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The establishment of the Kelowna orcharding area : a study of accommodation to site and situation Reeves, Colin Malcolm 1973

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THE ESTABLISHMENT OF THE KELOWNA ORCHARDING AREA A STUDY OF ACCOMMODATION TO SITE AND SITUATION by COLIN MALCOLM REEVES B.A., U n i v e r s i t y of Oxford, 1971 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n the Department of Geography We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming t o the r e q u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA December, 1973 In presenting t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t f r e e l y available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of t h i s thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h i s representatives. It i s understood that copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s thesis f o r f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission. Department of GEOGRAPHY The University of B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada Date 1 s t . December 1975 ABSTRACT The focus o f . t h i s study i s the emergence of a s u c c e s s f u l orcharding i n d u s t r y as the economic base of the Kelowna area i n the Okanagan V a l l e y of southern B r i t i s h Columbia. The study seeks t o examine the per m i s s i v e f a c t o r s which f a c i l i t a t e d the developments t h a t shaped the nature of the i n d u s t r y and the area. Such f a c t o r s were the accommodation of f r u i t p r o d u c t i o n t o the l o c a l n a t u r a l environment, and then accommodation t o the wider market s i t u a t i o n of which Kelowna was a p a r t . N e i t h e r of these major adjustments was e f f e c t i v e l y made by the o r c h a r d i s t s alone; government a s s i s t a n c e i n s e v e r a l forms played an important r o l e . I n i t i a l l y the study focuses on a d a p t a t i o n t o environment. The area was f i r s t made f i t f o r orcharding by the i n s t a l l a t i o n of i r r i g a t i o n works t o overcome problems of a r i d i t y . Subsequently t h e r e was an i n f l u x of l a r g e l y i n e x p e r i e n c e d s e t t l e r s i n t o t h i s u n f a m i l a r environment. They made attempts t o g a i n understanding of orch a r d i n g techniques and the hazards and c o n s t r a i n t s of the new environment, e s p e c i a l l y r e l a t e d t o i t s s o i l s and c l i m a t e . G r a d u a l l y , c o s t l y adjustments were made and f r u i t p r o d u c t i o n was secured. This however h i g h l i g h t e d marketing d i f f i c u l t i e s . Kelowna i s s i t u a t e d r e l a t i v e l y i n a c c e s s i b l y i n the heart of the i n t e r i o r p l a t e a u . I t s produce, mostly a p p l e s , was I l l p e r i s h a b l e and markets \:ere both s p a t i a l l y and o r g a n i z a t i o n a l l y d i s t a n t . To reap the b e n e f i t s of more assured p r o d u c t i o n i t v/ac necessary t o r e d u c e e f f e c t i v e l y t h a t d i s t a n c e between producer and consumer by i n c r e a s i n g grower c o n t r o l over f r u i t d i s t r i b u t i o n and marketing. Most growers s o o n r e a l i s e d t h a t a surrender o f i n d i v i d u a l i s m t o complete c o - o p e r a t i o n the only way t o achieve t h i s , but a c e r t a i n d i s u n i t y of thought and a c t i o n among the o r c h a r d i s t s r e s u l t e d i n an impasse t h a t v/as only surmounted, w i t h the a i d of government l e g i s l a t i o n . I n a n t i c i p a t i o n t h a t a smoothly e f f i c i e n t o r c h a r d i n g i n d u s t r y v:ould soon be organised t o serve as the b a s i s and support of l i f e i n the area, kelowna soon developed the r e p u t a t i o n of being a pleasant and a t t r a c t i v e p l a c e t o l i v e . I t v/as an a n t i c i p a t i o n long u n f u l f i l l e d . Despite the area's n a t u r a l advantages and. the r e s o l u t i o n of the p h y s i c a l problems o f f r u i t p r e d i c t i o n , the nature o f the product and the s p a t i a l l y d i s p e r s e d and complex marketing system meant th a t o r c h a r d i n g was s t i l l economically u n c e r t a i n without the o r g a n i z a t i o n of an e f f i c i e n t l i n k between growers and market. Only when t h i s was accomplished could the Kelowna area be de s c r i b e d as a v i a b l e a g r i c u l t u r a l area w i t h a sound economic bas e. i v TABLE OP CONTENTS CHAPTER PAGE 1 INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Or i g i n s of Orcharding Settlement . . 6 2 THE LAND COMPANIES . . . . . . . . . 20 I l l C S p i j i O X l » e o o e • o • o » • a o 2 ''I IPHIDI 1 C X " b ^ O O O O O O O O O O O O O 2 6 The Promotional L i t e r a t u r e . . . . . 31 The Achievements . . . . . . . . . . 4-2 3 THE ESTABLISHMENT OF ORCHARDS . . . 48 Environment and Education 49 The I r r i g a t i o n Systems . . . . . . . 60 F r u i t P r o d u c t i o n . . . . . . . . . . 81 4 FRUIT MARKETS AND MARKETING . . . . 97 The Marketing Process . . . . . . . 99 Market O r g a n i z a t i o n .. . ... . . . . 1 1 6 CONCLUSION . s o . o . . . . . . . . 152 B I B I J I O G R A P H Y . o o . a . o s . e a . 1 58 APPENDIX o o o o o o o o o o o o o o l 7 3 (Photographs of Kelowna, 1905-1912.) V LIST OF TABLES (NUMBER) (PAGE) I Water Usage, 1915 . . . . . . . . . e « o o a . 67 I I Number of f r u i t t r e e s at Kelowna o o • o o . 82 I I I Y i e l d s & r e t u r n s f o r Okanagan apple v a r i e t i e s . 84 IV Apple V a r i e t i e s at Kelowna . . . . e o e o Q . 88 V F r e i g h t Rates, mid-1930s . . . . . • e e • a . 105 VI D i s t r i b u t i o n of Okanagan apple crop 1935-1940 . 109 V I I ' Sales of apples by r e t a i l d e a l e r s 1934-1935 « . 111 LIST OF FIGURES 1 Kelowna temperatures . . . . . . . . o o o e o . 50 2 Kelowna p r e c i p i t a t i o n . , O 0 O O O . 61 3 The P r a i r i e markets 1925-1934 . . . a o o o o . 113 LIST OF MAPS 1 K© 1OWH. 3- o o o o e o o o o o o o o o o o o o a o 3 2 South-west B r i t i s h Columbia . . . . . o o o o o . 12 3 Land Companies . . . . . . . . . . o o o e o . 23 4 I r r i g a t i o n Systems . . . . . . . . . o e o o o . 63 v i PREFACE The i n f o r m a t i o n f o r t h i s study was obtained through re s e a r c h i n t o a r c h i v a l and secondary m a t e r i a l s , and through pe r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w s , conducted over an e i g h t month p e r i o d d u r i n g the w i n t e r and s p r i n g of 1972-73. Although the b u l k of the i n f o r m a t i o n was obtained i n the Okanagan, p e r i o d newspapers were s t u d i e d i n the P r o v i n c i a l L i b r a r y i n V i c t o r i a , and the Water R i g h t s Branch there a l s o h e l d some u s e f u l r e p o r t s . Considerable use was made of the s e s , books and j o u r n a l s i n the S p e c i a l C o l l e c t i o n s D i v i s i o n of the Main L i b r a r y at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. I n Kelowna, w r i t t e n records loaned to me by o f f i c e s and p r i v a t e i n d i v i d u a l s i n c l u d e d company m a t e r i a l , Royal Commission r e p o r t s , B.C. Department of A g r i c u l t u r e r e p o r t s and pamphlets, as w e l l as some land company brochures. C e r t a i n p r i v a t e r e p o r t s and memoranda were a l s o made a v a i l a b l e . The Kelowna C e n t e n n i a l Museum holds the m a j o r i t y of the land, companies' a d v e r t i s i n g brochures. None of the l a n d company records are s t i l l i n e x i s t e n c e , so t h i s l i t e r a t u r e , though b i a s e d by the a d v e r t i s i n g o b j e c t i v e , C o n s t i t u t e s the main w r i t t e n source of data on the companies. Complementing the w r i t t e n m a t e r i a l was a s e r i e s of p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w s conducted i n the C e n t r a l Okanagan. Some d e t a i l s of the i n t e r v i e w e e s are given at the end of the b i b l i o g r a p h y . No q u e s t i o n n a i r e s or set p a t t e r n s of i n t e r v i e w v i i were used because the number of r e l i a b l e informants was few. I n d e a l i n g w i t h the decades of the 1920s and 1930s, i t was p o s s i b l e t o corroborate f a c t u a l i n f o r m a t i o n given i n i n t e r v i e w s w i t h documents and r e c o r d s , but f o r the p e r i o d of the land companies i t was harder t o cross-check such i n f o r m a t i o n . Furthermore, onl y two i n t e r v i e w e e s had a c t u a l l y been employed i n prominent p o s i t i o n s i n the land, companies. Much of the other i n f o r m a t i o n came from informants who had been c h i l d r e n at the time, and they recounted l a r g e l y what they had been t o l d by t h e i r f a t h e r s . On some t o p i c s the i n t e r v i e w s were the only source of i n f o r m a t i o n . In these i n s t a n c e s o n l y such information- t h a t the w r i t e r Judged as r e l i a b l e was used i n the t e x t , and because many of the informants were e l d e r l y , the i n f o r m a t i o n quoted comes as f a r as p o s s i b l e from those whose memories seemed c l e a r e s t and most r e l i a b l e . There are one or two places i n the t e x t , c l e a r l y i n d i c a t e d , where r e c o l l e c t i o n s and data f a i l e d completely; i n these cases the w r i t e r has i n s e r t e d h i s own considered estimates t o f i l l the gap. The w r i t e r wishes to thank a l l h i s i n t e r v i e w e e s and informants f o r t h e i r a s s i s t a n c e and c o - o p e r a t i o n i n the r e s e a r c h f o r t h i s t h e s i s . P a r t i c u l a r l y h e l p f u l were Mr. L.R.Stephens, Mr. W.R.Carruthers, Mr. Len L e a t h l e y and Mr. P.McCallum of the B.C. Tree F r u i t Board O f f i c e i n Kelowna. The w r i t e r a l s o wishes to thank Mrs. Yandle of the S p e c i a l v i i i C o l l e c t i o n s D i v i s i o n of the Main L i b r a r y at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia f o r her a s s i s t a n c e i n many ways, and Mrs. Surtees and Mrs. Upton of the Kelowna C e n t e n n i a l Museum f o r making so r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e the museum's documents, photographs and other m a t e r i a l s . S p e c i a l thanks go t o Dr. R.C.Harris my a d v i s e r , and to Dr. J.L.Robinson f o r t h e i r guidance and encouragement du r i n g the p r e p a r a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s . 1 Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION Although orchards were p l a n t e d as e a r l y as the 1890s, not u n t i l the end of the 1 9 3 0 s was the Kelowna area e s t a b l i s h e d as a s u c c e s s f u l orcharding r e g i o n . This h i s t o r i c a l geography seeks t o t r a c e the c r e a t i o n and subsequent e v o l u t i o n of t h i s d i s t i n c t i v e p l a c e , p a r t i c u l a r l y t o show the importance of a gradual accommodation of a c t i v i t y t o environment and t o the f a c t of r e l a t i v e i s o l a t i o n . Although the developments were i n some ways s i m i l a r t o those i n other p a r t s of the Okanagan, and although they were set i n the general westward movement of the Canadian settlement f r o n t i e r , the p a r t i c u l a r c h a r a c t e r of the Kelowna area and i t s s e t t l e r s r e s u l t e d i n a d i s t i n c t i v e type of s e t t l e m e n t , o r g a n i z a t i o n and landscape. The foundations of the area l a y i n the establishment of commercial o r c h a r d i n g , which was interwoven w i t h the beginnings of l a r g e s c a l e settlement of the area i n and a f t e r the 1890s. The spread of orchard acreage, as f r u i t t r e e s r e p l a c e d bunchgrass and f o r e s t , was obvious i n the landscape. I t was only made p o s s i b l e through many u n d e r l y i n g f a c t o r s which served t o s t a b i l i z e and endorse t h a t acreage as a v i a b l e and p r o f i t a b l e i n d u s t r y and as the b a s i s of l i f e i n the area. The study i s not an economic h i s t o r y of 2 i n d u s t r i a l developments, nor i s i t a gen e r a l r e g i o n a l study of Kelowna and i t s h i n t e r l a n d . I t attempts t o i d e n t i f y the c r i t i c a l f a c t o r s which p e r m i t t e d and f a c i l i t a t e d the Kelowna area to develop as i t d i d , almost t o t a l l y dependent on one type of l a n d use. Without the understanding of these f a c t o r s the spread of orcharding and e v o l u t i o n of the area i s i n e x p l i c a b l e . During the i n i t i a l years of major settlement and orcharding development, s e t t l e r s s t r u g g l e d t o adapt t o the environment. The l a n d had great p o t e n t i a l . I t comprised an approximately f i f t y square m i l e embayrnent of r e l a t i v e l y g e n t l y s l o p i n g t e r r a i n (see Map 1 ) , whereas around most of Okanagan Lake the land r i s e s s t e e p l y from the shores. Behind the f l o o d p l a i n s of M i l l and M i s s i o n Creeks r i s e t i e r s of g l a c i o - f l u v i a l t e r r a c e s , the 'benchlands', formed d u r i n g the l a s t Ice Age when the lak e l e v e l was h i g h e r . Okanagan Lake i s now at 1120 f t . above sea l e v e l , and the hi g h e s t orchards were p l a n t e d on the benchlands at 1800 f t . , above which are f o r e s t e d slopes and mountains r i s i n g t o over 4-000 f t . . Most of the s e t t l e r s who a r r i v e d i n the area knew nothing of i t s s o i l s and c l i m a t e , and few had any h o r t i c u l t u r a l s k i l l s a p p l i c a b l e t o i r r i g a t e d o r c h a r d i n g . Thus the e a r l y years p l a c e d a great s t r a i n on a s p i r i n g o r c h a r d i s t s who had to g a i n understanding of the new environment. I t took time t o d i s c e r n the s u b t l e t i e s of environmental c o n s t r a i n t s and hazards, and more time t o ad j u s t and adapt t o them. G r a d u a l l y though, experience was 3 MAP 1 4 gained and a more r e l i a b l e f r u i t p r o d u c t i o n was secured. However, growing p r o d u c t i o n p l a c e d a g r e a t e r l o a d on the marketing processes which were not able t o meet these demands. There were many marketing problems, based mainly on Kelowna's f r o n t i e r s i t u a t i o n , general i n a c c e s s i b i l i t y and s p a t i a l l y d i s p e r s e d marketing system. Kelowna had no r a i l l i n k w i t h the outside u n t i l 1 9 2 5 , i t was s e v e r a l hundred mi l e s from i t s main domestic markets and s e v e r a l thousand from the export markets, y e t i t s products were of a p e r i s h a b l e n a t u r e , and a r e l a t i v e l u x u r y . The developments to overcome these disadvantages i n v o l v e d the area's changing s p a t i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h the outside world. Changes i n t r a n s p o r t networks, f r e i g h t r a t e s and technology a f f e c t e d t h i s . More fundamental were the growers' attempts t o reduce e f f e c t i v e l y the d i s t a n c e between themselves and the markets by extending t h e i r i n f l u e n c e f u r t h e r i n t o the marketing process, t o b r i n g d i s t a n t agents under l o c a l c o n t r o l , or by-pass them a l t o g e t h e r . En route t o the markets, the f r u i t had to pass through the hands of many middlemen - packers, s h i p p e r s , brokers and jobbers - whose charges s e v e r e l y reduced the p r o f i t s t h a t were returned t o growers. The Kelowna area was marginal i n two senses - i t was too a r i d f o r orcharding and i t was remote from i t s markets. The surmounting of the f i r s t d i f f i c u l t y was an absolute p r e r e q u i s i t e f o r the establishment of commercial o r c h a r d i n g . The s c a l e of the problem, and the vastness of the i r r i g a t i o n 5 systems to be i n s t a l l e d meant t h a t the s o l u t i o n came not through i n d i v i d u a l ventures, but through the e n t e r p r i s e of l a r g e companies. Government a s s i s t a n c e was a l s o very important d u r i n g these i n i t i a l y e a r s , s i n c e i t was l a r g e l y due to the e f f o r t s of government a d v i s e r s and government supported r e s e a r c h t h a t the o r c h a r d i s t s q u i c k l y l e a r n t the i n t r i c a c i e s of t h e i r new environment and of orcharding techniques. L a t e r , i t was the government t h a t provided the e s s e n t i a l f i n a n c i a l support t o enable the o r c h a r d i s t s t o assume c o n t r o l and o p e r a t i o n of the i r r i g a t i o n systems. I n order f o r commercial orcharding t o be an economically v i a b l e b a s i s f o r the Kelowna area, i t was a l s o necessary to n u l l i f y the adverse e f f e c t s of the d i s p e r s e d marketing system as much as p o s s i b l e . This was achieved, through the f o u n d a t i o n of l a r g e c o - o p e r a t i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n s , and with government a s s i s t a n c e . The understanding of orcharding developments i s bound up w i t h the i n t e r p l a y between i n d i v i d u a l i s m and c o - o p e r a t i o n . The e a r l y pioneers of orcharding had had t o be i n d i v i d u a l i s t s t o s u r v i v e ; l a t e r , i n d i v i d u a l i s m was r e l i n q u i s h e d as s e t t l e r s became dependent on the land companies and the government, as w e l l as on market o r g a n i z a t i o n s . S e t t l e r s soon came t o r e a l i s e t h a t v o l u n t a r y c o - o p e r a t i o n f o r c o l l e c t i v e r a t h e r than independent a c t i o n ivas the only route toward the e x t e n s i o n of grower c o n t r o l i n t o the marketing system. I n d i v i d u a l i n t e r e s t s and o p p o r t u n i t i e s at the expense of the m a j o r i t y had t o be constrained., u n i t e d a c t i o n f o r the common good was 6 e s s e n t i a l . I t a l s o became c l e a r t h a t no scheme could succeed without complete grower support, m a j o r i t y support was i n s u f f i c i e n t . There were many o b s t a c l e s t o the achievement of e f f e c t i v e market c o n t r o l and the g o a l was only reached i n 1939 (the date at which t h i s study ends) a f t e r over a decade of government e f f o r t s t o pass workable and enforceable l e g i s l a t i o n embodying these p r i n c i p l e s of c o - o p e r a t i o n i n a f r u i t marketing scheme. I t i s i r o n i c , i f not s u r p r i s i n g , t h a t an understanding of the Kelowna area must be r o o t e d i n t h i s e x t e n s i o n of c o - o p e r a t i v e grower c o n t r o l over a l l aspects of the i n d u s t r y except the orchards themselves. The p r i n c i p l e s of c o - o p e r a t i o n approached the orchards no more c l o s e l y than the l o c a l packing houses' o p e r a t i o n of the p o o l i n g c o n t r o l s f o r p r o f i t r e t u r n s . The orchard was the only p a r t of the i n d u s t r y which remained under i n d i v i d u a l c o n t r o l throughout the f i f t y year p e r i o d . A l l the developments, c o - o p e r a t i o n and i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z a t i o n were designed u l t i m a t e l y t o shore up the v i a b i l i t y of i n d i v i d u a l orchards. O r i g i n s of orcharding settlement The Kelowna area has only been s e t t l e d by people of European background s i n c e 1859. I n i t i a l l y the l a n d was p r i m a r i l y devoted to r a n c h i n g ; the bunch grass was abundant and an e x t e n s i v e form of l a n d use was s u i t e d t o the s m a l l number of e a r l y s e t t l e r s . Above a l l , there was market s t i m u l u s . Oregon and Washington cattlemen were d r i v i n g c a t t l e n o r t h through the Okanagan to the Cariboo miners, i n 7 the 1860s. Some p a r t i c i p a n t s of these c a t t l e d r i v e s , as w e l l as disenchanted miners and. other groups of people, soon s e t t l e d i n the Okanagan and adopted c a t t l e ranching as a means of a p p r o p r i a t i n g some of the l u c r a t i v e t r a d e . As the Cariboo markets dwindled i n the l a t e 1860s the Okanagan ranchers turned t h e i r a t t e n t i o n s mainly t o the coast and. i s l a n d c i t i e s of New Westminster, Nanaimo and V i c t o r i a . These c i t i e s provided a more s t a b l e market although one i l l connected t o the Okanagan. C a t t l e had t o be d r i v e n west e i t h e r v i a P r i n c e t o n or round v i a Kamloops, through mountain and canyon t e r r a i n . Even so, by the end of the 1880s there were s e v e r a l ranches w i t h l a r g e herds i n the Kelowna area - nota b l y A.B.Knox's, Georgw Whelan's, Lequime's w i t h 1300 head of c a t t l e , and P o s t i l l ' s up i n E l l i s o n w i t h 1500 head. For three decades the ran c h i n g economy was dominant i n Kelowna, as i n the Okanagan i n ge n e r a l . F r u i t had been grown i n the Okanagan ever s i n c e the Oblate Fathers s t a r t e d a s m a l l apple orchard on t h e i r a r r i v a l at Okanagan M i s s i o n i n 1859. At the n o r t h end of the v a l l e y i n the 1880s, P r i c e E l l i s o n , a l a r g e ranch owner, had a home orchard w i t h a p p l e s , c h e r r i e s and plums. To the south, Judge Haynes had an orchard-garden on the shores of 'Sooyoos Lake'. Peach and apple t r e e s were grown from seed 2 and melons were watered by hand. These were but two examples of the sm a l l home orchards t h a t were common throughout the v a l l e y , whose produce was p u r e l y f o r home 8 consumption. Thus w e l l before the 1890s i t was known t h a t e x c e l l e n t f r u i t grew w e l l , although at the time c o n d i t i o n s were not r i g h t f o r expansion of orchards on a commercial s c a l e . By the l a t e 1880s the p o p u l a t i o n of the Okanagan was s t i l l extremely sparse; f o r the Okanagan M i s s i o n s u b d i s t r i c t the 1891 census g i v e s a f i g u r e of only 348. This was d e s p i t e the easy and cheap pre-emption system, by f a r the most common method of l a n d a c q u i s i t i o n i n the Okanagan. I n the i n t e r i o r of the p r o v i n c e , i n c l u d i n g the Okanagan, no more than 320 acres could be pre-empted by any one person and there were r e g u l a t i o n s as t o occupancy and improvements t h a t had to be made. The main advantage was the p r i c e of the l a n d at $1 per a c r e . This could be p a i d i n f o u r y e a r l y i n s t a l m e n t s a f t e r which a Grown Grant f o r the l a n d was made out. Thus new s e t t l e r s w i t h l i t t l e c a p i t a l c o u l d acquire land and begin t o farm. During the decade of the 1890s the r a n c h i n g economy gave way t o o r c h a r d i n g i n the Kelowna area. The f i r s t commercial orchard i n the Okanagan was p l a n t e d i n 1890 by James G a r t r e l l at Trout Creek P o i n t near Summerland,^ at a time when the ranching economy was i n i n c r e a s i n g d i f f i c u l t y . The bunchgrass ranges were becoming depleted as sagebrush r e p l a c e d them, and th e r e was the problem of sharpening c o m p e t i t i o n from P r a i r i e beef c a t t l e , the commodity i n which the Okanagan had s p e c i a l i s e d . The P r a i r i e s were undergoing a great i n f l u x of s e t t l e r s , soon t o be r e i n f o r c e d by the 9 p o l i c i e s of S i r C l i f f o r d S i f t o n . L a u r i e r ' s M i n i s t e r of the I n t e r i o r . He i n c r e a s e d immigration i n t o Canada t e n - f o l d between 1895 and 1905° His p o l i c i e s had most e f f e c t on the P r a i r i e s where the p o p u l a t i o n rose from 250,000 i n 1891 t o over 800,000 i n 1906.^ As t h i s i n f l u x damaged the o l d ranching economy i t spurred on the new. Only the h a r d i e s t of apples grew on the P r a i r i e s and the area, though d i s t a n t , c o n s t i t u t e d a major p o t e n t i a l market f o r Okanagan f r u i t . A l s o , many of the s e t t l e r s who were l a t e r t o come t o the Okanagan under the auspices of the land companies were d i s s a t i s f i e d P r a i r i e immigrants. S e t t l e r s were coming westwards l o o k i n g f o r l a n d and the ranchers were having t o er e c t fences t o p r o t e c t t h e i r l a n d s . The end of the great e s t a t e ranch was near. One man who e a r l y r e a l i s e d the changes underway i n the Okanagan was George G.MacKay, a d i r e c t o r of the Bank of B r i t i s h Columbia. He v i s i t e d the Okanagan i n 1890 and a p p r e c i a t e d the p o s s i b i l i t i e s of f u r t h e r development of M i s s i o n V a l l e y (as the Kelowna area was then known), i f i t were set out t o grow f r u i t and vegetables r a t h e r than hay and g r a i n s . I n the face of growing demands f o r l a n d , he purchased s e v e r a l ranches t o t a l l i n g around 2500 a c r e s , near Kelowna and Vernon. He d i v i d e d the l a n d i n t o l o t s of between t e n and f o r t y acres and a d v e r t i s e d them f o r s a l e as f r u i t l a n d s . They were on the f l a t lowlands r a t h e r than the benches and so had easy access t o water. MacKay's lands s o l d at up t o $60 per acre and were a t t r a c t i v e f o r the many s e t t l e r s on the lookout f o r 10 6 sm a l l h o l d i n g s . . This land s u b d i v i s i o n predated the a r r i v a l of the r a i l w a y at Okanagan Landing near the head of the l a k e , so the i n f l u x of s e t t l e r s was s t i l l r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l . However, the example was t o be f o l l o w e d by many of the ranch owners i n the Okanagan. One of MacKay*s f i r s t s a l e s i n 1890 was of 4-80 acres to the E a r l of Aberdeen who was on a v i s i t t o Canada. He decided t o devote t h i s Kelowna property - the 'Guisachan' -t o f r u i t growing and a b i g i r r i g a t i o n d i t c h from M i s s i o n Creek was put i n . I n the s p r i n g of 1892, 120 acres were p l a n t e d . There were 4-350 apple t r e e s , 1600 pear t r e e s , as v/e l l as plums, prunes, c h e r r i e s and peaches. C u r r a n t s , r a s p b e r r i e s , b l a c k b e r r i e s , gooseberries and s t r a w b e r r i e s 7 were a l s o grown.' An orcha r d i n g o p e r a t i o n of t h i s s c a l e as a pioneer e f f o r t i n a newly opened area a t t r a c t e d much a t t e n t i o n and served as a precedent and example. The a s s o c i a t i o n of the E a r l ' s name w i t h Keloxraa and the Okanagan i n general gave p u b l i c i t y and p r e s t i g e , e s p e c i a l l y a f t e r 1883 when he was appointed Governor-General of Canada. The most fundamental development of the 1890s was the opening of the r a i l w a y i n t o the Okanagan i n 1892. T r a v e l t o B r i t i s h Columbia had been made much e a s i e r by the completion of the Canadian P a c i f i c Railway i n 1885 and the railv/a y became the main e x t e r n a l connection of the Okanagan V a l l e y . But, i n 1885 the nearest p o i n t on the main l i n e t o Okanagan Lake was Salmon Arm, t h i r t y m i l e s d i s t a n t . By 1887 a c h a r t e r was granted t o the Shuswap and Okanagan Railway t o connect 11 the l a k e w i t h the main l i n e and thereby t o open up the Okanagan f o r settlement on a l a r g e s c a l e . By December 1891 the branch l i n e from Sicamous J u n c t i o n reached Vernon and Q two months l a t e r , the lakeshore at Okanagan Landing. The l i n e v/as opened i n May 1892 and the C.P.R. inaugurated i t s t h r i c e weekly steamer s e r v i c e down the l a k e . For the f i r s t t i me, access i n t o the v a l l e y became easy (see Map 2 ) . The new sternwheeler, "S.S. Aberdeen" was 146 f t . long and over twice the l e n g t h of any previous lake boat. She connected w i t h the t r a i n s and c a r r i e d passengers, f r e i g h t and l i v e s t o c k t o a l l lake p o i n t s . The railway-steamer combination was the s t a r t of s u b s t a n t i a l settlement of the shores of Okanagan Lake. The t r a n s i t i o n t o o r c h a r d i n g was r e l a t i v e l y abrupt but had c o n s i d e r a b l e i n i t i a l impetus. The beginnings of commercial or c h a r d i n g i n the i n t e r i o r of the province i n h e r i t e d l i t t l e from the previous ranching economy. The i n d u s t r y began w i t h a c l e a n s l a t e . I n Kelowna, some of the f l a t l a n d s f i r s t used f o r orchards had. been c l e a r e d of sagebrush and t r e e s by the ranchers, but not a l l ; the benchlands t h a t l a t e r formed the g r e a t e s t c o n c e n t r a t i o n of orchards were as yet untouched. Roads i n the 1890s were i n v e r y poor c o n d i t i o n and houses and s e r v i c e s were few. The ranch owners made money from the s a l e of lands e i t h e r t o l a n d agents or d i r e c t l y t o incoming s e t t l e r s , and many of them then r e t i r e d or l e f t the d i s t r i c t . Those who stayed, knew l i t t l e more of orcharding than d i d the new a r r i v a l s ; SOUTH-WEST B.C. 4 N A S H C R O F T , 5 0 Miles R E V E L S T O K E S I C A M O U S OKANAGA LAK H O P E P R I N C E T O N O K A N A G A N L A N D I N G K E L O W N A P E N T I C T O N ) N E L S O N O S O Y O O S MIDWAY R O S S L A N D 13 nor were they able t o f u r n i s h d e t a i l e d knowledge of the environmental v a r i a b l e s so c r i t i c a l f o r o r c h a r d i n g success. The ranchers' preoccupations had been w i t h hardy g r a i n s and g r a s s e s , w e l l w i t h i n t h e i r l i m i t s of c l i m a t i c t o l e r a n c e i n t h i s area, whereas the Okanagan o r c h a r d i s t s were growing f r u i t near the c o n t i n e n t s northernmost l i m i t s of o r c h a r d i n g . Despite the a u s p i c i o u s developments at the beginning of the 1890s, the spread of settlement and orcharding i n the Kelowna area was slow. The t o w n s i t e of Kelowna, corresponding t o the heart of the modern c i t y , was planned and r e g i s t e r e d i n 1892, but by 1901 the town's p o p u l a t i o n 9 was s t i l l o nly 261. At t h i s t i m e , Kelowna was the second l a r g e s t settlement i n the Okanagan, Vernon on the r a i l w a y l i n e had a p o p u l a t i o n of 802, a l l the t r a f f i c i n or out of the v a l l e y had t o pass through i t . By 1904, the date of the establishment of the f i r s t l a n d company, i t i s probable t h a t the t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n of the Kelowna area d i d not exceed 10 1000, s i n c e the mam developed areas were only the f l a t l a n d s between Kelowna and Okanagan M i s s i o n . There were r e l a t i v e l y few s e t t l e r s i n the surrounding benchland areas around the t u r n of the century. I n c o n t r a s t t o the slow growth, were the successes of s e v e r a l w e a l t h i e r s e t t l e r s who a r r i v e d d u r i n g the 1890s w i t h c a p i t a l enough t o p l a n t s i z e a b l e acreages. One such s e t t l e r was Commander T . W . S t i r l i n g , r e t i r e d from the Royal Navy. He a r r i v e d i n 1894 and t h a t year p l a n t e d seventeen acres of a p p l e s , pears and prunes, the nucleus of the l a r g e Bankhead 14 Orchard, j u s t o u t s i d e the c i t y . Returns came w i t h i n a few years and i t was noted t h a t the Okanagan t r e e s were r e a c h i n g 11 m a t u r i t y f a s t e r than s i m i l a r t r e e s i n O n t a r i o . By 1898 the Bankhead Orchard was j u s t coming i n t o p r o d u c t i o n and the 35 acre orchard of J.L.Pridham, another prominent s e t t l e r , v/as al r e a d y renowned, f o r i t s f r u i t . The e a r l y successes of these l a r g e r ventures p r o v i d e d evidence of the s u i t a b i l i t y of the area f o r o r c h a r d i n g . The m a j o r i t y of s e t t l e r s though, had t o do a l l the work p e r s o n a l l y and success was not e a s i l y won. They f a c e d the t a s k of p r e p a r i n g land f o r an orchard, and t h i s i n v o l v e d much p h y s i c a l t o i l . The land had t o be c l e a r e d of t r e e cover and the o f t e n dense sagebrush undergrowth. I t had to be ploughed and p l a n t e d , a f t e r which the f r u i t t r e e s had t o be tended. Nor i n those days was t h e r e a compant t o i n s t a l l an i r r i g a t i o n system, the s e t t l e r had t o c o n s t r u c t h i s own. Moreover, the t r a n s p o r t system v/as inadequate. During most of these e a r l y years f r u i t output was s m a l l as only some of the t r e e s were i n b e a r i n g . Most of the f r u i t v/as absorbed by markets w i t h i n the p r o v i n c e , p a r t i c u l a r l y the Kootenay mining tov/ns and the Lower Mainland. I n i t i a l l y most of the f r u i t v/as dispa t c h e d by express f r e i g h t , but as volume i n c r e a s e d , r a i l w a y c a r l o a d s were used. To permit l o a d i n g of carload's at Kelowna, they had t o be barged t o and from the r a i l h e a d at Okanagan Landing. Although the steamer s e r v i c e had made p o s s i b l e the beginnings of major settlement of the Kelowna area, the connection v/as slow and 15 i n f r e q u e n t , d e p a r t i n g f o r Vernon only every other day. The only road out of Kelowna was t o Vernon and i t was i n too poor a c o n d i t i o n t o be used f o r t r a n s p o r t i n g f r u i t , a l l of which thus had to be shipped up the l a k e . This i n v o l v e d e x t r a c o s t s as w e l l as del a y and damage due t o h a n d l i n g . Around the t u r n of the century there were many r a i l w a y schemes drawn up w i t h i n the p r o v i n c e . One p r o p o s a l - the Midway & Vernon - was t o extend the Columbia & Western l i n e , then l e a s e d by the C.P.R., west and n o r t h t o Vernon from the e x i s t i n g terminus at Midway. The c h a r t e r a p p l i c a t i o n was f i r s t made i n 1900 and the p r o j e c t e d route was v i a the west 12 f o r k of the K e t t l e R i v e r . Kelowna i t s e l f was t o be connected by a spur to the main l i n e which would pass above and t o the east of the town. The advantages of t h i s r a i l w a y to Kelowna appeared c o n s i d e r a b l e , since f r u i t going east or west would be c a r r i e d a l l the way by r a i l . I n p a r t i c u l a r , f r u i t f o r the Kootenays c o u l d be sent d i r e c t r a t h e r than v i a the roundabout route through Sicamous and along the C.P.R. main l i n e . Unless t h i s f r u i t went by r a i l v i a Calgary, the route to the Kootenays south from Revelstoke i n v o l v e d s e v e r a l transshipments. "With the Midway & Vernon, f r u i t would a r r i v e i n the Kootenays more q u i c k l y and at a f r e i g h t r a t e c o m p e t i t i v e w i t h f r u i t brought i n from the United S t a t e s over the Great Northern Railway. The men advocating t h i s r a i l w a y c h a r t e r were "pioneers 1 -5 of the d i s t r i c t " ^ and were very eager t o see the l i n e b u i l t , but the 04-000 per mile subsidy o f f e r e d by the government was 16 i n s u f f i c i e n t t o s t a r t the p r o j e c t . The government would not promise, as i t had done i n the case of the Shuswap & Okanagan l i n e , t o guarantee the i n t e r e s t on the bonds. The p l a n was f i n a l l y shelved i n 1908 when, w i t h the c h a r t e r f o r the l i n e about t o l a p s e , the C.P.R. i n d i c a t e d i t s i n t e n t i o n t o b u i l d the K e t t l e V a l l e y Railway through t o P e n t i c t o n , 14 r a t h e r than the l i n e t o Vernon v i a Kelowna. Probably the s m a l l amount of i r r i g a b l e l a n d was the most severe l i m i t a t i o n t o the e a r l y development of orcharding i n the Kelowna area. The f l a t l a n d s s t r e t c h i n g from the la k e t o the f o o t of the lowest benches were much the e a s i e s t lands to i r r i g a t e ; the pre-emption records 15 i n d i c a t e t h a t t h i s v/as the f i r s t developed l a n d . ^ Because the benchlands are composed of d e t r i t a l f l u v i a l and g l a c i a l m a t e r i a l s , streams are deeply entrenched, and so the e x t e n s i o n of orcharding onto the benches n e c e s s i t a t e d much more ext e n s i v e and c o s t l y i r r i g a t i o n works. But, i r r i g a t i o n on the f l a t l a n d s v/as no simple matter. The system of water r i g h t s i n o p e r a t i o n dated back t o a complicated s e r i e s of Laws, Ordinances, Proclamations and Regulations beginning i n the l a t e 1850s. The s t a t u t e s were a l l couched i n vague terms and were the source of constant d i s p u t e s , e.g. Every person l a v / f u l l y occupying and bona f i d e c u l t i v a t i n g lands may d i v e r t any unoccupied water from the n a t u r a l channel of any stream, l a k e , or r i v e r adjacent t o or p a s s i n g through such l a n d , f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l and other purposes. . . 16 P r i o r i t y of r i g h t to any such water p r i v i l e g e , i n case of d i s p u t e , s h a l l depend on p r i o r i t y of r e c o r d . 17 17 This l a t t e r s e c t i o n i n e f f e c t gave the h o l d e r of the f i r s t r e c o r d on a stream a monopoly of the water, d e s p i t e c l a u s e s s t a t i n g t h a t overuse or w i l f u l waste of water v/as an o f f e n c e . 1 8 To secure water f o r t h e i r l a n d s , i n d i v i d u a l s b u i l t t h e i r own p r i v a t e i r r i g a t i o n systems. Most of these were i n s t a l l e d on the f l a t l a n d s , the three l a r g e s t s e r v i n g s e p a r a t e l y Lord Aberdeen's p r o p e r t y , and the Bankhead and Pridham orchards. As more of these systems came i n t o o p e r a t i o n the problems of water shortage became more acute. Although J.H.Rutland had brought i r r i g a t i o n water onto h i s lands on the Rutland benches, l a r g e s c a l e development e s p e c i a l l y of the more d i s s e c t e d benchlands of the Belgo and East and. South Kelowna had t o await o r g a n i z a t i o n s w i t h s u f f i c i e n t c a p i t a l t o i n s t a l l i r r i g a t i o n systems t h e r e . The problem was e v i d e n t l y understood as e a r l y as 1894; Mr. C r o z i e r of the A g r i c u l t u r a l and Trades A s s o c i a t i o n thought the v a l l e y (meaning the Okanagan M i s s i o n V a l l e y ) c o u l d support 5000 s e t t l e r s i f water could be got t o the benches. As r e p o r t e d i n the Vernon News of October 18th. 1894, "He thought t h a t i n d i v i d u a l owners would not be able t o i n c u r the expense, but a m u n i c i p a l i t y c o u l d borrow money at a cheap r a t e f o r a long term of ye a r s , do the work and charge i t t o the owners (of the orchards) i n the form of an annual r a t e . " I n f a c t t h i s development was undertaken not by m u n i c i p a l i t i e s but by l a r g e p r i v a t e l a n d and i r r i g a t i o n 18 companies. Since 1890 there had been minimal o r g a n i z a t i o n , beyond some l a n d s u b d i v i s i o n , i n the establishment of orchards and se t t l e m e n t , even though c a p i t a l expended at the i n d i v i d u a l l e v e l had i n some cases been c o n s i d e r a b l e . I n d i v i d u a l e n t e r p r i s e gave the i n d u s t r y i t s i n i t i a l momentum but development at t h i s s c a l e was t o t a l l y inadequate t o r e a l i s e the f u l l p o t e n t i a l of the a g r i c u l t u r a l lands around Kelowna. P h y s i c a l c o n s t r a i n t s l i m i t e d the area t h a t c o u l d be developed f o r orchards i n t h i s i n d i v i d u a l piecemeal f a s h i o n . Soon a f t e r the t u r n of the centu r y , p r i v a t e development on the i n d i v i d u a l l e v e l had reached the edges of the e a s i l y i r r i g a t e d f l a t l a n d s . To c o n s t r u c t the complex i r r i g a t i o n systems necessary t o develop the benchlands, a g r e a t e r and more ela b o r a t e o r g a n i z a t i o n of c a p i t a l and resources was r e q u i r e d . FOOTNOTES: 1 M.K.DeBeck, " P r i c e E l l i s o n " , T w e l f t h Report of the Okanagan H i s t o r i c a l S o c i e t y , 1948, p. 51• 2 H.E.White, "John Carmichael Haynes", B r i t i s h Columbia  H i s t o r i c a l Q u a r t e r l y , v o l . IV, ( J u l y 1940), p. 199. 3 T h i r d Census of Canada, 1891, Ottawa, v o l . I , t a b l e I I , p. 10. 4 F.W.Andrew, "The F i r s t Commercial Orchard i n Okanagan V a l l e y " , Eighteenth Report of the Okanagan H i s t o r i c a l  S o c i e t y , 1954-, p. 55* 19 5 J.WoDafoe, C l i f f o r d S i f t o n i n R e l a t i o n t o His Times, Toronto, Macmillan, 1931, pp. 316-317. 6 Vernon News, 9 J u l y 1891 records many s e t t l e r s had l e f t the v a l l e y unable t o f i n d s m a l l h o l d i n g s t o purchase. 7 I b i d . , 28 A p r i l 1892. 8 I b i d . , 11 February 1892. 9 F i f t h Census of Canada, 1911, Ottawa, v o l . I , t a b l e X I I I , p. 537. Inf o r m a t i o n f o r the town of Kelowna was not given i n the 1901 census. 10 W r i t e r ' s e s t i m a t e . 11 A g r i c u l t u r a l and Trades A s s o c i a t i o n of Okanagan M i s s i o n V a l l e y , A Short H i s t o r y of Kelowna and i t s Surroundings, V i c t o r i a & Vancouver, The Province P u b l i s h i n g Co., 1898, p. 8. 12 Vernon News, 27 December 1900. 13 I b i d . , 25 A p r i l 1901. 14- I b i d . , 14 May 1908. 15 Based on a map of Okanagan M i s s i o n pre-emptions compiled by Mrs. Primrose Upton. 16 "Land Ordinance, 1865, s e c t i o n 44", c i t e d i n A.V.White, Wat.er Powers of B r i t i s h Columbia, Ottawa, Commission of Conservation, Canada, 1919, p. 58. 17 "Land Ordinance, 1865, s e c t i o n 46", l o c . c i t . 18 "Land Ordinance Amendment A c t , 1872, s e c t i o n 4", c i t e d i n White, op. c i t . , p. 61. 20 Chapter 2  THE LAND COMPANIES The p e r i o d of the l a n d companies l a s t e d approximately f i f t e e n years a f t e r 1904 when the f i r s t company was e s t a b l i s h e d . These were years of constant adjustment by the o r c h a r d i s t s t o the environment. Since 1859 the land's p o t e n t i a l had been viewed as a g r i c u l t u r a l , but the s e t t l e r s who came a f t e r 1904 were l a r g e l y u n f a m i l i a r w i t h t h i s environment. This s i t u a t i o n had i n no way been helped by the f a c t t h a t t h e i r a s p i r a t i o n s and expe c t a t i o n s had been b u i l t on i n f o r m a t i o n r e c e i v e d p r i o r t o t h e i r a r r i v a l , i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t i n many cases was m i s l e a d i n g or wrong. Because of t h i s , many s e t t l e r s f a c e d b i t t e r disappointment when what they saw before them d i d not match t h e i r e x p e c t a t i o n s . For those who stayed, the whole p e r i o d v/as one of t r i a l and t e s t i n g , not only t o ad j u s t l i f e s t y l e t o the new s i t u a t i o n but a l s o t o a s c e r t a i n q u i c k l y the r i g h t methods of p r a c t i s i n g p r o f i t a b l e o r charding i n t h i s p a r t i c u l a r environment. In t h i s new era i n commercial orcharding at Kelowna, the l a n d companies marshalled c a p i t a l on a much l a r g e r s c a l e than before and were thus able t o develop the s t i l l r e l a t i v e l y unused p o t e n t i a l of the benchlands by i n s t a l l i n g huge i r r i g a t i o n systems. T h e i r o r g a n i z a t i o n pervaded most aspects of settlement and orch a r d i n g development. With the 21 change i n s c a l e of o r g a n i z a t i o n went a s i m i l a r change i n the s t a t u s of s e t t l e r s o The independent e a r l y pioneer o r c h a r d i s t s became outnumbered by a l a r g e i n f l u x of new s e t t l e r s who came t o r e l y h e a v i l y on the resources of the l a n d companies and the s e r v i c e s they pr o v i d e d , p a r t i c u l a r l y the i r r i g a t i o n water. I n c e p t i o n The f o u r l a n d companies i n the area around Kelowna were a l l e s t a b l i s h e d d u r i n g the f i r s t decade of t h i s century. Each was a l i m i t e d company w i t h a Board of D i r e c t o r s , and employing managers and agents t o oversee the company bu s i n e s s . Subsequently, each l a n d company formed a subsiduary i r r i g a t i o n company, not only t o remove the burden of f i n a n c i n g the i r r i g a t i o n from the l a n d , but a l s o t o 1 separate the two branches i n case of f i n a n c i a l d i f f i c u l t y . The i n i t i a t i v e f o r the founding of these companies had i t s r o o t s i n the f o r e s i g h t of a few l o c a l men, u s u a l l y the more prosperous and e n t e r p r i s i n g o r c h a r d i s t s who had l i v e d i n Kelowna f o r a few years. Recognizing the p o t e n t i a l of the i n d u s t r y i n the Kelowna area, they saw t h a t o r g a n i z a t i o n t o f i n a n c e the i r r i g a t i o n works was the .major p r e r e q u i s i t e f o r expansion of the i n d u s t r y onto the benchlands. However, the expense i n v o l v e d was huge. Because of the entrenched streams, a g r a v i t y i r r i g a t i o n system n e c e s s i t a t e d long canals or flumes along the v a l l e y s i d e s from the water i n t a k e at the headgates, mi l e s upstream. R e s e r v o i r dams had to be b u i l t and an i n t r i c a t e d i s t r i b u t i o n system i n s t a l l e d . For example, 22 by 1915, two of the i r r i g a t i o n companies had each spent more than 0425,000 on t h e i r systems. Thus x^hile most, of the company d i r e c t o r s were l o c a l men and r e l a t i v e l y w e l l - o f f , they d i d not possess s u f f i c i e n t c a p i t a l f o r such ventures; funds had t o be sought elsewhere, o f t e n i n B r i t a i n , i n the form of bank or p r i v a t e loans or from s a l e of stock. Map 3 shows the extent of the lands i r r i g a t e d by the f o u r l a n d companies up to 1915= The c o n c e n t r a t i o n was on the benchlands f l a n k i n g the h i l l s , away from the l a k e , and above the l o w - l y i n g or entrenched watercourses. The Kelowna Land & Orchard Co. founded i n 1904, v/as the pioneer land company. In t h a t same year i t began the f i r s t l a r g e s c a l e development of the benchlands w i t h the p l a n t i n g of the 200 acre company orchard. By October of 1904, orchard l o t s of v a r i o u s s i z e s were being s o l d f o r 075 per a c r e , s u p p l i e d w i t h domestic and i r r i g a t i o n water. The company p r e s i d e n t , T . W . S t i r l i n g , had sought most of the f i n a n c i n g through s a l e of stock i n h i s homeland, B r i t a i n . ^ One of the d i r e c t o r s , E.M.Carruthers, an Englishman, went to England i n 1904 t o promote the company's st o c k . L a t e r l a n d companies were organized along s i m i l a r l i n e s t o the s u c c e s s f u l Kelowna Land & Orchard Co.. The C e n t r a l Okanagan Land & Orchard. Co., l a t e r renamed C e n t r a l Okanagan Lands L t d . , was e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1906. This company secured options on most of the l a n d i n Dry V a l l e y (and renamed Glenmore as the r e s u l t of a naming c o m p e t i t i o n h e l d i n 1910). They a l s o bought lands i n the Rutland area. The 23 MAP 5 24-KEY TO MAP 3. Water I r r i g . users orchard s u p p l i e d acreage 1915 1915 Kelowna Land & Orchard Co. L t d . 1904 (Canyon Creek I r r i g a t i o n Co. L t d . 1911) 65 1316 C e n t r a l Okanagan Land & Orchard Co. 1906 C e n t r a l Okanagan Lands L t d . 1910 (Kelowna I r r i g a t i o n Co. L t d . 1910) 216 2415 South Kelowna Land Co. L t d . 1908 (South Kelowna I r r i g a t i o n Co. L t d . 1912) 6 162 Belgo-Canadian F r u i t Lands Co. L t d . 1909 (Black Mountain Water-Co. L t d . 1912.) 15 538 f i g u r e s based on A.R. Mackenzie, Report to the M i n i s t e r of  Finance of the Province of B r i t i s h d C o l u m b i a , on the P h y s i c a l  and F i n a n c i a l C o n d i t i o n of I r r i g a t i o n P r o j e c t s . i n the Vernon  and Kelowna D i s t r i c t s , Vancouver, 1916, Part I , pp. 75-76. 25 • p r e s i d e n t and general manager of the company was Dr .W.H. Gaddes who had a r r i v e d from Winnipeg i n 1904 w i t h money from the s a l e of h i s business t h e r e . A good d e a l of Canadian money was s u b s c r i b e d t o t h i s l a nd company, i n c l u d i n g a l o a n of 0300,000 from the Dominion Trust Co. i n Vancouver.^ The South Kelowna Land Co. was founded i n 1908 t o develop the lands t o the south of the Kelowna Land & Orchard Co.. Although the new company was l e g a l l y d i s t i n c t from i t s neighbour, the two shared a common p r e s i d e n t - T . W . S t i r l i n g -and many of the major sha r e h o l d e r s . Once again, much of the f i n a n c i n g was B r i t i s h , but t h e r e was a l s o a s i z e a b l e l o a n from the Royal Bank of Canada. The l a s t company t o appear i n the Kelowna area was the Belgo-Canadian F r u i t Lands Co., r e g i s t e r e d as an e x t r a -p r o v i n c i a l company i n 1909. Most of i t s c a p i t a l was B e l g i a n , although how i t was a t t r a c t e d t o the Okanagan i s not known. The company's Head O f f i c e s were i n Antwerp, and branches were maintained i n London and Winnipeg. Despite i t s B e l g i a n connections t h i s l a n d company was not i s o l a t e d from the o t h e r s , s i n c e the l o c a l a d v i s o r y board i n c l u d e d T . W . S t i r l i n g 7 and E.M.Carruthers. The land companies were concerned w i t h almost a l l aspects of the development of v i r g i n lands i n t o f u l l y p r o d u c t i v e orchards. Land purchase was t h e i r f i r s t t a s k , made l e s s complicated than on the f l a t l a n d s because the benchlands o f t e n were s t i l l h e l d i n l a r g e b l o c k s , as t h e r e had been l i t t l e development on them si n c e ranching days. 26 I n i t i a l p r e p a r a t i o n of the la n d i n v o l v e d removing t r e e s and up r o o t i n g the stumps, a l l done with, teams of horses. Then the l a n d v/as subd-ivided, as f a r as p o s s i b l e g e o m e t r i c a l l y , i n t o l o t s of between t e n and twenty-four a c r e s . Roads were l a i d and i r r i g a t i o n water- s u p p l i e d . Once the la n d had been c l e a r e d , subdivided and i r r i g a t e d i t could be s o l d . The average p r i c e f o r land ready to p l a n t v/as 0200 per a c r e , although p r i c e s v a r i e d betv/een 0150 and 0400, depending on q u a l i t y and s i t u a t i o n . O r c h a r d i s t s who bought land i n t h i s category had t o p l a n t the t r e e s and tend them f o r at l e a s t f i v e years before they began t o approach f u l l b e a r i n g . On request, a l a n d company would c o n t r a c t t o set up and m a i n t a i n an orchard u n t i l i t approached b e a r i n g , whereupon i t would be handed over t o the ov/ner. I n the f i r s t year t h i s i n v o l v e d f e n c i n g , ploughing and p l a n t i n g , and i n subsequent ye a r s , c u l t i v a t i o n , i r r i g a t i o n , pruning and s p r a y i n g . C e n t r a l Okanagan Lands L t d . i n 1912 quoted a f i g u r e of £36 or 0180 per acre above 9 the cost of the l a n d , f o r t h i s s e r v i c e . F i n a l l y , s e t t l e r s c o u l d purchase a be a r i n g orchard, f o r which, p r i c e s ranged 10 w i d e l y from 0600 t o around 01500 per acre. P u b l i c i t y Although most of the la n d companies' c a p i t a l expenditure went i n t o the purchase and p r e p a r a t i o n of la n d and the i n s t a l l a t i o n of i r r i g a t i o n systems, they a l s o spent money on a promotional l i t e r a t u r e designed t o e n t i c e s e t t l e r s t o buy lands i n Kelowna. The area had been 27 p u b l i c i s e d i n other ways - by Lord Aberdeen's name, by 11 s e t t l e r s ' l e t t e r s home - but there had been l i t t l e a d v e r t i s i n g p r i o r t o t h a t of the la n d companies. A d v e r t i s i n g brochures abounded between 1907 and 1912 and were put out not on l y by the la n d companies, but by others who had i n t e r e s t s i n the development of the area: the Kelowna Board of Trade, the Canadian P a c i f i c Railway, and the P r o v i n c i a l Government. Most of the p u b l i c a t i o n s were p u b l i s h e d l o c a l l y but some were p r i n t e d i n V i c t o r i a , Vancouver, Winnipeg or London. A d v e r t i s i n g and recr u i t m e n t e f f o r t s were f a r r e a c h i n g . S e r i e s of advertisements were p l a c e d i n the London Times and the Manitoba Free P r e s s . A l l the land companies had o f f i c e s and agents i n the areas from which they sought t o a t t r a c t s e t t l e r s . C e n t r a l Okanagan Lands L t d . , somewhat more i n t e r e s t e d i n a t t r a c t i n g Canadians than the other three companies used MacLeay Bros, as agents i n Ottawa and Montreal. Through t h e i r r e a l e s t a t e o f f i c e s f r u i t l o t s were a d v e r t i s e d and s o l d . I n 1910 and again i n 1911 MacLeay Bros, c h a r t e r e d a p r i v a t e t o u r i s t c ar on the C.P.R. t o b r i n g i n t e r e s t e d s e t t l e r s out t o view the prop e r t y . Dr. Gaddes and another company man, W.E.Adams, made frequent t r i p s t o the P r a i r i e s t o promote land s a l e s , and organized s i m i l a r r a i l e x cursions from t h e r e . Many of the la n d company founders and d i r e c t o r s were o r i g i n a l l y from B r i t a i n and a l l the land companies sought s e t t l e r s from t h e r e , as w e l l as from other p a r t s of the 28 B r i t i s h Empire. Each had an o f f i c e i n London. The A s s o c i a t e d Agencies of Canada L t d . i n P a l l M a l l acted as the s o l e s e l l i n g agent f o r C e n t r a l Okanagan Lands L t d . . The o f f i c e s of the other three companies were combined und.er the management of E.M.Carruthers, i n Cockspur S t r e e t , between 1910 and 1914. Carruthers h i m s e l f produced an e x c e l l e n t 12 booklet on s t a r t i n g up an orchard , and such was the i n t e r e s t t h a t the Times Book Club i n 1912 p u b l i s h e d a 15 s i z e a b l e book on orcharding m B r i t i s h Columbia. ^ At t h i s t ime, ex-premier J.H.Turner v/as Agent-General of the p r o v i n c e , i n London; under h i s management t h i s o f f i c e 14-f l o u r i s h e d and was yet another source of p u b l i c i t y . I n 1912 E.M.Carruthers made a t r i p t o I n d i a t o a t t r a c t men r e t i r i n g from the B r i t i s h army or c i v i l s e r v i c e t o a l i f e on a Kelowna orchard. Quite a number bought l o t s and 1 5 subsequently s e t t l e d on them. ^ Aside from a l l t h i s d i r e c t p u b l i c i t y , Kelowna f r u i t v/as g a i n i n g renown at shows and e x h i b i t i o n s on both s i d e s of the A t l a n t i c . The successes comprise a long l i s t , p a r t i c u l a r l y remarkable s i n c e the f r u i t came from an area not long e s t a b l i s h e d . Many p r i z e s were won before the orchards p l a n t e d i n the era of the l a n d companies came i n t o b e a r i n g , t e s t i f y i n g t o the n a t u r a l p o t e n t i a l of the area f o r o r c h a r d i n g . The t i m i n g of these achievements, around 1910, was extremely f o r t u i t o u s as they c o i n c i d e d w i t h the main a d v e r t i s i n g e f f o r t s of the land companies. Medals and p r i z e s r e i n f o r c e d the a d v e r t i s i n g . Moreover, the v a s t l a n d 29 company orchards would soon be i n b e a r i n g , and the p u b l i c i t y from the e x h i b i t s and awards was i n s t r u m e n t a l i n f o c u s i n g buyers' a t t e n t i o n on Kelowna, making ready markets f o r the f r u i t whose fame had preceded i t . Winning f r u i t e x h i b i t s would, t o u r the main towns (on the P r a i r i e s or i n B r i t a i n ) again t o i n t e r e s t p o t e n t i a l buyers: w h o l e s a l e r s , r e t a i l e r s and consumers. The s i g n i f i c a n c e and merit of these awards i s beyond qu e s t i o n . I n London, the Kelowna f r u i t had t o compete w i t h produce from a l l over the Empire, and at the n a t i o n a l e x h i b i t i o n s , the c o m p e t i t i o n v/as a g a i n s t the long e s t a b l i s h e d f r u i t - g r o w i n g areas of Ontario and Nova S c o t i a . Even at the more l o c a l s c a l e c o n s i d e r a b l e r i v a l r y had t o be overcome. Not only would a l l the newly developing o r c h a r d i n g areas l i k e Kamloops, Cre s t o n , Grand Porks and the other Okanagan p o i n t s compete, but the acclaimed orchards of Yakima and Wenatchee i n Washington s t a t e v/ere r e g u l a r competitors. The r e p u t a t i o n of the r i v a l s o n l y served t o make the successes more notev/orthy. At the f i r s t Canadian N a t i o n a l Apple Show, h e l d i n Vancouver i n 1910, Kelowna's c a r l o a d of 72,000 Jonathan apples won the main p r i z e and a gol d medal. P r o f e s s o r Van Deman, the pomological expert from Washington D.C, pronounced them the f i n e s t ever and only p e r f e c t c a r l o a d he had s e e n . ^ The s i g n i f i c a n c e of t h i s success was f a r g r e a t e r than t h a t of a p l a t e e x h i b i t , s i n c e by v i r t u e of i t s s i z e i t v/as more g e n e r a l l y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e . B a s i c a l l y , the p r i z e f r u i t suggested t h a t the area was f u l l y 30 capable, i n the r i g h t hands, of producing e x c e l l e n t f r u i t . P r i z e s - were numerous and o n l y the most important are noted here. I n 1907 at the North-West F r u i t Growers' Convention i n Vancouver, the Kelowna F r u i t Growers' A s s o c i a t i o n won the g o l d medal i n c o m p e t i t i o n a g a i n s t 17 B r i t i s h Columbia, Washington and Oregon growers. ' Then i n 1908 at the Spokane N a t i o n a l Apple Show, a g a i n s t a l l of North America, Kelowna took the cup f o r the best f r u i t 1 8 d i s p l a y from any d i s t r i c t , county, s t a t e or p r o v i n c e . I n 1909 at the Second N a t i o n a l Apple Show at Spokane, Kelowna 1Q won more p r i z e s than a l l the r e s t of B r i t i s h Columbia. J The f i r s t Canadian N a t i o n a l Apple Show was h e l d i n Vancouver i n 1910 and Kelowna e x h i b i t s again e x c e l l e d , winning 03814- i n p r i z e s i n c l u d i n g the g o l d medal f o r the best d i s t r i c t a- 1 20 d i s p l a y . There were a l s o major successes f o r the province i n London England. At the C o l o n i a l F r u i t Show, h e l d under the auspices of the Royal H o r t i c u l t u r a l S o c i e t y , B r i t i s h Columbia won the coveted Gold Medal f o r apples each year from 1906 to 1909. I n 1910, the f i r s t year the S o c i e t y ' s Hogg Memorial Gold Medal was awarded, f o r a g e n e r a l d i s p l a y 22 of f r u i t , the province won t h a t t o o . Kelowna d i s t r i c t growers a l s o d i d w e l l i n c a p t u r i n g other Royal H o r t i c u l t u r a l S o c i e t y medal awards. A t o t a l of f i v e medals were won f o r 27) apples or pears between 1905 and 1909. 31 The Promotional L i t e r a t u r e The main data on la n d company p o l i c i e s i s i n the s u r v i v i n g promotional l i t e r a t u r e , comprising some two dozen brochureso Yet, t h i s source must be t r e a t e d c a u t i o u s l y f o r the l a n d companies were out t o p r o f i t from orchard development and were prepared, f o r a d v e r t i s i n g purposes, t o d i s t o r t the p i c t u r e of c o n d i t i o n s and prospects i n the area. A s i g n i f i c a n t theme i n the a d v e r t i s i n g was t h e i r c l a i m t o smooth the way f o r incoming s e t t l e r s , making the t r a n s i t i o n t o o r c h a r d i n g as easy as p o s s i b l e . We propose i n the f o l l o w i n g pages to give a p l a i n statement of these c o n d i t i o n s as they e x i s t i n the Kelowna D i s t r i c t , f o r the guidance of any who are seeking a home and i n doubt as t o where t o l o c a t e . „ . and hence s h a l l endeavour t o set f o r t h only such i n f o r m a t i o n as i s u s e f u l and r e l i a b l e . 24 This c l a i m v/as not made good. U s u a l l y d i s t o r t i o n went no f u r t h e r than the common a d v e r t i s i n g technique of exaggerating the good p o i n t s and u n d e r s t a t i n g or o m i t t i n g the bad. I t i s d i f f i c u l t sometimes t o d i s t i n g u i s h betv/een the knowing m i s r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i n order t o show the area i n a more favourable l i g h t , and the u n w i t t i n g e r r o r s due t o r e a l misunderstanding of the s i t u a t i o n and pro s p e c t s . One can e s t a b l i s h the p i c t u r e the land companies wished t o convey t o pr o s p e c t i v e s e t t l e r s ; the v i s i o n , p e r c e p t i o n , or s e l f -i n t e r e s t t h a t l a y behind t h i s can now only be surmised. B a s i c a l l y the appeals made i n the brochures were two-f o l d . One treated, the q u a l i t y of l i f e t o be expected i n the new environment. This appeal i n c o r p o r a t e d the c l a s s of 32 people i n the area, the s o c i a l o rder, l o c a l events and amen i t i e s , and the gene r a l comfort and ease of l i f e i n Kelowna. The other appeal was concerned w i t h the o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r p r o f i t . Climate was e x t e n s i v e l y d e a l t w i t h i n the l i t e r a t u r e s i n c e i t was of b a s i c importance t o l i f e and l i v e l i h o o d . As conducive t o the pleasant l i f e , i t was presented as one of the area's major a t t r a c t i o n s . The f o l l o w i n g i n t r o d u c t i o n to a brochure i s t y p i c a l . T h i s booklet i s f o r the i n f o r m a t i o n of those who are l o o k i n g forward t o e s t a b l i s h i n g a home i n a d i s t r i c t a f f o r d i n g the best c o n d i t i o n s f o r the enjoyment of l i f e . These c o n d i t i o n s i n c l u d e a m i l d h e a l t h f u l c l i m a t e , f r e e from excessive r a i n s and the extremes of c o l d and heat, c o n g e n i a l neighbours, p l e a s a n t surroundings and, perhaps much more important than any, occupations at once both l u c r a t i v e and agreeable. 25 Other brochures went i n t o more d e t a i l as t o the p a r t i c u l a r ' h e a l t h f u l ' b e n e f i t s of the p r o v i n c i a l c l i m a t e . . . . B r i t i s h Columbia i s regarded as a vast sanatorium. People from the east coming t o B r i t i s h Columbia, i n v a r i a b l y improve i n h e a l t h , insomnia and nervous a f f l i c t i o n s f i n d a l l e v i a t i o n , the o l d and i n f i r m are granted a renewed le a s e of l i f e , and c h i l d r e n t h r i v e as i n few other p a r t s of the world, 26 Some statements made were b l a t a n t exaggerations or u n t r u t h s : " I t i s an undisputed f a c t t h a t Kelowna can boast of having the f i n e s t c l i m a t e i n Canada, i f not the f i n e s t on the 27 American Continent." ' or again, "Deep snow, b l i z z a r d s , extremely c o l d weather, foggy weather, and c o l d , damp atmospheres are a b s o l u t e l y unheard of i n the Kelowna D i s t r i c t . " . 2 8 33 On a more reasonable note, the c o n t r a s t was o f t e n drawn between the r i g o r o u s P r a i r i e c l i m a t e w i t h i t s very c o l d w i n t e r , or the dreary damp coast c l i m a t e , and the g e n e r a l l y more co n g e n i a l Okanagan c o n d i t i o n s . Nov; t o you t h a t have grown t i r e d of the c o l d i n the P r a i r i e P r o v i n c e s and i n the North and Northwestern S t a t e s , or perhaps you t h a t have grown t i r e d of the excessive r a i n s and fogs of the coast c o u n t r i e s . . . 29 The c l i m a t e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s most dwelt upon i n the brochures were abundant sunshine, and the dry a i r t h a t reduced the oppressiveness of summer heat. The mildness of Kelowna w i n t e r s was c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y exaggerated. For nine of the eighteen years between 1916 and 1933, Kelowna experienced temperatures below -10°3?..^ Although d e t a i l e d c l i m a t i c s t a t i s t i c s were not a v a i l a b l e t o the compilers of the brochures, the e x i s t e n c e of major f r o s t s must have been known, yet they were not h i n t e d at i n the l i t e r a t u r e . F r o s t c o n s t i t u t e d the major c l i m a t i c hazard of f r u i t p r o d u c t i o n ; a f r o s t of -10°F. can cause much damage t o blossom and t r e e s . The l i t e r a t u r e r e f e r r e d o f t e n t o the f a c t t h a t the lake minimised f r o s t s , but d i d not mention the f a c t •51 t h a t f r o s t s can occur almost a l l year round. y The d e c e i t was c a r r i e d even f u r t h e r when t r e e s i n the orchards t h a t had d i e d were q u i c k l y r e p l a c e d so t h a t buyers coming t o the area would not r e a l i s e t h a t k i l l i n g w i n t e r f r o s t s e x i s t e d . The masking of such a t h r e a t t o the s e t t l e r s 1 planned means of l i v e l i h h o d was a prime example of d e l i b e r a t e m i s r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of r e a l i t y . 34 The companies' f a i l u r e t o warn the s e t t l e r s of the hazards t h a t l a y ahead proved t h a t b a s i c a l l y t h e i r i n t e r e s t s were w i t h l a n d s a l e s r a t h e r than the s e t t l e r s . The l a n d companies provided c e r t a i n important s e r v i c e s , but were by no means above e x p l o i t i n g t o t h e i r own ends the s e t t l e r s ' n a i v e t e and i n e x p e r i e n c e . The appeal based on q u a l i t y of l i f e t o be expected i n Kelowna v/as aimed at two groups of people. Those who came from B r i t a i n or the Empire v/ere assured t h a t they would be able t o continue i n the l i f e they knew; those who came from the P r a i r i e s might expect a much e a s i e r l i f e than they had knov/n. Ease was r e l a t e d t o the supposedly r e l a x e d nature of orc h a r d i n g , an a e s t h e t i c a l l y p l e a s i n g occupation i n v o l v i n g 55 l i g h t and u n o b j e c t i o n a b l e work. y Congenial neighbours and s o c i e t y were other aspects of the pleasant l i f e of an o r c h a r d i s t t h a t v/as dwelt upon i n the l i t e r a t u r e . As we are ourselves r e s i d e n t s of Kelowna, we are anxious t o a t t r a c t a good c l a s s of s e t t l e r . . . 34 . . . and i f you knew you co u l d r a i s e your f a m i l y where the moral law i s a b s o l u t e l y enforced; where your c h i l d r e n would have every s o c i a l and e d u c a t i o n a l advantage, among r e f i n e d people. . . 35 The p o i n t never e x p l i c i t l y made i n the l i t e r a t u r e was t h a t ease was t o t a l l y dependent on or c h a r d i n g success. Rather, the brochures assured t h a t s e t t l e r s c o u l d "become independently r i c h , not i n a day, but i n a reasonably short 36 time. . B" Moreover, l i f e i n Kelowna v/as d e p i c t e d as r e l a t i v e l y inexpensive e s p e c i a l l y when compared t o B r i t a i n or the Empire. 35 . . . we f i n d ourselves able t o l i v e here (on an inc r e a s e d income) more comfortably and cheaply then we could at home. We have a f a r b e t t e r house and garden • o e o o o o e o o o o o o o o o o e o o o o o o o o I n a word, Anglo Indians who have a s m a l l assured income and who are debating how f a r s a i d income w i l l go i n the Old Country w i l l do w e l l t o co n s i d e r the p o s s i b i l i t y of making a home f o r themselves i n B.C. 37 In f a c t , success i n orcharding was never automatic. I n a r a r e admission one brochure s t a t e d t h a t not everyone was a s u c c e s s f u l o r c h a r d i s t even under the best c o n d i t i o n s . Q u a l i t i e s of p a t i e n c e , perseverance and an i n t e l l i g e n t 38 r e c e p t i v e mind were necessary t o o . D i f f i c u l t i e s o f t e n arose because many f a c i l i t i e s t h a t the brochures promised, even the n e c e s s i t i e s of modern l i f e , d i d not m a t e r i a l i s e . For example, a brochure d e s c r i b i n g Glenmore i n 1911 promised t h a t by the f o l l o w i n g year the area would have domestic water, e l e c t r i c i t y and telephones. The paragraph ended w i t h the words "Glenmore o f f e r s you 39 i d e a l suburban l i f e . " ^ When i n 1912 the company brought out s e t t l e r s , many of whom were r e t i r e d people, n e i t h e r these s e r v i c e s nor b l a c k t o p roads had been i n s t a l l e d as promised. For some, the i n i t i a l shock of the discrepancy between exp e c t a t i o n s and r e a l i t y was too much and they l e f t 4-0 immediately. For those who stayed there were the u s u a l s e r v i c e s found i n a young town: the s t o r e s , banks, and churches, p l u s a Cottage H o s p i t a l and an impressive P u b l i c School. The d i s t i n c t i v e f e a t u r e of Kelowna was the many c l u b s t h a t had been founded before the F i r s t World War. The brochures 36 n a t u r a l l y p o i n t e d these out at great l e n g t h as a great a t t r a c t i o n f o r a c e r t a i n type of s e t t l e r . Although most of the l i s t c o n s i s t s of s p o r t i n g c l u b s , t h e i r f u n c t i o n was e s s e n t i a l l y s o c i a l . There were Jockey, Badminton, Tennis, Hockey, F o o t b a l l , B a s e b a l l , L a c r o s s e , C r i c k e t , P o l o , C u r l i n g , S a i l i n g , and Gun & R i f l e c l u b s , as w e l l as the Aquatic A s s o c i a t i o n which staged the annual r e g a t t a , the s o c i a l event of the year. I n a d d i t i o n there was the Lad i e s 1 Country Club, the Kelowna Club f o r gentlemen, and the Kelowna M u s i c a l & Dramatic S o c i e t y . Such s o c i a l p r e t e n s i o n s as evidenced by the p r o f u s i o n of c l u b s and s o c i e t i e s was uncommon i n a 'pioneer town', and 41 gave Kelowna a d i s t i n c t a i r of refinement. Orcharding was presented as no o r d i n a r y 'pioneer' occupation and Kelowna •was f a r from an o r d i n a r y town. P r i o r t o 1904, the la n d company founders, themselves mostly of B r i t i s h o r i g i n , had a l r e a d y e s t a b l i s h e d a c e r t a i n middle t o upper c l a s s B r i t i s h l i f e s t y l e , w i t h i t s d i s t i n c t s o c i a l t r a p p i n g s of which the l o c a l gentlemen's club v/as the acme; the Kelowna Club v/as s t a r t e d w i t h a few members as e a r l y as 1896 and i n c o r p o r a t e d i n 1904. Although the la n d companies' prime aim was t o s e l l l a n d , one of the reasons f o r seeking s e t t l e r s from B r i t a i n v/as to preserve t h a t l i f e s t y l e by i n t r o d u c i n g t o the area people who would a p p r e c i a t e and c o n t r i b u t e t o i t . The great m a j o r i t y of the s o c i e t i e s and cl u b s v/ere founded d u r i n g the p e r i o d of the la n d companies, and the burgeoning of s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s and. f u n c t i o n s t e s t i f i e s t o the f a c t t h a t the 37 l a n d company promoters s u b s t a n t i a l l y succeeded i n t h i s secondary g o a l . The second ge n e r a l appeal made by the l a n d companies concerned the o p p o r t u n i t y f o r p r o f i t . Most quotations of net p r o f i t s f o r a f u l l y b e a r i n g apple orchard v a r i e d between 0200 and 0500 per acre per year. However, there was much more frequent mention of bumper crops such as the 09000 r e t u r n from nineteen acres of mixed orchard, or the 01125 from 1-£ acres of prunes. The l a n d companies chose the most favo u r a b l e examples to c r e a t e the best p o s s i b l e p i c t u r e . Only one p u b l i c a t i o n s t a t e d t h a t p r i c e changes could a d v e r s e l y a f f e c t orchard r e t u r n s , and t h a t r e a l l y l a r g e r e t u r n s were obtained only by s k i l l e d o r c h a r d i s t s . v By the time the orchards of the s e t t l e r s who had come i n response t o t h i s a d v e r t i s i n g were i n f u l l b e a r i n g , c o m p e t i t i o n and market changes had made a mockery of the s t a t i s t i c s the l a n d companies had g i v e n . Of b a s i c importance f o r the p o t e n t i a l s e t t l e r was the amount of c a p i t a l he ought t o b r i n g w i t h him, s i n c e even a s m a l l t e n acre orchard represented a s u b s t a n t i a l investment. The brochures gave d e t a i l s of the terms of l a n d s a l e s -u s u a l l y a d e p o s i t of one q u a r t e r w i t h the balance p a i d i n t h r e e equal y e a r l y payments p l u s i n t e r e s t at <6°/o. Few went on t o estimate c o s t s of establishment and maintenance f o r the f i v e years before the orchard came i n t o b e a r i n g . Those t h a t d i d not g i v e d e t a i l e d f i g u r e s u s u a l l y suggested a s e t t l e r b r i n g a minimum of 02000. This-was d e l i b e r a t e understatement 38 t o a t t r a c t more s e t t l e r s . A few a d v e r t i s e d estimates were more r e a l i s t i c : b a sing t h e i r c a l c u l a t i o n s on the purchase of a t e n acre orchard, which alone came t o 02000, two such estimates g i v e n f o r the purchase p r i c e p l u s f i v e years of orchard c o s t s were 03010 and 04348. ^ One brochure estimated t h a t £1000 or 05000 was the best sum w i t h which t o 46 undertake the establishment of an orchard. The promotional l i t e r a t u r e r a r e l y i n d i c a t e d t h a t the s e t t l e r would need c a p i t a l r e s e r v e s f o r f a m i l y l i v i n g expenses duri n g the f i r s t f i v e y e a r s . The f i g u r e s so f a r quoted have r e f e r r e d only t o orchard development; general co s t s of l i v i n g were e x t r a . The i n i t i a l c o s t s of buying l a n d and p l a n t i n g an orchard were l a r g e and few had c a p i t a l l e f t over when these c o s t s had been met. A few found work on other orchards, c l e a r i n g or p l a n t i n g , but the m a j o r i t y grew s m a l l f r u i t s such as s t r a w b e r r i e s , r a s p b e r r i e s , c u r r a n t s and goo s e b e r r i e s , and some grew tomatoes and potatoes. These were p l a n t e d between the rows of young t r e e s . When most o r c h a r d i s t s were doing t h i s overproduction v/as common; a 'buyers' market 1 developed, w i t h the producers at the mercy of the l o c a l c a n n e r i e s . This v/as e s p e c i a l l y the case w i t h 47 tomatoes, the most w i d e l y grown crop. ' Nursing an immature orchard v/as i n f a c t a r e a l endurance t e s t f o r many new o r c h a r d i s t s . Many d i f f e r e n t expenses were i n v o l v e d , yet the brochures had g l o s s e d over these because t h e i r primary purpose v/as to e n t i c e s e t t l e r s t o buy l a n d . On the t o p i c s of p e s t s , i r r i g a t i o n , t r a n s p o r t and 39 markets, a l l of which had a d i r e c t b e a r i n g on the f e a s i b i l i t y and p r o f i t a b i l i t y of o r c h a r d i n g , the land companies again misinformed s e t t l e r s . E i t h e r they gave an i n a c c u r a t e p i c t u r e of the s i t u a t i o n , or they presented plans as d e f i n i t e p r o j e c t s . The evidence of the gradual inroads of v a r i o u s f r u i t p ests i n t o the nearby orcharding areas of Washington s t a t e was d i s m i s s e d : Spraying twice a year i s enforced by the P r o v i n c i a l Government t o keep t h i s garden of the Province f o r ever f r e e of any d e s t r u c t i v e p e s t s . 4-8 In f a c t pests i n c r e a s e d - by 1920 there were s e r i o u s epidemics of c o d l i n g moth, apple scab and f i r e b l i g h t - as d i d the c o s t s of sprays. No o r c h a r d i n g area had ever been able t o i s o l a t e i t s e l f from pests and Kelowna was no e x c e p t i o n . The a r i d i t y of the area was mentioned but b r i e f l y as the new i r r i g a t i o n systems were d e s c r i b e d i n glowing terms: At the outset our Companies decided t o i n s t a l i r r i g a t i o n works of the most modern and expensive nature i n order t o secure a water system which can be regarded as permanent. 4-9 When complete, our i r r i g a t i o n system w i l l be one of the most p e r f e c t i n the v a l l e y . 50 The b e n e f i t s t o be obtained were e q u a l l y w e l l expounded: I r r i g a t i o n i s simply crop insurance . . . t o p r o t e c t the grower a g a i n s t the e f f e c t s of drought. I t removes the element of. u n c e r t a i n t y from h i s o p e r a t i o n s . . . 51 Perhaps such statements were not w i l f u l m i s r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . Although the l a n d companies t r i e d t o cut c o s t s , there i s no evidence t o suggest t h a t the d e s i g n e r r o r s , m i s c a l c u l a t i o n s , 40 and shoddiness of c o n s t r u c t i o n i n the i r r i g a t i o n systems, were d e l i b e r a t e . These f a u l t s only r e a l l y became evident once the systems were i n o p e r a t i o n , when i t v/as too l a t e t o c o r r e c t them e a s i l y . One brochure s t a t e d "The o r c h a r d i s t c o n t r o l s the f o r c e s of nature, i n s t e a d of being dependent 52 upon her caprices.""^ I n f a c t the o r c h a r d i s t became dependent on c a p r i c i o u s i r r i g a t i o n systems. The l a n d companies had no c o n t r o l over railv/a y development, yet they e x t r a v a g a n t l y and i n c o r r e c t l y promised r a i l v / a y s . The economic need f o r a r a i l l i n k i n t o Kelowna and the demise of the Midway & Vernon p l a n i n 1908 have a l r e a d y been d e s c r i b e d . Hov/ever, as l a t e as 1912 t h i s l i n e v/as s t i l l b eing r e f e r r e d t o i n promotional brochures, though under a 55 d i f f e r e n t railv/ay company.^ y The K e t t l e V a l l e y Railv/ay, i t s successor, v/as opened, i n 1915 and ran w i t h i n s i g h t of Kelowna but i n order t o n e g o t i a t e the pass t o P e n t i c t o n , at 3000 f e e t above the town. Thus a spur l i n e t o Kelowna v/as never f e a s i b l e . Other railv/ay plans included, a Canadian Northern l i n e from Kamloops v i a Vernon t o a Kelowna terminus. The statement made i n 1912: "We s h a l l thus have three 54 r a i l w a y s s e r v i n g Kelowna at no d i s t a n t date. . „" v/as a gross exaggeration. The only r a i l w a y t o reach Kelowna was opened i n 1925, from Vernon. P r o s p e c t i v e s e t t l e r s were a l s o misinformed about the plans f o r Kelowna's e l e c t r i c tramv/ay system. Focusing on the wharf at Kelowna an extensive l o c a l network was intended t o 55 speed the c o l l e c t i o n of f r u i t . ^ The p l a n never got o f f 4-1 the drawing board; t o the s e t t l e r s i t was yet another u n f u l f i l l e d promise. The f r u i t markets were one of the most important f a c t o r s i n the success and s e c u r i t y of the o r c h a r d i s t . Almost a l l of the brochures expressed unbounded optimism i n the market p r o s p e c t s , e s p e c i a l l y i n the a b i l i t y of the P r a i r i e s t o absorb Okanagan f r u i t output f o r years t o come. Three e x t r a c t s i l l u s t r a t e t h i s a t t i t u d e . F r u i t s and e a r l y vegetables not disposed of l o c a l l y f i n d an u n l i m i t e d market east of the Rock ( s i c ) Mountains and i n the coast c i t i e s of the P r o v i n c e . 56 Above a l l , the market i n the Great Middle West of -Canada i n c r e a s e s enormously. We cannot f i l l i t now, and at the r a t e the p o p u l a t i o n i s i n c r e a s i n g t h e r e , we s h a l l s t i l l l e s s be able t o f i l l i t i n t e n years time. 57 The market f o r Kelowna f r u i t i s p r a c t i c a l l y i n e x h a u s t i b l e . With Europe and the Uni t e d S t a t e s pouring a p o p u l a t i o n of 200,000 or more•every year onto the vast p r a i r i e lands of Manitoba, Saskatchewan, and A l b e r t a , the f r u i t - g r o w e r of the B r i t i s h Columbia "dry b e l t " w i l l have no d i f f i c u l t y i n f i n d i n g a market f o r a l l the f r u i t he can produce. 58 When the statements were made t h e i r optimism was w e l l founded. The e r r o r l a y i n basing f u t u r e optimism on a p r o j e c t i o n of the s t a t u s quo. The P r a i r i e market was stro n g and no-one doubted t h a t i t would remain so. I t was known th a t as the orchards of the l a n d company s e t t l e r s matured, the f r u i t supply would g r e a t l y i n c r e a s e , but i n the l i g h t of the pre-war market s i t u a t i o n ready s a l e s c o u l d be a n t i c i p a t e d . The war, the d e c l i n e of P r a i r i e i mmigration, and the other marketing d i f f i c u l t i e s could h a r d l y have been foreseen. But, i n these changed circumstances the i n c r e a s e d 42 Okanagan f r u i t supply o n l y exacerbated the problems of marketing. Whether m i s r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i n the a d v e r t i s i n g l i t e r a t u r e was d e l i b e r a t e or u n w i t t i n g , the e f f e c t s f o r the s e t t l e r s were the same. They had been brought here on the b a s i s of f a l s e i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t s t i r r e d f a l s e hopes of s e c u r i t y and. p r o s p e r i t y t h a t c o u l d not be achieved, e a s i l y . The l a n d companies soon faded from the'scene, but f o r the s e t t l e r s t h e r e remained the t a s k of a d j u s t i n g t o c o n d i t i o n s they had not been l e d t o expect, while a l s o t r y i n g t o set up a v i a b l e i n d u s t r y . The Achievements Yet, the achievements of the l a n d companies i n terms of the area's p o p u l a t i o n i n c r e a s e had been c o n s i d e r a b l e , although the number of people a t t r a c t e d by them cannot be determined e x a c t l y as the census d i v i s i o n s were e i t h e r too l a r g e or too s m a l l . The o n l y d e f i n i t e f i g u r e a v a i l a b l e i s f o r the p o p u l a t i o n of the two square m i l e s of Kelowna c i t y . T h i s rose over 500$ between 1901 and 1911 from 261 t o 1663,^ and by 1921 the c i t y p o p u l a t i o n had reached 2520. By 1915 the land companies had added 4431 acres of i r r i g a t e d orchard 61 l a n d t o the e x i s t i n g . At an average of around f i f t e e n acres per orchard t h i s g i v e s approximately 295 new orchards. Assuming between three and f o u r persons per incoming f a m i l y , t h i s would represent about 1000 s e t t l e r s . That most s e t t l e r s came i n f a m i l i e s i s i n d i c a t e d by the 1911 sex r a t i o f o r Kelowna c i t y : 57/^  males t o 43$ females, a r e l a t i v e 4-3 balance t h a t c o n t r a s t e d s h a r p l y w i t h s i t u a t i o n s i n mushrooming f r o n t i e r towns i n mining or l o g g i n g areas of the p r o v i n c e . An e s t i m a t i o n of the t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n of the 63 whole d i s t r i c t i n "1915 would be around 4-000, y comprising 2000 i n the c i t y , 1000 on the l a n d company orchards, and about 1000 on the remainder of the benches and the f l a t l a n d s around Okanagan M i s s i o n , engaged i n growing tobacco, tomatoes and onions, and some orc h a r d i n g . The censuses give scant i n f o r m a t i o n about o r i g i n s of the people, and the Kelowna c i t y f i g u r e s have t o be taken as r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the whole d i s t r i c t . The B r i t i s h dominance was extremely marked as i t was throughout the Okanagan g e n e r a l l y . The census c l a s s i f i e d the p o p u l a t i o n "according to p r i n c i p a l o r i g i n s of the people". I n 1911 i n the Okanagan as a whole, 81% were of B r i t i s h o r i g i n , i n Kelowna c i t y 82%. 6 Z f I n 1921 the f i g u r e s were 79$ and 82% r e s p e c t i v e l y . 6 ^ However, these t a b l e s d i d not have a 'Canadian' category; a good number of those of B r i t i s h O r i g i n were born i n Canada. Of the 1921 Kelowna c i t y p o p u l a t i o n of 2520, 56% were born i n Canada, 30% i n B r i t a i n and 14-% e l s e w h e r e T h u s although only 30% of the p o p u l a t i o n v/as a c t u a l l y B r i t i s h born, t h e r e was a very strong B r i t i s h connection back through those who had come from other p a r t s of Canada. Of the 14-% born n e i t h e r i n Canada nor B r i t a i n , the m a j o r i t y were European, except f o r 114- Chinese. The f a c t t h a t there was such an i n f l u x of s e t t l e r s r e f l e c t e d the e f f i c i e n c y of the l a n d companies ' a d v e r t i s i n g . 44 The f a c t t h a t so many of those who came stayed, d e s p i t e the i n i t i a l disappointments and har d s h i p s , r e f l e c t e d p a r t l y t h e i r stamina and d e t e r m i n a t i o n , as w e l l as a l l the government a s s i s t a n c e they r e c e i v e d , which i s d e a l t w i t h i n the f o l l o w i n g chapter. FOOTNOTES: 1 I n f o r m a t i o n from i n t e r v i e w w i t h H . C . S . C o l l e t t , 25 October 1972. 2 A.R.Mackenzie,.Report t o the M i n i s t e r of Finance of the  Province of B r i t i s h Columbia on the P h y s i c a l and F i n a n c i a l  C o n d i t i o n of I r r i g a t i o n P r o j e c t s i n the Vernon and Kelovma  D i s t r i c t s , Vancouver, 1916, Part I , p. 75, r e f e r r i n g t o the Kelovma I r r i g a t i o n Co. and the Black Mountain Water Co.. 3 I b i d . , p. 78, the source of the map i n f o r m a t i o n . 4 Kelowna C l a r i o n , 27 October 1904. 5 In f o r m a t i o n on f i n a n c i n g from i n t e r v i e w w i t h W.R.Carruthers, 20 October 1972. 6 Most of f i n a n c i n g i n f o r m a t i o n from i n t e r v i e w w i t h Charles C-addes, 24 October 1972. 7 H.T.Boam, Twentieth Century Impressions of Canada, London & Montreal, S e l l s L t d . , 1914, p. 76$. 8 0150 quoted i n C e n t r a l Okanagan Land & Orchard Co., Okanagan V a l l e y F r u i t Lands, Kelowna B r i t i s h Columbia, c. 1907, f o r t h e i r f i r s t s u b d i v i s i o n . 0400 quoted i n C e n t r a l Okanagan Lands L t d . , F r u i t Farming at Kelovma, The Garden of  B r i t i s h Columbia, c. 1911, f o r lands onl y mile from the c i t y l i m i t s . 9 The A s s o c i a t e d Agencies of Canada L t d . , F r u i t Growing at Kelovma, B r i t i s h Columbia, London, 1912, p. 18. 45 10 0600 quoted i n Kelovma Board of Trade, Kelovma B.C.,  The Orchard C i t y of the Okanagan, 1912. 01500 quoted i n C e n t r a l Okanagan Lands L t d . , H e a l t h , Wealth and Happiness  await you i n Glenmore, 1911» as the maximum p r i c e f o r a f i v e year o l d orchard., 11 Two such e a r l y s e t t l e r s were L i o n e l and Claude T a y l o r from South A f r i c a , r e l a t e d by marriage t o the S t i r l i n g s . I n f o r m a t i o n from i n t e r v i e w w i t h N i g e l T a y l o r , 31 October 1972. 12 E.M.Carruthers, The C r e a t i o n of an Orchard i n B r i t i s h  Columbia, London, 1912. 13 J.S.Redmayne, F r u i t Farming i n the "Dry B e l t " of  B r i t i s h Columbia, London, Times Book Club, 1912. 14- M.A.Ormsby, B r i t i s h Columbia: A H i s t o r y , Vancouver, MacMillan, 1958, p. 388. 15 For example Lovelace B u l l and l a t e r h i s b r o t h e r C y r i l . I n f o r m a t i o n from i n t e r v i e w w i t h C . R . B u l l , 26 October 1972. 16 Grand P a c i f i c Land Co. L t d . , Kelowna B.C., The Orchard  C i t y of the Okanagan, Winnipeg, The P u b l i c P r e s s , c. 1911* 17 Kelovma C o u r i e r , 5 December 1907. 18 C e n t r a l Okanagan Lands L t d . , F r u i t Farming at Kelowna,  The Orchard C i t y , Okanagan V a l l e y , B.C., c. 1911-1912. 19 I b i d . 20 Kelowna C o u r i e r , 10 November 1910. 21 I b i d . , 9 December 1909. 22 I b i d . , 8 December 1910. 23 Kelowna Board of Trade, Kelowna, The Orchard C i t y of  The Okanagan, 1908, and Kelowna C o u r i e r , 9 December 1909. 24- C e n t r a l Okanagan Lands L t d . , F r u i t Farming at Kelovma,  The Orchard C i t y , Okanagan V a l l e y , B.C., c. 1911-1912. 25 Kelovma Board of Trade, Kelovma, The Orchard C i t y by  the Lake, the A g r i c u l t u r a l Centre of the Famous Okanagan  V a l l e y of B r i t i s h Columbia, Kelowna, 1918. 26 Grand P a c i f i c Land Co. L t d . , op. c i t . 27 C e n t r a l Okanagan Lands L t d . , F r u i t Farming at Kelowna,  The Garden of B r i t i s h Columbia, c. 1911, p. 5. 46 28 Loc. c i t . 29 The Orchard Homes of Westbank, Okanagan V a l l e y , B r i t i s h  Columbia, Vernon News P r e s s , c. 1910. 30 Taken from B.C. Department of A g r i c u l t u r e , Climate of  B r i t i s h Columbia, y e a r l y r e p o r t s . 31 Only i n J u l y and August has there never been any f r o s t recorded at Kelowna. 32 I n t e r v i e w w i t h S i d Land, 31 October 1972, Mrs. Land's f a t h e r was employed w i t h a l o g g i n g c h a i n and team of horses i n P e n t i c t o n i n 1907 t o uproot dead peach t r e e s and. r e p l a n t , f o r the purpose s t a t e d . This can h a r d l y have been a unique appointment. 33 C e n t r a l Okanagan Land & Orchard Co., Okanagan V a l l e y  F r u i t Lands, Kelowna, B r i t i s h Columbia, c. 1907, quoting E a r l Grey on the opening of the 1905 New Westminster E x h i b i t i o n . 34 E.M.Carruthers, B r i t i s h Columbia f o r Anglo I n d i a n s , Pioneer P r e s s , 1913* 35 C e n t r a l Okanagan Lands L t d . , F r u i t Farming at Kelowna,  The Garden of B r i t i s h Columbia, c. 1911, p. 3. 36 I b i d . , p. 13. 37 E.M.Carruthers, A White Man's Country, B r i t i s h Columbia  f o r Anglo I n d i a n s , 1914, t y p e w r i t t e n . 38 C e n t r a l Okanagan Lands L t d . , F r u i t Farming at Kelowna,  The Orchard C i t y , Okanagan V a l l e y , B.C.,.c. 1911-1912. 39 C e n t r a l Okanagan Lands L t d . , H e a l t h , Wealth and  Happiness await you i n Glenmore, 1911« 40 The example being the car the MacLeays brought out i n 1912. I n f o r m a t i o n from i n t e r v i e w w i t h Douglas K e r r , 3 January 1973, the son of one of the s e t t l e r s from t h a t c a r . 41 N . A . R i i s , "Settlement Abandonment. A Case Study of Walhachin - Myth and R e a l i t y " , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, unpublished M.A. t h e s i s , 1970. T h i s deals w i t h s i m i l a r s o c i a l developments at Walhachin near Kamloops. 42 Kelowna Board of Trade, Kelowna, The Orchard C i t y of  the Okanagan, 1908. 47 43 T . W . S t i r l i n g , Does Fr u i t - G r o w i n g Pay?, 1910, pp. 19 -20. 44 C e n t r a l Okanagan Land & Orchard Co., Kelowna F r u i t  Lands i n the Famous Okanagan V a l l e y , B r i t i s h Columbia, 1908. 45 S t i r l i n g , op. c i t . , pp. 15-16. 46 Loc. c i t . 47 I n f o r m a t i o n from i n t e r v i e w w i t h N i g e l T a y l o r , 31 October 1972. 48 C e n t r a l Okanagan Lands L t d . , F r u i t Farming at Kelowna,  The Garden of B r i t i s h Columbia, c. 1911, p. 8 . 49 E.M.Carruthers, The C r e a t i o n of an Orchard i n B r i t i s h Columbia, London, 1912, p. 24 . 50 C e n t r a l Okanagan Land & Orchard Co., Okanagan V a l l e y  F r u i t Lands, Kelowna, B r i t i s h Columbia, c. 1907. 51 The A s s o c i a t e d Agencies of Canada L t d . , op. c i t . , p. 15« 52 C e n t r a l Okanagan Lands L t d . , F r u i t Farming at Kelowna,  The Orchard C i t y , Okanagan V a l l e y , B.C., c. 1911-1912. 53 Grand P a c i f i c Land Co. L t d . , op. c i t . 54 E.M.Carruthers, The C r e a t i o n of an Orchard i n B r i t i s h Columbia, London, 1912, p. 35« 55 Grand P a c i f i c Land Co. L t d . , op. c i t . 56 Thomas Bulman, Okanagan V a l l e y F r u i t Lands, The  C a l i f o r n i a of Canada, Winnipeg, c. 1908. 57 S t i r l i n g , op. c i t . , pp. 11 -12 . 58 The A s s o c i a t e d Agencies of Canada L t d . , op. c i t . , p. 8 . 5 9 . F i f t h Census of Canada, 1911, Ottawa, v o l . I , t a b l e X I I I , p. 537. 60 S i x t h Census of Canada, 1921, Ottawa, v o l . I , t a b l e 8, p. 217. 61 Mackenzie, op. c i t . , P a r t I , p. 75« 62 F i f t h Census of Canada, 1911, Ottawa, v o l . I , t a b l e I , P. 59. 63 W r i t e r ' s estimate. 64 F i f t h Census of Canada, 1911, Ottawa, v o l . I I , t a b l e vii, pp. 170-171. 65 S i x t h Census of Canada, 1921, Ottawa, v o l . I , t a b l e 27, pp. 540-541. 66 I b i d . , v o l . I , t a b l e 16, p. 339. 4-8 Chapter 3  THE ESTABLISHMENT OF ORCHARDS The l a n d companies made el a b o r a t e claims i n the a d v e r t i s i n g l i t e r a t u r e which drew so many s e t t l e r s , but the promised p r o s p e r i t y and growth were not a foregone c o n c l u s i o n . I n i t i a l l y t here was ve r y l i t t l e understanding of the hazards and environmental c o n s t r a i n t s w i t h which the o r c h a r d i s t s had to cope. The o r c h a r d i s t s themselves had l i t t l e h o r t i c u l t u r a l experience upon which t o l a y the b a s i s of p r o f i t a b l e orchards. The l a n d companies b u i l t c o s t l y i r r i g a t i o n systems t o overcome the area's a r i d i t y , but d i d l i t t l e t o a l l e v i a t e e i t h e r of these other problems. They gave the s e t t l e r s almost no help a d j u s t i n g t o t h e i r new s i t u a t i o n and mastering orchard techniques. The extent t o which the i n t e r e s t s of the l a n d companies and the o r c h a r d i s t s were at v a r i a n c e was i n d i c a t e d when the land companies allowed the a l l - i m p o r t a n t i r r i g a t i o n systems t o f a l l i n t o d i s r e p a i r . The main concern of the companies was c o n s t r u c t i o n of the systems, without which they could n e i t h e r a t t r a c t s e t t l e r s nor s e l l l a n d . Of subsequent importance t o those s e t t l e r s was the continued maintenance and e f f i c i e n t o p e r a t i o n of the systems, since t h i s was an e s s e n t i a l p r e r e q u i s i t e f o r f r u i t p r o d u c t i o n . The p r o v i n c i a l and dominion governments rescued the 49 o r c h a r d i s t s from t h e i r p l i g h t "by t a k i n g upon themselves the r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of i n s t r u c t i n g the new o r c h a r d i s t s i n e s t a b l i s h i n g a v i a b l e i n d u s t r y . The P r o v i n c i a l Government appointed D i s t r i c t H o r t i c u l t u r a l i s t s t o advise growers, and the Dominion Government e s t a b l i s h e d an Experimental S t a t i o n t o conduct r e s e a r c h i n t o orcharding and i t s techniques. Furthermore, as the demise of the companies loomed, the P r o v i n c i a l Government was again i n v o l v e d i n p r o v i d i n g the f i n a n c i n g which p e r m i t t e d the o r c h a r d i s t s t o co-operate and acquire c o n t r o l of the i r r i g a t i o n systems. The l a n d company o r c h a r d i s t s showed l i t t l e of the s e l f - r e l i a n c e of the pioneer o r c h a r d i s t s i n the years p r i o r t o 1904. They became as dependent on these government i n p u t s f o r s u r v i v a l , as they had been i n i t i a l l y at the mercy of the l a n d and i r r i g a t i o n companies. Environment and E ducation F r u i t had been grown at Kelowna f o r s e v e r a l years before 1904; o f t e n the l a n d company promoters were men who had l i v e d and p r a c t i s e d orcharding at Kelovma. Thus the area's n a t u r a l advantages of summer sunshine and warmth had been a p p r e c i a t e d i n a g e n e r a l way, but as there were no s t a t i s t i c a l records a v a i l a b l e such advantages c o u l d only be d e s c r i b e d i n vague terms. Only much l a t e r was i t p o s s i b l e t o be more p r e c i s e ; Kelowna has around 1275 hours of summer sunshxne from May t o September i n c l u s i v e , and a 200 day p growing season from A p r i l 7th. t o October 24th. (see F i g u r e 1). However, orcharding experience p r i o r t o the time of the Source: W.G.Kendrew and D.Kerr, The Climate  of B r i t i s h Columbia and the Yukon T e r r i t o r y , Ottawa, 1955, p. 127. 51 land, companies had been meagre. There had only been commercial orchard development f o r the l a s t t e n years and i t was l a r g e l y c o n f i n e d t o the f l a t l a n d s r a t h e r than the benches. The land companies developed the benchlands assuming t h e i r p o t e n t i a l f e r t i l i t y and e s s e n t i a l l y i n ignorance of t h e i r d i s t i n c t i v e environment. Despite t h e i r v a r i e d backgrounds the l a r g e m a j o r i t y of s e t t l e r s had no orcharding experience, nor experience of an environment s i m i l a r t o t h a t of Kelowna. Some s e t t l e r s indeed were b a s i c a l l y u n f i t f o r the t a s k s of or c h a r d i n g . There were r e t i r e d people who had been somewhat m i s l e d by the land companies 1 a d v e r t i s i n g as t o what was e n t a i l e d i n s e t t i n g up a p r o f i t a b l e orchard. As one i n t e r v i e w e e put i t , they thought they could j u s t " s i t on the verandah and watch the 7 apples grow". The few s e t t l e r s w i t h any h o r t i c u l t u r a l knowledge u s u a l l y were from E a s t e r n Canada or B r i t a i n where orchards were not i r r i g a t e d . The value of t h e i r experience was thus reduced, by the p a r t i c u l a r c o n d i t i o n s of c l i m a t e and i r r i g a t i o n at Kelowna. I n a way, previous h o r t i c u l t u r a l experience even proved a hindrance i n t h a t these s e t t l e r s tended t o p l a n t f r u i t v a r i e t i e s t h a t had grown w e l l at home.' B r i t i s h s e t t l e r s p l a n t e d Cox's Orange P i p p i n and East e r n Canadians p l a n t e d Snow and Northern Spy. None of these v a r i e t i e s v/as i d e a l l y s u i t e d t o Okanagan c o n d i t i o n s and e v e n t u a l l y p l a n t i n g s v i r t u a l l y ceased. Although then there was ge n e r a l awareness of the n a t u r a l advantages of the area, the environmental 52 c o n s t r a i n t s were not p r o p e r l y understood. There was no d e t a i l e d knowledge of the c r i t i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of s o i l t e x t u r e and drainage, and no evidence t o suggest t h a t s o i l type was taken i n t o account when the orchards were planned and p l a n t e d . However, some of the most o b v i o u s l y u n s u i t a b l e areas - stony rubble or boggy muck s o i l s - were avoided, although l e s s conspicuous hazards such as hardpans were not. There were problems w i t h most s o i l t y p e s . Coarse t e x t u r e d s o i l s have excessive drainage and l e a c h i n g , and are prone t o seepage downslope and i n depressions. Sandy s o i l s tend t o be d e f i c i e n t i n organic matter and t o have poor moisture-h o l d i n g powers. The c l a y e y s o i l s are l i a b l e t o w aterlogging: i f the excess x^ater cannot escape because of s u b s o i l s a t u r a t i o n , i t evaporates from the surface l e a v i n g a l k a l i n e d e p o s i t s . An orchard p l a n t e d on u n s u i t a b l e s o i l s was an expensive mistake t o r e c t i f y . Measures such as the i n s t a l l a t i o n of t i l e - d r a i n a g e or the a p p l i c a t i o n of gypsum to a l k a l i n e areas were r e q u i r e d . I r r i g a t i o n o f t e n exacerbated the d i f f i c u l t i e s by i n c r e a s i n g l e a c h i n g r a t e s , surface wash and e r o s i o n , as w e l l as seepage and a l k a l i f o r m a t i o n . In the r e a l l y adverse areas - the p a r t s of Glenmore p a r t i c u l a r l y prone to a l k a l i b u i l d - u p f o r example -the orchards had t o be g r a d u a l l y phased out. F r u i t t r e e s w i l l grow i n many d i f f e r e n t types of s o i l . C e r t a i n preferences however were being p u b l i c i s e d as e a r l y as 1912: t h a t of apples f o r deep humus-rich loams or of 6 pears f o r c l a y e y s o i l s . I n p r a c t i c e there seems to have 53 been l i t t l e e f f o r t t o place v a r i e t i e s i n t h e i r optimal l o c a t i o n s . Even on s m a l l orchards of t e n or twenty a c r e s , w i t h a r e l a t i v e l y uniform s o i l t y p e , s e v e r a l d i f f e r e n t v a r i e t i e s of apples and pears, p l u s c h e r r i e s , c r a n b e r r i e s and other f r u i t s might be planted,, One of the j u s t i f i c a t i o n s of such fragmented p l a n t i n g s was t o determine which type of t r e e grew best where, but l a t e r changes and r e p l a n t i n g s were c o s t l y . I n i t i a l l y , s e t t l e r s knew l i t t l e of the i n c i d e n c e of f r o s t s , s i n c e c l i m a t i c records were not a v a i l a b l e . Present s t a t i s t i c s show Kelowna to have an average f r o s t - f r e e season of 144- days from mid-May t o the beginning of October.' However, the gap between the l a t e s t recorded s p r i n g f r o s t , J u l y 1 s t . , and the e a r l i e s t recorded autumn f r o s t , September o 8 t h . , i s only 68 days. Although i t was not p o s s i b l e t o l o c a t e an orchard t o a v o i d the extreme k i l l i n g w i n t e r f r o s t s , c a r e f u l l o c a t i o n w i t h r e g a r d t o slope c o n f i g u r a t i o n so as to ensure good a i r drainage c o u l d s u b s t a n t i a l l y reduce the number and s e v e r i t y of f r o s t s experienced. Some orchards were ba d l y s i t e d at the f o o t of a g u l l y or slope where the c o l l e c t e d p o o l of c o l d a i r on a f r o s t y n i g h t was deep enough to reach the buds or blossom. The C e n t r a l Okanagan Land & Orchard Co.'s i n i t i a l l a n d p r i c i n g i n Rutland shows how p o o r l y the f r o s t f a c t o r was understood. The f l a t t e r areas, more prone to both f r o s t -p o c k e t i n g and seepage, v/ere marketed at 0200 per acre whereas the s l o p i n g l o t s w i t h much b e t t e r a i r and water 54 . o drainage were s o l d at 0150 per ac r e . The s e t t l e r s were no wiser i n t h a t the f i r s t r u s h , e s p e c i a l l y among those from 10 the P r a i r i e s was f o r the f l a t t e r l a n d s . Much of the f l a t l a n d has s i n c e been phased out of or c h a r d i n g . I t was a commonly h e l d n o t i o n t h a t a south f a c i n g aspect was best f o r an orchard, but i n Kelowna t h i s was not 11 so. Autumn f r o s t s affected, the f r u i t s t i l l on the t r e e s , but s p r i n g f r o s t s caused more harm sin c e the f r u i t blossom v/as damaged. With a l e s s s o u t h e r l y exposure the blossoming time i s somev/hat r e t a r d e d , thus reducing l i a b i l i t y t o s p r i n g f r o s t damage. Summer sun-scald i s a l s o reduced. As e a r l y as 1913 the B.C. Department of A g r i c u l t u r e v/as p u b l i s h i n g q u i t e d e t a i l e d i n f o r m a t i o n concerning the 12 environmental c o n s t r a i n t s f o r c e r t a i n apple v a r i e t i e s . For in s t a n c e i t warned of the l i k e l i h o o d t h a t "Wealthies, Maclntoshs and Snows v/ould drop t h e i r f r u i t before m a t u r i t y i f exposed t o strong winds. That the tenderer v a r i e t i e s l i k e Newtown and Sp i t z e n b e r g s u f f e r blossom bud damage at around. -25°F. v/as a l s o p o i n t e d out. While the minimum recorded o 15 temperature at Kelowna i s only -24 F., ^ orchards i n the Belgo are 700 f e e t h i g h e r than the Kelowna c l i m a t i c s t a t i o n and the minimum temperatures there are c o n s i d e r a b l y lower. N e i t h e r i n the government nor the land company l i t e r a t u r e v/as there s u f f i c i e n t i n f o r m a t i o n about s o i l s and f r o s t s . Such i n f o r m a t i o n v/ould not have c o n s t i t u t e d good a d v e r t i s i n g ; more fundamentally, the d e t a i l s were j u s t not known. Thus, although s i t i n g of an orchard v/as c r i t i c a l f o r 5-5 i t s success, s i t e s were o f t e n s e l e c t e d i n ignorance of the most important environmental c o n s i d e r a t i o n s . Some orchards were even "bought ' s i t e unseen'. Because of the s e t t l e r s ' u n f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h e i t h e r the environment or orch a r d i n g p r a c t i c e s , the e a r l y years were ones of l e a r n i n g . The s e t t l e r s had t o be r e c e p t i v e and adaptable, w i l l i n g and able t o l e a r n q u i c k l y the b a s i c s of orcharding and many new techniques. The rudiments could be l e a r n t through t r i a l and e r r o r or from neighbours. Much i n f o r m a t i o n was a l s o disseminated through p u b l i c a t i o n s such as the v a r i o u s a g r i c u l t u r a l or i r r i g a t i o n j o u r n a l s , and the r e p o r t s of the B r i t i s h Columbia F r u i t Growers' A s s o c i a t i o n . From about 1910 onwards the H o r t i c u l t u r a l Branch of the B.C. Department of A g r i c u l t u r e put out many c i r c u l a r s and pamphlets on d e t a i l e d orcharding t o p i c s . This l i t e r a t u r e p r ovided i n f o r m a t i o n on such t h i n g s as the proper way t o c l e a r and grade l a n d f o r i r r i g a t i o n , as w e l l as the best 14 p a t t e r n s of furrows t o ensure even a p p l i c a t i o n of water. Meetings and conventions such as those of the B r i t i s h Columbia F r u i t Growers' A s s o c i a t i o n and the Western Canada I r r i g a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n were important forums f o r debate. P u b l i c l e c t u r e s on orcharding t o p i c s , such as those given by the p r o f e s s o r s of the Oregon and Washington A g r i c u l t u r a l 1 5 C o l l e g e s , were w e l l attended. So too were the Department of A g r i c u l t u r e ' s courses on pruning and f r u i t packing 16 methods. A few growers attended courses at the A g r i c u l t u r a l C o l l e g e i n Pullman, Washington. 56 The l a n d companies d i d b r i n g i n experienced. h o r t i c u l t u r a l i s t s but 'mainly t o d e a l w i t h those orchards which the company had agreed t o p l a n t and m a i n t a i n u n t i l 17 m a t u r i t y . ' S e t t l e r s were l e f t t o t h e i r own devices although f o r a time, the Kelowna Land & Orchard Co. d i d operate an 18 orchard-ists ' s c h o o l . The young o r c h a r d i s t s s t u d i e d and worked f o r the company f o r a couple of years w h i l e the company looked a f t e r the orchard u n t i l the owner was p r o f i c i e n t enough to take i t over. E x t r a c t s from a l e t t e r t o the London Times c l a r i f y the purpose. A very common d i f f i c u l t y among parents who d e s i r e t o s t a r t one of t h e i r sons i n f r u i t growing i n B r i t i s h Columbia i s t h a t they wish him t o g a i n some p r a c t i c a l experience f i r s t . . . The Company, of course, assume a c o n s i d e r a b l e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y both i n r e g a r d t o the p r o p e r t y and i n s u p e r v i s i n g the t r a i n i n g of the f u t u r e owner, but as i t was the o n l y way t o meet a n a t u r a l o b j e c t i o n i n the minds of some par e n t s , i t has been assumed by the D i r e c t o r s . 19 The most u s e f u l form of i n s t r u c t i o n was p r o v i d e d by the p r o v i n c i a l and dominion governments. The former, before 1910, appointed D i s t r i c t H o r t i c u l t u r a l i s t s i n a l l the major orch a r d i n g communities of the p r o v i n c e . Through a d v i c e , demonstration, and. experimental work they educated and aided the o r c h a r d i s t s on the spot. I t was mainly t o them t h a t the o r c h a r d i s t s turned when an expert o p i n i o n was needed. Backing them up was the Dominion Experimental S t a t i o n e s t a b l i s h e d by the f e d e r a l government at Summerland i n 1914. This was t o conduct r e s e a r c h p r i m a r i l y on Okanagan orcha r d i n g problems. The s t a t i o n has played, a v i t a l r o l e i n m a i n t a i n i n g 57 o r c h a r d i n g as a v i a b l e and p r o f i t a b l e i n d u s t r y i n the v a l l e y . Research has been c a r r i e d on i n the f i e l d s of pomology, p l a n t pathology, p l a n t n u t r i t i o n , entomology, a g r i c u l t u r a l e n g i n e e r i n g , and f r u i t h a r v e s t i n g , storage, and p r o c e s s i n g . The f i n d i n g s of the r e s e a r c h began to be made known i n the 1920s. The most momentous d i s c o v e r y was made i n 1935 when corky c o r e , drought spot and die-back were r u i n i n g apple crops and t h r e a t e n i n g t o wipe out many of the orchards. I t was found t h a t the Okanagan V a l l e y s o i l s were d e f i c i e n t i n 20 boron, and t h a t m t h i s l a y the r o o t of the problem. Subsequent years saw a p p l i c a t i o n of t r a c e s of the mineral i n v a r i o u s ways and the apple crop improved. T h i s d i s c o v e r y was f o l l o w e d by the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and cure of d e f i c i e n c y d i s o r d e r s caused by three other minor elements, namely manganese, z i n c and magnesium. The s t a t i o n a l s o s e t t l e d some of the c o n t r o v e r s i e s t h a t arose w i t h i n the i n d u s t r y , f o r example the controversy between the advocates of b a r e - e a r t h orchard c u l t i v a t i o n and 21 those who favoured a cover crop. Summerland e s t a b l i s h e d t h a t c l e a n c u l t i v a t i o n r e q u i r e d l e s s i r r i g a t i o n water but r e s u l t e d i n a slower t r e e growth and lower y i e l d . A l s o , the s o i l ' s p h y s i c a l c o n d i t i o n and f e r t i l i t y d e t e r i o r a t e d because of the minimal humus b u i l d - u p . A cover crop s t i m u l a t e d t r e e growth, g i v i n g i n c r e a s e d y i e l d s while improving the c o n d i t i o n and t e x t u r e of the s o i l by the i n t r o d u c t i o n of humus and n i t r o g e n . This was considered t o outweigh the disadvantages of h e a v i e r i r r i g a t i o n and of 58 more n u m e r o u s r o d e n t p e s t s , f o r w h i c h p o i s o n h a d t o b e u s e d . T h e c o n t r o l o f p e s t s a n d d i s e a s e s was o f m a j o r c o n c e r n t o a l l o r c h a r d i s t s . T h e w o r s t m a l a d y was t h e c o d l i n g m o t h w h i c h e n t e r e d , t h e a r e a around. 1920. T h e a f f e c t e d wormy a p p l e s were q u i t e u n m a r k e t a b l e . T h e e a r l y s p r a y s u s e d w ere s i m p l e l i m e - s u l p h u r compounds o r k e r o s e n e o r a r s e n a t e o f l e a d . S u m m e r l a n d ' s P l a n t P a t h o l o g y d e p a r t m e n t w h i c h commenced w o r k i n 1921 f r e q u e n t l y b r o u g h t o u t r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s f o r more e f f e c t i v e s p r a y s t o c o m b a t t h e e p i d e m i c s o f p e s t s a n d d i s e a s e s . A n o t h e r i m p o r t a n t s t u d y c o n c e r n e d t h e t e c h n i q u e s o f f u r r o w i r r i g a t i o n . A d v i c e c o u l d t h e n b e g i v e n o n how a n d when t o i r r i g a t e o r c h a r d s , a n a c t i v i t y w h i c h i n i t i a l l y was b a s e d l a r g e l y o n g u e s s w o r k . T h e d i s c o v e r i e s f r o m t h e E x p e r i m e n t a l S t a t i o n w e r e n u m e r o u s , b u t f i n a l m e n t i o n must be made o f t h e p l a n t b r e e d i n g s e c t i o n . T h e i r m o s t n o t a b l e c o n t r i b u t i o n was t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f t h e S p a r t a n a p p l e i n 1956. T h i s v/as a n e a r l y a n d h e a v y b e a r i n g a p p l e , h a r d y a n d o f g o o d c o l o u r , a n d s p e c i a l l y b r e d f o r t h e O k a n a g a n c l i m a t e 22 a n d s o i l s . A l l t h e o t h e r v a r i e t i e s w e re i m p o r t s t o t h e a r e a . Had t h e o r c h a r d i s t s h a d t o s o l v e a l l t h e s e a d j u s t m e n t p r o b l e m s a n d l e a r n s o l e l y f r o m t h e i r own e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n , f a i l u r e w o u l d h a v e b e e n f a r more f r e q u e n t t h a n i t a c t u a l l y was. A r o u n d 1920 t h e r e s a l e v a l u e o f o r c h a r d l a n d was s o l o w e r e d b y e r r a t i c p r o d u c t i o n a n d m a r k e t d i f f i c u l t i e s t h a t o r c h a r d i s t s whose c r o p s f a i l e d o r who r e c e i v e d no r e t u r n s 59 from s a l e of f r u i t , could, not a f f o r d t o leave t h e i r l a n d . Unable t o r e a l i s e enough from s a l e of the orchard, i n many cases the only course l e f t open xvas to remain and work towards g r e a t e r s e c u r i t y of p r o d u c t i o n and marketing, no matter how bleak the s i t u a t i o n appeared. The land company s e t t l e r s had moved q u i c k l y onto new s i t e s i n a s e m i - f r o n t i e r environment, but they d i d not have to r e l y on t h e i r own experience t o l e a r n the b a s i c o r c h a r d i n g techniques of p l a n t i n g , pruning and so on. They l e a r n t by example from other o r c h a r d i s t s and from the i n s t r u c t i o n of the D i s t r i c t H o r t i c u l t u r a l i s t s . This government p r o v i s i o n of expert a d v i s e r s , and l a t e r of r e s e a r c h f a c i l i t i e s was v i t a l . An o r c h a r d i s t might s u r v i v e f o r a time u n a s s i s t e d , but only i f problems r e l a t i n g t o p e s t s , d i s e a s e s , s o i l d e f i c i e n c i e s , i r r i g a t i o n d i f f i c u l t i e s and the l i k e , d i d not a r i s e . I t was mandatory t h a t s u b t l e environmental a d a p t a t i o n s , o f t e n d i f f i c u l t t o i d e n t i f y yet necessary t o e s t a b l i s h v i a b l e orchards, be made without d e l a y . Since the l a n d companies d i d l i t t l e t o f o l l o w up s a l e s w i t h i n s t r u c t i o n i n orcharding techniques, the government i n p u t s i n t h i s respect enabled s e t t l e r s t o develop orchards w i t h l e s s c o s t l y experimentation and w i t h fewer mistakes than might otherwise have been the case. The main c o l o n i z a t i o n of the Kelowna area was i n the Twentieth Century when governments took s e r i o u s l y t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s to provide such s e r v i c e s as experimental s t a t i o n s , and when s c i e n t i f i c r e s e a r c h was an i n t e g r a l p a r t 60 of a g r i c u l t u r e . Such work was a necessary support f o r the o r c h a r d i s t s . The unknowns became known and some mastery was achieved over the hazards and d i f f i c u l t i e s . But, i t was another way i n which the s e t t l e r s r e l i n q u i s h e d t h e i r independence. Jus t as they were dependent on the i r r i g a t i o n companies f o r water, they were dependent on government agents and s c i e n t i s t s whose advice and d i s c o v e r i e s were e s s e n t i a l t o r e l i a b l e f r u i t p r o d u c t i o n The I r r i g a t i o n Systems Of a l l the adverse f a c t o r s t o be overcome the most c r i t i c a l was l a c k of r a i n f a l l . Kelowna's mean annual p r e c i p i t a t i o n i s only 12.4- i n c h e s , w i t h the main peak i n w i n t e r , o u t s i d e the growing season (see F i g u r e 2 ) . Despite a s l i g h t secondary maximum i n June, the average moisture 23 d e f i c i t from May t o September exceeds 12 i n c h e s . y Moreover, the monthly p r e c i p i t a t i o n i s e r r a t i c and u n r e l i a b l e , and at l e a s t 19% of the years r e c e i v e l e s s than 10 inches of • . . 24-p r e c i p x t a t x o n . Commercial o r c h a r d i n g thus had t o depend on i r r i g a t i o n . The h i n t e r l a n d or water catchment area which feeds the i r r i g a t i o n systems has a higher p r e c i p i t a t i o n . The drainage area s t r e t c h e s t h i r t y m i l e s east i n t o the mountains, which r i s e t o over 7000 f e e t . The s o l e c l i m a t i c s t a t i o n i n these uplands i s McCulloch, s i x t e e n m i l e s south east of Kelowna, at 4-100 f e e t , beside H y d r a u l i c Lake. There the average annual p r e c i p i t a t i o n i s 22.25 inches which i n c l u d e s the water 25 e q u i v a l e n t of the average annual s n o w f a l l of 121.8 i n c h e s . 61 Figu r e 2 KELOWNA PRECIPITATION. inches inches N D Mean monthly t o t a l s based on 40 years of records High & Low extremes based on 19 years of records Source: W.G.Kendrew & D.Kerr, The Climate of  B r i t i s h Columbia and the Yukon T e r r i t o r y , Ottawa, 1955, pp. 88 &.127. 62 A n o t h e r a d v a n t a g e o f t h i s d r a i n a g e a r e a was t h a t i n t h e h i g h e r p a r t s t h e l a n d s c a p e v/as p i t t e d w i t h s m a l l d e p r e s s i o n s l e f t b y t h e r e t r e a t i n g i c e . T h e s e u s u a l l y h e l d l a k e s o r swamps. I n s h o r t , t h e r e was c o n s i d e r a b l e n a t u r a l w a t e r s t o r a g e w h i c h c o u l d e a s i l y b e a u g m e n t e d b y dams. T h e i r r i g a t i o n s y s t e m s i n s t a l l e d b y t h e l a n d , c o m p a n i e s w e r e t h e e s s e n t i a l l i f e l i n e s f o r t h e o r c h a r d i n g i n d u s t r y ( s e e Map 4 ) . H o w e v e r , b e c a u s e o f t h e d i s t a n c e s i n v o l v e d t h e y w e r e v e r y c o s t l y , and. r o u g h t e r r a i n n e c e s s i t a t e d t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f many e x p e n s i v e t r e s t l e s . B y 1915 t h e t o t a l e x p e n d i t u r e o n t h e f o u r s y s t e m s v/as o v e r 01,300,000. N i n e dams w e r e b u i l t i n t h e h i l l s , a n d t h e c r e e k b e d s w e r e u s e d t o c o n v e y t h e w a t e r p a r t way t o t h e o r c h a r d s . T h e d i s t r i b u t i o n s y s t e m s w e r e l e n g t h y b e c a u s e t h e y were g r a v i t y o p e r a t e d , a n d b e c a u s e t h e s t r e a m s w e r e s o e n t r e n c h e d i n t h e b e n c h l a n d s t h e h e a d g a t e s f o r t h e m a i n c a n a l s w e r e u s u a l l y m i l e s u p s t r e a m f r o m t h e h i g h e s t o r c h a r d s . I n 1915, t h e f o u r s e p a r a t e i r r i g a t i o n s y s t e m s t o t a l l e d o v e r 105 m i l e s o f 27 c a n a l s , f l u m e s a n d p i p e s . ' T h e l o w e r o u t l e t s i n t o t h e o r c h a r d s w e r e c o n t r o l l e d b y 350 j u n c t i o n o r d i s t r i b u t i o n b o x e s . T h e s y s t e m s w h i c h t h e l a n d c o m p a n i e s h a d d e s c r i b e d a s ' p e r f e c t ' and. ' p e r m a n e n t ' , p r o v e d i n o p e r a t i o n t o b e b o t h i n a d e q u a t e a n d u n r e l i a b l e . T h e s e s h o r t c o m i n g s i n t h e m o s t v i t a l s e r v i c e i m p o s e d c o n s i d e r a b l e h a r d s h i p s o n t h e o r c h a r d i s t s . B u t , t h e i n a d e q u a c y o f t h e w a t e r s u p p l y v/as n o t s o l e l y d u e t o f a u l t s i n t h e i r r i g a t i o n s y s t e m s . Much v / a t e r 64 KEY TO MAP 4 . T o t a l R e s e r v o i r s ' Water cost storage shortage of c a p a c i t y i n ( a l l f i g u r e s r e f e r t o 1915) system i n a c r e - f e e t a c r e - f e e t CoO.L. C e n t r a l Okanagan Lands L t d . Kelowna I r r i g a t i o n Co. L t d . 0496,248 1980 466 B.C.F.L. Belgo-Canadian F r u i t Lands Co. L t d . Blac k Mountain Water Co. L t d . 0425,903 2565 none K.L.O. Kelowna Land & Orchard Co. L t d . Canyon Creek I r r i g a t i o n Co. L t d . 0125,991 367 none S.K.L. South Kelowna Land Co. L t d . South Kelowna I r r i g a t i o n Co. L t d . 0284,205 2580 none f i g u r e s based on A.R.Mackenzie, Report t o the M i n i s t e r of  Finance of the Province of B r i t i s h Columbia, on the P h y s i c a l  and F i n a n c i a l C o n d i t i o n of I r r i g a t i o n P r o j e c t s . i n - the Vernon  and Kelowna D i s t r i c t s , Vancouver, 1916, P a r t I , p. 75 and Pa r t I I , pp. 160-162, 231, 268 & 305. 65 28 was wasted by the i r r i g a t o r s through u n s k i l f u l a p p l i c a t i o n , , Some of the d i f f i c u l t i e s stemmed from poor i n i t i a l p r e p a r a t i o n of the lando Where t o save time and get the t r e e s p l a n t e d q u i c k l y , the ground had not been p r o p e r l y grad.ed, more time and water had t o be expended t o i r r i g a t e . Even furrows were best f o r water d i s t r i b u t i o n and c o n s e r v a t i o n . E v a p o r a t i o n could be reduced by the use of deep furrows, the p r a c t i c e of n i g h t i r r i g a t i o n , and by c u l t i v a t i o n of the s o i l immediately a f t e r the water v/as a p p l i e d . For optimum water use the l e n g t h and g r a d i e n t of the furrows had t o be r e l a t e d t o s o i l and s u b s o i l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . I f furrows were too long excess water v/ould s i n k i n at the upper end and p e r c o l a t e down below root l e v e l . I f they were too s h o r t , water was v/asted at the lov/er end. I f the water flowed too f a s t v/ashouts occurred, yet i f too slow, v/ater p l a n t s began t o grow. Thus i t was a l l too easy f o r the u n s k i l l e d o r c h a r d i s t t o d i m i n i s h the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the v/ater at h i s d i s p o s a l . Because of the many c o n t r i b u t o r y f a c t o r s i t i s not p o s s i b l e to give other than a rough average of water demand. F i g u r e s quoted i n r e p o r t s , records and other documents g e n e r a l l y l a y between 1-J and 2-J a c r e - f e e t per year. I t v/as no e a s i e r t o g i v e accurate estimates of v/ater supply. For i n s t a n c e , i n 1915 the storage c a p a c i t y of P o s t i l l Lake, the main r e s e r v o i r of the Kelowna I r r i g a t i o n Co., v/as computed 29 at 2408 a c r e - f e e t . y This f i g u r e then had t o be reduced by 5% f o r e v a p o r a t i o n l o s s , and by a f u r t h e r 20% f o r a b s o r p t i o n 66 l o s s i n the creek bed between the r e s e r v o i r and the headgate of the main c a n a l . This l e f t an e f f e c t i v e storage c a p a c i t y of only 18J0 a c r e - f e e t . I t was a l s o estimated t h a t there was a kOfo l o s s through seepage and a b s o r p t i o n through the j o i n t s and cracks i n the main concrete pipes of the South Kelowna xn I r r i g a t i o n Co. 's works. y The f i g u r e s presented i n Table I g i v e some i n d i c a t i o n s of water storage and use i n 1915« They can only be approximate f i g u r e s s i n c e they are based mostly on the working assumption of " s a t i s f a c t o r y c o n d i t i o n of the •51 Company's means of conveyance. . a" which as w i l l be shown, was r a r e l y the case. For the B l a c k Mountain Water Co. and the South Kelowna I r r i g a t i o n Co. the n a t u r a l f l o w of the creeks p l u s the ample storage c a p a c i t y meant t h a t no shortage of water e x i s t e d or was envisaged. The Canyon Creek I r r i g a t i o n Co. served the l a r g e r developed acreage of the Kelowna Land & Orchard Co. which c o n s t i t u t e d 1603 acres of orchards, orchard i n t e r c r o p p i n g , g r a i n and r o o t crops, 32 a l f a l f a and hay. The two r e s e r v o i r s at the head of the system, connected t o the head of Canyon Creek by a d i v e r s i o n d i t c h , had only a s m a l l storage c a p a c i t y . However, f o r the 1915 i r r i g a t i o n requirements the n a t u r a l f l o w of the creek s u f f i c e d . But, i f l a n d s a l e s proceeded as planned, a 33 shortage was expected by 1925. The K e l o w n a . I r r i g a t i o n Co. was the only one t o have a water shortage by 1915. I t served the acreage of C e n t r a l Okanagan Lands L t d . i n Rutland and Glenmore. This company 67 TABLE I WATER USAGE, 1915. ( a l l f i g u r e s i n a c r e - f e e t ) KELOWNA IRRIGATION GO. LTD. Water requirements -V/ater R i g h t s Branch allowance from M i l l and S c o t t y Creeks -Erom storage of 1980 a c . / f t . -Shortage -May June J u l y August 64-5 64-5 1505 1075 5921 999 102 14-03 32 577 4-66 BLACK MOUNTAIN WATER CO. LTD. Water requirements -Flow of Belgo Creek, (1912 r e c o r d s ) -From storage of 2565 a c . / f t . -Shortage -180 4-20 300 104-4- 315 103 105 197 CANYON CREEK IRRIGATION CO. LTD. Water requirement -Flow of Canyon Creek, (1914- r e c o r d s ) -Prom storage of 367 a c . / f t . -Shortage -300 700 500 2290 806 777 SOUTH KELOWNA IRRIGATION CO. LTD. Water requirement -Combined, f l o w of S t i r l i n g and Hy d r a u l i c Creeks, (1912 r e c o r d s ) • From storage of 2580 a c . / f t . -Shortage -53 122 629 380 88 14-4-f i g u r e s based on A.R.Mackenzie, Report t o the M i n i s t e r of  Finance of the Pro v i n c e of B r i t i s h Columbia . . ., Vancouver, 1916, P a r t I I , pp. 162, 231, 268 & 305. 68 was i r r i g a t i n g more orchard acreage than the other three l a n d companies put t o g e t h e r . The c a l c u l a t i o n s showing an August shortage of 4-66 a c r e - f e e t were based on the very low f i g u r e of 0.85 a c r e - f e e t water a p p l i c a t i o n f o r the s e a s o n . ^ Because of t h i s and the f a c t t h a t the d i s t r i b u t i o n system was f a r from l o s s - p r o o f , the a c t u a l shortages were much g r e a t e r than 4-66 a c r e - f e e t per season. P r i o r t o the b u i l d i n g of the major i r r i g a t i o n works a 1907 document estimated t h a t 6700 acres cot i l d be watered from M i l l C r e e k . ^ By 1919 i t had been d e f i n i t e l y e s t a b l i s h e d t h a t the maximum p o s s i b l e acreage t h a t c o u l d be 36 served was 3400 a c r e s . I n 1915 C e n t r a l Okanagan Lands L t d . was t r y i n g t o i r r i g a t e 3673 acres of orchards and v a r i o u s 37 c r o p s , a n d the company had a l r e a d y agreed t o a l l o w the lands developed by Thomas Bulman i n E l l i s o n t o draw water from t h i s same source. Thus water shortage i n the areas of E l l i s o n , R u t land, and Glenmore was acute. There had been adequate water f o r the young t r e e s but the shortages had emerged as the t r e e s matured. P e r i o d i c a l l y i n the summer the system had t o be c l o s e d down; f o r s e v e r a l years water was only a v a i l a b l e f o r three months, and i n i n s u f f i c i e n t q u a n t i t i e s . ^ 8 Although not a l l the i r r i g a t i o n companies had to d e a l w i t h water shortages, there were s t r u c t u r a l f a u l t s i n a l l the d i s t r i b u t i o n systems. This meant tha t water supply was u n r e l i a b l e and the orchards were damaged. The o r c h a r d i s t s 1 l i v e l i h o o d was threatened by the v a g a r i e s of an i r r i g a t i o n 69 system over which they had no c o n t r o l . The la n d and i r r i g a t i o n companies planned only f o r the short term and set no funds aside f o r maintenance and replacement c o s t s . Yet r e p a i r s c o n s t i t u t e d a very heavy f i n a n c i a l burden, c o n t r i b u t i n g t o the e a r l y demise of the companies. There were s e v e r a l reasons f o r the f a u l t s i n the systems. They were b u i l t i n haste, f o r no l a n d s a l e s or p r o f i t s c o u l d be made u n t i l they were complete. A l s o , the companies were i n e x p e r i e n c e d i n the c o n s t r u c t i o n of i r r i g a t i o n works, although they d i d employ some s u r v e y o r s . ^ Subsequent problems were l e s s due t o f a u l t y d e s i g n than t o shoddy c o n s t r u c t i o n . Inexperienced men were employed and because of c o s t - c u t t i n g many of the m a t e r i a l s used were substandard. A l l t h i s r e s u l t e d i n f a u l t y systems, d i s a s t r o u s f o r both o r c h a r d i s t s and companies. D i f f e r e n t f a u l t s were a s s o c i a t e d w i t h d i f f e r e n t c o n s t r u c t i o n m a t e r i a l s . With the wooden p a r t s , necessary maintenance v/as expensive, i n v o l v i n g frequent r e p a i r s , t a r r i n g , c a u l k i n g and so on. As t h i s v/as neglected so the wood r o t t e d . The expected l i f e of wooden flumes was 8-12 40 years and of p i p e s , 10-15 y e a r s , but these were r a r e l y a t t a i n e d . There v/as extensive use of wood-stave p i p i n g , a source of r e c u r r e n t problems. The pipe v/as d e l i v e r e d from Vancouver a l r e a d y coated, so i t v/as not p o s s i b l e t o detect 4 1 where an o c c a s i o n a l stave of sap v/ood had been inserted.. I n o p e r a t i o n the sap wood r o t t e d f a r more q u i c k l y than the other s t a v e s , but because the pipes were wire-wound 70 i n d i v i d u a l staves c o u l d not be r e p l a c e d . The wooden c o l l a r s t h a t j o i n e d s e c t i o n s a l s o needed frequent renewal s i n c e the pipes c o u l d not be kept f u l l of water and the constant w e t t i n g and d r y i n g hastened r o t t i n g . The s t e e l s t r u c t u r e s r u s t e d . Flumes were g e n e r a l l y the longest l a s t i n g s t e e l p a r t s , but i n i t i a l l y the bands used t o j o i n s e c t i o n s together were not designed t o f i t f l u s h . Small pools of water lodged at the j o i n t s and many flumes r u s t e d through. With the r i v e t t e d s t e e l pipe used f o r siphons, the j o i n t s corroded and frequent s c r a p i n g and p a i n t i n g of the i n s i d e was needed, a job which i t was not humanly p o s s i b l e t o do w e l l . These d i f f i c u l t i e s f o l l o w e d from d e l i v e r y of the pipe w i t h only a t h i n i n n e r shop-coat of p a i n t which soon scraped o f f . Concrete was used mainly t o l i n e canals and d i t c h e s , but the l i n i n g was o f t e n too t h i n . Some canals needed r e l i n i n g on the bottom because the ea r t h had not been p r o p e r l y tamped before l a y i n g , and heaving and c r a c k i n g had r e s u l t e d . E s p e c i a l l y where the excav a t i o n was through c l a y , water seeping behind the si d e s of the d i t c h would f r e e z e , a l s o causing c r a c k i n g . I n pl a c e s whole s e c t i o n s of the si d e s had c o l l a p s e d i n t o the bottom. Beneath many of the d i t c h e s a g r a v e l wedge was c o n s t r u c t e d t o d e a l w i t h s u b - d i t c h drainage. But, when t h i s got blocked or where o r c h a r d i s t s c l o s e d up the o u t l e t s because they were g i v i n g o f f too much u n c o n t r o l l e d water, the water backed up and rup t u r e d the bottom of the d i t c h . 71 Thus the s t r u c t u r a l f a u l t s i n the i r r i g a t i o n systems were many and v a r i e d . A.R.Mackenzie, a C o n s u l t i n g C i v i l and H y d r a u l i c Engineer presented a r e p o r t t o the P r o v i n c i a l Government i n 1916 e s t i m a t i n g which p a r t s of the systems would need r e p l a c i n g by 1925« The South Kelowna I r r i g a t i o n Co.'s system was the s t u r d i e s t , i t v/as the l a s t of the f o u r t o be put i n . Necessary renewal was confined, t o 218 f t . of s t e e l flume, 600 f t . of c o n c r e t e - l i n e d canal and 1908 f t . of s t e e l siphon p i p e . v The B l a c k Mountain V/ater Co.' s d i f f i c u l t i e s were mostly w i t h the wooden s t r u c t u r e s . Two gate-towers at the dams, a weir and a headgate had t o be r e p l a c e d , together w i t h at l e a s t 20,000 f t . of wooden flumes and 6490 f t . of wood-stave p i p i n g . The other major problem i n v o l v e d the maintenance and replacement of 10,099 f t . of 44 e a r t h covered s t e e l siphon pipe at 8 M i l e Creek. The Canyon Creek I r r i g a t i o n Co. v/as the f i r s t t o have s t a r t e d c o n s t r u c t i o n so i t had the most an t i q u a t e d system, w i t h the g r e a t e s t p r o p o r t i o n of wood used. Tv/o r o c k - f i l l e d c r i b - t y p e dams needed r e c o n s t r u c t i o n . Much wood-stave p i p i n g and 9000 f t . of s t e e l flume had t o be r e p l a c e d , while 4-g- m i l e s of 45 wooden flume v/as t o be r e p l a c e d by s t e e l . ^ I n a l l , r e p a i r s needed f o r these three systems up t o 1922 were t o cost 0111,000. 4 6 The Kelowna I r r i g a t i o n Co. had the most f a u l t y system. Massive c o n s t r u c t i o n e r r o r s f o r a l l the reasons g i v e n 47 n e c e s s i t a t e d wide-scale r e p a i r s a f t e r only a few y e a r s . 1 I t v/as estimated, t h a t 0325,000 v/ould have to be spent on 72 4 8 r e c o n s t r u c t i o n of t h i s system by 1922. T h i s represented a sum equal t o 65$ of the o r i g i n a l c o n s t r u c t i o n c o s t s . The woodwork i n the dam and the f o u r main headgates needed replacement, as d i d f i f t e e n m i l e s of wooden pipe and 12-g-m i l e s of wooden flume t o be r e p l a c e d by s t e e l . Over s i x m i l e s of c o n c r e t e - l i n e d c a n a l was t o be r e l i n e d w i t h at l e a s t 2-J inches of c o n c r e t e . The 5-5- m i l e s of e a r t h canals and d i t c h e s i n the Rutland area, through which estimated seepage 4 9 was over 1000 a c r e - f e e t per season, y were a l s o t o be l i n e d w i t h concrete. Another huge problem i n v o l v e d the replacement of the 10,128 f t . of 30-32 i n c h diameter s t e e l siphon pipe t h a t crossed the head of Glenmore. The expense i n v o l v e d i n the maintenance of the v a s t i r r i g a t i o n systems was however only one of the f a c t o r s c o n t r i b u t i n g t o the f i n a n c i a l d e c l i n e and c o l l a p s e of the l a n d and i r r i g a t i o n companies. Other f i n a n c i a l d i f f i c u l t i e s were t r i g g e r e d o f f s p e c i f i c a l l y by World War I . The d e c l i n e of the companies provided the o p p o r t u n i t y f o r the o r c h a r d i s t s t o step i n and take c o n t r o l of the i r r i g a t i o n systems. The Kelowna Land & Orchard Co. had been i n e x i s t e n c e s e v e r a l years when the d e c i s i o n was made to go ahead w i t h 50 the South Kelowna scheme. The l a t t e r ' s i r r i g a t i o n system w i t h i t s extensive use of concrete was modern but expensive. Much of the money f o r the new company had been r a i s e d i n B r i t a i n , and many of the Kelowna Land 8; Orchard Co. shareholders had i n v e s t e d . Money was borrowed from the Royal 73 Bank and the South Kelowna Land Co, d i r e c t o r s themselves agreed t o act as guarantors. Lord Woolavington, owner of the Coldstream Ranch near Vernon, loaned 0100,000. The s e c u r i t y f o r t h i s l o a n v/as the l a r g e company orchard of the Kelowna Land & Orchard Co., a t o t a l l y improper arrangement s i n c e the companies v/ere supposedly separate. With the outbreak of war i n 1914 B r i t a i n p l a c e d a ban on a l l exchequer e x p o r t s , so none of the s u b s c r i b e d B r i t i s h 51 money a r r i v e d . The Royal Bank r e c a l l e d the l o a n and as orchard s a l e s d.eclined, r e d u c i n g revenues, both companies r a n i n t o severe f i n a n c i a l d i f f i c u l t i e s . Much of the South Kelov/na Land Co. 's lands r e v e r t e d t o the government because la n d and school taxes v/ere unpaid. Work on the maintenance and c o n s t r u c t i o n of i r r i g a t i o n systems v/as v i r t u a l l y h a l t e d . Nor was there any recovery a f t e r the war. The l a r g e company orchard of the Kelowna Land & Orchard Co. was j u s t coming i n t o b e a r i n g . A l l i t s output was t i e d t o S t i r l i n g & P i t c a i r n , a l o c a l packing house which had much the same d i r e c t o r s h i p as the tv/o l a n d companies. Because of the s i z e of the 1918 crop S t i r l i n g & P i t c a i r n had not been able t o handle i t , and 1919 was a bumper year. The d i r e c t o r s r e f u s e d t o a l l o w another packing house to be approached, and an e a r l y c o l d s p e l l and heavy s n o w f a l l on October 25th. f r o z e t h a t h a l f of the crop which v/as s t i l l on the t r e e s due t o the congestion i n the packing house. The company l o s t a great deal of money and c o l l a p s e d . The money from l a n d s a l e s had a l l been swallowed up by the i r r i g a t i o n system, and w i t h no more 74-a s s e t s t o r e a l i s e , and the mortgage to Lord Woolavington s t i l l o u t s t a n d i n g , the company went i n t o l i q u i d a t i o n i n 1921. C e n t r a l Okanagan Lands L t d . had c o l l a p s e d w i t h the outbreak of war, when the Dominion Trust Co. of Vancouver which had p a r t i a l l y f i n a n c e d the company, went i n t o r e c e i v e r s h i p . The l a n d company immediately l o s t the 0100,000 t h a t had been lodged w i t h the Trust Co, t o make payment on 52 bonds. As l a n d s a l e s d e c l i n e d , C e n t r a l Okanagan Lands L t d . i t s e l f went i n t o r e c e i v e r s h i p . The Belgo-Canadian F r u i t Lands Co. a l s o went through a v e r y hard time d u r i n g the war. No money was forthcoming from Belgium or from the Canadian o f f i c e s i n Winnipeg. There was an i r r i g a t i o n system t o keep up, yet no income from the acres of as yet unbearing orchards. However, the company's Kelovma investments were kept s o l v e n t l a r g e l y due t o the e f f o r t s of i t s capable r e s i d e n t manager, E.M.Carruthers.-^ The h o l d i n g s were g r a d u a l l y s o l d o f f and the company faded out of e x i s t e n c e i n the e a r l y 1920s as the l a s t p r o p e r t y was s o l d . The d e c l i n e and c o l l a p s e of the land companies posed no great t h r e a t t o the developing orcharding i n d u s t r y . Far more s e r i o u s was the s t a t e of n e g l e c t i n t o which the i r r i g a t i o n systems had been allowed t o f a l l . The i n d i v i d u a l o r c h a r d i s t had s u f f e r e d at the hands of the i r r i g a t i o n companies, as he had t o depend on a company whose i n t e r e s t s d i d not c o i n c i d e w i t h h i s own t o m a i n t a i n a s e r v i c e t h a t was e s s e n t i a l to h i s l i v e l i h o o d . The companies had entered 75 i n t o f i x e d c o n t r a c t s w i t h the o r c h a r d i s t s , but the agreed water charges became i n s u f f i c i e n t t o cover maintenance c o s t s . P a r t i c u l a r l y d u r i n g the war years the companies were unable or u n w i l l i n g t o m a i n t a i n adequate water s e r v i c e s . There was a growing f e e l i n g among the o r c h a r d i s t s t h a t t h e i r i n t e r e s t s had t o be safeguarded, t h a t i r r i g a t i o n works were too v i t a l t o be l e f t under the c o n t r o l of the companies. Such f e e l i n g s had begun t o c r y s t a l l i z e by 1912. A r e s o l u t i o n passed i n t h a t year at the Kelowna convention of the Western Canada I r r i g a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n showed c o n s i d e r a b l e f o r e s i g h t as at t h a t time there were few i n d i c a t i o n s of the d i s a s t e r s yet t o b e f a l l the l a n d and i r r i g a t i o n companies. Therefore be i t r e s o l v e d , t h a t i t i s d e s i r a b l e t h a t a scheme be formulated g i v i n g the i n h a b i t a n t s of d i s t r i c t s served from common sources of water-supply the power to take over, c o n t r o l and operate f o r the b e n e f i t of a l l l a n d i n such d i s t r i c t s , a l l water r e c o r d s , i r r i g a t i o n companies and a s s o c i a t i o n s organized f o r purposes of s u p p l y i n g v/ater, and t h a t the p r o v i n c i a l government be r e s p e c t f u l l y i n v i t e d t o prepare and present t o the l e g i s l a t u r e of the Province of B r i t i s h Columbia at i t s next s e s s i o n a b i l l p r o v i d i n g f o r the establishment of v/ater d i s t r i c t s and f o r the o r g a n i z a t i o n of the i n h a b i t a n t s (being users of v/ater) i n t o corporate b o d i e s , d e f i n i n g t h e i r powers, d u t i e s and o b l i g a t i o n s 5 4 The growers wished t o acqu i r e c o n t r o l of the i r r i g a t i o n systems yet d i d not have the f i n a n c i a l r e s o u r c e s . They sought the help of the P r o v i n c i a l Government which i n 1918 amended the "Water Act " s e t t i n g up a 03 m i l l i o n C o n servation Fund w i t h i n the Treasury, under the c o n t r o l of the M i n i s t e r of Lands. I t s express purpose was the l o a n i n g of money "For the c o n s t r u c t i o n , r e c o n s t r u c t i o n , r e p a i r , or 76 e x t e n s i o n of works f o r the u t i l i z a t i o n of water:" and "For the maintenance and o p e r a t i o n of d i t c h e s , r e s e r v o i r s , and 55 water systems:". Although the Act a l s o provided f o r the l o a n of money f o r the a c q u i s i t i o n of i r r i g a t i o n works, there remained the problem of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r repayments and no o r c h a r d i s t s a p p l i e d f o r l o a n s . The "Water Act " was again amended i n 1920 t o l e g i s l a t e f o r the c r e a t i o n of 'Improvement D i s t r i c t s ' . I t was the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the C o m p t roller i n V i c t o r i a t o determine whether the number of s u b s c r i b e r s t o the necessary p e t i t i o n warranted the f o r m a t i o n of a D i s t r i c t . I f so, he named i t , set i t s t e r r i t o r i a l l i m i t s , i d e n t i f i e d the works t o be a c q u i r e d , and determined the s i z e of l o a n the Conservation Fund would advance. The only a c t i o n necessary on the p a r t of the growers was the i n i t i a l p e t i t i o n and subsequent e l e c t i o n of the D i s t r i c t ' s T r u stees. The f i r s t s t a t e d object of the D i s t r i c t s was "The a c q u i s i t i o n and o p e r a t i o n of l i c e n c e s and works f o r the storage, d e l i v e r y , and c a r r i a g e of water f o r i r r i g a t i o n and such i n c i d e n t a l purposes as are 56 a u t h o r i z e d by the l i c e n c e s i t a c q u i r e s : " . I t was the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the D i s t r i c t Trustees t o borrow from the Conservation Fund, make up the D i s t r i c t ' s assessment r o l l , and l e v y the dues and taxes necessary f o r repayment of both i n t e r e s t and the p r i n c i p a l sum. The a s s i s t a n c e of the government was thus fundamental i n making the t r a n s i t i o n from a s t a t e where the o r c h a r d i s t s were at the mercy of the i r r i g a t i o n companies, t o a p o s i t i o n where, having been 77 encouraged t o co-operate and organize themselves, they were loaned the money t o acquire and f i n a n c e the o p e r a t i o n of t h e i r i r r i g a t i o n supply. I n 1920 three major I r r i g a t i o n D i s t r i c t s were founded i n the Kelowna area, one f o r each of i t s major water sources: M i l l Creek from the n o r t h , M i s s i o n Creek from the ea s t , and Hy d r a u l i c and Canyon Creeks from the south. These I r r i g a t i o n D i s t r i c t s purchased the r i g h t s and assets of the i r r i g a t i o n companies f o r sums much l e s s than those o r i g i n a l l y spent by the companies on t h e i r c o n s t r u c t i o n . However, the i r r i g a t i o n systems were i n s e r i o u s s t a t e s of d i s r e p a i r and immediate and e x t e n s i v e r e p a i r s had t o be undertaken t o t r y t o e s t a b l i s h t h e i r e f f i c i e n t o p e r a t i o n . This i n v o l v e d r e n o v a t i o n of most of the o l d works and i n s t a l l a t i o n of c e r t a i n new ones. The B l a c k Mountain I r r i g a t i o n D i s t r i c t which now waters the lands i n Rutland and the Belgo, a c q u i r e d the i r r i g a t i o n systems of the Rutland E s t a t e s , the B l a c k Mountain Water Co., and part of the Kelowna I r r i g a t i o n Co.'s works f o r 0100,000.5? i n 1920 part of the e i g h t m i l e long main d i t c h was renewed. By 1932 storage c a p a c i t y had been i n c r e a s e d by 2700 a c r e - f e e t w i t h two new d i v e r s i o n d i t c h e s on Mugford and H i l d a Creeks and a new dam at Greystoke 58 Lake. However, i n 1927 complaints of water shortages and 59 h i g h charges were s t i l l common. The Glenmore I r r i g a t i o n D i s t r i c t bought the remaining 60 works of the Kelovma I r r i g a t i o n Co. f o r 027,000. Many 78 improvements had t o be made t o t h i s system. During 1922-1923 the dam at P o s t i l l Lake was r a i s e d t o i n c r e a s e storage c a p a c i t y by -y, although the r u n o f f has never s i n c e been 61 s u f f i c i e n t t o f i l l the r e s e r v o i r t o c a p a c i t y . I n the 1920s much of the o l d wood pipe was r e p l a c e d by pressur e - c r e o s o t e d s t e e l c o u p l i n g wood p i p e , a much more durable c o n s t r u c t i o n . Many of the o l d concrete d i t c h e s were r e l i n e d . I n 1931 a pump was i n s t a l l e d t o b r i n g v/ater from Okanagan Lake t o the lower end of Glenmore. I n 1933 the long s t e e l siphon pipe across the head of the v a l l e y was f i n a l l y r e p l a c e d by a h e a v i l y r e i n f o r c e d concrete pipe b u r i e d below f r o s t l e v e l , 62 t h a t proved t o be t r o u b l e f r e e . However, d e s p i t e these improvements and the f a c t t h a t the o l d Kelowna I r r i g a t i o n Co. lands i n Rutland v/ere now under the j u r i s d i c t i o n of the Bla c k Mountain I r r i g a t i o n D i s t r i c t , water shortages were s t i l l acute. The unanimous f e e l i n g among the growers v/as f o r a v/ater requirement of between 1-g- and 2-g- a c r e - f e e t The d i s t r i b u t i o n system v/as 64-estimated t o provide only 0.7 a c r e - f e e t i n 1926. Temporary s o l u t i o n s t o the d i f f i c u l t y v/ere not popular. Clean c u l t i v a t i o n of the orchard v/as one method of conserving v/ater. A l t e r n a t i v e l y the o r c h a r d i s t simply had t o apply h i s water allowance t o the best p a r t s of h i s orchard. The South East Kelov/na I r r i g a t i o n D i s t r i c t i n c o r p o r a t e d the systems of the Canyon Creek I r r i g a t i o n Co. and the South Kelov/na I r r i g a t i o n Co.. The combination was i d e a l i n t h a t the heavy s p r i n g f l o w of Canyon Creek c o u l d be used 79 c o n j o i n t l y w i t h the ample storage at H y d r a u l i c Lake. A l l lands were assured of water, w i t h the o l d Kelowna Land & Orchard Co. lands b e n e f i t t i n g most. T h e i r p a r t of the system was the o l d e s t and most run down and had the l e a s t storage f a c i l i t i e s . Borrowing from the Conservation Fund was heavy. The South East Kelowna I r r i g a t i o n D i s t r i c t borrowed 034-2,000.^ I n t e r e s t and repayment of the p r i n c i p a l sum proved an onerous burden, and the o r c h a r d i s t s g e n e r a l l y found the water taxes and t o l l s h e a v i e r than they had a n t i c i p a t e d . A major disadvantage was t h a t the assessment of money due t o the fund was i n the form of a blanket charge f o r the whole D i s t r i c t . Thus as lands r e v e r t e d t o the government f o r non-payment of the t o l l s , the burden was cumulative on the remaining l a n d s . The P r o v i n c i a l Government was approached 66 and i t brought i n t o e f f e c t a moratorium from 1923 t o 1926. By d e f e r r i n g payment of a p r o p o r t i o n of the money due u n t i l a l a t e r date i t t e m p o r a r i l y reduced the o r c h a r d i s t s 1 burden. I n the South East Kelowna I r r i g a t i o n D i s t r i c t water charges were reduced from 017°35 to 09.25 per acre.^? The government a l s o agreed t h a t when lands r e v e r t e d t o them, the remaining members of the I r r i g a t i o n D i s t r i c t would not have t o pay in c r e a s e d c o n t r i b u t i o n s . When the moratorium was l i f t e d i n 1927 and f u l l charges came back i n t o e f f e c t , more of the poorer, l e s s developed lands t h a t could not c a r r y the charges r e v e r t e d t o the government. More water was then a v a i l a b l e f o r the remaining 80 lands and t h i s was e s p e c i a l l y b e n e f i c i a l i n areas of shortage such as Glenmore. I n t h i s I r r i g a t i o n D i s t r i c t i t was estimated i n 1927 t h a t the r e v e r s i o n of l a n d t o the government v/ould reduce the acreage of i r r i g a t e d l a n d by approximately 3 0 % . ^ Subsequently, r e c o g n i z i n g the need t o ease the f i n a n c i a l burden on the o r c h a r d i s t s , the government wrote o f f p a r t of the I r r i g a t i o n D i s t r i c t s ' debts t o the Conservation Fund. What had been o r i g i n a l l y only a l o a n became p a r t i a l l y a d i r e c t s ubsidy. The f o r m a t i o n of the I r r i g a t i o n D i s t r i c t s was f a r from the s o l u t i o n of a l l f i n a n c i a l or s t r u c t u r a l problems. But, whatever d i f f i c u l t i e s s t i l l remained the o r c h a r d i s t s now c o n t r o l l e d the i r r i g a t i o n systems i n t h e i r own i n t e r e s t s . Even though l a r g e debts had been i n c u r r e d and v/ater shortages and h i g h c o s t s s t i l l had t o be reckoned w i t h , the o r c h a r d i s t s v/ere never again l e t down as they had been by the i r r i g a t i o n companies which l e t the systems f a l l i n t o d i s r e p a i r . T h i s o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o n s o l i d a t i o n v/as part of a movement v / i t h i n the i n d u s t r y t h a t was u r g i n g grower c o n t r o l at a l l l e v e l s . T h i s broadening assumption of growers' r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i s the main theme of the next chapter. The p a r t i c u l a r takeover of the i r r i g a t i o n systems occurred r e l a t i v e l y e a r l y i n the h i s t o r y of co - o p e r a t i o n . This was because circumstances made some a c t i o n necessary, and the government made i t f i n a n c i a l l y p o s s i b l e . A l s o , the i r r i g a t i o n systems were l o c a l l y a c c e s s i b l e so i t was r e l a t i v e l y easy f o r the growers assume and manage t h e i r o p e r a t i o n . 81 F r u i t P r o d u c t i o n F r u i t output was the c u l m i n a t i o n of a l l the developments of p r o d u c t i o n e x p e r t i s e , techniques and o r g a n i z a t i o n . This was the f i n a l i n d i c a t o r of the e f f i c a c y of the i r r i g a t i o n systems and of the adjustments t o the environment. The two most s i g n i f i c a n t .features of the p r o d u c t i o n f i g u r e s were the supremacy of apples, the main f r u i t grown at Kelowna, and the f l u c t u a t i o n s of the v a r i e t i e s t h a t made up t h i s apple p r o d u c t i o n . Table I I gives some i n d i c a t i o n s of the r e l a t i v e importance of the v a r i o u s f r u i t s at Kelowna. I n r e l a t i o n t o the r e s t of the Okanagan Kelowna was o f t e n the l e a d i n g producing d i s t r i c t f o r a f r u i t , s i n c e i t comprised between 20% and 25% of the Okanagan's f r u i t acreage. Peaches and a p r i c o t s d i d not f i g u r e s i g n i f i c a n t l y at Kelovma because the area was too f a r n o r t h w i t h i n the v a l l e y , and the growing season was n e i t h e r warm nor long enough. P l a n t i n g s d i d not amount to more than a few thousand t h r e e s of e i t h e r . Plums, prunes and sweet c h e r r i e s were not wi d e l y grown as market demand d i d not warrant i t . Pears had always been the second f r u i t ' at Kelowna; the 69 e a r l y successes of T . W . S t i r l i n g at the Bankhead Orchard, had served as an i n c e n t i v e f o r others who had f o l l o w e d the 70 example. However, f i r e b l x g h t s t r u c k the pear orchards around 1920 and destroyed many of them. S e v e r a l o r c h a r d i s t s 71 turned t h e i r lands over t o apples at t h i s time. Between 1920 and 1925 only 766 new pear t r e e s were p l a n t e d a f t e r 82 TABLE I I NUMBERS OF FRUIT TREES,AT KELOWNA. ( f i g u r e s are t o the nearest thousand) Sweet Apples Pears Plums Prune s c h e r r i e s 1911 131,000 12,000 1000 9Q00 6000 1920 315,000 23,000 4000 10,000 9000 1925 275,000* 17,000* 5000* 6000 8000* 1930 314,000* 15,000* 3000 6000 7000* 1935 303,000* 19,000 3000 12,000 10,000* 1940 297,000* 32,000* 4000* 23,000* 11,000 1911 f i g u r e s based on summer orchard survey i n R.M.Winslow, P r o v i n c i a l H o r t i c u l t u r a l i s t , I n f o r m a t i o n f o r F r u i t Growers  w i t h L i s t of V a r i e t i e s f o r Commercial and Home P l a n t i n g , B.C. Department of A g r i c u l t u r e , V i c t o r i a , 1913, B u l l e t i n No. 51, P. 35. 1920 - 1940 f i g u r e s based on B.C. Department of A g r i c u l t u r e , H o r t i c u l t u r a l Branch, Orchard Survey of the Okanagan  H o r t i c u l t u r a l D i s t r i c t , f o r those y e a r s . * = Kelowna was the l a r g e s t producing d i s t r i c t out of a l l the Okanagan d i s t r i c t s . 83 72 about 7000 had been uprooted.' The apple was by f a r the dominant f r u i t i n Kelovma and because of i t s supremacy, the f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n and the next chapter w i l l r e f e r almost e x c l u s i v e l y t o apple p r o d u c t i o n or marketing. For every t r e e census taken i n the area between 1911 and 1940, apple t r e e s made up 80$ or more of the t o t a l number of f r u i t t r e e s , r e a c h i n g a peak of 90.5$ i n 1930. Two c o n s i d e r a t i o n s played the main r o l e i n determining the f l u c t u a t i n g mix of v a r i e t i e s t h a t made up the Kelovma apple p r o d u c t i o n : p r o d u c t i o n c r i t e r i a and the d i c t a t e s of the market. But, because the Kelovma area could grow s a t i s f a c t o r i l y f a r more v a r i e t i e s than were commercially s a l e a b l e , f i n a l s e l e c t i o n depended p r i m a r i l y on market p r e f e r e n c e s . Two major p r o d u c t i o n c r i t e r i a are set out i n Table I I I . The f i g u r e s presented are g e n e r a l l y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of Kelovma though they r e f e r t o the Okanagan i n g e n e r a l , s i n c e l o c a l f i g u r e s are u n a v a i l a b l e f o r t h i s time. Q u a n t i t a t i v e y i e l d was important but had t o be weighed ag a i n s t many other c r i t e r i a such as q u a l i t y , c o l o u r , s i z e , u n i f o r m i t y , and freedom from blemishes. I n the t a b l e these are represented by the percentage of the y i e l d which could be c l a s s i f i e d as Grade 1 f r u i t . I n t h i s r egard, the D e l i c i o u s was a popular v a r i e t y t o p l a n t s i n c e the p r i c e f e t c h e d by i t s Grade 2 apples exceeded the Grade 1 p r i c e s of any of the 73 other v a r i e t i e s . The average p r i c e s quoted r e f l e c t market preferences as w e l l as the q u a l i t y of the product. I n a survey of both 84 TABLE I I I YIELDS & RETURNS EQR OKANAGAN APPLE VARIETIES. Average annual y i e l d per t r e e i n l b s . ( 1 0 y r . p e r i o d ) ( t r e e s aged 5-14 y r s ) Average % of y i e l d w i t h i n Grade 1 c l a s s . (1917 -1920 i n c l . ) Average net p r i c e per 401b. box, f o r Grade 1 apples. (1917 -1920 i n c l . ) Mcintosh 164.25* 65 01.54* Canada Baldwin 164.01* 59 1.23 Winter Banana 145.23* 76* 1.46 Snow 133.20* 66 1.61* Rome Beauty 133.20* 72 1.37 Wealthy 123.26* 58 1.34 Ben Davis 117.06 68 1.36 Yellow Transparent 101.01 50 1.56* Jonathan 100.40 70 1.34 Stayman Winesap 99.75 84* 1.38 Gravehstein 98.45 58 1.36 Yellow Newtown 97.04 71 1.54* D e l i c i o u s ' +93.6 83* 2.18* Grimes Golden 88.68 74* 1.30 Wagner 86.97 57 1.28 Winesap 79.20 75* 1.43 Spit z e n b e r g 72.23 77* 1.53 (Northern) Spy 62.57 55 1.60* * s i g n i f i e s the s i x h i g h e s t f i g u r e s i n each column. + t h i s f i g u r e r e p r e s e n t s an 8 y r . p e r i o d , t r e e s aged 5-12 y r s . . f i g u r e s from W.A.Middleton, Y i e l d s , Grades, P r i c e s and  Returns f o r Apple V a r i e t i e s i n the Okanagan V a l l e y , B r i t i s h Columbia Department of A g r i c u l t u r e , undated (probably 1922), pp. 3-6. 85 e a t i n g and cooking apples conducted i n the 1930s, the f i r s t t h ree c r i t e r i a named by consumers as a f f e c t i n g t h e i r choice of which v a r i e t y t o buy, were f l a v o u r , j u i c i n e s s and hardness, secondary f a c t o r s being c o l o u r , s i z e and keeping a b i l i t y . ' I n a survey of the western p r o v i n c e s , Ontario and Montreal, 42 .5% of people p o l l e d p r e f e r r e d the Mcintosh as the best e a t i n g apple, 15<>8% the Snow, 12% the Northern Spy and 9% the D e l i c i o u s . ^ These Canadian market preferences are r e f l e c t e d i n the column of average p r i c e s i n the t a b l e . For f o r e i g n markets, exported f r u i t had t o bear the e x t r a t r a n s p o r t c o s t s and import t a r i f f s at the d e s t i n a t i o n , 76 so supply had t o c a t e r e x a c t l y t o demand.' This demand was o f t e n q u i t e s p e c i f i c , encouraging p r o d u c t i o n of a v a r i e t y t h a t might not otherwise have been w i d e l y grown, such as the Yellow Newtown and Yellow Transparent n e i t h e r of which were heavy y i e l d e r s . The r i s k i n p l a n t i n g such v a r i e t i e s was t h a t i f the market v/as l o s t through t a r i f f i n c r e a s e s , c o m p e t i t i o n , or whatever, the apples might not e a s i l y be marketed elsewhere. To give some examples, the B r a z i l i a n market p r e f e r r e d a l a r g e D e l i c i o u s apple, as d i d the French. South A f r i c a took medium-sized Jonathans and Egypt, the l a r g e y e l l o w v a r i e t i e s . I n d i a wanted s m a l l t o medium hardy v a r i e t i e s l i k e the Winesap, whereas the r e s t of the A s i a n shipments were l a r g e Y ellow Newtowns t o t o u r i s t and d i p l o m a t i c o u t l e t s i n centres such as Singapore and Shanghai. B r i t a i n took many v a r i e t i e s but there v/ere r e g i o n a l s i z e p r e f e r e n c e s . The Glasgow market wanted an apple s e v e r a l s i z e s l a r g e r than 86 t h a t sent t o the London market. However, duri n g the years p r i o r t o World War I , p l a n t i n g was haphazard and of an experimental nature. No one r e a l l y knew what grew "best and so many v a r i e t i e s were p l a n t e d . The o r c h a r d i s t s f e l t safeguarded since i f one v a r i e t y f a i l e d there were others t o f a l l back on. I n 1911 i n Kelowna, 27.6$ of the p l a n t e d t r e e s were Jonathans and 14.5$ were Mclntoshs. Wealthies, Wagners, Newtowns and Spitzenbergs each c o n s t i t u t e d over 6$ of the t o t a l . ^ The v a r i e t i e s p l a n t e d seem l a r g e l y t o have been based on what was e s t a b l i s h e d i n Washington s t a t e , the o r i g i n of most of the e a r l y nursery s t o c k . ? 8 The Jonathans' p a r t i c u l a r p o p u l a r i t y among the o r c h a r d i s t s may be p a r t l y a t t r i b u t a b l e t o the f a c t t h a t i t was a f a v o u r i t e export apple t o B r i t a i n , 7 9 the major overseas market. ^ T h i s e a r l y p e r i o d of experimentation l e f t the i n d u s t r y w i t h acres of 'odd' v a r i e t i e s : Seek-No-Further, Cooper's Market, Wolf R i v e r , Rambo and many o t h e r s , a l l of which 8 0 have s i n c e disappeared. I n 1914 the o p e r a t i n g r u l e s of the Okanagan United Growers L t d . l a i d down the minimum s i z e s f o r 8 1 the s a l e s of the 141 recognized apple v a r i e t i e s . By 1922 however, the H o r t i c u l t u r a l Branch of the p r o v i n c i a l Department of A g r i c u l t u r e was suggesting the p l a n t i n g i n 82 t h i s area of only seven v a r i e t i e s . There were some advantages i n growing many v a r i e t i e s . There was good c r o s s - p o l l i n a t i o n , necessary because few apple v a r i e t i e s were s e l f - f e r t i l e . A l s o , as a l l the • 87 v a r i e t i e s d i d not r i p e n s i m u l t a n e o u s l y , labour requirements d u r i n g p i c k i n g were spread out. Advantages were f a r outweighed by disadvantages. With only small q u a n t i t i e s of a v a r i e t y the packing house had t o l e v y h e a v i e r h a n d l i n g charges. They o f t e n had d i f f i c u l t y i n matching the sporadic orders f o r these v a r i e t i e s w i t h the meagre supply. R a r e l y was i t p o s s i b l e t o accumulate a c a r l o a d of an 'odd' v a r i e t y . Thus t o dispose of them at a reasonable p r i c e , they had t o be s o l d w i t h the b e t t e r v a r i e t i e s i n mixed c a r l o a d s . This depressed the p r i c e of the good v a r i e t i e s which were i n e f f e c t s u b s i d i s i n g the poor ones. The s i t u a t i o n was d e t r i m e n t a l t o a l l s i n c e i t discouraged the growers of the d e s i r a b l e v a r i e t i e s and reduced the i n c e n t i v e f o r the growers of 'odd' v a r i e t i e s t o change. Table IV g i v e s d e t a i l s of the changes i n apple v a r i e t i e s grown i n the Kelowna d i s t r i c t (which i n the H o r t i c u l t u r a l Surveys i n c o r p o r a t e d a l l lands between E l l i s o n and Okanagan M i s s i o n ) . During the years g i v e n , the o r c h a r d i n g i n d u s t r y was i n the process of r a t i o n a l i s i n g p r o d u c t i o n by r e p l a n t i n g w i t h more p r o f i t a b l e v a r i e t i e s and e l i m i n a t i n g the 'odd' ones i n h e r i t e d from the e a r l y days. The process was gradual as i t i n v o l v e d f i n a n c i a l r i s k . A t r e e represented a c o n s i d e r a b l e investment f o r the o r c h a r d i s t , and a f t e r r e p l a n t i n g p a r t of the orchard would not be i n b e a r i n g f o r s e v e r a l y e a r s . However, g r a f t i n g techniques where a b e t t e r stock c o u l d be worked onto an e s t a b l i s h e d trunk d i d reduce some of the d i s r u p t i o n . 88 TABLE IV APPLE VARIETIES AT KELOWNA. ( f i g u r e s over 10,000 t o the nearest thousand) 1920 1925 1930 1935 1940 GENERAL INCREASE. ( f i g u r e s r e f e r t o numbers of t r e e s . ) Mcintosh 4-6,000 66,000 102,000 98,000" 104,000" D e l i c i o u s 18,000 25,000 42,000 55,000 59,000 Yellow Newtown 16,000 16,000" 19,000 26,000 26,000 Rome Beauty- 3106 7536 14,000 14,000 11,000" Wine sap 84-70 3604-" 5012 - 65^3 11,000 Stayman Winesap - 4-091" 4-060 6101 6575 Yellow Transparent 550 750 1713 3210 1704" GENERAL DECREASE. Jonathan 110,000 62,000" 49,000" 44,000" 43,000" Wealthy 20,000 18,000 20,000 14,000" 11,000" Wagner 25,000 21,000 15,000 8530" 4475" Northern Spy 14-,000 11,000" 8739" 4656* 3236* Sp i t z e n b e r g 94-28 7526" 4-399* 3205" 1845* Grimes Golden 6788 5630" 2856" 2188* 1769* Winter Banana 1664 1345 1423 818" 587" Gra v e n s t e i n 1084 64-6" 450 " 512* 371* Snow 338 570 378 185* 140* Ben Davis 672 587* 214* 251" -Canada Baldwin 580 4-62" 2646" — — " = 80$ of the t r e e s over 10 years o l d . * = a l l the t r e e s over 10 years old-. f i g u r e s from B.C. Department of A g r i c u l t u r e , H o r t i c u l t u r a l Branch, Orchard. Survey of the Okanagan H o r t i c u l t u r a l D i s t r i c t , f o r the years shown. 89 A f t e r the i n i t i a l p l a n t i n g s v/ere made, few v a r i e t i e s shov/ed f u r t h e r p l a n t i n g i n c r e a s e s . Foremost among the 83 v a r i e t i e s t h a t gained, in. p o p u l a r i t y v/as the Mcintosh. y I t s disadvantages - a short harvest season and not p a r t i c u l a r l y good keeping q u a l i t y , producing a pre-Christmas g l u t - were o f f s e t by i t s advantages. I t v/as a fast-g r o w i n g and hardy t r e e t h a t matured q u i c k l y , and. because the f r u i t v/as a t t r a c t i v e and of a high q u a l i t y i t was very popular on the market. Increases i n D e l i c i o u s t r e e s v/ere e q u a l l y s p e c t a c u l a r though on a s m a l l e r s c a l e . These apples v/ere of e x c e p t i o n a l q u a l i t y and commanded a higher p r i c e than any oth e r s . The s e l e c t f o r e i g n markets f o r the Yellow Newtowns have a l r e a d y been mentioned. The Rome Beauty was a hardy and pro d u c t i v e t r e e which bore f r u i t favoured f o r i t s cooking and baking q u a l i t i e s . The Winesap and the Stayman Winesap produced, r e l i a b l e crops t h a t kept w e l l , and the Yellow Transparent v/as the main e a r l y season apple. I n s h o r t , each of these apples had a p a r t i c u l a r set of advantages r e l a t e d t o i t s p r o d u c t i o n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and. t o market pr e f e r e n c e . Most v a r i e t i e s d e c l i n e d or disappeared from the area a l t o g e t h e r . The Jonathan, Gravenstein and Winter Banana were found t o grow b e t t e r f u r t h e r south where they s u f f e r e d l e s s w i n t e r i n j u r y . Wealthies d i d not bear evenly, r e q u i r e d a l o t of t h i n n i n g , and t h e i r market season clashed w i t h t h a t of the Mcintosh. Apples prone t o dis e a s e and d e t e r i o r a t i o n v/ere phased out. Wagners v/ere s m a l l t r e e s , u s u a l l y f i l l e r s i n the orchard, and the f r u i t v/as subject t o v/ater core. Snow 90 apples v/ere p a r t i c u l a r l y s u s c e p t i b l e t o apple scab, while the s k i n s of Grimes Golden damaged e a s i l y . Ben Davis and Canada Baldv/in although heavy y i e l d e r s produced poor q u a l i t y f r u i t so they too v/ere e l i m i n a t e d . I t took some years t o d i s c o v e r which apple v a r i e t i e s were u n s u i t e d t o the Kelov/na environment, or which were i n l i t t l e demand. But, as the symbols i n the r i g h t - h a n d columns of Table IV show, p l a n t i n g s of such v a r i e t i e s v/ere minimal d u r i n g or a f t e r the 1920s. The o r c h a r d i s t s had s u f f e r e d as i n d i v i d u a l s under the l a n d and i r r i g a t i o n companies, but when the o p p o r t u n i t i e s arose they co-operated i n the r e a l i s a t i o n t h a t t h i s v/as the only way t o secure t h e i r p o s i t i o n as f r u i t producers. This move c o n s t i t u t e d a major step forward, although as w i l l be seen i t had been preceded by other signs of c o - o p e r a t i o n i n marketing. E v e n t u a l l y the s o l e aspect of the i n d u s t r y which remained under i n d i v i d u a l c o n t r o l as opposed t o co-operative v/as the orchards themselves. The takeover of the i r r i g a t i o n systems v/as a move t o secure c o n t r o l over the p r e r e q u i s i t e of f r u i t p r o d u c t i o n , the next chapter w i l l d e a l w i t h the growers' moves t o exert c o n t r o l over marketing. Both of these extensions of grower c o n t r o l and. r e s p o n s i b i l i t y were only p o s s i b l e through c o - o p e r a t i o n and w i t h government h e l p . There are two d i r e c t l i n k s between t h i s and the next chapter. F i r s t l y , the d e t a i l s of apple p r o d u c t i o n t h a t have been d e s c r i b e d v/ere the b a s i s around which a l l the developments i n marketing process and o r g a n i z a t i o n r e v o l v e d . 91 But, of f a r g r e a t e r s i g n i f i c a n c e was the i n v e r s e r e l a t i o n s h i p t h a t seemed t o operate between p r o d u c t i o n and marketing. A l l the advances i n p r o d u c t i o n served t o reduce the u n c e r t a i n t i e s i n t h a t side of the i n d u s t r y . However, i n so s e c u r i n g and i n c r e a s i n g t h e i r output, the o r c h a r d i s t s were making worse a much g r e a t e r problem w i t h which they were f a r l e s s able t o d e a l . P r o d u c t i o n d i f f i c u l t i e s had been l o c a l and a c c e s s i b l e , but marketing'problems were n e i t h e r . As the volume of f r u i t t o be disposed of i n c r e a s e d they became more acute. The marketing problems i n v o l v e d many middlemen and f a c t o r s over which the o r c h a r d i s t s had l i t t l e or no c o n t r o l . Not u n t i l these were r e s o l v e d d i d the gr e a t e r and more r e l i a b l e p r o d u c t i o n which the o r c h a r d i s t s had sought and secured prove t o be any r e a l b e n e f i t t o them. FOOTNOTES: 1 W.G.Kendrew & D.Kerr, The Climate of B r i t i s h Columbia  and the Yukon T e r r i t o r y , Ottawa, 1955, p. 77. The fugure i s e x t r a p o l a t e d from the O l i v e r , Summerland and Kamloops r e c o r d s . 2 C.C.Kelley & R.H.Spilsbury, S o i l Survey of the Okanagan  and Similkameen V a l l e y s , B r i t i s h Columbia, Ottawa, 194-9? Appendix Table 2. The f i g u r e r e f e r s t o the p e r i o d when the d a i l y mean temperature i s over 4-3°F. , the c r i t i c a l growth temperature. 5 I n f o r m a t i o n from i n t e r v i e w w i t h W.R.Reed, 11 December 1972, r e f e r r i n g t o s e t t l e r s i n Glenmore. 92 4 I n f o r m a t i o n from i n t e r v i e w w i t h S i d Land, 31 October 1972. 5 B.C. Department of A g r i c u l t u r e , Orchard Survey of the  Okanagan H o r t i c u l t u r a l D i s t r i c t , 1940. By t h i s date there were 3749 t r e e s of these v a r i e t i e s of which only 28 had been p l a n t e d d u r i n g the 1930s. 6 B.A.Etcheverry, P r a c t i c a l I n formation on I r r i g a t i o n f o r B r i t i s h Columbia P r u i t Growers, B.C. Department of A g r i c u l t u r e , V i c t o r i a , 1912, p. 5. 7 W.G.Kendrew & D.Kerr, op. c i t . , p. 65° 8 Loc. c i t . 9 Rutland C e n t e n n i a l Committee, H i s t o r y of the D i s t r i c t of  Rutland, B r i t i s h Columbia. 1858-1958, Kelowna, 1958, p. 23. 10 I n f o r m a t i o n from i n t e r v i e w w i t h Charles Gaddes, 24 October 1972. 11 A.J.Connor, The F r o s t Free Season i n B r i t i s h Columbia, T o r o n t o 1 9 4 9 » Department of Transport, M e t e o r o l o g i c a l D i v i s i o n , p. 5° 12 R.M.Winslow, In f o r m a t i o n f o r F r u i t Growers w i t h L i s t of  V a r i e t i e s f o r Commercial and Home P l a n t i n g , B.C. Department of A g r i c u l t u r e , B u l l e t i n No. 51, V i c t o r i a , 1913, PP« 10-13. 13 Recorded i n 1950. 14 E t c h e v e r r y , op. c i t . , p. 7° 15 Kelowna C o u r i e r , e.g. 8 December 1904, 25 October 1906 and 15 A p r i l 1909. 16 Kelowna C o u r i e r , 22 October 1914. 17 E.g. Mr. R u s s e l l who came from Washington s t a t e t o work f o r C e n t r a l Okanagan Lands L t d . , from i n t e r v i e w w i t h W.E.Adams, 20 November 1972. 18 The sch o o l was run by E.M.Carruthers p r i o r t o 1910, f o r young E n g l i s h sons, i n a b u i l d i n g o f f Franz Rd. Kelov/na. I n f o r m a t i o n from i n t e r v i e w w i t h W.R.Carruthers, 20 October 1972. 19 Taken from the London Times p r i n t e d proof of a l e t t e r submitted f o r p u b l i c a t i o n i n 1912 by E.M.Carruthers. 93 20 Canada Department of A g r i c u l t u r e , F i f t y Years of  Pomology, Ottawa, 1966. 21 Canada Department of A g r i c u l t u r e , Experimental S t a t i o n ,  Summerland B.C. , Report of the Superintendent f o r the Year 1923, Ottawa, pp. 8-16. 22 I n f o r m a t i o n from i n t e r v i e w w i t h Donald V . F i s h e r , 12 December 1972. 23 J.O'Riordan, "The Use of C l i m a t i c Data t o Estimate I r r i g a t i o n Water Requirements i n the South C e n t r a l I n t e r i o r of B r i t i s h Columbia.", Vancouver, U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, unpublished M.A. T h e s i s , 1966. Moisture d e f i c i t i s d e f i n e d as "The d i f f e r e n c e between the amount of water crops r e q u i r e and the amount they r e c e i v e from n a t u r a l p r e c i p i t a t i o n . " p. 1. 24 W.G.Kendrew & D.Kerr, op. c i t . , p. 89. 25 B.C. Department of A g r i c u l t u r e , Climate of B r i t i s h  Columbia, V i c t o r i a , years 1924-1933. 26 A.R.Mackenzie, Report t o the M i n i s t e r of Finance of the  Province of B r i t i s h Columbia on the P h y s i c a l and F i n a n c i a l  C o n d i t i o n of I r r i g a t i o n P r o j e c t s i n the Vernon and Kelowna  D i s t r i c t s , Vancouver, 1916, P a r t I , p. 75« 27 V a r y i n g i n s i z e from t e n f o o t wide canals down t o three i n c h diameter wooden p i p e . The f i g u r e i s computed from Mackenzie, op. c i t . , P a r t I I , pp. 174--313. 28 Much of the f o l l o w i n g i n f o r m a t i o n i s from E t c h e v e r r y , op. c i t . , pp. 58-60. 29 Mackenzie, op. c i t ., P a r t I I , 30 I b i d . , P a r t I I . p. 307. 31 I b i d . , P a r t I I . p. 161. 32 I b i d . , P a r t I I p. 270. 33 I b i d . , P a r t I I p. 269. 34 I b i d . , P a r t I I , PP . 168-171. 35 Kelowna I r r i g a t i o n Co. Water-User's Agreement w i t h Thomas Bulman, c i t e d i n Mackenzie, op. c i t . , P a r t I I , p. 205. 36 Glenmore I r r i g a t i o n D i s t r i c t , Appendix t o Report submitted t o the Hon. T . D . P a t t u l l o , 1927. 94 37 Mackenzie, op. c i t . , P a r t I I , p. 164. 38 W.R.Reed, "The Glenmore I r r i g a t i o n System.", i n R.W.Corner, Glenmore, The Apple V a l l e y , Glenmore C e n t e n n i a l Committee, 1958, p. 24. 39 E°g. the C e n t r a l Okanagan Land & Orchard Co. employing Canavan & M i t c h e l l , a re p u t a b l e f i r m of V i c t o r i a surveyors. I n f o r m a t i o n from i n t e r v i e w w i t h Charles Gaddes, 24 October 1972. 40 E t c h e v e r r y , op. c i t . , p. 30. 41 I n f o r m a t i o n f o r t h i s and the next two paragraphs from i n t e r v i e w w i t h W.R.Reed,' 11 December 1972. 42 Mackenzie, op. c i t . , P a r t I I . 43 I b i d . , P a r t I I , pp. 309-312. 44 I b i d . 45 I b i d . 46 I b i d . 47 I b i d . 48 I b i d . P a r t I I , pp. 236-240. P a r t I I , pp. 272-274 & 283. Par t I , p. 75. Par t I I . pp. 174-182. Pa r t I I , p. 194. Pa r t I I , p. 177. 49 I b i d . 50 I n f o r m a t i o n i n next two paragraphs mostly from i n t e r v i e w w i t h H . C . S . C o l l e t t , 25 October 1972. 51 I n f o r m a t i o n from i n t e r v i e w w i t h W.R.Carruthers, 20 October 1972. 52 In f o r m a t i o n from i n t e r v i e w w i t h W.E.Adams, 20 November 1972. 53 Inf o r m a t i o n from i n t e r v i e w w i t h W.R.Carruthers, 20 October 1972, cor r o b o r a t e d i n i n t e r v i e w w i t h C . R . B u l l , 26 October 1972. 54 Canada Department of I n t e r i o r , F o r e s t r y Branch. Report  of the S i x t h Annual Convention of the Western Canada  I r r i g a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n , h e l d at Kelowna B.C., Ottawa, 1912, pp. 134-135, R e s o l u t i o n No. 13. 55 The S t a t u t e s of B r i t i s h Columbia, "Water A c t " , 1918, ch. 98, s e c t i o n 57. 56 The S t a t u t e s of B r i t i s h Columbia, "Water A c t " , 1920, ch. 102, s e c t i o n 27. 95 57 WoG.Swan, Report on the Economic C o n d i t i o n s i n C e r t a i n  I r r i g a t i o n D i s t r i c t s i n the P r o v i n c e , V i c t o r i a , P r ovince of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1928, p. U17. 58 Department of A g r i c u l t u r e , Kelovma B.C., Proceedings of  the Reclamation Committee, i n the Bl a c k Mountain I r r i g a t i o n D i s t r i c t , R u t land, B.C., November 9, 1966. B r i e f No. 45, pp. 3-4. 59 W.G.Swan, op. c i t . , pp. U16-U17. 60 Glenmore I r r i g a t i o n D i s t r i c t , op. c i t . 61 Loc. c i t . 62 W.R.Reed, op. c i t . , pp. 25-26. 63 Glenmore I r r i g a t i o n D i s t r i c t , op. c i t . 64 Loc. c i t . 65 South East Kelovma I r r i g a t i o n D i s t r i c t , Appendix t o Report submitted t o the Hon. T . D . P a t t u l l o , 1927<> 66 W.Sanford Evans, Report of the Royal Commission  I n v e s t i g a t i n g the Tree F r u i t I n d u s t r y , V i c t o r i a , Province of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1930, P a r t I , p. AA8. 67 South East Kelovma I r r i g a t i o n D i s t r i c t , op. c i t . , the f i g u r e s are based on a water supply of 2-g- a c r e - f e e t . 68 Glenmore I r r i g a t i o n D i s t r i c t , op. c i t . 69 E.g. i n 1908 s i x - t e n t h s of an acre of Fl e m i s h Beauties p l a n t e d i n 1902 produced 10,520 l b . of f r u i t . ' 70 E.g. Claude T a y l o r i n 1911 pl a n t e d 20 acres of pears. I n f o r m a t i o n from i n t e r v i e w w i t h N i g e l T a y l o r , 31 October 1972. 71 E.g. Claude T a y l o r . I n f o r m a t i o n from i n t e r v i e w w i t h N i g e l T a y l o r , 31 October 1972 and w i t h Mrs. M.F.Taylor, 25 January 1973* 72 B.C. Department of A g r i c u l t u r e , Orchard Survey of the  Okanagan H o r t i c u l t u r a l D i s t r i c t , Kelowna D i s t r i c t , 1920 and 1925. 73 W .A.Middleton, Y i e l d s , Grades, P r i c e s and Returns f o r  Apple V a r i e t i e s i n the Okanagan V a l l e y , B . C D epartment of A g r i c u l t u r e , B u l l e t i n No. 90, ( c . 1921-1922), p. 6. Average net p r i c e per box of Grade 2 D e l i c i o u s - 01.63. Highest av. net p r i c e per box f o r Grade 1 of any other v a r i e t y - 01.61. 96 74 C o c k f i e l d Brown & Co. L t d . , Report on the Canadian  Market f o r B.C. Apples and, other Tree F r u i t s , f o r the  B r i t i s h Columbia Tree F r u i t Board., Vancouver, 1936, v o l . I , P.159c 75 I b i d . , v o l . I I , Appendix C, t a b l e 9 , p. 60. 76 I n f o r m a t i o n f o r t h i s paragraph from C.J.West & H.Shugg, "An Economic Survey of the Okanagan D i s t r i c t . 1946.", unpublished, pp. 74-76. Corroborated i n i n t e r v i e w w i t h L.R.Stephens, 19 October 1972. 77 R.M.Winslow, op. c i t . , p. 35« 78 I n f o r m a t i o n from i n t e r v i e w w i t h Wm.Stewart, 21 November 1972. 79 I n f o r m a t i o n from i n t e r v i e w w i t h Gordon B u t l e r , 12 December 1972. 80 Dean E.D.MacPhee, Report of the Royal Commission on the  Tree F r u i t I n d u s t r y of B r i t i s h Columbia, Province of B r i t i s h Columbia, V i c t o r i a , 1953, p. 2 3 . 81 Okanagan Un i t e d Growers L t d . , Operating Rules and  Regul a t i o n s f o r Season 1914, Vernon, 1914. 82 B.C. Department of A g r i c u l t u r e , H o r t i c u l t u r a l Branch, V a r i e t i e s of F r u i t Recommended f o r P l a n t i n g i n B r i t i s h  Columbia, H o r t i c u l t u r a l C i r c u l a r No. 64, 1922. 83 I n f o r m a t i o n on v a r i e t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s from W.A. M i d d l e t o n , op. c i t . , pp. 11-13 and B.C. Department of A g r i c u l t u r e , Cost of Producing Apples i n the Okanagan and  Average Y i e l d s and P r i c e s f o r Leading V a r i e t i e s , C i r c u l a r , No. 3 8 , 1921, pp. 13-15. 97 Chapter 4 PRUIT MARKETS AND MARKETING P a r a l l e l i n g improvements i n orcharding p r o d u c t i o n were important developments i n marketing. This chapter d i s c u s s e s these developments which, e q u a l l y w i t h p r o d u c t i o n improvements, underlay the p r a c t i c e of s u c c e s s f u l orcharding around Kelovma. The major marketing problem v/as i s o l a t i o n ; most of the other marketing d i f f i c u l t i e s stemmed from t h i s . The s p a t i a l d i s t a n c e s e p a r a t i n g growers from markets was l a r g e , at l e a s t s e v e r a l hundred m i l e s , and t o bridge t h i s d i s t a n c e a complex d i s t r i b u t i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n was necessary. Between producers and consumers there were s e v e r a l i n t e r m e d i a r y agents e s s e n t i a l t o the marketing process, but whose f i n a n c i a l i n t e r e s t s d i d not c o i n c i d e w i t h those of the growers, and who siphoned o f f much of the p r o f i t the growers f e l t should be t h e i r s . The growers had been able to g a i n a measure of c o n t r o l over l o c a l p r o d u c t i o n , but e x t e r n a l vested i n t e r e s t s were f a r l e s s a c c e s s i b l e . Yet, i t was v i t a l t o extend grower c o n t r o l t o recoup more of the p r o f i t s and e f f e c t i v e l y reduce the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l d i s t a n c e which separated growers from the market, through i n t e g r a t i o n and c o n s o l i d a t i o n of grower i n t e r e s t s w i t h i n the marketing process. The growers were not able t o agree on the means to 98 achieve these ends. The m a j o r i t y saw the s o l u t i o n i n co-o p e r a t i v e a c t i o n which v/ould r e l i n q u i s h short term i n d i v i d u a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s i n order t o f o s t e r market s t a b i l i t y , s e c u r i t y and b a r g a i n i n g power, whose b e n e f i t s were more long term D Numerous co-oper a t i v e schemes v/ere proposed. Another group of o r c h a r d i s t s stayed outside the c o - o p e r a t i v e movements and sought t o take the best p e r s o n a l short term advantage of the market, u s u a l l y at the expense of the common good. Rampant c o m p e t i t i o n on the market v/as thus c h a r a c t e r i s t i c . As the c o - o p e r a t i v e s t r i e d t o s t a b i l i z e markets and improve the low p r o f i t s which f o l l o w e d p r i c e wars r e s u l t i n g from c o m p e t i t i o n between grov/ers, the independents c o n t i n u a l l y eroded these e f f o r t s . An impasse was reached; any scheme seemed, doomed to f a i l u r e as long as t h e r e was d i s u n i t y among growers. I t became c l e a r t h a t m a j o r i t y support f o r a scheme v/as i n s u f f i c i e n t t o ensure i t s success. The m i n o r i t y who remained outside any marketing o r g a n i z a t i o n c o u l d destroy i t s e f f e c t i v e n e s s . These d i f f i c u l t i e s v/ere r e s o l v e d i n 1939, when B.C. Tree F r u i t s L t d v/as r e c o n s t i t u t e d as a one-desk s e l l i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n . A l l growers v/ere then compelled t o s u b s c r i b e t o the scheme which e l i m i n a t e d c o m p e t i t i o n from w i t h i n the i n d u s t r y . This v/as not however achieved through mutual agreement but because the m a j o r i t y of grov/ers sought the backing of government l e g i s l a t i o n . The 1930s were c h a r a c t e r i s e d by the e f f o r t s of these grov/ers and by the government t o i n t r o d u c e l e g i s l a t i o n c r e a t i n g a workable and 99 enforceable c o - o p e r a t i v e scheme f o r f r u i t marketing. The Marketing Process F r u i t p r o d u c t i o n was the aspect of the i n d u s t r y over which the o r c h a r d i s t s exerted maximum c o n t r o l . I t was estimated i n 1919 t h a t t o t a l p r o d u c t i o n c o s t s amounted t o 0226.03 per acre. Of t h i s f i g u r e labour c o s t s made up 4-6.7$; p r u n i n g , t h i n n i n g , p i c k i n g , and haulage of f r u i t t o the packing house were the most expensive items i n t h i s category. M a t e r i a l s c o s t s i n 1919 were not excessive s i n c e r e l a t i v e l y simple sprays were s t i l l being used; l a t e r , sprays became more s o p h i s t i c a t e d and expensive. By the 1930s some o r c h a r d i s t s were a p p l y i n g seven or eig h t sprays per season, p t o t a l l i n g 1500 g a l l o n s per acre. However, t o some extent o f f s e t t i n g i n c r e a s e s i n cost of, and time spent i n sp r a y i n g and c u l t i v a t i o n , was the i n t r o d u c t i o n of t r a c t o r s i n the 1930s. Operations such as d i s k i n g , harrowing, the c r e a t i o n of i r r i g a t i o n furrows, and the a p p l i c a t i o n of sprays were r e v o l u t i o n i s e d . Old s p r a y i n g machines had been s m a l l two-nozzle u n i t s , drawn by horses; the t r a c t o r p u l l e d a l a r g e r f o u r - n o z z l e u n i t d e l i v e r i n g more spray at a hi g h e r pressure. These few examples of p r o d u c t i o n c o s t s form the necessary i n t r o d u c t i o n t o the d i s c u s s i o n of the marketing process -moneys r e t u r n e d t o the growers from the s a l e of t h e i r f r u i t had to cover the b a s i c i n i t i a l c o s t s of p r o d u c t i o n before any p r o f i t s c o uld be r e a l i s e d . When the f r u i t l e f t the orchard f o r the packing house, the grower's i n t e r e s t i n i t s subsequent p r o c e s s i n g 100 operations as w e l l as i n the marketing arrangements, was no l e s s acute. A l l the charges, l o s s e s , blunders, mistakes and m i s c a l c u l a t i o n s t h a t arose en route t o the consumer were passed back t o the grower. The packing houses s o r t e d and graded f r u i t , packed and st o r e d i t i f necessary, and f i n a l l y loaded i t onto r a i l w a y cars f o r d i s p a t c h . The charges l e v i e d had t o cover these operations as w e l l as m a t e r i a l s c o s t s such as boxes and l a b e l s . I n 1919 packing house charges were estimated as 0154- per acre of f r u i t . ^ S ince f r u i t i s b a s i c a l l y a l u x u r y item, the way i t i s graded, packed, and presented t o the consumer i s of paramount importance. There were s e v e r a l developments d u r i n g the 1920s and 1930s which g r e a t l y improved t h i s aspect of the f r u i t ' s m a r k e t a b i l i t y . P r i o r t o 1930 s o r t i n g was done by hand, but w i t h the i n t r o d u c t i o n of machinery, labour c o s t s were reduced and s o r t i n g became more e f f i c i e n t and accurate.' Grading r e g u l a t i o n s were a l s o c o n s t a n t l y being improved w i t h amendments t o the o r i g i n a l " F r u i t Marks Ac t " of 1901, and new l e g i s l a t i o n . The r e g u l a t i o n s were d e t a i l e d and r e f e r r e d t o c o l o u r , s i z e and shape of the f r u i t , as w e l l as freedom from d i s e a s e ; the r e g u l a t i o n s were enforced by Dominion I n s p e c t o r s . Maintenance of u n i f o r m l y h i g h q u a l i t y grading was d i f f i c u l t because of the number of packing houses i n o p e r a t i o n , but d e v i a t i o n from the standards soon lowered the Okanagan's r e p u t a t i o n on the f r u i t markets. E f f i c i e n t and accurate grading was v i t a l t o ensure buyers' confidence i n the product, yet as l a t e as the mid-1930s buyers i n s e v e r a l 101 Canadian c i t i e s were s t i l l complaining about the e r r a t i c g r ading of Okanagan f r u i t . Packing was another important o p e r a t i o n . The pack had to be f u n c t i o n a l i n t h a t a w e l l packed box s u s t a i n s l e s s damage i n t r a n s i t . Ease of hand-ling v/as f a c i l i t a t e d , a f t e r 1916 when the B r i t i s h Columbia F r u i t Growers' A s s o c i a t i o n passed a r e s o l u t i o n to adopt a standard apple box s i z e of 6 18-J x 11-5- x 10-g- i n c h e s . The pack a l s o had t o be convenient and a t t r a c t i v e t o d i s p l a y the produce t o advantage when opened, as i t v/ould reach the r e t a i l e r i n the c o n t a i n e r i n which i t l e f t the packing house. Developments i n s o r t i n g , grading and packing were a l l c a l c u l a t e d t o present a more marketable product, but there remained the major marketing problem of p e r i s h a b i l i t y . Picked, apples d e t e r i o r a t e at d i f f e r e n t r a t e s according t o the v a r i e t y , and. the f r u i t had t o be s o l d v/hile s t i l l i n good c o n d i t i o n . Thus the market v/as f r e q u e n t l y g l u t t e d a f t e r h arvest and p r i c e s v/ere forced'down. The grov/ers v/ere then at the mercy of the buyers, e s p e c i a l l y the Okanagan growers who had t o r e l y on d i s t a n t agents t o conduct t h e i r f r u i t s a l e s on a market at l e a s t s e v e r a l hundred m i l e s away. The growers were a l s o at the disadvantage of s e l l i n g through a l a r g e number of agents; the buyers played one agent against another, reducing p r i c e s by making much of the f e a r t h a t i f too much time was wasted the produce v/ould s p o i l . What v/as necessary v/as some means of h o l d i n g back the f r u i t v/hile s t i l l r e t a i n i n g i t s q u a l i t y , so t h a t i t could be r e l e a s e d 102 onto the market g r a d u a l l y . This was an extremely s e r i o u s problem u n t i l the 1920s when c o l d storage was i n t r o d u c e d . The Kelowna Growers' Exchange b u i l t the f i r s t p l a n t i n the area i n 1925. U n t i l the e a r l y 1930s t h i s was the o n l y p l a n t i n the area, and space was r e n t e d out t o other packing houses. By 1936 the advantages of c o l d storage had been w e l l demonstrated; s e v e r a l of the l a r g e r Kelowna packing houses had b u i l t f a c i l i t i e s so t h a t the Kelowna area was able t o s t o r e 4-65,000 boxes of f r u i t , over o n e - t h i r d of the t o t a l 7 Okanagan c o l d storage c a p a c i t y . ' The i n t r o d u c t i o n of c o l d storage was a s t r i k i n g example of the way growers were reducing market u n c e r t a i n t i e s and g a i n i n g g r e a t e r e f f e c t i v e c o n t r o l over marketing processes. Although higher s e l l i n g p r i c e s r e s u l t e d from being able t o h o l d f r u i t back i n s t o r a g e , the charge was c o n s i d e r a b l e (7i& per box f o r the f i r s t month and 5)^ f o r succeeding months). Reduction of the amount of f r u i t wasted or unsaleable was another way of i n c r e a s i n g r e t u r n s t o the grower. There were developments i n f r u i t p r o c e s s i n g which used mainly the 9 lower grade f r u i t and c u l l s . Kelowna's f i r s t major dehydrating p l a n t opened i n 1938 when Modern Foods L t d . was e s t a b l i s h e d . J u i c e p l a n t s came on the scene r e l a t i v e l y l a t e and t h e r e was no commercial f r u i t j u i c e produced l o c a l l y u n t i l 1940 when the Okanagan F r u i t J u i c e Co.'s p l a n t opened. Canneries had been i n o p e r a t i o n i n Kelowna si n c e 1908 but they d e a l t mostly i n tomatoes and v e g e t a b l e s , f r u i t was 103 f i r s t canned only a f t e r 1935. These three methods of l o w e r i n g the minimum q u a l i t y of f r u i t t h a t could be p r o f i t a b l y s o l d , and of p a r t i a l l y s o l v i n g the problems of p e r i s h a b i l i t y , d i d not have much impact i n the Kelowna area before 1940, although they subsequently played an important r o l e i n f r u i t marketing. Thus, the c o n s i d e r a t i o n of f r u i t marketing before 1940 i s e s s e n t i a l l y t h a t of f r e s h f r u i t marketing, s i n c e t h i s o u t l e t absorbed the g r e a t e s t volume and the higher grades. Considerable c o n t r o l was r e l a t i v e l y e a s i l y extended over the e a r l y stages of the marketing process. But, o n l y a very s m a l l p r o p o r t i o n of the f r u i t grown was consumed w i t h i n the v a l l e y , and i t proved f a r l e s s easy f o r the growers to exert c o n t r o l over f r u i t d i s t r i b u t i o n and d i s t a n t markets. The movement of f r u i t out of the v a l l e y v/as dependent on the r a i l w a y and before 1925 t h i s i n v o l v e d a steamboat journey to Okanagan Landing. The ra i l v / a y had t h i s v i r t u a l monopoly of the t r a f f i c s i n c e a r e f r i g e r a t e d car c a r r i e d twenty tons of f r u i t , f a r more than a t r u c k . A l s o , the only f e a s i b l e road t o the P r a i r i e market v/as through the Crow's Nest pass. T h i s road v/as i n poor c o n d i t i o n and the t r i p was l o n g . These two f a c t s e s s e n t i a l l y p r o h i b i t e d the use of road t r a n s p o r t f o r a product so p e r i s h a b l e and e a s i l y damaged. Railv/ay f r e i g h t r a t e s v/ere thus of major concern t o the o r c h a r d i s t , although he had v i r t u a l l y no c o n t r o l over them. I f he consigned f r u i t t o a broker the f r e i g h t r a t e s v/ere deducted from the p r o f i t s r e t u r n e d t o him. I f , as v/as 104 more u s u a l , he s o l d the f r u i t f.o.b. ( f r e e on board) he was p a i d a commensurately lower p r i c e s i n c e the buyer, who took over r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the f r u i t at the packing house's l o a d i n g bay, had t o pay the f r e i g h t charges. I n e i t h e r case the r a t e s had a marked e f f e c t on the o r c h a r d i s t s ' o f t e n s l i m p r o f i t margins. The P r a i r i e market was a c c e s s i b l e by r a i l from s e v e r a l d i r e c t i o n s and the f r e i g h t r a t e s quoted on Okanagan f r u i t a l s o had a fundamental b e a r i n g on i t s competitiveness w i t h f r u i t shipped from E a s t e r n Canada or the United S t a t e s . F r e i g h t r a t e s i n B r i t i s h Columbia were assessed the "mountain d i f f e r e n t i a l " . T h i s was a t a r i f f a p p l i e d by the C.N.R. on f r e i g h t west of Edson, A l t a . , and by the C.P.R. west of Canmore, A l t a . , whereby f o r r a t i n g purposes, one mile i n the mountain zone was counted as 1-g: mil e s under the P r a i r i e r a t e s . Before 1922 the r a t i o had been 1:1-J, and p r i o r to 1914 i t was 1:2. The r a i l w a y companies p r o t e s t e d t h a t 88.8$ of a l l f r e i g h t movement between the P a c i f i c and 10 P r a i r i e t e r r i t o r i e s was f r e e of the ' d i f f e r e n t i a l ' . The evidence of Table V c l e a r l y shows however, t h a t e s p e c i a l l y i n the eas t e r n areas of i t s major market, the P r a i r i e s , f r e i g h t r a t e s d i s c r i m i n a t e d a g a i n s t Okanagan f r u i t and i n favour of t h a t from Eas t e r n Canada. The t a b l e gives f i g u r e s from the mid-1950s; e a r l i e r d i s p a r i t i e s were even g r e a t e r . B u r l i n g t o n and K e n t v i l l e are w i t h i n the main f r u i t growing areas of t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e p r o v i n c e s . The B u r l i n g t o n t o Winnipeg r a t e , 1259 m i l e s , was lOOe' per 1001b.. For the 105 TABLE V FREIGHT RATES, MID 1950s. ( r a t e s on apples i n cents per 1001b.) Kelowna B u r l i n g t o n K e n t v i l l e * K U H B.C. Ont. N.S. TO Calgary 71 159 184 Edmonton 95 159 184 Regina 115 129 154 Winnipeg 113 100 125 (1220 m i l e s ) (1259 m i l e s ) F o r t W i l l i a m 128 79 110 (1639 m i l e s ) (1618 m i l e s ) Windsor 125* 83 Toronto * 18 43 Montreal * 61 £ 53ir * = emergency r a t e t o Ontario and Quebec, r e g u l a r r a t e i s 15O52?. f i g u r e s from C o c k f i e l d Brown & Co. L t d . Report on the  Canadian market f o r B.C. Apples and other Tree F r u i t s , , f o r  the B r i t i s h Columbia Tree F r u i t Board, Vancouver, 1916, v o l . I , p. 9 2 . 106 s h o r t e r d i s t a n c e from Kelowna to Winnipeg, the r a t e was 113^. Or, t a k i n g r a t e s t o F o r t W i l l i a m , from K e n t v i l l e over 1618 m i l e s the r a t e was 1100% whereas from Kelowna, only m a r g i n a l l y f u r t h e r at 1639 m i l e s , the r a t e v/as 128e/. A r a i l journey v/as i n e v i t a b l e t o t r a n s p o r t Kelowna's f r u i t t o market whether the produce v/as bound f o r export or the domestic market, but the "mountain d i f f e r e n t i a l " v/as not a b o l i s h e d from r a i l w a y r a t e p o l i c y u n t i l 194-9. There v/as a l s o d i r e c t c o m p e t i t i o n w i t h Washington s t a t e shippers i n the main P r a i r i e c e n t r e s . The f r e i g h t r a t e from Washington t o Winnipeg stood at 113^. per 1001b. t o match e x a c t l y the 11 r a t e from Kelowna. Although Kelowna to Winnipeg v/as the s h o r t e r d i s t a n c e , because of the i m p o s i t i o n of the ' d i f f e r e n t i a l ' Kelowna had no commensurate r a t e advantage. Since the growers and buyers were so s p a t i a l l y separated, the r e s u l t v/as a complex d i s t r i b u t i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n . I t was necessary f o r growers to have adequate r e p r e s e n t a t i o n at a l l major p o i n t s of s a l e , a s e r v i c e provided by b r o k e r s . This was a v i t a l l i n k i n a s u c c e s s f u l marketing o r g a n i z a t i o n ; they i n s p e c t e d f r u i t on a r r i v a l and acted as the s h i p p e r s ' agents. On the b a s i s of o b s e r v a t i o n of market tendencies they s o l i c i t e d orders f o r the f r u i t and s o l d i t f o r the best p o s s i b l e p r i c e s . As the l e g a l agent, the broker had t o represent f u l l y the i n t e r e s t s of h i s p r i n c i p a l , and the fees f o r the s e r v i c e , i n 1938, v/ere around 12 020 t o 025 per c a r l o a d . The next set of agents who handled the f r u i t were the jobbers or w h o l e s a l e r s . They bought 107 c a r l o a d s of f r u i t from the brokers and made up incoming orders from r e t a i l e r s . The percentage cut taken by the / 13 jobbers was approximately 10% of s a l e s . ^ The l a s t step i n the long c h a i n was the r e t a i l e r , who commanded a higher 14-share, somewhere between 18% and 28% of s a l e s , because of the g r e a t e r r i s k s of s p o i l a g e and d e t e r i o r a t i o n i f the f r u i t d i d not s e l l q u i c k l y . Growers soon began to r e a l i s e t h a t a d i s t r i b u t i v e system where f r u i t was handled by s e v e r a l independent i n t e r m e d i a r i e s , c o u l d not be allowed t o c o n t i n u e . The growers s t a r t e d ,to extend t h e i r c o n t r o l through the system by s u b s t i t u t i n g t h e i r own agents and by-passing those whose f i n a n c i a l i n t e r e s t s were at v a r i a n c e w i t h t h e i r own, and whose charges so s e v e r e l y reduced the p r o f i t s r e t urned t o the growers. However as w i l l be seen, t h i s development was yet another example of growers' dependence on government. Changes were not achieved u n t i l brokers and jobbers had been prosecuted and f i n e d as a r e s u l t of charges brought under the f e d e r a l "Combines I n v e s t i g a t i o n A ct". Before t u r n i n g to these and other important market developments, i t i s necessary t o o u t l i n e the r e l a t i v e s i g n i f i c a n c e of domestic and export markets f o r Kelovma 15 f r u i t . y U n f o r t u n a t e l y s t a t i s t i c s f o r Kelovma are not a v a i l a b l e but Okanagan f i g u r e s can be taken as r e p r e s e n t a t i v e . I n a l l the H o r t i c u l t u r a l Censuses from 1925 t o 194-0, the Kelowna area had between 25% and 30% of the Okanagan's apple t r e e s , and a s i m i l a r percentage of the crop. I n the 1920s, 108 approximately 30% of Okanagan apple output was exported. This p r o p o r t i o n rose and f l u c t u a t e d around 50% i n the 1930s u n t i l the very sharp decrease i n apple exports at the outbreak of World War I I . 1 6 Table VI l i s t s the main markets and gi v e s the export d i s t r i b u t i o n of the Okanagan apple crop f o r the l a t e 1930s. Comparing these f i g u r e s w i t h the D i r e c t o r s 1 Reports of the A s s o c i a t e d Growers L t d . , the United States and Scandinavian markets v/ere of more importance i n the 1920s v/hereas the South American, E g y p t i a n and French markets had not yet been e s t a b l i s h e d . Export markets were never e a s i l y opened up; i n i t i a t i v e and an understanding of each l o c a l market s i t u a t i o n v/as r e q u i r e d . Some overseas markets were b u i l t up by i n d i v i d u a l s such as Leopold Hayes, founder of the O c c i d e n t a l F r u i t Co., who v/as the f i r s t from the area t o 17 send f r u i t t o B r a z i l . ' Others l i k e the Egy p t i a n and Moroccan markets v/ere developed by l a r g e o r g a n i z a t i o n s such as the A s s o c i a t e d Grov/ers L t d . . P r o f i t s from the export market v/ere c o n s i d e r a b l e s i n c e o n l y the best grades c o u l d bear the e x t r a t r a n s p o r t c o s t s and other t a r i f f s i n v o l v e d . The r i s k s were h i g h t o o , v/ith c o m p e t i t i o n , problems of oversupply, and a f a r g r e a t e r l i k e l i h o o d of s p o i l a g e . The onus v/as on the expo r t e r t o send a r e l i a b l e q u a n t i t y and q u a l i t y of f r u i t . The 1925 D i r e c t o r s ' Report of the A s s o c i a t e d Grov/ers L t d . noted, v/ith r e l i e f t h a t d e s p i t e the short 1924 crop th e r e v/as s u f f i c i e n t f r u i t t o place a reasonable supply i n a l l the r e c e n t l y opened export markets. 109 TABLE VI DISTRIBUTION OF OKANAGAN APPLE CROP, 1935-1940. ( f i g u r e s r e f e r • to thousands of boxes, t o neare ist thousand 1935 1936 1937 1938 1939 1940 DOMESTIC t o t a l . 2226 2255 2604 2588 2621 3961 EXPORT t o t a l . 2319 1897 2568 2872 2722 964 Great B r i t a i n 2173 1726 2354 2432 2347 1 U eS o -A. o - 18 2 46 124 655 S. America 25 46 26 100 134 195 Egypt 29 22 5 64 46 -S. A f r i c a 28 46 46 63 47 32 Germany - - 95 108 - -France 37 11 16 20 - -New Zealand 4 4 5 7 - -S c a n d i n a v i a 8 - 1 8 2 -Other c o u n t r i e s 11 24 15 21 22 80 f i g u r e s from B r i t i s h Columbia F r u i t Board, " C i r c u l a r No. 152" and " C i r c u l a r No. 155", 1941, Report of the Marketing Boards I n q u i r y Commission, V i c t o r i a , Province of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1942, pp. 59-60. 110 Any c u r t a i l m e n t of q u a l i t y or r e g u l a r supply and the demand could be s a t i s f i e d from other sources. B r i t a i n was the main export market, trade r e l a t i o n s 1 8 b e n e f i t t i n g from the Empire Preference T r e a t y , The f i r s t c a r l o a d of Okanagan apples t o go overseas went t o Glasgow i n 1903. For n e a r l y f o u r decades exports to B r i t a i n were secure and dependable, even through the Depression. This was p a r t l y due t o the e x c e l l e n t r e p u t a t i o n the province had e s t a b l i s h e d at f r u i t - e x h i b i t i o n s and shows t h e r e . But, at the outbreak of war i n 1940, Okanagan apple exports to B r i t a i n v i r t u a l l y ceased. This was a major marketing d i s a s t e r and an extreme example of the r i s k s i n v o l v e d i n e x p o r t s . I n 1939 out of 2 .72 m i l l i o n boxes of apples exported by the Okanagan, B r i t a i n took 2 .34 m i l l i o n ; the f o l l o w i n g year, a f t e r the war had s t a r t e d , B r i t a i n took o n l y 657 boxes. Somewhat more c o n t r o l c o u l d be e x e r c i s e d over the domestic markets. As Table V I I shows, B r i t i s h Columbia's h o l d on the domestic market d e c l i n e d eastwards; beyond Manitoba the p r o v i n c e s u p p l i e d o n l y the major urban markets: Toronto and Montreal. Conversely few cars of E a s t e r n Canadian apples penetrated west of Manitoba. This was p a r t l y r e l a t e d t o t r a n s p o r t c o s t s and a l s o t o d i f f e r i n g preferences f o r B.C. apples across Canada. A Canada-wide survey of such p r e f e r e n c e s , conducted i n the 1930s, showed t h a t from Manitoba westwards at l e a s t 82% of people p o l l e d l i k e d B.C. apples and no more than 2.7% d i s l i k e d them. The Ontario f i g u r e s were 52% and 16% r e s p e c t i v e l y . 111 TABLE V I I SALES OF APPLES BY RETAIL DEALERS, 1954-1935. ( f i g u r e s are percentages, the average of w i n t e r 1934, s p r i n g 1935 and autumn 1935 s a l e s . ) W. Mont- E. B.C. A l t a . Sask. Man. t o t a l Ont. r e a l t o t a l ORIGIN. B.C. 97.4 98.9 97.5 88.3 95.1 17.4 40.2 24.3 E. Canada 0 0.5 1.8 10.1 3-7 82.2 43.1 70.3 Imported 2.6 0.6 0.8 1.6 1.3 0.5 16.7 5.4 f i g u r e s based on survey, C o c k f i e l d Brown & Co. L t d . , Report  on the Canadian Market f o r B.C. Apples and other Tree F r u i t s  f o r the B r i t i s h Columbia Tree F r u i t Board, 1936, v o l . I , p. 101. 112 Only 10% of B.C. apples d e s t i n e d f o r the domestic market were consumed w i t h i n B r i t i s h Columbia,, The major Canadian o u t l e t f o r Okanagan f r u i t was on the P r a i r i e s , though t h i s market v/as o n l y s l o w l y developed. During World War I B r i t i s h Columbia s u p p l i e d j u s t over 40% of the P r a i r i e s ' apple consumption but by the mid-1920s the f i g u r e ?o was over 80%, and even higher i n the 1930s. By 1934, 68 .9% of t h a t p a r t of the B.C. apple crop d e s t i n e d f o r the 21 domestic market, went t o the P r a i r i e s , i n 1935, 79%° The i n c r e a s i n g dependence of the Okanagan on the P r a i r i e market was at a time when per c a p i t a apple consumption there was i n d e c l i n e . With the Depression and the somewhat e l a s t i c demand f o r a p p l e s , over the t e n year p e r i o d 1925-1934, P r a i r i e apple consumption f e l l from 511b. 22 per c a p i t a t o 371b.. Increase of p o p u l a t i o n on the P r a i r i e s d u r i n g these years was not s u f f i c i e n t t o counteract t h i s , and a decrease i n t o t a l apple consumption r e s u l t e d . However, per c a p i t a consumption on the P r a i r i e s remained higher than i n Canada g e n e r a l l y . That P r a i r i e apple consumption d i d not drop even f u r t h e r i n the 1930s was due probably t o the f r u i t ' s p o p u l a r i t y and. the sharp p r i c e decreases d u r i n g those years. The demand f o r apples there was not i n f a c t as e l a s t i c as might be thought, f o r the d e c l i n e i n apple purchases was l e s s steep than the d e c l i n e i n a g r i c u l t u r a l incomes. I n 1934 a g r e a t e r p r o p o r t i o n of reduced, incomes was being spent on apples than i n 1 9 2 5 . ^ F i g u r e 3 i n d i c a t e s the i n t e r p l a y w i t h i n the P r a i r i e 113 F i g u r e 3 THE PRAIRIE MARKETS, 1925-1934. Index numbers, 1925-1934 average = 100. Graph r e f e r s t o the three P r a i r i e p r o v i n c e s . • — 1 ' 1 1 1 — i i i _ _ 1926 1927 1928 1929 1930 1931 1932 1933 Source: C o c k f i e l d Brown 8c Co. L t d . , Report on the Canadian  Market f o r B.C. Apples and other Tree F r u i t s f o r the B r i t i s h  Columbia Tree F r u i t Board, 1936, v o l I , p. 41. 114 apple market between the p r i c e of apples, tonnage unloaded, 24 and a g r i c u l t u r a l income„ G e n e r a l l y the tonnage unloaded was r e l a t e d i n v e r s e l y t o the p r i c e of the f r u i t . The anomaly of the years 1930-1932 shows the i n f l u e n c e of a g r i c u l t u r a l income or purchasing power. I n 1930 tonnage of f r u i t unloaded f e l l yet so d i d apple p r i c e s , c o i n c i d i n g w i t h the second year of s h a r p l y d i m i n i s h e d farm income. The much lower p r i c e s of 1931 had a f a v o u r a b l e e f f e c t on purchases and more apples were shipped i n . But, because a g r i c u l t u r a l income was s t i l l at i t s lowest ebb i n 1932, the even lower p r i c e s i n t h a t year d i d not r e s u l t i n i n c r e a s e d shipments. Not u n t i l 1934, when gene r a l farm income began t o recover, was there an i n c r e a s e i n apple shipments again. These anomalies were l a r g e l y e x p l a i n e d by the i n t e r n a t i o n a l Depression d u r i n g these y e a r s . The 1930 D i r e c t o r s ' Report of the A s s o c i a t e d Growers L t d . e x p l a i n e d the bad marketing c o n d i t i o n s i n terms of the low wheat p r i c e s and the drought t h a t c u r t a i l e d the wheat crop i n southern A l b e r t a and Saskatchewan. Competition from other f r u i t growing areas, p a r t i c u l a r l y Ontario and Nova S c o t i a , was a major o b s t a c l e to the easy marketing of B.C. apples on the P r a i r i e s . D i s t r i b u t i o n o f , and p r i c e s gained f o r B r i t i s h Columbia's domestic shipments were s t r o n g l y a f f e c t e d by the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the E a s t e r n Canadian f r u i t crop. I n 1925 Ontario had a very l a r g e h i g h q u a l i t y crop and the su r p l u s was shipped t o the P r a i r i e s and s o l d at low p r i c e s , reducing 25 the r e t u r n s f o r B.C. f r u i t . y The opposite e f f e c t was noted 115 when the e a s t e r n apple crop was short i n 1934 and more B.C. 26 apples were shipped t o E a s t e r n Canada. The damage t o B.C. f r u i t p r o f i t s on the P r a i r i e s r e s u l t e d l e s s from the volume of competing f r u i t , than i t s g e n e r a l l y low s e l l i n g p r i c e , which depressed the market. Grov/ers from Washington s t a t e who shipped t o the main P r a i r i e c e n t r e s v/ere f o r a time another major source of co m p e t i t i o n . The e f f e c t of the general s i z e of the f r u i t crop i n the n o r t h west U n i t e d S t a t e s was s i g n i f i c a n t . When the Washington-Oregon crop and more so when the whole American crop was below average p r o d u c t i o n , f r u i t p r i c e s a l l 27 over the c o n t i n e n t c o u l d be expected to be h i g h e r , ' but when l a r g e , p r i c e s v/ere depressed i n the United S t a t e s and wherever e l s e the f r u i t was unloaded. The anti-dump duty v/as f i r s t p l a c e d on the s t a t u t e book i n Canada i n 1904, a s p e c i a l duty l e v i e d as the d i f f e r e n c e between the s e l l i n g p r i c e of f r u i t i n Canada and the f a i r market value of the same i n the 28 U n i t e d S t a t e s . Canada a p p l i e d the t a r i f f only a g a i n s t United S t a t e s f r u i t , which rip e n e d s l i g h t l y e a r l i e r than Canadian, and hence v/as i n d i r e c t c o m p e t i t i o n w i t h i t . New Zealand apples, which a r r i v e d i n the Canadian o f f - s e a s o n of June and J u l y were t a r i f f f r e e . During the c r i t i c a l p e r i o d v/hen B r i t i s h Columbia v/as build.ing up i t s P r a i r i e market, the t a r i f f p r o t e c t i o n v/as very advantageous. During World War I imported apples s u p p l i e d about o n e - t h i r d of P r a i r i e demand, but i n 1916 f e d e r a l duty on imported apples v/as 29 -r a i s e d from 13^ to 30^ per box. ±sy the e a r l y 1920s, as the 116 t a r i f f s took e f f e c t , only 10% of apples consumed on the -50 P r a i r i e s v/ere imported, Canadian o r c h a r d i s t s were saved from what would have been d i s a s t r o u s p r i c e decreases had excess American f r u i t been dumped f r e e l y on Canadian markets. The height of p r o t e c t i o n v/as reached i n the 1932 schedule of t a r i f f s when the apple r a t e came under the g e n e r a l r a t e at 20%, the minimum charge being ^ c . per l b , at a l l times, v/ith an a d d i t i o n a l 1jzf per l b . added d u r i n g a l l 31 months except June and J u l y , Under these r e s t r i c t i o n s the import of American apples i n t o Canada dropped from a peak of 202,000 b a r r e l s i n 1927 t o o n l y 6300 b a r r e l s i n 1 9 3 5 , 5 2 The marketing process and a c t u a l d i s t r i b u t i o n s t h a t have been described, form the background t o the d i s c u s s i o n of development i n market o r g a n i z a t i o n which f o l l o w s . As i s e v i d e n t , the c o n s i d e r a b l e s p a t i a l d i s l o c a t i o n s betv/een producers, d i s t r i b u t o r s and consumers gave r i s e t o a p a r t i c u l a r l y s e r i o u s set of marketing problems. Because growers v/ere s p a t i a l l y d i s t a n t from the market, they had l i t t l e i n i t i a l understanding of i t s i n t r i c a c i e s and v a g a r i e s . There v/as a need f o r the grov/ers t o extend t h e i r i n f l u e n c e i n t o the marketing system t o g a i n t h i s understanding, as w e l l as t o r i d the system of i n t e r e s t s which v/ere c o n t r a r y to t h e i r ov/n. Market O r g a n i z a t i o n The e v o l u t i o n of the o r g a n i z a t i o n of marketing v/as as i n t e g r a l a p a r t of the emergence of Kelov/na as a s u c c e s s f u l o rcharding area, as a d a p t a t i o n t o the environment. 117 Experiments were conducted c o n c u r r e n t l y i n both f i e l d s . The gradual accommodation of p r o d u c t i o n methods to the l o c a l environment would have been of l i t t l e b e n e f i t t o the growers had there not been p a r a l l e l development i n growers' accommodation t o , and reshaping of the p a r t i c u l a r s p a t i a l and o r g a n i z a t i o n a l marketing system of which the Kelowna area was p a r t . The r e s u l t s and e f f e c t s of these developments were of prime s i g n i f i c a n c e i n t h a t a new and e f f i c i e n t marketing o r g a n i z a t i o n was e v e n t u a l l y set up. However, t h i s can only be e x p l a i n e d i n terms of the o r c h a r d i s t s ' growing r e a l i s a t i o n t h a t c o - o p e r a t i o n was the means to achieve t h i s nev; e f f i c i e n c y . I n t u r n , j u s t as environmental a d a p t a t i o n was achieved o n l y through the r e s u l t s of experimentation, so t o o , the growth of the c o - o p e r a t i v e i d e a was based on the l e s s o n s l e a r n e d from a long s e r i e s of marketing experiments. The f o l l o w i n g d i s c u s s i o n attempts t o t r a c e these three l e v e l s of development: t h a t of the experiments themselves, the lessons l e a r n e d , and the r e s u l t s achieved. A q u a l i f i c a t i o n has t o be added at t h i s p o i n t concerning the s c a l e of d i s c u s s i o n , i n t h a t few of the marketing developments were l o c a l t o Kelowna. Therefore the remainder of the chapter d e a l s w i t h the whole Okanagan V a l l e y . The d i s c u s s i o n i s a p p l i c a b l e t o a study of Kelovma, an important o r c h a r d i n g area w i t h i n the Okanagan V a l l e y , because changes at Kelowna can only be understood i n the context of these wider developments. The B r i t i s h Columbia F r u i t Growers' A s s o c i a t i o n was 118 founded i n 1889, the f i r s t o r g a n i z a t i o n t o emerge from w i t h i n the f r u i t growing i n d u s t r y i n B r i t i s h Columbia. The aims of the o r i g i n a l founders were to encourage f r u i t c u l t i v a t i o n , and promote e x h i b i t i o n s and the c o l l e c t i o n of r e l e v a n t i n f o r m a t i o n . Over the years the A s s o c i a t i o n developed as the main umbr e l l a o r g a n i z a t i o n of the o r c h a r d i s t s . I t s Annual Reports and other p u b l i c a t i o n s were v a l u a b l e i n the t r a n s m i s s i o n of new techniques and i d e a s . Many i n n o v a t i v e r e s o l u t i o n s were f i r s t passed at i t s conventions, i n c l u d i n g t h a t i n 1939 t o set up a c e n t r a l s e l l i n g system. Although the o r g a n i z a t i o n d i d not handle f r u i t i n any way, because of i t s wide membership, p o l i c y d e c i s i o n s were very i n f l u e n t i a l and u s u a l l y r e f l e c t e d the views of most of the growers. At the p r o d u c t i o n end of the i n d u s t r y , the s p i r i t of c o - o p e r a t i o n manifested i t s e l f i n the f o r m a t i o n of l o c a l grower-owned packing houses. The l a r g e s t of these w i t h i n the Kelovma area was the Kelowna Growers' Exchange, founded i n 1913. P r i o r t o t h i s date, independent and p r i v a t e l y owned packing houses such as S t i r l i n g & P i t c a i r n and R o w c l i f f e Bros, packed and s o l d the f r u i t , but t h e i r business was somewhat reduced a f t e r 1913. The growers' advantage i n having t h e i r own c o - o p e r a t i v e packing house was t h a t a f t e r the i n i t i a l c a p i t a l had been r a i s e d by s a l e of shares and bonds, the charges l e v i e d were set such t h a t the Exchange c o l l e c t e d revenues s u f f i c i e n t only t o cover o p e r a t i n g expenses. One set of p r o f i t e e r i n g middlemen were 119 thus e f f e c t i v e l y e l i m i n a t e d f o r those growers who joined, such c o - o p e r a t i v e s . There were other b e n e f i t s too; purchase of m a t e r i a l s and s u p p l i e s became more economic when bought i n b u l k , and the Exchange a l s o undertook t o extend c r e d i t t o members e s p e c i a l l y i n d i f f i c u l t t imes. The year 1913 was important i n the development of co-o p e r a t i o n at the l o c a l s c a l e , although some of the b e n e f i t s obtained had. been p a r t i a l l y provided by the s m a l l e r predecessors of the Kelowna Grov/ers 1 Exchange, namely the Kelov/na Shippers Union and the Kelowna Farmers' Exchange, founded i n 1896 and 1904 r e s p e c t i v e l y . The packing and. sh i p p i n g operations v/ere the c l o s e s t t o the o r c h a r d i s t s both i n terms of l o c a t i o n and the marketing process, so i t v/as l o g i c a l t h a t they should be the f i r s t o perations over which the grov/ers began t o extend d i r e c t c o n t r o l . By 1913 l o c a l c o - o p e r a t i v e s or ' l o c a l s ' s i m i l a r t o the Kelowna Grov/ers' Exchange v/ere i n e x i s t e n c e throughout the Okanagan from Salmon Arm. t o P e n t i c t o n . The most c r i t i c a l stage i n the f r u i t marketing process i s s e l l i n g , and consequently t h i s aspect of the business was the object of e a r l y p l a n s . The f i r s t s i g n i f i c a n t co-op e r a t i v e s e l l i n g agency founded i n the area was the Okanagan F r u i t Union of 1908. Operating on b e h a l f of s e v e r a l packing houses, c o n t r o l v/as vested i n a board of d i r e c t o r s , composed of grov/ers r e p r e s e n t i n g each orcharding c e n t r e . Charges v/ere l e v i e d to cover packing and. s e l l i n g , but the a c t u a l management of the packing houses was l e f t t o the 120 ' l o c a l s ' . Some p e r i o d - p o o l i n g v/as p r a c t i s e d , meaning t h a t growers d i d not r e c e i v e the a c t u a l r e t u r n s f o r t h e i r own f r u i t ; f o r f a i r n e s s and s i m p l i c i t y they r e c e i v e d the average r e t u r n f o r t h a t p a r t i c u l a r month or p e r i o d , f o r whatever grade and v a r i e t y they had o r i g i n a l l y shipped t o the packing house. Although many of i t s p r a c t i c e s were i n c o r p o r a t e d i n subsequent o r g a n i z a t i o n s , the Union only s u r v i v e d a few years because i t d i d not c o n t r o l s u f f i c i e n t tonnage, and the shippers had not yet l e a r n e d the importance of 'market p r e f e r e n c e s ' , uniform standards and r e g u l a r s u p p l i e s . ^ The Union v/as not venturesome, i t s p o l i c y v/as t o s e l l mainly t o l o c a l s hippers i n Vernon, who v/ould buy only when they had orders. I t had n e i t h e r c l o s e contact w i t h nor understanding of the market. Another tendency, v/hich w i l l r e c u r o f t e n i n t h i s d i s c u s s i o n , v/as t h a t i t s members were not t o t a l l y l o y a l t o the co- o p e r a t i v e and. v/ould p l a y f o r temporary advantages v/ith p r i v a t e s h i p p e r s . The Union v/as a weak, embryonic v e r s i o n of the stronger s e l l i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n s of the f u t u r e . The f i n a l f a c t o r p r e c i p i t a t i n g i t s d o w n f a l l was the d i s a s t r o u s l y low f r u i t p r i c e s of 1912 when there was a bumper l o c a l crop and a huge f r u i t s u r p l u s from Washington s t a t e which was p a r t i a l l y disposed of on the P r a i r i e s . This f o r c e d B r i t i s h Columbia grower's t o reduce s e l l i n g p r i c e s t o 4-Oe7 per box below cost of p r o d u c t i o n , i n order t o get r i d of 5 5 the f r u i t . The demise of the Okanagan P r u i t Union, which went 121 i n t o l i q u i d a t i o n i n 1913, p o i n t e d out two b a s i c l e s s o n s : a f a i l u r e t o check massive l o c a l c o m p e t i t i o n f o r markets was extremely damaging t o the i n d u s t r y , and co - o p e r a t i o n would have t o be on a much l a r g e r s c a l e i f i t was t o be e f f e c t i v e . No one w i t h i n the i n d u s t r y however had the resources t o undertake t h i s next step a f t e r such a bad year. The P r o v i n c i a l Government was approached, and Premier McBride s a i d i n h i s address t o the Twenty-third Annual Convention of the B r i t i s h Columbia F r u i t Growers' A s s o c i a t i o n at V i c t o r i a i n January 1913, " I f e e l moved t o say t h a t the p r i n c i p a l d i f f i c u l t y - the marketing - which has confronted a l l of you gentlemen t h i s f a l l , i s one t h a t 3 6 by reasonable means may be q u i c k l y remedied." y I n 1913 the government amended the " A g r i c u l t u r a l A s s o c i a t i o n s A c t , 1911" and p r o v i s i o n was made f o r the Department of A g r i c u l t u r e t o extend loans of up t o 80/» of the subs c r i b e d c a p i t a l t o a i d the f o r m a t i o n of l o c a l c o - o p e r a t i v e s , and enable them t o 3 7 purchase packing houses and er e c t other b u i l d i n g s e t c . . ' This a c t i o n , yet another example of government a s s i s t a n c e t o the i n d u s t r y , was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the s e t t i n g up of s e v e r a l ' l o c a l s ' w i t h i n the Okanagan, i n c l u d i n g the Kelowna Growers' Exchange. But, by no means a l l the growers j o i n e d the new ' l o c a l s ' , many s t i l l p r e f e r r e d t o s h i p t h e i r produce through independent packing houses. I n May 1913, these ' l o c a l s ' came together t o organize a c e n t r a l c o - o p e r a t i v e s e l l i n g agency known as Okanagan Unit e d Growers (O.U.G.). Co-operative f e e l i n g was running 122 h i g h and the O.U.G. s t a r t e d out v/ith around 1100 grower 38 members, s t i l l l e s s t h a t h a l f the t o t a l number. Here was inaugurated the f i r s t r e a l l y l a r g e co-operative d i s t r i b u t i v e venture w i t h i n the v a l l e y . The d e t a i l s v/ere much the same as f o r the Okanagan F r u i t Union, c o n t r o l being vested i n d i r e c t o r s who were named by the member ' l o c a l s ' . Operating c o s t s v/ere met by the customary l e v i e s on packing and ha n d l i n g , and working c a p i t a l was ac q u i r e d by deducting 2% of grov/ers' s e l l i n g p r i c e s , f o r which sum they v/ere i s s u e d bonds repayable i n f i v e y e a r s . The new s e l l i n g agency v/as an e f f e c t i v e e x t e n s i o n of grower c o n t r o l over one stage i n the marketing p r o c e s s , f o r the O.U.G. was a non-stock, non-p r o f i t o r g a n i z a t i o n run by men appointed by the growers, and i n the grov/ers' i n t e r e s t s . The v/hole system v/as b a s i c a l l y t h r e e - t i e r e d v/ith s p e c i f i c r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s assigned t o each l e v e l . V i r t u a l l y e v e r y t h i n g depended on the grower through h i s commitment t o the p r i n c i p l e s i n v o l v e d , and h i s l o y a l t y t o the cre a t e d s t r u c t u r e . He v/as r e s p o n s i b l e f o r a l l aspects of f r u i t p r o d u c t i o n and d e l i v e r y of the produce t o the packing house. The ' l o c a l ' , which c o n t r o l l e d the packing house, provided the s e l l i n g agency (O.U.G.) w i t h estimates of s i z e and v a r i e t y of crop, times of r i p e n i n g and. so on. They c l o s e l y s u p e r vised the grading and packing of f r u i t , and made up and loaded the orders sent down from the s e l l i n g agency. Thus no ' l o c a l ' shipped out any f r u i t unless on orders from the 0. U. G o . 123 The s e l l i n g agency i t s e l f arranged the s a l e and d i s t r i b u t i o n of t h a t p a r t of the f r u i t crop which i t handled, keeping the ' l o c a l s ' and growers advised of general crop and market c o n d i t i o n s . I t was t h e i r business t o ensure e q u i t a b l e d i s t r i b u t i o n of incoming orders out to the v a r i o u s ' l o c a l s ' , and they c o l l e c t e d the money from s a l e s , and through the p o o l i n g system passed back the maximum r e t u r n s p o s s i b l e t o the growers. This c e n t r a l agency was a l s o i n v o l v e d i n s e t t i n g minimum standards f o r the v a r i o u s apple v a r i e t i e s and ensuring t h a t packing and grading was p r o p e r l y c a r r i e d out. The O.U.G. had a chequered career spanning t e n y e a r s . Despite the war and l o s s of c e r t a i n f o r e i g n markets f o r t h a t p e r i o d , advances i n domestic s a l e s were made as B r i t i s h Columbia growers secured a l a r g e share of the P r a i r i e market. L o c a l advantages t h a t accrued from the o r g a n i z a t i o n were the r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n of l o c a t i o n and o p e r a t i o n of packing house f a c i l i t i e s , and through the co-ope r a t i v e supply department, a r e d u c t i o n i n packing and r e l a t e d charges. However, there were many adverse circumstances w i t h which the O.U.G. had t o d e a l . There proved t o be c o n s i d e r a b l e advantages i n a co-3 9 o p e r a t i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n , but a l s o disadvantages. y The independent packing houses had l e s s unwieldy q u a n t i t i e s of f r u i t t o s e l l and consequently as each v a r i e t y came on the market, they were able t o undercut and s e l l most of t h e i r produce e a r l y on. The O.U.G. had the l i a b i l i t y of a great volume of f r u i t t o dispose o f . I t had t o f o l l o w i n the wake 124 and was not o f t e n able t o s e l l f o r the p r i c e s the independents had e a r l i e r obtained. These years saw an inc r e a s e i n the number of p r i v a t e packing and s h i p p i n g houses, whose development p a r a l l e l e d t h a t of the co-o p e r a t i v e s . The most notable Kelovma example of t h i s t r e n d was the founding of the O c c i d e n t a l F r u i t Co. L t d . i n 1914. Despite the f a c t t h a t a f t e r the war the f o r e i g n markets opened up again, t h e r e were s t i l l many d i f f i c u l t i e s , a combination of which e v e n t u a l l y caused the c o l l a p s e of the O.U.G.. In the middle of an acute labour shortage i n the i n d u s t r y , 1919 was a peak year f o r B r i t i s h Columbia apple p r o d u c t i o n which soared t o over 2-J m i l l i o n boxes, over a 40 m i l l i o n boxes more than the previous r e c o r d set i n 1917» This put a severe s t r a i n both on the o r g a n i z a t i o n and on the market, s i n c e much of the s u r p l u s was unloaded on the P r a i r i e s . A f t e r 1920, as the orchards p l a n t e d i n the era of the land companies came i n t o f u l l b e a r i n g , the s i t u a t i o n worsened; p r o d u c t i o n f i g u r e s f o r 1921, 1922 and 1923 were 41 a l l over the 3 m i l l i o n box mark. This i n c r e a s e d p r o d u c t i o n gave r i s e t o in t e n s e c o m p e t i t i o n f o r the market, between the O.U.G. and the independent s h i p p e r s . Growers' unrest and d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n was d i r e c t e d mainly at the s a l e s o r g a n i z a t i o n , although the Board of D i r e c t o r s knew w e l l enough what l a y at the r o o t of the problem, they were j u s t not able t o c o r r e c t i t . I t i s the c o n v i c t i o n of your Board t h a t , u n t i l such a p r o p o r t i o n of the e n t i r e tonnage i s under c o n t r a c t , as . w i l l ensure adequate c o n t r o l of d i s t r i b u t i o n , your 125 Sales O r g a n i z a t i o n i s not able t o secure the best p o s s i b l e r e s u l t s f o r the season's crops. At the present time we are i n the p o s i t i o n of having a very heavy tonnage t o d i s t r i b u t e without having a s u f f i c i e n t percentage t o e x e r c i s e c o n t r o l over d i s t r i b u t i o n . 42 I t was im p o s s i b l e to ma i n t a i n any market c o n t r o l or s t a b i l i t y when there v/ere many independent and competing shippers sending produce onto the market. Through the co m p e t i t i o n of the independents the O.U.G. v/as l a r g e l y f o r c e d out of the P r a i r i e market i n the 1921 season; out of 1287 cars of w i n t e r apples i t shipped, only 234 v/ent t h e r e , the r e s t being bound f o r E a s t e r n Canada, B r i t a i n and the United S t a t e s , which alone r e c e i v e d 529 c a r s . ^ The 1922 season was the l a s t t h a t the O.U.G. operated, i t had been f o r c e d t o r e l y too h e a v i l y on exports t o the United. S t a t e s , and the huge 1922 American crop s e v e r e l y depressed p r i c e s . At the end of the season most of the growers s t i l l w i t h the O.U.G., now down t o only 30%'of the t o t a l , ^ received, no net cash r e t u r n s , i n s t e a d they v/ere presented v/ith b i l l s f o r the balance of c o s t s . The f r u i t s o l d at p r i c e s which d i d not even cover s e r v i c e and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n c o s t s , l e t alone those of p r o d u c t i o n . R e a l i s i n g t h a t t h i s e xcessive c o m p e t i t i o n f o r markets would a r i s e d u r i n g the 1922 season, both the O.U.G. and the independents had decided t o consign f r u i t s u p p l i e s to the brokers t o be s o l d as and when p o s s i b l e . This d e c i s i o n merely f a c i l i t a t e d a complete 'buyers 1 market 1. The Okanagan United Growers v/ent i n t o l i q u i d a t i o n i n the summer of 1923° In h i s l e t t e r t o the share and note 126 holders the P r e s i d e n t s u c c i n c t l y s t a t e d the main d i f f i c u l t y t h a t had t o be faced.: The g r e a t e s t problem c o n f r o n t i n g the D i r e c t o r s of an o r g a n i z a t i o n of t h i s nature, u n t i l they o b t a i n c o n t r o l of p r a c t i c a l l y a l l of the p r o d u c t i o n , i s the n e c e s s i t y of assuming the burden of keeping the home market from becoming g l u t t e d w i t h f r u i t s ; t h i s makes i t p o s s i b l e f o r competitors t o place t h e i r f r u i t on the highest market, a v o i d i n g t h e i r due p r o p o r t i o n of export b u s i n e s s , and r e t u r n to t h e i r growers higher p r i c e s than can be done by the growers own o r g a n i z a t i o n , 4-5 But, the t e n years had not been a complete waste f o r va l u a b l e p r a c t i c a l experience had been gained i n an o r g a n i z a t i o n of t h i s nature. The p o t e n t i a l b e n e f i t s of the co-o p e r a t i v e system had been demonstrated t o the s a t i s f a c t i o n of many growers, even i f under the circumstances such b e n e f i t s could not be r e a l i s e d . The Okanagan United Growers had served i t s growers w e l l , but i t s i n i t i a l success d i d not c a r r y over i n t o the 1920s because of the c o n t r i b u t a r y causes a l r e a d y mentioned r a t h e r than the f a i l u r e of the inheren t p r i n c i p l e s of co - o p e r a t i o n . At the end of the 1921 season the gloomy market prospects had prompted growers t o form a committee t o advise them as t o some s o r t of s o l u t i o n t o marketing problems. During the autumn of 1922 two members of the committee v i s i t e d the P r a i r i e markets w h i l e the season was underway; they concluded t h a t growers had the remedy of the dilemma w i t h i n t h e i r grasp, i n tha t t o save the i n d u s t r y what was needed was complete c o - o p e r a t i o n t o e l i m i n a t e the consignment shipments and the r u t h l e s s i n t e r n a l c o m p e t i t i o n 4-6 and p r i c e - c u t t i n g . I n January 1923, Aaron .Sapiro, the 127 o r g a n i s e r of the C a l i f o r n i a c i t r u s grov/ers' c o - o p e r a t i v e s , spoke to the Vancouver Board of Trade and he v/as persuaded to make a t o u r of the Okanagan. His b r i e f v i s i t boosted morale among the grov/ers and engendered a growing v/ave of 4-7 enthusiasm f o r an e f f e c t i v e c o - o p e r a t i v e s e l l i n g agency. The best example of t h i s v/as a r e s o l u t i o n passed at the Annual Convention of the B r i t i s h Columbia F r u i t Grov/ers ' A s s o c i a t i o n i n January 1923: Therefore be i t r e s o l v e d : (1) That we express our d e t e r m i n a t i o n t o stand by the p r i n c i p l e s of c o - o p e r a t i o n , and t o do e v e r y t h i n g p o s s i b l e t o make i t a success; (2) That we v / i l l seek to urge a l l t o s u b s t i t u t e co-o p e r a t i o n f o r i n d i v i d u a l i s m , and. show those who r e f u s e t o co-operate t h a t t h e i r a c t i o n represents a d i s t i n c t menace to the f r u i t i n d u s t r y , and, as such, i n v i t e s the antagonism not only of other f r u i t grov/ers, but a l s o of bankers, merchants, and. the g e n e r a l p u b l i c of the P r o v i n c e . 48 By the end of the month, the 1921 committee was engaged i n drawing up a new c e n t r a l marketing agency along the l i n e s t h a t S a p i r o o u t l i n e d . The lessons of the previous t e n years and recent f i a s c o were s t i l l f r e s h , but t h e i r f u l l import was not r e a l i s e d . The f a c t t h a t the new o r g a n i z a t i o n v/as t o proceed without the support of 100% of the grov/ers v/as i t s f a t a l f l a w , although Clause 5 of the Membership Agreement was a step i n the r i g h t d i r e c t i o n : 5. I f by the 30th day of March, 1923, Agreements s h a l l have been executed by Growers of e i g h t y per cent, of the f r u i t tonnage prod.uced i n the Okanagan, Similkameen, Grand F o r k s , Kootenay, Salmon Arm and main l i n e d i s t r i c t s of B r i t i s h Columbia, i n c l u d i n g L y t t o n and p o i n t s East thereof, i n the form s i m i l a r hereto or otherwise to l i k e e f f e c t i n t h a t the general scheme hereof i s the s u b j e c t t h e r e o f , t h i s Agreement s h a l l then, but not otherwise, become o p e r a t i v e . „ . 49 128 As the necessary quota signed up, the Co-operative Growers of B r i t i s h Columbia L t d , came i n t o b e i n g , though w i t h i n a couple of months the name was changed t o A s s o c i a t e d Growers of B r i t i s h Columbia L t d . (A.G.). S e v e r a l new ' l o c a l s ' were formed at t h i s time so t h a t by the s t a r t of the 1923 season the A.G. had t h i r t y - t h r e e a f f i l i a t e d a s s o c i a t i o n s r e p r e s e n t i n g 2700 growers and 85% of the Okanagan's f r u i t 4- 50 tonnage. O r g a n i z a t i o n a l l y the A.G. was very s i m i l a r t o the O.U.G.; the governing board of d i r e c t o r s was e l e c t e d from the growers by the ' l o c a l s ' . P o o l i n g of r e t u r n s was a l s o p r a c t i s e d . A major development was the drawing up of a f i v e -year t r i p a r t i t e marketing agreement between the grower, h i s ' l o c a l ' and the c e n t r a l s e l l i n g agency. This was a much more permanent c o n t r a c t than had e x i s t e d i n the days of the O.U.G.. As b e f o r e , the gen e r a l expenses of the o r g a n i z a t i o n were deducted from the s a l e proceeds, p l u s a f u r t h e r 1% t o set up a Reserve Fund. The main d i f f e r e n c e between the A.G. and the O.U.G. was one of s c a l e , and although t h i s c e n t r a l o r g a n i z a t i o n was p r i m a r i l y a s e l l i n g agency, i n 1923 i t s p o l i c y was t o buy out p r a c t i c a l l y a l l the independent packing houses i n the v a l l e y , the only Kelovma exceptions being Geo. R o w c l i f f e Co. and the O c c i d e n t a l F r u i t C o..^ However, there was nothi n g i n the terms of purchase t o prevent these p r i v a t e concerns from s t a r t i n g up i n business again w i t h new houses, and s e v e r a l d i d so. To d e a l w i t h the a c q u i s i t i o n of these p r o p e r t i e s from the independent 129 o p e r a t o r s , a h o l d i n g company was formed to arrange f o r t h e i r general disbursement among the ' l o c a l s ' . At i t s i n c e p t i o n the A.G. c o n t r o l l e d the s a l e of the great m a j o r i t y of f r u i t produced, and w i t h t h a t went the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of a l l e v i a t i n g the problem of the market g l u t w i t h which the season c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y began. Thus the members had to go t o the expense of c o n s t r u c t i n g c o l d storage p l a n t s , which although c o s t l y v/ere very necessary. The r e s u l t i n g i n c r e a s e d charges c o n t r i b u t e d t o the r e d u c t i o n i n the number of growers who remained l o y a l t o the A.G., i t s goals and p r i n c i p l e s . Growers v/ere able to c a n c e l the t r i p a r t i t e agreement and by 1926, one year a f t e r the i n t r o d u c t i o n of the Okanagan's f i r s t c o l d storage p l a n t , which was i n Kelov/na, the p r o p o r t i o n of grov/ers s e l l i n g through the A.G. had dropped from an i n i t i a l 85% t o 50%.^ 2 The A.G. i n i t i a l l y c o n s t i t u t e d a l a r g e number of o r c h a r d i s t s co-operating t o supply the f r u i t markets i n an o r d e r l y manner. I t s s i z e and p o l i c y of p r o v i d i n g c o l d storage f u r n i s h e d a broad p r o t e c t i o n which extended beyond i t s own bounds; under t h i s p r o t e c t i o n i t again became worthwhile t o s e l l f r u i t independently, i n the shadow of the s t a b i l i z i n g e f f e c t of the A.G.. T h i s was another reason f o r the d e c l i n e 55 i n the c o - o p e r a t i v e ' s membership. v An i n c r e a s i n g number of p r i v a t e shippers were e n t e r i n g the market once more. Con d i t i o n s began to approach the pre-1923 s t a t e as s u b s t a n t i a l i n c r e a s e i n market c o m p e t i t i o n r e s u l t e d i n severe i n s t a b i l i t y . 130 A m i n o r i t y of growers gained an advantage at no m a t e r i a l cost t o themselves by remaining outside the o r g a n i z a t i o n , but t h a t advantage e x i s t e d only because of the pla n n i n g and f o r e s i g h t of the m a j o r i t y . I t was becoming c l e a r t h a t when a l a r g e m a j o r i t y of growers adopted a c e r t a i n method of s e l l i n g as e s s e n t i a l f o r economic s u r v i v a l , they c o u l d not a l l o w t h e i r plans t o be c o n t i n u a l l y thwarted by a s h o r t - s i g h t e d p r o f i t e e r i n g m i n o r i t y . Co-operation was e v i d e n t l y the route t o f u t u r e s e c u r i t y but w h i l e the schemes could not be enforced, the few who r e f u s e d t o j o i n c o u l d always g a i n c o n s i d e r a b l e immediate f i n a n c i a l advantage t o the u l t i m a t e detriment of a l l . Thus i n the second h a l f of the 1920s government a s s i s t a n c e was sought t o b r i n g i n workable and enforceable l e g i s l a t i o n f o r the c r e a t i o n of a co-oper a t i v e marketing agency. I t s establishment was a slow process, t a k i n g over a decade, and i n v o l v i n g a s e r i e s of l e g a l wrangles over the l e g i s l a t i o n t h a t was passed. The e f f i c a c y of l e g i s l a t i v e a s s i s t a n c e t o the growers had a l r e a d y been proved through the f i n d i n g s of an extensive i n v e s t i g a t i o n which shook up the growers' confidence i n the marketing o r g a n i z a t i o n of P r a i r i e brokers and job b e r s . The i n v e s t i g a t i o n r e v e a l e d the s t r a n g l e h o l d which a l l the middlemen had over the o r c h a r d i s t s . The i n v e s t i g a t i o n s ' s main concern was the huge Nash o r g a n i z a t i o n w i t h i t s headquarters i n Mi n n e a p o l i s . Since 1907 t h i s o r g a n i z a t i o n had been e s t a b l i s h i n g i t s own f r u i t wholesale houses on the P r a i r i e s and buying out independent houses u n t i l by 1925 i t 131 operated t h i r t y - f o u r such houses on the P r a i r i e s . Since 1913 the same o r g a n i z a t i o n had a l s o been b u i l d i n g up i t s own chain of brokerage houses, Mutual Brokers L t d . , and by 1925 there were major branches i n the f i v e main P r a i r i e c i t i e s . The Nash i n t e r e s t s i n Western Canada seemed t o be moving i n e x o r a b l y towards a monopoly c o n t r o l of supply through the brokerage houses, and d i s t r i b u t i o n through the wholesale houses. By 1922 the pressure v/as so severe t h a t the remaining independent jobbers banded together t o o b t a i n a f r u i t supply safe from Nash i n t e r f e r e n c e . They took over the Grov/ers ' Sales Agency L t d . , a brokerage concern f o r m e r l y connected v/ith the O.U.G., and t h i s gave them a brokerage connection s i m i l a r t o t h a t of the Nash i n t e r e s t s . The i n v e s t i g a t i o n v/as conducted under the f e d e r a l "Combines I n v e s t i g a t i o n A c t , 1923", and the I n t e r i m Report, which was made p u b l i c i n 1925, had f a r - r e a c h i n g consequences I t found the Nash o r g a n i z a t i o n t o be o p e r a t i n g a double combine t o the detriment of Canadian producers, consumers and t r a d e . F i r s t l y the Nash i n t e r e s t s c o n s t i t u t e d a jobber-jobber combine s i n c e m o n o p o l i s t i c p r i c e f i x i n g and other agreements were undertaken. However, more s e r i o u s v/as the e x i s t e n c e of the jobber-broker combine, d e f i n e d i n the c o n c l u s i o n of the Report as: . . . an attempt t o j o i n i n the one o r g a n i z a t i o n two opposing f a c t o r s - the b r o k e r , whose i n t e r e s t should be s o l e l y t h a t of the grower; and the jobber, whose i n t e r e s t i s opposed t o t h a t of the grower. 5^ The d u t i e s of the broker as the grov/ers 1 agent v/ere 132 e x p l i c i t l y t o i n s p e c t t h e s h i p p e d p r o d u c e t h e n d i s t r i b u t e i t w i d e l y a t t h e b e s t p o s s i b l e p r i c e s ; t h e f a c t t h a t s u c h d u t i e s w e r e c o n t r a v e n e d p u t t h e g r o w e r s c o m p l e t e l y i n t h e h a n d s o f t h e j o b b e r s ' o r g a n i z a t i o n s . T h e j o b b e r s h a d e n g i n e e r e d t h i s t o i n c r e a s e t h e i r p r o f i t s , t h e y e v e n g a v e t h e m a n a g e r s a n d e m p l o y e e s o f t h e i r b r o k e r a g e c o m p a n i e s s h a r e s i n t h e j o b b i n g h o u s e s t h u s m a k i n g t h e f i n a n c i a l i n t e r e s t o f b r o k e r a g e e m p l o y e e s c o n f l i c t w i t h t h e i r d u t i e s t o t h e 55 g r o w e r s T h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n r e v e a l e d many f o r m s o f m a l p r a c t i c e 56 t h a t r e s u l t e d f r o m t h e j o b b e r - b r o k e r c o m b i n e , a l l o f w h i c h s e r v e d t o w e a k e n t h e g r o w e r s ' p o s i t i o n . Some b r o k e r s w i t h h e l d i n f o r m a t i o n f r o m t h e g r o w e r s a n d f a l s i f i e d t h e r e c o r d s . Where b r o k e r s r e t u r n e d o n l y t o t a l f i g u r e s o r a v e r a g e p r i c e s i t was p o s s i b l e t o c o v e r up i l l e g a l d e a l i n g s . F a l s e c l a i m s w e r e made b y b r o k e r s a t t h e g r o w e r s ' e x p e n s e , f o r f r u i t t h a t h a d s u p p o s e d l y b e e n s p o i l e d i n t r a n s i t . Some b r o k e r s , f o r i n s t a n c e M u t u a l ( V a n c o u v e r ) L t d . , w e r e t a k i n g p r o f i t s o v e r a n d a b o v e t h e i r a g r e e d c o m m i s s i o n , o r w e r e d i s c o u n t i n g t h e i r l e g a l d u t y t o o b t a i n t h e h i g h e s t p r i c e s b y g r a n t i n g d i s c r i m i n a t o r y r e d u c t i o n s a n d r e b a t e s t o c e r t a i n j o b b e r s . Some o f t h e N a s h b r o k e r a g e h o u s e s s o l d f r u i t a t a l o w e r r a t e t o t h e i r own j o b b i n g h o u s e s , t h a n t o t h e i n d e p e n d e n t j o b b e r s . T h i s c a t a l o g u e i s f a r f r o m c o m p l e t e . T h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n c o n c l u s i v e l y p r o v e d t o g r o w e r s t h a t t h e y w e r e a t t h e m e r c y o f i n t e r e s t s o n t h e P r a i r i e s t h a t w e r e r a d i c a l l y o p p o s e d t o t h e i r own i n t e r e s t s . N o r was t h e N a s h 133 combine the only one t h a t e x i s t e d , though the Commissioner concluded t h a t i t v/as the r o o t cause of the problems. Your Commissioner i s a l s o of the c o n c l u s i o n t h a t v/hile other combines w i t h i n the meaning of the s t a t u t e e x i s t , such as the s e l f - d e f e n s i v e combine of the members of the Growers 1 Sales Agency L t d . , and the l o c a l a s s o c i a t i o n s of jobbers who meet t o d i s c u s s p r i c e s and supply, s t i l l the Grov/ers' Sales combine would d i s s o l v e i n t o i t s c o n s t i t u e n t c o m p e t i t i v e elements i f the jobber-broker connection were made unlav/ful; and t h a t the p r i c e f i x i n g arrangements of the l o c a l a s s o c i a t i o n s of jobbers are made more permanent than would o r d i n a r i l y be the case by the t h r e a t s of the Nash brokers and s u p e r v i s o r s t o d i s c i p l i n e any p r i c e c u t t e r by d e p r i v i n g him of h i s supply. 57 The grov/ers thus took the momentous step forward, by o r g a n i z i n g t h e i r own P r a i r i e brokerage houses. As they had r e a l i s e d the n e c e s s i t y of o r g a n i z i n g t o get r i d of many of the independent packing houses, they now saw t h a t o r g a n i z a t i o n was necessary t o circumvent such b r o k e r s . The A.G. formed i t s own P r a i r i e brokerage c h a i n i n 1926, named Canadian P r u i t D i s t r i b u t o r s . T h i s bought out and took over the Grov/ers 1 Sales Agency L t d . which had been the brokerage l i n k of the independent jobbers. Canadian P r u i t D i s t r i b u t o r s became the str o n g e s t brokerage c h a i n i n Canada. Most i m p o r t a n t l y i t v/as grower owned and c o n t r o l l e d through the A.G. and i t operated e n t i r e l y i n the grov/ers' i n t e r e s t s . No longer c o u l d the jobbers f o r c e consignment deals as Mutual Brokers L t d . and others had done. The independent packing houses a l s o saw the advantage of an o r g a n i z a t i o n l i k e the A.G. as a s e l l i n g agency and so formed Sales S e r v i c e L t d . i n 1926 as t h e i r non-pooling s e l l i n g agency. They used the brokers on the P r a i r i e s who 134-had succeeded Mutual Brokers L t d . . A f t e r the t r i a l t h a t f o l l o w e d the i n v e s t i g a t i o n , the Nash group had t o re o r g a n i z e i t s Canadian brokerages, so i n 1927 a group of former Nash employees i n Mutual Brokers bought out i t s asse t s and reformed the brokerages as the C.H.Robinson Co. L t d . . There were s t i l l s t r o n g Nash connections i n t h i s new company,^ 8 but Canadian F r u i t D i s t r i b u t o r s ensured t h a t i t d i d not w i e l d m o n o p o l i s t i c c o n t r o l . Besides these two main o r g a n i z a t i o n s t h e r e was s t i l l a s m a l l group of packing houses which s o l d d i r e c t l y t o P r a i r i e r e t a i l e r s , a p r a c t i c e o n l y f e a s i b l e where f r u i t volume i n v o l v e d was s m a l l . Returning t o the general development of marketing l e g i s l a t i o n d u r i n g the 1920s, c o n d i t i o n s d u r i n g the decade r e s u l t e d i n the growth of widespread f e e l i n g s among growers, concerning market chaos and c o m p e t i t i o n . These were w e l l expressed by J.A.Grant, the P r a i r i e Markets' Commissioner: "Unless some form of enforced c o n t r o l i s e s t a b l i s h e d c o n d i t i o n s w i l l go from bad t o worse, as there i s no confidence l e f t i n a 'gentleman's agreement'. What i s r e q u i r e d i s machinery t o enforce agreements made, by 59 p e n a l i z i n g o f f e n d e r s . " - ^ A f t e r heated debate at the Kelowna Convention of the B r i t i s h Columbia P r u i t Growers ' A s s o c i a t i o n i n 1927, a r e s o l u t i o n was passed showing t h a t growers were r e a l i s i n g t h a t the s o l e way t o overcome the d i f f i c u l t i e s t h a t had beset the i n d u s t r y was v i a co-op e r a t i v e marketing enforced by l e g i s l a t i o n . 135 Whereas vie r e a l i s e t h a t unless some complete system of S t a b i l i z a t i o n , which w i l l ensure complete r e g u l a t i o n of marketing i s adopted f o r the f r u i t and vegetable i n d u s t r y of B.C., t h a t many growers w i l l be f o r c e d out of the i n d u s t r y , And whereas, we b e l i e v e t h a t such s t a b i l i z a t i o n , i n the i n t e r e s t s of a l l growers, can best be accomplished through a "Committee of D i r e c t i o n " which w i l l r e g u l a t e the g r a d i n g , packing, s h i p p i n g , and marketing of the e n t i r e crop. Therefore be i t r e s o l v e d : That-we, the members of the B.C.F.G.A. ask the Government, t o introd.uce l e g i s l a t i o n at the present s e s s i o n of the L e g i s l a t u r e t o p rovide f o r the s e t t i n g up of a Committee of D i r e c t i o n , which w i l l be brought i n t o being i n time t o have c o n t r o l of the movement of 100% of the 1927 t r e e f r u i t and vegetable crop. 60 The government took heed of the growers' r e s o l u t i o n and passed the "Produce Marketing A c t " i n 1927. The act provided t h a t i f over 75% of the producers of a primary product p e t i t i o n e d , the government would i n t r o d u c e c e n t r a l i s e d grower c o n t r o l over marketing. The p e t i t i o n was almost unanimous. This i n i t s e l f was a b i g step forward, as most growers, whether they p r e f e r r e d t o ship and s e l l v i a a co-o p e r a t i v e or an independent concern, r e a l i s e d and admitted the need f o r some o v e r a l l s t a b i l i z i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n . The ' I n t e r i o r T r e e - f r u i t and Vegetable Committee of D i r e c t i o n ' came i n t o b eing i n time f o r the 1927 season. This body gave the f i r s t r e a l semblance of s t a b l e marketing c o n d i t i o n s w i t h i n the i n d u s t r y . Subsequently, a l l developments were t o f i n d more e f f e c t i v e ways of p u t t i n g i n t o e f f e c t what the Committee of D i r e c t i o n stood f o r . The Committee had one government r e p r e s e n t a t i v e , one from the growers and one from the s h i p p e r s . Shippers nov; had t o be l i c e n s e d and f i l e d u p l i c a t e s of a l l i n v o i c e s , b i l l s of l a d i n g and other documents w i t h the Committee. F i n a n c i n g was 136 through l e v i e s such as 1 ^ on every box of apples or pears s o l d . The Committee had wide ranging powers concerning the domestic marketing of the f r u i t produced i n the i n t e r i o r of B r i t i s h Columbia. I t was empowered to f i x the q u a n t i t y and place t o or from which the f r u i t c o u ld be marketed or d e l i v e r e d . I t determined the terms of s a l e t o o , and supposedly set f r u i t p r i c e s . The Committee was charged, w i t h s e t t i n g p r i c e s which would be f a i r to the producer and consumer, but s i n c e these ideas of f a i r n e s s were u s u a l l y at v a r i a n c e i t was no easy t a s k . I n f a c t , because of outside c o m p e t i t i o n on the markets the Committee was n e i t h e r able t o set p r i c e s nor even f u l l y d i r e c t shipments. However, i t v/as able t o ensure f a i r d i s t r i b u t i o n of the orders among s h i p p e r s . The 1927 crop was only 78% of the volume of t h a t of 1926, and t h i s coupled v/ith h i g h p r i c e s on the P r a i r i e s got 61 the Committee o f f t o a good s t a r t . I t v/as able t o enforce i t s p o l i c y of conducting a l l s a l e s f.o.b., whereas i n previous years about 20% of the crop had. been s o l d on consignment. I t turned out though t h a t the Committee d i d not have s u f f i c i e n t c o n t r o l t o q u e l l i n t e r n a l c o m p e t i t i o n i n the i n d u s t r y . By 1930 and the onset of the Depression v/ith reduced demand f o r f r u i t at home and overseas, low p r i c e s , u n s a t i s f a c t o r y marketing c o n d i t i o n s and low r e t u r n s were normal. Many grov/ers t r a n s f e r r e d t h e i r business away from the c o - o p e r a t i v e s t o the r i s i n g number of independent s h i p p i n g f i r m s . T h e i r hopes of b e t t e r r e t u r n s v/ere not 137 r e a l i s e d as the p r i v a t e shippers and the A.G. b i d against 62 each other f o r the c o n t r a c t i n g market. The year 1931 was s i g n i f i c a n t i n the development of the f r u i t i n d u s t r y ' s o r g a n i z a t i o n . Commissioner Sanford-Evans produced h i s r e p o r t on the B.C. f r u i t i n d u s t r y i n 63 January. ^ He disapproved of l e g i s l a t i o n and any form of government i n t e r v e n t i o n t h a t s e v e r e l y r e s t r i c t e d the freedom of growers and shippers i n marketing t h e i r p roducts, and he advocated a r e t u r n t o independent t r a d i n g under a v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n of s h i p p e r s . He r i g h t l y i d e n t i f i e d the main problem of the Committee of D i r e c t i o n ; i t was supposed t o e x e r c i s e c o n t r o l over a system w i t h i n which there v/as s t i l l i n t e r n a l c o m p e t i t i o n . C e r t a i n l y the Committee was powerful but i t v/as able only t o guide the s e l l i n g agencies, i n i t s e l f i t v/as not a s e l l i n g agency. T h i s v/as the prime weakness and the chairman of the Committee, P.M.Black, was w e l l aware of i t . I n 1930 he submitted f o r the growers' -c o n s i d e r a t i o n , an e l a b o r a t e ' c e n t r a l s e l l i n g ' scheme by v/hich a l l the s e l l i n g i n the v a l l e y would be conducted through a c e n t r a l agency, w i t h the e x i s t i n g s h i p p i n g houses reduced t o the s t a t u s of packing houses. The grov/ers ' mood v/as expressed by the r e s o l u t i o n s passed at the B r i t i s h Columbia F r u i t Growers' A s s o c i a t i o n Convention at Kelov/na s t i l l i n January of 1931. A f t e r a stormy debate one r e s o l u t i o n r e j e c t e d the proposals of the Sanford-Evans Report, and another endorsed the proposals of F.M.Black f o r a B.C. Growers' Marketing Board, u r g i n g the 138 government t o draw up a s u i t a b l e b i l l . A vote of confidence was expressed i n the Committee of D i r e c t i o n ; the growers knew the Committee was f a r from i d e a l but i t had been the best o r g a n i z a t i o n so f a r . However, the B.C. "Produce Marketing A c t " had been unpopular as l e g i s l a t i o n e s p e c i a l l y among some of the vegetable growers, and had been l a b e l l e d communistic and u n c o n s t i t u t i o n a l . I t was i n and out of the cour t s s e v e r a l times i n 1928 but the f o l l o w i n g year the Appeal Court of B r i t i s h Columbia upheld i t s v a l i d i t y . There ensued more than a year of l i t i g a t i o n u n t i l i n February 1931 the act was d e c l a r e d ' u l t r a v i r e s ' by the Supreme Court of Canada on the grounds t h a t i t i n t e r f e r e d w i t h i n t e r p r o v i n e i a l t r a d e , and t h a t the l e v y exacted f o r expenses c o n s t i t u t e d an i n d i r e c t t a x . The r e s u l t s were c a t a s t r o p h i c . The Committee of D i r e c t i o n thereupon ceased t o e x i s t and there was no o r d e r l y a u t h o r i t y t o handle the f r u i t marketing. To d e a l w i t h the 1931 crop a v o l u n t a r y Shippers C o u n c i l was formed, along the l i n e s t h a t Sanford-Evans had advocated, but because marketing c o n d i t i o n s d u r i n g these years were so bad, i t d i d not r e c e i v e the promised f u l l support. This was the p a t t e r n f o r the next two seasons. The great m a j o r i t y of growers favoured c e n t r a l c o n t r o l and s e l l i n g but now there was no l e g i s l a t i o n under which t o i n s t i t u t e i t . A l s o , w i t h adverse c o n d i t i o n s , p r i n c i p l e s tended t o be put aside as growers and shippers scrambled f o r the market. This was a p e r i o d of great i n t e r n a l warfare i n the i n d u s t r y . 139 For the 1932 season, w i t h business so bad, the two brokerage chains on the P r a i r i e s , Canadian F r u i t D i s t r i b u t o r s and Coll.Robinson agreed t o amalgamate t h e i r o f f i c e s i n the c i t i e s t o t r y t o reduce broker competition,, Faced w i t h the b i g g e s t Okanagan apple crop on r e c o r d , 90% of the shippers agreed to form a ' c a r t e l ' t o e x e r c i s e some r e s t r a i n t and c o n t r o l on f r u i t shipments„ The arrangement f a i l e d f o r s e v e r a l reasons. F i r s t l y i t was an i n f o r m a l o r g a n i z a t i o n and had. no power to f i x p e n a l t i e s f o r v i o l a t i o n of agreements, and there was o f t e n d i s r e g a r d f o r agreed s h i p p i n g d a t e s , p l a c e s , and marketing arrangements. The main problem was f a m i l i a r ; the 10% who remained outside the ' c a r t e l ' d i d not accept t h e i r f a i r share of the more c o s t l y and r i s k y export market, btit unloaded a l l t h e i r f r u i t d i r e c t l y on the domestic market. Because of t h i s , the minimum p r i c e s the ' c a r t e l ' had agreed upon were not adhered t o . The p r e s i d e n t of the A.G. i n h i s r e p o r t t o the d i r e c t o r s r e i t e r a t e d a common f e e l i n g : ". . . i t i s apparently i m p o s s i b l e f o r 100% t o j o i n any p r o p o s i t i o n by v o l u n t a r y e f f o r t and i t i s abundantly apparent t h a t as long as there i s a m i n o r i t y o u t s i d e any arrangement, the e f f o r t s of the m a j o r i t y w i l l t o 64-a great extent be n u l l i f i e d . " That had a l r e a d y been shown to be so, many ti m e s , and 1932 r e i n f o r c e d i t . I n 1933 the growers took an unprecedented s t e p . The year's crop was even l a r g e r than the l a s t and. the s h i p p e r s , both p r i v a t e and c o - o p e r a t i v e , had f a i l e d t o agree on an e f f i c i e n t marketing scheme and were s e l l i n g the growers 1 14-0 apples at ruinous p r i c e s . At a Kelowna meeting on September 16th. the growers went 'on s t r i k e ' w i t h the r a l l y i n g c r y "A Cent a Pound or on the Ground". They r e f u s e d t o p i c k or d e l i v e r apples t o shippers who would not guarantee a r e t u r n of 40e/ per box, i . e . 1^ per Lb., t o j u s t cover the bare c o s t s of p r o d u c t i o n . There were examples brought forward of boxes of apples t h a t e v e n t u a l l y s o l d f o r 01.25 but f o r which the grower r e c e i v e d only 7 ^ « ^ The response t o the c a l l was amazing w i t h v i r t u a l l y t o t a l grower support throughout the v a l l e y . Growers r e f u s e d t o a l l o w any f r u i t t o leave the v a l l e y and on September 29th. 500 men, women and c h i l d r e n spent the n i g h t on the r a i l w a y t r a c k s at Kelovma t o prevent a b u l k shipment of apples. Out of t h i s a g i t a t i o n arose the Growers ' S t a b i l i z a t i o n Committee c o n s i s t i n g of three growers and one sh i p p e r . This body formed the Unit e d Apple S a l e s , a one-desk s e l l i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n such as had been openly advocated by P.M.Black i n 1930. A l e v y of ^  per box was made t o cover expenses and the scheme worked somewhat b e t t e r than i t s predecessors. But, by March 1934 the cour t s h e l d t h a t the agreements upon which the o r g a n i z a t i o n operated were i n r e s t r a i n t of t r a d e , and i l l e g a l and unenforceable. The very great m a j o r i t y of growers now saw t h a t i t was necessary t o r e g u l a t e f r u i t marketing f o r the common good. The problem was t h a t of f o r m u l a t i n g a workable system t h a t would be enforceable and t h a t would h o l d up i n c o u r t . As had so o f t e n happened, government came t o the growers' a s s i s t a n c e . P a r t l y as a 141 r e s u l t of the Okanagan s i t u a t i o n the Dominion " N a t u r a l Products Marketing Act" was passed i n June 1934, f o l l o w e d by the p r o v i n c i a l "Natural Products Marketing ( B r i t i s h Columbia) A c t " . B a l l o t s were h e l d concerning the fo r m a t i o n of a scheme s i m i l a r t o the S t a b i l i z a t i o n Committee and v o t i n g response was overwhelming. The f i r s t o r g a n i z a t i o n approved under the new p r o v i n c i a l act was the B r i t i s h Columbia Tree F r u i t Board, i n August. With t h i s new marketing board the s t r u g g l e t o extend grower c o n t r o l and to formulate an e f f i c i e n t marketing system was one step nearer, but there was s t i l l some way t o go. The 1934 act was vague and d e f e c t i v e , and. i t v/as found t h a t the Board had no e f f e c t i v e power t o f i x p r i c e s except by r e g u l a t i n g the f l o w of f r u i t onto the market at a r a t e which would give t h a t d e s i r e d p r i c e . The a c t u a l s e l l i n g was s t i l l c a r r i e d on by the packing houses through agencies 66 such as the A.G.. I t v/as not p o s s i b l e f o r the Board t o f u l l y c o n t r o l the f l o w of f r u i t s i n c e some of the shippers evaded the r e g u l a t i o n s by g r a n t i n g rebates and other inducements t o the brokerage houses. The 1934 r e t u r n s t o the growers were d-isappointing because of the l a r g e crop, the p r o p o r t i o n t h a t had t o be exported., and an i n c r e a s e i n f r e i g h t r a t e s . However, growers v/ere r e a l i s i n g t h a t success v/ould only come by remaining l o y a l t o the p r i n c i p l e s and not backing down when a l l d i d not go w e l l . Hence i n a 1935 b a l l o t 90% of grov/ers v/ere i n favour of c o n t i n u i n g t o market t h e i r produce under the Tree F r u i t Board, scheme. The 14-2 1935 crop was much s m a l l e r and so r e t u r n s t o growers were f a r more s a t i s f a c t o r y , as orders were 'pro r a t e d ' out t o shippers on an e q u i t a b l e b a s i s t o check f l o o d i n g of the market . I n 1936 the Dominion " N a t u r a l Products Marketing A c t " was before the c o u r t s t o determine i t s c o n s t i t u t i o n a l i t y . I n a n t i c i p a t i o n of the d e c i s i o n the p r o v i n c i a l act was strengthened i n 1936, and r i g i d l y c o n f i n e d t o the marketing of f r u i t w i t h i n B r i t i s h Columbia. At the same time, the powers of Boards s e t up under the act were magnified, e.g. To r e g u l a t e the time and place at which and t o designate the agency through which any r e g u l a t e d product s h a l l be packed, s t o r e d , or marketed; t o determine the manner of d i s t r i b u t i o n , the q u a n t i t y and q u a l i t y , grade or c l a s s of the r e g u l a t e d product t h a t s h a l l be t r a n s p o r t e d , packed, s t o r e d , or marketed by any person at any time; and t o p r o h i b i t the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , p acking, storage, or marketing of any grade, q u a l i t y , or c l a s s of any r e g u l a t e d product: To f i x the p r i c e or p r i c e s , maximum p r i c e or p r i c e s , minimum p r i c e or p r i c e s , or both maximum and minimum p r i c e s at v/hich the r e g u l a t e d product or any grade or c l a s s t h e r e o f , may be bought or s o l d i n the P r o v i n c e ; and may f i x d i f f e r e n t p r i c e s f o r d i f f e r e n t p a r t s of the P r o v i n c e : 67 The Tree P r u i t Board was empowered t o l i c e n s e shippers and c a n c e l l i c e n c e s f o r v i o l a t i o n s . I t could l e v y fees and i n v e s t i g a t e s h i p p i n g company r e c o r d s . The handicap was t h a t i t only had j u r i s d i c t i o n over marketing w i t h i n B r i t i s h Columbia. I n June 1936 the Dominion act was d e c l a r e d ' u l t r a v i r e s ' but the P r i v y C o u n c i l upheld the amended p r o v i n c i a l act as c o n s t i t u t i o n a l s i n c e i t d i d not extend j u r i s d i c t i o n over i n t e r - p r o v i n c i a l marketing. But, i n t h i s l a y i t s weakness, p l u s the f a c t t h a t the created Tree F r u i t Board 143 d i d not c o n t r o l a l l the f r u i t producing areas of the p r o v i n c e ; the Lower Mainland and. Vancouver I s l a n d areas v/ere excluded„ In an attempt t o overcome the main problem the Board decided t o form a marketing agency to maintain some s u p e r v i s i o n over e x t r a - p r o v i n c i a l f r u i t shipments. A company, B.C. Tree F r u i t s Ltd.. v/as formed, whose stock v/as owned by and whose d i r e c t o r s v/ere members of the B.C. Tree F r u i t Board. The company made v o l u n t a r y agreements v/ith s hippers v/ho allowed i t t o r e g u l a t e volume, grade and v a r i e t y of f r u i t s shipped. The Board, thus hoped t o do through t h i s company what i t c o u l d not do i t s e l f , and b r i n g some order t o the marketing of f r u i t outside the p r o v i n c e . For the 1937 season shippers r e p r e s e n t i n g 90% of the tonnage 68 signed c o n t r a c t s v/ith B.C. Tree F r u i t s L t d . , and a form of c e n t r a l 'one-desk' s e l l i n g v/as used t o market the b i g crop. The 1938 crop v/as l a r g e r s t i l l and the same scheme was operated. During t h i s year there v/as a l s o a resurgence of a l l the combines charges l a s t heard of i n the 1920s, but t h i s time i n v o l v i n g Western Grocers Ltd.. , the company tha t had. taken over the Nash nobbing houses i n 1932. When the 69 r e p o r t came out i n 1939, n o t h i n g had been c o n c l u s i v e l y proved. Hov/ever, the i n v e s t i g a t i o n revealed, t o grov/ers t h a t t h e r e v/ere s t i l l i l l s w i t h i n the i n d u s t r y , p a r t i c u l a r l y r e l a t e d t o the s e l l i n g of f r u i t . . The j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r c e n t r a l s e l l i n g v/as made even more f i r m than b e f o r e , t h i s b eing the o n l y form of i n s t i t u t i o n which seemed t o have the 144 p o t e n t i a l t o e x t r i c a t e the i n d u s t r y from i t s overwhelming marketing d i f f i c u l t i e s . The o p e r a t i o n of the 'one-desk' scheme was as s u c c e s s f u l i n 1938 as i t had been the previous year, and grower o p i n i o n was l a r g e l y f o r making the arrangement permanent. The h i s t o r i c meeting v/as the B r i t i s h Columbia F r u i t Growers' A s s o c i a t i o n Convention i n January 1939, where the f o l l o w i n g r e s o l u t i o n was c a r r i e d : Whereas on two occasions i n recent y e a r s , when faced v/ith the problem of s e l l i n g l a r g e r q u a n t i t i e s of f r u i t than i t seemed p o s s i b l e t o place on the domestic market, shippers agreed v o l u n t a r i l y t o a c e n t r a l s e l l i n g p l a n , and, on each of these o c c a s i o n s , growers' r e t u r n s b e n e f i t t e d g r e a t l y , and whereas methods of r e g u l a t i n g the operations of s h i p p e r s , v/hile they have been of r e a l a s s i s t a n c e d u r i n g the l a s t f o u r y e a r s , have not been able completely t o prevent p r i c e c u t t i n g and other p r a c t i c e s d e t r i m e n t a l t o the i n t e r e s t s of the grov/ers which r e s u l t i n decreasing d i s t r i b u t i o n and lessened r e t u r n s . Be i t r e s o l v e d : 1. That t h i s Convention of the B.C.F.G.Ao now s t a t e s i t s own c o n v i c t i o n t h a t only through a c e n t r a l s e l l i n g system i s i t p o s s i b l e f o r grov/ers t o o b t a i n a l l t h a t they should i n any g i v e n set of market circumstances, 2. That we urge s t r o n g l y t h a t a c e n t r a l s e l l i n g system under a competent s a l e s manager be set up t o handle the marketing of the 1939 and f u t u r e crops. 3« That such c e n t r a l s e l l i n g system be f u l l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r making a l l s a l e s , and t h a t s a l e s s h a l l be p r o r a t e d among a l l s h i p p e r s , 4. That a committee, whose number s h a l l be l e f t t o the d i s c r e t i o n of the P r e s i d e n t , be appointed, t o c o n s u l t w i t h the B.C. F r u i t Board, i n working out the d e t a i l s of a s u i t a b l e p l a n , and t o take such steps as ma.j be necessary t o b r i n g the p l a n i n t o o p e r a t i o n . 70 By March 1939 the committee had drawn up the p l a n and i n J u l y , under the p r o v i n c i a l " N a t u r a l Products Marketing A c t " the B.C. Tree F r u i t Board designated B.C. Tree F r u i t s L t d . as the s o l e s e l l i n g agency f o r a l l f r u i t under i t s 145 j u r i s d i c t i o n . At t h a t time o n l y domestic f r u i t shipments were so c o n t r o l l e d as the s a l e s o r g a n i z a t i o n s were anxious t o r e t a i n t h e i r own overseas connections and markets. On the domestic market r e g u l a r s h i p p e r s maintained t h e i r trade connections but a l l a c t u a l s a l e s were across the one desk and made i n the name of B.C. Tree F r u i t s L t d . . A l l payments were a l s o made t o them, and they r e g u l a t e d the market by c o n t r o l l i n g time, method and q u a n t i t y of f r u i t t o be s o l d . The l e g a l q u e s t i o n of the new company was di s c u s s e d w i t h the B.C. M i n i s t e r of A g r i c u l t u r e . At l a s t government and growers had produced a s o l u t i o n t h a t was e f f e c t i v e and en f o r c e a b l e . I t had t o be, s i n c e some of the growers were s t i l l a g a i n s t the p r i n c i p l e s , though only a s m a l l m i n o r i t y a f t e r the harsh l e s s o n s of the 1930s. Some of the shippers had m i s g i v i n g s as t o the methods and e f f i c i e n c y of the new o r g a n i z a t i o n . Even though there was an enforceable lav; i t became evident t h a t some packing houses sought t o evade r e s t r i c t i o n s and dispose of as much of t h e i r best f r u i t as p o s s i b l e on Un i t e d S t a t e s and overseas markets. This made i t extremely d i f f i c u l t f o r the company t o market the lower grade remainder on the domestic market at p r i c e s acceptable t o the growers. Growers f o r c e d the i s s u e and so w i t h i n two ye a r s , B.C. Tree F r u i t s L t d . was i n c o n t r o l of a l l f r u i t marketing: domestic, United S t a t e s and overseas. These achievements were the c u l m i n a t i o n of over t h i r t y years of s t r u g g l e , e s p e c i a l l y a g a i n s t the problem of geographic i s o l a t i o n from markets, i n an i n d u s t r y whose 14-6 p r o d u c t i o n was i n c r e a s i n g at a f a s t e r r a t e than Canadian p o p u l a t i o n and per c a p i t a consumption of the product. The e a r l y days of the i n d u s t r y had seen very poor i n t e g r a t i o n and the t o t a l f a i l u r e of p r i v a t e e n t e r p r i s e t o d e a l w i t h the marketing s i t u a t i o n . V o l u n t a r y co-operation always seemed to break down under p r e s s u r e , the answer was then sought through government help and l e g i s l a t i o n . I n the b e g i n n i n g , growers had l e f t the marketing operations t o s p e c i a l i s t s , but on d i s c o v e r y t h a t the two s e t s of i n t e r e s t s d i d not c o i n c i d e , the growers then had t o solve t h e i r problems themselves. Only s l o w l y d i d they become aware of the scope of these problems. I t was not u n t i l there was awakened i n each i n d i v i d u a l grower a sense of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r a p e r s o n a l c o n t r i b u t i o n t o the success of the i n d u s t r y t h a t any l a s t i n g progress was made. This was j u s t as important as a l l the h i g h l e v e l b a r g a i n i n g . At f i r s t the aim had been to secure c o n t r o l over the f r u i t supply, namely the packing houses, then l a t e r t o secure b a r g a i n i n g power i n the markets themselves. The independent growers and i n t e r e s t s who d i d not j o i n the c o - o p e r a t i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n s had a constant d e b i l i t a t i n g e f f e c t on the m a j o r i t y . They payed none of the c o s t s yet enjoyed t h a t measure of s t a b i l i t y t h a t the c o - o p e r a t i v e s b u i l t up. The p r i c e wars t h a t went on had d i s a s t r o u s e f f e c t s but no o r g a n i z a t i o n , not even B.C. Tree F r u i t s L t d . was able t o f i x p r i c e s because the P r a i r i e market was not a c l o s e d one. The f i r s t great advantage of 'one-desk' s e l l i n g was t h a t the 14-7 i n t e r n a l c o m p e t i t i o n which had always reduced r e t u r n s , was h a l t e d . A l s o , because of the l a r g e r s c a l e of o p e r a t i o n s , g e n e r a l c o s t s were reduced and d u p l i c a t i o n of e f f o r t was e l i m i n a t e d . With g r e a t e r market s t a b i l i t y , trade confidence i n the i n d u s t r y i n c r e a s e d . Another major advantage was t h a t whereas a l l previous marketing o r g a n i z a t i o n s had not been able t o d e a l e f f e c t i v e l y w i t h c r i s e s and emergency c o n d i t i o n s , now a u n i f i e d stance could be taken from a p o s i t i o n of s t r e n g t h . I n many ways the events of 1939 were the climax of the development of the orcha r d i n g i n d u s t r y i n the Okanagan. I n the h i s t o r y of i t s o r g a n i z a t i o n t h a t year marks the c u l m i n a t i o n of the e f f o r t s , and the system brought i n t o o p e r a t i o n then has remained i n f o r c e ever s i n c e . I t was the achievements secured v i a t h i s process of developing market o r g a n i z a t i o n s t h a t s t a b i l i z e d o r c h a r d i n g , and turned what had f o r so long been an i n d u s t r y fraught w i t h i n s e c u r i t y i n t o a v i a b l e economic base f o r 'the Kelowna area. FOOTNOTES: 1 B.C. Department of A g r i c u l t u r e , Cost of Producing Apples  i n the Okanagan and.Average Y i e l d s and P r i c e s f o r Leading  V a r i e t i e s , V i c t o r i a , 1921, C i r c u l a r No. 38, p..8. 2 Info r m a t i o n from i n t e r v i e w w i t h John Smith, 25 October 1972. 3 B.C. Department of A g r i c u l t u r e , op. c i t . , p. 9. 148 4 In f o r m a t i o n from i n t e r v i e w w i t h E.A.Graves, 25 October 1972. 5 C o c k f i e l d Brown & Co. L t d . , Report on the Canadian  Market f o r B.C. Apples and other Tree F r u i t s f o r the B r i t i s h  Columbia Tree F r u i t Board, Vancouver, 1936, v o l . II» Appendix A, e.g. Calgary p. 6, Lethbridge p. 8, Saskatoon p. 11, Moose Jaw p. 13, Yorkton p. 15 e t c . . 6 B r i t i s h Columbia F r u i t Growers' A s s o c i a t i o n , Twenty- seventh Annual Report, 1916, pp. 54-55, r e s o l u t i o n No. 20. 7 C o c k f i e l d Brown & Co. Ltd.., op. c i t . , v o l . I , p. 88. 8 Loc. c i t . 9 Most of the i n f o r m a t i o n f o r t h i s paragraph from i n t e r v i e w v/ith Fred Coe, 25 January 1973« 10 The Board of Railway Commissioners f o r Canada, Judgements V o l . XVII No. 15 & 13a, Ottawa, 1927, p. 139. 11 I b i d . , F i l e 34123.8, "Complaint of A s s o c i a t e d Grov/ers of B r i t i s h Columbia L i m i t e d " , p. 365. 12 Canada Department of Labour, I n v e s t i g a t i o n i n t o an  A l l e g e d Combine of Wholesalers and Shippers of F r u i t s and  Vegetables i n Western Canada, Ottawa, 1939, p. 25. The r a t e s were f o r m e r l y set by custom, but f o r m a l i z e d i n 1938 by the B.C. Tree F r u i t Board. 13 I b i d . , p. 35. 14 I b i d . , p. 36. 15 The use of the term "export", throughout the study r e f e r s t o shipments outside the Dominion of Canada, i . e . e i t h e r t o the U n i t e d S t a t e s or overseas. 16 For the 1920s the records of the A s s o c i a t e d Grov/ers L t d . have t o be taken as r e p r e s e n t a t i v e . R e l i a b l e f i g u r e s f o r Okanagan apple output are only a v a i l a b l e a f t e r 1935, from the B.C. Tree F r u i t Board. 17 Information from i n t e r v i e w w i t h Darby Ha;yes, 3 January 1973. 18 L.R.Stephens, 50 Years of I n t e g r i t y Leadership and  L i a i s o n , Ottawa, Canadian H o r t i c u l t u r a l C o u n c i l , 1972, p. 38. 14-9 19 C o c k f i e l d Brown & Co. L t d . , op. c i t . , v o l . I , p..199. . 20 K.P.Caple, "The B r i t i s h Columbia Apple I n d u s t r y " , Vancouver, U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, unpublished M.Sc. T h e s i s , 1927, p. 29. 21 C o c k f i e l d Brown & Co. L t d . , op. c i t . , v o l . I , p. 111. 22 I b i d . , v o l . I , p. 38. 23 I b i d . , v o l . I , p. 4-4-. 24 I b i d . , v o l . I , p. 4-3 p r o v i d e s the g e n e r a l e x p l a n a t i o n f o r F i g u r e 3. 25 A s s o c i a t e d Growers of B.C. L t d . , D i r e c t o r s 1 Report, 1926. 26 C o c k f i e l d Brown & Co. L t d . , op. c i t . , v o l . I , p. 112, 27 A s s o c i a t e d Growers of B.C. L t d . , D i r e c t o r s ' Report, 1925. 28 L.D.Mallory, "The Canadian Anti-dumping Duty i n R e l a t i o n t o N a t u r a l P r o ducts, w i t h p a r t i c u l a r r e f e r e n c e t o F r u i t s and Vegetables", Vancouver, U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, unpublished 11.Sc. T h e s i s , 1929, pp. 23-25. 29 Province of B r i t i s h Columbia, Report of the Royal  Commission on the T r e e - F r u i t I n d u s t r y of B r i t i s h Columbia, V i c t o r i a , 1958, Commissioner: Dean E.D.MacPhee, p. 29. ( h e r e a f t e r c i t e d as MacPhee R e p o r t ) . 30 K.P.Caple, op. c i t . , p. 29. 31 L.R.Stephens, op. c i t . , Appendix V I I I , p. 118. 32 C o c k f i e l d Brown & Co. L t d . , op. c i t . , v o l . I , pp. 15-16. 33 B r i t i s h Columbia F r u i t Growers' A s s o c i a t i o n , F i r s t  Annual Report, Vancouver, 1890, p. 10. 34- Most of the i n f o r m a t i o n f o r t h i s paragraph taken from MacPhee Report, 1958, p. 27. 35 I b i d . , p. 28. 36 B r i t i s h Columbia F r u i t Growers' A s s o c i a t i o n , Twenty- t h i r d Annual Report, V i c t o r i a , 1913, P» 26. 37 "The Okanagan United Growers ( L t d , ) " , A g r i c u l t u r a l  J o u r n a l , v o l . 7, (December 1922), p. 220. 38 MacPhee Report, 1958, p. 28. 150 39 I n f o r m a t i o n from i n t e r v i e w w i t h Ken K i n n a r d , 17 November 1972. 4-0 K.PoCaple, op. c i t . , p. 12. 4-1 MacPhee Report, 1958, t a b l e 71, p. 225. 4-2 Okanagan United Growers L t d . , Annual Report and Growers 1  Manual, 1921, Report of the Board of D i r e c t o r s , p. 17. 4-3 B.Ramsey, ed.., "75 Years of Progress", B r i t i s h Columbia F r u i t Growers 1 A s s o c i a t i o n supplement i n Country L i f e i n  B r i t i s h Columbia, v o l . 50, (January 1964-), p. 17a. 4-4- MacPhee Report, 1958, p. 29. 45 L e t t e r from the P r e s i d e n t of Okanagan U n i t e d Grov/ers Ltd.. t o the Shareholders and Note Holders, Vernon B.C., 13 June 1923. 4-6 " A s s o c i a t e d Grov/ers of B.C. L t d . " , A g r i c u l t u r a l J o u r n a l , v o l . 8, (June 1923), p. 76. 4-7 Ramsey, op. c i t . , p. 18a. 4-8 B r i t i s h Columbia F r u i t Grov/ers' A s s o c i a t i o n , T h i r t y - t h i r d Annual Report, 1923, p. 19. 4-9 Co-operative Grov/ers of B r i t i s h Columbia L i m i t e d , Membership Agreement, S e r i e s A, (Present Members of E x i s t i n g L o c a l s . 50 I n f o r m a t i o n from i n t e r v i e w v/ith L.R.Stephens, 19 October 1972. 51 MacPhee Report, 1958, p. 30. ' 52 Ramsey, op. c i t . , p. 19a„ 53 D.C.Fillmore, "Compulsory C o n t r o l i n the Marketing of P e r i s h a b l e Products", C h i t t y ' s Lav/ J o u r n a l , (June-July 1965), p. 230. 54- Canada Department of Labour, I n v e s t i g a t i o n i n t o A l l e g e d  Combine i n the D i s t r i b u t i o n of F r u i t s and Vegetables, Ottawa, 1925, I n t e r i m Report, p. 120. 55 Canada Department of Labour, I n v e s t i g a t i o n i n t o , A l l e g e d  Combine i n the D i s t r i b u t i o n of F r u i t s and Vegetables, Ottav/a, 1932, F i n a l Report, p. 3. 151 56 Canada Department of Labour, I n v e s t i g a t i o n i n t o A l l e g e d , Combine i n the D i s t r i b u t i o n of F r u i t s and Vegetables, Ottawa, 1925, I n t e r i m Report, pp. 22-27 & 36-42. 57 I b i d . , p. 120. 58 Canada Department of Labour, I n v e s t i g a t i o n i n t o an A l l e g e d Combine of Wholesalers and Shippers of F r u i t s and Vegetables i n Western Canada, Ottawa, 1939, pp. 23-24. 59 B r i t i s h Columbia F r u i t Growers' A s s o c i a t i o n , T h i r t y - seventh Annual Report, 1927, P« 23. 60 I b i d . , pp. 43-44, r e s o l u t i o n No. 14. 61 Ramsey, op. c i t . , p. 22a. 62 MacPhee Report, 1958, p. 32. 63 Province of B r i t i s h Columbia, Report of the Royal  Commission I n v e s t i g a t i n g the F r u i t I n d u s t r y , V i c t o r i a , 1930, Commissioner: W.Sanford-Evans. 64 E.J.Chambers quoted i n Ramsey, op. c i t . , pp. 23a-24a. 65 Ramsey, op. c i t . , p. 25a. 66 MacPhee Report, 1958, p. 34. 67 " N a t u r a l Products Marketing (B.C.) A c t " , The Revised S t a t u t e s of B r i t i s h Columbia, Ch. 165, s e c t i o n s 5a and. 5g. 68 Canada Department of Labour, I n v e s t i g a t i o n i n t o an  A l l e g e d Combine of Wholesalers and Shippers of F r u i t s and  Vegetables i n Western Canada, Ottawa, 1939, p. 18. 69 I b i d . 70 Minutes of 1939 B r i t i s h Columbia F r u i t Growers' A s s o c i a t i o n Convention, r e s o l u t i o n No. 2a. (mimeographed). 152 CONCLUSION By the end of the 1930s the Kelovma area contained 1 2 5922 acres of orchards, and a p o p u l a t i o n of around 8000, 5000 of whom l i v e d i n the c i t y of Kelovma. This s i z e a b l e p o p u l a t i o n was l a r g e l y supported by the l o c a l orcharding economy, the s u c c e s s f u l emergence of which had been g r a d u a l , and had culminated, i n a sense, i n the marketing developments and l e g i s l a t i o n of 1939. Thus one of the two i n i t i a l appeals made by the l a n d companies - t h a t of l a r g e short term p r o f i t s - was not soon r e a l i s e d . However, t h a t Kelowna was a pleasant and a t t r a c t i v e p lace i n which t o l i v e q u i c k l y proved t o be so. The c l i m a t e was amenable, w i t h dry summer heat, l i t t l e r a i n and r e l a t i v e l y short w i n t e r s w i t h moderate s n o w f a l l s . The area's s e t t i n g was p i c t u r e s q u e ; the c i t y i s on the la k e s h o r e , backed by the r i s i n g t i e r s of orchard benchlands and e n c i r c l e d by mountains. Kelovma c i t y has been the focus of the area ever s i n c e i t s founding i n 1892, and i t was s p a c i o u s l y l a i d out w i t h a wide c e n t r a l main s t r e e t , Bernard Avenue, l e a d i n g east away from the l a k e . On the lakeshore was a l a r g e park w i t h a p a v i l i o n f o r the Annual Regatta, which t o t h i s day i s s t i l l the event of the year at Kelowna. The area o f f e r e d good hunting and f i s h i n g f o r the sportsman, and the l a k e and e x c e l l e n t beach were i d e a l f o r b o a t i n g and bathing.- The c i t y was the centre f o r many s o c i a l a m e n i t i e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y f o r a l l the clubs and 153 o r g a n i z a t i o n s which sprang i n i t i a l l y from the i n f l u e n c e of E n g l i s h and S c o t t i s h s e t t l e r s i n the area. These c l u b s were organized soon a f t e r the s e t t l e r s ' a r r i v a l , and r e f l e c t e d the nature of a prominent stratum of e a r l y Kelowna s o c i e t y . L i f e f o r the o r c h a r d i s t s combined the nearby c i t y amenities v/ith the pleasu r e s of r u r a l l i v i n g . V i r t u a l l y a l l the o r c h a r d i s t s l i v e d on t h e i r orchards i n a landscape of neat rows of f r u i t t r e e s i n t e r s p e r s e d among sparse pine f o r e s t on the steep bench edges or hi g h e r areas. Many of the o r c h a r d i s t s ' homes were b u i l t t o take advantage of panoramic views over c i t y and l a k e . The houses were u s u a l l y wooden and those of the w e a l t h i e r s e t t l e r s were up t o three s t o r e y s h i g h and graced w i t h ornamental stonework, gables, verand.ahs and so on. The houses v/ere o f t e n set back from the road up a long d r i v e , ensuring p r i v a c y i n v/hat amounted t o a s m a l l 'estate'. Y e t, there v/as n e i t h e r i s o l a t i o n i n the s o c i a l sense nor the s p a t i a l ; the area v/as c r i s s - c r o s s e d w i t h an ample road netv/ork. A l a r g e number of s e t t l e r s came t o Kelowna seeking the good l i f e , and many found i t w i t h i n t h i s orchard landscape. S u c c e s s f u l e a r l y s e t t l e r s l i k e S t i r l i n g were examples t h a t such a l i f e v/as v / i t h i n r e a c h . The good l i f e v/as based on the area's n a t u r a l advantages, and a l s o on the s e t t l e r s ' -determination t o carve such a place out of the w i l d e r n e s s , t o which they c o u l d t r a n s f e r a microcosm of the s o c i e t y from which they had emigrated. Both bases of the good l i f e v/ere necessary c o n d i t i o n s f o r i t s establishment, but n e i t h e r i n 154 i t s e l f was s u f f i c i e n t . A l l the n i c e t i e s and p l e a s a n t r i e s of l i f e depended i n the longer term on the s u c c e s s f u l p r o d u c t i o n and marketing of f r u i t . The w e l l documented example of Walhachin shows t h a t without such a base, s o c i e t y c ould not be maintained. The establishment of Kelowna's sound economic base had taken s e v e r a l decades. Behind the i d y l l i c appearance of the landscape t h e r e were s e r i o u s o b s t a c l e s t o be overcome. Kelowna was a marginal area f o r orcharding and a number of permissive f a c t o r s underlay the e v o l u t i o n of a s u c c e s s f u l o rcharding economy here. One of the most important such f a c t o r s was a d a p t a t i o n t o the environment. F i r s t l y t h i s i n v o l v e d the i n s t a l l a t i o n of i r r i g a t i o n systems t o overcome the area's a r i d i t y , and then s e t t l e r s v/ere engaged i n an ongoing s t r u g g l e t o g a i n understanding of c l i m a t e , s o i l s , and f r u i t p ests and d i s e a s e s , together w i t h some mastery over the hazards they presented. The s e t t l e r s ' e f f o r t s were g r e a t l y helped by government a s s i s t a n c e , through the D i s t r i c t H o r t i c u l t u r a l i s t s and the Experimental S t a t i o n . I n c e n t i v e s behind these e f f o r t s were the a t t r a c t i v e n e s s of Kelowna as a place t o l i v e and the f a c t t h a t superb f r u i t c o u l d be grown. The t a n t a l i s i n g dilemma v/as t h a t once grown, t h a t f r u i t c o u l d not e a s i l y be got t o market. Kelov/na v/as a marginal o r c h a r d i n g area i n a second b a s i c sense; i t v/as s p a t i a l l y and. o r g a n i z a t i o n a l l y d i s l o c a t e d from i t s markets. Thus of equal importance to environmental a d a p t a t i o n was the grov/ers ' accommodation to the p a r t i c u l a r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of 155 the markets and marketing system of which Kelovma was a p a r t . D i f f i c u l t i e s here were g r a d u a l l y overcome w i t h the i n t r o d u c t i o n of techniques such as c o l d storage, w i t h improvements i n the t r a n s p o r t network, and p r i m a r i l y through the outworking of co - o p e r a t i v e marketing, an approach d i c t a t e d by the nature of the product, o r g a n i z a t i o n of p r o d u c t i o n , and i n p a r t by d i s t a n c e t o market. This c o - o p e r a t i v e response t o marketing problems had a l s o been the response of the P r a i r i e g r a i n growers when they formed growers' a s s o c i a t i o n s and wheat p o o l s . Both groups of primary producers were s t r i v i n g f o r c o n t r o l o f , and a share i n e x t e r n a l markets l i a b l e t o l a r g e p r i c e f l u c t u a t i o n s , and both groups were subject t o marketing systems i n v o l v i n g such hazards as r a i l w a y f r e i g h t r a t e s and independent middlemen. A p a r t i c u l a r l y severe problem i n the Okanagan was i n t e r n a l c o m p e t i t i o n among growers f o r the market, which l e d t o l o s s of market i n f l u e n c e and p r o f i t s . I n both cases, P r a i r i e and Okanagan, achievements were only gained as producers surrendered t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l i s m t o l a r g e c o-operative o r g a n i z a t i o n s , i n the Okanagan's case not without c o n s i d e r a b l e government a s s i s t a n c e and l e g i s l a t i o n . On the P r a i r i e s these movements e v e n t u a l l y developed p o l i t i c a l m a n i f e s t a t i o n s w i t h the f o r m a t i o n of the C.C.P., but not so i n the Okanagan. Here the background of many of the Kelovma s e t t l e r s who came from c o n s e r v a t i v e middle c l a s s B r i t i s h s o c i e t y , quashed such p o s s i b l e r a m i f i c a t i o n s . The goals of t h i s prominent s o c i a l group encompassed the paradox of a 1 % r e a l i s a t i o n of the need f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l - m a r k e t i n g reform, hut not t o b r i n g about p a r a l l e l s o c i a l reform, r a t h e r the opposite - t o preserve and b o l s t e r an extremely c o n s e r v a t i v e s o c i a l outlook and l i f e s t y l e t h a t the s e t t l e r s had brought w i t h them from B r i t a i n , , But, the economic base t o s t a b i l i z e and support t h i s way of l i f e v/as not f i r m l y secured u n t i l 1939. Only one aspect of the orcharding i n d u s t r y remained unchanged through f i v e decades; j u s t as the beginnings of orcharding v/ere founded on the i n d i v i d u a l f a m i l y orchard, t h i s v/as s t i l l the case at the end. of the 1930s,, I t i s h a r d l y s u r p r i s i n g t h a t a l l the c o - o p e r a t i v e developments were aimed, however i n d i r e c t l y , at p r e s e r v i n g t h i s s t a t u s quo. The motive behind many pioneer movements and c o l o n i z a t i o n of new areas i s the search f o r freedom and o p p o r t u n i t y r e l a t e d t o the a c q u i s i t i o n of l a n d t o be p r i v a t e l y h e l d . T h i s was very t y p i c a l of the westv/ard advance of both Canadian and American settlement f r o n t i e r s , and i n Kelov/na i t v/as r e i n f o r c e d by the i n f l u x of many s e t t l e r s from B r i t a i n v/here p a r t i c u l a r l y , p r i v a t e ownership of l a n d , besides i t s p r a c t i c a l value conveyed a c e r t a i n s o c i a l s t a t u s . Thus i n t h i s sphere i n d i v i d u a l i s m v/as never relin q u i s h e d . , and i t would seem t h a t today i n areas v/here i t v/as r e l i n q u i s h e d , namely to market o r g a n i z a t i o n s , some grov/ers are making moves to r e t u r n to a l e s s c o - o p e r a t i v e system than t h a t l a i d down i n 1939. B.C. Tree F r u i t s L t d . has been i n o p e r a t i o n ever s i n c e then, but those challenges 157 of i n d i v i d u a l i s m a g a i n s t the e v o l v i n g c o - o p e r a t i v e system i n the 1920s and 1930s have been l a r g e l y dormant. However, i n the autumn of 1973 c e r t a i n o r c h a r d i s t s a g a i n c h a l l e n g e d the c o - o p e r a t i v e system by s e l l i n g f r u i t without s a n c t i o n i n Vancouver. As the i s s u e of c o - o p e r a t i o n r i s e s a g a i n , so i t s p r i n c i p l e s w i l l once more have t o be rethought and r e s o l v e d . But, the e v o l u t i o n of a co-op e r a t i v e marketing system, durable and e f f i c i e n t enough t o underpin the orcharding economy at Kelovma and throughout the whole Okanagan, was a slow and p a i n f u l p rocess. The i n d u s t r y can h a r d l y now a f f o r d to repeat previous experiments and mistakes. FOOTNOTES: 1 B.C. Department of A g r i c u l t u r e , Orchard Survey of the  Okanagan H o r t i c u l t u r a l D i s t r i c t , 1940. 2 W r i t e r ' s e s t i m a t e . 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Commission of Conservation, Canada. Province of B r i t i s h Columbia. F u l l Report of the Royal Commission on A g r i c u l t u r e . V i c t o r i a , 1914. Report of the Economic C o n d i t i o n s i n C e r t a i n I r r i g a t i o n D i s t r i c t s i n the P r o v i n c e . V i c t o r i a , 1928. Commissioner: W. G. Swan. Report of the Royal Commission I n v e s t i g a t i n g the F r u i t I n d u s t r y . V i c t o r i a , 1930. Commissioner: W.Sanford-Evans. Report of the Marketing Boards I n q u i r y Commission. V i c t o r i a , 1942. Commissioner: Judge A.M.Harper. "Associated. Grov/ers of B r i t i s h Columbia L t d . and A f f i l i a t e d L o c a l s , Vernon B.C." A p r i l 9 5 1945. B r i e f presented t o Royal Commission on Co-operatives, (mimeographed). Dyking, Drainage, and I r r i g a t i o n Commission. V i c t o r i a , 1947. Commissioner: Dean F.M.Clement. 165 "Proceedings of the Royal Commission on the Tree P r u i t I n d u s t r y of B r i t i s h Columbia, Kelowna B . C . , Packing House Hearings." A p r i l 8, 1957. (mimeographed). Report of the Royal Commission on the T r e e - P r u i t I n d u s t r y of  B r i t i s h Columbia. V i c t o r i a , 1958. Commissioner: Dean E.D.MacPhee. Department of A g r i c u l t u r e . Climate of B r i t i s h Columbia. V i c t o r i a , years 1919-1933. Department of A g r i c u l t u r e . Cost of Producing Apples i n the  Okanagan and Average Y i e l d s and P r i c e s f o r Leading  V a r i e t i e s . V i c t o r i a , 1921. C i r c u l a r No. 38. Department of A g r i c u l t u r e , Kelowna B.C. " H i s t o r y of the Kelovma D i s t r i c t . " ( t y p e w r i t t e n ) . Department of A g r i c u l t u r e . I n f o r m a t i o n f o r Pruit-Growers w i t h  L i s t of V a r i e t i e s f o r Commercial and Home P l a n t i n g . V i c t o r i a , 1913. B u l l e t i n No. 51. R.M.Winslow. Department of A g r i c u l t u r e . The Okanagan V a l l e y . V i c t o r i a , (c . 1922). C i r c u l a r No. 40. W.J.Bonavia. Department of A g r i c u l t u r e , H o r t i c u l t u r a l Branch. Orchard  Cover Crops. V i c t o r i a , 1919 & 1927. C i r c u l a r No. 51. Department of A g r i c u l t u r e , H o r t i c u l t u r a l Branch. Orchard Survey of the Okanagan H o r t i c u l t u r a l D i s t r i c t . O f f i c e of the D i s t r i c t H o r t i c u l t u r a l i s t , Vernon, years 1920, 1925, 1930, 1935, 1940. Department of A g r i c u l t u r e , H o r t i c u l t u r a l Branch. P l a n t i n g  Plans and D i s t a n c e s . V i c t o r i a , 1921. C i r c u l a r No. 62. M.S.Middleton. P r a c t i c a l I n f o r m a t i o n on I r r i g a t i o n f o r B r i t i s h Columbia  P r u i t Growers. V i c t o r i a , 1912. B.A.Etcheverry. Department of A g r i c u l t u r e , Kelovma B.C..Proceedings of the  Reclamation Committee. B r i e f No. 16, 1952. B r i e f No. 36, 1957. B r i e f No. 45, 1966. 166 Department of A g r i c u l t u r e , H o r t i c u l t u r a l Branch. Remedies  f o r I n sect Pests and Diseases. V i c t o r i a , 1907. Department of A g r i c u l t u r e , H o r t i c u l t u r a l Branch. S e l e c t i o n  of Orchard S i t e s and S o i l s . V i c t o r i a , 1924. C i r c u l a r . No. 53. Department of A g r i c u l t u r e , H o r t i c u l t u r a l Branch. V a r i e t i e s  of P r u i t Recommended f o r P l a n t i n g i n B r i t i s h Columbia. V i c t o r i a , 1922, 1926, 1928, 1929, 1931, 1933, 1935, 1937, 1940. C i r c u l a r No. 64. Department of A g r i c u l t u r e . Y i e l d s , Grades, P r i c e s and  Returns f o r Apple V a r i e t i e s i n the Okanagan V a l l e y . V i c t o r i a , ( c . 1921-1922). B u l l e t i n No. 90. Mackenzie, A.R. Report t o the M i n i s t e r of Finance of the  Province of B r i t i s h Columbia on the P h y s i c a l and  F i n a n c i a l C o n d i t i o n of I r r i g a t i o n P r o j e c t s i n the Vernon  and Kelowna D i s t r i c t s . Vancouver, 1916. Glenmore I r r i g a t i o n D i s t r i c t . Appendix t o Report submitted to the Hon. T . D . P a t t u l l o , M i n i s t e r of Lands, 1927. South East Kelowna I r r i g a t i o n D i s t r i c t . Appendix t o Report submitted t o the Hon. T . D . P a t t u l l o , M i n i s t e r of Lands, 1927. Province of Nova S c o t i a . M i n i s t e r of P u b l i c Works and Mines. Report of the Royal  Commission I n v e s t i g a t i n g the Apple I n d u s t r y of the  Province of Nova S c o t i a . H a l i f a x , 1930. ' E. OTHER REPORTS & DOCUMENTS As s o c i a t e d Growers of B r i t i s h Columbia L t d . D i r e c t o r s '  Reports, years 1924-1940. 167 B r i t i s h Columbia F r u i t Growers' A s s o c i a t i o n . Annual Reports, years 1890-1895, 1914-1929, 1931, 1939. C o c k f i e l d Brown & Co. L t d . Report on the Canadian Market f o r B.C. Apples and other Tree F r u i t s , f o r the B r i t i s h  Columbia Tree F r u i t Board. Vancouver, 1936. Okanagan United Growers L t d . Operating Rules and Regulations  f o r Season 1914. Vernon, 1914. Okanagan Uni t e d Growers L t d . Annual Report and Growers' Manual, years 1918-1921. Poetschke, L. & Mackenzie, V/. "Development of Producer Marketing Boards i n Canadian A g r i c u l t u r e . " U n i v e r s i t y of A l b e r t a , Edmonton, Department of P o l i t i c a l Economy, (undated). Report of Enquiry Conducted by F.M.Clement on b e h a l f of the  S i x Southern L o c a l s of the A s s o c i a t e d Growers of B r i t i s h  Columbia L t d . The P e n t i c t o n H e r a l d , 1933. South East Kelowna I r r i g a t i o n D i s t r i c t . "South East Kelovma I r r i g a t i o n D i s t r i c t . H i s t o r y and Development of P r o j e c t . " ( t y p e w r i t t e n ) . (S.E.K.I.D. o f f i c e , East Kelovma) West, C.J. & Shugg, H. "An Economic Survey of the Okanagan D i s t r i c t . 1946." (Kelowna L i b r a r y ) unpublished. Western Canada I r r i g a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n . The I r r i g a t i o n Review. A p r i l 1920-December 1926. F. PROMOTIONAL LITERATURE A g r i c u l t u r a l and Trades A s s o c i a t i o n of Okanagan M i s s i o n V a l l e y . A Short H i s t o r y of Kelovma and i t s Surroundings. V i c t o r i a & Vancouver, The Province P u b l i s h i n g Co., 1898. The A s s o c i a t e d Agencies of Canada L t d . F r u i t Farming at  Kelovma, B r i t i s h Columbia. London, 1912. 168 Province of B r i t i s h Columbia. Province of B r i t i s h Columbia,  Canada. I t s Climate and Resources; w i t h I n f o r m a t i o n f o r  Emigrants. V i c t o r i a , 1883. Province of B r i t i s h Columbia. B r i t i s h Columbia as a F i e l d  f o r E m i g r a t i o n and Investment. V i c t o r i a , 1891. Province of B r i t i s h Columbia, Department of A g r i c u l t u r e . B r i t i s h Columbia and i t s A g r i c u l t u r a l C a p a b i l i t i e s . V i c t o r i a , 1902. Bulman, T. Okanagan V a l l e y F r u i t Lands, c. 1908. Dominion of Canada, Department of A g r i c u l t u r e . Province of  B r i t i s h Columbia. I n f o r m a t i o n f o r Intending S e t t l e r s . Ottawa, 1883. Canadian P a c i f i c Railv/ay. B r i t i s h Columbia, The P a c i f i c  P r o vince of the Dominion of Canada. 1895. Canadian P a c i f i c Railway. Southern B r i t i s h Columbia, The  Garden of Canada. 1906. C a r r u t h e r s , E.M. The C r e a t i o n of an Orchard i n B r i t i s h  Columbia. London, Hudson & Kearns, c. 1912. • B r i t i s h Columbia f o r Anglo I n d i a n s . 1913. . "A White Man's Country, B r i t i s h Columbia f o r Anglo I n d i a n s . " 1914. ( t y p e w r i t t e n ) . C e n t r a l Okanagan Land & Orchard Co. L t d . Okanagan V a l l e y F r u i t Lands, Kelowna, B r i t i s h Columbia. Winnipeg, c. 1907. C e n t r a l Okanagan Land & Orchard Co. L t d . Kelov/na F r u i t Lands . i n the Famous Okanagan V a l l e y , B r i t i s h Columbia. Kelowna, 1908. C e n t r a l Okanagan Lands L t d . F r u i t Farming at Kelov/na, The  Garden of B r i t i s h Columbia, c. 1911. C e n t r a l Okanagan Lands L t d . H e a l t h , Wealth and Happiness  await you i n Glenmore. 1911. 169 C e n t r a l Okanagan Lands L t d , F r u i t Farming at Kelovma, The  Orchard C i t y , Okanagan V a l l e y , B.C. c. 1911-1912. Grand P a c i f i c Land Co. L t d . Kelovma B.C., The Orchard C i t y  of the Okanagan. Winnipeg, c. 1911. Hudson, G.H.E. Hew Book of Views I l l u s t r a t i n g Kelovma. Kelowna, 1912. Kelovma Board of Trade. Kelovma, The Orchard C i t y of the  Okanagan. 1908. Kelovma Board of Trade. Kelowna B.C., The Orchard C i t y of  the Okanagan. 1912. Kelovma Board of Trade. Kelovma, The Orchard C i t y by the Lake. The A g r i c u l t u r a l Centre of the Famous Okanagan  V a l l e y , B r i t i s h Columbia. Kelovma, 1918. Kelowna Board of Trade. Kelowna, The Orchard C i t y by the Lake, c. 1932. Land & A g r i c u l t u r a l Co. of Canada L t d . Land & A g r i c u l t u r a l  Co. of Canada L t d . Kelowna E s t a t e , c. 1918-1919. Mackinder, J.G. Souvenir. 1908. Kelowna "The Orchard C i t y " . Okanagan V a l l e y Land Co. L t d . The Okanagan V a l l e y Land Co. L t d . Toronto, 1908. The Orchard Homes of Westbank, Okanagan V a l l e y , B r i t i s h  Columbia. Vernon, c. 1910. Redmayne, J.S. P r u i t Farming on the "Dry B e l t " of B r i t i s h  Columbia. London, Times Book Club, 1912. S t i r l i n g , T.W. Does F r u i t - G r o w i n g Pay?. 1910. W i l l i t s , P.B. Kelovma, The Orchard C i t y of the Okanagan  V a l l e y , B.C.. Kelowna, c. 1912. 170 G. NEWSPAPERS Kelowna C o u r i e r . J u l y 1904 - December 1914 & 7 March 1935. Ramsey, B., ed. "75 Years of Progress." B r i t i s h Columbia F r u i t Growers 1 A s s o c i a t i o n supplement i n Country L i f e i n  B r i t i s h Columbia, v o l . 50, (January 1964), pp. 1a-56a. Saturday Sunset. Vancouver, 29 August 1914. Vernon News. May 1891 - August 1902 & " S p e c i a l H o l i d a y Number, 1912." 171 INTERVIEWS CONDUCTED W.E.Adams, Kelowna, 20 November 1972. Worked f o r C e n t r a l Okanagan Lands L t d . O.St.P.Aitkens, Kelowna, 25 October 1972. Connected wi t h L a u r e l Co-operative. C . R . B u l l , Okanagan M i s s i o n , 26 October 1972. Brothe r bought l a n d i n East Kelowna i n 1909. Gordon B u t l e r , Kelowna, 12 December 1972. S e t t l e d i n Glenmore i n 1921. W.R.Carruthers, Kelowna, 20 October 1972. Father came t o Okanagan i n 1890 and v/as connected v/ith t h r e e of the la n d companies. Tom C a r t e r , Kelowna, 31 October 1972. Has worked f o r many years f o r S.E.K.I.D.. Fred Coe, Kelowna, 25 January 1973* Works f o r Sun-Rype L t d . . H . C . S . C o l l e t t , Okanagan M i s s i o n , 25 October 1972. Manager of Kelov/na Land & Orchard Co.. R.W.Corner, Kelov/na, 16 November 1972. Trustee of Glenmore I r r i g a t i o n D i s t r i c t 1929-1954. F.G.De Hart, Kelowna, 24 October 1972. Father organized most of Kelowna's f r u i t e x h i b i t s at e a r l y shows. Donald V . F i s h e r , Summerland, 12 December 1972. Present D i r e c t o r of the Experimental S t a t i o n . Charles Gaddes, Kelov/na, 24 October 1972. Father v/as founder and p r e s i d e n t of C e n t r a l Okanagan Land & Orchard Co.. E.A.Graves, Okanagan M i s s i o n , 25 October 1972. Came t o Kelowna i n 1928 and worked i n packing houses. A r t Gray, R u t l a n d , 31 October 1972. Father bought l a n d i n Rutland i n 1908. Darby Hayes, Kelov/na, 3 January 1973. Father founded O c c i d e n t a l F r u i t Co. i n 1915. 172 Douglas K e r r , Kelowna, 3 January 1973° Father bought l a n d i n Glenmore i n 1911. Ken Kinnard, Vernon, 17 November 1972. S e c r e t a r y of A s s o c i a t e d Growers L t d . from 1923. S i d Land, Okanagan Centre, 31 October 1972. Came to Okanagan i n 1926. Mrs. Guy Reed, Kelowna, 12 December 1972. Father came t o Kelowna i n 1911. W.R.Reed, Kelowna, 11 December 1972. Connected w i t h c o n s t r u c t i o n of Glenmore i r r i g a t i o n works. Michael R e i d , Kelovma, 12 December 1972. Father came out t o Kelowna Land & Orchard Co. lands i n 1908-1909. Mrs. Charles Robertson, Kelovma, 25 January 1973» Parents came to s e t t l e i n Glenmore i n 1910. John Smith, Kelovma, 25 October 1972. Came t o work i n B.C. Department of A g r i c u l t u r e o f f i c e i n Kelowna i n 1937° Wm. Spear, Kelowna, 20 October 1972. Came t o Kelovma i n 1912, connected w i t h the Kelowna Growers' Exchange. L.R.Stephens, Kelowna, 19, 23 & 30 October 1972. Connected w i t h many of the marketing developments of the 1920s and 1930s. Wm. Stewart, Kelowna, 21 November 1972. Father s t a r t e d Kelowna's f i r s t permanent nursery i n 1911. George S u t h e r l a n d , Kelowna, 26 October 1972. Father came t o Kelowna i n 1892. Mrs. M.F.Taylor, Kelowna, 25 January 1973. Husband bought l a n d from Kelovma Land & Orchard Co. i n 1911. N i g e l T a y l o r , Kelovma, 31 October 1972. Son of Mrs. M.F. T a y l o r and longtime o r c h a r d i s t . Robert W h i l l i s , Kelowna, 14- December 1972. Came t o Kelowna i n 1911 t o work f o r the Royal Bank. APPENDIX Photographs of Kelovma, 1905-1912. The o r i g i n a l photographs or p i c t u r e s from which a l l those here are t a k e n , are i n the Kelowna C e n t e n n i a l Museum 174 1. "Bernard Avenue" (1905) The view lo o k s eastwards away from the l a k e f r o n t toward B l a c k Knight Mountain. On the l e f t i s the C e n t r a l Okanagan Land 8s Orchard Co.'s o f f i c e and the spacious new Palace H o t e l . On the r i g h t are g e n e r a l , food, and hardware s t o r e s , the Bank of M o n t r e a l , and. the C l a r i o n o f f i c e - the newspaper was founded i n 1904. Despite the t o w n l i k e appearance the business s e c t i o n s u f f e r e d from bad f l o o d s when the l a k e r o s e . I n 190J the sidewalks v i s i b l e here v/ere under two f e e t of water. 175 2. "S.S. Okanagan a r r i v i n g at Kelowna wharf" (1909) At t h i s date the road to Vernon was s t i l l i n poor c o n d i t i o n ; the CP.P. steamers were the mainstay of Kelowna's e a r l y l i n k s w i t h the o u t s i d e . The "Okanagan", 1080 t o n s , went i n t o o p e r a t i o n i n 1907, a much needed a d d i t i o n t o the s e r v i c e of the then f i f t e e n year old. "Aberdeen", whose c a p a c i t y t o serve the r a p i d l y growing communities of Kelowna, Peachland, Summerland and P e n t i c t o n was being strained.. 176 3. "View of Kelowna from Knox Mountain" (1908) The view shows the town centre strung out along Bernard Avenue, eastwards from the C.P.R. wharf and warehouse. Beyond the town i s the c i t y park, with the large Lakeview Hotel (dark roof) b u i l t i n 1892, facing i t . The lands i n the foreground have heavy s o i l s and are too i l l - d r a i n e d to be suitable f o r the planting of orchards. 177 4. "Five l a r g e homes" (1909) T h i s d i s p l a y i s taken from one of the promotional brochures. Kelowna succeeded i n a t t r a c t i n g w e a l t h i e r s e t t l e r s from p a r t s of the B r i t i s h Empire and the grandeur of t h e i r homes i n d i c a t e s t h a t Kelowna was no o r d i n a r y pioneer s e t t l e m e n t . The homes shown here are those of l a r g e o r c h a r d i s t s , the oloctor, and. the bank manager. 178 5 . "Regatta Day, Kelowna Park" (1909) The p a r t i c u l a r s o c i e t y of the town was r e f l e c t e d not o n l y i n the a r c h i t e c t u r e , but a l s o i n the c a lendar of s o c i a l and s p o r t i n g f u n c t i o n s , of which the Annual Regatta was the event of the year. The g e n e r a l d r e s s , the p a r a s o l s , the boat awnings and the f l a g s a l l r e f l e c t the d i s t i n c t nature of a prominent stratum of e a r l y Kelovma s o c i e t y . 179 6. "The o f f i c e of the Kelovma Farmers' Exchange" (1906) S i t u a t e d at the f o o t of Bernard Avenue, t h i s o f f i c e was e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1904, and was preceded onl y by one p r i o r c o - o p e r a t i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n i n the are a , the Kelovma Shippers Union of 1896. T h i s s i z e a b l e b u i l d i n g was more t y p i c a l of the pioneer settlement than some of Kelovma's homes and p u b l i c b u i l d i n g s . 180 7. "The headgate of an i r r i g a t i o n system" (1908) The p i c t u r e shows the i n t a k e p o i n t f o r the d i s t r i b u t i o n system and the commencement of the main wooden flume t o convey water down to the benchlands. 181 8. " C o n c r e t e - l i n e d c a n a l i n South Kelov/na" (1912) More concrete v/as used i n the main canals s e r v i n g the South Kelov/na d i s t r i b u t i o n system, than i n other p a r t s of the Kelov/na area. Thus these i r r i g a t i o n works v/ere more durab l e . The w a l l s of t h i s p a r t i c u l a r c a n a l show a c o n s i d e r a b l e t h i c k n e s s of concrete. 182 9 . " I r r i g a t i n g Mr.Cosen's orchard, Bankhead, Kelowna" (1912) Th i s i s a young orchard under ba r e - e a r t h c u l t i v a t i o n . The i n t r i c a c y and number of furrows t o be l a i d out f o r s u c c e s s f u l i r r i g a t i o n i s e v i d e n t . E r o s i o n was a constant problem, though much l e s s so under sod c u l t i v a t i o n . S p r i n k l e r i r r i g a t i o n d i d not re p l a c e furrows u n t i l a f t e r World War I I . 183 10. "The K. L. 0. Orchard" (1912) This was the l a r g e 200 acre company orchard of the Kelowna Land 8: Orchard Co., s i t u a t e d on the K.L.O. bench above the town. T h i s orchard c o n s t i t u t e d the f i r s t major p l a n t i n g on the benchlands, begun i n 1904. The company r e t a i n e d t h i s orchard i n an u n s u c c e s s f u l attempt t o pay d i v i d e n d s on the shares purchased i n the company, back i n B r i t a i n . 184 11. "Spraying f r u i t t r e e s " (1912) Iluch time and labour was i n v o l v e d i n a p p l y i n g sprays i n the manner shown i n the p i c t u r e . Subsequently t r a c t o r s , then h e l i c o p t e r s , and the use of the s p r i n k l e r i r r i g a t i o n system r e v o l u t i o n i s e d the e f f i c i e n c y of spray a p p l i c a t i o n . 185 12. " P i c k i n g prunes i n Mr. S t i r l i n g ' s orchard" (1909) A f t e r s u b s t a n t i a l e a r l y p l a n t i n g s the importance of prunes soon d e c l i n e d , mainly f o r market reasons. The p i c t u r e was taken before the advent of l a b o u r - s a v i n g techniques f o r p i c k i n g , and b e f o r e the i n t r o d u c t i o n of i n n o v a t i o n s t o prevent b r u i s i n g of the f r u i t . 186 13. "Kelovma's e x h i b i t , Spokane N a t i o n a l Apple Show, 1908" Here Kelovma won t h i r t e e n f i r s t p r i z e s , one second, and a s i l v e r cup f o r the best d i s p l a y of f r u i t from any d i s t r i c t , county, s t a t e or p r o v i n c e . I n a l l , Kelovma won around 04-500 of p r i z e s . 187 14. "Kelov/na's e x h i b i t , Canadian N a t i o n a l Apple Show, Vancouver, 1910" Here Kelowna won two g o l d medals, f o r the best d i s t r i c t d i s p l a y of f r u i t and f o r the c a r l o a d of Jonathan apples shown i n the p i c t u r e , which v/ere pronounced bj T the judge t o be the f i n e s t ever placed on e x h i b i t i o n . Kelov/na won i n a l l , 03800 of cash, medals and p r i z e s . 

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