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Evaluation of participant satisfaction with the policy committee portion of the Greater Vancouver Regional… Tweddell, Gordon Ralph 1974

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C I AN EVALUATION OF PARTICIPANT SATISFACTION WITH THE POLICY COMMITTEE PORTION OF THE GREATER VANCOUVER REGIONAL DISTRICT LIVABLE REGION PLAN PROGRAM by GORDON RALPH TWEDDELL B . S c , U n i v e r s i t y of Saskatchewan, 1970 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n the School of Community and Regi o n a l Planning We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming t o the r e q u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l , 1974 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make i t freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of Community and Regional Planning The University of British Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada Date, April 23, 1974 ABSTRACT P u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the pl a n n i n g process has become a common f e a t u r e of many p l a n n i n g programs and numerous c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n s t r a t e g i e s have been attempted t o achieve the v a r i e t y of b e n e f i t s t h a t r e s u l t from c i t i z e n i nput t o p l a n n i n g . I t i s the author's c o n t e n t i o n t h a t , apart from being of b e n e f i t t o the p l a n making process d i r e c t l y , a s u c c e s s f u l c i t i z e n p a r t i c i -p a t i o n methodology should be a s a t i s f y i n g experience f o r the p a r t i c i p a n t s so t h a t t h e i r involvement i n f u t u r e programs i s assured. T h i s study t e s t s p a r t i c i p a n t s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h the c i t i z e n P o l i c y Committee p o r t i o n of the GVRD L i v a b l e Region Program and suggests means of improving p a r t i c i p a n t s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h s i m i l a r programs. The study begins, Chapter One, by reviewing the theory of t r a n s a c t i v e p l a n n i n g and n o t i n g i t s c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a n t s a t i s f y i n g a s p e c t s . Chapter Two d e t a i l s the development of the GVRD pl a n n i n g f u n c t i o n , w i t h s p e c i a l emphasis on the L i v a b l e Region Program and i t s p r e c u r s o r s , demonstrates the s i m i l a r i t y between the t r a n s -a c t i v e p l a n n i n g s t y l e and GVRD p l a n n i n g p r a c t i s e , and from a review of the c i t i z e n P o l i c y Committee minutes and r e p o r t s suggests q u e s t i o n s f o r the t e s t i n g of p a r t i c i p a n t s a t i s f a c t i o n . Chapter Three summarizes the form and content of the r e s u l t i n g q u e s t i o n n a i r e and d e s c r i b e s the manner i n which i t was adminis-t e r e d to a sample of P o l i c y Committee members. The completed and r e t u r n e d q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were t r a n s f e r r e d t o computer cards and analyzed by means of computer generated c r o s s t a b u l a t i o n s of q u e s t i o n n a i r e responses by p a r t i c i p a n t Committee a f f i l i a t i o n and i n c e r t a i n i n s t a n c e s by other p a r t i c i -pant c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . The r e s u l t s , Chapter Four, i n d i c a t e p a r t i c i p a n t d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n i n v i r t u a l l y a l l the major q u e s t i o n c a t e g o r i e s ; t h e o r e t i c a l p a r t i c i p a n t s a t i s f y i n g c r i t e r i a , Committee r o l e and f u n c t i o n , r e p r e s e n t a t i v e n e s s , communications, p r o f e s -s i o n a l a i d to the Committees, and Committee dynamics. The o n l y area of g e n e r a l p a r t i c i p a n t s a t i s f a c t i o n was w i t h a d m i n i s t r a t i v e and s e c r e t a r i a l s e r v i c e s t o the Committees. The author has concluded, Chapter F i v e , t h a t although p a r t i c i p a n t d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n s are complexly r e l a t e d , w i t h each p a r t i c u l a r d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n i n f l u e n c i n g and b e i n g i n f l u e n c e d by numerous other d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n s , the b a s i c cause of these d i f -f i c u l t i e s was t h a t the GVRD attempted too much i n too s h o r t a p e r i o d of time. The author recommends t h a t p l a n n i n g agencies d e v i s i n g p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n programs -1. ensure t h a t the agency s t a f f and the p o l i t i c i a n s are committed t o the i d e a l s of c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a -t i o n i n p l a n n i n g so t h a t program problems which may a r i s e w i l l be d e a l t with i n a p o s i t i v e manner; 2. c a u t i o u s l y assess the agency's re s o u r c e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y s t a f f and i n f o r m a t i o n s e r v i c e s , and the p o l i t i c i a n s 1 time so t h a t the p a r t i c i p a t i o n remains ^ manageable'; ; 3. i n c o r p o r a t e f l e x i b i l i t y i n t o the c i t i z e n i n v o l v e -ment s t r a t e g y so t h a t the program can be tuned to the agency's needs and the community's d e s i r e f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n . i v . TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT i i CHAPTER I: THE TRANSACTIVE PLANNING STYLE 1 I. T r a d i t i o n a l Planning Theory 2 I I . The S o c i e t a l Context of Planning 6 I I I . T r a n s a c t i v e Planning 9 IV. Aspects of the .Transactive Planning S t y l e t h a t are C r u c i a l t o the F u n c t i o n i n g of a P a r t i c i p a n t S a t i s f y i n g C i t i z e n Involvement Program 12 CHAPTER I I : THE EVOLUTION OF THE GVRD PLANNING FUNCTION ... 15 I. I n t r o d u c t i o n 16 I I . 1969 - 1970 17 I I I . 1971 25 IV. 1972 32 V. 11933 40 V I . Observations on GVRD Planning P r a c t i c e as an Example of the T r a n s a c t i v e Planning S t y l e 55 V I I . GVRD Planning and the C i t i z e n P a r t i c i p a t i o n Aspects of the T r a n s a c t i v e Planning S t y l e Compared ... 57 CHAPTER I I I : METHODOLOGY 66 I. Purpose of the Study 67 I I . Scope of the Study 67 I I I . The "Survey Q u e s t i o n n a i r e 68 V . Page CHAPTER IV: ANALYSIS 75 I. I n t r o d u c t i o n 76 I I . Q u e s t i o n n a i r e Respondent C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s 76 I I I . A p p l i c a b i l i t y of T r a n s a c t i v e Planning Theory 82 IV. P a r t i c i p a n t S a t i s f a c t i o n with Elements of the Committee Process 88 CHAPTER V: SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, RECOMMENDATIONS 107 I. Summary of Q u e s t i o n n a i r e A n a l y s i s 108 I I . C o n c l u s i o n s 113 I I I . Recommendations 117 BIBLIOGRAPHY 120 APPENDIX I: QUESTIONNAIRE CODING, FORMAT, AND DATA LISTING 122 APPENDIX I I : RESPONDENT COMMENTS 139 v i . LIST OF TABLES Page TABLE I: A TYPOLOGY OF ALLOCATIVE PLANNING STYLES 7 TABLE I I : POLICY COMMITTEE REPORTS - CONTENTS 48 TABLE I I I : QUESTIONNAIRE RESPONSE 77 TABLE IV: TYPES OF PARTICIPANTS 79 TABLE V: NUMBER OF MEETINGS ATTENDED BY THE SURVEY RESPONDENTS 80 TABLE V I : OVERALL RESPONDENT SATISFACTION 82 TABLE V I I : TRANSACTIVE PLANNING STYLE CRITERIA 84 TABLE V I I I : COMMITTEE ROLE AND FUNCTION 89 TABLE IX: REPRESENTATIVENESS 94 TABLE X: OVER AND UNDER REPRESENTATION BY TYPE OF PARTICIPANT 95 TABLE XI: COMMUNICATIONS 98 TABLE X I I : ADMINISTRATIVE, SECRETARIAL, AND PROFESSIONAL AID TO THE COMMITTEES 100 TABLE X I I I : COMMITTEE DYNAMICS 103 1. CHAPTER I THE TRANSACTIVE PLANNING STYLE 2. I. T r a d i t i o n a l Planning Theory In reviewing the h i s t o r y of planning as an organized a c t i v i t y , Friedmann encountered seven modes of thought that distinguished planners: s c i e n t i f i c o b j e c t i v i t y , analysis, synthesis, projec-t i o n , experiment, Utopian constructs and aesthetic v i s i o n . Many contemporary planning commentators however, agreeathat planning i s non objective, n o n s c i e n t i f i c , non Utopian, and lacking i n a future orientation. The need for a planning s t y l e more attuned to the demands of our complex society i s best i l l u s t r a t e d by one of the numerous paradoxes of planning practice: when planning i s not needed, as during times of s t a b i l i t y , i t i s most capable of being r a t i o n a l and future oriented; but i n times of c r i s i s , when ra t i o n a l and comprehensive thought i s required, i t s scope of possible a c t i v i t y and effectiveness i s constrained. (1) If t h i s i s true, why then has t r a d i t i o n a l planning theory f a i l e d ? To answer t h i s question i t i s necessary to review the forms and styles of current planning to determine where they are innappropriate to the current planning environment. Planning "form" refers to the ways i n which s c i e n t i f i c and technical know-ledge are related to organized actions for the purpose of either maintaining systems balances - " a l l o c a t i v e planning"; or inducing systems performance changes - "innovative planning." Planning "s t y l e " refers to the ways i n which planning i s influenced by constraints and methods of control available to i t , and adapts to the s o c i a l and i n s t i t u t i o n a l environment. 3. A. Planning Form Planning i n c l u d e s both the maintenance and change of s o c i a l systems; perhaps understandably then, two forms of p l a n n i n g have ev o l v e d . Systems maintenance, or a l l o c a t i v e p l a n n i n g , i s prima-r i l y concerned w i t h the d i s t r i b u t i o n of l i m i t e d r esources among competing users - the c i t y master p l a n f o r example, a l l o c a t e s l i m i t e d urban space and s e r v i c e s . A l l o c a t i v e p l a n n i n g i s charac-t e r i z e d by the f o l l o w i n g : 1. Comprehensiveness - w i t h r e s p e c t t o : a) a s i n g l e set of comprehensive system wide o b j e c -t i v e s based on the i d e a of one p u b l i c i n t e r e s t f o r the e n t i r e community. Since such o b j e c t i v e s are r a r e l y s t a t e d p o l i t i c a l l y , the planner i m p l i c i t l y d e f i n e s these o b j e c t i v e s i n p a r t i n such a way so as t o g a i n support from those who have the g r e a t e s t p o t e n t i a l e f f e c t on h i s subsequent a c t i v i t i e s . b) c r i t e r i a f o r the e v a l u a t i o n of major a l t e r n a t i v e uses f o r the a v a i l a b l e r e s o u r c e s . In e v a l u a t i n g major resource a l l o c a t i o n s s t r e s s i s p l a c e d on s h o r t run r a t h e r than long run b e n e f i t s thereby negating any Utopian v i s i o n s . c) a knowledge of the f u t u r e . In, order t o j u s t i f y the long-term a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s of resource a l l o c a t i o n s the planner o f t e n claims a s p e c i a l t r a i n e d a b i l i t y t o p r e d i c t the f u t u r e ; however, as experience has shown, the f u t u r e most o f t e n remains unknown. 2. The need f o r systems wide b a l a n c e s . Since systems r e q u i r e balance f o r maintenance, a l l o c a t i v e p lanners are r e l u c t a n t t o c o n s i d e r '-'risky" i n n o v a t i v e a c t i o n s i d e n t i f y p r i o r i t i e s t h a t might d e t r a c t from the " o v e r a l l view", and are prone t o suggest numerous p o l i c y i n t e r v e n t i o n s so as t o maintain o v e r a l l balance i n t h e i r p l a n n i n g . 3. Q u a n t i t a t i v e d e s c r i p t i o n of a l l v a r i a b l e s and systems balances f o r the purpose of systems maintenance r a t h e r than t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s . 4. A m o r a l l y n e u t r a l stance. Even though a l l o c a t i o n of resources i n v o l v e s judgement based on an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the p u b l i c i n t e r e s t s , the a l l o c a t i v e planner has tended to assume he i s v a l u e f r e e and working on the b a s i s of the i m p l i c i t norms of s o c i e t y . Friedmann s t a t e s the f o l l o w i n g : C e n t r a l a l l o c a t i v e p l a n n i n g , we may conclude, has not l i v e d up t o i t s i n i t i a l promises. The d e s i r e t o be comprehensive has produced the i l l u s i o n of an omnipotent i n t e l l i g e n c e ; the method of system wide balances has l e d t o an overemphasis on s t a b i l i t y ; q u a n t i t a t i v e model-i n g has encouraged the n e g l e c t of the a c t u a l c o n d i t i o n s governing p o l i c y and program imple-mentation; and the c l a i m t o f u n c t i o n a l r a t i o n -a l i t y has made planners i n s e n s i t i v e t o the v a l u e i m p l i c a t i o n s of t h e i r work. (2) Innovative p l a n n i n g as mentioned e a r l i e r i s p r i m a r i l y con-rned w i t h producing i n s t i t u t i o n a l or systems changes f o r the 5 . purpose of improving the output of the p a r t i c u l a r system b e i n g planned. Innovative p l a n n i n g i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by the f o l l o w i n g : 1. A predominant concern w i t h i n s t i t u t i o n a l change. Inn o v a t i v e p l a n n i n g makes no pretense of being compre-he n s i v e r a t h e r i t attempts t o improve systems performance, 2 . An a c t i o n o r i e n t a t i o n . S i n c e the major concern i s w i t h change, o b j e c t i v e s and means to o b j e c t i v e s o f t e n become i n d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e as each adapts t o the changing e n v i r o n -ment w i t h i n which a c t i o n must occur. 3 . M o b i l i z i n g of r e s o u r c e s . To achieve change, i n n o v a t i v e planners must org a n i z e and o r c h e s t r a t e i n s t i t u t i o n a l r e sources towards the d e s i r e d p o i n t of i n t e r v e n t i o n and change. T h i s i s i n sharp c o n t r a s t t o a l l o c a t i v e planners who merely d i s t r i b u t e r e s o u r c e s t o competing u s e r s . At l e a s t two paradoxes are apparent from the above d i s c u s -s i o n - of p l a n n i n g form. 1. Where a l l o c a t i v e p l a n n i n g i s most f e a s i b l e , t h a t i s , where c e n t r a l c o n t r o l e x i s t s , i t i s unnecessary s i n c e systems balances w i l l have been achieved; and where balance and hence a l l o c a t i v e p l a n n i n g are needed, i t i s u n f e a s i b l e because the p l a n n i n g environment necessary f o r i t t o operate w i l l not e x i s t . 2 . Innovative p l a n n i n g , w i t h i t s a c t i o n o r i e n t a t i o n cannot produce systems balance without an a l l o c a t i v e p l a n n i n g f u n c t i o n t o m a i n t a i n i n n o v a t i v e s t r u c t u r a l changes. 6 . B. Planning S t y l e As s t a t e d e a r l i e r , p l a n n i n g s t y l e i s determined by the amount of power a v a i l a b l e and u t i l i z e d by the p l a n n i n g a u t h o r i t y . Friedmann i d e n t i f i e s the typo l o g y o f a l l o c a t i v e p l a n n i n g s t y l e s i n Table I . The g e n e r a l t r e n d i n p l a n n i n g s t y l e has been t o move away from s t r o n g l y c e n t r a l i z e d p l a n n i n g t o more d i s p e r s e d p l a n n i n g ; w i t h t h i s t r e n d , the i n t e r p e r s o n a l element i n p l a n n i n g a l s o i n c r e a s e s . I I . The S o c i e t a l Context of Planning Important t o the r e s o l u t i o n of the presen t inadequacies w i t h t r a d i t i o n a l p l a n n i n g theory i s an understanding of the s o c i e t a l context w i t h i n which p l a n n i n g must f u l f i l l i t s promise. A. Yesterday and Today - the Changing Requirements of Planning Yesterday's North American s o c i e t y , i n which p l a n n i n g emerged as a formal and a c c e p t a b l e f u n c t i o n of government, was c h a r a c t e r i z e d by s c a r c i t y of r e s o u r c e s ; g e n e r a l l y common s o c i a l a s p i r a t i o n s ; and contentment, or apathy, w i t h p o l i t i c a l and b u r e a u c r a t i c l e a d e r s h i p . Perhaps then i t was p o s s i b l e f o r p l a n -ners to r e c o g n i z e the p u b l i c ' s i n t e r e s t and t h e r e f o r e p l a n t o meet i m p l i c i t l y agreed upon ends. In c o n t r a s t however, today's s o c i e t y i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by emerging non u t i l i t a r i a n v a l u e s , r i s i n g c u l t u r a l p l u r a l i s m and i n c r e a s i n g demands f o r c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n d e c i s i o n making. The planner's former methods TABLE I A TYPOLOGY OF ALLOCATIVE PLANNING STYLES (3) D i s t r i b u t i o n S t r o n g l y Weakly of Power C e n t r a l i z e d C e n t r a l i z e d Fragmented D i s p e r s e d Method of Implementa-t i o n Compulsory Targets Mixed F i e l d C o n t r o l s - g e n e r a l r u l e s - inducements - i n f o r m a t i o n B a r g a i n i n g (few n e g o t i a -t o r s : c o r p o r a t e s t r u c t u r e ) P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n d e c i s i o n processes (many p a r t i c i -pants: commu-n i t y s t r u c t u r e ) Predominant Forms of C o n t r o l Sanctions R e s t r u c t u r i n g of the D e c i s i o n Environment Normative Compliance V o l u n t a r y Compliance Predominant O r i e n t a t i o n Toward Plans P o l i c i e s Processes Processes C h a r a c t e r i s t i c Role of T e c h n i c a l Experts B u r e a u c r a t i c S p e c i a l i s t A d v i s o r N e g o t i a t o r and Broker O r g a n i z e r and Advocate S t y l e of Command P o l i c i e s Corporate P a r t i c i p a n t A l l o c a t i v e Planning Planning Planning P l a n n i n g Planning 8. ( l e a s t c o s t p r i c i n g of a l t e r n a t e p l a n s , assumed p u b l i c g o a l s , and f a i t h i n the supremacy of p r o f e s s i o n a l knowledge) are no longer v a l i d . T r a d i t i o n a l p l a n n i n g theory and p r a c t i c e are a l s o l o s i n g r e l e v a n c e because of the growing s c a l e and complexity of s o c i o -t e c h n i c a l systems, the a c c e l e r a t i n g r a t e of change, and the i n c r e a s e i n p r o f e s s i o n a l t h e o r e t i c a l knowledge t h a t i s d i v o r c e d from the r e a l i t y of the c l i e n t ' s l i f e e x p e r i e n c e . B. Lessons f o r P lanning Friedmann maintains t h a t the l e s s o n s t o be l e a r n e d from changing s o c i a l v a l u e s are to: 1. r e g a r d the f u t u r e as open to c h o i c e and experiment. 2 . c o n s i d e r the i n d i v i d u a l as the source of moral v a l u e s and the purpose of a c t i o n . 3 . improve and adopt new p a r t i c i p a n t forms of s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n , and accept each p e r s p e c t i v i s t view as a v a l i d f o u n d a t i o n f o r p l a n n i n g , and 4. d e c e n t r a l i z e power and reduce the i n f l u e n c e of bureaucracy, thereby i n c r e a s i n g the scope f o r group a c t i o n and p e r m i t t i n g the emergence of s t r u c t u r e s t h a t i n c r e a s e c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n p l a n n i n g . (4) Because of i n c r e a s i n g s o c i o - t e c h n i c a l systems complexity, a c c e l e r a t i n g r a t e s of change, and the q u e s t i o n a b l e r e l e v a n c e of r e c e n t theory, p l a n n i n g i n our p o s t - i n d u i s t r i a l s o c i e t y should a l s o emphasize: 1. continuous d i a l o g u e between planners and the p u b l i c and mutual l e a r n i n g . 9. 2. the relevance of i n d i v i d u a l and small group i n t e r e s t s . 3. information feedback so as to constantly re-evaluate the appropriateness of previous a c t i v i t i e s . 4 . the near future which can be predicted with great assurance rather than the distant future which cannot be adequately forseen, and 5. the l i m i t s of knowledge so as not to plan i n any greater d e t a i l than our knowledge of the probable consequences w i l l allow. (5) Friedmann states, "The above points suggest a guidance sys-tem i n which innovative planning - with i t s emphasis on i n s t i t u -t i o n a l development, involvement i n actions, the mobilization of resources, and a s e l e c t i v e focus - w i l l be applied at the key points of intervention for the construction of a new society ... While a l l o c a t i v e planning designed for systems maintenance / w i l l l i n k various styles of planning - participant, corporate p o l i c i e s , etc^/. The pervasive s t y l e w i l l be transactive." (6) I I I . Transactive Planning A. Philosophy Friedmann defines transactive planning as: "a s t y l e applif-cable to both a l l o c a t i v e and innovative planning i n which pro-cesses of mutual learning are c l o s e l y integrated with an organized capacity and willingness to act." (7) E s s e n t i a l to the success of a transactive s t y l e of planning i s a continuing series of personal and primarily verbal transactions between planner and c l i e n t . 10. During t h i s exchange the planner transfers h i s professional and th e o r e t i c a l knowledge to the c l i e n t ; and the c l i e n t imparts to the planner h i s personal experience. Such a dialogue requires that both planner and c l i e n t accept each other as individuals with worthwhile but d i f f e r i n g viewpoints that can only be f u l l y under-stood and resolved over a period of time. Friedmann also states that t h i s dialogue presumes a r e l a t i o n of shared interests and commitments and, of r e c i p r o c i t y and mutual o b l i c a t i o n i n which c o n f l i c t i s accepted. Through th i s process of dialogue and mutual learning, a common image of the problem s i t u a t i o n , and a new understanding of the p o s s i b i l i t i e s for change evolves. With such a base of know-ledge and cooperation, relevant action w i l l l i k e l y succeed. As mentioned e a r l i e r , planning s t y l e i s determined by the amount of power available and u t i l i z e d by the planning agency. In Friedmann's typology, planning styles range from strongly cen t r a l i z e d command planning to widely decentralized participant planning. Several planning agencies with d i f f e r i n g styles t y p i c a l l y e x i s t at the same time i n r e l a t i o n to the same urban subsystem. For example, the low income urban housing system i s affected by strongly centralized "command planning" agencies such as Central Mortgage and Housing Corporation, corporate planning agencies such as builders and developers, p o l i c y planning organi-zations such as many c i t y planning departments and part i c i p a n t planning groups such as c i t i z e n i n t e r e s t organizations. B. Required Structural Conditions If society i s to deal with the above c o n f l i c t i n g planning styles and to stem the increase i n ignorance r e s u l t i n g from a lack of communication between planner and c l i e n t , the s t r u c t u r a l conditions necessary for the e f f e c t i v e operation of transactive planning must e x i s t . Friedmann proposes a c e l l u l a r structure of task oriented work groups. Such working groups would be small scale; i n t e r -personal; self-guiding and responsible; with a s e l f appointed and/or representative i n c l u s i v e and cross t i e d membership. The important c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of a c e l l u l a r structure are that i t permits a c l u s t e r i n g of c e l l s into networks where the d i r e c t i o n and i n t e n s i t y of communications can vary according to the nature of the working group 1s tasks. The c e l l u l a r structure also permits individuals to be added to c e l l s and additional c e l l s to be added to networks without disrupting the work of e x i s t i n g groups. C e l l tasks and p r i o r i t i e s could be defined and c o n f l i c t s resolved, information exchanged, and new c e l l s formed by an assembly of working group representatives. Also, at the assembly l e v e l professional knowledge beyond the competence of c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a n t s could be added to work group deliberations. Cl e a r l y , a c e l l u l a r structure i s very receptive to p a r t i c i -pant planning. The openness of the c e l l u l a r structure to new ind i v i d u a l s and i n t e r e s t groups renders them hospitable to minor-i t y interests and l i f e s t y l e s , and exhaustive of the p o s s i b i l i t y 1 2 . of i n d i v i d u a l knowledge. The increase i n knowledge r e s u l t i n g from a successful trans-active approach requires a large number of participants to adequately u t i l i z e the available information. Here l i e s both the hope for a new society and possibly the most c r u c i a l hurdle for the planning process; for i f the energy of a cooperative p a r t i c i -patory society can be joined to the power of modern technology then the benefits of s o c i e t a l order might be maintained even under conditions of great stress. IV. Aspects of the Transactive Planning Style that are Cr u c i a l  to the Functioning of a Participant S a t i s f y i n g C i t i z e n  Involvement Program As stated i n the introduction to t h i s paper, the author w i l l h i g h l i g h t participant s a t i s f y i n g aspects of the transactive plan-ning s t y l e for l a t e r comparison with the GVRD Planning Depart-ment's philosophy and the Livable Region Projects - Policy Plan-ning Committee methodology. Therefore, the following points, extracted from Friedmann's planning theory, w i l l be compared to GVRD planning philosophy and a c t i v i t i e s . Philosophy and Process: According to Friedmann's theory, the transactive planning s t y l e embraces the idea of mutual learn-ing; whereby the ind i v i d u a l acquires a sense of competence i n h i s role as part of the planning process and becomes aware of his r e l a t i o n s h i p to the larger enterprise; through a process of dialogue wherein c o n f l i c t and the p a r t i c u l a r interests and commit-ments of participants are accepted and a common image of the 13. problem r e s u l t s . Such a p h i l o s o p h y i m p l i e s a d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n of power, through the development of new p a r t i c i p a n t forms of s o c i e t a l o r g a n i z a t i o n , w h i l e m a i n t a i n i n g a c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h p o l i t i -c i a n s and p l a n n e r s . S t r u c t u r e : Friedmann proposes the f o l l o w i n g s t r u c t u r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s : — 1. a c e l l u l a r s t r u c t u r e of p a r t i c i p a n t d i r e c t e d work groups which are: a) temporary b) s m a l l s c a l e c) i n t e r p e r s o n a l d) s e l f - a p p o i n t e d and/or r e p r e s e n t a t i v e membership e) s e l f - g u i d i n g f) r e s p o n s i b l e 2. The o p p o r t u n i t y should e x i s t f o r d i v e r s e d i r e c t i o n s and i n t e n s i t i e s of communication, and 3. An assembly of working group r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s or some other i n t e g r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e i s r e q u i r e d f o r d e f i n i n g c e l l t a s k s , p r i o r i t i e s and a r b i t r a t i n g competing demands. 4. F i n a l l y , a t e c h n i c a l s e c r e t a r i a t i s r e q u i r e d t o p a r t i c i -pate i n work group d e l i b e r a t i o n s and p r o v i d e v a r i o u s s e r v i c e s t o i n d i v i d u a l c e l l s . 14. FOOTNOTES - CHAPTER I 1. Friedmann, John. Retracking America - A Theory of Transactive Planning, Anchor Press, 1973, p.65. 2. Ibid, p.59. 3. Ibid, p.71. 4. Ibid, p.112. 5. Ibid, p.113. 6. IlDbid, p. 113. 7. Ibid, p.247. -8. Ibid, pp.196, 197. 15. CHAPTER I I THE EVOLUTION OF THE GVRD PLANNING FUNCTION 16. I. Introduction This section of the paper, which w i l l trace the development of the GVRD planning function both i n respect to philosophy and practice, has borrowed heavily from Toward a New Style of Urban  Planning, an unpublished draft Ph.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n by Kent Gerecke. Footnoted sections indicate where the author found i t desirable to either refere to the o r i g i n a l sources c i t e d i n Gerecke's manu-s c r i p t or seek additional information. The Regional D i s t r i c t of Fraser-Burrard, l a t e r renamed the GVRD* was created i n 1967. Regional planning was added as a D i s t r i c t function i n 1969. Up u n t i l the creation of the GVRD Planning Department, regional planning for the Greater Vancouver area was the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the Lower Mainland Regional Planning Board (LMRPB). The transfer of the regional planning function to the GVRD, was the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of a three man committee created by the * The GVRD i s the metropolitan government for the greater Vancouver Area. Each of the Region's fourteen member munici-p a l i t i e s and three unincorporated areas i s represented by a l o c a l l y appointed member to the Regional Board; the p o l i t i c a l body which d i r e c t s the D i s t r i c t ' s a c t i v i t i e s . Two committees w i l l be mentioned throughout t h i s paper; the Planning Committee of the Regional Board and the Technical Planning Committee. The Planning Committee of the Regional Board i s a p o l i t i c a l committee of nine members who guide the planning function for the Board. The Technical Planning Committee advises the Board and also serves a l i a i s o n function since i t i s composed of the Planning Directors of the D i s t r i c t ' s member municipalities and areas, representatives from some Prov i n c i a l departments, and representatives from some l o c a l public and private agencies. 17. D i s t r i c t ' s Board. The strongest c r i t e r i a , i n the creation of the new department, was that the new Director and the Department were to be advisory to the p o l i t i c i a n s , who were to be the D i s t r i c t spokesmen. This was a d i r e c t repudiation of the LMRPB's crusad-ing planner s t y l e . Although t h i s h a r d s e l l was responsible for t h e i r ultimate downfall, the LMRPB through t h e i r a c t i v i s t s t y l e did prepare and s e l l the O f f i c i a l Regional Plan which established regional land use guidelines to prevent sprawl and protect farm-land and open space. The Committee's selection as the new Director was Harry Lash. Since 1969, Lash has been central to the Department's evolving philosophy; therefore, i t i s important to deal at some length with h i s background, e s p e c i a l l y those career experiences which have d i r e c t l y affected the Greater Vancouver Planning Department's (GVRD's) evolution. I I . 1969 - 1970 A. H. Lash Lash received h i s planning education at Mc G i l l i n the l a t e 1940's and soon afterwards became Director of Planning for the Province of Alberta. As Director he was most notably responsible for rewriting the planning l e g i s l a t i o n e s p e c i a l l y i n regards to d i s t r i c t planning commissions, zoning, subdivision control, and new resource towns. In 1957 he became Head of the Research and Long Range Planning Section o'f the C i t y of Toronto Planning Department. There his work primarily involved conducting d i s t r i c t appraisals for the purposes of zoning changes with some notion of 18. longer term plans. He found however, that for some areas the planner's formulas and rules of thumb did not apply and as a r e s u l t planning f a i l e d to support the implied goals of physical order and convenience. In his next p o s i t i o n as Superintendent of the Comprehensive Research D i v i s i o n of the C i t y of Montreal Plan-ning Department h i s major contributions were p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the development of an o v e r a l l regional plan and preparing a depart-mental reorganization study. Although the regional plan goals lacked f u l l regional support and public consultation, they were nevertheless e x p l i c i t and to be used as c r i t e r i a to evaluate plans. Lash's reorganization study recommended a c o l l e g i a l approach to overcome c e r t a i n f a i l i n g s of the Department's bureau-c r a t i c organization. From the above events, Gerecke i d e n t i f i e s the following elements of Lash's planning approach: 1. objectives - most t r a d i t i o n a l planning goals are just "catch phrases." A new approach must be s t r i v e d for which translates goals into objectives which can be made operational. 2. dynamic - planning deals with the process of becoming - i . e . what happens i n the continu-ing, on-going state rather than the end-state. Since the end of planning i s people, people i n the here and now q u a l i f y as well as future people. 3. involvement - Montreal's plan was prepared i n a vacuum without any contact with people including p o l i t i c i a n s . That i s the goals developed out of int e r n a l academic discussion. Planning must avoid t h i s vacuum syndrome by being more open - to public, p o l i t i c i a n s and planning s t a f f . 4. strategy - instead of the l i m i t e d and directed approach of t r a d i t i o n a l urban planning, an approach was needed which f i r s t took an over-view and next i d e n t i f i e d the main l i n e s of attack. This had a m i l i t a r y o r i g i n - e.g. the "soft underbelly of Europe" which provides a main l i n e of attack a f t e r which everything else flows. (1) Upon assuming the pos i t i o n of Director, Lash proceeded to implement h i s ideas concerning c o l l e g i a l departmental organiza-_ t i o n . The Department was, and remains, headed by an i n t e r d i s c i -p l i n a r y team of four senior planners of equal status, who met p e r i o d i c a l l y to set Departmental p o l i c y and strategy. In addi-t i o n , at least twice weekly meetings have been held to keep a l l s t a f f members informed of the agencies' a c t i v i t i e s and the role of individuals and projects i n the o v e r a l l program. Any s t a f f member has been able to place any item of concern on meeting agendas. In summary, Lash's background and early actions as GVRD Director suggested the following planning s t y l e p r i n c i p l e s : 1. Planning was viewed as a dynamic advisory a c t i v i t y wherein the planner's duty and ri g h t was to interact with p o l i t i c i a n s . 2. Planners influenced decisions through t h i s partnership with p o l i t i c i a n s . 3. Planning was considered a ' s t a f f rather than ' l i n e ' function whose role was primarily advisory and manage-ment of research. A conscious e f f o r t was to be made to maintain a small but highly communicative s t a f f . 20. 4. Departmental organization was to be constantly reassessed and altered as circumstances dictated. B. The 1969 - 1970 Program The Department's evolving philosophy was i l l u s t r a t e d by t h e i r approach to the following items of basic research i n the 1969 -1970 program. 1. Transportation The Department inherited the DeLeuw, Cather and Co., Report on the Greater Vancouver Area Rapid Transit Study which recommended a rapid t r a n s i t system and the s p e c i f i c routes. Lash considered that these recommendations were premature, had evolved from too narrow a base of discussion and did not consider the broad organizational aspects of a transportation solution instead of the single solution approach. The Department therefore recommended a "broad-brush" transportation plan that involved both public and p o l i t i c a l discussion. 2. Housing Housing was an early ' p r i o r i t y ' delegated to the Department by the Board. Most important for our purposes was the fact that the Department's study of t h i s function recommended that a Housing Director be hired to work i n the Planning Department u n t i l f a m i l i a r i z e d , at which time a separate Housing Department was to be formed. This i l l u s -trates the Department's desire to remain a s t a f f function but also aid, i n a missionary sense, l i n e departments. 3. I n t e r - i n s t i t u t i o n a l Policy Simulator (HPS) In 1970, HPS p r i n c i p a l s , M.A. Goldberg and C.S. Ho l l i n g , i n v i t e d the GVRD to p a r t i c i p a t e along with other agencies and i n s t i t u t i o n s i n development of a compre-hensive regional p o l i c y simulation model, including environ-mental factors, that was to be eventually u t i l i z e d as an operational planning tool to influence p o l i c y and improve community p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n public decision making. The Department's p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the HPS model indicates t h e i r desire for an increased quantity and q u a l i t y of dialogue with external individuals and agencies. C. Retreats One of the most notable features of the Department's operation has been the use of retreats by senior s t a f f ; at times i n conjunction with one or more of p o l i t i c i a n s , Department s t a f f , consultants and agency o f f i c i a l s , to resolve problems and deter-mine new directions for the Department. 1. The Great City Debate The f i r s t retreat, termed "The Great C i t y Debate" occurred i n the f a l l of 1970. At t h i s retreat the four seniors met at Diamond Head near Whistler Mountain to deter-mine a d i r e c t i o n for the Department. Although no d e f i n i t e conclusions were arrived at, four possible streams of a c t i v i t y were i d e n t i f i e d ; these were: a) plan preparation - not i n the manner of the O f f i c i a l Regional Plan iwhich- -.•w.asf inf:ei-s:S4encei;aA Regional zoning bylaw, but rather a more operational and dynamic plan. b) organization - to develop l i n e s of communication and other linkages to involve Federal and Pro v i n c i a l government personnel i n decision and plan making. c) education and information - informing people of the Regional D i s t r i c t and i t s a c t i v i t i e s and encouraging people to consider the Region as a unit with considerable opportunities. d) economic planning - to investigate the p o s s i b i l i t y of including t o t a l regional economic planning as a D i s t r i c t r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . Lash injected the notion that the Department 1s a c t i v i t i e s should be aimed at making people r e a l i z e that Vancouver has prospects of becoming a "great c i t y " and that t h i s theme should become the Department's o v e r a l l goal from which the research program could be constructed and i t s progress monitored. In response to opposing arguments, and with respect to h i s previous planning positions, Lash stated, "I'm a b i t fed up with spending my l i f e on the things that turn out not to make any difference." (2) — a d e f i n i t e i n d i c a t i o n of the Department's action o r i e n t a t i o n . 2. Salt Spring Retreat At a second retreat on Salt Spring Island i n October of 1970, attended by a l l professional s t a f f , for the pur-poses of developing guidelines for the f i v e year planning program and defining s p e c i f i c a l l y the 1971 program, Lash 23. again raised the question of an 'umbrella' goal for the region. Major debate focussed on the type of plan to be developed because i n the absence of t h i s d i r e c t i o n , an integrated planning program for the following year could not be developed. The retreat rejected the former LMRPB plan approach because i t was a one study program that lacked f l e x i b i l i t y and action i n i t s development, was based on the much modi-f i e d O f f i c i a l Regional Plan (essentially a regional zoning bylaw), and did not provide an ongoing process based on well defined goals. It was agreed to begin work on a new plan based on the above ideas of what was not wanted i n the plan approach. 3. Harrison Lake Seminar The next stage i n the development of the Department's role was a seminar with the p o l i t i c i a n s of the GVRD Planning Committee to discuss long term objectives of the Regional D i s t r i c t as i t affected regional development and within that context, the 1971 Planning Department program. Lash outlined f i v e major functions for the Department: 1. coordination of and l i a i s o n between governmental agencies, municipal agencies and other organiza-tions , 2. corporate planning for the Regional D i s t r i c t as an organization (as d i s t i n c t from regional plan-ning for the socio-economic and geographic e n t i t y 24. of Greater Vancouver), 3. function and s t a f f development and a "seed bed" r o l e , ( i . e . aiding the establishment of other D i s t r i c t functions), 4. public information, communication, and feedback, and 5. development of a new regional plan and implementing p o l i c i e s . (3) The seminar v e r i f i e d these functions but more importantly changed the goals basis from Lash's 'great c i t y ' comcept to ' l i v a b i l i t y ' ; a change which implied harmony with the environment rather than greatness. The seminar also reinforced the p r i n c i p l e that planning leadership was to be a p o l i t i c a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . It was agreed that, An immediate, f i r s t approximation of the " l i v a b l e c i t y plan" (Project Alpha) i s scheduled to commence i n January, 1971. The ultimate plan i s conceived as a 'document' which w i l l suggest how things ought to be controlled i n the Region, and how things ought to be p o s i t i v e l y planned or done, so that a " l i v a b l e c i t y " ensues not only at the end, but hopefully, one that becomes increasingly l i v a b l e as the Region progresses. ("Livable C i t y " means l i v a b l e within the region, or the Greater Vancouver metropolitan area.) (4)-4. Goals Seminar The Harrison Seminar was followed by a goals seminar with the Technical Planning Committee to discuss and perhaps define goals for the Livable Region Plan (LRP), and s o l i c i t 25. suggestions for means to stimulate greater consciousness i n the region of the Regional D i s t r i c t . Papers on the subject of planning goals were by Lash, LeMarchand (GVRD s t a f f mem-ber) , and Blumenfeld. The seminar concluded that: 1. a l i v a b i l i t y index was to be developed against which progress towards a more l i v a b l e region was to be measured. 2. the regional plan emphasis was to be on the q u a l i t y of l i f e rather than economic development. 3. goals were to be stated so as to overcome e x i s t i n g problems, i . e . a focus on short term goals to improve l i v a b i l i t y . I I I . 1971 A. Introduction The Department's early concerns (1969 and 1970) were depart-mental organization, establishment of interagency linkages, and program development - with a gradually broadening base of p a r t i c i -pation u n t i l a l l those central to program effectuation were involved. In 1971, the Department s h i f t e d to program studies -ninety mini studies i n t o t a l for the year. It was intended to h i r e consultants for most of these studies i n keeping with the Department's function of guiding and managing research within an o v e r a l l program. Accordingly, Lash i n v i t e d prospective consult-ants to submit study proposals within the 1971 program outline. B. The 1971 Program Two aspects of the 1971 program are most i l l u s t r a t i v e of the 26. new Department's philosophy and practice, a) the "Broad-brush Transportation" study i n i t i a t e d shortly a f t e r Lash's appointment, and B) the Regional Plan and Policy making stream of a c t i v i t y . 1. Transportation As indicated e a r l i e r , the Department's 1970 review of the DeLeuw Cather Rapid Transit Report indicated that a much broader view was required. This fact, combined with the Third Crossing Debate and the p o s s i b i l i t y of public t r a n s i t becoming a regional function led to the GVRD Board creating a Transportation Function Study Committee under the chair-manship of Board member A l l a n K e l l y . Most i n t e r e s t i n g l y , the Third Crossing controversy was e x p l i c i t l y excluded from the study at the request of several Board members. The study's objectives were: 1. Development of program for immediate improvements to transportation, 2. I d e n t i f i c a t i o n of future transportation corridors 1 and t h e i r appropriate designation i n the O f f i c i a l Regional Plan, 3. Achievement of a suitable formula for financing improvements to the regional transportation system, 4. Develop an i n i t i a l f i v e year regional transportation program and p r i o r i t i e s . (5) Although a research program was outlined at the s t a r t , i t changed at various stages as new needs were perceived and incorporated into the study. E s s e n t i a l l y a l l four study objectives were r e a l i z e d . Rather than o f f e r an ultimate 'solution' to Regional trans-portation problems, the study emphasized the process of planning and providing for long term Regional transportation objectives and short-run improvements. The report states, Concern has been expressed that we should f i r s t be making basic decisions about how the Region i s to grow and develop, and determine the plan for for the Livable Region, before we decide what transportation services are needed. I share-that concern, but the cycle of planning can be started at any point; i n fact, i t has been started, and the cycle must constantly be repeated through the years ahead. I believe we can, and should adopt the function now. To b u i l d the Livable Region we must act as well as plan. (6) 2. Regional Plan and Policy Making The 1969 and 1970 program deliberations concluded with a decision to develop a new type of regional plan under the regional goal of l i v a b i l i t y . The new plan was to be e x p l i c i t i n i t s . g o a l s , f l e x i b l e to changing needs, problem and action oriented, and was to provide an ongoing process rather than an end state product. The 1971 Regional Plan p r i o r i t i e s , determined by broad s t a f f and p o l i t i c a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the Department's pro-gram development were: a) Project Alpha (Harrison seminar) 28. b) L i v a b i l i t y Indicators Study (Goals seminar) c) The Development of the Public Program (Part i c i p a t i o n was an inherent component of the emerging planning style) a) Project Alpha (7) Project Alpha was an attempt to i d e n t i f y a plan making method to be used as a model for the Livable Region Plan program. Perhaps the most s i g n i f i c a n t con-t r i b u t i o n of Alpha to the continuing program was the development of an objectives matrix. The objectives matrix was composed of general objectives along the side or x axis; urban systems such as housing, transportation, industry, etc., along the top, or y axis; and p o l i c i e s designed to achieve a p a r t i c u l a r objective for a p a r t i c u l a r system in the r e s u l t i n g c e l l s . By rating the c e l l s according to t h e i r a b i l i t y to achieve the desired objective and to further the desired state, such as l i m i t e d growth, the analyst would be able to indicate the d i f f i c u l t i e s and the l i k e l y success of achieving the p a r t i c u l a r desired state. b) L i v a b i l i t y Indicators Study Norm Pearson, consultant for Project Alpha, was also retained for the L i v a b i l i t y Indicators Study. The study attempted to devise a system for t r a n s l a t i n g goals into meaningful measures for use i n judging progress i n the development of the l i v a b l e region. He f i r s t attempted to a l t e r the Alpha objectives matrix into a goals oriented l i v a b i l i t y matrix; such a strategy however, could not account for the p o s s i b i l i t y of biased ratings a r i s i n g from d i f f e r i n g i n d i v i d u a l goals p r i o r i t i e s . Pearson then attempted to define indicators which would monitor change; more s p e c i f i c a l l y — . ..- how l i v a b l e each part of Greater Vancouver i s by comparison with the region as a whole and i t s parts, . ..- whether over time the region and each of i t s parts i s getting more l i v a b l e or l e s s , . ..- how quickly the region and i t s parts are getting more l i v a b l e or l e s s , . ..- i f other metropolitan centres were to use a s i m i l a r index, how much more or less l i v a b l e Greater Vancouver (and i t s parts) i s by comparison. (8) Although no recommended indicators were suggested due to uncertainty as to which q u a l i t i e s to measure, a l i s t of forty-seven possibly useful q u a l i t i e s on which indicators might be based was provided. C. Public Program Lash's previous work in Toronto and Montreal had con-vinced him of the need for public involvement i n plan making; indeed, the e a r l i e s t discussions of the Department's role recognized t h i s p r i n c i p l e . Consequently, early i n 1971 a report e n t i t l e d Goals for the Livable Region was submitted to the Board's 30. Planning Committee. The Department report stated the following: The Program should aim to operate at two l e v e l s -1. to make the general public aware of the importance of s e t t i n g regional goals and making choices. This requires i n i t i a l wide p u b l i c i t y (news releases, TV exposure, etc.) plus follow-up including an exhibit i f t h i s can be arranged at the PNE and at the Public Library. 2. to give interested groups and persons a more complete knowledge of the subject and oppor-tunity to respond. For both 1 and 2 we pro-pose preparation of an audio-visual on the Quality of L i f e i n a Livable Region, with a short back-up brochure. Meetings, as with the Rapid Transit program, would be designed to encourage discussion. The brochure would probably be designed to serve as a basis for comments - by summarizing the issues and choices a v a i l a b l e . (9) The Committee authorized preparation of the audio v i s u a l a id but when the t r i a l presentation of the f i l m was delayed by d i f f i -c u l t i e s i n determining the best means to i l l u s t r a t e the goals and possible futures, they began to question the v a l i d i t y of the public program. The p o l i t i c i a n s questioned both the nature of the feedback (that i s , whether the masses or even a representa-t i v e portion of the population would respond) and the ultimate value of c i t i z e n input (for instance, whether the feedback would be constructive). Some Committee members were of the opinion that any discussion of goals and urban form options would be too abstract to r e s u l t i n meaningful comments and that what was required was a well thought out plan to present to the public. Lastly, i t was argued that people were too impatient for action 31. to p a r t i c i p a t e at a l l . Lash r e p l i e d by stating that i f the Board and Planning Department did not become aware of the public's concerns and i f the GVRD did not make c i t i z e n s aware of the choices available, then considerable e f f o r t might be expended on aspects of a plan which were not a p r i o r i t y . In July of 1971 the Planning Committee received a report e n t i t l e d Review of the Livable Region Public Program, the report said i n part, "successful public understanding of Livable Region concerns w i l l take some months and a series of public presenta-tions to achieve ... the public information-discussion program should be seen as covering the several studies and reports which w i l l be released i n coming months." (10) The Committee agreed to continue the program. ..Besides general public contact u t i l i z i n g the audio-visual presentation, the Department i n i t i a t e d meetings with municipal planning s t a f f s to increase the exchange of i n f o r -mation and allow municipal s t a f f p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the preparation of the Livable Region Plan. Also, senior municipal s t a f f and GVRD Planning Department seniors met; the municipalities agreed to provide the GVRD with information on proposed developments and municipal objectives and the GVRD agreed to provide municipalities with suggested development guidelines. The Department's 1971 regional plan and p o l i c y making a c t i v i t i e s i l l u s t r a t e d two important aspects of the GVRD planning philosophy and practi c e . 1. The streams base of s t a f f , p o l i t i c a l and external agency support; and the Department's defense of the Public Program indicated the Department's desire to u t i l i z e a wide range of inputs to the plan making process. 2. Project Alpha and the Indicators study were examples of innovative research to refine techniques for f a c i l i t a t i n g a more e f f e c t i v e dialogue and constant re-evaluation of the plan making process. IV. 1972 A. Mt. Baker Retreat The 1971 program imcituding work on the preparation of the Livable Region Plan was pre-empted l a t e i n the year by transpor-t a t i o n studies with the end res u l t that the Department's d i r e c -t i o n and organization suffered. Accordingly, a s t a f f retreat to Mt. Baker was organized to resolve these organizational d i f f i -c u l t i e s and outline a program for 1972. A survey of Department s t a f f resulted i n four themes for the r e t r e a t . 1. i n t e r n a l operations of the Department including an evaluation of 1971. 2. external relationships 3. the 1972 program 4. the Livable Region Plan 33. 1. Internal Operations Communications had suffered while the transportation studies were being completed. In order to resolve t h i s problem caused by the s h i f t i n Department work p r i o r i t i e s , i t was decided to r e v i t a l i z e the c o l l e g i a l form of organiza-t i o n since t h i s had promoted inte r n a l communications previously. 2. External Relationships The major question i n t h i s regard was, 'what i s the Department's role and who i s the c l i e n t ? ' . I t was concluded that the p o l i t i c i a n s were the agency's c l i e n t and the Depart-ment's role was to inform them with the planner's technical knowledge combined with messages received from the planner's dialogue with the public. 3. 1972 Program Three program objectives were selected for 1972 and l a t e r approved by the Planning Committee. They were: a) continued development of the Livable Region Plan b) development of a departmental data system c) continued s t a f f assistance to ' l i n e ' departments such as the Greater Vancouver Sewerage D i s t r i c t . 4. Livable Region Plan Discussions i n 1969-1970 had rejected the end state plan and s e t t l e d on ' L i v a b i l i t y ' as the umbrella goal for planning. Discussion ended inconclusively with Lash pro-posing "a new model for planning which emphasiz(ed) a new 34. concern for people, short term change, and c r i t e r i a to evaluate change such as l i v a b i l i t y indicators rather than goals or 'ideals' standards." (11) As was i l l u s t r a t e d e a r l i e r i n this section, Lash's philosophy had a great impact on the evolving Departmental p h i l o s -ophy. Early i n 1972 Lash toured B r i t a i n with three other Canadian planners and returned with the following observation. ... i f i t /planning/ i s to be e f f e c t i v e / i t / must be accompanied by action from the beginning. Action i s necessary to buiGId from c r e d i b i l i t y to trust and f a i t h , and progress i s es p e c i a l l y needed i n a d i s -advantaged area because the development Board cannot succeed unless the people believe they can have a di f f e r e n t future and s t a r t to act accordingly. and on public p a r t i c i p a t i o n , "Snapshot of Future Situation" i s not f a i r to put to people because i t i s l i k e l y to never e x i s t . One should rather give a series of "package of p o l i c i e s " but people can't yet think in terms of p o l i c i e s , l e t alone planners and p o l i t i c i a n s write them down. One should not get opinions u n t i l trade-offs can be made clear to people as basis for t h e i r choice. (12) As indicated above, the major objective for 1972 was con-tinued development of the Livable Region Plan. This was achieved by accelerating the Public Program and investigating s p e c i f i c issues related to l i v a b i l i t y . B. Public Program Late i n 1971 the Department prepared a report e n t i t l e d , The Livable Region Plan - A History and Proposed Direction. With 35 . respect to the future of the program, the report stated, ... we concluded that the FOCUS of our work with the Livable Region Plan must be -A. On people, not things (vs. development choices as i n Project Alpha), B. On issues related to long term growth (or the long term consequences of present issues. C. Notion i i s s u e s t r e l a t e d to l i f e s t y l e s , present zoning b a t t l e s , possible ecological disaster outside the region, etc.). A horizon of +5 to +20 years seems appropriate. C. On issues that w i l l a f f e c t a s i g n i f i c a n t seg-ment of the population i n the future. (13) The report also suggested s i x 'starter issues' to promote public discussion, explore issue interactions and p o l i c y options; these were -1. a shortage of jobs 2. housing costs r i s i n g faster than incomes 3. increasing transportation d i f f i c u l t i e s 4. increasing a i r and noise p o l l u t i o n 5. loss of the f e e l i n g of openness 6. fear of and opposition to rapid and unanticipated change. Following an i n i t i a l series of experimental meetings, which resulted i n useful discussion, the Department requested and was granted a continuation of the program. The program consisted of the following: 1. i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of issues, e s p e c i a l l y the stop growth sentiments raised at the experimental meetings 2.. preparation of background studies on issues 36. 3. preparation of a major report on the program to i d e n t i f y dominant issues and concerns of the public, outline p o l i c y options and possibly suggest some immediate action. 4. continuation of the Public Program focussing on the issues raised, including v i s i t s to municipal councils. Important to the development of the Public Program techniques were the contributions of Leonard Minsky (a one year appointment as a S t a f f Community Contact Person) and Fred Lennarson (expert on c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n from the Ministry of State for Urban A f f a i r s ) . Minsky managed to achieve a r a t i o n a l dialogue with the public by contacting diverse i n t e r e s t groups, e l g . horse breeder clubs, foster parent associations, etc., and discussing subjects within t h e i r realm of experience according to c e r t a i n information p r i n c i p l e s . The Planning Committee raised the question of representa-tiveness and following discussion i t was agreed that the Public Program process would not aim for representativeness but merely of f e r anybody who was interested the opportunity of aiding i n the formulation of problem solutions. C. Issue Investigation Issue investigations were meant to provide further con-sideration of issues raised by the Public Program. I n i t i a l l y , investigations were conducted on three 'starter issues': housing, jobs, and p o l l u t i o n ; and regional growth - the major issue raised by the p u b l i c . Gerecke summarizes the most d i f f i c u l t issue -growth, as follows: These growth issue studies were the subject of much discussions by s t a f f , Planning Committee, and Technical Planning Committee without much progress. The project died i n the f a l l with no p o s i t i v e r e s u l t s . In summary the growth issue investigation can be seen i n two l i g h t s : one a process of learning how d i f f i c u l t the issue i s , and second a major diversion of time and thought from the year's program. (14) D. Manning Park Retreat By early f a l l s t a f f d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n with the 1972 pro-gram, aspects of the Livable Region Plan and Departmental organ-i z a t i o n and role had reached the point where i t was desirable for the s t a f f to debate and resolve these matters. Reorganization of the s t a f f into teams, a decision to relate the work program more cl o s e l y to the budget and a reaffirmation of the Department's low p r o f i l e resolved many problems. Most debate centred on the Public Program and i t s r e l a -t ionship to the Livable Region Plan; the major point i n question was whether the Public Program was primarily a service to the Livable Region Plan or simply an exercise i n ' s t i r r i n g people up'. Minsky maintained that both aspects were important and that s t i r r i n g people up was a way of l e t t i n g p o l i t i c i a n s know the Program was active. The Manning Park Retreat resolved many d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n s and allowed the program to continue smoothly to the end of the year. 38. Two other events i n 1972 are i l l u s t r a t i v e of the Depart-ment's evolving planning st y l e : they are the Coach House Retreat and the publication of The Report on L i v a b i l i t y . E. Coach House Hotel Retreat Three of the subjects discussed at t h i s retreat of Department s t a f f and Planning Committee members are e s p e c i a l l y i n s t r u c t i v e . They are: 1. Creation of a t r i - l e v e l committee for Greater Vancouver composed of representatives from GVRD, the Ministry of State for Urban A f f a i r s , and Pr o v i n c i a l Municipal A f f a i r s personnel. 2. Content of the report emerging from the Public Program as part of the development of the Livable Region Plan, and, 3. The 1973 Planning Department objectives and program. 1. T r i - l e v e l Committee This matter i s s i g n i f i c a n t because i t i l l u s t r a t e s again the Department's desire for broad based p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n planning and decision making. At the retreat i t was agreed to recommend to the Board that they ask the Provin-c i a l Government to agree to the formation of the Committee. 2. Public Program/Livable Region Plan The main purpose of t h i s agenda item was to move toward a statement of p o l i c y p r i o r i t i e s from the concerns raised i n the Public Program meetings. Accordingly, the Department hired Humphrey Carver, a planning consultant, to lead the Planning Committee to an understanding of public concerns and to categorize those concerns i n broad p o l i c y f i e l d s . The discussion was recorded and the results edited, presented to the Committee, approved and incorporated i n what w i l l be referred to l a t e r as the "November Report." 3. 1973 Program The 1973 planning program, at the insistence of the Planning Committee was to be characterized by a major e f f o r t to complete the Livable Region Plan by March 1974 - a year e a r l i e r than had been contemplated i n 1971. Furthermore, the Committee asked that the Plan deal primarily with the p o l i c i e s and action programs required to maintain l i v a b i l i t y within the next ten years. Unresolved matters were to be so noted i n the Plan and i f necessary, secondary and i n d i r e c t e f f e c t s of proposed p o l i c i e s were to be investigated a f t e r the Plan was submitted. To ai d t h i s e f f o r t , the Committee recommended to the Board that a l l GVRD departments and relevant P r o v i n c i a l and Federal agencies cooperate. F. The Report on L i v a b i l i t y , the "November Report" This was the f i r s t s i g n i f i c a n t GVRD public statement on the Livable Region Plan and Program. Included i n the report were the categorized p o l i c i e s discussed at the Coach House Retreat. The report proposed that p o l i c y committees, composed of GVRD s t a f f , municipal and senior government s t a f f , interested c i t i z e n s , and group representatives, report on t h e i r recommendations for 40. t h e i r respective p o l i c y areas. Late i n November the Board endorsed the "November Report" and the t h i r t y p o l i c y statements, and authorized the Planning Committee to investigate the f e a s i b i l i t y of establishing policy committees with the goal of completing draft p o l i c y area reports by the f a l l of 1973. V. 1973 A. Introduction It was decided at the Manning Park Retreat to reorganize the Department into teams. Each group would be s e l f d i r e c t i n g but headed by one i n d i v i d u a l responsible for the work assigned the group. The advanced deadline for the Livable Region Plan however, required some rearrangement. The major changes were the establishment of a Plan Group to prepare a draft p h y s i c a l / environmental plan by October 1973, and a Policy Secretariat to e s t a b l i s h the p o l i c y committees. Also, the function of the Public Program was altered s l i g h t l y to aid i n meeting the new deadline i n part through assistance to the p o l i c y committees. B. The Livable Region Program 1. The Decision Making Process Perhaps the f i n e s t explanation of the Livable Region Program decision making process was offered by Planning Committee Chairman, Mayor P h i l l i p s at the T r i - l e v e l Conference of P r o v i n c i a l , Regional, and Federal p o l i t i c i a n s held early i n 1973. In h i s paper e n t i t l e d "Management of Growth" he stated the following: We believe that the setting of operational objec-tives and of operational programs i s successfully done b a s i c a l l y by establishing a proper process and  framework for so doing. We think that i t i s not a question of defining a problem and then by a closed study to come up with a solution. Objectives and programs must be set by considering what w i l l be at the same time desirable, e f f e c t i v e , acceptable, and within the constraints with which we must deal r e a l i s t i c a l l y . This involves exercising value judgements, p o l i t i c a l judgements and technical judgements. The solutions or resolutions of problems and dilemmas are i n our view not found but evolved i n continuing study and dialogue. Means suggest and shape the possible ends, and the possible ends, when well defined, give r i s e to innovative thinking about means. In the process we i n GVRD have established, these elements are a l l included. Our technical s t a f f i s exploring the p o l i c i e s that have been proposed as to t h e i r effectiveness, and analyzing them for t h e i r implications as to what objectives we are s e t t i n g . The Regional Board and i t s committees are providing p o l i c y guidance to the s t a f f on the appropriateness of the objectives and the p o l i t i c a l v i a b i l i t y of the various p o l i c y options, and through the Public Program we are working with c i t i z e n s and i n t e r e s t groups i n the s o c i a l and business world to determine t h e i r reactions and the possible con-sequences of the programs as they w i l l a f f e c t people i n business and society. (15) Senior government s t a f f acceptance of t h i s evolving decision making process may have been in part responsible for the establishment of the T r i - l e v e l A irport Planning Committee and the Ministry of Transport 1s agreement to include the basic question of whether the a i r p o r t should expand i n t h e i r deliberations. 42 . The 1973 Public Program objectives were the following: 1. contact, information to, and discussion with com-munity groups 2. assistance to the p o l i c y committees 3. informing the Board and Municipal o f f i c i a l s of Program re s u l t s 4. p u b l i c i z i n g the GVRD 5. establishing a 'school program?, to gain an appreci-ation of young people's concerns for the region 6. discussion of the draft Livable Region Plan when completed. 2. Policy Committees As stated e a r l i e r , the "November Report" recommended the establishment of p o l i c y committees to deal with the broad areas of: transportation and transmission, r e s i d e n t i a l l i v i n g , recreation, education and research, s o c i a l services, health and public protection, production and d i s t r i b u t i o n , environmental management, and government and society. Although the public was encouraged to p a r t i c i p a t e (the Public Program s t a f f s o l i c i t e d t h e i r participation) the emphasis was on professionals, generally from government and the U n i v e r s i t i e s . Each committee was to submit a written report to the Board containing the following: ... a statement of l i v a b i l i t y objectives for i t s f i e l d , the role the Regional D i s t r i c t might take i n achieving these objectives, suggest l i v a b i l i t y indicators to measure progress i n these areas, v e r i f i c a t i o n or re j e c t i o n of policy statements from the L i v a b i l i t y Report, immediate action steps i n t h e i r area, and f i n a n c i a l implications including possible funding for these steps. (16) The following comments on the Policy Committee process are the res u l t of the author's review of a l l Policy Committee minutes and reports (17). The major sources of possible s a t i s f a c t i o n and d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n have been d i s t i l l e d into the following f i v e categories, a) Role and Function I n i t i a l l y , d i f f i c u l t i e s arose because of confusion i n the o r i g i n a l terms of reference and some of these problems were resolved i n the early meetings through discussions with the Policy Committees' Secretariat (GVRD Planning s t a f f assigned to aid the Committees). Certain Policy Committees, most notably the Social Ser-vices Committee decided upon an a c t i v i s t rather than advisory r o l e . This led to c o n f l i c t with GVRD p o l i t i -cians over Committee attempts to deal d i r e c t l y with other le v e l s of government and the general public without p r i o r consultation with the GVRD Board. This c o n f l i c t and esp e c i a l l y the Board's displeasure with the Committee's a c t i v i s t r o l e , led some participants to suspect the Board's motives i n establishing the Committees ( i . e . co-option rather than consultation) and to question 44. whether t h e i r reports would befconsidered seriously. The Committees' records suggest that members' concern for the fate of t h e i r reports was the reason for Committee recom-mendations to remain active so as to aid the Board i n implementing the reports. This may also have been the reason for some Committee's 'leaking' t h e i r reports to the press. The Policy Committee terms of reference purposely l e f t the determination of the scope of a c t i v i t y open to Committee interpretation, aided i n part by the Secretar-i a t and the t h i r t y p o l i c y statements evolved by the Public Program and contained i n the Report on L i v a b i l i t y . This lack of i n i t i a l d i r e c t i o n caused considerable d i f -f i c u l t y for several Committees; indeed, the Production and D i s t r i b u t i o n Policy Committee was dissolved i n part because i t could not determine an exclusive area of investi g a t i o n . Other Committees lacking a clear d e f i n i -t i o n of function proceeded very slowly for several meet-ings . These d i f f i c u l t i e s may have resulted i n a shortage of time for thorough investigations once the Committee se t t l e d on i t s subject area. b) Administrative, S e c r e t a r i a l and Professional Aid The o r i g i n a l terras of reference merely stated that the Secretariat was to aid the Committees as s p e c i f i c needs became known. Each Committee was to be supplied with a .-i state of the.plan' report that would outline the 45. e x i s t i n g p o l i c i e s , plans, and programs with respect to each one of the t h i r t y guideline p o l i c y statements; t h i s material was not provided. The minutes indicate that other information requested by the Committees was not provided either i n the form or at the time requested. D i f f i c u l t y also arose over the disbursement of funds; at least one Committee was of the opinion that they should not be required to produce a budget as a pre-r e q u i s i t e to the receipt of funds. As intimated e a r l i e r , the strategy for a r r i v i n g at a new Regional Plan was to have the Policy Committees consider and report on the broad socio-economic plan considerations which would then be combined with the Department's (Plan Group's) i n v e s t i -gations of alternate physical arrangements of regional a c t i v i t i e s and future growth. Accordingly, a Plan Group-Policy Committee workshop was arranged, presumably to inform each other of t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s ; the Committee minutes however, indicate that the information flow was primarily from the Committees to the Plan Group, c) Representativeness The emphasis, i n the o r i g i n a l terms of reference, on r e c r u i t i n g professionals from government and the uni-v e r s i t i e s resulted i n an underrepresentation of members of the general public on the Committees (18). This was recognized very early by the Committee members, who feared that t h e i r recommendations would not be credible 46. without the p a r t i c i p a t i o n of the non professional public. Some Committees, with the aid of the Secretariat, attempted to contact s p e c i f i c resource persons and per-sons or groups with possibly d i f f e r i n g viewpoints i n order to correct the imbalance and provide more points of view to be debated. This concern for either more p a r t i c -ipation or more representativeness was so common to a l l Committees that a special Membership Committee was formed to deal with the matter. At least one Committee was wel'tbasupplied with members; indeed, the Residential L i v i n g Committee voted to l i m i t i t s membership but l a t e r found a t t r i t i o n of i t s membership to be a problem. d) Communications Communication between Committees with overlapping subject areas appears to have been a d i f f i c u l t y for some Committees. Indeed a special Comunications Committee composed of representatives of most of the Policy Com-mittees was formed to deal with t h i s matter. e) Committee Dynamics D i f f i c u l t i e s included problems with: Committee leadership, the establishment of a work programme, the working r e l a t i o n s h i p between professional and non-profes-sional Committee members and the achievement of consensus among members. The GVRD's publication, Policy Committees - Member- ship and Terms of Reference stated that: (19) 1. Each Committee was to determine objectives for t h e i r p o l i c y f i e l d . 2. Given the p o l i c y objectives, each Committee was to suggest and report on the appropriate role and responsi-b i l i t y of the GVRD with respect to the Committee's po l i c y f i e l d . 3. Each Committee was to propose l i v a b i l i t y indicators to be used to determine progress towards improved l i v a b i l i t y i n the Committee's p o l i c y f i e l d . 4. Each Committee was to examine and report on the p o l i c y statements contained i n the Report on L i v a b i l i t y and i f they were found to be inadequate, suggest alternate statements. 5. Committees were to report on operational p o l i c i e s ; that i s , what immediate steps should be taken to improve l i v a b i l i t y . 6 . Committees were to report on the l e v e l of operating and c a p i t a l expenditure required to carry out the suggested operational p o l i c i e s . Table II summarizes the Committee reports' contents with respect to these requirements. A f u l l e r accounting of Committee d i f f i c u l t i e s and t h e i r significance with respect to participant s a t i s f a c t i o n i s contained i n Chapter IV. A l l Committee reports have been received by the Board and at t h i s writing a seminar on Regional growth, a concern TABLE I I POLICY COMMITTEE REPORTS - CONTENTS Committee Report L i v a b i l i t y Regional L i v a b i l i t y P o l i c y O p e r a t i o n a l F i n a n c i a l Number O b j e c t i v e s R e s p o n s i b i l i t y I n d i c a t o r s Statements P o l i c i e s I m p l i c a t i o n s 1 YES 1 YES 2 NO YES YES NO 2 YES YES NO YES YES NO 3 REPORT NOT AVAILABLEICftBL£ 4 YES 3 NO NO YES 4 NO NO 5 - ' NO REPORT PREPARED 6 NO NO NO YES 5 YES NO 7 YES YES NO YES 6 YES NO 8 NO YES NO YES YES NO 9 YES YES NO YES YES YES Committee Report Number Code: 1 = Ed u c a t i o n and Research 2 = Environmental Management 3 = Government and S o c i e t y 4 = Hea l t h and P u b l i c P r o t e c t i o n 5 = P r o d u c t i o n and D i s t r i b u t i o n 6 = R e c r e a t i o n 7 = R e s i d e n t i a l L i v i n g 8 = S o c i a l S e r v i c e s 9 = T r a n s p o r t a t i o n and T r a n s m i s s i o n TABLE II (continued) Table Notes: 1. L i v a b i l i t y objectives were not s p e c i f i c a l l y mentioned but the Committee's introduc-tory statement indicated at least two l i v a b i l i t y objectives. 2. The report indicated the general benefits of Regional involvement i n education planning but did not suggest the appropriate extent of the Region's r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . 3. The Committee's l i v a b i l i t y objectives with respect to health care, although not s p e c i f i c a l l y i d e n t i f i e d as such are largely taken from the report "Health Care i n Canada: A Commentary," Background Study for the Science Council of Canada, August, 1973. 4. The Committee's recommendations are not s p e c i f i c enough to be c l a s s i f i e d as operational p o l i c i e s . 5. The Committee's work was closely related to the p o l i c y statements contained i n the Report on L i v a b i l i t y . 6. The Committee dealt with the policy statements contained i n the Report on L i v a b i l i t y i n addition to numerous other policy statements r e s u l t i n g from the Committee's d i s -cussions . 50. expressed i n several reports, has been scheduled. There has been no comment by the GVRD Board on the reports' contents. 3. Plan Group As stated e a r l i e r , i t was decided to prepare a draft physical plan to complement the s o c i a l and economic p o l i c i e s which were to be developed by the Policy Committees. A l l three aspects were then to be merged into a f i n a l plan i n 1974. The Plan Groups approach thus far has exemplified many aspects of the Department's regional planning approach. Most important to our discussion are the following points: (20) 1. Lash was of the opinion that uncertainty, i n the form of lack of s p e c i f i c knowledge, appropriate value judgements, or the possible actions of others, with respect to the three intersecting p o l i c y f i e l d s ; that i s , s o c i a l and economic p o l i c y determined by the Policy Committees, and physical/environmental p o l i c y developed by the Plan Group, could be handled by the GVRD's evolving planning s t y l e with i t s emphasis on involving a wide v a r i e t y of p a r t i c i -pants i n planning. 2. The GVRD's approach was i n essence a process of continu-ous feedback i n which p o l i c i e s and t h e i r affects were continuously evaluated. Because t h i s approach rejected the strategy of a series of studies r e s u l t i n g i n a f i n a l product, s p e c i f i c studies and actions could be i n i t i a t e d at any time. 51. 3. To some extent the possibly deleterious e f f e c t s of other agencies' actions could be prevented or ameliorated by the GVRD's communications linkages with numerous agencies. 4. Qualitative analysis wouldcibe used to i d e n t i f y the best p o l i c y actions to deal with problems. 4. Qualitative Analysis Numerous studies, to be l a t e r combined into the physical/environmental plan, were i n i t i a t e d by the Plan Group. The greatest amount of s t a f f e f f o r t was directed towards methods of q u a l i t a t i v e analysis. Gerecke recounts the precursors to the 1973 Matrix One e f f o r t . ... i n 1970 the Bare Bones matrix appeared. It related minimum urban physical standards to objectives assuming that resources associated with surplus standards could then be manipulated toward l i v a b i l i t y . 1971 brought the Objectives Matrix of Project Alpha which related urban patterns to objectives with the aim of i d e n t i f y -ing the optimum pattern, to s a t i s f y l i v a b i l i t y objectives. Now we turn to Matrix One which relates p o l i c y options to l i v a b i l i t y objectives. A l l of these matrices seek a p o l i c y strategy for complex urban systems; the evolution has been a broadening p o l i c y f i e l d from standards to urban patterns and then to a wide range of p o l i c y options. (21) Matrix One analysis consisted of the f i v e following steps: 1. i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of short-term l i v a b i l i t y objectives derived from the t h i r t y p o l i c y statements i n A Report on L i v a b i l i t y . 52. 2. i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of means to achieve the objectives. 3. use of professional judgement to estimate the p o s i t i v e and negative e f f e c t s of each means on each objective. 4. weight objectives according to t h e i r r e l a t i v e importance. 5. from steps three and four, estimate which means would be most successful i n maintaining or advancing l i v a b i l i t y . Based on the above method the following r e s u l t s were obtained. The 'best' means were: 1. Control the l o c a t i o n and price of a l l land being made available for urban purposes. 2. Cluster housing, planned unit development. 3. Secure s t r a t e g i c land required for development of transportation f a c i l i t i e s . 4. Make public t r a n s i t more competitive with automobile by r a i s i n g l e v e l of service, giving p r i o r i t y to t r a n s i t vehicles, a l l o -cating more t r a f f i c lanes exclusively to t r a n s i t . 5. Balance out tax-base maladjustments that may ari s e because "balanced municipal tax base" i s not an objective of regional land use planning. 6. Plan and program regi o n a l l y the maximum and minimum population growth to be permitted/ attained i n the sub-areas of the region over a 10-year period. 7. Increase population i n areas where good f a c i l i t i e s are already provided at high per-capita costs so that maximum use i s made of these f a c i l i t i e s +/or at lower cost per capita. 8. Locate enterprises where t h e i r job s k i l l s and pay match those of l o c a l labour force. 9. Increase supply of indoor recreation f a c i l i t i e s . 10. Encourage better public l i t t e r behaviour. 11. Encourage sorting, recycling and minimizing of wastes. 12. Increase public knowledge and v i s i b i l i t y of GVRD. 13. Prevent "leapfrogging" /of development/ 14. Ensure Board and s t a f f understand public views before beginning new po l i c y studies. (22) The worst means; that i s , those which were judged i n e f f cient and i n e f f e c t i v e i n advancing l i v a b i l i t y were: 1. Continue to commit a l l (85% at least) funds for regional parks to land a c q u i s i t i o n in the designated Regional Park areas as planned. 2. Continue and strengthen p o l i c i e s to keep development from occuring i n floodplain areas. 3. Protect the watersheds. 4. Preserve hobby farms. 5. Reserve s u f f i c i e n t a t t r a c t i v e areas f o r new housing for upper-income groups. For the_record, we /the GVRD Planners/ dropped these / l a s t / two means on the grounds of th e i r high negative net impact / i . e . worked against improved l i v a b i l i t y / . The remaining apparent "losers" on the l i s t of means are surprising and puzzling: we did not expect, i n t u i t i v e l y , that they would be "losers." We have not yet had time to f i n d out why they h i t bottom, and perhaps there are some p l a i n old errors i n the cross-impact analysis that i t makes you think twice. Here i s the l i s t . 6. Reduce housing costs by changing standards for prepaid services. 7. Make unusual housing types meet t h e i r f a i r share of municipal tax burden (house t r a i l e r s and house boats). 8. Make p o l l u t i o n more costly and create higher prices for goods and services that cause p o l l u t i o n either i n t h e i r production or con-sumption by emphasizing p o l i c i e s requiring the p o l l u t e r to pay. 54. 9. Improve drainage of low-lying farmlands. 10. Scenic easements, construction height l e v e l s , and other measures. Cones of v i s i o n and building s i t i n g r e s t r i c t i o n s . 11. Provide new housing that can be afforded by low-income groups i n the Region. 12. Increase the supply of foreshore land developed and p u b l i c l y managed for recreation and public use by 40%. (23) Although the matrix w i l l undoubtedly be developed further and the i n i t i a l r e sults subjected to more thorough investigations, the r e s u l t s as they now exis t indicate a weakness i n t r a d i -t i o n a l planning solutions to short-term objectives. Among the losing p o l i c i e s are those requiring the po l l u t e r to pay and the following e x i s t i n g GVRD p o l i c i e s : 1. land a c q u i s i t i o n for parks 2. floodplain protection 3. protection of watersheds and 4. provision of public housing The best l i v a b i l i t y promoting p o l i c i e s were: 1. control of the location and price of future urban land 2. balancing of tax base maladjustments a r i s i n g from regional land use planning 3. e s t a b l i s h maximum/minimum population growth lev e l s to be permitted/attained i n region sub-areas over a 10-year period. Matrix One results were debated at a Land Price Seminar held i n July and the following points seemed to receive conscensus: 1. larger taxation on undeveloped land through a gradual s h i f t to a single tax on land rather than improvements. 2. pr o h i b i t i o n of Foreign (non-Canadian) ownership of undeveloped land. 3. promote greater understanding of the causes of growth i n GVRD and the need for various parts to accept t h e i r share. ',. 4 . e s t a b l i s h minimum and maximum growth targets for sub-areas and m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . 5. raise r e s i d e n t i a l taxes to make growth pay i t s way. 6 . speed up the development of public land holdings and make greater use of land banking. 7. knowledge of private land banks should be obtained includ-ing what i s preventing them from being developed. VI. Observation on GVRD Planning Practice as an Example of the  Transactive Planning Style Although t h i s section appears to close inconclusively, i t i s ind i c a t i v e of the nature of the planning process that at any point i n time several streams of a c t i v i t y w i l l be at intermediate stages. This section does however provide s u f f i c i e n t information on which to base observations of the Department's r e l a t i o n s h i p to the transactive s t y l e . Quite c l e a r l y the GVRD Planning Department i s an agency evolving the transactive planning s t y l e . The following i l l u s t r a t e s t h i s point by comparing the c r i t i c a l elements of the transactive planning s t y l e to examples of GVRD Planning prac t i c e . 1. Transactive planning i s based on continuous dialogue and 56. mutual l e a r n i n g between planners and the p u b l i c . The seven r e t r e a t s beginning with the "Great C i t y Debate" and ending f o r the purposes of our d i s c u s s i o n w i t h the Coach House R e t r e a t , the t r i - l e v e l Planning Committee, I.I.P.S., Department l i n k a g e s w i t h m u n i c i p a l p l a n n i n g s t a f f s and c o u n c i l s , and the P u b l i c Program, are a l l i n d i c a t i v e of the Department's d e s i r e t o i n v o l v e those a f f e c t i n g and/or a f f e c t e d by the D i s t r i c t ' s a c t i o n s . 2. T r a n s a c t i v e p l a n n i n g c o n s i d e r s as r e l e v a n t i n d i v i d u a l and s m a l l group i n t e r e s t s . T h i s i s b e s t i l l u s t r a t e d by the L i v a b l e Region Program, e s p e c i a l l y the P u b l i c Program and P o l i c y Committee compo-nents. The P u b l i c Program c o n s c i o u s l y sought input from d i v e r s e groups and the P o l i c y Committees were made open t o anybody who wished t o p a r t i c i p a t e . 3. T r a n s a c t i v e p l a n n i n g emphasizes i n f o r m a t i o n feedback so as t o c o n s t a n t l y r e - e v a l u a t e the a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s of p r e v i o u s a c t i o n s . T h i s emphasis has been supported i n p r a c t i c e by the Department through a c t i v i t i e s such as the establishment of the •Triale.velpAirpcjrt Planning Committee and the develop-ment of q u a l i t a t i v e a n a l y s i s procedures. 4. T r a n s a c t i v e p l a n n i n g emphasizes short-term a c t i o n s . \ •-• T h i s i s e v i d e n t i n the ten year h o r i z o n of the L i v a b l e Region Plan and the one year Department r e s e a r c h programs. 5. Transactive planning theory states that actions should only be pursued to the extent of our knowledge of the probable outcomes. The Department has attempted to extend i t s knowledge base through the use of consultants, linkages with outside agencies (e.g. I.I.P.S.), cautious progress on Regional problems (e.g. the "Broad Brush Transportation Study"), and development of q u a l i t a t i v e analysis procedures. 6. To r e a l i z e the esse n t i a l elements of the transactive s t y l e , Friedmann suggests a c e l l u l a r organization struc-ture of small s e l f - d i r e c t i n g work groups and assemblies of work groups. The GVRD Planning Department has moved i n t h i s d i r e c t i o n by retaining a s t a f f function with a small i n t e r d i s c i p l i -nary team of professionals organized on a c o l l e g i a l basis. ' Policy committees, intergovernmental committees and s t a f f l i a i s o n with municipalities and other external agencies may be the beginnings of an extension of t h i s structure. VII. GVRD Planning and the C i t i z e n P a r t i c i p a t i o n Aspects of the  Transactive Planning Style Compared The preceding chapters have attempted to i l l u s t r a t e the basic s i m i l a r i t y between the transactive planning theory and the GVRD's evolving planning p r a c t i c e . In t h i s portion of the paper, the c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n s a t i s f y i n g aspects of the transactive plan-ning theory w i l l be compared to the c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n portions 58. of the GVRD's L i v a b l e Region Plan Program, e s p e c i a l l y the P o l i c y Committee p o r t i o n . T h i s procedure w i l l i n d i c a t e more p r e c i s e l y the c o m p a r a b i l i t y of theory and p r a c t i c e and suggest a d d i t i o n a l q u e s t i o n s t o t e s t the degree t o which t r a n s a c t i v e p l a n n i n g theory can be a p p l i e d t o c u r r e n t p l a n n i n g o p e r a t i o n s . A. GVRD Planning and the C i t i z e n P a r t i c i p a t i o n S a t i s f y i n g Aspects of the T r a n s a c t i v e Planning S t y l e Compared For a review of the c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n s a t i s f y i n g aspects of the t r a n s a c t i v e p l a n n i n g s t y l e see Chapter One, Part IV of t h i s paper. 1. The t r a n s a c t i v e p l a n n i n g s t y l e embraces the idea of mutual l e a r n i n g through continuous d i a l o g u e . In Chapter I I , P a r t VI, the continuous d i a l o g u e and mutual l e a r n i n g aspects of the GVRD's o v e r a l l p l a n n i n g e f f o r t was demonstrated. I n d i c a t i o n s of these aspects are a l s o apparent i n the P u b l i c Program; indeed, the ve r y e x i s t e n c e of a p u b l i c program i s proof of the e x i s t e n c e of these aspects of theory i n the agency's c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n pro-gram. A t a more d e t a i l e d l e v e l , the Committees' d e l i b e r a t i o n s attended and a i d e d by Planning Department s t a f f , i n a d d i t i o n to the Plan G r o u p - P o l i c y Committee workshop are examples of mutual l e a r n i n g and continuous d i a l o g u e between pla n n e r s and s e l f s e l e c t e d groups of c i t i z e n s . 2. The i n d i v i d u a l a c q u i r e s a sense of competance i n h i s r o l e as p a r t of the p l a n n i n g process and becomes aware of h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p t o the l a r g e r e n t e r p r i s e . A f t e r r e a d i n g the Committee minutes and r e p o r t s , there can be l i t t l e doubt that the participants f e e l competent and aware of th e i r contribution to the development of a new Regional Plan. This i s probably best i l l u s t r a t e d by the fact that the Committees released t h e i r reports to the press, against the Board's i n s t r u c t i o n . Presumably, t h i s action was taken because they were confident of t h e i r recommenda-tions, aware of t h e i r r ole i n the development of a new Regional Plan; but dubious of the s i n c e r i t y of the GVRD p o l i t i c i a n s . 3. 3. C o n f l i c t and the p a r t i c u l a r interests and comitments of participants are accepted. The GVRD i n i t s Public Program and an open membership terms of reference for the Policy Committees seems to have accepted the above p r i n c i p l e of the transactive planning s t y l e . Furthermore, the Policy Committee members a c t i v e l y s o l i c i t e d d i f f e r i n g viewpoints through the media, encouraging more part i c i p a n t s , conducting seminars, and d i s t r i b u t i n g questionnaires. There i s some evidence however, that i n d i -cates participants f e l t constrained i n what they could successfully recommend due to GVRD policy and program i n i t i -atives while the Committees were de l i b e r a t i n g . This was not an e f f o r t on the part of the GVRD to influence Committee recommendations but rather was a r e a l i z a t i o n by the GVRD that p o l i c y formulation and implementation are a continuous pror cess. 60. 4. A common image of the problem results Consensus i n the Livable Region Plan Program may be considered from the perspective of several d i f f e r e n t combina-tions of actors. a) Among part i c i p a n t s : The members seemed to have been able to agree on v i r t u a l l y a l l of t h e i r recommendations. Only the Transportation and Transmission Policy Committee report contained a dissenting opinion and i t dealt with only one portion of one minor recommendation. To some extent the high degree of consensus may have been a func-t i o n of the homogeneity of participants on the Committees despite e f f o r t s to encourage the representation of con-f l i c t i n g viewpoints. b) Participants/planners: GVRD s t a f f p a r t i c i p a t e d as researchers and technical advisors to the Committees; t h i s , and the fact that the Committees were well supplied with professional members resulted i n generally feasible recommendations. Indeed, several Committees recognized regional growth as a basic concern - an issue which was researched a year e a r l i e r by GVRD s t a f f . c) P a r t i c i p a n t / p o l i t i c i a n : Since the Board has not commented on the Committees' reports, very l i t t l e can be said about consensus between p o l i t i c i a n s and the Policy Committee p a r t i c i p a n t s . The very fact that the Board i s organizing a seminar on Regional growth may be in d i c a t i v e 61. of t h e i r desire to engage i n a dialogue with the c i t i z e n r y on basic issues facing the Region. 5. Decentralization of power through the development of new participant forms of s o c i e t a l organization while maintaining a close r e l a t i o n s h i p with p o l i t i c i a n s and planners The above statement refers as much to the long term r e s u l t of transactive planning as to a means to achieve i t . Any transfer of power, by the GVRD promoting c i t i z e n p a r t i c i -pation, has been more symbolic than r e a l ; yet, the very fact that the GVRD p o l i t i c i a n s are w i l l i n g to involve others i n the decision making process i s perhaps i n d i c a t i v e of an increased willingness to share power. B. Structural Conditions 1. Friedmann suggests that temporary, small scale, s e l f -guiding, responsible, interpersonal, and self-appointed and/ or representative work groups would provide a compatible structure of p a r t i c i p a t i o n for the r e a l i z a t i o n of trans-active planning's benefits. Clearly, the GVRD has accepted Friedmann's suggested structure. The Policy Committees' existence was limi t e d to the deadline date for submission of reports. The Committees were generally composed of less than f i f t y members and often sub committees were formed. The Committees were interpersonal i n the sense that a l l p a r t i c i -pants were free to discuss any matter of Committee concern with any other member and the GVRD s t a f f . The Committees were self-appointed; that i s , any in d i v i d u a l could p a r t i c i -62. pate (only one Committee l i m i t e d i t s membership) and were responsible for defining t h e i r scope of a c t i v i t y and prepar-ing a f i n a l report with fea s i b l e recommendations. Clearly, the establishment and form of the Policy Committees r e f l e c t s a transactive planning s t y l e . Participant d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n with the Policy Committee process however, w i l l determine how much and i n which d i r e c t i o n the GVRD should a l t e r t h e i r next public program. 2. "The opportunity should e x i s t for diverse directions and i n t e n s i t i e s of communications The opportunities for diverse directions and inten-s i t i e s of communications w i l l vary depending upon the degree to which the transactive planning s t y l e can be adapted to the exis t i n g p o l i t i c a l system. A reading of Policy Committee records suggests that the GVRD has not allowed s u f f i c i e n t l a t i t u d e i n t h i s regard. If the GVRD p o l i t i c i a n s had been more cognizant of t h i s p o t e n t i a l aspect of participant d i s -s a t i s f a c t i o n and had allowed for i t i n the terms of reference, considerable c o n f l i c t and mistrust between participants and p o l i t i c i a n s might have been avoided. 3. An assembly of work group representatives ( i . e . Policy Committee representatives) or some other integrative struc-ture should e x i s t for defining c e l l tasks and p r i o r i t i e s , and a r b i t r a t i n g competing demands; also, a technical secre-t a r i a t i s required to pa r t i c i p a t e i n work group deliberations and provide various services to i n d i v i d u a l c e l l s . 63 . At t h i s i n i t i a l stage i n the development, by the GVRD, of the transactive planning s t y l e t h i s function was performed by the Secretariat (GVRD planning s t a f f ) and special purpose sub committees of the Policy Committees. The minutes and reports have suggested some d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n with t h i s arrangement but to do otherwise suchdas requiring each Committee to perform these administrative and technical duties would unduly d i s t r a c t the Committees from t h e i r func-t i o n of producing a report to the GVRD on t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r subject area. 64. FOOTNOTES - CHAPTER II 1. Gerecke, J.K. Toward a New Style of Urban Planning, Draft Ph.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n , U.B.C., 1973, p.13. 2. GVRD, The Great C i t y Debate: A Four-handed Conversation at Diamond Head, December, 1970, p.22. 3. Gerecke, J.K., op.cit., p.32. 4. GVRD, Planning Committee Minutes, December 2, 1970, pp.1-2, as c i t e d i n Gerecke, Toward a New Style of Urban  Planning. 5. GVRD, Progress Report on the Broad Brush Transportation Plan Stream, 1971, p . l . 6. Kelly, A., Regional Transportation as a GVRD Function, GVRD 1971, p.2. 7. Pearson, N., Project Alpha, GVRD, 1971, p.8. 8. Pearson, N., L i v a b i l i t y Indicators, GVRD, 1971, p.3. 9. GVRD, Planning Committee Minutes, A p r i l 7, 1971, p.7, as ci t e d i n Gerecke, Toward a New Style of Urban Planning. 10. GVRD, Review of the Livable Region Public Program, July, 1971, p.2. 11. Gerecke, J.K., op.cit., p.80. 12. Lash, H.N., Impressions and Lessons: B r i t i s h Planning, March, 1972, p.5. 13. GVRD, The Livable Region Plan - History and Proposed Direction, February, 1972. 14. Gerecke, J.K., op.cit., p.94. 15. P h i l l i p s , Arthur, Chairman, GVRD Planning Committee, Management of Growth i n the Vancouver Region, March, 1973, pp.11-12. 16. Thorburn, D., Terms of Reference and Selection Process for the Policy Committees, GVRD, January, 1973. 65. 17. Policy Committee Reports, GVRD, c. December, 1973. a) Education and Research, 2 5 pp. b) Environmental Management and Poll u t i o n c) Health and Public Protection d) Recreation e) Residential L i v i n g f) Social Services g) Transportation and Transmission Note: Government and Society Policy Committee Report has yet to be released and the Production and D i s t r i b u t i o n Policy Committee was dissolved. GVRD Policy Committee Minutes a) Education and Research (11 meetings) b) Environmental Management and Pollution Control (12 meet-ings) c) Government and Society (7 meetings) d) Health and Public Protection (15 meetings) e) Production and D i s t r i b u t i o n (6 meetings) f) Recreation (9 meetings) g) Residential Living (20 meetings) h) So c i a l Services (11 meetings) i) Transportation and Transmission (7 meetings) Note: Minutes were not kept for a l l meetings. 18. GVRD, Policy Committees - Membership and Terms of Reference, February, 1973, p.5. 19. Ibid, p. 20. Gerecke, J.K., op.cit., p.133. 21. Gerecke, J.K., op.cit., p.137. 22. Ibid, ppl422'. 23. Ibid, p.138 CHAPTER I I I METHODOLOGY 67. I. Purpose of the Study As stated e a r l i e r , the purpose of thi s study i s to investigate participant s a t i s f a c t i o n with the Policy Committee aspects of the GVRD Livable Region Plan Program. The study i s based on the pre-mise that i f both p o l i t i c i a n s and planners are sincere i n t h e i r desire for greater c i t i z e n involvement i n plan and decision making, then they ought to structure involvement programs i n part so as to s a t i s f y the participants 1 conception of a worthwhile process and thus ensure t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n future programs.. Since the GVRD Planning Department did not incorporate an appraisal mecha-nism i n the Policy Committee portion of the program and, since the author's o r i g i n a l i n t e r e s t was only broadly i d e n t i f i e d as the investigation of t h i s p a r t i c i p a t i o n program from the c i t i z e n s ' viewpoint, a r i g i d d e f i n i t i o n of the nature and scope of t h i s evaluation i s required. I I . Scope of the Study The C i t i z e n s ' involvement in the Policy Committee process was conceptualized as follows: Individual Motives and Expectations Affected by Structure of the Pa r t i c i p a t i o n Process, Committee Dynamics Affected by P o l i t i c a l and Participant S a t i s f a c t i o n Planning Decisions Start F i n i s h Committee Process 68. An evaluation of participant s a t i s f a c t i o n embracing a l l of these factors would have been beyond the time available to the author; therefore, i t was decided to concentrate on the mechanics of the Committee p a r t i c i p a t i o n process to determine what aspects of the GVRD's c i t i z e n involvement strategy caused s a t i s f a c t i o n or d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n amongst the pa r t i c i p a n t s . This procedure ignores most differences i n ind i v i d u a l motives and expectations except those which are apparent from consistently d i f f e r e n t responses by d i f f e r e n t types of pa r t i c i p a n t s . Also, Committee dynamics are not s p e c i f i c a l l y investigated although respondent comments and consistent answers to certai n questions mightiindicate the nature of some Committee processes that affected member s a t i s f a c t i o n . Lastly, even though t h i s survey was conducted only eight weeks following submission of the l a s t Committee reports, p o l i t i c a l and GVRD actions following the publication of the reports and perhaps during Committee deliberations may have influenced participant s a t i s f a c t i o n s . I l l . The Survey Questionnaire A. Construction As indicated e a r l i e r , the GVRD's o v e r a l l planning program and the organization of the Livable Region Plan Program resembles Friedmann's suggested s t y l e for e f f e c t i v e planning and c i t i z e n involvement i n decision making. Assuming the GVRD has co r r e c t l y applied Friedmann's trans-active planning s t y l e and moreover that transactive planning i s an a p p r o p r i a t e response t o e x i s t i n g s o c i e t a l c o n d i t i o n s , then i t co u l d be h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t p a r t i c i p a n t s a t i s f a c t i o n w i l l be h i g h . I f t h i s h y p o t h e s i s i s c o r r e c t , then d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i l l apply t o s p e c i f i c p r o c e d u r a l aspects of the program and not t o i t s b a s i c o r g a n i z a t i o n . Both of these p o s s i b i l i t i e s were t e s t e d by means of a q u e s t i o n n a i r e which c o n t a i n e d q u e s t i o n s r e g a r d i n g the c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a n t s a t i s f y i n g aspects of Friedmann's theory and s p e c i f i c a spects of the GVRD's c i t i z e n involvement program (see Appendix I ) . B. Content The q u e s t i o n n a i r e was org a n i z e d i n t o the f o l l o w i n g three major d i v i s i o n s . Part A i d e n t i f i e d the respondents by s e v e r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , the nature of t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n and t h e i r over-a l l s a t i s f a c t i o n . SPart IB. t e s t e d the degree of a p p l i c a b i l i t y of the two touchstones of Friedmann's theory - mutual l e a r n i n g and continuous d i a l o g u e . The t h i r d major d i v i s i o n , S e c t i o n s C t o H, posed s p e c i f i c q u e s t i o n s r e g a r d i n g the Committees 1 r o l e and func-t i o n , a d m i n i s t r a t i v e , s e c r e t a r i a l and p r o f e s s i o n a l a i d t o the Committees, r e p r e s e n t a t i v e n e s s of the Committees, communications w i t h i n and between Committees and w i t h the g e n e r a l p u b l i c and, l a s t l y , c e r t a i n q u e s t i o n s r e g a r d i n g Committee dynamics. These s p e c i f i c q u e s t i o n s concerning p o s s i b l e causes o f d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n were i d e n t i f i e d through a review of a l l a v a i l a b l e Committee minutes and f i n a l r e p o r t s ; a complete l i s t of which appears i n the f ootnotesphvtoto chapter II'o. Where p a r t i c i p a n t s a t i s f a c t i o n was b e i n g measured, a s c a l e p e r m i t t i n g : not a p p l i c a b l e , very d i s -•70. s a t i s f a c t o r y , d i s s a t i s f a c t o r y , neutral, s a t i s f a c t o r y and very s a t i s f a c t o r y responses was used. Committee minutes varied i n quantity depending upon the number of meetings held by the Committee; also, the taking of minutes was discontinued approximately twenty-four weeks after the f i r s t meetings were held. The minutes were generally quite detailed, e s p e c i a l l y i n regard to member d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n s and often the author's suspicions regarding a possible source of d i s -s a t i s f a c t i o n were s p e c i f i c a l l y mentioned i n another Committee's minutes. Space was provided and respondents encouraged to supply additional comments. Besides the l i m i t a t i o n s of the minutes and reports as enumera-tors of participant d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n s because they were not designed for t h i s purpose, there i s also the d i f f i c u l t y that the minutes and reports do not constitute a complete h i s t o r y of the Committees. These problems re l a t e primarily to the l a t t e r period of the Committees' deliberations. In order to compensate for t h i s d i f -f i c u l t y , the author included several questions suggested by the o r i g i n a l terms of reference for the Policy Committees, which •focussed generally on Committee attempts to achieve concensus on feasible recommendations. C. Sampling Procedures The Committees' minutes and reports, the only records of the Committees' a c t i v i t i e s , did not contain a complete l i s t of part i c i p a n t s , primarily because minutes were not maintained for a l l meetings - p a r t i c u l a r l y the 'middle' series of Committee meet-ings. Because of th i s shortcoming i n Committee records, i t was impossible to determine the t o t a l number of Policy Committee mem-bers and hence the percentage of Committee members represented by the survey or the number of questionnaire respondents. However, a GVRD o f f i c i a l commented that the survey included, i n her-opinion, v i r t u a l l y a l l those who were ever Committee members (1) • A t o t a l of 288 questionnaires were di s t r i b u t e d ; however, 15 were returned undelivered and 14 persons indicated by telephone or note the reasons why they were unable to complete the ques-tion n a i r e . In t o t a l therefore, 259 questionnaires were d i s t r i b -uted to pote n t i a l respondents. Several individuals were members of two or more Committees. Each of these individuals was contacted by telephone and requested to answer each questionnaire according to t h e i r experience as members of each separate Committee. If the respondent could not separate h i s responses by Committee then he was to answer the questionnaire for the Committee(s) i n which he had the greatest experience. A stamped and addressed return envelope was provided with each questionnaire. D. Coding Upon receipt of the completed questionnaires, the responses were coded and keypunched for computer analysis accord-ing to the scheme which prefixes the coded data l i s t i n g i n 72 . Appendix I. A l l respondent comments which were not merely a r e p e t i t i o n of answers supplied i n the main body of the question-naire are l i s t e d i n Appendix II and i d e n t i f i e d by a number which corresponds to the respondent's i d e n t i f i c a t i o n number i n the data l i s t i n g . Appendices I and II therefore constitute a complete record of a l l the o r i g i n a l data gathered by the author. . This data source might be used by other researchers to examine the GVRD's Poli c y Committee c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n experience from d i f -ferent perspectives. Many respondents did not answer a l l ques-tions or checked the not applicable space. These two types of responses were coded d i f f e r e n t l y (0 = no response, 9 = not a p p l i -cable) but were generally not distinguished when analyzing the r e s u l t s . The neutral category was interpreted to have been checked when the respondent had experienced the matter under con-sideration but was neither p a r t i c u l a r l y s a t i s f i e d or d i s s a t i s f i e d or had not formed an opinion. E. Analysis The questionnaire responses were analyzed by means of computer generated crosstabulations of respondent answers by Committee a f f i l i a t i o n , type of par t i c i p a n t , and whether the respondent was a signatory to the report or a Committee "drop-out." The responses to cert a i n questions were also crosstabulated with the results of other questions to test the consistency of respon-dent answers. F. Presentation of Results The results are presented i n Chapter IV; most frequently i n the form of tables which restate the questions as they appeared i n the questionnaire and indicate the percentage of the non neutral respondents who expressed s a t i s f a c t i o n ( i . e . either s a t i s -f i e d or very s a t i s f i e d ) or d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n ( i . e . d i s s a t i s f i e d or very d i s s a t i s f i e d ) . The term "non neutral response" means a response which i s a d e f i n i t e statement of s a t i s f a c t i o n , i . e . very di s s a t i s f i e d , , d i s s a t i s f i e d , s a t i s f i e d , or very s a t i s f i e d . The figures therefore, exclude a l l those who did not reply to the question or who r e p l i e d that they were neutral or that the ques-t i o n was not applicable. However, since a t o t a l of 107 Committee participants returned questionnaires, the t o t a l number of those who did not reply or who r e p l i e d that they were neutral or the question was not applicable can be determined by subtracting the number of non neutral respondents indicated i n the tables from the t o t a l number of respondents (107). 74. FOOTNOTES - CHAPTER I I I 1. Telephone c o n v e r s a t i o n w i t h Nancy Grant, GVRD s t a f f person r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the P o l i c y Committee S e c r e t a r i a t , March 18, 1974. CHAPTER IV ANALYSIS I . I n t r o d u c t i o n The f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n s of t h i s chapter w i l l analyze the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e respondents, the v a l i d i t y of t r a n s a c t i v e p l a n n i n g theory as p r a c t i s e d by the GVRD as a response t o the needs and demands f o r c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the G r e a t e r Vancouver area; and l a s t l y , an i n v e s t i g a t i o n of s p e c i f i c aspects of the P o l i c y Committee process which may have r e s u l t e d i n p a r t i -c i p a n t s a t i s f a c t i o n or d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n . I I . Q u e s t i o n n a i r e Respondent C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s A. The Q u e s t i o n n a i r e Response One hundred and seven Committee p a r t i c i p a n t s , or 41% of those surveyed completed and r e t u r n e d the q u e s t i o n n a i r e . The r e t u r n s i n d i c a t e almost equal o v e r a l l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of r e p o r t s i g n a t o r i e s (46%) and Committee 'drop-outs' (54%) (see Table 1 ) . B. Types of P a r t i c i p a n t s The respondents i d e n t i f i e d themselves i n the percentages i n d i c a t e d i n Table 1. Of g r e a t e s t i n t e r e s t t o the author was the h i g h percentage of p a r t i c i p a n t s with a s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t i n the Committee's s u b j e c t area as opposed t o c i t i z e n s with a g e n e r a l i n t e r e s t . Approximately 60% of the survey respondents were p r o -f e s s i o n a l s i n the s u b j e c t area of the Committee's d e l i b e r a t i o n s , academics, or r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of i n t e r e s t groups w h i l e o n l y 31% c l a s s i f i e d themselves as c i t i z e n s w i t h a g e n e r a l i n t e r e s t . Completely absent among the respondents were F e d e r a l p o l i t i -c i a n s and F e d e r a l and P r o v i n c i a l a d m i n i s t r a t o r s . The respondents TABLE I I I QUESTIONNAIRE RESPONSE Committee - (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) Code Number T o t a l Number Surveyed T o t a l Number of Respondents % of (1) Returned Number of Report S i g n a t o r i e s Number of Committee 'Drop-outs 1 (4) As a % of (2) (5) As a % of (2) 1 12 7 58% 2 5 29% 71% 2 52 21 40 9 12 43 57 3 13 4 30 2 2 50 50 4 15 9 60 6 3 67 33 5 14 7 50 0 7 00 100 6 30 12 40 7 5 58 42 7 46 21 45 7 144 33 67 8 33 11 33 7 4 64 36 9 44 15 35 9 6 60 40 T o t a l s 259 107 41% 49 58 46% 54% Committee Code 1 2 3 4 5 Education Environmental Management and P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l Government and S o c i e t y Health and P u b l i c P r o t e c t i o n P roduction and D i s t r i b u t i o n 6 = R e c r e a t i o n 7 = R e s i d e n t i a l L i v i n g 8 = S o c i a l S e r v i c e s 9 = T r a n s p o r t a t i o n and T r a n s m i s s i o n -4 78. a l s o i n c l u d e o n l y one P r o v i n c i a l p o l i t i c i a n , one l o c a l government a d m i n i s t r a t o r , and e i g h t l o c a l p o l i t i c i a n s as Committee members. T h i s low r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of the f o r e g o i n g types of p a r t i c i p a n t s may be a t t r i b u t e d i n p a r t t o the s m a l l number of such persons i n the Region and i n the case of p o l i t i c i a n s t o t h e i r probable r e l u c t a n c e to p a r t i c i p a t e as members i n what was intended t o be c i t i z e n committees.(see Table 2 ) . The survey r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d t hat the R e c r e a t i o n and the R e s i d e n t i a l L i v i n g Committees c o n t a i n e d h i g h e r percentages of c i t i z e n s with a g e n e r a l i n t e r e s t (58% and 48% r e s p e c t i v e l y ) than the survey response average, 31%. P r o f e s s i o n a l s i n the s u b j e c t area of the Committee appear to have been o v e r - r e p r e s e n t e d on the H e a l t h and P u b l i c P r o t e c t i o n and the S o c i a l S e r v i c e s Committees wit h percentages of 56% and 54% r e s p e c t i v e l y compared t o the s u r -vey response average o f 26%. I n t e r e s t group r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s seem t o have had above average r e p r e s e n t a t i o n on the T r a n s p o r t a t i o n Committee s i n c e 53% of t h i s Committee's members were r e p r e s e n t a -t i v e s of i n t e r e s t groups as compared t o the survey response average f o r a l l Committees of 15%. C. Number of Meetings A l l but two Committees h e l d more than f i f t e e n meetings and the others h e l d at l e a s t e l e v e n meetings. The h i g h percentage o f survey respondents who attended o n l y a few meetings (see Table 3) i s q u i t e understandable s i n c e approximately 54% of those who responded 'dropped out' as Committee members. TABLE IV TYPES OF PARTICIPANTS Type of Number of % of T o t a l Number P a r t i c i p a n t Respondents of Respondents POLITICIAN: F e d e r a l 0 0% P r o v i n c i a l 1 1 L o c a l 8 7 GOVERNMENT ADMINISTRATOR: F e d e r a l 0 0 P r o v i n c i a l 0 0 L o c a l 1 1 Academic 20 19 P r o f e s s i o n a l i n the Subject Area of the Committee 28 26 Re p r e s e n t a t i v e of an I n t e r e s t Group 16 15 C i t i z e n w i t h a General I n t e r e s t 33 31 TOTALS 107 100% TABLE V NUMBER OF MEETINGS ATTENDED BY THE SURVEY RESPONDENTS Number of Meetings Number of Respondents Percentage of the T o t a l Number of Respondents 1 t o 5 37 35% 6 t o 10 29 27 11 t o 15 23 21 16 t o 20 7 6 > 20 6 6 No response 5 5 TOTAL 107 100% 81. D. Reasons f o r Committee Member 'Drop-outs' S i x t e e n o f the 58 persons who 'dropped out' as Committee mem-bers d i d not s t a t e the r e a s o n ( s ) . Of those who d i d respond how-ever, the most f r e q u e n t l y mentioned reason (43% of a l l responses) was because they suspected t h a t the Committee would be i n e f f e c t i v e . Only 20% of a l l responses s t a t e d t h a t disagreement w i t h other members'vviewpoints, or a l a c k of i n t e r e s t i n the Committee's sub-j e c t area was a reason why they ceased t o p a r t i c i p a t e . Other reasons accounted f o r 37% of a l l responses and g e n e r a l l y were due to l a c k of time t o devote to the Committee's work (eight responses), or d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e n e s s of the Committee. Those who dropped out because of poor r e p r e s e n t a t i v e n e s s were o f t e n q u i t e e x p l i c i t i n t h e i r reasons. The f o l l o w i n g comments are t y p i c a l : "My r e a l concern was the l a c k of p a r t i c i p a t i o n by the populace. One or two dozen people are not r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the c r o s s - s e c t i o n of GVRD r e s i -dents and some of the people there had a p a r t i c u -l a r axe t o g r i n d . " "too many s e l f - c e n t r e d groups j o c k e y i n g f o r a p l a t f o r m f o r t h e i r own p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t s . " S e v e r a l respondents a l s o l i n k e d the l a c k of r e p r e s e n t a t i v e -ness t o d i f f i c u l t i e s i n h a v i n g t h e i r own views d i s c u s s e d by the Committee "I f e e l t h a t g e n e r a l c i t i z e n r e p r e s e n t a t i o n was low and i n some i n s t a n c e s 'discouraged' i n the sense that some of the ' p r o f e s s i o n a l s ' were 82. r a t h e r overpowering i n t h e i r v iewpoints and o p i n i o n s as to ' n o n - p r o f e s s i o n a l ' v i e w p o i n t s . Those p r i v a t e c i t i z e n s who d i d not have the ' f o r t i t u d e ' t o w i t h s t a n d a l l the p r o f e s s i o n a l -ism were d r i v e n away i f t h e i r own commitment to the program was not s t r o n g enough." I l l . A p p l i c a b i l i t y of T r a n s a c t i v e Planning Theory A. I n t r o d u c t i o n When asked to express t h e i r o v e r a l l s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h the Committee form of c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n , the respondents answered i n the f o l l o w i n g manner. TABLE V.I OVERALL RESPONDENT SATISFACTION Response Number of Rgspo'ns'es Percentage of a l l Responses Very D i s s a t i s f i e d 26 24% D i s s a t i s f i e d 25 23 S a t i s f i e d 33 31 Very S a t i s f i e d 8 8 N e u t r a l 10 9 No Response 2 5 T o t a l 107 100% S u r p r i s i n g l y , more respondents expressed d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n (47%) than s a t i s f a c t i o n (39%). However, when asked whether they would 83. p a r t i c i p a t e again in a s i m i l a r project, only twenty of the f i f t y -one respondents who were d i s s a t i s f i e d or very d i s s a t i s f i e d stated they would not p a r t i c i p a t e again. Tft'issseems.sto indicate that the core membership of the GVRD's p a r t i c i p a t i o n program was l a r g e l y composed of individuals who were 'participation-minded'. Although t h i s i s an i n i t i a l l y encouraging observation i t masks the danger that i f no r e a l improvements to subsequent programs are i n s t i t u t e d to increase participant s a t i s -f a c t i o n , more casual participants may not volunteer in the future. B. The Transactive Planning Style and the Policy Committees -The Participants' Assessment As explained i n Chapter 1, Part IV, transactive planning from a c i t i z e n participant s a t i s f y i n g perspective involves i) dialogue with p o l i t i c i a n s and planners, i i ) r e s u l t i n g i n a process of mutual learning i i i ) whereby the i n d i v i d u a l acquires a sense of competance i n h i s role i n the decision making process iv) and a fe e l i n g of involvement i n plan preparation. Table 5 summarizes respondent answers to questions designed to reveal t h e i r s a t i s f a c t i o n with the preceding aspects of the transactive planning s t y l e . As explained i n Chapter II I , the column t i t l e d "number of non neutral responses" refers only to those who answered that they were very d i s s a t i s f i e d , d i s s a t i s f i e d , s a t i s f i e d , or very s a t i s f i e d . Those who did not answer or answered that they were neutral or the question was not applicable have not been included i n the table. T A B L E V J I I T R A N S A C T I V E P L A N N I N G S T Y L E C R I T E R I A OF THE NON NEUTRAL RESPONSES Percentage Percentage Number of Non D i s s a t i s f i e d & S a t i s f i e d & Question N e u t r a l Responses Very D i s s a t i s f i e d Very S a t i s f i e d HOW SATISFACTORY WAS -1. the d i a l o g u e between the Com-mi t t e e and a|_ GVRD Planners? b) GVRD P o l i t i c i a n s ? 2. the w i l l i n g n e s s of GVRD p l a n -ners t o a l t e r t h e i r viewpoints i n Committee d i s c u s s i o n s ? 75 61 48 46% 89 54 54% 11 46 HOW SATISFIED ARE YOU -3. t h a t your c o n t r i b u t i o n t o P o l i c y Committee d e l i b e r a t i o n s has i n c r e a s e d : a) the P o l i t i c i a n s ' knowledge of c i t i z e n viewpoints? b) other p a r t i c i p a n t s ' know-ledge of d i f f e r e n t c i t i z e n v iewpoints? 73 68 65 34 35 66 HOW SATISFACTORY WAS -4. your (the p a r t i c i p a n t s ' ) i n c r e a s e d competance i n the Committee's su b j e c t area? 5. your (the p a r t i c i p a n t s ' ) sense of involvement i n the prepara-t i o n of the Regional Plan? 63 63 20 60 80 40 85 . 1. Dialogue The respondents' answers t o qu e s t i o n s 1 and 2, Table 5, i n d i c a t e c o n s i d e r a b l e d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h t h e i r d i a l o g u e w i t h GVRD Planners and P o l i t i c i a n s . In the case of the respondents' d i a l o g u e w i t h the GVRD P o l i t i c i a n s , t h i s r e s -ponse was reconfirmed by the f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n asked near the end of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e . How s a t i s f a c t o r y were communications w i t h GVRD P o l i t i c i a n s ? Eighty-two percent (82%) of the non-neutral respondents t o the above q u e s t i o n answered t h a t they were d i s s a t i s f i e d or ve r y d i s s a t i s f i e d . As e x p l a i n e d i n Chapter I I , p a r t V.B.2.C, a workshop was arranged between P o l i c y Committee r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s and the Plan Group (GVRD Planning Department s t a f f i n v e s t i g a t i n g a l t e r n a t e p h y s i c a l arrangements of r e g i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s and f u t u r e growth). In response t o the f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n r e g a r d i n g t h i s formal c o n t a c t between the planners and the c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a n t s only twenty-seven respondents r e p l i e d non n e u t r a l l y and of these respondents 37% were d i s s a t i s f i e d or v e r y d i s s a t i s f i e d . How s a t i s f a c t o r y was the Plan G r o u p - P o l i c y Committee workshop i n terms of a i d i n g the Committee's d e l i b e r a -t i o n s ? T h i s i n d i c a t e s t h a t even t h i s formal c o n t a c t was not p a r t i c u -l a r l y s u c c e s s f u l and t h a t few respondents were even aware of i t s o ccurrence. 86. The responses to question 2, Table 5 indicate that even when planners did enter into a dialogue with the Com-mittees, over h a l f of the non neutral respondents were d i s -s a t i s f i e d with the planners' unwillingness to compromise his viewpoints; and again, the small number of respondents i n d i -cates a lack of contact between planners and p a r t i c i p a n t s . 2. Mutual Learning Because the process of mutual learning i s to a large extent dependent upon an intense and continuous dialogue between c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a n t s , and p o l i t i c i a n s and planners which, i n many participants' opinions did not ex i s t to a s a t i s f a c t o r y extent, then i t i s to be expected that p a r t i c i -pants would also express d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n with what they perceived as the p o l i t i c i a n s ' knowledge of t h e i r viewpoints. Questions 3a and 3b, Table 5, indicate that t h i s was i n fact the case. Although the participants were much more s a t i s f i e d with t h e i r increased knowledge of d i f f e r e n t c i t i z e n viewpoints than with what they thought was the P o l i t i c i a n s ' increased knowledge^both questions reveal a considerable amount of d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n . In part t h i s might be attributed to the high percentage of individuals who dropped out as Committee members and therefore did not allow themselves the opportunity to increase t h e i r own knowledge. Perhaps due to the unsatisfactory dialogue with the P o l i t i c i a n s and Planners, the participants also appear to 87. have f e l t a l a c k of involvement i n the p r e p a r a t i o n of the R e g i o n a l P l a n (question 5, Table 5 ) . D e s p i t e the h i g h l e v e l of p a r t i c i p a n t d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h the d i a l o g u e , mutual l e a r n i n g , and sense of involvement aspects of the P o l i c y Committee p o r t i o n of the L i v a b l e Region Plan Program, 80% of the respondents were s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e i r i n c r e a s e d competance i n the Committee's s u b j e c t area as a r e s u l t of t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n . T h i s f a c t i s i l l u s t r a t e d by the f o l l o w i n g respondent comment. "Found the Committee extremely u s e f u l . Learned more about E d u c a t i o n and about the d i s s a t i s f a c -t i o n throughout the community. Found that the p o l i t i c i a n s (at l e a s t the m a j o r i t y ) c o u l d not understand the premise behind our view of edu-c a t i o n . " C. In t o t a l , the GVRD's c i t i z e n s ' P o l i c y Committee e f f o r t must be c o n s i d e r e d u n s u c c e s s f u l based on p a r t i c i p a n t s a t i s f a c t i o n c r i t e r i a d e r i v e d from the t h e o r y of t r a n s a c t i v e p l a n n i n g . I t i s important t o note however, t h a t t h i s appears t o have been due i n p a r t t o the l a c k of c o n t a c t between p a r t i c i p a n t s and the P o l i t i -c i a n s and Planners r a t h e r than t o the i n a p p l i c a b i l i t y of the c r i t e r i a as measures of s a t i s f a c t i o n . Furthermore, t h i s suggests t h a t i n c r e a s e d c o n t a c t w i t h P o l i t i c i a n s and Planners would i n c r e a s e s a t i s f a c t i o n . 88. IV. P a r t i c i p a n t S a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h Elements of the Committee  Process As e x p l a i n e d i n Chapter I I I , f i v e major c a t e g o r i e s of p a r t i -c i p a n t s a t i s f a c t i o n were i d e n t i f i e d i n a review of Committee minutes and r e p o r t s . These were: Committee Role and F u n c t i o n ; R e p r e s e n t a t i v e n e s s ; Communications; A d m i n i s t r a t i v e , S e c r e t a r i a l , and P r o f e s s i o n a l A i d t o the Committees; and Committee Dynamics. P a r t i c i p a n t s a t i s f a c t i o n i n each of these major areas was t e s t e d by means o f s e v e r a l q u e s t i o n s . In many cases respondents sup-plemented t h e i r q u e s t i o n n a i r e answers wi t h a d d i t i o n a l comments which appear i n Appendix I I . A. Committee Role and F u n c t i o n Table 6 p r e s e n t s those q u e s t i o n s used t o assess p a r t i c i p a n t s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h the Committees' r o l e and f u n c t i o n and summarizes the respondents' answers. The r e l a t i v e l y h i g h percentage of non n e u t r a l respondents who expressed d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h GVRD 1s e x p l a n a t i o n of the Committee's r o l e and d u t i e s (see q u e s t i o n 1, Table 6) may have been due t o the t r a n s i e n t nature of the Commit-tee's membership and the 'pioneering nature' of the GVRD's f i r s t i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n e f f o r t . However, i t appears t h a t subsequent attempts t o r e s o l v e these d i f f i c u l t i e s were a l s o d i s s a t i s f a c t o r y (see q u e s t i o n 2, Table 6 ) . What seemed t o have been a l o g i c a l p r o g r e s s i o n from the P u b l i c Program, which s o l i c i t e d g e n e r a l responses, on i s s u e s i n the r e g i o n and the d e s i r e s of i t s i n h a b i t a n t s , from a wide v a r i e t y of com-munity groups, t o the P o l i c y Committees, which were to formulate TABLE V I I I COMMITTEE ROLE AND FUNCTION Question Number of Non N e u t r a l Responses OF THE NON NEUTRAL RESPONSES Percentage Percentage D i s s a t i s f i e d & S a t i s f i e d & Very D i s s a t i s f i e d Very S a t i s f i e d HOW SATISFACTORY WAS/WERE -1. GVRD's e x p l a n a t i o n of the Committee's a d v i s o r y r o l e and d u t i e s ? 2. attempts t o r e s o l v e any d i f f i c u l t i e s with the Com-m i t t e e i s a d v i s o r y r o l e and d u t i e s ? 3. the p o l i c y statements con-t a i n e d i n the Report on  L i v a b i l i t y i n d e f i n i n g the Committee's scope of a c t i v i t y ? 4. GVRD s t a f f a i d i n determin-ing the Committee 1 s a p p r o p r i s t ate scope of a c t i v i t y ? 5. the Committee's a d v i s o r y r a t h e r than a c t i v i s t r o l e ? 6. the temporary nature of the Committee? 7. the time a l l o t t e d f o r comple-t i o n of the Committee's r e p o r t ? 8. the number of Committees c r e a t e d , i n view of the t o t a l s u b j e c t area to be con s i d e r e d by a l l the Committees? 86 61 74 71 65 72 75 67 39% 52 53 28 49 52 40 25 61% 48 47 72 51 48 60 75 TABLE VIII;.; (.continued) OF THE NON NEUTRAL RESPONSES Percentage Percentage Number of Non D i s s a t i s f i e d & S a t i s f i e d & Question N e u t r a l Responses Very D i s s a t i s f i e d Very S a t i s f i e d HOW SATISFIED ARE YOU -9. t h a t the s t a t e d purpose of the Committees (to provide c i t i z e n input t o plann i n g d e c i s i o n making) was a s i n -cere motive on the p a r t of: a) GVRD Planners? b) GVRD P o l i t i c i a n s ? 81 69 26% 65 74% 35 HOW SATISFACTORY WAS -10. the Board's p r o h i b i t i o n of p u b l i c d i s c l o s u r e of r e p o r t s orrother autono-mous a c t i o n by the Commit-tee? 11. the degree of freedom g i v e n ' the Committee t o a r r i v e at independent recommendations? 56 80 73 20 27 80 9 1 . s p e c i f i c p r o p o s a l s t o enhance l i v a b i l i t y based i n p a r t on the P u b l i c Program's work, does not seem t o have worked as w e l l as might have been expected. T h i s f a c t i s apparent i n the respon-dents' answers concerning the u s e f u l n e s s of the P u b l i c Program p o l i c y statements i n determining the Committee's s u b j e c t area (see q u e s t i o n 3, Table 6 ) . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , attempts by the GVRD to a i d the Committees i n d e f i n i n g t h e i r a p p r o p r i a t e scopes of a c t i v i t y were a l s o u n s u c c e s s f u l (see q u e s t i o n 4, Table 6 ) . In a d d i t i o n t o the poor d i a l o g u e between the Committees and the p o l i t i c i a n s and p l a n n e r s , d i f f i c u l t i e s i n d e f i n i n g the Committees' r o l e and scope of a c t i v i t y may have been due t o fundamentally d i f f e r e n t p e r s p e c t i v e s o f the a p p r o p r i a t e r o l e o f the p a r t i c i p a n t s . A b a s i c d i f f e r e n c e i n o p i n i o n r e g a r d i n g the Committee's r o l e such as t h a t i n d i c a t e d i n q u e s t i o n 4, Table 6, or i n the Committees' temporary nature (question 5, Table 6) would make the r e s o l u t i o n of such problems v e r y d i f f i c u l t . The Committees' own d i f f i c u l t i e s i n d e c i d i n g j u s t how l a r g e a s u b j e c t area t o i n v e s t i g a t e and i n what manner were l i k e l y com-p l i c a t e d by the amount of time a l l o t t e d f o r completion of the Committee r e p o r t s and the broad s u b j e c t areas t o be handled by only a few Committees., (see q u e s t i o n s 7 and 8, Table 6) . "My impression i s t h a t the s u b j e c t was t o broad t o be handled i n the time a v a i l a b l e . By the time the members focussed on an area of i n t e r e s t many had dropped out." 92. D i s s a t i s f a c t i o n s w i t h the Committees' r o l e and f u n c t i o n s , probably more than any other d i f f i c u l t y , was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the p a r t i c i p a n t s ' s u s p i c i o n s of the s i n c e r i t y of the p o l i t i c i a n s and, to a l e s s e r e x t e n t , the planners i n e s t a b l i s h i n g the P o l i c y Committees (see q u e s t i o n 9, Table 6 ) . E i g h t respondents commented on t h i s p o i n t . The f o l l o w i n g comment captures the essence of those remarks: "The work of the S o c i a l S e r v i c e s Committee was somewhat of an e x e r c i s e i n f u t i l i t y - not because what we d i d was not worthwhile but because I have s e r i o u s doubts about the s i n c e r i t y of GVRD p o l i -t i c i a n s and p r o f e s s i o n a l s i n support of c i t i z e n involvement. In f a c t , I doubt they even under-stand the concept." In the case of the p o l i t i c i a n s t h i s may have been due i n p a r t t o the respondents' d i s p l e a s u r e at the Board's p r o h i b i t i o n of p u b l i c d i s c l o s u r e of r e p o r t s or other autonomous a c t i o n by the Committees (see q u e s t i o n 10, Table 6 ) . T h i s d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n , w i t h what some respondents f e l t was p o l i t i c a l i n t e r f e r e n c e , ~ ' appears t o have been l i m i t e d t o t h i s one aspect of Committee o p e r a t i o n s s i n c e most respondents answered t h a t they were s a t i s -f i e d or v e r y s a t i s f i e d w i t h the degree of freedom allowed them to a r r i v e at independent recommendations (see q u e s t i o n 11, Table 6 ) . •In summary, p a r t i c i p a n t d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h the Committees' r o l e and f u n c t i o n seems t o have r e s u l t e d from an i n i t i a l l y poor e x p l a n a t i o n of Committee r o l e and d u t i e s and subsequent unsuccess-f u l attempts to r e s o l v e these d i f f i c u l t i e s . A c o n t r i b u t i n g f a c t o r 93. t o the Committees' and the GVRD's i n a b i l i t y t o a l l a y d i s s a t i s f a c -t i o n w i t h the Committees' r o l e may have been due to the f a c t t h a t many p a r t i c i p a n t s h e l d fundamentally d i f f e r e n t and opposing views of the a p p r o p r i a t e r o l e f o r the Committee (egv.advisory v s . a c t i -v i s t ) . Such d i f f e r e n c e s would be extremely d i f f i c u l t t o accomo-date w i t h i n a s i n g l e Committee. Committee problems i n d e f i n i n g an a p p r o p r i a t e scope of i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n p a r t appear t o have been due t o the broad s u b j e c t areas of the Committees and the sh o r t p e r i o d of time a l l o t t e d f o r completion of t h e i r d e l i b e r a t i o n s and the p r e p a r a t i o n of f i n a l r e p o r t s . D i f f i c u l t i e s w i t h Committee r o l e and scope of i n v e s t i g a t i o n , the poor d i a l o g u e between p a r t i -c i p a n t s and the GVRD p o l i t i c i a n s , and the Board's d i s p l e a s u r e at the autonomous a c t i o n s of some Committees a l l probably c o n t r i b u t e d t o the respondents' h i g h l e v e l of d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h the s i n c e r -i t y of the p o l i t i c i a n s ' motives. B. R e p r e s e n t a t i v e n e s s The matter of r e p r e s e n t a t i v e n e s s was i n c l u d e d not because i t i s i n h e r e n t l y c r u c i a l t o the s u c c e s s f u l o p e r a t i o n of e i t h e r the t r a n s a c t i v e p l a n n i n g s t y l e or a p a r t i c i p a n t s a t i s f y i n g c i t i z e n involvement program but r a t h e r because Committee records suggested i t was a major concern o f many p a r t i c i p a n t s and as such might have a f f e c t e d t h e i r s a t i s f a c t i o n . T a b les 7 and 8 present the survey q u e s t i o n s d e a l i n g w i t h Committee r e p r e s e n t a t i v e n e s s and summarize respondent answers. TABLE IX REPRESENTATIVENESS OF THE NON NEUTRAL RESPONSES Percentage Percentage Number of Non D i s s a t i s f i e d & S a t i s f i e d & Question N e u t r a l Responses Very D i s s a t i s f i e d Very S a t i s f i e d HOW SATISFACTORY WAS/WERE -1. the o v e r a l l r e p r e s e n t a t i v e -ness of the Committee? 2. the a b s o l u t e number of p a r t i c i p a n t s i n view of the amount of work t o be done by the Committee? 3. the number of member 'drop-outs ', i n view of the amount of work t o be done by the Committee? 4. the g e o g r a p h i c a l d i s t r i b u -t i o n of the Committee's membership? 5. GVRD's s o l i c i t i n g of a) a d d i t i o n a l f u l l - t i m e p a r t i c i p a n t s ? b) p a r t - t i m e resource persons? 6. the e f f o r t s of the Committee t o t o encourage p a r t i c i p a t i o n by those not otherwise w i l l i n g or a b l e t o p a r t i c i p a t e ? 7. the e f f o r t s of the Committee to s o l i c i t a l a r g e r or more r e p r e s e n t a t i v e membership? 8. the e f f o r t s of the Membership Committee t o s o l i c i t a l a r g e r or more r e p r e s e n t a t i v e member-ship ? 83 71% 29% 70 46 54 59 73 27 74 59 41 43 58 42 49 55 45 55 69 31 55 71 29 43 70 30 TABLE X< OVER AND UNDER REPRESENTATION BY TYPE OF PARTICIPANT Type of P a r t i c i p a n t Percentage of a l l Respondents (107) B e l i e v i n g the Type of P a r t i c i p a n t Was Over Represented Percentage of a l l Respondents (107) B e l i e v i n g the Type of P a r t i c i p a n t Was Under Represented a) P o l i t i c i a n s i ) F e d e r a l 1 47 i i ) P r o v i n c i a l 2 51 i i i ) R e gional 3 45 i v ) L o c a l 5 49 b) Government A d m i n i s t r a t o r s i ) F e d e r a l 3 41 i i ) P r o v i n c i a l 2 48 i i i ) Regional 7 35 i v ) L o c a l 4 46 c) Academics 15 26 d) P r o f e s s i o n a l s i n the Subject Area of the Committee's Work 26 26 e) R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of I n t e r e s t Groups 30 32 f) C i t i z e n s with a General I n t e r e s t 8 36 g) Others 5 7 96. A h i g h percentage of the non n e u t r a l respondents were d i s -s a t i s f i e d w i t h the o v e r a l l r e p r e s e n t a t i v e n e s s of the Committee (question 1, Table 7 ) . More s p e c i f i c a l l y , the respondents were of the o p i n i o n t h a t p o l i t i c i a n s and a d m i n i s t r a t o r s from a l l l e v e l s of government were underrepresented (Table 8 ) . "No l o c a l p o l i t i c i a n or c i v i c s e r v i c e h e l p made the work of the Committee r e l a t i v e l y h o l l o w . I t i s the g r e a t e s t p o s s i b l e proof • t o me t h a t l o c a l p o l i t i c i a n s and c i v i c s e r -vants have no r e s p e c t i n the op i n i o n s of the people they pu r p o r t t o ser v e . " T h i s f a c t supports the author's e a r l i e r statement (Chapter IV, III.C.) t h a t the p a r t i c i p a n t s were i n agreement wi t h the t r a n s -a c t i v e p l a n n i n g s t y l e ' s p a r t i c i p a n t s a t i s f y i n g c r i t e r i a and th a t t h e i r d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n was due to the l a c k of GVRD a c t i o n s i n sup-p o r t of those aspects of the p l a n n i n g s t y l e . Many respondents commented (Appendix II) on the under r e p r e -s e n t a t i o n , of s p e c i f i c types of i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h i n a p a r t i c u l a r f i e l d of Committee i n t e r e s t and there was a l s o a g e n e r a l concern r e g a r d i n g the over r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of p r o f e s s i o n a l s and, the under r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of the 'common man'. The h i g h l e v e l of d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h the o v e r a l l r e p r e s e n -t a t i v e n e s s of the Committees, i n p a r t may a l s o be a t t r i b u t a b l e t o the s m a l l number of p a r t i c i p a n t s i n view of the amount of work t o be done by the Committee (question 2, Table 7), the number of Committee member 'drop outs' (question 3, Table 7), and the 97. g e o g r a p h i c a l d i s t r i b u t i o n of Committee members - e s p e c i a l l y the p a u c i t y of members from o u t l y i n g c e n t r e s and r u r a l areas of the d i s t r i c t (question 4, Table 7; and Appendix I I ) . A A l l q q u e s t i o n s r e l a t i n g t o e f f o r t s t o encourage more and b e t t e r p a r t i c i p a t i o n (questions 5 t o 8, Table 7) were answered by approximately 50% of a l l the respondents. T h i s i n d i c a t e s t h a t perhaps such e f f o r t s o c c u r r e d too l a t e i n the h i s t o r y of the Committees t o be experienced by many of the p a r t i c i p a n t s who dropped out e a r l y . The respondents' answers t o these q u e s t i o n s i n d i c a t e d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h a l l attempts t o improve p a r t i c i p a -t i o n . C. Communications In a d d i t i o n t o the q u e s t i o n s concerning the d i a l o g u e between p a r t i c i p a n t s , and p l a n n e r s and p o l i t i c i a n s , the q u e s t i o n n a i r e i n c l u d e d the q u e s t i o n s r e g a r d i n g communications c o n t a i n e d i n Table 9. As w i t h the d i a l o g u e between the p a r t i c i p a n t s and the p l a n -ners i t a l s o appears, from t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e r e s u l t s , t h a t com-munications w i t h i n and between the Committee and the g e n e r a l pub-l i c were not p a r t i c u l a r l y s u c c e s s f u l (see Table 9). Four respondents commented on the matter o f communications w i t h the p u b l i c and each one suggested a reform measure (see Appendix I I ) . The suggestions ranged from a low d i r e c t i n v o l v e -ment but more r e g u l a r i z e d c i t i z e n presence by p l a c i n g c i t i z e n members on GVRD committees; t o the r e t e n t i o n of c i t i z e n committees TABLE X»I • • . • COMMUNICATIONS OF THE NON NEUTRAL RESPONSES Percentage Percentage Number of Non D i s s a t i s f i e d & S a t i s f i e d & Question N e u t r a l Responses Very D i s s a t i s f i e d Very S a t i s f i e d HOW SATISFACTORY WAS/WERE -1. communications between sub-groups of the Committee? 2. communications w i t h Commit-tees h a v i n g o v e r l a p p i n g sub-j e c t areas a) b e f o r e the establishment of the Communications Committee? b) a f t e r the establishment of the Communications Committee? 3. communications w i t h i n d i v i -d u a ls or groups who might have ai d e d or b e n e f i t e d from the Committee's work? 4. the Committee's attempts t o s o l i c i t p u b l i c input ... ( o v e r a l l assessment) 54 44 34 60 61 45% 82 71 71 67 55% 18 29 29 33 99. but w i t h more exposure t o the g e n e r a l p u b l i c and s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t groups and more co n t a c t w i t h GVRD p o l i t i c i a n s and p l a n n e r s . In summary, i t appears t h a t the GVRD's P o l i c y Committee program, a t l e a s t i n the o p i n i o n of the Committee members, was detached from the p l a n n i n g and p o l i t i c a l d e c i s i o n making pr o c e s s ; and, as has been demonstrated i n t h i s s e c t i o n , d i v o r c e d from the community a t l a r g e . D. A d m i n i s t r a t i v e , S e c r e t a r i a l and P r o f e s s i o n a l A i d t o the Committees Table 10 l i s t s those survey q u e s t i o n s d e a l i n g w i t h the GVRD's a d m i n i s t r a t i v e , s e c r e t a r i a l , and p r o f e s s i o n a l a i d t o the Committees and summarizes the respondents' answers. The most s u c c e s s f u l aspect of the P o l i c y Committee program and perhaps the s i n g l e source of g e n e r a l s a t i s f a c t i o n t h a t might convince p a r t i c i p a n t s t o v o l u n t e e r f o r a s i m i l a r program i n the f u t u r e was the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e and s e c r e t a r i a l a i d t o the Commit-t e e s . A l s o what appears t o have been a major e f f o r t by a small number of GVRD s t a f f may have c o n t r i b u t e d t o p a r t i c i p a n t s a t i s -f a c t i o n w i t h the s i n c e r i t y of the pl a n n e r s s motives. Two f a c t o r s which appear to have been d e c i s i v e i n i n f l u e n -c i n g the respondents' o v e r a l l s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h the a d m i n i s t r a -t i v e and s e c r e t a r i a l a i d t o the Committees (question 1, Table 10) were the S e c r e t a r i a t ' s r e p o r t i n g of Committee meetings (question 2, Table 10), and the S e c r e t a r i a t ' s performance of i t s i n t e r -Committee l i a i s o n f u n c t i o n (question 3, Table 10). TABLE XI'I ADMINISTRATIVE, SECRETARIAL, AND PROFESSIONAL AID TO THE COMMITTEES OF THE NON NEUTRAL RESPONSES Percentage Percentage Number of Non D i s s a t i s f i e d & S a t i s f i e d & Question N e u t r a l Responses Very D i s s a t i s f i e d Very S a t i s f i e d HOW SATISFACTORY WAS/WERE -1. GVRD's a d m i n i s t r a t i v e and s e c r e t a r i a l a i d t o the Committee? 2. the p r o v i s i o n of e x i s t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n by GVRD s t a f f ? 3. GVRD re s e a r c h f o r the Committee? 4. GVRD t e c h n i c a l i n p u t t o Committee d i s c u s s i o n s ? 5. the s e c r e t a r i a t ' s r e p o r t -i n g of Committee meetings? 6. the S e c r e t a r i a t ' s performance of i t s inter-Committee l i a i s o n f u n c t i o n ? 7. GVRD s t a f f attempts t o a i d the Committee i n a r r i v i n g at r e a l i s t i c recommendations w i t h -out e x e r c i s i n g undue i n f l u e n c e ? 8. the amount of money a v a i l a b l e t o the Committee? 9. the requirements f o r a budget p r i o r t o the disbursement of funds? 10. the sc h e d u l i n g of meetings? 11. the l o c a t i o n s of meetings? 80 14% 86% 89 33 67 52 31 69 58 36 64 70 6 94 51 24 76 61 18 82 54 26 74 49 37 63 74 11 89 72 20 80 101. U n f o r t u n a t e l y , the h i g h l e v e l of p a r t i c i p a n t s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h GVRD's a d m i n i s t r a t i v e and s e c r e t a r i a l a i d t o the Committee (question 1, Table 10) d i d not extend t o the more t e c h n i c a l or p r o f e s s i o n a l types of a i d such as the p r o v i s i o n of i n f o r m a t i o n , r e s e a r c h , and t e c h n i c a l input t o Committee d i s c u s s i o n s (ques-t i o n 4, 5 and 6, Table 10).' One p a r t i c i p a n t was p a r t i c u l a r l y e x p l i c i t i n h i s recommendations f o r improved t e c h n i c a l and pro-f e s s i o n a l a i d t o the Committee's work. "The s t a f f r o l e t h a t I b e l i e v e the committee r e q u i r e d was t h a t of e n a b l i n g and a s s i s t i n g the committee t o achieve i t s o b j e c t i v e by h e l p i n g t o i d e n t i f y a l t e r n a t i v e approaches, e n s u r i n g t h a t workable methods are b e i n g used and c o n s i s t e n t w i t h o b j e c t i v e s , i d e n t i f y i n g i s s u e s and v a r i o u s p o i n t s of view, e t c . , i n order t o ensure t h a t the committee i s l o o k i n g at a l l s i d e s of the q u e s t i o n , v a r i o u s a l t e r n a -t i v e s , e t c . Between meetings, c o n t i n u i t y of r e s e a r c h and p r e p a r a t i o n of d r a f t documents, e t c . , would be c a r r i e d out, making i t p o s s i b l e f o r the v o l u n t e e r chairman t o f u n c t i o n adequately. T h i s i s a s k i l l e d job and one which we s o r e l y missed." N o t ; s u r p r i s i n g l y , the l a c k of a i d by the p r o f e s s i o n a l s t a f f d i d r e s u l t i n a h i g h s a t i s f a c t i o n response t o the q u e s t i o n r e g a r d -i n g GVRD s t a f f attempts t o a i d the Committee i n a r r i v i n g a t r e a l i s t i c recommendations without e x e r c i s i n g undue i n f l u e n c e (question 7, Table 10) s i n c e i f they d i d not take p a r t i n Com-mit t e e d i s c u s s i o n s they would not be e x e r c i s i n g undue i n f l u e n c e . The amount of money a v a i l a b l e to t h e Committee (question 8, Table 10) and the requirement f o r a budget p r i o r t o the d i s b u r s e -102. ment of funds (question 9, Table 10) were not matters of major concern s i n c e only h a l f of the t o t a l number of respondents answered non n e u t r a l l y . Furthermore, although d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n was q u i t e h i g h w i t h each of these aspects of Committee o p e r a t i o n s , t h e i r s o l u t i o n i s so s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d t h a t f u r t h e r comment i s not r e q u i r e d . L a s t l y , the s c h e d u l i n g of meetings (question 11, Table 10) and the l o c a t i o n s of meetings (question 12, Table 10) were handled s a t i s f a c t o r i l y by the Committees wi t h and from the S e c r e t a r i a t . In summary, a l l aspects of the GVRD's a d m i n i s t r a t i v e and s e c r e t a r i a l a i d t o the Committees except f o r the more t e c h n i c a l matters of p r o v i d i n g i n f o r m a t i o n , conducting r e s e a r c h and t a k i n g p a r t i n t e c h n i c a l d i s c u s s i o n s were handled very s u c c e s s f u l l y . The p a r t i c i p a n t s ' poor d i a l o g u e w i t h the p l a n n e r s probably con-t r i b u t e d s u b s t a n t i a l l y t o t h e i r d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h the GVRD's t e c h n i c a l a i d , and t h e r e f o r e any s o l u t i o n t o t h i s problem must be sought i n c l a r i f y i n g and improving the r e l a t i o n s h i p between p a r t i c i p a n t s and p l a n n e r s . E. Committee Dynamics Table 11 s t a t e s the q u e s t i o n s and summarizes the respondents' answers t o t h a t p o r t i o n of the survey w h i c h h i n v e s t i g a t e d the g e n e r a l q u e s t i o n of committee dynamics. Committee attempts t o e s t a b l i s h and f o l l o w a work programme were not p a r t i c u l a r l y s u c c e s s f u l , (question 1, Table 11); however, i t appears from respondent answers that t h i s was not due to the TABLE X I I I COMMITTEE DYNAMICS OF THE NON NEUTRAL RESPONSES Percentage Percentage Number of Non D D i s s a t i s f i e d & S a t i s f i e d & Questions N e u t r a l Responses Very D i s s a t i s f i e d V ery S a t i s f i e d HOW SATISFACTORY WAS/WERE -1. Committee attempts to e s t a b l i s h and f o l l o w a work programme? 2. i(the l e a d e r s h i p of the Committee chairman)'? 3. the working r e l a t i o n s h i p between Committee members wi t h d i f f e r e n t i n t e r e s t s ; e.g. p r o f e s s i o n a l , s p e c i a l , g e n e r a l ? 4. the degree t o which c o n f l i c t -i n g viewpoints were r e c o n c i l e d ? 5. the degree of unanimity among members on the Committee's recommendations? 6. HOW SATISFIED ARE YOU -6. t h a t the Committee has met the r e p o r t requirements as o r i g i n a l l y s t a t e d by GVRD? 7. w i t h the depth of a n a l y s i s and f e a s i b i l i t y of your recommenda-t i o n s ? 71 41% 59% 59 24 76 65 31 69 66 38 62 54 13 87 65 37 63 72 50 c ^ 50 104. Committee's l e a d e r s h i p (question 2, Table 11) but r a t h e r t o the working r e l a t i o n s h i p between Committee members w i t h d i f f e r e n t i n t e r e s t s (question 3, Table 11). Respondent comments a l s o i n d i c a t e d t h i s f a c t . " G e n e r a l l y the Committee c o n s i s t e d of too many ' p r o f e s s i o n a l ' p a r t i c i p a n t s , i . e . '^.people who get o f f on going t o every meeting i n s i g h t about e v e r y t h i n g under the sun. They i n themselves, tend t o attempt t o speak f o r the p u b l i c as i f they know f o r c e r t a i n p u b l i c a t t i t u d e s , d e s i r e s , e t . a l . T h i s i d e a t h a t they know and can thus a c c u r a t e l y assess the v a l u e of c e r t a i n i s s u e s and ways of l i f e , e t c . , i s as dangerous and m i s l e a d i n g as a p o l i t i c i a n and planner making these same s o r t s of c l a i m s . The reason I dropped out was over the f a i l u r e of these people t o r e a l i z e the l i m i t s of t h e i r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e n e s s of p u b l i c wishes." A l t e r n a t e l y , another i n d i v i d u a l s t a t e d : "How much b e t t e r t o s e l e c t people w i t h some knowledge of a s u b j e c t t o g i v e a d v i c e on t h a t s u b j e c t than t o take j u s t anyone o f f the s t r e e t . The GVRD c o u l d not r e a l l y have been s e r i o u s ! " Because of the poor working r e l a t i o n s h i p between d i f f e r e n t types of p a r t i c i p a n t s i t i s understandable t h a t the r e s o l u t i o n of c o n f l i c t i n g v i ewpoints would be d i f f i c u l t ( q uestion 4, Table 11). In view of t h i s response i t i s not q u i t e so c l e a r why the respondents expressed s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h the degree of unanimity among members concerning the Committee's recommendations 105 . (q u e s t i o n 5, Table 11). The author suspects however, t h a t t h i s i s due i n p a r t t o the f a c t t h a t s e v e r a l respondents dropped out because of disagreement w i t h other members' viewpoints but may a l s o be due t o the nature of the recommendations; t h a t i s , t h a t they may r e p r e s e n t the lowest common denominator of agreement. L a s t l y , a h i g h percentage of respondents were d i s s a t i s f i e d w i t h the degree t o which the Committee had met the GVRD's r e p o r t requirements (question 6, Table 11) and the depth of a n a l y s i s and f e a s i b i l i t y of the Committee's recommendations (question 7, Table 11). These l a s t two f a c t o r s suggest t h a t a review of the nature and i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s of the respondents'uanswers i s i n order so t h a t t h i s l a s t and perhaps most d i s c o u r a g i n g response can be more f u l l y e v a l u a t e d . I t appears t h a t no s i n g l e q u e s t i o n response w i t h i n any of the f i v e major c a t e g o r i e s d e s c r i b e d i n Part IV of t h i s chapter can be c r e d i t e d as the r o o t cause of o v e r a l l p a r t i c i p a n t d i s s a t i s -f a c t i o n . For example, w i t h r e s p e c t t o the matter of r e p r e s e n t a -t i v e n e s s , respondents were d i s s a t i s f i e d w i t h the balance of types of p a r t i c i p a n t s , the a b s o l u t e number of Committee members and t h e i r geographic d i s t r i b u t i o n , and attempts t o improve p a r t i c i p a -t i o n and r e p r e s e n t a t i v e n e s s . Furthermore, d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h i n one category of responses a f f e c t and are a f f e c t e d by d i s s a t i s f a c -t i o n w i t h other aspects of the Committee p r o c e s s . For example, the " i n b a l a n c e " of types of p a r t i c i p a n t s r e s u l t e d i n Committee d i f f i c u l t i e s i n e s t a b l i s h i n g and f o l l o w i n g a work program and d r a f t i n g the f i n a l r e p o r t . Because of the i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s and 106. the cumulative e f f e c t s of d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n , the responses t o many-que s t i o n s must be viewed as an amalgamation of numerous s p e c i f i c d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n s . T h i s f a c t , however, does not r e s o l v e the b a s i c i n c o n s i s t e n c y r e v e a l e d i n t h i s study. That i s , the p a r t i c i p a n t s ' d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h the P o l i c y Committee p o r t i o n of the L i v a b l e Region program.is at odds wi t h the GVRD's w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d p a r t i c i p a t i o n s t y l e of p l a n n i n g . To e x p l a i n t h i s i n c o n s i s t e n c y the author has reviewed the development of the P o l i c y Committees i n view of the p a r t i c i -pant d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n s r e v e a l e d i n the survey responses. The con-c l u s i o n s to t h i s review appear i n the f o l l o w i n g chapter. Chapter V SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, RECOMMENDATIONS 108. T h i s chapter w i l l summarize the r e s u l t s of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e a n a l y s i s i n r e l a t i o n t o both the t r a n s a c t i v e p l a n n i n g s t y l e and s p e c i f i c aspects of the P o l i c y Committee experience o f the par -t i c i p a n t s . The author then o u t l i n e s the suspected b a s i c cause of p a r t i c i p a n t d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n and suggests c e r t a i n g u i d e l i n e s t h a t might a i d other agencies embarking on s i m i l a r programs i n the f u t u r e . I. Summary of Q u e s t i o n n a i r e A n a l y s i s In t o t a l , the q u e s t i o n n a i r e r e t u r n s i n d i c a t e g e n e r a l d i s -s a t i s f a c t i o n with the P o l i c y Committee process as experienced by the respondents. T h i s d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n was e v i d e n t i n the : responses o f a l l Committee members i r r e s p e c t i v e of whether they were s i g n a t o r i e s t o the Committee^s f i n a l r e p o r t . A. T r a n s a c t i v e Planning and the P o l i c y Committee Process P o l i c y Committee members expressed c o n s i d e r a b l e d i s s a t i s -f a c t i o n w i t h a l l of the p a r t i c i p a n t s a t i s f y i n g aspects of the t r a n s a c t i v e p l a n n i n g s t y l e ; as experienced d u r i n g membership oh the P o l i c y Committees. More s p e c i f i c a l l y , p a r t i c i p a n t s were d i s -s a t i s f i e d w ith: 1. the l a c k of a s u i t a b l e d i a l o g u e with the GVRD p o l i t i c i a n s and t o a l e s s e r extent w i t h the GVRD p l a n n e r s . 2. t h e i r l a c k of a p p r e c i a t i o n of other p a r t i c i p a n t view-p o i n t s , p a r t i c u l a r l y those of members of other P o l i c y Committees, and what they c o n s i d e r e d t o be the depth of the p o l i t i c i a n s ' knowledge of the p a r t i c i p a n t s 1 v i e w p o i n t s . 109* 3. t h e i r lack of a sense of involvement i n the Livable Region Planning process. 4. the s l i g h t increase i n the i r competance i n the Committee's subject area. B. Participant D i s s a t i s f a c t i o n with P a r t i c u l a r Aspects of Their GVRD Policy Committee Experience Participants were d i s s a t i s f i e d with v i r t u a l l y a l l of the major aspects of the Policy Committee process as i d e n t i f i e d by the author from Committee minutes and reports. More s p e c i f i c a l l y , participants were generally d i s s a t i s f i e d with: 1. Committee Role and Function Participants were d i s s a t i s f i e d with the GVRD's explana-t i o n of the Committee's role and function e s p e c i a l l y i n regard to the Committee's advisory rather than a c t i v i s t role, uncertainty regarding the Committee's appropriate scope of a c t i v i t y , and the amount of time a l l o t t e d by the GVRD for completion of the Committees 1 work. Furthermore, lack of success i n resolving the above d i f f i c u l t i e s and the Board's displeasure at some Committee's a c t i v i t i e s i n p u b l i c i z i n g t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s probably contributed to the participants' suspicions regarding the planners and to a greater extent the p o l i t i c i a n s ' motives i n establishing the Policy Committees. 2. Representativeness A major concern of many participants was what they considered to be the lack of representativeness of 110. the Committee's membership. This d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n was directed towards the low number of participants, the over representation of professionals and special interest groups as opposed to c i t i z e n s with a general inter e s t , the lack of attendance at Committee meetings of p o l i t i c i a n s and administrators from a l l l e v e l s of government, and the low representation from outlying regional centres and r u r a l areas. Furthermore, participants were d i s s a t i s f i e d with t h e i r Policy Com-mittee's and the special purpose Membership Commit-tee's e f f o r t s to improve p a r t i c i p a t i o n and repre-sentativeness and t h e i r lack of success i n s o l i c i t i n g public input to t h e i r work. 3. Communications As might be expected, given the par t i c i p a n t s ' stated d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n with the lack of public input to their work, the participants were also d i s s a t i s f i e d with the Committee's lack of, or poor communications with the general public and interested groups and i n d i v i -duals. Also, reconfirmed i n this section was the fact that participants were d i s s a t i s f i e d with the lack of a suitable dialogue between the Committee and the GVRD p o l i t i c i a n s and planners. More surprising however, was the general d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n with Communi-cations within and between Policy Committees. In the case of communications between Committees having 111. s i m i l a r i n t e r e s t s , t h i s d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n was unaccept-a b l y h i g h even a f t e r the esta b l i s h m e n t of the s p e c i a l Communications Committee. I t appears t h e r e f o r e t h a t the Committees f u n c t i o n e d q u i t e s e p a r a t e l y from the GVRD planners, p o l i t i c i a n s , and the g e n e r a l p u b l i c . A c c o r d i n g t o Friedmann's t r a n s a c t i v e p l a n n i n g theory, d i a l o g u e between a l l p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the pl a n n i n g process i s the keystone of a s u c c e s s f u l and p a r t i c i -pant s a t i s f y i n g p l a n n i n g s t y l e . I t f o l l o w s t h e r e f o r e t h a t many s p e c i f i c p a r t i c i p a n t d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n s may be due to the l a c k of a s u i t a b l e d i a l o g u e w i t h those whom the Committee members f e l t should have been i n v o l v e d i n Committee d i s c u s s i o n s . 4. A d m i n i s t r a t i v e , S e c r e t a r i a l , and P r o f e s s i o n a l A i d to the Committees The g r e a t e s t source of c o n s i s t e n t l y h i g h p a r t i c i p a n t s a t i s f a c t i o n was the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e and s e c r e t a r i a l a i d t o the Committees. T h i s category i n c l u d e s such s e r v i c e s as the p r o v i s i o n of Committee minutes, the S e c r e t a r i a t ' s a i d i n inter-Committee l i a i s o n , and the sc h e d u l i n g and l o c a t i o n of meetings. P a r t i c i p a n t s however, were d i s s a t i s f i e d with the amount of p r o f e s s i o n a l and t e c h n i c a l a i d p r o v i d e d t o the Committees by the GVRD Planning Department. T h i s sentiment c o r r e l a t e s w e l l w i t h the p a r t i c i p a n t s 1 d i s -112. s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h t h e i r d i a l o g u e w i t h the GVRD p l a n -ning s t a f f . The p a r t i c i p a n t s ' poor d i a l o g u e w i t h the p lanners may have c o n t r i b u t e d s u b s t a n t i a l l y to t h e i r d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n with the GVRD's t e c h n i c a l a i d , and t h e r e f o r e any s o l u t i o n to t h i s problem must be sought i n c l a r i f y i n g and improving the r e l a t i o n s h i p between p a r t i c i p a n t s and p l a n n e r s . 5. Committee Dynamics The major d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n s i n t h i s category appear t o be due to other aspects of the P o l i c y Committee pro-c e s s . For example, the p a r t i c i p a n t s ' d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h the q u a l i t y of t h e i r working r e l a t i o n s h i p between d i f f e r e n t types of Committee p a r t i c i p a n t s (e.g. aca-demics versus c i t i z e n with a g e n e r a l i n t e r e s t i n the Committee's s u b j e c t area) can be t r a c e d i n p a r t to the over r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of p r o f e s s i o n a l s i n the Committees' memberships. D i s s a t i s f a c t i o n with the depth of a n a l y -s i s and f e a s i b i l i t y of the Committee's recommendations may be a t t r i b u t a b l e i n p a r t to the shortage of time, s m a l l number of p a r t i c i p a n t s , and the l a c k of p r o f e s -s i o n a l s t a f f and p o l i t i c a l a i d to- the Committees i n f o r m u l a t i n g recommendations. L a s t l y , p a r t i c i p a n t d i s -s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h the Committee's poor f u l f i l l m e n t of the Committee's terms of r e f e r e n c e may be due to i n i -t i a l c o n f u s i o n r e g a r d i n g the Committees' r o l e , func-t i o n , and scope of i n v e s t i g a t i o n and subsequent 113. d i f f i c u l t i e s i n r e s o l v i n g these d i f f i c u l t i e s because of poor communications w i t h GVRD p o l i t i c i a n s and p l a n -ners . I I . C o n c l u s i o n s A f t e r reviewing the GVRD's e x p e c t a t i o n s and e f f o r t s i n sup-p o r t of the P o l i c y Committees, and the nature of the p a r t i c i p a n t s ' d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n s , the author has concluded t h a t the GVRD attempted too much i n too sh o r t a time and t h a t most p a r t i c i p a n t d i s s a t i s -f a c t i o n s can be t r a c e d t o t h i s f a c t . A. Role and F u n c t i o n C l e a r l y the GVRD's o r i g i n a l terms of r e f e r e n c e , which requested the f o l l o w i n g content t o Committee r e p o r t s , were too r i g o r o u s f o r what c o u l d r e a l i s t i c a l l y have been accomplished by c i t i z e n committees i n the time a l l o t t e d . The content of Commit-tee r e p o r t s was to i n c l u d e : 1. suggested p o l i c y o b j e c t i v e s f o r the Committee's s u b j e c t a r e a . 2. the a p p r o p r i a t e r o l e and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the Regional D i s t r i c t w i t h r e s p e c t t o the Committee's s u b j e c t a r e a . 3. proposed l i v a b i l i t y i n d i c a t o r s t o be used t o d e t e r -mine whether or not progress i s being made towards improved l i v a b i l i t y i n i t s s u b j e c t area. 4. comment on the adequacy of the p o l i c y statements c o n t a i n e d i n the Report on L i v a b i l i t y . 5 . a^repo.-rit on those steps which should be taken by the D i s t r i c t t o o p e r a t i o n a l i z e each p o l i c y statement 114. 6. i f p o s s i b l e , s t a t e the l e v e l of o p e r a t i n g and c a p i t a l expenditures r e q u i r e d to c a r r y out the p o l i c i e s . Furthermore, the f a c t t h a t nine P o l i c y Committees were formed wi t h v e r y broad and i n some cases obscure s u b j e c t areas l e d to c o n f u s i o n r e g a r d i n g the a p p r o p r i a t e r o l e and scope of i n v e s t i g a -t i o n t h a t the Committees should adopt i n order to f u l f i l l t h e i r f u n c t i o n as d e f i n e d by the terms of r e f e r e n c e . B. Representativeness D i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h P o l i c y Committee r e p r e s e n t a t i v e n e s s , a concern of many respondents i s r e l a t e d t o the s c a l e of the par-t i c i p a t i o n program and a l s o t o i t s appearance as a 'once only' e x e r c i s e . The author suspects t h a t a v e r y l a r g e program would tend t o d e t e r those who might p r e f e r to \Waitaaridssee' b e f o r e v o l u n t e e r i n g t h e i r s e r v i c e s . Those who would be h e s i t a n t i n becoming Committee members would l i k e l y be c i t i z e n s w i t h a g e n e r a l i n t e r e s t i n the s u b j e c t while those who would more r e a d i l y a t t e n d would probably be more experienced i n d i s c u s s i n g t h e i r v i e w p o i n t s , such as p r o f e s s i o n a l s , academics, or r e p r e -s e n t a t i v e s of i n t e r e s t groups. Furthermore, the l i m i t e d time a v a i l a b l e t o the Committees and the scope of t h e i r s u b j e c t areas may have p r e c l u d e d attempts t o s o l i c i t r e p r e s e n t a t i o n from out-l y i n g areas or more g e n e r a l c i t i z e n i n p u t . S i m i l a r l y , the s h o r t p e r i o d of time over which the Committees were to d i s c u s s t h e i r s u b j e c t areas and d r a f t the r e p o r t s may have made i t extremely 115. d i f f i c u l t f o r the r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l number of p o l i t i c i a n s and knowledgeable government a d m i n i s t r a t o r s w i t h numerous other demands on t h e i r time t o s a t i s f a c t o r i l y a i d the Committees by t h e i r attendance. C. Communications Although the f a c t t h a t the Committees operated w i t h l i t t l e communication w i t h each other, the p o l i t i c i a n s , the planners and the g e n e r a l p u b l i c appears t o be a r e s u l t of a l a c k of e f f o r t on the p a r t of the Committees and an absence of a i d by the GVRD s t a f f . Such an unsympathetic view of the p a r t i c i p a n t s and the GVRD's e f f o r t s h i d e s the f a c t t h a t the Committees, a f t e r r e s o l v i n g d i f f i c u l t i e s w i t h the terms of r e f e r e n c e and formula-t i n g a work program were l e f t w ith v e r y l i t t l e time t o do any-t h i n g but attempt t o d r a f t a r e p o r t c o n t a i n i n g recommendations th a t would be supported by a l l or most of the Committee members. D. P r o f e s s i o n a l , A d m i n i s t r a t i v e and S e c r e t a r i a l A i d The GVRD s t a f f was put i n a ve r y d i f f i c u l t p o s i t i o n by the Board's d e c i s i o n t o advance the d e a d l i n e f o r p r e s e n t a t i o n of a new d r a f t R e g i o n a l Plan and t h e i r own d e a d l i n e imposed on the P o l i c y Committees f o r submission of the f i n a l r e p o r t s . I n e v i -t a b l y too l i t t l e time was a v a i l a b l e f o r the s t a f f t o adequately f u l f i l l a l l t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s as members of a pl a n n i n g agency with an ambitious work programme and as a r e s u l t t h e i r a i d t o the P o l i c y Committees s u f f e r e d . Indeed, d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n would have been even more widespread i f i t was not f o r the major 116. e f f o r t of a few p l a n n i n g s t a f f , performing p r i m a r i l y a d m i n i s t r a -t i v e and s e c r e t a r i a l s e r v i c e s f o r the Committees. E. Committee Dynamics The a n a l y s i s of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e responses i n d i c a t e d t h a t the problems i d e n t i f i e d g e n e r a l l y as matters of Committee dyna-mics, such as the poor working r e l a t i o n s h i p between d i f f e r e n t types of p a r t i c i p a n t s were a t t r i b u t a b l e t o other more s p e c i f i c causes such as the imbalance i n the types of Committee members. Yet as has been demonstrated i n t h i s s e c t i o n , these s p e c i f i c causes can be gathered under an a l l embracing c o n c l u s i o n t h a t the GVRD attempted too much i n the way of c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n too s h o r t a time. F. The T r a n s a c t i v e Planning Theory I f t h i s c o n c l u s i o n d i d not l o g i c a l l y f o l l o w from an a n a l y s i s of the GVRD's c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n e f f o r t and the p a r t i c i p a n t s ' responses t o the P o l i c y Committee methodology, the author might have concluded t h a t the t r a n s a c t i v e p l a n n i n g s t y l e and perhaps i t s fundamental c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n s a t i s f y i n g concepts of con-tinuous d i a l o g u e , mutual l e a r n i n g , and involvement r e s u l t i n g i n i n c r e a s e d competance i n the p l a n n i n g process were an i n a p p r o p r i a t e response t o the needs and demands f o r c i t i z e n i n p u t t o p l a n n i n g i n the Greater Vancouver a r e a . F o r t u n a t e l y , the a n a l y s i s r e s u l t s and t h e s i s c o n c l u s i o n i n d i c a t e s t h a t the f a u l t was not due t o the t h e o r e t i c a l founda-t i o n of GVRD p l a n n i n g p r a c t i s e but r a t h e r was due to an over 117. zealous c i t i z e n involvement program.that r e s u l t e d i n the GVRD not bei n g able t o adequately r e a l i z e the di a l o g u e , mutual l e a r n i n g , sense of involvement and i n c r e a s e d competance aspects of the t r a n s a c t i v e p l a n n i n g s t y l e t h a t were c l e a r l y d e s i r e d by the P o l i c y Committee p a r t i c i p a n t s . I l l . Recommendations The a n a l y s i s and t h e s i s c o n c l u s i o n c o n t a i n s s e v e r a l l e s s o n s f o r the GVRD i n i t s f u t u r e c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s and f o r other agencies embarking on a c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n program. Agencies should not be detered from c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n p r o-grams because of the r e s u l t s of the GVRD's P o l i c y Committee s t r a t e g y and h o p e f u l l y the GVRD w i l l a l s o view t h i s as a l e a r n i n g experience and not i n t e r p r e t the r e s u l t s as a condemnation - o f t h e i r p l a n n i n g s t y l e . The o v e r a l l t h e s i s c o n c l u s i o n i n d i c a t e s t h a t above a l l a s u c c e s s f u l c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n program r e q u i r e s a h i g h degree of agency and p o l i t i c a l commitment t o the i d e a l s of c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n . The a n a l y s i s i n d i c a t e s t h a t a f t e r the GVRD's i n i t i a l e r r o r of attempting too grand a program, each a d d i t i o n a l d i f f i c u l t y , l a r g e or s m a l l , m a g n i f i e d the p a r t i c i p a n t s ' d i s s a t i s -f a c t i o n t o the p o i n t where what were probably q u i t e l o g i c a l a c t i o n s , such as r e q u i r i n g a Committee budget p r i o r t o the d i s -bursement o f funds, were i n t e r p r e t e d as a ges t u r e of non-^confi-dence i n the Committees by the Board. I f necessary t h e r e f o r e , the agency and p o l i t i c i a n s must be a b l e t o demonstrate by t h e i r 118. a c t i o n s t h a t they are s i n c e r e i n t h e i r d e s i r e f o r c i t i z e n i n p u t to the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . As the L i v a b l e Region Plan P o l i c y Committee experience suggests, t h i s commitment may be d i f f i c u l t t o m a i n t a i n i n the face of p a r t i c i p a n t d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n and pro-f e s s i o n a l s t a f f and the p o l i t i c i a n s ' disappointment w i t h the pro-gram r e s u l t s . A second l e s s o n i s t h a t the agency r e s p o n s i b l e f o r such a program should not underestimate the re s o u r c e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y the s t a f f ' s and p o l i t i c i a n ' s time, r e q u i r e d t o achieve p a r t i c i -pant s a t i s f a c t i o n . T h i s was a major source of d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h the P o l i c y Committee members and l e d some p a r t i c i p a n t s t o suspect the s i n c e r i t y of the p o l i t i c i a n s ' and p l a n n e r s ' motives and the l i k e l y success of t h e i r r e p o r t s . I f the GVRD program had not overtaxed the s t a f f ' s time then perhaps through a succe s s -f u l d i a l o g u e they might have been able t o mutually r e s o l v e many of the Committees' d i f f i c u l t i e s and a l l a y e d many of the p a r t i c i -pants' d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n s . Faced w i t h l i m i t e d r esources the GVRD might have b e n e f i t e d from the author's t h i r d s u g g e s t i o n - t h a t wherever and whenever p o s s i b l e the agency r e s p o n s i b l e f o r i n i t i a t i n g the program should design f l e x i b i l i t y i n t o the p a r t i c i p a t i o n s t r a t e g y . For example, i t i s the author's o p i n i o n t h a t i f the P o l i c y Committee program had been designed so t h a t i t c o u l d be i n c r e a s e d i n s c a l e gradu-a l l y t o the p o i n t where optimum use was being made of the GVRD's s t a f f and i n f o r m a t i o n r e s o u r c e s , such as by v a r y i n g the number of Committees formed, v i r t u a l l y a l l of the d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n s 119. would have been s u b s t a n t i a l l y reduced. S i m i l a r l y , i f the GVRD co u l d have prearranged f o r p r o f e s s i o n a l s i n each Committee's s u b j e c t area t o a c t as e i t h e r p a r t - t i m e resource persons or f u l l -time p a r t i c i p a n t s , depending upon the balance i n the types of Committee members, then Committee dynamics may have been improved. Another example i s the r i g o r o u s terms of r e f e r e n c e requirement w i t h r e s p e c t to the Committees' r e p o r t c o n t e n t s . The author suspects t h a t i f the r e p o r t requirements were d e r i v e d at l e a s t i n p a r t through d i s c u s s i o n w i t h the p a r t i c i p a n t s at t h e i r i n i t i a l meeting(s) c o n s i d e r a b l e d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n might have been avoided. Undoubtedly numerous other examples e x i s t but fundamentally the three recommendations, p o l i t i c a l and s t a f f commitment t o the p a r t i c i p a t i o n i d e a l , r e source p l a n n i n g , and program f l e x i b i l i t y , p r o v i d e a s u i t a b l e f o u n d a t i o n f o r the d e s i g n of a p a r t i c i p a t i o n s t r a t e g y c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the agencyes' needs and the community's d e s i r e f o r p u b l i c involvement i n p l a n n i n g . 120. BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. Friedmann, John. R e t r a c k i n g America - A Theory of T r a n s a c t i v e Planning, Anchor Press, 1973. 2. Gerecke, J.K. Toward a New S t y l e of Urban Planning, D r a f t Ph.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n , U.B.C, 1973. 3. GVRD, The Great C i t y Debate: A Four-handed C o n v e r s a t i o n a t Diamond Head, GVRD, December, 1970. 4. GVRD, The L i v a b l e Region Plan - H i s t o r y and Proposed D i r e c t i o n , February, 1972. 5. GVRD, P o l i c y Committees - Membership and Terms of Reference, GVRD, February, 1973. 6. GVRD, Progress Report on the Broad Brush T r a n s p o r t a t i o n P l a n Stream, GVRD, 1971. 7. GVRD, Review of the L i v a b l e Region P u b l i c Program, GVRD, J u l y , 1971. 8. Lash, H.N., Impressions and Lessonsy. B r i t i s h Planning, GVRD, March, 1972. 9. Pearson, N., L i v a b i l i t y I n d i c a t o r s , GVRD, 1971. 10. Pearson, N., P r o j e c t Alpha, GVRD, 1971. 11. P h i l l i p s , A r t h u r , Chairman GVRD Planning Committee, Manage-ment of Growth i n the Vancouver Region, March, 1973. 12. P o l i c y Committee Reports, GVRD, December, 1973. a) E d u c a t i o n and Research b) Environmental Management and P o l l u t i o n c) H e a l t h and P u b l i c P r o t e c t i o n d) R e c r e a t i o n e) R e s i d e n t i a l L i v i n g f) S o c i a l S e r v i c e s g) T r a n s p o r t a t i o n and Tra n s m i s s i o n Note: Government and S o c i e t y P o l i c y Committee Report has y e t to be r e l e a s e d and the P r o d u c t i o n and D i s t r i b u t i o n P o l i c y Committee was d i s s o l v e d . GVRD P o l i c y Committee Minutes a) E d u c a t i o n and Research (11 meetings) b) Environmental Management and P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l (12 meet-ings) c) Government and S o c i e t y (7 meetings) d) H e a l t h and P u b l i c P r o t e c t i o n (15 meetings) e) P r o d u c t i o n and D i s t r i b u t i o n (6 meetings) f) R e c r e a t i o n (9 meetings) g) R e s i d e n t i a l L i v i n g (20 meetings) h) S o c i a l S e r v i c e s (11 meetings) i ) T r a n s p o r t a t i o n and Transmission (7 meetings) Note: Minutes were not kept f o r a l l meetings. Thorburn, D., Terms of Reference and S e l e c t i o n Process f o r the P o l i c y Committees, GVRD, January, 1973. Appendix I QUESTIONNAIRE, CODING, FORMAT, AND DATA LISTING T H E UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA V A N C O U V E R , C A N A D A V 6 T HV5 SCHOOL OF COMMUNITY & REGIONAL PLANNING February 18, 1974 TO: GVRD Polic y Committee Participants FROM: Gordon Tweddell, Graduate Student School of Community and Regional Planning The University of B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver, B.C. V6T 1W5 The purpose of the attached questionnaire i s to evaluate your s a t i s f a c t i o n with the Policy Committee process so that future c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n programs might benefit from the GVRD's experience. The questionnaires w i l l be analysed, incorporated into my Master of Arts thesis, and made available to the GVRD Planning Department. Please return the completed questionnaire i n the enclosed postage paid envelope. If you have any questions, please telephone me at within the next ten days. If you think an important aspect of policy committee operations has not been covered by the questionnaire, please add your comments to the back of the questionnaire. Your cooperation w i l l be greatly appreciated. Yours t r u l y , . Gordon Twedd_eH—p-") \ Gordon Stead Faculty Advisor N/A VP D N S VS • I I I 1 I I N/A: Not Applicable or do not know VD: Very D i s s a t i s f a c t o r y or Very D i s s a t i s f i e d D: D i s s a t i s f a c t o r y or D i s s a t i s f i e d N: Neutral S: S a t i s f a c t o r y or S a t i s f i e d VS: Very S a t i s f a c t o r y or Very S a t i s f i e d Committee #(1 to 9) I (please check for accuracy) 1. Education and Research 2. Environmental Management 3. Government and Society 4. Health and Public Protection 5. Production and D i s t r i b u t i o n 6. Recreation 7. Residential L i v i n g 8. S o c i a l Services 9. Transportation and Transmission 1. Were you involved i n the Committee's l a s t few meetings when i t s recommendations were agreed upon and/or the report drafted y N m Number of meetings attended (approximately) I I Type of p a r t i c i p a n t (describe yourself by checking the most appropriate box) a) P o l i t i c i a n i ) Federal i i ) P r o v i n c i a l i i i ) Local b) Government Administrator i ) Federal i i ) P r o v i n c i a l i i i ) Local e) Representative of an i n t e r e s t group f) C i t i z e n with a general i n t e r e s t g) Other (please specify) c) Academic I I d) Professional i n the sub-j e c t area considered by the Committee I | O v e r a l l , how s a t i s f i e d were you with the Committee form of c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n ? Would you p a r t i c i p a t e again i n a s i m i l a r program? I f you "dropped out" as a Committee member was t h i s because: a) of disagreement with other members viewpoints? b) you f e l t the Committee's work would l i k e l y be i n e f f e c t i v e ? c) of lack of i n t e r e s t i n the Committee's subject area? d) of other reasons (please specify)? N/A VP; D N S VS r i I i YES NO • I I. YES NO • • • n • • B. HOW SATISFIED ARE YOU — 1. that your contribution to Policy Committee de l i b e r a t i o n s has increased — a) the P o l i t i c i a n ' s knowledge of c i t i z e n views? b) other p a r t i c i p a n t ' s knowledge of d i f f e r e n t c i t i z e n viewpoints? N/A VD D N S VS • 1 1 r I I ! 125 . 2. with the amount of knowledge you have acquired as a r e s u l t of your p a r t i c i -pation? HOW SATISFACTORY WAS — 3. your sense of involvement i n the prepara-t i o n of the Regional Plan? 4. the dialogue between the Committee and a) GVRD Planners? b) GVRD P o l i t i c i a n s ? 5. the willingness of GVRD Planners to a l t e r t h e i r viewpoints i n Committee discussions? 6. How s a t i s f a c t o r y would you judge your increased competance i n the Committee's subject area to be as a r e s u l t of your p a r t i c i p a t i o n ? C HOW SATISFACTORY WAS/WERE _ 1. GVRD's explanation of the Committee's advisory r o l e and duties? 2. attempts to resolve any d i f f i c u l t i e s with the Committees' advisory r o l e and duties? — 3. the Committee's advisory rather than a c t i v i s t role? 4. the temporary nature of the Committee? 5 . the Board's p r o h i b i t i o n of public d i s -closure of reports or other autonomous act i o n by the Committee? 6. the degree of freedom given the Committee to a r r i v e at independent recommendations? HOW SATISFIED ARE YOU — N/A VD D N S VS r-r~\ • B • • N/A _ L _ L I I I I I VD D N S VS I 1 1 1 1 1 I 1 I • i ~ r r • i ~ T T I I I T i l 7. with the l i k e l i h o o d of your recommenda-tio n s being implemented,given GVRD's powers? [ 8. with the l i k e l y amount of consideration the Board w i l l give to your recommendations, given the Committee's advisory role? 9. that the stated purpose of the Committees (to provide c i t i z e n input to planning d e c i s i o n making) was a sincere motive on the part of: a) GVRD Planners? b) GVRD P o l i t i c i a n s ? D. HOW SATISFACTORY WAS/WERE — 1. the policy, statements contained i n the Report on L i v a b i l i t y i n defining the Committee's scope of a c t i v i t y ? 2. GVRD s t a f f a i d i n determining the Committee's appropriate scope of a c t i v i t y ? 3. the time a l l o t t e d f o r completion of the Committee's report? B i I I L T J 4. the number of Committees created, i n view of the t o t a l subject area to be considered by a l l the Committees? LZL I I I I i ~ i 126. E. HOW SATISFACTORY WAS/WERE — 1. GVRD's administrative and s e c r e t a r i a l a i d to the Committee? 2. the pr o v i s i o n of e x i s t i n g information by GVRD s t a f f ? 3. GVRD research f o r the Committee? 4. GVRD t e c h n i c a l input to Committee discussions? 5 . the S e c r e t a r i a t ' s reporting of Committee meetings? 6. the Se c r e t a r i a t ' s performance of i t s inter-Committee l i a i s o n function? 7. GVRD s t a f f attempts to aid the Committee i n a r r i v i n g at r e a l i s t i c recommendations without e x e r c i s i n g undue influence? 8. the amount of money a v a i l a b l e to the Committee? 9. the requirement f o r a budget p r i o r to the disbursement of funds? 10. the Plan Group-Policy Committee workshop i n terms of aiding the Committee's de l i b e r a t i o n ? 11. the scheduling of meetings? 12. the locat i o n s of meetings? F. HOW SATISFACTORY WAS/WERE — 1. the o v e r a l l representativeness of the Committee? 2. the co n t r i b u t i o n of each of the following groups to the Committee's work? a) P o l i t i c i a n s i ) Federal i i ) P r o v i n c i a l N/A VD D N S VS i i i ) Regional iv) Local b) Government Administrators i ) Federal i i ) P r o v i n c i a l i i i ) Regional iv) Local c) Academics d) Professionals i n the subject area of the Committee's work e) Representatives of i n t e r e s t groups f) C i t i z e n s with a general i n t e r e s t g) Others, (please specify) 3. the absolute number of pa r t i c i p a n t s i n view of the amount of work to be done by the Committee? 4. the geographical d i s t r i b u t i o n of the Committee's membership? 5 . the number of member "drop outs", i n view of the amount of work to be done by the Committee? • LZL • r • [ • • • • 3ZX • 6. GVRD's s o l i c i t i n g of: a) a d d i t i o n a l f u l l - t i m e p a r t i c i p a n t s b) part-time resource persons? 7. the e f f o r t s of the Committee to encourage p a r t i c i p a t i o n by those not otherwise w i l -l i n g or able to p a r t i c i p a t e ? 8. the e f f o r t s of the Committee to s o l i c i t a l a r g e r or more representative membership? 9. the e f f o r t s of the Membership Committee to s o l i c i t a l a r g e r or more representative membership? 10. Which of the following groups were under-represented so as to a f f e c t the balance of viewpoints on the Committee? a) P o l i t i c i a n s i ) Federal N A VD D N S VS • L" c) Academics i i ) P r o v i n c i a l i i i ) Regional iv) Local b) Government Administrators i ) Federal i i ) P r o v i n c i a l i i i ) Regional iv) Local • d) Professionals i n the subject area of the Committee's work I | e) Representatives of i n t e r e s t groups | | f) C i t i z e n s with a general i n t e r e s t j | g) Others (please specify) 11 . Which of the following groups were over represented so as to a f f e c t the balance of viewpoints on the Committee? c) Academics | I d) Professionals i n the subject area of the Committee's work e) Representatives of i n t e r e s t groups f) C i t i z e n s with a general i n t e r e s t g) Others (please specify) a) P o l i t i c i a n s i ) Federal i i ) P r o v i n c i a l i i i ) Regional iv) Local , , b) Government Administrators i ) Federal ' ' i i ) P r o v i n c i a l i i i ) Regional iv) Local G. HOW SATISFACTORY WAS/WERE — 1. communications between subgroups of the Committee? 2. communications with Committees having overlapping subject areas a) before the establishment of the Com-munications Committee? .. b) a f t e r the establishment" of the ...Com-munications Committee? 3. communications with GVRD P o l i t i c i a n s ? 4. communications with i n d i v i d u a l s or groups who might have aided or benefited from the Committee's work? 5. the Committee's attempts to s o l i c i t p ublic input v i a — a) H. b) c) d) e) f) g) t e l e v i s i o n questionnaires press radio seminars others (please specify) o v e r a l l assessment of s a t i s f a c t i o n 6. the Committee's u t i l i z a t i o n of the GVRD Public Program? HOW SATISFACTORY WAS/WERE — 1. the working r e l a t i o n s h i p between Committee members with d i f f e r e n t i n t e r e s t s ; eg., pro f e s s i o n a l , s p e c i a l , general? 2. Committee attempts to e s t a b l i s h and follow a work programme? N/A B VD D N S VD • • • • czr i l r 128. 3. the degree to which c o n f l i c t i n g viewpoints N/A VD D N S VS were reconciled? 4. the degree of unanimity among members on the Committee's recommendations? I I l l 1 ! 5 . I f the Committee appointed a chairman, how s a t i s f a c t o r y was the leadership? I 1 [ ! I i I I If the Committee d i d not appoint a c h a i r -man, how s a t i s f a c t o r i l y d i d the Committee determine and follow through a work programme? ! I I I I I . I I How s a t i s f i e d are you that the Committee has met the report requirements as o r i g i n a l l y stated by GVRD? 1 I I ' l l I I 8. How s a t i s f i e d are you with the depth of . analysis and f e a s i b i l i t y of your ^ _ ^ _ _ _ r _ r _ recommendations? 1 I I I I I I I A D D I T I O N A L C O M M E N T S Unless otherwise noted, the f o l l o w i n g codes apply: a) f o r q u e s t i o n s measuring s a t i s f a c t i o n e.g. N/A VD D N S VS 0 = no response 4 = s a t i s f a c t o r y 1 = very d i s s a t i s f a c t o r y 5 = v e r y s a t i s f a c t o r y 2 = d i s s a t i s f a c t o r y 6 = not a p p l i c a b l e 3 = n e u t r a l b) f o r q u e s t i o n s r e q u i r i n g a yes or no answer e.g. Y N 0 = no response 2 = no 1 = yes 9--= not a p p l i c a b l e 129, ;-j.r 130. Card Number One Column(s) Content 1 t o 3 respondent i d e n t i f i c a t i o n number 4 c a r d number (1) 6 committee number 8 q u e s t i o n A . l 10 and 11 q u e s t i o n A.2; number of meetings attended; code = a c t u a l number of meetings 13 and 14 q u e s t i o n A.3; type of p a r t i -c i p e n t ; code as f o l l o w s : 0 = no response 1 = F e d e r a l P o l i t i c i a n 2 = P r o v i n c i a l P o l i t i c i a n 3 = L o c a l P o l i t i c i a n 4 = F e d e r a l Government A d m i n i s t r a t o r 5 = P r o v i n c i a l Government A d m i n i s t r a t o r 6 = L o c a l Government A d m i n i s t r a t o r 7 = Academic 8 = P r o f e s s i o n a l i n the s u b j e c t area c o n s i d e r e d by the Committee 9 = R e p r e s e n t a t i v e of an i n t e r e s t group 10 = C i t i z e n w i t h a g e n e r a l i n t e r e s t 11 = Other ^ s p e c i f i e d i n the respondents' comments, Appendix II) 16 q u e s t i o n A.4. 18 q u e s t i o n A.5. 20 q u e s t i o n A.6.a. 22 q u e s t i o n A.6.b. 24 q u e s t i o n A.6.c. 26 q u e s t i o n A.6.d. 28 q u e s t i o n B . l . a . 30 q u e s t i o n B . l . b . 32 q u e s t i o n B.2. 34 q u e s t i o n B.3. 36 q u e s t i o n B.4.a. •38 q u e s t i o n B.4.b. 131. Column:(s) Content 40 q u e s t i o n B.5 -42 q u e s t i o n B.6 . 44 q u e s t i o n C . l . 46 q u e s t i o n C.2 . 48 q u e s t i o n C.3. 50 q u e s t i o n C.4. . 52 q u e s t i o n C .5 . 54 q u e s t i o n C.6. 56 q u e s t i o n C.7. 58 q u e s t i o n C .8. 60 q u e s t i o n C.9.a. 62 q u e s t i o n C.9.b. 64 q u e s t i o n D . l . 66 q u e s t i o n D.2 . 68 q u e s t i o n D.3 . 70 q u e s t i o n D.4. 72 q u e s t i o n E . l . 74 q u e s t i o n EJ2 . 76 q u e s t i o n E .3 . 78 q u e s t i o n E.4. 80 q u e s t i o n E .5 . Card Number Two: Column (s) 1 t o 3 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 Content respondent i d e n t i f i c a t i o n number card number (2) q u e s t i o n E.6. q u e s t i o n E.7. q u e s t i o n E.8. q u e s t i o n E.9. q u e s t i o n E.10. q u e s t i o n E . l l . 132. Column(s) Content 18 q u e s t i o n E.12 . 20 q u e s t i o n F . l . 22 q u e s t i o n F.2.a.i) 24 q u e s t i o n F . 2 . b . i i ) 26 q u e s t i o n F . 2 . a . i i i ) 28 q u e s t i o n F.2.a.iv) 30 q u e s t i o n F.2.b.i) 32 q u e s t i o n F . 2 . b . i i ) 34 q u e s t i o n F . 2 . b . i i i ) 36 q u e s t i o n F.2.b.iv) 38 q u e s t i o n F.2.c. 40 q u e s t i o n f.2.d. 42 q u e s t i o n F.2.e. 44 q u e s t i o n F.2.f. 46 q u e s t i o n F .2 .g. 48 q u e s t i o n F .3 . 50 q u e s t i o n F.4. 52 q u e s t i o n F .5 . 54 q u e s t i o n F.6.a. 56 q u e s t i o n F.6.b. 58 q u e s t i o n F.7. 60 q u e s t i o n F .8. 62 q u e s t i o n F.9. For a l l p a r t s of q u e s t i o n s F.10 and F . l l , a ' l ' s i g n i f i e s t h a t the respondent b e l i e v e s t h a t the type of respondent i d e n t i f i e d by the q u e s t i o n was e i t h e r under r e p r e s e n t e d (question F.10) or over r e p r e s e n t e d (question F . l l ) . A'0' s i g n i f i e s t h a t the respondent d i d not check the box o p p o s i t e the type of respondent i d e n t i f i e d by the q u e s t i o n . 64 q u e s t i o n F . l O . a . i ) 66 q u e s t i o n F . l O . a . i i ) 68 q u e s t i o n F . 1 0 . a . i i i ) 133. Column(s) Content 70 q u e s t i o n F . l O . a . i v ) 72 q u e s t i o n F . l O . b . i ) 74 q u e s t i o n F . l O . b . i i ) 76 q u e s t i o n F . l O . b . i i i ) 78 q u e s t i o n F . l O . b . i v ) 80 q u e s t i o n F . l O . c . Card Number Three ColumnXs) Content l~'to 3 respondent i d e n t i f i c a t i o n number 4 card number (3) The coding d e s c r i b e d f o r qu e s t i o n s F.10 and F . l l , c a r d number two, a l s o a p p l i e s t o those p o r t i o n s of qu e s t i o n s F.10 and F . l l coded on c a r d number t h r e e . 6 q u e s t i o n F.lO.d. 8 q u e s t i o n F.lO.e. 10 q u e s t i o n F . l O . f . 12 q u e s t i o n F.lO.g. 14 q u e s t i o n F . l l . a . i ) 16 q u e s t i o n F . l l . a . i i ) 18 q u e s t i o n F . l l . a . i i i ) 20 q u e s t i o n F . l l . a . i v ) 22 q u e s t i o n F . l l . b . i ) 24 q u e s t i o n F . 1 1 . b . i i ) 26 q u e s t i o n F . 1 1 . b . i i i ) 28 q u e s t i o n F . l l . b . i v ) 30 q u e s t i o n F . l l . c . 32 q u e s t i o n F . l l . d . 34 q u e s t i o n F . l l . e . 36 q u e s t i o n F . l l . f . Column(s) 38 40 42 44 46 48 50 52 54 56 58 60 62 64 66 68 70 72 74 76 78 80 Content q u e s t i o n F.ll.< q u e s t i o n G . l . q u e s t i o n G.2.a q u e s t i o n G.2.b q u e s t i o n G.3. q u e s t i o n G.4. q u e s t i o n G.5.a q u e s t i o n G.5.b q u e s t i o n G.5.c q u e s t i o n G.5.d q u e s t i o n G.5.e q u e s t i o n G.5.f q u e s t i o n G.5.g q u e s t i o n G.6. q u e s t i o n H . l . q u e s t i o n H.2. q u e s t i o n H.3. q u e s t i o n H.4. q u e s t i o n H.5. q u e s t i o n H.6. q u e s t i o n Ff. 7 . q u e s t i o n H.8. 135 DATA LISTING i 0011 1 2 05 07 1 2 2 1 2 1 2 2 2 1 1 3 2 1 1 2 3 * 3 * 9 9 * * 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 2 0 0 0 0 0 * * 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 * * 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0013 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 * 2 * 3 0 1 1 00*1 1 2 03 08 1 2 0 1 0 1 1 9 9 1 1 1 9 9 2 9 2 2 2 9 1 1 1 1 * * 3 3 9 3 9 9 9 00*2 9 9 9 9 9 1 1 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 2 9 1 1 * * 0 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 00*3 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 9 9 9 9 9 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 0051 1 1 18 07 2 1 0 0 0 0 2 * 0 5 * 9 * * 2 3 * 9 1 * 1 1 * 1 2 * * 3 3 * 3 1 3 0052 1 * 1 1 * * * 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 * * 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 * 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0053 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 9 2 0 9 0 9 9 9 9 9 0 0 9 * * * 3 0 * * * 0061 1 2 06 08 1 0 2 1 2 1 2 2 1 2 2 2 3 3 2 2 * * 2 5 2 3 * * 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0062 O O O C O O O l l l l l l l l l l l l O O l l l O O l l l l l l l l l l l l 0063 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 9 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 2 0 0 0 0 1 1 0081 1 2 05 0 9 * 1 0 0 0 0 2 5 5 1 1 1 9 * * 1 1 2 1 5 1 1 1 1 9 * 9 3 5 5 5 5 5 0082 2 5 9 9 9 * * * 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 * 5 0 * 9 2 9 9 * * 9 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 00.1 I 1 0 0 1 0 n U (I O O f l O O O O O 0 9 9 9 1 2 5 5 5 5 5 0 5 * * 1 * * 9 * 3 5 0 1 3 1 1 1 1 2 10 * 1 0 0 0 0 3 * * 3 3 2 3 * 2 3 2 * 3 * 2 2 * 3 2 * * * * * * * * 0132 3 * * 3 9 * * * 9 9 9 9 9 9 * 9 * 3 * * 0 * 2 2 3 2 3 3 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 0133 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 2 3 2 2 * * 3 3 * 0 2 2 3 * * * 9 * 0 * 01*1 7 1 20 06 5 1 0 0 0 0 3 5 * 1 1 1 1 * * * 2 1 1 5 1 1 1 1 1 5 * * * * * 3 * 01*2 5 5 * 3 1 * * * 1 1 1 2 1 1 2 1 1 * 5 5 0 5 * * 3 . * 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 01*3 C C O C 0 0 O 0 0 0 0 0 O 1 0 0 0 2 2 2 l * * 9 * 3 3 0 9 5 * 5 * * 5 5 5 * 0151 1 2 03 10 1 2 0 0 1 0 3 * 9 9 2 2 9 * 1 1 3 * 5 5 1 5 5 3 1 1 * * 5 9 9 2 9 0152 9 1 5 5 9 * 3 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 * 0 9 2 9 0 0 * 9 9 0 0 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 0153 C 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 9 9 9 9 0 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 9 9 2 9 9 0 9 0 0 0171 2 2 0* 07 1 2 1 1 2 0 2 3 3 9 3 1 3 1 1 2 3 * 3 * 9 1 3 1 2 3 1 2 1 3 9 9 9 0172 9 3 1 * 9 9 9 1 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 0 3 1 9 3 * 9 9 9 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0173 0 1 1 0 1 1 1 I I 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 9 2 9 9 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 9 2 1 2 2 9 9 9 9 0221 2 1 30 OH 5 1 0 0 0 0 * * 5 9 * 3 * 3 * 3 * 5 3 5 * 3 3 2 2 3 * * 5 3 1 2 5 0222 5 3 * * 0 * 5 2 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 2 3 3 3 0 3 2 1 2 2 3 2 9 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 0223 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 * 2 2 1 3 3 3 3 3 3 0 3 3 * 1 2 3 1 0 * 2 0291 2 2 03 10 2 2 0 0 0 1 1 1 9 1 1 1 1 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 1 1 1 1 * * 3 1 3 1 9 0292 9 1 9 9 9 1 1 1 0 0 . 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 C 9 9 9 9 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0293 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 1 9 9 9 1 9 0301 2 1 1 5 0 8 * 1 0 0 0 0 * * * 1 2 1 2 3 2 1 3 * 2 * 1 2 3 2 1 1 3 3 * 2 2 2 * 0302 * 3 3 3 2 * * * 2 2 2 2 * 2 2 2 2 * * 2 0 * 3 3 * 2 3 3 0 1 1 l l 0 1 l l O 0303 C 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 O O 0 O 0 0 0 O O * 0 0 1 2 0 O 0 O O 0 3 2 * 3 3 3 * O * 3 0371 2 2 12 09 3 1 0 0 0 0 2 * 3 2 * 2 1 3 * 3 2 1 1 * 2 2 * 2 2 * 2 2 2 2 1 1 * 0322 9 3 3 3 3 2 * 5 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 2 * * * * 0 2 2 2 2 2 2 * * 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 0323 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 2 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 0 0 2 3 5 * 3 * * 9 2 * 0331 2 2 12 10 0 0 0 0 0 1 3 3 * 2 1 1 2 2 2 2 3 2 1 * 1 1 1 1 * 3 * * * * 3 2 * 0332 3 3 3 3 3 * * 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 9 9 * 0 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 03 33 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 3 3 3 1 1 * 3 3 3 3 0 2 3 * * * * * 9 3 * 03*1 2 2 00 10 3 1 1 0 0 0 2 2 * 2 * 2 9 * * 2 2 2 1 * 2 2 * 3 3 * * * * 2 2 3 3 03*2 2 * * 3 9 3 2 1 2 2 2 2 * 2 * . < * * 2 2 0 3 3 9 9 2 1 1 9 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 03*3 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 3 2 2 2 2 * 2 2 2 2 0 2 9 , 2 3 2 2 3 0 3 2 0351 2 2 02 07 1 2 0 0 0 0 1 3 1 7 1 1 3 3 3 3 2 3 3 3 2 3 2 1 2 1 * * * 1 1 1 3 0 35 2 3 3 3 3 3 * * 1 3 3 3 3 * * * * 2 * 2 1 0 2 1 3 3 3 3 3 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0353 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 0 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 1 0361 2 1 0 * 0 ? ' , 1 0 0 0 1 2 5 5 2 * 2 9 * 2 9 3 2 1 * 1 2 5 2 * * * * 5 * * 9 * 0 3',2 * 9 3 * 3 * 4 * 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 3 * * * * 0 * 3 * 2 2 3 3 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0363 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 * 2 3 1 2 * 9 * 9 9 0 * 3 * * * * 3 9 * * 0371 2 1 1 0 0 7 * 1 0 0 0 0 * 3 * 2 * 2 * 3 2 3 2 3 2 * 1 2 5 3 * 3 * * 5 * 3 3 * 0372 3 3 * * 9 * * 2 1 1 1 1 1 3 * 1 * 5 * * 0 * 3 3 3 3 2 3 9 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0373 C O C 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 3 3 3 2 3 2 3 3 3 * 0 3 9 * * * * * 9 * * 0381 2 1 12 10 2 1 0 0 0 0 * * 5 * * 2 3 3 * 3 * * 3 5 1 1 2 1 3 5 5 * * 5 * * 5 03'I2 5 * 3 2 * * * * * 3 * * * 3 3 * 3 * 3 * 0 1 1 1 5 3 9 * * 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0383 O O O O O O O 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 * * * * 3 5 * * 3 3 0 * * * * 2 * * 0 * 2 0*21 2 2 02 07 7 0 0 0 0 1 9 9 * 9 2 2 3 * 2 2 * 3 2 3 9 9 2 2 9 2 9 2 9 2 9 3 9 0 * 7 7 9 3 9 9 9 * * 2 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 0 9 * 9 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0*23 O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O C O C O O O O O O O O O O O O O O 0**1 2 1 08 08 7 0 0 1 0 0 2 2 3 1 1 1 2 2 1 2 2 2 1 * 1 1 1 1 * * * * 5 3 3 3 * 0 * * 2 * 5 3 3 3 3 3 1 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 * * * * 0 1 1 1 3 3 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 * * J I 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 1 7 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 0 2 0 3 1 3 9 3 3 0 2 0*61 2 2 0 * 0 3 * 1 0 0 0 0 3 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0*62 O O O U O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O I O O O O O 0*63 0 . . 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 . 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0*71 2 2 07 09 1 2 2 1 2 0 9 3 3 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0*72 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0*73 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 * 3 3 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 5 3 9 9 9 9 9 9 0521 2 1 2 0 0 9 * 1 0 0 0 0 2 * 0 9 * 2 * * * 3 2 1 2 5 2 2 * 2 * * 2 * 2 * 3 3 * 0522 3 * 3 2 2 * * 2 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 * * 2 * 0 2 3 1 3 3 * 2 9 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0523 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 3 9 9 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 0 2 2 * 3 * * 9 * * 2 0571 2 2 06 08 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 * 1 2 1 2 1 1 3 5 5 3 * 1 1 3 1 1 1 * * * * * * * 0572 * * * * 3 * 5 2 9 9 9 9 * * * * 2 2 1 5 0 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 136 0571 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 7 2 7 1 9 1 2 7 7 7 0 0 3 3 1 7 0 4 0 3 7 0621 Z 2 10 07 7 1 1 1 C 0 3 3 3 2 9 9 9 4 7 2 1 2 1 2 2 2 3 3 4 4 2 3 9 4 3 3 2 0622 0 0 4 2 0 4 ' . 2 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 4 4 4 4 0 4 2 1 2 2 2 2 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0623 C 0 1 O 0 0 O 0 0 0 0 0 O 1 1 0 0 2 1 0 1 2 2 9 1 1 2 O 1 O 2 2 2 2 1 O 3 2 0671 2 1 12 02 4 2 0 1 0 0 2 4 4 9 5 2 4 4 2 3 1 2 1 4 1 2 5 2 4 4 2 3 5 5 4 4 4 07, 72 9 9 3 2 2 4 4 4 2 4 4 2 3 3 4 2 4 4 4 ) 0 4 5 3 9 9 3 3 3 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0673 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 3 2 1 4 9 9 4 4 4 0 3 4 4 2 4 4 3 0 4 4 0681 2 1 10 08 7 1 0 0 0 0 4 2 4 3 4 1 3 2 2 2 4 4 2 5 2 3 5 2 4 3 4 3 4 3 3 2 3 0682 3 4 4 5 3 3 4 2 2 2 2 2 4 1 4 1 4 4 3 1 0 2 4 4 4 3 2 3 2 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0683 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 2 3 2 2 4 2 2 2 4 0 2 2 4 2 3 4 4 9 4 2 0701 2 2 03 03 1 2 0 1 0 0 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 2 3 2 1 1 3 3 4 4 1 1 1 2 3 4 4 4 4 0702 4 4 3 3 3 3 2 2 1 1 2 2 2 2 3 3 2 2 3 3 O 2 2 3 3 3 2 2 3 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 O I 0703 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 2 2 2 2 3 2 2 2 2 2 0 1 3 3 3 2 2 2 1 1 1 0721 6 1 12 10 2 1 0 0 0 0 2 4 0 2 1 9 1 3 1 2 2 2 1 3 1 1 1 2 2 1 1 3 2 2 1 2 3 0722 2 1 3 3 4 3 3 2 9 9 9 9 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 3 0 2 3 2 9 9 9 2 3 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 0723 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 2 2 2 1 2 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 2 3 3 3 3 3 9 3 1 0741 3 1 08 10 4 1 0 0 0 0 0 4 3 4 5 O 4 4 5 0 0 2 1 5 4 7 5 3 4 5 4 4 5 5 3 3 5 0742 3 4 3 4 0 4 4 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 5 0 4 4 2 1 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0743 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 0771 3 2 05 07 2 2 0 1 0 1 1 3 3 1 3 3 9 9 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 3 3 4 0777 4 4 3 3 1 3 1 2 1 1 3 3 1 1 3 1 3 3 2 7 0 1 2 3 1 1 3 3 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 O O O 0773 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 3 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 3 3 3 3 3 9 1 9 08 31 3 2 04 0 7 4 1 0 1 0 0 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 4 9 4 4 9 4 9 9 4 3 9 3 9 4 2 4 9 9 4 08 12 9 9 4 4 9 4 4 2 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 4 9 2 2 0 2 4 9 9 9 9 9 9 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0833 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 0 9 9 4 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 0851 4 2 10 07 3 1 0 0 0 0 4 4 9 4 4 2 2 4 4 4 4 2 2 4 2 4 4 2 3 4 1 4 4 2 2 2 5 0052 2 4 2 1 9 4 4 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 3 3 2 0 2 2 3 1 1 3 3 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0853 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 4 2 2 2 2 3 3 2 2 2 0 3 9 4 4 4 4 4 9 4 3 0861 4 1 10 07 3 1 0 0 0 0 3 4 4 3 4 2 3 4 5 3 3 1 4 3 2 3 4 3 4 4 ' 4 4 5 4 3 4 5 086? 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2372 * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * 0 1 * 1 0 I * 1 * 0 * * * 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 2373 1 0 1 C 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 * * * * * * * * * * 0 * * 1 1 I * 1 1 1 I 2381 9 1 12 09 2 I 0 0 0 0 0 * 2 3 1 0 0 2 * * * * * * I 0 * * * 3 f * * 2 3 3 * 2382 * * * * 3 * * 2 9 9 9 * 9 9 9 9 9 * * * 0 * * * 9 9 * 3 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2383 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 * 3 3 3 3 * 9 9 9 9 0 0 3 5 * * * 5 9 * * 2*01 9 1 12 08 * 1 0 0 0 0 * 0 5 5 5 0 3 5 * * * 5 3 * 5 * 5 0 3 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 2*02 * 5 5 2 5 5 5 5 0 0 0 5 0 0 0 * 3 * 5 5 0 * * 3 * 3 * * * 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2*03 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 * 3 * * 3 5 5 0 0 0 0 5 5 5 5 5 3 5 * 5 * 2*31 9 1 20 10 5 1 0 0 0 0 * 5 * 5 5 2 5 5 * 5 * 2 2 5 5 5 5 9 * 9 * * 5 5 5 9 * 2*32 5 * * 9 9 * * 5 9 2 2 2 5 2 5 9 5 5 * 5 0 * 5 5 3 5 * 9 9 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2*33 •0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 * 2 9 1 * 5 9 5 5 9 0 5 9 5 5 5 5 * 9 5 5 2*51 7 1 * 0 10 * 1 0 0 0 0 2 5 * * 5 I 3 * 3 3 3 9 3 * 2 1 * 2 3 * 5 * 5 * * * * 2*52 3 3 5 3 0 5 5 3 3 3 2 2 3 3 * 3 3 * 2 * 0 3 2 2 9 9 9 9 9 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2*53 0 0 1 C 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 3 0 0 2 3 * 9 9 9 9 0 * 0 * * * 3 3 9 5 * 2*71 9 I 23 03 * 1 0 0 0 0 5 3 * * * 3 * 5 5 * 5 * 5 5 * * 5 * * * * * * 3 * 3 * 2*72 * 5 3 3 0 * * * 2 2 * 2 2 3 * * 7 * 3 * 0 * * * * 5 * * 3 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 2*73 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 0 * 9 9 * * 3 1 * * 3 0 5 * 5 5 * * 5 9 5 * 2*81 9 2 03 09 3 2 0 1 0 1 1 1 I 1 5 1 5 9 5 5 3 3 5 5 1 1 5 1 2 5 9 9 5 5 5 5 5 2*82 5 5 3 9 9 2 I 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 2 0 3 0 3 1 1 9 9 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 I 1 1 0 2*83 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 9 9 9 9 9 2 2 2 2 2 0 2 9 3 2 3 9 9 9 2 2 2*91 9 2 10 09 1 2 0 I 0 1 1 2 3 I 3 1 9 9 3 I 1 1 1 1 I 1 3 1 3 3 3 3 * * 3 3 * 2*92 * * 3 3 1 3 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 1 3 3 1 1 0 3 I 3 1 1 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 0 2*93 0 1 I C O 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 I 1 I 1 1 * I 1 1 1 0 1 1 I 1 1 9 1 9 1 1 2501 9 2 01 10 9 2 0 0 0 1 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 2502 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 0 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 2503 9 9 9 C 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 0 9 .9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 0 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 2521 9 1 08 09 * I 0 0 0 1 * * * * 5 3 * 5 5 5 * 2 3 5 * 3 * * * * * * 5 * * 5 * 2522 3 * * * 3 * * 3 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 * 5 * * 0 2 * 2 9 9 2 2 2 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 1 2523 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 * 9 9 2 2 * 2 2 2 2 0 2 3 * * * * * 9 * 2 2561 9 1 10 09 3 1 0 0 0 0 3 3 * * * 0 3 * * * * 3 3 * 2 2 * 2 * * * 2 * * 3 * * 2562 C * 2 3 0 * 3 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 2 0 2 * 2 * * 3 2 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 2563 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 2 3 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 0 0 0 3 3 * * * 9 2 * 2571 9 1 18 07 1 1 2 1 2 0 2 3 3 3 3 I 9 * * 3 3 * 2 5 1 2 * 2 1 3 * 3 5 * 3 3 2 2572 1 3 5 9 9 3 3 1 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 5 9 0 * 1 2 * 9 1 1 9 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2573 0 1 l n o 0 0. 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 I I 1 I 7 3 1 I 1 1 0 I 9 2 1 3 3 * 9 I 1 2731 9 1 07 10 * 1 0 0 0 0 * * * * * * 3 * * * 3 2 * 5 * * * * * 3 * * 5 5 * * 5 2 732 5 5 * * * * * 3 3 * * 9 9 * * 0 * * * * * 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2733 0 0 0 C 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2771 9 2 0* 09 * 1 0 0 0 1 * * * * * 3 * * * * * 3 3 * * * * 3 3 * * * * * * * * 2772 * * 3 * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * 0 3 * 3 * * * * * 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 2773 1 0 0 C 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 * 2 * * * * 3 * * * 0 * * * * * * * 3 3 3 Appendix II RESPONDENT COMMENTS 140. The p o r t i o n s of the f o l l o w i n g comments i n q u o t a t i o n marks are the respondents' own words as they appeared on the completed q u e s t i o n n a i r e - They have been c o r r e c t e d o n l y f o r s p e l l i n g . Sentence s t r u c t u r e and the respondents' emphasis have not been changed. Each respondents' comments are p r e f i x e d by a th r e e d i g i t number which corresponds t o the respondents' i d e n t i f i c a t i o n number i n the data l i s t i n g . 001. The respondent dropped out because of " l a c k of thought and l a c k of f a c t s . " The respondent b e l i e v e s t h e r e was an over-r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of "students." The respondent b e l i e v e s the Committee's recommendations are " s u p e r f i c i a l and emotional." 004. The respondent dropped out because of "academics p l a y i n g t h e i r game." The respondent b e l i e v e s t h a t the Committee was under-represented by "those a f f e c t e d . " 005. The respondent, a student, f e l t t h a t "students" were under-r e p r e s e n t e d . "Regular, c o n t i n u a l c i t i z e n panels should be e s t a b l i s h e d w i t h more powers than the committees." 006. The respondent dropped out because of "loaded b i a s . " 009. "I o r i g i n a l l y was going t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n the E d u c a t i o n Committee but decided t o f o r g e t i t a f t e r a t t e n d i n g the f i r s t meeting. The Committee seemed t o be under the i n f l u e n c e of people who had a l r e a d y made up t h e i r minds about a g r e a t many t h i n g s and t h a t a person such as myself was not too welcome. There was a d e f i n i t e sense of an " i n " group and the Committee d i d not appear r e p r e s e n t a t i v e i n any way. For obvious reasons I d i d not complete your q u e s t i o n n a i r e but I thought I would l i k e t o r e c o r d my complete d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h the GVRD Committee as I saw i t b e g i n n i n g i t s t a s k . " 013. The respondent b e l i e v e s t h e r e was an u n d e r - r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of "businessmen." "Found the Committee extremely u s e f u l . Learned more about " :c E d u c a t i o n and about the widespread d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n through-out the community. Found t h a t the p o l i t i c i a n s (at l e a s t the m a j o r i t y ) c o u l d not understand the premise behind our view of e d u c a t i o n . " 141. 014. " L o c a l and r e g i o n a l p o l i t i c i a n s negated any r e a l v a l u e of the Committee's work. GVRD Planning s t a f f had to withdraw t h e i r h e l p due t o p o l i t i c a l p r e s s u r e . No l o c a l p o l i t i c a l or c i v i c s e r v i c e h e l p made the work of the Committee r e l a t i v e l y holi'ow. I t i s the g r e a t e s t p o s s i b l e proof to me that l o c a l p o l i t i c i a n s and c i v i c s e rvants have no r e s -pect i n the op i n i o n s of the people they p u r p o r t t o se r v e . I t h i n k the S e c r e t a r i a t personnel d i d a gre a t job i n s p i t e of the l a c k of support and the r i s k s they took f o r t h e i r j obs. " 015. "I d i d not f e e l t h a t the Committee was r e p r e s e n t a t i v e ; i t appeared weighted a c a d e m i c a l l y , although some of the others may have f e l t t h a t i t was weighted R e g i o n a l l y , s i n c e a number of ' n o n - p r o f e s s i o n a l ' GVRD s t a f f members attended as p r i v a t e , i n t e r e s t e d i n d i v i d u a l s ... i f i t was not the i n t e n t f o r the Committee t o be r e p r e s e n t a t i v e , t h i s should have been s t a t e d - or the g e n e r a l p u b l i c should not have been i n v i t e d t o a t t e n d . " 017. "I am not convinced t h a t the p o l i t i c a l ( p o l i t i c i a n s and GVRD p o l i c y planners) l e a d e r s h i p p o s i t i v e l y supported a) p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n b) p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h i s form, c) would stand by p o l i c y recommendations. There was no s p e c i f i c statement of what the r o l e o f the Committee was to be, i n the pl a n n i n g p r o c e s s . In the meetings I attended chairmen were ellected t h a t were e i t h e r government a d m i n i s t r a t o r s , academics, or other pro-f e s s i o n a l s . I can see why th a t happened but d i d n ' t l i k e i t . C i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s somewhat skewed! by t h i s k i n d of l e a d e r s h i p . On the other hand, c i t i z e n s u n f a m i l i a r with i n f o r m a t i o n , problem areas, e t c . , have tremendous d i f f i -c u l t y i n t a c k l i n g such i s s u e s i n a sy s t e m a t i c f a s h i o n . These two p o i n t s are major f a i l i n g s of the arrangement. Perhaps i t would have been s u f f i c i e n t f o r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e c i t i z e n groups t o i d e n t i f y problem areas f o r the p o l i t i c i a n s r a t h e r than conducting any in-depth r e s e a r c h w i t h inade-quate manpower (numbers), money and time." 022. "The whole process was slow and i n e f f i c i e n t p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the f i r s t h a l f of i t s d e l i b e r a t i o n s . T h i s seemed t o a r i s e from a f a i l u r e t o organize a work pl a n at the e a r l y stages and i n ge n e r a l the l a c k of experience i n the k i n d of process by the Chairman and most other committee members with some notable e x c e p t i o n s r e s u l t e d i n f a i l u r e t o c l a r i f y decisions/opinions/recommendations at each stage." 142 . 029. The respondent dropped out because of "too much s t a f f " (involvement by GVRD). 032. "In g e n e r a l , I f e e l t h a t the Committee came up w i t h a v e r y good r e p o r t under s e v e r e l y r e s t r i c t i n g c o n d i t i o n s . However I f e e l t h a t not much was a l t e r e d e i t h e r i n the minds of the i n d i v i d u a l s i n v o l v e d or i n the GVRD. I f e e l t h a t t h e r e are s e v e r a l reasons f o r t h i s . The committees were asked to delve i n t o v e r y complex i s s u e s but only on a s u p e r f i c i a l b a s i s and i n a v e r y s h o r t p e r i o d of time. I a l s o f e e l t h a t the resource i n f o r m a t i o n necessary to come up with compre-hens i v e recommendations was e i t h e r not p r o v i d e d i n s u f f i c i -ent numbers, or i n c o n c i s e and i n f o r m a t i v e ways, or was not a v a i l a b l e . The use of evening meetings was not con-.dusive t o b e i n g able to accomplish a s u i t a b l e amount of d i s c u s s i o n i n each s e s s i o n . I f e e l t h a t the GVRD would get a b e t t e r i d e a of the p u b l i c ' s wants i f they were t o take one area at a time, o b t a i n more p a r t i c i p a t i o n on the committee and a s s i s t them t o take the meetings out t o the p u b l i c v i a g e n e r a l meetings i n each m u n i c i p a l i t y over a prolonged p e r i o d of time and be con-s u l t e d on the c u r r e n t events. 033. The respondent dropped out because "other commitments (were) mandatory." "As a g e n e r a l comment my impression was t h a t the whole process was an e x e r c i s e i n p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s , and t h a t both p o l i t i c i a n s and GVRD were u n w i l l i n g to accept the Commit-tee ' s competence t o advance any ideas or p r o p o s a l s which would upset t h e i r p r e c o n c e i v e d n o t i o n s and plans i n b e i n g . We were not expected t o rock the boat, but t o be humble, as our s t a t u s of ' i n t e r e s t e d c i t i z e n s ' r e q u i r e d i n the presence of 'knowledgeable p r o f e s s i o n a l s ' . " 034. The respondent was an observer of "the workings of the p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n process i n t h i s p a r t i c u l a r c o ntext." The respondent b e l i e v e s t h a t the Committee was under-r e p r e s e n t e d by " o l d e r , poorer people." " G e n e r a l l y the Committee c o n s i s t e d of too many ' p r o f e s s i o n a l ' p a r t i c i p a n t s , i . e . people who get o f f on going t o every meeting i n s i g h t about e v e r y t h i n g under the sun. They i n themselves, tend t o attempt to speak f o r the p u b l i c as i f they know f o r c e r t a i n p u b l i c a t t i t u d e s , d e s i r e s , e t . a l . T h i s i d e a t h a t they know and can thus a c c u r a t e l y assess the v a l u e of c e r t a i n i s s u e s and ways of l i f e , e t c . , i s as dangerous and m i s l e a d i n g as a p o l i t i c i a n and planner making 143. these same s o r t s of c l a i m s . The reason I dropped out was over the f a i l u r e of these people to r e a l i z e the l i m i t s of t h e i r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e n e s s of p u b l i c wishes." 035. The respondent dropped out because the Committee was "dominated by a few ' p r o f e s s i o n a l s ' w i t h axes t o g r i n d . " 036. The respondent dropped out because there was "not enough time t o p a r t i c i p a t e f u r t h e r . " "There was a r e a l problem w i t h the w i l l i n g n e s s of some p o l i t i c i a n s on the Board t o accept the Committee r e p o r t s and p o l i c y recommendations. T h i s l e d t o the impression t h a t the Board was h e s i t a n t t o a c t on the p o l i c i e s . " 037. "The e x e r c i s e was i n t e r e s t i n g but the m a j o r i t y of p o l i t i c i a n s are not yet ready t o take a c t i o n on the more important recommendations - perhaps because the p o l i t i c i a n ' s o r i e n t a t i o n i s b a s i c a l l y short-term, w h i l e t h a t of the Committee i s long-term." 042. The respondent dropped out because h i s p a r t i c i p a t i o n was "merely as an observer." 044. "General impression: Too few people w i t h too l i m i t e d p o i n t s of view, choked by apathy and not r e a l l y b e l i e v i n g anyone would l i s t e n t o what they had to say anyway." 046. The respondent dropped out because h i s r o l e was as the " i n i t i a l pro tern chairman on l y . " "For some reason l o c a l p o l i t i c i a n s f a i l e d t o attend, i n our case a f t e r t h r e e i n v i t a t i o n s . " 047. "Committee should r e p o r t t o the p u b l i c by newspaper or press r e l e a s e . Honorarium of $50.00 per month minimum sh o u l d be o f f e r e d t o p a r t i c i p a n t s t o cover expenses. Poor communication as t o when the next meeting. F e e l i n g of f u t i l i t y of Committee because of extent of problems versus power, personal 1,, time, and f i n a n c e s . " 052. "The Committee was to f u n c t i o n with a r o t a t i n g chairman from each of the three sub-committees; t h i s i n t e n t d i d not m a t e r i a l i z e t o any degree. Parliamentary procedure must be g i v e n g r e a t e r r e c o g n i t i o n i n g u i d i n g Committee d e l i b e r a t i o n s an i m p a r t i a l c h a i r p e r s o n 144. may p o s s i b l y have kept the attendance b e t t e r . Regular progress r e p o r t s d i r e c t e d t o c i t i z e n groups, p o l i t i c i a n s , e t c . , may have engendered i n t e r e s t and input by non p a r t i c i p a n t s . There i s apprehension among non p a r t i c i p a n t s t h a t the P o l i c y Committee s t r u c t u r e i s j u s t another m u n i c i p a l a d v i s o r y c o u n c i l , so n o t o r i o u s i n rubber stamping d e c i s i o n s made by c i v i l s ervants i n v a r i o u s m u n i c i p a l departments. During our tenure as a p o l i c y f o r m u l a t i n g committee t h e r e was not a s i n g l e r e a c t i o n group t h a t c o n s u l t e d w i t h us on problems, although the o p p o r t u n i t y was t h e r e . People as i n animals r e a c t f a v o r a b l y t o reward - some s o r t of monetary or otherwise reward might engender c o n s i s t e n c y i n attendance." 05 7. The respondent dropped out because p a r t i c i p a t i o n "took too much time." "Program s u f f e r e d from l a c k of d i r e c t i o n . GVRD were too a f r a i d of i n f l u e n c i n g Committees. GVRD should have presented t h e i r ideas and suggestions t o o b t a i n feedback. Then m o d i f i e d t h e i r plans i n the l i g h t of the feedback and resubmitted them. That way each group i s doing what i t i s be s t a t . P u b l i c p r o v i d i n g ideas and p o i n t i n g out problem areas t h a t were overlooked. P r o f e s s i o n a l s p r o v i d i n g the s y n t h e s i s - but t e s t i n g i t out a l l the time - and a l l o w i n g plans t o be shaped by p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n - but not j u s t t u r n i n g everyone l o o s e saying ' i t ' s up t o you' and hoping f o r the b e s t . " 062. The Committee, i n i t s attempts to s o l i c i t p u b l i c i n p u t , was "hamstrung by (the) requirement not t o p u b l i c i z e . " 067. "More work i s needed (on a more c o n t i n u i n g b a s i s ) . More communication w i t h the members of the GVRD Board - a l l of them - i s needed. I myself w i l l not do another s c r a p of work on t h i s because I f e l t we were working f o r no t h i n g . The Board has not act e d on one s i n g l e p o l i c y i s s u e . I t has not asked f o r input on any p a r t i c u l a r i s s u e from those t h a t took t h e i r own time t o f i n d out what was going on, and suggest s o l u -t i o n s - a r e a l d i s s i l l u s i o n m e n t ! " 068?„ The respondent dropped out because of "general l a c k of p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n . " 145 . "My r e a l concern was the l a c k of p a r t i c i p a t i o n by the populace. One or two dozen people are not r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the cr o s s s e c t i o n of GVRD r e s i d e n t s andssome of the people there had a p a r t i c u l a r axe t o g r i n d . " 070. The respondent dropped out because "the whole venture was a waste of p r o f e s s i o n a l time." 072. The respondent b e l i e v e s the Committee was under-represented by "teenagers, s c h o o l s ' r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s ( s t u d e n t s ) , u n i v e r s i t y s t u d e n t s . " 074. The respondent b e l i e v e s t h e r e was an under r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of "the common main;-tenants; low income c i t i z e n s ; w e l f a r e r e c i p i e n t s ; t r a d e s u n i o n i s t s . " 077. The respondent dropped out because o f " l a c k of r e p r e s e n t a -t i v e n e s s ." 083. "My impression i s t h a t the s u b j e c t was too broad t o be handled i n the time a v a i l a b l e . By the time the members focussed on an area of i n t e r e s t many had dropped out. In my case the Committee d r i f t e d towards a p a r t o f the t o t a l s u b j e c t area i n which I had l i t t l e i n t e r e s t or s p e c i a l knowledge." 085. The requirement f o r a budget p r i o r t o the disbursement of funds was an " i n d i c a t i o n of l a c k of r e s p e c t f o r Committees. 086. "The b a s i c problem i s t h a t h e a l t h care d e l i v e r y i s a P r o v i n c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and GVRD has l i t t l e i n p ut t o P r o v i n c i a l p l a n n i n g - e.g. Foulkes r e p o r t . Thus any com-prehensive e f f o r t by t h i s Committee i s l a r g e l y f u t i l e . Small progress was made by f a c i l i t a t i n g i n t e r a c t i o n between h e a l t h care agencies." 091. "This was a rushed b u s i n e s s , b a d l y designed, p o o r l y p u b l i -c i z e d , b a d l y l e d by GVRD s t a f f , poor advance m a t e r i a l s , l i t t l e i n c e n t i v e t o persevere, no input from GVRD p o l i t i -c i a n s . I ended up not b e l i e v i n g t h a t the GVRD had ever intended t o pay any a t t e n t i o n t o suggestions u n l e s s they (the suggestions) were 'v o t e - c a t c h i n g ' type, or supported some-t h i n g a l r e a d y d e c i d e d upon. Too many people were r i d i n g hobby h o r s e s . ... as f a r as i n f l u e n c i n g p o l i c y - what a waste of time and energy. 146. •J The f a c t i s , I t h i n k most of the p u b l i c don't want t o be  bothered p a r t i c i p a t i n g , e s p e c i a l l y a f t e r an experience l i k e t h i s . Would I do i t again? No - not because I f i n d i t hard t o space the time (which i s true) but because I f e e l t h a t the time was j u s t wasted." 097. The respondent dropped out because "we moved t o Port A l b e r n i . " "I f e e l t h a t g e n e r a l c i t i z e n r e p r e s e n t a t i o n was low and i n some i n s t a n c e s 'discouraged' i n the sense t h a t some of the ' p r o f e s s i o n a l s ' were r a t h e r overpowering i n t h e i r view-p o i n t s and o p i n i o n s as t o ' n o n p r o f e s s i o n a l ' v i e w p o i n t s . v Those ' p r i v a t e c i t i z e n s ' who d i d not have the ' f o r t i t u d e ' t o w i t h s t a n d a l l the p r o f e s s i o n a l i s m were d r i v e n away i f t h e i r own commitment t o the program was not s t r o n g enough. Others who d i d not a t t e n d at a l l seemed t o f e e l t h a t they knew nothi n g (or i n s i g n i f i c a n t amount) t h a t c o u l d be of use t o the committee's work." 100. "Subject matter too comprehensive f o r one committee." 105. "... any d i s c u s s i o n on a Committee should c o n s i s t t o a l a r g e extent by people who are f u l l y mature, have good p r a c t i c a l knowledge of l i f e , a good p e r s o n a l i t y and who can c o n t r i b u t e and express words or thoughts t h a t are r e l e v a n t t o the type of committee or s u b j e c t matter t h a t i s under study. I f you have too many people on a committee t h a t are merely promoting a s t a t u s symbol or u s i n g a l o t of academic jargon which has l i t t l e or no r e l e v a n c e t o the s u b j e c t matter then, I p e r s o n a l l y f e e l I'm wasting my time p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n such a committee." 110. "More d i r e c t i o n needed from GVRD staff'.'" "Too few people i n t e r e s t e d from the o u t s e t i n a t e c h n i c a l f i e l d . " 115. The respondent dropped out because the "Committee was f a r too narrow i n i t s r e p r e s e n t a t i o n and had few knowledgeable people prepared a p p a r e n t l y t o put much e f f o r t i n t o i t . G r o s s l y open ended." 121. "Much time was spent on c r e d i b i l i t y of the program and f e a r of a whitewash. I see no c l e a r way around t h i s . The experiment was a worthwhile one. I f work r e l e a s e time c o u l d be p a i d f o r or a p a r t - t i m e resource person h i r e d f o r t h a t Committee more meaningful r e s u l t s might be reached ; more q u i c k l y . 147 . Much more should be done t o encourage meetings wi t h more c i t i z e n groups and improve f i e l d work. T h i s i s however d i f f i c u l t f o r a l a y committee working elsewhere f i v e days per week." 132. " F i n a l summarized recommendations t o GVRD Board e n t i r e l y GVRD Planners own ideas - too ge n e r a l r e a l l y one s u b j e c t only, v e r y d i s s a t i s f a c t o r y t o the Committee members." 139. The respondent dropped out because of "a s l i g h t c o n f u s i o n as t o our go a l s but ma in1y- "the re was not enough of my time t o devote t o the Committee." 143. The GVRD's a d m i n i s t r a t i v e and s e c r e t a r i a l a i d t o the Com-mit t e e was "too g r e a t a burden to c a r r y on top of r e g u l a r hours." "There would be enough i n t e r e s t ... t o continue g i v i n g meaningful input i n t o GVRD p o l i c y making. " P r o v i s i o n should be made f o r c u r r e n t r e a c t i o n or a c t i v i s t groups t o p l u g i n t o the GVRD through the P o l i c y Committee." 144. The respondent dropped out because of a "change of meetings l o c a t i o n . " 148. "I f e e l t h a t t h i s type of c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s becoming, i n c r e a s i n g l y popular but t h a t i t i s the most d i f f i c u l t a c t i v i t y t o o r g a n i z e . I t w i l l be necessary f o r community and r e g i o n a l p l a n n e r s t o l e a r n much more about group organ-i z a t i o n and concensus and t o ensure t h a t l o c a l or r e g i o n a l governments pr o v i d e more and b e t t e r i n f o r m a t i o n t o c i t i z e n s . " 149. "The Committee as a whole got the f e e l i n g d u r i n g i t s e x e r c i s e t h a t they were a t o o l manipulated by the id e o l o g y of the GVRD pl a n n i n g s t a f f t o rubber stamp t h e i r own con-v i c t i o n s f o r j u s t i f i c a t i o n t o the p o l i t i c i a n s . The Committee r e c o g n i z e d t h i s f a c t and c a r r i e d on independently w i t h the tasks as p e r c e i v e d and d e f i n e d by the Committee. The r e s u l t i n g r e p o r t was the r e s u l t of hard work and d e d i -c a t i o n of the Committee members. I t i s hoped ( i n the face of a l l the b u r e a u c r a t i c b u n g l i n g and p o l i t i c a l haymaking) t h a t the r e p o r t w i l l have some i n f l u e n c e on f u t u r e d i r e c t i o n s . " 154. "I suspect TOKENISM on the p a r t of GVRD towards c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n . Goals of Committee v e r y p o o r l y d e f i n e d i n advance. GVRD f a i l e d t o pro v i d e adequate d i r e c t i o n and a s s i s t a n c e i n o p e r a t i o n s . 148. I dropped out p a r t l y due t o f r u s t r a t i o n . " 155. "The Committee discouraged t h i s ( s o l i c i t i n g a l a r g e r or more r e p r e s e n t a t i v e membership) as each time a new member came we had t o re-argue e a r l i e r d i s c u s s i o n s . " The depth of a n a l y s i s and f e a s i b i l i t y of recommendations, "could have been improved by: 1. More time 2. More groups i n d i f f e r e n t p a r t s of the r e g i o n 3. B r i n g i n g groups from o u t l y i n g p a r t s of the r e g i o n 4. A few l a r g e p u b l i c meetings throughout the r e g i o n 5. More p u b l i c i t y . " 156. "A complete waste of time f o r an a c t i v i s t or businessman i n the h a b i t of making d a i l y value judgements which must be implemented on the spot. Being Chairman of a Sub-Committee t h i s person was a p p a l l e d at the number of times the academics would s t i l l be b e l a b o r i n g some minor p o i n t at the end of the evening, a f t e r a two hour d i s c u s s i o n ; and ( t h i s ) was mainly r e s p o n s i b l e f o r my l e a v i n g . Future s t u d i e s of t h i s nature should l e a n h e a v i l y on the Area C o u n c i l s now b e i n g s e t up as a source of (A) i n t e l l i -gent (B) common sense (C) a c t i v i s t people." 160. The respondent dropped out because the Committee was composed of " p r o f e s s i o n a l c i t i z e n s o n l y ! I had no time f o r t h i s , " and "I am t o t a l l y d i s s a t i s f i e d w i t h the p r o f e s -s i o n a l c i t i z e n s which tended to make up the Committees!" 162/ "There i s a widespread f e e l i n g among members t h a t p o l i t i -c i a n s have a tendency t o f i l e our r e p o r t s and most of i t i s f o r g o t t e n u n l e s s i t p e r i o d i c a l l y i s brought to t h e i r a t t e n t i o n - over and over and shoved down t h e i r t h r o a t s . " 170. "I gave up a f t e r the e i g h t h week, and the t h i r d t r i p around the same conceptual path. The Committee was a f f l i c t e d w i t h two i n d i v i d u a l s p o s s e s s i n g d r a m a t i c a l l y opposed views and a b s o l u t e c e r t a i n t y of the c o r r e c t n e s s of t h e i r own views. They managed t o move us from democracy t o anarchy, and keep us t h e r e f o r the d u r a t i o n of my tenure. I understand t h a t t h i n g s improved l a t e r on." 173. The respondent dropped out because "too much time (was) needed on job and other commitments." 149. 176. The respondent dropped out because he was "busy working i n the community." " C i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n should not be f o r the b e n e f i t of p o l i t i c i a n s , a d m i n i s t r a t o r s , academics, and p r o f e s s i o n a l s . Too o f t e n c i t i z e n s are used t o j u s t i f y the purposes of these people. Too o f t e n c i t i z e n s are not g i v e n c r e d i t f o r t h e i r views, nor are they g i v e n any power. No r e c o g n i t i o n i s g i v e n t o the divergence of views of v a r i o u s c i t i z e n groups e s p e c i a l l y when the argument of ' r e p r e s e n t a t i v e n e s s ' i s used. Divergence of views i n d i c a t e s a divergence of p o l i t i c a l p h i l o s o p h i e s and the r e s o l u t i o n must be at the b a l l o t box a t a l e v e l people can r e l a t e t o . " 183. The respondent dropped out because of " l a c k of time." The respondent b e l i e v e s there was an over r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of " p r o f e s s i o n a l c i t i z e n s and upcoming p o l i t i c i a n s . " Sometimes get the s e n s a t i o n t h a t some people i n Committees and some of the GVRD s t a f f put i n a l o t of energy and the chairman of the GVRD does not appear t o v a l u e these r e p o r t s a g r e a t d e a l . " 188. The respondent dropped out because the "Committee needed a str o n g chairman." "I dropped out of the meetings a f t e r the f i r s t few because the Thursday n i g h t they switched t o was n o t too good f o r me to be abl e t o a t t e n d r e g u l a r l y , and a l s o by t h i s time I had found out the group was overloaded with people from the K i t s i l a n o area, there was no s t r o n g chairman t o get the group a c t i v e r i g h t from the s t a r t , f o r i t was a huge Committee and needed d e f i n i t e l e a d e r s h i p a f t e r the f i r s t couple of meetings, but i t seemed t o me they were s t i l l f l o u n d e r i n g around, and no one seemed t o know what they were even supposed t o be r e a l l y d o ing. I thought the GVRD s t a f f would have g i v e n us more l e a d e r s h i p i n s t e a d , they hung back which maybe i s what they wanted t o do, but at the same time, the group needed some more p o s i t i v e l e a d e r s h i p . There were a few people who d i d a l l the t a l k i n g (I found they were a l l p o l i t i c i a n s ) , and the r e s t of us who were the r e as concerned c i t i z e n s j u s t d i d n ' t stand a chance. Next time they want c i t i z e n involvement - keep out the p r o -f e s s i o n a l people ( i . e . a r c h i t e c t s , etc.) and p o l i t i c i a n s and o n l y c a l l them i n f o r q u e s t i o n s . " 191. The respondent dropped out because of " l a c k of time and i l l n e s s . " 150. 202. The respondent dropped out because the Committee's "scope (was) too narrow." "In g e n e r a l I f e e l t h a t t h e r e were too many members r e p r e s e n t i n g s p e c i f i c i n t e r e s t groups. With the e x c e p t i o n of one focus of i n t e r e s t few had s u f f i c i e n t experience w i t h the d e l i v e r y of s e r v i c e s . " 207. "The work of the S o c i a l S e r v i c e s Committee was somewhat of an e x e r c i s e i n f u t i l i t y - not because what we d i d was not worthwhile but because I have s e r i o u s doubts about the s i n c e r i t y of GVRD p o l i t i c i a n s and p r o f e s s i o n a l s i n support of c i t i z e n involvement. In f a c t , I doubt they even under-stand the concept." 212. "This program of c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n was p o o r l y conceived at the o u t s e t . The frame of r e f e r e n c e was t o t a l l y vague, and the t o p i c of " S o c i a l S e r v i c e s ' f a r too a l l encompassing t o ever be c o n s i d e r e d i n a p e r i o d of months. As a r e s u l t , the Committee s t a r t e d w i t h a l a r g e number of members, n e a r l y a l l w i t h d i f f e r e n t s p e c i f i c i n t e r e s t s . There was l i t t l e g i v e n by the GVRD, and q u i t e q u i c k l y , d i s c u s s i o n c e n t r e d on one s p e c i f i c t o p i c which was the i n t e r e s t of a number of v o c a l members. While t h e i r concerns were genuine, the con-c e n t r a t i o n on one aspect only caused many of the Committee members t o l e a v e . I f t h i s type of venture were to be undertaken again, I would suggest the t o p i c s t o be c o n s i d e r e d be f a r more s p e c i f i c . I f c i t i z e n i n p u t i s wanted on these broader s u b j e c t s , which r e q u i r e extended and continuous study then t h e r e should be c i t i z e n members of the GVRD committees r e s p o n s i b l e . " 213. "1. A number of s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t groups viewed the Committee as a way of f u r t h e r i n g v e r y v a l i d but narrow areas of i n t e r e s t . They were not ' i n ' t o p l a n n i n g any long range recommendations. I understand they l e f t the Committee as soon as t h e i r 'problem' area was 'handled'. 2. Len Minsky, a GVRD s t a f f member was extremely v o c a l i n h i s b e l i e f s a t Committee meetings. He became a major i n f l u e n c e on the Committee's s t r u c t u r e and d i s c u s s i o n s . 3. The chairmanship r o t a t e d among a number of very v o c a l p a r t i c i p a n t s . T h e i r v o c a l n e s s h i n d e r e d the r o l e of a n e u t r a l chairmanship. GVRD i s b a d l y i n need of more s o c i a l s e r v i c e , people o r i e n t e d i n p u t . Too many e f f i c i e n t planners and the ' p o l i t i c a l ' nature of the a c t u a l GVRD s t a f f members have harmed t h e i r 151. e f f e c t i v e n e s s a l s o . I f e l t t h a t the Committee idea and a c t u a l implementation was an e x c e l l e n t idea t h a t was s e r i o u s l y and h o n e s t l y handled. I t was u n f o r t u n a t e t h a t my Committee developed so b a d l y . " 214. "1. Committee S t r u c t u r e The terms of r e f e r e n c e were, f o r me, q u i t e s p e c i f i c . They were not f o l l o w e d by our committee f o r a v a r i e t y of s u f f i c i e n t or i n s u f f i c i e n t reasons. In my o p i n i o n i t was more of a " c o n t i n u i n g conference" than a "committee." The e x p e c t a t i o n s of the GVRD Board, and I t h i n k of those who p a r t i c i p a t e d , were t h a t the committee had a c l e a r task t o analyse and produce recommendations f o r p o l i c y . A task group r e q u i r e s a s t r u c t u r e and a d i s c i p l i n e d approach t o i t s f u n c t i o n i n g . A s p e c i f i c membership i s r e q u i r e d , as w e l l as d e s i g n a t e d l e a d e r s h i p and s u f f i c i e n t c o n t i n u i t y of p a r t i c i -p a t i o n , t o warrant l a b e l l i n g the f i n a l r e s u l t s a "committee r e p o r t . " These c o n d i t i o n s j u s t d i d not p r e v a i l i n the s o c i a l s e r v i c e s p o l i c y committee. There was no c o n t i n u i t y of l e a d e r s h i p ( t h i s i s r e f e r r e d t o i n the r e p o r t ) and at no time was t h e r e a s p e c i f i c d e c l a r a t i o n of committee member-s h i p . The r e p o r t v e r y p r o p e r l y r e f l e c t s the wide divergence of views and the p o l a r i z a t i o n t h a t developed. The a n a l y s i s of p a r t i c i p a t i o n f o o t n o t e d on page 12 i l l u s t r a t e s the l a c k of any sense of "committee." My own a n a l y s i s of p a r t i c i p a -t i o n , which I p r o v i d e d and would be i n the f i l e , g r a p h i c a l l y i l l u s t r a t e s the dominance of the "new s t y l e o r g a n i z a t i o n s " d u r i n g the p e r i o d of p r o d u c t i o n through June and J u l y , and the almost complete l a c k of p a r t i c i p a t i o n by thecb'ther c a t e -g o r i e s of membership which were to have been i n v o l v e d . 2. Involvement, R e p r e s e n t a t i o n and Committee Dynamics The p r o j e c t s e t out t o achieve a broad p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the committee. The a c t u a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n ( r e f e r r e d t o above) d i d not achieve the o r i g i n a l o b j e c t i v e . Only one or two " c i t i z e n s - a t - l a r g e " became a c t i v e . Even those persons who might be thought of as "consumers" were a l s o i n v o l v e d i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n of s e r v i c e s , a l b e i t i n a s e l f - h e l p or new s t y l e form of o r g a n i z a t i o n . Jim Tyhurst very a b l y s p e l l e d out the problems of involvement at one of the i n i t i a l meetings of the committee. Those of us who are used t o committees and t h i s form of i n v e s t i g a t i o n are very comfortable w i t h longer term g o a l s and f u t u r e - o r i e n t e d a n a l y s i s of recommendations geared t o "the system." Others, c e r t a i n l y those a s s o c i a t e d w i t h new s t y l e o r g a n i z a t i o n s , consumers and the man i n the ^ s t r e e t , are impatient w i t h t h i s approach. They are f r u s ^ t r a t e d and t u r n e d - o f f by apparent academic and u n r e a l world 152 . of d i s c u s s i o n and a n a l y s i s . T h e i r i n t e r e s t and p a r t i c i p a -t i o n w i l l be maintained l a r g e l y t o the extent t h a t t h e r e are immediate r e s u l t s and some k i n d of obvious r e l a t i o n s h i p t o the i s s u e s which they f e e l are immediate and of d i r e c t con-cern t o them. Th e r e f o r e , the s o l v i n g of apparent i n e q u i t i e s i n the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of day care was f a r more important than more b a s i c c o n s i d e r a t i o n s of p o l i c y a f f e c t i n g day care and subsequent l e g i s l a t i o n , a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , e t c . An attempt was made t o r e c o n c i l e the d i f f e r e n c e by d e a l i n g w i t h the f i r s t through a s o c i a l a c t i o n o r i e n t e d approach r e l a t e d t o day care, as an i l l u s t r a t i o n of i s s u e s a f f e c t i n g the s o c i a l s e r v i c e s g e n e r a l l y , w i t h the i n t e n t i o n of g e n e r a l i z i n g t o a l l s o c i a l s e r v i c e s i n a second phase. In my judgement, t h i s d i d n ' t r e a l l y work. The r e s e a r c h and f a c t - f i n d i n g was inadequate. A ba l a n c e d view of the i s s u e s was not obtained, nor were the m a j o r i t y r e a l l y . i n t e r e s t e d . Perhaps i t c o u l d have worked w i t h v e r y s t r o n g l l e a d e r s h i p from a c h a i r p e r s o n and with s t r o n g s t a f f support. Probably the l i m i t a t i o n s have t o be accepted and d i f f e r e n t types of committees and s t r u c t u r e s used i n order t o o b t a i n s e v e r a l d i f f e r e n t i n - p u t s and forms of p a r t i c i p a t i o n . 3. S t a f f Support The r e p o r t r e f e r s t o the l a c k of s t a f f s e r v i c e s and the u n c e r t a i n t y about the r o l e of s t a f f . Because of my own background and experience I c o n s i d e r t h i s to have been one of the most s e r i o u s weaknesses i n the p r o c e s s . I made c e r t a i n assumptions a t the very b e g i n n i n g which were o b v i -o u s l y unwarranted. I j u s t n a t u r a l l y assumed t h a t , w i t h so many s t a f f a t the f i r s t meeting or two, t h a t they were th e r e f o r the purpose of p r o v i d i n g s t a f f support t o the committee. I t never o c c u r r e d t o me to even ask i f s t a f f were a v a i l a b l e . Yet such a simple q u e s t i o n should o b v i o u s l y have been asked. S e c r e t a r i a l support was e x c e l l e n t . However, t o the extent t h a t p r o f e s s i o n a l p l a n n i n g s t a f f were i n v o l v e d , p a r t i c i p a -t i o n seemed t o re p r e s e n t a s t r o n g b i a s toward a p a r t i c u l a r p o i n t of view about s o c i a l s e r v i c e s , the community and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and e s p e c i a l l y n e g a t i v e about e s t a b l i s h e d a g e n c i e s . I am not o b j e c t i n g t o t h i s p o i n t of view b e i n g i d e n t i f i e d and debated, e s p e c i a l l y t o the extent t h a t i t would not otherwise have been represented i n committee d i s -c u s s i o n s . T h i s was not the case however, as i t was b e i n g s t r o n g l y i d e n t i f i e d by many p a r t i c i p a t i n g . I t c e r t a i n l y d i d not r e q u i r e s t a f f i d e n t i f i c a t i o n . The s t a f f r o l e t h a t I b e l i e v e the committee r e q u i r e d was t h a t of e n a b l i n g and a s s i s t i n g the committee t o achieve i t s o b j e c t i v e by h e l p i n g t o i d e n t i f y a l t e r n a t i v e approaches, e n s u r i n g t h a t workable methods are be i n g used c o n s i s t e n t w i t h o b j e c t i v e s , i d e n t i -f y i n g i s s u e s and v a r i o u s p o i n t s of view, e t c . , i n order t o 153 . ensure t h a t the committee i s l o o k i n g a t a l l s i d e s of the q u e s t i o n , v a r i o u s a l t e r n a t i v e s , e t c . Between meetings, c o n t i n u i t y of r e s e a r c h and p r e p a r a t i o n of d r a f t documents, e t c . , would be c a r r i e d out, making i t p o s s i b l e f o r the v o l u n t e e r members and the v o l u n t e e r chairman to f u n c t i o n adequately. T h i s i s a s k i l l e d job and one which we s o r e l y missed. 4. Budget A b r i e f comment on the r e f e r e n c e i n the r e p o r t t o the committee's budget. I t seems t o me t h a t t h i s i s r e a l l y a re d h e r r i n g so f a r as the f u n c t i o n i n g of the committee i s concerned. The committee r e q u i r e d a budget i n order t h a t i t had some context w i t h i n which t o p l a n i t s approach, do r e s e a r c h , p r i n t i n g , documentation, e t c . D i r e c t c o n t r o l o f the money, however, was q u i t e unnecessary f o r a committee of t h i s type. The i s s u e s t h a t arose are perhaps r e p r e s e n t a -t i v e of the b a s i c c o n f l i c t t h a t e x i s t e d w i t h i n the committee and the p a r t i c u l a r p o l i t i c a l and p h i l o s o p h i c a l p o i n t s of view t h a t some members of the group h e l d about c i t i z e n involvement, bureaucracy, government, e t c . Again, I do not b e l i e v e t h i s would have developed as a p a r t i c u l a r i s s u e i f the committee had f u n c t i o n e d w i t h the s t r o n g l e a d e r s h i p of both a c h a i r p e r s o n and s t a f f . We tended t o get i n t e r p r e t a -t i o n s and r e p o r t s of the department's a d m i n i s t r a t i o n t h a t almost seemed c a l c u l a t e d t o c r e a t e a ne g a t i v e r e a c t i o n i n the committee, r a t h e r than a h e l p f u l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of p e r f e c t l y normal a d m i n i s t r a t i v e arrangements. I hope the above i s u s e f u l . " 216. "... no a c t u a l t h i n g s , s e r v i c e s , i n s t i t u t i o n s w i t h i n the s o c i e t y are a l t e r e d . In S o c i a l S e r v i c e s we t a l k e d about day care and we t a l k e d about l i c e n s i n g h a s s l e s undergone by any group of people t r y i n g t o p r o v i d e a s o c i a l s e r v i c e . There has been no i n c r e a s e i n a v a i l a b l e day care and no diminishment of l i c e n s i n g h a s s l e s as a r e s u l t of our a c t i v i t y . " 217. The respondent dropped out because of "too many s e l f c e n t r e d groups j o c k e y i n g f o r a p l a t f o r m f o r t h e i r own p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t s . " "I was dismayed a t the v e r y s t a r t w i t h : - the e x c e s s i v e numbers of problems t o be t a c k l e d - the r e l a t i v e l y s h o r t space of time desi g n a t e d as our t i m e t a b l e - the s h r i l l v o i c e s of h i g h l y v o c a l (and d i s r u p t i v e ) members w i t h (seeming) l i t t l e i n t e r e s t i n the o v e r a l l concepts." 154. 230. The respondent b e l i e v e s the Committee was ove r - r e p r e s e n t e d by "law enforcement agencies." "The Committee tended t o r e p r e s e n t two d i s t i n c t groups -p r o f e s s i o n a l s and day care pressure gar-oup. Consequently, t h e r e was never any r e a l unanimity and th e r e was too much time spent on the day care r a t h e r than the whole range of s o c i a l s e r v i c e s . " 235. The Committee was under r e p r e s e n t e d i n persons from " o u t s i d e d i s t r i c t s ( r u r a l ) . " "Handicap and r e t a r d e d group predominated - T e c h n i c a l Committee on t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and c u r t a i l e d p r o g r e s s . T h i s was allowed t o continue by s t a f f r e s u l t i n g i n the l o s s of s e v e r a l good Chairmen and f r u s t r a t i o n of i n t e r e s t e d members." 237. "One member of the Committee always took over the f l o o r and c o n t r o l l e d the c o n v e r s a t i o n and was a bore!" 238. Would p a r t i c i p a t e a g a i n " f o r reasons of defense." "The whole procedure i s u s e l e s s . I t i s u n r e a l i s t i c t o c expect a group of 'experts' such as the GVRD planners t o take s e r i o u s l y the recommendations of a group of mostly uninformed i n d i v i d u a l s . I t i s f u r t h e r u n r e a l i s t i c t o ask these people t o do a job t h a t should be done by the GVRD s t a f f who are p a i d t o do such work. I c o n s i d e r i t t o have been an e x e r c i s e i n window d r e s s i n g designed t o g i v e l e g i t i m a c y t o what the GVRD planners i n t e n d t o do anyway. How much b e t t e r t o s e l e c t people w i t h some knowledge of a s u b j e c t t o g i v e a d v i c e on t h a t s u b j e c t than t o take j u s t anyone o f f the s t r e e t . The GVRD c o u l d not r e a l l y have been s e r i o u s ! " 245. "There was no communication between Committees, a f a c t which has advantages and disadvantages." 247. " T r a n s p o r t a t i o n c o s t s should be (paid t o every) p a r t i c i p a n t . " 248. The respondent dropped out because of the " d i s t a n c e and time" r e q u i r e d t o a t t e n d . 249. The respondent dropped out because of " l a c k of c i t i z e n r e p r e s e n t a t i v e n e s s . " 155 . "As an attempt t o g a i n c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n t h i s group was a dismal f a i l u r e - hence my withdrawal. The r e p o r t f i n a l l y produced by t h i s Committee was much i n f e r i o r t o the t r a n s -p o r t a t i o n s e c t i o n produced by the R e s i d e n t i a l Committee!!" 250. The respondent dropped out because the Committee was "too power o r i e n t e d . " 252. The respondent dropped out because of l a c k of time t o devote t o t h i s work. "Need f o r experience or p r o f e s s i o n a l group l e a d e r s t o stimu-l a t e group t h i n k i n g , and r e c o r d responses. Greater need f o r data i n p u t s i n t o Committee s e s s i o n s updating Committee l a y members on c u r r e n t technology and developments. Lack of GOAL d e f i n i t i o n . " 277. "The Committees must remain on-going w i t h s h o r t and long range g o a l s t o be gained yet." 

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