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Another chance : some sociological conditions of juvenile probation in a family court Darrough, William D. 1975

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ANOTHER CHANCE:  SOME SOCIOLOGICAL CONDITIONS  OF JUVENILE PROBATION IN A FAMILY COURT  by  WILLIAM D. DARROUGH B.A., W h i t t i e r C o l l e g e , 1965 M.S.W., U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a , B e r k e l e y , 1967  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE  REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY  i n the Department of Anthropology  We a c c e p t t h i s required  THE  and S o c i o l o g y  t h e s i s as conforming  to t h e  standard  UNIVERS£F£> OF BRITISH COLUMBIA May, 1975  In p r e s e n t i n g  this  thesis  an advanced degree at the I  Library  shall  f u r t h e r agree  for  scholarly  by h i s of  written  thesis  make i t  that permission  for  It  financial  Columbia,  I agree  r e f e r e n c e and  f o r e x t e n s i v e copying o f  is understood that gain s h a l l  Anthropology and Sociology  University of B r i t i s h  6-6-75  for  the requirements  this  Columbia  not  copying o r  for  that  study. thesis  purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department  2075 Wesbrook P l a c e V a n c o u v e r , Canada V6T 1W5  Date  freely available  permission.  Department of The  fulfilment of  the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h  representatives.  this  in p a r t i a l  or  publication  be allowed without my  ii  ABSTRACT  Although  t h e r e i s an e x t e n s i v e p r o f e s s i o n a l - s o c i a l  l i t e r a t u r e on j u v e n i l e p r o b a t i o n , t h e r e a r e few work r o u t i n e s of p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r s .  scientific  e m p i r i c a l s t u d i e s of normal  The p r e s e n t r e s e a r c h was  examine j u v e n i l e p r o b a t i o n i n a f a m i l y c o u r t bureaucracy  designed  to  as a p r a c t i c a l ,  interactionally-based enterprise. The ily  court.  quiry.  t h e s i s r e p o r t s on two years of f i e l d work i n a Canadian fam-  The  f i e l d work experience i t s e l f  i s t r e a t e d as a t o p i c of i n -  The p e r c e i v e d i d e n t i t y o f the r e s e a r c h e r as  ' s o c i a l worker' and  'ex-probation o f f i c e r ' a r e shown to have been v a l u a b l e e t h n o g r a p h i c sources.  Records of n a t u r a l l y - o c c u r r i n g i n t e r a c t i o n between p r o b a t i o n  o f f i c e r s and  j u v e n i l e s , probationers, parents, judges, e t c . , are  and a n a l y s e d .  The  i d e o l o g i c a l n o t i o n s of  ' c o o p e r a t i o n ' , and  of  a r e s t u d i e d as p r o c e d u r a l matters  behaviour'  the  'help and  supervision',  concern  re-  'proper u n d e r s t a n d i n g  to p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r s doing p r o b a t i o n .  what i t termed  guidance  and  proper  of the meaning  of p e r v a s i v e and The  presented  practical  problematic status of  'the i d e o l o g i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e of the j u v e n i l e c o u r t movement'  i n the s e t t i n g i s d i s c u s s e d . Competent p r o b a t i o n work i s shown to i n v o l v e the c o n t i n u a l and accountable accomplishing  of c o o p e r a t i o n and u n d e r s t a n d i n g s  t h e - p r a c t i c a l - p u r p o s e s of the p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r . in  t u r n , shown to u n d e r p i n  dane and  unproblematic  adequate-for-  T h i s on-going work i s ,  and make p o s s i b l e the a p p a r e n t l y r o u t i n e , mun-  p r o c e s s i n g of cases by the  Court.  ill  The study p r e s e n t s and a n a l y z e s d a t a which d i s p l a y s t a t u s o f the  critical  'terms o f p r o b a t i o n ' as a d e v i c e par e x c e l l e n c e , w i t h which  the c o o p e r a t i o n and p r o p e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g s i n t e r a c t i o n a l uses trated.  the  are accountably pursued.  of the document In s u p e r v i s i o n and  placement  are  The illus-  iv  TABLE OF CONTENTS  CHAPTER  PAGE  ONE  INTRODUCTION  TWO  OBSERVING PROBATION WORK: WORK AND DATA  THREE  FOUR  FIVE  SIX  SEVEN  BECOMING A PROBATIONER: TERMS  NOTES ON SETTING, FIELD 12  THE LAYING DOWN OF THE  THE TERMS IN USE: THE SOCIAL ORGANIZATION OF PROBATION SUPERVISION  59 96  COOLING A PROBATIONER OUT: THE INTERACTIONAL ACCOMPLISHMENT OF A PROBATION-ADEQUATE UNDERSTANDING OF AND COOPERATION IN 'PLACEMENT' (PART ONE: THE PARENTS)  133  COOLING A PROBATIONER OUT: THE INTERACTIONAL ACCOMPLISHMENT OF A PROBATION-ADEQUATE UNDERSTANDING OF AND COOPERATION IN 'PLACEMENT' (PART TWO: THE PROBATIONER)  180  CONCLUSION  207  BIBLIOGRAPHY  217  APPENDIX  221  V  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  I wish to thank Roy Turner f o r b o t h showing how l i t t l e about j u v e n i l e p r o b a t i o n  and the world i n g e n e r a l  and f o r i n t r o d u c i n g  to an e x c i t i n g and s t i m u l a t i n g way o f p r o c e e d i n g w i t h ethnographic d i s c o v e r y . tical  assistance  throughout the a c t u a l f i e l d work, t h e  Appreciation  Peter,  lengthy  and  prac-  period of  w r i t i n g o f the r e p o r t .  i s a l s o expressed t o :  E l v i Whittaker f o r reading  me  the r e m e d i a l work o f  He was a c o n t i n u a l s o u r c e o f c o n c e p t u a l  g e r m i n a t i o n , and t h e e v e n t u a l  I knew  Bob R a t n e r , J i m  F o r d and  and commenting on t h e r e p o r t ; Mat, Gary, Rudy,  Gene, Ron, Dorothy, and Bruce f o r t h e i r s e m i n a r i a l  assistance;  L a r r y , M a r i o n and A r t f o r t h e i r s o u t h e r n h o s p i t a l i t y and encouragement; G a l e f o r t y p i n g , and e s p e c i a l l y Masako and Shannon (and e x c e l l e n t day c a r e centers  i n two c o u n t r i e s )  for survival.  F i n a l l y I acknowledge a p a r t i c u l a r debt t o the v a r i o u s o f the f a m i l y possible.  c o u r t b u r e a u c r a c y whose h e l p  members  and g u i d a n c e made t h e r e p o r t  vi  THIS APPEAL A TRIFLE LATE  TORONTO (CP) - (The d e f e n d a n t ) , 21, o f M o n t r e a l , asked f o r a second chance "to prove t h a t t h i s s o r t o f t h i n g w i l l never happen a g a i n " when he pleaded g u i l t y to s t e a l i n g a newspaper. But he had s t o l e n a newspaper once b e f o r e , i n Vancouver. M a g i s t r a t e Hugh F o s t e r sentenced him to 30 days.  1  CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION  The  f o l l o w i n g quotes r e f l e c t r a d i c a l l y d i f f e r e n t c o n c e p t i o n s o f  the tasks c o n f r o n t i n g the s o c i o l o g i c a l student of d e v i a n t  behaviour.  The framework...is designed to p r o v i d e one s y s t e m a t i c approach to the a n a l y s i s o f s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l sources of d e v i a n t b e havior. Our primary aim i s to d i s c o v e r how some s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e s e x e r t a d e f i n i t e p r e s s u r e upon c e r t a i n persons i n the s o c i e t y to engage i n non-conforming r a t h e r than conforming conduct. I f we can l o c a t e groups p e c u l i a r l y s u b j e c t to such p r e s s u r e s , we should expect to f i n d f a i r l y h i g h r a t e s o f dev i a n t b e h a v i o r i n these groups, not because t h e human b e i n g s comprising them a r e compounded o f d i s t i n c t i v e b i o l o g i c a l t e n dencies b u t because they a r e responding n o r m a l l y to the s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n i n which they f i n d themselves. Our p e r s p e c t i v e i s sociological. We l o o k a t v a r i a t i o n s i n the r a t e s o f d e v i a n t b e h a v i o r , not a t i t s i n c i d e n c e (Merton, 1957: 147). A q u e s t i o n l i k e "What ' f o r c e s ' m o t i v a t e o r s t r u c t u r e t h e ent r a n c e i n t o d e l i n q u e n t a c t i v i t y ? " misses the g e n e r a l r e l e v a n c e of the problem o f p r a c t i c a l r e a s o n i n g that j u v e n i l e s engage i n when p u r s u i n g d a i l y a c t i v i t i e s , how the p o l i c e and p r o b a t i o n o f f i c i a l s a r e drawn i n t o c o n t a c t w i t h j u v e n i l e s , and how the p o l i c e o r p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r s d e c i d e t h a t p a r t i c u l a r events f a l l under g e n e r a l p o l i c i e s o r r u l e s r e l e v a n t . A s i m p l e r e f e r e n c e to " f o r c e s " o r " s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e " or " v a l u e s " imposes an o r d e r i n s t e a d o f s e e k i n g to d i s c o v e r the nature o f s o c i a l l y o r g a n i z e d a c t i v i t i e s ( C i c o u r e l , 1968: 169). The  first  statement  and Anomie", an extremely  i s from Robert  K. Merton's " S o c i a l S t r u c t u r e  i n f l u e n t i a l paper p u b l i s h e d i n 1938, i n which  he o u t l i n e d a working paradigm which informed much subsequent and  r e s e a r c h i n the f i e l d .  'juvenile delinquency' with  theorizing  F o r example, a good d e a l o f the work on  d u r i n g the ensuing y e a r s was p r i m a r i l y  concerned  the l o c a t i o n o f s t r u c t u r a l or c u l t u r a l c o n d i t i o n s u n d e r l y i n g and/or  producing  'delinquent' o r 'criminal'  behaviour.  2  C i c o u r e l ' s much more r e c e n t statement  i s p a r t of a body of  t h e o r i z i n g and e m p i r i c a l r e s e a r c h which e x p l i c i t l y and  consciously r e -  j e c t s some of the p r e s u p p o s i t i o n s embedded i n the M e r t o n i a n  framework,  p r e s u p p o s i t i o n s which a r e claimed to fundamentally m i s c o n c e i v e the t a s k 1 of s o c i o l o g y and m i s d i r e c t i t s p r a c t i t i o n e r s . The p r e f e r r e d t o p i c o f i n q u i r y under the a l t e r n a t i v e paradigm  developed by G a r f i n k e l ,  Cicourel,  and o t h e r s , i s the s i t u a t e d p r a c t i c a l r e a s o n i n g engaged i n by members o f s o c i e t y i n the r o u t i n e accomplishment q u e s t i o n s asked about  of t h e i r everyday a c t i v i t i e s .  The  the s o c i a l world of everyday l i f e d i f f e r a c c o r d i n g l y :  How are members going about the t a s k of i n v e s t i g a t i n g scenes of t h e i r a c t i o n s so t h a t they see and r e p o r t p a t t e r n i n g and s t r u c t u r e i n those scenes? By what procedures a r e d e s c r i p t i o n s being done so that they p o r t r a y order? How i s the f a c t u a l c h a r a c t e r of such accounts e s t a b l i s h e d ? and How i s the sense o f appearance of a world i n common and common u n d e r s t a n d i n g conc e r n i n g i t s shared f e a t u r e s accomplished? (Zimmerman and Wieder, 1970: 290). The p r e s e n t u n d e r t a k i n g r e p r e s e n t s an e m p i r i c a l the above q u e s t i o n s about court bureaucracy. out i n a Canadian  the a c t i v i t y o f  attempt  to ask  'juvenile probation' i n a family  The r e p o r t e d study i s based upon f i e l d work c a r r i e d court.  I n o r d e r to d e s c r i b e and a n a l y s e ' j u v e n i l e p r o -  b a t i o n ' as a p r a c t i c a l a c t i v i t y ,  the r e s e a r c h e r p e r s o n a l l y observed  and  recorded a l l of the a c t i v i t i e s r o u t i n e l y engaged i n by p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r s  1.  See K i t s u s e and C i c o u r e l (1963) and C i c o u r e l (1968) f o r c r i t i q u e s of Merton. The e a r l i e s t development o f the a l t e r n a t i v e , o r ethnometho d o l o g i c a l paradigm may be found i n the c o l l e c t e d papers o f G a r f i n k e l (1967). C i c o u r e l (1964) made an e a r l y attempt to s p e l l out i t s t h e o r e t i c a l and m e t h o d o l o g i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s . For r e p r e s e n t a t i v e examp l e s of work informed by the ethnomethodological paradigm, see Douglas (1970), Sudnow (1972), and Turner (1974).  3  as p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r s . positioned himself routinely  F o r a p e r i o d o f almost two y e a r s , he r e g u l a r l y  i n the v a r i o u s areas where the r e l e v a n t i n t e r a c t i o n s  took p l a c e , i . e . , the w a i t i n g room, h a l l w a y s ,  courtrooms,  t i o n f a c i l i t y , p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r s ' o f f i c e s , j u d g e s ' chambers, e t c . he observed with,  and r e c o r d e d  i . e . , judges,  Observations  the every-day i n t e r a c t i o n s o f p r o b a t i o n  detenThere  officers  supervisors, parents, j u v e n i l e s , probationers, e t c .  i n the above l o c a l e s was f a c i l i t a t e d by the f a c t  juvenile detention h a l l ,  t h a t the  courtrooms and a l l o t h e r c o u r t - p r o b a t i o n  were l o c a t e d i n a s i n g l e complex o f a t t a c h e d b u i l d i n g s .  The d a t a  offices gathered  i n these s e t t i n g s was supplemented by o b s e r v a t i o n s o f i n t e r a c t i o n s between p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r s and j u v e n i l e s , p r o b a t i o n e r s , p a r e n t s , at home, i n school,and  'on the s t r e e t ' .  teachers, etc.,  The attempt was made, i n o t h e r  words, to observe and r e c o r d a l l types of work r e l a t e d a c t i v i t i e s o f p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r s no matter where o r when they o c c u r r e d o r who they i n volved. i.e.,  The everyday b u s i n e s s r e l e a s e d " , p l a c e d on  recorded  of d e t e r m i n i n g  which j u v e n i l e s should be,  p r o b a t i o n ' , p l a c e d , e t c . , was observed and  as f u l l y as p o s s i b l e . During  one o f the years o f f i e l d work, 1970, the c o u r t  3,363 cases which were r e f e r r e d f o r t h e i r a t t e n t i o n . b a s i s o f the r o u t i n e  pre-court i n v e s t i g a t i o n  p r o b a t i o n department i n a l l cases, cause they were found  processed  L a r g e l y upon the  l e g a l l y r e q u i r e d of the  294 (9%) o f the cases were dropped be-  to be l e g a l l y inadequate,  951 (29%) were  'settled  at t h e home l e v e l ' a d i s p o s i t i o n which a c t u a l l y d e s c r i b e s a v a r i e t y of methods by which j u v e n i l e s who admit to d e l i n q u e n c i e s which a r e not deemed to warrant f o r m a l h e a r i n g s  'at t h i s time' a r e p r o c e s s e d ,  and 2,412 (7 2%)  4  were taken through a formal present  r e p o r t w i l l be  hearing  of some k i n d .  A primary focus  the d e s c r i p t i o n , e x p l i c a t i o n , and  of  the  a n a l y s i s of  the  work r o u t i n e s v i a which the accomplishment of such d i s p o s i t i o n s i s p u r sued . Before turning n e c e s s a r y to d i s c u s s this point  to d i s c u s s  two  to the e m p i r i c a l m a t e r i a l s , however, i t w i l l matters.  First,  c e r t a i n f e a t u r e s of  I b e l i e v e i t w i l l be u s e f u l a t the h i s t o r y and  v e n i l e c o u r t s which w i l l l a t e r be shown to p o w e r f u l l y shape the accomplishment of w i l l provide  'probation  an account of my  and  ideology  to d e a l w i t h troublesome y o u t h s .  The erally  traced  significantly  from e a r l y  The  j u v e n i l e c o u r t was  tri-  to the e n t e r p r i s i n g reforms of the j u v e n i l e c o u r t movement 2 movement,  a widespread, amorphous, and  social scientists.  unlikely coalition  l e g i s l a t o r s , s o c i a l workers, p h i l a n -  T h e i r e f f o r t s l e d to the 1899  of j u v e n i l e c o u r t l e g i s l a t i o n i n I l l i n o i s which was 3 a model s t a t u t e by o t h e r s t a t e s and c o u n t r i e s .  3.  a  s t a t u t e to determine the l e g a l s t a t u s o f such c h i l d r e n .  of reform-minded l a w y e r s , p r o g r e s s i v e  Y.  expressly  c r e a t i o n of contemporary j u v e n i l e j u s t i c e systems i s gen-  o r c h i l d savers  t h r o p i s t s , and  Second, I  f i e l d work i n the s e t t i n g under study.  codes i n t h a t they mandate s p e c i a l j u d i c i a l systems which a r e  bunal c r e a t e d by  of j u -  reflexively  work' i n the s e t t i n g .  Contemporary l e g a l s t a t u t e s d i f f e r  designed  be  passage  w i d e l y acknowledged  as  See Young (1937), Tappan (1949) and Mack (1909. For a c r i t i c a l h i s t o r y of the movement see P i a t t (1969), a l s o Fox (1970). See S c h u l t z (1973) f o r an attempt at f u r t h e r r e v i s i o n . An o f f i c i a l government i n q u i r y i n t o the i s s u e s r e l a t e d to j u v e n i l e j u s t i c e i n Canada has suggested that Canadian l e g i s l a t i o n was p a t t e r n e d on the I l l i n o i s l e g i s l a t i o n w i t h m o d i f i c a t i o n s n e c e s s i t a t e d by the B r i t i s h North American A c t (Report of the Department of J u s t i c e . . . , 1967: 29-30).  5  Under t h i s l e g i s l a t i v e p h i l o s o p h y , j u s t i c e was supposed to d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t ways. but  the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of j u v e n i l e  from a d u l t c r i m i n a l c o u r t p r o c e s s  i n many  A c h i l d was not to be 'accused' of 'committing a c r i m e ' ,  a 'delinquency',  and o f f e r e d  'help and guidance' r a t h e r  than punishment.  I n t e r v e n t i o n i n h i s l i f e was not supposed to c a r r y the stigma o f a c r i m i nal  record;  the h e a r i n g s ,  records,  e t c . were to be r e l a t i v e l y p r i v a t e ,  proceedings were to be ' i n f o r m a l ' and due process as a p p l i c a b l e f o r a v a r i e t y of r e a s o n s .  s a f e g u a r d s were not seen  I would now l i k e to d i s c u s s the  w r i t i n g s of v a r i o u s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e spokesmen and/or sympathetic h i s t o r i a n s of the movement i n an attempt to e x p l i c a t e the r a t i o n a l e u n d e r l y i n g the j u v e n i l e court l e g i s l a t i o n .  I will  l a t e r demonstrate the r e l e v a n c e  o f the  i d e o l o g i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e of the j u v e n i l e c o u r t movement to the everyday a c t i v i t i e s of p e r s o n n e l  i n contemporary j u v e n i l e j u s t i c e  systems.  F i r s t , under the i d e o l o g i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e o f the j u v e n i l e c o u r t movement and l e g i s l a t i o n ,  the n o t i o n of ' j u s t i c e ' i s a l t e r e d , a f a c t  which i s o f t e n marked by the use of a s p e c i a l term, i . e . , ' i n d i v i d u a l i z e d ' , ' s o c i a l i z e d ' , or ' p e r s o n a l i z e d ' j u s t i c e .  T r a d i t i o n a l precepts  of  'justice'  were seen as 'outmoded', ' d e f e c t i v e ' o r e s p e c i a l l y ' u n s c i e n t i f i c ' : The c r e a t o r s of the j u v e n i l e c o u r t responded to the s p i r i t o f modern s o c i a l j u s t i c e and regarded law as a l i v i n g , p r o g r e s s i n g , s o c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s u b j e c t to m o d i f i c a t i o n i n accordance w i t h the changing c o n d i t i o n s of l i f e and s c i e n t i f i c thought. Medicine, p s y c h o l o g y , and s o c i o l o g y were thought o f as d i r e c t a i d s i n d e c i d i n g on an adequate c o u r s e of treatment. J u s t i c e i n the j u v e n i l e c o u r t i s not o n l y impersonal and i m p a r t i a l b u t s c i e n tific. The goddess of j u s t i c e , f i g u r a t i v e l y s p e a k i n g , has taken o f f her b l i n d f o l d i n the cases of j u v e n i l e s and l o o k s a t the s o r d i d s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n s , c r i m e - i n f e s t e d a r e a s , s o c i a l and b i o l o g i c a l d i s e a s e , c h i l d l a b o r , ignorance, a c i v i l i z a t i o n i n t r a n s i t i o n p r o d u c i n g p e r s o n a l , s o c i a l , and i n s t i t u t i o n a l d i s o r g a n -  6  ization. The goddess, w i t h f u l l v i s i o n r e s t o r e d , has d e c i d e d t h a t law unaided by o t h e r s o c i a l s c i e n c e s i s n o t competent to decide on a course o f treatment f o r u n f o r t u n a t e , wayward, and d e l i n q u e n t c h i l d r e n who a r e l a r g e l y v i c t i m s o f c i r c u m s t a n c e s and untoward s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n s (Young, 1937: 52-53). Note t h a t " t h e goddess of j u s t i c e " h e r s e l f ( r a t h e r than, ample, the ' p r o g r e s s i v e ' l e g a l and s o c i a l s c i e n t i f i c that the law, unaided  r e f o r m e r s ) , has  seen  by the o t h e r s o c i a l s c i e n c e s i s unequal to the task  of i d e n t i f y i n g and d e a l i n g w i t h 1  f o r ex-  the  problems  which a r e taken  to u n d e r l y  delinquency . 1  A d i r e c t c o r o l l a r y o f the p r o f e s s e d inadequacy o f the j u v e n i l e c o u r t context was t h a t p o s s e s s i o n o f competence, knowledge, e t c . , d i d not, i n i t s e l f , f u n c t i o n adequately  mere  prepare  the law i n  legal  training,  a person to  as a member o f the j u v e n i l e c o u r t s t a f f .  I n response  to a s t a t e supreme c o u r t d e c i s i o n which argued t h a t j u v e n i l e c o u r t law "should be a d m i n i s t e r e d  by those who a r e l e a r n e d i n t h e law and v e r s e d  i n the r u l e s o f procedure,  to the end t h a t the b e n e f i c i e n t purposes o f  the law may be made e f f e c t i v e and i n d i v i d u a l r i g h t s r e s p e c t e d " , a prominent j u v e n i l e c o u r t j u r i s t  and t h e o r e t i c i a n s t a t e d :  He must, however, be more than t h i s . He must be a s t u d e n t of and deeply i n t e r e s t e d i n the problems o f p h i l a n t h r o p y and c h i l d l i f e , as w e l l as a l o v e r o f c h i l d r e n . He must be a b l e to understand the boy's p o i n t of view and i d e a s of j u s t i c e ; he must be w i l l i n g and p a t i e n t enough to s e a r c h o u t t h e u n d e r l y i n g causes of the t r o u b l e and to formulate the p l a n by which, through the c o o p e r a t i o n , o f t times, o f many a g e n c i e s , t h e c u r e may be e f f e c t e d (Mack, 1909: 119) . That the j u v e n i l e c o u r t was i n the b u s i n e s s than  of 'saving' rather  'punishing' d e l i n q u e n t s was an assumption which warranted the n o t i o n  t h a t t r a d i t i o n a l l e g a l concerns would be court:  out of p l a c e  i n the j u v e n i l e  7  The problem f o r d e t e r m i n a t i o n by the judge i s n o t , Has t h i s boy or g i r l committed a s p e c i f i c wrong, but What i s he, how has he become what he i s , and what had b e s t be done i n h i s i n t e r e s t and i n the i n t e r e s t of the s t a t e to save him from a downward c a r e e r (Mack, 1909: 119-120). The v i t i e s of the  judge was  to be a i d e d i n these d e t e r m i n a t i o n s  ' p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r ' and  by  the  acti-  others:  A thorough i n v e s t i g a t i o n , u s u a l l y made by the p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r , w i l l g i v e the c o u r t much i n f o r m a t i o n b e a r i n g on the h e r e d i t y and environment of the c h i l d . T h i s , of c o u r s e , w i l l be s u p p l e mented i n every p o s s i b l e way; but t h i s alone i s not enough. The p h y s i c a l and mental c o n d i t i o n of the c h i l d must be known, f o r the r e l a t i o n s h i p between p h y s i c a l d e f e c t s and c r i m i n a l i t y i s v e r y c l o s e . I t i s , t h e r e f o r e , of the utmost importance t h a t t h e r e be a t t a c h e d to the c o u r t . . . a c h i l d study department where every c h i l d , b e f o r e h e a r i n g , s h a l l be s u b j e c t e d to a thorough p s y c h o - p h y s i c a l examination (Mack 1909: 120). The of the c h i l d .  o v e r r i d i n g i n t e r e s t of the c o u r t was  to a c t  Under t h i s p e r s p e c t i v e , the c o u r t i s p r o v i d i n g  which the j u v e n i l e i s ' e n t i t l e d ' , i . e . , to which he 'legal right'.  ' i n the  T h i s p h i l o s o p h y was  interest'  'help' to  i s seen as h a v i n g  a  l a t e r summarized as f o l l o w s :  The p h i l o s o p h y of c o r r e c t i o n a l work may be summarized i n the f o l l o w i n g terms. Every c h i l d has numerous p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r adjustment to s o c i e t y i f p r o p e r l y t r a i n e d and guided; a c h i l d grows, d e v e l o p s , and gains s o c i a l c o n s c i o u s n e s s through wholesome group p a r t i c i p a t i o n ; a c h i l d ' s misconduct i s i n response to h i s c o n d i t i o n i n g environment, and t h e r e f o r e punishment as such i s f u t i l e , s i n c e the a c t s which he committed may be beyond h i s p h y s i c a l , m e n t a l , and moral c o n t r o l . Every c h i l d has a r i g h t to proper t r a i n i n g and where parents do not and cannot g i v e such t r a i n i n g , the c o u r t must assume the d u t i e s of a s u p e r parent , or .parens p a t r a e (Young, 1937: 53, emphasis added). The  i d e o l o g i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e of the j u v e n i l e c o u r t movement,  t h e r e f o r e , i d e a l i z e d a v e r s i o n of the c o u r t process a d v e r s a r i a l elements.  The  of the c o u r t under present  fact study  which was  purged  of  that such r h e t o r i c shaped the l e g a l mandate i s evidenced  by  the f e d e r a l a c t from which  8  the c o u r t draws i t s powers. business  Note e s p e c i a l l y the a c t ' s t y p i f i c a t i o n of  at hand f o r the j u v e n i l e c o u r t v i s - a - v i s  'delinquent'  the way  the  i n which a  i s to be d e a l t w i t h :  (2) How c h i l d d e a l t w i t h . Where a c h i l d i s adjudged to have committed a d e l i n q u e n c y he s h a l l be d e a l t w i t h , not as an o f f e n d e r , but as one i n a c o n d i t i o n of d e l i n q u e n c y and t h e r e f o r e r e q u i r i n g h e l p and guidance and proper s u p e r v i s i o n ( J u v e n i l e Delinquents A c t ) . Inasmuch as such a c o u r t i s seen as a c t i n g the c h i l d ' and 'help and  ensuring  guidance and  ( r a t h e r than,  t h a t j u v e n i l e s who proper  appear b e f o r e  f o r example, the  nugatory.  i t receive  s u p e r v i s i o n ' to which they have l e g a l 'punishment' they  ' c o n f l i c t ' between the i n t e r e s t of the c h i l d i s rendered  ' i n the i n t e r e s t  Instead,  the  and  'deserve'),  the claim  the n o t i o n o f  the i n t e r e s t of the s t a t e  ' i d e a l ' system o f j u s t i c e under  i d e o l o g i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e of the j u v e n i l e c o u r t movement i s p e r c e i v e d o p e r a t i n g on the b a s i s of  of  the as  'cooperation':  I n s h o r t , the i d e a i s a system of p r o b a t i o n work which contemp l a t e s c o o p e r a t i o n w i t h the c h i l d , the home, the s c h o o l , the neighborhood, the church, and the b u s i n e s s man i n i t s ( t h e c h i l d ) i n t e r e s t s and t h a t of the s t a t e . I t s purpose i s to h e l p a l l i t can, and to h u r t as l i t t l e as i t can; i t seeks to b u i l d c h a r a c t e r — t o make good c i t i z e n s r a t h e r than u s e l e s s c r i m i n a l s . The s t a t e i s thus h e l p i n g i t s e l f as w e l l as the c h i l d , f o r the good of the c h i l d i s the good of the s t a t e ( J u r i s t quoted i n Mack, 1909: 121-122, emphasis added).  The  I d e o l o g i c a l P e r s p e c t i v e and I t s P r o b l e m a t i c S t a t u s i n the Ethnographic D e s c r i p t i o n of P r o b a t i o n Work  S t u d i e s o f , and w r i t i n g about j u v e n i l e j u s t i c e b u r e a u c r a c i e s p r o b a t i o n f r e q u e n t l y employ the i d e o l o g i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e r e p r e s e n t e d f o r e g o i n g m a t e r i a l s i n the p r o d u c t i o n  of t h e i r r e p o r t s , a n a l y s e s ,  and  i n the  and  des-  9  c r i p t i o n s of the phenomena.  T y p i c a l l y , elements of the p e r s p e c t i v e i n f o r m  such e n t e r p r i s e s i n the f o l l o w i n g ways: They may  be  traded upon c o n s c i o u s l y or u n c o n s c i o u s l y  as an  p l a n a t o r y r e s o u r c e i n the c o n s t r u c t i o n of an e x p l i c i t or i m p l i c i t ized  'model' of  'probation'.  ideal-  T h i s model i s then c a r r i e d i n t o a s e t t i n g  where i t i s used to l o c a t e and  d i s p l a y , i . e . , 'bad'  the everyday a c t i v i t i e s of p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r s may petent',  ex-  p r o b a t i o n work.  be seen as  e t c . , p r o b a t i o n work to the extent t h a t they  'bad',  d e v i a t e from  Thus, 'incomthe  ideologically prescribed versions. Alternatively, p r o b a t i o n work may  the i d e a l i z e d , i d e o l o g i c a l l y - p r e f e r r e d models of  be employed i n the l o c a t i o n o f , and  r e c o g n i t i o n , and  d i s p l a y of a c t i v i t i e s of p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r s which seem to correspond those p r e s c r i b e d by  the models.  These a c t i v i t i e s  a r e then t r e a t e d as  b a t i o n ' w h i l e o t h e r s , j u s t as commonly p r e s e n t , may a t t a c k e d as i n t e r f e r i n g w i t h  taking  be  'pro-  i g n o r e d o r even  ' p r o f e s s i o n a l p r o b a t i o n work'.  I n a d d i t i o n , i t s h o u l d be noted, v e r s i o n s may  to  such i d e o l o g i c a l l y p r e f e r r e d  p r o v i d e the r e s e a r c h e r and o r the reader w i t h  ' c o r r e c t i v e ' a c t i o n to remedy whatever a s p e c t s  of  the grounds f o r  ' p r o b a t i o n ' or  ' j u v e n i l e j u s t i c e ' a r e t a r g e t e d as i n need of c o r r e c t i o n . The  present  f e r r e d v e r s i o n s of  study w i l l  t r e a t the i d e a l i z e d , i d e o l o g i c a l l y  ' p r o b a t i o n ' , and  t h e i r s t a t u s i n the r e s e a r c h  as a t o p i c of i n q u i r y r a t h e r than an a n a l y t i c r e s o u r c e which may s c i o u s l y or u n c o n s c i o u s l y or c o r r e c t i t . F i r s t an ethnographic  setting be  con-  traded upon t o , f o r example, f i n d p r o b a t i o n work  as a p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r  observer  pre-  i n another  i n the c o u r t under study,  c o u r t and  the r e s e a r c h e r  then noted  as  10  t h a t elements of the i d e a l i z e d , i d e o l o g i c a l l y - p r e f e r r e d v e r s i o n s of  pro-  b a t i o n work m a s s i v e l y pervaded the normal t a l k of p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r s  and  other c o u r t p e r s o n n e l as they went about t h e i r everyday  Talk  about, f o r example,  'help and  i n the i n t e r e s t of the c h i l d ' , of the c h i l d and  i t s parents,  and h i s and h i s p a r e n t s '  guidance  and proper  the importance of  'ser-  seen to c o n s t i t u t e p r o b a t i o n work r a t h e r  the terms of p r o b a t i o n and n o t i o n s of  'what the judge had  ' c o o p e r a t i o n ' on the p a r t  of i t as a warrant f o r the  than to 'merely' d e s c r i b e the phenomena at hand. with  supervision', 'acting  'the meaning' of the j u v e n i l e ' s behaviour  'understanding'  v i c e s of the c o u r t ' , e t c . , was  activities.  Such elements, along  'what had  happened i n c o u r t ' ,  s a i d ' , e t c . , were seen to p r o v i d e the p r o b a t i o n  c e r w i t h a vague and h e r e t o f o r e u n e x p l i c a t e d or d e s c r i b e d  offi-  interpretive  schema w i t h which to i n t e r a c t i o n a l l y manage h i s p r a c t i c a l a c t i v i t i e s probation  officer. The  competent p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r ' s  are seen as s i m i l a r  to the uses of the  i n t e r a c t i o n a l uses o f the schema  'Convict Code' made by  the n a r c o t i c s half-way-house s t u d i e d by Wieder (1969), i v e , i n t e r a c t i o n a l l y employed, ad hoc, and w i t h which they a c c o m p l i s h taining  as a  'understandings'  i . e . , as a r e f l e x -  substantively elusive device  the on-going b u s i n e s s of e s t a b l i s h i n g and  necessary  to t h e i r p r a c t i c a l  main-  tasks.  B e f o r e t u r n i n g to the task of e x p l i c a t i n g and have suggested  residents i n  a n a l y z i n g what I  a r e , i n the l i t e r a t u r e , h e r e t o f o r e u n n o t i c e d  and/or  p o r t e d f e a t u r e s of p r o b a t i o n work as an on-going i n t e r a c t i o n a l  unre-  accomplish-  11  4 ment,  I w i l l provide  the reader w i t h a n e c e s s a r i l y b r i e f  p r o b a t i o n t a s k and some remarks about my f i e l d  4.  experiences  overview o f the i n the s e t t i n g .  What f o l l o w s s h o u l d i n no way be t r e a t e d as an ethnography o f a j u v e n i l e c o u r t , o r a complete ethnography of p r o b a t i o n work. F o r u s e f u l attempts a t a more g e n e r a l account, see C i c o u r e l (1968) and Emerson (1969) . A l t h o u g h ( a t l e a s t i n my o p i n i o n ) both attempted to do too much, they have p r o v i d e d any p o t e n t i a l s t u d e n t s o f j u v e n i l e c o u r t b u r e a u c r a c i e s w i t h i n v a l u a b l e guidebooks. A l e g a l l y s o p h i s t i cated study of j u v e n i l e p r o c e s s i n g i n v a r i o u s U n i t e d S t a t e s j u r i s d i c t i o n s i s r e p o r t e d i n B a r r e t t , e t a l . (1966). A l s o of r e l e v a n c e to the p r e s e n t study i s the study of E n g l i s h j u v e n i l e c o u r t procedure provided by Cavenagh (1967). Of more d i r e c t r e l e v a n c e to the student o f Canadian j u v e n i l e procedure i s the Report of the Department o f J u s t i c e . . . (1967), which p r o v i d e s e x t e n s i v e i n f o r m a t i o n on Canadian j u v e n i l e courts, delinquency s t a t i s t i c s , e t c .  12  CHAPTER TWO OBSERVING PROBATION WORK: NOTES ON SETTING, FIELD WORK AND DATA  In o r d e r bureaucracy,  t o o b t a i n an overview o f p r o b a t i o n work i n t h i s  I attempted  to observe and r e c o r d v i r t u a l l y a l l o f the v a r i o u s 1  a c t i v i t i e s w i t h which p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r s were i n v o l v e d . systematic  To f a c i l i t a t e t h e  g a t h e r i n g o f d a t a , I ' t a r g e t e d ' i n d i v i d u a l j u v e n i l e s who were  d e a l t with d i f f e r e n t l y cers and attempted had w i t h  court  after  their i n i t i a l contacts with probation  offi-  to 'track" them through any subsequent e x p e r i e n c e s  they  the c o u r t . Some examples o f d i f f e r e n t  'types' o f j u v e n i l e c o u r t  which I was a b l e to observe more o r l e s s  'careers'  i n t o t o were:  J u v e n i l e s who were d e a l t w i t h ' i n f o r m a l l y ' and who d i d not come back i n t o c o n t a c t w i t h c o u r t p e r s o n n e l d u r i n g the p e r i o d o f f i e l d work. J u v e n i l e s i n i t i a l l y d e a l t w i t h i n f o r m a l l y who were s u b s e q u e n t l y r e a r r e s t e d and processed ' f o r m a l l y ' , v i a a c o u r t h e a r i n g . J u v e n i l e s i n i t i a l l y d e a l t w i t h v i a hearing who r e c e i v e d ' d i s p o s i t i o n s ' r a n g i n g from p r o b a t i o n i n the home through placement o u t s i d e the home. J u v e n i l e s , p l a c e d on p r o b a t i o n i n i t i a l l y , who were s u b s e q u e n t l y removed from t h e i r homes, e i t h e r w i t h the 'understanding and c o o p e r a t i o n ' o f t h e i r parents o r over the o b j e c t i o n s and r e s i s tance o f p a r e n t s .  1.  A d i s c u s s i o n of the methods by which I attempted t o p r o t e c t the ' n a t u r a l ness' o f observed p r o b a t i o n work as w e l l as a more g e n e r a l d i s c u s s i o n o f the s e t t i n g and f i e l d work t h e r e i n may be found l a t e r i n t h i s Chapter.  13  P r o b a t i o n e r s who were subsequently ' r a i s e d ' to a d u l t c o u r t as w e l l as ones w i t h whom u n s u c c e s s f u l attempts were made to obt a i n such d i s p o s i t i o n s . The  l o g i s t i c a l problems faced by the r e s e a r c h e r i n attempting  to s t a y a b r e a s t o f the on-going developments o f v a r i o u s cases were cons i d e r a b l e , and y e t i n many senses they resembled scheduling, geographical, e t c . , pressures  t h e 'normal'  temporal,  and o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o n t i n g e n c i e s  which must b e competently managed by p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r s .  L i k e probation  o f f i c e r s , I needed and f o r t u n a t e l y was a b l e to o b t a i n c o o p e r a t i o n and a s s i s t a n c e from members of the c o u r t bureaucracy and  (POs, c l e r k s ,  officers,  j u d g e s ) , who n o t i f i e d me o f developments, h e l p e d me s l i p i n t o and o u t  of courtrooms t o o b s e r v e s p e c i f i c cases, and shared  t h e i r e x p e r t i s e gener-  ously . The  r a t h e r c o n f u s i n g flow o f i n t e r a c t i o n a l events  to observe a t times  n e c e s s i t a t e d my  'on c a l l ' a v a i l a b i l i t y .  was p i c k e d up f o r e a r l y morning v i s i t s panied and with  which I attempted  t o homes, s c h o o l s , e t c . I accom-  p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r s on working v i s i t s  to i n s t i t u t i o n s ,  other l o c a l e s where t h e i r d a i l y rounds took them. them to t r a n s f e r and p i c k up o u t - o f - P r o v i n c e  p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r s on l e n g t h y searches  On o c c a s i o n I  adult court,  I went to the a i r p o r t  juveniles.  I accompanied  f o r p r o b a t i o n e r s who were  'running',  and made many n i g h t home v i s i t s  f o l l o w e d by beer d r i n k i n g and g o s s i p  sions with probation o f f i c e r s .  As much as p o s s i b l e , I attempted  myself  i n t o the temporal flow o f t h e i r normal I a l s o worked t o develop  ses-  to f i t  activities.  c l o s e working r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h  pro-  b a t i o n o f f i c e r s who s t r u c k me (and were t a l k e d about i n t h e s e t t i n g ) , as different  'types' o f p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r s .  I n t h i s way I was a b l e to spend a  14  great  d e a l of time w i t h  timers' was  ' s o c i a l worker' PO's as w e l l as 'cop'  PO's,  'old  as w e l l as 'newcomers', a s t r a t e g y which f u r t h e r ensured t h a t I  indeed a b l e  to o b t a i n  an overview.  The P r o v i s i o n a l and P e r v a s i v e C h a r a c t e r o f the P r a c t i c a l M a t t e r s of Intake and D i s p o s i t i o n  The  problem o f ' d i s p o s i t i o n ' and i t s p r a c t i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s  vade the a c t i v i t i e s and concerns o f j u v e n i l e j u s t i c e p e r s o n n e l . and  B r i a r have p o i n t e d  a s e r i e s of decisions  to p o l i c e d i s p o s i t i o n d e c i s i o n s  Piliavin  as " . . . t h e f i r s t of  made i n the c h a n n e l i n g o f y o u t h f u l  offenders  the agencies concerned w i t h j u v e n i l e j u s t i c e and c o r r e c t i o n s . . . . " 441).  What i s o v e r l o o k e d i n such a c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n i s t h e f a c t  police d i s p o s i t i o n decisions  through (1964:  that  a r e q u i t e o f t e n preceded by t h e d e c i s i o n on  the p a r t o f another a d u l t , whether c i t i z e n , s c h o o l whoever, to ' c a l l  per-  the p o l i c e ' .  authority,  parent, or  The q u e s t i o n o f 'what to do' w i t h , about,  or f o r a p r o b l e m a t i c j u v e n i l e a r e not e x c l u s i v e l y  the b u s i n e s s of j u v e n i l e  j u s t i c e personnel, but of 'adults' i n general. Furthermore, i t should be noted t h a t what may be taken to be a ' s o l u t i o n ' to the problem a t one l e v e l becomes a p r a c t i c a l problem to which persons a t the next l e v e l may be expected and/or l e g a l l y r e q u i r e d There a r e always  'options',  i n g of p a r t i c u l a r c a s e s .  i . e . , a l t e r n a t i v e methods a v a i l a b l e f o r d i s p o s 'Neighbours', f o r example, who o b s e r v e a j u v e n i l e  misbehaving may choose to s c o l d him, t a l k to h i s p a r e n t s , c a l l etc.  to a t t e n d .  the p o l i c e ,  The p o l i c e , i n t u r n may themselves s c o l d o r c o u n s e l t h e j u v e n i l e ,  warn him and make a note of t h e warning f o r p o s s i b l e  f u t u r e use,  r e t u r n him  15  to h i s parents arrest  him  and  guardians or l e g a l l y and  or guardians and  informally talk with  then e i t h e r r e l e a s e him  'book' him  them, or  formally  i n t o the custody of h i s p a r e n t s  or  i n t o the j u v e n i l e d e t e n t i o n f a c i l i t y which i s both  p h y s i c a l l y attached  to the Family D i v i s i o n of the P r o v i n c i a l  Court. Whether r e l e a s e d or d e t a i n e d , the p o l i c e a r e r e q u i r e d  to submit two  JUVENILE REPORT, to the Family  bation service's Attorney  Division. 2  The  to them.  For  to the o f f i c e of  'assigning  f i r s t consults his  pro-  the C i t y  methods  of dealing  The  to determine  re-  with  the  intake supervisor  them to i n d i v i d u a l p r o b a t i o n book  to one  the  procedure by which such i n v e s t i g a -  to see i f he has  any  'disposes'  officers.  of the PO's.  members of the bureaucracy) i s a r e l a t i v e l y new  of The  r e c o r d of a  the c o u r t or i f , f o r example the j u v e n i l e has  i s p r e s e n t l y on p r o b a t i o n  2.  to the  police disposition-decisions  ' i n v e s t i g a t e d ' i n order  c o u r s e of a c t i o n .  'past c o n t a c t ' w i t h  are r o u t e d  do something' about the j u v e n i l e s  t i o n s are accomplished i s as f o l l o w s :  supervisor  and  copies  titled  the p r o b a t i o n b u r e a u c r a c y , however, e v e r y JUVEN-  ILE REPORT r e c e i v e d must be  incoming cases by  The  Again, there are a l t e r n a t i v e  the p a r t i c u l a r c a s e s .  'appropriate'  of the a r r e s t r e p o r t ,  more s e r i o u s  r e q u i r e t h a t the c o u r t b u r e a u c r a c y ferred  copies  ' s u p e r v i s o r of i n t a k e '  (the p r o s e c u t o r ) .  once a j u v e n i l e has been a r r e s t e d ,  been or  The book (as i t i s c a l l e d d e v i c e which the  by  intake  See W a l l a c e and Brennan (1963) f o r a ' p r o f e s s i o n a l ' d i s c u s s i o n of the i n t a k e f u n c t i o n i n j u v e n i l e c o u r t s . As s h a l l be seen, intake investigations do not i n v a r i a b l y r e s u l t i n i n t a k e , but r a t h e r f u n c t i o n to s c r e e n ' cases and to sort them i n t o o r g a n i z a t i o n a l l y a p p r o p r i a t e d i s p o s i t i o n t r a c k s . For an i d e a l i z e d , p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s v e r s i o n o f t h i s p r o c e s s , see Appendix.  16  s u p e r v i s o r developed cases.  to f a c i l i t a t e  the e f f i c i e n t and  I t i s a c t u a l l y merely a c a r d - i n d e x  q u i c k l y s e a r c h f o r s p e c i f i c names to had  a  ' r e c e n t ' c o n t a c t , what the  i f any,  'has'  the c a s e .  proper  which enables  'see' i f they a r e  a s s i g n i n g of  'anyone  ' a c t i v e ' , i . e . , have  ' p r i o r s ' a r e , and what p r o b a t i o n  the s u p e r v i s o r  to be on p r o b a t i o n , the r e l e v a n t p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r i s informed  If,  f  as to what course  ' i n v e s t i g a t e ' and  of a c t i o n s h o u l d be  r e c o v e r a b l e p a s t , the case i s a s s i g n e d terms of the  a s s i g n new During  then make a  taken by  the c o u r t .  the c o u r t ' i n the  to p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r s  to p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r s w i t h  the p e r i o d of my  field  the fewest  o b s e r v a t i o n s , I was  d i f f e r e n t p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r s as they attended The  ' i n t e r v i e w s ' ranged i n l e n g t h from l e s s  two  hours,  facility,  purportedly  probationers.  a b l e to accompany f o u r  to these i n v e s t i g a t i o n s .  than f i v e minutes to more than  took p l a c e i n a v a r i e t y of l o c a t i o n s , e.g.,  the j u v e n i l e ' s home, s c h o o l , and one  the d e t e n t i o n  'on the s t r e e t ' .  I  t y p i c a l l y present when the p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r r e c e i v e d the case, a which enabled  me  to r e c o r d any  'comments' which he had  A f t e r the i n t e r v i e w , I would a l s o have access marks on the case, and submitted  The  ' s i z e ' of t h e i r c a s e l o a d , i . e . , the attempt i s made to  cases  and  new  on the o t h e r hand, the j u v e n i l e i s not determined to be  on p r o b a t i o n or to have 'been i n r e c e n t c o n t a c t w i t h  in  of the  the r e c e i p t of the JUVENILE REPORT.  p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r , i n t u r n , i s r e q u i r e d to 'recommendation  officer,  ;  I f the j u v e n i l e i s determined by  development on h i s c a s e l o a d by  to  to any  the recommendation submitted.  about the  fact case.  .'notes' heemade, r e The  recommendation  at t h i s p o i n t s h o u l d be d i s t i n g u i s h e d from the l a t e r  recommendation which may  was  be r e q u i r e d i f the case i s d e a l t w i t h  disposition through a  17  3 formal c o u r t h e a r i n g . determine or  whether the case warrants  the v a r i o u s  informal  Important p o i n t may way:  formal  problem a t hand i s to  p r o c e s s i n g by c o u r t h e a r i n g ,  procedures which do not i n v o l v e a h e a r i n g .  elements of the p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r ' s  be u s e f u l l y ,  energy  task at  this  i f s i m p l i s t i c a l l y c h a r a c t e r i z e d i n the f o l l o w i n g  determine whether the  c o u r t time and in  A t t h i s p o i n t , the p r a c t i c a l  ' f a c t s ' of the case w a r r a n t  at this  time.  I f not, attempt  a competent and p r o f e s s i o n a l manner  the use of s c a r c e  to d e a l w i t h the  'out of c o u r t ' , i . e . , through  case coun-  s e l l i n g , admonishing, d e a l i n g w i t h the j u v e n i l e ' s a t t i t u d e , d i s c u s s i n g the matter w i t h the parents and e n l i s t i n g tion, etc. either  I f the case warrants  case, d i s p l a y  inaction  the  which seem n e c e s s a r y .  f o r m a l p r o c e s s i n g , so recommend.  appropriateness  to the n e c e s s a r y persons By  clarify  of the recommended a c t i o n or  n e c e s s a r y persons' I mean persons who  accomplished.  the above remarks.  ' a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s ' and  I w i l l now  ' p r e p a r i n g ' the  may  'make  'prepara-  t u r n to some d a t a to  F i r s t , a t y p i c a l example of an  which the p r o b a t i o n d e a l s with by competently after  In  and prepare them f o r i t i n any ways  t r o u b l e ' f o r the p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r i f such t i o n ' are: net adequately  their a i d , arranging r e s t i t u -  displaying  'obvious  case  'appropriateness'  principals:  Juvenile arrested for shoplifting. On the way to the j u v e n i l e ' s home, PO remarked t h a t the case was 'mickey mouse', t h a t the g i r l has 'probably taken the s t u f f on impulse'. He a l s o s a i d , however, t h a t she had been l u c k y to have s t o l e n from a s t o r e which d i d not r o u t i n e l y demand p r o s e c u t i o n of a l l s h o p l i f t e r s . A t the house, an i n t e r v i e w w i t h the g i r l was conducted. The PO s t r e s s e d the ' s e r i o u s n e s s ' of the o f f e n s e and o b t a i n e d the j u v e n i l e ' s  3.  The accomplishment o f these d e t e r m i n a t i o n s i s a complex i s s u e i n i t s e l f , one which need not be examined i n d e t a i l i n t h i s s t u d y .  18  promise to w r i t e a l e t t e r of apology to the s t o r e i n v o l v e d . The g i r l expressed remorse. The p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r suggested t h a t her a c t i o n had been a 'dumb m i s t a k e ' and e x p l a i n e d to her the f a c t t h a t the c o u r t c o u l d take a c t i o n on the m a t t e r . He s a i d t h a t he would w a i t to make h i s recommendation to the c o u r t u n t i l she had sent the l e t t e r and requested t h a t he r e c e i v e a copy. The p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r then t o l d her about what the p r o b a b l e consequences of any f u r t h e r i n f r a c t i o n s would be. The mother was then c o n s u l t e d and p r o v i d e d w i t h roughly the same i n f o r m a t i o n . During t h e i r t a l k , the PO a s c e r t a i n e d t h a t the g i r l was 'grounded' as punishment. Upon h i s r e t u r n to the o f f i c e ,  the p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r  the f o l l o w i n g note upon the JUVENILE REPORT, which he Attorney's  scribbled  than took to the C i t y  office:  00C (stands f o r 'out of c o u r t ' ) No p r i o r s Good f a m i l y A p o l o g i z e d to complainant The C i t y A t t o r n e y accepted dropped.  the recommendation and  the matter  N o t i c e t h a t d u r i n g the i n t e r a c t i o n s the j u v e n i l e and her  was  parents  a r e engaged i n a more or l e s s c o l l a b o r a t i v e p r o d u c t i o n of a f a i r l y  specific  understanding  earlier  of the meaning of the p a r t i c u l a r case which had been  assumed to be a p p r o p r i a t e .  The j u v e n i l e , a t the same time, i s p r o v i d e d  w i t h a r e m e d i a l e x e r c i s e and t i o n a l l y employed  the  to accomplish  t h a t she i s b e i n g punished,  possibility  of c o u r t a c t i o n i s i n t e r a c -  her c o o p e r a t i o n .  I t i s also ascertained  something taken to be an i n d i c a t o r o f a  f a m i l y ' f o r p r e s e n t purposes.  The  j u v e n i l e and mother are a l s o  i n t e r a c t i o n a l l y f o r the d i f f e r e n t consequences o f subsequent which w i l l  i n d i c a t e t h a t treatment  F i n a l l y , note how candidate  as  'dumb m i s t a k e s '  'good  'prepared'  infractions  i s not a p p r o p r i a t e .  the mundane 'obvious' c h a r a c t e r of the c a s e as a poor  f o r the use o f  'court time' i s d i s p l a y e d i n the  recommendation.  19  That such  'obviousness' i n v o l v e s a r t f u l work and i s an e s s e n t i a l  p a r t of the competent accomplishment of the p r o b a t i o n t a s k i s evidenced by cases where, f o r one r e a s o n o r another,  the 'obviousness' t h a t a case  recommendation i s ' a p p r o p r i a t e ' i s somehow c a l l e d  into question.  By p r e -  s e n t i n g a case which o c c a s i o n s a d i s r u p t i o n o f normal c o u r t p r o c e e d i n g s and s a n c t i o n i n g o f the PO, I hope to demonstrate of  importance  the mundane accomplishment o f ' a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s ' f o r the e f f i c i e n t  cessing of cases.  I n doing so, I w i l l  engage our a t t e n t i o n throughout of  the c r i t i c a l  pro-  i n t r o d u c e a c o n c e r n , which w i l l  the d i s s e r t a t i o n , the d i s p l a y and a n a l y s i s  the i n t e r a c t i o n s d u r i n g which j u v e n i l e s and p a r e n t s as w e l l as c o u r t  p e r s o n n e l a r e p r o v i d e d w i t h proper understandings 'reasonableness',  o f the ' a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s ' ,  ' e x p e c t a b i l i t y ' , e t c . , of p a r t i c u l a r c o u r s e s of a c t i o n .  I had not been p r e s e n t d u r i n g the i n t a k e i n t e r v i e w on the f o l l o w i n g case, b u t had been a l e r t e d by a PO t h a t a ' t r i a l ' o f an extremely young j u v e n i l e was scheduled and t h a t I might be i n t e r ested. S i n c e t h e case was going to t r i a l , e i t h e r the PO had recommended a t r i a l or the C i t y A t t o r n e y had ' o v e r r u l e d ' an O.O.C. recommendation, an a c t which would be w i t h i n h i s power. A j u v e n i l e of 7 y e a r s was b e i n g t r i e d f o r t a k i n g t h e l u n c h money from a f i v e year o l d and t h r e a t e n i n g to beat him up i f he t o l d anyone. A f t e r the charge i s r e a d , a 'heavy' s e t o f i n f r a c t i o n s , the f i v e y e a r o l d v i c t i m i s 'sworn i n ' as a w i t n e s s . A f t e r h i s testimony, the judge r e c e s s e s the t r i a l and asks the p r i n c i p a l s to 'step out f o r a moment'. The judge then d i r e c t e d a q u e s t i o n a p p a r e n t l y t o both C i t y A t t o r n e y and p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r : Judge:  Would somebody mind t e l l i n g me why t h i s case i s b e i n g tried?  PO:  Your honour, on the b a s i s o f my i n v e s t i g a t i o n we the s e r i o u s n e s s o f the matter j u s t i f i e d /  Judge:  /You d i d , d i d you? W e l l i t never should have come t h i s far! Do you t h i n k we've got an hour to waste on t h i s thing? We're r u n n i n g behind now. Why d i d n ' t you j u s t warn the k i d ?  thought  20  PO:  I d i d n ' t t h i n k he was t a k i n g t h e matter s e r i o u s l y . d i d n ' t t h i n k i t was s e r i o u s .  He  Judge:  N e i t h e r do I . B r i n g them back i n and le.t's f i n i s h t h i s damn t h i n g . And I don't want to see any more cases l i k e t h i s one. We've got a hard enough time keeping up as i t i s .  L a t e r i n h i s o f f i c e j the p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r launched i n t o an undemanded 'defense' o f h i s recommendation f o r a t r i a l . He suggested t h a t he had screwed up d u r i n g the r e c e s s by not s t a t i n g t h e ' f a c t ' t h a t the s c h o o l o f f i c i a l s suspected t h a t the o f f e n d e r was 'a l e a d e r ' a t h i s s c h o o l and t h a t o t h e r j u v e n i l e s were i n v o l v e d i n o t h e r , s i m i l a r o f f e n s e s w i t h him. He c o n t i n u e d : PO:  I f he had known about the gang a s p e c t , I'm sure he wouldn't have come down on me a t t h a t time, r i g h t i n c o u r t . He would have u n d e r s t o o d . The k i d c o u l d be dangerous. Taki n g him to c o u r t was t h e o n l y way of making the p o i n t w i t h t h a t k i d . Do you t h i n k t h a t i t came o u t i n t h e t r i a l enough?  Res:  Yeah, I t h i n k s o .  PO:  W e l l , I'd b e t t e r drop i n on the judge t h i s a f t e r n o o n , make sure i t got through. Thing l i k e t h a t i s bad f o r b u s i n e s s . When t h e judge h a l t e d t h e t r i a l ,  puzzled vided  about t h e f a c t  that this p a r t i c u l a r  i t appeared  case had reached  t h e p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r w i t h an o p p o r t u n i t y  PO merely c i t e d  t h a t he was trial.  genuinely He p r o -  to ' f i l l him i n ' , but t h e  the f o r m a l , p r o f e s s i o n a l warrant f o r h i s recommendation.  He made no attempt t o d i s p l a y t h e ' f a c t s ' which he traded upon i n t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f t h e recommendation. t i o n with sternly  immediate  dissatisfac-  t h e p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r , t a k i n g the o c c a s i o n as an o p p o r t u n i t y to  criticize  Note t h a t t h i s in  The judge expressed  the case.  t h e l a t t e r ' s performance and, i n so d o i n g , h i s competence.  'backstage'  exchange has been s h i e l d e d from t h e p r i n c i p a l s  21  The judge seemed to 'see' the case a s , e.g., a l i t t l e k i d p i c k ing  on another l i t t l e  k i d , a matter which  dealt with informally.  ' o b v i o u s l y ' s h o u l d have been  The p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r , on t h e o t h e r hand, was  d e a l i n g w i t h what he took to be a g a n g - r e l a t e d , a s s a u l t i v e r o b b e r y , a t y p i f i c a t i o n which warranted  f o r m a l c o u r t a c t i o n as a means by which a  'gang' c o u l d be c o n t r o l l e d and a ' l e a d e r ' convinced o f the s e r i o u s n e s s o f his  a c t i o n s and t h e i r  consequentiality.  The judge's l e c t u r e may be seen as an attempt upon h i s p a r t to i n s t r u c t the p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r as to the inadequacy o f h i s performance and to  i n s t r u c t him that he w i l l be h e l d a c c o u n t a b l e f o r such 4  future.  'mistakes' i n the  A f t e r c o u r t , the p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r claimed t h a t he had i n f a c t ,  competently screened the case, b u t sensed t h a t he had not d i s p l a y e d f a c t when r e q u e s t e d t o by the judge.  that  He a l s o sensed t h a t such matters  could l e a d to 'problems' f o r him i f the judge began to doubt h i s competence and,  t h e r e f o r e , d e c i d e d to d i s c u s s the matter w i t h him immediately. The f o l l o w i n g d a t a from the same case shows us t h a t the p r o b a t i o n  officer  i s h e l d g e n e r a l l y a c c o u n t a b l e f o r ' p r e p a r a t i o n ' of the v a r i o u s  p r i n c i p a l s i n court hearings f o r t h e i r the  ' r o l e s ' i n the d a i l y o p e r a t i o n s o f  court. An 8 year o l d c h i l d i s a 'witness' a t the same t r i a l . The judge i s 'making sure t h a t the j u v e n i l e 'understands' the meaning of  4.  an oath, a measure which  i s r e q u i r e d by law:  Judge:  And do you know what i t means to l i e ?  Juv:  Yeah, i t ' s  when you say something  that i s n ' t so.  As we s h a l l see, such an exchange c l o s e l y resembles between p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r s and p r o b a t i o n e r s .  'normal'  interaction  22  Judge:  And do you know what happens i f you don't when you're supposed to?  Juv:  (pause) Um,  I don't  Judge:  Mr.  D i d n ' t you  PO:  Yes, your honour Johnny, don't you remember t h a t doesn't want you to l i e ?  Juv:  Yeah, God  Judge:  That's r i g h t Johnny, now t h i s man ( i n d i c a t e s C i t y A t t o r ney) wants to ask you some q u e s t i o n s and you have to t e l l the t r u t h .  Brown!  gets  tell  the  truth  remember. t a l k w i t h t h i s young man? God  mad.  Again, by a t t e n d i n g to a d i s r u p t i o n , a l b e i t one c i e n t l y managed i n a competent manner by  s l i g h t and  the p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r , we  effi-  are  a b l e to c a t c h a glimpse of some of the i n t e r a c t i o n a l work which underp i n s , and makes p o s s i b l e the more o r l e s s e f f i c i e n t o p e r a t i o n o f the c o u r t routine.  We  see t h a t even the p r a c t i c a l l y - a d e q u a t e 'understanding 5 t r u t h ' by a j u v e n i l e i s a matter of p r a c t i c a l c o n c e r n to the PO. A f t e r a d i s c u s s i o n of my t e r s intended to c r e d e n t i a l my  such concerns  and  methodology and  of  some e t h n o g r a p h i c  d e s c r i p t i o n and a n a l y s i s , we w i l l  see t h a t  the p r a c t i c a l problems o f d i s p o s i t i o n of p a r t i c u l a r  a r e matters which must be d e a l t w i t h throughout  mat-  cases  a j u v e n i l e ' s career with  the j u v e n i l e c o u r t i f and when he i s r e a r r e s t e d o r deemed to be  performing  inadequately  concern  'as a p r o b a t i o n e r ' .  with probation o f f i c e r s while  5.  Thus, a mundane and  pervasive  'working w i t h ' p r o b a t i o n e r s i s how  to accom-  One PO s t a t e d t h a t he once f o r g o t to ' r e h e a r s e ' a v e r y young boy 'about the o a t h ' . When the judge asked what would happen i f a boy t e l l s a l i e when he's supposed to t e l l the t r u t h , the j u v e n i l e supposedly r e plied: "He'd p r o b a b l y do about f i v e y e a r s f o r p e r j u r y . " A c c o r d i n g to the PO h i s answer 'brought down the house, b u t was accepted as adequate'.  23  p l i s h adequate performance on the p a r t of the p r o b a t i o n e r and, time, to prepare quately.  them f o r 'what w i l l happen' i f they  analyze  the p o l i c e on a new  not working', how accomplishing  I f the j u v e n i l e is_ r e t u r n e d  a r r e s t , or by a p r o b a t i o n e r  are the matters  attempting  of s e l e c t i n g an  to c o u r t , e i t h e r  'because p r o b a t i o n i s 'appropriate' d e c i s i o n ,  i t s a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s , and d i s p l a y i n g i t to the n e c e s s a r y  managed as p r a c t i c a l matters? accomplished  ade-  the ways i n which they attempt to d e a l w i t h  'problems' i n t h e i r c a s e l o a d . by  do not perform  Short of t a k i n g a j u v e n i l e back to c o u r t , I w i l l be  to e x p l i c a t e and  a t the same  How  are the n e c e s s a r y  d u r i n g these i n t e r a c t i o n s ?  r o u t i n e l y and mundanely takes p l a c e ?  parties  'understandings'  What ' p r e p a r a t i o n ' of  I t i s to t h e s e m a t t e r s  principals  t h a t we  will  shortly turn.  Biography  The my  initial  and  Resources  f i e l d work upon which the p r e s e n t r e p o r t i s based was  encounter  as a graduate  I d e n t i t y as Ethnographic  with j u v e n i l e j u s t i c e bureaucracies.  s t u d e n t of s o c i a l work, I had  spent  two  Years  not  earlier,  days a week f o r a  n i n e month p e r i o d working i n a l a r g e urban j u v e n i l e c o u r t A as a p r o b a t i o n officer.  During  t h a t p e r i o d I engaged i n and was  r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the  complishment of many of the r o u t i n e tasks r o u t i n e l y performed by officers,  i . e . , i n v e s t i g a t i n g cases by i n t e r v i e w i n g p r i n c i p a l s ,  r e p o r t s , making p s y c h i a t r i c r e f e r r a l s , a p p e a r i n g s p e c i f i c court actions, etc.  During  i n court,  ac-  probation preparing  recommending  the f o l l o w i n g summer, I was  a b l e to  spend s e v e r a l hours per week o b s e r v i n g j u v e n i l e c o u r t B, a s m a l l e r ,  suburban  24  court,  process  j u v e n i l e cases.  i n a g r e a t d e a l of and o t h e r  court  inforraal  During  t h a t p e r i o d I was a b l e to engage  i n t e r a c t i o n with probation o f f i c e r s ,  judges,  personnel.  D u r i n g my p e r i o d of tenure a t j u v e n i l e c o u r t A, I was  assigned  a s p e c i a l l y s e l e c t e d c a s e l o a d of s i x j u v e n i l e s on p r o b a t i o n , and was v i s e d by a u n i v e r s i t y f i e l d work s u p e r v i s o r . attempted  As per my i n s t r u c t i o n s , I  to o r i e n t to my f i e l d work e x p e r i e n c e  as an o p p o r t u n i t y  about p r o f e s s i o n a l s o c i a l work i n a c o r r e c t i o n a l s e t t i n g ' . to v a r i o u s members of the c o u r t b u r e a u c r a c y .  ' c o l d ' o r 'brusque'.  I was  toward  conceptions  I l a t e r learned  nothing others  t h a t the more their  s o c i a l workers' which, i n t u r n , seemed r o o t e d  of ' p r o b a t i o n work'.  introduced  'friendly' while  extreme i n i t i a l r e a c t i o n s to me almost i n v a r i a b l y r e f l e c t e d tudes'  to ' l e a r n  I n o t i c e d but thought  of the f a c t t h a t some of the persons I met seemed appeared to be r a t h e r  super-  atti-  i n different  Two o f the o f f i c e r s were b a r e l y  civil  from the f i r s t meeting and became i n c r e a s i n g l y ' h o s t i l e ' towards the s o c i a l work student  unit i n general.  joked about, c r i t i c i z e d ,  We l e a r n e d  through o t h e r PO's t h a t  and went so f a r as to complain to the a d m i n i s t r a -  t i o n about our u n p r o f e s s i o n a l methods, e.g., sex e d u c a t i o n t r o u b l e , attempts to work w i t h p r o b a t i o n e r s c r i t i c s had recommended i.e.,  long h a i r f o r men,  they  for girls i n  i n the community l o n g a f t e r our  i n c a r c e r a t i o n and our u n p r o f e s s i o n a l appearance, ' m i n i s k i r t s ' f o r women.  The  complaints  which  were duly passed down by the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f the j u v e n i l e c o u r t b u r e a u c r a c y s t a t e d t h a t we were undermining the image o f ' p r o f e s s i o n a l p r o b a t i o n officers  i n the c o u r t and l o s i n g  were s a i d  to be h a v i n g  negative  'community r e s p e c t  .  By doing  impact as_ p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r s .  this,  we  25  The  two p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r s who c r i t i c i z e d  v o c i f e r o u s l y were c r i t i c a l  the s t u d e n t s most  of ' s o c i a l work' i n g e n e r a l and i t s c o r r e c t i o n a l  applications i n particular.  S o c i a l workers, o r ' b l e e d i n g - h e a r t s ' were  taken to be a major source o r cause o f what was seen to be the g e n e r a l f a i l u r e o f the j u v e n i l e j u s t i c e system.  T h e i r argument seemed to be t h a t  ' l i b e r a l s who r u n the government, the Supreme C o u r t ' , e t c . , c o n s c i o u s l y refused  t o g r a n t the 'powers' e s s e n t i a l t o s u c c e s s f u l l y  quency!.  They argued  'control  t h a t 'the system' wasted time a t t e m p t i n g  delin-  to 'rehab-  i l i t a t e ' j u v e n i l e s who ' j u s t need a l i t t l e d i s c i p l i n e t h a t they a r e n ' t g e t t i n g from t h e i r p a r e n t s ' and t h a t 'punishment' should be the g o a l o f the c o r r e c t i o n a l process i n many c a s e s .  When the ' g o a l ' o f p r o b a t i o n was  mentioned by these two p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r s , i t was i n v a r i a b l y ' p r o t e c t i o n of the community from were t r e a t e d as b i t t e r On two  the o f f e n d e r ' .  ' R e h a b i l i t a t i o n ' and  'treatment'  jokes.  the o t h e r hand of what I p e r c e i v e d to be a continuum, were  p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r s who greeted us warmly from t h e b e g i n n i n g ,  pursued  our companionship and s u g g e s t i o n s .  Both saw themselves  actively as p r o -  f e s s i o n a l s o c i a l workers doing t h e i r b e s t i n a d i f f i c u l t s e t t i n g .  They  r e a d i l y gave a d v i c e on how we s h o u l d go about our b u s i n e s s as PO's and e a g e r l y sought treatment  o u t a d v i c e , e x p r e s s i n g i n t e r e s t i n our e x p e r i e n c e s , i d e a s ,  t h e o r i e s and methods, e t c .  t i o n ' as a d i s m a l and almost  They a l s o t a l k e d r e a d i l y o f 'proba-  complete f a i l u r e , b u t l o c a t e d the 'causes' i n  such f a c t o r s as u n d e r t r a i n e d , o r inadequate i n s t e a d of the problems, e t c .  staff,  Both expressed  t r e a t i n g the symptoms  interest  i n r e t u r n i n g to  26  s c h o o l to get an M.S.W. or  The  ' g o a l ' of p r o b a t i o n f o r them was  ' g e t t i n g the k i d f u n c t i o n i n g ' and  t r y new  'group methods',  'treatment'  they were f r e q u e n t l y a t t e m p t i n g  'games', e t c . , on t h e i r p r o b a t i o n e r s .  One  to proba-  t i o n o f f i c e r had been d i s m i s s e d because he came to work a f t e r a v a c a t i o n w i t h a beard.  He  l a t e r was  r e i n s t a t e d a f t e r a lengthy  many p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r s remarked c r i t i c a l l y  about h i s  a l i s m ' w h i l e o t h e r s claimed  of the few  t h a t he was  o f f i c e r s around i n s o f a r as he  one  'doing p r o b a t i o n ' .  and how  others  i n the  particularly  of and  should  a t t i t u d e s toward  'make sense' of t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s and  consensus  go about  'probation'  the a c t i v i t i e s  of  setting. to o r i e n t to the p a r t i c u l a r  ' p r o b a t i o n ' h e l d by o t h e r members of the c o u r t the judges and s u p e r v i s o r s .  those c o n c e p t i o n s  T h i s was  con-  bureaucracy,  t r u e to the extent  that  were seen to 'shape' j u d i c i a l d e c i s i o n s about cases which  a probation o f f i c e r  ' p r e s e n t s ' i n court,and.d  of the p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r ' s 6.  no c l e a r , undisputed  probation o f f i c e r s  Competent p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r s had c e p t i o n s of  probation  ' t a l k e d about' p r o b a t i o n d i f f e r e d markedly.  Furthermore, p a r t i c u l a r c o n c e p t i o n s to  'real'  The ways i n which p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r s and o t h e r members  of the c o u r t bureaucracy  were invoked  'lack of p r o f e s s i o n -  had been unable to communicate.  I n s h o r t , I l e a r n e d t h a t t h e r e was ' p r o b a t i o n ' was 6  but  seemed to be a b l e to develop r e l a t i o n s h i p s  w i t h p r o b a t i o n e r s w i t h whom o t h e r PO's  about what  court b a t t l e ,  administrative evaluations, etc.,  performance:  I l a t e r d i s c o v e r e d t h a t such 'problems' of d e f i n i t i o n and the b e h a v i o u r a l content o f the p r o b a t i o n task pervades the ' p r o f e s s i o n a l ' and ' s o c i a l s c i e n t i f i c ' l i t e r a t u r e on p r o b a t i o n . See, f o r example, Tappan (1949), Young (1937), Diana (1960), Bates (1960), and O h l i n , e t a l . (1956).  27  In c o u r t bureaucracy B, the two judges were o r i e n t e d to by p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r s as h o l d i n g markedly d i f f e r e n t ' l e g a l p h i l o s o p h i e s ' . One was seen as b e i n g 'extremely l e g a l i s t i c ' w h i l e the o t h e r was seen as 'very p s y c h i a t r i c a l l y , or s o c i a l - w o r k o r i e n t e d ' . The former was a l t e r n a t e l y ' a t t a c k e d ' and 'admired' f o r a t t e n d i n g to the ' l e g a l adequacy' of c a s e s . Social-work o r i e n t e d probation o f f i c e r s were f r e q u e n t l y heard 'complaining' about the f a c t t h a t the judge had 'thrown o u t ' one of t h e i r cases 'on a l e g a l t e c h n i c a l i t y ' , e.g., the p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r had not 'prepared' the case a c c o r d i n g to the ' l e g a l g u i d e l i n e s ' which were to govern such m a t t e r s , or had not 'informed' the j u v e n i l e t h a t he was e n t i t l e d to c o u n s e l , e t c . For such p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r s , the judge had not attended to the 'important' f e a t u r e s of the case as they had been formulated by them ' i n c o u r t ' : PO:  How couild he do that? I j u s t can't b e l i e v e i t . The k i d needs h e l p and he j u s t turns her l o o s e . T h i s i s n ' t a c r i m i n a l c o u r t f o r c h r i s t s a k e - we're t r y i n g to h e l p the kids. The  ' f a c t ' t h a t a PO's  p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r was,  i . e . , ' b a s i c a l l y a cop',  somewhere between was  to be  f o r m a l i n t e r a c t i o n s , whether 'shooting the  attended breeze'  ' r e p o r t i n g on a case i n c o u r t ' . I t should be noted  such matters was as I f e l t presence  not  openly  t h a t my  d i s c o v e r y of and  ' t h e o r e t i c a l ' but  fundamentally  t h a t members of the bureaucracy  initial practical  i n t e r p r e t e d and  and a c t i o n s i n the s e t t i n g of as those of a  doing-and-observing-probation.  my  another  ' s o c i a l work o r i e n t e d ' , or  a s a l i e n t p r a c t i c a l c o n c e r n which had  to d u r i n g i n f o r m a l and or  s u p e r v i s o r , a p a r t i c u l a r judge, or  and b l u n t l y suggested  interest i n inasmuch  r e a c t e d to  social-work-student-  Some p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r s ,  f o r example,  t h a t I should s t a y out of t h e i r way  nose out of t h e i r cases because I wouldn't understand  doing.  On one  o c c a s i o n a p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r went to my  request  t h a t I not i n t e r f e r e w i t h h i s work by l i s t e n i n g  w i t h j u v e n i l e s i n the c o u r t w a i t i n g room.  I had,  my  o r keep  what they were  supervisor with  a  to h i s i n t e r v i e w s  i n f a c t , been seated i n  28  the w a i t i n g room, had action.  My  seen him  s u p e r v i s o r suggested  'at work', but had  'paranoia' might  the  inter-  t h a t even i f t h a t had been the case,  I s h o u l d s t a y away from the concerned  because h i s  not overheard  p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r who  had 7  complained  'cause t r o u b l e ' f o r the s t u d e n t s .  and s i m i l a r o c c a s i o n s , I l e a r n e d t h a t my  that  On  this  ' f a t e ' as a f i e l d work student  i n the s e t t i n g was  i n f l u e n c e d d i r e c t l y o r i n d i r e c t l y by v a r i o u s f e a t u r e s  of  i t s p e r s o n n e l which r e c e i v e d l i t t l e or no f o r m a l  the s e t t i n g and  n i t i o n as r e l e v a n t to my The  'educational  experience'.  i m p r e s s i o n s , i n f o r m a t i o n , e t c . , which I gained  through  e x p e r i e n c e and o b s e r v a t i o n s i n j u v e n i l e c o u r t b u r e a u c r a c i e s A and a v a i l a b l e to me  as a r e s o u r c e w h i l e I subsequently  f i e l d work i n another I a l s o had  planned  in  the  the i s s u e s of  a v a i l a b l e a newspaper account  H i s remarks reminded me  'delinquency' and  of a speech g i v e n by  titled:  "Why  the  p l a n n i n g to prominently  of the s i m i l a r r h e t o r i c  ' p r o b a t i o n ' which had  'tough' j u v e n i l e c o u r t judge under whom I had account was  B were  sociological  H i s remarks to a l o c a l s o c i a l s e r v i c e c l u b were r e p o r t e d  the l o c a l papers.  my  juvenile court.  a s s i s t a n t c h i e f p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r of the c o u r t which I was study.  recog-  been v o i c e d by  e a r l i e r served.  about a  The newspaper  Hoodlums K i c k L a d i e s More O f t e n Nowadays", and  began: 7.  One y e a r l a t e r , the f i e l d work ' c o n t r a c t ' between the U n i v e r s i t y and the j u v e n i l e c o u r t was terminated 'by mutual agreement'. Among the reasons f o r the t e r m i n a t i o n was the f a c t t h a t the r e l a t i o n s h i p between many PO's and the students was one of i l l - c o n c e a l e d ' s u s p i c i o n ' and ' h o s t i l i t y ' on both s i d e s .  29  Odds a r e good t h a t the next l i t t l e o l d l a d y whose purse g e t s snatched by a hoodlum w i l l a l s o g e t pushed down and k i c k e d i n the mouth. That's how Dan Armstrong, Medium C i t y ' s a s s i s t a n t c h i e f p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r sees the r i s i n g j u v e n i l e d e l i n q u e n c y r a t e i n the city. "There's been a g r a d u a l i n c r e a s e i n d e l i n q u e n c y , e s p e c i a l l y the l a s t f i v e y e a r s .  over  "And I note t h a t i n the l a s t t h r e e y e a r s , t h e r e ' s been more i n the way o f v i o l e n c e w i t h crimes than ever b e f o r e " he <£old a Medium C i t y O p t i m i s t Club meeting Wednesday n i g h t . NO REASON. "In the o l d days, a k i d would s n a t c h a l i t t l e o l d l a d y ' s purse and t h a t was a l l . Now, t h a t l a d y i s pushed, punched and k i c k e d i n the mouth f o r no r e a s o n , " he s a i d . He s a i d the i n c r e a s e i n v i o l e n s e times.  ( s i c ) i s a symbol o f modern  "It's a g e n e r a l a t t i t u d e around today," he s a i d l a t e r when asked to e x p l a i n the i n c r e a s e i n v i o l e n c e . "The youngsters r e s e n t any form of a u t h o r i t y , which can be r e p r e s e n t e d by a policeman, p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r s , c o u r t s , U n c l e Johnny o r C o u s i n W i n i f r e d , Mom;j Dad, s c h o o l , r u l e s and r e g u l a t i o n s ." s  The a s s i s t a n t c h i e f s t a t e t h a t these  then went on, a c c o r d i n g t o the account, to  ' f a c t s ' made the j o b f a c e d by the j u v e n i l e c o u r t and i t s  p e r s o n n e l d i f f i c u l t , andt.that i n c r e a s e d u n d e r s t a n d i n g and support from the community was  essential:  "We need more s t a f f a t our o f f i c e s . There a r e times when a p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r can be spread too t h i n l y , and t h i s has o c c u r r e d , " he t o l d h i s audience. A c c o r d i n g to Armstrong, Medium C i t y p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r s average between 60 and 75 cases each. He s a i d t h i s was f a r above the i n t e r n a t i o n a l maximum average i n 1968 of 40 cases a. man.  30  Obviously, one  r e l a t i v e l y h i g h p r o b a t i o n a u t h o r i t y i n t h i s c o u r t bureaucracy  perceived of  t h i s a r t i c l e t o l d me a good d e a l about how a t l e a s t  'the problem o f d e l i n q u e n c y '  'doing p r o b a t i o n ' .  Delinquency  of a d d i t i o n a l p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r s .  community w i t h g r e a t e r probationers  through  f o r the c o u r t , e s p e c i a l l y  the h i r i n g  The i m p l i c a t i o n i s t h a t the a d d i t i o n a l  the p r o b a t i o n bureaucracy  to p r o v i d e the  ' p r o t e c t i o n ' by ' c o n t r o l l i n g ' the d e l i n q u e n t  'closer supervision'.  p r e s e n t a t i o n o f the c o u r t bureaucracy, throughout my f i e l d  and some o f the p r a c t i c a l problems  was seen as growing worse and the s o l u -  t i o n was i n c r e a s e d f i n a n c i a l support  p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r s w i l l enable  publicly  experience with  T h i s f e a t u r e o f the p u b l i c  which I encountered c o n s t a n t l y  the c o u r t , was f r e q u e n t l y coupled  a plea f o r funding f o r a d d i t i o n a l 'detention f a c i l i t i e s ' , i n s t i t u t i o n s ' which were needed  and/or  with  'treatment  'because' p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r s and judges  d i d n o t have adequate r e s o u r c e s w i t h which to d e a l w i t h j u v e n i l e s and p r o bationers . The  p r a c t i c a l concerns expressed  by members o f the c o u r t b u r e a u -  c r a c y , i . e . , ' g e t t i n g the word out on the bad c o n d i t i o n s under which we f u n c t i o n ' and the importance o f the c o u r t ' s t a s k were, t h e r e f o r e , a v a i l a b l e to me as a ' r e s e a r c h e r ' b e f o r e I approached them w i t h a p r o p o s a l to engage in  ' r e s e a r c h ' a t the c o u r t .  I would l i k e  to be a b l e to say t h a t I had  c a r e f u l l y and c o n s c i o u s l y thought through the i m p l i c a t i o n s o f these  con-  cerns b e f o r e I approached the c h i e f p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r w i t h my p r o p o s a l and request myself  f o r access.  I d i d not.  "Rather, I entered h i s o f f i c e and i n t r o d u c e d  as a s o c i o l o g y graduate student who was i n t e r e s t e d i n d o i n g some  31  field  research  cer and  had  a t the c o u r t , adding t h a t I had worked as a p r o b a t i o n  been i n t e r e s t e d i n the  offi-  ' f i e l d of j u v e n i l e j u s t i c e ' f o r a  long  time. A f t e r a s h o r t pause, the c h i e f p r o b a t i o n thought o f p r o b a t i o n  work.  of the most ' d i f f i c u l t ' not mention my  and  o f f i c e r asked what I  I answered t h a t I thought t h a t the job was 'challenging'  t h a t I had  extremely l i m i t e d work h i s t o r y ) .  The  encountered CPO  O f f i c e r ) then launched i n t o what seemed to be a standard m a t t e r of j u v e n i l e j u s t i c e , 'research'.  The  CPO,  the p r o b a t i o n  ' g e t t i n g the word out' about t h e i r needs and  services. severely  The  CPO  limted  known to the  explained  Probation  the  about the need f o r  the problems t h a t  the community w i t h adequate  to do a  they  was  'proper j o b ' o f making i t s needs  ' p u b l i c ' or t h e i r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s who funds to support t h e i r own  to l e t the p u b l i c know about the s i t u a t i o n . to r e s p e c t  would s c r u p u l o u s l y occasion  to use.  'held the  research,  purse-strings'.  the CPO  cases. was  He  He  then t o l d me  the c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y of the c a s e s .  s h i e l d the i d e n t i t y of any I a l s o informed him  s e n s a t i o n a l cases, but  rather  stated  ability  I r e p l i e d that I  case m a t e r i a l s  t h a t I found  t h a t I would not be concerned w i t h  the mundane, r o u t i n e p r o c e s s i n g  welcome to what they d i d have and  that  t h a t I would  of  then remarked t h a t they d i d not keep 'good s t a t s ' but  t h a t I might do i n the area  en-  probation  the l e g a l p r o s c r i p t i o n s on p u b l i c i z i n g t h e i r cases i n h i b i t e d t h e i r  be r e q u i r e d  the  'need' f o r  t h a t the p r o b a t i o n b u r e a u c r a c y i t s e l f  in its ability  B e s i d e s h a v i n g no  (I d i d  'speech' on  b u r e a u c r a c y , and  i n e f f e c t , began to i n f o r m me  counter i n attempting to p r o v i d e  (Chief  one  t h a t they would a p p r e c i a t e  of o r g a n i z i n g  t h e i r evaluative data.  typical that I any  work  I  could  32  sense a b i t of disappointment when I informed him of my  study would be r o u t i n e i n t e r a c t i o n s  of  t h e r e f o r e , would not take me  dispositions.  t h e i r f a m i l i e s and  that  other my  i n t o q u e s t i o n s o f the e f f e c t i v e n e s s  I went; on to e x p l a i n t h a t I c o u l d o f f e r no p a y o f f f o r  the c o u r t i n terms o f p r o v i d i n g them w i t h direct u t i l i t y  focus  t h a t p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r s and  c o u r t p e r s o n n e l engaged i n w i t h j u v e n i l e s and interests,  t h a t ,the primary  i n t h e i r everyday  ' r e p o r t s ' which would be o f  o p e r a t i o n s , whether the s e a r c h f o r community  u n d e r s t a n d i n g and a d d i t i o n a l funds or i n p r o v i d i n g them w i t h r e a d y - t o f o l l o w r e c i p e s f o r improving  t h e i r d e l i v e r y of s e r v i c e s .  I , then  i n t o an a t t a c k upon the e x i s t i n g l i t e r a t u r e and r e s e a r c h i n the claiming  launched  field,  t h a t s o c i o l o g i s t s s t u d y i n g d e l i n q u e n c y and p r o b a t i o n had not ade-  q u a t e l y attended  to the r o u t i n e accomplishment of p r o b a t i o n , but r a t h e r  engaged i n i d e o l o g i c a l d i s p u t e s over i d e a l i z e d v e r s i o n s of what they assumed happened. CPO  My  might have t h a t I was  which would 8 support.  'embarrass'  clear  to the CPO  c o u r t bureaucracy pursue my  the  engaged i n a d e l i b e r a t e s e a r c h f o r expose* m a t e r i a l  the c o u r t and c u r t a i l community and  By c l e a r l y s t a t i n g  would be of c r i t i c a l  8.  i n t e n t i o n had been to c o u n t e r any s u s p i c i o n s t h a t  that I would not be engaging  governmental  i n r e s e a r c h which  i n t e r e s t to the community, however, I a l s o made i t  that my work might be o f l i m i t e d p r a c t i c a l v a l u e to the itself.  By doing t h i s , I f e l t  research without encountering o f f i c i a l s  t h a t I might be a b l e to who  were ' a n x i o u s l y await-  Much l a t e r I l e a r n e d t h a t , i n f a c t , an e a r l i e r study of the c o u r t by a graduate s o c i a l w o r k i s t u d e n t w i t h whom the CPO had cooperated had been seen by the l a t t e r i n j u s t these terms, and t h a t the CPO had a t f i r s t c o n s i d e r e d r e f u s i n g c o o p e r a t i o n i n my study f o r that r e a s o n .  33  i n g ' my f i n d i n g s and eager to l o o k a t my notes or d i s c u s s w i t h me d r a f t s , etc.  At the same time, however, I was s a c r i f i c i n g one o f the f a c t o r s which  might m o t i v a t e a ready  t h e i r a c t i v e c o o p e r a t i o n i n my s t u d y ,  payoff f o r t h e i r cooperation.  acceptance  i . e . , the promise o f  S i n c e I was more i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e i r  o f my presence, i n t h e s e t t i n g than the ' a c t i v e c o o p e r a t i o n ' of  the h i g h l e v e l a u t h o r i t y p r o b a t i o n a u t h o r i t i e s , I kept my promises to a minimum and merely asked  t o be granted  p e r m i s s i o n t o observe  the everyday  a c t i v i t i e s o f the c o u r t . Here, I took a cue from M e l v i l l e D a l t o n ' s  study o f management.  I wanted p e r m i s s i o n to be around the b u i l d i n g and to t a l k to c o u r t p e r s o n n e l b u t was aware o f the v a r i o u s problems which might produce.  'official  sponsorship'  Dalton stated:  I n no case d i d I make a f o r m a l approach to the top management o f any o f the f i r m s to g e t a p p r o v a l or support f o r the r e s e a r c h . S e v e r a l times I have seen o t h e r r e s e a r c h e r s do t h i s and have watched"higher managers s e t t h e scene and l i m i t the i n q u i r y to s p e c i f i c areas - o u t s i d e management proper - as though the problem e x i s t e d i n a vacuum. The f i n d i n g s i n some cases were then regarded as " c o n t r o l l e d experiments", which i n f i n a l form made i m p r e s s i v e r e a d i n g . But the s m i l e s and d e l i g h t e d m a n i p u l a t i o n of r e s e a r c h e r s by guarded p e r s o n n e l , the assessments made o f r e s e a r c h e r s and t h e i r , and -the f r e q u e n t l y t r i v i a l areas to which a l e r t e d and f e a r f u l o f f i c e r s guided t h e i n q u i r y — a l l r a i s e d q u e s t i o n s about who c o n t r o l l e d the experiments. T h i s approach was not s u i t e d to my purposes ( D a l t o n , 1959: 275). My r e s e a r c h s e t t i n g and a s s o c i a t e d problems of g a i n i n g and maint a i n i n g access d i f f e r e d  i n some ways from D a l t o n ' s .  r e l a t e h i s remarks to my p r e c e d i n g account of the problem of d e l i n q u e n c y cracy to my  I would l i k e  of h i g h l e v e l o f f i c i a l  t o now conceptions  and the problems i t p r e s e n t s f o r the b u r e a u -  'problems' as a r e s e a r c h e r .  34  Dalton's  g o a l was t o study  through whom o f f i c i a l  the p r a c t i c e s o f the v e r y  persons  access i s o b t a i n e d :  ...the aim i s to g e t as c l o s e as p o s s i b l e to the w o r l d of managers and to i n t e r p r e t t h i s world and i t s problems from the i n s i d e , as they a r e seen and f e l t a t v a r i o u s p o i n t s and l e v e l s ( D a l t o n , 1959: 1 ) . 'Managing' may i n c l u d e managing r e s e a r c h and r e s e a r c h e r s i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n , that ensuring  'approval and c o o p e r a t i o n ' opens the r e s e a r c h  e n t e r p i s e to 'normal management p r a c t i c e s ' i n a way t h a t makes the r e s e a r c h 'outcome' a product o f the v e r y i m p r e s s i o n management p r a c t i c e s which should have been themselves examined. From D a l t o n ' s  study and r e p o r t e d e x p e r i e n c e s , I presumed t h a t my  study o f the p r o b a t i o n bureaucracy anri.attempt to g a i n my i n i t i a l his  would have been s i g n i f i c a n t l y shaped by  ' c o o p e r a t i o n ' from the p r o b a t i o n a d m i n i s t r a t o r s .  encounter  w i t h the a d m i n i s t r a t o r o f the p r o b a t i o n department,  concerns were the on-going concerns  a c t i v i t y o f managing  During  ' h i s ' department.  o f a CPO engaged i n the everyday There was no 'time o u t ' d u r i n g  which we ' o b j e c t i v e l y ' d i s c u s s e d p o s s i b l e c o n t r i b u t i o n t h a t he and h i s p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r s c o u l d make to s c i e n c e . eminently and  Rather,  p r a c t i c a l problem o f attempting  he was engaged i n the  to do_ p r o b a t i o n a d m i n i s t r a t i o n ,  to determine the r e l e v a n c e of my r e s e a r c h t o t h a t problem. I n t h i s c o n t e x t , I would l i k e  to argue t h a t h i s e x p l i c i t  inquiry  as to how I ' f e l t about p r o b a t i o n ' and, s e c o n d l y , h i s immediate attempt to t i e my r e s e a r c h t o o r g a n i z a t i o n a l goals were fundamentally  c o n v e n t i o n a l and  r o u t i n e methods by which a d m i n i s t r a t o r s attempt to assess a r e s e a r c h e r ' s m o t i v a t i o n , g o a l s , e t c . , to p r o v i d e them w i t h a b a s i s f o r d e t e r m i n i n g whe-  35  ther the r e s e a r c h s h o u l d be a l l o w e d , ministration.  and/or a c t i v e l y supported  everyday a c t i v i t i e s .  the CPO  of  ' t r o u b l e ' and/or  I f , f o r example, I had  'shocked' by what I had  informed  c r a c y o r , more l i k e l y , n e s t l y attempted  i n t r o d u c e d me  to g i v e me  the  introduced  c o u r t bureaucracy who  procedures,  to the bureauwould have e a r -  'an i n s i d e l o o k ' a t the problems encountered  i n the attempt to p r o v i d e p r o f e s s i o n a l p r o b a t i o n s e r v i c e s . been subsequently  to  administrator  access  to h i s a s s i s t a n t who  ad-  'aid' i n their  read or heard about p r o b a t i o n  would, i n a l l l i k e l i h o o d e i t h e r have denied  t e l l Mr.  the  I t i s these c o n s i d e r a t i o n s which i n d u c e a d m i n i s t r a t o r s  view r e s e a r c h e r s as a p o t e n t i a l source  t h a t I was  by  I would have  to s e l e c t e d members of the p r o b a t i o n s t a f f  would have been 'asked by  Darrough what we're up  the c h i e f or a s s i s t a n t  to so t h a t h e ' l l have a balanced  and to  i d e a of  our o p e r a t i o n s here. ' On  the other hand, i f I had  entered  the team' ( I suggest t h a t t h i s i s the p r o p o s a l had  spoken o f  provided with  ' p r o b a t i o n ' as  the c o u r t as a t h a t the CPO  'member of made once I  ' c h a l l e n g i n g ' , e t c . ) , I would have been, a g a i n ,  assistance i n planning  and c a r r y i n g out my  would have more or l e s s s u b t l y c o n s t r a i n e d  to  ' f i t ' my  r e s e a r c h which  research  to  the  that  the  9 'needs',  ' g o a l s ' , e t c . of the members of the b u r e a u c r a c y . I wish to emphasize the f a c t  t h a t I am  not i m p l y i n g  a d m i n i s t r a t o r s wouild n e c e s s a r i l y have been engaged i n ' c y n i c a l  manipulation',  or t h a t they would have been a c t i n g ' h y p o c r i t i c a l l y ' , r a t h e r I am 9.  merely  I say members of the b u r e a u c r a c y r a t h e r than a d m i n i s t r a t o r s f o r I w i l l s h o r t l y show t h a t a d m i n i s t r a t o r s a r e not alone i n t h e i r attempts to 'manage' r e s e a r c h .  36  s t a t i n g t h a t they would have attended of  ' t r o u b l e or aid-, and Now  'completely  focus and  f r e e and u n c o n t r o l l e d a c c e s s '  with  or approved by  access  to the kinds  have become c o n v i n c e d ,  First,  attempt to show t h a t even  to the b u r e a u c r a c y which  was  the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n would not have of m a t e r i a l s  and  observations  a r e e s s e n t i a l f o r the p r o d u c t i o n  e t h n o g r a p h i c d e s c r i p t i o n of enable the r e a d e r  r e s e a r c h as a p o t e n t i a l source  accordingly.  I would l i k e to s h i f t my  formally sanctioned v i d e d me  acted  to my  " p r o b a t i o n work'.  The  to o b t a i n a f i r m e r grasp of the the n o t i o n of completely  The  which, I  of an adequate  reasons f o r t h i s  will  setting.  f r e e access  to the everyday w o r l d of the j u v e n i l e c o u r t .  pro-  does grave v i o l e n c e  administrators  themselves  do not have f r e e access  to a l l the a c t i v i t i e s of c o u r t p e r s o n n e l .  It i s ,  therefore, questionable  whether  officers  'it'  i s theirs  to g i v e .  t y p i c a l l y viewed themselves as p r o f e s s i o n a l s and, supervisory monitoring  and  Probation  t h e r e f o r e , attended  administrative intervention i n their  s i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s as, a t b e s t , a n e c e s s a r y e v i l . competing p r o f e s s i o n a l c o n c e p t i o n s  of p r o b a t i o n  I n my  but  t h a t they were attended  t o , remarked upon, e t c .  f o r being  a p p r o v a l was, of  therefore, oriented  to  ' t r o u b l e or a s s i s t a n c e ' i n c a r e e r advancement.  officers  upon as  ' l e a r n from'.  to by p r o b a t i o n  theoretical,  Probation  ' u n p r o f e s s i o n a l ' or looked  p l a r y models' f o r o t h e r p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r s  the  i n the c o u r t w i t h which I  a s s o c i a t e d , I suggested t h a t such matters were not merely  'attacked'  profes-  d i s c u s s i o n of  was  could be  to  'exem-  Administrative  o f f i c e r s as both a source Probation  be and were f i r e d or promoted because s u p e r v i s o r s and/or  officers  could  administrators  37  regarded yet  t h e i r performance f a v o u r a b l y or u n f a v o u r a b l y .  critical  f o r any  import  researcher  of a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s p o n s o r s h i p attempting  i s t h a t the s p o n s o r s h i p  I was any  up  had  attempted  As an ethnographer, I attempted  to develop  p r o v i d e PO's  obvious,  setting  those r o u t i n e s . out',  to determine what  and h i s bureaucracy,  piesence i n s i m i l a r  so  terms.  a s t r a t e g y which would enable  me  gather as much i n f o r m a t i o n as p o s s i b l e about the on-going  accomplishment of normal p r o b a t i o n work. w i t h s u i t a b l e and  t h a t they would have about my  In o r d e r  to do  t h i s , I had  to  adequate 'answers' to the normal concerns presence d u r i n g t h e i r performance of proba-  tasks. One, of the ways I sought to do  independence from the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e and decided  to maximize my  supervisory personnel.  f i r s t l i n e c o n t a c t without  functionaries.  visors  t h i s was  perceived I had  t h a t I c o u l d b e s t a c h i e v e t h i s independence i n appearance and  by o b t a i n i n g my his  alter  to 'check me  p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r would be o r i e n t i n g to my  tion  i n the p r e s e n t  to and what I c o u l d do f o r or a g a i n s t him  to observe and  rather  to u n o b t r u s i v e l y examine normal work r o u t i n e s  i t s e l f will' inevitably  J u s t as the CPO  The  (I met  T h e r e f o r e , when I was  introduced  to the PO's  whom they s u p e r v i s e d .  my  research i n t e r e s t s ,  and  appreciated  to. d i s c u s s p r o b a t i o n w i t h hands and l e f t .  The  said  of the CPO  Rather I gave a v e r y b r i e f account of  t h e i r c o o p e r a t i o n , and,  finally,  them i n the near f u t u r e .  i n t o h i s o f f i c e and began to ask me  super-  them to i n t r o d u c e  that I would be i n touch a t a l a t e r  t h i r d expressed  or  to the t h r e e l i n e  the i n t a k e s u p e r v i s o r l a t e r ) , I d i d not ask  me  t h a t I deeply  the s p o n s o r s h i p  fact  interest about my  i n my  Two  date,  t h a t I wanted  of them shook  project.  He  invited  d e s i g n , background, e t c .  me  38  When he  expressed i n t e r e s t as a s o c i a l worker, I informed  that I was  an M.S.W. and  court.  immediately  He  aboard'. was  t h a t I had  done my  'warmed up',  saying  field  placement at a j u v e n i l e  t h a t he was  A g a i n , i n h i s remarks, I took i t t h a t he was  coming aboard as a member.of a team, i n t h i s case a  probation  'happy to have  me  assuming t h a t I 1  social-workeri n his  long-  term, on-going attempt to p r o f e s s i o n a l i z e the p r o b a t i o n b u r e a u c r a c y .  Dur-  ing  our  of f i c e r , - s o c i o l o g i s t ' who  him  conversation,  would j o i n t h i s s u p e r v i s o r  f o r example, he  informed me  t h a t he wanted to  grade' the use of the j u v e n i l e c o u r t as a f i e l d work placement by u n i v e r s i t y ' s s c h o o l of s o c i a l work. ing  and  experience  i n the o t h e r  work i n g e n e r a l w i t h theory  new  professional trainf o r the  job  of p r o b a t i o n s t a f f and/or engaging  the s u p e r v i s o r and  the f i e l d of  social  in a correctional milieu.  member of the team who s t o r y out',  qua  administrator  the s u p e r v i s o r who  was  t h a t my  i n t e r e s t s qua I  attempted  to e n l i s t me  and  t r a i n i n g new  s o c i a l worker c o i n c i d e d w i t h h i s .  tasks of t r a i n i n g , p r o f e s s i o n a l i z i n g the f i e l d The  a  'getting  PO's  As w i t h  assumed the  take i t t h a t h i s assumptions were based upon h i s i n the  work e n t e r p r i s e , e t c .  as  concerned w i t h upgrading p r o f e s s i o n a l  r e c r u i t i n g more p r o f e s s i o n a l PO's,  istrator,  had  could c o n t r i b u t e to the o r g a n i z a t i o n by  skills,  cal  a local  t h e o r i e s or a p p l i c a t i o n s of e x i s t i n g s o c i a l work  J u s t t a s the CPO  our  assumed t h a t my  c o u r t would have prepared me  of upgrading the p r o f e s s i o n a l s k i l l s i n r e s e a r c h which would p r o v i d e  He  'up-  of p r o b a t i o n  as a  adminpracticase-  ' p r o b a t i o n as s o c i a l work' l i t e r a t u r e shows t h a t  such concerns were not i d i o s y n c r a t i c to t h i s s u p e r v i s o r i n t h i s s e t t i n g  39  but r e f l e c t  the on-going  concerns  of p r o f e s s i o n a l s i n the f i e l d  and one 10  t r a d i t i o n a l c o n c e p t i o n o f the r o l e o f r e s e a r c h i n p r o b a t i o n s e t t i n g s . A g a i n , I would l i k e  to s p e c u l a t e as to the impact  on t h i s team on my a b i l i t y as an ethnographic the on-going  o f p e r c e i v e d membership  observer  to g a i n a c c e s s to  accomplishment of p r o b a t i o n t a s k s by p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r s .  membershipped, I would be a b l e to observe, e.g., p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r s about t h e i r b u s i n e s s w h i l e b e i n g observed  tence' a_s . ' s o c i a l workers'.  going  by a p r o f e s s i o n a l s o c i a l worker  w i t h a background i n p r o b a t i o n who may be i n t e r e s t e d p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r s i n an attempt  So  t o determine  their  i n c h e c k i n g o u t these ' p r o f e s s i o n a l compe-  From my p r i o r e x p e r i e n c e i n the o t h e r  juvenile  c o u r t as_ a s o c i a l worker, I knew t h a t my r e s e a r c h e x p e r i e n c e and data would, i n a l l l i k e l i h o o d , be shaped i n a t l e a s t First, etc.,  the f o l l o w i n g ways:  I would be t r e a t e d by some PO's as a r e s o u r c e f o r a d v i c e ,  on how to go about d o i n g p r o b a t i o n .  As 'an e x p e r t ' , I c o u l d be c a l l e d  upon a t any time d u r i n g my o b s e r v a t i o n s t o c o n s t r u c t i v e l y  evMuate,or  c o u n s e l my s u b j e c t s about t h e competent accomplishment of the a c t i v i t y I was supposedly  i n t e n d i n g to merely  observe,  r e c o r d , and r e p o r t upon.  the same time other p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r s would, i n a l l l i k e l i h o o d avoid o r r e s i s t my attempts tivities 1(L  to observe  At  actively  t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s o_r shape those a c -  to d i s p l a y f o r me, e.g., the i n a d e q u a c i e s o f ' b l e e d i n g - h e a r t s o c i a l  See, f o r example: Ives (1965), Kogon (1965), and Sedio e t a l . (1965). For d i s c u s s i o n s of members'conceptions, o f the ' r o l e o f r e s e a r c h ' and the ' i d e n t i t y o f the r e s e a r c h e r ' as o f both p r a c t i c a l and t h e o r e t i c a l c o n c e r n f o r the ethnographic o b s e r v e r o f s e t t i n g s s e e , f o r example, C i c o u r e l (1968), Ford (1974), Mackay (1964), S t o d d a r t (1968), Turner (1968), Wieder (1969). Of s p e c i a l r e l e v a n c e ( i n s o f a r as he d e a l s w i t h ' s o c i o l o g i c a l r e s e a r c h - i n - a - s o c i a l - w o r k - s e t t i n g ) , i s Zimmerman (1966), note e s p e c i a l l y h i s "Appendix on Methodology".  40  work theory and is  method' f o r working i n the s e t t i n g .  What I am  suggesting  t h a t the i n d i v i d u a l p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r ' s i n t e r e s t i n , a t t i t u d e s toward,  etc.,  ' s o c i a l work' would s i g n i f i c a n t l y shape the p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r ' s  formances to the extent  t h a t they  f e s s i o n a l r e s e a r c h - s o c i a l worker  1  i s e attending who  per-  to the presence of a  'pro-  i s 'here' f o r the express purpose o f  l e a r n i n g and/or t e a c h i n g about p r o b a t i o n - a s - p r o f e s s i o n a l - s o c i a l - w o r k . as an e x p e r t ,  I would be  probation,work, a  taken as one who  c o u l d r e c o g n i z e bad  or  Also,  incompetent  ' f a c t ' which c o u l d be viewed w i t h some a p p r e h e n s i o n by  p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r s who  were not q u i t e s u r e i f what they were doing was  good  or competent p r o b a t i o n work as I_ might d e f i n e i t . Once a g a i n , and  t h e r e f o r e , I d e c l i n e d the i n v i t a t i o n to j o i n a team  once a g a i n n o t i c e d t h a t the person who  mild disappointment.  I informed  was  the s u p e r v i s o r t h a t my  moment' were o r i e n t e d more toward d i s c o v e r i n g doing  t h e i r work than how  they should  do i t ' .  t h i n k t h a t I 'knew enough' about p r o b a t i o n would t a l k to him  later  a few minutes about my  i f I discovered study.  making the o f f e r d i s p l a y e d  'how  i n t e r e s t s ' f o r the  probation o f f i c e r s  I t o l d him  that I did  to be of much h e l p , but  anything  of use.  We  e v a l u a t i o n o f the v a r i o u s methods, o f f e r i n g 'outcome' i n f o r m a t i o n .  to p r o v i d e me  on f o r  When I informed  him  to produce an  with  assistance  t h a t I was  t h a t I would have "a h e l l of a time g e t t i n g f i n a n c i a l support Maybe f i v e ,  that I  chatted  to attempt to do d e s c r i p t i v e ethnography, the s u p e r v i s o r f l a t l y  l i k e that.  not  A g a i n , he recommended t h a t I engage i n a  s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s or d i f f e r e n t treatment methods i n o r d e r  in obtaining  are  ten years  ago  you  going  stated  f o r something  c o u l d have s l i p p e d through w i t h  41  something l i k e t h a t , but i n t h i s day b e h i n d you.  I f you haven't  and age you've got to have numbers  got them, they won't l i s t e n to a word you  I t had been n e c e s s a r y  to o b t a i n f o r m a l p e r m i s s i o n to  c o u r t - p r o b a t i o n work because most of the a r e a s i n which such takes p l a c e were c l o s e d i n some way.  A l s o , the p e r m i s s i o n was  say."  observe  interaction then always  a v a i l a b l e to invoke i f and when i t became n e c e s s a r y or u s e f u l , i . e . , to g a i n access to the courtrooms themselves,  to l o o k a t r e c o r d s , e t c .  What,  i n f a c t , I had been g i v e n p e r m i s s i o n to do was  something which was  open to n e g o t i a t i o n between the r e s e a r c h e r and  the v a r i o u s members of  court probation s t a f f .  I now,  however, faced what proved  p r a c t i c a l problem, the r o u t i n e mundane and a c c e s s adequate f o r my everyday  purposes  to be an  c o n t i n u a l accomplishing  always the  on-going of  as an e t h n o g r a p h e r : ' p e n e t r a t i o n ' of  the  world of the p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r w i t h minimum or a t l e a s t d e l i m i t e d  d i s r u p t i o n of i t . The i n i t i a l accomplished formed me he s a i d  c o n t a c t of a l i n e p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r was,  i n the f o l l o w i n g manner:  t h a t he'had a f r i e n d who  t h a t the PO  (Bob  Smith) was  probably cooperate w i t h me.,  was  a f e l l o w graduate  I decided  I i n t r o d u c e d myself  Furthermore,  to t a l k t o , and would  When I was  telephone  I then s a i d  about p r o b a t i o n work f o r a seminar t h a t I was A t the time of t h i s c o n t a c t no more was  t h a t I wanted to do 11 taking. intended.  and  a b l e to t a l k to  as a grad student a t the l o c a l u n i v e r s i t y  a l s o s a i d t h a t I had been a PO.  11.  easy  to c o n t a c t Smith by  o b t a i n h i s p e r m i s s i o n to drop by f o r a t a l k . Smith,  student had i n -  a probation o f f i c e r ' .  a n i c e guy,  therefore,  and  something  I then s a i d t h a t  42  I wanted to come down to the c o u r t touch w i t h  the CPO  I then t o l d him  who  s a i d i t was  okay f o r me  t h a t the p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r s were the ones who  would  spend t h e i r days s i t t i n g  t y p i c a l of p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r s and  up.  i n their  offices.  o t h e r s o c i a l workers t h a t , f o r example,  I then s t a t e d t h a t I wanted to see i f t h i n g s were as  screwed up around t h i s c o u r t as worked.  court. going  working i n such s e t t i n g s and might have informed the PO I knew what was  been i n  knew what was  the s u p e r v i s o r s who  Such a remark was  t h a t I had  to be around the  t h a t I wanted to t a l k to someone who  on a t the c o u r t , and know, not  had  'to l o o k around' and  I n t h i s way,  they had  been around the one  I sought to c o n v i n c e him  the s e t t i n g w i t h n a i v e ,  i d e a l i z e d notions  t h a t I was  a t which I  not coming i n t o  of what i t ' s l i k e , or t h a t , f o r  example, I would be making comparisons of t h i s c o u r t w i t h a h i g h l y  profes-  s i o n a l c o u r t , comparisons which, i n e f f e c t , would n e g a t i v e l y assess c o u r t as opposed to t h a t c o u r t . up' was  Rather, I r e c o g n i z e d  an i n v a r i a n t f e a t u r e of c o u r t work, due  e t c . , a t the c o u r t .  Smith laughed and  I'd l i k e to plied was  'drop by'.  court.  I replied  t h a t i t was  this  'screwed  'working c o n d i t i o n s ' ,  He  sure that  'things  then asked what  I asked i f Monday would be okay, to which he  that I must have beai k i d d i n g , a s k i n g  coming up.  to  that being  s t a t e d t h a t he was  c o u l d n ' t have been any worse' at the o t h e r  had  day re-  i f I'd f o r g o t t e n what weekend  Halloween, then  ' r e a l i z e d ' what t h a t  ' f a c t ' meant i n the context  o f work r o u t i n e s and the s c h e d u l i n g problems 12 faced by p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r s , adding j o k i n g l y , "Don't t e l l me the k i d s are 12.  Halloween i s t y p i c a l l y viewed by law-enforcement and j u v e n i l e j u s t i c e p e r s o n n e l as a n i g h t which 'produces' a g r e a t d e a l of work. 'Kids' a r e seen as ' h e l l - r a i s i n g ' and the a c t i v i t i e s o f these o r g a n i z a t i o n s a r e o r ganized i n a n t i c i p a t i o n of t h a t f a c t . The p o l i c e , c u s t o d i a l p e r s o n n e l , and c o u r t p e r s o n n e l 'get ready' f o r what i s seen as 'the i n e v i t a b l e ' . Continued . . . .  43  nasty around here on Halloween.  How about Wednesday a f t e r n o o n , t h i n k  y o u ' l l have r e c o v e r e d by then?"  He agreed  him l u c k and terminated I would l i k e  to the proposed  the c a l l . to c a l l a t t e n t i o n to c e r t a i n a s p e c t s o f the above  i n t e r a c t i o n which I take to be of r e l e v a n c e b o t h doing ethnographic  to g e n e r a l problems o f  r e s e a r c h and to the more s p e c i f i c q u e s t i o n s which I have  r a i s e d p e r t a i n i n g to 'access' to t h i s p a r t i c u l a r s e t t i n g . like  d a t e , I wished  First,  to p o i n t to the ' i d e n t i t y s e l e c t i o n ' o r 'self-membershipping'  t i e s i n which I was engaged (Sacks, 1966, Turner, 1968). suggest  I would activi-  I would l i k e to  t h a t the ' f a c t ' t h a t the i n i t i a l c o n t a c t between m y s e l f and a p r o -  bation officer  (whom I hoped to observe) was a c a l l from a ' f r i e n d o f a  f r i e n d ' and c o u l d be so t r e a t e d by the p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r bation o f f i c e r  enabled  to o r i e n t t o me a s , i . e . , 'a p o s s i b l e f r i e n d ' ,  the p r o -  'someone t o  t a l k t o ' , e t c . , r a t h e r than, f o r example, a r e s e a r c h e r w i t h whom 'the b o s s ' expects him to cooperate. did  I might add t h a t p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r  Smith and I  become f r i e n d s and t h a t as_ 'a f r i e n d ' he was a b l e t o p r o v i d e me w i t h  i n v a l u a b l e a s s i s t a n c e both  i n g a i n i n g the ' c o o p e r a t i o n ' o f other c o u r t  p e r s o n n e l and i n p r o v i d i n g me w i t h a g r e a t d e a l o f i n f o r m a t i o n , p r a c t i c a l a s s i s t a n c e , e t c . , w i t h o u t which t h i s r e p o r t would have been i m p o s s i b l e . B e f o r e p r o c e e d i n g w i t h my a n a l y s i s of t h i s c o n t a c t , i t would be u s e f u l to remark upon a p o s s i b l e m i s r e a d i n g o f i t by the r e a d e r o f the 12.  (Continued....) On Halloween, t h i s p a r t i c u l a r p r o b a t i o n department had PO's ' i n the f i e l d a f t e r hours' i n an attempt to monitor and a i d the p o l i c e i n the ' c o n t r o l * of j u v e n i l e ' d i s t u r b a n c e s ' . The Monday a f t e r Halloween would be attended 'to, by p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r s as the day upon which 'Halloween c a s e s ' would f i r s t ' h i t c o u r t ' , as a 'busy' day and, t h e r e f o r e , one which would be l e s s than i d e a l f o r s c h e d u l i n g a d d i t i o n a l activities.  44  report. pletely  I do not want to g i v e the reader  c a r e f u l l y constructed  very f a c t  a t t r i b u t a b l e to the f a c t  t h a t my  f i e l d work problems and (and w i t h o u t  t h e s i s s u p e r v i s o r had activities  as data  throughout my  experience  i n the  Immediately a f t e r  c l o s e to a v e r b a t i m to w r i t e up  gathered  my  My  informa-  concerns,  etc.,  'the c o u r t ' , i . e . ,  the phone c a l l , f o r example, I j o t t e d down as then ' f i l e d ' i t . When I began t h a t such r e c o r d s a r e an i n -  thus, e n a b l i n g me  to t e l l  and h o p e f u l l y , c r e d e n t i a l i n g my  d a t a i n the r e p o r t .  to  f o r subsequent a n a l y s i s .  v a l u a b l e r e s o u r c e both f o r g e n e r a l purposes of ethnographic  d a t a was  the  setting.  the r e s e a r c h r e p o r t , I d i s c o v e r e d  and  Rather,  encouraged me  activities,  contact with  account as p o s s i b l e and  w e l l as f o r t e l l i n g me  traded  the u t i l i t y of such  t i o n ) , I c o n s c i e n t i o u s l y kept a r e c o r d of my initial  had  ' c o n t a c t ' and used i t i n the r e p o r t i s  f u l l y understanding  b e f o r e , d u r i n g , and a f t e r my  com-  then had  ' f r i e n d s h i p ' c o u l d be  g o a l s , as an ethnographer.  t h a t I made a r e c o r d of the  As a r e s u l t  'problems of a c c e s s ' and  a s t r a t e g y by which  upon i n the accomplishment of my  i:,,  t h a t I had  'planned' the i n t e r a c t i o n which I am d e s c r i b i n g or t h a t I  engaged i n a p r i o r a n a l y s i s o f , e.g.,  t r e a t my  the i m p r e s s i o n  i n t e r e s t i n and use  d e s c r i p t i o n as  the reader how  p a r t i c u l a r uses of  the the  of such d a t a a r e based upon  r e a d i n g of a recommendation made by Turner r e g a r d i n g  s o c i o l o g i c a l uses  of c o n v e r s a t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s : ••-The s o c i o l o g i s t i n e v i t a b l y trades on h i s members' knowledge i n r e c o g n i z i n g the a c t i v i t i e s t h a t p a r t i c i p a n t s to i n t e r a c t i o n a r e engaged i n . . . . T h e s o c i o l o g i s t , h a v i n g made h i s f i r s t - l e v e l d e c i s i o n on the b a s i s of members' knowledge, must then pose as p r o b l e m a t i c how u t t e r a n c e s come o f f as r e c o g n i z a b l e u n i t a c t i -  45  vities. T h i s r e q u i r e s the s o c i o l o g i s t to e x p l i c a t e the r e sources he shares w i t h the p a r t i c i p a n t s i n making sense of u t t e r ances i n a s t r e t c h of t a l k . A t every s t e p of the way, i n e v i t a b l y , the s o c i o l o g i s t w i l l c o n t i n u e to employ h i s s o c i a l i z e d competence, w h i l e c o n t i n u i n g to make e x p l i c i t what these r e s o u r c e s a r e and how he employs them. I see no a l t e r n a t i v e to these procedures, except to pay no e x p l i c i t a t t e n t i o n to one's s o c i a l i z e d knowledge w h i l e c o n t i n u i n g to use i t as an i n d i s p e n s a b l e a i d . In s h o r t , s o c i o l o g i c a l d i s c o v e r i e s a r e i n e l u c t a b l y d i s c o v e r i e s from w i t h i n the s o c i e t y (Turner, 1970: 177, emphasis i n o r i g i n a l ) . Stoddart has  sought to e x p l i c a t e 'shared r e s o u r c e s ' i n an attempt  to make sense of what might have been d i s m i s s e d as an aborted maintain access. impact  He p r o v i d e s us w i t h an account which n i c e l y d i s p l a y s the  of the i s s u e s o f , e.g.,  i d e n t i t y and m o t i v a t i o n s of the r e s e a r c h e r ,  i n an o c c u p a t i o n a l s e t t i n g s i m i l a r , we in  attempt to  a r e p r e s e n t l y concerned.  i n some r e s p e c t s , to the one w i t h which  I b e l i e v e t h a t the account warrants  quotation  full: I t was o r i g i n a l l y planned t h a t a p p r o x i m a t e l y one month be spent o b s e r v i n g the p o l i c e . However, on the second evening i t became obvious t h a t f u r t h e r o b s e r v a t i o n would not be p o s s i b l e . What f o l l o w s i s a d i s c u s s i o n of the events t h a t l e d d up to the t e r m i n a t i o n of my o b s e r v a t i o n s of the drug squad. I was i n t r o d u c e d to the s t a f f sergeant i n charge of the Western C i t y drug squad by the e x e c u t i v e d i r e c t o r of the n a r c o t i c a d d i c t i o n treatment center where I was employed a t the time. The two had known each o t h e r f o r a number of y e a r s . He t o l d the sergeant t h a t the o b s e r v a t i o n s would be p a r t of the treatment c e n t e r ' s r e s e a r c h program, and would enable me to "see the drug a d d i c t as the policeman does". The s t a f f s e r g e a n t was q u i t e r e c e p t i v e to t h i s and s a i d t h a t on many o c c a s i o n s i n the p a s t p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r s , s o c i a l workers, clergymen, e t c . , had accompanied the drug squad f o r t h i s r e a s o n . One month was the agreed-upon,length of the o b s e r v a t i o n a l p e r i o d . The s e r g e a n t t o l d me to telephone him a few days b e f o r e I wanted to b e g i n the o b s e r v a t i o n s . A few weeks I was ready and t o l d me o ' c l o c k the  l a t e r I telephoned the ser.geant and informed him t h a t to b e g i n o b s e r v i n g . He s a i d t h a t he would " s e t i t up" to come to the drug squad o f f i c e s h o r t l y b e f o r e s i x f o l l o w i n g evening.  46  The next evening I r e p o r t e d to the o f f i c e and i n t r o d u c e d myself to the drug squad members who were a l r e a d y p r e s e n t . When I gave my name, one o f them s a i d : "That's v e r y n i c e , b u t why a r e you here?". I e x p l a i n e d my presence and i t was obvious t h a t they had not been informed that I would be accompanying them. One o f the policemen phoned the sergeant to a s c e r t a i n the l e g i t i m a c y o f my p r e s e n c e . F o l l o w i n g t h i s , the evening's work began. D u r i n g the evening, I e x p l a i n e d the purpose o f the o b s e r v a t i o n s to them e x a c t l y as i t had been e x p l a i n e d to the s t a f f sergeant by the e x e c u t i v e d i r e c t o r . A t the end o f the evening, the o f f i c e r s I had accompanied looked s u r p r i s e d when I s a i d t h a t I would be s e e i n g them "tomorrow". D u r i n g the next evening, one o f the o f f i c e r s asked me how much time I planned to spend w i t h them. I r e p l i e d t h a t I had r e c e i v e d p e r m i s s i o n t o spend approximately one month accompanying them i n their nightly a c t i v i t i e s . A t t h i s p o i n t one o f the o f f i c e r s s a i d : "Well, we're going to g e t r i d o f you as soon as we can — like tonight". I asked i f I had been " g e t t i n g i n t h e i r way" o r hamp e r i n g them and I was assured t h a t I had n o t . They suggested t h a t I see the s t a f f sergeant f o r an e x p l a n a t i o n . Following t h i s , I was t o l d t h a t the squad had some " s p e c i a l b u s i n e s s " to take c a r e of and I was d r i v e n to my home. The f o l l o w i n g day, the s t a f f sergeant t o l d me t h a t f u r t h e r obs e r v a t i o n would n o t be p o s s i b l e . He s a i d t h a t i f I was i n j u r e d d u r i n g the course o f o b s e r v a t i o n , the p o l i c e department would "...never hear the end of i t " . I o f f e r e d to have prepared a l e g a l document which would r e l i e v e the department o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r any i n j u r y I might i n c u r . A t t h i s p o i n t h e s t a t e d t h a t t h e r e was a l s o a " s e c u r i t y " or ' c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y " i s s u e a t s t a k e : he f e l t t h a t the "hypes" might one day read my "book" and f i n d o u t how the drug squad o p e r a t e s . He had t o l d me e a r l i e r t h a t drug u s e r s were w e l l aware o f the a r r e s t - p r o d u c i n g p r o c e d u r e s employed by the p o l i c e and I reminded him of t h i s . However, he maintained t h a t more o b s e r v a t i o n s could n o t be made "anyway" and r e f u s e d to d i s c u s s t h e matter f u r t h e r . The d e c i s i o n to d i s c o n t i n u e f u r t h e r o b s e r v a t i o n s seems to have been made n o t a t the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e l e v e l b u t a t "working" or "squad" level. The r e a s o n c o u l d have been merely t h a t t h e p o l i c e d i d not " l i k e " me (although one member d i d i n v i t e me to h i s home to l i s t e n to r e c o r d e d music) o r that I hampered the performance o f some o f t h e i r tasks (although I was h e l p f u l on some o c c a s i o n s ) . An a l t e r -  47  nate e x p l a n a t i o n i s t h a t the members of the drug squad engage i n some a c t i v i t i e s t h a t they do n o t want observed by an " o u t s i d e r " , i . e . , the presence o f an o b s e r v e r might i n t e r r u p t some a s p e c t s of t h e i r normal r o u t i n e . There i s o f t e n a c e r t a i n amount o f p h y s i c a l c o e r c i o n i n v o l v e d i n g a t h e r i n g t h e e v i d e n c e s u f f i c i e n t to warrant an a r r e s t f o r "poss e s s i o n of n a r c o t i s ( s i c ) . " (Indeed, a t t h e time o f t h i s w r i t i n g a coroner's i n q u e s t i s being h e l d to a s c e r t a i n whether o r n o t t h e p o l i c e a r e r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the death o f a drug u s e r who s u f f o c a ted d u r i n g the process o f being " s e a r c h e d " f o r d r u g s . Similar i n c i d e n t s have o c c u r r e d i n the p a s t ) . A p u b l i c i s s u e i s o f t e n made o f t h i s c o e r c i o n by Western C i t y c i v i l l i b e r t a r i a n s . I f e l t t h a t some o f the q u e s t i o n s the drug squad members asked me d u r i n g the evening were attempts to l o c a t e me on a l i b e r a l c o n s e r v a t i v e continuum (e.g., " I don't t h i n k smoking m a r i j u a n a i s r e a l l y such a bad t h i n g , do y o u ? " ) . D e s p i t e my non-committal answers, i t i s q u i t e l i k e l y t h a t due to my a f f i l i a t i o n w i t h a treatment cen.ter they saw me as a " l i b e r a l " and a p e r s o n who might r e a c t n e g a t i v e l y to some o f t h e i r methods ( S t o d d a r t , 1968: 12-14, n. 7 ) . I take i t t h a t t h i s account p r o v i d e s  a t l e a s t some e v i d e n c e  that  my e a r l i e r s p e c u l a t i o n s entry  13.  (about what may have happened had I o n l y c l e a r e d my 13 i n t o the s e t t i n g w i t h a d m i n i s t r a t o r s ) were sound. Note the 'checking  That v i r t u a l l y a l l members o f the c o u r t b u r e a u c r a c y do, i n f a c t a t t e n d to, and a c t to ' s h i e l d ' c o u r t b u s i n e s s from ' o u t s i d e r s ' i s i n d i c a t e d by the f o l l o w i n g o b s e r v a t i o n recorded s h o r t l y a f t e r I had begun ' v i s i t i n g ' PO Smith. As y e t , I was unknown to a l l b u t one o t h e r PO: "Bobby (Smith) had j u s t l e f t me i n the o f f i c e to go to court. He l e f t a ' f i l e ' f o r a coming c a s e , s a y i n g t h a t I might be i n t e r e s t e d i n l o o k i n g i t o v e r . I had n o t s t a r t e d to read i t b u t was l o o k i n g a t i t when a man I r e c o g n i z e d as a 'court o f f i c e r ' a person who's primary f u n c t i o n seems to be 'page' p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r s and the p r i n c i p a l s , w i t n e s s e s , e t c . , when they a r e supposed to go to c o u r t . He walked i n t o the o f f i c e and asked 'which c a s e ' I was 'on'. I answered t h a t I was t h e r e to see 'Bobby'. He then l e f t . A f t e r he had gone I n o t i c e d t h a t he had covered the f i l e I had been prepared to read." Continued  . . . .  48  out' done by members of the p o l i c e department, the attempt to f i n d o u t who the  ' o u t s i d e r ' i s , and what he's up t o .  A l s o , n o t i c e that probable  com-  p l a i n t s from the squad l e v e l a p p a r e n t l y brought about a r e v e r s a l o f the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p e r m i s s i o n to observe work r o u t i n e s .  Administrators  might  expectably  a c t i n such a manner e s p e c i a l l y when, as I had done, they were  explicitly  told  t h a t there would be no immediate ' p a y - o f f ' f o r t h e i r bureau-  c r a c y from the r e s e a r c h . p o s s i b i l i t y of having  I , t h e r e f o r e , went o u t o f my way to minimize the  e i t h e r formal or informal  'complaints' made about  my presence o r a c t i v i t i e s . I s t i l l have n o t p r o v i d e d a n adequate ' e x p l a n a t i o n ' o f the r e l e vance o f S t o d d a r t ' s  experiences  t o mine.  To do s o , I would l i k e  to the phone c a l l w i t h which I made my i n i t i a l officer.  I would l i k e  to suggest  to r e t u r n  contact with a probation  that from the v e r y b e g i n n i n g  o f my con-  v e r s a t i o n , my attempt t o g a i n access was g r e a t l y f a c i l i t a t e d by what I r e c a l l as a r a t h e r PO.  'offhanded'  r e f e r e n c e to the ' f a c t ' t h a t I had been a  From the moment t h a t I so membershipped m y s e l f ,  our c o n v e r s a t i o n b e -  came what c o u l d be d e s c r i b e d as 'shop t a l k ' between persons who know what 'probation's  a l l about'.  S t o d d a r t had been o r i e n t e d t o by t h e p o l i c e as  'an o u t s i d e r ' of some s o r t .  He o f f e r s s e v e r a l p o s s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n s f o r  t h e i r r e f u s a l to a l l o w him to c o n t i n u e o b s e r v i n g  13.  t h e i r work r o u t i n e s .  The  (Continued....) A f t e r a few experiences such as t h i s , i n c l u d i n g some ' h o s t i l e ' s t a r e s from o t h e r p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r s , I attempted to become 'acquainted' with as many o f the c o u r t p e r s o n n e l as p r a c t i c a l as q u i c k l y as p o s s i b l e . I r e a l i z e d t h a t they would s t a r t wondering about my presence and, l e a r n i n g t h a t I was 'doing r e s e a r c h ' , make the assumpt i o n s and a t t e n d to my presence i n e x a c t l y the terms w i t h which I had attempted to a v o i d .  49  ' f a c t ' t h a t they may  r o u t i n e l y engage i n enforcement methods which  dismay a n a i v e o u t s i d e r or become ammunition i n the hands of a o u t s i d e r are p o s s i b i l i t i e s which i t i s o b v i o u s l y attend. aside,  On  least, a representative as  oriented  of the i d e o l o g y  and  politics  to as a s o c i a l worker o r ,  of  'treatment and  ' s o l u t i o n s ' to the problem of n a r c o t i c s a d d i c t i o n and  p e r s p e c t i v e which s y s t e m a t i c a l l y q u e s t i o n s enforcement methods.  'liberal'  i n t h e i r i n t e r e s t to  the other hand, i t i s a l s o p o s s i b l e t h a t n a i v e t e  i n a l l p r o b a b i l i t y he was  may  at  rehabilitation' distribution,  the u t i l i t y of the e x i s t i n g  As I have suggested, even i f such a c c e s s is_ o b t a i n e d ,  the s t a t u s of the observed a c t i v i t i e s v i s - a - v i s 'normal' enforcement vities  i s problematic  sonnel toward  i n s o f a r as the  'treatment' and  such a c t o r s may  ' a t t i t u d e s ' of law  i t s s p r a c t i t i o n e r s and  'educate' t h e i r o b s e r v e r s ,  knowledgeability,  compassion, e t c .  and  entering  rather quickly  enforcement p e r -  the r e l a t e d f a c t  display their  above f a c t o r s on of my  the s e t t i n g under study as_ an  'ex-probation  'becoming f r i e n d s ' w i t h at l e a s t a few  the a c t i v i t i e s I observed.  field  of the  During e a r l y observations typically oriented  probation  ...  the other  c l a i m to have observed  officers.  of p r o b a t i o n to my  officer'  I would l i k e to p o i n t to  e x p e r i e n c e which warrant my  'normal', r o u t i n e , a c t i v i t i e s of p r o b a t i o n  s t r a t e g y , PO's  that  competence,  o f f i c e r s i n the c o u r t , I c l a i m to have minimized the impact of  features  acti-  take i t t h a t they are engaged i n a h e u r i s t i c e x e r c i s e i n  which they a r e to  By  a  officers,  presence and  t i o n a l terms which have been shown to c h a r a c t e r i z e  i n s p i t e of  i d e n t i t y i n the  ' s o c i a l work' and  my  conven-  50  ' s o c i a l - s c i e n t i f i c ' research. had  'agreed  to l e t me  Thus, f o r example, a p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r  s i t i n ' seemed to be  served i n t e r v i e w with a probationer. me  s e v e r a l times.  like  to 'ask'  juvenile.  During  F i n a l l y , he asked me  the p r o b a t i o n e r .  A f t e r he had  left,  'uncomfortable'  t o l d him and  t h a t I was  'respond' to him.  c e r s go about 'doing a v e r y d i f f i c u l t ,  such d i s c u s s i o n s .  between p r o b a t i o n h e r e and  and my  how  to see how  referring  to the  probation  offi-  thankless job'.  particular  asked how  After  'engage  cases,  r e s e a r c h because I d i d not things  me  they  actively differed  former c o u r t , I would attempt to m i n i m i z e  the l i k e l i h o o d of b e i n g seen as a r e s e a r c h e r making by vaguely  ' f i g u r i n g out  p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r s to  I f and when I was  i n my  a t ease, I  'methods' or  i n d i a l o g u e s about p r o b a t i o n or t h e i r methods and  enter into  o p i n i o n s about what  him  demanding and  attempts on the p a r t of observed  i n me  the  Then, however, I informed  not e v a l u a t i n g , or c r i t i c i z i n g h i s  seemed to l o s e i n t e r e s t  t h a t I would  done a good job d u r i n g the i n t e r v i e w  the job c o u l d be done b e t t e r ' but merely t r y i n g  initial  any  In an attempt to put him  thought t h a t he had  t h a t the k i d seemed to  at  the p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r asked me what I had  'problem' was.  t h a t I had  anything  ob-  glanced  I answered n e g a t i v e l y and he d i s m i s s e d  thought of h i s methods, and whether or not I had the p r o b a t i o n e r ' s  i n the f i r s t  the i n t e r v i e w he had  i f t h e r e was  who  'critical  comparisons'  'basic s i m i l a r i t y of a l l p r o b a t i o n departments'.  A f e a t u r e of the o f f i c e s i n which most o f the i n t e r v i e w s took p l a c e which c o n t r i b u t e d to my u n o b t r u s i v e way observed  was  'shared'  a b i l i t y to ' f i t i n t o '  the presence of an  the r e s e a r c h s e t t i n g  ' e x t r a ' desk.  i n an  A l l probation o f f i c e r s  t h e i r o f f i c e w i t h at l e a s t one o t h e r p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r ,  51  although quently  they u s u a l l y arranged  t h e i r schedules  so t h a t they were  i n the o f f i c e at the same time and never both  t i o n w i t h p r o b a t i o n e r s at the same time. t i o n o f f i c e r would be seated a t h i s desk  engaged i n i n t e r a c -  F a i r l y o f t e n , however, a p r o b a 'at work' w h i l e h i s  i n t e r a c t e d with a probationer or p r o s p e c t i v e probationer. sence of a t h i r d p a r t y d u r i n g p r o b a t i o n i n t e r a c t i o n was research s i t u a t i o n . he was  their f i l e s  through the f i l i n g take notes,  and  open access  records.  Thus, the  He would be allowed  work' i n an o f f i c e when one  to  probation 'browse'  'examine r e c o r d s ' , often  o f the p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r s would e n t e r and  These o c c a s i o n s  the  setting,  As a r e s u l t of t h i s f a c t , he was  o f f i c e w i t h a j u v e n i l e , i n t e r v i e w him, the r e s e a r c h e r ' s presence.  to  pre-  'unique' to  to the o f f i c e s of  c a b i n e t s i n some of the o f f i c e s , and  e t c . , at h i s l e i s u r e .  then compared and  not  office-mate  the r e s e a r c h e r became w e l l known i n the  g i v e n r e l a t i v e l y f r e e and  o f f i c e r s and  'at  As  infre-  the  l e a v e , seemingly o b l i v i o u s to p r o v i d e d m a t e r i a l s which were  checked a g a i n s t i n t e r v i e w s d u r i n g which the same p r o -  b a t i o n o f f i c e r had  seemed more 'conscious' of the r e s e a r c h e r ' s  Techniques and  presence.  Sources of Data  Much of the d a t a upon which the f o l l o w i n g r e p o r t i s based  con-  s i s t s of t r a n s c r i p t s of n a t u r a l l y - o c c u r r i n g i n t e r a c t i o n between p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r s and of  the v a r i o u s persons w i t h whom they r o u t i n e l y i n t e r a c t .  what I say about  upon my  Much  ' p r o b a t i o n ' as an i n t e r a c t i o n a l accomplishment i s based  o b s e r v a t i o n s of such i n t e r a c t i o n s and r e c o r d i n g s t h e r e o f .  t h a t some remarks about my methods of d a t a - c o l l e c t i o n and r e l a t e d  I believe exper-  52  i e n c e s i n the s e t t i n g w i l l be u s e f u l both necessary  ethnographic  i n p r o v i d i n g the reader  i n f o r m a t i o n about the s e t t i n g and  c l a i m t h a t the t r a n s c r i p t s , notes, e t c . , a r e equal to my the  with  to u n d e r p i n  my  uses of them i n  dissertation. In the above d i s c u s s i o n , I have argued t h a t I was  access  to r e l a t i v e l y  action'.  'undisturbed' and  I would now  therefore r o u t i n e 'probation  l i k e to p r o v i d e an account of my  b e g i n n i n g by p o i n t i n g to the f a c t  a b l e to g a i n  recording  t h a t the p r o d u c t i o n of  inter-  activities,  practically-  adequate ' r e c o r d s ' of a c t i v i t i e s i n the s e t t i n g i s a n o n - t r i v i a l concern  of  14 members of l e g a l s e t t i n g s i n g e n e r a l . way  p e c u l i a r to the r e s e a r c h e r  and  Thus, such concerns were i n no  i t i s an i n t e r e s t i n g f a c t  of always c a r r y i n g a c l i p b o a r d w i t h me  and  t h a t my  habit  'furiously w r i t i n g ' during  my  i n t e r a c t i o n s w i t h p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r s and w h i l e o b s e r v i n g i n t e r a c t i o n s between p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r s and l e n g e d ' by any would  p r o b a t i o n e r s and  of the p a r t i c i p a n t s .  ' j o k i n g l y ' ask me  about my  k i n d , t h a t w r i t i n g 'kept me bably  o t h e r j u v e n i l e s was  Occasionally, a probation  ' w r i t e r ' s cramp' and  awake', ' f o r c e d me  to pay  i n g s e v e r a l hundred  The  fact  'chal-  officer  I would r e p l y , i n a t t e n t i o n ' , was  'a symptom of an e a r l y p s y c h o l o g i c a l problem which has  a n a l - r e t e n t i v e mode of adjustment', e t c .  t h a t I was  produced present  proan dur-  ' p r o b a t i o n c o n t a c t s ' r a n g i n g from b r i e f phone c a l l s  ' i n t e r v i e w s ' which l a s t e d more than t h r e e hours enabled me upon aj wide v a r i e t y of 14.  never  to gather  ' a c t i v i t i e s ' engaged i n by v a r i o u s p r o b a t i o n  to  data officers  For a u s e f u l d i s c u s s i o n of r e c o r d s , r e c o r d keeping, and the uses of r e c o r d s i n j u v e n i l e j u s t i c e b u r e a u c r a c i e s , see Lemert ( 1 9 6 9 ) .  53  throughout the v a r i o u s stages of r e c o r d i n g observed experience  'probation'.  My  initial  attempts a t  i n t e r a c t i o n s were g r e a t l y f a c i l i t a t e d by both my  as a p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r and  s o c i a l work graduate s t u d e n t .  My  recording s k i l l s  developed  general f a m i l i a r i t y with  as a probation  task and  the p r a c t i c a l i t i e s of doing p r o b a t i o n enabled  observed  i n t e r a c t i o n to the g e n e r a l s t r u c t u r e of c o u r t - p r o c e s s i n g .  a b l e to ' f o l l o w ' cases  through the c o u r t process  t i o n ' , from ' o r i g i n a l appearance' through probation',  'placement', e t c .  I was  from  me  the  to r e l a t e  ticalities  I was  of c a s e l o a d management, and accomplished.  'disposi-  c a l l e d by p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r s when they  a b l e to get a sense of the  p r o b a t i o n work was  was  ' t e r m i n a t i o n of  were 'going o u t ' on a case w i t h which I had been i n v o l v e d as an In t h i s way  the I  ' a r r e s t ' to  ' p r o b a t i o n ' to  former  observer.  'flow' of a c t i v i t y ,  the  prac-  the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o n t e x t i n which  I was  a l s o a b l e to observe and  record  the sequence of c o n t a c t s between p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r s and j u v e n i l e s a t  vir-  t u a l l y a l l stages of p r o c e s s i n g . Recording greatly f a c i l i t a t e d field  experience.  skills  developed  as a s o c i a l work graduate  the c o l l e c t i o n and The  skills  student  o r g a n i z a t i o n of d a t a throughout  enabled me  to prepare  almost v e r b a t i m  c r i p t s of many i n t e r a c t i o n a l exchanges which I w i t n e s s e d .  The  my  trans-  s o c i a l work  'skills'  to which I r e f e r a r e s c r u p u l o u s l y pursued through the method of  'process  r e c o r d i n g ' , a t e a c h i n g procedure d u r i n g which the n o v i c e  worker i s r e q u i r e d to prepare of  selected interviews with  tion.  an a s - f u l l - a s - p o s s i b l e  ' c l i e n t s ' immediately  Such r e c o r d s a r e then i n s p e c t e d by  i n order  to l o c a t e and  'processual r e c o r d '  f o l l o w i n g the  the student  social  interac-  and/or h i s s u p e r v i s o r  e x p l i c a t e the competent or incompetent use of  tech-  54  niques, records  mistakes made , missed t h e r a p e u t i c o p p o r t u n i t i e s , e t c . a r e a l s o seen to be u s e f u l i n s o f a r as they p r o v i d e  quate documentary r e c o r d c a t i o n a l l y required straightforward ing',  The  a more o r l e s s ade-  from which subsequent o r g a n i z a t i o n a l l y , o r edu-  -reports' may be c o n s t r u c t e d .  Purged o f i t s f a i r l y  ' t h e r a p e u t i c ' o r i e n t a t i o n , t h i s p r e f e r r e d method o f  s o c i a l workers i s of obvious v a l u e  s o c i a l work s t u d e n t ,  the formal  ' p r o f e s s i o n a l l y conscious'  i n ethnographic research.  'goal', o f the procedure was  performance d u r i n g  As a  'competent',  i n t e r a c t i o n with  clients.  A method f o r ' r e c o v e r i n g ' r e l e v a n t i n f o r m a t i o n about the student's mance which he had f a i l e d  to i n c l u d e i n h i s  process  him and the  s u p e r v i s o r w i t h a yet-more-compl&e r e c o r d o f the i n t e r a c t i o n .  and  accurate  recorded  'drilling'  recording s k i l l s  h i m s e l f by s t r i v i n g  to a c h i e v e  Through  adequately  and , ' t e s t i n g ' the r e s u l t s a g a i n s t  v e r s i o n of the i n t e r a c t i o n , the r e s e a r c h e r  perfor-  r e c o r d i n g ' was the  simultaneous tape r e c o r d i n g o f h i s i n t e r v i e w which p r o v i d e d  ' p r a c t i c e ' and/or  train-  full  the tape-  became f a i r l y  profi-  cient i n recording. Fortunately p e r i e n c e as a student  the ' p r o f e s s i o n a l ' concerns which had shaped my exi n s o c i a l work were, as might be expected, p r e s e n t i n  the c o u r t b u r e a u c r a c y now under study.  Thus, many p r o b a t i o n  officers i n  t h i s s e t t i n g t a l k e d about and o r i e n t e d to t h e i r i n t e r a c t i o n s w i t h j u v e n i l e s as  'professionals-in-development'  a p e r s p e c t i v e which was s a n c t i o n e d by  the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n both through constant bation o f f i c e r s  v e r b a l recommendation t h a t the p r o -  'seek to develop t h e i r p r o f e s s i o n a l s k i l l s ' and by the r e -  warding PO's f o r , e.g., t a k i n g r e l e v a n t c l a s s e s a t l o c a l e d u c a t i o n t i o n s , engaging i n 'workshops', e t c .  I have a l r e a d y  suggested t h a t  institurecord  55  keeping  was a s a n c t i o n e d  a c t i v i t y i n the s e t t i n g and t h a t t h a t f a c t  v i d e d f o r the 'understanding' members of the s e t t i n g .  o f my concern w i t h  My a b i l i t y  pro-  r e c o r d i n g i n t e r a c t i o n s by  to o b t a i n s u b s t a n t i a l l y a c c u r a t e  records  of some extended i n t e r a c t i o n a l exchanges between p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r s and p r o b a t i o n e r s , other  j u v e n i l e s , parents,  e t c . , was f a c i l i t a t e d when two PO's  began to t a p e - r e c o r d after obtaining  t h e i r interviews with probationers 15 permission.  and/or t h e i r  I was a b l e , a t the same time, to o b t a i n the f u l l two  o f the t h r e e  a c c u r a t e and f u l l was allowed  cooperation of  ' r e g u l a r ' j u v e n i l e c o u r t judges i n c o n s t r u c t i n g  to observe.  t h a t I should  I was. working a t my  note-taking,  ' f e e l f r e e ' to a s k t h e c o u r t r e c o r d e r about  I may have not been a b l e to w r i t e down' d u r i n g c o u r t r e c e s s e s i n t e r v a l s between h e a r i n g s .  Thus, I was a b l e t o take, advantage, on o c c a -  the tape r e c o r d i n g which was r o u t i n e l y made o f c o u r t Another source  'things  and the s h o r t  s i o n , o f the ' o f f i c i a l r e c o r d ' which was b e i n g kept by the c o u r t  and  adequately  r e c o r d s o f t h e ' f o r m a l ' courtroom i n t e r a c t i o n which I  When one judge n o t i c e d how hard he s a i d  parents  recorder 16  business.  o f i n f o r m a t i o n which I attempted to e x p l o i t as  f u l l y as p o s s i b l e was the ' i n f o r m a l ' i n t e r a c t i o n which I attempted to engage 15.  16.  The p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r s c a r e f u l l y r e c o r d e d t h e i r r e q u e s t f o r p e r m i s s i o n to r e c o r d , and guaranteed t h a t t h e ' c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y ' o f the i n t e r v i e w would not be v i o l a t e d . . T h e i r i n t e r e s t , they s t a t e d , was i n improving t h e i r a b i l i t y to work w i t h people. They then allowed me to ' l i s t e n ' to the tapes, an o p p o r t u n i t y which I took to 'check' my notes a g a i n s t a more compile r e c o r d . On one o c c a s i o n the judge h i m s e l f asked to have the tape played back 'during' a c o u r t s e s s i o n , because he hadn't been a b l e to f o l l o w t h i n g s d u r i n g an extremely ' c o n f u s i n g ' exchange between the C i t y A t t o r n e y and the j u v e n i l e i n v o l v e d .  56  i n with  as many o f the members of the c o u r t b u r e a u c r a c y as p o s s i b l e .  a d d i t i o n to the i n f o r m a t i o n gathered t h a t such i n t e r a c t i o n served g a r d i n g my  d u r i n g such i n t e r a c t i o n s , I b e l i e v e  to a l l a y  suspicions  m o t i v e s ' f o r 'hanging around" and/or  sence i n the s e t t i n g . sustained e f f o r t s  In  they may have had r e 'resentment' about my p r e -  I b e l i e v e t h a t i f I had not engaged i n repeated and  to put v a r i o u s persons i n the s e t t i n g  'at ease', I would  i n a l l p r o b a b i l i t y have been f o r c e d t o drop my r e s e a r c h i n an e a r l y stage of the f i e l d work because "'complaints'  would have been lodged  about my  'snooping around' ( i . e . , my attempts a t i n f o r m a l i t y may have b a c k f i r e d i f 17 I had n o t been on t h e scene to m a i n t a i n my c r e d i b i l i t y ) .  17.  On one o c c a s i o n , however, I decided t h a t i t would be n e c e s s a r y to r i s k my 'access' to the c o u r t s e t t i n g . T h i s o c c u r r e d d u r i n g the f i n a l days i n the f i e l d when I decided t h a t t h e s i t u a t i o n warranted r i s k i n g whatever i n f o r m a t i o n I might be a b l e to g a i n d u r i n g t h e remaining two weeks I a n t i c i p a t e d remaining i n t h e s e t t i n g . It is s i g n i f i c a n t that t h e ' t r o u b l e ' i n v o l v e d an a d m i n i s t r a t o r , i . e . , one of the persons w i t h whom I had c o n s c i o u s l y avoided m a i n t a i n i n g an on-going r e l a t i o n s h i p f o r the reasons d i s c u s s e d a t l e n g t h above. One of t h e p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r s informed me that, he had overheard the new a s s i s t a n t c h i e f p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r ( t h e r e had been a major administ r a t i v e s h i f t when the CPO r e s i g n e d , the a s s i s t a n t CPO r e p l a c e d him, and a p e r s o n w i t h whom I was o n l y vaguely a c q u a i n t e d , moved i n as the new a s s i s t a n t ) i n f o r m someone t h a t I would n o t be allowed to a t t e n d a ' s t a f f meeting'. I decided t h a t I 'needed to a t t e n d t h e meeting inasmuch as I d i d not have s u f f i c i e n t data on such o c c a s i o n s . I h u r r i e d to the CPO's o f f i c e and informed him t h a t I was n e a r l y f i n i s h e d w i t h my 'study', thanking him f o r a l l o w i n g me to s t a y a f t e r he had assumed c o n t r o l of the p r o b a t i o n b u r e a u c r a c y . I then e x p l i c i t l y asked i f ' i t would be okay' f o r me to a t t e n d t h e s t a f f meeting, a r e q u e s t he granted w i t h o u t apparent h e s i t a t i o n . As I entered the room i n which the meeting was to be h e l d , I was approached by t h e assistant. B e f o r e he spoke I s t a t e d t h a t I 'hoped' t h a t he d i d n ' t mind me b e i n g t h e r e f o r the meeting, that Mr. Armstrong had 'said that i t would be okay'. I s t a y e d , and l a t e r thanked t h e p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r f o r the ' t i p ' . 1  57  F i n a l l y , I conducted  more f o r m a l i n t e r v i e w s w i t h p r o b a t i o n  c e r s and judges, some o f which I tape recorded a f t e r o b t a i n i n g t h e i r mission.  offiper-  I want to c l o s e t h i s s e c t i o n by b r i e f l y d e s c r i b i n g one o f these  i n t e r v i e w s , and my e x p e r i e n c e s both d u r i n g t h e i n t e r a c t i o n as a p a r t i c i pant  and l a t e r , as an a n a l y s t l i s t e n i n g  action.  I suggest  to the tape r e c o r d i n g o f the i n t e r -  t h a t the i n c i d e n t q u i t e n i c e l y i l l u s t r a t e s many of the  c o n c e p t u a l and e x p e r i e n t i a l c o m p l e x i t i e s which I have been s u g g e s t i n g a r e i n t i m a t e l y and i n e x t r i c a b l y f a c e d by an ethnographer  attempting  t o study  probation: I had spent the b e t t e r p a r t o f two hours w i t h a p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r "waiting f o r " t h r e e p r o b a t i o n e r s w i t h whom he had s c h e duled i n t e r v i e w s . E a r l i e r i n the week, i n f a c t , he had approached me w i t h enthusiasm, s t a t i n g t h a t h e 'thought t h a t I would be i n t e r e s t e d ' i n a couple o f cases he had coming i n l a t e r i n t h e week. He claimed t h a t they would be 'good m a t e r i a l f o r my study. I d i d appear f o r t h e i n t e r v i e w s both because the PO seemed to 'want' me to be p r e s e n t and because I thought t h a t I would be a b l e to 'see some probation-work'. 5  r  The PO was v i s i b l y upset, p a r t i a l l y because he had gone o u t o f h i s way to ensure my presence f o r something which was a p p a r e n t l y not going to o c c u r . F i n a l l y , he turned to me and suggested t h a t 'at l e a s t ' I i n t e r v i e w him so t h a t the a f t e r n o o n would n o t be a 'dead l o s s ' f o r me. I agreed, l a r g e l y because I thought t h a t he might be h u r t i f I d i d n o t go a l o n g w i t h the s u g g e s t i o n . I was i l l - p r e p a r e d f o r an ' i n t e r v i e w ' but we were a b l e to exchange remarks i n t o the microphone f o r a few minutes when the phone r a n g . I f o r g o t to t u r n t h e tape r e c o r d e r o f f and as a r e s u l t , the f o l lowing exchange (we have, o f c o u r s e , o n l y one s i d e o f the conv e r s a t i o n on tape) became p a r t o f my d a t a : PO:  Brown. (pause) Oh h i Johnnie, I thought t h a t you were going to be h e r e by now. What happened? (pause) Yeah, as long as you c a l l me and have a good r e a s o n , b u t i t ' s too bad, I s o r t o f wanted t o t a l k to you today. (pause) Umhum. (pause) What p i c t u r e were you t h i n k i n g of? Oh, t h a t ' s supposed to be good. But what does your Mum say? (pause) Okay, and who a l l would be going? F i n e . E v e r y t h i n g okay at s c h o o l ? ( ( a t t h i s p o i n t , the PO covered the phone w i t h h i s hand and 'whispered' r a t h e r l o u d l y : One down, two to  58  go.)) Okay, w e l l , I don't go to the movie as l o n g as been doing r e a l good, keep w i l l ya t r y to get i n h e r e  see any reason t h a t you can't you're back by 12 sharp. You've i t up, okay? (pause) And next week? Okay, see y a .  Without comment, the p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r r e t u r n e d to our i n t e r view about - p r o b a t i o n ' . N e i t h e r he nor I p o i n t e d to the phone c o n t a c t which I had j u s t observed as ' p r o b a t i o n ' . Rather, we both attended to what might have happened had the t h r e e j u v e n i l e ' s 'shown' f o r t h e i r scheduled'.'probation i n t e r v i e w s as 'prob a t i o n ' . I t was o n l y months l a t e r , when I began to n o t i c e that phone c a l l s ' l i k e t h i s ' r o u t i n e l y occur a r e , i n f a c t , ' p r o b a t i o n ' par e x c e l l e n c e , as I w i l l attempt to show i n t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n . 1 8 At the time of the ' i n t e r v i e w ' I d i d not t h i n k i t ' s t r a g e ' , however, when the PO ended by ' a p o l o g i z i n g ' f o r 'not b e i n g a b l e to do a n y t h i n g of i n t e r e s t today'. ?  18.  See,  especially,  Chapter Four.  59  CHAPTER THREE BECOMING A PROBATIONER: THE  LAYING DOWN OF TERMS  Once a j u v e n i l e i s p l a c e d on p r o b a t i o n , he f r e q u e n t l y r e c e i v e s a  1  copy o f a document r e f e r r e d t o both as h i s > terms"•' or 'probation c o n t r a c t . S i n c e the a c t i v i t y  of p r o b a t i o n i s , i n many important  t h i s document, I i n t e n d to d e a l w i t h uses a t l e n g t h .  t h e document and i t s J i n t e r a c t i o n a l  As we have seen, the l e g a l warrant f o r p l a c i n g a j u v e n i l e  on p r o b a t i o n i s t h a t he i s seen as b e i n g and  proper  r e s p e c t s , shaped by  guidance'.  ' i n need o f h e l p and s u p e r v i s i o n  Probation represents  the family court's routine bur-  e a u c r a t i c method of p r o v i d i n g t h i s h e l p , s u p e r v i s i o n and guidance. j u v e n i l e i s i n s t r u c t e d by both i s being released  the p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r and the judge t h a t he  'on p r o b a t i o n ' , and t h a t he i s to behave and  w i t h h i s parents o r g u a r d i a n  The  and p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r .  cooperate  The f o l l o w i n g i s a  r a t h e r t y p i c a l exchange between a judge who i s p l a c i n g a j u v e n i l e on p r o b a t i o n and a Vnew  s  :  probationer:  A c c o r d i n g to some p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r s , a l l p r o b a t i o n e r s were supposed to be p r o v i d e d w i t h terms. I t became apparent, however, t h a t t h i s was not the c a s e . R a t h e r , whether or n o t a p a r t i c u l a r j u v e n i l e p l a c e d on p r o b a t i o n d i d , i n f a c t , r e c e i v e a s e t o f terms " f o r m a l l y ( i . e . , typed out) depended on whether t h e PO had t h e time a v a i l a b l e t o produce t h e document and whether the p r e - c o u r t i n v e s t i g a t i o n had i n d i c a t e d to him t h a t 'terms' would be n e c e s s a r y and/or u s e f u l 'given the f a c t s o f the case. F o r example, when I asked a p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r i f t h e r e was any reason t h a t some p r o b a t i o n e r s were g i v e n terms w h i l e o t h e r s were n o t , he r e p l i e d : Oh, I don't know, i f we d e c i d e to get around to doing them. We're supposed to do them f o r every one o f them of c o u r s e . Some o f them r e a l l y don't need them - you know - no r e a l problem a t home.  60  Judge:  Ok John, we're going to l e t you go home now.  But I  want to know i f you've l e a r n e d a n y t h i n g from a l l t h i s . ((PO nods to j u v e n i l e , i n d i c a t i n g t h a t he s h o u l d  respond.))  Juv: Judge:  Yeah. I s h o u l d n ' t take t h i n g s . Steal things.  Juv:  Yeah, I s h o u l d n ' t s t e a l  Judge:  That's r i g h t . We don't want you coming back h e r e . Mr. Smith (PO) i s going to h e l p you keep out of t r o u b l e . He doesn't want to see you back here e i t h e r . I'm s u r e you don't want to come back, so you c o o p e r a t e w i t h him and your p a r e n t s . Remember, we're a l l j u s t t r y i n g to keep you out of t r o u b l e , so g i v e us a change. You made a mistake. I t was a s e r i o u s mistake, a v e r y s e r i o u s one, but I don't t h i n k you're a t h i e f . Now i t ' s up to you to show me t h a t I'm r i g h t about you. Ok John?  Juv:  Yeah'i  Judge:  things.  Understand?  Juv:  Yeah.  Judge:  I f you have any q u e s t i o n s , ask Mr. Smith. Good l u c k . ((nods to PO who ushers mother and j u v e n i l e out of c o u r t room.))  I want to suggest, f i r s t of a l l , t h a t t h i s r o u t i n i z e d , almost u a l i z e d exchange i s a c r i t i c a l a j u v e n i l e becomes a  s t a g e i n the i n t e r a c t i o n a l p r o c e s s by which  'probationer'.  E x p l i c a t i n g some o f the f e a t u r e s of  ' p r o b a t i o n ' as i t i s p r e s e n t e d to the j u v e n i l e by the judge, as we see, are c r i t i c a l  f o r our a n a l y s i s of l a t e r p r o b a t i o n i n t e r a c t i o n .  suggest t h a t t h i s exchange between the j u v e n i l e and quite  'efficiently'.  shall I  the judge comes o f f  There i s no s u s t a i n e d argumentation o r d i s c u s s i o n .  Rather, a good d e a l of the exchange seems to be designed to a c c o m p l i s h r e c o r d the s p e c i a l way, and  action.  ' f a c t ' t h a t the j u v e n i l e a way  rit-  and  'understands' the p r e s e n t o c c a s i o n i n a  which i s an e s s e n t i a l background  f o r subsequent i n f e r e n c e  61  What i s accomplished d u r i n g  t h i s exchange?  perhaps  most s i g n i f i c a n t ,  the j u v e n i l e i s c o n s t r a i n e d  judge takes to be  the proper u n d e r s t a n d i n g of h i s p r i o r behaviour as  as the meaning of h i s r e l e a s e . d e s c r i b e h i s a c t i o n and " s t e a l i n g " rather  Note how  to p l a c e  F i r s t , and  'on r e c o r d ' what  the  well  the judge f o r c e s the j u v e n i l e to  the  ' l e s s o n ' i n e x p l i c i t l e g a l terms: t h a t he was 2 than merely " t a k i n g t h i n g s " . The judge then moves to a  A B r i t i s h m a g i s t r a t e and l e g a l w r i t e r suggests t h a t such an exchange and the a s s o c i a t e d i n t e r a c t i o n may have a ' s i g n i f i c a n t ' and ' l o n g l a s t i n g ' impact on a j u v e n i l e . I quote her a t l e n g t h : I t must be remembered t h a t the appearance i n c o u r t and the c a r e f u l r e c i t a l of what happened, the d i s c u s s i o n w i t h the p a r ents and the complainant, and f i n a l l y w i t h the c h i l d h i m s e l f , a l l b u i l d up i n t o an e x p e r i e n c e which w i l l become p a r t of his l i f e . A c h i l d who comes i n t o c o u r t w i t h no f e e l i n g about having done something wrong, i n s p i t e of knowing t h a t he has done i t , sometimes seems to a c q u i r e such a f e e l i n g d u r i n g the p r o c e e d i n g s , as i f the gap between h i s p r i v a t e view of l i f e and t h a t h e l d by s o c i e t y had suddenly d i m i n i s h e d . Such a c h i l d r e c e n t l y charged w i t h h a v i n g p i c k e d up a number of boxes of p e n c i l s and taken them away from a l o c k e d warehouse i n t o which he had c l i m b e d . A f t e r a f i n d i n g of guilifc he was c a l l e d up to the Bench and the f o l l o w i n g c o n v e r s a t i o n took p l a c e : CHAIRMAN:  What i s a p e r s o n who takes t h i n g s b e l o n g i n g other people c a l l e d ?  to  CHILD:  (slightly  CHAIRMAN:  ( a f t e r a pause):  CHILD:  ( a f t e r a long p a u s e ) : No s i r . . . I j u s t wanted the p e n c i l s . . . ( f u r t h e r pause, f o l l o w e d by a v i s i b l e i n t e r n a l s t r u g g l e and the b e g i n n i n g of t e a r s . . . ) Yes s i r !  self-righteously): A thief, s i r . I s t h a t what you  are,  then?  Only the subsequent behaviour of the c h i l d w i l l show whether t h i s was anything more than the same i n t e l l e c t u a l p e r c e p t i o n w i t h which he entered the c o u r t , o r whether he had a t t h a t Continued . . . .  62  d e s c r i p t i o n of p r o b a t i o n , one which c a l l s of  the f o r m a l l y r e c o g n i z e d  officer: ile  g o a l s of p r o b a t i o n and,  to keep the j u v e n i l e out of subsequent  t h e r e f o r e , the trouble .  The  is  one  is  asked to 'cooperate' w i t h  the c o u r t .  The  to h e l p him.  the PO  and h i s p a r e n t s , who  The judge then p r o v i d e s  c o o p e r a t i n g by a l l u d i n g  a mistake'.  goal  are merely  attempt-  the j u v e n i l e w i t h a r e a s o n f o r  to the p r o v i s i o n a l n a t u r e of the p r e s e n t d e c i s i o n ,  the p r e s e n t as Aa m i s t a k e ' t i a l moral c h a r a c t e r .  'pro-  The j u v e n i l e  d i s p l a y i n g f o r the j u v e n i l e the f a c t t h a t h i s a c t i o n i s b e i n g  to  juven-  judge s t a t e s t h a t the  shared by a l l concerned, even the j u v e n i l e h i m s e l f .  one  probation  i s i n s t r u c t e d to see h i s p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r and h i s s t a t u s as a  bationer.' as h e l p p r o f f e r e d by  ing  the j u v e n i l e ' s a t t e n t i o n to  treated for  r a t h e r than an adequate i n d i c a t o r of h i s  Thus, f o r now,  he w i l l be  Subsequent i n f r a c t i o n s , or a l a c k of  i n d i c a t e t h a t such a c a t e g o r i z a t i o n was 'real'  t r e a t e d as a ' k i d who ' c o o p e r a t i o n ' may  i n e r r o r and 3 delinquent.  be  made taken  p r o v i d e the grounds  for  dealing with  2.  (Continued....) moment succeeded i n f i n a l l y a c c e p t i n g a l i t t l e b i t more of r e a l i t y for himself. In these cases the subsequent a t t i t u d e of the parents o r , i f n e c e s s a r y , of a p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r to the o f f e n s e i s probably the paramount f a c t o r i n c o n s o l i d a t i n g o r a r r e s t i n g any movement which may have been made (Cavenagh, 1967: 151-152, emphasis added).  3.  the j u v e n i l e as a  essen-  Note how p r o b a t i o n may enable the c o u r t to monitor the subsequent beh a v i o u r ' as w e l l as p r o v i d i n g the p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r w i t h the mandate to a c t i v e l y seek to ' c o n s o l i d a t e ' any movement which may have been made, i.e., i n the d i r e c t i o n of a 'proper understanding'. As C a r l Werthman has argued, the l a b e l " j u v e n i l e d e l i n q u e n t " as i t i s used i n p r a c t i c e by the v a r i o u s a d u l t a u t h o r i t i e s who apply i t i n the w o r l d , i s " u l t i m a t e l y a condemnation of moral c h a r a c t e r r a t h e r than a n e g a t i v e judgement about one or more s p e c i f i c d e v i a n t a c t s . " (Werthman, p. 7 ) . B r i e f l y , h i s argument i s t h a t commission of d e v i a n t a c t s , i n and of i t s e l f i s i n s u f f i c i e n t to ensure treatment o f a j u v e n i l e as e s s e n t i a l l y d e l i n q u e n t because such judgements a r e based upon knowledge Continued . . . .  63  The  judge's d e s c r i p t i o n o f ' p r o b a t i o n ' p r o v i d e s  the j u v e n i l e w i t h  the m a t e r i a l s w i t h which he may c o n s t r u c t a 'proper' u n d e r s t a n d i n g phenomenon o f p r o b a t i o n and h i s ' r o l e ' as a p r o b a t i o n e r .  of the  Thus, the meaning  of the p r e s e n t o f f e n s e as w e l l as f u t u r e i n f r a c t i o n s w i l l be determined a t l e a s t p a r t i a l l y by r e f e r e n c e to the g e n e r a l performance o f the j u v e n i l e as probationer.  On the p r e s e n t o c c a s i o n t h e r e i s no attempt by the judge to  e x p l i c i t l y s e t out a s e t o f ' r u l e s ' w i t h which t h e p r o b a t i o n e r must comply. R a t h e r , the p r o b a t i o n e r i s t o l d to show t h e judge t h a t he i s not a t h i e f v i a h i s 'cooperation' with  the p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r and p a r e n t s .  see s h o r t l y , t h e p r o b a t i o n e r may be almost immediately o c c a s i o n upon which he i s c o n s t r a i n e d to 'cooperate',  As we  shall  c o n f r o n t e d w i t h an i . e . , he i s asked to  s i g n a s p e c i f i c s e t o f p r o b a t i o n terms s h o r t l y a f t e r h i s c o u r t appearance. I want to suggest seen as b e g i n n i n g 3.  that  ' c o o p e r a t i o n ' i s not something which i s  a f t e r c o u r t appearances.  Whether the j u v e n i l e 'cooper-  ( C o n t i n u e d . . . ) o f a person's fundamental a t t i t u d e towards a u t h o r i t y , o f which h i s behaviour i s merely an i m p e r f e c t i n d i c a t o r . The gap between c h a r a c t e r and behaviour which may render t h e i r f i t i m p e r f e c t p r e s e n t s o f f i c i a l s and laymen a l i k e w i t h a p r a c t i c a l problem of i n f e r e n c e i n any p a r t i c u l a r case where one must d e c i d e whether o r not a youth i s r e a l l y , or e s s e n t i a l l y d e l i n q u e n t . The p e r c e i v e d adequacy o f t h i s i n f e r e n c e may be seen to r e s t on the c r e d i b i l i t y o f the l a b e l e r ' s r e a d i n g o f t h e ' r e a l meaning' o f t h e b e h a v i o u r : Simply to know t h a t a boy i s f r e q u e n t l y t r u a n t , f o r example, t e l l s us n o t h i n g about h i s g e n e r a l a t t i t u d e towards the laws against truancy. The t r u a n t may not be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r h i s behaviour; he may be s l i g h t l y r e b e l l i o u s ; o r he may be a c t i n g i n a complete and w i l l f u l disregard.(Werthman, 1964: 9 ) . The p r o b a t i o n system f u n c t i o n s to p r o v i d e the j u v e n i l e c o u r t w i t h p e r c e i v a b l y adequate and c r e d i b l e ' r e a d i n g s ' i n the form of ' p r o b a t i o n reports'.  64  a t e s ' i n p r e - c o u r t i n t e r v i e w s w i t h the PO i s , as I have shown, t r e a t e d as a c r i t i c a l f a c t o r i n the d e c i s i o n to 'go to c o u r t ' o r s e t t l e o u t o f c o u r t . Note t h a t i n the h e a r i n g v i d i n g expected,  the j u v e n i l e is_ c o o p e r a t i n g  i n s o f a r as he i s p r o -  adequate answers to the judge's q u e s t i o n s .  j u v e n i l e had cooperated  E a r l i e r , the  w i t h t h e PO by a d m i t t i n g t h a t he had committed the  d e l i n q u e n t a c t and a s k i n g to be 'given a chance' on p r o b a t i o n .  When p l a c e d  on p r o b a t i o n e x p l i c i t r e f e r e n c e i s f r e q u e n t l y made t o the ' f a c t ' t h a t t h e j u v e n i l e has 'cooperated', m i s t a k e and i s ready  and to the ' f a c t ' t h a t he 'seems to have made a  to f a c e up to i t ' .  The j u v e n i l e ' s c o o p e r a t i o n  the i n t e r a c t i o n to come o f f the way i t does. PO and the judge.  The PO, judge,  enables  He p i c k s up cues from both the  a n d i j u v e n i l e 'team up' to g e t through  the o c c a s i o n i n an e f f i c i e n t , nonproblematic  way.  I n t h e absence o f t h i s s t y l e o f c o o p e r a t i o n , takes on a d i f f e r e n t c h a r a c t e r , a l t h o u g h j u s t as r o u t i n e l y and e f f i c i e n t l y .  the i n t e r a c t i o n  the t a s k s a t hand may be handled  Here I am speaking  o f the j u v e n i l e  p l a c e d on p r o b a t i o n who has, i n one way o r another,  i n d i c a t e d to the P r o -  bation O f f i c e r before  o r c h a l l e n g e s the  'probation-as-help' interactions.  the h e a r i n g  that he q u e s t i o n s  c o n c e p t i o n o f p r o b a t i o n o f f e r e d by the PO d u r i n g e a r l y  That i s t o say, j u v e n i l e s who show t h a t they see c o u r t  v e n t i o n as unwarranted and p r o b a t i o n  inter-  'help, s u p e r v i s o n and g u i d a n c e ' as an  u n j u s t i f i e d v i o l a t i o n o f t h e i r p r i v a c y and autonomy r a t h e r than as a r e source f o r 'help' a r e t y p i c a l l y d e a l t w i t h i n a s t y l e d i f f e r e n t outlined f o r 'cooperative' j u v e n i l e s . cases  i s to prepare  A practical  than  that  t a s k f o r the PO i n such  the j u v e n i l e f o r h i s appearance and then to a l e r t the  65  judge to the f a c t the judge's most other  t h a t the j u v e n i l e i s 'non-cooperative'.  remarks to the j u v e n i l e markedly d i f f e r  I n such  cases,  from those made to  juveniles:  The j u v e n i l e i n t h i s case has 'admitted' t h a t he committed the d e l i n q u e n t a c t ( s h o p l i f t i n g ) , but i n p r e - c o u r t i n t e r a c t i o n s a i d t h a t i t "wasn't s e r i o u s " and t h a t the PO d i d n ' t have any b u s i n e s s " t e l l i n g " him what he could o r c o u l d not do. While the PO speaks to d i s p o s i t i o n , the j u v e n i l e 'slumps' a t the t a b l e l o o k i n g a t the f l o o r . PO:  I've d i s c u s s e d the o f f e n s e w i t h John and t h i n k h i s a t t i tude l e a v e s much to be d e s i r e d . I'm recommending probat i o n i n t h i s case but t h i n k t h a t he's going to have to change h i s e n t i r e a t t i t u d e i f i t ' s going to work.  Judge: A l l r i g h t young man, Juv:  what do you have to say f o r y o u r s e l f ?  I don't see what the b i g /  Judge: You stand when you address the Court! So you don't see do you? W e l l t h a t ' s f i n e . I'm going to put you on probat i o n j u s t because Mr. Brown (PO) wants to g i v e you a chance to make i t work. He's w i l l i n g to take a chance on you. But i f you get i n t o any t r o u b l e , i f you s t e p out of l i n e and Mr. Brown's going to keep me informed - y o u ' r e coming back here so f a s t your head w i l l swim! Do you understand that? Juv:  Yeah.  Judge: You'd b e t t e r s t r a i g h t e n Now get out of h e r e and good f o r you. ((closes you keep a c l o s e eye on want to hear about i t ! Note how about p r o b a t i o n .  ' p r o b a t i o n - a s - h e l p ' has been de-emphasized i n t h i s I n i t s p l a c e i s a n o t i o n of p r o b a t i o n as more or  straightforward surveilance. i n a way  out! And I mean r i g h t now b u s t e r ! don't come back, i f you know what's f i l e and turns to PO)) Mr. Brown, him. I f he steps out of l i n e I  The j u v e n i l e i s b e i n g prepared  which d i f f e r s markedly from  'cooperative' j u v e n i l e s .  talk  less  for probation I suggest  that  t h i s j u v e n i l e i s b e i n g p r o v i d e d w i t h the r e s o u r c e s w i t h which to ' e x p l a i n '  66  future and  failure  as a p r o b a t i o n e r .  The  PO  i n e f f e c t , informs  the j u v e n i l e , i n the above exchange, t h a t ' f a i l u r e ' w i l l be  able, understandable a significant  change.  The  judge's c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n of h i s  o f f i c e r , even i n t h i s case,  asked f o r 'a c h a n c e . 1  t h e r e f o r e , i s presented  v i n c e d the judge to g i v e the j u v e n i l e a chance', a !  seen as encouraging  'why'  The  as a person who  acted upon by  'convince*  him,  ' f a c t ' which may  to engage him  t h r u s t of the remarks focuses  the c o u r t .  the PO  be  and but  on the  ' f a c t ' t h a t subimmediately  i n transporting discrediting  Note how  d e s c r i p t i o n of p r o b a t i o n o f f e r e d to  this contrasts with  the  'cooperative' j u v e n i l e s , although  the d i f f e r e n c e s a r e m a t t e r s of emphasis r a t h e r than k i n d . ' p r o b a t i o n ' , i . e . , ' s u p e r v i s i o n and  guidance',  'help', e t c . , s u r f a c e i n a l l p r o b a t i o n i n t e r a c t i o n .  The  different  'surveillance',  For example, the  im-  o f f e r of h e l p embedded i n the above d e s c r i p t i o n of p r o b a t i o n may  a c t i v a t e d by interaction.  and  i n a dialogue  deems r e p o r t a b l e w i l l be  The r o l e of the PO  i n f o r m a t i o n to the judge i s s t r e s s e d .  plicit  con-  h i s a t t i t u d e i s 'wrong' or the moral meaning of h i s o f f e n s e .  sequent i n f r a c t i o n s o r behaviour  elements of  probation  consequences of the a t t i t u d e a r e made a v a i l a b l e to him,  Rather, the primary  benign  'reason' f o r  Note t h a t the j u v e n i l e ' s a t t i t u d e i s a t t a c k e d  t h e r e i s no extended attempt to about  expect-  the j u v e n i l e to change h i s a t t i t u d e about p r o b a t i o n  the p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r . the p r o b a b l e  the  outcome of p r o b a t i o n i f h i s a t t i t u d e does not undergo  g r a n t i n g p r o b a t i o n i s t h a t the PO  the p r o b a t i o n e r or the p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r d u r i n g A t any  g i v e n p o i n t , s u r v e i l l a n c e and  i n the i n t e r a c t i o n s between p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r s and ers.  the judge  Quite obviously,  ' c o o p e r a t i o n ' may  c o n t r o l may  be  subsequent become i s s u e s ,  'cooperative' probation-  be a s t r a t e g y employed by  the  67  j u v e n i l e to 'get through' must a t t e n d , and may  a hearing.  This i s a p o s s i b i l i t y  have to d e a l w i t h d u r i n g l a t e r  the i s s u e of a  term or s e t of terms i n c o u r t , t y p i c a l l y because the PO  t h a t the j u v e n i l e  'needs' to be i n s t r u c t e d by  the  PO  interactions.  On o t h e r o c c a s i o n s , the p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r r a i s e s specific  to which the  feels  judge.  The PO i n t h i s case has asked t h a t a g i r l who was b e f o r e the c o u r t on a s h o p l i f t i n g charge be allowed to go home f o r t h r e e weeks.... PO:  . . . i n order to t r y out l i v i n g a t home and to t r y to get a job. T h i s would be w i t h your honour's u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h a t she doesn't hang around down town around the (department store). T h i s w i l l have to be one c o n c e s s i o n she makes. She knows t h i s . I've d i s c u s s e d i t w i t h her thoroughly,, and her parents know t h i s - i t ' s been d i s c u s s e d and I w i l l put i t down i n the r u l e s t h a t she must/  Judge: / t h a t she must not come to ihendowntowncareai. by h e r s e l f . A r e you w i l l i n g to t r y S h i r l e y ? ( ( J u v nods)) You c a n ' t l i v e by. s t e a l i n g and t h a t ' s what t h i s amounts t o , even shoplifting. F i n d a job and conduct y o u r s e l f p r o p e r l y and don't get i n t o anymore t r o u b l e . You c o o p e r a t e w i t h M i s s Smith (PO) and your p a r e n t s , t h e y ' r e j u s t t r y i n g to h e l p , OK? Juv:  OK. Here the p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r assumed t h a t 'hanging around downtown'  was  an a c t i v i t y  causally related  department s t o r e .  to the o f f e n s e , s h o p l i f t i n g a t a downtown  T h e r e f o r e , she informs  the a c t i v i t y f o r the j u v e n i l e .  She p l a c e s  the judge t h a t she w i l l p r o s c r i b e 4 'on r e c o r d '  the f a c t t h a t the  ' r u l e ' has been ' d i s c u s s e d ' w i t h both the j u v e n i l e and her p a r e n t s . 4. When a PO speaks 'to the r e c o r d ' or p l a c e s something 'on r e c o r d ' they t y p i c a l l y never expect to see the t r a n s c r i p t , f o r t r a n s c r i p t s of these h e a r i n g s a r e almost never p r e p a r e d . Rather, I see such t a c t i c s as i n t e r a c t i o n a l d e v i c e s intended to p r o v i d e j u v e n i l e s w i t h the sense t h a t 'a r e c o r d ' of t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s , promises, agreements, e t c . , _is_ b e i n g k e p t . To the e x t e n t t h a t t h i s i s accomplished, such 'promises', 'agreements', e t c . , may l a t e r be traded.upon by c o u r t p e r s o n n e l d u r i n g p r o b a t i o n i n t e r actions .  68  The  c o l l a b o r a t i v e u t t e r a n c e of the judge then d i s p l a y s to  j u v e n i l e the j u d i c i a l f o r c e behind  the r u l e ,  the f a c t  t h a t the r u l e i s  not j u s t a matter of i n t e r e s t to the p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r , but The  r u l e as phrased by  the j u v e n i l e by was  not  stated  the judge d i f f e r s from the one  the p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r .  The  to go downtown 'by h e r s e l f , w h i l e t h a t she  The  c o u l d be i n compliance w i t h  "if  a f r i e n d went downtown to r i p a s t o r e o f f .  t h a t the c o u r t may t i o n s may  by  discrepancy  the PO,  was  this  PO  the  I mean, she wouldn't  parents,  to .the j u -  and j u v e n i l e .  n o t e t h a t the f u t u r e i n f e r e n c e s  make about t h i s b e h a v i o u r as w e l l as subsequent  term of p r o b a t i o n as w e l l .  Any  infrac-  i s 'in violation'  treatment of  'probation'  as an i n t e r a c t i o n a l accomplishment must c a r e f u l l y examine such in  the  thought that  not p o i n t e d out  be b o l s t e r e d by r e f e r e n c e to the f a c t t h a t she  of at l e a s t  to  the grammar of t h a t p a r t i c u l a r r u l e  v e n i l e i n the subsequent i n t e r v i e w between PO, Under the r u l e as f o r m u l a t e d  PO  by  s t a t e d i t , i n s o f a r as  probationer  The  court.  l a t e r presented  the r u l e presented  'must be accompanied by a p a r e n t ' .  be by h e r s e l f , would s h e ? "  to the  judge s t a t e d t h a t the j u v e n i l e  the judge hadn't thought about the r u l e as she  she and  the  rule-use  context. I will  s h o r t l y t u r n to an a n a l y s i s of p o s t - c o u r t  interviews  during  which the  'terms of p r o b a t i o n ' are e x p l i c a t e d .  necessary  to d e s c r i b e the document around which such i n t e r a c t i o n r e v o l v e s .  The  The  F i r s t , however, i t w i l l  be  Terms  document "terms of p r o b a t i o n " i s prepared  on c o u r t s t a t i o n a r y which c i t e s the names of the j u d g e s ,  by  the PO  and  and  the C h i e f  typed Pro-  69  bation Officer lowing  as w e l l as the address and phone number o f the c o u r t .  Fol-  i s a t y p i c a l example: May 12, 1974 TERMS OF PROBATION FOR JOHN SMITH  PROBATIONER MUST ABIDE BY THE FOLLOWING TERMS: 1.  P r o b a t i o n e r must be o f good b e h a v i o u r a t home, a t s c h o o l and i n the community.  2.  P r o b a t i o n e r must a t t e n d truant or tardy.  3.  CURFEW:  Probationer as  s c h o o l r e g u l a r l y and must not be"  must be o f f the s t r e e t s and i n h i s home  follows:  10:00 yP.M. - week n i g h t s 11:30  P.M. - weekends  ( F r i d a y and Saturday  P r o b a t i o n e r must r e s p e c t t h i s curfew. no e x t e n s i o n allowed on t h i s curfew.  only)  There w i l l be  4.  Probationer  must r e p o r t to h i s P r o b a t i o n O f f i c e r when  requested.  5.  Probationermmust not a s s o c i a t e w i t h L a r r y Brown, nor w i t h any o t h e r known d e l i n q u e n t s , a f t e r s c h o o l or a t any time. P r o b a t i o n e r i s made aware t h a t any v i o l a t i o n o f the above Terms c o n s t i t u t e s a Breach o f P r o b a t i o n , and may r e s u l t i n h i s b e i n g brought back b e f o r e t h e C o u r t . I have read and f u l l y understand the above terms. Signed: John Smith  Witness: R.S. Jones, P r o v a t i o n Date:  Officer J.971  As we have seen, c h i l d r e n a r e p l a c e d on p r o b a t i o n when t h e c o u r t f o r m a l l y determines t h a t they a r e i n need o f ' s u p e r v i s i o n and guidance'.  70  P r o b a t i o n has been e x p l i c i t l y designed  by a d u l t a u t h o r i t i e s t o p r o v i d e  a s s i s t a n c e to the a d u l t ' s o c i a l i z a t i o n ' agents, etc.  The document  i . e . , parents,  'terms' of p r o b a t i o n ' r e p r e s e n t s  the p r o f f e r e d " s u p e r v i s i o n and guidance".  the f o r m a l r e c o r d o f  A j u v e n i l e p l a c e d on p r o b a t i o n  i s f a c e d w i t h a s e t of ' r u l e s ' by which he i s i n s t r u c t e d to g e t o f f p r o b a t i o n . organize h i s behaviour,  teachers,  to l i v e i f he i s  As we s h a l l see, the p r o b a t i o n e r i s encouraged to i . e . , to determine whether o r not to engage i n  a c t i v i t i e s , a s s o c i a t e w i t h s p e c i f i c i n d i v i d u a l s , e t c . , a c c o r d i n g to the terms.  I t i s through p r o b a t i o n i n t e r a c t i o n t h a t he i s encouraged to employ  the terms as a mechanism f o r s e l e c t i n g and r e j e c t i n g a c t i v i t i e s and a s s o ciates . I w i l l d e s c r i b e the v a r i o u s types o f ' r u l e s ' which a r e t y p i c a l l y i n c l u d e d i n t h e document. 1.  G e n e r a l Behaviour  C l a u s e - t h i s c l a u s e r e q u i r e s t h e j u v e n i l e to  'behave' a t home, a t s c h o o l , and i n t h e community. the r u l e i s not r e s t r i c t e d  to t h e s p e c i f i c  p r i o r behaviour  The j u v e n i l e i s h e l d g e n e r a l l y  able. of 2.  Note t h a t  occurred.  'area" i n which the  Subsequent r u l e s s p e c i f y some of the c r i t i c a l  'good b e h a v i o u r '  account-  attributes  i n the t h r e e s e t t i n g s .  School Attendance C l a u s e - r e g u l a r and p u n c t u a l attendance a r e required.  Note t h a t compliance  w i t h t h i s r u l e i s documentable,  i . e . , an a d u l t a u t h o r i t y i n t h e s e t t i n g may be c o n t a c t e d  to c o n -  f i r m r e p o r t e d performance. 3.  Curfew - the p r o b a t i o n e r i s i n s t r u c t e d  t h a t he must be ' o f f the  s t r e e t and i n h i s home' by a s p e c i f i e d  time.  On t h i s  particular  71  set  o f terms, the PO has ordered  s i o n allowed on t h i s curfew." parents  t h a t t h e r e w i l l be "no_ e x t e n -  On o t h e r  terms the PO may a l l o w  and/or t h e PO to grant e x t e n s i o n s .  a n a l y s i s , we s h a l l examine the p r a c t i c a l formulations. reflects  I n our subsequent  consequences o f such  The mandatory c h a r a c t e r o f the p r e s e n t  the f a c t  document  t h a t the PO does not f e e l the p a r e n t s c a p a b l e o f  'saying no' to t h i s j u v e n i l e as w e l l as h i s w i s h t o not have to 'say no' to the k i d 'every week'. What t h e curfew time s h a l l be i n any p a r t i c u l a r  case depends upon  the age of the p r o b a t i o n e r , the type o f o f f e n s e , and 'the f a m i l y situation'.  Thus, any o l d e r p r o b a t i o n e r i s t y p i c a l l y  to s t a y o u t l a t e r set  earlier  than a younger one, b u t the hour i s u s u a l l y  than what t h e PO takes to be the l o c a l norm f o r  non-probationers. the a f t e r n o o n , immediately  I f the d e l i n q u e n c y  involved a c t i v i t i e s during  the PO may r e q u i r e the j u v e n i l e to r e t u r n home  after  s c h o o l every a f t e r n o o n .  r e q u i r e d to spend h i s weekend a f t e r n o o n s setting  allowed  or with h i s parents.  The p r o b a t i o n e r may be i n some s u p e r v i s e d  On the o t h e r hand, a j u v e n i l e who i s  not seen to be 'a problem' i n these r e s p e c t s , may not r e c e i v e a curfew. 4.  Appointment - the p r o b a t i o n e r i s r e q u i r e d to r e p o r t when ted.  F r e q u e n t l y the PO s p e c i f i e s  w i t h him each week a t a s p e c i f i e d accompanied by a procedure but the procedure  reques-  t h a t the p r o b a t i o n e r i s to meet time.  Such a term i s u s u a l l y  to f o l l o w i n case o f ' i l l n e s s ' , e t c . ,  t y p i c a l l y i n v o l v e s a phone c o n t a c t .  Thus,  72  under t h i s c l a u s e , contact with  the p r o b a t i o n e r  the PO when the PO  must engage i n f a c e - t o - f a c e  requests  i t , a requirement which  f a c i l i t a t e s adequate documentation of performance v i a r o u t i n e interaction. 5.  A s s o c i a t i o n C l a u s e - the p r o b a t i o n e r avoid  ' a s s o c i a t i o n ' w i t h one  ment as w e l l as are t y p i c a l l y on o c c a s i o n , 'bad 6.  'any  Clauses  f o r one  j u v e n i l e may  juveniles specified o f f e n s e as w e l l  or o t h e r s  suggest  - other  c l a u s e s may  s c h o o l and  be  other  be r e q u i r e d  For example, i f the j u v e n i l e  the p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r and/or  to  'seek and m a i n t a i n  i n s t r u c t e d to  s p e c i f i c a l l y proscribe,  The  p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r may  'vague' as he  s i o n and  the  employment'. or  If pro-  drugs or i n t o x i c a n t s I f the j u v e n i l e that a c t i v i t y .  l o c a l e , i . e . , a park or clubhouse may  t h e o r e t i c a l l y at l e a s t , ad or as  'not use any  than those p r e s c r i b e d by a d o c t o r ' .  limits.  parents  t h i n k t h a t t h e r e i s a 'drug problem', the proba-  g l u e ' a r u l e may cific  or  r e a s o n or another to not r e q u i r e a t t e n d a n c e ,  bation o f f i c e r be  are  included with  the o f f e n s e i n v o l v e d drugs or a l c o h o l or i f the p a r e n t s  t i o n e r may  as,  probationer.  f o r the above c l a u s e s .  i s not a t t e n d i n g  The  i n the p r e s e n t  j u v e n i l e s whom the parents  Miscellaneous  decide  known d e l i n q u e n t ' .  the  to  o r more j u v e n i l e s named i n the docu-  those i n v o l v e d  i n f l u e n c e s ' on  substituted  i s frequently required  be d e f i n e d  spe-  as o f f  generate a d d i t i o n a l r u l e s ,  i n f i n i t u m , making them as  'specific'  f e e l s n e c e s s a r y f o r the purposes of  guidance of a s p e c i f i c  A  'sniffs  probationer.  ample, r e c e i v e d the f o l l o w i n g v e r s i o n s of the  supervi-  Juveniles, for terms:  ex-  73  Probationer must r e s p e c t h i s p a r e n t s ' d i s c i p l i n e , and must coo p e r a t e when asked to do any chores around the home. P r o b a t i o n e r must r e p o r t to h i s P r o b a t i o n O f f i c e r , a t a time and p l a c e d e s i g n a t e d by P r o b a t i o n O f f i c e r WITHOUT FAIL. P r o b a t i o n e r must complete t h e chores a s s i g n e d by h i s p a r e n t s . P r o b a t i o n e r must e i t h e r r e t u r n to s c h o o l or be working w i t h Mr. Smith. P r o b a t i o n e r must r e s p e c t h i s mother's curfew. He must out o v e r n i g h t u n l e s s he has mother's p e r m i s s i o n .  notvstay  P r o b a t i o n e r must a t t e n d s c h o o l r e g u l a r l y , and i f p r o b a t i o n e r i s away from s c h o o l because o f i l l n e s s , he must produce a w r i t t e n e x p l a n a t i o n from h i s d o c t o r e x p l a i n i n g why he was absent. P r o b a t i o n e r w i l l n o t a s s o c i a t e w i t h any known p r o b a t i o n e r s or known troublemakers i n the community. P r o b a t i o n e r MUST NOT go near the Starbuck H o t e l s i t u a t e d a t 100 S. Greenwood; t h i s area i s s t r i c t l y OUT OF BOUNDS f o r p r o b a tioner . P r o b a t i o n e r must be home f o r meals on time and must not be l a t e u n l e s s he has p e r m i s s i o n from e i t h e r h i s f a t h e r o r s i s t e r . P r o b a t i o n e r must n o t s t a y out o v e r n i g h t u n l e s s he has p e r m i s s i o n from h i s f a t h e r . P r o b a t i o n e r must obey t h i s curfew u n l e s s granted his probation o f f i c e r .  an e x t e n s i o n by  As mentioned above, some j u v e n i l e s do not r e c e i v e terms, except suggestion  that they  'keep t h e i r nose c l e a n ' f o r 'a few months', a f t e r which the  PO s t a t e s t h a t he w i l l  go back to c o u r t and have p r o b a t i o n  For one r e a s o n or another, 'don't need' terms. way to o p e r a t e .  fora  the p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r  terminated.  f e e l s t h a t these j u v e n i l e s  For the o t h e r s , terms a r e seen as the o n l y  In s t i l l  other cases,  'fair'  the terms may be seen as simply a  mechanism f o r p u n i t i v e s c r u t i n y and c o n t r o l , e.g.,a p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r o f one j u v e n i l e who had i n s u l t e d him d u r i n g t h e p r e - e o u r t  interview:  said  74  I ' l l show t h a t l i t t l e b a s t a r d . H i s terms'11 be so t i g h t he.'ll have to ask me b e f o r e he takes a c r a p . I n e f f e c t , such everyday  terms c a l l f o r a massive r e o r g a n i z a t i o n of  the  l i f e of the p r o b a t i o n e r , a r e o r g a n i z a t i o n which has been designed  by a d u l t s to keep the p r o b a t i o n e r out of t r o u b l e , w h i l e a t the same time make ' i n f r a c t i o n s ' more v i s i b l e and  accountable.  p r o b a t i o n e r c o u l d avoid t r o u b l e ' e a s i l y ' by  'merely' f o l l o w i n g the r u l e s .  For the j u v e n i l e on p r o b a t i o n , however, the r u l e s the world  i n which he e x i s t s  What I mean by  ' f r i e n d s ' must be avoided,  has  'unproblematic'  suddenly  transform  o r , a t w o r s t , mar-  become s a n c t i o n a b l e .  s c h o o l must be a t t e n d e d , hangouts  p a r e n t s , t e a c h e r s and p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r s disobeyed Nights  themselves  i n t o one which i s markedly more hazardous.  t h i s i s that heretofore  g i n a l l y a c c e p t a b l e behaviour  I t might appear t h a t a  Certain  avoided,  only at r i s k , e t c .  a r e to be spent home (weekends o f t e n i n c l u d e d ) , u n l e s s arrangements  made, p e r m i s s i o n granted, and  companions and d e s t i n a t i o n s d i s c u s s e d  and  approved. The  terms are seen by p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r s on s p e c i f i c  t i o n a l o c c a s i o n s as the t o o l s by which the reached. as  They may  'help' o r as  to  ' g o a l s ' of p r o b a t i o n may  be p e r c e i v e d by both p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r s and  'weapons' w i t h which the p r o b a t i o n e r ' s everyday  be s u p e r v i s e d and  guided.  both o f f i c e r s and  interacbe  probationers life  may  They a r e , i n f a c t , r e s o u r c e s which a r e a v a i l a b l e  juveniles.  In the pages which f o l l o w , we  s h a l l examine  the i n t e r a c t i o n a l o c c a s i o n s d u r i n g which the j u v e n i l e becomes a p r o b a t i o n e r . I would l i k e to suggest programming, or  that the process may  'socialization  7  be u s e f u l l y viewed as  i n s o f a r as the PO  occasioned  i s c o n s c i o u s l y engaged i n  75  an attempt to p r o v i d e  the j u v e n i l e going on p r o b a t i o n w i t h  an u n d e r s t a n d -  i n g o f -probation" which w i l l be adequate f o r the p r a c t i c a l purposes o f the PO.  I n t e r a c t i o n a l L a y i n g Down o f Terms  I now i n t e n d t o examine some o f the techniques  and s t r a t e g i e s  whereby p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r s , , d e p l o y i n g the terms, attempt to program j u v e n i l e s who have been p l a c e d on p r o b a t i o n w i t h understandings purposes of the PO.  The s i g n i n g o f the terms o f t e n takes p l a c e  a f t e r the c o u r t h e a r i n g , a f a c t which enables the i m p r e s s i o n  t h e PO to g i v e the j u v e n i l e  V a l u a b l e c o u r t time i s thus saved i n s o f a r as the time-  ' e x p l a n a t i o n ' o f p a r t i c u l a r s o f p r o b a t i o n does not have to be  done i n c o u r t .  A t t h e same time,  a c t i o n as w e l l as s t r a t e g i c v i d e the j u v e n i l e with structed  immediately  t h a t the hearing and s i g n i n g o f t h e terms a r e both p a r t s o f a  single occasion. consuming  adequate f o r p r a c t i c a l  the f o r m a l - l e g a l s t y l e o f the PO's i n t e r -  i n v o c a t i o n s o f 'the judge' and 'the c o u r t ' p r o -  the sense o f b e i n g  the j u v e n i l e to 'cooperate'  keep o u t o f t r o u b l e ' .  During  c e r attempts to adequately r e l a t e to the document  ' i n c o u r t ' . . The judge has i n -  w i t h the PO, who i s 'here to h e l p you  the ensuing  i n t e r a c t i o n , the p r o b a t i o n  offi-  ' s p e l l o u t ' the meaning of these terms as they  'the terms'.  such i n t e r v i e w which i s r a t h e r  I wish to c o n s i d e r a r e c o r d o f one  typical:  A new p r o b a t i o n e r and h i s mother have entered the PO's o f f i c e . The j u v e n i l e has been found d e l i n q u e n t f o r a s e r i e s o f t h e f t s he committed as t h e member o f a j u v e n i l e gang. The PO s m i l e s and waves t h e p r o b a t i o n c o n t r a c t a t the boy.  76  PO:  W e l l here's the bad news. Now what we're going i s go over these and I ' l l read them out a l o u d . me on any q u e s t i o n s you have, but you've got to t h r e e c o p i e s . Then a f t e r t h a t y o u ' l l w i t n e s s i rough, Okay? ( ( J u v e n i l e and  r e s e a r c h e r both  to do You s t o p sign a l l t Mr. Dar-  nod))  Juv:  Okay.  PO:  So, ((reads i n a monotone)) "The p r o b a t i o n e r i s to behave a t s c h o o l , a t home, and i n the community.  Juv:  Yeah, I know. The  same time,  PO opens the i n t e r a c t i o n i n a  e x p l i c i t l y refers  ' c h e e r f u l ' manner y e t , a t  to the terms as  'bad  news'.  He  then  provides  the j u v e n i l e and h i s mother w i t h a d e s c r i p t i o n of what they a r e going and how will  i t w i l l be accomplished.  The  terms are to be  'gone o v e r ' .  'read them out a l o u d ' w h i l e the j u v e n i l e i s i n v i t e d  f o r q u e s t i o n s he might have.  The  the p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r .  v i c e w i t h which he may undercut  The PO  to do  The  PO  to s t o p the r e a d i n g  j u v e n i l e i s thus c o n s t r a i n e d to speak  o n l y when a s k i n g q u e s t i o n s , the r e l e v a n c e of which w i l l by  the  i n t h i s way  determined  provides himself with a  c o n t r o l the i n t e r a c t i o n .  any n o t i o n the j u v e n i l e may  then be  The PO  de-  then moves to  have t h a t 'to ask q u e s t i o n s ' means  t h a t the terms a r e open to n e g o t i a t i o n , i . e . , t h a t a p o s s i b l e 'answer' to a q u e s t i o n would be a changed term. after  I n s t e a d , the p r o b a t i o n e r i s informed  the r e a d i n g , he must s i g n a l l t h r e e c o p i e s .  searcher  to 'witness'  which both accounts  f o r the e x t r a person  i n the r a t h e r s m a l l o f f i c e  and  i n the accomplishment of the b u s i n e s s a t hand, i . e . ,  on the j u v e n i l e the f o r m a l - l e g a l - c o n s e q u e n t i a l n a t u r e of  p r e s e n t o c c a s i o n and  the r e -  the s i g n i n g of the document, an a d - l i b b e d d e v i c e  t r a d e s on h i s presence to impress  The PO^then asks  that  the b i n d i n g n a t u r e of the p r o b a t i o n c o n t r a c t .  the He a l s o  77  asks  the r e s e a r c h e r  hearsed,  to 'witness.' the s i g n i n g of the document, an u n r e -  a d - l i b b e d s t r a t e g y which both accounts  sence and trades on i t to h e i g h t e n 5 ing i s a binding a c t .  f o r the r e s e a r c h e r ' s  pre-  the j u v e n i l e ' s i m p r e s s i o n t h a t the s i g n -  PO:  So, ( ( r e a d i n g ) ) The P r o b a t i o n e r i s to behave a t s c h o o l , atohome and i n t h e community.  Juv:  Yeah, I know.  PO:  No, to be p e r f e c t l y honest, t h a t ' s a c a t c h - a l l . That g i v e s me the power to i n t e r p r e t what, uh you know - i f I don't c o n s i d e r what you're doing to be something t h a t you should be doing - L i k e i f I were t o be d r i v i n g by and see you d o i n g something I don't t h i n k you s h o u l d be d o i n g , I c o u l d ( ( t a p s terms)) you understand?  Juv:  Yeah ( ( q u i e t l y , l o o k i n g a t f l o o r ) )  PO:  Makes me the heavy.  OK.  ((all  smile, juvenile  laughs))  A f t e r s e t t i n g up the machinery w i t h which he may attempt to d i r e c t ensuing  i n t e r a c t i o n , the p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r s h i f t s h i s i n t e r a c t i o n a l  when he b e g i n s  'reading the terms', a d o p t i n g  t i n e l y employed i n much courtroom t a l k .  style  the monotone which i s r o u -  The f i r s t  term read i s the s t a n -  dard admonishment to "behave a t s c h o o l , a t home and i n t h e community". responding  to the f i r s t  rule,  the j u v e n i l e s t a t e s t h a t he 'knows'.  may appear t o be a proper and adequate response, the j u v e n i l e does, i n f a c t , understand may move on to the 'next' r u l e . u t t e r a n c e i n t h i s manner. 5.  In  This  a s i g n a l to the PO t h a t  the r u l e and t h a t , t h e r e f o r e , the PO  Q u i t e o b v i o u s l y , the PO does not t r e a t the  I suggest  t h a t h i s response  can t e l l us a good  T h i s s t r a t e g y m i s f i r e d when, a t the end o f the i n t e r v i e w the r e s e a r c h e r 'witnessed' t h e document by s i g n i n g on the l i n e marked 'witness', a l i n e which turned out t o be , ' r e s e r v e d ' f o r the PO.  78  d e a l about p r o b a t i o n as a p r a c t i c a l a c t i v i t y .  On  t h i s o c c a s i o n , the p r o b a -  t i o n e r ' s u t t e r a n c e r e p r e s e n t s a r a t h e r e l a b o r a t e d i s p l a y of what the would take to be a t b e s t a 'misunderstanding', attitude'. defect.  The PO's  The  u t t e r a n c e may  and  be seen as an attempt to  juvenile, v i a his intonation, facial  the i m p r e s s i o n o f b e i n g a n g r i l y i m p a t i e n t w i t h t h a t he  thought i t was The  by dropping  PO  then switches  back i n t o a  s t a r i n g i n t o h i s eyes.  the j u v e n i l e i s going  to get the  to ' l e v e l ' w i t h him,  should be u s e f u l .  style  He underpins  youth i s addressed the PO  transforms  the  some ' i n s i d e ' i n f o r m a t i o n which  t h i s p a r t i c u l a r r e a d i n g of h i s remarks by  'proper' sense of t h e i r meaning may  be o b t a i n e d .  By  t h i s , I mean t h a t  w i l l d e c i d e whether any  constitute a  to say, whatever the PO h i m s e l f  'news' a f t e r a l l  i n t e r a c t i o n t h a t an adequate,  s u b t l y r e v e a l s t h a t i t i s the PO who  The  conver-  ' r e a l s t o r y ' on p r o b a t i o n , t h a t the PO i s  the j u v e n i l e t h a t the r e a d i n g of the terms a r e  d o i n g ' w i l l be  in a  The opening r e f e r e n c e i m p l i e s t h a t  i . e . , g i v e him  c u l a r a c t of the j u v e n i l e ' s w i l l is  me  the r e a d i n g procedure, i . e . ,  In t h i s way,  i n s o f a r as i t i s o n l y through the p r e s e n t  the PO  the  e x p r e s s i o n , e t c . , gave  'personal' i n t e r a c t i o n a l  The  'read about'.  youth from s u b j e c t i n t o i n t e r l o c u t o r .  or  'repair'  unnecessary.  s a t i o n a l mode r a t h e r than  informing  'wrong  the l l e g a l i s t i c monotone, removing h i s g l a s s e s , l e a n i n g toward  the j u v e n i l e and  going  a t worst the  PO  parti-  'breach' o f the terms.  'doesn't t h i n k the j u v e n i l e should  That be  sanctionable. practical  import  of t h i s f o r the j u v e n i l e i s t h a t  the grammar of the r u l e s w i l l not t e l l him what p r o b a t i o n  'knowing'  'means' under  this  79  p a r t i c u l a r probation o f f i c e r . c r e t i o n a r y power which may  The  u t t e r a n c e , t h e r e f o r e , p o i n t s up  be w i e l d e d by t h i s PO,  the j u v e n i l e to a t t e n d to the present o c c a s i o n determining  how  dis-  a f a c t which c o n s t r a i n s  i f o n l y as a means o f  t h i s PO w i l l e x e r c i s e the power, i n f o r m a t i o n which w i l l  u s e f u l i n d e a l i n g w i t h the p r a c t i c a l problems o f b e i n g on The  the  be  probation.  u t t e r a n c e a l s o c o n f r o n t s the j u v e n i l e w i t h what f o r him  may  be the p r a c t i c a l problem par e x c e l l e n c e , the f a c t t h a t p r o b a t i o n means t h a t at l e a s t  f o r the immediate f u t u r e h i s everyday a c t i v i t i e s may  t o r e d , assessed,  and become the b a s i s of f u r t h e r a c t i o n by the c o u r t .  remark d i s p l a y s the f a c t  that h i s l i f e has been rendered  t a n t sense.  take to be p r i v a t e m a t t e r s ,  What he may  but h i s o r j u s t between him and h i s p a r e n t s may the p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r .  We  shall  now  see that the PO may  p u b l i c i n an  be  faced with  as a p r o b a t i o n e r .  from h i s s c r u t i n y  indeed, heard  double-edged i r o n i c 1  In the 'while  the r i s k of d e t e c t i o n i n v o l v e d i n 'doing t h i n g s '  When the j u v e n i l e ' s subdued response informs  then moves t o undercut  of  regu-  r e f e r e n c e to s e e i n g the j u v e n i l e doing something  d r i v i n g by' underscores  impor-  become the b u s i n e s s  through the employment of a v a r i e t y of i n t e r a c t i o n a l s t r a t e g i e s . u t t e r a n c e , the PO's  The  i . e . , nobody's b u s i n e s s  l a r attempts by p r o b a t i o n e r s to s h i e l d t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s  the j u v e n i l e has,  be moni-  and  the PO  i s t r e a t i n g the o c c a s i o n s e r i o u s l y  that he  the s o l e m n i t y which h i s remark has c r e a t e d v i a a  r e f e r e n c e to h i s ' r o l e ' i n the r e l a t i o n s h i p as b e i n g  the heavy'. I w i l l now  i s w r i t t e n i n a way  t u r n to the way  t h a t the PO may  fill  in  a term as i t  which resembles h i s supplementary remarks which accom-  80  panied  t h e r e a d i n g of the g e n e r a l b e h a v i o u r  clause.  The  following i s a  r e a d i n g of a s c h o o l c l a u s e : PO:  Now "the p r o b a t i o n e r i s to a t t e n d s c h o o l on a r e g u l a r b a s i s . " And uh, the people at C i t y High seem to t h i n k , and I agree w i t h them John, t h a t you've got the w h e r e - w i t h a l l , i f you a p p l y i t . And i f I get r e p o r t s t h a t you a r e n ' t a p p l y i n g i t you're going to t a l k to me. ( ( J u v e n i l e c h u c k l e s , PO s m i l e s ) ) OK, o r at l e a s t t r y i n g . The  g e n e r a l behaviour  c l a u s e r e q u i r e d good b e h a v i o u r  but d i d not mention s c h o o l attendance. he must a t t e n d s c h o o l  s c h o o l c l a u s e informs him  'on a r e g u l a r b a s i s ' .  dance' o f t e n becomes an i s s u e i n these sion.  The  Rather, I suggest  The meaning o f  i n t e r v i e w s , but not  that the PO c o n c e n t r a t e s  as the t o p i c to be addressed,  that  'regular attenon t h i s  occa-  on the achievement of  an adequate f o r p r a c t i c a l purposes at hand u n d e r s t a n d i n g clause with t h i s p a r t i c u l a r j u v e n i l e .  'in school'  of the  school  Thus, r e g u l a r attendance i s not  viewed  r a t h e r t h e ^ p r o b a t i o n - r e l e v a n t meaning of  s c h o o l attendance and performance i s addressed.  L e t me  examine the  utter-  ance i n d e t a i l . The  PO  f a c t t h a t the  f o l l o w s the grammar o f the r u l e w i t h a r e f e r e n c e t o  'school p e o p l e ' t h i n k t h a t the p r o b a t i o n e r has t h e where-with-  a l l ' to perform  adequately  i n school.  I would l i k e to d i s c u s s the i n t r o d u c -  t i o n o f t h i s p a r t i c u l a r p i e c e o f i n f o r m a t i o n at t h i s p o i n t i n the of the terms' and plish?  First,  plimentary undercut  the way  i n which i t i s i n t r o d u c e d .  I would l i k e to suggest  remark, i t says  What does i t accom-  something ' n i c e ' about the j u v e n i l e which 'the heavy'.  from s c h o o l a u t h o r i t i e s .  T h i s was  may  Second, t h e PO  i n d i r e c t l y i n f o r m i n g t h e j u v e n i l e t h a t PO's  about p r o b a t i o n e r s  'reading  t h a t , on the s u r f a c e , i t i s a 'com-  the p r o b a t i o n e r ' s view o f him as  a r t f u l l y and  the  get  is  information  i n f o r m a t i o n about  81  competence, but the p r o b a t i o n e r c o u l d assume that o t h e r k i n d s of i.e.,  p r o b a t i o n - r e l e v a n t i n f o r m a t i o n on  'delinquent b e h a v i o u r ' , bation authorities.  e t c . , may  'trouble i n school',  'truancy',  r o u t i n e l y be passed from s c h o o l t o  Thus, the r u l e r e q u i r e s r e g u l a r attendance and  mark by the p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r i n s t r u c t s the p r o b a t i o n e r t h a t the will  explicitly  Then n o t i c e how  underscores  c o l l e c t e d and  school  the p r o b a t i o n - r e l e v a n t concern  'applying h i m s e l f . panded here and here and  now  'trying'.  r e g u l a r attendance'  e t c . , but whether he i s  r u l e i s q u i t e s u b t l y ex-  entails  'applying h i s where-with-all',  What i s i n t e n d e d by these terms i s not  and d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g .  l a t e r see how  interaction  i n t e r a c t i o n a l r e s o u r c e s a v a i l a b l e to the  p r o b a t i o n e r s f r e q u e n t l y see  i s s u e i n the f o r m u l a t i o n and  the curfew  r e a d i n g o f the terms  t h e r e f o r e , a good d e a l of i n t e r a c t i o n i s f r e q u e n t l y devoted to the  may to  a p a r t i c u l a r hour and be  'extended'.  PO.  they are used i n subsequent probation-work.  P r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r s and  of  probationer  Grades, teachers' a t t i t u d e s , s c h o o l deportment, e t c . ,  probation-relevant  as a v e r y important  o r at l e a s t  pursued, but the  i s encouraged to see them as r e l a t e d t o subsequent p r o b a t i o n  will  strictly  the j u v e n i l e i s i n s t r u c t e d t h a t compliance as i n t e r p r e t e d  by t h i s PO  are rendered  be  of the PO w i l l not be  i s misbehaving, a c t i n g up,  So the  'bad'  the p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r ' s r e f e r e n c e t o ' r e p o r t s '  the f a c t that performance i n f o r m a t i o n w i l l  whether the p r o b a t i o n e r  prothe r e -  serve as a p o t e n t i a l source of i n f o r m a t i o n about h i s 'good' or  performance.  We  information,  the c o n d i t i o n s , i f any, under which the  and,  fixing  curfew  Chapter F i v e w i l l d e a l w i t h the importance of the curfew  subsequent i n t e r a c t i o n s .  At present  d i s c u s s a r e a d i n g of the curfew:  I w i l l merely present  and  briefly  82  PO:  "The p r o b a t i o n e r i s t o be o f f t h e s t r e e t s and i n h i s home by 9 p.m. each n i g h t o f the week u n l e s s accompanied by a member o f the f a m i l y . " Now uh, we d i s c u s s e d t h i s and your mom and I f e l t t h a t r a t h e r than c a l l me each time you wanted to go to a show o r something - i n o r d e r to p r o t e c t y o u r s e l f - that i f you were w i t h a member o f your f a m i l y such as your b r o t h e r o r somebody, you wouldn't be b r e a k i n g the terms o f your p r o b a t i o n . F a i r enough?  Juv:  Fair. Uh, as f a r as t h i s weekend goes me and Joe ( b r o t h e r ) were s o r t o f p l a n n i n g on going up t o t h e mountains and r e n t ing a cabin.  PO:  You're s t i l l w i t h i n the terms as I see them. You can be out i f you're accompanied by a member o f your f a m i l y . But I want t o make t h i s v e r y c l e a r , I won't buy t h i s on the b a s i s of every evening. Seven days a week. I would c o n s i d e r t h a t a s t r a i g h t abuse of uh, you know, a way o f g e t t i n g around t h e curfew. And then number one would come back i n force. I want t o p r o v i d e some background i n f o r m a t i o n on t h i s case i n  o r d e r t o demonstrate the i n t r i c a c i e s which may be i n v o l v e d i n f o r m u l a t i n g and of  invoking a s p e c i f i c a particular  term which i s seen t o mesh w i t h t h e c o n t i n g e n c i e s  case.  T h i s p r o b a t i o n e r was b e f o r e 6 of  B & E's  the c o u r t on an extremely  which he had committed w i t h a group of f r i e n d s .  the f i r s t one t o be p i c k e d up and had p r o v i d e d which l e d t o the apprehension  o f the o t h e r s .  t h a t , furthermore,  6.  Breaking  information  The a s s o c i a t i o n c l a u s e was concern  that  w i t h whom t o a s s o c i a t e and  she was a f r a i d t h a t they would f i n d out t h a t t h e proba-  t i o n e r had been the one who informed At t h e same time,  list  He had been  the p o l i c e with  going t o p r o s c r i b e those j u v e n i l e s , but t h e mother expressed the p r o b a t i o n e r wouldn't have any f r i e n d s l e f t  long  the p o l i c e and attempt t o punish him.  the p r o b a t i o n e r ' s b r o t h e r was s e v e r a l y e a r s o l d e r  and e n t e r i n g .  than  83  the youth, seen as a  good i n f l u e n c e ' by the mother and was  anxious t o h e l p h i s younger b r o t h e r .  How  i s the curfew formulated  the p r a c t i c a l c o n t i n g e n c i e s j u s t o u t l i n e d ?  The  so that the o n l y way  i s by b e i n g  his  brother.  t h a t he  T h i s was  can  s t a y out  assumed to be  spend a good d e a l of time t o g e t h e r have to in  worry  because her  to the r e s e a r c h e r  w i t h the  t i o n e r , the PO ployed  back".  time he wishes to  not between the p r e s e n t  the p r o b a t i o n e r .  sion  l e f t was  expressed  t h a t the  brother  The  PO  ' c h o i c e ' i s between those  Thus, the PO i n two a l t e r n a t i v e s ,  f o r m u l a t i o n o f the c l a u s e and no to r e p o r t s from the  curfew.  must be  a member of the f a m i l y and  obtained  for  extending  that the procedure f o r  The  PO  as i t c o u l d not be done r o u t i n e l y , t h a t to do a breachable  it  of pro-  the curfew g e t t i n g permisThe  f o r a weekend  s t a t e s t h a t i t would  goes on to say t h a t the o c c a s i o n would have  t u t e an abuse and be  t h a t as a  c o n t a c t , even i f by phone, w i t h the PO.  would c o n s t i t u t e a b r e a c h of the term.  Note,  'helpful' brother  takes a c t i o n to show the p r o b a t i o n e r  s p e c i a l permission  involves personal  past the curfew.  em-  r e q u i r e d to  j u v e n i l e then asks i f going to the mountains w i t h h i s b r o t h e r  but  could,  In p r e s e n t i n g the p l a n to the p r o b a -  s t a y out  a l s o t h a t the PO would have access  without  A concern  i . e . , t h a t the p r o b a t i o n e r be  s t r u c t s the j u v e n i l e t h a t the  bationer  the mother would not  c o n t r a s t s i t w i t h an a l t e r n a t i v e model which i s o f t e n  f o r curfew e x t e n s i o n ,  c a l l every  i n the company of  'good i n f l u e n c e ' who  a f t e r the f a m i l y had  c o u l d keep the mother " o f f my  designed  adequate to ensure t h a t they would  the u n l i k e l y event of a t t a c k , p r o t e c t h i s b r o t h e r .  by the PO  to meet  youth's curfew i s  d u r i n g which, e.g.,  son was  apparently  not,  special' status insofar every day  a c t i v i t y under c l a u s e one.  would  consti-  T h i s i s merely  84  one  i n d i c a t i o n that  'mechanical' observance  o f t h e ' l e t t e r ' o f t h e term i s  not viewed  as ' p r o p e r  compliance  and obediance, o r c o o p e r a t i o n i s viewed  1  behaviour f o r a probationer.  The j u v e n i l e ' s  Rather, the h a b i t o f 7 as t h e i d e a l g o a l .  'testing' continues:  Juv: You know, he got me a t e l e s c o p e you know, and l a s t n i g h t I j u s t wanted t o go t o t h e back yard a t about t e n and j u s t , you know/ PO:  /Well, " o f f the s t r e e t s " . home.  Your back yard i s s t i l l  i n your  Juv: W e l l she ( ( i n d i c a t e s mother)) says i t ' s n o t . PO:  I'm not t h a t hard t o get a l o n g w i t h . But i t ' s b e t t e r t o b r i n g em up and get em c l a r i f i e d . So t h a t t h e r e ' s no misunderstandings. So i f you blow i t , you blew i t w i t h an open mind. OK?  Juv: Yeah ((nods)) The j u v e n i l e i n t r o d u c e s a new type o f a c t i v i t y , a s k i n g i f i t would be a breach o f t h e term t o 'use a new t e l e s c o p e ( j u s t g i v e n t o him by the g o o d - i n f l u e n c e - b r o t h e r ) a f t e r curfew'.  The c a n d i d a t e f o r a b r e a c h  combines a ' p o s i t i v e ' b e h a v i o u r w i t h a p r o s c r i b e d hour and l o c a t e s i t , as the PO suggests " o f f t h e s t r e e t " . n o t be s a n c t i o n e d . matter f o r t h e f i r s t  The PO says t h a t t h e b e h a v i o u r would  The j u v e n i l e then r e v e a l s t h a t he i s n o t d i s c u s s i n g t h e time, b u t t h a t h i s mother has a l r e a d y informed him  t h a t he c o u l d n o t engage i n t h e a c t i v i t y . t o p i c which pervades  a g r e a t d e a l o f p r o b a t i o n i n t e r a c t i o n , i . e . , who makes  the f i n a l d e c i s i o n , p a r e n t s o r PO's? 7.  The PO does n o t 'pick up' on a  We s h a l l see i n the next c h a p t e r that  F o r another example: A female p r o b a t i o n e r was s e v e r e l y reprimanded f o r 'complying' w i t h h e r curfew i n the f o l l o w i n g way: she l i v e d i n a 'group home and would r e t u r n each n i g h t at e x a c t l y t h e p r e s c r i b e d minute o f t h e curfew. She would go t o h e r room without s a y i n g a word to the house p a r e n t s and then would l e a v e the house b e f o r e anyone e l s e had g o t t e n up. 1  85  probationers  f r e q u e n t l y seek t o a v o i d  p a r e n t s and PO's o f f a g a i n s t j u v e n i l e merely  shows  the terms by p l a y i n g t h e a u t h o r i t y o f  one another.  On t h e present  h i s mother t h a t t h e terms can be used t o  defend some a c t i v i t i e s as w e l l a s p r o s c r i b e Instead again providing reading  others.  o f d e c i d i n g t h a t p a r t i c u l a r i s s u e , the PO switches t o once  t h e new p r o b a t i o n e r  t h e present  w i t h i n s t r u c t i o n s on how he should be  i n t e r a c t i o n , i . e . , t h a t he should  'misunderstandings' he may have o f t h e terms. of  'misunderstandings' and 'blowing i t ' ,  to present  i n t e r a c t i o n w i l l provide  he may, i f he chooses, avoid choice present  involved  didn't  the probationer  i n the probationer's  be c l e a r i n g up any  He a l s o l i n k s t h e p o s s i b i l i t y  suggesting  'blowing i t ' .  i n t e r a c t i o n i s undercutting  t h a t he  occasion, the  t h a t proper a t t e n t i o n w i t h t h e means by which  The u t t e r a n c e  stresses the  b e h a v i o u r as w e l l as t h e f a c t  that  p o s s i b l e l a t e r c l a i m s by t h e j u v e n i l e  understand . 1  D u r i n g the r e a d i n g group of j u v e n i l e s i n v o l v e d  o f the a s s o c i a t i o n c l a u s e which d e a l s w i t h the i n the t h e f t s :  PO:  Number f i v e i s t h a t " t h e p r o b a t i o n e r i s n o t t o a s s o c i a t e w i t h any former members o f t h e group who formed a c l u b which had i t s q u a r t e r s i n t h e garage at t h e r e a r o f t h e p r o b a t i o n e r ' s home". I t i s understood t h a t the c l u b has s i n c e disbanded but t h e a s s o c i a t i o n c l a u s e s t i l l a p p l i e s t o each and e v e r y boy/  Juv:  /What about  PO:  Don't s p l i t h a i r s w i t h me. member o f t h e c l u b .  Juv:  OK.  PO:  The group who banded t o g e t h e r i n your c l u b . Now I have a l i s t o f them. And i f you've got any doubts, phone me and t a l k i t over. OK?  girls? ((Juv laughs))  Well,  i t says  86  Juv: A l l r i g h t . PO:  I f you're r e a l l y i n t e r e s t e d i n making t h i s work out.  Juv: A l l r i g h t . PO:  You know, I don't know how you shouldn't do i t .  to put  it.  I f you  see a doubt  The  j u v e n i l e h e r e c a l l s a t t e n t i o n t o the f a c t t h a t t h e r e are d i f 8 f e r e n t ways of r e a d i n g a term, i . e . , are girls members of the c l u b ? 9  What e x a c t l y c o n s t i t u t e s ' a s s o c i a t i o n ? 1  out o f o r d e r and  suggests  The  p r o b a t i o n r u l e s such  t h a t the terms are adequately  questions  c l e a r f o r the  t i c a l purposes of the j u v e n i l e , but p r o v i d e s the j u v e n i l e w i t h two  prac-  'methods'  by which the terms can be employed i n 'proper' d e c i s i o n making as a p r o b a tioner.  They may  doubts, and  be  s t a t e d as two  maxims:  1) " C a l l me,  through d i s c u s s i o n I w i l l h e l p you  a c t , p l a n , e t c . , f a l l s w i t h i n the terms." g a r d i n g an a c t i v i t y , p l a n , e t c . , don't do p r o b a t i o n e r moves through t h e world  9.  d e c i d e whether any  2 ) " I f you have any it."  Thus, the  of a c t i o n .  any  particular  'doubts' r e -  'cooperative'  employing the terms and  as r e s o u r c e s w i t h which to d e c i d e on courses 8.  i f you have  h i s own  F u r t h e r , he  'doubts' talks  G i r l s were not seen to be bona f i d e 'members' of the c l u b by the boys but were so t r e a t e d by the p r o b a t i o n d u r i n g t h i s i n t e r a c t i o n . This seemed to be a t t r i b u t a b l e to the f a c t t h a t he took the j u v e n i l e ' s q u e s t i o n as an attempt to ' t e s t ' the p r o b a t i o n regimen. The 'meaning' o f a s s o c i a t i o n i s t y p i c a l l y open t o n e g o t i a t i o n i n s o f a r as t h e form i t takes on the document and i n the i n t e r a c t i o n s v a r i e s a c c o r d i n g to the c o n t i n g e n c i e s o f p a r t i c u l a r c o n t i n g e n c i e s and s i t u a t i o n s . The ' f a c t ' that ' t h i s k i d j u s t won't l i s t e n and m a n i p u l a t e s everybody and e v e r y t h i n g ' was invoked to warrant the f o l l o w i n g a t y p i c a l a s s o c i a tion clause: The p r o b a t i o n e r w i l l i n no way a s s o c i a t e w i t h P e t e r P a r k e r . T h i s i n c l u d e s phone c o n t a c t , w r i t i n g , or any o t h e r k i n d whatsoever.  87  over  such matters w i t h h i s p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r .  p r o b a t i o n e r i s invoked tion interaction.  and  'model' o f t h e  f r e q u e n t l y and s t r a t e g i c a l l y throughout  much  ideal proba-  P r o b a t i o n e r s a r e r o u t i n e l y d i r e c t e d t o measure t h e i r own  performance i n such terms. nurtured.  This  'Doubts' are c a r e f u l l y addressed,  worked w i t h ,  A l a c k o f 'doubts' becomes r e p o r t a b l e , a t a r g e t f o r d i s c u s s i o n  a c t i o n , an i n d i c a t o r o f d e f e c t i v e a t t i t u d e , e t c . R e t u r n i n g t o t h e 'reading o f t h e terms', the j u v e n i l e ,  j u s t been i n v i t e d to ' d i s c u s s ' apparent  having  r u l e a m b i g u i t i e s and doubts,  the p r e s e n t o c c a s i o n as an o p p o r t u n i t y t o seek  clarification  takes  , introduces  a q u e s t i o n r e g a r d i n g a ' f r i e n d ' who f o r m a l l y comes under the a s s o c i a t i o n clause: Juv: W e l l .  J u s t s o r t o f t o s p l i t h a i r s o r something, I guess.  You know Steve: He wouldn't/ PO:  Juv:  he's never been i n t r o u b l e b e f o r e you know.  No, f o r t h e time b e i n g you're n o t t o a s s o c i a t e w i t h anybody from t h a t group o f f r i e n d s . In o t h e r words, I want you t o • s t a y away from them. I mean we have uh, I know, guys w i t h out a r e c o r d . But he knew what was going on.' And m i s t a k i n g the law - t h i s i s j u s t expediency. You know, t h i s i s l i k e s a y i n g w e l l , I knew they were - you know, I wasn't i n v o l v e d i n the robbery I was s t a n d i n g o u t s i d e . You know. I t ' s the same t h i n g . I d i d n ' t go s t e a l the s t u f f but I knew they were s t e a l i n g i t . And ignorance i s uh, you can't use i t as a defense. The judge won't buy i t . And i f the judge won't buy i t I can't buy i t . F a i r enough? ((nods)) The  j u v e n i l e i s s u g g e s t i n g t h a t t h e a s s o c i a t i o n c l a u s e should be  i n t e r p r e t e d t o a l l o w a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h one o f the j u v e n i l e s who i s f o r m a l l y i n c l u d e d among t h e p r o s c r i b e d f r i e n d s . juvenile  The b a s i s o f t h e c l a i m i s t h a t t h e  'has never been i n t r o u b l e b e f o r e ' .  The PO's response  i s once  88  a g a i n geared  into the a c t i v i t y of providing t h i s j u v e n i l e with a  understanding The  'proper'  of the p r a c t i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s o f being a probationer. PO opened h i s u t t e r a n c e by f i r m l y r u l i n g out t h e suggested  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n and then e x p l a i n s the grounds upon which t h e p r o s c r i p t i o n i s based.  The e x p l a n a t i o n may be seen to have g e n e r a l r e l e v a n c e f o r t h e  l i s t e n i n g p r o b a t i o n e r who i s s e e k i n g u n d e r s t a n d i n g f o r h i s p r a c t i c a l purposes. which undercut  o f p r o b a t i o n adequate  The PO p o r t r a y s Steve, the f r i e n d , i n terms  t h e ' i n n o c e n t ' d e s c r i p t i o n p r o v i d e d by t h e p r o b a t i o n e r .  The boy who "has n e v e r been i n t r o u b l e b e f o r e " becomes a j u v e n i l e who 'hasn't been caught', b u t was i n v o l v e d i n t h e d e l i n q u e n c i e s i n s o f a r as he knew 'what was going on'.  The PO i s t r a d i n g on t h e n o t i o n o f  'innocence'  i n t r o d u c e d i n t o t h e exchange by t h e p r o b a t i o n e r t o d i s p l a y t h e p r o b a t i o n r e l e v a n t c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n o f Steve which warrants association clause.  h i s i n c l u s i o n i n the  Note t h a t what the PO i s s a y i n g  a v a i l a b l e to the p r o b a t i o n e r qua p r o b a t i o n e r .  about  Steve i s  In o t h e r words, t h e PO i s  t a l k i n g about the a c c o u n t a b i l i t y o f j u v e n i l e s , s u g g e s t i n g t h a t t h e commonsense n o t i o n o f 'innocence'  i s d e f e c t i v e i n the p r o b a t i o n c o n t e x t .  The  p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r t r a d e s on 'the j u d g e ' and t h e n o t i o n o f 'how t h e judge l o o k s at t h i n g s ' f o r t h e accomplishment o f purposes-at-hand view.  F o r p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r s , an important  p a r t o f 'becoming' a p r o b a t i o n e r  i s l e a r n i n g t o t h i n k o f the p o s s i b l e l e g a l import engaging i n i t . t h e i r behaviour behaviour  i n the i n t e r -  o f any a c t i o n b e f o r e  They a l s o f r e q u e n t l y ask j u v e n i l e s how they would view i f they were the j u d g e , o r have one j u v e n i l e  o f another.  'judge' t h e  The PO here b o l s t e r s h i s p r i o r c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n o f  how the 'good' p r o b a t i o n e r chooses h i s a c t i o n s , e.g., when i n doubt, don't do i t .  89  T h i s t a c t i c a l s o encourages t h e j u v e n i l e t o view j u d i c i a l s i t i o n s as  natural  r e s u l t s o f h i s behaviour.  dispo-  At t h e same time, he i s  c o n s t r a i n e d t o a t t e n d t o the ' p r o b a t i o n r e l e v a n c e ' o f h i s p a s t , p r e s e n t and  future a c t i v i t i e s .  Developing  this  'sense'  i s viewed as an o v e r r i d i n g  g o a l o f much p r o b a t i o n i n t e r a c t i o n by t h e p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r .  One p r o b a t i o n  o f f i c e r c h a r a c t e r i z e d t h e 'task' i n the f o l l o w i n g way: F i r s t , they ( p r o b a t i o n e r s ) can't make t h e c o n n e c t i o n s between what t h e y d i d a s b e i n g why t h e y ' r e on p r o b a t i o n . They don't worry about t h e consequences i f they get caught, but then when they do_ get caught then t h e y ' l l go out of t h e i r way t o f o r g e t why they were on p r o b a t i o n and what g e t t i n g i n t o more t r o u b l e means. Some o f 'em a r e dumb but a l o t o f 'em j u s t p l a y dumb. A b i g p a r t o f t h i s j o b i s reminding them why i t i s t h a t t h e y ' r e on p r o b a t i o n . Then, t h e other t h i n g i s t h a t t h e y ' l l go out and f o o l around, b r e a c h p r o b a t i o n , o r p u l l some B & E's, get caught a g a i n and then come i n , a l l wide-eyed and t e a r f u l and say t h a t they d i d n ' t even t h i n k about g e t t i n g caught when they d i d i t . They d i d n ' t t h i n k about t h e consequences. Consequences, t h a t ' s what we're i n t e r e s t e d i n . We have t o make these k i d s see t h e c o n n e c t i o n between t h e i r a c t and the consequences. D u r i n g t h e r e a d i n g o f t h e terms and l a t e r p r o b a t i o n we may see t h e o c c a s i o n e d ,  s y s t e m a t i c and r o u t i n i z e d  interaction  'reminding'  on p r o b a t i o n , the d i s p l a y o f 'the l i n k ' between a c t o f planned  of j u v e n i l e s  a c t and con-  sequence, and t h e i n v o c a t i o n o f the l e g a l o r p r o b a t i o n r e l e v a n c e o f probationers' activities.  Such, I have argued, i s t h e machinery w i t h which t h e  PO i n s t r u c t s t h e j u v e n i l e qua p r o b a t i o n e r t o d e a l w i t h h i s everyday The PO:  PO then c o n c l u d e s  life.  the r e a d i n g o f t h e terms:  Now. You're t o r e p o r t - e r "The p r o b a t i o n e r i s aware t h a t he i s to report to h i s probation o f f i c e r at the court b u i l d i n g (address) between t h e hours o f 3 and 5 p.m. each F r i d a y . " I f i t comes up t h a t you're n o t , you c a n ' t make i t , phone and you can l e a v e a message and I w i l l c a l l your home you know e i t h e r t h e same day o r t h e next day. I f something comes up t h a t you, up t h a t you can't make i t , t h e onus i s on you t o l e t me know. Not your mom. Not your b r o t h e r , you. OK?  90  Juv: R i g h t . PO:  Juv:  "The p r o b a t i o n e r i s made aware t h a t any breach o f the above terms w i l l c o n s t i t u t e u n s a t i s f a c t o r y p r o b a t i o n and may r e s u l t i n your r e t u r n t o the c o u r t . And i s a l s o a d v i s e d t h a t none o f the f o r e g o i n g terms may be a l t e r e d without the express permission of h i s probation o f f i c e r . The terms of t h i s p r o b a t i o n are f o r an i n d e f i n i t e p e r i o d . " Now - as I t h i n k I s a i d the o t h e r day, i f you c o o p e r a t e , and go a l o n g , and work on t h i s and the r e p o r t s I get from s c h o o l and o t h e r p l a c e s are s a t i s f a c t o r y , and you p l a y b a l l w i t h me, w i t h i n s i x months I ' l l make a p p l i c a t i o n to c o u r t t o have you r e l e a s e d from p r o bation. But i t ' s going t o be e n t i r e l y up t o you. OK? Any q u e s t i o n s . No. The  i n the event  PO o f f e r s the j u v e n i l e a method by which he may t h a t he i s unable  to comply w i t h the r e p o r t i n g requirement.  Note, however, t h a t he i s informed  t h a t h i s phone c a l l w i l l be f o l l o w e d  by a c a l l to h i s home, a consequence which he may j u v e n i l e i s p r o v i d e d w i t h a technique to  limit  its  own  utility.  which the j u v e n i l e may The  f o r e x c u s i n g h i m s e l f which would tend  and  Note how  requirement  r e p o r t a b l e c o n t a c t w i t h the  PO.  he sums up the p r e f e r r e d method by  ensure unproblematic  j u v e n i l e i s to 'cooperate  ' r e p o r t s ' must be s a t i s f a c t o r y . w i t h t h e PO  Thus, the  PO then sums up the r e a d i n g w i t h h i s remarks on the b r e a c h i n g  mechanism o f the document.  bation.  not d e s i r e .  Compliance with the r u l e o r the c a l l  put the j u v e n i l e i n t o a c c o u n t a b l e The  'cooperate'  and,  and  t e r m i n a t i o n of h i s p e r i o d on go a l o n g ' and,  furthermore,  the  The j u v e n i l e i s c o n s t r a i n e d t o 'play b a l l '  at the same time, t o a t t e n d t o the f a c t t h a t h i s b e h a v i o u r  i s b e i n g r e c o r d e d and  remarked upon and  t h a t such r e p o r t i n g w i l l become the  grounds upon which subsequent p o s i t i v e o r n e g a t i v e i n f e r e n c e s and a c t i o n s w i l l be based.  pro-  91  At the b e g i n n i n g seemed  indifferent  or  of t h e o c c a s i o n j u s t d i s c u s s e d , the j u v e n i l e  disinterested  even  m i l d l y annoyed'.  The  PO  art-  f u l l y e l i c i t e d h i s i n t e r e s t by d i s p l a y i n g the p a y - o f f f o r l i s t e n i n g .  On  many o c c a s i o n s the j u v e n i l e i s  typi-  c a l l y employ d i f f e r e n t with  angry ,  hostile  , or  sullen  .  i n t e r a c t i o n a l strategies during i n i t i a l  PO's  interviews  such j u v e n i l e s . A t y p i c a l exchange: D u r i n g t h i s i n t e r v i e w , t h e r e i s no parent present and the youth has been ' g l a r i n g ' s i l e n t l y a t the w a l l d u r i n g the PO's initial remarks which were almost i d e n t i c a l to the ones i n the p r e v i o u s transcript. The PO i s r e a d i n g the terms: PO:  The p r o b a t i o n e r w i l l not a s s o c i a t e w i t h E r i k Monsen, A l e x Bryner or L a r r y Kennedy.  Juv: What do you mean? PO:  L a r r y d i d n ' t have n o t h i n g t o / do  ...  / I j u s t t o l d you you're h e r e to l i s t e n ! That's one of your problems, you don't l i s t e n ! Always s h o o t i n g o f f t h a t mouth of yours. ((reads 'emphatically')) The p r o b a t i o n e r w i l l not a s s o c i a t e w i t h E r i k Monsen, A l e x Bryner, o r L a r r y Kennedy. ((The PO c o n t i n u e s h i s r e a d i n g of the terms. The j u v e n i l e does not speak but s t a r e s at the f l o o r u n t i l asked to s i g n , s i g n s , and l e a v e s . ) ) Rather than d i s p l a y i n g the p a y o f f f o r l i s t e n i n g and  participating  i n the r e a d i n g o f the terms on t h i s o c c a s i o n , the PO chooses t o address j u v e n i l e ' s d e f e c t i v e performance i n a more d i r e c t way, his  a way  which f u r t h e r s  g o a l s both w i t h i n t h i s p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r a c t i o n a l o c c a s i o n and  p r o b a t i o n work. q u e s t i o n the  The  j u v e n i l e ' s u t t e r a n c e may  a r u l e ' i s one method by which a j u v e n i l e may  for later  be seen as an attempt  ' f a i r n e s s ' , or even l o g i c o f a p a r t i c u l a r r u l e . seek t o l i m i t  p r o b a t i o n a r y c o n t r o l on h i s everyday a c t i v i t i e s .  the  to  'Questioning the impact of  In t h i s case the a s s o c i a -  92  t i o n clause  i s challenged.  The PO  i s r e a d i n g t h e r u l e which i s i n t e n d e d  to make a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h s p e c i f i e d youths a s a n c t i o n a b l e of t h e j u v e n i l e s named i n t h e c l a u s e The  activity.  Two  were a r r e s t e d w i t h the j u v e n i l e .  ' p r o b a t i o n r e l e v a n c e ' o f t h e p r o s c r i p t i o n o f a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h them  goes u n c h a l l e n g e d .  R a t h e r , the p r o b a t i o n e r i s a t t e m p t i n g t o invoke a  ' s t r i c t construction' should o n l y  of probation,  a f f e c t features  to h i s d e l i n q u e n t a c t i o n .  suggesting that probation  rules  o f h i s a c t i v i t i e s d i r e c t l y and o b v i o u s l y The a s s o c i a t i o n c l a u s e  had been d r a f t e d  related  to i n -  c l u d e the j u v e n i l e i n q u e s t i o n because t h e p r o b a t i o n e r ' s mother had t o l d the  PO t h a t t h e f r i e n d was a 'very bad i n f l u e n c e ' on h e r son. The PO  could  have attempted t o ' e x p l a i n ' t h e r u l e i n these terms, a common p r a c t i c e o f PO's  w h i l e l a y i n g down the terms.  p l i s h the l e g i t i m a c y  But r a t h e r  than attempting t o accom-  o f f a i r n e s s o f t h e term by d i s p l a y i n g  p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r t r a d e s upon the j u v e n i l e ' s a t t a c k  i t s grounds, the  i t s e l f to display f o r  the j u v e n i l e the inadequacy o f h i s on-going performance as a p r o b a t i o n e r . He does t h i s by c u t t i n g o f f the youth's remark mid-sentence and l a u n c h i n g i n t o a ' l e c t u r e ' about the j u v e n i l e ' s v i o l a t i o n o f t h e r u l e which he had layed  down t o govern t h e p r e s e n t  powerfully  interaction.  In t h i s way the PO q u i t e  accomplishes w h i l e d i s p l a y i n g f o r t h e j u v e n i l e a b a s i c  of probation i n t e r a c t i o n :  the f a c t t h a t  he may move t o c o n t r o l i t a t any p o i n t .  feature  i t i s 'owned' by t h e PO and that I say t h a t  t h i s i s at t h e same  time accomplishment and d i s p l a y i n s o f a r as i t i s through such s i t u a t e d frontations that  con-  r e c a l c i t r a n t j u v e n i l e s a r e p r o v i d e d w i t h a sense o f the  adequacy o r inadequacy o f t h e i r p r o b a t i o n performance.  93  V i a the s t r a t e g y t h e focus o f t h e i n t e r a c t i o n i s s h i f t e d  from  the vague p r o s c r i p t i o n s o f the terms, the r e l e v a n c e o f which may be u n c l e a r o r q u e s t i o n a b l e , t o the immediate, on-going, f a c e - t o - f a c e i n t e r a c t i o n . That t h e j u v e n i l e w i l l  get i n t o t r o u b l e under t h e terms i s something  which i s u n a v a i l a b l e t o t h e i n t e r a c t a n t s , whereas, t h a t t h e j u v e n i l e ±s_ i n t r o u b l e here and now because h i s present b e h a v i o u r which t h e PO has j u s t l a i d probationer's behaviour l i e r transcript  i s underscored.  learned  i s being  'rule'  The a c c o u n t a b i l i t y o f t h e  J u s t as t h e j u v e n i l e i n t h e e a r -  t h a t he would be a c c o u n t a b l e  o f f i c e r , t h i s probationer sent behaviour  down i s a v a i l a b l e .  violated a  to ' h i s ' probation  i s d i r e c t l y confronted with the f a c t that h i s pre-  s c r u t i n i z e d , e v a l u a t e d , and found  inadequate.  t h a t t h e PO both c o n t r o l s t h e j u v e n i l e ' s attempt t o n e g o t i a t e w i t h i n o c c a s i o n and suggests Henceforth,  t h a t t h e attempt i t s e l f  'mouthing o f f can be t r e a t e d as a  this  i s symptomatic o f ' h i s problem'. topic  r e l e v a n t f o r subse-  quent a c t i o n and i n f e r e n c e on the p a r t o f the p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r both t h i s i n t e r v i e w and d u r i n g l a t e r i n t e r a c t i o n and r e p o r t s . 'problem' makes i t something which i s w a r r a n t a b l y probation  Note  during  That t h i s i s a  t h e t o p i c and t a r g e t o f  ' s u p e r v i s i o n and guidance'. Note t h a t t h e r e i s no e x p l i c i t  the p r o b a t i o n e r t o l i s t e n bation o f f i c e r .  p r o b a t i o n r u l e which  instructs  r a t h e r than t a l k when i n t e r a c t i n g w i t h t h e p r o -  R a t h e r , t h e PO suggests  t h a t f o r at l e a s t t h i s moment,  t h a t r u l e i s o p e r a t i v e and that the p r o b a t i o n e r i s t o o r g a n i z e h i s i n t e r action accordingly.  As we s h a l l see, p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r s a c t u a l l y take i t  t h a t p r o b a t i o n e r s s h o u l d both  speak and l i s t e n , but t h a t t h e i r i n t e r a c t i o n s  w i t h PO's should be governed by t h e l a t t e r ' s p r a c t i c a l and/or p r o f e s s i o n a l  94  concerns.  P r o b a t i o n e r s who  shown t o be the PO's  at l e a s t  c a t i o n s of  of  as p r o b l e m a t i c  c o n c e p t i o n of how We  etc.,  'don't t a l k ' on p a r t i c u l a r o c c a s i o n s w i l l 'interfere'  with  the i n t e r a c t i o n s h o u l d u n f o l d .  have seen that PO's  'understanding',  o r i e n t to j u v e n i l e s ' u t t e r a n c e s as  'misunderstanding',  and t h a t such r e a d i n g s may  -understandings  as p r o b a t i o n e r ' s who  be  'hostility',  then be t r a d e d upon i n the  indi-  'cooperation', accomplishment  and/or employed i n r e p o r t i n g upon and working w i t h  the  juvenile during l a t e r court-related a c t i v i t i e s . I t i s l a r g e l y v i a such r e a d i n g s t h a t the PO to  suggest  to the judge t h a t he  a probationer's behaviour.  then c l i p p e d i n t o t h e  On one  subsequent use as a  file  able  'knows' the p r o b a t i o n - r e l e v a n t meaning of  encounter w i t h a ' h o s t i l e ' youth, he  i s subsequently  o c c a s i o n , f o r example, a f t e r an  initial  a PO wrote the f o l l o w i n g note which  , thus making i t an a v a i l a b l e r e s o u r c e  for  i n i n t e r p r e t i v e c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n s of the youth's performance  probationer: ( ( T h i s PO had been i n s t r u c t e d t o 'shut up and l i s t e n ' . The j u v e n i l e had responded w i t h "Fuck o f f ! " The PO i n t h i s i n s t a n c e had not pursued the matter but f i n i s h e d the r e a d i n g . A f t e r the j u v e n i l e had s i g n e d and l e f t , the PO remarked to the r e s e a r c h e r t h a t he was "wasting my time" w i t h t h i s p a r t i c u l a r j u v e n i l e . ) ) The n o t e : BOB HARGER - b i g c h i p on s h o u l d e r . Resents PO and e v e r y t h i n g he stands f o r . F i r s t i n t e r v i e w (date) t o l d PO off i n no u n c e r t a i n terms. Language u n r e p e a t a b l e i n c o u r t . L a t e r , t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n was  judge w i t h an u n d e r s t a n d i n g Thus, not o n l y had  employed by the PO  i n p r o v i d i n g the  of the meaning of the subsequent  the p r o b a t i o n e r committed an i n f r a c t i o n ,  infractions. but:  95  T h i s boy's f i r s t words t o me, your honour,were ones I c o u l d n ' t repeat i n c o u r t . He's n e v e r g i v e n me a chance t o h e l p him and I t h i n k t h a t p r o b a t i o n wasn't given any chance t o work. He doesn't have any r e s p e c t f o r my a u t h o r i t y o r h i s mother's. He won't l i s t e n to anybody - t e l l s everybody where t o go. Your honour, u n l e s s he changes h i s whole a t t i t u d e and s t a r t e d t o c o o p e r a t e , I don't t h i n k we can do a n y t h i n g f o r him. In t h e c h a p t e r which f o l l o w s , we  s h a l l examine  the o c c a s i o n s d u r -  i n g which the terms a r e employed by t h e p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r i n the i n t e r a c t i o n a l l o c a t i o n and r e c o r d i n g o f ' c o o p e r a t i o n ' or i t s absence, 'good or bad  1  a t t i t u d e s , and the c o m p e t i t i v e  accomplishment o f p r o b a t i o n .  s t r a t e g i e s which c h a r a c t e r i z e the  The c r i t i c a l  importance o f t h e i n t e r a c t i o n a l  'machinery' which we have seen l a y e d down d u r i n g e a r l y i n t e r v i e w s w i l l demonstrated.  be  96  CHAPTER FOUR THE TERMS-IN-USE:  THE SOCIAL ORGANIZATION  OF PROBATION SUPERVISION  In the p r e c e d i n g c h a p t e r , I examined the p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r ' s use of the terms i n h i s attempt to p r o v i d e a new p r o b a t i o n e r w i t h a 'proper u n d e r s t a n d i n g '  o f h i s own s t a t u s and t h a t o f the o f f i c e r , an under-  s t a n d i n g which i s adequate f o r the p r a c t i c a l purposes o f the p r o b a t i o n officer,  i . e . , the competent and a c c o u n t a b l e accomplishment of the l e g a l l y  p r e s c r i b e d p r o b a t i o n tasks o f p r o v i d i n g 'help and guidance supervision'. interactional  I n t h i s and l a t e r c h a p t e r s , I w i l l show t h a t . t h e on-going accomplishment o f such  i n g ' o f p r o b a t i o n and i t s p r a c t i c a l omnirelevant  and proper  'proper u n d e r s t a n d i n g s '  i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r the p r o b a t i o n e r i s an  concern of PO's, one which pervades t h e i r  t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s d u r i n g the v a r i o u s T h i s on-going i n t e r a c t i o n a l l y  of the 'mean-  i n t e r e s t s and shapes  'stages' o f the p r o b a t i o n  accomplished  'process'.  'proper u n d e r s t a n d i n g '  provides  the f o u n d a t i o n f o r the subsequent mundane t a s k o f p r o v i d i n g the p r o b a t i o n e r with  the l e g a l l y r e q u i r e d 'help and s u p e r v i s i o n and proper  r e p o r t i n g thereon.  guidance' and  I n the p r e s e n t chapter we w i l l be examining  p r o v i s i o n as an i n t e r a c t i o n a l  enterprise.  their  More s p e c i f i c a l l y , we w i l l be  f o c u s s i n g upon the p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r ' s use o f t h e p r o b a t i o n terms i n t h e mundane a c t i v i t y . s h a l l be concerned,  B e f o r e t u r n i n g to the e m p i r i c a l m a t e r i a l s w i t h which we however, I w i l l b r i e f l y c h a r a c t e r i z e the f o r m a l  struc-  t u r e of the tasks f a c i n g p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r s d u r i n g s u p e r v i s o r y , i n t e r a c t i o n s .  97  As we have seen,  the f o r m a l warrant f o r p l a c i n g a j u v e n i l e 'on  p r o b a t i o n ' i s t h a t he i s seen as b e i n g and proper  guidance'.  ' i n need' o f 'help and s u p e r v i s i o n  ' P r o b a t i o n ' , i n l e g a l terms, i s seen as 'help and  s u p e r v i s i o n and proper guidance'.  Note t h e c r i t i c a l d i f f e r e n c e between  j u v e n i l e s who come b e f o r e the c o u r t and p r o b a t i o n e r s who come back b e f o r e the c o u r t , i . e . , t h a t i n f r a c t i o n s assumed to have been committed s u p e r v i s i o n and proper t i o n t a s k s enables  committed by ' p r o b a t i o n e r s ' may be  ' i n s p i t e ' of court-provided  guidance'.  'help and  The competent accomplishment o f proba-  the p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r  adequate grounds w i t h which to generate  to p r o v i d e the c o u r t w i t h  legally  subsequent d e c i s i o n s i n v o l v i n g a  p r o b a t i o n e r , whether those d e c i s i o n s i n v o l v e t h e f o r m a l t e r m i n a t i o n o f p r o b a t i o n a r y s t a t u s , the t i g h t e n i n g o r r e l a x a t i o n o f p r o b a t i o n a r y the placement o f the j u v e n i l e i n an i n s t i t u t i o n , e t c .  control,  The competent  b a t i o n o f f i c e r must, t h e r e f o r e , so o r g a n i z e h i s a c t i v i t i e s  pro-  t h a t he i s i n  a p o s i t i o n to speak 'as an e x p e r t ' upon any case to which he has been assigned.  That i s t o say, p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r s a r e r o u t i n e l y c a l l e d upon to  provide d e f i n i t i v e ,  ( a t l e a s t f o r present-purposes-at-hand)  assessments  of t h e i r p r o b a t i o n e r s ' performances a t a p p r o p r i a t e times as w e l l as d i s p l a y to the c o u r t t h e ' f a c t ' t h a t a t l e a s t m i n i m a l l y adequate s u p e r v i s i o n and proper guidance' draws upon data gathered  has been p r o v i d e d .  during i n t e r a c t i o n with  'help and  The p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r  the p r o b a t i o n e r and  o t h e r s to document h i s assessment and to a c h i e v e i t s acceptance way i t r e a l l y i s ' by the judge, I t must be noted  as 'the  the p r o b a t i o n e r , the p a r e n t s , and o t h e r s .  that a probation o f f i c e r i s severely l i m i t e d  i n the amount o f time a v a i l a b l e to engage i n a c t i v e l y  ' s u p e r v i s i n g ' the  98  a c t i v i t i e s of the p r o b a t i o n e r s on h i s c a s e l o a d v i a , f o r example, v i s i t i n g t h e i r homes, s c h o o l s , e t c . , i n order counsel  them about probation-adequate  h e l d common-sense n o t i o n s searchers)  about  to monitor t h e i r behaviour performance.  Ironically,  to  widely  ( h e l d by p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r s , laymen and  re-  ' r e a l p r o b a t i o n ' take i t t h a t such a d t i v i t i e s c o n s t i t u t e  the essence of the phenomenon, w h i l e , i n f a c t , subsequent  and  information-gathering  and  'paper work' i n v o l v e d i n c o u r t p r e p a r a t i o n f o r j u v e n i l e s con-  sumes the b u l k of a p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r ' s  time.  From the common-sense p o i n t  of view, these l a t t e r a c t i v i t i e s a r e seen as o b s t a c l e s which get i n the of  the accomplishment of  ' r e a l ' p r o b a t i o n work.  P r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r s f r e q u e n t l y remarked upon the f a c t didn't  'have time to do p r o b a t i o n on a p a r t i c u l a r  'bloody was  paper work and  c o u r t appearances'.  ' t i e d up  day because of  Knowing „that the  'doing' any  i n c o u r t ' , had  p r o b a t i o n on a p a r t i c u l a r  being  t o l d of my  research i n t e r e s t  remarked on the n a t u r e of  they  the  researcher that  they  day because they were  to 'write some goddamn r e p o r t s ' , o r had  some i n f o r m a t i o n ' from a j u v e n i l e or h i s p a r e n t s  cer  that  i n t e r e s t e d i n o b s e r v i n g p r o b a t i o n , o f f i c e r s would i n f o r m him  wouldn't be  way  'for c o u r t ' .  d u r i n g an i n t e r v i e w , one  to  'get  Indeed, upon  probation  ' p r o b a t i o n ' as done i n the s e t t i n g  in  terms: I f you can f i n d anybody around h e r e who's a b l e to get any r e a l p r o b a t i o n work done don't t e l l anybody o r y o u ' l l get him i n t o t r o u b l e . L e t ' s f a c e i t , you've been around h e r e l o n g enough to see t h a t anybody who's t r y i n g to get any casework done, I mean even g e t t i n g to know h i s k i d s , f i n d out what t h e y ' r e up to and so on, out t h e r e doing what, i n f a c t , we a r e supposed to be doing as p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r s - anybody who t r i e s to do t h a t i s going to get fucked over back here ( a t c o u r t ) because he's not  offi-  sarcastic  99  g e t t i n g h i s papers pushed around f a s t enough. Granted, i t ' s important. But most of the time i t ' s a l l we can do, j u s t keep up w i t h the c a l e n d a r . Just f i g h t f i r e s . And t h a t ' s bad. I mean, the o n l y time I can u s u a l l y spend some r e a l time w i t h a k i d i s a f t e r the f a c t , when t h i n g s have blown up and we're on our way back to c o u r t . Goddamn i t , t h a t ' s not p r o b a t i o n , or a t l e a s t not p r o b a t i o n as we s h o u l d do i t . The p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r l a t e r suggested probation o f f i c e r s  to do  ' r e a l p r o b a t i o n ' was  t h a t the i n a b i l i t y  causally related  t h a t so many p r o b a t i o n e r s a r e r e t u r n e d to c o u r t on subsequent T h i s assumption was  shared by o t h e r p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r s and  both i n t h i s c o u r t and  of  to the  'fact'  charges.  court  the o t h e r j u v e n i l e j u s t i c e b u r e a u c r a c i e s  officials observed.  Many p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r s t a k e i t t h a t i f they were g i v e n 'more time to work w i t h a k i d ' t h a t he would have a b e t t e r chance of not r e t u r n i n g to c o u r t . P u b l i c statements q u e n t l y account of inadequate  f o r what a r e taken  to be h i g h r a t e s of r e c i d i v i s m i n terms  s t a f f i n g of p r o b a t i o n b u r e a u c r a c i e s .  were made to t h i s their parents. Judge:  by p r o b a t i o n and o t h e r j u v e n i l e j u s t i c e spokesmen f r e -  Frequent  references  ' f a c t ' by judges between h e a r i n g s , away from j u v e n i l e s and  For  example:  I t h i n k t h a t we've r e a l l y f a i l e d w i t h t h i s youngser, and I don't t h i n k t h a t t h i s i s any r e f l e c t i o n on you Mr. Jones. (PO) No, you've done e v e r y t h i n g you c o u l d , but you've got f a r too much to do. We need more PO's and we need more f a c ilities. We're not doing the job and t h e r e ' s no use p r e t e n d i n g t h a t we a r e . We've got to get more s u p p o r t . I t h i n k t h a t to get i t we've got to make our p o i n t . Everytime I see a case l i k e t h a t I t h i n k t h a t we c o u l d have h e l p e d him i f we'd had more time to work w i t h him. We've got to make the s i t u a t i o n p u b l i c . The C i t y should know about it. I t ' s easy to scream about d e l i n q u e n c y and a l l t h a t , but when i t comes to doing something about i t , w e l l j u s t l o o k a t us. ( ( s i g h s ) ) W e l l , I don't know. Every time I t h i n k about i t I get angry. But, ha, I'm b u r n i n g up time m y s e l f , we r e a l l y s h o u l d get on w i t h the next c a s e .  100  During  the p e r i o d o f o b s e r v a t i o n , t h e C i t y was c o n d u c t i n g a  'time and motion' study of the p r o b a t i o n p e r s o n n e l . and  t h e i r s u p e r i o r s looked upon,the survey  Probation  as an o p p o r t u n i t y  'on r e c o r d ' what was seen to be an i n t o l e r a b l e s i t u a t i o n . ' i n f o r m a l ' p o l i c y was developed to r e c o r d t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s  officers  to p l a c e  Thus, an  which h e l d t h a t p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r s were  as requested  by t h e ' e f f i c i e n c y e x p e r t s ' b u t ,  i n a d d i t i o n , t h a t they would a l s o r e c o r d i n f o r m a t i o n about t h e impact o f e x c e s s i v e c a s e l o a d s , fragmented work s c h e d u l e ,  e t c . , which would then be  passed on to the persons who were assumed to be ' i n a p o s i t i o n to do somet h i n g about t h e mess'. Although  such c r i t i q u e s of ' p r o b a t i o n ' were common i n the p r e s e n t  s e t t i n g they were not made d u r i n g the accomplishment of c o u r t - p r o b a t i o n business.  Thus, t h e judge was remarking upon the process  i n g and b e f o r e had  not been  officer. and  the next.  'adequately  a f t e r one h e a r -  He d i d not i n f o r m t h e j u v e n i l e t h a t , e.g., he helped,  s u p e r v i s e d and g u i d e d ' by h i s p r o b a t i o n  The p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r quoted e a r l i e r d i d n o t appear i n c o u r t  i n f o r m the judge on a p a r t i c u l a r case t h a t , e.g., he had not been a b l e  to p r o v i d e the j u v e n i l e w i t h  'adequate s u p e r v i s i o n and g u i d a n c e ' .  judges and p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r s r o u t i n e l y went about the p r a c t i c a l ment o f v a r i o u s e s s e n t i a l p r o b a t i o n The p r e s e n t  report w i l l  I t i s suggested  accomplish-  tasks.  attempt t o e x p l i c a t e and d e s c r i b e t h e  a c t u a l task s t r u c t u r e o f ' p r o b a t i o n s u p e r v i s i o n ' as a s i t u a t e d ment.  Rather,  t h a t such a s t r a t e g y w i l l  b a t i o n - a s - i n t e r a c t i o n than an examination  accomplish-  t e l l us more about p r o -  o f the p r o l i f e r a t i o n o f i d e a l i z e d  101  v e r s i o n s of the phenomenon which pervade the r h e t o r i c  of p r o f e s s i o n a l s ,  whether p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r s or r e s e a r c h e r s .  Thus, my  w i l l be w i t h what -'help and  guidance' l o o k l i k e i n the  sent  s u p e r v i s i o n and  o v e r r i d i n g concern pre-  setting. More s p e c i f i c a l l y , I w i l l be  o f f i c e r seeks to accomplish t h a t he has  limited  i n t e r e s t e d i n how  the  probation  s u p e r v i s o r y p r o b a t i o n tasks g i v e n the  time to devote to h i s c a s e l o a d .  g a n i z e h i s a c t i v i t i e s i n order mentably adequate) 'help and  to accomplish  does a PO  or-  at l e a s t minimal ( i . e . ,  s u p e r v i s i o n and proper  ' c o n t a c t s ' w i t h p r o b a t i o n e r s , c o n t a c t s which may i n t e r v i e w s to a few words exchanged on a  How  fact  docu-  guidance' d u r i n g h i s  range from  extensive  telephone?  Compliance w i t h a term of p r o b a t i o n r e q u i r i n g ' c o n t a c t ' w i t h probation o f f i c e r mation.  During  ensures access  to c e r t a i n e s s e n t i a l  such i n t e r a c t i o n the p r o b a t i o n terms may  o f f i c e r to generate any  f o r the o f f i c e r  t o p i c s which he may  warrantably  be used by  ically  Frequently  P0J:  i n t h i s manner:  © K H o h h m :(' (6pehs ,probationerJs. f i l e on desk)) Uh, t h i n g s going a t home? ;  ;  oh  proba-  to which the p r o b a t i o n e r i s c o n s t r a i n e d  Q u i t e o f t e n an e n t i r e i n t e r v i e w i s b u i l t  Juv: uh,  the  the p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r draws upon the terms to method-  c o n s t r u c t s e t s of q u e s t i o n s  to r e p l y .  infor-  b r i n g up o r pursue a t  time d u r i n g h i s f a c e - t o - f a c e or t e l e p h o n i c i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h  tioners.  the  fine.  PO:  No  t r o u b l e w i t h your mom?  Juv:  ( ( s h o r t pause)) Uh,  no.  No.  how  are  102  PO:  E v e r y t h i n g OK a t s c h o o l ?  Juv:  ((Nods  PO:  Good. ( ( c l o s e s f i l e ) ) I've got a l o t to do today so uh, thanks f o r coming by. Keep up the good work and I ' l l see you next F r i d a y . And i f a n y t h i n g does happen b e f o r e t h a t uh, w e l l j u s t g i v e me a buzz and drop by to t a l k . OK?  Juv:  ((Nods, stands and l e a v e s o f f i c e ) )  positively.))  ((PO l e a v e s o f f i c e to get  'next' p r o b a t i o n e r . ) )  In t h i s s h o r t exchange the PO has employed the terms to generate as answers r e p o r t s on the youth's specific  ' p r o b a t i o n - r e l e v a n t ' performance  in  s e t t i n g s , i . e . , h i s account of whether " t h i n g s " a r e "ok" a t home  and s c h o o l , and whether h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h r e l e v a n t a d u l t i n those s e t t i n g s are "ok".  Such an exchange c o n s t r a i n s the p r o b a t i o n e r  to r o u t i n e l y engage i n a c c o u n t a b l e r e p o r t i n g .  By t h i s I mean t h a t  j u v e n i l e ' s r e p o r t p r o v i d e s the PO w i t h d a t a which may c o n t a c t w i t h the r e l e v a n t a d u l t a u t h o r i t i e s . s e a r c h - d e v i c e f o r the m e t h o d i c a l l o c a t i o n of which may  authorities  become t o p i c s to which the PO seeks  be  So used,  'checked o u t ' v i a  the terms become a  'problems' o r to d i r e c t  the  'troubles'  ensuing  interaction.  I would l i k e to suggest the f a c t t h a t such use o f the terms p r o v i d e s f o r the i n t e r a c t i o n a l treatment o f matters which may  commonsensi-  c a l l y seem ' n o n - l e g a l ' as b e i n g of l e g a l concern and c o n s e q u e n t i a l i t y f o r the i n t e r a c t a n t s  'here and now'.  The PO must be prepared  to d e a l w i t h a  p r o b a t i o n e r ' s c l a i m t h a t c e r t a i n matters a r e 'unimportant',  t h a t they have  'nothing to do' w i t h p r o b a t i o n and a r e , t h e r e f o r e 'none of the PO's ness'.  What the PO's  busi-  ' b u s i n e s s ' i s becomes a matter o f c o n s t a n t concern  f o r both the PO and p r o b a t i o n e r .  A j u v e n i l e on p r o b a t i o n may  f a c e the  1 0 3  problem of l i m i t i n g activities.  the impact of h i s s p e c i a l l e g a l s t a t u s upon h i s everyday  I f he sees h i s r e q u i r e d i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h  p r o v i d i n g the l a t t e r w i t h vity,  ' l e c t u r e ' him,  and  the o p p o r t u n i t y to gather  and  the PO as r o u t i n e l y  to q u e s t i o n him  r e c o r d h i s t a l k about such  t i e s , f e e l i n g s , p l a n s , e t c . , i n an on-going attempt to 'punish' him,  the j u v e n i l e may  about h i s  acti-  activi-  ' c o n t r o l ' and/or  see i t as i n h i s i n t e r e s t  to manage h i s  performances s t r a t e g i c a l l y . In a very r e a l sense, the i n t e r a c t i o n d u r i n g p r o b a t i o n views d u r i n g which the PO  attempts to f i n d out i f t h e r e a r e any  lems' to which he must a t t e n d may venile.  I n the same way,  designed  to keep a p r o b a t i o n e r  inter' r e a l prob-  i t s e l f c o n s t i t u t e a problem f o r the j u -  the p r o b a t i o n programme which i s o s t e n s i b l y out of t r o u b l e may  and  t r e a t e d d u r i n g such i n t e r a c t i o n s as t r o u b l e .  of  'keeping out o f t r o u b l e ' which the j u v e n i l e may  be seen by  the j u v e n i l e  I t f o l l o w s t h a t one method employ d u r i n g  i n t e r a c t i o n s i s to i n t e r a c t i o n a l l y c o n t a i n or l i m i t  the PO's  such  search  'problems' to ensure t h a t none a r e l o c a t e d d u r i n g the i n t e r v i e w s and none a r e i n t e r a c t i o n a l l y  for that  generated.  In the above t r a n s c r i p t ,  the PO  elicits  responses from the j u v e n i l e  which p l a c e  'on r e c o r d ' a v e r s i o n of the j u v e n i l e ' s p r o b a t i o n - r e l e v a n t  formance.  The  both during  t h i s and  i n f o r m a t i o n i s on r e c o r d i n s o f a r as i t i s now subsequent i n t e r a c t i o n and  o t h e r v e r s i o n s gathered  'concealed'  available  If, in fact,  from the r e l e v a n t persons i n d i c a t e t h a t a l l i s  not w e l l at home or i n s c h o o l , the j u v e n i l e may having  reporting.  per-  i n f o r m a t i o n , having  'lied'  be seen and to and  t r e a t e d as  t h e r e f o r e not  'cooper-  104  a t e d ' w i t h h i s PO.  Such ' f a c t s ' i n t u r n become r e s o u r c e s which the PO  may employ i n working w i t h the j u v e n i l e or use to document probation'.  'breaches of  A l t e r n a t i v e l y , r e p o r t s o f 'no t r o u b l e ' may be used  mendations f o r t e r m i n a t i o n of p r o b a t i o n as evidence documenting a t i o n ' or  i n recom'cooper-  'adjustment'. Probation o f f i c e r s  t h e r e f o r e , must f r e q u e n t l y i n t e r a c t and r e -  p o r t upon j u v e n i l e s who may be r e l u c t a n t f o r t h e above reasons  to i n t e r a c t  w i t h PO's, who may s e e ' t a l k ' w i t h p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r s as an a c t i v i t y f r a u g h t with hazard.  The f o l l o w i n g t r a n s c r i p t i s o f a PO's i n i t i a l s u p e r v i s i o n  i n t e r v i e w w i t h a j u v e n i l e who seemed r e l u c t a n t PO:  W e l l , how'd your week go?  Juv:  ((pauses, then shrugs  to t a l k :  shoulders))  PO:  What does t h a t mean? T e l l y a what, one shrug means e v e r y t h i n g ' s OK and two means t h i n g s a r e n ' t too good. Uh, do you kyouknow how to nod and shake your head? Juv:  ( ( s m i l e s and nods))  PO:  W e l l , we made some p r o g r e s s ! That's f i n e . Don't say anyt h i n g , t h a t ' d p r o b a b l y be a l i t t l e too advanced f o r you a t t h i s s t a g e . Do you t a l k a t home and a t s c h o o l ?  Juv: Yeah. PO:  Great! Now you go home and p r a c t i c e f o r a week. Make sure t h a t you s t a y out o f t r o u b l e . Then come back next F r i d a y and see i f you've got a n y t h i n g to s a y . Don't s t r a i n your v o c a l chords though.  Juv: OK, see you next week. PO:  Now you see, t h a t d i d n ' t h u r t a b i t . I f t h i s i s going to work, we've got to t a l k , t h a t ' s the o n l y way I can h e l p you. ( ( t o r e s e a r c h e r ) ) Bet I c a n ' t shut him up next week. ((juvenile leaves))  105  The u n c l e a r and question. imparted  PO  informs  the j u v e n i l e t h a t the  'meaning' o f h i s shrug  t h a t i t i s , t h e r e f o r e , an inadequate response to h i s The  is  initial  r e l a t i v e l y humourous s t y l e i n which t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n i s  to the p r o b a t i o n e r  f o r b o d i n g w i t h which a  'new'  tends to undercut the s u s p i c i o n or sense of p r o b a t i o n e r may  approach a f i r s t  supervisory  interview. The  PO  artfully  tells  the p r o b a t i o n e r  cannot proceed i n such a manner and mode of d i s c o u r s e .  that  that probation  interviews  ' t a l k ' must of n e c e s s i t y be  S i n c e the consequences of v i o l a t i n g  the terms of  b a t i o n a r e a matter of concern to many youths on p r o b a t i o n  the pro-  the PO e x p l o i t s  these a n x i e t i e s i n o r d e r  to encourage the youth's f u t u r e p a r t i c i p a t i o n .  The  the s t a n d a r d  PO  follows this with  b a t i o n i n t e r v i e w as b e i n g  The t e r s at any to  PO may  pro-  'to h e l p ' , a b e n e v o l e n t f o r m u l a t i o n which, as  I have suggested e a r l i e r , i s designed a b l e and u n d e r s t a n d a b l e  d e s c r i p t i o n of h i s g o a l i n the  'reasons'  to undercut the p r o b a t i o n e r ' s  expect-  for non-participation.  choose to pursue  'problems' or d i s c u s s r e l e v a n t mat-  time d u r i n g an i n t e r v i e w .  Whether or not something i s allowed  pass o r t a r g e t e d f o r d i s c u s s i o n d u r i n g an i n t e r v i e w i s something over  which the j u v e n i l e may PO:  And  how  a r e t h i n g s at  Juv: E v e r y t h i n g ' s PO:  have l i t t l e c o n t r o l :  ok.  You're not h a v i n g any more problems w i t h Mr. Smith cher w i t h whom the j u v e n i l e has 'had t r o u b l e ' ) )  Juv: N o t h i n g s e r i o u s . PO:  school?  What s o r t of problems?  ((tea-  106  The t o r y and wer'  j u v e n i l e ' s 'answer', a t l e a s t on the s u r f a c e , i s a  complete response to the PO's  The PO  follows this  which ' l o c k s i n ' on a r e l e v a n t i n f e r e n c e , i . e . , i f  then the p r o b a t i o n e r ' s The  question.  r e l a t i o n s h i p with  a new  everything  'ansi s ok,  'problems' i n the past- must be  p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r ' s u t t e r a n c e i s not to be heard  t i o n ' which he j u s t happens to make.  satisfac-  Rather, he may  as a  ok.  'mere o b s e r v a -  be seen to be p r o v i d i n g  p r o b a t i o n e r w i t h i n s t r u c t i o n s on the p r o b a t i o n - r e l e v a n t meaning of  h i s remarks.  Through such seemingly mundane, u n i n t e r e s t i n g u t t e r a n c e s ,  PO moves'to p r o v i d e the j u v e n i l e w i t h c e r t a i n which are-seen  as f a c i l i t a t i n g competent and  ' f a c t s ' about adequate  the  ^probation  ' r e p o r t i n g ' by  a  probationer. PO's  know t h a t j u v e n i l e s s may  o u t l i n e d above and  organize their  i s not c o n c e l a i n g a n y t h i n g answer to the PO's  interactions accordingly.  on t h i s o c c a s i o n , then p r o d u c i n g  second q u e s t i o n i s a simple m a t t e r .  hand, t h i n g s a r e not deception,  ' c o n c e a l ' i n f o r m a t i o n f o r the  'ok , 1  reasons  I f the j u v e n i l e an adequate  I f , on the o t h e r  t h a t i s to say, i f the p r o b a t i o n e r  i s engaged i n  the p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r ' s probe f u n c t i o n s to d i s p l a y f o r the  juven-  i l e the hazards i n v o l v e d i n h i s use of the s t r a t e g y . I want to suggest  t h a t i n an important  sense the PO h e r e i s p r o -  v i d i n g the n o v i c e p r o b a t i o n e r w i t h i n s t r u c t i o n s f o r adequate and reporting.  He  goes beyond the j u v e n i l e ' s g l o s s , ' e v e r y t h i n g ' s ok a t s c h o o l '  which on the s u r f a c e appears to be an adequate and initial  competent  complete answer to  q u e s t i o n , to f o r m u l a t e a l o g i c a l l y i n c l u d e d i m p l i c a t i o n .  i n fact everything i s ok M  :  the  Thus, i f  a t s c h o o l , i f 'no problems' i s a c o r r e c t d e s c r i p -  107  t i o n of the j u v e n i l e ' s p r o b a t i o n - r e l e v a n t performance a t s c h o o l , then must be  'no problems' i n h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h Mr.  o f f i c e r d i s p l a y s f o r the j u v e n i l e the b a t i o n relevant, that i s , expectably Note t h a t by sheer  fact  Smith.  The  kinds of i n f o r m a t i o n  probation  which a r e  t h a t the second q u e s t i o n i s asked,  of  'pass' without  may,  w i l l d e c i d e whether or not a r e -  f u r t h e r remark o r be  t h i s or subsequent i n t e r a c t i o n .  through such i n t e r a c t i o n s , expectable  the  time d u r i n g such o c c a s i o n s , t h a t i t i s the p r o b a -  t i o n o f f i c e r and not the p r o b a t i o n e r who port w i l l  pro-  reportable during probation interviews  p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r demonstrates to the j u v e n i l e t h a t such q u e s t i o n s i n f a c t , be asked a t any  there  ' t e s t e d ' , o r become the  Thus, the competent p r o b a t i o n e r  'learns  t h a t such q u e s t i o n s , probes, o r c h a l l e n g e s  f e a t u r e s of p r o b a t i o n i n t e r a c t i o n and  topic  are  t h a t he must o r g a n i z e h i s  i n t e r a c t i o n a l performances a c c o r d i n g l y . In t h i s chapter we w i l l be examining the competing s t r a t e g i e s developed  by p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r s and p r o b a t i o n e r s as they pursue t h e i r r e s -  p e c t i v e and  often c o n f l i c t i n g practical  I have s a i d  t h a t the v e r y a s k i n g of such q u e s t i o n s  the j u v e n i l e h i s l a c k of to  suggest  ship with his  ' c o n t r o l ' over  dimension of  control'-.  the u n f o l d i n g i n t e r a c t i o n .  ' p r o b a t i o n ' over which he,  V i a h i s i n t r o d u c t i o n of Mr.  the p r o b a t i o n e r , the PO  performance at s c h o o l w i l l  i.e.,  d i s p l a y s to  t h a t the p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r a t the same time d i s p l a y s to  j u v e n i l e another also lacks  goals ' d u r i n g p r o b a t i o n i n t e r v i e w s  t h a t Mr.  Smith and  o t h e r s who  relation-  that h i s v e r s i o n  i n v a r i a b l y stand  a r e i n a p o s i t i o n to  the  probationer,  Smith and h i s  'shows' the p r o b a t i o n e r  not n e c e s s a r i l y and  as  I want  alone,  know' about  the  108  j u v e n i l e ' s p r o b a t i o n - r e l e v a n t performance may be t r e a t e d by the p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r as r e s o u r c e s  f o r information.  ployed by p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r s  The s t r a t e g y i s one r o u t i n e l y em-  to show p r o b a t i o n e r s t h a t i n the c o u r s e o f  t h e i r everyday accomplishment o f ' p r o b a t i o n ' a p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r v a r i o u s accounts  elicits  of h i s p r o b a t i o n e r s ' performances from persons who a r e i n a  p o s i t i o n to 'know'.  The p r o b a t i o n e r ' s l a c k o f complete c o n t r o l o f p o s s i b l e  d i s c r e d i t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n i s a f e a t u r e o f the s t a t u s of p r o b a t i o n e r which probation o f f i c e r s  f r e q u e n t l y encourage j u v e n i l e s to a t t e n d .  Recall, for  example, t h a t d u r i n g the l a y i n g down o f the terms the p r o b a t i o n filled  i n the p r a c t i c a l meaning o f one o f the terms w i t h  PO:  officer  the remark t h a t :  L i k e i f I were t o be d r i v i n g by and see you doing you s h o u l d n ' t be d o i n g . . . .  something  D u r i n g my a n a l y s i s of t h a t i n t e r v i e w , I suggested  t h a t such r e -  marks a r e employed to p r o v i d e a new p r o b a t i o n e r w i t h a c t i o n s a r e ' p u b l i c ' i n an important  way.  the sense t h a t h i s  'Help and s u p e r v i s i o n and proper  guidance' as p r o v i d e d by t h e c o u r t e n t a i l a l o s s o f c o n t r o l by the p r o b a t i o n e r over c e r t a i n i n f o r m a t i o n .  The p r o b a t i o n e r ' s  ' a t t i t u d e ' toward  t h i s l o s s of c o n t r o l may be used by the p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r as a c r i t i c a l i n d i c a t o r o f ' c o o p e r a t i o n ' or l a c k o f c o o p e r a t i o n . l o s s o f c o n t r o l and the 'proper be  'Acceptance  of t h i s  a t t i t u d e ' towards the l o s s i s o f t e n taken to  the goal of much e a r l y p r o b a t i o n  interaction.  However, the p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r ' s s e a r c h f o r p r o b a t i o n - r e l e v a n t t o p i c s may be d e a l t w i t h by p r o b a t i o n e r s p r o b a t i o n e r s may  'bring up  1  i n v a r i o u s ways.  'problems' which they have been  as p r o b a t i o n e r s , even ask f o r 'help'.  Cooperative encountering  O t h e r s , w i t h l i t t l e prodding,  may  109  openly  ' t a l k ' dbout what i s happening, i f a n y t h i n g ,  settings.  Still  o t h e r s , as we  Probation o f f i c e r s ,  have seen, may  i n t u r n , may  performance d u r i n g i n t e r v i e w s may  i n the p r o b a t i o n r e l e v a n t  have 'nothing to  say'.  r o u t i n e l y i n s t r u c t probationers be t r e a t e d as l a c k of the  t h a t such  expected  'cooperation': PO:  OK, s u i t y o u r s e l f . You don't want to t a l k to me. Fine. But j u s t remember uh, ((opens f i l e on desk and taps i t e m p h a t i c a l l y ) ) what Judge Brown s a i d , and i t ' s r i g h t h e r e i n your terms, t h a t you a r e to r e p o r t to me so t h a t we can work t h i n g s out. I f you don't want t o , then maybe we should go back to the Judge r i g h t now. ((stands)) Is t h a t what you want?  Juv: No, PO:  but  1/  A l r i g h t then, i f t h i s i s going to work we're going to have to urn, understand one another. I mean, uh, you've got to cooperate w i t h me, t h a t ' s r i g h t t h e r e i n b l a c k and w h i t e . That was what the Judge s a i d , remember?  Juv: Yeah. PO:  We've got to get t h a t s t r a i g h t r i g h t o f f . I mean we're i n t h i s t h i n g together uh, s i n k or swim. OK?  Juv: Yeah.  I wasn't t r y i n g  I would l i k e  to a t t e n d to the way  o c c a s i o n c o n s t r a i n s a new porting, i n actively  to cause t r o u b l e , y'know.  probationer  i n which the PO  sorry.  on the above  to engage i n p r o b a t i o n adequate r e -  engaging i n i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h  t r e a t i n g the matter i n the  I'm  the PO.  Rather  than  'good-natured' manner which c h a r a c t e r i z e d the 1  p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r ' s s t y l e examined e a r l i e r ,  the p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r  here  t r a d e s upon the l e g a l s t r u c t u r e of the p r o b a t i o n r e l a t i o n s h i p i n a  way  similar  the  1.  to methods we  See p.  104.  have seen employed d u r i n g the l a y i n g down of  110  terms.  Thus, once a g a i n ,  the j u v e n i l e i s b e i n g i n s t r u c t e d t h a t as a  p r o b a t i o n e r he i s i n a v e r y s p e c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h h i s p r o b a t i o n Furthermore, i n t e r a c t i o n between them i s to be o f a s p e c i a l type. p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r opens the exchange w i t h  the remark t h a t i t ' s  the j u v e n i l e does n o t -'want to t a l k to ' him. 1  mark frames the immediately-appended p r o f e s s e d b a t i o n e r ' s performance. memories about terms, they down 'proper The  officer. The  fine  if  The p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r ' s r e "consequence  J u s t as p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r s  o f the p r o -  ' r e f r e s h ' new p r o b a t i o n e r s '  'what happened i n c o u r t ' d u r i n g t h e l a y i n g down o f t h e  r o u t i n e l y ' a c t i v a t e ' the understanding'  terms' and t h e p r e v i o u s l y l a y e d  o f p r o b a t i o n d u r i n g subsequent  interaction.  'meaning " o f p r o b a t i o n as i t a p p l i e s t o the p r e s e n t , on-going  a c t i o n i s e x p l i c a t e d f o r the j u v e n i l e .  inter-  The PO i s r e q u e s t i n g the j u v e n i l e to  r e c a l l the ' f a c t ' t h a t the judge has p l a c e d the j u v e n i l e on p r o b a t i o n and requested cer.  him to 'obey' the terms and 'cooperate' w i t h  offi-  Here, the PO r a t h e r d r a m a t i c a l l y shows the p r o b a t i o n e r what may  happen i f he does not 'cooperate', now'.  Furthermore,  merely  'at home',  i . e . , they c a n go see t h e judge  suggests  'right  ' c o o p e r a t i o n ' i s n o t something which i s t o be d i s p l a y e d  ' i n s c h o o l ' and ' i n the community', b u t a l s o and e s p e c i a l l y  d u r i n g any i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h h i s p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r .  now.  the p r o b a t i o n  t h a t the judge i s ready  to d e a l w i t h  The p r o b a t i o n  'non-cooperation'  The ominous c o n s e q u e n t i a l l y o f the PO's s u g g e s t i o n  here and  s h o u l d be apparent  to the p r o b a t i o n e r , g i v e n t h e f a c t t h a t t h e judge has solemnly c e n t l y ) i n s t r u c t e d him to 'cooperate'  officer  (and r e -  and 'not come back' and t h a t , f u r -  thermore, he would n o t 'go so easy' on the p r o b a t i o n e r  'the next  time'.  Ill  In e f f e c t , the p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r i s i n v i t i n g t h e p r o b a t i o n e r t o contemplate the judge's  r e a c t i o n if_ informed  during h i s f i r s t On  s u p e r v i s o r y meeting w i t h h i s p r o b a t i o n  officer.  t h e above o c c a s i o n , the s t r a t e g y appears t o have  achieved at l e a s t juvenile  t h a t t h e p r o b a t i o n e r had n o t 'cooperated'  the temporary  immediately  ' c o o p e r a t i o n ' o f the p r o b a t i o n e r .  The  'backs o f f by t r e a t i n g t h e i n v o c a t i o n o f the judge s e r i o u s l y and  then a p o l o g i z i n g f o r h i s performance.  D u r i n g t h e subsequent  the j u v e n i l e t a l k e d r e a d i l y about t h e s i t u a t i o n a t home, e t c .  interaction, Note t h a t once  the j u v e n i l e has s a i d that he does not wish t o go back t o the judge, t h e p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r s h i f t s from e x p l i c a t i n g t h e l e g a l s t r u c t u r e o f t h e p r o bation relationship,  ( i . e . , t h e c o n s e q u e n t i a l i t y o f 'non-cooperation'  dur-  i n g p r o b a t i o n i n t e r v i e w s , and the immediate a v a i l a b i l i t y o f 'the j u d g e ' as a r e s o u r c e f o r p r o b a t i o n e r y c o n t r o l ) t o a markedly d i f f e r e n t e n t e r p r i s e . A f t e r the j u v e n i l e r e l e n t s , to t h e more b e n i g n ,  I am s u g g e s t i n g , t h e  probation o f f i c e r  shifts  s u p p o r t i v e f e a t u r e s o f ' p r o b a t i o n ' as they had been  presented d u r i n g the h e a r i n g by t h e judge and l a t e r by t h e p r o b a t i o n The  officer.  r e l e v a n c e o f t h e 'terms' and t h e judge f o r the present o c c a s i o n (and  p r o b a t i o n i n g e n e r a l ) a r e p o i n t e d t o , but the i n t e r a c t i o n a l s t y l e o f the PO has become l e s s  mechanical  o f them 'understanding  and  formal  one another'  .  When he speaks about the two  and how ' i t ' ( p r o b a t i o n ) can be made t o  'work', h i s demeanor and s t y l e a r e n o t i c e a b l y 'warmer'. being  The p r o b a t i o n e r i s  ' i n v i t e d ' t o j o i n w i t h the p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r i n a c o o p e r a t i v e ven-  t u r e r a t h e r than an 'ordered' and 'threatened' one i f ' c o o p e r a t i o n ' i s n o t forthcoming.  N o t i c e how t h e l a t e r p o r t r a y a l o f t h e  has now s u b t l y s h i f t e d t h e p o s i t i o n o f the  judge .  probation'  relationship  "Making i t work" i s  112  d i s p l a y e d as something t o which both p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r a t t e n d and seek. implication, The  a c o o p e r a t i v e p r o b a t i o n e r and h i s Adequate p r o b a t i o n r e p o r t i n g i s , by  'merely' a means by which t h i s shared  p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r has transformed  g o a l may be pursued.  h i m s e l f from merely t h e agent o f  j u d i c i a l a u t h o r i t y and c o n t r o l i n t o the ' p a r t n e r ' i n t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p , one who w i l l share the ' f a t e ' o f t h e p r o b a t i o n e r . On t h e above o c c a s i o n we have seen the p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r f u l l y employ a c a r e f u l l y  success-  'staged' t h r e a t t o c o n s t r a i n a r e l u c t a n t proba-  t i o n e r t o engage i n adequate p r o b a t i o n - r e p o r t i n g .  By r a t h e r d r a m a t i c a l l y  c o n f r o n t i n g the p r o b a t i o n e r w i t h the immediate and t h r e a t e n i n g consequences of i n t e r a c t i o n a l  'non-cooperation',  a l t e r the p r o b a t i o n e r ' s  'understanding'  p r o v i d i n g him w i t h an u n d e r s t a n d i n g t o cooperate  i n probation  relationship,  ' c o e r c e s ' and ' i n v i t e s ' him  The. t h r e a t was 'staged'  i n s o f a r as  t o go the judge, b u t merely sought  to the j u v e n i l e .  views were t y p i c a l l y scheduled  o f the p r o b a t i o n  which both  interaction.  the p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r n e v e r i n t e n d e d to g i v e that i m p r e s s i o n  the p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r has sought t o  In f a c t , these s u p e r v i s o r y  a f t e r s c h o o l hours,  inter-  a t a time when the judges  were n o t u s u a l l y i n the b u i l d i n g . F u r t h e r evidence  o f the conscious  s t a g i n g o f such t h r e a t s was  p r o v i d e d by a p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r when I asked i f he had been s e r i o u s l y contemplating  t h e course o f a c t i o n when he used i t d u r i n g i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h a  probationer: PO:  H e l l no I Of course I c o u l d n ' t go t o c o u r t . I f I d i d , the judge'd p r o b a b l y be n i c e and p o l i t e t o me u n t i l the k i d was out o f the room and then g i v e me h e l l . I mean i t would be a l i t t l e r i d i c u l o u s , a k i d j u s t on p r o b a t i o n , no new charge and here I am, "Your honour, he won't t a l k n i c e t o me." ((laughs)  113  The  probation o f f i c e r ' s  remarks t e l l us something about t h e compe-  t e n t accomplishment o f p r o b a t i o n t a s k s and r e v e a l t h a t , a t l e a s t  i n certain  ways, t h e PO and p r o b a t i o n e r a r e ' i n t h i s t o g e t h e r ' ,  i . e . , both a r e b e i n g  held accountable  Thus, t h e p r o b a t i o n  o f f i c e r takes  f o r t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e performances.  i t t h a t t h e judge would n o t 'merely' a t t e n d t o t h e f a c t  that  the p r o b a t i o n e r was n o t ' c o o p e r a t i n g ' , but t h a t t h e p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r was not competently managing h i s i n t e r a c t i o n s w i t h t h e p r o b a t i o n e r i n o r d e r t o o b t a i n t h e r e q u i r e d c o o p e r a t i o n o r , i n i t s absence, t o adequately  develop  a 'case' so t h a t i t may be d e a l t w i t h r o u t i n e l y , and a t an a p p r o p r i a t e  2 time.  Judges were n o t , t h e r e f o r e , c o n s i d e r e d t o be r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e r e -  sources which t h e PO can make f r e e and easy use o f i n t h e r e s o l u t i o n o f routine probationary  s u p e r v i s i o n problems, although  PO's at times  carefully  managed t h e i r i n t e r a c t i o n s w i t h p r o b a t i o n e r s t o p r o v i d e them w i t h t h e impress i o n t h a t t h e judge was ready, w i l l i n g , the PO upon h i s performance. suggest  indeed,  a n x i o u s l y a w a i t i n g word from  P r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r s would a l s o , on o c c a s i o n ,  t h a t he was going t o have t h e j u v e n i l e immediately  he d i d n o t 'cooperate'.  'locked up'  i f  The f o l l o w i n g remarks i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e PO's  a b i l i t y t o r o u t i n e l y f o l l o w through w i t h t h i s t h r e a t i s a l s o l i m i t e d by o r ganizational contingencies.  The remarks were made by t h e a s s i s t a n t to the  c h i e f p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r d u r i n g a r e g u l a r meeting o f a l l p r o b a t i o n  officers:  "We have a bad overcrowding s i t u a t i o n i n the d e t e n t i o n home r i g h t now. We're coming i n t o a weekend. We're over our maximum, and about 25% o f t h e boys i n custody now a r e here on breaches,  2.  Emerson (1969, p. 230) has s i m i l a r l y r e p o r t e d t h a t " . . . f r e q u e n t attempts t o i n c a r c e r a t e p r o b a t i o n e r s tend t o d i s c r e d i t t h e PO i n t h e eyes o f the judge. Routine use o f t h e s u r r e n d e r s a n c t i o n suggests t h a t t h e probat i o n o f f i c e r i s n o t working c o n s c i e n t i o u s l y w i t h h i s c h a r g e s . " Cicourel (1968, p. 229) has a l s o observed: "Few p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r s ever wish to recommend Youth A u t h o r i t y commitment because i t s i g n i f i e s they were u n s u c c e s s f u l i n working w i t h t h e j u v e n i l e . "  114  and I t h i n k i n t h a t sense t h i s i s good because i t shows t h a t you p e o p l e , at l e a s t , you know, are. out i n the d i s t r i c t k e e p i n g c l o s e tabs w i t h your c a s e l o a d s , and I want t o commend you f o r this. But, I'm j u s t wondering, i n the next t h r e e or f o u r days anyway, i f you c o u l d - ah i f t h e r e are any breaches - i f you c o u l d take a good c l o s e l o o k at them and ah, i f we c o u l d work out an a l t e r n a t i v e p l a n because we are j u s t chock-block f u l l a t the p r e sent t i m e . . . I t h i n k you know the arrangement, t h a t w i t h the o u t l y i n g d i s t r i c t s we have a c o n t r a c t w i t h each of them, but i t ' s on the u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h a t they phone f i r s t and i f we have space then we say " f i n e , b r i n g the body i n . " But w r i t t e n i n t o t h a t c o n t r a c t i s a n i c e l i t t l e escape h a t c h and that i s t h a t i f we become overcrowded o u r s e l v e s we say to these d i s t r i c t s , "Could you come and get your y o u n g s t e r s , we can no l o n g e r handle them." We've had to do t h i s i n the past two days. We've had to r e f u s e a l o t of p r o b a t i o n e r s , and the d e t e n t i o n home i s p r i m a r i l y f o r the k i d s i n ( C i t y ) and f o r your p r o b a t i o n e r s , you know, i n custody, at l e a s t pending c o u r t appearance. So i f you c o u l d keep t h a t i n mind f o r t h e next two or t h r e e days. As I say, i t ' s j u s t t o l e t you know t h a t we are k i n d o f s t u f f e d at the present t i m e . " The  above remarks show t h a t p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r s must a t t e n d to 3 p r a c t i c a l organizational contingencies as w e l l as the p r o b l e m a t i c , or non-  3.  That such o r g a n i z a t i n a l c o n t i n g e n c i e s are i n v a r i a n t f e a t u r e s of l e g a l systems which shape ' d e c i s i o n ' making at v a r i o u s l e v e l s i s evidenced by Wiseman's remarks about the dependency of p o l i c e a c t i o n on the ' a v a i l a b l e space' o r l a c k t h e r e o f ' i n j a i l ' : Policemen somewhat n a t u r a l l y l i k e to see t h e i r a r r e s t d e c i s i o n s r e c e i v e the o f f i c i a l s e a l of j u d i c i a l a p p r o v a l by b e i n g t r a n s l a t e d i n t o j a i l sentences, s i n c e i t i s f r u s t r a t i n g and d i s c o u r a g i n g to a r r e s t men who are r e l e a s e d s h o r t l y a f t e r w a r d s . T h i s i s why the c u r r e n t occupancy r a t e o f the j a i l and the g e n e r a l i d e o l o g y of the judges e n t e r s c o n s c i o u s l y or u n c o n s c i o u s l y i n t o every d e f i n ing d e c i s i o n between p o l i c e and the S k i d Row drunk. There i s a d e f i n i t e r e l a t i o n s h i p between the number o f men the p o l i c e a r r e s t and the l e v e l of occupancy o f the j a i l . . . ( Q u o t i n g an o f f i c e r ) "We used to handle 300 t o 400 drunk cases Monday morning. Now we o n l y have about 50. The sergeant o f the c i t y j a i l l e t s 'em out. They have i t (the j a i l ) f u l l of h i p p i e s and c i v i l r i g h t s demonstrators r i g h t now." (Wiseman, 1970: 71-72). Continued . . . .  115  cooperative behaviour  of t h e i r probationers.  Competent c a s e l o a d management  produces o n l y a manageable number of p r o b a t i o n e r s e i t h e r ' i n c o u r t ' at any  g i v e n time.  t i o n o f f i c e r s , judges, and or  Members o f the c o u r t b u r e a u c r a c y ,  c u s t o d i a l p e r s o n n e l , and  P r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r s may  ' l a z y ' , e t c . , f o r ' c l u t t e r i n g up'  be seen as  adequate reasons.  judge, to  f o r ) 'custody'  and  'sloppy', center  f o r what are taken to be i n -  he d e c i d e d  and/or c o u r t reappearance recommendations.  to  'breach'  ask a p r o b a t i o n  A  officer  a p a r t i c u l a r j u v e n i l e i f the matter  seems to be one which c o u l d have been d e a l t w i t h by the p r o b a t i o n 3.  proper  organizationally-adequate-and-documen-  s u p e r v i s o r , o r f e l l o w p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r may  ' e x p l a i n ' why  'incompetent',  Competent p r o b a t i o n work, t h e r e f o r e , i n v o l v e s  s c h e d u l i n g of (as w e l l as p r o d u c i n g t e d reasons  'take to c o u r t ' ,  the c a l e n d a r o r the d e t e n t i o n  w i t h p r o b a t i o n e r s at i n a p p r o p r i a t e times  (proba-  supervisors), informally  f o r m a l l y monitor the cases which p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r s 'lock up'.  ' i n d e t e n t i o n ' or  officer  (Continued....) Another study has l o c a t e d s i m i l a r ' p r e s s u r e s ' i n the r e l a t i o n s h i p between judges and c u s t o d i a l p e r s o n n e l as w e l l as between judges and lawyers. The r e s e a r c h e r quotes a judge: "When the number of p r i s o n e r s gets t o the ' r i o t p o i n t , ' the warden puts p r e s s u r e on us to slow down the flow. T h i s o f t e n means t h a t men are l e t out on p a r o l e and the number o f people given p r o b a t i o n and suspended sentences i n c r e a s e s . " ( C o l e , 1970: 337) "Lawyers are h e l p f u l to the system. They are a b l e to p u l l t h i n g s t o g e t h e r , work out a d e a l , keep the system moving." ( C o l e , 1970: 340) F i n a l l y , the f o l l o w i n g quote from Claude Brown's s e n s i t i v e autobiography d i s p l a y s f o r us the unintended e f f e c t a p r o b a t i o n e r ' s informed unders t a n d i n g o f such o r g a n i z a t i o n a l ' f a c t s of l i f e ' may have upon h i s 'hearing' of court-probation r h e t o r i c : The judge kept t a l k i n g to us about how we had r i s k e d our l i v e s and how we were l u c k y not to get h u r t . He s a i d he was g o i n g to g i v e us v. another chance. We'd expected t h i s ; we'd heard t h a t every p l a c e they c o u l d have sent us was f i l l e d up — Warwick and Wiltwyck and L i n c o l n H a l l . (Brown, 1966: 123)  116  without  going t o c o u r t .  custody  and breach  be  'necessary';  Thus, competent c a s e l o a d management d i c t a t e s t h a t  d e c i s i o n s should be made o n l y when they may be shown t o  a l t e r n a t i v e l y , cases may be managed i n o r d e r t o j u s t i f y  the d e c i s i o n s when made.  B a r r i n g some k i n d o f p h y s i c a l a s s a u l t by t h e  p r o b a t i o n e r on t h e p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r , however, i t appears t h a t  probation  o f f i c e r s w i l l n o t attempt t o r e t u r n a j u v e n i l e t o c o u r t d u r i n g t h e e a r l y probationary  period.  i s well-founded. judicial  The above d i s c u s s i o n i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e r e l u c t a n c e  Moreover, PO's who do remploy t h e ' t h r e a t ' o f immediate  a c t i o n i n an attempt t o a t t a i n  ' c o o p e r a t i o n ' a r e v u l n e r a b l e when  f a c e d w i t h an o u t r i g h t c h a l l e n g e by a ' h o s t i l e ' p r o b a t i o n e r . c a s i o n , f o r example, I observed  a probationer  the judge up your a s s " , when informed  i n s t r u c t a PO t o "shove  t h a t he would be r e t u r n e d  immediately  i f he f a i l e d t o c o o p e r a t e .  immediately  rush t h e p r o b a t i o n e r t o the judge's o f f i c e .  f i c e r d i d n o t 'schedule'  On one o c -  to c o u r t  The p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r d i d n o t The p r o b a t i o n o f -  a c o u r t appearance at the e a r l i e s t p o s s i b l e time  so t h a t the judge c o u l d take  further a c t i o n against the j u v e n i l e .  The  p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r d i d , however, make a r a t h e r e l a b o r a t e d i s p l a y o f t h e ' f a c t ' t h a t he was d u l y r e c o r d i n g t h e i n c i d e n t ' i n t h e f i l e , 1  stating:  PO: OK. Uh, hare i t your way - smart guy. I f t h a t ' s t h e way you want i t . W e ' l l j u s t see. Now get your fanny out o f here. YOU - You want to p l a y i t t h a t way, go ahead - get out o f h e r e . Course, you have to r e p o r t a g a i n next F r i d a y . And j u s t t r y t o step out o f l i n e . W e ' l l s e e . ((waves f i l e ) ) Judge Brown i s going t o be v e r y i n t e r e s t e d i n t h i s . Here, t h e s t r a t e g y has n o t 'worked' i n s o f a r as t h e p r o b a t i o n e r has  challenged  the PO t o f o l l o w through on t h e ' t h r e a t ' r a t h e r than  'back-  117  ing o f f . has  Note, however, t h a t even i n a case such as t h i s , the  produced r e c o r d a b l e documentation of  a t t i t u d e ' which may  'non-cooperation'  tactic  and a  'bad  be used at a l a t e r time both d u r i n g subsequent  s u p e r v i s o r y i n t e r a c t i o n , and  i n the event  on a subsequent o f f e n s e o r f o r a b r e a c h  t h a t he _is_ r e t u r n e d  to the c o u r t  of p r o b a t i o n , be employed as a  r e s o u r c e w i t h which to p r o v i d e the judge w i t h a p r a c t i c a l l y - a d e q u a t e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the o f f e n s e or b r e a c h .  Thus, the p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r i s  i n a p o s i t i o n to 'make sense' o f subsequent  'problems' encountered i n  d e a l i n g w i t h the j u v e n i l e i n terms of h i s never h a v i n g o f f i c e r a chance to 'help' him,  or as h a v i n g  g i v e n the  probation  ' r e s i s t e d from the very  be-  ginning'. Note, however, t h a t the s t r a t e g y has m i s f i r e d here and now asmuch as t h e p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r ' s s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d c o n t r o l over the tion  (and the p r o b a t i o n e r ) has been c a l l e d  officer, in effect,  'backs o f f  on the e a r l i e r o c c a s i o n had The  PO  s a i d t h a t he would  into question.  from h i s t h r e a t j u s t  'backed o f f  'get the j u d g e '  The  as the  from h i s s u l l e n  insitua-  probation  probationer  non-cooperation.  and he d i d not, even though  the j u v e n i l e ' s response t o the t h r e a t had been i n even more open and rant d e f i a n c e o f the p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r . p o s s i b i l i t y o f such c h a l l e n g e s and,  flag-  P r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r s a t t e n d t o the  as a r e s u l t , t y p i c a l l y attempt to a v o i d  them by o r g a n i z i n g t h e i r i n t e r a c t i o n s i n ways which minimize the  probability  of such  officer.  ' c o n f r o n t a t i o n s ' u n l e s s they are sought by the p r o b a t i o n I want to now  t u r n to an a l t e r n a t i v e s t r a t e g y w i t h which I  p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r s seek t o o b t a i n c o o p e r a t i o n and i n g on the p a r t of new during h i s f i r s t  two  probationers.  The  observed  adequate p r o b a t i o n r e p o r t -  probationer participated  probation supervisory interviews.  His  minimally  participation  118  throughout those barely audible  occasions  'grunts',  consisted t o t a l l y of monosyllabic  and movements o f h i s head.  The p r o b a t i o n  t r e a t e d h i s performance as adequate, engaged i n no p r o b i n g and all'  terminated  utterances, officer  or challenging,  the i n t e r v i e w s by remarking, to the e f f e c t t h a t  ' i f that's  t h e j u v e n i l e had t o say, then he was f r e e t o go, adding o n l y t h a t he  should  'stay out o f t r o u b l e ' .  almost i d e n t i c a l u n t i l  On t h e t h i r d meeting, the i n t e r a c t i o n i s  the p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r  'dismisses' the j u v e n i l e :  PO:  How'r t h i n g s John?  Juv:  ((Shrugs  PO:  How's your mom?  Juv:  OK.  PO:  What about s c h o o l , e v e r y t h i n g ok t h e r e ?  Juv:  ((nods  PO:  Any t h i n g you want t o t a l k about?  Juv:  ((shakes h i s head n e g a t i v e l y ) )  PO:  Well ok, you're so t a l k a t i v e I t h i n k I ' l l l e t you bugger o f f . Maybe next week you can t h i n k o f something t o t a l k about. Stay out o f t r o u b l e , ok?  Juv:  Sure. night.  PO:  Remember, you d i d n ' t have a n y t h i n g  silently))  silently))  ( ( s t a n d s ) ) Oh, I want t o go t o a, uh p a r t y tomorrow  t o t a l k about.  Juv: But I d i d n ' t / PO:  /So t h a t ' s f i n e w i t h me. F i n e , I mean t o me and you don't want t o f i l l me i n g i v e me the time o f day. But then you me t o l e t you go t o a p a r t y . Well I'm get a l i t t l e c o o p e r a t i o n I t h i n k you'd the week-end.  you're on p r o b a t i o n on a n y t h i n g , won't t u r n around and want s o r r y , but u n t i l I b e t t e r stay i n over  119  Juv: B i g d e a l , I j u s t want t o go to a p a r t y ! You'd t h i n k was ten or something. ((leaves o f f i c e ) ) An  a n a l y s i s of the above t r a n s c r i p t w i l l  attempt to e x p l i c a t e and 'help  and  guidance and  describe  I  c a r r y us f u r t h e r i n  the mundane accomplishment o f  proper s u p e r v i s i o n ' .  The  my  probation  interaction i n i t i a l l y  is  s u b s t a n t i a l l y i d e n t i c a l to the e a r l y s u p e r v i s o r y  i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h which  have been concerned.  the p r o b a t i o n  A g a i n , at l e a s t i n i t i a l l y ,  d e a l i n g w i t h a j u v e n i l e who that  'having n o t h i n g  blematic  a c c e s s to  'has n o t h i n g  to say'.  t o say'  l i m i t s the p r o b a t i o n  'probation  relevant t o p i c s ' .  c e r takes i t t h a t he  i s involved  ' s p e l l i n g out consequences', and  We  have a l r e a d y  seek to l i m i t  everyday a c t i v i t i e s by n o t o f f i c e r s during c e r s may e r a t e ' by  probation  employ v a r i o u s  ' l o c a t i n g problems',  understandings', i n order  the p r o b a t i o n  ening'  impact o f p r o b a t i o n a r y  We  to  probationer,  s t a t u s on  ' f r e e l y ' d i s c u s s i n g them w i t h t h e i r interaction.  offi-  their  probation  have seen t h a t p r o b a t i o n  s t r a t e g i e s t o c o n s t r a i n the p r o b a t i o n e r  to  offi'coop-  engaging i n probation-adequate r e p o r t i n g , s t r a t e g i e s which range  from 'merely' i n f o r m i n g by  the  seen  While the p r o b a t i o n  ensure adequate performance on the p a r t of the j u v e n i l e qua j u v e n i l e s may  officer is  o f f i c e r ' s d i r e c t , unpro-  i n the b u s i n e s s o f 'reaching  we  o f f i c e r ) may  the p r o b a t i o n e r  seen t h a t the k i n d of made d u r i n g  the j u v e n i l e t h a t n o n - p a r t i c i p a t i o n  'confrontation'  The  consequences f o r the  probation  'to c o u r t ' .  We  defined 'threathave a l s o  involved i n 'threats' of that  supervisory  a b l e to e x e r c i s e e i t h e r d u r i n g supervision.  'non-cooperation' to  w i t h an immediate r e t u r n  e a r l y probation  rather devastating  be t r e a t e d as  (as  i n t e r a c t i o n may  type  'misfire' with  ' c o n t r o l ' t h a t the PO may  then  the immediately e n s u i n g i n t e r a c t i o n or  o f f i c e r who  had  be later  been i n s t r u c t e d t o 'shove the  120  judge up h i s ass' subsequently probably  t o l d the r e s e a r c h e r  'blown i t ' w i t h the p r o b a t i o n e r and that  t h i n g ' t h a t he c o u l d do now, was wait c o u l d take him back t o c o u r t . c e r n over k i d s who  Other p r o b a t i o n 'threatening'  officers  probationers  t o f o l l o w through, i . e . :  S h i t no, I t r y n o t t o say something l i k e t h a t u n l e s s I'm ready t o back i t up. You t e l l em "say t h a t a g a i n and I ' l l x", then they say i t , o r do i t , and you s i t back, I mean, i f you're not ready t o a c t , what do you do, t e l l em t o say i t a g a i n and so on? They're going t o l o s e . a l l r e s p e c t f o r what you say. When I t e l l a k i d I'm going t o do i t , i t u s u a l l y means t h a t I'm ready t o go t o c o u r t , got i t a l l ready, and I'm j u s t w a i t i n g f o r him t o g i v e me the opport u n i t y t o go back to c o u r t . I t e l l him n o t t o say "boo" a g a i n , he says "boo" and I j e r k him i n . Of c o u r s e , t h e n I can go to c o u r t and t e l l t h e judge a l l s o r t s o f s t u f f , t h e "boo" i s j u s t p a r t o f the p a t t e r n and b l a h b l a h . But I've g o t i t a l l down t h e r e and ready t o do. I'm t h e one who d e c i d e s . You go around g i v i n g k i d s ultimatums b e f o r e you're ready and then t h e y ' r e going t o c a l l you on it.  Another PO v o i c e d a s i m i l a r PO:  the only  P r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r s f r e q u e n t l y e x p r e s s con-  suggested that they were extremely c a r e f u l about  PO:  'probably  f o r the k i d t o 'fuck up' so t h a t he  'blew up' d u r i n g i n t e r v i e w s .  when they were n o t prepared  t h a t he thought he had  opinion:  I t ' s easy t o t e l l a k i d t h a t i f he doesn't behave, t h e judge w i l l spank. But then i f t h e judge doesn't spank, t h a t ' s i t , the k i d t h i n k s t h a t he can get away w i t h a n y t h i n g . A l o t o f times t h a t ' s t h e k i n d o f t h i n g t h a t got a k i d here i n the f i r s t p l a c e uh, p a r e n t s who t e l l them t h a t t h e y ' r e gonna get i n t o t r o u b l e i f t h e y don't s t r a i g h t e n o u t , but then don't c a r e enough t o d i s c i p l i n e t h e k i d . I t r y n o t to f a l l i n t o t h a t t r a p , when I t e l l a k i d I'm going t o come down on him, i t ' s o n l y a f t e r I'm uh, I'm s u r e , 100% t h a t he knows where I'm coming from. He knows I don't t a l k j u s t to hear m y s e l f t a l k . I f and when i t g e t s t o t h a t p o i n t , my p r o b a t i o n e r s know what's going t o happen and why I'm d o i n g i t , uh, I make v e r y sure o f t h a t . Uh, u s u a l l y we've gone over and over i t so t h a t they know how and i n what uh, way t h e y ' r e n o t making i t , you know, t h e terms and so forth. And t h e judge w i l l know e x a c t l y what's going on and why I'm recommending what I am. I , ah, t h i n k t h a t i t ' s o n l y f a i r t o everybody concerned.  121  How term  do p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r s attempt to pursue t h e i r s h o r t and  'goals' d u r i n g e a r l y p r o b a t i o n i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h  c o o p e r a t i v e ' p r o b a t i o n e r s without cut  p r o b a t i o n work?  example of one  The  r e s o r t i n g to  ' t h r e a t s ' which may  t r a n s c r i p t on page 118  s t r a t e g y which was  a general u t i l i t y  p r o v i d e s us w i t h a t y p i c a l  I suggest  just  has a l r e a d y been examined. terms t o generate  allowed  The  p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r m e t h o d i c a l l y employs  a s e r i e s of p r o b a t i o n - r e l e v a n t q u e s t i o n s .  juvenile,  q u e s t i o n s , but does not  pro-  probation-relevant  the j u v e n i l e ' s i n t e r a c t i o n a l performances to pass  the r e q u i r e d ' c o o p e r a t i o n ' i s not  p r o b a t i o n e r seemed to have ' l i t t l e to have l i t t l e  Note, however, how utterance:  The  the  R e c a l l t h a t t h i s i s the t h i r d s u p e r v i s o r y i n t e r v i e w , that the  a d d r e s s i n g h i s ' l a c k o f c o o p e r a t i o n ' or  peared  I would  exchange i s i d e n t i c a l to t h a t which  t u r n , produces minimal responses to those  'topics'.  if  strategy  ' t h r e a t ' s t r a t e g y which  v i d e the p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r w i t h d i r e c t a c c e s s t o any  has  proba-  examined. F i r s t , n o t i c e that the i n i t i a l  in  t h a t the  i n the accomplishment of p r o b a t i o n t a s k s .  l i k e to b e g i n by b r i e f l y c o n t r a s t i n g i t w i t h the was  'nonunder-  seen to be r o u t i n e l y employed by  t i o n o f f i c e r s during supervisory i n t e r a c t i o n s . has  ' r e l u c t a n t ' or  long-  without  ' t h r e a t e n i n g ' to take him  forthcoming.  to say',  to c o u r t  Indeed, j u s t as  the  so the p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r  to say o r do throughout such i n t e r a c t i o n a l  the exchange a l t e r s markedly w i t h the  PO  ap-  exchanges.  probationer's  122  PO:  Well,ok, you're so t a l k a t i v e I t h i n k I ' l l l e t you bugger off. Maybe next week you can t h i n k o f something t o t a l k about. Stay out o f t r o u b l e , ok?  Juv:  Sure. night.  PO:  Remember, you d i d n ' t have a n y t h i n g  Juv:  But I d i d n ' t /  PO:  /So t h a t ' s f i n e w i t h me. F i n e , I mean to me and you don't want t o f i l l me i n g i v e me the time o f day. But then you me to l e t you go t o a p a r t y . Well I'm get a l i t t l e c o o p e r a t i o n I t h i n k you'd the weekend.  ( ( s t a n d s ) ) Oh, I want to go t o a, uh, p a r t y  tomorrow  t o t a l k about.  you're on p r o b a t i o n on a n y t h i n g , won't t u r n around and want s o r r y , but u n t i l I b e t t e r s t a y i n over  I w i l l have a good d e a l t o say about t h i s b i t o f i n t e r a c t i o n , but  f i r s t would l i k e t o note that t h e p r o b a t i o n  'threaten'  t o draw t h e judge i n t o the i n t e r a c t i o n .  as something between the p r o b a t i o n r e s o l v a b l e at that l e v e l .  Indeed, f o r the f i r s t the probation  formance.  The matter i s t r e a t e d  o f f i c e r and p r o b a t i o n e r  Thus, t h e p r o b a t i o n  to t h e j u v e n i l e ' s ' l a c k o f c o o p e r a t i o n '  ile,  o f f i c e r here does n o t  two and o n e - h a l f  and, t h e r e f o r e ,  o f f i c e r does n o t respond  w i t h a ' t h r e a t ' which may m i s f i r e . supervisory  o f f i c e r d i d n o t say a n y t h i n g  meetings w i t h t h e j u v e n -  about the j u v e n i l e ' s p e r -  In t h i s way, I would l i k e t o suggest, the p o s s i b i l i t y o f a  ' c o n f r o n t a t i o n ' was minimized. which a ' c o n f r o n t a t i o n '  finally  Of i n t e r e s t h e r e , however, i s the way i n occurs.  F i r s t , note t h a t t h e PO i s not the i n t e r a c t a n t who a l t e r s the p a t t e r n which has c h a r a c t e r i z e d tioner's utterance for  their interactions.  10 i s t h e f i r s t  change.  the exchange as r e f l e c t i n g c o m p e t i t i v e  of the r e l e v a n c e  Rather, the proba-  I take i t t h a t we may account s t r a t e g i e s v i a an examination  o f the terms f o r t h i s on-going i n t e r a c t i o n .  We have  already  123  seen t h a t j u v e n i l e s on p r o b a t i o n f r e q u e n t l y 'have n o t h i n g to s a y ,  a  1  ' f a c t ' which l i m i t s the p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r ' s d i r e c t and a c c e s s to p r o b a t i o n - r e l e v a n t i n f o r m a t i o n . t i o n o f f i c e r may t i o n e r , and  initiate  so i n s t r u c t  i n s o f a r as i t may may  have seen t h a t the p r o b a -  ' c r i t i c i s m s ' of such a performance by the p r o b a -  the j u v e n i l e t h a t such performance i s  be t r e a t e d as  then be shown t o be  f a t e as a  We  straightforward  'uncooperative'  behaviour,  p o t e n t i a l l y consequential  'probationer'.  a ' f a c t ' which  f o r the j u v e n i l e ' s  Note t h a t the terms 'as u s u a l ' , are employed by  the p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r as a r e s o u r c e w i t h which t o accomplish understandings'  gage i n probation-adequate  a c t i o n i s much more s u b t l e .  The  The  present  The  I would l i k e  term  CURFEW:  'use' o f the terms i n t h i s  which I suggest  to note t h a t the u t t e r a n c e  i s relevant i s the f o l l o w i n g :  P.M. P.M.  i n h i s home  - week n i g h t s - weekends ( F r i d a y and  Saturday  only)  P r o b a t i o n e r must obey t h i s curfew u n l e s s granted e x t e n s i o n by h i s p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r . terms e x p l i c i t l y that  10  'comply' w i t h h i s terms of  P r o b a t i o n e r must be o f f the s t r e e t s and as f o l l o w s :  10:00  'curfew' and  inter-  r a i s i n g the i s s u e of the terms.  9:00  The  en-  terms h e r e , however, are not  t r e a t e d as the j u v e n i l e ' s attempt to  p r o b a t i o n without  3.  'proper  which c o n s t r a i n s the j u v e n i l e t o  reporting.  a c t i v a t e d by the p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r .  The  such  of the j u v e n i l e ' s s t a t u s as a ' p r o b a t i o n e r ' .  s t r a t e g y i s a l s o c o n s t r u c t e d i n a way  should be  inadequate  s t a t e t h a t the p r o b a t i o n e r w i l l  'an e x t e n s i o n ' of t h a t curfew may  o n l y be  an  'obey' a  'granted'  by  124  the p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r .  T h i s f e a t u r e o f t h e terms p l a c e s a mechanism i n the  hands of t h e p r o b a t i o n w i t h which he may extend on t h e everyday a c t i v i t i e s o f h i s p r o b a t i o n e r s .  t h e i n f l u e n c e he e x e r c i s e s The e a r l i e r s t r a t e g i e s  i n v o l v e d t h e use of t h e terms and the n o t i o n o f ' c o o p e r a t i o n ' o r 'nonc o o p e r a t i o n ' and the c o n s e q u e n t i a l i t y o f each i n terms o f t h e u l t i m a t e ' f a t e o f the p r o b a t i o n e r as p r o b a t i o n e r . would  Thus, t h e ' c o o p e r a t i v e '  probationer  'get o f f p r o b a t i o n when the p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r went back t o c o u r t i n  'a few months' w h i l e  the 'uncooperative'  p r o b a t i o n e r would be 'taken  back  to c o u r t ' o r a t l e a s t , remain on p r o b a t i o n as a j u v e n i l e i n need o f 'help and  s u p e r v i s i o n and proper  guidance'.  The e x i s t e n c e of t h e curfew c l a u s e ,  as i n c l u d e d i n the terms o f p r o b a t i o n , on t h e o t h e r hand, enables the p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r t o 'reward' and 'punish' week t o week 'compliance' 'non-compliance' without  resorting to 'threats' or himself  or  ' r a i s i n g ' the  i s s u e o f the terms and probation-adequate  behaviour  whether o r n o t the p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r w i l l  'grant p e r m i s s i o n ' f o r t h e j u v e n i l  to  'attend a p a r t y  1  and/or r e p o r t i n g .  Thus,  (an a c t i v i t y which most l i k e l y n e c e s s i t a t e s t h e j u v e n i l e  s t a y i n g out ' a f t e r curfew') i s here d i s p l a y e d t o depend upon t h e j u v e n i l e ' s adequate p r o b a t i o n r e p o r t i n g . past and present  Now the j u v e n i l e i s i n s t r u c t e d t o 'see' h i s  performance as inadequate  i n a p r a c t i c a l sense and terms  o f h i s g o a l s , i . e . , he has not p r o v i d e d t h e p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r w i t h t h e i n f o r m a t i o n which the p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r now i n f o r m s him i s a n e c e s s a r y requisite  f o r the g r a n t i n g o f p e r m i s s i o n .  pre-  In t h i s way, the p r o b a t i o n o f -  f i c e r i s able to d i s p l a y f o r the j u v e n i l e the c o n s e q u e n t i a l i t y o f the i n adequate performance and at t h e same time not  'grant' an e x t e n s i o n on the curfew.  'depersonalize' the d e c i s i o n to That i s t o say, t h e p r o b a t i o n  125  officer's  u t t e r a n c e i s c o n s t r u c t e d i n a way which p r o v i d e s f o r the p r o b a -  t i o n e r ' s proper granted  'understanding'  of h i s a c t i o n as a n a t u r a l and t a k e n - f o r -  'outcome' of the j u v e n i l e ' s inadequate  performance as a p r o b a t i o n e r ,  r a t h e r than an a c t i o n i n i t i a t e d by t h e p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r . Rather the d r a m a t i c  than d i s p l a y i n g the 'consequence' o f n o n - c o o p e r a t i o n  'immediate' r e t u r n to c o u r t f o r another  as  appearance b e f o r e  the judge,  the p r e s e n t s t r a t e g y d i s p l a y s one mundane, r o u t i n e ' c o s t ' o f  inadequate  performance o r n o n - c o o p e r a t i o n ,  probation o f f i c e r bation officer enables  'whenever' the p r o b a t i o n e r  the p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r  by t h e  'wants' something t h a t the p r o -  i s i n a p o s i t i o n to 'grant' o r 'withhold'.  The s t r a t e g y  to 'deal w i t h ' n o n - c o o p e r a t i o n  which does not r e l y upon the h o l l o w up  i . e . , non-cooperation  ' t h r e a t ' to c a l l  i n a way  the judge o r p o i n t  the a d v e r s a r i a l o r a n t a g o n i s t i c a s p e c t s of the p r o b a t i o n r e l a t i o n s h i p .  The p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r here, as i n e a r l i e r  i n t e r a c t i o n s , i s involved i n the  mundane a c t i v i t y o f e x p l i c a t i n g f o r the j u v e n i l e the c o s t s and b e n e f i t s of  the v a r i o u s s t r a t e g i e s o f c o o p e r a t i o n and n o n - c o o p e r a t i o n  a v a i l a b l e to him as a p r o b a t i o n e r . for  i s p r o v i d i n g the j u v e n i l e w i t h of  Thus, the p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r d i s p l a y s  the j u v e n i l e a c o s t o f h i s 'inadequate'  w i l l not be granted an e x t e n s i o n .  p r o b a t i o n r e p o r t i n g , i . e . , he  A t t h e same time,  the p r o b a t i o n  officer  the r e c i p e f o r o b t a i n i n g t h e c o o p e r a t i o n  the PO, i . e . , an e x t e n s i o n of the curfew, e t c . , ' i n the f u t u r e ' , as  w e l l as the c o n c e p t u a l machinery w i t h which to make adequate sense o f the p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r ' s of  which a r e  'proper' o r p r o b a t i o n -  ' s t r i c t ' a p p l i c a t i o n o f the terms  p r o b a t i o n , e.g., to l o c a t e t h e 'reason' f o r t h e p r o b a t i o n  officer's  r e f u s a l to grant p r o b a t i o n i n h i s own performance, to 'see' the p r o b a t i o n  126  o f f i c e r as 'merely' m e c h a n i c a l l y making the d e c i s i o n t o n o t grant an ext e n s i o n because he has n o t p r o v i d e d mation n e c e s s a r y  and to make sense o f f u t u r e ' t i g h t e n i n g ' o f p r o b a t i o n a r y  c o n t r o l as an e x p e c t a b l e formance.  the p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r w i t h t h e i n f o r -  and r o u t i n e outcome o f c o n t i n u e d  inadequate  per-  A g a i n , the terms a r e employed i n the mundane and on-going  accomplishment o f an 'understanding'  o f the meaning o f p r o b a t i o n  both  w i t h i n t h i s and f u t u r e p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r - p r o b a t i o n e r i n t e r a c t i o n . I would now l i k e t o r e t u r n t o something which I mentioned i n p a s s i n g e a r l i e r , that u t t e r a n c e 10 should be t r e a t e d as the p r o b a t i o n e r ' s attempt t o 'comply' w i t h h i s terms o f p r o b a t i o n without of the terms.  r a i s i n g the issue  What i s t h e b a s i s f o r such a claim?  F i r s t , l e t us note t h e p o s i t i o n i n g of t h i s u t t e r a n c e .  I t comes  a f t e r the probation o f f i c e r has, i n e f f e c t , dismissed the probationer: PO:  Well ok, you're so t a l k a t i v e I t h i n k I ' l l l e t you bugger off. Maybe next week you can t h i n k o f something t o t a l k about. Stay out o f t r o u b l e , ok?  Juv:  Sure. ( ( s t a n d s ) ) Oh, I wanted t o go t o a, uh, p a r t y tomorrow n i g h t . I take  d i d although  i t t h a t t h e u t t e r a n c e d i d n o t ' j u s t happen' t o come when i t  I w i l l argue t h a t i t was p r o b a b l y  the p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r .  t o be so t r e a t e d by  In other words, t h e p r o b a t i o n e r c o n s t r u c t e d t h e  u t t e r a n c e i n a way which was designed interaction.  intended  t o accomplish  h i s 'goals' within  this  L e t us t a k e , as a c o n t r a s t , the f o l l o w i n g almost p r o t o t y p i c a l  ' e x t e n s i o n - g r a n t i n g ' exchange between a ' c o o p e r a t i v e ' p r o b a t i o n e r , i . e . , one who  'asked' i f he c o u l d a t t e n d a p a r t y , and a p r o b a t i o n  officer:  127  PO:  Anything  e l s e you want t o t a l k about?  Juv: Yeah, I was wondering i f I c o u l d go t o a p a r t y on  Saturday  night. PO:  W e l l uh, l e t ' s  Juv: P r o b a b l y PO:  see. How l a t e would you be out?  twelve  o r so.  W e l l t h a t ' s a f t e r the curfew as you know. Well now, who's g i v i n g i t - where i s i t - and who's going t o be t h e r e ?  ((A f a i r l y l e n g t h y exchange ensues d u r i n g which t h e PO 'probes' f o r i n f o r m a t i o n about 'the p a r t y ' as a p r o b a t i o n - r e l e v a n t event. The d i s c u s s i o n ' s p i l l s over' i n t o a d i s c u s s i o n o f how the probat i o n e r ' s p a r e n t s ' f e e l about i t ' . The p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r l o o k s a t the p r o b a t i o n f i l e which i s open on h i s desk. He then speaks t o t h e p r o b a t i o n e r . ) ) PO:  OK, I don't see why the f i l e ' s good and Uh, course - when I I mean. I want you running around w i t h ok?  Juv: Um, yeah. PO:  uh, you can't go t o t h e p a r t y . I mean i t sounds l i k e you're doing ok a t home. say t o the p a r t y t h a t ' s e x a c t l y what to go s t r a i g h t home a f t e r w a r d s , uh, no t h e gang, s t r a i g h t home by 12:30 sharp  Thanks!  Don't thank me, you've earned i t . J u s t keep up t h e good work. The  s i t u a t i o n here s t r o n g l y resembles t h e former one i n s o f a r as  both p r o b a t i o n e r s a r e faced w i t h the ' problem b a t i o n ' and, c o n s e q u e n t l y , to  'attend a p a r t y ' .  subject to a  They d i f f e r  curfew  o f b e i n g a j u v e n i l e 'on p r o which l i m i t s t h e i r  i n t h e way i n which they seek t o  ability comply  w i t h t h e term o f p r o b a t i o n which r e q u i r e s them t o o b t a i n t h e p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r ' s a p p r o v a l o f an e x t e n s i o n on the curfew.  The ' c o o p e r a t i v e '  pro-  b a t i o n e r b r i n g s up the t o p i c at what, f o r t h e p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r , i s an a p p r o p r i a t e p l a c e d u r i n g t h e i r i n t e r a c t i o n , i . e . , i n response t o t h e PO's explicit tioner  q u e s t i o n about whether t h e r e was wanted  to  t a l k about .  anything  else  that the proba-  By doing t h i s , the p r o b a t i o n e r d i s p l a y s  128  t o the p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r the  ' f a c t ' t h a t b e t a k e s i t t h a t the matter i s  p r o b a t i o n - r e l e v a n t , t h a t i t i s something which i s p r o p e r l y and a matter of concern  to the l a t t e r , and,  be d e a l t w i t h d u r i n g a t r e a t e d as time and relevant.  probation  'uncooperative',  i n a way He  t h e r e f o r e , something which  interview'.  'mentions' the s u b j e c t i n a ' c a s u a l  really  s i g n a l l e d the  'relevant' for ' o f f i c i a l '  by the p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r .  he  p r o b a t i o n e r who  which s h i e l d s i t from b e i n g r e a d i l y t r e a t e d as  In so d o i n g , the p r o b a t i o n e r appears t o have  ance i s , both  The  A l s o , the  grammatically,  and  i s a q u e s t i o n about i f ' i t ' s ok' i n t h i s way  an acceptance of the l a t t e r ' s j u v e n i l e merely informs  is  probation-  or  'absent-minded' man-  end  o f the i n t e r v i e w .  'just thought  of  r e c o g n i t i o n and  uncooperative  'something' treatment  probationer's  utter-  i n t o n a t i o n a l l y a statement, i . e . , t h a t  'wants' to go t o a p a r t y , w h i l e  a t i v e ' probationer  should  on the o t h e r hand, i n t r o d u c e s the matter at a  n e r a f t e r t h e p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r has  which i s not  expectably  the  'cooperative' probationer's  f o r him  to a t t e n d a p a r t y .  The  remark  'cooper-  e x p l i c i t l y d i s p l a y s t o the p r o b a t i o n  officer  ' a u t h o r i t y ' to d e c i d e the i s s u e w h i l e the  other  him.  N o t i c e the i n t e r a c t i o n which the p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r b u i l d s from the  'cooperative' probationer's request.  an i l l u s t r a t i o n o f the  cooperative  I would l i k e to p o i n t to t h i s  p r o b a t i o n e r g r a n t i n g the  o f f i c e r an i d e a l o c c a s i o n f o r engaging i n warranted In o t h e r words, the  relevant matters  probation  probing.  'cooperative' probationer presents  p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r w i t h the o p p o r t u n i t y t o gather  as  the  i n f o r m a t i o n about p r o b a t i o n -  ' i n o r d e r t o ' determine whether or not h i s performance  warrants the g r a n t i n g o f p e r m i s s i o n .  By p r o v i d i n g t h e o p p o r t u n i t y and  then  129  cooperating• •• i n the subsequent q u e s t i o n i n g , t h e c o o p e r a t i v e p r o b a t i o n e r displays his  understanding  o f the . a u t h o r i t y  o f the probation  to make such d e c i s i o n s and o f the f u n c t i o n o f such proper  officer  and adequate  r e p o r t i n g i n t h e d i s p l a y e d d e c i s i o n making p r o c e s s . The  elegance  o f t h e mundane c o m p e t i t i v e i n t e r a c t i o n a l  strategies  under c o n s i d e r a t i o n i s n i c e l y i l l u s t r a t e d by t h e f o l l o w i n g p i e c e o f d a t a : Routine F r i d a y a f t e r n o o n meeting w i t h p r o b a t i o n e r Mark Smith, a 1 4 - y e a r - o l d who was brought b e f o r e t h e court on numerous charges o f 'breaking and e n t e r i n g ' . Mark was charged a l o n g w i t h two s l i g h t l y o l d e r boys, Tom and Jim. H i s terms o f p r o b a t i o n s p e c i f y t h a t he i s n o t t o a s s o c i a t e w i t h them. Mrs. Smith had phoned t h e p r e v i o u s morning t o ask t h e p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r i f he had g i v e n Mark p e r m i s s i o n t o go t o a p a r t y and s t a y out u n t i l midnight the f o l l o w i n g Saturday. The p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r r e p l i e d t h a t he had n o t and t h a t , i n any event, he would have t o l d t h e p r o b a t i o n e r t o d i s c u s s t h e matter w i t h h i s mother and o b t a i n h e r p e r m i s s i o n b e f o r e he would have granted p e r m i s s i o n . The f i n a l d e c i s i o n was 'up t o ' the mother. Mrs. Smith then informed t h e PO t h a t Mark had t o l d h e r t h a t h i s PO had t o l d him t h a t he c o u l d go t o t h e p a r t y and that he would go whether she l i k e d i t o r n o t . The PO t o l d Mrs. Smith t h a t he would c a l l h e r as soon as he had t a l k e d t o the youth. I assumed t h a t t h e p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r was going t o ' c o n f r o n t ' t h e j u v e n i l e w i t h t h e i n f o r m a t i o n p r o v i d e d b y t h e mother. D u r i n g t h e i n t e r v i e w Mark f a i l e d t o mention a p a r t y and was r e t i c e n t 'as u s u a l ' . The PO asked t h e s t a n d a r d q u e s t i o n s about h i s performance, i . e . , how t h i n g s were going i n s c h o o l , how he was g e t t i n g a l o n g w i t h h i s mother, e t c . Mark c l a i m e d t h a t ' e v e r y t h i n g ' was ok. A f t e r a few minutes, the p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r appeared t o move t o c l o s e the i n t e r v i e w w i t h t h e f o l l o w i n g r e marks : PO:  Well um, so I ' l l see you next F r i d a y , OK? And um, I'm g l a d e v e r y t h i n g ' s ok at home. Say h e l l o t o your mum f o r me.  Juv: OK. PO:  and t e l l h e r I ' l l drop by d u r i n g the week, maybe uh (checks appointment c a l e n d a r ) Wednesday. I f she's n o t going t o be at home would you ask h e r t o g i v e me a c a l l on Monday?  130  Juv: Yeah, s u r e . (begins t o l e a v e ) Oh, Mr. Jones, a g i r l asked me t o come over Saturday n i g h t , t h a t ' d be OK wouldn't i t ? PO:  Ah, w e l l i t sounds ok.  What does your mum  say about i t ?  Here the p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r d e a l s w i t h a p r o b a t i o n e r ' s without  deception  d i r e c t l y c o n f r o n t i n g him w i t h h i s knowledge o f t h a t d e c e p t i o n .  By  managing t h e i n t e r a c t i o n i n t h e way he does, t h e p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r i s a b l e to  ' s h i e l d ' the r e l a t i o n s h i p o f t h e p r o b a t i o n e r and h i s mother from t h e  p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t he w i l l  a t t e n d t o h e r d i s c l o s u r e as, f o r example, a  'betrayal'. The u t t e r a n c e w i t h which t h e PO appears t o i n i t i a t e the ' c l o s i n g ' o f t h e i n t e r v i e w i s c o n s t r u c t e d i n a way which p o w e r f u l l y c o n s t r a i n s (and 4 at t h e same time enables)  t h e j u v e n i l e t o engage i n f u r t h e r i n t e r a c t i o n .  He does t h i s by 'summing up' t h e p r o b a t i o n - r e l e v a n t content view, i . e . , that  ' e v e r y t h i n g ' s ok', and then  of the i n t e r -  d i s p l a y i n g f o r the j u v e n i l e  f e a t u r e s o f 'normal p r o b a t i o n work' which w i l l p r o v i d e him w i t h  information  which w i l l d i s c r e d i t t h e c a r e f u l l y managed i m p r e s s i o n  Thus, the  'later'.  j u v e n i l e i s shown t h a t t h e p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r ' s normal round o f a c t i v i t i e s w i l l uncover the f a c t t h a t he has engaged i n d e c e p t i o n and t h a t  'next  F r i d a y ' such i n f o r m a t i o n w i l l become t h e p r o b a t i o n r e l e v a n t t o p i c f o r d i s c u s s i o n and warrant f o r a c t i o n on the p a r t o f t h e p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r and mother.  Equipped w i t h t h i s probation-adequate  t i o n , the p r o b a t i o n e r subsequently  understanding  engaged i n a g r e a t d e a l o f ' n e g o t i a -  t i o n ' here and now over whether o r n o t he should be allowed 4.  o f the s i t u a -  t o go t o  F o r a u s e f u l d i s c u s s i o n o f the i n t e r a c t i o n a l accomplishment o f 'opening up c l o s i n g s ' and s o c i o l i n g u i s t i c f e a t u r e s o f c o n v e r s a t i o n which are o f d i r e c t r e l e v a n c e t o an a n a l y s i s o f t h i s exchange, see S c h e g l o f f and Sacks ( 1 9 7 4 ) .  131  the p a r t y , the r o l e of h i s mother and PO  i n such d e c i s i o n making,  etc. In a d d i t i o n , p r o b a t i o n e r s would f r e q u e n t l y attempt to a v o i d bation-adequate  r e p o r t i n g a l t o g e t h e r by  'not showing up'  for their  duled i n t e r v i e w s , a s t r a t e g y which made them u n a v a i l a b l e to the which they otherwise  experienced  visroy probation o f f i c e r s .  they would attempt to data r e p r e s e n t s one  sche-  'probing'  during face-to-face i n t e r a c t i o n with  I n s t e a d , they would telephone  they took t o be an a c c e p t a b l e  pro-  the PO w i t h what  'reason' f o r not b e i n g p r e s e n t .  'get p e r m i s s i o n ' v i a such phone c a l l s .  such o c c a s i o n and  super-  On  occasion,  The f o l l o w i n g  the p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r ' s competent  management t h e r e o f : I was d i s c u s s i n g an i n t e r v i e w which had j u s t ended. rang and the p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r answered: PO:  understanding  his  above, the adequate and  i s shown, f o r example, t h a t he  i s being  performance i s deemed adequate.  impressed  proper  o f ' p r o b a t i o n ' by the p r o b a t i o n e r i s s c r u p u l o u s l y c u l t i v a t e d . 'granted p e r m i s s i o n ' because  The n o t i o n t h a t c o n t e n t s of 'the  produce the s t a n d a r d by which the p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r is  phone  H e l l o (pause) Yes, t h i s i s Mr. Jackson. (pause) Oh, h i Ted. (pause) Yeah, ok. That's ok, l o n g as you c a l l me. (pause) Umhum, and how l a t e d i d you want to s t a y out? (pause) I s i t ok w i t h your mother and f a t h e r ? (pause) OK, hang on a minute, I ' l l check the f i l e . (The PO covered t h e phone w i t h h i s hand and c o n t i n u e d t a l k i n g t o me about t h e e a r l i e r i n t e r v i e w . A f t e r about two minutes, he r e sumed h i s phone c o n v e r s a t i o n : ) Well e v e r y t h i n g l o o k s ok. But you be i n by 12 and don't get i n t o a n y t h i n g , ok. And be here next week. See you l a t e r . Even i n exchanges such as the one  He  The  upon the p r o b a t i o n e r at t h i s moment.  ' d e c i d e s ' such  file'  matters  ' P e r m i s s i o n ' i s shown to  132  be c o n t i n g e n t upon a 'good f i l e ' d i s p l a y e d by i m p l i c a t i o n .  and the c o n s e q u e n t i a l l y o f a 'bad  The everyday accomplishment  file'  o f such adequate  and  p r o p e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g s enables the PO t o manage h i s d a i l y s u p e r v i s o r y a c t i v i t i e s i n a competent, a c c o u n t a b l e manner. t h i s manner, he renders the  'consequences'  Note t h a t by managing cases i n of inadequate p r o b a t i o n p e r f o r -  mance e x p e c t a b l e , r e a s o n a b l e , and u n d e r s t a n d a b l e f o r the p r o b a t i o n e r s , p a r e n t s , and o t h e r s who  may  be i n v o l v e d i n subsequent  court processing.  133  CHAPTER FIVE COOLING A PROBATIONER OUT:  THE INTERACTIONAL ACCOMPLISHMENT  OF A PROBATION-ADEQUATE UNDERSTANDING OF AND COOPERATION IN 'PLACEMENT' (PART ONE:  THE PARENTS)  In Chapters F i v e and S i x I w i l l examine a p r a c t i c a l concern o f probation  o f f i c e r s which pervades p r o b a t i o n work from i n i t i a l  contact  through s u p e r v i s i o n and placement o r t e r m i n a t i o n o f p r o b a t i o n . cally,  I i n t e n d t o show t h a t a great d e a l o f p r o b a t i o n  most adequately 'prepares'  i n t e r a c t i o n can be  c h a r a c t e r i z e d as t h e means by which a p r o b a t i o n  j u v e n i l e s , t h e i r p a r e n t s , and c o u r t p e r s o n n e l  subsequent c o u r t a c t i o n and f o r t h e i r n e c e s s a r y tion.  I w i l l present  of court routines.  officer  themselves f o r  participation  i n that ac-  d a t a t o i l l u s t r a t e that t h e consequences o f i n a d e -  quate o r incompetent p r e p a r a t i o n may be s e r i o u s and dramatic  and  Specifi-  'disruptions'  I w i l l then show t h a t t h e apparent r o u t i n e , mundane  e f f i c i e n t p r o c e s s i n g o f j u v e n i l e s by t h e c o u r t r e s t s upon competent  'programming' o f t h e r e l e v a n t a c t o r s by t h e p r o b a t i o n The  officer.  competent p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r  competent p r o b a t i o n e r s , ones who know, u n d e r s t a n d , expect, actions of the court.  J u v e n i l e s who  producing  and accept the  'make t r o u b l e ' f o r c o u r t p e r s o n n e l by  a s k i n g too many q u e s t i o n s , c h a l l e n g i n g a recommendation, a r g u i n g  over  ' d e t a i l s ' , i n s u l t i n g t h e judge, e t c . , a r e seen as beyond t h e c o n t r o l o f t h e probation o f f i c e r .  A competent PO a n t i c i p a t e s such problems and takes  134  a c t i o n to e l i m i n a t e o r minimize t h e i r d i s r u p t i v e impact on c o u r t r o u t i n e . A competent PO  then prepares  the c o u r t to d e a l w i t h  'probable'  outbursts  efficiently: A p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r informed the judge t h a t a p a r t i c u l a r j u v e n i l e had been i n s u l t i n g l y a b u s i v e , and that, he had been v i o l e n t w i t h c u s t o d i a l p e r s o n n e l i n the j u v e n i l e d e t e n t i o n c e n t r e . B e f o r e the youth was brought i n t o the c o u r t from the h o l d i n g room, the judge i n s t r u c t e d the r e s e a r c h e r to remain calm i f t h e r e was any t r o u b l e . An ' e x t r a ' p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r , the l a r g e s t one a v a i l a b l e , was asked to s i t next to the j u v e n i l e throughout the h e a r i n g , ' j u s t i n case'. The j u v e n i l e was ushered i n t o the courtroom and s e t between the two p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r s . The j u v e n i l e remained q u i e t throughout the h e a r i n g , o n l y answering d i r e c t q u e s t i o n s which were necessary f o r a j u d i c a t i o n . A f t e r the j u v e n i l e had been taken o u t , the judge thanked the PO f o r the 'warning' and suggested t h a t the j u v e n i l e had p r o b a b l y 'behaved' because of the e x t r a p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r . The  p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r on t h i s o c c a s i o n a n t i c i p a t e d p o s s i b l e  ' t r o u b l e ' based upon i s p r e - c o u r t i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h the judge who PO had  took a c t i o n to prevent  prepared  the j u v e n i l e and  a d i s r u p t i o n of the p r o c e e d i n g s .  The  the j u v e n i l e f o r the h e a r i n g by c a r e f u l l y d i s c u s s i n g the  sequence of events which would take p l a c e , as w e l l as what would be q u i r e d of him  alerted  i n terms of responses to the judge's q u e s t i o n s .  d a t i o n t h a t the PO was  i n t e n d i n g to make was  The  rerecommen-  r e v e a l e d to the j u v e n i l e b e f o r e  the h e a r i n g to minimize the  'shock' the j u v e n i l e might express  Thus, the p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r  took steps which i n c r e a s e d the p r o b a b i l i t y of a  non-problematic,  'in court'.  smooth h e a r i n g v i a d e t a i l e d p r e p a r a t i o n of both judge and  juvenile. S h o r t l y we w i l l and  examine the i n t e r a c t i o n a l p r e p a r a t i o n of j u v e n i l e s  t h e i r parents f o r c o u r t h e a r i n g s .  present  d a t a which i n d i c a t e s what may  F i r s t , however, I would l i k e happen when the PO has  not  to  adequately  135  prepared the p r i n c i p a l s . the c o u r t  The o c c a s i o n  a l s o demonstrates the f r a g i l i t y o f  routine.  A 16 year o l d j u v e n i l e was b e f o r e the c o u r t on a charge o f r a p e . He had been on p r o b a t i o n when he a l l e g e d l y committed the new o f fense. He 'had a h i s t o r y ' o f drug use and s u p p o r t i v e t h e f t . The charge was c o n s i d e r e d s e r i o u s enough to warrant c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f the s e v e r e measure o f ' r a i s i n g ' the j u v e n i l e to a d u l t court,-'- a p o s s i b i l i t y which was e v i d e n t l y viewed by the j u v e n i l e w i t h a t l e a s t some p r i d e . D u r i n g the h e a r i n g , the PO s t a t e d t h a t he was recommending placement i n a r e s i d e n t i a l treatment programme f o r d i s t u r b e d c h i l d r e n . When t h e judge accepted the recommendation, the j u v e n i l e attempted to get over the t a b l e to approach the judge. The PO i n t e r c e p t e d him and extremely l o u d s t r u g g l e ensued. Court p e r s o n n e l rushed to c o n t r o l the j u v e n i l e whose screams were a u d i b l e throughout the c o u r t b u i l d i n g . P r o ceedings i n the other c o u r t were h a l t e d w h i l e the c l e r k was sent to check on the d i s t u r b a n c e . Probation o f f i c e r s l e f t their o f f i c e s to see what was happening, as d i d the s e c r e t a r i e s . The doors l e a d i n g from the w a i t i n g room c o r r i d o r to the c o u r t area were c l o s e d and the h o l d i n g room was l o c k e d . The j u v e n i l e was then c a r r i e d out, k i c k i n g , screaming and b i t i n g , .by p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r s , a c l e r k and a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the h o s p i t a l . He was rushed to a c a r where he was r e s t r a i n e d u n t i l he stopped s t r u g g l i n g , then d r i v e n to the treatment c e n t r e . There was a delay w h i l e the c o u r t p e r s o n n e l 'recovered' from the i n c i d e n t , but f o r the r e s t of the day persons a t a l l l e v e l s remarked upon and t a l k e d about the 'blow-up'. There was a good d e a l o f j o k i n g about how the PO had l e t the judge g e t 'caught w i t h h i s robes down'. A c o n s i d e r a t i o n of t h e above d i s r u p t i o n of the c o u r t r o u t i n e can tell  us a good d e a l about t h a t r o u t i n e and t h e competent accomplishment o f  probation attend for  tasks upon which i t i s based.  to how a j u v e n i l e ' f e e l s ' about a recommendation to be made i n c o u r t  p r a c t i c a l as w e l l as ' t h e r a p e u t i c ' r e a s o n s .  those f e e l i n g s o n l y a t h i s own p e r i l . 1.  The data i n d i c a t e s t h a t PO's must  Indeed, he may  I n t h i s case,  ignore  the p r o b a t i o n  officer  ' R a i s i n g ' a j u v e n i l e i s the most d r a s t i c d i s p o s i t i o n a v a i l a b l e to the j u v e n i l e c o u r t judge. The r a t i o n a l e i s t h a t the j u v e n i l e i s too ' s o p h i s t i c a t e d ' to be d e a l t w i t h through the r e s o u r c e s o f the j u v e n i l e c o u r t and t h a t the h o l d i n g f a c i l i t i e s , drug programmes, e t c . , a v a i l a b l e to the a d u l t c o u r t s a r e n e c e s s a r y .  136  d i d not a n t i c i p a t e the be r e l i e v e d  to escape  'blow-up' because he assumed t h a t the j u v e n i l e would the more ' s e r i o u s ' d i s p o s i t i o n .  He d i d not d i s c u s s  the matter w i t h the j u v e n i l e d u r i n g t h e i r p r e - c o u r t c o n t a c t s and d i d not r e a l i z e t h a t the j u v e n i l e would r e a c t as he d i d to the c o u r t ' s c a t e g o r i z a t i o n of him as  'a d i s t u r b e d c h i l d ' .  As a r e s u l t , n e i t h e r the j u v e n i l e  nor the c o u r t p e r s o n n e l were ' p r o p e r l y p r e p a r e d ' f o r the h e a r i n g . P r e p a r a t i o n f o r acceptance of and  c o o p e r a t i o n i n the course of  a c t i o n the p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r i n t e n d s to recommend i s a b a s i c during probation i n t e r a c t i o n . i n g ' of  In a v e r y r e a l sense,  task of  the r o u t i n e  'what w i l l happen' i f , f o r example, terms a r e v i o l a t e d  v e n i l e i s r e t u r n e d to c o u r t i s a common t a c t i c which r e n d e r s a c t i o n e x p e c t a b l e and u n d e r s t a n d a b l e f o r p r o b a t i o n e r s and I w i l l now  examine the i n t e r a c t i o n a l accomplishment of  by a mother and her adopted  and  the j u -  subsequent  their parents. and  'apprehension'  son.  The case i s of a n a l y t i c i n t e r e s t i n s o f a r as i t n i c e l y the l e n g t h s to which PO's  'remind-  'acceptance'  'understanding' o f a recommendation which i s viewed w i t h  PO's  may  illustrates  be f o r c e d to go d u r i n g the p r o c e s s i n g of  cases i f and when they a r e d e a l i n g w i t h cases t h a t they have r e a s o n to b e l i e v e may about  'cause  trouble' during court processing.  t h i s p a r t i c u l a r case a r e based  The PO's  apprehensions  on h i s r e c e n t e x p e r i e n c e s w i t h i t ' i n  c o u r t ' , e x p e r i e n c e s which may  b r i n g h i s competence i n t o s e r i o u s q u e s t i o n i f  they a r e  I say allowed because t h a t i s how  'allowed' to r e c u r .  would be expected  to o r i e n t to f u r t h e r problems which resemble  The p a r t i c u l a r circumstances of t h a t case were as f o l l o w s : the p a r e n t s had  'agreed'  (on the b a s i s of t h e i r adopted  the  judge  the l a s t  one.  weeks e a r l i e r ,  son's f a i l u r e to  137  adjust  i n the home, a t t e n d  quent a c t i v i t y ) , dation for  t h a t he  should  successfully  'objected'  T h e i r move had  had  c a l l e d him  t h a t he had seemed to be  ?|  so recommended.  t h e i r counsel  by  the mother's  t h a t a recommenD u r i n g the h e a r -  strenuously  'fears'.  officer.  When the  He  PO  to  the  assumed t h a t the mother  the j u v e n i l e another chance. occasioned  s h o r t l y a f t e r t a k i n g the p r o b a t i o n e r  s t o l e n a f a i r l y s i g n i f i c a n t amount of t h e i r 'wrong gang  and  s u b s e q u e n t l y , he p o i n t e d  f o r t h e i r b e h a v i o u r was  ' i n v o l v e d ' i n the  delin-  the judge dropped i t .  the p r o b a t i o n  'change of h e a r t '  convinced the f a t h e r to g i v e  they had  PO  to c o u r t and  to the recommendation, and  'ambivalence' and  concern i n accounting  The  p a r e n t s and  been u n a n t i c i p a t e d  sought to e x p l a i n t h e i r  and h i s involvement i n f u r t h e r  be r e t u r n e d  'placement' be . f i l e d .  i n g , however, the a d o p t i v e  father's  school,  by  His  practical  the f a c t  home to  that  report  'house money' and  again'.  The PO i s p l a n n i n g to recommend t h a t he be removed from h i s adopt i v e home and p l a c e d a t an i n s t i t u t i o n f o r boys run by a l a r g e private charity organization. The PO had e a r l i e r t o l d the r e searcher t h a t the f a t h e r wouldn't 'make any t r o u b l e ' t h a t he would support the a c t i o n , but t h a t the mother might 'not go f o r it'. D u r i n g the evening, the PO f i r s t d i s c u s s e d the case f o r almost an hour w i t h the p a r e n t s , then f o r about h a l f an hour w i t h the j u v e n i l e and f a t h e r . The p a r e n t s ask about the t i m i n g of the p r o c e e d i n g s . PO:  There w i l l be a judgement tomorrow but the f i n a l d i s p o s i t i o n w i l l come a week l a t e r a f t e r I've had a chance to work on the f i n d i n g s and come up w i t h a recommendation f o r the c o u r t to c o n s i d e r . And i t ' s a case of working out as a team, the f o u r of us, what i s you know, i n the b e s t i n t e r e s t s of the boy. ((The PO then goes on to suggest that he i s "of the o p i n i o n m y s e l f " t h a t because of the o r i g i n a l o f f e n s e and "what has happened s i n c e " , he i s t h i n k i n g of recommending placement i n the i n s t i t u t i o n . He then s t a t e s t h a t the j u v e n i l e i s now behaving w e l l 'because' he's f a c ing court. He f i n i s h e s by s a y i n g t h a t the would "very much l i k e to hear your o p i n i o n s " . ) )  138  Fa:  Y e s , w e l l my w i f e has r e s e r v a t i o n s .  Mo:  W e l l I have mixed f e e l i n g s Mr. Smith. I , I f e e l from what George ( ( t h e i r l a w y e r ) ) t o l d me about the Dr.'s r e p o r t t h a t , uh, I'd l i k e to read that r e p o r t ,  PO:  I wish I had i t w i t h me.  Mo:  t h a t he has - from a l l p e o p l e around him, he has a g r e a t sense of i n s e c u r i t y and he's not matured as most boys do eventually. But I f e e l t h a t h i s main s e c u r i t y i s h i s home and h i s mother and f a t h e r , and t h a t we're t h e o n l y s e c u r i t y he h a s . The  the a d o p t i v e is afraid  PO e n t e r s  t h i s p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r v i e w w i t h t h e knowledge t h a t  f a t h e r wants the boy 'sent  mother  that such an a c t i o n would be h a r m f u l , i . e . , t h a t t h e j u v e n i l e  i s l o n e l y and i n s e c u r e  and would i n t e r p r e t placement o u t o f t h e home as  ' r e j e c t i o n ' by the 'parents' a  away' b u t t h a t the a d o p t i v e  who had adopted him. Her concern w i t h  being  'good p a r e n t ' and w i t h the 'meaning' o f c o u r t a c t i o n as p e r c e i v e d by  the p r o b a t i o n e r  were, t h e r e f o r e , seen by t h e p r o b a t i o n  f a c t o r s to be d e a l t w i t h on t h i s o c c a s i o n . reading  o f f i c e r as c r i t i c a l  The o f f i c e r has j u s t f i n i s h e d  a p s y c h i a t r i c r e p o r t on the f a m i l y which he has r e c e i v e d .  report described  the f a t h e r as "a r i g i d  and h a r s h d i s c i p l i n a r i a n " and  stated  t h a t the r e l a t i o n s h i p between him and t h e p r o b a t i o n e r  poor.  F o r the PO, the r e p o r t along w i t h h i s past  ily and,  i n d i c a t e d t h a t the f a t h e r d i d n ' t  was g e n e r a l l y  e x p e r i e n c e w i t h the fam-  " r e a l l y g i v e a damn about t h e b o y "  t h e r e f o r e , "wants him out o f t h e house".  the present  The p r a c t i c a l problem  i n t e r a c t i o n , as t h e PO o u t l i n e d i t to the r e s e a r c h e r ,  convince the boy and h i s Mom t h a t ithis placement i s the o n l y o p t i o n open to us a t t h i s  time".  The  during  " i s to  reasonable  I c a l l i t a ' p r a c t i c a l problem' i n s o f a r  139  as the PO  i s p r e p a r i n g the f a m i l y f o r the appearance i n c o u r t d u r i n g which  the judge w i l l  ask them to 'agree'  to the d i s p o s i t i o n .  D i s p o s i t i o n s which  r u n o f f smoothly do not take a g r e a t d e a l of c o u r t - t i m e and a r e seen as b e i n g produced by The  competent p r o b a t i o n work.  p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r immediately  summarizes the b u s i n e s s at  hand f o r the p r e s e n t o c c a s i o n but does so by p r o v i d i n g the parents w i t h a d e f i n i t i o n of the o c c a s i o n which w i l l be shown to p r o v i d e f o r the accomplishment  of the p r a c t i c a l purposes c i t e d above.  present i n t e r a c t i o n i s presented  Thus, the g o a l of  the  as the development of a recommendation  f o r c o u r t which i s i n the b e s t i n t e r e s t s o f the p r o b a t i o n e r .  Furthermore,  the recommendation i s to be the product of  'parents',  'teamwork' between  the p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r , a n d the judge a l l of whom a r e assumed to be to a c t i n 'the b e s t i n t e r e s t s of the c h i l d ' . c a s i o n p r o v i d e s the p a r t i c i p a n t s w i t h decision-making. coming h e a r i n g . one who  I t a l s o n i c e l y undercuts  T h i s d e s c r i p t i o n of the  oc-  'sense' of b e i n g i n v o l v e d i n the any  a d v e r s a r i a l elements of  the  In so d e s c r i b i n g h i m s e l f , the PO memberships h i m s e l f as  i s i n the b u s i n e s s of  person who  the  seeking  ' h e l p i n g ' the j u v e n i l e and,  can d e f i n e 'help' and  t h i s p a r t i c u l a r case.  As we  the  s h a l l see,  the PO makes a good d e a l of h i s  e t c . , i n c r e d e n t i a l i n g h i m s e l f as  matters  ' f a c t ' which p l a c e s the mother and  a d i s t i n c t disadvantage  a  'best i n t e r e s t s ' of the j u v e n i l e i n  background, e x p e r i e n c e , of t h i s k i n d , a  thereby,  d u r i n g the i n t e r v i e w s .  'an e x p e r t ' i n probationer at  For the p r e s e n t , however,  I merely wish to p o i n t to the f a c t t h a t the n o t i o n of c o l l a b o r a t i v e teamwork i n the b e s t i n t e r e s t of the p r o b a t i o n e r i s employed to p r o v i d e p a r e n t s w i t h the  'proper u n d e r s t a n d i n g '  of the immediately  the  following infor-  140  mation, i . e . , t h a t because of the j u v e n i l e ' s performance, the PO i s cons i d e r i n g placement i n an i n s t i t u t i o n r u n by a l a r g e c h a r i t y  organization.  Thus the parents a r e encouraged to 'understand' the PO's recommendation as i n the b e s t  i n t e r e s t s o f the j u v e n i l e r a t h e r  than as an a t t a c k on t h e  j u v e n i l e and/or themselves and t h e i r competence as p a r e n t s . PO a l s o employs a d d i t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n  Note t h a t the  to b o l s t e r h i s recommendation, one  which i s based on a ' s e r i o u s ' i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e f a c t s a t hand, by referring  to the o r i g i n a l o f f e n s e and the subsequent d e l i n q u e n t  the j u v e n i l e w h i l e on p r o b a t i o n .  actions of  H i s opening remarks a r e a l s o designed to  d e a l w i t h any attempt t h e mother may make to undercut the ' s e r i o u s n e s s ' o f the present  charges by r e f e r e n c e  That i s to say, the p r o b a t i o n  to the f a c t t h a t he ' i s behaving now'.  o f f i c e r suggests t h a t the j u v e n i l e i s 'be-  h a v i n g ' o n l y because he i s f a c i n g c o u r t and t h a t , t h e r e f o r e , p r e s e n t b e haviour  i s not merely an i m p e r f e c t  i n d i c a t o r o f moral c h a r a c t e r , b u t an  a r t f u l l y and i n t e n t i o n a l l y managed p r o d u c t i o n  w i t h which the j u v e n i l e i s  a t t e m p t i n g to avoid s e v e r e c o u r t i n t e r v e n t i o n . In passing, deceives  I wish to c a l l a t t e n t i o n t o the f a c t t h a t the PO  the mother by s t a t i n g t h a t he  wishes he had a copy o f the p s y -  c h i a t r i c r e p o r t when, i n fact,, he had a copy i n h i s b r i e f c a s e . t h i s , he was a b l e  to avoid  the i n t r o d u c t i o n Of m a t e r i a l  s i o n which would have changed i t s c o u r s e .  By doing  i n t o the d i s c u s -  The m a t e r i a l i n t h e c a s e may  have o c c a s i o n e d , f o r example, the mother's attempt to make sense o f the f a c t s by r e f e r e n c e  to the j u v e n i l e ' s r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h the a d o p t i v e  parent,  an i s s u e which could have r e s u l t e d i n a r e d e f i n i t i o n o f the 'problem' and  141  i n t e r f e r e d w i t h the d e s i r e d o b j e c t i v e , 'agreement' by a l l p a r t i e s who would be p r e s e n t i n c o u r t when the recommendation was made. The PO's u t t e r a n c e i s so s t r u c t u r e d t h a t he ends by a s k i n g f o r the p a r e n t s ' o p i n i o n s about t h e proposed recommendation i n the c o n t e x t o f the j u v e n i l e ' s b e s t i n t e r e s t s .  The p a r e n t s a r e c o n s t r a i n e d to speak to  the recommendation as d e f i n e d and shaped by the PO. The mother's u t t e r a n c e t r e a t s the PO's p r o f e s s e d i n t e r e s t i n the j u v e n i l e ' s w e l f a r e s e r i o u s l y , b u t arranges to a r r i v e a t a d i f f e r e n t  conclusion.  the data i n such a way as  Her account  trades on what h e r lawyer  t o l d h e r about the p s y c h i a t r i s t ' s r e p o r t , t h a t the j u v e n i l e was d e s c r i b e d as  ' i n s e c u r e and immature'.  count,  should be understood  "The d e l i n q u e n t ' s a c t s , i n the mother's a c as r e f l e c t i o n s of t h a t i n s e c u r i t y and immaturity.  There i s a l s o r e f e r e n c e to the ' f a c t ' t h a t boys e v e n t u a l l y mature. mother i s s u g g e s t i n g  t h a t h e r adopted son i s i n t r o u b l e because he i s  immature and i n s e c u r e , b u t argues t h a t he w i l l time and s e c u r i t y .  The  'mature' i f g i v e n e x t r a  Her l o c a t i o n of ' i n s e c u r i t y ' as a major problem p r o -  v i d e s the grounds f o r o b j e c t i n g to t h e P O ' s proposed recommendation.  Re-  moval from the home and placement i n the i n s t i t u t i o n i s seen as t a k i n g him  from  'his main s e c u r i t y ' ,  'the o n l y s e c u r i t y he has',  a mo\e which b e -  comes an o b s t a c l e to h i s m a t u r a t i o n a l p r o c e s s r a t h e r than one designed to accelerate i t . I w i l l now t u r n to t h e i n t e r a c t i o n a l work o f the f a t h e r and p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r as they m e t h o d i c a l l y and q u i t e a r t f u l l y a t t a c k t h e mother's 'understanding'  o f the s i t u a t i o n and the i m p l i c i t  s o l u t i o n , i . e . , t h a t the  j u v e n i l e should be worked w i t h by h i s p a r e n t s i n t h e home.  142  PO:  Fa:  Now I agree w i t h you Mrs. Jones, but by the same token t h i s can't be j u s t s o r t o f a p a s s i n g phase. The boy you know, i n s t e a d o f l o o k i n g a t h i s a t t i t u d e , he s a i d " W e l l , I guess i t c o s t mother and dad a l i t t l e more money a g a i n " . And e v e r y t h i n g ' s r i g h t back to where i t was. Yes.  PO:  I mean the boy i s A. not going to s c h o o l .  Fa:  No.  PO:  He's n o t w o r k i n g .  Fa:  No.  PO:  He's n o t m o t i v a t e d  Fa:  No.  PO:  I mean, i f we had something e l s e  Fa:  I f he, f o r i n s t a n c e , had a job  Mo:  Which he has t r i e d .  PO:  Yeah, but I mean you s e e , I don't doubt t h a t he has, b u t l o o k a t i t from the s t a n d p o i n t of - what has he g o t to o f f e r the employer? ( ( b o t h parents nod)) You have g o t him i n t o two o r t h r e e s c h o o l s , so he's not even e l i g i b l e f o r v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g , can't go back to s c h o o l .  Mo :  Umhum, he's n o t .  PO:  No. So then t h i s i s why I've f e l t a l l a l o n g t h a t the Boy's House, o r a r e a s o n a b l e type o f r e s o u r c e where he w i l l have an o p p o r t u n i t y to improve h i m s e l f  towards a n y t h i n g a l o n g t h o s e  He has.  lines.  I know t h i s .  The p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r begins an a t t a c k upon the mother's s t a n d i n g ' o f the case.  The a t t a c k i s designed  to a c c o m p l i s h  'under-  the 'reason-  a b l e n e s s ' o f the PO's i n t e n d e d recommendation by u n d e r c u t t i n g and q u e s t i o n i n g the mother's i m p l i e d recommendation. The a t t a c k opens w i t h  the remark t h a t he agrees w i t h  the mother,  a u s e f u l frame i n s o f a r as i t i n s t r u c t s h e r to read what f o l l o w s as not i n  143  c o n f l i c t w i t h her  remarks.  By  to minimize the appearance of  opening h i s u t t e r a n c e i n t h i s way, ' c o n f l i c t ' between h i s remarks and  the mother, a t a c t i c which may be p e r c e i v e d and  reacted  probation o f f i c e r  this analysis analysis i n g an  by  to as an  on  addressed  of i f g i v e n  blem' i s the j u v e n i l e ' s  argument.  'adequate' s e c u r i t y ,  h i s improper a t t i t u d e as i s viewed as  states,  i.e.,  'support' p r o v i d e d by  o f f i c e r ' s account as ' f a c i n g up' p r o v i s i o n of seen as an  e s s e n t i a l part  done.  of  providjuvenile  suggests t h a t  the  the  'pro-  to an a c t i v e l y h a r m f u l  'cause' of  the  made no  delinquent  In o t h e r words, the sense of  the p a r e n t s i s l o c a t e d  via  i n the  and  'security',  probation  a b l e to  avoid  Under t h i s e x p l a n a t o r y model, the  ' s e c u r i t y ' i s viewed as  parents'  i n s u l a t i n g the p r o b a t i o n e r from what i s  ' s o l u t i o n ' to the problem, the  the change of a t t i t u d e .  remain i n the home a t  this point  rather  the  His  f o r money ' s t o l e n ' from o t h e r s  of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and  i t was'  the PO  the means by which the j u v e n i l e was  to what he had  then documents  e s c a p i n g r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r those a c t s  out' money taken from them.  the  states  the j u v e n i l e h i m s e l f has  the assumption t h a t h i s parents would pay 'be  PO  The  toward the o f f e n s e .  a t t i t u d e which i s then l i n k e d  attempt to examine  just  The  flatly  Rather than 'a s t a g e ' which the  Thus, the PO  Rather, he  F i r s t , he  the mother's t h e o r e t i c a l p o s i t i o n by  sense of s e c u r i t y .  acts.  those of  the mother's p o s i t i o n .  j u s t s o r t of a p a s s i n g phase".  a l t e r n a t i v e understanding.  w i l l grow out  'attack'  r e f e r e n c e to the boy's a t t i t u d e  implicitly  moves  reduce the p r o b a b i l i t y t h a t h i s remarks w i l l  then addresses her  that " t h i s c a n ' t be  the PO  A l l o w i n g the j u v e n i l e  i s seen as p u t t i n g  than a d o p t i n g the p r e f e r r e d  acceptance  e v e r y t h i n g back  course, i . e . ,  to 'where  constructively  144  u s i n g the o f f e n s e i n promoting of  'needed change'.  A 'proper'  the ' f a c t s ' warrants placement r a t h e r than c o n t i n u e d  interpretation  probation supervi-  s i o n i n the home. N o t i c e the s e r i e s of c o l l a b o r a t i v e utterances and  father.  parent.  produced by the PO  The f a t h e r i s p r o v i d i n g t h e mother w i t h a model o f a good  Demonstrating t h a t he 'understands'  and shares the p r o b a t i o n  offi-  c e r ' s concerns i n t h e c r i t i c a l matter of what i s i n t h e j u v e n i l e ' s 'best interest'.  The PO i s a b l e t o i n t r o d u c e s u p p o r t i v e  conversation.  i n t o the  The f a t h e r ' s quick and r o u t i n e agreement p l a c e s him 'with'  the p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r , a ' f a c t ' which puts having  'evidence'  t h e mother i n the p o s i t i o n o f  to c h a l l e n g e PO and husband i f she wishes to take i s s u e w i t h the  evidence. The PO s u b s t a n t i a t e s h i s d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h the home s i t u a t i o n by r e f e r e n c e to t h e p r o b a t i o n e r ' s performance i n o t h e r c r i t i c a l r e l e v a n t a r e a s , i . e . , s c h o o l and work.  probation-  I m p l i c i t here i s t h e shared know-  l e d g e t h a t performance as d e s c r i b e d i s p a r t o f the g e n e r a l c a t e g o r i z a t i o n of  the j u v e n i l e as one on whom p r o b a t i o n has not worked, a ' f a c t ' which b e -  comes the warrant f o r more s e r i o u s and d r a s t i c c o u r t i n t e r v e n t i o n . the p r o b a t i o n terms r e q u i r e t h e j u v e n i l e to be e i t h e r job'.  ' i n s c h o o l ' o r 'on a  I f t h e j u v e n i l e i s not 'at work' o r p r e p a r i n g f o r work by a t t e n d i n g  s c h o o l , he may be h e l d to be ' i n v i o l a t i o n ' . that  Thus,  ' p r o b a t i o n ' i n the home has f a i l e d  p l i e d with  The PO and f a t h e r a r e showing  i n s o f a r as the j u v e n i l e has n o t com-  the terms, not 'merely' because o f the p r e s e n t : ^ '  PO and f a t h e r l o c a t e the reason  offense.  f o r the youth's poor p r o b a t i o n - r e l e v a n t  The per-  formance i n h i s l a c k of m o t i v a t i o n , a p o s i t i o n which i m p l i e s t h a t a p r o b a t i o n  145  g o a l should be to 'motivate'  the p r o b a t i o n e r .  The mother d i s p u t e s  their  c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n by s a y i n g t h a t although he a d m i t t e d l y does not have a j o b , he has attempted to o b t a i n one. non-compliance undercuts  The way i n which she makes sense o f h i s  his responsibility for i t .  The p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r addresses  t h i s i s s u e i n a way which once  a g a i n p o i n t s up the inadequacy o f the mother's way f o r her acceptance  of and-cooperation  ' s o l u t i o n ' and prepares the  i n placement.  Thus, the p r o b a t i o n  o f f i c e r d e c l a r e s t h a t he does not doubt t h a t the j u v e n i l e has attempted to l o c a t e a j o b , b u t then t r a d e s on the v e r y f a c t t h a t he has been unable to l o c a t e one to 'show' the mother t h a t the p r e s e n t s i t u a t i o n as i t stands i n the home i s inadequate  and u n a c c e p t a b l e .  The mother i s asked  to assess  the j u v e n i l e i n terms o f what he has to o f f e r a p o t e n t i a l employer. suggested  reason  f o r the j u v e n i l e ' s f a i l u r e i s h i s inadequate  education, a  f a c t which i s p o r t r a y e d as b e i n g beyond the c o n t r o l of the p a r e n t s the f a c t  t h a t he has been  The  due to  'kicked o u t ' o f two or t h r e e s c h o o l s and i s ,  t h e r e f o r e , i n e l i g i b l e f o r l o c a l e d u c a t i o n a l programmes. j u v e n i l e has 'gotten h i m s e l f k i c k e d o u t ' undercuts  The ' f a c t ' t h a t the  the mother's attempt to  m i t i g a t e the j u v e n i l e ' s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r not b e i n g a b l e to l o c a t e a j o b . At the same time,  the s i t u a t i o n as c o n s t r u c t e d p r o v i d e s f o r the acceptance  of placement as the 'only way' o f e n s u r i n g adequate j o b t r a i n i n g f o r the youth.  The PO does not i n f o r m the p a r e n t s  t h a t he i s i n the b u s i n e s s o f  l o c a t i n g such p r o j e c t s i n the community f o r p r o b a t i o n e r s he deems p r i a t e ' , a p o s s i b l e ' s o l u t i o n ' which would undercut recommendation as the 'only r e a s o n a b l e  alternative'.  'appro-  the s t a t u s o f h i s own  146  As w e l l as a c c o m p l i s h i n g  the acceptance  s o l u t i o n to the problem o f t r a i n i n g  o f 'placement' as a needed  the j u v e n i l e f o r a j o b , the p r o b a t i o n  o f f i c e r and f a t h e r attempt  to p r o v i d e a g e n e r a l l y ' p o s i t i v e '  of  T h e i r d e s c r i p t i o n s address  the phenomenon i t s e l f .  common-sense n o t i o n s which i n t e r p r e t  typification  the m u l t i t u d e o f  'placement i n an i n s t i t u t i o n '  i n terms  of p h y s i c a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l r e j e c t i o n , as p u n i t i v e , as movement from freedom to r i g i d c o n t r o l , from a s e t t i n g o f l o v e and u n d e r s t a n d i n g a c o l d a u t h o r i t a r i a n regimen. institutional earlier  c a r e to  Note t h a t a t l e a s t some o f these f e a t u r e s o f  placement have been p r o v i d e d  court-probation interaction.  t o the youth  and p a r e n t s  during  As Emerson has suggested:  P r i o r to h i s a c t u a l commitment the d e l i n q u e n t has undoubtedly been t h r e a t e n e d w i t h the s p e c t e r o f d e t e n t i o n c e n t e r and reform school. Court l e c t u r i n g r e l i e s h e a v i l y on t h i s t h r e a t , p i c t u r i n g such an e v e n t u a l i t y as t h e worst i m a g i n a b l e f a t e (Emerson, 1969: 211). In the c o u r t under c o n s i d e r a t i o n one of the judges would invariably  almost  ' l e c t u r e ' j u v e n i l e s going home on p r o b a t i o n i n the f o l l o w i n g  manner, r e g a r d l e s s of the charge and independent of any knowledge o f the 'home l i f e '  of the p a r t i c u l a r youth  and h i s ' r e l a t i o n s h i p ' w i t h h i s p a r e n t s :  Judge:  W e l l , how do you l i k e i t i n j u v i e ? ((Juvenile detention c e n t e r . R e c e i v i n g no answer, the judge c o n t i n u e s ) ) Do you t h i n k i t ' s b e t t e r than home. ((no response)) How about i t , i s the food b e t t e r ? ( ( J u v e n i l e shakes h i s head n e g a t i v e l y ) ) You know, y o u r ; p a r e n t s do a h e l l o f a l o t f o r you, good f o o d , warm bed, c l o t h e s . They must t h i n k an awful l o t o f you to go to a l l t h a t t r o u b l e . But you l i k e i t better i n a place l i k e juvie. W e l l , i f you want to s t a y I might be a b l e to arrange i t .  Juv:  No.  I don't l i k e i t h e r e .  I want to go home.  147  Judge:  Oh, now you want to go home. W e l l Bub, y o u should have thought of t h a t . You've got i t p r e t t y easy a t home and I t h i n k you're c r a z y t o r i s k i t . Your p a r e n t s do e v e r y t h i n g f o r you and then you go out and do something s t u p i d like this. OK,' I'm going to l e t you go home now. Maybe y o u ' l l a p p r e c i a t e i t more now t h a t you've seen t h i s p l a c e . I t ' s b e t t e r than b e i n g l o c k e d up and marched around. Your p a r e n t s want what's b e s t f o r you so you c o o p e r a t e w i t h them and Mr. Jones (PO) and you won't have to come back.  Much c o u r t l e c t u r i n g c o n s i s t s o f t h r e a t s and warnings t h a t the j u v e n i l e w i l l be removed from home and 'committed' i f he does n o t s t r a i g h t e n out.  The s t r a t e g y i s intended  to p r o v i d e  j u v e n i l e s and p a r e n t s w i t h ap-  prehensions about what w i l l happen i f things don't change. probationeoffice'redeeidesmtoeremoveutheijuvenile  from the home, however,  the terms i n which i n c a r c e r a t i o n o r i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z a t i o n altered radically. quents a r e " c o o l e d  When and i f the  a r e couched a r e  Emerson has w r i t t e n about the p r o c e s s by which  delin-  out":  With commitment the d e l i n q u e n t suddenly f i n d s h i m s e l f a member o f what has been d e s c r i b e d to him as a d e s p i c a b l e p o p u l a t i o n o f a d e f i l i n g i n s t i t u t i o n . R o u t i n e c o u r t p r o c e d u r e s , t h e r e f o r e , endow commitment w i t h extremely d e s t r u c t i v e and m o r t i f y i n g meanings f o r s e l f . Problems of simple p h y s i c a l c o n t r o l o f t e n make " c o o l i n g o u t " an expedient measure a t t h i s p o i n t . On an i n s t i t u t i o n a l l e v e l , the c o u r t ' s major s a n c t i o n has a c t u a l l y been invoked; t h e r e i s thus a moment s t r e t c h i n g from the f o r m a l sentence u n t i l the a c t u a l t r a n s f e r o f custody to the d e t e n t i o n c e n t e r when the d e l i n q u e n t i s between c o n t r o l s t r u c t u r e s . More p e r s o n a l l y , i n c a r c e r a t i o n may w e l l l e a d the iTSlinquent t o f e e l t h a t he has f a l l e n as low as p o s s i b l e and i n c r e a s e the l i k e l i h o o d o f h i s " f l o o d i n g o u t " . . . (Emerson, 1969: 211). My a n a l y s i s o f the " c o o l i n g o u t " p r o c e s s d i f f e r s  from Emerson's  i n s o f a r as I w i l l f o c u s on the methods by which a p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r  deals  w i t h the "extremely d e s t r u c t i v e and m o r t i f y i n g meanings" o f i n s t i t u t i o n a l  148  commitment. y e t another  Thus, I w i l l be i n t e r e s t e d here i n d i s p l a y i n g and occasioned  According  i n t e r a c t i o n a l accomplishment of  analyzing  'cooperation'.  to Emerson, " c o o l i n g o u t " i n the c o u r t he s t u d i e d  began w i t h the d e l i n q u e n t ' s e x i t from the courtroom f o l l o w i n g s e n t e n c i n g . I n the c o u r t under p r e s e n t c o n s i d e r a t i o n , however, the p r o c e s s  i s usually  engaged i n b e f o r e the h e a r i n g and  i s viewed by p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r s  e s e e n t i a l p a r t of t h e i r p r e - c o u r t  task.  as  an  D e s c r i p t i o n s of i n s t i t u t i o n s , a t t h i s s t a g e of the p r o b a t i o n process  are t y p i c a l l y  t h e i r parents may any sense of placement.  c o n s t r u c t e d so as to a l l a y  feel.  the f e a r j u v e n i l e s and  They a l s o are formulated  ' g u i l t ' t h a t the parent may As Emerson has p o i n t e d  i n a way  have over  which  undercuts  ' c o o p e r a t i n g ' i n the  out:  . . . c o o l i n g out i n v o l v e s r e d e f i n i n g the commitment i n n e u t r a l terms. The c o u r t o f f i c i a l p r e s e n t s i n c a r c e r a t i o n as something t h a t can be a c c e p t e d and l i v e d w i t h . The d e l i n q u e n t i s t o l d that t h i n g s a r e not r e a l l y t h a t bad i n the r e f o r m s c h o o l : i t i s out i n the c o u n t r y , he w i l l l e a r n a t r a d e , the s t a f f w i l l g i v e him a f a i r shake, he can get a l o n g i f he behaves h i m s e l f . He i s shown t h a t h i s f u t u r e i s not c o m p l e t e l y h o p e l e s s , f o r w i t h good behaviour he w i l l be out i n a matter of months. I n t h i s way the p r i o r d e f i n i t i o n of i n c a r c e r a t i o n as a t o t a l l y d e g r a d i n g and d e s p a i r i n g event i s denied, as the d e l i n q u e n t i s o f f e r e d a c o n c e p t i o n of s e l f o t h e r than the a n t i c i p a t e d complete s o c i a l outcast. B a s i c to the n e u t r a l i z a t i o n of the immediately d e s t r u c t i v e e f f e c t s of i n c a r c e r a t i o n on the d e l i n q u e n t ' s s e l f i s the p r e s e n t a t i o n of the i n s t i t u t i o n i n v o l v e d i n f a v o r a b l e terms (Emerson, 1969: 213). What Emerson g l o s s e s as a complicated seen,  ' r e d e f i n i n g the commitment' i s a c t u a l l y  i n t e r a c t i o n a l accomplishment which may  parents and  child.  p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r has  On  i n v o l v e , as we  have  the o c c a s i o n under p r e s e n t c o n s i d e r a t i o n , the  enlisted  the h e l p of the f a t h e r i n p r o v i d i n g the  \  149  mother w i t h the  'proper' u n d e r s t a n d i n g  of placement, one which w i l l  her to 'cooperate' i n the placement p r o c e s s . o r a t l e a s t l a c k of i l e 's c o o p e r a t i o n may  Note t h a t her  enable  'cooperation',  ' r e s i s t a n c e ' becomes a r e s o u r c e w i t h which the j u v e n then be  sought.  'Placement' under the p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r ' s f o r m u l a t i o n i s p r e sented as the 'only way'  to p r o v i d e the n e c e s s a r y  needs to enable h i m s e l f to o b t a i n a j o b . from and  the mother's p o i n t of view, e.g.,  t r a i n i n g the j u v e n i l e  The moral meaning of  t h a t i t is_ e s s e n t i a l l y  'placement' 'punishment',  t h a t i t i m p l i e s ' f a i l u r e ' of the f a m i l y and h e r s e l f as a mother, are  matters  to which the f a t h e r now  attends.  Note how  the f a t h e r ' s  p l i n a r i a n ' a t t i t u d e i s r e f l e c t e d i n a r a t h e r confused i n g attempt  and  'disci-  self-contradict-  to p o r t r a y 'placement' i n terms more a c c e p t a b l e to h i s w i f e :  Fa:  I am i n c l i n e d to agree w i t h t h a t . As I s a i d to John t o n i g h t . N a t u r a l l y , I don't want him to go away to a - whatever i t i s - i f i t ' s not n e c e s s a r y . But b a s i c a l l y what I want i s what's going to be good f o r John i n the l o n g r u n . Now I have t r i e d to e x p l a i n to him t h a t , you know, he's not going t o , you know, a p r i s o n or a n y t h i n g l i k e t h a t . He's going to be p l a c e d on the honour system. And I f e e l t h a t i f they can take him and put him i n w i t h t h i s d i s c i p l i n e which you get, get him away from home which I t h i n k i s an important t h i n g - I t h i n k he's had too much of mom and dad, and I t h i n k now he's got to have - be somewhere where they c r a c k the whip i n a b e n e v o l e n t way - i f we can have i t n e v e r t h e l e s s even i f they c a n ' t , he's got to be somewhere where they c r a c k the whip. He's got to develop a new s t a n d a r d of behaviour and a new s t a n d a r d of i d e a s . Now he i s a f r a i d o f , and I can see t h i s , " I don't want to b e , l o c k e d up a g a i n . " You know, t h i s b u s i n e s s of b e i n g l o c k e d up i s s t u c k i n h i s mind. You know, you don't go to the bathroom u n l e s s you go i n t r i p l i c a t e w i t h o u t about t h r e e keys - or whatever the system i s . I don't know, but you know what I mean.  PO:  W e ' l l get him that.  i n and  e x p l a i n i t to him  t h a t i t ' s not  like  150  Fa:  And t h i s , o f c o u r s e , i s what he's a f r a i d o f . T h i s i s what he says he's a f r a i d o f . And, uh, a p a r t from t h a t I t h i n k t h a t i t w i l l be a good i d e a , i f t h e p l a c e i s as I see i t . I don't know.  Mo:  I'd l i k e to know what i t ' s l i k e . The  f a t h e r expresses agreement w i t h the PO's s u g g e s t i o n  that  Boy's Home i s a 'reasonable placement' i n w h i c h t h e j u v e n i l e w i l l have a chance 'to prove h i m s e l f . 'explained' being  locked  He then r e v e a l s  t h a t he has ' d i s c u s s e d ' and  the placement to the j u v e n i l e and t h a t h i s son i s ' a f r a i d ' o f up.  The f a t h e r ' s d e s c r i p t i o n o f r e l e v a n t a s p e c t s o f ' p l a c e -  ment' on the p r e s e n t  occasion  ' n e u t r a l terms', a l b e i t d e s c r i p t i o n provided  i s n o t couched i n what Emerson has c a l l e d  they a r e c e r t a i n l y ' m a t t e r - o f - f a c t ' .  Note t h a t the  by the f a t h e r i s n o t designed to accomplish  t i o n ' i n the manner c i t e d by Emerson.  R a t h e r , the t y p i f i c a t i o n o f the i n -  s t i t u t i o n i s a p l a c e where 'the whip w i l l be c r a c k e d ' , a l b e i t if possible.  'coopera-  benevolently,  He suggests t h a t the boy must l e a r n new r u l e s , and t h a t  d i s c i p l i n e i s the o n l y way to change him i n the d e s i r e d d i r e c t i o n s .  Note  t h a t the f a t h e r a l s o argues t h a t an 'important t h i n g ' i s t o g e t the j u v e n i l e away from home, i n s o f a r as he has had 'too much' mom and dad. ence, l i k e the PO's, e x p l i c i t l y the problem and s o l u t i o n . which i s n o t c o n s t r u c t e d and  son w i l l  probation  'accept'  c o n f l i c t s w i t h the mother's d e f i n i t i o n o f  The f a t h e r ' s d e s c r i p t i o n o f placement i s one so as to maximize the p r o b a b i l i t y t h a t the mother  and/or c o o p e r a t e i n placement.  o f f i c e r recognizes  I suggest that the  t h i s f a c t , and moves to p r o v i d e  r e d e f i n i t i o n i n the ensuing i n t e r a c t i o n . discusses  This r e f e r -  Notice  the 'proper'  t h a t as the PO s u b s e q u e n t l y  the o f f e n s e , placement, e t c . , he i s p r o v i d i n g  the parents with  151  the 'proper' u n d e r s t a n d i n g which during l a t e r  i s then used by b o t h the f a t h e r and  ' c o n v i n c i n g ' i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h the j u v e n i l e h i m s e l f .  f a t h e r s t a t e s t h a t he has attempted  to ' e x p l a i n ' the placement  PO  The  to the j u -  v e n i l e , b u t has no p e r s o n a l knowledge of the p l a c e and i s , t h e r e f o r e , not i n a p o s i t i o n to argue e f f e c t i v e l y .  The mother then p i c k s up on t h i s  t i c u l a r l i n e o f r e a s o n i n g , and says t h a t she would l i k e  par-  'to know what i t ' s  like'. The PO  then p r o v i d e s them w i t h the a d e q u a t e - f o r - h i s - p r a c t i c a l -  p u r p o s e s - d e s c r i p t i o n o f the i n s t i t u t i o n b e i n g recommended f o r placement: PO:  W e l l , the Home, i t ' s b a s i c a l l y a b i g farm. I t ' s about s i x t y acres. They have chores to do t h e r e . They work, they earn f r e e time....There's no f e n c e s , no b a r r i e r s , he can walk away from t h e r e . But of course they'd put out a w a r r a n t . ((The account c o n t i n u e s by emphasizing the a v a i l a b i l i t y of v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g , and the ' f a c t ' t h a t ' p s y c h o l o g i s t s ' w i l l be p r e s e n t to c o u n s e l and 'motivate' the j u v e n i l e . The p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r emphasizes the ' f a c t ' t h a t the j u v e n i l e w i l l be i n a p o s i t i o n to 'earn home v i s i t s ' 'almost as soon as he g e t s t h e r e ' . ) ) F i r s t , l e t us b r i e f l y c o n t r a s t the d e s c r i p t i o n s produced by  f a t h e r and p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r o f the ' i n s t i t u t i o n ' . earlier,  the  As I have p o i n t e d out  the f a t h e r ' s i n s t i t u t i o n i s one i n which t h e 'whip i s c r a c k e d ' and  ' d i s c i p l i n e ' i s dispensed by the persons i n a u t h o r i t y . viewed as a c o r r e c t i v e f o r h i s b e h a v i o u r which i s viewed i n the p r e s e n t c o n t e x t .  Such a s e t t i n g i s as u n c o n t r o l l a b l e  The p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r ' s account makes a b s o l u t e l y  no r e f e r e n c e t o w h i p - c r a c k i n g and no e x p l i c i t r e f e r e n c e to t h e e x e r c i s e of  ' d i s c i p l i n e ' w i t h i n the i n s t i t u t i o n .  Rather than ' w h i p - c r a c k i n g ' s t a f f ,  an image which i s almost c e r t a i n t o e x a c e r b a t e any r e s e r v a t i o n s the mother and j u v e n i l e have about placement,  the j u v e n i l e w i l l be  'motivated' and  152  'counseled'  by ' t r a i n e d p s y c h i a t r i s t s ' .  haps be much more c o m f o r t i n g  The image i s one which would  per-  to most mothers, i f not d e l i n q u e n t s , an i n -  s t i t u t i o n which i s ' t h e r a p e u t i c ' and ' r e h a b i l i t a t i v e ' r a t h e r than one which is  'run' on 'brute f o r c e ' and ' f e a r ' .  pressed by the j u v e n i l e over sents a r a t h e r i d y l l i c  As f a r as the f e a r supposedly  ex-  'being l o c k e d up', the p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r  scene, open f i e l d s , no f e n c e s , no r e s t r a i n t s .  preHe  adds, however, t h a t though the j u v e n i l e s may walk away from t h e i n s t i t u t i o n , t h e r e w i l l be f u r t h e r c o u r t a c t i o n , the i m p l i c a t i o n b e i n g  that i f  the j u v e n i l e does walk away from t h e s e t t i n g , the c o u r t may f i n d one which does have 'locks.  Again,  i n o t h e r words, t h i s d i s p o s i t i o n a l  i s shown to be p r o v i s i o n a l , roughly tially  recommendation  to depend upon the j u v e n i l e ' s performance i n  the same way t h a t ' p r o b a t i o n ' d u r i n g e a r l i e r shown to be p r o v i s i o n a l .  i n t e r a c t i o n was  ini-  A g r e a t d e a l i s made h e r e by the p r o b a t i o n  o f f i c e r o f the 'chance' f o r the j u v e n i l e ' i n s i d e ' the i n s t i t u t i o n to 'prove h i m s e l f .  Thus, how he i s t r e a t e d and what w i l l happen,i.e., how  l o n g he w i l l be i n t h e i n s t i t u t i o n , how much while The  'freedom' he w i l l be allowed  t h e r e , e t c . , a r e a l l t i e d by the p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r  parents  sufficient  to h i s performance.  a r e i n s t r u c t e d to see the s e t t i n g as one. i n which t h e r e i s ' r o o m f o r development','maturation', e t c . , r a t h e r than a ' c l o s e d ' ,  ' c o n f i n i n g ' , and ' o p p r e s s i v e ' environment.  The p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r a l s o  s t r e s s e s the p o s s i b i l i t y of 'earned home v i s i t s ' ,  a f e a t u r e which  undercuts  the sense o f 'removal' from the home, w h i l e a t the same time d i s p l a y i n g i t as a d e v i c e f o r ' m o t i v a t i n g adjustment' and ' c o o p e r a t i o n ' w i t h i n the i n stitution.  I n o t h e r words, i t i s suggested  t h a t the g r e a t e r the j u v e n i l e ' s  153  ' r e a l d e s i r e to r e t u r n home', the ' b e t t e r ' h i s e x p e c t a b l e  'adjustment' and  'behaviour'. D u r i n g the ensuing exchange, the f a t h e r c o l l a b o r a t i v e attempt  to i n t e r a c t i o n a l l y  s e r i e s o f q u e s t i o n s about by t h e p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r He asks about  ( i n what seemed l i k e a  'persuade'  the mother) asks a  the i n s t i t u t i o n and i s m e t h o d i c a l l y 'convinced' t h a t the Home would be a 'good p l a c e ' f o r h i s son.  the t r a i n i n g o f the s t a f f , whether they  is  'a c r i m i n a l ' o r l e t him 'prove h i m s e l f .  of  answers which p o i n t up the 'benevolent',  The PO r e p l i e s w i t h a s e r i e s 'humane', 'warm', and 'pro-  f e s s i o n a l ' c h a r a c t e r of the i n s t i t u t i o n and i t s s t a f f . interactional  'assume' t h a t a boy  The ' c o l l a b o r a t i v e '  ' c o n v i n c i n g ' i s staged i n a way which ensures  t h a t the mother  w i l l s e e t h e f a t h e r a s k i n g t h e 'proper' q u e s t i o n s and r e f l e c t i n g t h e 'proper' concerns o f a parent who wants to make s u r e t h a t the 'placement' b e s t i n t e r e s t o f the c h i l d . e v i d e n c e t h a t the placement in  i s i n the  Note t h a t the mother's s i l e n c e may be taken as i s satisfactory!  the i n t e r a c t i o n , however, and f i n a l l y  The mother d i d n o t p a r t i c i p a t e  the PO d i r e c t l y addresses what he  takes to be the grounds f o r h e r concerns: PO:  B a s i c a l l y , from your s t a n d p o i n t M r s . Jones I a p p r e c i a t e your f e e l i n g s and I t h i n k I know what's b o t h e r i n g you. You don't want to f e e l t h a t you're s o r t o f throwing John to the wolves.  Fa:  Right.  PO:  But i t ' s not l i k e t h a t a t a l l .  Fa:  No.  PO:  I t ' l l be no d i f f e r e n t .than sending him away to camp. Only the f a c t t h a t he's going t h e r e under c o u r t o r d e r . He must go t h e r e . And he would s t i l l be on p r o b a t i o n and p a r t o f  Right.  No.  154  the terms of p r o b a t i o n would be t h a t he would conform w i t h the r u l e s and r e g u l a t i o n s o f Boy's Home. Mo:  Yes.  Fa:  W e l l as I s a i d to my w i f e t o n i g h t , " W e l l , you know we may not t h i n k t h a t t h i s i s the answer - b u t what i s the a l t e r n a t i v e ? " And the a l t e r n a t i v e i s c e r t a i n l y not t o go a l o n g as we have been going a l o n g .  PO:  I've thought a l o t about i t and I don't know o f any a l t e r native myself. A g a i n , what i s taken to be t h e mother's d e f i n i t i o n o f the meaning  of placement i s addressed  i n terms which a r e intended  the a l t e r n a t i v e way o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g  it.  the wolves', the mother i s i n s t r u c t e d him to a 'camp w i t h r u l e s ' . PO's  .Rather  to ' f e e l '  than  to p r o v i d e h e r w i t h 'throwing h e r s o n t o  t h a t she i s , r a t h e r , sending  The change o f s t a t u s i s de-emphasized by the  remark t h a t t h e j u v e n i l e w i l l s t i l l be on p r o b a t i o n , a ' f a c t ' which  c o n f l i c t s w i t h what the mother may assume t o be a n e c e s s a r i l y - a s s o c i a t e d f e a t u r e of i n s t i t u t i o n a l placement, r e v o c a t i o n o f p r o b a t i o n , which i n t u r n may be seen as ' f a i l u r e ' i n a f i n a l  sense.  The p e r c e i v e d magnitude o f the change i n s t a t u s i s a l s o by the p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r when he s t a t e s t h a t t h e j u v e n i l e may visits.  undercut  'earn' home  As I have a l r e a d y s a i d , such a f e a t u r e o f placement b l u r s the p e r -  c e i v e d d i f f e r e n c e between p r o b a t i o n ' i n t h e home' and ' i n an i n s t i t u t i o n ' . Because o f t h i s , much i s made o f t h i s and  'option',in undercutting  f i n a l ' c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n s o f placement.  'severe  ,  Placement a t Boy's Home h e r e and now i s p r e s e n t e d i z e d as a 'minor' change i n c e r t a i n n o n - t h r e a t e n i n g  and c h a r a c t e r -  respects while being a  'major' change i n c e r t a i n r e s p e c t s which a r e seen t o be m u t u a l l y d e s i r e d by  the p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r and both  parents.  155  Along w i t h the changed via  the g e n e r a l l y b e n e v o l e n t  an attempt placement  'meaning' o f placement  institution  t y p i f i c a t i o n of the i n s t i t u t i o n and  its staff,  i s made to p r o v i d e the mother w i t h the sense t h a t the recommended i s the o n l y ' r e a s o n a b l e ' a l t e r n a t i v e . F i r s t I want to c a l l a t t e n t i o n to the way  h i s recommended placement  as the o n l y a l t e r n a t i v e .  the PO moves to i d e n t i f y In e f f e c t , h e : i s s u p p o r t -  i n g the f a t h e r ' s u t t e r a n c e , b u t I would l i k e to suggest his  i n an  i d e n t i t y as a p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r ,  u t t e r a n c e may  as an  be a s s i g n e d s p e c i a l weight  'expert' i n 'these m a t t e r s ' , h i s  by the mother.  the words i n a c a s u a l or o f f - h a n d manner, and utterance e x p l i c i t l y  t h a t , by v i r t u e of  He does not  the c o n s t r u c t i o n of  l a b e l s the recommendation as the r e s u l t o f  t h i n k i n g ' by a p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r .  Thus, the p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r  say  the  'a l o t of instructs  the mother to t r e a t h i s recommendation as the end r e s u l t o f a p r o c e s s by which  ' a l l ' r e a s o n a b l e a l t e r n a t i v e s were c o n s i d e r e d and r e j e c t e d  r e a s o n or another, save the o f f e r e d recommendation.  By opening  f o r one this  the PO l e s s e n s the p r o b a b i l i t y of h a v i n g the recommendation t r e a t e d ' j u s t a s u g g e s t i o n ' o f f e r e d as the i n i t i a l  way, as  gambit i n a n e o g i t a t i n g s e s s i o n .  The i n t e r a c t i o n which f o l l o w s the p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r ' s remark about  'no a l t e r n a t i v e s ' f o c u s e s upon the d e l i n q u e n t a c t and  import f o r the i n t e r a c t a n t s . discussions  What the f a m i l y had done about  the a c t /  t h a t they have had w i t h the youth r e g a r d i n g the a c t and  d i d i t a r e matters which a r e d i s c u s s e d i n depth.  the PO may  be seen a t t e m p t i n g  of h i s recommendation and  the  to accomplish  'unreasonableness'  'why'  he  Competing i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s  of the a c t and i t s meaning a r e o f f e r e d and a s s e s s e d . action,  i t s practical  Throughout such the  inter-  'reasonableness'  of a l t e r n a t i v e s .  Such  156  exchanges a r e e s s e n t i a l to the a p p a r e n t l y  'smooth', 'non-problematic',  ' e f f i c i e n t ' accomplishment of v a r i o u s p r o b a t i o n t a s k s . j u v e n i l e s i n t e r p r e t , account  or  How p a r e n t s and  f o r , excuse, p u n i s h , e t c . , d e l i n q u e n t b e -  h a v i o u r o f p r o b a t i o n e r s a r e matters which may be seen to u n d e r l i e and account f o r c o o p e r a t i o n o r c o n f l i c t , and t h e p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r maximizing c o o p e r a t i o n wherever p r a c t i c a l .  i s interested i n  The data gathered  during  a c t i o n s w i t h p a r e n t s may be used to ensure t h e i r c o o p e r a t i o n both d u r i n g t h e coming i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h to  inter-  here,  the son when they w i l l be c a l l e d  upon  'help e x p l a i n ' the recommendation to him, and d u r i n g c o u r t when the  judge must be p r o v i d e d w i t h an a d e q u a t e - f o r - a l l - p r a c t i c a l - p u r p o s e s 'unders t a n d i n g ' of the o f f e n s e and i t s p r a c t i c a l import, p o s i t i o n recommendation. has  After e l i c i t i n g  i . e . , the s p e c i f i c  dis-  t h e i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t the j u v e n i l e  'only made a token e f f o r t ' to pay h i s p a r e n t s back f o r the s t o l e n money,  the PO r a i s e s a q u e s t i o n which i s extremely probation-adequate  'understanding'  relevant f o r constructing a  o f the o f f e n s e :  PO:  Have y o u had to remind him about the f a c t t h a t he was r e l e a s e d to you pending h i s t r i a l under c e r t a i n c o n d i t i o n s ? In other words has he been coming i n on time?  Fa:  Oh yeah.  Mo:  Yes, oh yes he's been v e r y  W e l l , I t o l d you t h i s  the other day.  good.  The p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r here c a l l s on t h e p a r e n t s  to 'remember' the  c o n d i t i o n s of p r o b a t i o n and t h e f a c t t h a t the j u v e n i l e was r e l e a s e d to them under those c o n d i t i o n s .  The 'sense' o f p r o b a t i o n - v i o l a t i o n i s thus ex-  p r e s s l y n u r t u r e d , the parents  a r e encouraged to view the o f f e n s e as w e l l as  any  as p r o b a t i o n r e l e v a n t , as p a r t o f t h e 'reason'  other  'problem' behaviour  157  f o r placement.  Here the terms a r e employed w i t h l i m i t e d 'success'  l o c a t i o n o f v i o l a t i o n s w i t h which to b o l s t e r the recommendation. how g e n e r a l  o f f i c e r opened the i n t e r v i e w by s u g g e s t i n g  ' f a c i n g c o u r t ' may behave i n o r d e r  to e f f e c t the c o u r t ' s  s i o n , b u t then g e t i n t o t r o u b l e as soon as t h e h e a r i n g The p r o b a t i o n f e a r o f 'being venile.  Note  'good b e h a v i o u r ' may not b r i n g t h e recommendation i n t o  i n s o f a r as the p r o b a t i o n juveniles  i n the  locked  officer  question that deci-  i s over.  then d i r e c t s h i s a t t e n t i o n t o the j u v e n i l e ' s  up', a s k i n g  i f they have d i s c u s s e d  i t w i t h the j u -  The mother says t h a t she has t a l k e d w i t h him about i t .  John t o l d  her  t h a t the f a t h e r wanted him to go, b u t t h a t he wanted h e r to ask him  not  t o do i t . He s a i d t h a t h e would  from the home.  She a l s o s t a t e d  t h i n k t h a t he c o u l d she must l e a v e during  'do a n y t h i n g '  rather  than be removed  t h a t he wanted t o wrok, and t h a t he d i d n ' t  i f he was 'locked up'.  The mother then announces  f o r a c l a s s immediately and w i l l ,  the i n t e r v i e w w i t h the j u v e n i l e .  that  t h e r e f o r e , not be p r e s e n t  The mother would not be a member  of the 'team' which would now attempt t o 'convince' the j u v e n i l e that 'placement' would be t h e o n l y r e a s o n a b l e d i s p o s i t i o n , b u t she would not be i n a p o s i t i o n to a c t i v e l y s u p p o r t the j u v e n i l e i f he o b j e c t e d . interview, had  the p r o b a t i o n  not been p r e s e n t .  along'  A f t e r the  o f f i c e r expressed r e l i e f over t h e f a c t t h a t she  He suggested  that  i f the mother had been p r e s e n t  'the k i d never would have gone  to g i v e him any s u p p o r t .  The p r o -  b a t i o n o f f i c e r ' s s t r a t e g y had worked i n s o f a r as he had been a b l e  to e f f e c -  t i v e l y counter the mother's r e s i s t a n c e a t l e a s t f o r the moment.  Before  she  l e a v e s , however, the p r o b a t i o n  o f f i c e r engages h e r and t h e f a t h e r i n  158  a d d i t i o n a l i n t e r a c t i o n about the case, f o c u s i n g i n c r e a s i n g l y on t h e o f fense and t h e j u v e n i l e ' s m o t i v a t i o n .  I n so doing, he g a t h e r s  useful  i n f o r m a t i o n about these r e l e v a n t matters w h i l e , once a g a i n , p r o v i d i n g the parents  i n a c o l l a b o r a t i v e p r o d u c t i o n of t h e 'proper' u n d e r s t a n d i n g  phenomena d i s c u s s e d .  I n an important  sense,  t h i s i n t e r a c t i o n may be  viewed as a 'dress r e h e a r s a l ' f o r t h e immediately the j u v e n i l e ,  o f the  ensuing  i n t e r a c t i o n with  ' t a l k s ' t h e j u v e n i l e may have w i t h h i s p a r e n t s b e f o r e ' p l a c e -  ment', and c o u r t i n t e r a c t i o n . When we t u r n to an examination  of t h e subsequent i n t e r v i e w w i t h  the j u v e n i l e , we w i l l see how PO and f a t h e r t r a d e on the 'understandings' developed  during t h i s i n t e r a c t i o n i n t h e i r c o n s t r u c t i o n of l a t e r utterances. The p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r asks i f t h e p a r e n t s have d i s c u s s e d the  case w i t h t h e j u v e n i l e .  The mother answers:  MO:  We've brought i t up and reminded him, b u t we r e a l l y d i s c u s s e d i t much.  PO:  W e l l has he g o t t e n i n t o why he d i d i t ? Whether o r not the p a r e n t s  what they  ' d i s c u s s e d i t ' w i t h t h e j u v e n i l e and  'did about i t ' have been shown to be o m n i r e l e v a n t 2  p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r s d u r i n g t h e i r everyday parents  haven't  activities.  concerns o f  whether o r not t h e  ' d i s c u s s e d ' t h e i n f r a c t i o n w i t h the j u v e n i l e may be t r e a t e d as an  i n d i c a t i o n of whether o r n o t they t r e a t e d i t as a matter o f concern. f a c t t h a t they officer  d i s c u s s e d i t ' may be used by t h e p r o b a t i o n  to document the 'need' f o r e x t r a - f a m i l i a l methods i n d e a l i n g w i t h  the matter. 2.  ' r e a l l y haven't  The  This  ' f a c t ' becomes a v a i l a b l e f o r use i n ' c o n v i n c i n g ' the  See, f o r example, t h e d i s c u s s i o n o f i n i t i a l p r e - c o u r t c o n t a c t s i n Chapter Two.  159  p a r e n t s and the judge t h a t placement i s warranted.  By t h i s , I mean t h a t  the parents a r e encouraged to 'see' t h e i r f a i l u r e to ' d i s c u s s  the m a t t e r '  as something which undercuts any c l a i m they may make to h a v i n g  provided  the c o u r t p r e s c r i b e d  ' s u p e r v i s i o n and guidance'.  I have a l r e a d y mentioned o t h e r interest  i n parent-child discussions.  p r a c t i c a l grounds f o r the PO's  Paramount among these i s the f a c t  t h a t the PO w i l l be ' d i s c u s s i n g ' the matter w i t h the j u v e n i l e and parents i n the immediate f u t u r e and needs the i n f o r m a t i o n  i n order  to develop h i s  i n t e r a c t i o n a l s t r a t e g i e s and to p r e p a r e the p a r e n t s f o r t h e i r  'parts'.  Thus, the manner i n which the matter was d i s c u s s e d w i t h the j u v e n i l e and the i n f o r m a t i o n which they a r e a b l e to p r o v i d e  now may be traded  source f o r the PO i n t h i s , and subsequent i n t e r a c t i o n s .  upon as a r e -  He i s a l s o now  a b l e to ' r e p a i r ' u n d e r s t a n d i n g s and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f the meaning o f the offense,  e t c . , which a r e , from h i s p o i n t of view, improper o r i n a d e q u a t e . Both parents respond to the PO's probe about whether the j u v e n i l e  had  told  them 'why he d i d i t ' .  The f a t h e r says t h a t the j u v e n i l e had wanted  money but then says t h a t he can't "You  understand why he 'needs so much money':  see I can understand him needing ten, twenty d o l l a r s .  l a s t e p i s o d e was f i f t y bucks o f f my w i f e ' s mother then moves to p r o v i d e he l i k e s n i c e t h i n g s . " able' motivational formulation but  housekeeping money".  an ' e x p l a n a t i o n '  T h i s remark p o i n t s up the 'normal' even ' d e s i r -  base f o r the d e l i n q u e n t  act.  The 'problem' under  i s the methods by which money f o r ' n i c e ' t h i n g s  f o r a possible  The  f o r the need, i . e . : "But  the ' t h i n g s ' per se a r e n o t p a r t o f the 'problem'.  provides  I mean t h i s  this  i s obtained,  The f o r m u l a t i o n  ' s o l u t i o n ' to the problem i n terms o f a l l o w i n g the  160  j u v e n i l e to  'have' more money, i . e . , a b i g g e r  obtain a job.  The mother has  f e a r of b e i n g  'nice t h i n g s ' .  as  now  once a g a i n p r e s e n t e d an  the m o t i v a t i o n  the only  solution.  o f f e n s e and  Also,  'explanation'  the  of the  ensuing  offense  the mother's p a r t i c u l a r u n d e r s t a n d i n g of  to correspond to the j u v e n i l e ' s .  juvenile.  during  o f the j u v e n i l e i n terms which undercuts placement  the j u v e n i l e ' s m o t i v a t i o n ,  t h e r ' s account the PO  d e s i r e to  p r o b a t i o n - a d e q u a t e method of o b t a i n i n g funds f o r  Although the mother w i l l not be p r e s e n t  d i s c u s s i o n , she has  and  By  her  concerns and  f e a r s , e t c . , seem  f a t h e r can be seen as p r e p a r i n g  the  d i s c u s s i o n of the case  and  probation-  seen.  When the mother says t h a t the j u v e n i l e ' l i k e s n i c e t h i n g s ' , to the r e s e a r c h e r  may  be buying drugs w i t h  and  probation  o f f i c e r and  mo-  to d e a l w i t h  development of i n t e r p r e t i v e machinery w i t h which to a c c o m p l i s h the adequate u n d e r s t a n d i n g must be  the  c o l l a b o r a t i v e l y d e a l i n g w i t h the  I t i s i n t h i s sense t h a t the p r e s e n t  f a t h e r turns  to  r a i s e d the i s s u e of the j u v e n i l e ' s  i n c a r c e r a t e d along w i t h h i s s t r o n g l y p r o f e s s e d  'work', a l e g i t i m a t e and  and  already  allowance, or h e l p i n g him  and  says t h a t he  'some' of the money.  ' t h i n k s ' that He  then turns  the  the j u v e n i l e to the mother  continues:  Fa:  But you see, what does he do w i t h a hundred bucks? And t h i s made me v e r y t h o u g h t f u l because I j u s t wondered whether or not t h a t he was u s i n g t h i s to buy d r u g s . So I asked q u i t e f r a n k l y , and he s a i d d e f i n i t e l y no. And we've no evidence that he i s .  PO:  Ah, but the l a s t time the one i n s t a n c e he was h i g h . I waited h e r e w i t h (the lawyer) and he was h i g h t h a t n i g h t , when we went f o r the walk. He t o l d you he had a couple of b e e r s , but then he t o l d me t h a t he smoked a few j o i n t s .  161  Fa:  I mean I wouldn't be s u r p r i s e d i f , i f a t t h i s time - you see he's w o r r i e d , and I know he's w o r r i e d , and h i s behav i o u r i s such t h a t he's w o r r i e d , i n f a c t he's v e r y despondent and we've f e l t extremely s o r r y f o r him. Maybe espec i a l l y l a s t n i g h t , you know, i t ' s p r e y i n g on h i s mind. And you know he was down, depressed and bored and so f o r t h and so on, so I f e l t s o r r y f o r him, you know. The f a t h e r opens t h i s exchange by a g a i n r e f e r r i n g  of the money i n v o l v e d and then suggests j u v e n i l e was buying drugs. markedly from  to the s c a l e  t h a t he 'wondered' whether the  The o f f e r e d f o r m u l a t i o n of the o f f e n s e d i f f e r s  t h e one o f f e r e d by the mother.  Rather  than  'needing money f o r  n i c e t h i n g s ' the j u v e n i l e i s p o r t r a y e d as 'perhaps' b e i n g i n v o l v e d w i t h drugs,  the s t a t u s o f the d e v i a n t behaviour becomes t i e d  behaviour which would be e x p e c t a b l y o f concern  to a d e l i n q u e n t  to the p a r e n t s .  how 'more money' under t h i s e x p l a n a t i o n i s d e f i n i t e l y not a solution.  i n t o q u e s t i o n i f the wages a r e to be used  The f a t h e r then immediately ' d e f i n i t e l y ' denied  q u a l i f i e s h i s u t t e r a n c e by s a y i n g t h a t he has  Note the s i m i l a r i t i e s between  i n t e r a c t i o n and c o u r t p r o c e e d i n g s .  are i n v o l v e d i n d e t e r m i n a t i o n s o f f a c t , weighing etc.  The p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r ' s  The PO and parents  of evidence, s i f t i n g of  'evidence' i s t h a t the j u v e n i l e  t h a t he had smoked m a r i j u a n a b e f o r e one of h i s v i s i t s  told  to the home.  The p a r e n t s a r e b e i n g i n s t r u c t e d t h a t the j u v e n i l e has smoked while  'evidence'  drugs.  The PO then i n t r o d u c e s 'evidence'. the p r e s e n t on-going  to o b t a i n drugs.  the a l l e g a t i o n and t h a t the parents have no  t h a t the j u v e n i l e i s b u y i n g  him  'reasonable'  Even t h e t a k e n - f o r - g r a n t e d v a l u e of the j u v e n i l e ' s l o c a t i o n o f a  job i s c a l l e d  accounts,  Notice  marijuana  'on p r o b a t i o n ' , a b e h a v i o u r which i s s p e c i f i c a l l y p r o s c r i b e d i n t h e  j u v e n i l e ' s terms o f p r o b a t i o n .  F u r t h e r , the j u v e n i l e ' s  ' d e n i a l ' may now be  162  t r e a t e d as a ' l i e ' ,  a s i g n of n o n - c o o p e r a t i o n which may  u n d e r p i n the sense  t h a t he i s ' f a i l i n g ' on p r o b a t i o n i n the home. I t s h o u l d be p o i n t e d out t h a t the j u v e n i l e may ' s t o l e n money' to buy drugs'.  drugs, or t h a t he was  have d e n i e d u s i n g  ' s t e a l i n g i n o r d e r to buy  These p o s s i b l e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s a r e not pursued, however, and  g e n e r a l i m p r e s s i o n developed by the f a t h e r and p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r was the j u v e n i l e was of  'drugs' and  s t e a l i n g l a r g e amounts of money to use f o r the  t h a t he had  'lied'  the that  purchase  to h i s f a t h e r i n o r d e r to c o n c e a l the  fact. Thus, the t h e f t i s ' e x p l a i n e d ' v i a the i n t r o d u c t i o n of buying'. for  L a c k i n g i n the account, however, i s any attempt  the purchase of d r u g s .  to l o c a t e a  'cause'  I suggest t h a t i n t h i s r e s p e c t , the i n t e r a c t i o n  thus f a r has not p r o v i d e d a probation-adequate haviour.  'drug  ' e x p l a n a t i o n ' of the be-  'Drug use' can be taken as evidence of a wide-ranging v a r i e t y o f  'problems',  i . e . , as an a c t i v i t y which  ' l o o s e n s ' s e l f - c o n t r o l and promotes  h o s t i l e or a g g r e s s i v e b e h a v i o u r , o r one which r e f l e c t s withdrawal.  Thus,  'mere' drug use i s not an adequate  social-psychological i n d i c a t o r of  'essen-  t i a l moral c h a r a c t e r ' , to use Werthman's term, and c o u r t p e r s o n n e l are involved i n adequate-for-practical-purposes determinations of e s s e n t i a l moral c h a r a c t e r . The f a t h e r ' s u t t e r a n c e s h i e l d s the j u v e n i l e ' s c h a r a c t e r from the s t r o n g n e g a t i v e i n f e r e n c e s which c o u l d be drawn from the ' f a c t ' his  son has  ' s t o l e n money fran h i s own  p a r e n t s i n o r d e r to buy  drugs  that  163  3 and then l i e d  to h i s f a t h e r i n denying i t . '  Ironically,  u t t e r a n c e shddds the son by t r a d i n g on h i s s t a t u s as  the f a t h e r ' s  'probationer'.  His  'drug use' i s seen as a response to h i s s i t u a t i o n , i . e . , a p r o b a t i o n e r who i s f a c i n g f u r t h e r c o u r t a c t i o n as one who  has  ' f a i l e d ' on p r o b a t i o n .  His  b e h a v i o u r , i n o r d e r words, i s seen as b e i n g produced by h i s 'worried', 'despondent',  'depressed' mental  c o n d i t i o n , which  i n t u r n i s seen as b e i n g  produced by concern over the p o s s i b i l i t y of b e i n g removed from h i s home and  'locked up'.  f o r the j u v e n i l e .  The f a t h e r ' s account thus warrants h i s ' f e e l i n g The  'drug use' engaged i n by t h i s j u v e n i l e i s d e p i c t e d  i n terms which undercut any attempt character.  In p r a c t i c a l  to i n f e r an e s s e n t i a l l y  may  i f placement  be r a i s e d  i s viewed  as  'punishment'.  moral  'unfairness' of  A g a i n , the i s s u e  i s i f 'placement' as a response to t h i s p a r t i c u l a r  as d e s c r i b e d by the p a r e n t i s going to do more harm f  if  'bad'  terms, such a c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n might be traded  upon by a parent to a c c o m p l i s h the 'unreasonableness' o r placement  sorry  ;  than  which  situation  "good , i . e . ,  the j u v e n i l e i s t a k i n g drugs because he i s 'depressed' over the p o s s i -  b i l i t y of b e i n g removed from the home, then he might become more pressed',  ' d e s p e r a t e , e t c . when, i n f a c t , he i s removed. 1  The  desolution  once a g a i n can be c o n s t r u e d , when so c o n c e i v e d , as c a u s i n g more s e r i o u s problems. Here the p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r  i s c o n f r o n t e d w i t h an  of the 'meaning' of the p r o b a t i o n e r ' s b e h a v i o u r ,  interpretation  ' a t t i t u d e ' , e t c . , which  may  be expected to generate  'problems' i n the f u t u r e .  The f a t h e r w i l l  be  3.  T h i s account of the son's a c t i o n s forms a t y p i f i c a t i o n which c o n t a i n s " d e s t r u c t i v e and m o r t i f y i n g meanings f o r s e l f " , i n Emerson's terms.  164  i n a p o s i t i o n to ' o b j e c t t o ' o r ' r e s i s t ' t i o n o f f i c e r and p r o v i d e attempt  the recommendation o f the proba-  'support' f o r t h e son both d u r i n g the impending  to 'convince' him t h a t placement i s the 'only r e a s o n a b l e  to the ' s i t u a t i o n as i t s t a n d s , and later i n c o u r t ' . o f f i c e r attempted would render  the p r o b a t i o n  to r e d e f i n e t h e concept o f 'placement' i n terms which  i t a c c e p t a b l e to the p a r e n t s .  gages i n f u r t h e r attempts h i s planned  Earlier,  solution'  to accomplish  Now the p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r en-  the s i n g u l a r  'reasonableness' o f  recommendation:  PO:  W e l l yeah, b u t you know we're g e t t i n g i n t o the c l i m a x . Uh, t h i s has been going on f o r a l e n g t h o f time and i t ' s hard on everybody. You know, I f e e l t h a t we're not going to get another chance w i t h John i f we don't come up w i t h something.  Fa:  Y e s . Yes.  PO:  This i s i t .  Fa:  As you say, I mean t h i s can e i t h e r make him o r break him. And I f e e l t h a t we've got to take t h a t chance.  PO:  That's about i t . ' You know i t would be v e r y easy to walk i n t o c o u r t and to say " I recommend t h a t he go on p r o b a t i o n , go back home and have done w i t h i t . " ((pause)) Now I mean John - from my p o i n t o f view - John has never r e a l l y had to answer f o r - l o o k - f o r a n y t h i n g because you've always p r o t e c t e d him. Now he's f i n a l l y g o t t e n i n t o something where he c o u l d n ' t , and as f a r as s t a y i n g home, John was o n l y here i n body.  Fa:  Yes, but Mr. Smith,  PO:  He was a c t u a l l y l i v i n g The matter  j u s t a minute Mr. Smith, i n that other p l a c e .  of f a c t way i n which the p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r speaks o f  'the c l i m a x ' c o n t r a s t s markedly w i t h t h e f a t h e r ' s emotion-charged d e s c r i p t i o n o f the 'desperate' mood o f h i s s o n . The p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r speaks as 'an e x p e r t ' who has had a g r e a t d e a l of e x p e r i e n c e working with  juveniles  and f a m i l i e s  suggests  'in trouble'.  "Now we're g e t t i n g i n t o the c l i m a x "  165  t h a t t h e r e i s n o t h i n g e x c e p t i o n a l about t h i s p a r t i c u l a r case,  t h a t i t con-  forms to a t y p i c a l p a t t e r n the PO has  'seen' i n the p a s t , i . e . , the  knows and  The use of  plies  can r e c o g n i z e a ' p a t t e r n ' .  'climax' i n t h i s way  t h a t the 'worry', e t c . , w i l l soon be o v e r .  have more or l e s s l i m i t e d  and  instructed  'experience' w i t h j u v e n i l e s who  to 'see' the  to see i t as  im-  The p a r e n t s , of c o u r s e , are i n trouble  and a r e , i n t h i s r e s p e c t , a t an i n t e r a c t i o n a l d i s a d v a n t a g e . merely  PO  'climax' i n the recommended  'the end' of a d i f f i c u l t p e r i o d which was  They are disposition 'hard on  every-  body'. The PO's that  ' e x p e r t i s e ' a l s o l e n d s ominous import  'we're not going to get another chance'.  to the remark  In o t h e r words, the  implies  t h a t he r e c o g n i z e s the p a t t e r n and  is i t ' ,  t h a t i f the recommended a c t i o n i s not taken, i t w i l l be  to save the j u v e n i l e .  The  can t e l l h e r e and now  impression offered  PO  that, 'too  'this  late'  to the p a r e n t s i s t h a t , as  the f a t h e r q u i c k l y s t a t e s "we've got to take t h a t chance". I t should be noted  t h a t the way  c h a r a c t e r i z e d by p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r and  i n which  'placement' i s b e i n g  f a t h e r has undergone a s i g n i f i c a n t  change d u r i n g t h i s s t a g e i n the p r o b a t i o n i n t e r a c t i o n s . i n g about  way  of  talk-  'placement' i n l i e u o f c o n t i n u e d p r o b a t i o n i n the home would be to  say t h a t the j u v e n i l e had and had  One  failed.  As we  a l r e a d y been g i v e n a ' l a s t chance' by  have seen, d e s c r i p t i o n s of  ' p r o b a t i o n ' as  the  judge  'one  l a s t chance' a r e f r e q u e n t l y made when a j u v e n i l e i s p l a c e d on p r o b a t i o n . Indeed, p r o v i d i n g the j u v e n i l e w i t h the sense of h a v i n g been granted chance to 'prove h i m s e l f  i s a fundamental,  e x p l i c i t l y addressed  a  g o a l of  166  much c o u r t - p r o b a t i o n i n t e r a c t i o n  from the p o i n t o f view o f c o u r t  personnel.  Take, f o r example, the f o l l o w i n g t y p i c a l admonition o f a judge a d d r e s s i n g a  'new' p r o b a t i o n e r : Judge:  A l l r i g h t young man. You're going to go home. I'm going to l e t you go home on p r o b a t i o n , b u t i f you come back, i f Mr. Brown (PO) t e l l s me t h a t you're not obeying him and your parents or v i o l a t i n g your terms, w e l l I'm not going to l e t you o f f a g a i n . T h i s i s your l a s t chance, do you understand that?  Juv:  Yes s i r . We have a l s o seen t h a t many p r o b a t i o n e r s do n o t , i n f a c t ,  ate p e r f e c t l y their  w i t h parents  and p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r s and t h a t they  terms o f p r o b a t i o n on o c c a s i o n without  t h r e a t o f r e t u r n to c o u r t w i t h  being returned  cooper-  violate  to c o u r t .  The  the concomitant recommendation o f a more  ' d r a s t i c ' recommendation, i . e . , 'placement' i s q u i t e f r e q u e n t l y employed by p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r s i n attempts to 'shake up' a p r o b a t i o n e r ' s t r a i g h t e n him o u t ' o r a t l e a s t inadequate  performance.  i n o r d e r to  d i s p l a y t h e consequences o f c o n t i n u e d  Negative,  forboding t y p i f i c a t i o n s  of 'placement',  'raising  to a d u l t c o u r t ' , e t c . , a r e c o n s t r u c t e d and employed i n the i n t e r -  actional  p r o v i s i o n o f the p r o b a t i o n e r w i t h a sense o f apprehension  over the  consequences he may f a c e . One of the more s u b t l e ways i n which d e f i n e d ' d u r i n g the p r e s e n t  'placement' i s b e i n g ' r e -  exchange i s that 'placement' i t s e l f  t a l k e d about as 'a l a s t chance' i t s e l f  r a t h e r than t h e f i n a l  i s being  consequence o f  failing  to take advantage of 'the l a s t chance', e.g., ' p r o b a t i o n i n the  home'.  'Placement' as a chance f o r the j u v e i l e  t o p i c which was e a r l i e r r a i s e d  t o prove h i m s e l f i s a  by the f a t h e r and p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r d u r i n g  t h e i r c o l l a b o r a t i v e l y - g e n e r a t e d benign  d e p i c t i o n o f the i n s t i t u t i o n .  167  The p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r ale  then, however, b e g i n s  to develop  a ration-  f o r the n e c e s s i t y of removing the j u v e n i l e from the home i n terms  which, f o r the f i r s t parents.  The PO  v i s i o n and  time, seem to be e x p l i c i t l y c r i t i c a l of the j u v e n i l e ' s  i s moving to e s t a b l i s h the  guidance'  provided  'inadequacy' of the  'super-  the youth which e s t a b l i s h e s the l e g a l war-  r a n t f o r 'placement'. For the f i r s t at  time the f a t h e r i s c o n f r o n t e d w i t h  the c l a i m t h a t ,  l e a s t from the p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r ' s p o i n t of view: John has never r e a l l y had to answer f o r - l o o k - f o r a n y t h i n g because you've always p r o t e c t e d him. Now he's f i n a l l y g o t t e n i n t o something where he c o u l d n ' t , Here i s a more e x p l i c i t and,  of ing  the PO's  t h e r e f o r e , more t h r e a t e n i n g v e r s i o n  e a r l i e r remark t h a t the j u v e n i l e has been a b l e to escape  ' r e s p o n s i b l e ' f o r h i s a c t i o n s because h i s p a r e n t s  'pay'  f o r him.  feelIt  a l s o resembles the f a t h e r ' s e a r l i e r remark t h a t the j u v e n i l e has had "too 4 much mom and dad" . Now he suggests t h a t 'too much mom and dad' and the 5 'negative sense of s e c u r i t y ' a c t u a l l y c o n s t i t u t e ' o v e r - p r o t e c t i o n ' by_ the the p a r e n t s , a f e a t u r e of the home which i s p o r t r a y e d as u n d e r c u t t i n g impact for  of p r o b a t i o n because, e.g.,  a n y t h i n g because you've always p r o t e c t e d The  way  "John has never r e a l l y had  to answer  him".  p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r a l s o d e s c r i b e s the  which once more minimizes  the  'present s i t u a t i o n ' i n a  the p e r c e i v e d n e g a t i v e moral meaning of  'placement o u t s i d e the home', e s p e c i a l l y the n o t i o n s which have been shown 6 to be h e l d by the mother. I am r e f e r r i n g to the p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r ' s remark 4. 5. 6.  See p. 149. See p. 142 On pp. 110-118 I d i s c u s s e d these n o t i o n s and a n a l y z e d the work done by PO and f a t h e r i n attempting to p r o v i d e h e r w i t h 'probation-adequate' notions.  168  that:  "...and as f a r as s t a y i n g home, John was  actually living n o t i o n of  place".  'earned home v i s i t '  d r a s t i c and on  i n t h a t other  Earlier,  the PO had  complete removal of the j u v e n i l e from the home.  ' i n mind' and  another  'problem'.  removing him  The  and  that that i n i t s e l f  already  parents a r e i n v i t e d to see  body.  The  PO's  the p a r e n t ' s l a c k of  the j u v e n i l e i s i n some s o r t o f 'his mind' i s not  of h i s p a r e n t s ' .  'The  other  take d r u g s .  p r e t i v e machinery w i t h which to  may The  ' c o n t r o l ' over  the  i t suggests  i n compliance w i t h the  that of  'reasonable  p l a c e ' r e f e r r e d to i s a community  The  where, e v i d e n t l y , some  parents a r e p r o v i d e d  'explain',  the j u v e n i l e to themselves, the boy  'at  'cognitive' v i o l a t i o n  c e n t e r where j u v e n i l e s i n the neighbourhood meet and of them d i s t r i b u t e and  be  C a r t e s i a n d e s c r i p t i o n of the j u v e n i l e  In perhaps an even more s u b t l e way,  ' i n the home'.  e l s e who  part  'placement' as a r e i n t e -  youth  requests  trades  done t h a t h i m s e l f ,  p o i n t s up  i n s o f a r as  a  place  i s a large  also quite powerfully  i n some r e s p e c t s ,  he  account informs the p a r e n t s t h a t they would not  The  g r a t i o n o f mind and  Now  that a person can be one  from the house, r a t h e r , he has  l e a s t mentally'.  the  ' i n body' to argue t h a t the j u v e n i l e ' s mind i s not  ' r e a l l y ' i n the home a t present  probation  employed  was  to undercut the appearance of placement as  the common-sense p s y c h o l o g i c a l n o t i o n  of the  o n l y here i n body....He  w i t h the  inter-  ' j u s t i f y ' , e t c . , placement of  himself,  r e l a t i v e s , f r i e n d s , and  anyone  have an i n t e r e s t i n the phenomenon. f a t h e r , however, gains  o f f i c e r ' s remarks about the child relationship:  the f l o o r to c h a l l e n g e  the  probation  ' p r o t e c t i v e ' n a t u r e of t h i s p a r t i c u l a r p a r e n t -  169  Fa:  But I - I would say no more than normal c h i l d r e n . Children a r e p r o t e c t e d merely by the f a c t o f l i v i n g a t home. A l l children are. The  f a t h e r r e a c t s to the p r o b a t i o n  o f f i c e r ' s c l a i m t h a t the 'pro-  blem' i s a t l e a s t p a r t i a l l y a t t r i b u t a b l e to ' o v e r l y - p r o t e c t i v e ' parents arguing are  that  'normal c h i l d r e n ' by v i r t u e o f t h e f a c t  'protected by t h e i r p a r e n t s ' .  business  'Parents'  of p r o t e c t i n g t h e i r c h i l d r e n .  'probation-relevant' being detained  data  by  t h a t they l i v e a t home  a r e i n the r o u t i n e , everyday  The p r o b a t i o n  to s u b s t a n t i a t e h i s account.  officer  then c i t e s  The j u v e n i l e was  a t t h e j u v e i l e h a l l when t h e p r o b a t i o n had c o n t a c t e d the  f a t h e r , who a t t h a t time d i d not w i s h to have the j u v e n i l e r e l e a s e d i n t o his  custody.  accordingly.  The p r o b a t i o n  o f f i c e r had then planned h i s c o u r t  The p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r ' s s c h e d u l e ,  when the f a t h e r had changed h i s mind and d e c i d e d juvenile released. he  The p r o b a t i o n  complicated  t h a t he d i d want t h e  o f f i c e r ' s v o i c e r a i s e s a b i t a n g r i l y as  'reminds' the f a t h e r : PO:  Now he was r e l e a s e d to your c u s t o d y , which you d i d n ' t want i n the f i r s t i n s t a n c e . You r e f u s e d to g e t i n v o l v e d . You know, you s a i d : " I can't get i n v o l v e d " . Y e t then you went ahead and went through the lawyer t h i n g and e v e r y t h i n g . He was r e l e a s e d and you were i n s t r u c t e d by the c o u r t - and you were s t a n d i n g t h e r e - as t o t h e terms he was r e l e a s e d under. I t was that same n i g h t t h a t he saw the Barker boy, and he admitted s t e a l i n g your hosue money - denying i t f i r s t - and then gave i t to the Hopkins boy. I n o t h e r words h i s a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h h i s peer group was so g r e a t t h a t i t was g r e a ter than h i s l o v e f o r you - and he l i e d to you. I t would seem that  probation o f f i c e r haviour. up'  e t c . , had been  appearance  ' o v e r - p r o t e c t i o n ' i n t h i s case i s used by the  t o r e f e r to the f a t h e r ' s i n c o n s i s t e n t c o u r t - r e l a t e d b e -  The f a t h e r i s b e i n g  sanctioned  at least p a r t i a l l y f o r 'fouling  the p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r ' s accomplishment o f h i s p r o b a t i o n  tasks.  The meti-  170  culous  care w i t h which the p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r  actants r e f l e c t s they may  the ' f a c t ' t h a t t h e i r past behaviour  'cause t r o u b l e ' f o r c o u r t p e r s o n n e l  ' h e l p ' i n c o n v i n c i n g the p r o b a t i o n e r tence.  i s dealing with  The p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r  these  has i n d i c a t e d t h a t  as w e l l as e n s u r i n g  to accept placement without  i s undercutting  inter-  their resis-  the father's ' c r e d e n t i a l s '  f o r a n a l y z i n g the case by d e s c r i b i n g h i s ' i n c o n s i s t e n t ' involvement almost immediate  ' i n e f f e c t i v e n e s s ' d u r i n g the e a r l i e r  'problem'.  how the 'terms' o f p r o b a t i o n a r e employed on t h i s o c c a s i o n . had  Note  Earlier  the PO  traded upon them to f i n d out'.'whether t h e parents had d i s c u s s e d the  j u v e n i l e ' s behaviour of p r o b a t i o n .  w i t h him i n the context o f ' v i o l a t i o n s ' o f h i s terms  I n f o r m a t i o n was gathered  which i s then a v a i l a b l e d u r i n g the  coming p r o b a t i o n - r e l e v a n t i n t e r a c t i o n s w i t h the p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r lier  and  interactional  of p r o b a t i o n  the j u v e n i l e .  Now, however,  i s u s i n g the machinery of the terms, and t h e i r  ' l a y i n g down' to accomplish  'here and now' by the f a t h e r .  the 'proper'  understanding  Not o n l y were the terms  down' f o r the p r o b a t i o n e r , b u t the f a t h e r i s a l s o  ear-  'layed  'reminded' t h a t "you  were s t a n d i n g t h e r e " and t h a t n o t o n l y the j u v e n i l e , b u t the f a t h e r h i m s e l f was i n s t r u c t e d "as to the terms he was r e l e a s e d under". vided with  The f a t h e r i s p r o -  grounds f o r t r e a t i n g the v i o l a t i o n as an i n d i c a t o r o f a b a s i c  problem, as a r e f l e c t i o n o f t h e ' f a c t ' t h a t the problem here i s a t l e a s t p a r t i a l l y a t t r i b u t a b l e to h i s d e f e c t i v e performance as the f a t h e r o f a probationer.  Thus, the f a t h e r l e a r n s t h a t f u t u r e m a n i f e s t a t i o n s o f h i s  past performance  ' i n c o u r t ' may be d i f f e r e n t l y i n t e r p r e t e d by t h e judge and  other court personnel. f e n s e i s formulated  The p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r ' s c a u s a l account o f the o f -  i n a way which  to be t h r e a t e n i n g to the p a r e n t s '  ' e x p l a i n s ' i t i n a way which may be seen ' d e f i n i t i o n o f the s i t u a t i o n ' :  171  In o t h e r words h i s a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h h i s peer group was so g r e a t that i t was g r e a t e r than h i s l o v e f o r you and he l i e d to you. The PO h e r e a c t i v a t e s the a s s o c i a t i o n c l a u s e of the 'terms' i n a way  which e x p l i c i t l y  adequate u n d e r s t a n d i n g  probationer's  displays i t s relevance for a probation-  or i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the o f f e n s e , one which,  'as  u s u a l ' t r a d e s upon a p a r t i c u l a r v e r s i o n of the events which p r o v i d e s f o r the reasonableness  of placement as a  'solution'.  Note t h a t the  o f f i c e r employs the language of s o c i a l s c i e n c e i n h i s account, i s seen to be produced by  the j u v e n i l e ' s i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h a  i n t e r a c t i o n which i s seen to be f o r h i s parents. p r o b a t i o n t a l k was  'more important',  behaviour  the  behaviour  'peer group',  ' g r e a t e r ' than h i s l o v e  The r o u t i n e and mundane appearance of such r e f e r e n c e s i n initially  accounted f o r by the r e s e a r c h e r w i t h  t i o n t h a t 'most' p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r s had Cloward and  or  probation  O h l i n , Matza, e t c .  The  a t l e a s t heard  of S u t h e r l a n d ,  common-sense t h e o r i e s of  which u n d e r l i e the terms of p r o b a t i o n and  the assump-  delinquent  the i n t e r a c t i o n a l  s t r u c t i o n of p r o b a t i o n adequate meanings of p r o b a t i o n e r s ' b e h a v i o u r essentially identical association',  to s o c i o l o g i c a l n o t i o n s o f ,  ' d i f f e r e n t i a l opportunity',  'drift',  Cohen,  con-  are  e.g.,'differential 'subculture', e t c .  Few  of the c o u r t p e r s o n n e l , however, had been f o r m a l l y , o r even i n f o r m a l l y exposed to such l i t e r a t u r e . f o r by  R a t h e r , t h e i r r o u t i n e use must be  the f a c t t h a t they may  b l e m a t i c p r o d u c t i o n of  be  traded upon i n the e f f i c i e n t  and  ' e x p l a n a t i o n s ' adequate f o r the p r a c t i c a l  ment of e s s e n t i a l p r o b a t i o n t a s k s . o f f i c e r has  accounted  On  accomplish-  the p r e s e n t o c c a s i o n , the  probation  t r a d e d upon the j u v e n i l e ' s performance as documenting  on p r o b a t i o n i n the home.  H i s d e s c r i p t i o n may  a l s o be seen as an  upon the j u v e n i l e ' s r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h h i s p a r e n t s , a s u g g e s t i o n  unpro-  'failure' attack  t h a t he  does  }  172  not  ' r e a l l y ' l o v e them.  Note how  such a r e a d i n g of the  case can be used to c o n s t r u c t an understanding albeit i n i t i a l may  and u n i l a t e r a l  ' r e j e c t i o n ' by  be i n t e r p r e t e d so as to warrant  placement.  of placement as  'rejection'  the c h i l d of the p a r e n t s  'formal r e j e c t i o n ' by  be inadequate i n s o f a r as i t may  the p a r t of parents  and/or p r o b a t i o n e r s b e f o r e ,  appearances d u r i n g which j u v e n i l e s who  have  T y p i f i c a t i o n s of placement and  occasion,  generate  after  court  ' f a i l e d ' on p r o b a t i o n  moral On  motivational  assessment of h i s  the j u v e n i l e and h i s f a i l u r e to p r o v i d e  'adequate and  relation-  proper'  c o n t r o l f o r the j u v e n i l e :  Fa:  Don't t e l l me t h a t - you see - because I don't know what goes on w i t h these k i d s now - and i n the f i r s t p l a c e I don't know why he owed money to sombedoy. L e t ' s presume t h a t he owed money to Barker which I don't know - L e t ' s presume he d i d ,  PO:  He  Fa:  But I imagine t h a t they've got ways and meansiof p u t t i n g the screws on him to get i t back. Now he d i