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A vegetation description of two ecological reserves in interior British Columbia Larmour, Shirley Dale 1975

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A VEGETATION DESCRIPTION OF TWO ECOLOGICAL RESERVES IN INTERIOR BRITISH COLUMBIA by Shirley Dale Larraour B . S c , University of Regina, 1973 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE in the Department of Botany We accept this thesis as conforming to th required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September, 1975 In present ing th is thes is in p a r t i a l fu l f i lment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the Un ivers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L ibrary sha l l make it f ree ly ava i l ab le for reference and study. I fur ther agree that permission for extensive copying of th is thes is for s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h is representa t ives . It is understood that copying or pub l i ca t ion of th is thes is for f inanc ia l gain sha l l not be allowed without my wri t ten permission. Department The Un ivers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 Date ABSTRACT The purpose of t h i s thesis i s to provide a vegetation description of two Ecological Reserves i n Interi o r B r i t i s h Columbia. The Ecological Reserves studied were Trout Creek, near Penticton and Tranquille, near Kamloops. These areas were studied using quadrats placed within community types subjectively determined on the basis of species dominance and physiognomy. S o i l samples were taken and b r i e f p r o f i l e descriptions made. F i e l d data were examined subjectively and modifications of the o r i g i n a l units made where necessary. A Bray-Curtis Ordination was done on the data from each reserve. Four communities were defined i n Trout Creek. The most extensive community i s the Pinus ponderosa/Agropyron spicatum community. This occurs on terraces and slopes and i s dom-inated by Pinus ponderosa i n the tree layer and Agropyron  spicatum i n the herb layer. Chrysothamnus nauseosus i s the most common shrub. On talus slopes i s the Pinus ponderosa/Pseudotsuga  menziesii/Amelanchier a l n i f o l i a community. Pinus and Pseudotsuga occur together i n the overstory and Amelanchier a l n i f o l i a i s the most common shrub. The ground cover i s sparse. In small areas of rock outcropping are Selaginella  wallacei communities in which the ground cover i s dominated by this vascular cryptogam. In one very small, protected area, i s the Pinus  ponderosa/Pseudotsuga menziesii/Calamagrostis rubescens community. This community has a dense layer of young Pinus and Pseudotsuga and a ground cover of the grass Calamagrostis  rubescens. Four communities were also defined in Tranquille. On the f lat valley bottom, is the Artemisia tridentata/Poa  sandbergii/Stipa comata community. Artemisia tridentata dominates the shrub layer and Poa sandbergii and Stipa comata are codominants in the herb layer. There i s no tree layer. This community is probably overgrazed. Most of the lower slopes of the reserve are covered by the Pinus ponderosa/Agropyron spicatum community. This community i s dominated by Pinus ponderosa in the canopy and Agropyron  spicatum in the herb layer. The sparse shrub layer i s composed mainly of Chrysothamnus nauseosus and Artemisia tridentata. Also on the lower slopes, in small areas interspersed within the Pinus/Agropyron community is the Pinus ponderosa/  Ari s t ida longiseta community, in which the grass Aris t ida  longiseta becomes a codominant in the herb layer. Above about 760 meters, the vegetation is predominantly the Pseudotsuga menziesii/Pinus ponderosa/Agropyron spicatum i v community. Pseudotsuga becomes codominant or dominant in the canopy layer. Agropyron spicatum is s t i l l dominant in the herb layer but the clumps are smaller and more widely spaced. The Bray-Curtis Ordinations support the community break-downs . The soi ls are Brunisols in Trout Creek and Regosols and Chernozems in Tranquille. So i l prof i le descriptions are given and data on various physical and chemical characteristics of the soi ls are presented. A comparison of the reserves is made. It i s recommended that the Trout Creek Reserve be high pr ior i ty for fencing. This i s not necessary for Tranquille. V TABLE OF CONTENTS Page I n t r o d u c t i o n 1 Review o f t h e L i t e r a t u r e . . . 2 The Ponderosa P i n e - Bunchgrass Zone 2 G r a s s l a n d Communities 11 The I n t e r i o r Douglas F i r Zone ....14 A u t e c o l o g y o f Ponderosa P i n e and Douglas F i r 18 D e s c r i p t i o n o f Study A r e a s 20 G e n e r a l P h y s i o g r a p h y 20 T r o u t Creek 21 T r a n q u i l l e 29 Methods 34 V e g e t a t i o n 34 F i e l d . .34 V e g e t a t i o n S y n t h e s i s 36 S o i l s 38 F i e l d . 38 L a b o r a t o r y A n a l y s i s 39 T r o u t Creek V e g e t a t i o n S y n t h e s i s 41 Community A n a l y s i s 41 The P i n u s ponderosa/Agropyron s p i c a t u m Community . . . 41 The S e l a g i n e l l a w a l l a c e i Community 49 v i The Pinus ponderosa/Pseudotsuga menziesii/  Amelanchier a ln i fo l i a Community. 51 The Pinus ponderosa/Pseudotsuga menziesii/  Calamagrostis rubescens Community 56 Bray-Curtis Ordination 60 Conclusion 62 Tranquille Vegetation Synthesis 63 Community Analysis 63 The Artemisia tridentata/Poa sandbergii/ Stipa comata Community 63 The Pinus ponderosa/Aqropyron spicatum Community 66 The Pinus ponderosa/Aristida longiseta •- - , Community 73 The Pseudotsuga menziesii/Pinus ponderosa/ .Agropyron spicatum Community 76 Bray-Curtis Ordination 82 Conclusion 82 Comparison of the Communities of the Reserves 84 Soils 97 Trout Creek 97 Tranquille 101 Conclusion 106 Summary 107 Recommendations I l l Literature Cited 113 V l l LIST OF TABLES T a b l e 1. T r o u t Creek: Average A i r Temperatures f o r 1974 and 59 Year Average (°C). T a b l e 2. T r o u t Creek: F r o s t F r e e Days and Growing season: 1974 and 59 Y e a r Average. T a b l e 3. T r o u t Creek: Hours o f B r i g h t S u n l i g h t : 1974 and 5 9 Year Average. T a b l e 4. T r o u t Creek: P r e c i p i t a t i o n i n C e n t i m e t e r s (R a i n and Snow Combined): 1974 and 59 Y e a r Average. T a b l e 5. T r a n q u i l l e : M o n t h l y Mean Temperature (°C): 1974 and 30 Y e a r Average. T a b l e 6. T r a n q u i l l e : Average M o n t h l y P r e c i p i t a t i o n ( C e n t i m e t e r s ) and Hours o f Sunshine: 1974 and 30 Year Average. T a b l e 7. Average Cover and Frequency o f S p e c i e s i n the P i n u s ponderosa/Agropyron s p i c a t u m community o f T r o u t Creek. T a b l e 8. Tree s p e c i e s Data from P l o t s i n T r o u t Creek T a b l e 9. Average Cover and Frequency o f S p e c i e s i n t h e S e l a g i n e l l a w a l l a c e i community o f T r o u t Creek. T a b l e 10. Average Cover and Frequency o f S p e c i e s i n the P i n u s ponderosa/Pseudotsuga m e n z i e s i i / A m e l a n c h i e r a l n i f o l i a community o f T r o u t Creek. T a b l e 11. Range o f Cover and C o n s t a n c y o f S p e c i e s i n Communities o f T r o u t Creek. T a b l e 12. Average Cover and Frequency o f S p e c i e s i n t h e A r t e m i s i a t r i d e n t a t a / P o a s a n d b e r g i i / S t i p a comata community o f T r a n q u i l l e . T a b l e 13. Tree S p e c i e s Data from P l o t s i n T r a n q u i l l e . T a b l e 14. Average Cover and Frequency o f S p e c i e s i n the P i n u s ponderosa/Agropyron s p i c a t u m community o f T r a n q u i l l e . VXX1 T a b l e 15. Average Cover and Frequency o f S p e c i e s i n t h e P i n u s p o n d e r o s a / A r i s t i d a l o n g i s e t a community o f T r a n q u i l l e . T a b l e 16. Average Cover and Frequency o f S p e c i e s i n t h e Pseudotsuga m e n z i e s i i / P i n u s ponderosa/Agropyron  s p i c a t u m community o f T r a n q u i l l e . T a b l e 17. Range o f Cover and Constancy o f S p e c i e s i n communities i n T r a n q u i l l e . T a b l e 18. H e i g h t , Diameter and Age Data f o r T r e e s . T a b l e 19. L i s t o f P l a n t S p e c i e s i n T r o u t Creek. T a b l e 20. L i s t o f P l a n t S p e c i e s i n T r a n q u i l l e . T a b l e 21. P r o f i l e D e s c r i p t i o n s o f S o i l s i n T r o u t Creek. T a b l e 22. P h y s i c a l P r o p e r t i e s o f S o i l s i n T r o u t Creek. T a b l e 23. C h e m i c a l P r o p e r t i e s o f S o i l s i n T r o u t Creek. T a b l e 24. P r o f i l e D e s c r i p t i o n s o f S o i l s i n T r a n q u i l l T a b l e 25. P h y s i c a l P r o p e r t i e s o f S o i l s i n T r a n q u i l l e T a b l e 26. C h e m i c a l P r o p e r t i e s o f S o i l s i n T r a n q u i l l e i x LIST OF FIGURES Page F i g u r e 1. G e n e r a l L o c a t i o n o f t h e E c o l o g i c a l R e s e r v e s . 22 F i g u r e 2. L o c a t i o n o f t h e T r o u t Creek E c o l o g i c a l R e s e rve. 23 F i g u r e 3. L o c a t i o n o f t h e T r a n q u i l l e E c o l o g i c a l R e s e rve. 30 F i g u r e 4. T e n t a t i v e Community Map o f t h e T r o u t Creek E c o l o g i c a l R e s e r v e . 42 F i g u r e 5. T r o u t Creek, t h e P i n u s ponderosa/Agropyron s p i c a t u m Community. 44 F i g u r e 6. T r o u t Creek, t h e S e l a g i n e l l a w a l l a c e i Community. 44 F i g u r e 7. T r o u t Creek, t h e P i n u s ponderosa/Pseudotsuga  m e n z i e s i i / A m e l a n c h i e r a l n i f o l i a Community. 54 F i g u r e 8. T r o u t Creek, t h e P i n u s ponderosa/Pseudotsuga  m e n z i e s i i / C a l a m a g r o s t i s r u bescens Community. 54 F i g u r e 9. B r a y - ^ C u r t i s O r d i n a t i o n o f P l o t s from T r o u t Creek. 61 F i g u r e 10. T e n t a t i v e Community Map o f t h e T r a n q u i l l e E c o l o g i c a l R e s e r v e . 64 F i g u r e 11. T r a n q u i l l e , t h e A r t e m i s i a t r i d e n t a t a / P o a  s a n d b e r g i i / S t i p a comata Community. 65 F i g u r e 12. T r a n q u i l l e , t h e P i n u s ponderosa/Agropyron s p i c a t u m Community. 65 F i g u r e 13. T r a n q u i l l e , ground c o v e r o f t h e P i n u s  p o n d e r o s a / A r i s t i d a l o n g i s e t a Community. ^4 F i g u r e 14. T r a n q u i l l e , t h e Pseudotsuga m e n z i e s i i / P i n u s  ponderosa/Agropyron s p i c a t u m Community. 7 4 F i g u r e 15. B r a y - C u r t i s O r d i n a t i o n o f P l o t s from T r a n q u i l l e . 8 3 X ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Funds for the work done in this thesis were provided by N.R.C. Grant No. 6633, the Br i t i sh Columbia Ecological Reserves Committee,the Government of Br i t i sh Columbia Careers 74 Program, and two N.R.C. Post Graduate Scholarships awarded in 1974 and 1975. I wish to thank Dr. George Otto for the identif icat ion of the lichens, Dr. George Ledingham for the identif icat ion of the Astragalus and Carex species and Dr. W.B. Schofield for help with the identif ication of the moss species. Warm and special thanks go to Miss Ol iv ia Ng who assisted with the f i e ld work and to my supervisor, Dr. Charles E. Be i l , who helped in countless ways and without whom, nothing would have been accomplished. 1 INTRODUCTION A l t h o u g h many E c o l o g i c a l Reserves have been e s t a b l i s h e d t o p r e s e r v e t y p e s o f v e g e t a t i o n and t o p r o v i d e a r e a s f o r s c i e n t i f i c study., few d e t a i l e d v e g e t a t i o n d e s c r i p t i o n s have been made o f them. The purpose o f t h i s t h e s i s i s t o p r o v i d e a d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e v e g e t a t i o n o f two E c o l o g i c a l R e s e r v e s . T h i s d e s c r i p t i o n s h o u l d s e r v e as a b a s i s f o r f u r t h e r s t u d y and as i n f o r m a t i o n t o g u i d e management. The r e s e r v e s chosen a r e i n t h e d r y I n t e r i o r o f B r i t i s h Columbia, one near P e n t i c t o n and t h e o t h e r near Kamloops. They were s t u d i e d i n t h e summer o f 1974. 2 REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE The vegetation of the reserves fa l l s into the Ponderosa Pine - Bunchgrass and the Interior Douglas F i r Biogeoclimatic Zones (Krajina 1965). The open, park-like forest in the Pond-erosa Pine - Bunchgrass Zone i s dominated by Pinus ponderosa with a grassy understory much l ike the communities of the adjacent more xeric grasslands. As conditions become more mesic, the ponderosa pine forest is replaced by a forest dominated by Pseudotsuga menziesii. This zone is the Interior Douglas F i r Zone (Krajina 1965). The following is a br ie f review of characteristics of these two zones for background information relating to the vegetation and environment of the reserves. The Ponderosa Pine - Bunchgrass Zone: The climate of the Ponderosa Pine - Bunchgrass Zone is c lass i f ied as BSK, Dsa and the driest Dsb (after Koppen). Winters in this zone are moderately cold and summers are warm with 80 to 200 frost free days. The annual precipitation is 18 to 36 centimeters and 19 to 42% of this fa l l s as snow (Krajina 1969). The precipitation shows two seasonal maxima, a long diffuse maximum in winter and a shorter one in June and early July (Brayshaw 1965). The Zone's l a t i t u d i n a l range i s from 49° t o 51°30' N. and extends approximately from 270 t o 750 meters i n e l e v a t i o n . I t i s developed i n B r i t i s h Columbia i n the F r a s e r , Thompson, N i c o l a , Similkameen, Okanagan and Kootenay R i v e r v a l l e y s ( K r a j i n a 1969). T h i s v e g e t a t i o n zone has been s t u d i e d and the d i f f e r e n t communities w i t h i n i t c l a s s i f i e d by s e v e r a l workers. (Brayshaw 1955, 1965, 1970) s t u d i e d Pinus ponderosa communities through-out B r i t i s h Columbia. He d i v i d e d the p i n e communities i n t o t h r e e a s s o c i a t i o n s . On coarse g r a v e l l y s o i l s and a t the f o o t o f t a l u s s l o p e s he r e c o g n i z e d a Pinus ponderosa - Rhusi g l a b r a a s s o c i a t i o n . He l i s t e d common a s s o c i a t e s as Rhus r a d i c a n s , P h i l a d e l p h u s l e w i s i i . Sambucus gl a u c a, Amelanchier a l n i f o l i a , Panicum scribnerianum, Stephanomeria t e n u i f o l i a , H o l o d i s c u s  d i s c o l o r . S p e c u l a r i a p e r f o l i a t a , Verbena b r a c t e a t a and Pseudotsuga m e n z i e s i i . On more a c i d sands and sandy loams i n the south Okanagan V a l l e y he d e s c r i b e d a Pinus ponderosa - P u r s h i a t r i d e n t a t a a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h common a s s o c i a t e s , A r i s t i d a l o n g i s e t a , Poa  secunda, Poa c u s i c k i i . Phlox l o n g i f o l i a , Opuntia f r a g i l i s , F e s t u c a o c t o f l o r a , O r y z o p s i s hymenoides, Sporobolus cryptandrus, L e p t o d a c t y l o n pungens, L e w i s i a r e d i v i v a , C a l o c h o r t u s macrocar- pus, Chrysothamnus nauseosus and T o r t u l a r u r a l i s . He d e f i n e d a Pinus ponderosa - A r i s t i d a l o n g i s e t a s u b a s s o c i a t i o n t h a t 4 does not c o n t a i n P u r s h i a t r i d e n t a t a ( p o s s i b l y as a r e s u l t o f burning o f Pinus ponderosa - P u r s h i a stands) and has S t i p a  comata, Chaenactis d o u g l a s i i . G i l i a pungens, Eriogonum niveum and P h a c e l i a l i n e a r i s . The most widespread community i s the Pinus ponderosa -Agropyron spicatum a s s o c i a t i o n . I t s common a s s o c i a t e d s p e c i e s are F e s t u c a idahoensis,. F. s c a b r e l l a , Poa c u s i c k i i , Poa secunda, K o e l e r i a c r i s t a t a , A n t e n n a r i a dimorpha and Bromus tectorum. A l s o a s u b a s s o c i a t i o n i s the community dominated by the shrub A r t e m i s i a t r i d e n t a t a . T h i s community a r i s e s from i n t e n s e g r a z i n g p r e s s u r e on the climax, on heavy t e x t u r e d s o i l s a t low e l e v a t i o n s . He a l s o i n c l u d e d communities o f the g r a s s l a n d and a P u r s h i a t r i d e n t a t a shrub-steppe community l a c k i n g Pinus  ponderosa i n h i s l i s t o f a s s o c i a t i o n s . K r a j i n a (1965) i n h i s l i s t o f biogeocoenoses f o r the Ponderosa p i n e - Bunchgrass Zone separated a Stephanomeria ( t e n u i f o l i a e ) - Heuchero ( c y l i n d r i c a e ) - Amelanchiero ( a l n i f o l i a e ) - Ponderoso - Pseudotsugetum glaucae and a l s o a Rhuo (glabrae and r a d i c a n t i s ) - Purshio t r i d e n t a t a e - Pinetum ponderosae b i o g e o c o e n o s i s from h i s b i o g e o c o e n o s i s t h a t corresponds to the Pinus ponderosa - Rhus spp. a s s o c i a t i o n , and i n c l u d e d Agropyretum s p i c a t i , S t i p a comatae - Opuntio ( f r a g i l i s ) - A r i s t i d o (longsetae) - Purshietum t r i d e n t a t a e , and Sporobolo ( c r y p t a n d r i ) - A r i s t i d e t u m l o n g i s e t a e biogeocoenoses which 5 lack Pinus ponderosa. He also l i s ted equivalents of the Pinus  ponderosa - Agropyron spicatum association, the Pinus ponderosa - Stipa spp. subassociation (which is accorded biogeocoenosis rank) and the Pinus ponderosa - Purshia tridentata association. He did not include any equivalent of the Pinus ponderosa -Artemisia tridentata association. McLean (1970), working in the Similkameen Valley, divided the vegetation a l t i tudina l ly into zones and within zones recog-nized various habitat types. In the Pinus ponderosa zone he recognized three habitat types. The f i r s t is the Pinus ponderosa - Agropyron spicatum type. He stated that this habitat type i s small and not common. Common associated species include Poa secunda, Stipa comata, Sporobolus cryptandrus, Antennaria dimorpha, Arabis h o l b o e l l i i , Tragopogon dubius, Bromus tectorum, Festuca octoflora, Lappula  redowskii, and Plantago patagonica. He defined this type as not containing Festuca idahoensis and Eriogonum heracleoides. The second type i s the Pjn,us ponderosa - Festuca idahoen-sis habitat type. This i s the type that would roughly correspond to the Pinus ponderosa - Agropyron spicatum associations des-cribed ear l ier . Common associated species in this type are Eriogonum heracleoides, Koeleria cr is tata , Poa secunda, Crepis  atrabarba, Lomatium macrocarpum, Arabis h o l b o e l l i i , Tragopogon  dubius, Achil lea millefolium, Antennaria umbrinella, Co l l ins i a 6 p a r v i f l o r a , E r i g e r o n corymbosus, Lithospermum r u d e r a l e , L u p i n u s s e r i c e u s , Bromus t e c t o r u m , M i c r o s t e r i s g r a c i l i s and Polygonum d o u g l a s i i . The t h i r d t y p e he c a l l e d t h e A r t e m i s i a - F e s t u c a i d a - h o e n s i s h a b i t a t t y p e . T h i s i s v e r y s i m i l a r t o t h e P i n u s -F e s t u c a t y p e e x c e p t t h e r e a r e few p i n e s and A r t e m i s i a t r i d e n t a t a i s a dominant shrub. He r e c o g n i z e d no e q u i v a l e n t o f t h e P i n u s ponderosa -P u r s h i a t r i d e n t a t a , P i n u s - A r i s t i d a , P i n u s - S t i p a spp. o r P i n u s - Rhus spp. a s s o c i a t i o n s . H i s A r t e m i s i a - A g r o p y r o n and A r t e m i s i a - S t i p a t y p e s may be t h e t r e e l e s s e q u i v a l e n t o f t h e P i n u s - A r t e m i s i a t r i d e n t a t a a s s o c i a t i o n mentioned e a r l i e r . Communities dominated by Ponderosa p i n e a r e n o t c o n f i n e d t o B r i t i s h Columbia b u t e x t e n d i n t o t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . Many o f t h e s e communities a r e q u i t e s i m i l a r t o t h o s e j u s t d e s c r i b e d , b u t w i t h d i s t a n c e from Canada, t h e s i m i l a r i t y w i t h B r i t i s h Columbian communities d e c r e a s e s . I n e a s t e r n Washington s i x P i n u s ponderosa a s s o c i a t i o n s have been r e c o g n i z e d by Daubenmire and Daubenmire (1968). The P i n u s ponderosa - Symphoricarpos a l b u s a s s o c i a t i o n i s found on deep, f i n e - t e x t u r e d , f e r t i l e s o i l s . Symphoricarpos a l b u s , S p i r a e b e t u l i f o l i a v a r . l u c i d a , Rosa w o o d s i i and R. nutkana dominate th e e x t e n s i v e shrub l a y e r , w h i l e a s s o c i a t e d h e r b -aceous s p e c i e s i n c l u d e C a l a m a g r o s t i s r u b e s c e n s , A g r o p y r o n 7 spicatum, F e s t u c a o c c i d e n t a l i s , Poa compressa, A c h i l l e a  m i l l e f o l i u m v a r . l a n u l o s a , Lithospermum r u d e r a l e , Tragop- ogon dubius, B r o d i a e a d o u g l a s i i and P o t e n t i l l a g r a c i l i s . In the Pinus ponderosa - Physocarpus malvaceus a s s o c i a t i o n c o n d i t i o n s are more mesic, and the community has, i n a d d i t i o n t o the shrubs mentioned e a r l i e r , a t a l l e r shrub l a y e r o f Physocarpus malvaceus; H o l o d i s c u s d i s c o l o r , Ceanothus sanguineus and Amelanchier a l n i f o l i a . T h i s a s s o c i a t i o n has l e s s Agropyron. F e s t u c a and Poa. and C a l - amagrostis rubescens, Bromus v u l g a r i s , Carex g e y e r i , Erythronium g r a n d i f l o r u m , F r a g a r i a sp., Galium b o r e a l e and Osmorhiza c h i l e n s i s are more c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y abundant s p e c i e s . The o t h e r f o u r communities they r e c o g n i z e d correspond more c l o s e l y t o those d e s c r i b e d from B r i t i s h Columbia. The Pinus ponderosa - Festuca i d a h o e n s i s community has a sparse low shrub l a y e r composed l a r g e l y o f Arceuthobium campy1opodum, and am.herb l a y e r dominated by Fe s t u c a i d a h o e n s i s w i t h c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a s s o c i a t e d s p e c i e s i n c l u d i n g Agropyron spicatum, K o e l e r i a c r i s t a t a , Poa s a n d b e r g i i , A c h i l l e a m i l l e f o l i u m , Tragopogon dubius, Balsamorhiza s a g i t t a t a , Ranunculus  glaberrimus, and S i s y r i n c h i u m i n f l a t u m . The Pinus ponderosa - Agropyron spicatum community i s dominated by the gr a s s Agropyron spicatum and has as 8 c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s p e c i e s Poa sandbercrii, Balsamorhiza  s a g i t t a t a . Ranunculus glaberrimus, Lithophragma b u l b i f e r a , C o l l i n s i a p a r v i f l o r a , Bromus tectorum, Montia l i n e a r i s , Mvosotis micrantha, Draba verna, E p i l o b i u m paniculatum and S t e l l a r i a n i t e n s . The Pinus ponderosa - S t i p a comata a s s o c i a t i o n has much more o f the low shrub Eriogonum niveum than the ot h e r commun-i t i e s , and the major gra s s e s are S t i p a comata, S t i p a  o c c i d e n t a l i s and Poa sandbercrii. Common a s s o c i a t e d s p e c i e s are A c h i l l e a m i l l e f o l i u m , A n t e n n a r i a dimorpha, E r i g e r o n  compositus, C o l l i n s i a p a r v i f l o r a , Bromus tectorum. Montia  l i n e a r i s , Mvosotis micrantha, Draba verna and Ep i l o b i u m  paniculatum. The Binus ponderosa - P u r s h i a t r i d e n t a t a a s s o c i a t i o n has a P u r s h i a - dominated shrub l a y e r w i t h an u n d e r s t o r y i n c l u d i n g F e s t u c a i d a h o e n s i s , Agropyron spicatum, S t i p a comata, A r t i s t i d a  l o n g i s e t a , Balsamorhiza s a g i t t a t a , E r i g e r o n compositus, A c h i l l e a m i l l e f o l i u m , C o l l i n s i a p a r v i f l o r a , Bromus tectorum and E p i l o b i u m paniculatum (Daubenmire and Daubenmire 1968). F r a n k l i n and Dyrness (1973) s t a t e d t h a t o n l y the Pinus -Fest u c a and Pinus - Agropyron a s s o c i a t i o n s extended i n t o B r i t i s h Columbia, but the Pinus - S t i p a and Pinus - P u r s h i a a s s o c i a t i o n s correspond c l o s e l y t o those d e s c r i b e d by 9 Brayshaw (1965, 1970). In the Blue Mountains P r o v i n c e o f Oregon s i x Pinus  ponderosa a s s o c i a t i o n s have been i d e n t i f i e d . Two a r e t h e Pinus ponderosa - Agropyron spicatum and the Pinus ponderosa -P u r s h i a t r i d e n t a t a - Agropyron spicatum a s s o c i a t i o n s which are s i m i l a r t o the p r e v i o u s l y d e s c r i b e d , s i m i l a r l y named a s s o c i a t i o n s . In the extreme southern p a r t o f the area a Pinus  ponderosa - P u r s h i a t r i d e n t a t a - Carex r o s s i i a s s o c i a t i o n i s found, w i t h common a s s o c i a t e s S i t a n i o n h y s t r i x and S t i p a  o c c i d e n t a l i s . Pinus ponderosa - Elymus glaucas communities occur next t o dry meadows, and a t h i g h e r e l e v a t i o n s next t o Abies grandis, f o r e s t s Pinus ponderosa - Carex g e y e r i communities occur w i t h t h e i r common c o n s t i t u e n t s p e c i e s i n c l u d i n g Cercocarpus l e d i f o l i u s and Poa nervosa. The Pinus  ponderosa - Fe s t u c a i d a h o e n s i s a s s o c i a t i o n i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by an abundance o f oth e r g r a s s e s and sedges i n c l u d i n g Agropyron spicatum, S i t a n i o n h y s t r i x , C a l a m a g r o s t i s rubescens, Carex r o s s i i and C. g e y e r i . Other f o r e s t communities o f s o u t h e c e n t r a l Oregon i n c l u d e Pinus ponderosa - A r c t o s t a p h y l o s p a t u l a - Fe s t u c a i d a h o e n s i s , Pinus ponderosa - Cercocarpus l e d i f o l i u s - Fes t u c a i d a h o e n s i s , and Pinus ponderosa - A r t e m i s i a t r i d e n t a t a - Bromus c a r i n a t u s (see F r a n k l i n and Dyrness 1973) 10 Washington Pinus ponderosa f o r e s t s contain^communities v e r y much l i k e those i n B r i t i s h Columbia. However Oregon pin e communities o f t e n have d i f f e r e n t a s s o c i a t e d s p e c i e s . T h i s t r e n d c o n t i n u e s and although Pinus i ponderosa i t s e l f extends i n t o A r i z o n a , i t s a s s o c i a t e d s p e c i e s change c o n s i d e r -a b l y . S e v e r a l examples o f t h i s can be c i t e d . T h i l e n i u s (1972), working i n the Black H i l l s o f South Dakota r e c o g n i z e d s e v e r a l community types under a b a s i c a l l y Pinus ponderosa f o r e s t . These c o n t a i n such u n d e r s t o r y s p e c i e s as O r y z o p s i s a s p e r i f o l i a P A c h i l l e a m i l l e f o l i u m , Galium  b i f l o r u m , and Danthonia i n t e r m e d i a . Cooper (1961) l i s t e d Muhlenbergia v i r e s c e n s , S i t a n i o n  h y s t r i x . Blepharoneuron t r i c o l e p i s . Panicurn bulbosum and S t i p a  p r i n g l e i as some un d e r s t o r y grasses i n an A r i z o n a ponderosa pine-dominated f o r e s t . Whittaker and N i e r i n g (1965), working i n the Santa C a t a l i n a Mountains l i s t e d some a s s o c i a t e s o f the p i n e as b e i n g A r t e m i s i a l u d o v i c i a n a . Yucca s c h o t t i i , A r i s t i d a o r c u t t i a n a , C h e i l a n t h e s f e n d l e r i , Hedeoma h y s s o p i f o l i u m , and Muhlenbergia  v i r e s c e n s . The Grand Canyon area i n A r i z o n a was d e s c r i b e d by Merkle (1962) as having two u n i t s , a Pinus ponderosa - A r t e m i s i a 11 t r i d e n t a t a u n i t having a s s o c i a t e s such as the shrubs Chryso- thamnus depressus, Cowania mexicana and Quercus g a m b e l i i and the grasses F e s t u c a a r i z o n i c a and S i t a n i o n h y s t r i x , and a ponderosa p i n e - g r a s s l a n d u n i t having, a s s o c i a t e s p e c i e s such as F e s t u c a a r i z o n i c a , Muhlenbergia montana, S i t a n i o n h y s t r i x , Bouteloua g r a c i l i s , Lupinus h i l l i i and Eriogonum racemosum. Halvorson (1972) a l s o working i n the Grand Canyon area l i s t e d some un d e r s t o r y s p e c i e s as Poa l o n g i l i g u a , Poa fend- l e r i a n a , C a l o c h o r t u s ambiguus, K o e l e r i a c r i s t a t a and Hymenopappus lugens. G r a s s l a n d Communities: As has been s t a t e d p r e v i o u s l y , the u n d e r s t o r y v e g e t a t i o n o f Ponderosa p i n e f o r e s t s i s very s i m i l a r t o g r a s s l a n d communities. T h e r e f o r e a d i s c u s s i o n o f g r a s s l a n d communities i s i n o r d e r . A t lower e l e v a t i o n s adjacent t o the ponderosa p i n e f o r e s t are the more x e r i c g r a s s l a n d s . T i s d a l e (1942) found t h r e e g r a s s l a n d zones i n southern I n t e r i o r B r i t i s h Columbia. The Lower G r a s s l a n d i s dominated by Agropyron spicatum, Poa secunda, A r t e m i s i a t r i d e n t a t a and A n t e n n a r i a dimorpha. Common s p e c i e s i n c l u d e S t i p a comata, Sporobolus cryptandrus, Chrysothamnus  nauseosus, Opuntia f r a g i l i s , A r t e m i s i a f r i g i d a , C a l o c h o r t u s macrocarpus, Erigeron f i l i f o l i u s and Lomatium macrocarpum. He mentioned communities derived from the climax by the pressure of overgrazing. He described an overgrazing community he called the Artemisia - Poa Associes, in which Artemisia tridentata dominates the shrub layer and Poa  secunda the herb layer. Characteristic species include Chrysothamnus nauseosus, Agropyron spicatum,Sporobolus  cryptandrus, Stipa comata, Koeleria cr istata , Antennaria  dimorpha, Lomatium macrocarpum, Opuntia f r ag i l i s , Artemisia  fr ig ida , Erigeron f i l i f o l i u s , Lappula occidentalis, Descur- ainia richardsonii , Bromus tectorum, and Balsamorhiza  sagittata. The Middle Grassland lacks Artemisia tridentata but dominants include the same species of Agropyron, Poa, Stipa and Antennaria as in the Lower Grassland plus Bromus  tectorum on overgrazed areas. Common species include Chrysothamnus nauseosus, Koeleria cristata , Balsamorhiza  sagittata, Achil lea millefolium, Antennaria parvifol ia , Festuca scabrella and Erigeron corymbosis. In the Middle Grassland Zone two communities arise from overgrazing. One is a Stipa - Agropyron - Poa Associes in which the principal dominant is Stipa comata, and Bromus tectorum and Lappula occidentalis are much more 13 common than in the climax. The other i s a Bromus - Poa - Stipa  Associes in which the principal species is Bromus tectorum, with Poa secunda and Stipa.gpmata as associates. The Upper Grassland again i s dominated by Agropyron  spicatum, Koeleria cristata and Poa secunda, plus Festuca  scabrella. It contains more mesic species such as Carex  praegracilis , Juncus balticus and Zygadenus venenosus. In the Upper Grassland Zone overgrazing causes a community in which the normally not abundant Stipa columbiana and Poa pratensis dominate, or a Poa - Bromus Associes in which Poa secunda and Bromus tectorum dominate. Grassland associations in the Tranquille Range near Kamloops were studied by Spilsbury and Tisdale (1944). They divided the vegetation into three similar zones. They mentioned a ponderosa pine savanna, saying that i t i s a marked variation of normal zonal succession in the study area. They stated that i t occurs above the Lower Grassland Zone and below the Montane Zone, and that the Middle and Upper Grassland Zones are not present. , McLean (1970) also included a treeless zone called the Artemisia tridentata Zone which would correspond to the Lower Grassland Zone. He described the major habitat type as being dominated by Artemisia tridentata and Agropyron spicatum, with characteristic species including Poa secunda, Crepis atrabarba, Lomatium macrocarpum. Phlox longifol ia , Bromus tectorum, Festuca octoflora, Lappula redowskii and Microsteris g r ac i l i s . Where Stipa comata and Poa secunda are dominant grasses he recognized an Artemisia - Stipa habitat type. The grasslands also extend into Washington and Oregon and many similar communities have been described from these areas (Daubenmire 1970, Franklin and Dyrness 1973). The Interior Douglas F i r Zone: The vegetation of the cooler and moister Interior Douglas F i r Zone (Krajina 1965) is of note also. The reserves par t ia l ly f a l l in this zone, as i t borders the Ponderosa pine - Bunchgrass Zone at i t s higher a l t i tudinal l imi t s . This zone has been divided into two subzones, the drier of which borders the Ponderosa pine - Bunchgrass Zone. According to Krajina (1965), this subzone has an annual precipitation of 36 to 48 centimeters. The major coniferous trees are Pseudotsuga menziesii and Pinus ponderosa, Pinus ponderosa being mainly a pioneer species. Krajina l i s t s several biogeocoenoses for this zone including Brachythecio (albicantis) - Calamagrostido (rubescentis) - Ponderoso - Pseudotsugetum glaucae on Gleyed 15 Eutric Brunisols, Tortulo (ruralis) - Agropyro (spicati) -Calamagrostido (rubescentis) - Ponderoso - Pseudotsugetum glaucae on mesic to submesic Gray Luvisols, Peltigero (caninae) - Polytricho (juniperini) - Calamagrostido (rubescentis) - Arctostaphylo (uvae-ursi) - Ponderoso -Pseudotsugetum glaucae on mesic to subxeric habitats, Tortulo (ruralis) - Agropyro (spicati) - Festuco (idahoensis) -Ponderoso - Pseudotsugetum glaucae on xeric habitats, and on some lithosolS/Regosols or shallow Dystric Brunisols, Cladonio - Peltigero (caninae) - Apocyno (androsaemifolii) -Selaginello - Arctostaphylo (uvae-ursi) - Junipero (nanae) -Ponderoso - Pseudotsugetum glaucae. Brayshaw (1970) has recognized several associations in the Douglas F i r Zone. The Pseudotsuga menziesii - Pinus  ponderosa - Arctostaphylos uva-ursi association has a ground cover dominated by Arctostaphylos uva-ursi with Juniperus  scopulorum, Shepherdia canadensis. Allium cernuum, Penstemon  fruticosus ssp. scouleri , Carex concinnoides, Sedum  stenopetalum, Fragaria virginiana, Apocynum androsaemifolium and Solidago spathulata as associated species. Pinus  ponderosa dominates the overstory at the lowest elevations but Pseudotsuga menziesii i s the most common canopy dominant. In the Pseudotsuga - Calamagrostis rubescens association the understory i s dominated by Calamagrostis rubescens with 16 c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a s s o c i a t e d s p e c i e s i n c l u d i n g Lathvrus n u t t a l l i i , L i l i u m Golumbianum,', A r n i c a c o r d i f o l i a , A n t e n n a r i a anaphaloides, A n t e n n a r i a rosea, F r i t i l l a r i a l a n c e o l a t a , Poa ampla, Hieracium  c y n o g l o s s o i d e s , A s t r a g a l u s s e r o t i n u s and Zygadenus venenosus. Pinus ponderosa or Pinus c o n t o r t a sometimes dominate the t r e e l a y e r , but these communities were i n t e r p r e t e d as s e r a i and g i v e n s u b a s s o c i a t i o n s t a t u s . Brayshaw a l s o r e c o g n i z e d a Pseudotsuga - A r c t o s t a p h y l o s -Calamagrostis rubescens a s s o c i a t i o n which i s i n t e r m e d i a t e i n c h a r a c t e r . In moist draws, r a v i n e s and s h e l t e r e d s l o p e s a Pseudotsuga m e n z i e s i i - Symphoricarpos albus a s s o c i a t i o n o c c u r s . I t s common a s s o c i a t e d s p e c i e s i n c l u d e A s t e r conspicuus, Osmorhiza c h i l e n s i s , Populus tremuloides, Amelanchier a l n i f o l i a . S p i r a e a l u c i d a , Mahonia a q u i f o l i u m , Acer glabrum v a r . d o u g l a s i i , Prunus v i r g i n i a n a , Crataegus d o u g l a s i i and Clematis v e r t i c i l l a t a v a r . columbiana. In h i s work i n the Similkameen V a l l e y , McLean (1970) d e l i m i t e d f i v e communities i n the Pseudotsuga m e n z i e s i i Zone. The Pseudotsuga m e n z i e s i i - Agropyron spicatum h a b i t a t type i s found on steep s l o p e s w i t h coarse t e x t u r e d s o i l . Agropyron spicatum i s the dominant g r a s s . A l s o c h a r a c t e r i s t i c are S e l a g i n e l l a w a l l a c e i and Amelanchier a l n i f o l i a . The Pseudotsuga m e n z i e s i i - F e s t u c a i d a h o e n s i s h a b i t a t t y p e c o n t a i n s many b u t not a l l o f t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s p e c i e s o f t h e P i n u s ponderosa - F e s t u c a i d a h o e n s i s h a b i t a t t y p e , and th e t r e e r e p r o d u c t i o n i n d i c a t e s t h a t Pseudotsuga w i l l e v e n t -u a l l y dominate t h e o v e r s t o r y a t t h e expense o f P i n u s  ponderosa. The u n d e r s t o r y o f t h e Pseudotsuga m e n z i e s i i - Calamagros-t i s r ubescens h a b i t a t t y p e i s dominated by C a l a m a g r o s t i s w i t h shrubs such as Rosa gymnocarpa, S p i r a e a b e t u l i f o l i a and A r c t o s t a p h y l o s u v a - u r s i . The Pseudotsuga - P i n u s - A r c t o s t a p h y -l o s and Pseudotsuga - A r c t o s t a p h y l o s - C a l a m a g r o s t i s a s s o c i a t i o n s (Brayshaw 1965, 1970) would p r o b a b l y f a l l i n t h i s h a b i t a t t y p e . O c c u r i n g as g r a s s l a n d between t h e P i n u s ponderosa Zone and t h e Pseudotsuga m e n z i e s i i Zone McLean found a F e s t u c a  i d a h o e n s i s - Eriogonum h e r a c l e o i d e s h a b i t a t t y p e . T h i s a s s o c i a t i o n i s a l s o much l i k e t h e P i n u s - F e s t u c a a s s o c i a t i o n e x c e p t f o r t h e absence o f P i n u s and C r e p i s a t r a b a r b a and t h e pr e s e n c e o f Poa p r a t e n s i s , Zygadenus venenosus and D e l p h i n i u m  b i c o l o r . The A r t e m i s i a t r i p a r t i t a - Ag r o p y r o n s p i c a t u m h a b i t a t t y p e o c c u r s o n l y a t t h e s o u t h - e a s t e r n edge o f t h e B r i t i s h C olumbia I n t e r i o r , a t t h e lower edge o f t h e Pseudotsuga  m e n z i e s i i Zone. The dominant shrub i s A r t e m i s i a t r i p a r t i t a and t h e dominant h e r b , A g r o p y r o n s p i c a t u m . 18 Autecology of Ponderosa Pine and Douglas F i r : The vegetation zones under consideration here are dominated by two tree species, Pinus ponderosa and Pseudotsuga menziesii. A review of some of the autecol-ogical features of these species might, therefore, be use-ful in gaining an understanding of the vegetation zones. Ponderosa pine i s a tree well adapted to continental cold semiarid to microthermal continental subhumid (BSk and driest Dfb and Dsb after Koppen) climates with summer warm and total annual precipitation 18 to 36 centimeters. It grows mainly as a pioneer tree in the Interior Douglas F i r Zone which has higher (36 to 56 centimeters) r a i n f a l l . The optimum germination temperature of the pine seeds is higher than that of Douglas f i r , but the young seedling is quite susceptible to heat injury. However after the f i r s t few. months when this danger is high, the pine grows best in the open. Ponderosa pine has an extensive root system consisting of, where possible a large taproot and a very wide-spreading lateral root network. This makes i t very wind firm, an advantage when growing in i t s characteristic open stands. The pine has thick, f ire-resistant bark, and as i t grows where danger of ground fires i s high, this is an advantage. It requires conditions favouring rapid transpiration and 19 i s s a i d t o p h o t o s y n t h e s i z e r e l a t i v e l y i n e f f i c i e n t l y , (Brayshaw 1965). I t s f r o s t r e s i s t a n c e i s low, e s p e c i a l l y when young (Cochran and B e r n t s e n 1973), so i t w i l l not become e s t a b l i s h e d i n a r e a s o f s e v e r e w i n t e r s . I t i s a l s o n u t r i t i o n a l l y v e r y demanding, e s p e c i a l l y i n t h e s u p p l y o f n i t r o g e n , s u l p h u r , c a l c i u m , magnesium and p o t a s s i u m ( K r a j i n a 1969). The p i n e i s a l e s s shade t o l e r a n t t r e e t h a n Douglas f i r b u t i s shade t o l e r a n t i n i t s zone and i s shade r e q u i r i n g on t h e most x e r i c h a b i t a t s t h e r e . T h i s may be because i n t h e d r i e s t h a b i t a t s s o i l t e m p e r a t u r e s r i s e h i g h enough t o be l e t h a l t o young s e e d l i n g s (Brayshaw 1955, 1965). The e x c l u s i o n o f t h e t r e e i n t h e s t e p p e o f t h e v a l l e y s may a l s o be due t o i n a d e q u a t e s o i l m o i s t u r e i n c o m b i n a t i o n w i t h c o m p e t i t i o n by more x e r o -p h y t i c p l a n t s (Brayshaw 1965, L a r s o n and S h u b e r t 1969). Ponderosa p i n e i s a c o r d i l l e r a n s p e c i e s t h a t ranges from t h e s o u t h e r n B r i t i s h C olumbia I n t e r i o r t o A r i z o n a . I t i s a d r y f o r e s t :species, and u n l e s s a f f e c t e d i n some way by man's a c t i v i t i e s forms an open p a r k l a n d community (Cooper 1960, 1961, Weaver 1961). The v a r i e t y o f Douglas f i r t h a t grows i n t h e I n t e r i o r , Pseudotsuga m e n z i e s i i v a r . g l a u c a ( t h i s i s t h e o n l y v a r i e t y r e f e r r e d t o i n t h i s t h e s i s ) , i s l e s s drought and h e a t r e s i s t -a n t t h a n P i n u s ponderosa. I t does o c c u r i n t h e Ponderosa p i n e - Bunchgrass Zone b u t i s 20 u s u a l l y r e s t r i c t e d t h e r e t o very coarse s o i l s and t a l u s where the chance o f moisture d u r i n g a r a i n p e n e t r a t i n g the s o i l i s g r e a t e r , or oth e r t o p o g r a p h i c a l l y m o i s t e r and c o o l e r s i t e s . I t s f r o s t r e s i s t a n c e i s low, but i t i s l e s s demanding nut-r i t i o n a l l y than Pinus ponderosa except i n phosphorus, c a l c i u m and potassium. I t grows b e s t on s o i l s r i c h i n c a l c i u m and magnesium ( K r a j i n a 1969, Brayshaw 1955). Douglas f i r i s a moderately shade t o l e r a n t t r e e , doesn't have as e x t e n s i v e l a t e r a l r o o t development as Ponderosa pine, and u s u a l l y forms a more c l o s e d f o r e s t than does the p i n e (Brayshaw 1955). I t a l s o i s a c o r d i l l e r a n element. DESCRIPTION OF STUDY AREAS General Physiography: The r e s e r v e s d i s c u s s e d here are i n t h e r e g i o n d e s i g n a t e d as the I n t e r i o r P l a t e a u o f B r i t i s h Columbia (Holland 1964). T h i s area i s a g r e a t l y d i s s e c t e d p l a t e a u system w i t h l a r g e areas o f r o l l i n g upland separated from each other by deep v a l l e y t r e n c h e s . Bedrock o f the area i n c l u d e s v o l c a n i c and sedimentary rocks o f the Cenozoic, Mesozoic and P a l e o z o i c E r a s . Before the u p l i f t i n g and l a t e r e r o s i o n i n the l a t e T e r t i a r y , the g r e a t l a v a p l a i n s o f I n t e r i o r B r i t i s h Columbia are s a i d t o have been a c o n t i n u a t i o n o f the Columbia l a v a s o f Washington, Oregon and Idaho. The whole area was g l a c i a t e d so g l a c i a l d r i f t o f some 21 s o r t forms the parent m a t e r i a l o f most s o i l s (Brink and F a r s t a d 1949, T i s d a l e 1947). Both r e s e r v e s are i n the Thompson P l a t e a u area o f t h i s r e g i o n (Figure 1 ) . I t i s a g e n t l y r o l l i n g upland o f r e l a t i v e -l y low r e l i e f r e f l e c t i n g the l a t e T e r t i a r y e r o s i o n s u r f a c e t h a t has been d i s s e c t e d by the Thompson R i v e r and i t s t r i b u t a r i e s and by the Similkameen and Okanagan r i v e r s , t r i b u t a r i e s o f the Columbia. In t h i s area d u r i n g the l a t e r stages o f the l a s t g l a c i a t i o n t h e r e was grad u a l i c e s t a g n a t i o n and wasting o f i c e i n p l a c e . As a r e s u l t i c e marginal meltwater channels were q u i c k l y made and abandoned. On many sl o p e s a s e r i e s o f channels was formed a t s u c c e s s i v e l y lower l e v e l s as the i c e melted, d e p o s i t i n g the outwash i n a t e r r a c e d form. T h i s i s e s p e c i a l l y e v i d e n t i n the Okanagan V a l l e y (Holland 1964). Trout Creek: E c o l o g i c a l Reserve No. 7, Trout Creek, i s i n the Okanagan V a l l e y 3 m i l e s south-southwest o f Summerland and 2 m i l e s west o f the Experimental S t a t i o n , n o r t h o f Trout Creek and on the south s l o p e s o f Mount Conkle (49°33' - 33'30" N L a t . 119°42' - 43' W Long.) (F i g u r e 2 ) . I t i s 74.9 h e c t a r e s i n area and ranges i n e l e v a t i o n from 540 t o 840 meters. I t i s mainly i n the Ponderosa p i n e - Bunchgrass Zone 22 Figure 1. General Location of the Ecological Reserves. S c a l e 1:50,000 gure 2. L o c a t i o n o f t h e T r o u t Creek E c o l o g i c a l R e s erve. 24 p e r K r a j i n a (1965, 1969) ( K r a j i n a e t a l . 1974) a l t h o u g h i n t h e h i g h e r e l e v a t i o n s i t i s c l a s s i f i e d as i n t h e I n t e r i o r Douglas F i r Zone. The r e s e r v e i t s e l f i s s i t u a t e d on an a r e a o f bedrock o u t c r o p p i n g a t h i g h e r e l e v a t i o n s s l o p i n g t o a s e r i e s o f Kame t e r r a c e s r o l l i n g t o t h e deep V-shaped v a l l e y o f T r o u t Creek. F i n e s i l t s and sands a r e found o v e r t h e outwash g r a v e l i n t h e lower t e r r a c e s , b u t t h e upper s l o p e s a r e c o a r s e r and more eroded, w i t h more g r a v e l and l e s s sand and f i n e r m a t e r i a l . The exposure o f t h e r e s e r v e i s m a i n l y s o u t h and west. The a r e a has been l o g g e d and g r a z e d i n t h e p a s t and i s s t i l l g r a z e d , e s p e c i a l l y on t h e f l a t t e r l o wer t e r r a c e s . T a b l e s 1 t o 4 g i v e an o u t l i n e o f t h e c l i m a t e o f t h e a r e a as measured a t t h e Summerland E x p e r i m e n t a l S t a t i o n (Chapman 1974). The g r o w i n g season i s , on t h e average, about 200 days, e x t e n d i n g from A p r i l t o November, and t h e a b s o l u t e f r o s t f r e e season averages 175 days ( T a b l e 2 ) . J u l y i s t h e warmest month w i t h t h e g r e a t e s t number o f ho u r s o f b r i g h t s u n l i g h t ( T a b l e s 1 and 3 ) . The p r e c i p i t a t i o n p a t t e r n has two maxima, one t h r o u g h t h e w i n t e r and a s h o r t e r one i n l a t e s p r i n g and e a r l y summer. The a n n u a l p r e c i p i t a t i o n averages about 28 c e n t i m e t e r s ( T a b l e 4 ) . The y e a r o f s a m p l i n g , 1974 was a warmer y e a r t h a n a v e r a g e . However e a r l y s p r i n g and midsummer were c o o l e r t h a n average (Table 1 ) , and t h e e a r l y s p r i n g had average o r above average 25 T a b l e 1. T r o u t Creek: Average A i r Temperatures f o r 1974 and 59 Year Average (°C). Month Mean Temperature 1974 59 Y r , Ave. Mean Maximum 1974 59 Yr. Ave. Mean Minimum 1974 59 Yr. Ave. J a n . Feb. Mar. A p r . May-June J u l y Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec. Y e a r -2.2 2.6 4.3 9.4 11.6 18.7 19.1 20.7 16.1 9.6 3.7 0.7 9.5 -3.6 -0.7 3.9 8.9 13.7 17.5 20.9 20.2 15.3 9.1 2.6 -1.4 8.9 0.9 5.6 8.2 14.6 17.3 25.8 25.8 27.8 22.8 14.8 6.7 3.4 14.5 -0.5 3.1 8.7 14.9 20.2 23.9 28.1 27.0 21.3 13.9 5.8 1.4 14.0 -5.3 0.5 0.4 4.3 5.7 11.6 12.4 13.6 9.4 4.3 0.8 -2.0 4.6 -6.7 -4.5 -1.0 3.0 7.2 11.2 13.9 13.3 9.3 4.3 -0.6 -4.2 3.8 26 T a b l e 2V T r o u t Creek: F r o s t F r e e Days and Growing Season: 1974 and 59 Year Average. L a s t S p r i n g F r o s t (0° o r lower) F i r s t F a l l F r o s t (0° o r lower) L a s t K i l l i n g S p r i n g F r o s t (-2.2° o r lower) F i r s t K i l l i n g F a l l F r o s t (-2.2° o r lower) F r o s t F r e e Days Growing Season 1974 May 16 Oct. 6 Mar. 20 Nov. 22 143* 247 59 Y r . Ave, Ap r . 25 Oct. 18 Ap r . 6 Nov. 2 175 209 * 1974 was a r e c o r d o f t h e s h o r t e s t number o f f r o s t f r e e days i n the r e c o r d i n g p e r i o d . 27 Table - .3 ; i . Trout C 59 Year Average. Month Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June J u l y Aug. Sept. O c t . Nov. Dec. Year eek: Hours of Bright 1974 65.9 70.8 127.5 175.6 234.1 331.1 301.0 322.9 270.6 196.7 51.1 44.5 2191.8 Sunlight: 1974 and 59 Yr. Ave. 50.0 87.1 143.3 192.9 247.9 248.9 320.2 282.4 205.1 138.2 58.6 40.4 2014.8 28 T a b l e %•'>.;. T r o u t Creek: P r e c i p i t a t i o n i n C e n t i m e t e r s ( R a i n and Snow Combined): 1974 and 59 Year Average. Month 1974 59 Y r . Ave. J a n . Feb. Mar. A p r . May-June J u l y Aug. S e p t . Oct. Nov. Dec. Year A p r . - O c t . 3.20 1.60 2.64 1.85 3.73 .51 2.77 2.03 .61 .23 2.56 2.67 24.43 11.76 2.79 1.83 1.65 1.90 2.44 3.18 2.16 2.08 1.96 2.16 2.51 3.35 27.. 96 15.75 29 r a i n f a l l (Table 4) and below the average number of hours of bright sunlight (Table 3). Although the growing season, as taken from the last date of a k i l l i n g frost ( - 2 . 2 ° C or lower) in spring, began early that year (Table 2)- the cool temperatures and moist conditions may have served to slow development and prolong the duration of spring ephemerals. Tranquille: This reserve is No. 29 and has been named Tranquille. It i s located 3 miles northwest of Tranquille, north of the east part of Kamloops Lake ( 5 0 ° 4 5 ' - 5 0 ° 4 6 1 N. Lat . , 1 2 0 ° 3 4 ' -35'20" W. Long). (Figure 3). It ranges in elevation from 610 to 1160 meters and covers 234 hectares (Krajina et a l . 1974). This reserve is c lass i f ied in the Ponderosa pine -Bunchgrass Zone (Krajina et a l . 1974). It i s situated on the edge of the Red Plateau and drops steeply to a f lat val ley. The higher areas are bedrock but the lower areas have a mantle of g lac ia l t i l l . The exposure of the area i s mainly southwest. This area has also been logged, homesteaded and heavily grazed in the past, but i s now used for spring and f a l l grazing of breeding herds only (McLean, personal communication). Tables. 5 and 6 give a summary of various climatic 30 S c a l e 1:126,720 F i g u r e 3. L o c a t i o n o f the T r a n q u i l l e E c o l o g i c a l Reserve. T a b l e 5). T r a n q u i l l e : M o n t h l y Mean Temperatures (°C) : 1974 and 3 0 Year Average. Month D a i l y Average* Mean Mean D a i l y D a i l y Temp. ioMean Maximum 1974 Temp. 1974 Ave. Mean D a i l y Mean Minimum D a i l y 1974 Ave. Max. Dewdrop* * Mean Mean D a i l y D a i l y M i n . Temp. J a n . -4.3 -6.0 Feb. /2.2 -1.3 Mar. 4.6 3.6 Ap r . 10.1 9.3 May 12.2 14.3 June 19.2 18.0 J u l y 19.2 Aug. 21.4 Sep t . 16.7 Oct. 8.8 Nov. Dec. 2.8 20.8 19.7 15.0 8.4 1.7 -2.6 - .6 -2.3 -7.9 -9.7 -*** 5.5 3.1 -1.2 -5.8 9.5 9.1 - .4 -2.1 16.4 16.2 3.8 2.4 13.6 1.9 18.6 21.8 5.7 6.8 16.0 3.1 26.9 25.2 11.4 10.8 26.2 9.6 26.4 29.1 12.1 12.7 24.7 9.8 28.2 27.6 12.0 11.8 29.1 11.2 24.7 22.4 8.6 7.6 23.8 14.9 13.8 2.7 3.0 13.1 6.3 5.4 - .8 -2.0 4.0 3.4 .7 -3.0 -5.8 3.3 6.8 .4 -2.3 -3.0 7.1 9.6 17.9 17.3 20.1 15.3 6.7 .8 - .1 Year 9.4 8.4 15.0 14.3 3.6 2.4 * Averages based on a 30 y e a r p e r i o d , 1941 t o 1970. ** Weather s t a t i o n 300 y a r d s from t h e T r a n q u i l l e r e s e r v e i n t h e v a l l e y . Readings f o r 1974. *** No d a t a a v a i l a b l e . 32 T a b l e 6:;. T r a n q u i l l e : Average M o n t h l y P r e c i p i t a t i o n ( C e n t i m e t e r s ) and Hours o f S u n s h i n e : 1974 and 30 Year Average. Month P r e c i p i t a t i o n Hours o f Sunshine 1974 30 Y r . 1974 30 Y r . Ave. Ave. J a n . 2.39 2.89 76.7 56 Feb. 1.35 1.55 74.7 97 Mar. 1.75 .81 104.7 148 A p r . 1.93 1.24 167.5 197 May 2.08 1.90 227.9 255 June .61 3.63 302.9 243 J u l y 2.51 2.59 290.8 320 Aug. 1.52 2.69 322.5 276 Se p t . .46 2.03 228.1 196 Oct. .76 1.85 163.6 134 Nov. 3.25 2.03 66.9 56 Dec. 4.67 2.82 52.3 48 Yea r 23.29 26.06 2078.5 2032 33 parameters as measured at Kamloops A i r p o r t or a t a c l i m a t i c s t a t i o n about 300 meters from the r e s e r v e (Atmospheric Environment S e r v i c e 1974). J u l y and August are the warmest months w i t h the g r e a t e s t number o f hours o f sunshine (Tables 5 and 6 ) . The p r e c i p i t a t i o n p a t t e r n i s s i m i l a r t o t h a t o f the area around T r o u t Creek except the w i n t e r maximum begins s l i g h t l y l a t e r i n the y e a r . The annual p r e c i p i t a t i o n i s l e s s on the average than i n T r o u t Creek (Table 6 ) . The m e t e o r o l o g i c a l data show the same tren d s as those from Trout Creek. In g e n e r a l the year was warmer, and the growing season l o n g e r i n 1974 than average. May and J u l y were c o o l e r and s p r i n g was i n g e n e r a l moister, w i t h l e s s sunshine than normal. T h i s may a l s o have had the e f f e c t p o s t u l a t e d f o r T r o u t Creek. 34 METHODS Ve g e t a t i o n F i e l d ; Sampling was done i n the summer o f 1974. T rout Creek was sampled i n June and the f i r s t week i n July- T r a n q u i l l e was sampled i n the remainder o f J u l y and the f i r s t week i n August. Before sampling was attempted, the v e g e t a t i o n was s u b d i v i d e d i n t o g e n e r a l u n i t s or p o s s i b l e community t y p e s . The d i v i s i o n s were made on the b a s i s o f d i f f e r e n c e s i n community physiognomy, f o r example whether the community was t r e e d or t r e e l e s s , and gross d i f f e r e n c e s i n dominant s p e c i e s , f o r example whether a community unde r s t o r y was dominated by Agropyron spicatum or C a l amagrostis rubescens. Sampling was done w i t h i n these u n i t s . An e f f o r t was made t o a v o i d areas o b v i o u s l y d i s t u r b e d by man, such as t r a c k s , excavated areas e t c . A l s o , i n both r e s e r v e s some areas were not sampled due t o i n a c c e s s i b i l i t y or steepness o f s l o p e . Sample p l o t s were l o c a t e d 20 meters a p a r t on a t r a n s e c t through the v e g e t a t i o n u n i t . The number o f p l o t s w i t h i n a v e g e t a t i o n u n i t v a r i e d a c c o r d i n g t o the s i z e o f t h e u n i t and ease o f sampling. 35 The t r e e - s a p l i n g and shrub s t r a t a were sampled u s i n g 10 x 10 meter p l o t s . The number o f t r a n s g r e s s i v e s and s a p l i n g s was recorded. The diameter at b r e a s t h e i g h t was measured f o r a l l t r e e s and the percentage cover o f each t r e e and shrub s p e c i e s and the t r e e - s a p l i n g and shrub l a y e r s was estimated u s i n g a s i x c l a s s s c a l e (Daubenmire 1968). F i v e l x l meter p l o t s , p l a c e d one meter apar t along a l i n e b i s e c t i n g the l a r g e p l o t , were used t o sample the herb and dwarf shrub l a y e r and the bryophyte and l i c h e n l a y e r . The cover c l a s s f o r herbs and dwarf shrubs, l i c h e n s and bryophytes was estimated by s p e c i e s and by l a y e r . Only herb and dwarf shrub s p e c i e s r o o t e d i n the p l o t were counted. Unknown s p e c i e s found i n the p l o t s were c o l l e c t e d f o r i d e n t i f i c a t i o n . A number o f t r e e c o r e s was taken w i t h an increment b o r e r and the diameter a t b r e a s t h e i g h t and h e i g h t o f these t r e e s were recorded. Exposure and s l o p e o f the p l o t were recorded. Nomenclature f o r v a s c u l a r p l a n t s f o l l o w s H i t c h c o c k e t a l . (1969) and f o r mosses f o l l o w s Lawton (1971). Voucher specimens are d e p o s i t e d i n the Herbarium o f the Department o f Botany at the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia. 3 6 V e g e t a t i o n S y n t h e s i s ; f > Cover val u e s f o r each s p e c i e s i n the f i v e s u b p l o t s were averaged u s i n g the midpoint o f the s c a l e range. Species t h a t o c c u r r e d i n more than one l a y e r o f the p l o t were a s s i g n e d the v a l u e of the l a y e r i n which they were most abundant. These valu e s were used i n subsequent assessment o f the d a t a . The i n i t i a l sampling d i v i s i o n o f v e g e t a t i o n u n i t s was v e r i f i e d or m o d i f i e d by a s u b j e c t i v e assessment and c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f the p l o t s based on f l o r i s t i c d i f f e r e n c e s and gross s p e c i e s abundance d i f f e r e n c e s . T h i s assessment was done by hand u s i n g the i n i t i a l " T a b u l a t i o n o f Data" methods o f the Z u r i c h - M o n t p e l l i e r s c h o o l o f p h y t o s o c i o l o g y as d e s c r i b e d by Shimwell (1971). Communities were named u s i n g the dominant o v e r s t o r y and u n d e r s t o r y s p e c i e s o f the community. The term "community" was used r a t h e r than " a s s o c i a t i o n " . The term " a s s o c i a t i o n " as d e f i n e d and d i s c u s s e d by Shimwell (1971) i s an a b s t r a c t and g e n e r a l i z e d concept d e r i v e d from the study o f many areas o f s i m i l a r v e g e t a t i o n . However t h i s study i s a d e s c r i p t i o n of one s p e c i f i c a r e a . Thus the term "community" i s more a p p r o p r i a t e . The B r a y - C u r t i s O r d i n a t i o n ; For comparative purposes and t o complement the s u b j e c t i v e 37 c l a s s i f i c a t i o n a B r a y - C u r t i s O r d i n a t i o n was done on t h e qu a d r a t s o f each r e s e r v e (Bray and C u r t i s 1957). I n t h i s method t h e s i m i l a r i t y i n d e x used i s t h e Sorensen c o e f f i c i e n t C=2w/a+b where 'a' i s t h e sum o f q u a n t i t a t i v e measures o f s p e c i e s i n one q u a d r a t , 'b' i s the sum f o r a second q u a d r a t and 'w' i s t h e sum o f t h e l e s s e r , v a l u e f o r s p e c i e s common t o b o t h q u a d r a t s . Each p l o t i s compared t o e v e r y o t h e r p l o t . These s i m i l a r i t y v a l u e s a r e the n t r a n s f o r m e d i n t o d i s t a n c e v a l u e s . B r a y and C u r t i s (1957) d i d t h i s by sub-t r a c t i n g t h e s i m i l a r i t y v a l u e from t h e maximum s i m i l a r i t y c o e f f i c i e n t i n t h e m a t r i x . However Gauch (1973) s u p p o r t s u s i n g a maximum s i m i l a r i t y v a l u e o f 1.00, as h i s work has i n d i c a t e d t h a t o v e r e s t i m a t i n g t h e maximum s i m i l a r i t y v a l u e : causes l e s s d i s t o r t i o n t h a n u n d e r e s t i m a t i n g i t . T h e r e f o r e i n t h i s s t u d y d i s t a n c e v a l u e s were c a l c u l a t e d by s u b t r a c t i n g t h e s i m i l a r i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s from 1.00. From t h i s m a t r i x o f i n t e r q u a d r a t d i s t a n c e s t h e p l o t w i t h t h e g r e a t e s t sum o f d i s t a n c e s i s chosen as one end p o i n t . The q u a d r a t w i t h t h e maximum d i s t a n c e from t h a t q u a d r a t i s chosen as t h e o t h e r end p o i n t . E v e r y o t h e r p l o t i s l o c a t e d i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e s e end p o i n t s by t h e e q u a t i o n : L 2 + D| - D| X -2L 38 where X i s the d i s t a n c e along the a x i s , L i s the d i s t a n c e between the end p o i n t s and D a and are the d i s t a n c e s between the quadrat b e i n g p l o t t e d and each o f the end p o i n t s . The end p o i n t s f o r a second a x i s are chosen from those p l o t s which are s p a t i a l l y c l o s e t o g e t h e r on the a x i s b u t which have a h i g h i n t e r q u a d r a t d i s t a n c e v a l u e . These are found by s u b t r a c t i n g the d i s t a n c e between each p a i r o f quadrats on the f i r s t a x i s from t h e i r a c t u a l i n t e r q u a d r a t d i s t a n c e and s e l e c t -i n g those which have the maximum v a l u e . Quadrats are l o c a t e d on t h i s a x i s by the same method used f o r the f i r s t a x i s . The s i m i l a r i t y m a t r i x and the sum o f s i m i l a r i t y v a l u e s were c a l c u l a t e d by an IBM 370 Model 168 computer. The r e s t o f the o r d i n a t i o n was c a r r i e d out by hand and u s i n g a desk c a l c u l -a t o r . S o i l s F i e l d : S o i l samples were taken a f t e r completion o f the v e g e t a t i o n sampling i n each r e s e r v e and a g a i n i n May o f 1975. Sampling s i t e s were chosen randomly w i t h i n v e g e t a t i o n sampling u n i t s . Communities which were very s m a l l or on t a l u s or very shallow s o i l were not sampled. S i x p i t s were excavat-ed i n Trout Creek and seven i n T r a n q u i l l e i n 1974; two p i t s were dug i n T r o u t Creek and f o u r i n T r a n q u i l l e i n 1975. 39 P i t s 60 t o 70 c e n t i m e t e r s i n depth and about .5 square meters i n a r e a were e x c a v a t e d and samples t a k e n a t 10, 30 and 50 c e n t i m e t e r depths i n 1974. P i t s 90 c e n t i m e t e r s t o 1 meter i n depth and about 1 square meter i n a r e a were e x c a v a t e d and samples t a k e n a t 10, 30, 50 and 80, 90 o r 100 c e n t i m e t e r depths i n 1975. P r o f i l e d e s c r i p t i o n s were b r i e f l y -n o t e d and h o r i z o n depths measured. L a b o r a t o r y A n a l y s i s : The samples were p u t t h r o u g h a t w o - m i l l i m e t e r s i e v e . S a t u r a t e d s o i l was s u b j e c t e d t o 1/3 b a r and 15 b a r p r e s s u r e s f o r 48 h o u r s i n 5 b a r p r e s s u r e and 15 b a r c e r a m i c p l a t e e x t r a c t o r s r e s p e c t i v e l y . The w e i g h t l o s s f o l l o w i n g d r y i n g o f t h e s e samples a t 105° C f o r 48 hours was used t o c a l c u l a t e f i e l d m o i s t u r e c a p a c i t y and permanent w i l t i n g p e r c e n t a g e . The pH was measured w i t h a Radiometer Copenhagen S p e c i f i c I o n Meter, u s i n g a 1:1, s o i l t o d i s t i l l e d w a t e r s u s p e n s i o n w h i c h had been l e f t 24 h o u r s t o e q u i l i b r a t e . Exchangeable c a l c i u m , magnesium, p o t a s s i u m and sodium were e x t r a c t e d u s i n g an ammonium a c e t a t e b u f f e r e d a t pH 7 method ( H a r r i s and L a v k u . l i c h 1972). The c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f e x t r a c t e d c a l c i u m i o n s was r e a d on a P e r k i n Elmer Model 303 A t o m i c A b s o r p t i o n S p e c t r o p h o t o m e t e r . E x t r a c t e d magnesium, sodium and p o t a s s i u m i o n c o n c e n t r a t i o n s were r e a d on a P e r k i n 40 Elmer Model 306 Atomic A b s o r p t i o n Spectrophotometer. T o t a l exchangeable c a t i o n s were e x t r a c t e d u s i n g the sodium a c e t a t e a t pH 8.2 method ( H a r r i s and L a v k u l i c h 1972). C o n c e n t r a t i o n s were then read on an Instrumentation Labora-t o r y I n c o r p o r a t e d Model 143 Flame Photometer. Base s a t u r a -t i o n was c a l c u l a t e d from these data. Percentage o r g a n i c matter was determined by weight l o s s f o l l o w i n g exposure o f o v e n - d r i e d samples t o 480° C f o r f o u r hours. Texture o f the s o i l was determined u s i n g the hydrometer method ( H a r r i s and L a v k u l i c h 1972). 41 TROUT CREEK VEGETATION SYNTHESIS Community Analysis The Pinus ponderosa/Agropyron spicatum community: This community type occupies 80 to 90% of the reserve. It occurs on the terraces and gentle slopes above Trout Creek Canyon, which was not sampled (Figure 4). The community occurs from an elevation of 610 meters to about 740 meters. The exposure of the community i s south-easterly to westerly. The slope of the plots done in this community rangesffrom00tto>2B%;however on the sides of gulleys and just below the talus, the slope is much greater. For example plot 18, which i s just below the talus had a slope of 3 7 ° (Table 7). This community is a very open parklike forest (Figure 5) composed almost solely of Pinus ponderosa. However there are a very few trees of Pseudotsuga menziesii, and in the community type, although not on the reserve, a specimen of Juniperus  scopulorum was noted. The tree density i s low (Table 8) and scattered stumps indicate that the area has been logged. Sapling and trans-gressive densities are higher than that of the trees, which may indicate that the tree density w i l l increase. However the density figures for these may be somewhat high due to the influence of plots 10 and 11 which were in a thick stand of 42 Figure 4. Tentative Community Map of the Trout Creek Ecological Reserve. 1. Road 2. Canyon to Trout Creek - unsampled 3. Pinus/Agropyron 4. Pinus/Pseudotsuga/Amelanchier 5. Pinus/Pseudotsuga/Calamagrostis 6. Selaginella wallacei Table 7, Average Cover and Frequency of Species i n the P i ^ p o n d e ^ / ^ r o ^ snicatum C a n i t y of Trout Cree*. P l o t # E l e v a t i o n (meters) Slope Trees and Shrubs Pinus ponderosa Pseudotsuga m e n z i e s i i Chrysothamnus nauseosus Ribes cereum Rosa woodsii Amelanchier a l n i f o l i a Grasses. • Agropyron spicatum Poa s a n d b e r g i i K o e l e r i a c r i s t a t a Bromus tectorum Festuca o c t o f l o r a S t i p a comata A r i s t i d a l o n g i s e t a Festuca s c a b r e l l a F. idahoensis Forbs Tragopogon dubius A r a b i s h o l b o e l l i i v ar. pendulocarpa C o l l i n s i a p a r v i f l o r a P h a c e l i a l i n e a r i s Antennaria dimorpha Lomatium macrocarpum C m p i s atrabarba Alyssum desertorum Balsamorhiza s a g i t t a t a L e w isia r e d i v i v a A c h i l l e a m i l l e f o l i u m v a r . l a n u l o s a A s t r a g a l u s miser var. s e r o t i n u s Opuntia f r a g i l i s .. Plantago patagonica A r t e m i s i a f r i g i d a Epilobium paniculatum Lithospermum r u d e r a l e S e l a g i n e l l a densa Zygadenus venenosus var. gramineus Lappula redowskii E r i g e r o n pumilr.s D e s c u r a i n i a pinnata Antennaria rosea L e s q u e r e l l a d o u g l a s i i Antennaria p a r v i f o l i a E r i g e r o n f i l i f o l i u s Taraxacum o f f i c i n a l e . .- ' S i l e n e a n t i r r h i n a M i c r o s e r i s nutans Calochortus macrocarpus C i r s i u m undulatum Eriogonum h e r a c l e o i d e s E r i g e r o n divergens Geum t r i f l o r u m A r n i c a s o r o r i a C a p s e l l a bursa - p a s t o r i s Lactuca s e r r i o l a v a r . i n t e g r a t a herb cover Mosses and Lichens Cladpnia spp. P e l t i g e r a canina D i p l o s c h i s t e s scruposus Grimmia a f f i n i s T o r t u l a r u r a l i s 1 2 3 620 620 620 1° 2° 6° 15 _ •"-2.5 -' 19.5/100* 19.5/100 33.0/100 28.5/100 : 1 0 . 0 / 1 0 0 7.5/100 9.5/ 80 5.0/100 5.0/100 10.0/100 24.0/100 10.0/100 1.0/ 40 1.5/ 60 1.0/ 40 _ : V 1.5/ 60 _ .5/ 20 1.0/ 40 16.. 5/100 7.0/ 80 1.5/ 60 5.0/100 5.0/100 2.0/ 80 15.0/100 5.0/100 6.0/40 .5/ 20 1.0/ 40 .5/ 20 3.0/ 20 .5/ 20 33 2.0/ 80 7.5/100 5.0/100 6.5/ 60 1.0/ 40 5.0/100 .5/ 20 1.5/ 60 1.5/ 60 7.5/100 7.5/100 .5/ 20 7.5/100 15.0/100 2.0/80 .5/ 20 1.0/ 40 .5/ 20 2.0/ 80 28.5/100 15.0/100 10.0/100 7.0/ 80 3.5/ 40 1.5/ 60 7.0/ 80 12.5/100 2.0/ 80 .5/ 20 1.5/ 60 1.5/ 60 1.0/40 2.0/ 80 1.0/ 40 3.0/ 20 1.0/ 40 43 .5/ 80 .5/ 20 .0/ 80 .5/ 20 3.0/ 20 38 10.0/100 4.5/ 80 2.0/ 80 4 620 7° 2.5 19.5/100 7.5/100 .5/ 20 11.0/ 60 12.0/ 80 .5/ 20 .5/ 20 .5/ 20 1.0/ 40 10.0/100 21.5/100 1.0/ 40 4.5/ 80 9.5/ 80 5.0/100 14.0/ 80 .5/ 20 1.5/60 5 620 0° 2.5 38.0/100 15.0/100 2.0/ 80 4.0/ 60 .5/ 20 1.5/60 1.5/60 1.5/60 7.0/ 80 10.0/100 15.0/100 4.0/ 60 10.0/100 1.5/ 60 33 7.5/100 1.5/ 60 6.5/60 3.5/ 40 .5/ 2 0 .5/ 2 0 .5/ 20 .5/ 20 6 650 2.5 19.5/100 12.5/100 4.5/ 80 11.0/ 60 5.0/100': 3.0/ 20 9.5/ 80 2.0/ 80 10.0/100 1.0/ 40 1.0/ 40 5.0/100 9.5/ 80 .5/20 4.5/ 80 6.0/ 40 3,-5/ 40 1.5/ 60 3.5/ 40 .5/ 20 3.5/ 40 .5/ 20 .5/ 20 1 _ 38 7.5/100 1.5/100 7 655 2.5 28.5/100 7.5/100 1.5/ 60 52 .5/ 20, 1.0/ 40 1.0/ 40 5.0/100 1.0/ 40 1.5/ 60 2.0/ 80 5.0/100 3.0/ 20 .5/ 20 .5/ 20 .5/ 20 4.0/ 60 6.5/ 60 .5/ 20 3.0/ 20 7.0/ 80 33 7.5/100 9.5/ 80 8 9 10 650 655 665 6° 7° . 8 o * — 2.5 15 62.5 15 15 -_ - - 15 ••" -2.5 24.0/100 19.5/100 5.0/100 7.0/80 19.5/100 .5/ 20 7.0/ 80 3.0/ 20 .5/ 20 .5/20 7.0/ 80 1.0/ 40 2.0/ 80 — — .5/ 20 - -2.0/ 80 . - -1.5/ 60 .1.0/ 40 .5/ 20 2.0/ 80 2.0/ 80 1.0/ 40 15.0/100 . .15.0/100 .5/ 20 5.0/100 :. 5.0/100 1.0/ 40 17.0/100 7.0/ 80 -2.5/100 1.5/ 60 -.5/ 20 .5/ 20 • -1.0/ 40 1.0/ 40 -3.0/ 20 10.0/100 3.5/ 40 3.5/ 40 - 1.0/ 40 .5/ 20 . - 4.0/ 60 _ .5/ 20 1.0/ 40 1.0/ 40 1.5/ 60 .5/ 20 1.0/ 40 -.5/ 20 - - • 1.0/ 40 .5/ 20 .5/ 20 1.0/ 40 .5/ 20 • - -.5/ 20 - -.5/ 20 -.5/ 20 42.5 2.5/100 4.5/ 80 33.5 10 11 665 11° 37.5 15 .5/ 20 1 0 . 0 / 1 0 0 3 . 5 / 40 1 . 5 / 60 2.0/ 80 2.0/ 80 3.0/20 7.0/ 80 -.5/20 1.0/ 40 .5/ 20 6.5/ 60 4.0/ 60 .5/ 20 1.0/ 40 .5/20 14.0/ 80 3.5/ 40 .5/ 20 .5/20 1.0/ 40 12 650 13° 37.5 10.0/100 I .5/ 20 3.0/ 20 14.0/ 80 1.0/ 40 .5/ 20 24 .5/ 20 3.5/ 40 2.5/100; 6.5/ 60j 14.0/ 80 I 7.5/100 4.0/ 60 4.5/ 80 6.0/ 40 .5/ 20 11.5/ 80' 4.5/ 80. .0/60! .0/ 60 1 .5/ 40 .5/100 .5/ 20 4. 4. 3. 2. .5/ 20| .5/ 20' _ i 1.5/ 60 13 655 10° 24.0/100 7.5/100 .5/ 20 1.5/ 60 2.0/ 80 2.0/ 80 10.0/100 5.0/iOO 1.0/ 40 10. Vioo 2.0/ 80 1.0/ 40 1.5/ 60 7.0/ 80 .5/ 20 3.5/ 40 1.5/ 60 1.0/ 40 3.5/ 40 .5/ 20 1.0/ 40 .5/ 20| 33.5 j 5.0/100; 2.0/ 80 37.5 2.5/100 2.5/100 5.0/100 14 665 19° 37.5 .5/100 7.5/100 2.5/100 .5/ 20 2.0/ 80 2.5/100 5.0/100 4.5/ 80 .5/ 20 15.0/100 .5/ 20 .5/ 20 7.0/ 80 5.0/100 1.5/ 60 2.0/ 80 2.0/ 80 1.0/ 40 1.5/ 60 .5/ 20 1.5/ 60 15 665 10° 15 33.0/100 12.5/100 6.5/ 60 1.0/ 40 5.0/100 .5/ 20 1.5/ 60 1.5/ 60 5.0/100 2.0/ 80 3.5/ 40 .5/ 60 .5/ 60 .5/ 60 .5/ 20 1.5/ 60 24.0 5.0/100 1.5/ 60 .5/ 20 1. 1. 1. 9.5/100 2.5/100 5.0/100 2.0/ 80 1.0/ 40 .5/ 20 .5/ 20 2.0/ 80 .5/ 20 2.5/100 .5/ 20 16 17 . 18 670 730 730 16° 10° 37° 15 _ 2.5 - _ 37.5 2.5 - -15.0/100 17.0/100 15.0/100 2.5/100 3.5/ 40 • -6.0/ 40 2.0/ 80 -4 i 0 / 60 2.0/ 80 1.0/ 40 J.S/ 40 4.5/ 80 -- 1.0/ 40 -2.0/ 80 .1.5/60 1.0/ 40 1.5/ 60 .5/ 20 .5/ 20 15.0/100 2.5/100 1.0/ 40 7.5/100 10.0/100 10.0/100 7.0/ 80 12.5/100 .5/ 20 1.0/ 40 10.0/100 .5/20 - 7.5/100 .5/ 20 11.5/ 80 7.5/100 -6.5/ 60 6.5/ 60 12.0/ 80 4.0/ 60 . - •' -.5/ 20 1.5/ 60 -- .5/ 20 1.0/40 : ,1.0/ 40 1.0/ 40 : - .5/ 20 _ .5/ 20 — 1.0/ 40 — .5/ 20 52.5 28.5 .5/20 .5/ 20 2.5/100 10.0/100. - 1.5/ 60 2.0/ 80 .5/ 20 28.5 7.5/100 7.5/100 28.5 2.5/100 * Averiage cover/frequency. 44 F i g u r e 5. Trout Creek, the Pinus ponderosa/Agropyron spicatum community: The ground cover i s mainly Agropyron spicatum. The bunched h a b i t o f t h i s grass i s e v i d e n t . The shrub i s Chryso- thamnus nauseosus. The stake i s marked i n 50 cen t i m e t e r i n t e r v a l s . F i g u r e 6. Trout Creek, the S e l a g i n e l l a w a l l a c e i community: The stake i s marked i n 50 centimeter i n t e r v a l s . T a b l e V8j.l„ T r e e S p e c i e s Data from P l o t s i n T r o u t Creek. Pp/As Pp/As Pp/Pm/Aa Pp/Pm/Aa Pp/Pm/Cr Pp/Pm P i n u s Pseudotsuga P i n u s Pseudotsuga Pi n u s Pseudotsi # s e e d l i n g s i n s u b p l o t s 3 o 0 1 0 0 d e n s i t y /ha. 3 0 0 4 0 0 # t r a n g r e s s i v e s 13 0 2 0 3 1 d e n s i t y /ha. 65 4 0 .300 100 # s a p l i n g s 19 0 1 •o 10 6 d e n s i t y / ha. 95 20 1000 6 0 0 # l i v e t r e e s 9 3 1 2 2 1 Ave. d.b.h. (cm) 2 1 . 4 1 9 . 6 4 7 . 2 3 4 . 7 1 5 . 4 / . 1 5 . 4 T o t a l B.A. (m 2) . 3 6 . 0 9 . 1 8 . 2 5 . 0 4 . 0 2 d e n s i t y /ha. 45 15 20 4 0 200 1 0 0 #dead t r e e s (stumps) 1 0 0 0 7 0 Ave d.b.h. .(cm) 4 4 . 5 0 1 9 . 6 T o t a l B a s a l A r e a (m 2) . 1 6 . 2 2 d e n s i t y / ha. 5 0 700 Pp/As - t h e P i n u s ponderosa/Agropyron s p i c a t u m community Pp/Pm/Aa - t h e P i n u s ponderosa/Pseudotsuga m e n z i e s i i / A m e l a n c h i e r a l n i f o l i a community Pp/Pm/Cr - t h e P i n u s ponderosa/Pseudotsuga m e n z i e s i i / C a l a m a g r o s t i s rubescens community 46 young Pinus, or a reproduction t h i c k e t . The densities of saplings and transgressives here are not representative of the reserve as a whole. Cattle grazing may be a l i m i t i n g factor for tree reproduction indicated by the grazed o f f top of one of the three seedlings found i n the subplots. High s o i l temperatures also are l i m i t i n g factors for tree reproduction. There i s a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y sparse shrub layer composed mainly of Chrysothamnus nauseosus with small amounts of Ribes cereum and Rosa woodsii. The grassy understory i s dominated by the bunchgrass Agropyron spicatum and to a lesser extent by Poa sandbergii (= Poa secunda). C h a r a c t e r i s t i c grass associates are Koeleria c r i s t a t a , Bromus tectorum and Festuca d c t o f l o r a . Stipa comata and A r i s t i d a longiseta are less common. Chara c t e r i s t i c forb associates include Tragopogon  dubius, Arabis h o l b o e l l i i var. pendulocarpa, C o l l i n s i a  p a r v i f l o r a , Phacelia l i n e a r i s , Antennaria dimorpha, Lomatium  macrocarpum, Crepis atrabarba, Alyssum desertorum, Balsamorhiza sagittata , Lewisia rediviva, A c h i l l e a m i l l e - folium var. lanulosa, Astragalus miser var. serotinus, Opuntia f r a g i l i s , Plantago patagonica, Artemisia f r i g i d a and Epilobium paniculatum (Tables 7 and 11). Some species, for example Stipa comata, Artemisia f r i g i d a . Arnica sororia, and 47 M i c r o s e r i s nutans, seem r e s t r i c t e d o r most common on t h e lower l e v e l t e r r a c e a r e a s ( p l o t s 1 t o 5, T a b l e 7 ) . Some, f o r example O p u n t i a f r a g i l i s , B a l s a m o r h i z a s a g i t t a t a and E p i l o b i u m p a n i c u l a t u m , a r e most common on t h e s l o p e s ( T a b l e / 7 ) . T h i s may be a r e s u l t o f many f a c t o r s i n c l u d i n g exposure, m o i s t u r e a v a i l a b i l i t y , g r a z i n g p r e s s u r e e t c . These d i f f e r e n c e s were n ot deemed s u f f i c i e n t f o r a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n d i v i s i o n . P e l t i g e r a c a n i n a , C l a d o n i a spp. and D i p l o s c h i s t e s  s c r u p o s u s form t h e l i c h e n l a y e r . T o r t u l a r u r a l i s and Grimmia  a f f i n i s a r e p r e s e n t b u t t h e i r c o v e r and c o n s t a n c y a r e low. The P i n u s / A g r o p y r o n community most c l o s e l y c o r r e s p o n d s t o t h e P i n u s - A g r o p y r o n and P i n u s - F e s t u c a communities d e s c r i b e d by McLean (1970). I t would f a l l somewhere between t h e two h a v i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f b o t h . I t c o n t a i n s a h i g h c o v e r o f A g r o p y r o n s p i c a t u m and Poa s a n d b e r g i i (=Poa secunda) and has C r e p i s a t r a b a r b a , Lomatium macrocarpum, A c h i l l e a  m i l l e f o l i u m , C o l l i n s i a p a r v i f l o r a and Lithospermum r u d e r a l e as does t h e P i n u s - F e s t u c a t y p e . However i t does n ot c o n t a i n Polygonum d o u g l a s i i and Lu p i n u s s e r i c e u s as does t h i s t y p e and has o n l y v e r y s m a l l amounts o f F e s t u c a i d a h o e n s i s and Eriogonum h e r a c l e o i d e s . L i k e t h e P i n u s - A g r o p y r o n t y p e , t h i s community c o n t a i n s S t i p a comata, A n t e n n a r i a dimorpha, Tragopogon d u b i u s , much 48 A r a b i s h o l b o e l l i i , F e s t u c a o c t o f l o r a , Lappula r e d o w s k i i and PIantago p a t a g o n i c a . The community does not correspond w e l l t o the Pinus -Agropyron community d e s c r i b e d by Brayshaw (1970). Many o f the a s s o c i a t e d s p e c i e s l i s t e d by Brayshaw, f o r example Fe s t u c a o c c i d e n t a l i s , F. i d a h o e n s i s , Eriogonum h e r a c l e o i d e s , A r t e m i s i a t r i d e n t a t a and Lupinus s e r i c e u s are e i t h e r r a r e or absent i n the community i n Trout Creek. The u n d e r s t o r y o f the Pinus ponderosa/Agropyron spicatum community i n the r e s e r v e i s q u i t e s i m i l a r t o the A r t e m i s i a -Poa A s s o c i e s as T i s d a l e (1947) d e s c r i b e d i t i n the Okanagan V a l l e y , except t h a t A r t e m i s i a and Sporobolus cryptandrus are not present, the amount of S t i p a comata i s much lower and t h e r e l a t i v e coverage v a l u e s o f Agropyron and Poa are r e v e r s e d as i n the climax s i t e s o f the Lower G r a s s l a n d Zone. The A r t e m i s i a - Poa A s s o c i e s i s a community r e s u l t i n g from heavy g r a z i n g ( T i s d a l e 1947). The f a c t t h a t i n some aspects the Pinus/Agropyron u n d e r s t o r y corresponds t o i t may i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e Trout Creek area i s m o d i f i e d by g r a z i n g , o r perhaps has been overgrazed i n the past and i s now i n the process o f r e c o v e r i n g . S e v e r a l years o f sampling data and/or e x c l o s u r e experiments would i n d i c a t e whether t h i s i s the case. 4 9 The S e l a g i n e l l a w a l l a c e i Community; On the h i g h e s t p o i n t s i n the r e s e r v e t h e r e occurs a community o f l i m i t e d extent which i s developed e s s e n t i a l l y on bedrock or very l i t t l e s o i l ( F i gure 4 ) . T h i s community has an abundance of the mat-forming S e l a g i n e l l a w a l l a c e i and a lower cover o f Agropyron spicatum (Figure 6 ) . Some o f the other u s u a l a s s o c i a t e s , l i k e Tragopogon dubius, A r a b i s h o l b o e l l i i , A c h i l l e a m i l l e f o l i u m and Ep i l o b i u m  paniculatum are r a r e o r m i s s i n g . The community a l s o has a g r e a t e r abundance of Eriogonum niveum, T o r t u l a r u r a l i s and Grimmia a f f i n i s (Tables 9 and 11). I f e e l t h a t t h i s i s a primary s u c c e s s i o n a l community and w i l l e v e n t u a l l y tend toward the p r e v i o u s l y d e s c r i b e d Pinus/Agropyron community. There i s no r e f e r e n c e i n the l i t e r a t u r e t o a S e l a g i n e l l a w a l l a c e i community, although Brayshaw (1955) mentioned a S e l a g i n e l l a Union which had a s s o c i a t e d s p e c i e s T o r t u l a r u r a l i s , Ceratodon purpureus and P o l y t r i c h u m  p i l i f e r u m . P o s s i b l y the s p e c i f i c i t y o f t h i s study r e s u l t e d i n a d i v i s i o n a t a f i n e r l e v e l o f d i s t i n c t i o n than those working i n l a r g e r areas would make. 50 T a b l e 9,.-> Average Cover and Frequency o f S p e c i e s i n t h e S e l a g i n e l l a w a l l a c e i Community o f T r o u t Creek. P l o t # 25 26 E l e v a t i o n (meters) 825 825 S l o p e 28° 21° Tr e e s and Shrubs P i n u s ponderosa - 2.5 Chrysothamnus nauseosus - 2.5 G r a s s e s A g r o p y r o n s p i c a t u m 4.5/ 80* 12.5/100 Poa s a n d b e r g i i 2.5/100 . 1.0/40 Bromus t e c t o r u m 2.5/100 5.0/100 Forbs C o l l i n s i a p a r v i f l o r a 0.5/ 20 0.5/ 20 P h a c e l i a l i n e a r i s 2.5/100 12.5/100 A n t e n n a r i a dimorpha - 1.0/ 40 Lomatium maccocarpum 1.5/ 60 7.5/100 C r e p i s a t r a b a r b a - 0.5/ 20 Al y s s u m d e s e r t o r u m 0.5/ 20 -B a l s a m o r h i z a s a g i t t a t a * - 3.5/ 40 L e w i s i a r e d i v i v a - 1.5/ 60 A s t r a g a l u s m i s e r v a r . s e r o t i n u s 0.5/ 20 -' L a p p u l a r e d o w s k i i 1.0/ 40 2.0/ 80 D e s c u r a i n i a p i n n a t a 0.5/ 20 2.5/100 Eriogonum niveum 3.5/ 40 3.5/ 40 S e l a g i n e l l a w a l l a c e i 4.5/100 15.0/100 h e r b l a y e r 43 24 Mosses and L i c h e n s C l a d o n i a spp. - 5.0/100 P e l t i g e r a c a n i n a 0.5/ 20 -D i p l o s c h i s t e s s c r u p o s u s 5.0/100 0.5/ 20 Grimmia a f f i n i s 4.5/ 80 1.0/ 40 T o r t u l a r u r a l i s 1.0/ 40 3.0/ 20 * Average c o v e r / f r e q u e n c y . The Pinus ponderosa/Pseudotsuga m e n z i e s i i / A m e l a n c h i e r  a l n i f o l i a Community: T h i s community occurs on t h e . t a l u s s l o p e s j u s t below a rock outcrop i n the r e s e r v e ( F i g u r e 4 ) . P l o t s 19 t o 23 were taken i n t h i s community. The s l o p e o f the a r e a i s q u i t e steep, 29 t o 32°, and the substratum v a r i e s from v e r y coarse, v e r y u n s t a b l e t a l u s t o f i n e r , more s t a b i l i z e d t a l u s . The exposure o f the community v a r i e s from s o u t h - e a s t e r l y t o w e s t e r l y . T h i s community occupies about 5% o f the area o f the r e s e r v e . Both Pinus ponderosa dnd Pseudotsuga m e n z i e s i i are c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y p r e s e n t i n the t r e e l a y e r . T h i s i s a l s o the o n l y community i n which a Pseudotsuga s e e d l i n g was found. A l s o c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f the community i s a much more abundant shrub l a y e r composed o f Amelanchier a l n i f o l i a . Ribes cereum, l e s s Chrysothamnus nauseosus than i n the P i n u s /  Agropyron community, and Ceanothus sanguineus (Tables 10 and 11). On coarse t a l u s , as r e p r e s e n t e d by p l o t s 19 and 20, the ground cover i s very s p a r s e . The grasses and f o r b s occur i n s h e l t e r e d c r e v i c e s where s o i l has accumulated, but the area has no g r a s s y aspect as does the Pinus/Agropyron community (Figure 7).. On f i n e r , t a l u s which i s more s t a b i l -i z e d as r e p r e s e n t e d by p l o t s 21 and 23 more o f the g r a s s and f o r b a s s o c i a t e s o f the Pinus/Agropyron community are p r e s e n t T a b l e 1^ 0. Average Cover and Frequency o f S p e c i e s i n t h e P i n u s ponderosa/Pseudotsuga  m e n z i e s i i / A m e l a n c h i e r a l n i f o l i a Community o f T r o u t Creek. P l o t 19 P l o t 20 P l o t 21 P l o t 22 P l o t 23 E l e v a t i o n (meters) S l o p e T r e e s and shrubs P i n u s ponderosa Pseudotsuga m e n z i e s i i A m e l a n c h i e r a l n i f o l i a R i b e s cereum Chrysothamnus nauseosus Ceanothus sanguineus G r a s s e s A g r o p y r o n s p i c a t u m *3 Poa s a n d b e r g i i F orbs B a l s a m o r h i z a s a g i t t a t a Stephanomeria t e n u i f o l i a Penstemon f r u t i c o s u s v a r P h a c e l i a h a s t a t a D e s c u r a i n i a p i n n a t a A r a b i s h o l b o e l l i i v a r . p e n d u l o c a r p a P h a c e l i a l i n e a r i s G i l i a a g g r e g a t a B e r b e r i s a q u i f o l i u m 8 S e l a g i n e l l a w a l l a c e i 6 Lomatium macrocarpum C r e p i s a t r a b a r b a L e s q u e r e l l a d o u g l a s i i C h a e n a c t i s d o u g l a s i i A c h i l l e a m i l l e f o l i u m v a r . l a n u l o s a s c o u l e r i 1 1 740 30° 15 2.5 2.5 15 .5/ 40 .5/ 20 ,5/ 20 ,0/ 40 ,5/ 60 ,5/ 20 ,5/ 40 ,5/ 60 ,5/ 20 740 30° 2.5 15 2.5 1.0/ 40 7.0/ 80 1.0/ 40 700 290 15 2.5 15.0/100 4.5/ 80 3.5/ 40 1.0/ 40 2.5/100 1.0/ 40 .5/ 20 2.0/ 80 .5/ 20 .5/ 20 .5/ 20 700 35° 15 15 15 2.5 10.0/100 1.5/ 60 6.0/ 40 .5/ 20 .5/ 20 1.0/ 40 4.5/ 80 1.5/ 60 700 32° 2.5 15 5.0/ 80 1.0/ 40 1.0/ 40 T a b l e X. C o n t i n u e d . Lithospermum r u d e r a l e O p u n t i a f r a g i l i s h e r b l a y e r Mosses and L i c h e n s Grimmia a f f i n i s P e l t i g e r a c a n i n a * average c o v e r / f r e q u e n c y . P l o t 19 P l o t 20 P l o t 21 P l o t 22 P l o t 23 - - .5/ 20 -- . 5 / 2 0 12 9.5 19.5 15 5 1.0/ 40 4.0/ 60 - - 4 . 0 / 6 0 3.0/ 20 54 F i g u r e 7. T r o u t Creek, t h e P i n u s ponderosa/Pseudotsuga  m e n z i e s i i / A m e l a n c h i e r a l n i f o l i a community: The t a l l s h r u b s a r e A m e l a n c h i e r a l n i f o l i a and a r e a p p r o x i m a t e l y 2.5 meters i n h e i g h t . Both P i n u s and Pseudotsuga o c c u r i n t h i s community. F i g u r e 8. T r o u t Creek, t h e P i n u s ponderosa/Pseudotsuga  m e n z i e s i i / C a l a m a g r o s t i s rubescens community: I n t h e f o r e -ground i s t h e edge o f t h e community; t h u s A g r o p y r o n  s p i c a t u m can be seen. The g r a s s i n t h e c e n t e r o f t h e p i c t u r e i s C a l a m a g r o s t i s r u b e s c e n s . The community has a dense growth o f shrubs and young P i n u s and Pseudotsuga i n d i v i d u a l s . The s t a k e i s marked i n 50 c e n t i m e t e r i n t e r v a l s . 55 and the herbaceous cover i s greater, although not as great as i s common in the Pinus/Agropyron community (Tables 10 and 11). In this community also Agropyron spicatum and Poa  sandbergii are the dominant grasses. As was mentioned previously, the community contains some of the characteristic Pinus/Agropyron community associates such as Balsamorhiza  sagittata, Arabis ho lboe l l i i var..pendulocarpa, Phacelia  l inear is and Descurainia pinnata. However there are some species which seem restricted to this community, such as Stephanomeria tenuifol ia , Penstemon fruticosus var. scouleri , Phacelia hastata, G i l i a aggregata and Berberis aquifolium. Grimmia aff inis i s the most abundant moss of the community (Tables 10 and 11). The Pinus ponderosa/Pseudotsuga menziesii/Amelanchier  a ln i fo l i a community lacks most of the associates of the Pinus - Rhus spp. community (Brayshaw 1965, 1970), also on talus. It more closely corresponds to the Stephanomerio (tenuifoliae) - Heuchero (cylindricae) - Amelanchiero (alnifoliae) - Ponderoso - Pseudotsugetum biogeocoenosis (Krajina 1969), although i t does not contain Heuchera  cy l indr ica . 56 The Pinus ponderosa/Pseudotsuga m e n z i e s i i / C a l a m a g r o s t i s  rubescens Community; T h i s i s a v e r y s m a l l community. I t occurs above the Pinus/Pseudotsucra/Amelanchier community i n a d e p r e s s i o n p r o t e c t e d v i r t u a l l y on a l l s i d e s (Figures 4 and 8) *• The canopy o f t h i s community i s composed of many young t r e e s o f Pinus ponderosa and Pseudotsuga m e n z i e s i i . The shrub l a y e r i s much denser than t h a t -of the Pinus/Acrropyron community and i s composed o f Ju n i p e r u s scopulorum, Ribes  cereum, Amelanchier a l n i f o l i a , Ceanothus sanguineus and Chrysothamnus nauseosus. ( The d i s t i n c t i v e f e a t u r e o f t h i s community however, i s t h a t the ground cover i s almost e x c l u s i v e l y composed o f the grass Calamagrostis rubescens. which i s an u n d e r s t o r y s p e c i e s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f some communities i n the I n t e r i o r Douglas F i r Zone ( K r a j i n a 1965, 1969, Brayshaw 1970). Agropyron  spicatum occurs but i s r a r e . Balsamorhiza s a g i t t a t a , A c h i l l e a  m i l l e f o l i u m v a r . l a n u l o s a and C r e p i s a t r a b a r b a occur i n the community and C o l l i n s i a p a r v i f l o r a i s p r e s e n t around i t s edges. The dominant moss i s R h y t i d i a d e l p h u s t r i q u e t r i s , and C l a d o n i a spp. and P e l t i g e r a c a n i n a form the l i c h e n l a y e r ( T a b l e 11). T h i s i s a community produced by the topography, the e x t r a moisture p r o v i d e d by r u n o f f from the surroundings and the T a b l e 11. Range o f Cover and Cons T r e e s and Shrubs Rosa w o o d s i i P i n u s ponderosa Chrysothamnus nauseosus R i b e s cereum Pseudotsuga m e n z i e s i i A m e l a n c h i e r a l n i f o l i a Ceanothus sanguineus J u n i p e r u s scopulorum G r a s s e s F e s t u c a o c t o f l o r a S t i p a comata A r i s t i d a l o n g i s e t a F e s t u c a s c a b r e l l a F. i d a h o e n s i s K o e l e r i a c r i s t a t a Bromus t e c t o r u m Poa s a n d b e r g i i A g r o p y r o n s p i c a t u m C a l a m a g r o s t i s rubescens F o r b s Tragopogon d u b i u s A n t e n n a r i a dimorpha A s t r a g a l u s m i s e r v a r . s e r o t i n u s P l a n t a g o p a t a g o n i c a A r t e m i s i a f r i g i d a E p i l o b i u m p a n i c u l a t u m S e l a g i n e l l a densa Zygadenus venenosus v a r . gramineus E r i g e r o n p u m i l u s o f S p e c i e s i n Communities o f T r o u t Creek. Pp/As 18 p l o t s 0-2.5/6* 0-62.5/50 0-37.5/56 0-15/11 0-37.5/6 0-.5/6 0-24/67 0-1.5/28 0-1.5/22 0-3.0/11 0-1.0/6 0-9.5/89 0-14/72 0-28.5/94 5.0-38/100 .5-9.5/100 0-17/89 0-9.5/61 0-15/56 0-5/56 0-2.5/50 0-6.5/33 0-1/33 0-1.5/28 Sw Pp/Pm/Aa Pp/Pm/Cr 2 p l o t s 5 p l o t s 1 p l o t 0-2.5/50 0-15/60 37.5 0-2.5/50 0-2.5/40 2.5 0-15/60 15 + 0-15/40 15 0-15/80 2.5 0-15/20 2.5 2.5 + 2.5-5.0/100 + 1.0-2.5/100 0-7/80 4.5-12.5/100 1-15/100 .5 37.5 + T a b l e 11. C o n t i n u e d . A n t e n n a r i a r o s e a A n t e n n a r i a p a r v i f o l i a E r i g e r o n f i l i f o l i u s Taraxacum o f f i c i n a l e S i l e n e a n t i r r h i n a M i c r o s e r i s nutans C a l o c h o r t u s macrocarpus C i r s i u m undulatum Eriogonum h e r a c l e o i d e s E r i g e r o n d i v e r g e n s Geum t r i f l o r u m A r n i c a s o r o r i a C a p s e l l a b u r s a - p a s t o r i s L a c t u c a s e r r i o l a v a r . i n t e g r a t a C o l l i n s i a p a r v i f l o r a A l y s s u m d e s e r t o r u m L e w i s i a r e d i v i v a L a p p u l a r e d o w s k i i P h a c e l i a l i n e a r i s Lomatium macrocarpum C r e p i s a t r a b a r b a B a l s a m o r h i z a s a g i t t a t a O p u n t i a f r a g i l i s D e s c u r a i n i a p i n n a t a A r a b i s h o l b o e l l i i v a r . p e n d u l o c a r p a A c h i l l e a m i l l e f o l i u m v a r . l a n u l o s a Lithospermum r u d e r a l e L e s q u e r e l l a d o u g l a s i i Eriogonum niveum Pp/As 18 p l o t s Sw 2 p l o t s Pp/Pm/Aa 5 p l o t s Pp/Pm/Cr 1 p l o t 0-3.5/22 - - -0-7/17 - + -0-1/17 - - -0-1/17 - - -0-3/11 - - -0-2/11 - - -0-1/6 - - -0-.5/6 - - -0-3/6 - - -0-.5/6 - - -0-3/6 - - -0-1/6 - - -0-.5/6 - - -0-.5/6 - - -0-28.5/94 .5-.5/100 - + 0-11.5/72 0-.5/50 - -0-15/61 0-1.5/50 - -0-2/28 1-2/100 - -0-21.5/94 2.5-12.5/100 0-•4.5/40 -0-15/83 1.5-7.5/100 0-•.5/20 -0-9.5/78 0-.5/50 0-•2/20 .5 0-12/72 0-3.5/50 0-•6/60 6 0-4/56 0^.5/50 0-••5/20 -0-1/28 .5-2.5/100 0-•1/40 -0-2.5/94 + 0-•2.5/40 -0-11.5/61 - 0-••5/20 1 0-3.5/39 - 0-•.5/20 -0-2.5/22 - 0- •.5/20 -+ 3.5-3.5/100 - -T a b l e 1.1 • C o n t i n u e d . Pp/As 18 p l o t s Sw Pp/Pm/Aa 2 p l o t s 5 p l o t s Pp/Pm/Cr 1 p l o t S e l a g i n e l l a w a l l a c e i Stephanomeria t e n u i f o l i a -Penstemon f r u t i c o s u s v a r . s c o u l e r i + P h a c e l i a h a s t a t a G i l i a a g g r e g a t a B e r b e r i s a q u i f o l i u m C h a e n a c t i s d o u g l a s i i + h e r b c o v e r 10-52.5 Mosses and L i c h e n s D i p l o s c h i s t e s s c r u p o s u s 0-7/56 Grimmia a f f i n i s 0-1/11 T o r t u l a r u r a l i s 0-3.5/6 P e l t i g e r a c a n i n a 0-9.5/72 C l a d o n i a spp. 0-10/94 R h y t i d i a d e l p h u s t r i q u e t r i s 4.5-15/100 + 24-43 .5-5/100 1-4.5/100 1-3/100 0-.5/50 0-5/50 0-6.5/20 0-1/60 0-1.5/40 0-1.5/40 0-1.5/40 0-8.5/20 0-.5/20 5-19.5 0-4/80 0-1.5/20 0-3/20 42.5 1 ,5 8 * range o f c o v e r / c o n s t a n c y ** p r e s e n t i n community h o t i n p l o t s Pp/As - t h e P i n u s ponderosa/Agropyron s p i c a t u m community Sw - t h e S e l a g i n e l l a w a l l a c e i community Pp/Pm/Aa - t h e P i n u s ponderosa/Pseudotsuga'^menziesii/Amelanchier a l n i f o l i a community Pp/Pm/Cr - t h e P i n u s ponderosa/Pseudotsuga m e n z i e s i i / C a l a m a g r o s t i s rubescens community 60 p r o t e c t e d nature o f the d e p r e s s i o n . Although t h e herb l a y e r o f t h i s community i s dominated by Calamagrostis rubescens as are many communities i n the I n t e r i o r Douglas F i r Zone ( K r a j i n a 1969, T i s d a l e and McLean 1957), i t does not have the common a s s o c i a t e s o f the comm-u n i t i e s (Brayshaw 1970, McLean 1970, B e i l 1974). The community pr o b a b l y resembles the T o r t u l o ( r u r a l i s ) -Agropyro ( s p i c a t i ) - Calamagrostido ( r u b e s c e n t i s ) - Ponderoso -Pseudotsugetum glaucae b i o g e o c o e n o s i s o f K r a j i n a (1969). However the extremely s m a l l s i z e o f the community makes i t d i f f i c u l t t o compare w i t h o t h e r work. B r a y - C u r t i s O r d i n a t i o n T h i s a n a l y s i s technique (Figure 9) supports the community breakdown. In g e n e r a l the Pinus ponderosa/Agropyron.spicatum community p l o t s are c l u s t e r e d t o the l e f t c e n t e r o f the graph, w i t h the S e l a g i n e l l a w a l l a c e i p l o t s s l i g h t l y more t o the c e n t e r . However p l o t s 10 and 11 which were l o c a t e d i n a r e p r o d u c t i o n t h i c k e t , are d i s p l a c e d more t o the-bottom c e n t e r and are nearer p l o t 24 than i s the main body o f P i n u s /  Agropyron p l o t s . P l o t 18 i s p l a c e d s l i g h t l y above t h i s c l u s t e r o f p l o t s , i n d i c a t i n g i t s a f f i n i t y w i t h the P i n u s /  Pseudotsuga/Amelanchier community p l o t s . Of these p l o t s most are p l a c e d h i g h on t h e graph except f o r p l o t 21 which i s lower and nearer the Pinus/Agropyron p l o t s and the P i n u s / Figure 9. Bray-Curtis Ordination of Plots from Trout Creek. Interquadrat Distance 62 Pseudotsuga/Calamagrostis p l o t . In the ordination a l l community types may be easily-separated, v e r i f y i n g the f i r s t community breakdown done. Conclusion Most of the reserve i s occupied by the Pinus/Agropyron community. This v e r i f i e s the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of the majority of the reserve i n the Ponderosa pine - Bunchgrass Zone (Krajina efc^al. 1974). The reserve i s also c l a s s i f i e d as being i n the I n t e r i o r Douglas F i r Zone at higher elevations. However there i s l i t t l e evidence from the data i n t h i s study that t h i s i s the case. In both communities i n which there was a s i g n i f i c a n t amount of Douglas f i r , the presence of the tree seems to be maintained by the topographic p o s i t i o n of the community as i n the Pinus/Pseudotsuga/Calamagrostis community or by edaphic factors as i n the Pinus/Pseudotsuqa/Amelanchier community, not by climate as would be the case i n communities of the Inter i o r Douglas F i r Zone. Although i t i s possible that Pinus ponderosa i s a successional species i n some areas of the reserve, the re-production data indicate that i t w i l l not be excluded from the overstory. I therefore conclude that the whole reserve i s i n the Ponderosa pine/Bunchgrass Zone. 63 TRANQUILLE VEGETATION SYNTHESIS Community A n a l y s i s The A r t e m i s i a t r i d e n t a t a / P o a s a n d b e r g i i / S t i p a comata  Community: T h i s community t y p e o c c u p i e s 5 t o 10% o f t h e a r e a o f . t h e r e s e r v e ( F i g u r e 1 0 ) . K r a j i n a e t a l . (1974) have l i s t e d a S t i p o (comatae) - A r t e m i s i o ( t r i d e n t a t a e ) - Pinetum ponderosae community i n t h e r e s e r v e . However t h e community i s e s s e n t i a l l y t r e e l e s s . T h i s community o c c u r s i n t h e l o w e s t p a r t o f t h e r e s e r v e , on t h e f l a t v a l l e y bottom a t about 610 meters ( F i g u r e l l l ) . A r t e m i s i a t r i d e n t a t a dominates t h e shrub l a y e r w i t h l e s s e r amounts o f Chrysothamnus nauseosus. The u n d e r s t o r y i s dominated by Poa s a n d b e r g i i and S t i p a comata, w i t h a s s o c i a t e d g r a s s e s S p o r o b o l u s c r y p t a n d r u s , Bromus t e c t o r u m and F e s t u c a  o c t o f l o r a . There i s l i t t l e o r no A g r o p y r o n s p i c a t u m . Common a s s o c i a t e d f o r b s i n c l u d e L a p p u l a r e d o w s k i i , A n drosace o c c i d e n t a l i s , Tragopogon d u b i u s , O p u n t i a f r a g i l i s , D e s c u r a i n i a p i n n a t a , A r t e m i s i a f r i g i d a , A n t e n n a r i a dimorpha, L e p i d i u m v i r g i n i c u m and C o l l i n s i a p a r v i f l o r a . The b r y o p h y t e and l i c h e n l a y e r i s m a i n l y composed o f C l a d o n i a f i m b r i a t a and C. p y x i d a t a , and T o r t u l a r u r a l i s . D i p l o s c h i s t e s  s c r u p o s u s and T o n i n i a t r i s t i s a r e p r e s e n t i n l e s s e r amounts: 64 Figure 10. Tentative Community Map of the Tranquille Reserve. 1. Disturbed and seeded area - unsampled 2. Art emi s ia/Poa/S t i pa 3. Pinus/Agropyron and Pinus/Aristida 4. Pseudotsuga/Pinus/Agropyron 5. Alkaline wet area 6. Road 65 F i g u r e 11. T r a n q u i l l e , t h e A r t e m i s i a t r i d e n t a t a / P o a s a n d b e r g i i / S t i p a c o m a t a c o m m u n i t y : M o s t o f t h e s h r u b l a y e r i s A r t e m i s i a  t r i d e n t a t a . The l i g h t , s p l a y e d g r a s s i s S t i p a c o m a t a . I n t h e b a c k g r o u n d i s t h e P i n u s / A g r o p y r o n c o m m u n i t y . The f e n c e i s a r e m n a n t o f t h e d a y s when t h i s a r e a was h o m e s t e a d e d . The s t a k e i s m a r k e d i n 50 c e n t i m e t e r i n t e r v a l s . F i g u r e 12. T r a n q u i l l e , t h e P i n u s p o n d e r o s a / A g r o p y r o n s p i c a t u m c o m m u n i t y : The g r o u n d c o v e r i s m a i n l y A g r o p y r o n s p i c a t u m . The s p a r s e s h r u b l a y e r i s m a i n l y C h r y s o t h a m n u s n a u s e o s u s . The o v e r s t o r y i s m a i n l y P i n u s p o n d e r o s a b u t a f e w P s e u d o t s u g a  m e n z i e s i i t r e e s a r e i n e v i d e n c e . The s t a k e i s m a r k e d i n 50 c e n t i m e t e r i n t e r v a l s . 66 ( T a b l e 1 2 ) . Brayshaw (1970) mentioned an A r t e m i s i a t r i d e n t a t a community w h i c h , he s t a t e d a r i s e s from heavy g r a z i n g p r e s s u r e . McLean (1970) d e s c r i b e d an A r t e m i s i a t r i d e n t a t a Zone and s t a t e d t h a t d e c r e a s e s i n A g r o p y r o n s p i c a t u m and i n c r e a s e s i n Poa secunda and Bromus t e c t o r u m a r e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h heavy g r a z i n g . A l s o he s t a t e d t h a t i n c r e a s e s i n S t i p a comata and Sp o r o b o l u s c r y p t a n d r u s o c c u r w i t h g r a z i n g i f t h e s o i l s a r e g r a v e l l y , sandy o r s h a l l o w . T i s d a l e ' s (1947) A r t e m i s i a - Poa A s s o c i e s , w h i c h i s s i m i l a r i n many s p e c i e s t o t h e T r a n q u i l l e community, a r i s e s from o v e r g r a z i n g i n t h e Lower G r a s s l a n d . However many o f t h e a s s o c i a t e d s p e c i e s o f t h e M i d d l e G r a s s l a n d o v e r g r a z i n g community, t h e S t i p a - A g r o p y r o n - Poa A s s o c i e s , o c c u r i n t h e T r a n q u i l l e community a l s o . T h i s i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h i s a r e a i s p r o b a b l y o v e r g r a z e d . The p r e s e n c e o f an a l k a l i n e wet a r e a near t h e r e s e r v e i n t h e v a l l e y bottom may a c c o u n t f o r t h i s . T h i s a r e a s t a y s g reen l a t e i n t h e summer, t h u s t h e a r e a around i t w i l l p r o b a b l y be g r a z e d t o a g r e a t e r degree t h a n o t h e r a r e a s . The P i n u s ponderosa/Agropyron s p i c a t u m Community: T h i s community o c c u p i e s 20 o r 30% o f t h e r e s e r v e and o c c u r s on t h e lower r o l l i n g s l o p e s , e x t e n d i n g o u t s l i g h t l y i n t o t h e f l a t v a l l e y bottom ( F i g u r e 1 0 ) . I t ranges i n 67 Table >\. 12. Average Cover and Frequency of Species i n the Artemisia tridentata/Poa sandbergii/Stipa comata community of Tranquille. Plot 1 2 3 4 Elevation (meters) 615 615 615 615 Slope 5° 6° 5° 3° Trees and Shrubs Artemisia tridentata 2.5 2.5 37.5 15 Chrysothamnus nauseosus 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 Grasses Poa sandbergii 19 .5/100 15 .0/100 17 .0/100 15 .0/100 Stipa comata 12 .5/100 12 .5/100 2 .0/ 80 5 .0/100 Bromus tectorum 7 .0/100 7 .5/100 2 .0/ 80 .5/ 20 Sporobolus cryptandrus 2 .0/ 80 1 .0/ 40 .5/ 20 4 .0/ 60 Festuca o c t o f l o r a .5/ 20 2 .0/ 80 2 .5/100 — Koeleria c r i s t a t a - - .5/ 20 -Forbs Lappula redowskii 10 .0/100 4 .5/ 80 1 .5/ 60 7 .5/100 Androsace occidentalis 4 .5/ 80 2 .5/100 2 .0/ 80 2 .0/ 80 Tragopogon dubius .5/ 20 .5/ 20 1 .0/ 40 1 .0/ 40 Opuntia f r a g i l i s 2 .5/100 4 .5/ 80 2 . 0/ 80 1 .5/ 60 Descurainia pinnata 2 .5/100 1 .0/ 40 1 .5/ 60 .5/ 20 Artemisia f r i g i d a 1 .5/ 60 2 .5/100 1 .5/ 60 2 .5/100 Antennaria dimorpha - 12 .5/100 4 .0/ 60 10 .0/100 Lepidium virginicum .5/ 20 1 .5/ 60 .5/ 20 — C o l l i n s i a p a r v i f l o r a - .5/ 20 .5/ 20 .5/ 20 Calochortus macrocarpus .5/ 20 .5/ 20 - - -Chenopodium fremontii .5/ 20 .5/ 20 — — Arabis h o l b o e l l i i - - 1 .0/ 40 — Lomatium macrocarpum - 1 .0/ 4.0 - — herb layer 33.0 37.5 28.5 28.5 Mosses and Lichens Cladonia spp. 2 .5/100 2 .5/100 10 .0/100 7 .0/ 80 Toninia t r i s t i s — — .5/ 20 1 .0/ 40 Tortula r u r a l i s — 1. 5/ 60 — 4 .0/ 60 Diploschistes scruposus .5/ 20 — — — 68 e l e v a t i o n from the v a l l e y bottom a t j u s t above 610 meters t o about 760 meters and the s l o p e o f the l a n d w i t h t h i s community v a r i e s from 4° t o over 25°. The r e p r o d u c t i o n data i n Table 13 show t h a t the f o r e s t w i l l p r o b a b l y not become any denser but w i l l p r o b a b l y m a i n t a i n i t s e l f . The f o r e s t , although dominated by Pinus  ponderosa. c o n t a i n s s c a t t e r e d i n d i v i d u a l s o f Pseudotsuga  m e n z i e s i i . These are few enough and s c a t t e r e d enough t h a t they do not occur i n any o f t h e p l o t s . There i s some Pseudotsuga r e p r o d u c t i o n , but the amount of Pinus r e p r o d u c t i o n i s much g r e a t e r (Figure 12). The shrub l a y e r i s composed mainly o f Chrysothamnus  nauseosus and l e s s e r amounts o f A r t e m i s i a t r i d e n t a t a (Table . 14). Often i n depressions or g u l l e y s (represented by p l o t s 18, 19, 22, and 23), Rosa w o o d s i i w i l l form a s i g n i f i c a n t p o r t i o n o f the shrub l a y e r . T h i s v a r i a t i o n however, was not c o n s i d e r e d s u f f i c i e n t t o warrant a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n d i v i s i o n . The g r a s s y u n d e r s t o r y i s dominated by Agropyron spicatum. K o e l e r i a c r i s t a t a i s a common a s s o c i a t e ; Poa s a n d b e r g i i , S t i p a  comata and Sporobolus cryptandrus are l e s s common. A r i s t i d a  l o n g i s e t a and F e s t u c a o c t o f l o r a are very sparse i n t h i s community. The a s s o c i a t e d f o r b s are u s u a l l y w e l l s c a t t e r e d . These i n c l u d e Tragopogon dubius. A r a b i s h o l b o e l l i i v a r . pendulocarpa, A r t e m i s i a c a m p e s t r i s . A c h i l l e a m i l l e f o l i u m v a r . l a n u l o s a . 69 T a b l e .13:. .Tree S p e c i e s Data from P l o t s i n T r a n q u i l l e . Pp/As Pm/Pp/As Pm/Pp/As Pm/Pp/As P i n u s P i n u s Pseudotsuga J u n i p e r u s # s e e d l i n g s i n s u b p l o t s 3 0 0 0 d e n s i t y /ha. 300 # t r a n s g r e s s i v e s 1 0 0 0 d e n s i t y /ha. 5 # s a p l i n g s 8 0 0 0 d e n s i t y /ha. 40 # l i v e t r e e s 29 5 4 1 Mean d.b.h. (cm) 24.8 26.9 39.6 14.2 T o t a l B.A. (m 2) 1.56 .31 .55 .02 d e n s i t y /ha. 145 71 57 14 #dead t r e e s (stumps) 4 0 0 0 -Mean d.b.h. (cm) 56.1 T o t a l B a s a l A r e a (m 2) .99 d e n s i t y /ha. 20 Pp/As - t h e P i n u s ponderosa/Agropyron s p i c a t u m community. Pm/Pp/As - t h e Pseudotsuga m e n z i e s i i / P i n u s ponderosa/Agropyron  s p i c a t u m community. Table 14. Average Cover and Frequency.of Species in the Pinus , ponderosa / Agropyron spicatum Community of Tranquille. Plot Number Elevation Slope Trees and Shrubs Pinus ponderosa Chrysothamnus nauseosus Rosa woodsii Artemisia tridentata Amelanchier a l n i f o l i a Grasses Agropyron spicatum Koeleria c r i s t a t a Sporobolus cryptandrus Stipa comata Poa sandbergii Ari s t i d a longiseta Bromus tectorum Festuca octoflora Forbs . Tragopogon dubius ..Arabis h o l b o e l l i i var. pendulocarpa iArtemisia campestris Achillea millefolium var. lanulosa Astragalus purshii Antennaria dimorpha Antennaria p a r v i f o l i a Descurainia pinnata Gailla r d i a aristata Allium cernuum Epilobium paniculatum Calochortus macrocarpus Chenopodium fremontii Cirsium undulatum Taraxacum o f f i c i n a l e Crepis atrabarba Opuntia f r a g i l i s C o i l i n s i a parviflora Comandra umbellata var. p a l l i d a Balsamorhiza sagittata Erigeron f l a g e l l a r i s Linum perenne Lomatium macrocarpum Lithospermum ruderale Oxytropus campestris Anemone multifida Antennaria rosea Astragalus beckwithii var. weiserensis Centaurea diffusa Erigeron f i l i f o l i u s Lepidium virginicum Stephonomeria tenuifolia Lappula redowskii Festuca scabrella Penstemon fruticosus var. scouleri cherb layer Mosses and Lichens ^Cladonia spp. Grimmia a f f i n i s Tortula r u r a l i s , Diploschistes scruposus * Toninia t r i s t i s Peltigera canina Ceratodon purpureus 5 640 6 ° 15 15 12.5/100* 2.5/100 . 5 / 20 5 . 0 / 8 0 . 5 / 20 2.5/100 1.5/ 60 4 . 5 / 80 2 . 0 / 80 . 5 / 2 0 7.5/100 . 5 / 6 0 . 5 / 40 .0 / 60 . 0 / 40 . 5 / 20 . 5 / 20 1. 3. 7. 1. . 5 / 20 4 . 5 / 80 . 5 / 20 1.5/ 60 6 640 5 ° 15 2.5 10.0/100 2.5/100 . 5 / 20 15.0/100 . 5 / 20 2 . 0 / 80 1 . 5 / 6 0 5.0/100 4 . 5 / 80 1.5/ 60 7.5/100 5.0/100 1.5/ 60 1.5/ 60 1.0/ 40 . 5 / 20 1.0/ 40 1.5/ 60 . 5 / 20 7 8 9 10 640 630 630 ' "%, 625 9 o 8 ° gO 6 ° - mm - 15 • • 15 15 15 15 2.5 -5.0/100 9 . 5 / 8 0 10.0/100 .12.5/100 2 .0 / 80 1.0/ 40 1.5/ 60 7 .0 / 80 . 5 / 2 0 . 5 / 20 - . 5 / 20 3 .5 / 40 . 5 / 20 . 5 / 20 ; - - 5 / 2 0 . 5 / 20 1.5/ 60 ' — 10.0/100 - -- , - - 1.5/ 60 . 5 / 20 1.0/ 40 1.0/ 40 2.5/100 2 . 0 / 80 2 . 0 / 80 1.5/ 60 2.5/100 - 1 . 0 / 4 0 4 . 0 / 60 7.5/100 1 . 0 / 4 0 1.0/ 40 2 . 0 / 80 1.0/ 40 . 5 / 20 1.0/ 40 . 5 / 20 1.0/ 40 4 . 0 / 60 5.0/100 . 5 / 20 2 .0 / 80 . 5 / 2 0 9 . 0 / 80 1.5/ 60 2 . 0 / 80 - . 5 / 20 4 . 0 / 60 - 4 . 0 / 60 . 5 / 20 • - - . 5 / 20 . 5 / 20 . 5 / 20 . 5 / 20 . 5 / 20 37.5 28.5 19.5 7 . 0 / 80 17.0/100 15.0/100 - 7 . 0 / 8 0 - 1 .0/ 20 -- . 5 / 2 0 2 . 0 / 80 . 5 / 20 . 5 / 20 9 . 5 / 80 . 5 / 20 . 5 / 20 . 5 / 20 . 5 / 20 . 5 / 20 . 5 / 20 28.5 5.0/100 . 5 / 20 19.5 17.0/100 1.0/ 40 . 5 / 2 0 . 5 / 20 3 .0 / 20 10.0/100 . 5 / 20 1 . 0 / 4 0 1.0/ 40 37.5 lo . q / ioo . 5 / 20 1.5/ 60 11 630 90 15 12.5/100 2 . 0 / 8 0 1.0/ 40 . 5 / 20 . 5 / 20 1.0/ 40 2.5/100 10.0/100 1.0/ 40 . 5 / 20 . 5 / 60 . 0 / 60 3 . 0 / 2 0 . 5 / 20 . 5 / 20 1.0/ 40 . 5 / 2 0 1. 4. . 5 / 20 1 .0/ 40 24.0 5.0/100 3 .0 / 20 1.5/ 60 1.0/ 40 1.0/ 40 . 5 / 20 12 13 14 17 '.'•2.0 21 31 630 630 625 655 63j0 665 640 8 ° 1 1 ° 1 0 ° .... 130 101° 1 4 ° 6 ° _ 2.5 15 37.5 2 .5 2.5 15 15 15 15 15 15 2.5 -'. — — • - • - — - .. - ' .•.. • ~: 2.5 - • - - . - -; — 2.5 15.0/100 10.0/100 19.5/100 2 . 0 / 80 15.0/100 15.0/100 12.5/100 1.5/ 60 - - . 2 . 0 / 80 4 . 0 / 60 . 5 / 20 • - . 5 / 20 - - . - - — • 1 . 5 / 6 0 — — • 5 / 2 0 - -J \ . 5 / 20 -• — . 5 / 2 0 1.0/ 40 1 .5/ 60 1.0/ 40 . 5 / 20 2.5/100 2 . 0 / 80 . 5 / 20 2 . 0 / 80 1.0/ 40 -5.0/100 1.5/ 60 - - 2.5/100 . 5 / 20 -. 5 / 20 1.0/ 40 - . 5 / 20 . 5 / 20 1.5/ 60 — • _ . 5 / 20 . 5 / 2 0 - . 5 / 2 0 • - — _ . 5 / 20 . 5 / 20 3 . 5 / 40 - - - 3 . 0 / 2 0 , V 20 1.0/ 40 . 5 / 20 . 5 / 20 .'"•••• ~ ' ; • - • •. -— - 1.0/ 40 . 5 / 20 _ - . - - . 5 / 20 . 5 / 20 " ' ' — - _ . 5 / 20 -• • r - -. 5 / 20 . 5 / 20 - - . — . 5 / 2 0 - - - — — - - -• 1.0/ 40 -. 5 / 20 - • ' — - — . 5 / 20 _ - - • - -™ • — _ . 5 / 20 . 5 / 20 — _ _ _ - - . 5 / 20 -. 5 / 20 - . " . 5 / 20 _ 1 - ' ' • -. 5 / 20 -'• - - - • - . - - v- • ' " ; - 1.5/ 60 24.0 17.0 19.5 2.0 24.0 15.0 12.5 4 . 5 / 8 0 _ 1.0/ 40 7 .5/100 1.0/ 40 . 5 / 2 0 . 5 / 20 . 5 / 2 0 - - - — — . 5 / 20 - - - - . — — — - - - . 5 / 2 0 - — 1.0/ 40 1.0/ 40 •Average cover/frequency 71 Astragalus p u r s h i i , Antennaria dimorpha, Antennaria p a r v i -f o l i a , Descurainia pinnata, G a i l l a r d i a a r i s t a t a . Allium  cernuum, Epilobium paniculatum, Calochortus macrocarpus, Chenopodium fremontii, Cirsium undulatum and Taraxacum  o f f i c i n a l e . The bryophyte and lichen layer c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y contains Cladonia fimbriata and C. pyxidata, Grimmia a f f i n i s and Tortula r u r a l i s and the, crustose lichens Dfeploschistes  scruposus and Toninia t r i s t i s . The area, has been homesteaded and badly overgrazed i n the past (McLean and Tisdale 1972), but i t seems to have recovered w e l l . Plot 31 was taken within an exclosure set up i n 1935 (McLean and Tisdale 1972) and i t does not d i f f e r d r a s t i c a l l y from the other plots i n the community. The Tranquille community represents the Agropyro, (spicati) - Chrysothamno (nauseosi) - Pinetum ponderosae mentioned by Krajina et a l . (1974). However i n associated species i t does not correspond well to the Pinus ponderosa communities described i n the l i t e r a t u r e . I t does not commonly contain Festuca idahoensis, F. scabrella, Poa  c u s i c k i i and Bromus tectorum and has less Poa secunda. (= Poa sandbergii) and Antennaria dimorpha than the Pinus -Agropyron community described by Brayshaw (1955, 1965, 1970). The most common associated grass species i n the Tranquille community i s Koeleria cristata which is not l i s ted as an associate species in the Pinus - Agropyron type described by McLean (1970). This community contains Festuca octoflora,  Lappula redowskii and Plantago patagonica which are rare in the Tranquille community and does not have such species as Artemisia campestris. Astragalus purshi i , Descurainia  pinnata and Allium cernuum which are common in Tranquille. The Pinus - Festuca type (McLean 1970) also i s missing the Artemisia, Astragalus, Descurainia and Allium species mentioned ear l ier , and has Eriogonum heracleoides. Crepis  atrabarba, Lomatium macrocarpum, Lupinus sericeus. Microsteris grac i l i s and Polygonum douglasii which are rare or missing in Tranquille. The understory contains some species, for example Stipa  comata. Sporobolus cryptandrus, Koeleria Cristata, and Calochortus macrocarpus of the Lower and Middle Grasslands as described by Tisdale (1947) and Spilsbury and Tisdale (1944). Spilsbury and Tisdale worked close to this area and mentioned the Pinus ponderosa savanna, placing i t between the Lower Grassland and the Montane (Douglas f i r ) Zones and saying that the Middle and Upper Grassland Zones do not occur and that the savanna represents a marked variation from the normal successional pattern in the area. This pine forest is almost at the northern l imits of the range of Pinus ponderosa (Krajina et a l . 1974). This may be 73 why i t does not correspond w e l l t o Pinus - Agropyron communit-i e s d e s c r i b e d i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e . The Pinus p o n d e r o s a / A r i s t i d a l o n g i s e t a Community: In some areas i n the Pinus ponderosa f o r e s t , A r i s t i d a  l o n g i s e t a becomes codominant w i t h Agropyron spicatum ( F i g u r e 13). . T h i s community has been named A r i s t i d o ( l o n g i s e t a e ) -Pinetum ponderosae by the surveyors o f the r e s e r v e ( K r a j i n a e t a l . 1974). Tables 15 and 17 show t h a t t h i s Community has many o f t h e same a s s o c i a t e d s p e c i e s as the Agropyron community. These i n c l u d e the same shrub species,.Chrysothamnus nauseosus, . A r t e m i s i a t r i d e n t a t a , the g r a s s e s K o e l e r i a c r i s t a t a , S t i p a  comata jand Bromus tectorum and t h e f o r b s Tragopogon dubius, A r a b i s h o l b o e l l i i . A r t e m i s i a campestris, A c h i l l e a m i l l e f o l i u m . A s t r a g a l u s p u r s h i i , and D e s c u r a i n i a p i n n a t a . A r t e m i s i a  f r i g i d a and Carex p r a t i c o l a a l s o occur i n t h i s community, although t h e y are not common i n the- Pinus/Agropyron community. The b r y o p h y t e - l i c h e n l a y e r o f the P i n u s / A r i s t i d a community c o n t a i n s the C l a d o n i a s p e c i e s , Grimmia a f f i n i s and T o r t u l a r u r a l i s . In the l i s t o f biogeocoenoses f o r the Ponderosa p i n e -Bunchgrass Zone ( K r a j i n a 1969) t h e r e are two which c o n t a i n s i g n i f i c a n t amounts o f A r i s t i d a l o n g i s e t a . These are S t i p o (comatae) - Opuntio ( f r a g i l i s ) - A r i s t i d o ( l o n g i s e t a e ) -Purshietum t r i d e n t a t a e and Sporobolo ( c r y p t a n d r i ) - A r i s t i d e t u m 74 F i g u r e 13. T r a n q u i l l e , ground cover o f the Pinus ponderosa/ A r i s t i d a l o n g i s e t a community: In the lower r i g h t o f the p i c t u r e are clumps of Agropyron spicatum. The s m a l l e r , more compact clumps are A r i s t i d a l o n g i s e t a . The shrubs are Chrysothamnus nauseosus. The stake i s marked i n 50 c e n t i m e t e r i n t e r v a l s . F i g u r e 14. T r a n q u i l l e , the Pseudotsuga m e n z i e s i i / P i n u s  ponderosa/Agropyron spicatum community: The o v e r s t o r y i s mainly Pseudotsuga m e n z i e s i i . The shrub i s J u n i p e r u s scop- ulorum. Agropyron spicatum again dominates the u n d e r s t o r y but the clumps are more w i d e l y spaced and th e r e i s l e s s l i t t e r . The stake i s marked i n 50 c e n t i m e t e r i n t e r v a l s . 75 T a b l e 15. Average Cover and Frequency o f S p e c i e s i n t h e P i n u s p o n d e r o s a / A r i s t i d a l o n g i s e t a community o f T r a n q u i l l e . P l o t 15 16 E l e v a t i o n (meters) 655 655 S l o p e 8° 11° Shrubs Chrysothamnus nauseosus 15 15 A r t e m i s i a t r i d e n t a t a 2.5 -G r a s s e s A r i s t i d a l o n g i s e t a 12.5/100* 12.0/100 A g r o p y r o n s p i c a t u m 10.0/100 12.5/100 S t i p a comata 4.5/ 80 -Bromus t e c t o r u m .5/ 20 -K o e l e r i a c r i s t a t a 2.0/ 80 -F o r b s Tragopogon d u b i u s 2.0/ 80 .5/ 20 A r t e m i s i a c a m p e s t r i s 1.5/ 60 2.0/ 80 A s t r a g a l u s b e c k w i t h i i .5/ 20 .5/ 20 A c h i l l e a m i l l e f o l i u m 3.5/ 40 .5/ 20 D e s c u r a i n i a p i n n a t a -5/ 20 1.5/ 60 Carex p r a t i c o l a • 5/ 20 .5/ 20 A s t r a g a l u s p u r s h i i - .5/ 20 Lithospermum r u d e r a l e - .5/ 20 C i r s i u m undulatum • 5/ 20 -A r t e m i s i a f r i g i d a - .5/ 20 O p u n t i a f r a g i l i s — .5/ 20 A r a b i s h o l b o e l l i i 2.5/100 2.5/100 h e r b l a y e r 37. .5 24.0 Mosses and L i c h e n s C l a d o n i a spp. 12.5/100 5.0/100 Grimmia a f f i n i s .5/ 20 -T o r t u l a r u r a l i s - 1.0/ 40 *Average c o v e r / f r e q u e n c y . 76 l o n g i s e t a e , n e i t h e r o f which a c c u r a t e l y c o u l d be a p p l i e d t o t h i s community. T i s d a l e (1947) mentioned t h a t on c o a r s e r s o i l an edaphic community which contains, S t i p a comata and Sporobolus  cryptandrus o c c u r s . He s t a t e d t h a t t h i s community i s l i k e t he P u r s h i a - A r i s t i d a community but t h a t i n the Thompson R i v e r a r e a P u r s h i a i s absent and A r i s t i d a not common. Brayshaw (1955) d e s c r i b e d a Pinus - A r i s t i d a a s s o c i a t i o n which r e s u l t s from the b u r n i n g o f a Pinus - P u r s h i a stand. He mentioned t h a t i n the Thompson V a l l e y P u r s h i a does not occur, thus the Pinus - A r i s t i d a communities occur without b u r n i n g . Although the g e n e r a l i z e d Pinus - A r i s t i d a community (Brayshaw 1955, 1965, 1970) c o n t a i n s many s p e c i e s not pr e s e n t i n the T r a n q u i l l e community, one o f the stands he sampled was i n the Thompson V a l l e y and c l o s e l y resembles the T r a n q u i l l e community. I t has such s p e c i e s as A r t e m i s i a  c a m p e s t r i s . A s t r a g a l u s p u r s h i i , C i r s i u m undulatuni, L i t h o s -permum r u d e r a l e , A c h i l l e a m i l l e f o l i u m . Opuntia f r a g i l i s , K o e l e r i a c r i s t a t a . B r o m us tectorum and S t i p a comata a l l o f which are p r e s e n t i n the T r a n q u i l l e P i n u s / A r i s t i d a community. The Pseudotsuga m e n z i e s i i / P i n u s ponderosa/Agropyron spicatum  Community; P o s s i b l y up t o 50% o f the r e s e r v e i s occupied by t h i s 77 community ( F i g u r e 1 0 ) . Above about 760 meters Pseudotsuga  m e n z i e s i i dominates t h e canopy and J u n i p e r u s scopulorum and R i b e s cereum become more common i n t h e shrub l a y e r . The community o c c u r s b o t h on s t e e p s l o p e s and on f l a t t e r p l a t e a u a r e a s w h i c h c o f t e n have v e r y s h a l l o w s o i l s . A g r o p y r o n s p i c a t u m s t i l l dominates t h e u n d e r s t o r y b u t t h e i n d i v i d u a l clumps a r e s m a l l e r and more w i d e l y spaced ( F i g u r e 1 4 ) . K o e l e r i a c r i s t a t a , S p o r o b o l u s c r y p t a n d r u s and Bromus t e c t o r u m a r e a s s o c i a t e d g r a s s e s . The number o f a s s o c i a t e d f o r b s p e c i e s i s reduced, and i n c l u d e s A c h i l l e a  m i l l e f o l i u m , A r a b i s h o l b o e l l i i , D e s c u r a i n i a p i n n a t a , C a l o c h o r t u s macrocarpus, A r t e m i s i a f r i g i d a and S e l a c f i n e l l a  w a l l a c e i . Most o f t h e mosses and l i c h e n s o f t h e lower s l o p e s e x c e p t T o n i n i a t r i s t i s a r e found i n t h i s community (T a b l e s 16 and 1 7 ) . T h i s community i s somewhat s i m i l a r t o t h e Pseudotsuga  m e n z i e s i i - A g r o p y r o n s p i c a t u m h a b i t a t t y p e (McLean 1970) and s h a r e s some s p e c i e s w i t h t h e Pseudotsuga m e n z i e s i i -F e s t u c a i d a h o e n s i s h a b i t a t t y p e (McLean 1970). B e i l (1974) from h i s work i n t h e C a r i b o o Zone d e s c r i b e d a Pseudotsuga m e n z i e s i i - J u n i p e r u s scopulorum community w h i c h has a shrub s t r a t u m o f J u n i p e r u s scopulorum, A r t e m i s i a t r i -d e n t a t a and Chrysothamnus nauseosus, and has an u n d e r s t o r y o f A g r o p y r o n s p i c a t u m , A r t e m i s i a f r i g i d a , S t i p a comata, Table .16 . Average Cover, and Frequency of Species in the Pseudotsuga menziesii/Pinus  ponderosa/Agropyron spicatum community of Tranquille. Plot 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 Elevation (meters) 825 825 825 885 885 880 870 Slope 6 ° 12 ° 1 1 ° 10O 9 ° 2 2 ° 1 8 ° Trees and shrubs Pseudotsuga menziesii — 37.5 — — — 15 15 Pinus ponderosa — — 2.5 — — 37.5 Chrysothamnus nauseosus 15 2.5 2.5 — 2.5 .5/ 20 2.5 Artemisia tridentata 15 2.5 - 2.5 2.5 — — Juniperus scopulorum 15 — 2.5 - - 15 — Ribes cereum - - - - 2.5 2.5 — Grasses Agropyron spicatum 24.0/100* 15.0/100 10.0/100 4 .0/ 60 10.0/100 1.0/ 40 4 .5/ i K o e l e r i a c £ . r i s , t a t a 2.0/ 80 - 1.5/ 60 - - — -Sporobolus cryptandrus - - - .5/ 20 - - -Oryzopsis hymenoides — — — — — .5/ 20 — Bromus tectorum - — — — — .5 / 20 — Forbs Achi l lea millefolium 1.0/ 40 1.0/ 40 2.0/ 80 — .5/ 20 — -Descurainia pinnata .5/ 20 - - 2 .5/100 2.5/1.00 - -Artemisia frigida .5/220 - - .5/ 20 - — — Calochortus macrocarpus 1.5/ 60 — — — — • — — Selaginella wallacei 3 .0/20 — - — — — — Arabis ho lboe l l i i 2.5/100 - — — — — — herb layer 24.0 15.0 10.0 5.0 10.0 3.5 4.5 Mosses and Lichens Cladonia spp. 2.0/ 80 .5/ 20 1.5/ 60 - 1.0/ 40 — — Tortula rural is 2.0/ 80 - .5/ 20 1 .0/ 40 1.5/ 60 — — Grimmia aff inis - - - 1 .5/ 60 1.0/ 40 2.5/100 — Diploschistes scruposus .5/ 20 — — — — — — Peltigera canina — — — — .5/ 20 — — *Average cover/frequency T a b l e &%*viy. Range o f Cover and Tr e e s and Shrubs Rosa w o o d s i i A m e l a n c h i e r a l n i f o l i a Chrysothamnus nauseosus A r t e m i s i a t r i d e n t a t a P i n u s ponderosa Pseudotsuga m e n z i e s i i J u n i p e r u s scopulorum R i b e s cereum G r a s s e s F e s t u c a s c a b r e l l a A r i s t i d a l o n g i s e t a A g r o p y r o n s p i c a t u m K o e l e r i a c r i s t a t a Bromus t e c t o r u m S p o r o b o l u s c r y p t a n d r u s S t i p a comata Poa s a n d b e r g i i F e s t u c a o c t o f l o r a O r y z o p s i s hymenoides Fo r b s A n t e n n a r i a p a r v i f o l i a G a i l l a r d i a a r i s t a t a A l l i u m cernuum E p i l o b i u m p a n i c u l a t u m Taraxacum o f f i c i n a l e C r e p i s a t r a b a r b a Comandra u m b e l l a t a Pp/As 18 p l o t s 0-15/22* 0-2.5/11 2.5-15/100 0-15/17 0-37.5/61 0-1.5/6 0-.5/28. 2-19.5/100 0-7/83 0-10/17 0-1/39 0-3.5/39 0-15/33 0-1.5/17 0-9/56 0-7/50 0-1.5/33 0-1/33 0-1/22 0-4.5/17 0-3/17 o f S p e c i e s i n Communities i n T r a n q u i l l e . P p / A l 2 p l o t s Pm/Pp/As 7 p l o t s A t / P s / S c 4 p l o t s 15-15/100 0-2.5/50 0-15/86 0-15/57 0-37.5/28 0-37.5/43 0-15/43 0-2.5/28 2.5-2.5/100 2.5-37.5/100 12-12.5/100 10-12.5/100 0-2/50 0-.5/50 0-4.5/50 1.0-24/100 0-2/28 0-.5/14 0-.5/14 0-.5/14 0-.5/25 .5-7.5/100 .5-4/100 2-12.5/100 15-19.5/100 0-2.5/75 T a b l e X V I I . C o n t i n u e d . Pp/As P p / A l Pm/Pp/As A t / P s / S c 18 p l o t s 2 p l o t s 7 p l o t s 4 p l o t s B a l s a m o r h i z a s a g i t t a t a 0-.5/11 — — — E r i g e r o n f l a g e l l a r i s 0-10/11 - - -Linum perenne 0-1.5/11 - - -Oxytropus c a m p e s t r i s 0-.5/11 - - -Anemone m u l t i f i d a 0-.5/6 - - -A n t e n n a r i a r o s e a 0-.5/6 — - -C e n t a u r e a d i f f u s a 0-.5/6 - - -E r i g e r o n f i l i f o l i u s 0-.5/6 - -Stephanomeria t e n u i f o l i a 0-.5/6 - - -Penstemon f r u t i c o s u s 0-.5/6 - - -A r t e m i s i a c a m p e s t r i s 0-10/72 1.5-2/100 - -A s t r a g a l u s p u r s h i i 0-1.5/61 0-.5/50 - -C i r s i u m undulatum 0-.5/22 0-.5/50 - -Lithospermum r u d e r a l e 0-.5/11 0-.5/50 - -A s t r a g a l u s b e c k w i t h i i 0-.5/6 .5-.5/100 - -A c h i l l e a m i l l e f o l i u m 0-4.5/72 .5-3.5/100 0-2/57 -A r a b i s h o l b o e l l i i 0-2.0/78 2.5-2.5/100 0-2.5/14 0-1.0/25 D e s c u r a i n i a p i n n a t a 0-3.5/50 .5-1.5/100 0-2.5/43 .5-2.5/100 Tragopogon d u b i u s 0-2.5/83 .5-2.0/100 - .5-1.0/100 O p u n t i a f r a g i l i s 0-.5/17 0-.5/50 - 1.5-4.5/100 A r t e m i s i a f r i g i d a - 0-.5/50 0-.5/28 1.5-2.5/100 L a p p u l a r e d o w s k i i 0-1/6 • - - 1.5-7.5/100 Androsace o c c i d e n t a l i s - - - 2.0-4.5/100 L e p i d i u m v i r g i n i c u m 0-1.0/6 - - 0-1.5/75 C o l l i n s i a p a r v i f l o r a 0-9.5/17 - - 0-.5/75 A n t e n n a r i a dimorpha 0-7.5/56 - - 0-12.5/75 Chenopodium f r e m o n t i i 0-.5/22 - - 0-.5/50 C a l o c h o r t u s macrocarpus 0-1/28 - 0-1.5/14 0-.5/50 Carex p r a t i c o l a - .5-.5/100 - -T a b l e X V I I . C o n t i n u e d . S e l a g i n e l l a w a l l a c e i h e r b l a y e r Mosses and L i c h e n s C e r a t o d o n purpureus Grimmia a f f i n i s C l a d o n i a spp. T o r t u l a r u r a l i s D i p l o s c h i s t e s s c r u p o s u s T o n i n i a t r i s t i s Pp/As 18 p l o t s 2.0-37.5 0-.5/6 0-3/33 0-17/72 0-7/22 0-1.5/22 0-1/11 P p / A l 2 p l o t s 24-37.5 0-.5/50 5-12.5/100 0-1/50 Pm/Pp/As 7 p l o t s 0-3/14 3.5-24.0 0-2.5/43 0-2.0/57 0-2/57 0-.5/14 0-.5/14 A t / P s / S c 4 p l o t s 28.5-33.0 2.5-10/100 0-4/50 0-.5/25 * range o f c o v e r / c o n s t a n c y Pp/As - t h e P i n u s ponderosa/Agropyron s p i c a t u m community P p / A l - t h e P i n u s p o n d e r o s a / A r i s t i d a l o n g i s e t a community ^ / ? / c S " f S e U d Q t S U q a M e n z i e s i i / P i n u s ponderosa/Aarop^rgn s p i c a t u m community A t / P s / S c - t h e A r t e m i s i a t r i d e n t a t a / P g a s a n d b e r g i i / S t i p a comata community 8 2 Sporobolus cryptandrus and T o r t u l a r u r a l i s . The s p e c i e s composition o f t h i s community i s . s i m i l a r t o the T r a n q u i l l e Pseudotsuga/Pinus/Agropyron community. B r a y - C u r t i s O r d i n a t i o n T h i s a n a l y s i s technique separates the A r t e m i s i a / P o a / S t i p a p l o t s w e l l . The Pseudotsuga/Pinus/Agropyron p l o t s are a l s o separate and tend t o be toward the upper r i g h t o f the graph, which may r e p r e s e n t an a l t i t u d i n a l g r a d i e n t ( F i g u r e 15). The P i n u s / A r i s t i d a community p l o t s are not separated from the Pinus/Agropyron p l o t s . As was mentioned p r e v i o u s l y , t h i s community shares many s p e c i e s w i t h the Pinus/Agropyron community. T h i s may be the reason the p l o t s o f the two communities d i d not s e p a r a t e . I f a m u l t i - d i m e n s i o n a l graph were c o n s t r u c t e d the P i n u s / A r i s t i d a p l o t s might show more d i s t i n c t i v e n e s s . A s i d e from t h i s , t he o r d i n a t i o n supports the f i r s t community breakdown done. C o n c l u s i o n The r e s e r v e i s c l a s s i f i e d as b e i n g i n the Ponderosa p i n e - Bunchgrass Zone ( K r a j i n a e t a l . 1974). The presence o f a Pinus/Agropyron community i n the lower areas o f the r e s e r v e i n d i c a t e s t h a t c e r t a i n l y t h i s area i s i n t h a t zone. However, as was s t a t e d e a r l i e r , a t an e l e v a t i o n o f about F i g u r e 15. B r a y - C u r t i s O r d i n a t i o n o f P l o t s from T r a n q u i l l e . in .8 H 00 O J Tz ' 71 ~ 71 1 7s ' I7b Interquadrat Distance 84 760 meters, Pseudotsuga m e n z i e s i i dominates t h e canopy. P o s s i b l y up t o 50% o f t h e r e s e r v e i s o c c u p i e d by a community i n w h i c h t h e canopy i s p r e d o m i n a n t l y Douglas f i r . F o r t h i s r e a s o n t h e h i g h e r e l e v a t i o n s o f t h i s r e s e r v e s h o u l d be c l a s s i f i e d i n t h e I n t e r i o r Douglas F i r Zone. COMPARISON OF THE COMMUNITIES OF THE RESERVES Bot h r e s e r v e s c o n t a i n a community dominated by P i n u s  ponderosa and Ag r o p y r o n s p i c a t u m . The P i n u s ponderosa/Agropy  s p i c a t u m community i n T r a n q u i l l e s h a r e s many a s s o c i a t e s p e c i e s w i t h t h e P i n u s / A g r o p y r o n community i n T r o u t Creek. Examples o f t h e s e a r e F e s t u c a o c t o f l o r a , K o e l e r i a c r i s t a t a , Bromus  t e c t o r u m , A n t e n n a r i a dimorpha, Tragopogon d u b i u s , A c h i l l e a  m i l l e f o l i u m , Lithospermum r u d e r a l e and B a l s a m o r h i z a s a g i t t a t a . However T r o u t Creek c o n t a i n s many major s p e c i e s such as P h a c e l i a l i n e a r i s , L e w i s i a r e d i v i v a , and P l a n t a g o p a t a g o n i c a which a r e l a c k i n g i n T r a n q u i l l e , and some r e l a t i v e l y abundant s p e c i e s i n T r a n q u i l l e , such as S p o r o b o l u s c r y p t a n d r u s , A r t e m i s i a c a m p e s t r i s . A s t r a g a l u s p u r s h i i and A l l i u m cernuum a r e r a r e o r l a c k i n g i n T r o u t Creek. The r e l a t i v e abundance o f some o t h e r s p e c i e s i s v e r y d i f f e r e n t i n t h e comparable communities o f t h e two r e s e r v e s . F o r example Lomatium  macrocarpum, C r e p i s a t r a b a r b a and B a l s a m o r h i z a s a g i t t a t a a r e o f major i m p o r t a n c e i n t h e T r o u t Creek P i n u s / A g r o p y r o n community b u t a r e minor i n t h e T r a n q u i l l e community. 85 T h i s d i f f e r e n c e i n f l o r i s t i c c o m p o s i t i o n c o u l d be a r e s u l t o f many f a c t o r s . As was s t a t e d e a r l i e r t h e T r a n q u i l l e Reserve i s near t h e n o r t h e r n l i m i t o f t h e range o f P i n u s  p onderosa . I t i s c o n c e i v a b l e t h a t o t h e r s p e c i e s a r e a t t h e i r n o r t h e r n l i m i t a l s o o r t h a t t h i s a r e a i s beyond t h e range o f a s p e c i e s . S i n c e a s p e c i e s i s l i k e l y t o be l e s s abundant near t h e l i m i t s o f i t s t o l e r a n c e , t h i s may acc o u n t f o r t h e r e l a t i v e r a r e n e s s i n T r a n q u i l l e o f some s p e c i e s . T a b l e s 4 and 6 show t h a t T r a n q u i l l e has l e s s p r e c i p i t a -t i o n t h a n T r o u t C reek. T h i s a l s o may be a f a c t o r d e t e r m i n i n g d i f f e r e n c e s i n r e l a t i v e abundance o f s p e c i e s i n t h e two r e s e r v e s . T a b l e s 8, 13 and 18 show t h a t t h e . f o r e s t i s much denser and o l d e r i n T r a n q u i l l e t h a n i n T r o u t C reek. T h i s a l s o may be a f a c t o r i n s p e c i e s d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e two r e s e r v e s . There i s a l s o a . d i f f e r e n c e i n g r a z i n g p r e s s u r e between T r o u t Creek and T r a n q u i l l e . As has been d i s c u s s e d e a r l i e r t h e r e i s e v i d e n c e t h a t T r o u t Creek has been m o d i f i e d by g r a z i n g p r e s s u r e . The P i n u s / A g r o p y r o n community i n t h e T r a n q u i l l e R e s e r v e , on t h e o t h e r hand, i s p r o b a b l y g r a z e d v e r y l i t t l e and i s m o d i f i e d v e r y l i t t l e . T h i s d i f f e r e n c e a l s o c o u l d a c c o u n t f o r s p e c i e s abundance d i f f e r e n c e s . Many o t h e r f a c t o r s , such as„ d i f f e r e n c e s i n s u r r o u n d i n g t o p o g r a p h y , exposure, s l o p e , d a i l y t e m p e r a t u r e extremes e t c . would c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e d i f f e r e n c e s i n s p e c i e s c o m p o s i t i o n and 86 Table 18: ; Height, Diameter and Age Data for Trees. Trout Creek Tranquille Height Diameter Age Height Diameter Age (meters) Breast (meters) Breast Species Height Height (cm) (cm) Pinus ponderosa 3.4 9.1 10 5.2 10.1 36 6.7 14.2 34 10.7 14.7 56 5.5 18.3 16 9.2 16.0 45 9.4 20.3 45 13.1 17.8 57 11.0 25.9 41 11.6 22.6 61 9.2 26.0 28 12.8 28.2 65 13.4 37.8 50 13.4 31.0 120 17.1 43.4 45 16.8 39.6 165 Pseudotsuga 5.2 7.6 18 8.2 11.7 44 menziesii 12.5 22.6 38 20.0 16.2 45 32.0 63.0 113 13.7 20.8 63 13.4 22.9 38 15.3 28.7 69 19.8 36.3 79 87 r e l a t i v e abundance i n the Pinus/Agropyron communities o f the two r e s e r v e s . The Trout Creek Reserve has a g r e a t e r number o f s p e c i e s than the T r a n q u i l l e Reserve (Tables 19 and 20). The v a r i o u s environmental d i f f e r e n c e s between the r e s e r v e s might con-t r i b u t e t o t h i s f a c t . There i s .only one community i n T r o u t Creek, the P i n u s /  Agropyron community> t h a t i s comparable t o a community i n T r a n q u i l l e . The T r a n q u i l l e Reserve has no sampled communities comparable t o the Pinus/Pseudotsuga/Amelanchier, the P i n u s /  Pseudotsuga/Calamagrostis or the P i n u s / S e l a g i n e l l a communities i n T r o u t Creek, and the T r o u t Creek Reserve does not c o n t a i n A r t e m i s i a / P o a / S t i p a , P i n u s / A r i s t i d a o r Pseudotsuga/Pinus/  Agropyron communities comparable t o those i n T r a n q u i l l e . 8 8 T a b l e -.19. L i s t o f P l a n t S p e c i e s i n T r o u t Creek. A c h i l l e a m i l l e f o l i u m L. s s p . l a n u l o s a ( N u t t . ) P i p e r A g r o p y r o n s p i c a t u m (Pursh) S c r i b n & Smith A l y s s u m d e s e r t o r u m S t a p f . A m e l a n c h i e r a l n i f o l i a N u t t . A n t e n n a r i a corymbosa E. N e l s . A. dimorpha (Nutt.) T & G. A. p a r v i f o l i a N u t t . A. r o s e a Greene Apocynum a n d r o s a e m i f o l i u m L. v a r . Pumilum Gray A r a b i s h o l b o e l l i i Harnem v a r . p e n d u l o c a r p a ( N e l s ) R o l l i n s A r i s t i d a l o n g i s e t a S t e u d . A r n i c a s o r o r i a Greene A r t e m i s i a c a m p e s t r i s L. A. f r i g i d a W i l l d . Asparagus o f f i c i o n a l i s A s t r a g a l u s m i s e r D o u g l . v a r . s e r o t i n u s (Gray) Barneby A. p u r s h i i D ougl. v a r . p u r s h i i A. s c l e r o c a r p u s Gray B a l s a m o r h i z a s a g i t t a t a (Pursh) N u t t . B e r b e r i s a q u i f o l i u m P u r s h Bromus t e c t o r u m L. C a l a m a g r o s t i s rubescens B u c k l . C a l o c h o r t u s macrocarpus D o u g l . v a r . macrocarpus 8 9 Capsella bursa - pastoris (L.) Medic Cas t i l le ja longispica A. Nels. Ceanothus sanguineus Pursh Chaenactis douglasii (Hook.) H & A. Chenopodium fremontii Wats. var. fremontii C. leptophyllum (Moq) Wats. var. oblongifolium Wats. Chrysopsis v i l l o sa (Pursh) Nutt. var. hispida (Hood.) Gray Chrysothamnus nauseosus (Pall.) B r i t t . Cirsium undulatum (Nutt.) Spreng. Co l l ins i a parviflora L i n d l . Comandra umbellata Nutt. var. pal l ida (D.C.) Jones Crepis atrabarba Heller ssp. or ig inal i s Babe. & Stebb. Delphinium nuttallianum, Pr i t z . Descurainia pinnata (Walt.) Br i t t . var . intermedia (Rydb) C .L . Hitchc. Elaeagnus commutata Bernh. Epilobium paniculatum Nutt. Erigeron divergens T & G. <E. f i l i f o l i u s Nutt. var. f i l i f o l i u s E. pumilus Nutt. Eriogonum heracleoides Nutt. E. niveum Dougl. Festuca idahoensis Elmer. F. octoflora Walt. var. octoflora F. scabrella Torr. 90 G a i l l a r d i a a r i s t a t a P u r s h . Geum t r i f l o r u m P u r s h v a r . t r i f l o r u m G i l i a a g g r e g a t a (Pursh) Spreng v a r . a g g r e g a t a Happlopappus car t h a m o i d e s (Hook.) Gray Heuchera c y l i n d r i c a D o u g l . J u n i p e r u s scopulorum S a r g . K o e l e r i a c r i s t a t a P e r s . L a c t u c a s e r r i o l a L. v a r . i n t e g r a t a Gren & Godr. L a p p u l a r e d o w s k i i (Hornem) Greene v a r . r e d o w s k i i L e p t o d a c t y l o n pungens ( T o r r . ) N u t t . L e s q u e r e l l a d o u g l a s i i Wats. L e w i s i a r e d i v i v a P u r s h . Lithophragma p a r v i f l o r a (Hook.) N u t t . Lithospermum r u d e r a l e Dougl. Lomatium macrocarpum (N u t t . ) C o u l t & Rose M i c r o s e r i s nutans (Geyer) S c h u l t z - B i p . O p u n t i a f r a g i l i s ( N utt.) Haw. Penstemon f r u t i c o s u s (Pursh) Greene v a r . s c o u l e r i ( L i n d l ) Cronq. P h a c e l i a h a s t a t a , D o u g l . P. l i n e a r i s (Pursh.) H o l z . P h i l a d e l p h u s l e w i s i i P u r s h . P i n u s ponderosa Dougl. P l a n t a g o p a t a g o n i c a J a c q . Poa b u l b o s a L. Poa s a n d b e r g i i Vasey 91 Pseudotsuga m e n z i e s i i ( M i r b e l ) F r a n c o v a r . g l a u c a ( B e i s s n . ) F r a n c o Ranunculus g l a b e r r i m u s Hook. v a r . e l l i p t i c u s Greene R i b e s cereum D o u g l . v a r . cereum Rosa w o o d s i i L i n d l . v a r . w o o d s i i S e l a g i n e l l a densa Rydb. S. w a l l a c e i H i e r o n S i l e n e a n t i r r h i n a L. S. d o u g l a s i i Hook. v a r . d o u g l a s i i Stephanomeria t e n u i f o l i a ( T o r r . ) H a l l v a r . t e n u i f o l i a S t i p a comata T r i n & Rupr. v a r . comata S. o c c i d e n t a l i s Thurb. v a r . minor (Vasey) H i t c h c . Symphoricarpos a l b u s (L.) B l a k e Taraxacum o f f i c i n a l e Weber Tragopogon d u b i u s Scop. W/oodsia s c o p u l i n a D.C. E a t . Zygadenus venenosus Wats. v a r . gramineus (Rydb.) Walsh. Mosses Grimmia a f f i n i s Hornsch. T o r t u l a r u r a l i s (Hedw.) Smi t h R h y t i d i a d e l p h u s t r i q u e t r i s (Hedw.) Warnst. L i c h e n s C l a d o n i a f i m b r i a t a (L.) F r . C. p y x i d a t a (L.) Hoffm. D i p l o s c h i s t e s s c r u p o s u s (Shreb) Norm. 92 L e t h a r i a v u l p i n a P e l t i g e r a canina (L.) W i l l d . 93 T a b l e 20. L i s t o f P l a n t S p e c i e s i n T r a n q u i l l e . A c h i l l e a m i l l e f o l i u m L. s s p . l a n u l o s a (Nutt.) P i p e r A g r o p y r o n s p i c a t u m (Pursh) S c r i b n . & Smith A. c r i s t a t u m (L.) G a e r t n . A l l i u m cernuum Roth. A m e l a n c h i e r a l n i f o l i a N u t t . Androsace o c c i d e n t a l i s P u r s h . Anemone m u l t i f i d a P o i r . v a r . m u l t i f i d a A n t e n n a r i a dimorpha (Nutt.) T & G. A. p a r v i f o l i a N u t t . A. r o s e a Greene Apocynum a n d r o s a e m i f o l i u m L. v a r . pumilum Gray A. cannabinum L. v a r . glaberrimum DC. A r a b i s h o l b o e l l i i Hornem, v a r . p e n d u l o c a r p a ( N e l s . ) R o l l i n s A r i s t i d a l o n g i s e t a Steud. A r t e m i s i a c a m p e s t r i s L. A. f r i g i d a W i l l d . A. t r i d e n t a t a N u t t . A s t r a g a l u s b e c k w i t h i i T & G. v a r . w e i s e r e n s i s M.D. Jones A. p u r s h i i D o u g l . v a r . p u r s h i i A. s c l e r o c a r p u s Gray B a l s a m o r h i z a s a g i t t a t a (Pursh) N u t t . Bromus t e c t o r u m L. C a l o c h o r t u s macrocarpus Do u g l . v a r . macrocarpus 94 Carex p r a t i c o l a Rydb. Centaurea d i f f u s a Lam. Chenopodium fremontii Wats. var. fremontii Chrysothamnus nauseosus (Pall.) B r i t t . Cirsium undulatum (Nutt.) Spreng. Clematis l i g u s t i c i f o l i a Nutt. C o l l i n s i a p a r v i f l o r a L i n d l . Comandra umbellata (L.) Nutt. var. p a l l i d a (DC.) Jones. Crepis atrabarba Heller ssp. o r i g i n a l i s Babe & Stebb C. occidentalis Nutt. ssp. occidentalis Descurainia pinnata (Walt.) B r i t t . var. intermedia (Rydb.) C.L. Hitchc. D i s t i c h l i s s t r i c t a (Torr.) Rydb. Elymus cinereus Scribn. & Merr. Epilobium paniculatum Nutt. Erigeron f i l i f o l i u s Nutt. var. f i l i f o l i u s E. f l a g e l l a r i s Gray Festuca octoflora Walt. var. oc t o f l o r a F. scabrella Torr. Fragaria v i r g i n i a n a Duchesne G a i l l a r d i a a r i s t a t a Pursh. Juniperus scopulorum Sarg. Koeleria c r i s t a t a Pers. Lappula redowskii (Hornem) Greene var. redowskii Lepidium virginicum L. var. virginicum 95 Linum perene L. v a r . l e w i s i i (Pursh) E a t . & W r i g h t Lithospermum r u d e r a l e Dougl. Lomatium macrocarpum (Nutt.) C o u l t & Rose O p u n t i a f r a g i l i s ( N utt.) Haw. Oxytropus c a m p e s t r i s (L.) DC. O r y z o p s i s hymenoides (R. & S.) R i c k e r Penstemon f r u t i c o s u s (Pursh) Greene v a r . s c o u l e r i ( L i n d l ) Cronq. P i n u s ponderosa Dougl. P l a n t a g o e l o n g a t a P u r s h . Poa s a n d b e r g i i Vasey Pseudotsuga m e n z i e s i i ( M i r b e l ) F r a n c o v a r . g l a u c a ( B e i s s n . ) F r a n c o R i b e s cereum Dougl. v a r . cereum Rosa w o o d s i i L i n d l . v a r . w o o d s i i S e l a g i n e l l a w a l l a c e i H i e r o n . S h e p h e r d i a c a n a d e n s i s (L.) N u t t . S i l e n e a n t i r r h i n a L. S p o r o b o l u s c r y p t a n d r u s ( T o r r . ) Gray Stephanomeria t e n u i f o l i a ( T o r r . ) H a l l v a r . t e n u i f o l i a S t i p a comata T r i n . & Rupr. v a r . comata Taraxacum o f f i c i n a l e Weber. T e t r a d y m i a canescens DC. Tragopogon d u b i u s Scop. Zygadenus venenosus Wats. v a r . gramineus (Rydb.) Walsh. 96 Mosses Ceratodon purpureus (Hedw.) Bri d . Grimmia a f f i n i s Hornsh. Tortula r u r a l i s (Hedw.) Smith Lichens Cladonia fimbriata (L.) Fr. C. pyxidata (L.) Hoffm. Diploschistes scruposus (Shreb) Norm. Letharia vulpina Peltigera canina (L.) Wi l l d . Toninia t r i s t i s (Th. Fr.) Th. Fr. 97 SOILS Tr o u t Creek The o n l y s o i l s sampled i n t h i s r e s e r v e were i n the Pinus  ponderosa/Agropyron spicatum community. The Pinus/Pseudotsuga/ Calamagrostis community was deemed too s m a l l f o r sampling and i the S e l a g i n e l l a and Pinus/Pseudotsuga/Amelanchier communities had too l i t t l e s o i l . T a b l es 21, 22 and 23 d e s c r i b e the s o i l s . A l t h o u g h samples were taken i n o n l y one community, t h i s community occurs i n two p h y s i o g r a p h i c a l l y d i s t i n c t areas, t e r r a c e areas and s l o p e s . The s o i l s are s u f f i c i e n t l y d i f f e r e n t i n these areas t h a t two d e s c r i p t i o n s are p r e s e n t e d . The t e r r a c e area s o i l i s deeper, has l e s s c a l c i u m and magnesium, a lower c a t i o n exchange c a p a c i t y and lower base s a t u r a t i o n than the s o i l o f the s l o p e s . I t i s a f i n e r s o i l , c o n t a i n i n g more s i l t and l e s s sand, and has a l a y e r o f loam at about 90 c e n t i m e t e r s which the s o i l o f the s l o p e s l a c k s . I t a l s o has a g r e a t e r a v a i l a b l e moisture c a p a c i t y , p r o b a b l y accentuated by the f a c t t h a t the s o i l c o n t a i n s fewer r o c k s . These d i f f e r e n c e s may be a f a c t o r d e t e r m i n i n g the s l i g h t s p e c i e s d i f f e r e n c e s noted e a r l i e r between th e two a r e a s . The parent m a t e r i a l o f b o t h s o i l s i s outwash g r a v e l . Both s o i l s are B r u n i s o l s . 98 T a b l e 21. P r o f i l e D e s c r i p t i o n s o f S o i l s i n T r o u t Creek. Community and L o c a t i o n H o r i z o n D e s c r i p t i o n t e r r a c e - P i n u s  ponderosa/Acrropyron  s p i c a t u m Community LFH Ah Bm C l 0-3 cm. sandy loam; weak b l o c k y ; p l e n t i f u l f i n e r o o t s ; 5-20 cm. t h i c k . sandy loam; weak b l o c k y ; p l e n t i f u l f i n e r o o t s ; 30-60 cm. t h i c k . loam; s i n g l e g r a i n ; l o o s e ; few f i n e r o o t s ; 10-15 cm. t h i c k . amorphous.; v e r y h a r d ; o u t -wash g r a v e l . B r u n i s o l i c Order. s l o p e s - P i n u s  ponderosa/Acrropyron  s p i c a t u m Community LFH Ah Bm 0-3 cm. g r a v e l l y c o b b l e y sandy loam; weak b l o c k y ; p l e n t i f u l f i n e r o o t s ; 5-18 cm. t h i c k , v e r y c o b b l e y sandy loam; amorphous; v e r y h a r d ; p l e n t -i f u l f i n e r o o t s ; v e r y few medium and c o a r s e r o o t s ; 30-50 cm. t h i c k , v e r y h a r d ; outwash g r a v e l . B r u n i s o l i c Order. 99 T a b l e 2 2 . 1 . P h y s i c a l P r o p e r t i e s o f S o i l s i n T r o u t Creek. H o r i z o n Depth F i e l d Permanent A v a i l a b l e % % % o f Sample t e r r a c e A B B c l 10 30 50 100 C a p a c i t y W i l t i n g M o i s t u r e sand s i l t c l a y (%) 19.0 15.2 14.7 P e r c e n t a g e C a p a c i t y (%) 8.0 6.0 5.6 11.0 9.2 9.1 _* 68 66 64 50 20 22 24 34 12 12 12 16 s l o p e s A B 10 30 20.6 20.4 10.8 10.3 9.8 10.1 78 78 10 10 12 12 B 50 19.8 -9.6 10.2 74 12 14 * no d a t a a v a i l a b l e . Table «23..r Chemical Properties of So i l s i n Trout Creek. Horizon Depth of Sample % P H Ca Mg K Na Cation % Organic (mEq/100 (mEq/100 (mEq/100 (mEq/100 Exchange Base Matter gm) gm) gm) gm) Capacity Saturation (mEq/100 gm) terrace A 10 2.5 6.5 2.4 2.4 .9 22.8 26 B B 30 50 2.3 7.0 2.2 7.3 2.2 2.7 2.1 2.3 .6 17.5 16.7 31 33 slopes A B B 10 30 50 2.9 6.6 2.2 6.8 1.9 7.1 4.6 4.0 6.4 4.2 5.6 6.5 .9 .6 .3 29.0 28.4 30.7 32 35 41 101 T r a n q u i l l e T a b l e s 24, 25 and 26 g i v e a d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e s o i l s i n t h e T r a n q u i l l e R e serve. The A r t e m i s i a t r i d e n t a t a / P o a s a n d b e r g i i / S t i p a comata community s o i l i s deeper t h a n one meter. I t has much mag-nesium, p o t a s s i u m , c a l c i u m , and sodium, and a h i g h base s a t u r a t i o n and pH. G l a c i a l t i l l i s p r o b a b l y t h e p a r e n t m a t e r i a l of'•.the s o i l , however t h e C h o r i z o n was never r e a c h e d i n t h e s o i l p i t s . The s o i l i s a Chernozem. The s o i l under t h e P i n u s / A g r o p y r o n community i s not as deep and i s c o a r s e r i n t e x t u r e . I t c o n t a i n s more c a l c i u m b u t l e s s magnesium and p o t a s s i u m , has a l o w e r pH and l o w e r base s a t u r a t i o n v a l u e s . I t a l s o i s h a r d e r i n c o n s i s t e n c e w i t h l o w e r a v a i l a b l e m o i s t u r e c a p a c i t y v a l u e s . C a l c a r e o u s g l a c i a l t i l l i s thetsparehtirmaaterial o f t h i s s o i l w h i c h a l s o i s a Chernozem. The s o i l o f t h e P i n u s / A r i s t i d a community, a l s o a Chernozem, i s c o a r s e r i n t e x t u r e t h a n t h a t o f t h e P i n u s / A g r o p y r o n community and c o n t a i n s more r o c k s . I t c o n t a i n s more c a l c i u m , magnesium and p o t a s s i u m and has s l i g h t l y h i g h e r pH and base s a t u r a t i o n v a l u e s t h a n t h e P i n u s / A g r o p y r o n community. T h i s tends t o s u p p o r t t h e s t a t e m e n t (Brayshaw 1970) t h a t t h e P i n u s - P u r s h i a community, which, as was mentioned e a r l i e r may be a s o u t h e r n e q u i v a l e n t o f t h e P i n u s / A r i s t i d a community, 102 T a b l e . 24 P r o f i l e D e s c r i p t i o n s o f S o i l s i n T r a n q u i l l e . Community A r t e m i s i a t r i d e n t a t a /  Poa s a n d b e r g i i / S t i p a  comata Community H o r i z o n LFH Ah Bm D e s c r i p t i o n 0-5 cm. g r a v e l l y sandy loam; weak b l o c k y ; p l e n t i f u l f i n e r o o t s ; 6-20 cm. t h i c k , g r a v e l l y t o v e r y g r a v e l l y and c o b b l e y sandy loam -loam; p l e n t i f u l f i n e r o o t s ; 90 cm. t h i c k , p r o b a b l y g l a c i a l t i l l . C hernozemic Order P i n u s p o n d e r o s a /  A g r o p y r o n s p i c a t u m Community LFH Ah Bm 0-3 cm. g r a v e l l y sandy loam; weak b l o c k y ; s l i g h t l y h a r d ; p l e n t i f u l f i n e r o o t s ; 4-20 cm. t h i c k , v e r y g r a v e l l y and c o b b l e y sandy loam; amorphous; h a r d ; few f i n e and few medium and c o a r s e r o o t s ; 20-40 cm. t h i c k , v e r y g r a v e l l y and c o b b l e y g l a c i a l t i l l ; h a r d ; v e r y few medium and c o a r s e r o o t s . Chernozemic Order. P i n u s p o n d e r o s a /  A r i s t i d a l o n g i s e t a Community LFH Ah Bm 0-2 cm. v e r y c o b b l e y sandy loam; weak b l o c k y ; v e r y few med-ium and c o a r s e , p l e n t i f u l f i n e r o o t s ; 11-20 cm. t h i c k , g r a v e l l y and c o b b l e y sandy loam; p l e n t i f u l medium and c o a r s e , few f i n e r o o t s ; 40-50 cm. t h i c k , c o b b l e y and g r a v e l l y sandy loam - loam; v e r y h a r d g l a c i a l t i l l . C hernozemic Order Pseudotsuga m e n z i e s i i /  P i n u s p o n d e r o s a /  A g r o p y r o n s p i c a t u m Community LFH 0-1 cm. Ah loamy sand - sandy loam; moderate g r a n u l a r ; h a r d ; p l e n t i f u l c o a r s e and medium, 103 T a b l e 24. C o n t i n u e d . Community H o r i z o n D e s c r i p t i o n v e r y few f i n e r o o t s ; 2-30 cm. t h i c k . C r o c k . R e g o s o l i c Order. 104 Table 25. Physical Properties of S o i l s i n Tranquille. Horizon Depth F i e l d Permanent Available °/= °/° % of Capacity Wilting. Moisture sand s i l t c la^ Sample (%) Percentage Capacity (%) Artemisia/Poa/Stipa Community A 10 34.8 20.0 14.8 68 19 13 B 30 32.2 17.1 15.1 64 24 12 B 50 18.5 13.3 5.2 56 34 10 B 90 - _* - 58 30 12 Pinus/Aqropyron Community A 10 32.4 20.2 12.2 74 16 10 B 30 27.2 15.5 11.8 76 10 14 B 50 27.0 15.8 11.2 66 22 12 C 80 - - - 66 18 16 Pinus/Aristida Community A 10 28.3 17.6 10.7 80 8 12 B 30 24.7 13.9 10.6 80 6 14 B 50 27.9 17.2 10.7 72 16 12 C 90 - - - 56 30 14 Pseudotsuqa/Pinus/ Aqropyron Community A 10 33.6 21.5 12.1 84 2 14 A 30 — - - 81 6 13 * no data a v a i l a b l e . Table ., 2.6.,,.Chemical Properties of S o i l s i n Tranquille. Horizon Depth % pH Ca Mg K Na Cation % of Organic (mEq/100 (mEq/100 (mEq/100 (mEq/100 Exchange Base Sample Matter gm) gm) gm) gm) Capacity Saturation Artemisia/Poa/Stipa Community A 10 3.8 7.3 5.1 27.2 3.9 .3 63.7 57 B 30 3.7 7.6 14.4 23.6 3.5 .5 53.0 79 B 50 4.6 7.8 5.4 25.6 3.8 .8 41.8 85 Pinus/Agropyron Community A 10 4.1 6.9 8.0 19.5 2.8 .1 54.6 56 B 30 2.4 7.1 10.1 18.5 2.6 .2 44.9 69 B 50 1.8 7.4 16.3 17.3 2.5 .3 48.1 77 Pinus/Aristida Community A 10 3.4 6.9 12.5 18.9 3.0 .2 46.2 75 B 30 2.2 7.3 21.0 21.6 3.2 .2 46.2 99 B 50 1.5 7.4 10.4 21.6 2.8 .2 56.2 62 Pseudotsuga/Pinus/ Agropyron Community A 10 3.3 7.4 8.9 18.5 5.8 .1 57.1 52 106 occurs on c o a r s e r t e x t u r e d more a l k a l i n e s o i l s . The v e r y shallow s o i l under the Pseudotsuga/Pinus/  Agropyron community i s a Regosol developed on rock. I t i s a coarse s o i l because o f t h e s t r u c t u r e , but has an o n l y s l i g h t l y lower base s a t u r a t i o n v a l u e , s i m i l a r amounts o f c a l c i u m and magnesium and more potassium. C o n c l u s i o n The s o i l s i n T r a n q u i l l e are developed from a more c a l c a r e o u s p a r e n t m a t e r i a l than those i n T r o u t Creek, as i s i n d i c a t e d by the much h i g h e r pH v a l u e s , base s a t u r a t i o n v a l u e s and amounts o f c a t i o n s . They are a l s o b e t t e r developed s o i l s . These d i f f e r e n c e s may p o s s i b l y be d e t e r -mining f a c t o r s i n t h e s p e c i e s and abundance d i f f e r e n c e s between the two r e s e r v e s d i s c u s s e d e a r l i e r . 107 SUMMARY The areas for t h i s study were two Ecological Reserves. Both reserves are i n the I n t e r i o r of B r i t i s h Columbia. The Trout Creek Reserve i s near Penticton and the Tranquille Reserve i s near Kamloops. Both reserves f a l l mainly into the Ponderosa Pine - Bunchgrass Biogeoclimatic Zone, Trout Creek being well inside the zone,, and Tranquille being at i t s northern edge. A b r i e f l i t e r a t u r e review i s presented on the Ponderosa Pine - Bunchgrass Zone, the adjacent I n t e r i o r Douglas F i r Zone, and the autecology of Ponderosa pine and Douglas f i r . Before sampling community types were subjectively determined on the basis of physiognomy and species dominance. Quadrats were placed within these community types. Tree and shrub layers were sampled using a 10 x 10 meter quadrat; herb and dwarf shrub, and cbrybphyte and l i c h e n layers were sampled using f i v e , l x l meter plots within the large quadrat. Tree diameters were measured. Percentage cover was estimated for species and for layers. S o i l p i t s were .excavated in.the communities, samples taken and p r o f i l e s b r i e f l y described. Quadrat data were examined subjectively and the i n i t i a l community breakdown modified or v e r i f i e d . A Bray-Curtis Ordination of plots was done on the data from each reserve. 108 S o i l s were analyzed for exchangeable calcium, magnesium, potassium and sodium, cation exchange capacity, base satura-t i o n , pH, percentage organic matter,, permanent w i l t i n g percent-age, f i e l d capacity, available moisture capacity, and texture. Four community types are defined i n Trout Creek. The most extensive community i s the Pinus ponderosa/Agropyron  spicatum community. This community i s an open, grassy parklike forest dominated by Pinus ponderosa i n the canopy layer and Agropyron spicatum i n the herb layer. The community has a very sparse.shrub layer composed primarily of•Chrysothamnus  nauseosus. Ch a r a c t e r i s t i c associate species are given. The S e l a g i n e l l a wallacei community occurs on small rock outcrops. This community has an abundance of the mat-forming S e l a g i n e l l a w a l lacei. and many of the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c associate species of the Pinus/Agropyron community are missing. This i s a primary successional community. On talus slopes i n the reserve i s the Pinus ponderosa/  Pseudotsuga menziesii/Amelanchier a l n i f o l i a community. Pinus and Pseudotsuga occur i n the tree, layer. The shrub layer i s more extensive than i n the Pinus/Agropyron community, and has more species, Amelanchier. a l n i f o l i a being the major one. The herb layer i s sparse i n t h i s community. ' In one very small, protected' area i s the Pinus ponderosa/  Pseudotsuga menziesii/Calamagrostis rubescens community. This community has a dense growth of young Pinus and Pseudotsuga 109 i n d i v i d u a l s . . The ground cover i s predominantly the grass Calamagrostis rubescens. The Bray-Curtis Ordination v e r i f i e s t h i s community break-down. There i s evidence that t h i s reserve should be c l a s s i f i e d wholly i n the Ponderosa Pine - Bunchgrass Zone. Four communities are also defined i n T r a n q u i l l e . On the f l a t v a l l e y bottom there occurs an e s s e n t i a l l y t r eeless Artemisia tridentata/Poa sandbergii/Stipa comata community. The r e l a t i v e l y extensive shrub layer i s dominated by Artemisia  t r i d e n t a t a arid Poa sandbergii and Stipa comata are codominants i n the herb layer. This community i s probably overgrazed. On the lower r o l l i n g slopes of the reserve i s found the Pinus ponderosa/Agropyron spicatum community. This community i s dominated by Pinus ponderosa i n the canopy and Agropyron  spicatum i n the herb layer. The shrub layer i s composed of Chrysothamnus, nauseosus and Artemisia t r i d e n t a t a . Interspersed i n the Pinus/Agropyron community i s the Pinus ponderosa/Aristida longiseta community i n which A r i s t i d a  longisetafcbecomes abundant i n the herb layer. There i s also a s l i g h t change i n associate species. Above about 760 meters, Pseudotsuga menziesii becomes dominant or codominant i n the canopy. In t h i s community, the Pseudotsuga menziesii/Pinus ponderosa/Agropyron spicatum 110 community, A g r o p y r o n s p i c a t u m i s s t i l l dominant i n t h e h e r b l a y e r b u t t h e i n d i v i d u a l bunches a r e s m a l l e r and more w i d e l y spaced. Many o f t h e a s s o c i a t e s p e c i e s o f t h e Pi'nus/Agropyron community a r e not p r e s e n t i n t h i s community. I n t h e B r a y - C u r t i s O r d i n a t i o n t h e P i n u s / A r i s t i d a community p l o t s do not s e p a r a t e w e l l from t h e P i n u s / A g r o p y r o n community p l o t s . O t h e r w i s e t h e o r d i n a t i o n s u p p o r t s t h e community breakdown. T h i s r e s e r v e s h o u l d be c l a s s i f i e d i n b o t h t h e Ponderosa P i n e - - Bunchgrass Zone and t h e I n t e r i o r Douglas F i r Zone. A comparison o f r e s e r v e s i s p r e s e n t e d . The s o i l s o f t h e T r o u t Creek r e s e r v e a r e i n t h e B r u n i s o l i c Order. The s o i l s o f t h e T r a n q u i l l e Reserve a r e i n t h e R e g o s o l i c and Chernozemic O r d e r s . I l l RECOMMENDATIONS Although both reserves f a l l i n the same biogeoclimatic zones, I f e e l they are d i f f e r e n t enough to warrant t h e i r retention as two d i s t i n c t Ecological Reserves. The Trout Creek Reserve was meant to represent the t y p i c a l I n t e r i o r vegetation and Tranquille was meant to represent a zone at i t s northern l i m i t s (Krajina et a l . 1974). Each reserve has a community dominated by Pinus  ponderosa and Acrropvron spicatum. However, as was pointed out e a r l i e r these communities do not have an i d e n t i c a l species composition. Relative abundances of the species that are shared by the two communities d i f f e r also. Each reserve has, i n addition, three other communities not present i n the other reserve. Another relevant difference between the two reserves which has not been discussed to t h i s point i s the r e l a t i v e amount of human disturbance. The Trout Creek Reserve i s very near human habitation. I t i s very accessible, being within easy walking distance of houses and orchards. Also there are roads traversing the reserve (Figure 4). I t i s being used extensively for recreational purposes, as the many motor vehicle tracks and t r a i l s , empty bo t t l e s and shotgun s h e l l s i n d i c a t e . 112 Even between 1974 and 1975 there was a noticeable increase i n evidence of human disturbance of the area. I t i s my f e e l i n g that the reserve i s i n grave danger of being destroyed. I recommend that t h i s area be at lea s t well signed and fenced very soon. Even t h i s might not have the desired e f f e c t , as there already i s an obviously ignored fence several hundred meters from the eastern edge of the reserve. Regulation and enforcement might be necessary. Tranquille i s i n no such danger. The reserve i t s e l f i s not e a s i l y accessible and the nearest habitation i s not a t o u r i s t town l i k e Summerland, but a spec i a l school for the mentally retarded. The major part of the reserve i s much steeper and therefore less accessible than Trout Creek, and there i s no road running through i t . Aside from the area .immediately beside the road that forms one side of the reserve (Figure 10), there i s v i r t u a l l y no evidence of recent human disturbance i n the reserve. Therefore I recommend that t h i s reserve be lower p r i o r i t y for fencing. 113 LITERATURE CITED Annual Meteorological Summary for Kamloops, B r i t i s h Columbia. 1974. Atmospheric Environment Service Department of the Environment. Government of B r i t i s h Columbia. B e i l , C. E. 1974. Forest associations of the southern Cariboo zone, B r i t i s h Columbia. Syesis J7: 201-233. Bray, J . R. and Curtis, J . T. 1957. An ordination of the upland forest communities of southern Wisconsin. Ecological Monographs 27.: 325-49. Brayshaw, T. C. 1955. An ecological c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of the ponderosa pine stands i n the southwestern i n t e r i o r of B r i t i s h Columbia. PhD. Thesis, University of B r i t i s h Columbia. Brayshaw, T. C. 1965. The dry forest of southern B r i t i s h Columbia. Ecology of Western North America. .1: 65-75. Brayshaw, T. C. 1970. The dry forests of southern B r i t i s h Columbia. Syesis 3_z 17-43. Brink, V. C. and Farstad, L. 1949. The physiography of the a g r i c u l t u r a l areas of B r i t i s h Columbia. S c i e n t i f i c Agriculture. 29: 273-301. Chapman, F. M. 1974. Weather observations for 1974: Summaries and averages for 59 years of continuous recording. Agriculture Canada Research Station, Summerland, B r i t i s h Columbia. Cochran, P. H. and Berntsen, C. M. 1973. Tolerance of lodge-pole and ponderosa pine seedlings to low night temperatures. Forest Science 19.(4) : 272-280. Cooper, C. F. 1960. Changes i n vegetation, structure and growth of southwestern pine forests since white settlement. Ecological Monographs .30: 129-164. Cooper, C. F. 1961. Pattern i n ponderosa pine forests. Ecology 42: 493-499. Daubenmire, R. 1968. Plant Communities. A textbook of Plant Synecology. Harper and Row Publishers, New York. 1.14 Daubenmire, R. 1970. Steppe v e g e t a t i o n o f Washington. Washington A g r i c u l t u r a l E x p e r i m e n t a l S t a t i o n , T e c h n i c a l B u l l e t i n . 62 131p. Daubenmire, R. F. and Daubenmire, J . B. 1968. F o r e s t v e g e t a t i o n o f e a s t e r n Washington and n o r t h e r n Idaho. Washington A g r i c u l t u r a l E x p e r i m e n t a l S t a t i o n , T e c h n i c a l B u l l e t i n . 60 104p. F r a n k l i n , J . F. and Dyrness, C. T. 1973. N a t u r a l v e g e t a t i o n o f Oregon and Washington. U n i t e d S t a t e s Department o f A g r i c u l t u r e F o r e s t S e r v i c e . G e n e r a l T e c h n i c a l R e p o r t . PNW-8 417pp. Gauch, H. G., J r . 1973. A q u a n t i t a t i v e e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e B r a y - C u r t i s t e c h n i q u e s . E c o l o g y 53.: 868-875. H a l v o r s o n , W. L. 1972. E n v i r o n m e n t a l i n f l u e n c e on t h e p a t t e r n o f p l a n t communities a l o n g t h e n o r t h r i m o f Grand Canyon. American M i d l a n d N a t u r a l i s t . 87.: 222-235. H a r r i s , E. A. and L a v k u l i c h , L. M. 1972. A n a l y t i c a l Methods used i n Pedology L a b o r a t o r y . Department o f S o i l S c i e n c e , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . H i t c h c o c k , L. C., C r o n q u i s t , A., Ownbey, M. and Thompson, J . W. 1969. V a s c u l a r P l a n t s o f t h e P a c i f i c N o r t h w e s t . U n i v e r s i t y o f Washington P r e s s . S e a t t l e . 5 volumes. H o l l a n d , S . S . 1964. Landforms o f B r i t i s h C o lumbia: A P h y s i o g r a p h i c O u t l i n e . B r i t i s h Columbia Department o f Mines and P e t r o l e u m R e s o u r c e s . B u l l e t i n No. 48. 138pp. K r a j i n a , V. J . 1965. B i o g e o c l i m a t i c zones and b i o g e o c o e n o s e s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . E c o l o g y o f Western N o r t h A m e r i c a . 1: 1-17. K r a j i n a , V. J . 1969. E c o l o g y o f f o r e s t t r e e s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . E c o l o g y o f Western N o r t h A m e r i c a . 2/(1:).:. K r a j i n a , V. J . , L a r k i n , P. A., F o s t e r , J . B. and Pearson, D. F. 1974. E c o l o g i c a l Reserves i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . Canadian committee f o r t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l B i o l o g i c a l Programme, c o n s e r v a t i o n o f T e r r e s t r i a l communities subcommittee. Region 1. B r i t i s h C o lumbia, Vancouver, Canada. 185pp. 115 Larson, M. M. and Schubert, G. H. 1969. Root competition between ponderosa pine seedlings and grass. United States Forest Service Research Paper. R.M. 54.: 1-12. Lawton, E. 1971. Moss Flora of the Pacific Northwest. The Ha.ttori Botanical Laboratory, Japan. McLean, A. 1970. Plant communities of the Similkameen Valley, Br i t i sh Columbia and their relationships to so i l s . Ecological Monographs 4_0: 403-424. McLean, A. and Tisdale, E. W. 1972. Recovery rate of depleted range sites under protection from grazing. Journal of Range Management. 25.(3): 178-184. Merkle, J . 1962. Plant communities of the Grand Canyon area, Arizona. Ecology 43.: 698-711. Shimwell, D. W. 1971. The Description and Class i f icat ion of Vegetation. University of Washington Press, Seattle. Spilsbury, R. H. and Tisdale, E. W. 1944. Soil-plant relationships and vert ica l zonation in the southern interior of Br i t i sh Columbia. Scient i f ic Agriculture 24: 395-436. Thilenius, J . F. 1972. Class i f icat ion of deer habitat in the ponderosa pine forest of the Black H i l l s , South Dakota. United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service Research Paper. R.M. 91 28pp. Tisdale, E. W. 1947. The grasslands of the southern inter ior of Br i t i sh Columbia. Ecology 28.: 346-382. Tisdale, E. W., and McLean, A. 1957. The Douglas f i r zone of southern Br i t i sh Columbia. Ecological Monographs 27: 247-266. Weaver, H. 1959. Ecological changes in the ponderosa pine forest of the Warm Springs Indian Reservation in Oregon. Journal of Forestry 57.: 15-20 Weaver, H. 1961. Ecological changes in the ponderosa pine forest of Cedar Valley in southern Washington. Ecology 42: 416-420. Whittaker, R. H. and Niering, W. A. 1965. Vegetation of the Santa Catalina Mountains, Arizona: A gradient analysis of the south slope. Ecology 46: 429-452. 

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