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Effects of stimulus dimensionality and other stimulus characteristics on classification performance in… Scribner, Donna Marilyn 1974

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EFFECTS OF STIMULUS DIMENSIONALITY AND OTHER STIMULUS CHARACTERISTICS ON CLASSIFICATION PERFORMANCE TN CHILDREN OF AGES 3 TO 7 YEARS by Donna Marilyn Scribner B.H.E. , University of British Columbia, 1961 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN THE REQUIREMENTS MASTER PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF FOR THE DEGREE OF OP ARTS i n the Department of Educational Psychology We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA August, 1974 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s in p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an advanced degree at t he U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g r e e that t he L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y . I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d by the Head o f my Department or by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l no t be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Depar tment o f E d u c a t i o n a l P s y c h o l o g y The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada Date A u g u s t , 1974 i i Abstract The problem studied i n this investigation was the effects of stimulus dimensionality, other stimulus characteristics and the age of subjects on free classification performance. The theoretical basis was earlier research (inhelder & Piaget, 1964) and the ex-perimental procedures were adapted from a test developed to assess conceptual functioning in brain damaged children (Graham-Ernhart Block Sort Test, 1963) GEBST. Ninety children, 18 from each of the following age groups; pre-school three year olds, preschool four year olds, kindergarten, grade one and grade two were subjects in this investigation. There were three sets of stimulus objects; three dimensional styrofoam objects, two dimensional f l a t styrofoam objects and photographs of the three dimensional objects. Each stimulus set required subjects to match or group stimuli which differed i n respect to three char-acteristics; color (yellow, red and blue),.form (circle, square and triangle), and size (large, medium and small). The GEBST procedures were followed with minor changes in the order of task presentation and in the scoring. Two d i f f i c u l t y levels in the GEBST were used and each level contained three t r i a l s . Level III stimuli differed on one characteristic and were constant in res-pect to the remaining characteristics. Level IV stimuli differed on two characteristics simultaneously while the third characteristic was held constant. Dimensionality of the test material was randomly assigned with six subjects i n each age group receiving the GEBST i n each dimension, A subject received only one dimension but a l l three characteristics. Two separate analysis of variance procedures were performed, one for each level on the GEBST. Dimensionality, characteristics, age as a categorical variable and their interactions were assessed with analysis of variance. Age as a continuous variable, sex and their interactions were assessed with two least square regression analyses, one for each d i f f i c u l t y level of the GEBST. Unequal num-bers of each sex for some age groups necessitated analysis of the sex variable by least squares regression analysis. Age was the most significant factor affecting performance on a free classification task. The age range of this investigation seem-ed adequate to test the performance of preconceptual classification behavior as described by Inhelder & Piaget(l964). The sex of subjects did not significantly affect classification performance, a finding supported by most research i n this area. The characteristic of the stimulus object was a significant factor affecting classification performance. Size appeared to be a much more d i f f i c u l t characteris-t i c to base classification on than color or form particularly with the youngest subjects. Stimulus dimensionality was not found to be a significant factor affecting classification performance. This was contrary to research in this area and also the hypotheses made in this investigation. Two explanations seemed plausible for the results occurring i n this study: the scoring system of the GEBST did not sufficiently reflect the per-formance of the tested subjects, and the choice paradigm of Level IV, implicit;yin the design of the GEBST, obscured some of the va r i a b i l i t y of stimulus dimensionality. Further research in the area of stimulus dimensionality i n a i v f r e e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n t a s k seems n e c e s s a r y as t h e r e s u l t s o f t h i s i n v e s -t i g a t i o n d i d n o t s u p p o r t o t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n s i n t h i s a r e a . I t i s a l s o an a r e a w h i c h h a s n o t b e e n f u l l y s t u d i e d a n d s t i m u l u s d i m e n s i o n a l i t y has g r e a t p r a c t i c a l a p p l i c a b i l i t y t o t h e s t u d y o f y o u n g c h i l d r e n ' s p e r f o r m a n c e on c o n c e p t u a l t a s k s . Table of Contents v Page Chapter 1 Introduction Statement of the Problem 1 Review of Literature Theoretical Aspects of the Problem 1 Validation Research on Classification Theories 4 Conceptual Functioning Assessment and Classification Tasks 7 Training Procedures and Classification Research 11 Subject Characteristics and Classification Research.. 13 Stimulus Attributes and Classification Research 15 Procedures in Classification Research 23 Chapter 2 The Research Problem Purpose 27 Operational Definitions. 27 Hypotheses 28 Chapter 3 Methods Subjects 30 Stimuli 32 Procedure.. 33 Scoring > 36 Design , , 37 S t a t i s t i c a l Analysis 38 Chapter 4 Results 42 Chapter 5 Summary and Conclusions.., , , 6 1 References 73 Appendix A Graham-Ernhart Block Sort Test Manual B Consent Form Letter C P i c t o r i a l Representational Stimuli v i L i s t o f T a b l e s T a b l e Page 1 D i s t r i b u t i o n o f S u b j e c t s b y Age a n d Sex 31 2 S t i m u l u s O b j e c t s 34 3 Summary o f A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e o f C l a s s -i f i c a t i o n P e r f o r m a n c e on L e v e l I I I 4-3 4 Summary o f A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e o f C l a s s -i f i c a t i o n P e r f o r m a n c e o n L e v e l I V 47 5 Mean C o m p a r i s o n o f S t i m u l u s C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s on L e v e l I V u s i n g t h e B o n f e r r o n i T e s t w i t h a 95% C o n f i d e n c e I n t e r v a l 50 6 Mean C o m p a r i s o n o f S t i m u l u s C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s f o r t h e 3 Y e a r Age G r o u p on L e v e l I V u s i n g t h e B o n f e r r o n i T e s t w i t h a 95% C o n f i d e n c e I n t e r v a l 5^ 7 Summary o f S t e p w i s e R e g r e s s i o n o f I n d e p e n d e n t V a r i a b l e P r e d i c t i n g C l a s s i f i c a t i o n P e r f o r m -a n c e on L e v e l I I I 59 8 Summary o f S t e p w i s e R e g r e s s i o n o f I n d e p e n d e n t V a r i a b l e P r e d i c t i n g C l a s s i f i c a t i o n P e r f o r m -a n c e on L e v e l I V 60 v i i L i s t o f F i g u r e s F i g u r e P a g e 1 D i a g r a m o f t h e R e s e a r c h D e s i g n ^ 39 2 Mean C l a s s i f i c a t i o n P e r f o r m a n c e S c o r e s w i t h t h e E f f e c t s o f Age on L e v e l I I I , 44 3 Mean C l a s s i f i c a t i o n P e r f o r m a n c e S c o r e s w i t h t h e I n t e r a c t i o n o f S t i m u l u s D i m e n s i o n a l i t y a n d S t i m u l u s C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s on L e v e l I I I . . . . . . . . . 45 4 Mean C l a s s i f i c a t i o n P e r f o r m a n c e S c o r e s w i t h t h e E f f e c t s o f Age o n L e v e l I V 48 5 Mean C l a s s i f i c a t i o n P e r f o r m a n c e S c o r e s w i t h t h e E f f e c t s o f C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o n L e v e l I V , . 49 6 P r e f e r r e d o r F i r s t S e l e c t e d C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s f o r t h e F i v e Ages T e s t e d o n L e v e l IV 51 7 Mean C l a s s i f i c a t i o n P e r f o r m a n c e S c o r e s w i t h t h e I n t e r a c t i o n o f Age a n d S t i m u l u s C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s on L e v e l I V 53 8 Mean C l a s s i f i c a t i o n P e r f o r m a n c e S c o r e s w i t h t h e E f f e c t s o f D i m e n s i o n a l i t y on L e v e l IV 56 9 Mean C l a s s i f i c a t i o n P e r f o r m a n c e S c o r e s w i t h t h e I n t e r a c t i o n o f S t i m u l u s D i m e n s i o n a l i t y a n d S t i m u l u s C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s on L e v e l I V 57 1 Chapter 1 Introduction -Statement of the Problem Research with c l a s s i f i c a t i o n tasks i s an o l d problem that has been done many times. Although a large number of studies have been conducted, few have investigated the e f f e c t of the many subject and stimulus c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s on c l a s s i f i c a t i o n performance, The major concern of t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n was to assess e f f e c t s of stimulus dim-mensionality, stimulus c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , and subject's age on free c l a s s i f i c a t i o n performance. The t h e o r e t i c a l basis was e a r l i e r c l a s s -i f i c a t i o n research (inhelder & Piaget, 1964) with the experimental procedures adapted from a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n t e s t (Graham-Ernhart Block Sort Test, 1963) GEBST. Review of L i t e r a t u r e Theoretical Aspects of the Problem "A l o g i c a l c l a s s i s a union of elements possessing a common qual-i t y . Adding consists i n d e f i n i n g the smallest c l a s s that contains both" (Piaget, 1952). C l a s s i f i c a t i o n a b i l i t y does not suddenly emerge but i t s successive beginnings can be traced as growing out of e a r l i e r a b i l i t i e s . Between 6 to 8 and 18 to 24 months, Inhelder & Piaget ( 1 9 6 4 ) note a c h i l d when given a f a m i l i a r object recognizes i t s possible uses. These authors suggest that t h i s i s a so r t of p r a c t i c a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , however f a r removed from the operational structure. Inhelder & Piaget ( l 9 6 4 ) described three main phases i n the devel-opment of free c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . The f i r s t phase, "graphic c o l l e c t i o n s , " 2 o c c u r r e d when t h e c h i l d was u n a b l e t o s e p a r a t e t h e p r o p e r t i e s o f t h e o b j e c t he g r o u p e d f r o m t h e a r r a n g e m e n t he p r o d u c e d . A h e x a m p l e o f g r a p h i c c o l l e c t i o n s w o u l d be t h e a r r a n g e m e n t c a l l e d a " h o u s e " by a c h i l d w h i c h was c r e a t e d by a s q u a r e a n d a t r i a n g l e p u t on t o p f o r a r o o f . S u b s t a g e s e x i s t e d i n t h e " g r a p h i c c o l l e c t i o n s " h u t t h e s e s t a g e s c o u l d o v e r l a p a n d d o n o t a l w a y s a p p e a r i n t h e same s e q u e n c e . The s e c o n d p h a s e i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f f r e e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n was " n o n -g r a p h i c c o l l e c t i o n s " i n w h i c h o b j e c t s were g r o u p e d a c c o r d i n g t o s i m -i l a r i t y a l o n e . An e x a m p l e o f t h i s w o u l d be when t h e c h i l d p l a c e d a l l t h e s q u a r e s t o g e t h e r a n d p l a c e d a l l t h e t r i a n g l e s t o g e t h e r s e p -a r a t e d f r o m t h e s q u a r e s . A g a i n s u b s t a g e s e x i s t , w i t h t h e f i n a l s t a g e e x e m p l i f i e d b y a l l g r o u p i n g s b e i n g b a s e d on t h e same c r i t e r i o n a n d s u b d i v i d e d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e same c r i t e r i o n . The t h i r d p h a s e was c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i n t h e s t r i c t s e n s e . The u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f " c l a s s i n -c l u s i o n " was t h e l a s t a b i l i t y t o be a c h i e v e d b y c h i l d r e n . C l a s s i n -c l u s i o n r e f e r r e d t o t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e c h i l d t h a t " a l l o f A a r e some o f B . " A d e s c r i p t i v e s t u d y ( A n n e t t , 1959) o f t h e way i n w h i c h n o r m a l s u b j e c t s a g e s 5 t o 73 y e a r s c l a s s i f y f a m i l i a r o b j e c t s d e m o n s t r a t e d s i g n i f i c a n t age d i f f e r e n c e s . Y o u n g e r s u b j e c t s t e n d e d t o f o r m many g r o u p s . W i t h a n i n c r e a s e i n s u b j e c t age ( 9 . y e a r s o r o l d e r ) t h e d i v e r s -i t y o f t h e g r o u p i n g s was r e d u c e d a n d s u b j e c t s t e n d e d t o s o r t w i t h i n t h e f o u r m a i n c a t e g o r i e s t h a t e x i s t e d i n t h e s t u d y ( a n i m a l s , p l a n t s , v e h i c l e s a n d f u r n i t u r e ) . C h i l d r e n ' s a b i l i t y t o o r d e r p i c t u r e s e q u e n c e s ( S w a y z e , 1967) c o n f i r m e d P i a g e t ' s g e n e r a l i d e a o f a movement f r o m p e r c e p t u a l t o c o n c e p t u a l t h o u g h t w i t h an i n c r e a s e i n s u b j e c t a g e . An i n v e s t i g a t i o n 3 (Whyte, 1970) of classification ability of children below average intelligence confirmed Piaget's results that classification was not one ability, but a number of related ones which organize in the sens-orimotor period and grow out of :the ability to bring similar objects together. A summary of Piagetian research in child development (Piaget & Inhelder, 1969) stated that it was possible to trace at the preoperational level the successive beginnings of what would become the additive and multiplicative "groupings" of classes and relations. Piaget & Inhelder(1969)» note that the child's preconceptual period occurs approximately between two and seven years, and these authors have noted that the component operations of logical classification emerge during this time. The following investigations, Inhelder & Piaget(1964); Inhelder (1962) and Piaget(1953 & 1954) assign a nonsignificant role to lang-uage. It is noted by Inhelder(l962) that the operations constitut-ing logical classes show continuous progress from elementary behav-iors to anticipatory processes that precede and go beyond linguis-tic associations. Two studies (Sigel & Shapiro, 1966; and Vinacke, 1952) note that a child may be able to perform classification tasks, yet be unable to verbalize the principle underlying his groupings. A study (Bruner, Olver, Greenfield, et al, ,1966) explains class-ification in terms of language, stating that older subjects translate the image into a form that can be coded into language thus formulat-ing a set of verbal rules to guide them in making transformations. An early work in Russian in 193^ (Vygotsky, 1962) described the intellectual development of the child in terms of a classificatory structure. Vygotsky(l962) described three basic phases in the devel-4 opment o f c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . T h e f i r s t p h a s e was c a l l e d " h e a p s o f o b -j e c t s " a n d a number o f s e e m i n g l y u n r e l a t e d o b j e c t s were p l a c e d t o -g e t h e r . The s e c o n d p h a s e was c a l l e d " c o m p l e x e s " a n d t h e c h i l d b e g a n t o g r o u p b l o c k s on t h e b a s i c s i m i l a r i t i e s s h a r e d byr t h e b l o c k s . T h i s p h a s e was b r o k e n down i n t o s t a g e s w h i c h d e m o n s t r a t e d a p r o g r e s s i v e u t i l i z a t i o n o f s i m i l a r i t y u n t i l f i n a l l y t h e c h i l d g r o u p e d a c c o r d i n g t o o n e c o n s i s t e n t a t t r i b u t e . T h e t h i r d p h a s e u t i l i z e d c o n c e p t u a l t h i n k i n g . V y g o t s k y ( l 9 6 2 ) a l s o s t r e s s e d t h e n e c e s s i t y o f l a n g u a g e f o r a c t i v i t y u t i l i z i n g a l l b a s i c i n t e l l e c t u a l f u n c t i o n s . A g r e e m e n t e x i s t s b e t w e e n B r u n e r e t a l , ( 1 9 6 6 ) , I n h e l d e r & P i a g e t (1964) , a n d V y g o t s k y ( 1 9 6 2 ) on t h e a s p e c t t h a t c o n c e p t s d e v e l o p e a r l y a n d a r e c o m p l e t e ' o n l y w i t h i n c r e a s e d age a n d d e v e l o p m e n t . O p p o s i n g v i e w s e x i s t on t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f l a n g u a g e . The r e s e a r c h e r s , I n h e l d e r a n d P i a g e t , s t a t e t h a t t h e p r e c u r s o r s o f c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s t a r t b e f o r e l a n g u a g e d e v e l o p m e n t a n d f i n a l l y r e a c h a l e v e l i n d e p e n d e n t a n d b e y o n d l a n g u a g e t i e s . I n c o n t r a s t , B r u n e r e t a l . ( 1 9 6 6 ) , a n d V y g o t s k y ( l 9 6 2 ) s t a t e t h a t l a n g u a g e i s e s s e n t i a l i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f c l a s s i f i c a t i o n p e r f o r m a n c e a n d i n i t s f u n c t i o n i n g . V a l i d a t i o n R e s e a r c h o n C l a s s i f i c a t i o n T h e o r i e s A s t a t e m e n t was made ( F l a v e l l , 1963) t h a t t h e r e seemed t o be no a t t e m p t t o w a r d s v a l i d a t i o n o f I n h e l d e r & P i a g e t ' s ( l 9 6 4 ) work o n c l a s s -i f i c a t i o n . S i n c e t h e n r e c e n t i s s u e s o f p s y c h o l o g i c a l j o u r n a l s ( l a t e 1960 's a n d e a r l y 1 9 7 0 ' s ) h a v e r e p o r t e d a number o f f r e e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s t u d i e s . F r e e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n ( K o f s k y & O s i e r , 1 9 6 7 ) h a s become a c c e p t -e d t o mean t h a t t h e s u b j e c t may c h o o s e t h e c r i t e r i a o f s o r t i n g . T h e t e r m was u s e d i n t h i s manner b y Kfofsky & O s l e r ( l 9 6 7 ) j D e n n e y ( l 9 7 2 a , 5 1972b); a n d O v e r t o n , Wagner & D o l i n s k y ( l 9 7 l ) . I t w o u l d seem t h a t i t s u s a g e i s a c c e p t e d . H o w e v e r , Denney(1972a) r e f e r r e d t o a number o f c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i n v e s t i g a t i o n s l a b e l l i n g a l l a s f r e e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n r e s e a r c h , a n d some o f t h e s e s o l a b e l l e d d i d n o t f i t t h e d e f i n i t i o n g i v e n p r e v i o u s l y . C a r e must t h e r e f o r e be t a k e n i n a s s e s s i n g what i s meant b y t h e t e r m f r e e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n t a s k . On r e v i e w i n g r e c e n t c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s t u d i e s , o n l y t w o , D e n n e y ( l 9 7 2 a , 1972b) a t t e m p t e d t o r e p l i c a t e t h e t a s k o f I n h e l d e r & P i a g e t ( 1 9 6 4 ) . D e n n e y ( l 9 7 2 a ) u s e d two c l a s s i f i c a t i o n p r o c e d u r e s , one s i m i l a r t o t h a t e m p l o y e d b y V y g o t s k y ( l 9 6 2 ) a n d one s i m i l a r t o t h a t e m p l o y e d b y I n h e l d e r & P i a g e t ( 1 9 6 4 ) . S u b j e c t s f o r t h i s r e s e a r c h were e i g h t m a l e a n d e i g h t f e m a l e c h i l d r e n f r o m e a c h o f t h e f o l l o w i n g g r o u p s , 2 , 4 , 6 , 8 , 12 a n d 16, S t i m u l i were wooden b l o c k s w h i c h v a r i e d i n b o t h c o l o r a n d f o r m . N e i t h e r V y g o t s k y ' s n o r I n h e l d e r & P i a g e t ' s r e s u l t s were r e p l i c a t e d b y t h e p r o c e d u r e s t h a t were meant t o c o r r e s p o n d t o t h e i r own. The r e s u l t s d i d i n d i c a t e a s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p b e -tween age a n d t y p e o f r e s p o n s e . T h e same d e v e l o p m e n t a l c h a n g e was o b s e r v e d w i t h e a c h p r o c e d u r e , n a m e l y t h a t w i t h i n c r e a s i n g age r e s p o n s e v a r i a b i l i t y b e t w e e n s u b j e c t s d e c r e a s e d a n d t h e " f o r m " r e s -p o n s e u l t i m a t e l y p r e d o m i n a t e d . A l t h o u g h t h i s s t u d y i n d i c a t e d t h e r e m i g h t n o t be d e v e l o p m e n t a l s t a g e s s i m i l a r t o t h o s e r e p o r t e d b y V y g o t s k y ( l 9 6 2 ) a n d I n h e l d e r & P i a g e t ( l 9 6 4 ) i t was s u g g e s t e d t h a t ' t h e age r a n g e o f s u b j e c t s was t o o b r o a d f o r some s t a g e s t o become a p p a r -e n t . The number o f s u b j e c t s r e c e i v i n g e a c h p r o c e d u r e i n e a c h age g r o u p was s m a l l — e i g h t s u b j e c t s i n a n age g r o u p r e c e i v e d e a c h i n -s t r u c t i o n . To a n a l y s e t h e r e s u l t s D e n n e y ( l 9 7 2 a ) c o m b i n e d r e s p o n s e s i n t o c a t e g o r i e s . W i t h o n l y e i g h t s u b j e c t s i n e a c h age g r o u p , c o m b i n -6 ing responses into similar categories could eliminate some of the stages reported by the earlier researchers. It i s suggested that this procedure could further hinder observation of a l l the stages previously described. A significant relationship was found between procedure and type of response. Denney(l972a) stated, "The differences in the types of responses obtained with the two types of procedures was not surprising since Vygotsky and Inhelder & Piaget themselves obtained different results when using different procedures." A larger variety of responses were obtained with the free grouping procedure of Inhelder & Piaget ( l 9 6 4 ) . With the verbal labeling procedure of Vygotsky(1962), however, the subjects were simply i n -structed to pick out a l l the "wugs" (or "slibs") and were not i n -structed to do i t any way they wanted. Thus with more restrictive instructions there were fewer types of classification responses. In a second study, Denney(1972b) attempted to replicate responses obtained by Inhelder & Piaget(1964) and presented child-ren ages 2, 3» a n d 4 years old with a free classification task sim-i l a r in nature to the earlier researchers. Many of the responses obtained by Inhelder & Piaget(1964) were not obtained, however the data of Denney(1972b) indicated stages in the development of the ab i l i t y to group according to similarity. F i r s t , a stage occurred in which the child was unable to group according to similarity. Second, there was a stage i n which the child grouped only partially according to similarity, and in the third and f i n a l stage the child grouped the entire stimulus array according to similarity. The stage labelled "graphic responses" by Inhelder & Piaget ( l964) did not 7 a p p e a r a s a s e p a r a t e s t a g e i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i n t h e r e s u l t s o f Denney(1 9 7 2 b ) . I n summary, t h e g r a d u a l d e v e l o p m e n t o f c l a s s i f i c a t i o n a b i l i t y w i t h a n i n c r e a s e i n age a s r e p o r t e d by I n h e l d e r & P i a g e t ( l 9 6 4 ) , a n d V y g o t s k y ( l 9 6 2 ) was c o n f i r m e d b y t h e r e s e a r c h o f D e n n e y ( l 9 7 2 a , 1972b). None o f t h e o t h e r f r e e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s t u d i e s a t t e m p t e d t o r e p l i c a t e t h e work o f I n h e l d e r & P i a g e t ( 1 9 6 4 ) b u t i n s t e a d f o c u s s e d on a p a r t i c u l a r a s p e c t o f t h e i r r e s e a r c h . I n two s t u d i e s ( C r o l l , 1970; a n d F e l d m a n , 1969) c h i l d r e n m a t c h e d g e o m e t r i c s h a p e s t h a t " l o o k e d a l i k e . " C r o l l ( l 9 7 0 ) r e p o r t e d a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n t a s k h a d m e t h o d o l o g i c a l a d v a n t a g e s f o r t h e s t u d y o f g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s i n y o u n g c h i l d r e n . W i t h f i n e l y g r a d u a t e d c h a n g e s i n t h e s t i m u l i , i t was p o s s i b l e , t h e a u t h o r s u g g e s t e d , t o a c c u r a t e l y o b t a i n e s t i m a t e s o f t h e c h i l d ' s g e n e r a l i z a t i o n o f " c i r c l e " f o r e x a m p l e . A b l o c k s o r t i n g t a s k b y Feldman ( 1 9 6 9 ) i n v e s t i g a t e d t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f n e g a t i o n b y r e -q u i r i n g s u b j e c t s t o s o r t g e o m e t r i c s t i m u l i w h i c h were " n o t X . " The r e s u l t s o f F e l d m a n ( l 9 6 9 ) s u p p o r t e d I n h e l d e r & P i a g e t ( l 9 6 4 ) i n t h e o r d e r a n d a p p r o x i m a t e age c h i l d r e n d e v e l o p e d an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f n e g a t i o n . T h e r e s t i l l a p p e a r s t o be l a r g e a r e a s o f t h e t h e o r y p r e s e n t e d by I n h e l d e r & P i a g e t ( 1 9 6 4 ) t h a t h a v e n o t b e e n i n v e s t i g a t e d a n d o n l y one r e s e a r c h e r , Denney(1 9 7 2 a , 1972b) h a s a t t e m p t e d t o r e p l i c a t e t h e s t a g e s i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f c l a s s i f i c a t i o n p e r f o r m a n c e . C o n c e p t u a l F u n c t i o n i n g A s s e s s m e n t a n d C l a s s i f i c a t i o n T a s k s Some e a r l i e r r e s e a r c h e r s ( B o l l e s , 1937; G o l d s t e i n & S h e e r e r , 1 9 4 1 ; 8 Hanfmann & K a s a n i n , 1937; a n d R e i c h a r d , S c h n e i d e r & R a p p a p o r t , 1944) were i n t e r e s t e d i n f r e e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n a s a t o o l t o a s s e s s " m e n t a l d e v i a t i o n . " D i s t i n c t i o n s were made b e t w e e n c l a s s i f i c a t i o n on a " c o n c r e t e " a n d " a b s t r a c t " l e v e l . The d e f i n i t i o n o f t h e s e t e r m s ( v i n a c k e , 1952; a n d W e r n e r , 1948) was t h e f o l l o w i n g : c o n c r e t e b e h a v -i o r was a r e s p o n s e t o s e p a r a t e o b j e c t s , a n d a b s t r a c t b e h a v i o r was a r e s p o n s e t o t h e o b j e c t a p a r t f r o m t h e p e r c e p t u a l f i e l d , a n d w i t h r e s u l t a n t r e l a t i o n s g r a s p e d . G o l d s t e i n & S c h e e r e r ( l 9 4 l ) made d i s -t i n c t i o n s b etween t h e two modes o f b e h a v i o r ( a b s t r a c t a n d c o n c r e t e ) a n d n o t e d a n o r m a l a d u l t u t i l i z e s b o t h b e h a v i o r s w h e r e a s a n a b n o r m a l p e r s o n h a s o n l y c o n c r e t e b e h a v i o r s . T h e s e r e s e a r c h e r s s t a t e t h a t y o u n g c h i l d r e n u s e c o n c r e t e b e h a v i o r a n d d o n o t h a v e c l a s s c o n c e p t s l i k e a d u l t s . One a u t h o r ( H u n t , 1961) s u g g e s t e d t h a t p e r h a p s t h e d i s -t i n c t i o n b e t w e e n a b s t r a c t a n d c o n c r e t e t h o u g h t was b u t a vague f o r m u -l a t i o n o f t h e same d i s t i n c t i o n P i a g e t h a d made b e t w e e n f o r m a l a n d c o n c r e t e o p e r a t i o n s . The f r e e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n t e s t G E B S T , s e l e c t e d a s a s u i t a b l e i n -s t r u m e n t t o a s s e s s c o n c e p t u a l d e v e l o p m e n t i n t h i s r e s e a r c h , was u s e d a s t h e " c o n c e p t u a l t e s t " i n a t e s t b a t t e r y t o a s s e s s b r a i n damage. The r e s e a r c h w h i c h u s e d t h e GEBST ( E r n h a r t , G r a h a m , E i c h m a n , M a r s h a l l & T h u r s t o n , 1963; G r a h a m , E r n h a r t , ' T h u r s t o n & C r a f t , 1962; a n d G r a h a m , E r n h a r t , C r a f t & B e r m a n , 1963) d e m o n s t r a t e d t h a t c o n c e p t u a l a b i l i t y was t h e s i n g l e m o s t i m p a i r e d f u n c t i o n i n t h e s t u d i e s w i t h b r a i n d a m -a g e d c h i l d r e n . I n d e v i s i n g t h e t e s t , Graham e t a l . ( 1 9 6 3 ) a d a p t e d p r o c e d u r e s f r o m p r e s c h o o l l e v e l t e s t s t h a t h a d b e e n u s e d s u c c e s s f u l l y w i t h o l d e r g r o u p s t o d i f f e r e n t i a t e b e t w e e n b r a i n i n j u r e d a n d non b r a i n i n j u r e d . The GEBST was d e s c r i b e d b y Graham e t a l . ( 1 9 6 3 ) . 9 The t e s t " r e q u i r e d t h e s u b j e c t s t o m a t c h o r g r o u p b l o c k s w h i c h d i f f e r -e d w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h r e e d i m e n s i o n s ; c o l o r , s i z e a n d f o r m . T h e r e were f o u r l e v e l s o f d i f f i c u l t y . L e v e l I i n v o l v e d p l a c i n g b l o c k s i n f o r m b o a r d s ; L e v e l I I r e q u i r e d m a t c h i n g o f b l o c k s ; a n d L e v e l I I I a n d IV r e q u i r e d s o r t i n g . On L e v e l I I I t h e b l o c k s d i f f e r e d on one d i m e n s i o n a n d were c o n s t a n t i n r e s p e c t t o t h e r e m a i n i n g d i m e n s i o n s . On L e v e l I V b l o c k s d i f f e r e d on two d i m e n s i o n s s i m u l t a n e o u s l y w h i l e t h e t h i r d d i m -e n s i o n was h e l d c o n s t a n t . A t e a c h l e v e l a l l t h r e e c o n c e p t s were t e s t -ed i n s e p a r a t e t r i a l s . The p r o c e d u r e i s s i m i l a r t o t h a t e m p l o y e d by o t h e r t e s t s o f t h e a b i l i t y t o g r o u p a c c o r d i n g t o c o n c e p t s , G o l d s t e i n & S c h e e r e r ( l 9 4 l ) . " The GEBST was s t a n d a r d i z e d on a g r o u p o f 2^5 n o r -m a l a n d 70 b r a i n i n j u r e d c h i l d r e n r a n g i n g i n age f r o m 2 y e a r s t o 5 i y e a r s . T h e g e n e r a l t r e n d o n t h e GEBST was t o w a r d s n e g a t i v e s k e w n e s s and d e c r e a s i n g v a r i a n c e w i t h i n c r e a s i n g a g e . S i n g l e s e s s i o n r e l i a b i l -i t y was d i f f i c u l t t o o b t a i n s i n c e t h i s t e s t h a d t o o l i t t l e r e p l i c a -t i o n o f i t e m s o f c o m p a r a b l e d i f f i c u l t y o r i t e m s s i m i l a r i n k i n d . The t e s t - r e t e s t r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t ; f o r t h e GEBST was j u d g e d r e a s o n -a b l y s a t i s f a c t o r y ( r = . 6 1 ) . I t was s t a t e d t h a t i n most r e s e a r c h , c o n -s i s t e n c y i s g e n e r a l l y l e s s i n a p r e s c h o o l g r o u p t h a n w i t h o l d e r s u b -j e c t s a n d t h e b r i e f p r o c e d u r e s were r e p e a t e d a f t e r a n u n u s u a l l y l o n g i n t e r v a l , s i x m o n t h s . Age was t h e m o s t i m p o r t a n t v a r i a b l e a f f e c t i n g p e r f o r m a n c e on t h e t e s t . S e x a n d s o c i o e c o n o m i c s t a t u s were l e s s i m -p o r t a n t , b u t i n g e n e r a l g i r l s were s u p e r i o r t o b o y s , a n d t h e p e r f o r m -a n c e o f s t a t u s g r o u p s was i n t h e s o c i o e c o n o m i c o r d e r o f h i g h s t a t u s g r o u p s r e c e i v i n g h i g h p e r f o r m a n c e s c o r e s a n d l o w s t a t u s g r o u p s low p e r f o r m a n c e s c o r e s . V a l i d i t y was d i s c u s s e d i n t h e r e s e a r c h o f Graham e t a l . ( 1 9 6 2 ) a n d t h e GEBST was d e s c r i b e d a s t h e s i n g l e most d i s c r i m i n -10 a t i n g t e s t i n the battery used to d i s t i n g u i s h b r a i n injured from nor-mal groups. The three studies c i t e d , Ernhart et al.(1963), Graham et al.(1962, 1963) are a l l the published research that has used the GEBST. The t e s t manual f o r the GEBST i s i n Appendix A. The GEBST was selected f o r t h i s p a r t i c u l a r i n v e s t i g a t i o n f o r sev-e r a l reasons 1 i t purported to assess conceptual a b i l i t y ; i t was a f r e e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n t e s t and i t was simple to administer. The t e s t could e a s i l y be adapted to the aspect of dimensionality without major procedural a l t e r a t i o n s , i t presented a task s i m i l a r to Inhelder & Piaget(1964), and the scoring system allowed s t a t i s t i c a l analysis. I t was r e a l i z e d that the purpose f o r which the t e s t was developed was not the same as i t was to be used i n t h i s study, however, the t e s t authors reported the t e s t measured conceptual a b i l i t y . I t should therefore measure conceptual a b i l i t y i n a sample of e x c l u s i v e l y "normal" subjects. The age range of subjects upon which the t e s t was standardized was l e s s than the ages to be studied i n t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n . I t was f e l t that presenting p i c t o r i a l representation of the geometric shapes would make a more d i f f i c u l t t e s t f o r the older subjects. The only l e v e l s u t i l i z e d f o r t h i s research were Level I I I and Level IV, and a d d i t i o n a l scoring procedures were c a r r i e d out to increase the spread of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n performance at the top of the scoring scale i n Level IV. The f i n a l reason f o r s e l e c t i n g the GEBST was the p o s s i b i l i t y i t presented f o r comparing the r e s u l t s of t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n with other research. There have been many in v e s t i g a t i o n s i n t o young children's c l a s s i f i c a t i o n per-formance, but each i n v e s t i g a t o r developed h i s own c l a s s i f i c a t i o n task. Comparison of r e s u l t s was thus d i f f i c u l t and possibly could be con-founded by the type of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n task used. I f the GEBST i s a 11 s u i t a b l e i n s t r u m e n t t o a s s e s s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n p e r f o r m a n c e , t h e n p o s s i b l y i t c o u l d be u s e d by o t h e r r e s e a r c h e r s i n t h i s a r e a . T r a i n i n g P r o c e d u r e s a n d C l a s s i f i c a t i o n R e s e a r c h Many c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i n v e s t i g a t i o n s a t t e m p t e d t o v e r i f y o r d i s p r o v e c e r t a i n a s p e c t s o f I n h e l d e r & P i a g e t ' s ( 1 9 6 4 ) d e v e l o p m e n -t a l t h e o r y o f l o g i c a l t h i n k i n g . P i a g e t d e s c r i b e d , " T h e c e n t r a l mechanism S f i n t e l l i g e n c e i s f o u n d i n t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f o p e r a -t i o n s w h i c h d e r i v e f r o m t h e g e n e r a l c o o r d i n a t i o n s o f a c t i o n s " F u r t h ( i 9 6 9 ) . L o g i c a l o p e r a t i o n s , I n h e l d e r & P i a g e t ( 1 9 6 4 ) , a r e c l o s e l y l i n k e d w i t h c e r t a i n e l e m e n t a r y a c t i o n s , f o r e x a m p l e p u t t i n g t h i n g s i n p i l e s . The d e v e l o p m e n t i s c o n t i n u o u s ; a f t e r t h e a c t i o n s t h e r e a r e v a r i o u s a d j u s t m e n t s t o t h e s e a c t i o n s , a n d t h e s e i n t u r n become i n c r e a s i n g l y c o m p l e x . M a t u r a t i o n , l e a r n i n g , a n d s o c i a l e d u c a -t i o n , i n c l u d i n g l a n g u a g e , p l a y a p a r t i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f l o g i c a l o p e r a t i o n s . L o g i c a l o p e r a t i o n s , h o w e v e r , w o u l d n o t o c c u r w i t h o u t t h e p r o c e s s o f t h e c h i l d ' s a c t i o n s on t h e c h a n g i n g e n v i r o n m e n t . I n d u c t i o n o f a c o n c e p t w i t h o u t a d e q u a t e c o g n i t i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n r e -s u l t s i n a c o n c e p t l i m i t e d t o t h e t r a i n i n g o r s i m i l a r s i t u a t i o n . B r o a d c o n c e p t g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s c a n n o t be p e r f o r m e d . R e s e a r c h w i t h k i n d e r g a r t e n c h i l d r e n ( A l d r i c h , 1970; a n d R o b i n -s o n , 1970) s u p p o r t e d P i a g e t ' s p r o p o s a l t h a t t r a i n i n g i n l o g i c a l t h i n k i n g was n o t p o s s i b l e u n t i l t h e c h i l d was r e a d y f o r t h i s o p e r -r a t i o n . A l d r i c h ( l 9 7 0 ) a t t e m p t e d t o t e a c h c l a s s i n c l u s i o n a n d r e p o r t -ed an " i s o l a t e d s c h e m a " s u c c e s s f u l o n l y w i t h t h e t r a i n i n g m a t e r i a l s . I n h i s s t u d y , R o b i n s o n ( 1 9 7 0 ) a t t e m p t e d t o d e v e l o p a v a r i e t y o f c o n -d i t i o n s t o f a c i l i t a t e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i n k i n d e r g a r t e n c h i l d r e n b u t 12 " c o n d i t i o n s " d i d n o t make a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e s u b j e c t s ' p e r f o r m a n c e . Some r e s e a r c h ( J a c o b s & V a n d e v e n t e r , 1971J Nowak, 1969; O v e r t o n & B r o d z i n s k y , 1972; P a r k e r , R i e f f & S p e r r , 1971; a n d Y o u n i s s , 1971) r e p o r t e d s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s w i t h t r a i n i n g i n t h e i r s u b j e c t s , a g e s s i x a n d o l d e r . P i a g e t s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e p r e - o p e r a t i o n a l s t a g e o c c u r s i n c h i l d r e n a g e s 2 t o 7 y e a r s . The r e s e a r c h e r s who r e p o r t e d a c h a n g e f r o m p r e - o p e r a t i o n a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n t o c o n c r e t e o p e r a t i o n s w i t h t r a i n i n g i n t h e i r o l d e r s u b j e c t s may h a v e p r o v i d e d t h e e n v i r o n -ment u p o n w h i c h t h e c h i l d , a t t h a t m a t u r a t i o n a l l e v e l , c o u l d u t i l -i z e p r e v i o u s l y d e v e l o p e d a c t i o n s a n d t h u s d e m o n s t r a t e t r u e c l a s s i f -i c a t o r y b e h a v i o r . The c h i l d r e n were i n t h e age g r o u p i n w h i c h P i a g e t s u g g e s t e d c o n c r e t e b e h a v i o r e m e r g e d . One s t u d y ( O l m s t e d , P a r k s & R i c k e l , 1970) t r a i n e d l o w e r c l a s s n e g r o k i n d e r g a r t e n c h i l d r e n , m i d d l e c l a s s f i v e y e a r o l d s , a n d g i f t e d f o u r y e a r o l d s . S i g n i f i c a n t c h a n g e s i n c o g n i t i v e s k i l l s were r e p o r t -e d . T h e s e r e s e a r c h e r s r e p o r t e d c h a n g e d p e r f o r m a n c e w i t h t r a i n i n g m a t e r i a l . P i a g e t h o w e v e r , w o u l d q u e s t i o n t h e e x i s t e n c e o f c h a n g e s i n c o g n i t i v e l e v e l when a p p l i c a b i l i t y t o new s i t u a t i o n s was n o t i n v e s t i g a t e d . I n summary, c o n f l i c t e x i s t s i n t h e r e p o r t e d s u c c e s s o f " t r a i n -i n g s u b j e c t s i n t h e l o g i c a l o p e r a t i o n s o f c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . " I t i s s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e e x p l a n a t i o n f o r t h e c o n f l i c t l i e s i n t h e r e s e a r c h -e r s ' a s s e s s m e n t o f c h a n g e d c o g n i t i v e s k i i l l s . Some r e s e a r c h e r s r e p o r t -ed c h a n g e d c o g n i t i v e s k i l l s w i t h t h e t e s t m a t e r i a l a l o n e w h e r e a s o t h e r s t e s t e d w i t h new s t i m u l i v a r y i n g i n d e g r e e s o f s i m i l a r i t y w i t h t h e o r i g i n a l t e s t m a t e r i a l s . 13 S u b j e c t C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a n d C l a s s i f i c a t i o n R e s e a r c h A l l r e s e a r c h r e v i e w e d i n d i c a t e d a s t e a d y i m p r o v e m e n t i n c l a s s -i f i c a t i o n p e r f o r m a n c e w i t h a n i n c r e a s e i n age o f t h e p r e c o n c e p t u a l c h i l d . Graham e t , a l , ( 1 9 6 3 ) r e p o r t e d age t o be t h e most i m p o r t a n t v a r i a b l e a f f e c t i n g p e r f o r m a n c e o n t h e GEBST. When a t t e m p t i n g t o r e p l i c a t e I n h e l d e r & P i a g e t ' s ( 1 9 6 4 ) r e s e a r c h on c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , Denney(1972b) r e p o r t e d a s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n age a n d t y p e o f r e s p o n s e . An i n c r e a s e i n t h e f r e q u e n c y o f t r u e c l a s s i f i -c a t i o n r e s p o n s e s o c c u r r e d w i t h a n i n c r e a s e i n s u b j e c t age f r o m 2 t o 4 y e a r s . A n n e t t ( l 9 5 9 ) p r e s e n t e d a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n t a s k t o a w i d e age r a n g e o f s u b j e c t s . I t was r e p o r t e d t h a t s o r t i n g s showed a c l e a r change w i t h t h e number o f c a t e g o r i e s r e d u c e d a s age i n c r e a s e d . E x -p l a n a t i o n s f o r t h e c a t e g o r i z a t i o n were r e c o r d e d by A n n e t t ( l 9 5 9 ) a n d t h e o r d i n a l s c a l e o f r a t i n g r e s p o n s e s d e m o n s t r a t e d a b s t r a c t b a s i s o f s o r t i n g s i n c r e a s e d w i t h s u b j e c t age t o a d u l t h o o d . R e g a r d l e s s o f t h e p r o c e d u r e , t y p e o f s u b j e c t o r s t i m u l u s o b j e c t t h e r e were no c o n -t r a d i c t o r y s t a t e m e n t s c o n c e r n i n g t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f age a n d p e r f o r m a n c e . R e s e a r c h h a s b e e n c o n d u c t e d i n o t h e r c u l t u r e s t o v e r i f y some a s p e c t s o f P i a g e t ' s t h e o r i e s . A r e v i e w o f t h e r e s e a r c h i n o t h e r c u l t u r e s ( D a s e n , 1972) n o t e d t h a t m o s t o f t h i s r e s e a r c h h a s b e e n c o n -d u c t e d a t t h e p r e o p e r a t i o n a l a n d c o n c r e t e o p e r a t i o n a l s t a g e s . The age a t w h i c h i l l i t e r a t e , p r i m i t i v e s u b j e c t s r e a c h e d a d e s i g n a t e d s t a g e i n P i a g e t ' s d e v e l o p m e n t a l s e q u e n c e d i f f e r e d f r o m t h e age r a n g e r e p o r t e d b y P i a g e t . The o r d e r o f t h e d e v e l o p m e n t a l s t a g e s was r e p o r t e d b y D a s e n ( l 9 7 2 ) t o be t h e same a s d e s c r i b e d b y P i a g e t . P r i c e - W i l l i a m s ( 1 9 6 2 ) c o m p a r e d c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f l i t e r a t e a n d i l * -14 l i t e r a t e 6 t o 11 y e a r o l d s f r o m a p r i m i t i v e A f r i c a n t r i b e u s i n g i n -d i g e n e o u s m a t e r i a l . T h e A f r i c a n s u b j e c t s r e a c h e d c o n c r e t e o p e r a t i o n s a t a n o l d e r age ( s o m e t i m e s i n t o a d u l t h o o d ) t h a n P i a g e t * s s u b j e c t s . A l l , h o w e v e r , r e a c h e d t h i s s t a g e . I n v e s t i g a t i o n s h a v e b e e n d o n e c o m p a r i n g c l a s s i f i c a t i o n b e h a v i o r i n d i f f e r e n t s o c i o e c o n o m i c g r o u p s . F o u r i n v e s t i g a t i o n s ( O v e r t o n , Wagner & D o l i n s k y , 1971; S i g e l & S h a p i r o , 1966; a n d W e i , 1967) com p a r e d c l a s s i f i c a t i o n p e r f o r m a n c e i n l o w e r a n d m i d d l e c l a s s c h i l d r e n r a n g i n g i n age f r o m 3 "to 9 y e a r s . The s t u d y by S i g e l & S h a p i r o ( 1 9 6 6 ) r e p o r t e d c h i l d r e n f r o m l o w e r s o c i o e c o n o m i c homes s c o r e d l o w e r t h a n c h i l d r e n f r o m m i d d l e c l a s s homes when c l a s s i f y i n g p i c t o r i a l r e p r e s -e n t a t i o n o f o b j e c t s . When t h e s t i m u l u s was a c t u a l o b j e c t s t h e r e was l i t t l e d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e c h i l d r e n f r o m d i f f e r e n t s o c i o e c o n o m i c b a c k g r o u n d s . A s t u d y by W e i ( l 9 6 7 ) r e p o r t e d c u l t u r a l l y d i s a d v a n t a g e d c h i l d r e n s c o r e d l o w e r o n c l a s s i f i c a t i o n t a s k s t h a n c h i l d r e n f r o m m i d d l e c l a s s homes. W e i ( l 9 6 7 ) p r e s e n t e d s u b j e c t s w i t h f o u r c l a s s -i f i c a t i o n t a s k s d e v e l o p e d f r o m t h e work o f I n h e l d e r & P i a g e t ( 1 9 6 4 ) . R e p o r t i n g s i m i l a r f i n d i n g s t o t h e p r e v i o u s l y c i t e d r e s e a r c h , O v e r t o n e t a l . ( l 9 7 l ) e x p l a i n e d t h e l o w e r p e r f o r m a n c e s c o r e s o f t h e l o w e r s o c i o e c o n o m i c g r o u p i n t h i s m a n n e r . A l l c h i l d r e n may d e v e l o p t h e n e c e s s a r y c o g n i t i v e s t r u c t u r e s a t a s i m i l a r r a t e , b u t a c t i v a t i o n f o r l o w e r c l a s s c h i l d r e n may o c c u r l a t e r a s t h e e n v i r o n m e n t f a i l s t o p r o -v i d e s u f f i c i e n t o p p o r t u n i t y t o d e v e l o p t h e c o g n i t i v e s t r u c t u r e s . T h i s e x p l a n a t i o n i s i n harmony w i t h P i a g e t * s t h e o r y o f d e v e l o p m e n t o f l o g i c a l s t r u c t u r e s b y t h e a c t i o n s o f t h e c h i l d w i t h h i s e n v i r o n m e n t . I n summary, i t a p p e a r s s o c i o e c o n o m i c s t a t u s i s r e l a t e d t o 15 c l a s s i f i c a t i o n p e r f o r m a n c e a n d t h e l a c k o f o p p o r t u n i t i e s a v a i l a b l e t o p r a c t i c e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n t e c h n i q u e s b y t h e l o w e r s o c i o e c o n o m i c c h i l d r e n c o u l d e x p l a i n t h e d i f f e r e n c e s i n p e r f o r m a n c e s c o r e s b e t w e e n d i f f e r e n t e c o n o m i c s t a t u s g r o u p s . Sex d i f f e r e n c e s i n c l a s s i f i c a t i o n t a s k s a r e s 1. n o t a n a l y s e d o r d i s c u s s e d , 2. r e p o r t e d t o b e n o n - e x i s t e n t o r 3. r e p o r t e d t o b e s l i g h t w i t h g i r l s p e r f o r m a n c e s c o r e s s l i g h t l y a h e a d o f b o y s . Denney (1972a, 1972b) r e p o r t e d no s e x d i f f e r e n c e s i n f r e e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n p e r -f o r m a n c e . A s t u d y t o s t a n d a r d i z e a t e s t b a t t e r y by Graham e t a l . ( 1 9 6 3 ) r e p o r t e d g i r l s s c o r e d s l i g h t l y h i g h e r t h a n b o y s on t h e GEBST. I t w o u l d a p p e a r f r o m t h e l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w e d , t h a t s e x d i f f e r e n c e s on c l a s s i f i c a t i o n t a s k s a r e s l i g h t , i f t h e y e x i s t a t a l l . S t i m u l u s A t t r i b u t e s a n d C l a s s i f i c a t i o n R e s e a r c h The t y p e o f o b j e c t s r e s e a r c h e r s u s e i n t h e i r i n v e s t i g a t i o n s a f f e c t s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n p e r f o r m a n c e . M a t e r i a l w h i c h was f a m i l i a r t o t h e s u b j e c t s was c l a s s i f i e d more a b s t r a c t l y t h a n n o n - m e a n i n g f u l m a t -e r i a l ( A s c h , 1970). D i s a d v a n t a g e d p r e s c h o o l c h i l d r e n were a b l e t o c l a s s i f y p i c t u r e s a b s t r a c t l y . U s i n g a t r a i n i n g p r o c e d u r e i n c l a s s -i f i c a t i o n , A s c h ( l 9 7 0 ) r e p o r t e d t h a t more a b s t r a c t c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o c c u r r e d w i t h t h e m e a n i n g f u l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l p i c t u r e s t h a n w i t h n o n - m e a n i n g f u l g e o m e t r i c f o r m s . A s t u d y b y F e l d m a n ( 1 9 6 9 ) t o a s s e s s c h i l d r e n ' s u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f n e g a t i o n a s a l o g i c a l o p e r a t i o n i n r . a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n t a s k r e p o r t e d t h a t more c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e s were made w i t h f a m i l i a r m a t e r i a l ( f o r e x a m p l e g e o m e t r i c s h a p e s ) t h a n w i t h u n -f a m i l i a r m a t e r i a l ( f o r example random s h a p e s ) . P r i c e - W i l l i a m s ( 1 9 6 2 ) i n v e s t i g a t e d a b s t r a c t a n d c o n c r e t e modes o f c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i n a 16 p r i m i t i v e s o c i e t y . T h i s r e s e a r c h e r r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e u s e o f W e s t e r n m a t e r i a l s u c h a s g e o m e t r i c s h a p e s d i d n o t p r o v i d e a s t i m u l u s o b j e c t f a m i l i a r t o t h e i l l i t e r a t e s u b j e c t s a n d t h u s s u b j e c t s c o u l d n o t g r o u p a b s t r a c t l y . A c o m p a r i s o n o f c l a s s i f i c a t i o n p e r f o r m a n c e o f l i t e r a t e a n d i l l i t e r a t e A f r i c a n s u b j e c t s o n i n d i g e n o u s m a t e r i a l r e s u l t e d i n v e r y l i t t l e p e r f o r m a n c e d i f f e r e n c e . ; . ; Wieman a n d G u t h r i e ( 1 9 7 2 ) a t t e m p t -e d t o a s s e s s t h e i n f l u e n c e o f age a n d t h e c u l t u r a l f a m i l i a r i t y o f s t i m u l u s i t e m s on c h i l d r e n ' s c a t e g o r i z i n g r e s p o n s e s . T h e r e were two o b j e c t i v e s i n t h i s r e s e a r c h ! f i r s t , measurement o f c o n c e p t u a l g r o w t h a c r o s s a g e s , a n d s e c o n d , a c o m p a r i s o n o f c l a s s i f i c a t i o n p e r f o r m a n c e w i t h two s e t s o f s t i m u l u s i t e m s m a t c h e d f o r t y p e , d i r e c t i o n s a n d d i f f i -c u l t y b u t d i f f e r i n g i n c u l t u r a l f a m i l i a r i t y . I t e m s f r o m a P h i l i p p i n e n o n - v e r b a l i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t were m a t c h e d w i t h o b j e c t s w h i c h were c u l t u r a l l y f a m i l i a r . S u b j e c t s were age 4 t h r o u g h 9 w i t h 15 m a l e a n d 15 f e m a l e i n e a c h age g r o u p . R e s u l t s o f t h i s s t u d y d e m o n s t r a t e d n o n -c o n c e p t u a l s o r t i n g e x p l a n a t i o n s showed a d e c r e a s e w i t h a g e . A c o n s i s t -ent!, i n c r e a s e i n r e s p o n s e s i n t e r p r e t e d a s s i g n i f y i n g c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n was n o t e d w i t h a n i n c r e a s e i n a g e . I n d e a l i n g w i t h t h e P h i l i p p i n e i t e m s s u b j e c t s a t a l l a g e s were l e s s s u c c e s s f u l i n u t i l i z i n g c o n -c e p t u a l s t r a t e g i e s . I n summary a more a b s t r a c t c l a s s i f i c a t i o n p e r -f o r m a n c e c a n be o b t a i n e d f r o m s u b j e c t s i f t h e s t i m u l u s o b j e c t s a r e f a m i l i a r t o t h e m . Some r e s e a r c h i n t o c l a s s i f i c a t i o n p e r f o r m a n c e , A n n e t t ( l 9 5 9 ) ; I n h e l d e r & P i a g e t ( 1 9 6 4 ) ; S i g e l ( l 9 5 4 ) } a n d S i g e l & S h a p i r o ( l 9 6 6 ) , p r e s e n t e d t a s k s w i t h s t i m u l u s o b j e c t s w h i c h were n o r m a l l y p r e s e n t i n t h e s u r r o u n d i n g s o f t h e s u b j e c t . A n n e t t ( l 9 5 9 ) u s e d l i n e d r a w i n g s o f o b j e c t s s u c h a s a n i m a l s (cow, b i r d ) , p l a n t s ( t r e e , f l o w e r ) , a n d f u r n -17 i t u r e ( c h a i r , t e l e v i s i o n ) . I n h e l d e r & Piaget(1964) u s e d f l o w e r s , p i c t u r e s o f a n i m a l s , a n d s m a l l t o y s a s s t i m u l u s o b j e c t s . A s t u d y by S i g e l(l95^) c o m p a r e d t h e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n p e r f o r m a n c e u s i n g p i c -t u r e s , w o r d names o f m e a n i n g f u l o b j e c t s a n d t h r e e d i m e n s i o n a l t o y r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e o b j e c t s . T h e r e was no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r -e n c e s r e g a r d l e s s o f s t i m u l u s p r e s e n t a t i o n a s t h e c h i l d r e s p o n d e d i n a s i m i l a r f a s h i o n t o t o y s , p i c t u r e s o r word names. The c o n -c e p t u a l i z a t i o n u s e d by t h e s u b j e c t s was b a s e d p r i m a r i l y o n t h e m e a n -i n g o f t h e o b j e c t . C o n c e p t s r e l a t e d t o t h e s t i m u l u s p r o p e r t i e s , s u c h a s c o l o r , t e x t u r e , s i z e o r f o r m t e n d e d t o be i g n o r e d . I n s u m m a r i z i n g t h e r e s e a r c h w i t h f a m i l i a r o b j e c t s , t h e c a t e g o r i z a t i o n o f s u c h o b j e c t s i s g r e a t l y a f f e c t e d b y t h e p a r t i c u l a r m e a n i n g t h e s u b -j e c t h a s f o r e a c h o b j e c t . A c o n c l u s i o n b y S i g e l ( l 9 5 i 0 was t h a t t h e m e a n i n g o f a n o b j e c t was n o t o n l y i n d e p e n d e n t o f t h e s t i m u l u s c h a r -a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e o b j e c t , b u t was a l s o a p p a r e n t l y d o m i n a n t a s a b a s i s o f o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e o b j e c t s . " M e a n i n g d o m i n a n c e " was t h e t e r m d e v e l o p e d b y S i g e l(l95^) t o e x p l a i n t h i s r e s u l t . D i m e n s i o n a l i t y o f s t i m u l i h a s b e e n d e m o n s t r a t e d t o a f f e c t p e r -f o r m a n c e o f y o u n g c h i l d r e n on a v a r i e t y o f t a s k s . D i m e n s i o n a l i t y r e f e r s t o t h e f o r m o f t h e s t i m u l u s o b j e c t . S t i m u l i c a n be t h r e e d i m e n s i o n a l o b j e c t s s u c h a s b a l l s , b l o c k s o r s m a l l t o y s . Two d i m e n -s i o n a l o b j e c t s a r e f l a t c u t o u t s o f o b j e c t s s u c h a s c i r c l e s , s q u a r e s , f o r m b o a r d o r p u z z l e p i e c e s . P i c t o r i a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n , o r l i n e d r a w -i n g o n c a r d s i s t h e t h i r d t y p e o f s t i m u l u s d i m e n s i o n a l i t y t h a t c a n be u t i l i z e d . S i g e T & Shapiro(1966) u s e d s t i m u l u s m a t e r i a l c o n s i s t i n g o f two d i m e n s i o n a l p i c t o r i a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f f a m i l i a r o b j e c t s a n d a c t u a l 18 l i f e s i z e d f a m i l i a r o b j e c t s . T h e c a t e g o r i z a t i o n b e h a v i o r o f l o w e r a n d m i d d l e c l a s s n e g r o p r e s c h o o l c h i l d r e n was c o m p a r e d w i t h t h e two t y p e s o f s t i m u l i . M i d d l e c l a s s s u b j e c t s were a b l e t o p e r f o r m i n a s i m i l a r manner w i t h b o t h t y p e s o f p r e s e n t a t i o n , h o w e v e r t h e l o w e r c l a s s s u b j e c t s were c o n f u s e d by t h e p i c t o r i a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n e v e n t h o u g h t h e y c o u l d i d e n t i f y t h e o b j e c t . A c c o r d i n g t o A s c h ( l 9 ? 0 ) " d i s a d v a n t a g e d " p r e s c h o o l c h i l d r e n were a b l e t o c l a s s i f y p i c t u r e s a b s t r a c t l y . T h i s i s c o n t r a d i c t o r y t o t h e r e s u l t s o f S i g e l & S h a p i r o ( 1 9 6 6 ) . A s c h ( l 9 ? 0 ) u s e d a t r a i n i n g p r o c e d u r e • a n d t h e c o n f l i c t c o u l d be r e s o l v e d b y a t t r i b u t i n g t h e s u c c e s s o f A s c h ' s s u b j e c t s t o t r a i n i n g t h e y h a d r e c e i v e d . S t i m u l u s d i m e n s i o n a l i t y a c c o r d i n g t o t h e r e s e a r c h o f S i g e l & S h a p i r o ( 1 9 6 6 ) c o u l d be a n i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r a f f e c t i n g r e s u l t s w h i c h compare p e r f o r m a n c e o f p r e s c h o o l c h i l d r e n f r o m d i f f e r e n t s o c i o e c o n o m i c l e v e l s . T h e r e s e a r c h o f S i g e l & S h a p i r o ( l 9 6 6 ) was t h e o n l y c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s t u d y r e v i e w e d w h i c h i n -v e s t i g a t e d t h e a f f e c t s o f s t i m u l u s d i m e n s i o n a l i t y . Many r e s e a r c h e r s have i n v e s t i g a t e d t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f s t i m u l u s d i m e n s i o n a l i t y a n d d i s c r i m i n a t i o n p e r f o r m a n c e . S t u d i e s i n t h i s a r e a ( E t a u g h & V a n S i c k l e , 1971; E v e r e t t & A r m s t r o n g , 1968; F a l k , 1968; a n d S t e v e n s o n & M c B e e , 1958) p r e s e n t e d s u b j e c t s w i t h a d i s c r i m i n a t i o n t a s k a n d a l l r e p o r t e d t h a t t h r e e d i m e n s i o n a l s t i m u l i were d i s c r i m i n a t e d more r a p i d l y t h a n p i c t o r i a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o r l i n e d r a w i n g s o f t h e same o b j e c t s . The age r a n g e o f s u b j e c t s i n t h e f o u r c i t e d s t u d i e s was 3 "to 6 y e a r s . T h e age o f ? t h e s u b j e c t was r e p o r t e d t o be r e l a t e d t o t h e c h i l d ' s a b i l i t y t o d i s c r i m i n a t e p i c t o r i a l m a t e r i a l a s t h e y o u n g e s t s u b j e c t s were l e s s a b l e t o d i s c r i m i n a t e p i c t o r i a l c o m p a r e d t o t h r e e d i m e n s i o n a l s t i m u l i . A s t u d y ( D o r n b u s h & W i n n i c k , 1966) 19 r e p o r t e d f i v e y e a r o l d s u b j e c t s c o u l d l e a r n a d i s c r i m i n a t i o n t a s k more r a p i d l y w i t h t h r e e d i m e n s i o n a l s t i m u l i t h a n w i t h p a t t e r n s t i m u l i . No s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e d i s c r i m i n a t i o n l e a r n i n g t i m e o c c u r r -e d b e t w e e n t h r e e d i m e n s i o n a l a n d p a t t e r n s t i m u l i w i t h s e v e n y e a r o l d s u b j e c t s . A s i m i l a r r e s u l t was r e p o r t e d i n a n o t h e r s t u d y by F a l k (1968). The c o n c l u s i o n s o f t h i s s t u d y were t h a t t h e r a t e o f l e a r n i n g a s i z e d i s c r i m i n a t i o n was a f f e c t e d b y t h e d i m e n s i o n a l i t y o f t h e s t i m -u l i a n d t h i s e f f e c t was g r e a t e r f o r t h e f o u r y e a r o l d s u b j e c t s and l e s s f o r t h e s i x y e a r o l d s u b j e c t s . S u m m a r i z i n g t h e r e s e a r c h r e l a t i n g s t i m u l u s d i m e n s i o n a l i t y a n d a g e , i t a p p e a r s t h a t f o r c h i l d -r e n u n d e r s i x y e a r s o f a g e , p i c t o r i a l m a t e r i a l i s more d i f f i c u l t t o d i s c r i m i n a t e t h a n t h r e e d i m e n s i o n a l o b j e c t s . A r o u n d s i x o r s e v e n y e a r s , h o w e v e r , t h e c h i l d becomes a b l e t o d i s c r i m i n a t e b o t h p i c t o r i a l a n d t h r e e d i m e n s i o n a l m a t e r i a l i n a s i m i l a r manner. Some r e s e a r c h e r s , Engle(1972)5 E t a u g h & V a n S i c k l e ( 1 9 7 1 ) : G i b s o n ( 1 9 6 3 ) ; a n d F a l k ( l 9 6 8 ) a t t e m p t t o e x p l a i n t h e e f f e c t o f s t i m u l u s d i m e n s i o n a l i t y i n a d i s c r i m i n a t i o n t a s k . Two e x p l a n a t i o n s a r e s u g g e s t e d . T h e t h i r d d i m e n s i o n , o r " d e p t h c u e , " g i v e s a d d i t i o n -a l i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t i s l a c k i n g i n p i c t o r i a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a n d t h u s e n a b l e s s u b j e c t s t o d i s c r i m i n a t e more r a p i d l y w i t h t h r e e d i m e n s i o n a l t h a n p i c t o r i a l s t i m u l i . The s e c o n d e x p l a n a t i o n s u g g e s t s t h e i m p o r t -a n c e o f t h e i n f o r m a t i o n a s u b j e c t g a i n s t h r o u g h t o u c h i n g t h e t h r e e d i m e n s i o n a l o b j e c t s i n c o n t r a s t t o t h e v i s u a l a c t i o n a l o n e on p i c -t u r e s . T h i s s e c o n d e x p l a n a t i o n was s u p p o r t e d b y two s t u d i e s , E n g l e (1972) a n d T a n a k a ( 1 9 6 8 ) , w h i c h c o m p a r e d t h e e f f e c t s o f d i f f e r e n t i n s t r u c t i o n a l m e t h o d s o n c l a s s i f i c a t i o n p e r f o r m a n c e . G r e a t e r g a i n s i n c l a s s i f i c a t i o n p e r f o r m a n c e s c o r e s r e s u l t e d when s u b j e c t s were 20 a b l e t o t o u c h s t i m u l u s o b j e c t s t h a n when t h e y v i s u a l l y l o o k e d a n d v e r b a l i z e d w i t h o u t t o u c h i n g s t i m u l i . C o n t r a r y t o a l l t h e p r e v i o u s l y c i t e d r e s e a r c h o n p i c t o r i a l p r e s e n t a t i o n , d a t a was p r e s e n t e d ( D e v o r & S t e r n , 1970) d e m o n s t r a t -i n g t h a t t h r e e d i m e n s i o n a l s t i m u l i d o n o t r e s u l t i n a n e a s i e r t a s k t h a n t h e u s e o f p i c t u r e s o f t h e same o b j e c t . The r e a s o n f o r t h e d i f f e r e n t r e s u l t s o f D e v o r & S t e r n ( 1 9 7 0 ) c o u l d be t h e t y p e o f t a s k t h e s e r e s e a r c h e r s p r e s e n t e d , a n d t h e s c o r i n g p r o c e d u r e s f o r s u b -j e c t p e r f o r m a n c e . V e r b a l l a b e l s were t a u g h t a n d t h e n r o t e r e c a l l o f t h e c o r r e c t l a b e l was r e q u i r e d . The l e a r n i n g o f t h e l a b e l s was n o t f a c i l i t a t e d by t h e t h r e e d i m e n s i o n a l o b j e c t s . The a u t h o r s rioted s u b j e c t s p l a y e d w i t h t h e o b j e c t s a n d were t h u s d i s t r a c t e d f r o m t h e v e r b a l t a p e d i n s t r u c t i o n s . P r e v i o u s l y c i t e d r e s e a r c h e r s , I n h e l d e r & P i a g e t ( l 9 6 4 ) P i a g e t ( 1 9 5 3 , 1954); S i g e l & S h a p i r o ( 1 9 6 6 ) ; a n d V i n a c k e ( l 9 5 2)t e x p l a i n e d t h a t v e r b a l a b i l i t y was n o t t h e same a s c o n c e p t u a l k n o w l e d g e i n y o u n g c h i l d r e n . D e v o r & S t e r n ( 1 9 7 0 ) a p p e a r -e d t o b e s c o r i n g v e r b a l a b i l i t y a n d l a b e l l i n g i t c o n c e p t u a l p e r f o r m -a n c e . I n summary, s t i m u l u s d i m e n s i o n a l i t y was a f a c t o r w h i c h a f f e c t -ed p e r f o r m a n c e o f y o u n g c h i l d r e n on d i s c r i m i n a t i o n t a s k s . The r e l a t i o n s h i p o f t h e number o f o b j e c t s t o c l a s s i f i c a t i o n p e r -f o r m a n c e was i n v e s t i g a t e d . A s t u d y b y F e l d m a n ( l 9 6 9 ) o f c h i l d r e n ' s u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f n e g a t i o n a s a l o g i c a l o p e r a t i o n i n a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n t a s k r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e number o f o b j e c t s i n t h e t a s k i n t e r a c t e d w i t h s u b j e c t a g e . R e d u c i n g t h e number o f s t i m u l u s o b j e c t s d i d n o t h e l p t h e t h r e e y e a r o l d s u b j e c t s , a s t h i s age was s t i l l u n a b l e t o h a n d l e n e g a t i o n , n o r d i d i t h e l p t h e s e v e n y e a r o l d s u b j e c t s who h a d a f u l l u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e t a s k a n d c o u l d s u c c e s s f u l l y p e r f o r m t h e t a s k 2 1 with the complete stimulus set. The performance of four and five year old subjects was improved when fewer objects were presented. Feldman(1969) was the only researcher with a classification task who varied the number of stimulus objects to assess the effect of this variable on performance scores. The perception of color and form by young children has been investigated by many researchers. A review of this area by Sigel (195*0 cited research that demonstrated both form and color dis-criminations can be made by very young infants. There i s co n f l i c t -ing research evidence concerning color versus form preference by subjects three and four years of age. In a color-form sorting task (Harris, Schaller & Mitter, 1970) form matches were more f r e -quent for geometric figures. There was a significant increase i n the number of form matches with an increase in subject age. The subject age in this investigation was preschool to grade three stu-dents. Kagan & Lemkin(l96l) used a task of matching a stimulus object to a standard to study form, color and size in children's conceptual behavior. Children, ages three to eight years, preferred to match by form rather than color as a basis of similarity. Re-searchers (Modreski & Goss, 1969) instructed young children to give the name of colored geometric shapes. The results were similar to Denney(l972a)• and Suchman & Trabasso( l966). Young children select-ed form names more often than color. Even three year old subjects named by form more often than color, and the number of subjects naming by form increased with ages four and five. Other researchers reported results which conflicted with those just cited. A recent study, (Denney,1972a) reported an increase in 22 t h e u s e o f c o l o r a s a b a s i s o f s o r t i n g u p t o t h e age o f s i x , a n d t h e n a d e c r e a s e . A s t u d y (Suchman & T r a b a s s o , 1966) w h i c h r e q u i r e d c h i l d -r e n t o " p o i n t t o t h e two a l i k e " f r o m s l i d e p r e s e n t a t i o n s d e m o n s t r a t e d t h a t 3 y e a r o l d c h i l d r e n t e n d t o m a t c h b y c o l o r a n d 6 y e a r o l d c h i l d -r e n b y f o r m . The c h i l d r e n r a n g e d i n age f r o m 2 y e a r s 10 months t o 6 y e a r s 6 months i n t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n . A s t u d y w h i c h u s e d a d i s c r i m -i n a t i o n t a s k t o a s s e s s y o u n g c h i l d r e n ' s a t t r i b u t e p r e f e r e n c e r e p o r t e d t h a t c o l o r was p r e f e r r e d more t h a n f o r m w i t h n u r s e r y s c h o o l a n d k i n d -e r g a r t e n s u b j e c t s ( T r a b a s s o , S t a v e & E i c h b e r g , 1969). I n t h e c o l o r v e r s u s f o r m c o n f l i c t j u s t p r e s e n t e d , c o l o r h a s n o t b e e n c l e a r l y e s t a b -l i s h e d a s t h e p r e f e r r e d d i m e n s i o n b y w h i c h t o m a t c h o b j e c t s when s u b -j e c t s a r e y o u n g c h i l d r e n . One r e s e a r c h e r ( C o r a h , 1964, 1966) p r e s -e n t e d c o n f l i c t i n g e v i d e n c e i n h i s two s t u d i e s . C o r a h ( 1 9 6 4 ) r e p o r t e d c o l o r t o be c l e a r l y t h e d o m i n a n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c , a n d t h e n l a t e r C o r a h (1966) s t a t e d t h a t f o r m was p r e f e r r e d t o c o l o r e v e n b y t h e y o u n g e s t s u b -j e c t s . He p r e s e n t e d a s i m i l a r m a t c h t o s t a n d a r d t a s k e a c h t i m e . P r e -s c h o o l c h i l d r e n were r e q u i r e d t o m a t c h g e o m e t r i c f o r m s , l i n e d r a w i n g s o f a s i m p l e f o r m , a n d an o u t l i n e o f a s y m m e t r i c f o r m s . C o r a h c o u l d n o t a d e q u a t e l y e x p l a i n t h e c o n f l i c t i n g r e s u l t s . I n summary, t h e r e a r e more s t u d i e s s u p p o r t i n g c o l o r p r e f e r e n c e s t h a n f o r m p r e f e r e n c e s i n t h e p r e s c h o o l c h i l d r e n , b u t i t h a s n o t b e e n c l e a r l y d e m o n s t r a t e d t h a t c o l o r i s p r e f e r r e d b y t h e m a j o r i t y i n t h i s age g r o u p . R e s e a r c h i n t h e a r e a o f c o l o r v e r s u s f o r m p r e f e r e n c e b y s c h o o l age s u b j e c t s p r e s e n t s c o n s i s t e n t f i n d i n g s . A l l t h e p r e v i o u s l y c i t e d r e s e a r c h o n t h e c o l o r v e r s u s f o r m p r e f e r e n c e s t a t e d t h a t t h e i r o l d e r s c h o o l - a g e s u b j e c t s m a t c h e d o r c a t e g o r i z e d b y f o r m i n p r e f e r e n c e t o c o l o r . 23 I n t h e r e s e a r c h o f K a g a n & Lemkin(l96l) a n d Sigel(l964) c h i l d -r e n ' s p e r f o r m a n c e w i t h t h r e e s t i m u l u s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ( f o r m , c o l o r a n d s i z e ) was c o m p a r e d . S i z e was r e p o r t e d t o be a l e s s s a l i e n t c u e t h a n e i t h e r f o r m o r c o l o r . Sigel(l964) s t a t e d t h a t m a t c h i n g o r c l a s s i f y -i n g b y s i z e r e q u i r e d i g n o r i n g t h e more o b s e r v a b l e f o r m a n d c o l o r . An o b j e c t c o u l d be one p a r t i c u l a r c o l o r o r f o r m b u t a n a d d i t i o n a l s t e p o f r e l a t i n g two o r more o b j e c t s was r e q u i r e d when s i z e was s e l e c t e d a s a b a s i s o f c a t e g o r i z a t i o n . S i z e e x i s t e d o n l y i n r e l a t i o n t o a n o t h e r o b j e c t , a n d t h u s a c o m p a r i s o n was r e q u i r e d b e f o r e a m a t c h i n g o r a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n t a s k c o u l d be p e r f o r m e d . P r o c e d u r e s i n C l a s s i f i c a t i o n R e s e a r c h I n a r e v i e w o f r e s e a r c h methods i n c h i l d d e v e l o p m e n t ( B i j o u & B a e r , I960) t h e p o i n t i s r a i s e d t h a t a s p e c i a l p r o b l e m o c c u r r i n g i n r e s e a r c h w i t h y o u n g c h i l d r e n i s : "Does t h e c h i l d u n d e r s t a n d what i s r e q u i r e d o f h i m ? " T h e s t u d i e s o f c l a s s i f i c a t i o n by I n h e l d e r & P i a g e t ( 1 9 6 4 ) , u s e d t h e i n s t r u c t i o n s , " P u t t o g e t h e r t h i n g s t h a t a r e a l i k e . " O t h e r i n s t r u c t i o n s s i m i l a r i n n a t u r e were a l s o u s e d b y t h e s e r e s e a r c h e r s b u t i t d i d n o t a p p e a r t o a f f e c t t h e i r r e s u l t s . Two i n s t r u c t i o n w o r d i n g s were c o m p a r e d by Annett(l959). W i t h a mean s u b -j e c t age o f 8 y e a r s t h e r e was no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n p e r f o r m -a n c e when t h e two i n s t r u c t i o n s were u s e d f o r t h e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n t a s k s . Annett(l959) f i r s t u s e d t h e i n s t r u c t i o n s , " S o r t them i n t o g r o u p s s o t h a t t h e o n e s t h a t go t o g e t h e r a r e i n t h e same g r o u p . " T h i s was c o m p a r e d w i t h t h e i n s t r u c t i o n s , " P u t t h o s e t h a t b e l o n g t o g e t h e r i n t o g r o u p s . " An e a r l y c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s t u d y by Bolles(l937) i n s t r u c t e d s u b j e c t s t o , " P u t t h o s e t o g e t h e r t h a t b e l o n g t o g e t h e r . " I n a r e c e n t s t u d y , Denney(1972b) i n s t r u c t e d p r e s c h o o l c h i l d r e n t o , " P u t t h e t h i n g s t h a t a r e a l i k e , o r t h e t h i n g s t h a t go t o g e t h e r , i n t o g r o u p s . " I n a n o t h e r f r e e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s t u d y , K o f s k y & O s i e r ( 1 9 6 7 ) i n s t r u c t e d y o u n g c h i l d r e n , " P u t t o g e t h e r what l o o k s t h e s a m e . " I n a r e v i e w o f P i a g e t * s e x p e r i m e n t a l methods ( O l e r o n , P i a g e t , I n h e l d e r & G r e c o , 1969) w h i c h d i s c u s s e d how t h e i n s t r u c t i o n s v a r y a c c o r d i n g t o t h e a i m o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t , i t was n o t e d t h a t " i n d e t e r m i n a t e i n s t r u c t i o n s , " s u c h a s t h e o n e s j u s t p r e v i o u s l y q u o t e d e n a b l e t h e e x p e r i m e n t e r t o o b s e r v e s p o n t a n e o u s t e n d e n c i e s , f o r e x a m p l e t h e way t h e c h i l d w o u l d i n d e p e n d e n t -l y g r o u p o b j e c t s . I n s t r u c t i o n s t h a t a r e n o t r e s t r i c t i v e , a c c o r d i n g t o t h e s e a u t h o r s , O l e r o n e t a l . ( l 9 6 9 ) , w i l l m a x i m i z e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n p e r -f o r m a n c e , o r i n o t h e r w o r d s , r e s u l t i n t h e h i g h e s t c l a s s i f i c a t i o n p e r -f o r m a n c e s c o r e s . Some r e s e a r c h e r s p r e s e n t i n g m a t c h i n g t o s a m p l e t a s k s u s e d s i m -i l a r i n s t r u c t i o n s t o t h e o n e s p r e v i o u s l y d i s c u s s e d . B e a r i s o n & S i g e l (1968), H a r r i s e t a l . ( 1 9 7 0 ) a n d K a g a n & L e m k i n ( l 9 6 l ) u s e d t h e f o l l o w -i n g t y p e o f i n s t r u c t i o n s , " W h i c h one o f t h e s e i s t h e same o r a l i k e a s t h i s ( s t a n d a r d ) ? " I n t h e s e t h r e e s t u d i e s t h e r e was no d i s c u s s i o n o f p r o b l e m s e n c o u n t e r e d w i t h c h i l d r e n u n a b l e t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e t a s k . T h e s u b j e c t age; r a n g e i n t h e s e i n v e s t i g a t i o n s was 3 y e a r s t o 11 y e a r s . I n summary, none o f t h e r e s e a r c h i n f r e e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n a n d m a t c h i n g s a m p l e s t u d i e s w h i c h u t i l i z e d " i n d e t e r m i n a t e i n s t r u c t i o n s " r e p o r t e d s u b j e c t s u n a b l e t o u n d e r s t a n d what t h e y were e x p e c t e d t o d o . One c o u l d c o n c l u d e t h a t t h i s t y p e o f i n s t r u c t i o n was s u i t a b l e f o r y o u n g c h i l d r e n p r e s e n t e d a c a t e g o r i z i n g t a s k . " I n d e t e r m i n a t e i n s t r u c t i o n s " may e n a b l e t h e e x p e r i m e n t e r t o o b s e r v e " s p o n t a n e o u s t e n d e n c i e s " a s s u g g e s t e d b y O l e r o n e t a l . ( 1 9 6 9 ) . 25 U n f o r t u n a t e l y t h e w i d e v a r i a t i o n i n c l a s s i f i c a t i o n p e r f o r m a n c e r e s u l t s i n d i f f i c u l t e v a l u a t i o n o f i n d i v i d u a l p e r f o r m a n c e s . I n h e l d e r & P i a g e t ( 1 9 6 4 ) d e s c r i b e d s t a g e s i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f c l a s s i f i c a t i o n p e r f o r m a n c e b y o b s e r v i n g many c a t e g o r i z a t i o n s a n d n o t i n g s i m i l a r i t i e s t h a t o c c u r r e d b e t w e e n s u b j e c t s . The p e r f o r m a n c e o f a n i n d i v i d u a l s u b -j e c t was n o t s c o r e d , b u t i n s t e a d t h e g e n e r a l b e h a v i o r p a t t e r n a c r o s s a g e s was d e s c r i b e d . Groujfcng o f r e s p o n s e p a t t e r n s a n d r e p o r t i n g on t h e f r e q u e n c y o f t h e i r o c c u r r e n c e ? was a l s o t h e e v a l u a t i o n p r o c e d u r e f o l l o w e d b y Annett ( l 9 5 9 ) and D e n n e y ( l 9 ? 2 a , 1972b). W i t h more s t r u c t u r e d t a s k s , a v a r i e t y o f s c o r i n g s y s t e m s were u s e d t o e v a l u a t e t h e c o n c e p t u a l l e v e l o f p e r f o r m a n c e . V y g o t s k y ( 1 9 6 2 ) d e v e l o p e d a n e x t r e m e l y s t r u c t u r e d a n d c o m p l i c a t e d c l a s s i f i c a t i o n t e s t . I t was e v a l u a t e d b y c o u n t i n g t h e number o f s e p a r a t e s t e p s o r h y p o t h e s e s t r i e d b y a s u b j e c t t o s o l v e t h e p r o b l e m . The e v a l u a t i o n o f a s u b j e c t ' s p e r f o r m a n c e was s i m p l i f i e d b y t h e d e s i g n o f t h i s t e s t . The t e s t was f a r t o o d i f f i c u l t f o r p r e c o n c e p t u a l l y a g e d s u b j e c t s a n d t h e r e s t r i c t -i v e i n s t r u c t i o n s w o u l d n o t a l l o w " s p o n t a n e o u s t e n d e n c i e s . " W e i ( l 9 6 7 ) p r e s e n t e d t a s k s m o d e l l e d on I n h e l d e r & P i a g e t ( 1 9 6 4 ) c l a s s i f i c a t i o n t a s k s . E a c h s u b j e c t was a s k e d a s t a n d a r d i z e d f o r m o f q u e s t i o n w i t h a s c o r e o f one p o i n t f o r e a c h c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e . An a d d i t i o n a l s c o r i n g p r o -c e d u r e was f o l l o w e d b y W e i ( l 9 6 7 ) . A n a l y s i s o f r e s p o n s e s t o e a c h i t e m w i t h i n a t a s k was made i n t e r m s o f p e r c e n t a g e o f s u c c e s s f o r t h e i t e m . T h i s s e c o n d e v a l u a t i o n p r o c e d u r e was more s u b j e c t i v e a n d w o u l d r e s u l t i n d i f f i c u l t i e s a n a l y s i n g i n d i v i d u a l p e r f o r m a n c e . The GEBST h a s i n d e t e r m i n a t e i n s t r u c t i o n s a n d a v e r y s i m i l a r t a s k t o t h a t o f I n h e l d e r & P i a g e t ( l 9 6 4 ) . I t i s d e s i g n e d w i t h a s l i g h t s t r u c t u r i n g s o t h a t i n d i v i d u a l p e r f o r m a n c e c a n be s c o r e d . The 26: s t r u c t u r i n g o f t h e t e s t i s n o t s u f f i c i e n t t o a l l o w t e s t s c o r i n g f r e e o f e x p e r i m e n t e r j u d g m e n t . S c o r i n g o f a f r e e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n t a s k i s s t i l l a m a j o r p r o b l e m w h i c h c a n be s o l v e d b y i n c r e a s i n g t h e t a s k s t r u c t u r e . T h i s r e s u l t s i n e l i m i n a t i o n o f some o f t h e " s p o n t a n e o u s " c l a s s i f i c a t i o n p e r f o r m a n c e s . The c o m p l e t e s o l u t i o n o f t h e s c o r i n g p r o b l e m o f f r e e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n tasl© h a s n o t b e e n d e m o n s t r a t e d b y a n y o f t h e r e v i e w e d r e s e a r c h * 27 C h a p t e r 2 The R e s e a r c h P r o b l e m P u r p o s e The p u r p o s e o f t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n was t o examine t h e r e l a t i o n -s h i p s among s t i m u l u s o b j e c t d i m e n s i o n a l i t y , o t h e r s t i m u l u s c h a r a c t e r -i s t i c s , s u b j e c t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a n d p r e c o n c e p t u a l l y a g e d c h i l d r e n ' s p e r f o r m a n c e on a c o n c e p t u a l t a s k . O p e r a t i o n a l D e f i n i t i o n s F o r t h e p u r p o s e s o f t h i s s t u d y t h e m a j o r v a r i a b l e s a r e d e f i n e d a s f o l l o w s j D i m e n s i o n a l i t y o f t h e s t i m u l u s r e f e r s t o t h e p h y s i c a l d e s c r i p -t i o n o f t h e s t i m u l u s o b j e c t . I t d e n o t e s w h e t h e r i t i s a g e o m e t r i c s o l i d ( t e r m e d a t h r e e d i m e n s i o n a ' l o b j e c t ) , a f l a t g e o m e t r i c s h a p e ( t e r m e d a two d i m e n s i o n a l o b j e c t ) , o r a p i c t u r e o f a t h r e e d i m e n s i o n a l g e o m e t r i c s o l i d ( t e r m -e d a p i c t o r i a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n ) . S t i m u l u s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s r e f e r s t o t h e c o l o r , f o r m o r s i z e o f t h e s t i m u l u s o b j e c t . C l a s s i f i c a t i o n p e r f o r m a n c e r e f e r s t o t h e s c o r e on d i f f i c u l t y L e v e l I I I a n d / o r L e v e l I V on t h e GEBST. The s c o r i n g o n L e v e l I I I i s a c c o r d i n g t o t h e m a n u a l f o r t h e G E B S T , a n d on L e v e l I V , t h e s c o r i n g i s a c c o r d i n g t o t h e m a n u a l p l u s a d d i t i o n a l c h a n g e s n o t e d u n d e r p r o c e d u r e s a n d s c o r i n g . 28 L e v e l I I I r e f e r s t o t h e d i f f i c u l t y l e v e l o f t h e GEBST where s i x s t i m u l u s o b j e c t s a r e p r e s e n t e d w h i c h d i f f e r e d on one d i m e n s i o n a n d were c o n s t a n t on t h e r e m a i n i n g two. L e v e l I V r e f e r s t o t h e d i f f i c u l t y l e v e l o f t h e GEBST where b l o c k s d i f f e r e d on two d i m e n s i o n s s i m u l t a n e o u s l y , w h i l e t h e t h i r d d i m e n s i o n was c o n s t a n t . T r i a l r e f e r s t o w h i c h o f t h r e e t a s k s were p r e s e n t e d i n b o t h L e v e l I I I a n d L e v e l I V o f t h e G E B S T . ' S u b j e c t age was t h e c h i l d ' s age i n y e a r s a n d months a t t h e t i m e o f t e s t i n g . H y p o t h e s e s Two m a j o r h y p o t h e s e s a n d t h r e e m i n o r o n e s h a v e b e e n f o r m u l a t e d . T h e m a j o r h y p o t h e s e s r e f e r t o t h e p r i m a r y i n t e r e s t o f t h i s i n v e s t i -g a t i o n ; t h e s e a r e s t i m u l u s d i m e n s i o n a l i t y a n d s u b j e c t a g e . T h e t h r e e s e c o n d a r y h y p o t h e s e s a r e c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e v a r i a b l e s s e c o n d a r y i n p r i o r i t y i n t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n , s u c h a s t h e o t h e r s t i m u l u s c h a r a c t e r -i s t i c s a n d t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h s u b j e c t age a n d d i m e n s i o n a l i t y . M a j o r H y p o t h e s e s ! l a D i m e n s i o n a l i t y o f t h e s t i m u l u s a f f e c t s p e r f o r m a n c e i n t h e f o l l o w i n g m a n n e r : c l a s s i f i c a t i o n p e r f o r m a n c e s c o r e s a r e h i g h e r w i t h t h r e e d i m e n s i o n a l a n d two d i -m e n s i o n a l o b j e c t s t h a n w i t h p i c t o r i a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n , 2a S u b j e c t ' s age a f f e c t s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n p e r f o r m a n c e i n t h e f o l l o w i n g m a n n e r : c l a s s i f i c a t i o n p e r f o r m a n c e s c o r e s a r e h i g h e r w i t h o l d e r s u b j e c t s a n d l o w e r w i t h y o u n g e r s u b j e c t s . 29 Minor Hypotheses: I'D Characteristics of the stimulus affects performance in the following manner: classification performance scores are higher with color and form based sorts than with size based sorts. 2b Stimulus size and stimulus dimensionality interaction affects performance scores i n the following manner: size based classification performance scores are higher with two and three dimensional stimuli and lower with p i c t o r i a l representation. 3b Subject age and stimulus characteristic interaction affects classification performance scores i n the follow-ing manner: size based classifications result in lower scores than color or form for the youngest subjects, but with an increase i n subject age there i s a smaller difference i n performance scores between size, form and color based sorts. 30 C h a p t e r 3 M e t h o d s S u b j e c t s The 90 s u b j e c t s f o r t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n were f r o m t h e f o l l o w i n g f i v e age g r o u p i n g s w i t h 18 i n e a c h age g r o u p s p r e s c h o o l 3 a n d 4 y e a r o l d s , k i n d e r g a r t e n , g r a d e one a n d g r a d e two c h i l d r e n . A l l s u b j e c t s r e s i d e d i n a m i d d l e c l a s s a r e a i n t h e c i t y o f V a n c o u v e r . T w e l v e o f t h e 3 y e a r o l d s a n d t w e l v e o f t h e 4 y e a r o l d s were a t t e n d -i n g a c o o p e r a t i v e p r e s c h o o l . The r e m a i n i n g s i x s u b j e c t s f o r e a c h o f t h e s e g r o u p i n g s were a t t e n d i n g a c o o p e r a t i v e d a y c a r e c e n t e r a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . K i n d e r g a r t e n , g r a d e one a n d two s u b j e c t s a t t e n d e d a p u b l i c e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l i n V a n c o u v e r . A p p r o x -i m a t e l y e q u a l numbers o f male a n d f e m a l e c h i l d r e n were s u b j e c t s . The d i s t r i b u t i o n o f s e x e s i s s u m m a r i z e d i n T a b l e 1. S u b j e c t s were s e l e c t -e d b y age g r o u p , a n d e q u a l numbers o f e a c h s e x was n o t a c r i t e r i a i n s u b j e c t s e l e c t i o n a s t h e r e were i n s u f f i c i e n t s u b j e c t s t o d o t h i s i n t h e 3 y e a r g r o u p . I t was n o t a t t e m p t e d f o r a n y o t h e r age g r o u p . , The age r a n g e o f t h e s u b j e c t s v a r i e d w i t h i n e a c h g r o u p i n g . To o b t a i n 18 s u b j e c t s 3 y e a r s o f a g e , a l l 3 y e a r o l d c h i l d r e n r e g i s t e r e d a t b o t h c e n t e r s were p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h i s r e s e a r c h . . I n t h e 4 y e a r g r o u p a l l t h e names o f c h i l d r e n r e g i s t e r e d a t a c e n t e r were p l a c e d i n a b o x . T w e l v e names were drawn f r o m t h e p r e s c h o o l 4 y e a r g r o u p a n d s i x f r o m t h e d a y c a r e g r o u p . I n o r d e r t o o b t a i n s i m i l a r s u b j e c t s f o r e a c h age g r o u p t h e same p r o p o r t i o n o f c h i l d r e n f r o m e a c h c e n t e r 31 T a b l e 1 D i s t r i b u t i o n o f S u b j e c t s by "Age a n d Sex Age Sex 3 4 5 6 7 T o t a l F e m a l e 7 8 9 9 8 41 M a l e 11 10 9 9 10 rM-9 32 p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h e s t u d y . A t t h e e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l , 30 a r b i t r a r i l y s e l e c t e d c h i l d r e n i n e a c h age g r o u p were g i v e n a l e t t e r t o t a k e home e x p l a i n i n g t h e t e s t p r o c e d u r e . C o n s e n t f r o m a p a r e n t f o r a l l i n d i v -i d u a l t e s t i n g o f c h i l d r e n i n t h e V a n c o u v e r p u b l i c s c h o o l s y s t e m was r e q u i r e d . A t t h e b o t t o m o f t h e m i m e o g r a p h e d l e t t e r e x p l a i n i n g t h e r e s e a r c h was a s e c t i o n f o r t h e p a r e n t t o t e a r o f f , s i g n , a n d r e t u r n t o t h e s c h o o l . The l e t t e r t h a t was s e n t i s i n A p p e n d i x B. O n l y c h i l d r e n who r e t u r n e d s i g n e d c o n s e n t f o r m s c o u l d be s u b j e c t s . More t h a n t h e r e q u i r e d number o f c o n s e n t s were r e t u r n e d a n d 18 s u b j e c t s were a r b i t r a r i l y s e l e c t e d f r o m e a c h o f t h e s e g r o u p i n g s ; a g a i n b y p l a c i n g names i n a b o x a n d d r a w i n g t h e r e q u i r e d number. S u b j e c t p l a c e m e n t i n t h e g r o u p i n g f o r t e s t i n g was t h e same a s s c h o o l p l a c e m e n t ; f o r e x a m p l e , c h i l d r e n i n t h e p r e s c h o o l 3 y e a r o l d g r o u p were g r o u p e d a s 3 y e a r o l d s e v e n t h o u g h b y t h e t i m e o f t e s t i n g i n F e b r u a r y , a few o f t h e - g r o u p h a d J a n u a r y b i r t h d a y s a n d were a c t -u a l l y k y e a r s 0 m o n t h s . A l l c h i l d r e n were i n t h e n o r m a l g r a d e p l a c e m e n t , a n d t h e o n l y " a p p a r e n t " m i s p l a c e m e n t s were c h i l d r e n who h a d J a n u a r y b i r t h d a y s , E a c h age g r o u p i n g , h o w e v e r , c o n t a i n e d a t y p -i c a l s p r e a d o f a g e s . S t i m u l i T h e r e were t h r e e s e t s o f s t i m u l u s o b j e c t s ; t h r e e d i m e n s i o n a l s t y r o f o a m o b j e c t s , two d i m e n s i o n a l f l a t s t y r o f o a m o b j e c t s a n d p i c -t u r e s o f t h e t h r e e d i m e n s i o n a l f l a t s t y r o f o a m o b j e c t s . P i c t o r i a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n was a c c o m p l i s h e d b y p h o t o g r a p h i n g t h e t h r e e d i m e n s i o n -a l s t y r o f o a m o b j e c t s . E a c h s t i m u l u s s e t c o n t a i n e d o b j e c t s w h i c h v a r i e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g w a y s ; c o l o r ( r e d , y e l l o w a n d b l u e ) , f o r m 33 ( e g . t r i a n g l e , c i r c l e a n d s q u a r e ) , a n d s i z e ( l a r g e , medium a n d s m a l l ) . The d i m e n s i o n s o f t h e t h r e e d i m e n s i o n a l a n d f l a t l a r g e o b j e c t s were 3 i n c h s q u a r e , 3 i n c h t r i a n g l e s i d e , a n d 3 i n c h c i r c l e d i a m e t e r . T h e r e l e v a n t d i m e n s i o n f o r e a c h f o r m i n t h e medium s i z e was 2 i n c h e s a n d i n t h e s m a l l s i z e 1 i n c h . The f l a t o b j e c t s were c u t f r o m •§• i n c h s t y r o f o a m . The p h o t o g r a p h s o f t h e t h r e e d i m e n s i o n a l o b j e c t s were 3 5/8 i n c h e s b y k 5/8 i n c h e s m o u n t e d on c a r d b o a r d a n d s e a l e d i n t h i n , c l e a r p l a s t i c . A p p e n d i x C c o n t a i n s t h r e e i l l u s t r a t i o n s o f t h e p i c -t o r i a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s c a l e d down b y 1/3, The c o l o r s u s e d were s t r o n g p r i m a r y h u e s o f r e d , y e l l o w a n d b l u e . The b a c k g r o u n d f o r t h e p h o t o g r a p h s was g r e y a n d t h e a n g l e o f t h e p i c -t u r e d i s p l a y e d t h e t h i r d d i m e n s i o n o f t h e o b j e c t s p h o t o g r a p h e d . T h e s i z e r e l a t i o n s h i p s among t h e o b j e c t s p i c t u r e d was r e t a i n e d . T h e r e were 26 o b j e c t s i n e a c h s t i m u l u s s e t . T h e r e were t h r e e s t i m u l u s , s e t s ; one s e t f o r e a c h l e v e l o f d i m e n s i o n a l i t y . T a b l e 2 l i s t s a l l t h e o b j e c t s c o n t a i n e d i n a s t i m u l u s s e t . P r o c e d u r e The i n s t r u c t i o n m a n u a l f o r t h e GEBST i s i n A p p e n d i x A . T h i s m a n u a l was f o l l o w e d e x c e p t f o r s c o r i n g c h a n g e s n o t e d i n t h e n e x t s e c t i o n a n d c h a n g e s i n t r i a l o r d e r s d i s c u s s e d i n t h i s s e c t i o n . Two d i f f i c u l t y l e v e l s were p r e s e n t e d t o e a c h s u b j e c t . L e v e l I I I was l e s s d i f f i c u l t a n d was p r e s e n t e d f i r s t . I t c o n s i s t e d o f g r o u p i n g o b j e c t s on one s t i m u l u s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c w i t h t h e o t h e r two h e l d c o n -s t a n t . T h e r e w e r e t h r e e t r i a l s i n L e v e l I I I , one f o r e a c h s t i m u l u s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c . L e v e l I V t a s k s were more d i f f i c u l t a n d were t h u s p r e s e n t e d a f t e r L e v e l I I I , L e v e l I V o b j e c t s d i f f e r e d on two s t i m u l u s 34 T a b l e 2 S t i m u l u s O b j e c t s C i r c l e s S q u a r e s T r i a n g l e s 2 l a r g e y e l l o w 2 l a r g e y e l l o w 2 l a r g e y e l l o w 2 l a r g e r e d 1 l a r g e r e d 1 l a r g e r e d 2 l a r g e b l u e 1 l a r g e b l u e 1 l a r g e b l u e 2 medium y e l l o w 1 medium y e l l o w 1 medium y e l l o w 1 medium r e d 1 medium b l u e 2 s m a l l y e l l o w 1 s m a l l y e l l o w 1 s m a l l y e l l o w 1 - s m a l l r e d 1 s m a l l b l u e 35 c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w i t h t h e r e m a i n i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c h e l d c o n s t a n t . T h e r e were a g a i n t h r e e t r i a l s s o t h a t e a c h o f t h e t h r e e s t i m u l u s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s were h e l d c o n s t a n t o n one t r i a l . The o r d e r o f t r i a l s i n t h e m a n u a l was n o t f o l l o w e d b u t t r i a l o r d e r s were a r b i t r a r i l y s e l -e c t e d i n L e v e l I I I a n d a g a i n i n L e v e l I V t o o b t a i n 18 c o m b i n a t i o n s o f t r i a l s . E a c h c h i l d i n a n age g r o u p r e c e i v e d a d i f f e r e n t t r i a l o r d e r . D i m e n s i o n a l i t y o f t e s t m a t e r i a l was a r b i t r a r i l y a s s i g n e d t o t h e 18 s e l e c t e d t r i a l o r d e r s w i t h i n a n age g r o u p , w i t h s i x s u b j e c t s r e c e i v i n g t h e t e s t i n t h r e e d i m e n s i o n a l s t i m u l i , s i x w i t h two d i m e n s -i o n a l , a n d s i x w i t h p i c t o r i a l s t i m u l i . T h e same c o m b i n a t i o n o f t r i a l s a n d s t i m u l u s d i m e n s i o n a l i t y was r e p l i c a t e d i n e a c h o f t h e f i v e a g e g r o u p s , A s u b j e c t was t e s t e d o n c e , a n d t h u s e a c h s u b j e c t p e r f o r m e d u n d e r j u s t one d i m e n s i o n a l i t y . E a c h s u b j e c t was t e s t e d i n d i v i d u a l l y , a n d a l l t e s t s w e r e a d m i n -i s t e r e d b y t h e same e x p e r i m e n t e r . The t e s t i n g was d o n e i n a s e p a r a t e r o o m f r o m t h e s c h o o l c l a s s r o o m a n d t h e e x p e r i m e n t e r s a t a t a t a b l e o p p o s i t e t h e c h i l d . A l l s t i m u l i were p l a c e d on a h e a v y f e l t c l o t h . T h e f e l t h e l d t h e s t y r o f o a m o b j e c t s i n t h e e x a c t p o s i t i o n t h e c h i l d p l a c e d them. I d e n t i c a l p r o c e d u r e was f o l l o w e d f o r a l l g r o u p s , e x c e p t a t t h e d a y c a r e c e n t e r where t h e e x p e r i m e n t e r a n d s u b j e c t s a t on t h e f l o o r on p i l l o w s a n d t h e "game" was p l a y e d on a mat w i t h t h e same c l o t h on t o p . The e x p e r i m e n t e r s a t o p p o s i t e t h e c h i l d , b o t h o n t h e f l o o r . When u s i n g t h e t a b l e t h e s t i m u l u s m a t e r i a l s , when n o t i n u s e , were k e p t o u t o f s i g h t o f t h e s u b j e c t b y p l a c i n g them on c h a i r s b e l o w t h e t a b l e l e v e l . When t e s t i n g a t t h e d a y c a r e c e n t e r t h e m a t e r i a l was o u t o f s i g h t b e h i n d t h e e x p e r i m e n t e r . The s u b j e c t s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n a r r a n g e m e n t s on L e v e l I V were d i a -36 grammed i m m e d i a t e l y a f t e r t h e c h i l d c o m p l e t e d a t r i a l . L e v e l I I I was r e c o r d e d b y s c o r i n g a s i t was n o t c o m p l i c a t e d . The s u b j e c t s w e r e t o l d t h e e x p e r i m e n t e r was a t s c h o o l s t u d y i n g a b o u t c h i l d r e n a n d w a n t e d t o know how c h i l d r e n p l a y e d t h i s game. " P u t t o g e t h e r t h e o n e s t h a t go t o g e t h e r , " were t h e i n s t r u c t i o n s g i v e n t h e s u b j e c t . When q u e s t i o n e d i f t h i s was t h e way t o do i t , o r how t o d o i t , t h e e x p e r -i m e n t e r r e p l i e d , " P u t them t o g e t h e r t h e way y o u t h i n k t h e y b e l o n g . " No f u r t h e r h e l p was g i v e n , a n d e n c o u r a g e m e n t c o n s i s t e d o f t h a n k i n g s u b j e c t s a f t e r e a c h t r i a l . Between L e v e l I I I a n d L e v e l I V t h e e x p e r i m e n t e r s a i d t h a t t h e n e x t p a r t o f t h e game was a l i t t l e b i t d i f f e r e n t a n d t h e y w o u l d h a v e t o l o o k c l o s e l y . When t h e e x p e r i m e n t e r a d m i n i s t e r e d t h e GEBST p r i o r t o t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n i t was o b s e r v e d t h a t a few s u b j e c t s a t t e m p t e d t o p a i r o b j e c t s on L e v e l I V . T h i s was t h e c o r r e c t s t r a t e g y on L e v e l I I I a n d t h e c o n t i n u a t i o n o f t h i s s t r a t -egy i n t e r f e r e d w i t h p e r f o r m a n c e on L e v e l I V . I t was h o p e d t h i s p r o b -lem w o u l d be a v o i d e d by w a r n i n g s u b j e c t s when t h e y s t a r t e d L e v e l I V t h a t t h e t a s k was a l i t t l e d i f f e r e n t . S c o r i n g E a c h s u b j e c t ' s g r o u p i n g was s c o r e d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e r u l e s o f t h e GEBST w i t h t h e f o l l o w i n g e x c e p t i o n s . L e v e l I I was c o m p l e t e l y o m i t t e d a s t h i s l e v e l was t o o e a s y f o r t h e age r a n g e o f s u b j e c t s t e s t e d i n t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n . L e v e l I I I was s c o r e d e x a c t l y a s i n 4 t h e m a n u a l ; t h e r e was a maximum o f two p o i n t s on e a c h t r i a l t o g i v e a maximum o f s i x p o i n t s t h a t c o u l d be o b t a i n e d o v e r t h r e e t r i a l s . T h e r e were c h a n g e s i n t h e s c o r i n g on L e v e l I V . The m a n u a l was f o l l o w e d up t o a n d i n c l u d i n g a s c o r e o f 9» w h i c h was a c o r r e c t s o r t on one c o n c e p t . 37 A s c o r e o f 10 was a s s i g n e d t o a c o r r e c t s o r t on one c o n c e p t a n d one e r r o r on a two c o n c e p t s o r t . A s c o r e o f 11 was a s s i g n e d t o a c o r r e c t s o r t on two c o n c e p t s , b u t t h e i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f t h e two c o n c e p t s n o t c o m p r e h e n d e d . A s c o r e o f 12 was a s s i g n e d t o a c o r r e c t s o r t o n two c o n c e p t s u t i l i z i n g t h e i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f a l l o b j e c t s . T h e r e was a maximum o f 12 p o i n t s o n e a c h t r i a l . T h u s a maximum o f 36 p o i n t s on L e v e l I V c o u l d be o b t a i n e d o v e r t h r e e t r i a l s . The f i n a l c h a n g e made i n t h e a r e a o f s c o r i n g was c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e t o t a l s c o r e s . The m a n u a l c o m b i n e d t h e s c o r e s o f L e v e l I I , L e v e l I I I a n d L e v e l I V t o p r o d u c e a t o t a l s c o r e f o r e a c h s u b j e c t . The maximum t o t a l s c o r e on L e v e l I I I was s i x a n d on L e v e l I V 36 p o i n t s . T h e s e were two d i f f e r e n t s c o r i n g s c a l e s a n d t h e e f f e c t s t h a t o c c u r r e d on L e v e l I V w o u l d h a v e n u m e r i c a l l y o v e r w h e l m e d a n y e f f e c t s t h a t c o u l d have o c c u r r e d on L e v e l I I I i f t h e s c o r e s were c o m b i n e d . The t r i a l s on L e v e l I I I were q u a l i t a t i v e l y d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h o s e on L e v e l I V . L e v e l I I I p r e s e n t e d a l l s u b j e c t s w i t h an i d e n t i c a l t a s k r e s u l t -i n g i n a c l e a r m e a s u r e o f c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . L e v e l IV was a c h o i c e p a r a d i g m a n d t h e e f f e c t s o f t h i s c h o i c e c o n f o u n d e d t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c m e a s u r e . I t was f o r t h e s e two r e a s o n s t h a t e a c h s u b j e c t ' s p e r f o r m -a n c e was s c o r e d s e p a r a t e l y o n L e v e l I I I a n d L e v e l I V . D e s i g n T h e r e were f o u r s o u r c e s o f v a r i a n c e w h i c h d e t e r m i n e d t h e d e s i g n o f t h i s s t u d y : s t i m u l u s f a c t o r s were d i m e n s i o n a l i t y a n d c h a r a c t e r -i s t i c s , s u b j e c t f a c t o r s were age a n d i n d i v i d u a l s u b j e c t d i f f e r e n c e s . F o r t h e p u r p o s e o f t h e d a t a a n a l y s i s , s u b j e c t s were n e s t e d u n d e r age a n d s t i m u l u s d i m e n s i o n a l i t y a n d c r o s s e d w i t h s t i m u l u s c h a r a c -t e r i s t i c s . T h i s a r r a n g e m e n t i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d i n F i g u r e 1. The same d e s i g n c h a r a c t e r i z e s b o t h L e v e l I I I a n d L e v e l I V . Two s e p a r a t e a n a l y s e s were n e c e s s a r y f o r L e v e l I I I a n d L e v e l I V . The r e a s o n s f o r t h e two a n a l y s e s h a v e p r e v i o u s l y b e e n d i s c u s s e d i n t h e " s c o r i n g " s e c t i o n . The same s u b j e c t s p e r f o r m e d t h e L e v e l I I I t a s k a n d t h e L e v e l I V t a s k . I n t h e d i a g r a m on L e v e l I I I , c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s were . c o l o r , f o r m , ' a n d s i z e . On L e v e l IV t h e r e was a c h o i c e p a r a d i g m f o r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . The s t i m u l u s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s y m b o l s i n F i g u r e 1 f o r L e v e l TV r e f e r t o t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c n o t p r e s e n t i n t h e c h o i c e . A s i z e - f o r m c h o i c e i s s y m b o l i z e d b y c o l o r a s c o l o r i s h e l d c o n s t a n t , A c o l o r - s i z e c h o i c e I s s y m b o l i z e d b y f o r m a s f o r m i s h e l d c o n s t a n t a n d a c o l o r - f o r m c h o i c e i s s y m b o l i z e d b y s i z e a s s i z e i s h e l d c o n -s t a n t . Sex o f s u b j e c t s was o f s e c o n d a r y i n t e r e s t a n d was a n a l y s e d i n a n e x t e n s i o n o f t h i s a n a l y s i s r a t h e r t h a n a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e . S t a t i s t i c a l A n a l y s i s A n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e was u s e d t o t e s t t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f s t i m -u l u s d i m e n s i o n a l i t y , s t i m u l u s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c , s u b j e c t a g e , a n d t h e i n t e r a c t i o n s o f t h e s e f a c t o r s . Age was t r e a t e d a s a c a t e g o r i c a l v a r i a b l e i n t h i s a n a l y s i s . A l l s u b j e c t s i n one g r o u p were t h u s c l a s s i f i e d i d e n t i c a l l y i n a g e . F i v e d i s t i n c t age g r o u p s were t h u s c r e a t e d b y g r o u p i n g t h e s u b j e c t s a c c o r d i n g t o p l a c e m e n t i n t h e i r p r e -s c h o o l o r s c h o o l c l a s s . S t i m u l u s d i m e n s i o n a l i t y was a t r e a t m e n t v a r i a b l e , a n d s u b j e c t s were a r b i t r a r i l y a s s i g n e d t o one o f t h e t h r e e t r e a t m e n t g r o u p s : t h r e e d i m e n s i o n a l , two d i m e n s i o n a l o r p i c t o r i a l 39 Age F — ' S t i m u l i C h a r a c t -e r i s t i c s S t i m u l i D i m e n s i o n a l i t y C e l l S i z e n= 1 2 . 1 3 P i c t o r i a l ( D i m e n s i o n a l j. D i m e n s i o n a l 3 C o l o r F o r m S i z e : — — -1 1 _ 6 6 6 C o l o r F o r m S i z e ' 1 | I 6 6 5. C o l o r Form S i z e — ] 1 — . 6 6 6 C o l o r Form S i z e _ . _ i — — — -| _ — — - — 6 6 ~ 6 7 C o l o r Form S i z e _! i 1 ! 1 1 6 * 6 ~ ' 6 90 F i g . 1. D i a g r a m o f t h e R e s e a r c h D e s i g n . 40 r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . E a c h s u b j e c t r e c e i v e d o n l y one t y p e o f s t i m u l u s d i m -e n s i o n a l i t y . S t i m u l u s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c ( c o l o r , f o r m a n d s i z e ) was a l s o a t r e a t m e n t v a r i a b l e , b u t a l l s u b j e c t s r e c e i v e d a l l t h r e e t y p e s o f s t i m u l u s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . A s u b j e c t t h u s r e c e i v e d a l l t h r e e c h a r -a c t e r i s t i c s b u t o n l y one d i m e n s i o n a l i t y . M o d i f i e d c l a s s i f i c a t i o n p e r -f o r m a n c e s c o r e s on t h e GEBST was t h e d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e i n t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n . The e f f e c t s o f age t r e a t e d a s a c o n t i n u o u s v a r i a b l e , a n d s e x a n d t h e i n t e r a c t i o n s o f t h e s e two v a r i a b l e s , were a n a l y s e d w i t h l e a s t s q u a r e s r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s . R e c e n t s t u d i e s , ( C o h e n , 1968; a n d O v e r a l l , 19&9) h a v e n o t e d t h a t c o n v e n t i o n a l a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e c a n be a c c o m p l i s h e d b y l e a s t s q u a r e s r e g r e s s i o n m e t h o d s . No a t t e m p t was made t o c o n t r o l c e l l f r e q u e n c e i n r e g a r d t o t h e s e x o f s u b j e c t a n d u n e q u a l numbers o f t h e s e x e s o c c u r r e d i n some c e l l s . The e f f e c t s o f s u b j e c t s * s e x on c l a s s i f i c a t i o n p e r f o r m a n c e c o u l d n o t be a n a l y s e d w i t h t h e a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e p r o c e d u r e s f o l l o w e d f o r t h e o t h e r v a r -i a b l e s a s t h e a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e p r o g r a m r e q u i r e d e q u a l c e l l s i z e . The a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e r e q u i r e d t h e c o n t i n u o u s v a r i a b l e o f age t o be a r b i t r a r i l y l e v e l l e d i n t o f i v e age g r o u p i n g s . I n t h e r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s t h e e f f e c t o f age a s a c o n t i n u o u s v a r i a b l e was s t u d i e d . I n h i s s t u d y , 0verall(l969) d e s c r i b e d t h r e e methods o f r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s . The t h i r d method was s e l e c t e d t o t e s t t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e v a r i a b l e s e x , t h e c o n t i n u o u s v a r i a b l e a g e , a n d t h e i r i n t e r a c t i o n s . I t was a s t e p - d o w n a n a l y s i s i n v o l v i n g a n a p r i o r i o r d e r i n g o f t h e e f f e c t s . E s t i m a t e s o f e a c h e f f e c t were a d j u s t e d f o r t h o s e p r e c e d i n g i t i n t h e o r d e r i n g a n d i g n o r i n g t h o s e f o l l o w i n g i t . The s t r a t e g y f o r o r d e r i n g t h e i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s o f t h i s s t u d y 41 was a d a p t e d f r o m Overall(l969). The o r g a n i s m i c v a r i a b l e s were t e s t e d f i r s t , t h e n t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l f a c t o r s , o r g a n i s m i c i n t e r a c t i o n s , e x p e r i -m e n t a l i n t e r a c t i o n s a n d f i n a l l y a l l o r g a n i s m i c a n d e x p e r i m e n t a l i n t e r -a c t i o n s . The r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s was p e r f o r m e d s e p a r a t e l y f o r e a c h o f t h e two l e v e l s o f t h e GEBST. A t o t a l o f 35 v a r i a b l e s were e n t e r e d i n t h e a n a l y s i s , t h o u g h i n t e r e s t c e n t e r e d on o n l y t h e o n e s w h i c h h a d n o t b e e n p r e v i o u s l y t e s t e d w i t h t h e a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e . 42 C h a p t e r 4 R e s u l t s Two s e p a r a t e a n a l y s e s o f v a r i a n c e were p e r f o r m e d . The same a n a l y s i s m o d e l was u s e d f o r L e v e l I I I o f t h e GEBST a n d t h e n r e - ^ p e a t e d f o r L e v e l I V . I n t h e ANOVA t a b l e , " d i m e n s i o n a l i t y " ( D ) r e f e r s t o t h e v a r i a b l e o f t h r e e d i m e n s i o n a l s t i m u l i , two d i m e n -s i o n a l s t i m u l i and p i c t o r i a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e t h r e e d i m e n -s i o n a l s t i m u l i . The t e r m " c h a r a c t e r i s t i c " ( c ) r e f e r s t o t h e v a r i a b l e c o l o r , f o r m a n d s i z e . Age ( A ) i s t h e v a r i a b l e o f t h e f i v e a r b i t -r a r y age g r o u p i n g s o f s u b j e c t s t e s t e d . E a c h s u b j e c t was o n l y one age a n d r e c e i v e d o n l y one d i m e n s i o n a l i t y , t h u s i n d i v i d u a l s were n e s t e d u n d e r AD, b u t d i d r e c e i v e a l l t h r e e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c l e v e l s . The summary t a b l e o f L e v e l I I I a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e , T a b l e J, i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e r e was a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t o f age o n c l a s s i f i c a t i o n p e r f o r m a n c e . As a r e s u l t o f a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e , a n d g r a p h i n g t h e m e a n s , i t may be s e e n t h a t L e v e l I I I was most d i f f i -c u l t f o r 3 y e a r o l d s u b j e c t s , l e s s d i f f i c u l t f o r 4 y e a r o l d s a n d a c e i l i n g e f f e c t t h e n o c c u r r e d w i t h s u b j e c t s age 5» 6 a n d '7 r e c e i v i n g p e r f e c t s c o r e s . A s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c b y d i m e n s i o n a l i t y i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t o c c u r r e d f o r L e v e l I I I , A g r a p h o f means f o r t h i s i n t e r a c t i o n i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n F i g u r e 3. I t may be s e e n t h a t s u b j e c t p e r f o r m a n c e d i d n o t v a r y s i g n i f i c a n t l y o n d i m e n s i o n a l i t y e x c e p t when s o r t i n g p i c t u r e s . I t was s i g n i f i c a n t l y more d i f f i c u l t t o s o r t p i c t u r e s b y s i z e t h a n by f o r m o r c o l o r . 43 T a b l e 3 'Summary o f A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e o f • C l a s s i f i c a t i o n P e r f o r m a n c e on L e v e l I I I S o u r c e d f MS F Age ( A ) 4 1.1333 5 . 4 6 4 3 * * D i m e n s i o n a l i t y (D ) 2 . 1 7 7 8 . 8 5 7 1 C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s (G) 2 . 3111 2.6250 A X D 8 . 1 7 7 8 . 8 5 7 1 A X C 8 . 1 4 4 5 • 1 . 2 1 8 8 D X C 4 .3556 3 . 0 0 0 0 * A X D X C 16 . 1 8 8 9 1.5938 I n d i v i d u a l s l ( A D ) 7 5 .2074 I T ( A D ) 150 . 1 1 8 5 * p < .05 * * p < . 01 44 F i g . 2. Mean C l a s s i f i c a t i o n P e r f o r m a n c e S c o r e s w i t h t h e E f f e c t s o f Age on L e v e l I I I . P i c t o r i a l 5 J D i m e n s i o n a l i t y -F i g . 3- K e a n C l a s s i f i c a t i o n P e r f o r m a n c e S c o r e s w i t h t h e I n t e r a c t i o n o f S t i m u l u s D i m e n s i o n a l i t y a n d S t i m u l u s C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s on L e v e l I I I . 46 The summary t a b l e o f L e v e l I V a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e , T a b l e 4, i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e r e was a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t o f age on L e v e l I V s c o r e s . The g r a p h i n F i g u r e 4 i l l u s t r a t e s t h e e f f e c t o f age on c l a s s i f i c a t i o n p e r f o r m a n c e . T h i s g r a p h i l l u s t r a t e s t h a t o n L e v e l I V t h e t e s t was m o s t d i f f i c u l t f o r 3 y e a r o l d s u b j e c t s a n d i t became l e s s d i f f i c u l t w i t h a n i n c r e a s e i n s u b j e c t a g e . The t a s k was t h e l e a s t d i f f i c u l t f o r 7 y e a r o l d s . T h e r e i s n o t a c e i l i n g e f f e c t i n L e v e l IV a s i n t h e c a s e o f L e v e l I I I . T a b l e 4 i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e r e was a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t o f c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . F i g u r e 5 i l l u s t r a t e s t h e e f f e c t o f v a r y -i n g t h e s u b j e c t s c h o i c e o f s i z e , c o l o r o r f o r m a s a b a s i s f o r s o r t i n g s . The b a r g r a p h i n F i g u r e 5 v i s u a l l y p o r t r a y s t h a t w i t h a c h o i c e o f f o r m o r c o l o r b a s e d s o r t s , ( s i z e c o n s t a n t ) s u b j e c t mean s c o r e s were h i g h e s t , n e x t were means f r o m a c h o i c e o f s i z e o r c o l o r s o r t s ( f o r m c o n s t a n t ) . L o w e s t mean s c o r e s o c c u r r e d when s u b j e c t s h a d a c h o i c e o f c l a s s i f i c a t i o n b a s i s f r o m s i z e a n d f o r m ( c o l o r c o n s t a n t ) . The B o n f e r r o n i t e s t was u s e d t o s t a t i s t i c a l l y compare t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e ' o f t h e d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c means i l l u s t r a t e d i n F i g -u r e 5. I t may be s e e n i n T a b l e 5 t h a t f o r m o r c o l o r s o r t s r e s u l t e d i n s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s c o r e s f r o m s i z e o r f o r m s o r t s . I t i s n o t p o s s i b l e t o compare c l a s s i f i c a t i o n p e r f o r m a n c e c o n -t r a s t i n g s i z e , c o l o r a n d f o r m o n L e v e l I V a s ^ s u b j e c t s were g i v e n a c h o i c e f o r t h e i r b a s i s o f c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . F i g u r e 6 was n o t o b t a i n e d w i t h a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e b u t i s i n c l u d e d i n t h i s s e c t i o n b e c a u s e o f i t s r e l e v a n c e t o t h i s a r e a . The g r a p h i n F i g u r e 6 i l l u s t r a t e s w h i c h c h a r a c t e r i s t i c p r e d o m i n a t e d i n t h e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n p e r f o r m a n c e o f T a b l e 4 Summary o f A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e o f C l a s s i f i c a t i o n P e r f o r m a n c e o n L e v e l I V S o u r c e d f MS F Age (A) 4 ' 43.9685 8.7755** D i m e n s i o n a l i t y (D) 2 5.8037 1.1583 C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ( C ) ' ;2 8.4704 3.4012* A X D 8 4.3407 .8664 A X C 8 10.8824 4 . 3 6 9 8 * * D X C 4 2.2926 .9206 A X D X C 16 2.7880 1.1195 I n d i v i d u a l s l ( A D ) • 75 5.0104 IT(AD) 150 2.4904 *P<.05 **P<.OI 48 9.50 - i -Age L e v e l s F i g . 4 . Mean C l a s s i f i c a t i o n P e r f o r m a n c e S c o r e s w i t h t h e E f f e c t s o f Age on L e v e l I V . 9.00 J 8.75 A 8.50 J 8.25 A g 8 . 0 0 . o o CO § •  7.75 -0) .7.50 -• S i z e F o r m S i z e o r C o l o r o r C o l o r o r F o r m F i g . 5 . Mean C l a s s i f i c a t i o n P e r f o r m a n c e S c o r e s w i t h t h e E f f e c t s o f C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s on L e v e l IV. T a b l e 5 Mean C o m p a r i s o n o f S t i m u l u s C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s on L e v e l IV u s i n g t h e B o n f e r r o n i T e s t w i t h a 95% C o n f i d e n c e I n t e r v a l C o n t r a s t Means Compared C o n f i d e n c e I n t e r v a l L o w e r L i m i t s U p p e r L i m i t s 1 S i z e - C o l o r v s . S i z e - F o r m - . 1603 .9825 2 F o r m - C o l o r v s . S i z e - F o r m .0286 1.1714* 3 S i z e - Q o l o r v s . F o r m - C o l o r - . 3 8 2 5 .7603 * P< . 0 5 Age 34567 34567 34567 3 45 6 7 3 4 56 7 3 456 7 a a b " b S i z e o r C o l o r F o r m o r C o l o r S i z e o r F o r m S o r t S o r t S o r t F i g . 6. P r e f e r r e d o r F i r s t S e l e c t e d C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s f o r t h e F i v e Ages T e s t e d on L e v e l I V . a One s u b j e c t n o t t a b u l a t e d a s a p e r f e c t t w o -c o n c e p t s o r t p e r f o r m e d . b F o u r s u b j e c t s n o t t a b u l a t e d a s a l l u n a b l e t o p e r f o r m t h i s t r i a l . 52; s u b j e c t s i n L e v e l I V . The t o t a l number o f t h e t e s t e d s u b j e c t s m a k i n g a p a r t i c u l a r c h o i c e i s t a b u l a t e d . F i g u r e 6 r e f l e c t s c h o i c e o f c h a r a c t -e r i s t i c s , b u t d o e s n o t t a k e i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n t h e s c o r e s u b j e c t s r e c -e i v e d on t h e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n t a s k s . The g e n e r a l t r e n d i n d i c a t e d w i t h t h e s i z e v e r s u s c o l o r c h o i c e was a s l i g h t i n c r e a s e d u s e o f s i z e w i t h a n i n c r e a s e i n a g e , a n d a c o r r e s p o n d i n g d e c r e a s e i n t h e s e l e c t i o n o f c o l o r . W i t h a f o r m v e r s u s c o l o r c h o i c e , an i n c r e a s e i n t h e u s e o f f o r m - b a s e d s o r t s a n d a d e c r e a s e d u s e o f c o l o r - b a s e d s o r t s o c c u r r e d w i t h a n i n c r e a s e i n a g e . W i t h a c h o i c e o f s i z e o r f o r m a s a b a s i s o f c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , a t a l l a g e s f o r m was m o s t o f t e n p r e f e r r e d o v e r s i z e . T a b l e 4 i n d i c a t e d t h a t s t a t i s t i c a l l y d i f f e r e n t means o c c u r i n L e v e l IV w i t h t h e i n t e r a c t i o n o f age a n d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . The g r a p h i n F i g u r e 7 i l l u s t r a t e s t h i s i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t . The g r a p h d e m o n -s t r a t e s s i m i l a r c l a s s i f i c a t i o n p e r f o r m a n c e w i t h a l l t h r e e c h a r a c t e r -i s t i c c h o i c e s e x c e p t f o r t h e y o u n g e s t s u b j e c t s . S i z e o r f o r m - b a s e d s o r t s were s i g n i f i c a n t l y l o w e r s c o r e s w i t h 3 y e a r o l d s u b j e c t s b u t by 4 y e a r s o f age t h e same r e g u l a r p a t t e r n o f i n c r e a s e i n p e r f o r m a n c e w i t h a n i n c r e a s e i n age o c c u r r e d f o r a l l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . F i g u r e 7 i l l u s t r a t e s t h a t t h e s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t b e t w e e n s t i m u l u s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a n d age o c c u r r e d b e c a u s e o f t h e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n p e r -f o r m a n c e o f t h e 3 y e a r o l d s u b j e c t s . A mean c o m p a r i s o n w i t h t h e B o n f e r r o n i t e s t c o m p a r e d 3 y e a r o l d p e r f o r m a n c e w i t h c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . T h i s i s shown i n T a b l e 6. I t c a n be s e e n t h a t a s i z e - f o r m s o r t r e s u l t s i n s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t c l a s s i f i c a t i o n p e r f o r m a n c e t h a n e i t h e r a s i z e - c o l o r s o r t o r a f o r m - c o l o r s o r t . S i z e - c o l o r s o r t s d i d n o t r e s u l t i n s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t c l a s s i f i c a t i o n p e r f o r m a n c e s f r o m f o r m - c o l o r s o r t s . 10.0 J Age L e v e l s F i g . 7. Mean C l a s s i f i c a t i o n P e r f o r m a n c e S c o r e s w i t h t h e I n t e r a c t i o n o f Age a n d S t i m u l u s C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s on L e v e l I V . f a b l e 6 Mean C o m p a r i s o n o f S t i m u l u s C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s f o r t h e 3 Y e a r Age G r o u p on L e v e l IV u s i n g t h e B o n f e r r o n i T e s t w i t h a 95% C o n f i d e n c e I n t e r v a l C o n t r a s t Means Compared C o n f i d e n c e I n t e r v a l Lower L i m i t s U p p e r L i m i t s 1. S i z e - C o l o r v s . S i z e --Form .0027 5 .3303* 2 F o r m - C o l o r v s . S i z e -- F o r m • .3918 , :5 .7194* 3 S i z e - C o l o r vs.. Form-- C o l o r -3.8916 2.2749 * p < .05 55 One o f t h e m a i n p u r p o s e s o f t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n was t o s t u d y t h e e f f e c t o f d i m e n s i o n a l i t y o n c l a s s i f i c a t i o n p e r f o r m a n c e . T h e r e s u l t s were n o t s i g n i f i c a n t on e i t h e r L e v e l I I I o r L e v e l I V . To a i d i n t h e e x p l a n a t i o n o f t h e u n e x p e c t e d r e s u l t , t h e mean c l a s s i f i c a t i o n p e r f o r m -a n c e on L e v e l I V f o r e a c h d i m e n s i o n i s i l l u s t r a t e d w i t h a b a r g r a p h i n F i g u r e 8. T h i s g r a p h i l l u s t r a t e s t h a t t h e r e were a l m o s t i d e n t i c a l mean c l a s s i f i c a t i o n p e r f o r m a n c e s c o r e s f o r two o f t h e f o l l o w i n g t y p e s , o f s t i m u l i ; two d i m e n s i o n a l , a n d t h r e e d i m e n s i o n a l . P i c t o r i a l m a t -e r i a l was e x p e c t e d t o be more d i f f i c u l t b u t t h e t o t a l mean d i f f e r e n c e was n o t s i g n i f i c a n t . On L e v e l I I I t h e r e was a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t c h a r a c t e r -i s t i c b y d i m e n s i o n a l i t y i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t , b u t t h i s e f f e c t was n o t s i g n i f i c a n t on L e v e l I V . To a i d i n t h e e x p l a n a t i o n , t h e n o n -s i g n i f i c a n t means f o r t h i s i n t e r a c t i o n on L e v e l I V a r e g r a p h e d i n F i g u r e 9. S i z e v e r s u s f o r m s o r t s r e s u l t e d i n s l i g h t l y l o w e r mean s c o r e s o n a l l t h r e e d i m e n s i o n a l i t y t y p e s . T h i s was n o t a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s u c h a s o c c u r r e d i n p i c t o r i a l s i z e s o r t s o n L e v e l , , I I I . The p r o b l e m i n L e v e l I V , h o w e v e r , was n o t t h e same p r o b l e m a s i n L e v e l I I I . A s u b j e c t was f o r c e d t o s o r t b y f o r m i n L e v e l I I I a n d t h i s was d e m o n -s t r a t e d t o be v e r y d i f f i c u l t f o r some s u b j e c t s . L e v e l IV a l l o w e d a c h o i c e o f a n o t h e r p r e f e r r e d d i m e n s i o n s o t h e d i f f i c u l t y w i t h p i c t o r -i a l s t i m u l i o c c u r r i n g on L e v e l I I I c o u l d be a v o i d e d b y a s u b j e c t . L e a s t s q u a r e s r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s was u s e d t o t e s t t h e s i g n i f i -c a n c e o f t h e f o l l o w i n g : s u b j e c t age a s a c o n t i n u o u s v a r i a b l e , s e x o f s u b j e c t , t h e i n t e r a c t i o n s o f t h e s e v a r i a b l e s w i t h e a c h o t h e r , a n d t h e i n t e r a c t i o n s o f t h e s e v a r i a b l e s w i t h s t i m u l u s d i m e n s i o n a l i t y a n d s t i m u l u s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . T h e p u r p o s e o f t h e r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s 9.00 H 1.75 -I 8.50 J 8.25 -ra o1 8 .00 _ CO I 7.75 -7.50 H 7.25 j P i c t o r i a l 2 D i m e n s i o n a l i t y F i g . 8. Mean C l a s s i f i c a t i o n P e r f o r m a n c e S c o r e s w i t h t h e E f f e c t s o f D i m e n s i o n a l i t y on L e v e l I V . C o l o r S o r t F o r m o r C o l o r S o r t S i z e o r F o r m S o r t A—a—A—A fii & T 3 P i c t o r i a l , 2 D i m e n s i o n a l i t y -F i g . 9. Mean C l a s s i f i c a t i o n P e r f o r m a n c e S c o r e s w i t h t h e I n t e r a c t i o n o f S t i m u l u s D i m e n s i o n a l i t y a n d S t i m u l u s C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s on L e v e l I V . was t o e x t e n d f i n d i n g s o f t h e a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e . I n T a b l e y a n d 8 o n l y s i g n i f i c a n c e t e s t s f o r t h e a d d i t i o n a l t e r m s a r e s u m m a r i z e d t h o u g h a l l t e r m s were i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t h e r e g r e s s i o n m o d e l . T a b l e 7 i n d i c a t e s t h e o n l y s i g n i f i c a n t v a r i a b l e i n L e v e l I I I was t h e age o f s u b j e c t . S u b j e c t age p r o d u c e d s i m i l a r r e s u l t s w h e t h e r t r e a t e d c a t e g o r i c a l l y i n t h e a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e o r a s c o n t i n u o u s i n t h e r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s . Sex was n o t a s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r a f f e c t i n g c l a s s i f i c a t i o n p e r f o r m a n c e o n L e v e l I I I , a n d none o f t h e s e x i n t e r a c t i o n s were s i g n i f i c a n t . Summary T a b l e 8 shows age t r e a t e d a s a c o n t i n u o u s v a r i a b l e o n L e v e l I V . Age was h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t w i t h t h e r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s , a r e s u l t c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o t h a t o b t a i n e d w i t h a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e when age was t r e a t e d c a t e g o r i c a l l y . T a b l e 8 i n d i c a t e s t h e s i g n i f -i c a n c e o f a n age a n d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i n t e r a c t i o n , a n d t h i s c o r r e s -p o n d s t o t h e f i n d i n g i n t h e a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e ; w h i c h was g r a p h e d i n F i g u r e 7 t o show t h e i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t s . Sex on L e v e l I V was n o t a s i g n i f i c a n t v a r i a b l e a n d none o f t h e i n t e r a c t i o n s i n v o l v i n g s e x were s i g n i f i c a n t . Table ?«-Summary o f Stepwise R e g r e s s i o n o f Independent V a r i a b l e P r e d i c t i n g C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Performance on L e v e l I I I V a r i a b l e d f F Age (A) 1/234 19.4879* Sex (s) Urn .5120 A X S 1/234 .4819 ' A X Dimension (D) 2/234 .9940 A X C h a r a c t e r i s t i c (c) 2/234 1.8222 S X D 2/234 1.1747 S X c 2/234 .2108 A l l ct h i g h e r o r d e r i n t e r a c t i o n s 16/234 1.4096 a A l l t h r e e and f o u r f a c t o r i n t e r a c t i o n s were t e s t e d as a group and were s t i l l not s i g n i f i c a n t * p<.01 T a b l e 8t Summary o f S t e p w i s e R e g r e s s i o n o f I n d e p e n d e n t V a r i a b l e P r e d i c t i n g C l a s s i f i c a t i o n P e r f o r m a n c e on L e v e l IV V a r i a b l e d f F-Age ( A ) 1/234 40.9907* Sex ( S ) 1/234 2.1981 A X S 1/234 .1238 A X D i m e n s i o n (D) 2/234 2.0897 A X C h a r a c t e r i s t i c (c) 2/234 5.5573* S X D 2/234 .0464 S X c 2/234 .3560 A l l h i g h e r o r d e r i n t e r a c t i o n s 9 . 16/234 .4644 a A l l t h r e e a n d f o u r f a c t o r i n t e r a c t i o n s were t e s t e d a s a g r o u p a n d were s t i l l n o t s i g n i f i c a n t * P<.01 61 C h a p t e r 5 Summary a n d C o n c l u s i o n s The e f f e c t s o f s t i m u l u s d i m e n s i o n a l i t y a n d age were t h e m a j o r c o n c e r n s o f t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n . H y p o t h e s i s l a r e l a t i n g t h e e f f e c t o f d i m e n s i o n a l i t y on c l a s s i f i c a t i o n p e r f o r m a n c e was n o t s u p p o r t e d b y t h e r e s i i l t s on e i t h e r L e v e l I I I o r L e v e l I V . T h e r e a r e s e v e r a l p o s s i -b i l i t i e s f o r e x p l a i n i n g t h i s u n e x p e c t e d r e s u l t . One s t u d y c i t e d p r e v i o u s l y ( S i g e l & S h a p i r , 1966) s u p p o r t s t h e r e s u l t t h a t s t i m u -l u s d i m e n s i o n a l i t y w i l l n o t s i g n i f i c a n t l y a f f e c t t h e p e r f o r m a n c e o f m i d d l e c l a s s s u b j e c t s g i v e n a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n t a s k . S i g e l & S h a p i r o ( l 9 6 6 ) r e p o r t e d m i d d l e c l a s s n e g r o s u b j e c t s c o u l d p e r f o r m e q u a l l y w e l l w i t h a c t u a l o b j e c t s o r p i c t o r i a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h o s e o b j e c t s . A s i g n i f i c a n t s t i m u l u s d i m e n s i o n a l i t y e f f e c t was n o t s u p p o r t e d b y t h e r e s u l t s o f t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n a n d a l l s u b j e c t s were f r o m m i d d l e c l a s s homes. A c c o r d i n g t o t h e r e s u l t s o f S i g e l & S h a p i r o ( 1 9 6 6 ) t h e n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t s t i m u l u s d i m e n s i o n a l i t y e f f e c t c o u l d be a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e s o c i o e c o n o m i c s t a t u s o f t h e s u b j e c t s . T h i s c o n c l u s i o n i s c o n t r a r y t o much o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e c i t e d i n t h i s p a p e r ( D o r n b u s h & W i n n i c h , 1966; E t a u g h & V a n S i c k l e , 1971; E v e r e t t & A r m s t r o n g , 1968; F a l k , 1968; G i b s o n , 1963; S t e v e n s o n & M c B e e , 1958; S w a y z e , 1967; a n d T a n a k a , 1968). A l t e r n a t i v e e x p l a n a t i o n s a r e t h e r e f o r e s u g g e s t e d . One a l t e r n a t i v e e x p l a n a t i o n i s c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e s u i t a b i l i t y o f t h e GEBST a s an i n s t r u m e n t s e n s i t i v e e n o u g h t o measure t h e d i f f -e r e n c e s i n c l a s s i f i c a t i o n p e r f o r m a n c e due t o d i f f e r e n c e s i n s t i m u l u s d i m e n s i o n a l i t y . B e f o r e t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n was s t a r t e d t h e GEBST was p o s t u l a t e d t o h a v e an a t t e n u a t e d s c o r i n g s c a l e f o r u s e i n t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n , a n d t h e s c a l e was e x t e n d e d i n o r d e r t o i n c r e a s e d i s -c r i m i n a t i o n o f p e r f o r m a n c e a t t h e t o p e n d o f t h e s c a l e . A f t e r e x a m -i n a t i o n o f d a t a f r o m t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n , i t seemed t h a t t h e r e s t i l l may e x i s t a n a r e a where t h e s c o r i n g p r o c e d u r e d i d n o t a d e q u a t e l y r e f l e c t t h e s u b j e c t s ' p e r f o r m a n c e . T h i s seemed t o o c c u r i n t h e a c t u a l " p r o c e d u r e o f g r o u p i n g " r a t h e r t h a n t h e f i n i s h e d s c o r e d r e -s u l t s . F o r e x a m p l e , some s u b j e c t s seemed i n i t i a l l y t o be w o r k i n g a t a p r i m i t i v e t r i a l a n d e r r o r o r p a i r i n g p r o c e d u r e , b u t e v e n t u a l l y w o u l d r e a c h t h e c o r r e c t s o l u t i o n f o r a o n e - c o n c e p t s o r t . O t h e r s u b -j e c t s c o u l d i m m e d i a t e l y p e r c e i v e t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f a o n e - c o n c e p t s o r t a n d q u i c k l y a r r a n g e t h e s t i m u l i f o r a o n e - c o n c e p t s o r t . B o t h o f t h e s e p e r f o r m a n c e s w o u l d r e c e i v e t h e same s c o r e f o r c l a s s i f i c a -t i o n . I n h e l d e r & Piaget(1964) d i s c u s s e d t h e d e v e l o p m e n t a l s e q u e n c e f r o m t r i a l a n d e r r o r g r o u p i n g s t o p e r c e p t i o n o f t h e e n t i r e r e l a t i o n -s h i p i n s t a n t a n e o u s l y . I t i s s u g g e s t e d by t h i s r e s e a r c h e r t h a t s u b -j e c t s may be w o r k i n g a t d i f f e r e n t c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s t a g e s w i t h d i f f e r -e n t d i m e n s i o n s , a n d t h i s may n o t be r e f l e c t e d i n t h e p e r f o r m a n c e s c o r e s . Though t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n d i d n o t i n d i c a t e t h a t d i m e n s i o n -a l i t y a f f e c t s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n p e r f o r m a n c e , a new s c o r i n g s c a l e o r a d i f f e r e n t c l a s s i f i c a t i o n t a s k m i g h t p r o d u c e d i f f e r e n t r e s u l t s . A t h i r d p o s s i b i l i t y t o e x p l a i n t h e n o n - s i g n i f i c a n c e o f d i m e n -s i o n a l i t y c o u l d be a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e i n h e r e n t d e s i g n o f t h e GEBST. A t L e v e l I V , s u b j e c t s c h o s e b e t w e e n two c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s f o r s o r t -i n g ; an e x a m p l e w o u l d be c o l o r v e r s u s s i z e . The t a s k i s t h u s a c h o i c e p a r a d i g m a n d r e s p o n s e f a c t o r s d e t e r m i n e d b y t h e p a r a d i g m c o u l d o b s c u r e r e s p o n s e f a c t o r s d u e t o d i m e n s i o n a l i t y . The e f f e c t s 63 o f d i m e n s i o n a l i t y on p e r f o r m a n c e s c o r e s c o u l d be o b s c u r e d i f , f o r e x a m p l e , a s u b j e c t was u n a b l e t o p e r f o r m s i z e c a t e g o r i z a t i o n w i t h p i c t o r i a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . When t h e c h o i c e between c o l o r a n d s i z e was p r e s e n t e d , t h e s u b j e c t c l a s s i f i e d p i c t o r i a l s t i m u l i b y c o l o r . The c l a s s i f i c a t i o n p e r f o r m a n c e s c o r e o n t h i s t r i a l w o u l d n o t r e -f l e c t t h e d i f f i c u l t y t h i s s u b j e c t e n c o u n t e r e d i n s o r t i n g p i c t o r i a l s t i m u l i b y s i z e . The GEBST d o e s n o t g i v e a " c l e a r " m e a s u r e o f t h e v a r i a b l e s p r e s e n t e d i n t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n , p a r t i c u l a r l y " c h a r a c t e r -i s t i c s . " T h e r e c o u l d a l s o be some u n d e t e c t e d i n t e r a c t i o n s b e t w e e n d i m e n s i o n a l i t y a n d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s s u c h a s t h e e x a m p l e j u s t d e s -c r i b e d . L e v e l I I I s h o u l d p r e s e n t a " c l e a r " measure o f a l l t h e v a r i a b l e s s t u d i e d i n t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n , however t h e t a s k was s o e a s y t h a t v a r i a b i l i t y was o b s c u r e d d u e t o t h e " c e i l i n g e f f e c t . " To a s s e s s w h e t h e r d e s i g n f a c t o r s i n h e r e n t i n t h e GEBST o b s c u r e d r e s -p o n s e f a c t o r s d u e t o d i m e n s i o n a l i t y , i t w o u l d be n e c e s s a r y t o p a r -t i a l l y r e p l i c a t e t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n e m p l o y i n g a l t e r n a t i v e m e a s u r e -ment p r o c e d u r e s t o d e t e r m i n e w h e t h e r r e s u l t s o c c u r r e d a s a f u n c t i o n o f method v a r i a n c e . I t was a l s o f o u n d t h a t m o s t s c o r e s were v e r y c l o s e l y g r o u p e d . B e c a u s e t h e r e was l i t t l e v a r i a n c e i n t h e s c o r e s , a n e x c e p t i o n a l l y p o o r o r good c l a s s i f i c a t i o n p e r f o r m a n c e h a d t h e e f f e c t o f d r a s t i -c a l l y c h a n g i n g t h e p e r f o r m a n c e s c o r e s o f a g r o u p i n t h e d i r e c t i o n o f t h e u n u s u a l s c o r e . T h i s r e s t r i c t e d d i s t r i b u t i o n o f s c o r e s c o u l d h a v e o c c u r r e d b e c a u s e t h e s c o r i n g s c a l e d i d n o t a d e q u a t e l y r e f l e c t t h e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n p e r f o r m a n c e t h a t e x i s t e d i n t h e s a m p l e , a n d t h u s e x t r e m e s c o r e s a f f e c t e d t h e t o t a l p e r f o r m a n c e o u t o f p r o p o r t i o n t o t h e number o f s u c h s c o r e s . W i t h t h e l a r g e r e s u l t a n t v a r i a b i l i t y 64 w i t h i n g r o u p s due t o e x t r e m e s c o r e s , v a r i a b i l i t y b e t w e e n g r o u p s w o u l d a p p e a r l e s s . A s i g n i f i c a n t between age g r o u p v a r i a b i l i t y c o u l d t h u s be masked b y a few e x t r e m e s p o r e s . T h e ^number o f s u b j e c t s i n a c e l l was v e r y s m a l l a n d t h i s c o u l d f u r t h e r i n c r e a s e t h e d i s t o r t i o n due t o one e x t r e m e s c o r e . A f i n a l p o s s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n o f t h e n o n - s i g n i f i c a n c e o f d i m e n -s i o n a l i t y r e g a r d s t h e e f f e c t s o f s a m p l i n g s u b j e c t s : t h e i r number, age r a n g e , a n d method o f s e l e c t i o n . The number o f s u b j e c t s i n a c e l l was s m a l l ( o n l y s i x s u b j e c t s i n e a c h age g r o u p r e s p o n d e d t o e a c h l e v e l o f s t i m u l u s d i m e n s i o n a l i t y ) , a n d a l a r g e " n " w o u l d h a v e b e e n p r e f e r a b l e . The r e a s o n t h i s c o u l d n o t be done was t h e t e s t i n g t i m e i n v o l v e d w i t h more s u b j e c t s , a n d a l s o t h e p r o b l e m s t h a t o c c u r r e d i n o b t a i n i n g s u b j e c t s a g e s 3 and 4. The g r a d u a l i n c r e a s e i n p e r f o r m -a n c e s c o r e w i t h i n c r e a s i n g age seems t o i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e age r a n g e s e l e c t i o n was a d e q u a t e . M e t h o d o f s u b j e c t s e l e c t i o n w i t h a l l t h e 3 y e a r o l d s a n d most o f t h e 4 y e a r o l d s was d e t e r m i n e d p r i m a r i l y b y t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e c o o p e r a t i n g s c h o o l s a s a l m o s t t h e e n t i r e p o p u l a t i o n p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n . A t t h e e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l h e t e r o g e n e o u s , c l a s s g r o u p i n g s e x i s t e d , a n d c l a s s t e a c h e r s s t a t e d t h a t t h e s u b j e c t s p r e s e n t e d a t y p i c a l r a n g e o f a b i l i t i e s . A l l a g e s came f r o m m i d d l e s o c i o e c o n o m i c s t a t u s g r o u p s s o i t was t h o u g h t t h a t s u b j e c t b i a s was s i m i l a r o v e r a l l a g e s . A l e a s t - s q u a r e s r e g r e s -s i o n a n a l y s i s c o r r e c t e d f o r t h e a r b i t r a r y age g r o u p i n g , a n d e l i m i n -a t e d t h e p r o b l e m o f " l e v e l l i n g " on t h e age v a r i a b l e w h i c h o c c u r r e d i n t h e a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e . S i m i l a r r e s u l t s w e r e o b t a i n e d i n b o t h a n a l y s e s w i t h r e s p e c t t o a g e . Though many p o s s i b l e r e a s o n s were o f f e r e d f o r t h e n o n - s i g n i f i -65 c a n c e o f d i m e n s i o n a l i t y , t h i s r e s e a r c h e r f e l t t h a t t h e r e were two m a j o r e x p l a n a t i o n s . The s c o r i n g o f t h e G E B S T , a s u s e d i n t h i s i n v e s t i -g a t i o n , d i d n o t a p p e a r t o c o m p l e t e l y r e f l e c t c l a s s i f i c a t i o n p e r f o r m -a n c e . The s e c o n d e x p l a n a t i o n c o n c e r n s t h e i n h e r e n t d e s i g n o f t h e GEBST. The c h o i c e p a r a d i g m on L e v e l I V c o u l d o b s c u r e some o f t h e v a r i a b i l i t y . T h o u g h t h e n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t was a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e two p r e v i o u s e x p l a n a t i o n s t h e e f f e c t o f s u b j e c t s o c i o e c o n o m i c s t a t u s c o u l d n o t be d i s r e g a r d e d . F u r t h e r r e s e a r c h w o u l d be r e q u i r e d t o d e t e r m i n e i f t h i s was a n i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r a f f e c t i n g t h e r e s u l t s o f t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n . H y p o t h e s i s 2a r e g a r d i n g t h e e f f e c t o f s u b j e c t age on c l a s s i f i -c a t i o n was s t a t i s t i c a l l y s u p p o r t e d by t h e r e s u l t s o f t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n o n b o t h L e v e l I I I a n d L e v e l I V . Age was t h e m o s t s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r a f f e c t i n g c l a s s i f i c a t i o n p e r f o r m a n c e , a n d s i m i l a r r e s u l t s were r e p o r t e d (Graham, E r n h a r t , C r a f t & B e r m a n , 1963) on t h e GEBST. S u b j e c t age a f f e c t e d c l a s s i f i c a t i o n p e r f o r m a n c e i n t h e f o l l o w i n g m a n n e r : t h e y o u n g e s t s u b j e c t s r e c e i v e d t h e l o w e s t s c o r e s a n d w i t h i n c r e a s i n g s u b -j e c t age t h e r e was a n i n c r e a s e i n p e r f o r m a n c e s c o r e s . H y p o t h e s i s 2a was s u p p o r t e d on L e v e l I I I a n d L e v e l I V . The L e v e l I I I t a s k was t o o e a s y f o r t h e o l d e r s u b j e c t s , a s t h o s e o f a g e s 5» 6 a n d 7 r e c e i v e d p e r -f e c t s c o r e s . The u s e o f L e v e l I I I w i t h o l d e r s u b j e c t s d i d n o t c o n t r i -b u t e a s much i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t p e r f o r m a n c e on a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n t a s k a s was a n t i c i p a t e d . T h e r e s e a r c h e r n o t e d t h a t , b e c a u s e o f t h e s i m p l e n a t u r e o f t h e L e v e l I I I t a s k , t h e s u b j e c t s were p u t a t e a s e . S u b j e c t s b e g a n L e v e l I V c o n f i d e n t t h a t t h e y c o u l d d o t h e t a s k . Y o u n g e r s u b j e c t s , who h a d g r e a t d i f f i c u l t y w i t h L e v e l I V were a b l e t o f e e l p o s i t i v e a b o u t t h e t e s t , a s t h e y f e l t t h a t t h e y h a d a t l e a s t b e e n a b l e t o d o t h e f i r s t t r i a l s w e l l . T houg h L e v e l I V c o n t r i b u t e d a l m o s t a l l t h e i n f o r m a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g c l a s s i f i c a t i o n p e r f o r m a n c e , t h i s r e s e a r c h e r f e l t t h a t L e v e l I I I was i m p o r t a n t i n c r e a t i n g a c o n f i d e n t , p o s t i v e l y m o t i v a t e d a t t i t u d e . F o r t h i s r e a s o n L e v e l I I I s h o u l d he r e t a i n e d e v e n w i t h t h e o l d e r s u b -j e c t s . I t r e q u i r e d no more t h a n f i v e m i n u t e s t o a d m i n i s t e r . No s u b - r j e c t became b o r e d i n t h i s l e n g t h o f t i m e , a n d n o t one s u b j e c t r e j e c t e d L e v e l I I I a s t o o s i m p l e . S u b j e c t s a g e s 3 t o 7 c l a s s i f i e d L e v e l I V s t i m u l i w i t h p r o g r e s s i v e a b i l i t y , A r a n g e o f p e r f o r m a n c e e x i s t e d : t h e l o w e s t a b i l i t y l e v e l s u b j e c t s were a b l e t o p a r t i a l l y p e r f o r m some t r i a l s a n d t h e h i g h e s t a b i l i t y l e v e l s u b j e c t s were a b l e t o c o m p l e t e t w o - c o n c e p t s o r t s on some t r i a l s . No s u b j e c t was a b l e t o make t w o - c o n c e p t s o r t s on a l l t h e t r i a l s i n L e v e l I V , and no s u b j e c t was c o m p l e t e l y u n a b l e t o c l a s s i f y t h e o b j e c t s i n L e v e l I V . Use o f GEBST i n t h e manner a p p l i e d i n t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n seemed a p p r o p r i a t e , g i v e n t h e a g e s o f s u b j e c t s s t u d i e d . The d e v e l o p m e n t o f c l a s s i f i c a t i o n p e r f o r m a n c e , a s d e s c r i b e d ( i n h e l d e r & P i a g e t , 1964), was r e f l e c t e d i n t h e p e r f o r m a n c e o f t h e s u b j e c t s i n t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n . Some o f t h e y o u n g e s t s u b j e c t s u t i l i z e d t r i a l a n d e r r o r m a t c h i n g o f two o b j e c t s t o s e e what l o o k e d a l i k e , n e x t t h i s m a t c h i n g seemed t o be done v i s u a l l y a n d a f t e r t h a t a c o r r e c t o n e -c o n c e p t s o r t o c c u r r e d a l m o s t i n s t a n t l y . A s t a g e seemed t o o c c u r when t h e s u b j e c t p e r c e i v e d t h a t t h e r e were two c o n c e p t s w i t h w h i c h t o c a t -e g o r i z e , h o w e v e r t h e s u b j e c t was a b l e t o s o r t on o n l y one c o n c e p t a t a t i m e . The n e x t d e v e l o p m e n t a l o r d e r a f t e r t h a t a p p e a r e d t o b e : p a r t i a l t w o - c o n c e p t s o r t s , t h e n c o m p l e t e t w o - c o n c e p t s o r t s , a n d f i n a l l y t h e i n t e r r e l a t i o n s o f t h e two c o n c e p t s were p e r c e i v e d b y a few s u b j e c t s on c e r t a i n t r i a l s . A s i m i l a r p a t t e r n o f b e h a v i o r was d e n o t e d b y I n h e l d e r & P i a g e t ( 1 9 6 4 ) a n d P i a g e t ( 1 9 5 3 , 1954) a s p r e c o n c e p t u a l , a n d 67 t h e age r a n g e o f t h e s u b j e c t s i n t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n was w i t h i n t h o s e a u t h o r s * s u g g e s t e d r a n g e f o r p r e c o n c e p t u a l b e h a v i o r s . M i n o r h y p o t h e s e s r e l a t e d t h e e f f e c t s o f c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a n d some o f t h e i r i n t e r a c t i o n s t o c l a s s i f i c a t i o n p e r f o r m a n c e . I n L e v e l I V m i n o r h y p o t h e s e s c o u l d n o t c l e a r l y be a n a l y s e d as s u b j e c t s were a b l e t o s e l -e c t one o f two c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a s b a s i s f o r t h e i r c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s . I n L e v e l I I I t h e p e r f e c t p e r f o r m a n c e o f a g e s 5» 6 a n d 7 e l i m i n a t e d v a r i a -b i l i t y i n p e r f o r m a n c e . A n a l y s i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w i t h a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e p r o c e d u r e on L e v e l I V d e m o n s t r a t e d s t i m u l u s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s s i g n i f i c a n t l y a f f e c t e d c l a s s i f i c a t i o n p e r f o r m a n c e . The e f f e c t s o f t h e d i f f e r e n t a s p e c t s o f s t i m u l u s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ( c o l o r , f o r m a n d s i z e ) p r e s e n t e d p r o b l e m s i n a n a l y s i s , h o w e v e r i n f e r e n c e s c o u l d b e d e d u c e d f r o m t h e d a t a t o s u p p o r t t h e m i n o r h y p o t h e s e s t h a t were made. R e s u l t s f r o m L e v e l I V c o u l d be t a k e n t o s u p p o r t h y p o t h e s i s l b t h a t c o l o r a n d f o r m were e a s i e r s t i m u l u s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t o b a s e c l a s s e s on t h a n s i z e . When s i z e was n o t one o f t h e p o s s i b l e c h o i c e s , t h e h i g h e s t mean s c o r e s o c c u r r e d . The l o w e s t mean s c o r e s o c c u r r e d w i t h t h e f o r m - s i z e c h o i c e . I t may be i n f e r r e d f r o m t h i s t r e n d t h a t s i z e was t h e m o s t d i f f i c u l t s t i m u l u s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o n w h i c h t o b a s e c l a s s e s . C o l o r a p p e a r e d l e s s d i f f i c u l t t h a n f o r m , however t h e i n t e r -a c t i o n o f age w i t h c h a r a c t e r i s t i c p r e f e r e n c e made t h i s i n f e r e n c e more t e n u o u s , A c o m p a r i s o n o f mean c h a r a c t e r i s t i c p e r f o r m a n c e s c o r e s o f 3 y e a r o l d s u b j e c t s d e m o n s t r a t e d t h a t when c o l o r was n o t one o f t h e c h o i c e s , c l a s s i f i c a t i o n p e r f o r m a n c e was s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t . A t a b u l a t i o n o f t h e p r e f e r r e d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ( F i g u r e 6) c l e a r l y i n d i -c a t e d 3 y e a r o l d s u b j e c t s c h o s e t o s o r t b y c o l o r i n p r e f e r e n c e t o f o r m o r s i z e . O l d e r s u b j e c t s d i d n o t d e m o n s t r a t e t h i s c o l o r p r e f e r -68 e n c e n o r d i d t h e y d e m o n s t r a t e s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t p e r f o r m a n c e between c h o i c e s o f f o r m a n d c o l o r . I t c a n be p o s t u l a t e d t h a t f o r t h e 3 y e a r o l d s u b j e c t s , c o l o r was a l e s s d i f f i c u l t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c t h a n f o r m b u t t h i s d i f f e r e n c e d i d n o t o c c u r i n s u b j e c t s 4 y e a r s o f age o r o l d e r . C h a r a c t e r i s t i c p r e f e r e n c e o f s u b j e c t s on L e v e l IV c l e a r l y i n d i c a t e d s i z e was t h e l e a s t p r e f e r r e d d i m e n s i o n o v e r a l l a g e s when c o m b i n e d w i t h f o r m . An a m b i g u o u s r e s u l t d i d o c c u r i n t h e s i z e - c o l o r s o r t c h o i c e . Y o u n g e r s u b j e c t s d e f i n i t e l y p r e f e r r e d c o l o r , however o l d e r s u b j e c t s s e l e c t e d s i z e i n p r e f e r e n c e t o c o l o r . E x p l a n a t i o n s t h a t c o u l d be made f o r t h i s a m b i g u o u s r e s u l t a r e p u r e s p e c u l a t i o n . The f o l l o w i n g s u g g e s t i o n i s g i v e n . The t a s k was s o s i m p l e f o r o l d e r s u b j e c t s t h a t t h e y made t h e t a s k more d i f f i c i l t t h a n i t a c t u a l l y was by s e l e c t i n g s i z e a s a f i r s t b a s i s f o r c a t e g o r i z i n g . O l d e r s u b j e c t s p e r c e i v e d t h e o r d e r i n g t a s k p r e s e n t e d a s a s t i m u l u s s i z e c a t e g o r i z a -t i o n a n d o v e r l o o k e d t h e e a s i e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f c o l o r . F u r t h e r r e -s e a r c h w o u l d be r e q u i r e d t o s u p p o r t s u c h a t e n t a t i v e e x p l a n a t i o n o f t h e s i z e p r e f e r e n c e o f o l d e r s u b j e c t s when p r e s e n t e d w i t h a s t i m u l u s c o l o r - s i z e c h o i c e . I n L e v e l I I I a s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n o c c u r r e d b e t w e e n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a n d d i m e n s i o n a l i t y . The y o u n g e s t s u b j e c t s h a d g r e a t d i f f i c u l t y s o r t i n g p i c t u r e s by s i z e . T h i s s u p p o r t s t h e h y p o t h e s i s t h a t s i z e i s a more d i f f i c u l t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c t o b a s e s o r t s on t h a n c o l o r o r f o r m . M i n o r h y p o t h e s i s 2b s t a t e d t h a t s i z e b a s e d c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s w o u l d be m o s t d i f f i c u l t w i t h p i c t o r i a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a n d l e s s d i f f i -c u l t w i t h t h r e e a n d two d i m e n s i o n a l o b j e c t s . T h i s h y p o t h e s i s was s u p p o r t e d o n L e v e l I I I . On L e v e l IV a s i g n i f i c a n t d i m e n s i o n a l i t y b y 69 c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i n t e r a c t i o n d i d n o t o c c u r . The e x p l a n a t i o n f o r t h i s c o u l d r e s t w i t h t h e t y p e o f t a s k p r e s e n t e d i n L e v e l I I I a n d L e v e l I V . I n L e v e l I I I t h e s u b j e c t was f o r c e d t o s o r t p i c t o r i a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n b y s i z e . I n L e v e l I V a s u b j e c t h a d a c h o i c e o f s o r t i n g by s i z e o r a n o t h e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c . The d i f f i c u l t y o f s i z e - b a s e d s o r t s w i t h p i c -t o r i a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n c o u l d be e l i m i n a t e d b y t h e s u b j e c t s ' c h o i c e i n L e v e l IV ( t h i s d i f f i c u l t y was d i s c u s s e d w i t h t h e p r o b l e m s o c c u r r i n g d u e t o t h e i n h e r e n t d e s i g n o f t h e G E B S T ) , The t a s k p r e s e n t e d on L e v e l IV was e n t i r e l y d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h a t on L e v e l I I I . The o n l y t e s t o f m i n o r h y p o t h e s i s 2b o c c u r r e d w i t h L e v e l I I I , a n d i t was s t a t i s t i c a l l y s u p p o r t e d t h a t s i z e - b a s e d c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s a r e m o s t d i f f i c u l t w i t h p i c t o r i a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . M i n o r h y p o t h e s i s Jb was c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e i n t e r a c t i o n o f s u b -j e c t age a n d s t i m u l u s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . A s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t o c c u r r e d b e t w e e n t h e s e two v a r i a b l e s w i t h a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e p r o c e d u r e s . H y p o t h e s i s Jb s t a t e d t h e d i r e c t i o n o f t h e i n t e r a c t i o n : s i z e - b a s e d c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s w o u l d be 'more d i f f i c u l t t h a n c o l o r o r f o r m f o r t h e y o u n g e s t s u b j e c t s , b u t w i t h an i n c r e a s e i n s u b j e c t a g e , t h e r e w o u l d be s m a l l e r d i f f e r e n c e s i n p e r f o r m a n c e s c o r e s b e t w e e n t h e c h a r a c -t e r i s t i c - b a s e d s o r t s . The y o u n g e s t s u b j e c t s on L e v e l I V (age 3 y e a r s ) e x h i b i t e d e x c e p t i o n a l l y p o o r c l a s s i f i c a t i o n p e r f o r m a n c e on t h e t r i a l w i t h a s i z e v e r s u s f o r m s o r t . Ages k t o 7 were a b l e t o p e r f o r m i n a s i m i l a r manner on a l l t r i a l c h o i c e s . H y p o t h e s i s 3h was s u p p o r t e d b y t h e r e s u l t s on L e v e l I V . On L e v e l I I I t h e l a c k o f v a r i a b i l i t y i n p e r -f o r m a n c e s c o r e s c o u l d e x p l a i n t h e n o n - s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e age b y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i n t e r a c t i o n . R e l a t e d r e s e a r c h c l e a r l y i n d i c a t e d t h a t f o r m was t h e p r e f e r r e d 70 dimension when compared with color in a l l but the youngest subjects (Corah, 1966; Harris, Schaller & Mitter, 1970; Kagan & Lemkin, 1961; and Modreski & Goss, 1969). The results of this investigation support-ed these findings. Conflict occurred i n the results of different re-searchers over the preference of color i n the youngest subjects. The data of this investigation indicated that the youngest subjects pre-ferred color i n preference to form as a basis of categorization. Sim-i l a r findings were reported (Corah, 1964; Suchman & Trabasso, 1966; and Trabasso, Stave & Eichberg, 1969). Size was the least preferred characteristic to use in the classification tasks presented i n this investigation. This was supported by the results of Denney(l972b), Kagan & Lemkin( l96l)5 and Sigel ( l 9 6 4 ) . The results of this investiga-tion support the findings of other research. To adequately describe the effects of stimulus characteristics an alternative task to Level I V would have to be developed where subjects did not have a choice between two stimulus characteristics. I t was this choice paradigm, implicit i n the design of the GEBST that made response factors due to characteristics obscure. The results of the regression analysis supported the generally accepted finding of Denney(l972a & 1972b), Everett & Armstrong(l968), and Harris, Schaller & Mitter(1970) that i n free classification tasks there are no significant sex differences in performance. I n summation, age i s the most significant factor affecting per-formance on a free classification task. The age range of this investi-gation—3 "to 7 years inclusive—seemed adequate to test the perform-ance of preconceptual classification behavior as described by Inhelder & Piaget(1964). The sex of subjects did not significantly affect 71 c l a s s i f i c a t i o n p e r f o r m a n c e , a f i n d i n g s u p p o r t e d b y m o s t r e s e a r c h i n t h i s a r e a . The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e s t i m u l u s o b j e c t — c o l o r , f o r m a n d s i z e — w a s a s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r a f f e c t i n g c l a s s i f i c a t i o n p e r f o r m -a n c e . S i z e a p p e a r e d t o be a much more d i f f i c u l t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c t o b a s e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n on t h a n c o l o r o r f o r m , p a r t i c u l a r l y w i t h t h e y o u n g e s t s u b j e c t s . S t i m u l u s d i m e n s i o n a l i t y was n o t f o u n d t o be a s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r a f f e c t i n g c l a s s i f i c a t i o n p e r f o r m a n c e . T h i s was c o n t r a r y t o r e s e a r c h i n t h i s a r e a a n d a l s o t h e h y p o t h e s e s made i n t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n . Two e x p l a n a t i o n s seemed p l a u s i b l e f o r t h e r e s u l t s o c c u r r i n g i n t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n : t h e s c o r i n g s y s t e m o f t h e GEBST d i d n o t s u f f i c i e n t l y r e -f l e c t t h e p e r f o r m a n c e o f t h e t e s t e d s u b j e c t s , a n d t h e c h o i c e p a r a d i g m o f L e v e l I V , i m p l i c i t i n t h e d e s i g n o f t h e G E B S T , o b s c u r e d some o f t h e v a r i a b i l i t y o f s t i m u l u s d i m e n s i o n a l i t y . F u r t h e r r e s e a r c h i n t h e a r e a o f s t i m u l u s d i m e n s i o n a l i t y i n a f r e e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n t a s k seems n e c e s s a r y a s t h e r e s u l t s o f t h i s i n -v e s t i g a t i o n d i d n o t s u p p o r t m o s t r e s e a r c h w h i c h v a r i e d s t i m u l u s d i m -e n s i o n a l i t y . S i g e l & S h a p i r o ( 1 9 6 6 ) r e p o r t e d no s t i m u l u s d i m e n s i o n -a l i t y e f f e c t o c c u r r e d w i t h m i d d l e c l a s s s u b j e c t s . T h i s c o u l d e x p l a i n t h e r e s u l t s o f t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n . The q u e s t i o n s t i l l a r i s e s t h a t t h e r e s u l t s o f S i g e l & S h a p i r o ( 1 9 6 6 ) a r e c o n t r a d i c t o r y t o a l l o t h e r c i t e d r e s e a r c h . F u r t h e r r e s e a r c h i n t o t h e e f f e c t o f s u b j e c t ' s s o c i o -e c o n o m i c s t a t u s i n t h e a r e a o f s t i m u l u s d i m e n s i o n a l i t y seems w a r r a n t e d . D i m e n s i o n a l i t y h a s n o t b e e n f u l l y s t u d i e d a n d i t h a s g r e a t p r a c t i c a l a p p l i c a b i l i t y t o t h e s t u d y o f y o u n g c h i l d r e n ' s p e r f o r m a n c e on c o n c e p t u a l t a s k s . What i s n e e d e d b e f o r e t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n c o u l d a d e q u a t e l y t e s t t h e e f f e c t s o f s t i m u l u s d i m e n s i o n a l i t y a n d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i s t h e d e v -72 elopment of a new free classification test or modification of two areas of the GEBST. To use the GEBST a new scoring scale would need to be developed which would assess the procedures used in groupings as well as the finished classified arrangement. A task needs to be developed similar in d i f f i c u l t y to Level IV which would eliminate the choice paradigm that occurred on Level IV. A subject would then be forced to sort on each dimension with each characteristic. This type of task did occur on Level III but these t r i a l s were too simple for most of the subjects in this investigation. The GEBST was very easy to administer, was enjoyed as a game by the young subjects, took a very short time to administer and was suit -able for children ages 3 "to 7 years. It was f e l t by this researcher that free classification tests such as the GEBST could successfully be used to assess conceptual a b i l i t y In preconceptual children. Re-search i s required to develop a more suitable test. Other investigators have alluded to the advantages of a free classification task to assess conceptual a b i l i t y in young children but a standardized test for this purpose has not yet been developed. 73 R e f e r e n c e s A l d r i c h , B . V . A s t u d y o f c l a s s i f i c a t i o n a n d P i a g e t ' s t h e o r y o f c o m p l e t e o p e r a t i o n s . D i s s e r t a t i o n A b s t r a c t s , 1970, 31 ( 5 - A ) , No.2164. A n n e t t , M. The c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f i n s t a n c e s o f f o u r common c l a s s c o n -c e p t s by c h i l d r e n a n d a d u l t s . B r i t i s h J o u r n a l o f E d u c a t i o n a l  P s y c h o l o g y , 1959, 29, 223-236. A s c h , H. An i n v e s t i g a t i o n a n d a t t e m p t e d m o d i f i c a t i o n o f c l a s s i f i -c a t o r y s t y l e among d i s a d v a n t a g e d p r e s c h o o l c h i l d r e n . D i s s e r t a -t i o n A b s t r a c t s , 1970, 3 l (5-B), No.2949. B e a r i s o n , D. J . , & S i g e l , I . E . H i e r a r c h i a l a t t r i b u t e s f o r c a t e g -o r i z a t i o n . P e r c e p t u a l a n d M o t o r S k i l l s , 1968, 27, 147-153. B i j o u , S . , & B a e r , D . M . The l a b o r a t o r y e x p e r i m e n t a l s t u d y o f c h i l d b e h a v i o r . I n P. H . M u s s e n ( E d , ) , Handbook o f R e s e a r c h M e t h o d s  i n C h i l d D e v e l o p m e n t . New Y o r k : J o h n W i l e y & S o n s , I 9 6 0 , 140-197. B o l l e s , M. M. T h e b a s i c o f p e r t i n e n c e : A s t u d y o f t h e t e s t p e r f o r m -a n c e o f a m e n t s , dements a n d n o r m a l c h i l d r e n o f t h e same m e n t a l a g e . A r c h i v e s o f P s y c h o l o g y , 1937, 212, 5-51. B r u n e r , J . S . , O l v e r , R. R . , G r e e n f i e l d , P . M . e t a l . S t u d i e s i n C o g n i t i v e G r o w t h . New Y o r k : J o h n W i l e y & S o n s , 1966, 154-167. C o h e n , J . M u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n a s a g e n e r a l d a t a - a n a l y t i c s y s t e m . P s y c h o l o g i c a l B u l l e t i n , 1968, 70 , 426-443. C o r a h , N . L . C o l o r a n d f o r m i n c h i l d r e n ' s p e r c e p t u a l b e h a v i o r . P e r c e p t u a l a n d M o t o r S k i l l s , 1964, 18, 313-316. C o r a h , N . L . T h e i n f l u e n c e o f some s t i m u l u s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o n c o l o r a n d f o r m p e r c e p t i o n i n n u r s e r y s c h o o l c h i l d r e n . C h i l d D e v e l o p -m e n t , 1966, 37, 205-211. C r o l l , W. L . G e n e r a l i z a t i o n i n a s t i m u l u s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n t a s k . S t i m -u l u s s e l e c t i o n w i t h i n a n d among d i m e n s i o n s . J o u r n a l o f E x p e r i -m e n t a l C h i l d P s y c h o l o g y , 1970, 9 (2) , 227-238. D a s e n , P. R. C r o s s - c u l t u r a l P i a g e t i a n r e s e a r c h : A summary. J o u r n a l  o f C r o s s - C u l t u r a l P s y c h o l o g y , 1972, 3 ( l ) , '23-40. Denney, N, W. A developmental study of free classification in children. Child Development, 1972, 4 3 , 221-232. Denney, N. W. Free classification in preschool children. Child Devel-opment, 1972, 43, 1161-1170. Devor, G. M., & Stern, C. Objects versus pictures in the instruction of young children. Journal of School Psychology, 1970, 8 ( 2 ) , 77-81. Dornbush, R. L., & Winnick, W. A. The relative effectiveness of stereometric and pattern stimuli in discrimination learning in children. Psychonomic Science, 1966, 5, 301-302. Engle, P. L. Free recall of categorizable objects by Mexican American and Anglo American children after training. Dissertation Abstracts, 1972, 32(10-A), N 0 . 5 6 O 8 . Ernhart, C. B., Graham, F. K., Eichman, P. L., Marshall, J. M., & Thurston, D. Brain injury in the preschool childj Some develop-mental considerationsj II. Comparison of brain injured and nor-mal children. Psychological Monographs, 1963t 77,(lltWhole No.574). Etaugh, C. F., & Van Sickle, D. Discrimination of stereometric ob-jects and photographs of objects by children. Child Development, 1971, 42, 1580-1582. Everett, L. M. , & Armstrong, R. D. Responses for young children to two modes of presentation. Alberta Journal of Educational Re-search, 1968, 14(4), 217-224. Falk, C. T. Object and pattern discrimination learning by young children as a function of availability of cues. Child Develop-ment, 1968, 39 , 923-931. Feldman, S. S. Children's understanding of negation as a logical operation in a classification task. Dissertation Abstracts, 1969, 29(7-B), No.2616. Flavell, J, H. The Developmental Psychology of Jean Piaget. Princeton, New Jerseyj D. Van Nostrand, 1963. Furth, H. G. Piaget and Knowledge Theoretical Foundations. Englewood Cliffs, New Jerseyj Prentic Hall, 1969. Gibson, E. J. Development of perception! Discrimination of depth compared with discrimination of graphic symbols. In J. C. Wright & J. Kagan (Ed.), Monographs of the Society for Research in Child  Development, 1963, 28, No.2. Goldstein, K. , Scheerer, M. Abstract and concrete behavior, an experi mental study with special tests. Psychological Monographs, 1941, 5 3 , (2,Whole No.239). Graham, F. K., Ernhart, C. B., Thurston, G., & Craft, M. Development three years after perinatal anoxia and other potentially damag-ing newborn experiences; Psychological Monographs, 1962, 76, (3,Whole No.522). Graham, F. K., Ernhart, C. B., Craft, M., & Berman, P.W. Brain injury in the preschool child 1 Some developmental considerations? I. Performance of normal children. Psychological Monographs, 1963, 77t (10,Whole No.573).. Graham, F. K., & Ernhart, C. B. Manual for the Graham-Ernhart Block  Sort Test, unpublished test of the Collaborative Study of Cere-bral Palsy, Mental Retardation and other Neurological and Sensory Disorders of Infancy and Childhood, August, 1963. Hanfmann, E. , & Kasanin, J. A method for the study of concept forma-tion. Journal of Psychology, 1937, 3-4, 521-540. Harris, L., Schaller, M. J., & Mitter, M. M..The effects of stimulus type on performance in color-form sorting task with preschool, kindergarten, first grade and third grade children. Child Devel-opment, 1970, 41, 177-191. Hunt, J. M. Intelligence and Experience. New Yorkj Ronald Press, 1961. Inhelder, B. Some aspects of Piaget's genetic approach to cognition. In W. Kessen and C. Kuhlman (Ed.), Monographs of the Society for  Research in Child Development, 1962, 27, No.2. Inhelder, B., & Piaget, J. The Early Growth of Logic in the Child. E. A. Lunzer and D, Paperet (Trans.), London 1 Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1964. Jacobs, P. I., & Vandeventer, M. The learning and transfer of double classification skills by first graders. Child Development, 1971, 42, 149-159. Kagan, J., & Lemkin, J. Form, color and size in children's conceptual behavior. Child Development, 1961, 32, 25-28. Kofsky, E., & Osier, S. F. Free classification in children. Child  Development, 1967, 38, 927-937. Modreski, R. A., & Goss, A. E. Young children's initial and changed names for form - color stimuli. Journal of Experimental Child  Psychology, 1969» 8, 402-409. Nowak, S. M. The development and analysis of the effects of an in-structional program based on Piaget's theory of classification. Dissertation Abstracts, 1969, 30(5-A), N0.I875. Oleron, P., Piaget, J., Inhelder, B., & Greco, P. Experimental Psych-ology Its Scope and Method. T. Surridege (Trans.;, London* Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1969, I65-I75. Olmsted, P., Parks, C., & Rickel, A. The development of classifica-tion skills in the preschool child. International Review of  Education, 1970, l6(l) 67-80. ' Overton, W. F., & Brodzinsky, D. Perceptual and logical factors in the development of multiplicative classification. Developmental  Psychology, 1972, 6(l), 104-109. Overton, W. F., Wagner, J., & Dolinsky, H. Social class differences and task variables in the development of multiplicative class-ification. Child Development, 1971, 42, 1951-1958. Overall, J. E, Concerning least squares analysis of experimental data. Psychological Bulletin, 1969, 72, 311-322. Parker, R. K. Rieff, M. L., & Sperr, S. J. Teaching multiple class-ification to young children. Child Development, 1971* 42, 1779-1789. Piaget, J. The Child's Conception of Number. C. Gattegno and F. M. Hodgson (Trans.), London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1952, 161-184. Piaget, J. The Construction of Reality in the Child. M. Cook (Trans.), . New York: Basic Books, 1954. Piaget, J. Logic and Psychology. Manchester: University of Man-chester Press, 1953. Piaget, J., & Inhelder, B. The Psychology of the Child. H. Weaver, (Trans.), New York« Basic Books, 1969. Price-Williams, D. R. Abstract and concrete modes of classification in a primitive society. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 1962, 32, 50-61. Reichard, S., Schneider, M., & Rappaport, D. The development of con-cept formation in children. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 1944, 14, 156-161. Robinson, V. H. An investigation of the performance of kindergarten children on quantitative class inclusion tasks. Dissertation  Abstracts, 1970, 31(^-A), N0.I63I. Sigel, I. E. Dominance of Meaning. Journal of Genetic Psychology, 195^ , 85, 201-207. Sigel, I. E. The attainment of concepts. In M. L. Hoffman and L. W. Hoffman (Ed.), Review of Child Development and Research, New York: Russell Sage Foundation, 1964, 209-248. 77-Sigel, I. E., & Shapiro, H. Categorization behavior of lower and middle class Negro preschool children: Differences i n dealing with repre-sentation of familiar objects. Journal of Negro Education, 1966, 35, 218-229. Stevenson, H. W., & McBee, G. The learning of object and pattern d i s -criminations by children. Journal of Comparative Physiological  Psychology, 1958, 51, 752-754. Suchman, R. G., & Trabasso, T. Color and form preferences in young children. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 1966, 3, 177-187. Swayze, J. L. Children's a b i l i t y to order picture sequences: A developmental study. Dissertation Abstracts, 1967» 28(3-B), No.1178-1180. Tanaka, M. N. Classification concepts i n f i r s t grade children: The effect of different methods of instruction. Dissertation Abstracts, 1968, 29(2-A), No.489. Trabasso, T., Stave, M., & Eichberg, R. Attribute preference and di s -crimination shifts in young children. Journal of Experimental  Child Psychology, 1969, 8, 195-209. Vinacke, W. E. The Psychology of Thinking. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1952, 97-135. Vygotsky, L. S. Thought and Language. E. Hanfmann and G. Vakar (Ed. and Trans.), New York: The M.I.T. Press and John Wiley & Sons, 1962, 52-81. Wei, T. T. Piaget's concept of classification: A comparative study of advantaged and disadvantaged young children. Dissertation  Abstracts, 1967, 27(l2-A), No.4143. Werner, H. Comparative Psychology of Mental Development. Chicago: Follet, 1948, 222-248. Whyte, L. A. The development of classification a b i l i t y in children below average intelligence. Dissertation Abstracts, 1970, 30(ll-A), No.4700. Wieman, R., & Guthrie, G./'M. The effect of age and cultural familiarity on children's categorizing responses. Journal of Social Psychol-ogy, 1972, 86, 299-308. Youniss, J. Classificatory schemes in relation to class inclusion before and after training. Human Development, 1971, 14, 171-183. A p p e n d i x A G r a h a m - E r n h a r t B l o c k S o r t T e s t M a n u a l 79 4 - Y E A R P S Y C H O L O G I C A L E X A M I N A T I O N M A N U A L F O R T H E G R A H A M - E R N H A R T B L O C K S O R T T E S T (For Form PS-21) .... THE COLLABORATIVE STUDY OF CEREBRAL PALSY, MENTAL RETARDATION AND OTHER NEUROLOGICAL AND SENSORY DISORDERS OF INFANCY AND CHILDHOOD August 1963 4-YEAR PSYCHOLOGICAL EXAMINATION 80 MANUAL FOR THE GRAHAM-ERNHART BLOCK SORT TEST (For Form PS-21) Introduction The G r a h a m - E r n h a r t Block Sort test has been included in the 4-year C O L R battery as a supplement to the Stanford-Binet (Form L - M ) . It wi l l increase our sampling of concept formation through the use of a sort where materials vary in color , size and shape. D r . Graham's previous work with this test indicates that it not only provides"a 'significant discr iminat ion between braindamaged and non-brain damaged preschoolers , but also that it adds to the discr iminat ion between these groups to a degree beyond that possible with the Stanford-Binet alone. (See Table of Reference). The instructions presented here are a revision of Graham's procedure. The original manual has been altered when it was deemed that such revis ion would better serve the purposes of the C O L R Project without d i s -torting the essential character is t ics of the test. We wish to thank D r s . Graham and Ernhart for their generous permiss ion to permit C O L R use of the test, and D r . Graham for her review of this revis ion. " Materials The materials consist of 26 10mm. thick plastic blocks in various combinations of three co lors (white, red and blue), three forms (circle, square and equilateral triangle), and three sizes (small , medium and large). A r e a s of the three forms are approximately equal for each size level . The size levels are in the ratio of 1:2:3, the relevant dimension being the sides of the square and the triangle and the diameter of the c i r c l e . The exact dimensions are 22, 44 and 66 m m . for sides of the three squares; 33, 67 and 100 m m . for the sides of the three triangles;, and 25, 50 and 75 m m . for the diameters of the three c i r c l e s . C i r c l e s Squares Tr iangles 2 large white 2 large white „ 2 large white 2 large red 1 large red 1 large red 2 large blue 1 large blue 1 large blue 2 medium white 1 medium white 1 medium white 1 medium red 1 medium blue 1 smal l white 1 smal l white 2 smal l white . • 1 smal l red 1 smal l blue ' Mater ia ls for the G r a h a m - E r n h a r t test and necessary replacement parts wi l l be furnished by the Centra l Office. General Administration Instructions "~ 1. This test is given as a whole. Other procedures should not be interposed between tr ia ls o r levels. Such interposition, if pract iced, might produce unknown interference with establishing the proper sorting set. 2. The G r a h a m - E r n h a r t Block Sort test items are organized into four levels. Level III is always given first . Depending upon the child's performanceon Level III, either Level II or Level I V , but not both, is given. Graham's Leve l I is not being used by the C O L R Project , since it is anticipated that Level I is not needed to provide satisfactory discr iminat ion between subjects at the lower ranges. 3. Throughout the test, the examiner should avoid the use of phrases relevant to concepts of size, shape, or color in giving his instructions; e.g., "little ones," "blue blocks," "c irc les ." Stick to use of phrases and words such as "look al ike," "alike," "same," and "belong together." 4. Since the same concepts are tested repeatedly, the examiner should not indicate that a correct r e -sponse has or has not been made, except on the three tr ials of Level III. However, if the chi ld , having made a correc t sort, then proceeds to build or play at random with the blocks (thus destroying the - 1 - August 1963 Manual for the Graham-Ernhart Block Sort Tost 81 General Adminis t rat ion Inst ruct ions. ( C o n t . ) sort) the examiner should, if possible, say before the sort is destroyed, "Is that the way you want them?", or, "Have you finishedputtinRtheblocksthat are the same together?", and proceed to score the sort in terms of the block placement at that point. 5. If a child requests help, the examiner should repeat the instructions or say, "Just do the best you can." 6. Blocks not in use should be kept out of sight. 7. In scoring, verbal recognition is not counted. Onlythe child's nonverbal sorting behavior contributes to his score. 8. To avoid supplying extraneous cues, the examiner should hold all the required blocks in his hand before placing any of them on the table. 9. At all levels, each trial is presented only once. Administrat ion and Scoring: Def in i t ions: A. A group is two or more blocks which are adjacent to one another (they may or may not actually touch), and are spatially separated from other blocks. All blocks included in a trial may form a single group. The definition of group demands only that two or more blocks are together in a stack, row, or laving together. - Cm occasion a gruup of blocks may contain combinations of stacks or rows, i.e., be both horizontally and vertically arranged. B. A subgroup is two or more blocks w i th in a group which are a l ike in size, form or color, whichever di-mension^) is (are) being varied on a given trial. NOTE: The distinction in definition between a group and subgroup is critical to the scoring system and needs to be tho roughly understood. Blocks in a group may or may not be alike; the only essential requirement is that they be clustered. The definition of a subgroup implies that the group within which these like blocks are found includes other subgroups or misplacements. The blocks with-in a specific subgroup are.always alike by definition. Blocks constituting a subgroup must also be clustered. In Example I, the cluster of three blocks constitutes a group; the cluster of two blocks is also a group. Within the three block group is a subgroup of two circles which are alike in size. The two white blocks in the cluster of four form a subgroup. The cluster of four blocks forms an additional group. Example I: B: Blue R: Red W: White In Example II the cluster of three blocks is a group; so are the two clusters of two blocks each. Example II: - 2 - August 1963 M a n u a l f o r the G r a h a m - E r n h a r t B l o c k S o r t T e s t Administ rat ion and Scoring. (Cont.) 82 In E x a m p l e III, the t h r e e b l u e c i r c l e s w i t h i n the group o f f i v e c o n s t i t u t e s a subgroup o f t h r e e b l o c k s . O t h e r b l o c k s i n the d i a g r a m a r e e x t r a n e o u s to t h i s e x a m p l e . E x a m p l e U I : W ) F i n a l l y , note that a p a r t i c u l a r b l o c k m a y b e l o n g to m o r e t h a n o n e s u b g r o u p . In E x a m p l e I V , the m i d d l e b l u e s q u a r e f o r m s a s u b g r o u p of s q u a r e s w i t h the b l o c k o n i t s l e f t a n d a l s o f o r m s a s u b g r o u p o f two b l u e b l o c k s w i t h the b l o c k o n i t s r i g h t . In the f i r s t i n s t a n c e the s u b g r o u p i s f o r m e d o n the b a s i s o f s h a p e , i n the s e c o n d on the b a s i s of c o l o r . E x a m p l e I V : C. D. A leftover b l o c k i s one not a d j a c e n t to a n y o t h e r b l o c k . T h e b l o c k s c a l l e d e x t r a n e o u s i n E x a m p l e III are l e f t o v e r b l o c k s . Misplacements a r e b l o c k s w i t h i n a g r o u p so p l a c e d that t h e y f o r m no s u b g r o u p . T h e y a r e not s i m i l a r to b l o c k s n e x t to t h e m i n the g r o u p , i n t e r m s of the c o n c e p t s b e i n g s o r t e d ( s h a p e , c o l o r , o r s i z e ) . In E x a m p l e III, the w h i t e b l o c k a n d the r e d b l o c k i n t h e 5 b l o c k g r o u p a r e m i s p l a c e m e n t s . Leve l I I I : Administ rat ion and Scoring 1. T h e t a s k i s to s o r t s i x b l o c k s i n t o t h r e e g r o u p s o f t w o i d e n t i c a l b l o c k s . T h e b l o c k s u s e d a n d the o r d e r s i n w h i c h t h e y a r e p l a c e d o n t h e t a b l e b e f o r e the c h i l d a r e g i v e n b e l o w . T h e o r d e r o f p l a c e -m e n t i s s p e c i f i e d f r o m t h e e x a m i n e r ' s p o i n t o f v i e w a s he s i t s o p p o s i t e the c h i l d . T r i a l 1: S i x l a r g e c i r c l e s R e d W h i t e Blue Red White Child Blue T r i a l 2: S i x w h i t e c i r c l e s S m a l l M e d i u m L a r g e Examiner Small Child Medium Large oO o Examiner T r i a l 3: S i x l a r g e w h i t e b l o c k s C i r c l e S q u a r e T r i a n g l e Circle Square T r i a n g l e Child Examiner August 1963 M a n u a l f o r tho G r a h a m - E r n h a r t lUock S o r t T e s t 0 , ; Level I I I : Administ rat ion and Scoring, (Cont.) 2. A f t e r the b l o c k s have been p l a c e d in a row on the t a b l e , s a y " P u t the ones t h a t ( a r e a l i k e , a r e the s a m e , o r b e l o n g ) t o g e t h e r . " This i n s t r u c t i o n c a n be r e p e a t e d as n e c e s s a r y . 3. A c o m p l e t e l y c o r r e c t s o r t on a*g iven t r i a l c o n s i s t s o f p a i r i n g the i d e n t i c a l b l o c k s w i t h e a c h o t h e r . Such a s o r t e a r n s two p o i n t s . 4 . A p a r t i a l l y c o r r e c t s o r t on a g i v e n t r i a l i s one w h e r e the s o r t i s i n c o m p l e t e b u t w h e r e the c o n c e p t is a p p a r e n t both in the s o r t i n g b e h a v i o r and in the f i n a l a r r a n g e m e n t . A s o r t w i t h only one o r two m i s p l a c e m e n t s o r l e f t o v e r s o r a s o r t in w h i c h two i d e n t i c a l b l o c k s a r e p l a c e d t o g e t h e r bu t a p a r t f r o m the r e m a i n i n g b l o c k s a r e e x a m p l e s o f p a r t i a l s o r t s . N o t e t h a t the d e f i n i t i o n o f a p a r t i a l l y c o r r e c t s o r t i n c l u d e s the s p e c i f i c a t i o n t h a t t h e e x a m i n e r m u s t see s o m e e v i d e n c e o f c o n c e p t c o n -t r o l i n the s o r t i n g b e h a v i o r p r i o r to the f i n a l a r r a n g e m e n t . T h i s c l i n i c a l c r i t e r i o n has b e e n added to a v o i d the c r e d i t i n g o f f i na l a r r a n g e m e n t s w h e r e two i d e n t i c a l b l o c k s happen b y c h a n c e to e n d up c l o s e r to each o t h e r than they a r e to o t h e r b l o c k s . A p a r t i a l l y c o r r e c t s o r t e a r n s one p o i n t . 5. E x a m p l e s o f L e v e l I I I , T r i a l 3 s o r t s . F o r the p u r p o s e s o f s c o r i n g , s t a c k i n g o r p l a c i n g b l o c k s i n a r o w w i l l b e c o n s i d e r e d e q u a l l y c o r r e c t . C o r r e c t s o r t ; e a r n s t w o p o i n t s . C o r r e c t s o r t ; e a r n s t w o p o i n t s . P a r t i a l l y c o r r e c t s o r t ; e a r n s o n e p o i n t . P a r t l y c o r r e c t b e -c a u s e one g r o u p p a i r s i d e n t i c a l m a t e s , e v e n t h o u g h t h e r e a r e f o u r m i s g r o u p e d b l o c k s . D. P a r t l y c o r r e c t s o r t ; e a r n s one p o i n t . T h e r e a r e o n l y t w o m i s -p l a c e m e n t s ( the two t r i a n g l e s ) . P a r t l y c o r r e c t s o r t ; e a r n s one p o i n t . T h e r e a r c o n l y t w o m i s -p l a c e m e n t s ( the two t r i a n g l e s ) . - 4 - A u g u s t 1963 M a n u a l f o r the G r a h a m - K r n h a r t B l o c k S o r t T e s t Level I I I : Administ rat ion and Scoring. (Cont.) 84 Partly correct sort. There is one misplacement and one left-over (the two triangles). Incorrect sort; zero points. Three blocks are misplaced and one is leftover. Incorrect sort; zero points. There is a joined identical pair, but they are not spatially dis-crete from the other four mis-grouped blocks. 6. To encourage more discrete grouping on subsequent trials at this and other levels, additional in-structions and demonstration are given following each of the trials at this level: A. If the child achieves a two-point sort and has arranged the blocks into three discrete groups say, "Fine," and go on to the next trial. B. If the child achieves a two-point sort but has not arranged the blocks into three discrete groups (for example, stacking all six blocks into a single pile, or a single row) say, "Fine, these two are alike, and these two are alike, and these two 'are alike" as you separate the groups. C. If the child achieves partial or no credit say, "Let me show you. These two are alike, and these two are alike, and these two are alike," as you rearrange the blocks into three separate groups. Do not allow the child another try at the same trial after it has been demonstrated. 7. Maximum score on Level III is six po ints . Administrat ion Choice-Point 1. If the child's score on Level III is two points or less, administer Level II. In this case Level IV is not administered and no credit for it is given. 2. If the child's score on Level III is more than two points, administer Level IV and give the child an automatic credit of 9 points for Level II. Level I I : Administrat ion and Scoring 1. The child's task at this level is to choose the mate to the block held by the examiner from the three blocks placed before him. The block the child is to match is held about one foot above the middle, of the three blocks on the table, and the examiner says, "Point to the one that looks just like this one." - 5 - August 1963 Jiual f o r the ( i r a h a m - E r n h a r t B l o c k S o r t T e s t Level I I : Administ rat ion and Scoring. (Cont.) 2. The o r d e r o f tho b l o c k s p l a c e d on the t a b l e f o r each t r i a l a r e s p e c i f i e d f r o m the e x a m i n e r ' s p o i n t o f v iew as he s i t s o p p o s i t e the c h i l d f a c i n g h i m . T r i a l 1 : On the t a b l e : 3 l a r g e c i r c l e s ; Hod W h i t e B l u e K x a n i i n e r ' s o r d e r o f p r e s e n t a t i o n : B lue Red W h i t e T r i a l 2: On the t a b l e : 3 w h i t e c i r c l e s : S m a l l M e d i u m L a r g e E x a m i n e r ' s o r d e r o f p r e s e n t a t i o n : S m a l l L a r g e M e d i u m T r i a l 3: On the t a b l e : 3 l a r g e w h i t e b l o c k s : C i r c l e S q u a r e T r i a n g l e E x a m i n e r ' s o r d e r of p r e s e n t a t i o n : Square T r i a n g l e C i r c l e 3. E v e r y e f f o r t shou ld be m a d e to e n s u r e h a v i n g the c h i l d ' s a t t e n t i o n b e f o r e each r e q u e s t f o r h i m to p o i n t . Once g i v e n , an i n c o r r e c t p o i n t s h o u l d be a c c e p t e d at f a c e v a l u e . 4. Each c o r r e c t m a t c h e a r n s one p o i n t , m a k i n g a m a x i m u m s c o r e o f t h r e e p e r t r i a l and a t o t a l m a x i -m u m o f n ine p o i n t s f o r L e v e l I I . 5. I f c h i l d is c r e d i t e d w i t h the f u l l 9 p o i n t s o n L e v e l I I , a d m i n i s t e r L e v e l TV as p a r t o f the t e s t . H o w -e v e r , the p o i n t s e a r n e d o n L e v e l IV s h o u l d no t be i n c l u d e d i n the s c o r e f o r s u m m a r y shee t p u r p o s e s , bu t w i l l be a n a l y z e d at a f u t u r e d a t e . Level IV: Administ rat ion and Scoring 1 . T h e t a s k f o r each t r i a l o f L e v e l I V i s to s o r t t he n i n e b l o c k s , w h i c h o n any g i v e n t r i a l v a r y a l o n g two o f t h r e e p o s s i b l e d i m e n s i o n s ( s i z e , c o l o r , and f o r m ) i n to g r o u p s o f l i k e b l o c k s . General Instruct ions The i n s t r u c t i o n s a r e the s a m e f o r each o f the t h r e e t r i a l s . T h e b l o c k s u s e d i n a g i v e n t r i a l a r e s p r e a d out o n the t a b l e i n random o r d e r . T h e b l o c k s s h o u l d b e s p r e a d o v e r a r o u g h l y o v a l a r e a , n o t i n a r o w . T h e e x a m i n e r s a y s , " N o w p u t the ones t h a t ( a r e a l i k e , a r e t h e s a m e , o r b e l o n g ) t o g e t h e r . " B l o c k s to b e u s e d f o r s p e c i f i c t r i a l s a r e as f o l l o w s : T r i a l 1 : C o l o r and s i z e v a r y w i t h f o r m h e l d c o n s t a n t . Use n i n e c i r c u l a r b l o c k s w i t h one o f each s i z e and c o l o r . T r i a l 2: C o l o r and f o r m v a r y w i t h s i z e h e l d c o n s t a n t . Use n i n e l a r g e b l o c k s w i t h one o f e a c h f o r m and c o l o r . T r i a l 3 : S ize and f o r m v a r y w i t h c o l o r h e l d c o n s t a n t . U s e n i n e w h i t e b l o c k s w i t h one o f e a c h s i z e and f o r m . S c o r i n g o f L e v e l I V t a k e s o n l y f i n a l a r r a n g e m e n t i n t o a c c o u n t . B y f o l l o w i n g the r u l e s b e l o w , the n u m b e r of e r r o r s o n a g i v e n t r i a l c a n be d e t e r m i n e d . S ince i t i s u n l i k e l y t h a t the e x a m i n e r w i l l have these r u l e s w e l l enough i n m i n d , e s p e c i a l l y I n h i s e a r l y u s e o f t he t e s t , i t i s m a n d a t o r y t h a t the e x a m i n e r s k e t c h the f i n a l a r r a n g e m e n t on e a c h t r i a l , and then s c o r e i t l a t e r . Scoring Rules A. Any group o f b l o c k s w h i c h a r e a l l a l i k e o n one o f the v a r i e d c o n c e p t s i s c o n s i d e r e d c o r r e c t . B. A n y subgroup o f t h r e e b l o c k s i s a l w a y s c o r r e c t . C. Subgroups o f two b l o c k s a r e c o u n t e d as e r r o r s (one p o i n t p e r b l o c k ) i f : - 6 - A u g u s t 1963 M a n u a l f o r the G r a h a m - E r n h a r t B l o c k S o r t T e s t 86 L e v e l I V : A d m i n i s t r a t i o n and S c o r i n g . ( C o n t . ) 1 . the g r o u p c o n t a i n s a m i s p l a c e m e n t , o r 2. the g roup w h i c h c o n t a i n s the s u b g r o u p o f t w o b l o c k s i s c o m p o s e d o f o n l y t h r e e b l o c k s . No te : G r o u p s o f t h r e e b l o c k s w h i c h a r e n o t a l l a l i k e and w h i c h c o n t a i n t w o s u b g r o u p s o f t w o b l o c k s p e r s u b g r o u p a r e e r r o r s b y r u l e C2- T h e y c o n s t i t u t e t h r e e e r r o r p o i n t s , one f o r each b l o c k , (see E x a m p l e C, p. 8). D . S u b g r o u p s o f o n l y two b l o c k s a r e c o r r e c t i f a l l o t h e r b l o c k s i n the g r o u p a l s o f o r m s u b g r o u p s , and the g r o u p c o n s i s t s o f m o r e t h a n t h r e e b l o c k s . E. L e f t o v e r s and m i s p l a c e m e n t s c o u n t one e r r o r p e r b l o c k . F. T y p i c a l l y , s o r t i n g by f o u r - y e a r - o l d s i s o n the b a s i s o f one v a r i e d c o n c e p t o r the o t h e r , o r s o m e use o f bo th c o n c e p t s . T h u s , one g r o u p m a y be f o r m e d h a v i n g b l o c k s o f the s a m e c o l o r , and a n o t h e r g r o u p i n the s a m e t r i a l w i l l c o n t a i n b l o c k s o f t he s a m e f o r m o r s i z e . I t i s p o s s i b l e b u t r a r e f o r a c h i l d to p r o d u c e a p e r f e c t s o r t on b o t h c o n c e p t s . T o do s o , e v e r y b l o c k m u s t p a r t i c i p a t e s i m u l -t aneous l y in two s u b g r o u p i n g s . T h i s c a n b e a c h i e v e d w i t h a 3 x 3 m a t r i x i n w h i c h b l o c k s o f one concep t f o r m the r o w s , and b l o c k s r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e o t h e r c o n c e p t f o r m the c o l u m n s . I t c a n a l s o be a c h i e v e d w i t h t h r e e s t a c k s f o r m e d o n the b a s i s o f one c o n c e p t w i t h the s e c o n d c o n c e p t d e m o n -s t r a t e d by u n i f o r m p o s i t i o n s w i t h i n s t a c k s i n a l l t h r e e s t a c k s . G. E r r o r s on a g i v e n t r i a l m a y r a n g e f r o m 0 t o 9. T h e y s h o u l d b e c o n v e r t e d to p o i n t s t o w a r d t h e t o t a l r a w s c o r e b y u s e o f the t a b l e b e l o w . M a x i m u m r a w s c o r e p o i n t s p o s s i b l e o n a g i v e n t r i a l i s t e n . M a x i m u m r a w s c o r e c o n t r i b u t i o n s o f L e v e l I V to t o t a l r a w s c o r e i s 30 . E r r o r s o n a t r i a l R a w S c o r e f o r the t r i a l ( 2 - c o n c e p t s s o r t e d s i m u l t a n e o u s l y ) , 0 10 ( O r d i n a r y p e r f e c t s o r t ) 0 9 1 8 2 7 3 6 4 5 5 4 6 3 7 2 8 1 9 0 Scoring Examples T h i s s e c t i o n o f s c o r i n g e x a m p l e s s h o u l d b e s t u d i e d c a r e f u l l y p r i o r to s c o r i n g o f a c t u a l p r o t o c o l s . Y o u m a y f i n d i t h e l p f u l to c o l o r the s k e t c h e s . A d d i t i o n a l e x a m p l e s o f d i f f i c u l t s c o r i n g p r o b l e m s w i t h c o m m e n t a r y w i l l be added as o u r p r o j e c t e x p e r i e n c e w i t h t h i s t e s t a c c u m u l a t e s . In the e x a m p l e s b e l o w , the l e t t e r s R, W , and B a r e u s e d f o r t h e t h r e e c o l o r s — r e d , w h i t e , and b l u e . L a r g e , m e d i u m and s m a l l s i z e i s i n d i c a t e d b y t h e r e l a t i v e s i z e o f t he d r a w i n g s . A l l e x a m p l e s a r e d r a w n as i f a r r a n g e d o n a h o r i z o n t a l p l a n e , b u t t h e s e a r r a n g e m e n t s m a y b e p r o d u c e d b y s t a c k s o r b y a t h r e e d i m e n s i o n a l p a t t e r n i n v o l v i n g b o t h h o r i z o n t a l and v e r t i c a l g r o u p s . E x a m p l e A . C o l o r and Size P r o b l e m . N i n e e r r o r s . The s u b g r o u p o f t w o w i t h i n the t h r e e g r o u p i s no t c o n s i d e r e d c o r r e c t ( r u l e s C i a n d C2>- O t h e r e r r o r s a r e f o u r l e f t o v e r s and a p a i r e d m i s p l a c e m e n t ( r u l e E ) . - 7 - A u g u s t 1963 M a n u a l f o r the G r a h a m - E r n h a r t B l o c k S o r t T e s t Level IV: Administ rat ion and Scoring. (Cont.) E x a m p l e B. C o l o r and F o r m P r o b l e m . N i n e e r r o r s . T h e two t w o - m e m b e r s u b g r o u p s o f l i k e f o r m a r e p a r t o f a g r o u p c o n t a i n i n g m i s p l a c e m e n t s ( r u l e C ^ > 1 W \ R w \ v.. J E x a m p l e C. C o l o r and F o r m P r o b l e m . N ine e r r o r s . T w o t w o - b l o c k sub r o u p s in a g r o u p of o n l y t h r e e b l o c k s a r e n o t c o n s i d e r e d c o r r e c t b y r u l e Co. R e m a i n i n g b l o c k s s c a t t e r e d . E x a m p l e D. C o l o r and S ize P r o b l e m . Six e r r o r s . T h e g r o u p o f t h r e e i s c o n s i d e r e d c o r r e c t b y r u l e A . T h e r e m a i n i n g b l o c k s a r e l e f t o v e r s ( r u l e E) o r p a i r e d m i s p l a c e m e n t s ( r u l e E ) . 0 R R R W E x a m p l e E. C o l o r and S ize P r o b l e m . Six e r r o r s . F o u r l e f t o v e r s and t w o m i s p l a c e m e n t s . T h e s u b g r o u p o f t h r e e b l u e c i r c l e s i s c o r r e c t b y r u l e B. R E x a m p l e F. C o l o r and F o r m P r o b l e m . F i v e e r r o r s . T h e two g r o u p s o f t w o a r e c o r r e c t b y r u l e A . T h e e r r o r s a r e the g r o u p o f f i v e m i s p l a c e -m e n t s . - 8 - A u g u s t 1963 M a n u a l f o r the G r a h a m - E r n h a r t B l o c k S o r t T e s t 88 L e v e l I V : A d m i n i s t r a t i o n a n d S c o r i n g . ( C o n t . ) E x a m p l e G: C o l o r and S ize P r o b l e m . F i v e e r r o r s . Five l e f t o v e r s . Note t ha t the g r o u p o f f o u r b l o c k s has b e e n a r r a n g e d i n t o t w o s u b g r o u p s each c o n t a i n i n g two b l o c k s o f l i k e c o l o r and one s u b g r o u p o f t w o b l o c k s o f l i k e s i z e . T h e two m i d d l e b l o c k s have been s o r t e d s i m u l t a n e o u s l y on b o t h c o n c e p t s . G r o u p o f f o u r c o r -r e c t by r u l e D. /B>) r \ E x a m p l e H. C o l o r and Size P r o b l e m . ' F i v e e r r o r s . T h r e e l e f t o v e r s and a p a i r o f m i s p l a c e m e n t s . T h e m i d d l e g r o u p o f f o u r b l o c k s i s c o r r e c t by r u l e s B and D. T h i s g r o u p i n v o l v e s one s u b g r o u p s o r t e d b y c o l o r , a n o t h e r s u b g r o u p s o r t e d by s i z e , and one b l o c k s o r t e d s i m u l t a n e o u s l y o n b o t h b a s e s . ® R W E x a m p l e I : F o r m and Size P r o b l e m . F o u r e r r o r s . One l e f t o v e r , one m i s p l a c e m e n t , and one p a i r e d m i s p l a c e m e n t . T h e c o r r e c t g r o u p o f t w o q u a l i f i e s b y r u l e A ; the c o r r e c t s u b g r o u p o f t h r e e b y r u l e B. o. A E x a m p l e J : C o l o r and S ize P r o b l e m . F o u r e r r o r s . T w o l e f t o v e r s , two m i s p l a c e m e n t s , R u l e s A and B m a k e the o t h e r f i v e b l o c k s c o r r e c t . - 9 - A u g u s t 1 9 6 3 M a n u a l f o r tho G r a h a m - E r n h a r t B l o c k S o r t T e s t 89 Level IV: Administrat ion and Scoring. (Cont.) E x a m p l e K. C o l o r and Size P r o b l e m . F o u r e r r o r s . The two s u b g r o u p s o f t h r e e on the l e f t s i d e o f the r o w (w i th one b l o c k s o r t e d s i m u l -t a n e o u s l y on bo th c o n c e p t s ) a r e c o r r e c t b y r u l e B. The t w o - m e m b e r s u b g r o u p o f b l u e c i r c l e s is i n c o r r e c t by r u l e C and the o t h e r t w o b l o c k s a r e m i s p l a c e m e n t s ( r u l e E ) . \ R E x a m p l e L. Size and C o l o r P r o b l e m . T h r e e e r r o r s . A l l l e f t o v e r s . T h e g r o u p s o f t h r e e a r e c o r r e c t b y r u l e A . W 0 E x a m p l e M : C o l o r and F o r m P r o b l e m . T h r e e e r r o r s . The e r r o r s a r e r e p r e s e n t e d b y a g r o u p o f t h r e e w h i c h c o n t a i n s a s u b g r o u p o f t w o and a m i s p l a c e m e n t ( r u l e C ^ ) . T h e r o w - g r o u p o f s i x b l o c k s c o n t a i n s two s u b g r o u p s o f t h r e e , and one s u b g r o u p o f t w o , w i t h t w o b l o c k s i n the r o w s o r t e d s i m u l t a n e o u s l y on two c o n -c e p t s and hence h a v i n g r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i n t w o s u b g r o u p i n g s . T b e e n t i r e r o w - g r o u p i s c o r r e c t by r u l e s B and D. E x a m p l e N. C o l o r and Size P r o b l e m . T w o e r r o r s . A m i s p l a c e m e n t and a l e f t o v e r . T h e t w o - m e m b e r g r o u p s a r e c o r r e c t b y r u l e A ; T h e t h r e e - m e m b e r s u b g r o u p b y r u l e B. R - 10 - A u g u s t 1963 M a n u a l f o r the G r a h a m - E r n h a r t B l o c k S o r t T e s t L e v e l I V : A d m i n i s t r a t i o n a n d S c o r i n g . ( C o n t . ) E x a m p l e O. C o l o r and S ize P r o b l e m . One e r r o r . (Ru le E) . T h e o t h e r s c o r r e c t by r u l e A . W 90 R E x a m p l e P. F o r m and Size P r o b l e m . Z e r o e r r o r s . y . The t w o - m e m b e r s q u a r e g r o u p and the t h r e e - m e m b e r t r i a n g l e g r o u p a r e c o r r e c t b y r u l e A . The r o w o f f o u r b l o c k s i s c o r r e c t b y r u l e s B and D. I t i n c l u d e s a s u b g r o u p o f t h r e e c i r c l e s and a n o t h e r o f t w o b l o c k s o f l i k e s i z e . A E x a m p l e Q. F o r m and S ize P r o b l e m . Z e r o e r r o r s . T h r e e - b l o c k s u b g r o u p s a r e a l w a y s c o r r e c t ( r u l e B ) and t w o - b l o c k s u b g r o u p s a r e c o r r e c t i n t h i s c a s e b e c a u s e t h e y f i t r u l e D. • E x a m p l e R. C o l o r and S ize P r o b l e m . Z e r o e r r o r s . A n e x a m p l e o f a p e r f e c t s o r t i n v o l v i n g s o r t i n g s i m u l t a n e o u s l y o n b o t h c o n c e p t s . T h e r e a r e s i x s u b g r o u p s o f t h r e e b l o c k s , a l l c o r r e c t b y r u l e s B and F. - 11 - A u g u s t 1963 ianual f o i the G r a h a m - E r n h a r t B l o c k S o r t T e s t V I Table of References r n h a r t , C. B., G r a h a m , [ ' ' ranees K., & T h u r s t o n , D. " R e l a t i o n s h i p o f Neona ta l A p n e a to D e v e l o p m e n t a t T h r e e Y e a r s . AMA Arch. Neurol . ; 1960, 2, 5 0 4 - 5 1 0 . r a h a m , F r a n c e s K., & B e r m e n , P h y l l i s \V. " C u r r e n t Status o f B e h a v i o r T e s t s f o r B r a i n D a m a g e i n In fan ts and P r e s c h o o l C h i l d r e n . " Amer. J . Orthopsychiat . , 1 9 6 1 , 3 1 , 7 1 3 - 7 2 7 . • r a h a m , F r a n c e s K., E r n h a r t , C. B., T h u r s t o n , D., & C r a f t , M a r g u e r i t e . " D e v e l o p m e n t T h r e e Y e a r s a f t e r . P e r i n a t a l A n o x i a and o t h e r P o t e n t i a l l y D a m a g i n g N e w b o r n E x p e r i e n c e s . " Psycho l . Monogr., 1962, 76, No. 3 (Who le No. 522) . T - 12 - A u g u s t 1963 A p p e n d i x B C o n s e n t F o r m L e t t e r A p p e n d i x C P i c t o r i a l R e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l S t i m u l i P i c t o r i a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l s t i m u l i — s c a l e 2/3 a c t u a l s i z e 

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