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Time-perception in Light In August, the Sound and the Fury and As I Lay Dying Clarke, Margaret 1973

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TIME-PERCEPTION IN LIGHT IN AUGUST. THE SOUND AND THE FURY AND AS I LAY DYING Dy MARGARET ANNE CLARKE B.A., University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1 9 6 4 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n the Department of English We accept t h i s thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA December, 1 9 7 3 i i In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an a d v a n c e d d e g r e e a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g r e e t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e a n d s t u d y . I f u r t h e r a g r e e t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d by t h e H e a d o f my D e p a r t m e n t o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l n o t be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . D e p a r t m e n t o f English The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a V a n c o u v e r 8 , C a n a d a D a t e December 21, 1973 ABSTRACT It becomes apparent i n three of his major novels that William Faulkner i s very interested i n the re l a t i o n s h i p between an indiv i d u a l ' s perception of time and his effectiveness as a human being. The characters he portrays as perceiving time as s t a t i c a l l y r e p e t i t i v e or as a mechanical progression of discrete moments are Faulkner's losers. They destroy themselves or are destroyed. Their f a u l t y perceptions of time negate l i f e ' s p o t e n t i a l . Those characters who perceive time as f l u i d are his creators. They endure. Their immersion i n the accumulating, ongoing present affirms l i f e ' s p o t e n t i a l i t y . A study of Faulkner's writing reveals that he con-ceives of r e a l time as f l u i d where the past accumulates around and gives si g n i f i c a n c e to the present. Both flow endlessly into the future. His b e l i e f i s rooted i n his philosophy of change without cessation. William Faulkner's concepts of time and change clo s e l y p a r a l l e l those of Henri Bergson. Both men i n s i s t on change as the p r i n c i p l e of r e a l i t y and both d i s l i k e s t a s i s and r i g i d i t y as d i s t o r t i o n s of r e a l i t y . In h i s f i c t i o n i t emerges that Faulkner agrees with Bergson i n the importance of i n t u i t i o n i n perceiving the r e a l i t y of time and change. He, l i k e Bergson, i s suspi-cious of the i n t e l l e c t as a d i s t o r t e r of r e a l i t y . Faulkner's affirmation of the endurability of a conscious-ness which i n t u i t s and perceives the f l u i d i t y of time and change corresponds with Bergson's theory of creative evolution. His destroyed characters are those who do not or cannot exert t h e i r inherent free w i l l to break from r i g i d formulations of experience and d i s t o r t i o n s of time. In t h i s thesis I examine time-perception i n three of William Faulkner's major novels, Light In August, The  Sound and the Fury and As I Lay Dying. V TABLE OF CONTENTS Introduction page 1 Time Imagery i n Light In Augusta The C i r c l e , the Wheel and the Urn page 16 The Shadow i n The Sound and the Fury page 42 The C o f f i n i n As I Lav Dying . page ?8 Conclusion P a* e 1 0 4 Footnotes P a S e 1 1 2 Selected Bibliography page 117 INTRODUCTION William Faulkner's dramatic use of s i g n i f i c a n t time images i n three of his major novels emphasizes the importance of examining time i n his f i c t i o n . In Light In  August the thematic importance of time emerges i n the repeated and reshaped wheel, c i r c l e , and urn imagery. The wheel and the c i r c l e are t r a d i t i o n a l symbols of time. The wheel suggests an accumulating, progressive passage of timej the c i r c l e , a r e p e t i t i v e , r e l e n t l e s s time pattern. In The  Sound and the Fury another t r a d i t i o n a l time symbol, the shadow, has thematic relevance. The shadow i s a symbol of man's time-limited and body-bound existence. In As I Lay Dying the juxtaposition of a c o f f i n , a symbol of death and f i n a l i s o l a t i o n , and a r i v e r , a t r a d i t i o n a l symbol of on-going time, has thematic implications. William Faulkner's concept of time colors his char-acterizations and his st y l e and emerges as a dominant aspect of the thematic statements which unify each novel. In the three novels Faulkner describes the re l a t i o n s h i p between the i n f i n i t e passing of time and various indivi d u a l s perception of that inevitable progression of time. He also d e t a i l s the re l a t i o n s h i p between each ind i v i d u a l ' s per-ception of i n f i n i t e l y passing time and hi s effectiveness as a human being. His portrayals are necessarily multi-dimensional. He perceives each individual's o v e r a l l perception of time or his time-sense as being related i n 2 part to his p a r t i c u l a r perception of past, present and future time and i n part to his sense of s o c i a l time. H i s t o r i c a l as well as personal past time are involved i n the person's perception of time. Faulkner also r e l a t e s the ind i v i d u a l ' s time-perception to his sense of associa-t i o n with natural time rhythms and with nature. F i n a l l y he correlates the character's general time-sense with the nature of his awareness of mechanical or "clock" time. At the roots of his concern about time-perception i s his philosophy that change i s the universal p r i n c i p l e , the ultimate r e a l i t y and that l i f e i s motion, a ceaseless flow of r e a l i t y . He suggests that perception of t h i s r e a l i t y centers upon time-perception. A person's perception of time includes past, present and future time. Faulkner argues i n the three novels that there are creative ways and non-creative ways of integrat-ing the three j through character development he i l l u s t r a t e s various e f f e c t i v e and i n e f f e c t i v e modes of perceiving the fl u x of past, present and future time. The uncreative characters are those who ha b i t u a l l y interpret present experience on the basis of outmoded concepts and abstractions rooted i n the past, h i s t o r i c a l or personal, or who, converse-l y , t r y to ignore and deny the influence of the past on the present moment, or who, alt e r n a t e l y , attempt to move back into past time, defying inevitable change. They destroy themselves or are destroyed i n t h e i r f a i l u r e to perceive 3 change as inevitable i n the continuous flow of time. Faulkner believes that "yesterday today and tomorrow are Is« In d i v i s i b l e s One."1 Creative indiv i d u a l s i n Faulkner's f i c t i o n experience an ongoing present where the past accumulates around and gives dimension to the present. Together past and present move endlessly into the future. His creative characters i n t u i t i v e l y experience time as a continuous present, but a present i n which the past i s continuously i n f l u e n t i a l , s i m i l a r l y influencing but not determining the future. However, because man i s a s o c i a l being, Faulkner does not ignore the f a c t that s o c i a l time also makes demands on the i n d i v i d u a l . Communal l i v i n g i s inherent to man's l i f e . Unless he i s i n touch with the communal time-sense, meaningful communication with fellow human beings i s hampered and dist o r t e d . Joe Christmas, i n Light In  August, finds a temporary peace i s o l a t e d from society, but he i s a member of the human race, and that s o l i t a r y peace i s not l a s t i n g . Individuals must f i n d t h e i r places i n the human community. And that, Faulkner comments, i s one of l i f e ' s most demanding tasks t Man . . . i s free and he i s responsible, t e r r i b l y responsible. His tragedy i s the i m p o s s i b i l i t y — or at l e a s t the tremendous d i f f i c u l t y — of communica-t i o n . But man keeps on t r y i n g endlessly to express himself and to make contact 2 with other human beings. He suggests that unless an i n d i v i d u a l incorporates i n his personal time-sense the ever-changing s o c i a l time sense, k he becomes locked i n and trapped by time. That kind of st a s i s makes i t impossible f o r the i n d i v i d u a l to understand current s o c i a l and moral codes. I f he threatens with out-dated concepts the present concepts of communal behavior, the threat boomerangs. Compassion f o r human needs and g r i e f s i s d i f f i c u l t when individ u a l s are out of time with society. And that commitment to mankind and sense of relatedness to other human beings derived from being i n time with them are what af f i r m the po s i t i v e p o t e n t i a l of l i f e i n Faulkner's Yoknapatawpha. Faulkner includes i n his consideration of time-percep-t i o n the sign i f i c a n c e of a character's sense of relatedness to natural time rhythms. Like other animals man i s born, reproduces and dies. He i s p h y s i c a l l y committed to a sequence of natural events. Man can accept h i s animality, f r a i l t y and transience when he keeps these conditions i n perspective. But, Faulkner intimates, i f an i n d i v i d u a l attempts to r e j e c t or to deny h i s bondage to natural rhythms, the i m p o s s i b i l i t y of the attempt miserably d i s t o r t s h i s self-concept and cri p p l e s h is a b i l i t y to make contact with l i f e , h i s own and others'. Natural time i s marked by shortening and lengthening shadows, l i g h t and dark, changing seasons. The unit of measurement i s large, but the inexorable progression of natural time can be as mes-merizing and incapacitating f o r Faulkner's characters as the audible sounds of mechanical time, man's way of measuring natural time, i f t h i s progression i s not accepted as an inevitable condition of l i f e . Mechanical time can pound loud i n the ears of a person mesmerized by i t s sound and abstract s i g n i f i c a n c e . He cannot stop, reverse or quicken the regular t i c k i n g of the clock which marks o f f the seconds, minutes and hours of l i f e . Such an i n d i v i d u a l seems forced to regulate his l i f e by mechanical time. Consequently he becomes, i n Faulkner's f i c t i o n , a v i c t i m of the deliberate, steady progress of abstract time which i s based on the unreal premise that time i s one instant merely replacing another. Faulkner suggests i n these three novels that i n d i v i -duals who i n t e n t i o n a l l y or unintentionally become trapped i n a sense of s t a t i c human-time or preoccupied with mech-an i c a l time or f i x a t e d on natural designations of passing time, cease to r e l a t e to fellow human beings. Faulkner's losers are those who chose e x c l u s i v i t y and refuse t h e i r place i n humanity or refuse to accept t h e i r own humanity. Their negative impulses are destructive of themselves and others. He emphasizes that an understanding, accepting and adapting to the inevitable passing of time i s esse n t i a l f o r an i n d i v i d u a l to transcend a mechanical, tunnelled, l i n e a r existence. I t evolves i n Faulkner's novels that a character's perceptions of time, h i s adapt-ation to time, are intimately related to his achieving a meaningful r e l a t i o n s h i p to the r e a l i t y of change without cessation. Faulkner emphasizes that i t i s impossible f o r an i n d i v i d u a l to buy immunity from natural time, human time, 6 s o c i a l time or h i s t o r i c a l time or from h i s basic humanity and from society. Likewise i t i s impossible f o r him to mold society by his own desires or unwillingness to change with time. William Faulkner echoes Henri Bergson i n h i s i n s i s t -ence on the d e s i r a b i l i t y of each i n d i v i d u a l experiencing f l u i d time where past, present and future unite to give r e a l i t y to the experience of the moment. He goes beyond Bergson i n portraying i n f i c t i o n the tensions experienced by individuals t r y i n g to integrate t h e i r various time-perceptions. Faulkner suggests that the experiencing of f l u i d time i s a prerequisite to the integration of and adaptation to s o c i a l time, mechanical time and natural rhy-thms. It i s not surprising, i n l i g h t of the many s i m i l a r -i t i e s between Faulkner's presentation of time-perception i n f i c t i o n and Henri Bergson's study of time-perception i n philosophical t r a c t s , that Faulkner, i n a conversation with Loic Bouvard, gives c r e d i t to Henri Bergson f o r shaping some of his thoughts on timei In f a c t I agree pretty much with Bergson's theory of the f l u i d i t y of time. There i s only present time, i n which I include both ~ the past and the future and that i s eternity- 3 I was influenced by Flaubert and by Balzac .j, . . And by Bergson, obviously. 1 cannot assert a d i r e c t , d e f i n i t i v e influence of Bergson on Faulkner, but c e r t a i n l y many of Bergson's philosophical views are exemplified i n Faulkner's writing. To give an 7 impression of how c l o s e l y Faulkner mirrors Bergsonian philosophy, I would l i k e to turn b r i e f l y to a consideration of Bergson's philosophy of change as the p r i n c i p l e of r e a l i t y , a dynamism inherent i n the consciousness, and his corresponding d i s l i k e of s t a s i s and r i g i d i t y as d i s t o r t i o n s of r e a l i t y . I believe that such a study w i l l extend the significance of Faulkner's i n t e r e s t i n time-perception and d i s t r u s t of s t a s i s i n h i s s t y l e , char-acterizations and themes. Henri Bergson begins with the premise that there i s an external r e a l i t y which i s given immediately to our mind. This r e a l i t y i s mobility. The mind has as i t s main function the representation of "states" and "things" since the i n t e l l e c t proceeds by natural bent toward s o l i d perceptions and stable conceptions. The problem of per-ceiving r e a l i t y a r i s e s from the a p p l i c a t i o n of the i n t e l l -ect, which l i k e s s o l i d i t y , to the f l u i d i t y of r e a l i t y . Although abstracts may be extracted from mobile r e a l i t y , we cannot reconstruct mobile r e a l i t y with fi x e d concepts. But i n t u i t i o n added to i n t e l l e c t can lead us to the r e a l i t y of mobility. Bergson emphasizes repeatedly that the apparent s t a b i l i t y produced by the i n t e l l e c t i s misleading. It i s not the "states," some snapshots we have taken once again along the course of change, that are r e a l j on the contrary, i t i s flux, the continuity of t r a n s i t i o n , i t ^ i s change i t s e l f that i s r e a l . -* By studying consciousness as a whole, Bergson propounds, we f i n d the key to r e a l i t y . For Bergson and f o r the 8 twentieth century i n general, the new concept of r e a l i t y i s one "with which l i f e and consciousness are i d e n t i c a l , as d i s t i n c t from the older concept of a r e a l i t y independ-ent of l i f e and conditioning i t , upon which i t depends."^ It i s clear i n the following comment that Faulkner's a l l i a n c e of time to consciousness i s a Bergsonian emphasis t The fact that I have moved my characters around i n time successfully, at l e a s t i n my estimation, proves to me my own theory that time i s a f l u i d condition which has no existence except i n the momentary „ avatars of i n d i v i d u a l people. ' In Time and Free W i l l Bergson delineates time as either s c i e n t i f i c , chronological time or true time (duration). The f i r s t views time as a measurable d i v i s -i b l e quantity and i s e s s e n t i a l l y misleading. Duration i s the time fundamental to consciousness. It i s immeasurable and i n d i v i s i b l e . Real concrete time or duration i s known immediately i n the consciousness as the i n d i v i s i b l e q u a l i t a -t i v e t o t a l i t y , an interpenetration of past and present ess e n t i a l to consciousness. Although the i n t e l l e c t can-Q not grasp duration, by i n t u i t i o n we know i t and l i v e i t . (I think Faulkner would argue with Bergson that not every-one knows and l i v e s duration.) According to Bergson's theory the past i s incorporated i n the consciousness as memory. Duration i s memory plus the present mental state. My mental state as i t advances on the road of time, i s continually swelling with the duration which i t accumulates; i t goes on increasing - r o l l i n g upon i t s e l f , as a q snowball on the snow. * 9 He speaks of active memory, which becomes one with present action, and dream memory, which i s capable of producing the entire past, i r r e l e v a n t to present action. The cerebral mechanism i s arranged so that only past events which throw l i g h t on the present s i t u a t i o n are admitted. Bergson's philosophy i s thoroughly dynamistic. "The truth i s that we change without ceasing, and that the state i t s e l f i s nothing but change." 1 0 I f an ego or psychic state does not change i t does not "endure". For our duration i s not merely one instant replacing another: i f i t were, there would never be anything but the present - no pro-longing of the past into the actual, no evolution, no concrete duration. Duration i s the continuous progress of the past which gnaws into the future and which swells as i t advances. And as the past grows without ceasing, so also there i s no l i m i t to i t s preservation. He pictures the past leaning over the present which, i t s e l f , i s about to become past. I t i s in t e r e s t i n g to compare and see the s i m i l a r i t i e s between the ideas above and those of Faulkner contained i n the following statements: 12 " l i f e i s i n constant f l u x and i n constant change" and "the only a l t e r n a t i v e to change and progress i s death. "^ "^  Bergson uses the verb "endure" to describe a l i v i n g object which changes or even creates i n time, extending his a p p l i c a t i o n from the i n d i v i d u a l to the whole universe. The universe endures. The more we study the nature of time, the more we s h a l l comprehend that duration means invention, the creation of forms, the continual l t, elaboration of the absolutely new. 10 Faulkner's terse description of Dilsey i n the Appendix to The Sound and the Fury, "They endured.", i s a comprehen-sive comment i n l i g h t of Bergson's philosophy. Important to Bergson's philosophy, then, i s h i s sense of s e l f - c r e a t i o n . Thus our personality shoots, grows and. ripens without ceasing. Each of i t s moments i s something new added to what 1 (-was before. l 6 He suggests that "we are creating ourselves continually." In Creative Evolution, Bergson states that "for a conscious being, to exist i s to change, to change i s to mature, to 17 mature i s to go on creating oneself endlessly." Faulkner echoes Bergson i n his praise of c r e a t i v i t y , making i t a chief value of mankind1 "What i s important 1 fi i s that man continues to create." He applies c r e a t i v i t y as the gauge of any man's achievement. Corresponding to Bergson's concept of change as the p r i n c i p l e of r e a l i t y i s h i s c r i t i c i s m of s t a s i s and r i g i d -i t y (philosophical, i n t e l l e c t u a l , moral, l i n g u i s t i c or a r t -i s t i c ) as d i s t o r t i o n s of r e a l i t y . I n t e l l e c t proceeds mechanically, t r e a t i n g "becoming" as a series of states, incapable of thinking "mobility." i n t e l l e c t turns away from the v i s i o n of time. I t d i s l i k e s what i s f l u i d , and s o l i d i f i e s everything i t touches. We do not think r e a l time. But we l i v e i"t»1G; because l i f e transcends i n t e l l e c t . y I n t e l l e c t i s only a portion of a more comprehensive con-sciousness. Therefore, i t can not comprehend the t o t a l i t y . I n t e l l e c t cannot, without reversing i t s natural d i r e c t i o n and twisting about on i t s e l f , think true continuity, r e a l mobility, r e c i p r o c a l penetration, - i n a word, t h a t 2 Q creative evolution which i s l i f e . Bergson c r e d i t s i n t u i t i o n , rather than i n t e l l e c t , with leading man to the perception of change as the universal p r i n c i p l e i "The i n t e l l e c t i s characterized by a natural 21 i n a b i l i t y to comprehend l i f e . " Bergson f e e l s that i f we could ask i n s t i n c t , i t could give us the most intimate secrets of l i f e . I t c a r r i e s out the v i t a l processes of l i f e and i s a v i t a l bond of the conscious creature with r e a l i t y . However, i n s t i n c t by i t s very nature cannot r e f l e c t upon i t s e l f . I n t u i t i o n i s a kind of enlarged i n s t i n c t which can r e f l e c t upon l i f e . i t i s to the very inwardness of l i f e that i n t u i t i o n leads us, - by i n t u i t i o n I mean i n s t i n c t that has become disinterested, self-conscious, capable of r e f l e c t i n g upon i t s object and of enlarging i t i n - 2 2 d e f i n i t e l y . Bergson senses that i n t u i t i o n can e s t a b l i s h a sympathetic communication between the consciousness of an i n d i v i d u a l and the r e s t of the l i v i n g . By expanding the consciousness i t "introduces us into l i f e ' s own domain, which i s r e c i p -r o c a l interpenetration, endlessly continued creation." 2-^ I n t u i t i o n , then, i s a simple, immediate consciousness of l i f e — an immediate, emotional synthesis of l i f e . This view of, and emphasis on, i n t u i t i o n i s one of the basic tenets of Bergson*s philosophy, f o r only by i n t u i t i o n can 12 man grasp duration and thus dynamic r e a l i t y . Bergson*s philosophical views have formed no discrete current of influence, but have become generally integrated with both science and philosophy to form a modern climate of opinion whose emphasis i s always and thoroughly dynarois-t i c . He was an i n f l u e n t i a l spokesman of a general view whose peculiar emphasis on consciousness, on memory, on change and on time are echoed, as I intend to indicate i n t h i s paper, by Faulkner i n three of his major novels. So as to avoid imposing the Bergsonian philosophy on Faukner's creations, however, I plan to allude to Bergson very seldom i n my s p e c i f i c analyses of the three novels. In my conclusion I w i l l draw p a r a l l e l s between s p e c i f i c experiences i n the novels and Bergson's philosophical views. Let i t s u f f i c e , at present, to say that I f i n d i n Faulkner's novels that he has attempted to capture the complexity and inclusiveness of the f l u x of change, emphasizing the tension of life-in-motion, which Bergson delineates i n his philosophical texts. I have already introduced Faulkner's suggestion that experiencing " f l u i d time" (duration) i s important to an indi v i d u a l ' s self-concept and s e l f - c r e a t i o n . I t w i l l be the comparison and contrast of the effectiveness of various individual's orientations i n time which w i l l dominate my study. However, Faulkner's b e l i e f i n the dynamic f l u i d i t y of l i f e i s embodied not only i n h i s themes and character-i z a t i o n s but also i n the form — the s t y l e and structure — of his novels. Bergson says "The most l i v i n g thought "becomes f r i g i d i n the formula that expresses i t . The word 24 turns against the idea." Faulkner, too, d i s t r u s t s r a t i o n -a l i t y or extreme conceptualism as d i s t o r t i n g the i n d i v i * dual's grasp of r e a l i t y and his a d a p t i b i l i t y to change. However, Faulkner's medium i s words, which by t h e i r very nature, tend to assign instances of experience a s t a t i c l o g i c a l i t y and ordered sequence of d e t a i l s which they do not possess. Words congeal the f l u i d processes of thought. It i s not surprising, then, to f i n d a unique Faulknerian st y l e emerging i n hi s novels as he attempts to capture i n words the complexity and f l u i d i t y of moments of experience, as he t r i e s "to get the whole nuance of the moment's experience." 2-* His involute s t y l e and h i s innovations i n form are intended to convey, and simultaneously to over-come the d i f f i c u l t y of a r t i c u l a t i n g , a non-verbal r e a l i t y , the elusive process of change. He attempts to represent the motion of r e a l i t y while at the same time arresting that motion f o r examination. Speaking of wri t i n g he saidj "My ambition . . . i s to put everything into one sentence - not only the present but the whole past on which i t depends and which keeps overtaking the present, second by second." He went on to explain that i n writing his prodigious sentences he i s t r y i n g to convey a sense of simultan-e i t y , not only giving what happened i n the s h i f t i n g moment but suggesting everything that went before and made the q u a l i t y of 2 , that moment. He seldom presents h i s f i c t i o n a l world chronologically. Faulkner suspends the crux of his plo t while he weaves a c i r c l e around other groups of events that throw addi t i o n a l l i g h t upon the essence of the pl o t . The reason f o r Faulkner's dislocations of time i s that a l l time i n -cluded i n hi s books i s brought into the present; i n order to c o l l e c t the fragments of modern l i f e , Faulkner dips into an even larger r e a l i t y , the past, because, as he puts i t , "yesterday today and tomorrow are« 7 I s i I n d i v i d s i b l e t One." c < Faulkner portrays the inner tensions of his characters i n a v a r i e t y of ways so as to represent the t o t a l picture of the consciousnesses of the ind i v i d u a l s involved. How-ever, because he believes that serious introspection, s e l f -awareness and s e l f - a n a l y s i s are not common experiences, he does not often approach the question of time-perception from an i n t e l l e c t u a l point of view as do many e x i s t e n t i a l -i s t writers. No doubt, a Bergsonian suspicion of i n t e l -l e c t , too, influences his mode of characterization. He usually deals with the complexity of the conscious exper-iences of the i n d i v i d u a l and the interplay between human beings without the added dimension of deep s e l f - a n a l y s i s . He believes i n the heart rather than i n the i n t e l l e c t as the s i g n i f i c a n t determiner of actions and thoughts. Q. Mr. Faulkner, what do you think i s man's most important t o o l - the mind or the heart . . . ? A. I don't have much confidence i n the mind. I think that here i s where the shoe f i t s , that the mind l e t s you down sooner 2 g or l a t e r , but t h i s doesn't. In his portrayal of Dilsey he describes the workings of 15 the heart i n such a way as to suggest Bergsonian i n t u i t i o n . Faulkner sums up his ambition as a writer i n a t a l k with Jean S t e i n i The aim of every a r t i s t i s to arrest motion, which i s l i f e , by a r t i f i c i a l means and hold i t fixed so that a hund-red years l a t e r , when a stranger looks a t 2 q i t , i t moves again since i t i s l i f e . * Bergsonian dynamism infuses Faulkner's s t y l e , h is charact-erizations and h i s themes. In i l l u s t r a t i n g t h i s idea, my emphasis w i l l be on content, e s p e c i a l l y characterization, using as a s t a r t i n g point the r e l a t i o n of the i n d i v i d u a l consciousness to time. I wish to show that Faulkner makes a dramatic d i s t i n c t i o n between those characters who destroy themselves or are destroyed and those who "endure" and "p r e v a i l " by t h e i r f a i l u r e or success i n achieving a harmonious, meaningful r e l a t i o n s h i p to time and change. 16 TIME IMAGERY IN LIGHT IN AUGUSTi The C i r c l e , the Wheel and the Urn Byron Bunch counts the minutesi Reverend Hightower d a i l y awaits the hour which hurls him back decades. Joe Christmas i s chained to a succession of days and nights which are l i k e a picket fencet Lena Grove experiences the peaceful passing of weeks as though, i n f a c t , the passing were timeless. In Light i n August Faulkner ponders the re l a t i o n s h i p between the i n f i n i t e passing of time and various individuals* perception of that inevitable pro-gression of time. The c i r c l e and the wheel, symbols of the orderly, inexorable, eternal movement of time, are dynamic images i n Faulkner's novel. Juxtaposed to the wheel and c i r c l e imagery i s imagery based on the c l a s s i c urn, a symbol of the eternity of temporality. The image of Joe Christmas envisioning himself trapped within a c i r c l e i n t e n s i f i e s the image of Hightower's release from the wheel of thought. They both extend the image of Joanna Burden as the center of a wheel, the spokes rad-i a t i n g from her house. Lena's progress i s compared to the f r i e z e on a c l a s s i c urn. The cracked urns of Joe Christmas and the desired vase entombment ("enwombment") by Hightower are very powerful contrasting images. Each character r e l a t e s d i f f e r e n t l y to past, present and future time and i t s measured progression, and each, as a r e s u l t , r e l a t e s to other human beings and to hi s own humanity i n diver-17 s i f i e d ways and adapts with varying effectiveness (or ineffectiveness) to his l i f e as an i n d i v i d u a l i n a human community. The mental anxiety and turmoil manifesting themselves i n the actions and thoughts of Christmas and Hightower are magnified by and surrounded by the t r a n q u i l , peaceful, seeming timelessness of Lena Grove. Not only do the des-cri p t i o n s of Lena s t r u c t u r a l l y embrace those of other characters, but also Lena thematically cocoons the p l i g h t s of the others i n fecund detachment. The novel opens with a b r i e f recounting of Lena's l i f e up to the point where she i s seeking the father of her child-to-be. There i s nothing f r a n t i c about her search. She i s mantled by the vague complacency of a pregnant woman near term. Time i s not her enemy. Her notion i s to be with the father of the c h i l d when her time f o r delivery comes, since she believes a family should be together at that time. The passing of days and the t e r r i f i c a l l y slow plodding of the mules p u l l i n g the various wagons which aid her progress do not unsettle her. Recall, f o r contrast, Joe's f r a n t i c expenditure of energy and posture of t e r r i f i c speed even a f t e r the white mare has stumbled her l a s t forward step on the night of Joe's f l i g h t from MeEachern. Time i s h i s foe, and h i s thwarted movement through space and away from his past r e s u l t s i n the f u t i l e and destructive a c t i v i t y of beating the horse about the head. Joe's future f l i g h t s from 18 r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r h i s past lead him to s i m i l a r empty streets and to emotional stoniness. Save f o r the r i s e and f a l l of the s t i c k and the groaning respirations of the animal, they might have been an equest-r i a n statue strayed from i t s pedestal and come to re s t i n an attitude of u l -timate exhaustion i n a quiet and empty street splotched and dappled by moon- * shadows. The peaceful, undemanding harmony between Lena and time are r e f l e c t e d i n her experiences with her c h i l d - i n -utero, her fellow human beings and her environment. She has no need f o r a pocket watch at her side t i c k i n g o f f the minutes or a clock i n her head to mark the hour of dusk and an event of the distant past. The day of the week i s i r r e l e v a n t to her experience of l i f e . The novel closes with Lena, three weeks a mother, peacefully resuming her t r a v e l s . I r o n i c a l l y , there i s more purposeful movement i n her seeming motionlessness than i n the f r a n t i c a c t i v i t y of Joe Christmas and Joe Brown. The emotional upheavals of Byron Bunch and Reverend Hightower f o r which she i s inadvertently responsible do not penetrate the inwardness of her experience of giv i n g b i r t h . She gives l i f e not only to the infant but likewise, unconsciously, to Bunch and Hightower who come i n contact with Lena as Mother-Archetype. The emotional and actual s t e r i l i t y of Joanna Burden and Joe Christmas are set i n dramatic juxtaposition to the l i f e - g i v i n g forces of Lena and the changes i n Hightower and Bunch. The rootless, 19 running Lucas Burch (Joe Brown) seems not human enough to suckle l i f e from Lena. Faulkner designates him beast i n a sphinx r i d d l e image l a t e i n the novel ( 4 0 6 ) , The image serves to accentuate the timelessness of Lena. The contrasts between characters force comparisons of the preoccupations, habits and attitudes of the opposed i n d i v i d u a l s . The time images used by Faulkner i n portraying these i n d i v i d u a l s suggest that time-perception i s intimately related to the evolution of t h e i r p e r s o n a l i t i e s and, hence, t h e i r a t t i -tudes, i d e n t i t i e s and patterns of behavior. Lena's motion through space and time i s compared to the timeless motion of figures on a c l a s s i c urn, to a captured moment of experiencet Behind her the four weeks, the evocation of f a r , i s a peaceful corridor paved with unflagging and t r a n q u i l f a i t h and peopled with kind and nameless faces and voices . . . backrolling now behind her a long mono-tonous succession of peaceful and undeviatr ing changes from day to dark and dark to day again, through which she advanced i n i d e n t i c a l and anonymous and deliberate wagons as though through a succession of creakwheeled and limpeared avatars, l i k e something moving forever and without progress across an urn. (4-5) The image suggests that Lena unconsciously experiences the f l u i d i t y of time and psy c h i c a l l y transcends temporality. The currentness of r e a l i t y i s her r e a l i t y . The past flows into the present and hence into the future and i s insepar-able from both. For Lena l i f e hangs "suspended i n the middle distance forever and forever." There i s a perfect fusion between time as succession and time as duration. The urn 20 captures movement and gives i t duration. She i s immersed i n the ongoing significance of events around her. Bunch, Christmas and Hightower, on the other hand, are too caught up i n mechanical time, i n f l e e i n g from past time and i n rushing to past time to know that "inescapable middle distance at once s t a t i c and f l u i d , quick l i k e mirages." (24-5) She i s i n t u i t i v e l y a part of the NOW events and conse-quently can without e f f o r t p a r t i c i p a t e i n the NOW moments of characters she encounters. She unconsciously draws them to the ongoing present and gives them vibrant l i f e i n the present i n place of distorted senses of time. Lena's t a c i t acceptance of f l u i d time as the only r e a l i s t i c time to operate within, contrasts s i g n i f i c a n t l y with Darl's i n t e l l e c t u a l struggle with time i n As I Lay  Dying. And since sleep i s is-not and r a i n and wind are was, i t i s not. Yet the wagon i s , because when the wagon i s was, Addie Bundren w i l l not be. And Jewel i s , so Addie Bundren must be. And then I must be, or I could not empty myself f o r sleep i n a strange room. And so i f I am not ~ emptied yet, I am i s . ^ Darl lacks a sense of continuous time. He t r i e s to parcel time into past and present and loses himself i n the process. Lena's u n i n t e l l e e t u a l , unmindful harmony with continuous time a t t r a c t s and renews l i f e j Darl's i n t e l l e c -t u a l fumbling with f l u i d time i s o l a t e s and takes from l i f e . He moves away from a po s i t i v e sense of s e l f and away from po s i t i v e contact with others. T u l l says of Darl "he just 21 h thinks by himself too much." Darl views himself as though i n a vacuum of time on the r i v e r ' s bank opposite his pa, Vernon, Vardaman and Dewey D e l l . Yet they appear dwarfed. It i s as though the space between us were timet an irrev-,-ocable q u a l i t y . 5 Just as Lena's psychic time-sense i s i n harmony with her environment, so her inner rhythm., of time i s p e r f e c t l y attuned to the natural rhythms of her physical environ-ments . . . as i f she were l i s t e n i n g to some-thing very f a r away or so near as to be inside her. Her face has drained of color, of i t s f u l l , hearty blood, and she . s i t s quite s t i l l , hearing and f e e l i n g the implacable and immemorial earth, but with-out fear or alarm. 'It's twins at least,' . . . ( 2 6 ) Faulkner suggests she has a complete acceptance of her own basic humanity. This acceptance without fear or alarm contrasts v i v i d l y with Joe's lack of acceptance and f i g u r a -t i v e attempt to escape h i s e s s e n t i a l humanity. So too, her sense of continuous and aggregating time opposes h i s f l a t , savagely r e p e t i t i v e time-sense. The urn images s i g n i f i c a n t l y concentrate and capsulize the time-senses which dictate the l i v e s of Joe Christmas and Lena Grove. Joe's f i r s t anticipated union with Bobbie i s f r u s t -rated by menstruation, a symbol of the f e r t i l i t y cycle, p o t e n t i a l conception. As f a r as Joe i s concerned he "bought immunity from i t for too long now f o r i t to be 22 a l i v e " . His thwarted eagerness and reintroduction to a fact of l i f e f or which he has paid the price of immunity manifests i t s e l f i n a headlong f l i g h t into the woods. There the trees are described i n male termsi "hard trunks . . . hard-f e e l i n g , hardsmelling". In t h e i r midst are a row of cracked urns i In the notseeing and the hardknowing as though i n a cave he seemed to see a dim-inished row of suavely shaped urns i n moonlight, blanched. And not one was per-f e c t . Each one was cracked and from each crack there issued something l i q u i d , deatheolored, and f o u l . He touched a tree, leaning his propped arms against i t , see-ing the ranked and moonlit urns. He vomited. (177-8) The powerful combination of cave, tree and urn imagery damns Joe Christmas as a p o s i t i v e participant i n l i f e . The in t a c t singular urn as an image suggests duration and eter n i t y f o r moments of experience, a blending and arresting of flowing time and the p o s s i b i l i t y of momentarily trans-cending temporality. It i s also suggestive of the mother-archetype - womb of new l i f e . Joe's f e e l i n g of a f f i n i t y f o r the trees stresses h i s r e j e c t i o n of the male counter-part, female. The cave imagery r e c a l l s Plato's cave. I s h a l l examine each of these points i n more d e t a i l . Not one of Joe's urns i s perfect. Each i s marred by an ugly crack. The ranked urns are l i k e Joe's succession of days and nights marked o f f l i k e a picket fence. He i s locked i n the habit of perceiving time as being f l a t and r e p e t i t i v e . Past, present and future are a l l the same: 23 The dark was f i l l e d with the voices, myriad, out of a l l time that he had known, as though a l l the past was a f l a t pattern. And going on» tomorrow night, a l l the tomorrows, to be a part of the f l a t pat-tern, going on . . . since a l l that had ever been was the same as a l l that was to be, since tomorrow to-be and had-been would be the same. Then i t was time. (266) Joe i s obsessed with the implications of h i s unknown past and rather than t r y i n g to integrate and reconcile disparate elements of his l i f e , he attempts to run from them. Con-sequently, since he cannot escape his past, he f e e l s a victim of his pasti he believed with calm paradox that he was the v o l i t i o n l e s s servant of the f a t a l i t y i n which he believed that he did not be-l i e v e . (264) Just as a l l the urns are the same, so are his past, present and future days. They are endlessly l i n e d up and forbod-ing, forboding because ruptured. A v i c t i m of fate, a mere instrument does not experience time as a progression of enduring, novel moments. As he desperately flees his past, Joe's sense of progressive time i s interrupted by fissures i n his perception of himself as an i n t e g r a l , v o l i t i o n a l being i n the human community. F l u i d i t y of time escapes him? the female image threatens him. Joe cannot come to terms with the female archetype as symbolized i n part by the urn and i n other sections of the novel by a sheep, by food prepared by women and by the negro, who for Joe becomes inseparable from Female» "On a l l sides, even within him, the bodiless fecundmellow 24 voices of negro women murmured. I t was as though he and a l l other manshaped l i f e about him had been returned to the l i g h t l e s s hot wet primogenitive Female." (107) As a re s u l t he cannot r e a l i s t i c a l l y assess himself as male counterpart. Mankind's bondage to mortal f l e s h and natural rhythms suffocates Joe. He blatantly and symbol-i c a l l y refuses woman-food. He t r i e s to buy immunity from female menses. He i s t e r r i f i e d of being dragged under by woman, of los i n g his i d e n t i t y to the female. He hangs t i g h t l y to the male hard trees and l a t e r i n the novel seeks solace i n the horse stable: " i t was toward the stable that he went. . . . 'why i n h e l l do I want to smell horses?' Then he said, fumbling: "It's because they are not women. Even a mare horse i s a kind of man."" (101) Neither of Joe's two women, Bobbie or Joanna, i s p a r t i c u l a r -l y feminine. On the contrary, they are described i n male terms. The Eula Varners of the world do not at t r a c t him. Joe i s not a progenitor. The closest he comes i s with Joanna misinterpreting menopause as pregnancy. The suggestion of the urns i n a cave e l i c i t s thoughts of Plato's cave, the cave of the shadows of a limi t e d r e a l i t y . Joe does not accept and hence deal with the ambiguity of h i s o r i g i n or of hi s emotions. Each day he fig h t s the same batt l e against himself and makes no pro-gress. For t h i r t y years he obsessively seeks peace from his turmoil, but never r e a l i s t i c a l l y assesses his s i t u a t i o n . 25 Emerging from Freedman Town he seems to say a l l he ever wanted was to l i v e l i k e a white man whom he associated with maleness* "'That's a l l I wanted,' he thought. 'That dont seem l i k e a whole l o t to ask.'" (108) During his 'timeless' week of f l e e i n g he thinks a l l he ever wanted was to be grey — h a l f way between white and negro — never being either. He breathes deep and slow, f e e l i n g with each breath himself d i f f u s e i n the neutral grayness, becoming one with loner l i n e s s and quiet that has never known fury or despair. 'That was a l l I wanted,* he thinks i n a quiet and slow amazement. •That was a l l , f o r t h i r t y years. That didn't seem to be a whole l o t to ask i n t h i r t y years.* (313) Mingled with t h i s desire to be grey i s the desire to i s o l a t e himself from h i s fellow human beings. He wishes for the i d e n t i t y of the shadow he has been f o r years — grey i s o l a t e . With reference to the cave imagery, the many all u s i o n s to Christmas as a shadow take on more sign i f i c a n c e . He i s l i k e one of the figures i n Plato's cave watching his own shadow f l i c k e r against the wall as though he has no control over his own fate, but i s a mere spectator or victim. Before murdering Joanna Burden, Joe perceives the act as already accomplished and himself as an instrument of a power beyond his control. Like the figures i n the cave, he i s a f r a i d to leave the cave and look at the sun, to face the hard r e a l i t i e s of the society i n which he l i v e s and to take r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r his own creation as an i n d i v i d u a l . The implications of Joe's 26 fears are voiced i n Bergson's Creative Evolution: "for a conscious being, to exist i s to change, to change i s to mature, to mature i s to go on creating oneself endlessly."^ Joe i s a shadow moving among the people of Jefferson, l o s t and lonely. he contrived somehow to look more lonely than a lone telephone pole i n the middle of a desert. In the side, empty, shadow-brooded street he looked l i k e a phantom, a s p i r i t , strayed out of i t s own world, and l o s t . (106) Isolated from the movements of the s o c i a l environment during h i s f l i g h t , he temporarily takes on the dimensions and substance of a self-motivated i n d i v i d u a l . He b r i e f l y leaves, on the paved streets he has pounded fo r t h i r t y years, the shadow which i s Joe Christmas. For seven days he travels an unpaved street, a street beyond the immediate control of society. He experiences more than he has i n a l l his t h i r t y years, but t r a g i c a l l y never gets outside the c i r c l e traced by the paved streets of his l i f e . He t r i e s and f a i l s to step outside the r e l e n t l e s s demands that mechanical time has h a b i t u a l l y made on him. He attempts to create h i s own self-concept and i s defeated by his habit of assigning himself the r o l e he has f l e d from and at the same time has i n f l i c t e d on himself i n the name of society: It seemed to him that he could see him-s e l f being hunted by white men at l a s t into the black abyss which had been wait-ing, t r y i n g , f o r t h i r t y years to drown him and into which now and at l a s t he had a c t u a l l y entered, bearing now upon 27 his ankles the d e f i n i t e and ineradicable gauge of i t s upward moving. (313) He i s defeated by his unwillingness to accept himself as a human being with human needs. He opts f o r mechanical time, mechanical r i t u a l s and victimhood. The urgency of f l e e i n g preempts Joe's usual exact awareness of the orderly sequence of days and nights. When he thinks about time, i t seems to him now that for t h i r t y years he has l i v e d inside an orderly parade of named , and numbered' days l i k e fence pickets, and that one night he went to sleep and when he waked up he was outside of them. (31*) Lena finds peace outside the orderly parade; Joe panics, "the name of the day of the week seemed more important than the food." His days are f i l l e d with f l e e i n g and urgency, more, i t seems, because "Time, the spaces of l i g h t and dark, had long since l o s t orderliness" than because he i s being hunted. Outside the habit of co-ordinating his r i t u a l s of cleanliness, sleep, sex and work with mechanical time, Joe's l i f e lacks form. He seems frightened by the prospect of being responsible f o r his own acts when outside the f l a t , r epetitious sequence of days. In self-created time he cannot assign to fate the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r his actions. When Joe enters time again, time being a named day of the week, his sense of urgency recedes. A "peace and unhaste and quiet" s e t t l e over him as he thinks he can deny h i s basic humanity, his need to eat and sleep. At f i r s t he thought the peace 28 derived from associating with his native earth. But, t r a g i c a l l y , he recognizes that he i s a foreigner not only to his fellow human beings, but also to nature« He had grown to manhood i n the country, where . . . h i s physical shape and his thought had been molded by i t s compul-sions without his learning anything about i t s actual shape and f e e l . For a week now he has lurked and crept among i t s secret places, yet he remained a foreigner to the very immutable laws which earth must obey. ( 3 2 0 ) His peace i s found i n a denial of his human f r a i l t i e s and i n a denial of h i s capacities as a human being to d i r e c t his own fate. • I have never broken out of the r i n g of what I have already done and cannot ever undo,' he thinks quietly, s i t t i n g on the seat, with planted on the dashboard be-fore him the shoes, the black shoes smell-ing of negro« that mark on his ankles the gauge d e f i n i t e and ineradicable of the black t i d e creeping up his legs moving from hi s feet upward as death moves. ( 3 2 1 ) He might use the time-perspective he gains from waking up outside the 'orderly parade' to r e a l i s t i c a l l y assess warring elements i n himself — instead he panics. He does not break out of the c i r c l e of s t a t i c , r e p e t i t i v e time, the c i r c l e of habit, the c i r c l e of s e l f - i n f l i c t e d s o c i a l codes. His e i r c l e r e l e n t l e s s l y repeats i t s e l f . He finds peace only i n negating l i f e ' s d i f f i c u l t i e s and rewards. he i s entering i t again, the street which ran f o r t h i r t y years. I t had been a paved street, where going should be f a s t . It had made a c i r c l e and he i s s t i l l inside of i t . Though during the l a s t seven days he has had no paved street, yet he has t r a v e l l e d further than i n a l l the t h i r t y 29 years before. And yet he i s s t i l l inside the c i r c l e . (321) As intimated previously, Christmas seems aware of the p o s s i b i l i t y of chosing a Lena-like time-consciousness. For t h i r t y years he " l i v e d inside an orderly parade of named and numbered days." One morning when he wakens, he i s outside of them, experiencing b r i e f l y Lena's sense of time and s e l f - d i r e c t i o n . E a r l i e r , he might have, but did not allow Joanna to assign him a v i c t i m r o l e : " I f I give i n now, I w i l l deny a l l the t h i r t y years that I have l i v e d to make me what I chose to be." ( 2 5 0 - 1 ) His murdering Joanna i s a perverse plea f o r deciding h i s own fate, but, i r o n i c a l l y , the act serves to reinforce his f a t a l i s t i c view of l i f e . One might speculate that he could f i g h t his case on grounds of self-defence. However, i n the end he renounces h i s p o s s i b i l i t i e s as a human being. His c i r c l e becomes a rep e t i t i o u s cage much l i k e the cage he imagined many years beforei "He f e l t l i k e an eagle: hard, s u f f i c i e n t , potent, remorseless, strong. But that passed, though he did not then know that, l i k e the eagle, his own f l e s h as well as a l l space was s t i l l a cage." ( 1 5 0 - 1 ) He chooses the vic t i m r o l e out of the a r b i t r a r y moral and s o c i a l categories assigned by society to those who assign i t the power. I f Joe wishes to be victim, society i s only too w i l l i n g to affirm the r e a l i t y of i t s myths and codes i n actual exper-ience. The v i c t i m affirms such mythsj the self-motivators, the Lenas of the world, d i s p e l them. He abandons the 30 p o s s i b i l i t y of d i r e c t i n g h i s own fate and adopts the r o l e assigned him by Mottstown and Jefferson c i t i z e n s . He i s caged by the c i r c l e . I r o n i c a l l y , the c i r c l e i s a "double-edged symbol of both wholeness and nothingness." 7 It embodies the choice Joe struggles with and loses: the choice of wholeness of being, experienced i n s e l f - d i r e c -t i o n or that of the worthlessness (nothingness) of being, experienced i n victimhood. Joe Christmas plays the vi c t i m r o l e consistently u n t i l l i f e rushes from h i s body. He i s the hunted, he i s directed by Mrs. Hines (he i r o n i c a l l y seeks refuge i n the male house of Hightower) and he relinquishes his l i f e to Grimm. After years of r e j e c t i n g his inevitable bondage to eycles of nature as a mortal human being, he nat u r a l l y achieves humanity i n his death. He i s "the man" (emphasis i s mine). Hightower never aspires to be a part of the flow of l i f e and time. On the contrary, he desires entombment i n "a c l a s s i c and serene vase." To escape the horror and fear of l i v i n g as a phantom c h i l d with his phantom mother and father, Hightower seeks a physical i d e n t i t y through the ghost of his grandfather. Phantoms have no physical e x i s t -ence; they are an i l l u s i o n . Ghosts are the disembodied s p i r i t s of dead people. The negro woman i n Hightower*s childhood gives r e a l i t y to the grandfather through story t e l l i n g while the father remains elusive i n his detachments 31 Its no wonder that I had no father and that I had already died one night twenty years before I saw l i g h t . And ray only salvation must be to return . . . ( 4 5 2 ) Hightower becomes obsessively locked i n past time to escape the horror of phantomhood. He views the church as a shelter against l i f e i n f l u i d time and v i s u a l i z e s himself protected i n a womb-like urn, the churchi He believed with a calm joy that i f ever there was shelter, i t would be the Church; that i f ever truth could walk naked and without shame or fear, i t would be i n the seminary. When he believed that he had heard the c a l l i t seemed to him that he could see his future, his l i f e , i n t a c t and on a l l sides complete and i n v i o l a b l e , l i k e a c l a s s i c and serene vase, where the s p i r i t could be born anew sheltered from the harsh gale of l i v i n g and die so, peacefully . . . (453) He f a i l s to recognize that the church i s the people who perpetuate i t and, hence, i s very much dependent on NOW/. He expects to i s o l a t e himself from inevitable s o c i a l changes because the church, he thinks, i s a preserver of s t a t i c l i f e . For a long while, the church seems to serve his purpose, because he i s so intent on holding f a s t to the past that he never sees the faces of those around him. He sees but a r e f l e c t i o n of himself t "The faces seem to be mirrors i n which he watches himself." (462) He f e e l s enclosed and immune "as though he were a f i s h i n a bowl." ( 4 6 2 ) Hightower cannot move himself beyond his Grand-father's chicken house r a i d and into the flow of time and l i f e "as though the seed which h i s grandfather had trans-mitted to him had been on the horse too that night and had 32 been k i l l e d too and time had stopped there and then f o r the seed and nothing had happened i n time since, not even him." ( 5 9 ) Just as Joe f e l t he could buy immunity from menstruation, a rhythm natural to human l i f e , so Hightower thinks he can pay his price f o r immunity from l i f e . Any threat of involving him i n present time r e s u l t s i n High-tower's having a p h y s i c a l l y manifested desire to escape the circumstances. When Byron brings d e t a i l s of Lena and of Christmas, Hightower panics. "He s i t s r i g i d ; on his face now that expression of denial and f l i g h t has become d e f i n i t e . " ( 8 2 ) "Then there seems to come over his whole body, as i f i t s parts were mobile l i k e face features, that shrinking and denial, and Byron sees that the s t i l l , f l a c c i d , big face i s suddenly s l i c k with sweat." ( 8 3 ) Hightower's psychological entombment i s manifested ph y s i c a l l y . He has "that smell of people who no longer l i v e i n l i f e i that odor of overplump desiccation and stale l i n e n as though a precursor of the tomb." ( 3 0 0 ) He and his stale house echo his b e l i e f that "I am not i n l i f e anymore." As discussed before, Faulkner seems to choose not to portray i n t e l l e c t u a l l y active i n d i v i d u a l s . Hightower i s the closest to i n t e l l e c t u a l i s m that Faulkner comes i n Light In August. Although Hightower i s locked i n past time, he i s self-consciously mumified. His re-entry into l i f e through involvement with Lena Grove i s not unconscious. In fact, he t r i e s to r e s i s t involvement, as i f he knows that once he commits himself to facts i n present time, he must 33 swing into the flow of l i f e and time, see himself on the wheel of time. Hightower's bid f o r l i f e i s symbolized i n a complex wheel image. The t r a d i t i o n a l connection between time and the wheel, the wheel imagery associated with Lena Grove (timeless wagons on wheels) and the related c i r c l e imagery associated with Joe Christmas (the c i r c l e from which he could not escape) make the reading of the Hightower section both r i c h i n meaning and d i f f i c u l t to interpret. I t i s worth noting that the wheel suggests purpose and that the c i r c l e , the double edged symbol, suggests a root-lessness and a bodilessness, a lack of purpose. A l l Lena's expenditure of energy i s purposeful. There i s purpose i n Hightower's introspection. Any purpose i n Christmas' active show of energy i s l o s t i n ambiguity. The purposeful energies of Joanna, who i s described as being the center of the wheel, are without force because they are locked i n the r e l a t i v e l y immobile center. Events disturb Hightower's contrived and controlled sense of peace i n the past. His involvement i n the b i r t h of Lena's baby awakens him to the f e r t i l i t y and v i t a l i t y of the earth* "I must do t h i s more often," he thinks, f e e l i n g the intermittent sun, the heat, smelling the savage and fecund odor of the earth, the woods, the loud silence. (384) Unlike Joe, he does not f e e l l i k e a foreigner to the natural world, but rather, l i k e someone who has been l o s t , 3k returning. His commitment to l i f e follows as he i n t e l l e c t -u a l l y examines h i s distorted time-sense. His "wheel of thinking" slows as Hightower considers his past r e l a t i o n s h i p to the church ("Perhaps I accepted more than I could perform . . .") and to his wife ("You took her as a means toward your own s e l f i s h n e s s , " ) . He speaks of himself i n the t h i r d person as i f he would pre-f e r not to see the connection between himself and others. He does not want to lose h i s sense of immunity from l i f e by recognizing h i s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the death of h i s wife and his f a i l u r e i n the church. I f he i s forced to r e a l i z e that he infringed on the l i v e s of others to accomplish h i s own ends, he can no longer f i n d peace i n the "vase". He can no longer consider h i s immunity bought and paid f o r . Hightower attempts to excuse h i s be-havior i "'But I was young then,' he thinks. 'I too had to do, not what I could, but what I knew.'" (464) Introspection draws Hightower toward r e a l i t y . There i s a time lag between i n t e l l e c t u a l awareness and a t o t a l , gut reaction to the ideas Hightower examines. Faulkner portrays Hightower's gradual r e a l i z a t i o n processes i n wheel, axle and vehicle imagery. The vehicle seems to re-present the unphilosophical, common, sensational experience of l i f e . The wheel of thought imposes values and order on the general processing of experience: Thinking i s running too heavily now? he should know i t , sense i t . S t i l l the vehicle i s unaware of what i t i s approach-35 ing. 'And a f t e r a l l , I have paid. I have bought my ghost, even though I did pay f o r i t with my l i f e . And who can for b i d me doing that? I t i s any man's p r i v i l e g e to destroy himself, so long as he does not injure anyone else, so long as he l i v e s to and of himself -' He stops suddenly . . . He i s aware of the sand now; (464) How Hightower evaluates h i s i n t e r a c t i o n with his wife and the church i n terms of his present i s o l a t i o n from l i f e bears heavily on his future l i f e . With horror Hightower r e a l i z e s how he involved h i s wife and congregation i n his own bid for ghosthood. The sand (the thoughts and ideas) which slowed the wheel are s t i l l on the wheel. One cannot buy immunity from the past. "Progress now i s s t i l l pro-gress, yet i t i s now indistinguishable from the recent past l i k e the already traversed inches of sand which c l i n g to the turning wheel" (464) He knowsJ "I dont want to think t h i s , I must not think t h i s . I dare not think t h i s " . Just as when Byron t r i e s to draw Hightower into the present, now sweat pours from him as his conscious mind cannot avoid considering the implications of his new awareness of past events: Out of the instant the sand clutched wheel of thinking turns on with the slow imp l a c a b i l i t y of a mediaeval torture i n -strument. (464-5) Insight makes turning back impossible: "I am . . . i n s t r u -ment of someone outside myself." (Compare with Joe think-ing he was "the v o l i t i o n l e s s servant of the f a t a l i t y " ) . Hightower can no longer be a "single instant of darkness i n 36 which a horse galloped and a gun crashed." At t h i s instant of Hightower's self-involvement "The wheel, re-leased, seems to rush on with a long sighing sound." Past thoughts have been distorted, locked i n time and crippled by the necessity of avoiding t h i s dangerous, s e l f - i n c r i -minating t e r r i t o r y . Now sweat pours from and cools his body. It flows. I t i s moving, f l u i d . He i s a l i v e and and free of a long standing burden. "The wheel whirls on. It i s going f a s t and smooth now, because i t i s freed now of burden, of vehicle, axle, a l l . " (465) When Hightower, f i g u r a t i v e l y speaking, joins the l i v i n g and the present, he no longer needs d i v i s i o n s and separations i n mind and time to avoid seeing r e a l i t y . Free of the burden of fa b r i c a t i o n he sees faces and not mirrors. The wheel spins without progress. Hightower moves momentarily beyond time and has a glimpse of eternity as he experiences death which has been variously interpreted as death of his l i v i n g death and r e b i r t h i n time or as phy-s i c a l death, "so that i t can be now Now" ("Now" i s suggest-ive of eternity; "now," of temporality.) The f i n a l flood rushing from his body perhaps suggests physical death since Joe's death i s described i n si m i l a r terms. The difference i s that Hightower acknowledges l i f e ' s challenge and recog-nizes f l e e t i n g l y the temporal "now" giving way to an eternal "Now". Joe denies l i f e . His death marks the con-sciousnesses of others, "the man seemed to r i s e soaring into t h e i r memories forever and ever," but there i s no 37 mention of a personal epiphany. Joe, the self-assigned v i c t i m affirms his loneliness} Hightower i s "reaffirmed i n triumph" as he experiences Lena's now, hut the tran-q u i l i t y of Lena i s not his to share. He i s f i l l e d with and haunted hy past r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , c o l l e c t i v e and personal. With a l l a i r , a l l heaven, f i l l e d with the l o s t and unheeded crying of a l l the l i v -ing who ever l i v e d , wailing s t i l l l i k e l o s t c h i l d r e n among the cold and t e r r i b l e stars . . . , I wanted so l i t t l e . I asked so l i t t l e . ( 4 6 6 ) The horses and men'Tush past, are gone" as though f o r the l a s t time. Previously the thunder and noise were mere whispers — they were never r e a l i z e d and never could be or the instant of focus f o r Hightower would be gone forever. Now he can l e t the moment pass without fear of d i s i n t e g r a -t i o n . _ He HEARS the wild bugles and the clashing sabres and the thunder of hooves. Now r e a l i z e d , they move out of his l i f e and are gone forever. Perhaps the wheeling rush of consciousness and the passing of the sabres and horses herald the death of h i s obsessive and controlled and im-possible l i f e i n the past. His reaffirmation i s i n l i f e i n the present Hightower contrives an a r t i f i c i a l peace by supposing he can l i v e i n the past} Byron Bunch contrives an a r t i f i c i a l peace by becoming a human clock. Before being drawn by Lena away from his ca r e f u l , orderly mode of main-taining an apparent control of his l i f e i n the mobile human community, "he i s an i s o l a t e 'keeping his own time to the f i n a l second'." He experiences a rapid series of frozen moments that t i c k by with the r e g u l a r i t y of the tick-toek of his pocket watch. He i s locked i n a sense of the present as mechanized order. The significance of the flowing, continuous time measured by his watch i s l o s t to him. He l a t e r recognizes his i r o n i c dependence on High-tower to help him study the interrelatedness of eventsi "It's l i k e I not only cant do anything without getting him mixed up i n i t , I cant even think without him to help me out." (396) On the day of the t r i a l , Byron Bunch stands motion-les s i n the town square surrounded by human a c t i v i t y . He i s l i k e one figure on the urn frozen and detached from the continuum of l i f e . On that morning Bunch slowly puts to-gether the events of the week and learns that he has no need to wind his i n t e r n a l clock which f o r years has timed his mechanical r i t u a l s . He has shattered the habitual, clock-timed patterns of hi s l i f e and says "now I can go away." He could f e e l himself breathing deep, as i f each time his insides were a f r a i d that next breath they would not be able to give fa r enough and that something t e r r i b l e would happen, and that a l l the time he could look down at himself breathing, at his chest, and see no movement at a l l , l i k e when dynamite f i r s t begins, gathers i t s e l f f o r the now Now NOW, . . . (39^-5) Sparked by Lena's unconscious involvement i n f l u i d time and ongoing l i f e , Bunch f i l l s with the breath of l i f e and 39 i s "walking among the people" without the face of his pocket watch mesmerizing h i s sight. He recognizes his dependence on Hightower to p u l l together the meaning of unplanned moments i n his l i f e , and with the recognition frees himself. As the day passes and as he makes contact with other human beings outside his former r i t u a l i s t i c contacts, h i s time perspective broadens and h i s view of himself i n r e l a t i o n s h i p to l i f e and time changes accordingly. At f i r s t h i s attitude i s f a t a l i s t i c , but when he v o l i t i o n -a l l y turns to look back at the cabin where Brown i s once again taking leave of Lena, that fatalism dissolves and he takes command of his own l i f e i "a cold, hard wind seems to blow through him. I t i s at once v i o l e n t and peaceful blowing hard away l i k e chaff or trash or dead leaves a l l the desire and the despair and the hopelessness and the t r a g i c and vain imagining too." (402-3) He engages i n battle the rootless, beast-like Brown and loses the f i g h t but wins the seed of a new sense of time and commitment to Lena's v i t a l i t y . The novel closes on Lena and Bunch t r a v e l l i n g together, Bunch very much the pup i l as Lena o seems to be t r y i n g to slow him to her rhythmic tempo. Like Hightower, Joanna Burden's orient a t i o n i s i n past time. Interestingly, Faulkner describes Joanna's a c t i v i t y as being the center 1 of a wheel. She i s captured i n the nearly immobile center of motion by the outdated attitudes of her father. She has "burdened" her l i f e with 40 his feelings about the negro i n the south and the white man's r e l a t i v e p o s i t i o n . She ceases to re l a t e to time and people as r e a l and changing but sees them only i n terms of her father's i d e a s i What I wanted to t e l l him was that I must escape, get away from under the shadow, or I would die. "You cannot," he said. "You must struggle, r i s e . But i n order to r i s e , you must ra i s e the shadow with you. But you can never l i f t i t to your l e v e l . . . . The curse of the black race i s God's curse. But the curse of the white race i s the black man who w i l l be forever God's chosen own because He once cursed Him." (239-40) Faulkner portrays Joanna's obsessive preoccupation with past time i n negative terms. She i s emotionally and physi-c a l l y s t e r i l e . Her warped feelings f o r fellow human beings manifest themselves i n emotional aberrations played out with Joe Christmas valued f o r his supposed negro blood. In her r e l a t i o n s h i p with Christmas she passes through three stages of absurd r e-sistance to her past. F i r s t i s the man-l i k e sexual contention with Joe, i n which she w i l l not have to discard her combined role of " p r i e s t and banker and trained nurse," yet hopes to move out of the mono-tonous and f r u s t r a t i n g pattern of her l i f e . Then comes a w i l d l y s e l f - a f f i r m a t i v e and masochistic nymphomania, when she seeks to break e n t i r e l y out of the barren c i r c l e of her l i f e . . . F i n a l l y she passes into a monotonous sexlessness i n which she appears to have come about f u l l c i r c l e . Now she seeks to avoid the f l a t c i r c l e , however, by try i n g to f o i s t upon Christmas the accept-ance of a determined condition . . . to the extent that Joe w i l l bow underneath her 1 Q fate she can step out from under i t . When Joanna t r i e s to make Joe Christmas pray, asking for absolution of t h e i r past, she attempts to make Joe be kl something he has f r a n t i c a l l y avoided being f o r t h i r t y years. His whole orient a t i o n i s threatened by her attempt to assign him a r o l e . Joanna, t r y i n g to escape her past by meeting the requirements of her father's dictum, threat-ens Joe's attempt to avoid coming to terms with his past. Faulkner grotesquely pictures Joanna's f a i l u r e to come to terms with time i n her blanketed corpse, the body facing one way, the severed head the opposite. Light In August i s a study i n time awareness. Faulk-ner seems to be saying that pathological awareness of time negates l i f e ' s p o t e n t i a l . Immersion i n the accumulating, ongoing present affirms the po s i t i v e aspects of l i f e . Lena's sense of time i s u n i v e r s a l l y available to individ u a l s who do not lock themselves i n a contrived time awareness and hence d i s t o r t t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p to nature, society and s e l f . Hightower's culminating v i s i o n of time i s more d i f f -i c u l t and f l e e t i n g . It i s available to only a p r i v i l e g e d few. The urn imagery and circle-wheel imagery give focus to the variant time-perceptions. Although burdened by the past, man has the poten t i a l of creating and recreating him-s e l f i n f l u i d time. THE SHADOW IN THE SOUND AND THE FURY 42 It has been suggested i n the discussion of Light In  August that Faulkner posits a d i r e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p between an individual's perception of time and his acceptance of himself as a human being involved i n the endless cycle of bi r t h , growth and death. In his f i c t i o n he suggests that, since man's i n s t i n c t i v e drives and c y c l i c a l nature are what preserve the continuity of the race, i t i s important fo r participants i n l i f e to accept and synthesize either i n t u i t i v e l y or r a t i o n a l l y both t h e i r sense of temporality and t h e i r i n s t i n c t i v e responses to experience. It i s worth reemphasizing that Faulkner puts more f a i t h i n an i n t u i t i v e synthesis of the two conditions. He implies that the effectiveness with which the i n d i v i d u a l integrates his perception of his temporality and of his unconscious or i n s t i n c t i v e drives with other aspects of his l i f e i s d i r -e c t l y r e l a t e d to his time-sense. Faulkner's use of the shadow motif i n the Quentin section of The Sound and the  Fury dramatically emphasizes h i s b e l i e f i n t h e i r i n t e r -dependence. A shadow cast on the earth by the sun confirms one's temporal and physical existence. The lengthening and shortening of the shadow r e f l e c t s man's temporality j the presence and movement of the shadow gives him a reassuring affirmation of his physical a c t u a l i t y . The shadow i s an 43 imposing symbol of an ind i v i d u a l ' s time-limited and body-bound existence. In The Sound and the Fury the shadow adumbrates a meaning on the l i t e r a l as well as the symbolic l e v e l — the l i t e r a l suggesting and emphasizing the symbolic as Faulkner examines i n his four part novel the various time-senses of h i s characters and the r e s u l t i n g repercussions on t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l effectiveness as human beings. In the opening chapter of The Sound and the Fury the elusive time sequence of Benjy's stream of sensations and our urge to give order to t h i s chaotic sequence demands of us an awareness of time. Benjy i s incapable of perceiving the chronology of events. He experiences time as pure duration. He does not d i f f e r e n t i a t e between past and present. His o b l i v i o n to s h i f t s i n l i n e a r time, the a r b i t -rary measurement and d i v i s i o n of i r r e v e r s i b l e time, con-t r a s t s v i v i d l y with an automatic attempt on the part of the reader to arrange chronologically the approximately nineteen events ranging over t h i r t y years. Faulkner makes i t impossible f o r his reader to ignore time i n the Benjy section of The Sound and the Fury. The dominant time-oriented shadow motif i n the second section of the novel confirms the thematic importance of time i n the novel. By extending the implications of the shadow f o r Quentin to the other characters, i t i s possible to compare the effectiveness of the d i f f e r e n t time-orienta-tions of Benjy, Quentin, Jason and Dilsey. Therefore, I have chosen to use the shadow motif as a key to the 44 subt l e t i e s of the time theme i n The Sound and the Fury. The shadow, then, represents two basic r e a l i t i e s of l i f e , temporality and i n s t i n e t u a l i t y , neither of which can be denied, rejected, ignored or repressed. Those i n Faulkner's work who see t h e i r shadow, symbolically speak-ing, as representing antagonistic forces i n themselves w i l l destroy themselves. Those who accept t h e i r shadow as representing aspects of t h e i r basic humanity discover they are i n harmony with the world around them. In t h i s novel, only Dilsey benefits from an i n t u i t i v e -l y r e a l i s t i c experience of time. She transcends clock time and s e l f , and she responds with love to her fellow human beings. She i s neither taunted nor dominated by l i n e a r time as are Quentin and Jason, but integrates her emotional time sense with her i n t e l l e c t u a l awareness of a r b i t r a r y clock time or s o c i a l time as J.C. Ga t l i n , J r . c a l l s i t i n his a r t i c l e "Of Time and Character i n The Sound and the Fury"i . . . a l l of us . . . know how thoroughly the surface of our l i v e s i s r u f f l e d by the hands, the t i c k s , and the alarms of a clock. I t would not be a misnomer to c a l l t h i s sort of predictable, measurable time s o c i a l time; i t i s the time which p r a c t i c a l l y , we a l l are forced to acknow- 1 ledge and i n varying degrees to conform to. Benjy, who i n s t i n c t i v e l y y i e l d s to a r e a l i s t i c flow of time, i s not capable of personally benefiting from his time-sense, but he does automatically gauge the extent to which others are capable of r e l a t i n g p o s i t i v e l y to time and ^5 to life-encouraging forces. Quentin, who t r i e s to stop and push hack clock time and to escape from his discontin-uous, oppressive psychic time-sense, flounders and permanent-l y terminates the struggle i n suicide. Jason, who opposes himself to the emotional burden of memories of the past on grounds of i m p r a c t i c a l i t y , i s a self-deluded v i c t i m of l i n e a r time. I would l i k e to begin my study of The Sound and the  Fury by examining Faulkner's r e p e t i t i v e use of the shadow i n the Quentin section. Then I w i l l apply the shadow-implications of t h i s section to the other three sections. On the day of his suicide Quentin*s stream of con-sciousness i s wrought with turmoil. He uncontrollably moves between present and past and i s sometimes hard pres-sed to d i s t i n g u i s h between the two. Many of his time switches are triggered by his obsessive awareness of his shadow, the shadow he t r i e s to t r i c k , to stomp into the ground. He races back i n time to memories which c l u s t e r around shadow-oriented images. His shadow seems to symbol-ize for him aspects of his personality, as well as past and present events, which he cannot accept as part of his l i f e and subsequently incorporate into his experience of present r e a l i t y . The June 2, 1910 events which e l i c i t r e c o l l e c t i o n s of the past events must be seen as clues to the aspects of those past events which haunt Quentin. He seems to be t r y i n g to stop time and push i t backward to 46 h i s subjective and a r b i t r a r y point of departure from l i f e -in-time, Caddy's loss of v i r g i n i t y . Caught i n the dilemma of r e a l i s t i c a l l y assessing his father's cynicism, his i d e a l i s t i c version of Southern honor codes, l i f e as he perceives i t and his personal abhorrence f o r h i s own phy-s i c a l drives, he gropes f o r a way to escape coming to terms with what seem to be incompatible concepts. As he loses touch with r e a l i t y i n present time, he grabs desper-ately f o r Caddy, the one person he loves i n the Compson family} f i g u r a t i v e l y speaking, he transfers his psychic turmoil to her. He r a t i o n a l i z e s that her regaining of v i r g i n i t y would restore h i s s t a b i l i t y i n the world which confuses him unbearably. Obviously, Quentin's solu t i o n i s impossible. By choosing suicide he permanently terminates his contact with the r e a l world where shadows confirm the flow of l i f e and time. The shadow images, repeated and reshaped by Faulkner i n the Quentin section, r e f l e c t the complexity of Quentin's dilemma. They symbolize what Quentin cannot accept i n himself« h i s enforced p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n ongoing time and his human sexuality, his unconscious i n s t i n c t u a l drives. In her a r t i c l e , "Quentin and the Walking Shadow: The Dilemma of Nature and Culture," Louise Dauner comments» "He cannot see either himself or Caddy as humanly subject to the common denominators of nature 2 and i n s t i n c t . " June 2, 1 9 1 0 , Quentin wakens, sees the shadow of the 47 sash on the curtain and hears h i s watch« "then I was i n . time again." In the hours following, Quentin i s obsessively aware of shadows, primarily h i s own, na t u r a l l y designating the passing of time. He checks his calculations against the church clock, the tram schedule and the college chimes. ° He i s mesmerized by the t i c k i n g of hi s pocket watch. Linear time intrudes on his consciousness. He de l i b e r a t e l y shatters and dismembers the watch handed by his grandfather to his father and then i n turn to him. The hist o r y and function of the watch confront him with the inexorable passing of time. The breaking of the watch coincides with confused and tormented thoughts regarding incest, Dalton Ames, Caddy and his proposed suicide. I f time could be stopped and he could move back i n time, he might subtract from experience a l l his shattered and impossible i d e a l s . But the breaking of the watch does not stop time f o r Quentin, although i t does sadly foreshadow his permanent escape from time through suicide. U n t i l he i r o n i c a l l y affirms h i s temporality i n suicide, however, he i s haunted by inescapable time. Trampling my shadow's bones into the con-crete with hard heels and then I was ~ hearing the watch ^ He f e e l s the re l e n t l e s s pressure of passing time and him-s e l f caught i n time. His obsession with s i t t i n g on the l e f t side of the tram symbolically r e f l e c t s h is desire to move back i n time. Things would flow from r i g h t to l e f t (anticlockwise) when he looks out the window. The s i g n i f -48 ieanee of Quentin's obsession i s emphasized i n section four when Luster swings Queenie to the l e f t rather than to the r i g h t of the monument. Benjy reacts with horror to a v i s u a l i z a t i o n of reversed time. I s h a l l discuss t h i s epis-ode i n d e t a i l l a t e r . Influenced by his father, Quentin imagines his l i f e on earth as being l i k e a " g u l l on an i n v i s i b l e wire attac-hed through space dragged." Quentin i s an unwilling part-icipant i n l i f e f e e l i n g l i k e a toy of time t r i c k e d even by his own body: There was a clock, high up i n the sun, and I thought about how, when you don't want to do a thing, your body w i l l t r y to t r i c k you into doing i t , sort of un-awares. (102) Quentin's despair emanates from h i s reluctant r e a l i z a t i o n that the past i s i r r e t r i e v a b l e . Only the burden of h i s ancestors' errors, f e l t by a l l Southerners according to Faulkner, i s what i s l e f t of Quentin's i d e a l i z e d version of past honor codes and f i n e t r a d i t i o n s . He i s suscept-i b l e to the mesmerizing q u a l i t i e s of the loud t i c k i n g of clock time. He i s quite unlike Sutpen i n Absalom} Absalom! although ultimately both are destroyed by flawed senses of time. Sutpen doggedly pursues his grand scheme of re-capturing outmoded t r a d i t i o n s and s o c i a l codes deter-minedly oblivious to changing c u l t u r a l and s o c i a l patterns. In a complicated image following Quentin's admiration of the trout, which "hung, delicate and motionless among the wavering shadows," he v i s u a l i z e s how he too might f i n d kg equilibrium i n the stream of l i f e , poise i n time, such as the trout symbolizes. The v i s i o n i s distorted by Quentin*s warped sense of time, his f e e l i n g that he should be able to back up i n time. In t h i s v i s i o n time rushes away as he imagines the d e i f i c a t i o n of Gerald, who i s to Quentin a symbol of the old order of things, abstractly i d e a l i z e d . and then I could hear my watch and the t r a i n dying away, as though i t were running through another month or another summer somewhere, rushing away under the poised g u l l and a l l things rushing. Except Gerald. He would be sort of grand too, p u l l i n g i n lonely state across the noon, up the long bright a i r l i k e an apotheosis, mounting into a drowsing i n f i n i t y where only he and the g u l l , the one t e r r i f i c a l l y motionless, the other i n a steady and measured p u l l and recover that partook of i n e r t i a i t -s e l f , the world punily beneath t h e i r shadows on the sun. Caddy that black-guard that blackguard Caddy (139-40) Reflected i n Quentin*s version of Gerald and the g u l l casting shadows on the sun rather than the sun casting t h e i r shadows on the earth i s Quentin's impossible dream of escaping the human condition. The image of the creat-ive energy of the noon sun shadowed by a g u l l and Gerald powerfully emphasizes Quentin*s strong denial of his own shadow, hi s own humanity. To cast a shadow on the sun would require a greater source of energy than the sun. He sees the g u l l motionless and Gerald partaking i n i n e r t i a as they "mount a drowsing i n f i n i t y . " Quentin seems to make a mad plea f o r a l l time to stop as he approaches his planned suicide. It i s i r o n i c that i n suicide Quentin sinks 50 to the bottom of the trout's r i v e r . He does not trans-cend time and space« he flounders and i s submerged. I t should be noted, however, that Quentin does recognize, i n his own l i m i t e d way, the endurability and r e a l i t y of what the trout symbolizes, equilibrium i n the flow of l i f e and times "don't catch that old fellow down there. He deserves to be l e t alone." (139) What eludes him i s that the trout symbolizes something that can not be "caught". Quentin's admiration f o r the trout meaningfully precedes his stubborn and u n r e a l i s t i c attempt to create a personal eternity where Gerald rows "up the long bright a i r l i k e an apotheosis". Jesus walks down the l i g h t rays i n Quentin's mindi "Like Father said down the long and lonely l i g h t rays you might see Jesus walking." (96) Gerald, represent-ative of the old order, not Jesus, i s fo r the moment Quen-t i n ' s God. However, the v i s i o n of the d e i f i c a t i o n i s shattered by "Caddy that blackguard that blackguard Caddy". Gerald Bland, the gentleman, and Dalton Ames, Caddy's "seducer", are confused i n Quentin's mind. Gerald cannot be worshipped f o r his old order honor and codes since those same codes, paraded by Mrs. Bland's admiration of her son's sexual prowess and o r i g i n a l l y embodied i n Gerald's counter-part, Ames, are what thrust upon Quentin the discrepancy between r e a l l i f e and his abstract i d e a l i z a t i o n of l i f e . "Did you ever have a s i s t e r ? did you? and when he said No, you h i t him." Quentin reinacted with Gerald his f i g h t with Dalton Ames i n defence of his s i s t e r ' s honor. At t h i s 51 point the two aspects of the shadow merge. The f i g h t with Gerald i s motivated not only by a desire to back up i n time to erase intervening events, but also and more spec-i f i c a l l y by Quentin's f r a n t i c e f f o r t to hide from and r e j e c t h i s own sexuality. Gerald, i n person, thrust upon Quentin the i m p o s s i b i l i t y of his e a r l i e r d e i f i c a t i o n of an i d e a l i z e d Gerald, the i m p o s s i b i l i t y of his desire f o r s t a t i c time and his personal unreconciled abhorrence f o r sex. Quentin finds that his natural sexual desires are d i s -t a s t e f u l to him on the day that Caddy discovers Quentin and Natalie "dancing s i t t i n g down" i n the Barn. It i s not Caddy's discovering him which upsets Quentin, but Caddy's re f u s a l to condemn himi "I don't give a goddam what you do." ( 157) Quentin r e f l e c t s his own abhorrence f o r his sexuality by plunging into the hogwallow, but he would be able to r e l i e v e t h i s f e e l i n g of repugnance i f he could make Caddy condemn him and hence agree with him that sex i s muddy, d i r t y , stinking. Caddy's r e f u s a l to "care" pre-c i p i t a t e s a forced sharing of h i s aversion f o r sexuality by smearing mud on her too. " I ' l l make you give a damn." ( 156) Here Quentin p h y s i c a l l y projects his abhorrence f o r his own sexuality onto his s i s t e r . In the years between the barn incident and June 2 , 1910, i t seems that Quentin i s able to complete and sustain his projection on an abstract l e v e l as long as he i s not reminded by the physical world of his own p h y s i c a l i t y . He does so by assigning the sexual urge 52 to h is s i s t e r , who i n the 1910 episode he, i n his turmoil, confuses with the l i t t l e I t a l i a n g i r l i "Poor kid, you're just a g i r l . . . Your're just a g i r l . Poor kid . . . Nothing hut a g i r l . Poor s i s t e r . " ( 1 5 7 ) If an early event at the branch i s considered, Quentin's attempt to wash the hogwallow "mud", his sex-u a l i t y , o f f i s impossible. "We better t r y to wash i t o f f i n the branch." Recall Caddy's muddied drawers on the day of Damuddy's death and Dilsey's remarks " I t done soaked clean through onto you." ( 9 3 ) The branch did not wash away the mud which symbolically stained the bottom of Caddy. Sexuality i s an inescapable and necessary aspect of human l i f e which stands for involvement i n the temporal and physical world. It i s s i g n i f i c a n t that Caddy, the one member of the Compson family who has the a b i l i t y to love unconditionally those around her, grows to accept and enjoy her own sexuality. It i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note that water symbolizes the unconscious i n many psychological systems, one of them Carl Jung'ss "Water i s the commonest symbol for the un-it conscious." In l i g h t of water's symbolic significance, Faulkner implies i n the branch episodes that the sexuality of a participant i n l i f e cannot be successfully pushed into the unconscious mind. It cannot be permanently repressed without expressing i t s e l f i n some way. Certainly the second section of The Sound and the Fury dramatically por-trays the anxiety experienced by Quentin as he unsuccessfully 53 grapples with his repressed and projected sexuality. The 1910 event with the l i t t l e g i r l which makes Quen-t i n r e c a l l the barn incident, where h i s abhorrence for his i n s t i n c t - d r i v e n body i s a c t i v e l y demonstrated, indicates that Quentin associates his shadow with the i n s t i n c t which disgusts him. The sexual desire aroused by Natalie i s associated with the shadow which "paced" him. Quentin, very aware of the shadow "dragging i t s head through the weeds," (152) f i r s t r e c a l l s the honeysuckle " a l l mixed up i n i t [Caddy's sexual l i f e ] as though i t were not enough without that, not unbearable enough. What did you l e t him f o r kiss k i s s " ( 1 5 2 ) . Quentin's r e c o l l e c t i o n of Caddy's a f f a i r s and his condemnation of her e l i c i t s memories of the Natalie incident: "I didn't k i s s a d i r t y g i r l l i k e Natalie anyway." Then: "The wall went into shadow, and then my shadow, I had t r i c k e d i t again." ( 153) The juxtaposition of the past and present events and Quentin's confusing of the two suggest that the shadow i s for Quentin h i s person-a l sexual desires. Several years before, Quentin had t r i e d to t r i c k i n s t i n c t i v e aspects of h i s personality by symbolically immersing them i n the waters of the branch. Now he t r i e s again to t r i c k those same parts of h i s person-a l i t y , t h i s time symbolized by his shadow. He t r i e s to drown h i s shadow: " i f I only had something to blot i t into the water, holding i t u n t i l i t was drowned" ( 1 0 9 ) . A l l his attempts to deny the i n s t i n c t i v e aspects of his person-a l i t y , are equally f u t i l e . 54 Again i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to look at a quotation from Jung since he includes i n his system an archetypal shadows The shadow i s a l i v i n g part of the person-a l i t y and therefore wants to l i v e with i t i n some form. I t cannot be argued out of existence or r a t i o n a l i z e d into harmless- ^ ness. Jung's concept of the shadow i s more comprehensive than I am suggesting i s Faulkner's use of the shadow as a symbol i n the Quentin section. Jung writes: The shadow coincides with the "Personal" unconscious (which corresponds to Freud's conception of the unconscious) . . . The shadow personifies everything that the subject refuses to acknowledge about him-s e l f and yet i s always thrusting i t s e l f ^ upon him d i r e c t l y o r - i n d i r e c t l y . . . It does, however, add emphasis to Quentin's dilemma. He cannot escape h i s ess e n t i a l humanity. He cannot r a t i o n a l -i z e away or project onto someone else what i s a " l i v i n g part of the personality". The s e l f - d i s g u s t Quentin displays i n the barn incident also sheds l i g h t on his l a t e r reactions to Caddy's promis-cui t y and his associating her with the shadow. (173) As a boy he allows h i s i n s t i n c t - d r i v e n body to dictate his experience i n the barn with Natalie. The experience makes him f e e l d i r t y . By making v i r g i n i t y a v i r t u e , Quentin would not have to submit to or deal with sexuality. The southern gentleman, however, " i s ashamed of being a v i r g i n . " (97) Therefore, Quentin has to project his concept of v i r g i n i t y as a v i r t u e onto a female with whom he can i d e n t i f y . Caddy i s the l o g i c a l embodiment of h i s abstract concept. To 55 avoid c o l l i d i n g head on with the sexuality from which he wishes to escape, therefore, he has to coerce Caddy into conforming with his ideas regarding v i r g i n i t y . In time hi s concept of Compson honor becomes enmeshed i n his i n -volved system of r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n s and projections. Quentin I I I . Who loved not h i s s i s t e r ' s body but some concept of Compson honor pre-cariously and (he knew well) only tempor-a r i l y supported by the minute f r a g i l e mem-brane of her maidenhead as a miniature r e p l i c a of a l l the whole vast globy earth may be poised on the nose of a trained seal. (9) When Caddy loses her v i r g i n i t y , Quentin's protection against h i s unconscious drives collapses, Caddy's i n e v i t -able and natural involvement i n circumstance and time impinges on the world Quentin t r i e s to hold i n defiance of experience and change: And Father said i t ' s because you are a v i r g i n : don't you see? Women are never v i r g i n s . Purity i s a negative state and therefore contrary to nature. It's nature i s hurting you not Caddy and I said That's just words. (135) His protection against himself gone, Quentin f e e l s taunted by Caddy's poor Quentin . . . youve never done that have you yes yes l o t s of times with l o t s of g i r l s then I was crying . . . (170) The degree to which Quentin f e e l s threatened by Caddy's "sympathy" i s indicated by the 1910 event which makes him r e c a l l t h i s i n t e r a c t i o n with Caddy: But s t i l l I couldnt stop i t and then I knew that i f I t r i e d too hard to stop i t 5 6 I'd be crying and I thought about how I'd thought about I could not be a v i r g i n , with so many of them walking along i n the shadows and whispering with t h e i r soft g i r l voices l i n g e r i n g i n the shadowy places and the words coming out and perfume and eyes you could f e e l not see, but i f i t was that simple to do i t wouldnt be any-thing and i f i t wasnt anything, what was I . . . ( 1 6 6 ) Quentin's t o t a l s e l f - i d e n t i t y i s i n jeopardy. Desperate to continue to avoid acknowledging the shadow i n himself, Quentin t r i e s to p u l l Caddy away from her shadow, her sexuality, back into his world which circum vents experience. On the l i t e r a l l e v e l he attempts to sac-r i f i c e her: on the symbolic l e v e l , to commit incest. He i s incapable of r e a l i z i n g his plan on either l e v e l . To do so would involve Quentin i n the r e a l i t y of physical exper-ience. Neither death nor incest can be a substitute f o r the protection against the "loud world" Quentin i s deprived of when Caddy loses her v i r g i n i t y and betrays his paradise. However,-if he can convince himself that Caddy "died" when "they touched her" she would not be a non-virgin. His warped int e r p r e t a t i o n of his father's comment about v i r g i n i t y gives him the excuse to equate loss of v i r g i n i t y and death, " i t ' s l i k e death: only a state i n which others are l e f t and I said, But to believe i t doesn't matter and he said, that's what's so sad about anything" ( 9 7 ) . Also r e c a l l Mrs. Compson's reaction to seeing "one of them ki s s i n g " Caddy: " a l l next day she went around the house i n a black dress and a v e i l and even Father couldn't get her 57 to say a word except crying and saying her l i t t l e daughter was dead . . . " (247) However, Quentin knows the i l l u s i o n of death cannot be sustained. Quentin's t h i r d attempt to sublimate his own shadow, which had become in e x t r i c a b l y associated through projected abstractions with Caddy's shadow, i s when he confesses to his father that he and Caddy have committed incest. This attempt i s equally f u t i l e . i t was to i s o l a t e her out of the loud world so that i t would have to f l e e us of necessity and then the sound of i t would be as though i t had never been . . . i f i could t e l l you we did i t would have been so and then the others wouldnt be so and then the world would roar away (195) Quentin seeks i s o l a t i o n f o r himself and f o r Caddy, who i s esse n t i a l i n his world, by burning away the f l e s h with a mental flame. " I f i t could just be a h e l l beyond t h a t i the clean flame the two of us more than dead." (135) The fac t that Quentin i s attempting to escape from his basic humanity i s emphasized by his father's reply* you are s t i l l b l i n d to what i s i n your-s e l f to that part of general truth the sequence of natural events and t h e i r causes which shadows every mans brow even benjys you are not thinking of f i n -itude you are contemplating an apotheosis i n which a temporary state of mind w i l l become symmetrical above the f l e s h and aware both of i t s e l f and of the f l e s h i t w i l l not quite discard you w i l l not even be dead (195-6) On the day of his suicide Quentin i s s t i l l contemplating the d e s i r a b i l i t y of his "apotheosis" which would free him 58 of h i s f l e s h and his bones. Three times he anticipates the desirable d i s i n t e g r a t i o n of his body and the r i s i n g of the f l a t i r o n on "the Day." Once, Quentin hopes that his eyes " w i l l come f l o a t i n g up too, out of the deep quiet and the sleep, to look on glory" when "He says Rise." ( 135) He goes beyond considering the freeing of his mind and i r o n -i c a l l y anticipates sainthood. On June 2, 1910, Quentin's temporary avoidance of the shadow by "stopping inside the door" ( 1 0 0 - 1 ) makes him r e c a l l the "shadow" he had made a l a s t desperate attempt to avoid seeing by putting the mirror between himself and the bride, Caddy. The mirror symbolizes Quentin's per-s i s t e n t need to keep hi s abstract version of Caddy i n t a c t , but she runs "out of the mirror" leaving Quentin with "smells roses roses the voice that breathed o'er Eden" (101) and a v i s i o n of Caddy " l i k e a cloud, the f l o a t i n g shadow of the v e i l running across the grass, into the bellowing." (101) The roses are a symbol of Caddy's sex, her promis-c u i t y and her "unforgivable s i n . " Quentin i s irrevocably betrayed by her world: "Roses. Not v i r g i n s . . . Roses. Cunning and serene." ( 9 6 ) There are several indications i n Quentin's stream of consciousness that he associated Caddy with Eve, the betrayer of a l l mankind: the curtain leaning i n on the t w i l i g h t  upon the odour of the apple tree her  head against the t w i l i g h t . . . the  voice that breathed o'er eden . . . (124-5) On a symbolic l e v e l , Quentin's i d e n t i f y i n g Caddy with Eve 59 indicates his yearning to return to the innocence of man before the f a l l . Mythically, one might say, he f e e l s the oppression of bearing the ever-increasing burden of the past. On a l i t e r a l l e v e l , he would l i k e to return to the innocence of childhood. When Caddy runs "out of the mirror," Quentin's ver-sion of Caddy, too, runs "out of the mirror," his mirror, his consciousness which, to t h i s point, has r a t i o n a l i z e d away her promiscuity and his own shadow. Her marriage challenges and defeats Quentin's means of ignoring his own sexuality. His world shattered and i t s al t e r n a t i v e un-acceptable, Quentin finds himself i n the t w i l i g h t zone "neither asleep nor awake looking down a long corridor of grey h a l f l i g h t where a l l stable things had become shadowy paradoxical." (188) He i s p s y c h i c a l l y paralyzed by a discontinuous bombardment of memories of the past, and present obsessions, a l l of which are confined by the re-l e n t l e s s , mechanical measurement of time. The shadow which haunts Quentin on the day of his suicide symbolizes what he cannot accept i n himself and i n Caddy. It represents his i n s t i n c t i v e sexuality from which he t r i e s to free himself: my shadow leaning f l a t upon the water, so e a s i l y had I t r i c k e d i t that i t would not quit me . . . i f I only had some-thing to blot i t into the water, holding i t u n t i l i t was drowned (109) And i t represents Caddy's sexuality: "I walked upon the b e l l y of my shadow" i s a quotation preceded by a r e c a l l e d 60 discussion of Caddy's pregnancy. ( 1 1 5 ) The shadow marks and, for Quentin, symbolizes the steady passing of time from which he would l i k e to escapet "I walked upon my shadow, trampling i t into the dappled shade of trees again." ( 1 3 9 ) The shadow represents "the sequence of natural events and t h e i r causes which shadows every mans brow even benjys." In other words, the shadow which mocks Quentin by reminding him of his temporal and physical ex-istence i s , i n f a c t , what guarantees the continuance and orderly succession of physical phenomena upon which mankind depends for endurance. The sun casting the shadow i s the o r i g i n a l source of a l l creative energy. Man's shadow, on the symbolic l e v e l , i s an affirmation of his procreative p o t e n t i a l ; on the l i t e r a l l e v e l , i t i s an affirmation of physical being and motion cast on the earth by the sun. Quentin's suicide removes him from the flow of time and the flow of l i f e . He destroys the creative p o t e n t i a l he as a human being embodies. Because Quentin cannot accept h i s shadow, he i s not free to accept others as i n d i v i d u a l s , to love, to f e e l compassion or to f i n d peace. Determined to r a t i o n a l i z e and argue away hi s unconscious s e l f , he can see others only i n terms of the abstractions he formulates to protect himself from himself. His consciousness, which i s bent on destroy-ing a. " l i v i n g part of his personality," becomes so obsessed with try i n g to accomplish the impossible that i t destroys him. He seems incapable of synthesizing and balancing his anxious experience of psychic time and his f e l t pres-61 sure of clock time. The equilibrium between the two time senses symbolically attained by the trout eludes Quentin. The trout which can keep i t s "nose into the current", poised and motionless i n the flow of the r i v e r , representing t r a d i t i o n a l l y time and l i f e , i s not caughti i t endures. The r e l a t i v e l y few shadow images i n Benjy's section seem somewhat i n s i g n i f i c a n t i n i s o l a t i o n . However, reex-amined a f t e r a close analysis of the shadows i n Quentin's section, they gain some status on an inte r p r e t i v e l e v e l . Benjy, who has been "three years old t h i r t y years," i n -s t i n c t i v e l y experiences past and present time as present r e a l i t y , as i f a l l events were part of a timeless eternity. His shadow, as a symbol of his sp e c i a l time-sense, simply i s . "We went along the brick walk, with our shadows." (54) "Our shadows were on the grass." (73) Although Faulkner' applauds the consciousness which experiences the f l u i d i t y of time, obviously the Benjy-like time-sense, purely durational, i s inadequate f o r an independent e x i s t -ence. Clock time i s s o c i a l l y p r a c t i c a l and the a b i l i t y to make relationships gives significance and meaning to the f l u x of f l u i d time. However, Benjy's responses to various experiences r e g i s t e r p o s i t i v e and negative time experiences. I f the court house c i r c l e can be accepted as an image for a clock face there i s , i n a comparison of two incidents i n the novel, a dramatization of Benjy's i n s t i n c t i v e d i s -t i n c t i o n between po s i t i v e movement i n time and negative movement i n time. Before proceeding with my interpretation, 62 however, I would l i k e to r e f e r to a note hy Maurice Bassan, since we draw opposing conclusions from the same incidents. Bassan emphasizes the movement of the carriage! I f e e l the perceived movement of the outside "shapes" i s more relevant. Bassan writes: movement i n a clockwise d i r e c t i o n (monu-ment on the right) suggests an entry i n -to the world of time and r e a l i t y which i s at once impossible and agonizing . . . His movement must always be counter- „ clockwise, against the stream of time. ' I disagree with t h i s analysis because the descriptions i n the novel suggest that the r e l a t i v e movement of the objects outside the carriage are what Benjy focuses on: I could hear Queenie's feet and the bright shapes went smooth and steady on both sides, the shadows of them flowing across Queenie's back. They went on l i k e the bright tops of wheels. Then those on one side stopped at the t a l l white post where the s o l d i e r was. But on the other side they went on smooth and steady, but a l i t t l e slower. (31) As they move around the monument the shadows on the r i g h t flow i n a clock-wise d i r e c t i o n , from l e f t to r i g h t . Benjy i s quiet. In the l a s t incident i n the novel Luster swings Queenie to the l e f t of the monument. The monument i s again s t i l l and movement i s on the l e f t . As the carriage moves things flow, from Benjy*s point of view, from r i g h t to l e f t , i n an anti-clockwise d i r e c t i o n . Ben "bellowed" — " i t was horror; shock; agony eyeless, tongueless;" (335) My in t e r p r e t a t i o n i s that Benjy f e e l s agony i n a Quentin-l i k e concept of time — Quentin f e e l s the r e l e n t l e s s pres-sure of passing time and himself caught i n that time. He 6 3 wishes to move back i n time or to stop time. Recall again Quentin's obsession with s i t t i n g on the l e f t side of the tram. Things flow by i n an anti-clockwise d i r e c t i o n . When Queenie moves to the r i g h t of the monument, "cornice and facade flowed smoothly once more from l e f t to r i g h t , " i n a clockwise d i r e c t i o n . "Ben hushed . . . his eyes were empty and blue and serene." (336) I f the shadow as a symbol for natural and i n s t i n c t i v e sexuality can be extended somewhat to include most i n s t i n c t -ive responses to situations i n l i f e , the inseparableness of Benjy from his shadow i s apparent. His responses to the world and the people around him are i n s t i n c t i v e . They are unaltered by conscious reasoning and abstract moral codes. He i s incapable of recognizing his shadow, his i n s t i n c t i v e responses to l i f e around him, as a threat to a world of ideas which defies the world of experience as does Quentin. Di s t i n c t i o n s between moral and immoral, s p i r i t u a l and physical, mind and body, r a t i o n a l and i r r a t i o n a l , conscious and unconscious are outside the world of Benjy. Because his responses to experience are primitive or innocent, he seems to make only one basic d i s t i n c t i o n i n his world. He automatically distinguishes between forces which encourage the advancement of l i f e ' s p o t e n t i a l and forces which d i s t o r t and destroy l i f e ' s p o t e n t i a l ; he responds p o s i t i v e l y to the former, negatively to the l a t t e r . Life-encouraging forces — warmth of f i r e , sleep, love, compassion, regular motion i n time, and people l i k e Dilsey and Caddy — give order to 64 Benjy*s world and he responds to them p o s i t i v e l y . L i f e - i n -j uring forces — anger, absence of love, selfishness, death, chaotic movement against time, violence, and people l i k e Jason and Mrs. Compson — produce chaos i n Benjy's world and he responds negatively to them. (I s h a l l comment on h i s negative responses to Caddy's sexuality i n a moment.) Benjy's moments of serenity and peace are encompassed by love, warmth and a sense of community between human beings. His tendency to r e g i s t e r with serenity pos-i t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n l i f e climaxes i n the crescendo of the Easter service where time coalesces. Distant past and present are momentarily inseparable, and the C h r i s t i a n Easter heritage i s a present r e a l i t y personally experienced by each member of the congregation as they instantaneously transcend temporalityi "Jesus! I sees, 0 Jesus!" (Notice the present tense.) "In the midst of the voices and the hands Ben sat, rapt i n h i s sweet blue gaze." ( 3 1 3 ) I s h a l l discuss the significance of the Easter service to The Sound and the Fury i n more d e t a i l l a t e r . Because Benjy makes only the one basic d i s t i n c t i o n between po s i t i v e and negative l i f e forces, he i n s t i n c t i v e l y indicates which of the opposing forces each character embodies. He measures the extent to which each character i s able to recognize and accept p o s i t i v e l i f e forces with-i n himself. Acceptance of one's own humanity seems to be a prerequisite f o r recognizing and loving the humanity of other human beings. Therefore, he also r e g i s t e r s the 65 extent to which each character i s able to f e e l compassion for others. Caddy, as r e f l e c t e d i n the Benjy section, possesses a life-encouraging consciousness. She has the courage to encompass her i n s t i n c t s and her temporality, her shadows, as natural and inevitable parts of her l i f e . She can love, as in d i v i d u a l s , those around her. Benjy's crying when Caddy loses her v i r g i n i t y does not r e f l e c t a moral judg-ment and condemnation on Benjy's part as Quentin suggests: "He took one look at her and knew. Out of the mouths of babes." (119) It r e f l e c t s an inevitable change i n Caddy. She no longer smells l i k e trees or of innocence. I t also r e f l e c t s the n a t u r a l l y s e l f i s h and e g o t i s t i c a l demands of a c h i l d before s o c i a l i z a t i o n modifies his behavior. Part of maturation i s learning not to respond immediately and f u l l y to s t i m u l i but to modify that behavior according to i n t e l l e c t u a l awareness of circumstances surrounding the s t i m u l i . Benjy's responses are those of a c h i l d , as yet innocently e g o t i s t i c a l , i n s t i n c t i v e l y s e l f - p r o t e c t i v e . He responds negatively to Caddy's sexual experiences not only because they change Caddy, but also because they d i s t r a c t her attention from him and his s e l f i s h demands on her time and energies. He does not i n t e l l e c t u a l i z e the change. I t i s , however, Caddy's a b i l i t y to love and to mature which takes her from Benjy. Her response to h i s crying i s a r e f l e c t i o n of her love being pulled i n two d i r e c t i o n s . 66 Dilsey, too, i s r e f l e c t e d by Benjy as being free to f e e l compassion and love f o r others. Interestingly, there i s an i n d i r e c t r e f l e c t i o n and foreshadowing by Benjy of Quentin's dilemma» "He was chunking into the shadows where the branch was." (42) Jason's entry into Benjy's environment i s usually si g n a l l e d by crying emphasizing Jason's cold, unloving, dehumanized and destructive a t t i t u -des. Faulkner, i n his portrayal of Benjy, the "natural", seems to indicate that man has an innate a b i l i t y to f i n d order i n a seemingly chaotic world. Obviously, the i n s t i n c t i v e selfishness of the c h i l d undergoes s o c i a l i z a -t i o n before he can l i v e i n a human community s a t i s f a c t o r i l y . However, Faulkner implies that i f an i n d i v i d u a l i s guided, not ruled, by h i s i n s t i n c t i v e reactions to l i f e ' s exper-inces, he may develop a kind of rapport with the natural rhythms of the physical world and, with ease, accept the c y c l i c a l nature, too, of himself. Conversely, by r a t i o n -a l l y repressing his i n s t i n c t i v e responses to experience, the i n d i v i d u a l may be b l i n d to his innate capacity to res-pond to l i f e c r e a t i v e l y . Shadows are s i g n i f i c a n t l y not mentioned i n connection with Jason. He i s oblivious to the p o s s i b i l i t y that he may embody unconscious or i r r a t i o n a l impulses. Time to him i s mechanical, l i n e a r time, that time being meaningful to Jason only i n terms of money. Natural rhythms, suggested 67 by the gentle lengthening and shortening of shadows, do not make money but, i n Jason's scheme of things, probably cost money and therefore are of no account. Recall his hatred of the yearly return of the sparrows. Jason i s so time-equals-money oriented that to him the past, with the exception of memories of uncollected debts, i s only a nuisance. I t has no commercial value and therefore, once past, should be forgotten, just as once the stock market closes, the day's report has l i t t l e relevance to the present and future. Obviously Jason cannot escape his past which presses on him i n the persons of Mrs. Compson, Benjy, Dilsey and Quentin J r . , but he can do his best to i s o l a t e himself from i t s emotional claims. G a t l i n comments: For conscience to Jason i s the legacy of the past, of that durational past which, once acknowledged as an a r b i t e r of present value, imposes, drags with i t into the present contingency a l l sorts of imprac-t i c a l notions such as honor and honesty g and compassion. Jason r i d i c u l e s E a r l f o r his sense of relatedness and o b l i g a t i o n to the pastt "I'm glad I haven't got the sort of conscience I've got to nurse l i k e a sick puppy a l l the time." (246) Jason Compson i s always f a r too preoccupied with what he thinks i s a r a t i o n a l and l o g i c a l approach to l i f e to ever have time to recognize and hence acknowledge his own humanity with i t s i n s t i n c t i v e and i r r a t i o n a l aspects. He seems unconsciously to avoid accepting i n himself that 68 part of h i s mind which may cause him to act i r r a t i o n a l l y . He does t h i s by convincing himself that he alone has a firm, conscious grasp on r e a l i t y and that the people around him are i l l o g i c a l and i r r a t i o n a l . In other words, he unconsciously sublimates h i s personal fear of unconscious forces which may cause him to act i r r a t i o n a l l y by project-ing them onto people around him and then by c r i t i c i z i n g those people for what he cannot see i n himself* They were a l l i n town for the show coming i n i n droves to give t h e i r money to some-thing that brought nothing to the town and wouldn't leave anything except what those grafters i n the Mayor's o f f i c e w i l l s p l i t among themselves? and E a r l chasing back and fort h l i k e a hen i n a coop . . . (213) Jason's obsession with his own unique a b i l i t y to act r a t i o n -a l l y makes i t impossible f o r him to anticipate the acts of others. Jason guards himself against the p o s s i b i l i t y of res-ponding i n s t i n c t i v e l y to l i f e ' s s i t u a t i o n s to such an extent that he loses what Faulkner implies to be an innate a b i l i t y to f i n d poise i n a world which makes multiple demands on the i n d i v i d u a l . He consequently v i s u a l i z e s him-s e l f the v i c t i m of circumstance. Any event which exposes hi s lack of r a t i o n a l i t y or defies a monetary explanation makes him f e e l the dupe of the whole world. He f e e l s as though he i s a lone protagonist opposing a l l time and a l l l i f e : "and i t seemed to him that the fact that the day was c l e a r i n g was another cunning stroke on the part of the foe, the fresh b a t t l e toward which he was carrying ancient 69 wounds." (322) Constantly measuring and balancing c r e d i t and debit, he imagines himself the ignored cr e d i t o r . Isolated by his warped concept of l i f e Jason f e e l s that he i s mocked by the physical world and by indi v i d u a l s l i v i n g i n that world. Fenced by his certainty that cold l o g i c and money alone are to be trusted, he i s cut o f f from the humanity i n both himself and others. Subjective claims are not tolerated i n his world1 I never promise a woman anything nor l e t her know what I'm going to give her. That's the only way to manage them. A l -ways keep them guessing. I f you cant think of any other way to surprise them give them a bust i n the jaw. (210) Jason i s so busy maintaining his "sane" approach to l i f e that he i s not free to f e e l love, compassion or p i t y . He i s blinded by his i n a b i l i t y to see past h i s own s e l f i s h needs and designs. Dilsey points her finger at Jason's fervent s e l f - i s o l a t i o n as a negation of h i s basic humanitys "You's a cold man, Jason, i f man you i s , " she says. "I thank de Lawd I got mo heart dan dat, even ef h i t i s black." Even Bflrs. Compson, who dotes on Jason, recognizes h i s lack of compassion f o r others: "You'd be too b r u t a l with her." (240) It seems appropriate that during his mad pursuit of his niece on the day of the show Jason i s blinded by the sun, a symbol of r e a l i t y and the caster of shadows. The r e a l i t y of experience eludes Jason. Later Jason s i t s q u i e t l y i n his car, his version of r e a l i t y challenged and 70 proved inaccurate. Some looked at him as they passed, at the man s i t t i n g q u i e t l y behind the wheel of a small car, with his i n v i s i b l e l i f e r a v e l -led out about him l i k e a worn out sock. (329) Jason's system crumbles leaving him temporarily unwound. But i n the f i n a l scene he i s pictured as having pulled h is mechanical s e l f back together and as continuing to destroy the p o s i t i v e forces within him by i n s i s t i n g on the super-i o r i t y of h i s cold, l o g i c a l and impersonal world. Jason's l a s t act i n the novel i s one of restoring order to Benjy's world. He hurls Luster aside and swings Queenie about to the r i g h t of the monument. Jason s e l f i s h l y resents the disruption of his now "re-ordered" world. His reactions to the interference are v i o l e n t and without compassion, dictated to by a non-changing premediated selfishness. His mode d i f f e r s considerably from Benjy's. Benjy's s e l f i s h -ness i s i n s t i n c t i v e and self-preserving i n a primitive or innocent way; Jason's i s mechanical, cold and destructive. Faulkner's mode of f i c t i o n i n the f i n a l section of The Sound and the Fury serves to distance the reader from the streams of consciousness of in d i v i d u a l characters. The d i v e r s i f i e d responses of the various players, p a r t i c u -l a r l y Dilsey, to the events of A p r i l 8, 1928 are obj e c t i v e l y juxtaposed. Faulkner uses the omniscient point of view as opposed to the more intimate f i r s t person point of view of the other three sections. This chapter i s often referred 71 to as the Dilsey section because Dilsey i s here portrayed as compassionately transcending the f a u l t y time-senses and selfishness of the Compsons. By employing the omniscient point of view, Faulkner can emphasize the working of the heart as opposed to the machinations of the mind. He sides with the D i l s e y - l i k e consciousness which i s rooted i n the heart. In his appendix to The Sound and the Fury he sums up Dilsey's a b i l i t y to f i n d poise i n the ongoing l i f e process i n two wordsi "They endured." Dilsey's endurance contrasts v i v i d l y with the f a i l u r e and det e r i o r a t i o n of the Compson family. Jason and Quen-t i n f i n d l i f e " f u l l of sound and fu r y , / S i g n i f y i n g nothing." . . . Out, out b r i e f candle! L i f e ' s but a walking shadow, a poor player, That struts and f r e t s his hour upon the stage And then i s heard no more. I t i s a t a l e Told by an i d i o t , f u l l of sound and fury, Q S i g n i f y i n g nothing . . . " The use of "shadow" i n the Shakespeare passage e l i c i t s thoughts of Plato's Cave imagery which was diseussed e a r l i e r i n the Light In August chapter. L i f e i s viewed r e a l i s t i c a l l y by neither Quentin nor Jason. The sun, symbol f o r r e a l i t y , i s seen as antagonistic to both of them although i n d i f f e r e n t ways. Their l i f e schemes are based on i l l u s i o n s . Faulkner suggests that l i f e s i g n i f i e s nothing to those who are threatened by the r e a l i t i e s of time and who i n t e l l e c t u a l l y r e j e c t the r e a l i t i e s of t h e i r basic humanity. Benjy bellows dejectedly over h i s family's f i g u r a t i v e l o s s of l i f e based on those r e a l i t i e s on A p r i l 72 8, 1 9 2 8 . He i n s t i n c t i v e l y reacts against the destructive q u a l i t i e s displayed by his family and reaches out to Caddy, represented by the old s a t i n s l i p p e r , to bring l i f e back to the Compsons: "Hush. Dilsey got you." But he bellowed slowly, abjectly, without tears; the grave hopeless sound of a l l voiceless misery under the sun. Luster returned, carrying a white s a t i n s l i p p e r . It was yellow now, and cracked and s o i l e d , and when they placed i t into Ben's hand he hushed fo r a while. ( 3 3 2 ) He responds p o s i t i v e l y to Dilsey, too, to whom l i f e has significance and meaning; "You's de Lawd's c h i l e , anyway. En I be His'n too, fo long, praise Jesus." ( 3 3 3 ) Symbolically speaking Dilsey embraces her shadow, her temporality and her basic humanity. The slow, one-handed Compson clock i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y out of time with r e a l i t y . However, i t does not d i s t o r t Dilsey's r e a l i s t i c integra-t i o n of past and present time. She symbolically translates the incongruous s t r i k i n g of the clock into the approximate time of the community. On the wall above a cupboard, i n v i s i b l e save at night, by lamp l i g h t and even then evincing an enigmatic profundity because i t had but one hand, a cabinet clock t i c k -ed, then with a preliminary sound as i f i t had cleared i t s throat, struck f i v e times. "Eight oclock," Dilsey said. ( 2 9 0 ) Dilsey i s not mesmerized by time nor i s she haunted by i t s passing. She r e a l i s t i c a l l y assesses the changes i n her s e l f and the Compson family wrought by timei "I seed de beginnin, en now I sees de endin." Dilsey, sensitive to people as fellow human beings f e e l s compassion fo r the 7 3 members of the Compson family who are incapable of love and communication. However, she does not retreat into memories of a better past. She draws on the past to p u l l into per-spective the sad truth of the present and the p o s s i b l i t i e s of the future. The stove was almost cold. While she stood there the clock above the cupboard struck ten times. "One oelock," she said aloud, "Jason aint comin home. Ise seed de f i r s t en de l a s t , " she said, looking ... at de l a s t . " She set out some cold food on a table. As she moved back and f o r t h she sang a hymn. ( 3 1 6 ) The Compson stove i s cold, but Dilsey*s warmth, symbolized by food and song, and e a r l i e r by the hot water b o t t l e and Bible, i s compassionately extended. Faulkner's portrayal of Dilsey refutes Sartre's comment that Faulkner decapitates time by depriving i t of i t s future.''"0 Dilsey i s not pounced upon by present events for lack of considering the future. She i s portrayed as i n t u i t i v e l y following what Sartre i n his c r i t i c i s m of Faulkner recommendsi And i f we steep ourselves thus i n the future, i s not the formless b r u t a l i t y of the present thereby attenuated? The single event does not spring on us l i k e a t h i e f , since i t i s , by nature, a Having-been-future. Where the two writers seem to d i f f e r i s i n approach. Faulk-ner avoids as dehumanizing the i n t e l l e c t u a l i z i n g of exper-ience} Sartre does not. I t seems Sartre overlooks Dilsey as a Faulknerian heroine i n his c r i t i c i s m of Faulkner's metaphysics. 74 The Easter Service emphasizes the losses of the Comp-son family and the strength of Dilsey. I t i s a superb climax of time experienced as f l u i d and eternal within the framework of a service t i e d to clock time for s o c i a l con-venience. The congregation i n d i v i d u a l l y and simultaneously experience the Christ story as a present r e a l i t y intimately a f f e c t i n g t h e i r l i v e s . Reverend Shegog moves them to a communication beyond the need f o r words. With h i s body he seemed to feed the voice that, succubus l i k e , had fleshed i t s teeth i n him. And the congregation seemed to \ , watch with i t s own eyes while the voice consumed him, u n t i l he was nothing and they were nothing and there was not even a voice but instead t h e i r hearts were speaking to one another i n chanting mea-sures beyond the need f o r words, . . . (310) The image i s a powerful one. Faulkner suggests that the body and the voice are a possible means of transcending time and s e l f to a point where individuals can communicate t r u t h f u l l y heart to heart. By describing the voice as succubus-like he emphasizes his bias against the i n t e l l e c t -c ontrolled voice as an ultimately meaningful mode of com-munication between human beings. In the midst of t h i s congregation transcending time and words s i t Ben and Dilsey. Ben responds i n s t i n c t i v e l y to the p o s i t i v e exper-ience; Dilsey responds with her heart and mind to the Easter Service and communion of human beings: In the midst of the voices and the hands Ben sat, rapt, rapt i n hi s sweet blue gaze. Dilsey sat bolt upright beside, _ crying r i g i d l y and qu i e t l y i n the anneal-ment and the blood of the remembered 75 Lamb. ( 3 1 3 ) It i s suggested that Dilsey and Ben embody C h r i s t - l i k e q u a l i t i e s i n a passage echoing several passages discussed i n the Quentin part of the paper. "As they walked through the bright noon, up the sandy road..." (313 emphasis mine) Faulkner applauds the D i l s e y - l i k e consciousness. Her capacity to love, to f e e l compassion, to act spontaneously, to see a l l who are around her as i n d i v i d u a l s and yet to recognize t h e i r common humanity i s hers because she i s able to accept he r s e l f f o r what she i s , a human being with un-predictable emotions and drives, i n t u i t i v e wisdom, reason-ing a b i l i t y and temporality. Her transcendence i s j o y f u l l y i n t u i t i v e , not abstra c t l y i n t e l l e c t u a l . It i s not an escaping from time but an acceptance and integration of past, present and future time. In his novel Faulkner counterpoints negative and po s i t i v e responses to l i f e . The t i t l e shows how Macbeth's "sound and fury" has been altered to balance "de power en de glory." (313) The Quentin-like and Jason-like conscious-nesses which d i s t o r t time and unconscious aspects of the personality as antagonistic forces i n themselves, ultimately destroy themselves i n the process of destroying t h e i r innate capacity f o r finding order, love and peace i n the temporal world. They experience l i f e as f u l l of "the sound and the fury". Those who accept t h e i r shadow as a " l i v i n g part of the personality" discover they are i n harmony with the world around them. Dilsey experiences "de power en de glory" 76 of l i f e . Faulkner's affirmation of the endurability and beauty of the D i l s e y - l i k e consciousness i s clear i n a consideration of the time theme i n The Sound and the Fury as a universal theme. However, the affirmation i s somewhat overcast by the t i t l e of the novel. Faulkner, i n the closing v o c i f e r -ous remarks of Jason, draws hi s reader back to the problems of the southern society he portrays i n his novel. Never-theless, when the novel i s seen as more than a story of the south, Faulkner's thematic statement i s optimistic about man's future. Benjy's serenity, once order i s restored to his world, mutes the fury and cruelty of his Snopes-like brother. Only when the novel i s viewed as a commentary on the south, i s Faulkner's statement pessimistic, pessimistic regarding the future of the southern society. Kerr i n t e r -prets the general theme of Faulkner's works as follows: The myths and legends by which the South-ern a r i s t o c r a t s seek consolation and com-pensation for the loss of t h e i r prestige and prosperity paralyze them and leave the i n i t i a t i v e i n modern society to t h e 1 2 Snopeses. I f the i n i t i a t i v e i s l e f t to the cold, impersonal, time-equals money oriented Snopeses, the culture's future i s bleak. For an i n d i v i d u a l to avoid a dehumanized l i f e f u l l of sound and fury Faulkner seems to plead for him to adopt a philosophy of l i f e which restores the human values and q u a l i t i e s ; he l a t e r voiced i n his Nobel Prize Address: "love and honor and p i t y and pride and compassion and sac-r i f i c e " . 1 3 77 I believe that man w i l l not merely endure* he w i l l p r e v a i l . He i s immortal, not because he alone among creatures has an inexhaustible voice, but because he has a soul, a s p i r i t capable of compassion and s a c r i f i c e and endurance. He implies i n The Sound and the Fury that an i n d i v i d u a l might a t t a i n the i d e a l by learning a D i l s e y - l i k e sense of time and sense of s e l f i n r e l a t i o n s h i p to that time. Margaret Church observes* "Dilsey i s able to accept and then transcend time because she i s e s s e n t i a l l y not a part of the society with which Quentin has to cope,"*-' I argue that Dilsey i s faced with southern problems equally as d i f f i c u l t as those Quentin faces. I f The Sound and the Fury i s seen as a novel about the south only, i t thematieally i s o l a t e s the southern dilemma; i f i t i s seen as u n i v e r s a l l y applicable, i t thematieally affirms man's endurability when he accepts and synthesizes h i s sense of temporality and his i n s t i n c t i v e responses to l i f e . 78 THE COFFIN IN AS I LAY DYING As I Lay Dying revolves around a journey which symbolically r e s i s t s the inevitable flow of time. Com-plying with the request of Addie Bundren, the Bundren family transport her coffined corpse to Jefferson where her family, long dead, are interred: And when Darl was born I asked Anse to promise to take me back to Jefferson when I died, because I knew that father., had been ri g h t , . . . Fi g u r a t i v e l y speaking, Addie asks Anse to move her back i n time. The journey would i n ef f e c t turn back the clock so that no intervening experiences could challenge her b e l i e f i n her father's dictum "that the reason for l i v i n g was to get ready to stay dead a long time:" (46l). T r a d i t i o n a l l y her b u r i a l place would be near the Bundren property, but her request minimizes the hold family t i e s have on her. The journey back i n time seems an attempt to erase her membership i n the Bundren family. Midpoint i n the novel Faulkner juxtaposes the flow of the swollen r i v e r and the c o f f i n containing Addie Bundren's corpse. In t h i s juxtaposition i s the thematic axis of the novel. The r i v e r i s a t r a d i t i o n a l symbol of the flow of time; the c o f f i n i s a symbol of the i r r e v e r s i b l e i s o l a t i o n of death. Addie*s request involves her family i n the symbolically l i f e - d e s t r u c t i v e task of r e s i s t i n g time to support a s t a t i c view of l i f e . The c o f f i n , however,, i s also imbued with a strange l i f e force of i t s own. It i s 79 equated with the l i v i n g Addie: her influence i s transferred to the c o f f i n . Manifest i n the powerful interplay between the animation of the c o f f i n and i t s representation of death and i s o l a t i o n i s the dynamically destructive influence Addie has on the Bundren family. As I Lay Dying i s composed of s i x t y b r i e f chapters apportioned among f i f t e e n characters. Each section des-cribes aspects of either the events and preparations pre-ceding Addie's funeral or the procession to Jefferson. Accordingly, facets of the private experiences of each character as they r e l a t e to Addie's death and the journey are explored. When the many sections are seen as the conscious streams of the characters i n the novel, a theme of the universal and inevitable i s o l a t i o n of the i n d i v i d u a l emerges. Calvin Bedient's a r t i c l e "Pride and Nakedness: 2 As I Lav Dying" points to the inexorable i s o l a t i o n of the in d i v i d u a l consciousness as the axis of the novel. However, Faulkner, at c r u c i a l points i n other novels, posits the p o t e n t i a l i t y and d e s i r a b i l i t y of individ u a l s transcending the loneliness of i s o l a t i o n and i n t u i t i v e l y experiencing communion with fellow human beings. From a less convention-a l approach to As I Lay Dying, the i s o l a t i o n theme can be seen to revolve around only one i n d i v i d u a l and reasons for t h i s i s o l a t i o n reinforce thematic statements by Faulkner that I have already examined i n chapters one and two of t h i s thesis. I f e e l that the narrator of the novel i s Addie Bundren, and that the private worlds tapped i n the 80 novel are her versions of what might be the experiences of the other characters involved i n the t a l e . Her imaginative entries into t h e i r conscious streams y i e l d a flow of i n -sights into h e r s e l f and her influence on others. Addie's tendency to minimize and disperse these insights constitute the tragedy of As I Lay Dying. She has no sense of com-munion with fellow human beings. She seems aware of her influence on those around her and yet t r i e s to ignore the significance of her influence and sadly chooses not to r e g i s t e r rebound effects on her s e l f . Her inte n t i o n a l ex-c l u s i v i t y , her s t a t i c concepts of l i f e and her attempt to move against the flow of time b l i n d her to the poten t i a l of transcending i n d i v i d u a l i s o l a t i o n . I have proposed that there i s within As I Lay Dying supportive evidence for reading the novel as Faulkner's portrayal of the conscious stream of the dying Addie Bundren. She seems to absorb and reconstruct events before her death and to create i n her imagination events surrounding her death and the a c t i v i t i e s following her death. Her thought patterns are somewhat s t y l i z e d i n that she a r b i t r a r i l y focuses on one i n d i v i d u a l at a time. R e a l i s t i c a l l y the stream of thought could jump i n a les s organized fashion from subject to subject. Thematieally, however, there may be some significance i n the compartment-a l i z i n g technique she uses. The tone throughout the novel i s consistently that of the woman revealed i n the Addie section. I agree with David Monaghan, author of "The 81 Single Narrator of As I Lay Dying," that the int r u s i v e voice i s "that of a woman who i s manufacturing a pseudo-objective 3 version of experience out of her own consciousness." . The theme of the self-destructiveness and other-destructiveness of s t a s i s and i s o l a t i o n i s dramatically emphasized when Addie i s seen as the single narrator. Various elements i n the novel support the single narrator theory of As I Lay Dying. The t i t l e i s the most obvious. I f Faulkner were exploring i n d i v i d u a l reactions to Addie*s death, why As I Lay Dying (emphasis mine)? It i s , i n fact, Addie who "lay" dying f I t seems quite reason-able that she occupies her mind with thoughts of what might occur a f t e r her death. She has extracted from Anse his promise to bury her i n Jefferson as opposed to where she t r a d i t i o n a l l y belongs, near her family and home. I t i s a request which she means to be her revenge against himt "my revenge would be that he would never know I was taking revenge. And when Darl was born I asked Anse to promise to take me back to Jefferson when I died" (464). As she l i e s dying she seems to be projecting beyond her death to measure the effectiveness of her revenge. The overneat re s o l u t i o n of her revenge plot, the g l o r i f i c a t i o n of Jewel, the stereotyping of Anse and the commitment of Darl to Jackson a l l seem to be products of Addie's wishful thinking as opposed to an unravelling of what may r e a l i s t i c a l l y follow her death. However, these imaginative entries into the minds of the others force her to see how i n e f f e c t i v e , 82 i n f act, her revenge i s . Not l i k i n g what she discovers she r a t i o n a l i z e s away the insights obtained. The p e c u l i a r l y s i m i l a r descriptions of Anse through-out the novel suggest a single categorizer, Addie: Dewey D e l l : He looks l i k e r i g h t a f t e r the maul h i t s the steer and i t no longer a l i v e and don't yet know i t i s dead. ( 3 8 1 ) T u l l t and Anse standing there l i k e a scare-crow, l i k e he was a steer standing knee-deep i n a pond and somebody come by and set the pond up on edge and he ain ! t missed i t yet. ( 3 9 0 ) Darlt He stops for a while and looks at us, hunched, mournful l i k e a f a i l i n g steer or an old t a l l b i r d . ( 4 5 6 ) Addie: so that he looked already l i k e a t a l l b i r d hunched i n the cold weather on the wagon-seat. ( 4 6 2 ) The d i c t i o n of each character varies as i t very well might as Addie imaginatively puts h e r s e l f i n the place of these characters. However, there are unaccountable lapses i n d i c t i o n , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the Vardaman sections. That i s , they are lapses i f Addie i s not the f a b r i c a t o r of the various points of view. The following passage seems quite beyond the scope of the boy portrayed i n other Vardaman passages: It i s as though the dark were resolving him out of his i n t e g r i t y , into an un-related scattering of components — snuffings and stampings 5 smells of cool- -ing f l e s h and ammoniac hair? an i l l u s i o n of a coordinated whole of splotched hide and strong bones within which, detached and secret and f a m i l i a r , an i s d i f f e r e n t from my i s . ( 3 7 9 ) 8 3 Although many of the words used i n t h i s passage resemble those used by Darl more than they do those used by Addie, I believe her background indicates she i s capable of fa b r i c a t i n g the language used by Darl and of using Darl-l i k e d i c t i o n for Vardaman, who she knows i d o l i z e s Darl. I f e e l the single narrator theory better accounts for Darl's version of what takes place during h i s and Jewel's absense than the usual explanation of Darl being capable of clairvoyance. Addie as narrator also gives significance to lapses i n the chronological presentation of events — p a r t i c u l a r l y the Cora-Addie-Whitfield nar-rations following the crossing of the r i v e r . These three flashback sections are a commentary on the s t a s i s and i s o l a t i o n of Addie Bundren already symbolically presented i n the crossing of the r i v e r . I t seems as i f Addie i s try i n g to j u s t i f y her request. Addie as fa b r i c a t o r also helps explain Cash's puzzling reference to the house where Anse borrows the shovel as Mrs. Bundren's houses "He set that way a l l the time we was i n front of Mrs. Bundren's house, hearing the music, . . . " (512) When I read the novel as Faulkner's portrayal of a single woman's f a b r i c a t i o n of d e t a i l s surrounding her death, I f e e l a kind of Bergsonian dynamism i n i t s s t y l e , i n i t s immediacy and a Bergsonian abhorrence of s t a s i s as l i f e - d e s t r u c t i v e i n i t s theme. The d i r e c t , non-interpreted presentation of Addie's conscious stream gives the novel the r e a l i s t i c immediacy of pseudo-consciousness. The 84 reader i s d i r e c t l y involved with her perceptions of the world and people around her as she faces death. This dynamic immediacy allows the reader to experience, as opposed to being t o l d about, the s t a t i c r i g i d i t y of the narrator as she d i s t o r t s r e a l i t y i n her i n a b i l i t y to adapt to change. Addie's attempt to prove her philosophy of i n d i v i d u a l i s o l a t i o n and to deny her t i e s with the Bundrens manifests i t s e l f i n the narrative s t y l e . She compartmentalizes each character she speaks through. She presents her version of the personality of each i n d i v i d u a l , adjusting i t to j u s t i f y and r a t i o n a l i z e her r i g i d concepts of l i f e . Each person i s , i n e f f e c t , put i n a box, a compartment, or, I might add, a c o f f i n . Darl who i n t u i t i v e l y breaks down the com-munication b a r r i e r s i s damned i n the narration by i t s creator, Addie. I s h a l l discuss t h i s point i n more d e t a i l l a t e r . Disquieting perceptions of time and space thrust d i r e c t l y at the reader the turmoil of Addie Bundren as she makes f u t i l e attempts to give shape to or to j u s t i f y her l i f e through her family, p a r t i c u l a r l y through Darl. Tension arises i n the disconnection of time and space. It seems that Addie's i n a b i l i t y to flow with time makes i t impossible f o r her to f e e l the r e l a t i o n s h i p between time and space. Notice the f r i e z e - l i k e d escription of the Bundrens t r a v e l l i n g the empty road to Jefferson* We go on, with a motion so s o p o r i f i c , so 85 dreamlike as to be uninferant of progress, as though time and not space were decreas-ing between us and i t . (4l3) The wagon i s l i k e an unlidded c o f f i n i n the desolate land-scape. It i s worth noting that Jewel i s not i n the wagon but, i n contrast, i s moving past the wagon on his horse. Addie exempts him from the immobilized action. Darl's complicated consideration of time at the r i v e r , likewise, r e f l e c t s Addie's struggle with the concepts of time and spaces It i s as though the space between us were time; an irrevocable q u a l i t y . It i s as though time, no longer running straight before us i n a diminishing l i n e , now runs p a r a l l e l between us l i k e a looping s t r i n g , the distance being the doubling accretion of the thread and not the i n t e r v a l between. (443) Addie i s reluctant to l e t time flow and imaginatively freezes action to stop the flow of time, but time necess-a r i l y moves on. The turbulent r i v e r suggests an i n e v i t -able, r e l e n t l e s s , v i o l e n t passing of time. The water i s endowed with a disturbing l i f e - f o r c e of i t s owns The water was cold. It was thick, l i k e slush i c e . Only i t kind of l i v e d . (436) the yellow surface dimpled monstrously into fading swirls t r a v e l l i n g along the surface f o r an instant, s i l e n t , imperman-ent and profoundly s i g n i f i c a n t , as though just beneath the surface something huge and a l i v e waked f o r a moment of lazy alertness out of and into l i g h t slumber again. (438-9) The " r i v e r of time" seems opposed to the Bundren's move-ment against time, action precipitated by the request of Addie. Her imaginative entries into the minds of other 86 characters force her to t e s t i f y against herself, but as the f i c t i o n progresses, she r a t i o n a l i z e s away the destructiveness of her influence. Addie imagines Darl, standing on one side of the r i v e r looking at T u l l and three members of his family on the other and thinking: The r i v e r i t s e l f i s not a hundred yards across, and pa and Vernon and Vardaman and Dewey D e l l are the only things i n sight not of that single monotony of desolation leaning with that t e r r i f i c q u a l i t y a l i t t l e from r i g h t to l e f t , as though we had reached the place where the motion of the wasted world accelerates just before the f i n a l precipice. Yet they appear dwarfed. It i s as though the space between us were time: an irrevocable q u a l i t y . (443) She learns that he i n t u i t i v e l y recognizes the destructive-ness of going against time. He i s haunted with the un-naturalness of opposing the f l u x of time and with a v i s i o n of the " f i n a l p recipice". It follows that the processes of f i g h t i n g the currents to take the c o f f i n across the r i v e r and of transporting i t to Jefferson e f f e c t i v e l y im-mobilize and i s o l a t e Cash, Darl and Jewel. The same resistance to the natural flow of time has repercussions on Dewey D e l l and Vardaman as well. I t i s as i f each i s eventually surrounded by the c o f f i n planks. Cash a l l but loses his leg and, as i t i s , w i l l be unable to walk for over a year; Darl i s dispatched to Jackson. In the l a s t Darl section, the narrator reports: Our brother Darl i n a cage i n Jackson where, his grimed hands l y i n g l i g h t i n the quiet i n t e r s t i c e s , looking out he foams. (527) 87 Jewel moves further into the cold i s o l a t i o n of a person who has learned no way to communicate except through v i o l e n t action? Dewey De l l faces the confinement of pregnancy alone. Anse only seems to be immune to the destructiveness of Addie*s request. Both Cash and Darl challenge the destructiveness of the movement against time. Darl attempts to burn the c o f f i n and corpse i Cash sees the significance of the attempt s But I thought more than once before we crossed the r i v e r and af t e r , how i t would be God's blessing i f He did take her outen our hands and get shut of her i n some clean way, and i t seemed to me that when Jewel worked so to get her outen the r i v e r , he was going against God i n a way, and then when Darl seen that i t looked l i k e one of us would have to do something, I can almost believe he done r i g h t i n a way. (510) As recorded i n the quotation above, Cash had t r i e d to bring about the-same during the r i v e r crossing, but was also f o i l e d by Jewel. Not only are common perceptions of time and place disrupted i n Addie's story, but so also are the senses confounded i n the unusual f l u x between the animate and inanimate. The c o f f i n seems more a l i v e than did Addie before her imagined death: The wagon i s hauled clear, the wheels chocked ( c a r e f u l l y : we a l l helped; i t i s as though upon the shabby, f a m i l i a r , i n -ert shape of the wagon there lingered somehow, latent yet s t i l l immediate, that violence which had s l a i n the mules that drew i t not an hour since) above the edge of the flood. In the wagon bed i t l i e s profoundly, the long pale planks hushed a l i t t l e with wetting yet s t i l l yellow, l i k e gold seen through water, save for two long muddy smears. (452) The c o f f i n , i n t a c t except f o r "two long muddy smears," i s described as the source of violence i n the r i v e r cross-ing. Compare with "her face i s wasted away so that the bones draw just under the skin i n white l i n e s . Her eyes are l i k e two candles when you watch them gutter down into the sockets of i r o n candle-sticks." (3^2) Even when Cash i s building the c o f f i n i t eminates a v i t a l i t y of i t s own to contrast v i v i d l y with the strange immobile statuesqueness of i t s l i v i n g maker. After death Addie seems to imagine her s e l f f o r c e f u l l y and v i o l e n t l y imposing he r s e l f i n the consciousness of each of her family members s i m i l a r to the way i n which she v i o l e n t l y imposed he r s e l f upon the minds of students when she was teaching. But a c t u a l l y and ir o n -i c a l l y she has the reverse e f f e c t ; she i s successfully erasing a l l but the horror of the journey from t h e i r minds. There i s a dream-like q u a l i t y to the r e c i p r o c a l move-ment between frozen time and time i n flux, between dimen-sio n a l and non-dimensional space and between the animate and inanimate. It seems at times that the action of the novel i s under water where components scatter and reassemble unpredictably. At other times i t seems as i f the action freezes and holds. The unusual disruptions of perception suggest a narrator a l t e r n a t e l y freed from and t i e d to the r e s t r i c t i o n s of time and space. They render a f e e l i n g of 89 immediacy by d i r e c t l y r e f l e c t i n g the state of mind of the narrator. They also suggest, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the animate-inanimate t r a n s i t i o n s , a narrator who i s struggling to maintain her own sense of being. On one l e v e l she may be cnnsidering the implications of death. On a more s i g n i f i -cant l e v e l she i s attempting to j u s t i f y her whole l i f e . It i s as i f her j u s t i f y i n g of her l i f e ' s actions i s f a i l i n g and the world i s disintegrating around her. However, she chooses i n the face of contrary evidence to remain s t a t i -c a l l y and emphatically sure of her e x c l u s i v i t y . Her r e f u s a l to acknowledge her essential relatedness to others hurts not only her but also those around her. In the pro-cess of r a t i o n a l i z i n g her own separateness, she e f f e c t i v e l y dehumanizes others. Although l i m i t e d insights into her destructive influence on others are forced upon her by her imaginative entry into t h e i r consciousnesses, she minimizes the i n t r u s i o n of these insights upon her philosophical set. Addie Bundren's i n t e n t i o n a l and non-changing choice of e x c l u s i v i t y leaves her dead, i n Faulknerian terms, long before physical death threatens her. Influenced by her father's dictum "that the reason f o r l i v i n g was to get ready to stay dead a long time" (46l), she c l i n g s r i g i d l y to her aloneness. As a teacher she considers only violence can l i n k two individuals together: I would look forward to the times when they faulted, so I could whip them. When the switch f e l l I could f e e l i t upon my f l e s h j when i t welted and ridged i t was my blood that ran, and I would think 90 with each blow of the switch* Now you are aware of me! Now I am something i n your secret and s e l f i s h l i f e , who have marked your blood with my own for ever and ever. (462) Addie seems to be pleading f o r someone to v i o l a t e her aloneness. The very term, v i o l a t i o n , predetermines her negative emotional set — that violence i s the only way to break down the b a r r i e r s of i s o l a t i o n . In violence are the roots of her concept of v i o l a t i o n . Her whole notion i s self-defeating as indicated i n the passage regarding Cash's births "My aloneness had been v i o l a t e d and then made whole again by the v i o l a t i o n s " (464) On a l i t e r a l l e v e l , she i s not alone during pregnancy; a f t e r b i r t h she i s alone. B i r t h , when pregnancy i s perceived as a v i o l a s , t i o n , terminates that v i o l a t i o n and emphasizes reinstated aloneness. Addie seems to lose any sense of being emotion-a l l y t i e d to Cash. I f she did f e e l these t i e s , they would negate her sense of i s o l a t i o n . Later she speaks of being three, the f i r s t time r e f e r r i n g to Cash, Darl and herself and the second, to Cash, Jewel and herself. She also speaks of her children a l l being hers alone, but she leaves no room for them to emotionally " v i o l a t e " her impenetrable i s o l a t i o n . The b i r t h of Cash convinces Addie that " L i f e i s t e r r i b l e " as her father said. She i s f i g u r a t i v e l y "encoffined" by the r i g i d i t y of her emotional set of im-penetrable aloneness. The imposition of s e l f through violence i s extended to i t s grotesque l i m i t i n Jewel's treatment of his horse. 91 He projects Addie's treatment of himself to the horse, "that's why ma always whipped him and petted him more." (349) The change i n subject and object, Jewel f o r Addie and the horse for Jewel, r e f l e c t s the dehumanizing effects of using such a l i m i t e d type of communication. There i s an i r o n i c twist i n Jewel's equating his mother with his horse. Following the twist, the o r i g i n a l perpetrator of violence, Addie, i s likewise dehumanized. Addie*s determined i s o l a t i o n i s based l a r g e l y on her desire f o r rel a t i o n s h i p s which are experienced rather than those which are s t e r i l i z e d through abstractions. It i s her unchanging conviction that language prevents any r e a l communication. Olga Vickery comments» "The b i r t h of Cash confirms her f e e l i n g that words are i r r e l e v a n t and that only physical experience has r e a l i t y and s i g n i f i c a n c e . " There i s , however, a culpable gap between Addie's i d e a l and her r e a l i t y . It i s her own abstractions regarding family members and friends which i s o l a t e her from the experience she desires and which prevent her from seeing the ongoing flow of l i f e . Time and again she immobilizes those around her. They s o l i d i f y i n her gaze. Simon suggests that "Everything" and, I w i l l add, everyone, " s o l i d i f i e s while seeming i n motion."^ In spite of Addie's determined r i g i d -i t y i n her philosophy of l i f e , words do have repercussions i n the world of experience. Faulkner suggests i n other works that there can be a balance between experience and abstractions, but that abstractions should adapt to the 9 2 r e a l i t i e s of experience. In As I Lay Dying he shows the extremes of the two modes i n Darl and Jewel. Darl i s hound up i n words and ideas to the extent of being im-mobilized by the collage of impressions which bombard him. Jewel i s the man of action divorced from words and thought. With reference to the novel Vickery says* The word by i t s e l f leads to a paralysis of the a b i l i t y to f e e l and act; the act by i t s e l f r e s u l t s i n excessive and un-controlled responses to various stimuli,-both i n t e r n a l and external. Addie's i n f l e x i b l e philosophy i d e a l i z e s Jewel's mode. She does not adapt her patterns of thought i n the face of ex-perience which shows how dehumanizing Jewel's mode i s . Instead she expresses through Jewel a yearning f o r i s o l a -t i o n from the experience which disproves her philosophy* It would just be me and her on a high h i l l and me r o l l i n g the rocks down the h i l l at t h e i r faces, picking them up and throwing them down the h i l l , faces and teeth and a l l by God u n t i l she was quiet ( 3 4 7 - 8 ) The focusing on "teeth" adds an odd q u a l i t y to the v i o l e n t image. Usually eyes are the f o c a l point on a face. Jewel avoids the eyes, the mirrors of emotions. The faces and teeth loom up on Jewel as i f they were making impossible, overbearing demands on Addie. They are construed as night-marish. Through Jewel, Addie makes a dramatic plea f o r quiet i s o l a t i o n . By leaving no room fo r r e v i s i o n of her stereotyping . and by c l i n g i n g to her e x c l u s i v i t y , Addie i s s e l f - v i c t i m i z -ed. She herself reveals the destructiveness of her way of 9 3 thinking by imaginatively taking to i t s conclusion her re-venge plot against Anse. For Addie, Anse died a f t e r the b i r t h of Darl: "And then he died. He did not know he was dead." (466) He i s a frozen, empty, c l a s s i f i e d human being for whom she leaves no room f o r change. Her descriptions do not even allow f o r movement, fo r animation. He i s to her, inanimate. It i s as though upon a face carved by a savage c a r i c a t u r i s t a monstrous burlesque of a l l bereavement flowed. ( 3 9 4 ) he looks l i k e a figure carved clumsily from tough wood by a drunken c a r i c a t u r i s t . ( 4 5 7 ) I r o n i c a l l y , Addie troubles Anse least of a l l the family members. By cutting him o f f she e f f e c t i v e l y protects him from her influence. Her tendency to d i s t o r t and destroy does not seem to touch him, but i t does e f f e c t i v e l y erase her from the minds she wishes to. v i o l a t e . The f i n a l sbenes of As I Lay Dying indicate Addie's perception of Anse's freedom from her cold touch. He happily takes a new wife, and Addie i s forgotten. The second Mrs. Bundren i s ac-cepted casually. And, s i g n i f i c a n t l y , music comes to the Bundrens. In her fervent desire to set Jewel up as the c h i l d most worthy of her love, Addie characterizes Darl as v i c t i m i z i n g Jewels "IT'S NOT YOUR HORSE THAT'S DEAD, JEWEL," ( 4 0 5 ) "JEWEL," I SAY, "WHOSE SON ARE YOU?" ( 4 9 4 ) "Your mother was a horse, but who was your father, Jewel?" ( 4 9 4 ) 9 4 It seems that Darl, of a l l her children, most threatens her conviction that Jewel, born of Addie and Whitfield i n de-fiance of words, embodies the value of her philosophy of l i f e . Darl's a b i l i t y to negotiate the space between i n -dividuals disproves her unyielding b e l i e f i n i n d i v i d u a l i s o l a t i o n . Darl and Cash speak without words: Darl and Dewey D e l l have wordless exchanges j Darl and Vardaman are i n tune with each other. T u l l says of Darl: " I t ' s l i k e he had got into the inside of you, someway. Like somehow you was looking at yourself and your doings outen his eyes." (426) Addie does her best to b e l i t t l e and fragment t h i s unique a b i l i t y of Darl's to break down the walls of i n d i v i -dual i s o l a t i o n . She shows that the Dewey Dell-Darl communi-cations taunt Dewey D e l l . She buries the a f f e c t i o n supposed by others (voiced by Cash) to exist between the two i n her creation of Dewey Dell's fantasized murdering of Darl and i n her creation of Dewey D e l l as the betrayer of Darl. And then I always kind of had a idea that him and Dewey D e l l kind of knowed things betwixt them. I f I'd 'a' said i t was ere a one of us she l i k e d better than ere a other, I'd 'a' said i t was Darl. But when we got i t f i l l e d and covered and drove out the gate . . . when they come out and come on him and he jerked back, i t was Dewey D e l l that was on him before even Jewel could get at him. (513) Cash i s l a t e r portrayed as impersonally preferring the commitment of Darl to Jackson to facing being sued by G i l l e s p i e f o r the burning of his barn. In the one gesture Addie fragments the Gash-Darl r e l a t i o n s h i p . 9 5 In the fury of the r i v e r crossing Darl jumps away from Cash and Jewel and i s carried to the rest of his family. I t i s as i f Addie i s pushing his unaloneness, his disprov-ing of her s t a t i c version of aloneness, away from "her family," herself, Cash and Jewel. I r o n i c a l l y , Cash builds the c o f f i n to contain the corpse, and Jewel saves his mother from the r i v e r f or further deterioration. The c o f f -i n and the putrefaction dramatize the sad extension of inten t i o n a l s e l f - i s o l a t i o n . Total decomposition takes place before Addie narrates herself interred. The odour and ordeal cancel Addie, the person, i n the minds of her family. Her i s o l a t i o n i s complete. By following her own f a b r i c a t i o n to i t s l o g i c a l conclusion, Addie perversely supports her father's declarations. Darl i s revealed, mainly through h i s exchanges with Jewel, as yearning f o r a r e a l mother-son re l a t i o n s h i p to help him p u l l together his many i n t u i t i o n s , but Addie never f o r f e i t s her o r i g i n a l reaction to Darl's b i r t h * Then I found that I had Darl. At f i r s t I would not believe i t . Then I believed that I would k i l l Anse. It was as though . he had tr i c k e d me, hidden within a word l i k e within a paper screen and struck me i n the back through i t . (464) She emotionally assigns Darl the ro l e of perpetrator of words divorced from action. He flounders i n his i n a b i l i t y to integrate his multiple l e v e l s of awareness. He i s caught i n the bind of seeing the "myriad o r i g i n a l motion" without the capacity of givi n g i t coherence and meaning: 96 i t i s as though i t had severed them both at a single blow, the two torsos moving with i n f i n i t e s i m a l and ludicrous care up-on the surface. It looks peaceful, l i k e machinery does a f t e r you have watched i t and l i s t e n e d to i t f o r a long time. As though the c l o t t i n g which i s you had dissolved into the myriad o r i g i n a l motion, and seeing and hearing i n themselves b l i n d and deaf; fury i n i t s e l f quiet with stagnation. (458) The integration seems to require r e a l human contact. Addie*s Darl projection indicates that she recognizes Darl's needs but cannot l e t go of her need f o r i s o l a t i o n . She denies him the contact he desires. Darl i s caught i n an e x i s t e n t i a l dilemma of "amness." In h i s need f o r a sense of his common humanity, he f i g u r a t i v e l y concludes that Addie i s not h i s mother. "That's why I am not i s . Are i s too many for one woman to f o a l . " (409) He s i g n i f i c a n t l y dehumanizes Addie and her children i n the use of the verb " f o a l " and recognizes the unintegrated and multiple l e v e l s of his consciousness i n "are",. In the same way Darl i s unable to experience the flow of time. He views past and present as separate. I f something " i s " i t cannot be "was". Addie seems to stand i n h i s way as he t r i e s to integrate his experiences. He expresses a yearning to be part of the f l u x of l i f e , to flow i n time. " I f you could just ravel out i n -to time. That would be nice. It would be nice i f you could just r a v e l out into time." (492) Instead he f i g h t s to f i n d meaning i n the s t a t i c , u n r e a l i s t i c time sense of Addie: "How do our l i v e s r avel out into the no-wind, no-sound, the weary gestures wearily recapitulant: echoes of 97 old compulsions with no-hand on no-strings: i n sunset we f a l l into furious attitudes, dead gestures of d o l l s . " ( 4 9 1 ) How do l i v e s ravel out into the dead past when l i f e i s time-bound? Vickery suggests that "The circumstances of the b i r t h of each of the children e s t a b l i s h the l e v e l of t h e i r aware-ness of her and the mode of t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n her 7 b u r i a l . " ' I argue that the p a r t i c i p a t i o n l e v e l and aware-ness l e v e l of each c h i l d are products of Addie*s wishful thinking. The grotesqueness of the extensions of t h e i r b i r t h circumstances suggests a subjective wish f u l f i l m e n t on the part of Addie. In the r i v e r crossing incident there i s a kind of reenactment of her psychological reactions to the b i r t h s of her children. Vardaman and Dewey D e l l are not hers but Anse's. Hence, they are with him. Darl swims away from the action, the c o f f i n , Cash and Jewel. Cash assumes the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r Addie, but f a i l s to save her Iperhaps i n t e n t i o n a l l y , as indicated e a r l i e r ) . Jewel i n superhuman exertion saves Addie's corpse and Cash. Jewel, according to Addie, i s the one i n her family who matches impulse to action without i n t e r f e r i n g con-ceptualization. He translates emotion to action. Thoughts do not intrude on the immediate t r a n s l a t i o n . In the evolving narrative, Addie either attempts to condemn the rest of the characters for not recognizing t h i s unique q u a l i t y i n Jewel, or, more s i g n i f i c a n t l y , sadly recognizes the i s o l a t i o n factor i n Jewel's v i o l e n t behavior. Everyone 98 sees Jewel as wooden and two-dimensional: his pale eyes l i k e wood set into his wooden face, he crosses the f l o o r i n four st r i d e s with the r i g i d gravity of a cigar-store Indian ( 3 3 9 ) then he springs out l i k e a f l a t figure cut cleanly from t i n (4-98) He has cold, non-penetrable eyes which e f f e c t i v e l y exclude interpersonal communication. Jewel i s a lonely, a n i m a l i s t i c i s o l a t e with small hope of ever i n t u i t i v e l y recognizing the pot e n t i a l of fellowship i n the human com-munity. In Addie's world words unconditionally separate and drive from r e a l i t y the poten t i a l of any v a l i d r e l a t i o n -ship. I knew that i t had been, not that they had d i r t y noses, but that we had had to use one another by words l i k e spiders dangling by t h e i r mouths from a beam, swinging and twisting and never touch-ing and that only through the blows of the switch could my blood and t h e i r blood flow as one stream. (463) Violent emotions which manifest themselves i n action re-place i n her system any other means of communicating t r u t h f u l l y and meaningfully with another i n d i v i d u a l . The closeness of Jewel and Addie i s based on t h i s kind of communication. Interestingly the experience seems too overwhelming f o r Jewel. He re d i r e c t s h i s energies to his wild horse. The whirling, mean, elusive, i n s t i n c t - d r i v e n horse reveals the inhumanity of the extension of Addie's warped i d e a l . The sub s t i t u t i o n of the horse f o r Addie as mother likewise emphasizes Jewel's dehumanization. Later Addie seems to t r y to erase t h i s insight i n having Jewel 99 magnanimously give up his horse. However, Jewel's lack of " i n t e l l e c t u a l perspective" "confirms his v i r t u a l dehuman-i z a t i o n . " The two children to whom Addie seems least accessible, l e a s t r e a l , have the most d i f f i c u l t y acknowledging her death. They are Anse's childre n according to Addie. Dewey D e l l confronting a problem of her own says: "I heard that my mother i s dead. I wish I had time to l e t her die. I wish I had time to wish I had (422). The emotional t i e s between Addie and Dewey D e l l are unreal, formalized. The death has l i t t l e impact on the daughter. Vardaman confuses the catching and k i l l i n g of a f i s h with the death of Addie. To understand her death he equates i t with that of the f i s h and then confusedly states his mother i s a f i s h . He successfully dehumanizes Addie, the non-mother. The process of death v i s u a l i z e d by Addie erases her from the minds of her family. "She" becomes " i t " . "Who" becomes "what". "Then what i s your ma, Darl?" "I haven't got ere one," Darl said, "Because i f I had one, i t i s was, and i f i t i s was, i t can't be i s . " Addie i s forced into the minds of her children i n a nega-t i v e sense only. Her push back i n time does not preserve her or her ideas, but successfully dehumanizes both her and her family. Although Addie's insights are l i m i t e d and, to a large extent, r a t i o n a l i z e d away, without them, there would not 100 be an atmosphere of tragedy i n the novel. Viewing the family procession through the eyes of "friends" and ac-quaintances, Addie acknowledges the grotesqueness of her request. By overdoing Jewel's savior role, she b e l i t t l e s his e f f o r t s . Her narrative indicates that she sees the h o r r i f i c rebound effects of her revenge plot and her ex-cl u s i v i t y , , but that she i s too caught up i n defending her j u s t i f i c a t i o n i n re j e c t i n g and revenging her l i f e as a Bundren to transcend her long held views. The f i n a l Darl passage s o l i d i f i e s the tragedy of the Bundren family. The passage can be read i n two ways. Either, Addie has Darl o b j e c t i f y himself, or, she speaks d i r e c t l y to the reader for the f i r s t time outside her own section. In the second p o s s i b l i t y l i e s a climax to the tra g i c aspects of the novel — Addie's recognition and acknowledgment of Darl's insi g h t s . Darl has gone to Jackson. They put him on the t r a i n , laughing, down the long car laughing, the heads turning l i k e the heads of owls when he passed. (526) Simon concludes that a l l "the images about which Darl may be laughing show humanity i n a p a r t i c u l a r l y dehumanized Q form." 7 Darl's laughter i s o l a t e s the dehumanization of the Bundrens by Addie. Addie's entries into Darl's mind y i e l d the insights most disturbing to her philosophy of li f e . H e i s the one closest to discovering a sense of f l u i d time which i s d i r e c t l y opposed to Addie *-s s t a t i c time-sense. He i s disturbed by the idea of bucking the r i v e r currents to transport the c o f f i n , symbolizing a dead, 101 abstracted concept of l i f e , to the other side. He nego-t i a t e s the r i v e r , symbol of flowing time and l i f e , by going with the currents. Darl challenges Addie*s concept of r a v e l l i n g "out into no-wind, no-sound" with r a v e l l i n g "out into time". In order to hold her s t a t i c version of l i f e i n tact, Addie fabricates Darl's being sent to Jack-son and e f f e c t i v e l y disposes of a force which contradicts her abstractions. She "gets shut of" him " i n some clean way," to paraphrase Cash's thoughts about Addie e a r l i e r . She handily and t r a g i c a l l y escapes the challenge of the insights derived through her i d e n t i f i c a t i o n with Darl by claiming through Cash that "This world i s not his world; t h i s l i f e h is l i f e . " (532) As I Lay Dying i s a novel exploring the complexities and l i m i t a t i o n s of the mind of Addie Bundren. As Addie approaches death, time and space have les s hold on her mind. Her explorations beyond the conventional l i m i t a t i o n s of time and space permit her insights which she seems un-w i l l i n g to r e g i s t e r . Therefore, these insights do not constitute the type of epiphany Hightower experiences i n his t rance-like transcendence near the end of Light In  August. Nor does she transcend her separateness to f e e l a part of the human community as does Dilsey near the end of The Sound and the Fury. Her sense of i s o l a t i o n remains unbroken. She reveals that she has become a coffined i n -d i v i d u a l while her body i s s t i l l animate. Addie c l i n g s to her own abstractions to avoid s e l f - d i s i n t e g r a t i o n . I f any 102 of the tenets of her s t a t i c philosophy should be disproved, her whole system would crumble. Her d i s t o r t i o n s of r e a l i t y to preserve her views, however, are i r o n i c a l l y p a r a l l e l l e d by the decomposition of her dead body during the imagined journey to Jefferson. The irony of the p a r a l l e l l e d events emphasizes the self-destructiveness of c l i n g i n g to ab-stractions which derive from past time and have not changed to adapt to the f l u x of l i f e and time. Addie i s trapped by a r i g i d philosophy of l i f e , purposeful e x c l u s i v i t y and a re f u s a l to interpret experience c o r r e c t l y as pointing to the interdependence of human beings. The s e l f - d e s t r u c t i v e -ness and other-destructiveness of her s e l f i s h e x c l u s i v i t y determine the grimness of As I Lay Dying. Judith, i n Absalom1 Absalom! i s much closer to the truth i n recognizing the interdependence of mani you are born at the same time with a l o t of other people, a l l mixed up with them, l i k e t r y i n g to, having to, move your arms and legs with strings only the same strings are hitched to a l l the other arms and legs and the others a l l t r y i n g and they dont know why either except that the strings are a l l i n one another's way l i k e f i v e or s i x people a l l t r y i n g to make a rug on the same loom only each one wants.. _ to weave his own pattern into the rug A thematic image already quoted from As I Lay Dying con-rasts v i v i d l y with Judith's insight* How do our l i v e s r avel out into the no-wind, no-sound, the weary gestures wear-i l y recapitulantt echoes of old compul-sions with no-hand on no-strings: In sunset we f a l l into furious attitudes, dead gestures of d o l l s . ( 4 9 1 ) 103 The only " s t r i n g " Addie v i s u a l i z e s i s the thread holding the dangling spider-bodies of individ u a l s to a beam (see quotation on page 98 above). She emphasizes her abhorrence f o r words as a means of communication by symbolizing the " d o l l s " as dangling by t h e i r mouths, making speech imposs-i b l e . The r i g i d i t y of Addie's own attitudes and abstract-ions i n the face of the inevi t a b l e mobility of experience s o l i d i f y the flow of l i f e and time around her. Addie successfully drives the c o f f i n sides between herself and a l l the members of her family as well as between the fam-i l y members themselves. 104 CONCLUSION Consistently, Faulkner portrays his unsympathetic characters as emotionally cold, f a t a l i s t i c , s e l f - d e s t r u c t -ive and is o l a t e d i n d i r e c t r a t i o to t h e i r i n a b i l i t y to experience f l u i d time. They are a l l characterized as being obsessed by a distorted sense of time. Conversely, he por-trays his sympathetic characters as compassionate, s e l f -directed and creative i n proportion to t h e i r experiencing or coming to experience f l u i d time. These individuals are also characterized as sensing t h e i r common human heritage. Joe Christmas, Joanna Burden, Jason Compson, Quentin Comp-son and Addie Bundren are the self-deluded i s o l a t e s i n the three novels examined: Lena Grove and Dilsey, who i n t u i t i v e l y perceive the r e a l i t y of durational time and the a r b i t r a r y dehumanizing aspects, as well as the purely s o c i a l , p r a c t i c a l u t i l i t y of clock-time, are most sucess-f u l as human beings i n the novels. Reverend Hightower and Byron Bunch each experience t r a n s i t i o n s from an obsessive awareness of a di s t o r t e d time-sense to a sense of f l u i d time. Their modes of learning new orientations i n time are highly i n d i v i d u a l i z e d . Benjy Compson never benefits personally from his i n s t i n c t i v e experience of f l u i d time. His immediate responses to events and people around him, however, do gauge automatically the extent to which others p a r t i c i p a t e i n a r e a l i s t i c flow of time. 105 Faulkner has assigned to characters d i f f e r e n t time-perceptions and allowed them to inter a c t on a f i c t i o n a l l e v e l . I t i s almost as i f he has put Bergson*s philosoph-i c a l ideas to the human t e s t . Bergson p h i l o s o p h i c a l l y explains the difference between r e a l and unreal time-perceptions and the implications of being dictated to by either one or the other; Faulkner dramatizes various ways of perceiving time and the outcomes of head-on c o l l i s i o n s of characters embodying d i f f e r e n t time-senses. In concluding, I would l i k e to examine Faulkner's "losers" and "creators" i n the l i g h t of a few of Bergson*s general philosophical tenets, to show how close Bergson*s and Faulkner's conceptions of endurance and d i s i n t e g r a t i v e s t a s i s are. Faulkner's portrayal of Benjy as i n s t i n c t i v e l y d i s -tinguishing between forces which encourage the advancement of l i f e ' s p o t e n t i a l and forces which d i s t o r t and destroy l i f e ' s p o t e n t i a l correlates with Bergson's concept of i n -s t i n c t . Instinct "carries out further the work by which l i f e organizes matter." 1 I t i s e s s e n t i a l l y self-preserving and self-enhancing. Benjy, an i n s t i n c t i v e primitive, res-ponds p o s i t i v e l y to life-encouraging forces. In the separation of Faulkner's losers from his endurers, I think i t can be argued that a l l of his losers adhere i n one way or another to either a Bergsonian r a d i c a l mechanism or a Bergsonian r a d i c a l f i n a l i s m . The actions of Addie, Jason and Joe indicate mechanistic views 106 of l i f e . They act on the premise that a l l i n l i f e i s rep-e t i t i o n , " a l l i s given". They do not perceive that " i f everything i s i n time, everything changes inwardly, and the same concrete r e a l i t y never recurs. Repetition i s therefore possible only i n the abstract." Joe's sense of endless r e p e t i t i o n i n his l i f e intimates a cessation of maturation on his part. Only when he wakes up outside the "orderly parade" i s he free of the f a t a l i s t i c view of a r a d i c a l mechanist. Joe's concept of endless, f l a t r e p e t i -t i o n makes him the v i c t i m of fate, deprives him of a sense of s e l f - d i r e c t i o n , since such a concept presupposes an already determined future. The essence of machanical explanation, i n f a c t, i s to regard the future and the past as calculable functions of the pres-ent, and thus to claim that a l l i s given . . . past present and future would be open at a glance to a super human i n t e l - ~ l e c t . . . J The f a t a l i s t denies his a b i l i t y to create and recreate him-s e l f i n time f o r "time i s here deprived of ef f i c a c y , and i f i t does nothing, i t is. nothing." Joe's mechanistic view of l i f e paralyzes his sense of s e l f - c r e a t i o n . Jason doggedly uses his sense of past and future being "calculable functions of the present" to run his l i f e . He i s proportionately an emotionally cold, mechanical human being. However, he i s able to function within society using his f a u l t y time-perception. Of a l l the "losers" i n Faulkner's three novels he i s the only one who 107 survives, but as a self-deluded, lonely i s o l a t e . His mechanistic philosophy negates s e l f - c r e a t i o n . He does not act with the freedom of a u n i f i e d s e l f , evaluating each experience as novel. Implicit i n his characterization of Jason i s Faulkner's pessimistic prediction for the South. Addie Bundren cannot permit the idea of continual change to permeate her philosophical structure since her present experience i s dictated to by abstractions out of her past, her father's terse, n e g a t i v i s t i e statements re-garding l i f e . To admit change would be to invalidate the a p p l i c a b i l i t y of her father's c y n i c a l philosophy to present experience. Only a mechanistic concept of endless r e p e t i -t i o n can allow her to negate the p o s s i b i l i t y of change i n herself and others. Her s e l f - d e s t r u c t i o n derives from her r i g i d i t y and s t a s i s . Joanna Burden, t r y i n g to meet the requirements of a past philosophy of l i f e i n order to excape from the past, must believe i n a changeless society and s e l f . She s o l i d i f i e s time, as does Addie, i n an attempt to j u s t i f y her abstractions. Bergson defines r a d i c a l f i n a l i s m as being "inverted mechanism"-' — "again i t i s supposed that a l l i s given. The difference i s that f i n a l i s m "holds i n front of us the l i g h t with which i t claims to guide us, instead of putting i t behind. It substitutes the a t t r a c t i o n of the future fo r the impulsion of the past."'' "The universe as a whole Q i s the carrying out of a plan." Quentin, l i k e n i n g him-108 s e l f to the g u l l being dragged through space, adhers to r a d i c a l f i n a l i s m . He speculates on the p o s s i b i l i t y of r i s i n g up "to look on glory" to give meaning to his sense of discontinuity. Such a proposal suggests a doctrine of f i n a l i t y , an o v e r a l l predetermined plan f o r l i f e . In finalism, Bergson saysi time i s reduced to a confused perception, r e l a t i v e to the human standpoint, a per-ception which would vanish, l i k e a r i s -ing mist, f o r a mind seated at the centre^ of things. Bergson proposes that "both doctrines are reluctant to see i n the course of things generally, or even simply i n the development of l i f e , an unforeseeable creation of 10 form." To follow either doctrine i s to d i s t o r t r e a l i t y . Bergson contends As soon as we go out of the encasings i n which r a d i c a l mechanism and r a d i c a l f i n a -lism confine our thought, r e a l i t y appears as a ceaseless upspringing of something new, which has no sooner arisen to make the present than i t has already f a l l e n 1 1 back into the past Bergson cr e d i t s man with d i v i n i t y . His d i v i n i t y i s merited by h i s continuity and by h i s furtherance of the elan v i t a l . 12 God " i s unceasing l i f e , action, freedom." Faulkner claims his deity to be s i m i l a r to Bergson's i n his con-versation with Loic Bouvard. "When I asked i f he were thinking of the God of Bergson, he said, 'Yes, a deity 13 very close to Bergson's'" ^ His f i c t i o n a l portrayals i n the three novels examined bear out hi s statement. He seems to agree with Bergson's argument that f i n a l i s m and 109 mechanism defy the idea of the d i v i n i t y of man. Faulkner's destroyed characters are those who do not or cannot exert t h e i r inherent free w i l l to break from r i g i d formulations of experience and di s t o r t i o n s of time. By adhering to either the doctrine of r a d i c a l mechanism or that of r a d i c a l finalism, each f o r f e i t s h is freedom and his s e l f - c r e a t i n g p o t e n t i a l . Faulkner's affirmation of the endurability of a con-sciousness which perceives the f l u i d i t y of time and change corresponds with Bergson's theory of creative evolution. Dilsey senses or i n t u i t s her p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n an ever-changing world and i n the continuity of the human race. She endures. Lena unconsciously or i n t u i t i v e l y experiences the f l u i d i t y of time. Faulkner applauds her creative p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n l i f e . Hightower moves from an i n t e l l e c t -ual consideration of his ro l e out of time to a sensing of his r o le i n time. His insights are available to his con-sciousness, as are Dilsey's to hers, for r e f l e c t i o n . Lena's are not, but are unconsciously incorporated into her experience of a dynamic l i f e . Faulkner, i t appears, agrees f u l l - h e a r t e d l y with Bergson i n the importance of i n -t u i t i o n i n perceiving the ultimate r e a l i t y . Bergson pro-poses that we require more than i n t e l l e c t " i n order to 14 grasp the true nature of v i t a l a c t i v i t y " — he goes on to suggest* And we s h a l l probably be aided i n t h i s by the fringe of vague i n t u i t i o n that sur-rounds our d i s t i n c t - that i s , i n t e l l e c t - . . -ual - representation. ^ 110 Faulkner's imagery suggests that Lena and Hightower transcend t h e i r temporality and momentarily experience eter n i t y . Lena's movement i s likened to that on a c l a s s i c urn. Symbolically she transcends her temporality to par-take i n eternity. Hightower spins o f f a wheel of thought to experience "now Now NOW" suggesting a transcendence of temporality, "now", to glimpse eternity, "NOW". Dilsey i n t u i t i v e l y transcends her temporality, her "body" and "voice", to experience a communion of hearts speaking to-gether at the Easter Service. Faulkner's concept of transcendence i s not clear, but i t seems at f i r s t , to be en at odds with Bergson* s concept of enlight Ament by i n t u i t i o n of the true nature of time and v i t a l a c t i v i t y . I n t u i t i o n introduces the i n d i v i d u a l "into l i f e ' s own domain." Con-sciousness of eternal r e a l i t y , Bergson seems to indicate, requires an immersion i n time as opposed to a transcend-ence of time. Margaret Church argues that Faulkner con-fuses the two mutually exclusive approaches to time, the transcendent and the durational. I f e e l , on the contrary, that Faulkner's idea of transcendence i n the three novels considered, i n fact, c l o s e l y p a r a l l e l s Bergson's idea of i n t u i t i v e l y grasping r e a l time. Lena, Hightower and Dilsey f i n d e t e r n i t y by turning inward. They f i n d e t e r n i t y i n the f l u i d i t y of time and i n the continuity of man. Recall Faulkner's statement regarding Bergsonian time. It helps c l a r i f y Faulkner's idea of eternity and hence modifies the I l l suggestions of transcendence: In fact I agree pretty much with Berg-son's theory of the f l u i d i t y of time. There i s only present time, i n which I include both the past and the future ^„ and that i s etern i t y He treats Bergson's theory of time somewhat loosely, but, i n p r i n c i p l e , he agrees with the philosopher. Faulkner makes a cl e a r d i s t i n c t i o n between those characters who endure because they achieve the f l e x i b i l i t y necessary f o r endurance and those characters who destroy themselves or are destroyed by t h e i r i n f l e x i b i l i t y , by t h e i r tendency toward abstracts that r e s u l t s i n an a l i e n -ation from the r e a l i t y of change and i n temporal diso r i e n -t a t i o n . Simple enduring, as well as pr e v a i l i n g , Faulkner makes clear, depends upon an i n t u i t i v e , immediate awareness of the f l u i d i t y of time and of continual change within the temporal scope. Only with t h i s consciousness aan the in d i v i d u a l p a r t i c i p a t e f u l l y i n the ^ d i v i n i t y and continuity of man. William Faulkner's basic b e l i e f i n dynamism, a dynamism that follows Henri Bergson's p r i n c i p l e s c l o s e l y , gives an i n t e r n a l consistency and continuity to his three novels, Light In August, The Sound and the Fury and As I  Lay Dying. 112 INTRODUCTION FOOTNOTES 1 William Faulkner, Intruder i n the Dust (New York: Random House, 1 9 4 8 ) , p. 1 9 ^ 2 Loic Bouvard, "Conversation with William Faulkner," trans. Henry Dan Piper, Modern F i c t i o n Studies, V (-Winter 1 9 5 9 - 6 0 ) , 3 6 2 . 3 Loc. c i t . 4 Bouvard, p. 3 6 3 . 5 Henri Bergson, The Creative Mind, trans. Mabelle L. Andison (New York: The Philosophical Library Inc., 1 9 4 6 ) , p. 1 6 . 6 H. Wildon Carr, translator's Preface to Henri Bergson's Mind-Energy (New York: H. Holt and Co., 1 9 2 0 ) , p. v i i . 7 Jean Stein, "William Faulkner," Writers at Work, ed. Malcolm Cowley (New York: The Viking Press, 1 9 5 7 ) t p. 141. 8 Henri Bergson, Time and Free W i l l , trans. F.L. Pogson (London: G. Al l e n , 1 9 1 3 ) , pp. 9 1 - 1 2 8 . 9 Henri Bergson, Creative Evolution, trans. Arthur M i t c h e l l (London: MacMillan and Co., Ltd., 1 9 1 1 ) , P. 4. 10 Bergson, Evolution, p. 2. 11 Ibid., p. 5' 12 F. L. Gwynn and J . L. Blotner, eds., Faulkner i n the  University (New York: Vintage Books, 1 9 5 9 ) , p. 1 9 0 . 1 3 Gwynn, p. 1 5 1 . 14 Bergson, Evolution, p. 11. 15 Ibid.. p. 6. 1 6 Ibid., p. 7. 17 Ibid., p. 8. 18 Bouvard, p. 3 6 4 . 19 Bergson, Evolution, p. 4 9 . 20 Ibid., p. 1 7 0 . 21 Ibid., p. 1 7 4 . 22 Ibid., p. 1 8 6 . 2 3 Ibid., p. 187. 24 Ibid.. p. 1 3 4 . 2 5 Robert A. J e l l i f e , ed., Faulkner at Nagano (Tokyo: Kenkyusha, 1 9 5 6 ) , p. 3 7 . 2 6 Malcolm Cowley, The Faulkner-Cowley F i l e t Letters and  Memories. 1944-1962 (New York: Viking Press, 1966), p. 1 1 2 . 27 Donald T r i t s c h l e r , "The Unity of Faulkner's Shaping V i s i o n , " Modern F i c t i o n Studies. V (Winter 1 9 5 9 - 6 0 ) , 3 4 2 . 28 Gwynn, T>.~~6~. 29 Stein, p. 1 3 9 . TIME IMAGERY IN LIGHT IN AUGUST FOOTNOTES 113 1 William Faulkner, Light In August (New York; Modern L i b -rary, 1959)t p. 197. A l l subsequent c i t a t i o n s w i l l be from t h i s e d i t i o n . 2 Leonard Neufeldt, "Time and Man's P o s s i b i l i t i e s i n Light In August." Georgia Review. XXV (June 1971), 28. 3 William Faulkner, The Sound and the Fury and As I Lay Dying (New Yorks Modern Library, 1946), p. 390^ 4 Ibid.. p. 389. 5 Ibid., p. 4 4 3 . 6 Henri Bergson, Creative Evolution, trans. Arthur M i t c h e l l (Londoni MaeMillan & Co., 1911), p. 10. 7 Dorothy Tuck, "The Inwardness of the Understanding," i n John Untereeker, ed., Approaches to the Twentieth  Century Novel (New Yorki Crowell, 1965), p. 87. 8 Neufeldt, p. 30. 9 Neufeldt, p. 28. 10 Neufeldt, p. 3 ^ - 5 . 114 THE SHADOW IN THE SOUND AND THE FURY FOOTNOTES 1 Jesse C. Ga t l i n , J r . , "Of Time and Character i n The Sound and the Fury," Humanities Association B u l l e t i n , XVII, i i (1966), 2 7 . 2 Louise Dauner, "Quentin and the Walking Shadow: The Dilemma of Nature and Culture," Arizona Quarterly, XXI (Summer 1 9 6 5 ) , l 6 l . Before reading t h i s a r t i c l e , I had fi n i s h e d writing most of t h i s paper on The Sound  and the Fury. I was delighted to f i n d s i m i l a r i t i e s between my analysis, p a r t i c u l a r l y my references to Carl Jung, and that of Louise Dauner, Her examination of the shadow takes i n the r e l i g i o u s and mythic overtones of the shadow as well as the psychological, metaphorical and l i t e r a l . Consequently I f i n d her analysis suggestive but somewhat fragmented and non-conclusive. 3 William Faulkner, The Sound and the Fury and As I Lay  Dying (New Yorki Modern Library, 1946), p. 115. A l l references are to t h i s e d i t i o n and are included i n the text. 4 C. G. Jung, The Archetypes and the C o l l e c t i v e Unconscious, trans. R. F. C. Hu l l (New York: Pantheon Books, 1 9 5 9 ) t p. 18. 5 Jung, p. 2 0 . 6 Jung, p. 2 8 4 - 5 . 7 Maurice Bassan, "Benjy at the Monument," English Lang-uage Notes. II (Sept. 1 9 6 4 ) , 48. 8 G a t l i n , p. 3 1 . 9 William Shakespeare, Macbeth, Act V, scene v. 10 Jean-Paul Sartre, "On The Sound and the Fury: Time i n the Works of Faulkner," i n Faulkner, A C o l l e c t i o n of  C r i t i c a l Essays, ed. R. P. Warren (N.J.» Prentice H a l l , Inc., 1 9 6 6 ) , p. 91. 11 Sartre, p. 9 3 . 12 Elizabeth M. Kerr, Yoknapatawpha: Faulkner's " L i t t l e  Postage Stamp of Native S o i l , " (New York: Fordham University Press, 1969)» p. 2 2 . 13 William Faulkner, "Address upon Receiving the Nobel Prize f o r L i t e r a t u r e , " The Portable Faulkner, ed. Malcolm Cowley (New York: Viking Press, 1 9 4 6 ) , p. 7 2 4 . 14 Loc. c i t . 15 Margaret Church, Time and Reality, Studies i n Contem-porary F i c t i o n (Chapel H i l l : The University of North Carolina Press, 1 9 * 9 ) . p. 2 3 5 . THE COFFIN IN AS I LAY DYING FOOTNOTES 115 1 William Faulkner, The Sound and the Fury and As I Lay Dying (New York: Modern Library, 1946), p. k6W. A l l subsequent c i t a t i o n s w i l l be from t h i s e d i t i o n . 2 Calvin Bedient, "Pride and Nakedness: As I Lay  Dying." Modern Language Quarterly. XXIX (March 1 9 6 8 ) , 6 1 - 7 6 . 3 David Monaghan, "The Single Narrator of As I Lay  Dying." Modern F i c t i o n Studies. XVIII, i i ( 1 9 7 2 ) , 2 1 7 . 4 Olga Vickery, The Novels of William Faulkner (Louisiana State University Press, 1 9 5 9 ) . p. 5^. 5 John K. Simon, "The Scene and the Imagery of Metamor-phosis i n As I Lay Dying." C r i t i c i s m , VII (Winter 1 9 6 5 ) , 8. 6 Vickery, p. 5 3 . 7 Olga Vickery, "As I Lay Dying" i n William Faulkner: Two Decades of C r i t i c i s m , ed. F. J . Hoffman and 0. Vickery (Michigan State College Press, 1 9 5 1 ) , p. 1 9 ^ . 8 R. Hemenway, "Enigmas of Being i n As I Lay Dying," Modern F i c t i o n Studies, XVI (Summer 1 9 7 0 ) , 1 3 6 . 9 J . K. Simon, "What Are You Laughing At, Darl?," College English. XXV (Nov. 1 9 6 3 ) , 1 0 8 . 10 William Faulkner, Absalom! Absalom! (New York: Modern Library, 1 9 5 1 ) , p. 1 2 7 . 116 CONCLUSION FOOTNOTES 2 I 5 6 7 Henri Bergson, Creative Evolution, trans. Arthur M i t c h e l l (Londoni MacMillan and Co., Ltd., 1914), p. 174. p. 48. p. 39-40. p. 4 l . p. 41. p. 41. p. 42. p. 42. p. 42. p. 4 7 . p. 4 9 . p. 2 6 2 . 13 Loic Bouvard, "Conversation with William Faulkner," trans. Henry Dan Piper, Modern F i c t i o n Studies, V (Winter 1 9 5 9 - 6 0 ) , 3 6 1 . 14 Bergson, p. 5 2 . 15 Bergson, p. 5 2 . 16 Margaret Church, "William Faulknen Myth and Duration," Time and Reality t Studies i n Contemporary F i c t i o n (Chapel H i l l 1 University of North Carolina Press, 1 9 6 3 ) , p. 2 2 8 . 17 Bouvard, p. 3 6 2 . Bergson Bergson Bergson Bergson Bergson Bergson 8 Bergson 9 Bergson 10 Bergson 11 Bergson 12 Bergson 117 SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHYi Abel, Darrel. "Frozen Movement i n Light i n August." Boston University Studies i n English. I l l (Spring 1957). 3 2 - 4 4 . Adams, R. P. Faulkner: Myth and Motion. New Jersey, 1 9 6 8 . . "William Faulkner's Apprenticeship." Tulane  Studies i n English. XII ( 1 9 6 2 ) , 1 1 3 - 1 5 6 . Aswell, Duncan. "The Recollection and the Blood: Jason's Role i n The Sound and the Fury." M i s s i s s i p p i Quarterly, XXI, 211-18. Backman, Melvin. "Faulkner's Sick Heroes: Bayard S a r t o r i s and Quentin Compson." 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V (Winter 1 9 5 9 - 6 0 ) , 3 6 1 - 3 6 4 : — 118 Brylowski, Walter. Faulkner's Olympian Laugh. Detroit, 1 9 6 8 . Cameron, Grant. "Time! Time! Time!"University of B r i t i s h Columbia Master of Arts Thesis, 1 9 6 8 . Chase, Richard. "Faulkner's Light In August." Twentieth  Century Interpretations of Light In August, ed. David Minter, New Jersey, 1 9 6 9 . Church, Margaret. Time and Reality: Studies i n Comtemporary  F i c t i o n . Chapel H i l l , 1 9 6 3 . Cowan, Michael H., ed. Twentieth Century Interpretations  of The Sound and the~Fury. New Jersey. 1968. Cowley, Malcolm. The Faulkner-Cowley F i l e : Letters and  Memories. 1944-1962. New York. 1966. t ed. The Portable Faulkner. New York, 1 9 6 7 . Cross, Barbara M. "Apocalypse and Comedy i n As I Lay Dying." Texas Studies i n Lit e r a t u r e and Language. I l l (Summer 1 9 6 1 ) , 2 5 1 - 2 5 8 . Dauner, Louise. "Quentin and the Walking Shadow: The: Dilemma of Nature and Culture." Arizona Quarterly. XXI (Summer 1 9 6 5 ) , 159-171. Faulkner, John. My Brother B i l l . London, 1964. Faulkner, William. Absalom! Absalom! New York, Modern Library E d i t i o n , 1 9 5 1 . . Intruder i n the Dust. New York, Random House, 1 9 4 8 . . Light In August. New York, Modern Library College E d i t i o n , 1 9 5 9 . , . The Sound and the Fury and As I Lav Dying. New York, Modern Library E d i t i o n , 1946. Fraser, J.T., ed. The Voices of Time. New York, 1 9 6 6 . Freedman, William A. "The Technique of I s o l a t i o n i n The Sound and the Fury." M i s s i s s i p p i Quarterly. XV ( 1 9 6 1 ) , 2 1 - 2 6 . G a t l i n , Jesse C , J r . "Of Time and Character i n The Sound  and the Fury." Humanities Association B u l l e t i n 17 , i i (1966), 27 - 3 5 . 119 Gibbons, Kathryn Gibbs. "Quentin's Shadow." Literature and  Psychology. XII (Winter 1 9 6 2 ) , 16-24. Gidley, M. "One Continuous Forcet Notes on Faulkner's Extra-Literary Reading." M i s s i s s i p p i Quarterly. 1 9 7 0 , 2 9 9 - 3 1 4 . Gold, Joseph. William Faulkner« A Study i n Humanism From  Metaphor to Discourse. Norman, University of Oklahoma Press, 1 9 6 6 . Gwynn, F. L., Blotner, J . L., ed. Faulkner In the University. New York, 1 9 5 9 . Hemenway, R. "Enigmas of Being i n As I Lay Dying." Modern  F i c t i o n Studies. 16 (Summer 1 9 7 0 ) , 133-146. Hoffman, Frederick J . William Faulkner. New York, 1 9 6 1 . Hoffman, F. J . , Vickery 0 . W., eds. William Faulknert Two  Decades of C r i t i c i s m . Michigan State College Press, 1 9 5 1 . Holman, C. Hugh. "William Faulkner 1 The Anguished Dream of Time." In his Three Modes of Southern F i c t i o n . Athens, University of Georgia Press, 1966, 2 7 - 4 7 . Jacobs, Robert D. "Faulkner's Tragedy of I s o l a t i o n . " Louis D. Rubin, J r . and Jacobs, eds. Southern Renascence» The Literature of the Modern South. Baltimore, 1 9 5 3 , 1 7 0 - 1 9 1 . J e l i f f e , Robert A. Faulkner at Nagano. Tokyo, 1 9 5 6 . Jung, C. G. The Archetypes and the C o l l e c t i v e Unconscious. Trans. R. F. C. H u l l , New York, 1 9 5 9 . Justus, James H. "William Faulkner and the Southern Concept of Woman." M i s s i s s i p p i Quarterly. XV ( 1 9 6 2 ) , 1-16. Kazin, A l f r e d . "The S t i l l n e s s of Light i n August." Faulknert  A C o l l e c t i o n of C r i t i c a l Essays, ed. Robert Penn Warren, New Jersey, 1966. Kerr, Elizabeth M. Yoknapatawpha; Faulkner's " L i t t l e Pastage  Stamp of Native S o i l . " New York, 1 9 6 9 . Kirk, Robert W. "Faulkner's Anse Bundren." Georgia Review. XIX (Winter 1 9 6 5 ) , 446-452. . "Faulkner's Lena Grove." Georgia Review, XXI (Spring 1 9 6 7 ) , 57-64. 120 Mendilow, A. A. Time and the Novel. New York, 1 9 6 5 . Meriwether, J . B. and Millgate, Michael, eds. Lion i n the Garden: Interviews with William Faulkner 1926-1962. New York. 1968. Monaghan,, David M. "The Single Narrator of As I Lay Dying." 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