame a v o i t c h o i s y pour y c e l e b r e r c e t admirable banquet. (1:9) 71 The n a r r a t o r does q u i c k l y a l t e r the meaning of "mes gens" i n t h i s passage through wordplay on monsieur and mon s c i e u r , but t h i s kind of sudden change of d i r e c t i o n within a statement i s t y p i c a l of l e Ho_yen de P a r v e n i r , and the f i r s t impression of "mes gens" should be r e t a i n e d as i t i n i t i a l l y reads, as well as the way the author subseguently t w i s t s i t . The banguet s e t t i n g c o u l d thus e a s i l y represent the imaginary world of the author. T h i s p o s s i b i l i t y i s r e i n f o r c e d by a l a t e r statement suggesting a "chanoine" who i s a l s o c r e a t o r of a world, perhaps r e f e r r i n g -to the l i t e r a r y world i n Le Mojyen de P a r v e n i r : ". . . l e f a i s a n t du monde gu i e s t l e Chanoine" (1:304). I f the banguet h a l l d e s c r i b e d i s conceived as Beroalde's mind, the d e c o r a t i o n s "autant a 1'antigue gu' a l a moderne" of the " b e l l e grande s a l e paree" (1:10) c o u l d r e f e r to the author's s t u d i e s , encompassing both a n c i e n t and contemporary knowledge i n the manner of Renaissance s c h o l a r s . One could expect an o r d e r l y d i s p l a y of knowledge t o f o l l o w t h i s d e s c r i p t i o n cf harmcny. However, the impression of order and elegance i n t h i s mental i n t e r i o r i s completely overturned by the s a t u r n a l i a which e n l i v e n s the f o l l o w i n g pages of the t e x t . I t . i s as though the author has produced an i n e b r i a t e d stream-of- consciousness n o v e l , with i d e a s appearing as bangueting c h a r a c t e r s who v i e f o r a t t e n t i o n . Within the s p e c i a l temporal and s p a c i a l c l i m a t e created i n Le Mo_yen de P a r v e n i r there are other s i m i l a r i t i e s between 72 t h i s work and the f e s t i v a l . Comments which occur e a r l y i n the tex t i n d i c a t e that the g a t h e r i n g w i l l resemble t h a t of a f r a t e r n i t y of f o o l s performing a s o t i e , or c e l e b r a t i n g i n the t r a d i t i o n of C a r n i v a l . The o b l i g a t o r y c a l l t c assemble as w e l l as the expressed devot i o n of the guests to a s p e c i a l r u l e r and to a common " f o o l i s h " cause are d e c l a r e d i n the burlesque tone of c a r n i v a l . These elements r e i n f o r c e the p a r a l l e l between Le Koyen de Parven i r and the f e s t i v e reunions of the f o o l - s o c i e t i e s . : The f i r s t mention of the meeting suggests such an a f f i n i t y : I l f u t done en c e s t s a i s o n sonne% trompe', trompete, corne, (comme vous voudrez, prenez au gcust de vestre r a t t e ) 5 crie', huche, d i t 6 proclame avec l a trompe p h i l o s o p h i g u e , gue toutes ames qui av o i e n t serment a l a Sophie se trouvassent au l i e u s u s d i t , a i n s i q u ' i l a v o i t e s t e ordonne" & promis avec serment sclemnel, comme i l es t o r d i n a i r e e's a f f a i r e s s e r i e u s e s de l a t e n o i s t e coustume des Sages; pour asseurance degucy l e s enfans de l a s c i e n c e a v o i e n t mis l a main au symbole de l a consci e n c e . Parquoy nous fusmes tous r e s c l u s de ncus tro u v e r chez l e bon homme no s t r e pere s p i r i t u e l , parce q u ' i l a v o i t e ste ordonne £ juge en d e r n i e r r e s s o r t de s e r r u r e , d'horloge, de cr a n e g u i n , de rouet, de r o u t i s s o i r , d ' a r b a l e s t e , & gue l e s d e f a i l l a n s s e r o i e n t mis a l a n o i s ^ . a l a n o i s e t t e , au noyau, 8 al*amende. A cet e s c l a t de mandement j e . ne f a i l l i s m e s a nous t r o u v e r , a u s s i avions nous promis de nous bien chercher pour cet e f f e c t ; 8 puis je l ' a v i o n s jur£, £ sgachez gue c'e s t un grand peche de f a i l l i r parmi nous, pource gue nous suyvons uniguement l a r e g i e de p e r f e c t i o n en promesse. (1:5) The exaggeration, r e p e t i t i o n , l i s t s and word play which give t h i s passage i f s humorous tone are a l s o common to documents of the f o o l - s o c i e t y of Dijon, the I n f a n t e r i e D i j c n n a i s e . Any s e r i o u s q u a l i t y a t t r i b u t e d to the g a t h e r i n g by the vocabulary, "serment solemnel", " a f f a i r e s s e r i e u s e s " . 73 "coustume des Sages", i s undermined by the exaggeration and wordplay of the context. Instead of one or two terms to de s c r i b e the f a n f a r e which accompanies the announcement of the meeting, the author uses e i g h t : "sonne, trcmpe, trompete, e t c . " , c r e a t i n g a comic e f f e c t through exaggeration. He uses t h i s same technigue two more times i n the same sentence: "en d e r n i e r r e s s o r t de s e r r u r e , e t c . " , and " l e s d e f a i l l a n s s e r o i e n t mis a l a n o i s , etc."..Each time the d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e l i s t produces the same humorous r e s u l t s . Wordplay e x i s t s w i t h i n each l i s t of words; r e p e t i t i o n of i n i t i a l sounds f o r example appear i n "trompe'- trompete", " r o u e t - r o u t i s s o i r " and " n c i s - n o i s e t t e - n o y a u " . Words having the same f u n c t i o n i n the sentence are m u l t i p l i e d , and sound c l u s t e r s are repeated j u s t as they are in the l i t e r a t u r e of the f o o l - s o c i e t i e s . The s o t i e s performed by these s o c i e t i e s t r a d i t i o n a l l y are f i l l e d with r e p e t i t i o u s language, f r e q u e n t l y beginning with a l i s t i n g c f a l l the kinds o f f o o l s who are i n v i t e d . 1 5 R e p e t i t i o u s language a l s o f i l l s the s o t i e : "Qu'on rompe, qu'on b r i s e , qu'on casse, qu'on frappe a t o r t et a t r a v e r s " i l l u s t r a t e s t h i s tendency i n a s o t i e by G r i n g o r e . 1 6 The o b l i g a t o r y nature of the assembly i n Le Mcjjen de Parvenir r e c a l l s the c o n v e n t i o n a l reminder c f compulsory attendance at the meetings of the f o o l - s o c i e t i e s . The guests i n L§ Moyen de P a r v e n i r appear to be members of. an o r g a n i z a t i o n to which they f e e l morally o b l i g a t e d . "C'est un 74 grand peche de f a i l l i r parmi nous", as the n a r r r a t c r i n t i m a t e s , and i t i s a l s o humorously announced i n a cascade of wordplay t h a t absent members w i l l be s u b j e c t e d at l e a s t to a f i n e : " l e s d e f a i l l a n s s e r c i e n t mis a l a n c i s , a. l a n o i s e t t e , au noyau, 8 a l'amende" (1:5). The v a r i a t i o n s of the word n o i s (nut) end i n a pun based cn the hcmonymic c l a s h between amende (fine ) and amande (almond) . Compulsory attendance enforced by humorous t h r e a t s appears i n the f o o l - s o c i e t i e s a l s o . Pressures were a p p l i e d t c members of the Jn£§£ierie D i j o n n a i s e to emphasize the importance of attendance: " S i guelgue absent, Se v o u l o i t p r e v a l o i r d'excuse, I l sera t r a i t e comme b u z e . " 1 7 They were a l s o s u b j e c t to a f i n e l i k e the d e f a u l t i n g guests of Le Mcjyen de P a r v e n i r : " S i guelgu'un regu . dans l a Compagnie, s'en a b s e n t o i t , i l d e v o i t a p o r t e r une escuse l e g i t i m e , sinon i l e t o i t condamne a une amande de v i n g t L i v r e s . " 1 8 Not only are Beroalde's merrymakers devoted to t h e i r f r a t e r n i t y , but they a l s o express a l l e g i a n c e to a l e a d e r , the mysterious "Sophie". She i s a l s o c a l l e d "Madame, l'unigue entre l e s sages" (1:9), and r e i g n s ever the convocation together with " l e pere s p i r i t u e l " . Although never c l e a r l y i d e n t i f i e d i n Le Mojen de P a r v e n i r , t h i s couple r e c a l l s the t r a d i t i o n a l mock r u l e r s who presided m e r r i l y over popular f e s t i v a l s . The n a r r a t o r begins by s t a t i n g t h a t a l l of the guests are "ames gui a v c i e n t serment a l a Sophie" (1:5). Her name, " l a Sophie", i n d i c a t e s an 75 a l l e g o r i c a l i d e n t i f i c a t i o n with wisdom, but other e x c e l l e n t g u a l i t i e s are a l s o assigned to h e r : Madame g u i e s t l'unigue entre l e s sages, l a p e r l e des entendues, 8 l e parangon de p e r f e c t i o n (recognoissez l a par ces e p i t e t e s , 8 ne vous enguerez plus gui e l l e est) nous f e s t o y o i t , 8 p r e n o i t grand p l a s i r de nous a v o i r pour son contentement. , (1 :11-12) . . . . . The e p i t h e t " l a Sophie" and the r e f e r e n c e to her r e s p e c t e d p o s i t i o n , " l ' u n i g u e parmi l e s sages", appear t c be i r o n i c a l t r i b u t e s however. Even though she does, not indulge i n o b s c e n i t i e s , "Madame" e x h i b i t s the same t r i v i a l mind as the other guests, and i t i s apparent from the s t a r t t h a t her devoted f o l l o w e r s manifest a f a r grea t e r a f f i n i t y with f e l l y than with wisdom. T h i s "Madame Sophie" i n turn would be at home i n the v a r i c o l o u r e d costume of Mere S c t t e or Meire F o l l e . . . . . .. The impassioned devotion of Eeroalde's guests to t h e i r leader r e c a l l s the p r a i s e l a v i s h e d upon the Mere F o l l e c f D i j o n . 1 9 A c l o s e r look at the i n t r o d u c t i o n of t h i s r u l e r i n Eeroalde's announcement r e v e a l s t h a t she i s a s s o c i a t e d with a trumpet; "trompe, t r o m p e t 6 " are mentioned, and " l a trcmpe p h i l o s o p h i g u e " c a l l s the f a i t h f u l to her s i d e (1:5). That instrument was a l s o a s s o c i a t e d with Mere F o l l e and "her" a c t i v i t i e s . 2 0 Madame Sophie's r u l i n g partner , "nos t r e pere s p i r i t u e l " , a l s o has a c a r n i v a l e s g u e c o u n t e r p a r t . As the host i n Le Mo_yen de P a r v e n i r he a s s i d u o u s l y a p p l i e s himself to the task of s e e i n g t h a t the company does not n e g l e c t the food and wine on the t a b l e ; the image he c r e a t e s f c r h i m s e l f 76 i s t h a t of Mere F o i l e r s frequent s p i r i t u a l companion, Roger 1P.H I^JS-EJi . 2 1 At D i j o n , as Du T i l l i o t ' s study shows, Ben Tems.1 r o l e was that of banquet h o s t . 2 2 The g a r r u l o u s i n d i v i d u a l s c a l l e d together around "Madame" demonstrate by t h e i r extravagant c o n v e r s a t i o n and t h e i r f o o l i s h behaviour that they serve her w e l l . F i r s t l y , t h e i r names, l i k e that of Madame Sophie, c r e a t e a m i s l e a d i n g i n i t i a l impression, because t h e i r a c t i o n s and words.de net correspond to the names. The problematic i d e n t i t i e s of these speakers evoke the s h i f t i n g C a r n i v a l mascarade. T h e i r names, which do not f i t t h e i r a c t i o n s and c o n v e r s a t i o n , are worn l i k e C a r n i v a l masks. Over two hundred of the banguet guests are i d e n t i f i e d with the names of famous men and women from d i f f e r e n t ages. Among these "guests" assembled are S o c r a t e s , R a b e l a i s , Alexander, the Great, Sapho, Jan Hus, P e t r o n i u s , Pa r a c e l s u s , Margot (probably Marguerite de V a l c i s ) , 2 3 B o c c a c c i o , Hercules and C a l v i n . 2 * The i n c l u s i o n of famous guests was f r e q u e n t l y the p r a c t i c e of authors c f s y m p o s i a . 2 5 However, Beroalde taxes the c r e d u l i t y of h i s reader when " C a l v i n " f o r example, boasts of the wine he wculd l i k e to consume (11:156), when " S o c r a t e s " becomes the f o p p i s h master of e t i q u e t t e at the banquet (1:18), and "Demosthenes" dispenses obscene advice (1:21). I t i s u s u a l l y i m p o s s i b l e to i d e n t i f y the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the speaker and h i s famous name; i n f a c t , without t h e i r names the speakers would be n e a r l y i n d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e one from another. 77 Besides the i l l u s t r i o u s speakers, a l l e g o r i c a l c h a r a c t e r s , such as "Chose", " l ' A u t r e " , "Le M c r t e l " , e t c . , j o i n i n the banguet and converse l i k e the o t h e r s . The v o i c e s behind the names could belong t o any i n e b r i a t e d wag or i n g l o r i o u s d r i n k e r . The c e l e b r a n t s r a r e l y attempt to play the r o l e s t h e i r names imply, and s e v e r a l d e t a i l s i n d i c a t e that the guests i n Le Mo^en de Par v e n i r are i n d i s g u i s e . Even though the n a r r a t o r i n t r o d u c e s the guests as c e l e b r i t i e s , he h i n t s that the names f u n c t i o n only as masks: . . . nous sommes, nous g u i p a r l o n s , de ce temps; nous y sommes en tenons 8 y vivons, s i ne sommes trompez. (1:11) Et encor, messieurs, un mot en passant: croyez-vous pas gue t o u t e s ces bonnes gens f u s s e n t i c i , 8 gue mesmes ceux du temps a v e n i r y e s t o i e n t ? Nous avons c e l e l e s noms de guelgues uns, de peur g u ' i l s f u s s e n t recognus . . . (1: 226) 2* The o b v i o u s l y a r t i f i c i a l q u a l i t y of the banqueters' assumed i d e n t i t i e s r e i n f o r c e s the impression of a C a r n i v a l masquerade. The mask i n C a r n i v a l f u n c t i o n s as an agent c f l i b e r a t i o n , r e l e a s i n g an i n n e r being, and i t serves the same purpose i n Le Moyen de P a r v e n i r . As Boger C a i l l o i s e x p l a i n s , the major f u n c t i o n of a . C a r n i v a l mask i s not tc appear as a r e a l i s t i c i m i t a t i o n of r e a l i t y , but to provide a cover which hides the everyday i d e n t i t y of a person while the t r u e p e r s o n a l i t y emerges: Au C a r n a v a l , l e masque ne cherche pas a f a i r e c r o i r e 78 g u ' i l e s t un v r a i marquis, un v r a i t o r e a d o r , un v r a i Peau Rouge, i l cherche a f a i r e peur et a mettre a p r o f i t l a l i c e n c e ambiante, elle-meme r e s u l t a t du f a i t gue l e masque d i s s i m u l e l e personnage s o c i a l et l i b e r e l a p e r s o n n a l i t e v e r i t a b l e . 2 7 I t i s the " l i c e n c e ambiante" which the d i s g u i s e d c h a r a c t e r s i n Le Moyen de P a r v e n i r seek to e x p l o i t . Through t h e i r behavior and c o n v e r s a t i o n they show themselves to be of a u n i f o r m l y coarse m e n t a l i t y . Though many of them wear the names of famous sages of a l l times, behind the names they are r e v e a l e d as common boors whose main goal i n l i f e i s to amuse and i n d u l g e themselves i n the manner of C a r n i v a l c e l e b r a n t s who throw themselves headlong i n t o the f e s t i v i t i e s . The i d e n t i t i e s of other c h a r a c t e r s , both the guests and those i n the anecdotes, evoke the t h e a t r i c a l s i d e c f C a r n i v a l . Many of them are i d e n t i f i e d e i t h e r by name, "Le Mortel", "La Jeune F i l l e " , "La Bonne I n t e n t i o n " , or by type, such as the g u l l i b l e c u c k o l d or h i s c o n n i v i n g wife. Such c h a r a c t e r s appear f r e q u e n t l y i n the f a r c e s , s o t i e s , sermons joyeux, burlesque monologues, and i n the comic scenes of the mystery or m o r a l i t y p l a y s . The c h a r a c t e r s which people Le Moyen de P a r v e n i r , both those around the banquet t a b l e and those i n the anecdotes, o f t e n have c o u n t e r p a r t s i n the comic t h e a t r e . Some of the banguet guests have a l l e g o r i c a l names which r e c a l l the m o r a l i t y p l a y s , "La Bonne I n t e n t i o n , La Jeune F i l l e , L'Autre, Bienvenu, Chose, C e t u i - c y " . Other 79 guests are i d e n t i f i e d by p r o f e s s i o n only {"les Medecins", "l'Avocat") , a common p r a c t i c e . i n the f a b l i a u x , f a r c e s , and s o t i e s . In the mir a c l e p l a y s the p r o t a g o n i s t sometimes makes.a pact with the d e v i l , . who i s a l s o a freguent stage c h a r a c t e r . 2 8 In Le Mojren de P a r v e n i r , F r o s t i b u s , " l i e u t e n a n t general de tous l e s D i a b l e s " , c a l l s on Luther and i n t i m a t e s that he has some s o r t of pact with the reformer: " F r o s t i b u s v i e n t gay S g a i l l a r d mettre l e s deux mains sur l e s espaules de Luther, S l u i d i t ; 'Et b i e n , monsieur de l ' a u t r e monde, guoy, gue d i t t e s - v o u s des g e n t i l l e s s e s gue ncus avcns f a i t e s par d e la en nostre enfance?'" (11:128). F r o s t i b u s 1 d e s c r i p t i o n of the p l i g h t of the unfortunate tenants of the underworld c a s t s them as the comic "pauvres d i a b l e s " of the <?i£i>leries, as he pleads with Luther: " . . . me.faire l a faveur g u ' i l n'y a i t p l u s personne damne, tous l e s d i a b l e s vous en p r i e n t , . . . d'autant g u ' i l y a desja tant de damnez en Enfer, gue l e s pauvres d i a b l e s couchent dehors." (11: 129-30) Other f a m i l i a r c h a r a c t e r s from the comic stage a l s o appear i n the anecdotes t o l d by the bangueters. .These stock c h a r a c t e r s , and the f a m i l i a r s i t u a t i o n s they r e c r e a t e r e c a l l the c o m p e t i t i v e , j o v i a l . w o r l d of the f a r c e and the c l o s e l y r e l a t e d f a b l i a u . 2 9 The g u l l i b l e cuckold, f r e g u e n t l y seen i n comic p r e s e n t a t i o n s , appears many times i n Le Mcy^en de P a r v e n i r , as does h i s u n f a i t h f u l w i f e . 3 0 The t e x t i s a l s o 8 0 r e p l e t e with l u s t y c l e r i c s , young and o l d , with pedants, imposters, and h y p o c r i t e s . 3 1 The f o o l s of the s o t i e s are amply represented as w e l l , both around the banguet t a b l e and in the t a l e s and anecdotes. A l l of these c h a r a c t e r s remain undeveloped, q u i c k l y drawn c a r i c a t u r e s s i m i l a r tc the c h a r a c t e r s i n the f a r c e s . Each i s given very l i t t l e time cr op p o r t u n i t y f o r development, s i n c e t h e i r f u n c t i o n i s to represent an idea or an a t t i t u d e which i s u s u a l l y presented b r i e f l y and humorously, then d i s c a r d e d . L i k e u n i n h i b i t e d f e s t i v a l p a r t i c i p a n t s , the guests i n Le Moyen de P a r v e n i r assemble i n a l i g h t - h e a r t e d mccd. The author s e t s t h i s mood by d e f i n i n g the meaning of p l a y i n the f i r s t chapter then a p p l y i n g i t to the guests. According t o Beroalde's d e f i n i t i o n , play f u n c t i o n s l i k e the mask and l i k e wine. I t removes i n h i b i t i o n s and allows the t r u e i n n e r being to manifest i t s e l f . Even a d e v i l c ould net hide h i s e s s e n t i a l nature i f a t p l a y : " i l vous f e r o i t v o i r ses cornes". At play, a person's defenses are r e l a x e d , and he can enjoy himself without f e a r : N'est-ce p o i n t au jeu ou l'ame se d i l a t e pour f a i r e v o i r ses concep t i o n s ? S i un d i a b l e j o u o i t avec vous i l ne se p o u r o i t f e i n d r e , i l vous f e r o i t v c i r ses cornes. Mais gu'est ce gue jouer? C'est se d e l e c t e r sans penser en mal. (1:4) The open d i s c l o s u r e of one's in n e r s e l f d e s c r i b e d above c l o s e l y resembles a d e s c r i p t i o n of the e f f e c t l a u g h t e r works on the i n h i b i t i o n s , a theory which Eeroalde i n c l u d e s i n the 81 Cabinet de M i n e r v e . 3 2 p l a y and games imply a c e r t a i n honesty and t r u s t i n g innocence, a c c o r d i n g to the n a r r a t o r of Le ®21£2 P a r v e n i r . As i f to i l l u s t r a t e t h i s p o i n t the guests are at play i n the k i t c h e n when f i r s t i n t r o d u c e d . In p r e s e n t i n g them at play, the author i m p l i e s that he i s d e p i c t i n g t h e i r e s s e n t i a l , i n n e r beings, s t r i p p e d c f h y p o c r i s y and i n a mood f o r innocent enjoyment: Ouy dea, j e vous ay oste de peine s i vous en e s t e s capables, S vous f e r a y remarquer ceux gui a s s i s t e r e n t en ce notable sympose, au moins j e vous en nommeray guelgues uns, s i je ne me souviens de tous: je vous envoyeray a l a c u i s i n e ou i l s sont, ou bien autre p a r t , a jouer, comme l e s sages de Grece, au f r a n c du guarreau avec l e s pages S l e s l a g u a i s . (1:17) When f i r s t i n t r o d u c e d , the honourable guests are p l a y i n g hopscotch, not only among themselves, but with the s e r v a n t s , i n true s a t u r n a l i a n f a s h i o n . 3 3 The behaviour of these guests r e v e a l s them to be from the same b o i s t e r o u s , l a r g e l y uneducated group which makes up the m a j o r i t y of the C a r n i v a l c r o w d . 3 4 T h e i r a c t i o n s , which c o n s i s t of e a t i n g , d r i n k i n g , making rude n o i s e s , t e l l i n g coarse t a l e s , and competing with each other f o r a t t e n t i o n , belong more to C a r n i v a l than to an i n t e l l e c t u a l symposium. Another l i n k between Le Moyen de P a r v e n i r and the f e s t i v a l i s provided by the event f o r which the guests have assembled; the o c c a s i o n i s a banguet, " c e t admirable banguet" (1:9), ce notable sympose" (1:17). However i t i s not a t r a n q u i l r e p a s t , but i n s t e a d a s a t u r n a l i a n r e v e l , and 82 emphasis i s placed on the consuming, triumphant p h y s i c a l body of the t r a d i t i o n a l c a r n i v a l e s g u e f e a s t s . 3 5 T h i s banguet s e t t i n g a l l o w s the author of Le Mo_yen de Pa r v e n i r to dwell on the t a n g i b l e , p h y s i c a l d e l i g h t s of the f e a s t , emphasizing the appeal to the senses and a t the same time e x p l o i t the c a r e f r e e mood of the f e a s t . The c o l l e c t i v e f e a s t has played an important part i n c a r n i v a l e s g u e f e s t i v a l s s i n c e t h e i r ancient o r i g i n s when the f e s t i v a l depended on major a g r i c u l t u r a l events of the year. Though the t r a n s f e r of the f e s t i v a l to urban environments sometimes a l t e r e d i t s l i g h t l y , the e s e n t i a l i n g r e d i e n t s , one of which was the f e a s t , r e m a i n e d . 3 6 ft banguet c r e a t e s the comfortable s i t u a t i o n i n which man and h i s environment are p a r t i c u l a r l y compatible, f o r nature on t h a t o c c a s i o n , at other times harsh, i s seen at her most generous. The h e a v i l y laden banquet t a b l e r e p r e s e n t s a c e r t a i n human v i c t o r y over nature. P a r t i c i p a n t s i n such f e a s t s are t e m p o r a r i l y f r e e d from b a s i c a n x i e t i e s about t h e i r p h y s i c a l s u r v i v a l . They leave work and r e s o u r c e f u l accumulation c f goods behind i n order to consume the f r u i t s of t h e i r l a b o u r . An atmosphere of p l e n t y , r e m i n i s c e n t of a Golden Age such as the Land c f C o c k a i g n e 3 7 i s r e c r e a t e d by the abundance of food and drink o f f e r e d to the emancipated c e l e b r a n t s . Popular r e l i g i o u s f e s t i v a l s , v i l l a g e f a i r s , and other c a r n i v a l e s g u e c e l e b r a t i o n s i n XVIth century France s t i l l i n c l u d e d f e a s t i n g i n the f e s t i v i t i e s . 3 8 The banquet f o r members and guests was 83 a l s o an important event cn the s o c i a l calendar c f the f c o l - s o c i e t i e s , and they openly promoted a gastronomic value s y s t e m . 3 9 In the l e t t e r s of r e c e p t i o n sent out to s u c c e s s f u l candidates of the I n f a n t e r i e D i j o n n a i s e the new members are complimented on t h e i r p r a n d i a l v i r t u e s which make them compatible with the r e s t of the company. Candidates are p r a i s e d f o r such g u a l i t i e s as: Toutes l e s a l l e g r e s s e s de Machoires, f i n e s s e s , g a l a n t i s e , h a r d i e s s e , s u f f i s a n c e , & experience des dents g u i p o u r r o i e n t € t r e r e q u i s e s a un Hignon de Cabaret.*o In accordance with t r a d i t i o n , food and drink abound i n Le Moyen de P a r v e n i r , and the bangueters a l l p a r t i c i p a t e with u n i n h i b i t e d enthusiasm i n the c o l l e c t i v e a c t i v i t i e s c f e a t i n g and d r i n k i n g : " I l n'y a persenne gui ne tasche a f a i r e son p r o f i t , 8 sur tout b o i v a n t 8 mengeant" (11:238). With burlesgue enthusiasm t h e . n a r r a t o r p r a i s e s those guests who e x c e l l i n the a r t of d i n i n g . S o c r a t e s , he says, c a r r i e s out h i s " d e v o i r des maschoires" to high s a t i s f a c t i o n , and the " A r c h i d i a c r e " does so well t h a t he would deserve to .be Fope i f only he could o f f i c i a t e as w e l l before the a l t a r as he does at t a b l e : Je vous d i r a y gue S c c r a t e e s t o i t present a ce banguet ou i l f i t f o r t b i e n son d e v o i r des maschoires. A propcs de n o s t r e A r c h i d i a c r e , gui s'y scayt t r e s - b i e n e s c r i m e r , 8 vrament s ' i l t e n o i t a u s s i bien a cheval gu'a t a b l e , i l s e r o i t l e m e i l l e u r Escuyer de France, 8 bien p l u s , s ' i l o f f i c i o i t ou pouvoit o f f i c i e r autant parfaitement a un grand A u t e l gu'a une t a b l e , i l m e r i t e r o i t d ' e s t r e Pape. (1:17) 4 1 84 Amid the abundance c f food and drink present cn the t a b l e , the s u c c e s s f u l guest comes equipped with nimble jaws l i k e S ocrates i n the above passage. He i s q u i c k l y j o i n e d by the others as the n a r r a t o r ' s c o n c i s e d e s c r i p t i o n of the opening a c t i v i t y d i s c l o s e s : "Nous nous mismes a e s t o f e r des maschoires" (1:23). The bangueting i s c o n t i n u a l l y encouraged by the host of the banquet, " l e Bon homme", with such comments as, "soyez l e s bien ventrus, l a panse f a i t 1'homme" (1:138). He a l s o encourages by example:."et b i e n boivons S me donnez un p e t i t de c e s t e croute de paste, ce gue j'en f a i s pour espargner l e p a i n " (11:133). One time he i s so busy preparing a d i s h of c r a y f i s h t h a t the n a r r a t c r must speak f o r him: "Je l e d i r a i pour l u i , parce g u ' i l e s t empesche a f r i r e 1'esprit'd'un demi cent d ' e s c r e v i s s e s , a l a mode de Bourges" (11:236). Throughout the t e x t there are many r e f e r e n c e s to the food and wine being consumed by the company.* 2 Images of the bangueting body permeate the vocabulary used i n the c o n v e r s a t i o n s . The v i c t o r i o u s , consuming body emerges i n Diogenes' speech: Vous lourdaux mes amis du foye, c o u s i n s de l a r a t t e 6 mignons des p e t i t e s t r i p e s f o i r e u s e s , ignorez-vous que d ' i c i a quelques s i e c l e s ce sympose ne s c i t s e l c n son merite tenu pour authentique, autant ou p l u s que t o u t e s l e s f a l a n d e r i e s grecques q ui vous f o n t bon ventre? (1:128) 85 Images of the i n n e r organs of the body i n t h i s passage (" l e foye, l a r a t t e , des p e t i t e s t r i p e s f o i r e u s e s , bon ventre") u n d e r l i n e the m a t e r i a l , c o r p o r a l aspect c f the f e a s t . Moreover, Diogenes uses these terms to address h i s f r i e n d s a f f e c t i o n a t e l y , "mes amis du foye, e t c . " , i m p l y i n g t h e i r c o m p l i c i t y i n the f e a s t i n g aspect of the symposium. , He a l s o d e s c r i b e s i n t e l l e c t u a l p l e a s u r e i n gastronomic terms. The imaginary s t o r i e s or " f a l a n d e r i e s " , of Greece please the audience l i k e a good meal:". . . g u i vous f o n t bon ventre". L i k e R a b e l a i s , the author of Le Moyen de P a r v e n i r combines the c r e a t i o n of h i s book with food and d r i n k . In the "Prologue" to Gargantua Rabelais d e s c r i b e s the act c f w r i t i n g h i s book: Car, a l a composition de ce l i v r e s e i g n e u r i a l , je ne p e r d i z ne emploiay oncgues pl u s , ny a u l t r e temps gue c e l l u y g u i e s t o i t e s t a b l y a prendre ma r e f e c t i o n c o r p o r e l l e , s c a v o i r est beuvant et mangeant. . . . L'odeur du v i n , 6 combien plus est f r i a n t , r i a n t , p r i a n t , plus c e l e s t e et d e l i c i e u s e gue d ' h u i l l e ! * 3 Beroalde a l s o p r e s e n t s the i d e a of the author who j o y o u s l y f e a s t s while w r i t i n g when he reminds the reader that respected a n c i e n t authors wrote while d r i n k i n g and l a u g h i n g . In the same s p i r i t as R a b e l a i s 1 d i s m i s s a l of s e r i o u s , plodding work as unpleasant " o i l " i n the above passage, Be'roalde s a t i r i z e s h i s contemporaries who so solemnly study the a n c i e n t books, books t h a t were w r i t t e n as the authors drank and laughed: ". . . vous donnez vous t a n t de peine a g r i f o n n e r l e p a p i e r , pour l e b a r b o u i l l e r de commentaires sur 86 tant de f o l i e s des poetes S o r a t e u r s , S f o u i l l a u c c f r e s gui l e s ont e s c r i t e s en boivant 6 se r i a n t " (1:129). It was perhaps the "Prologue" of R a b e l a i s ' T i e r s L i v r e which i n s p i r e d Beroalde to write of the a n c i e n t imbibing authors. Those who become too i n v o l v e d i n the s e r i o u s , j c y l e s s s i d e of l i t e r a t u r e do not understand the work i n i t s proper c o n t e x t . An u n f o r t u n a t e f a t e awaits them: " l i s deviennent animaux f a n t a s t i g u e s , & r e s v e u r s , c o n e l a plus p a r t de ncs scavans gui sont tant veaux, gue l e s d i a b l e s aux heures de r e c r e a t i o n en f o n t des contes pour r i r e " (I: 129). In another passage Beroalde l i n k s the act c f composition with the consumption of food. The s t y l e cf t h i s book, i t s tendency to jump e r r a t i c a l l y from s u b j e c t to s u b j e c t , and the v a r i e t y of t o p i c s i t i n c l u d e s i n a d i s o r d e r l y f a s h i o n are compared to the d i n i n g h a b i t s of a c e r t a i n "bon homme Guyon": .. . On luy donnoit de t o u t ce g u ' i l luy f a l l o i t , g u ' i l m e t t o i t en son e s c u e l l e , pain, c h a i r , scuppe, potage, souppe, potage, v i n , s e r t , d e s s e r t ensemble; S on l u y d i s o i t , "Pourguoy ne mangez-vous S b o i v e z d'ordre 8 a part? --Ha ha, d i s o i t - i l , l o u r d a u t mon amy p u i s g u ' i l s se doivent mesler au ventre, i l n'y a p o i n t de danger de luy envoyer tout d e s j a mesle'," De mesme cecy d o i t e s t r e mesle en v o s t r e c e r v e l l e , i l l e vous f a u t b a i l l e r tout mesle; l e personnage g u i vous p r o d u i t en tout honneur ces s a i n c t s memoires de p e r f e c t i o n , a pense gue l e t e x t e ne v a l l o i t pas mieux gue l e commentaire, parguoy i l l e s a f a i t a l l e r ensemble. (1:36) In t h i s manner the reader i s somewhat i n e l e g a n t l y i n v i t e d to d i g e s t the work i n i t s present form, with nc regard f o r order. 87 Beroalde's c h o i c e of a banguet s e t t i n g i s not unigue. This framework appears i n many an c i e n t works and i s f r e g u e n t l y the o r g a n i z i n g s t r u c t u r e of works by Beroalde's contemporaries. His ch o i c e of a banguet s e t t i n g thus r e f l e c t s not only the l i t e r a r y vogue of the time, but has ample l i t e r a r y precedents, ancient Greek and Boman w r i t e r s f r e g u e n t l y used the symposium as a forum f o r dialogued d i s p l a y of i d e a s . Works by P l a t o , Xenophon, P l u t a r c h , P e t r o n i u s , Athenaeus, and Macrobius f o r example, a l l e x p l o i t the banguet s e t t i n g . * * I t became i n c r e a s i n g l y popular i n Beroalde's century t o l o o s e l y bind together a s e r i e s of t a l e s , anecdotes or imaginary dialogue w i t h i n a c o n v e r s a t i o n a l framework, i n part due to the p o p u l a r i t y c f the a n c i e n t s . Works by Marguerite de Navarre, Jacques Yver, N i c o l a s de C h o l i e r e s , Benigne P o i s s e n c t , and Guillaume Bouchet demonstrate t h i s tendency.* 5 Among the d i f f e r e n t s i t u a t i o n s i n which„a group of speakers c c u l d be gathered, the banguet was one of the most e f f e c t i v e . But Eeroalde expands h i s t a b l e and h i s c o n v e r s a t i o n s f a r beyond that cf his contemporaries. The symposium which takes p l a c e i n Le Mcyen de P a r v e n i r not only e x p l o i t s the open, malleable framework of p r a n d i a l l i t e r a t u r e which preceeds i t , b u t , i t pushes that framework even f a r t h e r . Not j u s t a few speakers, but n e a r l y f o u r - hundred cl a i m the a t t e n t i o n of the reader. T h e i r 88 c o n v e r s a t i o n i s c a r r i e d forward by i n e b r i a t e d momentum and c a p r i c i o u s wordplay r a t h e r than by the l o g i c a l development of ideas which c h a r a c t e r i z e s other works i n t h i s form. The a c t i v e , c o m p e t i t i v e atmosphere of Beroalde's symposium i s de s c r i b e d i n a passage which t e l e s c o p e s the a c t i o n of the banguet i n t o one sentence: Et gue f a i s o i e n t t a n t de bonnes gens de l o i s i r ? V o i r e , mais gue f i t - o n l a ? On p a r l a , on mangea, on beut, on f i t s t , on se t e u t , on f i t du b r u i t , on p r o t e s t a , on re n c o n t r a , on r i t , on b a a i l l a , on e n t e n d i t , on d i s t p u t a , on c r a c h a , on moucha, on s'estonna, cn s' e s b a h i t , on admira, on gaussa, on r a p c r t a , cn e n t e n d i t , on b r o i i i l l a , on s ' e s c l a i r c i t , on d e b a t t i t , on s'accorda, on t r i n c a l'un a l ' a u t r e , cn s'acccuda, cn c r i a t o u t bas, on se t e u t tout haut, on se mocgua, cn murmura, on s ' a v i s a , on se r e p r i t , on se contenta, cn passa l e temps, on douta, on redouta, on s ' a s s a g i t , cn d e v i n t , on p a r v i n t . (1:43) As can be seen i n t h i s passage, even though the framework c f Le Moyen de P a r v e n i r may be s i m i l a r t c that c f ether l i t e r a r y symposiums w r i t t e n or read i n the XVIth cen t u r y , the banquet of Le Moyen de P a r v e n i r has more i n common with an animated C a r n i v a l than with a t r a d i t i o n a l symposium. In the t r a d i t i o n of the S a t u r n a l i a , Beroalde's banquet provides a s e t t i n g conducive to spontaneous a c t i v i t y and f r e e t a l k , * 6 and i t does so aided by wine. Wine, a t r a d i t i o n a l i n g r e d i e n t i n the f e s t i v a l , f r e e s the ima g i n a t i o n and loose n s the tongue. I t lowers i n h i b i t i o n s and encourages a f o o l i s h n e s s not normally t o l e r a t e d . Wine flows l i b e r a l l y both at the banguet t a b l e and throughout the anecdotes i n the dialog u e of Le Moyen de P a r v e n i r , and i t s 89 e f f e c t s are f e l t i n the v o l a t i l e , u n i n h i b i t e d c c n v e r s a t i o n . I t s presence at the banquet and i t s r o l e i n the co n v e r s a t i o n s r e v e a l wine t o be a u n i f y i n g l e i t m o t i v and one cf the major elements i n the c r e a t i o n of the c a r n i v a l e s g u e atmosphere, i n Le Moy_en de. P a r ve n j.r. Since d r i n k i n g c o n s t i t u t e s one of the major a c t i v i t i e s at the banguet s e t by Beroalde, wine i s e s t a b l i s h e d as an important i n g r e d i e n t very e a r l y . I t i s the f i r s t d e t a i l attended to a f t e r the a r r i v a l of the guests. The meeting begins only a f t e r c e r t a i n p r e p a r a t i o n s have been made, and care of the wine i s one of these p r e p a r a t i o n s : "quand nous fusmes assemble?, que tout f u t p r e s t , l e v i n dans l e s vaisseaux plongez en .l'eau f r a i s c h e pour se r a f r a i s c h i r , a u s s i le p r a c t i g u e autrement s e r o i t b o i r e a c l o c h e p i e d " (1:13).,ft s p i r a l i n g d i g r e s s i o n cn the s u b j e c t of wine then covers three pages i n these opening paragraphs.* 7 T h i s s e t s the scene f o r the "doctes tuveurs" (1:16) who assemble around the banguet t a b l e and partake generously, r e i n f o r c i n g t h e i r f r a t e r n i t y with " l a l i g u e u r arrousante, l a douce rosee de nature, l e sucre de l ' A u r c r e " (I: 142) . C r i e s f o r more wine and e x h o r t a t i o n s t c d r i n k are heard throughout the book, c r e a t i n g the impression of a spontaneous, a u t h e n t i c b a c c h a n a l i a . The guests i n c i t e each ether to consume more: " T a i s t o i pauvre cheval & beys" (1:128), and u r g e n t l y request .more wine from anyone who w i l l b r i n g i t : "Je te p r i e , page, l a g u a i s , novice, enfant de 90 choeur, leuron de 1' A n t e c h r i s t ; g u i gue tu s c i s , donne mcy a b o i r e " (1:126). I n t e r j e c t i o n s such as these punctuate the t e x t , c o n s t a n t l y reminding the reader t h a t a d r i n k i n g bout i s i n pr o g r e s s . The speakers pause t o , c a t c h t h e i r breath i n the giddy c o n v e r s a t i o n , "0 ca, j'ay assez p a r l e sans b o i r e , ca, page, b a i l i e m'en" (11:253), and with each pause they r e f r e s h themselves with wine. They ask f o r mere fcod and dri n k , i n t e g r a t i n g the banguet i n t o t h e i r c o n v e r s a t i o n s : "Eh bi e n , boivons, 8 me donnez un p e t i t de c e s t c r c u s t e de past£" (11:133). 4 8 "Erasmus" uses a c a l l to drink as an excuse to q u i e t the others so t h a t he may speak: " B c i v e z un t r a i t tout p l a i n , 8 me l a i s s e z d i r e ou j ' o u b l i e r a y t o u t " (1:147). The host f r e q u e n t l y urges the company to d r i n k , admonishing them f o r t a l k i n g too much and n e g l e c t i n g t h e i r g l a s s e s : "Nous ne boivons p o i n t ; h o l a ! Vous causez a s s e z " (11:186). At another poin t he l o u d l y i n t e r r u p t s the party and s i l e n c e s P e t r o n i u s who i s about to speak: P e t r o n i u s v o u l u t d i r e sa r a t e l e e , mais i l rengaina son d i s c o u r s par l a bouche, pource que l e ben homme nostre hoste v i n t c r i a n t tout haut comme un b e l i e r esgare; "ga enfans, §a ca Messieurs, c ' e s t assez c a u s l , i l f a u t se reposer & l ' l t a l i a n o sermonisme: boivons 8 f a i s o n s une pause aux d i s c o u r s " . (I:137) At other times he i n t e r v e n e s to delay a d i s c u s s i o n u n t i l the gl a s s e s have been r a i s e d again, postponing a t c p i c with a c a l l to d r i n k : "Bemettez-le a t a n t o s t gue nous aurons teu" (1:142). 4 9 He a l s o c u t s s h o r t a d i s c u s s i o n d e c i s i v e l y i n the same manner: "Or boivez pour d e c i d e r c e t t e a f f a i r e " (11:70), 91 and g e n e r a l l y assures that wine i s not n e g l e c t e d amid the p r o d i g i o u s v e r b a l outpouring of the b a n g u e t . 5 0 alongside the obvious importance of wine p h y s i c a l l y present on the banguet t a b l e , i t f r e g u e n t l y r e c u r s as a t o p i c of t a b l e c o n v e r s a t i o n , i n d i c a t i n g i t s high p r i o r i t y i n the minds of the bangueters. Wine sometimes appears as the t o p i c f o r i n c o n s e q u e n t i a l or fatuous v e r b a l exchanges: . . . vas c h a t o i i i l l e r ce f l a c c o n de v i n , S me d i s s ' i l e s t masle ou f e m e l l e . — O u y da, i l y a malse S fem e l l e de v i n ; l e blanc e s t l e masle. (11:247) Mais encor, nostre maistre vous gui sqavez gue l e pain e s t plus ancien gue l e v i n , d'ou v i e n t gu'estant l e pain en l a bouche, i l est long temps "a se demener ck & l a , avant que t r o u v e r l e chemin de l a v a l l e e , & l e v i n tout i n c o n t i n e n t l e trouve? — C e mystere n'est pas de vostre r e l i g i o n : C'est pour ce g u ' i l y a plus d ' e s p r i t en une p i n t e de v i n , g u ' i l n'y a en un b c i s s e a u de b l e d . (1:15 ) 5 1 C r i e s f o r more wine and e x h o r t a t i o n s to d r i n k are a l s o complemented by commentaries on the s e n s u a l d e l i g h t s cf d r i n k i n g . As the banguet b e g i n s , the promise of f u t u r e pleasure gleams p r o p h e t i c a l l y from the b o t t l e s arranged on the banguet t a b l e : " l e s vaisseaux e s t o i e n t dignement arrengez s e l o n l e u r merite, ne plus ne moins gue l e s vers des S y b i l e s , 5 2 couvrans sous l e u r s a i n c t e cabale l e s plus savoureuses i n t e l l i g e n c e s du bien f u t u r . " (1:15). The " b i e n f u t u r " becomes more t a n g i b l e as the guests i n d u l g e not only i n consuming the beverage, but i n d e s c r i b i n g the p l e a s u r e s to be d e r i v e d from d r i n k i n g wine, One speaker wishes to 92 prolong the p l e a s u r e by extending h i s p a l a t e to exaggerated p r o p o r t i o n s . He expresses t h i s wish through a play cn the word fialais ( p a l a c e - p a l a t e ) : Ne s g a i s - t u p o i n t gue depuis gue l e v i n a j o i n t l ' e p i g l i o t t e i l n'est plus f a v o r a b l e ; i l convient, pour bien s o u h a i t e r en cet a f f a i r e , d e s i r e r a v o i r l e p a l a i s a u s s i long gue c e l u y de P a r i s , . . . a f i n que l a l i q u e u r arrousante, l a douce rosee de nature, l e sucre de l ' A u r o r e , on s e n t i t une vraye rage de bien, t a n d i s g u ' e l l e p a s s e r o i t par ces c o u l i s i n f r a c t u e u x . (1:142) The "vraye rage de b i e n " d e s c r i b e d by t h i s speaker i s put i n t o other words by the n a r r a t o r who a l s c speaks of the pleasure he d e r i v e s from the a c t of i m b i b i n g : "Scavez-vous bien pourguoi j'ayme t a n t a b o i r e ? c ' e s t pcurce gue j'ay une b e l l e joye guand i l me p l e u t dans l e v e n t r e . " (1:145). Unlike the animals, p l e a s u r e prompts man to d r i n k even when not t h i r s t y : Hercules. Pourguoy es t - c e gu'un asne ne b c i t pas s ' i l n'a s o i f ? C a l v i n . F a i t e s v o s t r e p r o p o s i t i o n v i v e . H e r c u l e s . Je ne m'esbahis s i tu f u s h e r e t i g u e ; va, je te l e d i r a y , c ' e s t pource q u ' i l ne b c i t que de l ' e a u ; que s ' i l b e u v o i t du v i n , i l b o i r o i t a tous momens, comme un bon T h e o l o g i e n . . . ( I I : 2 8 - 2 9 ) 5 3 The immediate s a t i s f a c t i o n of the senses provided by wine recommends i t h i g h l y to the pleasure seeking r e v e l l e r s i n Le Moyen de P a r v e n i r . The p h y s i c a l need i n d i c a t e d by t h i r s t i s not a necessary f a c t o r , nor i s a s p e c i a l o c casion necessary, as the f o l l o w i n g r i d d l e i l l u s t r a t e s : "En guel temps l e v i n e s t i l m e i l l e u r ou bon? D i t t e s Messieurs. — C ' e s t , d i t l'un guand on a grand s o i f ; " l ' a u t r e , "C'est en e s t e . — V o i r e , d i t f r e r e flnselme. 93 c ' e s t en hyver au s o i r guana* on s ' e s t bien x o u t i aupres de f e u . " A l b e r t l e Grand. — V o u s n'y estes pas, c'est guand on l e b o i t , gue l'on l e j e t t e a pcignee dans l e corps." (1:141-2 )5 * The p l e a s u r e s of wine are o f t e n mentioned along with those of l a u g h t e r . The two are d e s c r i b e d as " l e s orgues de l a l i e s s e " (I:108). Both are e s s e n t i a l elements of C a r n i v a l and add to the f e s t i v e atmosphere. D r i n k i n g and.laughter are two of the four " c a r d i n a l v i r t u e s " of t h i s ccmpany: "L a i s s o n s ces Theologiens avec l e u r s v e r t u s T h e c l c g a l e s ; guant a nous, suivons l e s guatre C a r d i n a l e s , g u i sont, B i r e , Banger, B o i r e , & Dormir. T e l l e s sont nos.vertus." (1:299) 5 5 These f e s t i v e v i r t u e s ( l a u g h t e r , e a t i n g , and d r i n k i n g ) a l s o enumerated by the f o o l - s o c i e t y of D i j o n , 5 6 abound i n Le Moyen de P a r v e n i r . The host e x p r e s s l y combines l a u g h t e r and wine i n a burlesgue t r a v e s t y of l e g a l jargon, urging the company to a v a i l themselves of t h e i r r i g h t f u l p l e a s u r e s : En d e p i t de t o u t e s s o r t e s de s o t s , boivons, r i o n s , ce sont des a c c i d e n s de concomitance, l i a s c n s de compagnies, r e l a t i o n s l e g i t i m e s , conseguences d ' u s u f r u i c t , c ' e s t nostre part guand nous y sommes; & de f a i t r i r e c ' e s t ce g u i contente l e p l u s , 5 g u i couste l e moins; s ' i l en e s t o i t a i n s i de b o i r e , le ben v i n ne c o u s t e r o i t gueres. (1:140) In t h i s i n v i t a t i o n to d r i n k and laugh there i s an attempt to j u s t i f y enjoyment of them both; the p s e u d o l e g a l i s t i c jargon, "accidens de concomitance, l i a s c n s de compagnies, r e l a t i o n s l e g i t i m e s , conseguences d ' u s u f r u i c t " , emphasizes i n a comic f a s h i o n the l e g i t i m a t e r i g h t the guests have to wine and 94 l a u g h t e r . 5 7 The t i p p l e r s a l s o a s s o c i a t e wine with e r o t i c p l e a s u r e s , suggesting i t s a p h r o d i s i a c p r o p e r t i e s . The ardent f i s h w i v e s , c o l o u r f u l l y d e s c r i b e d by the host, are l u s t y winebibbers: "Voyez,, je vous p r i e , l e s p o i s s o n i e r e s , l e s g u e l l e s pour a v o i r t o u s j o u r s l a main en l»eau, S feu au c u l , ont l e s joue's v e r m e i l l e s , e l l e s sent g a i l l a r d e s , aimant l e ben v i n , t o u s j o u r s estans en a p p e t i t . " (1.1:71) Another speaker d i p s i n t o the c a r n i v a l e s g u e fund of r i b a l d e x p r e s s i o n s and s t a t e s c o a r s e l y : " V o i r e , v i n chauffe S cas f r c t t ^ 5 8 ne tendent gu»a pauvrete"S9 ( i i ; 3 3 ) . Not only i s imbibing a major banguet a c t i v i t y , and the pleasure i t b r i n g s a source of c o n v e r s a t i o n , but the v i r t u e s to be found i n t h i s element encourage d r i n k i n g and supply yet another s u b j e c t of d i s c u s s i o n . The speakers c l a i m that i t enhances the i n d i v i d u a l both p h y s i c a l l y and s p i r i t u a l l y . The n a r r a t o r urges h i s f r i e n d s , i n c l u d i n g the reader to seek good h e a l t h i n wine: "Or mes c h e r s amis que j'aime de toute ma f r e s s u r e . . . vivoris 8 boivons selon nos merites, i l ne nous faudra p o i n t de b e s i d e s sur l e s a u r e i l l e s pour en destourner l e rhume, ny de c o t t o n dans l e nez pour l'empescher." (1:85). Wine, l i k e l a u g h t e r , i s s a i d to promote w e l l - b e i n g : " l e r i r e pour l'ame, & l e v i n pour l e corps" (1:140). wine can even help cure the body: "Ceux g u i sont un peu malades, & se r e n f o r c e n t a b c i r e 6 a manger g u a r i s s e n t ; a u s s i l'on ne meurt que de f a u t e de boire & 95 manger, 8 bref de s ' a b s t e n i r de f a i r e l e s vertus C a r d i n a l e s . " (Il:120).«o Good h e a l t h i s not the only v i r t u e the speakers a t t r i b u t e to wine; they suggest that through wine one can als o improve the i n t e l l e c t , f o r t r u t h i s found i n wine. A v a r i a t i o n on the theme of i n vino V e r i t a s appears i n the f i r s t d i s c u s s i o n of wine: Ayez de bons f l a c c o n s , pour y tro u v e r par l e u r moyen l a v e r i t e , comme f i t Democrite, gui enda l a trouva au fonds du p u i t s . Ie Boy a v o i t f a i t f a i r e un p u i t s , g u i resp o n d o i t Ii une v i e i l l e c a r r i e r e , cu Democrite a l l o i t souvent se r a f f r a i s c h i r . En ce p u i t s on r a f f r a i s c h i s o i t l e v i n du Roy; Democrite s'en apperceut, 8 a l i a avant d ' e s t r e aveugle j o l i m e n t prendre l e bon v i n g i s a n t en f l a c c o n s dans I'eau du p u i t s , 6 trouva gue c ' e s t c i t l a verite que l e v i n v a l l o i t mieux gue l' e a u . ( 1 : 1 5 ) 6 1 The " t r u t h " d i s c o v e r e d i n t h i s account i s not the a l l - encompassing t r u t h which i s d i v i n e knowledge or wisdom, 6 2 but i n s t e a d , i n a very l i m i t e d meaning of the word, t h i s t r u t h merely e s t a b l i s h e s a r e l a t i v e value of wine. T r u t h and wine are connected i n two other passages; each time " t r u t h " i s used i n a d i f f e r e n t c o n t e x t , but the r e s u l t i n g statement always promotes d r i n k i n g . Wine, i t i s suggested, a l s o possesses the power to fce of s p i r i t u a l b e n e f i t t o the consumer. E a r l y i n the t e x t , wine i s endowed with p r o p h e t i c q u a l i t i e s through comparison with " l e s vers des S y b i l e s " , 6 3 and i n v e s t e d with a sense cf mystery, understood only by the i n i t i a t e s . The n a r r a t o r , i n tones of s e l f - p a r o d y , pretends to be above the common 96 people, r e f e r r i n g to them as "bonnes gens, gui ne scavent pas l e s mysteres mysterieux du v i n , comme ncus a u t r e s philosophes" (1:16). T h i s mock h e r o i c stance, "nous autres philosophes", parodies the a t t i t u d e cf the a l c h e m i s t s , a s t r o l o g e r s , and others who seek an e s o t e r i c , r e v e a l e d t r u t h . C r i t i c i s m of hermetic c h a r l a t a n s can be found elsewhere i n Le Moyen de P a r v e n i r as well as i n other c f Beroalde's works.** These enigmatic suggestions of s p i r i t u a l g u a l i t i e s lead to more developed statements i n which the v i r t u e s a t t r i b u t e d to wine g i v e i t a mock . r e l i g i o u s aura. The author f a c e t i o u s l y a s s o c i a t e s wine with C a t h o l i c i s m and water with heresy: " B o i r e du v i n , c'est e s t r e bon C a t h c l i g u e , 5 mettre trop d'eau e s t se s e n t i r de l ' h e r e s i e , ne b o i r e gue de l'eau , & a v o i r l e v i n en haine, e st pure h e r e s i e ncyable, approchant de l'atheisme." (1:62). T h i s kind o f a s s o c i a t i o n i s what one would expect from the c a r n i v a l e s g u e parodies such as "Le Sermon de b i e n - b o i r e " , " L * I n v i t a t o r e bachigue", or during t r a v e s t i e s of the r e l i g i o u s s e r v i c e s performed during the Feast of F o o l s . 6 5 According to the n a r r a t o r i n Le Moyen de P a r v e n i r , d r i n k i n g i s thus f u l l y approved, even encouraged by the C a t h o l i c church. As f o r the P r o t e s t a n t s , the reader must assume that the words of C a l v i n are meant to i n d i c a t e h i s s e c t ' s a t t i t u d e on the s u b j e c t of wine: " C a l v i n : Ne sgavez vous pas gue je boy S mange s i peu g u ' i l me f a u t e s t r e en repos pour p a s t u r e r ? a v i s e z , j e ne mange 97 pas t a n t gue beaucoup de personnes, 8 s i tout l e v i n du monde e s t o i t l a , je n'en b c i r o i s pas l e q u a r t . " (11:156). Use of i r o n i c understatement, " j e n'en b c i r o i s pas l e quart", humorously r e v e a l s the reformer's l e a n i n g s . Eoth a t t i t u d e s r e f l e c t the same assessment of the t o p i c : Indulge! Dri n k i n g thus has. the a p p r o v a l of the r e l i g i o u s s e c t s represented at the banguet, and a l l guests are encouraged to drink "en bon Theologien". Only the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of the sober o u t s i d e world disapprove, but they are dismissed as h e r e t i c s because of t h e i r p r e f e r e n c e f o r water, the element of s o b r i e t y : "ne b o i r e gue de l'eau, 8 a v o i r l e v i n en haine, est pure h e r e s i e noyable" (1:62). Those who do not partake could never j o i n i n the i n e b r i a t e d whirlwind of the banguet, but these sober s o u l s are banished to the s t r a i g h t - s i d e d world o u t s i d e . In another passage, the legendary rowdy, fiercules taunts C a l v i n f o r being too sober: " t u v e n i s t i s o b r i u s ad evertendam rempublicam" (11:29). In t h i s case E e r c u l e s seems to r e f e r to C a l v i n ' s r e p u t a t i o n o u t s i d e the banguet r a t h e r than h i s present behaviour. S o b r i e t y has no place i n the world e s t a b l i s h e d i n s i d e t h e i r h a l l , because i t would upset the c a r n i v a l w i t h i n . The f a i t h f u l convene i n s i d e , i n s p i r e d and c a r r i e d away by the o b j e c t of t h e i r p r a i s e s . The eulogy sometimes approaches the i n t o n a t i o n of a l i t a n y , and the act of r a i s i n g a g l a s s a c q u i r e s the value c f a sacrament: "C'est l e bon v i n de Madame gui me f a i t a i n s i d i r e , 0 l i g u e u r 98 prophetigue, benigne humeur gui nous f a i t d c c t e s , r a d o u c i s nos a d v e r s i t e z , S r e s j o u l s l e s coeurs g u i ont faute de c o n s o l a t i o n s a l u t a i r e " ( 1 : 3 1 0 ) . 6 6 The i n v o c a t i o n of wine as a p a c i f y i n g agent, "benigne humeur qu i nous f a i t doctes, r a d c u c i s ncs a d v e r s i t e z . . . ", repeats the message of the seeming non s e g u i t u r outburst by the n a r r a t o r i n h i s i n t r o d u c t o r y statements: Qui a pensez vous, este cause de l a guerre de Troye, du s i e g e de Babylon, de l a r u i n e de Thebes, de l a venue de 1 * A n t e c h r i s t , £ de t a n t d f a u t r e s malheurs dont l e s vrayes & fausses h i s t o i r e s nous amusent? B o u t e i l l e s cassees, 6 v i n respahdu. (1:16) Lack of wine r e s u l t e d , a c c o r d i n g to t h i s informant, i n war and other examples of human d i s c o r d . The i m p l i c a t i o n s are c l e a r ; wine c o n t r i b u t e s to the cause of human peace, and thus i s a p o s i t i v e and v a l u a b l e substance. The p a c i f y i n g powers of wine are i n f a c t put to the t e s t w i t h i n the banguet i t s e l f . Anger and the t h r e a t c f v i o l e n c e , always c l o s e t o the s u r f a c e i n the l i b e r a t i o n cf a c a r n i v a l e s g u e environment,* 7 t h r e a t e n the present banguet. Although wine may be p a r t l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the v o l a t i l i t y cf the company's emotions, at the same time i t se r v e s another important f u n c t i o n as a p a c i f i e r . Rage sc overcomes one c h a r a c t e r , A l c i b i a d e s , that he l o s e s the power to a r t i c u l a t e p r o p e r l y : "Non, ou je me contamine, je m'abomine, je d e t e s t e , je t r a n t e m i l l e , j e p r e c i p i t e , j * h o r r i b l e , j e . . . .." (1:288). Unable to continue, he ends the u t t e r a n c e , 99 presumably because the words, which were a l r e a d y scrambled, no longer came at a l l , His anger p a r a l y z e s h i s power cf speech. Another c h a r a c t e r however, calms him and o f f e r s wine as a cure: "0 t a i s e z , t a i s e z vous. F a i c t e s l e b c i r e , g u ' i l ne s o i t enrag4". Wine thus helps to soothe h i s anger and r e c a l l h i s senses. Another a l t e r c a t i o n , t h i s time between U l d r i c and Scot, i s a l s o s u b j e c t e d t o the c u r a t i v e e f f e c t s of wine. U l d r i c l o s e s h i s temper and c a l l s Scot an ign o r a n t l i a r : "Vous en avez menti, au r e s p e c t de Dieu" (1:156). The hostess attempts to g u e l l the outburst by e x h o r t i n g them to d r i n k : "Quoy, gu*est-ce l a , v o i r e , & f a u t - i l gue l e s gens doctes v i v e n t a i n s i ? Boivez 5 vous accordez"_ (1:156). U l d r i c i s calmed by her sugg e s t i o n and r e t i r e s to h i s d r i n k , promising to be q u i e t : "Or s o i t ce q u i en pourra e s t r e , je me tay, & vous en l a i s s e t o u t f a i r e , je m'en v c i s me c o n s o l e r avec l e f l a c o n , je vous f a y juge de tout Madame" (1:156). Thus wine, which f r e e s the i n h i b i t i o n s and r e l e a s e s the passions can al s o serve t o soothe emotions, g u i e t tempers and c o n s o l i d a t e the f e e l i n g s of f r i e n d s h i p . As mentioned above, l a u g h t e r i s sometimes c l o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d with wine, but on i t s own adds to the cacophony of f e s t i v e sound. Laughter and f e s t i v e n o i s e are a l s o present at the banquet and add to the impression of c a r n i v a l . One chapter i s a p p r o p r i a t e l y e n t i t l e d "Bisee", an e p i t h e t w e l l - s u i t e d to the mood cf the symposium. 100 Democrites, the l a u g h i n g p h i l o s o p h e r , i s one of the f i r s t of the famous guests to be i n t r o d u c e d (I:15). Outbursts cf l a u g h t e r are o f t e n heard as the merrymakers express t h e i r amusement during the f e a s t . I n t e r j e c t i o n s such as "Ha, he h i h i e e e" (11:128), and "Ha ha he, ga c a " (11:191), e t c . , punctuate the d i a l o g u e . 6 8 The reader i s c o n s t a n t l y reminded of a laughing C a r n i v a l crowd, not only by these noisy p e a l s of l a u g h t e r f r e g u e n t l y i n t e r j e c t e d i n t o the n a r r a t i v e , but by the author's d e s c r i p t i o n of the guest's a c t i v i t e s : "Toute l a compagnie s'esmeut a r i r e , 8 nous nous trcuvasmes jcyeux S a l e g r e s comme une b e l l e troupe de jeunes ou nouveaux Cardinaux" (1:206). The company i s h i g h l y amused by Socrates at another p o i n t , and they do not attempt to r e s t r a i n t h e i r l a u g h t e r : Tout l e monde jusgues aux Anges 5 aux serpens, sans l e s p i e r r e s S c a i l l o u x qui en c r e v e r e n t , se mit a r i r e s i f o r t , que l a mule du Cure s a i n t Eustache en f o i r a de s i pure joye, que l a v i e en f a i l l i t par l e fcndement. (1: 221-22) The l o s s of p h y s i c a l c o n t r o l as an extreme r e s u l t of laughter was a documented p h y s i o l o g i c a l r e a c t i o n at the t i m e . 6 9 In t h i s t e x t i t adds to the impression cf u n c o n t r o l l a b l e and i n e b r i a t e d h i l a r i t y i n the symposium. Laughter a l s o e n t e r s i n t o the banguet as a s u b j e c t cf c o n v e r s a t i o n . The d i a l o g u e touches on the v i r t u e s c f l a u g h t e r and d e s c r i b e s them i n terms s i m i l a r t c the p r a i s e o f f e r e d to w i n e . 7 0 The c u r a t i v e e f f e c t s of l a u g h t e r , l i k e 101 those a t t r i b u t e d to wine, were h i g h l y regarded by some a u t h o r i t i e s in Beroalde's t i m e . 7 1 Whether Eeroalde, as a medical doctor, was f a m i l i a r with academic theory on t h i s i s s u e , or i f the a s s o c i a t i o n came to him from popular s o u r c e s , 7 2 he i n c l u d e s anecdotes i n which l a u g h t e r i s a remedy: A i n s i gue Madame e s t o i t tres-malade, & gue l'on p e n s c i t g u ' e l l e e x p i r a s t , e n v i r o n l a minuict on v i n t a p p e l l e r monsieur l e Docteur, gue se j e t t e du l i c t ; c r a - t ' i l une coustume de dormir sans chemise . . . . II se le v e en s u r s a u t , S pour a l l e r s e c o u r i r Madame i l met sur ses espaules l e manteau de son v a l l e t , premier trouve, . . Le manteau ne l u i p a s s o i t pas l e nc m b r i l , & ce personnage e n t r a en l a chambre, ou P r e s t r e s , Gentilhommes, Dames S au t r e s e s t c i e n t . A son ent r e e , tout chacun se mit a r i r e , . . . S Madame gui r e v i n t a ce b r u i t eut l a mesme v i s i o n gue l e s a u t r e s , s'en p r i t s i f o r t a r i r e g u ' e l l e f i t un pet 5 f u t gua r i e . (11:125) An a i l i n g m i n i s t e r i s a l s o cured when a humorous remark at h i s bedside prompts him to laugh: "Ce bon M i n i s t r e se p r i n t s i f o r t a r i r e , g u ' i l f u t tout guery . . ." (1:54). The recovery of these persons i l l u s t r a t e s the p o s i t i v e value of l aughing, and thus encourages by example the t o r r e n t s c f b o i s t e r o u s l a u g h t e r which c a r r y along the n a r r a t i v e . Throughout the book f e s t i v e noise i s present., Eesides the o u t b u r s t s of spontaneous l a u g h t e r , the c h a r a c t e r s i n t e r r u p t each other arid n o i s i l y c a l l a t t e n t i o n to themselves. The c o n v e r s a t i o n i s b o i s t e r o u s and c o m p e t i t i v e ; they even go so f a r as t o eguate speech with l i f e , s a y i n g that he who d r i n k s must stop speaking, f o r the s i l e n c e i s 102 l i k e f l i r t i n g with death. One c o u l d almost say the banguet i s b u i l t on the precept Je jjarJLe, done j e s u i s : "Va te promener, 8 me d i s l a r a i s o n g ui f a i t gue l'on b o i t l e s uns aux au t r e s . — C ' e s t pcurce gue c e l u i gui b o i t perd l a p a r o l e , 8 devant g u ' i l l u i avienne, i l p r i e gue l'on l ' a s s i s t e s ' i l l u i s u r v e n c i t danger, t a n d i s g u ' i l e s t a i n s i e n t r e l a v i e 8 l a mort, comme une ame q u i s o r t de P u r g a t o i r e , ou gui pense y a l l e r . (1: 225) The v e r b a l c o mpetition causes Erasmus t c complain: " I l y a plus de cinguante ans gue j e n'avois tant p a r l e sans e s t r e e s c o u t l " (1:146). Sometimes v o i c e s are r a i s e d above the l e v e l of the d i n to a t t r a c t a t t e n t i o n . The host uses t h i s technigue: ". . . Le bon homme nos t r e haste v i n t c r i a n t tout haut comme un b e l i e r esgare, 'Qa enfans, 9a ca Messieurs, c ' e s t assez cause . . ." (1:137). At other times v o i c e s are lowered, to pass on a p r i v a t e communication. 7 3 The v a r i a n c e i n p i t c h amid the hubbub reminds the reader that the banguet i n progress has an a c o u s t i c dimension., _ Other sounds a l s o i n t e r r u p t the banguet, some of which are d i s t i n c t l y c a r n i v a l e s q u e : A i n s i que je demandois a b o i r e , v c i l a un grand b r u i t . — Q u o i , dismes nous, e s t l a l e r e s u l t a t de guelque Pape qui se f a i t , ou l e Tedeum d'un f a i t tout ncuveau? Non, ce d i t C a l e p i n , c ' e s t que l'on v i e n t de couper l e cou a Caresme, 8 nous en ouions l e b r u i t qui en r e t e n t i t de l ' E g l i s e n o s t r e Dame de P a r i s a Nantes. (11:251) The noise heard above the l a u g h t e r and the noisy c o n v e r s a t i o n evokes the Shr o v e t i d e season, f c r i t i s s a i d to be t h a t of a c a r n i v a l e s g u e e x e c u t i o n , "on v i e n t de couper l e 103 cou a Careseme". A l l of the above elements, d i s l o c a t e d time and space, masquerading c h a r a c t e r s , food, wine and f e s t i v e n c i s e c o n t r i b u t e to the c a r n i v a l e s g u e atmosphere of Ee"rcalde's banguet. Upon c l o s e r i n s p e c t i o n the impression cf a f e s t i v a l i s s u b s t a n t i a t e d by numerous d e t a i l s . The r e g u l a r i t y of time i s i n t e n t i o n a l l y d i s r u p t e d , l e n d i n g a vague, i n d e f i n i t e g u a l i t y to the banquet. The p l a c e i s a l s o obscured, even though i t i s c l e a r l y separated from t h e . o u t s i d e world. The author himse l f steps i n and out of the l o o s e n a r r a t i v e , posing as both c r e a t o r and p a r t i c i p a n t , f r e g u e n t l y reminding the reader of h i s g u i d i n g presence and of the c r e a t i v e process. The f i g u r e s of a f e s t i v e gueen and king or cf a Mere Sotte and a pere bon temjjs are present i n Eeroalde's Madame Sophie and l e £ere s p i J E i t u e l . The u n i n h i b i t e d behaviour of the guests a l s o i m p l i e s a f e s t i v a l cr a f c o l - s o c i e t y meeting i n p r o g r e s s . A g r e a t v a r i e t y of c h a r a c t e r s are i n t r o d u c e d wearing t h e i r i d e n t i t i t e s l i k e C a r n i v a l masks or costumes of the popular t h e a t r e , and s u p e r n a t u r a l c r e a t u r e s a l s o mingle among the r e v e l l e r s . T r a d i t i o n a l l y part of the f e s t i v a l , the banguet emphasizes the m a t e r i a l aspect of the body and p r o v i d e s an excuse f o r f e s t i v e c o n v e r s a t i o n . The conspicuous presence of wine, both cn the t a b l e and i n the c o n v e r s a t i o n , a l s o adds to the c a r n i v a l e s g u e atmosphere. In a d d i t i o n to these f a c t o r s the b o i s t e r o u s l a u g h t e r and f e s t i v e noise of the company serve 104 to complete the impression of a l i b e r a t e d c e l e b r a t i o n which Beroalde presents to h i s reader. In order to d i s c o v e r how the f e s t i v e atmosphere serves Beroalde's purpose, the f o l l o w i n g chapter w i l l t u rn to the content of the c o n v e r s a t i o n around the t a b l e . . S p e c i f i c a l l y , i t w i l l c oncentrate on the a t t i t u d e of i r r e v e r e n c e and s a c r i l e g e which Le Mo^en de P a r v e n i r shares with f e s t i v e events l i k e the F e a s t of F o o l s , C a r n i v a l and the a c t i v i t i e s of the f o o l - s o c i e t i e s . 105 CHAPTER I I I : NOTES 1 No attempt has been made to modernize q u o t a t i o n s from the t e x t ; t h e r e f o r e accents, s p e l l i n g and punctuation as they stand i n the t e x t are resp e c t e d . 2 See above pp. 42-45. 3 Beroalde mentions a change from the estoeuf to the b a l l e i n Le P a l a i s des c u r i e u x (1612), as i f i t were a f a m i l i a r s u b j e c t , but does not gi v e any more d e t a i l s about i t . E. H. Clouzot , i n "La Date du Moyen de P a r v e n i r " , (Revue des Etudes R a b e l a i s i e n n e s , 9 ~{19"l l77 "1-437 Clouzot documents the event to which Beroalde r e f e r s : " l ' e t e u f . . . e t a i t une b a l l e de c u i r remplie de bourre t r e s serrde dont on se s e r v a i t au jeu de paume, l ' a n c ^ t r e de notre t e n n i s moderne. Sa f a b r i c a t i o n o c c u p a i t un c e r t a i n nombre d ' o u v r i e r s appeles e s t e u f i e r s groupes en c o r p o r a t i o n . E s t - i l done v r a i gu'a un moment donn^ une gues t i o n de mode a i t s u b s t i t u e a c e t t e b a l l e c l a s s i g u e une b a l l e plus mclle et boulverse a i n s i l e s t r a d i t i o n s de ce jeu g u a s i - n a t i o n a l e ? Le f a i t e s t parfaitement exact. I l . s e t r c u v e r e l a t e dans l e r e c i t de voyage d'un A n g l a i s , Robert D a l l i n g t o n , g u i , aux environs de l'annee 1598, v i n t passer guelgues temps a P a r i s . . . .'Vous observez gue l e u r s b a l l e s sont en coton; mode g u ' i l s ont adopt! depuis sept ans: auparavant, e l l e s e t a i e n t en c u i r comme chez nous.* . . . c ' e s t done vers 1591 que s ' e s t i n t r o d u i t c e t t e mode n c u v e l l e dans l e s r e g i e s du jeu de paume." Despite the accuracy of t h i s o b s e r v a t i o n the date i n question i s not a u n i v e r s a l l y r e c o g n i z e d event, and the mention of a changeover to "raolles b a l l e s " as a ref e r e n c e p o i n t by which to l o c a t e Beroalde's banguet symposium i n time r e t a i n s i t s tone of parody through exaggerated p r e c i s i o n . * Time i s p l a y f u l l y d i s r u p t e d i n another passage which concerns the p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s book, see 11:260, c i t e d below p. 62. s A date of p u b l i c a t i o n was not n e c e s s a r i l y i n c l u d e d cn the f r o n t i s p i e c e of bocks p u b l i s h e d during B e r c a l d e ' s time, and the l a c k of a date would not i n d i c a t e a d e l i b e r a t e omission. In t h i s case however, the "date" of p u b l i c a t i o n i s p u r p o s e f u l l y mentioned, demonstrating t h a t the p r e c i s e d e t a i l s are w i l l f u l l y withheld. 6 See above p. 60. 7 V.L. S a u l n i e r , "Etude", p. 309, assumes a 106 r e l a t i o n s h i p between Le Ro^en de P a r v e n i r and the numerous conferences h e l d around 1577 during which the question cf the E u c h a r i s t was d i s c u s s e d . S e v e r a l were held i n S w i t z e r l a n d where Beroalde was r e s i d i n g at t h a t time. J . P a l l i s t e r , World View, p. 104, a l s o imagines a r e l i g i o u s g a t h e r i n g , but she b e l i e v e s i t may be a papal symposium. R. Cohen, R h e t o r i c , p. 27, suggests a papal assembly. The C o u n c i l of Trent i s mentioned i n the t e x t (1:110, 11:70), g i v i n g weight to these t h e o r i e s . 8 S a u l n i e r , pp. 295-95, a l s o notes the s i m i l a r i t y between Le Mo^en de P a r v e n i r and the medieval Turba £ i i i i°S° £ l i O£ilSi a work c o n s i s t i n g of the c o n v e r s a t i o n a t an a l c h e m i c a l symposium: "On s a i t que ce l i v r e , gui s ' o f f r e comme une a d a p t a t i o n abregee du S_yngde de l a Philoscj3hie de Pythagoras, f i g u r e un congres d ' a l c h i m i s t e s , presentes sous l e s noms des philosophies g r e c s antiques . . . d ' a i l l e u r s deformes par l e u r s t r a n s c r i p t i o n s s u c c e s s i v e s de grec en arabe et en l a t i n . . . .'On touche l a du d c i g t , c c n c l u t W. Ganzenmiiller, l ' e f f o r t f a i t pour e t a b l i r un r a p p o r t (des d o c t r i n e s alchimigues) avec l a . p h i l o s c p h i e grecgue, rapport gui demeure i c i tout a. f a i t s u p e r f i c i e l , l i m i t e aux noms, en e f f e t ce gue chague philosophe expose n'a r i e n a f a i r e avec ses propres d o c t r i n e s ! * Le procede de Eeroalde n ' e s t - i l pas une t r a n s p o s i t i o n burlesgue du mime prcce'de en un l i v r e dent toute l a p r e s e n t a t i o n n'est gue p a r o d i e ? " . Many of the speakers i n Le Moyen de P a r v e n i r are famous a l c h e m i s t s : P a r a c e l s u s , L u l l e , Geber, Agrippa, Eeroalde was known to have an i n t e r e s t i n alchemy and had w r i t t e n a t r e a t i s e cn the s u b j e c t , Les Recherches de l a P i e r r e £hilo££_phale, 1583. 9 See H e i n r i c h Schneegans (St r a s s b u r g : Trubner, 1894), Geschicte der Grotesken S a t i r e , p. 289. He b r i e f l y notes a resemblance between Beroalde's s t y l e and that of Mere J c l l e but does not e l a b o r a t e . 1 0 D U T i l l i o t , w i f o i r e s , p u b l i s h e d s e v e r a l i n v i t a t i o n s to banquets of the I n f a n t e r i e D i j c n n a i s e , f o r example " I n v i t a t i o n pour se t r o u v e r a l'Assembl^e de l ' I n f a n t e r i e D i j o n n a i s e " , pp. 83-85: Je v i e n s de l a part de l a Mere, Mere aux Foux, S Sages prospere, Vous d i r e gue depuis long-terns, E l l e n'a vu son cher Bon-Tems, V o i c i l e jour g u i nous ^ v e i l l e , Qui l'entend ne f a u t gu'une o r e i l l e ; Le bon Pere est s i curieux De rendre ses Enfans heureux, Q u ' i l ne veut pas gue l ' c n l e u r vende, Chapon, P e r d r i x , Canard, n i viande, 107 Quelle g u ' e l l e s o i t a ce j u r , C r a i n t e de perdre son amour, Plus q u ' i l f a u t a ce que sa t a b l e S o i t en t c u t e s o r t e agreable . . . . 1 1 Beroalde had t r a n s l a t e d two cf these p a s t o r a l n o v e l s . La Diane (1592) by Jorge de Montemayor, and Le Scn.ce d§ „Il£EiI§ (1 600) by Francesco Colonna. He a l s o wrote a long novel i n the same s t y l e , Les flyantures de F l o r i d e , which appeared i n s i x volumes from 1593-1596. 1 2 See a l s o 1:194, "Epanimondas" r e t u r n s to the t a b l e . 1 3 i§ Moyen de F a r y e n i r , ed. Paul L a c r o i x ( P a r i s : G o s s e l i n , 184l7,~p. 2~ n o t e " " 1 4 Royer, (Index, p. 311) h e s i t a n t l y suggests that "nostre pere se P u i s s e t u e r " i s a pun on "nostre pere s p i r i t u e l " , a s p e c u l a t i o n repeated by S a u l n i e r , "Etude", p. 155. 1 5 Sound c l u s t e r s such as "a l i c a m e n t - a l i m e n t e z " and " a l l e g r e s s e - v i t e s s e " occur i n the f o l l o w i n g q u o t a t i o n from the I n f a n t e r i e D i j o n n a i s e . T h i s and s i m i l a r documents a l s o r e f l e c t the burlesque tone of Be'roalde's convocation i n numerous examples of exaggeration and s t r i n g s of s i m i l a r words. "Les S u p e r l a t i g u e s & M i r e l i f i g u e s Lcppinans de L ' I n f a n t e r i e d i j o n n a i s e ; A tous Foux, flrchifoux, Lunatigues, Eventez, Minimes, Crochus, Almanachs vieux & ncuveaux, ei gui en voudra; S a l u t S gard; Sante', Escus, Ducats, P i s t o l l e s , Jacobus & autres Especes. Etant imbus, 5 alicament a l i m e n t e z de l a viande s o l i d e , S a u t r e s especes pansadices s e l o n l e terns, 5 dignement informez de l a l e g e r e t ^ des sens, moeurs, a l l e g r e s s e & v i t e s s e des machoires, h a r d i e s s e , f r i a n d i s e , g a l a n t i s e , s u f f i s a n c e & experience des dents." Du T i l l i o t , His2i£es, p. 77. 1 6 See f o r example the opening monologue i n the Jeu J u P r i n c e des Sots by Gringore : " S c t z l u n a t i g u e s , Sotz e s t o u r d i s , Sotz sages, Sotz de v i l l e s , de c h a s t e a u l x , de v i l l a g e s , Sotz r a s s o t e z , Sotz n y a i s , Sotz s u b t i l z , Sotz amoureux, Sotz p r i v i e z , Sotz sauvages, S c t z vieux, ncuveaux, et Sotz de toutes ages, , . . Sott e s dames et S o t t e s d a m o i s e l l e s , S o t t e s v i e i l l e s , S o t t e s jeunes, n c u v e l l e s , . . . Le Mardy Gras jouera l e P r i n c e aux H a l l e s " . Oeuyres comgletes de Gringore, ( P a r i s : Jannet, 1858), pp. 201-2. ~ 1 7 C i t e d by Du T i l l i o t , Hemoires, p. 83. (buse r e f e r s to a dim-witted person.) 108 1 8 Du T i l l i o t , p. 66. 1 9 In the " S o t t i e des Trcmpeurs" a l l those i n v i t e d are urged to spare no t r o u b l e i n a t t e n d i n g the c e l e b r a t i o n : " S ' i l y a c l o s t u r e / Qui vous garde gue i c y ne povez pas, / Abbatez t o u t , rompez, f a i c t e s ouverture, / Et acccurez plus v i s t e gue l e pas". Ancien Theatre v. 2, p. 244. Words spoken by the Roy des Sots i n the s o t i e of h i s name, i l l u s t r a t e the mandatory q u a l i t y of the i n v i t a t i o n sent cut to these devoted to him, p. 223: Pourguoy, sus peine de l'amende, Soyent en present ou absens Maintenant viennent tous, sans Delay ne e s t a t demander, Ne procureur pour eulx mander, Car a i n s i me p l a i s t e s t r e f a i c t , Ou aultrement de l e u r f o r f a i c t Les f a i r e griefment pugnir. Pensez doncgues tous de v e n i r Devant que e n c o u r i r mon i r e . 20 Du T i l l i o t , Wemoires, pp. 88-9, i n c l u d e s a sonnet addressed t o the Mere F o l l e of D i j o n , prcbably i n the e a r l y XVIIth century. I t i n d i c a t e s the s o r t of r e s p e c t t h i s f i g u r e i n s p i r e d : Mere, l e s e u l o b j e t de notre I n f a n t e r i e , Par g ui l e s sages Foux r e s p i r e n t a l ' e n v i , Autant que l e S o l e i l dans l'Olympe r e l u i t , A i n s i p u i ssent durer S ton l o s S ta v i e ! Que tous ces vieux Suppots, qui vers t o i se r a l l i e n t P u i s s e n t s ' e t e r n i s e r dans l ' o u b l i e u s e n u i t ! Que l 'on n'entende r i e n r e t e n t i r gue l e b r u i t , De trompette 8 Tambour de l a Mere-Folle! Bref, b r e f , cher Nourrisson d'Apollon 8 Minerve, Pour gui l e s sages Foux du s i e c l e se r e v e i l l e n t , Les T u t e l a i r e s Dieux p u i s s e n t f a v c r i s e r , Toujours vos beaux d e s s e i n s , 8 chez vous l e s graces Puissent sympatiser, 8 t o u j o u r s t r o u v e r p l a c e s , Et tous vos voeux e h f i n t o u j o u r s a u t o r i s e r ! 21 See the above sonnet, l i n e s 7-8. The Enfans de Bon^ Temj>s, a f o o l - s o c i e t y of Geneva, perfomed s o t i e s i n 1523 and 1524 i n which Mere Sotte and Bon Tem^s are mother and f a t h e r f i g u r e s . See Enid~Welsf6rd, The Fool,"pp. 226-28. 22 Du T i l l i o t , Memoires, pp. 90, 105, 107. 109 2 3 Lg Moyen de E a r v e n i r , G a m i e r e d i t i o n ( P a r i s : G a r n i e r , n.d.), p. 192, note 2. 2 4 Royer i n c l u d e s an index of names c i t e d i n h i s e d i t i o n of Le Moy_en de P a r v e n i r , 11:277-303. 2 5 Ancient authors i n p a r t i c u l a r i n c l u d e d famous personnages i n t h e i r symposia, see below, note 45. The medieval Turba £hilosojphorum c i t e d by S a u l n i e r a l s o imagines the c o n v e r s a t i o n of a congress of famous a l c h e m i s t s , see above, note 8. 2 6 see a l s o 1:302, 303. 2 7 Roger C a i l l o i s , Les Jeux et l e s hommes ( P a r i s : G a l l i m a r d , 1958), pp. 42-3. 2 8 See f o r example, Le M i r a c l e de Theo_phile, Ed. Robert Harden (New York: Appletoh~Century"crofts7~ 1961~) , pp. 57-84. Three X l l l t h century anecdotes about pacts with the d e v i l are a l s o found i n Mens a Philosojohica a t t r i b u t e d to Michael S c o t t , t r a n s . Arthur S. Way (London: Macmillan, 1936), pp. 7-8. 2 9 P e t i t de J u l l e v i l l e , La Comjdie et l e s moeurs en France au mo_yen-acje (1886; r p t . Geneva: S l a t k i n e , 1968), pp. 54-55. He confirms the l i n k between the f a b l i a u x and the f a r c e s : " L ' i n f l u e n c e des f a b l i a u x sur l e s f a r c e s e s t i n c o n t e s t e e . L ' e s p r i t des deux genres e s t sensiblement l e m&me. Le f a b l i a u r aconte vivement dans un rythme c o u r t et dans un s t y l e a i s e , une aventure p l a i s a n t e ; l a f a r c e s'empare du m£me f a i t , et, dans l e meme s t y l e e t l a mime mesure, e l l e met en di a l o g u e e t en scene ce gue l e f a b l i a u a v a i t r a c o n t e . Ajoutons, ce g u i e s t frappant, gue l'epcgue cu l'on cesse de composer des f a b l i a u x e s t pr4cisement c e l l e ou l'on commence a 4 c r i f e l e s f a r c e s ; l e X H I e s i e c l e e t l e XlVe appartiennent aux f a b l i a u x ; l e XVe s i e c l e et l e XVIe aux f a r c e s . " 3 0 see f o r example 1:257,268; 11:60, 78, 217, 221. 3 1 See f o r example 1:7-8, 77, 173, 182, 244, e t c . 3 2 "Qui r i t , i l d i l a t e son e s p r i t , son coeur s'ouvre, et, ses pensees se manifestans, p a r c i s t comme en l'age de d e s i r a b l e innocence, sans f a r d et sans dcnner occasion de s i n i s t r e jugement . . . . E n r i a n t de coeur f r a n c , cn f a i t v o i r ce g u ' i l y a de bon en ce p e t i t c a b i n e t d ' a f f e c t i o n , . R i r e desirablement, c ' e s t e s t r e en une d i l a t a t i o n de courage, r a v i comme au c i e l en comble de l i e s s e . " C i t e d by 110 S a u l n i e r , "Etude", p. 279. 3 3 The S a t u r n a l i a n f e s t i v a l i s remembered f o r i t s annual o v e r t u r n i n g of the s o c i a l h i e r a r c h y . See above pp. 25-26. 3 4 During C a r n i v a l and r e l a t e d f e s t i v a l s such as the Feast of Fools the i n v e r s i o n of the s o c i a l h i e r a r c h y e l e v a t e d the lower c l a s s e s to ephemeral p o s i t i o n s c f a u t h o r i t y . I t was t h i s group which then l e f t t h e i r i m p r i n t on the s t y l e of the f e s t i v a l . 3 5 See above Chapter I I , p. 33. 3 6 E. 0. James, Seasonal F e a s t s , p. 134, s t a t e s t h a t i n ancient Greece . . . "a f e s t i v a l was i n very t r u t h a f e a s t , as indeed i t o f t e n s t i l l i s i n the more r u s t i c and remote pa r t s of Greece, f e a s t i n g being combined with music, dancing, games and merrymaking . . James a l s o observes, p. 319, t h a t " i n the f o l k f e a s t s the a n c i e n t r i t u a l performed with such deadly earnestness i n the F e r t i l e Crescent before i t passed i n t o peasant Europe by.way'of the Eastern Mediterranean, the Danube and the A t l a n t i c l i t t o r a l , s u r v i v e d i n Masguerades, dances, and customs, p a r t l y s e r i o u s and p a r t l y f r i v o l o u s , but r e t a i n i n g the e s s e n t i a l f e a t u r e s and s t r u c t u r e of the e a r l i e r observances. In the process cf d i f f u s i o n i t l o s t much of i t s e a r l i e r s t e r n r e a l i t y and more s i n i s t e r elements, becoming the o c c a s i o n f o r popular r e l a x a t i o n , dancing, games, f e a s t i n g , c a r n i v a l and r e v e l r y i n a s e r i o - c o m i c . v e i n . " 3 7 See the f a b l i a u "Ie Pays de Cockaigne", i n Fabliaux et contes des £o|tes f r a n ^ a i s des XI, XII, X I I I , XIV, et XVe sieclesT D.M7 M i o ~ ~ e d . "(Pari s:~WarIe,~ 1 8 0 8 7 , v. "~pp7~175- 81. ~And "Het L u i l e k k e r l a n d " ("The Land of Cockaigne"), a p a i n t i n g by Peter Breughel (1567). 3 8 Bakhtin mentions the many v i l l a g e f a i r s c e l e b r a t e d i n the XVIth c e n t u r y , B a b e l a i s , p. 79. One has only to remember the f a i r s of Lyon during which R a b e l a i s sold h i s w r i t i n g s , and the wedding banguets, one of which i s turned i n t o a c a r n i v a l e s g u e t h r a s h i n g scene by R a b e l a i s , Le Cjuart Liy.£e» XV ( G a m i e r ed., I I , 8 1-84). F e a s t i n g was~alsc~an important p a r t of the a c t i v i t i e s of the f c c l - s c c i e t i e s i n the XVIth century. ' 3 9 A c e r t a i n gentleman i s reguested to appear before the I n f a n t e r i e D i j o n n a i s e and i f he comes armed, they hope i t w i l l only be with banguet a c c e s s o r i e s : S ' i l v i e n t g u ' i l n'apporte poin t d'armes, 111 Car l e s Foux c r a i g n e n t l e s a l l a r m e s , S i ce n'est avec bons jambons, Patez, b o u t e i l l e s , 8 F l a c c o n s . (Du T i l l i o t , p. 86). 4 0 Du T i l l i o t , Memoires, p. 72. He a l s o i l l u s t r a t e s the emphasis placed on banqueting a b i l i t i e s i n another passage, p. 74: ". . . La l e g e r e t e des sens, mceurs, a l l e g r e s s e de machoires, v i t e s s e , h a r d i e s s e , g a l a n t i s e , f r i a n d i s e , s u f f i s a n c e 8 experience t a n t des dents gu'autres memtres". 4 1 A mock h e r o i c treatment of e a t i n g and d r i n k i n g appears a l s o i n the documents of the I n f a n t e r i e E i j o n n a i s e c i t e d by Du T i l l i o t , p. 81. A candidate i s p r a i s e d f c r h i s " F a i t s heroiguez, sa dexterit<£ au maniment des Armes Bachigues . . . « » . 42 There are s e v e r a l d i r e c t r e f e r e n c e s to the banguet i n p r o g r e s s , and many s p e c i f i c mentions of the food and wine being consumed; see f o r example 1:8,17,23,42,145,216; II : 132,162,236,259, et £assim. .. 4 3 Rabelais, Garcjantua, ( Gamier ed. , I , 9). See a l s o i S T i e r s L i y r e "Prologue", (I, 398-99): "Icy beuvant ^e d e l i b e r e , je d i s c o u r s , je r e s o u l z et c c n c l u d s . Apres l ' e p i l o g u e je r i z , j ' e s c r i p z , je compose, je boy. Ennius beuvant e s c r i v o i t , e s c r i v a n t b e u v o i t . Aeschylus . . Beuvoit composant, beuvant composoit. Homere jamais n ' e s c r i v i t a jeun. Caton jamais n ' e s c r i v i t gue apres boyre." 4 4 P l a t o (Sym£osium, c. 384-369 B.C.) recounts i n dialogue form the c o n v e r s a t i o n and events at a banguet; among other w e l l known men of the time present i s S o c r a t e s , a l s o a prominent giiest at Beroalde's banguet. , Xenophon (SyiEosium, c. 350 B.C.) was a l s o i n s p i r e d by the memory c f S o c r a t e s ' behaviour a t a banguet. The guest l i s t i s composed mainly of h i s t o r i c a l personnages. P l u t a r c h (Sjmjaosiacs, c. 46-120 A.D.) wrote an imaginary p r a n d i a l c o n v e r s a t i o n between wise men, some of them famous t h i n k e r s who l i v e d t h ree c e n t u r i e s before the author. P e t r o n i u s , d. 65 A.D., composed the S a t i r i c o n which i n c l u d e s the famous "Dinner with T r i m a l c i o " . The fragment c o n t a i n i n g the f e a s t scene could have i n s p i r e d Beroalde i f he had access to a copy.of i t . (The work was not o f f i c i a l l y d i s c o v e r e d u n t i l 1633.) Athenaeus (Dei£noso£hists, c, 200 AD.) g i v e s a lengthy r e c o r d of banguet c o n v e r s a t i o n touching on every aspect c f the l i f e of h i s time. Macrobius ( S a t u r n a l i a , c. 4C0 A.D.) r e l a t e s the c o n v e r s a t i o n which takes place at an imaginary banquet held d u r i n g the S a t u r n a l i a n f e s t i v a l . Though h i s guests do not behave i n s a t u r n a l i a n f a s h i o n as do Beroalde's, they g i v e v a l u a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n on the customs 112 surrounding t h a t f e s t i v a l . 4 5 The l o o s e l y woven framework was used by many authors of the XVIth century. Marguerite de Navarre (LJHeptamjron, 1559) causes her speakers to gather due t c a ~ f l c c d ~ w h i c h i n t e r r u p t s t h e i r v a r i o u s journeys; Jacques Iver (Le Printemjjs, 1572) groups h i s speakers i n a country chSteau. E-lnigne Poissenot (L^Este, 1583) imagines a c o n v e r s a t i o n c f students, N i c o l a s de C h o l i e r e s (Les Matinees, 1585; Les i2£§Sz^iB^§s» 1587) s t r u c t u r e s h i s works around a s e r i e s cf morning and a f t e r - d i n n e r c o n v e r s a t i o n s , and Guillaume Bouchet (Les S e r i e s , 1584-98) re c o r d s the evening c o n v e r s a t i o n s of a group of bourgeois i n P o i t i e r s . 4 6 L u c i a n , S a t u r n a l i a , p. 95, g i v e s an example of f e s t i v e f r e e t a l k . The god Cronus reproaches the P r i e s t (the author) f o r an i n d i s c r e e t g u e s t i o n : " I f i t were net f e s t i v a l - t i m e , my man, and i f you weren't allowed to get drunk and cheek your masters with impunity, you would have found out t h a t I'm allowed to be angry at any r a t e — a s k i n g such gu e s t i o n s and showing no r e s p e c t f o r a g r e y - h a i r e d old god l i k e me!" 4 7 1:13-16. 4 8 See a l s o 1:145, ". . . Je d e s i r e me refectienner d'un peu de viande & de l i g u e u r " . 4 9 See a l s o 11:120, "Boivons un bon coup, puis ncus sgaurons c e l a " . 5 0 Other reminders of the wine being consumed by the banguet guests are s c a t t e r e d throughout the t e x t , 1:140, "boivons, lavons l e cou par dedans"; 1:141, "A c e l a i l beut"; 1:145, "Boivons e t gay"; 11:251, " A i n s i gue je demandois a b o i r e " ; see a l s o 1:155, 1:202, e t c . 5 1 A p o i n t l e s s d i s c u s s i o n about the wine consumed at a previous banquet given by Seneca covers a page c f d i a l o g u e , 1:142. Another d i s c u s s i o n covers the r e l a t i v e merits of wine and water: ". . . Quand un homme entre ou l'on d i s n e , l e g u e l est l e plus e x c e l l e n t s i on l u i present de l'eau ou du v i n ? " The guests c o n s i d e r t h i s problem s e r i o u s l y , and i t i s even suggested t h a t i t was debated by the C o u n c i l of Trent: "0 l a b e l l e p r o p o s i t i o n ! 0 l e beau problesme n o t a b l e , g u i f u t debattu au Concile de t r o i s d i x a i n e s ! " (11:70). 5 2 S y b i l e s : a n c i e n t prophetesses. 5 3 " B o i r e en T h e o l o g i e n " i s an e x p r e s s i o n d e f i n e d by 113 Bakhtin ( R a b e l a i s , p. 216) as an example cf debasing t r a v e s t y ; i t means "a good d r i n k i n g bout". 5 4 Another s h o r t exchange i l l u s t r a t e s the o l f a c t o r y pleasure wine b r i n g s : "Vous n'avez point p a r l e de l'odeur du vin? —N'importe, pource g u ' i l ne peut f a i l l i r de s e n t i r ton" ( I I : 24 8) . 5 5 See a l s o 11:120, ". . . L'on ne meurt gue de f a u t e de b o i r e & manger, 8 b r e f de f a i r e l e s vertus C a r d i n a l e s " . Sf> In the " I n s t i t u t i o n de M a i t r e Jean Fachcn" c i t e d by Du T i l l i o t , M^moires, p. 8 1, the new member i s welcomed only a f t e r having taken a pledge: " P r o t e s t a t i o n par l u i f a i t e sur l e Chaperon de bien v i v r e , b o i r e , manger 8 r i r e " . 5 7 See a l s o R a b e l a i s ' d e d i c a t i o n to the readers of Gargantua, (Gamier ed., I, 3) : Mieulx e s t de r i s que de larmes e s c r i p r e , Pour ce que r i r e e s t l e propre de l'homme. 5 8 Royer e d i t i o n . Glossary (11:315), "cas: au sens l i b r e " . . .. 5 9 See Le Moyen de P a r v e n i r , G a m i e r e d i t i o n , p. 17, note 1, "pauvret£: f a i r e 1'amour". Eeroalde w h i m s i c a l l y t r a c e s the etymology of t h i s e x p r e s s i o n , 1:63. . Beroalde promotes the h e a l t h - g i v i n g powers cf wine i n another of h i s works, Le P a l a i s des Curieux, 1612: "Je veux enseigner un beau s e c r e t a ceux gui ne sgavent pas: Mettez du s e l bien net dans de bon v i n . . .ce v i n e s t l e plus exguis p r e s e r v a t i f gue l ' o n puisse imaginer contre l a peste . . .", p. 514. Wine was promoted as conducive to gocd health much e a r l i e r i n the h i s t o r y of p r a n d i a l l i t e r a t u r e a l s o . A X l l l t h century guide to bangueting a t t r i b u t e d to Michael S c o t t , Mensa PhilosojDhica, ( t r a n s . Arthur S. Way) quotes ancient a u t h o r i t i e s i n the promotion cf wine. Quoting Isaac, an A r a b i c - s p e a k i n g Jewish s c h o l a r of the Xth century and R a s i s , an Arab medical s c h o l a r a l s o of the Xth century, S c o t t concludes t h a t by wine " h e a l t h and s t r e n g t h are prolonged", p. 7-8. 6 1 Rabelais mentions the d i s c o v e r y of t r u t h at the bottom of a w e l l t w i c e , Pantagruel, x v i l l ( G a m i e r ed., I, 315), and Le T i e r s L i y r e , XXXVI "(I,~552) , but Eeroalde has added the element of wine^ 6 2 The theme i n vino y e r i t a s i s a l s o e x p l o i t e d by Rabelais i n h i s Cinguilme L i y r e , XXXVI (Gamier ed., I I , 111 425-26). He uses " t r u t h " i n a broad sense: "En f i n des degrez rencontrasmes un p o r t a l de f i n Jaspe . . . En l a face duguel e s t o i t en l e t r e s Ionigues d'cr t r e s p e u r , e s c r i t e c e t t e sentence . . . 'en v i n v e r i t e ' . " The t r u t h a l l u d e d to i s u n i v e r s a l and p h i l o s p h i c , u n l i k e the reduced " t r u t h " found i n Beroalde's wine; the l a t t e r seems to be mocking the adage, i n vino V e r i t a s . 6 3 C i t e d above, p. 92 8 * See 1:161, 165, 223 and 11:147. In Ie P a l a i s des Curieux (1612), p. 293, Be'roalde lashes out a g a i n s t i g n o r a n t a l c h e m i s t s : " E t c ' e s t a f i n gue l a v a n i t e de ces doctes g ui gastent toute notre c a b a l e , ne p a r o i s s e , S gue l e u r fcestise ne s o i t descouverte, . i l s t i e n n e n t l e u r s s e c r e t s cachez, l e s g u e l s ne sont p o i n t s , ou bien seront guelgues v e t i l l e s importunes, r a p e t a s s e e s des anciennes f c l i e s des premiers f o u s . . . . Vous c o g n o i s t r e z aysement l e s hommes de t e l l e s f e c e s , ce s e r o i t dommage de d i r e f a r i n e " . He a l s o s t a t e s i n the same work, p. 191, t h a t he h i g h l y r e s p e c t s the honest and competent a l c h e m i s t s . 6 5 P e t i t de J u l l e v i l l e , La Comedie et l e s moeurs en France au moyen-age, (1886; r p t . Geneva: S l a t k i n e , 1968), p T 7 5 . 6 6 Another passage a l s o i n c l u d e s terms of d i v i n e a d o r a t i o n : " A l l e z a l ' e s c o l e , S sgachez, apprenez, entendez S notez, comme Monsieur de Beze me l ' a a p p r i s , gue l a guatriesme c l e f fondamentale des t r c i s c l e f s communes, e s t l a d i v i n e , douce, humaine 6 s a i n c t e harmonie, est l a bonne c l e f de l a cave; c ' e s t l a s a i n c t e et harmcnieuse c l e f , c ' e s t l a f i d e l l e et p a r f a i t e " (1:113). 6 7 See above pp. 37-38. 6 8 Other such o u t b u r s t s can be found throughout the t e x t , f o r example, 1:106, 11:158. 6 9 Laurent Joubert, Le T r a i t e du R i s ( P a r i s : N. Chesneau, 1579) , d i s c u s s e s the p h y s i o l o g i c a l e f f e c t s c f laught e r and devotes a chapter to "D'ou v i e n t gu'cn p i s s e , f i a n t e , S sue a f o r c e de r i r e " , p. 127 f f . A l s o p. 139. 7 0 Beroalde g i v e s a mock s c i e n t i f i c d e s c r i p t i o n of the e f f e c t l a u g h t e r has on the company: '.'Nous rismes s i f c r t S a propos, gue l e b o y a u c u l i e r se d i l a t a n t en l a voye du s p h i n t e r g u i se r e l a s c h a . . . " (11:154). The tone a l s o r e c a l l s R a b l e a i s ' a t t i t u d e towards l a u g h t e r : see above, notes 44 and 57. 115 7 1 J o u b e r t , T r a i t e , p. 330, c i t e s cases i n which la u g h t e r cures p a t i e n t s : i n a chapter devoted to the s u b j e c t , "Quel bien apporte l e B i s , 8 s i guelgue malade paut g u e r i r a f o r c e de r i r e " . He concludes, "comme l ' e t r e joyeus, 8 prompt a r i r e , s i g n i f i e un bon n a t u r e l , 8 purete de sang, a i n s i par c o n t r e , c e l a aide a l a sante du c c r s 8 de l ' e s p r i t " ; he a l s o guotes, " l e t r a e s s a i n c o n s e i l de M a r s i l e F i c i n , ou i l e x o r t e ces amis en c e t t e s o r t e : 'Vive's joyeusement, d i t - i l . Ie c i e l vous ha crees fasson de r i r e . . . , I l vous conservera a u s s i par v c t t r e liesse.»" Joubert a l s o c i t e s Q u i n t i l i e n cn t h i s s u b j e c t , p. 7: "On ha vu des malades g u e r i r par ce s e u l remede". 7 2 The theme of l a u g h t e r as a remedy was a l s o widespread i n popular l i t e r a t u r e . See f o r example the f a b l i a u x , " L e V i l a i n Mire", B e c u e i l general et complet des f a b l i a u x des XIII et XIVe s i j i c l e s , finatcle de Mcntaiglon and Gaston Baynaud, eds. , ( P a r i s : L i b r a i r i e des b i b l i o p h i l e s , 1878) I I I , 156-69. 7 3 1:148, c i t e d above, p. 66. 116 CHAPTER IV FESTIVE SACRILEGE IN LE MOYEN DE PARVENIR Carni v a l e s g u e c e l e b r a t i o n s of the Middle Ages and the Renaissance were c h a r a c t e r i z e d by s a c r i l e g i o u s mockery and u n i n h i b i t e d s e l f - i n d u l g e n c e . The f r e e and audacious f e s t i v e s a c r i l e g e was an e x p r e s s i o n of the u n o f f i c i a l aspect c f r e l i g i o n , and provided a c o n t r a s t to the for m a l , " o f f i c i a l " r e l i g i o n which i n s p i r e d awe, re s p e c t and obedience i n everyday l i f e . The solemn ceremonies, the f e a r - p r c v c k i n g d e s c r i p t i o n s of H e l l , and the e x h o r t a t i o n s to s u f f e r pain and depravations on ea r t h i n p r e p a r a t i o n f o r f u t u r e Paradise were a l l overturned d u r i n g the f e s t i v a l . At t h a t time, e v e r y t h i n g having to do with the formal r e l i g i o n was i r r e v e r e n t l y i n v e r t e d to the accompaniment of mocking l a u g h t e r . P a r a d o x i c a l as i t may appear on the s u r f a c e , t h i s t r a d i t i o n a l i n v e r s i o n of r e l i g i o n was deeply rooted i n a 117 profound f a i t h . C a r n i v a l e s g u e s a c r i l e g e was p a r t of a c a r e f u l l y balanced t e n s i o n , and a c t u a l l y served to r e i n f o r c e the o f f i c i a l r e l i g i o n by p r o v i d i n g a kind of s o c i a l s a f e t y va l v e . 1 T h i s concept i s formulated by the defender of the Feast of F o o l s guoted e a r l i e r i n t h i s study, who compares humans to wine b a r r e l s which would burst without the p e r i o d i c a l r e l e a s e of pressure provided by f e s t i v e " f o l i e " : "Or nous sommes de vieux vaisseaux S des tonneaux mal r e l i e z , gue l e v i n de l a sagesse f e r o i t rompre s i nous l e l a i s s i o n s b o u i l l i r a i n s i par une devotion c c n t i n u e l l e au s e r v i c e D i v i n . " 2 He then c o n c l u d e s . t h a t a f t e r the f e s t i v a l , the c e l e b r a n t s can r e t u r n to everyday l i f e and worship "avec plus de joye S de f e r v e u r " . The s p i r i t of f e s t i v e s a c r i l e g e i n evidence during the Feast of F o o l s and other c e l e b r a t i o n s d e s c r i b e d e a r l i e r 3 c a r r i e s over i n t o popular speech and i n t o l i t e r a t u r e . Informal language i s f i l l e d with examples of such s a c r i l e g e i n the form of blasphemous e g u i v o c a t i c n s , t r a v e s t i e s of the S c r i p t u r e s and wordplay on the names of s a i n t s . * The same s p i r i t a l s o animates many l i t e r a r y works which are e i t h e r d i r e c t l y or i n d i r e c t l y a s s o c i a t e d with C a r n i v a l . They i n c l u d e f o r example the many l i t e r a r y accounts c f the b a t t l e between C a r n i v a l and l e n t , 5 the mock r e l i g i o u s r i t e s i n the Soman de Re n a r t , 6 the blasphemous r e j e c t i o n cf Heaven by the young hero i n Aucassin e t N i c o l e t t e , 7 and the l i b e r t i e s c f the sermons jo_yeux. 8 118 F r e q u e n t l y , the agent of sacred i n v e r s i o n i s d e p i c t e d as an e c c l e s i a s t i c , and t h i s person's f a i l u r e to l i v e up to his holy vows of s e l f - d e n i a l and c h a s t i t y b r i n g s r i d i c u l e upon the sa c r e d way of l i f e he r e p r e s e n t s as well as upon h i m s e l f . The u n f a i l i n g l a u g h t e r which t h i s s t e r e o t y p e d e c c l e s i a s t i c provokes seems to a r i s e not only from the pleasure i n h e r e n t i n mocking the s a c r e d , but a l s o from a strong a v e r s i o n f e l t by the common people f o r these tren and women pledged to a p a s s i v e and chaste e c c l e s i a s t i c l i f e : "A preacher who inveighed a g a i n s t the e c c l e s i a s t i c a l s t a t e was sure of being applauded. . . There i s no more e f f e c t i v e means of r e v i v i n g a t t e n t i o n when the congregation i s dropping o f f to s l e e p , or s u f f e r i n g from heat or c o l d . Everybody i n s t a n t l y becomes a t t e n t i v e and c h e e r f u l . 1 , 9 Thus the comic r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of a monk d i s p l a y i n g h i s base g u a l i t i e s and breaking h i s sacred vows was met with laughing approval i n many f a b l i a u x , f a r c e s and s a t i r i c a l works. Marot's " F r e r e L u b i n " , R a b e l a i s ' " F r e r e Jean"/ and.many cf Beroalde's worldly e c c l e s i a s t i c s i s s u e from t h i s c u r r e n t c f c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n . 1 0 The p o r t r a i t of r e l i g i o u s l i f e which begins t c emerge from Le Moyen de P a r v e n i r i s drawn l i g h t l y and with humour, emphasizing the human element i n r e l i g i o n . In order to examine the treatment of" the sacred i n Le Moyen de P a r v e n i r , t h i s study w i l l f i r s t f o c u s on Beroalde's use c f 1 19 t r a d i t i o n a l l y i n v e r t e d forms: t r a v e s t i e s of the S c r i p t u r e s or of r e l i g i o u s r i t e s , amusingly i r r e v e r e n t occurrences i n the church, and r i d i c u l e of the c l e r g y . The elements of t r a d i t i o n a l i n v e r s i o n i n Le Moyen de lS£v§fiiE» while not presented i n an o r d e r l y manner, are e a s i l y i d e n t i f i a b l e . These examples of b l a t a n t i r r e v e r e n c e set the mood of f l i p p a n t s a c r i l e g e which i s r e t a i n e d throughout. One of the most obvious e x p l o i t a t i o n s of the t r a d i t i o n of f e s t i v e s a c r i l e g e i s the use of t r a v e s t i e d S c r i p t u r e s . In these examples the sacred t e x t i s . p l u n g e d from the sublime to the r i d i c u l o u s by a d i r e c t r e v e r s a l c f meaning; B i b l i c a l passages are turned to parody and appear to promote the " v i c e s " they were meant_to f o r b i d . A verse from the gospel of St. . Matthew i s r e v e r s e d , urging the opposite of C h r i s t i a n f o r g i v e n e s s : ". . . s e l c n gue l ' E v a n g i l e s'enseigne aux gens d ' E g l i s e : s i cn vcus frappe en une joue, b a i l l e z une b e l l e 8 f o r t e jouee en l ' a u t r e " (11:107). 1 1 A f t e r t h i s statement, "Luther" r e i n f o r c e s the r e v i s e d i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , c i t i n g the r e l i g i o u s b r o t h e r s , as a u t h o r i t i e s : "Quand j ' e s t o i s d ' E g l i s e , je l ' o y o i s a i n s i i n t e r p r e t e r , i n t e r f r a t r e s , £§nes guos es t l ' i n t e l l i g e n c e des E s c r i t u r e s " (II:107). A l s o i n parody cf the S c r i p t u r e s well-known C h r i s t i a n commandments are i r r e v e r e n t l y reversed i n order to accommodate a more worldly m o r a l i t y : "Pere et mere honoreras, a f i n d ' a v o i r bien de l ' a r g e n t . L'ceuvre de c h a i r n'accompliras gu'avec l e s b e l l e s seulement. Faux 120 tesmoinage ne d i r a s gu'en mariage seulement" (1: 269), 1 2 D e l i b e r a t e m i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of a B i b l i c a l . t e x t taken out of context a l s o d r a s t i c a l l y a l t e r s the meaning c f a t e x t while not a c t u a l l y changing the words. The n a r r a t o r shews that he i s w e l l aware of the s a c r i l e g e i n v o l v e d i n t h i s p r a c t i c e when he s t a t e s that he cannot t e l l a c e r t a i n anecdote c o n t a i n i n g an i n v e r s i o n of the S c r i p t u r e because i t would be blasphemous; of c o u r s e , while e x p l a i n i n g what i t i s he must not say, the t a l e i s out: S i je n'avois peur de blasphemer, j e d i r o i s guelgue chose des^ c i n q R e l i g i e u s e s gui f u r e n t b a i l l e e s a gouverner a f r e r e N o t o n v i l l e , gui l e s engrossa t o u t e s , 8 comme on l ' e n t a n c o i t i l d i t , "Quingue S c, Tu m'as b a i l i e c i n g t a l e n s , j'en ay gaigne c i n g a u t r e s " . (11:53)13 . k phrase from G e n e s i s , 1:28, "soyez feconds, m u l t i p l i e z , r e m p l i s s e z l a t e r r e . , .", i s a l s o taken out cf context and then used to promote amorous indulgence and the n a t u r a l c y c l e of l i f e . The new i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the phrase manages to combine f e s t i v e s a c r i l e g e and the popular a v e r s i o n f o r monks: Voi r e ne f a u t i l pas b i e n s ' e s b a t t r e , 5 p r i n c i p a l l e m e n t a jeux auxguels i l c o n v i e n t : c'est i l pas d i t : C r o i s s e z , m u l t i p l i e z 6 r e m p l i s s e z l a t e r r e ! Et gu'est- ce s i n o n q u ' i l e s t e n j o i n t par nature aux p e t i t s d e c r o i s t r e , aux f o r t s 8 de bon aage competant de m u l t i p l i e r , & aux v i e i l l a r d s de se l a i s s e r mcurir pour emplir l a t e r r e ? Et c e l a a u s s i a p p a r t i e n t a ceux g u i veulent f a i r e l e s vieux, a ces i d i o t s vcuez c a f a r d s 8 i n u t i l e s , gui ne f o n t gue s c a n d a l i z e r l e bon monde de Dieu. (11:13) In the l a t t e r p a r t of t h i s statement, the vehement d i s a p p r o v a l of those who keep t h e i r vows of c h a s t i t y , and 121 r e p r e s s s e n s u a l i t y , expresses the same kind c f h o s t i l i t y which i s d i r e c t e d towards those sober s o u l s whc dc not cr cannot j o i n the C a r n i v a l . 1 4 A l i g h t e r example of s c r i p t u r a l r e v e r s a l f e a t u r e s a brash youhg monk who i s caught with a young g i r l p e r p e t u a t i n g the monkish r e p u t a t i o n of concupiscence. When upbraided by h i s s u p e r i o r s , l i k e Frere N o t o n v i l l e above (p, 120), t h i s young man quotes the B i b l e . By combining a verse from I s a i a h (40:6) with h i s vow of poverty he manages to j u s t i f y h i s behavior while i n v e r t i n g the r u l e s of h i s order: La n u i c t passee i l y eut un moine dur, gay, S g a l l a n d , gui f u t s u r p r i s avec une garce, j'ay q u a s i d i t avec une grace, i l n'y a que t r a n s p o s i t i o n de l e t t r e s ; i l s ' e s t c i t esbatu avec e l l e , cum commento, 5 l a sauce. Ses s u p e r i e u r s l u i remonstrerent q u ' i l a v c i t o f f e n c e . En s'excusant i l demonstra que non, d i s a n t q u ' i l s ' e s t o i t , s e l o n l a pauvrete de l'Ordre ccuche sur un boiteau de f o i n , quia omnis caro feonum, toute c h a i r e s t f o i n : c oncluez. (1:73) 1 5 • In the same manner,, Beroalde's speakers i n v e r t r e l i g i o u s t e x t s i n L a t i n . These t r a v e s t i e d L a t i n phrases from the l i t u r g y or the S c r i p t u r e s r e c a l l the s p i r i t of the Feast of Fools during which the lower c l e r g y parodied the L a t i n t e x t s and phrases which governed t h e i r d a i l y l i f e . As mentioned a b o v e , 1 6 the Feast of F o o l s began with a verse i n L a t i n taken from the .Magnificat, "Beposuit potentes de sede et e x a l t a v i t humiles", which was chanted and subsequently a p p l i e d l i t e r a l l y . L i k e R a b e l a i s who e x p l o i t e d t h i s technique before h i m , 1 7 Beroalde sometimes i n v e r t s a L a t i n 122 t e x t f o r comic e f f e c t and to i l l u s t r a t e the ignorance of the c l e r g y . Various speakers r e p o r t the speech they have heard from c e r t a i n e c c l e s i a s t i c s : Le cog de n o s t r e p a r r o i s s e voulant d i r e a l ' E v e n g i l e g l o r i a t i b i Domini, f a i s o i t l e docteur S d i s o i t , g l o r i a §111 E°iiil§•"111T106) ia Ce L a t i n e s t p a r e i l a c e l u i du V i c a i r e de Chamberi, g u i l i s o i t l ' E v a n g i l e des c i n g p a i n s ; S au l i e u de d i r e , "Ut guisgue a c c i p i a t modicum," i l d i t : " A c c i p i a t modium. " (11:232) >« Other examples are provided by the ingenuousness of the people who confuse the meaning of a language they do net understand with t h e i r own f a m i l i a r vocabulary. In t h i s way sacred t e x t i s brought i n t o focus cn a lower, t a n g i b l e l e v e l , and i n the t r a n s p o s i t i o n the passage a c g u i r e s a t i n t of i r o n y , when an o l d ser v a n t woman m i s i n t e r p r e t s the K j r i e as "o c u l r i d e " (11:213) , she t r a n s f e r s the sublime to the r i d i c u l o u s . S i m i l a r l y a young mother f i n d s a name f o r her f a t h e r l e s s son through a m i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the S c r i p t u r e during mass: . . . Jaguette du Hans . . . f i t un enfant sans s§avoir l e nom ny l e surnom du pere, degucy e l l e e s t c i t f o r t d olente; son enfant f u t nomine Adam; un jour g u ' e l l e e s t o i t au sermon e l l e ouyt l e prescheur g ui s ' e f f i l o i t d ' a l l e g u e r l ' e s c r i t u r e , S d i s o i t , "Adam ubi es?"c e s t e f i l l e t t e s o r t i t t o u t i n c o n t i n e n t de l a t r e s - a i s e de s ^ a v o i r l e surnom de son f i l s : on l u y a v o i t d i t gue l e s prescheurs s ^ a v o i e n t t o u t , parguoy e l l e nemma depuis son f i l s Adam de b i a i s . (1:143) 2<> Along with the L a t i n l i t u r g y , the C h r i s t i a n s a i n t s were t r a v e s t i e d . The c u l t of the s a i n t s , which by the l a t e XVth 123 century had succeeded i n making the s a i n t s r e a l and f a m i l i a r personages i n the contemporary r e l i g i o n , 2 1 a l s o helped to remove them from a p o s i t i o n of awe and mystery i n the minds of the people even o u t s i d e the f e s t i v a l . T h i s kind c f f a m i l i a r i t y when no longer r e s t r i c t e d to f e s t i v e o c c a s i o n s was bound to cloud the d i v i s i o n between the sacred and the profane i n some minds. Beroalde c i t e s the case cf a peasant woman, who while r e c e i v i n g the l a s t r i t e s r e v e a l s her naive concept of the s a i n t s : ". . . l a femme se mcurcit, & l e P r e s t r e l u i d i s o i t g u ' e l l e a l l o i t en P a r a d i s , ou e l l e v e r r o i t l e s bons s a i n c t s , avec l e s g u e l s e l l e s e i o i t : *A ha, d i t e l l e , i l n»est gue d ' e s t r e parmi l e monde gu'cn c o g n o i s t ' " (11:113). Sacred and profane elements become so c l o s e through the c u l t of the s a i n t s t h a t even some members of the c l e r g y who come from humble backgrounds, cannot c l e a r l y d i s t i n g u i s h between the venerated s p i r i t s and l i v i n g persons. A credulous p a r i s h p r i e s t at once concludes t h a t the s t a t u e s of the s a i n t s , i n company with the f i g u r e of the d e v i l under St. M i c h a e l , have descended from t h e i r p l a c e s i n the church to eat the goose which he had s t o l e n and hidden t h e r e . A c t u a l l y , i n h i s absence, h i s v a l e t and chambermaid have l e d t h e i r f r i e n d s i n f o r a f e a s t and then greased the mouths and hands of the s t a t u e s and put them near the remains of the meal. Upon h i s r e t u r n the i g n o r a n t and c o r r u p t p r i e s t " f o r g i v e s " a l l of the s a i n t s as he might a wayward 124 parishoner, a l l but the d e v i l : I l e n tra en l ' E g l i s e , 6 voyant tant de s a i n c t s autour de son c o f f r e a l'oye, H 0 ho, d i t i l , & g u i , tous l e s d i a b l e s , vous a mis l a ? " E s t a n t approche S l e s voyans a i n s i , gras par l e musle S l e s mains, S l a c u i s s e en l a gorge du d i a b l e , l a l u i a r r a c h a , d i s a n t , " V i l a i n que t u es, j e ne me s o u c i pas des a u t r e s , mais t c i , j'en aimerois mieux e s t r a n g l e r gue tu l ' e u s s e s , 6 da, j f e n t a s t e r a i " : comme i l l a s a v o u r c i t , i l se va souvenir de sa f a u t e , s i g u ' i l sonna l e s c l o c h e s pour appeler l e peuple a ce grand m i r a c l e . (11:109) F a m i l i a r i t y with the s a i n t s a l s o l e d to the more conscious impiety of c o r r u p t i n g t h e i r names by coarse puns. The phrase " t o honor St. Hamik" came to mean going to see a m i s t r e s s , and St. V i t u s was a p h a l l i c r e f e r e n c e . 2 2 T h i s c a s u a l impiety with s a i n t s ' names appears i n Le Mo^en J e Parvenir i n a p h a l l i c r e f e r e n c e to the "verges de S t . Benoist" ( 1 : 6 4 ) , 2 3 and i n a d e l i b e r a t e c o r r u p t i o n of S a i n t Luke's name to "Seigneur Luxu" (11:218). 2* To make someone i n t o "un v r a i S a i n t Christophe de Pasgues f l e u r i s " (1:142) meant to make a f o o l of them, 2 S and St. G i l l e s i s l i n k e d to cowardly behaviour, " F a i r e G i l l e s " (I:120) meaning to turn and run away. 2 6 The d e r i v a t i o n of the e x p r e s s i o n , " f a i r e G i l l e s " , provokes a d i s c u s s i o n on what i t would be l i k e t o l e a d a s a i n t l y l i f e . The prospect i s roundly derided i n t h i s c o n v e r s a t i o n of Beroalde's shrewd and worldly guests who c o n s i d e r the e l e v a t e d a t t i t u d e of a s a i n t and h i s v o l u n t a r y r e j e c t i o n of m a t e r i a l wealth and p h y s i c a l comforts to be pure f o l l y , nothing more. " S c a l i g e r " begins the d i s c u s s i o n : 125 . . . pourquoy e s t - c e que quand quelqu'un s'en est fuy on d i t " i l a f a i t g i l l e s ? " P r o t a goras. C»est pource que s a i n c t G i l l e s s ' e n f u i t de son p a l s , & se cacha de peur d'estre f a i t Roy. Epaminondas. 0 de par plus de c i n g cens m i l l e cornes de coguu, j ' a i m e r o i s mieux n'estre point tant s a i n c t ; j * ai u i e r o i s mieux e s t r e Roy gu'hermite. Et guoy i l y a tant de gens g u i se donnent au D i a b l e , p c i l S t o u t , pour devenir grands; S y en a d'autres g u i sous l e v o i l e de r e l i g i o n , f a i s a n t un a f f r o n t a l a Fortune c o n t r i s t e n t l e bonheur! Foin j e ne passeray p o i n t o u t r e , j e ne me rendray jamais en communaute gue de P r i n c e s 5 grands Seigneurs, d*autant gue je n'ay po i n t l e coeur a l a gaymanderie. J'en scay bon gre a ce bon C o r d e l i e r f r e r e Hugonis g u i au commencement de 1'establissement des Capucins se f a s c h o i t de l e u r f u t u r e pauvrete, 6 t o u t en c o l e r e nous d i t : " S i nous gui avons l e d i a b l e au corps ne pcuvcns v i v r e , gue f e r o n t en f i n ces pauvres gens?" (1:120-21) Other s a c r i l e g i o u s comments i n Le Mcyen de P a r v e n i r r e f l e c t a c a r n i v a l e s g u e image of the a f t e r l i f e . The o f f i c i a l images of Heaven and H e l l , whether re p r e s e n t e d on church walls or i n the sermons, d e p i c t the former as a place c f s t a t i c b l i s s and the l a t t e r as a f i e r y p i t of h o r r o r and p a i n . 2 7 Beth are a w e - i n s p i r i n g and c l e a r l y beyond human c o n t r o l . The v i v i d p o r t r a y a l of the Underworld i n p a r t i c u l a r e x p l o i t s the u n i v e r s a l f e a r of the unknown, of death, darkness and e v i l . During C a r n i v a l however, there i s a c o l l e c t i v e e f f o r t to counter the f e a r by c o m i c a l l y i n v e r t i n g the o f f i c i a l images of H e l l and of e v i l . The d i a b l e r i e s f o r example, i n t r o d u c e d e v i l s on the stage, but only as harmless buffoons, and the s p e c t a t o r s e n t h u s i a s t i c a l l y p a r t i c i p a t e i n the c o l l e c t i v e r e l i e f provided by laug h t e r which overcomes the f e a r . 2 8 S i m i l a r l y , the d e v i l s who f i g u r e i n Le Mcjen de 126 P a r v e n i r are e s s e n t i a l l y harmless and comic c r e a t u r e s . Patterned cn human dimensions, they are not at a l l t e r r i f y i n g . The f i r s t mention of a d e v i l f o r example, supposes him r e l a x i n g at p l a y , candid and harmless: " S i un d i a b l e j o u o i t avec vous i l ne se p o u r r o i t f e i n d r e , i l vous f e r o i t v o i r ses cor n e s " ( 1 : 4 ) . Other images of the i n f e r n a l i n h a b i t a n t s p i c t u r e them l a u g h i n g : ". . . l a plus p a r t de nos sgavans . ....sont tant veaux, gue l e s d i a b l e s aux heures de r e c r e a t i o n en f o n t des contes pour r i r e " ( 1 : 1 2 9 ) , and merry l i k e " F r o s t i b u s " , who i s allowed to enter and speak with the bangueting company because he i s "bon D i a b l e " and comes i n "gay S g a i l l a r d " ( I I : 128) . :. The d e v i l s are not without malice, but they are mischievous r a t h e r than f i e n d i s h l y e v i l . T y p i c a l of the deeds a t t r i b u t e d to them i s t h a t c f kneeling beside chambermaids and encouraging them to g o s s i p during mass, but doing so with great care, "de peur de se pccher l e s yeux" s i n c e they r e p u t e d l y had eyes on t h e i r knees ( 1 : 1 9 - 2 0 ) . T h i s reduces them to grotesque l i t t l e c r e a t u r e s whcse p h y s i c a l bodies l u d i c r o u s l y r e s t r i c t t h e i r a c t i v i t e s . Another prank of the d e v i l i s to mischievously t r i c k a peasant i n t o s p o i l i n g h i s bed ( 1 : 2 1 9 ) . The d e v i l f i g u r e s prominently i n i n f o r m a l vocabulary a l s o , and t h i s i n v o c a t i o n of the d e v i l i n i n f o r m a l language p a r a l l e l s the act of j e e r i n g him f a m i l i a r l y during the d i a b l e r i e s . Saying the name of the d e v i l i n c o n v e r s a t i o n c r 127 d i r e c t l y i n s u l t i n g the " d e v i l s " c a v o r t i n g on the stage both c o n s t i t u t e a d i r e c t c o n f r o n t a t i o n with a source of t e r r o r , but under these c o n d i t i o n s the i n d i v i d u a l kncws he w i l l emerge v i c t o r i o u s and laughing with the comfort of being surrounded by others who share h i s experience. Doubtless the i n v o c a t i o n of the d e v i l i n f a m i l i a r speech was done at f i r s t with a s t r o n g f e e l i n g of t r a n s g r e s s i o n , but as i t passed i n t o the popular idiom i t l o s t some of i t s s t r e n g t h through overuse. Such e x p r e s s i o n s as "gue D i a b l e " (1:170), "pauvre D i a b l e " (11:131), "de par l e D i a b l e " (11:34), "tous l e s D i a b l e s " (11:109), f r e g u e n t l y punctuate the dialogue i n Le Moyen de Pa r v e n i r . The ex p r e s s i o n i s sometimes softened, from " d i a b l e " to " d i a n t r e " , and the way t h i s euphemism i s employed i n d i c a t e s t h e r e i s s t i l l some sense c f t r a n s g r e s s i o n i n the word d i a b l e . one c h a r a c t e r o b j e c t s to the weakening of the word to " d i a n t r e " because i t f l a t t e r s the d e v i l . He a f f i r m s that the d e v i l should be d i r e c t l y invoked: "Ne l e f l a t t e z p o i n t , nommez l e Diable tout a f a i t " (1:172). T h i s speaker r e c o g n i z e s t h a t r e l u c t a n c e to say " d i a b l e " b e l i e s a f e a r and r e s p e c t a s s o c i a t e d with t h a t name. T h i s i s the f e a r and awe which the f e s t i v e s p i r i t seeks to overcome. The glimpses of H e l l which Beroalde al l o w s h i s reader do not evoke an Underworld of unspeakable h o r r o r . S u f f e r i n g and t o r t u r e i n f a c t are not even mentioned. Instead, the main inconvenience seems to be that i t i s overcrowded. 128 According t c " F r o s t i b u s " there i s h a r d l y room f o r the d e v i l s themselves: " i l y a d e s i a tant de damnez en I n f e r , gue l e s pauvres d i a b l e s couchent dehors" (11:129-30). Play and laughter e x i s t i n that i n f e r n a l environment as w e l l . As mentioned above (p. 26), the i n h a b i t a n t s have time to r e l a x , "heures de r e c r e a t i o n " , which they spend t e l l i n g funny s t o r i e s (1:129). Thus both the Underworld and i t s i n h a b i t a n t s are taken down from t h e i r menacing p o s i t i o n s and made f a m i l i a r and laughable. The o f f i c i a l image of P a r a d i s e i s a l s o a l t e r e d to more f a m i l i a r p r o p o r t i o n s . I t i s a naive peasant who brings the l o f t y concept down to e a r t h , f o r he imagines Heaven only as an extension of h i s t e r r e s t i a l l i f e . The d i s t a n c e c r e a t e d by awe of the s u p e r n a t u r a l i s e n t i r e l y missing as he makes plans f o r h i s a c t i v i t i e s i n P a r a d i s e : Le pauvre bon homme des champs e s t c i t au l i t de l a mort, l e P r e s t r e l u i p r e s c h o i t l a r e s u r r e c t i o n , a f i n g u ' i l n'eut p o i n t de r e g r e t a c e t t e v i e , 5 s u i v a n t son propos l u i d i s o i t , gu'apres l e jugement i l n'y a u r o i t p l u s ny montagne ny v a l l e e . "0 c, d i t l e p a i s a n , i l sera done beau c h a r f o y e r " . (11:112) Th i s man's wife judges the advantages cf Heaven i n e g u a l l y f a m i l i a r and t e r r e s t i a l terms: Un peu apres a u s s i l a femme se mcurcit, S l e P r e s t r e l u i d o i t g u ' e l l e a l l o i t en P a r a d i s , ou e l l e v e r r o i t l e s bons s a i n c t s , avec l e s g u e l s e l l e s e r o i t : "a ha, d i t e l l e , i l n'est gue d ' e s t r e parmi l e monde gu'en c o g n o i s t " . (11:112-13) The s t a t i c and b e a u t i f u l c e l e s t i a l world p a i n t e d by 129 o f f i c i a l d o c t r i n e a c t u a l l y seems to bore some cf the pecple, who dare to v o i c e t h e i r o p i n i o n under the p r o t e c t i o n c f f e s t i v e p r i v i l e g e . R e j e c t i o n of the o f f i c i a l P a r a d i s e f o r a more worldly concept d i s a g r e e s with o f f i c i a l church dogma, for i t c o n c e n t r a t e s on earthbound joys and a l l o w s c e l e b r a n t s to escape from sobering thoughts of the A f t e r l i f e . An outstanding example of i r r e v e r e n t i n v e r s i o n c f t h e . o f f i c i a l P a r a d i s e i s found i n the X l l l t h century c h a n t e - f a b l e , Aucassin et N i c o l e t t e i n which Aucassin expresses contempt f o r the C h r i s t i a n Paradise f u l l of o l d p r i e s t s and maimed beggars. He p r e f e r s ah e x t e n s i o n of h i s a r i s t o c r a t i c world which he b e l i e v e s must be i n H e l l . 2 9 One speaker i n Le Moyen de £S£venir i s even more audacious. He compares God's world to man's and f i n d s the l a t t e r b e t t e r : "Oe sgay g u ' i l y a un autre u n i v e r s gue Dieu a f a i t : mais nous, i d e s t , ncs peres, l e s hommes S femmes, en avons bien f a i t un autre plus accompli . . ." (1:164).*o Inv o c a t i o n of the d e i t y a l s o r i n g s with a c e r t a i n amount of c a r n i v a l e s g u e l a u g h t e r . The power cf prayer i r o n i c a l l y b r i n g s a c e r t a i n c h i e f almoner the i n v e r s e of what he asks. When t o l d t h a t he has u n f o r t u n a t e l y c o n t r a c t e d " l a v e r o l e " , he c r i e s out to h i s d i a g n o s t i c i a n : "Helas Maistre Gaspard mon ami, j ' a v o i s t o u s j c u r s prie' ce ben Dieu g u ' i l m'en gardast", to which h i s companion r e p l i e s with i r o n y : "Aussi a i l f a i t . Monsieur, i l vous a gard^ de l a plus f i n e " (1:143). Another prayer i s a l s o i r o n i c a l l y 130 answered: Tesmoin l e t r i s t e Augurel g u i se mit en une E g l i s e pour p r i e r Dieu, g u i l u i donnast l a p i e r r e p h i l e s o p h a l e . . . I I y f u t jusgues a l ' a u t r e midi sonne, g u ' i l se d e p i t a f o r t , et va d i r e "Dieu donne moi du bran!" Et v o i l a un ois e a u g u i l u i va esmentir dans l a touche. "A ha, d i t i l , je n'avois plus gue c e t i n s t a n t gue je n'ay pas bien r e n c o n t r e . " (11:93) Oaths solemnly taken before God as a witness were taken s e r i o u s l y , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n a s u p e r s t i t i o u s age, but f e s t i v e s a c r i l e g e touched on these oaths as w e l l . A s t r o n g sense c f t r a n s g r e s s i o n s t i l l hung about them however, as can be sensed i n the f o l l o w i n g anecdote. "Crouet" has s t o l e n a k e t t l e from " C o l i n " who brings the.case before the judge. "Bodion", the judge, asks f o r a sworn statement and "Erouet" braves the l o s s of h i s s o u l f o r the k e t t l e : Bodion l u i commande de j u r e r sur sa part de p a r a d i s , s ' i l a ce chaudron; l u i q u i n'y p r e t e n d c i t p o s s i b l e r i e n , j e ne d i pas au chaudron, se met en e s t a t de j u r e r : comme i l j u r o i t , l e bon C o l i n luy d i s o i t tout bas, en l e t i r a n t par l e bra s , "He, compere, ne jure pas; he, compere, tu perds ton ame"; 8 Drouet l u i r e s p o n d i t en l ' o r e i l l e , "Et toy, ton chaudron." (11:20) In another anecdote a wife urges her husband to swear f a l s e l y before a judge that he d i d not owe the p l a i n t i f f any money. Beroalde's guests c y n i c a l l y agree t h a t he should take the f a l s e oath, and then "buy" back h i s l o s t s o u l by g i v i n g some of h i s d i s h o n e s t l y earned money to the peer: Le juge f i t j u r e r maistre N i c o l a s pour s§avoir l a v e r i t e ; ce pauvre bonne personne d'homme n ' e s c i t 8 se f a i g n c i t ; sa femme e s t o i t d e r r i e r e , g u i l u i d i s o i t : "Jure, v i l a i n , j u r e , p u i s g u ' i l y a a gaigner; tu j u r e s 131 s i souvent que tu ne gaignes r i e n . " — S ' i l eust jure gu'eust-ce e s t e ? Menot. I l eut gaigne' l e s d i x - s e p t f r a n c s g u i l u i eussent f a i t p r o f i t ; 6 i l en eut dcnne c i n g cu s i x s o l s aux pauvres, 8 c e l a l ' e u t g a r e n t i de l a perte de sen ame. (11:21) I r r e v e r e n c e before God does not, however, reach the l e v e l of t h a t shown the d e v i l , who i s m a t e r i a l i z e d and r i d i c u l e d , nor does i t match the i r r e v e r e n t f a m i l i a r i t y with which the s a i n t s were t r e a t e d , n e i t h e r God nor C h r i s t appear i n c a r i c a t u r e d form i n Le Moyen de P a r v e n i r , and although the vocabulary c o n t a i n s e x p r e s s i o n s such as " j e p r i e Dieu" or "remercier Dieu" (11:99), these e x p r e s s i o n s i n d i c a t e r e s p e c t r a t h e r than d a r i n g as i n the use cf a phrase such as "de par l e d i a b l e " . T h i s a t t i t u d e concurs with the s p i r i t c f Medieval and Renaissance f e s t i v e s a c r i l e g e which was u s u a l l y , content to i n v e r t the sacred through r i d i c u l i n g the r i t e s and r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of the church r a t h e r than through an attempt to i n v e r t the d e i t y as w e l l . 3 1 S t r o n g l y blasphemous oaths, such as the Burgundian, "Je r e n i e D i e u " , 3 2 are net u t t e r e d i n Le Moyen de P a r v e n i r , i n d i c a t i n g t h a t the author p r e f e r s to keep the s a c r i l e g e f a i r l y l i g h t . Church r i t e s and customs s u f f e r the same i r r e v e r e n t i n v e r s i o n as the S c r i p t u r e s and the o f f i c i a l images cf Heaven and H e l l . The d i s t a n c e c r e a t e d between the people and the s acred by the formal and solemn aspect cf r e l i g i o n i s breached by l a u g h t e r i n Le Moyen de P a r v e n i r , j u s t as i t was 132 during the burlesgue mass of the Feast of F o o l s or during the sermons joy_eux. Beroalde c o n t i n u e s the t r a d i t i o n c f f e s t i v e i n v e r s i o n i n many anecdotes and comments which i l l u s t r a t e a c o m i c a l l y e g u i v o c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p between the o f f i c i a l r i t e s and the laughing people. One anecdote i s s t r o n g l y r e m i n i s c e n t of a ceremony held during the Feast of F o o l s i n which an ass i s e i t h e r i n t r o d u c e d i n t o the church or h i s braying i s i m i t a t e d i n the mock mass. 3 3 In Le Moy_en de P a r v e n i r i t i s chance which i n t r o d u c e s the animal i n t o the church, but the event evokes the same image of amusing s a c r i l e g e . I t occurs on a Sunday, when many people are gathered i n the church f o r mass; a t h i r s t y mule happens by, brazenly e n t e r s , and plunges i t s " h o r r i f i g u e musle" i n t o the basin of holy water. The t a l e i s t o l d with obvious d e l i g h t i n the a c t of d e s e c r a t i o n : . . . s'approachant de l ' E g l i s e , e l l e receut une odeur debonnaire de l'eau b e n i t e , qui l ' a t t i r a n t par l a conduite magnetigue de sa saveur, l a f i t en de*pit des chevaucheurs e n t r e r en l ' E g l i s e : i l e s t c i t Dimanche, heure de Sermon cu grand monde e s t o i t convenu, 8 nonobstant ce peuple S r e s i s t a n c e des baudcuineux, l a mule dure de t e s t e , 8 oppressee d " a l t e r a t i o n , donna jusgues au b e n o i s t i e r , ou e l l e mit 8 enfonga sen h o r r i f i q u e musle. (11:25) The unthinkable impiety of t h i s act d u r i n g a solemn c e l e b r a t i o n i s shown by the congregation's r e f u s a l to b e l i e v e i t could be a r e a l mule. They take i t f o r a v i s i o n , a t r a n s p o r t e r of p e n i t e n t s o u l s , prompting the banqueters (and the reader) to s m i l e i n d u l g e n t l y at t h e i r g u l l i b i l i t y : Le peuple g u i v o i d l ' e f f r o n t e r i e de ce maudit animal, . 133 pense gue ce s o i t un s p e c t r e , portant guelgues ames j a d i s h e r e t i g u e s , mais ores p e n i t e n t e s , g u i viennent chercher l e doux r e f r i g e r a t o i r e des b i e n - heureux ( l a i s s e z - l a boire) 8 deja chacun p e n s o i t g u ' i l se s e o i t quelgue esmotion ( l a i s s e z b o i r e l a mule) cu autre acte m e r v e i l l e u x de commotion s p i r i t u e l l e : mais l a beste f u t modeste, s i gu'ayant legitimement b i e n beu, s e l o n sa v a c a t i o n , se r e t i r a sans autre ceremonie. (11:25) Whether C a t h o l i c mass or P r o t e s t a n t s e r v i c e , the solemn c e l e b r a t i o n of the f a i t h c e n t r e s around the sermon; thus that d i s c o u r s e n a t u r a l l y became an o b j e c t of f e s t i v e i r r e v e r e n c e . During the Feast of F o o l s and on other f e s t i v e o c c a s i o n s , mock sermons e n l i v e n e d the atmosphere. The s a t i r i c a l tone of t h e s e ' i r r e v e r e n t monologues can a l s o be found i n the sermons joyeux of the comic t h e a t r e . 3 * Eeroalde i n c l u d e s a d i s c o u r s e from t h e , p u l p i t s i m i l a r to a sermon joyeux by i t s r e v e r s a l of the usual message and. i t s parody of the o f f i c i a l sermon. The m i n i s t e r of Strasbourg who d e l i v e r s t h i s sermon urges the people i n c o n t r a d i c t o r y terms to continue the c a r n i v a l e s g u e a c t i v i t i e s c f d r i n k i n g , dancing, and c a r r o u s i n g . Each e x h o r t a t i o n terminates with a tongue-in-cheek p l e a f o r moderation: Quand vous dancez i l semble gue vous v o u l i e z j e t t e r v o s t r e t e s t e aux cieux 8 vos jambes aux d i a b l e s , dancez modestement; guand vous b o i v e z , vous g a r g o u i l l e z comme pourceaux; hee pauvres gens enyvrez vous, mais gue se s o i t sobrement; j u r e z pieusement, - maudissez fl a t t e u s e m e n t , b a t t e z mignardement, 8 p a i l l a r d e z chastement, vous dormant au d i a b l e avec honneur, 8 vous esjouyssez de tous s u j e t s sans en abuser. ( I r l U O - ^ l ) This process of i n v e r s i o n b r i n g s the pious aspect of the sermon down to the popular f e s t i v e l e v e l by t u r n i n g the 134 moral code u s u a l l y promoted by the Church i n t o a mockery c f c o n t r a d i c t i o n s . Another anecdote a s s e r t s a c a r n i v a l e s g u e p r e f e r e n c e f o r i r r a t i o n a l i t y i n s t e a d of r i g i d l o g i c and reasoned behaviour. A p a r i s h of simple v i l l a g e r s have t h e i r m i n i s t e r dismissed because he advocated p i e t y and s o b r i e t y , and condemned t h e i r " f o o l i s h " ways: " g u i sans cesse l e u r r e p r o c h o i t l e u r ignorance 5 indecence de moeurs, l e u r reprochant g u ' i l n ' i a v o i t ne rime n i r a i s o n en l e u r s a f f a i r e s " (1:174). .These p a r i s h i o n e r s r e c e i v e a new clergyman who meets with t h e i r approval because they see i n him the r i g h t amount of f o l l y : "Monsieur, vous e s t e s agreable a tous ncs a u t r e s , tant pource gue vous e s t e s b e l homme, gue p r i n c i p a l e m e n t a cause g u ' i l n ' i a n i rime n i r a i s o n a tout v c s t r e f a i t " (I: 175). The time spent i n r e q u i r e d i n a c t i v i t y during the sermon a l s o merits s a t i r i c a l comments. One speaker . complains cf boredom, " l a plus longue heure du jour e s t c e l l s du sermon", and suggests a l l e v i a t i n g the problem by enjoying a gccd meal during the sermon. The f l a g r a n t i r r e v e r e n c e i s heightened by h i s tongue-in-cheek admission t h a t he has r e j e c t e d the idea of working at t h a t hour because he i s a good P r o t e s t a n t and thus must adhere s t r i c t l y t o the r u l e s : "pour l ' a c c o u r c i r cu a p p e t i s s e r sans perte de temps, e s t de desjeuner t a n d i s gu'on presche; l e prescheiir aura f a i t , S ennuye p l u s i e u r s personnes, gue vous n'aurez pas eu l e l o i s i r d ' a c h e v e r ; S puis a t e l l e heure, je ne voudrois t r a v a i l l e r , tant je s u i s 135 bon reforme" (11:234). A s i m i l a r l y impious viewpoint i s r e f l e c t e d i n another example of a t r a v e s t i e d worship s e r v i c e in Le Moyen de P a r v e n i r . The anecdote focuses cn the i n d i f f e r e n c e and the ignorance d i s p l a y e d both i n the p u l p i t and i n the congregation as the "Cure' de Busangcis" addresses his p a r i s h i o n e r s : Je vous p r e s c h e r o i s a u j o u r d ' h u i , mais ncus n'avcns pas l e l o i s i r : t o u t e s f o i s j e vous d i r a y un bout de sermon gue nous d i v i s e r o n s en t r o i s p a r t i e s . La premiere, je l'entens S vous ne l'entendez pas. La seconde, vous l'entendez S je ne l'entens pas. La t r o i s i e m e , n i vous n i moy ne l'entendons. La premiere gue j'entens & gue vous n'entendez pas, c' e s t gue vous f a c i e z r e b a s t i r l e p r e s b y t e r e . l a seconde gue vous entendez S gue je n'entens pas, c' e s t gue vous entendez gue je chasse ma chambriere, S je ne l ' e n t e n s pas. La t r o i s i e m e gue vous n i moy n'entendons, est l ' E v a n g i l e d 'aujcurd 'hui. Adieu. (1:171) The laughing i r r e v e r e n c e of Be'roalde's c h a r a c t e r s extends to the r i d i c u l e of other r e l i g i o u s customs a l s o . The id e a of Lenten f a s t i n g f o r example, i s turned to a time of r i o t o u s bangueting and c a l l e d " l e p e t i t e x e r c i c e de l a r e l i g i o n " . The custom i s d e s c r i b e d i n the host's account cf his l a s t Lenten f e a s t : Or 9a j'ay appose & c o n t r o c l l e l a j u s t e dispense huguenctigue, a i n s i gue nous f a i s i o n s a P a r i s l e caresme passe*, guand en p l e i n e taverne ncus f a i s i o n s l e p e t i t e x e r c i c e de l a r e l i g i o n . — Q u ' e s t - c e a d i r e c e l a ? — V o u s g u i sgavez tous l e s misteres s a c r e z e s t e s vous s i beste gue vous ne sgavez pas c e c i , veu g u ' i l se p r a c t i g u e en de bons c l o i s t r e s ? C'est gue nous clouons, barrons, bouclons & fermons bien l a porte, guand (comme ceux de l a R e l i g i o n ) nous voulons manger de l a c h a i r aux jour deffendus: t e l est l e p e t i t e x e r c i c e , d'autant gue l e grand e s t a l l e r au presche. (1:138) 136 The t o p i c of " l e p e t i t e x e r c i c e " , the s e c r e t i v e bangueting p r a c t i s e d during Lent, r e c u r s as the c o n v e r s a t i o n progresses. One < of Beroalde's guests, P i g h i u s , l i k e n s the p r a c t i c e to the Geneva P r o t e s t a n t s ' s e c r e t i v e c e l e b r a t i o n c f C a r n i v a l : "Je m'en souviens, nous e s t i c n s a Geneve, S f o l a t r a n s en nostre l o g i s a caresme prenant en cac h e t t e , comme on f a i t en ce p a i s , l o r s gu'en caresme l'on f a i t l e p e t i t e x e r c i c e " (11:153). Luther, musing on h i s former days as a monk, admits that he too observed " l e p e t i t e x e r c i c e " (11:191). In a statement which expresses the a t t i t u d e of a t y p i c a l guest, a j u g g l i n g of words c a s u a l l y r e v e r s e s the s p i r i t of the l e n t e n law of abstinence i n order to urge indulgence: "mes amis ne mangez point de c h a i r l e s ,jo u r s deffendus, mais jeusnez, 8 puis toute n u i c t f a i t e s bonne chere, avec de bonne c h a i r morte & v i v e , l e s n u i t s ne sont poi n t des j o u r s , partant p o i n t deffendus" (1:138). The C a t h o l i c c o n f e s s i o n too provides m a t e r i a l f o r la u g h t e r . One worldly e c c l e s i a s t i c agrees to conduct a grotesgue c o n f e s s i o n a l f o r an e x p i r i n g hcund at the' reguest of i t s fond and wealthy master: "Or 9a, mon ami chie n , voulez vous pas mourir en ch i e n de bien?" 8 l u i pressant l ' o r e i l l e l e chien huchoit assez haut, "Ouan, ouan, .ouan. — Demandez vous pas pardon a vo s t r e maistre de 1'avoir trompee mangeant l e g i b i e r g u e l g u e s f o i s ? — Ouan, ouan, an, an." (11:159) A f t e r more i n the same v e i n , the dog i s absolved, the monk handsomely rewarded, and the sacred r i t e turned i n t o a 137 mockery. 3 S One p e n i t e n t f i n d s t h a t the r i t e cf c o n f e s s i o n e x c i t e s i n s t e a d of deters the s i n cf l u s t , as the p a r i s h p r i e s t c o n f e s s i n g him d e s c r i b e s the s i n of l u x u r e i n d e t a i l : Ce compagnon un cure c o n f e s s o i t un jour un M a i s t r e des r e g u e s t e s , 6 l u i p a r l o i t du peche" de luxure, l ' e n i n t e r r o g e a n t s e l o n l e s l o i s de B e n e d i c t i ; 3 6 S ccmme i l l u i en p a r l o i t exactement, M. Ie maistre des Reguestes l u i d i t ; "Mon Confesseur, mon ami, je vous p r i e ne me p a r l e z p l u s de c e l a , vous me f a i t e s a r s e r . " (11:179) The sacrament of marriage seems tc have been made only to be broken. As c i t e d above, the Gospel i s reversed to accommodate m a r i t a l i n f i d e l i t y : . "Faux tesmcignage ne d i r a s gu'en mariage s e u l e m e n t " . 3 7 The holy aspect of the marriage sacrament i s s l y l y d i s p l a y e d as i r r e l e v a n t during the ingenuous o b s e r v a t i o n t h a t " l e mariage du l i a b l e " , or u n o f f i c i a l union, p r o d u c e s . c h i l d r e n j u s t as dees " l e mariage de par Dieu": ". . . ceux gui ne se marient gu'au mariage du D i a b l e , ne se l a i s s e n t pas d ' a v o i r des enfans" ( I I : 1 1 9 ) . 3 8 F i n a n c i a l concerns are put above the sacrament when one speaker recommends avoidance of o f f i c i a l marriage and e x t o l l s u n o f f i c i a l l i a i s o n s such as those enjoyed by the " l i b r e s E c c l e s i a s t i g u e s " who are able t c partake of the pleasures of marriage while escaping the f i n a n c i a l burden (1:109). T h i s statement again underscores the antagonism between the s e c u l a r man and the e c c l e s i a s t i c , and opens the d i s c u s s i o n to Beroalde's p o r t r a y a l of e c c l e s i a s t i c s . C onventional f e s t i v e s a c r i l e g e which c o m i c a l l y i n v e r t s the church l i t u r g y and dogma i s j o i n e d by an e g u a l l y strong 138, mockery of those e n t r u s t e d with e c c l e s i a s t i c o f f i c e s . T h i s t r a d i t i o n a l r i d i c u l e appears i n Le Hcyen de P a r v e n i r i n i r r e v e r e n t r e f e r e n c e s to the Pope or other high o f f i c i a l s and even more f r e g u e n t l y , i n s a t i r i c a l exposures cf the lower c l e r g y ' s £§cadillos. The u n f l a g g i n g i n t e r e s t i s perhaps due to a combination of v i c a r i o u s f e s t i v e s a c r i l e g e and of the d i s c o v e r y of human weakness i n those who are supposed to s e t a pious example f o r the l a y s o c i e t y to f o l l o w . Beroalde's laughing exposure of the f a i l i n g s c f var i o u s e c c l e s i a s t i c s and t h e o l o g i a n s c o n s t i t u t e s a major part of h i s book, and he hi m s e l f s t a t e s t h a t h i s . w r i t i n g s w i l l cease to e x i s t when human c o r r u p t i o n i s brought to an end. The human c o r r u p t i o n he d e s c r i b e s i n the f o l l o w i n g passage o r i g i n a t e s mainly with e c c l e s i a s t i c s : . . . en v e r i t e ces e s c r i t s c e s s e r o n t S ne seront plus guand l e s v i c e s c e s s e r o n t , & gue t c u t e s s c r t e s de gens ne f e r c n t plus de f c l i e . L'ambition & l ' i m p i e t e des grands, l ' i g n o r a n c e des P r e s t r e s , l e s prescmpticns des M i n i s t r e s , l e descrdre des Koines, l ' e n v i e des Chanoines, l a fausse s c i e n c e des Dccteurs, l e s usures des Huguenots, l e s p i p e r i e s des P a p i s t e s , 6 t o u t e autre c o n t r a d i c t i o n gue f a i t n a i t r e ces beaux Commentaires . ..(11:165) Some r e f e r e n c e s to the c l e r g y have no purpose ether than the immediate humour of the i r r e v e r e n c e , such as i n the f o l l o w i n g u n f l a t t e r i n g a s s o c i a t i o n : ". . . i l ne peut a v o i r en un corps deux c u l s , non plus gue deux Papes a Rome" (1:39). In ot h e r s , the f a c e t i o u s n e s s has more substance. The Pope a l l e g e d l y d e l i v e r s a h y p o c r i t i c a l promise to a group c f 139 p e t i t i o n e r s , p l e d g i n g to grant t h e i r r e g u e s t , "moyennant gue l e s annees a u r o i e n t v i n g t S guatre mois" (11:93). A s i m i l a r v e r b a l h y p o c r i s y shows through another e c c l e s i a s t i c vestment cf a c e r t a i n "Monsieur de l u s s o n " who s i d e s t e p s the i s s u e of p u t t i n g h i s own sermon i n t o . p r a c t i c e . His fcrmer s e c r e t a r y , a l s o a guest at the banguet, reminds him of the event: V o i r e , Monsieur, i l y eust un pauvre gui c u i t v c s t r e sermon guand vous p r e s c h a s t e s , gue g u i a u r o i t deux robbes g u ' i l en donnast une au pauvre: l e pauvre tout console vous b y c i t avec grande a t t e n t i o n , estant merveilleusement a i s e ; apres gue vous f u s t e s retcurne au l o g i s , l e pauvre v o u s v i n t v o i r , vous f i t une ample & grande reverence, vous racontant g u ' i l a v c i t f o r t p r o f i t e a v c s t r e e x o r t a t i o n , dont i l se c o n s o l o i t du t o u t . "Je s u i s bien a i s e , d i c t e s vous, men f i l s , gue vous soyez s i bon C r e t i e n . — M a i s Monsieur, d i t i l , vous avez d i t gue g u i aura deux robes en denne une au pauvre, je vous s u p p l i e me donner l a plus meschante gue vous ayez. -r-o ho luy d i t e s vous, as tu este au commencement du s e r m o n ? — H o n , d i t i l , Monsieur. --A ha, r e p l i q u a s t e s vous, s i vous e u s s i e z este au commencement du sermon vous e u s s i e z ouy, i n i l l c tempore, c'est a d i r e en ce temps l a ; je p r e s c h c i s gue c e l a se f a i s o i t en ce l a j a d i s , S non pour l e present. (1:93-4) This h y p o c r i t i c a l clergyman b a f f l e s the i g n o r a n t pauper with a b i t of L a t i n and then n e a t l y r e v e r s e s the essence of h i s message from the p u l p i t . A sudden exposure of w o r l d l i n e s s i n those whose thoughts should be d i r e c t e d elsewhere had shocked and d e l i g h t e d the people f o r many generations before Beroalde, and he r e c o g n i z e s t h a t the convention i s already t r i t e . In an example of s e l f mockery, he has one cf h i s speakers c r i t i c i z e the overuse of c l e r i c a l t a l e s , charging t h a t i t stems from l a c k o f anything b e t t e r to say: 140 Je vous p r i e ne p a r l o n s ny en bien ny en aial des E c c l e s i a s t i g u e s , l a i s s o n s l e s l a sans l e s draper comme le s h e r e t i g u e s qui ne sgavent f a i r e un bon conte s ' i l n'y a quelque Moine, P r e s t r e ou M i n i s t r e sur l e mestier: s i bi e n je v o u l o i s d i r e sur l e s rangs; vous v o i l a bien a h u r i pour une p a r o l e . (1:110-111) These words have l i t t l e e f f e c t on the c o n v e r s a t i o n however, and another speaker q u i c k l y jumps i n to j u s t i f y commentaries on the c l e r g y a f f i r m i n g that the assembly does not mean to cause a dis t u r b a n c e , but only intends to c o r r e c t f a u l t s where they occur: " n u l ne p a r l e ceans pour s c a n d a l i s e r ains pour e d i f i e r S c o r r i g e r s ' i l e s t be s o i n " . In the same passage, yet another v o i c e concurs: "Or l a avant n'espargnons personne, a u s s i bien tous cnt f a i l l i " (1:111). L a t e r , "Assuerus" s t a t e s that the c l e r g y are used as the whipping boy f o r the s i n s of others j u s t as i f ". . . b a t t a n t l e c h i e n devant l e l i o n " (1:311). Be then p r a i s e s the c l e r g y : " c ' e s t gue nous galopercns l e s E c c l e s i a s t i g u e s , gui sont p a r f a i c t s en l e u r v i e , a f i n d ' i n t i m i d e r l e s ames par l e s choses g u ' i l s d i r o n t " , and terminates the j u s t i f i c a t i o n with a f a c e t i o u s statement i n which he e x p l a i n s t h a t s i n c e the e c c l e s i a s t i c s are o b v i o u s l y innocent of any blame, they w i l l c h a r i t a b l y allow themselves to be used i n the present anecdotes: . . . dongues ces bens messieurs f i l s a i s n e z de l a s a i n c t e maison, ne prendront poin t en mauvaise part gu'on tourne l a parabole sur eux, a f i n gue l e u r c h a r i t e s o i t recogneue, & gu'estans innocens, i l s veulent bien e s t r e accusez, S c h a s t i e z de ce q u ' i l s n'ont pas f a i t ; a f i n que l e s coeurs v i c i e u x ayent hente, S se c c r r i g e n t voyant l a bonte de ceux gui porte n t l e u r s i n i g u i t e z . (1:311) 141 Thus by t o u t i n g an e l e v a t e d purpose behind h i s l i v e l y p o r t r a y a l of moral f a i l i n g s the author uses the v i r t u e c f e d i f i c a t i o n as a j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r the s u b j e c t matter of h i s work. Convention p o r t r a y s e c c l e s i a s t i c s as l a z y , g l u t t o n o u s ; and concupiscent, and Beroalde does not d i s a p p o i n t h i s reader. Throughout the t e x t gluttonous p r i e s t s and monks abound, such as the one mentioned above who s t e a l s the g o o s e . 3 9 S e v e r a l d e s c r i p t i v e e x p r e s s i o n s emphasize t h i s s t e r e o t y p e d image; " r i g o l e r comme un pere" i s used t c mean l a v i s h f e a s t i n g , and to d r i n k "comme un bon Th e o l o g i e n " (11:133) i s . t o consume great g u a n t i t i e s . C o n t r a r y to the proverb " l ' h a b i t ne f a i t pas l e . moine", Eeroalde's c e l e b r a n t s f i n d t h a t the monk's robe i s indeed capable c f d r a s t i c a l l y a l t e r i n g human c h a r a c t e r , and u s u a l l y f o r the worse: ". . . prenez l e plus simple homme du monde, . j e t t e z luy un f r o c sur l e s es p a u l e s , vous l e v e r r e z i n c o n t i n e n t d e v e n i r hagard,. hardy S e f f rente"" (1:106). But Beroalde g i v e s a reason f o r t h e i r behaviour; i t i s the repr e s s e d , u n n a t u r a l l i f e these men are fo r c e d t c adept. A mild-mannered young man turns i n t o a n . i n s o l e n t r e b e l j u s t a f t e r e n t e r i n g a monastery. The f a t h e r of the young man i n guestion i s c a l l e d i n by the s u p e r i o r s , and the son e x p l a i n s h i s behaviour by example: I I va prendre un p e t i t mouton mignon gui e s t o i t au preau, & l'envelopa de son f r o c , puis v i n t a son pere, & l uy monstra; ce mouton b o n d i s s o i t , s a u t o i t , f a i s o i t 142 l'enrage. "Et bien mon pere que d i t e s vous de c e l a ? J ' e s t o i s j a d i s un mcuton comme c e s t u i - l a , aujourd'huy j'ay l e f r o c q u i me f a i t a i n s i p e t i l l e r , 8 bon j o u r , pourvoyez y." (1:107) A g r a p h i c , v e r t i c a l i n v e r s i o n plunges the c l e r g y from t h e i r d i v i n e l y i n s p i r e d holy vows down t c i d l e n e s s and disobedience, then f u r t h e r down to union with the d e v i l : . i l n»y a gens q u i s o i e n t p l u s sur l e u r c u l gue moines & gens b e n i s , m i n i s t r e s S S9avans, g u i e s t u d i e n t a s s i s , & qui au l i e u de c o n s e r v e ! l e s s a i n c t e s ordres gui l e u r ont e s t e c o n f e r e r , l e s g u i t t e n t S abandonnant l ' o r d r e de Dieu se rangent aux ordres du d i a b l e , gui l e u r confere grace d * e s t r e plus r i b a u x gue jamais, S plus p u t a i n gue l e s autres gens. (1:278) The sexual l i c e n c e of the e c c l e s i a s t i c s i s a l s o d i s p l a y e d , emphasizing t h e i r f a i l u r e t c observe the c h a s t i t y vow. An abbess l e e r i n g l y recounts her many a f f a i r s to a young nun (11:10). Another high ranking churchwcman a l s o ignores her vow of c h a s t i t y . She i n t e r c e p t s a message from a l o c a l abbot to t h r e e of the nuns i n . h e r charge by pretending i t i s f o r h e r s e l f , while a l l the time she i s w e l l aware that i t i s not, f o r she i s loved by the bishop, and a mere abbot would not dare to make advances: " e l l e s c a v o i t bien gue ce n ' e s t o i t pas pour e l l e , d'autant gu'un Abbe n'eut pas ose entreprendre sur l e s b r i s e e s de l'Evesgue de Lomtiers g u i l ' a y m o i t " (11:6). Many t a l e s and comments r e v e a l p r i e s t s l i v i n g openly with t h e i r common law wives, "ces sages et prudens P r e s t r e s gui nomment l e u r b r e v i a i r e l e u r femme" (1:52). The domestic 143 normalcy of the s i t u a t i o n i s humorously i l l u s t r a t e d by the comment of one p r i e s t ' s " w i f e " as she stands before the oven: "Helas! Encore - s i ce n ' e s t o i t nos messes, je ne sgay que je f e r i o n s " (1:291). These women a l s o assume the s o c i a l s t a t u s of t h e i r churchman: ". . . e l l e s se t i e n n e n t s i b i e n pour femmes, que s i c e l l e s d e s . V i c a i r e s t r e u v e n t c e l l e s des messieurs, e l l e s l e u r f e r o n t honneur, S c e l l e s des Chanoines su i v e n t l a d i g n i t e 8 rang de l e u r monsieur" (1:291). One banquet guest recounts an anecdote i l l u s t r a t i n g the extent cf such e c c l e s i a s t i c h a b i t s ; a young i n i t i a t e e x p l a i n s t h a t he does not yet have a "w i f e " because he has not yet been o f f i c i a l l y i n s t a t e d : Je m'en rapporte a l ' a n t i g u e de Mair-mcutier, gui se p l a i g n o i t gue tous ses moines e s t o i e n t p a i l l a r d s 8 avoient des garces; 8 voyant passer un jeune d i s p o s gui t r a v e r s o i t vers l a b o u l a n g e r i e , "Je gage, d i t i l , gue. mesme ce p e t i t r u s t r e en a une"; i l l ' a p p e l a , 8 moineau d'approcher; i l . l u i ' d i t : "Avez vous pas a u s s i une garce comme l e s autres? —Non, monsieur, d i t i l f a i s a n t une grande reverence, je ne s u i s pas encor i n s a c r i s . " (1:278) The banguet c o n v e r s a t i o n a l s o touches cn churchmen who covet the wives of t h e i r p a r i s h i o n e r s . The p a r i s h p r i e s t c f Sa i n c t Clement r e v e a l s h i m s e l f to be a s p i r i t u a l a n c e s t o r cf H o l i e r e ' s T a r t u f f e by h i s comments on the e n t i c i n g a t t i r e of the l o c a l women: "en da, ny.moi, ny mes V i c a i r e s ne sommes pas Anges, c e l a nous t e n t e " ( 1 1 : 1 4 5 ) . A 0 Some churchmen are more dar i n g and a c t i v e l y pursue the l o c a l wives. A Pr o t e s t a n t m i n i s t e r t w i s t s a r u l e to conform to h i s wishes, 144 much l i k e the wayward monks mentioned a b o v e , 4 1 t c give h i s a c t i o n s an a i r of l e g a l i t y : I l y a v o i t un c e r t a i n Monsieur de l a Tour, M i n i s t r e en ce P o i c t o u , l e g u e l par hazard, comme l e l i a b l e est s u b t i l a s e d u i r e l e s enfans de Dieu, ayant advise une b e l l e femme gu i ne luy a p p a r t e n o i t pas, S g u i a v o i t pere S mere, i l l a c o n v o i t a s u i v a n t l ' i n t e n t i c n du canon 17. Du 1174. C c n c i l e , gui demonstre gue l a f i l l e d'autruy n'est p o i n t defendue, parguoy i l l a besogna t c u t e v i v e . (1:104) Magdelaine, one of the bangueters, t e l l s cf a c e r t a i n l i c e n t i o u s cure of Toulouse who courted a l o c a l wife: "Quand je t e n o i s e s c o l e d ' e s c r i r e a Toulouse, avec l e s chanoines de S.Sernin, d'entre l e s q u e l s i l y en a v o i t un gui e s t o i t Cure l a aupres & e n t r e t e n o i t l a premiere femme de men mari, l a g u e l l e e s t o i t b e l l e " (1:256). Other churchmen d e s c r i b e d i n Le Moyen de P a r v e n i r f i n d t h e i r feminine p a r i s h i o n e r s l e s s w i l l i n g . A f t e r a l i v e l y s c e n a r i o , one hapless p a r i s h p r i e s t f i n d s himself s i t t i n g e n t i r e l y naked on a r a f t e r i n the good wife's house with her husband and a l l of the. p a r i s h s t anding below gazing c u r i o u s l y upwards. The husband, p o i n t i n g to the emtarassed clergyman, c r i e s , "Jamais je ne vy un t e l Jan avec mes poules" (11:50), and the neighbors, who pretend not to recognize the m a l e f a c t o r , give him a scund b e a t i n g . In another t a l e which i s wound through the d i a l o g u e , a p r i e s t i s o u t w i t t e d by a young wife who r e s i s t s h i s advances, then appears to y i e l d , only t o t r i c k him out cf f c u r measures ef 145 g r a i n . A l l of t h i s takes p l a c e with her husband's s m i l i n g approval ( I I : 50-60) . The worldly sons and daughters of the church are a l s o aware of the power of money, and many succumb to i t s a t t r a c t i o n . One b r i g h t young c l e r i c r e c o g n i z e s the e f f i c a c i t y of b r i b e r y i n church a f f a i r s and g u i c k l y persuades a church o f f i c i a l to give him a b e n e f i c e ever tvio other c a n d i d a t e s , not by answering B i b l i c a l q u e s t i o n s , but by s e t t i n g gold on the examining t a b l e . The s e n i o r churchman i s overjoyed: "Eh b i e n mon bon amy, . ,. . i l f a u t gue tu ayes l e benefice;.vrayment vous estes decte, vcus e s t e s en danger d'estre un jour Pape . . ." (1:116) E c c l e s i a s t i c s are a l s o accused of simony, b a r t e r i n g the sacred f o r personal g a i n . On t h i s l a s t p o i n t , the tone darkens and the broad, i n d u l g e n t laughter begins to fade. I t i s as though a c y n i c a l smile r e p l a c e s the author's laugh as one speaker, "Quelgu'un", s p e c i f i e s that the s e r i o u s problem i s not that money i s paid out f o r b e n e f i c e s , but r a t h e r t h a t p r i e s t s are t a k i n g money f o r the d i s t r i b u t i o n cf the sacrements: Vous P r e l a t s . . . scachez gue ce volume e s t f a i t pour vous j e t t e r l a p a i l l e en l ' o e i l , a f i n gue vous a b a t i e z l a Simonie, "He bien, d i r o n t - i l s , on ne b a i l l e r a plus d'argent pour l e s B e n e f i c e s , on n'entendra plus l e s E s c r i t u r e s . " Ce n'est pas l a l e mal, i l f a u t f a i r e des P r e s t r e s gui ne prennent p o i n t d'argent pour d i s t r i t u e r l e s Sacremens S autres o p e r a t i o n s E c c l e s i a s t i c s . (1:174) Th i s statement seems t o be a d i r e c t and urgent plea f c r 146 reform, which i n the process a t t r i b u t e s a more s e r i o u s purpose to the book. However, the f u t i l i t y of such a laudable attempt i s demonstrated by the r e c e p t i o n t h i s idea r e c e i v e s . I t i s as i f the author turns on h i s own i d e a l i s t i c i n t e n t i o n s of c o r r e c t i n g c o r r u p t i o n by exposing i t i n h i s w r i t i n g s , and mocks h i m s e l f . Immediately f o l l o w i n g t h i s eloguent outburst denouncing simony, Soc r a t e s breaks i n with a n e a r l y i n c o h e r e n t t h r e a t of v i o l e n c e : "Or l a , fende2, frappez, t i r e z , f a i t e s de b e l l e s defonceades d'entendement. Cent m i l l e p e t i t s D i a b l o t i n s de de^a & dela des monts gui vous extravagent, vous p u i s s e n t casser des noix, gue l a gorge vous coupe l e cou, i l n ' i a n i rime ne r a i s o n en v o s t r e f a i t " . Thus the suggestion of reform i s overwhelmed by v i o l e n t t h r e a t s and nonsense. One l a s t mention cf reform i n t h i s passage i l l u s t r a t e s the f u t i l i t y of such an attempt. F o l l o w i n g , S o c r a t e s ' outburst and a d i g r e s s i o n cn i r r a t i o n a l i t y a speaker evokes the image of a q u i x o t i c reformer, "monsieur l e Cotnmissaire, qui e s t e s venu reformer l e s pavez qui usent t r o p de s o u l i e r s " (1:175), which leaves the reader with the impression t h a t the outraged "Quelgu'un" who deplores simony i s j u s t such a s t a r r y - e y e d reformer. The development of t h i s passage demonstrates the f a t e of the reform movement. The w e l l - i n t e n t i o n e d , s u g g e s t i o n f o r moderate e c c l e s i a s t i c a l reform which wculd suppress simony p r e c i p i t a t e s S o c r a t e s ' v i o l e n t , i r r a t i o n a l o u t b u r s t . T h i s i n turn generates a d i g r e s s i o n on i r r a t i o n a l i t y and leads to T 4 7 the f i n a l s a t i r i c a l image of f u t i l e r e f c r m : reforming cobblestones which wear cut the s c l e s c f shoes. In the p r o g r e s s i o n of t h i s passage Beroalde demonstrates that even modest and w e l l - i n t e n d e d s u g g e s t i o n s cannct be viewed d i s p a s s i o n a t e l y because i n a time when r e l i g i o u s thought i s h i g h l y p o l a r i z e d even j u s t i f i e d a l t e r a t i o n s i n the system u l t i m a t e l y worsen the s i t u a t i o n . . T h i s p a t t e r n of o p t i m i s t i c suggestion f o r r e l i g i o u s reform f o l l o w e d by negative r e a c t i o n i s repeated i n another c o n v e r s a t i o n by Beroalde's guests. In a passage gucted e a r l i e r 4 2 the author announces that h i s book was prompted ty the e x i s t e n c e of v i c e i n the s o c i e t y , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n r e l i g i o u s s o c i e t y . Here, as i n other p l a c e s , 4 3 he sugggests that the purpose of Le Moyen de P a r v e n i r i s to expose, and thereby help to c o r r e c t , s o c i a l e v i l s . However, the i n d i g n a n t monologue i n t h i s passage i s f o l l o w e d by the r e p l y of "Hotoman" i n which the author's e f f o r t s f o r refcrm are compared to the w e l l - i n t e n t i o n e d but naive attempts of a monk to c o r r e c t a worldly worshipper: Hotoman. Vous me f a i t e s souvenir de ce moine de S. Denys en France, g u i v o u l u t f a i r e l'entendu, voyant maistre T h i e r r y de Hery a genoux, tourne vers l a f i g u r e de Charles huictieme. Le Moine l u i d i t , "Monsieur men ami, vous f a i l l e z , ce n'est pas l'image d'un S a i n c t gue c e l l e devant g u i vous p r i e z . — J e l e scay b i e n , d i t - i l , je ne s u i s pas s i beste gue vous; je cognois gue c'est l a r e p r e s e n t a t i o n du Hoy C h a r l e s V I I I , pour l'ame duguel je p r i e , parce g u ' i l a apporte l a v e r o l e en France; ce q u i m'a f a i t gaigner s i x cu sept m i l l e l i v r e s de r e n t e . " Ce Moine-la p e n s o i t e s t r e bien sgavant. ( I I : 165) 148 The f u t i l i t y of the author's i n t e n t tc c o r r e c t through exposure i s emphasized by the s m i l i n g i r o n y c f the f i n a l comment, "ce Moine-la pensoit e s t r e bien scavant". The mocking r e c e p t i o n which g r e e t s c a l l s f o r r e l i g i o u s reform i n Le Hoyen de P a r v e n i r suggests a disenchantment with the i d e a of reform i n g e n e r a l . T h i s idea i s n a t u r a l i n an age which had heard the i d e a l i s t i c arguments cf P r o t e s t a n t and C a t h o l i c l e a d e r s , and had then s u f f e r e d the conseguences of the deadly s e r i o u s r e l i g i o u s z e a l o t r y of both the Ref o r m i s t s and the Counter-Reformists. The misery r e s u l t i n g from the r e l i g i o u s wars (1562-1598) as well as the s e v e r i t y with which both s i d e s attempted t o r e g u l a t e the l i v e s of the people begin t o make the former C a t h o l i c l a x i t y seem by f a r the l e s s e r e v i l . A complaint of r e c e n t u n d e s i r a b l e changes runs through the book as a c o n t i n u i n g l e i t m o t i v , and the speakers u s u a l l y a t t a c h the blame e i t h e r d i r e c t l y or i n d i r e c t l y to attempted r e v i s i o n of the r e l i g i o u s system. T h i s complaint, i n t r o d u c e d i n the second sentence of the f i r s t c h a p t e r , a l l u d e s to the wars and other t r o u b l e s brought on by "ces i n v e n t e u r s de ncuveautez'?, cr the r e l i g i o u s r e f o r m e r s . 4 4 The t r o u b l e s a t t r i b u t e d t c these misguided reformers a r e . r e p o r t e d with burlesque extravagance; they are blamed f o r a l l i l l s , i n c l u d i n g "guerres", "maux", and " v e r o l e s " : . confuz s b i e n t l e s i n v e n t e u r s de nouveautez, g u i gastent l a jeunesse, & contre l e s bonnes ccustumes t r o u b l e n t nos jeux. . . . Beaucoup de maux sont avenus 149 a cause de ce changement, gui t r o u b l e r a 1 ' i n t e l l i g e n c e des h i s t o i r e s , 8 gauchira toute l a mappe-monde. Vcyez combien desja sont venus de t r o u b l e s , guerres, maux, v e r o l e s 8 t e l l e s p e t i t e s mignardises g u i c h a t o u i l l e n t merveilleusement l e s personnes pour l e s f a i r e r i r e . (1:4) Among other statements d e p l o r i n g the changes i n r e l i g i o u s custom i s one which wryly notes that the f a i t h c f the French, once so f i r m , i s c u r r e n t l y being profoundly shaken: . . . A u t r e f o i s j'eusse j u r e sur mes ceufs de Pasgues, g u ' i l n'y a v o i t p o i n t de moyen de t r o u b l e r l a foy des Fran g o i s ; mais aujourd'hui je ne m'esbahi plus de r i e n . S i je s g a v o i s gue vous d e u s s i e z f a i r e p r o f i t de ce gue je d i r a i , nous autres v i e i l l e s gens ne prencns pas p l a i s i r a. p a r l e r pour neant, 8 gue vous ne m'accusassiez de ce gue je d i r a i , je vous a l l e g u e r o i s guelgue chose de r a r e 8 notable, Certes je desplore l a pauvre E g l i s e Romaine g u i se demolit, 8 sur tout pour un point 8 un acte gui se commet en France, (11:94) He conti n u e s t h i s statement to i m p l i c a t e "messieurs du grand p a r t i " (the C a t h o l i c s ) * s f o r the t r o u b l e , laments the f a c t that there are no longer any good C a t h o l i c s , and then f o r e s e e s the d e c l i n e of the Church: ", . . Adieu mere s a i n c t e E g l i s e " (11:95). The i r o n y cf t h i s passage i s coloured with humour ("j'eusse j u r e sur mes oeufs de Pasgues, g u ' i l n'y a v o i t p o i n t de moyen de t r o u b l e r l a f e y des F r a n g o i s . . .") which l i g h t e n s the p e s s i m i s t i c c o n c l u d i n g sentence d e p l o r i n g the demise cf the French C a t h o l i c Church. Comtemporary c o r r u p t i o n of the true f a i t h i s d e s c r i b e d again near the end of the book i n a passage which charges 150 that there are no more s i n c e r e worshippers; these who appear to take r e l i g i o n s e r i o u s l y are e i t h e r f o o l s or h y p o c r i t e s : . . s i ce n'est s o t t i s e , gue c' e s t pour l a commodite': tenement gue piet£, s a i n c t e t e , j u s t i c e , aumosne S t o u t e s t e l l e s v e r t u s , ou a c t i o n s g u i en dependent, ne sont p r a c t i g u e e s gue par l e d e s i r gui tend a l a commodite, sous l e v o i l e d ' h i p o c r i s i e " (11:233). The.way tc advance i s to e x p l o i t r e l i g i o n as do these h y p o c r i t e s . They have found a way to e x p l o i t God hi m s e l f f o r t h e i r s e l f i s h ends, " l e moyen de se f a i r e du bien au despens du pauvre homme" (11:233). One of Beroalde's speakers maintains that r e l i g i o n i s only a cover f o r the wars that these depraved men wage to f u r t h e r t h e i r own ambitions. . He r e f e r s to them as "ceux gui sous ombre de r e l i g i o n f o n t l a guerre pour m a i n t e n i r l e u r ambition" (11:175). At times the author i s content to g e n t l y r i d i c u l e r e l i g i o u s z e a l o t s of both s i d e s , as i n the d e s c r i p t i o n of a great debate on t r i v i a i n which both P r o t e s t a n t m i n i s t e r s and C a t h o l i c monks appear f o o l i s h : ". . . i l y a v c i t grand debat entre l e s Moines 6 l e s M i n i s t r e s pour d e c i d e r , g u i e s t o i t l e mieux d i t , C'est demie v i e gue d'e s t r e s c u l , cu c'est demie v i e gue de r i r e ; sur guoy i l s se confondoient, comme h e r e t i g u e s " (1:79-80). At other times, he l o s e s patience with them. C i t i n g the l o s s e s of the P r o t e s t a n t s at the St. Bartholomew Day massacre and the f i g u r a t i v e l o s s e s of the C a t h o l i c s due to the S a t i r e M i n i p j ^ e , n e explodes 151 with an exasperated "au Diable l e . c o u i l l o n g u i demeurera de ces s o r t e s de gens gui gastent t o u t " (11:133). He al s o q u i e t l y concludes t h a t t h e r e are f a r b e t t e r t h i n g s t c dc i n t h i s world than to go to war over r e l i g i o u s theory. A f t e r the account of a r i d i c u l o u s " t h e o l o g i c a l " debate i n Geneva a s e n s i b l e bangueter surmises: "Et puis f a i c t e s l a guerre pour c e l a ; a l l e z vous b a t t r e , a l l e z vous damner pour t e l l e s gens; j * a i m e r o i s mieux a l l e r t r a v a i l l e r a ma journee 8 f a i r e un p e t i t de bon f r u i t en ce monde" (11:208). T h i s a t t i t u d e i s p e r f e c t l y c o n s i s t e n t with a comment i n l e P a l a i s des curieux i n which Beroalde puts the r e l i g i o u s debate i n t o p e r s p e c t i v e : "Je voy aujourd'hui l e s c a t h o l i g u e s 8 l e s protestans g u i debatent, s i ce sent .Dccteurs c»est l e u r e s t a t : i l l e s f a u t l a i s s e r f a i r e , 8 en t i r e r p l a i s i r . . .". * 6 In order to defame a f e l l o w guest, one speaker l i n k s him i g n o m i n i o u s l y to both the reform and the d e v i l a t the same time: "Quel satan 8 reformateur es t u ? " (11:15). In the same v e i n , another i n c i d e n t r e v e a l s the r e f o i m e r , Luther, to be i n league with the d e v i l . . A d d r e s s i n g l u t h e r on f a m i l i a r terms, "'mon Luther, mon c a p i t a i n e , men ami", a' d e v i l named F r o s t i b u s e n t e r s the banguet h a l l , comes up to the reformer, and d i r e c t l y addresses that bangueter i n the presence of the oth e r s , e x p l a i n i n g how r e l i g i o n can be used to f u r t h e r s a t a n i c plans f o r the world: En guelgue p a i s cu i l y a une des guatre r e l i g i o n s 152 e s t a b l i e , je f a i s d e c l a r e r h e r e t i g u e comme frcmage de Milan ceux q u i n'en sent p o i n t , 5 p u i s on l e s g r i l l e , S c e l a v i e n t bien a mon goust, d'autant gue. l e frcmage g r i l l e e s t plus vcluptueux au p a l a i s gue l ' a u t r e . (11:129) The a t t i t u d e of the bangueters towards r e l i g i o n i s to accept e i t h e r C a t h o l i c i s m or P r o t e s t a n t i s m , and then to get cn with the pleasure, of l i v i n g . As the examination of Le Moyen de P a r v e n i r continues, t h i s a t t i t u d e gains i n importance. T h i s i d e a of t o l e r a n c e , and even cf i n d i f f e r e n c e , i s apparent i n the s e l e c t i o n of the guests, for only those who have a l r e a d y chesen a r e l i g i o n are admitted. Others must remain o u t s i d e : ". ... S f u t d i t gue gui que ce f u s t q u i h e u r t e r o i t demeurercit dehors, s ' i l n ' e s t o i t de l'une ou de l ' a u t r e r e l i g i o n , ex ££ofessc" (11:131). F r o s t i b u s i s a f r a i d to stay very long f o r f e a r cf becoming e i t h e r " h e r e t i g u e ou P a p i s t e " (11:130), for h i s work i s b e t t e r done i n the gray zone of c o n f l i c t between the two. There i s no room at Beroalde's banguet f o r these who agonize over the d e c i s i o n , l i k e the Doctor of Oxford, "gui n'est pas encor r e s o l u s ' i l se d o i t f a i r e C a t h c l i g u e cu Huguenot" (II:236) . T h i s c o n s c i e n t i o u s and confused person asks the advice of the company on t h i s matter, but they send him away with a mocking message: " a f i n de l u i donner guelgue contentement, on l u i f i t une paraphrase apostrophique pour son desjeuner, q u ' i l s'en s o u l a t s ' i l peut" (11:237). T h i s doctor's major f a i l i n g i s that he takes the matter f a r t c o 153 s e r i o u s l y , and i s thus the p e r f e c t v i c t i m f o r the grim-faced f a n a t i c s whom B&roalde abhors. Reported changes of r e l i g i o u s a f f i l i a t i o n f o r f r i v o l o u s reasons, however, do not upset the bangueters who accept amorous or gastronomic motives f o r c o n v e r s i o n as normal. C e r t a i n Huguenots have become C a t h o l i c , while monks have turned to P r o t e s t a n t i s m , and the reason, a c c o r d i n g to the commentator, has nothing to do with t h e o l o g y : ". . . Ce gue ceux cy en ont f a i t e s t pour se mieux entendre en garces" (1:181). T h i s speaker c o n t i n u e s on t h i s theme t o i n c l u d e another c o n v e r s i o n , t h i s one f o r gastronomic reasons: "Quant au J u i f i l l ' a f a i t pour a v o i r conge de manger du l a r d S du s a l e , a f i n de t r o u v e r l e v i n m e i l l e u r " (I: 181) . In g e n e r a l the banguet d i a l o g u e expresses a f e e l i n g c f h o s t i l i t y towards s e r i o u s Reformers and the Counter- Reformers, because they n e e d l e s s l y ban l a u g h t e r and innocent pleasure from the l i v e s of o t h e r s . T h i s a t t i t u d e i s s t r o n g l y s t a t e d i n a vehement i n v e c t i v e a c c u s i n g r e l i g i o u s dogmatists of h a i r - s p l i t t i n g , impudence, l a c k of g e n e r o s i t y and a determination to drag others down with them i n t o melancoly: , vous Messieurs g u i f a i t e s des consci e n c e s a prendre mouches, 8 vieux affamez de vaine reputanation? Goulus de f o l l e g l o i r e , g u i vous demange? L'impudence a l'ombre de l»eau lemanigue ou T i b e r i n e , t a n d i s gue vous vous tuez l e coeur 6 l e corps a c h a r r i e r l e s ames vers l a m elancholie, tachant a u s s i de nous f a i r e payer l a v o i c t u r e guand l e d i a b l e vous empcrtera, qui sechez de p a i l l a r d e envie dont vous regorgez, comme l e savon des l e u r e s des gueux* 7 q u i b i e n t sur l e grand t r i m a r d . (I:128) These strong terms denounce the d i r e c t i o n which r e l i g i o u s r e v i s i o n has taken. Those who guide the movement assume monstrous forms. They are so i n t e n t on t h e i r own personal g l o r y that they f o r g e t human p r o p o r t i o n s and t u r n l i f e around them i n t o a sad a f f a i r : "vous vous tuez l e cceur S l e corps a c h a r r i e r l e s ames vers l a m e l a n c h o l i c " . One c h a r a c t e r , who has the name of that a n c i e n t d r i n k e r , Hercules, c r i t i c i z e s the sober, humourless a t t i t u d e of the P r o t e s t a n t s by accusing C a l v i n of u p s e t t i n g the country with his s o b r i e t y : "Tu v e n i s t i s o b r i u s ad evertendam remputlicam" (11:29), he says to the severe reformer cf Geneva. The innocent p l a y f u l n e s s of the bangueters' environment would indeed be upset by an a p o s t l e of s o b r i e t y and s e r i o u s thought, and t h e i r h o s t i l e r e a c t i o n to such a p o s s i b i l i t y i s understandable. Two other speakers, De Beze and Aeneas S y l v i u s , both authors of l i b e r t i n e works i n t h e i r youths, admit i n Beroalde's t e x t t h a t they l e f t f r i v o l i t y , joy and love behind when they began to take r e l i g i o n more s e r i o u s l y . 4 8 T h i s c o n v e r s a t i o n i s i n i t i a t e d by the "melancoligue" k i l l - j o y , Genebrad, who addresses the two authors: "Eh bien, l e u r d i t i l , vous avez bien f a i t des f o l i e s estans jeunes, vous . avez e s c r i t d'amour 5 de l u b r i c i t e gue p l u s i e u r s ont tourne en sens reprcuve': i l e s t vray gue l e s bien d o c t e s , S gui ne sont p o i n t pedans ont trouve vos e s c r i t s bons, mais i l y a v o i t de l ' e c c e s " (11:252). A f t e r t h i s condemnation both authors d i s c l a i m 1 5 5 t h e i r y o u t h f u l works: — V a , d i t S i l v i u s , n ' e s t o i s - j e pas jeune S f o l e t , despost de l a braguette, S r e l e v e de g e n t i l l e s e , guand j ' e s c r i v o i s mes g a l l a n t e r i e s ? Mais depuis, j'ay condamne tout c e l a , 6 l e desavcue. — Et moy, d i t De Beze, j e n'ay gue f a i r e de m'en excuser, je s u i s g e n t i l homme, a ce gue je d i s S comme je l'ay t o u s j o u r s tesmoigne guand l e s N o t a i r e s m'ont demande ou e s c r i t mes g u a l i t e z . Et b i e n , j'ay este g a l l a n t en jeunesse, a u s s i j ' e s t o i s P r i e u r , d e l i b e r e comme un a s s i e u r de meuriers; mais depuis gue je f u Reforme, je retranche t o u t e s mes f o l i e t t e s joyeuses: 5 tout a i n s i gu'un bienheureux J c s u ^ , je f i s une b e l l e c i r c o n c i s i o n de mes oeuvres j u v e n i l e s f a i c t e s a l a Cat h o l i g u e . (11:252) As they are f i n i s h i n g t h i s p r o t e s t a t i o n of good f a i t h however, the author n o t i c e s t h a t t h e i r c o n f e s s i o n i s undercut by la u g h t e r around them: "Tandis g u ' i l s d i s o i e n t c e l a , je voyois l e s compagnons de Genebrad gui se mocgucient . . ." (11:253). The sober, s e r i o u s s i d e of r e l i g i o n i s not allowed to p r e v a i l . Beroalde's condemnation of j o y l e s s s o b r i e t y and mi s d i r e c t e d p r o s e l y t i z i n g . i s i l l u s t r a t e d v i v i d l y i n one cf the most s t r i k i n g t a l e s in.Le Moyen de P a r v e n i r . It i n v o l v e s a r e l i g i o u s f a n a t i c , d e p i c t e d as a wandering p e n i t e n t , and his unfortunate v i c t i m , a v i l l a g e woman. The pe n i t e n t a r r i v e s i n a v i l l a g e , announces h i s r e l i g i o u s o p i n i o n s , and asks one of the v i l l a g e r s to beat him i n order tc help e x p i a t e h i s s i n s : "Madame, e s t a n t trebuche en extremite de creuse devotion, j'ay bonne envie d'estre f c u e t t e realement S de f a i t par guinze matinees c o n s e c u t i v e s ; s ' i l vous p l a i s t 156 me f a i r e ce bien d'en prendre l a peine, je vous dcnneray douze beaux escus, 6 un escu pour l e s verges" (1:63). T h i s woman r e f u s e s , but a neighbor, Madame Laurence, agrees to the task. Then every morning a t seven o'clock the p e n i t e n t a r r i v e s and i s beaten f o r h a l f an hour. The author i n t i m a t e s t h a t Madame Laurence, who c a r r i e s out the punishment, would ra t h e r have another kind of r e l a t i o n s i p with the p e n i t e n t , for she i s a woman of l i b e r t i n e m o r a l s . 4 9 However, the mas o c h i s t i c atonement continues as c o n t r a c t e d u n t i l i t i s over: "Le temps 6 l a f e s s e r i e accomplie, l e f e s s e paya f o r t bien l a fesseuse 6 s'en a l i a . " From the l i g h t tone cf the n a r r a t i v e , which stops to comment on the woman's wayward c h a r a c t e r , and i n d u l g e s i n wordplay such as " f e s s e r i e - f e s s e - f e s s e u s e " , t h i s t a l e appears to.be yet another of Eeroalde's r i b a l d n a r r a t i v e s which r e f l e c t the c a r n i v a l e s g u e atmcsphere cf the banguet, and the p e n i t e n t j u s t another of the odd c h a r a c t e r s who people the pages of Le Mg_yen de P a r v e n i r . The n a r r a t i v e continues amicably i n t h i s v e i n , s e t t i n g Madame Laurence on her way through the f o r e s t t c an amorous t r y s t with a monk of St. Denys, and c o m i c a l l y d e s c r i b i n g how she loves him: " e l l e 1 'aimoit de bon fo y e , de bon coeur, . . . de bonne c u i s s e , S de bon ventre" (1:65), but then events take a d i f f e r e n t course. She comes upon the p e n i t e n t who i s wa i t i n g f o r her with a s t e r n , r e p r o a c h f u l l c o k : Cest homme q u i a v o i t eu l a f e s s e e au p r i x . d e son argent v i n t a e l l e , S l u i d i t , "Mettez pied a t e r r e ; " S l u i f a i s a n t une reverence de basse t a i l l e , avec un v i s a g e 157 dechiguete de mines remonstrantes, passemente de r i d e s de r e p r e h e n s i o n s , l a p r i t 8 l'empoigne, 8 s ' a s s i t s u r une p i e r r e de chemin, l a met sur son g e n c u i l l e l e c u l a. mont, l a trousse comme une p e t i t e f i l l e q u i va a l ' e s c o l e chez un monstrueux, 8 l a fesse a nud avec de bonnes 8 sanglantes verges sur son c u l de d e r r i e r e : e l l e n'en v i d r i e n , 8 en ce s t e a c t i o n l u i repcussa f o r t 6 ferme l e fondement. . . . Apres l a fessade accomplie, l e jeune homme remit Madame Laurence sur l a beste, . . . recommandant l'ame de Laurence a l a bonne grace. La pauvre t t e r e v i n t avec grand f r a y e u r 8 se mit au l i c t , ou e l l e ne f u t que c i n q j o u r s , f i n i s l e s q u e l s e l l e mourut comme une vache g u i t r e p a s s e . Hee q u e l l e f e s s e e ! Quel a p p l i c a t e u r de stigmates s e n s u e l s ! 0 L i a b l e s i c e l a me p l a i r o i t , j ' a i m e r o i s mieux gue t e l s f c i i e t t e u r s , f o i i e t t e z , f o u e t t a n s a t t e n d i s s e n t a n a i s t r e apres l e jugement. Or l e foQtt4 f o i i e t t a r d c c n d u i s i t l a f c u e t t e e de b e l l e s b e n e d i c t i o n s , en l u y d i s a n t , "Adieu ma douce amie, c i apres soyez sage, bien-heureuses sent l e s personnes b i e n - f o i i e t t a n t e s , 8 bien f o i i e t t e e s . " (1:66- 67) The n a r r a t i v e s t y l e r e t a i n s i t s bantering tone, with as i d e s from the author ("Hee q u e l l e f e s s e e ! " ) , grctesgue comparisons ( " e l l e mourut comme une vache g u i t r e p a s s e " ) , and whimsical wordplay ("fouetteurs, f c f i e t t e z , f o u e t t a n s " e t c . ) . However, the a c t i o n c o n s i s t s of more than a burlesgue parody of innocent exuberance. The grim-faced wanderer not only p r a c t i c e s s e l f - m o r t i f i c a t i o n , but f o r c e s h i s s e l f - c a s t i g a t i o n on o t h e r s , a c t u a l l y k i l l i n g Madame Laurence i n order to "cure" her. The n a r r a t o r expresses h i s o p i n i o n c f such f a n a t i c s i n i r o n i c understatement, s a y i n g t h a t he wishes t h a t such "whipped, whipping whippers" would wait to be born u n t i l a f t e r Judgement Day. Though expressed i n a d i f f e r e n t manner, , t h i s a t t i t u d e echoes . the r e p u l s i o n expressed i n the outburst of i n v e c t i v e a g a i n s t reformers guoted e a r l i e r . s<> That i n v e c t i v e , d i r e c t e d a t r e l i g i o u s 158 e n t h u s i a s t s who concentrate on the dark, j o y l e s s s i d e c f r e l i g i o n c o u l d have been made f o r the grim p e n i t e n t . Other examples a l s o i l l u s t r a t e the somber s i d e of r i g i d p i e t y . The c o l d , otherworldy a t t i t u d e c f a p r i e s t whc t r i e s to console a r e c e n t l y widowed woman prevents any,exchange c f human warmth and compassion f o r her l e s s . To him the death of her husband i s su p e r f l u o u s next to the f a c t t h a t the man died with the proper r i t e s : "He bien, madame ccmbien vous devez vous c o n s o l e r , S remercier Dieu de ce gue monsieur vostre mari est mort bon C a t h o l i g u e , g u ' i l a eu l e s d r o i t s de l ' E g l i s e ! Soyez joyeuse de c e l a , madame ma chere dame . . ." (11:99). An anonymous v o i c e then asks: "Que pensa c e s t e pauvre dame?". The answer i s d i r e c t and l a c o n i c : "Que ce F r e s t r e f u t i n s e n s l " (11:100). Both .cf these cases (the pen i t e n t , the recent widow) evoke a conclu d i n g comment from an o u t s i d e observer who p o i n t s out the c o l d and r i g i d s i d e of r e l i g i o n which i s demonstrated by the n a r r a t i v e . T h i s severe, u n f e e l i n g aspect of r e l i g i o n c o n t r a s t s s h a r p l y with the warm, j o y f u l atmosphere of the banguet where g u i l t and s i n are f o r g i v e n and f o r g o t t e n i n favour of innocent p l e a s u r e s . In these passages Beroalde r e j e c t s inhuman p i e t y and promotes a robust enthusiasm f o r l i f e . A negative r e a c t i o n appears again i n response to a c a l l for reform within the Church. In t h i s case the " o f f e n s i v e " p r a c t i c e s c o u l d be con s i d e r e d r e l a t i v e l y harmless, but the would-be reformer i s h i g h l y i n s e n s e d : " I t gue tous l e s m i l l e 159 d i a b l e s , pourguoi endurez vous gue l'on d i e l a messe paresseuse, l a messe seche, 8 ce gui e s t bien plus j o l i , gue l e s P r e s t r e s ayent des amies sans fraude?" (11:98). The r e a c t i o n t c t h i s complaint i s quick and a n g r y . 5 1 It seems to come from one who has grown impatient with the excesses committed i n the name of reform: " A l l e z , monsieur, a l l e z dormir, vous n'estes pas assez sage pour renverser ncs bonnes coustumes . ...".(11:98).. The angry r e j e c t i o n of reform i s the e x p r e s s i o n cf a c o n s e r v a t i v e m e n t a l i t y which i s at the core of Le Moyen de Parvenir. While the o l d ways may have t h e i r i m p e r f e c t i o n s , the new ones have proven to be.worse. The would-be reformer above i s accused of l a c k i n g the wisdom to o v e r t u r n e s t a b l i s h e d p r a c t i c e s . The many complaints i n Le Mcyen de P a r v e n i r about the attempts to r e v i s e r e l i g i o u s customs suggest that no one has been wise enough yet tc a l t e r the t r a d i t i o n a l system s u c c e s s f u l l y . In f a c t , the r e s u l t s of the attempts to suppress " o f f e n s i v e " h a b i t s such as those i n the passage immediately above (11:98), are the permanent p e r v e r s i o n of the f a i t h . The l o g i c a l extension of t h i s idea i s to promote r e t e n t i o n of the o l d customs along with the i m p e r f e c t i o n s . Confronted with the humourless s e v e r i t y cf the Reformers and the Counter-Reformers and the l a x i t y of manners and morals under the o l d system, the author emphasizes the advantages cf the o l d ways. His argument c o n c e n t r a t e s on one aspect c f 160 reform i n p a r t i c u l a r : r e p r e s s i o n o f sexual energy. Both P r o t e s t a n t and C a t h o l i c a t t i t u d e s are c r i t i c i z e d . The Prot e s t a n t a t t i t u d e i s r e f l e c t e d i n a comment on the moral s t r i c t n e s s i n Geneva: ". . . Comme ceux de Geneve g u i veulent gue ceux g u i vont demeurer en l e u r v i l l e , ayent l e t t r e s d ' h a b i t a t i o n authentiguee, 6 t o u t e f o i s i l s ne veulent pas gu'on h a b i t e " 5 2 (1:230). A f t e r the C o u n c i l cf Trent, e f f o r t s to c u r t a i l c o r r u p t i o n i n the r e l i g i o u s orders grew s t r o n g e r . The vow of c h a s t i t y , one cf the mcst obvious and most v u l n e r a b l e t c f a i l u r e , began to be more s t r i c t l y e nforced. Some of the speakers i n Le Meyen de P a r v e n i r are in favour of s t r i c t e r enforcement (for example the one who complains that "des P r e s t r e s ayent des amies sans fraude", 11:98), but h i s o p i n i o n i s ov e r r i d d e n by ot h e r s who f e e l that i t only exchanges one s i t u a t i o n f o r something more onerous. The problem i s , they e x p l a i n , that when the n a t u r a l v i t a l i t y i s f r u s t r a t e d , the energy i n g u e s t i c n i s channeled i n t o dangerous thoughts; i t i s spent sear c h i n g out v i c e s i n ot h e r s , u s i n g the Reformation or Counter-Reformaticn as a cover: . . . sgachez gue C l o i s t r i e r s g ui n'aiment p o i n t l e s femmes, sont t o u s j o u r s apres a r e l e s c h e r guelgue v i e i l l e h e r e s i e , sous ombre de d e g c i s e r sur l a re f o r m a t i o n , p a r l a n t des v i c e s g u ' i l s imputent aux au t r e s , l e s g u e l s sont p l u s t o l e r a b l e s gue l e s l e u r s . He b i e n , s'accomoder avec femmes n'est pas tant de mal, gue de t r o u b l e r l a C h r e s t i e n t e . (1:297). The same idea i s expressed again by a speaker who l i n k s f e r v e n t preaching to se x u a l r e p r e s s i o n : 161 . . . un homme de c o n s c i e n c e , ayant fcule" sous soy l a concupiscence, S enfonce l e f o r t de Satan, cu i l aura escrase l a t e n t a t i o n , e l l e s'en f e r a t e n e m e n t a l l e e g u ' i l aura l e s femmes en horreur, tant g u ' i l en a i t a f f a i r e , S c ' e s t a l c r s g u ' i l f e r a rage de pr e s c h e r . (1:318) A p a r a l l e l e x i s t s between comments such as these and the t a l e of how the d e v i l l o s t the a b i l i t y t c reproduce i n the normal manner, and thus was f o r c e d to reproduce by the head. In t h i s t a l e a s c u l p t o r i s commissioned tc do a scene of St. Michael with the vanquished d e v i l . Hot knowing much about church d o c t r i n e , he commits " h e r e s i e " , f o r h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of the nude d e v i l i s too l i t e r a l f o r the church f a t h e r s to accept. The s c u l p t o r ' s work i s c r i t i c i z e d as a "chose moult honteuse a v o i r aux yeux d e l i c a t s de ces pudigues f i l l e s " (1:122). A meeting i s held during which i t i s decided to d e p r i v e the s t a t u e of the o f f e n d i n g p a r t s . A l a t i n i z e d order i s sent down: "Coupibus c c i i i l l i b u s r a s i b u s du c u l i b u s a D i a b o l u s " (1:123), and the act i s c a r r i e d out, but the r e s u l t s have unfortunate e f f e c t s on the " d i a b o l i c race", and on mankind. T h i s i n c i d e n t , claims the speaker, i s the cause of the h e r e s i e s which p r e s e n t l y i n f e s t the world, because once deprived of the a b i l i t y to reproduce normally, the d e v i l s ' s e x u a l energy i s d i v e r t e d and sent to the head, and they now engender dangerous thoughts i n the minds of men and women: Mais de c e c i . . . e s t avenu un grand malheur; c'est gue t e l s D iables ne peuvent plu s r i e n engendrer par l e 162 bas, p a r t a n t i l s engendrent a c e s t e heure par l e haul t c u t e s l e s meschantes o p i n i o n s 8 h e r e s i e s g u ' i l s vous f o n t c o n c e v o i r en vcs t e s t e s . (1:123-4) The bangueters concur. Instead c f t w i s t i n g s e x u a l energy i n t o unhealthy p r a c t i c e s and melancoly thoughts, they give i n d u l g e n t approval t o those, l i k e the two ycung monks below, who f i n d a harmless n a t u r a l o u t l e t f o r t h e i r exuberance and v i t a l i t y . These exemplary monks meet two young g i r l s i n an i n n , and as arranged, the g i r l s f e l l o w them u p s t a i r s where they a l l enjoy themselves "en h a b i l i t e , gayete, vigueur 8 fermete de nature" and not from " i n f i r m i t e " : . . 8 se p l a c e r e n t avec toute h u m i l i t e aupres des f r e r e s g u i l e s a t t e n d o i e n t , non tcuchez de l ' i n f i r m i t e n a t u r e l l e , (aussi ce n'est pas de t e l b i a i s gue l'on peche comme c e r t a i n s malotrus de Dccteurs veulent prouver, pour deguiser l e u r puante ambition, ou t r i s t e a v a rice) mais en h a b i l i t e , gayete, vigueur, 8 fermete' de nature, . . ..(1:309) 5 3 The a t t i t u d e expressed i n the above passage r e j e c t s the viewpoint of the r i g i d reformers and i n s t e a d conforms to the i n d u l g e n t and n a t u r a l methods of r e e s t a b l i s h i n g balance promoted by the popular f e s t i v a l s . The n a t u r a l and healthy joys of the body are s e t i n o p p o s i t i o n to the unnatural r e p r e s s i o n and r i g i d i t y which f o s t e r s s i n s of a more s e r i o u s order. The author s t r e s s e s t h i s methed as the n a t u r a l s o l u t i o n , r e j e c t i n g h y p o c r i t i c a l r e p r e s s i o n and recommending " l a b e l l e e g a l i t e 6 p r o p o r t i o n gue Dieu a ordennee": I l y a p l u s i e u r s pauvres 8 guelgues jeuneurs d'amour cu de f o r c e , g u i ne boivent p o i n t , 8 d'autres boivent pour 163 eux, & p i s s e n t a u s s i pour eux. I l y a i n f i n i e s nonains, p l u s i e u r s moines, guelgues f i l l e s de b i e n , gui n'osent, ou ne peuvent, ou ne trouvent a l e f a i r e , & i l y en a gui suppleent a t e l defaut; S notez en c h a r i t e gue s i l e s l c i x e s t o i e n t f i d e l l e s , 8 g u ' i l n'y eut point tant de c o n t r a i n t e s , S d ' h y p o c r i s i e s , gue t e l s excez n'adviendront pas; 6 je vous p r i e de prendre garde a ce gue, s i vous reto u r n e z a vos charges," tout s c i t remis a l a b e l l e e g a l i t e S p r o p o r t i o n gue Dieu a ordonnee, a ce gue par vos i n s o l e n c e s i l n'y a i t plus tant de causes de pechez 6 de p u n i s s i o n s . " (11:192) It i s b e t t e r to l e t the o l d system be, and to e i t h e r p a r t i c i p a t e i n the C a r n i v a l or a t l e a s t s i t back and l i s t e n to a few harmless t a l e s of d e l i n g u e n t monks, than tc turn to melancoly thoughts of theology which lead to abuses: . . . l ' h e r e s i e . . . Sera e s t e i n t e comme feu de p a i l l e sur l ' e a u , guand on aura t o u s j o u r s guelgue ccnte de Moine q u i f e r a r i r e , au l i e u de s ' a l l e r amuser melancoliguement a e s g r a t i g n e r l a Th e o l o g i e pour en abuser. (1:308) The pragmatic a t t i t u d e expressed i n these g u o t a t i o n s echoes the " s a f e t y v a l v e " philosophy formulated i n defense of the excesses of the Feast of F o o l s . 5 * Voices of compromise and reason i n Le Mo_yen de P a r v e n i r express the same understanding of a human need to r e l e a s e energy through f r i v o l i t y and l a u g h t e r . Beroalde presents a v a r i e t y of a t t i t u d e s on the r e l i g i o u s q u e s t i o n i n Le Mojren de P a r y e n i r . Seme vo i c e s present the t r a d i t i o n a l c a r n i v a l e s g u e i n v e r s i o n s of the sacred, others c a l l f o r s e r i o u s r e l i g i o u s reform, and s t i l l others s a t i r i c a l l y r e f u t e the would-be reformers with accounts of the Reform and Counter-Reform movements' 164 f a i l u r e s . F i n a l l y , t h e r e i s a c a l l f o r the r e t u r n to the o l d ways i n which there i s room f o r human f r i v o l i t y , s e l f - indulgence and f e s t i v e s a c r i l e g e . A s i m i l a r a t t i t u d e permeates Beroalde's p r e s e n t a t i o n of. lay s o c i e t y , which w i l l be examined i n the f o l l o w i n g chapter. As i n r e l i g i o u s matters, r e p r e s s i o n and r i g i d i t y i n s e c u l a r areas become the o b j e c t s of mocking l a u g h t e r , and the k i l l - j o y s who re p r e s e n t the a n t i - c a r n i v a l world s i m i l a r l y assume the t r a d i t i o n a l r o l e of f e s t i v e scapegoats. 165 CHAPTER IV: NOTES 1 See above pp. 40-42. 2 See above p. 41. 3 See above pp. 31-32 f o r examples. 4 Huizinga, Waning, p. 163, comments on the f a m i l i a r i t y with which the s a i n t s were t r e a t e d : "The v e n e r a t i o n of the s a i n t s has i t s place among the more outward m a n i f e s t a t i o n s of f a i t h . I t i s s u b j e c t to the i n f l u e n c e s of popular fancy r a t h e r than of theology, and they sometimes deprive i t c f i t s d i g n i t y " . M i k h a i l Bakhtin, R a b e l a i s , pp. 190-92, notes the freguent t r a v e s t y of s a i n t s 1 names i n the " u n o f f i c i a l " language of R a b e l a i s ' speakers. 5 See f o r example, B. M. Meon, ed. La B a t a i l l e de Karesme et de Charnage i n F a b l i a u x , i v , 8 0-99. Gregoire L o z i n s k i , La B a t a i l l e de Caresme e t de Charnage, ( P a r i s : Champion, 1933), l i s t s s e v e r a l l i t e r a r y i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of the " b a t t l e " between C a r n i v a l and Lent, i n c l u d i n g E l L i b r o de buen amor by Juan Ruiz (c. 1350), Le D i a b l e de l a c h a i r et de Carmetrant by Jean M c l i n e t (1485), and Le Testament de Carmetrant by Jehan d'Abundance (c. 1540). See a l s o Careme prenant by Benoet du Lac (1595), l i s t e d by P e t i t de J u l l e v i l l e i n R e p e r t o i r e , pp. 43-44, who d e s c r i b e s i t as a "tragicomedie f a c e t i e u s e en guatre langues touchant p l u s i e u r s abus de ce temps". 6 See Le Roman de Renart, Branches X-XI, ed. Mario Roques, ( P a r i s : Champion, 1960), p. 75: Dans p r e s t r e s , i l e s t l a f e s t e as fous S i f e r a on demain des chous Grant d e p a r t i e a Bahieus, A l l e z et s i ' v e r r e z l e s geus. Chambers, Stacje, V o l . I, p. 289, s t a t e s : "The Roman de Renard i s witness to the e x i s t e n c e of such a f e a s t , the Feast of Fools with jeux and t i p p l i n g at Bayeux about 1200." See a l s o John F l i n n , The Roman de Renart, ( U n i v e r s i t y cf Toronto P r e s s , 1963) , pp. 78-89, who a l s o notes the resemblance between the Feast of F e e l s and Eranche XII c f the Roman de Renart. 7 Aucassin e t N i c o l e t t e , c r i t i c a l e d i t i o n by Hermann Sucher (New~York: G7~E. S t e c h e r t S Co., 1936), pp. 8-9. 8 See above p. 96. 166 9 Huizinga, J a n i n g , pp.,172-3. He continues to s t a t e that "The s o u l of the masses , not yet completely c h r i s t i a n i z e d , had never a l t o g e t h e r f o r g o t t e n the a v e r s i o n f e l t by the savage f o r the man who may not f i g h t and must remain c h a s t e . " 1 0 See f o r example the c h a r a c t e r of " F r e r e L u b i n " drawn by Clement Marot i n B a l l a d e I I I , Oeuvres d i v e r s e s , c r i t i c a l e d i t i o n by C A . Mayer, (london: Athlone F r e s s , 1966), pp. 142-3. 1 1 hSL §ainte B i b l e , S t . Matthew (5:39) "Eh b i e n ! Mci je vous d i s de ne pas t e n i r t e t e au mechant: au contra i r e , guelgu'un te d o n n e - t - i l un s o u f f l e t sur l a joue d r o i t e , t e n d s - l u i encore l ' a u t r e . " 1 2 Exodus (20:12) "Honore ton pere et t a mere, a f i n d ' a v o i r longue v i e sur t e r r e gue Yahve ton Dieu te donne." (20:16) "Tu ne p o r t e r a s temoinage mensonger contre ten p r o c h a i n . " The remaining verse adapted by Beroalde i s e i t h e r invented by the author or modeled a f t e r verse 20:9 or 20:14 of Exodus which are: ". . . l e septieme jour . . . tu n' f e r a s aucun ouvrage . . ..", and "Tu ne commettras pas d ' a d u l t e r e . " 1 3 S t . Matthew (25:20) " C e l u i gui a v a i t regu l e s c i n g t a l e n t s s'avanga et presenta c i n g a u t r e s t a l e n t s : 'Seigneur, d i t - i l , t u m'as confie' c i n q t a l e n t s : v o i c i c i n g a u t r e s t a l e n t s gue j ' a i gagnes.'" 1 4 See above pp. 36, 67-68. 1 5 I s a i a h (40:6) "Une voix ordonne: ' C r i e ! ' et je r e p o n d i s : 'Que c r i e r a i - j e ? ' — ' T o u t e c h a i r e s t comme 1'herbe et sa d e l i c a t e s s e e s t c e l l e de l a f l e u r des champs. (40:7) L'herbe seche l a f l e u r se fane lorsgue l e s c u f f l e de Yahve passe sur e l l e . ( o u i , l e peuple, c'est l'herbe.) (40:8) L'herbe seche, l a f l e u r se fane, mais l a p a r c l e de nctre Dieu demeure t o u j o u r s . * 1 6 See above p. 27. 1 7 B a k h t i n , R a b e l a i s , p. 86, remarks t h a t R a b e l a i s i n c o r p o r a t e s L a t i n phrases i n t o the speech of h i s c h a r a c t e r s to help c r e a t e an atmosphere of f a m i l i a r i t y and f e s t i v e i r r e v e r e n c e ; v e n i t e apotemus r e p l a c e s v e n i t e adorejus f o r example, and " s i t i o " one of C h r i s t ' s l a s t words cn the c r o s s , i s used by an i n e b r i a t e d d r i n k e r to ask f o r more wine. 167 1 8 " G l o r i a t i b i Domini" (glory be t c God) i s changed to " g l o r i a e d i t homines" ( g l o r y produces man). 1 9 T h i s t r a v e s t y i s taken from the sermon on the mount recounted i n St. Matthew (15:19) and St. John (14:9). The crowd assembled to hear the sermon i s i n v i t e d to share the l i t t l e food t h a t there i s , and i t i s found t c be ample f a r e . The play on words i n Ie Moyen de Pa r v e n i r i s between "modicum", a scanty amount, and "medium", a f u l l measure. zo Genesis (3:9) "Yahve' Dieu appela l'homme: 'Ou es- tu?' d i t - i l . " 21 Huizinga, Wanincj, p. 161 s t a t e s that the s a i n t s were seen as r e a l and f a m i l i a r people, and th a t the church s t a t u e s were even dressed i n costumes of the time and reg i o n . 2 2 See above note 4, and Bakhtin, R a h e l a i s , p. 87. Henri Estienne, L^Aplogie pour Hercdcte, ( P a r i s : Liseux, 1879) I, 171-17" "complains of '"ceux gui ap p l i c g u e r e n t a l e u r s chansons de p a i l l a r d i s e e t l a s a i n c t e e s c r i t u r e , et l e s docteurs a n c i e n s " . 2 3 See Royer, Glossary i i : 3 5 5 . 2 4 T h i s passage mocks both the s a i n t and the p a r a t o l e of the p r o d i g a l son (St. Luke, 12): ". . . L'enfant prodigue . . se nommoit l e Seigneur Luxu, comme vous voyez en ses p o r t r a i t s , S.Luc XII, c ' e s t a d i r e , S i r e cu seigneur luxu". (11:218-19) 2 5 " S t . Chris t o p h e de Pasgues f l e u r i s : c ' est un ane", Royer Glossary (11:318). 26 the e x p r e s s i o n " f a i r e g i l l e s " perhaps o r i g i n a t e s i n the behaviour of a seventh century s a i n t cf that name who f l e d from the honours the king wished to bestow upon him. 2 7 The concept of Heaven and H e l l i n the mind of the f a i t h f u l i s c l e a r l y d e s c r i b e d by Fr a n c o i s V i l l o n i n the "Ballade pour p r i e r Nostre Dame", i n Le Testament ( P a r i s : Champion, 1932)), pp. 40-41: "Femme je s u i s pauvrette et ancienne Qui r i e n s ne sgay; oncgues l e t t r e ne l u s . Au moustier voy dont s u i s p a r c i s i e n n e P a r a d i s p a i n t , ou sont harpes et l u s , Et ung enter ou dampnez sent b c u l l u s ; L'ung me f a i t paour, I'autre joye et l i e s s e . " These images are a l s o c r y s t a l l i z e d by H. Bosch i n h i s 168 p a i n t i n g s , (c. 1500), "The Last Judgement" and "The Garden of E a r t h l y D e l i g h t s " . 2 8 See above pp. 38-39. 2 9 see above note 6. 3 0 Henri E s t i e n n e , Herodote, I, 185, d e s c r i b e s a s i m i l a r i r r e v e r e n c e : "Je n'ay p o i n t parle* de ceux g u i abusent v i l a i n e m e n t de ce passage. Caelum c c e l i Domino, terram autem d e c i t f i i i i s hominum (c'es t a d i r e , Les cieux sont au Seigneur: mais i l a donnet l a t e r r e aux f i l s des hommes), pour n i e r l a providence de Dieu par l a g u e l l e i l gouverne l e s hommes et to u t e s choses gui sont en ce monde, s e l o n son bon p l a i s i r . . . . 'Nous voudrions bien gue Dieu guardast son pa r a d i s pour soy, et g u ' i l ncus l a i s s a s t demeurer i c i a nostre a i s e . ' " 3 1 S t u d i e s by Fr a z e r show t h a t i n v e r s i o n by p u b l i c r e v i l i n g and execution of the d e i t y , who i n h a b i t e d the person of the ki n g , d i d take p l a c e i n seme p r i m i t i v e c u l t u r e s , and developed i n t o mere mocking of temporal a u t h o r i t i e s l a t e r . F r a z e r , Scapegoat, pp. 1, 5, 59. 3 2 H u i z i n g a , Waning, p. 257, c i t e s the Eurgundian , "Je r e n i e Dieu", as one of the s t r o n g e s t oaths, 3 3 see above Chapter I I , note 7. 3 4 See P e t i t de J u l l e v i l l e , "Catalogue des monologues et des sermons joyeux" i n H ^ e r t o i r e , pp. 259-292. 3 5 c f . Eutebeuf, L i Testament de 1J.Asne, i n which the a v i d i t y of a p r i e s t leads him to c o r r u p t sacred r i t e s i n a s i m i l a r manner. 3 6 Jean B e n e d i c t i . La Somme des _peches et l e remede cPiceux (Lyon: C h a r l e s Pesnot, 1584). T h i s work was known for i t s d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n s of var i o u s kinds of s i n s . See Le Moyen de P a r v e n i r , G a r n i e r ed., p. 309, note 4. 3 7 see above pp. 119-120. 3 8 See a s i m i l a r passage, II:169. 3 9 see above pp. 123-24. 4 0 c f . Le T a r t u f f e ( P a r i s : L arcusse, 1965), Acte I I I , scene i i i , 1.970: "Mais madame, apres t o u t , je ne s u i s pas un ange." 169 4 1 See above pp. 120-21. 4 2 See above p. 138, (11: 165). 4 3 See a l s o II:163. 4 4 Paul L a c r o i x , i n h i s e d i t i o n of Le M cjen de P a r v e n i r ( P a r i s : G o s s e l i n , 1841), i d e n t i f i e s the " i n v e n t e u r s de nouveautez" with " l e s m i n i s t r e s p r o t e s t a n t s " , p. 1, note 4. 4 5 G a m i e r e d i t i o n , p. 286, note 1. 4 6 1§ P a l a i s des Curieux, p. 53 8. 4 7 This passage i s ex p l a i n e d i n the G a m i e r e d i t i o n , p. 86, note 3: "Les gueux machent du savon pour mieux simuler l ' e p i l e p s i e par l'ecume gui s o r t a i t de l e u r bouche." 4 8 Aneas S y l v i u s , who became Pope Pius I I , wrote Eemedio amoris i n h i s youth. Theodore de Eeze was the author of J u y e n a l i a , a c o l l e c t i o n of bacchic and l i c e n t i o u s epigrammes p u b l i s h e d i n an expurgated e d i t i o n i n 1576. See the G a m i e r e d i t i o n , p. 101, note 2 and p. 400, note 1. 4 9 "Laurence l e trouvant gras 5 f r a i s , eust t i e n voulu g u ' i l l ' e u s t f o i i e t t e e de verges de s a i n c t B e n c i s t . . ." (I: 64) . 5 0 See above p. 153. 5 1 Royer l i s t s t h i s e n t i r e passage under one speaker. The La c r o i x and G a m i e r e d i t i o n s however, separate them i n t o two statements from d i f f e r e n t speakers, which seems more l o g i c a l . (See L a c r o i x and G a m i e r e d i t i o n s , pages 285 and 288 r e s p e c t i v e l y . ) 5 2 See Royer Gl o s s a r y , 11:333: " h a b i t e r : au sens l i b r e " . 5 3 S e n s u a l i t y i s encouraged i n another passage which emphasizes that s e x u a l a c t i v i t y i s good and n a t u r a l , net e v i l and i n s p i r e d by the d e v i l (1:243-44). 5 4 See above p. 41. 170 CHAPTEB V SOCIETY AS CARNIVAL IN LE MOYEN DE PARVENIR The many v o i c e s heard i n Le Moyen de P a r y e n i r f r e g u e n t l y e x p l o i t t r a d i t i o n a l f e s t i v e p r i v i l e g e s i n order to mock and r i d i c u l e t h e i r contemporaries, p a r t i c u l a r l y those above them i n the s o c i a l h i e r a r c h y . T h i s i s u s u a l l y accomplished by p r e s e n t i n g c e r t a i n i n d i v i d u a l s she are respected i n everyday l i f e f o r t h e i r s o c i a l p o s i t i o n , wealth, p o l i t i c a l power, or e l e v a t e d p e r s o n a l g u a l i t i e s , and then e i t h e r p o i n t i n g out incongruous weaknesses or making degrading a s s o c i a t i o n s i n order to provoke the laughter cf a t h i r d person (observer, l i s t e n e r or reader) as witness c f t h e i r s o c i a l descent. E n l i s t i n g the mocking laughter cf others a g a i n s t a v i c t i m i s a c i v i l i z e d form o f aggression, one so e f f e c t i v e t h a t t c employ i t a g a i n s t important people could be dangerous unless under the p r o t e c t i v e s a n c t i o n s c f f e s t i v e p r i v i l e g e . T h i s a g g r e s s i v e humour provides an o u t l e t 171 for h o s t i l i t i e s as d e s c r i b e d by Sigmund Freud i n h i s a n a l y s i s of wit and jokes i n s o c i e t y : Since we have been o b l i g e d to renounce the e x p r e s s i o n of h o s t i l i t y by deeds-:- held back by the p a s s i o n l e s s t h i r d person, i n whose i n t e r e s t i t i s that p e r s o n a l s e c u r i t y s h a l l be preserved—we have, j u s t as i n the case of sexual a g g r e s s i v e n e s s , developed a new technigue o f i n v e c t i v e , which aims at e n l i s t i n g t h i s t h i r d person a g a i n s t our enemy. Ey making our enemy s m a l l , i n f e r i o r , d e s p i c a b l e or comic, we achieve i n a roundabout way the enjoyment of overcoming h i m — t o which the t h i r d person, who has made no e f f o r t s , bears witness by h i s l a u g h t e r . 1 Laughter motivated i n t h i s way a r i s e s not only from a f e e l i n g of s u p e r i o r i t y , but from the s u b j e c t ' s sudden f a l l from an e l e v a t e d stance to m e d i o c r i t y . 2 In C a r n i v a l , degradation and l a u g h t e r work together to accomplish the i n v e r s i o n of the s o c i a l h i e r a r c h y and the r i d i c u l e cf c e r t a i n i n d i v i d u a l s . An a f f r o n t may take p l a c e e i t h e r l i t e r a l l y or v e r b a l l y , s i n c e the forms of f e s t i v e a g g r e s s i o n vary. They may i n c l u d e b e a t i n g s i n the manner of s l a p s t i c k comedy and attempts to p h y s i c a l l y degrade or h u m i l i a t e the v i c t i m , while a t other times the v i c t i m ' s s o c i a l r e p u t a t i o n i s lowered. T h i s may occur e i t h e r through h i s own a c t i o n s which expose him as l e s s v i r t u o u s than he would have others b e l i e v e , or through defaming a c c u s a t i o n s and i n s u l t s d i r e c t e d at him by another c h a r a c t e r . Amid the b o i s t e r o u s l a u g h t e r there are c e r t a i n v o i c e s , s i m i l a r to those who plead f o r r e l i g i o u s reform mentioned above, 3 who p l a i n t i v e l y c a l l f o r j u s t i c e , reform, and human 172 kindness, but they are covered by laug h t e r and by other v o i c e s , d a r k l y s a t i r i c a l i n tone, who announce the f a i l u r e cf attempts to mend the s o c i a l system or to improve human nature. Instead of d w e l l i n g on the need f o r i n s t i t u t i o n a l reform or merely be w a i l i n g the e v i l which men do, these speakers r e j e c t any r i g i d approach to s o c i a l problems and encourage a r e t u r n to c a r n i v a l e s g u e f l e x i b i l i t y which promotes a n a t u r a l r e s o l u t i o n of t e n s i o n s . Through the experience of f e s t i v e freedoms, people can be shown both the l i m i t a t i o n s and joys of l i v i n g i n human s o c i e t y . T h i s chapter seeks to determine the ways i n which Eeroalde uses the p r i n c i p l e o f c a r n i v a l e s g u e freedom as a s o c i a l i z i n g mechanism, f i r s t to probe the i r r a t i o n a l element, i n human nature and then to d i s c o v e r the best way to i n t e g r a t e t h i s element i n t o human r e l a t i o n s h i p s . The m a t e r i a l of t h i s chapter w i l l be presented . i n two p a r t s . The f i r s t w i l l examine three forms of s o c i a l a g g r e s s i o n a s s o c i a t e d with f e s t i v e l i b e r t i e s ( v i o l e n c e , p h y s i c a l h u m i l i a t i o n and defamation of c h a r a c t e r ) which appear i n Le Moyen de P a r v e n i r . The second part w i l l analyse how t h i s aggression f u n c t i o n s as a s o c i a l i z i n g f o r c e a g a i n s t d i f f e r e n t groups and i n d i v i d u a l s i n s o c i e t y who do not conform to the openly s e l f - i n d u l g e n t and laughing s p i r i t which u l t i m a t e l y p r e v a i l s at Beroalde's banguet as i t does i n C a r n i v a l . Among the forms which f e s t i v e a g g r e s s i v i t y assumes the most conspicuous i s the t r a d i t i o n a l l y sanctioned v i o l e n c e . * 173 It e x i s t s i n the c a r n i v a l e s g u e environment both as an accomplished a c t i o n and as a v e r b a l t h r e a t t c c a r r y cut such a c t i o n . A l s o i n c l u d e d i n t h i s category i s the expressed wish to c a s t a v i c t i m down to the Underworld where pain and misery await him. F e s t i v e b e a t i n g s d i f f e r v a s t l y from v i o l e n c e f o r p r o f i t or vengeance s i n c e a p a r t i c u l a r l y ambivalent a t t i t u d e which i s both p l a y f u l and h o s t i l e accompanies them. While the p h y s i c a l abuse o f t e n r e s u l t s i n reducing the v i c t i m to a pas s i v e s t a t e where he i s inca p a b l e of r e t a l i a t i n g , i t i s accomplished while laughing. Even the battered v i c t i m i s la u g h a b l e , l i k e the v i c t i m s of beatings i n the f a r c e s . In Le Moyen de P a r v e n i r t h i s v i o l e n t yet laughable h o s t i l i t y f i r s t appears i n the author's r e l a t i o n s h i p with h i s reader, and then extends to the guests' r e l a t i o n s h i p s with each other. The most v i v i d accounts of v i o l e n c e , however, occur i n the t a l e s and anecdotes which are s e t i n the world o u t s i d e the banguet. The author exposes a v i o l e n t aspect of h i s own nature e a r l y i n the t e x t as he threatens the o v e r l y c u r i o u s reader with b o d i l y i n j u r y : " S i vous me pressez je vous defcnceray t r o i s ou guatre ruades t o u t e s , brodees de cremoisy. . ." (1:4). L a t e r i n a passage which r e c a l l s the t e a s i n g abuse and misfortune which B a b e l a i s sometimes c a l l s down upon readers who doubt h i s words, 5 Beroalde wishes the in c r e d u l o u s reader f u r t h e r "incommoditez": Que s i guelgues mauvais o p i n i a s t r e s , i n c r e d u l e s . 174 h e r e t i g u e s , s t u p i d e s , c o n s c i e n t i e u x , f a u s s o n n i e r s , cu autre r i b a u d a i l l e ne me veut c r o i r e , je p a r l e a vous gui e s t e s de t e l l e g u a l i t e ; 8 vous dy gue s i vous ne me croyez, que je veux S gu'en guise de perscnne demy- s a i n c t e , chacun pour soy, vous p u i s s i e z r e c e v o i r une bonne secouade d'estrapade gui vous dure une semaine, redoublant t o u s j o u r s pour mignarder v o s t r e Constance, ou une gesne de rage de fondement, ou une c u i s s o n de c a r n o s i t e i n t o l l e r a b l e , ou un c h a t o u i l l e m e n t de f i n e s gouttes, ou p a s s i o n c o l i q u e , v o i r e tout ensemble avec toutes a u t r e s s o r t e s d'incommoditez a l a s a u l c e d'allemagne, t a n t a v o s t r e regueste je vous dcnne remede, S ne vous s c a n d a l i s i e z s i en l'exces de mes c h a r i t e z , je vous so u h a i t e avec s i bonne S s a i n c t e a f f e c t i o n , t e l 8 s i grande b i e n . " (1:54-55) Beroalde then o f f e r s the c h a s t i z e d reader h i s beck as a c o n s o l a t i o n , but then i r o n i c a l l y d i s c l o s e s i t s ambiguous value. The r e a d e r ' s c o n d i t i o n , he says, ; w i l l be the same, b e t t e r , or worse f o r having read the book: " A i n s i ce mal vous r e u s s i r a en bien, a cause gue vcus scuvenant de ce l i v r e en vos r i g u e u r s , vous y aurez r e c o u r s , S vous vous en t r o u v e r e z ou de mesme, ou mieux, ou p i s , au grand advantage du s a l u t de v o s t r e ame, s i vous en scavez bien user" (1:55). another t h r e a t begins with a f l a t t e r i n g remark t c the a p p r e c i a t i v e reader, and then develops i n t o a p e t u l a n t menace: "ga i c y , bons amis du coeur, gens d e c i l e s gui savourez l e bien gue Dieu donne, voyez, c e t t e analogie d'harmonie p a r f a i c t e : s i quelgu'un ne prend p l a i s i r a* ce banguet, 8 aux beautez g u ' i l a p r o d u i c t e s , g u ' i l se f a s s e f o u e t t e z . . . " (1:59). 6 He not only t h r e a t e n s h i s imagined c r i t i c s with b o d i l y i n j u r y , but e x p r e s s l y wishes them thrown down tc H e l l as a r e p r i s a l , a l l of which he expresses with humour. In one 175 passage he expands on the t o p i c o f the d e v i l ' s costume and then suddenly t u r n s on an imagined d i s b e l i e v i n g reader, l a u g h i n g l y sending him down to H e l l , o s t e n s i b l y to l o c a t e a d e v i l and b r i n g him back f o r proof of c o n t r a d i t i o n : ". ,. . 6 s i vous ne me croyez, a l l e z en Enfer m'en g u e r i r un vestu a l a n o u v e l l e mode, 8 me l e monstrez tout v i f 8 habille", 8 puis me dementez" (1:19). T h i s t e a s i n g l y humcrcus antagonism e x e m p l i f i e s the ambivalence of c a r n i v a l e s g u e a g g r e s s i o n . I t a s s a u l t s the v i c t i m v i g o u r o u s l y , but i t does sc while laughing, thus managing to s u s t a i n an atmosphere which i s both p l a y f u l and h o s t i l e . Beroalde r e t a i n s t h i s ambivalent a t t i t u d e throughout the book, warning h i s c r i t i c s towards the end t h a t "tout ce g u i est i c i avance, e s t tenu pour t r e s - v r a y sans g u ' i l y f a i l l e , ou s o i t receu d'y c o n t r e d i r e ; 8 s i guelgu'un y c o n t r e d i t , g u ' i l s ' a i l l e f a i r e c a n e n i s e r en Enfer" (II:214). Although the undercurrent of v i o l e n c e a t the banguet i s held to o c c a s i o n a l t h r e a t s and i n s u l t s , and never develops i n t o a c t u a l p h y s i c a l c o n f l i c t , the banquet guests d i s p l a y a c e r t a i n amount of h o s t i l i t y among themselves. I n c i d e n t s i n which " A l c i b i a d e s " , " U l d r i c " , and " S o c r a t e s " lose t h e i r tempers are c i t e d above. 7 In each case t h e i r rage passes g u i c k l y however, a f t e r c o l o u r i n g the atmosphere with p o t e n t i a l v i o l e n c e . There seems to be an unwritten agreement to r e f r a i n from v i o l e n c e at the banguet t a b l e as i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n the dialog u e between "Mogenes" and 176 "Alexandre": Diogenes: Tout e s t permis i c i , nous sommes p a i r S compagnon, on d o i t f a i r e S d i r e i c i tout ce gu'cn peut & pense. Alexandre: Vous y p e r d r i e z , pauvre homme pcurce gue s i tout e s t o i t permis je vous b a t t r o i s bien a ceste heure pour me vanger de l ' a f f r o n t gue l'annee gui v i e n t vcus me f i s t e s en Grece. (1:239) T h i s exchange i n d i c a t e s t h a t "Alexandre" i s r e s t r a i n i n g v i o l e n t f e e l i n g s within h i m s e l f because he i s not permitted to a t t a c k "Diogenes". Words thus take the place of p h y s i c a l c o n t a c t , and the d e s i r e to a t t a c k the v i c t i m i s s a t i s f i e d by v e r b a l t h r e a t s or e x p r e s s i o n s such as "va, prens . une e s c h e l l e , 5 t'en va a tous l e s d i a b l e s " (1:13), " l e L i a b l e t'emportera" (1:170), or "va a tous l e s D i a b l e s S ncus l a i s s e " (II: 129) . While the author and the banguet speakers manage to avoid p h y s i c a l v i o l e n c e and c o n f i n e t h e i r h o s t i l i t i e s to v e r b a l a s s a u l t s , the c h a r a c t e r s who people the many t a l e s and anecdotes are not so r e s t r a i n e d . Carnivalesgue beatings, i n j u r i e s and even k i l l i n g s are l a u g h i n g l y c a r r i e d out cn v i c t i m s who s p r i n g up again r e i n v i g o r a t e d , or whose demise i s obscured by comic e f f e c t s , a n d absurd c i r c u m s t a n c e s . 8 Even in the case of the s e v e r e l y c h a s t i z e d "Madame Laurence" d e s c r i b e d e a r l i e r , 9 t h e r e i s . an attempt to undercut the s e r i o u s consequences with humour. Her death takes on burlesgue overtones due to the i n c o n g r u i t i e s which are a s s o c i a t e d with i t : "La pauvrette r e v i n t avec grand f r a y e u r , S se mit au l i c t , ou e l l e ne f u t gue c i n g j o u r s , f i n i s 177 l e s g u e l s e l l e mourut comme une vache gui t r e s p a s s e " (1:66). The j u x t a p o s i t i o n of the a f f l i c t e d woman and a dying cow produces a l u d i c r o u s e f f e c t . I t does, not allow the reader to see the dying person as a t r u l y human being, a r o u s i n g sympathy and p i t y . Instead she i s d e p i c t e d as a p h y s i c a l l y comic o b j e c t , and the death scene becomes l u d i c r o u s . A f u r t h e r i n c o n g r u i t y i s produced by the way i n which the s o u l leaves her body. I t was common b e l i e f that the soul escaped upwards from the mouth of the deceased, but i n t h i s s i t u a t i o n the. e x i t i s e x p l i c i t l y and humorously reversed: " V o i l a comme l a pauvre Laurence a change d ' a i r , & a v o i t a sa. mort une m e r v e i l l e n o t a b l e , une chose e s m e r v e i l l e u s e : C'est gue son ame s o r t i t de son corps par l ' e n d r o i t 1 0 p r o p o r t i o n n e l & semblable a c e l u y par l e g u e l t c u t e s l e s autres ames s'en vont" (1:67). P l a y f u l puns and exaggeration negate the b r u t a l i t y done a l o n g - s u f f e r i n g wife of Geneva by her o f f i c e r husband. The c r u e l beatings exceed whatever punishment she may deserve f o r nagging him. In f a c t the beatings e x i s t more for the sake of wordplay t h a t f o r vengeance. Poised a m b i v a l e n t l y between animosity and l a u g h t e r t h i s account of c a r n i v a l e s g u e v i o l e n c e i l l u s t r a t e s the p o s s i b i l i t i e s cf i n t e r p r e t i n g orders l i t e r a l l y : Cest o f f i c e r a v o i t une femme assez fascheuse, S gui l e tourmentoit: i l l a b a t t i t p l u s i e u r s f o i s S a dur; dont e l l e se c o n t r i s t a , & menaga son mari du C o n s i s t o i r e , gui e s t l e p u r g a t o i r e des Huguenots. Hemis g u ' i l f u t au c o n s i s t o i r e , i l y a l i a ; & on l u i remcnsta gue c e l a 178 n ' e s t o i t pas beau de b a t t r e sa femme. ' l l l e e s t o i t b a t t a b l e , d i t - i l . • ' A l l e z , a l l e z , l u i d i t l e d i s e u r . . . r e t i r e z vous, 8 g u ' i l y a i t de l a mesure en vos a c t i o n s , 8 gu'on n'cye plus p a r l e r de vcus!' I l r e t i n t f o r t b i e n ce conge-, 8 guelgues j o u r s apres sa femme soy f a i s a n t f o r t e du C o n s i s t c i r e , se mit a f a i r e l a meschante, 8 i l l a b a t t i t : mais avec guoy? Avec une aulne, . . . 8 l a f r o t t a des 8 ventre sur ses habillemens. (11:214-15) A f t e r the second beating the wife complains again, and the husband i s once more reprimanded, but he excuses himsel f by c l a i m i n g to have followed i n s t r u c t i o n s t c the l e t t e r : "Monsieur, je ne l u i ay f a i t gue ce gue vous m'avez commande, je l ' a y battue par mesure" (11:215). Be i s sent away with the s u g g e s t i o n t o c o r r e c t her i n another way: " A l l e z , d i t l e E r e s i d a n t C l e r c , remonstrez l u i avec l ' E s c r i t u r e s a i n c t e , ou bien on vous mettra leans" (11:216). Again t a k i n g the advice l i t e r a l l y , " i l l a b a t i t , mais ce f u t avec un gros Nouveau Testament convert de b c i s 8 ferre'". Gnce again he i s s c o l d e d and sent away with another order: "en f i n l u i f u t prononce a peine de p u n i t i o n c o r p o r e l l e , g u ' i l n'eut p l u s a c h a s t i e r sa femme gue de l a langue" (11:216). He a l s o f o l l o w s the l e t t e r of t h i s command and not the s p i r i t : "A jan, i l n'y f a i l l i t pas, d'autant gue guand e l l e l e fascha, i l p r i t une.langue de boeuf fumee, dont i l l a b a t t i t t a n t , gue l e d i a b l e eut l e c u l , 8 l e C o n s i s t c i r e l a t e s t e , 8 l e u r a l l e z demander g u ' i l s en ont f a i t ( II: 216) . The blows the wife r e c e i v e s resemble the f a r c i c a l t h r a s h i n g s of C a r n i v a l . There i s l i t t l e attempt t c d e s c r i b e the pain cr 179 to g i ve r e a l i s t i c d e t a i l s about the a f f a i r because the beatings e x i s t only to i l l u s t r a t e the l i t e r a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the c o u r t ' s o r d e r s . One would not be s u r p r i s e d to hear c f the wife's sudden recovery, as happens i n the f o l l o w i n g case, but s i n c e t h i s wife's f a f e i n t e r e s t s the author as l i t t l e as the pain she endures, the c u r i o u s reader i s f l i p p a n t l y advised to f i n d out f o r h i m s e l f what happens to her, ("S l e u r a l l e z demander g u ' i l s en. cut f a i t " ) . Another unfortunate woman who antagonizes her husband a l s o becomes the o b j e c t c f v i o l e n t p h y s i c a l abuse, but her punishment by i n j u r y and "death" i s f o l l o w e d by subseguent " r e s s u r r e c t i o n " . T h i s episode f i t s i n t o the t r a d i t i o n a l p a t t e r n of c a r n i v a l e s g u e v i o l e n c e i n which the v i c t i m r e v i v e s l i k e Guignol of the puppet t h e a t r e . In Le Mcj^en de Pa r v e n i r e i t h e r the v i c t i m ' s demise i s glo s s e d over with comic d e t a i l , as i n the case of "Laurence" and c f the wife of Geneva, cr there i s a guick recovery as i n the case below: . La femme du pauvre Aeschines, . . . par d e s p i t de son mari ne v o u l c i t manger l e s pois gu'un h un: son mari v o u l o i t q u ' e l l e l e s mangeast en guantite', e l l e ne l e v o u l o i t pas; par guoy son mari l a b a t t i t , dont depuis e l l e f i t l a malade, 8 en f i n l a mcrte. A! Dame, on l a porta en t e r r e , S comme on l u i j e t t a l a t e r r e sur l e s genoux, e l l e eut f r a y e u r , 8 comme demandant pardon, se mit a c r i e r ; •Je l e s mangeray t r o i s a t r o i s . ' Les P r e s t r e s g ui l ' o u i e n t , & l e s autres pensant g u ' e l l e l e s voulut manger a i n s i , s ' e n f u i r e n t . (11:176) The comic res o u r c e s employed abcve are those of the f a r c e ; the r i d i c u l o u s s i t u a t i o n ("par d e s p i t de son mari ne 180 v o u l o i t manger l e s p o i s gu*un a un") i s coupled with comic o v e r r e a c t i o n (the beating and f e i g n e d death) and the f i n a l misunderstanding ("Je l e s mangeray t r o i s S t r c i s " ) . The v i o l e n c e e x i s t s mainly f o r l a u g h t e r ' s sake and t h e r e f o r e recedes i n t o the background as i n t e r e s t i s focused on the humorous h i g h l i g h t s . 1 1 F o l l o w i n g v i o l e n c e , the second form cf f e s t i v e a ggression i s a p h y s i c a l degradation or h u m i l i a t i o n of the v i c t i m . Based on the body, the attack almost i n v a r i a b l y i m p l i e s some kind of exchange of head and anus. Sometimes fo r example, f u n c t i o n s normally a s s o c i a t e d with the head, such as t h i n k i n g and p e r c e p t u a l i n t e r a c t i o n with the o u t s i d e world, exchange p o s i t i o n and f u n c t i o n s with the lower p a r t s cf the body. Much of the s c a t o l o g i c a l expressions and degrading i n s u l t s i n Le Moyen de P a r v e n i r can be ranged under t h i s category of f e s t i v e a g g r e s s i o n . The exchange of the head and the buttocks i s a t r a d i t i o n a l gesture of debasement and r i d i c u l e meant to c o m i c a l l y i n s u l t the r e c e i v e r and i n c i t e l a u g h t e r from other observers. In a study of r i t u a l l a u g h t e r S. Reinach r e f e r s to i t as "Baubo's gesture'?, i n memory of a legendary o l d innkeeper who performed t h i s gesture i n f r o n t of the i l l and g r i e v i n g goddess, Demeter. In her astonishment at such a u d a c i t y , the goddess momentarily f o r g e t s the l e s s cf her daughter and laughs, thus c u r i n g her i l l n e s s . 1 2 It i s a l s o with t h i s gesture t h a t the S y b i l of Panzcust terminates her 181 i n t e r v i e w with Panurge i n B a b e l a i s " T i e r s L i - S I f ! . » 3 j n j , e Moyen de Pa r v e n i r an aging vendor performs t h i s c o m i c a l l y d e f i a n t gesture i n f r o n t of a group of men who are mocking her: Nous l u i demandasmes, 'Madame, avez vcus des b r i d e s a veaux? --I1 f a u t v o i r , messieurs, s ' i l vous p l a i s t ; ' . A l a f i n e s t a n t montee sur une e s c a b e l l e , S ayant l e dos vers nous, e l l e nous d i t , 'Messieurs, j'ay de mauvais enfans q u i l e s ont b r c u i l l e e s 6 demanchees, s i gue j e ne l e s peiix t r o u v e r toutes e n t i e r e s , • 8 d i s a n t c e l a , avec une souplesse prompte & premeditee va l e v e r ses robes 6 sa chemise, 8 nous m a n i f e s t i e r son gros c u l ample & f e s s u , nous d i s a n t ; »Au mcins, messieurs, v c i l a l e s mords.' (11:243)' . , . Freguently the p h y s i c a l h u m i l i a t i o n i n v o l v e s two persons, one of whom (the victim) i s e x p l i c i t l y i n v e r t e d i n r e l a t i o n to the other. Beroalde recounts s e v e r a l anecdotes in which one or more c h a r a c t e r s i n a d v e r t e n t l y f i n d s h i m s e l f i n t h i s c o m i c a l l y degrading p o s i t i o n . One such i n c i d e n t , perhaps i n s p i r e d by a s i m i l a r account i n Jean Eouchet's S e r e e s , 1 * concerns a husband and wife, a chamberpot, and a crab a l l humorously combined to embarass the c o u p l e . I t begins as the wife r i s e s d u r i n g the ni g h t and goes to the chamberpot i n the dark. U n f o r t u n a t e l y the crab which was intended f o r a coming meal has escaped and crawled i n t o the chamberpot, and as the woman takes a p o s i t i o n over i t , the crab r a i s e s i t s claw and takes hold of her. The husband who attempts to see the problem i n the darkness i s s e i z e d by the nose and held i n an e m b a r r a s s i n g l y . i n v e r t e d p o s i t i o n i n r e l a t i o n to h i s wife, u n t i l they are r e l e a s e d by the 182 servants who d i s c o v e r them: Cela e st s i s e n s i b l e g u ' e l l e s'en e s c r i a s i haut g u ' e l l e e s v e i l l a son mary, gui l u i demanda g u ' e l l e a v o i t : "Helas! D i t e l l e , je s u i s perdue"; e l l e s o u p i r o i t 8 n ' o s o i t l e d i r e , t o u t e s f o i s l a douleur l u i f i t d e c l a r e r que guelgue f a n t a i s i e l a mcrdoit au bord de son cas; monsieur ayant f a i t apporter de l a ch a n d e l l e , 6 veu l ' e f f e t e's p a r t i e s n a t u r e l l e s de sa femme, "pay, ma mie, pay, d i t i l , j e l u y f e r a y bien l a s c h e r p r i s e , je scay l e s e c r e t , i l ne fa u t gue s o u f l e r c o n t r e " ; i l se mit a s o u f l e r , 8 l e cancre l e v a n t l ' a u t r e bras l'empoigna a l a leu r e d'aupres du nez. I I f a i s o i t beau v o i r c e s t e remembrance, i l a v o i t l e nez bien pres du c e l a de sa femme, i l pouvcit bien v o i r s i d'autres y e s t o i e n t , i l n'eut pas este cogu sans son a d v i s . Le v a l e t de chambre gui s u r v i n s avec des ciseaux coupa l e s deux bras du cancre, 8 mit monsieur 8 madame en l i b e r t e " . (1:246-47) In another i n s t a n c e , the highwayman, Eersaut, and h i s men h u m i l i a t e a group of t r a v e l i n g p r i e s t s i n a s i m i l a r manner: Bersaut passant au dessous de l a Eennerie, r e n c c n t r a une nuee de P r e s t r e s g u i venoient d'un gaiganage; l u i bien accompagn4 l e s environne, 8 l e u r demanda d'ou i l s venoient; P r e s t r e s estonnez ne sgavoient presgue gue d i r e , t a nt i l s a v o i e n t peur. "Cr ca ca, d i t Eersaut a un page, pied a t e r r e " 8 au ben homme de Cure' de Barace gui e s t o i t f o r aage", "Sus bon homme, c u l bas, l a , destachez vos chausses;" i l p e n s c i t d e v o i r e s t r e e s c o u i l l e . Quand l e s chausses f u r e n t b a i s s e e s , l e page au commandement de son maistre attacha l e d e r r i e r e de l a chemise aux r e i n s ; adonc i l f i t b a i s s e r l e Cure', comme quand on jcue au frapemain cu a l a fausse compagnie: p u i s , "(Ja enfans, a l ' o f r a n d e " Tous l e s autres P r e s t r e s v i n d r e n t b a i s e r l e c u l , 8 mirent l e u r argent au chapeau du page. l a ceremonie accomplie, i l l e u r demanda, "Eh bien, enfans, me c c g n o i s s e z vcus? — Ouy, vous es t e s l e bon monsieur Eersaut. — A l l e z , d i t i l , a l l e z , 6 f a i c t e s v o s t r e d e v o i r scyez gens de b i e n . " (11: 156-57) Many of the v e r b a l i n s u l t s which punctuate Le Mcyen de Pa r v e n i r are de r i v e d from v a r i a t i o n s on the embarrassingly i n v e r t e d body. T y p i c a l of such d i s r e s p e c t f u l remarks i s one 183 c h a r a c t e r ' s i n s u l t i n g taunt to another: " S i vos t r e nez e s t o i t en mon c u l , vous ne v e r r i e z gue des f e s s e s " (1:224) cr "Frappez de v o s t r e nez en mon c u l " (1:317). There i s no need to c i t e the many other e x p r e s s i o n s f o r they resemble these i n tone and c o n t e n t . 1 5 C o r r e l a t i v e to the h u m i l i a t i o n produced by p h y s i c a l i n v e r s i o n of the body i s s c a t o l o g i c a l degradation which a l s o serves to embarrass or i n s u l t the v i c t i m . Drawing a t t e n t i o n to the v i c t i m ' s p h y s i c a l need to e l i m i n a t e waste, cr a s s o c i a t i n g him with excrement i n some other way i s one of the most p r i m i t i v e of comic degradations. The dung-throwing and f a m i l i a r s c a t o l o g i c a l t a u n t s of C a r n i v a l serve as prototypes f o r the many examples of t h i s degradation i n Le Moyen de P a r v e n i r . 1 6 . . . . Beroalde's guests a f f i r m the u n i v e r s a l human dependence on the body's d i g e s t i v e system, s t r e s s i n g a kind of human e g u a l i t y through body f u n c t i o n s . " S t a d i u s " informs "Le Mo r t e l " of a need common to a l l those who posses a mortal body: "0 pauvre animal m c r t e l mon amy, ne s g a i s tu pas b i e n gu'ayans un corps i l f a u t g u ' i l se vuide . . ." (11:162). Such a s s o c i a t i o n s make d i g n i t y or detachment i m p o s s i b l e , and su b j e c t everyone to the f a m i l i a r l a u g h t e r of o t h e r s . T h i s r i d i c u l e a l s o e f f e c t s a kind of p h y s i c a l " i n v e r s i o n " due to the s h i f t i n emphasis. The d i f f e r e n c e between the thought, speech or moral, a t t i t u d e of the su b j e c t and the automatic p h y s i c a l f u n c t i o n s he performs i s p a r a l l e l e d by a s p a c i a l 184 d i v i s i o n between those f u n c t i o n s as w e l l , f o r the more a b s t r a c t and r e f i n e d f u n c t i o n s are c r e d i t e d to the head and heart l o c a t e d i n the upper body, while the lower p a r t s of the body, i n c l u d i n g the d i g e s t i v e t r a c t and the anus, perform the automatic p h y s i c a l f u n c t i o n s . T h i s sudden change i n the l e v e l of a t t e n t i o n from moral t c p h y s i c a l serves to h u m i l i a t e the v i c t i m and to provoke l a u g h t e r from the observers. 1 7 In Le Mojjen de P a r v e n i r the same s c e n a r i o i s repeated i n two anecdotes, both t a k i n g p l a c e . i n an u n f a m i l i a r and u n l i t house i n which two f r i e n d s have stepped f o r the n i g h t . In one case i t i s " P l a t o " and h i s f r i e n d " P e r d i a c " (1:187), and i n the other i t i s two of the king's gentlemen (11:227). One of the f r i e n d s a r i s e s during the night and goes to what he b e l i e v e s to be the chamber pot; i n v a r i a b l y , i t i s h i s f r i e n d ' s bedstead, and the r e s u l t i n g , a c c i d e n t accomplishes the l a t t e r ' s degradation, " l ' u n s o n g e c i t g u ' i l se n c y c i t S l ' a u t r e songeoit g u ' i l p i s s o i t " (11:227), begins the comedy of e r r o r s . The s l e e p e r who dreams he i s drowning awakes, misjudges the s i t u a t i o n , and m e l o d r a m a t i c a l l y bids f a r e w e l l to the world, unaware that h i s e l e v a t e d stance should be one of h u m i l i a t i o n i n s t e a d : he begins " h a l e t a n t , 5 s ' e s v e i l l a n t , S se trouvant tout m o u i l l e , se p r i t a c r i e r : 'Helas, i l e s t done vray! 0 a d i e u , tous mes amis de ce monde' (11:227). A s i m i l a r mistake i n judgement a l s o makes P e r d i a c the o b j e c t cf mockery, although the laughing witnesses to h i s case 185 i n c l u d e not only the reader, but a group of young l a d i e s as well (I: 188) . , S i m i l a r l y , s c a t o l o g i c a l degradation provides m a t e r i a l for a v a r i e t y of i n s u l t s i n Ie Moyen de P a r v e n i r , ranging from d i r e c t and crude e x p r e s s i o n s such as "gue l a merde vous puisse b a i s e r " (1:218), to supposedly u n i n t e n t i o n a l but i n s u l t i n g v e r b a l s l i p s , "merde en vcs l i p e s , " i n place cf "melancoligue" (1:135) , and i n c l u d e more co n t o r t e d statements, " c ' e s t un e s t r o n gui vous puisse s e r v i r de masgue a Caresme-presnant" ( 1 : 2 5 3 ) . 1 6 I t i s t h i s procedure that Beroalde uses t o l a u g h i n g l y debase h i s own p u b l i s h e r : " A i n s i ceux gui ont i m p r i n t c e c i , sont commissaires d'excremens. C e c i e s t l a f i a n t e de mon e s p r i t , . . . ." (11:162). Even the reader does not escape t h i s degradation. The author i n t i m a t e s a r a t h e r vaguely stated " s e c r e t " , and then informs him that, " i l m'est eschappe de vous d i r e c e l a , l e Diable me l ' a t i r e du c u l , pour l e mettre en v o s t r e bouche . . . » (11:133). The lower p a r t s of the body are sometimes shown i n c o n t r o l of the e n t i r e person, dominating h i s mind and w i l l . In the manner of Bergscn's , "mechanigue plague sur l e v i v a n t " , 1 9 an image which presents the body's domination cf the w i l l , the beauty and d i g n i t y of no one i n Le M£yj=n de Parvenir escapes p o t e n t i a l connection with debasing b c d i l y f u n c t i o n s such as d e f e c a t i o n or f l a t u l a t i o n . Beroalde o f f e r s the reader the s p e c t a c l e of a formal a r i s t o c r a t i c dinner at 186 which an embarrassed churchman t r i e s d e s p e r a t e l y yet u l t i m a t e l y f a i l s to c o n t r o l h i s bladder (11:90). In another passage an important Church o f f i c i a l s u f f e r s a g r o s s i n d i g n i t y : "mais gui f u t c e l u i q u i r i t t a n t , g u ' i l en f i a n t a en ses chausses? — C e f u t mon compere l e C a r d i n a l mcine" (11:153). An anecdote a l s o d e p i c t s a s e r v i n g g i r l , Hargot, who becomes so tense while t r y i n g t c r e p r e s s an urge to f l a t u l a t e i n the presence of her employers t h a t she crushes i n her hand the egg she was about to serve them, and f a i l s to c o n t r o l her urge as well (11:105). At the same time there i s an e f f o r t t c emphasize the body's lower p a r t s and f u n c t i o n s by mock encomium; the p r a i s e l a v i s h e d on "monsieur l e C u l " e x e m p l i f i e s t h i s tendency: Or mon b e l ami, sans c u l on ne f a i t r i e n , sgavez-vcus pas gue c ' e s t l a base S l e vray m i l i e u du corps, l e mignon de l'ame, dautant gue s ' i l ne se pcrte b i e n , S gue ses a f f a i r e s soiertt incommodees, e l l e s'en d e s p l a i s t S s ' e n f u i t par l a ; je pa r l e - pour l e s doctes. Or done, d o c t e s , venez i c i succer l a moelle de d o c t r i n e , venez apprendre l e s beaux s e c r e t s , sans vous amuser a b r i d e r l e s chevaux au rebours, i d est l e u r mettant l e mords au c u l ; tout ce gui se f a i t en ce monde e s t pour exercer monsieur l e Cul . . .. (1:19*4- 95). One speaker i n s i s t s t h a t there i s a s i x t h sense: "C'est le sens du c u l " (1:132) and others speak out to defend what they b e l i e v e to be t h i s l i t t l e a p p r e c i a t e d , but necessary pa r t of the b o d y . 2 0 A c t i o n s of the lower body are a l s o i d e a l i z e d by a ps e u d o - s c h o l a r l y f a n t a s y r e m i n i s c e n t of 187 Fantagruel's f l a t u l e n t c r e a t i v i t y : 2 1 . . . Quand l a t e r r e e s t en chaleur S f o r t e rage d'engendrer, i l se fa u t bien garder de l a i s s e r tomber des pets, tesmoin D i o s c o r i d e e s c r i t en veau, au l i v r e des herbes n o u v e l l e s , l e g u e l d i t gue l e s plantes ont des odeurs d i f f e r e n t e s s e l o n t e l s a c c i d e n s , 6 mesmes l e s beautez S douceurs des f l e u r s en sent d e r i v e e s , comme l ' a bien remargue Paracelse en ses Mineurs; S a f i n gue je vous en embouche, je vous mets devant l e nez c e s t e b e l l e f l e u r , l a couronne i m p e r i a l e , g u i nasgu i t d'une vesse que f i t une grand 1 Dame e s t a n t f i l l e S b e l l e ; apres a v o i r mange des c o n f i t u r e s musquees e l l e f i t une c a p r i o l l e gui causa ce b e l a c c i d e n t . (1:23-24) S c a t o l o g i c a l a s s o c i a t i o n s are a l s o employed to r i d i c u l e r espected o b j e c t s and a b s t r a c t concepts as w e l l as persons. The e l e v a t e d and a b s t r a c t c o n n o t a t i o n s of the word l i b e r t y a l s o undergo a degrading a s s o c i a t i o n i n the address c f "Messire G i l l e s " to the company as he compares l i b e r t y to the odour of the p r i v y : ". . . 0 b e l l e s pensees, gra c i e u s e s c e r v e l l e s , nous sommes i c i comme chez l e Rcy Assuerus, l a l i b e r t e nous s e r t de guide, comme l a senteur pour a l l e r au r e t r a i c t , chacun d i t 6 f a i t i c i ce g u ' i l veut 5 peut" (I:120). The works of the poet B a l f are degraded i n t h i s way by Ronsard who c h a r a c t e r i z e s B a l f ' s w r i t i n g s by speaking cf them along with p r i v y p a p e r : 2 2 Tu es un bea u f a i s e u r de mines, je c u i d o i s d i r e de mimes, tu es un grand Docteur, tu nous en veux conter, & encor l ' e s c r i r e ; va va, j'ay plus use de papier a me to r c h e r l e c u l gue tu n'en as employe a e s c r i r e t o u t ce gue t u pensois s c a v o i r . (11:15) A s i m i l a r a s s o c i a t i o n degrades Papal E u l l s . Far from being t r e a t e d with reverence, they are c a s u a l l y put i n t o the category of p o t e n t i a l swabs, along with the minutes of the 188 C o n s i s t o r y meeting and notes from the r e l i g i o u s Chapter: Je vous d i r a i l a r a i s o n pourguoy l e s Turcs ne se torchent p o i n t l e c u l de p a p i e r ; c ' e s t de peur gue ce papier s o i t une b u l l e du tape, ou guelgue r e l a t i o n de c o n s i s t o i r e , ou c o n c l u s i o n de C h a p i t r e , deguci s i cn s ' e s t o i t e f f l a i r e ' l e fondement, sans doute on a u r o i t l e s hemorroides. (II:102) The author of Le Moyen de P a r v e n i r a l s o muses on the probable f a t e of h i s book: "Avisez-y, doctes, parce gue souvent vos l a b e u r s , vos bons l i v r e s sent employez a f a i r e des c o r n e t s d'espices, ou des mouchcirs de c u l , S ne peut advenir p i s a c e s t u i - c i . . ."(11:163).. Gn s e v e r a l o c c a s i o n s he impresses upon the reader the s c a t o l o g i c a l g u a l i t y of the book as though p a r r y i n g any c r i t i c i s m of i t i n advance. Should anyone c a l l i t s c a t o l o g i c a l , he w i l l be c o r r e c t , f c r Beroalde c l a i m s that " l e D i a b l e me l ' a t i r e du c u l " (11:133), and " c e c i est l e f i a n t e de men e s p r i t " (11:162). In the c l o s i n g verse, he uses a homonymic pun es t r o n c s ^ e s t r o n s , i n s o l i c i t i n g s c a t o l o g i c a l c c n t r i b u t i o n s from the reader towards the completion of the work: Vous g u i avez mine d' e s t r e horns, Et g u i semblez e s t r e hemroasses: Apportez guatre gros e*s t r o n c s , A f i n que l'oeuvre se p a r f a c e . (II:261) Together with v i o l e n t a t t a c k s and p h y s i c a l degradation, the f e s t i v e a ggression and burlesgue mockery i n Le Mc-jen de Pa r v e n i r assumes . a t h i r d form. T h i s u s u a l l y takes place as an a t t a c k on the v i c t i m ' s r e p u t a t i o n . The i n t e l l e c t u a l , 189 moral, and s p i r i t u a l q u a l i t i e s which e l e v a t e the c h a r a c t e r of some men and women above ot h e r s are turned upside-down and shown to be f o l l y , s e l f - i n d u l g e n c e , cr h y p c c r i s y . Again, no one i s immune, and i n f a c t the more e l e v a t e d the a t t i t u d e or s o c i a l p o s i t i o n of the v i c t i m , the mere applauded i s h i s h u m i l i a t i o n . The reason f o r which f e s t i v e aggression t u r n s a g a i n s t these people i s not n e c e s s a r i l y because they are part of the upper c l a s s e s who misuse t h e i r power i n everyday l i f e . Instead, the "crime" these v i c t i m s commit t c provoke mocking revenge i s one of s o c i a l r i g i d i t y . T h i s phenomenon i s d e s c r i b e d by Bergson i n Le R i r e : "Un v i c e scuple s e r a i t moins f a c i l e a r i d i c u l i s e r gu'une vertu i n f l e x i b l e . C'est l a r a i d e u r gui est suspecte a l a s o c i e t e . 1 , 2 3 These persons i n Le Moyen de P a r v e n i r who adopt r i g i d postures are g u i c k l y p u l l e d down to more "human" postures e i t h e r by t h e i r own a c t i o n s which r e v e a l them to be r i d i c u l o u s l y n e a r - s i g h t e d or h y p o c r i t i c a l , or through the c o m i c a l l y defaming a l l e g a t i o n s of other c h a r a c t e r s . A money-mad p u b l i s h e r of Geneva r e v e a l s how h i s obsession with wealth has warped h i s sense cf human p r o p o r t i o n . Even when h i s l i f e i s c l o s e to ending, h i s g u i d i n g p a s s i o n , a v a r i c e , prevents him from r e a l i z i n g t h a t d e s p i t e h i s wealth and "important" work, he i s mortal l i k e other men: "Ha, mon amy, d i t i l au C h yrurgien, s i je viens a mourir de c e s t e maladie, je perdray plus de m i l l e f l o r i n s a c e s t e f o i r e de F r a n c f c r t " (11:250). In another moment cf 190 c r i s i s feminine modesty and d i g n i t y i s g u i c k l y exposed as only a pose. The i n c i d e n t begins when a s o l d i e r e n t e r s the home of a canon duri n g a house-to-house m i l i t a r y s e a r c h . D i s c o v e r i n g the lady of the house and her maid a s l e e p , he c r i e s l o u d l y , "Par l a double rouge c r e s t e du cog, je fo u t e r a y tout ceans de par l e Roy". The servant d r a m a t i c a l l y throws h e r s e l f between the man and her m i s t r e s s : "Helas, monsieur, pour Dieu ne f a i t e s r i e n a madame, e l l e se trcuve s i mal, je vous p r i e d ' a v o i r p a t i e n c e " . At t h i s the lady i n question p u l l s back the c u r t a i n and s h a t t e r s the image cf her c r e a t e d by the g i r l ' s defense: " V o i r e , mamie, & dea, pourguoi non moy a u s s i bien gu'a" vous, puis que c ' e s t de par l e Roy?" (II: 18) . Defaming e p i t h e t s and d e s c r i p t i o n s a l s o turn the honour and r e p u t a t i o n s of many c h a r a c t e r s i n t o laughing matter i n Le Moyen de P a r v e n i r . Wise men, such as the c e l e b r a t e d s c h o l a r Erasmus ("ce f o u de Flamand" 1:145), are shown as f o o l s or h y p o c r i t e s , and the p h i l o s p h e r , Socrates i s a l s o l a b e l l e d a f o o l (11:221). An emissary from the d e v i l d e t r a c t s from the honour of the reformer, Luther, by addressing him on i n t i m a t e terms: "mon Luther, men c a p i t a i n e , mon ami" (11:129), while proud husbands are derided with the u l t i m a t e i n s u l t : c u c k c l d . Another derogatory v e r b a l i n s u l t f r e g u e n t l y used to r i d i c u l e a v i c t i m i s the b e s t i a l e p i t h e t . "Ceste c a n a i l l e des sages" (1:171) and "ces grosses bestes de prescheurs" (1:132) r e f e r 191 r e s p e c t i v e l y to i n t e l l e c t u a l s and members c f the c l e r g y , while a l l of womankind i s condescendingly d e s c r i b e d as "l ' a n i m a l de s o c i e t 4 " , (1:288). The p s y c h o l o g i c a l s a t i s f a c t i o n accomplished by these i n s u l t s comes frcm exposing the v i c t i m as the opposite of what he pretends to be. T h i s i s always a degradation of h i s s u p e r i o r or i n d i f f e r e n t a t t i t u d e , changing i t t c an i n f e r i o r or dependant one through t r a n s f e r e n c e of the i d e a l to the pe t t y , the honest to the dish o n e s t , the i n t e l l e c t u a l to the p h y s i c a l , and so f o r t h . The t h r e e general c a t e g o r i e s of c a r n i v a l i z e d a g g r e s s i o n d e s c r i b e d above, v i o l e n c e , p h y s i c a l h u m i l i a t i o n , and moral dishonour, provide the b a s i c p a t t e r n s f o r the laughing and aggressive s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n i n l e Mo;yen de P a r v e n i r . The remainder of t h i s chapter w i l l examine the way i n which these p a t t e r n s are used t o . i n v e r t the s o c i a l h i e r a r c h y , to e g u a l i z e human r e l a t i o n s h i p s , and u l t i m a t e l y , tc s o c i a l i z e those who dev i a t e from the f e s t i v e group. The f i r s t element i n t h i s p r e s e n t a t i o n of Beroalde's approach w i l l be the d i s p l a y of s o c i a l i n e q u a l i t i e s . Most of these i n e g u a l i t i e s are f u n c t i o n s o f the c l a s s s t r u c t u r e , and the v a l i d i t y cf t h a t , s t r u c t u r e , otherwise known as the s o c i a l h i e r a r c h y , i s ab o l i s h e d by emphasizing u n i v e r s a l human t r a i t s (body f u n c t i o n s , f o l l y , death) which c r o s s c l a s s b a r r i e r s . F i n a l l y Beroalde's speakers attack s o c i e t y group by group, a process which leads to the promotion of a common m o r a l i t y based on 192 the predominance of innocent and u n i v e r s a l l y a c c e s s i b l e sensual p l e a s u r e s . Beroalde s t a t e s t h a t he intends h i s beck tc c o n t a i n a comprehensive p o r t r a i t of the s o c i a l i n j u s t i c e around him, a f f i r m i n g t h a t Le Moyen de P a r v e n i r ". . . n'est e s c r i t gue pour l a j u s t e demonstration de ce g u i e s t ; d'autant gue l ' c n void i c i l a b e s t i s e des Grands de ce temps, l a s c t t i s e des h a b i l e s gens, l'impudence des doctes, 6 l a meschancete des a u t r e s " ( I I : 1 6 3 ) . 2 4 To t h i s end Ber c a l d e ' s banguet host urges the guests to accomplish the task before them and s a t i r i c a l l y expose the i l l s of the world: "Uscns nostre temps avec l a ponce de b i e n seance, ou l e grez de sagesse, & que cependant nostre s a t i r e s o i t p e r p e t u e l l e , pour d e c o u v r i r l e s a f f a i r e s du mauvais monde" (1:154). He claims t h a t t h e i r e f f o r t s w i l l be a p p r e c i a t e d by " l e s bonnes gens gui gemissent sous l a t i r a n n i e des gro s " f o r whom the book i s wr i t t e n . T h i s audience o f e x p l o i t e d good people w i l l see the t r u t h i n Le Moyen de P a r v e n i r : " i l s verront en nos d i s c o u r s comme nous descouvrons l e tombeau de l a v e r i t e " (1:154). Many of the s p e c i f i c s o c i a l i n j u s t i c e s mentioned o r i g i n a t e i n the c l a s s s t r u c t u r e . Eeroalde d e s c r i b e s the l i t t l e c o n s i d e r a t i o n masters have f o r t h e i r s ervants i n one passage. The servants are c o l d i n the winter and,too hot i n the summer, because they are always given t h e i r master's cut cf season c l o t h i n g : " v o i l a comment l e u r bien va a rebours", he concludes (11:250). He a l s o notes the r e l a t i v e sexual 193 freedom of the upper c l a s s e s whose amorous e x p l o i t s are condoned with honour i n c o n t r a s t to the d i s a p p r o v a l c a s t upon the same a c t i v i t i e s of the lower c l a s s e s . In the former case, l o v e a f f a i r s are c a l l e d " g a l a n t i s e " , while i n the l a t t e r they are " a d u l t e r e , ou p a i l l a r d i s e , ou r a p t " : C»est gue l e s grands, & ceux 8 c e l l e s qui ont des Juges l e u r s amis, s i d'avanture vont s'excercer l e bout autre p a r t , ou f a i r e amitonner l ' o u v e r t u r e s p e c u l a t i v e apres nature, c e l a l e u r e s t j o l i m e n t impute a f a i r e 1»amour en tout honneur & g a l a n t i s e : mais s i c * e s t guelgue pauvre d i a b l e , c e l a sera d i t a d u l t e r e ou p a i l l a r d i s e , ou r a p t ; & p u i s vous f i e z a ces J u s t i n i a n s de tcus l e s d i a b l e s . (I:294) S o c i a l i n e g u a l i t i e s of the everyday world are brought i n t o focus i n Le Moyen de P a r v e n i r i n order t h a t they might b e . s a t i r i c a l l y d i s c r e d i t e d . T h i s i s accomplished i n c e r t a i n passages by s t r e s s i n g the u n i v e r s a l i t y of the human c o n d i t i o n , and r i d i c u l i n g the pretense of - s u p e r i o r i t y upcn which the i d e a o f a s o c i a l h i e r a r c h y r e s t s . These arguments f r e q u e n t l y emphasize the u n i v e r s a l i t y of body f u n c t i o n s which are common to a l l members of s o c i e t y . One f a n t a s y i l l u s t r a t i n g t h i s approach r e p r e s e n t s a b i z a r r e c l a s s - s t r u c t u r e d s i t u a t i o n and i s narr a t e d with bcth i r c n y and burlesgue humour. The r i d i c u l o u s i m p o s s i b i l i t y c f r e s t r i c t i n g s e x u a l r e p r o d u c t i o n to the upper c l a s s by c a r e f u l l y r a t i o n i n g g e n i t a l i a becomes even more l u d i c r o u s through d e t a i l s of how t h i s was enfo r c e d . The passage ends with a tongue-in-cheek e x p l a n a t i o n of why some great l o r d s resemble v a l e t s : 194 Lubec e s t une v i l l e f o r t bien p c l i c e e , S ou i l n'y a poi n t de pauvres, S l a r a i s o n occasicnnee en e s t de ce que toutes l e s personnes ne f o n t comme i c y , S sur tout pour l e commun: de s o r t e que ceux 6 c e l l e s qui n a i s s e n t de bas l i e u ou de p e t i t e s gens n'ont r i e n entre l e s jambes, l e s masles qu'un p e t i t tuyau i n s e n s i b l e , 8 l e s f e m e l l e s qu'un p e t i t p e r t u i s a p i s s e r y ayant es e n d r o i t s formels de c e r t a i n e s c i c a t r i c e s a r e s s o t t e s q u e l l e s on peut a p p l i q u e r l e s o u t i l s n a t u r e l s de generati o n s ' i l en e s t besoin; & t e l s membres sent conservez par l a Republigue avec grande d i l i g e n c e & s o i n ; . . . De ces o u t i l s l o r s g u ' i l en e s t n e c e s s i t e on l e s l o u e , parquoi on l e s a p p e l l e banniers g u i servent a l a commodite des gens de basse c o n d i t i o n , pour a v o i r des enfans 8 f a i r e des s e r v i t e u r s , de peur gue l'engence s'en perde, . . , Que s ' i l a v i e n t gue ceux gui l e s demandent s o i e n t s i nec e s s i t e u x g u ' i l s devenissent gueux, on l e u r r e f u s e : par a i n s i veu l' e s g a r d de c e t t e bonne p o l i c e , i l n'y a p o i n t de ca g n a r d i e r s ; mesne, ce g u i est bien u t i l e , l e s v a l e t s ne l e s chambrieres n'en ont p o i n t ; i l e s t vray gue g r a t i s on l e u r p r e s t e en l e s mariant apres a v o i r bien s e r v i , 6 a u s s i b i e n souvent avant gue l e s marier monsieur & madame l e u r p r e s t e n t l e s l e u r s par p l a i s i r , ce g ui e s t chose g u i f a i t moult bon v o i r ; . . . i l advient a cause de ces p r e s t s , g u ' i l y a des grands sei g n e u r s g ui ressemblent a des v a l e t s . (1:280-81) Another e q u a l i z e r of the s o c i a l ranks i s v i v i d l y i l l u s t r a t e d by the danse macabre, a performance.frequently seen on the stage or i n p i c t u r e s c f the XVth and XVIth c e n t u r i e s . ? 5 I t f e a t u r e s "le.mort", who grasps the hand cf an a c t o r r e p r e s e n t i n g a rank, p r o f e s s i o n , or stage i n l i f e , and p u l l s him i n t o the dance. Soon a s e r i e s of people f i l l the stage, a l l l i n k e d together by hands and by the same movements, thus demonstrating t h a t nc one i s above the l e v e l l i n g experience of death. In h i s f i r s t r e f e r e n c e to the daE§§ l a c a b r e , Eeroalde s t r e s s e s the v u l n e r a b i l i t y c f powerful c i v i l a u t h o r i t i e s before the g r e a t e s t e g u a l i z e r . In c o n t r a s t to t h e i r favoured p o s i t i o n s on e a r t h , f i n a l j u s t i c e 195 i s done as these once powerful men are l e d downward to the Underworld, and not upward t o P a r a d i s e : "Da, da, i l est bon, s ' i l n'y a v o i t gue l e s gens de j u s t i c e g u i a l l a s s e n t en p a r a d i s ! Et c'est l e c o n t r a i r e , S je l'ay veu en l a Dance Macabree de Fubourg, ou l e s P r e s i d e n s , C o n s e i l l e r s , Avocats, Procureurs, S c l e r c s , sont par l e s sergents c o n d u i t s en e n f e r , & t'en guette (11:82-83). Neither good lo o k s nor youth, q u a l i t i e s which enhance s o c i a l p r e s t i g e , make any impression on the impl a c a b l e common enemy as Beroalde shows i n an encounter between Death and the young man: . a Dole a l a dance Macaber, i l y a l a Mort gui p a r l e a un beau jeune homme, S l u i d i t , A, galan, galan. Que tu es f r i n g a n , S ' i l t e f a u t - i l meurre. Et i l respond: Et, mort arrogan, Prens tout men argean, Et me l a i s s e queurre. (11:257-58) The u n i v e r s a l i t y of f o l l y , another f a m i l i a r c a r n i v a l e s q u e theme, a l s o p l a c e s a l l men and women i n the same category r e g a r d l e s s of c l a s s or personal t r a i t s ; The reader of Le Moyen de P a r v e n i r i s t o l d that the whole world i s i n f a c t a land of f o o l s : "A ce gue je voy l e pays des sots n'est pas une i s l e , c ' e s t l e mende mesme, 6 hers d ' i c e l u y " (11:86). T h i s o b s e r v a t i o n i s r e i n f o r c e d i n a dialogue which connects h y p o c r i s y and f o l l y : Madame. Que d i t e s - v c u s l a ? --Je demandois s ' i l y a v o i t des bordeaux en v c s t r e pays, madame. 196 Madame. Non, dea i l n'y en a p o i n t , mais i l y a des maisons d'hcnneur, ou l ' o n se r e s j o u y t avec l e s dames, 8 guelgues dames d'honneur deputees pour c e l a en t i r e n t r e n t e s pour n o u r r i r des Moines. — C ' e s t done en ce p a y s - l a ou Moine s i g n i f i e l a r r o n , comme. en l ' i s l e des s o t s sot s i g n i f i e monsieur; 8 de f a i t s i je vous d i r o i s : "Bon jour, s e t , " ce s e r o i t autant gue vous d i r e , "Bona d i e s , monsieur." Savonarola. Mais l ' i s l e des s o t s est par t o u t , 8 c e l l e des feus e s t au d e l a . (11:168) A monologue on the u n i v e r s a l i t y of f o l l y which c l a i m s the a t t e n t i o n of the bangueters extends the r e i g n of f o l l y net only to d i f f e r e n t p r o f e s s i o n s , but a c r o s s i n t e r n a t i o n a l boundaries: Je vous d i r a y pourtant, vous demandant excuse, g u ' i l y aura i c y assez de place pour tous l e s fous, pourveu gu'on l e s y mette l'un apres l ' a u t r e . En Allemagne l e s Allemans y mettront l e u r s f o u s , en France l e s Frangois, en A n g l e t e r r e l e s A n g l o i s , En Espagne l e s E s p a g n c l s , en Souisse l e s I t a l i e n s , en Turguie l e r e s t e ; 8 p u i s gue l'on f a s s e s i grande chere gu'on voudra, s c i t en d r o i t , s o i t en musigue, s o i t en canon, s o i t en T h e o l o g i e , s o i t en gendarmerie ou marchandise, cu medecine, cu t c u t e t e l l e a u t r e s o r t e gue vous imaginerez . . ,... (11:199) Along with the e f f o r t to e g u a l i z e the s c c i a l h i e r a r c h y through demonstration of u n i v e r s a l human t r a i t s , Ee'roalde a l s o i n v e r t s the s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e group by group. Before d e s c r i b i n g the treatment of r o y a l t y , the a r i s t o c r a c y , and others lower on the s o c i a l l a d d e r , there i s a s p e c i a l category of persons who f i r s t become o b j e c t s of attack i n Le Mo_yen de P a r v e n i r . These are the famous guests present a t the banguet. As noted a b o v e , 2 6 they are i d e n t i f i e d by the names of famous statesmen, churchmen, s c h o l a r s and o t h e r s . There i s , however, a great discrepancy between e x p e c t a t i o n s r a i s e d by the famous names and the a c t u a l performance of the 197 banqueters. From the beginning t h e i r behaviour shows them to be f o o l i s h and crude. C l a s s b a r r i e r s which separate them from the serv a n t s are o v e r t l y destroyed as a l l ccncerned j o i n i n an u n s o p h i s t i c a t e d game of hopscotch i n the k i t c h e n . 2 7 E a r l y d e s c r i p t i o n of t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s f u r t h e r damages t h e i r r e p u t a t i o n s . " P l i n y " behaves i n a p a r t i c u l a r l y u n d i g n i f i e d manner; "Demosthenes", supposedly a g r e a t o r a t o r , speaks l i k e a peasant and expounds on t r i v i a , and " A r i s t o t l e " , the great l o g i c i a n , behaves i r r a t i o n a l l y : P l i n e s'avanga s e l o n l a rente d'honneur g u i luy e s t o i t deue, a i n s i g u ' i l p a r o i s s o i t par un c o n t r a c t passe par dessous l e s ponts de Rome; c ' e s t un homme notable & de p r i x , i l e s t l e premier inventeur de p i s s e r honorablement contre l e s m u r a i l l e s des a u t r e s . Tandis gue l'on murmuroit l e recevant, v c i c y a r r i v e r l e bon Demosthene. "J'y fusmes, dismes nous, j'en fusmes bien a i s e , dautant q u ' i l e s t c e r t a i n que j'apprendrons beaucoup de bonnes choses, comme desja i l y pa r u t . " Fn ent r a n t i l se mit a d i s c o u r i r , & nous enseigna gue c' e s t gu'honeste homme, l e d e f i n i s s a n t a i n s i g u ' i l se trouve au Talmud; honneste personne e s t c e l l e gui ayant f i a n t l se torche l e c u l avec un t o r c h o i r l e tenant de l a main gauche. A r i s t o t e d e p i t de n ' a v c i r trcuve c e s t e b e l l e d e f i n i t i o n se noya . . ..(1:20-21) The guests are .introduced as members cf an e x c l u s i v e f r a t e r n i t y which i s dedic a t e d to the p u r s u i t o f knowledge; they are a l l "ames g u i avoie n t serment a l a Sophie", "enfans de l a s c i e n c e " , "des sages" (1:5), and " s c i e n t i f i g u e s personnes & d i s c r e t t e s " (I:4 2). I t appears that they are to be considered as a group of d i g n i f i e d l e a r n e d men, gathered together f o r a noble purpose. However, t h e i r f o p p i s h and f l a t u l e n t behaviour upon a r r i v a l c a s t s an e a r l y doubt upon 198 t h e i r q u a l i t y : Chacun y e n t r a n t a v i s a a son debvoir, par ce moyen nous exercames un notable c o n f l i c t de reverences, dent l e s petardes s e n t o i e n t j e ne sgay quoy de l a musique ancienne 8 p r a t i q u a n t m i l l e v e t i l l e s d ' h u m i l i t e z , avec une f r i p o n n e e s c o p e t e r i e de langage c o u r t i s a n n i f ie* fismes p l u s i e u r s b e l l e s entrees 8 rencontres ..(I:9) These famous p h i l o s p h e r s , statesmen, and sages are thrown down from t h e i r legendary, p e d e s t a l s and brought to the common, m a t e r i a l l e v e l . On egual ground with the l e a s t c e l e b r a t e d member of s o c i e t y , the guests enjoy food and wine l i k e common men and women. In s p i t e cf statements of the symposium's e l e v a t e d purpose the notable company does net assume an a i r of d i s i n t e r e s t e d wisdom, but i s i n s t e a d i n t e n s e l y i n v o l v e d i n petty d e t a i l s of the c a r n i v a l atmosphere around them. T h e i r e n e r g e t i c behaviour r e f l e c t s the u n f e t t e r e d and d i s r e s p e c t f u l atmosphere i n which these c h a r a c t e r s move. E a t i n g , d r i n k i n g , and the babble c f r i b a l d or i n c o n s e g u e n t i a 1 d i s c o u r s e c o n s t i t u t e the major a c t i v i t y of the bangueters. The famous p e r s o n a l i t i e s eveked are a l s o shown to be f o o l s l i k e anyone e l s e , i l l u s t r a t i n g the motto of the f o o l - s o c i e t i e s : " s t u l t o r u m numerus e s t i n f i n i t u s " . S o c r a tes, a freguent speaker l o s e s a l l c l a i m to the great r e s p e c t he i n s p i r e d , i n Renaissance s c h o l a r s and i n s t e a d i s shown to be among the most f o o l i s h i n a mad world; "achevez", one speaker urges him, " j e vous p r i e , S o c r a t e s , comme l e plus f o u " (1:221). The guests are sometimes d e s c r i b e d i n degrading b e s t i a l 199 terms. In one passage addressed t o the reader, e n j o i n i n g him to honour t h i s work and those i n i t , the guests are compared to chickens i n a coop: ". . . 8 prenez garde a ce gue cet honneur s o i t d i s t r i b u e honnestement aux s c i e n t i f i g u e s personnes 8 d i s c r e t t e s gui sont en ce banguet, comme poules en mue" (1:42). T h e i r s t a t e of awareness i s given a canine q u a l i t y : " I l s a v o i e n t l e s yeux ouverts comme chiens g u i chassent aux puces" (I:43), and t h e i r laughter i s a l s o b e s t i a l : " . . . Toute l a b e l l e compagnie se p r i t a r i r e comme un trouppeau de fenesseaux" ( I I : 1 3 ) . 2 8 At other times the author plays on the double meaning of bSte to endow h i s guests with an a i r of a n i m a l i s t i c s t u p i d i t y : ". . . Je f a i s p a r l e r l e s b e s t e s " (11:258). Thus the famous p e r s o n a l i t i e s who have d i s t i n g u i s h e d themselves as p o l i t i c a l and i n t e l l e c t u a l l e a d e r s are brought down i n t o the common f o l d and even lower. Reversal of the s o c i a l h i e r a r c h y i s a f a m i l i a r convention i n C a r n i v a l . Through t h i s procedure the c l a s s s t r u c t u r e i s t e m p o r a r i l y dismantled as f i g u r e s cf a u t h o r i t y are s t r i p p e d of power, p r e s t i g e , and v i r t u e to become the o b j e c t s of mocking l a u g h t e r . In place of the d i g n i t y and respec t which i d e a l l y d e f i n e the r u l i n g a r i s t o c r a c y , the opposite extremes are r e v e a l e d . Reason i s r e p l a c e d by f o l l y , noble postures are turned to r i d i c u l e , and b o d i l y f u n c t i o n s dominate the mind and w i l l . The, presence cf a popular mentality can be detected i n the f o l l o w i n g anecdotes which 200 take advantage of the c a r n i v a l e s g u e t r a d i t i o n c f sanctioned revenge on a u t h o r i t y . The weapon i s n e i t h e r reason nor f o r c e , but l a u g h t e r . In Le Moyen de P a r v e n i r , the e s t a b l i s h e d a u t h o r i t i e s c f the o u t s i d e world are e i t h e r absent, cr present only i n t r a v e s t i e d forms which p r o j e c t them as f o o l i s h or common. J u s t i n i a n , a mad Soman emperor, 2 9 e x e m p l i f i e s the e a r t h l y r u l e r . He i s i n t e r c h a n g e a b l e with the f e e l , as are a l l emperors, a c c o r d i n g to the t e x t : ". . . l'empereur J u s t i n i a n gui gouverne encor l e monde fou, e s t devenu feu durant sa v i e , par a i n s i l e s feus sont Empereurs S e converse" (11:257). T h i s r u l e r ' s name i s a l s o l i n k e d t c f o l l y through a pun on J u s t i n i a n and n i a i s ; the composed a d j e c t i v e , " J u s t i n i a i s e m e n t " (1:155), i s used i n context as a syncnym fo r " f o o l i s h l y " . Another speaker a l l u d e s t o the rumoured madness of the Spanish Emperor, Charles V: "Vous me f a i c t e s souvenir, d'un voyage gue nous fismes en Espagne l'annee gue l'Empereur d e v i n t f o u " ( 1 1 : 6 9 ) . 3 0 In a statement t h a t would have been dangerous f o r an author who had net shrouded himself i n the v a r i e g a t e d c o l o u r s of the f o o l , Eeroalde makes a condescending r e f e r e n c e to the French k i n g , c h a r a c t e r i z i n g him as a sympathetic person, but one who i s unable to govern due to h i s ignorance and s u s c e p t i b i l i t y to unwise c o u n s e l o r s , "ces meschans escommuniez q u i fo n t t a n t mettre de daces & imposts sur l e peuple au desceu du Roy, l e pauvre homme qui ne l'entend pas . . ." (1:48). 201 T r a d i t i o n a l f o o l - k i n g s are mentioned i n Le Mgjen de P a r v e n i r a l s o , and t h e i r presence, even i f onl y i n b r i e f r e f e r e n c e s , adds t o the theme of i n v e r t e d r o y a l t y . These mad, mock r u l e r s are the "Hoy des veaux" (11:242) and the "Roy des gueux" (1:130,199). Though undeveloped, these e p i t h e t s c a l l to mind the t r a d i t i o n a l i n v e r s i o n of a u t h o r i t y simply by r e p e t i t i o n of the mock t i t l e s . A s i m i l a r r e f e r e n c e not only b r i n g s t o mind the f o o l - k i n g , but d e r i s i v e l y p u l l s contemporary r o y a l t y f u r t h e r down by r e v e r s i n g the words i n the t i t l e and i r r e v e r e n t l y c h a r a c t e r i z i n g r u l e r s as "ces gueux de Ro i s " (1:199). La Heine des j g i s - p i l e e s , the mad gueen of the comic t h e a t r e , i s mentioned on two o c c a s i o n s (1:122,127). A p p l i c a t i o n of t h i s t i t l e tc a lady of the cou r t , "Madame des Manigances", i n v e r t s a r i s t o c r a t i c d i g n i t y by j u x t a p o s i n g the lady and the fool-gueen, even though the reason f o r the remark has nothing to do with the former's behaviour. She gains the t i t l e because " . . . a l a c c u r t e l l e e s t o i t plus chichement h a b i l l e e gue l e s a u t r e s " (1:127). Another t r a d i t i o n a l a t t a c k on the r u l e r d i v e r t s a t t e n t i o n from the king as a s u p e r i o r being t c the image cf him s u f f e r i n g the same d i c t a t e s and i n d i g n i t i e s of the body as commoners. S e v e r a l r e f e r e n c e s d e p i c t the king t a k i n g mercury treatments, the usual remedy f o r s y p h i l i s . 3 1 The r e v e l a t i o n o f the king's d i s e a s e not only i l l u s t r a t e s that 202 he i s p h y s i c a l l y v u l n e r a b l e l i k e anyone e l s e , but focuses a t t e n t i o n on the lower p a r t s of the body, thus f o l l o w i n g the patter n of i n v e r s i o n d e s c r i b e d a b o v e . 3 2 One speaker, while re c o u n t i n g matters having t o do with Tours, mentions that the king was a l s o i n th a t c i t y : ". . . a Tours, ou pour l o r s e s t o i t l e Roy g u i v e n o i t de f i x e r l e Mercure" (11:135). The same f a c t comes out i n a l a t e r passing comment: "Quand l e Roy venoit de f i x e r l e Mercure, i l v i n t en c e s t b e l l e maison" ( I I : 1 4 8 ) . 3 3 Charles VIII i s s u b j e c t to a s i m i l a r a s s o c i a t i o n i n another anecdote. 3* The gueen i s a l s o s u b j e c t to a t t a c k s of f e s t i v e i n v e r s i o n through defamation of c h a r a c t e r and attempts to show her dominated by l u s t . The v i r t u e c f the gueenly t i t l e undergoes a downward change of s t a t u s as a lady of the s t r e e t s v i g o r o u s l y d e c l a r e s her own hcncur t c be abcve that of the Queen of Egypt, ft bystander recounts the i n c i d e n t : Aussi j e me souviens gue l'annee gue j ' e s t c i s Recteur de 1»Universite de P a r i s , . Je vy pendre une maguerelle de bourg de Four, l a r a i s o n e s t o i t g u ' e l l e se b a t t o i t avec une autr e g u i l u i d i t , "Ha, chienne, tu veux i c y f a i r e de l a Royne d'Egypte. — T u as menty, d i t e l l e , je s u i s femme de b i e n . " ( 1 : 2 0 2 ) 3 5 Ingenuous i n s u l t s a l s o uncrown the r u l i n g c l a s s , a t t r i b u t i n g common minor v i c e s to them with a f a m i l i a r nod of c o m p l i c i t y . A peasant woman compares her husband t c the king and sees no d i f f e r e n c e : "Foy de d a m o i s e l l e , d i s o i t ma mere pensant ses pourceaux, mon mari e s t a u s s i noble gue l e Roy, i l aime bien a ne r i e n f a i r e , 6 se donner du p l a i s i r " 203 (11:203). In another i n c i d e n t , a simple peasant, f l a t t e r e d with the p a t r o n i z i n g a t t e n t i o n s of the Queen, ingenuously a s s a u l t s the r o y a l d i g n i t y by assuming that the Queen l i k e others has come to seek the amorous favou r s of the l o c a l canon: Madame l a Royne de France, . . . a l l a n t a Chartres en voyage, pour a v o i r l i g n e e , S s u i v a n t un beau chemin f a i t expres, parce g u ' e l l e a l l o i t a pie d , e l l e s ' a s s i t pour se reposer, gue v o i c i passer une b e l l e grande paisanne des champs, g u i cheminoit comme un p r e s t r e Breton; l a Royne l ' a r r e s t e , S l u i d i t , "Bon jo u r , mamie, ou a l l e z vous? --Oe vay a Chartres, madame. —Que f a i r e ? —^Vendre du l a i t & des herbes. D'ou e s t e s vous, mamie? --Je s u i s d ' i c y aupres, madame. — E s t e s vous mariee? —Ouy, madame, Dieu mercy S l a voutre. Mais, madame, ne vous d e s p l a i s e , d i t t e s mci s ' i l vous p l a i s t g u i vous estes? — J e s u i s l a Royne, mamie. --A ha a, madame l a Royne, excusez moi s ' i l vous p l a i s t , s i je ne vous ay f a i t l'enneur gue je devas: mais, madame l a Royne, vous a l l e z a p i e d ; 8 ou a l l e z vous, madame l a Royne, mais ne vous d e p l a i s e ? --Je vay a C h a r t r e s , mamie, pour a l l e r en ces t e b e l l e E g l i s e p r i e z Dieu, a ce g u i l u i p l a i s e gue j'aye des enfans. — H e l a s , madame l a Royne, ne l a i s s e z pas de vous en r e t o u r n e r , ce grand Chanoine gui l e s f a i s c i t e s t inert, on n'y en f a i t p l u s . " (11:241.) The l a d i e s and, gentlemen of the c o u r t , as well as members of the minor a r i s t o c r a c y , r e c e i v e the same treatment as r o y a l t y . One of a c e r t a i n duke's servants muses cn a v i o l e n t f a t e f o r h i s master: ". . . je voudrois gue l e Cue mon bon maistre f u t en l a gueule du loup 5 gue j'en eusse l a peau p l e i n e d'escus, gros so u p p i e r , j'entens l a peau du loup " (1:130-31). Other commentaries are content to malign the n o b i l i t y by exposing-them as f o o l s , such as "monsieur de Vendosme" whose c o n d i t i o n i s di s c u s s e d by a decter and the p r i o r : 204 . . . Monsieur de Vendosme, q u i e s t a n t malade 5 degouste v o u l o i t manger du r i s : ce que d i s a n t a son medecin i l l u i accorda; l e P r i e u r adjousta g u ' i l eut bien vculu gu'on y eut mis du s a f r a n : " E i e n , d i t l e medecin, mais i l n'y en fa u t g u e r e . — N o n , r e s p c n d i t l e P r i e u r , i l me f e r o i t mal," Et de f a i t je vy un jour un che v a l g u i en e s t o i t t r o p charge, i l en d e v i n t f e u . Estimez vous pour c e l a gue ce Seigneur f u t f o l ? — n o n pas du to u t , mais i l t e n o i t un peu de l a febve .."36 (11:115) I f not by f o l l y , the noble c l a s s i s degraded by d i r e c t i n s u l t s . A p r o v i n c i a l lady i s n a i v e l y i n s u l t e d by one of her farmer's daughters: "La f i l l e de ce mestayer appcrta des prunes a nostre femme, gui l u i d i t ; 'II n'en f a l l o i t p o i n t , mamie. — C ' e s t v o s t r e . g r e s s e , madameselle, pren e z - l e s s ' i l vous p l a i s t , a u s s i bien ncs pourceaux n'en veulent p o i n t . ' " (11:71-72) The lady complains to the farmer's wife who only i n s u l t s her f u r t h e r by c o n f i r m i n g the g i r l ' s s t o r y . A s i m i l a r kind of ingenuously i n s u l t i n g o f f e r i n g i s recounted in the u n a p p e t i z i n g anecdote of the v a l e t who absent- mindedly s p i t s i n h i s master's wine before s e r v i n g i t (I I : 253) .37 Continuing down the s o c i a l ladder, the next t c be di s l o d g e d from t h e i r e l e v a t e d p o s i t i o n s are those i n d i v i d u a l s and groups of i n d i v i d u a l s who have power and a u t h o r i t y i n c i v i l matters. These are the men who are charged with i n t e r p r e t i n g and e n f o r c i n g the laws of the country: the governors, judges, lawyers, and even c o n s t a b l e s . Many of these o f f i c i a l s provoke f e a r and hatred by t h e i r c o r r u p t i o n and abuse of power. Curing C a r n i v a l 205 however, the people have a momentary revenge, and those i n d i v i d u a l s who normally have sweeping power over the l i v e s of those around them become the h e l p l e s s o b j e c t s cf sanctioned mockery. The many cases of such mockery i n Le Moyen de P a r v e n i r again demonstrate the accord between Beroalde's work and the c a r n i v a l t r a d i t i o n . The husband h u m i l i a t e d by the a c t i c n s of a crab i n a chamberpot, 3 8 happens to be a governor, and t h i s p o s i t i o n cf power heightens h i s f a l l . Those who occupy the s e n i o r pests of C h a n c e l l o r and P r e s i d e n t of the realm are a l s c r i d i c u l e d . They are dismissed as f o o l s who d r i v e o t hers to f o l l y : T o u t e s f o i s j e vous p r o t e s t e gue s ' i l y a v o i t autant d'honneur gu'aux f o l i e s d ' e s t r e C h a n c e l i e r ou premier P r e s i d e n t , ou de t e l l e , autre g u a l i t e de f e u s gui f o u s s o i e n t l e s a u t r e s f o u s , i l n'y a u r o i t gueres de bons e s p r i t s g u i ne f i s s e n t p a r c i s t r e , gue, guisgue abundat i n suo sensu, c ' e s t a d i r e , chacun e s t , s e r a , ou e s t d i t , ou deviendra, s ' i l ne l ' e s t , feu par l a t e s t e . (I:166) But even worse than those who govern, are those who are a s s o c i a t e d with the c o u r t s . The p e r v e r s i t y of judges and t h e i r a s s o c i a t e s i s emphasized by the author's mock h e s i t a t i o n to even write about them, a l l e g i n g them f a r more dangerous than churchmen: ". ... . encor l e s e c c l e s i a t i g u e s sont t r a i c t a b l e s , i l s ne f o n t gue excommunier, c e l a va S v i e n t comme eau c l a i r e ; mais ces gens de j u s t i c e f o n t tache d ' h u i l e , gue l e d i a b l e y a i t p a r t . Mon ami, l a i s s o n s - l e s , achevons ces contes" (II:17). Despite t h i s warning, he does write about them however, t a k i n g obvious p l e a s u r e i n t h e i r 206 c a r n i v a l e s g u e h u m i l i a t i o n s . In a passage c i t e d above they are shown being l e d not to P a r a d i s e , but down i n t o H e l l as a f i n a l v i n d i c a t i o n of the p e o p l e . 3 9 Even the lowly c o n s t a b l e , whose duty i t was to lead p r i s o n e r s to j a i l , merits a punishment of t h i s s o r t : ". . . i l e s t vray gue guand un sergent se meurt son ame va d r o i t entre l e s mains de Proserpine Reine d'Enfer" (11:213). Another group i n the s o c i a l system which commands re s p e c t , i f not f e a r , i n everyday l i f e i s made up of the s c h o l a r s , academicians, p h i l o s o p h e r s , s c i e n t i s t s and poets who comprise the i n t e l l i g e n t s i a . T h i s group i s f r e g u e n t l y the t a r g e t of s o c i a l i n v e r s i o n which c a s t s them i n t o r i d i c u l e f o r both p e r s o n a l and p r o f e s s i o n a l f a i l i n g s . Although f a r l e s s e x a l t e d than a king* these men enjoyed a p o s i t i o n of p r e s t i g e i n the s o c i e t y and assumed a s u p e r i o r a t t i t u d e v i s - i | - v i s the l e s s educated. The e n v i a b l y p r i v i l e g e d p o s i t i o n of the p r o f e s s i o n a l s c h o l a r i s noted by one of Beroalde's speakers. A f t e r a s c h o l a r , "Durandus", makes a s a c r i l e g i o u s pun, "Marot" complains, " S i j ' a v o i s d i t c e l a je s e r o i s gaste, a i n s i t o u t est permis aux d c c t e u r s " (1:114). Again, l i k e t h a t of C a r n i v a l , the .dominant a t t i t u d e i n Le Mo_yen de P a r v e n i r i s a popular, u n s o p h i s t i c a t e d d e l i g h t i n the h u m i l i a t i o n of the p r i v i l e g e d i n t e l l e c t u a l s . The n a r r a t o r e s t a b l i s h e s that he i s not one of t h i s group, " j e ne s u i s pas de ces p e t i t s dcctcreaux, dent i t e s t e s c r i t , J'ay une t e s t e de Docteur a d i s n e r " (1:58). He i s 207 also proud that h i s book i s not pedantic l i k e e t h e r s : ". , . vous ne t r o u v e r e z p o i n t en cecy du truandage de pedentisme, comme es autres, p l a i n e s du ravedage de f c l l e d o c t r i n e g ui n'apporte p o i n t a d i s n e r " (1:51). The l i n k he e s t a b l i s h e s between hi m s e l f and the common people a g a i n s t the i n t e l l e c t u a l s i s strengthened by h i s i n s i s t e n c e on us i n g French i n p l a c e o f L a t i n which the common people do not understand: "Bisons en bon Frang o i s sans gue r i e n nous eschappe" (I:140). Elsewhere he s t a t e s : "Par d e s p i t , je di r a y mon h i s t o i r e en langage gue tout l e monde entendra . . ." (1:178). However, the p e r s i s t e n c e with which he d e n i g r a t e s learned men, both with c a r n i v a l e s g u e mockery and i n more s e r i o u s c r i t i c i s m , leads the reader to suspect that Beroalde's own o b s e r v a t i o n on those who c r i t i c i z e o t h ers can be a p p l i e d to hi m s e l f , f o r he too i s an i n t e l l e c t u a l : "Ordinairement ceux gui mesdisent de P r e s t r e s ou de M i n i s t r e s , en ont este, S ce g u ' i l s en d i s e n t de mal, e s t pour f a i r e c r o i r e g u ' i l s en sont e s l o i g n e z " (11:189). It i s perhaps the s c h o l a r i n him t h a t makes Beroalde devcte so much of h i s n a r r a t i v e t o them. l i k e Eeroalde, l e a r n e d men are o f t e n churchmen as w e l l , and j u s t as i n h i s c a p a c i t y as churchman he i s abl e to see the f a i l i n g s of the r e l i g i o u s l i f e , he i s a l s o able to e f f e c t i v e l y c a r i c a t u r e the weak po i n t s i n the l i v e s c f i n t e l l e c t u a l s . Beroalde adopts a t r a d i t i o n a l c a r n i v a l e s g u e approach to s c h o l a r s i n much cf 208 h i s work r and i n t h i s he assumes the r c l e of the common man who regards the sage as f o o l i s h , l a z y and w i l l f u l l y incomprehensible. One way of mocking the sage i s to portray him as a f o o l , the opposite of what he a s p i r e s to be. T h i s may be done by a simple e p i t h e t , j u x t a p o s i n g two c o n t r a s t i n g terms, "sage/fou", as i s f r e g u e n t l y seen i n the comic t h e a t r e and the f o o l - s o c i e t i e s . * o S c h o l a r s i n Le Moyen de P a r v e n i r are repe a t e d l y l a b e l l e d with t h i s t r a d i t i o n a l oxymoron. They are r e f e r r e d to as "messieurs l e s gens de l e t t r e s , gui sont s i tres-sgavans g u ' i l s en sent tout s o t s " (1:7); they are made to look so b e s t i a l and f o o l i s h t h a t even the d e v i l s laugh at them: ". . . l a plus p a r t de nos scavans . . . sent tant veaux, gue l e s d i a b l e s aux heures de r e c r e a t i o n en font des contes pour r i r e " ( I : 1 2 9 ) . 4 1 One exasperated speaker uses the formula to p u l l the l e a r n e d men down from t h e i r p e d e s t a l s , and then f l i p p a n t l y .wishes them even f u t h e r down cn the v e r t i c a l plane by sending them to the D e v i l : " c e s t e c a n a i l l e de sages nous f e r a devenir f e u s , au D i a b l e 1*importunity de ces pedans!" (I:170). Not only are the learned men degraded by d i r e c t i n s u l t s and e p i t h e t s which accuse them of incompetence, but they themselves appear i n c a r i c a t u r e d form t c i l l u s t r a t e the i n v e r s i o n of t h e i r r e p u t a t i o n s . I t i s as though these personages have been given a r c l e to play i n a s o t i e . They enter draped i n the robes of wisdom, but soon r e v e a l the 209 v a r i e g a t e d costume of the f o o l beneath. Beroalde r e v e a l s the key to t h i s p a t t e r n of i n v e r s i o n as he muses, "pensez l a b e l l e chose gue c ' e s t de mettre.des igncrans au rang des doctes, c'est pour a v o i r de b e l l e s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s " (1:173). T h i s s u g g e s t i o n i s brought to l i f e by s e v e r a l examples. E a r l y i n the t e x t , learned men attempt to e x p l a i n the cause of the d i s a s t r o u s times which have b e f a l l e n the country; t h e i r answers r e v e a l them to be t o t a l l y i l l o g i c a l i n t h e i r reasoning, and e g u a l l y as i r r a t i o n a l i n the r e s u l t i n g e x p l a n a t i o n s . T h e i r p a t t e r n of thought reads l i k e a f a r c i c a l cog.-|-I2|ne_: Voyez combien desja en sont venus de t r o u b l e s , g uerres, maux, v e r o l e s & t e l l e s p e t i t e s mignardises g u i c h a t o u i l l e n t malheureusement l e s perscnnes pour l e s f a i r e r i r e . Tant de sages q u i e s t u d i e n t aux avantures a t t r i b u e n t t e l s e f f e c t s a d'autres causes, comme au retranchement des d i x j o u r s , * 2 depuis quoy on n'a f a i t vendanges que par r e n c o n t r e de s a i s c n , aux p u l l u l a t i o n s d ' h e r e s i e s , depuis l e s q u e l l e s l e s bosses n'ont peu e s t r e p l a t t e s , aux r e v o l t e s des grands gui sent oc c a s i o n gue f i l l e t t e s ont hante l e s c l o i s t r e s , S l e s menagers l e s tavernes, aux haussement des t a i l l e s , durant guoy l e s v i e i l l e s gens ne f o n t gue r e c h i g n e r , & i n f i n i t e z a u t res s o t i s e s , . . . . (1:1) An account of an academic debate held by s i g n language i n Geneva lowers a sage f a r beneath the l e v e l of a b s t r a c t ideas and shows h i s thoughts to be only t h r e a t s of p h y s i c a l v i o l e n c e . 4 3 In t h i s debate one of the c o n t e s t a n t s i s a m i l l e r dressed i n "une robbe m i n i s t r a l e 8 un bonnet c o n s i s t o r i a l " . He assumes the pose of a P r o t e s t a n t i n t e l l e c t u a l f o r the o c c a s i o n . The other i s a s^avant i n 210 r e s i d e n c e at Geneva, They d i s p u t e on a p l a t f o r m i n f r o n t cf an audience, and a f t e r a few questions the sage concedes defeat. "Adonc l e sgavant t o u t r a v i en admiration se r e t i r a , puis d i t g u ' i l a v a i t trcuve l e p l u s docte homme du mcnde:.& tant gue ce b r u i t a dure", l ' e s c o l e de Geneve a este' en r e p u t a t i o n " (11:207). S c h o l a s t i c argument must have seemed j u s t so much hocus-pocus to the average man, and even t c the c y n i c a l l y shrewd observer. In t h i s case i t turns out to be e x a c t l y t h a t , f o r when the m i l l e r i s taken a s i d e and asked to e x p l a i n the proceedings, he confirms any doubts that the debate had high or complex meaning: V o i r e , c ' e s t un f i n homme, i l m'a menace de m'arracher l e s deux yeux, & m'enlever l e nez, 6 je l u i ay mcnstre' l e poing avec guoi je 1'assommerois; & comme i l m'a veu en c o l e r e , i l m'a presente une pomme pour m'appaiser comme un e n f a n t , je l u i ay f a i t v o i r que je n'avois que f a i r e de l u i , & que j ' a v o i s du pain qui v a l l o i t mieux. (11:207) The "debate" had a c t u a l l y been only a s t r i n g c f i n s u l t s and t h r e a t s to do b o d i l y harm to the other. In lowering himself to the l e v e l of common i n s u l t s , the sage r e v e a l s himself to be the i n v e r s e of the image expected of him. P r e t e n t i o u s language and academic jargon provide another way to mock the l e t t e r e d c l a s s . The language used ty poets, academicians, t h e o l o g i a n s and a l c h e m i s t s becomes the o b j e c t of parody. Again, the author looks at i t from the i n s i d e , as one who knows how r i d i c u l o u s and clumsy s c h o l a s t i c s t y l e can become i n the grasp of some who use i t . He views i t from the o u t s i d e , however, posing as an 211 uneducated member of s o c i e t y who cannot understand the jargon, the f a u l t y L a t i n , nor the complex language, and judges i t a l l to be p r e t e n t i o u s and r i d i c u l o u s . " A l l o n s v i s t e " , the host urges, " l a scuppe se mange, je p i n d a r i s e , je c u i d o i s d i r e on mange l a souppe" ( 1 : 8 ) . At another moment one speaker announces, " j ' e n t r e en f u r e u r poetigue", followed by a doggerel rhyme (11:242). A ser v a n t g i r l ' s i m i t a t i o n of a verse by Ronsard to Cassandre humorously mocks the poet and h i s work. I t a l s o i l l u s t r a t e s the way the uneducated i n t e r p r e t poetry: "L'autre jour nostre servante c h a n t o i t un a i r de Ronsard, ou i l y a, D'un g o s i e r , Sc. I l l e d i s o i t : 'D'un g o s i e r , mange l e u r i e r , j'cy c r i e r dans l e c o f f r e ma Calandre.'" (11:232).** The h i g h l y r e f i n e d , jgrecieux manner cf speaking which developed i n a r i s t o c r a t i c c i r c l e s and c e r t a i n p o e t i c groups during the l a t e XVIth century a l s o becomes the c b j e c t c f parody i n Le Hoyen de P a r v e n i r . T h i s complex and r e f i n e d l i n g u i s t i c s t y l e i s c a t e g o r i z e d as " p o e t i c " , and i t i s a poet, J o d e l l e , * 5 who i n i t i a t e s the i n v e r s i o n . By c r i t i c i z i n g the a r t i f i c i a l language of another guest who i s a l s o a poet he t r a n s f e r s the d e s c r i p t i o n of the language t c a c c r p c r a l plane and exaggerates the p r e t e n t i o u s tone .to make i t appear r i d i c u l o u s . Another speaker, " T a c i t e " , i n t e r r u p t s t c s o f t e n t h i s c r i t i c i s m of the "poet" by admi t t i n g t h a t while he i s u n n e c e s s a r i l y i n d i r e c t , he means w e l l : J o d e l l e , Quand je vous oy a i n s i p a i l l a r d e r s ur 212 v c s t r e outrecuidance de bien d i r e , i l m'est ad v i s gue vous me p i s s e z aux o r e i l l e s ; gue d i a b l e ne p a r l e z vous d r o i t sans a l l e r a i n s i leschonnant l e s f r i p p c n n e r i e s du sot langage. Je pense vous oyant, e s t r e aupres du beau s a i n c t Jean, r a c o n t a n t comme i l f u t a l a chasse, "Nous apperceusmes l e Lepcre g ui s ' e s t o i t manifeste": mais pource g u ' i l se r e i n t e g r a , ncus ne l e peusmes apprehender." C'est comme ces Eadaux de P a r i s a l a b a t a i l l e de S e n l i s , g u i ayant l e u r s hastens a f e u sur l e haut de l ' e s c h i n e , demandoient: "Ou est l'a d v e r s e p a r t i e , e l l e ne comparoistre pas?" Enccr l a Gcibaude p a r l a mieux venant a monsieur l e Gouverneur pour s'excuser de l a taxe ou l'on l ' a v o i t employee pour l e s f o r t i f i c a t i o n s : "Monseigneur, j e s u i s une pauvre femme en veuvesse, je vous p r i e a v o i r p i t i e S compcncticn de moy, on m'a tr o p c a u t e r i s e e pour l e s f o r n i c a t i o n s . " T a c i t e . L a i s s e z d i r e nostre poete: gue voulez^ vcus, l e bon preud'hcmme i l s a v a t t e n o s t r e langage, t o u t e f o i s i l d i t bien, mais i l va un peu de coste'. (II:9) The author mocks the language and incompetence cf academicians i n an e a r l y comment, s t a t i n g t h a t they are not to be given much a t t e n t i o n , although they w i l l be seen about t h e i r r i d i c u l o u s work. "Mais j e vous p r i e ne .vous amusez pas a ces messieurs l e s gens de l e t t r e s , gui sent s i t r e s - sgavans g u ' i l s en sont tout s o t s . Vous l e s v e r r e z h a l l e b a r d a n s avec de grands lambeaux de L a t i n e f f a r c u c h a n s l e s f a u v e t t e s " (1:7-8). In an a s i d e to s c h o l a r s a f t e r he has in c l u d e d a L a t i n phrase i n the t e x t , the author says: "S dea je p a r l e aux doctes s ' i l s l e peuvent entendre" (11:250), thus i n s i n u a t i n g t h a t they would not be a b l e t c understand L a t i n . T r a v e s t i e d b i t s of s c h o l a s t i c l a t i n are heard from time to time i n oth e r c o n v e r s a t i o n s as w e l l , sometimes as i n the f o l l o w i n g example where rhyming nonsense words suggesting a v a r i a t i o n on cornu (cuckold) r e p l a c e the L a t i n : 213 • " c o r n i f e t u , c o r n i f e t u , mon amy,' c'est a d i r e , gucd d i f f e r t u r , non a u f e r t u r " ( I I : 2 3 1 ) . 4 7 T h i s p a r t i c u l a r example e l i c i t s a response from another speaker: "Comme vous p a r l e z L a t i n " (11:231). The o p i n i o n t h a t s c h o l a s t i c L a t i n h i n d e r s r a t h e r than f a c i l i t a t e s the f o r m u l a t i o n and communication c f ideas i s expressed ty a personnage r e f e r r e d t c as " N i c . Nan." In response to a c r i t i c i s m by "Ramus": Ramus. Que ne d i t t e s - v o u s c e l a en L a t i n ? Raphelangius se moguera encores de vous t a n t vous es t e s s o t . Nic. Nan. C'est assez, mon bon maistre; j'ay, ccmme d i s o i t Ambroise Pare', assez de L a t i n t o u t f a i t , mais je n'en s g a u r o i s f a i r e gu'a f i n e f o r c e . Au D i a b l e l e L a t i n , i l m'a tout enmusigue l a f e s s u r e de 1'entendoire, S p a r f o i s je s u i s vrayement un grand s ot. (I I : 175) Beroalde conveys by example the d u l l and ponderous medium i n which these men work. The p r e t e n t i o n and o b s c u r i t y which penetrates t h e i r language c o n t r a s t s s t r a n g e l y with the l i v e l y and n a t u r a l d i a l o g u e i n most of the book. In an i l l u s t r a t i o n of belaboured s c h o l a s t i c s t y l e the n a r r a t o r addresses h i s p u b l i c i n a harangue overloaded with dependant c l a u s e s , unnessesary r e p e t i t i o n , and e l a b o r a t e d e t a i l , a l l of which leads to a f i n a l d e s c r i p t i v e image of the wisdcm being passed along as akin t o a pound of b u t t e r : . . La vraye matiere, S l a j u s t e g u i n t e essence dont l e magifigue usage est t e l , gue l'on v i e n t en l'obtenant a bout de toutes e n t r e p f i s e s , on o b t i e n t , en l' a y a n t , ce qu'on pourchasse, & on f a i t ce gu'cn veut. Parguoy vous avez en sommes succintement tout du long, proportionnement au p e t i t pied 6 sans a l l e g c r i e , l e s elemens, p r i n c i p e s , fondemens, r a i s o n s , r e s o l u t i o n s , e v i d e n c e s , puissances 6 causes de p a r v e n i r tout du long a 1'usage de Geneve, imprime a Rome, & 214 sans r i e n r e g u e r i r , comme une g n i l l e de beurre f r a i s . (1:166-67) Beroalde i s pleased t o be able to o f f e r h i s work to the people i n the language which they can understand, thus r e v e r s i n g the a l i e n a t i o n f o s t e r e d by s c h o l a r s between the people and knowledge. He even suggests keeping t h i s knowledge from the s c h o l a r s i n an urgent monologue which erupts i n t o a c o l o u r f u l i n v e c t i v e a g a i n s t those who hoard and abuse s c i e n c e ; . s u c h men are degraded by comparison with f o o l s , animals, and c r i m i n a l s : CE LIVRE EST LE CENTRE DE TOUS LES LIVRES; v c i l a l a paro l e s e c r e t t e g u i d o i t e s t r e descouverte au temps . d ' H e l i e , a i n s i que d i s e n t l e s A l c h e m i s t e s ; tenez l e f o r t cach4 S vous gardez des pates pelues de ces enf a r i n e z , *** g u i gcurmandent l a sc i e n c e 8 l ' e m p l i s s e n t d'abbus: estrangez vous de ces p i f r e s presomptueux, g u i voyans l e s bonnes personnes d e s i r e u s e s de se c a l f e u t r e r l e cerveau d'un peu de bonne l e c t u r e 8 p r o f i t a b l e s'en s c a n d a l i s e n t : chassez ces escorcheurs de l a t i n , ces e s c a r t e l e u x de sentences, ces -maguereaux de passages poetiques q u ' i l s p r oduisent 8 p r c s t i t u e n t a tous venans; gardez-vous de ces e n t r e l a r d e u r s de Th e o l o g i e a l e g o r i q u e , de ces effondreux d'argumens, 8 de tous ceux gui a i g u i s e n t l e s remonstrances sur l a meule d ' h y p o c r i s i e ; fuyez t e l l e s bestes, 6 ne l e u r communiguez p o i n t ce rare t h r e s o r , a i n s l e commettez a gens de bien, comme gens de bien cnt p r i s l a peine de l e vous donner, non pour en abuser . . . . (1:51-52) Some of the mockery i s d i r e c t e d s p e c i f i c a l l y a t the al c h e m i s t s , with whom Beroalde a l s o had f i r s t hand a c g u a i n t a n c e . s o In an example of p h y s i c a l i n v e r s i o n a l c h e m i s t s are r i d i c u l e d as "ces t r i s t e s enfumez . desguels l e c u l p a r o i s t pour mieux s c u f f l e r " (1:165), c r are dismissed as f o o l s , "fous de haute a l k i m i e " (1:223), and 215 t h e i r t rue m o t i v a t i o n i s exposed as a v a r i c e or l u s t . Examples of garbled a l c h e m i c a l jargon parody the e s o t e r i c terms used by those seekers of the P h i l o s o p h e r ' s Stcne. A l c h e m i c a l . e x p r e s s i o n s such as " g u i n t e s s e n t i e l l e m e n t " , " l a cinguieme essence n e c e s s a i r e " , " s o p c r i f e r e n t e s " confuse the tex t during such parodies (I:161). F i n a l l y , they are made to mock themselves: "Je r e v i e n s a ceste p i e r r e " , says an u n i d e n t i f i e d a l c h e m i s t , "d'autant gue je s u i s alguemiste, a u s s i l e s alguemistes ont l a p i e r r e en l a t e s t e " (II: 147) . C r i t i c i s m of unworthy a l c h e m i s t s can be found elsewhere i n Be'roalde's w r i t i n g s as w e l l , although nowhere i s i t t r e a t e d with the comic tone of Le Moyen de P a r v e n i r . 5 1 The laughing e g u a l i z a t i o n of the s o c i a l h i e r a r c h y does not stop with the s a t i r i c a l exposure of the famous guests, the p o l i t i c a l e l i t e , and the i n t e l l e c t u a l s . There i s i n f a c t hardly a group i n s o c i e t y which i s not touched by some form of mockery. For example the medical p r o f e s s i o n , with which Beroalde again was a s s o c i a t e d , i s humorously berated. The most t y p i c a l degradation i n t h e i r case i s cne suggested by the s c a t o l o g i c a l d i a g n o s t i c procedures of the p r o f e s s i o n . In these comments the reader's a t t e n t i o n i s d i r e c t e d from the purpose of the d i a g n o s i s to the m a t e r i a l the doctor must examine: ". . . Comme l e s Medecins g u i regardent 6 espluchent . l e s e j e c t i o n s des a u t r e s " (1:21); they are s i m i l a r l y a s s o c i a t e d i n a passing comment: ". . . l a merde, c e l a eut bien s e r v i aux medecins" (11:147). Sometimes they 216 are r i d i c u l e d i n other ways, such as i n the f o l l o w i n g case i n which an aged peasant plays a joke on a surgeon: l e c h i r u r g i e n v i t un v i e l paysan gui se p l a i g n o i t d'une douleur en l a joue', "C, luy d i t - i l , v i e n , je te l a g u a r i r a y , je t ' a r r a c h e r a y l a dent gui te f a i t mal. --Pargoy vous ne s c a u r i e z . --Pardienne s i f e r a y . --Je gage demi escu gue non, l e v c i l a . --Je gage gue s i . — O r , a l l o n s . " Quand i l s f u r e n t en l a boutigue, & gue l e p a t i e n t sur l a c h a i r e , l e b a r b i e r se met a regarder en sa bcuche, 8 n'y trouva aucune dent; "Et gu'est-ce, d i t - i l , gue c e l a ? — C ' e s t gue j'ay gaigne, d i t l e pied g r i s , i l y a p l u s de dix ans gue je n'ay pas une dent." (II:84) N e i t h e r are the tradesmen n e g l e c t e d ; they tco are denounced as dishonest and unworthy, then c o m i c a l l y i n v e r t e d . In some examples complaints are i s s u e d against a range of p r o f e s s i o n s at once. Everyone i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by the opposite of h i s p r o f e s s i o n ' s i d e a l v i r t u e : ". . L ' i n f i d e l i t e des marchands, l a deslcyaute des gens de J u s t i c e , l e s impostures des Medecins, l e s v o l l e r i e s des F i n a n c i e r s , l a tromperie des a r t i s a n s , l a p e r f i d i e des Precepteurs . . . Toutes ces s o r t e s ne sont pas gens de b i e n " (1:215). With the l e v e l l i n g of s o c i a l c l a s s d i s t i n c t i o n s human r e l a t i o n s h i p s are a l s o e q u a l i z e d . Everyone i s humorously revealed to be e q u a l l y s u s c e p t i b l e to p r e t e n t i o u s p o s t u r i n g , to devious self-advancement and p a r t i c u l a r l y tc the demands and l i m i t a t i o n s of the human body. Once t h i s u n i v e r s a l e q u a l i t y i s e s t a b l i s h e d , a new permissive m o r a l i t y emerges, f o l l o w i n g the p a t t e r n of f e s t i v a l , as these u n i v e r s a l human g u a l i t i e s are being e s t a b l i s h e d , the a t t i t u d e c f B e r c a l d e ' s 217 p r a n d i a l group becomes more a p p a r e n t l y t h a t c f a C a r n i v a l crowd. C o n s i s t e n t l y , r i g i d i t y i s the o b j e c t c f a t t a c k , and the weapon of r i d i c u l e i s employed ag a i n s t those who d e v i a t e from the f e s t i v e norm of f l e x i b i l i t y and open g r a t i f i c a t i o n cf d e s i r e s . The treatment of two opposing a t t i t u d e s towards sexual indulgence t y p i f i e s the s o c i a l i z i n g method behind the l a u g h t e r and mockery. The two o p i n i o n s , r i g i d r e p r e s s i o n cf the body and l i b e r a t e d i n d u l g e n c e , are most c l e a r l y presented i n the many comments and t a l e s about women, si n c e women i n Le Moyen de P a r v e n i r are d e p i c t e d e i t h e r as prudes or p r o s t i t u t e s , i l l u s t r a t i n g the extreme of each a t t i t u d e . If a woman has a r e p u t a t i o n as a "femme de b i e n " , she i s derided as f o o l i s h and c o l d , but i f she takes a l o v e r she l o s e s any c l a i m t o moral v i r t u e and f i n d s h e r s e l f the o b j e c t of d e r i s i o n and mockery. I f she i s d i s c r e t e about body f u n c t i o n s , she i s mocked, but i f d e p i c t e d performing them she i s c o m i c a l l y degraded. The commentary presents both the p e r v e r s i o n s of those who r e p r e s s t h e i r s e n s u a l i t y and humorous cases of f a i l u r e to suppress n a t u r a l impulses. In an e f f o r t t o separate themselves from b o d i l y f u n c t i o n s , some women d e s c r i b e d i n Eeroalde's anecdotes adopt a r e s e r v e d and d i s c r e t e a t t i t u d e . T h i s a t t i t u d e , which seeks to a v o i d not only sexual a c t i v i t y , but other f u n c t i o n s of the body such as d i g e s t i o n and e l i m i n a t i o n c r e a t e s an a l i e n a t i o n between mind and body which C a r n i v a l seeks to 218 heal. Those who attempt to place themselves above p h y s i c a l n e c e s s i t i e s are q u i c k l y brought down to the common l e v e l . They are reminded, as i s "Le M o r t e l " a b o v e , 5 2 that t h e i r bodies f u n c t i o n l i k e a l l o t h e r s , human or even animal. Two of the bangueters d i s c u s s feminine prudery, and speculate on whether women would l i k e t c be r i d of the o f f e n d i n g p a r t s c f t h e i r bodies: "Vrament v o i r e , pensez-vcus g u ' e l l e s s e r o i e n t a i s e s s i e l l e s n'avoient p o i n t de c u l ? " ( 1 1 : 1 6 9 ) . 3 3 Other banqueters r e l a t e s a t i r i c a l l y t h a t there are schools i n Geneva t h a t help women overcome the shame of such f u n c t i o n s . (1:180), and th a t i n Alsace, f a r from f e e l i n g h u m i l i a t e d by such f u n c t i o n s , the women gather together to perform them i n p u b l i c : " . . . & c' e s t au Vendredi gue e l l e s s'assemblent au matin toutes par bandes. . . E sel o n l e u r dignite* s'en vont en p i s s e r i e comme on va a l a f o i r e " (1:179). The r e s u l t c f t h e i r a c t i v i t y takes on fabulous p r o p o r t i o n s , r e m i n i s c e n t c f the c r e a t i o n of Pyrenean hot s p r i n g s by Pantagruel's u r i n e : 5 * Estant a r r i v e e s ces femmes au l i e u de l a pis s c u e r e cu p i s s o t e r i e , e l l e s se di s p o s e n t comme l e s montagnes d'A n g l e t e r r e chacune ou e l l e e s t , y gardant d i g n i t e z , p r e r o g a t i v e s £ honneur, a i n s i qu'ez actes p u b l i c s S not a b l e s , ne plus ne moins que se mettent l e s c h e v a l i e r s en l e u r rang l e jour de l e u r ceremonie; en ce s t e commodite abondamment, jcyeusement 6 a l a copieuse Benigne decharge des r e i n s , e l l e s vuident l e u r s v e s s i e s & p i s s e n t t a n t gue ce s t e r i v i e r e en e s t f a i t e S co n t i n u e e , 6 de l a l e s Alemans, Flamans & An g l a i s font v e n i r la. bonne eau pour f a i r e l a b i e r e , l a plus double S de plus haut goust. (1:180) 219 A l i e n a t i o n from the body f i n d s i t s most t y p i c a l e x pression i n the image of a proud young woman r i g i d l y warding o f f any a s s o c i a t i o n between h e r s e l f and p h y s i c a l f u n c t i o n s . Such a t t i t u d e s are inc o m p a t i b l e with the f e s t i v e m o r a l i t y of the book and are e i t h e r humorously a l t e r e d cr d i s c r e d i t e d by mockery. One young woman at t e n d i n g a wedding c e l e b r a t i o n i s even a f r a i d to dance or t c approach the refreshment t a b l e f o r f e a r of dishonour: "toutes l e s autres dancoient, S e l l e p o i n t , S ne s ' c s c i t apprccher de l a e o l a t i o n pour f a i r e de l a merde avec l e s dens comme l e s a u t r e s " (1:135). She i s not allowed t c maintain t h i s p o s i t i o n however, and i s t r i c k e d i n t o great i n t i m a c i e s with a w i l y " c o u s i n " (1:135-36). The author mocks the a t t i t u d e of another young woman as she p r u d i s h l y t r i e s to p r o t e c t h e r s e l f from any suggestion which might a s s o c i a t e her with a n i m a l i s t i c g u a l i t i e s . He d e s c r i b e s her condescendingly as "..... Conscience, b e l l e c o u r t i s a n n e , gui ne v o u l o i t pas gue ma p e t i t e chienne f u t une c r e a t u r e , 8 ne l u i p l a i s o i t pas d'es t r e animal: 'Hoy, d i s o i t e l l e , Bichcnne n'est p o i n t c r e a t u r e , 6 je ne s u i s p o i n t a n i m a l ' " (1:266). The n a r r a t o r c l e a r l y f i n d s her d i s d a i n f u l d i s t i n c t i o n n a i v e l y amusing. In Le Moyen de P a r v e n i r the' women who attempt to r e s t r a i n themselves s e x u a l l y i n order tc maintain t h e i r r e p u t a t i o n of "femme de b i e n " are r i d i c u l e d . Such women are accused c f s t u p i d i t y : "ces s o t t e s femmes de bien'? (1:257), of f r i g i d i t y : "vrament e l l e n'aime poin t l e d e s d u i t , a u s s i 220 je ne prens pas p l a i s i r d ' a v o i r a f f a i r e a e l l e " (1:254), and even of i n s a n i t y : " . . . l a f i l l e de n c s t r e Juge, l a g u e l l e est s i p u c e l l e gue son pucelage l u i monte s i f o r t en l a t e s t e g u ' e l l e en est f c l l e " (11:184). s s Such women are f r e g u e n t l y i l l - h u m o u r e d : Qu'est-ce gue peut f a i r e une femme de bien gue du b r u i t en une maiscn? E l l e s ne f o n t gue r e c h i g n e r , e l l e s sont ennemies de tout e x e r c i c e vertueux: b r e f ces tant femmes de b i e n seront pour d i x escus de mesnage en une maison, S y f e r o n t pour cent escus de v i l e n n i e s , tant e l l e s sont seches de c o u r t o i s i e . Depuis gu'une femme a j u r e , "Par l a merci-Dieu je s u i s femme de bien de men corp s ! " On n'en s g a u r o i t plus c h e v i r , on ne l u i cse pl u s r i e n d i r e . (11:35) They are a l s o h y p o c r i t i c a l as other accounts r e v e a l . Following the account of a p r i e s t ' s maid who b i t t e r l y complains that she has been raped by three men of the town, the honourable wife of a s o l i d c i t i z e n c o l d l y d i s p l a y s an a t t i t u d e of s t u d i e d h y p o c r i s y : . . . l a f i l l e se p l a i g n o i t g u ' e l l e a v o i t este' a i n s i devergondee; 6 on l e c o n t o i t a guelgues honnestes femmes: en l a compagnie e s t o i t l a femme d'un P r e s i d e n t , gui oyant ce conte de t a n t de f o i s , r e s p o n d i t S d i t : "flu D iable s o i t l a carogne tant e l l e e s t c i t a i s e ! Cela n ' a d v i e n d r o i t pas s i t o s t a une femme de b i e n . " (1:319) As f o r the o p p o s i t e group of women, those who c a n d i d l y take pleasure i n t h e i r b o d i e s , they are a l l c l a s s i f i e d i n s u l t i n g l y under the ge n e r a l l a b e l of p r o s t i t u t e . T h i s i n s u l t i s an a g g r e s s i v e a c t , attempting to degrade the woman's p u b l i c image. While the way t c i n s u l t a man i s through an a f f r o n t to h i s v i r i l i t y , a woman i s attacked ty accusing her of l a x sex u a l mores. T h i s d i s t i n c t i o n i s noted 221 by one of the s peakers: "Pouquoy e s t - c e gue quand cn nomme un homme sot i l s'estime coquu? & s i on a p p e l l e une femme vesse, e l l e pensera e s t r e p u t a i n ? " ( I I : 168-69)* A name- c a l l i n g match between husband and wife shews that each i s aware of the other's v u l n e r a b i l i t y : "'Ha p u t a i n , f i t - i l . 'Fa coguu,' f i t - e l l e . 'Ha ha,» f i t - i l . 'A a,' f i t - e l l e . " ' (I: 256) . Beroalde's speakers f r e q u e n t l y s p r i n k l e t h e i r c o l o u r f u l d i a l o g u e s on the t o p i c of women with t h i s i n s u l t . Once the a f f r o n t has been unleashed, however, the a t t i t u d e towards these women i s s u r p r i s i n