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UBC Theses and Dissertations

From satire to apocalypse in William Blake’s the four Zoas Gibb, Peter Lloyd 1974

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F R O M S A T I R E T O A P O C A L Y P S E I N W I L L I A M B L A K E ' S THE FOUR ZOAS b y P E T E R L L O Y D G I B B B . A . , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1 9 6 5 A T H E S I S S U B M I T T E D I N P A R T I A L F U L F I L M E N T O F T H E R E Q U I R E M E N T S F O R T H E D E G R E E O F M A S T E R O F A R T S i n t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f E n g l i s h W e a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s a s c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d T H E U N I V E R S I T Y O F B R I T I S H C O L U M B I A M a y , 1 9 7 4 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an a d v a n c e d d e g r e e a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g r e e t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l m a k e i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e a n d s t u d y . I f u r t h e r a g r e e t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d by t h e H e a d o f my D e p a r t m e n t o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l n o t be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Depa r t m e n t The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a V a n c o u v e r 8, C a n a d a A B S T R A C T I n t h i s t h e s i s , t h e w i l l c h a r a c t e r i z e s t h e p o w e r o f t h e i m a g i n a t i v e m a n t o b r e a k o u t o f c l o s e d s y s t e m s o f t h o u g h t , a n d t h e p o w e r o f t h e u n i m a g i n a t i v e man t o b e c o m e c o n t r o l l e d b y t h e m . B l a k e ' s Songs of Innocence and Experience d r a m a t i z e t h e w i l l i n o p p o s i n g f o r m s , e a c h f o r m g i v i n g r i s e t o t h e o t h e r . I n a s t a t e o f i n n o c e n c e w i l l r a d i a t e s p r i m a l e n e r g y , o r g a n i z i n g a n d s a n c t i f y i n g . I n t h e s t a t e o f e x p e r i e n c e , h a v i n g c l o u d e d h i s i m a g i n a t i o n , man t u r n s t h i s r a d i a t i n g p o w e r i n w a r d t o c o n s e r v e i t a n d t o p r o t e c t h i m s e l f . T h e c o n t r a r y s t a t e s o f i n n o c e n c e a n d e x p e r i e n c e t h u s d r a m a t i z e a c t i v e a n d p a s s i v e s t a t e s o f t h e w i l l , w h i c h i n t u r n p r o j e c t v i s i o n s o f a p o c a l y p s e a n d s a t i r e . " T h e C h i m n e y S w e e p e r " o f Songs of Innocence, f o r i n s t a n c e , c a n b e r e a d a p o c a l y p t i c a l l y o r s a t i r i c a l l y , d e p e n d i n g u p o n t h e r e a d e r ' s w i l l . T h e c o n t r a s t i n g v i s i o n s o f s a t i r e a n d a p o c a l y p s e b e c o m e f o r m a l p r i n c i p l e s o f B l a k e ' s m e t h o d o l o g y , t h e m e a n s b y w h i c h B l a k e " r o u z e s t h e f a c u l t i e s t o a c t . " I n o r d e r t o u n d e r s t a n d B l a k e ' s r e m a r k s o n Paradise Lost i n The Marriage of Heaven and Hell, f o r i n s t a n c e , t h e r e a d e r m u s t , t h r o u g h a n a c t o f w i l l , r e - e n a c t M i l t o n ' s m y t h o f ' t h e f a l l . F u r t h e r m o r e , i n h i s i l l u s t r a t i o n s t o Paradise Lost, B l a k e d e m o n s t r a t e s t h a t t h e h e r o o f t h a t w o r k i s t h e r e a d e r / p o e t w h o p u r g e s h i m s e l f o f t h a t a s p e c t o f h i s w i l l t h a t i s m o d e l l e d a f t e r S a t a n , a n d a d o p t s t h e i m a g e o f t h e w i l l e p i t o m i z e d b y t h e M e s s i a h . - i -i i I f o n e c a n b e l i e v e t h a t B l a k e h a d a s m u c h c o n t r o l o f t h e s t r u c t u r e o f The Four Zoos a s h e d i d o v e r t h e s e o t h e r w o r k s , o n e c a n a s s u m e t h a t i t s s t r u c t u r e i s i n t e n t i o n a l l y d e s i g n e d s o t h a t t h e s a t i r i c w i l l c a n s e e t h e p o e m o n l y i n i t s p a r t s , b u t t h e a p o c a l y p t i c w i l l c a n c r e a t e a u n i f i e d v i s i o n o f t h e p o e m ' s s t r u c t u r e , i n w h i c h a l l i t s m e m b e r s d i s p l a y t h e o r g a n i c u n i t y o f t h e w h o l e . O n e m e a n s o f a c h i e v i n g t h i s u n i t y i s t o a s s u m e t h a t t h e p o e m ' s s t r u c t u r e i s n o t d e r i v e d f r o m i t s n a r r a t i o n o f s o m e e x t e r n a l r e a l i t y s u c h a s c r e a t i o n , h i s t o r y , o r f a c u l t y p s y c h o l o g y , b u t b y i m a g i n i n g i t s m e m b e r s a s d e p i c t i n g i m a g e s o f t h e p o e m ' s c r e a t i o n . The Four Zoas, t h u s c o n c e i v e d , i s a c o m m e n t a r y o n t h e p r o c e s s o f d i s c o v e r i n g a n d c r e a t i n g a n e w p o e t i c f o r m i n o p p o s i t i o n t o t h e d e b i l i t a t i n g c o n v e n t i o n s t h a t h a d c o n t r o l l e d e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y p o e t i c t h o u g h t a n d e x p r e s s i o n . T A B L E O F C O N T E N T S I n t r o d u c t i o n 1 C h a p t e r O n e : A p o c a l y p t i c a n d S a t i r i c V i e w p o i n t s o n T w o o f B l a k e ' s E a r l y P i e c e s 9 " C h a p t e r T w o : The Four Zoas: L i m i t a t i o n s o f A n a l y s i s . . 32 C h a p t e r T h r e e : F i n d i n g A p o c a l y p s e i n The Four Zoas: M e t a p h o r s o f P o e t i c P r o c e s s 4 8 C o n c l u s i o n 86 B i b l i o g r a p h y 9 0 - i i i -A B B R E V I A T I O N S O F B L A K E ' S W O R K S C I T E D F . Z . The Four Zoas J . Jerusalem M H H The Marriage of Heaven and Eell V L J " A V i s i o n o f t h e L a s t J u d g m e n t " - i v --v-ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS T h i s w o r k c o u l d n o t h a v e b e e n c o m p l e t e d w i t h o u t t h e g e n e r o u s h e l p o f m a n y s p i r i t u a l f r i e n d s . Among m a n y d e b t s o f g r a t i t u d e I a c k n o w l e d g e t h e f o l l o w i n g i n p a r t i c u l a r : P r o f e s s o r M a r t i n N u r m i , w h o i n t r o d u c e d me t o t h e s t u d y o f B l a k e ; D r , P e t e r T a y l o r , f o r h i s p a t i e n c e a n d e n c o u r a g e m e n t i n r e f l e c t i n g b a c k w h a t I w a s w a n t i n g t o s a y ; P e t e B r o o m h a l l , f o r t h e b e s t k i n d o f h e l p a n y f r i e n d c o u l d g i v e ; J o n a t h a n K a t z a n d G a r y H a n d l e r , f o r t h e e x a m p l e o f t h e i r own c o m m i t m e n t t o l e a r n i n g . M o s t o f a l l I am g r a t e f u l t o my p a r e n t s , w h o h a v e g i v e n m o r e t h a n c a n b e t o l d t o t h i s w o r k , a n d my w i f e D r e l e n e , f o r b e i n g my h e l p m a t e . - v i -INTRODUCTION Throughout his writings Blake distinguishes between corporeal and sp i r i t u a l understanding. The two realms of understanding he saw as being in eternal enmity with one another. Those who believe only the evidence of the senses he regarded as victims of Satan, the God of this World, who teaches man to doubt the existence of the spiritual realm. "We do not find any where that Satan is Accused of Sin he i s only accused of Unbelief & thereby drawing Man into Sin that he may accuse him" (VLJ, E 553).! But to Blake, the empiricists—Bacon, Newton, and Locke—were Satan's unholy t r i n i t y , and he regarded the eighteenth century enlightenment as a period of almost unprecedented darkness ?•' "His opinion, who does not see spiritual agency, i s not worth any man's reading" (D.C., E?534), Blake wrote of historian Edward Gibbon's methods of reasoning. Blake's personal experiences taught him early in l i f e that spiritual truths needed to be concealed from the corporeal understanding. He particularly admired the parable as a literary form, because i t spoke both corporeal and spiritual meanings, depending upon men's willingness to receive one or the other. Blake's savior had spoken in parables to the blind; Blake's "allegory addressed to the intellectual powers" was similarly designed to conceal i t s truth from the reason and to reveal i t only to a spiritual discernment. -1-2 Blake was not content that his writings should appear opaque to the uninitiated. He took pleasure in casting himself in an infernal role, sometimes entering Satan's kingdom with a flaming harrow, sometimes as a wily tempter, and yet other times disclosing plain truths about the self-contradictions of Satanic beliefs. He took on the roles of both ar t i s t and prophet, luring and goading men to rouse their own faculties to act, arid to choose for themselves a perspective that would restore to them a vision of the spiritual world. If man can choose to find meaning in either the spiritual or the corporeal realm, then his w i l l must in i t s e l f contain opposing aspects. Opposing aspects of the w i l l must seek fulfillment in opposing realms of existence and through opposing modes of perception. The opposing aspects of the w i l l find expression in a number of metaphors in Blake's writing. It is worthwhile here to consider several different metaphors, because their accumulated significance gives a more accurate impression of the meanings Blake attaches to them. Innocence and experience, belief and doubt, desire and reason, a l l describe active and passive aspects of the w i l l . The f i r s t pair of metaphors, innocence and experience, draw their meaning from the metaphor of the early child's development. Every child i s born into an organized world of innocence created by parental love, in which he is the centre, and every child learns of the existence of a larger world of experience where he i s not at the centre, and where he seems to have no place at a l l . Neither world is real; both are imaginative 3 c o n s t r u c t s o f th e g r o w i n g c h i l d . The w o r l d o f i n n o c e n c e i s a w o r l d c r e a t e d f r o m an a t t i t u d e o f t r u s t . The t r u s t i n g c h i l d r a d i a t e s h i s t r u s t o u t w a r d s , and i t r e f l e c t s back t o him an o r g a n i z e d , harmonious e x i s t e n c e . A number o f B l a k e ' s Songs of Innocence and Experience c o n t a i n sun imagery t o s y m b o l i z e t h e r a d i a n t energy o f t h e i n n o c e n t w i l l : "The E c h o i n g Green", "The L i t t l e B l a c k Boy", " N i g h t " , and "Nurse's Song" i n Songs of Innocence, and "Nurse's Song", "Ah! S u n f l o w e r " , "A P o i s o n T r e e " , and "A L i t t l e G i r l L o s t " o f Songs of Experience, m e n t i o n t h e sun d i r e c t l y , and many o t h e r Songs r e f e r t o i t i n d i r e c t l y . I n c o n t r a s t t o t h e s t a t e o f i n n o c e n c e , t h e s t a t e o f e x p e r i e n c e d e s c r i b e s t h e c h i l d ' s r e s p o n s e t o a b r e a c h o f f a i t h between h i m s e l f and h i s w o r l d o f i n n o c e n c e . The cause f o r t h i s v a r i e s : t h e a m o r a l q u a l i t y o f t h e c h i l d ' s i n n o c e n t energy may be the s o u r c e of d i s r u p t i o n , o r t h e immoral n a t u r e o f a h o s t i l e , e x t e r i o r w o r l d may b u r s t upon t h e c h i l d ' s awareness, whatever t h e c a u s e , t h e r e s u l t i s w i t h d r a w a l , d i s t r u s t , a sense o f b e t r a y a l . The c h i l d ' s s p i r i t i s d i v i d e d , h i s energy i s s c a t t e r e d , and h i s n a t u r e b e g i n s t o r e f l e c t h i s p e r c e p t i o n s o f a h o s t i l e w o r l d . Goodness i s n o t as i m p o r t a n t t o t h e c h i l d o f e x p e r i e n c e as s u r v i v a l . The e n t i r e economy o f h i s energy i s t u r n e d i n w a r d , he becomes s e l f - c e n t e r e d , and h i s own g a i n becomes o f paramount i m p o r t a n c e t o him. The a t t i t u d e o f e x p e r i e n c e so e a s i l y f i n d s r e i n f o r c e m e n t i n t h e e x t e r n a l w o r l d , t h a t once t h i s m e n t a l h a b i t p a t t e r n i s e s t a b l i s h e d , i t becomes v e r y d i f f i c u l t f o r a c h i l d t o r e - e s t a b l i s h an a t t i t u d e 4 of t r u s t . An e t h i c based upon s u r v i v a l i s a return from a human existence to a state of nature, where l i f e feeds upon l i f e , and a l l i n d i v i d u a l energy systems are entropic. When Renaissance man moved from a human-centered cosmos towards an empirical d e s c r i p t i o n of a universe based upon moral law, a moral upheaval resu l t e d equivalent to that of the c h i l d growing out of innocence and into experience. The c o n f l i c t between the worlds of innocence and experience i s the same as that between a r e l i g i o n based on the "Human form di v i n e " and nat u r a l r e l i g i o n , based, i n Blake's time, on notions of a mechanistic universe. Five years before publishing the Songs of Experience Blake printed a se r i e s of two tractates arguing that There is No Natural Religion (E 1-2). In the f i r s t t r a c t a t e Blake argued that man's in s i s t e n c e on a "notion of moral f i t n e s s " i s derived from his "Poetic or Prophetic character", which seeks to place bounds on nature's entropic r e p e t i t i o n s of "the same d u l l round". Blake's tractates provide an i n t e r e s t i n g footnote on the nature of s a t i r e , a f a v o r i t e genre of eighteenth century w r i t e r s , and which claimed as i t s c e n t r a l purpose, to correct human excesses and to restore man to a reasonable mode of behaviour. Satire based upon reason as moral norm inv e r t s the nature of existence by creating a " s t a r r y f l o o r " of reason over the 2 heavens of man's a s p i r a t i o n . The " s t a r r y f l o o r " i s based upon t y p i c a l enlightenment values such as man's basic benevolence, 5 h i s f o r m a t i o n o f a s o c i a l c o n t r a c t , h i s b e l i e f t h a t t h e n a t u r a l o r d e r i s d i v i n e l y r i g h t , t h a t m a n ' s s o c i a l p o s i t i o n r e f l e c t s h i s m o r a l c a p a b i l i t i e s , a n d o t h e r g e n e r a l i t i e s t h a t t e n d t o g l o r i f y t h e s t a t u s q u o . A h e a v e n b a s e d u p o n r e a s o n d e n i e s t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f a n y h i g h e r e x i s t e n c e t h a n i t s o w n.3 T h e G o d o f R e a s o n i s a " F a t h e r o f J e a l o u s y " ^ . T h u s t h e h u m a n d e s i r e , w h e t h e r i n a t t e m p t i n g t o f u l f i l i t s d e s t i n y o r i n r e b e l l i n g a g i n s t r e a s o n , b e c o m e s t h e i n e v i t a b l e o b j e c t o f t h e r e a s o n 5 s s a t i r e . T h e f o r m o f s a t i r e b a s e d o n r e a s o n i s t h u s a d e s c r i p t i o n o f e n t r o p y . S a t i r e ' s t o n e o f m o r a l s u p e r i o r i t y i s a l l t h a t d i s t i n g u i s h e s t h e v i s i o n o f s a t i r e b a s e d o n r e a s o n f r o m t h e a m o r a l v i s i o n o f e x p e r i e n c e . F u r t h e r , i n t h a t s a t i r e a l w a y s d e p e n d s u p o n c o r p o r e a l a p p e a r a n c e s r a t h e r t h a n s p i r i t u a l r e a l i t i e s f o r i t s j u d g m e n t s , i t s e e m s t o b e a c l e a r e x p r e s s i o n o f w h a t B l a k e c a l l s " d o u b t " . I t s e e m s a p p r o p r i a t e , t h e r e f o r e , t o d e s c r i b e t h e a s p e c t o f w i l l t h a t o p e r a t e s w i t h i n r e a s o n ' s b o u n d s , t h e w i l l t o i n t e r p r e t r e a l i t y a c c o r d i n g t o t h e l a w s o f n a t u r a l m o r a l i t y , " s a t i r i c v i s i o n . " T h e o t h e r a s p e c t o f w i l l , t h e i n n o c e n t v i s i o n w h i c h i n t h e t r a c t a t e s B l a k e e q u a t e s w i t h a p o c a l y p t i c . d e s i r e , w i l l b e r e f e r r e d t o t h r o u g h -o u t t h i s t h e s i s a s " a p o c a l y p t i c v i s i o n . " T h e s e t w o a s p e c t s o f t h e w i l l , s a t i r i c v i s i o n a n d a p o c a l y p t i c v i s i o n , a r e i n t e n d e d t o s e r v e a s g e n e r a l t e r m s r a t h e r t h a n a s s p e c i f i c d e f i n i t i o n s . T h e y c h a r a c t e r i z e t h e c e n t r a l f e a t u r e s o f a n u m b e r o f r e l a t e d m e t a p h o r s f o r t h e a c t i v e a n d p a s s i v e w i l l . T h e f i r s t c h a p t e r o f t h i s t h e s i s a t t e m p t s t h r o u g h a n a l y s i s o f s p e c i f i c e x a m p l e s i n The Songs of Innocence and of Experience 6 a n d The Marriage of Heaven and Hell t o d e m o n s t r a t e t h a t e n g a g i n g t h e r e a d e r ' s w i l l i s a n i m p o r t a n t a s p e c t o f B l a k e ' s p o e t i c a r t . The Songs of Innocence and of Experience d e p i c t t h e c o n t r a r y s t a t e s s e p a r a t e l y w i t h i n s e p a r a t e i n d i v i d u a l s . O n l y r a r e l y d o t h e Songs h i n t a t t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f m e r g i n g t h e s e o p p o s i n g s t a t e s a s p r o c e s s e s w i t h i n a s i n g l e i n d i v i d u a l i n o r d e r t o d e p i c t a s t a t e o f o r g a n i z e d o r h i g h e r i n n o c e n c e . N e v e r t h e l e s s , a l t h o u g h t h e r e a r e f e w o p p o r t u n i t i e s i n t h e Songs t o p o r t r a y i n d i v i d u a l s w h o c a n e m b o d y a s t a t e o f h i g h e r i n n o c e n c e , t h e Songs s u c c e s s f u l l y p o i n t t o w a r d s u c h a s t a t e . T h i s i s b e c a u s e B l a k e e n c o u r a g e s h i s r e a d e r t o t a k e o n t h i s r o l e h i m s e l f i n h i s r e a d i n g o f t h e p o e m s . " T h e C h i m n e y S w e e p e r " f r o m Songs of Innocence c a n b e r e a d a p o c a l y p t i c a l l y o r s a t i r i c a l l y , a c c o r d i n g t o t h e r e a d e r ' s w i l l . F a r f r o m g u i d i n g t h e r e a d e r ' s w i l l , t h e s e t w o p o e m s r e f l e c t b a c k h i s w i l l t o h i m . A p a s s a g e f r o m The Marriage of Heaven and Hell s u g g e s t s a d i f f e r e n t f o r m a l t e c h n i q u e f r o m t h a t o f t h e Songs i n g i v i n g t h e r e a d e r k n o w l e d g e o f h i s o w n w i l l . I n t h i s s h o r t c o m m e n t a r y o n Paradise Lost, B l a k e ' s s a t i r i c v i s i o n i s q u i t e e v i d e n t , b u t i t s c o n t r a r y , a p o c a l y p t i c v i s i o n o f M i l t o n ' s e p i c , i s c o n c e a l e d . T h e f o r m o f t h e p a s s a g e r e q u i r e s " t h e r e a d e r t o g o t h r o u g h a p r o c e s s o f t e m p t a t i o n a n d f a l l i n o r d e r t o p l a c e Paradise Lost i n a n a p o c a l y p t i c p e r s p e c t i v e . T h e p a s s a g e l e a v e s n o d o u b t t h a t B l a k e c o n s c i o u s l y e n d e a v o u r e d t o e n g a g e h i s r e a d e r ' s w i l l i n p r o c e s s e s w h i c h , t o t h e e n l i g h t e n e d r e a d e r , c o u l d b e - s e e n a s 7 s u p p o r t i v e m e t a p h o r s f o r t h e l a r g e r p u r p o s e o f h i s p o e t r y . T h e q u e s t i o n o f h o w f a r B l a k e p u r s u e d h i s i n t e n t i o n s w i t h t h e m a n u s c r i p t o f The Four Zoas b e f o r e a b a n d o n i n g i t , h a s p u z z l e d c r i t i c s o f B l a k e ' s w r i t i n g s f o r m a n y y e a r s . B l a k e ' s c o m m e n t t h a t " T h a t w h i c h c a n b e m a d e E x p l i c i t t o t h e I d i o t i s n o t w o r t h m y c a r e " ( L e t t e r t o R e v . D r . T r u s l e r , E L 6 7 6 ) , g i v e s a r e a d e r c o n f i d e n c e t h a t a t l e a s t s o m e o f t h e p r o b l e m s t h e m a n u s c r i p t p r e s e n t s a r e i n t e n t i o n a l . A n u m b e r o f i n t e r p r e t a t i v e t o o l s a r e p r o v i d e d b y a n a n a l y s i s o f B l a k e ' s r e g a r d f o r t h e r o l e o f t h e r e a d e r i n The Songs a n d The Marriage. T h e s e t o o l s s h o u l d h e l p i n e s t a b l i s h i n g a c l e a r e r i d e a o f w h a t b u r d e n s B l a k e m i g h t h a v e p l a c e d o n h i s r e a d e r ' s w i l l t o w r e s t s p i r i t u a l o r c o r p o r e a l m e a n i n g f r o m i t s p a g e s . FOOTNOTES D a v i d V . E r d m a n , e d . , The Poetry and Prose of William Blake, r e v . C G a r d e n C i t y , N . Y , : D o u b l e d a y , 1 9 7 0 ) , p . 5 5 3 . A l l s u b s e q u e n t r e f e r e n c e s t o t h e w o r k s o f W i l l i a m B l a k e w i l l b e c i t e d t h u s : C E 5 5 3 ) . J e a n H . H a g s t r u m , " W i l l i a m B l a k e R e j e c t s t h e E n l i g h t e n m e n t , " i n B l a k e : A C o l l e c t i o n o f C r i t i c a l E s s a y s , e d . N o r t h r o p F r y e C E n g l e w o o d C l i f f s , N . J . , P r e n t i c e H a l l , 1 9 6 6 ) , p p . 1 4 2 - 1 5 5 . S a t i r e b a s e d o n r e a s o n m i g h t b e d e s c r i b e d a s t h e s e c u l a r a r m o f s t a t e r e l i g i o n , w h i c h B l a k e e q u a t e s w i t h " S e l f w i l l " i n ' A n n o t a t i o n s t o An Apology for the Bible," E 6 0 4 . 4 " T o N o b o d a d d y , " E 4 6 2 . - 8 -A P O C A L Y P T I C A N D S A T I R I C V I E W P O I N T S O N T W O O F B L A K E ' S E A R L Y P I E C E S B e c a u s e The Four Zoas i s n o t a f i n i s h e d w o r k , i t p r o v i d e s r a t h e r l e s s a s s u r a n c e t h a n W i l l i a m B l a k e ' s o t h e r p o e m s o f r e p r e s e n t i n g h i s i n t e n t i o n s . O u t o f i t s s e e m i n g f o r m l e s s n e s s t h e r e a d e r c a n c o n j e c t u r e e n d l e s s p o s s i b l e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s , s o m e o f w h i c h m a y c o n f i r m h i s i n t u i t i o n s a b o u t B l a k e ' s p o e t i c i n t e n t i o n s , a n d y e t b e d e n i e d v i g o r o u s l y b y o t h e r s t u d e n t s o f t h e s u b j e c t w h o h a v e o r g a n i z e d B l a k e ' s " m i n u t e p a r t i c u l a r s " f r o m a n o t h e r p e r s p e c t i v e . F o r t h a t r e a s o n i t s e e m s p r o p e r t o i n t r o d u c e a d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e w i l l i n r e f e r e n c e t o B l a k e ' s The Four Zoas b y c i t i n g s u p p o r t i v e e v i d e n c e f r o m The Songs of Innocence and of Experience, a n d The Marriage of Heaven and Hell. I f i t c a n b e s h o w n t h a t t h e r e a d e r ' s w i l l t o c r i t i c i z e o r a p p r o v e t h e p o e t ' s w o r k i s a n i m p o r t a n t p a r t o f B l a k e ' s s u b j e c t m a t t e r , t h e n t h i s s a m e p r i n c i p l e o f a w a r e n e s s c a n t h e n b e a p p l i e d t o a r e a d i n g o f The Four Zoas w i t h c o n f i d e n c e t h a t s u c h a c o n c e r n m i g h t h a v e o c c u p i e d B l a k e ' s m i n d . F o r s e v e r a l r e a s o n s " T h e C h i m n e y S w e e p e r " o f Songs of Innocence c o n t a i n s t h e m o s t s i g n i f i c a n t d i s c u s s i o n o f w i l l o f a l l t h e Songs. F i r s t , a l t h o u g h a n u m b e r o f t h e Songs a r e w r i t t e n i n t h e f i r s t p e r s o n , " T h e C h i m n e y S w e e p e r " i s o n e o f t h e f e w l y r i c s w h i c h a d d r e s s t h e r e a d e r d i r e c t l y . B l a k e ' s u s e o f d i r e c t a d d r e s s h i n t s a t h i s i n t e n t i o n t o e n g a g e t h e r e a d e r i n d i r e c t d i a l o g u e . T h e p o t e n t i a l f o r t h e r e a d e r ' s i n v o l v e m e n t i s c o n s i d e r a b l y - 9 -10 h e i g h t e n e d b y a n o t h e r u n i q u e a s p e c t o f t h i s p o e m : o f a l l t h e Songs of Innocence, i t " m o s t d i r e c t l y c o n f r o n t s t h e m i s e r y o f l i f e " . l T h e e l e m e n t o f h u m a n m i s e r y " T h e C h i m n e y S w e e p e r " i n t r o d u c e s t o The Songs of Innocence a u t o m a t i c a l l y d e m a n d s t h a t t h i s p o e m b e c o n s i d e r e d , n o t s i m p l y a s a n e x p r e s s i o n o f i n n o c e n c e , b u t i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e c o n t r a r y s t a t e o f e x p e r i e n c e . T h i s i m p e r a t i v e i s r e i n f o r c e d b y y e t a n o t h e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c : " T h e C h i m n e y S w e e p e r ' s " " a f f i r m a t i o n o f v i s i o n a r y j o y i s m o r e t r i u m p h a n t t h a n i n a n y o t h e r p o e m o f t h i s s e r i e s " . ^ T h e p o e m o p e n s w i t h a n a c c o u n t o f t h e c h i m n e y s w e e p e r ' s e x p e r i e n c e w h i c h e s c a p e s b e i n g h o r r i f y i n g o n l y b e c a u s e i t i s s o c o m p r e s s e d : W h e n m y m o t h e r d i e d I w a s v e r y y o u n g , A n d m y f a t h e r s o l d m e w h i l e y e t m y t o n g u e , C o u l d s c a r c e l y c r y w e e p w e e p w e e p w e e p . S o y o u r c h i m n e y s I s w e e p & i n s o o t I s l e e p . T h e c h i m n e y s w e e p e r ' s c h i l d h o o d h a s b e e n s a c r i f i c e d t o u s : i t i s o u r c h i m n e y s t h a t h e s w e e p s . O u r c o l l e c t i v e c o n s c i e n c e i s t o u c h e d , a t l e a s t r e m o t e l y . O u r p e r c e p t i o n s a r e d i r e c t e d t o w a r d d i s c o v e r i n g w h a t e f f e c t t h e y o u n g s w e e p ' s e x p e r i e n c e h a s h a d o n h i m . B l a k e ' s d i s t a n c i n g o f t h e s w e e p e r ' s s t o r y t h r o u g h i t s e x t r e m e c o m p r e s s i o n , i s d e l i b e r a t e . I f t h e r e a d e r d e s i r e s t o s e e t h e s w e e p e r m o r e c l e a r l y , h e d o e s p a r t l y b e c a u s e t h e s w e e p e r i s n o t c l o s e e n o u g h t o b e a t h r e a t . B l a k e i n d u c e s t h e r e a d e r t o v i e w t h e c h i m n e y s w e e p e r i n t w o d i f f e r e n t w a y s — b o t h a s h e a p p e a r s , a n d a s h e m i g h t a c t u a l l y b e . I n o t h e r w o r d s , t h e t w o c o n t r a r i e s o f t h e r e a d e r ' s p e r c e p t i o n , 11 the senses (or reason) and the imagination, are both focused on the sweeper. The f i r s t stanza creates a tension between these two perceptions, a reason to believe that the sweeper might not be just a sweep, but more than t h a t — a boy. This tension is embodied in the sweeper's recollection of his earliest attempts to c a l l out his trade cry: "'weep 'weep 'weep 'weep". The sweep thus reminds the reader of a time when the metamorphosis from child to sweep was not complete. The child could not cry "sweep" at a l l . He was so young that he could scarcely cry the ironic imitation, "weep". In the second stanza, the tension between the reader's percep-tion of the actual and the potential i s heightened. The young chimney sweeper chooses to in i t i a t e a younger and less experienced lad into the reality of his own experience. The reader's focus has thus been sharpened from an encounter with a chimney sweep as he has become, to witnessing a young waif in the process of becoming. The dualities of the child's reality, being and essence, are equally visible. The reader is as aware of the alternatives to the child's i n i t i a t i o n as he is of the actuality. Theres l i t t l e Tom Dacre, who cried when his head That curl'd like a lambs back, was shav'd, so I said. Hush Tom never mind i t , for when your head's bare, You know that the soot cannot spoil your white hair. This poem represents an i n i t i a t i o n for the reader and for the chimney sweep-narrator as well as for Tom Dacre, in dealing with their reactions. Two reactions are possible: a mental response that transforms the significance of the in i t i a t i o n and a physical 12 r e s p o n s e t h a t y i e l d s t o t h a t s i g n i f i c a n c e . B l a k e w o u l d c a l l t h e c h i m n e y s w e e p e r ' s r e s p o n s e " a c t i v e " , a n d Tom D a c r e ' s " p a s s i v e " o r " p a s s i o n a t e . " T h e p r o p o r t i o n o f a c t i o n t o p a s s i o n i n Tom D a c r e ' s a n d t h e c h i m n e y s w e e p e r ' s r e s p o n s e s t o t h e s h a v i n g o f T o m ' s h e a d , i s d e t e r m i n e d b y h o w c l o s e e a c h i s t o t h e e v e n t . T h u s , Tom D a c r e ' s r e s p o n s e t o h a v i n g h i s h e a d s h a v e d i s p u r e l y o n e o f p a s s i o n . T h e c h i m n e y s w e e p e r i s m o r e d i s t a n t f r o m t h e s i t u a t i o n : h i s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o a c t , a n d t o r e o r g a n i z e h i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h a t e x p e r i e n c e i s i n c r e a s e d i n p r o p o r t i o n t o h i s d i s t a n c e f r o m i t . A c c o r d i n g l y , h e c o m f o r t s T o m , a n d h e s u g g e s t s a w a y f o r Tom t o u n d e r s t a n d h i s e x p e r i e n c e . T h e r e a d e r i s e v e n f a r t h e r r e m o v e d . H e i s c a p a b l e o f s e e i n g Tom D a c r e a s a s a c r i f i c i a l L a m b . H e n c e , h i s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o a c t a n d t o o r g a n i z e h i s p e r c e p t i o n s o f T o m ' s , a n d t h e c h i m n e y s w e e p e r ' s , a n d h i s own i n i t i a t i o n , i s e v e n m o r e c r u c i a l . T h i s i s a s i t s h o u l d b e : i t w a s t h e r e a c t i o n o f t h e B r i t i s h p u b l i c a s m u c h a s t h e p a s s i o n o f c h i m n e y s w e e p e r s , t h a t u l t i m a t e l y l e d t o t h e d r a f t i n g o f l e g i s l a t i o n t o o u t l a w t h i s a b h o r r e n t p r a c t i s e . A c o m p a r i s o n o f t h e r e s p o n s e s o f Tom D a c r e a n d t h e c h i m n e y s w e e p n a r r a t o r i n s t a n z a t w o o f " T h e C h i m n e y S w e e p e r " d e m o n s t r a t e s t h a t t h e a b i l i t y o f t h e p o e m t o p l a y u p o n t h e r e a d e r ' s e m o t i o n s , i s n o t a s i m p o r t a n t a s i t s a b i l i t y t o e l i c i t h i s t h o u g h t . T h e c h i m n e y s w e e p e r - n a r r a t o r i s b o t h t h e r e a d e r ' s l e n s f o r o b s e r v i n g t h e i n i t i a t i o n a n d h i s m o d e l f o r a c t i n g i n r e s p o n s e t o i t . T h e f a c t t h a t t h e n a r r a t o r d e s c r i b e s h i s r e s p o n s e o n l y i n t e r m s o f a c t i o n , a n d m a k e s n o r e f e r e n c e a t a l l t o h i s p a s s i o n s , g i v e s some i d e a o f w h a t B l a k e e x p e c t s 13 o f t h e r e a d e r . I n f a c t , t h e r e a d e r ' s a c t i o n s s h o u l d , i n k e e p i n g w i t h t h i s a r g u m e n t , b e a n e x a c t c o u n t e r p a r t t o Tom D a c r e ' s p a s s i o n , H i s a c t i o n s , l i k e t h e c h i m n e y s w e e p e r ' s , s h o u l d a c t u a l i z e Tom D a c r e ' s v i s i o n . A n d s o h e w a s q u i e t , & t h a t v e r y n i g h t , A s Tom w a s a s l e e p i n g h e h a d s u c h a s i g h t , T h a t t h o u s a n d s o f s w e e p e r s D i c k , J o e N e d & J a c k W e r e a l l o f t h e m l o c k ' d u p i n c o f f i n s o f b l a c k A n d b y came a n A n g e l w h o h a d a b r i g h t k e y , A n d h e o p e n ' d t h e c o f f i n s & s e t t h e m a l l f r e e . T h e n d o w n a g r e e n p l a i n l e a p i n g l a u g h i n g t h e y r u n A n d w a s h i n a r i v e r a n d s h i n e i n . t h e S u n . T h e n n a k e d & w h i t e , a l l t h e i r b a g s l e f t b e h i n d , T h e y r i s e u p o n c l o u d s , a n d s p o r t i n t h e w i n d . A n d t h e A n g e l t o l d T o m , i f h e ' d b e a g o o d b o y , H e ' d h a v e G o d f o r h i s f a t h e r & n e v e r w a n t j o y . T h e r e a d e r ' s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o a c t b e g i n s w i t h t h e n e c e s s i t y t o c l a r i f y h i s own w i l l . T o w a r d s t h i s e n d , t h e p o e m a c t s a s a m i r r o r t o r e f l e c t t h e r e a d e r ' s own v i s i o n . I f o n e ' s w i l l i s t o r e m a i n i n e x p e r i e n c e , h e c a n f i n d m u c h i n t h i s p o e m t o r e f l e c t a s a t i r i c v i s i o n . I t s v e r y s u b j e c t m a t t e r i n v o l v e s m o r a l i m p l i c a t i o n s o n e w o u l d r a t h e r n o t t h i n k a b o u t . How m u c h m o r e t r u e t h a t m u s t h a v e b e e n i n B l a k e ' s own d a y . F u r t h e r m o r e , b e c a u s e t h e c h i m n e y s w e e p e r ' s m o t i v e s f o r c o m f o r t i n g Tom D a c r e a r e n o t made e x p l i c i t , t h e i r p u r i t y i s n o t a b o v e q u e s t i o n f o r t h e s a t i r i c r e a d e r . F r o m a s a t i r i c p e r s p e c t i v e , i t s e e m s c l e a r t h a t t h e e f f e c t o f t h e c h i m n e y s w e e p e r ' s h e l p i s t o c o o p t Tom D a c r e ' s n a t u r a l a n d r i g h t e o u s r e a c t i o n a g a i n s t i n h u m a n t r e a t m e n t , b y s o o t h i n g h i m w i t h t h o u g h t s o f a h e a v e n h e w i l l n e v e r s e e i n t h i s w o r l d . S u r e l y t h e r e a d e r ' s s u s p i c i o n s o f t h e n a r r a t o r ' s m o t i v e s w i l l n o t b e l a i d t o r e s t b y 14 t h e m e r e a p p e a r a n c e o f t h i s p o e m In-Songs of Innocence r a t h e r t h a n i n Songs of Experience. W i t h o u t b e i n g o v e r l y h a r s h , o n e m i g h t q u i t e r e a s o n a b l y c o n c l u d e t h a t t h e s w e e p e r ' s d e s i r e t o e a s e Tom D a c r e ' s s o r r o w i s a t l e a s t m a t c h e d i f n o t e x c e e d e d b y h i s d e s i r e t o h a v e Tom D a c r e b e a r h i s own s h a r e o f t h e b u r d e n t h a t l i f e h a s p l a c e d o n t h e m b o t h . T h e n t o o , t h e A n g e l ' s w o r d s o f a s s u r a n c e , " i f h e v d 3 a g o o d b o y , / H e ' d h a v e God f o r h i s f a t h e r & n e v e r w a n t j o y " w o u l d c e r t a i n l y s o u n d h o l l o w m e a s u r e d a g a i n s t a n y r e a l i s t i c a s s e s s m e n t o f a c h i m n e y s w e e p e r ' s f u t u r e . A s a s o n g a b o u t t h e p r o l e t a r i a t , t h i s p o e m w o u l d c e r t a i n l y n o t b e r a t e d v e r y h i g h l y i f s u b m i t t e d a s a n e x a m p l e o f c h i l d r e n ' s l i t e r a t u r e a t a M a r x i s t w r i t e r ' s c o n f e r e n c e . A p a r t y m e m b e r m i g h t w e l l w o n d e r w h o s e s i d e W i l l i a m B l a k e w a s o n . T h e p o e m i t s e l f p r o v i d e s n o b u l w a r k a g a i n s t s a t i r i c v i s i o n . I t w a s n o t B l a k e ' s i n t e n t i o n t h a t i t s h o u l d . T h e q u e s t i o n i s , c o u l d t h i s p o e m b e m o r e e f f e c t i v e t h a n a r i n g i n g d e n u n c i a t i o n o f c h i l d e x p l o i t a t i o n ? T h i s q u e s t i o n h a s n o a n s w e r , s o l o n g a s t h e r e a d e r ' s a t t e n t i o n i s t u r n e d o u t w a r d t o t h e a c t u a l s o c i a l i s s u e s t h a t t h e p o e m p r o v o k e s . B u t t h e s a t i r i c v i e w o f t h e p o e m d o e s n o t h i n g t o e x p l a i n o r e n c o u r a g e t h e e f f o r t o f w i l l n e c e s s a r y f o r t h e t w o c h i l d r e n o f " T h e C h i m n e y S w e e p e r " t o s u s t a i n a n a p o c a -l y p t i c v i s i o n a g a i n s t s u c h o v e r w h e l m i n g r e a l i t y . R a t h e r , i t i s t h a t v e r y a t t i t u d e o f d e f e a t t h a t t h e y m u s t c o m b a t . T h e p e r v a s i v e w i l l o f t h e s a t i r i c v i e w p o i n t i s s i m p l y h i n t e d a t i n t h e p o e m , b y t h e o b v i o u s t r u t h t h a t t h e c h i m n e y s w e e p e r s ' a p o c a l y p s e i s p r e m a t u r e . T h e s u n h a s n o t y e t a r i s e n w h e n t h e y m u s t a r i s e a n d 15 g o t o w o r k , A n d s o Tom a w o k e a n d we r o s e i n t h e d a r k A n d g o t w i t h o u r b a g s & o u r b r u s h e s t o w o r k . T h o ' t h e m o r n i n g w a s c o l d , Tom w a s h a p p y & w a r m , S o i f a l l d o t h e i r d u t y , t h e y n e e d n o t f e a r h a r m . T h e s w e e p e r s a r e i l l u m i n a t e d w i t h i n , b u t a l l a b o u t t h e m i s s t i l l i n d a r k n e s s . T h e i r i n n o c e n c e i s n o t a p o c a l y p t i c : i t i s a p a t h e t i c a n t i c i p a t i o n o f a p o c a l y p s e . B l a k e d o e s n o t i n s i s t u p o n a n a p o c a l y p t i c v i e w p o i n t f r o m h i s r e a d e r . I t i s f o r t h e r e a d e r t o m a k e t h e c o n n e c t i o n b e t w e e n h i s w i l l a n d t h o s e o f t h e s w e e p e r s . L i k e a n y o t h e r p r o p h e t , B l a k e m e r e l y p r e s e n t s h i s v i s i o n . He l e a v e s h i s r e a d e r t o c h o o s e b e t w e e n l i g h t a n d d a r k n e s s . I n o r d e r t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e p o w e r a s w e l l a s t h e s u b t l e t y o f B l a k e ' s p o e m , t h e r e a d e r m u s t r e m e m b e r t h a t t h e i n i t i a t i o n i n t h e p o e m i s a t h r e e f o l d i n i t i a t i o n , o f Tom D a c r e , o f t h e c h i m n e y s w e e p e r , a n d o f t h e r e a d e r . J u s t a s i n r e a l l i f e t h e w e l f a r e o f t h e s w e e p e r s i s d e p e n d e n t u p o n t h e i r k e e p e r s , s o i n t h i s p o e m , i t i s d e p e n d e n t u p o n t h e r e a d e r . Tom D a c r e may a p p e a r t o p a s s h i s i n i t i a t i o n q u i t e i n d e p e n d e n t o f t h e r e a d e r ' s w i l l . B u t i f t h a t i n i t i a t i o n i s t o b e s h o r n o f i t s m e a n i n g f o r h i m , h e m i g h t w e l l b e r o b b e d o f t h e s t r e n g t h h e n e e d s i n o r d e r t o s t a y a l i v e . T h e l a s t s t a n z a o f t h e p o e m b e g i n s w i t h " A n d s,o Tom a w o k e " , i n d i c a t i n g t h a t h i s a w a k e n i n g m i g h t b e d e p e n d e n t u p o n h i s d r e a m . I n a w o r l d a s h a r s h a s h i s , p h y s i c a l s t r e n g t h a l o n e w o u l d g i v e l i t t l e a s s u r a n c e o f s u r v i v a l . T h e r e a d e r ' s a t t i t u d e t o w a r d s t h e c h i m n e y s w e e p n a r r a t o r i n f l u e n c e s h i s i n i t i a t i o n a l s o , b y t h e s a m e l o g i c . 16 T h e t h i r d i n i t i a t i o n , t h a t o f t h e r e a d e r , i s p e r h a p s t h e m o s t d e l i c a t e o f a l l . T h e r e i s n o o u t w a r d n e c e s s i t y f o r h i m t o c h a n g e . W h e t h e r h e r e g a r d s a n i m a g i n a t i v e e x p e r i e n c e a s a n i n i t i a t i o n a t a l l , d e p e n d s e n t i r e l y u p o n h i s own w i l l . D e s p i t e t h e f r a g i l i t y o f t h e i n n o c e n c e i t p o r t r a y s , " T h e C h i m n e y S w e e p e r " s h o w s h o w a n a c t i v e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f m e n ' s v i s i o n t h r o u g h t h e i n t e r p e n e t r a t i o n o f h u m a n w i l l s c o u l d l e a d t o a p o c a l y p s e . B u t b e c a u s e t h e p o e m f o c u s e s o n a n a c t i v e , m e n t a l r e s p o n s e t o e v i l r a t h e r t h a n a p a s s i o n a t e p h y s i c a l r e s p o n s e , i t m u s t b e r e g a r d e d a s n o n i d e o l o g i c a l . A s a t i r i c v i s i o n o f r e a l i t y m i g h t p r o v i d e t h e b a s i s f o r r e v o l u t i o n , b u t i t r e m a i n s t h e enemy o f p e r s o n a l a p o c a l y p s e . T h a t t h e c o n t r a s t i n g v i s i o n s o f s a t i r e a n d a p o c a l y p s e a r e i m p o r t a n t t o t h e f o r m o f " T h e C h i m n e y S w e e p e r " h a s a l r e a d y b e e n d e m o n s t r a t e d . A n a n a l y s i s o f t h i s p o e m h a s a l s o s h o w n t h a t t h e v i s i o n s • o f s a t i r e a n d a p o c a l y p s e o r i g i n a t e a s m u c h i n t h e r e a d e r a s t h e y d o i n t h e p o e m . B l a k e m u s t h a v e . r e c o g n i z e d t h a t t h e r e a d e r ' s w i l l o p e r a t e s w i t h t h e p o e t ' s t o c r e a t e t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e p o e m i n w h i c h p o e t a n d r e a d e r m e e t . " T h e C h i m n e y S w e e p e r " c o n t a i n s s u g g e s t i o n s t h a t a n t i c i p a t i n g a n d r e f l e c t i n g h i s r e a d e r ' s w i l l w a s a v i t a l e l e m e n t o f B l a k e ' s p o e t i c c r a f t . S a t i r e a n d a p o c a l y p s e b e c o m e f o r m a l p r i n c i p l e s o f B l a k e ' s m e t h o d o l o g y i n The Marriage of Eeaven and Eell. I n t h a t w o r k t h e d i a l o g u e b e t w e e n B l a k e a n D e v i l a n d B l a k e a n A n g e l s e r v e s a s a p a r a d i g m f o r t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n p o e t a n d r e a d e r . The Marriage b e g i n s w i t h a n " A r g u m e n t " s h o w i n g h o w t h e 17 m a n ' s o r i g i n a l a p o c a l y p t i c v i s i o n o f t h e j u s t m a n w a s u s u r p e d b y s a t i r i c v i s i o n . T h e " A r g u m e n t " i s f r a m e d b y a p o e t i c s t a t e m e n t o f t h e o p p o s i t i o n b e t w e e n c l o u d s o f s a t i r i c v i s i o n a n d f i r e s o f a p o c a l y p t i c v i s i o n . R i n t r a h r o a r s & s h a k e s h i s f i r e s i n t h e b u r d e n d a i r ; H u n g r y c l o u d s s w a g o n t h e d e e p ( E . 3 3 ) A f t e r t h e " A r g u m e n t " , t h e r e s t o f The Marriage i s i r o n i c a l . T h e o r t h o d o x o r s a t i r i c v i s i o n m u s t b e b u r n e d a w a y b y t h e f i r e s o f a p o c a l y p t i c v i s i o n functioning a s s a t i r e . I n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h t h e i r o n i c s t r u c t u r e o f The Marriage, a p o c a l y p t i c v i s i o n i s d e p i c t e d a s t h e v i e w p o i n t o f t h e D e v i l , a n d s a t i r i c v i s i o n t h e v i e w p o i n t o f A n g e l s . A " M e m o r a b l e F a n c y " e n d s The Marriage b y d e p i c t i n g " a D e v i l i n a f l a m e o f f i r e , w h o a r o s e b e f o r e a n A n g e l t h a t s a t o n a c l o u d " ( p i 2 2 ) . ^ A h e a t e d d e b a t e e n s u e s , a t t h e e n d o f w h i c h t h e A n g e l ' s c l o u d h a s d i s a p p e a r e d . W h e n h e h a d s o s p o k e n : I b e h e l d t h e A n g e l w h o s t r e t c h e d o u t h i s a r m s e m b r a c i n g t h e f l a m e o f f i r e & h e w a s c o n s u m e d a n d a r o s e a s E l i j a h . N o t e : T h i s A n g e l , w h o i s n o w b e c o m e a D e v i l , i s m y p a r t i c u l a r f r i e n d : w e o f t e n r e a d t h e B i b l e t o g e t h e r i n i t s i n f e r n a l o r d i a b o l i c a l s e n s e w h i c h t h e w o r l d s h a l l h a v e i f t h e y b e h a v e w e l l ( P I . 2 4 ) A s h o r t p a s s a g e w i t h i n The Marriage, o n p l a t e s 5 a n d 6 , s u g g e s t s t h e o u t l i n e s o f a n i n f e r n a l r e a d i n g o f t h e B i b l e . I t a l s o i m p l i c i t l y r e q u i r e s t h e r e a d e r t o " b e h a v e w e l l " i n t h e i n f e r n a l s e n s e , i n o r d e r t o d i s t i n g u i s h i t s s a t i r i c m o d e f r o m i t s a p o c a l y p t i c m e s s a g e . B l a k e ' s o u t l i n e f o r a n a p o c a l y p t i c u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e B i b l e a p p e a r s , s u p e r f i c i a l l y , t o b e a s a t i r e a g a i n s t Paradise 18 Lost, B u t i t i s m u c h . m o r e . A g a i n s t a f r a m e w o r k l a r g e l y p r o v i d e d b y Paradise Lost, B l a k e i d e n t i f i e s f o u r C h r i s t i a n m y t h s : a m y t h o f e x p u l s i o n , a m y t h o f d e s c e n t , a m y t h o f t h e F a l l , a n d a m y t h o f s e l f - p u r g a t i o n . T h e s e f o u r m y t h s c o r r e s p o n d t o t h e f o u r z o n e s o f t h e o r t h o d o x C h r i s t i a n c o s m o s : h e a v e n , p a r a d i s e , f a l l e n n a t u r e , a n d h e l l . I n e a c h o f t h e s e f o u r m y t h s a n d t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e z o n e s , B l a k e i d e n t i f i e s t h e s a m e c o n f l i c t b e t w e e n t h e o p p o s i n g p r i n c i p l e s o r r e a s o n a n d d e s i r e . T h u s , t h e c o n f l i c t i n h e a v e n , d e s c r i b e d f r o m a n i n f e r n a l p o i n t o f v i e w , r e a d s l i k e t h i s : T h o s e w h o r e s t r a i n d e s i r e , d o s o b e c a u s e t h e i r s i s w e a k e n o u g h t o b e r e s t r a i n e d ; a n d t h e r e s t r a i n e r o r r e a s o n u s u r p s i t s p l a c e & g o v e r n s t h e u n w i l l i n g . A n d b e i n g r e s t r a i n d d i t b y d e g r e e s b e c o m e s p a s s i v e t i l l i t i s o n l y t h e s h a d o w o f d e s i r e . T h e h i s t o r y o f t h i s i s w r i t t e n i n P a r a d i s e L o s t . & t h e G o v e r n o r o r R e a s o n i s c a l l ' d M e s s i a h . A n d t h e o r i g i n a l A r c h a n g e l o r p o s s e s s o r o f t h e " c o m m a n d o f t h e h e a v e n l y h o s t , i s c a l l d t h e D e v i l o r S a t a n a n d h i s c h i l d r e n a r e c a l l ' d S i n & D e a t h ( P I . 5) T h e r e s u l t o f t h i s c o n f l i c t i s a m y t h o f e x p u l s i o n : " i t i n d e e d a p p e a r ' d t o R e a s o n a s i f D e s i r e w a s c a s t o u t . " T h e m y t h o f p a r a d i s e i s n o t s o d e f i n i t e , f o r i t r e l i e s u p o n a c o n c e p t o f a r e s t o r e d p a r a d i s e t h r o u g h t h e i n t e r c e s s i o n o f J e s u s C h r i s t w i t h G o d t h e F a t h e r , " w h e r e h e p r a y s t o t h e F a t h e r t o s e n d t h e c o m f o r t e r o r D e s i r e t h a t R e a s o n m a y h a v e I d e a s t o b u i l d o n . " T h e d e s c e n t o f t h e H o l y S p i r i t o r T h e P r o m i s e , a s t h e c o m f o r t e r i s o t h e r w i s e n a m e d i n t h e B i b l e , b r i n g s a v i s i o n o f a m o r e p e r f e c t e x i s t e n c e t o r e p l a c e w h a t m a n h a s l o s t t h r o u g h e x p e r i e n c e i n a f a l l e n w o r l d . B u t t h e d e s c e n t o f t h e S p i r i t m a k e s the ideal world seem attainable. The third myth, more proper to a fallen world and a fallen vision of existence, i s neither of descent nor expulsion, but of a F a l l : "the Devil's account i s , that the Messiah f e l l . & formed a heaven of what he stole from the Abyss." Taken away from their contexts, none of these myths might seem incompatible with orthodox beliefs. But the fourth myth—the myth which to Blake was appropriate to the state of h e l l - - i s radically different from anything the orthodox mind would associate with this state. It is not a myth of torment or of defiance., but of w i l f u l s e l f -purgation. Its hero is Christ, crucified, then resurrected as Jehovah, the true Christian God: "the Jehovah of the Bible being no other than he, who dwells in flaming .fire. Know that after Christs death, he became Jehovah" (PI. 6). Inaaddition to the four myths already outlined, Blake's commentary on Paradise Lost in The Marriage contains also a reference to the Book of Job, which might be called a myth of forbearance. The myth of Job, contains elements of a l l four myths, as can clearly be seen in Blake's interpretive work, Illustrations of the Book of Job. In The Marriage Blake writes of the Job myth, "this history has been adopted by both parties." A l l four myths concern themselves with a conflict between reason and desire. The myth of expulsion concerns i t s e l f with desire being governed, then expelled by reason. That of descent, is the descent of desire to assist reason in re-building paradise. The myth of self-purgation is a myth of reason being continually 2 0 c o n s u m e d i n f l a m e s o f d e s i r e . T h e m y t h o f t h e f a l l s e e m s c l e a r l y t o b e a n i n f e r n a l a c c o u n t o f m a n ' s c a s t - o u t d e s i r e r e c o n s t i t u t i n g i t s e l f i n o r d e r t o r e g a i n i n d e p e n d e n c e f r o m r e a s o n . B u t t h e f i r e s o f s e l f - p u r g a t i o n a r e w i l l e d b y o n e ' s d e s i r e f o r u n e n d i n g r e v e l a t i o n o f t r u t h a n d a n e t e r n a l c o n s u m m a t i o n o f e r r o r , w h i c h r e n d e r i m p o s s i b l e a n y s t a t i c s e p a r a t i o n o f o n e p r o c e s s f r o m t h e o t h e r . B l a k e ' s a c c o u n t o f t h e f o u r m y t h s o f r e a s o n a n d d e s i r e i s c h a r g e d w i t h a m b i g u i t y . W h e n c o n s i d e r e d a s b a r r i e r s a g a i n s t r e a s o n a b l e m e a n i n g s , t h e s e a m b i g u i t i e s a r e . p u z z l i n g a n d a n n o y i n g . B u t w h e n c o n s i d e r e d a s p a r t o f t h e f o r m o f t h e p a s s a g e i n P l a t e s 5-6 o f The Marriage, t h e y c a n b e s e e n t o h a v e a d e f i n i t e p u r p o s e . T a k e n t o g e t h e r , t h e y l e a d t h e r e a d e r t o t h e n e c e s s i t y o f m a k i n g d e f i n i t e c h o i c e s i n o r d e r t o i n t e r p r e t B l a k e ' s r a p i d s c h e m a t i z a t i o n o f t h e B i b l i c a l c o s m o s . T h e m y t h s s o f h e a v e n a n d h e l l — o f e x p u l s i o n a n d s e l f - p u r g a t i o n — a r e q u i t e f r e e o f a m b i g u i t y . T h e y o f f e r d e f i n i t e i n f e r n a l c o n t r a r i e s t o t h e o r t h o d o x m y t h s . I n Paradise Lost, t h e o r t h o d o x a c c o u n t o f t h e e x p u l s i o n m y t h , n o t e v e n M i l t o n ' s S a t a n p r o v i d e s s o r e b e l l i o u s a n a c c o u n t o f h i s e x p u l s i o n a s d o e s B l a k e ' s " i n f e r n a l " v e r s i o n . I n t h e B l a k e a n v e r s i o n , D e s i r e h a d b e e n " t h e o r i g i n a l A r c h a n g e l o r p o s s e s s o r o f t h e c o m m a n d o f t h e h e a v e n l y h o s t " , a n d t h o s e n o w r u l i n g i n h e a v e n h a d r e s t r a i n e d a n d t h e n c a s t o u t t h e i r d e s i r e f o r t h e c o n t e m p t i b l e r e a s o n t h a t " t h e i r s i s w e a k e n o u g h t o b e r e s t r a i n e d " . S i m i l a r l y , B l a k e ' s m y t h o f s e l f - p u r g a t i o n i s a c l e a r a n d u n a m b i g u o u s c h a l l e n g e t o t h e o r t h o d o x i n t e r p r e t a t i o n 21 o f h e l l . H e l l h a s a s s o c i a t i o n s o f t o r m e n t a n d i r r e d e e m a b l e d e f i a n c e . T o t h e B l a k e a n D e v i l , H e l l i s a v i s i o n o f t h e u n e n d i n g f r u s t r a t i o n o f h i s own e f f o r t s t o c r e a t e a s t a t i c i m a g e o f t r u t h . B l a k e c l e a r l y r e d e f i n e s a n d m o r a l l y r e v e r s e s t h e p o l e s o f t h e C h r i s t i a n c o s m o s , i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h h i s i n f e r n a l v i e w p o i n t . 5 T h e n e w p o l e s a r e a m y t h o f e x p u l s i o n a n d a m y t h o f s e l f - p u r g a t i o n . T h e o r t h o d o x C h r i s t i a n i s t h u s p r e s e n t e d w i t h a c r y s t a l l i z e d v i s i o n o f t h e a l t e r n a t i v e s o f C h r i s t i a n l i f e , w h o s e c l a r i t y c a n n o t b u t c h a l l e n g e c o n v e n t i o n a l a s s e s s m e n t s o f t h e m e a n i n g o f h e a v e n a n d h e l l . B e t w e e n t h e m y t h s o f e x p u l s i o n a n d o f s e l f - p u r g a t i o n , t h e m y t h s o f f a l l e n a n d u n f a l i e n p a r a d i s e , o f f a l l a n d o f d e s c e n t , a r e f u l l o f a m b i g u i t y . T h e s o u r c e o f a m b i g u i t y t h r o u g h o u t B - l a k e ' s c o m m e n t a r y o n Paradise Lost i n The Marriage, i s d u e t o t h e i m p o s s i b i l i t y o f i d e n t i f y i n g t h e M e s s i a h a c c o r d i n g t o t h e o r t h o d o x u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f " r e a s o n " a n d " d e s i r e " . I t i n d e e d a p p e a r ' d t o R e a s o n a s i f D e s i r e w a s c a s t o u t , b u t t h e D e v i l s a c c o u n t i s , t h a t t h e M e s s i a h f e l l . & f o r m e d a h e a v e n o f w h a t h e s t o l e f r o m t h e A b y s s ( P I . 5 - 6 ) T h e f i r s t p o s s i b i l i t y i s t h a t t h e M e s s i a h o f t h i s r e f e r e n c e t o t h e m y t h o f t h e f a l l i s t h e M e s s i a h o f Paradise Lost, t o whom B l a k e h a s a l r e a d y m a d e r e f e r e n c e : " T h e s h i s t o r y . . . i s w r i t t e n i n Paradise Lost. & t h e G o v e r n o r o r R e a s o n i s c a l l ' d M e s s i a h . . . B u t i n t h e B o o k o f J o b M i l t o n ' s M e s s i a h i s c a l l ' d S a t a n . " I n Paradise Lost, " M e s s i a h , " i s a l m o s t a n a l l e g o r y f o r t h e f a c u l t y o f r e a s o n . B u t s i n c e t h e m y t h o f a M e s s i a h h a s b e e n " a d o p t e d 22 b y b o t h p a r t i e s " , " M e s s i a h " c o u l d r e f e r t o t h e p e r s o n o f e i t h e r C h r i s t o r S a t a n . T h i s a m b i g u i t y i s p r e s e r v e d i n B l a k e ' s r e f e r e n c e t o t h e M e s s i a h ' s f a l l . . A t f i r s t s i g h t , t h e l i n e , " M e s s i a h f e l l . & f o r m e d a h e a v e n o f w h a t h e s t o l e f r o m t h e A b y s s " a p p e a r s t o b e a n u n a m b i g u o u s r e f e r e n c e t o t h e S a t a n o f Paradise Lost (who e m b o d i e s e n e r g y a n d n o t r e a s o n ) . B u t t h i s c e r t a i n t y i s r e d u c e d t o a p o i n t o f r e l a t i v i t y b y B l a k e ' s u n u s u a l v e r i f i c a t i o n o f t h e m y t h : " T h i s i s s h e w n i n t h e G o s p e l , w h e r e h e p r a y s t o t h e F a t h e r t o s e n d t h e c o m f o r t e r . . . . " A r m e d w i t h a n u n a m b i g u o u s B i b l i c a l r e f e r e n c e t o J e s u s a s M e s s i a h , t h e r e a d e r s e e m s c o m p e l l e d t o r e t u r n t o " M e s s i a h f e l l . . . . " i f f o r n o o t h e r r e a s o n t h a n t o s e e k a r e f e r e n t f o r t h e p r o n o u n " h e " . I t . c o u l d b e t h a t " M e s s i a h f e l l " i s a n i n f e r n a l r e f e r e n c e t o t h e I n c a r n a t i o n . A n d i t c o u l d a l s o b e t h a t "& f o r m e d a h e a v e n o f w h a t h e s t o l e f r o m t h e A b y s s " i s a n i n f e r n a l a c c o u n t o f C h r i s t ' s k i n g d o m , w h o s e f i r s t m e m b e r s w e r e s o u g h t among s i n n e r s a n d n o t among t h e r i g h t e o u s ( s e e L u k e 2 : 1 7 ) . B l a k e i s c a p a b l e o f s u c h m i s c h i e f . B u t s p e c u l a t i o n — r e a s o n — w i l l n o t r e s o l v e t h e d i l e m m a s . T h e r e a d e r ' s e f f o r t s t o s e e k a r e c o n c i l i a t i o n o f m e a n i n g a r e i n v a i n . T h e r e i s n o i n d i c a t i o n , e i t h e r , w h e t h e r t h e " D e v i l s A c c o u n t " ( o r B l a k e ' s ) o f t h e G o s p e l s e e s i n J e s u s t h e p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n o f r e a s o n o r o f e n e r g y . I n s h o r t , t h e i d e n t i t y o f M e s s i a h c a n l e g i t i m a t e l y b e e x p a n d e d t o i n c l u d e a n u m b e r o f p o s s i b i l i t i e s , b u t c a n i n n o w a y b e d e l i m i t e d . B e c a u s e B l a k e ' s r e f e r e n c e t o t h e M e s s i a h a n d , t h e r e f o r e , h i s r e f e r e n c e t o t h e m y t h o f t h e f a l l , s e e m s o o p e n - e n d e d , t h e r e a d e r m i g h t w e l l b e t e m p t e d t o a b a n d o n h i s e f f o r t s t o f i n d \ 23 f i n a l m e a n i n g i n B l a k e ' s d o c t r i n e o f r e a s o n a n d e n e r g y . B l a k e ' s d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e M e s s i a h o f f e r s t h e s a m e s o r t o f c o n u n d r u m t h a t C h r i s t o f f e r e d t o h i s d i s c i p l e s . When h i s d i s c i p l e s s p e c u l a t e d a s t o h i s i d e n t i t y , h i s r e p l y w a s , " B u t whom s a y y e t t h a t I a m ? " ( M a t t : 1 6 : 1 5 ) . L i k e C h r i s t , B l a k e i s n o t m e r e l y t e a s i n g h i s r e a d e r , t h e M e s s i a h ' s i d e n t i t y c a n n o t b e r e c e i v e d p a s s i v e l y a s a n a l r e a d y f o r m u l a t e d t r u t h , w h i c h w o u l d t h e n b e o p e n t o d o u b t s a n d r e s e r v a t i o n s . I t m u s t b e s o u g h t a c t i v e l y . A p p r o p r i a t e l y , B l a k e h a s t i e d t h e m y s t e r y o f t h e M e s s i a h ' s i d e n t i t y t o t h e m y t h o f t h e F a l l , T h e r e a d e r m u s t f a l l a w a y f r o m t h e d e a d e n e d , o r t h o d o x m e a n i n g s h e h a d a s s o c i a t e d w i t h " r e a s o n " a n d " d e s i r e " . I n t h e l a n g u a g e o f t h e o r t h o d o x , t h e s e t w o w o r d s a r e n e g a t i o n s o f o n e a n o t h e r . B u t n o M e s s i a h , o f e i t h e r t h e A n g e l s ' o r t h e D e v i l s ' p a r t y , c o u l d e m b o d y w o r d s w h o s e m e a n i n g s a r e m u t u a l l y e x c l u s i v e . T h e r e a d e r i s f o r c e d ( " t e m p t e d " m i g h t b e a b e t t e r w o r d , p a r t i c u l a r l y s i n c e B l a k e r e f e r s t o t h e M e s s i a h a s " T e m p t e r " i n P I . 17 o f The Marriage) t o e x p a n d h i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f " r e a s o n " a n d " d e s i r e " i n o r d e r t o e v e n g u e s s a t B l a k e ' s m e a n i n g i n h i s a m b i g u o u s d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e M e s s i a h . T h e " a p p a r e n t s u r f a c e " o f B l a k e ' s c o m m e n t a r y o n Paradise Lost i s a n i n f e r n a l s a t i r e a g a i n s t b o t h M i l t o n a n d h i s e p i c . B u t t h e a p p a r e n t s u r f a c e i s m e l t e d a w a y b y t h e n e c e s s i t y f o r t h e r e a d e r t o go b e y o n d a r e d u c t i v e a l l e g o r i c a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f Paradise Lost, i n o r d e r t o m a k e s e n s e o f B l a k e ' s l a n g u a g e . L u r k i n g b e h i n d B l a k e ' s a m b i g u i t i e s 24 i s t h e p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t t h e d e s t i n i e s o f M e s s i a h , S a t a n , a n d t h e T e m p t e r i n Paradise Lost a r e m o r e i n e x t r i c a b l y i n t w i n e d t h a n t h e n a r r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e o f t h a t w o r k i n d i c a t e s . M i l t o n i n a t t e m p t i n g t o " j u s t i f y t h e w a y s o f G o d t o m e n " h a d d e s c e n d e d t o a n a l l e g o r i c a l s t r u c t u r e t h a t t o o r e a d i l y y i e l d e d m e a n i n g t o t h e c o r p o r e a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g . 6 B l a k e , i n s e e m i n g t o a t t a c k M i l t o n , s e p a r a t e s h i s c o r p o r e a l f r o m h i s s p i r i t u a l m e a n i n g , w h i l e c r e a t i n g s u f f i c i e n t a m b i g u i t y t h a t t h e c o r p o r e a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g c a n s e e t h a t i t h a s n o t u n c o v e r e d t h e f u l l e x t e n t o f B l a k e ' s m e a n i n g . I n o r d e r t o u n d e r s t a n d B l a k e ' s a p p a r e n t s a t i r e a g a i n s t M i l t o n , t h e r e a d e r i s t e m p t e d t o m i n g l e r e a s o n a n d d e s i r e , a n d t h u s t o v i o l a t e t h e o r d e r o f M i l t o n ' s c o s m o s . T h e r e a d e r ' s b e l i e f i n a v o i d i n g t h i s s i n , i m p r i s o n s h i m w i t h i n a c o r p o r e a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e M i l t o n i c c o s m o s . B u t o n c e h a v i n g f a l l e n , h e c a n r e c o n s t r u c t t h a t c o s m o s . T h u s h e e n t e r s t h e f i r e s o f s e l f - p u r g a t i o n , w h i c h h e h a d u n d e r s t o o d a s a p u n i s h m e n t , w h e r e t h e o l d c o s m o s , a r e f l e c t i o n o f h i s s e l f i s h d e s i r e t o a t t a i n s e l f - r i g h t e o u s n e s s , c a n b e c o n s u m e d . A n d h e e n t e r s a c o s m o s w h o s e s t a t e s a r e a d e s c r i p t i o n o f m e n t a l p r o c e s s . E x p u l s i o n , d e s c e n t , f a l l , s e l f - p u r g a t i o n , a r e m y t h s o f t h a t p r o c e s s , d e s c r i b e d o n d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s o f i m a g e r y . O n c e t h e r e a d e r h a s e n t e r e d t h e c o s m o s o f a p o c a l y p t i c d e s i r e , i t b e c o m e s q u i t e e v i d e n t t o h i m w h y t h e M e s s i a h ' s i d e n t i t y h a s b e e n c l o u d e d i n s o many a m b i g u i t i e s . T h e n e w M e s s i a h c a n n o t b e u n d e r s t o o d a s a n a l l e g o r i c a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f r e a s o n o r d e s i r e . T o t h e o r t h o d o x , t h e s e t e r m s a r e m e r e n e g a t i o n s o f o n e a n o t h e r . 25 B u t t h e n e w M e s s i a h i s a n a r c h e t y p e o f m a n ' s a p o c a l y p t i c w i l l . He f a l l s c o n s c i o u s l y , n o t b l i n d l y , o f h i s own w i l l a n d n o t t h r o u g h t e m p t a t i o n o r s i n , a n d h e r e g e n e r a t e s h i m s e l f b e c a u s e h i s w i l l c o n t r o l s h i s v i s i o n . B u t h i s i d e n t i t y c a n n o t b e k n o w n u n t i l t h e r e a d e r e x e r c i s e s h i s own w i l l t o " f a l l " a w a y f r o m h i s d e p e n d e n c e u p o n a n o r t h o d o x v i s i o n . I n t h e e n d , B l a k e ' s r a d i c a l r e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e C h r i s t i a n m y t h i s a f u l f i l l m e n t r a t h e r t h a n a s a t a n i c i n v e r s i o n o f o r t h o d o x v i s i o n . B u t B l a k e d e l i b e r a t e l y i n t r o d u c e s h i s v i s i o n a s a s a t a n i c i n v e r s i o n i n o r d e r t o f o r c e t h e r e a d e r t o a c t o u t h i s own u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e C h r i s t i a n m y t h — t o b e t e m p t e d t o a c h i e v e a n e w u n d e r s t a n d i n g , t o w i l f u l l y f a l l i n t o a w e l t e r o f a m b i g u i t i e s , a n d t h r o u g h w i l l a n d n o t t h r o u g h r e a s o n , t o o p e n h i m s e l f . t o n e w u n d e r s t a n d i n g . B l a k e ' s a n n o t a t i o n s t o E m a n u e l S w e d e n b o r g ' s Widdom of the Angels Concerning Divine Love and Divine Wisdom, w h i c h h e w a s p r o b a b l y r e a d i n g a t t h e t i m e o f w r i t i n g The Marriage, m a k e i t c l e a r t h a t h e u n d e r s t o o d t h e u n r e s t r i c t e d a c t i v i t y o f t h e w i l l a s t h e n e c e s s a r y m e a n s o f a c q u i r i n g u n d e r s t a n d i n g . I f G o d i s a n y t h i n g h e i s U n d e r s t a n d i n g He i s t h e I n f l u x f r o m t h a t i n t o t h e Will . . . . U n d e r s t a n d i n g o r T h o u g h t i s n o t n a t u r a l t o Man i t i s a c q u i r e d b y m e a n s o f S u f f e r i n g Si D i s t r e s s i . e . E x p e r i e n c e . Will, Desire, L o v e , R a g e , E n v y , & a l l other Affections a r e N a t u r a l , b u t U n d e r s t a n d i n g i s A c q u i r e d B u t O b s e r v e , without these is to be less than Man. M a n c o u l d ? n e v e r [ h a v e r e c e i v e d ] ? l i g h t f r o m h e a v e n ? w i t h o u t [ a i d o f t h e ] ' a f f e c t i o n s . . . . ( E . 5 9 1 - 2 . I t a l i c s m i n e ) I n c r e a t i n g The Four Zoas, B l a k e f o l l o w s i n M i l t o n ' s f o o t -s t e p s . A b r i e f e x a m i n a t i o n o f B l a k e ' s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f Paradise 26 Lost w i l l s h o w t h a t B l a k e b e l i e v e d M i l t o n ' s d e s i r e f o r " f i t a u d i e n c e . . . t h o u g h f e w " , i s r e a l i z e d t h r o u g h t h e s t r u c t u r e o f h i s e p i c . B l a k e b e l i e v e d t h a t the whole o f Paradise Lost, o r g a n i z e d a s i t i s , b e g i n n i n g w i t h S a t a n r i s i n g f r o m t h e v e r y d e p t h s o f h e l l , e x p r e s s e s t h e p r o c e s s b y w h i c h man i s r e d e e m e d f r o m s a t i r i c v i s i o n a n d i s r e s t o r e d , a s A d a m , t o a n a p o c a l y p t i c v i s i o n o f h i s o w n e x p e r i e n c e , t h r o u g h t h e c r u c i f i x i o n . , o f J e s u s , B l a k e b e l i e v e d , t h o u g h , t h a t t h e t r u t h o f M i l t o n ' s e p i c h a d b e e n m i s u n d e r s t o o d b y h i s own c u l t u r e , a n d p e r h a p s b y M i l t o n h i m s e l f : " T h e r e a s o n M i l t o n w r o t e i n f e t t e r s w h e n h e w r o t e o f A n g e l s & G o d , a n d a t l i b e r t y w h e n o f D e v i l s & H e l l , isFbecause h e w a s a t r u e P o e t a n d o f t h e D e v i l s P a r t y w i t h o u t k n o w i n g i t " (MHH, p i , 6 ) , T h e i r o n y o f B l a k e ' s D e v i l i s b i t i n g , He i s n o t c r i t i c i z i n g M i l t o n f o r h i s v e r y s e d u c t i v e p o r t r a i t o f S a t a n s o m u c h a s f o r m a k i n g h i s m y t h m o r e e x p l i c i t t o t h e c o r p o r e a l t h a n t o t h e s p i r i t u a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g . W i t h Paradise Lost t h e r e a d e r ' s w i l l i s n o t f o r c e d t o p e r s e v e r e t h r o u g h o b s c u r i t y o r p a r a d o x t o o b t a i n t r u t h a s i t s r e w a r d , a s , f o r i n s t a n c e , w i t h B l a k e ' s c o m m e n t s o n Paradise Lost i n The Marriage, T h u s , M i l t o n s o r e l y t e m p t s h i s r e a d e r t o i n t e r p r e t Paradise Lost a t i t s l o w e s t a l l e g o r i c a l l e v e l . I f The Four Zoas i s r e a d a s a c o r r e c t i v e t o Paradise Lost, t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s t h e r e a d e r e n c o u n t e r s i n a t t e m p t i n g t o p i e c e t o g e t h e r a c o r p o r e a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f i t s n a r r a t i v e may s e e m a t l e a s t p a r t i a l l y u n d e r s t a n d a b l e . B l a k e s a w Paradise Lost t h r o u g h a d i f f e r e n t t i m e p e r s p e c t i v e a n d a d i f f e r e n t m o r a l c o n s c i o u s n e s s t h a n m o s t c o m m e n t a t o r s , M a n i s n o t j u s t A d a m i n Paradise Lost, b u t h e i s a l l t h e c h a r a c t e r s . 27 o f t h e e p i c , w h o , a l l t o g e t h e r , m a k e u p t h e c y c l e o f . h u m a n e x i s t e n c e t h r o u g h i t s v a r i o u s m y t h s o f e x p u l s i o n , d e s c e n t , f a l l , a n d s e l f -p u r g a t i o n . Paradise Lost i s n o t a l i n e a r n a r r a t i v e : i t s e v e n t s a r e e t e r n a l l y p r e s e n t i n m a n ' s c o n s c i o u s n e s s , a n d s o B l a k e s e e s t h e m a s c o e x i s t i n g s i m u l t a n e o u s l y i n Paradise Lost a s o n e g r a n d e v e n t , w h i c h i s h u m a n l i f e i t s e l f . T h u s h e c o r r e l a t e s t h e a g e n t s o f Paradise Lost, G o d , M e s s i a h , S a t a n , a n d A d a m , w i t h o n e a n o t h e r . T h e y a r e n o t s e p a r a t e a c t o r s i n a d r a m a o f c o s m i c j u s t i f i c a t i o n , b u t a s p e c t s o f m a n h i m s e l f . Paradise Lost f o r B l a k e c o n t a i n s w i t h i n i t s e l f i t s s e q u e l , Paradise Regained. H e n c e , i n h i s I l l u s t r a t i o n s to Milton's Paradise Lost?, c o n t a i n i n g t w e l v e i l l u s t r a t i o n s , e a c h e p i t o m i z i n g t h e s p i r i t o f o n e o f M i l t o n ' s t w e l v e b o o k s , t h e c l i m a c t i c t w e l f t h i l l u s t r a t i o n d e p i c t s A d a m a n d E v e b e i n g l e d o u t o f p a r a d i s e b y M i c h a e l , l o o k i n g b a c k w i t h e x p r e s s i o n s d e p i c t i n g a w e , c o n f i d e n c e , c o u r a g e , a n d e v e n g r a t i t u d e — t h e i r r e a c t i o n s t o t h e c o s m i c s p e c t a c l e t h e y h a v e w i t n e s s e d — b u t n o t f e a r , o r s o r r o w , o r g u i l t . T h e y h a v e b e e n r e d e e m e d f r o m S a t a n ' s s a t i r i c p e r s p e c t i v e t o a n a p o c a l y p t i c v i s i o n o f h i s f a l l . B l a k e c h o o s e s n o t t o i l l u s t r a t e t h e " N a t u r a l t e a r s t h e y d r o p p e d " ( P L X I I . 6 4 5 ) o n l e a v i n g p a r a d i s e , b u t t h e i r s p i r i t u a l c o n f i d e n c e o n l e a r n i n g h o w , t h r o u g h P r o v i d e n c e , f u r t h e r g o o d i s d e s t i n e d t o a r i s e o u t o f e v i l . I n B l a k e ' s v i e w M i l t o n h a s g i v e n g o o d r e a s o n f o r t h e a t t a i n m e n t o f a p a r a d i s e w i t h i n , " h a p p i e r F a r r " t h a n t h e o n e f r o m w h i c h A d a m a n d E v e w e r e e x p e l l e d . A c c o r d i n g t o B l a k e ' s d e p l e t i o n , t h e p r o g r e s s i o n o f Paradise Lost j u s t i f i e s G o d ' s w a y s t o m a n , n o t b y g i v i n g A d a m f r e e w i l l a n d t h e n h o l d i n g h i m 28 accountable for h i s i n e v i t a b l e f a l l , but by success ive ly s t r i p p i n g away the moral ambiguity of each event as i t unfo lds . This process begins i n the f i r e s of h e l l and culminates i n the eleventh book, for which Blake's i l l u s t r a t i o n shows C h r i s t dying on the cross . On one s ide Michael revea l s the awful t r u t h of God's love for man. On the other , Adam stares ador ing ly in to the s a v i o r ' s face . At the foot of the cross l i e the serpent form of Satan and S in and Death vanquished. Eve sleeps i n the foreground. C l e a r l y Blake has not merely i l l u s t r a t e d Paradise Lost, but has r e i n t e r p r e t e d i t to make C h r i s t i t s c e n t r a l f i g u r e . For Blake even the A d v e r s a r i a l s tate epitomized by Satan himsel f i s not wholly e v i l . Satan epitomizes the q u a l i t y of amoral, unrestra ined energy which, i n burning , i s consumed. In oppos i t ion to Satan, C h r i s t epitomizes the q u a l i t y of m o r a l , -unrestra ined energy, which l i k e the burning bush, burns without being consumed. Blake therefore represents Satan as man imprisoned i n the h e l l of h i s corporea l d e s i r e s , and being consumed i n h i s e f f o r t s to contain and channel the power of C h r i s t w i t h i n him for h i s own s e l f i s h w i l l . Another way of seeing Satan i s that he i s the f i gure of C h r i s t , covered i n a c loak of f a l s e i n t e n t i o n , which, by Book X, becomes v i s i b l e as the body of a serpent. B lake ' s f i r s t i l l u s t r a t i o n f o r h M s Paradise Lost Ser ies explores t h i s image of C h r i s t w i th in Satan. E n t i t l e d "Satan C a l l i n g h i s Legions", i t depicts a dynamic s t r i k i n g l y s i m i l a r to that of a separate unre lated p a i n t i n g of B l a k e ' s , "A V i s i o n of the Last Judgment", whose c e n t r a l f i gure i s Jesus rather than Satan. 29 F u r t h e r m o r e , S a t a n i n t h e f i r s t Paradise Lost i l l u s t r a t i o n , s t a n d i n g n o b l y e r e c t , h i s a r m s o u t s t r e t c h e d t o p u s h b a c k c l o u d s o n e i t h e r s i d e , i s r e m a r k a b l y s i m i l a r t o t h e " t r a f f i c - s t o p p i n g " J e s u s o n p a g e s 1 6 , 5 8 , " 1 1 4 , a n d 1 1 6 o f The Four Zoas m a n u s c r i p t , g a c c o r d i n g t o G . E . B e n t l e y . T h e r e a s o n f o r S a t a n ' s p e r s u a s i v e n e s s i n Paradise Lost, a c c o r d i n g t o B l a k e , i s t h a t h e i s a p r e f i g u r a t i o n o f J e s u s . T h e r e a s o n f o r S a t a n ' s p r o g r e s s i v e f a l l t h r o u g h t h e e p i c , h o w e v e r , i s t h a t S a t a n n e v e r p p u r g e s h i m s e l f o f e r r o r . I n s t e a d , h e b e c o m e s e r r o r , t o b e s l o u g h e d o f f a t t h e f o o t o f t h e C r o s s i n B l a k e ' s i l l u s t r a t i o n t o B o o k X I o f Paradise Lost. M u c h m o r e w o r k w o u l d h a v e t o b e d o n e o n B l a k e ' s I l l u s t r a t i o n s for Paradise Lost, i n o r d e r t o s h o w h o w B l a k e h a s i n t e r p r e t e d M i l t o n ' s e p i c a s a m o m e n t o f t i m e . B u t h i s t r e a t m e n t o f S a t a n s h o w s c l e a r l y t h a t S a t a n ' s f a l l i s c o n t i n u o u s w i t h t h e r e d e m p t i o n o f A d a m a n d E v e f r o m a s a t i r i c t o a n a p o c a l y p t i c v i s i o n o f t h e i r o w n f a l l t h r o u g h t h e u l t i m a t e s a c r i f i c e o f C h r i s t o n t h e C r o s s . I n h i s a n a l y s i s o f Paradise Lost B l a k e t h u s s e e s a n e n o r m o u s t e n s i o n b e t w e e n t h e n a r r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e w h i c h s e p a r a t e s o n e e v e n t f r o m a n o t h e r , a n d t h e t y p o l o g i c a l s t r u c t u r e o f t h e e p i c w h i c h v i s u a l i z e s a l l e v e n t s t o g e t h e r i n a s i n g l e a p o c a l y p t i c v i s i o n w h o s e c e n t e r i s C h r i s t . F o r B l a k e t h e h e r o o f Paradise Lost i s n o t S a t a n , o r A d a m , o r e v e n J e s u s , b u t t h e r e a d e r . T h e r e a d e r m u s t f i g h t a g a i n s t t h e t e m p t a t i o n t o b e d r a w n i n t o t h e e p i c ' s m o r a l d i a l e c t i c , s o c o n v i n c i n g l y a r g u e d b y S a t a n . I f h e f a l l s i n t o t h i s t e m p t a t i o n , t h e n h e w i l l s e e t h e p o e m ' s e v e n t s a s d i s c r e t e a n d s e p a r a t e . H e 30 w i l l be tempted to compare God and Satan by the same standard of measurement, And he w i l l f a i l to.see that the events occuring i n the heaven, the e a r t h , and the h e l l of M i l t o n ' s cosmos are a l l aspects of one mighty event, Blake was one of the few readers of Paradise Lost who could see what a heavy burden M i l t o n placed upon h i s reader's w i l l i n r e q u i r i n g him to s u s t a i n h i s upward journey alone through the e p i c . Blake's The Four Zoas makes s i m i l a r demands. Everything that M i l t o n has recorded i n h i s epic a p p l i e s to the reader as he undertakes h i s own moral journey upward out of a h e l l of s a t i r i c v i s i o n . I f He does not apply the lessons of the journey w e l l , he w i l l "come out w i t h a Moral l i k e a s t i n g i n the t a i l " ("On Homer's wEoet'fy",EE267) . But i f he understands the nature of h i s f r e e w i l l , as M i l t o n has conceived i t , and guards h i s journey w e l l , the reward i s an a p o c a l y p t i c v i s i o n and a moral conversion. The Four Zoas can be seen as Blake's attempt to f o l l o w i n M i l t o n ' s f o o t s t e p s , Both poets understood s i m i l a r l y the importance of concealing s p i r i t u a l meaning from the c o r p o r e a l understanding. Both e s t a b l i s h a t e n s i o n between the n a r r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e of t h e i r poems and the accumulative e f f e c t of i t s imagery, i n order to conceal s p i r i t u a l d o c t r i n e from the c o r p o r e a l understanding. Where the two poets show d i f f e r e n c e s i s i n t h e i r judgments on how best to t u t o r the w i l l . F O O T N O T E S E . D . H i r s t , J r , , Innocence and Experience: An Intro-duction to Blake ( N e w H a v e n a n d L o n d o n : Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 6 4 ) , p . 1 8 4 . 2 I b i d . 3 S e e M a r t i n K . N u r m i , " F a c t a n d S y m b o l i n ' T h e C h i m n e y S w e e p e r ' o f B l a k e ' s Songs of Innocence" In Blake: A Collection of Critical Essays, e d . N o r t h r o p F r y e ( E n g l e w o o d C l i f f s , N . J , P r e n t i c e H a l l , 1 9 6 6 ) , p p . 1 5 - 2 2 . 4 " A S o n g o f L i b e r t y , " w h i c h B l a k e f o u n d a t t h e e n d o f a l l e x t a n t c o p i e s o f The Marriage, p r o v i d e s a f i t t i n g c l i m a x t o B l a k e ' s i m a g e s o f c l o u d a n d f i r e . T h e " S o n g " e n d s w w i t h a a c o n d e m n a t i o n o f t h e o r t h o d o x y t h a t b i n d s m a n ' s w i l l : " N o r [ l e t ] p a l e r e l i g i o u s l e t c h e r y c a l l t h a t v i r g i n i t y , t h a t w i s h e s b u t a c t s n o t ! " ( E . 4 4 ) . 5 C f . N o r t h r o p F r y e . " T h e R o m a n t i c M y t h , " i n A Study of English Romanticism ( N e w Y o r k : R a n d o m H o u s e , 1 9 6 8 ) , p p . 2 1 - 3 5 . J o s e p h A n t h o n y W i t t r e i c h , J r . , " O p e n i n g t h e S e a l s : B l a k e ' s E p i c s a n d t h e M i l t o n T r a d i t i o n , " i n Blake's Sublime Allegory: Essays on The Four ZoaSj Milton, Jerusalem, e d , S t u a r t C u r r a n a n d J o s e p h A n t h o n y W i t t r e i c h , J r . ( M a d i s o n , W i s c o n s i n : U n i v e r s i t y o f W i s c o n s i n P r e s s , 1 9 7 3 ) , p p . 3 8 - 4 1 , 7 C , H . C o l l i n s B a k e r , Catalogue of William Blake's Drawings and Paintings in the Huntington Library ( S a n M a r i n o [ C a l i f . ] : H u n t i n g t o n L i b r a r y , 1 9 3 8 ) • 8 W i l l i a m B l a k e , il/al'a or The Four Zoas: A Facsimile of the Manuscript, A Transcript of the Poem, and a Study of its Growth and Significance ( O x f o r d : C l a r e n d o n P r e s s , 1 9 6 3 ) , p . 1 8 2 . - 3 1 -THE FOUR ZOAS: L I M I T A T I O N S OF A N A L Y S I S T h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n p o e t , c r i t i c , a n d r e a d e r h a s d e v e l o p e d m o r e c l o s e l y a r o u n d t h e w r i t i n g s o f W i l l i a m B l a k e t h a n a r o u n d t h e w o r k s o f a n y o t h e r E n g l i s h w r i t e r . T h i s i s p a r t l y b e c a u s e B l a k e e n c o u r a g e s t h e r o l e s o f p o e t , c r i t i c , a n d r e a d e r , t o m e r g e i n h i s p o e t r y . He i n t e r e s t s a c r i t i c b e c a u s e h e r e m o v e s t h e b a r r i e r s b e t w e e n p o e t r y a n d c r i t i c i s m . He d e f i n e s t h e g r e a t e s t p o e t r y a s " a l l e g o r y a d d r e s s e d t o t h e i n t e l l e c t u a l p o w e r s , " a n d d e f e n d s t h e p r a c t i c e o f n o t b e i n g t o o e x p l i c i t o n t h e g r o u n d t h a t i t " r o u z e s t h e f a c u l t i e s t o a c t . " H i s l a n g u a g e i n h i s l a t e r p r o p h e c i e s i s a l m o s t d e l i b e r a t e l y c o l l o q u i a l a n d " u n p o e t i c , " a s t h o u g h h e e x p e c t e d t h e c r i t i c ' s r e s p o n s e t o b e a l s o a c r e a t i v e o n e . He u n d e r s t o o d , i n h i s own w a y , t h e p r i n c i p l e l a t e r s t a t e d b y A r n o l d t h a t p o e t r y i s a c r i t i c i s m o f l i f e , a n d i t w a s a n u n c o m p r o m i s i n g w a y . F o r h i m , t h e a r t i s t d e m o n s t r a t e s a c e r t a i n w a y o f l i f e : h i s a i m i s n o t t o b e a p p r e c i a t e d o r a d m i r e d , b u t t o t r a n s f e r t o o t h e r s t h e i m a g i n a t i v e h a b i t a n d e n e r g y o f h i s m i n d . T h e m a i n w o r k o f c r i t i c i s m i s t e a c h i n g , a n d t e a c h i n g f o r B l a k e c a n n o t b e s e p a r a t e d f r o m c r e a t i o n . 1 T h e u n i t y o f t h e r o l e s o f a r t i s t , c r i t i c , a n d r e a d e r , may b e f o u n d i n t r a c i n g t h i s " i m a g i n a t i v e h a b i t a n d e n e r g y " o f B l a k e ' s m i n d . B l a k e k n e w t h i s , a n d h e c o n s t r u c t e d p o e t i c f o r m s t h a t w o u l d r e q u i r e t h e r e a d e r a n d t h e c r i t i c t o d u p l i c a t e t h o s e h a b i t s i n o r d e r t o u n l o c k h i s p o e m s ' m e a n i n g s . T h e p o e t , t h e c r i t i c , a n d t h e r e a d e r , a r e a l l i n v o l v e d i n t h e same p r o c e s s i n B l a k e ' s p o e t r y . B l a k e w r o t e t h a t " E v e r y P o e m m u s t n e c e s s a r i l y b e a p e r f e c t U n i t y " ( "On H o m e r s P o e t r y , " E . 2 6 7 ) . B y t h a t h e m e a n t t h a t t h e - 3 2 -33 p o e m i s a s t a t e m e n t o f t h e u n i t y o f a p o e t ' s p e r c e p t i o n . W h e n t h e r e a d e r e x a m i n e s h i s o w n p e r c e p t i o n s , h e t o o c a n s e e t h a t t h e y a r e u n i f i e d , w h e t h e r o r n o t t h e i r e l e m e n t s a r e h a r m o n i o u s o r p r o p o r t i o n a t e t o s o m e a e s t h e t i c s t a n d a r d . T o d i s c o v e r t h e u n i t y o f a p o e m , t h e r e f o r e , t h e r e a d e r o r c r i t i c h a s t o m e r g e h i s v i s i o n w i t h t h a t o f t h e p o e t . I t i s h i s a b i l i t y o r i n a b i l i t y t o d o t h a t , t h a t l e a d s t h e r e a d e r t o c l a i m t h a t a p o e m i s e i t h e r u n i f i e d o r d i s u n i f i e d . The Four Zoas i s a n i n c o m p l e t e m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f a p o e t i c w o r k . T h i s h a s g i v e n c r i t i c s c a u s e t o d o u b t i t s u n i t y . H o w e v e r , i n a s m u c h a s i t s s t r u c t u r e e m a n a t e s f r o m t h e s a m e p o e t i c p r o c e s s a s a c o m p l e t e d p o e m , t h e r e s h o u l d b e n o m o r e r e a s o n f o r s u c h d o u b t t h a n t h e r e i s t o d o u b t a n y p o e m ' s s t r u c t u r e . T h i s i s n o t t o s a y t h a t c r i t i c s s h o u l d b e f a u l t e d f o r t h e i r s t a t e m e n t s a b o u t t h e d i s u n i t y o f t h e s t r u c t u r e o f The Four Zoas. T h e y h a v e a r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o s p e c u l a t e a s t o w h e t h e r t h e y b e l i e v e i t i s l i k e l y t h a t B l a k e ' s i n t e n t i o n s c a n b e a c c u r a t e l y r e c o n s t r u c t e d f r o m w h a t e x i s t s o f t h e p o e m . B u t a c r i t i c a l r e s p o n s e c l a i m i n g , f o r i n s t a n c e , t h a t The Four Zoas m a n u s c r i p t c o n t a i n s m a t e r i a l f o r t w o d i s t i n c t p o e m s o r m o r e n e e d s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . T h e r e a d e r s h o u l d r e a l i z e t h a t s u c h a s t a t e m e n t d e s c r i b e s t h e q u a l i t y o f t h e c r i t i c ' s o w n r e s p o n s e , a n d n o t n e c e s s a r i l y e i t h e r B l a k e ' s i n t e n t i o n o r h i s e x e c u t i o n . B e c a u s e i t i s t h r o u g h t h e r e a d e r ' s o w n a c t o f w i l l t h a t h e c o m e s t o p e r c e i v e w h a t B l a k e c a l l s t h e n e c e s s a r i l y p e r f e c t u n i t y o f a p o e m , i t s e e m s d e s i r e a b l e f o r c r i t i c i s m o f The Four Zoas 3 4 t o s h i f t t h e o n u s f o r c r e a t i n g t h e p o e m ' s u n i t y f r o m t h e p o e t o n t o t h e r e a d e r . T h e e f f e c t o f t h e p o e m ' s i n c o m p l e t e n e s s i s t o r e q u i r e t h a t t h e w i l l i n g n e s s o f t h e r e a d e r ' s s u s p e n s i o n o f d i s b e l i e f b e s t r e t c h e d b e y o n d i t s n o r m a l b o u n d s . T h i s t h e s i s t a k e s t h e p o s i t i o n t h a t w h e n t h e c r i t i c i s m o f The Four Zoas c a n e x p r e s s f a i r l y c l e a r l y t h e e x t e n t o f t h e s e d e m a n d s u p o n t h e r e a d e r ' s w i l l , o n l y t h e n c a n a n a s s e s s m e n t o f t h e p o e m ' s u n i t y b e m e a n i n g f u l . T h e a c t o f c r i t i c i s m r e q u i r e s t h a t t h e w i l l b e d i r e c t e d i n t w o o p p o s i n g t h o u g h t p a t t e r n s — s y n t h e t i c a n d a n a l y t i c . T h e f i r s t i n t e n t i o n a l l y d e s t r o y s t h e r e a d e r ' s o b j e c t i v i t y ; t h e s e c o n d r e s t o r e s i t . A n a l y s i s n e c e s s a r i l y w o r k s f r o m a n u n y i e l d i n g s e t o f f o r m a l c r i t e r i a . T h e a n a l y t i c a l m i n d d o e s n o t n e c e s s a r i l y t a k e p l e a s u r e i n i t s p r o c e s s e s , n o r i s the_ o b j e c t o f i t s a n a l y s i s n e c e s s a r i l y d i s c o m f o r t e d . B u t i n a s m u c h a s t h e a n a l y z e r n e c e s s a r i l y r e m a i n s u n m o v e d a n d u n c h a n g e d b y t h e p r o c e s s o f a n a l y s i s , h i s p r o c e s s may b e c o m p a r e d w i t h t h a t o f t h e P e b b l e i n B l a k e ' s p o e m , " T h e C l o d & t h e P e b b l e " . T h e p r o c e s s o f s y n t h e s i s , o n t h e o t h e r h a n d , i n v o l v e s c r e a t i n g t h e v e r y a t t i t u d e s w h i c h t h e n a r e t e s t e d b y a n a l y s i s . T h i s p r o c e s s r e q u i r e s a n e m p a t h e t i c a b i l i t y o f a t t e m p t i n g t o g r a s p t h e f o r m s b e h i n d t h e i r m a n i f e s t a t i o n s . M o s t i n d i v i d u a l s f a l l i n t o t h e h a b i t o f m a k i n g n o d i s t i n c t i o n b e t w e e n f o r m s a n d m a n i f e s t a t i o n s . B u t B l a k e i s e v e r m i n d f u l o f t h e d i s t i n c t i o n , a n d m a k e s t h e a b i l i t y t o f o r m t h i s d i s t i n c t i o n e s s e n t i a l f o r h i s r e a d e r . B e c a u s e t h e p r o c e s s o f s y n t h e s i s e n t a i l s r e s h a p i n g o n e ' s m e n t a l c o n c e p t s , i t c a n b e l i k e n e d t o 35 t h e p r o c e s s o f t h e C l o d i n "The C l o d & t h e P e b b l e " . A n a l y s i s and s y n t h e s i s a r e each e s s e n t i a l t o t h e o t h e r i n a c r e a t i v e i n d i v i d u a l f o r o b v i o u s r e a s o n s . S y n t h e s i s when s e p a r a t e d from a n a l y s i s l e a d s t o u n p r o d u c t i v e and a b s u r d g e n e r a l i t i e s . A n a l y s i s s e p a r a t e d from s y n t h e s i s l e a d s t o r e d u c t i v e and e q u a l l y a b s u r d c a t e g o r i e s o f judgment. The c r i t i c a l p r o c e s s o f t h e r e a d e r i s n o t v e r y d i f f e r e n t from t h e c r e a t i v e p r o c e s s o f t h e p o e t . The main d i f f e r e n c e between them i s t h a t t h e p o e t ' s p r o c e s s i s . u s u a l l y more d i r e c t , b ecause h i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g a c t u a l l y becomes h i s poem, n o t a t h e o r y about i t . L i k e the r e a d e r , t h e poet o f t e n d i s c o v e r s form t h r o u g h h i s medium, the metaphor. Metaphors have t h e i r own w i l l and may o f t e n r e v e a l t h a t w i l l t o t h e poet i n o p p o s i t i o n t o h i s own. ( C f . B l a k e ' s s t a t e m e n t , " I have w r i t t e n t h i s Poem from immediate D i c t a t i o n t w e l v e o r sometimes twenty o r t h i r t y l i n e s a t a ti m e w i t h o u t P r e m e d i t a t i o n & even a g a i n s t my W i l l " [ L e t . t o B u t t s , E. 6 9 7 ] ) . B l a k e b e l i e v e d t h a t form i s t o be found i n t h e minute p a r t i c u l a r s o f e x p r e s s i o n , and i n t h e manner by w h i c h t h e poet o r g a n i z e s t h o s e m i n u t e p a r t i c u l a r s i n t o a l a r g e r e n t i t y o f meaning. P o e t i c s t r u c t u r e i s c r e a t e d t h r o u g h the microcosm of metaphor and i n t o t h e macrocosm of myth, f r o m t h e p a r t i c u l a r t o t h e g e n e r a l . B o t h c r i t i c a l and c r e a t i v e p r o c e s s e s s h a r e a need t o keep t h e i r p r o c e s s e s open-ended and e x p a n s i v e by s u b o r d i n a t i n g a n a l y s i s t o s y n t h e s i s . A speech by Los t o h i s a n a l y t i c a l s p e c t r e i n Jerusalem d e s c r i b e s i n human terms t h e p r o c e s s by w h i c h t h e c e n t r a l d i v i n i t y 36 of any form i s made known: He who would see the D i v i n i t y must see him i n h i s Children One f i r s t , i n friendship & love; then a Divine Family, & i n the midst Jesus w i l l appear; so he who wishes to see a V i s i o n ; a perfect Whole Must see i t i n i t s Minute P a r t i c u l a r s ; Organized & not as thou 0 Fiend of Righteousness pretendest; thine i s a Disorganized And snowy cloud: brooder of tempests & destructive War. You smile with pomp & r i g o r : you t a l k of benevolence & v i r t u e ! 1 act with benevolence & Virtue & get murderd time a f t e r time: You accumulate P a r t i c u l a r s , & murder by analyzing, that you May take the aggregate; & you c a l l the aggregate Moral Law: And you c a l l that Swelld & bloated Form; a Minute P a r t i c u l a r . But General Forms have t h e i r v i t a l i t y i n P a r t i c u l a r s : & every P a r t i c u l a r i s a Man; a Divine Member of the Divine Jesus. (J. 91. 18-30) The implications of t h i s passage seem unending. As a theory of c r i t i c i s m , the passage applies b e a u t i f u l l y to The Four Zoas, and opens many perspectives on that work i n p a r t i c u l a r . "He who would see the D i v i n i t y " i s the reader who desires an apocalyptic perspective on The Four Zoas. In order to f i n d d i v i n i t y he must look through Vala, who i s the manifestation of a seemingly evasive i l l u s i o n , and whose name formed the o r i g i n a l t i t l e f o r the poem. And he must look through Albion, who i s Vala's human creator and counterpart, to the very source to whom Albion must look to receive h i s v i t a l i t y and form. Even when Albion himself turns h i s back upon the divine v i s i o n (10.23, 23.2, 19.14), the reader should not: h i s task, l i k e Blake's, remains unchanged by a temporary f a i l u r e of v i s i o n . When Albion, and a f t e r him his members, turn away from the Divine V i s i o n , the radiance 37 i s n o t d e c r e a s e d but d i f f u s e d , f o r e a c h , o f h i s c h i l d r e n r a d i a t e s o a r e f l e c t e d i m a g e o f t h a t r a d i a n c e , e i t h e r " t r u e o r P a r a b o l i c " . When t h e D i v i n i t y i s n o t s e e n a t o n c e t h e n h e m u s t b e s o u g h t among h i s c h i l d r e n , who a r e n o n e o t h e r t h a n t h e D i v i n e V i s i o n a p p e a r i n g i n L u v a h ' s r o b e s o f b l o o d . ( 3 2 . 1 4 ) . T h e a r t i s t t o o , w h e n h e c a n n o t s e e t h e d i v i n e r a d i a n c e , c r e a t e s f i g u r e s o r i m a g e s o f i t , w h o s e t r a n s l u c e n c e v a r y a c c o r d i n g t o t h e c r e a t o r ' s e n l i g h t e n m e n t . He m u s t t h e n s u f f e r t h e p e r i l s o f m o r t a l m a n , t o r e g a i n t h e k i n g d o m o f d i v i n e u n i t y . O n l y w h e n t h e c h i l d r e n a r e v i e w e d t h r o u g h a c a t h a r s i s o f " f r i e n d s h i p & l o v e " c a n t h e D i v i n i t y b e s e e n t h r o u g h t h e m . T h e m o r e m e m b e r s t h e r e a r e i n a f a m i l y , t h e m o r e e x p r e s s i o n s t h e r e a r e . o f i n d i v i d u a l i t y i n o p p o s i t i o n t o u n i t y . T h e m o r e m e m b e r s t h e r e a r e , t h e m o r e o p p o r t u n i t i e s t h e r e a r e f o r c h a o s a n d f o r a l i e n a t i o n f r o m t h e w h o l e . B u t t h e m o r e m e m b e r s i n a f a m i l y , t h e m o r e p r o f o u n d a r e i t s e x p r e s s i o n s o f u n i t y . T h u s , " h e who w i s h e s t o s e e a V i s i o n ; a p e r f e c t W h o l e / M u s t s e e i t i n i t s M i n u t e P a r t i c u l a r s ; O r g a n i z e d . . . . " T o o r g a n i z e t h e p a r t i c u l a r s i s n o t t o s e e t h e m a p a r t f r o m t h e w h o l e b u t i n t h e i r s p e c i f i c , o r g a n i c , r e l a t i o n s h i p s t o t h e w h o l e . T h e m o r e m i n u t e t h e p a r t i c u l a r s a n d t h e m o r e s p e c i f i c a l l y o r g a n i z e d , t h e g r e a t e r t h e w h o l e , a n d t h e g r e a t e r t h e o p p o r t u n i t y o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e n a t u r e o f V a l a t h e i l l u s i o n a n d o f A l b i o n t h e f o r m . S u d d e n l y i t b e c o m e s c l e a r t h a t t u r n i n g a w a y f r o m t h e d i v i n e v i s i o n i s s e e k i n g h i s c h i l d r e n , i s r e t u r n i n g t o t h e m i n u t e p a r t i c u l a r s i n o r d e r t o r e - m e m b e r h i m . T h u s , i n t h e f i r s t f o u r l i n e s o f t h e p a s s a g e q u o t e d f r o m Jerusalem, o n e 3 8 f i n d s , i n t h e c o n c e p t o f s e a r c h i n g f o r D i v i n i t y t h r o u g h t h e M i n u t e p a r t i c u l a r s , a c o n c e n t r a t e d d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e e n t i r e c y c l e o f f a l l a n d r e g e n e r a t i o n , a n d a l l i n h u m a n i m a g e r y . I t i s a l s o a d e s c r i p t i o n o f a m o d e o f c r i t i c i s m i n w h i c h a n a l y t i c a l p r o c e s s e s a r e s u b o r d i n a t e d t o p r o c e s s e s o f o r g a n i z a t i o n a n d s y n t h e s i s . A n i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f The Four Zoas b a s e d u p o n Jerusalem 9 1 . 1 8 - 3 0 c l e a r l y m a k e s a n a l y s i s t h e i n s t r u m e n t o f s y n t h e s i s . B u t t h e s y n t h e t i c v i e w o f The Four Zoas g i v e n a b o v e c a n n o t b e t a k e n a s a s e r i o u s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , a t l e a s t u n t i l t h e p o e m ' s m i n u t e p a r t i c u l a r s a r e b e t t e r k n o w n . B u t f r o m t h i s s t a r t i n g p o i n t , o f v i e w i n g t h e s y n t h e s i s o f v i s i o n t h a t w o u l d h a v e m o t i v a t e d B l a k e t o w e a v e a l a y e r o f C h r i s t i a n i m a g e r y i n t o h i s p o e m , i t s e e m s d e s i r a b l e t o c o n t r a s t a m o r e a n a l y t i c a l v i s i o n o f The Four Zoas. B l a k e o f t e n f i n d s i n g e n i o u s w a y s t o d e m o n s t r a t e h o w t h e r e a d e r a n d t h e a r t i s t w i t n e s s t h e c r e a t i v e p r o c e s s . T h a t p r o c e s s i s a m u t u a l c r e a t i o n b e t w e e n t h e i n f o r m i n g e n e r g y o f t h e s u b j e c t , a n d t h e c r e a t i v e e n e r g y o f t h e a r t i s t , e a c h m a g n i f y i n g t h e o t h e r i n t h e c r e a t e d f o r m s t h r o u g h w h i c h t h a t e n e r g y i s e x p r e s s e d . T h e o p e n i n g l i n e s o f The Four Zoas d e s c r i b e t h i s s u p e r b l y , t h e a m b i g u i t i e s o f t h e g r a m m a t i c a l s t r u c t u r e c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o t h e a m b i g u i t i e s o f t h e p r o c e s s : T h e S o n g o f t h e A g e d M o t h e r w h i c h s h o o k t h e h e a v e n s w i t h w r a t h H e a r i n g t h e m a r c h o f l o n g r e s o u n d i n g s t r o n g h e r o i c V e r s e M a r s h a l l d i n o r d e r f o r t h e d a y o f I n t e l l e c t u a l B a t t l e ( 3 . 1 - 3 ) 39 G r e a t p o e t r y p e r m i t s t h e r e a d e r t o e x p e r i e n c e t h i s c r e a t i v e r e v e r b e r a t i o n o f e n e r g i e s b e t w e e n t h e p o e t a n d h i s s u b j e c t , t a k i n g p l a c e w i t h i n h i s o w n b e i n g . I f t h e r e a d e r e x p e r i e n c e s i t , h e c a n a s s u m e t h a t h e i s , a t l e a s t f o r t h a t m o m e n t , i n t o u c h w i t h t h e a r t i s t ' s i n t e n t i o n s . T h e c r i t i c w h o c a n h e l p o t h e r s u n d e r s t a n d t h a t e x p e r i e n c e c a n b e a t r u s t w o r t h y i n t e r p r e t e r o f t h e a r t i s t ' s i n t e n t i o n s . A d i r e c t e n c o u n t e r w i t h t h e f r u i t s o f a n a r t i s t ' s c r e a t i v e p o w e r p r o v i d e s a v i s i o n o f a p o c a l y p s e b e c a u s e i t r e o r d e r s a n d e x t e n d s o n e ' s e x p e r i e n c e . T h e a r c h e t y p e o f a p o c a l y p t i c v i s i o n i s J e r u s a l e m , a n i d e a l s y m b o l o f t h i s s t a t e s i n c e , a s N o r t h r o p F r y e f r e q u e n t l y w r i t e s , s h e i s b o t h a w o m a n a n d a c i t y , a l o v e r a n d a c r e a t e d o b j e c t . " W h e t h e r t h i s i s J e r u s a l e m o r B a b y l o n w e k n o w n o t " : ( T e x t u a l n o t e f o r 4 2 . 1 7 ) , t h i s l i n e , w h i c h h a s n o c l e a r c o n t e x t i n The Four Zoas, i n d i c a t e s t h e a m b i g u o u s q u a l i t y o f t h e v i s i o n t h a t e x i s t s t h r o u g h m u c h o f The Four Zoas. B a b y l o n , o r B a b e l , i s a n a r c h e t y p e f o r s a t i r i c v i s i o n , w h i c h i n d i c a t e s a n e n t r o p i c d i s p e r s a l o f m e a n i n g i n t o d i s c o n n e c t e d f r a g m e n t s , a n d a n i n c a p a c i t y o f t h o s e f r a g m e n t s t o s u s t a i n o r g a n i c r e l a t i o n -s h i p s . T h e p o e m q u i c k l y f a l l s a w a y f r o m t h e c r e a t i v e a n d s u s t a i n i n g v i s i o n o f t h e o p e n i n g l i n e s , a n d b e c o m e s f r a g m e n t e d . T h e c a u s e s o f d i v i s i o n a r e s e t o u t i n a d i a l o g u e b e t w e e n t h e t w o p a r e n t s o f t h e f a l l e n s t a t e , T h a r m a s a n d E n i o n . T r e m b l i n g & p a l e s a t T h a r m a s w e e p i n g i n h i s c l o u d s W h y w i l t t h o u E x a m i n e e v e r y l i t t l e f i b r e o f m y s o u l S p r e a d i n g t h e m o u t b e f o r e t h e S u n l i k e S t a l k s o f f l a x \ t o d r y T h e i n f a n t j o y i s b e a u t i f u l b u t i t s a n a t o m y 4 0 Horrible Ghast & Deadly nought shalt thou f i n d i n i t But Death Despair & Eve r l a s t i n g brooding Melancholy ( 4 . 2 8 - 3 3 ) C l e a r l y , the f a l l e n state has some r e l a t i o n s h i p to the process of c r i t i c a l analysis. The reader i s plunged from heroic verse describing the prepara-tions f o r creative, mental warfare, into the midst of a lovers' quarrel. From there the f a l l continues almost unabated, into a culminating v i s i o n of corporeal warfare between France and England, from which he i s saved and returned to eternal v i s i o n by the ine x p l i c a b l e beginning of a Last Judgment. The poem begins with a psychological quaternity, but by the end of Night VIII, two of these four Zoas have become p o l i t i c a l a l l e g o r i e s , a t h i r d has disappeared, and the fourth seems undecided whether to be a human a r t i s t or a gigantic sun god. No wonder, i t seems, that the poem's events lack coherence. An analysis of layers of palimpsest i n the manuscript of The Four Zoas appears to provide a reason f o r the poem's develop-ment. I t appears that the poem's conception changed d r a s t i c a l l y as i t developed. Three d i s t i n c t poetic conceptions can be i d e n t i f i e d , though they are too strongly interwoven to be separable from one another. At f i r s t the poem revolved around a c e n t r a l d e i t y , named Vala, who represented the manifested forms of man's mental l i f e . Indications of Vala's character i n early layers of the poem seem to point to a rather chaste and w e l l mannered conception underlying both Vala's and the poem's i d e n t i t y , combining general B i b l i c a l and pa s t o r a l imagery, 4 1 a n d b o r r o w i n g a s t r u c t u r e o f n i n e e v e n l y m e a s u r e d N i g h t s f r o m E d w a r d Y o u n g ' s Night Thoughts, L a t e r , V a l a w a s r e p l a c e d a s t h e c e n t r a l o r g a n i z i n g f i g u r e b y t h e m o r e o b v i o u s l y p s y c h o l o g i c a l m e t a p h o r o f t h e f o u r Z o a s . A n o t h e r c h a n g e , r e c o r d e d o n t h e t i t l e p a g e a n d t h r o u g h p a r t o f t h e m a n u s c r i p t , w a s t o d e l e t e " T h e E t e r n a l M a n " i n f a v o u r o f " A l b i o n t h e A n c i e n t M a n " , p e r h a p s t o m a i n t a i n c o n s i s t e n c y w i t h B l a k e ' s e x p a n s i o n i n t o a t h e m e o f a f a l l f r o m p a s t o r a l i n n o c e n c e w h i c h c h a r a c t e r i z e d t h e c h a n g e s b r o u g h t a b o u t b y t h e i m p a c t o f t h e i n d u s t r i a l r e v o l u t i o n i n e i g h t e e n t h . c e n t u r y E n g l a n d . B l a k e ' s p o e m c o n t i n u e d e x p a n d i n g , o u t g r o w i n g e a c h o f i t s f o r m s i n t u r n . T h e l a s t t h r e e N i g h t s h a d s o m u c h m a t e r i a l a d d e d t o t h e m t h a t t h e y g r e w l a r g e r t h a n a l l t h e o t h e r s i x N i g h t s c o m b i n e d . Two v e r s i o n s o f N i g h t t h e S e v e n t h w e r e c o m p o s e d , a n d b o t h a l l o w e d t o s t a n d . A l a y e r o f C h r i s t i a n s y m b o l i s m , e v i d e n t l y b e g u n d u r i n g t h e c o m p o s i t i o n o f N i g h t s V i l a - a n d V I I I , w a s i n t r o d u c e d i n t h e o t h e r N i g h t s , a p p a r e n t l y i n a l a s t e n d e a v o u r t o o r g a n i z e t h e p o e m ' s s t r u c t u r e . I n t h i s w a y B l a k e t r i e d t o g a t h e r t h e n e w a n d o l d t h r e a d s o f h i s P r o p h e c y , a n d t o s t r e n g t h e n t h e w h o l e w i t h n e w p a t c h e s . U n f o r t u n a t e l y i t w a s t o o l a t e f o r s u c h m e n d i n g . T h e ' f a b r i c w a s s o t o r n a n d f r a z z l e d t h a t t h e o n l y h o p e l a y i n a r e w e a v i n g o f t h e w h o l e . T h e r e m a i n i n g t a t t e r s a r e g o r g e o u s , b u t t h e y w i l l n o t b e a r t h e s t r a i n o f t h e g i a n t f r a m e . 3 T h i s s u m m a r y o f G e r a l d B e n t l e y ' s t e x t u a l s t u d y , " T h e C o m p o s i t i o n a n d G r o w t h o f Vala" (Vala} p p . 1 5 7 - 1 6 6 ) , e p i t o m i z e s t h e s a t i r i c v i s i o n o f B l a k e ' s p o e m , r e i n f o r c e d w i t h " p a t i e n c e a n d a m a g n i f y i n g g l a s s " (Vala, p . x i i ) . B e n t l e y ' s a n a l y s i s o f B l a k e ' s p r o p h e c y , / 7 42 w h i c h i s r e p r e s e n t e d i n t h e a b o v e d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e m a n u s c r i p t , h o l d s f i r m c o n t r o l o v e r h i s s y n t h e s i s o f B l a k e ' s p o e t i c i n t e n t i o n s a n d e x e c u t i o n . I n d i v i d i n g t h e p o e m ' s c o m p o s i t i o n i n t o t h r e e p e r i o d s , h e b a s e s h i s j u d g m e n t s o n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s s u c h a s h a n d w r i t i n g , t y p e o f p a p e r u s e d , a n d s t i t c h - m a r k s . T h e t h r e e d i v i s i o n s f o r t u i t o u s l y c o i n c i d e w i t h i m a g e r y l a y e r s o f V a l a , t h e Z o a s , a n d J e s u s . B e n t l e y a p p a r e n t l y f i n d s l i t t l e t o c o n n e c t t h e s e l a y e r s w i t h o n e a n o t h e r , o n c e t h e y h a v e b e e n d i s c o v e r e d . B e n t l e y ' s a t t e m p t t o e s t a b l i s h a f i r m a n a l y t i c a l ! b a s i s \ f o r a c r i t i c a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f The Four Zoas i s a v a l i a n t o n e , b u t i t w a s d o o m e d f r o m t h e s t a r t . S u b s e q u e n t , m o r e e x h a u s t i v e s t u d i e s h a v e r e v e a l e d t h a t f i n a l l y , a l t h o u g h c e r t a i n d a t e s c a n b e a t t a c h e d t o t h e m a n u s c r i p t a s a w h o l e ( i m a g e r y a p p e a r s t o b e a m o r e a c c u r a t e g u i d e h e r e t h a n w a t e r m a r k s , s t i t c h m a r k s , a n d o t h e r i n g e n i o u s e v i d e n c e ) , t h e d a t i n g o f i n d i v i d u a l p a g e s o f t h e m a n u s c r i p t r e l a t i v e t o o n e a n o t h e r i s i m p o s s i b l e . T h u s m o s t a t t e m p t s t o f o c u s l a y e r s o f c o m p o s i t i o n i n s u c h a w a y a s t o i m p l y t h a t " l a t e " a d d i t i o n s a r e n o t i m p l i c i t i n " e a r l y " l a y e r s a n d t h e r e f o r e i n d i c a t e c h a n g e s o f p u r p o s e , m u s t n o w b e r e g a r d e d a s s p e c u l a t i v e . B e n t l e y ' s i n v e s t i g a t i o n s r e v e a l a l e s s o n t h a t i s , a s B l a k e w o u l d s a y , p a r a b o l i c t o h i s i n t e n t i o n : h i s w o r k s h o w s t h a t t h e p o e m i s b e t t e r r e g a r d e d a s a n i m a g i n a t i v e w h o l e t h a n a s a m a n u s c r i p t o f p i e c e m e a l r e v i s i o n s . O t h e r f o r m s o f c r i t i c a l a n a l y s i s w h i c h h a v e b e e n t r i e d o n The Four Zoas h a v e b e e n s i m i l a r l y i n c o n c l u s i v e i n e s t a b l i s h i n g a u n i f y i n g p u r p o s e f o r t h e p o e m . T h e m o s t d a r i n g s i n g l e c r i t i c a l 43 e n d e a v o u r h a s b e e n D a v i d V. E r d m a n ' s c o n t e n t i o n t h a t , f a r f r o m t u r n i n g a w a y f r o m c u r r e n t h i s t o r y a s o t h e r R o m a n t i c s d i d d u r i n g t h e s e y e a r s f o l l o w i n g t h e F r e n c h R e v o l u t i o n , B l a k e t u r n e d t o w a r d c u r r e n t h i s t o r y , a n d , h a v i n g i d e n t i f i e d h i s m y t h w i t h f o r c e s i n t h e p o l i t i c a l w o r l d a r o u n d h i m , h e a c t u a l l y c o m p o s e d The Four Zoas i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h t h e u n f o l d i n g o f h i s t o r y . B l a k e ' s t h e m e w a s , a s a l w a y s , a c r e a t i v e a s c e n t f r o m p r e s e n t s t r i f e t o m i l l e n n i a l p e a c e , a n d i n b r o a d t e r m s t h e c l i m a x w a s f a i r l y c a l c u l a b l e s i n c e p e a c e a n d t h e d o w n f a l l o f P i t t a n d N a p o l e o n m u s t come s o o n e r o r l a t e r . B u t w h a t B l a k e g r e a t l y m i s c a l c u l a t e d i n h i s r e p u b l i c a n z e a l w a s t h e d e g r e e t o w h i c h a m e r e t r e a t y o f p e a c e o r t h e m e r e f a l l o f P i t t o r N a p o l e o n w o u l d c o n s t i t u t e a n y r e a l c h a n g e f o r t h e E n g l i s h p e o p l e . I n s h o r t , n e v e r w a s a p o e m s o b e w i l d e r i n g l y a t t a c h e d t o t h e s h i f t i n g f o r t u n e s o f p r i n c i p a l i t i e s a n d p o w e r s . E a c h s t a g e i n t h e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f B o n a p a r t e f r o m a r t i l l e r y m a n o f t h e R e p u b l i c t o l a w g i v i n g E m p e r o r s e e m s t o h a v e d e l i v e r e d a d i r e c t s h o c k t o t h e s y m b o l i c c o n s i s t e n c y a n d f r a i l n a r r a t i v e f r a m e o f B l a k e ' s e p i c . A n d t h e s t r a n g e P e a c e o f A m i e n s w o u l d n o t o n l y c a t c h h i m o f f g u a r d b u t u p s e t t h e e n t i r e s e v e n t h a c t o f h i s c e l e s t i a l d r a m a . I n The French Revolution a n d America a n d Europe h e h a d d e a l t w i t h recent e v e n t s . I n The Four Zoas h e s e e m s t o h a v e a l l o w e d h i s t u n e t o b e c a l l e d b y e v e n t s u n f o l d i n g a s h e w r o t e . T h e r e s u l t i s a s mad a s t h e e f f o r t t o p l a y c r o q u e t i n W o n d e r l a n d w i t h l i v i n g m a l l e t s a n d b a l l s . 4 T h e r e s u l t o f E r d m a n ' s r e s e a r c h , a s t h i s s t a t e m e n t o f i t s t h e m e p r o m i s e s , m a k e s a m a g n i f i c e n t c h r o n i c l e . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , s u b s e q u e n t a n a l y s i s o f t h e m a n u s c r i p t h a s s h o w n t h e i m p o s s i b i l i t y o f s u p p o r t i n g a s c o n c l u s i v e a n a n a l y s i s a s E r d m a n f i r s t p r o p o s e d . I n E r d m a n ' s l a t e r a s s e s s m e n t , " c e r t a i n s a l i e n t h i s t o r i c a l a l l u s i o n s o r s o u r c e s r e m a i n " (E 738), h o w e v e r . T h o s e t h a t h a v e b e c o m e a c c e p t e d w i l l b e m o r e d i f f i c u l t t o o v e r t h r o w i n t h e f u t u r e b e c a u s e , a l l q u e s t i o n o f a c c u r a c y a s i d e , E r d m a n ' s a n a l y s i s i s i m a g i n a t i v e l y c o n v i n c i n g . He h a s , i n f a c t , f a b r i c a t e d a s e r i e s o f h i s t o r i c a l i d e n t i f i c a t i o n s 44 t o a c c o u n t f o r s e e m i n g i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s i n B l a k e ' s m y t h . A s t h e s t r u c t u r e o f B l a k e c r i t i c i s m e x p a n d s , i t w i l l b e h o p e d t h a t E r d m a n ' s d a t i n g w i l l b e r e g a r d e d " a s a h y p o t h e t i c a l s t r u c t u r e " 5 r a t h e r t h a n a n a u t h o r i t a t i v e o n e . I t i s s t i l l n o t c l e a r t o w h a t e x t e n t B l a k e ' s s y m b o l i s m a c c o r d s w i t h h i s h i s t o r i c a l a l l e g o r y . A l t h o u g h B l a k e s e e m s c l e a r l y t o h a v e d e r i v e d m u c h o f h i s s y m b o l i s m f r o m h i s t o r y , E r d m a n f a i l s t o c o n f i r m t h a t h i s s y m b o l i s m w a s t i e d t o h i s t o r y . H e r e E r d m a n i m p o s e s u p o n t h e a p o c a l y p t i c v i s i o n o f The Four Zoas t h e s a t i r i c v i s i o n o f America, l i n e s o f w h i c h e c h o t h r o u g h t h e l a r g e r p o e m w i t h o u t d o m i n a t i n g i t s s t r u c t u r e . I n a t t e m p t i n g t o f i n d i n The Four Zoas a s a t i r i c s t r u c t u r e l i k e t h a t o f America, E r d m a n " t a k e s p o r t i o n s o f e x i s t e n c e a n d f a n c i e s t h a t t h e w h o l e " ( M H H , P . 1 6 ) . One i s v e r y g r a t e f u l f o r E r d m a n ' s s a t i r i c r e a d i n g s t o o r e t ; m e m b e r t h e D i v i n e V i s i o n i n i t s . m i n u t e p a r t i c u l a r s . B u t B l a k e d o e s n o t a l l o w t h e s a t i r e t o b e c o m e t h e o r g a n i z i n g p r i n c i p l e o f h i s v i s i o n . A c r i t i c a l s t r u c t u r e t h a t d o e s s o , u l t i m a t e l y f a l l s o u t o f h a r m o n y w i t h B l a k e ' s p o e m , a n d i m p o s e s •I i t s f o r m o n h i s . A l t h o u g h E r d m a n ' s t o n e i s i n s p i r e d w h e n o r g a n i z i n g t h e m i n u t e p a r t i c u l a r s o f t h e s a t i r i c a s p e c t s o f The Four Zoas, h e b e c o m e s a n u n t r u s t w o r t h y i n t e r p r e t e r o f t h e a p o c a l y p t i c a s p e c t s o f B l a k e ' s v i s i o n : N e v e r t h e l e s s t h e r e v i s i o n s o f The Four Zoas m a d e i n t h i s s p i r i t s e e m v l t u a l l y t o r e m o v e t h e c e n t r a l t h e m e o f s t r u g g l e f r o m t h e p l a n o f t h e e p i c . T h e y s u g g e s t t h a t n o k i n d o f s o c i a l o r p s y c h o l o g i c a l r e v o l u t i o n i s n e c e s s a r y b u t s u b m i s s i o n , a l b e i t s u b m i s s i o n m u s t b e t o " t h e D i v i n e V i s i o n . " 6 4 5 E r d m a n s u g g e s t s a v a l i d r e a s o n f o r w h a t h e s e e s a s a f a i l u r e o f v i s i o n a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f N i g h t I X o f The Four Zoas: t h e p e o p l e h a v e s u n k d o w n a s l e e p , d e s i r i n g o n l y e s c a p e f r o m o p p r e s s i o n , a n d n o t v i c t o r y o v e r i t . " W i t h t h e p e o p l e i n a c t i v e , " E r d m a n r e c o g n i z e s , " t h e p o e t h a s e i t h e r e v e r y t h i n g t o d o o r n o t h i n g . " ( p . 3 8 1 ) T h u s , E r d m a n r e c o g n i z e s w h y B l a k e t h e p o e t w o u l d l o s e h i s n e r v e , a n d d i r e c t h i s v i s i o n a w a y f r o m r e v o l u t i o n . N e v e r t h e l e s s , E r d m a n s e e m s t o f e e l , b y t h i s s t a g e o f h i s c r i t i c i s m , t h a t t h e p r i n c i p l e s o f h i s a l l e g o r y a r e s o w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d t h a t t h e y p r o v i d e a f i r m b a s i s f r o m w h i c h h e may c r i t i c i z e B l a k e ' s t r a n s i t i o n f r o m N i g h t V I I I t o N i g h t I X a s i n c o n s i s t e n t . T h u s E r d m a n f o l l o w s a t r a d i t i o n of Four Zoas c r i t i c i s m t h a t h a s g r o w n s t e a d i l y s i n c e N o r t h r o p F r y e ' s Fearful Symmetry ( 1 9 4 7 ) , w h i c h b e g a n a m a j o r q u e s t i o n i n g o f t h e i n t e g r i t y o f B l a k e ' s v i s i o n i n The Four Zoas, O n l y s i n c e J a m e s C . E v a n ' s o b s e r v a t i o n t h a t i n B l a k e ' s v i s i o n , w h e n man a t t a c h e s h i s i m a g i n a t i o n t o t h e f a l l e n w o r l d , h e b e c o m e s w h a t h e b e h o l d s , h a s t h e c r i t i c i s m o f The Four Zoas b e e n r e l i e v e d o f t h e n e c e s s i t y o f a c c o u n t i n g f o r h i s t o r i c a l a l l e g o r y o f The Four Zoas a s a n e s s e n t i a l d e t e r m i n a n t o f i t s p l o t s t r u c t u r e . B u t , t o q u o t e E v a n s , " T h e a p o c a l y p s e , t h e n , m u s t i n v o l v e t h e d e s t r u c t i o n o f a l l s u c h c o n s t r u c t e d w o r l d s i f o n e i s t o e m e r g e i n t o p u r e v i s i o n t h a t a l l o w s h i m t o s e e e a c h o b j e c t i n i t s t o t a l i t y " . 7 One c o u l d g o o n a n d o n c i t i n g i n s t a n c e s w h e r e c r i t i c s i m p o s e t h e i r u n r e f i n e d v i s i o n s u p o n B l a k e ' s m o r e p e r f e c t o n e . S u c h r e b e l l i o n s s t i l l l e a v e B l a k e q u i e t l y b e c k o n i n g t o t h e r e a d e r t o f o l l o w h i m . I t i s t i m e t o f o l l o w a n d s e e f r o m e x p e r i e n c e w h a t t h a t t a s k r e q u i r e s o f t h e r e a d e r . FOOTNOTES N o r t h r o p F r y e , " T h e R o a d t o E x c e s s , " i n Romanticism and Consciousness: Essays in Criticism:, e d . H a r o l d B l o o m (W. W. N o r t o n : New Y o r k , 19 7 0 ) , p . 120. " A n n o t a t i o n s " t o An Apology for the Bible, E 607. 3 G e r a l d E . B e n t l e y , William Blake: Vala or The Four Zoas: A Facsimile of the Mmuscript, A Transcript of the Poem, and a Study of Its Growth and Significance ( O x f o r d : C l a r e n d o n P r e s s , 1 9 6 3 ) , p . 166. 4 D a v i d V . E r d m a n , Blake: Prophet Against Empire: A Poet's Interpretation of the History of His Own Time, R e v i s e d e d . ( G a r d e n C i t y , New Y o r k : D o u b l e d a y , 1969, p . 294. 5 Prophet Against Empire, p . 295. 6 Prophet Against Empire, p . 380. 7 J a m e s C. E v a n s , " T h e A p o c a l y p s e a s C o n t r a r y V i s i o n : P r o l e g e m e n a t o a n A n a l o g i c a l R e a d i n g o f The Four Zoas," Texas Studies in Literature and Language, 14 ( S u m m e r , 19 7 2 ) , 316. -47-F I N D I N G A P O C A L Y P S E I N THE FOUR ZOAS: M E T A P H O R S O F P O E T I C P R O C E S S I n h i s a n n o t a t i o n s t o The Works of Sir Joshua Reynolds, B l a k e w r i t e s , " G e n i u s h a s n o E r r o r i t i s I g n o r a n c e t h a t i s e r r o r " C E 6 4 1 ) . T h i s s t a t e m e n t p r o v i d e s t h e r e a d e r w i t h t h e c o r r e c t m e n t a l a t t i t u d e t o l e a d h i m t o a n a p o c a l y p t i c v i s i o n o f The Four Zoas. F i r s t , i t r e m i n d s t h e r e a d e r o f t h e c o r r e c t r a t i o n a l e f o r s t u d y i n g a n u n f i n i s h e d m a n u s c r i p t w o r k b y a p o e t o f B l a k e ' s g e n i u s . S e c o n d l y , i t p r o v i d e s a v i s i o n w h e r e b y g e n i u s i s s e e n t o e m e r g e o u t o f u n e n d i n g s e r i e s o f c o n t e x t s , t h r o u g h u n e n d i n g s t a g e s o f s e l f - p u r i f i c a t i o n . T h o s e c o n t e x t s a r e v a l u a b l e i n t h e i r o w n r i g h t , s i n c e t h e y p r o v i d e t h e n e c e s s a r y m e a n s f o r t h e r e c o g n i t i o n o f g e n i u s . F o r g e n i u s i s n o t t o b e f o u n d i n f o r m b u t i n p r o c e s s . A s t a t i c c o n c e p t i o n i s a l w a y s t h e e n e m y o f g e n i u s . W h a t m a k e s The Four Zoas a n e x c i t i n g p o e m t o r e a d i s i t s r e v e l a t i o n o f p o e t i c p r o c e s s . T h e e n t i r e s t r u c t u r e o f The Four Zoas b a l a n c e s b e t w e e n t w o w o r l d s . T h e f i r s t m a n i f e s t s l i f e a s a s t r u g g l e t o w a r d r e a l i z a t i o n o f p e r f e c t e d f o r m . T h e o t h e r m a n i f e s t s l i f e a s a c o n t i n u o u s s t r u g g l e o f t h r o w i n g o f f f o r m s t o r e v e a l t h e t r u e e x p r e s s i o n o f l i f e a s e n e r g y r a t h e r t h a n f o r m . T h e s e c o n f l i c t i n g w o r l d s a r e a c t u a l l y t h e s a m e , e v e r - c h a n g i n g w o r l d , s e e n f r o m o p p o s i n g p e r s p e c t i v e s . T h e f i r s t p e r s p e c t i v e , t h a t o f i d e a l i z a t i o n o f f o r m , d o o m s m a n t o a v i s i o n o f e n t r o p y : 0 h o w t h e h o r r o r s o f E t e r n a l D e a t h t a k e h o l d o n M a n H i s f a i n t g r o a n s s h a k e t h e c a v e s & i s s u e t h r o t h e d e s o l a t e r o c k s - 4 8 -49 A n d t h e S t r o n g E a g l e now w i t h n u m [ m ] i n g c o l d b l i g h t e d o f f e a t h e r s O n c e l i k e t h e p r i d e o f t h e s u n n o w f l a g g i n g i n c o l d n i g h t H o v e r s w i t h b l a s t e d w i n g s a l o f t w a t c h i n g w i t h E a g e r E y e T i l l M a n s h a l l l e a v e a c o r r u p t i b l e b o d y h e f a m i s h d h e a r s h i m g r o a n A n d n o w h e f i x e s h i s s t r o n g t a l o n s i n t h e p o i n t e d r o c k A n d n o w h e b e a t s t h e h e a v y a i r w i t h h i s e n o r m o u s w i n g s B e s i d e h i m l i e s t h e L i o n d e a d & i n h i s b e l l y w o r m s F e a s t o n h i s d e a t h t i l l u n i v e r s a l d e a t h d e v o u r s a l l A n d t h e p a l e h o r s e s e e k s f o r t h e p o o l t o l i e h i m down & d i e B u t f i n d s t h e p o o l s a r e f i l l e d w i t h s e r p e n t s d e v o u r i n g o n e a n o t h e r He d r o o p s h i s h e a d & t r e m b l i n g s t a n d s & h i s b r i g h t e y e s d e c a y ( F . Z . 1 0 8 . 3 5 - 1 0 9 . 1 1 ) T h i s v i s i o n o f d e a t h c o m p a r e s i n t h e t o n e o f i t s d e s p a i r a n d u n i v e r s a l i t y o f i t s s c o p e w i t h t h e f a m o u s s c l o s i n g l i n e s o f B o o k I V o f The Dunaiad.^- A p p r o p r i a t e l y , t h e s e l i n e s a r e u t t e r e d b y A h a n i a , t h e e m a n a t i o n o f U r i z e n , t h e g o d d e s s o f U r i z e n ' s g o l d e n w o r l d , t h e m o s t p e r f e c t r e a l i z a t i o n i n c r e a t e d f o r m o f t h e p o w e r s o f e t e r n i t y . A h a n i a h a s b e e n c a s t o u t b y U r i z e n b e c a u s e s h e c o u l d n o t b e a r t h e h u m a n c o s t o f m a i n t a i n i n g t h i s s t r u c t u r e o f o r d e r . When A h a n i a f a l l s i n t o t h e v o i d , s h e b e c o m e s t h e e m b o d i m e n t o f s a t i r i c v i s i o n , a s t h i s s p e e c h f r o m n e a r t h e e n d o f N i g h t V I I I . i n d i c a t e s / : . T h e p e r s p e c t i v e w h i c h o p p o s e s t h a t o f A h a n i a i s u t t e r e d b y E n i o n . S h e i s t h e e m a n a t i o n o f T h a r m a s , whom B l a k e d e s c r i b e s a s t h e " P a r e n t p o w e r (4.7), w h o s e e t e r n a l p o w e r h a d b e e n e c l i p s e d b y U r i z e n ' s a s c e n d e n c y , a n d w h o i s m a n i f e s t e d i n t h e f a l l e n w o r l d a s a r a g i n g p o w e r o f u n c o n t r o l l e d d e s t r u c t i o n t h a t o v e r w h e l m s U r i z e n ' s g - o l d e n w o r l d . E n i o n s e e s l i f e t h r o u g h t h e p e r s p e c t i v e o f i t s b e g i n n i n g p o i n t , a s m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f e n e r g y , r a t h e r t h a n i t s 50 e n d p o i n t , t h e d e c a y o f f o r m : T h e f u r r o w d f i e l d r e p l i e s t o t h e g r a v e I h e a r h e r r e p l y t o me B e h o l d t h e t i m e a p p r o a c h e s f a s t t h a t t h o u s h a l t b e a s a t h i n g F o r g o t t e n w h e n o n e s p e a k s o f t h e e h e w i l l n o t b e b e l i e v d When t h e man g e n t l y f a d e s a w a y i n h i s i m m o r t a l i t y When t h e m o r t a l d i s a p p e a r s i n i m p r o v e d k n o w l e d g e c a s t a w a y T h e f o r m e r t h i n g s s o s h a l l t h e m o r t a l g e n t l y f a d e a w a y A n d s o b e c o m e i n v i s i b l e t o t h o s e w h o s t i l l r e m a i n L i s t e n I w i l l t e l l t h e e .what i s d o n e i n t h e c a v e r n s o f t h e g r a v e T h e Lamb o f G o d h a s r e n t t h e V e i l o f M y s t e r y s o o n t o r e t u r n I n C l o u d s & F i r e s a r o u n d t h e r o c k & t h e M y s t e r i o u s t r e e A s t h e s e e d w a i t s E a g e r l y w a t c h i n g f o r i t s f l o w e r & f r u i t A n x i o u s i t s l i t t l e s o u l l o o k s o u t i n t o t h e c l e a r e x p a n s e T o s e e i f h u n g r y w i n d s a r e a b r o a d w i t h t h e i r i n v i s i b l e a r m y S o M a n l o o k s o u t i n t r e e & h e r b & f i s h & b i r d & b e a s t C o l l e c t i n g u p t h e s c a t t e r e d p o r t i o n s o f h i s i m m o r t a l b o d y I n t o t h e E l e m e n t a l f o r m s o f e v e r y t h i n g t h a t g r o w s (109.28-110.8) T h e s e a l t e r n a t i v e s o f v i s i o n , a s e x p r e s s e d h e r e b y A h a n i a a n d E n i o n , a r e p r e s e n t t h r o u g h o u t The Four Zoas. O f B l a k e ' s f i n a l r e s o l u t i o n b e t w e e n t h e m t h e r e c a n b e n o d o u b t . T h e c o n s o l i d a t i o n a n d c a s t i n g o f f o f e r r o r i s t h e b a s i c m e t a p h o r o f h i s p o e t i c p r o c e s s , a n d i t d e f i n e s h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p t o t h e c u l t u r a l a n d l i t e r a r y t r a d i t i o n o f h i s t i m e . O n l y w h e n The Four Zoas i s s e e n t h r o u g h o u t a s a n a p o c a l y p t i c p r o c e s s o f c o n s c i o u s a n d w i l l i n g d e s c e n t i n t o t h e m i n u t e p a r t i c u l a r s o f v i s i o n i n o r d e r t o r e o r g a n i z e a t o t a l i t y o f t h e d i v i n e h u m a n i t y , c a n i t s s a t i r i c v i s i o n b e p l a c e d i n i t s c o r r e c t p e r s p e c t i v e . T h e f o r m o f The Four Zoas i s t h e c l e a r e s t p o s s i b l e s t a t e m e n t o f t h e p r o c e s s b y w h i c h B l a k e ' s p o e t i c c o n s c i o u s n e s s e v o l v e d o u t o f t h e s t r i c t u r e s o f t h e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y s a t i r i c t r a d i t i o n . The Four Zoas i s c l e a r l y a p o e m a b o u t c r e a t i o n , f a l l , a n d r e g e n e r a t i o n . A t t e m p t s h a v e b e e n m a d e t o c o r r e l a t e i t s s t r u c t u r e 51 w i t h t h e o p p o s i t i o n s o f w a r a n d p e a c e i n B l a k e ' s own t i m e , a n d e v e n w i t h t h e c y c l e o f h i s t o r y a s s e e n f r o m t h e New T e s t a m e n t , l o o k i n g b a c k w a r d s t o t h e o r i g i n a l c r e a t i o n a n d f o r w a r d s t o a p o c a l y p s e . A l t h o u g h t h e p o e m may e c h o w i t h t h e s e l a r g e r t h e m e s , m u c h o f i t s c o n t e n t s e e m s n o t t o b e c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e m , h o w e v e r . B u t i f t h e poem i s i n d e e d u n i f i e d , B l a k e ' s g r a n d t h e m e s o f f a l l , a n d r e g e n e r a t i o n , a n n o u n c e d a t i t s o u t s e t s h o u l d a t l e a s t a p p l y c o n s i s t e n t l y t o t h e p o e m ' s own s t r u c t u r e . I n o t h e r w o r d s , i t s h o u l d b e p o s s i b l e t o d e m o n s t r a t e t h a t B l a k e ' s p o e m i s a b o u t i t s own c r e a t i o n . S t r a n g e l y e n o u g h , r a t h e r l i t t l e h a s b e e n w r i t t e n o n t h i s s u b j e c t , p e r h a p s b e c a u s e o f t h e s h e e r v o l u m e o f e x t e r n a l m a t e r i a l w h i c h t h e p o e m h a s p o i n t e d t o w a r d . N o n e o f t h e r e s e a r c h i n t o s o u r c e s a n d a n a l o g u e s h a s s o f a r e x p l a i n e d w h a t c r i t i c s h a v e i d e n t i f i e d a s t h e t w o g r e a t e s t o b s t a c l e s t o a u n i f i e d u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e w o r k : t h e p o e m ' s a p p a r e n t l a c k o f t r a n s i t i o n b e t w e e n N i g h t V I I I a n d N i g h t I X , a n d t h e s e e m i n g r e d u n d a n c y o f t h e C o u n c i l o f E t e r n a l s . T h i s c h a p t e r p r o v i d e s a n e x a m i n a t i o n o f s o m e o f t h e m o r e i m p o r t a n t p a s s a g e s o f t h e p o e m ' s n a r r a t i v e , s h o w i n g t h a t t h e y may b e i n t e r p r e t e d a s c o m m e n t a r i e s o n t h e c r e a t i v e p r o c e s s o f t h e p o e m i t s e l f . I t a l s o p r o v i d e s a c o n t e x t t o a c c o u n t f o r t h e t r a n s i t i o n b e t w e e n N i g h t V I I I a n d N i g h t I X , a n d f o r t h e C o u n c i l o f E t e r n a l s . A n i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f a p o e m a s b e i n g a b o u t i t s e l f may a p p e a r r a t h e r p r e c i o u s a t f i r s t s i g h t . B u t t h e w r i t i n g o f a p o e m a b o u t i t s e l f i s a f a i r d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e e c h o i n g e f f e c t o f t h e o p e n i n g l i n e s o f The Four Zoas : 5 2 T h e S o n g o f t h e A g e d M o t h e r w h i c h s h o o k t h e h e a v e n s w i t h w r a t h H e a r i n g t h e m a r c h o f l o n g r e s o u n d i n g s t r o n g h e r o i c V e r s e M a r s h a l l d i n o r d e r f o r t h e d a y o f I n t e l l e c t u a l B a t t l e F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e p o e t ' s o w n m e n t a l p r o c e s s b e c a m e a h i g h l y p o p u l a r R o m a n t i c t h e m e , a s t h e w o r k s o f C o l e r i d g e a n d W o r d s w o r t h i n p a r t i c u l a r s h o w . T h e A d v e r t i s e m e n t f o r W o r d s w o r t h ' s The Prelude, f o r i n s t a n c e , r e v e a l s t h e a m b i t i o n o f t h e p o e t t o w r i t e a l o n g p o e m a b o u t t h e g r o w t h o f h i s o w n m i n d : S e v e r a l y e a r s a g o , w h e n t h e A u t h o r r e t i r e d t o h i s n a t i v e m o u n t a i n s w i t h t h e h o p e o f b e i n g e n a b l e d t o c o n s t r u c t a l i t e r a r y w o r k t h a t m i g h t l i v e , i t w a s a r e a s o n a b l e t h i n g t h a t h e s h o u l d t a k e a r e v i e w o f h i s o w n m i n d , a n d e x a m i n e h o w f a r N a t u r e a n d E d u c a t i o n h a d q u a l i f i e d h i m f o r s u c h a n e m p l o y m e n t . A s s u b s i d i a r y t o t h i s p r e p a r a t i o n , h e u n d e r t o o k t o r e c o r d , i n v e r s e , t h e o r i g i n a n d p r o g r e s s o f h i s o w n p o w e r s , a s f a r a s h e w a s a c q u a i n t e d w i t h t h e m ? I n t e r e s t i n g l y e n o u g h , The Prelude a n d The Pour Zoas o v e r l a p o n e a n o t h e r i n t h e d a t e s o f t h e i r c o m p o s i t i o n . The Pour Zoas, b e a r i n g t h e t i t l e d a t e 1 7 9 7 , w a s p r o b a b l y b e g u n a y e a r o r t w o e a r l i e r , a n d w a s s t i l l b e i n g r e w o r k e d a s l a t e a s 1 8 0 4 . The Prelude, a c c o r d i n g t o W o r d s w o r t h ' s A d v e r t i s e m e n t , w a s c o m p o s e d b e t w e e n 1 7 9 9 a n d 1 8 0 5 . J u s t a s The Prelude w a s d e s i g n e d a s a p r e l i m i n a r y t o The Recluse, s o The Four Zoas p r e c e d e d Milton a n d Jerusalem. O f The Prelude, W o r d s w o r t h w r o t e i n t h e A d v e r t i s e m e n t : T h e p r e p a r a t o r y p o e m i s b i o g r a p h i c a l , a n d c o n d u c t s t h e h i s t o r y o f t h e A u t h o r ' s m i n d t o t h e p o i n t w h e n h e w a s e m b o l d e n e d t o h o p e t h a t h i s f a c u l t i e s w e r e s u f f i c i e n t l y m a t u r e d f o r e n t e r i n g u p o n t h e a r d u o u s l a b o r w h i c h h e h a d p r o p o s e d t o h i m s e l f ; 3 B l a k e , w h o i n s c r i b e d " R e s t b e f o r e L a b o u r " o n t h e b a c k o f t h e t i t l e p a g e o f The Four Zoas, c o m p o s e d h i s t w o m a j o r p r o p h e c i e s w h e n h e a w o k e f r o m t h a t r e s t . 53 Further confirmation of the possibility that The Four Zoas describes the process of i t s own creation rests with Milton and Jerusalem, Blake's later epics, both of which contain a number of lines from the text of The Four Zoas. Milton can be seen as a poem about a moment of inspiration, and Jerusalem as a poem about poetry.^ In creating a new poetic form based on the process of i t s own creation, Paradise Lost served as Blake's closest model. Milton the poet descended into darkness in order to see celestial light. The process by which he discovered his grand subject and gave i t i t s form exactly paralleled both the f a l l and regeneration of Adam, and the spiritual descent and ascent of the reader into hell's darkness, and thence upward towards heaven's light. Despite Blake's admiration for Paradise Lost as a unified statement of poetic process, and for Milton as a revolutionary poet, Blake creates much of his subject matter in The Four Zoas in radical opposition to the theology of Paradise Lost. Following in Milton's footsteps in The Four Zoas was to mean a radical opposition to much of the theology and the formal art of Paradise Lost. Paradise Lost had shown more concern for God's jus t i f i c a t i o n than for man's regeneration, which was to be Blake's main concern. Milton's perspective had been static: his art lay in depicting, not in creating, the well-known Christian cosmos. Blake's perspective was to be dynamic: Blake was to create his own myth and his own cosmos, and his art lay in the energy through which he was to create one image after another rather than to adorn 5 4 a s i n g l e c o n c e p t t o p e r f e c t i o n . M i l t o n h a d u s e d a l i n e a r n a r r a t i v e s e q u e n c e , a n d a n O l y m p i a n p o i n t o f v i e w . B l a k e w a s t o a v o i d s p a c e - t i m e c o n t i n u i t y a s m u c h a s p o s s i b l e , w h e r e a s Paradise Lost h a d b e e n G o d - c e n t e r e d , The Four Zoas w a s t o b e C h r i s t - c e n t e r e d . W h e r e t h e t o n e o f Paradise Lost h a d b e e n s t o i c , t h a t o f The Four Zoas w o u l d b e c o m p a s s i o n a t e . A n e x a m p l e o f h o w t h e t h e o l o g y o f M i l t o n ^ c o n t r a d i c t s B l a k e ' s own b e l i e f s i s t o b e f o u n d i n c o m p a r i n g t h e t w o p o e t s o n t h e s u b j e c t o f c r e a t i o n . M i l t o n h a d b e l i e v e d t h a t G o d c r e a t e d t h e u n i v e r s e f r o m c h a o s . B l a k e v e h e m e n t l y o p p o s e d t h i s i d e a . " M a n y s u p p o s e t h a t b e f o r e [Adam] < t h e C r e a t i o n ? " A l l w a s S o l i t u d e a n d C h a o s T h i s i s t h e m o s t p e r n i c i o u s I d e a t h a t c a n e n t e r t h e M i n d a s i t t a k e s a w a y a l l s u b l i m i t y f r o m t h e B i b l e a n d L i m i t s A l l E x i s t e n c e t o C r e a t i o n & t o C h a o s T o t h e T i m e & S p a c e f i x e d b y t h e C o r p o r e a l V e g e t a t i v e E y e & l e a v e s t h e Man w h o e n t e r t a i n s s u c h a n I d e a t h e h a b i t a t i o n o f U n b e l i e v i n g Demons E t e r n i t y E x i s t s a n d A l l t h i n g s i n E t e r n i t y I n d e p e n d e n t o f C r e a t i o n w h i c h w a s a n a c t o f M e r c y " ( V L J , E 5 5 2 - 3 ) I n Paradise Lost t h e c o n c e p t t h a t c r e a t i o n h a d b e e n c r e a t e d f r o m n o t h i n g c a u s e d a n u n f o r t u n a t e d i s s o c i a t i o n b e t w e e n S a t a n ' s f a l l a n d t h e c r e a t i o n o f P a r a d i s e . T h u s M i l t o n ' s p e r s o n a l d i s c o v e r y o f l i g h t t h r o u g h e n t e r i n g d a r k n e s s , w h i l e i t f i n d s a c o r r e l a t i v e i n t h e f o r t u n a t e f a l l o f Adam a n d E v e , a p p e a r s u n p a r a l l e l e d i n t h e o v e r a l l s t r u c t u r e o f M i l t o n ' s m y t h . R e g a r d l e s s o f S a t a n ' s e v e n t u a l d e m i s e , h e p r o v i d e s t h e m o t i v e f o r c e b y w h i c h G o d ' s m a g n i f i c a t i o n i s a c c o m p l i s h e d , a f a c t w h i c h M i l t o n r e c o g n i z e d i n t u i t i v e l y b y g i v i n g t h e A d v e r s a r y s o i m p o r t a n t a r o l e i n h i s e p i c . I n The Four Zoas c r e a t i o n i s n o t s e p a r a t e f r o m t h e f a l l : t h e t w o e v e n t s a r e o n e . T h i s B l a k e a c c o m p l i s h e s p a r t l y b y 55 d i s t i n g u i s h i n g f a l l e n s t a t e s f r o m t h e i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h i n t h o s e s t a t e s . I n d i v i d u a l s , t h o u g h f a l l e n , r e m a i n r e d e e m a b l e . B u t p r i n c i p a l l y , t h e c r e a t i o n a n d f a l l a r e l i n k e d t h r o u g h B l a k e ' s t r e a t m e n t o f T h a r m a s . T h a r m a s i s t h e p a r e n t p o w e r : h e i s b o t h a c r e a t i v e p o w e r a n d a l s o a p r o t e c t i v e p o w e r . He i s t h e u n i t e d w i l l , w h o s e e t e r n a l s t a t e i s i n n o c e n c e b u t w h o s e f a l l e n s t a t e i s e x p e r i e n c e . T h e r e a d e r ' s f i r s t e n c o u n t e r w i t h t h e f a l l e n w o r l d i n The Four Zoas i s i n a q u a r r e l b e t w e e n T h a r m a s a n d h i s f e m i n i n e e m a n a t i o n , E n i o n , T h a r m a s i s d e p i c t e d a s d a r k e n i n g a n d s i n k i n g i n t o t h e o c e a n , a n d h i d i n g b e h i n d c l o u d s . A n i m a g e o f t h e s e t t i n g s u n , h e i s c o n s o n a n t w i t h a n u m b e r o f o t h e r i m a g e s : c l o s i n g t h e w e s t e r n g a t e , c l o s i n g t h e g a t e s o f t h e T o n g u e , a n d t u r n i n g r o u n d t h e C i r c l e o f D e s t i n y . A l l t h e s e i m a g e s d e s c r i b e T h a r m a s a s h a v i n g e t e r n a l p o w e r s t h a t a r e b e i n g c i r c u m s c r i b e d f o r t h e f i r s t t i m e , T h a r m a s , i n s h o r t , i s t h e p o w e r o f i n n o c e n c e , r a d i a t i n g e n e r g y o u t w a r d s u n t h i n k i n g l y a n d u n h e s i t a t i n g l y . T h a r m a s i s a l s o t h e p o w e r o f e x p e r i e n c e , f r i g h t e n e d a t l o s i n g h i s e m a n a t i o n s , a n d t r y i n g t o p r o t e c t a n d s h e l t e r t h e m . T h e r e s u l t o f T h a r m a s c h a n g i n g f r o m a s t a t e o f i n n o c e n c e t o a s t a t e o f e x p e r i e n c e i s a d i s p u t e b e t w e e n T h a r m a s a n d E n i o n . T h e m a n n e r i n w h i c h t h i s d i s p u t e i s r e s o l v e d p r o v i d e s B l a k e w i t h a k e y m e t a p h o r f o r w h a t p o e t r y a t t e m p t s a n d d o e s : I am a l m o s t E x t i n c t & s o o n s h a l l b e a S h a d o w i n O b l i v i o n U n l e s s s o m e w a y c a n b e f o u n d t h a t I may l o o k u p o n t h e e & l i v e H i d e me some S h a d o w y s e m b l a n c e , s e c r e t w h i s p r i n g i n my E a r I n s e c r e t o f s o f t w i n g s , i n m a z e s o f d e l u s i v e b e a u t y I h a v e l o o k d i n t o t h e s e c r e t s o u l o f h i m I l o v d A n d i n t h e D a r k r e c e s s e s f o u n d S i n & c a n n o t r e t u r n (4.22-27) 56 Here is an anthropomorphic description of the response of poetry to the reader who attempts to wrest meaning without understanding, from i t s words. Its symbolic meaning eludes discovery by retreating into the enigma of individual metaphors—into l i t e r a l meanings. By opening The Four Zoas with a description of the quarrel between Tharmas and Enion, Blake describes the necessity of poetry to hide i t s meanings in symbol. Only when the reader's intentions are purified does meaning emerge from symbol. In deriving a creation myth from the relationship between Tharmas and Enion, and in making their dispute the cause for the creation of the Circle of Destiny, for the creation of the accusing Spectre of Tharmas, and f i n a l l y , for the birth of Los and Enitharmon, Blake unites a number of important and complex purposes. He instructs his reader's attitude, making him one with Tharmas in pursuit of Enion. He hints at a poetic necessity for turning away from pastoral poetry as i t had been attempted throughout the eighteenth century. And he prepares the reader for a new poetic form, appropriate to the reader's understanding and his need to exercise his visionary w i l l . The reader who cannot penetrate Blake's symbolism w i l l find i t a weltering chaos of inexplicable meanings. The reader who understands Blake's symbolism w i l l discover that Enion has not l e f t him. Through the characters of Tharmas and Enion Blake finds a way to administer a severe chastening to his eighteenth century reader. At the same time, he explains his own point of view as a poet, since he is also the "parent power". His symbolism shows how narrow 5 7 a n d h o w d e e p t h e g u l f b e t w e e n t h e p o e t ' s " a l l e g o r y a d d r e s s e d t o t h e i n t e l l e c t u a l p o w e r s " a n d t h e i n v e c t i v e o f t h e s a t i r i s t . T h e f o l l o w i n g d e l e t e d p a s s a g e , a d d r e s s e d t o E n i o n , s e e m s t o d e p i c t h e r a s a r e a d e r t r a p p e d w i t h i n t h e s y m b o l i s m o f t h e p o e m a s i n a m a z e , a n d p u r s u e d b y a v i n d i c t i v e S p e c t r e o f T h a r m a s . T h e p a s s a g e i n d i c a t e s t h e b o u n d s t o w h i c h B l a k e c o u l d p u r s u e h i s h i d d e n m e a n i n g s : T h e S p e c t r e t h u s s p o k e . ^J /^o a r t t h o u D i m i n u t i v e h u s k & shells-B r o k e f r o m my b o n d s I s c o r n my p r i s o n I s c o r n & y e t I lov^> A r t t h o u n o t my s l a v e & s h a l t t h o u d a r e T o s m i t e me w i t h t h y t o n g u e b e w a r e l e s t I s t i n g a l s o t h e e , < T f t h o u h a s t s i n n d & a r t p o l l u t e d k n o w t h a t I am p u r e A n d u n p o l l u t e d & w i l l b r i n g t o r i g i d s t r i c t a c c o u n t A l l t h y p a s t d e e d s > h e a r w h a t I t e l l t h e e ! m a r k i t w e l l ! j r e m e m b e r ! T h i s w o r l d i s [Mine] < T h i n e ^ > i n w h i c h t h o u d w e l l e s t t h a t w i t h i n t h y s o u l T h a t d a r k a n d d i s m a l i n f i n i t e w h e r e T h o u g h t r o a m s u p & d o w n I s [thine] < M i n £ > & t h e r e t h o u g o e s t w h e n w i t h o n e S t i n g o f my t o n g u e E i r v e n o m d t h o u r o l l s t i n w a r d s t o t h e p l a c e [of death & hett~\ <^[where] < w h e n c e > I e m e r g d > ( E 7 4 1 - 2 ) T h e d i s c r e p a n c y i n v i e w p o i n t b e t w e e n t h i s p a s s a g e , w h i c h m a k e s E n i o n a n u n k n o w i n g v i c t i m , a n d t h e e a r l i e r p a s s a g e q u o t e d f r o m p a g e f o u r o f t h e m a n u s c r i p t w h e r e s h e d e l i b e r a t e l y c h o o s e s t o h i d e f r o m T h a r m a s , s e e m s t o i n d i c a t e a r a n g e o f p o s s i b l e m o d e s B l a k e h a d e x p l o r e d i n o r d e r t o f i n d t h e a p p r o p r i a t e t e n o r i n w h i c h t o a d d r e s s h i s r e a d e r t h r o u g h a l l e g o r y . I t a l s o i n d i c a t e s h o w e a s i l y a n d p e r f e c t l y h e c a n s h i f t v i e w p o i n t s . At t h e o u t s e t o f The Four Zoas, T h a r m a s a n d E n i o n e n a c t a q u a r r e l t h a t p r e c i p i t a t e s t h e f a l l e n w o r l d . I n p r o v i d i n g u t h i s i n t r o d u c t i o n t o h i s m y t h , B l a k e d e f i n e s t h e p a r a d o x i c a l n a t u r e o f p o e t r y . B l a k e h a d c r i t i c i z e d M i l t o n f o r h i s c r e a t i n g a p o e t i c a l 5 8 v e h i c l e t h a t w a s e q u a l l y e x p l i c i t t o t h e s p i r i t u a l a n d t o t h e c o r p o r e a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g . M i l t o n ' s a r t i s e s s e n t i a l l y t h a t o f p a r a b l e , w h i c h y i e l d s o n e m e a n i n g t o t h e i n i t i a t e d a n d a n o t h e r t o t h e u n i n i t i a t e d . B l a k e ' s a r t o f p a r a d o x i s q u i t e d i f f e r e n t . I t p r o v i d e s m e a n i n g t o t h e i n i t i a t e d , b u t t o t h e u n i n i t i a t e d i t s s y m b o l s a r e a s u n r e l a t e d a n d m e a n i n g l e s s a s t h e d i s c r e t e o b j e c t s o f m a t e r i a l n a t u r e . T h r o u g h p a r a d o x B l a k e m a d e h i s a r t a f i t r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f " t h i s V e g e t a b l e G l a s s o f N a t u r e " ( V L ' J , E 5 4 5 ) , w h i c h , f a r f r o m b e i n g m a n ' s t e a c h e r , r e f l e c t s o n l y t h e r e a l i t y t h a t o n e i s p r e p a r e d t o f i n d i n i t . T h r o u g h t h e a r t o f p a r a d o x , B l a k e m a d e h i s p o e t r y e v e r y w h e r e s h o w t o t h e r e a d e r t h e n e c e s s i t y o f e x e r c i s i n g h i s o w n w i l l . T h e q u a r r e l b e t w e e n T h a r m a s a n d E n i o n i n N i g h t t h e F i r s t o f The Four Zoas p r e p a r e s t h e r e a d e r t o e x p e r i e n c e s i m i l a r o p p o s i t i o n s t h r o u g h o u t t h e p o e m . B u t a s t h e r e a d e r m o v e s i n t o t h e p o e m , t h e i r q u a r r e l a n d , t h e r e f o r e , t h e i s s u e s i t r a i s e s , b e c o m e p e r i p h e r a l t o a n o r g a n i z e d c o n f l i c t b e t w e e n U r i z e n a n d L u v a h o v e r p o s s e s s i o n o f t h e c h a r i o t o f p o e t i c g e n i u s . T h e i m a g e r y o f t h e c e n t r a l p o r t i o n o f N i g h t t h e F i r s t i s t a k e n f r o m B o o k V o f Paradise Lost, w h e r e G o d ' s p r o c l a m a t i o n o f t h e a n o i n t i n g o f h i s S o n a s t h e M o s t H i g h i s f o l l o w e d b y a b a n q u e t f e a s t a n d b y a p l o t o f r e b e l l i o n b y S a t a n . I n The Four Zoas a n a n a l o g o u s f e a s t b e c o m e s a s p a r a g m o s — a r i t u a l o f c o m m u n i o n w h e r e t h e b o d y o f t h e u n i v e r s a l G o d i s g i v e n t o m a n i n i t s e l e m e n t a l f o r m s ( 1 2 . 3 6 - 7 , 4 4 ) . P r e s i d i n g a t t h e f e a s t a r e t h e n e w l y b o r n c h i l d r e n , L o s a n d E n i t h a r m o n , b o r n i n t o t h e f a l l e n w o r l d t h r o u g h t h e q u a r r e l o f T h a r m a s a n d E n i o n . 59 L o s h a s a l r e a d y b e e n i d e n t i f i e d w i t h t h e i m a g i n a t i o n . O u t o f t h e f r a g m e n t s o f E n i o n ' s w o r l d h e w i l l c r e a t e n e w i m a g i n a t i v e f o r m s t o r e g e n e r a t e t h e f a l l e n M a n . P r e s i d i n g o v e r t h e f e a s t g i v e s L o s h i s i n i t i a t i o n i n t o t h i s r o l e . T h e b a c k g r o u n d f o r t h i s f e a s t i n The Four Zoas i s o r g a n i z e d m e n t a l w a r f a r e b e t w e e n t h e t w o m o s t e a s i l y a l l e g o r i z e d g o d s o f B l a k e ' s m y t h , U r i z e n a n d L u v a h . U r i z e n , w h o s e a c t i o n s i n N i g h t t h e F i r s t a r e c l e a r l y m o d e l l e d a f t e r S a t a n i n B o o k V o f Paradise Lost, c o u l d b e t h e f a c u l t y o f r e a s o n , a n d L u v a h , a g o d o f v e g e t a t i v e l i f e l i k e D i o n y s i s , c o u l d b e t h e f a c u l t y o f d e s i r e . U s u a l l y w h e n t h e i r c o n f l i c t , w h i c h r a g e s t h r o u g h o u t The Four Zoas, i s r e f e r r e d t o , i t s o r i g i n s e e m s t o b e o v e r t h e p o s s e s s i o n o f t h e d i v i n e c h a r i o t . T h i s c h a r i o t i s r e f e r r e d t o t h r o u g h a n u m b e r o f m e t a p h o r s , b u t f o r p u r p o s e s o f t h i s d i s c u s s i o n , i t c a n b e s t b e t h o u g h t o f a s t h e c h a r i o t o f p o e t i c g e n i u s . A s U r i z e n a n d t h e n L u v a h d e s c e n d f r o m E t e r n i t y i n t o t i m e a n d s p a c e , t h e i r m e n t a l w a r f a r e f o l l o w s w i t h t h e m , a n d p r o v o k e s t h e d e s c r i p t i o n o f c o r p o r e a l w a r f a r e i n N i g h t s V I l b a n d V I I I o f The Four Zoas. T h e c o n f l i c t b e t w e e n U r i z e n a n d L u v a h , b e t w e e n r e a s o n a n d d e s i r e , c h a r a c t e r i z e s a c u l t u r a l c o n f l i c t t h a t c a n b e t r a c e d t h r o u g h -o u t t h e l i t e r a t u r e , t h e p o l i t i c s , a n d t h e s o c i a l h i s t o r y o f E n g l a n d i n t h e R e s t o r a t i o n a n d t h e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y . I t c o u l d n o t b e i g n o r e d b y a n y p o e t o f t h e p e r i o d , t h o u g h e x p r e s s i o n s o f i t s p o l i t i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s w a s h a r s h l y c e n s o r e d a f t e r t h e m i d d l e o f t h e c e n t u r y . T h e s y m b o l i s m o f T h a r m a s a n d E n i o n i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e p o e t i c i m p u l s e e m b o d i e d i n L o s a n d E n i t h a r m o n w a s i n d e e d b o r n 60 f r o m t h e n e e d t o g i v e m e t a p h o r i c e x p r e s s i o n t o t h e c u l t u r a l c o n f l i c t B u t p o l i t i c a l c e n s o r s h i p w a s n o t t h e o n l y c a u s e f o r a r e t r e a t i n t o s y m b o l i s m t o e x p r e s s t h e g r o w i n g c o n t r a d i c t i o n s o f E n g l i s h t h o u g h t a n d c u l t u r e . T h e c e n s o r s h i p w i t h i n m e n ' s m i n d w a s j u s t a s r e a l . D e s p i t e a u n i v e r s a l a w a r e n e s s , a t l e a s t among p o e t s , o f t h e n e e d f o r n e w f o r m s o f e x p r e s s i o n , p o e t i c e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n t h r o u g h o u t t h e c e n t u r y c o n t i n u e d t o b e i n h i b i t e d b y c o u n t l e s s n e o c l a s s i c a l c o n v e n t i o n s . T h i s e x c r u c i a t i n g p a r a l y s i s o f f o r m l e d t o a c r i s i s i n t h e l i v e s o f a n u m b e r o f e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y p o e t s , i n p a r t i c u l a r , W i l l i a m C o w p e r , T h o m a s C h a t t e r t o n , W i l l i a m C o l l i n s , a n d p e r h a p s C h r i s t o p h e r S m a r t a s w e l l . A t f i r s t t h e w a r s b e t w e e n U r i z e n a n d L u v a h a r e p u r e l y v i s i o n a r y a n d a r e s e e n b y some a n d n o t b y o t h e r s ( 2 8 . 1 1 - 2 1 ) . A s The Four Zoas p r o g r e s s e s , h o w e v e r , t h e i r i m p a c t o n t h e p o e m c h a n g e s . A t f i r s t t h e y a r e m e r e l y " i n t h e a i r " . L a t e r , t h e y p r o v i d e t h e d o m i n a t i n g s u b j e c t m a t t e r o f t h e p o e m . F i n a l l y , t h e y e p i t o m i z e f o r c e s o f o p p r e s s i o n a n d t y r a n n y . T h i s p r o g r e s s i o n s e e m s t o f o l l o w a c h a n g e i n m e n t a l c o n s c i o u s n e s s t h r o u g h t h e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y a s t h e e a r l y e x p r e s s i o n s o f v a g u e a n d g e n e r a l e n l i g h t e n e d o p t i m i s m b e c a m e p o l a r i z e d i n t o a t t i t u d e s o f r e v o l u t i o n a n d p o l i t i c a l e n t r e n c h m e n t , a m o v e m e n t c o i n c i d i n g w i t h t h e g r o w t h o f e m p i r i c i s m . T h i s " d o w n w a r d s a n d o u t w a r d s " m o v e m e n t o f w h a t B l a k e c a l l s c o r p o r e a l w a r f a r e , o r t h e " w a r s o f E t e r n a l D e a t h " , p r o v i d e s t h e p r i m a r y s o u r c e f o r t h e s a t i r i c v i s i o n o f The Four Zoas. I t s v e r y a n t i t h e s i s t o i t s m e n t a l c o u n t e r p a r t , " t h e w a r s o f E t e r n a l L i f e " m a k e s i t a n e s s e n t i a l i n g r e d i e n t o f B l a k e ' s p o e m . T h e 61 e s s e n t i a l o p p o s i t i o n b e t w e e n t h e m e n t a l a n d p h y s i c a l r e a l m s i s i n d i c a t e d b y t h e c l o s i n g l i n e s o f N i g h t I : T e r r i f i c r a g d t h e E t e r n a l W h e e l s o f i n t e l l e c t t e r r i f i c r a g d T h e l i v i n g c r e a t u r e s o f t h e w h e e l s i n t h e W a r s o f E t e r n a l l i f e B u t p e r v e r s e r o l l d t h e w h e e l s o f U r i z e n & L u v a h b a c k r e v e r s d D o w n w a r d s & o u t w a r d s c o n s u m i n g i n t h e w a r s o f E t e r n a l D e a t h (20.12-15) A s t h e c o n f l i c t e n t e r s t h e r e a l m o f m a n i f e s t a t i o n s , i t b e c o m e s p r o g r e s s i v e l y d e g r a d e d . B u t t h e e n e r g y o f t h e w a r r i n g Z o a s i s n o t e n t i r e l y d i s s i p a t e d , f o r t h a t e n e r g y g i v e s r i s e t o a n o t h e r o p p o s i t i o n , t h a t o f t h e p r o p h e t i c i m a g i n a t i o n , L o s . T h e p o e m t h u s g i v e s r i s e t o t w o o p p o s i n g m o v e m e n t s : t h e e n t r o p i c w a s t e o f t h e U r i z e n - L u v a h c o n f l i c t , a n d t h e s p i r i t u a l a s c e n t o f L o s . T h e c e n t r a l p o s i t i o n o f t h e U r i z e n - L u v a h c o n f l i c t i n The Four Zoas p r o v i d e s a n i m p o r t a n t c o m m e n t o n t h e n a t u r e o f t h e p o e t i c p r o c e s s . B l a k e ' s a n a l o g y b e t w e e n U r i z e n a n d M i l t o n ' s S a t a n i s p a r t i c u l a r l y a p t h e r e . M i l t o n ' s u s e o f S a t a n i n Paradise Lost a n d Paradise Regained s a t i r i z e s t h e r o l e o f t h e t r a g i c h e r o i n c l a s s i c a l l i t e r a t u r e . A n d y e t , a s h a s a l r e a d y b e e n n o t e d , S a t a n i s t h e g r e a t i n s t r u m e n t o f G o d ' s a n d M i l t o n ' s p l a n o f s p i r i t u a l r e g e n e r a t i o n . T h e e s s e n t i a l l y c o m i c p u r p o s e o f t r a g e d y w a s a f a v o u r i t e t h e m e o f B l a k e ' s . T h e d e a t h o f t h e h e r o i n t r a g e d y p u r g e s h i s s o c i e t y o f a t r a g i c f l a w w h i c h t h e h e r o e m b o d i e s , a n d a l l o w s t h e a u d i e n c e t o s h a r e i n t h a t p u r g a t i o n . I n h i s Descriptive Catalogue, B l a k e m a k e s m u c h o f t h e f a c t t h a t " C h a u c e r h a s m a d e h i s M o n k a g r e a t t r a g e d i a n , o n e w h o s t u d i e d p o e t i c a l a r t . . . . T h e M o n k ' s d e f i n i t i o n o f t r a g e d y i n t h e p o e m t o h i s t a l e i s w o r t h r e p e a t i n g : 6 2 ' T r a g e d y i s t o t e l l a c e r t a i n s t o r y , A s o l d b o o k s u s m a k e n m e m o r y : O f h i m t h a t s t o o d i n g r e a t p r o s p e r i t y . A n d b e f a l l e n o u t o f h i g h d e g r e e , I n t o m i s e r i e a n d e n d e d w r e t c h e d l y . ' " ( E 5 2 5 ) F u r t h e r , i n i t s d e p i c t i o n o f d e s t r u c t i o n a n d m o r a l d e c a y , B l a k e b e l i e v e d t h a t : " t h e g r a n d e s t P o e t r y i s I m m o r a l t h e G r a n d e s t c h a r a c t e r s W i c k e d . V e r y S a t a n . C a p a n i u s O t h e l l o a m u r d e r e r . P r o m e t h e u s . J u p i t e r . J e h o v a h . J e s u s a w i n e b i b b e r " ( E 6 2 3 ) . I n s t a t i n g h i s c a s e a g a i n s t " m o r a l " p o e t r y i n h i s a n n o t a t i o n s t o B o y d ' s H i s t o r i c a l Notes, B l a k e c o n t r a d i c t s a f i r m p r i n c i p l e o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e a n d c r i t i c i s m o f h i s t i m e , t h a t a l l l i t e r a t u r e s h o u l d e x e m p l i f y m o r a l l a w s . B u t B l a k e b e l i e v e d t h a t e v e r y t h i n g c o m e s f r o m i t s o w n o p p o s i t e , a n d t h a t " t h e g r a n d e s t p o e t r y " c r e a t e s i t s s t r u c t u r e f r o m o p p o s i t i o n . T h e o p p o s i t i o n b e t w e e n L u v a h a n d O r e g e n e r a t e s L o s a s ±ts o p p o s i t e . I t i s f o r L o s t o c r e a t e a v i s i o n t h a t i n c o r p o r a t e s b o t h o p p o s i t e s i n t o o n e w h o l e , m u c h a s M i l t o n h a d d o n e i n Paradise Lost. E a r l i e r i t w a s e s t a b l i s h e d t h a t t h e c o n f l i c t b e t w e e n E n i o n a n d T h a r m a s i n d i c a t e s B l a k e ' s u s e o f p a r a d o x — a d e l i b e r a t e r e t r e a t i n t o t h e m a z e s o f m e t a p h o r i c t h o u g h t t o e l u d e r a t i o n a l i n q u i r y . B l a k e ' s ( o r E n i o n ' s ) c h o i c e o f p a r a d o x c l e a r l y s h o w s h i s a l l i a n c e w i t h L u v a h a g a i n s t U r i z e n i n t h e w a r s o f e t e r n a l l i f e . H o w e v e r , B l a k e ' s c h o i c e o f t h e s y m b o l o f t h e c h a r i o t a s a f o c u s f o r t h e c o n f l i c t b e t w e e n U r i z e n a n d L u v a h s h o w s t h a t h e a l s o m a k e s u s e o f t h e a l l e g o r i c a l m e t h o d t h a t M i l t o n ' s R a p h a e l h a d u s e d : I s h a l l d e l i n e a t e s o , B y l i k ' n i n g s p i r i t u a l t o c o r p o r a l f o r m s A s m a y e x p r e s s t h e m b e s t (P.L. V , 5 7 2 - 4 ) 6 3 F l a s h b a c k a c c o u n t s o f t h e o r i g i n o f t h e c o n f l i c t l e a d i n g t o t h e F a l l ( 1 5 . 1 0 - 1 1 ; 2 1 . 2 5 - 2 7 ; 3 9 . 3 ; 6 4 . 1 1 - 1 2 ; 8 0 . 4 0 - 4 1 ; 8 2 . 3 0 - 3 5 ; 1 1 9 . 2 6 - 2 7 ) , i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e m o s t c o n s i s t e n t e x p r e s s i o n o f t h e c o n f l i c t w a s b a s e d o n a v a r i a t i o n o f t h e P h a e t h o n m y t h . I n t h i s m y t h , A p o l l o p e r m i t t e d h i s s o n P h a e t h o n t o g u i d e t h e c h a r i o t o f t h e s u n , w i t h d i s a s t r o u s c o n s e q u e n c e s . Y e t t h e v a r i e t y o f c o n f l i c t i n g a c c o u n t s o f t h e f a l l , e v e n b e y o n d t h o s e c i t e d h e r e , m a k e i t q u i t e o b v i o u s t h a t t h e c h a r i o t i s m e r e l y t h e c o r p o r e a l l i k e n e s s o f s o m e s p i r i t u a l f o r m t h a t c a n n o t b e a d e q u a t e l y u n d e r s t o o d e v e n t h r o u g h m e t a p h o r . F o r t h e p u r p o s e s o f t h i s e s s a y a m o d e r n l a n g u a g e e x p r e s s i o n f o r i t m i g h t b e " t h e c e n t e r o f l i f e e n e r g y i n t h e h u m a n p s y c h e " , o r i n B l a k e a n l a n g u a g e , t h e P o e t i c g e n i u s . T h i s " c h a r i o t o f f i r e " a s i t i s a l s o c a l l e d i n The Four Zoas, e x i s t s b e y o n d t h e c a p a c i t y o f U r i z e n o r L u v a h t o p o s s e s s i t , o r u s u r p i t . T h e P h a e t h o n m y t h , w h e n i n v e r t e d f r o m a p a s s i v e t o a n a c t i v e c o n c e p t i o n , i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e c h a r i o t o f p o e t i c g e n i u s i m p a r t s i t s w i l l t h r o u g h w h o m e v e r i t c h o o s e s , a n d i s n o t t h e p a s s i v e r e c e p t a c l e f o r t h e d e s i r e o f e i t h e r U r i z e n o r L u v a h . T h e i n e v i t a b l e c o n c l u s i o n i s t h a t t h e C h a r i o t o f p o e t i c g e n i u s d e s i g n a t e s t h e u n i f y i n g v i s i o n o f C h r i s t . I n Paradise Lost t h e f o u r f o l d c h a r i o t h a d s y m b o l i z e d C h r i s t ' s o m n i p o t e n c e . I n The Four Zoas t h e s a m e f o u r f o l d c h a r i o t b e c o m e s a s y m b o l f o r t h e u n i t y o f t h e Z o a s . A l t h o u g h p a r t s o f t h i s f o u r f o l d c h a r i o t a r e v i s i b l e i n e a r l y N i g h t s o f The Four Zoas, t h e u n i f i e d v i s i o n , w i t h C h r i s t e n t h r o n e d a t i t s p i n n a c l e , i s n o t d e p i c t e d u n t i l a f t e r t h e L a s t J u d g m e n t , i n N i g h t I X ( 1 2 3 . 2 7 - 2 9 , 3 3 - 3 9 ) . N e v e r t h e l e s s , a l t h o u g h 64 t h e c h a r i o t i s n o t s e e n i n i t s e n t i r e t y t h r o u g h o u t The Four Zoas, i t i s p r e s e n t a s p a r t o f t h e m a c h i n e r y o f t h e E t e r n a l s , g u i d i n g B l a k e ' s v i s i o n a w a y f r o m M i l t o n ' s m y t h o f r e a s o n , a n d t o w a r d s a m y t h o f d e s i r e a s t h e f i t t e s t e x p r e s s i o n o f d i v i n i t y . T h e n e c e s s i t y f o r a C o u n c i l o f E t e r n a l s i n The Four Zoas i s c l e a r l y i l l u s t r a t e d b y t h e d i s t o r t i o n s t h a t t h e Z o a s a n d t h e i r e m a n a t i o n s m a k e w h e n a t t e m p t i n g t o r e c a l l t h e n a t u r e o f t h e d i v i n e c h a r i o t . E a c h o f t h e c h a r a c t e r s h a s b e e n s e d u c e d i n t o s e e i n g s e l f - r e f l e c t e d i m a g e s o f r e a l i t y , w h i c h i s t h e p r i n c i p l e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f t h e f a l l e n m a n . I f A l b i o n a s One f a l l s i n t o a d r e a m o f a n a r c i s i s t i c r e a l i t y , t h e n s o i n d e e d do a l l h i s m e m b e r s . T h e c o n c e p t o f e t e r n a l s , u n c h a n g e d t h o u g h h u m a n , a l w a y s c a p a b l e o f m i n g l i n g i d e n t i t i e s a n d t h u s r e n e w i n g o n e ' s r e a l i t y t h r o u g h t h e c r e a t i v e o p p o s i t i o n o f a c o n t r a s t i n g p o i n t o f v i e w , i s v i t a l t o t h e c o n c e p t i o n o f B l a k e ' s p o e m . T h e C o u n c i l o f E t e r n a l s a r e i n f a c t n o t a s e p a r a t e p a n t h e o n o f i m m o r t a l s , b u t a u n i f i e d v i s i o n o f t h e e t e r n a l man p e r c e i v e d a s h i s i n d i v i d u a l m e m b e r s . T h e C o u n c i l o f E t e r n a l s a r e m a n ' s m i n u t e p a r t i c u l a r s c o n c e i v e d a s a u n i f i e d v i s i o n . T h e d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e t w o c o u l d b e e x e m p l i f i e d t h r o u g h D a n t e ' s i m a g e o f o b s e r v i n g r e a l i t y r e v e r s e i t s e l f a s h e a s c e n d s u p w a r d s t h r o u g h P u r g a t o r y . T h i s r e v e r s e d r e l a t i o n s h i p o f f a l l e n t o u n f a l i e n p e r c e p t i o n s a c c o u n t s f o r t h e f r e q u e n t a p p e a r a n c e o f a n a l o g i e s b e t w e e n t h e f a l l e n a n d t h e e t e r n a l w o r l d s t h r o u g h o u t The Four Zoas. T h e r e a r e f o u r c e n t r a l i m a g e s o f t h e p o e t i c p r o c e s s i n N i g h t I o f The Four Zoas. T h e f i r s t , t h e q u a r r e l b e t w e e n T h a r m a s a n d 65 E n i o n , t h e o r i z e s t h a t t h e p o e t i c i m p u l s e l i e s i n a d e s i r e t o c r e a t e p a r a d o x . T h e s e c o n d , t h e g o l d e n f e a s t , i n d i c a t e s t h e s o u r c e o f p o e t i c p e r c e p t i o n . T h e t h i r d , t h e w a r b e t w e e n U r i z e n a n d L u v a h , e x p r e s s e s i t s m e a n i n g i n t w o w a y s . F i r s t , i t e x p r e s s e s t h e e s s e n t i a l n a t u r e o f m e n t a l c o n f l i c t c r e a t e d b y a s h i f t i n g o f a l l e g i a n c e i n e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y t h o u g h t , f r o m r e a s o n t o d e s i r e . B e c a u s e t h e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y p o e t i c m i n d , w h i c h w o r s h i p p e d s t a t i c f o r m , c o u l d c o n c e i v e o f c o n f l i c t o n l y a s a n i m a g e o f h e l l , t h e c e n t u r y ' s p o e t i c t o n g u e , w h i c h h a d l o s t i t s g i f t o f p r o p h e t i c u t t e r a n c e , c o u l d n o t e x p r e s s o r c o n t a i n t h e c o n f l i c t u n t i l i t f u l f i l l e d t h a t c o n c e p t i o n . T h e s e c o n d m e a n i n g o f t h e c o n f l i c t b e t w e e n U r i z e n a n d L u v a h i s t h a t , h a v i n g m a n i f e s t e d i t s e l f : i n - w a r s a n d r e v o l u t i o n , t h e c o n f l i c t s h o w e d t h e a n t i t h e s i s t h a t c r e a t e s t h e n e c e s s i t y f o r p o e t i c t h o u g h t , a n d f o r a r e d e e m i n g v i s i o n o f h u m a n h i s t o r y . T h e f o u r t h i m a g e , t h e C o u n c i l o f E t e r n a l s , i s a n o r g a n i z e d v i s i o n o f h u m a n e x i s t e n c e w h i c h t h e e m e r g i n g p o e t i c i d e n t i t y , L o s , a s s i m i l a t e s i n i t s e l e m e n t a l f o r m s a t t h e g o l d e n f e a s t . W i t h t h e s e f o u r i m a g e s , B l a k e i d e n t i f i e s t h e b a s i c e l e m e n t s o f h i s p o e m . A l l h a v e a f u n c t i o n i n d e s c r i b i n g t h e n a t u r e o f p o e t i c t h o u g h t a n d t h e m a n n e r o f i t s c r e a t i o n . T h e s u c c e e d i n g N i g h t s o f The Four Zoas a r e a l s o o r g a n i z e d f r o m i m a g e s o f p o e t i c p r o c e s s . N i g h t I I d e s c r i b e s t h e c r e a t i o n o f U r i z e n ' s g o l d e n w o r l d , a f i t t i n g m o n u m e n t t o e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y e m p i r i c a l t h o u g h t , o n w h i c h t h e f r a g i l e o p t i m i s m o f t h e a g e w a s b a s e d . F i t t i n g l y , B l a k e b a s e d i t s c o n c e p t i o n p a r t l y o n t h e M u n d a n e E g g t h e o r y o f T h o m a s B u m e t , 66 a s p e c u l a t i v e p h i l o s o p h e r w h o a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e c e n t u r y h a d d e d u c e d f r o m c e r t a i n g e o l o g i c a l e v i d e n c e t h a t t h e w o r l d a s m a n k n e w i t w a s t h e r u i n s o f a p e r f e c t l y o r d e r e d a n d s y m m e t r i c a l M u n d a n e E g g w h i c h h a d c o l l a p s e d w i t h m a n ' s f a l l i n t o t h e r u b b l e o f o c e a n a n d m o u n t a i n s w h i c h w e n o w k n o w . 6 L a t e r t h e o r i e s i n s i s t e d t h a t t h e w o r l d w a s n o t f a l l e n , b u t h e l d i n p e r f e c t b a l a n c e b y t h e f o r c e s o f n a t u r a l o r d e r . B l a k e , b y d e p i c t i n g t h e c r e a t i o n o f a " M u n d a n e S h e l l " i n N i g h t I I a n d i t s c o l l a p s e i n N i g h t I I I , i s n o t s i m p l y h a r k i n g ' b a c k t o " B u r n e t 1 .-v. H e i t s . s h o w i n g - t f t e ' r c r e a t i o n ' a n d c o l l a p s e o f e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y s p e c u l a t i v e t h o u g h t a n d p o e t i c f o r m . L e s t t h e i n a d e q u a c i e s o f t h i s i d e a l i z a t i o n o f f o r m b e m i s s e d , B l a k e c h o o s e s a s a n o t h e r a n a l o g u e , t h e s t r u c t u r e o f t h e M o s a i c t a b e r n a c l e i n t h e w i l d e r n e s s ( w i t h s o m e r e f e r e n c e t o t h e t e m p l e o f S o l o m o n ) . H i s d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e t a b e r n a c l e ( p a g e 3 0 ) r e v e a l s a s t r u c t u r e t h a t p r e s e r v e s o r d e r b y d o m i n a t i n g t h e o t h e r Z o a s o f h u m a n t h o u g h t . T h a r m a s i s e n t i r e l y e x c l u d e d f r o m t h i s w o r l d b y a n o v e r a r c h i n g f i r m a m e n t . L u v a h a n d h i s e m a n a t i o n V a l a a r e b o t h t h e e n s l a v e d w o r k e r s w h o c o n s t r u c t U r i z e n ' s e d i f i c e , a s t h e I s r a e l i t e s h a d b e e n e n s l a v e d t o b u i l d t h e p y r a m i d s o f E g y p t , a n d t h e s a c r i f i c i a l v i c t i m s f o r i t s b r a z e n a l t a r o f b u r n t o f f e r i n g s . L o s a n d h i s e m a n a t i o n E n i t h a r m o n c a p e r w i t h i n t h e s t r u c t u r e o f t h e g o l d e n w o r l d a s g o d - l i k e a n d i r r e s p o n s i b l e c h i l d r e n , d r a w i n g i n i t s p l e a s u r e s a n d s o w i n g s e e d s o f d i s c o n t e n t . T h e f o l l y o f U r i z e n ' s M u n d a n e S h e l l i s s u m m e d u p i n a s i n g l e l i n e o f v e r s e : " W h e r e M e m o r y w i s h e s t o r e p o s e a m o n g t h e f l o c k s o f T h a r m a s " ( 3 4 . 4 0 ) . 6 7 D e s p i t e t h e i n a d e q u a c i e s o f t h e g o l d e n w o r l d , a n d , b y a n a l o g y , o f g o l d e n a g e p o e t r y , t h e c o l l a p s e o f t h e e n t i r e s t r u c t u r e i s n o t d i r e c t l y o c c a s i o n e d b y T h a r m a s , o r L u v a h , o r L o s , b u t b y U r i z e n ' s e m a n a t i o n , A h a n i a , c o n f r o n t i n g h e r l o r d w i t h t h e m o r a l i n a d e q u a c i e s o f t h e w h o l e . H e r a c c o u n t o f t h e f a l l a s m a n w o r s h i p p i n g h i s o w n s e l f - i m a g e s h o w s c l e a r l y t h e i n a b i l i t y o f t h e r e a s o n a l o n e t o c r e a t e a n a d e q u a t e i m a g e o f p o e t i c p r o c e s s b e c a u s e o f i t s r e l i a n c e u p o n s t a t i c f o r m . T h e g o l d e n w o r l d , l i k e t h e w a r s o f U r i z e n a n d L u v a h , s h o w s t h e a n t i t h e s i s o f t h e p o e t i c p r o c e s s . I t s c o l l a p s e , a p p r o p r i a t e l y e n o u g h , p r o p h e s i e s t h e r e n d i n g o f t h e e n t i r e f a b r i c o f m a t e r i a l e x i s t e n c e i n t h e L a s t J u d g m e n t ( C f . 4 4 . 1 0 w i t h 1 1 7 . 9 ) . T h e c o l l a p s e o f t h e g o l d e n w o r l d p r o p h e s i e s a l s o t h e n e c e s s i t y f o r p o e t r y t o d r a w i t s s u b j e c t m a t t e r f r o m b e y o n d t h e b u l w a r k o f r e a s o n a n d o f p r e v i o u s l y c r e a t e d f o r m s . T h e i m a g e o f T h a r m a s c o m p e l l i n g L o s t o r e b u i l d t h e c o l l a p s e d w o r l d o f U r i z e n , d o m i n a t e s N i g h t I V o f The Four Zoas. T h a r m a s h a d f a l l e n i n N i g h t I b e c a u s e h e c o u l d n o l o n g e r s u s t a i n a u n i f i e d v i s i o n o f h i s o w n c r e a t i o n , a n d h i s d o u b t s w e r e e c h o e d a n d m a g n i f i e d b y h i s e m a n a t i o n . W i t h h i s i n n o c e n c e b e t r a y e d b y u n c e r t a i n t y , T h a r m a s c h a n g e d f o r m f r o m a g o d o f t h e s u n t o a g o d o f t h e w a t e r s . H e b e c a m e a c h a o s o f d i s o r g a n i z e d p a r t i c u l a r s a n d c o n f l i c t i n g p o i n t s o f v i e w . W h e n t h e s t r u c t u r e o f U r i z e n ' s g o l d e n w o r l d o f r e a s o n l o s t i t s m o r a l c o h e s i o n i n N i g h t I I I a n d U r i z e n a l s o f e l l v i c t i m t o s e l f d o u b t s , t h e s e a o f T h a r m a s o v e r -w h e l m e d t h e w h o l e , b u r y i n g U r i z e n i n i t s r u i n s . M o r e c l e a r l y t h a n 68 e v e r b e f o r e , t h e i m a g i n a t i o n , i n b o t h i t s u n f a l i e n a n d f a l l e n a s p e c t s , U r t h o n a a n d L o s , i s n o w s h o w n t o c r e a t e i t s o r d e r o u t o f t h e f o r m l e s s n e s s o f T h a r m a s r a t h e r t h a n w i t h t h e s t r u c t u r e o f t h e r e a s o n . " U r t h o n a i s m y S o n , " s a y s T h a r m a s ( 5 1 . 1 4 ) . T h e c h a o s o f T h a r m a s c o m p e l s L o s t o r e c r e a t e t h a t o r d e r . A m a z i n g l y , t h e c h a r i o t o f p o e t i c g e n i u s i s n o w i n T h a r m a s ' c o n t r o l , a s h e d r a w s b a c k h i s w a v e s t o a l l o w L o s a n d t h e S p e c t r e t o r e b u i l d t h e f a l l e n w o r l d . I w i l l c o m p e l l t h e e t o r e b u i l d b y t h e s e m y f u r i o u s w a v e s D e a t h c h o o s e o r l i f e t h o u s t r u g g l e s t i n m y w a t e r s , n o w c h o o s e l i f e A n d a l l t h e E l e m e n t s s h a l l s e r v e t h e e t o t h e i r s o o t h i n g f l u t e s T h e i r s w e e t i n s p i r i n g l y r e s t h y l a b o u r s s h a l l a d m i n i s t e r A n d t h e y t o t h e e o n l y r e m i t n o t f a i n t n o t t h o u m y s o n N o w t h o u d o s t k n o w w h a t t i s t o s t r i v e a g a i n s t t h e G o d o f w a t e r s S o s a y i n g T h a r m a s o n h i s f u r i o u s c h a r i o t s o f t h e D e e p D e p a r t e d f a r i n t o t h e U n k n o w n & l e f t a w o n d r o u s v o i d R o u n d L o s . a f a r h i s w a t e r s b o r e o n a l l s i d e s r o u n d , w i t h n o i s e O f w h e e l s & h o r s e s h o o f s & T r u m p e t s H o r n s & C l a r i o n s ( 5 2 . 1 - 1 0 ) L o s , a s s i s t e d b y t h e s p e c t r e , r e c r e a t e s t h e f a l l e n w o r l d b y b i n d i n g U r i z e n i n t o a n i m i t a t i o n o f t h e f a l l e n M a n ' s f i v e s e n s e s , t h e m o s t c r i t i c a l l i m i t a t i o n t h a t t h e f a l l e n i m a g i n a t i o n c a n i m p o s e o n r e a l i t y . T h e m o s t f r i g h t e n i n g a s p e c t o f L o s ' s a t t e m p t t o r e c r e a t e U r i z e n i s t h e e f f e c t o f h i s e f f o r t s u p o n h i m s e l f : t e r r i f i e d a t t h e s h a p e s E n s l a v e d h u m a n i t y p u t o n h e b e c a m e w h a t h e b e h e l d H e b e c a m e w h a t h e w a s d o i n g h e w a s h i m s e l f t r a n s f o r m e d ( 5 5 . 2 1 - 3 ) T h e e n t i r e b o d y o f N i g h t I V b r e a k s i n t o t w o s e c t i o n s t h r o u g h L o s ' s i m a g i n a t i v e f a i l u r e . T h e f i r s t , d e s c r i b e d a b o v e , i s B l a k e ' s c o m m e n t o n t h e f u t i l i t y o f r e c r e a t i n g a c u l t u r e o n a f o u n d a t i o n o f e m p i r i c a l t h o u g h t , a s i f a c o m m o n b e l i e f i n n o t h i n g m o r e t h a n t h e e v i d e n c e o f t h e s e n s e s c o u l d f u l f i l l m a n ' s i m a g i n a t i v e n e e d f o r a t o t a l s t r u c t u r e o f u n i t y . T h e s e c o n d s e c t i o n o f N i g h t I V i s 69 c a u s e d b y t h e r e a p p e a r a n c e o f t h e C o u n c i l o f E t e r n a l s . I t s t h e m e , " I f y e w i l l B e l i e v e y o u r B r o t h e r s h a l l r i s e a g a i n " ( 5 6 . 1 8 ) , i s b a s e d d i r e c t l y o n t h e p r o v i d e n t i a l s e t t i n g o f l i m i t s . I t r e s t o r e s t o m a n ( a n d t o t h e p o e t p a r t i c u l a r l y , i n t h i s r e a d i n g o f t h e p o e m ) t h e f a i t h t h a t t h e f a l l w i l l p r o c e e d n o f u r t h e r . E m p i r i c a l k n o w l e d g e a l o n e c a n g i v e n o a s s u r a n c e o f i t s o w n m e a n i n g o r s i g n i f i -c a n c e . L o s c a n n o t c r e a t e p o e t r y w i t h n o a s s u r a n c e o f i t s h u m a n s i g n i f i c a n c e . N o r c a n h e d i s c o v e r s i g n i f i c a n c e i n n a t u r e , w h i c h , t o t h e e m p i r i c i s t s i m p l y o b e y s l a w s o f e n d l e s s r e c u r r e n c e . T h e r e -f o r e , t h e l i m i t s o f p o e t i c s i g n i f i c a n c e a r e o r d a i n e d b y d i v i n e p r o v i d e n c e — o r , a s m o d e r n l a n g u a g e m i g h t . h a v e i t , b y m a n ' s f u n d a m e n t a l c a p a c i t y f o r s y m b o l i c t h o u g h t . T h e l i m i t s a r e t h e b a s i c c o n t r a r i e s o f h u m a n e x i s t e n c e — t h e h u m a n a n d t h e n o n - h u m a n , A d a m a n d S a t a n . T h e e v e n t s o f N i g h t V f o l l o w d i r e c t l y f r o m L o s ' s i m a g i n a t i v e f a i l u r e i n N i g h t I V . B l a k e h a s n o t a b a n d o n e d h i s e a r l i e s t i d e a s a b o u t t h e n a t u r e o f i m a g i n a t i v e d e s i r e , w h i c h h e e x p r e s s e d f i r s t i n There is No Natural Religion: I V T h e b o u n d e d i s l o a t h e d b y i t s p o s s e s s o r . T h e s a m e d u l l r o u n d e v e n o f a u n i v e r s e w o u l d s o o n b e c o m e a m i l l w i t h c o m p l i c a t e d w h e e l s . V I f t h e m a n y b e c o m e t h e s a m e a s t h e f e w w h e n p o s s e s s ' d , M o r e ! M o r e ! i s t h e c r y o f a m i s t a k e n s o u l , l e s s t h a n A l l c a n n o t s a t i s f y l a n . V I I f a n y c o u l d d e s i r e w h a t h e i s i n c a p a b l e o f p o s s e s s i n g , d e s p a i r m u s t b e h i s e t e r n a l l o t . V I I T h e d e s i r e o f M a n b e i n g I n f i n i t e t h e p o s s e s s i o n i s I n f i n i t e & h i m s e l f I n f i n i t e . A p p l i c a t i o n . H e w h o s e e s t h e I n f i n i t e i n a l l t h i n g s s e e s G o d . H e w h o s e e s t h e R a t i o n o n l y s e e s h i m s e l f o n l y . ( E 2) O n c e t h e r e a s o n i s b o u n d e d ( a s , f o r i n s t a n c e b y t h e c r i t e r i a o f 70 sensory r e a l i t y ) , not even the replacement of the compact golden world of c l a s s i c a l and Renaissance l e a r n i n g by the l a r g e r realm of eighteenth century s c i e n t i f i c e x p l o r a t i o n can save the imagination from despair. But even the despair of Los at the end of Night IV, at h i s f a i l u r e to create a new p o e t i c form out of the m a t e r i a l s of the f a l l e n w o rld, cannot contain h i s p o e t i c d e s i r e , which i s born f o r t h as Ore. Ore may be seen as an emerging popular consciousness i n Blake's own c u l t u r e , d e r i v i n g i t s energy from the philosophy of the enlightenment. But when appropriate a r t i s t i c and p o l i t i c a l forms d i d not simultaneously evolve f o r i t s expression, i t turned i n t o the energy of r e v o l u t i o n , and had to be bound, as Urizen had been. In p o e t i c terms, Ore i s yet another i n c a r n a t i o n of the s a v i o r , an appearance of Jesus i n Luvah's robes of blood, who i s then bound upon the stems of v e g e t a t i o n . Ore, the r e v o l u t i o n a r y consciousness, creates out of the random j u x t a p o s i t i o n s of time and space a new order of e x i s t e n c e t h a t Los the poet, i n h i b i t e d by the d i c t a t e s of Newtonian c a u s a l i t y as w e l l as a l l the other encumbrances of n e o c l a s s i c a l t h i n k i n g , cannot hope to d u p l i c a t e p o e t i c a l l y . Unable to c o n t a i n the expanding form of Ore, he chains him down on the top of a mountain, where the true nature of Ore's a b i l i t y to r i s e out of the r e s t r i c t i o n s of h i s f a t h e r ' s r a t i o n a l thought forms i s made c l e a r . Concenterd i n t o Love of Parent Storgous A p p e t i t e Craving His limbs bound down mock at h i s chains f o r over them a flame 7 1 O f c i r c l i n g f i r e u n c e a s i n g p l a y s t o f e e d t h e m w i t h l i f e & b r i n g T h e v i r t u e s o f t h e E t e r n a l w o r l d s t e n t h o u s a n d t h o u s a n d s p i r i t s O f l i f e l a m e n t a r o u n d t h e D e m o n g o i n g f o r t h & r e t u r n i n g A t h i s e n o r m o u s c a l l t h e y f l e e i n t o t h e h e a v e n s o f h e a v e n s A n d b a c k r e t u r n w i t h w i n e & f o o d . O r d i v e i n t o t h e d e e p s T o b r i n g t h e t h r i l l i n g j o y s o f s e n s e t o q u e l l h i s c e a s e l e s s r a g e H i s e y e s t h e l i g h t s o f h i s l a r g e s o u l c o n t r a c t o r e l s e e x p a n d C o n t r a c t e d t h e y b e h o l d t h e s e c r e t s o f t h e i n f i n i t e m o u n t a i n s T h e v e i n s o f g o l d & s i l v e r & t h e h i d d e n t h i n g s o f V a l a w h a t e v e r g r o w s f r o m i t s p u r e b u d o r b r e a t h e s a f r a g r a n t s o u l E x p a n d e d t h e y b e h o l d t h e t e r r o r s o f t h e S u n & M o o n H i s n o s t r i l s b r e a t h e a f i e r y f l a m e , h i s l o c k s a r e l i k e t h e f o r e s t s A n d t h e r e t h e E a g l e h i d e s h e r y o u n g i n c l i f f s & p r e c i p i c e s H i s b o s o m i s l i k e s t a r r y h e a v e n e x p a n d e d a l l t h e s t a r s S i n g r o u n d , t h e r e w a v e s t h e h a r v e s t & t h e v i n t a g e r e j o i c e s , t h e S p r i n g F l o w i n t o r i v e r s o f d e l i g h t , t h e r e t h e s p o n t a n e o u s f l o w e r s D r i n k l a u g h & s i n g , t h e g r a s s h o p p e r t h e E m m e t & t h e F l y T h e g o l d e n M o t h b u i l d s t h e r e a h o u s e & s p r e a d s h e r s i l k e n b e d H i s l o i n s i n w o v e w i t h s i l k e n f i r e s a r e l i k e a f u r n a c e f i e r c e A s t h e s t r o n g B u l l i n s u m m e r t i m e w h e n b e e s s i n g r o u n d t h e h e a t h W h e r e t h e h e r d s l o w a f t e r t h e s h a d o w & a f t e r t h e w a t e r s p r i n g T h e n u m r o u s f l o c k s c o v e r t h e m o u n t a i n & s h i n e a l o n g t h e v a l l e y H i s k n e e s a r e r o c k s o f a d a m a n t & r u b i e & e m e r a l d S p i r i t s o f s t r e n g t h i n P a l a c e s r e j o i c e i n g o l d e n a r m o u r A r m e d w i t h s p e a r & s h i e l d t h e y d r i n k & r e j o i c e o v e r t h e s l a i n S u c h i s t h e D e m o n s u c h h i s t e r r o r i n t h e n e t h e r d e e p ( 6 1 . 1 0 - 6 2 . 8 ) B y t h e t i m e O r e ' s p a r e n t s h a v e e x p a n d e d t h e i r o w n p e r c e p t i o n s t o t h e p o i n t o f t r y i n g t o u n c h a i n O r e , h i s e n e r g y h a s t a k e n o n t h e c h a r a c t e r o f r e b e l l i o n , a n d c a n n o t b e r e s t o r e d t o i n n o c e n c e . T h u s t o o , a m y t h b a s e d o n d e s i r e c a n n o t b e g i v e n f o r m i n e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y t h o u g h t a g a i n s t t h e t a b o o s c r e a t e d b y t h e e a r l i e r m y t h o f r e a s o n . A n i n h i b i t e d p o e t i c c o n s c i o u s n e s s m u s t f o l l o w b e h i n d t h e m a n i f e s t a t i o n s o f t h e r e a l i t y i t s e e k s t o a r t i c u l a t e , a r e a l i t y w h i c h i t h a s a l r e a d y " c o n d e m n e d t o c r u c i f i x i o n a n d h e l l - f i r e . A s e c o n d m a j o r i m a g e o f p o e t i c p r o c e s s w h i c h i s t o b e f o u n d i n N i g h t V i s t h a t o f t h e b u i l d i n g o f G o l g o n o o z a . I t w a s s e e n i n N i g h t I V t h a t L o s f a i l e d t o r e b u i l d U r i z e n ' s w o r l d i n t o a 7 2 s u s t a i n i n g c u l t u r a l m y t h , a n d t h e r e f o r e h a d t o s u f f e r t h e s e p a r a t i o n a n d c r u c i f i x i o n •. o f t h e d e s i r e t h a t h e h a d b e e n a t t e m p t i n g t o g i v e f o r m t o t h r o u g h s t r u c t u r e s o f t h e r e a s o n . I f t h e e v e n t s o f N i g h t I V h a d l e f t L o s i n d e s p a i r , t h e s a m e s h o u l d b e d o u b l y t r u e o f t h e e v e n t s t o N i g h t V . H o w e v e r , B l a k e i n t r o d u c e s a n o t h e r e l e m e n t i n t o t h e e v e n t s o f N i g h t V w h i c h i s t o h a v e i m p o r t a n t c o n s e q u e n c e s f o r t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f L o s i n h i s r o l e a s t h e p o e t a n d p r o p h e t t o a c u l t u r e . T h a t e v e n t i s t h e b u i l d i n g o f G o l g o n o o z a , a n a c t w h i c h i s e s s e n t i a l t o t h e s u r v i v a l o f h i s i d e n t i t y . T h e b u i l d i n g o f G o l g o n o o z a b e g i n s w i t h a c o n c e p t o f L o s ' s e m a n a t i o n a s s e p a r a t e f r o m t h e c h a o s a r o u n d h i m , a n d a s a m i c r o c o s m o f t h e r e a l i t y t h a t h e d e s i r e s t o r e - c r e a t e i n o r d e r t o p r e s e r v e f r o m d e s t r u c t i o n : L o s a r o u n d h e r b u i l d e d p i l l a r s o r i r o n A n d b r a s s & s i l v e r & g o l d f o u r f o l d i n d a r k p r o p h e t i c f e a r F o r n o w h e f e a r d E t e r n a l D e a t h & u t t e r m o s t E x t i n c t i o n H e b u i l d e d G o l g o n o o z a o n t h e L a k e o f U d a n A d a n U p o n t h e L i m i t o f T r a n s l u c e n c e t h e n h e b u i l d e d L u b a n T h a r m a s l a i d t h e F o u n d a t i o n & L o s f i n i s h d i t i n h o w l i n g w o e ( 6 0 . 1 - 5 ) G o l g o n o o z a i s m e n t i o n e d o n l y t w i c e a g a i n ( 6 2 . 9 ; 6 3 . 1 0 ) b e f o r e N i g h t V I I . N e v e r t h e l e s s , i t s d e s c r i p t i o n h e r e s u g g e s t s s e v e r a l c l e a r p a r a l l e l s w i t h t h e d i s c u s s i o n o f p o e t i c p r o c e s s w h i c h N i g h t s I t o I V h a v e a l r e a d y p r o v i d e d . L i k e The Four Zoas i t s e l f , G o l g o n o o z a i s b u i l t u p o n t h e f o u n d a t i o n o f T h a r m a s , t h e s e a o f m i n u t e p a r t i c u l a r s , i n d e f i a n c e o f e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y p o e t i c t r a d i t i o n , w h i c h c o n s i d e r e d t h a t o n l y u n i v e r s a l g e n e r a l i t i e s w e r e w o r t h y o f p o e t i c t r e a t m e n t . G o l g o n o o z a p a r a l l e l s t h e s t r u c t u r e 7 3 o f The Four Zoas i n s e v e r a l p a r t i c u l a r s . G o l g o n o o z a i s c r e a t e d i n o p p o s i t i o n t o L o s ' s f e a r o f E t e r n a l D e a t h . The Four Zoas i s c r e a t e d i n o p p o s i t i o n t o t h e d e s t r u c t i v e c o n f l i c t b e t w e e n U r i z e n a n d L u v a h . G o l g o n o o z a i s t o b e k n o w n a s t h e C i t y o f A r t i n Milton a n d Jerusalem, a n d a l r e a d y i t c a n b e i d e n t i f i e d a s a w a l l e d f o r t r e s s . P r e s u m a b l y , i f G o l g o n o o z a i s a f o r t r e s s f o r t h e p r e s e r v a t i o n o f a r t , b u i l t a g a i n s t e x t e r n a l c h a o s , t h e n i t s a r t i s t h e a r t o f t h e p a r t i c u l a r , w h i c h a s s u m e s a n e f f e c t o f u n i t y o n l y a s i t a c c u m u l a t e s a n d o r d e r s i t s e l f . B l a k e may h a v e c o m p o s e d a t l e a s t o n e o f h i s e p i c s i n t h i s w a y , i f h i s d e s c r i p -t i o n o f t h e p r o c e s s o f c o m p o s i t i o n c a n b e r e g a r d e d a s a c c u r a t e : B u t n o n e c a n k n o w t h e S p i r i t u a l A c t s o f my t h r e e y e a r s S l u m b e r o n t h e b a n k s o f t h e O c e a n u n l e s s h e h a s s e e n t h e m i n t h e S p i r i t o r u n l e s s h e s h o u l d r e a d My l o n g Poem d e s c r i p t i v e o f t h o s e A c t s f o r I h a v e i n t h e s e t h r e e y e a r s c o m p o s e d a n i m m e n s e n u m b e r o f v e r s e s o n One G r a n d Theme S i m i l a r t o H o m e r s I l i a d o r M i l t o n s P a r a d i s e L o s t t h e P e r s o n s & M a c h i n e r y i n t i r e l y n e w t o t h e I n h a b i t a n t s o f E a r t h ( s o m e o f t h e P e r s o n s E x c e p t e d ) I h a v e w r i t t e n t h i s P o e m f r o m i m m e d i a t e D i c t a t i o n t w e l v e o r s o m e t i m e s t w e n t y o r t h i r t y l i n e s a t a i / t i m e w i t h o u t P r e m e d i t a t i o n & e v e n a g a i n s t my W i l l , t h e T i m e i t h a s t a k e n i n w r i t i n g w a s t h u s r e n d e r d N o n E x i s t e n t . & a n i m m e n s e P o e m E x i s t s w h i c h s e e m s t o b e t h e L a b o u r o f a l o n g L i f e a l l p r o d u c d w i t h o u t L a b o u r o r S t u d y . I m e n t i o n t h i s t o s h e w y o u w h a t I t h i n k t h e G r a n d R e a s o n o f my b e i n g b r o u g h t down h e r e ( L e t . t o B u t t s , E . 6 9 7 ) T h e m u l t i p l i c i t y o f v i e w p o i n t s e x p r e s s e d b y t h e v a r i o u s s h o r t s e c t i o n s o f The Four Zoas, a n d t h e m a n n e r i n w h i c h p a l i m p s e s t l a y e r s i n t h e m a n u s c r i p t h a v e b e e n a d d e d o n e o n t o p o f a n o t h e r , w o u l d c e r t a i n l y s u g g e s t a p i e c e m e a l m e t h o d o f c o m p o s i t i o n o f The Four Zoas, i n k e e p i n g w i t h t h e i m a g e o f b u i l d i n g G o l g o n o o z a . T h e p r o c e s s o f c r e a t i n g a n e w p o e t i c f o r m , 7 4 i n o p p o s i t i o n t o p o e t r y d o m i n a t e d b y r e a s o n , m u s t , a s h a s a l r e a d y b e e n o b s e r v e d , b e g i n w i t h t h e r e o r g a n i z i n g o f m i n u t e p a r t i c u l a r s , a n d a l l o w i n g t h e m t o c r e a t e t h e i r own o r g a n i c u n i t y . T h i s B l a k e h a s d o n e i n The Four Zoas, b o t h b y e x a m p l e a n d b y p r e c e p t . T h e l a s t t w o p a g e s o f N i g h t V a n d a l l o f N i g h t V I a r e d e v o t e d t o U r i z e n ' s r e a w a k e n i n g f r o m h i s f a l l i n N i g h t I I I a n d h i s e x p l o r a t i o n o f h i s d e n s . T h e s o m b e r m o o d o f t h i s N i g h t i s w i t h o u t p a r a l l e l e l s e w h e r e i n t h e p o e m . A g e n e r a l t o n e o f G o t h i c i s m m a k e s t h i s N i g h t u n i q u e i n The Four Zoas. T h e S p e c t r e o f U r t h o n a , f o r e x a m p l e , a p p e a r s l i k e a n a p p a r i t i o n f r o m M a c b e t h , o r p e r h a p s f r o m o n e o f B l a k e ' s e a r l y G o t h i c e x p e r i m e n t s i n h i s Poetical Sketches. A n d b y h i s g l o b e o f f i r e h e w e n t down t h e V a l e o f U r t h o n a B e t w e e n t h e e n o r m o u s i r o n w a l l s b u i l t b y t h e S p e c t r e d a r k D a r k g r e w h i s g l o b e r e d d n i n g w i t h m i s t s & f u l l b e f o r e h i s p a t h S t r i d i n g a c r o s s t h e n a r r o w v a l e t h e S h a d o w o f U r t h o n a A s p e c t r e V a s t a p p e a r d w h o s e f e e t & l e g s w i t h i r o n s c a l e d S t a m p d t h e h a r d r o c k s e x p e c t a n t o f t h e u n k n o w n w a n d e r e r ( 7 5 . 3 - 8 ) E c h o e s o f t h e G o t h i c r e v i v a l a r e q u i t e a p p r o p r i a t e t o t h i s s e c t i o n o f The Four Zoas. " A n I s l a n d i n t h e M o o n " i n d i c a t e s t h a t B l a k e h a d t a k e n a l i v e l y i n t e r e s t i n t h e G o t h i c i m i t a t i o n s o f C h a t t e r t o n a n d M a c p h e r s o n , a n d t h e r e i s m u c h e v i d e n c e o f B l a k e ' s i n t e r e s t i n e a r l y C e l t i c t r a d i t i o n s . I n f a c t , t h e r e i s g o o d r e a s o n t o b e l i e v e t h a t The Four Zoas may h a v e h a d i t s o r i g i n i n a c o n c e p t i o n o f t h e l a s t b a t t l e o f K i n g A r t h u r , a p a i n t i n g o f w h i c h B l a k e i n t e r p r e t e d i n h i s 1809 Descriptive Catalogue ( E 5 5 3 - 5 5 6 ) . B u t t a k e n a s a w h o l e , e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y e x p e r i m e n t s i n G o t h i c 7 5 s u b j e c t m a t t e r w e r e e s s e n t i a l l y r e - c r e a t i o n s o f U r i z e n . T h e y b o r e m u c h t h e s a m e i n h i b i t i o n s a s t h e i r g o l d e n a g e c o u n t e r p a r t s . T h e r e f o r e , i t i s a p p r o p r i a t e t h a t B l a k e i d e n t i f y e c h o e s o f t h i s e x p e r i m e n t i n p o e t i c t r e a t m e n t w i t h t h e f a l l e n U r i z e n e x p l o r i n g h i s d e n s . T h e s t r u c t u r e o f The Four Zoas up t o t h e e n d o f N i g h t V I s h o w s a c l e a r o p p o s i t i o n b e t w e e n t h e f o r c e s r e c r e a t i n g t h e h u m a n f o r m , a n d t h o s e c a u s i n g i t s f u r t h e r d i s i n t e g r a t i o n . U n t i l h i s d e s p a i r i n N i g h t I V a t f a i l i n g t o c r e a t e f o r m , L o s h a d c o n t r i b u t e d m a i n l y t o t h e f o r c e s o f d i s i n t e g r a t i o n . B u t w i t h t h e p r o v i d e n t i a l s e t t i n g o f t h e l i m i t s o f S a t a n a n d Adam a t t h e e n d o f N i g h t I V , a c l e a r c h o i c e b e g i n s t o e m e r g e f o r h i m i n N i g h t V , e v e n t h o u g h h e c a n n o t y e t s e e i t . T h e b u i l d i n g o f G o l g o n o o z a , h o w e v e r m i n u t e i t s i m p o r t a n c e , i s a d d i n g t o t h e l i m i t o f c o n t r a c t i o n , r e b u i l d i n g t h e h u m a n f o r m . To c o n t r i b u t e d i r e c t l y t o t h e n o w e m e r g i n g c o n f l i c t b e t w e e n U r i z e n a n d O r e , i s a d d i n g t o t h e l i m i t o f o p a c i t y , e n l a r g i n g t h e f o r m o f S a t a n . N e i t h e r U r i z e n n o r O r e r e c a l l s t h e h u m a n f o r m b e c a u s e o f t h e i r p u r s u i t o f a b s t r a c t i o n s e a c h a s s o c i a t e s w i t h t h e g o l d e n a g e . T h e i r s t r u g g l e h a s n o s i g n i f i c a n c e o t h e r t h a n f o r t h e a t t a i n m e n t o f p o w e r . T h e y h a v e b e c o m e m e r e c i p h e r s i n a m o r a l s t r u g g l e i n w h i c h L o s i s a t t h e c e n t r e , f o r h e h a s n o t l o s t h i s d e s i r e t o r e c r e a t e t h e f a l l e n m a n . E v i d e n c e o f L o s ' s h u m a n c o n c e r n i s s t r o n g t h r o u g h N i g h t I V a n d V . He d e s p a i r s a t t h e b i n d i n g o f U r i z e n a n d i s o v e r c o m e w i t h g r i e f a t t h e b i n d i n g o f O r e , e v e n t h o u g h h e i s t h e a g e n t o f b o t h t h e s e d i s a s t e r s . 76 Two v e r s i o n s o f N i g h t V I I r e m a i n e x t a n t , w i t h L o s b u i l d i n g G o l g o n o o z a i n o n e ( V i l a ) a n d t a k i n g p a r t i n t h e w a r s o f e t e r n a l d e a t h i n t h e o t h e r ( V l l b ) . I t i s n o t c e r t a i n w h e t h e r B l a k e i n t e n d e d t o c o m b i n e t h e m o r t o i n c l u d e o n e o r b o t h i n h i s p o e m . I n a s m u c h a s B l a k e p r i n t e d The Book, of Urizen w i t h t w o v e r s i o n s o f C h a p t e r I V , i t w o u l d s e e m f e a s i b l e t o c o n s i d e r t h a t t h e t w o v e r s i o n s o f N i g h t V I I c o n t a i n a d e l i b e r a t e s y m m e t r y a n d a r e b o t h i n t e g r a l t o t h e m a n u s c r i p t . N i g h t V l l b , w i t h i t s r e v o l u t i o n a r y i m a g e r y f r o m America, p r e s e n t s i m a g e s o f t h e d e s o l a t i o n a n d d e s t r u c t i o n o f p a s t o r a l E n g l a n d i n a n a l l - o u t c o m m i t m e n t t o t h e p r o c e s s e s o f w a r . I n i t s d e p i c t i o n o f L o s , N i g h t V l l b f a i l s t o d e p i c t a n y r e d e m p t i v e p o s s i b i l i t y a n d p o r t r a y s h i m c o n t r i b u t i n g d i r e c t l y t o t h e i m a g e r y o f d e s t r u c t i v e w a r f a r e i n N i g h t V I I I a n d t o t h e f i n a l i m a g e o f d e s p a i r i n w h i c h N i g h t V I I I e n d s . H o w e v e r , N i g h t V l l b d o e s e n d i n a v i s i o n o f p o s s i b i l i t y b y f o c u s i n g d i r e c t l y o n t h e d i v i s i o n b e t w e e n O r e a n d t h e s h a d o w y f e m a l e . O r e ' s v i s i o n o f e x i s t e n c e i s a n e n t i r e l y n e g a t i v e p o r t r a y a l o f e n d l e s s w a r f a r e . B u t t h e s h a d o w y f e m a l e , e v e n a f t e r y i e l d i n g h e r s e l f t o t h e p o w e r o f O r e , r e t a i n s t h e v i s i o n o f a w o r l d o f i n n o c e n c e b e y o n d t h e s c e n e o f b a t t l e l e a d i n g b a c k t o B e u l a h a n d t o a r e d e m p t i v e p o s s i b i l i t y e v e n b e y o n d d e a t h . B u t t h e e t e r n a l P r o m i s e T h e y w r o t e o n a l l t h e i r t o m b s & p i l l a r s & o n e v e r y U r n T h e s e w o r d s I f y e w i l l b e l i e v e y o u r B [ r J o t h e r s h a l l r i s e a g a i n I n g o l d e n l e t t e r s o r n a m e n t a l w i t h s w e e t l a b o u r s o f L o v e W a i t i n g w i t h P a t i e n c e f o r t h e f u l f i l m e n t o f t h e P r o m i s e D i v i n e 77 A n d a l l t h e S o n g s o f B e u l a h s o u n d e d c o m f o r t a b l e n o t e s N o t s u f f r i n g d o u b t t o r i s e u p f r o m t h e C l o u d s o f t h e S h a d o w y F e m a l e T h e n m y r i a d s o f t h e D e a d b u r s t t h r o t h e b o t t o m s o f t h e i r t o m b s D e s c e n d i n g o n t h e s h a d o w y f e m a l e s c l o u d s i n S p e c t r o u s t e r r o r B e y o n d t h e L i m i t o f T r a n s l u c e n c e o n t h e L a k e o f U d a n A d a n T h e s e t h e y n a m d S a t a n s & i n t h e A g g r e g a t e t h e y n a m d T h e m S a t a n ( 9 . 5 . 4 - 1 4 ) N i g h t V T I b g i v e s n o a s s u r a n c e t h a t t h e w a r s o f e t e r n a l d e a t h w i l l n o t e n g u l f a l l e x i s t e n c e , b u t r a t h e r e c h o e s b a c k t o t h e s e t t i n g o f l i m i t s i n N i g h t I V a n d t o t h e n e c e s s i t y o f a r e d e m p t i v e v i s i o n b a s e d o n b e l i e f , t h a t w i l l t r a n s f o r m e v e n t h e s y m b o l i s m o f d e a t h i n t o t h e s y m b o l i s m o f l i f e . T h e a g e n t f o r c r e a t i n g s u c h a v i s i o n , h o w e v e r , m u s t b e L o s . N i g h t V l l b i s i n c o m p l e t e w i t h o u t N i g h t V i l a , j u s t a s The Songs of Experience a r e i n c o m p l e t e w i t h o u t t h e Songs of Innocence. N i g h t V i l a o f The Four Zoas d e p i c t s L o s c o n t i n u i n g t o c r e a t e a r t i n d i s r e g a r d f o r t h e c o n f l i c t b e t w e e n U r i z e n a n d O r e w h i c h s u r r o u n d s h i m i n a n u n m i s t a k e a b l e a l l e g o r y o f s o c i a l a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d s t h e p o o r i n B l a k e ' s E n g l a n d . B u t L o s c a n n o t c o n t r o l h i s v i s i o n o f h i s e m a n a t i o n , w h o c h a n g e s f r o m a v i s i o n o f d e l i g h t t o o n e o f h o r r o r a s h e a t t e m p t s t o a p p r o a c h h e r a n d t o t r a n s f o r m h e r i n t o a r t . T h u s N i g h t V i l a s h o w s a c o n t i n u i t y f r o m L o s ' s b u i l d i n g o f G o l g o n o o z a i n N i g h t V , a n d p r o c e e d s t o r e v e a l t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s t h e a r t i s t e x p e r i e n c e s i n i s o l a t i n g h i s o w n v i s i o n f r o m t h e c i r c u m s t a n c e s a b o u t h i m w h i c h g i v e r i s e t o i t . A t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o c c u r s w h e n E n i t h a r m o n ' s S h a d o w — L o s ' s a r t — i s u n i t e d w i t h t h e S p e c t r e o f U r t h o n a b e n e a t h t h e T r e e o f M y s t e r y . T h e s c e n e i s a p a r o d y o f E v e ' s t e m p t a t i o n i n t h e 78 G a r d e n o f E d e n . T h e S p e c t r e o f U r t h o n a s a w t h e S h a d o w o f E n i t h a r m o n B e n e a t h t h e T r e e o f M y s t e r y among t h e l e a v e s & f r u i t R e d d n i n g t h e Demon s t r o n g p r e p a r d t h e p o i s o n o f s w e e t L o v e He t u r n d f r o m s i d e t o s i d e i n t e a r s h e w e p t & h e e m b r a c d T h e f l e e t i n g i m a g e & i n w h i s p e r s m i l d w o o d t h e f a i n t s h a d e (82.23-27) T h e S p e c t r e o f U r t h o n a i s b e s t c h a r a c t e r i z e d , i n t h e c r e a t i o n o f p o e t r y , a s " l i n e a r t i m e " . A g u a r d i a n o v e r O r e u n d e r t h e T r e e o f M y s t e r y , h e g u a r d s a l s o , i n t h e a b s e n c e o f L o s , a g a i n s t t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f s y m b o l i c , a c c u m u l a t e d m e a n i n g e s c a p i n g f r o m t h e l i n e a r s t r u c t u r e o f p o e t r y . T h e u n i o n o f t h e S p e c t r e w i t h t h e S h a d o w , o f l i n e a r s t r u c t u r e w i t h a r t , f o l l o w s . F o r t i l l t h e s e t e r r o r s p l a n t e d r o u n d t h e G a t e s o f E t e r n a l l i f e A r e d r i v e n a w a y & a n n i h i l a t e d w e n e v e r c a n r e p a s s t h e G a t e s A s t o n i s h d f i l l d w i t h t e a r s t h e s p i r i t o f E n i t h a r m o n b e h e l d A n d h e a r d t h e S p e c t r e b i t t e r l y s h e w e p t E m b r a c i n g f e r v e n t H e r o n c e l o v d L o r d n o w b u t a S h a d e h e r s e l f a l s o a s h a d e C o n f e r r i n g t i m e s o f t i m e s among t h e b r a n c h e s o f t h a t T r e e (84.41-85.4) A t o n e l e v e l , t h e u n i o n o f t h e S p e c t r e w i t h t h e S h a d o w a p p e a r s t o b e a n a b a n d o n m e n t o f t h e p o e t i c a r t t o t h e m e r e w o r k i n g o u t o f a p o e m ' s m o s t o b v i o u s i m p l i c a t i o n s . I n The Four Zoas, i t w o u l d b e t h e c o m p l e t i o n o f a c l i m a x i n t h e p o e m ' s s a t i r i c v i s i o n , a n d e f f e c t i n g a t r a n s i t i o n f r o m t h e r e t o a p o c a l y p s e , a n a u t o m a t i c e f f o r t o f w i l l w h i c h The Four Zoas h a s b e e n c r i t i c i z e d f o r e x h i b i t i n g . T h e r e i s , h o w e v e r , g o o d r e a s o n f o r s u c h a b a n d o n m e n t , f o r i t l e a d s t o a f i n a l , s p e c t a c u l a r s e p a r a t i o n b e t w e e n a r t a n d l i f e , t h e r e b y f r e e i n g a r t t o t h e l o g i c o f i t s own m e t a p h o r s , a n d 79 f r e e i n g l i f e t o r e v e a l i t s own c a u s a l i t y a p a r t f r o m m a n ' s d e s i r e s a n d i l l u s i o n s . W i t h t h i s e v e n t , t h e s t a g e i s s e t f o r a r e u n i o n o f t h e S p e c t r e w i t h L o s . I f w e u n i t e i n o n e , a n o t h e r b e t t e r w o r l d w i l l b e O p e n d w i t h i n y o u r h e a r t & l o i n s & w o n d r o u s b r a i n T h r e e f o l d a s i t w a s i n E t e r n i t y & t h i s t h e f o u r t h U n i v e r s e W i l l b e R e n e w d b y t h e t h r e e & c o n s u m m a t e d i n M e n t a l f i r e s ( 8 5 . 4 3 - 4 6 ) F r o m t h i s e x t r a o r d i n a r y a b a n d o n m e n t o f h i s p r o p h e t i c r o l e , L o s l e a r n s f r o m h i s s p e c t r e t h a t l i f e i m i t a t e s - a r t . He i s t h u s f r e e d t o c r e a t e f o r m s f o r t h e s p e c t r e s o f t h e D e a d , m a n ' s d i s e m b o d i e d h o p e s a n d d e s i r e s , w h i c h t h e l a s t l i n e s d e p i c t e d a s b e i n g l u r e d i n t o t h e f a l l e n w o r l d b y t h e " E t e r n a l P r o m i s e " t h a t ' I f y e w i l l b e l i e v e y o u r B r o t h e r s h a l l r i s e a g a i n ' ( 9 5 . 6 ) . T h e S p e c t r e r e m i n d s L o s t h a t h e h a d b e g u n t h e s e p a r a t i o n o f s p i r i t u a l f r o m c o r p o r e a l r e a l i t y , w h i c h l e a d s t o a t r u e u n d e r s t a n d -i n g o f t h e n e c e s s i t y f o r a r t . U r t h o n a s S p e c t r e t e r r i f i e d behe< ld t h e S p e c t r e s o f t h e D e a d E a c h M a l e f o r m d w i t h o u t a c o u n t e r p a r t w i t h o u t a c o n c e n t e r i n g v i s i o n T h e S p e c t r e o f U r t h o n a w e p t b e f o r e L o s S a y i n g I am t h e c a u s e T h a t t h i s d i r e s t a t e c o m m e n c e s I b e g a n t h e d r e a d f u l s t a t e Of S e p a r a t i o n & o n my d a r k h e a d t h e c u r s e & p u n i s h m e n t M u s t f a l l u n l e s s a w a y b e f o u n d t o R a n s o m & R e d e e m ( 8 7 . 3 0 - 3 5 ) B o t h L o s a n d E n i t h a r m o n a r e g i v e n a v i s i o n o f t h e Lamb o f G o d , " c l o t h e d i n L u v a h ' s r o b e s o f b l o o d d e s c e n d i n g t o r e d e e m " ( 8 7 , 4 5 ) . W i t h t h i s v i s i o n t h e y r e c o m m e n c e b u i l d i n g G o l g o n o o z a f o r r e d e m p t i o n r a t h e r t h a n s e l f p r e s e r v a t i o n , a n d r e c e i v e f o r t h e f i r s t t i m e a c l e a r c o n c e p t o f t h e a r t i s t ' s f u n c t i o n . 80 L o v e l y d e l i g h t o f Men E n i t h a r m o n s h a d y r e f u g e f r o m f u r i o u s w a r T h y b o s o m t r a n s l u c e n t i s a s o f t r e p o s e f o r t h e w e e p i n g s o u l s O f t h o s e p i t e o u s v i c t i m s o f b a t t l e t h e r e t h e y s l e e p i n h a p p y o b s c u r i t y T h e y f e e d u p o n o u r l i f e we a r e t h e i r v i c t i m s . S t e r n d e s i r e I f e e l t o f a b r i c a t e e m b o d i e d s e m b l a n c e s i n w h i c h t h e d e a d M a y l i v e b e f o r e u s i n o u r p a l a c e s & i n o u r g a r d e n s o f l a b o u r W h i c h n o w o p e n d w i t h i n t h e C e n t e r we b e h o l d s p r e a d a b r o a d T o f o r m a w o r l d o f S a c r i f i c e o f b r o t h e r s & s o n s & d a u g h t e r s To c o m f o r t O r e i n h i s d i r e s u f f e r i n g s l o o k my f i r e s e n l u m e a f r e s h B e f o r e my f a c e a s c e n d i n g w i t h d e l i g h t a s i n a n c i e n t t i m e s ( 9 0 . 5 - 1 4 ) A c e n t r e h a s b e e n o p e n e d : t h e r e d e m p t i v e w o r k b e g i n s i n e a r n e s t . I n n o c e n c e a t l a s t p r e v a i l s o v e r e x p e r i e n c e , a n d e n e r g y o v e r r e a s o n . H o w e v e r , i f t h e p o w e r o f a r t h a s b e e n t r a n s f o r m e d b y i t s s e p a r a t i o n f r o m l i f e , i t h a s y e t f a i l e d t o p r o v i d e a t r a n s f o r m i n g v i s i o n o f l i f e . I t i s n o t e n o u g h t o b e l i e v e t h a t l i f e i m i t a t e s a r t . A r t m u s t p r o v i d e a v i s i o n g r e a t e r t h a n l i f e , c o n t a i n i n g l i f e w i t h i n i t . I n t h e a b s e n c e o f s u c h a v i s i o n , N i g h t V I I I i s s t r u c t u r e d t o s h o w a r t a n d l i f e i n o p p o s i t i o n t o o n e a n o t h e r , L o s a c t i v a t e d b y H o l y S p i r i t , a n d U r i z e n b y t h e p o w e r o f S a t a n . T h e s a c r i f i c e o f a l l m e n , i n a l l h i s t o r i c a l c y c l e s , t o t h e f o r c e s o f t y r a n n y i s e p i t o m i z e d i n t h e i m a g e r y o f J e s u s b e i n g s a c r i f i c e d b y R a h a b , w h o i s b o t h t h e w h o r e w h o b e t r a y e d J e r i c h o t o t h e I s r a e l i t e s , a n d M y s t e r y , W h o r e o f B a b y l o n , i n R e v e l a t i o n ; . B u t w h e n R a h a b h a d c u t o f f t h e M a n t l e o f L u v a h f r o m T h e Lamb o f G o d i t r o l l d a p a r t , r e v e a l i n g t o a l l i n h e a v e n A n d a l l o n E a r t h t h e T e m p l e & t h e S y n a g o g u e o f S a t a n & M y s t e r y ( 1 1 3 . 3 8 - 4 0 ) When t h e h i s t o r i c a l J e s u s w a s s a c r i f i c e d , t h e v e i l o f t h e t e m p l e i s r e n t , a n d e r r o r s e p a r a t e d f r o m t r u t h . B u t t h i s l a s t h i s t o r i c a l c y c l e a p p e a r s a s a p e r v e r s i o n r a t h e r t h a n a f u l f i l l m e n t o f t h e 8 1 p r o m i s e o f C h r i s t ' s s a c r i f i c e . R a h a b a p p e a r s a s t h e w h o r e o f J e r i c h o , h i d i n g O r e i n b u n d l e s o f f l a x t o d i s g u i s e t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f h i s s a c r i f i c e i n a v e g e t a t i v e c y c l e . I t a p p e a r s a t t h e e n d o f N i g h t V I I I a s i f O r e ' s d e a t h h a s n o m e a n i n g , a n d a t h i s d e a t h i s s i m p l y t o b e r e p l a c e d b y a n o t h e r c y c l e o f t y r a n n y . S h e commund w i t h O r e i n s e c r e t S h e h i d h i m w i t h t h e f l a x T h a t E n i t h a r m o n h a d n u m b e r d a w a y f r o m t h e H e a v e n s S h e g a t h e r d i t t o g e t h e r t o c o n s u m e h e r H a r l o t R o b e s I n b i t t e r e s t C o n t r i t i o n s o m e t i m e s S e l f c o n d e m n i n g r e p e n t a n t S o m e t i m e s r e t u r n i n g t o t h e S y n a g o g u e o f S a t a n i n P r i d e A n d S o m e t i m e s w e e p i n g b e f o r e O r e i n h u m i l i t y & t r e m b l i n g T h e y S y n a g o g u e o f S a t a n t h e r e f o r e u n i t i n g a g a i n s t M y s t e r y S a t a n d i v i d e d a g a i n s t S a t a n r e s o l v d i n o p e n S a n h e d r i m T o b u r n M y s t e r y w i t h f i r e & f o r m a n o t h e r f r o m h e r a s h e s F o r G o d p u t i t i n t o t h e i r h e a r t t o f u l f i l l a l l h i s w i l l T h e A s h e s o f M y s t e r y b e g a n t o a n i m a t e t h e y c a l l d i t D e i s m A n d N a t u r a l R e l i g i o n a s o f o l d s o n o w a n e w b e g a n B a b y l o n * ; ' a g a i n i n I n f a n c y C a l l d N a t u r a l R e l g i o n ( 1 1 1 . 1 0 - 2 4 ) O n c e a g a i n , i t s e e m s a s i f t h e f u l f i l l m e n t o f p r o p h e c y h a s b e e n a v e r t e d , r e d u c e d t o a r e c o r d i n g o f a m e r e n a t u r a l i s t i c s a c r i f i c e , a s h a d b e e n f o r e s h a d o w e d b y t h e u n i o n o f t h e S p e c t r e o f U r t h o n a w i t h t h e S h a d o w o f E n i t h a r m o n . A h a n i a ' s l a m e n t f o r t h e d e a t h o f a l l f o r m a n d E n i o n ' s p r o p h e c y o f t h e e t e r n a l m a n ' s r e b i r t h , q u o t e d a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h i s c h a p t e r , a p p e a r o n c e m o r e t o b e m e r e l y o p p o s i n g v i s i o n s o f t h e e n d l e s s v e g e t a t i v e c y c l e . L o s , i t a p p e a r s , m u s t r e s i g n h i m s e l f t o p r e p a r i n g t h e t o m b : A n d L o s & E n i t h a r m o n t o o k , t h e B o d y o f t h e Lamb Down f r o m t h e C r o s s & p l a c d i t i n a S e p u l c h e r w h i c h L o s h a d h e w n F o r h i m s e l f i n t h e R o c k o f E t e r n i t y t r e m b l i n g & i n d e s p a i r J e r u s a l e m w e p t o v e r t h e S e p u l c h e r t w o t h o u s a n d Y e a r s ( 1 1 0 . 2 9 - 3 2 ) T h u s , N i g h t V I I I e n d s i n d e s p a i r o v e r t h e t r i u m p h o f d e i s m , o f 8 2 n a t u r a l r e l i g i o n , a n d o f t y r a n n y , a n d t h e f a i l u r e o f p o e t r y t o a c h i e v e a p o c a l y p s e . N i g h t I X o p e n s w i t h L o s a n d E n i t h a r m o n w e e p i n g o v e r t h e t o m b . A n d L o s & E n i t h a r m o n b u i l d e d J e r u s a l e m w e e p i n g O v e r t h e S e p u l c h e r & o v e r t h e C r u c i f i e d b o d y W h i c h t o t h e i r P h a n t o m E y e s a p p e a r ' d s t i l l i n t h e S e p u l c h e r B u t J e s u s s t o o d b e s i d e t h e m i n t h e S p i r i t S e p a r a t i n g T h e i r S p i r i t f r o m t h e i r b o d y . ( 1 1 7 . 1 - 5 ) T h i s i s n o t r i t u a l i s t i c e n a c t m e n t , h o w e v e r , b u t g e n u i n e d e s p a i r . T h e tomb r e p r e s e n t s t h e d e a t h o f a l l m a n ' s h o p e s f o r a l l e t e r n i t y . I t i s t h e c o n s o l i d a t i o n o f a l l t h e e r r o r s o f v i s i o n w h i c h t h e p o e m h a s r e c o r d e d t h r o u g h o u t e i g h t n i g h t s . I t i s a m o n u m e n t t o t h e d e a t h o f M i l t o n ' s c u l t u r a l m y t h o f Paradise Lost, a n d a n e x p r e s s i o n o f d e s p a i r a t t h e i m p o s s i b i l i t y o f e v e r c r e a t i n g a g a i n s u c h a u n i f i e d e x p r e s s i o n o f b e l i e f . T h e s e p a r a t i o n o f L o s ' s s p i r i t f r o m h i s b o d y h a d b e e n b e g u n b y t h e S p e c t r e o f U r t h o n a i n N i g h t V I I . T h e r e i t w a s a c r e a t i v e s t r a t e g y . B u t h e r e , a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f N i g h t I X , t h e g r i m t r u t h t h a t t h e s p i r i t c a n n o t b e r e c o n c i l e d t o t h e b o d y , n o r a r t t o l i f e d e s t r o y s a l l L o s ' s h o p e . T e r r i f i e d a t N o n E x i s t e n c e F o r s u c h t h e y deemd t h e d e a t h o f t h e b o d y , L o s h i s v e g e t a b l e h a n d s O u t s t r e t c h d h i s r i g h t h a n d b r a n c h i n g o u t i n f i b r o u s S t r e n g t h S i e z d t h e S u n . H i s l e f t h a n d l i k e d a r k r o o t s c o v e r d t h e M o o n A n d t o r e t h e m d o w n c r a c k i n g t h e h e a v e n s a c r o s s f r o m i m m e n s e t o i m m e n s e T h e n f e l l t h e f i r e s o f E t e r n i t y w i t h l o u d & s h r i l l S o u n d o f L o u d T r u m p e t t h u n d e r i n g a l o n g f r o m h e a v e n t o h e a v e n ( 1 1 7 . 5 - 1 1 ) B u t L o s u n w i t t i n g l y r e p e a t s t h e s a m e a c t o f t e a r i n g t h e v e i l o f i l l u s i o n t h a t C h r i s t p e r f o r m e d o n C a l v a r y . He h a s b e e n c a r r i e d 83 i n t o a h u m a n a p o c a l y p s e b y h i s o w n m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g s e v e r y s t e p o f t h e w a y . H i s a c t s o f w i l l s u d d e n l y h a v e b e e n g i v e n u n d e r s t a n d i n g . H e h a d i n d e e d b e e n t h e a g e n t o f a p o c a l y p s e , b u t i n t h e o p p o s i t e w a y t o w h a t h e h a d a n t i c i p a t e d . H i s f u n c t i o n h a s b e e n t o g i v e f o r m t o e r r o r , t o c r e a t e a r e c o g n i z a b l e i m a g e o f h i s o w n h o r r o r s o f r i g h t e n i n g t h a t h e c o u l d r e p u d i a t e i t i n a n a c t s o s u d d e n a n d s o i r r e v o c a b l e t h a t i t w o u l d b e w o r t h y o f b e i n g c a l l e d a L a s t J u d g m e n t . T h e t r a n s i t i o n t o t h e L a s t J u d g m e n t f u l f i l l s t h e n e c e s s i t i e s o f B l a k e ' s m e t a p h o r s f o r p o e t i c p r o c e s s t h r o u g h o u t . . I t s s t r u c t u r e i s t h a t o f p a r a d o x , d e f l e c t i n g t h e r e a d e r w h o f o l l o w s m e r e l y t h e n a r r a t i v e c r e a t e d b y t h e S p e c t r e o f U r t h o n a . T h u s , N i g h t t h e N i n t h i s m a d e a f i t r e f u g e f o r E n i o n ' s r e a p p e a r a n c e , a n d t h e r e u n i o n w i t h T h a r m a s . T h e s y m b o l i s m o f t h e t r a n s i t i o n — t h e c r e a t i n g o f t h e t o m b — i s n o t u n d e r s t o o d e v e n b y L o s i n a d v a n c e , s o t h a t t h e L a s t J u d g m e n t c a n n o t b e a n t i c i p a t e d b y t h e r e a s o n , a n d c o n t r o l l e d . T h u s , t h e L a s t J u d g m e n t b r i n g s a b o u t a w o r l d U r i z e n h a s n o t c r e a t e d , a n d w h e r e h e c a n b e c o n t r o l l e d . F i n a l l y , O r e t o o i s r e d e e m e d i n t h e L a s t J u d g m e n t . I n t h e L a s t J u d g m e n t , f o r m i s c a s t a w a y a s e r r o r b u t e n e r g y i s n e v e r d i s s i p a t e d w i t h o u t e f f e c t . T h u s i n t h e L a s t J u d g m e n t a v i s i o n o f t h e f o u r f o l d c h a r i o t , n o w r e a l i z e d , i s i n t e r r u p t e d b y t h e e t e r n a l a w a r e n e s s t h a t a l l t h i n g s c a s t t h e i r i n f l u e n c e o n o n e a n o t h e r , t h a t e v e n t h e j u d g e i s n o t s p a r e d t h e j u d g m e n t o f h i s p r i s o n e r (123.27-124.5). T h e L a s t J u d g m e n t m a r k s t h e b e g i n n i n g o f e t e r n i t y . T h e w o r l d o f e t e r n i t y i s n o t a d i f f e r e n t w o r l d f r o m t h e w o r l d o f t i m e 84 but a different perception of i t . It is a world where a l l creation has a human form, and where a l l interactions involve the rending of veils i n a continuous process of discovery and expansion. The fallen and unfallen worlds are shown to be continuous by a series of analogies that run through the poem.^ The Four Zoas does present many d i f f i c u l t i e s to the reader, only some of which can be explained by the manuscript's unfinished condition. Whether intentional or not, these d i f f i c u l t i e s do rouse the reader to engage his w i l l in discovering a vision of the poem that most closely accords with Blake's intent. That vision appears to be a continuous process of discovering paradox, of opening centers to eternity through symbols created in the fallen world. If Blake never ended this process in The Four Zoas3 the reader need not either. But in the symbol of the death and resurrection of Jesus, Blake does find a single symbol that expresses the complexity of the whole. FOOTNOTES ± N o r p u b l i c f l a m e , n o r p r i v a t e , d a r e s t o s h i n e ; N o r h u m a n s p a r k i s l e f t , n o r g l i m p s e d i v i n e ! L o ! t h y d r e a d e m p i r e , C h a o s ! i s r e s t o r e d ; L i g h t d i e s b e f o r e t h y u n c r e a t i n g w o r d : T h y h a n d , g r e a t A n a r c h ! l e t s t h e c u r t a i n f a l l ; A n d u n i v e r s a l d a r k n e s s b u r i e s a l l . T h e s e l a s t l i n e s o f B o o k I V o f The Dunciad axe q u o t e d f r o m a p e r s o n a l c o p y o f P o p e ' s w o r k s m i s s i n g i t s c o v e r a n d i n t r o d u c t o r y p a g e s . 2 T h o m a s H u t c h i n s o n a n d E r n e s t d e S e l i n c o u r t , Wordsworth: Poetical Works with Introductions and Botes, 2 n d e d . ( L o n d o n , New Y o r k , T o r o n t o : O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 3 6 ) , p . 4 9 4 . 3 Ibid. 4 E d w a r d J . R o s e , " T h e S p i r i t o f t h e B o u n d i n g L i n e : B l a k e ' s L o s , " Criticism, 13 ( 1 9 7 1 ) , ' p . 5 7 . 5 D a v i d V . E r d m a n , Prophet Against Empire, A Poet's Interpreta-tion of the History of His Own Times, r e v . e d . ( G a r d e n C i t y , New Y o r k : D o u b l e d a y , 1 9 6 9 ) , p p . 2 9 7 - 3 0 5 . ^ M a r t i n K . N u r m i , " N e g a t i v e S o u r c e s i n B l a k e , " William Blake: Essays for S. Foster Damon, e d . A l v i n H . R o s e n f e l d ( P r o v i d e n c e : B r o w n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 6 9 ) , p p . 3 1 2 - 3 1 8 ; B a s i l W i l l e y , The Eighteenth Century Background: Studies on the Idea of Nature in the Thought of the Period ( L o n d o n : C h a t t o a n d W i n d u s " , 1 9 4 0 ) , p p . 2 7 - 3 4 . 7 J a m e s C. E v a n s , " T h e A p o c a l y p s e a s C o n t r a r y V i s i o n : P r o l e g o m e n a t o a n A n a l o g i c a l R e a d i n g o f The Four Zoas," Texas Studies in Literature and Language, 1 4 (Summer 1 9 7 2 ) , passim. - 8 5 -CONCLUSION The form of The Four Zoas appears to be based on paradox, which, reveals its meaning only to him who seeks after i t , while deflecting the attention of the curious. To the reader who applies his w i l l to his reading of the poem, however, The Four Zoas reveals much about the creative process. The reader learns that Blake expresses the creative process in metaphors drawn from a great many sources. Some are used so frequently and so consistently as to carry their own narrative continuity. Nevertheless, these metaphors should be treated as part of a larger human process which is essentially the process of the poem i t s e l f . The poem's process of creation and " f a l l into the Generation of Decay and Death" (4.5) is given meaning against the archetype of Jesus' death and resurrection. It traces the descent through which thought is created in metaphor, and then the ascent by which thought frees i t s e l f from metaphor as a human form which can descend into matter or leave i t at w i l l , which can in fact control man's perceptions of the material world. Each part of the poem contributes to this vision of poetic process. It seems doubtful whether Blake intended his poem at any stage of i t s composition to provide the basis for systematic criticism or commentary on anything outside of i t s own structure. Neither the Bible, nor Milton, nor eighteenth century poetry, nor 8 7 c o n t e m p o r a r y h i s t o r y , n o r f a c u l t y p s y c h o l o g y n o r a n y o f a n u m b e r o f i m p o r t a n t i n f l u e n c e s o n The Four Zoas p r o v i d e a f i r m b a s i s f o r s y s t e m a t i c c r i t i c i s m o f i t s s t r u c t u r e . One may d e l i g h t i n B l a k e ' s d e p i c t i o n o f m o r e i n c i d e n t a l i s s u e s — t h e O e d i p a l c o m p l e x , o r h i s t h e o r i e s o f o n t o g e n y , h i s s a t i r e o n B u r n e t ' s M u n d a n e E g g , o r h i s r e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e m y t h o f t h e G a r d e n o f E d e n . H o w e v e r , t h e s e r e f e r e n c e s s e r v e f o r a d o r n m e n t a n d d i v e r s i t y w i t h i n The Four Zoas, r a t h e r t h a n f o r t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f m a t t e r s e x t e r n a l t o i t . T h e p o e m i t s e l f i s b o t h a n a r k a n d t h e v e i l t h r o u g h w h i c h m a n ' s i d e n t i t y i s t o b e r e d e e m e d . I t s b e a u t y i s i n B l a k e ' s a b i l i t y t o a s s i m i l a t e a n d t r a n s f o r m i m a g e s f r o m t h e c h a o s a r o u n d h i m . T a k e n s e p a r a t e l y , t h e i m a g e s a r e a b e w i l d e r i n g a s s o r t m e n t o f r e f e r e n c e s a n d i m a g i n a t i v e i n s i g h t s . C o n s i d e r e d t o g e t h e r , a p a r t f r o m The Four Zoas, t h e y s p e a k w e l l o f t h e b r e a d t h o f B l a k e ' s k n o w l e d g e , e v e n l i v i n g a s h e d i d i n a n a g e o f e c l e c t i c i s m . T a k e n a s t h e f u n d a m e n t a l s o f a s y s t e m a t i c s t r u c t u r e o f k n o w l e d g e , h o w e v e r , t h e y a r e h o p e l e s s l y c o n f u s e d . A n d w h e n c o n s i d e r e d a s l a y e r s o f m e a n i n g , p o l i t i c a l p r o p h e c y , B i b l i c a l e s c h a t o l o g y , o r s c i e n t i f i c e x p l a n a t i o n , t h e s e s c a t t e r e d i n s i g h t s i n B l a k e ' s p o e m a r e s u b j e c t t o e r r o r a n d d i s t o r t i o n . When p o r t i o n s o f t h e p o e m ' s i m a g i n a t i v e u n i t y a r e s e t u p a s c r i t e r i a o f o t h e r m a t t e r s , e x t e r n a l t o t h e p o e m , t h e i r e r r o r s o r t h e i r i n c o m p l e t e n e s s t h e n r e f l e c t b a c k u p o n t h e u n i t y o f t h e p o e m . " A t t e m p t i n g t o b e m o r e t h a n Man We b e c o m e l e s s s a i d L u v a h " ( 1 3 5 . 2 1 ) . I t s e e m s c l e a r t h a t t h e i n d i v i d u a l m e t a p h o r s o r a l l e g o r i e s w h i c h i n f o r m B l a k e ' s 88 poem provide much material for later mental warfare, but that, in keeping with the inscription on the reverse side of the t i t l e page, "Rest before Labour," The Four Zoas depicts the basic truth of man's identity quite apart from the external linkages that its metaphors and allegories provide. The following passage, spoken by one of the Eternals in Night IX, confirms this conclusion: Man i s a Worm wearied with joy he seeks the caves of sleep Among the Flowers of Beulah in his Selfish cold repose Forsaking Brotherhood & Universal love :in selfish clay Folding the pure wings of his mind seeking the places dark Abstracted from the roots of Science then inclosd around In walls of Gold we cast him like a Seed into the Earth T i l l times & spaces have passd over him duly every morn We v i s i t him covering with a Veil the immortal seed With windows from the inclement sky we cover him & with walls And hearths protect the Selfish terror t i l l divided a l l In families we see our shadows born. & thence we know That Man subsists by Brotherhood & Universal Love We f a l l on one anothers necks more closely we embrace Not for ourselves but for the Eternal family we live Man liveth not by Self alone but in his brothers face Each shall behold the Eternal Father & love & joy abound (133.11-26) What makes The Four Zoas an amazing achievement is the fact that, out of materials Blake collects from various forces of change and disintegration, he is able to create a self-contained structure of human renewal, an ark, rendered impervious by the pitch of a few well-chosen B i b l i c a l symbols. This study has attempted to present a way in which a unified vision of The Four Zoas may be attained. A unified and complete reading of the poem would be quite impossible within the scope of this paper. But i t would be appropriate at the conclusion of this paper to mention some of the work that i s needed to help bring that end about. Much of this work would be editorial in nature. 89 It would involve recasting existing c r i t i c a l insights, particularly David Erdman's his t o r i c a l allegory, within the larger framework of the poem. Part of the work would require finding more exact parallels between the structure of The Four Zoas and the structure of English literature between Milton's time and Blake's. This thesis has asserted that Blake placed a high value on the w i l l of the reader to respond creatively to a poetic structure, and to regard i t as a vehicle for his own regeneration. To this end Blake's structures are paradoxical, so that they render i t impossible for the reader to find consistency without a considerable effort of w i l l . For that reason, the reader's encounter with the poem w i l l always remain largely subjective. A fi n a l corrective is needed, however. It was the intent of this paper to open up the possibility for the reader to encounter The Four Zoas imaginatively. While this effort has many scholarly deficiencies, merely plugging the gaps, so to speak, might not increase i t s value. Much of the pleasure that a reading of The Four Zoas can provide is speculative in nature, and cannot be forced by documentation. One of the benefits of working with an unfinished manuscript, after a l l , i s that i t brings the roles of reader and poet into unity. A L I S T OF WORKS CONSULTED E d i t i o n s o f B l a k e ' s W r i t i n g s B e n t l e y , G e r a l d E . J r . William Blake, Vala or The Four Zoas: A Facsimile of the Manuscript, a Transcript of the Poem, and a Study of Its Growth and Significance. O x f o r d : C l a r e n d o n P r e s s , 1 9 6 3 . E l l i s , E d w i n J o h n a n d W i l l i a m B u t l e r Y e a t s , e d . The Works of William Blake, Poetic, Symbolic, and C r i t i c a l with Litho-graphs of the Illustrated "Prophetic Books." 3 v o l s . L o n d o n : B e r n a r d Q u a r i t c h , 1 8 9 3 . E r d m a n , D a v i d V . , e d . The Poetry and Prose of William Blake, W i t h r e v i s i o n s . G a r d e n C i t y , N . Y , : D o u b l e d a y , 1 9 7 0 . K e y n e s , G e o f f r e y , e d . The Letters of William Blake. L o n d o n : R u p e r t H a r t e - D a v i s , 1 9 6 8 . M a r g o l i o u t h , H . M . , e d . William Blake's Vala: B l a k e ' s N u m b e r e d T e x t . O x f o r d : C l a r e n d o n P r e s s , 1 9 5 6 . A r t i c l e s A d a m s , H a z a r d . " T h e B l a k e a n A e s t h e t i c . " JAAC, 1 3 ; ( 1 9 5 4 ) , p p . 2 3 3 - 2 4 8 . A m e s , ' W i n s l o w . W i l l i a m B l a k e a s A r t i s t , Magazine of Art, 3 2 ( 1 9 3 9 ) , p p . 6 9 - 7 3 . B e n t l e y , G e r a l d E . , J r . " T h e D a t e o f B l a k e ' s Vala o r The Four Zoas."' Texas Studies in English, 37 ( 1 9 5 8 ) , p p . 1 0 2 - 1 1 3 . D u n c a n - J o h n s t o n e , L , A . A P s y c h o l o g i c a l S t u d y o f W. B . L o n d o n , D e c e m b e r , 1 9 4 5 . The Guild of Pastoral Psychology, Guild Lecture No, 40, - 9 0 -E r d m a n , D a v i d V . " T h e B i n d i n g ( e t c e t e r a ) o f Vala." The Library ( 1 9 6 4 ) , pp. 1 1 2 - 2 9 . . " W i l l i a m B l a k e ' s E x a c t n e s s i n D a t e s . " PQ, 28 ( 1 9 4 9 ) , p p . 4 6 5 - 4 7 0 . . " B l a k e ' s A t t a c k s o n t h e C l a s s i c a l T r a d i t i o n . " P.Q., 4 0 ( 1 9 6 1 ) , p p . 1 - 1 8 . E s s i c k , R o b e r t N . " B l a k e a n d H i s T r a d i t i o n s o f R e p r o d u c t i v e E n g r a v i n g " . BZake Studies, 5 ( F a l l 1 9 7 2 ) , p p . 5 9 - 1 0 3 . E v a n s , J a m e s C . " T h e A p o c a l y p s e a s C o n t r a r y V i s i o n : P r o l e g o m e n a t o a n A n a l o g i c a l R e a d i n g o f The Four Zoas." Texas Studies in Literature and Language,lib (Summer 1 9 7 2 ) , p p . 3 1 3 - 3 2 8 . H a r p e r , G e o r g e M i l l s . " T h e N e o - P l a t o n i c C o n c e p t o f T i m e i n B l a k e ' s P r o p h e t i c W o r k s . " PMLA, 69 ( 1 9 5 4 ) , p p . 1 4 2 - 1 5 5 . M i n e r , P a u l . " T h e P o l y p a s a S y m b o l i n t h e P o e t r y o f W i l l i a m B l a k e . " Texas Studies in Literature and Language, 2 ( 1 9 6 0 ) , p p . 1 9 8 - 2 0 5 . P a l e y , M o r t o n D . " T h e F e m a l e B a b e a n d ' T h e M e n t a l T r a v e l l e r ' . " Studies in Romanticism, 1 ( 1 9 6 3 ) , p p . 9 7 - 1 0 4 . P l o w m a n , M a x . " B l a k e ' s B i b l e o f H e l l . " TLS, N o v e m b e r 7 , 1 9 2 4 , p . 7 1 0 . R o s e , E d w a r d J . " T h e S p i r i t o f t h e B o u n d i n g L i n e : B l a k e ' s L o s . " Criticism, 1 3 ( 1 9 7 1 ) , p p . 5 4 - 7 6 . . " V i s i o n a r y F o r m s D r a m a t i c : G r a m m a t i c a l a n d I c o n o -g r a p h i c a l M o v e m e n t i n B l a k e ' s V e r s e a n d D e s i g n s . " Criticism 8 ( 1 9 6 6 ) , p p . 1 1 1 - 1 2 5 . S i m m o n s , R o b e r t a n d W a r n e r , J a n e t . " B l a k e ' s ArZington Court Picture: T h e M o m e n t o f T r u t h . " SIR, 1 0 ( 1 9 7 1 ) , p p . 3 - 2 0 . W i t t r e i c h , J o s e p h A n t h o n y , J r . " B l a k e ' s P h i l o s o p h y o f C o n t r a r i e s A New S o u r c e , " ELN, 4 ( D e c e m b e r , 1 9 6 6 ) , p p . 1 0 5 - 1 1 0 . L o n g e r W o r k s a n d C o m m e n t a r i e s A b r a m s , M . H . , e d . EngZish Romantic Poets: Modern Essays in Criticism. New Y o r k : O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 6 0 . 92 Adams, Hazard. William Blake: A Reading of the Shorter Poems. S e a t t l e : U n i v e r s i t y of Washington Press, 1963. A l t i z e r , Thomas J . J . The New Apocalypse: The Radical C h r i s t i a n Vision of William Blake. East Lansing, Michigan: Michigan State U n i v e r s i t y P r ess, 1967. Beer, John B. Blake's Humanism, Manchester: Manchester U n i v e r s i t y Press. New York: Barries & Noble, 1968. Bentley, Gerald. Bibake Records. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1969. Bloom, Harold. Blake's Apocalypse: A Study in Poetic Argument. Garden C i t y , New York: Anchor Books, 1963. Bloom, Harold, ed. Romanticism and Consciousness: Essays in Criticism. New York: W. W. Norton, 1970. Bredvold, L ouis I . , Alan D. M c k i l l o p , and L o i s Whitney, ed. Eighteenth Century Poetry and Prose, 2nd ed. 1939; r e p r i n t , New York: Ronald Press, 1956. Bronowski, Jacob. William Blake and the Age of Evolution. London: Routledge and K. P a u l , 1972. Curran, S t u a r t , and Joseph Anthony W i t t r e i c h , ed. Blake's Sublime Allegory: Essays on~Ther~~Tbui> -Zoas, Milton,  Jerusalem. Madison, Wisconsin: U n i v e r s i t y of Wisconsin Press, 1973. Damon, S. F o s t e r , A Blake Dictionary: The Ideas and Symbols of William Blake. Providence,RRhode I s l a n d : Brown U n i v e r s i t y P r ess, 1965. / Blake 's Job : William Blake 's Illustrations of the Book of Job, with an Introduction and Commentary. New York: E. P. Dutton, 1969. . William Blake, His Philosophy and Symbols. 1924; • r e p r i n t , Gloucester, Massachusetts:•' Peter Smith, 1958. Digby, George W i n g f i e l d . Symbol and Image in William Blake. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1957. Erdman, David V. Blake: Prophet Against Empire; A Poet's Interpretation of the History of His Own Times. Revised ed. Garden C i t y , New York: Doubleday, 1969. Erdman, David V., and John E. Grant, ed. Blake's Visionary Ibrms Dramatic. P r i n c e t o n : P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1970. 93 Fisher, Peter F. The Wiley of Vision: Blake as Prophet and Revolutionary. Ed. Northrop Frye. Toronto: U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto Press, 1961. Frye, Northrop, ed. Blake: A Collection of Critical Essays Englewood C l i f f s , New York: Prentice H a l l , 1966. •- . Fearful Symmetry : A Study of William Blake. Princeton: Beacon Press, 1947. . A Study of English Romanticism. New York: Random House, 1968. Gardner, Earle Stanley, Infinity on the Anvil : A Critical Study of Blake's Poetry. Oxford: B a s i l Blackwell, 1954. G i l c h r i s t , Alexander. The Life of William Blake. Ed., with an Introduction by W. Graham Robertson. New York: John Lane, 1907. Gleckner, Robert F., and Gerald E. Enscoe, Romanticism: Points of View. Englewood C l i f f s , New Jersey: P r e n t i c e - H a l l , 1962. Grant, John E., ed. Discussions of William Blake. Boston: D. C. Heath, 1961. Harper, George M i l l s . The Neoplatonism of William Blake. Chapel H i l l : U n i v e r s i t y of North Carolina, 1961. Hughes, M e r r i t t Y., ed. John Milton: Complete Poems and Major Prose.. New York: Odyssey Press, 1957. Hungerford, Edward B, "Blake's A l b i o n . " Shores of Darkness. New York: Columbia U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1941, pp. 35-61. James, Laura DeWitt. William Blake:' The Finger on the Furnace. New York: Vantage Press, 1956. Keynes, Geoffrey. Blake Studies: Notes on His Life and Works in Seventeen Chapters. London:. Rupert Hart-Davis, 1949. Margoliouth, H. M. William Blake. London, New York, Toronto: Home Uni v e r s i t y L i b r a r y , 1951. Murry, John Middleton. William Blake. 1933; r e p r i n t , New York Toronto, London: McGraw H i l l , 1964. Nurmi, Martin K a r l . "Blake',s Doctrine of Contraries: A Study i n Visionary Metaphysics." Doctoral D i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y of Minnesota, 1954. 94 Nurmi, Martin K a r l , "Blake's 'Marriage of Heaven and H e l l . ' " Research Series I I I . Kent, Ohio: Kent State U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1957. O' N e i l l , Judith, ed. Critics on Blake: Readings in Literary Criticism. Coral Gables, F l o r i d a : U n i v e r s i t y of Miami Press, 1970. Paley, Morton D. Energy and the Imagination: A Study of the Development of Blake's Thought. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1970. P e r c i v a l , Milton. 0. William Blake's Circle of Destiny, New York: Columbia U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1938. Pinto, V i v i a n de Sola. The Divine Vision: Studies in the Poetry and Art of William Blake, London: V i c t o r Gollancz Ltd., 1957. Rosenfeld, A l v i n H., ed. William Blake: Essays for S. Foster Damon. Providence: Brown Univ e r s i t y Press, 1969. Roston, Murray, Prophet and Poet: The Bible and the Growth of Romanticism. London: Faber & Faber., 1965. Saurat, Denis. Blake and Milton, London:' Stanley Nott, 1935. . Blake & Modern Thought. London: Constable & Co., 1929. Schorer, Mark. William Blake: The Politics of Vision, New York: Vintage Books, 1959. Sherburn, George. "The Restoration and Eighteenth Century." A Literary History of England, ed. Albert C. Baugh. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1948. Stevenson, Warren. Divine Analogy: A Study of the Creation Motif in Blake and Cqleridge, Salzburg: Salzburg Studies i n English L i t e r a t u r e , 1972. Swinburne, Algernon Charles. William Blake: A Critical Essay, Second Ed. London: John Camden Hotten, 1868. Wicksteed, Joseph H. Blake's Vision of The Book of Job: with Reproductions of the Illustrations. 1910; r e p r i n t , 1971, New York: Haskell House, 1971. Willey, B a s i l . The Eighteenth-Century Background: Studies on the Idea of Nature in the Thought of the Period. London: Chatto and Windus, 1940. Witt r e i c h , Joseph Anthony, J r . , ed. Nineteenth Century Accounts of William Blake by Benjamin Heath Malkin, Henry Crabb Robinson, John Thomas Smith, Allen Cunningham, Frederick Tatham, William Butler Yeats: Facsimile Reproductions. G a i n e s v i l l e , F l o r i d a : Scholars' Facsimiles & Reprints, 1970. 

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