UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

The vocalization effect in short-term recall Curry, Clyde Charles 1973

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T H E V O C A L I Z A T I O N E F F E C T I N S H O R T - T E R M R E C A L L b y C L Y D E C H A R L E S C U R R Y B . A . U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1971 A T H E S I S S U B M I T T E D I N P A R T I A L F U L F I L M E N T O F T H E R E Q U I R E M E N T S F O R T H E D E G R E E O F M A S T E R O F A R T S i n t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f P s y c h o l o g y W e a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s a s c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d T H E U N I V E R S I T Y O F B R I T I S H C O L U M B I A D e c e m b e r , 1973 I n p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r a n a d v a n c e d d e g r e e a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g r e e t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l m a k e I t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e a n d s t u d y . I f u r t h e r a g r e e t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s m a y b e g r a n t e d b y t h e H e a d o f m y D e p a r t m e n t o r b y h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l n o t b e a l l o w e d w i t h o u t m y w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . D e p a r t m e n t T h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a V a n c o u v e r 8, C a n a d a D a t e i A B S T R A C T T h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n i n c r e a s e s i n t h e v i g o r w i t h w h i c h s u b j e c t s v o c a l i z e t o - b e - r e m e m b e r e d i t e m s a n d i m p r o v e m e n t i n s h o r t - t e r m r e c a l l w a s i n v e s t i g a t e d . O f p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t w a s w h e t h e r t h e e f f e c t s o f v o c a l i z a t i o n a r e d u e t o i n c r e a s e s i n t h e a r t i c u l a t o r y i n p u t o r t h e a u d i t o r y i n p u t w h i c h a s u b j e c t r e c e i v e s , c o n e o m m i t e n t t o i n c r e a s e s i n v o c a l i z a t i o n . U n l i k e p r e v i o u s i n v e s t i g a t i o n s , t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y i n v o l v e d a n i n d e p e n -d e n t m a n i p u l a t i o n o f t h e a u d i t o r y a n d t h e a r t i c u l a t o r y i n p u t l e v e l s . A s e r i e s o f n i n e - c o n s o n a n t l i s t s w a s v i s u a l l y p r e s e n t e d . O n e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p a r t i c u l a t e d t h e l i s t s a s t h e y w e r e p r e s e n t e d , a s e c o n d d i d n o t . S u b j e c t s i n b o t h e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p s h e a r d l i s t s a t t w o l e v e l s o f a u d i t o r y i n t e n s i t y . A c o n t r o l g r o u p n e i t h e r a r t i c u l a t e d n o r h e a r d t h e v i s u a l l y p r e s e n t e d l i s t . N e i t h e r a r t i c u l a t i o n n o r a u d i t o r y - i n p u t i n t e n s i t y a f f e c t e d r e c a l l . H o w e v e r , s u b j e c t s r e c e i v i n g a u d i t o r y i n p u t , r e g a r d l e s s o f l e v e l , r e c a l l e d m o r e i t e m s f r o m t h e l a s t t h r e e s e r i a l p o s i t i o n s o f t h e l i s t s , a n d f e w e r f r o m t h e m i d d l e t h r e e s e r i a l p o s i t i o n s o f t h e l i s t s , t h a n d i d c o n t r o l s u b j e c t s . T h e r e s u l t s w e r e i n t e r p r e t e d i n t e r m s o f a n e c h o i c m e m o r y s y s t e m f o r a u d i t o r y i n f o r m a t i o n , a n d a l t e r n a t i v e l y , i n t e r m s o f p o s s i b l e d i f f e r e n c e s i n l e a r n i n g o r r e c a l l s t r a t e g i e s b e t w e e n t h e e x p e r i -m e n t a l a n d c o n t r o l s u b j e c t s . i i T A B L E O P C O N T E N T S P a g e A B S T R A C T i L I S T O F T A B L E S i i i L I S T O F F I G U R E S i v A C K N O W L E D G E M E N T S v I N T R O D U C T I O N 1 M E T H O D 10 S u b j e c t s 10 M a t e r i a l s a n d A p p a r a t u s 10 E x p e r i m e n t a l D e s i g n 12 P r o c e d u r e 13 R E S U L T S 16 D I S C U S S I O N 21 B I B L I O G R A P H Y 26 F O O T N O T E S 29 i i i L I S T O F T A B L E S T a b l e T i t l e P a g e 1 A S c h e m a t i c R e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e E x p e r i m e n t a l D e s i g n 11 2 S u m m a r y o f G r o u p s x I n t e n s i t y x S e r i a l P o s i t i o n A N O V A o n t h e n u m b e r o f i t e m s c o r r e c t l y r e c a l l e d 19 i v L I S T O P F I G U R E S F i g u r e T i t l e P a g e 1 M e a n N u m b e r o f I t e m s R e c a l l e d C o r r e c t l y ( o u t o f 10 ) a t E a c h S e r i a l P o s i t i o n b y E a c h o f t h e F o u r E x p e r i m e n t a l G r o u p s a n d b y t h e C o n t r o l G r o u p 17 V A C K N O W L E D G E M E N T S T h e a u t h o r w o u l d l i k e t o t h a n k D r . D e n n i s P o t h f o r h i s c a r e f u l a n d h e l p f u l c o m m e n t s o n t h i s m a n u s c r i p t a n d f o r h i s e n c o u r a g e m e n t t h r o u g h o u t t h e p r o c e s s e s l e a d i n g u p t o i t s c o m p l e t i o n . T h e a u t h o r w o u l d e s p e c i a l l y l i k e t o t h a n k D r . G u y J a m e s J o h n s o n f o r c h a i r i n g t h i s t h e s i s c o m m i t t e e a n d f o r h i s s u p p o r t t h r o u g h o u t t h e a u t h o r ' s c a r e e r i n p s y c h o l o g y . I w o u l d a l s o l i k e t o t h a n k t h e 60 s u b j e c t s t h a t t o o k p a r t i n t h e r e s e a r c h a n d R o n D o u g l a s f o r h e l p i n g me g e n e r a t e t h e o r i g i n a l f o r m u l a t i o n o f t h e s t u d y . F i n a l l y , I w o u l d l i k e t o t h a n k m y w i f e , B l l l i e , f o r h e r p a t i e n c e , f o r n e v e r a s k i n g m e t o e x p l a i n w h a t I w a s d o i n g , a n d f o r k e e p i n g m y m i n d o n m o r e i m p o r t a n t t h i n g s w h e n I w a s n o t w o r k i n g . 1 I N T R O D U C T I O N V e r y g e n e r a l l y , r e c a l l c a n b e c o n s i d e r e d t o b e s h o r t - t e r m i n n a t u r e w h e n t h e s u b j e c t i s r e c a l l i n g a s m a l l n u m b e r o f r e c e n t l y p r e s e n t e d i t e m s . I n t h i s s e n s e , r e c a l l i n t h e B r o w n -1 P e t e r s o n p a r a d i g m ( B r o w n , 1958; P e t e r s o n a n d P e t e r s o n , 1959) i s s h o r t - t e r m . F u r t h e r , i n t h e s e r i a l r e c a l l , s e r i a l p r o b e , a n d f r e e r e c a l l p a r a d i g m s , r e c a l l o f t h e m o s t r e c e n t l y p r e s e n t e d i t e m s ( i . e . , t h o s e i t e m s o c c u p y i n g t h e l a s t f e w s e r i a l p o s i t i o n s o f t h e l i s t ) i s c o n s i d e r e d t o b e s h o r t - t e r m i n n a t u r e , a n d i s s u p e r i o r t o r e c a l l o f i t e m s p r e s e n t e d e a r l i e r i n t h e l i s t . M u r d o c k (1972) d i s c u s s e s t h e n a t u r e o f t h i s " r e c e n c y " e f f e c t i n s o m e d e t a i l . T h e a r g u m e n t t h a t t h e r e c e n c y e f f e c t i s p r i m a r i l y a s h o r t - t e r m r e c a l l ( S T R ) e f f e c t i s b a s e d l a r g e l y o n d e m o n s t r a t i o n s t h a t s o m e v a r i a b l e s w h i c h a f f e c t r e c a l l o f i t e m s a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e l i s t d o n o t a f f e c t r e c a l l o f i t e m s a t t h e e n d o f t h e l i s t , o r , v i c e v e r s a . I n p a r t i c u l a r , K l n t s c h (1970) m e n t i o n s r a t e o f p r e s e n t a t i o n , f r e q u e n c y o f w o r d s , d e l a y o f r e c a l l , a n d o r d e r o f r e c a l l . T w o a d d i t i o n a l v a r i a b l e s , m o d a l i t y a n d v o c a l i z a t i o n , w h i c h w i l l b e d i s c u s s e d p r e s e n t l y , a l s o a p p e a r t o a f f e c t r e c a l l o f t h e m o s t r e c e n t l y p r e s e n t e d i t e m s w i t h o u t i n f l u e n c i n g r e c a l l o f t h e r e s t o f t h e l i s t . A p h e n o m e n o n w h i c h h a s b e e n o f i n t e r e s t t o r e s e a r c h e r s o f s h o r t - t e r m r e c a l l i s t h e v o c a l i z a t i o n e f f e c t . M u r r a y a n d h i s c o l l e a g u e s ( e g . M u r r a y , 1965; M u r r a y , L e u n g , a n d M c V i e , 1973) h a v e d e m o n s t r a t e d t h a t s e r i a l r e c a l l o f , a t l e a s t t h e l a s t i t e m s , 2 o f v i s u a l l y p r e s e n t e d l i s t s i s b e s t w h e n s u b j e c t s r e a d t h e l i s t s i n a l o u d v o i c e , s o m e w h a t w o r s e w h e n t h e y r e a d t h e m i n a s o f t v o i c e , w o r s e s t i l l w h e n t h e y r e a d t h e m i n a w h i s p e r , w o r s e y e t w h e n s u b j e c t s s i l e n t l y m o u t h t h e l i s t s , a n d s t i l l w o r s e ( a l t h o u g h n o t s i g n i f i c a n t l y s o ) f o r s i l e n t l y r e a d , u n m o u t h e d i t e m s . T h e r e s u l t f o r v o i c i n g , w h i s p e r i n g , a n d s i l e n t r e a d i n g w a s r e p l i c a t e d b y T e l l (1971) a n d b y T e l l a n d V o s s (1970) u s i n g t h e B r o w n - P e t e r s o n p a r a d i g m . A s e c o n d S T R e f f e c t w h i c h i s , a t l e a s t s u p e r f i c i a l l y , r e l a t e d t o t h e v o c a l i z a t i o n e f f e c t i s t h e m o d a l i t y e f f e c t . T h e m o d a l i t y e f f e c t r e f e r s t o t h e f i n d i n g t h a t r e g a r d l e s s o f t h e S T R p a r a d i g m e m p l o y e d , r e c a l l o f a u r a l l y p r e s e n t e d i t e m s i s b e t t e r t h a n r e c a l l o f v i s u a l l y p r e s e n t e d i t e m s . T h e e f f e c t i s w e l l r e p l i c a t e d f o r t h e B r o w n - P e t e r s o n p a r a d i g m ( C o o l e y a n d M c N u l t y , 1967; G r a n t a n d M c C o r m a c k , 1969; K r o l l , P a r k i n s o n , a n d P a r k s , 1972; P e t e r s o n a n d J o h n s o n , 1971) a n d f o r t h e s h o r t - t e r m r e c a l l a s p e c t s o f t h e s e r i a l p r o b e , ( L e v y , 1971; M u r d o c k , 1967a , 1 9 6 8 ) s e r i a l r e c a l l , ( C o n r a d a n d H u l l , 1968; C o r b a l l i s , 1966; C r a i k , 1969,- L a u g h e r y a n d P i k u s , 1966) p a i r e d - a s s o c i a t e , ( M u r d o c k , 1966) a n d f r e e r e c a l l ( M u r d o c k a n d W a l k e r , 1969) p a r a d i g m s . M a r g r a i n (1967) p r o v i d e s a s t r i k i n g d e m o n s t r a t i o n o f t h e m o d a l i t y e f f e c t . S u b j e c t s w e r e p r e s e n t e d w i t h t w o l i s t s o f d i g i t s s i m u l t a n e o u s l y , o n e a u r a l l y , o n e v i s u a l l y . R e c a l l o f t h e e n d i t e m s o f t h e a u r a l l i s t s w a s s u p e r i o r t o r e c a l l o f t h e e n d i t e m s o f t h e v i s u a l l i s t s d e s p i t e t h e f a c t t h a t t h e s u b j e c t s w e r e r e q u i r e d t o c o p y t h e v i s u a l l i s t s d u r i n g p r e s e n t a t i o n . 3 T h e s i m i l a r i t y b e t w e e n s t u d i e s o n t h e m o d a l i t y e f f e c t a n d t h o s e o n t h e v o c a l i z a t i o n e f f e c t i s , o f c o u r s e , t h a t i n b o t h c a s e s t h e s u b j e c t r e c e i v e s a u d i t o r y i n p u t . H o w e v e r , w h a t m a y b e a c r u c i a l d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e s e t w o p r o c e d u r e s i s t h e s o u r c e o f t h e a u d i t o r y i n p u t t h e s u b j e c t r e c e i v e s . I n s t u d i e s o f t h e m o d a l i t y e f f e c t , t h e a u d i t o r y i n p u t i s g e n e r a t e d b y t h e e x p e r i -m e n t e r . I n s t u d i e s o f t h e v o c a l i z a t i o n e f f e c t , h o w e v e r , t h e a u d i t o r y i n p u t i s g e n e r a t e d b y t h e s u b j e c t . W h e n t h e a u d i t o r y i n p u t i s s u b j e c t - g e n e r a t e d , i t i s c l e a r t h a t i n p u t o f a p r o p r i -o c e p t i v e n a t u r e f r o m t h e s p e e c h m u s c u l a t u r e ( a r t i c u l a t o r y i n p u t ) i s a l s o o b t a i n e d b y t h e s u b j e c t . T h e r e f o r e , i n o r d e r t o d e t e r m i n e w h e t h e r t h e m o d a l i t y e f f e c t a n d t h e v o c a l i z a t i o n e f f e c t a r e o n e a n d t h e s a m e , t h e e f f e c t o f t h e a r t i c u l a t o r y i n p u t t h e s u b j e c t r e c e i v e s t h r o u g h v o c a l i z a t i o n m u s t b e d e t e r m i n e d , p a r t i c u l a r l y w i t h r e g a r d t o i t s e f f e c t o n S T R . A t t e m p t s h a v e b e e n m a d e t o a s s e s s t h e r o l e o f a r t i c u l a t o r y i n p u t i n S T R o f v o c a l i z e d l i s t s . T h e r e s u l t s , h o w e v e r , a r e i n c o n c l u s i v e . U n d e r w o o d ( 1 9 6 4 ) p r e v e n t e d s u b j e c t s f r o m a r t i c u l -a t i n g t o - b e - r e m e m b e r e d i t e m s b y h a v i n g t h e m h o l d t o n g u e - d e p r e s s o r s i n t h e i r m o u t h s . G u m e n i k : ( 1 9 6 9 ) p r e v e n t e d s u b j e c t s f r o m a r t i c u l -a t i n g b y h a v i n g t h e m h o l d t h e i r t o n g u e s b e t w e e n t h e i r t e e t h . I n n e i t h e r s t u d y d i d p r e v e n t i n g a r t i c u l a t i o n r e s u l t i n a d e c r e m e n t i n S T R . O n t h e b a s i s o f t h i s r e s u l t i t m i g h t b e c o n c l u d e d t h a t a r t i c u l a t o r y i n p u t i s n o t c r u c i a l t o t h e v o c a l i z a t i o n e f f e c t . T o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e r o l e p l a y e d b y a u d i t o r y i n p u t i n t h e 4 v o c a l i z a t i o n e f f e c t , L e v y a n d M u r d o c k ( 1 9 6 8 ) a n d M u r d o c k ( 1 9 6 7 b ) p r e v e n t e d s u b j e c t s f r o m m a k i n g u s e o f t h e a u d i t o r y i n p u t t h e y r e c e i v e d w h i l e v o c a l i z i n g . B y d e l a y i n g t h e a u d i t o r y i n p u t w h i c h t h e s u b j e c t s r e c e i v e d , s u b j e c t s w e r e f o r c e d t o i g n o r e t h e a u d i t o r y i n p u t i n o r d e r t o c o n t i n u e r e a d i n g t h e l i s t . S u r p r i s -i n g l y , r e c a l l w a s u n a f f e c t e d , e v e n t h o u g h t h e a u d i t o r y i n p u t w a s u s e l e s s a n d p o s s i b l y i n t e r f e r i n g . S i n c e i t s e e m s u n l i k e l y t h a t t h e v o c a l i z a t i o n e f f e c t i s t h e r e s u l t o f s o m e t h i n g o t h e r t h a n t h e a r t i c u l a t o r y i n p u t o r t h e a u d i t o r y i n p u t w h i c h a s u b j e c t r e c e i v e s , t h e s u i t a b i l i t y o f t h e U n d e r w o o d , G u m e n i k , a n d L e v y a n d M u r d o c k t e c h n i q u e s f o r t h e e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e v o c a l i z a t i o n e f f e c t i s q u e s t i o n a b l e . A f i n a l s e t o f r e s u l t s w i t h r e g a r d t o t h e r o l e o f a r t i c u l -a t o r y i n p u t i n t h e v o c a l i z a t i o n e f f e c t i s w o r t h y o f n o t e . M u r r a y ( 1 9 6 7 , 1 9 6 8 ) a n d T e l l ( 1 9 7 1 ) h a d s u b j e c t s v o c a l i z e a s t a t e m e n t w h i c h c o n f l i c t e d w i t h t h e p r o p e r a r t i c u l a t i o n o f v i s u a l l y p r e s e n t e d , t o - b e - r e m e m b e r e d i t e m s . P o r e x a m p l e , T e l l h a d s u b j e c t s s a y " t h r e e c o n s o n a n t s " w h e n a t o - b e - r e m e m b e r e d C C C - t r i g r a m w a s p r e s e n t e d . H e f o u n d t h a t r e c a l l o f i t e m s w h e n a r t i c u l a t i o n w a s " s u p p r e s s e d " i n t h i s w a y w a s i n f e r i o r t o r e c a l l o f i t e m s w h i c h w e r e s i l e n t l y r e a d . T h e r e s u l t m a y b e i n t e r p r e t e d a s e v i d e n c e t h a t t h e v o c a l i z a t i o n e f f e c t i s , a t l e a s t i n p a r t , d u e t o a r t i c u l a t o r y i n p u t . H o w e v e r , i t i s , i n f a c t , a m b i g u o u s . V o c a l -i z i n g a c o n f l i c t i n g s t a t e m e n t c l e a r l y p r e v e n t s a r t i c u l a t i o n o f t h e t o - b e - r e m e m b e r e d i t e m . H o w e v e r , t h e s u b j e c t i s a l s o p r e v e n t e d 5 f r o m g e n e r a t i n g t h e i t e m ' s a p p r o p r i a t e a u d i t o r y r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . I n f a c t , t h e s u b j e c t i s g e n e r a t i n g a u d i t o r y i n p u t w h i c h l i k e l y i n t e r f e r e s w i t h a n y a u d i t o r y r e p r e s e n t a t i o n h e m a y b e a b l e t o p r o d u c e , e v e n s u b v o c a l l y . L e v y (1971) a t t e m p t e d t o o v e r c o m e t h i s d i f f i c u l t y b y h a v i n g s u b j e c t s s i l e n t l y a r t i c u l a t e a c o n f l i c t i n g s t a t e m e n t ( " h i - y a " ) . A g a i n a d e f i c i t i n S T R w a s f o u n d . H o w e v e r , i t i s s t i l l n o t p o s s i b l e t o c o n c l u d e t h a t t h e d e f i c i t o b t a i n e d i s o n l y t h e r e s u l t o f p r e v e n t i n g a r t i c u l a t i o n . I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t t h e " i r r e l e v a n t " m o u t h i n g t h e s u b j e c t e n g a g e s i n s t i l l p r e v e n t s t h e s u b j e c t f r o m g e n e r a t i n g a n a u d i t o r y r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e i t e m . D e s p i t e t h i s a p p a r e n t l a c k o f k n o w l e d g e c o n c e r n i n g t h e e f f e c t o f a r t i c u l a t o r y i n p u t o n S T R , T e l l (1971) h a s i n t e r p r e t e d t h e v o c a l i z a t i o n e f f e c t s o l e l y i n t e r m s o f a u d i t o r y i n p u t : " T h e s e v o c a l i z a t i o n e f f e c t s a r e a s s u m e d t o r e f l e c t d i r e c t l y t h e m a g n i t u d e o f e c h o i c m e m o r y a n d n o t d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e s t r e n g t h o f w h i c h i t e m s a r e e n c o d e d . . . E c h o i c m e m o r y i s p a s s i v e a n d s e r v e s a s a t e m p o r a r y h o l d i n g s y s t e m f o r r a w ( a u d i t o r y ) i n f o r m a t i o n . " ( T e l l , 1971, p a g e s 154 a n d 155* p a r e n t h e s e s a d d e d ) . T h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i s p r e m a t u r e o n o n e p o i n t , a n d p o s s i b l y i n e r r o r o n a n o t h e r . F i r s t , w h i l e i t i s o b v i o u s t h a t a s v i g o r o f v o c a l i -z a t i o n i n c r e a s e s s o d o e s t h e s u b j e c t - g e n e r a t e d a u d i t o r y i n p u t , i t i s q u i t e p o s s i b l e t h a t i n c r e a s e s i n t h e a m o u n t o f a r t i c u l -a t o r y i n p u t a r e a l s o o b t a i n e d . T h u s , t h e v o c a l i z a t i o n e f f e c t c a n n o t b e a t t r i b u t e d s o l e l y t o a u d i t o r y i n p u t , s i n c e t h e r e i s t h e p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t i n c r e a s e s i n a u d i t o r y i n p u t a r e c o n f o u n d e d 6 w i t h i n c r e a s e s i n a r t i c u l a t o r y i n p u t . T h e s e c o n d p o i n t , a l t h o u g h n o t o f p r i m a r y c o n c e r n t o t h e p r e s e n t r e s e a r c h , i s w o r t h y o f m e n t i o n . T e l l , a n d C r o w d e r a n d M o r t o n , w h o o r i g i n a l l y i n t r o d u c e d t h e c o n c e p t ( C r o w d e r a n d M o r t o n , 1 9 6 9 ) , a p p e a r t o b e i n e r r o r w i t h r e g a r d t o t h e n a t u r e o f t h e e c h o i c m e m o r y s y s t e m t h e y p r o p o s e d . T h e y h a v e d e s c r i b e d t h e s y s t e m a s a " p a s s i v e " o n e , t h e i m p l i c a t i o n b e i n g t h a t t h e i n f o r m a t i o n i n t h e s y s t e m i s " r a w " o r " p r e c a t e g o r i c a l " a u d i t o r y i n f o r m a t i o n w h i c h i s h e l d i n t h e s y s t e m f o r s o m e s e c o n d s . T h e p r o p o s e d e c h o i c s y s t e m t h e n , i s i n t e n d e d t o b e t h e a u d i t o r y a n a l o g u e o f t h e v i s u a l s e n s o r y m e m o r y s y s t e m , i c o n i c m e m o r y , d e s c r i b e d b y N e i s s e r ( 1 9 6 7 ) . W a t k i n s (1972) a n d W a t k i n s a n d W a t k i n s (1973) h a v e i n t e r p r e t e d t h e p a s s i v e n a t u r e o f t h e C r o w d e r a n d M o r t o n s y s t e m t o m e a n t h a t v e r b a l i n f o r m a t i o n i n t h e s y s t e m w o u l d m o r e l i k e l y b e o n t h e o r d e r o f a p h o n e m e ( t h e " r a w " v e r b a l u n i t ) t h a n o n t h e o r d e r o f a w o r d , s h o u l d t h e w o r d c o n t a i n m o r e t h a n o n e p h o n e m e . W i t h t h i s i n m i n d , W a t k i n s a n d W a t k i n s (1973) h a d s u b j e c t s r e c a l l e i g h t - w o r d l i s t s w h i c h w e r e e i t h e r v i s u a l l y o r a u r a l l y p r e s e n t e d , a n d w h i c h w e r e c o m p o s e d o f o n e - s y l l a b l e o r f o u r - s y l l a b l e w o r d s . A s e x p e c t e d , t h e m o d a l i t y e f f e c t w a s o b t a i n e d f o r b o t h t h e o n e - s y l l a b l e , w o r d l i s t s a n d t h e f o u r - s y l l a b l e - w o r d l i s t s . T h a t i s a u r a l p r e s e n t a t i o n r e s u l t e d i n b e t t e r r e c a l l o f i t e m s o c c u p y i n g t h e l a s t f e w p o s i t i o n s o f t h e l i s t t h a n d i d v i s u a l p r e s e n t a t i o n , f o r b o t h t h e o n e a n d t h e f o u r - s y l l a b l e - w o r d l i s t s . A m o r e i m p o r t a n t f i n d i n g w a s t h a t t h e n u m b e r o f w o r d s f o r w h i c h 7 t h e m o d a l i t y e f f e c t w a s o b t a i n e d w a s t h e s a m e , r e g a r d l e s s o f t h e l e n g t h o f t h e w o r d s i n t h e l i s t . T h a t i s , i n t h e c a s e o f t h e f o u r - s y l l a b l e - w o r d l i s t s , t h e n u m b e r o f p h o n e m i c u n i t s ( s y l l a b l e s ) f o r w h i c h r e c a l l w a s f a c i l i t a t e d b y a u r a l p r e s e n -t a t i o n , w a s f o u r - t i m e s g r e a t e r t h a n t h e n u m b e r o f p h o n e m i c u n i t s f a c i l i t a t e d i n o n e - s y l l a b l e - w o r d l i s t s . T h i s r e s u l t c l e a r l y i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e i n f o r m a t i o n i n a n e c h o i c s y s t e m , s u c h a s t h a t p r o p o s e d b y C r o w d e r a n d M o r t o n , w o u l d n o t b e " r a w " b u t , r a t h e r , w o u l d b e " p o s t c a t e g o r i c a l " . T h a t i s , t h e p r e c a t e g o r -i c a l p h o n e m i c u n i t s h a v e a l r e a d y b e e n c a t e g o r i z e d i n t o w o r d s b y t h e t i m e t h e y r e a c h t h e e c h o i c s y s t e m . A s e c o n d s e t o f r e s u l t s f u r t h e r i n d i c a t e s t h a t " r a w " i n f o r m a t i o n i s n o t l i k e l y t o e x i s t i n s u c h a n e c h o i c s y s t e m . M a s s a r o (1972) f o u n d t h a t p r e s e n t i n g w h i t e n o i s e w i t h i n 250 m i l l i s e c o n d s a f t e r o n s e t o f a t o - b e - r e c o g n i z e d t o n e p r e v e n t e d s u b s e q u e n t r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e t o n e . H o w e v e r , i f t h e t o n e r e m a i n e d o n f o r m o r e t h a n 250 m i l l i s e c o n d s , o r i f t h e r e w a s 250 m i l l i s e c o n d s o f s i l e n c e b e t w e e n t h e t o n e a n d t h e n o i s e , r e c o g n i t i o n p e r f o r m a n c e w a s u n a f f e c t e d . T h e s e r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e t h a t i n f o r m a t i o n o f a " r a w " o r s e n s o r y f o r m i s h e l d f o r a t m o s t 250 m i l l i s e c o n d s a f t e r s t i m u l u s o f f s e t . T h i n s , s i n c e M a s s a r o h a s d e m o n s t r a t e d t h a t " r a w " i n f o r m a t i o n i s n o t a v a i l a b l e t o t h e s u b j e c t f o r m o r e t h a n 250 m i l l i s e c o n d s , a n d s i n c e W a t k i n s a n d W a t k i n s h a v e d e m o n s t r a t e d t h a t s u b j e c t s a r e n o t u s i n g " r a w " i n f o r m a t i o n f o r S T R a n y w a y , t h e n a t u r e o f t h e i n f o r m a t i o n i n t h e 8 Crowder and Morton system must be considered t o be other than "raw", phonemic i n f o r m a t i o n . Regardless of what changes are necessary to make the Crowder and Morton system conform to the data j u s t d escribed, i t remains that T e l l (1971) appears to be premature i n i g n o r i n g the r o l e of a r t i c u l a t o r y input i n STR. That i s , as the v i g o r of v o c a l i z a t i o n i n c r e a s e s , concomittent increases i n both a u d i t o r y input and a r t i c u l a t o r y input occur. The r e s p e c t i v e r o l e s of these two types of input i n STR have not yet been evaluated independently. Such an e v a l u a t i o n was undertaken i n the present study. That i s , the present study was designed t o determine whether the v o c a l i z a t i o n e f f e c t i s due to increases i n subject-generated a r t i c u l a t o r y input or due to increases i n subject-generated a u d i t o r y i n p u t , or both. The l e v e l s of a r t i c u l -a t o r y input and a u d i t o r y input the subjects r e c e i v e d were manipulated independently. Subjects were run i n yoked p a i r s . A nine-consonant l i s t was presented v i s u a l l y , v i a w h o l e - l i s t p r e s e n t a t i o n , to both subjects simultaneously. In the experimental c o n d i t i o n s , one subject read the l i s t aloud, while both subjects heard (over headphones) at one of two i n t e n s i t i e s , what the v o c a l i z i n g subject s a i d . Four experimental c o n d i t i o n s were used: a r t i c u l a t i o n plus high a u d i t o r y input ( A r - H i ) , a r t i c u l a t i o n plus 2 low a u d i t o r y input (Ar-Lo), no a r t i c u l a t i o n plus high a u d i t o r y input (NAr-Hi), and no a r t i c u l a t i o n plus low a u d i t o r y input (NAr-Lo). In a c o n t r o l c o n d i t i o n , subjects were presented with 9 the l i s t s v i s u a l l y , w i t h no i n s t r u c t i o n s t o v o c a l i z e the items. As i n d i c a t e d above, i n a s e r i a l r e c a l l task, i t i s assumed that STR processes are r e f l e c t e d i n the recency p o r t i o n of the s e r i a l p o s i t i o n curve. That i s , the e f f e c t s of the experimental manipulations here would be expected to be more pronounced at s e r i a l p o s i t i o n s seven through nine. The r e s u l t s of most importance to the experimental o b j e c t i v e s are the i n t e r a c t i o n s between Groups (Ar, NAr, and C o n t r o l ) , I n t e n s i t y , and S e r i a l P o s i t i o n . C l e a r l y , i f d i f f e r e n c e s i n a r t i c u l a t o r y input account f o r the v o c a l i z a t i o n e f f e c t , the Ar group should perform b e t t e r than does the NAr group. I f , as T e l l (1971) suggests, d i f f e r e n c e s i n au d i t o r y input account f o r the v o c a l i -z a t i o n e f f e c t , two p r e d i c t i o n s can be made. F i r s t , the Ar and NAr groups combined should perform b e t t e r than does the Cont r o l group, since both the experimental groups r e c e i v e a u d i t o r y input while the Co n t r o l group does not. Second, performance under c o n d i t i o n s i n v o l v i n g high a u d i t o r y input should be b e t t e r than performance under c o n d i t i o n s i n v o l v i n g low a u d i t o r y i n p u t , since increases i n au d i t o r y input accompany increases i n the vi g o r of v o c a l i z a t i o n . An i n t e r a c t i o n between A r t i c u l a t i o n and I n t e n s i t y would i n d i c a t e that the v o c a l i z a t i o n e f f e c t i s due to a combination of the increases i n a r t i c u l a t o r y input and aud i t o r y i n p u t . 10 M E T H O D S u b j e c t s . T h e s u b j e c t s w e r e 30 m a l e a n d 3 0 f e m a l e v o l u n t e e r s , a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . O f t h e 60 s u b j e c t s , 19 w e r e g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t s , 30 w e r e u n d e r g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t s , a n d 11 w e r e f a c u l t y a n d s t a f f e m p l o y e d b y t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . M a t e r i a l s a n d a p p a r a t u s . T w e n t y l i s t s o f n i n e c o n s o n -a n t s w e r e f o r m e d f r o m t h e c o n s o n a n t s , e x c l u d i n g ' w ' a n d ! z ' . T h e l i s t s w e r e c o n s t r u c t e d s o t h a t ( l ) n o c o n s o n a n t s w e r e r e p e a t e d w i t h i n a l i s t , (2) e a c h c o n s o n a n t w a s u s e d a n e q u a l n u m b e r o f t i m e s , (3) a l p h a b e t i c a l l y a d j a c e n t l e t t e r s d i d n o t a p p e a r t o g e t h e r i n t h e i r a l p h a b e t i c a l o r d e r , a n d (4) e a c h c o n s o n a n t a p p e a r e d i n e a c h s e r i a l p o s i t i o n t w i c e a t m o s t . P o u r p r a c t i c e l i s t s w e r e c o n s t r u c t e d f r o m t h e v o w e l s p l u s ' y ' . L e t t e r s w e r e u n a v o i d a b l y r e p e a t e d i n t h e p r a c t i c e l i s t s . T h e s a m e o r d e r o f p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e p r a c t i c e l i s t s w a s u s e d f o r a l l t h e t r a i n i n g s e s s i o n s . A l l l i s t s ( t y p e d i n l o w e r c a s e ) , t h e r e a d y s i g n a l ( t h r e e a s t e r i s k s ) a n d t h e r e c a l l s i g n a l ( t h r e e q u e s t i o n m a r k s ) w e r e m o u n t e d a s h o r i z o n t a l a r r a y s o n 2x2 i n c h s l i d e s . T h e s l i d e s w e r e p r e s e n t e d b y m e a n s o f a K o d a k C a r o u s e l - 8 5 0 p r o j e c t o r , w i t h t h e d u r a t i o n o f p r e s e n t a t i o n c o n t r o l l e d b y a n e i g h t - b a n k L a f e y e t t e t i m e r . T h e s o u n d s y s t e m c o n s i s t e d o f t w o S o n y P - 3 2 m i c r o p h o n e s , a S o n y T C - 6 3 0 t a p e r e c o r d e r ( o n l y t h e a m p l i f i -c a t i o n s y s t e m w a s u s e d ) , a n d t w o S h a r p e H A - 6 6 0 s t e r e o h e a d s e t s . 11 Table 1 A Schematic R e p r e s e n t a t i o n of the Experimental Design. I n t e n s i t y - h i g h I n t e n s i t y - l o w S e r i a l p o s i t i o n s (sp) sp sp sp sp sp 1-3 4-6 7-9 1-3 4-6 7-9 Order 1 F i r s t t e n t r i a l s Second ten t r i a l s E xperimental Group 1 ( A r t i c u l a t i o n ) Order 2 Second t e n t r i a l s F i r s t t e n t r i a l s Order 1 F i r s t t e n t r i a l s Second ten t r i a l s E x perimental Group 2 (No A r t i c u l a t i o n ) Order 2 Second ten t r i a l s F i r s t t e n t r i a l s C o n t r o l Group 12 T h e t w o l e v e l s o f a m p l i f i c a t i o n u s e d w e r e b r o u g h t a b o u t i n t h e f o l l o w i n g m a n n e r : t h e v o l u m e c o n t r o l o f t h e t a p e r e c o r d e r w a s s e t t o m a x i m u m a n d a d j u s t m e n t s w e r e m a d e o n t h e r e c o r d i n g l e v e l c o n t r o l . P o r t h e l o w l e v e l o f a u d i t o r y i n p u t , t h e " r e c o r d " c o n t r o l w a s s e t a t " 1 " . P o r t h e h i g h l e v e l o f a u d i t o r y i n p u t t h e " r e c o r d " l e v e l c o n t r o l w a s s e t a t " 7 " . N o a t t e m p t w a s m a d e t o m e a s u r e t h e a b s o l u t e v o l u m e o f I n p u t , s i n c e i t w o u l d h a v e b e e n u n w o r k a b l e i n v i e w o f t h e n u m b e r o f s u b j e c t s i n v o l v e d a n d t h e a m o u n t o f v a r i a t i o n t h a t o c c u r s w i t h i n a s i n g l e s u b j e c t . B o t h h e a d s e t s w e r e c o n n e c t e d t o t h e " l i s t e n " j a c k o n t h e t a p e d e c k . E x p e r i m e n t a l d e s i g n : D e p i c t e d i n T a b l e 1 i s t h e s c h e m a t i c o f t h e d e s i g n . P o u r e x p e r i m e n t a l c o n d i t i o n s r e s u l t f r o m a f a c t o r i a l c o m b i n a t i o n o f t w o l e v e l s o f a r t i c u l a t i o n ( b e t w e e n s u b j e c t s ) a n d t w o l e v e l s o f a u d i t o r y i n p u t ( w i t h i n s u b j e c t s ) . O r d e r o f p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e t w o l e v e l s o f i n t e n s i t y w a s c o u n t e r b a l a n c e d a c r o s s s u b j e c t s w i t h i n e a c h o f t h e a r t i c u l a t i o n c o n d i t i o n s . T w e n t y s u b j e c t s w e r e r a n d o m l y a s s i g n e d t o t h e c o n t r o l g r o u p , a n d t e n w e r e r a n d o m l y a s s i g n e d t o e a c h l e v e l o f A r t i c u l -a t i o n b y O r d e r , o n t h e b a s i s o f a p r e d e t e r m i n e d a s s i g n m e n t s c h e d u l e . S e r i a l p o s i t i o n ( i n b l o c k s o f t h r e e p o s i t i o n s ) w a s a w i t h i n - s u b j e c t s v a r i a b l e . A l l s u b j e c t s p e r f o r m e d o n e r e c a l l t r i a l f o r e a c h o f t h e f o u r p r a c t i c e l i s t s a n d f o r e a c h o f t h e 20 t e s t l i s t s . P o r t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l s u b j e c t s t e n l i s t s w e r e p r e s e n t e d u n d e r t h e h i g h - i n t e n s i t y c o n d i t i o n a n d t e n w e r e p r e s e n t e d u n d e r t h e l o w - i n t e n s i t y c o n d i t i o n . F o r e a c h p a i r o f s u b j e c t s t h e o r d e r o f p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e 20 t e s t l i s t s w a s a d i f f e r e n t r a n d o m o r d e r . 13 A l l s u b j e c t s p e r f o r m e d t h e r e c a l l t a s k s i n s a m e - s e x p a i r s . S u b j e c t s i n t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l c o n d i t i o n s w e r e yoked i n t h a t , w h i l e o n e s u b j e c t w a s r e q u i r e d t o a r t i c u l a t e t h e v i s u a l l y p r e s e n t e d l i s t , t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g yoked s u b j e c t w a s n o t . H o w e v e r , b o t h m e m b e r s o f t h e p a i r h e a r d , o v e r h e a d s e t s , w h a t t h e a r t i c u l a t i n g s u b j e c t w a s s a y i n g . T h e i n t e n s i t y o f w h a t t h e y h e a r d w a s a t o n e o f t h e t w o i n t e n s i t i e s d e s c r i b e d a b o v e . T h e l o w - i n t e n s i t y i n p u t ( s e t t i n g "1") w a s e s s e n t i a l l y a m p l i f i c a t i o n f r e e . T h e h i g h - i n t e n s i t y i n p u t ( s e t t i n g "7") r e s u l t e d i n a u d i t o r y i n p u t a t a p p r o x i m a t e l y t h e l e v e l o f a s h o u t . P r o c e d u r e . I n t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l c o n d i t i o n s t h e A r s u b j e c t w a s s e a t e d a t a t a b l e t o w h i c h t h e m i c r o p h o n e s h a d b e e n a t t a c h e d ( t h r e e f e e t f r o m t h e s u b j e c t ) . T h e yoked - N A r s u b j e c t w a s s e a t e d a t a n a d j o i n i n g t a b l e . T h e p a i r o f s u b j e c t s w a s t h e n i n s t r u c t e d a s t o t h e n a t u r e o f t h e t a s k . T h e y w e r e t o l d t o r e m e m b e r a s m a n y o f t h e l e t t e r s i n e a c h l i s t a s t h e y c o u l d a n d t o w r i t e t h e m i n t h e p r o p e r s e r i a l o r d e r i n t h e a n s w e r b o o k l e t p r o v i d e d . I t w a s e x p l a i n e d t h a t t h e A r s u b j e c t w a s t o r e a d e a c h l i s t a l o u d a s i t w a s p r e s e n t e d , f r o m l e f t - t o - r i g h t , i n a n o r m a l v o i c e ( r e g a r d l e s s o f t h e d e g r e e o f a m p l i f i c a t i o n ) . B o t h s u b j e c t s w e r e t o l d t h a t t h e y w o u l d b o t h h e a r w h a t t h e A r s u b j e c t s a i d o v e r t h e h e a d s e t s , a n d t h a t , a f t e r t e n t r i a l s , t h e i n t e n s i t y o f w h a t t h e y h e a r d w o u l d b e c h a n g e d . F u r t h e r , t h e A r s u b j e c t w a s t o l d t o " g r o u p " t h e i t e m s i n a w a y t h a t w o u l d b e s t f a c i l i t a t e r e c a l l . T h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g N A r s u b j e c t w a s i n s t r u c t e d t o t r y t o c o o r d i n a t e h i s s i l e n t r e a d i n g o f t h e i t e m s w i t h t h e v o c a l i z i n g o f t h e A r 1 4 subject so as t o avoid i n t e r f e r e n c e . The p a i r of subjects was i n s t r u c t e d to confer during the break between the p r a c t i c e l i s t s and the t e s t l i s t s , so as to determine a system of reading that was s a t i s f a c t o r y to both. C o n t r o l subjects were i n s t r u c t e d only as t o the nature of the task. To summarize, a s i n g l e t r i a l i n v o l v i n g the experimental subjects proceeded as f o l l o w s . F i r s t the ready s i g n a l appeared on the screen f o r three seconds. Following the ready s i g n a l , the consonant l i s t was presented v i s u a l l y to both subjects as a h o r i z o n t a l a r r a y , and remained on the screen f o r 5 . 5 seconds. The Ar subject read the l i s t aloud from l e f t - t o - r i g h t while i t was on the screen, and both subjects heard over headsets what the Ar subject s a i d . The NAr subject read the l i s t s i l e n t l y to h i m s e l f , i n c o o r d i n a t i o n w i t h the Ar subject's reading. Immedi-a t e l y a f t e r the l i s t was removed from the screen, the r e c a l l signa appeared. Both subjects then attempted to r e c a l l as many of the l e t t e r s as they could. The answer booklet provided one space f o r each item i n a l i s t and contained one page f o r each l i s t . The subjects were i n s t r u c t e d t o w r i t e the items they could remember i n the appropriate spaces i n t h e i r answer b o o k l e t s . I f a subject could not remember a p a r t i c u l a r item he was i n s t r u c t e d t o leave the appropriate space blank or t o guess. Subjects were given t e n seconds f o r r e c a l l , followed by an i n t e r - t r i a l i n t e r v a l of nine seconds. A s i n g l e t r i a l f o r the c o n t r o l subjects was c a r r i e d out i n an i d e n t i c a l f a s h i o n , w i t h the exception that n e i t h e r subject read the l i s t aloud, and n e i t h e r subject was provided with a headset. 15 A s i n g l e s e s s i o n c o n s i s t e d o f f o u r p r a c t i c e t r i a l s ( p e r -f o r m e d a t t h e l o w - i n t e n s i t y i n p u t b y t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l s u b j e c t s ) , f o l l o w e d b y t w o t e n - l i s t b l o c k s o f t e s t t r i a l s . A s h o r t b r e a k b e t w e e n t h e b l o c k s w a s n e c e s s a r y s o t h a t t h e e x p e r i m e n t e r c o u l d ( w h e r e a p p r o p r i a t e ) a d j u s t t h e i n t e n s i t y o f t h e a m p l i f i c a t i o n a n d c h a n g e t h e s l i d e t r a y . 16 R E S U L T S A n i t e m w a s s c o r e d a s c o r r e c t o n l y i f i t w a s r e c a l l e d i n t h e c o r r e c t s e r i a l p o s i t i o n . D e p i c t e d i n F i g u r e 1 i s t h e m e a n n u m b e r o f i t e m s r e c a l l e d c o r r e c t l y a t e a c h s e r i a l p o s i t i o n , i n t e n t r i a l s , f o r e a c h o f t h e f o u r e x p e r i m e n t a l c o n d i t i o n s a n d t h e c o n t r o l c o n d i t i o n . T h e r e w e r e n o n o t i c a b l e d i f f e r e n c e s i n r e c a l l a m o n g a n y o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l c o n d i t i o n s , a t a n y s e r i a l p o s i t i o n . H o w e v e r , t h e C o n t r o l g r o u p a p p e a r s t o h a v e p e r f o r m e d b e t t e r a t t h e m i d d l e p o s i t i o n s , a n d w o r s e a t t h e l a s t p o s i t i o n s , t h a n d i d t h e s u b j e c t s u n d e r t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l c o n d i t i o n s . T h e m e a n n u m b e r o f i t e m s r e c a l l e d c o r r e c t l y ( o u t o f 90), o v e r a l l s e r i a l p o s i t i o n s , w a s 56.8 f o r c o n d i t i o n A r - H i , 58 .O f o r c o n d i t i o n A r - L o , 58.1 f o r c o n d i t i o n N A r - H i , a n d 58.2 f o r c o n d i t i o n N A r - L o . T h e m e a n n u m b e r o f i t e m s r e c a l l e d c o r r e c t l y b y t h e c o n t r o l s u b j e c t s w a s 57.6. A n a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e w a s c a r r i e d o u t o n t h e n u m b e r o f i t e m s c o r r e c t o v e r t e n t r i a l s , i n e a c h b l o c k o f t h r e e s e r i a l * p o s i t i o n s . G r o u p s ( A r , N A r , a n d C o n t r o l ) a n d O r d e r o f p r e s e n -t a t i o n o f i n t e n s i t i e s w e r e b e t w e e n - s u b j e c t s v a r i a b l e s , I n t e n s i t y a n d S e r i a l p o s i t i o n w e r e w i t h i n - s u b j e c t s v a r i a b l e s . T h e a n a l y s i s r e v e a l e d n o d i f f e r e n c e s i n r e c a l l d u e t o A r t i c u l a t i o n , e i t h e r a l o n e , F ( l , 5 5 ) < l * o r i n i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h S e r i a l p o s i t i o n , F ( 2 , 1 1 0 ) < c l . T h e m e a n n u m b e r o f i t e m s r e c a l l e d c o r r e c t l y f o r t h e A r g r o u p w a s 57.4 a n d t h e m e a n f o r t h e N A r g r o u p w a s 58.2. N o r , w a s t h e r e a n y d i f f e r e n c e i n r e c a l l d u e t o 17 S E R I A L P O S I T I O N F i g u r e 1: Mean Number of Items R e c a l l e d C o r r e c t l y (out of 10) at Each S e r i a l P o s i t i o n by Each of the Four Experimental Groups and by the C o n t r o l Group, 18 I n t e n s i t y , e i t h e r as a main e f f e c t , F(l,36)^:1, or, i n i n t e r a c t i o n with S e r i a l p o s i t i o n , _(2,72)-~l. The mean number of items r e c a l l e d c o r r e c t l y under the H i c o n d i t i o n was 57.4, and the mean f o r the Lo c o n d i t i o n was 58.1. The i n t e r a c t i o n s among I n t e n s i t y , A r t i c u l a t i o n , and S e r i a l p o s i t i o n , and between I n t e n s i t y and A r t i c u l a t i o n were a l s o found to be n o n s i g n i f i c a n t , F(2,72)<1 and F(l , 3 6)<l, r e s p e c t i v e l y . Comparison of the two experimental groups (combined) t o the C o n t r o l group i n d i c a t e d that there was no o v e r a l l d i f f e r e n c e i n r e c a l l due to the a d d i t i o n of a u d i t o r y i n p u t . The mean number of items r e c a l l e d c o r r e c t l y f o r the combined experimental groups was 57.8, the mean f o r the C o n t r o l group was 57.6, _(1,55)^1. When con s i d e r e d i n i n t e r a c t i o n with S e r i a l p o s i t i o n , however, the combined Ar and NAr groups d i f f e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y from the C o n t r o l group, F(2,110)=9.00, p<.001. A n a l y s i s of the simple e f f e c t s i n v o l v e d i n t h i s i n t e r a c t i o n i n d i c a t e d t h a t the groups d i f f e r e d at s e r i a l p o s i t i o n blocks two, F(l,110)=20.55, p^.001, and t h r e e , F(l,110)=13.13* p<.001. The mean number of items r e c a l l e d by the C o n t r o l group on bl o c k two was 18.0, as compared to 14.7 f o r the combined Ar and NAr groups. On the t h i r d b l o c k , the mean number of items r e c a l l e d c o r r e c t l y by the experimental s u b j e c t s was 19.2, as compared t o 15.4 f o r the C o n t r o l s . There was no d i f f e r e n c e i n r e c a l l a t p o s i t i o n s one t o t h r e e . The main e f f e c t of S e r i a l p o s i t i o n was s i g n i f i c a n t , F(2,110) =55.06, p<.001, as was the i n t e r a c t i o n between A r t i c u l a t i o n , 19 T a b l e 2 S u m m a r y o f G r o u p s x I n t e n s i t y x S e r i a l P o s i t i o n ANOVA o n t h e n u m b e r o f i t e m s c o r r e c t l y r e c a l l e d . S o u r c e T o t a l S u b j e c t s ( S s ) A r t i c u l a t i o n ( A r ) E x p e r i m e n t a l ( E x p ) v s C o n t r o l ( C ) O r d e r (0) A r x 0 e r r o r W i t h i n S u b j e c t s I n t e n s i t y ( I ) S e r i a l p o s i t i o n ( S p ) I x S s / E x p I x A r I x 0 I x A r x 0 e r r o r S p x S s S p x A r S p x E x p v s C S p x 0 S p x A r x 0 e r r o r I x S p x S s / E x p I x S p x A r I x S p x 0 I x S p x A r x 0 e r r o r D e g r e e s Sum o f o f F r e e d o m S q u a r e s 299 1 5 3 4 2 . 2 0 59 3566.03 1 4 . 0 1 1 0 . 5 0 1 18.71 1 7 3 - 7 0 55 3469.11 2 4 0 1 1 7 7 6 . 1 7 1 2 . 6 1 2 4262.96 2 4 8 . 8 9 l 2 . 2 0 l 1 . 8 3 l 30 .11 36 2 1 4 . 7 5 1 1 8 5 1 1 0 . 7 1 2 13.63 2 696.58 2 71.63 2 7 0 . 4 4 1 1 0 4 2 5 8 . 4 4 7 8 2146.97 2 4.13 2 30 .10 2 O.63 7 2 2 1 1 2 . 1 0 M e a n S q u a r e F 4.01 <£1 0.50 < 1 18.71 <1 73.70 1.17 63.07 2.61 <C1 2131.48 55.06* 2.20 <1 1.83 30.11 5.05** 5.97 6 . 8 2 <1 348.29 9.00* 35 .82 <1 35.22 <1 38.71 2.07 ^.1 15.05 «2il 0.32 29.33 p<.001 p < . 0 5 Intensity, and Order, F(l,36)=5.05, p*.05. The l a t t e r effect represents the finding that the non-articulating subjects performed better under the high-intensity condition than unde the low-intensity condition when the high-intensity condition came second, but not when i t came f i r s t (the reason for t h i s not c l e a r ) . The low-intensity condition was better for the a r t i c u l a t i n g subjects regardless of the order of presentation A l l remaining sources of variance resulted i n nonsignificant F-ratios. The summary of the analysis i s presented i n Table 2 21 D I S C U S S I O N T h e m a j o r f o c u s o f t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y w a s o n t h e r o l e s o f a r t i c u l a t o r y a n d a u d i t o r y i n p u t i n t h e v o c a l i z a t i o n e f f e c t . O f p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t w a s w h e t h e r t h e i n c r e a s e s i n a r t i c u l a t o r y i n p u t o r t h e i n c r e a s e s i n a u d i t o r y i n p u t w h i c h a c c o m p a n y i n c r e a s e s i n t h e v i g o r o f v o c a l i z a t i o n c o u l d b e c o n s i d e r e d t o a c c o u n t f o r t h e r e s u l t a n t i n c r e a s e s i n S T R . T h e f i n d i n g t h a t t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l s u b j e c t s ( i . e . , t h o s e w h o r e c e i v e d a u d i t o r y i n p u t ) r e c a l l e d m o r e i t e m s f r o m t h e l a s t t h r e e s e r i a l p o s i t i o n s t h a n d i d t h e c o n t r o l s u b j e c t s s u g g e s t s t h a t d i f f e r e n c e s i n a u d i t o r y i n p u t a r e m o r e l i k e l y t o a c c o u n t f o r t h e v o c a l i z a t i o n e f f e c t . H o w e v e r , o n e m a j o r p r e d i c t i o n i n t h i s r e g a r d w a s n o t b o r n e o u t i n t h e r e s u l t s : S T R d i d n o t v a r y w i t h t h e i n t e n s i t y o f a u d i t o r y i n p u t . I f i n c r e m e n t s i n S T R a s s o c i a t e d w i t h i n c r e m e n t s i n v o c a l i -z a t i o n a r e d u e t o a s s o c i a t e d i n c r e m e n t s i n s u b j e c t - g e n e r a t e d i n p u t o f a n a r t i c u l a t o r y n a t u r e , t h e a r t i c u l a t i n g s u b j e c t s s h o u l d h a v e r e c a l l e d m o r e t h a n d i d t h e n o n - a r t i c u l a t i n g s u b j e c t s . A l t h o u g h n o a t t e m p t w a s m a d e t o i n h i b i t a r t i c u l a t i o n b y N A r s u b j e c t s , i t s e e m s r e a s o n a b l e t o a s s u m e t h a t t h e v o c a l i z i n g A r s u b j e c t s r e c e i v e d m o r e p r e c i s e ( o r a g r e a t e r a m o u n t o f ) p r o p r i o -c e p t i v e f e e d b a c k f r o m t h e s p e e c h m u s c u l a t u r e t h a n d i d t h e N A r s u b j e c t s . T h u s , i f a r t i c u l a t o r y i n p u t m a d e a n i n d e p e n d e n t c o n t r i b u t i o n t o S T R , t h e A r s u b j e c t s s h o u l d h a v e r e c a l l e d m o r e t h a n d i d t h e N A r s u b j e c t s . T h i s w a s n o t t h e c a s e . R e c a l l i n t h e t w o g r o u p s w a s e s s e n t i a l l y e q u i v a l e n t . 22 H o w e v e r , t h e f i n d i n g t h a t t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l s u b j e c t s r e c a l l e d m o r e a t t h e e n d o f t h e l i s t t h a n d i d t h e c o n t r o l s u b j e c t s i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e v o c a l i z a t i o n e f f e c t i s , a t l e a s t g e n e r a l l y , d u e t o t h e a u d i t o r y a s p e c t o f v o c a l i z a t i o n . T h a t i s , s i n c e a r t i c u l a t o r y i n p u t d i d n o t c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e S T R o f t h e A r s u b j e c t s , t h e o n l y d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n e i t h e r o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p s a n d t h e c o n t r o l g r o u p , i n t e r m s o f i n p u t , w a s t h a t t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l s u b j e c t s r e c e i v e d a u d i t o r y i n p u t a n d t h e c o n t r o l s u b j e c t s d i d n o t . T h u s , d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e r e c a l l o f v o c a l i z e d a n d u n v o c a l i z e d l i s t s c a n b e s e e n a s b e i n g d u e t o d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e l e v e l o f a u d i t o r y i n p u t t h e s u b j e c t r e c e i v e s . O n t h e o t h e r h a n d , i f i n c r e m e n t s i n S T R a r e d u e t o i n c r e m e n t s i n s u b j e c t -g e n e r a t e d a u d i t o r y i n p u t , p e r f o r m a n c e u n d e r t h e h i - i n t e n s i t y c o n d i t i o n s h o u l d h a v e b e e n b e t t e r t h a n p e r f o r m a n c e u n d e r t h e l o w - i n t e n s i t y c o n d i t i o n . H o w e v e r , n o d i f f e r e n c e s w e r e o b t a i n e d d u e t o i n t e n s i t y . T h e l a c k o f d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n p e r f o r m a n c e u n d e r t h e t w o i n t e n s i t y c o n d i t i o n s m a y b e d u e t o c e r t a i n a s p e c t s o f t h e p r o c e d u r e u s e d t o v a r y t h e i n t e n s i t y l e v e l . P o r e x a m p l e , n o t o n l y a p p r o p r i a t e I n p u t , b u t a l s o e x t r a n e o u s a n d i n a p p r o p r i a t e n o i s e s , w e r e a m p l i f i e d . I n a d d i t i o n , s i n c e a m a j o r i t y o f s u b j e c t s i n t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l c o n d i t i o n s r e p o r t e d b e i n g q u i t e d i s t r a c t e d d u r i n g t h e h i g h i n t e n s i t y p o r t i o n o f t h e t a s k , i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t t h e h i g h - i n t e n s i t y i n p u t w a s t o o l o u d f o r o p t i m u m p e r f o r -m a n c e . T h i s p o s s i b i l i t y a p p e a r s l i k e l y i n v i e w o f t h e r e s u l t 23 t h a t p e r f o r m a n c e u n d e r t h e l o w - i n t e n s i t y c o n d i t i o n w a s g e n e r a l l y b e t t e r t h a n p e r f o r m a n c e u n d e r t h e h i g h - i n t e n s i t y c o n d i t i o n ( e x c e p t f o r t h e n o n - a r t i c u l a t i n g s u b j e c t s r e c e i v i n g t h e h i g h -i n t e n s i t y c o n d i t i o n s e c o n d ) , i n c o n t r a s t t o C o h e n ' s (1967) f i n d i n g t h a t i n c r e m e n t s i n r e c a l l w e r e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h i n c r e m e n t s i n a u d i t o r y i n p u t . T h e r e f o r e , t h e p r e s e n t r e s u l t w i t h r e g a r d t o I n t e n s i t y m a y b e m i s l e a d i n g . I f s o , T e l l (1971) m a y h a v e b e e n c o r r e c t i n i n t e r p r e t i n g t h e v o c a l i z a t i o n e f f e c t s o l e l y i n t e r m s o f a u d i t o r y i n p u t . I n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e v o c a l i z a t i o n e f f e c t i n a m a n n e r s i m i l a r t o t h a t o f T e l l ( 1 9 7 1 ) , t h e r e f o r e , d o e s n o t a p p e a r t o b e i n a p p r o p r i a t e . H o w e v e r , a s p r e v i o u s l y n o t e d , T e l l a p p e a r s t o b e i n c o r r e c t i n a s s u m i n g t h a t a n " e c h o - l i k e " m e m o r y s y s t e m , s u c h a s h e p r o p o s e d , w o u l d I n v o l v e i n f o r m a t i o n o f a " r a w " o r s e n s o r y n a t u r e . W h i l e t h e r e s u l t s u s e d t o q u e s t i o n T e l l ' s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n w e r e c o n c e r n e d w i t h a u r a l p r e s e n t a t i o n o f m a t e r i a l s ( W a t k i n s a n d W a t k i n s , 1973)* r a t h e r t h a n w i t h v o c a l i z e d v i s u a l l y - p r e s e n t e d m a t e r i a l s , t h e c r i t i c i s m i s s t i l l v a l i d . F u r t h e r , i n t h e c a s e o f v o c a l i z e d v i s u a l l y - p r e s e n t e d i t e m s , i t i s e v e n m o r e c l e a r t h a t e c h o - l i k e i n f o r m a t i o n w o u l d n o t b e " r a w " o r p h o n e m i c i n n a t u r e . U p o n v i s u a l p r e s e n t a t i o n o f a l i s t , t h e s u b j e c t p r o b a b l y e n c o d e s l i s t i t e m s n o t i n v i s u a l b u t r a t h e r , i n a u d i t o r y t e r m s , a n d , m o r e o v e r , n o t a s p h o n e m e s b u t a s m e a n i n g f u l u n i t s , f o r e x a m p l e w o r d s . T h a t i s , t h e s u b j e c t m a y v o c a l i z e t h e i t e m s . D e p e n d i n g o n i n s t r u c t i o n s , s u c h v o c a l i z a t i o n w i l l b e e i t h e r o v e r t , r e s u l t i n g i n a u d i t o r y i n p u t , o r c o v e r t , r e s u l t i n g i n a s u b v o c a l a u d i t o r y r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . T h u s , v o c a l i z a t i o n e f f e c t s c a n b e a t t r i b u t e d t o 24 t h e d i f f e r e n t a m o u n t s o f a u d i t o r y i n p u t t h e s u b j e c t r e c e i v e s ; i n g e n e r a l t h e l o u d e r t h e i n p u t , t h e b e t t e r t h e r e c a l l ( u n l e s s t h e i n p u t i s s o l o u d a s t o b e d i s t r a c t i n g ) . P r e s u m a b l y , t h e a u d i t o r y i n p u t i s r e p r o d u c e d i n a n e c h o - l i k e s y s t e m i n a m a n n e r r e f l e c t i n g a l l a s p e c t s o f t h e a u d i t o r y i n p u t , h e n c e s h o r t - t e r m r e c a l l i s b e s t f o r l o u d v o c a l i z a t i o n b e c a u s e t h e a u d i t o r y r e p r o d u c t i o n i s l o u d e r , a n d t h e r e f o r e c l e a r e r t o t h e s u b j e c t . A l i m i t t o t h e n u m b e r o f i t e m s t h a t c a n b e h e l d i n s u c h a n e c h o - l i k e s y s t e m i s s u g g e s t e d b y t h e f i n d i n g t h a t t h e v o c a l i z a t i o n e f f e c t e x t e n d s o v e r o n l y t h e l a s t t w o o r t h r e e i t e m s i n a l i s t ( M u r r a y , L e u n g , a n d M c V i e , 1 9 7 3 ) . F u r t h e r , T e l l ( 1 9 7 1 ) h a s s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e r e p r o d u c t i o n s f a d e a f t e r a f e w s e c o n d s . A n i m p o r t a n t p o i n t w i t h r e g a r d t o c o m p a r i s o n o f t h e m o d a l i t y e f f e c t a n d t h e v o c a l i z a t i o n e f f e c t s h o u l d b e m a d e . I n b o t h c a s e s i t w o u l d a p p e a r t h a t t h e a u d i t o r y i n p u t t h e s u b j e c t r e c e i v e s f a c i l i t a t e s S T R , a n d , i n b o t h c a s e s , s u c h i n p u t c a n b e s e e n a s b e i n g r e p r o d u c e d i n a n e c h o - l i k e s y s t e m a t a l e v e l o f a n a l y s i s a t l e a s t b e y o n d i n t e g r a t i o n o f r a w , p h o n e m i c u n i t s i n t o w o r d s . H o w e v e r , i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t h a t s u c h i n t e g r a t i o n p r o b a b l y o c c u r s b e f o r e a u d i t o r y i n p u t w h e n v i s u a l m a t e r i a l s a r e v o c a l i z e d , a n d n e c e s s a r i l y o c c u r s a f t e r a u d i t o r y i n p u t o f i t e m s w h i c h a r e a u r a l l y p r e s e n t e d . T h e r e s u l t s o f t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y m a y b e i n t e r p r e t e d i n a w a y t h a t h a s n o t h i n g t o d o w i t h t h e v o c a l i z a t i o n e f f e c t . T h e f i n d i n g t h a t t h e c o n t r o l s u b j e c t s r e c a l l e d m o r e f r o m t h e m i d d l e o f t h e l i s t t h a n d i d t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l s u b j e c t s m a y i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e d i f f e r e n c e 25 a t t h e e n d o f t h e l i s t w e r e d u e t o d i f f e r e n c e s i n l e a r n i n g o r r e c a l l s t r a t e g i e s e m p l o y e d b y t h e g r o u p s r a t h e r t h a n d u e t o t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l m a n i p u l a t i o n s . I n t e r m s o f l e a r n i n g s t r a t e g i e s , t h e c o n t r o l s u b j e c t s w e r e f r e e t o a t t e n d t o s o m e i t e m s m o r e t h a n o t h e r s ( t h e y m a y h a v e a t t e n d e d m o r e t o t h e m i d d l e i t e m s ) , w h e r e a s t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l s u b j e c t s w e r e f o r c e d t o a t t e n d t o a l l i t e m s m o r e o r l e s s e q u a l l y . W i t h r e g a r d t o r e c a l l s t r a t e g i e s , T u l v i n g a n d A r b u c k l e (19^3) d e m o n s t r a t e d t h a t t h e r e c e n c y e f f e c t w a s d i m i n i s h e d w h e n s u b j e c t s w e r e f o r c e d t o r e c a l l t h e l i s t s i n a s e t o r d e r , f r o m b e g i n n i n g t o e n d . T h e p r e s e n t r e s u l t s m a y i n d i c a t e , t h e n , t h a t t h e c o n t r o l s u b j e c t s w e r e r e c a l l i n g i n a s o m e w h a t d i f f e r e n t o r d e r . I n s u m m a r y , t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y s u g g e s t t h a t ( l ) t h e v o c a l i z a t i o n e f f e c t i s n o t d u e t o c o n c o m i t t e n t i n c r e a s e s i n a r t i c u l a t o r y i n p u t , b u t ( 2 ) t h a t i t m a y b e d u e t o c o n c o m i t t e n t i n c r e a s e s i n a u d i t o r y i n p u t . H o w e v e r , p o i n t ( 2 ) i s t e n u o u s f o r t w o r e a s o n s . F i r s t t h e r e w a s n o d i f f e r e n c e i n p e r f o r m a n c e d u e t o i n t e n s i t y , a n d s e c o n d , t h e p o s s i b i l i t y e x i s t s t h a t t h e I m p o r t a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n S T R w e r e d u e t o e f f e c t s o t h e r t h a n t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l m a n i p u l a t i o n s . T h e s e p r o b l e m s c o u l d b e e a s i l y s o l v e d b y u s i n g l o w e r i n t e n s i t i e s o f a u d i t o r y i n p u t a n d b y u s i n g s i n g l e -i t e m r a t h e r t h a n w h o l e - l i s t p r e s e n t a t i o n , o r b y s p e c i f y i n g o r d e r o f r e c a l l . A f u r t h e r r e f i n e m e n t o f t h e p r o c e d u r e w o u l d i n v o l v e t h e u s e o f w e l l - p r a c t i c e d s u b j e c t s i n o r d e r t o m i n i m i z e t h e p o s s i b l y d i s t r a c t i n g e f f e c t s o f h e a r i n g o n e ' s o w n v o i c e . 2 6 BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. Brown, J . 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Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 1964, __, 145-149. 34. Watkins, M.J. Locus of the modality e f f e c t i n f r e e r e c a l l . J o u r n a l of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 1972, 11, 644-648. 35. Watkins, M. J . , & Watkins, O.C. The p o s t c a t e g o r i c a l status of the modality e f f e c t i n s e r i a l r e c a l l . J ournal of Experimental Psychology, 1973, 99, 226-230. { 29 F O O T N O T E S 1. T h e B r o w n - P e t e r s o n p a r a d i g m i s a n o p e r a t i o n a l l y d e f i n e d t h r e e s t a g e S T R p a r a d i g m c o n s i s t i n g o f t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e T B R i t e m s , f o l l o w e d b y a s u b j e c t - p e r f o r m e d r e h e a r s a l p r e v e n t i o n t a s k . , f o l l o w e d , i n t u r n , b y r e c a l l . 2 . S i n c e t h e r e w a s n o a t t e m p t t o p r e v e n t a r t i c u l a t i o n o n t h e p a r t o f s u b j e c t s i n t h e n o - a r t i c u l a t i o n c o n d i t i o n i t w o u l d b e u n r e a s o n a b l e t o a s s u m e t h e y w e r e n o t a r t i c u l a t i n g t o s o m e d e g r e e . H o w e v e r , s i n c e i t i s u n l i k e l y t h a t t h e s e s u b j e c t s w e r e o v e r t l y a r t i c u l a t i n g , a s w e r e t h e s u b j e c t s i n t h e a r t i c u l a t i o n c o n d i t i o n , i t d o e s n o t s e e m u n r e a s o n a b l e t o a s s u m e t h a t t h e a r t i c u l a t i o n e n g a g e d i n b y t h e s u b j e c t s i n t h e n o - a r t i c u l a t i o n c o n d i t i o n w a s b o t h q u a n t i t a t i v e l y a n d q u a l i t a t i v e l y d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h a t e n g a g e d I n b y t h e s u b j e c t s i n t h e a r t i c u l a t i o n c o n d i t i o n . 

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