UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

Marginal capability lands of the Chilcotin Watt, W. J. (William J.) 1974

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-UBC_1974_A6_7 W38.pdf [ 11.24MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0099976.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0099976-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0099976-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0099976-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0099976-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0099976-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0099976-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0099976-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0099976.ris

Full Text

MARGINAL CAPABILITY LANDS OF THE CHILCOTIN by WILLIAM JOHN WATT Sc. ( A g r . ) , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 197 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE i n the Department of SOIL SCIENCE We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the re q u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA J u l y , 1974 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the library shall make i t freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representative. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of Soil Science The University of British Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada i i ABSTRACT C a p a b i l i t y i n v e n t o r y surveys have been conducted i n the province f o r several y e a r s . Inherent i n t h i s program i s the c o l l e c t i o n of b a s e l i n e data on the p h y s i c a l environment of the area. The capa-b i l i t y i n f o r m a t i o n (CLI) i s v a l u a b l e f o r land resource p l a n n i n g , e s p e c i a l l y i n areas where l i t t l e resource development has occurred. The mechanism of c o l l e c t i o n and the u t i l i t y o f c a p a b i l i t y data were examined i n the C h i l c o t i n area of B r i t i s h Columbia i n an attempt to develop a land use p l a n . A reconnaissance t e r r a i n survey was conducted. The survey r e l i e d h e a v i l y on a i r photo i n t e r p r e t a t i o n and used landforms as the p h y s i c a l base. F i v e t e r r a i n types, based on s o i l and other l a n d -scape c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s were i d e n t i f i e d and c h a r a c t e r i z e d i n the study area. D e t a i l e d ground i n f o r m a t i o n was c o l l e c t e d from a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s i t e on each t e r r a i n type. The in f o r m a t i o n was used to c h a r a c t e r i z e the t e r r a i n type and make resource c a p a b i l i t y i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s f o r a g r i c u l t u r e , f o r e s t r y , w i l d l i f e and r e c r e a t i o n . The c a p a b i l i t y o f these resource s e c t o r s were evaluated f o r the purpose o f preparing a land use plan f o r the t e r r a i n types w i t h i n the area. The plan i d e n t i f i e d i n t e g r a t e d resource use as the optimal type of resource development. The study provides a guide to i n t e g r a t e d management o f the area. Resource c o n f l i c t s were i d e n t i f i e d and supplemental i n f o r m a t i o n requirements were noted. i i i TABLE OF CONTENTS Page INTRODUCTION 1 DESCRIPTION OF THE STUDY AREA 3 L o c a t i o n 3 Physiography 3 Geology 6 Climate 7 Ve g e t a t i o n 8 S o i l s 10 Present Land Use 11 METHODS AND MATERIALS 13 F i e l d Methods 13 Laboratory Methods 15 C a p a b i l i t y C l a s s i f i c a t i o n and A n a l y s i s 18 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 21 Res u l t s • • 3 2 S i t e D i s c u s s i o n 34 T e r r a i n Type 1 34 T e r r a i n Type 2 45 T e r r a i n Type 3 51 T e r r a i n Type 4 58 T e r r a i n Type 5 67 P h y s i c a l Land Use A l l o c a t i o n Plan 74 i v Page SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS . . 82 LITERATURE CITED 85 APPENDIX I ' . 89 APPENDIX II 103 V LIST OF TABLES Table Page I. Climate Data from the Big Creek S t a t i o n .... 25 I I . Native Grazing C a b a b i l i t y o f the T e r r a i n Types .... 40 I I I . A g r i c u l t u r a l Climate of the T e r r a i n Types 41 IV. C a p a b i l i t i e s o f the T e r r a i n Types f o r A g r i c u l t u r e , F o r e s t r y , W i l d l i f e and Recreation 43 v i LIST OF FIGURES Figure Page 1. L o c a t i o n Map 4 2. Physiography o f the Study Area 5 3. V e g e t a t i v e Zones M o d i f i e d a f t e r K r a j i n a [1965] 9 4. L o c a t i o n of Sample S i t e s and D i s t r i b u t i o n of the T e r r a i n Types 24 5. Mountain and V a l l e y T e r r a i n 26 6- T e r r a i n Type 1 35 7. T e r r a i n Type 2 47 8. T e r r a i n Type 3 52 9. T e r r a i n Type 4 60 10. T e r r a i n Type 5 69 11. T e r r a i n Type Land Use Plan 78 In reality the whole soil in its natural environment is the decisive factor — the unity of all possible influences. WALTER L. KUBIENA Micromorphological Features of s o i l geography v i i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The author s i n c e r e l y a p p r e c i a t e d the a s s i s t a n c e , guidance and encouragement of Dr. L.M. L a v k u l i c h , Department of S o i l S c ience, throughout the p r o j e c t . Mr. L. F a r s t a d , Head, B.C. S o i l Survey S e c t i o n , Canada A g r i c u l t u r e , generously provided i n t e r e s t and f a c i l i t i e s such as equipment and m a t e r i a l s f o r the p r o j e c t . Thanks i s expressed to the numerous members of the Canada Land Inventory (B.C.) and S o i l Survey S e c t i o n , Canada A g r i c u l t u r e who helped me develop the i n t e r - d i s c i p l i n a r y understanding r e q u i r e d to c a r r y out the p r o j e c t . The author i s deeply indepted to h i s w i f e , Shary, f o r her understanding and u n f a i l i n g encouragement during the course o f study. 1 INTRODUCTION Large areas in Br i t ish Columbia have limited capability lands for agriculture, forestry, w i ld l i fe and intensive recreation because of restrictions related to climate and s o i l . It is necessary to understand these limited capabil ity areas i f their potential is to be u t i l i zed . These areas are limited in their single resource u t i l i t y , but could be more productive under integrated resource use. This study explores the techniques of data gathering and evaluation for the purpose of optimizing land use to i t s potential in an area of limited capability lands in Br i t ish Columbia. This province has highly variable climate and terrain. Such a limited capability area1 in the Chilcotin was selected. A methodology for the collection of information in areas of limited access is presented as an aid to determine the type of development and management required to obtain an optimum sustained output from the agriculture, forestry, w i ld l i fe and recreation resource sectors. The assemblage of specialized information is organized by a land c l a s s i f i -cation system which was used to map, correlate and provide derivative interpretations. Classed as a limited capability area by the Canada Land Inventory (CLI). Capabilities are Class 5 and 6 (Class 4 to 6 for Big Game) under the seven class CLI c lass i f icat ion system. 2 The i n f o r m a t i o n i s assembled using s o i l s as the i n t e g r a t e r . The u s e f u l n e s s of s o i l s as the common denominator i n b r i d g i n g the animate and inanimate world was suggested by Jenny [1941]. The gathered i n f o r m a t i o n i s organized i n t o s o i l based t e r r a i n u n i t s . The i n f o r m a t i o n i s evaluated i n r e l a t i o n to c a p a b i l i t y p o t e n t i a l f o r the resource s e c t o r s and the subsequent land use plan attempts to o p t i m i z e the out-put from the u n i t area i n q u a l i t a t i v e terms. Land use d e c i s i o n s are based e n t i r e l y on p h y s i c a l environmental c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . The i n v e n t o r y of the p h y s i c a l resource i n f o r m a t i o n provides the comprehensive base f o r land e v a l u a t i o n and land use planning. 3 DESCRIPTION OF THE STUDY AREA The general d i s c u s s i o n which f o l l o w s d e f i n e s the l o c a t i o n and d e s c r i b e s the environment of the area. The d e s c r i p t i o n of the environment presents the physiography, bedrock and s u r f i c i a l geology, c l i m a t e , v e g e t a t i o n s o i l s and present land use. The i n t r o d u c t o r y remarks are b r i e f but w i l l provide a p e r s p e c t i v e of the p h y s i c a l e n v i r o n -ment which i s i n v e s t i g a t e d i n d e t a i l . L o c a t i o n The area i s l o c a t e d i n the west h a l f of National Topographic S e r i e s sheet 92-0 as shown i n Figure 1. I t extends one degree North from51°North L a t i t u d e and one degree west from 123° West Longitude. The c e n t e r of the area i s l o c a t e d 250 k i l o m e t r e s north of Vancouver and 110 kilometres south west of Williams Lake. Physiography The two dominant physi o g r a p h i c f e a t u r e s are the F r a s e r Plateau c o v e r i n g the northe a s t e r n two-thirds of the area and the Coast Mountains i n the south west [ H o l l a n d , 1964]. They are o u t l i n e d i n Figure 2. Level to r o l l i n g topography i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f the F r a s e r Plateau i n the area. E l e v a t i o n s range from 915 metres to 1675 metres ASL with F i g u r e 1 L o c a t i o n o f t h e S t u d y Area i n R e l a t i o n t o V a n c o u v e r and W i l l i a m s Lake 5 plateau h i l l y plateau Regional Physiographic Units | plateau valley .mountain valley mountains major boundary regional boundary Figure 2 Physiography of the study area. Major physiographic features after Holland [1964]. Regional physiographic features based on topographic expression of the landscape 6 the i n c r e a s e o c c u r r i n g towards the Coast Mountains. A number of h i l l y areas are found throughout the p l a t e a u . The plateau s u r f a c e i s i n c i s e d deeply by the C h i l c o t i n , Chi 1ko and Taseko R i v e r s . The v a l l e y s are narrow and s t e e p - s i d e d . The Coast Mountains are sub-divided i n t o the C h i l c o t i n and P a c i f i c Ranges by Holland [1964]. The C h i l c o t i n Ranges are dominant i n the study area. Both ranges are c h a r a c t e r i z e d by high rugged mountains, a l p i n e and c i r q u e g l a c i e r s and narrow s t e e p - s i d e d v a l l e y s . The C h i l c o t i n Ranges, where they a d j o i n the p l a t e a u , are e r o s i o n a l remnants of the u p l i f t e d and i n c l i n e d p l a t e a u which form rounded peaks. Towards the P a c i f i c Ranges the mountains become pro-g r e s s i v e l y higher i n r e l i e f and more rugged. Sharp peaks occur s i n g l y or along r i d g e s i n the g l a c i a l l y s c u l p t u r e d mountains. The few l a r g e catenary shaped v a l l e y s t h a t occur i n the mountains were m o d i f i e d by l a r g e v a l l e y g l a c i e r s . Geology The bedrock was mapped by T i p p e r [1961] , Underlying • the P l e i s t o c e n e and recent s u r f i c i a l d e p o s i t s of the plateau are o l i v i n e b a s a l t , a n d e s i t e and r e l a t e d t u f f s and breccas o f Upper Miocene and p o s s i b l y younger age. Pre-Miocene v o l c a n i c and sedimentary bedrock i s common to the h i l l y areas. In the C h i l c o t i n Ranges, the bedrock i s dominantly: 1. v a r i c o l o u r e d a n d e s i t i c p r y o c l a s t i c r o c k s , i n t e r c a l a t e d i n p l a c e s with gray, g r e e n i s h gray and mauve massive or p o r p h y r i t i c flows and 7 2. interbedded shale and graywacke or graywacke and conglomerate. In the Taseko Mountain -- Mount V i c -- A n v i l Mountain l o c a l i t y : 1. quartz monzonite and g r a n i t e , 2. d i o r i t e and g r a n o d i o r i t e and 3. an d e s i t e and b a s a l t are the dominant bedrock types. The P a c i f i c Ranges are c h a r a c t e r i z e d by: 1. g r e e n i s h g r a n o d i o r i t e and d i o r i t e with i n d i s t i n c t to prominent g n e i s s o s i t y , many g r a n i t e and a p l i t e dykes and 2. n o n - f o l i a t e d coarse grained b i o t i t e g r a n i t e and quartz d i o r i t e . The area was g l a c i a t e d during the P l e i s t o c e n e . G l a c i e r i c e from sources i n the Coast Mountains advanced over the plateau i n a n o r t h e r l y d i r e c t i o n [ T i p p e r , 1971]. The p r o p o r t i o n o f g r a n i t i c and d i o r i t i c type r o c k s , i i n the coarse fragments of the t i l l , i n c r e a s e s towards the i c e source. Where the i c e has moved over b a s a l t i c bedrock the compacted basal t i l l becomes higher i n c l a y content than the t i l l near the mountains. A b l a t i o n f e a t u r e s a re common on the p l a t e a u . Large meltwater channels occupied the main r i v e r v a l l e y s . Climate The c l i m a t e i s s t r o n g l y i n f l u e n c e d by the Coast Mountains. The w e s t e r l y winds l o s e most of t h e i r moisture i n passing over the 8 mountains. Because o f t h i s rain-shadow e f f e c t , the area i s d i s t i n c t l y dry. Summers are short and cool while long c o l d winters r e s u l t from the a r c t i c a i r masses invading the plateau [Kendrew and Kerr, 1955]. The c l i m a t e becomes c o o l e r with i n c r e a s i n g e l e v a t i o n . The C h i l c o t i n R iver V a l l e y a t H a n c e v i l l e has a s i g n i f i c a n t l y warmer and d r i e r c l i m a t e than the adjacent p l a t e a u . On the plateau a t 1000 m ASL, the mean annual temperature i s 2.2°C. Mean annual p r e c i p i t a t i o n i s 34 cm of which 60 per cent i s r a i n f a l l . The mean annual temperature decreases with higher e l e v a t i o n on the plateau and humidity i n c r e a s e s . Winter c o n d i t i o n s are prolonged and summers are s h o r t . Above 2000 m, a l p i n e c o n d i t i o n s p r e v a i l . Both temperature and p r e c i p i t a t i o n are low. Windy c o n d i t i o n s p r e v a i l . A number of c l i m a t e s t a t i o n s with temperature and p r e c i p i t a t i o n records are l o c a t e d on the F r a s e r P l a t e a u . The Big Creek s t a t i o n l o c a t e d i n the area was used to c h a r a c t e r i z e the c l i m a t e o f the v a r i o u s segments of the plateau s t u d i e d . Vegetation The v e g e t a t i o n i n the study area progresses from open g r a s s -land to lodgepole pine and Engelmann spruce f o r e s t s to a l p i n e tundra herbs and f o r b e s i n the a l p i n e . The approximate d i s t r i b u t i o n i s given i n F i gure 3. The g r a s s l a n d and adjacent f o r e s t f r i n g e i s i n the Cariboo aspen -- lodgepole pine -- Douglas f i r parkland zone [ K r a j i n a , 1965]. In Figure 3 t h i s zone i s su b d i v i d e d i n t o Cariboo aspen parkland and 9 F i g u r e 3 V e g e t a t i v e Zones M o d i f i e d from K r a j i n a [1965] 10 Douglas f i r -- lodgepole pine. The former i s a mixed g r a s s l a n d -f o r e s t o c c u r r i n g i n v a l l e y s and adjacent plateaus and the l a t t e r i s on the plateau f o r e s t e d with lodgepole pine. The t h i r d zone i l l u s -t r a t e d , corresponds to the Engelmann spruce -- subalpine f i r zone [ K r a j i n a , 1965] and i t occurs a t higher e l e v a t i o n than the f i r s t zone. Lodgepole pine i s the dominant t r e e s p e c i e s i n these zones, c h i e f l y the r e s u l t o f f i r e h i s t o r y . Spruce f o r e s t s occur on s o i l s with higher moisture content which may be l e s s s u s c e p t i b l e to f i r e s . The a l p i n e tundra zone occurs above 1675 m ASL and i s dominated by heath and herbaceous v e g e t a t i o n . S o i l s An e x p l o r a t o r y s o i l survey was done i n the area by the author. From the i n f o r m a t i o n c o l l e c t e d , the d i s t r i b u t i o n of the major s o i l s was d e r i v e d . A wide range o f s o i l s was i d e n t i f i e d i n the area. L u v i s o l i c s o i l s a re most common on the plateau and B r u n i s o l i c s o i l s are most common i n the mountains. O r t h i c Gray L u v i s o l s occur on sandy loam and f i n e r textured parent m a t e r i a l s up to 1450 m ASL e l e v a t i o n . Above 1450 m ASL, the Gray L u v i s o l s are c l a s s i f i e d i n the B r u n i s o l i c Subgroup. In the l a r g e r plateau v a l l e y s and many steep southery exposed slopes below 1200 m ASL e l e v a t i o n Chernozemic s o i l s occur on sandy loam and f i n e r textured parent m a t e r i a l s . Coarser parent m a t e r i a l s w i t h i n the p l a t e a u have B r u n i s o l i c s o i l s ( u s u a l l y O r t h i c E u t r i c B r u n i s o l s ) 11 developed on them. G l e y s o l i c and shallow Organic s o i l s occur i n l o c a l i z e d wet d e p r e s s i o n a l areas of h i l l and swale topography. A very l i m i t e d number of o b s e r v a t i o n s were made on s o i l s i n the mountain r e g i o n . These obse r v a t i o n s i n d i c a t e d t h a t B r u n i s o l i c and R e g o s o l i c s o i l s are the most common. Present Land Use Land use i n the area i s not i n t e n s i v e , with the major p a r t the area l e f t i n i t s n a t u r a l s t a t e . Much of the area i s i n f o r e s t and a l p i n e . Ranching i s c o n f i n e d to r i v e r v a l l e y s and around l a k e s , where a l l u v i a l s o i l s and meadows are used f o r both w i l d and c u l t i v a t e d hay p r o d u c t i o n . The f o r e s t range i s u t i l i z e d adjacent to meadows and r i v e r v a l l e y s . Fencing i s l o c a l i z e d around ranch headquarters and p r i v a t e l y owned lands. Ranching i s the main i n d u s t r y i n the area. Tourism, mineral e x p l o r a t i o n and logging are other i n d u s t r i e s i n o p e r a t i o n l o c a l l y throughout the area. Permanent r e s i d e n t s d e r i v e t h e i r l i v i n g from one or more o f these a c t i v i t i e s . Twenty-two r e s i d e n t holdings are based i n the area and there are two Indian Reserves. Resident holdings are the permanent r e s i d e n c e s of people whose primary income i s d e r i v e d i n the area, not i n c l u d i n g the labour f o r c e employed i n the v a r i o u s i n d u s t r i e s . S i x t e e n of the holdings are ranches. Six of the ranches are s e l f - s u p p o r t i n g . An a d d i t i o n a l seven r e l y on o u t s i d e income. Three of the s i x t e e n achieve t h i s a d d i t i o n a l income through r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s , one through a s t o r e , three through o f f ranch l a b o r and 12 one mainly from o u t s i d e non-resident investments. There are f i v e f i s h i n g r e s o r t s or camps i n the area and f i v e b i g game guid i n g s e r v i c e s . Four o f the l a t t e r are run i n c o n j u n c t i o n with the f i s h i n g camps. Mineral e x p l o r a t i o n i s c o n f i n e d mainly to the mountainous area i n the southwest. Some i n t e r e s t i n copper e x p l o r a t i o n has developed on the plateau with only one prospect l o c a t e d a t present. A c t i v e e x p l o r a t i o n and i n v e n t o r y o f se v e r a l prospects southeast o f Upper Taseko Lake are c u r r e n t l y underway. With only small d e p o s i t s o f r i c h copper ores, the mineral p o t e n t i a l o f the area i s considered low. L i t t l e l o g g i n g a c t i v i t y i s a s s o c i a t e d with the area. Most of i t occurs along the C h i l c o t i n R i v e r V a l l e y where mature Douglas f i r i s harvested. Some salvage l o g g i n g has occurred i n and adjacent to a rec e n t burn on the plateau west of Big Creek ( t e r r a i n type 4 ) . The area i s s e r v i c e d v i a a f o r e s t s e r v i c e access road. There are no s e r v i c e c e n t r e s i n the area which provide more than one bas i c s e r v i c e [Weir, 1964]. Two ranches have small s t o r e s with a Post O f f i c e . A l e x i s Creek, the c l o s e s t m u l t i - s e r v i c e c e n t e r , has s e v e r a l s t o r e s , motels and garages. The main s e r v i c e c e n t e r f o r the r e g i o n i s Will i a m s Lake which i s an average road d i s t a n c e o f 120 km from the c l o s e s t p o p u l a t i o n c e n t e r s i n the ar e a , Big Creek, H a n c e v i l l e , Stoney Indian Reserve and the C h i l c o Ranch. E l e c t r i c i t y i s a v a i l a b l e i n the northeast corner o f the area, and telephone s e r v i c e i s a v a i l a b l e on the easter n edge of the area as f a r south as Big Creek. 13 METHODS AND MATERIALS F i e l d Methods An i n v e n t o r y of the p h y s i c a l resources was undertaken i n the area d e s c r i b e d using a landform base. On 1:63,360 black and white a e r i a l photography r e c u r r i n g patterns of s o i l and a s s o c i a t e d v e g e t a t i o n were i d e n t i f i e d on the landform base. For s i m p l i c i t y these areas are c a l l e d " t e r r a i n types." The t e r r a i n type i s s i m i l a r to the "land system" of Lacate [1969] and " t e r r a i n system" of V a l e n t i n e [1971]. The main d i f f e r e n c e i n the approach used was the g r e a t e r emphasis on parent m a t e r i a l s and r e c u r r i n g p a t t e r n of s o i l s . T h i s allowed a b e t t e r understanding o f the land resource i n t h a t s o i l s are used as the c o r r e l a t i v e t o o l among the t e r r a i n types recognized and serve as the p h y s i c a l base f o r many of the resource i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s . The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the t e r r a i n types i n the r e c o g n i z a b l e landforms were checked on the ground. The ground checks were s e l e c t i v e due to l i m i t e d access. A l a r g e number of ground checks were made to i n c r e a s e the r e l i a b i l i t y of the photo i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . D e t a i l e d s i t e i n f o r m a t i o n was c o l l e c t e d a t "type" l o c a l i t i e s f o r major s o i l s o c c u r r i n g i n the area. At these s i t e s , r e f e r r e d to as t e r r a i n s i t e s , the b a s i c f i e l d i n f o r m a t i o n on s o i l s , v e g e t a t i o n and r e l a t e d features.was obtained. The d e s c r i p t i o n s f o r each s i t e were compiled by standardized methods. S o i l s were de s c r i b e d according to The System  of S o i l C l a s s i f i c a t i o n f o r Canada [1970]. V e g e t a t i o n was i d e n t i f i e d both by common names and by the s c i e n t i f i c names d e r i v e d from B e i l 14 [1972] ?Hubbard [1969] and Lyons [1952]. T h i s s i t e i n f o r m a t i o n r e p r e -sents the i n f o r m a t i o n input r e q u i r e d f o r the comprehensive p h y s i c a l c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n of the t e r r a i n type. Components of the p h y s i c a l environment i n t e g r a t e d by s o i l s are c l i m a t e b i o t a , geology, s u r f a c e form and time. The study was r e s t r i c t e d to a s p e c i f i c p h y s i o g r a p h i c r e g i o n and to a s p e c i f i c c l i m a t i c regime. C a r e f u l d e s c r i p t i o n of s o i l s was made as s o i l s serve as a f o c a l p o i n t f o r land d e s c r i p t i o n . S o i l s i n t e g r a t e the p h y s i c a l environment and served as the c o r r e l a t i v e t o o l by which s i m i l a r areas may be compared. A d e s c r i p t i o n of the land i s not complete without an under-standing o f the i n t e g r a t i o n s of the component f a c t o r s . The most important i n t e g r a t i o n i s the r e l a t i v e l y s t a t i c c r i t e r i a which form the base f o r the t e r r a i n types. These are the landform and s o i l s . The landforms are an i n t e g r a t i o n o f parent m a t e r i a l ( g e o l o g i c m a t e r i a l , u n c o n s o l i d a t e d s u r f a c e d e p o s i t s ) and s l o p e . S o i l s are a f u n c t i o n o f parent m a t e r i a l , topography, c l i m a t e , b i o t a and time. S o i l i n t e g r a t e s a comprehensive i n f o r m a t i o n base. The l o g i c a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f s o i l s allows f o r a wide range of i n t e r p r e t i v e uses. Both landforms and s o i l s are meaningful i n terms of resource u t i l i z a t i o n . They are r e l a t i v e l y s t a b l e f e a t u r e s o f the landscape. As such they show l i t t l e change as a r e s u l t of minor environmental changes ( f o r example, f o r e s t f i r e s e l i m i n a t e v e g e t a t i o n which i s not, t h e r e f o r e , s t a b l e ) . 15 Laboratory Methods P h y s i c a l A n a l y s i s Bulk d e n s i t y and coarse fragment content: An excavation technique was used f o r determining bulk d e n s i t y and coarse fragment content. The s o i l was sampled by ho r i z o n . A l e v e l s u r f a c e was prepared. Then 300 cc or more of s o i l was excavated from the c e n t r a l area without d i s t u r b i n g the r e s i d u a l s o i l . The hole was l i n e d with a t h i n p l a s t i c (Saran Wrap) l e a v i n g no a i r pockets between the f i l m and the surround-ing s o i l . The p l a s t i c was f i l l e d l e v e l to the top of the hole with water i n order to measure the volume of the excavated s o i l . A 500 graduated c y l i n d e r was used f o r a l l measurements. The excavated s o i l was placed i n a p l a s t i c bag and l a b e l l e d f o r t r a n s p o r t to the l a b o r a t o r y f o r d r y i n g and weighing. A i r dry weights were recorded and used f o r c a l c u l a t i o n s of bulk d e n s i t y and coarse fragment content. Bulk d e n s i t y o f the whole s o i l was determined by d i v i d i n g the a i r - d r y weight of s o i l by the volume of the ex c a v a t i o n . The bulk d e n s i t y of the l e s s than 2 mm f r a c t i o n uses the same d i v i s i o n o f s o i l weight by s o i l volume except t h a t the weight and volume of coarse fragments was sub t r a c t e d from the r e s p e c t i v e values f o r the whole s o i l . Per cent coarse fragment content was c a l c u l a t e d by d i v i s i o n o f weight of coarse fragments by weight o f the whole s o i l m u l t i p l i e d by 100. 16 P a r t i c l e S i z e A n a l y s i s P a r t i c l e s i z e a n a l y s i s was done on the l e s s than 2 mm f r a c t i o n by employing the p i p e t t e method [ B l a c k , 1965] and using the apparatus d e s c r i b e d by C l a r k and Green [1961]. Organic matter was removed by hydrogen peroxide treatment [ B l a c k , 1965]. Samples from two s i t e s were t r e a t e d with sodium d i t h i o n i t e - c i t r a t e procedure [Mehra and Jackson, 1960] to remove f r e e i r o n o x ides. Chemical A n a l y s i s Measurement of pH: The pH was measured i n a 1:1 s o i l to water r a t i o [ A t k i nson e t a l _ . , 1958] and i n a 1:2 s o i l to 0.01 M calcium c h l o r i d e r a t i o [ S c h o f i e l d and T a y l o r , 1955], using a Beckman Zeromatic pH meter. Organic matter: The organic matter content was determined by wet o x i d a t i o n , Walkley-Black method [ B l a c k , 1965]. The pH v a r i e d widely so a l l s o i l s were done by t h i s method. Determination of t o t a l n i t r o g e n : Nitrogen was determined by the macro-K j e l d a h l method [Atkinson et a l _ . , 1958]. Exchangeable c a t i o n s and exchange c a p a c i t y : Exchangeable c a t i o n s were determined using the method o u t l i n e d by Atkinson e t al_. [1958]. The e x t r a c t i n g s o l u t i o n used was 1.0 N ammonium a c e t a t e at pH 7.0. Exchangeable c a l c i u m , magnesium, potassium and sodium were determined with an atomic a b s o r p t i o n spectrophotometer (Techtron Type AA-5). 17 Cation exchange c a p a c i t y was determined by d i r e c t d i s t i l l a t i o n o f absorbed NH^ i n t o b o r i c a c i d and t i t r a t i o n with standard s u l f u r i c a c i d using bromphenol blue i n d i c a t o r [Atkinson et a l _ . , 1958]. Base s a t u r a t i o n : Base s a t u r a t i o n was c a l c u l a t e d as the amount of the c a t i o n exchange c a p a c i t y t h a t was s a t i s f i e d by exchangeable c a l c i u m , magnesium, potassium and sodium, and i s presented as a percentage. Oxalate e x t r a c t a b l e i r o n and aluminium: Samples ground to pass through a 100 mesh s e i v e were e x t r a c t e d using the a c i d ammonium oxa l a t e procedure of McKeague and Day [1966]. Iron and aluminium i n the e x t r a c t were determined with a "Techtron Type AA-5" atomic a b s o r p t i o n spectrophotometer. E a s i l y - s o l u b l e phosphorus: The e a s i l y s o l u b l e phosphorus was determined by the Bray method [Atkinson e t a l _ . , 1958]. The e x t r a c t i n g s o l u t i o n removes the a c i d - s o l u b l e plus adsorbed phosphorus. The d e t a i l e d taxonomic s o i l d e s c r i p t i o n s f o r each t e r r a i n s i t e are presented along with chemical and p h y s i c a l a n a l y s i s i n Appendix I. These were a s t r i c t l y t e c h n i c a l p r e s e n t a t i o n and the i n f o r m a t i o n was used i n d i r e c t l y i n the t e x t . Native forage p r o d u c t i v i t y : The n a t i v e g r a z i n g p o t e n t i a l of the area was c l a s s i f i e d u s ing the t e n t a t i v e f i v e c l a s s system of Runka's [1973]. Herbage was c l i p p e d from p l o t s of 4.05 sq m 1 i n area and a t P l o t s were 3.7 f t r a d i u s with area o f e x a c t l y one mil acre or 4.046, 856, 422, 4 sq m. 3 cm above the ground s u r f a c e to measure annual p r o d u c t i o n . The p l o t s were c l i p p e d i n mid August. C l i p p i n g s were bagged f o r t r a n s p o r t to the l a b o r a t o r y where the samples were a i r d r i e d and weighed. Sub-samples were oven d r i e d a t 60°C f o r 24 hr and weights were adj u s t e d and expressed as kilograms per hectare. The s i n g l e s e l e c t i v e p l o t method was used to save time without the l o s s of accuracy of s i n g l e or few r e p l i c a t e s of random p l o t l o c a t i o n s . The s t o c k i n g r a t e f o r domestic l i v e s t o c k i s based on animal u n i t s . The animal u n i t r e p r e s e n t s a 450 kg animal which r e q u i r e d 300 kg dry weight of forage per month. Under range c o n d i t i o n s , management r e q u i r e s a 45 per cent c a r r y over of forage which r e p r e s e n t 135 kg more per animal u n i t month (AUM)'. Thus, a production o f 435 kg of forage dry weight per hectare w i l l s u s t a i n a s t o c k i n g r a t e of one AUM per hectare or one hectare per AUM. C a p a b i l i t y C l a s s i f i c a t i o n A n a l y s i s C a p a b i l i t y i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s were based on a l l known and i n f e r r e d i n f o r m a t i o n r e l a t i n g to the resource s e c t o r concerned. The degree o f s u b j e c t i v i t y i n the c a p a b i l i t y r a t i n g s i s r e l a t e d to the balance between known and i n f e r r e d i n f o r m a t i o n . C a p a b i l i t y c l a s s i f i -c a t i o n f o r a g r i c u l t u r e f o r e s t r y , w i l d l i f e and r e c r e a t i o n s e c t o r s uses the n a t i o n a l l y approved seven c l a s s system (CLI, r e p o r t #1, 1970; #2, 1965; #4, 1967; #6, 1969 and #7, 1970). 19 G u i d e l i n e s to the i n f o r m a t i o n c o l l e c t e d and used f o r a g r i c u l t u r e , f o r e s t r y and w i l d l i f e -- ungulates -- have been compiled by Runka [1973], Kowall [1971] and Blower, [1973] r e s p e c t i v e l y f o r B r i t i s h Columbia o u t l i n i n g departure from n a t i o n a l methodology. In a d d i t i o n , c l i m a t i c data was c o l l e c t e d and i n t e r p r e t e d f o r a g r i c u l t u r e , f o r e s t r y and r e c r e a t i o n by the B.C. Land Inventory ( C L I ) , [1972]. Data from these sources were brought together f o r land assessment purposes. The c a p a b i l i t i e s presented f o r each resource s e c t o r were a r r i v e d a t independently by s p e c i a l i s t s . The a g r i c u l t u r e c a p a p a b i l i t y was done by the author and i s i n the form of a p r e l i m i n a r y map a t the s c a l e of 1:126,720. C a p a b i l i t y c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of the area under study f o r f o r e s t r y , b ig game and r e c r e a t i o n was obtained from pre-l i m i n a r y 1:126,720 maps. Waterfowl c a p a b i l i t i e s were obtained from a pub l i s h e d 1:250,000 map f o r Taseko Lakes [CLI, 1970]. The c a p a b i l i t y c l a s s i f i c a t i o n system f o r the CLI program i s based on the p h y s i c a l l i m i t a t i o n s of the land to support the a c t i v i t i e s of each resource s e c t o r [CLI Report #1, 1970]. A g r i c u l t u r e and f o r e s t r y are based mainly on s o i l l i m i t a t i o n s . In a l l s e c t o r s except f o r e s t r y , the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i s based on the range of a c t i v i t i e s , crops or h a b i t a t . The c a p a b i l i t y decreases with the s e v e r i t y of the l i m i -t a t i o n s . The f o r e s t r y s e c t o r bases c a p a b i l i t y on p r o d u c t i v i t y and each c l a s s r e p r e s e n t s a s p e c i f i c p r o d u c t i v i t y range f o r adapted t r e e s p e c i e s . In a g r i c u l t u r e the range of crops i s the b a s i s f o r the c a p a b i l i t y c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . The s o i l has no l i m i t a t i o n s f o r a g r i c u l -t u r e i f a l l c l i m a t i c a l l y adapated crops may be grown and as the l i m i t a t i o n s i n c r e a s e the range of p o s s i b l e crops decreases. The w i l d -20 l i f e and r e c r e a t i o n s e c t o r ' s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i s based on land c a p a b i l i t y . The w i l d l i f e c a p a b i l i t y c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i s based on two main groups o f s p e c i e s which occur across Canada: big game and waterfowl. The land c a p a b i l i t y i s based on the degree of environmental l i m i t a t i o n s f o r each group, which have t h e i r own requirements. The r e c r e a t i o n c a p a b i l i t y c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i s based on the range of outdoor a c t i v i t i e s which can be undertaken i n an area. These a c t i v i t i e s are e i t h e r land based or s h o r e l i n e based i n the case of water centred a c t i v i t i e s . Sub-c l a s s e s denote p o s i t i v e a spects of the land f o r r e c r e a t i o n , not l i m i -t a t i o n s as f o r the other s e c t o r s . 21 DISCUSSION Land i s comprised of a s e r i e s of i n t e r - r e l a t e d s t r a t i g r a p h i c components. The components may be i n t e g r a t e d i n v a r i o u s ways depending on the viewpoint to demonstrate f u n c t i o n a l environmental r e l a t i o n s h i p s . Geology and c l i m a t e are primary independent components i n the sense of A l v i s , [Wertz and A r n o l d , 1972].- Time i s an a b s t r a c t component which f a c i l i t a t e s i n t e r a c t i o n s between the b a s i c components to produce secondary components. Secondary components are dependent on and r e l a t e d to primary components. The second order components are landforms and organisms. Landforms i n the g e n e t i c sense are an i n t e g r a t i o n of bedrock, s u r f i c i a l m a t e r i a l s and s l o p e . These provide the p h y s i c a l base f o r the mapping of the t e r r a i n types. Landforms i n t e g r a t e b a s i c components of the land and are a l s o , i d e n t i -f i a b l e on. a e r i a l photographs. Organisms are the p l a n t and animal l i f e a s s o c i a t e d with the lan d . S o i l - v e g e t a t i o n r e l a t i o n s h i p s are more e a s i l y s t u d i e d than s o i l - a n i m a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s because p l a n t s are s p a t i a l l y f i x e d throughout l i f e whereas animals are mobile. S o i l s , as a f u n c t i o n of parent m a t e r i a l , topography, climate, organisms and time, most completely i n t e g r a t e the land components. I n t e r p r e t a t i o n s are f a c i l i t a t e d by c o n s i d e r i n g s o i l as an i n t e g r a t o r of the s t r a t i g r a p h i c land components. Land c a p a b i l i t y f o r s u s t a i n i n g l i f e i s an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n based on s o i l and c l i m a t i c f a c t o r s . S o i l f a c t o r s i n c l u d e s l o p e , f e r t i l i t y and p o s i t i o n . 22 C l i m a t i c f a c t o r s i n c l u d e heat and moisture. Hydrology i s i n c l u d e d i n t o the land d e s c r i p t i o n through i n t e g r a t i o n o f s o i l and c l i m a t e f a c t o r s . S o i l drainage, p e r m e a b i l i t y and i n f i l t r a t i o n c a p a c i t y are examples o f h y d r o l o g i c i n f o r m a t i o n i n c o r p o r a t e d i n s o i l d e s c r i p t i o n . The amount and s t a t e o f water i n the t e r r a i n type i s d e s c r i b e d by c l i m a t i c inform-a t i o n . I n t e r p r e t a t i o n s r e l a t e d to land use can be based mainly on s o i l f a c t o r s with supplemental i n f o r m a t i o n on b a s i c land components d e s i r a b l e . T h i s p h y s i c a l base i s u s e f u l f o r a s s e s s i n g the response o f the land to u t i l i z a t i o n p r a c t i c e s . Land s e n s i t i v i t y can be determined when more in f o r m a t i o n i s gathered -- i n f o r m a t i o n which has d i r e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p to land use as o u t l i n e d by Leven e t al_. [1974]. The base i s a l s o u s e f u l i n socio-economic s t u d i e s s i n c e the u n i t s are small and a c t i v i t i e s and changes are e a s i l y s t u d i e d a t the l o c a l l e v e l . The t e r r a i n types s u s t a i n uses t h a t a r e r e l a t e d to t h e i r i n h e r e n t c a p a b i l i t i e s . The s o i l resources and c a p a b i l i t i e s f o r a g r i c u l t u r e , f o r e s t r y , big game, waterfowl and r e c r e a t i o n are presented f o r f i v e o f the seven recognized t e r r a i n types i n the study area. The f i v e t e r r a i n types 2 s t u d i e d i n d e t a i l r e p r e s e n t 45 per cent o f the 7,726 km of the study area. The t e r r a i n types are i d e n t i f i e d n u m e r i c a l l y with i n c r e a s i n g e l e v a t i o n . They are on the l e v e l to r o l l i n g p l a t e a u . The d i s t r i b u t i o n o f the t e r r a i n types and l o c a t i o n o f t e r r a i n s i t e s are i l l u s t r a t e d 2 i n F igure 4, The remaining 55 per cent o f the 7,726 km i s comprised of mountainous and h i l l y t e r r a i n types. The mountain and v a l l e y 23 terrain types as i l lustrated in Figure a and b are not studied in detail because their complex variation over short distances has not been adequately inventoried and a larger scale of mapping would be required. Climate is discussed in relationship to the data from data from the Big Creek station (Table I). Discussion of the data in this table is presented in the climate section of terrain type two and the Climate of a l l the other terrain types is discussed relative to this data. Discussion of each terrain type includes sections on site inventory and land evaluation. The site inventory states location, present land use, soi l resources vegetation and climate based on si te observation. The land evaluation presents the capabil ity ratings for each resource sector and discussion on the l imitations of each. Data used in the evaluation of the terrain types is presented in Tables I, I I , I I I , and IV. The order is consistently agriculture, forestry, big game, waterfowl and recreation. Following the presentation of inventory and evaluation, a discussion on physical land use in the area is presented. Legend to F i g u r e 4 T e r r a i n Type Topography E l e v a t i o n a l Range (metres) A e r i a l Extent KmxKm 1 Gently u n d u l a t i n g to g e n t l y r o l 1 i n g 945-1035 17 2 Gently undulating to g e n t l y r o l l i n g 1035-1160 231 Gently r o l l i n g to s t r o n g l y 1035-1250 104 r o l l i n g 3 Gently undulating to g e n t l y r o l 1 i n g 1100-1370 1670 4 Undulating to moderating r o l l i n g 1370-1525 870 5 Gently u n d u l a t i n g to moder-a t i n g r o l l i n g 1500-1800 535 V a l l e y S t e e p l y s l o p i n g i r r e g u l a r v a l l e y s i d e s with s t a i r - 475-1035 stepped t e r r a c e s 4000 Mountains S t e e p l y s l o p i n g i r r e g u l a r r e g u l a r rocky r i d g e s and v a l l e y s o f high r e l i e f 900-3000 24a • 5 Figure 4 Terrain type boundary Sample s i te Topographic variant boundary Location of the Sample Sites and Distribution of the Terrain Types TABLE I Climate Data from Big Creek (51° 44' North Latitude, 123° 02' West Longitude, 1134 metres ASL Elevation) Element Jan Feb March April May June July Aug Sept Oct Nov Dec Year Mean Daily Temp -11.61 -6.22 -2.83 2.61 7.72 11.11 13.72 13.11 9.44 3.56 -4.22 -9.22 2.28 Mean Daily Max.Temp. -4.67 1.28 4.33 9.78 15.78 18.61 21.94 21.06 17.44 10.67 2.00 -2.78 9.61 Mean Daily Min.Temp. -18.56 -13.78 -10.0 -4.56 -0.39 3.56 5.50 5.22 1.44 -4.17 -10.39 -15.67 -5.11 No.Days with Frost 31 28 31 29 19 6 1 1 12 27 30 31 246 Mean Rainfall 1.27 0 .25 0.25 0.50 2.35 5.18 3.25 4.62 2.64 1.19 0.20 0.15 20.24 Mean Snowfall 26.9 17.8 21.3 11.7 5.8 T 0 0 1.0 7.1 18.3 27.2 137 Mean Total Precipitation 2.82 1.80 2.21 1.63 2.95 5.21 3.25 4.62 2.72 1.91 2.03 2.07 34.00 No.Days with Measure-able Rainfall * * * 1 5 8 6 8 6 3 1 * 38 No.Days with Measure-able Precipitation 7 5 5 4 5 8 6 8 6 5 6 7 72 T Trace * Rainfall - - occasionally but not every year Source: Canada Department of Transport, 1967 ro tn Figure 5 I l lustrations of the Mountain and Valley Terrain Types (a) Mountain terrain type showing the Lord River valley in the background (b) Narrow steep-sided Taseko River valley incising f la t lying plateau basalts 27- " Land c a p a b i l i t y a n a l y s i s procedures use a l l a v a i l a b l e informa-t i o n on renewable resource p o t e n t i a l to i d e n t i f y the s e c t o r with the highe s t p o t e n t i a l . A measuring t o o l f o r resource p o t e n t i a l i s the c a p a b i l i t y r a t i n g . S e c t o r s having the same c a p a b i l i t y c l a s s r a t i n g are con s i d e r e d equal with the exception o f b i g game. Big game has been dropped one c l a s s because i t represents an ex t e n s i v e use of the a v a i l a b l e resource. T h i s i s a q u a l i t a t i v e e v a l u a t i o n o f the s e c t o r c a p a b i l i t i e s . The p o s i t i v e aspect o f man's i n t e r f e r e n c e c r e a t e s a f u r t h e r imbalance as a r e s u l t o f the d i f f e r e n t responses o f the s e c t o r s to management. Man's d i r e c t input i n t o a g r i c u l t u r e which makes t h i s s e c t o r out-produce a l l o t h er s e c t o r s i s s t i m u l a t e d by the s a t i s f a c t i o n o f human needs being r e a l i z e d . The other s e c t o r s are s u b j e c t t o l e s s i n t e r f e r e n c e by man and t h e i r lower production i s s u s t a i n e d without human input while the goods are r e a d i l y used by man. The CLI c a p a b i l i t i e s are used as the measuring t o o l i n land e v a l u a t i o n which i d e n t i f i e s the s e c t o r with the highe s t c a p a b i l i t y . The p h y s i c a l land a l l o c a t i o n uses several concepts as planning t o o l s . These concepts have developed through o b s e r v a t i o n and measure-ment of land resources to d i f f e r e n t management systems. Land use planning r e q u i r e s t o o l s . These t o o l s provide the answers to the what and why o f planning land use. Planning c o n s i d e r s tomorrow's needs today. These needs are viewed d i f f e r e n t l y by manage-ment and by producer. Management i s c o n s e r v a t i o n o r i e n t e d to provide long-term human b e n e f i t . Management comprises a comprehensive base which i n c l u d e s goods and s e r v i c e s r e q u i r e d by l o c a l and r e g i o n a l p o p u l a t i o n . The producer s p e c i a l i z e s i n the development and 28 e x p l o i t a t i o n of the land resource. The producer i s concerned with producing goods or s e r v i c e s immediately marketable. Planning bridges the gap between management and the producer. S t r a t e g i e s may favour e i t h e r i n the course of time. P r e s e n t l y , a t t e n t i o n i s focused on s t r a t e g i e s f a v o u r i n g management. In the past, the producer had few r e s t r i c t i o n s i n developing the land resource. Increas-ing p o p u l a t i o n and an awareness t h a t the f i x e d land resource v a r i e s c o n s i d e r a b l y i n c a p a b i l i t y to p r o v i d e goods and s e r v i c e s i s prompting a s h i f t i n outlook. One example of t h i s s h i f t i s the l e g i s l a t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia to p r o t e c t land which has high a g r i c u l t u r a l c a p a b i l i t y . The c a p a b i l i t y of land resources to provide r e t u r n s i s a f a c t o r to be recognized i n planning. Planning should r e c o g n i z e these c a p a b i l i t i e s f o r the output of goods and s e r v i c e s to maximize p u b l i c w e l f a r e . The end r e s u l t of planning s t r a t e g i e s depends on i n t e r a c t i o n of the land resource and human c o n s i d e r a t i o n s . In r e g i o n s of high c a p a b i l i t y , r e t u r n s to the producer could be high. T h i s s i t u a t i o n leads to i n c r e a s i n g development without adequate c o n s i d e r a t i o n f o r the land r e s o u r c e which produces the wealth. Strong s t r a t e g i e s such as zoning are r e q u i r e d where the land resource c a p a b i l i t y f o r v i t a l needs i s s c a r c e . The a g r i c u l t u r a l land r e s e r v e system i n B r i t i s h Columbia i s an example where a land resource i s p r o t e c t e d from short-term i r r e v e r s i b l e damage. In areas of high c a p a b i l i t y , the land resource use i s h i g h l y s p e c i a l i z e d and s t a b l e . In areas of low c a p a b i l i t y , on the other hand, the land can o n l y m a r g i n a l l y supply goods and must / r e l y on a wide resource base f o r production i n a c o m p e t i t i v e system s t r o n g l y i n f l u e n c e d by production from high c a p a b i l i t y uses. Thus 29:.. d i f f e r e n t s t r a t e g i e s are r e q u i r e d f o r the management of low c a p a b i l i t y r e s o u r c e s . Each p h y s i c a l resource has i t s unique c a p a b i l i t y f o r s p e c i f i c uses. I n t e r a c t i o n s of p h y s i c a l , b i o l o g i c a l , chemical and environmental components combine to produce the c a p a b i l i t y . The a l t e r a t i o n o f one component through use has an e f f e c t on the other components. The land use plan which manipulates the i n t e r a c t i o n s to y i e l d a r e s u l t g r e a t e r than any s i n g l e component i s favoured. Integrated land use w i l l y i e l d g r e a t e r r e t u r n s than s i n g l e land use. I n t e g r a t i o n o f the land resource component c a p a b i l i t i e s to y i e l d r e t u r n s from each c a p a b i l i t y s e c t o r i s the p r i n c i p l e behind m u l t i p l e land use. The term " i n t e g r a t e d " i s p r e f e r r a b l e to " m u l t i p l e , " i n t h a t i t has a stronge r c o n n o t a t i o n of comprehensive approach and an understanding o f the resource component i n t e r a c t i o n s . In an area of low c a p a b i l i t y , e x t e n s i v e areas a re r e q u i r e d f o r the prod u c t i o n o f goods and s e r v i c e s . The t e r r a i n types i n t h i s study are examples. The i n t e g r a t e d approach to planning i s based on the f i v e resource s e c t o r s d i s c u s s e d . A l t e r n a t i v e methods of management are a v a i l a b l e i n i n t e g r a t e d land use. A l l resource s e c t o r s are con s i d e r e d and the s e c t o r or combination of s e c t o r s which c o n t r i b u t e the maximum b e n e f i t , i s s e l e c t e d i n the p h y s i c a l land use plan. An e x c l u s i v e use i s i d e n t i f i e d when the c a p a b i l i t y o f one s e c t o r i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher than the other s e c t o r s , and when i t i s combined with a l a c k o f the s p e c i f i c resource to supply human need. More commonly, a combination of uses i s i d e n t i f i e d which, when combined, produces a g r e a t e r r e t u r n than f o r 30 separate, i n d i v i d u a l uses. These m u l t i p l e uses may be ranked a c c o r d -ing to a h e i r a r c h i a l system such as primary, secondary and. i n c i d e n t a l use. Primary use i d e n t i f i e s the most important use i n the system. When management p r a c t i c e s c o n f l i c t , the one f a v o u r i n g the primary use i s adopted. The main c o n s i d e r a t i o n s are based on degree of c o n f l i c t , as very few d i f f e r e n t uses are t r u l y compatible. C a r e f u l s e l e c t i o n of management c r i t e r i a c r e a t e s harmony between uses by reducing paths of c o n f l i c t . While the secondary use i s a l e s s importent use than the primary use, i t i s s t i l l capable of producing a s i g n i f i c a n t c o n t r i b u t i o n to the supply of human need. I n c i d e n t a l use i s a use which i s not n e c e s s a r i l y planned, but occurs as a r e s u l t of the o v e r a l l plan. I t can be considered a f a v o u r a b l e s i d e e f f e c t . An example are the dug-outs which are made to supply water f o r l i v e s t o c k i n pastures and which c r e a t e a h a b i t a t f o r waterfowl production without a d d i t i o n a l management inp u t . The plan f o r the land resource assumes maximized s u s t a i n e d u t i l i z a t i o n . The plan i d e n t i f i e s the uses which achieve f u l l u t i l i z a t i o n of the c a p a b i l i t y . The land use plan p r o j e c t s more i n t e n s i v e resource use than at present. The use of resources becomes more e f f i c i e n t with time as i n c r e a s i n g pressures e f f e c t i v e l y p o i n t out resource s c a r c i t i e s and management experience a i d s in e f f i c i e n c y . The p h y s i c a l land use plan i s compiled using the p h y s i c a l c a p a b i l i t i e s . In the plan f o r each t e r r a i n type, the p h y s i c a l plan optimizes s u s t a i n e d r e t u r n s by means of c o n s e r v a t i o n o r i e n t e d management and u t i l i z a t i o n p r a c t i c e s . The plan i n c l u d e s s o c i a l values o n l y where s p e c i f i c needs are high and land resource bases capable of supplying 31 these needs are sca r c e . G e n e r a l l y , the plan w i l l p o i n t out the most e f f i c i e n t means of o b t a i n i n g maximum re t u r n s from the land resource without resource degradation. Assumptions used i n the c a p a b i l i t y a n a l y s i s to rank c a p a b i l -i t i e s among resource s e c t o r s do not achieve a h e i r a r c h y . Man plans land use f o r h i s b e n e f i t . The r e s u l t i s land use t h a t y i e l d s the g r e a t e s t r e t u r n s , with r e s p e c t to h i s needs, takes precedence over o t h e r uses. The i n t e n s i t y o f land use i n c r e a s e s with the c a p a b i l i t y f o r each resource s e c t o r . The higher the c a p a b i l i t y , the more management options are open f o r each s e c t o r . The p r o d u c t i v i t y on low c a p a b i l i t y land may have a higher type of production than on high c a p a b i l i t y l a n d , but the products o f the high c a p a b i l i t y lands are more d i v e r s e . The i n t e n s i t y of land use i n a given s e c t o r may not i n c r e a s e u n i f o r m l y with c a p a b i l i t y . The i n t e n s i t y o f land use i n a s p e c i f i c c a p a b i l i t y c l a s s i s not the same f o r each resource s e c t o r . The h e i r a r c h i a l order showing decreasing i n t e n s i t y o f land use by s e c t o r i s -- a g r i c u l t u r e , f o r e s t r y , w i l d l i f e and r e c r e a t i o n . Ranking the s e c t o r s according t o importance v a r i e s from r e g i o n t o r e g i o n . In areas with abundant a g r i c u l t u r a l land but very few f o r e s t s , the f o r e s t s would be very important as l o c a l needs would be high. The p h y s i c a l land use land must attempt to balance the land use acc o r d i n g to human needs i n a d d i t i o n to p h y s i c a l c a p a b i l i t y . The maximum sust a i n e d production r e s u l t s from proper management of the land resource. Integrated land use i s advocated where the sum of the parts i s g r e a t e r than the whole. Simple land 32 use i s more pragmatic where the whole i s g r e a t e r than the sum o f the p a r t s . A p h y s i c a l land use plan i s presented f o r each t e r r a i n type based on these p r i n c i p l e s i n a d d i t i o n to an overview o f the area as a whole. Res u l t s The t e r r a i n type and t e r r a i n s i t e i n f o r m a t i o n gathered i n the i n v e n t o r y i s assessed to y i e l d t h e i r c a p a b i l i t i e s . Information from many s i t e s i s used to evaluate the p h y s i c a l resource c a p a b i l i t i e s . A g r i c u l t u r a l and f o r e s t r y c a p a b i l i t i e s are c o r r e l a t e d d i r e c t l y with s o i l s . T h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p can be adjusted to f i t the t e r r a i n type. Big game, waterfowl and r e c r e a t i o n c a p a b i l i t y i s assessed a t the t e r r a i n type l e v e l . These s e c t o r s r e l y on v a r i a t i o n i n the landscape i n the process o f c a p a b i l i t y c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s i n c e a number o f s i t e requirements need to be met. The t e r r a i n type i s a continuum o f t e r r a i n s i t e s . Any given t e r r a i n s i t e can vary from the general nature o f the whole type. These v a r i a t i o n s and the homogenuity of the t e r r a i n types are s t a t e d . T e r r a i n types f o u r and f i v e are examples of heterogeneous landscape u n i t s which as d e s c r i b e d and d i s c u s s e d as an e n t i t y . T e r r a i n types r e p r e s e n t a l a t e r a l extent i n the order o f square k i l o m e t e r s whereas t e r r a i n s i t e s are the small or po i n t samples o f the landscape which are c o l l e c t i v e l y used to c h a r a c t e r i z e the t e r r a i n type. A r e p r e s e n t a t i v e t e r r a i n s i t e was s e l e c t e d f o r d e s c r i p t i o n and sampling purposes. Small l o c a l i z e d i n c l u s i o n s occur w i t h i n the t e r r a i n types but are not 33 i d e n t i f i e d . The t e r r a i n type i s the main u n i t used f o r c l a s s i f y i n g land. T e r r a i n types are d e s c r i b e d independently and the d i f f e r e n t i -a t i n g f a c t o r s are q u a l i t i e s of the land resource. T e r r a i n types are used as standard u n i t s i n c h a r a c t e r i z i n g the impact of d i f f e r e n t resource management p r a c t i c e s . Comparison o f d i f f e r e n t resource s e c t o r s i s a l s o p o s s i b l e because output i s measured from the same area or a recognized p o r t i o n of the t e r r a i n type, as i n the case of wetlands. P h y s i c a l land use plans are designed with a l l resource s e c t o r s and environmental parameters considered on the same u n i t a r e a. P r o j e c t e d c a p a b i l i t y u t i l i z a t i o n by d i f f e r e n t land use plans allows f o r e v a l u a t i o n of the optimal land use a l l o c a t i o n . The standard base f o r studying land q u a l i t i e s and c a p a b i l i t i e s i s e s s e n t i a l i n order to compare d i f f e r e n t land use a l t e r n a t i v e s . S i t e D i s c u s s i o n T e r r a i n Type 1 S i t e l o c a t i o n : 51° 52' 35" North L a t i t u d e . 123° 2' 45" West Longitude. Located on s p r i n g and f a l l range of the C h i l c o Ranch 5.7 km a t 140° from ranch headquarters. Present land use: The present land use on t e r r a i n type 1 i s s p r i n g and f a l l range belonging to a l a r g e ranch h o l d i n g . The area was fenced to a i d i n management of the g r a s s l a n d area. This was p a r t of t h e l a r g e s t 34 area of t h i s l i m i t e d and c r i t i c a l range type f o r domestic l i v e s t o c k i n the area. The presence of "weed" sp e c i e s on these rangelands suggest over u t i l i z a t i o n i n the past, and p o s s i b l y a t present. No range seeding or other p r a c t i c e s , except f e n c i n g to c o n t r o l g r a z i n g , were apparent. P o s i t i o n : F i gure 6 (a & b) shows the g e n t l y u n d u l a t i n g till p l a i n i n a broad shallow d i p of the plateau adjacent to the C h i l c o t i n r i v e r v a l l e y and g r a d u a l l y widening towards the southeast. The s o i l p i t i s a t 990 M e l e v a t i o n on a 5 per cent northeast f a c i n g s l o p e . Figure 6 Terrain Type 1: (a) Two landscape pictures of the terrain type showing the open grassland with irregular clumps of trees 36 Figure 6 Terrain Type 1: (b) A view of the sample s i t e looking south towards a ridge on the plateau, (c) The co lor infrared picture s imi la r to 5(b) contrasts the vegetation with the ground surface and shows the surface stoniness associated with th i s te r ra in type 37 Figure 6 Terrain Type 1: (d) A closeup of the vegetation showing the sparse grass cover in the late summer after spring grazing 38 Geology: The g r a v e l s and cobbles i n the morainal d e p o s i t s i n c r e a s e with depth and become more homogeneous. The m a j o r i t y r e l a t e to the o l i v i n e b a s a l t and an d e s i t e mapped i n the area and are dominantly v e s i c u l a r . In the v i c i n i t y the s o i l s are r e l a t i v e l y deep but the gra d a t i o n o f the m a t e r i a l i n the s o i l p i t with depth suggests a depth of one to two metres to bedrock. The i c e movement was n o r t h e r l y [ T i p p e r , 1971]. V e g e t a t i o n : The s i t e i s l o c a t e d i n parkland v e g e t a t i o n with the sample s i t e i n a la r g e opening o f gra s s l a n d ( F i g u r e 6 c,d,e). Trees (lodgepole pine, aspen, and Douglas f i r ) occur i n s l i g h t d e p r e s s i o n s , e s p e c i a l l y along r u n o f f channels which feed i n t o the few small to medium ponds i n c l o s e d d e p r e s s i o n s . The gr a s s l a n d area appears to be h e a v i l y grazed, r e s u l t i n g i n a r e l a t i v e l y high i n c i d e n c e o f "weed" s p e c i e s . The dominant v e g e t a t i o n i s l i s t e d below with common and s c i e n t i f i c names and r e l a t i v e abundance a t the s i t e . Sandburg's bluegrass White Pussytoes Pasture wormwood A l k a l i bluegrass Long Plumed Purple avens June grass Needle and thread Fleabane Blue bunch wheatgrass Poa seounda Antennaria spp. Artemesia frigida Poa junoifolia Geum triflorum Koeleria cristata Stipa oomata Erigeron Agropyron spioatum abundant abundant abundant common common common common few o c c a s i o n a l The ground cover ranges from 30 to 70 per cent ( F i g u r e 6 d ) . From the sample p l o t which was s u b j e c t to l i g h t s p r i n g g r a z i n g , the annual a v a i l a b l e herbage production was 739 kg/ha. 39 Climate: The c l i m a t e a t t h i s s i t e i s a c t u a l l y warmer i n the summer and has a longer f r o s t f r e e p e r i o d r e l a t i v e to the c l i m a t e as c h a r a c t e r i z e d by the s t a t i o n a t Big Creek [Canada Department of Tran s p o r t , 1967]. The growing degree days (>6°C) are s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher a t t h i s lower e l e v a t i o n and thus the e v a p o t r a n s p i r a t i o n i s much higher. Without i r r i g a t i o n , the c l i m a t e r e s t r i c t s the range o f crops to drought r e s i s t a n t forage crops. Under i r r i g a t e d c o n d i t i o n s , the range o f adapted a g r i c u l t u r a l crops i n c l u d e hardy vegetables i n l o c a l i z e d s i t e s , cabbage, c a u l i f l o w e r , potatoes, a l f a l f a , red a l s i k e , broome gr a s s , sweet c l o v e r , timothy, oats and b a r l e y . The a g r i c u l t u r a l c l i m a t e s o f the t e r r a i n types i s presented i n Table I I I . The f r o s t f r e e p e r i o d i s estimated to be 60 to 75-days. The range o f growing degree days g r e a t e r than 6°C i s 235 to 271 days. The d a i l y tempera-t u r e f l u c t u a t i o n i s r e l a t i v e l y high. The mean annual p r e c i p i t a t i o n i s estimated as l e s s than 34 cm. The May to September p r e c i p i t a t i o n i s estimated a t 16.5 cm. Supplemental water, i n the form o f i r r i g a t i o n , i s e s s e n t i a l to a t t a i n optimal production and range o f crops c l i m a t i c a l l y adapted to t h i s t e r r a i n type. S o i l s : The s o i l s represented by t h i s t e r r a i n type are well d r a i n e d , moderately permeable, have medium r u n o f f and medium to r a p i d i n f i l t r a -t i o n . The su r f a c e horizon i s dark c o l o r e d with a 4.7 per cent organic matter content. Thus s u r f a c e i s u n d e r l a i n by a dense c l a y horizon which i s p l a s t i c when wet, hard when dry, and i t i s l e s s permeable t h a t the s u r f a c e h o r i z o n . The bulk d e n s i t y i n c r e a s e s g r e a t l y with depth. The chemical c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the s o i l show i t to be high 40 TABLE II Forage Y i e l d and Grazing C a p a b i l i t y f o r the T e r r a i n Types T e r r a i n Type Range Type Forage Y i e l d kg/ha Grazing C a p a b i l i t y C l a s s * 1 Grassland 740 2 2 F o r e s t Range 350 3 3 F o r e s t Range 120 5 4 For e s t Range 180 4 Meadow 1820 1 5 F o r e s t Range 90 5 Meadow 1790 1 *Runka (1973) 41 TABLE III A g r i c u l t u r a l Climate f o r Each T e r r a i n Type T e r r a i n Type Climate C l a s s F r o s t Free Period Days Growing Degree Days Above 6°C May to Sept P r e c i p i t a t i o n Centimetres 1 3 60-75 235-270 16 2 5 30-50 170-235 16 3 5 30-50 170-235 19 4 6 < 30 114-170 21 5 6 < 30 114-170 ~24 Source: B.C. Land Inventory, C l i m a t o l o g y Report #1 and c l i m a t e c a p a b i l i t y maps (unpublished) f o r 920/NW, 920/SW, and May to September p r e c i p i t a t i o n map (unpublished) f o r 920. 42 i n bases, e s p e c i a l l y calcium and magnesium, with a n e u t r a l r e a c t i o n . The s o i l f e r t i l i t y s t a t u s with r e s p e c t to macro n u t r i e n t s i s high. P h y s i c a l c a p a b i l i t y : The s e c t o r c a p a b i l i t i e s , presented i n Table IV, show the i n f o r m a t i o n given on the c a p a b i l i t y maps f o r each s e c t o r . The a g r i c u l t u r e c a p a b i l i t y of t h i s s o i l i s moderate to prime when i r r i g a t i o n i s u t i l i z e d . Due to the o v e r r i d i n g c l i m a t i c a r i d i t y , the d r y l a n d c a p a b i l i t y of t h i s s i t e i s l i m i t e d . Under i r r i g a t i o n , the main l i m i t a t i o n s are s t o n i n e s s , which i n t e r f e r e s with c u l t i v a t i o n and c l i m a t e . The c l i m a t i c l i m i t a t i o n , which becomes evi d e n t once i r r i g a t i o n e l i m i n a t e s the e f f e c t of a r i d i t y , i s a combination of i n -s u f f i c i e n t heat u n i t s during the growing season and minimum tempera-t u r e s which r e t a r d p l a n t growth. These C l a s s 3 s i t e s l i m i t the range of crops to (1) adapted vegetables, i n favoured l o c a l s i t e s , (2) forage crops such as a l f a l f a , red a l s i k e , brome g r a s s , sweet c l o v e r , and timothy, and (3) c e r e a l crops such as oats and b a r l e y . Under dryland farming p r a c t i c e s drought r e s i s t a n t forage crops can be grown. In i t s present s t a t e , the n a t i v e grasses had an annual dry matter production of 740 kg/ha based on a p l o t where some s p r i n g g r a z i n g had o c c u r r e d . T h i s places the s i t e i n t o C l a s s 2 i n the t e n t a t i v e land c a p a b i l i t y f o r g r a z i n g c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . The s i t e was considered i n poor c o n d i t i o n as evidenced by the near absence of bluebunch wheatgrass and the abundance of pasture wormwood. The f o r e s t c a p a b i l i t y of t h i s s i t e and t e r r a i n type i s C l a s s 7. The main l i m i t a t i o n i s c l i m a t i c a r i d i t y and high s a l t 43 TABLE IV P h y s i c a l Land C a p a b i l i t y of T e r r a i n Types C a p a b i l i t y Rating T e r r a i n Types 1 2 3 4 5 A g r i c u l t u r e 4 6 - 3 4 5 5 6 8 - 5 2 6 8 - 7 2 F o r e s t r y 7 6 6 6 - 7 6 - 7 - 5 Big Game 5 7 3 4-31T 3 6 - 4 4 3 6 - 4 4 4 Waterfowl 4* 2 to 6* 5, 6* 4, 5* 6, 5* Recreation 6U 6U 6U 6U 5U Waterfowl c a p a b i l i t i e s r e f e r to the wetlands w i t h i n the t e r r a i n type. Source: Published (CLI, 1970 Taseko Lakes) and unpublished CLI c a p a b i l i t y maps. 44 c o n c e n t r a t i o n i n l o c a l i z e d areas. The base s a t u r a t i o n o f the s o i l i s g r e a t e r than 100 per cent. The land c a p a b i l i t y f o r b i g game production at t h i s s i t e had moderately severe l i m i t a t i o n s . Open grass parkland does not provide cover v e g e t a t i o n f o r game species such as deer. The s i t e had l i t t l e s u i t a b i l i t y ungulates which may be p a r t i a l l y due to ranching a c t i v i t y i n the area. C l i m a t i c a r i d i t y i s the main l i m i t a -t i o n at t h i s s i t e . Thus the growth o f s u i t a b l e food i s r e s t r i c t e d , and s o i l moisture content i s low. The snow depth r e s t r i c t s ungulate movement and the a v a i l a b i l i t y of food p l a n t s . Where waterbodies occur, t h i s t e r r a i n type has moderate l i m i t a t i o n s to the production of waterfowl. The main l i m i t a t i o n s are reduced marsh edge and inu n d a t i o n . The reduced marsh edge i s governed by the l o c a l 'low r e l i e f topography. Low r e l i e f i s a major f a c t o r a f f e c t i n g the inundation l i m i t a t i o n . E xcessive water l e v e l f l u c t u a t i o n i s common on t h i s landscape. Depressions ponding the water are c l o s e d with i n t e r m i t t a n t s u r f a c e drainage only under high water c o n d i t i o n s . The water l e v e l drops during the summer due to evaporation and water p e r c o l a t i o n i n t o the s o i l . Deeper ponds would reduce these n a t u r a l l i m i t a t i o n s . The waterfowl c a p a b i l i t i e s have a range o f C l a s s 1 to 4 on t h i s t e r r a i n type. The r e c r e a t i o n c a p a b i l i t y i s Class 6 f o r t h i s upland s i t e . I t w i l l support a s u s t a i n e d low t o t a l annual use, based on d i s p e r s e d a c t i v i t i e s . These a c t i v i t i e s are a s s o c i a t e d with p o s i t i v e r e c r e a t i o n a l aspects such as topographic p a t t e r n s , upland w i l d l i f e and s i g n i f i c a n t v e g e t a t i o n . 45 C a p a b i l i t y a n a l y s i s : The a n a l y s i s of c a p a b i l i t i e s f o r t h i s t e r r a i n type i d e n t i f y moderate c a p a b i l i t i e s f o r a g r i c u l t u r e and waterfowl, these values are p e c u l i a r to separate components of the t e r r a i n type, the area may be subdivided to show areas of moderate a g r i c u l t u r e and moderate waterfowl. Under the good management assumptions of the CLI c a p a b i l i t y c l a s s i f i c a t i o n system t h i s d i v i s i o n i s deemed reason-a b l e . T e r r a i n Type 2 L o c a t i o n : 51° 47' 30" North L a t i t u d e . T23° 04' West Longitude. Approximately 1.9 km by road north of F l e t c h e r Lake. Present land use: T h i s s i t e i s Crown land with n a t u r a l f o r e s t cover As rangeland, i t would be considered secondary range, t h a t i s , range to be used only i f no other range which l i v e s t o c k p r e f e r i s a v a i l a b l e . T h i s s i t e i s p r e s e n t l y used by w i l d l i f e , the extent of which i s u n c e r t a i n . Distance to water i s s i g n i f i c a n t as the topography i s o f l o w . r e l i e f with few occurrences of s u i t a b l e water supply. A f i s h i n g r e s o r t and p r i v a t e r e c r e a t i o n a l holding occur on F l e t c h e r Lake 1.5 km to the south. P o s i t i o n : The s e l e c t e d sample s i t e i s p o s i t i o n e d on the mid to upper region of a 4 per cent south f a c i n g s l o p e . The e l e v a t i o n i s approximately 1140 m. 46 Geology: The bedrock i s o v e r l a i n by a t h i c k mantle of g l a c i a l d e p o s i t s [ T i p p e r , 1971 & Heginbottom, 1972]. The s u r f i c i a l m a t e r i a l s are compacted ground moraine cont a i n i n g , i n the g r e a t e r than 2 mm f r a c t i o n , a mixture of v e s i c u l a r b a s a l t i c and sub-rounded a n d e s i t i c g r a v e l s and cobbles. Cobbles and boulders are of i n f r e q u e n t occurrance a t the s i t e . V e g e t a t i o n : The s i t e i s l o c a t e d i n the Cariboo aspen-lodgepole pine-Douglas f i r parkland zone [ K r a j i n a , 1965]. The f o r e s t canopy i s n e a r l y c l o s e d . Lodgepole pine dominates and the o c c a s i o n a l aspen i s observed. The ground-cover of pinegrass i s r e l a t i v e l y uniform ( F i g u r e 7). The dominant v e g e t a t i o n i s l i s t e d below. Lodgepole Pine Pinegrass K i n n i k i n n i c k Bedstraw Pea vines Aspen Wild rose Pinus eontovta abundant Calamagrostis rubesoens abundant Arotostaphylos Uva-ursi common Galuim spp. common Lathyrus spp. common Populus tremuloides few Rosa spp. few The herbage c l i p p e d from a p l o t a t t h i s s i t e y i e l d e d 350 kg/ha. No d i s t u r b a n c e which would i n d i c a t e g r a z i n g was observed. The pro-d u c t i v i t y i s s i m i l a r to the pinegrass range used i n s t u d i e s by McLean [1972]. Climate: The c l i m a t e a t t h i s from the long term atmospheric Creek (51° 44' North L a t i t u d e , 1133 m ASL). T h i s s t a t i o n i s s i t e i s represented by the records environment s t a t i o n l o c a t e d a t Big 123° 12' West Longitude; e l e v a t i o n several k ilometres south of the 47 Figure 7 Terrain Type 2: The Lush Pinegrass Vegetation is Seen in the Sunlight that Penetrates Through the Nearly Closed Lodgepole Pine Canopy 48 s e l e c t e d sample s i t e , but i t i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the t e r r a i n type. S e l e c t e d data from t h i s s t a t i o n i s presented i n Table I .(page 25). F r o s t occurs i n every month of the year and the f r o s t f r e e p e r i o d i s between 30 and 60 days. The mean d a i l y temperatures are above f r e e z i n g f o r seven months and are g r e a t e r than 6°C f o r f i v e months. Based on the monthly means, no thermal growing degree days, g r e a t e r than 18°C, occur f o r as long as a month. Thermal p e r i o d s , i f any, would occur during the f r o s t f r e e p e r i o d . The d a i l y temperature i s h igh, v a r y i n g as much as 15°C. This d i f f e r e n c e c r e a t e s h i g h l y v a r i a b l e temperature regime f o r p l a n t s to a d j u s t to i n a d a i l y c y c l e . The cool n i g h t temperatures reduce evaporation and s o i l temperature. The annual p r e c i p i t a t i o n i s low, averaging 34 °C. The mean May to September p r e c i p i t a t i o n i s 18.5cm. A moisture d e f i i c t i s a s i g n i f i c a n t l i m i t a t i o n to optimal p l a n t growth, although c o n i f e r o u s t r e e s s u r v i v e i n t h i s a r i d environment. The annual snow-f a l l averages 140 cm. S o i l s : The s o i l s at t h i s s i t e and the t e r r a i n type i t represents are well d r a i n e d , have moderately slow p e r m e a b i l i t y , medium to slow r u n o f f and slow i n f i l t r a t i o n . The s u r f a c e i s p r o t e c t e d by a t h i n mat of organic l i t t e r . T h i s l i t t e r o v e r l i e s a moderately dense mineral horizon of s i l t loam t e x t u r e . The next horizon i s more dense and has a higher c l a y content. I t has accumulations of c l a y in pores. This tends to r e s t r i c t water movement and root and a i r p e n e t r a t i o n . Loss of n u t r i e n t s through l e a c h i n g i s reduced and the water h o l d i n g c a p a c i t y i s i n c r e a s e d . The coarse fragment content, v a r i e s l a t e r a l l y and v e r t i c a l l y . 49 As i s t y p i c a l of O r t h i c Grey L u v i s o l s , t h i s s o i l i s low i n organic matter content. The base s t a t u s i s high judged by the dominance of exchangeable b a s i c c a t i o n s . The wide carbon to n i t r o g e n r a t i o , 34 to 1, i n the s u r f a c e mineral h o r i z o n , suggests l i t t l e m i c r o b i a l a c t i v i t y i n breaking down organic m a t e r i a l s and a low n i t r o g e n s t a t u s i n the s o i l . In the major p l a n t r o o t i n g zone the s o i l r e a c t i o n i s s l i g h t l y a c i d . P h y s i c a l c a p a b i l i t y : The s o i l c a p a b i l i t y f o r a g r i c u l t u r e at t h i s s i t e i s C l a s s 5. The main l i m i t i n g f a c t o r i s c l i m a t e . A combination of i n s u f f i c i e n t heat u n i t s and minimum temperature, which r e t a r d s p l a n t growth, a d v e r s e l y a f f e c t s crops during the growing season. In a d d i t i o n , a minor subclass s o i l l i m i t a t i o n due to s t o n i n e s s i s noted. The o v e r a l l c l i m a t i c a r i d i t y a t t h i s s i t e does not a f f e c t the c a p a b i l i t y , but i t i s a l i m i t a t i o n to p r o d u c t i v i t y of adapted crops. The n a t i v e g r a z i n g c a p a b i l i t y of t h i s t e r r a i n type i s C l a s s 3 on the b a s i s of a herbage y i e l d of 350 kg/ha. The dominant herb i s p i n e g r a s s . E a r l y i n the growing season i t i s h i g h l y n u t r i t i o u s although as i t matures i t becomes somewhat unpalatable to c a t t l e . At present, l i t t l e or no g r a z i n g by domestic l i v e s t o c k occurs at t h i s s i t e . 3 The average annual p r o d u c t i v i t y of t h i s s i t e i s 2.1 - 2.2 m /ha based on p l o t measurements. Lodgepole pine i s the p r e f e r r e d s p e c i e s . The major l i m i t a t i o n i s c l i m a t e . T h i s s i t e represents a t e r r a i n type which was c l a s s i f i e d as C l a s s 6 f o r f o r e s t r y , but the p l o t r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e the p r o d u c t i v i t y i s on the upper l i m i t of t h i s c l a s s . 50 T h i s t e r r a i n type i s c l a s s i f i e d as 70 per cent C l a s s 4 f o r deer and moose, and 30 per cent C l a s s 3 f o r moose. Moderately severe l i m i t a t i o n s are due to low s o i l moisture h o l d i n g c a p a c i t y which a f f e c t s development and growth of v e g e t a t i o n . Another f a c t o r on t h i s t e r r a i n i s the high snowfall which a f f e c t s the m o b i l i t y o f ungulates during the winter. Few browse species are evid e n t and st o c k i n g i s low i n the v i c i n i t y o f the sample s i t e . Saskatoon berry i s the most common browse p l a n t a v a i l a b l e . The waterfowl c a p a b i l i t y i s Class 7 on the m a j o r i t y o f t h i s t e r r a i n type. The g e n t l y r o l l i n g topography r e s t r i c t s the development of wetlands. In low l y i n g areas, the lack o f waterflow r e s u l t s i n poor q u a l i t y h a b i t a t . The few wetlands c l a s s i f i e d on t h i s t e r r a i n type are u s u a l l y moderate to l i m i t e d c a p a b i l i t y ( C l a s s 4 to 6 ) . The medium s o i l t e x t u r e has moderately good water r e t e n t i o n . T h i s i s s u i t a b l e f o r the development of wetlands by c o n s t r u c t i o n of check dams along i n t e r m i t t a n t drainage channels. The r e c r e a t i o n c a p a b i l i t y f o r t h i s t e r r a i n type i s low. The topography does not al l o w f o r the viewing o f the landscape. The monotanous extent of lodgepole p i n e - p i n e g r a s s v e g e t a t i o n i s the main p o s i t i v e f e a t u r e o f t h i s t e r r a i n type. The p o s i t i v e aspects o f t h i s C l a s s 6 t e r r a i n type are topographic p a t t e r n , upland w i l d l i f e and s i g n i f i c a n t v e g e t a t i o n . C a p a b i l i t y a n a l y s i s : The a g r i c u l t u r a l and b i g game c a p a b i l i t i e s are l i m i t e d . However b i g game has a s i g n i f i c a n t component of moderate w i n t e r i n g c a p a b i l i t y whereas the a g r i c u l t u r e c a p a b i l i t y i s 51 s t r a i g h t C l a s s 5. Based on p h y s i c a l c a p a b i l i t y v a l u e s , the area would be a l l o c a t e d t o b i g game. Small sub-units of the t e r r a i n type would be a l l o c a t e d to waterfowl based on i t s c a p a b i l i t y m e r i t s . The waterfowl c a p a b i l i t i e s are mainly s i t e s p e c i f i c , and range from prime to C l a s s 6. A l l l o c a l i z e d prime, moderate and l i m i t e d waterfowl c a p a b i l i t y areas are a l l o c a t e d to t h a t s e c t o r . T e r r a i n Type 3 L o c a t i o n : 51° 42* North L a t i t u d e , 123° 38' West Longitude. T h i s s i t e i s s i t u a t e d to the south s i d e o f the m i l i t a r y engineer's road to the Taseko R i v e r , 5 km southwest o f the New Meadow F i s h i n g and Hunting Camp. Present land use: Natural f o r e s t occurs on t e r r a i n type three. Lodgepole pine dominates and the s t o c k i n g ranges from 550 - 800 t r e e s per h e c t a r e , a t ages g r e a t e r than 90 ye a r s . The s i t e i s l o c a t e d 5 km from a s e r i e s o f lakes which have two hunting and f i s h i n g camps a s s o c i a t e d with them. Moderate and l i m i t e d moose and deer summer h a b i t a t occurs adjacent t o the l a k e s . Some u t i l i z a t i o n o f the f o r e s t range occurs adjacent to grassy south aspects o f small h i l l s and sedge meadows. P o s i t i o n : The sample s i t e i s on a n e a r l y l e v e l p l a i n a t 1275 m ASL e l e v a t i o n . Figure 8a i l l u s t r a t e s the landscape o f the t e r r a i n type. Figure 8 Terrain Type 3: (a) The low re l ie f of the plateau surface is seen along the road (b) The low growing ground vegetation receives sun-l ight through the lodge-pole pine canopy 53 Figure 8 Terrain Type 3: (c ) The sparse ground vegetation found on terrain type 3 under the lodgepole pine forest 54 Geology: A deep mantle o f P l e i s t o c e n e g l a c i a l m a t e r i a l blankets the area. The s u r f a c e i s f e a t u r e l e s s as no s t r e a m l i n i n g or channel p a t t e r n s occur i n the v i c i n i t y of the s i t e . The m a t e r i a l has under-gone some s o r t i n g by water as evidenced by the low c l a y content and the occurrence o f sand lenses w i t h i n the s e c t i o n . Coarse fragments are dominantly sub-rounded a n d e s i t i c with some b a s a l t i c , g r a n i t i c and sedimentary rock types a l s o being present. T h i s m a t e r i a l blankets a compact i c e - d e p o s i t e d morainal m a t e r i a l a t depth which v a r i e s l a t e r a l l y . Exposures o f the i c e - d e p o s i t e d m a t e r i a l s are r a r e i n t h i s t e r r a i n type. Where the topography i s more v a r i a b l e and h i l l y , bedrock may be near the s u r f a c e . Vegetation: The s i t e i s l o c a t e d on the upper e l e v a t i o n a l l i m i t of the Cariboo aspen-lodgepole pine-Douglas f i r parkland [ K r a j i n a , 1965]. Lodgepole pine i s the dominant s p e c i e s as a s e r a i climax. F i r e s c a r r e d Douglas f i r veterans occur s p o r a d i c a l l y i n the area. The canopy i s n e a r l y c l o s e d and the ground cover i s i n the 60 to 80 per cent range ( F i g u r e 8 b , c ) . The dominant v e g e t a t i o n i s l i s t e d below: Lodgepole pine Pinus contorta abundant Wild rose Rosa spp. common Kinni k i n n i c k Arctostaphylos Uva-ursi common Pinegrass Calamagrostis rubescens • abundant Dryland sedge Carex conoinnoides common Spi r e a Spirea spp. common Pea vine Lathyrus spp. common Fireweed Epilobuim arrgustifolium common Yarrow Achillea millefolium common Shepherdia Shepherdia canadensis common Jun i p e r Juniperua communis common Saskatoon berry Amelanchier spp. o c c a s i o n a l Lichens o c c a s i o n a l 55 Herbage production at t h i s s i t e i s measured to be 120 kg/ha. Climate: Climate at t h i s s i t e i s c o o l e r and more humid than a t Big Creek. The change i n c l i m a t e , however, i s not of great s i g n i f i c a n c e . The f r o s t f r e e p e r i o d i s 30 to 60 days. D a i l y minimum temperatures during the growing season are c l o s e to f r e e z i n g . Both the mean annual and the May to September p r e c i p i t a t i o n are estimated to be s l i g h t l y higher than a t the Big Creek s t a t i o n . E v a p o t r a n s p i r a t i o n i s estimated to be s l i g h t l y lower, y e t a s i g n i f i c a n t moisture d e f i c i t occurs during the growing p e r i o d . S o i l s : The s o i l s of t h i s t e r r a i n type, are well d r a i n e d , r a p i d l y permeable and have slow r u n o f f and r a p i d i n f i l t r a t i o n . The s o i l i s g r a v e l l y and moderately coarse t e x t u r e d . Coarse fragment content ranges between 20 and 50 per cent. Sand content ranges between 50 and 65 per cent with s i l t s i z e d p a r t i c l e s accounting f o r 35 per cent. Coarseness of t e x t u r e reduces the moisture holding c a p a c i t y of the s o i l , and, t h i s t e r r a i n type i s s u b j e c t to more droughtiness than t e r r a i n type 2. Although the c l i m a t e i s more moist and c o o l e r , the edaphic e f f e c t i s a more a r i d environment f o r p l a n t growth. The coarse t e x t u r e d mature of the mineral m a t e r i a l s of the s o i l a l s o a f f e c t s i t s chemical p r o p e r t i e s . T h i s s o i l i s more a c i d i n r e a c t i o n and i t has a lower c a p a c i t y to r e t a i n or a t t r a c t c a t i o n s . Lack of a dense c l a y enriched subsurface horizon reduces the s o i l water h o l d i n g c a p a c i t y and f e r t i l i t y , however, the s i g n i f i c a n t i n c r e a s e i n c l a y content o f t h i s horizon i s very b e n e f i c i a l . Without 56 the c l a y enriched h o r i z o n , t h i s s o i l would not respond as well to management and i t would have to be l e f t in i t s natural f o r e s t e d s t a t e . The organic matter content i s very low, l e s s than one per cent, even i n the s u r f a c e mineral h o r i z o n , and l i k e w i s e the l e v e l of n i t r o g e n i s i n f e r r e d to be very low. P h y s i c a l C a p a b i l i t y : The a g r i c u l t u r e c a p a b i l i t y at t h i s s i t e i s l i m i t e d to C l a s s 5 by c l i m a t i c f a c t o r s . Low heat u n i t accumulation combined with minimum temperatures, which a d v e r s e l y a f f e c t p l a n t growth, are the two most s i g n i f i c a n t c l i m a t i c f a c t o r s . The moderately coarse t e x t u r e d s o i l s w i l l s e v e r e l y i n f l u e n c e the p r o d u c t i v i t y of s u i t a b l e crops due to low water storage c a p a c i t y combined with a water d e f i c i t during the peak growing p e r i o d . The most s i g n i f i c a n t s o i l l i m i t a t i o n i s adverse s t o n i n e s s which a f f e c t s c u l t i v a t i o n . The measured herbage p r o d u c t i v i t y at t h i s s i t e i s 120 kg/ha. For n a t i v e g r a z i n g , the c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y i s low and i t s c a p a b i l i t y i s C l a s s 5 in the g r a z i n g system. The low p r o d u c t i v i t y i s due to both low s t o c k i n g and poor growth. The main l i m i t a t i o n s of t h i s s i t e f o r the growth of commercial f o r e s t s are adverse c l i m a t e and low s o i l moisture h o l d i n g c a p a c i t y . The c a p a b i l i t y i s Class 6. The May to J u l y p r e c i p i t a t i o n i s 11 cm or l e s s . P l o t measurements f o r f o r e s t c a p a b i l i t y on t h i s s o i l i n d i c a t e 3 a mean annual increment of 1.4 to 1.7 m /ha which i s i n the mid-Class 6 range of p r o d u c t i v i t y . The big game c a p a b i l i t y of t h i s t e r r a i n type i s c l a s s i f i e d as 60 per cent C l a s s 3 and 40 per cent C l a s s 4. The landscape has enough v a r i a b i l i t y to provide l o c a l i z e d areas of q u a l i t y h a b i t a t s 57 with the low forest stocking providing cover. Drainageways and depressions have a greater quantity of browse. These are small and are scattered throughout the area yet extensive enough to just i fy a Class 3 rating. The water occupies the smaller depressions for short intervals and during the spring runoff. The snow depth may l imi t mobility and the ava i lab i l i t y of food plants to big game such as moose and deer. This is the main l imitat ion. The low soi l moisture capacity may also l imit the development and growth of vegetation. The overall capability for waterfowl of this terrain type is Class 7. This is due to the generally f l a t topography that l imits the development and the permancy of wetlands. In addition, the precipitation rapidly in f i l t ra tes into the soi l or runs off during the early spring while i t is no use to waterfowl. The limited wetlands in this terrain type range from limited to low in capabil ity. The signif icant limitations are reduced marsh edge, f e r t i l i t y and free-flowing water. The number of wetland areas on this terrain type are few and smal1. This terrain type has the same recreation capability as Site 2. The two positive aspects are topographic patterns and signif icant vegetation. Capability analysis: The big game capability is higher on this terrain type than the other sectors. Thus no confl icts are involved in allocation to big game. Agriculture and waterfowl capabil i t ies are l imited. 58 M a r g i n a l l y , b i g game has the highest c a p a b i l i t y f o r t h i s t e r r a i n type. A s i g n i f i c a n t i n c l u s i o n of l i m i t e d c a p a b i l i t y i s complexed with the moderate c a p a b i l i t y . T e r r a i n Type 4 L o c a t i o n : 51° 39' North L a t i t u d e , 123° 28' West Longitude. Present land use: The area surrounding s i t e f o u r has been r e c e n t l y logged where mature timber occurred and s a l v a g i n g was done i n an adjacent burn. Sedge meadows i n the area are used f o r g r a z i n g and f o r w i l d hay prod u c t i o n . Two guest ranch holdings are l o c a t e d to the eas t with one o f the holdings having t i t l e to some of the b e t t e r sedge meadows adjacent to the s i t e . The l a r g e C h i l c o ranch has holdings to the south o f the s i t e and gr a z i n g l e a s e s f o r the surrounding area to the west and nor t h . Moderate and l i m i t e d moose and deer h a b i t a t occurs w i t h i n the landscape represented by t h i s s i t e . P o s i t i o n : The sample s i t e i s l o c a t e d on a g e n t l y u n d u l a t i n g to r o l l i n g plateau s u r f a c e 1490 m i n e l e v a t i o n . The s o i l sample s i t e i s on the m i d - p o s i t i o n on a 4 per cent south-southeast f a c i n g s l o p e . Geology: A mantle of hummocky and ri d g e d ground moraine of undeter-mined depth i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f t h i s t e r r a i n type and s i t e ( F i g u r e 9a). The drainage p a t t e r n i s deranged. Most small depres-sions are s i t e s o f water ponding, r e s u l t i n g i n the growth of sedges 59 and mosses which decompose to form peat d e p o s i t s . These peat d e p o s i t s vary from 40 cm to several metres t h i c k . In the near v i c i n i t y of the s i t e , the ground s u r f a c e was strewn with boulders of v e s i c u l a r b a s a l t i c , a n d e s i t i c and d i o r i t i c rock types. No p a r t i c u l a r p a t t e r n or r e l a t i v e p r o p o r t i o n of the area so a f f e c t e d was d i s c e r n a b l e . The b a s a l t i c and a n d e s i t i c rock types dominate the coarse fragments of the s u r f i c i a l d e p o s i t . Vegetation : The s i t e i s i n the lower e l e v a t i o n of the I n t e r i o r Subalpine. Lodgepole pine pioneers burned over areas and spruce are found in i s o l a t e d pockets adjacent to areas of high ground water t a b l e s . Spruce r e g e n e r a t i o n i s common around the circumference of sedge meadows and along i n t e r m i t t e n t drainage channels. Some reg e n e r a t i o n of spruce occurs under the lodgepole pine. The s t o c k i n g d e n s i t y and age of the lodgepole pine v a r i e s c o n s i d e r a b l y . The t y p i c a l ground cover i s shown i n Figure 9 a,b. Where there i s canopy c l o s u r e , the ground cover i s very sparse. I t c o n s i s t s mainly of j u n i p e r , k i n n i k i n n i c k , sheperdia and l i c h e n s . Ground cover ranges between 20 to 40 per cent. Pinegrass and a r n i c a occur under openings i n the canopy. The d i s t r i b u t i o n of twin flower i s p r i m a r i l y governed by the occurrance of decayed wood from incompletely burned t r e e s . Vaccinium occurs s p o r a d i c a l l y . Willow i s p r i m a r i l y a s s o c i a t e d with the wetter c o n d i t i o n s surrounding the meadows, but the o c c a s i o n a l p l a n t appears under the f o r e s t . The dominant v e g e t a t i o n i s l i s t e d below: Figure 9 Terrain Type 4 : (a) The hummocky land surface is shown with a small meadow area common to the closed depressions on this terrain type Figure 9 Terrain Type 4 : (b) The ground vegetation is shown in the two pictures. Pinegrass and kinnickinnick are the most common plants 62 Lodgepole pine J u n i p e r Shepherdia Pinegrass Vaccinium K i n n i k i n n i c k A r n i c a Lichens Willow Dryland sedge S p i r e a Pinus contorta Juniperus communis Shepherdia canadensis Calamagrostis rubescens Vaccinium caespitosum Arctostaphylos Uva-ursi abundant common common common common common oc c a s i o n a l o c c a s i o n a l o c c a s i o n a l common to o c c a s i o n a l o c c a s i o n a l Salix spp. Carex concinnoides Spirea spp. The annual n a t i v e herbage production a t t h i s s i t e was measured a t 181 kg/ha. In an adjacent s i t e , l o c a t e d on a shallow o r g a n i c s o i l , the herbage y i e l d e d 1817 kg/ha. Climate: T h i s s i t e i s l o c a t e d i n a c o o l e r and more humid c l i m a t e than the Big Creek s t a t i o n and the other s i t e s p r e v i o u s l y d i s c u s s e d . The annual mean temperature i s lower and the f r o s t f r e e p e r i o d i s l e s s than 30 days. A short growing season combined with low minimum temperatures during the f r o s t f r e e p e r i o d make t h i s s i t e unfavorable f o r the growth of forage crops. The May to September p r e c i p i t a t i o n i s higher than the Big Creek s t a t i o n value. Annual snowfall i s a l s o higher. A s l i g h t moisture d e f i c i t may occur a t t h i s s i t e , but the o v e r r i d i n g i n f l u e n c e o f low temperatures i s dominant. S o i l s : The dominant s o i l s i n t h i s t e r r a i n type are moderately well to well drained due to a combination of the groundwater t a b l e p o s i t i o n and p e r m e a b i l i t y . They have moderate p e r m e a b i l i t y , slow to medium r u n o f f and medium i n f i l t r a t i o n . They are a s s o c i a t e d with mineral s o i l s with poorer drainage and organic s o i l s . 63 Dominant mineral s o i l s are loamy i n t e x t u r e with subsurface horizon which i s enriched i n t r a n s l o c a t e d c l a y s . Coarse fragments range from 25 to 60 per cent i n the s o i l and the v a r i a t i o n i s l a t e r a l and v e r t i c a l . The s u r f a c e horizon i s l e s s dense than the under-l y i n g horizons and the parent m a t e r i a l . The s u r f a c e horizon has a higher organic matter content than the previous two s i t e s . However, i t drops o f f immediately with s o i l depth. The carbon-nitrogen r a t i o i s wide, a suggestion o f p o s s i b l e n i t r o g e n d e f i c i e n c y and low m i c r o b i a l a c t i v i t y near the s u r f a c e . The r a t i o narrows i n the subsurface horizons where there i s very l i t t l e o r g a n i c matter. S o i l r e a c t i o n i s very s t r o n g l y a c i d a t the sur f a c e but, with depth, becomes only s l i g h t l y a c i d . The exchangeable c a t i o n s i n the s u r f a c e 30 cm of the s o i l are low. Potassium,is low, except f o r the s u r f a c e h o r i z o n . Nitrogen l e v e l s are low. The a s s o c i a t e d s o i l s comprise a small but important com-ponent of i m p e r f e c t l y to very p o o r l y drained s o i l s . They occur i n de p r e s s i o n a l areas i n the low r e l i e f hummocky landscape. These a s s o c i a t e d s o i l s , which account f o r 10 to 25 per cent o f the t e r r a i n type, may be d i v i d e d i n t o two types. One, the d r i e r of the two s o i l s , i s found i n drainage-ways which are f l o o d e d i n t e r m i t t e n t l y by moving water -- mostly during s p r i n g r u n o f f . L a t e r i n the summer, these s o i l s r e t a i n a high moisture s t a t u s due to subsurface seepage. Areas such as these are c h a r a c t e r i z e d by G l e y s o l i c s o i l s with peaty s u r f a c e s v a r y i n g from a few centimeters to over 40 centimeters. Modal develop-ment of s o i l s i s the O r t h i c Gleysol and t e x t u r e s are u s u a l l y g r a v e l l y loams with moderate s u r f a c e s t o n i n e s s . Vegetation i s mainly sedges 64 (Carex aquatilis and C. rostrata) and groundbirch (Betula glandulosa). The second type of s o i l s occupy depressions which pond water. These s o i l s are organic and are u s u a l l y l e s s than 2 m deep; commonly o n l y a metre or l e s s i n depth. Drainage ranges from poor to very poor due to high water t a b l e s . Flooding occurs during s p r i n g r u n o f f and the waters pond f o r c o n s i d e r a b l e p e r i o d s . The dominant v e g e t a t i o n i s sedges. In some areas, groundbirch and willow shrubs (Salix spp.) occur. The s o i l s are c l a s s i f i e d as T e r r i c M e s i s o l s as they are l e s s than 1.3mdeep and are composed of semi-decomposed o r g a n i c m a t e r i a l s . A w h i t i s h gray band of v o l c a n i c ash i s found between 35 and 50 cm from the s u r f a c e and i t v a r i e s between 1 and 3 cm in t h i c k n e s s . The s o i l r e a c t i o n i s medium to s t r o n g l y a c i d with pH averaging one u n i t higher above the v o l c a n i c ash l a y e r , than below. The major s o i l with the two a s s o c i a t e d s o i l s , d e s c r i b e d above, occur throughout t h i s t e r r a i n type. P h y s i c a l c a p a b i l i t y : The a g r i c u l t u r a l c a p a b i l i t y a t t h i s s i t e i s c l a s s i f i e d as C l a s s e s 6 and 5 the l a t t e r accounting f o r only 20 per cent of the area. The main l i m i t i n g f a c t o r i s c l i m a t e , due to g e n e r a l l y low temperatures during the growing season which s e v e r e l y lowers the heat u n i t accumulation. The e l e v a t i o n , 1490 m, may well account f o r the cool temperatures. The twenty per cent i n c l u s i o n of C l a s s 5 c a p a b i l i t y appears as anomoly to the c l i m a t i c i n f o r m a t i o n . Local areas of a lower s t o n i n e s s l i m i t a t i o n and enhanced by r e l a t i v e l y good water supply are deemed c u l t i v a t a b l e f o r a very l i m i t e d range of forage crops. Several l o c a l i t i e s were observed at s i m i l a r s i t e s 65 where timothy and c l o v e r were well e s t a b l i s h e d and pr o d u c t i v e . T h i s growth must not overshadow the f a c t t h a t 80 per cent o f the area i s rate d as Class 6. Most of the area i s of v a r i a b l e s t o n i n e s s , but n a t i v e g r a z i n g i s a v a i l a b l e . The a s s o c i a t e d organic and g l e y s o l i c s o i l s i n the v i c i n i t y o f the s i t e were c l a s s i f i e d i n c a p a b i l i t y C l a s s 6. The major l i m i t a t i o n being c l i m a t e , with a d d i t i o n a l adverse wetness due to high ground water t a b l e . The o v e r r i d i n g c l i m a t i c l i m i t a t i o n r e s t r i c t s and l i m i t s improvement of these s o i l s . Both the thermal p r o p e r t i e s and the topographic p o s i t i o n o f these s o i l s make them more s u s c e p t i b l e to f r o s t s than neighbouring mineral s o i l s . The p r o d u c t i v i t y o f both the mineral s o i l and the a s s o c i a t e d shallow organic s o i l were measured. The mineral s o i l has a natu r a l annual herbage production c a p a b i l i t y to 180 kg/ha. T h i s measurement i s considered s l i g h t l y higher than the average p r o d u c t i v i t y . In the gr a z i n g c a p a b i l i t y t h i s has a Class 4 r a t i n g . The s t o c k i n g o f herbs i s s p o r a d i c and uneven, but u s u a l l y o c c u r r i n g i n areas of canopy openings. Some herb s p e c i e s grow i n a p r o s t a t e p o s i t i o n which allow them to miss being grazed. In c o n t r a s t , the herbage p r o d u c t i v i t y of the shallow organic sedge meadow was 1800 kg/ha. Many such meadows are used as w i l d hay meadows by the l o c a l ranchers. The sedges are coarse and scabrous but h i g h l y n u t r i t o u s when immature. Based on p r o d u c t i v i t y , the meadows have C l a s s 1 gr a z i n g c a p a b i l i t y . The f o r e s t c a p a b i l i t y a t t h i s s i t e i s s e v e r e l y l i m i t e d . C l i m a t i c l i m i t a t i o n s such as a r i d i t y and low temperatures predominate. 66 P r o j e c t e d May to J u l y p r e c i p i t a t i o n f o r the area i s 14 cm. S o i l s t on-iness may i n t e r f e r e with t r e e d e n s i t y and growth. The area i s r a t e d C l a s s 6 and 7 f o r lodgepole pine. A meadow p o r t i o n of the t e r r a i n type i s C l a s s 7 due to e x c e s s i v e wetness which precludes the growth of commercial f o r e s t s . The c a p a b i l i t y f o r big game i s the same as S i t e 3. The microtopography i s hummocky which c r e a t e s v a r i a t i o n i n h a b i t a t types. Good q u a l i t y browse grows around the margins of o r g a n i c meadows on g l e y s o l i c s o i l s and a l s o on gleyed s o i l s . Deep snow l i m i t s the winter range u t i l i z a t i o n . The p r i n c i p a l b ig game species are moose and deer. The waterfowl c a p a b i l i t y of t h i s t e r r a i n type i s l i m i t e d . The m a j o r i t y i s Class 7 due to topography l i m i t a t i o n s . The microtopo-graphy i s hummocky and produces numerous depressions i n which water ponds. Most depressions are f i l l e d with organic sediments. T h i s l i m i t s the n a t u r a l waterfowl c a p a b i l i t y to the l a r g e r waterbodies and f a s t f l o w i n g streams. Such wetlands are placed i n Class 4 and 5. The main l i m i t a t i o n s are reduced marsh edge, f r e e - f l o w i n g water and f e r t i l i t y . The v e g e t a t i o n p a t t e r n and landscape v a r i a t i o n are the main p o s i t i v e r e c r e a t i o n a l aspects of t h i s t e r r a i n type and the c a p a b i l i t y i s C l a s s 6 f o r upland r e c r e a t i o n . Recreation a c t i v i t i e s such as c r o s s - c o u n t r y s k i i n g , horseback r i d i n g , snowshoeing and auto-toboganning are adaptable to the area. The c o l d winter c l i m a t e may d e t r a c t from the a t t r a c t i v e n e s s of the winter a c t i v i t i e s . 67 C a p a b i l i t y a n a l y s i s : The w i l d l i f e c a p a b i l i t i e s are the hi g h e s t f o r t h i s t e r r a i n type. Big game i s a l l o c a t e d to the m a j o r i t y o f the t e r r a i n type. Waterfowl i s a l l o c a t e d to l o c a l i z e d moderate and l i m i t e d s i t e s . The other s e c t o r c a p a b i l i t i e s are Cl a s s 6 f o r t h i s area. T e r r a i n Type 5 L o c a t i o n : 51° 24' North L a t i t u d e , 123° 32' West Longitude. T h i s l o c a t i o n i s 7.25 km northeast o f the lower end of Taseko Lakes. Present land use: The land use on t h i s t e r r a i n type i s f o r e s t and w i l d l i f e . At the s i t e a ranch using meadows f o r w i l d hay production i s i n e x i s t e n c e . Horses are used to supply power f o r hay pr o d u c t i o n . F a l l g r a z i n g f o l l o w s hay production on the meadows. The f o r e s t remains undeveloped and w i l d l i f e i s sparse throughout the t e r r a i n type. P o s i t i o n : The sample s i t e i s on the c r e s t o f a low r i d g e o f the g e n t l y undulating to r o l l i n g plateau ( F i g u r e 10 a ) . The undulations have a frequency o f 3 to 5 per km, with an amplitude o f 1 to 4 m. The e l e v a t i o n i s 1570 m. Geology: The bedrock i s mantled by a moderately t h i c k d e p o s i t o f hummocky and ri d g e d ground moraine. The i c e flow during g l a c i a t i o n was n o r t h e r l y . Drainage i s poo r l y i n t e g r a t e d . The low r e l i e f provides low stream g r a d i e n t s . Many small c l o s e d depressions are 68 f i l l e d with organic peat d e p o s i t s o f v a r i a b l e depth, 0.4 to se v e r a l metres i n t h i c k n e s s , and many i n t e r m i t t e n t drainage channels have shallow peat d e p o s i t s , l e s s than 1 m i n depth. A number of rock types are represented i n the coarse fragments o f the s u r f i c i a l d e p o s i t s . The dominant rock types are g r a n i t i c , g r a n o d i o r i t i c and a n d e s i t i c . V e g etation : T h i s s i t e i s l o c a t e d i n the i n t e r i o r subalpine [ K r a j i n a , 1965]. Lodgepole pine dominates burned over areas, and i t i s p r e s e n t l y the dominant t r e e species ( F i g u r e 10 b , c ) . Spruce regenera-t i o n occurs around the margins o f meadows. The canopy i s n e a r l y c l o s e d . Spruce occurs as understory. Sparse understory c o n s i s t s mainly o f shepherdia, crow-berry and k i n n i k i n n i c k . The main herbs are b l u e g r a s s , p i n e g r a s s , d r y l a n d sedge, and l i c h e n . Low willow shrubs {Salix spp.) l i n e the margins o f the wet meadows and drainage ways. These occur mainly on the wet mineral s o i l s . Dominant v e g e t a t i o n i s l i s t e d below. Lodgepole pine Pinus contorta abundant Shepherdia Shepherdia canadensis common Crow-berry Empetrum nigrum common K i n n i k i n n i c k Arctostaphylos Uva-ursi common Pine grass Calamagrostis rubescens few Dryland sedge Carex concinnoides common Bluegrasses Poa spp. common Antennaria few Lichens few Willow Salix spp. common The measured annual n a t i v e herbage production a t t h i s s i t e was measured a t 92 kg/ha. In the adjacent organic meadows and drainageways, dense stands o f sedges [Carex spp.) with some sunflowers 69 Figure 10 Terrain Type 5: (a) A portion of a vertical serial photograph showing the terrain type in the top half of the picture (b) The ground vegetation is sparse under lodgepole pine. A sedge meadow can be part ia l ly seen through the trees 70 (Arnica spp.) occur. The herbage c l i p p e d from t h i s type y i e l d e d 1788 kg/ha. Climate: T h i s s i t e i s the c o o l e s t and most humid c l i m a t e o f a l l the s i t e s s t u d i e d . Temperatures are low and the d a i l y minimums throughout the s h o r t growing per i o d are c l o s e t o , or a t , the f r e e z i n g p o i n t . The moisture e f f e c t i v e n e s s i s high due to low evaporation a s s o c i a t e d with the cool temperatures, e s p e c i a l l y i n the May to September p e r i o d . Summer p r e c i p i t a t i o n minimizes the moisture d e f i c i t f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l crops, but i t i s not adequate f o r the moisture demands of a c o n i f e r o u s f o r e s t . The low d a i l y minimum temperatures are the dominant e n v i r o n -mental c o n s t r a i n t . Current commercially grown a g r i c u l t u r a l crops are not adapted to t h i s harsh environment. S o i l s : S o i l s are c h a r a c t e r i z e d by dominantly mineral s o i l s . A s s o c i a t e d s o i l s are de s c r i b e d f o l l o w i n g the d i s c u s s i o n o f the major s o i l o f the t e r r a i n type. The major s o i l i s well drained and has r a p i d p e r m e a b i l i t y , slow r u n o f f and r a p i d i n f i l t r a t i o n . These drainage c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s are common to s o i l s with g r a v e l l y loam t e x t u r e s . Except f o r a horizon o f c l a y accumulation, the p a r t i c l e s i z e a n a l y s i s i n d i c a t e s a dominance of sand and s i l t s i z e d p a r t i c l e s with l e s s than 10 per cent c l a y . The accumulation o f c l a y i s low, but i t does improve the p h y s i c a l water holding p r o p e r t i e s o f the ho r i z o n . The bulk d e n s i t y o f t h i s horizon i s a l s o higher which reduces r o o t p e n e t r a t i o n , r e l a t i v e to the su r f a c e h o r i z o n s . Coarse fragment content ranges from 20 to 50 per cent and i t v a r i e s v e r t i c a l l y and l a t e r a l l y . 71 The organic matter content of the s o i l i s low, as i s the t o t a l n i t r o g e n content. The carbon to n i t r o g e n r a t i o i s narrower f o r t h i s s o i l than f o r the s o i l s of S i t e s 2,3, and 4. S o i l r e a c t i o n i s more a c i d and i t ranges from s t r o n g l y a c i d a t the s u r f a c e to s l i g h t l y a c i d at 1 m. The c a t i o n exchange c a p a c i t y i s higher than f o r s i m i l a r and f i n e r textured s o i l s from other comparable s i t e s . Evidence o f i n c r e a s e d amorphous m a t e r i a l s i n the s o i l may account f o r t h i s as treatments were r e q u i r e d to remove these m a t e r i a l s f o r p a r t i c l e s i z e a n a l y s i s . The exchange complex i s dominated by b a s i c c a t i o n s . A v a i l a b l e phosphorus i s not a l i m i t i n g f e r t i l i t y f a c t o r . Nitrogen may be a l i m i t i n g f e r t i l i t y f a c t o r . The a s s o c i a t e d s o i l s occur i n lower p o s i t i o n s of the t e r r a i n type i n the same r e l a t i o n s h i p as i n the t e r r a i n type d i s c u s s e d f o r S i t e 4. The s o i l s have the same morphology as r e l a t e d p o s i t i o n s d i s c u s s e d i n S i t e 4. The margins of the low wetter areas support a low dense shrub cover of willows [Salix spp.), but the dominant v e g e t a t i o n i s sedges. The G l e y s o l i c s o i l s i n the i n t e r m i t t a n t d r a i n -ageways dry out more i n l a t e summer and are not as peaty as s i m i l a r s i t e s i n S i t e 4. The range of morphology of g l e y s o l s i n t h i s t e r r a i n type i s g r e a t e r than i n t e r r a i n type 4. Organic s o i l s are commonly deeper than those a t S i t e 4. Larger meadows are used f o r the production of w i l d hay. The deeper organic s o i l s are c l a s s i f i e d as Typic M e s i s o l s . 72 P h y s i c a l c a p a b i l i t y : The c l i m a t e o f t h i s t e r r a i n type i s severe. I t l i m i t s the a g r i c u l t u r a l c a p a b i l i t y to n a t i v e g r a z i n g o r , a t best, improved range. The a g r i c u l t u r e c a p a b i l i t y r a t i n g i s Class 6 with a minor i n c l u s i o n o f C l a s s 7. G e n e r a l l y a low temperature during the growing season, s e v e r e l y lowering heat u n i t accumulation i s the main c l i m a t i c l i m i t a t i o n . F r o s t s occur every month of the year. The s o i l i s moderately stoney with 15 to 25 per cent coarse fragments i n the s u r f a c e 20 cm and moderately coarse t e x t u r e d . Areas o f ex c e s s i v e s t o n i n e s s are c l a s s i f i e d C l a s s 7. These account f o r up to 20 per cent of the area. Adjacent to the sample s i t e , o r g anic and g l e y s o l i c s o i l s occur i n dep r e s s i o n s . Near t h i s s i t e , shallow organic s o i l s are r a t e d Class 6. These s o i l s are used f o r w i l d hay prod u c t i o n . The n a t i v e g r a z i n g p o t e n t i a l of these mineral s o i l s i s very low -- C l a s s 5 i n the gr a z i n g c a p a b i l i t y system. P l o t data i n d i c a t e annual dry matter production o f 90 kg/ha. A v a r i e t y o f herbs accounts f o r t h i s l i m i t e d p r o d u c t i o n . The herbs occur s p a r s e l y and s p o r a d i c a l l y i n a s s o c i a t i o n with woody shrubs ( F i g u r e 10 c ) . In c o n t r a s t , the p r o d u c t i v i t y o f the sedges growing on the shallow organic s o i l i n a natu r a l drainage way i s 1790 kg/ha. There appears to be no summer g r a z i n g on these s i t e s , and the meadows i n the immediate v i c i n i t y of the s i t e are used f o r w i l d hay prod u c t i o n . The n a t i v e sedge production on the meadows i n t h i s area i s v a r i a b l e and the p l o t data may be i n t e r p r e t e d as an i n d i c a t i o n t h a t n a t u r a l annual p r o d u c t i v i t y i s i n the range of 1500 and 2000 kg/ha. The severe c l i m a t i c l i m i t a t i o n s are r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the Class 6 f o r e s t c a p a b i l i t y a t t h i s s i t e f o r lodgepole pine. At t h i s 73 elevation, the winters are long and the growing season is short. Frosts may occur at anytime during the growing season and generally low temperatures adversely affect the growth of commercial forests. The moderately coarse textured soil with i ts moderately low moisture holding capacity may cause periods of soil moisture deficiency. The associated organic soi ls support no trees and are c lassi f ied as Class 7. The forest capability rating for this area is a complex including Classes 6, 7 and 5. The Class 5 component of the area corresponds to areas having increased soi l moisture due to seepage and finer soi l texture variants. Class 4 capability for big game is mapped in this terrain type. The high elevation and short growing season are moderately severe limitations for big game production. The landscape is similar to site 4. The majority of browse is confined to transitional areas between forest and sedge meadows of poorly to imperfectly drained so i l s . The principle browse species being willow shrubs {Salix spp.). Snow depth is the main l imitation for moose and deer at this s i te . Class 7 waterfowl capability is associated with the soi ls of the terrain type. Waterfowl capability is severely limited and is associated with the small lakes and margins. The hummocky to ro l l ing topography of the landscape results in accumulation of water in closed depressions. The ones that do not f i l l in with organic deposits are rated capability Class 5 and 6. Topographic features that adversely affect development of optimum marsh conditions along the edge of water areas are the most l imit ing factor. These are followed by insuff icient nutrients in the soi l and insuff icient water 74 f o r optimum p l a n t growth. In the case o f streams, f a s t or excess waterflow i n h i b i t s development of marsh h a b i t a t along the stream edge. A l s o where a buildup o f peat occurs, the lack of water flow r e s u l t s i n poor q u a l i t y h a b i t a t . " The c o n t i n u i t y o f the open meadows i n t e r s p e r s e d with f o r e s t s a t t h i s s i t e make i t more a t t r a c t i v e to r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s than S i t e 4. The area i s considered a t t r a c t i v e f o r a c t i v i t i e s such as nature i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , p r i m i t i v e camping, horseback r i d i n g , showshoeing, c o r s s - c o u n t r y s k i i n g , auto-toboganning, upland hunting, walking and h i k i n g . The i n t e n s i t y o f use would be low due to the present f a c t o r of remoteness to po p u l a t i o n c e n t r e s , e s p e c i a l l y i n the winter time. T h i s t e r r a i n type i s predominantly C l a s s 5 f o r r e c r e a t i o n on the b a s i s o f s i g n i f i c a n t small s u r f a c e waters and the upland and wetland w i l d -l i f e . C a p a b i l i t y a n a l y s i s : The r e c r e a t i o n c a p a b i l i t y i s the same as t h a t f o r b i g game and i s based i n pa r t on w i l d l i f e viewing which improves the c a p a b i l i t y i n t o the l i m i t e d category. L o c a l i z e d areas o f l i m i t e d waterfowl are recognized i n the a n a l y s i s where they occur. P h y s i c a l Land Use A l l o c a t i o n Plan The land use plan attempts to organize the resource u t i l i z a -t i o n of the study area to provide maximum i n t e g r a t e d b e n e f i t . The land use plan i s based on q u a l i t a t i v e p h y s i c a l resource v a r i a b l e s assuming present economics and technology. Resource s e c t o r i n t e r -r e l a t i o n s h i p s are considered to assess the optimal land use, whether i t 75 simple or i n t e g r a t e d . The q u a l i t a t i v e resource e v a l u a t i o n r e s t r i c t s the use of economic comparisons. The q u a l i t y of the p h y s i c a l land use plan i s evaluated both from the general and the s p e c i f i c l e v e l s of d e t a i l . The general plan organizes resource use on a r e g i o n a l b a s i s while the s p e c i f i c plan does so a t the t e r r a i n type l e v e l . The general approach provides an overview which i s e s s e n t i a l f o r c o r r e l a t i n g land use among t e r r a i n types. A l s o , the p a t t e r n of land use i s appraised from a r e g i o n a l b a s i s f o r optimal resource u t i l i z a t i o n . The p h y s i c a l land c a p a b i l i t y i n the area progresses from moderate i n t e r r a i n t y P e one to l i m i t e d t e r r a i n type f i v e . The resource u t i l i z a t i o n becomes more ext e n s i v e with the p r o g r e s s i v e l y lower c a p a b i l i t y v a l u e s . Use i n t e n s i t y of resource values r e l a t e s to the degree a p e c u l i a r resource value i s u t i l i z e d . For example, the l e s s intense use of a high c a p a b i l i t y resource u n i t may out produce the intense u t i l i z a t i o n of a . l i m i t e d c a p a b i l i t y resource u n i t y e t the former i s not a t t a i n i n g optimal p r o d u c t i o n . The plan assumes the maximum i n t e n s i t y of the land resource u t i l i z a t i o n which can be s u s t a i n e d over a p e r i o d of time. Sustained use i s the c o n t i n u i n g h a r v e s t i n g o f goods and s e r v i c e s without d e t e r i o r a t i o n o f the renewable resource. In r a r e cases a c e r t a i n degree of degradation i s i n h e r e n t to use. However, the degradation should be minor and the expected end-point s i t u a t i o n and envisaged use at t h a t time should be s t a t e d . An example of slow degradation i s the sedimentation i n wetlands which i n time may reduce the water storage to a c r i t i c a l value. The p r o d u c t i v i t y of the t e r r a i n types decreases with 76 decreasing capabil ity. The physical resource capability of the terrain types is based on l imitations. The principle environmental constraint in the study area is identified as climate. The lack of variable topography and associated vegetation change is conceded to cause signif icant l imitations to big game capabil ity. The soi ls of the terrain types do not have limitations which reduce the land capability beyond that of the local climate. The inclusions of Gleysolic and Organic soi ls in terrain types four and five are exceptions for forestry capabil ity. The properties of the soi l influence the productivity of the terrain types. The difference between terrain types two and three is due to soi l properties. Where environmental constraints are severe, the soi l characteristics are not usually l imit ing for agr icul -tural use. This generalization is qualified since each resource sector responds uniquely to changes in climate and s o i l . Extensive type uses are recommended for most of the area with intensive ut i l i zat ion limited to localized si tes. Agricultural cultivation is planned for terrain type one while limited or no cultivation should be attempted on the other terrain types except on favored local s i tes . The overall plan is to integrate resource uses to attain the highest sustained output possible. The positive aspects of integrated, primary and secondary uses are compared against negative aspects of confl ict ing use. Forestry and forage crops are confl icting uses whereas forestry and big game are compatible uses. Where integration is d i f f i c u l t due to confl ict ing uses, the physical capability is used for establishing trade off values between the sectors involved. 77 The land use plan f o r the area i n t e g r a t e s the resource development f o r d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s o f p h y s i c a l c a p a b i l i t i e s . The changing balance i n p h y s i c a l c a p a b i l i t i e s i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the i n t e -grated land use plan f o r the area. The i n t e n s i t y o f a g r i c u l t u r a l use decreases from t e r r a i n type one to f i v e . With the decrease i n a g r i c u l t u r a l use there i s a corresponding i n c r e a s e i n big game, f o r e s t r y and r e c r e a t i o n use. This broad plan reduces man-made environmental changes i n the upper regions o f the watersheds which i s a necessary c o n s e r v a t i o n p r a c t i c e s i n the sem i - a r i d r e g i o n . The land use plan f o r the area i s based on a g r i c u l t u r e , f o r e s t r y , b i g game and r e c r e a t i o n u t i l i z a t i o n . The plan f o r each t e r r a i n type i s presented and shown i n Figure 11. Following t h i s , a s e c t i o n i s w r i t t e n on waterfowl f o r the area as i t occupies a s p e c i a l niche i n the landscape which i s l e s s dependent on f a c t o r s considered f o r the other s e c t o r s . C u l t i v a t e d a g r i c u l t u r e i s the primary use f o r t e r r a i n type one. The p r o v i s i o n of adequate i r r i g a t i o n water i s r e q u i r e d f o r f u l l development. The area i s c u r r e n t l y u t i l i z e d f o r a g r i c u l t u r e but only r e a l i z e s a small p o r t i o n o f the t e r r a i n type's c a p a b i l i t y . The ponds o c c u r r i n g on the t e r r a i n type are not s u i t a b l e f o r e i t h e r r e c l a m a t i o n or i r r i g a t i o n purposes. The primary use f o r t e r r a i n type two i s ex t e n s i v e type b i g game management. P o r t i o n s o f the area with wintering, h a b i t a t are picked as the most important requirement f o r p r o t e c t i o n . S t r i p s are provided f o r m i g r a t i o n c o r r i d o r s between u n i t s o f w i n t e r i n g h a b i t a t and f r i n g e s are l e f t a t the margins of these u n i t s . Wood production i s 78 Figure 11 The Numbered Units Correspond to the Terrain Type Land Use A l l o c a t i o n Plan for the Area 79 the secondary use which i s developed complimentary to the big game management. A g r i c u l t u r a l p o t e n t i a l i n t h i s t e r r a i n type i s s u i t e d to forage crops only. Blocks o f land which are not c r i t i c a l b i g game w i n t e r i n g h a b i t a t have t h e i r optimal u t i l i z a t i o n i n forage production f o r pasture and hay. The use of the f o r e s t range by the domestic l i v e s t o c k i s an exte n s i v e form o f a g r i c u l t u r a l u t i l i z a t i o n . Since b i g game and a g r i c u l t u r e uses are c o n f l i c t i n g on t h i s t e r r a i n type more d e t a i l e d s t u d i e s are r e q u i r e d to i d e n t i f y and d e l i n e a t e a plan which optimizes u t i l i z a t i o n by both s e c t o r s . Minor r e c r e a t i o n a l use w i l l be of an ex t e n s i v e nature on t h i s t e r r a i n type. The i n t e g r a t e d use develops d i v e r s i t y i n t h i s otherwise monotonous landscape. Land use on t e r r a i n type three i s managed f o r i n t e g r a t e d b i g game, f o r e s t r y a g r i c u l t u r e and r e c r e a t i o n . The primary use i s b i g game thus the other s e c t o r s are developed to be compatible with e x t e n s i v e w i l d l i f e management. Uni t s of big game w i n t e r i n g h a b i t a t are surrounded and connected by f o r e s t r e s e r v e s . A g r i c u l t u r a l development w i l l o n l y occur i n l o c a l i z e d areas and n a t i v e range w i l l be u t i l i z e d throughout the areas with minimum i n t e r f e r e n c e with the big game management. The plan f o r t h i s t e r r a i n type i s s i m i l a r to t e r r a i n type two but the p o t e n t i a l i s lower. The land use plan f o r t e r r a i n type f o u r recognizes s p e c i f i c u t i l i t y f o r the d i f f e r e n t components of the r e c u r r i n g landscape p a t t e r n . As a whole, the t e r r a i n type i s managed f o r big game as the primary use. Integrated with the big game i s f o r e s t r y . A g r i c u l t u r e u t i l i z e s the sedge meadows f o r w i l d hay and g r a z i n g 80 during the summer. Some f o r e s t range i s u t i l i z e d where l o c a l produc-t i v i t y i s higher. Extensive upland r e c r e a t i o n a l use i s compatible with the plan f o r the t e r r a i n type. The low p h y s i c a l c a p a b i l i t i e s f o r t h i s t e r r a i n type l i m i t land use to ext e n s i v e type management. The optimum u t i l i z a t i o n o f t e r r a i n type f i v e i s i n t e g r a t e d e x t e n s i v e type management of a l l resource s e c t o r s . Big game, f o r e s t r y and r e c r e a t i o n , under e x t e n s i v e management, maintain e f f i c i e n t compatible u t i l i z a t i o n o f the low p h y s i c a l c a p a b i l i t y of the land. U t i l i z a t i o n o f sedge meadows f o r w i l d hay and gr a z i n g i s c o n f i n e d to s e c t i o n s o f the t e r r a i n type with a high d e n s i t y of meadows and c l o s e to s i m i l a r areas i n t e r r a i n type f o u r . A g r i c u l t u r a l uses are l i m i t e d to small l o c a l i z e d areas of the t e r r a i n type due to the s e n s i t i v i t y o f the b i g game production to competition. Extensive f o r e s t r y and r e c r e a t i o n are compatible with b ig game management. Land use f o r waterfowl production i s a water based land use a c t i v i t y . Wetland management i n the area w i l l vary with p h y s i c a l c a p a b i l i t y f o r waterfowl. Land use f o r waterfowl i s o u t l i n e d i n -dependently because there i s l i t t l e c o n f l i c t with other resource s e c t o r s . There are few wetlands i n t e r r a i n type one. They are of moderate p o t e n t i a l and t h e i r p r o d u c t i v i t y may be in c r e a s e d through management inputs such as water l e v e l c o n t r o l . The p o t e n t i a l water source i s the water supply used f o r i r r i g a t i o n o f the land adjacent to the wetlands. The waterfowl p o t e n t i a l i s v a r i a b l e on t e r r a i n types two and three. The high c a p a b i l i t y wetlands can be pr o t e c t e d and 81 developed to u t i l i z e t h e i r f u l l p o t e n t i a l whereas the l i m i t e d c a p a b i l -i t y h a b i t a t i s accepted as pa r t of the i n t e g r a t e d resource management system. The wetlands i n t e r r a i n types f o u r and f i v e have l i m i t e d c a p a b i l i t y . They w i l l have no s p e c i a l management inputs and are considered i n the o v e r a l l e x t e n s i v e i n t e g r a t e d resource management of the t e r r a i n types. The land use plan f o r the study area i s presented i n Figure 11. Th i s small s c a l e i l l u s t r a t i o n uses the t e r r a i n type boundaries to separate the i n t e g r a t e d resource management u n i t s d i s c u s s e d . Area one, which c o i n c i d e s with t e r r a i n type one, i s managed f o r i n t e n s i v e a g r i c u l t u r e and i s not s u b j e c t to i n t e g r a t e d management other than the i n c l u s i o n o f several wetland areas r e t a i n e d f o r waterfowl production. Integrated resource management i s a t t a i n e d f o r the remaining t e r r a i n types. Emphasis i s placed on b i g game management. F o r e s t r y and r e c r e a t i o n are developed i n c o n j u n c t i o n with the b i g game. A g r i c u l t u r e production i s s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r r a i n type two and decreases to minor importance i n t e r r a i n type f i v e which i s managed p r i m a r i l y as w i l d e r -ness area. T h i s plan shows the type o f land use r e q u i r e d to a t t a i n optimal outputs from the p h y s i c a l resources. 82 SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS Areas of l i m i t e d renewable resource ( a g r i c u l t u r e , f o r e s t r y , w i l d l i f e and r e c r e a t i o n ) c a p a b i l i t y are common i n B r i t i s h Columbia. Integrated resource management appears to be a n a t u r a l concept to be followed i n such areas. T h i s study focussed a t t e n t i o n to such lands i n an area west of Williams Lake i n the Cariboo D i s t r i c t of B r i t i s h Columbia. Emphasis was placed on s o i l s of the area f o r the i n v e n t o r y , e v a l u a t i o n and suggested land use plan. T h i s was deemed a p p r o p r i a t e as the area i s w i t h i n a p e c u l i a r zone of l i m i t i n g c l i m a t e and g e n t l e topography. S o i l s provided the comprehensive and c o r r e l a t i v e p h y s i c a l base f o r the d e s c r i p t i o n of the t e r r a i n u n i t s d e f i n e d . The f u n c t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p among s o i l , c l i m a t e , geology, b i o t a , topography and time provided the comprehensive base, which r e s u l t e d i n an i n t e g r a t e d survey. This type of comprehensive survey can be c o r r e l a t e d with adjacent areas r e g i o n a l l y and even n a t i o n a l l y . A reconnaisance t e r r a i n survey provided the i n f o r m a t i o n on s o i l p r o p e r t i e s and d i s t r i b u t i o n . C a p a b i l i t i e s f o r a g r i c u l t u r e , f o r e s t r y , w i l d l i f e and r e c r e a t i o n were i n t e g r a t e d with the recognized s o i l s f o r each t e r r a i n type. Land e v a l u a t i o n compared s o i l - c a p a b i l i t y r e l a t i o n s h i p s , while c a p a b i l i t y a n a l y s i s compared only s e c t o r c a p a b i l i t i e s . The suggested land use plan emphasizes i n t e g r a t e d resource u t i l i z a t i o n . 83 Reconnaisance s c a l e i n v e n t o r y o f p h y s i c a l resources i s an e f f i c i e n t method of r a p i d l y gathering information f o r land e v a l u a t i o n and planning a t the r e g i o n a l l e v e l . The i n f o r m a t i o n may be used i n p o l i c y development f o r land use i n the region to a i d l o c a l p l a n n i n g . The same i n v e n t o r y can be used by l o c a l planning a u t h o r i t i e s as an overview o f resource p o t e n t i a l and d i s t r i b u t i o n . D i f f e r e n t l e v e l s of i n v e n t o r y provide d i f f e r e n t information and when used together a i d i n p r o v i d i n g c o n t i n u i t y between l o c a l and r e g i o n a l needs. The reconnaisance assessment i s used to i d e n t i f y r e l a t i o n s h i p s among resource uses i n terms of p r o v i s i o n o f goods and s e r v i c e s . The assessment and p h y s i c a l land use plan combined can be used to p r e d i c t the type o f in f o r m a t i o n r e q u i r e d f o r l o c a l planning purposes or f o r more d e t a i l e d s t u d i e s . The s o i l base i s well s u i t e d by v i r t u e of a h e i r a r c h i a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n system which may be used f o r v a r i o u s l e v e l s o f g e n e r a l i z a t i o n . The study provides a broad assessment of the land resources of the r e g i o n . The i n f o r m a t i o n r e l a t e d to s o i l based t e r r a i n u n i t s f a c i l i t a t e s updating with new and with more d e t a i l e d i n f o r m a t i o n without d i s r u p t i n g the o v e r a l l o r g a n i z a t i o n . The t e r r a i n u n i t s can be i d e n t i f i e d on the ground as well as by a e r i a l photograph i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . A d d i t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n would be b e n e f i c i a l f o r w i l d l i f e i n v e n t o r y . The i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of c r i t i c a l browse s p e c i e s f o r w i l d l i f e could be r e l a t e d to s o i l s during f i e l d s t u d i e s to a s c e r t a i n t h e i r d i s t r i b u t i o n and extent. Factors f a v o r i n g or p r e c l u d i n g the occurrence o f browse spe c i e s should be i d e n t i f i e d f o r management c o n s i d e r a t i o n s . The s o i l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n system does not adequately c l a s s i f y sub-aqueous s o i l s 84 which are important f o r wetland c l a s s i f i c a t i o n f o r waterfowl. S o i l and water s t u d i e s i n the sub-aqueous environment should be encouraged f o r development of a c o r r e l a t i o n between s o i l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n and wetland c a p a b i l i t y . Based on the study, t h e ' f o l l o w i n g c o n c l u s i o n s are d e r i v e d . 1. R e p e t i t i v e patterns of landforms and a s s o c i a t e d s o i l s used i n s o i l mapping and CLI c l a s s i f i c a t i o n procedures provide a standard base f o r resource e v a l u a t i o n . 2. T e r r a i n types d e f i n e d on the b a s i s of a r e l a t i v e l y s t a b l e component of the environment -- s o i l s -- a i d s i n understanding the landscape and provides a much needed c o r r e l a t i v e t o o l . 3. The comprehensive land base provides f o r i n t e g r a t i o n --thus i n t e g r a t e d land use management can r e p l a c e s i n g l e resource use management. 4. Lands with near "equal" c a p a b i l i t y f o r a g r i c u l t u r e , f o r e s t r y , w i l d l i f e and r e c r e a t i o n have a high p o t e n t i a l f o r land use i n t e g r a t i o n . 5. The e v a l u a t i o n methods developed i n t h i s study allow the p r e p a r a t i o n of an i n t e g r a t e d resource management plan f o r l i m i t e d c a p a b i l i t y lands where no one resource s e c t o r i s dominant. 85 LITERATURE CITED ATKINSON, H.J., G.R. GILES, A.J. MacLEAN and J.R. WRIGHT. 1958. Chemical methods of s o i l a n a l y s i s . C o n t r i b . 169 ( r e v . ) , Chemistry D i v i s i o n , Science S e r v i c e , Can. Dept. Agr., Ottawa. BEIL, C E . 1969. The p l a n t a s s o c i a t i o n s o f the Cariboo-aspen-lodgepole pine-Douglas f i r parkland zone. Ph.D. T h e s i s , Botany Dept., U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver, B.C. BLACK, C A . (ed.). 1965. Methods of s o i l a n a l y s i s . Parts 1 and 2. Agronomy No. 9. BLOWER, D. 1973. Methodology-land c a p a b i l i t y f o r ungulates i n B r i t i s h Columbia. B.C. Land Inventory (CLI ) . V i c t o r i a , B.C. 24 p. BRITISH COLUMBIA LAND INVENTORY (CLI) . 1972. Climate c a p a b i l i t y c l a s s i f i c a t i o n f o r a g r i c u l t u r e . C l i matology Report No. 1, Second E d i t i o n , B.C. Dept. of A g r i c , Parliament Bldgs., V i c t o r i a , B.C., 11 p. CANADA DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORT. 1967. Temperature and p r e c i p i t a t i o n t a b l e s f o r B.C. Met. Branch, Toronto. CANADA LAND INVENTORY. 1970. O b j e c t i v e s , scope and o r g a n i z a t i o n . Report No. 1, Second E d i t i o n . Dept. of Regional Economic Expansion. Queen's P r i n t e r , Ottawa. . 1965. S o i l c a p a b i l i t y c l a s s i f i c a t i o n f o r a g r i c u l t u r e . Report No. 2, Dept. of F o r e s t r y , Queen's P r i n t e r , Ottawa. . 1967. Land c a p a b i l i t y c l a s s i f i c a t i o n f o r f o r e s t r y . R.J. McCormack, Report No. 4, Dept. o f F o r e s t r y and Rural Development, Queen's P r i n t e r , Ottawa, 26 p. . 1969. Land c a p a b i l i t y c l a s s i f i c a t i o n f o r outdoor r e c r e a t i o n . Report No. 6, Dept. of Regional Economic Expansion, Queen's P r i n t e r , Ottawa, 114 p. 86 CANADA LAND INVENTORY. 1970. Land c a p a b i l i t y c l a s s i f i c a t i o n f o r w i l d l i f e . Report No. 7, Dept. of Regional Economic Expansion, Queen's P r i n t e r , Ottawa, 30 p. . 1970. Land c a p a b i l i t y f o r w i l d l i f e - w a t e r f o w l . Taseko Lakes 92 0, Dept. of Regional Economic Expansion. Queen's P r i n t e r , Ottawa. CLARK, J.S. and A.J. GREEN. 1962. Note on p i p e t t i n g assembly f o r the mechanical a n a l y s i s o f s o i l s . Can. J . S o i l S c i . 42:316. HEGINBOTTOM, J.S. 1972. S u r f i c i a l geology of the Taseko Lakes Map-Area B r i t i s h Columbia. G e o l o g i c a l Survey of Canada, Dept. Energy, Mines and Resources. Paper 72-14, 9 p, 1 map. HOLLAND, S.S. 1964. Landforms of B r i t i s h Columbia a physiographic o u t l i n e . B u l l e t i n No. 48, B.C. Dept. Mines and Petroleum Resources, Queen's P r i n t e r , V i c t o r i a , 138 p. HUBBARD, W.A. 1969. The grasses of B r i t i s h Columbia. Handbook No. 9, B.C. P r o v i n c i a l Museum, Queen's P r i n t e r , V i c t o r i a , 205 p. JELETZKY, J.A. and H.W. TIPPER. 1968. Upper J u r a s s i c and Cretaceous rocks o f the Taseko Lakes Map-area and t h e i r bearing on the g e o l o g i c a l h i s t o r y o f southwestern B r i t i s h Columbia, Paper 67-54, G e o l o g i c a l Survey of Canada, Dept. Energy Mines and Resources, Queen's P r i n t e r , Ottawa 218 p. JENNY, H. 1941. Factors i n s o i l formation. McGraw-Hill Book Co., Inc., New York, 281 p. KENDREW, W.G. and D. KERR. 1955. The c l i m a t e of B r i t i s h Columbia and the Yukon T e r r i t o r i e s , Queen's P r i n t e r , Ottawa, 222 p. K0WALL, R.C. 1971. Methodology: land c a p a b i l i t y f o r f o r e s t r y i n B r i t i s h Columbia. Canada Land I n v e n t o r y , S o i l s D i v i s i o n , B.C. Dept. of A g r i c u l t u r e , Kelowna, B.C. KRAJINA, V.J. (ed.). 1965. Ecology of western North America, V o l . 1, Dept. o f Botany, U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia. LACATE, D. 1969. G u i d e l i n e s f o r b i o - p h y s i c a l land c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . Dept. of F i s h e r i e s and F o r e s t r y , Canadian F o r e s t r y S e r v i c e P u b l i c a t i o n , No. 1264, Queen's P r i n t e r , Ottawa, 61 p. 87 LEVEN, A.A., R.T. MEURISSE, J.O. CARLETON, and J.A. WILLIAMS. 1974. Land Response U n i t s - an a i d to f o r e s t land management. S o i l S c i . Soc. Amer. Proc. 38:140-144. LYONS, C.P. 1952. Trees, shrubs and flowers to know i n B r i t i s h Columbia. Rev. Ed. J.M. Dent & Sons (Canada) L t d . , Vancouver, 194 p. MacKEAGUE, J.A. and J.H. DAY. 1966. D i t h i o n i t e - and o x a l a t e - e x t r a c -t a b l e Fe and Al as a i d s i n d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g v a r i o u s c l a s s e s o f s o i l s . Can. J . S o i l S c i . 46:13-22. McLEAN,ALASTAIR. 1972. Beef production on lodgepole pine - pinegrass range i n the Cariboo r e g i o n of B r i t i s h Columbia. J . Range Management 25(1):10-11. MEHRA, O.P. and M.L. ACKSON. 1960. Iron oxide removal from s o i l s and c l a y s by a d i t h i o n i t e c i t r a t e system b u f f e r e d with sodium bicarbonate. 7th Nat. Conf. on Clays and Clay M i n e r a l s , pp. 317-327. NATIONAL SOIL SURVEY COMMITTEE OF CANADA. 1970. A system o f s o i l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n f o r Canada. Queen's P r i n t e r , Ottawa. RUNKA, G.G. 1973. Methodology: land c a p a b i l i t y f o r a g r i c u l t u r e . B.C. Land Inventory ( C L I ) , S o i l Survey D i v i s i o n , B.C. Dept. of A g r i c u l t u r e , Kelowna, B.C. 25 p. SCHOFIELD, R.K. and A.W. TAYLOR. 1955. The measurement o f s o i l pH. S o i l S c i . Soc. Am. Proc. 19:164-167. TIPPER, H.W. 1963. Geology Taseko Lakes, B r i t i s h Columbia. Map 29-1963, G e o l o g i c a l Survey of Canada, Ottawa. TIPPER, H.W. 1971. G l a c i a l geomorphology and P l e i s t o c e n e h i s t o r y of c e n t r a l B r i t i s h Columbia. B u l l e t i n 196 G e o l o g i c a l Survey of Canada, Dept. Energy, Mines and Resources, Queen's P r i n t e r , Ottawa, 89 p, 8 maps. VALENTINE, K.W.G. 1971. S o i l s of the F o r t Nelson Area of B r i t i s h Columbia. Report No. 12, B.C. S o i l Survey, Canada Department of A g r i c u l t u r e , Queen's P r i n t e r , Ottawa, 60 p, 1 map. WEIR, T.R. 1964. Ranching i n the Southern I n t e r i o r Plateau of B r i t i s h Columbia. Memoir 4 (Rev. ed,), Geographical Branch, . Mines and T e c h n i c a l Surveys, Queen's P r i n t e r , Ottawa, 165 p. 88 WERTZ, W.A. and J.A. ARNOLD. 1972. Land systems inv e n t o r y . U.S. Dept. of A g r i c u l t u r e , F o r e s t S e r v i c e Intermountain Region, Odgen, Utah, 12 p. 89 A P P E N D I X A S o i l D e s c r i p t i o n s , Chemical and P h y s i c a l A n a l y s i s o f S o i l s Representing T e r r a i n Types S i t e 1 90 L o c a t i o n : 51° 52' 35" North L a t i t u d e 123° 2' 45" West Longitude 990 metres ASL e l e v a t i o n 5 per cent northeast exposed s l o p e . C l a s s i f i c a t i o n and C o r r e l a t i o n : O r t h i c Dark Gray Chernozem. I t i s mapped as the Chimney S e r i e s as proposed by the S o i l Survey S e c t i o n , Canada A g r i c u l t u r e , 1969. P r o f i l e D e s c r i p t i o n of a Chimney S o i l : Horizon Depth cm Ah 0-13 Dark g r a y i s h brown (10 YR 4/2 d)] very dark brown (2.5/2 m); 1 f i n e sandy loam to loam; weak coarse p r i s m a t i c breaking to weak to moderate f i n e and medium g r a n u l a r ; f r i a b l e ; abundant f i n e r o o t s ; 10% angular g r a v e l s ; gradual smooth boundary; 9-18 cm t h i c k ; pH 6.23. Bm 13-25 Brown (10 YR 4/3 d) g r a v e l l y c l a y ; weak medium p r i s m a t i c breaking to moderate medium and f i n e angular blocky; f r i a b l e ; common f i n e and medium r o o t s ; 30% angular g r a v e l s ; c l e a r smooth boundary; 10-15 cm t h i c k ; pH 6.55. ^Munsell c o l o r n o t a t i o n s , d = dry s o i l color,- m = moist s o i l c o l o r . 91 Horizon Depth cm BC 25-35 Grayish brown (10 YR 5/2 d) g r a v e l l y loam; moder-a t e l y strong f i n e angular blocky; f i r m ; few r o o t s ; 74% subangular g r a v e l s ; w h i t i s h carbonate accumu-l a t i o n s on under s i d e o f g r a v e l s ; c l e a r wavey boundary, 5-15 cm t h i c k . Ck 35+ L i g h t g r a y i s h brown (10 YR 6/2 d) g r a v e l l y loam; moderately strong f i n e to medium angular blocky; firm;25% subangular g r a v e l s ; matrix masked by accumulations o f carbonates on ped sur f a c e s and gr a v e l s ; lower boundary not determined; pH 7.8. S i t e 2 L o c a t i o n : 51° 47' 30" North L a t i t u d e 123° 04' West Longitude 1140 metres ASL e l e v a t i o n 4 per cent South exposed slope . C l a s s i f i c a t i o n and C o r r e l a t i o n : The sampled s o i l i s c l a s s i f i e d as an O r t h i c Gray L u v i s o l . As d e s c r i b e d , t h i s s o i l i s mapped as the Tyee s e r i e s by the Canada Department of A g r i c u l t u r e , S o i l Survey S e c t i o n . P r o f i l e D e s c r i p t i o n of a Tyee S o i l : 92 Horizon Depth cm L-H 2-0 Loose mat of dry pine needles. Ae 0-13 L i g h t brownish gray (10 YR 6/2 d) brown (7.5 YR 5/2 m) s i l t loam; moderately weak f i n e p l a t e y ; very f r i a b l e , s o f t ; abundant f i n e and medium r o o t s ; 5% coarse fragments; c l e a r wavy boundary; 10 to 17 cm t h i c k ; pH 5.95. Bt 13-43 Brown (10 YR 5/3 d, 10 YR 4/3 m) g r a v e l l y c l a y loam; moderate coarse angular blocky breaking to strong medium g r a n u l a r ; f i r m , hard, very p l a s t i c ; abundant f i n e r o o t s ; continuous moderately t h i c k c l a y f i l m s ; 20-75% coarse fragments; gradual smooth boundary; 23-37 cm t h i c k ; pH 6.03. BC 43-90 Brown (10 YR 5/3 d, 10 YR 4/3 m) s i l t loam; moderately cloddy breaking to weak f i n e angular blocky; f i r m , hard, p l a s t i c ; common to few r o o t s ; common t h i n c l a y f i l m s ; 4% coarse fragments, gradual smooth boundary; 34 to 50 cm depth; pH 5.95. Ck 90+ - Brown (10 YR 4.5/3 m) s i l t loam; massive to cloddy; f i r m ; 15% coarse fragments; weak e f f e r v e s c e n c e with d i l u t e HC1; lower boundary not determined; pH 7.30. 93 S i t e 3 L o c a t i o n : 51° 42' North L a t i t u d e 123° 38' West Longitude 1275 metres ASL e l e v a t i o n l e v e l s i t e with complete exposure. C l a s s i f i c a t i o n and C o r r e l a t i o n : The s o i l i s c l a s s i f i e d as an O r t h i c Gray L u v i s o l . I t corresponds to the Shemwell s o i l s o r g i n a l l y d e s c r i b e d and named during the e x p l o r a t o r y s o i l survey i n the map sheet. P r o f i l e D e s c r i p t i o n o f a Shemwell S o i l Horizon Depth cm L 1-0 Loose mat of dry pine needles and l i c h e n . Bm 0-3 Brown (10 YR 5.5/3 d, 7.5 YR 4/4 m) g r a v e l l y sandy loam; s t r u c t u r e l e s s to very weak f i n e g r a n u l a r ; l o o s e ; abundant f i n e and medium r o o t s ; 35% coarse fragments; gradual i r r e g u l a r boundary; 1 to 5 t h i c k . Ae 3-28 Brown (10 YR 5/3 m) g r a v e l l y sandy loam; weak f i n e p l a t e y ; l o o s e ; abundant f i n e and medium r o o t s ; 35% coarse fragments; c l e a r i r r e g u l a r boundary; 20 to 35 cm t h i c k ; pH 5.40. Bt 28-54 Brown to dark brown (10 YR 4/3 m) g r a v e l l y loam; strong medium and f i n e angular blocky; f i r m ; abundant medium and f i n e r o o t s ; 45% coarse fragments; d i f f u s e wavey boundary; 20 to 35 cm t h i c k ; pH 5.85. 94 Horizon Depth cm BC 54-70 Grayish brown (2.5 Y 5/2 m) g r a v e l l y sandy loam; weak medium angular blocky; f r i a b l e ; common r o o t s ; 30% coarse fragments; d i f f u s e smooth boundary; 12 to 18 cm thick;pH 6.20. C-| 70-95 Dark g r a y i s h brown (10 YR 4/2 m) g r a v e l l y sandy loam; very weak medium angular b l o c k y ; very f r i a b l e ; few r o o t s ; 25% coarse fragments; pH 6.4. C 2 95-130+ Dark g r a y i s h brown (10 YR 4/2 m) g r a v e l l y sandy loam; s t r u c t u r e l e s s to very weak angular blocky; very f r i a b l e ; 25% coarse fragments; lower boundary not determined, pH 6.5. S i t e 4 L o c a t i o n : 51° 39' North L a t i t u d e 123° 28' West Longitude 1490 metres ASL e l e v a t i o n 4 per cent south-south east exposed s l o p e . C l a s s i f i c a t i o n and C o r r e l a t i o n : O r t h i c Gray L u v i s o l . T h i s i s the s i t e type f o r the proposed Kloakut s o i l s as recognized by the e x p l o r a t o r y s o i l survey of the map sheet. P r o f i l e D e s c r i p t i o n o f a Kloakut S o i l 95 Horizon Depth cm L-H 2-0 Loose mat of raw to well decomposed needles, twigs and r o o t s . BM 0-5 Brown to dark brown (7.5 YR 4/4 m) g r a v e l l y loam; s t r u c t u r e l e s s to very weak f i n e g r a n u l a r ; very f r i a b l e ; abundant f i n e and medium r o o t s ; 38% coarse fragments; gradual i r r e g u l a r boundary; 3-10 cm t h i c k ; pH 5.33. Ae 5-30 Pale brown (10 YR 6/3 m) g r a v e l l y loam; very weak medium p l a t y ; very f r i a b l e ; abundant f i n e r o o t s ; 45% coarse fragments; gradual wavey boundary; 21 to 32 cm thick;pH 5.68. BA 30-45 Brown to dark brown (10 YR 4/3 m) g r a v e l l y sandy loam; very weak medium p l a t y to weak medium angular blocky; very f r i a b l e ; abundant f i n e r o o t s ; 55% coarse fragments; gradual wavey boundary 12 to 18 cm t h i c k ; pH 6.13. Bt 45-65 Brown to dark brown (10 YR 4/3 m) g r a v e l l y loam; moderate medium to coarse angular b l o c k y ; f r i a b l e ; common r o o t s ; 50% coarse fragments; d i f f u s e wavey boundary; 15 to 25 cm t h i c k ; pH 6.25. 96 Depth cm 65-86 Brown (10 YR 5/3 m) g r a v e l l y loam; moderate medium angular blocky; f r i a b l e ; few r o o t s ; 30% coarse fragments; d i f f u s e smooth boundary; 15 to 25 cm th i c k ; pH 6.80. 86+ Dark g r a y i s h brown (10 YR 4/2 m) g r a v e l l y loam; moderate medium angular b l o c k y ; f r i a b l e ; 27 per cent coarse fragments; lower boundary not determined; pH 7.2. S i t e 5 L o c a t i o n : 51° 24' North L a t i t u d e 123° 32' West Longitude 1570 metres ASL e l e v a t i o n 5 per cent slope on c r e s t of low r i d g e . C l a s s i f i c a t i o n and C o r r e l a t i o n : C l a s s i f i c a t i o n i s proposed as B r u n i s o l i c Gray L u v i s o l . T h i s i s the s i t e type f o r the proposed Tete H i l l s o i l s recognized by the e x p l o r a t o r y s o i l survey of the map sheet. Horizon BC C 97 P r o f i l e D e s c r i p t i o n o f a Tete H i l l S o i l Horizon Depth cm L-H 1-0 Loose l a y e r of needles and twigs. Bm 0-12 Dark y e l l o w i s h brown (10 YR 4/4 m) g r a v e l l y s i l t loam; s t r u c t u r e l e s s s i n g l e g r a i n e d , l o o s e ; abundant medium and f i n e r o o t s ; 20% coarse fragments; gradual wavy boundary; 10 to 15 cm t h i c k ; pH 5.10. Ae 12-23 L i g h t brownish gray (10 YR 6/2 m) g r a v e l l y loam; strong medium p l a t e l y , l o o s e ; abundant f i n e and medium r o o t s ; 20% coarse fragments; c l e a r , i r r e g u l a r boundary;5 to 15 cm t h i c k , pH 5.05. AB 23-25 Grayish brown (10 YR 5/2 m) g r a v e l l y s i l t ; weak to moderate coarse p l a t y to moderate medium angular blocky f r i a b l e ; r oots p l e n t i f u l ; gradual i r r e g u l a r boundary; 1 to 5 cm t h i c k . Bt-j 25-35 Brown to dark brown (10 YR 4/3 m) g r a v e l l y loam; moderate medium angular blocky; f r i a b l e f i r m ; roots p l e n t i f u l ; 30% coarse fragments; few t h i n c l a y f i l m s b r i d g i n g sand g r a i n s ; d i f f u s e , i r r e g u l a r boundary; 8 to 12 cm t h i c k ; pH 5.70. B t 2 35-58 Dark g r a y i s h brown to g r a y i s h brown (10 YR 4.5/2 m) g r a v e l l y loam; weak medium angular b l o c k y , f r i a b l e ; p l e n t i f u l to few r o o t s ; 30% coarse fragments; few very t h i n f i l m s on ped f a c e s ; gradual wavey boundary; 20 to 30 cm t h i c k ; pH 5.85. 98 Horizon Depth cm BC 58-86 Dark g r a y i s h brown to brown (10 YR 4/2.5 m) g r a v e l l y sandy loam; very weak medium angular blocky; f r i a b l e ; few r o o t s ; 48% coarse fragments; d i f f u s e wavey boundary;20 to 30 cm t h i c k ; pH 6.20. C 86+ Dark g r a y i s h brown (2.5 Y 4/2 m) g r a v e l l y sandy loam; very weak medium and f i n e angular blocky to s t r u c t u r e l e s s s i n g l e g r a i n e d ; very f r i a b l e ; 30% fragments; lower boundary not determined; pH 6.23. TABLE Al S e l e c t e d P h y s i c a l P r o p e r t i e s of the S o i l s Under Study P a r t i c l e S i z e <2mm F r a c t i o n >2mm Fr a c t i o n Texture Bulk Density — Fine C l a y Coarse Fragment Cl a s s Whole S o i l <2mm F r a c t i o n * Horizon Depth Sand • S i l t C l a y rt/ r-. i r 1 • F -l n k +• lo oy weignt g/ cv, S i t e 1 • Ah 0-13 31.1 41.4 27.5 10.0 10.8 L 1.15 1.09 Bt j 13-25 24.1 34.7 41.2 13.2 30.8 gc 1.39 1.21 BC 25-35 - - - - 73.9 - 1.88 1.55 Ck 35+ 29.9 44.0 26.1 3.6 25.6 gL 2.09 1.98 S i t e 2 Ae 0-13 40.7 51.3 8.0" 2.6 4.6 SiL 1.43 1.40 Bt 13-43 24.6 43.1 32.3 16.0 77.5 vg CL 1.85 1.50 BC 43-90 30.1 54.6 15.3 3.7 4.2 SiL 1.67 1.64 Ck 90+ 33.6 57.8 8.6 1.8 - S i L - -S i t e 3 Ae 3-28 60.0 34.1 5.9 1.5 35.7 gSL 1.41 1.21 Bt 28-54 57.8 34.6 13.9 6.3 45.0 gL 1.85 1.63 BC 54-70 55.7 36.9 7.4 2.6 - gSL - -Cl 70-95 59.9 37.3 2.8 0.2 23.9 gSL 1.81 1.68 c 2 95-130+ 65.4 32.4 2.2 - - gSL — — to TABLE Al (continued) P a r t i c l e S i z e <2mm F r a c t i o n >2mm F r a c t i o n Texture Bulk Density Horizon Depth Sand S i l t C lay Fine Clay Coarse Fragment Class Whole S o i l <2mm F r a c t i o n * °L hv U p i n h t a/cc -to uy v»c i y 11 u S i t e 4 Bm 0-5 46.7 40.1 13.2 6.9 37.8 gL 1 .23 1.13 Ae 5-30 50.9 38.9 10.2 2.2 45.6 gL -BA 30-45 48.9 37.7 13.5 4.7 55.6 vg L -Bt 45-65 52.1 35.9 12.1 5.1 49.8 gL 1 .91 1.82 BC 65-86 50.0 36.3 13.8 7.2 30.1 gL 2 .10 1.98 C 86+ 49.1 37.9 13.0 - 27.2 gL S i t e 5 Bm 0-12 _ * _ 18.0 gSiL 1 .15 1.05 Ae 12-23 39.5 50.8 9.7 1.7 - gL -Bt-j 25-35 41.1 46.4 12.5 3.8 31.3 gL 1 .82 1.66 Bt? 35-58 47.3 43.7 9.0 3.9 - gL 1.74 BC 58-86 63.7 33.2 3.1 1.0 48.6 gSL 1 .96 C 86+ 60.1 35.9 3.5 0.5 28.0 gSL 1 .90 1.77 * C a l c u l a t e d . TABLE A2 S e l e c t e d Chemical P r o p e r t i e s o f S o i l s Under Study pH Organic Exchangeable Cations A v a i l a b l e Horizon Depth C a C l 0 Matter N C/N CEC B.S. Ca Mg K Na P rm % mp/lDOn t mp/innn ppm we/ i uuy io S i t e 1 Ah 0-13 6.2 4.7 0. 24 19.4 26.2 100+ 13.13 12.44 2.30 0.10 54 Bt 13-25 6.6 2.2 0. 11 19.9 29.7 100+ 13.63 18.04 0.85 0.25 -BC 25-35 - - - - - - - - - -Ck 35+ 7.8 - - 19.4 100+ 23.88 16.45 0.36 1.04 -S i t e 2 Ae 0-13 6.0 1.7 0 05 34.0 11.2 80 6.07 2.53 0.31 0.06 -Bt 13-43 6.0 1.2 0 04 28.8 31.8 100+ 15.50 15.32 0.92 0.12 -BC 43-90 6.0 0.3 0 02 12.5 20.5 100+ 10.69 10.44 0.63 0.12 -Ck 90+ 7.3 - - 19.2 100+ 13.26 9.67 0.61 0.21 -S i t e 3 Ae 3-28 5.4 0.9 11.9 79 6.35 2.45 0.54 0.04 36 Bt 28-54 5.9 - - 18.2 92 10.66 5.67 0.34 0.09 23 BC 54-70 6.2 - - - - - - - - -C 70-95 6.4 - - 8.2 95 4.96 2.59 0.14 0.06 89 S i t e 4 Bm 0-5 " 4.4 3.4 0 08 42.1 13.0 18 1.23 0.65 0.34 0.06 -Ae 5-30 4.7 0.5 0 03 15.0 5.9 43 1.40 0.98 0.08 0.06 -BA 30-45 5.1 0.4 0 03 14.7 10.5 71 4.95 2.30 0.12 0.13 -Bt 45-65 5.5 0.3 • - 12.0 86 6.80 3.18 0.12 0.19 -BC 65-86 6.2 0.2 - 11.1 98 7.87 3.58 0.13 0.17 -C 86+ 6.4 - - 14.1 100+ 9.75 4.77 0.15 0.24 -TABLE A2 (continued ) Horizon Depth PH C a C l 2 Organic Matter N C/N CEC B.S. Exchangeable Cations A v a i l a b l e P Ca Mg K Na cm % me/lOOg % mo / I Af )g ppm me/iui S i t e 5 L-H 1-0 4.1 _ _ . — 45.9 38 13.20 3.17 0.86 0.02 -Bm 0-12 5.1 1.7 0.06 29.0 12.9 45 3.86 1.33 0.62 0.04 166 Ae 12-23 5.1 0.3 0.03 10.0 13.3 69 6.26 2.46 0.36 0.09 71 Bt, 25-35 5.7 0.1 - - 25.8 94 17.10 6.77 0.33 0.16 -BtJ 35-58 5.9 0.6 - - 24.6 97 16.51 6.78 0.37 0.15 -c 2 86+ 6.2 - - - 19.8 100+ 13.39 5.71 0.64 0.16 A P P E N D I X I I Common Conversion Factors 104 APPENDIX II Common Conversion F a c t o r s 1 inch =2.54 centimetres 1 centimetre = 0.3937 1 f o o t = 0.3048 1 metre = 3.2808 f e e t 1 mile =1.609,344 kil o m e t r e s 1 ki l o m e t r e =0.621,371,2 mi l e s 1 acre = 0.404,685,642 hectares 1 hectare = 2.471,054 acres 1 m i l - a c r e = 4.046,856,422,4 square metres 1 square mile = 2.589,988,110,336 square k i l o m e t r e s 1 square k i l o m e t r e = 0.386,102,2 square m i l e s 1 cubic f o o t per acre = 0.069,972,45 cubic metres per hectare 1 c u b i c metre per hectare = 14.291,34 c u b i c f e e t per acre 1 pound per acre = 1.120,851 kilograms per hectare 1 kilogram per hectare = 0.892,179,1 pound per acre Source: RENNIE, P.J. 1967. Measure f o r measure. F o r e s t r y Branch, Department P u b l i c a t i o n No. 1195, Canada Department of F o r e s t r y and Rural Development, Queen's P r i n t e r , Ottawa. 

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
http://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0099976/manifest

Comment

Related Items