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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Dynasty formation in the communal society of the Hutterites Clark, Peter Gordon 1973

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DYNASTY FORMATION I N THE COMMUNAL SOCIETY OF THE HUTTERITES. b y P e t e r G o r d o n C l a r k B.A. ( H o n o u r s ) , M c M a s t e r U n i v e r s i t y , 1966 M.A., M c M a s t e r U n i v e r s i t y , 1967 A THESIS SUBMITTED I N P A R T I A L FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY i n t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f A n t h r o p o l o g y a n d S o c i o l o g y We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE U N I V E R S I T Y OF B R I T I S H COLUMBIA November, .1973 In presenting th i s thesis in pa r t i a l fu l f i lment of the requ i r .^nts for an advanced degree at the Univers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L ibrary shal l make it f ree ly ava i l ab le for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of th is thesis for scholar ly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representat ives. It is understood that copying or pub l i ca t ion of this thesis for f inanc ia l gain sha l l not be allowed without my written permission. Department of A n t h r o p o l o g y and S o c i o l o g y The Univers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada Date F e b . 17, 1974 i ABSTRACT The p r i m a r y a i m o f t h i s s t u d y i s t o a n a l y z e t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n c o l l e c t i v e o w n e r s h i p o f t h e means o f p r o d u c t i o n a n d i n e q u a l i t y o f p o l i t i c a l o p p o r t u n i t y w i t h i n t h e H u t t e r i t e p o p u l a t i o n . Two c o m p e t i n g t h e o r e t i c a l m o d e l s a r e p r e s e n t e d a n d c o m p a r e d w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e i r p o w e r t o p r e d i c t s o c i a l a n d p o l i t i c a l m o b i l i t y p a t t e r n s w i t h i n H u t t e r i t e c o l o n i e s . The f i r s t m o d e l ( t h e M a r x i a n t h e s i s ) c l a i m s t h a t i n e q u a l i t y o f p o l i t i c a l , o p p o r t u n i t y i s a f u n c t i o n o f i n e q u a l i t i e s i n t h e c o n t r o l o v e r a n d a c c e s s t o t h e means o f p r o d u c t i o n . T h i s t h e o r y a s s e r t s t h a t a s o c i e t y i n w h i c h t h e means o f p r o d u c t i o n i s h e l d i n common ( a c o m m u n i s t s o c i e t y ) w i l l a l s o b e a s o c i e t y i n w h i c h t h e p o l i t i c a l p o s i t i o n h e l d b y a n i n d i v i d u a l w i l l b e d e t e r m i n e d i n d e p e n d e n t l y o f f a m i l y o r i g i n . T he s e c o n d m o d e l .(the M a c h i a v e l l i a n t h e s i s ) c l a i m s t h a t e c o n o m i c f a c t o r s a r e n o t s o l e l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r i n e q u a l i t i e s i n ' p o l i t i c a l o p p o r t u n i t y . R a t h e r x n a s o c i e t y w h i c h i s s t r u c t u r e d s u c h t h a t i n d i v i d u a l s e n j o y d i f f e r i n g d e g r e e s o f d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p o w e r , t h e o f f s p r i n g o f t h e m o s t p o w e r f u l w i l l h a v e g r e a t e r p o l i t i c a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s t h a n t h e o f f s p r i n g o f t h e l e s s p o w e r f u l . S i n c e H u t t e r i a n s o c i e t y h o l d s t h e means o f p r o d u c t i o n i n common and i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d - . . . . L,„ i i b y a w e l l d e f i n e d p o l i t i c a l h i e r a r c h y , i t s e r v e s as a n e x c e l l e n t c a s e s t u d y f o r t h e t e s t i n g o f t h e s e t w o c o m p e t i n g t h e o r i e s . B o t h t h e o r i e s f a i l e d t o r e c e i v e e m p i r i c a l s u p p o r t i n a number o f c r i t i c a l a r e a s . Some H u t t e r i t e c o l o n i e s d i s p l a y e d c o m p l e t e e q u a l i t y o f p o l i t i c a l o p p o r t u n i t y , w h e r e a s o t h e r s w e r e c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y t h e f o r m a t i o n o f p o l i t i c a l d y n a s t i e s w h i c h h a d m o n o p o l i z e d a l l e f f e c t i v e p o l i t i c a l p o w e r f o r g e n e r a t i o n s . T h i s o c c u r r e d d e s p i t e t h e f a c t a l l H u t t e r i t e c o l o n i e s a r e v i r t u a l l y i d e n t i c a l w i t h r e s p e c t t o o w n e r s h i p p a t t e r n s a n d t h e s t r u c t u r e o f t h e i r p o l i t i c a l h i e r a r c h i e s . I t was d i s c o v e r e d t h a t t h e p o l i t i c a l p o s i t i o n o f t h e f a t h e r o n l y b e c o m e s a s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r i n t h e d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f t h e p o l i t i c a l p o s i t i o n o f t h e s o n i f t h e r e i s a s h o r t a g e o f p o s i t i o n s i n t h e o c c u p a t i o n a l a n d p o l i t i c a l s t r u c t u r e . C o l o n i e s i n w h i c h e c o n o m i c , d e m o g r a p h i c , a n d o r g a n i z a t i o n a l f a c t o r s h a v e p r o d u c e d an e x c e s s o f p o s i t i o n s t e n d t o b e e q u a l i t a r i a n , w h e r e a s c o l o n i e s i n w h i c h a s c a r c i t y o f p o s i t i o n s h a v e b e e n p r o d u c e d t e n d t o b e d y n a s t i c . T h i s f i n d i n g s u g g e s t s t h a t a c o m m u n i s t i c s o c i e t y s u c h as t h e H u t t e r i t e s c a n o n l y a c h i e v e e q u a l i t y o f o p p o r t u n i t y i f i t i s a b l e t o s a t i s f y t h e c a r e e r a s p i r a t i o n s o f i t s members. I f i t f a i l s t o do t h i s , a more p a r t i c u l a r i s t i c g r o u p i n g s u c h a s t h e f a m i l y w i l l emerge as a p o l i t i c a l f o r c e t o p r o t e c t t h e l i f e c h a n c e s o f i t s own members. i v TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT i TABLE OF CONTENTS i v LIST OF TABLES v LIST OF DIAGRAMS i x LIST OF MAPS i x ACKNOWLEDGMENT X Chapter I Introduction and Theory 1 II Hutterian Social Structure 59 III Occupational M o b i l i t y Among the Hutterites 154 IV Inter-colony Comparisons 198 V Conclusions and Implications for Further Research 227 APPENDICES A The Organization of the Genealogical Record 240 B Coder's Manual 246 C Occupational M o b i l i t y Matrix 258 BIBLIOGRAPHY 259 V CHAPTER II Table Page 2.1 Number of Colonies over Time 76 2.2 Colony Doubling Time i n Years 77 2.3 Schmiedeleut Censuses 78 2.4- Schmiedeleut Population, 1970 79 2.5 Population Doubling Time i n Years 80 2.6 Population C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of Hutterites and Other Selected Populations for 1970 81 2.7 A g r i c u l t u r a l D i v e r s i f i c a t i o n i n 2 7 South Dakota Hutterite Colonies 100 2.8 Balance Sheet for Barickman Colony, 1969 101 2.9 Colony Population Size at D i f f e r e n t Points i n the Growth Cycle 103 2.10 Schmiedeleut Age-Sex D i s t r i b u t i o n ' 117 2.11 Sex D i s t r i b u t i o n i n M i l l e r d a l e Colony for the Years 1949, 1955, 1965, and 1970 131 2.12 Population Gains and Losses of M i l l e r d a l e Colony 131 2.13 Occupational C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of Three Kinship Groupings within M i l l e r d a l e Colony 137 2.14 Mar i t a l A l l i a n c e s of Families 1 and 2 138 2.15 P o l i t i c a l Status of Kinship Group and Decisions of Males to Abandon or Remain at M i l l e r d a l e Colony 139 CHAPTER III 3.1 Frequency D i s t r i b u t i o n of Hutterite Males i n Occupations 161 3.2 Occupational D i s t r i b u t i o n by Age Cohort 163 v i Page 3.3 M o b i l i t y From Father's Occupation for 974 Male Occupation Holders: Absolute Frequencies 167 3.4 M o b i l i t y From Father's Occupation for 974 Male Occupation Holders: Percentaged by Row 168 3.5 M o b i l i t y From Father's Occupation for 974 Male Occupation Holders: Ratios of Observed Frequencies to Frequencies Expected Under the Assumption of Independence 168 3.6 Means, Standard Deviations, and Tests of Significance for Selected Subsets of Indices of Association i n Table 3.5 . 171 3.7 Mo b i l i t y From Father's Status P o s i t i o n : Percentaged by Row 173 3.8 I n t e r - s o c i e t a l Comparisons of the Degree of Inequality of Opportunity 175 3..9 Mean Number of Male Offspring Per Family for Occupational Groups 176 .3.10 M o b i l i t y of E l i t e Sons from Father's Occupational P o s i t i o n : Percentaged by Row 177 3.11 M o b i l i t y From Father's Occupation to Husband's Occupation for 980 Hutterite Women: Percentaged by Row 180 3.12 M o b i l i t y From Father's Occupation to Husband's Occupation for 980 Hutterite Women: Ratios of Observed Frequencies to Frequencies Expected Under the Assumption of Independence 181 3.13 Marital M o b i l i t y From Father's Status P o s i t i o n : Percentaged by Row 182 3.14 Marital M o b i l i t y of E l i t e Daughters From Father's Occupational P o s i t i o n : Percentaged by Row 182 3.15 Marital M o b i l i t y From Father's Status P o s i t i o n to Father-in-laws Status P o s i t i o n : Percentaged by Row 183 vxx P a g e 3.16 M o b i l i t y F r om C o n n e c t e d a n d U n c o n n e c t e d F a t h e r ' s S t a t u s P o s i t i o n : P e r c e n t a g e d b y Row 185 3.17 M o b i l i t y F r o m P a t e r n a l G r a n d f a t h e r ' s ( F a F a ) S t a t u s P o s i t i o n w i t h F a F a w i t h E l i t e F a D i s t i n g u i s h e d F r o m F a F a w i t h N o n - e l i t e F a : P e r c e n t a g e d b y Row 186 3.18 M o b i l i t y F r o m F a F a F a ' s S t a t u s P o s i t i o n w i t h F a F a F a w i t h E l i t e F a a n d E l i t e F a F a D i s t i n g u i s h e d F r o m F a F a F a w i t h F a o r F a F a o r B o t h i n N o n - e l i t e : P e r c e n t a g e d b y Row 187 3.19 M a r i t a l M o b i l i t y F r o m C o n n e c t e d and U n c o n n e c t e d F a t h e r ' s S t a t u s P o s i t i o n : P e r c e n t a g e d b y Row 188 3.20 F a t h e r ' s O c c u p a t i o n a l S t a t u s F o r 130 H u t t e r i t e D e f e c t o r s 189 3.21 I n v e n t o r y o f R e s u l t s 190 CHAPTER I V 4.1 M o b i l i t y F r o m F a t h e r ' s S t a t u s P o s i t i o n i n 29 R a p i d l y D i v i d i n g C o l o n i e s : P e r c e n t a g e d b y Row 204 4.2 M o b i l i t y F r o m F a t h e r ' s S t a t u s P o s i t i o n i n 13 S l o w l y D i v i d i n g C o l o n i e s : P e r c e n t a g e d b y Row 205 4.3 M o b i l i t y F r o m F a t h e r ' s S t a t u s P o s i t i o n i n D y i n g C o l o n i e s : . P e r c e n t a g e d b y Row 206 4.4 M o b i l i t y F r o m F a t h e r ' s S t a t u s P o s i t i o n i n C o l o n i e s w i t h E x t r e m e l y R a p i d F i s s i o n T i m e s ( L e s s T h a n 10 Y e a r s ) : P e r c e n t a g e d b y Row 206 4.5 M o b i l i t y F r o m F a t h e r ' s S t a t u s P o s i t i o n i n C o l o n i e s w i t h ' N o r m a l ' F i s s i o n T i m e s ( B e t w e e n 10 a n d 14.42 Y e a r s ) : P e r c e n t a g e d b y Row 207 4.6 W e a l t h L e v e l o f C o l o n y b y F i s s i o n i n g T i m e 209 4.7 M o b i l i t y F r o m F a t h e r ' s S t a t u s P o s i t i o n i n W e a l t h y C o l o n i e s : P e r c e n t a g e d b y Row 210 v i i i Page 4.8 M o b i l i t y From Father's Status Pos i t i o n i n 'Middle' Colonies: Percentaged by Row 211 4.9 M o b i l i t y From Father's Status Pos i t i o n i n Poor Colonies: Percentaged by Row 211 4.10 Ma r i t a l M o b i l i t y From Father's Status Pos i t i o n i n Wealthy Colonies: Percentaged by Row 212 4.11 M a r i t a l M o b i l i t y From Father's Status P o s i t i o n i n 'Middle' Colonies: Percentaged by Row 213 4.12 Ma r i t a l M o b i l i t y From Father's Status P o s i t i o n i n Poor Colonies: Percentaged by Row 213 4.13 M o b i l i t y of E l i t e Sons From Father's Occupational P o s i t i o n i n Wealthy Colonies: Percentaged by Row 215 4.14 M o b i l i t y of E l i t e Sons From Father's Occupational P o s i t i o n i n 'Middle' Colonies: Percentaged by Row 215 4.15 M o b i l i t y of E l i t e Sons From Father's Occupational P o s i t i o n i n Poor Colonies: Percentaged by Row 216 4.16 Identity and D i s s i m i l a r i t y of Surnames of E l i t e Members on Wealthy, 'Middle', and Poor Colonies 217 4.17 Frequency D i s t r i b u t i o n of Patronymic Groups i n E l i t e and Non-elite Positions 219 4.18 Dynastic Tendencies i n Patronymic Groups by Percentage i n Poor Colonies 220 i x L I S T OP DIAGRAMS CHAPTER I I D i a g r a m s P a g e 2.1 S c h m i e d e l e u t C o l o n y T r e e : 1 8 7 4 - 1 9 7 0 72 2.2 S c h m i e d e l e u t A g e - S e x P y r a m i d 116 2.3 M i l l e r d a l e G e n e a l o g y 135 CHAPTER I I I 3.1 S e l e c t e d S u b - m a t r i c e s o f t h e T r a n s i t i o n M a t r i x 169 L I S T OF MAPS CHAPTER I I Maps 2.1 L o c a t i o n o f S c h m i e d e l e u t C o l o n i e s 71 X ACKNOWLEDGMENT The r e s e a r c h f o r t h i s s t u d y was made p o s s i b l e b y a C a n a d a C o u n c i l d o c t o r a l f e l l o w s h i p , w h i c h I h e r e b y g r a t e f u l l y a c k n o w l e d g e . I am a l s o i n d e b t e d t o a g r e a t number o f H u t t e r i t e s f o r t h e i r h o s p i t a l i t y a n d k i n d l y a s s i s t a n c e , w h i c h was f r e e l y g i v e n d e s p i t e t h e f a c t t h a t my r e s e a r c h was r e g a r d e d a s h a v i n g no p r a c t i c a l v a l u e f o r them. I n p a r t i c u l a r , I w i s h t o t h a n k J a c o b K l e i n s a s s e r o f C r y s t a l S p r i n g C o l o n y a n d P a u l S. G r o s s o f E s p a n o l a C o l o n y f o r n o t o n l y t a k i n g a n i n t e r e s t i n t h e p r o j e c t b u t a l s o f o r r e l e a s i n g d a t a w i t h o u t w h i c h t h i s p r o j e c t c o u l d n o t h a v e b e e n c a r r i e d o u t . Many n o n - H u t t e r i t e s w e r e a l s o i n v o l v e d a t v a r i o u s s t a g e s o f t h e p r o j e c t . I n p a r t i c u l a r , I w o u l d l i k e t o t h a n k W e r n e r Cohn who e n c o u r a g e d me t o d e v e l o p my i n t e r e s t i n t h e H u t t e r i t e s a n d a s s i s t e d me i n t h e i n i t i a l f o r m u l a t i o n o f a r e s e a r c h a b l e ' p r o b l e m ' . I owe a s p e c i a l d e b t t o T i s s a F e r n a n d o , my t h e s i s a d v i s o r , who h a s e x p e n d e d a c o n s i d e r a b l e amount o f i n t e l l e c t u a l a n d a d m i n i s t r a t i v e e n e r g y o n my b e h a l f . F o r t h e i r s t i m u l a t i n g comments a n d s u g g e s t i o n s , I w i s h t o t h a n k D a v i d A b e r l e , G e o r g e G r a y , H a r r y H a w t h o r n e , M i c h a e l E g a n , B i l l W i l l m o t t , a n d A l a n C a i r n s . I h a v e a l s o b e n e f i t e d f r o m many l o n g d i s c u s s i o n s w i t h my c o l l e a g u e s a t D a l h o u s i e U n i v e r s i t y . I n p a r t i c u l a r , I am g r a t e f u l t o S. D. C l a r k , C h r i s t o p h e r H a l l p i k e , L e o n a r d K a s d a n , J e r o m e B a r k o w , a n d R a y L a r s e n . Many o f t h e i r i d e a s h a v e become my i d e a s ; h o w e v e r , t h e y a r e n o t r e s p o n s i b l e f o r my p e c u l i a r t r a n s m u t a t i o n o f t h e i r t h o u g h t s . My f r i e n d a n d c o l l e a g u e D o n a l d Q. B r o d i e d e s e r v e s s p e c i a l t h a n k s f o r c h e c k i n g my s t a t i s t i c a l p r o c e d u r e s . I n a d d i t i o n , A r t h u r S t e i n b e r g o f C a s e W e s t e r n R e s e r v e U n i v e r s i t y i s s i n c e r e l y t h a n k e d f o r l o a n i n g me p a r t o f h i s g e n e a l o g i c a l c o l l e c t i o n , a n d f o r a l l o w i n g me t o u s e h i s g e n e t i c s l a b o r a t o r y . L a s t l y , I w o u l d l i k e t o t h a n k a number o f i n d i v i d u a l s w h o s e t a l e n t s and s e r v i c e s w e r e i n d i s p e n s i b l e . I am m o s t a p p r e c i a t i v e o f t h e a s s i s t a n c e e x t e n d e d b y Mr. R. E. R i c h a r d s , G e n e r a l S u p e r v i s o r o f t h e P r o v i n c i a l M u n i c i p a l A s s e s s m e n t B r a n c h o f M a n i t o b a , who a l l o w e d me f r e e u s a g e o f t h e l a n d a s s e s s m e n t a r c h i v e s . I am a l s o i n d e b t e d t o I n g r i d P o l l a c k f o r h e r t r a n s l a t i o n s f r o m t h e o r i g i n a l German, W i t a S c h l i e w e n f o r h e r u n p a r a l l e l e d p r o g r a m i n g s k i l l s , E i l e e n W a l t e r s f o r k e y - p u n c h i n g , a n d K a t h y W a l l i n g f o r h e r t y p i n g . S p e c i a l t h a n k s g o e s t o T e r r y B r o o k b a n k , my c o d e r , who s p e n t many l o n g d r e a r y m o n t h s i n t h e c o r n e r o f my o f f i c e e n g a g e d i n one o f t h e m o s t t e d i o u s y e t n e c e s s a r y a c t i v i t i e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h m o d e r n s o c i o l o g i c a l r e s e a r c h . 1 C h a p t e r I I n t r o d u c t i o n and T h e o r y E q u a l i t y o f o p p o r t u n i t y h a s l o n g b e e n c o n s i d e r e d a d e s i r a b l e , y e t e l u s i v e s o c i a l g o a l o f W e s t e r n c i v i l i z a t i o n . S o r o k i n h a s e x p r e s s e d t h i s s e n t i m e n t q u i t e s u c c i n c t l y : I n t h e i d e a l m o b i l e s o c i e t y i n d i v i d u a l s m u s t b e d i s t r i b u t e d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r c a p a c i t y a n d a b i l i t y , r e g a r d l e s s o f t h e p o s i t i o n o f t h e i r f a t h e r s . S u c h a s o c i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n w h e r e e v e r y b o d y i s . p l a c e d a t h i s p r o p e r p l a c e , seems t o b e t h e b e s t . A t l e a s t s i n c e a n c i e n t I n d i a and C h i n a , t h r o u g h P l a t o and A r i s t o t l e , up t o t h e p r e s e n t d e m o c r a c i e s , t h i s t y p e o f s o c i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n o f i n d i v i d u a l s h a s b e e n r e c o g n i z e d as t h e m o s t d e s i r a b l e . ^ A l t h o u g h t h e n o t i o n o f e q u a l i t y o f o p p o r t u n i t y may o c c u p y a n h o n o u r e d p o s i t i o n i n W e s t e r n c u l t u r e as a s o c i a l i d e a l , i t i s e v i d e n t t h a t W e s t e r n s o c i e t i e s h a v e f a l l e n s h o r t o f a t t a i n i n g t h i s i d e a l . T h i s s t u d y w i l l e x a m i n e two m a j o r s c h o o l s o f t h o u g h t w h i c h a t t e m p t t o e x p l a i n why W e s t e r n s o c i e t i e s h a v e b e e n u n a b l e t o a p p r o x i m a t e t h e p e r f e c t m o b i l i t y m o d e l . The f i r s t v i e w , w h i c h w i l l b e r e f e r r e d t o i n t h i s s t u d y as t h e M a r x i a n t h e s i s , f o c u s e s o n t h e d e g r e e o f e c o n o m i c i n e q u a l i t y a n d t r e a t s i t as a d e t e r m i n a n t o f t h e d e g r e e o f i n e q u a l i t y o f o p p o r t u n i t y i n a s o c i e t y . The s e c o n d v i e w , w h i c h w i l l b e r e f e r r e d t o h e r e a s t h e M a c h i a v e l l i a n t h e s i s , t a k e s t h e p o s i t i o n t h a t t h e d e g r e e o f i n e q u a l i t y o f o p p o r t u n i t y i s n o t s o l e l y d e t e r m i n e d b y 2 e c o n o m i c f a c t o r s , b u t c a n b e c a u s e d b y t h e d e g r e e o f i n e q u a l i t y i n t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f p o w e r i n a s o c i e t y . T h i s c o n t r o v e r s y h a s l o n g r e m a i n e d a ' s t e r i l e f l o w e r ' i n s o c i a l t h e o r y . T h i s p r o b l e m h a s b e e n c o n s i d e r e d i n t e r e s t i n g b u t u n r e s e a r c h a b l e b e c a u s e b o t h e c o n o m i c i n e q u a l i t i e s a n d i n e q u a l i t i e s i n t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f p o w e r t e n d t o o c c u r t o g e t h e r i n m o s t s o c i e t i e s . E v a R o s e n f e l d h a s s u g g e s t e d t h a t q u e s t i o n s o f t h i s s o r t c a n b e p o t e n t i a l l y r e s o l v e d b y means o f t h e e m p i r i c a l a n a l y s i s o f c o m m u n i t a r i a n s o c i e t i e s w h i c h h a v e i n t e n t i o n a l l y . . a b o l i s h e d a l l e c o n o m i c i n e q u a l i t i e s . F o r p u r p o s e s o f s o c i o l o g i c a l r e s e a r c h , t h e a n a l y s i s o f s u c h s o c i e t i e s a l l o w u s t o r e d u c e t h e Jjcj o n c e p t u a l c o n f u s i o n i n t h e u s e o f t h e t e r m s " c l a s s " ( e c o n o m i c r a n k ) , " s t a t u s " ( p r e s t i g e a n d h o n o r r a n k ) a n d "power" o r " i n f l u e n c e " . The I s r a e l i c o l l e c t i v e s f a l l i n t o t h e c a t e g o r y o f " c l a s s l e s s " s o c i e t i e s ( t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e s o c i e t i e s o f H u t t e r i t e s , A m a n i t e s , t h e 1 9 t h c e n t u r y O n e i d a a nd o t h e r s ) . The s o c i a l s t r a t i f i c a t i o n w h i c h e m e r g e d i s , t h e r e f o r e , f r e e f r o m t h e " c o n f . u s i n g " e c o n o m i c f a c t o r . ^ Of t h e c o m m u n i t a r i a n s o c i e t i e s m e n t i o n e d b y R o s e n f e l d , I h a v e s e l e c t e d t h e H u t t e r i t e s o f N o r t h A m e r i c a a s a s u b j e c t o f s t u d y , n o t o n l y b e c a u s e t h i s s o c i e t y i s ' c l a s s l e s s ' , b u t a l s o b e c a u s e s u f f i c i e n t w r i t t e n r e c o r d s e x i s t t o make s u c h a s t u d y f e a s i b l e . I a l s o h o p e t o c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e e t h n o g r a p h i c r e c o r d o f t h e H u t t e r i t e s i n t h e a r e a o f s o c i a l m o b i l i t y . No p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h has been conducted i n the area o f s o c i a l m o b i l i t y among the H u t t e r i t e s , nor does the p r e s e n t ethnographic r e c o r d even d e a l w i t h the t o p i c . Whatever c o n t r i b u t i o n I make t o our knowledge of H u t t e r i t e s o c i e t y w i l l be narrowly c o n f i n e d t o the area o f s o c i a l m o b i l i t y . No attempt w i l l be made t o adequately d e s c r i b e H u t t e r i a n s o c i e t y i n areas not s p e c i f i c a l l y r e l a t e d t o the r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n ; however, some attempt w i l l be made t o ac q u a i n t the reader w i t h the g e n e r a l nature of the s o c i e t y . The H u t t e r i t e s r e p r e s e n t a case of c o m p e l l i n g t h e o r e t i c a l i n t e r e s t t o the s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t i n t e r e s t e d i n the study o f i n e q u a l i t y o f o p p o r t u n i t y . No o t h e r s e l f -3 gover n i n g human p o p u l a t i o n of s i m i l a r s i z e and l o n g e v i t y 4 has b o t h o f the f o l l o w i n g s o c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s : a) p o l i t i c a l power c o n c e n t r a t e d i n the hands of a s m a l l r e a d i l y i d e n t i f i a b l e group of d e c i s i o n -makers, and b) a l l w e a l t h h e l d i n common by the e n t i r e membership who c o l l e c t i v e l y own the means of p r o d u c t i o n . H o p e f u l l y , by t e s t i n g hypotheses d e r i v e d from the Marxian and M a c h i a v e l l i a n p o s i t i o n s on the Hu t t e r i t e s , • s o m e l i g h t w i l l be shed on the r e l a t i v e u t i l i t y o f these two views. I t should go wit h o u t s a y i n g t h a t a t e s t o f a s e t o f hypotheses d e r i v e d from a more g e n e r a l t h e o r e t i c a l framework w i l l n o t v e r i f y o r f a l s i f y t h e e n t i r e t h e o r e t i c a l f r a m e w o r k . B o t h t h e M a r x i a n a n d M a c h i a v e l l i a n t h e o r i e s a r e h i g h l y r i c h a n d d e t a i l e d , a nd d e a l w i t h many t o p i c s u n r e l a t e d t o s o c i a l m o b i l i t y . I h a v e a t t e m p t e d t o i s o l a t e a n d o p e r a t i o n a l i z e o n l y t h o s e a s p e c t s o f t h e s e t w o t h e o r i e s w h i c h b e a r o n t h e i s s u e o f s o c i a l m o b i l i t y . A t t i m e s i t h a s b e e n n e c e s s a r y t o r e f i n e a nd e x t e n d t h e s e t h e o r i e s i n o r d e r t o a p p l y t h e m t o t h e H u t t e r i t e s i t u a t i o n . I h a v e e n d e a v o r e d t o do t h i s i n a manner w h i c h i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e g e n e r a l o r i e n t a t i o n o f t h e s e s c h o o l s o f t h o u g h t . My i n t e n t i o n i n t h i s c h a p t e r w i l l n o t b e t o p r e c i s t h e s e t w o t h e o r i e s w i t h a l l o f t h e i r d e f i c i e n c i e s i n t a c t , b u t t o c o n s t r u c t two i n t e r n a l l y c o n s i s t e n t a nd t e s t a b l e t h e o r i e s w h i c h h a v e a s t h e i r b a s i s t h e M a r x i a n a n d M a c h i a v e l l i a n v i e w s . The M a c h i a v e l l i a n P o s i t i o n The M a c h i a v e l l i a n t r a d i t i o n i s r e p r e s e n t e d i n c l a s s i c a l s o c i o l o g i c a l l i t e r a t u r e b y s u c h s c h o l a r s as G a e t a n o M o s c a and V i l f r e d o P a r e t o . I t i s t h e w o r k s o f t h e s e men w h i c h w i l l p r o v i d e t h e b a s i s f o r a M a c h i a v e l l i a n t h e o r y o f d y n a s t y f o r m a t i o n . H o w e v e r , t h e w o r k s o f m o d e r n w r i t e r s w h o s e p o s i t i o n i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h i s t r a d i t i o n w i l l b e u t i l i z e d i n o r d e r t o f i l l o b v i o u s g a p s i n t h e t h e o r y . 5 The M a c h i a v e l l i a n s a s a d i s t i n c t s c h o o l o f t h o u g h t a r e b o u n d t o g e t h e r b y a common t h e o r e t i c a l a s s u m p t i o n w h i c h t h e y e i t h e r i m p l i c i t l y o r e x p l i c i t l y a c c e p t . T h i s a s s u m p t i o n i s p e r h a p s b e s t e x p r e s s e d b y M o s c a i n The R u l i n g C l a s s , Among t h e c o n s t a n t f a c t s a n d t e n d e n c i e s t h a t a r e t o b e f o u n d i n a l l p o l i t i c a l o r g a n i s m s , o n e i s s o o b v i o u s t h a t i t i s a p p a r e n t t o t h e m o s t c a s u a l e y e . I n a l l s o c i e t i e s ... t w o c l a s s e s o f • p e o p l e a p p e a r - a c l a s s t h a t r u l e s a n d a c l a s s t h a t i s r u l e d . The f i r s t c l a s s , a l w a y s t h e l e s s n u merous p e r f o r m s a l l p o l i t i c a l f u n c t i o n s , m o n o p o l i z e s p o w e r a n d e n j o y s t h e a d v a n t a g e s t h a t p o w e r b r i n g s , w h e r e a s t h e s e c o n d , i s d i r e c t e d a n d c o n t r o l l e d b y t h e f i r s t , . . . . T h e a s s u m p t i o n t h a t t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f p o l i t i c a l p o w e r i n s o c i e t y o p e r a t e s a s a p r i m a r y d e t e r m i n a n t w h i c h m u s t b e u s e d t o e x p l a i n o t h e r s o c i a l p r o c e s s e s , ^ i s a common theme w h i c h r u n s t h r o u g h a l l o f t h e w r i t i n g s o f t h e M a c h i a v e l l i a n s . I n c h a r a c t e r i z i n g t h e p o s i t i o n t a k e n b y t h e M a c h i a v e l l i a n s , B u r n h a m s t a t e s t h i s a s s u m p t i o n q u i t e s u c c i n c t l y , F o r a n u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e s o c i a l p r o c e s s , t h e m o s t s i g n i f i c a n t s o c i a l d i v i s i o n t o b e r e c o g n i z e d i s t h a t b e t w e e n t h e r u l i n g c l a s s a n d t h e r u l e d , b e t w e e n t h e e l i t e a n d t h e n o n - e l i t e . ^ T he M a c h i a v e l l i a n s r e g a r d t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f p o l i t i c a l p o w e r i n s o c i e t y t o b e s u f f i c i e n t t o e x p l a i n t h e f o r m a t i o n o f d y n a s t i e s . A l t h o u g h t h i s h y p o t h e s i s h a s n o t y e t b e e n e x p l i c a t e d , i t i s i m p o r t a n t t o n o t e t h a t t h e l o g i c a l r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n t h e d e t e r m i n a n t a n d t h e r e s u l t i s c o n s i d e r e d a 6 s u f f i c i e n t one; that i s , i f X ( d i s t r i b u t i o n of power), then always Z (dynasty formation) regardless of anything else. However, the Machiavellians do not regard the d i s t r i b u t i o n of p o l i t i c a l power to be the only s u f f i c i e n t determinant i n t h i s regard; they admit to at l e a s t one other - the d i s t r i b u t i o n of ownership of the means of production. These two determinants are considered substitutable; that i s , i f X ( d i s t r i b u t i o n of power), then always Z; but i f Y ( d i s t r i b u t i o n of-the ownership of the means of production), then also always Z. By a s s e r t i n g that both the d i s t r i b u t i o n of power and the d i s t r i b u t i o n of the ownership of the means of production can act as determinants, the Machiavellians c l e a r l y d i f f e r e n t i a t e themselves from those economic determinists who argue that only the l a t t e r v a r i a ble can be considered a determinant. According to Mosca, The f i r s t assumption J[of the economic determinists] i s that the whole p o l i t i c a l , j u r i d i c a l and r e l i g i o u s organization of a society i s uniformly subordinated to the p r e v a i l i n g type of economic production, and to the character of the r e l a t i o n s that that type creates between labour and the owners of the instruments of production The economic fa c t o r would be the sole and exclusive cause of a l l the material, i n t e l l e c t u a l , and moral changes that occur i n human s o c i e t i e s , and a l l other factors should be regarded not as factors but as mere ef f e c t s and consequences of the economic f a c t o r . ^ Mosca further maintains that The p r e v a i l i n g system of economic production, with the s p e c i a l r e l a t i o n s that i t sets up between 7 l a b o u r a n d t h o s e who d i r e c t p r o d u c t i o n a n d own i t s i n s t r u m e n t s , i s b u t one o f t h e f a c t o r s t h a t m o s t l a r g e l y i n f l u e n c e c h a n g e s i n t h e p o l i t i c a l o r g a n i -z a t i o n o f a s o c i e t y . ...... The e r r o r o f e c o n o m i c d e t e r m i n i s m l i e s i n h o l d i n g t h a t t h e e c o n o m i c f a c t o r i s t h e o n l y f a c t o r w o r t h y o f c o n s i d e r a t i o n a s c a u s e , a n d t h a t a l l o t h e r f a c t o r s h a v e t o b e r e g a r d e d a s e f f e c t s . ^ A l t h o u g h t h e M a c h i a v e l l i a n s r e g a r d t h e i r f o r m u l a t i o n t o b e a n a l t e r n a t i v e t o t h e e c o n o m i c d e t e r m i n i s t m o d e l , m o s t s o c i e t i e s do n o t p r o v i d e t h e n e c e s s a r y e m p i r i c a l c o n d i t i o n s w h i c h w o u l d a l l o w u s t o d e c i d e t h e r e l a t i v e u t i l i t y o f t h e two m o d e l s . W h e n e v e r t h e r e i s a h i g h c o r r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f p o w e r a n d t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f w e a l t h i n a s o c i e t y , b o t h m o d e l s make e s s e n t i a l l y t h e same p r e d i c t i o n s a b o u t t h a t s o c i e t y . I f t h e r u l i n g e l i t e c o n s i s t e d o f t h e same i n d i v i d u a l s w h i c h made up t h e o w n i n g c l a s s , t h e two i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s ( w e a l t h a n d p o w e r ) w o u l d s o c o n f o u n d e a c h o t h e r t h a t i t w o u l d b e i m p o s s i b l e t o d e c i d e w h e t h e r w e a l t h , o r p o w e r , o r b o t h was s u f f i c i e n t t o p r o d u c e t h e o u t c o m e . A t b e s t we c o u l d s a y t h a t b o t h t h e o r i e s w e r e s u p p o r t e d o r b o t h t h e o r i e s w e r e f a l s i f i e d , b u t we w o u l d n o t b e a b l e t o d i s t i n g u i s h b e t w e e n t h e m . " ^ A l t h o u g h I know o f no c o m p a r a t i v e s t u d y w h i c h r e p o r t s t h e f r e q u e n c y w i t h w h i c h s o c i e t i e s w i t h c o n g r u e n t p o l i t i c a l a n d e c o n o m i c e l i t e s o c c u r , a l a r g e number .of t h e A m e r i c a n c o m m u n i t y s t u d i e s i n d i c a t e t h a t i s o m o r p h i c o r s u b s t a n t i a l l y o v e r l a p p i n g p o l i t i c a l a n d 8 e c o n o m i c e l i t e s a r e r a t h e r f r e q u e n t l y e n c o u n t e r e d . S i m i l a r l y , a p a r t i c i p a t o r y d e m o c r a c y i n w h i c h w e a l t h was d i v i d e d e q u a l l y among a l l members w o u l d , i f s u c h a s o c i e t y e x i s t e d , o f f e r l i t t l e s c o p e f o r t h e t e s t i n g o f t h e M a c h i a v e l l i a n a n d e c o n o m i c d e t e r m i n i s t ( M a r x i a n ) m o d e l s . ' P l u r a l i s t ' s o c i e t i e s i n w h i c h t h e w e a l t h y a r e n o t r u l e r s a n d t h e r u l e r s a r e n o t w e a l t h y w o u l d a p p e a r t o o f f e r a b e t t e r o p p o r t u n i t y . t o t e s t t h e s e h y p o t h e s e s . H o w e v e r , a n o t h e r c o n d i t i o n w h i c h l i m i t s t h e t e s t a b i l i t y o f t h e s e h y p o t h e s e s i s f r e q u e n t l y f o u n d i n p l u r a l i s t s o c i e t i e s , a l t h o u g h i t i s b y no means r e s t r i c t e d t o them. S o c i e t i e s ( a n d c o m m u n i t i e s ) i n w h i c h w e a l t h c a n b e e x c h a n g e d f o r p o w e r a n d p o w e r c a n b e t r a d e d i n f o r w e a l t h p r e s e n t m a j o r d i f f i c u l t i e s f o r t h e t e s t o f t h e s e two h y p o t h e s e s . S i n c e I f e e l t h a t t h e p r o b l e m i s somewhat c o m p l e x , I h a v e a t t e m p t e d t o d e v e l o p my a r g u m e n t i n a c l e a r s t e p b y s t e p f a s h i o n i n o r d e r t o a v o i d c o n f u s i o n . 1) E v e r y human s o c i e t y h a s a f i n i t e s u p p l y o f s c a r c e r e s o u r c e s ( b o t h n a t u r a l a n d human r e s o u r c e s ) w h i c h c a n b e u s e d t o s a t i s f y a m u l t i p l i c i t y o f human n e e d s . 2) T h e s e s c a r c e r e s o u r c e s c a n b e d i s t r i b u t e d t o i n d i v i d u a l members o f a s o c i e t y i n t h r e e f o r m s : g o o d s , s e r v i c e s , a n d money. Money w i l l b e d e f i n e d as "any c l a s s o f o b j e c t s p o s s e s s i n g g e n e r a l i z e d e xchange, v a l u e f o r g o o d s and s e r v i c e s . 9 3) The w e a l t h of an i n d i v i d u a l i n a g i v e n s o c i e t y w i l l be d e f i n e d as t h a t p o r t i o n of the t o t a l goods and s e r v i c e s which have a known exchange valu e , p l u s the money a v a i l a b l e i n t h a t s o c i e t y which has been d i s t r i b u t e d t o and i s now 13 p o s s e s s e d by t h a t i n d i v i d u a l . 4) The range of goods and s e r v i c e s which have an exchange v a l u e v a r i e s g r e a t l y from s o c i e t y t o s o c i e t y ; some s o c i e t i e s have monetized n e a r l y a l l goods and s e r v i c e s , o t h e r s have monetized v e r y few."^ 5) A power r e l a t i o n s h i p can be c o n s i d e r e d a s e r v i c e which may be s u b j e c t t o m o n e t i z a t i o n i n a s o c i e t y . I f power i s d e f i n e d as an asymmetrical r e l a t i o n s h i p between two or more s o c i a l u n i t s ( i n d i v i d u a l s or groups) i n which one p a r t y c o n t r o l s the b e h a v i o r of another by v i r t u e o f h i s a b i l i t y 15 t o d e a l our rewards and punishments t o t h a t o t h e r p a r t y , and i f the rewards and punishments used t o c o n t r o l the o t h e r p a r t y are monetary, then t h a t power r e l a t i o n s h i p has been monetized. 6) In a s o c i e t y i n which power r e l a t i o n s h i p s are monetized, w e a l t h and power can not be c o n s i d e r e d m u t u a l l y e x c l u s i v e s i n c e many economic exchanges are a l s o power r e l a t i o n s h i p s . By d e f i n i t i o n , an exchange of money f o r s e r v i c e s i m p l i e s a power r e l a t i o n s h i p . 10 7) Even i n a p l u r a l i s t society i n which the wealthy and the powerful appear to represent d i s j o i n t sets, the powerful may have spent considerable economic resources i n acquiring a p o s i t i o n of power as a long term investment which can be transformed in t o economic wealth i n the future. Thus i n a highly monetized society, the economic and p o l i t i c a l e l i t e s possess a chameleon q u a l i t y which makes them d i f f i c u l t to i s o l a t e and analyze. Consequently, t h i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c makes both the Machiavellian and the Marxian models d i f f i c u l t to a p p l y . 1 6 My strategy w i l l be s i m i l a r to a chemist who wishes to analyze the e f f e c t s of two chemical elements, but i s forced to seek out the elements as they n a t u r a l l y occur. The chemist, i f he had a choice, would not sel e c t a specimen i n which the two elements had formed into a compovind. The chemist would r e a l i z e that the compound would produce e f f e c t s r e s u l t i n g from the i n t e r a c t i o n between the two elements. Consequently, i t would be d i f f i c u l t i f not impossible to separate the 17 p a r t i c u l a r e f f e c t s of each element. The f a c t that compounds occur with greater frequency i n the natural world than pure uncompounded elements would be an i r r e l e v a n t consideration to the chemist. S i m i l a r l y , Hutterian society may be a deviant case, but i t does meet the c r i t e r i a necessary to t e s t our two models. These are: 11 1. A society i n which p o l i t i c a l power i s concentrated i n the hands of a small minority of members. I t has a small well defined power e l i t e . 2. This power e l i t e cannot be distinguished from the non-e l i t e on the basis of wealth. This means that the influence of one independent variable (wealth) i s con t r o l l e d while the other (power) i s allowed to vary. 3. Power relationships have not been monetized since neither money nor any other medium of exchange i s 18 allowed to e x i s t i n t e r n a l l y . A Formulation of the Machiavellian Thesis Our major i n t e r e s t i n the Machiavellians i s t h e i r assertion that the d i f f e r e n t i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n of p o l i t i c a l power i s a s u f f i c i e n t condition to produce dynastic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n a society. D e f i n i t i o n of the terms: Power: An asymmetrical r e l a t i o n s h i p between two or more s o c i a l units (individuals or groups) i n which one party controls the behavior of another by v i r t u e of h i s a b i l i t y to deal out rewards and punishments to that other party. This a b i l i t y to d i s t r i b u t e rewards and punishments to others may be based on a v a r i e t y of sources such as physical strength, wealth, knowledge, etc. I f the resource base of power i s 12 p o l i t i c a l p o s i t i o n , then the power which i s e x e r t e d by the h o l d e r of such a p o s i t i o n w i l l be r e f e r r e d t o as ' p o l i t i c a l power'. T h i s i s a form of i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d power e x e r c i s e d by the h o l d e r s of d e c i s ion-making p o s i t i o n s or o f f i c e s i n an o r g a n i z a t i o n or s o c i e t y . These o f f i c e s themselves and t h e i r terms of r e f e r e n c e must be l e g i t i m a t e d by o t h e r s i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n or s o c i e t y . Whether or not the i n d i v i d u a l s over which power i s e x e r t e d do the l e g i t i m a t i n g i s an open e m p i r i c a l q u e s t i o n , and would depend upon the d i s t r i b u t i o n of power i n a p a r t i c u l a r s o c i e t y . L e g i s l a t i o n of the powers of a p a r t i c u l a r p o l i t i c a l p o s i t i o n r e q u i r e s o n l y t h a t those who r e g a r d the p o s i t i o n and i t s powers as r i g h t f u l be a b l e t o e n f o r c e l e g i t i m a t i o n . I t does not r e q u i r e t h a t those i n a s u b o r d i n a t e or r e l a t i v e l y powerless p o s i t i o n accept the l e g i t i m a c y of the p o s i t i o n . 1 ^ In the words of A r t h u r Stinchcombe: A power i s l e g i t i m a t e t o the degree t h a t , by v i r t u e of the d o c t r i n e s and norms by which i t i s j u s t i f i e d , the power-holder can c a l l upon s u f f i c i e n t o t h e r c e n t e r s of power, as r e s e r v e s i n case of need, to make h i s power e f f e c t i v e . ^ 0 A g r e a t d e a l o f c o n c e p t u a l c o n f u s i o n has emerged over whether t o r e g a r d power as a r e l a t i o n s h i p or a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c . I s h a l l r e g a r d i t as a 'ranking c h a r a c t e r i s t i c ' . That i s , i t i s an a c q u i r e d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of an i n d i v i d u a l t h a t accrues 13 from h i s r e l a t i v e p o s i t i o n t o o t h e r s . For example, i t would be meaningless t o r e f e r t o an i s o l a t e as h a v i n g power. A person has more or l e s s power depending upon the power h e l d by o t h e r s w i t h whom he has r e l a t i o n s h i p s . A c c o r d i n g t o 22 Dahl, under the c o n d i t i o n t h a t the bases of power does not s h i f t ( f o r example,, we o n l y c o n s i d e r power based on p o l i t i c a l p o s i t i o n ) , a group o f a c t o r s can be ranked from the most powerful t o the l e a s t p o w e r f u l . T h i s r a n k i n g system i s based upon the p r i n c i p l e t h a t the i n d i v i d u a l who c o n t r o l s the b e h a v i o r of the g r e a t e s t number o f ot h e r a c t o r s i s the most powerful, and the i n d i v i d u a l who c o n t r o l s the second g r e a t e s t number i s the second most powerful, and so on. Whereas Dahl o p e r a t i o n a l l y awards the h i g h e s t rank t o the i n d i v i d u a l who i n a b e h a v i o r a l sense e x e r c i s e s c o n t r o l over the l a r g e s t number, I f i n d i t more i n keeping w i t h my d e f i n i t i o n of power t o g i v e the h i g h e s t rank t o t h a t i n d i v i d u a l who has a r e s o u r c e base which would enable him t o c o n t r o l the g r e a t e s t number of ot h e r a c t o r s . J u s t as i t i s l e s s a c c u r a t e t o gauge the wealth of an i n d i v i d u a l by how much he spends than by how much he has to spend, i t i s l e s s u s e f u l t o know which i n d i v i d u a l i n a p a r t i c u l a r s i t u a t i o n e x e r c i s e d the most power than t o know which i n d i v i d u a l h o l d s a p o l i t i c a l o f f i c e (the r e s o u r c e base of p o l i t i c a l power) which enables him, by v i r t u e o f the i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d r i g h t s 14 of that p o s i t i o n , to control the largest number of other i n d i v i d u a l s . In t h i s study, the weight (severity of the sanctions which can be employed), the domain (number of persons controlled), and the scope (number of areas of j u r i s d i c t i o n ) of the rights guaranteed to p o l i t i c a l p o s i tions w i l l serve to indicate the r e l a t i v e power held by incumbents 23 to those p o s i t i o n s . A p o l i t i c a l e l i t e w i l l be defined as that minority of p o l i t i c a l o f f i c e holders who can by v i r t u e of the"terms of t h e i r o f f i c e s u t i l i z e the strongest sanctions to control the largest number i n the greatest v a r i e t y of areas. This d e f i n i t i o n i s s i m i l a r to the ' i n s t i t u t i o n a l approach' of C. Wright M i l l s , who views the p o l i t i c a l e l i t e as occupying p i v o t a l i n s t i t u t i o n a l positions or roles i n a 24 society. This d e f i n i t i o n i s also consistent with the general d e f i n i t i o n offered by another Machiavellian t h e o r i s t V i l f r e d o Pareto: Let us suppose that i n every branch of human a c t i v i t y an index or grade can be assigned to each i n d i v i d u a l as an i n d i c a t i o n of his capacity, i n much the same way that marks are awarded for the various subjects i n a school examination. Thus, we w i l l award 10 to the highest c a l i b r e of professional man (doctor, lawyer or the l i k e ) , and 1 to h i s colleague who f a i l s to get a patient or a c l i e n t , awarding 0 to the absolute dolt Let us therefore make a class for those people who have the highest indices i n t h e i r branch of a c t i v i t y , and give to t h i s class the name of '• elite'.25-15 T h e r e i s a s e r i o u s b o u n d a r y i d e n t i f i c a t i o n p r o b l e m i m p l i c i t i n t h e a b o v e d e f i n i t i o n w h i c h . b e c o m e s r e a d i l y a p p a r e n t when we a t t e m p t t o o p e r a t i o n a l i z e t h e c o n c e p t . F o r e x a m p l e , l e t u s s a y t h a t we h a v e b e e n a b l e t o r a n k o r d e r t h e members o f a s o c i e t y a c c o r d i n g t o t h e w e i g h t , d o m a i n , a n d s c o p e o f t h e i r p o l i t i c a l o f f i c e s . D We f i n d a t t h e t o p o f t h e s c a l e a r u l e r who c a n e x e r c i s e a b s o l u t e c o n t r o l o v e r a l l o f t h e o t h e r members o f t h e s o c i e t y i n e v e r y s p h e r e o f a c t i o n . Somewhere n e a r t h e m i d d l e o f o u r c o n t i n u u m we f i n d a r e t a i n e r who c a n e m p l o y o n l y a s p e c i f i c s e t o f s a n c t i o n s t o c o n t r o l t h e b e h a v i o r o f a s m a l l g r o u p o f i n d i v i d u a l s a s t h e y p e r f o r m a h i g h l y s p e c i a l i z e d f u n c t i o n . F o r e x a m p l e , h i s p o s i t i o n w i l l o n l y a l l o w h i m t o u s e m o n e t a r y s a n c t i o n s t o c o n t r o l t h e b e h a v i o r o f a s m a l l g r o u p o f h o u s e h o l d s e r v a n t s w h i l e t h e y a r e a t w o r k . A t t h e b o t t o m we m i g h t f i n d a s l a v e who o c c u p i e s no p o l i t i c a l p o s i t i o n a n d i s s u b j e c t t o t h e c o n t r o l o f o t h e r s i n e v e r y s p h e r e o f a c t i o n . C l e a r l y t h e p o l i t i c a l e l i t e w i l l b e f o u n d a t t h e t o p o f t h i s c o n t i n u u m , b u t t h e c u t t i n g p o i n t s e p a r a t i n g i t f r o m t h e n o n -e l i t e w o u l d b e a r a t h e r a r b i t r a r y d e m a r c a t i o n u n l e s s f u r t h e r d e f i n i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a r e u t i l i z e d . M o s t M a c h i a v e l l i a n s seem t o a g r e e t h a t a p o l i t i c a l e l i t e s h o u l d c o n s t i t u t e a r e a d i l y i d e n t i f i a b l e g r o u p whose b o u n d a r i e s p r o d u c e a 16 ' n a t u r a l ' b r e a k a g e i n t h e c o n t i n u u m . ' M e i s e l l i s t s t h r e e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f a n e l i t e w h i c h I w i l l u t i l i z e as i d e n t i f y i n g c r i t e r i a . To p u t i t i n t o a f a c i l e f o r m u l a , a l l e l i t e s s h a l l b e c r e d i t e d w i t h w h a t we s h o u l d l i k e t o c a l l t h e t h r e e C ' s : g r o u p c o n s c i o u s n e s s , c o h e r e n c e , a n d conspiracy.^° By s e l f - c o n s c i o u s n e s s we r e f e r t o a c o l l e c t i v e p e r c e p t i o n o f u n i t y , p e r h a p s b e s t i n d i c a t e d b y t h e p r e s e n c e o f a c o l l e c t i v e l a b e l o r g r o u p name. By c o h e r e n c e , we mean t h e c a p a c i t y t o a c t i n a u n i t a r y manner i n t h e p u r s u a n c e o f i n t e r d e p e n d e n t g o a l s . T h i s w i l l b e i n d i c a t e d b y t h e p r e s e n c e o f a g r o u p p r o d u c t s u c h a s t h e e n a c t m e n t o f l a w s a n d r e g u l a t i o n s . B y c o n s p i r a c y , we r e f e r n o t t o s e c r e t p l o t t i n g , b u t t o r e l a t i v e l y e x c l u s i v e i n t e r a c t i o n c a r r i e d o n i n . t h e c o n t e x t o f p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i t y . I n o t h e r w o r d s , t h e e l i t e m u s t r e g u l a r l y m e et o r a s s e m b l e as a b o d y i n a manner w h i c h 29 e x c l u d e s t h e n o n - e l i t e . D y n a s t i c C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s : A d y n a s t y w i l l b e d e f i n e d as a s e q u e n c e o f r u l e r s f r o m t h e same f a m i l y . M a c h i a v e l l i a n s c o n t e n d t h a t p o l i t i c a l e l i t e s t e n d t o become d y n a s t i c i n t h e s e n s e t h a t t h e c h i l d r e n o f e l i t e members a r e more l i l c e l y t o b e r e c r u i t e d i n t o t h e e l i t e t h a n t h e c h i l d r e n o f t h e n o n - e l i t e . I n o t h e r 17 words, k i n s h i p p a r t i c u l a r i s m becomes the o v e r r i d i n g s e l e c t i o n c r i t e r i o n of e l i t e r e c r u i t m e n t . A c c o r d i n g t o Mosca, [A]11 r u l i n g c l a s s e s tend t o become h e r e d i t a r y i n f a c t i f not i n law. A l l p o l i t i c a l f o r c e s seem t o possess a q u a l i t y t h a t i n p h y s i c s used to be c a l l e d the f o r c e of i n e r t i a . They have a tendency, t h a t i s , t o remain a t the p o i n t and i n the s t a t e i n which they f i n d themselves... Q u a l i f i c a t i o n f o r important o f f i c e ... i s much more r e a d i l y a c q u i r e d when one has had a c e r t a i n f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h them o n from c h i l d h o o d . The M a c h i a v e l l i a n s are not a l t o g e t h e r c l e a r as t o what s o c i a l or p s y c h o l o g i c a l f a c t o r s mediate t h i s a r i s t o c r a t i c o r d y n a s t i c tendency. I have attempted to i d e n t i f y t h r e e s e p a r a t e a l t e r n a t i v e s i n the M a c h i a v e l l i a n l i t e r a t u r e . The i n e r t i a h y p o t h e s i s : The n o t i o n t h a t i n d i v i d u a l s conform t o some p r i n c i p l e of l e a s t e f f o r t or energy c o n s e r v a t i o n has been used t o e x p l a i n the f o r m a t i o n of d y n a s t i e s . T h i s i d e a , c r u d e l y expressed above by Mosca, has re-emerged i n the w r i t i n g s o f s e v e r a l i n f l u e n t i a l community power r e s e a r c h e r s , n o t a b l y 31 P o l s b y and Dahl. The h y p o t h e s i s runs as f o l l o w s . I f b o t h A and B are p o s s i b l e contenders f o r an e l i t e p o s i t i o n x, and i f i t r e q u i r e s a g r e a t e r expenditure of human energy t o equip and p o s i t i o n A i n x, then g i v e n the u s u a l c e t e r i s p a r i b u s assumptions, B w i l l be more l i k e l y t o occupy p o s i t i o n x than A. The o f f s p r i n g of e l i t e s have a b u i l t i n advantage over the o f f s p r i n g of n o n - e l i t e s because the e a r l y c h i l d h o o d 18 s o c i a l i z a t i o n o f e l i t e o f f s p r i n g h a s p r o v i d e d t h e m w i t h t h e r e q u i s i t e s k i l l s , i n f o r m a t i o n , a n d c o n n e c t i o n s r e q u i r e d t o f i l l a n e l i t e p o s i t i o n . The n o n - e l i t e o f f s p r i n g i s d i s a d v a n t a g e d b e c a u s e i t w o u l d r e q u i r e a g r e a t e r e x p e n d i t u r e o f e n e r g y b o t h o n t h e p a r t o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l i n q u e s t i o n a n d o t h e r s t o a d e q u a t e l y r e - s o c i a l i z e o r groom h i m f o r an e l i t e . . 32 p o s i t i o n . The g e n e t i c h y p o t h e s i s : A l t h o u g h p r e s e n t l y r a t h e r u n p o p u l a r , t h e v i e w t h a t e l i t e s t e n d t o become d y n a s t i c b e c a u s e e l i t e o f f s p r i n g h a v e an h e r e d i t a r y a d v a n t a g e o v e r n o n - e l i t e o f f s p r i n g was o n c e 33 c o n s i d e r e d t o b e a c e n t r a l e x p l a n a t i o n b y many s c h o l a r s . I t was c l a i m e d t h a t many c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s s u c h a s h i g h i n t e l l i g e n c e a n d a h i g h e n e r g y l e v e l w e r e b o t h r e q u i r e m e n t s o f e l i t e p o s i t i o n s a n d h e r i t a b l e t r a i t s . T h u s e l i t e o f f s p r i n g , b e c a u s e o f t h e i r f a v o u r a b l e endowments, w o u l d h a v e a n a d v a n t a g e o v e r n o n - e l i t e o f f s p r i n g . T h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s t i l l h a s a d h e r e n t s among m o d e r n s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t s , a s i s a t t e s t e d b y t h e f o l l o w i n g q u o t a t i o n b y t h e a n t h r o p o l o g i s t H e n r y S e l b y : S a d l y f o r s o c i a l U t o p i a s , g e n e s w i l l o u t , p e r s o n a l i t y and c a p a b i l i t y a r e i n p a r t g e n e t i c a l l y d e t e r m i n e d , and i n v i r t u a l l y a n y s o c i a l s y s t e m t h e s o n o f a n e l i t e f a t h e r h a s a b e t t e r c h a n c e o f b e c o m i n g a member o f t h e e l i t e t h a n t h e s o n o f a n o n - e l i t e f a t h e r , p r o v i d e d t h e s e l e c t i o n c r i t e r i a do n o t c h a n g e . 3 ^ 19 . 35 The T h r a s y m a c h i a n h y p o t h e s i s : A c c o r d i n g t o t h i s v i e w , p o w e r i s c o n s i d e r e d t o b e i n s c a r c e s u p p l y a n d h i g h l y v a l u e d e v e n when i t c a n n o t b e u s e d t o s e c u r e e c o n o m i c r e s o u r c e s . T h u s t h e r e i s a t e n d e n c y b y t h o s e e n j o y i n g p o w e r t o e r e c t b a r r i e r s w h i c h w o u l d e x c l u d e o u t s i d e r s . The e l i t e t e n d s t o become d y n a s t i c b e c a u s e t h e e l i t e members f i n d i t i n t h e i r i n t e r e s t t o b e h i g h l y r e s t r i c t i v e i n t h e r e c r u i t m e n t o f n o n - e l i t e members i n t o t h e e l i t e . S i n c e I w i l l a t t e m p t t o d e m o n s t r a t e i n a s u b s e q u e n t c h a p t e r t h a t t h e s t r u c t u r a l d e s i g n o f H u t t e r i a n s o c i e t y i s s u c h t h a t b o t h t h e i n e r t i a a n d t h e g e n e t i c h y p o t h e s e s a r e i n a p p l i c a b l e , I w i l l t a k e g r e a t e r c a r e i n t h e f o r m u l a t i o n o f t h i s h y p o t h e s i s . A c c o r d i n g t o t h e T h r a s y m a c h i a n h y p o t h e s i s , men a r e m o t i v a t e d t o s e e k p o w e r f o r r e a s o n s o f s e l f - i n t e r e s t . The r e w a r d s w h i c h t h e y s e e k n e e d n o t b e m o n e t a r y , t h e y may b e w h a t H a r s a n y i c a l l s ' s t a t u s p a y o f f s ' . I n g e n e r a l , s t a t u s p a y o f f s a r e v a r i o u s f o r m s o f d e f e r e n t i a l t r e a t m e n t a c c o r d e d a p o w e r s u p e r i o r b y a p o w e r i n f e r i o r . H a r s a n y i d e f i n e s d e f e r e n t i a l b e h a v i o r a s : p r i m a r i l y a g e n e r a l c o o p e r a t i v e a t t i t u d e , a w i l l i n g n e s s t o p e r f o r m m i n o r p e r s o n a l f a v o r s a n d s e r v i c e s f o r a n o t h e r p e r s o n . I t a l s o i n v o l v e s y i e l d i n g h i m a p r i o r i t y o f a c c e s s t o v a r i o u s m i n o r p r i v i l e g e s , o r a t l e a s t r e f r a i n i n g f r o m a c t i v e c o m p e t i t i o n w i t h h i m f o r s u c h p r i v i l e g e s . 20 D e f e r e n t i a l t r e a t m e n t may b e g r a n t e d t o p o w e r s u p e r i o r s a s a n i n c e n t i v e t o p e r f o r m w h a t i s p e r c e i v e d t o b e a n i m p o r t a n t a n d v a l u a b l e r o l e i n s o c i e t y o r p o w e r i n f e r i o r s may b e i n d u c e d t o p r o v i d e t h e s e m i n o r p r i v i l e g e s b y v i r t u e o f t h e v a r i o u s s o c i a l p r e s s u r e s w h i c h a p o w e r h o l d e r h a s a t 37 h i s d i s p o s a l . H o wever, t y p i c a l l y t h e s e s t a t u s p a y o f f s p l a y a much l e s s i m p o r t a n t r o l e t h a n e c o n o m i c p a y o f f s . B u t i n s o c i e t i e s s u c h as t h e H u t t e r i t e s , w h e r e e c o n o m i c r e s o u r c e s a r e h e l d i n common, n o n - e c o n o m i c r e s o u r c e s s u c h a s s o c i a l s t a t u s may become i m p o r t a n t b o t h a s a n i n c e n t i v e a n d as a m a j o r s o c i a l m e c h a n i s m f o r a l l o c a t i n g r e s o u r c e s . I n s h o r t , s o c i a l s t a t u s u s u r p s t h e f u n c t i o n s money a n d p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y n o r m a l l y p l a y i n m o s t i n d u s t r i a l s o c i e t i e s . A c c o r d i n g t o H a r s a n y i : A s o c i a l g r o u p may d i s t r i b u t e i t s r e s o u r c e s t o i n d i v i d u a l members f o r t h e i r e x c l u s i v e u s e as t h e i r p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y , o r may r e t a i n t h e s e r e s o u r c e s f o r t h e common u s e o f i t s members. I n t h e l a t t e r c a s e t h e a c t u a l u s e o f t h e s e r e s o u r c e s w i l l b e t y p i c a l l y g o v e r n e d b y t h e member's r e l a t i v e s o c i a l s t a t u s w i t h i n t h e g r o u p , i n t h e s e n s e t h a t , o t h e r t h i n g s b e i n g e q u a l t h e h i g h e r s t a t u s members w i l l t e n d t o h a v e a p r i o r c l a i m t o t h e i r u s e . 3 8 S i n c e t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f a p o s i t i o n o f p o w e r i s p o s i t i v e l y r e w a r d i n g t o t h e i n c u m b e n t , i t f o l l o w s t h a t men h o l d i n g t h e s e p o s i t i o n s w i l l s t r i v e t o m a i n t a i n t h e i r p o s i t i o n s . I f we f u r t h e r assume t h a t t h e a v a i l a b l e p o w e r i s a l w a y s i n s h o r t 21 s u p p l y o r s c a r c e , t h e n t h e p o w e r h o l d e r w i l l a t t e m p t t o p r e v e n t o t h e r s f r o m a c q u i r i n g i t . T he a s s u m p t i o n t h a t p o w e r i s a r e l a t i v e t e r m . T h a t i s , a p e r s o n h a s more o r l e s s p o w e r d e p e n d i n g u p o n t h e p o w e r h e l d b y o t h e r s w i t h whom h e i s i n r e l a t i o n s h i p . T h u s i n a p o w e r r e l a t i o n s h i p a n i n c r e a s e i n p o w e r f o r A w o u l d mean a d e c r e a s e i n p o w e r f o r B. An i n s t a n c e w h e r e t w o p e o p l e h a d e q u a l p o w e r w o u l d b e t h e same 3 9 a s h a v i n g no p o w e r ( o v e r e a c h o t h e r ) . A l t h o u g h i t i s c l e a r t h a t e l i t e s w o u l d b e m o t i v a t e d t o s a f e g u a r d t h e i r own p o s i t i o n s , ' i t d o e s n o t f o l l o w t h a t t h e y w o u l d b e s i m i l a r l y m o t i v a t e d t o s a f e g u a r d t h e s e p o s i t i o n s f o r t h e i r c h i l d r e n ' s f u t u r e o c c u p a n c y . I n o r d e r t o make s u c h a s t a t e m e n t i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o make t h e s i m p l e assump-t i o n t h a t i n d i v i d u a l s w i l l p r e f e r t h e i r own o f f s p r i n g t o t h e o f f s p r i n g o f others.^® S i n c e i t i s a u b i q u i t o u s f a c t o f human e x i s t e n c e t h a t a l l men d i e a n d t h a t r e p l a c e m e n t s m u s t b e f o u n d t o f i l l t h e i r p o s i t i o n s ; i t i s p r e d i c t e d t h a t e l i t e members w i l l a t t e m p t t o e n s u r e t h a t t h e i r s o n s s u c c e e d t h e m b y k e e p i n g t h e a v e n u e s o p e n t o t h e i r s o n s a n d c l o s e d t o t h e s o n s o f o t h e r men. N o t o n l y w o u l d t h e i r o f f s p r i n g b e g i v e n g r e a t e r o p p o r t u n i t i e s , b u t i f p o w e r i s p e r c e i v e d t o b e r e w a r d i n g , t h e n t h e s o n s o f e l i t e members w o u l d b e m o t i v a t e d t o t a k e a d v a n t a g e o f t h e s e o p p o r t u n i t i e s . I f the e l i t e i s able to e x e r c i s e c o n t r o l over entrance i n t o the e l i t e , we would p r e d i c t t h a t t h a t s o c i e t y would be c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a) a h i g h p r o b a b i l i t y of e l i t e o f f s p r i n g i n h e r i t i n g e l i t e s t a t u s , b) a h i g h p r o b a b i l i t y of n o n - e l i t e o f f s p r i n g i n h e r i t i n g n o n - e l i t e s t a t u s , c) a low p r o b a b i l i t y of n o n - e l i t e o f f s p r i n g e n t e r i n g the e l i t e from below (upward m o b i l i t y ) , and d) a low p r o b a b i l i t y of e l i t e o f f s p r i n g e n t e r i n g the n o n - e l i t e from above (downward m o b i l i t y ) . In a s o c i e t y such as the H u t t e r i t e s , where a r i g i d d i v i s i o n of labour by sex e x i s t s , the sons of the e l i t e may be able t o succeed t o the p o s i t i o n s of t h e i r f a t h e r s , but the daughters are barred from t a k i n g t h i s route to e l i t e s t a t u s . Since i t i s u n l i k e l y t h a t the e l i t e would take steps t o ensure t h a t t h e i r male o f f s p r i n g acquire e l i t e s t a t u s without at the same time attempting t o make a s i m i l a r p r o v i s i o n f o r t h e i r female o f f s p r i n g , we would p r e d i c t t h a t e l i t e daughters would have a hig h p r o b a b i l i t y of i n h e r i t i n g p o s i t i o n s s i m i l a r to t h e i r mothers 1. Inasmuch as the s t a t u s p o s i t i o n of the w i f e i s dependent upon the p o s i t i o n h e l d by 41 the husband, t h i s would i n v o l v e marriage to an e l i t e male. We would, t h e r e f o r e p r e d i c t t h a t mate s e l e c t i o n would be c h a r a c t e r i z e d by e l i t e connubium - a system of marriage exchanges w i t h i n the e l i t e . 4 2 We would p r e d i c t t h a t there would be a) a hig h p r o b a b i l i t y t h a t e l i t e daughters w i l l m a r r y e l i t e s o n s ( e l i t e c o n n u b i u m ) , b ) a h i g h p r o b a b i l i t y t h a t n o n - e l i t e d a u g h t e r s w i l l m a r r y n o n - e l i t e s o n s ( n o n - e l i t e c o n n u b i u m ) , c ) a l o w p r o b a b i l i t y t h a t e l i t e d a u g h t e r s w i l l m a r r y n o n - e l i t e s o n s ( h y p o g a m y ) , a nd d) a l o w p r o b a b i l i t y t h a t n o n - e l i t e d a u g h t e r s w i l l m a r r y e l i t e s o n s ( h y p e r g a m y ) . A l t h o u g h we h a v e h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t t h e e l i t e a s a w h o l e w i l l m a i n t a i n i t s e x c l u s i v e n e s s i n t h e a r e a o f s u c c e s s i o n a n d m a r r i a g e , o u r t h e o r y l e a d s u s t o e x p e c t t h a t t w o s e g m e n t s o f t h e e l i t e w i l l b e more e x c l u s i v e t h a n o t h e r s . 1. The U p p e r S t r a t u m o f t h e E l i t e I f t h e e l i t e i t s e l f i s d i f f e r e n t i a t e d w i t h r e s p e c t t o p o l i t i c a l p o w e r , we w o u l d e x p e c t t h e m o s t p o w e r f u l s t r a t u m t o b e more e x c l u s i v e t h a n t h e l e s s p o w e r f u l s t r a t u m o r s t r a t a T h i s u p p e r s t r a t u m w o u l d b e i n a p o s i t i o n t o u t i l i z e i t s r e l a t i v e l y e x t e n s i v e p o w e r more e f f e c t i v e l y t o e n s u r e t h a t i t s m a l e o f f s p r i n g s u c c e e d t o e l i t e p o s i t i o n s a n d t h a t i t s f e m a l e o f f s p r i n g c o n t r a c t e l i t e m a r r i a g e s . We p r e d i c t t h a t w i t h i n t h e e l i t e a) t h e s o n s o f t h e u p p e r s t r a t u m members w o u l d h a v e a h i g h e r p r o b a b i l i t y o f i n h e r i t i n g a n e l i t e p o s i t i o n t h a n t h e s o n s o f o t h e r e l i t e members, a n d b ) t h e d a u g h t e r s o f t h e u p p e r s t r a t u m members w o u l d h a v e a h i g h e r p r o b a b i l i t y o f c o n t r a c t i n g a n e l i t e m a r r i a g e t h a n t h e d a u g h t e r s o f o t h e r e l i t e members. 24 2. The E l i t e K i n G r o u p W i t h i n t h e e l i t e , v a r i o u s i n d i v i d u a l s w i l l h a v e u n c l e s , g r a n d p a r e n t s a n d o t h e r k i n who a r e members o f t h e e l i t e . T h e s e e x t e n d e d k i n f o l k c a n b e c o n c e i v e d o f as h a v i n g a c u m u l a t i v e e f f e c t w i t h r e s p e c t t o s e c u r i n g a n e l i t e p o s i t i o n f o r . a nephew, g r a n d s o n , e t c . S i m i l a r l y , b y p o o l i n g t h e i r c o l l e c t i v e p o w e r , t h e e l i t e k i n may a r r a n g e a n a p p r o p r i a t e m a r r i a g e f o r a f a v o u r i t e n i e c e o r g r a n d - d a u g h t e r . T e p perman, who was i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e same phenomena, u s e d t h e a n a l o g y o f a r o p e t o e x p r e s s t h e n o t i o n o f k i n s h i p s u p p o r t . F a m i l y s u p p o r t among e x t e n d e d k i n may b e v i s u a l i z e d a s a r o p e , e a c h s t r a n d o f w h i c h i s s l e n d e r a n d weak b u t , when i n t e r t w i n e d w i t h o t h e r s , i s s t r o n g e r t h a n t h e sum o f t h e s e i n d i v i d u a l s t r e n g t h s . The a n a l o g y i s a g o o d one f o r , h i s t o r i c a l l y , f a m i l y d y n a s t i e s h a v e b e e n o f t e n s u p p o r t e d b y s u c h i n t e r t w i n i n g t h r o u g h c o u s i n m a r r i a g e s a nd c o - o p e r a t i v e b u s i n e s s e n t e r p r i s e s . L i k e a r o p e t h a t i s f r a y i n g , o n c e some s t r a n d s o f an e x t e n d e d k i n d r e d a r e c u t b y d e a t h o r u n t w i n e d b y exogamy, t h e r e m a i n i n g i n d i v i d u a l s t r a n d s a r e p l a c e d u n d e r g r e a t e r s t r a i n a n d t h e s t a t u s o f t h e e n t i r e f a m i l y i s e n d a n g e r e d . ^ 3 We p r e d i c t t h a t a) among s o n s o f t h e e l i t e , t h e g r e a t e r t h e 44 number o f g e n e r a t i o n a l l y c l o s e k i n who a r e t h e m s e l v e s members o f t h e e l i t e , t h e g r e a t e r t h e p r o b a b i l i t y o f i n h e r i t i n g e l i t e s t a t u s , a n d b ) among d a u g h t e r s o f t h e e l i t e , t h e g r e a t e r t h e number o f g e n e r a t i o n a l l y c l o s e k i n who a r e t h e m s e l v e s members o f t h e e l i t e , t h e g r e a t e r t h e p r o b a b i l i t y o f c o n t r a c t i n g a n . e l i t e m a r r i a g e . 25 The C i r c u l a t i o n o f E l i t e s ______________________________ f M o s c a a n d P a r e t o ' s c i r c u l a t i o n o f t h e e l i t e h y p o t h e s i s i s p e r h a p s t h e i r b e s t known t h e o r e t i c a l f o r m u l a t i o n . How-e v e r , we m u s t t r e a t i t w i t h some c a r e , s i n c e u n l e s s t h e c o n d i t i o n s u n d e r w h i c h i t i s c l a i m e d t o o c c u r a r e c l e a r l y s p e c i f i e d , i t may c o n t r a d i c t t h e t h e s i s t h a t e l i t e s t e n d t o c r y s t a l i z e i n t o e x c l u s i v e d y n a s t i e s . A n o t h e r d i f f i c u l t y i s t h a t M o s c a a n d P a r e t o a p p e a r t o u s e t h e t e r m i n r e f e r e n c e t o two d i s t i n c t t y p e s o f s o c i a l m o b i l i t y . T h e s e a r e : a) g r o u p m o b i l i t y o r t h e r e p l a c e m e n t o f o n e . . e l i t e b y a n o t h e r , a n d b ) i n d i v i d u a l m o b i l i t y o r t h e v e r t i c a l movement o f i n d i v i d u a l s b e t w e e n t h e e l i t e a n d t h e n o n - e l i t e . G r o u p M o b i l i t y M o s c a i n p a r t i c u l a r , t r e a t s t h e r e p l a c e m e n t o f one e l i t e b y a n o t h e r a s b e i n g t h e o u t c o m e o f a s t r u g g l e b e t w e e n e l i t e s . P r e s u m a b l e , a 'shadow' e l i t e t h a t o p e r a t e s o n a d i f f e r e n t p o w e r b a s e f r o m t h e o l d e l i t e , c h a l l e n g e s a n d s u c c e e d s i n o v e r t h r o w i n g t h e o l d r u l i n g e l i t e . [ i f j t h e r e i s a s h i f t i n t h e b a l a n c e o f p o l i t i c a l f o r c e s - when, t h a t i s , a n e e d i s f e l t t h a t c a p a c i t i e s d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h e o l d s h o u l d a s s e r t t h e m s e l v e s i n t h e management o f t h e s t a t e , when t h e o l d c a p a c i t i e s , t h e r e f o r e , l o s e some o f t h e i r i m p o r t a n c e o r c h a n g e s i n t h e i r d i s t r i b u t i o n o c c u r -t h e n t h e manner i n w h i c h t h e . r u l i n g c l a s s i s c o n -s t i t u t e d c h a n g e s a l s o . I f a new s o u r c e o f w e a l t h d e v e l o p s i n a s o c i e t y , i f t h e p r a c t i c a l i m p o r t a n c e o f knowledge, g r o w s , i f a n o l d r e l i g i o n d e c l i n e s o r a new o n e i s b o r n , i f a new c u r r e n t o f i d e a s s p r e a d s , t h e n , s i m u l t a n e o u s l y f a r - r e a c h i n g d i s l o c a t i o n s o c c u r i n t h e r u l i n g c l a s s . 4 5 W h e t h e r t h i s s h i f t o c c u r s b e c a u s e o f t e c h n o l o g i c a l i n n o v a -t i o n , a c h a n g e i n t h e means o f p r o d u c t i o n , o r t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f new i n f o r m a t i o n ; t h e p r e s e n c e o f a n a l t e r n a t e b a s e o f p o w e r i s c l e a r l y n e c e s s a r y f o r s u c h a c o m p l e t e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n t o o c c u r . A n o t h e r n e c e s s a r y c o n d i t i o n i s t h e p r e s e n c e o f s u f f i c i e n t d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n among t h e n o n - e l i t e t o p r o m p t s u c h a t o t a l r e p l a c e m e n t o f t h e o l d e l i t e . A c c o r d i n g t o M o s c a , t h e f i r s t c o n d i t i o n ( t h e p r e s e n c e o f a n a l t e r n a t i v e b a s e o f p o w e r w i t h w h i c h t o l a u n c h a c o u p d ' e t a t ) i s l i k e l y t o b e a b s e n t i n a communal s o c i e t y s u c h a s t h e H u t t e r i t e s . M o s c a d e v o t e s a l a r g e p a r t o f h i s b o o k t o t h i s v e r y t o p i c . 4 6 He c l a i m s t h a t c o l l e c t i v i s t s o c i e t i e s w h e r e t h e means o f p r o d u c t i o n a r e c o l l e c t i v e l y owned, t e n d t o h a v e o n l y one s e a t o f p o w e r - p o l i t i c a l p o s i t i o n . B y a b o l i s h i n g i n d i v i d u a l o w n e r s h i p o f p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y and o t h e r f o r m s o f w e a l t h , t h e c o l l e c t i v e s o c i e t y b e c omes u n i d i m e n s i o n a l w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e s o u r c e o f p o w e r . T h i s l a c k o f a c o m p e t i n g s o u r c e o f p o w e r makes g r o u p m o b i l i t y i m p o s s i b l e a n d e n s u r e s t h e u n i m p e d e d d e v e l o p m e n t o f d y n a s t i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s b y t h e e l i t e . 4 7 C o l l e c t i v i s m a n d communism t e n d t o d e s t r o y m u l t i p l i c i t y o f p o l i t i c a l f o r c e s . T n e y w o u l d c o n f i n e a l l p o w e r t o i n d i v i d u a l s e l e c t e d b y t h e 27 p e o p l e , o r r e p r e s e n t i n g them. T h e y w o u l d a b o l i s h p r i v a t e w e a l t h , w h i c h ... h a s s u p p l i e d many i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h t h e means f o r a c q u i r i n g i n d e p e n -d e n c e a n d p r e s t i g e a p a r t f r o m t h e a s s e n t a n d c o n s e n t o f t h e r u l e r s o f t h e s t a t e . 4 ^ To d e s t r o y m u l t i p l i c i t y o f p o l i t i c a l f o r c e s , ... w o u l d b e t o d e s t r o y a l l i n d e p e n d e n c e a n d a l l p o s s i b i l i t y o f r e c i p r o c a l b a l a n c i n g a n d c o n t r o l . U n d e r c o l l e c t i v i s m , e v e r y o n e w i l l h a v e t o ko w t o w t o t h e men i n g o v e r n m e n t . T h e y a l o n e c a n d i s p e n s e f a v o r , b r e a d , t h e j o y a n d s o r r o w o f l i f e . One . s i n g l e c r u s h i n g , a l l - e m b r a c i n g , a l l - e n g r o s s i n g t y r a n n y w i l l w e i g h u p o n a l l . 4 Once s t r i p p e d o f i t s e m o t i o n a l l o a d i n g s , t h i s h y p o t h e s i s r e s e m b l e s t h e m u l t i - i n f l u e n c e h y p o t h e s i s c h a m p i o n e d b y many 50 p l u r a l i s t s . T h e y t a k e t h e p o s i t i o n t h a t a m u l t i p l i c i t y o f p o w e r b a s e s w h i c h a r e n o t m o n o p o l i z e d b y t h e r u l i n g e l i t e , s e r v e a s a c h e c k a g a i n s t v a r i o u s f o r m s o f ' p o l i t i c a l a b u s e ' , s u c h a s n e p o t i s m . A p o w e r b a s e w h i c h l i e s o u t s i d e o f t h e c o n t r o l o f t h e r u l i n g e l i t e s e r v e s t o r e s t r a i n t h e a c t i o n s o f t h e e l i t e a n d f o r c e s t h e e l i t e t o w o r k f o r some o f t h e i n t e r e s t s o f t h e n o n - e l i t e ( a t l e a s t t h o s e who h a v e a c o m p e t i n g p o w e r b a s e ) . The H u t t e r i t e s w i t h t h e i r m o n o l i t h i c p o w e r b a s e l i e at. t h e o p p o s i t e e n d o f t h e c o n t i n u u m f r o m t h e p l u r a l i s t s o c i e t y . N o t o n l y i s t h e r e no i n d i v i d u a l w e a l t h o r p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y , b u t t h e l a c k o f e d u c a t i o n a l , e t h n i c , a n d r e l i g i o u s d i f f e r e n c e s l e a v e s t h o s e i n p o l i t i c a l p o s i t i o n s f r e e f r o m a n y c o u n t e r v a l i n g p o w e r . We, t h e r e f o r e , h y p o t h e s i z e t h a t t h e f i r s t t y p e o f e l i t e c i r c u l a t i o n w i l l n o t o c c u r among t h e H u t t e r i t e s , no m a t t e r 28 how d y n a s t i c t h e e l i t e b e c o m e s . We w i l l h o w e v e r h y p o t h e s i z e t h a t a g r e a t d e a l o f d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i l l b e e x p r e s s e d b y t h e members o f t h e n o n - e l i t e w hose u p w a r d m o b i l i t y h a s b e e n b l o c k e d . S i n c e d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h a d y n a s t i c e l i t e c a n n o t b e e x p r e s s e d b y a t t e m p t i n g t o o v e r t h r o w t h e e l i t e , when t h e r e i s no v i a b l e p o w e r b a s e u p o n w h i c h t o l a u n c h s u c h a c o u p , we p r e d i c t . t h a t a l i e n a t i o n w i l l b e e x p r e s s e d b y v o l u n t a r y w i t h -d r a w a l f r o m t h e s y s t e m . We h y p o t h e s i z e t h a t t h e d r o p o u t r a t e w i l l b e g r e a t e r among t h e o f f s p r i n g o f t h e n o n - e l i t e t h a n among t h e o f f s p r i n g o f t h e e l i t e . We a l s o p r e d i c t t h a t t h e more d y n a s t i c t h e e l i t e , t h e g r e a t e r t h e d r o p o u t r a t e among t h e o f f s p r i n g o f t h e n o n - e l i t e . I n d i v i d u a l M o b i l i t y : E v e n i n a c o m p l e t e l y d y n a s t i c s o c i e t y w h e r e e l i t e o f f s p r i n g a l w a y s i n h e r i t e l i t e s t a t u s , i t i s p o s s i b l e f o r u p w a r d m o b i l i t y t o o c c u r . ^ L T h e r e a r e two p o s s i b i l i t i e s : a) A s t r u c t u r a l e x p a n s i o n o f e l i t e p o s i t i o n s o c c u r s s u c h t h a t t h e number o f e l i t e p o s i t i o n s i n c r e a s e a t a g r e a t e r r a t e t h a n t h e number o f n o n - e l i t e p o s i t i o n s a n d i f t h e e l i t e h a s a n i n s u f f i c i e n t number o f s o n s t o f i l l t h e s e p o s i t i o n s , t h e n n o n - e l i t e o f f s p r i n g may b e r e c r u i t e d t o f i l l t h e s e v a c a n c i e s . Or b ) i f t h e e l i t e members f a i l t o r e p r o d u c e t h e m s e l v e s , t h e n n o n - e l i t e o f f s p r i n g may b e r e c r u i t e d i n t o t h e e l i t e . 29 Although the M a c h i a v e l l i a n s appear t o have had l i t t l e t o say on the s u b j e c t of s t r u c t u r a l expansion of the e l i t e , e i t h e r w i t h r e s p e c t t o the causes or consequences of such an occurance, we w i l l p r e d i c t t h a t i f the r a t i o of e l i t e p o s i -t i o n s t o n o n - e l i t e p o s i t i o n s i n c r e a s e ( f o r whatever reason), then the amount of upward m o b i l i t y w i l l i n c r e a s e . The occurance of a lower f e r t i l i t y r a t e among the e l i t e 52 appears t o have i n t e r e s t e d the M a c h i a v e l l i a n s more. So r o k i n s t a t e s the p o s i t i o n q u i t e s u c c i n c t l y , In the course of time f a s t e rility and a lower d i f f e r e n t i a l b i r t h rate]} cause e i t h e r an e x t i n c t i o n of the a r i s t o c r a t i c f a m i l i e s , or a decrease of t h e i r p r o p o r t i o n i n the t o t a l i n c r e a s e d p o p u l a t i o n of a s o c i e t y . In b o t h cases such a s i t u a t i o n c r e a t e s a k i n d of ' s o c i a l vacuum' w i t h i n the upper s t r a t a . As the performance of the f u n c t i o n s c a r r i e d on by the upper s t r a t a c o n t i n u e s t o be necessary, and as the c o r r e s p o n d i n g people cannot be r e c r u i t e d any longer from a d i m i n i s h i n g upper p o p u l a t i o n , i t i s n a t u r a l t h a t t h i s 'vacuum' must be f i l l e d by c l i m b e r s from the lower s t r a t a . L i k e S o r o k i n we w i l l p r e d i c t t h a t i f the f e r t i l i t y r a t e o f the e l i t e d e c l i n e s r e l a t i v e t o the f e r t i l i t y r a t e of the n o n - e l i t e , then the amount of upward m o b i l i t y w i l l i n c r e a s e . 5 4 P a r e t o ^ a l l u d e s t o , but does not develop what would appear to be a r a t h e r f a r - f e t c h e d e x p l a n a t i o n f o r a d e c l i n e i n the r e p r o d u c t i v e a b i l i t y of a d y n a s t i c e l i t e . By e x c l u d i n g the n o n - e l i t e from e n t r y i n t o the e l i t e and by m a i n t a i n i n g e l i t e endogamy, t h e e l i t e i t s e l f c o n s i s t s o f a v e r y s m a l l b r e e d i n g p o p u l a t i o n . I n a s o c i e t y s u c h a s t h e H u t t e r i t e s w h i c h c a n b e c o n s i d e r e d a m o d e l o f a n i n b r e d 55 g e n e t i c i s o l a t e , a f u r t h e r r e s t r i c t i o n i n t h e s i z e o f t h e g e n e p o o l w o u l d i n c r e a s e t h e p r o b a b i l i t y o f s t e r i l i t y a n d 56 • g e n e t i c d e f e c t s o c c u r r i n g . T h e r e f o r e , we p r e d i c t t h a t t h e f e r t i l i t y r a t e o f t h e e l i t e w i l l b e l e s s t h a n t h e f e r t i l i t y r a t e o f t h e n o n - e l i t e . The M a r x i a n P o s i t i o n : No f u l l y d e v e l o p e d a l t e r n a t i v e m o d e l t o t h e M a c h i a v e l l i a n p a r a d i g m e x i s t s i n t h e e c o n o m i c d e t e r m i n i s t t r a d i t i o n , w h i c h e x a m i n e s t h e f o r e g o i n g i s s u e s w i t h t h e same d e g r e e o f f o c u s . H o w e v e r , t h e M a r x i a n t r a d i t i o n d o e s p r o v i d e t h e b a s i s f o r s u c h a c o u n t e r - p a r a d i g m . The r u d i m e n t a r y s t a t e o f t h i s m o d e l f o r c e s u s t o u t i l i z e i t m e r e l y a s a s p r i n g b o a r d w h i c h w i l l d i r e c t u s t o a more t h o r o u g h e x p l i c a t i o n o f a m o d e l . The c e n t r a l p o i n t o f c o n t e n t i o n b e t w e e n t h e two t h e o r e t i c a l p o s i t i o n s r e s i d e s i n t h e d i f f e r i n g w e i g h t w h i c h t h e y a s s i g n t o e c o n o m i c p o w e r r e l a t i v e t o p o l i t i c a l p o w e r , i n d e t e r m i n i n g t h e g e n e r a l c h a r a c t e r o f t h e s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e . W h e r e a s t h e M a c h i a v e l l i a n s c l e a r l y t r e a t p o l i t i c a l p o w e r a s a p r i m a r y d e t e r m i n a n t , t h e e c o n o m i c d e t e r m i n i s t s make s i m i l a r c l a i m s f o r e c o n o m i c p o w e r . F r e d e r i c k E n g e l s , p e r h a p s more u n e q u i v o c a l l y t h a n M a r x , h a s s t a t e d w h a t we w i l l t a k e t o b e t h e c e n t r a l a x i o m o f t h e e c o n o m i c d e t e r m i n i s t s . T h e m a t e r i a l i s t c o n c e p t i o n o f h i s t o r y s t a r t s f r o m t h e p r o p o s i t i o n t h a t t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f t h e means t o s u p p o r t human l i f e and, n e x t t o p r o d u c t i o n , t h e e x c h a n g e o f t h i n g s p r o d u c e d , i s t h e b a s i s o f a l l s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e ; t h a t i n e v e r y s o c i e t y t h a t h a s a p p e a r e d i n h i s t o r y , t h e manner i n w h i c h w e a l t h i s d i s t r i b u t e d and s o c i e t y d i v i d e d i n t o c l a s s e s o r o r d e r s i s d e p e n d e n t upon what i s p r o d u c e d , how i t i s p r o d u c e d , and how t h e p r o d u c t s a r e e x c h a n g e d . ^ F o r t h e M a r x i s t , t h e l a b o u r p r o c e s s i s a p i v o t a l a c t i v i t y , u p o n w h i c h a l l human a c t i v i t y d e p ends and f r o m 58 w h i c h a l l e x c h a n g e a b l e i t e m s o f v a l u e s p r i n g . The l a b o u r p r o c e s s c o n s i s t s o f t h r e e f a c t o r s : 1) t h e n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e t h a t i s t h e o b j e c t o f l a b o u r s u c h a s w a t e r , s o i l , o r e , t i m b e r , w i l d game, e t c . 2) t h e l a b o u r a c t i v i t y i t s e l f o r t h a t a c t i v i t y p e r f o r m e d " i n o r d e r t o a p p r o p r i a t e n a t u r e ' s p r o d u c -t i o n i n a f o r m a d o p t e d t o man's own w a n t s " , and 3) t h e i n s t r u m e n t s o f l a b o u r o r t h e ' t o o l s ' t h a t man i n t e r p o s e s 59 b e t w e e n h i m s e l f a n d t h e n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s . The p r o d u c t s o f t h e l a b o u r p r o c e s s a r e c o m m o d i t i e s t h a t h a v e b e e n r e f i n e d i n s u c h a way as t o s a t i s f y human n e e d s . I f an i n d i v i d u a l o r a s e t o f i n d i v i d u a l s h a s c o n t r o l o v e r t h e means o f p r o d u c t i o n ( c e r t a i n n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s and t h e i n s t r u m e n t s t o r e f i n e them), he w i l l a l s o b e a b l e t o e x e r c i s e c o n t r o l o v e r t h o s e who a r e w i t h o u t p r o p e r t y a n d who a r e f o r c e d t o e x c h a n g e t h e i r l a b o u r ' power i n r e t u r n f o r a wage. C o n s e q u e n t l y , c o n t r o l o v e r t h i n g s l e a d s t o c o n t r o l o v e r p e r s o n s b e c a u s e o f t h e a d v a n t a g e o u s 32 b a r g a i n i n g p o s i t i o n h e l d b y t h o s e w i t h c o n t r o l o v e r t h e means o f p r o d u c t i o n . T h i s c o n t r o l o v e r t h e means o f p r o d u c -t i o n w o u l d c l e a r l y h a v e t o b e p r o t e c t e d i n o r d e r f o r t h e owner t o r e t a i n h i s f a v o u r a b l e p o s i t i o n . Marx f o c u s e d on one p a r t i c u l a r i n s t i t u t i o n a l s a f e g u a r d t h a t p r o t e c t e d t h o s e who c o n t r o l l e d t h e means o f p r o d u c t i o n f r o m t h o s e who d i d n o t ; namely, t h e s t a t e . M a r x i s t s m a i n t a i n t h a t t h e owners o f t h e means o f p r o d u c t i o n c o n s t r u c t a g o v e r n m e n t a l a p p a r a t u s t h a t h a s as i t s m a i n f u n c t i o n t h e p r e s e r v a t i o n and l e g i t i m a t i o n o f p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y . [An] i m p o r t a n t c o n s e q u e n c e o f t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f p r o p e r t y i n p r o d u c t i o n i s t h a t i t d e t e r m i n e s t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f p o l i t i c a l power i n s o c i e t y . Modern r e l a t i o n s o f p r o d u c t i o n i n c l u d e t h e e c o n o m i c power o f t h e owners o f p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y , t h e c a p i t a l i s t s . And t h e p o l i t i c a l power o f t h e b o u r g e o i s c l a s s e x i s t s f r o m t h e s e modern r e l a t i o n s o f p r o d u c t i o n . I n d e e d , i t c a n b e s a i d t h a t t h e s t a t e i s b u t an a s s o c i a t i o n t h a t a d m i n i s t e r s t h e common b u s i n e s s o f t h e b o u r g e o i s c l a s s . ^ 0 L a t e r E n g e l s was t o b e more s p e c i f i c i n d e s c r i b i n g what f u n c t i o n s t h e s t a t e p e r f o r m e d . [ i j t i s , as a r u l e , t h e most p o w e r f u l , e c o n o m i c a l l y d o m i n a n t c l a s s w h i c h , t h r o u g h t h e medium o f t h e s t a t e , t h a t becomes t h e p o l i t i c a l l y d o m i n a n t c l a s s , a n d t h u s a c q u i r e s new means o f h o l d i n g down and e x p l o i t i n g t h e o p p r e s s e d c l a s s . T hus, t h e s t a t e o f a n t i q u i t y was above a l l t h e s t a t e . o f s l a v e owners f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f h o l d i n g down t h e s l a v e s , as t h e f e u d a l s t a t e was t h e o r g a n o f t h e n o b i l i t y f o r h o l d i n g down t h e p e a s a n t s e r f s and bondsmen, and t h e modern r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s t a t e i s an i n s t r u m e n t o f e x p l o i t a t i o n o f wage l a b o u r b y c a p i t a l . ... I n most 33 o f t h e h i s t o r i c a l s t a t e s , t h e s t a t e i s a n o r g a n i s a -t i o n o f t h e p o s s e s s i n g c l a s s f o r i t s p r o t e c t i o n a g a i n s t t h e n o n - p o s s e s s i n g c l a s s . ^ L M a r x i s t s d i s t i n g u i s h b e t w e e n s e v e r a l d i f f e r e n t t y p e s o f p r o p e r t y a r r a n g e m e n t s , r a n g i n g f r o m communal p r o p e r t y o n t h e one h a n d t o p r i v a t e o w n e r s h i p o f t h e means o f p r o d u c t i o n o n t h e o t h e r . I n g e n e r a l , t h e s e d i f f e r e n t t y p e s o f p r o p e r t y a r r a n g e m e n t s d e t e r m i n e t h e c h a r a c t e r o f t h e s t r a t i f i c a t i o n s y s t e m f o u n d i n t h a t s o c i e t y . The M a r x i a n a n a l y s i s h a s r e a c h e d i t s m o s t e l a b o r a t e f o r m i n t h e t r e a t m e n t o f w h a t t h e y c a l l t h e ' b o u r g e o i s ' s o c i e t y - a s o c i e t y i n w h i c h a m i n o r i t y h a s a c q u i r e d p r i v a t e o w n e r s h i p o v e r t h e means o f p r o d u c t i o n a n d t h u s c o n t r o l t h e s o u r c e o f w e a l t h i n t h a t s o c i e t y . I n s u c h a s o c i e t y , two s o c i a l d i v i s i o n s a r e c r e a t e d t h a t o c c u p y d i f f e r e n t p o s i t i o n s r e l a t i v e t o t h e means o f p r o d u c t i o n - t h o s e who own i t a n d t h o s e who do n o t . T h e s e s o c i a l d i v i s i o n s a r e s o c i a l c l a s s e s w h i c h a r e d e f i n e d a s s o c i a l a g g r e g a t e s t h a t h o l d d i f f e r e n t i a l r e l a t i o n s t o t h e means o f p r o d u c t i o n . One c l a s s ( t h e b o u r g e o i s i e ) own t h e means, t h e o t h e r c l a s s ( t h e p r o l e t a r i a t ) p r o v i d e s t h e l a b o u r . By b o u r g e o i s i e i s meant t h e c l a s s o f c a p i t a l i s t s , o w n e r s o f t h e means o f s o c i a l p r o d u c t i o n a n d e m p l o y e r s o f wage l a b o u r . : B y p r o l e t a r i a t , t h e c l a s s o f w a g e - l a b o u r e r s who h a v i n g no means o f p r o d u c t i o n o f t h e i r own, a r e r e d u c e d t o s e l l i n g t h e i r l a b o u r p o w e r i n o r d e r t o l i v e . J 34 T h e m e m b e r s o f t h e p r o l e t a r i a t a r e e c o n o m i c a l l y p o w e r l e s s b e c a u s e t h e b o u r g e o i s i e i s i n a p o s i t i o n t o c o n t r o l t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f e c o n o m i c r e w a r d s i n s o c i e t y . T h e p r o l e t a r i a t h a v e l i t t l e c h o i c e b u t t o b e c o m e t h e i n s t r u m e n t s o f p r o d u c -t i o n f o r t h e b o u r g e o i s i e - t h e y a r e t h e ' t o o l s ' t h e o w n e r s i n t e r p o s e b e t w e e n t h e m s e l v e s a n d t h e n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s . T h e i n t e r e s t s o f t h e w a g e e a r n e r s a r e i n c o n f l i c t w i t h t h e i n t e r e s t s o f t h e o w n e r s . T h e w a g e e a r n e r s s e e k t o m a x i m i z e t h e i r w a g e s , a n d t h e o w n e r s s e e k t o m a x i m i z e t h e i r p r o f i t s . A n i n c r e a s e i n w a g e s m e a n s a d e c r e a s e i n p r o f i t s f o r t h e o w n e r s ; t h e r e f o r e , i t i s i n t h e o w n e r s ' i n t e r e s t t o a t t e m p t t o m i n i m i z e w a g e s . T h i s i s t h e b a s i s o f a n t a g o n i s m b e t w e e n t h e t w o c l a s s e s . T h i s e c o n o m i c c l e a v a g e i s r e f l e c t e d i n t h e p o l i t i c a l a r e n a , s o c i a l m o b i l i t y p a t t e r n s , i n h e r i t a n c e r u l e s , m a r r i a g e p a t t e r n s , e t c . I t i s u p o n t h i s b a s i s t h a t w e s e e t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f a w e a l t h y a r i s t o c r a c y . R . S e r e n o r e m a r k s t h a t a t t h i s p o i n t t h e M a r x i s t t h e o r y b e c o m e s a l m o s t i d e n t i c a l 6 4 t o t h e M a c h i a v e l l i a n t h e o r y . T h e o n l y d i f f e r e n c e l i e s i n t h e M a r x i a n i n s i s t e n c e t h a t p o w e r r e s t s w i t h t h o s e w h o c o n t r o l t h e m e a n s o f p r o d u c t i o n , n o t w i t h t h o s e w h o o c c u p y p o l i t i c a l p o s i t i o n s . H o w e v e r , w e a r e n o t i n t e r e s t e d i n a s o c i e t y w h e r e t h e m e a n s o f p r o d u c t i o n i s p r i v a t e l y o w n e d , b u t r a t h e r i n o n e i n w h i c h w e f i n d c o l l e c t i v e o r c o m m u n a l o w n e r s h i p o f t h e m e a n s of production. For such a society, the Marxists make quite d i f f e r e n t predictions. The Classless Society A society i n which the means of production i s held i n common i s by def i n i t i o n , a c l a s s l e s s society. Since a l l members share the same r e l a t i o n s to the means of production, no s o c i a l d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n based on wealth i s possible . This . . 6 5 i s not to suggest that such a society i s u n s t r a t i f l e d . On the contrary such c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s as s k i l l and i n t e l l i g e n c e may serve as relevant status c r i t e r i a from the actor's point of view. Although these c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s may constitute the basi s of a ranking system, they are not c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which can be s o c i a l l y transmitted from parent to of f s p r i n g , but rather disappear with the death of the person who holds them. Consequently, unlike wealth (and p o l i t i c a l power) they are not i n h e r i t a b l e i n the s o c i a l sense; thus, they do not provide the bases for dynasty f o r m a t i o n . ^ From an economic determinist point of view, the most important consequence of communal ownership i s that the economic in t e r e s t s of s e l f and other are both shared and interdependent. They are shared i n the sense that changes i n the production a f f e c t s a l l members equally. No one can gain at the expense of some other member; a l l members stand to enjoy economic prosperity or suffer economic hardship to I 36 t h e same d e g r e e . T h e i r i n t e r e s t s a r e i n t e r d e p e n d e n t i n t h e s e n s e t h a t a n i n d i v i d u a l m u s t w o r k t o w a r d s t h e b e n e f i t o f a l l o t h e r members i n o r d e r t o r e c e i v e e c o n o m i c r e w a r d s f o r h i m s e l f . I n t h e i r d e p i c t i o n o f a c l a s s l e s s s o c i e t y , M a r x a n d E n g e l s e x p r e s s a s i m i l a r n o t i o n : [ i n a c l a s s l e s s s o c i e t y ^ , we h a v e an a s s o c i a t i o n , i n w h i c h t h e f r e e d e v e l o p m e n t o f e a c h i s t h e c o n d i t i o n f o r t h e f r e e d e v e l o p m e n t o f a l l . ^ 7 B o t h M a r x a n d E n g e l s h e l d a n a m b i v a l e n t a t t i t u d e t o w a r d s s m a l l communal s o c i e t i e s . On t h e one h a n d , t h e y f e l t t h a t t h e s e s m a l l s c a l e s o c i e t i e s e x h i b i t e d many o f t h e p o l i t i c a l , e c o n o m i c , a n d s o c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w h i c h t h e y e n v i s a g e d i n t h e f u t u r e c o m m u n i s t s o c i e t y , a s t h e f o l l o w i n g t w o q u o t a t i o n s t e s t i f y . Of l a t e , t h e S o c i a l - D e m o c r a t i c p h i l i s t i n e h a s o n c e more b e e n f i l l e d w i t h w h o l e s o m e t e r r o r a t t h e w o r d s : D i c t a t o r s h i p o f t h e P r o l e t a r i a t . W e l l a n d g o o d , g e n t l e m e n , do y o u w a n t t o know w h a t t h i s d i c t a t o r s h i p l o o k s l i k e ? L o o k a t t h e P a r i s Commune. T h a t was t h e D i c t a t o r s h i p o f t h e P r o l e t a r i a t . ^ The a n a l y s i s g i v e n i n C a p i t a l d o e s n o t o f f e r a n y r e a s o n s e i t h e r f o r o r a g a i n s t t h e v i t a l i t y o f t h e r u r a l commune, b u t t h e s p e c i a l s t u d y t h a t I h a v e made o f i t , f o r w h i c h I h a v e r e s e a r c h e d t h e m a t e r i a l i n i t s o r i g i n a l s o u r c e s , h a s c o n v i n c e d me t h a t t h e commune i s t h e s t a r t i n g p o i n t f o r t h e s o c i a l r e g e n e r a t i o n o f R u s s i a , b u t t h a t , i n o r d e r f o r i t t o f u n c t i o n a s s u c h , i t w o u l d b e n e c e s s a r y f i r s t o f a l l t o e l i m i n a t e t h e d e l e t e r i o u s i n f l u e n c e s t h a t a s s a i l , i t o n a i l s i d e s .... 6 9 T h e y t o o k p a i n s t o p o i n t o u t t h a t t h e i n t e r n a l s t r u c t u r e o f t h e communal s o c i e t y c o u l d b e r e g a r d e d a s a m i c r o - m o d e l o f t h e f u t u r e c o m m u n i s t s o c i e t y . T h e y a p p r o v e d o f t h e communes a t t e m p t s t o b r e a k down t h e r u r a l - u r b a n d i s t i n c t i o n , a b o l i s h t h e f a m i l y , a b o l i s h p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y , a b o l i s h t h e wage s y s t e m , e s t a b l i s h s y s t e m s o f communal p r o d u c t i o n a n d c o n -s u m p t i o n , i n s t i t u t e u n i v e r s a l s u f f r a g e , a n d c r e a t e a s t a t e 7 w h i c h was m e r e l y t h e c o o r d i n a t o r o f a f e d e r a t i o n o f communes. H o w e v e r , o n t h e o t h e r h a n d , t h e y f e l t t h a t communes w e r e , a weak p o l i t i c a l a n d e c o n o m i c f o r c e w h i c h h a d l i t t l e e f f e c t o n - t h e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f t h e l a r g e r s o c i e t y . T h e i r o b j e c t i o n s t o communes w e r e t h r e e - f o l d . 1) C o m m u n i t a r i a n g r o u p s t e n d e d t o p i t c h t h e i r a p p e a l t o members o f s o c i e t y w i t h o u t r e g a r d t o c l a s s . T h i s was f e l t t o h a v e a d a m p e n i n g e f f e c t u p o n c l a s s c o n f l i c t a n d t h u s r e t a r d r e v o l u t i o n a r y a c t i v i t y . M a r x made much o f t h e f a c t t h a t t h e P a r i s Commune a t t r a c t e d t h e b o u r g e o i s i e a s w e l l a s t h e p r o l e t a r i a t . A l t h o u g h h e a g r e e d t h a t f o r a b r i e f t i m e t h e y w e r e a b l e t o c r e a t e a ' c l a s s l e s s s o c i e t y w i t h i n t h e commune, he f e l t t h a t t h e e x t e r n a l e f f e c t was n e g l i g i b l e ; e x c e p t , a s a m o d e l t o t h e p r o l e t a r i a t o f w h a t c o u l d b e d o n e . 2) M a r x f e l t t h a t m o s t c o m m u n i t a r i a n g r o u p s s u f f e r e d u n d e r t h e i l l u s i o n t h a t t h e l a r g e r s o c i e t y c o u l d b e t r a n s f o r m e d b y e x a m p l e a n d r a t i o n a l p e r s u a s i o n . 3) M a r x f e l t t h a t c o m m u n i t a r i a n g r o u p s p l a y e d a r e a c t i o n a r y r o l e i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e l a r g e r s o c i e t y . He f e l t t h a t t h e y 3 8 c h a n n e l e d o f f r e v o l u t i o n a r y p r o t e s t i n t o h a r m l e s s a r e a s and 71 l e f t t h e l a r g e r s o c i e t y u n t o u c h e d . I n summary, Marx and E n g e l s w h i l e a p p l a u d i n g t h e i n t e r n a l s t r u c t u r e o f communal s o c i e t i e s , d e p l o r e d t h e i r i n h i b i t i n g e f f e c t u p o n r e v o l u t i o n a r y change i n t h e l a r g e r s o c i e t y . I n t h i s s t u d y we a r e i n t e r e s t e d o n l y i n what M a r x i s t s h a v e t o s a y c o n c e r n i n g t h e i n t e r n a l s t r u c t u r e o f communal s o c i e t i e s , t h e e x t e r n a l e f f e c t s a r e i r r e l e v a n t . T he Utopian s o c i a l i s t s have b e e n more v i g o u r o u s than t h e M a r x i s t s i n a s s e r t i n g t h a t communal ownership o f t h e means o f p r o d u c t i o n i s a n e c e s s a r y c o n d i t i o n f o r t h e 72 e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f an e q u a l i t a r i a n m u t u a l - a i d s o c i e t y . A l t h o u g h some o f t h e Utopian s o c i a l i s t s h a v e taken t h e i n d e f e n s i b l e p o s i t i o n t h a t members w i l l become e q u a l s on a l l d i m e n s i o n s , t h e more t e n a b l e p o s i t i o n i s t h a t t h e s o c i e t y w i l l a p p r o a c h an e q u a l i t a r i a n m odel o f s o c i a l m o b i l i t y t o t h e e x t e n t t h a t l i f e C h a n c e s a r e i n d e p e n d e n t o f s o c i a l o r i g i n . A l t h o u g h a c l a s s l e s s s o c i e t y w o u l d n o t b e an e q u a l s o c i e t y i n t h e s e n s e t h a t i t w o u l d b e f r e e o f a l l r a n k h i e r a r c h i e s , i t w o u l d be e q u a l i n t h e s e n s e t h a t members w o u l d h a v e an e q u a l o p p o r t u n i t y o f a t t a i n i n g a n y h i e r a r c h i c a l p o s i t i o n . I n o t h e r w ords, t h e s o c i a l p o s i t i o n o f t h e f a t h e r w o u l d b e i r r e l e v a n t i n d e t e r m i n i n g t h e s o c i a l p o s i t i o n o f t h e o f f s p r i n g . Marx a d m i t t e d t h a t p u b l i c o f f i c i a l s o r a d m i n i s t r a t o r s w o u l d h a v e t o e x i s t i n o r d e r t o c o o r d i n a t e p r o d u c t i o n and d i s t r i b u t i o n i n t h e c l a s s l e s s s o c i e t y . However, u n l i k e t h e M a c h i a v e l l i a n s , he d i d n o t t h i n k t h a t t h e s e p o l i t i c a l p o s i t i o n s w o u l d f o r m t h e b a s i s f o r t h e c a s t e - l i k e f e a t u r e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h d y n a s t y f o r m a t i o n . 7 4 The f o l l o w i n g argument w i l l b e u s e d t o s u p p o r t t h i s c o n t e n t i o n . S i n c e e c o n o m i c i n t e r e s t s a r e s h a r e d and i n t e r -d e p e n d e n t , c h a n g e s i n e c o n o m i c p r o d u c t i v i t y a f f e c t a l l members w i t h e q u a l f o r c e . I t i s i n t h e i n t e r e s t s o f ego, j u s t a s i t i s i n t h e i n t e r e s t s o f a l l o t h e r members t o i n s u r e t h a t p r o d u c t i v i t y i s m a x i m i z e d . To t h e e x t e n t t h a t p r o d u c t i v i t y d e p e n d s u p o n t h e a l l o c a t i o n o f t h o s e w i t h s k i l l a nd t a l e n t t o p o s i t i o n s where t h e y c a n b e o p t i m a l l y u t i l i z e d , i t i s i n t h e i n t e r e s t s o f a l l t o s t r i v e f o r a b a r r i e r - f r e e o p p o r t u n i t y s t r u c t u r e . The a d m i n i s t r a t o r s who h a v e s u b s t a n t i a l c o n t r o l o v e r t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t a l e n t w o u l d , t h e r e f o r e , f i n d i t i n t h e i r i n t e r e s t (an i n t e r e s t t h e y s h a r e w i t h a l l o t h e r members) 75 t o s t r x v e f o r a h x g h l y p e r m e a b l e p o l i t i c a l h i e r a r c h y . T h u s , t h e e c o n o m i c d e t e r m i n i s t s w o u l d p r e d i c t , c o n t r a r y t o t h e M a c h i a v e l l i a n s t h a t a c l a s s l e s s s o c i e t y l i k e t h e H u t t e r i t e s w o u l d b e c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y a ' p e r f e c t ' m o b i l i t y s t r u c t u r e . T h a t i s , t h e p r o b a b i l i t y o f a s o n r e a c h i n g a g i v e n s t a t u s c a t e g o r y i s i n d e p e n d e n t o f t h e f a t h e r ' s s t a t u s c a t e g o r y . 40 I t a l s o f o l l o w s f r o m t h e a s s u m p t i o n s o f t h e e c o n o m i c d e t e r m i n i s t m o d e l t h a t t h e c l a s s l e s s s o c i e t y w i l l b e p a n m i c t i c o r c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y random mate s e l e c t i o n w i t h r e s p e c t t o p o s i t i o n o f f a t h e r . I f p o t e n t i a l mates c a n n o t b e d i f f e r e n t i a t e d w i t h r e s p e c t t o w e a l t h , s u c h e c o n o m i c c o n s i d e r a t i o n s as a t t e m p t i n g t o m a x i m i z e o n e ' s w e a l t h b y c o n t r a c t i n g a s t r a t e g i c m a r r i a g e becomes i r r e l e v a n t . S u c h c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s as p h y s i c a l a n d p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s may t a k e o n g r e a t e r w e i g h t i n m a r i t a l p r e f e r e n c e i f p o t e n t i a l mates c a n n o t b e d i s t i n g u i s h e d f r o m one a n o t h e r on e c o n o m i c g r o u n d s . I n p o s i t i n g p a n m i x i a we must make t h e f a i r l y s a f e a s s u m p t i o n t h a t t h o s e w i t h t h e most d e s i r a b l e p h y s i c a l and p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s a r e r a n d o m l y d i s t r i b u t e d a l o n g t h e s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l h i e r a r c h y . I t f o l l o w s f r o m t h e above as a c o r o l l a r y t h a t i f s o c i a l m o b i l i t y and mate s e l e c t i o n p r o c e e d i n d e p e n d e n t l y o f f a t h e r ' s p o s i t i o n , t h e n t h e y w i l l a l s o b e i n d e p e n d e n t o f t h e p o s i t i o n h e l d b y o t h e r members s u c h as g r a n d f a t h e r s . The c l a s s l e s s s o c i e t y i s a l s o t h e u n a l i e n a t e d s o c i e t y . A l i e n a t i o n , i n t h e M a r x i a n t r a d i t i o n , r e f e r s t o d i s c o n t e n t a r i s i n g f r o m a c o n d i t i o n o f p o w e r l e s s n e s s . A p e r s o n i s a l i e n a t e d t o t h e e x t e n t t h a t h e i s s e p a r a t e d f r o m t h e means o f p r o d u c t i o n and p o w e r l e s s t o e x e r c i s e any c o n t r o l o v e r h i s 7 7 l i f e c h a n c e s . G i v e n t h a t t h e members o f a c l a s s l e s s 41 s o c i e t y a r e u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d w i t h r e s p e c t t o w e a l t h , a n d g i v e n t h a t t h o s e i n a p o s i t i o n o f l e a d e r s h i p f i n d i t i n t h e i r own i n t e r e s t s t o s e r v e t h e i n t e r e s t s o f a l l , we p r e d i c t t h a t a n y e x p r e s s i o n o f d i s c o n t e n t w i l l n o t b e c o n -f i n e d t o any i d e n t i f i a b l e s t r a t u m . C e r t a i n members o f t h e e l i t e a nd n o n - e l i t e • m a y e x p r e s s d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n e m a n a t i n g f r o m a number o f s o u r c e s , b u t t h i s t y p e o f d i s c o n t e n t w i l l n o t b e c o n c e n t r a t e d among t h e n o n - e l i t e . T h e r e f o r e , we p r e d i c t t h a t among t h e H u t t e r i t e s - , t h a t e x p r e s s i o n s o f d i s c o n t e n t w h i c h t a k e t h e f o r m o f d e f e c t i o n s w i l l n o t b e o v e r - r e p r e s e n t e d b y t h e n o n - e l i t e . I n t h e p r e c e d i n g s e c t i o n , I h a v e a t t e m p t e d t o p r e s e n t two m u t u a l l y c o n t r a d i c t o r y s o c i o l o g i c a l m o d e l s t h a t b e a r u p on t h e same s u b s t a n t i v e i s s u e . B o t h m o d e l s a r e u n i - d i m e n s i o n a l and p e r h a p s f o r t h i s r e a s o n n e i t h e r may c a p t u r e t h e c o m p l e x i t y i n v o l v e d . N e v e r t h e l e s s , my j u s t i f i -c a t i o n f o r d o i n g so i n v o l v e s no a p r i o r i a s s u m p t i o n s a b o u t t h e n a t u r e o f ' r e a l i t y ' . I n s t e a d i t i s b a s e d upon t h e s o -c a l l e d 'law o f p a r s i m o n y ' , w h i c h s t a t e s t h a t : N e i t h e r more, n o r more o n e r o u s , c a u s e s a r e t o b e assumed, t h a n a r e n e c e s s a r y t o a c c o u n t f o r t h e phenomena. Thu s , u n i - d i m e n s i o n a l m o d e l s a r e t o b e p r e f e r r e d t o m u l t i -d i m e n s i o n a l m o d e l s u n t i l s u c h t i m e as t h e f o r m e r h a v e b e e n shown t o b e i n a d e q u a t e . 42 I n o r d e r t o f a c i l i t a t e c o m p r e h e n s i o n s o f t h e t h e o r e t i c a l f r amework o f t h i s t h e s i s and i n o r d e r t o c l a r i f y t h e i m p l i c i t p a r a l l e l i s m o f t h e M a c h i a v e l l i a n and e c o n o m i c d e t e r m i n i s t m o d e l s , I h a v e r e s t a t e d t h e m a j o r h y p o t h e s e s i n a more s y s t e m a t i c f o r m b e l o w . M a j o r H y p o t h e s e s A. The S o c i a l M o b i l i t y H y p o t h e s i s .The M a c h i a v e l l i a n - V e r s i o n The m a l e o f f s p r i n g o f the. e l i t e w i l l h a v e a h i g h e r p r o b a b i l i t y o f i n h e r i t i n g e l i t e s t a t u s t h a n t h e m a l e o f f s p r i n g o f t h e n o n - e l i t e . The E c o n o m i c D e t e r m i n i s t V e r s i o n The m a l e o f f s p r i n g o f t h e e l i t e w i l l h a v e an e q u a l p r o b a b i l i t y o f i n h e r i t i n g e l i t e s t a t u s as t h e m a l e o f f s p r i n g o f t h e n o n - e l i t e . B. The I n t e r - m a r r i a g e H y p o t h e s i s The M a c h i a v e l l i a n V e r s i o n The f e m a l e o f f s p r i n g o f t h e e l i t e w i l l h a v e a h i g h e r p r o b a b i l i t y o f m a r r y i n g e l i t e s o n s t h a n t h e f e m a l e o f f s p r i n g o f t h e n o n - e l i t e . The E c o n o m i c D e t e r m i n i s t V e r s i o n The f e m a l e o f f s p r i n g o f t h e e l i t e w i l l h a v e an e q u a l p r o b a b i l i t y o f m a r r y i n g e l i t e s o n s as t h e f e m a l e o f f s p r i n g o f t h e n o n - e l i t e . 43 The U p p e r S t r a t u m M o b i l i t y H y p o t h e s i s The M a c h i a v e l l i a n V e r s i o n The m a l e o f f s p r i n g o f t h e u p p e r s t r a t u m o f t h e e l i t e w i l l h a v e a h i g h e r p r o b a b i l i t y o f i n h e r i t i n g e l i t e s t a t u s t h a n t h e s o n s o f o t h e r e l i t e members. The E c o n o m i c D e t e r m i n i s t V e r s i o n The m a l e o f f s p r i n g o f t h e u p p e r s t r a t u m o f t h e e l i t e w i l l h a v e a n e q u a l p r o b a b i l i t y o f i n h e r i t i n g e l i t e s t a t u s a s t h e s o n s o f o t h e r e l i t e members. The U p p e r S t r a t u m I n t e r - m a r r i a g e H y p o t h e s i s ..• The M a c h i a v e l l i a n ' V e r s i o n The f e m a l e o f f s p r i n g o f t h e u p p e r s t r a t u m o f t h e e l i t e w i l l h a v e a h i g h e r p r o b a b i l i t y o f m a r r y i n g e l i t e s o n s t h a n t h e d a u g h t e r s o f o t h e r e l i t e members. The E c o n o m i c D e t e r m i n i s t V e r s i o n The f e m a l e o f f s p r i n g o f t h e u p p e r s t r a t u m o f t h e e l i t e w i l l h a v e a n e q u a l p r o b a b i l i t y o f m a r r y i n g e l i t e , s o n s a s t h e d a u g h t e r s o f o t h e r e l i t e members. The F a m i l y S u p p o r t H y p o t h e s i s - S o c i a l M o b i l i t y The M a c h i a v e l l i a n V e r s i o n S o n s o f t h e e l i t e who h a v e a l a r g e number o f g e n e r a t i o n a l l y c l o s e k i n who a r e t h e m s e l v e s members o f t h e e l i t e w i l l h a v e a' h i g h e r p r o b a b i l i t y o f i n h e r i t i n g e l i t e s t a t u s t h a n t h e s o n s o f t h e e l i t e who h a v e f e w e l i t e r e l a t i v e s . The E c o n o m i c D e t e r m i n i s t V e r s i o n S o n s o f t h e e l i t e who h a v e a l a r g e number o f g e n e r a t i o n a l l y c l o s e k i n who a r e t h e m s e l v e s members o f t h e e l i t e w i l l h a v e a n e q u a l 44 p r o b a b i l i t y o f i n h e r i t i n g e l i t e s t a t u s as t h e s o n s o f t h e e l i t e who h a v e few e l i t e r e l a t i v e s . The F a m i l y S u p p o r t H y p o t h e s i s - I n t e r - m a r r i a g e The M a c h i a v e l l i a n V e r s i o n D a u g h t e r s o f t h e e l i t e who h a v e a l a r g e number o f g e n e r a t i o n a l l y c l o s e k i n who a r e t h e m s e l v e s members o f t h e e l i t e w i l l h a v e a h i g h e r p r o b a b i l i t y o f m a r r y i n g e l i t e s o n s t h a n d a u g h t e r s o f t h e e l i t e who h a v e few e l i t e r e l a t i v e s . T h e E c o n o m i c D e t e r m i n i s t V e r s i o n D a u g h t e r s o f t h e e l i t e who h a v e a l a r g e number o f g e n e r a t i o n a l l y c l o s e k i n who a r e t h e m s e l v e s members o f t h e e l i t e w i l l h a v e an e q u a l p r o b a b i l i t y o f m a r r y i n g e l i t e s o n s as t h e d a u g h t e r s o f t h e e l i t e who h a v e few e l i t e r e l a t i v e s . The D e f e c t i o n H y p o t h e s i s The M a c h i a v e l l i a n V e r s i o n T he d e f e c t i o n r a t e w i l l b e h i g h e r among t h e o f f s p r i n g o f t h e n o n - e l i t e t h a n among t h e o f f s p r i n g o f t h e e l i t e . The E c o n o m i c D e t e r m i n i s t V e r s i o n The d e f e c t i o n r a t e w i l l b e e q u a l among t h e o f f s p r i n g o f t h e n o n - e l i t e and t h e o f f s p r i n g o f t h e e l i t e . F a m i l y S i z e H y p o t h e s i s The. M a c h i a v e l l i a n V e r s i o n The a v e r a g e s i z e o f e l i t e f a m i l i e s w i l l b e l o w e r t h a n t h e a v e r a g e s i z e o f n o n - e l i t e f a m i l i e s . 45 The E c o n o m i c D e t e r m i n i s t V e r s i o n The a v e r a g e s i z e o f e l i t e f a m i l i e s w i l l e q u a l t o t h e a v e r a g e s i z e o f n o n - e l i t e f a m i l i e s . 46 Footnotes 1. P i t i r i m A. Sorokin, S o c i a l and Cultural M o b i l i t y (Glencoe, 111.: The Free Press, 1959) p. 530. 2. Eva Rosenfeld, "Social S t r a t i f i c a t i o n i n a "Classless" Society", American S o c i o l o g i c a l Review, Vol. 16, December, 1951, p. 767. 3. The p o l i t i c a l independence of the Hutterites i s a somewhat contentious issue. Although the Hutterites s a t i s f y the c r i t e r i a of p o l i t i c a l autonomy posited by Guy Swanson, B i r t h of the Gods (Ann Arbor, Mich.: Uni v e r s i t y of Michigan Press, 1960), p. 43 and l a t e r by Robert Marsh, Comparative Sociology (New York: Harcourt, Brace & World, 1967), pp. 12-14, they constitute a hybrid which f a l l s somewhere between an organization and a p o l i t i c a l l y autonomous state. The following c r i t e r i a put forward by Swanson and Marsh are s a t i s f i e d : 1) the members of the group or t h e i r representatives must meet regularly; 2) the existence of the group must be considered legitimate by i t s members; 3) i t s members must make decisions that have a s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t upon i t s members, such as the production and d i s t r i b u t i o n of resources, the formation of a l l i a n c e s with other groups, punishment of crime, s o c i a l i z e i t s own members, organize i t s own work force, etc. 4) i t s members must expect i t to p e r s i s t into the indefinate future; and 5) i t must not be a sub-system or agency of another organization. Only the l a s t c r i t e r i o n poses a problem to the student of Hutterian society since i t i s more a matter of interpre-t a t i o n than empirical f a c t . The problem i s that the Hutterites throughout t h e i r history, have located within the borders of a larger host society. However, the Hutterites have never regarded themselves as a functional part of the host society. T h e i r b e l i e f system expressly forbids them from considering the host, society as t h e i r 'ultimately sovereign organization', to use Swanson's expression. Rather they regard the host society as- the external p o l i t i c a l , economic, and s o c i a l environment with which they must contend. I f one were to argue that the Hutterites were a c t u a l l y a functional part of the host society whether they viewed themselves as such or not, one immediately faces the d i f f i c u l t y of specifying what those functions are. The Hutterites do not r e c r u i t members from outside, do not p r o s e l y t i z e , and do not disseminate t h e i r b e l i e f system; 4 7 t h e r e f o r e , t h e y do n o t s e r v e any r e l i g i o u s f u n c t i o n f o r t h e h o s t s o c i e t y . A H u t t e r i t e c a n n o t r e m a i n a H u t t e r i t e a n d a t t h e same t i m e v o t e i n an e l e c t i o n , j o i n a p o l i t i c a l p a r t y , h o l d p o l i t i c a l o f f i c e , o r e v e n p a r t i c i -p a t e i n ' o u t s i d e ' v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s . He c a n n o t j o i n t h e armed f o r c e s , e n t e r t h e p u b l i c e d u c a t i o n s y s t e m , o r o f h i s own a c c o r d i n v o l v e h i m s e l f i n t h e j u d i c i a l s y s t e m . He c a n n o t s e e k employment i n any e c o n o m i c o r g a n i z a t i o n o r s e e k t o employ o t h e r s . Any H u t t e r i t e who p a r t i c i p a t e s i n t h e s e s p e c i a l i z e d arms o f t h e s t a t e i s t y p i c a l l y o s t r a c i z e d f r o m t h e H u t t e r i a n community. I t i s t r u e t h a t t h e H u t t e r i t e s e x p o r t and i m p o r t v a r i o u s c o m m o d i t i e s , b u t no u l t i m a t e l y s o v e r e i g n o r g a n i z a t i o n i s c o m p l e t e l y s e l f - s u b s i s t e n t ; a l t h o u g h I s u s p e c t t h a t t h e H u t t e r i t e s a r e more s e l f - s u b s i s t e n t t h a n many s o c i e t i e s w h i c h a r e u n q u e s t i o n a b l y r e g a r d e d as u l t i m a t e l y s o v e r e i g n o r g a n i z a t i o n s . S i n c e , f o r t h e p u r p o s e s o f t h i s s t u d y , i t i s m e r e l y n e c e s s a r y t h a t t h e h o s t s o c i e t y n o t 1) c o n t r o l t h e number o f p o l i t i c a l and o c c u p a t i o n a l p o s i t i o n s , 2) c o n t r o l t h e a l l o c a t i o n o f men t o p o s i t i o n s , and 3) c o n t r o l t h e r i g h t s and d u t i e s o f t h e s e p o s i t i o n s , we c a n be a s s u r e d t h a t t h e H u t t e r i t e s h a v e a t l e a s t t h i s d e g r e e o f p o l i t i c a l autonomy. O n l y t h e I s r a e l i K i b b u t z i m c o u l d b e c o n s i d e r e d c o m p a r a b l e t o t h e H u t t e r i t e s i n t h i s r e g a r d . However, w h e r e a s t h e k i b b u t z i s i n i t s s e v e n t h d e c a d e o f e x i s t e n c e , t h e H u t t e r i t e s a r e i n t h e i r f o r t y - f i f t h . I n my v i e w , s e v e n d e c a d e s a r e n o t a s u f f i c i e n t p e r i o d o f t i m e f o r d y n a s t i e s t o c r y s t a l i z e ( i f i n f a c t t h e y f o r m a t a l l ) . Thus t h e k i b b u t z i m movement doe s n o t o f f e r t h e same o p p o r t u n i t i e s o f t h e s t u d y o f e l i t e s as t h e H u t t e r i t e s , a l t h o u g h s u c h a s t u d y w o u l d no d o u b t b e i n s t r u c t i v e . A l t h o u g h a number o f a u t h o r s h a v e e x a m i n e d t h e d e g r e e o f e l i t i s m w i t h i n t h e k i b b u t z movement, t h e y h a v e n o t s p e c i f i c a l l y f o c u s e d on t h e d e g r e e t o w h i c h t h e d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g e l i t e i s d y n a s t i c . See, E v a R o s e n f e l d , Op. C i t . ; H.A. A u r b a c h , " S o c i a l S t r a t i f i c a t i o n i n I s r a e l ' s C o l l e c t i v e s " , R u r a l  S o c i o l o g y , V o l . 18, 1 9 5 3 ; A. E t z i o n i , "The S t r u c t u r a l D i f f e r e n t i a t i o n o f E l i t e s i n t h e K i b b u t z " , A m e r i c a n  J o u r n a l o f S o c i o l o g y , V o l . 64, 1 9 5 9 ; and I v a n V a l l i e r , " S t r u c t u r a l D i f f e r e n t i a t i o n , P r o d u c t i o n I m p e r a t i v e s and Communal Norms: The K i b b u t z i n C r i s i s " , S o c i a l F o r c e s , V o l . 40, 1962. G a e t a n o Mosca, The R u l i n g C l a s s (New Y o r k : M c G r a w - H i l l , 1939) p . 50. 48 6 . Although the assumption, that the d i s t r i b u t i o n of p o l i t i c a l power should always be taken as an independent variable c l e a r l y characterizes the Machiavellians, i t i s not clear what l i m i t i s placed on t h e i r choice of dependent variables. However, an examination of t h e i r l i t e r a t u r e reveals that the d i s t r i b u t i o n of p o l i t i c a l power i s p r i m a r i l y used to explain the d i s t r i b u t i o n of p r i v i l e g e , the d i s t r i b u t i o n of ideologies, and the d i f f e r e n t i a l opportunities f o r s o c i a l m o b i l i t y i n a society. 7. James Burnham, The Machiavellians (New York: John Day Co., 1943) p. 224.. For a s i m i l a r characterization, see Geraint Parry, P o l i t i c a l E l i t e s (London: George A l l e n and Unwin Ltd., 1969) p. 28, and T.B. Bottomore, E l i t e s  and Society (London: Penguin Books, 1966) p. 9. 8. Gaetano Mosca, Op. C i t . p. 439. 9. Ibid., p. 443. 10. For a c a r e f u l l y reasoned discussion of the methodological problems encountered i n attempting to choose between two al t e r n a t i v e models when the independent variables i n the two models are highly correlated and the dependent variable i s i d e n t i f i c . a l , see, Hubert M. Blalock, J r . , Causal Inferences i n Nonexperimental Research (Chapel H i l l : U n iversity of North Carolina Press, 1964) pp. 87-93. 11. Unfortunately the issue of whether p o l i t i c a l and economic hierarchies are t y p i c a l l y congruent or d i s j o i n t i n American communities has given r i s e to two r i v a l t h e o r e t i -c a l perspectives - the s t r a t i f i c a t i o n t heoriest vs. the p l u r a l i s t s . The problem seems more of an empirical one than a problem of perspectives; that i s , researchers should be more concerned with discovering the conditions under which e l i t e s form unitary structures and the condi-tions under which they form separate and competing structures. For a sample of t h i s convoluted and seemingly endless controversy see, Nelson W. Polsby, Community Power  and P o l i t i c a l Theory (New Haven: Yale U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1963) and G. William Domhoff The Higher C i r c l e s (New York: Vintage Books, 1971) esp. Chapter 9. 12. Manning Nash, Primitive and Peasant Economic Systems (San Francisco: Chandler Publ. Co., 1966) p. 26. 4 9 13. I mean by goods and services with exchange value those goods and services which can be expressed i n terms of units of the medium of exchange (usually money) and can be exchanged f o r these monetary units. Many objects and human a c t i v i t i e s which could be broadly defined as goods and services may have no exchange value. Such things as a i r , water, m i l i t a r y decorations, r e l i g i o u s r i t e s , friendship, sex appeal, and talkativeness may be mone-t i z e d i n some s o c i e t i e s , but i n most s o c i e t i e s they would not. 14. ' See, Manning Nash Op. c i t . , pp. 26-7. 15. This d e f i n i t i o n i s s i m i l a r to that given by John C. Harsanyi, "A Bargaining Model for So c i a l Status i n Informal Groups and Formal Organizations", Behavioral  Science, Vol. 11, 1966, p. 362. For s i m i l a r d e f i n i t i o n s see, Max Weber, The Theory of Soc i a l and Economic Organ- i z a t i o n (New York: The Free Press, 1964) p. 152 and R.H. Tawney, Equality (London: A l l e n and Unwin, 1931) p. 229. 16. This has led some researchers to attempt a synthesis of the Machiavellian and Marxian view of e l i t e s . See, for example, C. Wright M i l l s , The Power E l i t e (New York: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1956) p. 277. 17. For i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t s , see, Hubert M. Blalock, J r . , Op. c i t . , pp. 91-93. 18. A society i n which there i s considerable economic i n -equality, but no p o l i t i c a l hierarchy i s but a l o g i c a l p o s s i b i l i t y only.. A society without government appears to be merely the imagined i d e a l of a few anarchist w r i t e r s . See, f o r example, Leonard Krimerman and Lewis Perry (eds.), Patterns of Anarchy (Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1966). The closest approximation to t h i s i d e a l type i s perhaps the hunting and gathering s o c i e t i e s discussed by Gerhard E. Lenski, Power and P r i v i l e g e : A  Theory of Soc i a l S t r a t i f i c a t i o n (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1966) pp. 94-116, and Morton H. Fried, The Evolution of  P o l i t i c a l Society: An Essay i n P o l i t i c a l Anthropology (New York: Random House, 1967) pp. 2 7-107. However, t y p i c a l l y these s o c i e t i e s display l i t t l e economic d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n . 50 19. Weber's c l a s s i c a l concept 'authority' i s defined as legitimated power i n which subordinates accept the r i g h t of superiors to control them. See Max Weber, op. c i t . , pp. 152-3. Weber, however, does not c l e a r l y d i f f e r e n -t i a t e between the following two uses of the term. a) A s i t u a t i o n i n which the rules accept the superor-dinate p o s i t i o n of the r u l e r s as being legitimate, but the d i s t r i b u t i o n of power i s such that the subordinated do not hold s u f f i c i e n t power themselves to challenge t h i s legitimacy. b) A s i t u a t i o n i n which the d i s t r i b u -t i o n of power i s such that subordinates command s u f f i c i e n t power to prevent the exercise of any power which they do not regard as legitimate. 20. Arthur L. Stinchcombe, Constructing S o c i a l Theories (New York: Harcourt, Brace, and World, 1968) p. 162. 21. Such a debate can be found i n Marvin E. Olsen (ed.), Power i n Societies (New York: Macmillan Co., 1970) esp. Chap. 1. 22. See, Robert Dahl, "The Concept of Power", Behavioral  Science, Vol. 2, July, 1957, p. 208. 23. See, Harold D. Lasswell and Abraham Kaplan, Power and  Society: A Framework for P o l i t i c a l Inquiry (New Haven: Yale U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1950) p. 73. 24. C. Wright M i l l s , Op. c i t . , pp. 3-9. 25. V i l f r e d o Pareto, V i l f r e d o Pareto: S o c i o l o g i c a l Writings, ed. by S.E. Finer (New York: Frederick A. Praeger, 1966) p. 248. 26. The problem of the degree of congruency between the . weight, domain, and scope w i l l not be dealt with here. • 27. In pr a c t i c e , even Pareto used the term ' e l i t e ' to ref e r to a natural group of people rather than the 'top' of a continuum. On t h i s point, see, T.B. Bottomore, Op. c i t . , pp. 7-8. 28. James H. Meisel, The Myth of the Ruling Class: Gaetano  Mosca and the " E l i t e " (Ann Arbor: Univ e r s i t y of Michigan Press, 1958) p. 4. 51 29. These c r i t e r i a c l o s e l y approximate the defining charac-t e r i s t i c s of a human group. See, W.J.H. Sprott, Human  Groups (London: Penguin Books, 1958) Chp. 1. 30. Gaetano Mosca, Op. c i t . , p. 61. 31. See, Nelson W. Polsby, Op. c i t . , pp. 97-135. 32. This view i s implied i n many empirical studies of e l i t e s , see, John Porter, The V e r t i c a l Mosaic: An Analysis of  Soc i a l Class and Power i n Canada (Toronto: U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto Press, 1965) pp. 283-285, and E. Digby B a l t z e l l , Philadelphia Gentlemen: The Making of a National Upper  Class (Glencoe, 111.: The Free Press, 1958) pp. 63-66. 33. See, V i l f r e d o Pareto, Op. c i t . , p. 132; S i r Francis Ga1ton, Hereditary Genius: An Inquiry into I t s Laws and  Consequences (Cleveland: World Publ., 1962); and P i t i r i m Sorokin, Op. c i t . , pp. 258-333. 34. Henry Selby, " E l i t e Selection and Social Integration: An Anthropologist's View" i n Governing E l i t e s : Studies  i n Training and Selection, ed. by Rupert Wilkinson (New York: Oxford University Press, 1969) pp. 3-2 2. 35. Named af t e r the Greek philosopher Thrasymachus, whom Plato presents as a f o i l for h i s arguments i n 'The Republic'. See, The Republic of Plato, trans, by F.M. Cornford (New,York: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1945) pp. 15-39. 36. John C. Harsanyi, Op. c i t . , p. 3 59. 37. Perhaps the greatest t h e o r e t i c a l contribution of Harsanyi's a r t i c l e i s h i s use of a bargaining model to resolve the 's o c i a l status as an incentive' vs the 'so c i a l status as a function of power1 controversy. The former p o s i t i o n i s represented by Kingsley Davis and Wilbert Moore, "Some P r i n c i p l e s of S t r a t i f i c a t i o n " , American S o c i o l o g i c a l Review, Vol. 10, 1945, pp. 242-49. The l a t t e r by Melvin M. Tumin:, "Some P r i n c i p l e s of S t r a t i f i c a t i o n : A C r i t i c a l Analysis", American Sociolo- g i c a l Review, Vol. 18, 1953, pp. 387-93. Since the controversy i s at best t a n g e n t i a l l y r e l a t e d to my th e o r e t i c a l problem, I do not wish to enter into t h i s debate. Su f f i c e i t to say, that I regard the r e l a t i o n -ship between the e l i t e and the non-elite as being both 52 one o f r e c i p r o c a l e x c h a n g e ( d e f e r e n t i a l t r e a t m e n t a c c o r d e d t h e e l i t e b y t h e n o n - e l i t e i n e x c h a n g e f o r c o n t i n u e d p e r f o r m a n c e o f i m p o r t a n t l e a d e r s h i p s e r v i c e s ) and e x p l o i t a t i o n ( d e f e r e n t i a l t r e a t m e n t a c c o r d e d t h e e l i t e b y t h e n o n - e l i t e i n r e t u r n f o r t h e n o n - p e r f o r m a n c e o f n e g a t i v e s e r v i c e s ) . 38. J o h n C. H a r s a n y i , Op. c i t . , p . 368. 39. F o r a s i m i l a r p o i n t o f v i e w , s e e , R i c h a r d A. • S c h e r m e r h o r n , S o c i e t y and Power (New Y o r k : Random House, 1961) p . 71. 40. M o s c a makes t h e same a s s u m p t i o n , s e e , G a e t a n o Mosca, Op. c i t . , p . 418. U n f o r t u n a t e l y , s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t s a p p e a r t o r e g a r d t h i s i s s u e as b e i n g t o o o b v i o u s t o m e r i t a n e m p i r i c a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n . 41. M o s c a makes t h e p o i n t t h a t e l i t e o f f s p r i n g t e n d t o m a r r y o n e a n o t h e r . G a e t a n o Mosca, Op. c i t . , p . 423. M o s c a a t t r i b u t e s t h i s t o t h e a t t r a c t i o n o f h i g h l y i n t e l l i g e n t p e o p l e t o t h o s e who a r e s i m i l a r l y endowed. The s t a t u s o f women i n H u t t e r i t e c o l o n i e s i s d i s c u s s e d i n c h a p t e r I I . 42. See, R o b i n Fox, K i n s h i p and M a r r i a g e ( L o n d o n : P e n g u i n B o o k s , 1967) p . 176. 43. L o m e Tepperman, "The N a t u r a l D i s r u p t i o n o f D y n a s t i e s " , The C a n a d i a n R e v i e w o f S o c i o l o g y and A n t h r o p o l o g y , V o l . 9., #2, May, 1972, p . 115. 44. The t e r m ' g e n e r a t i o n a l l y c l o s e k i n ' w i l l b e o p e r a t i o n -a l i z e d i n c h a p t e r I I I . 45. G a e t a n o Mosca, Op. c i t . , p . 65. 46. A t one p o i n t Mosca c l a i m s t h a t t h e e n t i r e b o ok i s a r e f u t a t i o n o f t h e c o l l e c t i v i s t U t o p i a . See, p . 447. However, C h a p t e r 11 ' C o l l e c t i v i s m ' i s t h e most r e l e v a n t s e c t i o n . 47. See, G a e t a n o Mosca, Op. c i t . , p . 418. 48. I b i d . , p . 292. 49. I b i d . , p . 285. 53 50. This view i s well represented by Arnold M. Rose, The  Power Structure (New York: Oxford University Press, 1967). 51. See the i n t e r e s t i n g simulation study by Lome J. Tepperman and Barry Tepperman, "Dynasty Formation i n Eight Imaginary Societies", The Canadian Review of  Sociology and Anthropology, Vol. 8, August, 1971, pp. 121-41, for some of the consequences of various types of e l i t e recruitment. 52. This p o s i t i o n i s summarized by Suzanne K e l l e r , Beyond  the Ruling Class (New York: Random House, 1963) pp. 228-31. 53. P i t i r i m A. Sorokin, Op. c i t . , p. 346. 54. ° V i l f r e d o Pareto, Op. c i t . , pp. 132-3. 55. The author does not propose to contribute to the f i e l d of population genetics since i t i s c l e a r l y outside of h i s area of competence. Nevertheless, i f the Hutterite e l i t e became so inbred that i t was unable to reproduce i t s e l f , the consequences for s o c i a l mobility could scarcely be ignored. Although t h i s hypothesis w i l l be shown to be completely f a l s e i n Chapter I I I , i t i s by no means obvious that t h i s should be the case. Recent genetic research on the Hutterite population suggests that the Hutterites are highly inbred. T y p i c a l l y continuous interbreeding of f i r s t cousins would have to occur before deleterious recessive genes f i n d phenotypic expression. However, when the genetic equivalence of f i r s t cousin marriages occur over successive generations, the same r e s u l t can be expected to occur. Although the Schmiedeleut group (the Hutterian sub-sect which I studied) had only s i x f i r s t cousin marriages i n recent hi s t o r y , they had many marriages which would have the same e f f e c t from a genetic standpoint. For example, second cousins would share more genes i n common than would be expected i f there were also a v a r i e t y of more dist a n t blood t i e s contributing to t h e i r genetic r e l a t e d -ness. Geneticists have devised a formula known as Wright's C o e f f i c i e n t of Inbreeding: R= (%) n. Where R expresses the r e l a t i o n s h i p between two people i n terms of the average number of genes they can be expected to have i n common due to descent from common r e l a t i v e s and n ref e r s to the number of descent linkages connecting 54 the two i n d i v i d u a l s . I f we assume that common r e l a -t i v e s are not themselves related, we get the following R's for the following types of re l a t i o n s h i p . In the case of the Hutterites, we cannot assume that common r e l a t i v e s are themselves unrelated. Arthur G. Steinberg, et. a l . , "Genetic Studies on an Inbred Human Isolate", Proceedings of the Third International  Congress of Human Genetics (Baltimore: John Hopkins Uni v e r s i t y Press, 1967) pp. 267-89 point out i n t h e i r genetic study of the Hutterite population, that i f marriages were contracted on a completely random basis, the r e s u l t i n g mean R for the marital pairs would be .0311. That i s , i f we randomly select a male and female from the Hutterite population they w i l l on the average be g e n e t i c a l l y equivalent to second cousins. Steinberg concludes that most of the inbreeding can be accounted for by random mating. Given t h i s high degree of genetic relatedness and i f a small endogamous e l i t e does ex i s t , then i t i s not u n l i k e l y that genetic defects w i l l occur i n t h i s quarter. There can be no doubt that a number of hereditary diseases have emerged i n the Hutteri t e population. See, V i c t o r A. McKusick and David Rimoin, "General Torn Thumb and Other Midgets", S c i e n t i f i c American,. July 1967, pp. 102-10. The authors of t h i s a r t i c l e point out that asexual a t e l i o s i s (asexual midgetism) i s the r e s u l t of close inbreeding among the Hutterites. Also, a number of other hereditary disorders such as ah hereditary pancreatic disease and short sightedness have recently appeared. An e a r l y genetic study by Edward East and Donald Jones, Inbreeding and Outbreeding: Their Genetic and Sociolo- g i c a l Significance (London: J.B. Lippincott, 1919) revealed that continued inbreeding over several genera-tions r e s u l t s i n a decline i n f e r t i l i t y and con s t i t u -t i o n a l vigor, i n addition to the probable occurrence of genetic defects. This f i n d i n g i s s t i l l widely accepted by g e n e t i c i s t s . See, Paul A. Moody, Genetics of Man (New York: W.W. Norton, 1967) esp. pp. 111-25. Type of Relationship Parent-offspring Grandparent-grandchiId R .50 .25 .125 F i r s t cousin Second cousin Third cousin .03125 .00781 55 57. F r e d e r i c k E n g e l s , S o c i a l i s m : U t o p i a n and S c i e n t i f i c (Moscow: P r o g r e s s P u b l i s h e r s , 1966) p. 50. 58. K a r l Marx, S e l e c t e d W r i t i n g s i n S o c i o l o g y a n d S o c i a l  P h i l o s o p h y , e d . b y T.B. B o t t o m o r e and M a x i m i l i e n R u b e l , ( L o n d o n : W a t t s & Co., 1956) p . 102. 59. I b i d . , p . 103. 60. R a l f D a h r e n d o r f , C l a s s and C l a s s C o n f l i c t i n I n d u s t r i a l • S o c i e t y ( S t a n f o r d : S t a n f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1959) p. 13. T h i s q u o t e i s f r o m D a h r e n d o r f 1 s r e n d e r i n g o f t h e u n f i n i s h e d 52nd c h a p t e r o f Volumn I I I o f M a r x ' s C a p i t a l . 61. F r e d e r i c k E n g e l s , "On t h e O r i g i n o f t h e S t a t e " i n The  M a r x - E n g e l s R e a d e r , e d . b y R o b e r t C. T u c k e r , (New Y o r k : ' W.W. N o r t o n & Co., 1972) pp. 653-4. 62. See, K a r l Marx, P r e - C a p i t a l i s t E c o n o m i c F o r m a t i o n s (New Y o r k : I n t e r n a t i o n a l P u b l i s h e r s , 1 9 6 5 ) . The q u e s t i o n o f w h a t c o n d i t i o n s g i v e r i s e t o v a r i o u s t y p e s o f p r o p e r t y a r r a n g e m e n t s l i e s o u t s i d e o f o u r r e s e a r c h i n t e r e s t s . We a r e i n t e r e s t e d o n l y i n t h e c o n s e q u e n c e s , t h e c a u s e s a r e an e x o g e n o u s c o n s i d e r a t i o n . F o r a s y s t e m a t i c a t t e m p t t o e x p l a i n t h e p r e s e n c e o f v a r i o u s t y p e s o f p r o p e r t y a r r a n g e m e n t s , s e e , M o r t o n H. F r i e d , The E v o l u t i o n o f P o l i t i c a l S o c i e t y (New Y o r k : Random House, 1967) p p . 191-224. 63. K a r l Marx and F r e d e r i c k E n g e l s , The Communist M a n i f e s t o ( L o n d o n : P e n g u i n Books, 1967) p . 79. 64. See, R e n z o S e r e n o , The R u l e r s : The T h e o r y o f t h e R u l i n g  C l a s s (New Y o r k : H a r p e r & Row, 1968) p. 18. 65. On t h i s p o i n t , s e e , R a l f D a h r e n d o r f , Op. c i t . , p . 219. 66. Whereas o w n e r s h i p o f t h e means o f p r o d u c t i o n and o c c u p a n c y o f p o l i t i c a l p o s i t i o n s c o n s t i t u t e i n s t i t u t i o n -a l i z e d s o u r c e s o f power w h i c h c a n b e h a n d e d down f r o m f a t h e r t o s o n , s o u r c e s o f power w h i c h a r e d e p e n d e n t upon p e r s o n a l a b i l i t y p e r i s h w i t h t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s d e a t h . I am w i l l i n g t o c o n c e d e t h a t what i s r e c o g n i z e d as i n h e r i t a b l e d e p e n d s t o a l a r g e e x t e n t on c u l t u r a l d e f i n i t i o n . N e v e r t h e l e s s , s u c h a c u l t u r a l d e f i n i t i o n w o u l d h a v e t o b e i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d i n o r d e r t o b e made o p e r a t i o n a l . The H u t t e r i t e s a r e d e v o i d o f s u c h i n s t i -56 t u t i o n a l m e c h a n i s m s , e x c e p t w i t h r e s p e c t t o p o l i t i c a l p o s i t i o n . 67. K a r l M a r x a n d F r e d e r i c k E n g e l s , Op. c i t . , p. 1 0 5 . 68. K a r l M a r x , "The C i v i l War i n F r a n c e " i n The M a r x - E n g e l s  R e a d e r , e d . b y R o b e r t C. T u c k e r (New Y o r k : W.W. N o r t o n & Co., 1972) p . 537. 69. Q u o t e d b y D a v i d M c L e l l a n , The T h o u g h t o f K a r l M a r x ( L o n d o n a n d B a s i n g s t o k e : M a c M i l l a n P r e s s , 1971) p. 1 0 1 . T h i s h a s b e e n t a k e n f r o m K a r l M a r x ' s ' L e t t e r t o V e r a S a s s o u l i t c h ' , 1 8 8 1 . 70. See K a r l M a r x , "The C i v i l War i n F r a n c e " i n The M a r x - E n g e l s R e a d e r , e d . b y R o b e r t C. T u c k e r , (New Y o r k : N o r t o n & Co., 1 9 7 2 ) , p p . 5 5 5 - 7 . 7 1 . T h e i r c r i t i q u e o f ' U t o p i a n ' s o c i a l i s m c a n b e f o u n d i n K a r l M a r x a n d F r e d e r i c k E n g e l s , The C o m m u n i s t M a n i f e s t o ( L o n d o n : P e n g u i n B o o k s , 1967) p p . 1 14—8, a n d F r e d e r i c k E n g e l s , S o c i a l i s m : U t o p i a n and S c i e n t i f i c (Moscow: P r o g r e s s P u b l i s h e r s , 1966) pp. 2 9 - 4 2 . 72. The t e r m ' m u t u a l - a i d ' was u s e d b y K r o p o t k i n t o r e f e r t o c o - o p e r a t i v e n e s s r e s u l t i n g f r o m ' t h e c l o s e d e p e n d e n c y o f e v e r y o n e ' s h a p p i n e s s u p o n t h e h a p p i n e s s o f a l l . " P r i n c e P e t r K r o p o t k i n , M u t u a l A i d ( L o n d o n : P e n g u i n B o o k s , 1939) p. 16. The arguments o f t h e Utopian s o c i a l i s t s a r e s u m m a r i z e d b y M a r t i n B u b e r , P a t h s i n U t o p i a ( B o s t o n : B e a c o n P r e s s , 1 9 4 9 ) . Many m o d e r n N e o - M a r x i s t s a p p e a r t o h a v e a d o p t e d t h e U t o p i a n s o c i a l i s t p o s i t i o n a n d r e c a s t i t i n a more t r a d i t i o n a l l y M a r x i a n f r a m e w o r k . S e e , f o r e x a m p l e , G a r A l p e r o v i t z , " S o c i a l i s m a s a P l u r a l i s t i c Commonwealth", i n The C a p i t a l i s t S y s t e m , e d . b y R i c h a r d E d w a r d s , M i c h a e l R e i c h , a n d Thomas W e i s s k o p f ( E n g l e w o o d C l i f f s , N . J . : P r e n t i c e - H a l l , 1972) pp-. 5 2 4 - 5 3 9 . 73. I n h i s c r i t i c i s m o f t h e p a r t y p l a t f o r m o f t h e German S o c i a l D e m o c r a t i c movement ( G o t h a P r o g r a m ) , M a r x o b j e c t e d t o t h e i r v i e w t h a t s o c i a l a n d p o l i t i c a l i n e q u a l i t y w o u l d h a v e t o b e c o n s c i o u s l y e l i m i n a t e d a f t e r t h e a b o l i t i o n o f p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y . M a r x r e s p o n d e d t h a t " i t o u g h t t o h a v e b e e n s a i d t h a t w i t h t h e a b o l i t i o n o f c l a s s d i s t i n c t i o n s a l l s o c i a l a n d p o l i t i c a l i n e q u a l i t y a r i s i n g f r o m t h e m w o u l d d i s a p p e a r o f i t s e l f . " K a r l M a r x , " C r i t i q u e o f t h e 57 Gotha Program", i n The Marx-Engels Reader, ed. by-Robert C. Tucker, (New York: W.W. Norton & Co., 1972) p. 392. : 74. Marx f e l t that i n the non-communist society, bureaucratic o f f i c i a l s tended to put t h e i r own in t e r e s t s and the int e r e s t s of t h e i r class ahead of the common i n t e r e s t . "What has been the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a t t r i b u t e of the former state? Society has created i t s own organs to look a f t e r i t s common i n t e r e s t s , o r i g i n a l l y through simple d i v i s i o n of labour. But these organs, at whose head was the state power, had i n the course of time, i n pursuance of t h e i r own sp e c i a l i n t e r e s t s , transformed themselves from the servants of society into the masters of society. This can be seen, for example, not only i n the hereditary monarchy, but equally so i n the democra-t i c republic." K a r l Marx, "The C i v i l War i n France", The Marx-Engels Reader, ed. by Robert C. Tucker, (New York: W.W. Norton, 1972) p. 535. Here Marx i s i n complete agreement with the Machiavellians; however, he f e l t that i n the communist society administrative positions would lose t h e i r ' p o l i t i c a l character'. By t h i s he meant that they would become ' s t r i c t l y respon-s i b l e agents' of the society as a whole. He c i t e d two s o c i a l mechanism i m p l i c i t i n the structure of a communist society which would bring t h i s about. "In the f i r s t place, i t f i l l e d a l l posts - administrative, j u d i c i a l , and educational - by e l e c t i o n on the basis of universal suffrage of a l l concerned, subject to the r i g h t of r e c a l l at any time by the same el e c t o r s . And, i n the second place, a l l o f f i c i a l s , high or low, were paid only the wages received by other workers. In t h i s way an a f f e c t i v e b a r r i e r to place-hunting and careerism was set up." Karl Marx, Ibid., p. 536. 75. Melvin M. Tumin goes even further than t h i s . He maintains that, "the more r i g i d l y s t r a t i f i e d a society i s , the less chance does that society have of discovering any new facts about the talents of i t s members." See, Melvin M. Tumin, "Some P r i n c i p l e s of S t r a t i f i c a t i o n : A C r i t i c a l Analysis", American S o c i o l o g i c a l Review, Vol. 18, August, 1953, p. 388. 76. See, David McLellan, "Marx's View of the Unalienated Society", The Review of P o l i t i c s , Vol. 31, October, 1969, pp. 459-65. 58 77. M a r x ' s v i e w o f a l i e n a t i o n i s d i s c u s s e d b y M e l v i n Seeman, "On t h e M e a n i n g o f A l i e n a t i o n " , A m e r i c a n S o c i o l o g i c a l  R eview, V o l . 24, December, 1959, pp... 784-5. An i n d i v i d u a l i s deemed a l i e n a t e d i f he i s u n a b l e t o e x e r t any e f f e c t i v e c o n t r o l o v e r e i t h e r t h e p r o d u c t s o f h i s l a b o u r o r t h e means o f p r o d u c t i o n . T h i s w o u l d b e t h e c a s e i f b o t h t h e means o f p r o d u c t i o n and t h e p r o d u c t s o f ' h i s l a b o u r were t h e p r o p e r t y o f a n o t h e r . See, K a r l Marx, " A l i e n a t e d L a b o u r " , i n Man A l o n e : A l i e n a t i o n i n  M o d e r n S o c i e t y , e d . b y E r i c and M a r y J o s e p h s o n , (New Y o r k : D e l l P u b l i s h i n g Co., 1962) pp. 93-105. I n a c l a s s l e s s s o c i e t y where a l l t h i n g s a r e c ommunally owned, t h e p r o d u c t s o f l a b o u r d i r e c t l y s e r v e t h e s h a r e d i n t e r e s t s o f t h e c o l l e c t i v i t y . T hus, t h e communard i s n o t d i v o r c e d f r o m t h e p r o d u c t s o f h i s l a b o u r and h e n c e i s n o t a l i e n a t e d . 78. T h i s i s t h e modern r e n d e r i n g o f Occam's r a z o r ( c o n c e p t s a r e n o t t o b e m u l t i p l i e d beyond, n e c e s s i t y ) . See K a r l P e a r s o n , The Grammar o f S c i e n c e (London: J.M. Dent, 1892) pp. 340-1. 59 C h a p t e r I I H i s t o r y , I d e o l o g y and S o c i a l S t r u c t u r e o f t h e H u t t e r i t e s The p u r p o s e o f t h i s c h a p t e r i s t o p r o v i d e t h e e m p i r i c a l c o n t e x t w i t h i n w h i c h o u r h y p o t h e s e s a r e embedded. No a t t e m p t w i l l b e made t o p r o v i d e a d e t a i l e d e t h n o g r a p h y ; o n l y t h o s e e l e m e n t s o f t h e s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e w h i c h p e r t a i n t o o u r m a j o r t h e o r e t i c a l p r o b l e m w i l l r e c e i v e e l a b o r a t i o n . 1 A B r i e f H i s t o r i c a l S k e t c h The H u t t e r i t e s a r e named a f t e r J a c o b H u t t e r who f i r s t i n s t i t u t e d communal l i v i n g among a g r o u p o f p e r s e c u t e d A n a b a p t i s t r e f u g e e s i n M o r a v i a i n 1528. A t t h e t i m e , t h e A n a b a p t i s t s w e r e made up o f p e a s a n t s and p e t t y a r t i s a n s who h a d f o r m e d a p p r o x i m a t e l y f o r t y s e p a r a t e g r o u p s w h i c h l a c k e d 2 b o t h an o v e r a r c h i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n and i n t e r n a l c o h e s i o n . Many o f t h e A n a b a p t i s t s h a d p r e v i o u s l y p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h e d i s a s t r o u s P e a s a n t s ' War o f 1524-2 5. The P e a s a n t s ' War a p p e a r s t o h a v e b e e n a . c l a s s i c example o f a r e v o l t w h i c h o c c u r s a f t e r a p e r i o d o f g r a d u a l s o c i o - e c o n o m i c i m p r o v e m e n t w h i c h i s f o l l o w e d b y a s u d d e n r e v e r s a l . R i s i n g e x p e c t a t i o n s o f c o n t i n u e d p r o s p e r i t y a r e s u d d e n l y f r u s t r a t e d b y a s h a r p 3 d e c l i n e m a c t u a l i mprovement. Norman Cohn s a y s o f t h e P e a s a n t s ' War, The c a u s e s o f t h e German P e a s a n t s ' War h a v e b e e n and w i l l no d o u b t c o n t i n u e t o b e a s u b j e c t o f c o n t r o v e r s y , b u t t h e r e a r e a few g e n e r a l comments 60 that can be made with some confidence. The well-being of the German peasantry was greater than i t had ever been; and p a r t i c u l a r l y the peasants who everywhere took the i n i t i a t i v e i n the insurrection, so far from being driven on by sheer misery and desperation, belonged to a r i s i n g and self-confident c l a s s . They were people whose po s i t i o n was improving both s o c i a l l y and economic-a l l y and who for that very reason were impatient of the obstacles which stood i n the way of further advance. 4 The German noblemen e a s i l y crushed t h i s b r i e f r e v o l t i n which as many as 100,000 peasants perished. With a p o l i t i c a l s o l u t i o n to t h e i r problems c l e a r l y frustrated, many of the survivors sought an alternate r e l i g i o u s solution. These peasants came to view not only the prevaling socio-economic order as e x p l o i t i v e and unjust, but the established Protestant and Catholic churches as w e l l . They were perceived as the supportive i d e o l o g i c a l arm of the landowners. The Hutterites were but one of the many small r e l i g i o u s sects which emerged i n opposition to the established church hierarchy. What has come to be known as the Radical Reformation consisted of several groups united by a few e t h i c o - r e l i g i o u s p r i n c i p l e s . Namely, 1. The re-establishment of the apostolic church 2. Pacifism 3. Mutual aid and the sharing of possessions 4. 5. An e g a l i t a r i a n s o c i a l structure S e l f - d e n i a l 61 The Hutterites took a more extreme p o s i t i o n with regard to these p r i n c i p l e s than most Anabaptists. They i n s i s t e d that the 'true' apostolic church should be restored immediately and not considered merely a desirable future goal. For the Hutterites, the r e s t i t u t i o n of the Kingdom of God on earth was a matter of p r a c t i c a l as well as s p i r i t u a l concern. Their goal was not to transform a society from within, but rather to withdraw from society and e s t a b l i s h a s p i r i t u a l community made up of an exclusive e l i t e ' o f b e l i e v e r s who v o l u n t a r i l y act as God's stewards on e a r t h . 6 They embraced pacifism not only by r e j e c t i n g a l l forms of milita r i s m , but by refusing to involve themselves i n any form of p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i t y i n the host society. The Hutter-i t e s distinguished themselves from the other Anabaptists who established 'communities of love' where charity and compassion 7 were the forces governing the r e - d i s t r i b u t i o n of possessions. The model taken by the Hutterites derived from t h e i r reading g of Acts 2:41-47, Then they that gladly received h i s word were baptized ... and they continued steadfastly i n the Apostles' doctrine and fellowship, and the breaking of the bread, and i n prayers ... And a l l that believed were together and had a l l things i n common; and they sold t h e i r possessions and goods and parted them to a l l men, as every man had need. 62 T h e H u t t e r i t e s e v o l v e d a t h o r o u g h g o i n g c o m m u n i s t i c community i n w h i c h a l l p r o p e r t y was h e l d i n common. The e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a 'community o f g o o d s ' ( G u t e r g e m e i n s c h a f t ) c o u p l e d w i t h an e t h i c o f s e l f - d e n i a l and ' m o r t i f i c a t i o n o f t h e f l e s h ' h a d t h e e f f e c t o f r e n d e r i n g a l l members e q u a l on e c o n o m i c c r i t e r i a . J a c o b H u t t e r emerged i n 1528 as a c h a r i s m a t i c f i g u r e who was a b l e t o o r g a n i z e 3 00 t o 500 A n a b a p t i s t s i n t o t h r e e 9 f e d e r a t e d c o l o n i e s . H u t t e r who became t h e f i r s t c h i e f e l d e r o r ' V o r s t e h e r ' o f t h e s e c t was j o i n e d b y P e t e r Rideman who l a t e r s u c c e e d e d h i m . Rideman p r o d u c e d t h e f i r s t s y s t e m a t i c t h e o l o g y f o r t h e g r o u p . F i r s t i n 1529 w i t h h i s "How.to B u i l d t h e House o f G o d " 1 0 and l a t e r i n 1540 w i t h h i s C o n f e s s i o n o f F a i t h 1 1 he p r o v i d e d an u n i f i e d d o c t r i n e w h i c h f o r t h e H u t t e r i t e s i s c o n s i d e r e d t o r a n k n e x t t o t h e B i b l e as a t h e o l o g i c a l t e x t . D u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d , t h e H u t t e r i t e s s u f f e r e d i n t e r m i t t e n t p e r s e c u t i o n f r o m t h e C a t h o l i c c h u r c h a n d n o b l e m e n i n M o r a v i a . A t t i m e s , t h e H u t t e r i t e s managed t o c o n t r a c t a m u t u a l l y a g r e e a b l e e c o n o m i c r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h t h e M o r a v i a n noblemen, o n l y t o h a v e t h i s a r r a n g e m e n t s h a t t e r e d b y a s u d d e n p u r g e d i r e c t e d b y ! the. C a t h o l i c c h u r c h . D u r i n g t h e s e p u r g e s , t h e H u t t e r i t e s w o u l d d i s b a n d t h e i r c o m m u n i t i e s a n d f o r m i n t o s m a l l g r o u p s o f 8 t o 10 members 12 who w o u l d s e e k r e f u g e i n n e a r b y f o r e s t s and c a v e s . The 63 H u t t e r i t e s w e r e t o p e r i o d i c a l l y r e s o r t t o a n a l t e r n a t e s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e w h i c h t h e y c a l l e d ' K u t t e n w e i s ' ( a s t h e w a n d e r i n g monks) w h i c h e x i s t e d t e m p o r a r i l y a s a n u n d e r g r o u n d s e c r e t s o c i e t y . R i d e m a n was s u c c e e d e d b y P e t e r W a l p o t who 13 was a h i g h l y t a l e n t e d man o f w o r d s a s w e l l a s a man o f a c t i o n . U n d e r W a l p o t ' s d i r e c t i o n t h e H u t t e r i t e c o m m u n i t i e s e x p a n d e d t o as many a s 30,000 members b y 1 5 7 8 . ^ 4 I n 1 6 2 2 , t h e H u t t e r i t e s w e r e f o r c e d t o f l e e f r o m M o r a v i a when t h e C a t h o l i c C h u r c h p e r s u a d e d t h e n o b l e m e n t o p u r g e t h e i r e s t a t e s o f A n a b a p t i s t s . The H u t t e r i t e s t e m p o r -a r i l y d i s b a n d e d t h e i r communes a n d t o o k up t h e ' K u t t e n w e i s ' m o d e l u n t i l 1646 when t h e y w e r e a g a i n a b l e t o r e s t o r e t h e i r f o r m e r ' g u t e r g e m e i n s c h a f t 1 ( c o m m u n i t y o f g o o d s ) m o d e l i n H u n g a r y . A l t h o u g h H u n g a r y was a t t h e t i m e e m b r o i l e d i n t h e T h i r t y Y e a r s War, t h e H u t t e r i t e s managed t o e s c a p e o f f i c i a l n o t i c e d u e t o t h e c h a o s w h i c h a c c o m p a n i e d t h e w a r . D u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d ( 1 6 2 2 - 4 8 ) , w h i c h was r e l a t i v e l y t r a n q u i l f r o m t h e H u t t e r i t e ' s p o i n t o f v i e w , A n d r e a s E h r e n p r e i s became ' V o r s t e h e r ' ( c h i e f e l d e r ) o f t h e H u t t e r i a n c o l o n i e s . E h r e n p r e i s a u t h o r e d a s m a l l s u c c i n c t l y w r i t t e n 15 e p i s t l e E i n S e n d b r i e f w h i c h h a s become t h e H u t t e r i t e s m o s t p o p u l a r i d e o l o g i c a l w o r k . W i t h t h e t e r m i n a t i o n o f t h e w a r i n 1648, t h e H u t t e r i t e s l o s t t h e i r p r e v i o u s s t a t u s o f r e l a t i v e i n v i s i b i l i t y a n d a g a i n 64 became t h e f o c u s o f p e r s e c u t i o n . T h i s p e r s e c u t i o n t o o k t h e f o r m o f e x c e s s i v e t a x a t i o n w h i c h became so o n e r o u s t h a t t h e y w e r e f o r c e d t o a bandon t h e community o f g o o d s b y 1685 and become an u n d e r g r o u n d movement. T h r o u g h o u t t h i s p e r i o d ( w h i c h e n d e d i n 1763), t h e H u t t e r i t e s m a s q u e r a d e d as n o m i n a l C a t h o l i c s and were a b l e t o m a i n t a i n a s e c r e t s o c i e t y b e h i n d 17 t h i s f a c a d e . I n 1763 t h e r u l i n g C a t h o l i c g o v e r n m e n t d e c i d e d t o r e s e t t l e d i s s i d e n t P r o t e s t a n t m i n o r i t i e s i n T r a n s y l v a n i a . The H u t t e r i t e s t o o k t h e g o v e r n m e n t a t i t s w o r d and m i g r a t e d t o t h i s r e s e t t l e m e n t a r e a . However, t h i s r e s e t t l e m e n t p l a n t u r n e d o u t t o b e l i t t l e more t h a n a c r u d e a t t e m p t t o i s o l a t e and e x t e r m i n a t e r e l i g i o u s d i s s e n t e r s . When t h e y r e a l i z e d t h e d a n g e r o u s s i t u a t i o n t h e y w e r e i n , t h e y e s c a p e d o v e r t h e T r a n s y l v a n i a n A l p s t o W a l l a c h i a . However, a l m o s t c o n c u r r e n t l y w i t h t h e i r a r r i v a l i n W a l l a c h i a , R u s s i a and T u r k e y e n t e r e d i n t o a war t o c o n t e s t t h e r e g i o n . F i n d i n g t h e m s e l v e s i n t h e c e n t r e o f r i v a l r y , t h e y s o u g h t o u t an avenue o f e s c a p e . I n 1770, t h e H u t t e r i t e s r e c e i v e d i n f o r m a t i o n . t h a t C a t h e r i n e t h e G r e a t o f R u s s i a was o f f e r i n g a l a r g e p a r t o f t h e U k r a i n e f o r f o r e i g n s e t t l e m e n t . A c c o r d i n g t o P e t e r s , The R u s s i a n s e x p e c t e d t h e f o r e i g n s e t t l e r s t o f i l l two r o l e s . T h e y were t o c o l o n i z e t h e s t e p p e s , and t o s e r v e as m o d e l s f o r t h e n a t i v e p o p u l a t i o n i n f a r m i n g t e c h n i q u e s . 1 ^ 65 As incentives the Russians offered free v i r g i n land, tax concessions, r e l i g i o u s freedom, exemption from m i l i t a r y service, and l i t t l e governmental interference i n t h e i r community l i f e . The Hutterites accepted the o f f e r and established communities along the Molochnaya (Milky) River. This area took on the appearance of a reservation for r e l i g i o u s dissenters. Aside from the native Tartars, the region had as i t s sole occupants Hutterites, Mennonites, 19 Doukhobors, and Molokans. Although the r e l a t i o n s between these groups were not without discord, they were l a r g e l y ignored by the state u n t i l 1864. In that year, under pressure from Russian colonists who found the land which the r e l i g i o u s sects occupied, to be highly desirable, the government decided to either assimilate the r e l i g i o u s d i s -senters or relocate them. Since these groups had long since f u l f i l l e d t h e i r o r i g i n a l purpose of opening up the steppes, the T s a r i s t government announced that t h e i r communities and schools would f a l l under state supervision and that they would be e l i g i b l e f o r conscription into the m i l i t a r y . The Hutterites immediately decided to relocate themselves. They decided that the United States offered the most promising l o c a t i o n . In a manner which bore a remarkable s i m i l a r i t y to the Russian co l o n i z a t i o n plan, the Americans offered the 66 H u t t e r i t e s f r e e l a n d , f r e e d o m o f r e l i g i o n , f r e e d o m o f e d u c a t i o n , a n d e x e m p t i o n f r o m m i l i t a r y d u t y . The f i r s t H u t t e r i t e s a r r i v e d i n 1874 u n d e r t h e l e a d e r s h i p o f M i c h a e l W a l d n e r . T h i s g r o u p w h i c h n u m b e r e d s l i g h t l y more t h a n 100 p e o p l e became k n o w n a s t h e 1 S c h m i e d e l e u t ' o r ' b l a c k s m i t h p e o p l e ' a f t e r W a l d n e r 1 s f o r m e r o c c u p a t i o n . A f t e r e s t a b l i s h -i n g a b a s e n e a r L i n c o l n N e b r a s k a , t h e ' S c h m i e d e l e u t ' s e n t o u t s c o u t s t o s e a r c h f o r a d e s i r a b l e l o c a t i o n . T h e y f i n a l l y d e c i d e d o n S o u t h D a k o t a . A c c o r d i n g t o t h e K l e i n - G e s c h i c h t s b u c h -a H u t t e r i a n c h r o n i c l e w h i c h c o v e r s t h i s p e r i o d i n t h e i r h i s t o r y , The l a n d a n d c l i m a t e o f t h e p r a i r i e s r e m i n d e d u s o f t h e R u s s i a n S t e p p e s a n d , t h u s , i n f l u e n c e d o u r c h o i c e . B u t o f e v e n g r e a t e r i m p o r t a n c e was t h e d e c i s i o n b y o u r e l d e r s t o s e e k o u t s e c l u d e d a r e a s f o r s e t t l e m e n t . We d i d n o t t a k e a n y G o v e r n m e n t l a n d f o r w h i c h we w e r e e n t i t l e d b y t h e H o m e s t e a d A c t . 160 a c r e s was g i v e n t o e v e r y i m m i g r a n t w i t h o u t c o s t . S u c h i n d i v i d u a l i s m d i d n o t a g r e e w i t h t h e p r i n c i p l e s o f c o m m u n i t y s i n c e e v e r y s i n g l e f a m i l y w o u l d h a v e t o l i v e o n t h e i r 160 a c r e s i n . o r d e r t o g e t t i t l e t o t h e land.^° The ' S c h m i e d e l e u t ' p r e f e r r e d t o p u r c h a s e p r i v a t e l y owned l a n d i n o r d e r t o a v o i d t h e r e s t r i c t i o n s o f t h e H o m e s t e a d A c t . T h e y p u r c h a s e d 2 500 a c r e s o f l a n d w h i c h became t h e s i t e o f Bo n Homme C o l o n y . T h e S c h m i e d e l e u t w e r e f o l l o w e d i n t h e same y e a r b y a s e c o n d g r o u p w h i c h l a t e r became known a s t h e D a r i u s l e u t ( a f t e r t h e i r s e n i o r e l d e r D a r i u s W a l t e r ) . T h e y e s t a b l i s h e d t h e W o l f C r e e k C o l o n y a s h o r t d i s t a n c e f r o m Bon Homme ' C o l o n y . 67 A t h i r d group, the Lehrerleut (the teacher's people), arr i v e d three years l a t e r i n 1877 and founded Elmspring Colony i n the same region. This group was named af t e r t h e i r senior elder Jacob Wipf who had been a school teacher. This group was more heterogeneous than the two previous groups since i t was made up of recent converts and Hutterites who had ceased to l i v e communally and had become i n d i v i d u a l farmers. Although Wipf succeeded i n restoring communalism to the group, a large proportion chose to remain i n d i v i d u a l farmers. For several years these non-communal Hutterites maintained close t i e s with the colonies. The communal Hutterites referred to t h i s group as the ' P r a i r i e l e u t 1 ( p r a i r i e people) and f o r approximately f o r t y years kinship t i e s and economic exchanges welded the P r a i r i e l e u t to the communal Hutter i t e s . However, when the P r a i r i e l e u t were given the choice of eith e r giving up t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l farms or leaving the sect, most chose to j o i n the Krimmer Mennonite Church. The Schmiedeleut were l a t e r to expand throughout eastern South Dakota and into Manitoba, North Dakota and Minnesota. The Dariusleut and Lehrerleut were to abandon South. Dakota by 1918 and e s t a b l i s h t h e i r . c o l o n i e s i n Alberta, Saskatchewan, Montana, and Washington. This geographical separation became i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d such that three permanent 68 s u b - s e c t s o f t h e H u t t e r i t e s emerged. The t h r e e s u b - s e c t s a r e now p o l i t i c a l l y autonomous and s t r i c t l y endogamous g r o u p i n g s w h i c h h a v e e v o l v e d a w i d e v a r i e t y o f c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n d r e s s , m e a l s , r e l i g i o u s c e r e m o n i e s and 22 c o l o n y r e g u l a t i o n s . S i n c e we w i l l b e d e a l i n g e x c l u s i v e l y w i t h t h e S c h m i e d e l e u t i n t h i s s t u d y , o n l y t h e modern h i s t o r y o f t h i s s u b - s e c t w i l l b e d e v e l o p e d . I n 1878, t h e S c h m i e d e l e u t m o t h e r c o l o n y Bon Homme p r o d u c e d i t s f i r s t d a u g h t e r c o l o n y -T r i p p C o l o n y . T r i p p was a c o m p l e t e f a i l u r e ; i t d e v e l o p e d a t o t a l r e l i a n c e on Bon Homme f o r e c o n o m i c a i d . T r i p p became s u c h a f i n a n c i a l b u r d e n t h a t t h e S c h m i e d e l e u t w e r e f o r c e d t o a p p e a l t o two o t h e r communal s e c t s - t h e Amana c o l o n i e s and 23 t h e R a p p i t e c o l o n y o f New Harmony,' f o r e c o n o m i c a s s i s t a n c e . The R a p p i t e s , who h a d c o n s i d e r a b l y more e x p e r i e n c e w i t h t h e p o l i t i c a l e n v i r o n m e n t gave t h e H u t t e r i t e s l e g a l c o u n s e l and 24 h e l p e d them d r a f t t h e i r f i r s t c o n s t i t u t i o n . T r i p p was s o l d i n 1884 and t h e e n t i r e membership o f t h e c o l o n y moved t o P e n n s y l v a n i a where t h e y e s t a b l i s h e d T i d i o u t e C o l o n y on l a n d owned b y t h e R a p p i t e s . The H u t t e r i t e s e n t e r e d i n t o a q u a r r e l w i t h t h e R a p p i t e s o v e r t h e t i t l e o f t h e l a n d and a m i d s t much a c r i m o n y r e t u r n e d t o S o u t h D a k o t a i n 1886 and f o u n d e d M i l l t o w n C o l o n y . 2 5 69 By 1918, Bon Homme and Milltown had produced four daughter colonies: Maxwell, Rosedale, Huron, and James Valley. A f i f t h colony, Buffalo', which was a daughter colony of Milltown, was founded i n 1907 but was forced to relocate i n 1913. After r e l o c a t i o n Buffalo colony became known as James V a l l e y colony. In 1918, the Hutterites migrated en masse to Canada. With the entry of the United States i n t o World War I, the Hutterite colonies i n South Dakota became a local-focus f o r anti-German persecution. Not only were the colonies harassed by neighbouring farmers and townspeople, but the American government reneged on an e a r l i e r agreement with the Hutterites by declaring that the Hutterian Brethren did not constitute a r e l i g i o u s organization. This meant that young Hutterite men were subject to m i l i t a r y conscription. As p a c i f i s t s , they responded by refusing to take up arms and a large number of Hutteri t e men were thrown into m i l i t a r y prison. The death of two Hutterite men i n Fort Leavenworth convinced the Hutterites that a more congenial p o l i t i c a l environment would have to be found. Since Canada offered a much more favourable p o l i c y towards conscientious objectors, the Hutterites decided to relocate there. Milltown, Maxwell, Rosedale, Huron', and James Valley were transplanted i n Manitoba. Only Bon Homme colony remained behind to look a f t e r the land, buildings, and equipment which the Hutterites 70 h a d b e e n u n a b l e t o s e l l . Bon Homme i t s e l f d i v i d e d and p r o -d u c e d a new c o l o n y i n M a n i t o b a w h i c h was a l s o c a l l e d Bon Homme. A l l o f t h e men o f d r a f t a b l e age d e p a r t e d f o r (new) Bon Homme, l e a v i n g ( o l d ) Bon Homme an o l d c o l o n y i n t e r m s o f age c o m p o s i t i o n . A f t e r W o r l d Wai* I , t h e H u t t e r i t e s e n t e r e d i n t o a p e r i o d o f u n i n t e r r u p t e d g r o w t h and e x p a n s i o n w h i c h h a s c o n t i n u e d o n t o t h e p r e s e n t d a y . By 1970, a t o t a l o f 83 S c h m i e d e l e u t c o l o n i e s h a d b e e n f o u n d e d . T h e r e - w e r e 50 i n M a n i t o b a , 30 i n S o u t h D a k o t a , 2 i n N o r t h D a k o t a , and 1 i n M i n n e s o t a . The r e t u r n t o S o u t h D a k o t a was p r o m p t e d b y t h e p a s s a g e o f t h e Communal C o r p o r a t i o n A c t o f 1935 w h i c h a l l o w e d t h e H u t t e r i t e s t o i n c o r p o r a t e as a r e l i g i o u s o r g a n i z a t i o n . 2 7 A l l o f t h e 'mother' c o l o n i e s , w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f James V a l l e y , h a d p r o d u c e d ' d a u g h t e r ' c o l o n i e s i n b o t h t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s and Canada. (See Map 2.1) -Map 2.1_ L o c a t i o n o f S c h m i e d e l e u t C o l o n i e s to > —i O m MANITOBA o 1 o ' I-—i.-J. 1 - v - ' \ fe K £ V -a V4LLEY COL OME S - O BOW HOMME COLONIES - O \! MAXWELL. COLONIES u/wor JflOSEOALE CCLON'Es- S7 /'!M<LL70WN C0CON(£S-Q y ' JHUftON COLORE S-<A J MINNESOTA .yS I V _;: r/r 1 - o; "•»! , -V 3- ' * I ' o o a. 72 73 FIGURE 2.1 No. Colony Estab. Relocation Location 1. Bon Homme 1874 Never Tabor S.D. 2. Tripp 1878 1884 Tripp S.D. 3. Tidioute 1884 1886 Tidioute Pa. 4. Milltown 1886 1918 Milltown S.D. 5. Maxwell 1900 1918 Scotland S.D. 6. Rosedale 1901 1918 Alexandria S.D. 7. Huron 1906 1918 Huron S.D. 8. Buffalo 1907 1913 Gann Vall e y S.D. 9. James V a l l e y 1913 1918 Huron S.D. 10. (New) Bon Homme 1918 Never E l i e Man. 11. Waldheim 1935 Never E l i e Man. 12. Rose V a l l e y 1957 Never G r a y s v i l l e Man. 13. Spring Creek 1967 Never Roseisle Man. 14. Glendale 1949 Never Frankfort S.D. 151 Thunderbird 1964 Never Wecota S.D. 16. Grand 1958 Never E l i e Man. 17. Grass River 1968 Never Glenella Man. 18. Newdale 1969 Never Souris Man. 19. Rockport 1934 Never Alexandria S.D. 20. Rosedale 1945 Never M i t c h e l l S.D. 21. White Rock 1968 Never Rosholt S.D. 22 . Riverside 1949 Never Huron S.D. 23. Maple River 1970 Never F u l l e r t o n N.D. 24. Spink 1945 Never Frankfort S.D. 25. Plainview 1959 Never Ipswich S.D. 26. Pla t t e 1949 Never Academy S.D. 27. Spring V a l l e y 1963 Never Wessington Springs S.D. 28. Cedar Grove 1970 Never Platte S.D. 29. Huron 1918 Never E l i e Man. 30. Manitou 1925 1929 Manitou Man. 31. Roseisle 1929 1937 Roseisle Man. 32. Jamesville 193 7 Never Utica S.D. 33. (New) Huron 1944 Never Huron S.D. 34. H i l l s i d e 1960 Never Doland S.D. 35. Clark 1955 Never Raymond S.D. 36. Greenwood 1970 Never Delmont S.D. 37. Poplar Point 1938 Never Poplar Point Man. 38. S p r i n g f i e l d 1950 Never Anola Man. 39. Ridgeland 1966 Never Dugald Man. 40. Clearwater 1960 Never Balmoral Man. 41. Pearl Creek 1949 Never Iroquois S.D. 42. Long Lake 1966 Never Wetonka S.D. 43. Mountain View 1964 Never Riding Mountain Man. 44. Maxwell 1918 Never Headingly Man. 74 No. Colony Estab. Relocation Location 45. Barickman 1920 Never Headingly Man. 46. Teulon 1934 1936 ".' Teulon Man. 47. Tschetter 1942 Never O l i v e t S.D. 48. Gracevale 1948 Never Winfred S.D. 49. Cloverleaf 1963 Never Gracevale S.D. 50. Wolf Creek 1964 Never Menno S.D. 51. Greenwald 1955 Never Dencross Man. 52. Boyne V a l l e y 1968 Never Holland Man. 53. - Alsack 1932 1936 Alsack Sask. 54. Elmsprings 1936 Never Ethan S.D. 55. (New) Maxwell 1949 Never Scotland S.D. 56. Spring Creek 1964 Never Forbes N.D. 57. Big Stone 1958 Never Gr a c e v i l l e Minn. 58. Poinsett 1968 Never E s t e l l i n e S.D. 59. Lakeside 1946 Never Headingly Man. 60 : Homewood 1961 Never Starbuck Man. 61. Bright Stone 1959 Never Lac du Bonnet Man. 62. Rosedale 1918 Never E l i e Man. 63. I b e r v i l l e 1919 Never Headingly Man. 64. Riverside 1934 Never Arden Man. 65. Bloomfield 1957 Never Westbourne Man. 66. Rock Lake 1947 Never Grosse I s l e Man. 67. Interlake 1961 Never Teulon Man. 68. White S h e l l 1961 ' Never River H i l l s Man. 69. Elm River 1934 Never Newton Siding Man. 70. Oak B l u f f 1952 Never Morris Man. 71. Riverbend 1965 Never Carberry Man. 72. Rainbow 1964 Never I s l e de Chene Man. 73. (New) Rosedale 1944 Never Portage l a P r a i r i e Man. 74. Forest River 1950 1955-63 Inkster N.D. 75. Fairholm 1959 Never Portage l a P r a i r i e Man. 76. H i l l s i d e 1958 Never Ju s t i c e Man. 77. Long Lake 1969 Never Rockwood Man. 78. Milltown 1918 Never E l i e Man. 79. Blumengart 1922 Never Plum Coulee Man. 80. Sturgeon Creek 1938 . Never Headingly Man. 81. Cr y s t a l Spring 1955 Never Ste. Agathe Man. 82. Suncrest 1969 Never Tourond Man. 83. Vall e y Lake 1967 Never . Austin Man.. • . 84. (New) Blumengart 1952 Never Wecota S.D. 85. Pembina 1961 Never Darlingford Man. 86. Sunnyside 1942 Never Newton Siding Man. 87. Spring H i l l 1964 Never Neepawa Man. 88. M i l l e r d a l e 1949 Never M i l l e r S.D. 75 No. C o l o n y E s t a b . R e l o c a t i o n L o c a t i o n 89. Glenway 1965 N e v e r D o m i n i o n C i t y Man. 90. James V a l l e y 1918 N e v e r S t a r b u c k Man. 91. R i v e r d a l e 1946 N e v e r G l a d s t o n e Man. 92. D e e r b o i n e 1959 N e v e r A l e x a n d e r Man. 93. S p r i n g V a l l e y 1956 N e v e r G l e n S o u r i s Man. 94. W e l l w o o d 1968 N e v e r D u n r e a Man. 95. M i a m i 1965 N e v e r Morden Man. 76 Figure 2.1 depicts the Schmiedeleut colony tree. The squares i n the diagram represent colonies which were extant i n 1970; the c i r c l e s represent defunct colonies. I t can be seen from the diagram that the o r i g i n a l mother colony 'Bon Homme' has produced 8 daughter colonies, 23 grand-daughter colonies, 29 great grand-daughter colonies, 16 great great grand-daughter colonies, and 6 great great great grand-daughter colonies i n i t s 96 years of existence. The Schmiedeleut colony tree doubles i t s size approximately every 15 years. Table 2.1  Number of Colonies Over Time Year Number of Colonies 1875 • 1 1890 2 1905 . t 4 1920 ' 9 1935 17 1950 36 1965 68 1970 83 I t can be seen from Table 2.2 that the average doubling 2 8 time for the Schmiedeleut colonies i s 14.42 years. There i s evidence that the doubling time i s getting progressively shorter. P r i o r to the migration of 1918, the doubling time was 19.16 years. Since the migration, i t has decreased to 13.61 years. The average time"necessary to produce the most 77 r e c e n t c o l o n i e s ( t h o s e c o l o n i e s w h i c h h a v e n o t a s y e t p r o -d u c e d a d a u g h t e r c o l o n y ) i s e v e n s h o r t e r (13.47 y e a r s ) . T a b l e 2.2  C o l o n y D o u b l i n g T i m e i n Y e a r s C l a n T o t a l P r e P o s t L a t e s t M i g r a t i o n M i g r a t i o n M i g r a t i o n B o n Homme 13.63 14.50 13.53 14.30 H u r o n 13.84 25.00 14.09 14.28 M a x w e l l 14.50 21.00 13.57 13.22 R o s e d a l e 14.25 20.50 13.35 12.88 M i l l t o w n 16.25 24.00 14.30 13.43 J ames V a l l e y 14.83 22.50 11.00 11.33 E n t i r e L e u t 14.42 19.16 13.61 13.47 The p e r i o d o f m i g r a t i o n a p p e a r s t o h a v e h a d a d i s r u p t i v e i n f l u e n c e o n c o l o n y e x p a n s i o n . The o n l y c o l o n y w h i c h d i d n o t m i g r a t e (Bon Homme) h a s d o u b l i n g t i m e s f o r i t s c l a n w h i c h do n o t v a r y s i g n i f i c a n t l y t h r o u g h o u t i t s h i s t o r y . • T he g r o w t h o f James V a l l e y c l a n , o n t h e o t h e r h a n d , was s e v e r e l y r e t a r d e d 29 b y t h e m i g r a t i o n o f 1918. B e c a u s e James V a l l e y c o l o n y was f o r c e d t o r e l o c a t e d u r i n g t h e e a r l y s t a g e o f i t s d e v e l o p m e n t , i t t o o k 39 y e a r s t o a c c u m u l a t e e n o u g h r e s o u r c e s w i t h w h i c h t o p r o d u c e a d a u g h t e r c o l o n y . H o w e v e r , s i n c e t h i s t i m e , James- • V a l l e y c l a n h a s e x h i b i t e d t h e m o s t r a p i d c o l o n y d i v i s i o n . The r e g u l a r g e o m e t r i c a l p r o g r e s s i o n w h i c h c h a r a c t e r i z e s c o l o n y d i v i s i o n c a n b e shown t o r e s u l t f r o m p o p u l a t i o n g r o w t h . C e n s u s e s o f t h e S c h m i e d e l e u t c o l o n i e s h a v e b e e n t a k e n a t 12 i r r e g u l a r i n t e r v a l s , s i n c e 1874 b y a v a r i e t y o f s c h o l a r s . 78 T h e i r e n u m e r a t i o n s a r e l i s t e d i n T a b l e 2.3. T a b l e 2.3 A v e r a g e  C o l o n y S i z e 200.0 107.5 116.7 100.0 105.8 110.7 96. 7 104.8 96.2. 96.0 96.4 95.7 The a n n u a l r a t e o f g r o w t h o f t h e S c h m i e d e l e u t p o p u l a -t i o n i s 3.8%. The o v e r a l l a v e r a g e d o u b l i n g t i m e o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n i s 18.5 y e a r s . From T a b l e 2.3, i t c a n b e s e e n t h a t t h e a v e r a g e c o l o n y s i z e h a s b e e n d e c l i n i n g o v e r t i m e . T h i s i s t h e c a s e b e c a u s e t h e c o l o n y d o u b l i n g t i m e i s 4.1 y e a r s more r a p i d t h a n t h e p o p u l a t i o n d o u b l i n g t i m e . See T a b l e 2.5. I t i s a c o n s c i o u s p o l i c y o f t h e H u t t e r i t e s t o e s t a b l i s h an e x c e s s o f c o l o n i e s i n o r d e r t o m i n i m i z e t h e e f f e c t o f laws w h i c h may r e s t r i c t t h e i r e x p a n s i o n i n t h e 3 8 f u t u r e . I n t h e p a s t t w e n t y y e a r s , t h e gap b e t w e e n c o l o n y S c h m i e d e l e u t C e n s u s e s A u t h o r Y e a r P o p u l a t i o n Z i e g l s c h m i d 3 0 :1874 200 Z i e g l s c h m i d . 1880 215 Z i e g l s c h m i d 1900 350 Z i e g l s c h m i d 1915 600 P e t e r s ( e s t . ) 1931 1164 Z i e g l s c h m i d 3 2 1947 2767 E a t o n and Mayer 1950 3482 M a n g e 3 3 1960 5450 P e t e r s 3 4 1964 62 56 H o s t e t l e r 3 5 1965 6528 F r i e d m a n n 3 6 1969 7137 C l a r k 3 ? 1970 7369 d o u b l i n g t i m e and p o p u l a t i o n d o u b l i n g t i m e h a s w i d e n e d . 79 Table 2.4 Schmiedeleut Population 1970 Colony # of Population Colony # of Population Families Families Bon Homme 15 98 (New) Maxwell 13 81 (New) Bon Homme 19 137 Spring Creek N. D. 8 59 Waldheim 24 148 Big Stone 15 130 Rose V a l l e y 9 58 Poinsett -0 72 Spring Creek 9 : 67 Lakeside 12 92 Gleridale 18 : 103 Homewood 19 89 Thunderbird 13 83 Bright Stone 12 90 Grand 10 72 (Old) Rosedale 19 155 Grass River 9 60 I b e r v i l l e 16 78 Newdale Farm Riverside 20 116 Rockport 28 171 Bloomfield 18 118 (New) Rosedale 28 169 Rocklake 15 112 White Rock 15 90' Interlake 4 46 (New) Riverside 14 117 White S h e l l 13 86 Maple River Farm Elm River 12 93 Spink 16 98 Oak B l u f f 11 61 Plainview 16 115 Riverbend 11 63 Pl a t t e 11 93 Rainbow 13 89 Spring V a l l e y 16 97 Rosedale 14 103 Cedar Grove Farm Forest River 10 78 Huron 15 89 • Fairholm 15 110 Jamesville 22 157 H i l l s i d e Man. 14 130 (New) Huron 14 107 Long Lake Man. Farm H i l l s i d e S.D. 14 85 Milltown 11 99 Clark 16 103 Blumengart 13 71 Greenwood Farm Sturgeon Creek 12 75 Poplar Point 12 98 Crystal Spring 20 158 S p r i n g f i e l d 10 84 Suncrest Farm Ridgeland 11 90 Valley Lake 12 79 Clearwater 19 119 (New) Blumengart 17 110 Pearl Creek 14 103 Pembina 15 78 Long Lake S.D. 13 100 Sunnyside 14 75 Mountain View 14 101 Spring H i l l 12 86 Maxwell 17 129 M i l l e r d a l e 15 91 Barickman 9 86 Glenway 12 54 Tschetter 17 105 James Valley 15 73 Gracevale 9 83 Riverdale 12 107 Cloverleaf 6 . 50 Deerboine 13 80 Wolf Creek 10 93 Spring V a l l e y 8 53 Greenwald 11 78' We 11wood 9 85 Boyne V a l l e y 9 88 Miami 12 82 Elmsprings 21 138 TOTAL 10"5"9~ 7369 80 Table 2.5 Population Doubling Time i n Years 39 Clan Total P.D.T.-C.D.T.* Since 1950 P.D.T.-C.D.T. Bon Homme Huron Maxwell Rosedale Mi 11town James V a l l e y E n t i r e Leut 16.8 18.4 17.6 17.6 19.8 24.9 18.5 3.2 4.6 3.1 3.3 3.5 10.1 4.1 16.6 21.2 17.8 20.0 17.9 18.4 18.6 2.3 6.9 4.6 7.1 4.5 7.1 5.1 *Population doubling time minus colony doubling time. An r 2 of .9904 between the population doubling time and the colony doubling time, indicates that nearly a l l of the v a r i a t i o n i n colony growth i s accounted for by the expansion of the population. 40 . Eaton and Mayer, i n a demographic study of the Hutteri t e population c a r r i e d out i n 1950, claim that the Hutterites may hold the world's record for population increase. At that time the crude annual b i r t h rate was 45.9 b i r t h s per 1000 population, and the crude annual death rate was 4.4 deaths per 1000 population. This resulted i n a crude annual rate of natural increase of 41.5 per 1000 population. (Crude b i r t h rate - crude death rate = crude rate of natural increase.) I f my data i s correct and i f the Schmiedeleut sub-sect i s representative of the entire Hutterite population, the Hutterites s t i l l r e t a i n t h i s t i t l e , although a decline i n 81 t h e i r b i r t h r a t e h a s r e d u c e d t h e i r l e a d . Between 1960 and 1970 t h e c r u d e b i r t h r a t e was 42.5 and t h e c r u d e d e a t h r a t e was 4-5. T h e r e f o r e , t h e c r u d e a n n u a l r a t e o f n a t u r a l i n c r e a s e was 38.0, w h i c h i s somewhat l e s s t h a n t h e 1950 f i g u r e . <:, ; T a b l e 2.6  P o p u l a t i o n C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f H u t t e r i t e s and  O t h e r S e l e c t e d P o p u l a t i o n s f o r 1 9 7 0 4 1 C r u d e C r u d e C r u d e R a t e B i r t h D e a t h o f N a t u r a l D o u b l i n g P o p u l a t i o n R a t e R a t e I n c r e a s e Time H u t t e r i t e s 42.5 4.5 38.0 18.6 N i g e r 52 23 29 24 Hong Kong 21 5 16 28 C o s t a R i c a 45 8 37 19 K u w a i t 43 7 36 9 C anada 17.6 7.3 10.3 41 U.S.A. 18.2 9.3 8.9 63 The r a t e o f i n - m i g r a t i o n and o u t - m i g r a t i o n i s t o o s m a l l t o s e r i o u s l y a l t e r t h e s e f i g u r e s . S i n c e 1890, o n l y 133 men and 9 women h a v e d e f e c t e d f r o m t h e S c h m i e d e l e u t s u b - s e c t . Many o f t h e s e c a s e s may n o t b e p e r m a n e n t d e f e c t i o n s , b u t r a t h e r t e m p o r a r y d e f e c t i o n s w h i c h h a p p e n e d t o o c c u r when I c a r r i e d o u t my s t u d y . M o s t y o u n g men l e a v e t h e c o l o n i e s t e m p o r a r i l y , 42 b u t most r e t u r n a g a i n a f t e r a few months a b s e n c e . The amount o f i n - m i g r a t i o n h a s b e e n a l m o s t n e g l i g i b l e . S i n c e 1874, o n l y s i x f a m i l i e s h a v e c o n v e r t e d t o t h e S c h m i e d e l e u t g r o u p . Today, t w e n t y - s i x p e o p l e c a n b e f o u n d 82 w i t h t h e f o l l o w i n g n o n - e t h n i c H u t t e r i t e s u r n a m e s : S u s z , B a e r , R a n d l e , D o r n , and A l e x a n d e r . A s i x t h surname, F a s t , h a s now d i s a p p e a r e d when t h a t f a m i l y f a i l e d t o p r o d u c e an o f f s p r i n g . A l l o f t h e s e c o n v e r t s w e r e f r o m a M e n n o n i t e b a c k g r o u n d . I n 1953, E a t o n and Mayer c l a i m e d t h a t [The H u t t e r i t e s ] show how a human p o p u l a t i o n m i g h t grow i f p e o p l e b e l i e v e i n p r o c r e a t i o n w i t h o u t i n t e r f e r e n c e w i t h b i o l o g i c a l r e p r o d u c t i v e p o t e n t i a l , b u t l i v e u n d e r t e c h n o l o g i c a l c o n d i t i o n s t h a t g i v e s u c h a g r o w i n g p o p u l a t i o n g o od e c o n o m i c and m e d i c a l s u p p o r t . The h i g h f e r t i l i t y and l o w m o r t a l i t y o f t h e s e c t combine t o p r o d u c e a r a t e o f i n c r e a s e t h a t may b e u n i q u e i n human e x p e r i e n c e . T h e r e i s no e v i d e n c e t h a t t h i s c l a i m i s any l e s s r e l e v a n t i n 1970. T h e r e h a v e b e e n o n l y two i n c i d e n t s i n r e c e n t h i s t o r y w h i c h h a v e i n t e r r u p t e d i n a m i n o r way, t h e c o n t i n u o u s e x p a n s i o n o f H u t t e r i t e p o p u l a t i o n and c o l o n y s y s t e m . B o t h i n c i d e n t s h a v e o c c u r r e d when a c o l o n y came u n d e r t h e i n f l u e n c e o f a r i v a l r e l i g i o u s s e c t and r e s u l t e d i n t h e mass excommuni-c a t i o n o f t h e d i s s i d e n t s . I n 1955 F o r e s t R i v e r c o l o n y c e a s e d t o b e H u t t e r i a n and j o i n e d t h e S o c i e t y o f B r o t h e r s movement. The S o c i e t y o f B r o t h e r s o r B r u d e r h o f movement was f o u n d e d i n 1920 i n S a n n e r z , Germany, b y a t h e o l o g i a n named Dr. E b e r h a r d A r n o l d . The S o c i e t y o f B r o t h e r s h a d i t s o r i g i n i n an a n a r c h i s t i c C h r i s t i a n w i n g o f t h e German Y o u t h Movement. A c c o r d i n g t o Z a b l o c k i , t h e 83 u n s t r u c t u r e d nature of t h e i r f i r s t attempt at community r e -sembled t h a t which can be found i n contemporary h i p p i e 44 communes- T h e i r community became h i g h l y o r g a n i z e d , when Ar n o l d , a f t e r spending a year o b s e r v i n g the H u t t e r i t e communities, d e c i d e d t h a t they should model themselves a f t e r t h e ' H u t t e r i t e s . During h i s v i s i t i n 1930-31, A r n o l d became con v i n c e d t h a t the H u t t e r i t e s were the o n l y r e l i g i o u s group which p r a c t i c e d the r a d i c a l C h r i s t i a n i t y of the New Testament. He c o n v e r t e d t o the H u t t e r i a n r e l i g i o n and was o r d a i n e d as a 1 D i e n e r des Wortes' (preacher) a t the D a r i u s l e u t colony of Stand-Off i n A l b e r t a . The S o c i e t y B r e t h r e n began t o i m i t a t e H u t t e r i a n customs, dr e s s , r e g u l a t i o n s , and community o r g a n i -z a t i o n i n d e t a i l . They even began t o r e f e r to themselves as ' H u t t e r i a n s • . I n 1936, alarmed a t the r i s e of H i t l e r and the N a z i regime, the S o c i e t y B r e t h r e n d e c i d e d to emigrate t o England. However, the anti-German a t t i t u d e p r e v a l e n t i n England at the time hampered the development o f t h e i r community. They deci d e d t o move t o Paraguay where they would be u n a f f e c t e d by the adverse p o l i t i c a l environment.surrounding World War I I . In 1952, the S o c i e t y Brethren, d i s a p p o i n t e d w i t h the poor m i s s i o n a r y o p p o r t u n i t i e s a f f o r d e d by Paraguay, began to .look to North America as a more p r o m i s i n g r e g i o n f o r f u t u r e expansion. They asked the H u t t e r i t e s t o admit some of t h e i r members i n t o the c o l o n i e s . The H u t t e r i t e c o l o n i e s , they 84 f e l t , w o u l d s e r v e as b a s e s f o r m i s s i o n a r y work i n t h e s u r r o u n d i n g a r e a s . A l l o f t h e H u t t e r i t e c o l o n i e s r e f u s e d e x c e p t f o r F o r e s t R i v e r c o l o n y , b e c a u s e t h e y d i s a p p r o v e d o f t h e ' A r n o l d l e u t ' g r o u p ' s e v a n g e l i s t i c o r i e n t a t i o n . I t i s n o t c l e a r why F o r e s t R i v e r d i s s e n t e d , however, i t s h o u l d b e n o t e d t h a t F o r e s t R i v e r and i t s m o t h e r c o l o n y , New R o s e d a l e , h a d a v e r y l a r g e c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f n o n - e t h n i c H u t t e r i t e s among t h e i r members. P e r h a p s t h i s p r i o r e x p e r i e n c e w i t h c o n v e r t s i n f l u e n c e d t h e i r d e c i s i o n . I n 1955, P e t e r H o f e r , t h e S c h m i e d e l e u t b i s h o p , c a l l e d a l e u t c o u n c i l m e e t i n g where i t was d e c i d e d t h a t F o r e s t R i v e r b e p l a c e d u n d e r t h e 45 'Meidung'. A b o u t h a l f o f t h e members o f F o r e s t R i v e r r e t u r n e d t o t h e m o t h e r c o l o n y , New R o s e d a l e , i n o r d e r t o e s c a p e t h i s b a n . The community w i t h a p o p u l a t i o n o f 116 members became known as t h e F o r e s t R i v e r B r u d e r h o f and e n t e r e d t h e communal f e d e r a t i o n o f t h e S o c i e t y o f B r o t h e r s . A t t h a t t i m e t h e S o c i e t y B r e t h r e n h a d . a t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n o f 46 1171 members and 9 h o f s . The ' A r n o l d l e u t ' became q u i c k l y d i s e n c h a n t e d w i t h t h e b l e a k m i s s i o n a r y p o s s i b i l i t i e s a f f o r d e d b y N o r t h D a k o t a . I n 1957, t h e ' A r n o l d l e u t ' p l u s s e v e r a l e t h n i c H u t t e r i t e f a m i l i e s d e c i d e d t o move t o P e n n s y l v a n i a . The 50 e t h n i c H u t t e r i t e s who r e m a i n e d b e h i n d r e q u e s t e d t h a t t h e b a n b e l i f t e d . I n 1963, t h e 'Meidung' was l i f t e d and t h e c o l o n y was r e - u n i t e d w i t h t h e o t h e r S c h m i e d e l e u t c o l o n i e s . 85 A l t h o u g h o f f i c i a l l y p a r t o f t h e H u t t e r i t e f e d e r a t i o n , F o r e s t R i v e r was c o n s i d e r e d a ' b l a c k s h e e p ' c o l o n y . T h i s s u s p i c i o n a p p e a r e d t o be c o n f i r m e d b y a m i n o r i n c i d e n t w h i c h o c c u r r e d a few y e a r s l a t e r . I n 1965, T a r r e l R. M i l l e r , an u n d e r g r a d u a t e i n s o c i o l o g y , c h o s e F o r e s t R i v e r c o l o n y a s a s u b j e c t f o r a t e r m p a p e r w h i c h h e was w r i t i n g . M i l l e r d e c i d e d t o r e m a i n a t F o r e s t R i v e r and f o r a t i m e was t h e i r m ost z e a l o u s member. A l t h o u g h M i l l e r r e m a i n e d a s i n c e r e p r o p o n e n t o f communal l i f e , h e came t o f e e l t h a t t h e H u t t e r i t e s were n o t l i v i n g up t o one o f C h r i s t ' s commandments. He came t o b e l i e v e t h a t t h e H u t t e r i t e s h a d made a v i r t u e o f i g n o r i n g S t . Matthew, C h a p t e r 28, v e r s e 19, w h i c h r e a d , Go y e t h e r e f o r e , and t e a c h a l l n a t i o n s , b a p t i z i n g them i n t h e name o f t h e F a t h e r , and o f t h e Son, and o f t h e H o l y G h o s t . 4 7 . M i l l e r p r o c e e d e d t o c o r r e c t t h i s f a i l i n g b y a c t i v e l y pam-p h l e t e e r i n g and p r o s e l y t i z i n g f o r new members. M i l l e r s u c c e e d e d i n a t t r a c t i n g a s m a l l c o t e r i e o f f o l l o w e r s . F e a r i n g t h a t F o r e s t R i v e r m i g h t a g a i n f a l l u n d e r t h e b a n , i f M i l l e r was n o t r e s t r a i n e d f r o m f u r t h e r m i s s i o n a r y a c t i v i t i e s , t h e c o l o n y e l d e r s d e c i d e d t o ask h i m t o l e a v e . I n 1968, he l e f t w i t h h i s f o l l o w e r s p l u s f i v e H u t t e r i t e g i r l s . T h e y e s t a b l i s h e d a commune n e a r W i n n i p e g w h i c h f r o m a l l r e p o r t s a p p e a r s t o b e f l o u r i s h i n g . 86 The Hutterites hold no great resentment against e i t h e r the 'Arnoldleut' or ' M i l l e r l e u t ' . They view them as kindred groups whose a c t i v i t i e s they i n large measure applaud, as long as they are conducted outside of the boundaries of the colonies. The only l a s t i n g e f f e c t that these hybrid groups had upon the Hutterites, aside from the loss of a few members, was to moderate the stance taken on a few colonies towards p r o s e l y t i z i n g . Six colonies among the Schmiedeleut; namely, Big Stone, Deerboine, Forest River, New Rosedale, Tschetter and White Rock have now begun to p u b l i c l y advertise for new members and a c t i v e l y seek to explain the Hutterite f a i t h to outsiders. The rather mild r e l i g i o u s c o n f l i c t that took place on Forest River colony stands i n sharp contrast to the b i t t e r struggle that transpired within Interlake colony i n the mid-sixties. In 1963, two brothers, Michael and Samuel Hofer, were discovered to be l i s t e n i n g to a radio broadcast c a l l e d The World Tomorrow and subscribing to a magazine c a l l e d The  P l a i n Truth. Both the radio program and the magazine are d i s t r i b u t e d by a r e l i g i o u s sect c a l l e d the Worldwide Church of God. This sect was founded by Herbert W. Armstrong i n 1934 as the Radio Church of God. Unlike the Hutterites, the Worldwide Church of God (Itf.C.G.) i s almost e x c l u s i v e l y oriented to the Old Testament and the Book of Revelations. The W.C.G. 87 c l a i m s t o have d i s c o v e r e d God's P l a n f o r the World w i t h which a l l w o r l d events can be i n t e r p r e t e d and p r e d i c t e d . They b e l i e v e t h a t the B r i t i s h and the Americans are descendents of one of the t e n l o s t t r i b e s of I s r a e l . The B r i t i s h and Americans i n a l l i a n c e w i t h most of Western Europe are d e s t i n e d t o f i g h t the b a t t l e o f Armageddon w i t h a Chinese-Russian a l l i a n c e - . From the r u i n s o f t h i s b a t t l e w i l l a r i s e a theo-c r a t i c w o r l d government w i t h the Messiah a t the helm. The f a i t h f u l are expected t o await the Apocalypse by o b s e r v i n g Jewish p r a c t i c e s s e t f o r t h i n the Old Testament. They are expected t o worship on Saturday r a t h e r than on Sunday, observe kosher laws, and c e l e b r a t e the Passover, F e a s t o f Ta b e r n a c l e s , Day of Atonement, and the New Year i n the Month of Abib ( A p r i l ) r a t h e r than such h o l i d a y s as Christmas and E a s t e r . The I n t e r l a k e c o l o n y preacher was d i s t u r b e d not simply because some o f the members were r e a d i n g the d o c t r i n a l l i t e r a t u r e of a r i v a l r e l i g i o u s s e c t , b ut because they appeared t o accept such a w i d e l y d i v e r g e n t d o c t r i n e . The H u t t e r i t e s view themselves as New Testament C h r i s t i a n s i n the sense t h a t they accept the P a u l i n e view t h a t the New Covenant has r e p l a c e d the O l d Covenant; the W.C.G., on the o t h e r hand, i g n o r e s the A p o s t l e P a u l . The two b r o t h e r s were warned t h a t they would be e x p e l l e d from the c o l o n y f o r heresy, i f they 88 d i d not make atonement f o r t h e i r f a i t h l e s s n e s s . The two b r o t h e r s not o n l y r e f u s e d t o repent, b u t managed t o persuade s e v e r a l o t h e r f a m i l i e s t o convert t o the W.C.G. Four f a m i l i e s c o n s i s t i n g of 34 people were g i v e n the sentence o f 'Ausschluss' (excommunication), b u t they r e f u s e d t o leave the colon y . T h i s group began t o h o l d ^ t h e i r own r e l i g i o u s s e r v i c e s on Saturdays, eat s p e c i a l l y p r epared meals, d r e s s i n c i v i l i a n c l o t h i n g , and make p i l g r i m a g e s t o the headquarters of the W.C.G. a t Ambassador C o l l e g e i n Pasadena, C a l i f o r n i a . • The W.C.G. persuaded t h e i r H u t t e r i a n c o nverts t o take c o u r t a c t i o n a g a i n s t the govern i n g body o f I n t e r l a k e colony, f o r p o s s e s s i o n of the co l o n y i t s e l f . With the f i n a n c i a l b a c k i n g of the W.C.G., the con v e r t s f i l e d a p e t i t i o n a g a i n s t the H u t t e r i t e s . The H u t t e r i t e s were f o r c e d t o defend t h e i r case i n c o u r t . The c o u r t d e c i d e d t h a t the p l a i n t i f f s d i d not have a case s i n c e the H u t t e r i a n c o n s t i t u t i o n c l e a r l y r e s t r i c t s those who have l e f t the church from making f i n a n c i a l c l a i m s on the c o l o n y . 4 ^ With a c o u r t order t o b o l s t e r the 50 'Ausschluss' a l l f o u r f a m i l i e s l e f t the co l o n y as a p o s t a t e s . C e n t r a l B e l i e f s The H u t t e r i t e s are committed t o a w e l l a r t i c u l a t e d and u n i f i e d s e t of d o c t r i n e s which i n f o r m n e a r l y a l l a s p e c t s o f t h e i r everyday behaviour. Although I am not w e l l informed i n the f i e l d of comparative r e l i g i o u s b e l i e f systems, I cannot h e l p but be impressed w i t h the c l a r i t y , p r e c i s i o n , and 89 o p e r a t i o n a l i t y o f t h e b a s i c p o s t u l a t e s o f t h e i r i d e o l o g y . The o r d e r l i n e s s w i t h w h i c h t h e i r d o c t r i n e s a r e e x p r e s s e d i s 51 r e m i n i s c e n t o f t h e a x i o m a t i c f o r m a t o f a g e o m e t r y t e x t . I w i l l d i s c u s s t h e b a s i c p o s t u l a t e s o f t h e i r i d e o l o g y u n d e r t h e f o l l o w i n g h e a d i n g s : 1) God's A b s o l u t e Code, 2) The K i n g d o m o f God o n E a r t h , 3) C a r n a l Man a n d S e l f -s u r r e n d e r , a n d 4) The W o r l d . 1) God's A b s o l u t e Code The H u t t e r i t e s b e l i e v e i n a n . a l l - p o w e r f u l s u p e r n a t u r a l d e i t y , God, who c r e a t e d t h e u n i v e r s e a n d b u i l t i n t o i t o r d e r a n d h a r m o n y . God c r e a t e d man a n d m o u l d e d h i m i n H i s own l i k e n e s s ; He endowed man w i t h r e a s o n a n d t h e c a p a c i t y t o f o l l o w H i s d i c t a t e s . God d e s i r e s man t o o b e y H i s a u t h o r i t y a n d f o l l o w H i s 'word'. H o w e v e r , man h a s t h e c a p a c i t y , g i v e n t o h i m b y God, t o s i n o r d i s o b e y t h e 'word'. The H u t t e r i t e s c o n c e i v e o f God's 'word' a s a s e t o f i n s t r u c t i o n s o r a c o d e w h e r e i n God's o v e r a l l p l a n f o r m a n k i n d i s g i v e n . T h e y f e e l t h a t t h i s c o d e was c o m m u n i c a t e d b y God t o c e r t a i n i n s p i r e d i n d i v i d u a l s o n e a r t h . T h i s c o d e c a n b e f o u n d i n t h e B i b l e a n d i n t h e i r own d o c t r i n a l l i t e r a t u r e . Man m u s t , i f h e - i s g o i n g t o b e i n g o o d s t a n d i n g w i t h God, u n f l i n c h i n g l y o b e y God's w o r d . I n o r d e r t o b e a g o o d C h r i s t i a n , one m u s t com-p l e t e l y r e s i g n h i m s e l f t o t h e ' w i l l o f God'. A l l o f man's f a c u l t i e s o u g h t t o b e d i r e c t e d t o w a r d s i m p l e m e n t i n g God's 90 c o d e ; a l l c r i t i c i s m a n d s k e p t i c i s m d i r e c t e d t o w a r d s God's w o r d i s s i n f u l . The H u t t e r i t e s f e e l t h a t t h e y a l o n e a r e w o r k i n g t o f u l f i l l God's demands; t h e r e s t o f m a n k i n d h a v e 53 r e j e c t e d God and t u r n e d t o S a t a n f o r g u i d a n c e . The H u t t e r i t e s h a v e an a b s o l u t e c e r t a i n t y i n t h e r i g h t n e s s o f t h e i r way o f l i f e , w h i c h t h e y b e l i e v e h a s b e e n s u p e r n a t u r a l l y s a n c t i o n e d b y God. 2) The K i n g d o m o f God o n E a r t h O n l y i n a ' G u t e r g e m e i n s c h a f t ' ( c o m m u n i t y o f g o o d s ) c a n a C h r i s t i a n f o l l o w God's d e c r e e s a n d r e c e i v e s u p e r n a t u r a l s u p p o r t . T h i s c o m m u n i t y m u s t b e c o m m u n i s t i c b o t h i n i t s p r o d u c t i v e a n d c o n s u m p t i v e a s p e c t s . The e n t i r e d e s i g n o f s u c h a n o r g a n i z a t i o n i s c o n c e i v e d o f a s somehow e x i s t i n g o n a s u p e r n a t u r a l p l a n e , b u t w i l l m a t e r i a l i z e o n e a r t h when a r e c e p t i v e g r o u p o f b e l i e v e r s a s s e m b l e t o r e c e i v e t h i s c o r -p o r a t e b l e s s i n g . God o n l y makes h i s p r e s e n c e known t h r o u g h t h e c o m m u n i t y . Whenever t h e r e a r e t w o o r t h r e e g a t h e r e d t o g e t h e r i n common b e l i e f , w h e t h e r a t w o r k o r a t w o r s h i p , t h e L o r d i s p r e s e n t . He who d e s - i r e s t h e p r e s e n c e o f t h e L o r d o u g h t t o s e e k t h i s t h r o u g h h i s 5 4 C h r i s t i a n b r e t h r e n . The H u t t e r i t e s b e l i e v e t h a t God h a s d i r e c t e d t h e m t o l i v e c o m m u n a l l y ; t h a t t h e p r i m i t i v e E s s e n e c o m m u n i t i e s c i t e d i n A c t s 2:41-45 a n d A c t s 4:32-37 was t h e a p o s t o l i c C h u r c h , 91 e s t a b l i s h e d b y God t h r o u g h t h e a p o s t l e s o n t h e d a y o f t h e P e n t e c o s t . T h i s a p o s t o l i c C h u r c h h a s God as i t s D e s i g n e r , A u t h o r , a n d B u i l d e r a n d s e r v e s as a p e r f e c t m odel o f t h e C h u r c h o f C h r i s t on e a r t h f o r a l l t i m e , I t was "a g l o r i o u s C h u r c h o f C h r i s t , n o t h a v i n g s p o t n o r w r i n k l e . " T h i s a p o s t o l i c C h u r c h was communal i n i t s c h a r a c t e r a n d o r g a n i z a t i o n ; i t t a u g h t t h r o u g h t h e H o l y G h o s t t h a t a l l t h i n g s s h o u l d b e h e l d i n common and s h a r e d b y a l l as e a c h h a d n e e d . I t was t h e f i r s t C h r i s t i a n c o l l e c t i v e l i v i n g . And t h i s i s t h e C h u r c h t h a t t h e H u t t e r i a n B r e t h r e n r e s t o r e d i n 1528, i n w h i c h we s t i l l l i v e and, w i t h t h e h e l p o f God, i n w h i c h we a r e r e s o l v e d t o r e m a i n "... i n t h e a p o s t l e s ' d o c -t r i n e and f e l l o w s h i p , and i n b r e a k i n g o f b r e a d , and i n p r a y e r s " ( A c t s 2:42) u n t i l t h e e n d w i t h o u t w a v e r i n g , and s o h e l p us G o d I 5 5 The H u t t e r i t e s do n o t b e l i e v e i n i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c communion w i t h God, r a t h e r t h e o n l y c h a n n e l o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n w i t h t h e d e i t y i s t h r o u g h t h e community as a w h o l e . God i s n o t e x p e c t e d t o answer p e r s o n a l p r a y e r s , f o r h i s p r e s e n c e i s s i l e n t a n d i n v i s i b l e ( G e g e n w a r t ) . One s i m p l y f o l l o w s God's d i c t a t e s as t h e y a r e r e c o r d e d i n t h e d o c t r i n a l l i t e r a t u r e ; o b e d i e n c e t o t h i s c o d e i s t h e o n l y t r u e f o r m o f w o r s h i p . W o r k i n g t o g e t h e r as 'God's s t e w a r d s ' m a i n t a i n i n g and a d v a n c i n g t h e community ( t h e Kingdom o f God on E a r t h ) i s a r e l i g i o u s d u t y . The n o t i o n t h a t t h e d e v o u t w i l l b e r e w a r d e d i n H e a v e n and t h e w i c k e d p u n i s h e d i n H e l l i s a c c e p t e d b y t h e H u t t e r i t e s , 92 b u t does not seem t o be an important p a r t of t h e i r i d e o l o g y . They f e e l t h a t as l o n g as one m e c h a n i c a l l y obeys d o c t r i n a l a u t h o r i t y , one w i l l a u t o m a t i c a l l y go to Heaven a t death. Death does not seem t o be g r e a t l y f e a r e d , s i n c e the t r a n s i -t i o n between l i f e and death i s not c o n s i d e r e d to be v e r y g r e a t . Heaven i s vaguely co n c e i v e d of as another H u t t e r i t e colony, . a l b e i t more p e r f e c t than most. H e l l i s the e x c l u s i v e abode o f the ' o u t s i d e r ' (Draussiger) who has chosen to r e j e c t the Word of God. I t i s p i c t u r e d as b e i n g s i m i l a r t o the 'outside' world, where wars, v i o l e n c e , sexual p e r v e r s i o n s and l i k e h o r r o r s are rampant. God does not reward i n d i v i d u a l s , i n s t e a d communities t h a t serve Him are thought t o be rewarded. The H u t t e r i t e s b e l i e v e t h a t rewards ( b l e s s i n g s ) l a y b u r i e d b e f o r e them i n the f u t u r e ; o n l y by r i g i d l y f o l l o w i n g the c o g n i t i v e map s u p p l i e d by the d o c t r i n e s can these rewards be uncovered. God has s t r a t e g i c a l l y p l a c e d b l e s s i n g s along 'the way', as a r e s u l t o n l y m e t i c u l o u s c o n f o r m i t y t o the d o c t r i n e w i l l b r i n g them t o these rewards. 3) C a r n a l Man and S e l f - s u r r e n d e r Man i s by nature a c a r n a l , s e l f i s h c r e a t u r e , whose pr i m a r y i n s t i n c t s are egotism, a c q u i s i t i v e n e s s and p e r s o n a l ascendancy. Men are not b o r n w i t h o u t i n n a t e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , b u t are endowed a t b i r t h w i t h O r i g i n a l S i n . These n a t u r a l 93 i n c l i n a t i o n s of the 'Old Adam1 are considered incompatible with the s p i r i t u a l requirements of the Kingdom of God on earth and the a l t r u i s t i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s necessary for co-operative l i v i n g . Consequently, man must surrender his natural i n c l i n a t i o n s and obey communal authority; man must replace h i s ' s e l f - w i l l ' with the common w i l l of the community. The Hutterites use the term 'Gelassenheit' to ref e r to a state of abandonment of a l l s e l f i n t e r e s t and worldly desires. Hutterites frequently use the term 'Gelassenheit' interchange-ably with the term ' Giitergemeinschaf t' . Only the t r u l y 'gelassen' have yielded completely to God's authority and surrendered t h e i r attachment to a l l worldly possessions. The Community of Goods i n the organizational expression of 'Gelassenheit'. T r a n s i t i o n into a state of 'Gelassenheit' i s considered by the Hutterites to be d i f f i c u l t . They conceive of i t as a tes t of f a i t h which separates the 'worthy' from the 'unworthy'. The majority of mankind have been 'damned', f e e l the Hutterites, not only because they have f a i l e d to surrender t h e i r s e l f i s h natural propensities, but because they have rejected the v a l i d i t y of doing so. I t i s unnatural for 'natural' man to desire to s a c r i f i c e h i s s e l f - i n t e r e s t e d . existence. 'Gelassenheit', according to the Hutterites, i s the product of many years of intensive t r a i n i n g . The purpose of education i s to break the i n d i v i d u a l of h i s obstinate 9 4 s e l f - w i l l and t r a n s f o r m him i n t o one who w i l l s u b o r d i n a t e h i m s e l f , and become l o y a l and o b e d i e n t to. t h e community. A d u l t b a p t i s m i s t h e s p e c i f i c r i t e de passage w h i c h s y m b o l i z e s t h e t r a n s i t i o n p o i n t when a p e r s o n s a c r i f i c e s h i s o l d s e l f and i s r e b o r n as p a r t o f t h e c o r p o r a t e whole. Seed had t o d i e f o r t h e u n i t y o f t h e l o a f . O n l y i n t h i s way was i t a b l e t o t a k e r o o t and grow i n t h e f i e l d and w i t h s t a n d a l l t h e stor m s . O n l y i n t h i s way c o u l d i t b e a r f r u i t . I n t h e same way each i n d i v i d u a l must g i v e h i m s e l f up, must d i e t o h i m s e l f , i f he wants t o f o l l o w C h r i s t on h i s way. Then t h e g r a i n must be c r u s h e d and m i l l e d i f i t i s t o be t u r n e d i n t o b r e a d . Our s e l f - w i l l undergoes t h e same f o r community.... G r a i n s t h a t r e m a i n whole a r e o n l y f i t f o r p i g s o r t h e muck h e a p . 5 6 4 ) The Wo r l d • The H u t t e r i t e s d i c h o t o m i z e t h e u n i v e r s e i n t o two o p p o s i n g and f o r e v e r i n c o m p a t i b l e s e c t o r s . T h i s d u a l i s t i c o u t l o o k e n a b l e s them t o c a t e g o r i z e a l l o b j e c t s (both animate and i n a n i m a t e ) , i d e a s , and s u p e r n a t u r a l e n t i t i e s as b e l o n g i n g t o e i t h e r one s i d e o r t h e o t h e r . On t h e one s i d e , t h e r e i s 'The World' w h i c h i s p o p u l a t e d by s e n s u a l , s e l f - w i l l e d i n d i -v i d u a l s ( W e l t - L e u t ) who have r e j e c t e d God and have- chosen t o be r u l e d b y Sa t a n , t h e P r i n c e o f t h e World. S a t a n demands o f th e W e l t - L e u t t h e same degree o f o b e d i e n c e .to h i s w i l l t h a t God demands o f H i s c h i l d r e n ; S a tan's c h i l d r e n e x p r e s s t h e i r l o y a l t y by c l e a v i n g t o p r i v a t e p o s s e s s i o n s , t a k i n g up t h e sword, and i n d u l g i n g i n c a r n a l p l e a s u r e s . . On t h e o t h e r s i d e , t h e r e i s God's Kingdom on E a r t h w h i c h i s made up o f b e l i e v e r s who h a v e s a c r i f i c e d t h e i r l i v e s i n o r d e r t o l i v e i n o b e d i e n c e t o H i s w i l l . I n t h e Kingdom t h e o l o g y o f t h e H u t t e r i t e s , t h e c o n c e p t s o f ' s e c u l a r ' and ' s a c r e d ' h a v e a d i f f e r e n t m e a n i n g t h a n t h a t w h i c h i s u s u a l l y a s s i g n e d t o them b y more o r t h o d o x C h r i s t i a n r e l i g i o n s . . E v e r y t h i n g w i t h i n t h e c o l o n y i s s a c r e d , s i n c e t h e y h a v e b e e n s u r r e n d e r e d t o God and a r e H i s p o s s e s -s i o n s . E v e n t h e t r u c k s and f a r m m a c h i n e r y w h i c h a r e owned b y t h e c o l o n y a r e s a c r e d o b j e c t s . M o s t o f t h a t w h i c h i s l o c a t e d o f f t h e c o l o n y i n t h e o u t s i d e w o r l d i s r e g a r d e d as ' p r o f a n e ' r a t h e r t h a n s e c u l a r , s i n c e t h e y a r e t h o u g h t t o b e i n a c t i v e o p p o s i t i o n t o t h e s a c r e d . The H u t t e r i t e s h a v e no r e a l c o n c e p t i o n o f t h e s e c u l a r ; however, when p r e s s e d t h e y w i l l a d m i t t h a t t h e r e may b e some t h i n g s w h i c h a r e n e i t h e r s a c r e d o r p r o f a n e s i n c e , t h e y a r e n o t e m p l o y e d b y e i t h e r o f t h e two r i v a l k i n g d o m s , b u t s t i l l up f o r g r a b s . One e x c e p t i o n t o t h e i d e n t i t y o f the. community and t h e s a c r e d , i s t h a t p a r t o f t h e ' o u t s i d e ' w h i c h , d e s p i t e o p p o s i t i o n , h a s p e n e t r a t e d i n t o t h e c o l o n y , s u c h as t h e e l e m e n t a r y e d u c a t i o n a l s y s t e m . The w o r l d i s c o n s t a n t l y a t t e m p t i n g t o s e d u c e members o f t h e Kingdom o f God i n t o i t s e v i l ways. As a r e s u l t c o m p l e t e s e p a r a t i o n f r o m t h e w o r l d i s n e c e s s a r y . [T] he f o l l o w e r s o f C h r i s t a r e n o t o f t h i s w o r l d , a l t h o u g h t h e y a r e i n i t , h a v e i t a r o u n d t h e m s e l v e s , and c a n n o t e s c a p e i t e n t i r e l y ; b u t t h e y h a v e t o 96 k e e p a l o o f o f i t and b e on t h e a l e r t a g a i n s t i t s c o r r u p t i n g i n f l u e n c e s ; f o r t h e p r i n c e o f t h i s w o r l d ( S a t a n ) i s v e r y s u b t l e , c r a f t y , d i p l o m a t i c w i t h e n t i c i n g f l a t t e r y , i m pudent, and p e r s i s t e n t . He i s e x c e e d i n g l y r e s o u r c e f u l , u n t i r i n g , a n d r e l e n t l e s s ; and h e n e v e r g i v e s up t h e r a c e , s t r i v i n g t o g a i n h i s e v i l g o a l . 5 7 The w o r l d u n d e r t h e r u l e r s h i p o f S a t a n u s e s v a r i o u s p l o y s t o e n t i c e b e l i e v e r s away f r o m t h e Kingdom o f God; i t s f a v o u r i t e s a r e g o v e r n m e n t a l a u t h o r i t y , ' f a l s e C h r i s t i a n i t y ' , and s u c h t e m p l e s o f f l e s h l y l u s t as p o o l - r o o m s , c i r c u s e s , c i n e m a s , and. b r o t h e l s . P e r i o d i c a l l y God w i l l t e s t t h e f a i t h o f t h e community b y d r i v i n g t h e p e o p l e o f t h e w o r l d a g a i n s t t h e community. Hence, t h e H u t t e r i t e s f e e l t h a t t h e members o f t h e Kingdom o f God w i l l n e c e s s a r i l y meet w i t h s u f f e r i n g and p e r s e c u t i o n . The H u t t e r i t e s w i l l n o t r e t a l i a t e , b u t w i l l a c c e p t t h e i r s u f f e r i n g w i t h p a s s i v e n o n - r e s i s t a n c e . I n f a c t , i t w i l l b e welcomed as an o p p o r t u n i t y t o a t t e s t t h e i r f a i t h t h r o u g h s u f f e r i n g and supreme s a c r i f i c e . The ' m a r t y r -58 m i n d e d n e s s ' w h i c h c h a r a c t e r i z e s t h e H u t t e r i t e s , i s b e s t e x e m p l i f i e d b y a p o r t i o n o f t h e H u t t e r i a n C h r o n i c l e c a l l e d " M a r t y r s G a l l e r y " w h i c h d e s c r i b e s i n v i v i d d e t a i l t h e e x e c u -t i o n o f 2173 m a r t y r s . H o s t i l i t y and p e r s e c u t i o n d i r e c t e d f r o m t h e o u t s i d e s e r v e s t o s t r e n g t h e n t h e i r f a i t h and p r o v i d e c o n -f i r m a t i o n t h a t t h e y a r e f o l l o w i n g t h e r i g h t c o u r s e . H u t t e r i a n S o c i a l S t r u c t u r e The H u t t e r i t e s c o n s i d e r t h e m s e l v e s t o b e ' p e c u l i a r p e o p l e ' ; an a p p e l a t i o n t a k e n f r o m T i t u s 2:14. T h e i r d e s i r e ' t o b e i n t h e w o r l d , b u t n o t o f t h e w o r l d ' i s , p e r h a p s t h e m ost i m p o r t a n t theme r u n n i n g t h r o u g h t h e i r c u l t u r e . T h e y a r e , on t h e one hand, a c l a s s i c example o f an i n t r o v e r s i o n i s t 59 s e c t w h i c h s e e k s t o p r e s e r v e t h e e x c l u s i v e r e l e v a n c y o f a c o n t r a - c u l t u r a l c r e e d b y means o f e l a b o r a t e b o u n d a r y m a i n -t a i n i n g mechanisms. Y e t , on t h e o t h e r hand, t h e H u t t e r i t e s r e a l i z e t h a t s e p a r a t i o n f r o m t h e w o r l d c a n o n l y b e r e a l i z e d a t a p r i c e . I t i s t h e p r i c e o f m a i n t a i n i n g a v i a b l e economy, w h i c h p r o d u c e s m a r k e t a b l e goods and s e r v i c e s f o r s a l e t o o u t s i d e r s . The H u t t e r i t e s know t h a t s p i r i t u a l s u r v i v a l d e -p e n d s upon e c o n o m i c s u r v i v a l ; t h u s , t h e y h a v e b e e n w i l l i n g t o e n t e r t h e ' w o r l d l y ' m a r k e t p l a c e as a p r o d u c e r o f a g r i c u l -t u r a l p r o d u c e . A g r i c u l t u r e i s c o n s i d e r e d t h e o n l y l e g i t i m a t e p r o d u c t i v e b a s i s o f a community. S t e w a r d s h i p i n t h e ' L o r d ' s v i n e y a r d ' i s a f o r m o f w o r s h i p ; w h e r e a s , most n o n - a g r a r i a n p u r s u i t s a r e r e g a r d e d as i n i q u i t o u s . We a l l o w none o f o u r number t o do t h e work o f a. t r a d e r o r m e r c h a n t , s i n c e t h i s i s " a s i n f u l b u s i -n e s s ; as t h e w i s e man s a i t h , " I t i s a l m o s t i m p o s -s i b l e f o r a m e r c h a n t and t r a d e r t o k e e p h i m s e l f f r o m s i n . And as a n a i l s t i c k e t h f a s t b e t w e e n d o o r and h i n g e ; s o d o t h s i n s t i c k c l o s e b e t w e e n b u y i n g and s e l l i n g . " 6 0 98 H i s t o r i c a l l y t h e H u t t e r i t e s h a v e a l w a y s e x c e l l e d a t 61 f a r m i n g ; a n d t h e i r s e t t l e m e n t i n N o r t h A m e r i c a h a s b e e n no e x c e p t i o n . By 1970, t h e S c h m i e d e l e u t c o l o n i e s h e l d a com-b i n e d a c r e a g e o f a p p r o x i m a t e l y 316,700 a c r e s . I n M a n i t o b a , t h e a v e r a g e number o f a c r e s h e l d b y a c o l o n y was 3763.18 a c r e s ; i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , t h e c o l o n i e s t e n d t o b e s l i g h t l y l a r g e r -. a p p r o x i m a t e l y 392 5.90 a c r e s on t h e a v e r a g e . T h i s t e n d s t o b e s m a l l e r t h a n t h e c o l o n i e s f o u n d i n A l b e r t a a n d S a s k a t c h e w a n . The s i x c o l o n i e s s t u d i e d b y B e n n e t t , f o r 6 3 example, a v e r a g e d 10,273 a c r e s e a c h . T h i s s i z e d i f f e r e n c e d o e s n o t r e f l e c t a w e a l t h d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e S c h m i e d e l e u t and t h e o t h e r l e u t e , b u t r a t h e r a d i f f e r e n c e i n s o i l s and l a n d u s a g e . Whereas H u t t e r i t e s i n t h e w e s t e r n p r a i r i e s t e n d t o s p e c i a l i z e i n g r a i n and b e e f c a t t l e p r o d u c t i o n , t h e S c h m i e d e -l e u t g r o u p t e n d s t o s p e c i a l i z e i n g r a i n , h o g s , and d a i r y i n g . The m o i s t c l i m a t e and more f e r t i l e s o i l o f M a n i t o b a and t h e D a k o t a s p e r m i t a g r e a t e r c r o p y i e l d p e r a c r e t h a n t h e s e m i -a r i d g r a s s l a n d s f u r t h e r w e s t . T h o s e S c h m i e d e l e u t c o l o n i e s l o c a t e d i n s e m i - a r i d r e g i o n s t e n d t o b e s i m i l a r t o . t h e l a r g e g r a i n - c a t t l e e n t e r p r i s e s i n A l b e r t a , S a s k a t c h e w a n , and M o n tana. B e n n e t t o b s e r v e s t h a t S a s k a t c h e w a n H u t t e r i a n c o l o n i e s t e n d t o h a v e two c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w h i c h d i s t i n g u i s h them f r o m s u r r o u n d -i n g f a r m s — g r e a t e r p o p u l a t i o n d e n s i t y and g r e a t e r a g r i c u l -t u r a l d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n . 6 4 T h i s o b s e r v a t i o n a p p l i e s e q u a l l y 99 w e l l t o t h e H u t t e r i t e s o f M a n i t o b a and t h e DaJcotas. F o r example, t h e a v e r a g e number o f a c r e s o p e r a t e d p e r p e r s o n i n t h e c o l o n i e s i s a b o u t 43. The c o r r e s p o n d i n g f i g u r e f o r t h e 65 M a n i t o b a f a r m p o p u l a t i o n i s 90. A g r i c u l t u r a l d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n i s a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c t o w h i c h H u t t e r i t e s a t t a c h c o n s i d e r a b l e i m p o r t a n c e . C o l o n i e s t y p i c a l l y s t r i v e t o w a r d s s e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y b y p r o d u c i n g most o f t h e g o o d s and s e r v i c e s w h i c h w i l l b e u s e d i n t e r n a l l y . T h i s r e d u c e s t h e c o l o n y ' s d e p e n d e n c y u p o n t h e o u t s i d e w o r l d and k e e p s down t h e amount o f d a y t o d a y c o n t a c t w i t h o u t s i d e r s . A c o l o n y w i l l u s u a l l y p l a c e more e m p h a s i s on one e n t e r p r i s e t h a n any o t h e r , b u t i t w i l l r a r e l y a l l o w t h a t e n t e r p r i s e t o d o m i n a t e a l l o t h e r s e c t o r s o f t h e economy. A s u r v e y c o n d u c t e d i n 1968 b y t h e R u r a l S o c i o l o g y D e p a r t m e n t o f S o u t h D a k o t a S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y on t h e a g r i c u l t u r a l o p e r a t i o n s o f 2 7 S o u t h D a k o t a H u t t e r i t e c o l o n i e s showed t h e f o l l o w i n g d e g r e e o f d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n . 6 6 100 T a b l e 2.7 A g r i c u l t u r a l D i v e r s i f i c a t i o n i n 27 S o u t h D a k o t a H u t t e r i t e C o l o n i e s T y p e o f E n t e r p r i s e B u l k M i l k P r o d u c t i o n C o r n B e e f C a t t l e Sorghum Hogs Egg P r o d u c t i o n Oats Hay B a r l e y Wheat Geese Sheep T u r k e y s Number o f C o l o n i e s  w i t h S p e c i f i c E n t e r p r i s e 27 27 26 26 25 25 24 24 23 20 14 12 10 I n a d d i t i o n , most c o l o n i e s h a v e a number o f s m a l l s c a l e e n t e r p r i s e s w h i c h p r o d u c e i t e m s f o r i n t e r n a l c o n s u m p t i o n ; s u c h a s , a f r u i t o r c h a r d , a p i a r y , v e g e t a b l e g a r d e n , shoe shop, m a c h i n e shop, c a r p e n t r y shop, t a i l o r shop, and s o a p m a k i n g a n d b r o o m m a k i n g e n t e r p r i s e s . The b a l a n c e s h e e t shown i n T a b l e 2.8 i l l u s t r a t e s t h e e x t e n t o f a g r i c u l t u r a l d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n on a r a n d o m l y s e l e c t e d c o l o n y . 101 T a b l e 2.8 B a l a n c e S h e e t f o r B a r i c k m a n C o l o n y , 1969 INCOME Hogs $154,212. 71 F e e d : Hogs and C a t t l e $62,545. 96 T u r k e y s 65,732. 79 F e e d : T u r k e y s 47,686. 85 Eggs 56,564. 78 B u i l d i n g S u p p l i e s 33,414. 19 Wheat 37,775. 10 O i l and G a s o l i n e 22,650. 26 G e e s e 19,298. 96 G r o c e r i e s 16,825. 50 M i l k . 16,166. 98 E q u i p m e n t : Hogs 17,976. 74 F a m i l y A l l o w a n c e 6,222. 00 E q u i p m e n t : T u r k e y s 15,953. 00 L o a n Repayment* 3,598. 64 E q u i p m e n t : C h i c k e n s 11,656. 20 Custom Work 1,600. 48 R e p a i r s : Hogs 13,794. 56 L a y i n g C h i c k s 1,585. 00 R e p a i r s : C h i c k e n s 8,730. 55 S c h o o l G r a n t 1,265. 00 R e p a i r s : T u r k e y s 2,200. 43 Honey 761. 23 I n s u r a n c e 14,080. 00 P o t a t o e s 412. 45 F e r t i l i z e r 10,634. 16 V e g e t a b l e s 113. 11 L a n d T a x 10,483. 86 B r e a d 52. 25 D r y Goods 2,954. 14 Income i n k i n d * * 7,774. 93 Farm M a c h i n e r y 9,382. 15 TOTAL $373,136. 41 H o u s e h o l d Hardware 6,252. 79 E l e c t r i c i t y 8,159. 25 F e e d : C h i c k e n s 7,699. 68 F e e d : Geese 2,595. 92 TOTAL $325,676. 19 P r o f i t $ 47,460. 22 * L o a n r e p a y m e n t f r o m d a u g h t e r c o l o n y ** R e t a i l m a r k e t v a l u e o f p r o d u c e consumed B a r i c k m a n c o l o n y , w h i c h was s e l e c t e d m e r e l y f o r i l l u s t r a -t i v e p u r p o s e s , r e p r e s e n t s a r a t h e r t y p i c a l p i c t u r e o f t h e f i n a n c i a l s t a t u s o f a c o l o n y d u r i n g a c e r t a i n p e r i o d o f i t s g r o w t h . As B e n n e t t p o i n t s o u t , H u t t e r i t e c o l o n i e s go t h r o u g h a c o n t r o l l e d g r o w t h c y c l e . 6 7 T h i s c y c l e , w h i c h e x t e n d s o v e r ' a 15 y e a r p e r i o d on t h e a v e r a g e , b e g i n s w i t h c o l o n y f i s s i o n and ends w i t h t h e s e c o n d f i s s i o n . D u r i n g t h e p e r i o d a c o l o n y 102 must a c c u m u l a t e a p p r o x i m a t e l y $250,000.00 w i t h w h i c h t o p u r c h a s e l a n d , m a c h i n e r y , b u i l d i n g s , and l i v e s t o c k f o r a d a u g h t e r c o l o n y . The f i r s t few y e a r s f o l l o w i n g f i s s i o n i s one o f e c o n o m i c r e c o v e r y , i n w h i c h t h e c o l o n y r e c o v e r s f r o m t h e l o s s i n c a p i t a l , manpower, and m a c h i n e r y w h i c h was i n c u r r e d d u r i n g f i s s i o n . D u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d , c o l o n i e s t y p i c a l l y o p e r a t e a t a d e f i c i t o r r e a l i z e v e r y s m a l l p r o f i t s . A f t e r t h e r e c o v e r y p h a s e , t h e t y p i c a l c o l o n y e n t e r s i n t o a p e r i o d o f g r a d u a l l y i m p r o v i n g p r o f i t s u n t i l t h e n e x t f i s s i o n o c c u r s . I t e s t e d t h i s t h e s i s b y c o m p a r i n g t h e n e t income o f 20 r a n d o m l y s e l e c t e d c o l o n i e s . N e a r l y h a l f o f t h e v a r i a t i o n i n c o l o n y i n c o m e s c a n b e a c c o u n t e d f o r b y t h e number o f y e a r s w h i c h h a v e p a s s e d s i n c e c o l o n y d i v i s i o n ( r = . 4 6 ) . The v a r i a t i o n i n t h e n e t i n c o m e s n o t e x p l a i n e d b y t h e g r o w t h c y c l e c a n no d o u b t b e e x p l a i n e d b y d i f f e r e n t i a l m a r k e t i n g 68 c o n d i t i o n s , d i f f e r e n t i a l w e a t h e r c o n d i t i o n s , age o f c o l o n y , and t h e t e n d e n c y f o r c o l o n i e s t o r e a c h an income p l a t e a u a few y e a r s p r i o r t o f i s s i o n . The a v e r a g e H u t t e r i t e c o l o n y a t t e m p t s , t o s y n c h r o n i z e t h i s c o n t r o l l e d g r o w t h c y c l e w i t h t h e i r p o p u l a t i o n i n c r e a s e . M o s t c o l o n i e s p l a n t o h a v e a c c u m u l a t e d s u f f i c i e n t e c o n o m i c r e s o u r c e s t o f i n a n c e c o l o n y f i s s i o n b e f o r e t h e y h a v e d o u b l e d t h e i r p o p u l a t i o n . The a v e r a g e c o l o n y b e g i n s a t f i s s i o n w i t h a p o p u l a t i o n o f a p p r o x i m a t e l y 70 p e o p l e a n d . r e a c h e s an u p p e r 103 l i m i t o f a p p r o x i m a t e l y 140 p e o p l e . A l t h o u g h t h e S c h m i e d e l e u t c o l o n i e s r a n g e i n p o p u l a t i o n f r o m 46 t o 171 p e o p l e , t h e r e i s a f a i r l y r e g u l a r p o p u l a t i o n p r o g r e s s i o n f r o m f i s s i o n t o f i s s i o n , as T a b l e 2.9 i l l u s t r a t e s . T h o s e c o l o n i e s whose p o p u l a t i o n d i f f e r s s i g n i f i c a n t l y f r o m t h e mean h a v e u s u a l l y e x p e r i e n c e d u n u s u a l p r o b l e m s . 6 ^ T a b l e 2.9 C o l o n y P o p u l a t i o n S i z e a t D i f f e r e n t P o i n t s  i n t h e Growth C y c l e Number o f Y e a r s S i n c e F i s s i o n P o p u l a t i o n I - 2 y e a r s 78.6 3-4 y e a r s 80.9 5-6 y e a r s 85.7 7-8 y e a r s 81.5 9-10 y e a r s 103.5 I I - 12 y e a r s 123.0 13-14 y e a r s 133.4 15 y e a r s and o v e r 126.0 'The f i s s i o n b e f o r e 140' r u l e i s n o t as a r b i t r a r y as i t may a p p e a r on t h e s u r f a c e . James S. F r i d e r e s h a s a r g u e d t h a t 7 c o m p l i a n c e t o t h i s r u l e i s t h e s e c r e t t o H u t t e r i t e s u r v i v a l . A c c o r d i n g t o F r i d e r e s , i f H u t t e r i t e c o l o n i e s w e r e t o a t t a i n a s i z e s i g n i f i c a n t l y l a r g e r t h a n 140 p e o p l e , H u t t e r i t e c o l o n i e s w o u l d e x p e r i e n c e enormous d i s r u p t i o n . F r i d e r e s c l a i m s t h a t t h e ' f i s s i o n b e f o r e 140' r u l e i s d e t e r m i n e d b y t h e n a t u r e o f t h e H u t t e r i a n o c c u p a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e . 104 The H u t t e r i t e o c c u p a t i o n a l s y s t e m c o n s i s t s o f t h r e e l e v e l s o f a u t h o r i t y : t h e E l d e r s , t h e d e p a r t m e n t a l h e a d s , and t h e g e n e r a l l a b o u r f o r c e . The h i g h e s t l e v e l w h i c h i s c o l l e c t i v e l y l a b e l e d b y t h e H u t t e r i t e s as t h e ' A u f s e h e r n ' , e l d e r s , o r e x e c u t i v e s c o n s t i t u t e s t h e d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g e l i t e o f t h e c o l o n y . T h i s b o d y d e c i d e s p o l i c y , h a n d l e s a l l b u s i n e s s w h i c h c o n c e r n s t h e e n t i r e c o l o n y , o v e r s e e s and c o o r d i n a t e s t h e i n t e r n a l o p e r a t i o n s o f t h e c o l o n y , and i s i n c h a r g e o f a l l e x t e r n a l r e l a t i o n s . ' The c o r e members o f t h i s e l i t e a r e t h e p r e a c h e r , t h e a s s i s t a n t p r e a c h e r , t h e c o l o n y manager, and t h e f a r m b o s s . T h i s c o r e e x e c u t i v e b o d y d o e s n o t n e c e s s a r i l y e x h a u s t a l l o f t h e e x e c u t i v e p o s t s . T y p i c a l l y t h e number o f e x e c u t i v e p o s t s v a r i e s d i r e c t l y w i t h t h e s i z e o f t h e c o l o n y . A l t h o u g h t h e r e a r e r a r e l y l e s s t h a n f o u r e x e c u -t i v e p o s t s e v e n on t h e s m a l l e s t c o l o n y , a d d i t i o n a l p o s i t i o n s a r e a d d e d as t h e c o l o n y i n c r e a s e s i n s i z e . T h e r e a p p e a r s t o b e two s t a n d a r d means o f a c c o m p l i s h i n g t h i s . F i r s t l y , a new e x e c u t i v e r o l e c a l l e d t h e German T e a c h e r i s c r e a t e d . On s m a l l c o l o n i e s t h e p o s i t i o n s o f a s s i s t a n t p r e a c h e r and German T e a c h e r a r e f r e q u e n t l y combined i n t o one and as t h e c o l o n y i n c r e a s e s i n s i z e t h e two r o l e s a r e d i f f e r e n t i a t e d . I n some c a s e s , t h e German T e a c h e r may o c c u p y a n o n - e x e c u t i v e p o s i t i o n ( u s u a l l y c o m b i n i n g h i s r o l e w i t h t h a t o f h e a d s h i p o f some m i n o r 105 d e p a r t m e n t s u c h as t h e a p i a r y o r g a r d e n . I n o t h e r c a s e s t h e p o s i t i o n o f German T e a c h e r i s e l e v a t e d t o t h e e x e c u t i v e l e v e l . A s e c o n d method o f i n c r e a s i n g t h e number o f e x e c u t i v e p o s i t i o n s i s t h e e l e v a t i o n o f o l d e r men n e a r r e t i r e m e n t age i n t o t h e e x e c u t i v e . T h e s e men a r e r e f e r r e d t o as c o u n c i l l o r s . The r o l e o f c o u n c i l l o r i s d e v o i d o f t h e f u n c t i o n a l l y s p e c i f i c t a s k s w h i c h c h a r a c t e r i z e t h e o t h e r e x e c u t i v e p o s i t i o n s . A l t h o u g h c o u n c i l l o r s c a n b e r e l i e d upon as a f u n d o f accumu-l a t e d e x p e r i e n t i a l wisdom d u r i n g c o u n c i l m e e t i n g s , t h e y s p e n d most o f t h e i r t i m e i n a s t a t e , o f s e m i - r e t i r e m e n t . The c o u n c i l l o r s a r e u s u a l l y e x - d e p a r t m e n t a l h e a d s , who b y m o v i n g i n t o an e x e c u t i v e p o s i t i o n a l l o w y o u n g e r more e n e r g e t i c men t o r e p l a c e them. C o u n c i l l o r s h i p i s p r o b a b l y t h e H u t t e r i t e v e r s i o n o f b e i n g ' k i c k e d u p s t a i r s ' . I n a l l t h e e l d e r s r a r e l y e x c e e d s i x i n number. A l l o f t h e e x e c u t i v e w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f t h e p r e a c h e r i s e l e c t e d t o t h e i r p o s i t i o n s b y an a s s e m b l y c o n s i s t i n g o f a l l b a p t i z e d m a l e members o f t h e c o l o n y . The s e l e c t i o n o f t h e p r e a c h e r i s p a r t i a l l y b y e l e c t i o n , p a r t i a l l y b y a p p o i n t -ment, and p a r t i a l l y b y random s e l e c t i o n . The s e l e c t i o n o f p r e a c h e r t y p i c a l l y t a k e s p l a c e a f t e r a c o l o n y h a s f i s s i o n e d . When a c o l o n y f i s s i o n s t h e members o f t h e m o t h e r c o l o n y a l i g n t h e m s e l v e s u n d e r e i t h e r t h e p r e a c h e r o r t h e a s s i s t a n t p r e a c h e r . A g r e a t d e a l o f a t t e n t i o n i s g i v e n t o s e e i n g t h a t 106 t h e two g r o u p s a r e s i m i l a r w i t h r e s p e c t t o s u c h d e m o g r a p h i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s as s i z e , s e x c o m p o s i t i o n , age c o m p o s i t i o n , and o c c u p a t i o n a l c o m p o s i t i o n . On t h e day o f t h e s p l i t , t h e p r e a c h e r and t h e a s s i s t a n t p r e a c h e r draw a s t r i p o f p a p e r f r o m a h a t w h i c h i n f o r m s them w h e t h e r t h e i r p a r t y l e a v e s o r s t a y s . A f t e r t h e s p l i t h a s b e e n c o m p l e t e d t h e a s s i s t a n t p r e a c h e r becomes s p i r i t u a l h e a d o f h i s c o l o n y . A t t h i s p o i n t t h e p o s i t i o n o f a s s i s t a n t p r e a c h e r becomes v a c a n t on b o t h t h e m o t h e r and d a u g h t e r c o l o n i e s . The c o l o n i e s f i l l t h e s e v a c a n c i e s b y f i r s t n o m i n a t i n g a s l a t e o f c a n d i d a t e s f r o m t h e i r own membership. N e x t t h e L e u t ' b i s h o p ' w i t h a number o f h i s a s s i s t a n t e l d e r s a r r i v e s t o o f f i c i a t e a t t h e 71 e l e c t i o n . A t t h i s p o i n t t h e L e u t ' b i s h o p ' and h i s a s s i s t a n t s weed o u t c a n d i d a t e s whom t h e y r e g a r d as u n s u i t a b l e f o r t h e p o s i t i o n . They_may a l s o add a d d i t i o n a l names t o t h e l i s t o f c a n d i d a t e s i f t h e y s o w i s h . Once t h e l i s t o f c a n d i d a t e s h a s b e e n deemed s u i t a b l e b y t h e L e u t ' b i s h o p ' an e l e c t i o n i s h e l d . A l l b a p t i z e d m a l e members o f t h e c o l o n y i n q u e s t i o n , t h e L e u t ' b i s h o p ' , and a l l o f t h e v i s i t i n g p r e a c h e r s a r e a l l o w e d t o v o t e . T h o s e c a n d i d a t e s who r e c e i v e l e s s t h a n f i v e v o t e s a r e t a k e n out: o f t h e r u n n i n g . I f t h e r e i s more t h a n one c a n d i d a t e s t i l l r e m a i n i n g , t h e f i n a l c h o i c e i s made b y d r a w i n g l o t s . The H u t t e r i t e s do n o t c o n c e i v e o f t h i s f i n a l p r o c e d u r e as b e i n g a m a t t e r o f random s e l e c t i o n , 107 b u t r a t h e r a s a c h o i c e made b y God. Rideman makes t h i s v e r y e x p l i c i t i n h i s book, _ M _ i n i s t e r s must n o t p r e s s t h e m s e l v e s f o r w a r d and come t o t h e f o r e , b u t w a i t u n t i l God d r a w t h them o u t and c h o o s e t h them. I f t h e C h u r c h n e e d e t h one o r , i n d e e d , more m i n i s t e r s , she must n o t e l e c t them as p l e a s e t h h e r s e l f , b u t w a i t upon t h e l o r d t o s e e whom he c h o o s e t h and showeth them I f t h e r e b e many o f them we w a i t t o s e e w h i c h t h e L o r d s h oweth us b y l o t ; i f , however, t h e r e b e o n l y one o r j u s t as many as a r e needed, t h e n we n e e d no l o t , ...72 The p r e a c h e r , f i r s t m i n i s t e r , o r ' D i e n e r d e s W o r t e s 1 i s u n q u e s t i o n a b l y t h e p r i n c i p a l l e a d e r o f t h e c o l o n y . A l l m a j o r p r o b l e m s a r e f i r s t b r o u g h t t o t h e p r e a c h e r u n l e s s t h e y a r e o f a r o u t i n e o r t e c h n i c a l n a t u r e . He c h a i r s a l l m e e t i n g s , l e a d s t h e c h u r c h s e r v i c e , a p p r o v e s a l l m a r r i a g e s , p e r f o r m s a l l i m p o r t a n t c e r e m o n i e s , d i s c i p l i n e s t h e m o r a l l y d e l i n q u e n t , r e p r e s e n t s t h e c o l o n y on t h e L e u t C o u n c i l , g r e e t s and e n t e r -t a i n s a l l ' i m p o r t a n t ' v i s i t o r s t o t h e c o l o n y , and s e r v e s as t h e spokesman o f t h e c o l o n y i n i t s r e l a t i o n s w i t h t h e o u t s i d e w o r l d . The p r e a c h e r a l s o h a s t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f k e e p i n g t h e c o l o n y i n harmony w i t h t r a d i t i o n and d o c t r i n e . T he a s s i s t a n t p r e a c h e r e s s e n t i a l l y a c t s as h i s a p p r e n t i c e and a i d e . B o t h t h e f i r s t p r e a c h e r and t h e a s s i s t a n t p r e a c h e r a r e e x p e c t e d t o p e r f o r m c e r t a i n m anual t a s k s i n a d d i t i o n t o t h e i r r e l i g i o u s and g o v e r n m e n t a l d u t i e s . The manual a s p e c t s a r e u s u a l l y much 1 0 8 more a p p a r e n t i n t h e c a s e o f t h e a s s i s t a n t p r e a c h e r who o f t e n must a l s o f i l l t h e r o l e o f t h e c o l o n y ' s German T e a c h e r . I n many c a s e s t h e manual work p e r f o r m e d b y t h e f i r s t p r e a c h e r amounts t o l i t t l e more t h a n t o k e n i s m . F o r example, a f i r s t p r e a c h e r may f u l f i l h i s manual l a b o u r " q u o t a " b y g r a d i n g eggs f o r one h o u r e v e r y m o r n i n g . On H u t t e r i t e c o l o n i e s one c a n o b s e r v e ' w o r k i n g ' p r e a c h e r s who t a k e t h e i r m a n u a l work v e r y s e r i o u s l y and t r e a t t h e i r m i n i s t e r i a l d u t i e s as s o m e t h i n g w h i c h c a n b e h a n d l e d i n t h e e v e n i n g s and o n Sunday. B u t one c a n a l s o f i n d ' s c h o l a r l y ' p r e a c h e r s whose m a n u a l work c o n s i s t s o f b o o k b i n d i n g and c o p y i n g t h e C h r o n i c l e s i n l o n g h a n d . The n e x t most i m p o r t a n t p o s i t i o n i s t h e c o l o n y manager, c o l o n y s t e w a r d o r ' D i e n e r d e r N o t d u r f t ' . The c o l o n y manager i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e t e m p o r a l w e l f a r e o f t h e c o l o n y . He k e e p s most o f t h e c o l o n y b o o k s and r e c o r d s and s e e s t o i t t h a t a l l s e c t o r s o f t h e economy a r e r u n n i n g s m o o t h l y . I t i s h i s d u t y t o i n s u r e t h a t t h e r e i s an e q u i t a b l e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f work, f o o d , c l o t h i n g , and s h e l t e r i n t h e c o l o n y . He and t h e p r e a c h e r c o n d u c t most b u s i n e s s t r a n s a c t i o n s w i t h ' o u t s i d e r s ' . T he manual l a b o u r component o f t h e c o l o n y manager's r o l e i s somewhat g r e a t e r t h a n t h a t o f t h e p r e a c h e r . The t h i r d most i m p o r t a n t e x e c u t i v e p o s i t i o n i s t h e f a r m b o s s o r ' W e i n z i e r l ' . He i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r o r g a n i z i n g t h e man power o f t h e c o l o n y . He s u p e r v i s e s a l l c o l l e c t i v e work 109 t a s k s s u c h as t h e h a r v e s t and b u i l d i n g c o n s t r u c t i o n . He a l s o a l l o c a t e s t h e y o u n g men and t h e t e e n - a g e b o y s t o w h i c h e v e r d e p a r t m e n t t h e y may b e n e e d e d . H i s r e l a t i o n s h i p t o t h e c o l o n y manager i s s i m i l a r t o t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h e a s s i s t a n t p r e a c h e r and t h e f i r s t p r e a c h e r . The f a r m b o s s i s a l s o a d e p a r t m e n t a l h e a d — t h e c r o p s manager. I n t h i s c a p a c i t y he i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e p l a n t i n g , c u l t i v a t i o n , h a r v e s t i n g , a n d s t o r i n g o f a l l c r o p s grown on t h e c o l o n y . The p o s i t i o n o f German T e a c h e r may o r may n o t b e a n e x e c u t i v e p o s i t i o n . On s m a l l c o l o n i e s t h e d u t i e s o f t h e German T e a c h e r may b e p e r f o r m e d b y t h e a s s i s t a n t p r e a c h e r o r t h e gardener. When i t i s a d i s t i n c t p o s i t i o n , i t i n v o l v e s t h e e d u c a t i o n and d i s c i p l i n i n g o f t h e c h i l d r e n . The German T e a c h e r d i r e c t s t h e German S c h o o l w h i c h meets f o r an h o u r b e f o r e and a f t e r t h e r e g u l a r E n g l i s h s c h o o l , on S a t u r d a y m o r n i n g s , and d u r i n g t h e summer v a c a t i o n . The c u r r i c u l u m o f t h e German S c h o o l c o n s i s t s o f t h e German l a n g u a g e , H u t t e r -i t e c h u r c h h i s t o r y , H u t t e r i t e hymns, a n d H u t t e r i t e t h e o l o g y . I n l a r g e m e asure t h e German S c h o o l a t t e m p t s t o c o u n t e r a c t t h e ' w o r l d l y ' i n f l u e n c e s o f t h e E n g l i s h s c h o o l . I n a c o u p l e o f r a r e c a s e s t h e German T e a c h e r a l s o t e a c h e s t h e E n g l i s h s c h o o l . T h i s i s r a r e b e c a u s e t h e H u t t e r i t e s d i s c o u r a g e e d u c a t i o n b e y o n d t h e e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l l e v e l . As a r e s u l t t h e E n g l i s h s c h o o l i s n e a r l y a l w a y s t a u g h t b y an ' o u t s i d e r 1 110 who p o s s e s s e s t h e p r e r e q u i s i t e t e a c h i n g d i p l o m a . D u r i n g t h e summer months, t h e German T e a c h e r s u p e r v i s e s t h e c h i l d r e n as t h e y t e n d t h e c h i l d r e n ' s g a r d e n , h e l p w i t h t h e h a r v e s t , and p e r f o r m odd j o b s a r o u n d t h e c o l o n y ; s u c h as p i c k i n g r o c k s o u t o f t h e f i e l d s , w a t e r i n g t h e g a r d e n , and d i s p o s i n g o f g a r b a g e . • The managers o f t h e v a r i o u s d e p a r t m e n t s c o m p r i s e t h e n e x t l e v e l o f a u t h o r i t y . The number o f d e p a r t m e n t a l h e a d s v a r i e s d i r e c t l y w i t h t h e s i z e o f t h e c o l o n y . A f u l l s l a t e o f d e p a r t m e n t a l h e a d s w o u l d i n c l u d e a c a t t l e man ( b e e f ) , d a i r y man, s h e e p man, p i g man, c h i c k e n man, g e e s e man, d u c k man, e g g man, m e c h a n i c , c a r p e n t e r , shoeman, g a r d e n e r , b l a c k s m i t h ( w e l d e r ) , a n d c r o p s manager. I t i s e x c e e d i n g l y r a r e f o r a l l o f t h e s e p o s i t i o n s t o b e r e p r e s e n t e d on any p a r t i c u l a r c o l o n y . The number o f d e p a r t m e n t a l h e a d s h i p s w i l l v a r y f r o m a b o u t s i x on a s m a l l c o l o n y t o a b o u t t w e l v e on a l a r g e one. I t i s a r a r i t y t o f i n d t h e p o s i t i o n o f c r o p s manager d i v o r c e d f r o m t h e p o s i t i o n o f f a r m b o s s ; however, t h i s c a n o c c u r i f t h e c o l o n y becomes v e r y l a r g e . As p r e v i o u s l y m e n t i o n e d t h e p o s i t i o n s o f German T e a c h e r and g a r d e n e r a r e f r e q u e n t l y c o m bined, u n l e s s t h e s i z e o f t h e e n t e r p r i s e w a r r a n t s s e p a r a -t i o n . I n a d d i t i o n t h e s e p a r a t i o n o f t h e f o l l o w i n g r o l e s a r e u s u a l l y d e t e r m i n e d b y t h e s i z e o f t h e c o l o n y — - c h i c k e n man/ e g g man, m e c h a n i c / b l a c k s m i t h , and c a t t l e m a n / d a i r y man. The p o s i t i o n o f shoemaker a p p e a r s t o b e s l o w l y d i s a p p e a r i n g f r o m I l l H u t t e r i t e c o l o n i e s as t h e H u t t e r i t e s t u r n t o c o m m e r c i a l l y 73 p r o d u c e d f o o t w e a r . The d e p a r t m e n t a l h e a d s do n o t c o n s t i t u t e an o r g a n i z e d g r o u p . However, s e v e r a l o f t h e d e p a r t m e n t a l h e a d s s i t o n t h e G e n e r a l A s s e m b l y o r ' V o r s t e h e n Der G e m e i n d e 1 . D e p a r t -m e n t a l h e a d s a r e g i v e n a f a i r d e g r e e o f l e e w a y c o n c e r n i n g t h e o p e r a t i o n s o f t h e i r own d e p a r t m e n t s . However, t h e y must k e e p c a r e f u l r e c o r d s and r e p o r t p e r i o d i c a l l y t o t h e c o l o n y manager c o n c e r n i n g d e p a r t m e n t a l a f f a i r s . D e p a r t m e n t h e a d s a r e e l e c t e d t o t h e i r p o s i t i o n s and g e n e r a l l y r e t a i n them as l o n g as t h e o p e r a t i o n s o f t h e i r d e p a r t m e n t s r e m a i n e f f i c i e n t , p r o f i t a b l e , and c o n f o r m t o c o l o n y p o l i c y and H u t t e r i t e t r a d i -t i o n . A t t h e b o t t o m o f t h i s a u t h o r i t y h i e r a r c h y l i e s t h e g e n e r a l l a b o u r f o r c e . T h i s c a t e g o r y c o n s i s t s o f a l l m a l e s who h a v e g r a d u a t e d f r o m t h e e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l , b u t who h a v e n o t as y e t a t t a i n e d t h e r a n k o f d e p a r t m e n t h e a d . The a b s e n c e o f a p e r m a n e n t o c c u p a t i o n i s t h e d i s t i n g u i s h i n g mark o f t h i s c a t e g o r y o f members. I n t h e k i b b u t z i m , s u c h p e o p l e a r e g i v e n 74 t h e g e n e r i c l a b e l ' c o r k s ' ( p k a k ) . ' C o r k s ' f l o a t a r o u n d i n t h e l a b o u r p o o l and c a n b e t a k e n and b u n g e d i n t o h o l e s when t h e n e e d a r i s e s . A l t h o u g h t h e H u t t e r i t e s do n o t u s e t h i s t e r m o r a n y t h i n g l i k e i t , t h e same p r i n c i p l e seems t o o p e r a t e . I f one o f t h e d e p a r t m e n t h e a d s r e q u e s t s a.man t o a s s i s t him, t h e f a r m 112 b o s s w i l l i m m e d i a t e l y s e l e c t someone f r o m t h e g e n e r a l l a b o u r f o r c e a n d p l a c e h i m a t t h e d i s p o s a l o f t h a t d e p a r t m e n t h e a d . T h e s e men a r e n o t s y s t e m a t i c a l l y r o t a t e d among t h e j o b s a v a i l a b l e , b u t a r e a l l o c a t e d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e d a y t o d a y n e e d s o f t h e c o l o n y . The members o f t h e e x e c u t i v e o f t e n s e r v e as ' c o r k s ' w h i l e f u l f i l l i n g t h e i r manual l a b o u r r e q u i r e m e n t s . A f t e r b a p t i s m , t h e y o u n g men i n t h e g e n e r a l l a b o u r f o r c e t e n d t o a p p r e n t i c e t h e m s e l v e s t o one o f t h e d e p a r t m e n t h e a d s . T h i s d o e s n o t mean t h a t t h e s e men h a v e c e a s e d t o b e ' c o r k s ' ; o n t h e c o n t r a r y , t h e y c a n a l w a y s b e moved t o a n o t h e r d e p a r t -ment i f c i r c u m s t a n c e s demand i t ; h o w e v e r , i f t h e y h a v e f a m i l i a r i z e d t h e m s e l v e s w i t h t h e r e q u i s i t e s k i l l s o f a p a r -t i c u l a r d e p a r t m e n t , t h e f a r m b o s s w i l l u s u a l l y a s s i g n them t o t h a t d e p a r t m e n t i n o r d e r t o f u r t h e r e f f i c i e n t o p e r a t i o n s . Many o f t h e s e y o u n g men manage t o c a r v e o u t s u b - d e p a r t m e n t s f o r t h e m s e l v e s ; s u c h as s u p e r i n t e n d e n t o f a f l e e t o f c o m b i n e s , d i r e c t o r o f g r a i n s t o r a g e , o r s u p e r v i s o r o f c r o p i r r i g a t i o n . A l t h o u g h t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s a l w a y s f a l l w i t h i n t h e do m a i n o f one o f t h e r e c o g n i z e d d e p a r t m e n t s and c a n n o t b e c a r r i e d o u t w i t h o u t t h e d e p a r t m e n t h e a d ' s a p p r o v a l , t h e y do p r o v i d e t h e a p p r e n t i c e w i t h t r a i n i n g and e x p e r i e n c e i n t h e o p e r a t i o n s o f a d e p a r t m e n t . A p p r e n t i c e s h i p u s u a l l y l e a d s t o h e a d s h i p i n t h e f u t u r e p r o v i d e d t h e a p p r e n t i c e r e v e a l s some d e g r e e o f 113 competence. But headship may have to await the death or retirement of the present head unless colony f i s s i o n opens up a large number of new pos i t i o n s . We s h a l l return to t h i s issue l a t e r . Two categories of members have thus f a r been excluded from t h i s d e s c r i p t i o n of the occupational s t r u c t u r e — t h e women and children. The chi l d r e n may at times be considered part of the general labour force. During the summer months, elementary school c h i l d r e n are asked to perform a v a r i e t y of minor tasks such as hoeing, d r i v i n g t r a c t o r s , p i c k i n g up rocks, running errands, and cleaning up debris. They are frequently used during the harvest season, but are not used i n any serious way during the school months. Women occupy a p o s i t i o n i n the authority hierarchy which i s somewhat d i f f i c u l t to c l a s s i f y . In general they are re-75 garded as an i n f e r i o r s o c i a l type. Women have no p o l i t i c a l voice either i n terms of the r i g h t to vote i n the Assembly or an organized group to represent them. Rideman gives a theo l o g i c a l explanation for t h i s 'natural' - i n f e r i o r i t y of women. [sQince woman was taken from man, and not man from woman, man hath lordship but woman weakness, humility, and submission, therefore, she should be under the yoke of man and obedient to him, even as the woman was commanded by God when he said to her, "The man s h a l l be thy l o r d . " ^ 114 H u t t e r i t e s h a v e a w e l l d e v e l o p e d c o n c e p t i o n o f women's work and men's work. Women a r e p r o h i b i t e d f r o m c o m p e t i n g w i t h men f o r o c c u p a t i o n a l p o s i t i o n s . Women's work i s n o t o n l y c o n s i d e r e d l e s s i m p o r t a n t t h a n men's work, b u t i s a l s o l e s s d i f f e r e n t i a t e d . The o n l y e x c e p t i o n t o t h i s i s t h e h e a d c o o k , who h a s a u t h o r i t y o v e r t h e o t h e r women i n t h e k i t c h e n a n d d i n i n g h a l l . A l t h o u g h she i s e l e c t e d t o t h i s p o s i t i o n b y t h e a s s e m b l y , she i s n o t a l l o w e d t o s i t on t h e a s s e m b l y . T h e r e a r e no o t h e r p o s i t i o n s among t h e women c o m p a r a b l e t o t h a t o f h e a d c o o k . T h e r e a r e , however, a number o f i n f o r m a l p o s i t i o n s a s s i g n e d t o women b y male d e p a r t m e n t h e a d s . The g a r d e n e r o f t e n p l a c e s a woman i n c h a r g e o f t h e o t h e r women who work i n t h e g a r d e n . The German T e a c h e r u s u a l l y a s s i g n s women t o o p e r a t e t h e K i n d e r g a r t e n ; he may a l s o a sk a n o t h e r t o h e l p h i m w i t h t h e German S c h o o l . The r e s t o f t h e women p a r t i c i p a t e i n a r o t a t i o n s y s t e m , w h e r e b y t h e y a r e moved f r o m t h e k i t c h e n t o t h e g a r d e n and t h e n t o h o u s e c l e a n i n g and t h e n t o t h e l a u n d r y and f i n a l l y b a c k t o t h e k i t c h e n . N o t o n l y a r e t h e s e x e s s e p a r a t e d o c c u p a t i o n a l l y , b u t s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n b e t w e e n t h e s e x e s o c c u r s o n l y i n f r e q u e n t l y i n t h e work s e t t i n g . The g a r d e n i s t h e o n l y m a j o r e x c e p t i o n t o t h i s ; a l t h o u g h t h e g a r d e n i s t h e domain o f t h e g a r d e n e r h i s work f o r c e i s p r e d o m i n a n t l y f e m a l e . 115 The number and v a r i e t y o f o c c u p a t i o n a l p o s i t i o n s i n a H u t t e r i t e c o l o n y a l w a y s r e m a i n s w i t h i n w e l l d e f i n e d l i m i t s . As h a s b e e n m e n t i o n e d above, t h e number o f e x e c u t i v e p o s i t i o n s v a r i e s b e t w e e n f o u r and s i x , and t h e number o f d e p a r t m e n t h e a d s h i p s v a r i e s b e t w e e n s i x and t w e l v e . T h u s , b y t h e t i m e a c o l o n y i s p r e p a r i n g t o f i s s i o n e i g h t e e n o c c u p a t i o n a l 7 7 p o s i t i o n s w i l l h a v e b e e n f i l l e d . ' I t c a n now b e d e m o n s t r a t e d t h a t t h i s w i l l o c c u r when t h e p o p u l a t i o n o f a c o l o n y r e a c h e s 140. The n a t u r e o f t h e H u t t e r i a n a g e - s e x p y r a m i d ( s e e F i g u r e 2.3 and T a b l e 2.10) d e t e r m i n e s t h e t e r m i n a l p o p u l a t i o n s i z e o f a c o l o n y . The S c h m i e d e l e u t s u b - s e c t h a s a p o p u l a t i o n s i z e o f 7369 p e o p l e , o f t h e s e 3730 (50.61%) a r e m a l e s and 3639 (49.40%) a r e f e m a l e s . B e c a u s e o f t h e i r h i g h b i r t h r a t e , H u t t e r i t e s h a v e 78 a v e r y h i g h d e p e n d e n c y r a t i o -—-one p r o d u c t i v e member f o r e v e r y 1.06 d e p e n d e n t s . N e a r l y o n e - h a l f o f t h e H u t t e r i t e p o p u l a t i o n (3629 p e o p l e o r 49.2 5%) c o n s i s t s o f c h i l d r e n f i f t e e n y e a r s o f age o r l e s s . The r e m a i n i n g d e p e n d e n t s a r e r e t i r e d o l d s t e r s w h i c h make up 2.06% o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n . I f we e x c l u d e a l l women and d e p e n d e n t s , we a r e l e f t w i t h a ma l e work f o r c e o f 1805 men o r 24 . 5 0 % o f t h e H u t t e r i t e p o p u l a t i o n . W i t h i n t h e mal e work f o r c e , 736 m a l e s ( 9 . 9 9 % o f t h e p o p u l a -t i o n ) a r e b e t w e e n t h e ages o f 16 and 25. T h i s i s t h e p e r i o d 7 9 o f t i m e b e t w e e n e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l g r a d u a t i o n and b a p t i s m . 116 T h e s e members u s u a l l y make up t h e g e n e r a l l a b o u r f o r c e b y v i r t u e o f t h e i r age. T h i s l e a v e s 1069 men o r 1 4 . 5 1 % o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n who a r e e l i g i b l e t o h o l d o c c u p a t i o n s . S c h m i e d e l e u t Age-Sex P y r a m i d AGE 95-1 90-85-55 • 50 45 • 40 -35 • 30 -25 -20 -15 -10 -5 • it , ( 1 i % 1 1 1 T x 1 1 1 1 r 1 — " 1 i i i , ! 0 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 S 9'10 F i g u r e 2.2 to] 75" 70-65 • 60 • MALE FEMALE 117 T a b l e 2.10  S c h m i e d e l e u t Age-Sex D i s t r i b u t i o n Age i n Y e a r s M a l e F e m a l e Number o f M a l e s 22 Number o f F e m a l e s % 0-5 704 9.55 706 9.58 ' 6-10 •663 9.00 629 8.54 11-15 479 6. 50 448 6.08 16-20 406 5.51 372 5.05 21-25 330 4.48 343 4.65 26-30 260 3.53 251 3.41 31-35 187 2.54 211 2.89 36-40 193 2.62 172 2.33 41-45 135 1.83 135 1.83 46-50 93 1.26 117 1.59 51-55 89 1.21 75 1.02 56-60 65 .88 63 .85 61-65 47 .64 44 .60 66-70 40 .54 37 .50 71-75 18 .24 18 .24 76-80 14 .19 12 .16 81-85 6 .08 "4 .05 86-90 1 .01 2 .03 TOTAL 3730 50.61 3639 49.40 S i n c e c o l o n y f i s s i o n n e a r l y a l w a y s r e s u l t s i n t h e c r e a t i o n o f two d e m o g r a p h i c a l l y s i m i l a r c o l o n i e s , t h e a g e -s e x d i s t r i b u t i o n o f any c o l o n y s e l e c t e d a t random c l o s e l y r e s e m b l e s t h e l a r g e r l e u t a g e - s e x d i s t r i b u t i o n . C o n s e q u e n t l y , a new c o l o n y w i t h an i n i t i a l p o p u l a t i o n o f 70 members w i l l t y p i c a l l y h a v e 35 m a l e s and 35 f e m a l e s . S e v e n t e e n m a l e s w i l l b e 15 y e a r s o f age o r l e s s and one man w i l l b e o f r e t i r e m e n t age. T h i s w i l l l e a v e 17 men i n t h e work f o r c e . S e v e n o f t h e s e men w i l l b e b e t w e e n t h e a g e s . o f 16 a n d 25 and t h e 118 r e m a i n i n g t e n men w i l l b e p o t e n t i a l o c c u p a t i o n h o l d e r s . I t i s no c o i n c i d e n c e t h a t t e n o c c u p a t i o n s (4 e x e c u t i v e and 6 d e p a r t m e n t a l p o s i t i o n s ) i s t h e minimum l i m i t i n t h e number o f o c c u p a t i o n s . I f we l o o k a t a c o l o n y w h i c h h a s r e a c h e d t h e t e r m i n a t i o n s i z e o f 140 p e o p l e , we w i l l f i n d t h a t t h e r e a r e 69 women, 35 m a l e s 15 y e a r s o f age and u n d e r , 2 r e t i r e d men, 14 y o u n g men i n t h e g e n e r a l l a b o u r f o r c e and 20 men who c a n p o t e n t i a l l y h o l d o c c u p a t i o n s . S i n c e 18 p o s i t i o n s a r e t h e maximum number w h i c h a c o l o n y c a n h a v e , a c o l o n y o f t h i s s i z e h a s j u s t p a s s e d t h e p o i n t where t h e number o f men.match t h e number o f p o s i t i o n s . I f t h e p o p u l a t i o n o f a c o l o n y e x c e e d s 140, many y o u n g m a l e s w i l l b e p r e v e n t e d f r o m a d v a n c i n g w i t h i n t h e H u t t e r i t e o p p o r t u n i t y s t r u c t u r e and a u t h o r i t y h i e r a r c h y . When upward m o b i l i t y i s b l o c k e d i n t h i s way, t h e o c c u p a t i o n a l a s p i r a t i o n s o f t h e y o u n g men a r e f r u s t r a t e d . T he f a i l u r e t o a t t a i n an o c c u p a t i o n a l p o s i t i o n .is made s t r e s s f u l n o t o n l y b e c a u s e s t a t u s a m b i t i o n s h a v e b e e n t h w a r t e d , b u t more i m p o r t a n t l y b e c a u s e t h e H u t t e r i t e s c o n c e i v e o f t h e i r o c c u p a t i o n a l ' r o l e s as a r e l i g i o u s ' c a l l i n g ' . L i k e many P r o t e s t a n t s e c t s , t h e H u t t e r i t e s ' c o n c e i v e o f an o c c u p a t i o n as a n avenue t o s a l v a t i o n . K a r l P e t e r h a s b e s t d e s c r i b e d t h e H u t t e r i t e v a r i a n t o f t h e P r o t e s t a n t e t h i c . H u t t e r i t e s gave a p e c u l a r t w i s t t o ( t h e P r o t e s t a n t e t h i c ) b y i n s i s t i n g t h a t b o t h t h e c a l l i n g a nd t h e 119 a t t a i n m e n t o f c e r t a i n t y o f g r a c e c o u l d o n l y b e a c h i e v e d i n t h e c o n t e x t o f t h e 1 G e m e i n s c h a f t ' , t h a t i s i n t h e s p i r i t u a l and m a t e r i a l community where t h e s p i r i t o f God, t h e m a t e r i a l r e s o u r c e s o f men, and t h e a t t a i n m e n t o f e t e r n a l g r a c e were s h a r e d e q u a l l y and s i m u l t a n e o u s l y b y a l l members... The i n d i v i d u a l , h i s work, and h i s e t e r n a l f u t u r e a r e u n a l t e r a b l y w e l d e d t o t h e s t a t e o f t h e t o t a l community and t o t h e e x t e n t t h a t he c a n b e s a v e d o n l y i f t h e t o t a l community i s s a v e d , he i n t u r n must do h i s s h a r e t o make s u c h communal s a v i n g p o s s i b l e . I n h i s " c a l l i n g " he c a r r i e s t h e b u r d e n o f s a v i n g h i s n e i g h b o u r s and h i s k i n . 8 0 M o s t y o u n g H u t t e r i t e men e x p e c t t h a t t h e y w i l l b e v o t e d , i n t o d e p a r t m e n t h e a d s h i p s o r e v e n e x e c u t i v e p o s i t i o n s . S uch a n e x p e c t a t i o n i s r e a s o n a b l e b e c a u s e o f t h e H u t t e r i t e norm o f f i s s i o n i n g when a l l p o s i t i o n s h a v e b e e n f i l l e d , t h e r e b y c r e a t i n g t w e n t y p o s i t i o n s - — t e n i n t h e m other c o l o n y and t e n i n t h e d a u g h t e r c o l o n y . N o t o n l y d o e s c o l o n y f i s s i o n immedi-a t e l y s a t i s f y a l l t w e n t y men who a r e i n a p o s i t i o n t o h o l d o c c u p a t i o n s , b u t i t a l s o opens up f u t u r e o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r p e r s o n a l a d v a n c e m e n t f o r t h o s e y o u n g e r men i n t h e g e n e r a l l a b o u r f o r c e . However, i f a c o l o n y f a i l s t o f i s s i o n when i t s p o p u l a t i o n h a s r e a c h e d 140, t h e o p p o r t u n i t y s t r u c t u r e becomes c l o s e d and many y o u n g men become d i s s a t i s f i e d . As was f i r s t d e m o n s t r a t e d 81 i n The A m e r i c a n S o l d i e r , a h i g h r a t e o f upward m o b i l i t y l e a d s t o a h i g h e x p e c t a t i o n o f p r o m o t i o n w i t h t h e r e s u l t t h a t i f p r o m o t i o n i s n o t f o r t h c o m i n g a g r e a t e r d e g r e e o f d i s s a t i s -120 f a c t i o n w i l l o c c u r t h a n when m o b i l i t y r a t e s a r e low. H u t t e r -i t e men who f i n d t h e m s e l v e s t r a p p e d i n t h e g e n e r a l l a b o u r f o r c e s u f f e r a l o s s o f s e l f - e s t e e m and a s e n s e o f p e r s o n a l w o r t h , b e c a u s e n o r m a l l y o n l y i n d i v i d u a l s who a r e deemed i n c o m p e t e n t r e m a i n i n t h e g e n e r a l l a b o u r f o r c e b e y o n d t h e a p p r o x i m a t e age o f 25. Young H u t t e r i t e m a l e s a s p i r e t o b e -come d e p a r t m e n t a l h e a d s l e s s o u t o f a d e s i r e f o r p e r s o n a l g a i n a n d more o u t o f a f e a r o f b e i n g r e j e c t e d b y t h e g r o u p . I f t h e y a r e n o t g i v e n a r e s p o n s i b l e p o s i t i o n , t h e y f e e l t h a t t h e y a r e b e i n g v i e w e d as i n c o m p e t e n t o r u n t r u s t w o r t h y . To most H u t t e r i t e s , p r o d u c t i v e work w h i c h s e r v e s t h e i n t e r e s t s o f t h e community i s r e g a r d e d as a r e l i g i o u s d u t y — t h e more u s e f u l t h e l a b o u r , t h e more s p i r i t u a l l y w o r t h y t h e • i n d i v i d u a l p e r f o r m i n g i t . T h i s s e n t i m e n t i s r a r e l y e x p r e s s e d b y t h e H u t t e r i t e s , b u t o p e r a t e s more as an i m p l i c i t a s s u m p t i o n . H u t t e r i t e s a r e a p t t o a t t r i b u t e a l a c k o f d e s i r e t o a s p i r e t o a d e p a r t m e n t a l p o s i t i o n as b e i n g due t o ' l a z i n e s s ' o r a l a c k o f c o n c e r n f o r t h e w e l f a r e o f t h e c o l o n y . O c c a s i o n a l l y H u t t e r i t e s w i l l l o o s e l y compare s u c h i n d i v i d u a l s t o d r o n e s i n a b e e h i v e . I n g e n e r a l , a l a c k o f a s p i r a t i o n s o n t h e p a r t o f y o u n g men i n t h e g e n e r a l l a b o u r f o r c e i s r e g a r d e d as ' u n n a t u r a l ' . A s t o r y was o n c e r e p e a t e d t o me a b o u t a y o u n g man who p u b l i c l y s t a t e d t h a t he d i d n o t want t o become a d e p a r t m e n t a l h e a d , b u t was q u i t e h a p p y t o r e m a i n i n t h e 121 g e n e r a l l a b o u r f o r c e . The o u t c o m e o f t h i s was t h a t t h e i n d i v i d u a l was n e v e r g i v e n a r e s p o n s i b l e j o b . The i m p l i c a -t i o n was t h a t a n y o n e who h a d s u c h a l o o s e g r a s p o n r e a l i t y c o u l d n e v e r b e t r u s t e d w i t h a r e s p o n s i b l e p o s i t i o n . The s t o r y c o n c l u d e d w i t h t h e a s s e r t i o n t h a t s u c h p e o p l e " s h o u l d b e made t o e a t a t t h e c h i l d r e n ' s t a b l e " , s i n c e t h e y w e r e b e h a v i n g i n a manner a p p r o p r i a t e o n l y f o r c h i l d r e n . So s t r o n g i s t h e s t i g m a a t t a c h e d t o r e m a i n i n g i n t h e g e n e r a l l a b o u r f o r c e when one h a s become a n a d u l t , t h a t a g r e a t l o s s o f s e l f -e s t e e m o c c u r s when a s l o w r a t e o f c o l o n y e x p a n s i o n p r e v e n t s u p w a r d m o b i l i t y . 8 2 M a c k i e , i n h e r s t u d y o f A l b e r t a c o l o n i e s , was a b l e t o d e m o n s t r a t e t h a t t h e d e f e c t i o n r a t e was h i g h e s t i n t h e o l d e r ' o v e r s i z e d ' c o l o n i e s . M o s t o f t h e s e d e f e c t o r s w e r e y o u n g a d u l t m a l e s . T h i s f i n d i n g s u p p o r t s o u r c o n t e n t i o n t h a t d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w o u l d i n c r e a s e i n d i r e c t p r o p o r t i o n t o t h e s i z e o f t h e c o l o n y . C o l o n y f i s s i o n c a n b e d e l a y e d i f a c o l o n y h a s i n s u f f i -c i e n t f i n a n c i a l r e s o u r c e s w i t h w h i c h t o a f f o r d f i s s i o n o r a c o l o n y i s p r e v e n t e d f r o m f i s s i o n i n g b y l e g a l r e s t r i c t i o n s p l a c e d o n i t b y t h e h o s t s o c i e t y . F r i d e r e s h a s a r g u e d t h a t t h e p r o v i n c i a l g o v e r n m e n t s o f C a n a d a a r e s y s t e m a t i c a l l y d e s t r o y i n g H u t t e r i t e c u l t u r e b y means o f l a n d r e s t r i c t i o n l e g i s l a t i o n . He c l a i m s t h a t t h e 122 e f f e c t o f t h e s e laws i s t o c u r t a i l c o l o n y e x p a n s i o n and f o r c e c o l o n i e s t o become ' o v e r s i z e d ' . When t h i s o c c u r s , t h e d e f e c t i o n r a t e w i l l r i s e u n t i l i t m a t c h e s t h e b i r t h r a t e . He a s s e r t s t h a t "as t h e d e f e c t i o n r a t e i n c r e a s e s , g h e t t o s o f ' e x - H u t t e r i t e s ' w i l l e m e r g e . H e c o n c l u d e s b y p r e d i c t i n g t h a t , What i s h a p p e n i n g now (and w i l l c o n t i n u e t o h a p p e n i n t h e f u t u r e ) i s t h a t w h i l e t h e m a j o r components o f t h e e n t i r e H u t t e r i t e c u l t u r a l c o m p l e x a r e b e i n g d e s t r o y e d , some e l e m e n t s o f t h e i r r e l i g i o u s b e l i e f s w i l l r e m a i n . 8 4 The e v i d e n c e f o r t h i s r a t h e r b o l d p r o p h e c y i s a t b e s t s p o t t y . He c i t e s as e v i d e n c e t h e Communal L a n d A c t o f 1947 and i t s p r e d e c e s s o r , t h e L a n d S a l e s P r o h i b i t i o n A c t o f 1 9 4 2 — b o t h , o f w h i c h were p r o d u c t s o f t h e S o c i a l C r e d i t g o v e r n m e n t 85 o f A l b e r t a . I t i s t r u e t h a t t h e s e a c t s d i d r e t a r d H u t t e r i t e e x p a n s i o n i n t h e p r o v i n c e o f A l b e r t a b e t w e e n 1942 and 1960. However, t h e s e a c t s h a v e n o t b e e n a p p l i e d s i n c e 1960, and t h e a c t s t h e m s e l v e s a r e now u n d e r r e v i e w . A l t h o u g h F r i d e r e s seems t o f e e l o t h e r w i s e , no s u c h law o p e r a t e s i n t h e p r o v i n c e o f M a n i t o b a . However, M a n i t o b a H u t t e r i t e s h a v e v o l u n t a r i l y a g r e e d t o c e r t a i n i n f o r m a l r e s t r i c t i o n s . T h e y h a v e a g r e e d t o c o n f i n e a l l f u t u r e c o l o n i e s t o 5120 a c r e s ( t h e a v e r a g e a c r e a g e i s o n l y 3763 a c r e s ) , t o s p a c e a l l f u t u r e c o l o n i e s t o two p e r m u n i c i p a l i t y . T h i s l a s t r e s t r i c t i o n may i n d e e d p o s e a s e r i o u s p r o b l e m i n t h e f u t u r e , i f i t i s a d h e r e d t o . The 123 H u t t e r i t e s h a v e a c c e p t e d t h i s modus o p e r a n d i i n o r d e r t o f o r e s t a l l t h e e n a c t m e n t o f r e a l l a n d r e s t r i c t i o n l e g i s l a t i o n . T o d a t e t h e S c h m i e d e l e u t g r o u p h a s n o t h a d t h e i r c o l o n y e x p a n s i o n r e s t r i c t e d ; i n f a c t i t c o u l d b e a r g u e d t h a t t h e t h r e a t o f s u c h l e g i s l a t i o n h a s i n i t s e l f p r o v o k e d r e c e n t e x p a n s i o n (See T a b l e 2 . 2 ) . W i t h i n t h e S c h m i e d e l e u t s u b - s e c t ' o v e r s i z e d ' c o l o n i e s h a v e u s u a l l y o c c u r r e d b e c a u s e o f i n a d e -q u a t e f i n a n c e s . I t i s t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f e a c h g e n e r a t i o n o f H u t t e r i t e s t o p r o v i d e t h e s u c c e e d i n g g e n e r a t i o n w i t h s u f f i c i e n t r e s o u r c e s and m o t i v a t i o n w i t h w h i c h t o c o n t i n u e t h e H u t t e r i a n l i f e s t y l e . S u f f i c i e n t c a p i t a l must b e r a i s e d t o a l l o w a c o l o n y t o ' b r a n c h o u t ' o r 'swarm' b e f o r e t h e o p p o r t u n i t y s t r u c t u r e becomes c l o s e d and t h e a m b i t i o n s o f t h e i r y o u n g men t h w a r t e d . A g r e a t d e a l o f shame i s a t t a c h e d t o a c o l o n y w h i c h f a i l s t o f i s s i o n w i t h i n a r e a s o n a b l e t i m e . H u t t e r i t e s d e p i c t t h e members o f t h o s e c o l o n i e s w h i c h a r e s l o w t o f i s s i o n as n o t o n l y b e i n g i n s u f f i c i e n t l y c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e w e l f a r e o f t h e i r c h i l d r e n , b u t a l s o as b e i n g r e l i g i o u s b a c k s l i d e r s . I t i s f e l t t h a t i f t h e t w i n r e l i g i o u s i d e a l s o f h a r d work and a s c e t i c i s m a r e u p h e l d , a c o l o n y 'ought' t o b e i n a p o s i t i o n t o f i s s i o n a t t h e ' a p p r o p r i a t e ' t i m e . When t h i s d o e s n o t o c c u r t h e members o f t h e d i s g r a c e d c o l o n y a r e d e p i c t e d as a . l a z y , s e l f - i n d u l g e n t l o t . A m i l d f o r m o f c o m p e t i t i o n e x i s t s b e t w e e n c o l o n i e s w h i c h 124 t e n d s t o k e e p them f r o m b e c o m i n g i n a c t i v e and i n e f f i c i e n t . C o l o n i e s w h i c h a r e a b l e t o ' s p i n o f f d a u g h t e r c o l o n i e s q u i c k l y and e f f i c i e n t l y g a i n c o n s i d e r a b l e p r e s t i g e and a r e v i e w e d as m o d e l s m e r i t i n g e m u l a t i o n . I t i s n o t s i m p l y t h e s p e e d w i t h w h i c h a d a u g h t e r c o l o n y i s p r o d u c e d w h i c h b r i n g s a c o l o n y p r e s t i g e , b u t t h e a b i l i t y t o o u t f i t a d a u g h t e r c o l o n y w i t h e q u i p m e n t and h o l d i n g s a t l e a s t e q u a l t o t h a t p o s s e s s e d b y t h e m o t h e r c o l o n y i n t h e s h o r t e s t p e r i o d o f t i m e . I t i s c o n s i d e r e d a d e p l o r a b l e a c t t o p r o d u c e a ' p r e -m a t u r e ' d a u g h t e r c o l o n y w h i c h i s so m e a g e r l y endowed t h a t i t s g r o w t h i s r e t a r d e d . T h e r e h a v e b e e n a b o u t t e n c a s e s w h e r e a c o l o n y h a s p r o d u c e d a d a u g h t e r c o l o n y i n l e s s t h a n 10 y e a r s , t h e s e ' p r e - m a t u r e ' c o l o n i e s h a v e t a k e n much l o n g e r t o f i s s i o n t h a n t h e a v e r a g e (18.70 y e a r s v e r s e s 14.42 y e a r s ) . I n t h i s c o m p e t i t i o n , c e r t a i n b o u n d a r y r u l e s a r e t a k e n f o r g r a n t e d . I t i s t a k e n f o r g r a n t e d t h a t e v e r y c o l o n y w i l l f i n d i t n e c e s s a r y t o f i s s i o n e v e r y 15 y e a r s . I t i s assumed t h a t b y t h a t t i m e t h e p o p u l a t i o n p r e s s u r e w i l l b e s u c h t h a t a c o l o n y , i f i t i s n o t a l r e a d y i n t h e p r o c e s s o f f i s s i o n i n g , w i l l h a v e a t l e a s t p u r c h a s e d a f a r m t o show i t s i n t e n t i o n o f d o i n g so i n t h e n e a r f u t u r e . I n a few r a r e c a s e s , t h i s e x p e c t a t i o n h a s n o t b e e n met, b e c a u s e t h e p o p u l a t i o n o f t h e c o l o n i e s i n q u e s t i o n h a v e n o t grown s u f f i c i e n t l y t o w a r r a n t 125 f i s s i o n a t t h e a n t i c i p a t e d t i m e . T h i s h a s n o t b e e n due t o b i r t h c o n t r o l o r any p u r p o s e f u l l i m i t a t i o n o f f a m i l y s i z e , b u t c a n b e t r a c e d t o a f i s s i o n i n g i n w h i c h t h e age d i s t r i b u -t i o n o f t h e m o t h e r c o l o n y d i d n o t m a t c h t h e age d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h e d a u g h t e r c o l o n y . H u t t e r i t e p r e a c h e r s h a v e t o l d me t h a t t h e y h a v e t o b e e x t r e m e l y v i g i l a n t a t t h e t i m e o f c o l o n y f i s s i o n t o e n s u r e t h a t c o l o n i e s do n o t a t t e m p t t o s o l v e t h e i r g e n e r a t i o n c o n f l i c t s . b y p l a c i n g t h e o l d e r members o n one c o l o n y and t h e i r y o u n g e r members on t h e o t h e r c o l o n y . The c r e a t i o n o f ' o l d ' and 'young' c o l o n i e s c a n b e v e r y d i s r u p t i v e b e c a u s e i t l e a d s t o m a l d i s t r i b u t i o n o f r e s o u r c e s . The p o p u -l a t i o n g r o w t h p o t e n t i a l i s much g r e a t e r f o r 'young' c o l o n i e s t h a n f o r ' o l d ' c o l o n i e s . The p o p u l a t i o n g r o w t h o f 'young' c o l o n i e s c a n o u t d i s t a n c e t h e i r a b i l i t y t o f i n a n c e c o l o n y f i s s i o n , w h e r e a s ' o l d ' c o l o n i e s c a n a f f o r d t o b r a n c h o u t l o n g b e f o r e t h e i r p o p u l a t i o n i n c r e a s e w a r r a n t s i t . A n o t h e r e x p e c t a t i o n w h i c h i s a l m o s t u n i v e r s a l l y a d h e r e d t o b y c o l o n i e s , i s t h a t t h e o p p o r t u n i t y s t r u c t u r e w i l l h a v e become c l o s e d a t t h i s t i m e and t h e members o f a c o l o n y w i l l d e s i r e t o f i s s i o n i n o r d e r t o open i t up a g a i n . A l t h o u g h t h i s i s l a r g e l y h y p o t h e t i c a l , a c o l o n y may n o t b e m o t i v a t e d t o f i s s i o n i f i t were t o i n c r e a s e t h e number o f o c c u p a t i o n a l p o s i t i o n s b e y o n d t h e l i m i t o f 18. By c r e a t i n g new d e p a r t -m e n t a l and e x e c u t i v e p o s i t i o n s , a c o l o n y c o u l d c o n c e i v a b l y 126 grow t o t h e s i z e o f a s m a l l town b e f o r e i t s members were m o t i v a t e d t o f i s s i o n . H u t t e r i t e i n f o r m a n t s e x p r e s s e d t h e o p i n i o n t h a t c o l o n i e s w o u l d become t o o d i f f i c u l t t o a d m i n i s -t e r i f t h e number o f p o s i t i o n s were i n c r e a s e d . T h e r e may b e some t r u t h t o t h i s v i e w . S t u d e n t s o f f o r m a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s h a v e d e m o n s t r a t e d t h a t t h e maximum number o f s u b o r d i n a t e s w h i c h a s u p e r o r d i n a t e c a n m o n i t o r a t one t i m e i s a p p r o x i m a t e l y 86 s i x . I f t h x s i s an a c c u r a t e e s t i m a t e o f a s u p e r v i s o r ' s s p a n o f c o n t r o l , t h e n H u t t e r i t e c o l o n i e s w h i c h h a v e a l l 18 p o s i t i o n s f i l l e d a r e o p e r a t i n g a t t h e i r a d m i n i s t r a t i v e maximums. When a l l p o s i t i o n s a r e f i l l e d , t h e p r e a c h e r who i s p r i m u s i n t e r p a r e s i n t h e e x e c u t i v e s p h e r e , must s u p e r v i s e t h e o t h e r f i v e e x e c u t i v e s i n a d d i t i o n t o h i s o t h e r d u t i e s . O n l y two e x e c u -t i v e s a r e d i r e c t l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r s u p e r v i s i o n ; namely, t h e c o l o n y manager and t h e f a r m b o s s . W i t h t w e l v e men i n d e p a r t -m e n t a l p o s i t i o n s t h e maximum s p a n o f c o n t r o l i s r e a c h e d . New p o s i t i o n s c a n n o t b e a d d e d w i t h o u t e i t h e r r e o r g a n i z i n g t h e a u t h o r i t y h i e r a r c h y o r s u f f e r i n g a l o s s i n a d m i n i s t r a t i v e e f f i c i e n c y . T h e i r p r e s e n t a u t h o r i t y s t r u c t u r e h a s b e e n l a i d down i n t h e i r d o c t r i n a l l i t e r a t u r e ; t h e r e f o r e , i t i s u n d e r -s t a n d a b l e t h a t t h e H u t t e r i t e s a r e r e l u c t a n t t o d e p a r t i n any s i g n i f i c a n t way f r o m a s t r u c t u r e w h i c h h a s p r o v e d w o r k a b l e i n t h e p a s t and h a s r e c e i v e d r e l i g i o u s e n d o r s e m e n t . However, t h i s i s n o t t o s a y t h a t H u t t e r i t e s w o u l d r i g i d l y a d h e r e t o 127 t h i s t r a d i t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e a t a l l c o s t s . T h e r e i s some e v i d e n c e t h a t i f t h e d i f f i c u l t y o f a c q u i r i n g l a n d f o r a new c o l o n y w e r e g r e a t e n o u g h , H u t t e r i t e s w i l l r e s p o n d b y c h a n g i n g t h e i r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e . The o n l y c a s e o f t h i s o c c u r r i n g i s a D a r i u s l e u t c o l o n y i n A l b e r t a w h i c h h a s e s t a b l i s h e d a g l o v e f a c t o r y . I t s h o u l d b e n o t e d t h a t t h i s l i g h t i n d u s t r y was e s t a b l i s h e d o n a n e x p e r i m e n t a l b a s i s i n r e s p o n s e t o r e s t r i c t i v e l a n d l e g i s l a t i o n i n t h e p r o v i n c e o f A l b e r t a . I f t h i s e x p e r i m e n t i s s u c c e s s f u l , we c a n e x p e c t many H u t t e r i t e c o l o n i e s t o i n d u s t r i a l i z e . As f a r a s I know, none o f t h e S c h m i e d e l e u t c o l o n i e s h a v e s e r i o u s l y c o n s i d e r e d 8 7 i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n . B a r k i n a n d B e n n e t t i n t h e i r c o m p a r a t i v e a n a l y s i s o f t h e g o k i b b u t z i m a n d H u t t e r i a n e c o n o m i c s t r u c t u r e s , m a i n t a i n t h a t i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n w o u l d i n c r e a s e t h e o p p o r t u n i t y c o s t s o f members o f H u t t e r i t e c o l o n i e s , t h u s i n c r e a s i n g t h e d e f e c t i o n r a t e . I n t h e i r v i e w , . i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n w o u l d i n c r e a s e t h e p e r c e i v e d c o s t s o f r e m a i n i n g o n t h e c o l o n y ( i n t e r m s o f o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r g o n e ) a n d d e c r e a s e t h e c o s t s o f s e e k i n g a l t e r n a t i v e e x t e r n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s . I n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n w o u l d n e c e s s i t a t e an i n c r e a s e i n t h e e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l o f t h e c o l o n y l a b o u r f o r c e , i f t h e H u t t e r i t e s w i s h e d t o become c o m p e t i t i v e w i t h e x t e r n a l i n d u s t r i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s . T h e i r p r e s e n t l e v e l o f e d u c a t i o n a l a t t a i n m e n t i s a d e q u a t e f o r t h e i r 128 own a g r i c u l t u r a l economy, but i n s u f f i c i e n t to allow Hutterite men to obtain comparable positions i n the surrounding society. Their present grade eight education i s s u f f i c i e n t l y lower than the average l e v e l of formal education attained i n the host society, that Hutterites are barred from taking up com-parable external p o s i t i o n s . In addition, the introduction of industries on Hutterite colonies would permit Hutterite men to make l a t e r a l moves into external i n d u s t r i a l organizations. At present such l a t e r a l moves are' not possible because compar-able positions cannot be found on l o c a l farms and ranches and Hutterite defectors are not permitted to take with them any c a p i t a l with which to purchase such enterprises. Their present external opportunities are l i m i t e d to f i e l d hand and perhaps garage mechanic. According to Barkin and Bennett, such positions would represent a decrease i n standard of l i v i n g and occupational s t a t u s . 8 9 In summary, i n d u s t r i a l i z a -t i o n would not only open the i n t e r n a l opportunity structure, but open external opportunities as w e l l . As a consequence, Hutterite society would lose one of i t s major b a r r i e r s pre-venting a s s i m i l a t i o n into the host society. A t h i r d and f i n a l way i n which a colony may avoid f i s s i o n i n g at the expected time, i s by t o l e r a t i n g a high defec-t i o n rate. I f the rate of defection were to match the rate with which young males t y p i c a l l y enter the occupational 129 s t r u c t u r e , t h e n a c o l o n y w o u l d e n t e r a s t a t e o f e q u i l i b r i u m . T h e r e i s a f e e d b a c k r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n d e f e c t i o n s and t h e o p p o r t u n i t y s t r u c t u r e . As d i s c u s s e d e a r l i e r , when t h e demand f o r p o s i t i o n s i s g r e a t e r t h a n t h e s u p p l y , d e f e c t i o n s w i l l o c c u r . However, t h e s e v e r y d e f e c t i o n s r e s u l t i n a r e d u c t i o n i n t h e number o f m a l e s d e m a n d i n g p o s i t i o n s , t h u s a d e c l i n e - i n t h e r a t e o f d e f e c t i o n s o c c u r s . H u t t e r i t e s do n o t v i e w t h i s phenomena as a h a r m o n i o u s b a l a n c i n g p r o c e s s , b u t r a t h e r as e v i d e n c e o f i n t e r n a l s t a g n a t i o n and d e c a d e n c e . H u t t e r i t e s f r e q u e n t l y r e f e r t o t h e s e c o l o n i e s a s " d y i n g c o l o n i e s " . I t w o u l d p r o b a b l y b e more a c c u r a t e t o r e f e r t o t h e s e c o l o n i e s as " s t a t i c c o l o n i e s " , s i n c e t h e y do n o t d i e b u t s i m p l y c e a s e t o grow a f t e r a t t a i n i n g a c e r t a i n l e v e l o f d e v e l o p m e n t . T h e r e a r e f i v e c o l o n i e s i n t h e S c h m i e d e l e u t f e d e r a t i o n w h i c h c l e a r l y f a l l w i t h i n t h i s c a t e g o r y , i n a d d i -t i o n t o a number o f b o r d e r l i n e c a s e s . None o f t h e s e c o l o n i e s h a v e e v e r f i s s i o n e d , y e t t h e y h a v e b e e n i n e x i s t e n c e f o r an a v e r a g e o f 21 y e a r s . T h e i r p o p u l a t i o n i s b o t h low (mean o f 92) and s t a b l e ( t h e r e p o p u l a t i o n h a s i n c r e a s e d on t h e a v e r a g e o f 6 p e o p l e i n t h e l a s t t e n y e a r s ) . A t t h i s r a t e o f g r o w t h t h e s e c o l o n i e s a r e n o t l i k e l y t o f i s s i o n d u r i n g t h i s c e n t u r y , i f e v e r . By e x a m i n i n g one o f t h e s e " d y i n g c o l o n i e s " i n d e t a i l , I h o pe t o i l l u s t r a t e f i r s t l y , how d e f e c t i o n s c a n p r o d u c e a 130 s t a t i c p o p u l a t i o n , and s e c o n d l y , how a c l o s i n g o f t h e o p p o r t u n i t y s t r u c t u r e g i v e s r i s e t o t h e s e d e f e c t i o n s . I n t h e n e x t two c h a p t e r s , I w i l l a t t e m p t t o show t h a t t h e s o c i a l d y n a m i c s i l l u s t r a t e d b y t h i s c a s e a p p l i e s i n v a r y i n g d e g r e e s t o t h e e n t i r e l e u t . The c o l o n y o f M i l l e r d a l e n e a r M i l l e r , S o u t h D a k o t a was f o u n d e d i n 1949 b y i t s p a r e n t c o l o n y M i l l t o w n . The i n i t i a l p o p u l a t i o n o f M i l l e r d a l e was 63 w h i c h i s b e l o w t h e a v e r a g e i n i t i a l p o p u l a t i o n , b u t n o t a b n o r m a l l y s o . T a b l e 2.11 g i v e s t h e a g e - s e x d i s t r i b u t i o n o f M i l l e r d a l e f o r t h e y e a r s 1949, 1955, 1960, 1965, and 1970. The d i a g o n a l l i n e s h a v e b e e n a d d e d i n o r d e r t o a s s i s t t h e r e a d e r i n t r a c i n g t h e p o p u l a t i o n o f e a c h age c o h o r t . T a b l e 2.12 shows t h a t o n l y s i x d e f e c t i o n s o c c u r r e d s i n c e 1949. T h i s may a p p e a r , a t f i r s t g l a n c e , t o b e t o o s m a l l a number t o s i g n i f i c a n t l y e f f e c t p o p u l a t i o n g r o w t h ; however, i t c a n b e d e m o n s t r a t e d - t h a t t h e s e d e f e c t i o n s a r e t h e p r i m a r y r e a s o n why M i l l e r d a l e h a d a p o p u l a t i o n o f o n l y 91 i n 1970, r a t h e r t h a n a p o p u l a t i o n o f w e l l o v e r 140 I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e s i x men who d e f e c t e d , t h r e e men m a r r i e d o u t o f t h e c o l o n y . H u t t e r i t e s a r e t y p i c a l l y p a t r i -l o c a l ; however, two men s u c c e e d e d i n t a k i n g up r e s i d e n c e i n a n e i g h b o u r i n g c o l o n y ( P l a t t e C o l o n y ) w h i c h was n o t e v e n i n t h e same c l a n . T h e s e a t y p i c a l r e s i d e n c e p a t t e r n s c a n b e 131 T a b l e 2.11 Age-Sex D i s t r i b u t i o n o f M i l l e r d a l e C o l o n y  f o r t h e Y e a r s 1949, 1955, I960, 1965, and 1970, Age i n Y e a r s 0-5 6-10 11-15 16-20 21-25 26-30 31-35 36-40 41-45 46-50 51-55 56-60 61-65 o v e r 65 TOTAL M a l e F e m a l e 1949 1955 1960 1965 1970 1949 1955 1960 1965 19 31 34 T a b l e 2.12  P o p u l a t i o n G a i n s and L o s s e s  o f M i l l e r d a l e C o l o n y C a t e g o r y M a l e s F e m a l e s  G a i n s I n i t i a l P o p u l a t i o n 32 31-B i r t h s 27 26 M a r r y i n g I n __0 _6 59 63 L o s s e s D e a t h s 5 5 D e f e c t i o n s • . 6 0 M a r r y i n g Out __3 12. 14 17 132 t a k e n a s e v i d e n c e t h a t M i l l e r d a l e was deemed an u n d e s i r a b l e c o l o n y t o l i v e on. C o u p l e d w i t h t h e d e p a r t u r e o f t h e s e 9 men was an exo d u s o f 12 women. A l l o f t h e s e women m a r r i e d and went t o t h e i r h u s b a n d ' s c o l o n y o f r e s i d e n c e . T h e y w e r e r e p l a c e d b y 6 women who m a r r i e d i n t o t h e c o l o n y f o r a n e t l o s s o f 6. F i v e women o f m a r r i a g e a b l e age r e m a i n e d a t M i l l e r d a l e as s p i n s t e r s . T h i s l a t t e r phenomena i s u n u s u a l s i n c e n e a r l y a l l H u t t e r i t e s m a r r y . T h u s , M i l l e r d a l e l o s t n o t o n l y 9 men t h r o u g h d e f e c t i o n and m a r r y i n g out," b u t a l s o 9 w i v e s who w o u l d h a v e r e p l a c e d t h e c o l o n y women who m a r r i e d o u t . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e c o l o n y a l s o l o s t t h e c h i l d r e n w h i c h t h e s e f a m i l i e s w o u l d h a v e p r o d u c e d . I t i s p o s s i b l e t o e s t i m a t e what t h e c o l o n y s i z e w o u l d h a v e b e e n h a d t h e s e 9 men s t a y e d b y u s i n g E a t o n and M a y e r ' s e s t i m a t e s o f t h e H u t t e r -i t e n u p t i a l f e r t i l i t y r a t e . ^ I f we assume t h e p o t e n t i a l s p o u s e s o f t h e s e 9 men w o u l d h a v e b e e n t h e same age as t h e i r h u s b a n d s and t h a t t h e t i m e o f m a r r i a g e w o u l d h a v e c o n f o r m e d t o t h e H u t t e r i t e norm, t h e n an e s t i m a t e d 44 c h i l d r e n w o u l d h a v e b e e n p r o d u c e d b y t h e s e m a r r i a g e s b y 1970. T h e r e f o r e , i f t h e s e 9 men h a d n o t l e f t t h e c o l o n y M i l l e r d a l e w o u l d h a v e h a d a p o t e n t i a l p o p u l a t i o n o f 153 p e o p l e b y 1970 (91 + 18 a d u l t s + 44 C h i l d r e n = 153 p e o p l e ) . T h i s w o u l d h a v e b e e n a n o r m a l p o p u l a t i o n f o r a c o l o n y w h i c h was 21 y e a r s o l d , and i n a l l p r o b a b i l i t y i t w o u l d a l r e a d y h a v e f i s s i o n e d . 133 I n d y i n g c o l o n i e s the d e f e c t i o n r a t e i s not o n l y s u f f i -c i e n t t o keep the p o p u l a t i o n s t a t i o n a r y , i t a l s o p r e v e n t s the o c c u p a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e from expanding t o i t s maximum p o t e n t i a l . M i l l e r d a l e has never had more than e l e v e n men i n o c c u p a t i o n a l p o s i t i o n s , which i s a lower number than normal f o r a co l o n y of i t s s i z e . At f i r s t s i g h t i t might appear t h a t the d e f e c -t i o n s a t M i l l e r d a l e o c c u r r e d f o r reasons u n r e l a t e d t o the o p p o r t u n i t y s t r u c t u r e , s i n c e the d e f e c t i o n s themselves have c u r t a i l e d i t s expansion. However, i t can be shown t h a t access t o o p p o r t u n i t i e s i s d i f f e r e n t i a l l y d i s t r i b u t e d among the male members of the colony. I w i l l argue t h a t k i n s h i p a l l i a n c e s c r e a t e t h i s i n e q u a l i t y o f o p p o r t u n i t y . The H u t t e r i t e f o l k e x p l a n a t i o n i s t h a t d e f e c t i o n s occur w i t h the g r e a t e s t frequency i n 'weak' f a m i l i e s . By t h i s , they appear t o mean t h a t some f a m i l i e s are l e s s committed t o co l o n y l i f e and are consequently more l i k e l y t o l e a v e . Many H u t t e r -i t e s b e l i e v e t h a t t h i s i s a g e n e t i c t r a i t which can be found i n the 'blood' o f c e r t a i n f a m i l y l i n e s . H o s t e t l e r and Hunt-91 m g t o n r e p o r t t h a t , T h i s view of d e f e c t i o n among themselves i s v a l i d , f o r o f 38 d e f e c t o r s i n t e r v i e w e d i t was found t h a t h a l f o r i g i n a t e d i n f i v e f a m i l i e s and a l l were l o c a t e d i n d e c l i n i n g c o l o n i e s . T h i s a s s e r t i o n i s supported i n the case of M i l l e r d a l e colony, s i n c e colony abandonment o c c u r r e d more f r e q u e n t l y i n c e r t a i n 134 f a m i l y l i n e s t h a n i n o t h e r s . I n F i g u r e 2.4 w h i c h r e p r e s e n t s t h e g e n e a l o g y o f M i l l e r d a l e , s i x d i s t i n c t f a m i l y l i n e s c a n b e d i s c e r n e d . A l t h o u g h , as i n most c o l o n i e s , t h e f a m i l i e s a r e i n t e r c o n n e c t e d b y a n e t w o r k o f a f f i n a l and c o n s a n g u i n e a l t i e s . The c l o s e s t r e l a t i o n s h i p i s b e t w e e n f a m i l i e s 1 and 2 w h e r e t h e f a m i l y h e a d s were b r o t h e r s . The n e x t c l o s e s t t i e i s b e t w e e n t h e h e a d s o f f a m i l i e s 5 and 6 who w e r e n o t o n l y f i r s t c o u s i n s o n c e removed, b u t t h e h e a d o f f a m i l y 6's s e c o n d m a r r i a g e was t h e h e a d o f f a m i l y 5's s i s t e r and h i s f i r s t m a r r i a g e was w i t h 5's w i f e ' s s i s t e r . A l l o t h e r c o n s a n g u i n e a l t i e s a r e more d i s t a n t o r u n t r a c e a b l e . T h u s , f a m i l i e s 1 and 2, and f a m i l i e s 5 and 6 make up two d i s t i n c t k i n s h i p g r o u p i n g s , w i t h - f a m i l i e s 3 and 4 m a k i n g up a t h i r d w e a k l y r e l a t e d g r o u p . T a b l e 2.13 shows t h e d e g r e e o f i n e q u a l i t y w h i c h e x i s t s b e t w e e n t h e s e k i n s h i p g r o u p i n g s w i t h r e s p e c t t o o c c u p a t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . F a m i l i e s 1 and 2 f o r m t h e p o l i t i c a l e l i t e o f M i l l e r d a l e c o l o n y . The two b r o t h e r s who h e a d e d t h e s e f a m i l i e s h e l d t h e p o s i t i o n s o f p r e a c h e r and c o l o n y manager. W i t h t h e d e a t h o f t h e b r o t h e r who h e l d t h e p o s i t i o n o f f a r m manager, t h e p o s i -t i o n was t a k e n up b y h i s e l d e s t s o n . Two o f t h e p r e a c h e r ' s s o n s became a s s i s t a n t p r e a c h e r a n d f a r m b o s s . A l l o f t h e e x e c u t i v e p o s i t i o n s a t M i l l e r d a l e a r e m o n o p o l i z e d b y t h i s k i n s h i p l i n e . T h i s k i n g r o u p d e s c e n d s f r o m a l i n e o f p r e a c h e r s 136 Key t o F i g u r e 2.3 U n i t s above D o t t e d L i n e - D e c e a s e d a n c e s t o r s who n e v e r r e s i d e d i n M i l l e r d a l e C o l o n y . S l a s h e d U n i t s - D e c e a s e d w h i l e a t M i l l e r d a l e C o l o n y . .0 - M a r r i e d o u t o f c o l o n y D - D e f e c t e d f r o m c o l o n y S - S p i n s t e r s P - P r e a c h e r B - C o l o n y Manager A - A s s i s t a n t P r e a c h e r F - Farm B o s s E - Egg Man K - C a r p e n t e r C - C a t t l e Man H - C h i c k e n Man L - P i g Man M - M e c h a n i c G - G a r d e n e r N - No o c c u p a t i o n N o t e : G e n e a l o g y i n c l u d e s o n l y members o f • M i l l e r d a l e c o l o n y who a r e 20 y e a r s o f age o r o v e r . 137 T a b l e 2.13 O c c u p a t i o n a l C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f T h r e e K i n s h i p G r o u p i n g s w i t h i n M i l l e r d a l e C o l o n y # o f # w i t h l i v i n g # o f # o f no m a l e s e x e c u t i v e o c c u p a - o c c u p a -o v e r 20 p o s i t i o n s t i o n s t i o n s d e f e c t i o n s K i n s h i p G r o u p i n g 1 and 2 12 4 7 4 1 K i n s h i p G r o u p i n g 3 and 4 8 0 3 2 3 K i n s h i p G r o u p i n g 5 and 6 ' _7 0 _1 1 5 T o t a l 27 4 11 7 9 and c o l o n y m a n a g e r s . T h e i r f a t h e r was t h e c o l o n y manager o f t h e m o t h e r c o l o n y ( M i l l t o w n ) and b o t h w i v e s were d a u g h t e r s o f p r e a c h e r s . I f we examine t h e p a t r i l i n e a l l i n e o f d e s c e n t o f b o t h t h e h e a d s and t h e i r w i v e s , we f i n d t h a t a l l o f t h e i r 9 2 m a l e a n c e s t o r s h e l d e x e c u t i v e p o s t s . T a b l e 2.14 r e v e a l s t h a t t h e o f f s p r i n g s o f t h e s e two f a m i l i e s h a v e c a r r i e d on t h e t r a d i t i o n o f n e p o t i s m . 138 T a b l e 2.14  M a r i t a l A l l i a n c e s o f F a m i l i e s 1 and 2 M a l e O f f s p r i n g (11) F e m a l e O f f s p r i n g (10) # M a r r y i n g O f f s p r i n g o f E l i t e 4 7 # M a r r y i n g O f f s p r i n g o f N o n - E l i t e 4 2 Spouse h o l d s E l i t e P o s i t i o n . - ' 5 Spouse h o l d s N o n - E l i t e P o s i t i o n - 4 # S i n g l e o r D e f e c t e d 3 1 F a m i l i e s 5 and 6 p r e s e n t a c o m p l e t e l y d i f f e r e n t p i c t u r e . 'None o f t h e p r e s e n t members o f t h e s e f a m i l i e s h o l d e x e c u t i v e p o s i t i o n s and o n l y one a n c e s t o r i n t h e p a t r i l i n e a l l i n e s o f d e s c e n t o f t h e f a m i l y h e a d s and t h e i r w i v e s h e l d an e x e c u t i v e p o s i t i o n . The p a t e r n a l g r a n d f a t h e r o f t h e h e a d o f f a m i l y 5 and 6's s e c o n d w i f e h e l d t h e p o s i t i o n o f f a r m b o s s . The o f f s p r i n g , o f t h e s e two f a m i l i e s h a v e n o t i m p r o v e d on t h i s r e c o r d . Of t h e t w e l v e o f f s p r i n g , o n l y one m a r r i e d i n t o t h e e l i t e . A d a u g h t e r o f f a m i l y 5 m a r r i e d t h e f a r m b o s s o f M i l l e r d a l e . F a m i l i e s 3 and 4 h o l d a somewhat i n t e r m e d i a t e p o s i t i o n w i t h r e s p e c t t o e l i t e c o n n e c t i o n s . A l t h o u g h no p r e s e n t member o f t h e s e f a m i l i e s h o l d s an e l i t e p o s i t i o n , t h r e e o f t h e e i g h t 139 male a n c e s t o r s i n the p a t r i l i n e a g e s of the heads and t h e i r wives h e l d e x e c u t i v e p o s t s . Of t h e i r seven m a r r i e d o f f s p r i n g , t h r e e have m a r r i e d the o f f s p r i n g of p r e a c h e r s . Two of these marriages have taken p l a c e w i t h i n M i l l e r d a l e colony i t s e l f . M i l l e r d a l e colony can be seen t o be d i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e k i n s h i p groups which d i f f e r w i t h r e s p e c t to the amount of p o l i t i c a l power and i n f l u e n c e which they can w i e l d . From T a b l e 2.15, i t can be seen t h a t the d e c i s i o n t o abandon the c o l o n y v a r i e s i n v e r s e l y w i t h the amount of p o l i t i c a l i n f l u e n c e h e l d by one's k i n s h i p group. Table 2.15  P o l i t i c a l S t atus of K i n s h i p Group  and D e c i s i o n s of Males to Abandon  or Remain a t M i l l e r d a l e Colony P o l i t i c a l S t a t u s Abandonment No Yes Strong ( f a m i l i e s 1 & 2). 11 1 . 1 2 Intermediate ( f a m i l i e s 3 & 4) 5 3 8 Weak ( f a m i l i e s 5 & 6) 2 5 7 18 9 27 D e c i s i o n s to abandon col o n y by p o l i t i c a l s t a t u s are s i g n i f i -cant beyond .02 l e v e l by c h i - s q u a r e t e s t w i t h 2 d . f . 140 I n c o l o n i e s s u c h a s M i l l e r d a l e , s t r o n g d y n a s t i e s a r e o f t e n a b l e t o g u a r a n t e e t h e i r own members p r e f e r r e d a c c e s s t o t h e a v a i l a b l e p o s i t i o n s a t t h e e x p e n s e o f o t h e r c o l o n y members. H u t t e r i t e s o f f i c i a l l y d i s a p p r o v e o f t h i s f o r m o f f a v o u r a t i s m and t h e v e r y e x i s t e n c e o f d y n a s t i e s . I n h i s book, P a u l G r o s s t h e p r e a c h e r a t t h e D a r i u s l e u t c o l o n y o f E s p i n o l a s t a t e s t h a t , 9 ^ We h a v e l e a r n e d f r o m e x p e r i e n c e t h a t v o t i n g o n l y k i n s m e n i n t o o f f i c e w h e t h e r q u a l i f i e d o r n o t , h a s l e d t o g r i e v o u s harm. The f a m i l y o c c u p i e s a somewhat ambiguous p o s i t i o n i n H u t t e r i t e s o c i e t y . T h e r e i s no r e f e r e n c e t o t h e f a m i l y i n H u t t e r i t e d o c t r i n a l l i t e r a t u r e ; m a r r i a g e and c h i l d r e a r i n g r e c e i v e e l a b o r a t e a t t e n t i o n , b u t t h e f a m i l y n e v e r r e c e i v e s 94 r e c o g n i t i o n as a s u b - g r o u p w i t h i n a c o l o n y . I d e a l l y t h e b i o l o g i c a l l y b a s e d f a m i l y was t o b e r e p l a c e d b y a s p i r i t u a l ' f a m i l y ' . I n t h i s l a r g e s p i r i t u a l ' f a m i l y ' , members w o u l d become s p i r i t u a l b r o t h e r s , s i s t e r s , c h i l d r e n , and p a r e n t s t o one a n o t h e r . B i o l o g i c a l l y b a s e d f a m i l y and k i n t i e s c a n be d i s r u p t i v e t o t h e s p i r i t u a l community i f l o y a l t y t o a s p o u s e , p a r e n t , o r o f f s p r i n g i s g r e a t e r t h a n o n e ' s commitment t o t h e c o l o n y . D e e t s , i n t h e f i r s t e m p i r i -c a l s t u d y o f t h e H u t t e r i t e s , s t a t e d t h a t , T h o s e i n a u t h o r i t y i n t h e H u t t e r i t e c o m m u n i t i e s r e c o g n i z e t h e home as a p l a c e n o t as e a s i l y c o n t r o l l e d as t h e r e s t o f t h e community. Some 141 Utopian c o m m u n i t i e s h a v e met t h e p r o b l e m b y a d o p t i n g t h e p r a c t i c e o f c e l i b a c y . O n e i d a community t r i e d t o meet i t b y a b o l i s h i n g t h e c o n v e n t i o n a l f a m i l y . The H u t t e r i t e s meet i t i n p a r t b y s t r i p p i n g t h e f a m i l y o f many o f i t s f u n c t i o n s . J J Y e t , I t h i n k i t i s f a i r t o s a y t h a t t h e H u t t e r i t e s h a v e e v o l v e d a h i g h l y e l a b o r a t e k i n s h i p s y s t e m and h a v e a c c e p t e d t h e i n e v i t a b l e i n e q u a l i t y w h i c h i t e n t a i l s a s p a r t o f t h e n a t u r a l o r d e r o f t h i n g s . I n s u b s e q u e n t c h a p t e r s , we w i l l f i n d t h a t f a m i l i a l l o y a l t i e s t e n d t o become s t r o n g e r t h a n community l o y a l t i e s when t h e c o l o n y i s u n a b l e t o s a t i s f y t h e a s p i r a t i o n s o f t h e j u n i o r male members o f a l l f a m i l i e s . 142 Footnotes 1. There i s no d e a r t h of h i s t o r i c a l and ethnographic s t u d i e s on the H u t t e r i t e s . H o s t e t l e r has recorded n e a r l y 150 s c h o l a r l y sources; most of which are d e s c r i p t i v e . See John A. H o s t e t l e r , "A B i b l i o g r a p h y o f E n g l i s h Language M a t e r i a l s on the H u t t e r i a n B rethren", Mennonite Q u a r t e r l y  Review, V o l . 44, 1970, pp. 106-113. John A. H o s t e t l e r and Gertrude E. Huntington's, The H u t t e r i t e s i n North  America (New York: H o l t , R i n e h a r t , and Winston, 1967) • i s not o n l y a competent ethnography but a u s e f u l i n t r o -d u c t i o n f o r those l a c k i n g a background i n H u t t e r i a n a . 2. The l a b e l 'Anabaptist' (from the Greek 'anabaptismos' re-baptism) was a t the time l i t t l e more than a contemp-tuous slur , i n v e n t e d by the e s t a b l i s h m e n t t o c o n v e n i e n t l y c a t e g o r i z e a heterogeneous mass of p o l i t i c a l r a d i c a l s and r e l i g i o u s d i s s e n t e r s . T h i s l a b e l l i n g p r o c e s s c r e a t e d the i l l u s i o n t h a t a d i s o r g a n i z e d mass was i n f a c t a h i g h l y u n i f i e d group. The contemporary term 'Hippie' i s a modern day example of the same phenomenon. The term was l a t e r adopted as a c o l l e c t i v e term a f t e r the mass c r y s t a l l i z e d i n t o an o r g a n i z a t i o n . I t now r e f e r s t o the Amish, the H u t t e r i t e s , the Mennonites, the Swiss Brethren, the S o c i e t y of B r o t h e r s and few other s m a l l r e l i g i o u s s e c t s . See, F r a n k l i n H. L i t t e l l , The O r i g i n s of S e c t a r i a n  P r o t e s t a n t i s m , (New York: M a c M i l l a n Co., 1964), pp. x v - x v i . 3. James C. Davies. "Toward a Theory of R e v o l u t i o n " , American S o c i o l o g i c a l Review, V o l . 27, 1962, pp. 7 c i t e s the Peasants' War of 1825-6 as an example of a r e v o l u t i o n t h a t o c c u r r e d when a c t u a l socio-economic development lagged b e h i n d r i s i n g e x p e c t a t i o n s . 4. Norman Cohn, The P u r s u i t of the Millennium, (London: P a l a d i n , 1970), pp. 245. 5. The r e s t o r a t i o n of the a p o s t o l i c church r e f e r s t o a d o c t r i n e which advocates a r e t u r n t o the p r i n c i p l e s of the Church of Jerusalem under Jesus a c c o r d i n g to the Acts of the A p o s t l e s . 6. T h i s i s a view which c h a r a c t e r i z e s a l l A n a b a p t i s t s ; see f o r example, K a r l Mannheim, Ideology and Utopia,(New York: Harcourt, Brace, and World, 1936), pp. 211-12. 143 7. The f u n d a m e n t a l a r e a o f d i v e r g e n c e b e t w e e n t h e H u t t e r i t e s and M e n n o n i t e s i s o v e r t h e i s s u e o f 'community o f g o o d s ' v s . 'community o f l o v e ' . See D o n a l d Sommer, " P e t e r Rideman and Menno Simons on E c o n o m i c s " , M e n n o n i t e  Q u a r t e r l y Review, V o l . 28, 1954, pp. 205-23. 8. A c c o r d i n g t o some s c h o l a r s t h e Dead Sea S c r o l l s r e v e a l t h a t t h e p r i m i t i v e C h r i s t i a n c o m m u n i t i e s r e f e r r e d t o i n A c t s were a c t u a l l y n e w l y c o n v e r t e d Qumran c o m m u n i t i e s o f t h e E s s e n e s — a n i n t r o v e r s i o n i s t J e w i s h communal s e c t . I f t h i s e v i d e n c e i s a c c u r a t e , t h e communal s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e p r e - d a t e d C h r i s t i a n i t y . See J e a n D a n i e l o u and H e n r i M a r r o u , The F i r s t S i x H u n d r e d Y e a r s (London, D a r t o n , Longman, and Todd, 1964), pp. 3-16. 9. See K a r l A. P e t e r , " F a c t o r s o f S o c i a l Change and S o c i a l D y n a m i c s i n t h e Communal S e t t l e m e n t s o f t h e H u t t e r i t e s , 1527-1967" ( u n p u b l i s h e d Ph.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y o f A l b e r t a , 1967), p . 82. ' • 10. See, M e n n o n i t e E n c y c l o p e d i a , Book 4, p . 326. 11. P e t e r Rideman, C o n f e s s i o n o f F a i t h : A c c o u n t o f o u r  R e l i g i o n , D o c t r i n e , and F a i t h (Bungay, S u f f o l k : P l o u g h P u b l . House, 1 9 5 0 ) . 12. See G e o r g e H. W i l l i a m s , The R a d i c a l R e f o r m a t i o n ( L o n d o n : W e i d e n f e l d and N i c o l s o n , 1 962), pp. 672. 13. P e t e r W a l p o t i s t h e m a j o r a u t h o r o f "The G r e a t A r t i c l e Book", 1577, w h i c h i s c o n s i d e r e d b y t h e H u t t e r i t e s t o b e an i m p o r t a n t d o c t r i n a l t e x t . A l t h o u g h "The G r e a t A r t i c l e Book" h a s b e e n p u b l i s h e d i n German i n A. J . F. Z i e g l s c h m i d ( e d . ), D i e a l t e s t e C h r o n i k d e r H u t t e r i s c h e n B r t i d e r ( P h i l a d e l p h i a : C a r l S c h u r z M e m o r i a l F o u n d a t i o n , 1943) o n l y p a r t o f t h i s work e x i s t s i n E n g l i s h : P e t e r W a l p o t , T r u e  S u r r e n d e r a n d . C h r i s t i a n Community o f Goods (Bromdon: P l o u g h P u b l . House, 1 9 5 7 ) . 14. See G e o r g e H. W i l l i a m s , op. c i t . , p. 680. 15. A n d r e a s E h r e n p r e i s E i n S e n d b r i e f ( r e p r i n t e d i n S c o t t d a l e , Pa., 1 9 2 0 ) . An E n g l i s h l a n g u a g e p a r a p h r a s e o f t h i s e p i s t l e h a s b e e n w r i t t e n b y R o b e r t F r i e d m a n n , "An E p i s t l e C o n c e r n i n g Communal L i f e : A H u t t e r i t e M a n i f e s t o o f 1650 a n d I t s Modern P a r a p h r a s e " ; . M e n n o n i t e Q u a r t e r l y Review, V o l . 34, O c t o b e r , 1.960, pp. 249-74. 144 16. As an i n d i c a t i o n o f t h e p o p u l a r i t y o f t h i s e p i s t l e , V i c t o r P e t e r s n o t e s t h a t , I n A u g u s t 1957 (he) c o n d u c t e d a s u r v e y a t s e v e r a l H u t t e r i a n c o m m u n i t i e s i n M a n i t o b a . Among t h e q u e s t i o n s d i r e c t e d s e p a r a t e l y and i n d i v i d u a l l y t o a number o f f a m i l y h e a d s , one r e q u i r e d t h e l i s t i n g o f t h e a u t h o r s on t h e i r b o o k s h e l v e s a t home. H a l f o f them b e g a n t h e i r l i s t w i t h E h r e n p r e i s . See V i c t o r P e t e r s , A l l T h i n g s Common: The H u t t e r i a n  Way o f L i f e ( M i n n e a p o l i s : The U n i v e r s i t y o f M i n n e s o t a P r e s s , 1965), p . 215. 17. V i c t o r P e t e r s , op. c i t . , pp. 26-27. 18. I b i d . , p . 31'. 19. The h i s t o r y o f a l l f o u r r e l i g i o u s s e c t s becomes i n t e r -t w i n e d a t t h i s p o i n t . On t h e H u t t e r i t e s , s e e V i c t o r P e t e r s , op. c i t . , pp. 31-37. On t h e M e n n o n i t e s , s e e C. H e n r y S m i t h , The. S t o r y o f t h e M e n n o n i t e s (Newton, K a n s a s : M e n n o n i t e P u b l i c a t i o n O f f i c e , 1 957), pp. 396-403. On t h e D o u k h o b o r s , s e e Geo r g e Woodcock and I v a n A v a k u m o v i c , The Do u k h o b o r s ( T o r o n t o : O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1968), pp. 35-61. On t h e M o l o k a n s , s e e P. V. Young, The P i l g r i m s o f R u s s i a n - T o w n ( C h i c a g o : U n i v e r s i t y o f C h i c a g o P r e s s , 1 9 3 2 ) . 20. A t r a n s l a t i o n o f A. J . F. Z i e g l s c h m i d (ed.) Das K l e i n - G e s c h i c h t s b u c h d e r H u t t e r i s c h e n B r i i d e r ( P h i l a d e l p h i a : C a r l S c h u r z M e m o r i a l Fund, 1947), p. 458. 21. The Krimmer M e n n o n i t e C h u r c h r e c e i v e d s p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n i n E m i l J . W a l t n e r B a n i s h e d f o r F a i t h (Freeman, S.D.: P i n e H i l l P r e s s , 1 9 6 8 ) . 22. A H u t t e r i t e a u t h o r P a u l S. G r o s s , a p r e a c h e r a t E s p a n o l a C o l o n y i n W a s h i n g t o n , r e g a r d s t h i s t r i p a r t i t e s p l i t as a r e g r e t a b l e e r r o r w h i c h i s l i k e l y t o b e i r r e v e r s a b l e . See, P a u l S. G r o s s , The H u t t e r i t e Way ( S a s k a t o o n : Freeman P u b l . Co., 1965), pp. .109-15. 23. The Amana S o c i e t y o r Community o f T r u e I n s p i r a t i o n was a c o m m u n i s t i c s o c i e t y f o u n d e d b y German P i e t i s t s i n 1843 i n E a s t e r n Iowa. A l t h o u g h Amana h a s c e a s e d t o b e 145 c o m m u n i s t i c , i t s t i l l e x i s t s as a j o i n t - s t o c k company w h i c h s p e c i a l i z e s i n t h e m a n u f a c t u r e o f r e f r i g e r a t i o n p r o d u c t s . I t h a s r e t a i n e d many o f t h e f e a t u r e s o f a m u t u a l a i d s o c i e t y and a ( n e a r - e t h n i c ) r e l i g i o u s e n c l a v e . See B e r t h a Shambaugh, Amana T h a t Was and Amana T h a t I s (Iowa C i t y : S t a t e H i s t o r i c a l S o c i e t y o f Iowa, 1 9 3 2 ) . The R a p p i t e c o m m u n i t i e s o f Economy and Harmony were f o u n d e d d u r i n g t h e f i r s t d e c a d e o f t h e 1900's b y 600 German Q u i e t i s t s u n d e r t h e l e a d e r s h i p o f G e o r g e Rapp. B o t h o f t h e s e c o m m u n i t i e s w h i c h were l o c a t e d i n - P e n n s y l v a n i a h a d b e e n d i s s o l v e d b y 1905. See Mark H o l l o w a y , Heavens on E a r t h (New Y o r k : D o v e r P u b l . , 1951), pp.. 88-100. 24. The p r e s e n t c o n s t i t u t i o n o f t h e H u t t e r i a n B r e t h r e n C h u r c h h a s b e e n r e p r o d u c e d i n V i c t o r P e t e r s , op. c i t . , pp. 193-201. 25. S e v e r a l c o n t e n d i n g e x p l a n a t i o n s f o r t h e b r e a k b e t w e e n t h e H u t t e r i t e s and R a p p i t e s h a v e b e e n o f f e r e d . T h e s e r a n g e f r o m a s u p p o s e d d o c t r i n a l d i s p u t e w i t h t h e R a p p i t e s o v e r s e x u a l r e l a t i o n s ( t h e R a p p i t e s were c e l i b a t e s ) t o d i f f i c u l t i e s w h i c h t h e H u t t e r i t e s e n c o u n t e r e d i n m a i n -t a i n i n g t h e i r i s o l a t i o n i n t h i s more d e n s e l y p o p u l a t e d .and i n d u s t r i a l r e g i o n . See K a r l J . A r n d t , "The Harmon-i s t s and t h e H u t t e r i t e s " , A merican-German Review, V o l . 10, A u g u s t 1944, pp. 2 6-2 7. 26. See J o h n A. H o s t e t l e r and G e r t r u d e E. H u n t i n g t o n , Op. c i t . , pp. 9-10 and 92-94. 27. See M a r v i n P. R i l e y , S o u t h D a k o t a ' s H u t t e r i t e C o l o n i e s : 1874-1969 ( B r o o k i n g s , S.D.: S o u t h D a k o t a S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 7 0 ) . 28. . D o u b l i n g t i m e r e f e r s t o t h e t i m e i n y e a r s f o r a c o l o n y t o r e p r o d u c e i t s e l f . J o h n B e n n e t t , i n h i s study, o f 6 H u t t e r i a n c o l o n i e s i n S o u t h W e s t e r n S a s k a t c h e w a n , n o t e d t h a t t h e a v e r a g e d o u b l i n g t i m e was 17 y e a r s . See, J o h n B e n n e t t , H u t t e r i a n B r e t h r e n : The A g r i c u l t u r a l Economy  and S o c i a l O r g a n i z a t i o n o f a Communal P e o p l e ( S t a n f o r d , C a l i f . : S t a n f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1967), p . 181. A t f i r s t g l a n c e , t h i s w o u l d seem t o s u g g e s t t h a t t h e S c h m i e d e l e u t h a v e a much more r a p i d d o u b l i n g t i m e . How-e v e r , b e c a u s e o f t h e n a t u r e o f h i s sample, B e n n e t t o n l y l o o k e d a t t h e a v e r a g e age o f a c o l o n y when i t p r o d u c e d 146 i t s f i r s t d a u g h t e r c o l o n y . Among t h e S c h m i e d e l e u t , t h e a v e r a g e age o f a c o l o n y a t t h e t i m e o f i t s f i r s t f i s s i o n i s 16.10 y e a r s , w h i c h i s more i n l i n e w i t h B e n n e t t ' s f i n d i n g s . S u b s e q u e n t f i s s i o n s among t h e S c h m i e d e l e u t o c c u r e v e r y 12.32 y e a r s . 29. James V a l l e y c l a n h a d o n l y 6 c o l o n i e s i n 1970, w h e r e a s t h e o t h e r f i v e c l a n s a v e r a g e d 15.40 c o l o n i e s . 30. A. J . F. Z i e g l s c h m i d , 1947, op. c i t . , pp. 685-6. 31. V i c t o r P e t e r s , op. c i t . , p . 70. 32. J o s e p h E a t o n and B e r t K a p l a n , "The H u t t e r i t e s M e n t a l H e a l t h S t u d y " , The M e n n o n i t e Q u a r t e r l y Review, V o l . 25, 1951, p . 62. 33.° A r t h u r P. Mange, "The P o p u l a t i o n S t r u c t u r e o f a Human I s o l a t e " ( U n p u b l i s h e d Ph.D., U n i v e r s i t y o f W i s c o n s i n , 1 9 6 3 ) . 34. V i c t o r P e t e r s , op. c i t . , pp. 209-10. 35. J o h n A. H o s t e t l e r , E d u c a t i o n and M a r g i n a l i t y i n t h e .Communal S o c i e t y o f t h e H u t t e r i t e s ( U n i v e r s i t y P a r k , P a . : P e n n s y l v a n i a S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y , 1 9 6 5 ) : 36. R o b e r t F r i e d m a n n , "A H u t t e r i t e C e n s u s f o r 1969", The  M e n n o n i t e Q u a r t e r l y Review, V o l . 44, J a n . 1970, pp. 100-105. 37. See T a b l e 2.4. 38. The S c h m i e d e l e u t g r o u p a n t i c i p a t e t h a t d i s c r i m i n a t o r y l e g i s l a t i o n s i m i l a r t o t h e 'Communal P r o p e r t y A c t ' w h i c h was p a s s e d b y t h e A l b e r t a l e g i s l a t u r e i n 1947 w i l l b e e n a c t e d i n t h e f u t u r e . 39. The f o l l o w i n g f o r m u l a e were u s e d t o e s t i m a t e d o u b l i n g t i m e s . D o u b l i n g t i m e ( i n y e a r s ) = l o g 2 l o g (1+r) Where: p_2_ ' l o g (1+r) = l o g p i n 147 p i i s t h e number o f p e o p l e i n t h e p o p u l a t i o n a t t± p2 i s t h e number o f p e o p l e i n t h e p o p u l a t i o n a t t 2 r i s t h e a n n u a l r a t e o f g r o w t h n i s t h e e x a c t number o f y e a r s b e t w e e n p i and p2. See G e o r g e W. B a r c l a y , T e c h n i q u e s o f P o p u l a t i o n A n a l y s i s , (New Y o r k : J o h n W i l e y , 1958), pp. 28-31. 40. J o s e p h W. E a t o n and A l b e r t J . Mayer, "The S o c i a l B i o l o g y o f V e r y H i g h F e r t i l i t y Among t h e H u t t e r i t e s : The Demo-" g r a p h y o f a U n i q u e P o p u l a t i o n " , Human B i o l o g y , V o l . 25, 1953, p p . 206-64. 41. The c o m p a r a t i v e p o p u l a t i o n s t a t i s t i c s w e r e t a k e n f r o m P a u l R. E h r l i c h and Anne H. E h r l i c h , P o p u l a t i o n , R e s o u r c e s , E n v i r o n m e n t (San F r a n c i s c o : W. H. Freeman and Co., 1972, pp. 450-4. 42. The d a t e 1890 was c h o s e n r a t h e r t h a n 1874 b e c a u s e o f t h e r a t h e r l a r g e and u n d e t e r m i n e d movement o f p e o p l e b e t w e e n t h e S c h m i e d e l e u t and P r a i r i e l e u t g r o u p s . One f a m i l y , i n p a r t i c u l a r , ( t h e T s c h e t t e r f a m i l y ) f l u c t u a t e d b e t w e e n c o l o n y and t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l f a r m s u n t i l t h e y f i n a l l y s e t t l e d i n Bon Homme c o l o n y i n 1888 o n a p e r m a n e n t b a s i s . 43. J o s e p h W. E a t o n and A l b e r t J . Mayer, op. c i t . , p . 244. 44. B e n j a m i n Z a b l o c k i , The J o y f u l Community, ( B a l t i m o r e , Md.: P e n g u i n , 1971), p . 73. 45. The s e n t e n c e o f 'Meidung' o r ' s h u n n i n g ' when a p p l i e d t o an e n t i r e c o l o n y e f f e c t i v e l y means t h a t t h e c o l o n y i s t e m p o r a r i l y c u t o f f f r o m a l l c o n t a c t w i t h o t h e r c o l o n i e s , u n t i l s u c h t i m e as t h e y r e p e n t and make a t o n e m e n t f o r t h e i r s i n s . A more s e r i o u s p e n a l t y " A u s s c h l u s s " o r . e x c o m m u n i c a t i o n when a p p l i e d t o an e n t i r e c o l o n y means t h a t t h e c o l o n y i s no l o n g e r H u t t e r i a n o r a n a t h e m a t i z e d . 46. B e n j a m i n Z a b l o c k i , op. c i t . , p. 95. 47. The H o l y B i b l e : K i n g James V e r s i o n 48. A b i - m o n t h l y p e r i o d i c a l , C o m m u n i t i e s , p u b l i s h e d a t t h e S k i n n e r i a n Walden I I commune o f T w i n Oaks i n V i r g i n i a p r e s e n t l y s e r v e s as t h e o f f i c i a l o r g a n o f t h e communal movement i n N o r t h A m e r i c a . Communes w h i c h w i s h t o a d -v e r t i s e f o r new members a r e l i s t e d i n t h e i r 'Commune 148 D i r e c t o r y ' . T h e s e s i x S c h m i e d e l e u t c o l o n i e s p u b l i c l y s t a t e t h a t v i s i t o r s a r e welcome and t h a t t h e r e i s a t r i a l p e r i o d f o r a l l new members. 49. The r e l e v a n t a r t i c l e i n t h e H u t t e r i a n c o n s t i t u t i o n r e a d s : None o f t h e p r o p e r t y , e i t h e r r e a l o r p e r s o n a l , o f a c o n g r e g a t i o n o r community s h a l l e v e r b e t a k e n , h e l d , owned, removed o r w i t h d r a w n f r o m t h e c o n g r e g a t i o n o r community i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h i t s b y - l a w s , r u l e s and r e g u l a t i o n s and t h e p r o v i s i o n s o f t h e s e A r t i c l e s , and i f any member o f a c o n g r e g a t i o n o r community s h a l l b e e x p e l l e d t h e r e f r o m , o r c e a s e t o b e a member t h e r e o f , h e o r she s h a l l n o t h a v e , t a k e , w i t h -draw f r o m , g r a n t , s e l l , t r a n s f e r , o r c o n v e y , o r b e e n t i t l e d t o any o f t h e p r o p e r t y o f t h e c o n g r e g a t i o n o r community o r any i n t e r e s t t h e r e i n . C o n s t i t u t i o n o f t h e H u t t e r i a n B r e t h r e n C h u r c h and R u l e s  as t o Community o f P r o p e r t y ( 1 9 5 0 ) , A r t i c l e 39. See a l s o , M a n i t o b a Queen's Bench, J . D i c k s o n , H o f e r e t . a l . v . H o f e r e t . a l . D o m i n i o n Law R e p o r t s , V o l . 59. ( T o r o n t o : Canada Law Book Co., 1 9 6 7 ) . 50. The 34 a p o s t a t e s h a v e n o t b e e n c o u n t e d among t h e d e f e c -t o r s . The t o t a l number o f p e o p l e who h a v e l e f t t h e S c h m i e d e l e u t s u b - s e c t s i n c e 1890 i s 176. 51. H o s t e t l e r and H u n t i n g t o n s u g g e s t t h a t t h e o r d e r l i n e s s and r i g i d i t y o f t h e H u t t e r i a n d o c t r i n a l s y s t e m may h a v e b e e n d e t e r m i n e d b y t h e p r e - L u t h e r a n G e r m a n i c - l a n g u a g e s t r u c t u r e w i t h w h i c h i t was f i r s t e x p r e s s e d . ' See J o h n A. H o s t e t l e r and G e r t r u d e E. H u n t i n g t o n , op. c i t . , pp. 12-14. 52. T h r e e H u t t e r i a n t h e o l o g i a n s i n p a r t i c u l a r h o l d t h i s s t a t u s . T h e y a r e P e t e r Rideman, P e t e r W a l p o t , and A n d r e a s E h r e n p r e i s . 53. The s t a t u s o f t h e d e v i l i n t h e H u t t e r i a n b e l i e f s y s t e m i s a mbiguous. A t t i m e s , S a t a n i s t h o u g h t o f as an o p p o s i n g f o r c e o p e r a t i n g o u t s i d e o f God's c o n t r o l . He i s t h e ' P r i n c e o f t h e W o r l d 1 who h a s e s t a b l i s h e d h i s Kingdom i n o p p o s i t i o n t o t h e Kingdom o f God; and p e r p e t u a l l y s t r u g g l e s a g a i n s t God f o r t h e s o u l s o f men. 149 A t o t h e r t i m e s , t h e d e v i l i s v i e w e d as a dupe, who, a l t h o u g h b e l i e v i n g h i m s e l f t o b e a f r e e a g e n t , i s i n r e a l i t y an a g e n t o f God s e n t i n t o t h e W o r l d t o t e s t t h e f a i t h o f men. A t a p r a c t i c a l l e v e l , t h i s a m b i g u i t y seems t o c a u s e no c o n f u s i o n . 54. "A B r i e f A c c o u n t o f E a r l y and P r e s e n t Day C h r i s t i a n Communal L i v i n g " , d a t e and p l a c e o f p u b l i c a t i o n unknown. T h i s i s a p a m p h l e t p u b l i s h e d b y t h e H u t t e r i t e B r e t h r e n . 55. J o s e p h J . K l e i n s a s s e r , The H u t t e r i a n B r e t h r e n o f Montana ( M i l f o r d C o l o n y , A u g u s t , Montana, 1963), pp. 4-5. 56. A n d r e a s E h r e n p r e i s , op. c i t . , p p. 14-15. 57. J o s e p h J . K l e i n s a s s e r , op. c i t . , pp. 11-12. 58. See R o b e r t F r i e d m a n , H u t t e r i t e S t u d i e s ( S c o t t d a l e : H e r a l d P r e s s , 1961), p . 99. 59. See B r y a n R. W i l s o n , "An A n a l y s i s o f S e c t D e v e l o p m e n t " , A m e r i c a n S o c i o l o g i c a l Review, V o l . 24, 1959, pp. 3-15. 60. P e t e r Rideman, op. c i t . , p p . 126-7. 61. K l a s s e n a r g u e s t h a t one f a c t o r w h i c h c o u l d a c c o u n t f o r t h e s u r v i v a l o f t h e H u t t e r i t e s i s t h e i r e x p e r t i s e as f a r m e r s . He a r g u e s t h a t i t i s n o t so much p r o s p e r i t y , p e r s e , w h i c h h a s l e d t o t h e i r p e r p e t u a t i o n , b u t r a t h e r t h e t o l e r a t i o n w h i c h g o v e r n m e n t s were w i l l i n g t o g r a n t a g r o u p w h i c h , d e s p i t e t h e i r d i s s i d e n t v i e w s , were w i l l i n g and a b l e t o b o l s t e r t h e economy o f t h e h o s t s o c i e t y . See P e t e r J . K l a s s e n , . T h e E c o n o m i c s o f A n a b a p t i s m (The Hague: Mouton & Co., 1964), pp. 106-13. 62. The e x a c t number o f a c r e s owned b y M a n i t o b a H u t t e r i t e s was o b t a i n e d f r o m t h e l a n d assessment- r o l l s i n t h e P r o -v i n c i a l M u n i c i p a l A s s e s s m e n t B r a n c h o f t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s l o c a t e d i n W i n n i p e g . A s i m i l a r p r o c e -d u r e was a t t e m p t e d f o r t h e A m e r i c a n H u t t e r i t e s , b u t was o n l y p a r t i a l l y s u c c e s s f u l . The l a n d a s s e s s m e n t l i s t s f o r t h e v a r i o u s c o u n t i e s were n o t l o c a t e d i n a c e n t r a l l o c a t i o n , b u t c o u l d b e f o u n d o n l y a t l o c a l c o u n t y c o u r t h o u s e s . The s t a t e o f t h e l a n d a s s e s s m e n t l i s t s v a r i e d e n o r m o u s l y f r o m c o u n t y t o c o u n t y , as d i d t h e c o o p e r a t i o n o f l o c a l o f f i c i a l s . As a c o n s e q u e n c e , I was u n a b l e t o g e t a d e q u a t e i n f o r m a t i o n on a c r e a g e and l a n d a s s e s s m e n t 150 f o r 10 A m e r i c a n c o l o n i e s . I t y p i c a l l y compared i n f o r m a -t i o n g i v e n t o me b y H u t t e r i t e s w i t h t h e a s s e s s m e n t r e c o r d s . However, s i n c e I was u n a b l e t o v i s i t e v e r y c o l o n y , I was f o r c e d on s e v e r a l o c c a s i o n s t o b e s a t i s f i e d w i t h e s t i m a t e s g i v e n t o me b y H u t t e r i t e s f r o m o t h e r c o l o n i e s . T he S o u t h D a k o t a S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y R u r a l S o c i o l o g y D e p a r t m e n t was a l s o u s e f u l i n p r o v i d i n g some e s t i m a t e s . 63. J o h n B e n n e t t , op. c i t . , p p. 178. 64. I b i d . , pp. 239-41. 65. M a n i t o b a D e p a r t m e n t o f A g r i c u l t u r e , M a n i t o b a A g r i c u l t u r e : 1971 Y e a r b o o k ( W i n n i p e g , Man.: Queen's P r i n t e r , 1 971), pp. 32-33. 66. M a r v i n P. R i l e y , op. c i t . , p p. 18-19. 67. See J o h n W.' B e n n e t t , op. c i t . , p . 186. 68. O l d e r c o l o n i e s p r o d u c e d a u g h t e r c o l o n i e s i n a s h o r t e r t i m e p e r i o d t h a n y o u n g e r c o l o n i e s , b e c a u s e t h e y become i n c r e a s i n g l y a b l e t o s h o r t e n t h e r e c o v e r y p e r i o d . 69. F o r example, i n t e r n a l s t r i f e h a s k e p t p o p u l a t i o n o f two c o l o n i e s v e r y low. See above f o r t h e d i s c u s s i o n o f I n t e r l a k e and F o r e s t R i v e r c o l o n i e s . 70. See, James S. F r i d e r e s , "The D e a t h o f H u t t e r i t e C u l t u r e " , P h y l o n , V o l . 33, No. 3, F a l l , 1972, pp. 260-5. 71. T he L e u t ' b i s h o p ' , o r ' A l t e s t e ' i s "p r i m u s i n t e r p a r e s " among t h e c o l o n y p r e a c h e r s . He i s e l e c t e d t o t h e p o s i -t i o n b y t h e members o f t h e L e u t C o u n c i l . The L e u t C o u n c i l c o n s i s t s o f two r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s f r o m e a c h c o l o n y i n t h e L e u t ( u s u a l l y t h e p r e a c h e r and t h e a s s i s t a n t p r e a c h e r ) . The L e u t ' b i s h o p ' , t h e a s s i s t a n t b i s h o p , and t h e s e c r e t a r y f r o m e a c h r e p r e s e n t t h e L e u t a t t h e • H u t t e r i a n B r e t h r e n C o u n c i l . T h i s n i n e member c o u n c i l ( t h r e e members r e p r e s e n t i n g e a c h L e u t ) e l e c t s a S e n i o r E l d e r , an A s s i s t a n t S e n i o r E l d e r , and a s e c r e t a r y -t r e a s u r e r f r o m i t s own membership. T h i s b o d y h a s t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e i n t e r e s t s o f t h e e n t i r e H u t t e r i t e C h u r c h . The L e u t ' b i s h o p s ' r e p r e s e n t t h e i n t e r e s t s o f t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r L e u t . When t h e L e u t ' b i s h o p ' o v e r s e e s a c o l o n y e l e c t i o n he i s a c c o m p a n i e d b y t h e C o u n c i l 151 member w h i c h he f e e l s s h o u l d b e i n v i t e d . T h i s i n v i t a t i o n i s u s u a l l y r e s t r i c t e d t o t h o s e L e u t C o u n c i l members who a r e f a m i l i a r w i t h t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h e c o l o n y e l e c t i o n . T h i s u s u a l l y i n c l u d e s t h o s e p r e a c h e r s who a r e i n t h e same c l a n as t h e c o l o n y i n q u e s t i o n , b u t i t may a l s o i n c l u d e p r e a c h e r s f r o m a d j a c e n t c o l o n i e s . 72. P e t e r Rideman, op. c i t . , p . 80. 73. The o c c u p a t i o n o f shoemaker was d e a l t a s e r e r e b l o w w i t h t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f t r a c t o r s on t h e H u t t e r i t e c o l o n i e s . The shoemaker h a d p r e v i o u s l y b e e n r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e m a n u f a c t u r e and r e p a i r o f h a r n e s s . The shoemaker h a s now b e e n r e d u c e d t o r e p a i r i n g s h o e s and b i n d i n g b o o k s . T o d a y shoemakers a r e t y p i c a l l y o l d e r t h a n o t h e r d e p a r t -m e n t a l h e a d s . The e n t i r e o c c u p a t i o n w i l l l i k e l y d i s -a p p e a r w i t h t h e i r d e a t h . The b l a c k s m i t h h a s n o t b e e n s i m i l a r l y a f f e c t e d b y t h e change f r o m h o r s e s t o t r a c t o r s . The b l a c k s m i t h was a b l e t o a d a p t b y b e c o m i n g t h e commun-i t y w e l d e r . 74. See, f o r example, t h e d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h i s c a t e g o r y o f w o r k e r i n E v a R o s e n f e l d , " S o c i a l S t r a t i f i c a t i o n i n a ' C l a s s l e s s ' S o c i e t y " , A m e r i c a n S o c i o l o g i c a l Review, V o l . 16, December, 1951, p. 770. T o d a y many o f t h e s e u n s k i l l e d , m o v e a b l e w o r k e r s h a v e t e n d e d t o be non-k i b b u t z n i k s . The H u t t e r i t e s , on t h e o t h e r hand, h a v e s t r i c t l y p r o h i b i t e d t h e employment o f o u t s i d e l a b o u r e r s . 75. F o r a more d e t a i l e d d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e s t a t u s o f wowen i n H u t t e r i t e c o l o n i e s , s e e , J o h n A. H o s t e t l e r and G e r t r u d e E. H u n t i n g t o n , op. c i t . , pp. 30-31. 76. P e t e r Rideman, op. c i t . , p. 98. 77. T h e r e may be v a r i a t i o n s b e t w e e n l e u t e i n t h e number o f o c c u p a t i o n a l ' p o s i t i o n s f o u n d w i t h i n a c o l o n y . F r i d e r e s r e p o r t s t h a t 20 p o s i t i o n s c a n b e f o u n d on A l b e r t a c o l o n i e s . See, James S. F r i d e r e s , op. c i t . , p . 262. 78. The d e p e n d e n c y r a t i o i s t h e r a t i o o f d e p e n d e n t s (15 y e a r s o f age and u n d e r and o v e r 65) t o t h e e c o n o m i c a l l y a c t i v e . 79. F o r men b a p t i s m t a k e s p l a c e b e t w e e n t h e age o f 21 and 26. The a v e r a g e age o f m a r r i a g e f o r men i s a b o u t 24. 152 80. K a r l P e t e r , "The D ynamics o f Open S o c i a l S y s t e m s " i n S o c i a l P r o c e s s and I n s t i t u t i o n : The C a n a d i a n Case, e d . b y James E. G a l l a g h e r and R o n a l d D. L a m b e r t ( T o r o n t o : H o l t , R i n e h a r t and W i n s t o n , 1971), p . 170. 81. Samuel A. S t o u f f e r , e t . a l . , The A m e r i c a n S o l d i e r : A d j u s t m e n t D u r i n g Army L i f e , V o l . I , ( P r i n c e t o n , N . J . : P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1949) c h p s . 6-7. 82. See M a r l e n e M a c k i e , "The D e f e c t o r From t h e H u t t e r i t e C o l o n y " ( u n p u b l i s h e d M.A. t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l g a r y , 1 9 6 5 ) . 83. I b i d . , p. 265. 84. I b i d . , p . 265. 85. T h e s e a c t s a r e d e s c r i b e d i n M o r r i s D a v i s and J o s e p h K r a u t e r , The O t h e r C a n a d i a n s : . P r o f i l e s o f S i x M i n o r - i t i e s ( T o r o n t o : Methuen, 1971), pp. 93-95. 86. S t a n l e y H. Udy, J r . , O r g a n i z a t i o n o f Work (New Haven: HRAF P r e s s , 1959), pp. 37-38. 87. I t h a s become t r a d i t i o n a l f o r H u t t e r i t e s t o o p p o s e i n -d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n and i n s i s t t h a t t h e o n l y l e g i t i m a t e o c c u p a t i o n i s one b a s e d on a g r i c u l t u r e . However, many H u t t e r i t e s were a t one t i m e c r a f t s m e n who were e n g a g e d i n t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f p o t t e r y , g l a s s w a r e , and c u t l e r y . I t i s n o t c l e a r why t h e s e c r a f t s were d i s c o n t i n u e d . K l a s s e n o f f e r s t h e e x p l a n a t i o n t h a t t h e H u t t e r i t e s made a v i r t u e o u t o f n e c e s s i t y b y r e n o u n c i n g n o n - a g r a r i a n o c c u p a t i o n s . When p e r s e c u t i o n d r o v e t h e H u t t e r i t e s f r o m t h e u r b a n c e n t r e s i n t o t h e r u r a l r e g i o n s , t h e y e l e v a t e d t h e v i r t u e s o f t h o s e a g r a r i a n t a s k s w h i c h t h e y were f o r c e d t o t a k e up. See, P e t e r James K l a s s e n , op. c i t . , p . 83. 88. See, D a v i d B a r k i n and J o h n W. B e n n e t t , " K i b b u t z and C o l o n y : C o l l e c t i v e E c o n o m i e s and t h e O u t s i d e W o r l d " , C o m p a r a t i v e S t u d i e s i n S o c i e t y and H i s t o r y , V o l . 14, No. 4, S e p t . 1972, pp. 456-82. 89. I b i d . , p . 473. 153 90. The n u p t i a l f e r t i l i t y r a t e i s t h e number o f b i r t h s p e r y e a r p e r 1000 m a r r i e d women o f s p e c i f i c a g e s . E a t o n and M a y e r ' s e s t i m a t e s o f t h e H u t t e r i t e n u p t i a l f e r t i l i t y r a t e i s as f o l l o w s : Age o f Women N u p t i a l F e r t i l i t y R a t e 15-19 92.31 20-24 336.42 25-29 498.22 30-34 . 442.76 35-39 370.24 40-44 215.06 45-49 43.24 J o s e p h W. E a t o n and A l b e r t J . M a y e r s , op. c i t . , p . 221. 91. J o h n A H o s t e t l e r and G e r t r u d e E. H u n t i n g t o n , op. c i t . , p . 105. 92. R e l e v a n t o c c u p a t i o n a l and g e n e a l o g i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n c o u l d o n l y b e o b t a i n e d f o r a maximum o f t h r e e a s c e n d i n g g e n e r a -t i o n s i n t h e p a t r i l i n e a g e o f t h e f a m i l y h e a d s and t h e i r w i v e s . D a t a were n o t a v a i l a b l e f o r H u t t e r i t e s who d i e d p r i o r t o t h e N o r t h A m e r i c a n i m m i g r a t i o n . 93. P a u l S. G r o s s , op. c i t . , p . 62. 94. K a r l P e t e r g o e s f u r t h e r t h a n t h i s when he s t a t e s t h a t t h e f a m i l y h a s no o f f i c i a l e x i s t e n c e i n t h e H u t t e r i a n s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e . See, K a r l P e t e r , op. c i t . , 1967, p . 101. 95. L e e Emerson D e e t s , The H u t t e r i t e s : A S t u d y i n S o c i a l  C o h e s i o n ( G e t t y s b u r g : T i m e s and News P u b l i s h i n g Co., 1939), p . 35. 154 C h a p t e r I I I I n t e r - g e n e r a t i o n a l M o b i l i t y Among t h e H u t t e r i t e s I n t h i s c h a p t e r , t h e t y p e o f a n a l y s i s w h i c h was a p p l i e d t o t h e ' d y i n g c o l o n y ' w i l l b e e x t e n d e d t o t h e e n t i r e l e u t . T he ' d y i n g c o l o n y ' r e p r e s e n t s an e x t r e m e t y p e w i t h i n t h e f e d e r a t i o n o f c o l o n i e s . As a g e n e r a l t y p e t h e y a r e c h a r a c -t e r i z e d b y t h e i r p o v e r t y , a s l o w r a t e o f p o p u l a t i o n g r o w t h , d e l a y e d c o l o n y f i s s i o n i n g , a h i g h d e f e c t i o n r a t e , a n d c o n -s i d e r a b l e i n e q u a l i t y o f o p p o r t u n i t y b e t w e e n e l i t e a nd non-e l i t e f a m i l i e s . I t s h o u l d go w i t h o u t s a y i n g t h a t w e a l t h y c o l o n i e s w i t h a r a p i d p o p u l a t i o n g r o w t h , a f a s t r a t e o f c o l o n y f i s s i o n i n g , and a low d e f e c t i o n r a t e c a n b e f o u n d a t t h e o p p o s i t e p o l e o f t h e c o n t i n u u m . What i s n o t c l e a r a t t h i p o i n t i s w h e t h e r t h e l i f e c h a n c e s o f an i n d i v i d u a l i n t h i s l a t t e r t y p e o f c o l o n y a r e c l o s e l y l i n k e d t o t h e s t a t u s o f h i s f a m i l y o r r e l a t i v e l y i n d e p e n d e n t o f h i s f a m i l y ' s s t a t u s . A l t h o u g h i t i s c l e a r t h a t d y n a s t i e s o c c u r on c e r t a i n c o l o n i e s i t i s n o t y e t c l e a r how e x t e n s i v e t h e y a r e o r u n d e r what c o n -d i t i o n s t h e y a p p e a r . I n t h i s c h a p t e r and .in t h e f o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r , t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h d y n a s t i e s h a v e f o r m e d w i t h i n t h e e n t i r e l e u t and t h e v a r i a t i o n s i n k i n s h i p r e l a t e d i n e q u a l i t i e o f o p p o r t u n i t y b e t w e e n c o l o n i e s w i l l b e d e a l t w i t h . The d a t a p e r t a i n i n g t o d y n a s t y f o r m a t i o n among t h e S c h m i e d e l e u t s u b - s e c t was t a k e n f r o m c o l l e c t e d g e n e a l o g i e s . 155 The p r i m a r y s o u r c e f o r t h i s g e n e a l o g i c a l d a t a was t h e c o l o n y r e c o r d b o o k w h i c h i s k e p t b y t h e c o l o n y ' s p r e a c h e r . One o f t h e p r e a c h e r ' s d u t i e s i s t o r e c o r d a l l b i r t h s , d e a t h s , m a r r i a g e s , and b a p t i s m s t h a t o c c u r w h i l e h e h o l d s o f f i c e . Many p r e a c h e r s a l s o r e c o r d a l l c o n v e r s i o n s , e x c o m m u n i c a t i o n s , an d d e f e c t i o n s w h i c h o c c u r w i t h i n t h e i r c o l o n y . The f o l l o w -i n g i s a t y p i c a l e n t r y i n t h e p r e a c h e r ' s r e c o r d book:"*" G e o r g e D. G r o s s P r e a c h e r b . A p r i l 7, 1913 M a x w e l l C o l o n y m a r r i e d E l i z a b e t h W i p f o f R o s e d a l e C o l o n y on F e b . 17, 1935 C h i l d r e n : E l i z a b e t h b . A p r i l 10, 1936 b a p t i z e d S e p t . 23, 1960 m a r r i e d t o E l i W a l d n e r o f R o s e d a l e C o l o n y on F e b . 10, 1961 J u s t i n a b . M a r c h 8, 1938 b a p t i z e d J a n . 7, 1962 m a r r i e d J o h n Gross, on M a r c h 4, 1962 e t c . The l a n g u a g e r i c h n e s s , and l e g i b i l i t y o f t h i s r e c o r d v a r i e d f r o m p r e a c h e r t o p r e a c h e r . Some p r e a c h e r s i n c l u d e d e x t e n s i v e i n f o r m a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g p a r e n t s and g r a n d p a r e n t s o f c u r r e n t members w h i l e o t h e r s i n c l u d e d o n l y t h e v i t a l s t a t i s t i c s o f 156 t h e p r e s e n t membership. I t i s p e r h a p s o f p e r i p h e r a l i n t e r e s t t o n o t e t h a t some p r e a c h e r s r e g a r d e d t h e k e e p i n g o f g e n e a l o -g i e s a s a s p i r i t u a l d u t y w h i l e o t h e r s f e l t t h a t i t was a more u t i l i t a r i a n t a s k . The f o r m e r o f t e n k e p t t h e g e n e a l o g i e s i n t h e B i b l e , w h e r e a s t h e l a t t e r o c c a s i o n a l l y u s e d s p a r e c a t t l e p e d i g r e e s . I n 1956, t h e g e n e t i c i s t , D r . A r t h u r S t e i n b e r g o f C a s e W e s t e r n R e s e r v e U n i v e r s i t y i n C l e v e l a n d , O h i o , c o l l e c t e d g e n e a l o g i e s f o r s e l e c t e d f a m i l i e s known t o h a v e g e n e t i c d e -f e c t s . He k i n d l y g a v e me p e r m i s s i o n t o u s e h i s d a t a . I t s h o u l d b e n o t e d t h a t t h e S t e i n b e r g c o l l e c t i o n h a d b y 1970 b e e n i n c o r p o r a t e d b y t h e H u t t e r i t e s i n t o t h e i r own r e c o r d s , m a k i n g i t i m p o s s i b l e t o d e c i d e w h e t h e r much o f t h e i n f o r m a t i o n h a d b e e n r e c o r d e d b y t h e H u t t e r i t e s o r s i m p l y c o p i e d f r o m S t e i n b e r g ' s c o l l e c t i o n . A t h i r d s o u r c e o f g e n e a l o g i c a l m a t e r i a l was a s e t o f f a m i l y h i s t o r i e s p u t t o g e t h e r b y J a c o b K l e i n s a s s e r , t h e -p r e a c h e r a t C r y s t a l S p r i n g C o l o n y . As a s e r v i c e t o t h e c o l o n y and as a hobby, K l e i n s a s s e r h a d t a k e n s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t 2 i n t h e 1 9 t h c e n t u r y f a m i l y h i s t o r i e s o f t h e H u t t e r i t e s . U s i n g t h e s e t h r e e g e n e a l o g i c a l s o u r c e s , I was a b l e t o p u t t o g e t h e r a c o m p r e h e n s i v e g e n e a l o g y o f t h e S c h m i e d e l e u t s u b -s e c t w h i c h e x t e n d e d o v e r as many as s i x g e n e r a t i o n s . 157 The above mentioned g e n e a l o g i c a l c o l l e c t i o n s were some-what inadequate i n one c r u c i a l area: namely, the occupa-t i o n a l p o s i t i o n s of the i n d i v i d u a l s were not always recorded. Therefore, i t was necessary t o o b t a i n t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n d i r e c t l y from colony records or by means of pe r s o n a l i n t e r -views w i t h colony members. Unf o r t u n a t e l y , I was not able t o v i s i t every Schmiedeleut colony i n the time which I had a v a i l a b l e . Of the 77 c o l o n i e s (and 6 farms) which e x i s t e d i n 1970, I was o n l y able t o c o l l e c t d e t a i l e d o c c u p a t i o n a l data from 51. Since the o c c u p a t i o n a l and p o l i t i c a l p o s i t i o n s h e l d by a member was a p i v o t a l v a r i a b l e i n t h i s a n a l y s i s , t h i s chapter w i l l focus o n l y on those 51 c o l o n i e s from which I was able t o c o l l e c t adequate data. Since the sample c o n s i s t s of 2/3 of the t o t a l popu-l a t i o n , i t i s s u f f i c i e n t l y l a r g e f o r questions of non-repre-se n t a t i v e n e s s not t o a r i s e . In a d d i t i o n , the sample i s only b i a s e d i n the sense t h a t the m a j o r i t y of c o l o n i e s which were not i n c l u d e d were l o c a t e d i n two geographical l o c a t i o n s -north-eastern South Dakota and south-western Manitoba. I t i s u n l i k e l y t h a t t h i s geographical b i a s could s e r i o u s l y d i s t o r t the r e s u l t s . I n 1970, there were 5319 people on the 51 c o l o n i e s surveyed. Of these, 639 were male occupation h o l d e r s t h i r t y years of age or over. I was able to c o l l e c t u s e f u l occupa-158 t i o n a l d a t a on 1037 m a l e s , o f t h e s e 398 h a d d i e d b e t w e e n t h e d a t e s o f 1874 and 1970. The 103 7 a d u l t m a l e o c c u p a t i o n h o l d e r s w h i c h w i l l b e e x a m i n e d i n t h i s c h a p t e r a r e d i s t r i b u t e d o v e r s i x g e n e r a t i o n s , w i t h t h e e a r l i e s t b i r t h d a t e b e i n g 1798 and t h e l a t e s t b e i n g 1940. The r e a s o n m a l e s who w e r e b o r n a f t e r 1940 w e r e n o t i n c l u d e d was b e c a u s e t h e y were e i t h e r c h i l d r e n o r a d o l e s c e n t s who d i d n o t h o l d o c c u p a t i o n s , o r y o u n g m a l e a d u l t s whose o c c u p a t i o n a l c a r e e r s h a d n o t as y e t s t a b i l i z e d . E l e v e n o c c u p a t i o n a l p o s i t i o n s were c o n s i d e r e d t o b e t h e b a s i c number o f o c c u p a t i o n s w i t h i n t h e H u t t e r i t e c o l o n i e s . As n o t e d i n C h a p t e r 2, as many as e i g h t e e n o c c u p a t i o n s c a n b e f o u n d on l a r g e c o l o n i e s ; however, I d e c i d e d t o l i m i t t h e number t o e l e v e n f o r t h e f o l l o w i n g r e a s o n s . 1) Some o c c u p a -t i o n s o c c u r r e d so i n f r e q u e n t l y t h a t t h e i r i n c l u s i o n was n o t w a r r a n t e d . T h e s e o c c u p a t i o n s were n e a r l y a l w a y s h e l d b y i n d i v i d u a l s who h e l d a. more i m p o r t a n t p o s i t i o n as w e l l . When t h i s o c c u r r e d t h e i n d i v i d u a l i n q u e s t i o n was l i s t e d u n d e r h i s d o m i n a n t o c c u p a t i o n . 2) Many o c c u p a t i o n s a r e s u b -s p e c i a l t i e s o f a c o r e o c c u p a t i o n . F o r example, t h e g e n e r i c o c c u p a t i o n ' p o u l t r y man 1 was o f t e n s u b d i v i d e d i n t o ' t u r k e y man', 'geese man', ' c h i c k e n man','duck man', and 'egg man 1. S i m i l a r l y , t h e o c c u p a t i o n ' c a t t l e man' c o u l d b e s u b d i v i d e d i n t o d a i r y i n g and s t o c k r a i s i n g . I f o u n d i t n e c e s s a r y t o 159 disregard these sub-specialties because the colony records often did not di s t i n g u i s h between them. In addition, one man often held two or more of these sub-specialty occupations with no one sub-specialty being c l e a r l y dominant. 3) A somewhat a r b i t r a r y decision was made to l i s t 'hog man' and 'sheep man' together. The occupation 'sheep man' did not occur with s u f f i c i e n t frequency to j u s t i f y a separate c l a s s i -f i c a t i o n , yet when i t did occur i t was often a dominant occupation. 4) The occupation 'assistant preacher' was l i s t e d with 'preacher' because the former occupation i s usually temporary. Most 'assistant preachers' l i v e to be-come ' f u l l preachers' unless they are ser i o u s l y delinquent. The following i s the l i s t of core occupations which was ultimately arrived at: 1. Preacher 2. Colony Manager 3. Farm Boss 4. German Teacher 5. Cattle Man 6. Hog Man and Sheep Man 7. Poultry Man 8. Mechanic 9. Carpenter 10. Shoemaker and Bookbinder 11. Gardener 160 P r e c i s e o c c u p a t i o n a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n was d i f f i c u l t i n t h o s e c a s e s where an i n d i v i d u a l h e l d m u l t i p l e o c c u p a t i o n s w i t h no one r o l e b e i n g c l e a r l y d o m i n a n t . T h i s p r o b l e m c o u l d u s u a l l y b e r e s o l v e d b y e x a m i n i n g t h e i n d i v i d u a l s e n t i r e o c c u p a t i o n a l c a r e e r . I n d i v i d u a l s o f t e n t a k e on m u l t i p l e r o l e s i n s m a l l c o l o n i e s w h i c h h a v e j u s t d i v i d e d . As t h e c o l o n y d e v e l o p s , t h e i n d i v i d u a l w i l l u s u a l l y s h e d a l l b u t one o c c u p a t i o n . The.most s e r i o u s p r o b l e m was p r e s e n t e d b y y o u n g men i n t h e p r e s e n t g e n e r a t i o n whose o c c u p a t i o n a l c a r e e r s h a d j u s t b e g u n . I f t h e s e men p e r f o r m e d m u l t i p l e r o l e s i n a n e w l y c r e a t e d c o l o n y , i t was i m p o s s i b l e t o d e t e r -mine w h i c h o c c u p a t i o n w o u l d b e t h e i r f i n a l o ne. I n t h e s e c a s e s , I was f o r c e d t o r e l y upon s e l f - r e p o r t . O c c a s i o n a l l y men w o u l d s w i t c h o c c u p a t i o n s . When t h i s o c c u r r e d I s i m p l y c l a s s i f i e d t h e i n d i v i d u a l u n d e r h i s f i n a l o c c u p a t i o n . S i n c e most o f t h e o c c u p a t i o n a l s w i t c h i n g t o o k p l a c e b e t w e e n t h e ages o f t w e n t y and t h i r t y , and o n l y r a r e l y d u r i n g m i d d l e age, I was a b l e t o a v o i d much o f t h e p r o b l e m b y c o n s i d e r i n g o n l y t h o s e i n d i v i d u a l s who w e r e t h i r t y y e a r s o f age o r o v e r . The 1037 m a l e s i n o u r s u b - p o p u l a t i o n a r e d i s t r i b u t e d o v e r t h e e l e v e n o c c u p a t i o n a l c a t e g o r i e s i n t h e f o l l o w i n g manner. 161 T a b l e 3.1 F r e q u e n c y D i s t r i b u t i o n o f H u t t e r i t e M a l e s  i n O c c u p a t i o n s O c c u p a t i o n F r e q u e n c i e s P e r c e n t a g e s 1. P r e a c h e r 157 15.14 2. C o l o n y Manager 74 7.13 3. Farm B o s s 54 5.21 4. German T e a c h e r 49 4.72 5. C a t t l e Man 110 10.61 6. Hog Man and Sheep Man 121 11.68 7. P o u l t r y Man 148 14.27 8. M e c h a n i c 112 10.80 9. C a r p e n t e r 81 7.81 10. Shoemaker and B o o k b i n d e r 52 5.01 11. G a r d e n e r 62 5.98 12. No O c c u p a t i o n 17 1.64 TOTAL 1037 100.00 The l a r g e s t o c c u p a t i o n a l c a t e g o r i e s i n T a b l e 3.1, w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f t h e m e c h a n i c , a r e o c c u p a t i o n s w h i c h c o n s i s t o f two o r more s u b - s p e c i a l t i e s . The number o f m e c h a n i c s was g r e a t e r t h a n e x p e c t e d , b u t t h i s c a n no d o u b t b e a c c o u n t e d f o r b y t h e h i g h l y m e c h a n i z e d n a t u r e o f t h e H u t t e r i t e c o l o n y . The s m a l l number o f c o l o n y managers i s a r e s u l t o f n o t c o m b i n i n g 162 t h i s o c c u p a t i o n w i t h t h a t o f f a r m b o s s . A l t h o u g h most f a r m b o s s e s become c o l o n y managers, t h e p o s i t i o n o f f a r m b o s s was p r e s e r v e d as a s e p a r a t e c a t e g o r y b e c a u s e s u c c e s s i o n i s b y no means a c e r t a i n t y as i s t h e c a s e w i t h t h e a s s i s t a n t manager. M o s t o f t h e men who do n o t h o l d o c c u p a t i o n s a r e b e t w e e n t h e a g e s o f t h i r t y and f o r t y (See T a b l e 3 . 2 ) . T h e r e a r e no c a s e s o f men i n t h i s s u b - p o p u l a t i o n who d i e d o r r e t i r e d w i t h o u t h o l d i n g an o c c u p a t i o n , a l t h o u g h an o c c u p a t i o n v/as o n l y a c q u i r e d d u r i n g m i d d l e age i n s e v e r a l c a s e s . T a b l e 3.2 a l s o r e v e a l s t h a t i n e a c h age c o h o r t e x c e p t f o r t h o s e b o r n b e t w e e n 1931 and 1940, an a v e r a g e o f 3 6 . 7 5 % o f t h e men h e l d e l i t e p o s i t i o n s . T h i s i s n o t s u r p r i s i n g s i n c e o n e - t h i r d o f a l l o c c u p a t i o n a l p o s i t i o n s a r e e l i t e p o s i t i o n s and t h e s e p o s i t i o n s a r e n e a r l y a l w a y s f i l l e d , w h e r e a s many n o n - e l i t e p o s i t i o n s a r e n o t r e p r e s e n t e d on many c o l o n i e s . I t was somewhat s u r p r i s i n g , however, t o f i n d t h a t o n l y 7.97% o f t h e 1931. t o 1940 age c o h o r t h e l d t h e p o s i t i o n s o f p r e a c h e r , a s s i s t a n t p r e a c h e r , c o l o n y manager, and f a r m b o s s . T h i s w o u l d seem t o s u g g e s t t h a t a t - p r e s e n t , t h o s e who h o l d e l i t e p o s i t i o n s t e n d t o b e o l d e r t h a n t h o s e who h o l d n o n - e l i t e p o s i t i o n s . T r a d i t i o n a l l y , y o u n g men h a v e h e l d t h e p o s i t i o n s o f a s s i s t a n t p r e a c h e r and f a r m b o s s , w h i l e t h e i r o l d e r b r e t h r e n h a v e b e e n t h e p r e a c h e r s and c o l o n y m a n a g e r s . T h i s p r o c e d u r e h a s f a c i l i a t e d e l i t e s u c c e s s i o n b y p e r m i t t i n g T a b l e 3.2 O c c u p a t i o n a l D i s t r i b u t i o n b y Age C o h o r t  Age C o h o r t s ( y e a r o f b i r t h ) O c c u p a t i o n pre- -1870 1871--80 1881 -90 1891--00 1901--10 1911--20 1921-•30 1931--40 P r e a c h e r 17(23 .61) 11(22. •91) 17(28 .81) 2 3 ( 3 1 . .08) 2 4 ( 2 0 . 69) 2 7 ( 1 7 . 20) 2 9 ( 1 2 . 34) 9( 3. 26) C. Manager 9(12 .50) 4( 8. 33) 3( 5 .08) 8 ( 1 0 . 82) 11 ( 9. 48) 1 4 ( - 8 . 92) 16( 6. 81) 9( 3. 26) Farm B o s s 2( 2 .78) 1( 2. 08) 2( 3 .39) 5( 6. 76) 9( 7. 76) 13 ( 8. 28) 18 ( 7. 66). 4( 1. 45) G. T e a c h e r 10(13 .89) 2( 4. 17) 2( 3 .39) 2( 2. 70) 4( 3. 45) 9( 5. 73) 11( 4. 68) 9( 3. 27) C a t t l e Man 4( .5 .56) 4( 8. 33) 8(13 .56) 5( 6. 76) 1 5 ( 1 2 . 93) 11( 7. 01) 2 4 ( 1 0 . 21) 3 9 ( 1 4 . 13) Hog Man 5( 6 .95) 4( 8. 33) 10(16 .95) 7( 9. 46) 1 3 ( 1 1 . 21) 12 ( 7. 64) 23( 9. 79) 4 7 ( 1 7 . 03) P o u l t r y Man 6( 8 .33) 6(1 2 . 51) 4(6.' 79) 1 0 ( 1 3 . 51) 11 ( 9. 48) 2 0 ( 1 9 . 74) 33(14. 04) 5 8 ( 2 1 . 01) M e c h a n i c 6( 8 .33) 5 (10. 42) 3( 5 .08) 7( 9. 46) I K 9. 48) 1 6 ( 1 0 . 19) 2 4 ( 1 0 . 21) 4 0 ( 1 4 . 49) C a r p e n t e r 4( 5 .55) 4( 8. 33) 3( 5 .08) 3( 4. 05) 6( 5. 17) 9( 5. 73) 23( 9. 79) 2 9 ( 1 0 . 51) Shoemaker 7( 9 .72) 5( 1 0 . 42) 4( 6 .79) 2( 2. 70) 5( 4. 32) 7( 4. 46) 16( 6. 81) 6( 2. 17) G a r d e n e r 2( 2 .78) 2( 4. 17) 3( 5 .08) 2( 2. 70) 7( 6. 03) 1 9 ( 1 2 . 10) 16 ( 6. 81) 11 ( 3. 99) No O c c u p a t i o n o( 0 .00) 0( 0. 00) 0( 0 .00) 0( 0. 00) 0( 0. 00) 0( 0. 00) 2( 0. 85) '15 ( 5. 43) TOTAL 72(100%) 48(100%) 59(100%) 74(100%) 116(100%) 157(100%) 235(100%) 276(100%) 164 y o u n g men t o a p p r e n t i c e f o r t h e p o s i t i o n s o f p r e a c h e r and c o l o n y manager. However, t h i s i s c l e a r l y n o t o c c u r r i n g a t t h e p r e s e n t t i m e . I t may b e n e c e s s a r y i n t h e n e a r f u t u r e f o r H u t t e r i t e c o l o n i e s t o f i l l e l i t e p o s i t i o n s b y s h i f t i n g men d i r e c t l y f r o m n o n - e l i t e p o s i t i o n s . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , s i n c e p r e c i s e d a t a on i n t r a g e n e r a t i o n a l o c c u p a t i o n a l m o b i l i t y was n o t a v a i l a b l e , f u r t h e r e l a b o r a t i o n on t h i s p o i n t i s n o t 4 p o s s i b l e . I n t e r g e n e r a t i o n a l O c c u p a t i o n a l M o b i l i t y The c e n t r a l t o p i c o f t h i s ' c h a p t e r i s i n t e r g e n e r a t i o n a l o c c u p a t i o n a l m o b i l i t y o r t h e s t a t u s change w h i c h s o n s u n d e r g o r e l a t i v e t o t h e i r f a t h e r s ' o c c u p a t i o n a l p o s i t i o n . S o c i e t i e s c a n b e s e e n t o r a n g e a l o n g a c o n t i n u u m o f two p o l a r o p p o s i t e t y p e o f m o b i l i t y p a t t e r n s . a) On one e x t r e m e i s t h e s o c i e t y where a l l m a l e s r e g a r d l e s s o f t h e i r f a t h e r s ' o c c u p a t i o n h a v e an e q u a l p r o b a b i l i t y o f o c c u p y i n g any o f t h e o c c u p a t i o n a l p o s i t i o n s w i t h i n t h e s o c i e t y . I n s u c h a s o c i e t y , an i n d i v i -d u a l ' s l i f e c h a n c e s a r e i n d e p e n d e n t o f h i s f a m i l y ' s s t a t u s . v T h e s e 'open' s o c i e t i e s w i t h a h i g h d e g r e e o f e q u a l i t y o f 5 o p p o r t u n i t y a r e s a i d t o h a v e ' p e r f e c t m o b i l i t y ' p a t t e r n s , b) A t t h e o t h e r p o l e we f i n d t h o s e s o c i e t i e s i n w h i c h a l l m a l e s i n h e r i t t h e p o s i t i o n s o c c u p i e d b y t h e i r f a t h e r s . I n s u c h a s o c i e t y t h e l i f e c h a n c e s o f an i n d i v i d u a l a r e c l o s e l y 165 l i n k e d t o t h e s t a t u s o f h i s f a m i l y . T h e s e ' c l o s e d ' s o c i e t i e s a r e s a i d t o b e c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y ' m o b i l i t y i n e r t i a ' . ^ A l l s o c i e t i e s f a l l somewhere i n b e t w e e n t h e s e two e x t r e m e s . The e x t r e m e s c o r r e s p o n d t o i d e a l - t y p e s w h i c h a c t u a l s o c i e t i e s a p p r o a c h t o v a r y i n g d e g r e e s . I n T a b l e 3.3, t h e i n t e r g e n e r a t i o n a l o c c u p a t i o n a l m o b i l i t y t r a n s i t i o n m a t r i x f o r t h e S c h m i e d e l e u t s u b - p o p u l a t i o n o f m a l e o c c u p a t i o n h o l d e r s i s p r e s e n t e d i n t e r m s o f a b s o l u t e f r e q u e n c i e s . I n t h i s m a t r i x , t h e two e l i t e a p p r e n t i c e s h i p p o s i t i o n s o f a s s i s t a n t p r e a c h e r and f a r m b o s s were com b i n e d w i t h t h e p o s i t i o n s p r e a c h e r and c o l o n y manager r e s p e c t i v e l y . A l t h o u g h t h i s was done t o s i m p l i f y t h e a n a l y s i s , t h e t r a n s i t i o n m a t r i c e s i n w h i c h t h e p o s i t i o n s o f a s s i s t a n t p r e a c h e r and f a r m manager a r e p r e s e r v e d c a n b e f o u n d i n A p p e n d i x C. I n a d d i t i o n , 63 men w e r e e x c l u d e d f r o m t h e a n a l y s i s . 17 o f t h e s e men w e r e e x c l u d e d b e c a u s e t h e y d i d n o t as y e t h o l d o c c u p a t i o n s . The r e m a i n i n g 46 men do n o t a p p e a r i n t h e m a t r i x b e c a u s e t h e i r f a t h e r s ' h a d no known o c c u p a t i o n . T h i s m a t r i x d e a l s o n l y w i t h t h e o c c u p a t i o n a l m o b i l i t y o f s o n s whose f a t h e r s ' o c c u p a -t i o n i s known. T h e s e 46 men were e i t h e r c o n v e r t s whose' f a t h e r s were n o t H u t t e r i t e s o r t h e o f f s p r i n g o f men whose f a t h e r s h a d d i e d p r i o r t o t h e 1874 i m m i g r a t i o n t o N o r t h A m e r i c a . 166 T a b l e 3.3 c o n t a i n s a b s o l u t e f r e q u e n c i e s a n d f o r t h i s r e a s o n i t i s n o t p a r t i c u l a r l y u s e f u l f o r m a k i n g i n t e r n a l c o m p a r i s o n s . H o w e v e r , T a b l e 3.4 w h i c h e x p r e s s e s t h e same i n f o r m a t i o n i n t e r m s o f p e r c e n t a g e s a l l o w s s u c h c o m p a r i s o n s t o b e made. I f H u t t e r i a n s o c i e t y w e r e c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y m o b i l i t y i n e r t i a ( a s t r o n g t e n d e n c y f o r s o n s t o e n t e r t h e same o c c u p a t i o n a l c a t e g o r i e s a s t h e i r f a t h e r s ) t h e n we w o u l d e x p e c t t h e h i g h e s t p e r c e n t a g e s i n t h e m a t r i x t o b e f o u n d o n t h e 0 m a j o r d i a g o n a l . H o w e v e r , t h i s i s c l e a r l y n o t t h e c a s e . I n o n l y 3 o f t h e 10 o c c u p a t i o n a l c a t e g o r i e s do we f i n d h i g h e r p e r c e n t a g e s o n t h e d i a g o n a l t h a n e l s e w h e r e . I n one s p e c t a -c u l a r c a s e : n a m e l y , t h e German t e a c h e r , we f i n d t h a t n o t a s i n g l e German t e a c h e r i n h e r i t e d h i s p o s i t i o n f r o m h i s f a t h e r . T h i s i s much more c l e a r l y i l l u s t r a t e d i n T a b l e 3.5 w h i c h 7 p r e s e n t s t h e d a t a i n t e r m s o f i n d i c e s o f a s s o c i a t i o n . The i n d e x o f a s s o c i a t i o n m e a s u r e s t h e d e g r e e t o w h i c h i n t e r g e n e r a -t i o n a l m o b i l i t y e x c e e d s o r f a l l s s h o r t o f w h a t m i g h t b e e x -p e c t e d b y c h a n c e . The i n d e x o f a s s o c i a t i o n i s s i m p l y t h e r a t i o o f o b s e r v e d f r e q u e n c i e s t o t h e f r e q u e n c i e s e x p e c t e d o n t h e b a s i s o f s t a t i s t i c a l i n d e p e n d e n c e . The b o t t o m row i n T a b l e 3.4 r e p r e s e n t s t h e p e r c e n t a g e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h e 974 m a l e H u t t e r i t e s i n t h e 10 o c c u p a t i o n a l c a t e g o r i e s . T h i s p e r -c e n t a g e d i s t r i b u t i o n s e r v e s a s a s t a n d a r d a g a i n s t w h i c h a l l p e r c e n t a g e s i n t h e b o d y o f t h e t a b l e a r e c o m p a r e d . F o r 167 example, % o f t h e s o n s o f c a r p e n t e r s who became shoemakers = 2.4% = .55 T o t a l % o f s o n s who became shoemakers 4.3% T a b l e 3.3 M o b i l i t y From F a t h e r ' s O c c u p a t i o n F o r 974 M a l e  O c c u p a t i o n H o l d e r s : A b s o l u t e F r e q u e n c i e s . Son's O c c u p a t i o n F a t h e r ' s  O c c u p a t i o n Row 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Tot; 1. 70 57 21 34 31 37 19 14 12 20 315 2. 34 27 11 24 19 21 15 14 7 3 175 i 3. 15 8 0 1 8 9 3 5 3 8 60 4. 7 4 2 18 10 9 14 9 1 2 76 5. 12 7 2 13 17 8 8 7 13 8 95 6. 6 11 3 9 9 23 7 7 1 6 82 7. 5 0 0 2 8 14 16 7 2 2 56 8. 2 4 0 1 8 7 10 4 1 5 42 9. 3 2 5 5 5 • 11 9 2 1 0 43 10. 1 3 3 2 3 4 5 5 1 3 30 C o l . T o t a l 155 123 47 109 118 143 106 74 42 57 974 (1.= p r e a c h e r and a s s i s t a n t p r e a c h e r , 2. = c o l o n y manager and f a r m b o s s , 3. = German t e a c h e r , 4. = c a t t l e man, 5. - h o g man and s h e e p man, 6. = p o u l t r y man, 7. = m e c h a n i c , 8. = c a r p e n t e r , 9. = shoemaker and b o o k b i n d e r , 10. = g a r d e n e r ) 168 T a b l e 3.4 M o b i l i t y From F a t h e r ' s O c c u p a t i o n F o r 974 M a l e  O c c u p a t i o n H o l d e r s : P e r c e n t a g e d By Row. Son's O c c u p a t i o n F a ' s Occ. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. T o t a l 1. 22. 2 18. 1 6. 7 10. 8 9. 8 11. 8 6. 0 4. 4 3. 8 6.4 100.0 2. 19. 4 15. 4 6. 3 13. 7 10. 9 12. 0 8. 6 8. 0 4. 0 1.7 100.0 3. 25. 0 13. 3 0. 0 1. 7 13. 3 15. 0 5. 0 8. 3 5. 0 13.3 100.0 4. 9. 2 5. 3 2. 6 23. 9 13. 2 11. 8 18. 4 11. 8 1. 3 2.6 100.0 5. 12. 6 7. 4 2. 1 13. 7 17. 9 8. 4 8. 4 7. 4 13. 7 8.4 100.0 6. 7. 3 13. 4 3. 7 11. 0 11. 0 28. 1 8. 5 8. 5 1. 2 7.3 100.0 7. 8. 9 0. 0 0. 0 3. 6 14. 3 25. 0 28. 6 12. 5 3. 6 3.6 100.0 8. 4. 8 9. 5 0. 0 2. 4 19. 1 16. 7 23. 8 9. 5 2. 4 11.9 100.0 9. 7. 0 4. 7 11. 6 11. 6 11. 6 25, 6 20. 9 4. 7 2. 3 0.0 100.0 10. 3. 3 10. 0 10. 0 6. 7 10. 0 13. 3 16. 7 16. 7 3. 3 10.0 100.0 T o t a l % 15. 9 12. 6 4. 8 11. 2 12. 1 14. 7 10. 9 7. 6 4. 3 5.9 100.0 T a b l e 3.5 M o b i l i t y From F a t h e r ' s O c c u p a t i o n F o r 974 M a l e  O c c u p a t i o n H o l d e r s : R a t i o s o f O b s e r v e d F r e q u e n c i e s  To F r e g u e n c i e s E x p e c t e d U nder The  A s s u m p t i o n o f I n d e p e n d e n c e . Son's O c c u p a t i o n F a ' s Occ. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 1. 1.40 1.43 1 .38 .96 .81 .80 .55 .59 .88 1.09 2. 1.22 1.22 1 .30 1 .23 .90 .82 .79 1.05 .93 .29 3. 1.57 1.06 .00 .15 1.10 1 . 02 .46 1.10 1.16 2 .38 4. .58 .42 .55 2 .12 1.09 .81 1 .69 1. 56 .31 .45 5. . 79 .58 .44 1 .22 1.48 . 57 . 77 .97 3.17 1.44 6. .46 1.06 .76 . 98 .91 1 .91 . 78 1.12 .28 1.25 7. .56 .00 .00 , 32 1.18 1 .70 2 .63 1.65 .83 .61 8. .30 .75 .00 .21 1.57 1 .14 2 .19 1.26 .55 2.03 9. .44 .37 2 .41 1 .04 .96 ± .•-Zi 1 .92 .61 .54 .00 10. .21 .79 2 .07 .60 -83 . 91 ]. .53 2.19 .77 1.71 169 D i a g r a m 3.1 S e l e c t e d S u b - M a t r i c e s o f t h e T r a n s i t i o n M a t r i x 1 2 Son's O c c u p a t i o n 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 B F a t h e r ' s O c c u p a t i o n A C 1. M a j o r D i a g o n a l ( f r o m t o p l e f t t o b o t t o m r i g h t ) 2. E l i t e S u b - m a t r i x ( s h a d e d s u b - m a t r i x ) 3. U p w a r d l y M o b i l e S u b - m a t r i x (A) 4. Downwardly M o b i l e S u b - m a t r i x (B) 5. S t a t i o n a r y N o n - e l i t e S u b - m a t r i x (C) 6. D i a g o n a l o f N o n - e l i t e (major d i a g o n a l e x c l u d i n g s h a d e d An i n d e x o f a s s o c i a t i o n v a l u e o f 1.00 i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e o b s e r v e d m o b i l i t y e q u a l s t h a t e x p e c t e d on t h e b a s i s o f c h a n c e . I f a l l o f t h e c e l l e n t r i e s i n T a b l e 3.5 were 1.00, t h e n H u t t e r i a n s o c i e t y w o u l d be an example o f a s o c i e t y w i t h p e r -f e c t m o b i l i t y ; however, t h i s i s c l e a r l y n o t t h e c a s e e i t h e r . I n o r d e r t o h e l p t h e r e a d e r t o i n t u i t i v e l y g r a s p t h e s i g n i f i -c a n c e o f T a b l e 3.5, a l l c e l l e n t r i e s w h i c h e x c e e d t h e e x p e c t e d f r e q u e n c i e s a r e u n d e r l i n e d . c e l l s ) 170 S i n c e a v i s u a l e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e t r a n s i t i o n m a t r i x d o e s n o t t e l l u s w h e t h e r H u t t e r i a n s o c i e t y more c l o s e l y f i t s t h e i n e r t i a o r p e r f e c t m o b i l i t y m o d e l s , i t w i l l b e n e c e s s a r y t o u s e s t a t i s t i c a l p r o c e d u r e s . I n a s o c i e t y t y p i f i e d b y c o m p l e t m o b i l i t y i n e r t i a i n w h i c h s o n s a l w a y s e n t e r e d t h e i r f a t h e r ' s o c c u p a t i o n , t h e mean o f t h e i n d i c e s o f a s s o c i a t i o n on t h e Q m a j o r d i a g o n a l w o u l d b e 10.00. I f on t h e o t h e r hand, s o n s w e r e no more l i k e l y t o e n t e r t h e i r f a t h e r ' s o c c u p a t i o n t h a n a n y o f t h e o t h e r a v a i l a b l e o c c u p a t i o n s , t h e n t h e mean o f t h e i n d i c e s o f a s s o c i a t i o n on t h e m a j o r d i a g o n a l w o u l d be 1.00. The o b s e r v e d mean o f t h e i n d i c e s o f a s s o c i a t i o n on t h e m a j o r d i a g o n a l i s 1.42 5. By u s i n g t h e S t u d e n t ' s t t e s t as a t e s t o f s i g n i f i c a n c e , t h e o b s e r v e d mean was f o u n d n o t t o d e p a r t s i g n i f i c a n t l y f r o m t h e e x p e c t e d mean o f 1.00.^ (See, T a b l e 3.6) I n g e n e r a l , o c c u p a t i o n s i n H u t t e r i a n s o c i e t y a r e n o t p a s s e d down f r o m f a t h e r t o s o n . A l t h o u g h c o m p a r i s o n s b e t w e e n H u t t e r i a n s o c i e t y and l a r g e r i n d u s t r i a l s o c i e t i e s c a n b e m i s -l e a d i n g , i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o n o t e t h a t t h e r e i s a g r e a t e r t e n d e n c y f o r s o n s t o i n h e r i t t h e i r f a t h e r ' s o c c u p a t i o n i n A m e r i c a n s o c i e t y t h a n i n t h e s u p p o s e d l y t r a d i t i o n o r i e n t e d H u t t e r i a n s o c i e t y . The mean o f t h e i n d i c e s o f a s s o c i a t i o n o f t h e m a j o r d i a g o n a l o f t h e i n t e r g e n e r a t i o n a l o c c u p a t i o n a l m o b i l i t y t a b l e r e p o r t e d b y B l a u and Duncan i s 3.12."^ T h i s 171 T a b l e 3.6 Means, S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s , and T e s t s o f S i g n i f i c a n c e f o r  S e l e c t e d S u b s e t s o f I n d i c e s o f A s s o c i a t i o n i n T a b l e 3.5 S u b s e t * 1. M a j o r D i a g o n a l 2. E l i t e S u b - m a t r i x 3. U p w a r d l y M o b i l e S u b - m a t r i x 4. Downwardly M o b i l e S u b - m a t r i x Mean S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n S t u d e n t ' s t 1.425 1.318 .622 .898 5. S t a t i o n a r y N o n - e l i t e S u b - m a t r i x 1.118 D i a g o n a l o f N o n - e l i t e 1.454 . 716 .098 .370 .272 .701 .797 1.781 5.647** -3.959** -1.450 1.341 1.508 * See D i a g r a m 3.1 ** The means o f s u b - m a t r i c e s 2 and 3 were f o u n d t o d e p a r t s i g n i f i c a n t l y f r o m t h e e x p e c t e d mean o f 1.00. The S t u d e n t ' s t t e s t was s i g n i f i c a n t b e y o n d t h e .01 l e v e l on a o n e - t a i l e d t e s t o f s i g n i f i c a n c e . I n a l l o t h e r c a s e s t h e r e s u l t s were n o t s i g n i f i c a n t at. t h e .05 l e v e l o f s i g n i f i c a n c e . f i n d i n g , o f c o u r s e , does n o t s u g g e s t t h a t H u t t e r i a n s o c i e t y h a s g r e a t e r e q u a l i t y o f o p p o r t u n i t y t h a n A m e r i c a n s o c i e t y . As m e n t i o n e d i n C h a p t e r 2, t h e H u t t e r i a n o c c u p a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e i s h e r e i n t e r p r e t e d as b e i n g d i v i d e d i n t o two d i s t i n c t s t a t u s 172 c a t e g o r i e s - t h e e l i t e and n o n - e l i t e o c c u p a t i o n s . The most s a l i e n t s t a t u s d i v i s i o n i s b e t w e e n t h e s e two c a t e g o r i e s n o t b e t w e e n t h e s p e c i f i c o c c u p a t i o n s . S i n c e e i g h t o u t o f t h e t e n o c c u p a t i o n s e x i s t on t h e same s t a t u s l e v e l , t h e a p p a r e n t ' p e r f e c t ' m o b i l i t y o f i n d i v i d u a l s i n t h e o c c u p a t i o n a l s t r u c -t u r e i s p r i m a r i l y a f r e e movement o f i n d i v i d u a l s b e t w e e n s i t u s p o s i t i o n s r a t h e r t h a n b e t w e e n s t a t u s p o s i t i o n s . A l t h o u g h t h e a bove a n a l y s i s h a s shown t h a t s i t u s p o s i t i o n s a r e n o t i n h e r i t e d , i t h a s n o t y e t b e e n d e m o n s t r a t e d t h a t t h i s i s t h e c a s e f o r s t a t u s p o s i t i o n s . I f we f o c u s on t h e movement o f p e o p l e b e t w e e n e l i t e s t a t u s a n d n o n - e l i t e s t a t u s a d i f f e r e n t p i c t u r e emerges. I n T a b l e 3.6, o n l y two g r o u p s : namely, t h e s o n s o f t h e e l i t e who a t t a i n e d e l i t e s t a t u s and t h e sons' o f t h e n o n - e l i t e who a t t a i n e d e l i t e s t a t u s , were f o u n d t o h a v e m o b i l i t y r a t e s w h i c h s i g n i f i -c a n t l y d e p a r t e d f r o m t h e r a t e s e x p e c t e d i n a ' p e r f e c t ' m o b i l i t y s y s t e m . Whereas 38.37% o f t h e s o n s o f t h e e l i t e r e t a i n e d e l i t e s t a t u s , o n l y 1 8.60% o f n o n - e l i t e s o n s e n t e r e d t h e e l i t e . (See T a b l e 3.7) I n o t h e r w o rds, e l i t e s o n s h a v e a s l i g h t l y h i g h e r t h a n a 2 t o 1 a d v a n t a g e o v e r n o n - e l i t e s o n s i n o b t a i n i n g e l i t e p o s i -t i o n s . 1 1 T h i s f i n d i n g c l e a r l y s u p p o r t s t h e M a c h i a v e l l i a n ' s o c i a l m o b i l i t y ' h y p o t h e s i s c i t e d i n C h a p t e r 1, w h i c h s t a t e s t h a t t h e male o f f s p r i n g o f t h e e l i t e w i l l h a v e a h i g h e r 173 T a b l e 3.7 M o b i l i t y From F a t h e r ' s S t a t u s P o s i t i o n : P e r c e n t a g e d b y Row Son' s S t a t u s P o s i t i o n F a t h e r ' s E l i t e 188 (38.37%) 90 (18.60%) N o n - e l i t e 302 (61.63%) 394 (81.40%) T o t a l 490 (100.00%) 484 (100.00%) S t a t u s E l i t e P o s i t i o n N o n - E l i t e T o t a l % 278 (28.54%) 69*6 (71.46%) 947 (100.00%) p r o b a b i l i t y o f o b t a i n i n g e l i t e s t a t u s t h a n t h e m a l e o f f s p r i n g o f t h e n o n - e l i t e . Of a l l n o n - e l i t e p o s i t i o n , o n l y s o n s o f t h e German t e a c h e r h a v e an e q u a l c h a n c e o f e n t e r i n g t h e e l i t e ( 3 8 . 3 3 % o f t h e s o n s o f t h e German t e a c h e r e n t e r e d t h e e l i t e ) . S i n c e t h e German t e a c h e r o c c u p i e s a p o s i t i o n w h i c h i s i n t e r -m e d i a t e b e t w e e n t h e e l i t e and t h e n o n - e l i t e , t h i s f i n d i n g i s n o t a l t o g e t h e r u n e x p e c t e d . C l e a r l y common o w n e r s h i p o f t h e means o f p r o d u c t i o n and e c o n o m i c e q u a l i t y d o e s n o t g u a r a n t e e e q u a l i t y o f o p p o r t u n i t y . However, i n f a i r n e s s t o t h e M a r x i a n p o s i t i o n , i f i t c o u l d b e shown t h a t t h e d e g r e e o f i n e q u a l i t y o f o p p o r t u n i t y w e r e l e s s i n H u t t e r i a n s o c i e t y t h a n i n s o c i e t i e s where p r i v a t e o w n e r s h i p o f t h e means o f p r o d u c t i o n and i n e q u a l i t i e s i n t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f w e a l t h a r e t h e norm, t h e n t h e M a r x i a n h y p o t h e s i s may n o t b e 174 t o t a l l y e r r o n e o u s . However, e v e n t h i s much weaker p o s i t i o n i s n o t s u p p o r t e d b y t h e d a t a . I n T a b l e 3.8, d a t a p r e s e n t e d b y S. M. M i l l e r on t h e d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n s o c i e t i e s i n t h e d e g r e e 12 o f i n e q u a l i t y o f o p p o r t u n i t y , was compared t o H u t t e r i t e d a t a . The r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e d e g r e e o f i n e q u a l i t y o f o p p o r -t u n i t y i n H u t t e r i a n s o c i e t y d o e s n o t d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y f r o m t h a t f o u n d i n s o - c a l l e d ' c a p i t a l i s t ' s o c i e t i e s . I n one r e s p e c t H u t t e r i t e m o b i l i t y i s h i g h l y f l u i d . 6 1 . 6 3 % o f t h e s o n s o f t h e e l i t e a r e downwardly m o b i l e . T h i s r a t e i s much g r e a t e r t h a n i n any o f t h e s o c i e t i e s r e c o r d e d b y 13 S. M. M i l l e r . The H u t t e r i t e e l i t e a p p e a r s t o b e one w h i c h i s d i f f i c u l t t o e n t e r b u t r e l a t i v e l y e a s y t o l e a v e . T h i s e x t r e m e l y h i g h r a t e o f downward m o b i l i t y i s t h e r e s u l t o f an u n u s u a l d e m o g r a p h i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f t h e H u t t e r i t e p o p u l a t i o n . 5 0 . 3 1 % o f a l l m a l e o f f s p r i n g i n o u r s u b - p o p u l a t i o n a r e t h e s o n s o f t h e e l i t e . The a v e r a g e number o f m a l e o f f s p r i n g p e r f a m i l y a p p e a r s t o v a r y b y o c c u p a t i o n , as c a n b e s e e n i n T a b l e 3.9. A l t h o u g h I c a n o f f e r o n l y weak s p e c u l a t i o n s f o r t h e s e d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n o c c u p a t i o n a l g r o u p s , t h e c o n s e q u e n c e s 15 a r e o b v i o u s . I n s t e a d o f f a i l i n g t o r e p r o d u c e i t s e l f , as t h e M a c h i a v e l l i a n s p r e d i c t , 1 ^ t h e e l i t e h a s s u c c e e d e d i n p r o d u c i n g a s u r p l u s o f m a l e o f f s p r i n g . The a p p r o x i m a t e p e r c e n t a g e o f o c c u p a t i o n h o l d e r s p e r c o l o n y who a r e e l i t e 175 T a b l e 3.8 I n t e r - s o c i e t a l C o m p a r i s o n s o f t h e D e g r e e  o f I n e q u a l i t y o f O p p o r t u n i t y A B S o c i e t y Denmark F i n l a n d F r a n c e I F r a n c e I I G r e a t B r i t a i n H u n g a r y H u t t e r i t e s I t a l y J a p a n N e t h e r l a n d s Norway Sweden USA I USA I I West Germany Non-manual M a n u a l i n t o i n t o Non-manual Non-manual 63.2% 76.0% 7 9 . 5 % 7 3 . 1 % 5 7 . 9 % 7 2 . 5 % 38.4% 6 3 . 5 % 7 0 . 3 % 5 6 . 8 % 71.4% 7 2 . 3 % 8 0 . 3 % 77.4% 71.0% 4 2 . 1 % 1 1 . 0 % 3 0 . 1 % 2 9 . 6 % 2 4 . 8 % 1 4 . 5 % 15.8% 8.5% 23 . 7% 19 . 6 % 2 3 . 2 % 2 5 . 5 % 2 8 . 8 % 2 8 . 7 % 2 0 . 0 % I n d e x o f I n e q u a l i t y ( R a t i o o f A t o B) 2.62 6.91 2.64 2.47 2.34 5.00 2.43 7.47 2.97 2.90 3.08 ,2.84 2.79 2.70 3.55 176 T a b l e 3.9 Mean Number o f M a l e O f f s p r i n g P e r F a m i l y  F o r O c c u p a t i o n a l G r o u p s 14 O c c u p a t i o n Mean Number o f M a l e O f f s p r i n g P e r F a m i l y P r e a c h e r and A s s i s t a n t P r e a c h e r 6.08 C o l o n y Manager and Farm B o s s 4.72 German T e a c h e r 4.35 C a t t l e Man 2.66 Hog Man and Sheep Man 3.09 P o u l t r y Man 2.27 M e c h a n i c 2.37 C a r p e n t e r 1.93 Shoemaker and B o o k b i n d e r 4.15 G a r d e n e r 4.11 members r a n g e f r o m a maximum o f 4 0 % on s m a l l c o l o n i e s (4 o u t o f 10 p o s i t i o n s ) t o a minimum o f 2 0 % on l a r g e c o l o n i e s (4 o u t o f 18 p o s i t i o n s ) . A c c o r d i n g t o T a b l e 3.1, 27.48% o f a l l o c c u -p a t i o n h o l d e r s a r e members o f t h e e l i t e . I f we assume t h a t t h i s f i g u r e r e p r e s e n t s t h e a p p r o x i m a t e s i z e o f t h e e l i t e , and i f w e . a l s o assume t h a t no d r a m a t i c s t r u c t u r a l e x p a n s i o n o r c o n t r a c t i o n i n t h e s i z e o f t h e e l i t e c a n t a k e p l a c e g i v e n t h e 177 n a t u r e o f H u t t e r i t e c o l o n y o r g a n i z a t i o n , t h e n t h e e l i t e w i l l b e u n a b l e t o accommodate a l l o f i t s male o f f s p r i n g . A t l e a s t 2 2 . 8 3 % (50.31%-2 7.48%) o f t h e l a b o u r f o r c e must b e downwardly m o b i l e b e c a u s e o f t h e e x c e s s o f e l i t e s o n s r e l a t i v e t o e l i t e p o s i t i o n s . As l o n g as t h e e l i t e f a i l s t o c o n t r o l i t s b i r t h r a t e , i t w i l l b e u n a b l e t o e n s u r e e l i t e s t a t u s f o r i t s s o n s . W i t h i n t h e e l i t e i t s e l f , t h e p r e a c h e r o c c u p i e s a p o s i t i o n c o n s i d e r a b l y a b o v e t h e c o l o n y manager and f a r m b o s s . Y e t t h e s o n s o f t h e p r e a c h e r a r e o n l y s l i g h t l y more l i k e l y t o r e t a i n e l i t e s t a t u s t h a n t h e s o n s o f c o l o n y managers and f a r m b o s s e s . T a b l e 3.10 r e v e a l s t h a t a p p r o x i m a t e l y 4 o u t o f e v e r y 10 s o n s o f p r e a c h e r s r e m a i n i n t h e e l i t e , w h i l e 3.5 s o n s o f c o l o n y m anagers and f a r m b o s s e s do s o . T a b l e 3.10 M o b i l i t y o f E l i t e Sons From F a t h e r ' s O c c u p a t i o n a l P o s i t i o n ; P e r c e n t a g e d b y Row Son's S t a t u s P o s i t i o n E l i t e N o n - e l i t e T o t a l F a t h e r ' s O c c u p a t i o n a l P o s i t i o n P r e a c h e r C o l o n y Manager & Farm B o s s T o t a l 127 188 315 (40.31%) (59.69%) (100.00%) 61 114 175 (34.86%) (65.14%) (100.00%) 188 302 490 (38.36%) (61.64%) (100.00%) 178 S i n c e t h e d i f f e r e n c e s i n m o b i l i t y p a t t e r n s b e t w e e n t h e two e l i t e c a t e g o r i e s a r e e x t r e m e l y s l i g h t , t h e M a r x i a n v e r s i o n o f t h e U p p e r S t r a t u m M o b i l i t y h y p o t h e s i s c i t e d i n C h a p t e r 1 r e c e i v e s s u p p o r t . M a r i t a l M o b i l i t y A l t h o u g h H u t t e r i t e women p r o b a b l y work as h a r d as H u t t e r i t e men, t h e y a r e p r o h i b i t e d f r o m c o m p e t i n g w i t h men f o r o c c u p a t i o n a l p o s i t i o n s . W i t h t h e p o s s i b l e e x c e p t i o n o f t h e h e a d cook, women do n o t h o l d r e c o g n i z e d o c c u p a t i o n a l p o s i t i o n s i n H u t t e r i a n s o c i e t y . A women's s t a t u s seems t o b e l a r g e l y d e t e r m i n e d b y t h e s t a t u s p o s i t i o n h e l d b y h e r h u s b a n d , a l t h o u g h some women may g a i n p r e s t i g e f o r t h e i r l a r g e f a m i l i e s . J u s t a s i n t h e c a s e o f i n t e r g e n e r a t i o n a l o c c u p a t i o n a l m o b i l i t y f o r m a l e s , two i d e a l t y p e m a r i t a l m o b i l i t y m o d e l s c a n b e p o s i t e d , a) A t one e x t r e m e i s a s o c i e t y i n w h i c h a l l women r e g a r d l e s s o f t h e i r f a t h e r s ' s t a t u s p o s i t i o n h a v e an e q u a l p r o b a b i l i t y o f m a r r y i n g h u s b a n d s who h o l d a n y o f t h e a v a i l a b l e o c c u p a t i o n s i n t h e s o c i e t y , b ) A t t h e o t h e r e x t r e m e , we f i n d s o c i e t i e s i n w h i c h d a u g h t e r s t e n d t o m a r r y h u s b a n d s who o c c u p y t h e same s t a t u s p o s i t i o n s a s t h e i r f a t h e r s . I n T a b l e s 3.11 and-3.12 t h e m a r i t a l m o b i l i t y t r a n s i t i o n m a t r i c e s o f 980 H u t t e r i t e women a r e p r e s e n t e d i n t e r m s o f p e r c e n t a g e s and i n d i c e s o f a s s o c i a t i o n r e s p e c t i v e l y . The means o f t h e i n d i c e s o f a s s o c i a -t i o n f o r s e l e c t e d s u b - m a t r i c e s w i t h i n t h e l a r g e r m a t r i x were 179 17 c a l c u l a t e d as i n T a b l e 3.6. None o f t h e s e means were f o u n d t o d e p a r t s i g n i f i c a n t l y f r o m t h e e x p e c t e d mean o f 1.00. I n o t h e r words, w i t h r e s p e c t t o o c c u p a t i o n a l p o s i t i o n , t h e H u t t e r i t e m a r i t a l s y s t e m seems t o b e c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y random m a t i n g o r p a n m i x i a . However, when we c o l l a p s e t h i s m a t r i x i n t o a 2X2 t a b l e and t h e r e b y f o c u s o n l y on t h e movement o f women b e t w e e n t h e e l i t e and t h e n o n - e l i t e , e l i t e d a u g h t e r s a r e shown t o h a v e a s l i g h t a d v a n t a g e o v e r n o n - e l i t e d a u g h t e r s i n c o n t r a c t i n g m a r r i a g e s w i t h e l i t e h u s b a n d s . (See, t a b l e 3 . 1 3 ) . The d a u g h t e r s o f t h e e l i t e h a v e a 1.46 t o 1 a d v a n t a g e o v e r non-e l i t e d a u g h t e r s i n f i n d i n g e l i t e h u s b a n d s . I f we compare t h i s t o t h e a d v a n t a g e e n j o y e d b y e l i t e s o n s ( t a b l e 3 .7), we f i n d t h a t e l i t e s o n s a r e f a r more l i k e l y t o r e t a i n e l i t e s t a t u s t h a n t h e d a u g h t e r s o f t h e e l i t e . T h i s s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e e l i t e e x e r c i s e s f a r g r e a t e r c o n t r o l o v e r t h e f i l l i n g o f o c c u p a t i o n a l p o s i t i o n s t h a n o v e r t h e a r r a n g i n g o f m a r r i a g e s . H i s t o r i c a l l y a l l m a r r i a g e s were a r r a n g e d b y t h e c o u n c i l o f e l d e r s i n c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h t h e p a r e n t s ; however, t h i s p r a c t i c e r a p i d l y d e t e r i o r a t e d a f t e r t h e N o r t h A m e r i c a n immi-g r a t i o n . A t t h e p r e s e n t t i m e H u t t e r i t e s h a v e u n o f f i c i a l l y come t o a c c e p t t h e N o r t h A m e r i c a n c o n c e p t o f ' r o m a n t i c l o v e ' . A l t h o u g h t h e c o u n c i l o f e l d e r s , t h e p a r e n t s , and t h e c o l o n y as a w h o l e s t i l l p l a y a c o n s i d e r a b l e p a r t i n i n f l u e n c i n g t h e T a b l e 3.11" M o b i l i t y From F a t h e r ' s O c c u p a t i o n t o Husband's O c c u p a t i o n F o r 980 H u t t e r i t e Women: P e r c e n t a g e d By Row. I Husband's O c c u p a t i o n F a ' s O c c . 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. - T o t a l 1. 18.4 17.2 5.8 12.0 11.0 12.3 8.6 6.1 3.1 5.5 100.0 2. 21.7 8.7 5.0 12.4 13.0 10.6 11.2 7.5 6.2 3.7 100.0 3. 19.6 17.4 2.2 8.7 10.9 19.6 6.5 8.7 0.0 6.5 100.0 4. 7.7 9.0 5.1 16.7 12.8 15.4 18.0 7.7 2.6 5.1 100.0 5. 6.5 8.4 0.0 6.5 15.0 21.5 17.8 12.2 5.6 6.5 100.0 6. 12.8 14.9 4.3 8.5 13.8 14.9 9.6 4.3 5.3 11.7 100.0 H oo o 7. 11.5 7.7 7.7 11.5 9.6 19.2 11.5 ' 7.7 9.6 3.9 100.0 8. 16.7 11.1 0.0 8.3 11.1 25.0 11.1 16.7 0.0 0.0 100.0 9. 34.2 7.3 7.3 4.9 7.3 7.3 9.8 7.3 7.3 7.3 100.0 10. 2.6 10.3 5.1 12.8 18.0 15.4 15.4 5.1 7.7 7.7 100.0 T o t a l % 15.9 12.6 4.6 10.9 12.2 14.6 11.3 7.6 4.5 5.8 100.0 181 choice of a marital partner, the f i n a l decision i s now made by the couple a f t e r a period of courtship. Within the e l i t e i t s e l f , the daughters of preachers only have a very s l i g h t advantage over the daughters of other e l i t e members i n re-maining within the e l i t e after marriage. (See, table 3.14.) The p i c t u r e which emerges from t h i s analysis of marital mobility i s of a society where i n e q u a l i t i e s of opportunity e x i s t among the women, but are i n the main very s l i g h t . Neither the Machiavellian nor the Marxian hypothesis c i t e d i n Chapter I are confirmed i n any dramatic way. Table 3.12 M o b i l i t y From Father's Occupation to Husband's Occupation For  980 Hutte r i t e Women: Ratios of Observed Frequencies to Frequen-cies Expected Under the Assumption of Independence. Husband's Occupation Fa 1 s Occ. 1. 2- 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 1. 1.16 1.37 1.27 1.10 .90 .84 .76 .81 .68 .95 2 . 1.37 .69 1.08 1.14 1.07 . 72 .99 .99 1.38 .64 3. 1.23 1.39 .47 .80 .89 1.34 . 58 1.15 0. 00 1.12 4. .48 .72 1.12 1.53 1.05 1.05 1.59 1.02 . 57 .88 5. .41 .67 0.00 ,60 1.22 1.47 1.57 1.61 1.25 1.13 6. .80 1.19 .93 .78 1.13 1.02 .85 . 56 1.19 2.01 7. .73 .61 1. 68 1.06 .79 •1.32 1.02 1.02 2.14 .66 8. 1.05 .89 0.00 . 76 .91 1.71 .98 2.21 0.00 0.00 9. 2.15 .58 1. 59 .45 .60 .50 .86 .97 1.63 1.26 10. .16 .82 1.12 1.17 1.47 1.05 1.36 . 68 1.71 1.32 182 T a b l e 3.13 M a r i t a l M o b i l i t y From F a t h e r ' s S t a t u s P o s i t i o n : P e r c e n t a g e d b y Row Husband's S t a t u s P o s i t i o n F a t h e r ' s S t a t u s P o s i t i o n E l i t e T o t a l E l i t e 165 (33.88%) 114 N o n - e l i t e (23.12%) 279 (28.47%) N o n - e l i t e 322 (66.12%) 379 (76.88%) 701 (71.88%) T o t a l 487 (100.00%) 493 (100.00%) 980 (100.00%) T a b l e 3.14 M a r i t a l M o b i l i t y o f E l i t e D a u g h t e r s From F a t h e r ' s  O c c u p a t i o n a l P o s i t i o n : P e r c e n t a g e d b y Row Husband's S t a t u s P o s i t i o n F a t h e r 1 s O c c u p a t i o n a l P o s i t i o n E l i t e 116 P r e a c h e r (35.58%) C o l o n y Manager & Farm B o s s T o t a l 49 (30.43%) N o n - e l i t e 210 (64.42%) 112 (69.57%) T o t a l 326 (100.00%) 161 (100.00%) 165 (33.88%) 322 (66.12%) 487 (100.00%) 183 E v e n t h i s s l i g h t d e g r e e o f i n e q u a l i t y d i s a p p e a r s when we c o n s i d e r t h e t e n d e n c y f o r e l i t e d a u g h t e r s t o m a r r y e l i t e s o n s . I n T a b l e 3.15, we f i n d t h a t t h e s t a t u s p o s i t i o n o f t h e h u s b a n d ' s f a t h e r p l a y s no r o l e w h a t s o e v e r i n d e t e r m i n i n g m a r i t a l a l l i a n c e s . A l t h o u g h t h e d a u g h t e r s o f t h e e l i t e h a v e a s l i g h t a d v a n t a g e o v e r o t h e r women i n s e c u r i n g h u s b a n d s who a r e t h e m s e l v e s members o f t h e e l i t e , t h e h u s b a n d ' s f a t h e r ' s s t a t u s i s i r r e l e v a n t i n t h i s r e g a r d . I n o t h e r w ords t h e h u s b a n d ' s a c h i e v e d s t a t u s r a t h e r t h a n h i s a s c r i b e d s t a t u s i s an i m p o r t a n t m a r i t a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n . t o t h e e l i t e d a u g h t e r . T a b l e 3.15 M a r i t a l M o b i l i t y From F a t h e r ' s S t a t u s P o s i t i o n • t o F a t h e r - i n - l a w s S t a t u s P o s i t i o n : P e r c e n t a g e d b y Row Husband's F a t h e r ' s S t a t u s P o s i t i o n E l i t e N o n - E l i t e T o t a l F a t h e r ' s 228 (49.28%) 233 (50.72%) j 461 (100.00%) E l i t e S t a t u s P o s i t i o n 229 N o n - E l i t e (50.73%) 228 (49.2 7%) 457 (100.00%) T o t a l % 457 (49.77%) 461 (50.23%) 918 (100.00%) 184 F a m i l y S u p p o r t I n a t r u e l y d y n a s t i c s o c i e t y t h e i n h e r i t a n c e o f e l i t e p o s i t i o n s f l o w s n o t o n l y f r o m p a r e n t s t o o f f s p r i n g , b u t f r o m more d i s t a n t k i n f o l k a s w e l l . We w o u l d e x p e c t t h a t a k i n s h i p g r o u p w h i c h c o n t a i n e d a l a r g e number o f e l i t e members c o u l d more e a s i l y p l a c e a r e l a t i v e i n t h e e l i t e t h a n a k i n s h i p g r o u p w h i c h h a d v e r y f e w e l i t e members. Of t h e k i n f o l k w h i c h w e r e e x a m i n e d , o n l y t h r e e w e r e f o u n d t o h a v e a s i g n i -f i c a n t e f f e c t , e i t h e r s i n g u l a r l y o r c o l l e c t i v e l y , i n d e t e r -1 8 m i n i n g t h e u l t i m a t e s t a t u s p o s i t i o n o f e g o . T h e s e w e r e e g o ' s f a t h e r , e g o ' s f a t h e r ' s f a t h e r , a n d e g o ' s f a t h e r ' s f a t h e r ' s f a t h e r . I n t a b l e 3.16, two t y p e s o f e l i t e f a t h e r s a r e c o m p a r e d : f a t h e r s who a r e t h e o n l y e l i t e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e i n t h e m a l e l i n e a n d f a t h e r s w h o s e f a t h e r , p a t e r n a l g r a n d -f a t h e r , o r b o t h a r e members o f t h e e l i t e . T h i s t a b l e shows t h a t ego i s more l i k e l y t o i n h e r i t e l i t e s t a t u s i f h i s f a t h e r d e s c e n d e d f r o m a l i n e o f e l i t e members t h a n i f e g o ' s f a t h e r was t h e s o l e e l i t e member i n t h e l i n e . The f i r s t t y p e o f e l i t e f a t h e r i s d e s i g n a t e d i n t h e t a b l e a s , a n ' u n c o n n e c t e d ' f a t h e r , a n d t h e s e c o n d t y p e i s r e f e r r e d t o a s a ' c o n n e c t e d ' f a t h e r . T a b l e 3.17 r e v e a l s t h a t H u t t e r i t e men a r e more l i k e l y t o become e l i t e members i f b o t h t h e i r f a t h e r s and t h e i r p a t e r n a l g r a n d f a t h e r s a r e e l i t e members t h e m s e l v e s , t h a n i f T a b l e 3.16 M o b i l i t y From C o n n e c t e d and U n c o n n e c t e d F a t h e r ' s S t a t u s P o s i t i o n : P e r c e n t a g e d By Row. F a t h e r ' s C o n n e c t e d S t a t u s P o s i t i o n E l i t e N o n - e l i t e T o t a l Son's S t a t u s P o s i t i o n  E l i t e N o n - E l i t e T o t a l 150 216 366 (40.98%) (59.02%) (100.00%) 36 84 120 (30.00%) (70.00%) (100.00%) in U n c o n n e c t e d co 92 396 488 (18.85%) (81.15%) (100.00%) 278 696 974 (28.54%) (71.46%) (100.00%) 186 t h e i r p a t e r n a l g r a n d f a t h e r b u t n o t t h e i r f a t h e r h e l d t h i s s t a t u s p o s i t i o n . T a k e n t o g e t h e r T a b l e s 3.16 and 3.17 s u p p o r t t h e t h e s i s t h a t p a t r i l i n e a l r e l a t i v e s i n c o m b i n a t i o n a r e more l i k e l y t o e n h a n c e an i n d i v i d u a l s c h a n c e s o f j o i n i n g t h e e l i t e t h a n i s o l a t e d e l i t e r e l a t i v e s . T h i s p o i n t i s b r o u g h t o u t e v e n more s t r o n g l y i n T a b l e 3.18 where i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h an u n b r o k e n p a t e r n a l l i n e o f e l i t e members g o i n g b a c k t h r e e g e n e r a t i o n s a r e shown t o h a v e a d i s t i n c t a d v a n t a g e o v e r i n d i v i d u a l s whose p a t r i l i n e a g e l a c k s one o r more e l i t e k i n . T a b l e 3.17 M o b i l i t y From P a t e r n a l G r a n d f a t h e r ' s (FaFa) S t a t u s P o s i t i o n  W i t h F a F a W i t h E l i t e F a D i s t i n g u i s h e d From F a F a  W i t h N o n - e l i t e F a : P e r c e n t a g e d By Row. F a F a ' s E l i t e Son S t a t u s E l i t e P o s i t i o n N o n - e l i t e S on N o n - e l i t e T o t a l G r a n d s o n ' s S t a t u s P o s i t i o n E l i t e N o n - e l i t e T o t a l 104 114 218 (47.70%) (52.30%) (100.00%) 26 . 195 221 (11.76%) (88.24%) • (100.00%) 102 322 424 (24.06%) (75.94%) (100.00%) 232 631 863 (26.88%) (73.12%) (100.00%) 187 T a b l e 3.18 M o b i l i t y From F a F a F a ' s S t a t u s P o s i t i o n W i t h F a F a F a W i t h  E l i t e F a And E l i t e F a F a D i s t i n g u i s h e d From F a F a F a  W i t h F a o r F a F a o r B o t h i n N o n - e l i t e : P e r c e n t a g e d By Row. G r e a t G r a n d s o n ' s S t a t u s P o s i t i o n E l i t e N o n - e l i t e T o t a l E l i t e Son and 35 36 71 F a F a F a ' s E l i t e • G r a n d s o n (49.39%) (50.61%) (100.00%) S t a t u s E l i t e N o n - e l i t e Son, 29 181 210 P o s i t i o n G r a n d s o n , o r B o t h (13.81%) (86.19%) (100.00%) 53 234 287 N o n - e l i t e (18.46%) (81.54%) (100.00%) 117 451 568 T o t a l (20.60%) (79.40%) (100.00%) A w e l l p l a c e d f a m i l y may n o t o n l y s e e k t o b o l s t e r t h e m o b i l i t y c h a n c e s o f male f a m i l y members, b u t a l s o t h e i r f e m a l e o f f s p r i n g as w e l l . A l t h o u g h , i t h a s b e e n p r e v i o u s l y shown i n T a b l e 3.13 t h a t e l i t e p a r e n t a g e c o n f e r s o n l y a s l i g h t a d v a n t a g e on a d a u g h t e r w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e l i k e l i h o o d o f m a r r y i n g e l i t e m a l e s , t h i s a d v a n t a g e i s somewhat i n c r e a s e d i f b o t h t h e w i f e ' s f a t h e r and p a t e r n a l g r a n d f a t h e r a r e members o f t h e e l i t e . The e v i d e n c e f o r t h i s a s s e r t i o n c a n b e f o u n d i n T a b l e 3.19. 188 T a b l e 3.19 M a r i t a l M o b i l i t y From C o n n e c t e d and U n c o n n e c t e d  F a t h e r ' s S t a t u s P o s i t i o n : P e r c e n t a g e d By Row. Husband's S t a t u s P o s i t i o n E l i t e 98 F a t h e r ' s C o n n e c t e d * (40.00%) S t a t u s E l i t e P o s i t i o n 67 U n c o n n e c t e d (27.68%) 114 N o n - e l i t e (23.12%) 279 701 980 T o t a l (28.47%) (71.53%) (100.00%) C o n n e c t e d F a t h e r s r e f e r t o t h o s e e l i t e f a t h e r s whose f a t h e r i s a member o f t h e e l i t e . U n c o n n e c t e d f a t h e r s r e f e r t o t h o s e f a t h e r s whose f a t h e r i s n o t a member o f t h e e l i t e . The i n f l u e n c e o f a number o f o t h e r r e l a t i v e s was e x a m i n e d : namely, t h e w i f e ' s MoFa, FaMoFa, and F a F a F a . The s t a t u s p o s i -t i o n s h e l d b y t h e s e r e l a t i v e s e i t h e r h a d no e f f e c t u p o n t h e m a r i t a l a d v a n t a g e o f t h e f e m a l e o r i n one c a s e p r o d u c e d a s l i g h t d i s a d v a n t a g e . N o n - e l i t e T o t a l 147 245 (60.00%) (100.00%) 175 242 (72.32%) (100.00%) 379 493 (76.88%) (100.00%) 189 D e f e c t i o n s I n C h a p t e r I I , i t was r e p o r t e d t h a t 133 men h a v e d e f e c t e d f r o m t h e S c h m i e d e l e u t c o l o n i e s s i n c e 1890. T h e s e men a r e c o n -s i d e r e d t o b e d e f e c t o r s b e c a u s e t h e y h a v e e i t h e r d i e d as a member o f t h e h o s t s o c i e t y o r h a v e b e e n a b s e n t s u f f i c i e n t l y l o n g t h a t t h e i r r e t u r n i s n o t a n t i c i p a t e d . M a l e s i n t h e i r l a t e t e e n s and e a r l y t w e n t i e s f r e q u e n t l y go on what m i g h t b e d e f i n e d as u n a u t h o r i z e d v a c a t i o n s . T h e s e men a r e n o t c o n -s i d e r e d d e f e c t o r s b e c a u s e b o t h t h e i r d e p a r t u r e and s u b s e q u e n t r e t u r n a r e c o n s i d e r e d n o r m a l b e h a v i o r f o r t h a t age g r o u p . I h a v e o n l y c o n s i d e r e d an i n d i v i d u a l t o b e a d e f e c t o r i f h i s name h a s b e e n s t r i c k e n f r o m t h e membership r e c o r d s o f t h e , 1 9 c o l o n y . The a u t h o r was a b l e t o a s c e r t a i n t h e f a t h e r ' s o c c u p a -t i o n a l s t a t u s f o r 130 o f t h e 133 d e f e c t o r s . The r e s u l t s a r e p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e 3.20. F a t h e r ' s O c c u p a t i o n a l S t a t u s F o r 130 H u t t e r i t e D e f e c t o r s T a b l e 3.2 0 F a t h e r ' s O c c u p a t i o n Number o f D e f e c t o r s D e f e c t i o n R a t e 20 P r e a c h e r C o l o n y M anager/Farm B o s s German T e a c h e r C a t t l e Man Hog Man/Sheep Man P o u l t r y Man 25 23 4 16 16 14 10 8 6 8 7.35 11.61 6.25 17.38 14.41 14.58 15.15 16.00 12.24 21.05 M e c h a n i c C a r p e n t e r Shoemaker G a r d e n e r 190 The r e s u l t s i n T a b l e 3.20 r e v e a l t h a t i n t e r m s o f a b s o -l u t e f r e q u e n c i e s , t h e s o n s o f p r e a c h e r s and c o l o n y m a n a g e r s / f a r m b o s s e s a r e t h e two l a r g e s t c a t e g o r i e s o f d e f e c t o r s . However, t h i s i s somewhat m i s l e a d i n g s i n c e t h e r e i s a w i d e d e g r e e o f v a r i a t i o n i n t h e t o t a l number o f s o n s i n e a c h o c c u p a t i o n a l c a t e g o r y ( T a b l e 3 . 3 ) . When t h e number o f d e -f e c t i n g was e x p r e s s e d as a p e r c e n t a g e o f t h e t o t a l number o f s o n s i n e a c h o c c u p a t i o n a l c a t e g o r y , t h e s o n s o f t h e n o n - e l i t e -w e r e f o u n d t o b e more p r o n e t o d e f e c t t h a n t h e s o n s o f t h e e l i t e . T h i s h e l d f o r a l l o c c u p a t i o n a l c a t e g o r i e s e x c e p t f o r t h e s o n s o f t h e German t e a c h e r , w h i c h as we h a v e a l r e a d y p o i n t e d o u t o c c u p i e s an i n t e r m e d i a t e p o s i t i o n b e t w e e n t h e e l i t e and t h e n o n - e l i t e . H o s t e t l e r r e p o r t s t h a t o u t o f a sample o f 38 d e f e c t o r s , 11 w e r e t h e s o n s o f p r e a c h e r s and c o l o n y managers. The p e r c e n t a g e o f d e f e c t o r s who were s o n s o f t h e e l i t e i s somewhat l e s s i n H o s t e t l e r ' s sample t h a n i n mine ( 2 8 . 9 4 % v s 3 6 . 9 2 % ) . However, H o s t e t l e r d i d n o t c o n f i n e h i s s t u d y t o t h e S c h m i e d e -l e u t p o p u l a t i o n and i n a d d i t i o n , he makes no c l a i m s a b o u t t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e n e s s o f h i s s a m p l e . T h i s f i n d i n g l e n d s s u p p o r t t o t h e M a c h i a v e l l i a n c o n t e n t i o n t h a t t h e d e f e c t i o n r a t e among t h e s o n s o f t h e n o n - e l i t e w i l l b e g r e a t e r t h a n among t h e e l i t e s o n s . 191 Summary The p r e c e d i n g a n a l y s e s o f o c c u p a t i o n a l m o b i l i t y , m a r i t a l m o b i l i t y , f a m i l y s u p p o r t and d e f e c t i o n r a t e s h a v e b e e n more s u p p o r t i v e o f t h e M a c h i a v e l l i a n t h e s i s t h a n t h e M a r x i a n c o u n t e r t h e s i s c i t e d i n C h a p t e r I . T h i s i s c l e a r l y i l l u s -t r a t e d b y t h e f o l l o w i n g i n v e n t o r y o r r e s u l t s . T a b l e 3.21  I n v e n t o r y o f R e s u l t s H y p o t h e s e s 1. S o c i a l M o b i l i t y 2: I n t e r - m a r r i a g e 3. U p p e r S t r a t u m M o b i l i t y 4. U p p e r S t r a t u m I n t e r -m a r r i a g e 5. F a m i l y S u p p o r t S o c i a l M o b i l i t y 6. F a m i l y S u p p o r t ( I n t e r - m a r r i a g e ) 7. D e f e c t i o n 8. D i f f e r e n t i a l F e r t i l i t y T h e o r y S u p p o r t e d  M a c h i a v e l l i a n M a r x i a n N e i t h e r X X* X X X X X * A l t h o u g h t h e r e s u l t s a r e somewhat ambiguous i n t h e c a s e o f m a r i t a l m o b i l i t y , a c h i - s q u a r e t e s t p e r f o r m e d on t a b l e 3.13 was f o u n d t o b e s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e .001 l e v e l c o n s e q u e n t l y , t h e n u l l h y p o t h e s i s ( M a r x i a n H y p o t h e s i s ) was r e j e c t e d . ** N e i t h e r t h e M a c h i a v e l l i a n o r t h e M a r x i a n h y p o t h e s e s c o u l d b e r e j e c t e d i n t h e c a s e o f f a m i l y s u p p o r t o f m a r i t a l m o b i l i b e c a u s e some f a m i l y members h a d t h e o p p o s i t e e f f e c t o f o t h e r e l a t i v e s . 192 The m a j o r r e s u l t s s o f a r c a n be summarized as f o l l o w s : 1. E l i t e s o n s a r e more l i k e l y t o become e l i t e members t h a n n o n - e l i t e s o n s . 2. E l i t e s o n s who h a v e a number o f e l i t e a n c e s t o r s a r e more l i k e l y t o become e l i t e members t h a n e l i t e s o n s who l a c k • t h i s f a m i l y s u p p o r t . 3. E l i t e d a u g h t e r s a r e s l i g h t l y more l i k e l y t o m a r r y e l i t e h u s b a n d s t h a n n o n - e l i t e d a u g h t e r s . 4. No s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e d e g r e e o f i n e q u a l i t y o f o p p o r t u n i t y e x i s t s b e t w e e n t h e o f f s p r i n g o f t h e r e l i g i o u s l e a d e r s ( p r e a c h e r ) and t h e o f f s p r i n g o f t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e l e a d e r s ( c o l o n y m a n a g e r / f a r m b o s s ) . 5. The d e f e c t i o n r a t e i s g r e a t e r among t h e o f f s p r i n g o f t h e n o n - e l i t e t h a n among t h e o f f s p r i n g o f t h e e l i t e . 6. The f e r t i l i t y r a t e o f t h e e l i t e i s g r e a t e r t h a n t h e f e r t i l i t y r a t e o f t h e n o n - e l i t e . I n C h a p t e r IV, I w i l l a t t e m p t t o p r o v i d e an e x p l a n a t i o n f o r t h e s e somewhat m i x e d r e s u l t s . 193 F o o t n o t e s 1. The names i n t h i s example h a v e b e e n a l t e r e d i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h H u t t e r i t e w i s h e s . 2. F u t u r e r e s e a r c h i n demography, k i n s h i p a n a l y s i s , and p o p u l a t i o n g e n e t i c s on t h e H u t t e r i t e p o p u l a t i o n w i l l no d o u b t b e s t r e a m l i n e d b y K l e i n s a s s e r 1 s e f f o r t s . W h i l e I was c a r r y i n g o u t my r e s e a r c h K l e i n s a s s e r was a t t e m p t i n g t o i n t e g r a t e h i s own c o l l e c t i o n w i t h t h e S t e i n b e r g . c o l l e c t i o n . He h a d a l s o p e r s u a d e d t h e p r e a c h e r s on o t h e r S c h m i e d e l e u t c o l o n i e s t o s e n d h i m a n n u a l r e p o r t s o f t h e b i r t h s , d e a t h s , and m a r r i a g e s o f t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e c o l o n i e s . C r y s t a l S p r i n g c o l o n y c a n now b e c o n s i d e r e d t h e i n f o r m a l c e n s u s b u r e a u and g e n e a l o g i c a l bank o f t h e S c h m i e d e l e u t s u b - s e c t . K l e i n s a s s e r h a s a l s o b e e n i n s t r u m e n t a l i n p e r -s u a d i n g t h e L e h r e r l e u t s u b - s e c t t o g a t h e r t h e i r own ° g e n e a l o g i e s and make them a v a i l a b l e t o r e s e a r c h e r s . D u r i n g 1970, a r e s e a r c h u n i t u n d e r t h e d i r e c t i o n o f a n t h r o -p o l o g i s t , Hermann B l e i b t r e u a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f A r i z o n a , a t t e m p t e d t o c o l l e c t t h e s e g e n e a l o g i e s . I am n o t aware o f any p u b l i c a t i o n s w h i c h h a v e r e s u l t e d f r o m t h i s f i e l d work. O n l y t h e D a r i u s l e u t s u b - s e c t h a s f a i l e d t o k e e p u s e f u l g e n e a l o g i c a l r e c o r d s . However, P a u l G r o s s , t h e p r e a c h e r a t t h e D a r i u s l e u t c o l o n y o f E s p a n o l a i n t h e s t a t e o f W a s h i n g t o n , was p e r s u a d e d b y R o b e r t F r i e d m a n n , a r e s p e c t e d s c h o l a r o f H u t t e r i a n a , t o a c t as i n f o r m a l c e n s u s t a k e r o f H u t t e r i t e c o l o n i e s . I t a p p e a r s t h a t t h e H u t t e r i t e s h a v e r e s i g n e d t h e m s e l v e s t o t h e f a c t t h a t r e s e a r c h e r s f i n d them an i r r e s i s t a b l e s u b j e c t o f s t u d y , and c o n s e q u e n t l y a r e a t t e m p t i n g t o r e d u c e much o f t h e d i s r u p t i o n w h i c h r e s e a r c h e r i n e v i t a b l y c a u s e , b y c a r r y i n g o u t t h e i r own d a t a c o l l e c t i o n . 3. T h e r e were t h r e e m a j o r p r o b l e m s e n c o u n t e r e d i n t h e i n t e -g r a t i o n o f t h e s e t h r e e s o u r c e s . a) The S t e i n b e r g c o l l e c t i o n u s e d a c o m p l e x n u m e r i c a l code t o r e p l a c e a l l p r o p e r names. T h i s was f o u n d t o b e n e c e s s a r y b e c a u s e t h e r e a r e o n l y t w e l v e surnames p r e s e n t l y i n u s e among e t h n i c H u t t e r i t e s w i t h i n t h e S c h m i e d e l e u t g r o u p . I n a d d i t i o n , o n l y a s m a l l number o f C h r i s t i a n names o c c u r w i t h any d e g r e e o f r e g u l a r i t y . A l t h o u g h I was l a t e r t o a d o p t t h i s code f o r c o m p u t e r p u r p o s e (See A p p e n d i x A ) , i t was i n i t i a l l y d i f f i c u l t t o combine i t w i t h t h e o t h e r g e n e a l o g i c a l s o u r c e s . b) The r e c o r d s o f one c o l o n y were n o t e a s i l y c o n n e c t e d t o t h e r e c o r d s o f a n o t h e r c o l o n y . A l t h o u g h t h e s e r e c o r d s a d e q u a t e l y p r o v i d e d i n f o r m a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g c o n s a n g u i n e a l and a f f i n a l t i e s among c o l o n y members, t h e y w e r e o f t e n 194 i n a d e q u a t e as a r e c o r d o f t h e s e t i e s b e t w e e n members o f d i f f e r e n t c o l o n i e s . I t was o f t e n v e r y d i f f i c u l t t o t r a c e t h e movement o f women who m a r r i e d o u t o f t h e c o l o n y . c) The P r e a c h e r s 1 r e c o r d s were o f t e n m i s l e a d i n g . Some o f t h e more common d i f f i c u l t i e s were t h e f o l l o w i n g : f a i l u r e t o r e c o r d d e f e c t i o n s , f a i l u r e t o r e c o r d o c c u p a -t i o n s , and a t e n d e n c y t o r e f e r t o i n d i v i d u a l s b y t h e i r n i c k n a m e s . T h e s e name c h a n g e s o c c u r r e d w h enever t h e r e a p p e a r e d t o b e an e x c e s s o f i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h t h e i d e n t i c a l name. T h i s p r a c t i c e o n l y s e r v e d t o compound t h e p r o b l e m r a t h e r t h a n e l i m i n a t e i t . 4. The f a c t t h a t many o f t h e men i n t h e 1931-40 age c o h o r t -h a v e n o t c o m p l e t e d t h e i r o c c u p a t i o n a l c a r e e r s c r e a t e s a s l i g h t d i s t o r t i o n i n s u b s e q u e n t a n a l y s e s o f i n t e r g e n e r a -t i o n a l m o b i l i t y . The e x t e n t o f downward m o b i l i t y i s no d o u b t o v e r e s t i m a t e d and t h e e x t e n t o f upward m o b i l i t y u n d e r e s t i m a t e d . The r e a d e r s h o u l d b e aware o f t h i s t y p e o f d i s t o r t i o n . T h i s f i n d i n g , however, d o e s n o t weaken t h e m a i n t h r u s t o f o u r a n a l y s i s , w h i c h i s t o compare t h e r e l a t i v e a d v a n t a g e s o f e l i t e s o n s o v e r n o n - e l i t e s o n s i n a t t a i n i n g e l i t e p o s t s . The i n d e x o f i n e q u a l i t y ( r a t i o o f e l i t e s o n s e n t e r i n g e l i t e t o n o n - e l i t e s o n s e n t e r i n g t h e e l i t e ) f o r t h e 1931-40 age c o h o r t i s 2.36. T h i s i s o n l y s l i g h t l y h i g h e r t h a n t h e i n d e x o f i n e q u a l i t y f o r a l l age c o h o r t s ( 2 . 0 6 ) . See, T a b l e 3.7. The f o l l o w i n g i n t e r -g e n e r a t i o n a l m o b i l i t y t a b l e o f t h e 1931-40 age c o h o r t shows v i r t u a l l y t h e same d e g r e e o f i n e q u a l i t y o f o p p o r -t u n i t y as i n T a b l e 3.7. M o b i l i t y From F a t h e r ' s S t a t u s P o s i t i o n W i t h i n t h e  1931-40 Age C o h o r t : P e r c e n t a g e d b y Row.* Son's S t a t u s P o s i t i o n  E l i t e N o n - e l i t e T o t a l F a t h e r 1 s 15 109 124 E l i t e (12.09%) (87.91%) (100.00%) S t a t u s 7 130 137 P o s i t i o n N o n - e l i t e . ( 5.11%) (94.89%) (100.00%) 22 239 261 T o t a l ( 8.43%) (91.57%) (100.00%) * The 15 members o f t h e 1931-40 age c o h o r t who d i d n o t h o l d a p o s i t i o n were e x c l u d e d f r o m t h i s a n a l y s i s . 195 5. S e e , D a v i d G l a s s , e d . , S o c i a l M o b i l i t y i n B r i t a i n ( L o n d o n : . R o u t l e d g e & K e g a n P a u l , 1954) p. 2 2 2 . 6 . I b i d . , p . 2 1 9 . 7. F o r a more d e t a i l e d d i s c u s s i o n o n i n d i c e s o f a s s o c i a t i o n , s e e , P e t e r M. B l a u a n d O t i s D u d l e y D u n c a n , The A m e r i c a n  O c c u p a t i o n a l S t r u c t u r e (New Y o r k : J o h n W i l e y & S o n s , 1967) p p . 3 5 - 6 . 8. T h i s w o u l d b e t h e c a s e i f and o n l y i f a l l c e l l e n t r i e s w e r e c o n c e n t r a t e d o n t h e m a j o r d i a g o n a l . The sum o f a l l i n d i c e s o f a s s o c i a t i o n i n a 10X10 m a t r i x m u s t a l w a y s e q u a l 1 0 0 . 0 0 , no m a t t e r how i n d i v i d u a l s a r e d i s t r i b u t e d i n t h e o c c u p a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e . T h e r e f o r e , i f t h e 10 c e l l s o n t h e d i a g o n a l w e r e f i l l e d a n d a l l o t h e r s w e r e empty, t h e mean o f t h e i n d i c e s o f a s s o c i a t i o n f o r t h e s e 10 c e l l s m u s t e q u a l 1 0 . 0 0 . 9. S t u d e n t ' s t t e s t s a r e u s e d i n o r d e r t o a s c e r t a i n w h e t h e r a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e e x i s t s b e t w e e n a s a m p l e mean an d a p o p u l a t i o n mean. S i n c e t h e p o p u l a t i o n mean f o r t h e i n d i c e s o f a s s o c i a t i o n i n t h e m a t r i x m u s t b y n e c e s s i t y b e 1.00, I was a b l e t o d e t e r m i n e b y u s i n g t h e S t u d e n t ' s t t e s t w h e t h e r t h e means o f t h e i n d i c e s o f a s s o c i a t i o n o f s e l e c t e d s u b - m a t r i c e s w i t h i n t h e l a r g e r m a t r i x s i g n i f i -c a n t l y d e v i a t e d f r o m 1.00. See, H u b e r t M. B l a l o c k , S o c i a l  S t a t i s t i c s (New Y o r k : M c G r a w - H i l l , 1960) p p . 1 4 4 - 9 , f o r a d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e S t u d e n t ' s t t e s t . 10. P e t e r M. B l a u a n d O t i s D u d l e y D u n c a n , Op. c i t . , p. 32. 1 1 . The r e l a t i v e a d v a n t a g e o f e l i t e s o n s o v e r n o n - e l i t e s o n s i n a t t a i n i n g e l i t e p o s i t i o n s i s 38.3 7% o r 2.06. 1 8 . 6 0 % 1.00 12. S. M. M i l l e r , " C o m p a r a t i v e S o c i a l M o b i l i t y " i n S t r u c t u r e d  S o c i a l I n e q u a l i t y , e d . b y C e l i a S. H e l l e r ( L o n d o n : M a c M i l l a n Co., 1 9 6 9 ) , p. 330. I h a v e n o t i n c l u d e d • d a t a c i t e d b y M i l l e r w h i c h was t a k e n f r o m m o b i l i t y s t u d i e s o f p a r t i c u l a r c i t i e s . M i l l e r ' s i n t e r n a t i o n a l d a t a was n o t i m m e d i a t e l y c o m p a r a b l e t o my own b e c a u s e t h e v a r i o u s o c c u p a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e s w e r e d i v i d e d i n t o m a n u a l a n d n o n -m a n u a l w h i c h was n o t i d e n t i c a l t o t h e e l i t e a nd n o n - e l i t e d i v i s i o n w h i c h I h a v e d r a w n i n t h e c a s e o f t h e H u t t e r i t e s . A l t h o u g h a l l e l i t e o c c u p a t i o n s x^ere n o n - m a n u a l , one n o n -e l i t e o c c u p a t i o n was a l s o n o n - m a n u a l - t h e German t e a c h e r . 196 By i n c l u d i n g t h e German t e a c h e r w i t h i n t h e same c a t e g o r y as t h e p r e a c h e r a n d t h e c o l o n y manager, my d a t a was made more c o m p a r a b l e t o M i l l e r ' s . 13. I b i d . 329. 14. The r e a d e r s h o u l d i n t e r p r e t t h i s t a b l e w i t h a n o t e o f c a u t i o n . The f a m i l i e s r e f e r r e d t o i n t h i s t a b l e may n o t b e c o m p l e t e d f a m i l i e s , and t h e r e f o r e do n o t r e f l e c t t h e t r u e s i z e o f H u t t e r i t e f a m i l i e s . What t h i s t a b l e d o e s . r e f l e c t i s t h e r e l a t i v e c o n t r i b u t i o n o f e a c h o c c u p a t i o n a l g r o u p t o male l a b o u r f o r c e . 15. The e x p l a n a t i o n w h i c h I f a v o u r r u n s as f o l l o w s . H u t t e r i t e s i n g e n e r a l p l a c e a h i g h v a l u e on h a v i n g l a r g e f a m i l i e s ; h owever, t h e p r e a c h e r seems t o b e i n a b e t t e r p o s i t i o n t o a c t u a l i z e t h i s i d e a l . The o n l y f o r m o f b i r t h c o n t r o l • commonly p r a c t i c e d b y t h e H u t t e r i t e i s l a t e m a r r i a g e . However, p r e a c h e r s t e n d t o h a v e more a c c e s s t o f e r t i l e w i v e s t h a n o t h e r o c c u p a t i o n a l g r o u p s . The w i v e s o f p r e a c h e r s a r e on t h e a v e r a g e 7.39 y e a r s y o u n g e r t h a n t h e i r h u s b a n d s ; w h e r e a s f o r a l l o t h e r o c c u p a t i o n a l g r o u p s t h e w i v e s a r e o n l y 1.68 y e a r s y o u n g e r t h a n t h e i r h u s b a n d s . T h i s d o e s n o t o c c u r b e c a u s e p r e a c h e r s ' w i v e s m a r r y a t a y o u n g e r age t h a n o t h e r w i v e s , b u t b e c a u s e p r e a c h e r s t e n d , u p o n t h e d e a t h o f t h e i r f i r s t w i f e , t o m a r r y y o u n g women. R e m a r r i a g e s i n a l l o t h e r o c c u p a t i o n a l g r o u p s t e n d s t o b e b e t w e e n p a r t n e r s o f s i m i l a r age. 16. N o t o n l y i s t h e d i f f e r e n t i a l f e r t i l i t y h y p o t h e s i s o f t h e M a c h i a v e l l i a n s c l e a r l y f a l s e , b u t t h e M a r x i a n h y p o t h e s i s c i t e d i n C h a p t e r 1 must a l s o be r e j e c t e d . 17. Means, S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s , and T e s t o f S i g n i f i c a n c e f o r S e l e c t e d S u b s e t s o f I n d i c e s o f A s s o c i a t i o n i n T a b l e 3.12. S u b s e t Mean S.D. S t u d e n t ' s t 1. M a j o r D i a g o n a l 2. E l i t e S u b - m a t r i x 1.227 977 .465 443 1.463 - .489 3. U p w a r d l y M o b i l e S u b - m a t r i x 866 .451 -1.149 4. Downwardly M o b i l e S u b - m a t r i x .957 .204 .809 197 5. S t a t i o n a r y N o n - e l i t e S u b - m a t r i x 1.038 .495 .612 6. D i a g o n a l o f N o n - e l i t e 1.302 .478 1.673 None o f t h e means o f t h e s u b - m a t r i c e s w e r e f o u n d t o d e p a r t s i g n i f i c a n t l y f r o m t h e e x p e c t e d mean o f 1.00. I n a l l c a s e s t h e r e s u l t s were n o t s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e .05 l e v e l u s i n g a o n e - t a i l e d t e s t o f s i g n i f i c a n c e . The f o l l o w i n g male c o n s a n g u i n e a l k i n were f o u n d t o h a v e no i n d e p e n d e n t e f f e c t upon ego's u l t i m a t e s t a t u s p o s i t i o n : e g o ' s MoFa, Ego's FaMoFa, and e g o's F a F a F a F a . C o l l a t e r a l r e l a t i v e s s u c h as c o u s i n s , u n c l e s , and g r e a t - u n c l e s were n o t examined, o n l y l i n e a l r e l a t i v e s r e c e i v e d a t t e n t i o n i n t h i s a n a l y s i s . I t s h o u l d b e n o t e d t h a t a few o f t h o s e on u n a u t h o r i z e d v a c a t i o n s h a v e t u r n e d o u t t o b e p e r m a n e n t d e f e c t o r s and a few o f t h o s e c o n s i d e r e d p e r m a n e n t d e f e c t o r s h a v e s u r -p r i s e d t h e c o l o n y b y r e t u r n i n g a f t e r a l e n g t h y a b s e n c e . The d e c i s i o n t o s t r i k e an i n d i v i d u a l ' s name f r o m t h e m embership l i s t and c o n s i d e r h i m t o b e a p e r m a n e n t d e -f e c t o r i s t y p i c a l l y b a s e d on t h e p e r s o n ' s a t t i t u d e upon l e a v i n g t h e c o l o n y , t h e c o n t e n t s o f l e t t e r s s e n t b y t h e i n d i v i d u a l t o h i s r e l a t i v e s , and g o s s i p c o n c e r n i n g t h e i n d i v i d u a l s o c c u p a t i o n a l and m a r i t a l s t a t u s i n t h e h o s t s o c i e t y . I n d i v i d u a l s who m a r r y a n o n - H u t t e r i t e o r e n t e r t h e h o s t s o c i e t y ' s e d u c a t i o n a l s y s t e m a r e v e r y q u i c k l y d e f i n e d as p e r m a n e n t d e f e c t o r s . The d e f e c t i o n rate, w i l l b e d e f i n e d as t h e number o f d e f e c t o r s p e r 100 s o n s i n e a c h o c c u p a t i o n a l c a t e g o r y . See, J o h n A. H o s t e t l e r and G e r t r u d e E n d e r s H u n t i n g t o n , The H u t t e r i t e s i n N o r t h A m e r i c a (New Y o r k : H o l t , R i n e -h a r t and W i n s t o n , 1967) pp. 105-6. 198 C h a p t e r I V I n t e r - c o l o n y C o m p a r i s o n s S t u d e n t s o f H u t t e r i a n s o c i e t y h a v e p a i d s c a n t a t t e n t i o n t o t h e e x i s t e n c e o f d y n a s t i e s and h e r e d i t a r y l e a d e r s h i p i n t h e v a r i o u s h i s t o r i e s and e t h n o g r a p h i e s o f t h e H u t t e r i t e s . A l t h o u g h t h e r e s u l t s o f C h a p t e r I I I make i t a b u n d a n t l y c l e a r t h a t t h e s t a t u s p o s i t i o n a s c r i b e d t o a p e r s o n b y h i s f a m i l y p l a y s a s i g n i f i c a n t r o l e i n d e t e r m i n i n g t h a t p e r s o n ' s l i f e c h a n c e s , t h i s theme h a s b e e n v i r t u a l l y i g n o r e d b y ' p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h e r s . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e * v e r y e x i s t e n c e o f i n e q u a l i t i e s o f o p p o r t u n i t y a n d m a t e r i a l c o n d i t i o n i s d i r e c t l y c o n t r a r y t o t h e s t a t e d b e l i e f s y s t e m o f t h e H u t t e r i t e s . 1 H u t t e r i t e c o m m u n i t i e s a r e i n t e n t i o n a l c o m m u n i t i e s w h i c h a r e s t r u c t u r e d i n s u c h a way as t o p r e v e n t i n e q u a l i t i e s o f o p p o r t u n i t y and m a t e r i a l c o n d i t i o n f r o m d e v e l o p i n g . T h e r e i s an e m i n e n t l y s e n s i b l e s o c i o l o g i c a l r e a s o n why t h i s s h o u l d b e t h e c a s e . By a b o l i s h i n g t h e i n s t i t u t i o n o f p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y , t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f d i f f e r e n t i a l a l l o c a t i o n o f m a t e r i a l and e c o n o m i c r e w a r d s o u g h t t o be a b s e n t . E l i t e o r d e c i s i o n -m a k i n g p o s i t i o n s s h o u l d n o t b e any more a t t r a c t i v e t h a n n o n -e l i t e p o s i t i o n s s i n c e no g r e a t e r i n c e n t i v e i s o f f e r e d t o t h e o c c u p a n t s o f e l i t e p o s i t i o n s . Do t h e r e s u l t s i n C h a p t e r I I I show t h a t p r e v i o u s r e -s e a r c h e r s h a v e i n a c c u r a t e l y d e s c r i b e d H u t t e r i t e s o c i e t y and 199 t h a t t h e H u t t e r i t e s t h e m s e l v e s h a v e f a i l e d i n t h e i r d e s i r e t o e r a d i c a t e i n e q u a l i t i e s o f o p p o r t u n i t y ? The d a t a w h i c h w i l l b e p r e s e n t e d i n t h i s c h a p t e r w i l l r e v e a l t h a t t h e ' n o r m a l ' c o n d i t i o n o f H u t t e r i t e s o c i e t y i s i n d e e d e q u a l i t y o f o p p o r t u n i t y . I t i s o n l y on t h o s e c o l o n i e s w h i c h a r e r e g a r d e d b y t h e H u t t e r i t e s t o b e m a l f u n c t i o n i n g do we f i n d g r a v e i n e q u a l i t i e s o f b o t h o p p o r t u n i t y and m a t e r i a l c o n d i t i o n . T h e s e a r e u s u a l l y t h e ' d y i n g c o l o n i e s ' r e f e r r e d t o i n C h a p t e r I I . P r e v i o u s s o c i o l o g i c a l and a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l s t u d i e s h a v e u s u a l l y b e e n b a s e d on o b s e r v a t i o n s o f a s m a l l number o f c o l o n i e s . The r e s e a r c h e r s h a v e u s u a l l y s e l e c t e d what t h e y r e g a r d as t y p i c a l o r n o r m a l c o l o n i e s as t h e i r m a j o r s o u r c e o f i n f o r m a t i o n . T h e r e h a v e b e e n no s t u d i e s w h i c h h a v e f o c u s e d o n t h e ' d y i n g c o l o n y ' as a s u b j e c t o f s t u d y . The ' d y i n g c o l o n y ' i s n o t s i m p l y a c o l o n y i n w h i c h t h e p o p u l a t i o n c e a s e s t o e x p a n d ; i t i s a c o l o n y w h i c h s u f f e r s f r o m 2 a c o m p l e x o f s o c i a l p a t h o l o g i e s . I n C h a p t e r I I , one ' d y i n g c o l o n y ' ( M i l l e r d a l e ) was e x a m i n e d and r e v e a l e d t h e f o l l o w i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s : z e r o p o p u l a t i o n g r o w t h , a h i g h d e f e c t i o n r a t e , a f a i l u r e t o p r o d u c e a d a u g h t e r c o l o n y , t h e demand f o r o c c u p a t i o n a l p o s i t i o n s g r e a t e r t h a n t h e s u p p l y , and a h i g h d e g r e e o f i n e q u a l i t y o f o p p o r t u n i t y b e t w e e n t h e e l i t e and t h e n o n - e l i t e . To t h i s l i s t m i g h t b e added t h r e e o t h e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w h i c h I o b s e r v e d i n t h e c o u r s e o f my 200 f i e l d work: c o l l e c t i v e p o v e r t y , i n t r a - c o l o n y c o n f l i c t , and i n e q u a l i t i e s i n t h e r e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f m a t e r i a l goods t o c o l o n y members. A l l H u t t e r i t e c o l o n i e s h a v e as t h e i r m a j o r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l g o a l t h e a c c u m u l a t i o n o f s u f f i c i e n t c a p i t a l t o p u r c h a s e a f u l l y o p e r a t i o n a l d a u g h t e r c o l o n y w i t h i n 15 y e a r s . A number o f f a c t o r s p r e v e n t t h e ' d y i n g c o l o n y ' f r o m c a r r y i n g o u t t h i s m i s s i o n . ' D y i n g c o l o n i e s ' a r e f r e q u e n t l y t h o s e c o l o n i e s w h i c h h a v e h a d t h e m i s f o r t u n e o r l a c k o f f o r e s i g h t t o l o c a t e i n u n d e s i r a b l e a r e a s . A number o f e n v i r o n m e n t a l c o n d i t i o n s . f r e q u e n t l y l i m i t t h e a b i l i t y o f a c o l o n y t o make a p r o f i t . I n f e r t i l e s o i l , p o o r d r a i n a g e , e a r l y f r o s t s , d r o u g h t , and e x c e s s i v e p r e c i p i t a t i o n a r e some o f t h e e n v i r o n m e n t a l c o n d i -t i o n s w h i c h p r e v e n t a c o l o n y f r o m a c h i e v i n g i t s g o a l . W e a l t h y c o l o n i e s w h i c h h a v e l o c a t e d i n f a v o u r a b l e r e g i o n s a r e t y p i c a l l y a b l e t o a f f o r d a d a u g h t e r c o l o n y b e f o r e t h e p o p u l a t i o n o f t h e c o l o n y d o u b l e s . D y i n g c o l o n i e s and c o l o n i e s w h i c h h a v e p r o b l e m s a p p r o a c h i n g t h o s e o f t h e d y i n g c o l o n y a r e f r e q u e n t l y d i s a d v a n t a g e d b y t h e m o t h e r c o l o n y . D y i n g c o l o n i e s a r e o f t e n p r e - m a t u r e c o l o n i e s w h i c h were p r o d u c e d b e f o r e p o p u l a t i o n p r e s s u r e made f i s s i o n n e c e s s a r y . A l t h o u g h I h a v e no h a r d d a t a on t h i s , my i m p r e s s i o n i s t h a t c o l o n i e s w h i c h f i s s i o n v e r y r a p i d l y o f t e n do so i n o r d e r t o s o l v e f a m i l y f e u d s w i t h i n t h e c o l o n y . A f t e r c o l o n y 201 d i v i s i o n , one f a c t i o n w i l l r e c e i v e t h e d a u g h t e r c o l o n y , w h i l e t h e o t h e r f a c t i o n r e m a i n s on t h e m o t h e r c o l o n y . T h e s e h a s t y c o l o n y d i v i s i o n s c a n o f t e n p u t t h e d a u g h t e r c o l o n y a t a p e r m a n e n t d i s a d v a n t a g e . O f t e n t h e m o t h e r c o l o n y c a n o n l y a f f o r d t o p u r c h a s e v e r y c h e a p m a r g i n a l l a n d , t h u s s e r i o u s l y p r e v e n t i n g f u t u r e e c o n o m i c s u c c e s s on t h e p a r t o f t h e d a u g h t e r c o l o n y . T h e e c o n o m i c g r o w t h o f t h e s e c o l o n i e s may b e r e t a r d e d t o s u c h an e x t e n t t h a t t h e y a r e f o r e v e r u n a b l e t o a c c u m u l a t e s u f f i c i e n t c a p i t a l t o a f f o r d a ' d a u g h t e r c o l o n y . The ' n o r m a l ' c o l o n y i s a b l e t o m a i n t a i n a r e l a t i v e l y open o p p o r t u n i t y s t r u c t u r e n o t o n l y b e c a u s e t h e c r e a t i o n o f a d a u g h t e r c o l o n y p r o d u c e s new o p e n i n g s , b u t a l s o b e c a u s e t h e p o p u l a t i o n i s n e v e r a l l o w e d t o r e a c h t h e p o i n t where t h e r e a r e more men t h a n p o s i t i o n s . I n p o o r c o l o n i e s o n t h e o t h e r hand, t h e i n a b i l i t y t o f i s s i o n r e s u l t s i n a c l o s e d o p p o r t u n i t y s t r u c t u r e where t h e number o f men e x c e e d t h e number o f p o s i t i o n s . On c o l o n i e s w h e r e t h e r e i s a s c a r c i t y o f p o s i t i o n s , f a v o u r i t i s m and n e p o t i s m o f t e n become t h e r u l e . F a m i l i e s w h i c h h o l d i n f l u e n t i a l e l i t e p o s i t i o n s h a n d p o s i t i o n s down t o t h e i r s o n s and t h e s o n s o f t h e n o n - e l i t e f a m i l i e s r e c e i v e t h o s e p o s i t i o n s w h i c h a r e l e f t o v e r . I n t e r n a l c o n f l i c t a r i s e s as a r e s u l t o f t h i s f a v o u r i t i s m . S u p p r e s s e d f a m i l i e s w h i c h a r e f r u s t r a t e d b y t h e l a c k o f 202 o p p o r t u n i t i e s and t h e i r e x c l u s i o n f r o m p o s i t i o n s o f a u t h o r i t y f r e q u e n t l y s e a r c h f o r s u c h a l t e r n a t i v e s as d e f e c t i o n and f e u d i n g . I n some c o l o n i e s an i m p e r m e a b l e c l a s s - l i k e s y s t e m b e g i n s t o emerge, w i t h a p a r t i c u l a r f a m i l y o p e r a t i n g a v i r t u a l d i c t a t o r s h i p . The f a c t i o n i n power c a n c o n t r o l t h e p o w e r l e s s f a c t i o n b y t h r e a t e n i n g t o e x p e l them f r o m t h e c h u r c h and b y v i r t u e o f t h e i r c o n t r o l o v e r t h e r e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f m a t e r i a l g o o d s . A l t h o u g h t h e H u t t e r i t e f a m i l y . i s n o t an e c o n o m i c u n i t and c a n n o t own p r i v a t e p o s s e s s i o n s , i t c a n b y c a p t u r i n g t h e l e a d e r -s h i p o f a c o l o n y g u a r a n t e e i t s own members p r e f e r r e d a c c e s s t o and u s a g e o f m a t e r i a l g o o d s . F o r example, o n l y t h e members o f t h e e l i t e o n a c o l o n y h a v e cheque s i g n i n g power w h i c h c a n b e u s e d t o a m e l i o r a t e t h e m a t e r i a l c o n d i t i o n s o f t h e i r own 3 f a m i l y members a t t h e e x p e n s e o f t h e n o n - e l i t e f a m i l e s . However, t h e r u l i n g e l i t e c a n o n l y s u c c e s s f u l l y e x p l o i t t h e n o n - e l i t e i f t h e y h a v e s u f f i c i e n t v o t i n g s t r e n g t h i n t h e e x t e n d e d c o u n c i l t o g u a r a n t e e t h e i r c o n t i n u e d t e n u r e i n o f f i c e . T y p i c a l l y t h e e x p l o i t i n g f a m i l i e s w i l l o n l y u s e t h e i r power t o a t t a i n a s t a n d a r d o f l i v i n g c o m p a r a b l e t o t h a t e n j o y e d b y t h e i r b r e t h r e n on w e a l t h y c o l o n i e s . I h a v e n o t o b s e r v e d a c a s e where t h e d e g r e e o f i n e q u a l i t y o f m a t e r i a l c o n d i t i o n was s e v e r e . N e v e r t h e l e s s , t h e d e g r e e o f r e l a t i v e d e p r i v a t i o n a p p e a r s t o b e s u f f i c i e n t t o c a u s e t h e n o n - e l i t e t o s e a r c h f o r 203 a l t e r n a t i v e s t o t h e i r p r e s e n t c o n d i t i o n . A l t h o u g h d e f e c t i o n i s p e r h a p s t h e m a j o r a l t e r n a t i v e , some men c h o o s e t o m a r r y and move t o t h e i r w i f e ' s c o l o n y . U s u a l l y H u t t e r i t e s o p e r a t e i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h a p a t r i l o c a l r e s i d e n c e r u l e . M o s t men a r e r e l u c t a n t t o move t o t h e i r w i f e ' s c o l o n y b e c a u s e t h e y w o u l d h a v e t o g i v e up t h e s u p p o r t o f t h e i r i m m e d i a t e r e l a t i v e s who o c c u p y p o s i t i o n s o f power i n t h e a u t h o r i t y h i e r a r c h y . However, i f t h e i r i m m e d i a t e k i n a r e c o m p l e t e l y l a c k i n g i n power t h e y h a v e n o t h i n g t o l o s e b y s w i t c h i n g c o l o n i e s . A l t h o u g h t r u e d y i n g c o l o n i e s may be r a r e , a s i g n i f i c a n t number o f c o l o n i e s r a n g e i n b e t w e e n t h e d y i n g c o l o n y and t h e n o r m a l c o l o n y . T h e s e c o l o n i e s do n o t s u f f e r f r o m t h e same m a g n i t u d e o f p r o b l e m s as t h e d y i n g c o l o n y , b u t t h e y a r e f r e q u e n t l y s l o w t o f i s s i o n b e c a u s e t h e y h a v e c o n s i d e r a b l e d i f f i c u l t i e s i n r a i s i n g s u f f i c i e n t c a p i t a l t o p u r c h a s e a d a u g h t e r c o l o n y . I n T a b l e s 4.1 and 4.2, I h a v e d i v i d e d t h e c o l o n i e s o f t h e S c h m i e d e l e u t f e d e r a t i o n i n t o two c a t e g o r i e s - t h o s e w h i c h f i s s i o n more r a p i d l y t h a n t h e a v e r a g e and t h o s e w h i c h f i s s i o n more s l o w l y t h a n t h e a v e r a g e . A c c o r d i n g t o T a b l e 2.2, t h e a v e r a g e f i s s i o n i n g t i m e i s 14.42 y e a r s . T h i s f i g u r e w i l l b e t a k e n as o u r c u t t i n g p o i n t . .. 29 c o l o n i e s were f o u n d t o f i s s i o n more r a p i d l y t h a n t h e a v e r a g e and 13 c o l o n i e s w ere f o u n d t o f i s s i o n more s l o w l y t h a n t h e a v e r a g e . The r e -m a i n i n g 9 c o l o n i e s h a d f o r m e d o n l y . r e c e n t l y and h a d n o t as y e t 204 d i v i d e d , t h u s t h e y w e r e n o t i n c l u d e d i n t h i s a n a l y s i s . The r e s u l t s o f t h e s e t a b l e s show t h a t t h e r e i s a s u b s t a n -t i a l d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e d e g r e e o f i n e q u a l i t y o f o p p o r t u n i t y 4 b e t w e e n t h e two t y p e s o f c o l o n i e s . The i n d e x o f i n e q u a l i t y o f t h e r a p i d l y d i v i d i n g c o l o n i e s was o n l y 1.61, w h e r e a s i t was 3.27 f o r t h o s e c o l o n i e s w h i c h d i v i d e s l o w l y . T h i s means t h a t t h e p r o b a b i l i t y o f e l i t e s o n s i n s l o w l y d i v i d i n g c o l o n i e s e n t e r i n g t h e e l i t e i s t w i c e as g r e a t as t h e p r o b a b i l i t y o f e l i t e s o n s i n r a p i d l y d i v i d i n g c o l o n i e s a t t a i n i n g e l i t e p o s i t i o n s . E i g h t c o l o n i e s e x h i b i t e d an u n u s u a l f o r m o f i n e q u a l i t y , i n w h i c h t h e s o n s o f t h e n o n - e l i t e h a d a s l i g h t a d v a n t a g e o v e r e l i t e s o n s i n a t t a i n i n g e l i t e s t a t u s . The a v e r a g e f i s s i o n t i m e f o r t h e s e e i g h t c o l o n i e s was 13.19 y e a r s . The f i s s i o n t i m e s f o r a l l e i g h t c o l o n i e s r a n g e d b e t w e e n 11 and 15 y e a r s . M o b i l i t y From F a t h e r ' s S t a t u s P o s i t i o n i n 29 R a p i d l y D i v i d i n g . T a b l e 4.1 C o l o n i e s : P e r c e n t a g e d By Row.-Son s S t a t u s P o s i t i o n N o n - e l i t e T o t a l E l i t e F a t h e r ' s S t a t u s E l i t e 102 (35.91%) 182 284 (64.09%) (100.00%) N o n - e l i t e 64 (22.29%) 223 287 (77.71%) (100.00%) T o t a l 166 (29.07%) 405 571 (70.93%) (100.00%) 205 T a b l e 4.2 M o b i l i t y From F a t h e r ' s S t a t u s P o s i t i o n I n 13 S l o w l y D i v i d i n g C o l o n i e s : P e r c e n t a g e d By Row. Son's S t a t u s P o s i t i o n E l i t e N o n - e l i t e T o t a l F a t h e r ' s 56 76 132 S t a t u s E l i t e (42.42%) (57.58%) (100.00%) P o s i t i o n 18 121 139 N o n - e l i t e (12.95%) (87.05%) (100.00%) 74 197 271 T o t a l (27.30%) (72.70%) (100.00%) O n l y f o u r c o l o n i e s c o u l d b e c l a s s e d as t r u e d y i n g c o l o n i e s , i n a s much as t h e y h a d b e e n i n e x i s t e n c e f o r o v e r 2 0 y e a r s w i t h o u t e v e r d i v i d i n g . I n T a b l e 4.3, t h e i n e q u a l i t i e s o f o p p o r t u n i t y i n d y i n g c o l o n i e s a r e shown t o b e enormous. O n l y one n o n - e l i t e s o n e v e r managed t o become an e l i t e member. The i n d e x o f i n e q u a l i t y f o r d y i n g c o l o n i e s i s 11.49, w h i c h means t h a t t h e s o n s o f t h e e l i t e h a v e a l l J g t o 1 a d v a n t a g e o v e r t h e s o n s o f t h e n o n - e l i t e . A somewhat u n e x p e c t e d f i n d i n g was t h a t t h o s e c o l o n i e s w h i c h d i v i d e d e x t r e m e l y r a p i d l y (a f i s s i o n t i m e o f 10 y e a r s o r l e s s ) e x h i b i t e d a g r e a t e r d e g r e e o f i n e q u a l i t y t h a n t h o s e c o l o n i e s w h i c h h a d a f i s s i o n t i m e b e t w e e n 10 and 14.42 y e a r s . The e v i d e n c e f o r t h i s a s s e r t i o n c a n be f o u n d i n T a b l e s 4.4 and 4.5. 206 T a b l e 4.3 M o b i l i t y From F a t h e r ' s S t a t u s P o s i t i o n i n D y i n g C o l o n i e s : P e r c e n t a g e d By Row. F a t h e r 1 s S t a t u s P o s i t i o n E l i t e N o n - e l i t e T o t a l Son's S t a t u s P o s i t i o n E l i t e N o n - e l i t e T o t a l 17 20 37 (45.94%) (54.06%) (100.00%) 1 24 25 ( 4.00%) (96.00%) (100.00%) 18 44 62 (29.03%) (70.97%) (100.00%) T a b l e 4.4 M o b i l i t y From F a t h e r ' s S t a t u s P o s i t i o n I n C o l o n i e s W i t h E x t r e m e l y  R a p i d F i s s i o n T i m e s ( L e s s T h a n 10 Y e a r s ) ; P e r c e n t a g e d By Row. Son's S t a t u s P o s i t i o n E l i t e N o n - e l i t e T o t a l F a t h e r ' s S t a t u s P o s i t i o n E l i t e N o n - e l i t e T o t a l 17 24 41 (41.46%) (58.54%) (100.00%) 4 21 25 (16.00%) (84.00%) (100.00%) 21 45 66 (31.82%) (68.13%) (100..00%) 207 T a b l e 4.5 M o b i l i t y From F a t h e r ' s S t a t u s P o s i t i o n I n C o l o n i e s  W i t h 'Normal' F i s s i o n T i m e s (Between 10 and 14.42 Y e a r s ) P e r c e n t a g e d By Row. F a t h e r ' s S t a t u s P o s i t i o n E l i t e N o n - e l i t e T o t a l Son's S t a t u s P o s i t i o n E l i t e N o n - e l i t e T o t a l 85 (34.98%) 60 (22.90%) 145 (28.71%) 158 (65.02%) 202 (77.10%) 243 . (100.00%) 262 (100.00%) 360 (71.29%) 505 (100.00%) The i n d e x o f i n e q u a l i t y i n e x t r e m e l y r a p i d l y d i v i d i n g c o l o n i e s i s 2.59 compared t o 1.52 i n 'no r m a l ' c o l o n i e s . T h e s e a r e t h e c o l o n i e s w h i c h i n a l l p r o b a b i l i t y p r o d u c e p r e - m a t u r e d a u g h t e r c o l o n i e s . T h e s e c o l o n i e s d i v i d e v e r y r a p i d l y n o t b e c a u s e t h e y c a n a f f o r d t o s o o n e r t h a n o t h e r c o l o n i e s b u t b e c a u s e t h e y w i s h t o r i d t h e m s e l v e s o f f a c t i o n a l c o n f l i c t s , e v e n i f t h i s e n t a i l s a g r e a t f i n a n c i a l c o s t t o b o t h m o t h e r and d a u g h t e r c o l o n i e s . P r e s u m a b l y , some o f t h e s o - c a l l e d ' n o r m a l ' c o l o n i e s may a l s o s h o r t e n t h e i r f i s s i o n i n g t i m e i n o r d e r t o a v o i d c o n f l i c t b e t w e e n f a m i l y a l l i a n c e s . The a u t h o r e n d e a v o r e d t o a s c e r t a i n t h e w e a l t h l e v e l o f t h e v a r i o u s c o l o n i e s i n t h e S c h m i e d e l e u t f e d e r a t i o n . Of t h e many i n d i c a t o r s o f c o l o n y w e a l t h , p e r c a p i t a a s s e s s e d v a l u e o f 208 c o l o n y h o l d i n g s was s e l e c t e d as t h e m a i n measure o f c o r p o r a t e w e a l t h . T h i s measure was u s e d i n s t e a d o f p e r c a p i t a c o r p o r a t e i ncome, b e c a u s e o f t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s e n c o u n t e r e d i n g e t t i n g t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n f r o m a l l c o l o n i e s . I n a d d i t i o n , as d e s c r i b e d i n C h a p t e r I I , t h i s m e asure i s d e t e r m i n e d b y t h e c o l o n y ' s s t a g e i n t h e g r o w t h c y c l e a n d t h u s i s n o t p a r t i c u l a r l y u s e f u l f o r p u r p o s e s on i n t e r - c o l o n y c o m p a r i s o n s o f l e v e l o f w e a l t h . How-e v e r , e x c e p t on r e c e n t l y f o r m e d c o l o n i e s , t h e l a n d , b u i l d i n g s , a n d e q u i p m e n t h e l d b y a c o l o n y do n o t v a r y w i t h t h e g r o w t h c y c l e . A m a t u r e c o l o n y w i l l r e p l a c e o l d b u i l d i n g s and e q u i p m e n t and may e v e n p u r c h a s e an a d d i t i o n a l s e c t i o n o f l a n d , b u t most o f t h e c a p i t a l w h i c h a c o l o n y a c c u mmulates w i l l b e u s e d t o o u t f i t a d a u g h t e r c o l o n y . S i n c e t h e s i z e and v a l u e o f l a n d h o l d i n g s w i l l i n l a r g e m easure d e t e r m i n e e c o n o m i c p r o s p e c t s i n an a g r a r i a n s o c i e t y , i t was n o t s u r p r i s i n g t o f i n d t h a t t h e r e was a h i g h c o r r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n t h e w e a l t h l e v e l o f a c o l o n y and t h e r a t e o f f i s s i o n i n g . (See, T a b l e 4.6.) P o o r c o l o n i e s t e n d t o d e l a y f i s s i o n i n g u n t i l w e l l a f t e r t h e a v e r a g e t i m e p e r i o d , w h e r e a s w e a l t h y and m i d d l e r a n g e c o l o n i e s a r e a b l e , t o d i v i d e more r a p i d l y . I t i s i m p o r t a n t t o n o t e t h a t t h e f o u r ' p r e - m a t u r e ' c o l o n i e s r e f e r r e d t o i n T a b l e 4.4 a p p e a r i n t h e b o t t o m l e f t c e l l o f T a b l e 4.6. S i n c e t h e e x i s t e n c e o f t h e s e c o l o n i e s makes t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n l e v e l o f w e a l t h and f i s s i o n i n g t i m e s l i g h t l y 209 T a b l e 4.6 W e a l t h L e v e l o f C o l o n y b y F i s s i o n i n g Time W e a l t h L e v e l o f C o l o n y W e a l t h y M i d d l e P o o r T o t a l F i s s i o n i n g Time R a p i d Slow 12 11 6 1 3 7 29 11 T o t a l 13 14 13 40 W e a l t h l e v e l b y f i s s i o n i n g t i m e i s s i g n i f i c a n t b e y o n d t h e .05 l e v e l b y c h i - s q u a r e t e s t w i t h 2 d . f . c u r v i l i n e a r , t h e i r e x c l u s i o n f r o m t h e a n a l y s i s p r o d u c e s a r e -l a t i o n s h i p s i g n i f i c a n t b e y o n d t h e .001 l e v e l b y a c h i - s q u a r e t e s t . A l t h o u g h b o t h t h e ' d y i n g c o l o n y ' and t h e ' p r e - m a t u r e c o l o n y ' r e p r e s e n t m u t a t i o n s o f n o r m a l H u t t e r i a n community d e v e l o p m e n t , t h e y a r e n o t l i k e l y t o c o n s t i t u t e a m a j o r t h r e a t t o t h e H u t t e r -i t e way o f l i f e . The ' d y i n g c o l o n y ' d o e s n o t r e p r o d u c e i t s e l f ; t h e r e f o r e i t s i n f l u e n c e i s c o n t a i n e d . B o t h t h e m o t h e r and d a u g h t e r c o l o n i e s o f p r e - m a t u r e d i v i s i o n s a r e l i k e l y t o b e p o o r a n d s m a l l i n p o p u l a t i o n . As we h a v e shown i n C h a p t e r I I , t h e s e i n i t i a l d i s a d v a n t a g e s a r e l i k e l y t o d e l a y s u b s e q u e n t c o l o n y d i v i s i o n s . However, s i n c e t h e ' i n i t i a l p o p u l a t i o n was much 210 s m a l l e r t h a n n o r m a l , t h i s d e l a y i n f i s s i o n i n g d o e s n o t c r e a t e an o v e r - s i z e d c o l o n y and a l l o f t h e s u b s e q u e n t p r o b l e m s w h i c h t h a t e n t a i l s . A ' p r e - m a t u r e c o l o n y 1 s i m p l y t a k e s a much l o n g e r p e r i o d o f t i m e b e f o r e t h e p o p u l a t i o n r e a c h e s 140. I n l i g h t o f t h e above f i n d i n g s , i t was n o t s u r p r i s i n g t o f i n d t h a t p o o r c o l o n i e s d i s p l a y e d g r e a t e r i n e q u a l i t i e s o f o p p o r t u n i t y t h a n d i d e i t h e r w e a l t h y o r ' m i d d l e ' c o l o n i e s . The e v i d e n c e f o r t h i s c a n b e f o u n d i n T a b l e s 4.7, 4.8, and 4.9. T a b l e 4.7 M o b i l i t y From F a t h e r ' s S t a t u s P o s i t i o n i n W e a l t h y C o l o n i e s : P e r c e n t a g e d By Row. Son' s S t a t u s P o s i t i o n E l i t e N o n - e l i t e T o t a l F a t h e r ' s S t a t u s P o s i t i o n E l i t e 47 93 (33.57%) (66.43%) 140 (100.00%) N o n - e l i t e 30 132 (18.52%) (81.48%) 162 (100.00%) T o t a l 77 225 302 (2 5.50%) (74.50%) (100.00%) 211 T a b l e 4.8 M o b i l i t y From F a t h e r ' s S t a t u s P o s i t i o n i n ' M i d d l e ' C o l o n i e s : P e r c e n t a g e d By Row. F a t h e r 1 s S t a t u s P o s i t i o n Son's S t a t u s P o s i t i o n E l i t e N o n - e l i t e T o t a l 66 108 174 E l i t e (37.93%) (62.07%) (100.00%) 35 130 165 N o n - e l i t e (21.21%) (78.79%) (100.00%) 101 238 339 T o t a l (29.79%) (70.21%) (100.00%) T a b l e 4.9 M o b i l i t y From F a t h e r ' s S t a t u s P o s i t i o n i n P o o r C o l o n i e s : P e r c e n t a g e d By Row. Son's S t a t u s P o s i t i o n E l i t e N o n - e l i t e T o t a l F a t h e r ' s S t a t u s P o s i t i o n E l i t e N o n - e l i t e T o t a l 66 (44.30%) 23 (17.69%) 83 149 (55.70%) (100.00%) 107 (82.31%) 130 (100.00%) 89 ( 3 1 . 9 0 % 190 (68.10%) 279 (100.00%) 212 The i n d i c e s o f i n e q u a l i t y f o r t h e w e a l t h y , ' m i d d l e ' and p o o r c o l o n i e s were 1.81, 1.78, and 2.50 r e s p e c t i v e l y . No c o l o n i e s . B o t h were s i g n i f i c a n t l y more e q u a l i t a r i a n t h a n p o o r c o l o n i e s . The d i f f e r e n c e s , i n i n e q u a l i t y o f o p p o r t u n i t y b e t w e e n w e a l t h y and ' m i d d l e ' c o l o n i e s on t h e one hand, and p o o r c o l o n i e s o n t h e o t h e r , a l s o e x i s t f o r t h e women but. t o a l e s s e r e x t e n t . See, T a b l e s 4.10, 4.11, and 4.12. * The i n d i c e s o f i n e q u a l i t y a r e as f o l l o w s : ' w e a l t h y c o l o n i e s ( 1 . 4 1 ) , ' m i d d l e ' c o l o n i e s ( 1 . 2 6 ) , and p o o r c o l o n i e s (1.66) The r e a s o n why ' m i d d l e ' c o l o n i e s h a v e a g r e a t e r d e g r e e o f e q u a l i t y t h a n w e a l t h y c o l o n i e s c a n n o t b e e x p l a i n e d b y t h e f o r e g o i n g a n a l y s i s . s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s e x i s t e d b e t w e e n w e a l t h y and ' m i d d l e T a b l e 4.10 M a r i t a l M o b i l i t y From F a t h e r ' s S t a t u s P o s i t i o n i n W e a l t h y C o l o n i e s : P e r c e n t a g e d By Row H usband's S t a t u s P o s i t i o n E l i t e N o n - e l i t e T o t a l F a t h e r ' s S t a t u s P o s i t i o n E l i t e 47 (29.75%) 111 (70.2 5%) 158 (100.00%) N o n - e l i t e 30 (20.98%) 113 (79.02%) 143 (100.00%) T o t a l 77 (2 5.58%) 224 (74.42%) 301 (100.00%) 213 T a b l e 4.11 M a r i t a l M o b i l i t y From F a t h e r ' s S t a t u s P o s i t i o n  i n ' M i d d l e ' C o l o n i e s : P e r c e n t a g e d By Row. Husband's S t a t u s P o s i t i o n E l i t e N o n - e l i t e T o t a l F a t h e r ' s S t a t u s P o s i t i o n E l i t e N o n - e l i t e T o t a l 50 100 150 (33.33%) (66.67%) (100.00%) 50 139 189 (26.46%) (73.54%) (100.00%) 100 239 (29.50%) ( 7 0 . 5 0 % 339 (100.00%) T a b l e 4.12 M a r i t a l M o b i l i t y From F a t h e r ' s S t a t u s P o s i t i o n  i n P o o r C o l o n i e s : P e r c e n t a g e d By Row. F a t h e r ' s S t a t u s P o s i t i o n E l i t e N o n - e l i t e T o t a l Husband's S t a t u s P o s i t i o n E l i t e N o n - e l i t e T o t a l 58 • 91 149 (38.93%) (61.07%) (100.00%) 31 101 132 (23.48%) • (76.52%) (100.00%) 89 (31.67%) 192 281 (68.33%) (100.00%) 214 The d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n w e a l t h y , ' m i d d l e ' , and p o o r c o l o n i e s w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e d e g r e e o f i n e q u a l i t y o f o p p o r t u n i t y w e r e f o u n d i n o t h e r a r e a s as w e l l . I n p o o r c o l o n i e s , t h e p r e s e n c e o f e l i t e f a m i l y r e l a t i v e s s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n c r e a s e d t h e p r o b a b i l i t y o f e l i t e s o n s e n t e r i n g t h e e l i t e ; w h e r e a s t h i s was t r u e t o a f a r l e s s e r e x t e n t i n w e a l t h y and ' m i d d l e ' c o l o n i e s . S i m i l a r l y , e l i t e f a m i l y s u p p o r t p l a y e d a g r e a t e r r o l e i n p o o r c o l o n i e s t h a n i n w e a l t h y and ' m i d d l e ' c o l o n i e s i n d e t e r m i n i n g t h e m a r i t a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s o f e l i t e d a u g h t e r s . - However, t h e e f f i c a c y o f f a m i l y s u p p o r t i n t h e d e t e r m i n a t i o n . o f e l i t e s t a n d i n g was more pronounced, i n t h e c a s e o f m a l e s t h a n f e m a l e s . S i m i l a r l y , t h e r e was l i t t l e d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e r a t e o f d e f e c t i o n b e t w e e n t h e e l i t e and t h e n o n - e l i t e i n w e a l t h y and ' m i d d l e ' c o l o n i e s , b u t i n p o o r c o l o n i e s d e f e c t i o n s o c c u r r e d most h e a v i l y among t h e n o n - e l i t e . One f i n d i n g w i l l b e r e p o r t e d h e r e b e c a u s e i t a p p e a r s a t f i r s t g l a n c e t o b e somewhat p u z z l i n g , and t h u s m e r i t s f u r t h e r d i s c u s s i o n . P o o r c o l o n i e s h a v e b e e n c h a r a c t e r i z e d above as h a v i n g a h i g h e r d e g r e e o f i n e q u a l i t y o f o p p o r t u n i t y b e t w e e n t h e e l i t e and t h e n o n - e l i t e t h a n w e a l t h y and ' m i d d l e ' c o l o n i e s ; however, i t a p p e a r s t h a t t h e y c a n a l s o b e c h a r a c t e r i z e d as h a v i n g l e s s i n e q u a l i t y o f o p p o r t u n i t y w i t h i n t h e e l i t e . See T a b l e s 4.13, 4.14, and 4.15. I n w e a l t h y and ' m i d d l e * c o l o n i e s t h e s o n s o f p r e a c h e r s a r e more l i k e l y t o i n h e r i t e l i t e s t a t u s 215 t h a n t h e s o n s o f c o l o n y managers and f a r m b o s s e s . However, t h e r e v e r s e o c c u r s i n p o o r c o l o n i e s . The i n d i c e s o f i n e q u a l i t y b e t w e e n t h e two c a t e g o r i e s w i t h i n t h e e l i t e i n w e a l t h y , ' m i d d l e ' , and p o o r c o l o n i e s a r e 1.42, 1.33, and 0.73 r e s p e c t i v e l y . T a b l e 4.13 M o b i l i t y o f E l i t e Sons From F a t h e r ' s O c c u p a t i o n a l P o s i t i o n I n W e a l t h y C o l o n i e s : P e r c e n t a g e d By Row. Son's S t a t u s P o s i t i o n E l i t e N o n - e l i t e T o t a l F a t h e r ' s 35 59 94 O c c u p a t i o n a l P r e a c h e r (37.23%) (62.77%) (100.00%) P o s i t i o n C o l o n y 12 34 46 Manager & (26.09%) - (73.91%) (100.00%) Farm B o s s 47 93 ' 140 T o t a l (33.57%) (66.43%) (100.00%) T a b l e 4.14 M o b i l i t y o f E l i t e Sons From F a t h e r ' s O c c u p a t i o n a l  P o s i t i o n I n ' M i d d l e ' C o l o n i e s : P e r c e n t a g e d By Row. Son's S t a t u s P o s i t i o n  E l i t e N o n - e l i t e T o t a l F a t h e r ' s O c c u p a t i o n a l 41 55 96 P o s i t i o n P r e a c h e r (42.70%) (57.30%) (100.00%) C o l o n y 2 5 53 78 Manager & (32.05%) (67.95%) (100.00%) Farm B o s s 66 . 108 174 T o t a l (37.99%) (62.01%) (100.00%) 216 T a b l e 4.15 M o b i l i t y o f E l i t e Sons From F a t h e r ' s O c c u p a t i o n a l  P o s i t i o n I n P o o r C o l o n i e s : P e r c e n t a g e d By Row. F a t h e r ' s O c c u p a t i o n a l P o s i t i o n Son's S t a t u s P o s i t i o n E l i t e N o n - e l i t e T o t a l 47 68 115 P r e a c h e r (40.87%) (59.13%) (100.00%) C o l o n y 19 15 34 Manager & (55.88%) (44.12%) (100.00%) Farm B o s s T o t a l 66 83 149 (44.29%) (55.71%) (100.00%) T h i s r e v e r s a l i s n o t due t o a d e c l i n e i n t h e i n f l u e n c e o f t h e p r e a c h e r i n p o o r c o l o n i e s s i n c e t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f p r e a c h e r s ' s o n s who e n t e r t h e e l i t e v a r i e s o n l y s l i g h t l y w i t h t h e w e a l t h l e v e l o f t h e c o l o n y - 3 7 . 2 3 % i n w e a l t h y c o l o n i e s , 4 2 . 7 0 % i n ' m i d d l e ' c o l o n i e s , and 4 0 . 8 7 % i n p o o r c o l o n i e s . The r e v e r s a l i s due t o an i n c r e a s e i n t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f s o n s o f c o l o n y m a n a g e r s / f a r m b o s s e s e n t e r i n g t h e e l i t e i n p o o r c o l o n i e s . To u n d e r s t a n d t h i s phenomena i t i s i m p o r t a n t t o remember t h a t p o o r c o l o n i e s a r e o f t e n c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y s o c i a l c o n f l i c t b e t w e e n two k i n s h i p f a c t i o n s , one w h i c h h o l d s t h e e l i t e p o s i t i o n s and p r e v e n t s t h e o t h e r f a c t i o n f r o m d o i n g s o . The r e a s o n t h e r e i s g r e a t e r e q u a l i t y o f o p p o r t u n i t y w i t h i n t h e e l i t e i n p o o r c o l o n i e s i s b e c a u s e t h o s e who o c c u p y e l i t e p o s i t i o n s a r e o f t e n 217 members o f t h e same k i n s h i p u n i t . T a b l e 4.16 a p p e a r s t o b e a r , . 7 t h i s o u t . T a b l e 4.16 I d e n t i t y and D i s s i m i l a r i t y o f Surnames o f E l i t e Members on W e a l t h y , ' M i d d l e ' and. P o o r C o l o n i e s . Surnames o f E l i t e Members W e a l t h L e v e l O f C o l o n y W e a l t h y ' M i d d l e ' P o o r I d e n t i c a l (38.46%) 4 (28.57%) (69.2 3%) 18 (45.00%) D i s s i m i l a r T o t a l 8 (61.54%) 10 (71.43%) 4 (3 0.77%) 22 (55.00%) 13 (100.00%) 14 (100.00%) 13 (100.00%) 40 (100.00%) We c a n n o t c o n c l u d e o u r d i s c u s s i o n o f d y n a s t y f o r m a t i o n w i t h -o u t a d d r e s s i n g o u r s e l v e s t o an i s s u e w h i c h many w o u l d r e g a r d as c e n t r a l q u e s t i o n . Does t h e S c h m i e d e l e u t f e d e r a t i o n h a v e a l a r g e p a t r o n y m i c g r o u p w h i c h w o u l d r o u g h l y c o r r e s p o n d t o a r o y a l f a m i l y o r an a r i s t o c r a c y ? T h e r e a r e t w e l v e m a j o r p a t r o n y m i c g r o u p s f o u n d w i t h i n t h e S c h m i e d e l e u t c o l o n i e s , p l u s a s p r i n k l i n g o f c o n v e r t f a m i l i e s . T he t w e l v e p a t r o n y m i c g r o u p s a r e : D e c k e r , G l a n z e r , G r o s s , . H o f e r , K l e i n s a s s e r , M e n d e l , S t a h l , T s c h e t t e r , W a l d n e r , W i p f , Wollman, and W u r t z . A number o f o t h e r p a t r o n y m i c g r o u p s were p r e s e n t d u r i n g t h e h i s t o r y o f t h e S c h m i e d e l e u t 218 f e d e r a t i o n b u t h a v e e i t h e r d i e d o u t o r p r o d u c e d no mal e o f f -s p r i n g . T h e s e f a m i l i e s ' names w e r e : J a n z e n , K n e l s , and W a l t e r . T h e s e f a m i l i e s h a v e b e e n r e p l a c e d b y t h e f a m i l i e s o f r e c e n t c o n v e r t s : namely, A l e x a n d e r , B a e r , D o r n , R a n d l e , and S u s z . T a b l e 4.17 r e v e a l s t h a t some o f t h e s e p a t r o n y m i c g r o u p s h a v e a much g r e a t e r p r o p o r t i o n o f e l i t e members t h a n o t h e r s . T h i s r a n g e s f r o m a low o f 6% ( T s c h e t t e r ) t o a h i g h o f 5 0 % ( D e c k e r ) . I t s h o u l d a l s o b e n o t e d t h a t t h e p a t r o n y m i c g r o u p s v a r y g r e a t l y i n s i z e . Two o f t h e g r o u p s w i t h a v e r y h i g h p r o p o r t i o n o f e l i t e members c o n s t i t u t e o v e r h a l f o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n ( H o f e r and W a l d n e r ) . I t s h o u l d a l s o b e n o t e d t h a t no member o f a c o n v e r t f a m i l y h a s e v e r h e l d an e l i t e p o s i t i o n . B e c a u s e o f t h e i r g r e a t e r s i z e and o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r f a m i l y s u p p o r t , 63.67% o f a l l e l i t e p o s i t i o n s a r e h e l d b y members o f t h e H o f e r and W a l d n e r f a m i l i e s . However, t h i s l a r g e p e r c e n t a g e d o e s n o t n e c e s s a r i l y i m p l y t h a t t h e s e f a m i l i e s a r e n o t a b l y d y n a s t i c s i n c e t h e y w o u l d o c c u p y 5 2 . 5 1 % o f a l l e l i t e p o s i t i o n s p u r e l y on t h e b a s i s o f c h a n c e . However, some p a t r o n y m i c g r o u p s do t e n d t o b e more d y n a s t i c t h a n o t h e r s i n t h e s e n s e t h a t t h e y a r e more l i k e l y t o h a n d e l i t e p o s i t i o n s down t o t h e i r m a l e o f f -s p r i n g . I n T a b l e 4.18 e a c h p a t r o n y m i c g r o u p h a s b e e n r a t e d i n t e r m s o f t h e o b s e r v e d t e n d e n c y t o h a n d e l i t e p o s i t i o n s down f r o m f a t h e r t o s o n . A p a t r o n y m i c g r o u p w i t h an i n d e x o f i n e q u a l i t y 219 T a b l e 4.17 F r e q u e n c y D i s t r i b u t i o n o f P a t r o n y m i c G r o u p s i n E l i t e and N o n - e l i t e P o s i t i o n s . P a t r o n y m i c Group S t a t u s P o s i t i o n E l i t e N o n - e l i t e T o t a l D e c k e r 6 6 12 (50 .00%) (50 .00%) (100 .00%) G l a n z e r 5 7 12 (41 .67%) (58 .33%) (100 .00%) G r o s s 14 64 78 ( i 7 .95%) (82 .05%) (100 .00%) H o f e r 71 148 219 (32 ,42%) (67 .58%) (100 .00%) K l e i n s a s s e r 15 42 57 (26 .32%) (73 . 68%) (100 .00%) M e n d e l 12 47 59 (20 .34%) (79 .66%) (100 .00%) S t a h l 6 43 49 (12 .24%) (87 .26%) (100 .00%) T s c h e t t e r 1 JL 16 17 ( 5 .88%) (94 . 12%) (100 .00%) W a l d n e r 106 187 293 (36 .17%) (63 .83%) (100 .00%) W i p f 19 51 70 (27 . 14%) (72 .86%) (100 . 00%) Wollman 15 54 69 (21 . 74%) (78 .28%) (100 . 00%) W u r t z 8 22 30 (26 . 67%) (.73 .33%) (100 .00%) C o n v e r t s 0 10 10 (00 .00%) (100.00%) (100 .00%) T o t a l 278 697 975 (28 .51%) (71 . 49%) (100 . 00%) 220 o f 2.00 i s a f a m i l y i n w h i c h an e l i t e s o n h a s t w i c e t h e p r o b a -b i l i t y o f o b t a i n i n g an e l i t e p o s i t i o n t h a t a n o n - e l i t e s o n . T a b l e 4.18 D y n a s t i c T e n d e n c i e s i n P a t r o n y m i c G r o u p s  By P e r c e n t a g e i n P o o r C o l o n i e s P a t r o n y m i c Group I n d e x o f I n e q u a l i t y % i n P o o r C o l o n i e s D e c k e r 0.40 0 0 . 0 0 % G l a n z e r 0.75 00.00% G r o s s 3.07 3 6 . 5 0 % H o f e r 1.45 27.12% K l e i n s a s s e r 2.03 2 5 . 0 0 % M e n d e l 1.39 31.15% S t a h l 0.78 16.66% T s c h e t t e r 0.00 16.66% W a l d n e r 2.84 2 9 . 4 3 % W i p f . - 1.36 3 0 . 0 0 % W o l l m a n 1.67 3 8 . 7 1 % W u r t z 1.50 4 4 . 8 2 % r 2 = . 6 8 1 5 I t was f o u n d t h a t t h e l a r g e r t h e p r o p o r t i o n o f a p a t r o n y -m i c g r o u p l i v i n g o n p o o r c o l o n i e s , t h e g r e a t e r t h e p r o b a b i l i t y t h a t t h e g r o u p w i l l b e d y n a s t i c ( r 2 = . 6 8 1 5 ) . T h i s s u g g e s t s t h a t p a t r o n y m i c g r o u p s a r e d y n a s t i c o n l y when t h e y h a p p e n t o b e l o c a t e d on a p o o r c o l o n y . T h e r e f o r e , we must c o n c l u d e t h a t t h e r e i s no l a r g e p a t r o n y m i c g r o u p w h i c h d o m i n a t e s t h e e n t i r e l e u t , r a t h e r t h e r e a r e l o c a l i z e d d y n a s t i c f a m i l i e s w h i c h g d o m i n a t e p r i m a r i l y i n p o o r c o l o n i e s . T h e r e f o r e we must c o n c l u d e t h a t k i n s h i p t i e s c o n s t i t u t e a l a t e n t p o l i t i c a l f o r c e w h i c h c a n become m a n i f e s t u n d e r c e r t a i n c o n d i t i o n s . Where t h e r e i s an i n s u f f i c i e n t s u p p l y o f o c c u p a -t i o n a l p o s i t i o n s as i s p r e v a l e n t i n p o o r c o l o n i e s , k i n s h i p t i e s b e g i n t o p l a y a l a r g e r o l e i n t h e a l l o c a t i o n o f men t o p o s i t i o n s . C o n c l u s i o n s We h a v e n o t e d i n C h a p t e r I I I t h a t t h e o v e r a l l d e g r e e o f i n e q u a l i t y o f o p p o r t u n i t y f o u n d i n t h e S c h m i e d e l e u t p o p u l a t i o n was v e r y s l i g h t . N e v e r t h e l e s s , t h i s m o d e r a t e d e g r e e o f i n e q u a l i t y was n o t e v e n l y d i s t r i b u t e d among a l l o f t h e c o l o n i e s i n t h e l e u t ; t o t h e c o n t r a r y , some c o l o n i e s w e r e f o u n d t o be h i g h l y d y n a s t i c w h i l e o t h e r s were v e r y e q u a l i t a r i a n . I n g e n e r a l , when c o l o n i e s o f d i f f e r i n g l e v e l s o f w e a l t h were compared, t h e d e g r e e o f d y n a s t y f o r m a t i o n was f o u n d t o v a r y i n v e r s e l y