Open Collections

UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

An exploratory study of job attraction and job satisfaction Van Westerborg, Dennis 1975

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-UBC_1975_A4_5 V35.pdf [ 4.44MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0099931.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0099931-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0099931-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0099931-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0099931-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0099931-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0099931-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0099931-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0099931.ris

Full Text

AN EXPLORATORY STUDY OF JOB ATTRACTION AND JOB SATISFACTION BY DENNIS van WESTERBORG A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION i n the Faculty . of. COMMERCE AND BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION \ We accept t h i s thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l , 1975 In p resen t ing t h i s t h e s i s in p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the requirements f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e fo r reference and study. I f u r t he r agree tha t permiss ion fo r ex tens i ve copying o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . It i s understood that copying or p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l ga in s h a l l not be a l lowed wi thout my w r i t t e n pe rm iss ion . Department of Commerce and Business A d m i n i s t r a t i o n The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada ABSTRACT A c o n c e p t u a l f ramework of j o b a t t r a c t i o n i s f o r m u -l a t e d and s e v e r a l o p e r a t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n s o f j o b a t t r a c t i o n p r o p o s e d . Data f rom a sample of p r o f e s s i o n a l s (113 p r o -f e s s i o n a l e n g i n e e r s ) a re r e p o r t e d on the r e l a t i o n s h i p o f t h e s e d e f i n i t i o n s (and of c o r r e s p o n d i n g j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n d e f i n i t i o n s ) to two measures o f o v e r a l l j o b a t t r a c t i o n and two t r a d i t i o n a l measures o f o v e r a l l j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n . I t was f o u n d t h a t a l l o f the o p e r a t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n s o f j o b a t t r a c t i o n (and j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n ) do not y i e l d e m p i r i c a l l y c o m p a r a b l e measures o f a t t r a c t i o n ( s a t i s f a c t i o n ) . S e v e r a l o f t h e s e m e a s u r e s , two o f w h i c h were d i s c r e p a n c y s c o r e s , c o r r e l a t e d b e t t e r w i t h the o v e r a l l r a t i n g of j o b a t t r a c t i o n t h a n d i d the o t h e r s . A c o n v e r g e n t and d i s c r i m i n a n t v a l i d i t y m a t r i x a n a l y s i s s u g g e s t e d t h a t i t i s p o s s i b l e to v a l i d l y measure p e o p l e ' s a t t r a c t i o n to v a r i o u s f a c e t s o f t h e i r j o b s . The e f f e c t o f R o t t e r ' s I n t e r n a l - E x t e r n a l o r i e n t a t i o n on the r e l a t i o n s h i p o f j o b a t t r a c t i o n f o r m u l a t i o n s and o v e r a l l a t t r a c t i o n was e x p l o r e d . C e r t a i n f o r m u l a t i o n s were f o u n d to be b e t t e r p r e d i c t o r s o f o v e r a l l a t t r a c t i o n (and i i s a t i s f a c t i o n ) f o r E x t e r n a l s o r I n t e r n a l s t h a n o t h e r s . S e v e r a l s u g g e s t i o n s are d e l i n e a t e d w i t h r e s p e c t to f u t u r e s t u d i e s d e s i g n e d to f u r t h e r d e v e l o p a t h e o r y of j o b a t t r a c t i o n . TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT i i LIST OF TABLES v AC KNOWL EDGMINTrSS v i i i C h a p t e r 1 INTRODU'eTiI iONAANDS 'S/IAiriBENTOOFTiliHIE PROBLEM. 1 Focus o f T h i s T h e s i s 4 P l a n o f T h i s T h e s i s 6 2 DEVELOPMENT OF A CONeEPtffiALFR,RW8E«0KK OF JOB ATTRACTION 7 3 METHOD 15 Sample 15 Measurement I n s t r u m e n t s 16 4 ANALYSIS OF RESULTS 21 5 IMPLICATIONS OF RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS 47 FOOTNOTES 53 BIBLIOGRAPHY 55 APPENDIX A Q u e s t i o n n a i r e M a i l e d to Respondents 58 i v LIST OF TABLES T a b l e Page 1 V a r i o u s F o r m u l a t i o n s o o f Job A t t r a c t i o n and Job S a t i s f a c t i o n . 13 2 C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f Sample -... . . . 17 3 O p e r a t i o n a l D e f i n i t i o n s o f O v e r a l l A t t r a c t i o n and S a t i s f a c t i o n C o r r e l a t e d w i t h Four D i r e c t R a t i n g Measures o f O v e r a l l S a t i s f a c t i o n and Two D i r e c t Measures o f O v e r a l l A t t r a c t i o n 22 4A C o r r e l a t i o n s o f F a c e t A t t r a c t i o n O p e r a t i o n a l D e f i n i t i o n s w i t h D i r e c t F a c e t S a t i s f a c t i o n R a t i n g s 27 4B C o r r e l a t i o n s o f F a c e t S a t i s f a c t i o n O p e r a t i o n a l D e f i n i t i o n s w i t h D i r e c t F a c e t S a t i s f a c t i o n R a t i n g s 28 4C C o r r e l a t i o n s o f F a c e t A t t r a c t i o n O p e r a t i o n a l D e f i n i t i o n s w i t h D i r e c t F a c e t P a s t S a t i s f a c t i o n R a t i n g s 29 4D C o r r e l a t i o n s o f F a c e t S a t i s f a c t i o n O p e r a t i o n a l D e f i n i t i o n s w i t h D i r e c t F a c e t P a s t S a t i s f a c t i o n R a t i n g s . 30 4E C o r r e l a t i o n s o f F a c e t A t t r a c t i o n O p e r a t i o n a l D e f i n i t i o n s w i t h D i r e c t F a c e t E x p e c t e d S a t i s f a c t i o n R a t i n g s . 31 v T a b l e Page 4F C o r r e l a t i o n s o f F a c e t S a t i s f a c t i o n O p e r a t i o n a l D e f i n i t i o n s w i t h D i r e c t F a c e t E x p e c t e d S a t i s f a c t i o n R a t i n g s 32 5A S i g n T e s t A p p l i e d to C o m p a r i s o n s Between P a i r s o f C o r r e l a t i o n s of F a c e t A t t r a c t i o n D e f i n i t i o n s w i t h D i r e c t F a c e t S a t i s f a c t i o n R a t i n g s 34 5B S i g n T e s t A p p l i e d to C o m p a r i s o n s Be Between P a i r s o f C o r r e l a t i o n s of F a c e t S a t i s f a c t i o n D e f i n i t i o n s w i t h D i r e c t F a c e t S a t i s f a c t i o n R a t i n g s 34 5C S i g n T e s t A p p l i e d to C o m p a r i s o n s Between P a i r s o f C o r r e l a t i o n s of F a c e t A t t r a c t i o n D e f i n i t i o n s w i t h D i r e c t F a c e t P a s t S a t i s f a c t i o n R a t i n g s . . . . . . . . 35 5D S i g n -Test " A p p l i e d to C o m p a r i s o n s Between P a i r s o f C o r r e l a t i o n s of F a c e t S a t i s f a c t i o n D e f i n i t i o n s w i t h D i r e c t F a c e t P a s t S a t i s f a c t i o n R a t i n g s 35 5E S i g n T e s t A p p l i e d to C o m p a r i s o n s Between P a i r s o f C o r r e l a t i o n s of F a c e t A t t r a c t i o n D e f i n i t i o n s w i t h D i r e c t F a c e t E x p e c t e d S a t i s f a c t i o n R a t i n g s 36 5F S i g n T e s t A p p l i e d to C o m p a r i s o n s Between P a i ' r s o f C o r r e l a t i o n s of F a c e t S a t i s f a c t i o n D e f i n i t i o n s w i t h D i r e c t F a c e t E x p e c t e d S a t i s f a c t i o n R a t i n g s 36 6 Mul tit-rsaMiti^M^IJTIi;rn€?t^rv^eldryj^-gpf><cfrfi x T r a i t s and Four Methods of M e a s u r i n g S a t i s f a c t i on 39 7 C o m p a r i s o n o f C o r r e l a t i o n s Between O p e r a t i o n a l D e f i n i t i o n s and Mean J o b F a c e t S a t i s f a c t i o n and Mean E x p e c t e d J o b F a c e t S a t i s f a c t i o n : Lower H a l f V e r s u s Upper H a l f A c c o r d i n g to R o t t e r ' s I n t e r n a l - E x t e r n a l S c a l e 42 v i T a b l e Page 8 C o m p a r i s o n of C o r r e l a t i o n s Between O p e r a t i o n a l D e f i n i t i o n s and Mean Job F a c e t S a t i s f a c t i o n and Mean E x p e c t e d Job F a c e t S a t i s f a c t i o n : Lowest T h i r d V e r s u s H i g h e s t T h i r d A c c o r d i n g to R o t t e r ' s I n t e r n a 1 - E x t e r n a 1 S c a l e 45 v i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The a u t h o r w i s h e s to s i n c e r e l y thank D r . R . T . B a r t h of the F a c u l t y of Commerce and B u s i n e s s A d m i n i s t r a t i o n a t The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a f o r h i s g u i d a n c e , a d v i c e , e n c o u r a g e m e n t , and p a t i e n c e t h r o u g h o u t the p r e p a r a t i o n o f t h i s s t u d y . D r . B a r t h has g i v e n f r e e l y of h i s t ime and e x p e r t i s e i n o r d e r to make t h i s s t u d y a s u c c e s s . For the a u t h o r i t has been a v a l u a b l e l e a r n i n g e x p e r i e n c e . A t the same t i m e , the a u t h o r would l i k e to e x p r e s s a p p r e c i a t i o n to the o t h e r members o f the t h e s i s c o m m i t t e e , D r . M. Ace and D r . D. Uyeno , f o r k i n d l y c o n t r i b u t i n g t h e i r t ime and e f f o r t towards t h i s s t u d y . The d a t a c o l l e c t i o n phase o f t h i s s t u d y was p a r t i a l l y f u n d e d by the Canada Department of Labour t h r o u g h a r e s e a r c h g r a n t to D r . B a r t h . The a u t h o r i s g r a t e f u l f o r t h i s s u p p o r t , and a c k n o w l e d g e s t h a t the d a t a p r e s e n t e d here w i l l be used by D r . B a r t h to c o m p l e t e r e s e a r c h g r a n t r e q u i r e m e n t s . v i i i C h a p t e r 1 INTRODUCTION AND STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM Based on a r e v i e w of the j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n l i t e r a -t u r e , Evans (1969a) s u g g e s t e d a c o n c e p t u a l f ramework f o r e n h a n c i n g our u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the r e l a t i o n s h i p between v a r i o u s f a c e t s o f j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n , g o a l a s p i r a t i o n , a t t a i n m e n t , and i m p o r t a n c e . E v a n s 1 f r a m e w o r k , w h i c h i s s i m i l a r to t h a t d e v e l o p e d e a r l i e r by K a t z e l l ( 1 9 6 4 ) , can be summarized as f o l l o w s : a) o v e r a l l j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n i s a f u n c t i o n o f the sum ( o v e r f a c e t s ) of the p r o d u c t o f j o b f a c e t s a t i s f a c t i o n and j o b f a c e t i m p o r t a n c e ; b) f o r each f a c e t and i t s c o r r e s p o n d i n g g o a l s , j o b f a c e t s a t i s -f a c t i o n i s a f u n c t i o n o f t h e d i f f e r e n c e between goa l a s p i r a t i o n ( " s h o u l d be") and g o a l a t t a i n m e n t ( " i s n o w " ) ; and c) c o n s e q u e n t l y , o v e r a l l j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n i s a f u n c -t i o n o f the sum ( o v e r g o a l s ) of the p r o d u c t o f g o a l i m p o r -t a n c e and the d i f f e r e n c e between g o a l a s p i r a t i o n and goa l a t t a i n m e n t . E m p i r i c a l e v i d e n c e r e l e v a n t to t h i s f r a m e -work i s p r e s e n t e d i n a l a t e r paper by Evans (1972) i n terms 1 2 of c o r r e l a t i o n s between o v e r a l l j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n and ten d i f f e r e n t c o m b i n a t i o n s of j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n a s p e c t s ( e . g . , s i m p l e summation of g o a l a t t a i n m e n t , g o a l a t t a i n m e n t w e i g h t e d by i m p o r t a n c e , summation o f the d i f f e r e n c e between g o a l a s p i r a t i o n and a t t a i n m e n t ) . A d d i t i o n a l l y , two o t h e r s t u d i e s (Wood and L e B o l d , 1970 ; Wanous and L a w l e r , 1972) have examined a v a r i e t y o f s i m i l a r r e l a t i o n s h i p s , a l t h o u g h the d i f f e r e n c e s c o r e used i n one (Wood and L e B o l d , 1970) was t h a t o f " i m p o r t a n c e -s a t i s f a c t i o n , " a c o m b i n a t i o n w h i c h a p p e a r s to be c o n c e p t u a l l y m e a n i n g l e s s ( E v a n s , 1969a , p . 1 0 0 ) . In t h e i r a n a l y s i s o f a s i m i l a r s e t o f c o m b i n a t i o n s ( w i t h the a d d i t i o n o f " w o u l d l i k e " and " w o u l d l i k e - i s n o w " ) , Wanous and L a w l e r (1972) found g r e a t d i f f e r e n c e s i n the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between t h e s e c o m b i n a t i o n s and two o v e r a l l s a t i s f a c t i o n measures (one based on a s i n g l e - i t e m s c o r e , the o t h e r d e v e l o p e d by summing the "How s a t i s f i e d are you w i t h ( j o b f a c e t ? " r e s p o n s e s a c r o s s 23 j o b f a c e t s . I n t e r e s t i n g l y , E v a n s ' (1972) and Wanous and L a w l e r ' s (1972) a c c o u n t s o f t h e i r s t u d i e s r e v e a l somewhat d i v e r g e n t f i n d i n g s , a l t h o u g h t h e y do i n g e n e r a l c o n c l u d e w i t h Ewen ( 1 9 6 7 ) , Locke ( 1 9 6 9 ) , and B l o o d (1971) t h a t complex ways o f m e a s u r i n g and c o m b i n i n g v a r i o u s a s p e c t s o f j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n do not appear to p r o v i d e i m p r o v e d p r e -d i c t a b i l i t y o f r e p o r t e d o v e r a l l s a t i s f a c t i o n . For e x a m p l e , 3 Evans (1972) found t h a t the c o m b i n a t i o n s " [ ( s h o u l d be - i s n ow) X( impor tance )•] " ( - . 7 4 ) , " s h o u l d be - i s now" ( - . 7 2 ) , " i s now" ( . 7 2 ) , and " [ ( s h o u l d be - i s now) Xdes i r a b i 1 i t y ] 1 1 ( - . 7 0 ) , were good p r e d i c t o r s to o v e r a l l s a t i s f a c t i o n (as measured w i t h the B r a y f i e 1 d - R o t h e (1951) i n s t r u m e n t ) ; " i m p o r t a n c e - i s now" ( - . 6 1 ) and " i s now X i m p o r t a n c e " ( . 6 1 ) were weaker p r e d i c t o r s , w i t h o n l y about 37% of v a r i a n c e e x p l a i n e d . O n . t h e o t h e r h a n d , i n the Wanous and L a w l e r s t u d y the " i s now" ( . 8 2 ) , " i m p o r t a n c e - i s now" ( . 7 4 ) , and " w o u l d l i k e - i s now" ( - . 5 8 ) were good p r e d i c t o r s , w i t h " s h o u l d be - i s now" ( - . 3 4 ) r e f l e c t i n g a much l o w e r c o r r e l a -t i o n w i t h o v e r a l l j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n . Job s a t i s f a c t i o n i s a m a n y - f a c e t e d c o n c e p t and r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h o t h e r i n d i v i d u a l a n d / o r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s u n d o u b t e d l y v a r y w i t h the number o f j o b f a c e t s c o n s i d e r e d , the manner i n w h i c h measures o f j o b f a c e t s a t i s f a c t i o n a re combined ( e . g . , see the i l l u m i -n a t i n g f i n d i n g w i t h r e g a r d to a b s e n t e e i s m r e p o r t e d by Wanous and L a w l e r , 1972: 1 0 3 ) , and perhaps w i t h the type o f sample ( b l u e c o l l a r v s . m a n a g e r i a l ) f rom w h i c h d a t a a re o b t a i n e d ( E v a n s , 1972: 5 2 ) , f o r i t a p p e a r s t h a t the r e s p o n d e n t ' s i n t e r n a l v s . e x t e r n a l ( R o t t e r , 1966) o r i e n t a t i o n may moderate the s t r e n g t h o f some of the j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n r e l a t i o n s h i p s ( E v a n s , 1 9 7 3 ) . 4 In l i g h t o f these p o i n t s , the s e e m i n g l y d i v e r g e n t f i n d i n g s o f Evans (1972) and Wanous and L a w l e r (1972) and the f a c t t h a t j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n measures used i n the more than 3 ,000 a r t i c l e s on j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n w h i c h have a p p e a r e d i n the l i t e r a t u r e over the p a s t 30 y e a r s ( L o c k e , 1969) have not a l w a y s been s t r o n g l y r e l a t e d to the dependent v a r i a b l e s ( e . g . , t u r n o v e r , a b s e n t e e i s m ) c o n s i d e r e d , ^ i t a p p e a r s f r u i t f u l to comply w i t h Wanous and L a w l e r ' s s u g g e s t i o n to examine v a r i o u s o p e r a t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n s of j o b a t t r a c t i o n . M o r e o v e r , the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l b e h a v i o u r l i t e r a t u r e has not h e r e t o f o r e p r o v i d e d a s y s t e m a t i c c o m p a r i s o n , based on e m p i r i c a l e v i d e n c e , o f v a r i o u s j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n and a t t r a c -t i o n combi n a t i ons . Focus o f T h i s T h e s i s C o n c e p t u a l l y , how s a t i s f i e d a p e r s o n i s ( a t a g i v e n p o i n t i n t i m e ) on the b a s i s o f outcomes a l r e a d y p o s s e s s e d or e x p e r i e n c e d i s d i f f e r e n t ( i n degree r a t h e r than k i n d ) f rom the a n t i c i p a t e d s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h f u t u r e o u t c o m e s . W h i l e Vroom (1964) p r o p o s e s the term " v a l e n c e " be used to d e s c r i b e the a f f e c t i v e o r i e n t a t i o n toward e x p e c t e d o u t c o m e s , Graen (1969) p r e f e r s the term " a t t r a c t i o n , " d e f i n i n g i t as the a n t i c i p a t e d s a t i s f a c t i o n f o r an outcome. In o t h e r w o r d s , e x p e r i e n c e d s a t i s f a c t i o n i s p r i m a r i l y a 5 " h e d o n i s m o f the p a s t , " whereas a t t r a c t i o n i s p r i m a r i l y a " h e d o n i s m o f the f u t u r e " (Wanous and L a w l e r , 1 9 7 2 ) . S i n c e a p p a r e n t l y no s t u d i e s have measured j o b a t t r a c t i o n i n more than one way and compared the r e s u l t s , i t i s not a t a l l c l e a r w h e t h e r v a r i o u s c o n c e p t u a l d e f i n i t i o n s of a t t r a c -t i o n t h a t can be f o r m u l a t e d d o , i n f a c t , measure the same t h i n g . The r e s e a r c h r e p o r t e d here e x t e n d s the j o b s a t i s -f a c t i o n f rameworks o p e r a t i o n a l i z e d by Evans ( 1 9 6 9 a , T972) and Wanous and L a w l e r (1972) to a c o n c e p t u a l scheme o f j o b a t t r a c t i o n as p r o p o s e d by B a r t h ( 1 9 7 3 , 1 9 7 4 ) . T h i s scheme i s then examined i n l i g h t o f d a t a o b t a i n e d t h r o u g h a f i e l d s t u d y f rom 113 p r o f e s s i o n a l e n g i n e e r s . S p e c i f i c a l l y , the p u r p o s e s o f t h i s s t u d y were to (a) f o r m u l a t e s e v e r a l o p e r a -t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n s of j o b a t t r a c t i o n , (b) examine the r e l a t i o n s h i p of t h e s e measures w i t h two measures o f o v e r a l l j o b a t t r a c t i o n and two t r a d i t i o n a l measures o f o v e r a l l j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n , ( c ) c o n s i d e r whether a c o r r e s p o n d i n g s e t o f d e f i n i t i o n s o f j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n y i e l d s e m p i r i c a l l y more c o m p a r a b l e m e a s u r e s , and (d) p e r f o r m a m u l t i t r a i t - m u l t i m e t h o d m a t r i x a n a l y s i s to d e t e r m i n e i f i t i s p o s s i b l e to v a l i d l y measure i n d i v i d u a l s ' a t t r a c t i o n to t h e i r j o b s . The s t u d y a l s o e x p l o r e s the e f f e c t o f ( the r e s p o n d e n t ' s ) i n t e r n a l -e x t e r n a l o r i e n t a t i o n on the j o b a t t r a c t i o n - s a t i s f a c t i o n r e l a t i o n s h i p s c o n s i d e r e d h e r e . 6 P l a n of T h i s T h e s i s C h a p t e r 2 p r e s e n t s the d e v e l o p m e n t o f a c o n c e p t u a l j o b a t t r a c t i o n scheme w h i c h i n c o r p o r a t e s n i n e o p e r a t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n s o f j o b a t t r a c t i o n and s u g g e s t s c o r r e s p o n d i n g j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n d e f i n i t i o n s . In a d d i t i o n , f o r e x p l o r a t o r y p u r p o s e s , two s a t i s f a c t i o n d e f i n i t i o n s based on s a t i s f a c t i o n e x p e r i e n c e d i n the p a s t {past s a t i s f a c t i o n ) a re c o n s i d e r e d . C h a p t e r 3 d e s c r i b e s the s t u d y sample (113 p r o f e s -s i o n a l e n g i n e e r s ) and measurement i n s t r u m e n t s used to o b t a i n d a t a . C h a p t e r 4 p r e s e n t s an a n a l y s i s o f the d a t a by com-p a r i n g a t t r a c t i o n and s a t i s f a c t i o n m e a s u r e s , and a l s o examines the j o b a t t r a c t i o n framework i n terms o f a m u l t i -t r a i t - m u l t i m e t h o d m a t r i x a p p r o a c h . T h i s c h a p t e r a l s o e x p l o r e s the e f f e c t of i n t e r n a l - e x t e r n a l c o n t r o l on the r e -l a t i o n s h i p of j o b a t t r a c t i o n f o r m u l a t i o n s and o v e r a l l a t t r a c t i o n . C h a p t e r 5 d i s c u s s e s i m p l i c a t i o n s o f the r e s u l t s f o r managers and r e s e a r c h e r s i n t e r e s t e d i n f u r t h e r c l a r i f y i n g the u t i l i t y o f a j o b a t t r a c t i o n a p p r o a c h . T h i s c h a p t e r a l s o i n c l u d e s a s e t o f c o n c l u s i o n s w h i c h s u g g e s t t h a t i t i s p o s s i b l e to v a l i d l y measure p e o p l e 1 s a t t r a c t i o n t o , and s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h , t h e i r j o b s . C h a p t e r 2 DEVELOPMENT OF A CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK OF JOB ATTRACTION T h i s c h a p t e r p r o p o s e s n i n e d i f f e r e n t o p e r a t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n s o f j o b a t t r a c t i o n , w h i c h were p r e v i o u s l y d e v e l o p e d by B a r t h (1973 , 1 9 7 4 ) . The f o r m u l a t i o n s c o n -s i d e r e d a r e e s s e n t i a l l y d e r i v e d f rom the j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n d e f i n i t i o n s d i s c u s s e d by Evans (1969a) and Wanous and L a w l e r ( 1 9 7 2 ) . T h u s , i t i s i m p o r t a n t to keep i n mind t h a t , as i n j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n s t u d i e s , a d i s t i n c t i o n may be made between o v e r a l l j o b a t t r a c t i o n ( J A ) , i . e . , overall expected satis-faction, and expected job facet satisfaction ( E J F S ) , i . e . , the e x p e c t e d s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h p a r t i c u l a r f a c e t s o f o n e ' s j o b . A l s o , as i n Wanous and L a w l e r ' s d i s c u s s i o n o f j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n , the j o b a t t r a c t i o n d e f i n i t i o n s f o r m u l a t e d here i n c o r p o r a t e d i f f e r e n t ways o f m e a s u r i n g f a c e t a t t r a c - ^ t i o n and d i f f e r e n t a p p r o a c h e s to c o m b i n i n g f a c e t a t t r a c t i o n d a t a i n o r d e r to measure o v e r a l l j o b a t t r a c t i o n . T h i s s t u d y p r o p o s e s f i r s t t h a t o v e r a l l j o b a t t r a c -t i o n may be v i e w e d as the sum of expected j o b f a c e t s a t i s -f a c t i o n a c r o s s a l l r e l e v a n t f a c e t s o f a j o b : 7 8 facets JA = _ (E JFS) OA) T h i s d e f i n i t i o n has as i t s b a s i s the summed s a t i s f a c t i o n f o r m u l a t i o n d i s c u s s e d by Evans (1969a) and Wanous and L a w l e r ( 1 9 7 2 ) . O v e r a l l j o b a t t r a c t i o n i s d e f i n e d as the s i m p l e sum of expected f a c e t s a t i s f a c t i o n , and no s t u d i e s appear to have c o n s i d e r e d the r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h i s measure and a s i n g l e measure of o v e r a l l a t t r a c t i o n or s a t i s f a c t i o n . In terms of E q u a t i o n 1A, a t t r a c t i o n can be t h o u g h t o f as the r e s p o n s e to a "How satisfied do you expect to be" q u e s t i o n n a i r e i t e m f o r a p a r t i c u l a r j o b f a c e t . T h u s , i t i s i m p o r t a n t to d i s t i n g u i s h between the i d e a of e x p e c t e d f a c e t s a t i s f a c t i o n as used h e r e , and the e x p e c t e d amount ("How much do you e x p e c t t h e r e w i l l b e ? " ) of each f a c e t as used i n E q u a t i o n 3A. In E q u a t i o n 2A, o v e r a l l j o b a t t r a c t i o n i s v i e w e d as a f u n c t i o n of the sum ( o v e r r e l e v a n t f a c e t s ) of the p r o d u c t o f e x p e c t e d j o b f a c e t s a t i s f a c t i o n (EJFS) and j o b f a c e t i m p o r t a n c e . T h i s d e f i n i t i o n c o n c e p t u a l i z e s j o b a t t r a c t i o n as t h e w e i g h t e d sum of e x p e c t e d j o b f a c e t s a t i s -f a c t i o n . Job f a c e t Impor tance r a t i n g s are i n c l u d e d i n facets JA = _ • (EJFS x I m p o r t a n c e ) (2A) 9 o r d e r to a c c o u n t f o r i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n the i m p o r t a n c e 3 or v a l e n c e of j o b o u t c o m e s . f a c e t s JA = I ( E x p e c t ) ( 3 A ) Job a t t r a c t i o n may a l s o be o p e r a t i o n a l i z e d as the sum of e x p e c t a t i o n s w i t h r e s p e c t to r e l e v a n t j o b f a c e t s . In o p e r a t i o n a l t e r m s , e x p e c t a t i o n as used here can be t h o u g h t o f as the r e s p o n s e to a "How much do you expect there will be (some t ime f rom now)" i t e m f o r a p a r t i c u l a r j o b f a c e t . T h i s f o r m u l a t i o n t a p s the " e x p e c t e d l e v e l of r e w a r d s , " and i s based on the i n d i v i d u a l ' s p e r c e p t i o n or e s t i m a t e of the f u t u r e l e v e l o f r e w a r d s the o r g a n i z a t i o n may p r o v i d e i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h what i t w i l l c o n s i d e r e q u i t -a b l e a t t h a t f u t u r e t i m e . In o t h e r w o r d s , the r e s p o n d e n t i s b e i n g asked to e s t i m a t e how much o f each r e l e v a n t second l e v e l outcome (Vroom, 1964) he e x p e c t s to r e c e i v e some t ime from now. P r e s u m a b l y , when he e o m p l e t e s the q u e s t i o n -n a i r e , he w i l l t a k e i n t o a c c o u n t h i s p e r c e p t i o n of e f f o r t -»• p e r f o r m a n c e and p e r f o r m a n c e -»• r e w a r d p r o b a b i l i t i e s . However , t h i s , i s an e m p i r i c a l q u e s t i o n and r e q u i r e s t e s t i n g . . The E x p e c t f o r m u l a t i o n f o r j o b a t t r a c t i o n can be c o n s i d e r e d f rom a v i e w p o i n t s i m i l a r to t h a t o f the use of Is Now i n j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n s t u d i e s . Wanous and L a w l e r 1 0 (1972) have s u g g e s t e d t h a t the use of Is Now c o r r e s p o n d s to V r o o m ' s (1964) " i n s t r u m e n t a l i t y o f h o l d i n g a j o b f o r r e c e i v i n g an o u t c o m e . " The p r e s e n t use o f E x p e c t can be v i e w e d as a somewhat more s p e c i f i c i n s t r u m e n t a l i t y , namely t h a t o f holding my present job for some time yet, in order to receive the outcomes I expect to receive in the interim and/or at some later time, when d e c i d i n g to e i t h e r l e a v e or r e m a i n w i t h an o r g a n i z a t i o n . E q u a t i o n 4A i s s i m i l a r to the model p r o p o s e d by Vroom ( 1 9 6 4 ) . O v e r a l l j o b a t t r a c t i o n i s d e f i n e d here as a f u n c t i o n o f the sum of the p r o d u c t o f e x p e c t a t i o n s w e i g h t e d by i m p o r t a n c e . Job a t t r a c t i o n ( JA) has been s u b s t i t u t e d f o r V r o o m ' s j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n , and c o r r e s p o n d s to V r o o m ' s " v a l e n c e f o r a j o b , " w h i l e the i m p o r t a n c e o f a j o b f a c e t c o r r e s p o n d s to V r o o m ' s " v a l e n c e f o r a j o b o u t c o m e . " " E x p e c t " t a k e s the p l a c e o f V r o o m ' s " i n s t r u m e n t a l i t y of h o l d i n g a j o b f o r r e c e i v i n g an o u t c o m e . " facets JA = _ ( I m p o r t a n c e x E x p e c t ) (4A) facets JA = _ ( S h o u l d Be - E x p e c t ) (SA) Job a t t r a c t i o n has been o p e r a t i o n a l i z e d as a d i s c r e p a n c y ; t h a t i s , the d i f f e r e n c e between how much a 11 p e r s o n t h i n k s t h e r e s h o u l d be and how much he i s e x p e c t i n g The d i f f e r e n c e between t h e s e two t y p e s o f i t e m s i s c o m p u t e d , and t h e d i f f e r e n c e s a re summed a c r o s s the j o b f a c e t s to y i e l d a measure of o v e r a l l a t t r a c t i o n . T h i s e q u a t i o n i s an e q u i t y c o m p a r i s o n i n t h a t the i n d i v i d u a l asks h i m s e l f i f h i s p r e s e n t j o b w i l l p r o v i d e e q u i t a b l e outcomes f o r the i n p u t s i t r e q u i r e s (between now and some f u t u r e p o i n t i n t i m e ) , and i s s i m i l a r i n c o n c e p t to P o r t e r and L a w l e r ' s (1968) S h o u l d Be - Is Now measure of s a t i s f a c t i o n . f a c e t s JA = I [ I m p o r t a n c e x ( S h o u l d Be - E x p e c t ) ] (6A) In a manner s i m i l a r to E q u a t i o n s 2A and 4A, i m -p o r t a n c e r a t i n g s can be used to w e i g h t E q u a t i o n 5A. f a c e t s JA = I (Would L i k e - E x p e c t ) (7A) T h i s e q u a t i o n measures the d i s c r e p a n c y between a p e r s o n ' s d e s i r e s or i d e a l s c o n c e r n i n g f a c e t s o f h i s j o b ( L o c k e , 1969) and h i s e x p e c t a t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g them. I t i s i m p o r t a n t to d i s t i n g u i s h between t h i s d e f i n i t i o n and the one i n E q u a t i o n 5A. f a c e t s JA = I [ I m p o r t a n c e x (Would L i k e - E x p e c t ) ] (8A) 12 T h i s e q u a t i o n employs i m p o r t a n c e r a t i n g s as a w e i g h t i n a manner s i m i l a r to E q u a t i o n s 2A, 4A, and 6 A . I t s h o u l d be n o t e d t h a t Locke (1969) o b j e c t s to the use of i m p o r t a n c e w e i g h t s on t h e o r e t i c a l grounds and a r g u e s t h a t i m p o r t a n c e i s a l r e a d y i n c l u d e d i n and r e f l e c t e d by s a t i s f a c t i o n r a t i n g s . In h i s f ramework the i m p o r t a n c e of a j o b f a c e t d e t e r m i n e s the degree of a f f e c t p r o d u c e d by a g i v e n amount of d i s c r e p a n c y between f u l f i l l m e n t and d e s i r e s ( i n the p r e s e n t t e r m s , between Would L i k e ^ a n d E x p e c t ) . Hence , Locke b e l i e v e s m u l t i p l y i n g by i m p o r t a n c e i s r e d u n d a n t , and has g a t h e r e d d a t a s u p p o r t i n g t h i s v i e w (Mobley and L o c k e , 1 9 7 0 ) . facets JA = _ ( I m p o r t a n c e - E x p e c t ) (9A) The l a s t d e f i n i t i o n o f j o b a t t r a c t i o n i s the d i s c r e p a n c y between the i m p o r t a n c e of a j o b f a c e t and the p e r s o n ' s e x p e c t a t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g i t . In j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n s t u d i e s , as Evans (1972) p o i n t s o u t , t h i s d e f i n i t i o n may be c o n c e p t u a l l y m e a n i n g l e s s , but i n o r d e r to p r e s e n t a c o m p l e t e s e t o f j o b a t t r a c t i o n e q u a t i o n s t h i s f o r m u l a t i o n i s i n c l u d e d h e r e . The n i n e o p e r a t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n s o f j o b a t t r a c t i o n p r o p o s e d here a re summarized i n T a b l e 1 , a l o n g w i t h Table 1 Various Formulations of Job .Attraction and Job Satisfaction Defi: l i t i o n No. Job Attraction Definitions' Job Satisfaction Definitions ' 1Aj 13 JA facets = E (EJFS) facets JS = E (JFS) 2Aj 23 JA facets = E (EJFS x Importance) facets JS = E (JFS x Inportance) 3A; 33 JA facets = E (Expect) facets JS = E (is Now) 4Aj 43 JA facets = E (inportance x Expect) facets JS = £ (importance x Is Now) 5A; 53 JA facets = E (Should 3e - Expect) facets JS = E (Should Be"- Is Now) 6A; 6B JA facets = E [inportance x (Should Be -- Expect)] facets JS = E [inportance x (Should Be - Is Now)] 7A; 73 JA facets = E "(Would Like - Expect) facets JS = £ (Would Like - Is Now) SA; 83 JA facets = E [inportance x (Would Like - Expect)] facets JS = E [inportance x (Would Like - Is Now)] 9 A ; 9 B 103 113 JA facets = E (importance - Expect) facets JS = E (inportance - Is Now) facets JSP = E (Past Satisfaction) facets JS? = E (inportance x Psst Satisfaction) (a) c o r r e s p o n d i n g f o r m u l a t i o n s of j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n (shown as E q u a t i o n s IB t h r o u g h 9 B ) , and (b) two f o r m u l a t i o n s i n -c o r p o r a t i n g " p a s t ( j o b ) s a t i s f a c t i o n " ( E q u a t i o n s 10B and 11 B) . C h a p t e r 3 METHOD In o r d e r to p r o v i d e an e m p i r i c a l e x a m i n a t i o n o f the j o b a t t r a c t i o n f ramework f o r m u l a t e d i n C h a p t e r 2 , a f i e l d s t u d y was c a r r i e d out i n a number of t e c h n i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s s i t u a t e d i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . Samp!e The sample c o m p r i s e d 113 e n g i n e e r s r e g i s t e r e d w i t h and c e r t i f i e d as P r o f e s s i o n a l E n g i n e e r s by the A s s o c i a t i o n of P r o f e s s i o n a l E n g i n e e r s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . A l l 113 r e s p o n d e n t s were s a l a r i e d e m p l o y e e s . The sample was drawn f rom a v a r i e t y of t e c h n i c a l f i e l d s , r a n g i n g f r o m c h e m i c a l to m e t a l l u r g i c a l e n g i n e e r i n g . A m a j o r i t y o f the sample had been employed by t h e i r o r g a n i z a t i o n f o r more than f i v e y e a r s (66 per c e n t ) , had been r e g i s t e r e d as p r o f e s s i o n a l e n g i n e e r s f o r ten y e a r s or more (56 per c e n t ) , and was o v e r 40 y e a r s of age (61 per c e n t ) . T h i r t y - s e v e n o f the e n g i n e e r s had a t t e n d e d u n i v e r s i t y beyond the B . S . d e g r e e ; o f t h e s e 1.5; 16 15 had c o m p l e t e d s e v e r a l p o s t g r a d u a t e c o u r s e s , 20 had e a r n e d the M . S . d e g r e e , and two had a t t a i n e d the P h . D . or D . S c . These and o t h e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s are summarized i n T a b l e 2 . Measurement I n s t r u m e n t s The q u e s t i o n n a i r e (see A p p e n d i x A) c o n t a i n e d seven p a r t s . In P a r t s I , I I , and I V , i n s t r u c t i o n s asked r e s p o n -d e n t s to r a t e t h e i r j o b s on each of 21 i t ems s i m i l a r to those used by Wanous and L a w l e r (1972) i n t h e i r s t u d y of j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n (see T a b l e 4 f o r the i t e m s ) . S e v e n - p o i n t s c a l e s were u s e d , and r e s p o n d e n t s r a t e d ( i n each p a r t ) the 21 i t e m s s e v e r a l t i m e s . The sequence was' as ; f o l 1 ows: Part I: (a) "How much of the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c is there now connected with your position?" (b ) "How much of the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c do you think should be connected with your position?" (c) "How s a t i s f i e d are you now with the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c ? " Part (a ) "How much of the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c would you like to have associated with your job?" (b) "How much of the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c do you expect to have some time from now1. (c) "How important is this c h a r a c t e r i s t i c to you?" Table 2 Characteristics of Sample Age: Length of service: Technical/engineering/ s c i e n t i f i c f i e l d : Years since P.Eng. registration: Formal education (highest level completed): 11$ 25 - 30 2&£ 30 - 40 27/£ 4 0 - 5 0 34£ 5Q+ 8;J Less than 1 year 14ji 1 - 3 years "12$ 3 5 years 17£ 5 - 7 years 14^ 7 - 9 years 35/'o 10+ years 2% Chemical engineering 34ji C i v i l engineering 28^ E l e c t r i c a l engineering 5/i Geological engineering 2/o Industrial engineering 21^ Mechanical engineering yjo Metallurgical engineering 4/a Other (engineering) Vjo Other (science) 4^ Less than 2 years 2 - 5 years . 5 - - 10 years 56)» 10+ years 10> 3 0 i Years of experience: Supervisory responsibility: Nature of supervisory responsibility (based on N= 94): Number supervised (mean): Total number of employees ( a l l branches): Type of company: l>o High school ' 5^ Certificate 60% Bachelor's degree 13^ o Some post-graduate training 19$ Master's degree 2-jo Doctor's degree 155 1C# 20$ 20% tyjo 17f° 14 257° 2 bio 11% 20% 1% 5?4 20% 32% 1% 32% .Less than 2 years 2 - 5 years 5 - 1 0 years 12% 10 - 15 years 57$ 15+ years 83$ Yes . 17$ No Primarily technical or scientific-Administrative and technical/ s c i e n t i f i c Primarily administrative Less than 100 100 - 500 501 - 1,000 1,001 - 5,000 5,000 + Agriculture. Mining Construction I-ianuf actur ing Transportation and Public U t i l i t i e s Wholesale/Retail Trade Lumber/Forest Products Consulting 18 Part IV: (a) "How s a t i s f i e d were you (some time ago) with this c h a r a c t e r i s t i c ? " (b) "How s a t i s f i e d do you expect to be (some time from now) with fhis c h a r a c t e r i s t i c ? " The "How s a t i s f i e d n o w , " "How much e x p e c t , " "How s a t i s f i e d were y o u , " and "How s a t i s f i e d do you e x p e c t to be" were not i n c l u d e d i n the Wanous and L a w l e r (1972) s t u d y . T h e i r use i n the p r e s e n t s t u d y a l l o w s f o r the c o n s t r u c t i o n of i n d i c e s to round o u t the complement o f a t t r a c t i o n f o r m u -l a t i o n s shown i n T a b l e 1 . P a r t I I I of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e c o n t a i n e d 31 i t e m s o f G h i s e l l i ' s (1971) s c a l e o f s e l f - a s s u r a n c e . These d a t a were c o l l e c t e d i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h a r e l a t e d r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t , and a r e not i n c l u d e d i n the a n a l y s i s . P a r t V c o n s i s t e d o f the R o t t e r (1966) I n t e r n a l -E x t e r n a l Locus of C o n t r o l S c a l e . The form o f the s c a l e used here c o n s i s t s o f 23 q u e s t i o n p a i r s , u s i n g a f o r c e d -c h o i c e f o r m a t , p l u s s i x f i l l e r q u e s t i o n s . I n t e r n a l s t a t e -ments are p a i r e d w i t h e x t e r n a l s t a t e m e n t s , and a p o i n t i s s c o r e d f o r each e x t e r n a l s t a t e m e n t s e l e c t e d . T h u s , s c o r e s can range f rom z e r o (most i n t e r n a l ) to 23 (most e x t e r n a l ) . In v i e w of r e c e n t c o n c e r n s about the m u l t i - d i m e n s i o n a l n a t u r e of the I - E c o n s t r u c t , i t s h o u l d be n o t e d t h a t R o t t e r ' s d e f i n i t i o n o f the c o n s t r u c t d e a l s o n l y w i t h the r e s p o n d e n t ' s p e r c e p t i o n between h i s / h e r own b e h a v i o u r and e v e n t s w h i c h f o l l o w t h a t b e h a v i o u r . 19 I n s t r u c t i o n s to r e s p o n d e n t s were as f o l l o w s : In t h i s section we try to find out the way in which certain important events in society affect d i f f e r e n t people. Each item consists of a pair of a l t e r n a t i v e s l e t t e r e d a or b. Please select the one statement of each pair (and only one) which you more strongly  believe to be the case as far as you 're  concerned. Be sure'to select the one you a c t u a l l y believe to be more true rather than the one you think you should choose or the one you would l i k e to be true. This is a measure of personal belief: obviously there are no right or wrong answers. When you have decided which of the pair of a l t e r n a t i v e s best r e f l e c t s your belief, c i r c l e the l e t t e r . Please answer these items c a r e f u l l y but do not spend too much time on any one item. Be sure to make a decision for each of'the 29 items. In some instances you may discover that you believe both statements or neither one. In such cases, be sure to select the one you more strongly believe to be the case as far as you're concerned. Also try to respond to each item indep endently when making your choice; do not be influenced by your previous answers. P a r t VI employed a 7 - p o i n t L i k e r t - s c a l e f o r m a t f o r each o f t h r e e i t e m s : The following three items refer to your overall s a t i s f a c t i o n with your job now, some time ago, and your expected s a t i s -f a c t i o n . Please answer each item by checking one of the a l t e r n a t i v e s . ( I ) " G e n e r a l l y s p e a k i n g , I a_n v e r y s a t i s f i e d w i t h my j o b . " 20 (2) "Generally speaking, I was very s a t i s f i e d with my job some time ago ( i . e . , about a year ago)." ( 3 ) "Generally speaking, I expect to be very s a t i s f i e d with my job within the next year or two." The f i n a l p a r t o f the q u e s t i o n n a i r e a s k e d f o r the i n f o r m a t i o n summarized i n T a b l e 2 . C h a p t e r 4 ANALYSIS OF RESULTS S i n c e a l l n i n e o f the o p e r a t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n s of j o b a t t r a c t i o n s t a t e how f a c e t a t t r a c t i o n s combine to d e t e r m i n e o v e r a l l s a t i s f a c t i o n , n i n e measures o f o v e r a l l a t t r a c t i o n were c o m p u t e d . For e x a m p l e , i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h E q u a t i o n 5A each p e r s o n ' s E x p e c t r e s p o n s e to the 21 j o b f a c e t s was s u b t r a c t e d from h i s S h o u l d Be r e s p o n s e to the same 21 f a c e t s . The mean of t h e s e d i f f e r e n c e s was then c o m p u t e d . For a l l r e s p o n d e n t s t h i s mean was then c o r r e l a t e d (a) f i r s t w i t h each p e r s o n ' s r e s p o n s e to the s i n g l e i t e m a s k i n g f o r o v e r a l l a t t r a c t i o n , o v e r a l l p r e s e n t and o v e r a l l p a s t s a t i s f a c t i o n , and (b) second w i t h the mean of the 21 d i r e c t f a c e t s a t i s f a c t i o n r a t i n g s ( E q u a t i o n I B ) , the mean of the 21 d i r e c t e x p e c t e d s a t i s f a c t i o n ( a t t r a c t i o n ) r a t i n g s ( E q u a t i o n 1 A ) , and the mean of the 21 d i r e c t p a s t s a t i s -f a c t i o n r a t i n g s ( E q u a t i o n 1 0 B ) . These r e s u l t s a re shown i n T a b l e 3 . R e s u l t s i n d i c a t e t h a t the o p e r a t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n s based on E x p e c t e d Job F a c e t S a t i s f a c t i o n ( E J F S ) , E x p e c t , 21 Table 3 Operational D e f i n i t i o n s of Overall A t t r a c t i o n and S a t i s f a c t i o n Correlated With Four Direct Rating Measures of Overall S a t i s f a c t i o n and Two Direct Measures of Overall A t t r a c t i o n Measure Mean of job facet, s a t i s f a c t i o n items Single item- measuring-o v e r a l l (present) job s a t i s f a c t i o n , Single item measuring o v e r a l l (past) job 'sat i s f a c t i o n . Mean of expected job f a c e t • s a t i s f a c t i o n Single item measuring ov e r a l l job a t t r a c t i o n Mean of past job facet s a t i s f a c t i o n 1A. EJFS .56 *** .42 *** .07 — „40 *** .48 *** IP. JFS - .49 **# .12 .56 *** .34 .18 * 2A. EJFS x Importance .43 *** .25 ** .05 .87 *** .23 .56 *** 23. JFS x Importance .81 .35 **» .10 068 **# .23 ** .39 *** 3 A . Expect . 5 5 *** .31 .11 .76 *** .28 ** .44 *** 3B. Is Now .83 -WKt .51 *** .19 * .59 *** . 3 3 *** .30 *** a . Importance x Expect .40 *** .16 * .06 .66 *** .13 .49 ,**-* Importance x Is Now .66 *** . 3 3 *** .14 . .66 *** .21 * .45 *** 5A. Should Be Expect -.48 *** -.21 ** -.02 -.62 *** -.25 *» -.28 *** 5B. Should Be - Is Mow -.78 *** -.42 *** -.10 -.37 *** -.30 *** . -.OB 6A. Importance x (Should Be - Expect) -.42 **# - . 1 3 -.00 -.57 *** -.18 * -.27 ** 6B. Importance x (Should Be ~ Is Now) -.70 -.35 *** -.10 -.25 ** -.28 *** .06 7A. Would Like - Expect -.56*** -.37 --J-2 - . 5 5 *** -.38 *** -.15 73, Would Like - Is. Now -.60 *** -.40 *** -.15 -.15 -,2V *** .07 8A. Importance x p-'ould Like - Expect) -.55 *** -.34 *** -.10 -.51 *** -.36 *** -.09 8B. Importance x (V'ould Like - Is Now) -.45 *** - . 3 3 *** -••J-3 .01 -.27 ** .22 ** 9A. Importance - Expect -.54 *#* -.37 *** - . 1 3 -.48 *** -.38 *** -.01 9B. Importance - Is Now -.55 *** -.37 ,-H!"* -.15 -.10 -.28 *** .17 * OB. Past S a t i s f a c t i o n .18. *' .07' .28 '*** .48 *** -.05 IB. Importance x Past S a t i s f a c t i o n .19 * .05 .18 * ,55*\*** -.04 .88 *** Note: -Negative correlations appear because some.of the operational d e f i n i t i o n s represent d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n . N = 113: * p<.05; *» p<.01; *** p<.001 (one-tailed t e s t ) ' '.PO 23 Would L i k e - E x p e c t , Impor tance x (Would L i k e - E x p e c t ) , and Importance - E x p e c t c o r r e l a t e d a p p r e c i a b l y h i g h e r w i t h mean f a c e t s a t i s f a c t i o n than d i d the r e m a i n i n g a t t r a c t i o n m e a s u r e s . However , a l l a t t r a c t i o n d e f i n i t i o n s had l o w e r c o r r e l a t i o n s w i t h a l l s i n g l e - i t e m measures than w i t h mean f a c e t s a t i s f a c t i o n . For e x a m p l e , E x p e c t had a c o r r e l a t i o n o f r = .55 (p <.001) w i t h mean f a c e t s a t i s f a c t i o n , a c o r -r e l a t i o n o f r = .31 (p <.001) w i t h the 7 - p o i n t i t e m a s k i n g f o r g e n e r a l j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n , a c o r r e l a t i o n o f r = .28 (p <.01) w i t h the s i n g l e - i t e m a t t r a c t i o n s c o r e , and a c o r r e l a t i o n o f o n l y r = .11 ( n o t s i g n i f i c a n t ) w i t h the s i n g l e i t e m f o r p a s t s a t i s f a c t i o n . E x a m i n a t i o n o f the c o r r e l a t i o n s o f a t t r a c t i o n -s a t i s f a c t i o n d e f i n i t i o n s w i t h the s i n g l e - i t e m a t t r a c t i o n d e f i n i t i o n and the mean o f e x p e c t e d f a c e t s a t i s f a c t i o n s c o r e r e v e a l s an i n t e r e s t i n g t r e n d . Each o f the a t t r a c t i o n f o r m u -l a t i o n s c o r r e l a t e s a p p r e c i a b l y h i g h e r w i t h mean e x p e c t e d s a t i s f a c t i o n than does i t s c o r r e s p o n d i n g s a t i s f a c t i o n f o r m u -l a t i o n . For e x a m p l e , the c o r r e l a t i o n o f E q u a t i o n 2A w i t h mean e x p e c t e d s a t i s f a c t i o n i s r = .87 (p <.001) v e r s u s r = .68 (p <.001) f o r E q u a t i o n 2B. F o r 3A and 3B the c o r r e l a t i o n s a r e r = .76 (p < - 001) and r = .59 (p < . 0 0 1 ) , r e s p e c t i v e l y , and so o n . T h i s t r e n d i s p a r t i a l l y s u p p o r t e d by the c o r r e l a t i o n s w i t h the s i n g l e - i t e m a t t r a c t i o n s c o r e . T h i s p r o v i d e s i n i t i a l e m p i r i c a l s u p p o r t f o r the a t t r a c t i o n 24 scheme p r o p o s e d i n t h i s t h e s i s , a t l e a s t o f the l e v e l a t t e n d a n t to the j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n scheme when c o r r e l a t e d w i t h the mean o f f a c e t s a t i s f a c t i o n (where the t r e n d i s f o r s a t i s f a c t i o n f o r m u l a t i o n s to c o r r e l a t e h i g h e r w i t h mean s a t i s f a c t i o n t h a n do a t t r a c t i o n d e f i n i t i o n s ) . On the o t h e r h a n d , E J F S , EJFS x I m p o r t a n c e , E x p e c t , and Importance x E x p e c t c o r r e l a t e d c o n s i d e r a b l y h i g h e r w i t h mean p a s t s a t i s f a c t i o n t h a n d i d the f i v e r e m a i n i n g a t t r a c -t i o n m e a s u r e s . Two of t h e s e , i n v o l v i n g S h o u l d Be - E x p e c t f o r m u l a t i o n s , a l t h o u g h s t i l l s i g n i f i c a n t (p <.001 and p <.05) had r a t h e r modest r e l a t i o n s h i p s ( - . 2 8 and - . 2 7 , r e s p e c t i v e l y ) w i t h mean p a s t s a t i s f a c t i o n . The r e m a i n i n g t h r e e a t t r a c -t i o n measures ( t h o s e i n v o l v i n g Would L i k e - E x p e c t and Importance - E x p e c t ) had no s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h mean p a s t s a t i s f a c t i o n ; t h e s e measures a l s o showed l o w e r c o r r e l a t i o n s w i t h a l l s i n g l e - i t e m m e a s u r e s . Of a l l a t t r a c t i o n and s a t i s f a c t i o n d e f i n i t i o n s , E q u a t i o n ;1A p r o v i d e s the b e s t p r e d i c t o r ( r = . 4 0 ; p <.001) of the s i n g l e - i t e m o v e r a l l a t t r a c t i o n d e f i n i t i o n . E q u a t i o n s 7A and 9A are t i e d a t r = - . 3 8 (p <.001) f o r second p l a c e . S i m i l a r l y , f o r o v e r a l l j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n , E q u a t i o n 3B y i e l d s the h i g h e s t c o r r e l a t i o n ( r = . 5 1 ; p < . 0 0 1 ) , w h i l e E q u a t i o n 10B c o r r e l a t e s h i g h e s t ( r = . 2 8 ; p <.001) w i t h o v e r a l l p a s t s a t i s f a c t i o n . 25 The q u e s t i o n o f why the c o r r e l a t i o n s f rom the s i n g l e - i t e m measures a re more s i m i l a r to each o t h e r than to those based on the c o m p o s i t e - f a c e t s a t i s f a c t i o n measures can be e x p l a i n e d as f o l l o w s . The c o r r e l a t i o n between any two s i n g l e - i t e m measures was , i n two c a s e s out of t h r e e , h i g h e r than the c o r r e l a t i o n o f mean f a c e t s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h a s i n g l e - i t e m s a t i s f a c t i o n or a t t r a c t i o n m e a s u r e . Thus each o f the s i n g l e - i t e m measures a p p e a r s to be l e s s r e l i a b l e than a c o m p o s i t e based on 21 i t e m s . In a d d i t i o n , the t h r e e s i n g l e g l o b a l i t ems a p p e a r e d i n a s e p a r a t e s e c t i o n o f the q u e s t i o n n a i r e , and as a r e s u l t p r o b a b l y s h a r e more common method v a r i a n c e than w i t h the c o m p o s i t e m e a s u r e . Wanous and L a w l e r (1972) r e p o r t e d a s i m i l a r e f f e c t w i t h r e s p e c t to l o w e r c o r r e l a t i o n s between a g l o b a l s a t i s f a c t i o n i t e m and o p e r a t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n s o f j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n . As f a r as the j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n f o r m u l a t i o n s a re c o n c e r n e d , T a b l e 3 i n d i c a t e s t h a t E q u a t i o n s 2B and 3B are the b e s t p r e d i c t o r s of mean f a c e t s a t i s f a c t i o n , w i t h r = .81 (p <.001) f o r JFS x I m p o r t a n c e , and .83 (p <.001 ) f o r Is Now. For these f o r m u l a t i o n s , Wanous and L a w l e r ( 1972 :98 ) r e p o r t e d r = .92 (p <.001) and r = .82 (p <.001) f o r t h e i r n o n - m a n a g e r i a l sample o f shop f l o o r w o r k e r s . B a r t h (1974) r e p o r t e d a c o r r e l a t i o n o f r = .84 (p <. 001) between Is Now and mean f a c e t s a t i s f a c t i o n f o r a b l u e - c o l l a r sample f rom f o r e s t i n d u s t r y e m p l o y e e s . A n o t h e r p o i n t w o r t h n o t i n g 26 i s t h a t a c c o r d i n g to T a b l e 3 the S h o u l d Be - Is Now measure d i d not have the l o w e s t c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h mean f a c e t s a t i s -f a c t i o n and the g l o b a l s a t i s f a c t i o n i t e m s . In the Wanous and L a w l e r s t u d y , t h i s c o m b i n a t i o n had the l o w e s t c o r r e l a t i o n of the measures c o n s i d e r e d . A somewhat c o n t r a d i c t o r y p a t t e r n emerges f o r the c o r r e l a t i o n s w i t h the s i n g l e - i t e m a t t r a c t i o n m e a s u r e . A c o m p a r i s o n o f c o m p a r a b l e a t t r a c t i o n and s a t i s f a c t i o n d e f i n i -t i o n s f o r E q u a t i o n s 3A t h r o u g h 6B i n d i c a t e s t h a t the l a t t e r c o n s i s t e n t l y c o r r e l a t e h i g h e r w i t h the a t t r a c t i o n i t e m ( e . g . , r = . 2 8 , p < .001 , f o r E x p e c t , and . 3 3 , p < . 0 0 1 , f o r Is Now) . However , t h i s t r e n d i s r e v e r s e d f o r the c o m b i n a t i o n s based on E q u a t i o n s 7A t h r o u g h 9B ( e . g . , r = - . 3 8 , p < .001 , f o r Would L i k e - E x p e c t , and - . 2 9 , p < .001 , f o r Would L i k e -Is Now) . T a b l e s 4A t h r o u g h 4F show the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the o p e r a t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n s o f a t t r a c t i o n (and s a t i s f a c t i o n ) and f a c e t a t t r a c t i o n (and s a t i s f a c t i o n ) as measured by the d i r e c t f a c e t a t t r a c t i o n (and s a t i s f a c t i o n ) r a t i n g f o r each of the 21 f a c e t s . For e x a m p l e , T a b l e 4A shows the p r o d u c t -moment c o r r e l a t i o n s between each o f the o p e r a t i o n a l d e f i n i -t i o n s o f f a c e t s a t i s f a c t i o n ( E q u a t i o n s 1A t h r o u g h 9A) and f a c e t s a t i s f a c t i o n as measured by the d i r e c t f a c e t s a t i s -f a c t i o n r a t i n g f o r each of the 21 f a c e t s . In each o f t h e s e Table 4A Corre la t ions of Facet A t t r a c t i o n Operational D e f i n i t i o n s 2 7 With D i r e c t Facet S a t i s f a c t i o n Ratings 1A 2A 3A 4A 5A 6A 9A 7A 3A Job Facets EJFS EJFS x Import-ance Expect Import-ance X Expect Should Be -Expect Importance x (Should Be - Expect) Import-ance -Expect Would Like -Expect Importance x (Would L i k e - Expect) 1. Self -esteem or respect .49 .36 .49 .35 -.38 -.35 -.50 -.51 -.51 2. Opportunity f o r growth .43 .30 .42 .28 -.40 -.37 -.51 . -.52 -.51 3. Prest ige of job i n s i d e .47 .34 .41 .29 -.29 -.29 -.45 -.42 -.42 4. Opportunity f o r independent thought .47 .31 .41 .27 -.36 -.34 -.50 -.48 -.50 5. F e e l i n g of s e c u r i t y .25 .14 .19 .11 -.15 -.11 -.20 -.17 -.16 6. Opportunity f o r feedback on performance .45 .30 .35 .23 -.29 -.24 -.37 -.41 -.41 7. Prest ige of job outside company .40 .37 .37 .33 -.25 -.22 -.22 -.25 -.22 8» Opportunity to do chal lenging work .28 .22 .37 .25 -.31 -.26 -.39 -.37 -.38 9. Opportunity to get to know others .36 .31 .45 .34 -.31 -.27 -.38 -.31 -.29 10. Chance to do a whole piece of work .40 .39 .49 .41 -.37 -.35 -.36 -.38 -.39 11. V a r i e t y on the job . .38 .28 .43 .29 -.37 -.31 -.47 -.45 -.45 12. Pay .14 .07 .15 .08 -.06 -.02 -.18 -.13 -.10 13. F e e l i n g of accomplishment .37 .27 .41 .27 -.32 -.26 -.43 -.46 -.44 14. Opportunity to help others .43 .41 .43 .39 -.35 -.36 -.30 -.36 -.37 15. Opportunity f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n .49 .43 .50 .40 -.44 -.44 -.46 -.45 -.45 16. Opportunity f o r close f r i e n d s h i p s .43 .45 .50 .45 -.40 -.40 -.32 -.33 -.31 17. Opportunity f o r promotion .37 .17 .30 .12 -.28 -.19 -.46 -.50 -.48 18. Amount of respect and f a i r treatment .47 .35 .47 .34 -.40 -.35 -.44 -.40 -.40 19. Opportunity to develop competence i n others .42 .44 .49 .43 -.39 .-•35. -.31 -.33 -.33 20. Opportunity to be c r e a t i v e .55 .48 .56 .46 -.46 -.42 -.43 -.46 -.44 21. Opportunity to l e a r n through i n t e r a c t i o n s .46 .44 .50 .42' -.45 -.41 -.35 -.43 -.43 Average c o r r e l a t i o n s (absolute value) .42 .33 .42 .31 .34 .30 .39 .39 .39 Table 4B Correlations of Facet Satisfaction Operational Definitions With Direct Facet Satisfaction Ratings 42.8 • IB -2B 3B • - 4B 5B 6E ' 9B 7B 8B 10B • LIB . Job Facets JFS JFS. x Import-ance Is Now Import-ance X Is Now Should Be -Is Now Importance x (Should Be-Is Now) Import-ance -Is- Now Would Like -Is Now Importance x (Would Like -Is Now) Past Satis-faction Importance x Past Sat-isfaction 1. Self-esteem or respect .75 . .64 .73 .57 -.63 - .59 -.49 - .53 -.41 .04 .07 2. Opportunity for growth .70 .55 .62 .45 -.63 -.58 -.47 -.51 -.40 .03 .05 3. Prestige of job inside .76 .62 .73 .56 -.64 -.61 -.53 -.54 -.42 .10 .09 4. Opportunity for '•' independent thought .81 .61 .63 .50 -.67 -.64 - .53 - .55 - .45 .06 .06 5. Feeling of security .45 • 34 .39 .23 - .37 - . 3 4 -.28 -.28 - .23 -.01 -.01 6. Opportunity for feedback on performance .70 .53 .56 .43 -.54 -.50 -.40 -.46 -.39 .11 .10 7. Prestige of job outside company .63 .60 .56 .51 - .45 -.36 -.29 - . 3 2 -.21 .11 .13 8. Opportunity to do challenging work .74 .53' .67 .52 -.65 -.61 -.48 -.49 -.42 .03 .05 9. Opportunity to get to know others .64 .53 .65 •52 -.51 -.42 - .37 - .35 -.23 .21 .22 10. Chance to do a whole piece of work .73 .66 .6? .61 - .57 -.49 -.36 -.40 -.28 .10 .20 11. Variety on the job .66 .52 .'64 .43 . -.59 - .53 -.45 -.46 -.38 .11 .11 12. Pay .56 .38 .43 .30 . - . 3 3 - . 3 4 - .34 - .33 - .27 -.07 -.06 13. Feeling of accomplishment .79 .61 .72 .55 - .66 -.61 -.51 - .57 -.47 .09 .09 14. Opportunity to help others .63 .61 .61 .55 - .55 -.46 -.31 -.38 -.24 .30 .32 15. Opportunity for participation .70 .59 .61 • 52 . - .56 - .49 - .36 - . 3 3 -.23 .21 .26 16. Opportunity for close friendships .65 .61 .53 .53 -.41 - . 3 2 -.19 -.21 - .07 .23 •31 17. Opportunity for promotion .67 .42 .56 .34 - .53 ~-'P -.51 - .57 -.50 .10 -.01 18. Amount of respect and fa i r treatment .71 .61 .60 .53 -.56 -.50 - . 3 9 - . 3 3 -.31 .19 .13 19. Opportunity, to develop competence in others .67 .62 .59 .57 -.47 - .37 -.24 -.26 -.15 .24 .31 20. Opportunity to be creative .81 .70 .70 .63 -.61 -.51 - .36 -.40 -.26 .25 , .29 21. Opportunity to learn, through interactions .63 .63 .60 .56 - .54 - .45 -.26 - . 3 3 - .22 .23' .29 Average correlations (absolute value) .70 .53 .62 .51 .56 .49 .39 4 2 .32 .13 .15 Table 4C Correlations of Facet Attraction Operational Definitions With Direct Facet Past Satisfaction Ratings 2 9, 1A 2A 3A . ~4A 5A 6A 9A 7A 8A Job Facets EJFS EJFS x Import-ance Expect Import-ance X Expect Should Ee -Expect Importance x (Should Ee - Expect) Import-ance -Expect Would Like -Expect Importance x (Would Like - Expect) 1. Self-esteem or respect .12 .23 .16 .22 -.03 -.01 .12 .07 .10 2. Opportunity for growth .28 .36 .30 .32 -.14 -.09 -.01 > -.09 -.04 3. Prestige of Job inside .23 .35 .30 .35 -.14 -.11 .04 - .05 .00 4. Opportunity for independent thought .25 .36 .30 .35 -.11 -.09 .04 -.11 -.04 5. Feeling of security -.05 -.01 .06 .06 .02 -.01 -.02 .06 .06 6. Opportunity for feedback on performance .30 -.35 .29 ^.30 -.15 -.10 -.04 -.17 -.13 7. Prestige of job outside company .16 .30 .26 .32 -.08 -.06 .08 -.00 .04 8. Opportunity to do challenging work .22 .37 .31 .38 -.14 -.08 .12 -.08 .01 9. Opportunity to get to know others .22 .34 .31 .35 -.10 -.06 .04 .00 .06 10. Chance to do a whole piece of work .18 .30 .24 .30 -.12 -.12 .06 .07 -.03 11. Variety on the job .15 .28 .28 .32 -.11 -.08 .04 -.10 -.03 12. Pay .21 .20 .25 .20 -.12 -.10 -.16 -.17 -.13 13. Feeling of accomplishment .28 .40 •31 .37 -.15 -.11 .05 -.06 -.00 14. Opportunity to help others .24 ;30 .26 .35 -.04 .00 .19 .03 .10 15. Opportunity for participation .19 .28 .20 .26 -.06 -.04 .08 -.04 .02 16. Opportunity for close friendships .23 .35 .25 •32 -.13 -.09 .11 - .05 .02 17. Opportunity for promotion .31 .35 .33 .32 -.19 -.14 -.11 - .23 -.16 18. Amount of respect and fair treatment .36 .44 .35 .39 -.22 -.17 .01 -.13 -.07 19. Opportunity to develop competence in others .20 .36 .29 .35 -,C8 -.03 .12 -.03 .03 20. Opportunity to be creative .31 .40 .36 .38 -.22 -.19 -.04 -.20 -.15 21. Opportunity to learn through interactions .25 .34 .33 .32 -.20 -.14 -.04 -.19 -.13 Average correlations (absolute value) .22 .32 .28 .31 • 1 2 .09 .03 .07 .02 Table 4D C o r r e l a t i o n s of Facet S a t i s f a c t i o n Operational D e f i n i t i o n s With D i r e c t Facet Past S a t i s f a c t i o n Ratings 30 IB 2B B3 4B . 5E . 6B • 9B 7B 3B 10B 11B Job Facets JFS JFS x Import-ance Is Now Import-ance x Is Now Should Be -Is Now Importance x (Should Be-Is Now) Import-ance -Is Now Would Like -Is Now Importance x (Would Like -Is Now) Past S a t i s -f a c t i o n Importance x Past S a t -i s f a c t i o n 1. Self-esteem or respect .06 . .19 .12 .23 .04 .09 .14 •n .15 .81 .67 2. Opportunity f o r growth .13 .29 .28 .36 -.09: -.02 .04 -.03 .04 .87 .73 3. Prestige of job i n s i d e .17 .32 .24 .36 -.05 .04 .11 .04 .13 .82 .73 4. Opportunity f o r independent thought .17 .33 .30 .40 -.09 .00 .06 -.06 .05 .88 .77 5. F e e l i n g of s e c u r i t y -.02 .00 .11 .08 -.04 -.01 -.06 .00 .05 .40 .27 6. Opportunity f o r feedback on performance .21 .32 .29 .36 -.13 -.08 -.01 -.11 -.06 .66 .58 7. Prestige of job outside company .17 .31 .27 .37 - .07 .02 .07 .01 .10 .64 .60 8. Opportunity to do challenging work .12 .33 .28 .41 -.08 .03 .14 -.01 .10 .85 .78 9. Opportunity to get to know others .24 .36 .27 .38 -.03 .07 .09 .06 .15 .69 .65 10. Chance to do a whole piece of work .19 .32 .29 .37 -.17 -.10 .02 -.09 .02 .68 .62 11. Var ie ty on the job .17 .30 .28 .36 -.09 .00 .05 -.06 .06 .77 .67 12. Pay .17 .19 .27 .24 -.13 -.09 -.12 -.14 -.08 .52 .40 13. F e e l i n g of accomplishment .20 .35 .28 .40 -.09 .01 .09 .01 .11 .88 .78 14. Opportunity to help others .06 .29 .24 .39 .01 .10 .19 .07 .15 .82 .76 15. Opportunity f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n .08 .23 .17 .28 -.01 .05 .10 .01 .09 .77 .65 16. Opportunity f o r close f r i e n d s h i p s .11 .28 .17 .31 -.02 .06 .17 .06 .15 .73 .66 17. Opportunity f o r ' promotion .23 .32 .34 .37 -.18 -.09 -.06 -.17 -.06 .74 .62 18. Amount of respect and f a i r treatment .22 .38 .30 .41 -.13 - .04 .08 -.02 .07 .74 .69 19. Opportunity to develop competence i n others .03 .27 .22 • 3 ? .02 .10 .18 .07 .12 .81 .74 20. Opportunity to be creat ive .27 .39 .37 .44 -.21 -.13 -.02 -.14 -.04 .82 .71 21. Opportunity to l e a r n through i n t e r a c t i o n s .20 .32 .32 .38 -.17 -.09 .00 -.11 -.04 .69 .62 Average c o r r e l a t i o n s . (absolute value) .15 .30 .26 .35 .08 .04 .06 .02 '.07 .76 .67 Table 4E Corre la t ions of Facet A t t r a c t i o n Operational D e f i n i t i o n s With D i r e c t Facet Expected S a t i s f a c t i o n Ratings •31 1A 2A 3A 4A 5A 6A 9A 7A 8A . EJFS EJFS x Expect Import- Should Importance Import- Would Importance x Job Facets Import- ance X B e - x (Should ance - Like - (Would Like ance Expect Expect Be - Expect) Expect Expect - Expect) 1. Self -esteem or respect .83 .68 .59 .48 -.44 -.40 -.46 -.45 - .42 2. Opportunity f o r growth .81 .62 .54 .40 -.41 -.37 - . 4 8 -.49 -.46 3. Prest ige of Job i n s i d e .75 .69 .60 .54 -.44 -.40 -.33 -.40 -.38 4. Opportunity f o r independent thought .84 .70 .66. .53 -.53 -.48 -.48 - .52 -.50 5. F e e l i n g of s e c u r i t y .33 .31 .30 .27 -.18 -.16 -.15 -.16 -.13 6. Opportunity f o r feedback on performance .72 .59 .52 .40 -.40 - . 3 0 -.37 -.49 -.44 7. Prestige of job outside company .68 .64 .60 .53 -.34 -.30 -.33 -.33 -.30 8. Opportunity to do chal lenging work .83 .71 .66 .55 -.54 -.47 -.45 - .52 -.47 9. Opportunity to get to know others .67 .63 .59 .52 -.39 -.35 -.33 -.32 -.30 10. Chance to do a whole piece of work .66 .59 .51 .45 -.40 -.35 -.27 - .25 - .25 11. Varie ty on the job .72 .61 .57 .47 -.46 -.43 -.44 -.45 -.43 12. Pay .63 • 52 .49 .39 -.32 -.28 -.35 -.35 -.29 13. F e e l i n g of a c c ompli shme nt .83 .71 .62 .51 -.46 - .42 -.44 - . 4 0 -.39 14. Opportunity to help others .71 .64 .57 .48 -.37 - . 3 2 -.33 -.35 -.32 15. Opportunity f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n .69 .55 • 50 .39 -.41 -.35 -.38 - .42 -.38 16. Opportunity f o r close f r i e n d s h i p s .64 .61 .50 .47 -.38 -.35 -.22 -.35 -.32 17. Opportunity f o r promotion .75 .62 .51 .43 -.40 - . 3 2 -.32 . -.45 -.38 18. Amount of respect and f a i r treatment .74 .66 .59 .51 -.48 -.41 -.36 -.46 -.40 19. Opportunity to develop competence i n others .70 .64 .58 .50 -.36 -.31 -.32 -.40 -.36 20. Opportunity to be c rea t ive .79 .68 .63 .53 -.48 -.44 -.45 -o49 -.46 21. Opportunity to l e a r n through i n t e r a c t i o n s .72 .63 .56 .46 - .42 -.35 -.34 -.44 -.41 Average c o r r e l a t i o n s (absolute value) .73 .63 .56 .47 .41 .36 .36 .41 .37 Table 4F C o r r e l a t i o n s of Facet S a t i s f a c t i o n Operational D e f i n i t i o n s ••. With D i r e c t Facet Expected S a t i s f a c t i o n Ratings :3-2 IB 2B 3B •• 4B 5B 6B 9B i 7B . 8B 10B 11B Job Facets JFS JFS x Import-ance Is Now Import-ance X Is Now Should Ee -Is Now Importance x (Should Be-Is Now) Import-ance -Is Now Would Like -Is Now Importance x (Would Like -Is Now) Past S a t i s -f a c t i o n Importance x Past Sat -i s f a c t i o n 1. Self-esteem or respect .51 .53 .52 .50 -.32 - . 2 9 - .24 - .24 -.17 .18 .27 2. Opportunity for growth .50 .47 • .48 .44 -.33 -.30 -.28 -.30 -.23 .12 .18 3. Prestige of job i n s i d e .50 .60 .52 .58 -.32 - . 2 9 -.14 -.20 -.13 .26 .37 4. Opportunity f o r independent thought .60 .62 .56 .56 -.39 -.36 -.23 -.27 -.21 .17 .27 5. Feel ing of s e c u r i t y .25 .30 .31 .31 -.17 -.14 -.10 -.11 -.05 -.03^ .07 6. Opportunity f o r feedback on performance .49 .50 .48 .47 -.33 -.28 -.21 -.31 -.26 •25 .29 7. Prestige of job outside company .50 .58 .59 .60 - .29 -.23 -.20 -.21 -.12 .26 .37 8. Opportunity to do challenging work .55 .60 .55 .57 -.39 -.33 -.19 - .25 -.17 .21 .31 9. Opportunity to get to know others .46 .54 .51 .55 - .27 -.21 -.13 -.13 -.06 .22 .35 10. Chance to do a whole piece of work ,32 .45 .39 .46 -.24 -.22 -.06 -.05 -.03 .16 .28 11. Variety on the job .47 .50 .51 .50 -•37 -.34 -.24 -.26 -.18 .23 .28 12. Pay .45 .44 .45 .42 -.26 -.18 -.20 -.21 -.10 .18 .23 13. Feel ing of accomplishment .53 .58 .55 .56 -.36 -.33 -.23 -.21 -.15 .25 .33 14. Opportunity to help others .42 .51 .55 .56 -.33 - .27 -.19 -.22 -.15 .40 .41 15. Opportunity f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n .47 .48 .48 .44 -.37 -.32 -.23 - .27 -.21 .18 .22 16. Opportunity f o r close f r i e n d s h i p s .43 .54 .45 •52 -.30 -.27 -.08 -.19 -.13 .26 .35 17. Opportunity f o r promotion .45 .48 .45 .46 - . 3 0 -.22 -.15 -.25 -.15 .24 .31 18. Amount of respect and f a i r treatment .49 .55 .50 .53 -.34 - .27 -.14 -.22 -.13 .27 .36 19. Opportunity to develop competence i n others .45 .54 .58 .59 -.33 -.27 -.20 - .27 -.19 .40 .43 20. Opportunity to be creat ive .61 .63 .61 .60 -.43 -.39 -.28 - . 3 2 - .24 .28 .34 21. Opportunity to l e a r n through i n t e r a c t i o n s .44 .51 .51 .52 -.33 -.28 -.17 -.26 -.20 .21 .30 Average c o r r e l a t i o n s (absolute value) .47 .53 .51 .51 .32 .28 .19 .23 '.16 .23 .30 3 3 t a b l e s , the mean c o r r e l a t i o n s a c r o s s the 21 f a c e t s were c a l c u l a t e d u s i n g F i s h e r ' s r t o Z t r a n s f o r m a t i o n ( E d w a r d s , 1 9 6 3 ) . In T a b l e 4 A , i m p o r t a n c e w e i g h t i n g l o w e r s , the C o r -r e l a t i o n i n most i n s t a n c e s f o r d e f i n i t i o n s 1A t h r o u g h 6A. For the r e m a i n i n g d e f i n i t i o n s , w e i g h t i n g makes l i t t l e d i f -f e r e n c e . In T a b l e 4C , i m p o r t a n c e w e i g h t i n g s l i g h t l y s t r e n g t h e n s the c o r r e l a t i o n f o r d e f i n i t i o n s 1A t h r o u g h 4 A , but does not produce a p p r e c i a b l e d i f f e r e n c e s f o r the r e m a i n d e r . In T a b l e 4D, w e i g h t i n g l o w e r s the c o r r e l a t i o n i n p r a c t i c a l l y a l l c a s e s . W i t h r e s p e c t to T a b l e 4B , i m p o r t a n c e w e i g h t i n g c o n s i s t e n t l y l o w e r s the c o r r e l a t i o n between j o b f a c e t s and o p e r a t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n s , e x c e p t f o r 11B, w h i c h shows l i t t l e d i f f e r e n c e . W e i g h t i n g h e l p s i n the case of d e f i n i t i o n s IB t h r o u g h 4B i n T a b l e 4D, but l o w e r s the c o r r e l a t i o n f o r d e f i n i t i o n 11B. For the o t h e r d e f i n i t i o n s , the e v i d e n c e i s m i x e d . The e v i d e n c e i s a l s o mixed i n T a b l e 4 F , where w e i g h t i n g h e l p s i n some c a s e s ( e . g . , 11B) but not i n o t h e r s ( e . g . , 8 B ) . The S i g n T e s t ( S i e g e l , 1956) was used to make com-p a r i s o n s between the 21 p a i r s o f c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s i n Tables 4A t h r o u g h 4 F . These r e s u l t s a re summarized i n T a b l e s 5A t h r o u g h 5F i n o r d e r to i n d i c a t e the r e l a t i v e u t i l i t y o f the a t t r a c t i o n and s a t i s f a c t i o n measures c o n s i d e r e d . 34 Table 5A Sign Test Applied to Comparisons Between Pairs of Correlations of Facet • Attraction Definitions. With Direct Facet Satisfaction Ratings Equation Significantly S ignificance No;. higher.than: level 1A 2A .001 4A .001 • 5A .001 6A .001 . 7A .039 • -8A •. .095 2A 3A .05^ 4A .010 6A .058 9A .095 3A 4A .001 5A .001 6A .001 4A 9A .095 7A .058 8A .039 5A 6A- .001 9A .095 7A .006 SA .0.21 6A 9A .006 7A .001 8A .001 Table 5B Sign Test Applied to Comparisons Between Pairs.of Correlations of Facet. Satisfaction Definitions With Direct Facet Satisfaction Ratings Equation Significantly Significancej No. higher than: level IB 2B .001 3B .001 4B .001 5B .001 6B .001 9B .001 7B .001 8B .001 10B .001 11B , • .001 2B 3B .032 4B .001 6B .084 9B .001 7B .001 8B .001 10B .001 11B .001 3B 4B .001 5B .001 6B .001 9B .001 7B .001 8B .001 10B .001 11B .001 4B 93 .006 7B . .058 ' 8B. .001 10B .001 11B .001 5B 6B .001 9B .001 7B .001 8B .001 10B .001 11B .001 6B 9B .001 7B .001 8B .001 103 .001 11B .001 9B 73 .006 8B .001 10B .001 113 .004 7B 8a .001 10B .001 11B .001 8B 103 .004 11B .039 10B 11B .072 Note: Tables show only comparisons for which p < . 10. Table 5C Sign Test Applied to Comparisons Between Pairs, of Correlations of Facet Attraction Definitions With Direct Facet Past Satisfaction Ratings Equation Signif icantly significance . No. higher than: level 1A 2A • .001 3A . 001 4A . . .001 5A .001 6A .001 9A .001 7A .001 8A .001 2A 3A .001 5A. • .001 6A .001 9A .001 7A .001 8A .001 3 A . .001 5A .001 6A .001 9A .001 7A .001 8A .. 001 4A 5A . 0 0 1 6A .001 9A .001 •-7A .001 8A . . 0 0 1 5A 6A . 0 0 1 9A .032 7A .021 8A .001 6A 8A . 0 6 4 7A S A . 0 1 0 •3;5 Table 50 Sign Test Applied to Comparisons Between Pairs of Correlations of Facet Satisfaction Definitions With Direct Facet Past Satisfaction Ratings Equation Significantly Significance , No. higher than: level IB 2B .001 3B .001 4B .001 5B .001 6B .001 9B .095 7B .001 SB .039 10B .001 11B .001 . 2B 3b . 001 4B .001 5B .001 6B .001 9B • .001 • 7B .001 8B . 001 10B .001 113 . 001 3B 4B. .001 5B .001 6B .001 9B .001 7B .001 8B .001 10B .001 11B .001 4B . 5D .001 . •"- 6B .001 9B . .001 7B. .001 8B .001 • . 10B .001 11B .001 5B :. OB . 0 3 9 . 7B .058 10B .001 11B . . 0 0 1 . 6B 9B . 0 1 3 8B . 0 3 9 10B .001 ,11B . 0 0 1 9B . 10B .001 '• 11B . 0 0 1 7B 10B ' . 0 0 1 11B . 001 8B •10b . 0 0 1 • 11B . 0 0 1 . 10B li b .001 Note: Tables show only comparisons for which p < .10. ,36 Table 5E Sign Test Applied to Comparisons Between Pairs of Correlations'of Facet Attraction Definitions With Direct Facet Expected Satisfaction Ratings Equation Significantly. Significance No. higher than: level 1A 2A .001 3A .001 4A .001 5A .001 6A .001 9A .  .001 7A .001 SA .001 2A 3A .001 4A .001 5A .001 6A .001 9A .001 7A .001 SA .001 3A 4A .001 5A .001 6A . 001 9A .001 . 7A .001 8A .. ... .001 •U 5A .001 6A .001 9A .001 7A .001 8A .001 ,5A 6A .001 9A .001 SA .001 • 6A 7A ..004 9A 7A .010 .7A 6A .001 Table 5F • Sign Test Applied to Comparisons Between Fairs of Correlations of Facet Satisfaction Definitions With Direct Facet Expected Satisfaction Ratings Squation Significantly Significance No.. higher than: level IB 2B .001 3B .006 4B .095 5B, . 001 6B . 001 9B- .001 7B .001 SB .001 10B .001' 11B • .001 2B 5B .001 6B ' .001 9B .001 7B .001. 8B .001 10B .001 11B .001 3B •• 5B .001 63 .001 9B .001 ,7B .001 8B .001 10B .001 11B . 001 4B 5B .001 6B .001 93 .001 7B . .001 83 .001 10B .001 11B .001 5b 6B .001 93 ; .001 73 .001 8B .001 103 .001 6B 9B .001 7B .002 8B .001 103 .032 93 73 .001 SB .001 113 - • .001 7B SB .001 11B .006 SB 103 .004 113. .001 103 113 .001 Note: Tables show only comparisons for which p ^  .10. 37 For e x a m p l e , T a b l e 5A shows t h a t EJFS (EQ1A) c o r -r e l a t e s s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r w i t h d i r e c t f a c e t s a t i s f a c t i o n r a t i n g s than do E q u a t i o n s 2A, 4A, 5A, 6A, 7A, and 8A. S i m i l a r l y , Impor tance x ( S h o u l d Be - E x p e c t ) c o r r e l a t e s s i g -n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r than E q u a t i o n s 9A, 7A, and 8A. In g e n e r a l , f o r a t t r a c t i o n measures 1A, 2A, 3A, and 4A a t r e n d i s d i s c e r n i b l e (see T a b l e s 5A, 5C, 5E) w h i c h s u g g e s t s t h a t p a s t and e x p e c t e d s a t i s f a c t i o n r a t i n g s a r e s t r o n g e r p r e d i c t o r s o f j o b a t t r a c t i o n than t h o s e f o r the p r e s e n t , whereas f o r the r e m a i n i n g a t t r a c t i o n e q u a t i o n s the e v i d e n c e seems m i x e d . Thus the c o r r e l a t i o n s f o r E q u a t i o n 1A are c o n s i s t e n t f o r p a s t and e x p e c t e d s a t i s f a c t i o n r a t i n g s , but somewhat l e s s c o n s i s t e n t f o r the p r e s e n t . S i m i l a r l y , E q u a t i o n 2A becomes p r o g r e s s i v e l y s t r o n g e r f rom p r e s e n t to p a s t to e x p e c t e d s a t i s f a c t i o n r a t i n g s , w h i l e E q u a t i o n s 3A and 4A become i d e n t i c a l f o r p a s t and e x p e c t e d r a t i n g s . For the s a t i s f a c t i o n measures I B , 3B, 4B , 8B , and 10B (see T a b l e s 5B, 5D, 5F) t h e r e a p p e a r s to be g r e a t e r c o n s i s t e n c y t h r o u g h o u t , the o n l y e x c e p t i o n b e i n g 4B , w h i c h i s weaker f o r the p r e s e n t than f o r p a s t and e x p e c t e d s a t i s -f a c t i o n r a t i n g s . In f a c t , f o r the l a t t e r t w o , 3B and 4B are i d e n t i c a l . On the w h o l e , t h e n , E q u a t i o n s I B , 3B, 4B , 8B , and 10B appear to have g r e a t e r p r e d i c t i v e v a l i d i t y f o r j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n than do the r e m a i n i n g s a t i s f a c t i o n e q u a t i o n s . 38 On b a l a n c e , t h e r e f o r e , E q u a t i o n s 1A and I B , 3A and 3B, 4A and 4B g e n e r a l l y are good p r e d i c t o r s o f both j o b a t t r a c t i o n and j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n . T a b l e 6 p r e s e n t s a m u l t i t r a i t - m u l t i m e t h o d m a t r i x based on Campbel l and F i s k e ' s (1959) v a l i d a t i o n t e c h n i q u e . In o r d e r to keep the m u l t i t r a i t - m u l t i m e t h o d m a t r i x to a manageable s i z e , o n l y f o u r o f the n i n e o p e r a t i o n a l d e f i n i -t i o n s and o n l y s i x o f the 21 j o b f a c e t s or " t r a i t s " a re i n -c l u d e d i n T a b l e 6. The s i x j o b f a c e t s s e l e c t e d were a l s o c o n s i d e r e d by Wanous and L a w l e r ( 1 9 7 2 ) , and were chosen because each r e p r e s e n t s a d i f f e r e n t need l e v e l or c a t e g o r y i n the P o r t e r (1961) scheme. Of the o p e r a t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n s , the E x p e c t measure was employed because i t c o r r e l a t e d h i g h l y , as an a t t r a c t i o n m e a s u r e , w i t h the o v e r a l l s a t i s f a c t i o n s c o r e based on the mean of f a c e t s a t i s f a c t i o n . The d i r e c t r a t i n g measure of f a c e t s a t i s f a c t i o n was s e l e c t e d because o f i t s common usage and i t s c o n s i d e r a t i o n by Wanous and L a w l e r . The S h o u l d Be - E x p e c t measure was i n c l u d e d because i t r e p r e -s e n t s , a l o n g w i t h the use of the E x p e c t m e a s u r e , a new a p p r o a c h to the measurement and meaning of j o b a t t r a c t i o n and s a t i s f a c t i o n . The Is Now measure was chosen b e c a u s e , as a s a t i s f a c t i o n m e a s u r e , i t c o r r e l a t e d h i g h l y w i t h the d i r e c t r a t i n g s of s a t i s f a c t i o n and wou ld p r o v i d e a s t e r n t e s t o f d i s c r i m i n a n t v a l i d i t y . •3 Table 6: M u l t i t r a i t - M u l t i r c e t h o d Matrix f o r Six T r a i t s and Four Methods of Measuring S a t i s f a c t i o n Method and T r a i t s SATISFACTION • EXPECT SHOULD BE - EXPECT . is m\-i teeir Grow-t h .secu-r i t y -So-c i a l AutO '. norny - • ray ,'Ss- ' teen Gro-wth Sec-u r i -t y So-c i a l AutO npny - Fay e s -teem Gro-wth Sec-u r i -ty.... So-c i a l Auto nomy - Pay Es-teem Gro-wth Sec-u r i -t y So-c i a l Auto-nomy Fay •TICK . Esteem Growth S e c u r i t y S o c i a l Autonomy Pay EiPECT_ . Esteem Growth S e c u r i t y S o c i a l Autonomy Pay SHOULD BE - EAPEGT_ Esteem Growth S e c u r i t y S o c i a l Autonomy Pay  IS_NO,v_ . Esteem Growth S e c u r i t y S o c i a l Autonomy Pay .73 . 3 0 .23 .33 .35 . 5 0 .45 . 4 7 .35 .22 . . 2 1 .. .58 .42 . 3 0 . .24 - . ^ - , 4 2 ' .12 . 4 9 . .;49" :;2~4"i |. 4 6 - - . 4 6 " - . 1 9 .42 .43 . 1 4 ' ,.13 - . 0 7 - ^ 3 4 " - - - ^ .08 .18| i . l 9 .28 .23 - . , 5 3 - -.27 .H, ' .43 -32 .16 . 3 5 - - . 5 6 - - . i l ] l_.35_.29__.23 . 3 9 . 3 7 - ^ 5 0 . 6 9 .10 . 0 5 . 3 9 . 4 9 .55 . 5 0 .43 . 4 6 .44 .40 .43 ' - 0 9 - - . J 9 -.10 -.42 -.44 -.13' - . 3 ? - . 1 9 -.35 -.43 -.07: -.12 -.09-.29--..I6 -.18 -.14; -.17 -.28 -.18--,15--.16 -.09; -.32 -.32 -.12 - , t v - . . 3 ^ — . . i i ; -^23__-.21 -.11 -.22 -.3>-^24-77 ~-> 5 5 .10 - . 3 0 -". 3 8" - :3"2"! - . 5 1 " - . S i - - ,03 - . 3 4 - . 3 7 - . 3 5 ' - . 1 7 - . 0 9 - - ^ 5 5 - - - 2 7 - . 2 2 - . 3 1 ; -.08 - . 2 0 - . 0 0 --.4~S^^20 09. - . 3 8 -.28 - . 0 7 - . 2 2 - -^65--.28' r . 2 3 -.28 - . 1 7 - . 2 0 - . 3 V - / 6 9 ' r .76"-^55 . 3 0 . 4 6 .52 .34!'--.i>l--.i>l .25 .34 .52 . 5 0 ' 5 r - . 7 T - . J . 6 .42 . 4 4 .28.; . 5 0 - ^ 6 1 --..02 .42 . 3 8 .351 1 5 . . O C T - _ . 7 C T - . J . 1 - . 0 0 . 3 3 ' i - . 0 5 . 0 $ - ..63"-.-17 .04 .24. 2 2 . 2 2 . 1 8 - - . 3 0 - - / J L I .19|| . 4 1 .36 .21 - _j5l - - 3 7 . 4 2 | ' .43 . 3 0 . 0 8 . 4 5 " - . - . 0 7 ; ' . 3 3 . 3 9 . 2 1 .22; - _.68->3.4! [.34 . 2 3 .32 .32 . 2 r - , 7 8 ~ j . 2 5 .15 .23 .19 . 1 9 - ^ 5 9 " ! ^ 3 9 - - . 4 5 - . 2 4 - . 1 4 - . 2 9 -.311 - . 3 7 - - 3 . 3 - " . 0 7 - . 2 0 - . 17 - . 2 1 ; .12 -.or -.16 - . 0 2 .12 . 0 0 . - . 3 0 -.26. - .2>- .05—*13 -.14; -.31 - . 3 7 -.16 - . 13- -.17^.27! - . 1 3 - . 0 4 - . 0 9 . 0 1 . 0 4 - - ^ 5 " -Note: Each heterotrait-monomethod t r i a n g l e is. enclosed by s o l i d l i n e s . Each heterotrait-heteromethod t r i a n g l e i s enclosed by broken l i n e s / The v a l i d i t y diagonals are the s i x sets of values between the broken t r i a n g l e s . co W3 40 The f i r s t r e q u i r e m e n t s p e c i f i e d by Campbel l and F i s k e (1959) c o n c e r n s e v i d e n c e o f c o n v e r g e n t v a l i d i t y . T h i s r e q u i r e m e n t i s met by and l a r g e , f o r most e n t r i e s i n the v a l i d i t y d i a g o n a l s o f T a b l e 6 a re s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t f rom z e r o (p <.05) and encourage f u r t h e r e x a m i n a t i o n of v a l i d i t y . Of the t h r e e r e q u i r e m e n t s p e r t a i n i n g to d i s c r i m i n a n t v a l i d i t y , the f i r s t s p e c i f i e s t h a t c o n v e r g e n t v a l i d i t y c o -e f f i c i e n t s be h i g h e r than the v a l u e s l y i n g i n the same column and row of the h e t e r o t r a i t - h e t e r o m e t h o d t r i a n g l e s ( e n c l o s e d by broken l i n e s i n T a b l e 6 ) . T h i s r e q u i r e m e n t i s met , e x c e p t i n the case of (1) S h o u l d Be - E x p e c t and S a t i s f a c t i o n , and (2) Is Now and S h o u l d Be - E x p e c t . The second c r i t e r i o n f o r m e e t i n g the d i s c r i m i n a n t v a l i d i t y r e q u i r e m e n t i s t h a t the v a l i d i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s a l s o be g r e a t e r than c o r r e s p o n d i n g v a l u e s i n the h e t e r o t r a i t - h e t e r o m e t h o d t r i a n g l e s ( e n c l o s e d by s o l i d l i n e s ) . In o t h e r w o r d s , a g i v e n v a r i a b l e s h o u l d c o r r e l a t e h i g h e r w i t h an i n d e p e n d e n t e f f o r t to measure the same v a r i a b l e than w i t h measures d e s i g n e d to ge t a t d i f -f e r e n t v a r i a b l e s w h i c h happen to employ the same m e t h o d . The d a t a shown i n T a b l e 6 do n o t s a t i s f y t h i s r e q u i r e m e n t i n a l l c a s e s . However , Campbel l and F i s k e (1959) p o i n t e d out the s e v e r i t y o f t h i s t e s t and i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h i s r e q u i r e -ment i s se ldom met by b e h a v i o u r a l t r a i t d a t a . M o r e o v e r , House and R i z z o (1972) c a l l a t t e n t i o n to s e v e r a l s t u d i e s 41 i n w h i c h , f o r e x a m p l e , m a n a g e r i a l p e r f o r m a n c e d a t a c o l l e c t e d f rom peers and s u p e r i o r s ( L a w l e r , 1967) and s a t i s f a c t i o n s c a l e s ( E v a n s , 1969b) have not s a t i s f i e d t h i s t e s t , w h i l e m e e t i n g the o t h e r r e q u i r e m e n t s o f c o n v e r g e n t and d i s c r i m i n a n t v a 1 i d i t y . The t h i r d c r i t e r i o n o f d i s c r i m i n a n t v a l i d i t y r e -q u i r e s t h a t t h e r e s h o u l d be the same p a t t e r n o f t r a i t i n t e r -r e l a t i o n s h i p i n a l l o f the h e t e r o t r a i t t r i a n g l e s of both the monomethod and he teromethod b l o c k s . T h i s i s e s s e n t i a l l y a q u e s t i o n o f the o r d e r i n g o f the c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s w i t h i n each b l o c k . The c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s were r a n k e d by s i z e , and the c o e f f i c i e n t o f c o n c o r d a n c e , W, was c o m p u t e d . The r e s u l t i n g V[a.=Tiie6ff? ('»[*= = . 627 ( x 3 ' ; = p l 37,09.6 ; p < . 001 ) i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e r e was a s i g n i f i c a n t p a t t e r n to the t r a i t i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s , thus m e e t i n g the l a s t r e q u i r e m e n t f o r d i s c r i m i n a n t v a l i d i t y . H a v i n g p r o v i d e d e v i d e n c e t h a t i t i s p o s s i b l e to v a l i d l y measure p e o p l e ' s a t t r a c t i o n to v a r i o u s f a c e t s o f t h e i r j o b s , the e f f e c t o f i n t e r n a l - e x t e r n a l c o n t r o l on t h e r e l a -t i o n s h i p between job a t t r a c t i o n f o r m u l a t i o n s and o v e r a l l a t t r a c t i o n was e x p l o r e d . The sample was f i r s t s p l i t i n t o an upper h a l f and l o w e r h a l f a c c o r d i n g to the R o t t e r I n t e r n a l -E x t e r n a l S c a l e . Those s c o r i n g a t or h i g h e r than 7.00 (N = 60) were i d e n t i f i e d as E x t e r n a l s ; t h o s e s c o r i n g l o w e r than 7.00 (N = 53) were c l a s s i f i e d as I n t e r n a l s . In T a b l e 7, the 42 Table 7 Comparison of C o r r e l a t i o n s Between Operational D e f i n i t i o n s and Mean Job Facet S a t i s f a c t i o n and Mean Expected Job Facet S a t i s f a c t i o n ' : Lower H a l f Versus Upper Half According to R o t t e r ' s I n t e r n a l - E x t e r n a l Scale Operational Definition Lower Half (N = 60 ) Versus Upper Half (N = 53 > Mean of job facet satisfaction (EQ1B) Mean of expected job facet satisfaction • (EQ1A) ... r i r 2 Z p* r2 p* 1A EJFS .57 .57 - - -IB JFS - - .57 .57 -2A EJFS x Importance .54 .42 .304 .90 .89 .258 2B JFS x Importance .91 .75 .2.861 p< .05 .62 .71 -.835 3A Expect .67 .47 1.552 .76 .77 -.124 3B Is Now .84 .82 ^330 .56 .64 -.644 4A Importance x Expect .59 .37 1.495 .70 .69 .098 4B Importance x Is Now .76 .61 1.479 .58 .71 -1.160 5A Should Be - Expect -.61 -.35 1.773 p<.05 -.65 -.58 .583. 5B Should Be - Is Now -.83 -.71 1.552 -.46 -.26 1.191 6A Importance x (Should Be - Expect) -.58 -.32 1.701 p< .05 -.63 -.54 .706 6B Importance x (Should Be - Is Now) -.77 -.59 1.763 p< .05 -.44 -.04 2.227 P< .05. 7A Would Like - Expect -.62 -.49 .974 -.59 -.50 .665 7B Would Like - Is Now -.76 -.44 2.701 p< .05 -.36 .01 -1.995 P< .05 8A Importance x (Would Like - Expect) -.59 -.49 .732 -.56 -.45 .763 8B Importance x (Would Like - Is Now) -.72 -.27 3.253 p<.05 -.35 .22 -3.036 P< .05 9A Importance - Expect -.58 -.47 .784 -.61 -.33 1.337 P<.05 9B Importance - Is Now -.71 -.37 2.572 p<.05 -.40 .15 -2.964 P<.05 10B Past Satisfaction .21 .14 .371 .36 .56 -1.320 11B Importance x Past Satisfaction .19 .19 .35 .66 -2.206 P< .05 .Note: Subscr ipt 1 r e f e r s to Externals (upper h a l f ) . Subscr ipt 2 r e f e r s to Internals (lower h a l f ) . * Cri t i c a l value i s 1.645 _ 43 E x t e r n a l s a re r e p r e s e n t e d by r i , b e i n g the c o r r e l a t i o n between an o p e r a t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n and mean j o b f a c e t s a t i s -f a c t i o n (EQ1B) or mean e x p e c t e d j o b f a c e t s a t i s f a c t i o n ( E Q 1 A ) . S i m i l a r l y , r 2 i s the c o r r e l a t i o n r e p r e s e n t i n g the I n t e r n a l s . As the next s t e p i n the a n a l y s i s , F i s h e r ' s r to Z t r a n s f o r m a t i o n ( E d w a r d s , 1963) was used to d e t e r m i n e whether r [ d i f f e r s s i g n i f i c a n t l y f rom r 2 . Where the two c o r r e l a -t i o n s show no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i t may be c o n c l u d e d t h a t no a p p r e c i a b l e d i f f e r e n c e e x i s t s b e t w e e n . I n t e r n a l s and E x t e r n a l s . For e x a m p l e , the c o r r e l a t i o n of r x = .91 (between JFS x Impor tance and EQ1B) i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r (p <.05) than r 2 = .75 f o r the I n t e r n a l s . T h i s s u g g e s t s t h a t the JFS x Importance d e f i n i t i o n , as a measure of j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n , has g r e a t e r p r e d i c t i v e v a l i d i t y f o r E x t e r n a l s than f o r I n t e r n a l s . S i m i l a r l y , a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between r x and r 2 i s a p p a r e n t f o r two a t t r a c t i o n f o r m u l a -t i o n s ( 5 A , 6A) and f i v e s a t i s f a c t i o n f o r m u l a t i o n s (2B , 6B , 7B, 8B , 9 B ) . When the same p r o c e d u r e s were a p p l i e d to EQ1A, the c o r r e l a t i o n s f o r o n l y s i x f o r m u l a t i o n s were f o u n d to d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y . Of t h e s e , f o u r ( 6 B , 7B , 8 B , 9B) c o i n c i d e d w i t h s i g n i f i c a n t f o r m u l a t i o n s under EQ1B. In the l a s t f o r m u l a t i o n (11B) the t r e n d i s r e v e r s e d i n t h a t r 2 exceeds r i , w h i c h means t h a t Impor tance x P a s t S a t i s f a c t i o n i s a good p r e d i c t o r of j o b a t t r a c t i o n f o r I n t e r n a l s r a t h e r than E x t e r n a l s . In summary, o f 34 p a i r e d c o r r e l a t i o n s , 13 d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y f rom each o t h e r a t the 5 per c e n t l e v e l or b e t t e r . Of t h e s e , ten r e l a t e to o p e r a t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n s o f j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n and 3 to j o b a t t r a c t i o n . In o r d e r to examine whether a s t r i c t e r d i v i s i o n o f the sample i n t o I n t e r n a l s and E x t e r n a l s would produce s i m i l a r t r e n d s , the sample was then a r b i t r a r i l y s p l i t i n t o a l o w e r t h i r d ( t h o s e s c o r i n g below 5 .00 on the R o t t e r S c a l e ; N = 41) and a h i g h e r t h i r d ( t h o s e s c o r i n g h i g h e r than 9 . 0 0 ; N = 4 0 ) . For t h i s p r o c e d u r e , T a b l e 8 r e v e a l s t h a t t h r e e f o r m u l a t i o n s (7B , 8B , 9B) d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y f o r b o t h mean j o b f a c e t s a t i s f a c t i o n and mean e x p e c t e d j o b f a c e t s a t i s f a c t i o n , s u g g e s t i n g t h a t f o r E x t e r n a l s t h e s e measures a re good p r e d i c t o r s o f both j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n (EQ1B) and j o b a t t r a c t i o n ( E Q 1 A ) . The r e m a i n i n g s i g n i f i -c a n t f o r m u l a t i o n s f o r EQ1B, p r e d i c t i n g s a t i s f a c t i o n i n E x t e r n a l s , are 2B and 4B, w h i l e 3A, 4A, 5A, and 6A p r e d i c t a t t r a c t i o n , as does 6B f o r EQ1A. For E q u a t i o n s 10B and 11B, h o w e v e r , the t r e n d i s r e v e r s e d (as i t was f o r 11B i n T a b l e 7) i n that r 2 exceeds r i , thus i n d i c a t i n g t h a t the p a s t s a t i s -f a c t i o n measures s e r v e as good p r e d i c t o r s o f j o b a t t r a c t i o n f o r I n t e r n a l s . In summary, o f 38 p a i r e d c o r r e l a t i o n s , 15 d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y f rom each o t h e r a t the 5 per c e n t l e v e l or b e t t e r . Of the 15 p a i r e d c o r r e l a t i o n s t h a t d i f f e r 45 Table 8 -i Comparison of Correlations Between Operational Definitions and Mean Job Facet Satisfaction and Mean Expected Job Facet Satisfaction: Lowest Third Versus Highest Third According to Rotter's Internal-External Scale Lowest Third (N = 41) Versus Highest Third (N = 40) Operational Definition Mean of job facet satisfaction (EQ1B) ' Mean of expected job facet satisfaction (EQ1A) ; r i r2 Z P* r l r2 Z P* 1A EJFS .58 .49 .546 - - -IB JFS - - - .53 ' .49 .546 2A EJFS x Importance .61 .34 1.537 .90 .91 -.242 2B JFS x Importance .93 .76 2.866 P< .05 .58 .69 -.805 3A Expect .79 .41 2.745 P< .05 .76 .79 -.325 3B Is Now .93 .87 1.407 .54 .57 -.191 4A Importance x Expect .74 .30 2.771 P<.05 .69 .71 -.169 4B Importance x Is Now .89 .65 2.801 P<.05 .55 .72 -1.255 5A Should Be - Expect -.67 -.25 2.407 P< .05 -.64 -.59 .346 5B Should Be - Is Now -.86 -.77 1.182 -.43 -.19 1.160 6A Importance x (Should Be - Expect) -.64 -.21 2.359 P<.05. -.62 -.54 .524 6B Importance x (Should Be - Is Now) -.80 -.62 1.619 -.42 .09 -2.329 P< .05 7A Would Like - Expect -.67 -.45 1.411 -.57 -.46 .654 7B Would Like - Is Now -.77 -.51 1.978 P<.05 -.31 .09 -1.77? P<.05 8A Importance x (Would Like - Expect) -.63 -.46 1.056 -.54 -.43 .623 8B Importance x (Would Like - Is Now) -.72 - . 3 3 2.446 P<.05 - . 3 2 .29 -2.732 P<.05 9A Importance - Expect -.62 -.45 1.039 -.62 -.37 1.456 9B Importance - Is Now -.73 -.43 2.030 P<.05 -.40 .19 -2.667 P<-05 10B Past Satisfaction .16 •35 -.833 .34 .81 -3.346 P<.05 11B Importance x Past Satisfaction .18 .27 -.411 .30 .80 -3.416 P<.05 Note: Subscript 1 refers to Externals (upper third). Subscript 2 refers to Internals (lower third). * Cr i t i c a l value i s 1.645 46 s i g n i f i c a n t l y f rom each o t h e r , e l e v e n r e l a t e to o p e r a t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n s o f j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n and 4 to j o b a t t r a c t i o n . C h a p t e r 5 IMPLICATIONS OF RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS T h i s c h a p t e r p r e s e n t s c o n c l u d i n g remarks and d i s c u s s e s some i m p l i c a t i o n s o f the r e s u l t s f o r managers and r e s e a r c h e r s i n t e r e s t e d i n f u r t h e r c l a r i f y i n g the u t i l i t y o f a j o b a t t r a c t i o n a p p r o a c h . W h i l e t h i s s t u d y r e p r e s e n t s o n l y an e a r l y a t t e m p t d i r e c t e d a t the d e v e l o p m e n t o f a t h e o r y o f j o b a t t r a c t i o n , the r e s u l t s do p r o v i d e s u p p o r t i v e e v i d e n c e t h a t (a) a l t h o u g h the o p e r a t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n s o f j o b a t t r a c t i o n (and s a t i s -f a c t i o n ) do n o t y i e l d e m p i r i c a l l y c o m p a r a b l e measures o f a t t r a c t i o n ( s a t i s f a c t i o n ) , (b) i t i s p o s s i b l e to v a l i d l y measure p e o p l e ' s a t t r a c t i o n t o , and s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h , t h e i r j o b s . The f i n d i n g s r e l a t e d to the j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n r e s u l t s are p a r t i a l l y c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h o s e o f Wanous and L a w l e r ( 1 9 7 2 ) , Evans ( 1 9 7 2 ) , and B a r t h ( 1 9 7 4 ) . For Wanous and L a w l e r , as w e l l as B a r t h , Is Now and Importance x Is Now were the two c o m b i n a t i o n s most h i g h l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h •4.8 mean f a c e t s a t i s f a c t i o n ; f o r the p r e s e n t s t u d y , Is Now and JFS x Impor tance have the h i g h e s t c o r r e l a t i o n s . For the most p a r t , the i n t r o d u c t i o n o f i m p o r t a n c e r a t i n g s r e d u c e d the c o r r e l a t i o n s somewhat, which was a l s o r e p o r t e d by Wanous and L a w l e r , and B a r t h . However , i n the p r e s e n t s t u d y , i n e i g h t i n s t a n c e s the c o r r e l a t i o n s between (1) E q u a t i o n s I B , 3B, 10B, and mean e x p e c t e d s a t i s f a c t i o n and (2) E q u a t i o n s 1A, I B , 3A, 3B, 7B, and mean p a s t s a t i s -f a c t i o n , are s u b s t a n t i a l l y i m p r o v e d by i m p o r t a n c e w e i g h t i n g . In c o m p a r i s o n , the two f o r m u l a t i o n s h i g h l y c o r -r e l a t e d w i t h o v e r a l l s a t i s f a c t i o n i n the Evans (1972) s t u d y o f j u n i o r m i d d l e managers both i n v o l v e the S h o u l d Be component : one based on a d i s c r e p a n c y s c o r e ( S h o u l d Be -Is Now), the o t h e r b e i n g the w e i g h t e d v e r s i o n o f t h i s s c o r e . The c o r r e l a t i o n s r e p o r t e d by Evans f o r Is Now ( r = . 7 2 ; p <.001) and S h o u l d Be - ' I s Now ( r = - . 7 2 ; p <.001) are exceeded i n the p r e s e n t s t u d y ( r = . 8 3 ; p <.001 and r = . 7 8 ; p < .001 , r e s p e c t i v e l y ) . On the o t h e r h a n d , E v a n s ' c o r r e l a t i o n ( r = - . 7 4 ; p <. 001 ) f o r Importance x ( S h o u l d Be - Is Now) s l i g h t l y exceeds the c o r r e s p o n d i n g c o r r e l a t i o n ( r = - . 7 0 ; p <. 0 01 ) o f the p r e s e n t s t u d y . I t s h o u l d be noted a g a i n , however , t h a t E v a n s ' measure o f o v e r a l l s a t i s f a c t i o n was based on the B r a y f i e l d - R o t h e i n s t r u m e n t . B a r t h ( 1 9 7 4 ) , f o r e n g i n e e r i n g and b l u e - c o l l a r s a m p l e s , r e s p e c t i v e l y , r e p o r t e d r = . 5 9 , .84 (p <. 001 ) f o r 49 Is' Now; r = - . 5 6 , - . 5 0 (p <. 001 ) f o r S h o u l d Be - Is Now; and r = - . 5 2 , - . 3 9 (p <.001) f o r Impor tance x S h o u l d Be -Is Now. The f i n d i n g s r e l a t e d to a c o m p a r i s o n o f c o r r e l a -t i o n s w i t h the d i r e c t r a t i n g measures o f o v e r a l l s a t i s f a c -t i o n i n d i c a t e some d i v e r g e n c e i n the r e l a t i v e o r d e r or i m -p o r t a n c e o f a l l e l e v e n - o p e r a t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n s , f rom E q u a t i o n s I B , 2B , 3B, 4B , 5B, 6B, 7B, 8B , 9B , 10B, and 11B to 3B, I B , 5B , 7B , 9B, 2B , 6B , 4B , 8 B , 10B, and 11B. In // o t h e r w o r d s , the d i v e r g e n c e shows most c l e a r l y among the d i f f e r e n t t h e o r e t i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s o f the meaning of j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n ( f u l f i l l m e n t v s . e q u i t y v s . d e s i r e s ) r a t h e r than i n terms of the form of the model ( a d d i t i v e v s . m u l t i -p l i c a t i v e ) . A s i m i l a r t r e n d was noted by Wanous and L a w l e r ( 1 972:1 0 2 ) , and B a r t h (1 974:1 7) . What a p p e a r s a t f i r s t g l a n c e as an i n c o n s i s t e n c y between some of the f i n d i n g s o f t h i s s t u d y and B a r t h ' s (1974) i s e x p l a i n e d by the a d d i t i o n a l use o f a measure o f " e x p e c t e d j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n " i n the p r e s e n t s t u d y . For a s i m i l a r sample of e n g i n e e r s , B a r t h ' s (1974 , T a b l e 3) r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e t h a t o n l y two a t t r a c t i o n f o r m u l a t i o n s (EQ 7A and 8A) c o r r e l a t e h i g h e r w i t h the s i n g l e - i t e m j o b a t t r a c t i o n s c o r e than d i d the c o r r e s p o n d i n g s a t i s f a c t i o n f o r m u l a t i o n s . In t h i s s t u d y (see T a b l e 3 ) , the same two f o r m u l a t i o n s , a l o n g . w i t h E q u a t i o n s 1A and 9A, were f o u n d to have h i g h e r c o r r e l a t i o n s t h a n t h e i r j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n 50 c o u n t e r p a r t s . As was shown i n C h a p t e r 4 , t h i s t r e n d f o r a t t r a c t i o n f o r m u l a t i o n s to be more s t r o n g l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h j o b a t t r a c t i o n was c l a r i f i e d by the r e l a t i v e l y h i g h e r c o r r e l a t i o n s (o f a t t r a c t i o n f o r m u l a t i o n s ) w i t h the more v a l i d measure o f a t t r a c t i o n based on mean e x p e c t e d j o b f a c e t s a t i s f a c t i o n . W h i l e i t i s a t r u i s m to say t h a t a good d e a l o f f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h i s n e e d e d , i t i s s u g g e s t e d here t h a t the l o n g - r u n p a y - o f f f o r r e s e a r c h e r s and managers i n t e r e s t e d i n the j o b a t t r a c t i o n a p p r o a c h w i l l come t h r o u g h a l o n g i -t u d i n a l f i e l d s t u d y e f f o r t . From a c o n c e p t u a l p o i n t o f 5 v i e w , key q u e s t i o n s seem to be : (1) How many constructs are there empirically? (2) What behaviours are these con-structs related to, both as determinants and consequences? A s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e s e q u e s t i o n s a re s e v e r a l s p e c i f i c a r e a s d e s e r v i n g o f c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n f u t u r e s t u d i e s i n o r d e r to cement the b a s i c j o b a t t r a c t i o n f ramework c o n s i d e r e d h e r e . a . Job a t t r a c t i o n d e f i n i t i o n s and measures must be further r e f i n e d so t h a t s y s t e m a t i c a t t e m p t s a t c r o s s - s t u d y and c r o s s - s a m p l e c o m p a r a b i l i t y can be a c h i e v e d . b . Time t r e n d s i n v a r i o u s f a c e t s o f r e s p o n d e n t s ' j o b s s h o u l d be f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t e d , and t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p 51 w i t h measures o f b e h a v i o u r and outcome v a r i a b l e s i n i n t e r s v e n i n g and s u b s e q u e n t t ime p e r i o d s e x a m i n e d . c . I t i s not a t a l l c l e a r w h e t h e r a s k i n g a p e r s o n to i n d i c a t e h i s j o b a t t r a c t i o n on two s c a l e s ( e . g . , " w o u l d l i k e " and " e x p e c t " ) , and then t a k i n g t h e i r d i f f e r e n c e as a measure of a t t r a c t i o n , p r o d u c e s d i f f e r e n t r e s u l t s than a s k i n g him to s i m p l y r a t e a t t r a c t i o n on a d i r e c t d i s c r e p a n c y s c a l e [ i . e . , "Compared to what you would like, how much do you r e a l i s t i c a l l y expect to g e t some t ime f rom n o w ? , " w i t h the s c a l e f o r each i t e m e x t e n d i n g f rom " e x p e c t to ge t v e r y l i t t l e " (1) to " e x p e c t to r e c e i v e as much as I would l i k e " ( 7 ) ] . d . Emphasis s h o u l d be g i v e n to i n c l u d i n g measures o f p o s s i b l y i m p o r t a n t m o d e r a t i n g v a r i a b l e s o t h e r than i n t e r n a l - e x t e r n a l o r i e n t a t i o n . A g r e a t e r v a r i e t y of samples w i l l be needed to g a i n a c l e a r p i c t u r e o f how v a r i o u s i n d i v i d u a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a f f e c t - a p e r s o n ' s j o b e x p e c t a t i o n s . e . The q u e s t i o n of whether d i s c r e p a n c y c o n s t r u c t s a r e more p r e d i c t i v e f o r I n t e r n a l s and a b s o l u t e l e v e l s more p r e d i c t i v e f o r E x t e r n a l s i s w o r t h y of c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n f u t u r e s t u d i e s . The key d i f f e r e n c e may be i n the t ime p e r i o d o v e r w h i c h the d i s c r e p a n c y i s c o n c e p t u a l i z e d . In the extreme (as s u g g e s t e d by Cummings, 1 9 7 4 ) , E x t e r n a l s ( p e r s o n s who have been r e i n f o r c e d f o r p e r c e i v i n g o n l y i n the " h e r e 52 and now" and who have not been r e i n f o r c e d f o r p r e s e n t d e p r i v a t i o n ) may p o s s e s s such s h o r t t ime p e r s p e c t i v e s t h a t the " s h o u l d b e " - i s now or the " e x p e c t " - i s now d i f f e r e n c e i s e q u a t e d to a z e r o t ime l a g . A r e s e a r c h s t r a t e g y e m p l o y i n g t h e s e s u g g e s t i o n s s h o u l d bear f r u i t f u l r e s u l t s . D i s c r e p a n c i e s between how i n d i v i d u a l s see t h e i r j o b now and as t h e y e x p e c t i t to be some t ime from now may p r o v i d e v a l u a b l e d i a g n o s t i c and t h e o r e t i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n . FOOTNOTES For e x a m p l e , a r e v i e w o f the j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n l i t e r a t u r e by Locke (1969) r e v e a l s t h a t numerous s t u d i e s have c o r r e l a t e d s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h such v a r i a b l e s as a g e , t e n u r e , p a y , s e n i o r i t y , e d u c a t i o n , i n t e l l i g e n c e , e t h n i c g r o u p , r e l i g i o n , e t c . , and y e t none o f t h e s e measures i n d e x e s v a l u e s or p e r c e p t i o n s d i r e c t l y and i n f a l l i b l y . Thus i t i s not s u r p r i s i n g t h a t the c o r r e l a t i o n s have been both low and i n c o n s i s t e n t from s t u d y to s t u d y . As used h e r e , j o b a t t r a c t i o n i s v i e w e d i n terms of the a t t r a c t i o n o f the j o b h o l d e r to h i s p r e s e n t j o b , t h a t i s , h o l d i n g h i s j o b i n o r d e r to e x t r a c t , a t some f u t u r e p o i n t i n t i m e , c e r t a i n e x t r i n s i c and i n t r i n s i c rewards f rom the o r g a n i z a t i o n . T h i s v i e w s h o u l d not be c o n f u s e d w i t h the q u e s t i o n of o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e , t h a t i s , the a t t r a c t i o n of a p e r s o n to a g i v e n c a r e e r o r o c c u p a t i o n . J A s p o i n t e d out by Wanous and L a w l e r ( 1 9 7 2 ) , i m p o r t a n c e r a t i n g s as a measure of v a l e n c e or a f f e c t have a l i m i t a t i o n i n t h a t they do not have a d i r e c t i o n a l com-p o n e n t . High i m p o r t a n c e a s s i g n e d to an outcome or j o b f a c e t would i n d i c a t e h i g h a f f e c t , but does not n e c e s s a r i l y i n d i c a t e w h e t h e r the d i r e c t i o n o f t h a t a f f e c t i s p o s i t i v e or n e g a t i v e . However , i n the p r e s e n t s t u d y t h i s p r e s e n t e d no p r o b l e m s i n c e a l l but one o f the j o b f a c e t s were i n the same d i r e c t i o n . ' ' W i t h r e g a r d to t h i s q u e s t i o n i n P a r t I I o f the q u e s t i o n n a i r e (see A p p e n d i x A ) , the i n t e r e s t i n g p o i n t c o n c e r n s how f a r i n the f u t u r e r e s p o n d e n t s (or p e o p l e i n g e n e r a l ) can be e x p e c t e d to l o o k . A l t h o u g h e v e n t u a l l y i t may be p o s s i b l e t o d e t e r m i n e the b e s t manner o f p h r a s i n g t h i s q u e s t i o n i n o r d e r to o b t a i n the bes t p r e d i c t a b i l i t y , 53 54 t h e r e may be l a r g e i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n what w i l l work b e s t (Wanous and L a w l e r , 1 9 7 2 ) . The same a p p l i e s to the " e x p e c t e d s a t i s f a c t i o n " r e s p o n s e asked f o r i n P a r t IV of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e . These and s e v e r a l o t h e r p o i n t s were s u g g e s t e d by Cummi ngs (1 974 ) . BIBLIOGRAPHY B a r t h , R . T . An e m p i r i c a l e x a m i n a t i o n o f s e v e r a l j o b a t t r a c -t i o n meas ures-. - - T n Academy of Management Proceedings, T h i r t y - T h i r d A n n u a l M e e t i n g , 1973 , 4 0 0 - 4 0 5 . . An e m p i r i c a l e x a m i n a t i o n o f s e v e r a l j o b a t t r a c -t i o n m e a s u r e s . ^Working Paper No. 267. F a c u l t y of Commerce and B u s i n e s s A d m i n i s t r a t i o n . v> • V a n c o u v e r : The- U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1974 (To appear i n International Review of Applied Psychology - i n p r e s s ) . B l o o d , M . R . The v a l i d i t y o f i m p o r t a n c e . Journal of Applied Psychology, 1971 , 5_5, 4 8 7 - 4 8 8 . B r a y f i e l d , A . H . and R o t h e , H . F . An i n d e x o f j o b s a t i s f a c -t i o n . Journal of Applied Psychology, 1 951 , 35 , 3 0 7 - 3 1 1 . C a m p b e l l , D. j l i . and F i s k e , D.W. C o n v e r g e n t and d i s c r i m i n a n t v a l i d a t i o n by the m u l t i t r a i t - m u l t i m e t h o d m a t r i x . Psychological B u l l e t i n , 1 959 , 5_6, 8 1 - 1 0 5 . Cummings, L . L . P e r s o n a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n to D r . R . T . B a r t h , 9 A u g u s t 1974. E d w a r d s , A . L . Experimental design in psychological research ( r e v i s e d e d . ) . New Y 6 r k : H o l t , R i n e h a r t and W i n s t o n , 1963. E v a n s , M . G . C o n c e p t u a l and o p e r a t i o n a l prob lems i n the measurement o f v a r i o u s a s p e c t s o f j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n Journal of Applied Psychology, 1 969 , 5_3, 9 3 - 1 0 1 . ( 56 E v a n s . M . G . C o n v e r g e n t and d i s c r i m i n a n t v a l i d i t i e s between the C o r n e l l " Job D e s c r i p t i v e I n d e x " and a measure of g o a l a t t a i n m e n t . Journal of Applied Psychology, 1969, 51, 102 -106 . (b) . R e l a t i o n s among w e i g h t e d and n o n - w e i g h t e d measures o f j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n . Studies in Personnel Psychology3 1 972 , 4 , 4 5 - 5 4 . The m o d e r a t i n g e f f e c t s o f i n t e r n a l v e r s u s e x t e r n a l c o n t r o l on the r e l a t i o n s h i p between v a r i o u s a s p e c t s o f j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n . Studies in Personnel Psychology, 1 9 7 3 , 5_, 3 7 - 4 5 . Ewen, R . B . W e i g h t i n g components o f j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n . Journal of Applied Psychology, 1 967 , 6 8 - 7 3 . G h i s e l l i , E . E . Explorations in managerial talent. P a c i f i c P a l i s a d e s : Goodyear P u b l i s h i n g Company, 1971 . G r a e n , G. I n s t r u m e n t a l i t y t h e o r y of work m o t i v a t i o n : Some e x p e r i m e n t a l r e s u l t s and s u g g e s t e d m o d i f i c a t i o n s . Journal of Applied Psychology, 1969 , 51, 1 -25 . H o u s e , R . J . and R i z z o , R . T . Toward the measurement o f o r g a n i z a t i o n a l p r a c t i c e s : S c a l e deve lopment and v a l i d a t i o n . Journal of Applied Psychology, 1972, 56 , 388 -396 . K a t z e l l , R . A . P e r s o n a l v a l u e s , j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n , and j o b b e h a v i o r . In-Man in a world at work, e d . H, rlvrBorowBosBostonklouHbughte'i i if iyii f iffl (i;nmGompan_/$ 1 964 , 3 4 1 - 3 6 3 . L a w l e r , E . E . The m u l t i - t r a i t m u l t i - r a t e r a p p r o a c h to m e a s u r i n g m a n a g e r i a l p e r f o r m a n c e . Journal of Applied Psychology, 1 967 , 51 , T.-369-381 . L o c k e , E . A . What i s j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n ? Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 1969 , 4, 3 0 9 - 3 3 6 . P o r t e r , L . W . A s t u d y of p e r c e i v e d need s a t i s f a c t i o n i n bot tom and m i d d l e management j o b s . Journal of Applied Psychology, 1 9 6 1 , 4_5, 1 -10 . 57 R o t t e r , J . B . G e n e r a l i z e d e x p e c t a n c i e s f o r i n t e r n a l v e r s u s e x t e r n a l c o n t r o l o f r e i n f o r c e m e n t . Psychological Monographs, 1 966 , 8fJ, (Whole number 6 0 9 ) . S i e g e l , S . Nonparametric s t a t i s t i c s . New Y o r k : McGraw-H i l l , 1956. Vroom, V . H . Work and motivation. New Y o r k : John W i l e y and S o n s , 1964. Wanous, J . P . and L a w l e r , E . E . Measurement and meaning o f j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n . Journal of Applied Psychology, 1 972 , 5_6 , 9 5 - 1 0 5 . Wood, D . A . and L e B o l d , W.K. O v e r a l l j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n and e n g i n e e r i n g j o b v a l u e s , c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , and b e h a v i o r . In Proceedings, 78th Annual Convention of the American Psychological Association, 1970 , 5 8 5 - 5 8 6 . APPENDIX A QUESTIONNAIRE MAILED TO RESPONDENTS 58. PART I 59 Below are H a t e d a number of c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s connected w i t h your p r o f e s s i o n a l p o s i t i o n as an engineer. For each c h a r a c t e r i s t i c , you are asked t o give three r a t i n g s : ( a) H o v much of the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i s there nov connected w i t h your p o s i t i o n ? (b) How much of the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c do you t h i n k should be connected w i t h your p o s i t i o n ? r ( c) How s a t i s f i e d are you w i t h the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c ? (1) P l e a s e take each r a t i n g from a seven-point s c a l e which l o o k s l i k e t h i s : 2 (minimum 1 or none) 3 4 5 6 7 (maximum) (average) (2) and w r i t e the r a t i n g s on the three l i n e s shown below each statement. EXAMPLE - consider the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of " o p p o r t u n i t y to do c h a l l e n g i n g work." "The o p p o r t u n i t y to do c h a l l e n g i n g work." (a) how much now? ^ (b) how much should.be? jG ( c ) how s a t i s f i e d ? Q T h i s s e t of responses i n d i c a t e s that "The o p p o r t u n i t y to do c h a l l e n g i n g work" i s somewhat more than average (the response to P a r t (a) i s " 5 " ) , that you f e e l an almost maximum amount of o p p o r t u n i t y should be connected w i t h your job ("6" f o r P a r t J"b)), and t h a t your l e v e l of s a t i s -f a c t i o n w i t h regard to t h i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i s about average ("4" f o r P a r t ( c ) ) . PLEASE DO NOT OMIT ANY SCALES The f e e l i n g of sel f - e s t e e m o r s e l f - r e s p e c t connected w i t h my j o b . (a) how much now? ; (b) how much should be? ; (c) how s a t i s f i e d ? The o p p o r t u n i t y f o r p e r s o n a l growth and development i n my j o b . (a) how much now? ; (b) how much should be? ; (c) how s a t i s f i e d ? The p r e s t i g e of my job i n s i d e the company (t h a t i s , the regard r e c e i v e d from others i n the company). (a) how much now? ; (b) how much should be? ; (c) how s a t i s f i e d ? The o p p o r t u n i t y f o r independent thought and a c t i o n i n my j o b . (a) how much now? ; (b) how much should be? ; (c) how s a t i s f i e d ? The job s e c u r i t y connected w i t h my work i n t h i s company. (a) how much now? ; (b) how much should be? ; (c) how s a t i s f i e d ? The o p p o r t u n i t y to f i n d out how w e l l I am doing my Job. (a) how much new? ; (b) how much should be? ; (c) how s a t i s f i e d ? The p r e s t i g e of my job ou t s i d e the company ( t h a t i s , the regard r e c e i v e d f ron others not i n the company). (a) how much now? ; (b) how much should be? ; (c) how s a t i s f i e d ? The o p p o r t u n i t y to do c h a l l e n g i n g work. (a) how much now? : (b) how much should be? ; (c) how s a t i s f i e d ? The o p p o r t u n i t y on my job to get to know ot h e r people. (a) how much now? ; (b) how much should be? ; (c) how s a t i s f i e d ? The o p p o r t u n i t y to do a job from the be g i n n i n g to the end ( t h a t i s , the chance to do a whole j o b ) . (a) how much now? ; (b) how much should be? ; (c) how s a t i s f i e d ? The amount of v a r i e t y i n my j o b . (a) how much now? ; (b) how much should be? ; (c) how s a t i s f i e d ? The pay f o r my j o b . (a) how much now? (b) how much should be? ; (c) how s a t i s f i e d ? The f e e l i n g of worthwhile accomplishment i n my j o b . . (a) how much now? ; (b) how much should be? ; (c) how s a t i s f i e d ? _ The o p p o r t u n i t y , i n my j o b , to give help to other people. (a) how much now? ; (b) how much should be? ; (c) how s a t i s f i e d ? ^ PLEASE DO NOT WRITE IN THIS COLUMN 60 - 2 PLEASE DO NOT OKIT ANY SCALES The opportunity, i n my job, for participation In the determination of methods, procedures and goals. (a) how much now? ; (b) how much should be? ; (c) how gatlsfied?_ The opportunity to develop close friendships i n my Job. (a) how much now?; ; (b) how much ohould be? ; (c) how satisfied?_ The opportunity for promotion. (a.) how much now? ; (b) how much ohould be7_ (c) how satisfied?_ The amount of respect and fa i r treatment I receive from my supervisor, (a) how ouch now? ; (b) how ouch should be? ; (c) how satisfied? The opportunity to develop technical competence i n others. (a) how much now? ; (b) how much should be? ; (c) how satisfied? The opportunity to be creative, innovative, imaginative. (a) how much now? ; (b) how much should be? ; (c) how satisfied? the opportunity to learn and develop through interactions with colleagues (e) how much now? ; (b) how much should be? ; (c) how satisfied? PARI 11 PLEASE DO NOT WRITE IN THIS COLUMN In this part of the questionnaire you are asked to go over the same job characteristics again. However, this time the three ratings for each characteristic pertain to the following: (a) How much of the characteristic would you l i k e to have associated with your Job? 0>) How much of the characteristic do you expect to have some time from now? (c) How Important i s this characteristic to you? Use the same 7-point scale again: (minimum) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 (maximum) (average) PLEASE DO NOT OMIT AMY SCALES The feeling of self-e3teem or self-respect connected with my job. (a) vould l i k e to liave?_ ; (b) how much expect? ; (c) how important? The opportunity for personal grovth and development i n my job. (a) would l i k e to have? ; (b) how much expect? ; (c) how important? The prestige o£ my .job inside the company (that i s , the regard received from others in the company). (a) would l i k e to have? ; (b) how much expect? ; (c) how important? The opportunity for independent thought and action i n my job. (a) would l i k e to have? ; (b) how much expect? ; (c) how important?_ The job security connected with ray work i n this company. (a) would l i k e to have? ; (b) how much expect? ;' (c) how important? The opportunity to find out how well I am doing my job. (a) would l i k e to have? (b) hew much expect? ; (c) how Important? The prestige of my Job outside the company (that Is, the regard received from others not i n the company). (a) would l i k e to have? ; (b) how much expect? ; (c) how important? The opportunity to do challenging work. (a) would l i k e to have? ; (b) how much expect?^ (c) how lmportant?_ The opportunity on my job to get to know other people. (a) would like to have? ; (b) how much expect? ; (c) how important?^ The opportunity to do a job from the beginning to the end (that Is, the chance to do a whole job). (a) would li k e to have? (b) how much expect? ; (c) how Important? The amount of variety in my job. (a) would li k e to have? ; (b) how much expect?_ (c) how important?_ The pay for my job. (a) would l i k e to have? ; (b) how much expect? ; (c) how important? PLEASE DO 36l>-RITE EI THIS COLUMN 61 PLEASE DO NOT OMIT ANY SCALES The feeling of worthwhile accomplishment i n my job. (a) would l i k e to have? ; (b) how much expect? ; (c) how Important? The opportunity, i n my job, to give help to other people. (a) would l i k e to have? ; (b) how much expect? ; (c) how important? The opportunity, i n my job, for participation i n the determination of methods, procedures and goals. (a) would l i k e to have? (b) how much expect? ; (c) how important? The opportunity to deve]op close friendships In my jcb. .(a) would l i k e to have? ; (b) how much expect?_ ; (c) how Important? The opportunity for promotion. (a) would l i k e to have? ; (b) how much expect? ; (c) how Important? The amount of respect and f a i r treatment I receive i from my supervisor. (a) would l i k e to have? ; (b) how much expect? ; (c) how important? The opportunity to develop technical competence i n others. (a) would l i k e to have? ; (b) how much expect? ; (c) how important? The opportunity to be creative, innovative, imaginative. (a) would l i k e to have? ; (b) how much expect? ; (c) how important? The opportunity to learn and develop through interactions with colleagues, (a) would l i k e to have? ; (b) how much expect? ; (c) how Important? PLEASE DO NOT WRITE IN THIS COLUMN PART I I I The purpose of the following ltens i s to see how you describe yourself. Obviously there are no right or wrong answers, so try to describe yourself as accurately and honestly as you can. A. For each of the pairs of words below, please check (y/) the word you think most describes you. 1. understanding thorough 4. sharp-witted .deliberate 7. progressive t h r i f t y 10. pleasant modest 2. loy a l dependable 5. kind J o l l y 8. thoughtful fair-oindc.d 11. responsible r e l i a b l e 12. _unaffeeted _ a l e r t _ _ e n t e r p r i 3 i n g _ i n t e l l i g e n t _cociable __steady _ d i g n i f i e d c i v i l i z e d 13. 14. sympathetic 15. stable patient foresighted B. In each of these pairs of words, check the word you think least describes you. . i m a g i n a t i v e G e l f - c o n t r o l l e d 16._ 22._ 28.. 31. _shy lazy conceited _ i n f a n t i l e dreamy dependent weak _sel£ish shi f t l e s s _ b i t t e r undependable resentful 17. immature quarrelsome 20. shallow stingy 23. apathetic e g o t i s t i c a l 26. _fussy submissive 29. hard-hearted . s e l f - p i t y i n g 18. 21. 24. 27. 30. ^unfriendly self-seeking ..unstable _ f rivolous ..despondent _evasive opinionated _pessimistic cynical .aggressive - 4 -PART IV PLEASE DO NOT WRITE IN THIS COLUMN Q 0 - '2> Thio section, i s designed to examine your past (some time ago) and expected (some time from now) satisfaction with the Job characteristics used e a r l i e r . For each of the characteristics l i s t e d , pic&oe provide two ratings. Use the following scale: (ainlmum satisfaction) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 (maximum (average) satisfaction) PLEASE DO NOT OMIT ANY SCALES The feeling of self-esteem or self-respect connected with my job. (a) past satisfaction ; (b) expected satisfaction The opportunity for personal growth and development i n my job. (ft) past satisfaction^ (b) expected satisfaction The prestige of my job inside the company (that i s , the regard received from ethers i n the company). (a) past satisfaction ; (b) expected satisfaction The opportunity for Independent thought and action in my job. (a) past satisfaction ; (b) expected satisfaction Tiie job security connected with my work i n this company, (a) past satisfaction ; (b) expected satisfaction The opportunity to find out how well I am doing ny Job. (a) past satisfaction ; (b) expected satisfaction The prestige of job outside the company (that i s , the regard received from others not i n the company). (a) past satisfaction ; (b) expected satisfaction The opportunity to do challenging work, (a) past satisfaction ; (b) expected satisfaction The opportunity on my job to get to know other people, (a) past satisfaction ; (b) expected s a t i s f a c t i o n The opportunity to do a job from the beginning to the end (that i s , the chance to do a whole job). (a) past satisfaction ; (b) expected satisfaction The amount of voriety i n ray job, (a) past satisfaction ; (b) expected satisfaction The pay for my Job. (a) past satisfaction (b) expected sat i s f a c t i o n ^ The feeling of worthwhile accomplishment i n my job. (a) past satisfaction ; (b) expected satisfaction The opportunity, i n my job, to give help to other people, (n) past satisfaction ; (b) expected satisfaction The opportunity. In my job, for participation i n the determination of methods, procedures and goals. (a) past satisfaction ; (b) expected satisfaction The opportunity to develop close friendships i n my job. (a) past satisfaction ; (b) expected satisfaction The opportunity for promotion. (a) past satisfaction ; (b) expected satisfaction The amount of respect and f a i r treatment I receive from my supervisor, (a) past satisfaction ; (b) expected satisfaction The opportunity to develop technical, competence i n others, (a) past satisfaction ; (b) expected satisfaction' The opportunity to be creative, innovative, imaginative, (a) past satisfaction ; (b) expected satisfaction The opportunity to learn and develop through interactions with colleagues, (a) past satisfaction ; (b) expected satisfaction - 5 -PART V In t h i s s e c t i o n we t r y to f i n d out the way i n whLch c e r t a i n important events In s o c i e t y a f f e c t d i f f e r e n t people. Each item c o n s i s t s of a p a i r of a l t e r n a t i v e s l e t t e r e d a o r b. P l e a s e s e l e c t the one statement of each p a i r (and only one) which you more s t r o n g l y b e l i e v e to be the cose as f a r as you're concerned. Be sure to s e l e c t the one you a c t u a l l y b e l i e v e to be more true r a t h e r than the one you th i n k you should choose or the one you would l i k e to be t r u e . This i s a measure of personal b e l i e f : o b v i o u s l y there are no r i g h t or wrong answers. When you have decided which of the p a i r of a l t e r n a t i v e s best r e f l e c t s your b e l i e f * c i r c l e the l e t t e r . P l e a s e answer these items c a r e f u l l y but do not spend too much time on any one item. Be sure to make a d e c i s i o n f o r each of the 29 items. In some instances you may discover that you b e l i e v e both statements or n e i t h e r one. In such cases, be sure to s e l e c t the one vou more s t r o n g l y b e l i e v e to be the case as f a r as you're concerned. Also t r y to respond to each item independently when making your c h o i c e ; do not be i n f l u e n c e d by your previous answers. 1. a C h i l d r e n get Into t r o u b l e because t h e i r parents punish them too much. b The t r o u b l e w i t h most c h i l d r e n nowadays i s that t h e i r parents are too easy w i t h them. 2. a Many of the unhappy t h i n g s i n people's l i v e s a r e p a r t l y due t o bad l u c k , b People's misfortunes r e s u l t from the mistakes they make. 3. a One of the major reasons why we have wars i s because people don't take enough i n t e r e s t i n p o l i t i c s . b There w i l l always be wars, no matter how hard people t r y to prevent them. 4. a In the long run people get the respect they deserve i n t h i s w o r l d . b U n f o r t u n a t e l y , an I n d i v i d u a l ' s worth o f t e n passes unrecognized no matter how hard he t r i e s . 5. a The ide a that teachers are u n f a i r to students I s nonsense. b Most students don't r e a l i s e the extent to which t h e i r grades a r e i n f l u e n c e d by a c c i d e n t a l happenings. 6. a Without the r i g h t breaks one cannot be an e f f e c t i v e l e a d e r . b Capable people who f a i l to become lead e r s have not taken advantage of t h e i r o p p o r t u n i t i e s . 7. a No matter how hard you' t r y some people j u s t don't l i k e you. b People who can't get others to l i k e them don't understand how to get along w i t h o t h e r s . 8. a H e r e d i t y p l a y s the major r o l e i n determining one's p e r s o n a l i t y , b I t i s one's experience i n l i f e that determine what th'ev're l i k e . 9. a I have o f t e n found that what i s going to happen w i l l happen. b T r u s t i n g to f a t e has never turned out as w e l l f o r me as making a d e c i s i o n to take a d e f i n i t e course of a c t i o n . 10. a " In the case of the w e l l prepared student there i s r a r e l y i f ever such a t h i n g as an u n f a i r t e s t . b Many tames exam questions tend to be so un r e l a t e d to course work t h a t s t u d y i n g Is r e a l l y u s e l e s s . 11. a Becoming a success i s a matter of hard work, l u c k has l i t t l e or n o t h i n g to do w i t h i t . b G e t t i n g a good job depends mainly on being i n the r i g h t p lace at the r i g h t time. 12. a The average c i t i z e n can have an i n f l u e n c e i n government d e c i s i o n s . b This world i s run by the few people i n power, and there i s not much the l i t t l e guy can do about i t . 13. a When I make p l a n s , I am almost c e r t a i n that I can make them work. b I t i s not always wise to p l a n too far ahead because many t h i n g s t u r n out t o be a matter of good or bad fortune anyhow. 14. a There are c e r t a i n people who are j u s t no good, b There i s some good i n everybody. - . 64 - 6 -15. © Ic my case getting what I want has l i t t le or nothing to do with luck, b Many times we might just da well decide what to do by flipping a coin, 16. a Who gets to be the boss often depends on who was lucky enough to be in the right place f irst . b Getting people to do the right thing depends upon ability, luck has l i t t le or uothing to do with i t . 17. a As far as world affairs are concerned, most of us are the victims of forces we can neither understand, nor control. b By taking an active part in political and social affairs the people can control world events. 13. a Host people don't realize the extent to which their lives are controlled by occidental happenings. b There really is no such thing as "luck", 19. a One should always be willing to admit mistakes, b It is usually best to cover up one's mistakes. 20. a It is hard to know whether or not a person really likes you. b How many friends you have depends upon how nice a person you are. 21. a In the long run the bad things that happen to us-are balanced by the good ones. b Host misfortunes are the result of lack ,of ability, ignorance, laziness, or a l l three. 22. a With enough effort we can wipe out political corruption. b Ic is difficult for people to have much control over the things politicians do in office. 23. a Sometimes I can't understand how teachers arrive at the grades they give. b There is a direct connection between how hard I study and the grades I get. 24. a A good leader expects people to decide for themselves what they should do. b A good leader makes It clear to everybody what their Jobs are, 25. a Kany times I feel that I have l i t t le influence over the things that happen to me. b It Is impossible for me to believe that chance or luck plays an important role in my l i fe . 26. a People are lonely because they don't try to be friendly. b There's not much use in trying too hard to please people, i f they like you, they like you, 27. c There is too much emphasis on athletics in high school, b Team sports are an excellent way to build character. 28. a What happens to me is my own doing. b Sometimes I feel that I don't have enough control over the direction that my l i fe is taking. 29. a Most of the time I can't understand why politicians behave in the way they do. b In the long run the people are responsible for bad government on a national as well as on a local level. Please be sure that you have answered all the items. PART VI The following three items refer to your overall satisfaction with your job now, sometime ago, end your expected satisfaction. Please answer each item, by checking one of the alternatives. Generally speaking, I an very satisfied with ay job. Strongly Moderately Slightly Neither Slightly Moderately Strongly Disagree Disagree Disagree Disagree Agree Agree Agree nor Agree 65 - 7 -Generally speaking, I vas very satisfied with my job sometime ago ( i .e. , about a year ago). Strongly Disagree Moderately Disagree Slightly Disagree Neither Disagree nor Agree Slightly Agree Moderately Agree Strongly Agree Generally speaking, I flxjiecf to be very satisfied with my Job within the next year or two. Strongly Disagree Moderately Disagree Slightly Disagree Neither Disagree nor Agree Slightly Agree Moderately Agree Strongly Agree PART VII Statistical Information To help us in the statistical analysis of the data, we would also like to have the following information. 1. Job Title (optional):_ 2. Age: 20-25 . . 25-30 • (8 -D • (8-2) 30-40 • (8-3) 40-50 • (8-4) 50+ • (8-5) 3. Employed by your organization for: less than 1 year . . . . . . Q (9-1) 1 - 3 years • (9-2) 3 - 5 years • (9-3) S - 7 years • (9-4) 7 - 9 years • (9-5) 10 + years Q (9-6) 4. Your technical/engineering/scientific field (check one only): Aero/Astro, engineering Chemical engineering . . Civi l engineering . . . Electrical engineering . Geological engineering . Industrial engineering . Mechanical engineering . Metallurgical engineering Mining engineering . . . Nuclear engineering . . Other (engineering) . . Other ( s c i e n c e ) . . . . . • (10/11-01) • (10/11-02) • (10/11-03) • (10/11-04) • (10/11-05) • (10/11-06) • (10/11-07) • (10/11-08) • (10/11-09) • (10/11-10) • (10/11-11) • (10/11-12) 6. Formal Education (Check the highest level  completed): High School tZ3 (13-1) Certificate Q (13-2) Bachelor's Degree Q (13-3) Some Post-Graduate Training . . . (13-4) Master's Degree Q (13-5) Doctor's Degree . . . • (13-6) 7. Total number of years of experience in your field: less than 2 years . . . • (14-1) 2 - 5 years Q (14-2) 5 - 1 0 years Q (14-3) * 10 - 15 years • (14-4) 15+ years . • (14-5) 8. Do you have supervisory responsi-bility? (check one only): . . Yes U (15-1) No . . . . . . . . . D (15-2) (If you checked "No", skip to Question 11). 9. Nature of supervisory responsibil-ity (check one only): primarily technical or scientific . . administrative and technical/scien. 10. primarily administrative How many do you supervise:' • (16-1) • (16-2) • (16-3) (17-19) 5. If P.Eng., how many years since registration? less than 2 years . . . O (12-1) 2 - 5 years D (12-2) 5 - 1 0 years Q (12-3) 10+ years . Q (12-4) 11. Approximately how many employees (management and non-management) are there in a l l elements, branches, etc. of the company fee which you work? less than 100 O (20-1) 100-500 • (20-2) 501-1,000 • (20-3) . 1,001-5,000 • (20-4) 5,000+ • (20-5) 12. Type of .company you work for: . D(21-l) • • (21-2) . D(21-3) . D(21-4) Transportation and Public . Q(21-5) Wholesale/Retail Trade. . . . 0(21-6) lumber/Forest Products. . . . Q (21-7) . Q (21-8) . • ( U - 9 ) Please return the completed questionnaire to: EI CHARD T. BARTH, Ph.D., P. Eng., Faculty of Commerce and Business Administration, University of British Columbia, 2075 Hesbrook Place, Vancouver, B.C. V6T 1W5 

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
http://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0099931/manifest

Comment

Related Items