SOIL-WATER CHEMISTRY RELATIONSHIPS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF THE PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT - INTERMITTENT PERMAFROST ZONE, MACKENZIE VALLEY, N.W.T. by MARK E. WALMSLEY B. Sc. U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1970 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE i n the Department o f S o i l S c i e n c e We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA JANUARY, 1973 i i . In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l l m e n t o f the requirements f o r an advanced degree a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the l i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and study. I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e copying o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head o f the Department o f S o i l S c i e n c e or by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s understood t h a t copying or p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be allowed without my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Head, Department o f S o i l S c i e n c e The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada i i i ABSTRACT A d i s c u s s i o n i s presented to i l l u s t r a t e the r e l a t i o n s h i p s among landform, s o i l , v e g e t a t i o n and water chemistry i n the i n t e r m i t t e n t permafrost zone o f the Mackenzie V a l l e y , Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s . Two study areas were examined i n t h i s r e g i o n , one i n the v i c i n i t y o f Wrigley and the other i n the v i c i n i t y o f F o r t Simpson, N.W.T. A cat e n a r y sequence o f s o i l s and v e g e t a t i o n o c c u r r i n g as a t r a n s e c t on f i v e d i s t i n c t i v e landforms were examined i n the Wrigley a r e a . The t r a n s e c t extended from 1170 m above sea l e v e l downslope to 500 m above sea l e v e l . The f i v e landforms were: an a l p i n e meadow, an area o f stone s t r i p e and stone r i n g f o r m a t i o n , a c o l l u v i a l s l o p e , a c o a l e s c i n g f a n and an area o f polygonal bog f o r m a t i o n . Information on chemical water q u a l i t y i s pre-sented f o r each o f these areas f o r the parameters pH, Og, Ca, Mg, Na, K, C l , F and NO^. Chemical water q u a l i t y presented f o r the F o r t Simpson study area allows f o r the d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n o f d i f f e r e n t types o f o r g a n i c t e r r a i n based on the d i s s o l v e d load o f the s a t u r a t e d o r g a n i c m a t e r i a l s . The polygonal bog landform i n i t i a l l y examined i n the Wrigley area formed one o f the d i f f e r e n t i a t e d types o f o r g a n i c t e r r a i n . The r e s u l t s are d i s c u s s e d with r e f e r e n c e to o r g a n i c t e r r a i n morphology and the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f permafrost i n the study a r e a . iv ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The author wishes to thank Dr. L.M. L a v k u l i c h , A s s o c i a t e P r o f e s s o r , Department o f S o i l S c i e n c e f o r h i s guidance, c r i t i c i s m and suggestions p e r t a i n i n g to t h i s t h e s i s . Thanks are a l s o extended to Mr. C. Broersma f o r h i s a s s i s t a n c e i n the l a b o r a t o r y , Mrs. Beth Loughran f o r d r a f t i n g the f i g u r e s , and a l l o t h e r f e l l o w students and t e c h n i c i a n s i n the l a b o r a t o r y who helped during v a r i o u s stages o f the p r o j e c t . S p e c i a l thanks i s extended to the author's w i f e , Noreen, f o r her understanding and help d u r i n g the graduate program. V TABLE OF CONTENTS Page INTRODUCTION CHAPTER 1 LANDFORM - SOIL - VEGETATION - WATER CHEMISTRY RELATIONSHIPS; WRIGLEY AREA, N.W.T.: I. MORPHOLOGY, CLASSIFICATION AND SITE DESCRIPTION ABSTRACT 6 INTRODUCTION . . . . . 7 SOIL SITES . . . . . . . . . . . • 11 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION . . . . . 16 APPENDIX 31 REFERENCES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 CHAPTER 2 LANDFORM - SOIL - VEGETATION - WATER CHEMISTRY RELATIONSHIPS; WRIGLEY AREA, N.W.T.: CHEMICAL, PHYSICAL, AND MINERALOGICAL DETERMINATIONS AND RELATIONSHIPS ABSTRACT • • • • • • • • » » « • • • • • » • * • • * • < » • . 3/ INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 MATERIAL AND METHODS 39 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION . . . . . . . . 42 Physical and Chemical Analyses of Soils . . . . . . . . 42 Mineralogical Analyses . . . . . . . • 52 Water Chemical Analyses • • 54 CONCLUSION . . . . . . . . 57 REFERENCES 59 v i Page CHAPTER 3 IN SITU MEASUREMENT OF DISSOLVED MATERIALS AS AN INDICATOR OF ORGANIC TERRAIN TYPE ABSTRACT . . . . 63 INTRODUCTION 64 MATERIAL AND METHODS 66 Ana ly t i ca l Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 F i e l d App l i cat ion . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION . . 72 REFERENCES 84 SUMMARY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 v i i LIST OF TABLES T a b l e Page CHAPTER 1 1. S e l e c t e d C l i m a t i c Data o f t h e W r i g l e y A r e a 9 CHAPTER 2 1. Some S e l e c t e d C h e m i c a l and P h y s i c a l P r o p e r t i e s o f Sampled S o i l s . 4 3 2. X-Ray I d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f M i n e r a l s P r e s e n t i n t h e C l a y F r a c t i o n . 5 3 3. R e s u l t s o f Water C h e m i c a l A n a l y s i s . . . , , . „ . . . . 5 5 CHAPTER 3 1. S e l e c t e d Chemical P r o p e r t i e s o f Two O r g a n i c S o i l s ... 7 1 2. C h e m i c a l C o m p o s i t i o n o f Some R i v e r Waters i n t h e Watson Lake A r e a , Yukon T e r r i t o r y . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 3 3. In S i t u Measurement o f S e l e c t e d P a r a m e t e r s A s s o c i a t e d With O r g a n i c T e r r a i n Types . . . . . . . . . 7 9 v i i i LIST OF FIGURES Figure Page CHAPTER 1 1 . Geographic Location of Study Area 8 2. Physiographic Relationships of Study S i tes , Cap Mountain 17 3. Oblique Photograph of Study Area; Cap Mountain in the Background 18 4. Alpine Meadow Area . . . . . 20 5. Stone Stripe and Stone Ring Area 21 6. Cross-Sectional Prof i le Through Stone Stripe Area, I l lustrat ing Sampling Sites 23 7. Colluvial Slope Area 25 8. Coalescing Fan Area 27 9. Polygonal Bog Area . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 CHAPTER 2 1 . Schematic Representation of a Toposequence of Soils and the Relationships to the Landform Units in the Wrigley Area, N.W.T. . . . . . . . 46 CHAPTER 3 1 . Schematic Diagram of a Dominantly Organic Landscape 75 i 2. Bog Area Surrounded by Peat Plateau . . . . . . . . . . 76 3. Oblique Photograph of Part ia l l y Burnt Peat Plateau Area 77 4. Fen Area, I l lustrat ing Ground Water Flow Along Network of Drainage Lines 78 5. Cryic Fibrisol S o i l , Frozen at 30 cm . . . . . . . . . 81 6. Cryic Mesisol S o i l ; Frozen at 25 cm . . . . . . . . . . 82 i x LIST OF APPENDICES Appendix Page CHAPTER 1 1. L i s t o f Common and S c i e n t i f i c Names f o r Ve g e t a t i v e Species 31 1 INTRODUCTION His tor ica l l y , land has been defined as the sol id part of the earth's surface as distinguished from the sea and has been recognized as being composed of different types in terms of quality and location. The concept that there are different types of land in relat ion to quality or more speci f ica l ly productivity, has led investigators to derive various techniques for the c lass i f i cat ion of land. Land c lass i f i cat ion schemes, the arrangement of land units into various categories based on the properties of the land or i t s su i tab i l i t y for some particular purpose, have taken several different forms during the evolution of this concept but generally have been firmly rooted in the geological, pedological and climatological sciences. Various investigators have attempted to integrate the botanical sciences into land c lass i f icat ion schemes with varying degrees of success. In order to f a c i l i t a t e a knowledge of the inter -relationships between various landscape parts in terms of natural features such as f i e l d s , h i l l s , forests and water that distinguish one part of the earth's surface from another part, an understanding of the environment is required. In the last few years, investigators have realized that environment can not be tota l ly understood, for example, by only such factors as radiant energy and chemical compounds, but must include a description of the form and structure of the landscape. In a genetic sense landform, including surface form and geologic substratum, determines the landscape. It is strongly inf luential and shapes the structure and function of terrestr ia l and aquatic ecosystems. Landform controls the 2 m i c r o c l i m a t e and s e l e c t s the p l a n t s and animals t h a t can s u r v i v e t h e r e . In t u r n , the b i o t i c communities determine the kinds o f s o i l s t h a t form i n the s u r f i c i a l m a t e r i a l s on the landform. D e r i v a t i v e from landform i s v e g e t a t i o n and when landform and v e g e t a t i o n i n t e r a c t a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o i l i s developed. In r e l a t i o n , m a t e r i a l d i s s o l v e d i n the water a s s o c i a t e d with the p a r t i c u l a r landform or environment i s a f u n c t i o n o f the g e o l o g i c substratum and i n t e g r a t e s the e f f e c t s o f c l i m a t e , v e g e t a t i o n and pedogenic processes on the landform. V e g e t a t i o n , s o i l s and water c h e m i s t r y are t h e r e f o r e u s e f u l as i n d i c a t o r s o f p a r t i c u l a r environments. The manner and degree expressed by each o f these parameters w i l l determine the e x t e n t t o which one or combination o f these f a c t o r s w i l l e x h i b i t c o n t r o l and hence d e f i n e the ecosystem. In t h i s manner, each parameter i s a f u n c t i o n o f s e v e r a l o t h e r s and as a r e s u l t i s a measurable i n d i c a t o r o f the environment. For example, though v e g e t a t i o n i n f l u e n c e s landform by c o n t r o l l i n g r a t e s o f e r o s i o n , and s o i l i n f l u e n c e s v e g e t a t i o n through the development of m a t e r i a l s u i t a b l e f o r r o o t i n g , the degree o f both i s r e f l e c t e d by the d i s s o l v e d chemical l o a d i n the subsequent waters. With the above i n mind, s t u d i e s were conducted to i l l u s t r a t e the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between these parameters i n a p a r t i c u l a r geographic area and c l i m a t i c regime. The area i n q u e s t i o n i s l o c a t e d w i t h i n the northern p a r t o f the I n t e r i o r P l a i n s c o n t a i n i n g the Mackenzie P l a i n , e a s t o f the Mackenzie Mountains. C l i m a t i c a l l y , the study area i s north o f the summer l i m i t o f permafrost and has a c l i m a t e t h a t i s c o n s i d e r e d s u b a r c t i c , t y p i f i e d by c o o l , s h o r t summers with temperatures above 10°C. The l o n g , c o l d winters have l e d to c o n s i d e r a b l e i c e b u i l d u p i n p a r t s o f the area. 3 Characteristic of this portion of Canada, extensive areas of organic terrain are common throughout this region. Two study areas were examined in this region. One at Wrigley, N.W.T. and another at Fort Simpson, N.W.T. upriver from Wrigley. Both hamlets are situated on the banks of the Mackenzie River. Chapters 1 and 2 describe a catenary sequence of landform and soi l patterns established at the Wrigley study site where a total of five landforms were defined. An intensive examination of each landform included the sampling of soi l material for subsequent physical and chemical analysis and a description of the land in terms of re l i e f , drainage, elevation and soi l parent materials. The characteristic vegetative species of each si te were also described. Water chemical parameters were also examined by in situ techniques as well as laboratory analysis for waters associated with some of the defined landforms. Since muskeg or organic terrain is extensive in this region, an understanding of this particular terrain type is important in terms of land use implications. A particular expression of muskeg, the poly-gonal bog landform, formed one of the landforms discussed in the Wrigley study area. As a result of th is , Chapter 3 describes a study conducted in the Fort Simpson area directed toward the elucidation of the various terrain types associated with land defined broadly as organic terrain. Water chemical,pedological and vegetative parameters were used to distinguish two quite dist inct types of landforms; the bog and the fen. The i n i t i a l parameter mentioned, water chemistry, is indicated as being an extremely useful tool in defining these landforms. This is no doubt caused by the fact that water is present in very large quantities in 4 t h i s environment, f r e q u e n t l y composing as much as 90% o f the t o t a l volume o f o r g a n i c s o i l s developed i n t h i s a r e a . The r e s u l t s demonstrate t h a t v a r i o u s water chemical parameters can be used as i n d i c a t o r s o f p a r t i c u l a r t e r r a i n types i n the i n t e r m i t t e n t permafrost zone o f the Boreal F o r e s t as s o i l and v e g e t a t i o n have. J u s t as s o i l s a re a f u n c t i o n o f p a r t i c u l a r environmental f a c t o r s , so i s the chemical composition o f water, namely c l i m a t e , geology, topography, v e g e t a t i o n and time. Since the chemical composition o f water i s a l s o a f u n c t i o n o f p e d o l o g i c a l p r o c e s s e s , t h i s , i n combination with the other environmental f a c t o r s mentioned above, i n d i c a t e s t h a t water c h e m i s t r y i s perhaps a means o f i n t e g r a t i n g environmental e f f e c t s on the l a n d . 5 C H A P T E R 1 LANDFORM - SOIL - VEGETATION - WATER CHEMISTRY RELATIONSHIPS; WRIGLEY AREA, N.W.T.: I. MORPHOLOGY, CLASSIFICATION AND SITE DESCRIPTION. 6 ABSTRACT Five landforms occurring in the intermittent permafrost region of the Mackenzie Valley are described. The f ive landforms, consisting of d ist inct so i l and vegetative characteristics occur on a transect from the 1170 m ASL (above sea level) position at the summit of Cap Mountain, Wrigley area, N.W.T. to approximately 500 m ASL at the base of the slope. Two so i ls meet the requirements of the Organic order. Dark surface mineral horizons qual i f ied one of the groups of so i ls as belonging to the Alpine supgroup. An area of stone str ipe and stone ring formation was encountered at approxi-mately 1000 m ASL and an extensive area of lichen covered polygonal bogs occurred at approximately 500 m ASL. The so i l s are described in relation to environmental factors and the processes of cryotur-bation causing intermittent horizons are discussed. 7 INTRODUCTION Although i t is often reported that there is a dearth of knowledge with respect to northern development especially concerning environmental factors, much information is available regarding environmental factors in the Boreal Forest regions of Canada [Roberts-Pichette, 1972]. Much of this information, however, is indirect for much of northern Canada as i t is often extrapolated from areas not direct ly within the areas of concern, e.g. the Mackenzie Valley. In this l i gh t , a study was conducted to i l l us t ra te the relationships between s o i l , vegetation, landform and water chemistry in the inter -mittent permafrost region of the Mackenzie Valley by means of a transect from the 1170 m ASL of Cap Mountain, to the 500 m ASL position at the base of the mountain. The study area is located within the northern part of the Interior Plains containing the Mackenzie P la in , east of the Mackenzie Mountains (Figure 1). C l imatical ly , the study area is north of the summer l imi t of permafrost [Brown, 1970]. The area has a climate that is considered subarctic [Brandon, 1965], typif ied by cool , short summers with temperatures above 10°C. The long, cold winters have led to con-siderable ice buildup in some of the different terrain types in the Wrigley area. Table 1 presents a summary of the climatic parameters. A ten year average is given for the mean maximum and minimum temperatures whereas a twenty-five year average is given for the remaining parameters. The geology of the area has been documented by the publications of Figure 1. Geographic location of study area, Wrigley N.W.T. Table 1. Selected climatic data o f the Wrigley area TEMPERATURE PRECIPITATION (°o m Month I' Mean 'iaximum Mean Minimum Maximum Minimum No. of days with freezing temperature Total 'Wo. of days with 0.01 or more Snowfal J anuary -27.0 -34.8 - 9 - 9 5.1 31 1.95 10.9 19-5 February -20.2 -29. S - 7.U -43.1 28 1.25 8.6 12.5 March -11.3 -23.1 3.3 -36 .-7 • 31 0.98 7.6 10.0 A p r i l 3.2 9 - 9 13.3 -23.0 27 1.52 6.8 13.5 May 0.6 23.7 7.0 11+ 2.30 7.0 1+.8 June 13.6 7.1 28.7 • - 0.3 1 3.60 9-1 . 0.0 July 20.6 9 . 6 30.8 1 . 8 0.3 5.03 10.7 0.0 August 22.5 7.0 28.3 - l . i 1 .6 I+.78 9.3 O.C Septembe: r 20.2 0.3 20.3 6.0 10 3.32 8.1+ 3.5 October 11.3 - 5.8 12.6 -18.6 28 2.70 9.2 20.3 November 0.9 -22.2 - 1.8 -35-2 30 2.12 10.7 22.5 Dec ember -21.3 -26 .3 -10.8 -1+2. h 31 2.10 9-3 20.0 10 Craig , Hume , Stott  and Douglas and Norris [I960], The entire lowland area has been covered by a continuous mantle of glacial and post-glacial deposits. Extensive areas of organic terrain are common throughout this region [Lavkulich, 1970; 1971; 1972). The study area is located on the south-east slope of Cap Mountain, a dominant physiographic feature of the landscape in the Wrigley area. Geographically, the transect extended from a semi-f lat alpine meadow area at the top of Cap Mountain (1170 m ASL) to an area of stone stripe and stone ring formation at approximately 1000 m ASL which further extended into a rocky area consisting mainly of broken rock fragments and colluvium at 800 m ASL. From this area, the transect extended to the foot of the slope which consisted of an extensive area of coalescing fans, dissected in certain locations by erosional drainage channels flowing down the mountain slope. The coalescing fan area located between 700 and 550 m ASL, gently extended into a small forest of stunted Picea mariana which abruptly merged with an area of . l ichen covered polygonal bogs at approximately 500 m ASL (see Appendix for l i s t of common and sc ien t i f i c names for vegetative species described in the text) . For each of the f ive landforms outlined above, a description of the dominant so i ls was recorded as well as a complete l i s t of the vegetation present. Chapter 2 presents physical and chemical data in an attempt to i l lus t ra te the relationship between terrain type ( i . e . land-form and soi ls ) and water chemistry. 11 SOIL SITES The pedons were examined i n the f i e l d u s i ng standard techniques. Bulk samples were taken o f each major h o r i z o n and r e t u r n e d to the l a b o r a t o r y f o r p r o c e s s i n g and a n a l y s e s . Depths and h o r i z o n a t i o n s are those recorded i n the f i e l d d e s c r i p t i o n . I. A l p i n e Meadow Area; C r y i c M e s i s o l T h i s very p o o r l y d r a i n e d s o i l occurs on a 2% s l o p e . The r e g o l i t h i s a c a l c a r e o u s g l a c i a l t i l l and l o e s s mixture. Bedrock i n the area i s dominantly sandstone and q u a r t z i t e . Horizon Depth D e s c r i p t i o n (cm) Of 0-11 Dark.brown (10 YR 4/3, moist);pH 3.0 0ml 11-23 Dark brown (7.5 YR 3/2, moist); pH 4.3 0m2 23+ Very dark g r a y i s h brown (10 YR 3/2 m o i s t ) ; pH 4.3 I I . Stone S t r i p e Area; A l p i n e E u t r i c B r u n i s o l These moderately well d r a i n e d s o i l s o c cur on 10% to 15% slopes on g e n t l y u n d u l a t i n g c o l l u v i a l f a n s . The r e g o l i t h i s a mixture o f c a l c a r e o u s loamy g l a c i a l t i l l and c o l l u v i u m . Each o f the f o u r sample s i t e s on t h i s landform i s d e s c r i b e d c o n s e c u t i v e l y below (see F i g u r e 3 ) . 12 Site 1 Horizon Depth Description (cm) Ah 0-3 Black(5 Y 2/2, moist; 7.5 YR 3/2 dry); sandy clay; weak granular structure; very turfy; pH 5 .1 ; clear smooth boundary. Bml 3-23 Brown (10 YR 5/3, moist); clay loam; moderate fine subangular blocky structure; f r i a b l e ; pH 6.3; gradual irregular boundary. Bm2 23-38 Grayish brown (10 YR 5/2, moist); clay loam; moderate coarse blocky structure; f r i ab le ; pH 5.6; gradual wavy boundary. Bm3 38-48 Grayish brown(2.5 Y5/2, moist); clay loam; moderate very coarse subangular blocky breaking to moderate fine subangular blocky structure; f r i ab le ; pH 5.9; gradual wavy boundary. C 48+ Dark brown (10 YR 3/3, moist); clay loam; coarse subangular blocky structure; f i rm; pH 6.8; clear wavy boundary. Site 2 Horizon Depth Description (cm) Ah 0-4 Dark reddish brown (5 YR 2/2, moist); sandy clay loam; weak granular structure; turfy ; pH 5.9; clear wavy boundary. 0b 4-12 Dark brown (7.5 YR 3/2, moist); pH 6.4; gradual irregular boundary. Bml 12-22 Brown (10 YR 5/3, moist); clay loam; moderate fine subangular blocky structure; f r i a b l e ; pH 6.3; clear smooth boundary. 13 Bm2 12-22 Brown (10 YR 5/3, moist); clay loam; moderate coarse subangular blocky structure; f i rm; pH 5.8; gradual wavy boundary. C 47+ Olive gray (5 Y 5/2 moist); clay loam; moderate fine subangular blocky structure; f i rm; pH 7 .1 ; abrupt, smooth boundary. Site 3 Horizon Depth (cm) Description Ah 0-10 Grayish brown (2.5 Y 5/2, moist); clay loam; weak granular structure; turfy; pH 5.6; clear smooth boundary. Bml 10-20 Grayish brown (2.5 Y 5/2, moist); c lay; moderate fine subangular blocky structure f i rm; pH 5.8; gradual irregular boundary. Bm2 20-29 Grayish brown (2.5 Y 5/2, moist); clay loam; moderate coarse blocky structure; f r i a b l e ; pH 5.8; gradual wavy boundary. C 29+ Olive brown (2.5 Y 4/4, moist); clay loam; coarse subangular blocky structure; f i rm; pH 6.2; clear wavy boundary. Site 4 Horizon Depth (cm) Description 1 Ah 0-3 Dark reddish brown (5 YR 3/2, moist); sandy clay loam; weak granular structure; turfy; pH 4.7; clear smooth boundary. Bml 3-13 Dark brown (10 YR 3/3, moist); clay loam; weak fine blocky structure; f r i ab le ; pH 5 .1 ; gradual wavy boundary. 14 Bm2 13-23 Dark grayish brown (10 YR 4/2, moist); clay loam; moderate medium blocky structure; f r iab le ; pH 5.2; gradual wavy boundary. 23+ Grayish brown (10 YR 5/2, moist); clay loam; fine subangular blocky structure; f i rm; pH 6.4; clear wavy boundary. I l l . Colluvial Slope Area; Lithic Alpine Eutric Brunisol This moderately well drained soi l occurs on a 25% to 38% slope of the undulating col luvial slope east and down slope of the stone stripe area. The underlying regolith is a mixture of coarse textured col luvial material and calcareous loamy glacial t i l l overlying non-calcareous, shale bedrock. Horizon Depth (cm) Description LFH Ah Ahb Bm 2-0 Dark Brown (7.5 YR 3/2, moist); pH 6.4. 0-4 Very dark brown (10 YR 2/2, moist); sandy loam; weak granular structure; pH 6.2; clear smooth boundary. 4-6 Very dark grayish brown (10 YR 3/2, moist); sandy clay loam; weak granular structure; pH 6.2; gradual wavy boundary. 6-16 Grayish brown (2.5 YR 5/2, moist); clay loam; moderate fine subangular blocky structure;fr iable; pH 6.8; gradual irregular boundary. 16-24 Grayish brown (2.5 Y 5/2, moist); clay loam; coarse subangular blocky structure; f i rm; pH 6.6; clear wavy boundary. 24+ non-calcareous shale bedrock 15 IV. Coalescing Fan Area; Orthic Gleysol This poorly drained soi l occurs on a 7% slope of the gently undulating coalescing fan south of the stone stripe area. The regolith consists of a mixture of col luv ia l and a l luv ia l material composed of shattered noncalcareous shale bedrock. Horizon Depth Description (cm) LFH 20-0 Very dark brown (10 YR 2/2, moist); pH 5.9 Bg 0-11 Brown (10 YR 5/3, moist); sandy loam; fine subangular blocky structure; s l ight ly st icky; pH 6.4; diffuse irregular boundary. BC 11-19 Reddish brown (5 YR 4/3, moist); loamy sand; structureless; nonsticky; pH 6.6; diffuse irregular boundary. C 19+ Dark reddish gray (5 YR 4/2, moist); loamy sand; structurless; nonsticky; pH 6.4; diffuse irregular boundary. V. Polygonal Bog Area; Cryic Fibr isol This very poorly drained soi l occurs on nearly level land with slopes of 0% to 2%. The regolith is composed of sphagnum moss species at different stages of decomposition, frozen at 35 cm. Horizon Depth Description (cm) Ofl 0-20 Dark brown (7.5 YR 4/4, moist); pH 2.6 0f2 20-35 Dark brown (7.5 YR 4/2, moist); pH 2.5 Ofz 35+ Same as above but frozen. 16 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION The study area is schematically presented in Figure 2 and an oblique photograph of the area is given in Figure 3. The entire transect is i l l us t ra ted , beginning at the top of Cap Mountain at the alpine meadow area down through the stone str ipe area and col luv ia l slope area into the coalescing fan unit and f i n a l l y into the area of polygonal bog formation. Due to the remoteness of the area, no data was available regarding so i l temperatures or a i r movement patterns, From s i te observations, i t is believed that windswept conditions prevail on the sites at the summit of the mountain as well as on the slope. This has the effect of causing the so i l to freeze early in the f a l l at these sites and warm f a i r l y rapidly in the spring. As a result this area was local ly more arid than the other s i tes , with soi l temperatures closely paral lel ing a i r temperature patterns. The coalescing fan area at the base of the slope is believed to be less windswept and covered by a considerable depth of snow in winter, as indicated by numerous examples of krummholz vegetation. This has the effect of causing the mean soi l temperatures to be higher during the winter months than the corresponding a i r temperature. Depending on the duration of the snow-pack in this area, the mean soi l temperatures w i l l remain lower than mean a i r temperatures during the spring months. Similar to the areas at the top of the mountain, the polygonal bog area is considered to be generally windswept with the exception that large dr i f ts of snow wi l l accumulate within the scattered clumps of trees dotting the landscape Figure 2, Physiographic relationships of study sites, Cap Mountain. 18 Figure 3: Oblique photograph of study area; Cap Mountain i n the background. 19 in this area. As mentioned above, this wi l l result in a rapid cool-ing of the ground as winter approaches and subsequently a rapid warming during the spring. The presence of a thick, insulating mat of organic material on this landform coupled with these climatic characteristics is considered condusive for polygonal ground formation [Britton, 1957]. The alpine meadow unit located at the top of Cap Mountain consisted mainly of a very poorly drained area surrounding a small alpine lake (tarn). Figure 4 i l lustrates the area. The organic material, frozen at approximately 30 cm was dissected by drainage lines forming a polygonal pattern, resultant from the windswept and local ly arid nature of this area. An organic soi l has developed in this environ-ment with the dominant soi l in the area being c lassi f ied as a Cryic Mesisol according to the Canadian System of Soil Classif ication . Ecologically, the area was typified by a well developed shrub layer consisting of Betula glandulosa, Salix spp., Salix reticulata and Potenti l la fruticosa. The predominant species in the rich herb layer were Dryas sp. , Lupinus arcticus, Anemone parvif lora, Pedicularis kanei, Saxifraga bronchial i s , Aconitum columbianum and Arnica sp. Feathermosses (Hylocomium splendens, Pleurozium schreberi and Pti1iurn crista-castrensis) and 1ichens (Cetraria cuculata and Alectoria o.ctocruka) were abundant. The stone stripe and stone ring area, occurring downslope from the alpine meadow area, generally had slopes ranging from ten to f ifteen percent (Figure 5). An Ah horizon had developed in this environ-ment formed from the accumulation and decomposition of shrubs and 20 Figure 4 ; Alpine meadow area. 21 Figure 5: Stone stripe and stone ring area. 22 herbs. The soi ls from the four sampling sites described for this area were c lass i f ied as Alpine Eutric Brunisols. Due to the var iab i l i t y present in the developed soi ls in this area, a cross-sectional prof i le through a stone ring is presented in Figure 6. Ground frost had caused a large amount of mixing and convoluting of the soi l horizons. Figure 6 i l lust rates two areas in the solum where organic material has been incorporated into the p ro f i l e , described as Ob horizons. Both of these areas are located on either side of the stone r ing, indicating a down-ward as well as inward movement of material under the stone ring area with a subsequent upward movement of coarser material. Inspection of the soi ls developed in this area indicated some differences in the morphology of the soi ls developed under the stone rings and the soi ls developed under the depressions between the stone rings. The Ah horizon developed under the stone ring had a low organic matter content compared with the Ah horizons developed in the areas between the stone rings. Such a situation is indicative of both a more intensive biological act iv i ty in the area between the stone rings as well as greater cryo-turbation under the stone ring area, causing a considerable movement of mineral material into this zone. An indication of the depth to which the most extensive amount of cryoturbation may be effective is given by the location of the Bml horizon. Just as the depth of the Ob horizons were approximately 5 to 10 cm below the surface of the depressions between the stone rings, the Bml horizon was at approximately the same depth. This suggests a depth of approximately 15 cm for the maximum zone of extensive cryoturbation. Site I Site Site 2 3 Site 4 2 0 - | Stone Stripe co 300 HORIZONTAL DISTANCE (cm) Figure 6. Cross-sectional profile through stone stripe area, illustrating sampling sites. 24 The dominant vegetation on the stone rings and the stone stripes which run parallel to the slope was somewhat different in comparison to the meadow unit discussed previously. In this area Vaccinium sp. was dominant whereas Betula glandulosa was dominant in the meadow unit. The stone stripes and stone rings had abundant Dryas sp. and generally the same herbs as the lush meadow unit but with less ground coverage. On much steeper terrain (25 to 30%) downslope from the stone ring area, the third unit of study occurred. This area consisted mainly of coarse textured col luvial material and was generally rocky or stony at the surface (Figure 7). With the exception of extensive cryoturbic processes, the soi l developed on this landform is similar to that of the stone stripe area. An Ah horizon had also developed and the soi l was c lass i f ied as a Lythic Alpine Eutric Brunisol. Continual downslope movement of shattered bedrock and unconsolidated material in this environment has altered the prof i le in a certain manner. The presence of a buried Ah horizon (Ahb) is indicative of the large amount of downslope move-ment typical of this area. Such gravitational processes have also resulted in shallow prof i le development in comparison to the so i ls developed in the stone stripe area. Ecologically, the rocky units were dry areas which were being invaded by Dryas sp . , Lupinus arct icus, Oxytropis Maydelliana, Saxifraga bronchial i s , Polytrichum juniperinum, Cetraria cuculata and Cetraria t i l e s i i . 25 Figure 7: Colluvial slope area, At the foot of the slope, approximately the 800 m level , the coalescing fan landform occurs. Pedologically, the area was character-ized by Orthic Gleysol soi ls in the more depressional areas and by organic s o i l s , developed on the hummocks of the s l ight ly undulating topography. Geomorphically, the area consisted of large coalescing col luvial fans extending from the base of the mountain (Figure 8). The slope of the land varied from 5% to 10% and in aerial extent ranged from approximately 8 to 10 km in length and 1 to 2 km in width. As a result of the finely bedded red shale bedrock of the slope area, the material is under constant movement during the summer and f a l l months. The f inely broken shale material, being f la t and non-cohesive, offers l i t t l e resistance to gravitational forces. Physical and chemical weathering of the shale material has produced a finer texture for the developed soils in comparison to the soi ls developed in the rocky unit upslope from this area. Shale material is known to weather quickly and completely to material of clay size. As a result , the area is quite unstable in terms of engineering uses such as road or pipeline construction. The dominant vegetation of this area was visually str iking as a result of the vast expanse of krummholz trees and low shrub vegetation. The author believes this area is to be inundated with a large amount of snow during the winter months, blowing off from the nearby mountains and slopes. Consequently, the trees in the area were extremely stunted or krummholtz in nature, caused by the weight of the deep snow. Dominantly, the vegetation consisted of scattered, 27 Figure 8: Coalescing fan area. 28 krummholz Picea glauca with a s h r u b . l a y e r c o n s i s t i n g o f B e t u l a g l a n d u l o s a , Vaccinium sp., S a l i x r e t i c u l a t a , S a l i x spp., Rhododendron lapponicum, Vaccinium v i t i s - i d a e a and A r c t o s t a p h y l o s r u b r a . T y p i c a l herbs were Dryas sp., T o f i e l d i a sp., Lupinus a r c t i c u s , and P e d i c u l a r i s kanei. The feathermosses Hylocomiurn splendens, Dicranum sp., Tomenthypnum n i t e n s and Dicranum undulatum were abundant, with the l i c h e n s C l a d i n a a r b u s c u l a and C e t r a r i a c u c u l a t a present. Extending east from the c o a l e s c i n g fan area d e s c r i b e d above was a small f o r e s t o f stunted P i c e a mariana which a b r u p t l y bordered on an e x t e n s i v e l i c h e n covered bog or peat polygon [ T a r n o c a i , 1970] a r e a . T h i s type o f t e r r a i n had polygonal c r a c k s o u t l i n e d i n the bogs with polygons 15-20 m i n diameter. These were o u t l i n e d by f i s s u r e s o f v a r i a b l e width (1-3 m) and sunk about 0.5 m below the surrounding t e r r a i n . An a e r i a l view o f the polygonal bog i s presented i n F i g u r e 9. These hummocky s u r f a c e d bogs had C r y i c F i b r i s o l s as the dominant s o i l s . These s o i l s c o n s i s t e d o f 30 cm o f b l a c k , moderately decomposed o r g a n i c matter over raw undecomposed sphagnum d e r i v e d peat with i c e a t 35 cm. V e g e t a t i v e l y , the area was c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a shrub l a y e r o f l e s s than 1 m i n h e i g h t . The s p e c i e s c o n s i s t e d o f B e t u l a g l a n d u l o s a , Ledum decumbens, Andromeda p o l i f o l i a , Vaccinium v i t i s - i d a e a , and Rubus chamaemorus. The dominant sphagna was Sphagnum fuscum w h i l e approximately 80% o f the ground was covered by l i c h e n s p e c i e s c o n s i s t i n g o f C l a d i n a a l p e s t r u s , C e t r a r i a c u c u l a t a , C l a d i n a r a n g i f e r i n a and C l a d i n a m i t i s . In summary, the f i v e landforms d e s c r i b e d appeared d i s t i n c t l y d i f f e r e n t p e d o l o g i c a l l y as w e l l as e c o l o g i c a l l y but when c o n s i d e r e d c o l l e c t i v e l y were component ecosystems forming a p a r t o f the major 29 Figure 9 : Polygonal bog area. 30 ecosystem characteristic of this part of the Boreal Forest region of Canada [Rowe, 1959]. Gross cl imatic regimes dominate the characteris-t ics of the physical environment in this region. The cold temperatures associated with each of the f ive landforms caused not only a limited biological breakdown of organic matter but also increased the physical weathering of rock material due to intense freeze and thaw cycles. Soil formation on mineral sites was shallow and highly retarded by mixing of soi l horizons as a result of cryoturbation. The subangular blocky structures and f r iable consistencies reflected the high permeability and low clay mineral contents of these soi ls i l l us t ra t ing the low level of chemical weathering. Organic matter had accumulated to variable depths at certain locations in this region and tended to modify the effect of climate. The organic material accumulated in the alpine meadow study area was at a higher stage of decomposition than was the organic material located on the polygon bog study area. The elevation of the sites and the distr ibution of snow has affected the distr ibution of permafrost and the types of vegatative species. Each of these factors has contributed to a higher degree of biological act iv i ty at the alpine meadow s i t e . i 31 APPENDIX Common Names Scient i f ic Names Trees Black spruce White spruce Picea mariana Picea glauca Shrubs Moorwart Kinnickinnick Bog birch Arctic labrador tea Shrubby cinquefoil Purple rhododendron Baked appleberry Willow Cowberry Herbs Andromeda po l i fo i ia Arctostaphylos rubra Betula glandulosa Ledum decumbens Potentil la fruticosa Rhododendron lapponicum Rubus chamaemorus Salix reticulata Salix spp. Vaccinium vit is - idaea Vaccinium sp. Monkshood Anemone Aconitum columbianum Anemone parviflora 32 Common Names S c i e n t i f i c Names A r n i c a Dryas A r c t i c l u p i n e Locoweed Louse wort Spotted s a x i f r a g e T o f i e l d i a A r n i c a sp. Dryas sp. Lupinus a r c t i c u s O x y t r o p i s maydel1iana P e d i c u l a r i s kanei S a x i f r a g a b r o n c h i a l i s T o f i e l d i a sp. Sphagna Sphagnum Sphagnum fuscum Mosses Wavy dicranum Ribbed bog moss Feather moss Schrebers moss H a i r cap moss i L i v e r wort Dicranum undulatum Dicranum sp. Hylocomium splendens Pleurozium s c h r e b e r i Pti1iurn c r i s t a - c a s t r e n s i s P o l y t r i c h u m juniperinurn Tomenthypnum n i t e n s Lichens Reindeer mosses A l e c t o r i a o c t o c r u k a C e t r a r i a c u c u l a t a 33 Common Names S c i e n t i f i c Names Reindeer mosses C e t r a r i a t i l e s i i C l a d i n a a l p e s t r u s C l a d i n a a r b u s c u l a C l a d i n a m i t i s C l a d i n a r a n g i f e r i n a 34 REFERENCES 1. BRANDON, L.V. 1965. Groundwater hydrology and water supply in the Dist r ic t of Mackenzie, Yukon Territory and adjoining parts of Br i t ish Columbia. Rept. No. 25; Paper 64-39, Geo!. Surv. Canada, Ottawa. 2. BRITTON, M.E. 1957. Vegetation of the arct ic tundra. In H.P. Hansen, ed. Arctic biology, Oregon State Univ. Press. , pp. 67-130. 3. BROWN, R.J.E. 1970. Permafrost in Canada - i t s influence on northern development. Univ. of Toronto Press. 4. CANADA SOIL SURVEY COMMITTEE. 1970. The system of soi l c l a s s i f i -cation for Canada. Can. Dept. Agr. , Ottawa, Ontario. 5. CRAIG, B.G. 1965. Glacial Lake McConnell and the sur f i c ia l geology of parts of the Slave River and Redstone River map areas, D ist r ic t of Mackenzie. B u l l . 122, Geol. Surv. of Canada, Ottawa. i 6. DOUGLAS, R.J.W. and A.W. MORRIS. 1960. Horn River map area, Northwest Terr i tor ies. Paper 59-11, Geol. Surv. of Canada, Ottawa. 35 HUME, G.S. 1954. The lower Mackenzie River area, Northwest Territories and Yukon. Memoir 273, Geol. Surv. of Canada, Ottawa. LAVKULICH, L.M. 1970, 1971, 1972. Arctic Land Use Research (ALUR). Reports on north of 60. Dept. of Indian and Northern A f fa i r s , Ottawa. ROBERTS-RICHETTE, R. 1972. Annotated bibliography of permafrost -vegetation - w i ld l i fe - landform relationships. Forest Management Inst. Rept. FMR-X-43, Ottawa. ROWE, J .S . 1959. Forest regions of Canada, Canada Dept. of Northern Affairs and Natural Resources. For. Br. B u l l . No. 123. STOTT, D.F. 1960. Cretaceous rocks in the region of Liard River, Northwest Terr i tor ies. B u l l . 63. Geol. Surv. of Canada, Ottawa. TARNOCAI, C. 1970. Classif icat ion of peat landforms in Manitoba Canada Agr., Winnipeg. 36 C H A P T E R 2 LANDFORM - SOIL - VEGETATION - WATER CHEMISTRY RELATIONSHIPS; WRIGLEY AREA, N.W.T.: I I . CHEMICAL, PHYSICAL AND MINERALOGICAL DETERMINATIONS AND RELATIONSHIPS 37 ABSTRACT A d i s c u s s i o n i s presented on the r e s u l t s o f s e l e c t e d c h e m i c a l , p h y s i c a l and m i n e r a l o g i c a l analyses c a r r i e d out on s o i l samples c o l l e c t e d from catenary sequences from f i v e landforms i n the i n t e r m i t t e n t perma-f r o s t r e g i o n o f the Mackenzie V a l l e y , N.W.T. The f i v e landforms are an a l p i n e meadow, an area o f stone s t r i p e and stone r i n g f o r m a t i o n , a c o l l u v i a l s l o p e , a c o a l e s c i n g fan and an area o f polygonal bog f o r m a t i o n . Information on chemical water q u a l i t y i s a l s o presented f o r each o f these areas f o r the parameters pH, G^, Ca, Mg, Na, K, C l , F and NOg. R e l a t i o n -ships are d i s c u s s e d i n terms o f the environmental c o n t r o l s t h a t occur on the f i v e landforms. An attempt i s made to show the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the f o u r parameters; landform, s o i l , v e g e t a t i o n , and water chemistry. A l s o , an i n d i c a t i o n i s given o f the u s e f u l n e s s o f t h i s data as environmental i n d i c a t o r s f o r the d e f i n i t i o n o f p a r t i c u l a r t e r r a i n t y pes. 38 INTRODUCTION The r e s u l t s o f c h e m i c a l , p h y s i c a l and m i n e r a l o g i c a l d e t e r m i n -a t i o n s performed on s o i l s from f i v e d i s t i n c t landforms o c c u r r i n g on a t r a n s e c t down a mountain s l o p e i n the Mackenzie V a l l e y , N.W.T. a re •Presented. In Chapter 1 o f the study the s o i l s were d e s c r i b e d and c l a s s i f i e d . R e l a t i o n s h i p s a re d i s c u s s e d between water chemical data and v a r i o u s pedo log ic and g e o l o g i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the landfo rms . 39 MATERIAL AND METHODS Laboratory analysis of the sampled soi ls was performed on the less than 2 mm material. Part ic le size analysis was accomplished by treatment of the sample with H2O2 for removal of organic matter followed' by hydrometer analysis as described by Day . Organic matter was estimated by determination of total carbon with a Leco induction furnace and carbon analyzer [Al l ison, ejt al_. ; 1965]. Total nitrogen was determined by semi-micro Kjeldahl methods [Bremner, 1965]. Cation exchange capacity and exchangeable cations were determined by neutral, normal NH^ OAc leaching, followed by semi-micro Kjeldahl determination of absorbed ammonium and atomic absorption spectrophotometric procedures for exchangeable cations, as developed in the University of Br i t ish Columbia, Department of Soil Science laboratory. The determination of pH was carried out on 1:1 mineral material: water and 1:2 mineral material: 0.01 M CaCl 2 s lu r r ies . Due to their high moisture holding capacity, 1:2 organic material: water and 1:4 organic material: 0.01 M CaClg slurr ies were used for the organic s o i l s . Free iron and aluminum were extracted by the ammonium oxalate procedure of McKeague and Day . Analysis of water samples was performed both in s i tu and in the laboratory. The parameters pH and dissolved oxygen were 40 determined i n s i t u a t the s i t e w h i l e NO^, F and Cl were analyzed w i t h i n a few hours a t the f i e l d camp with the a i d o f s p e c i f i c i on e l e c t r o d e s . Samples were taken a t the s i t e i n p l a s t i c b o t t l e s and d e l i v e r e d to the l a b o r a t o r y where a n a l y s i s f o r Na, Ca, Mg and K was performed by atomic a b s o r p t i o n s p e c t r o p h o t o m e t r y procedures. The s p e c i f i c i on e l e c t r o d e s employed were s o l i d s t a t e Cl and F e l e c t r o d e s and a l i q u i d j u n c t i o n NOg ion e l e c t r o d e . A s i n g l e j u n c t i o n r e f e r e n c e e l e c t r o d e (Orion Model 90-01; Orion Research Inc., Cambridge, Massachusetts) was used with the N0^ ion e l e c t r o d e with s a t u r a t e d KCl as the f i l l i n g s o l u t i o n . A double j u n c t i o n (Orion Model 90-02) r e f e r e n c e e l e c t r o d e was used with the c h l o r i d e e l e c t r o d e to minimize the l i q u i d j u n c t i o n p o t e n t i a l and a v o i d sample contamination. The F i o n e l e c t r o d e i s a combination t y p e , having a b u i l t i n r e f e r e n c e e l e c t r o d e , using s a t u r a t e d KCl as the r e f e r e n c e s o l u t i o n . A combination pH e l e c t r o d e employing s a t u r a t e d KCl as the r e f e r e n c e f i l l i n g s o l u t i o n was used f o r the measurement o f hydrogen i o n a c t i v i t y . D i s s o l v e d oxygen was determined with a Y.S.I. Model 54 oxygen meter (Yellow Springs Instrument Co. Inc., Yellow S p r i n g s , O h i o ) . This meter i n c o n j u n c t i o n with an oxygen e l e c t r o d e i s capable o f determining the d i s s o l v e d oxygen c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f l i q u i d s w i t h i n the range o f 0.0 to 20.0 ppm [Walmsley and L a v k u l i c h , 1973]. S o i l samples c o l l e c t e d f o r c l a y mineral i d e n t i f i c a t i o n were a i r - d r i e d , crushed and f r a c t i o n a t e d by s i e v i n g and c e n t r i f u g e techniques. The c l a y s i z e d m a t e r i a l (< 2um) was separated u s i n g a l a b o r a t o r y model s u p e r c e n t r i f u g e (Sharpies Co., P h i l a d e l p h i a , Pa.) f o l l o w i n g the pro-cedure o u t l i n e d by Jackson . The c l a y s i z e separates were then t r e a t e d to make the f o l l o w i n g p a r a l l e l o r i e n t e d s l i d e s : Mg-saturated, 41 Mg-saturated and g l y c o l s o l v a t e d , K-saturated, K-saturated and heated to 300C, and K-saturated and heated to 500C f o l l o w i n g the procedure out-l i n e d by Jackson . The p a r a l l e l o r i e n t e d c l a y mineral s l i d e s were s u b j e c t e d to Ni f i l t e r e d CuKa r a d i a t i o n using a P h i l l i p s X-ray d i f f r a c t o m e t e r . The r e s u l t a n t d i f f r a c t o g r a m s were i n t e r p r e t e d a c c o r d i n g to standard methods [Jackson, 1964; W h i t t i g , 1965] and the r e l a t i v e q u a n t i t i e s o f each c l a y mineral present were expressed as a f u n c t i o n o f peak i n t e n s i t y and peak a r e a . RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Physical and Chemical Analyses of Soils To fac i l i ta te a knowledge of the interrelationships between various landscape parts, an understanding of the environment is re-quired. Environment can not be total ly understood by only such factors as radiant energy and chemical and physical composition but must also include a description of the form and structure of the landscape. In a genetic sense, landform, including surface form and geologic substratum, determines the landscape. It in conjunction with elevation, is strongly inf luential and shapes the structure and function of terrestr ial and aquatic ecosystems. Landform and elevation control the micro-climate within a climatic region and select the plants and animals that can survive there. In turn, the biotic communities determine the kinds of soi ls that form in the sur f ic ia l materials on the landform. Derivative from landform is vegetation and when landform and vegetation interact, a characteristic soi l profi le is developed. Chemical water quality in relat ion, is a function of the geologic substratum and integrates the effect of climate, vegetation and pedogenic processes on the land-form. Vegetation, soi ls and chemical water quality are therefore useful as indicators of particular environments rather than as definers of i t . The manner and degree expressed by each of these parameters w i l l determine the extent to which one or a combination of these factors w i l l exhibit control and hence define the ecosystem. In this manner, each parameter is a function of several others and as a result is a 43 Table 1 Some Selected Chemical and Physical Properties of Sampled Soils Site Horizon Depth (cm) ..Coarse Fragments (X) Sand (X) Silt (X) Clay (X) Alpine Meadow Of 0-11 Area 0ml 11-23 0m2 23+ Stone Stripe Area Site 1 Ah 0-3 24.7 44.4 15.2 40.4 Bml 3-23 36.1 39.0 32.4 28.6 Bm2 23-30 4.7 32.4 27.3 40.3 Bm3 38-48 21.3 29.2 29.8 41.0 C 48+ 30.8 33.2 30.9 35.9 Site 2 Ah 0-4 10.7 48.7 25.5 25.8 Ob 4-12 Bml 12-22 29.8 37.9 32.9 29.2 Bm2 22-47 1.0 41.2 27.2 31.6 C 47+ 24.2 28.8 35.9 35.3 Site 3 Ah 0-10 13.4 32.2 35.5 32.3 Bml 10-20 20.2 25.5. 29.5 45.0 Bm2 20-21 18.2 23.4 32.5 44.1 C 29+ 19.8 35.6 28.0 36.4 Site 4 Ah 0-3 18.6 51.2 23.7 25.1 Bml ,3-13 8.2 41.2 30.5 28.3 Bm2 13-23 17.2 32.5 30.5 37.0 C 23+ 9.5 33.0 33.0 34.0 Colluvial Slope LFH 0-2 Area Ah 2-6 4.1 66.8 12.9 20.3 Ahb 6-8 4.0 50.0 26.5 25.5 Bm 8-18 44.1 34.2 36.6 29.2 C 18+ 29.0 44.6 27.8 26.6 Coalescing Fan LFH 0-20 Area Bg 20-31 49.2 70.2 20.8 9.0 BC 31-39 59.0 80.0 18.4 1.6 C 39+ 26.8 82.2 15.1 2.7 Polygonal Bog Q f l 0-20 Area 012 20-35 Ofz 35+ PH N OM C/N H20 CaCl, Exchangeable Cations Ca Mg Na K CEC ——(me/100 g)— Oxalate Extractable Fe Al (%) (X) IV, 0.68 69.1 58.3 1.78 44.0 14.2 1.72 42.0 12.0 0.46 14.4 0.14 3.4 0.08 0.09 0.08 1.9 1.9 0.3 0.80 19.2 0.70 18.1 0.17 0.08 0.08 3.8 1.8 0.5 0.13 2.6 0.07 1.8 0.07 1.7 0.08 1.7 0.47 15.1 0.37 6.5 0.09 2.2 0.08 2.0 0.52 15.4 0.51 11.4 0.42 0.09 0.08 8.2 4.2 4.7 2.13 65.2 0.16 5.9 0.04 4.7 0.04 2.7 18.0 13.8 13.7 12.2 16.4 13.7 14.9 12.9 13.0 25.4 11.6 15.1 13.7 12.0 18.5 10.0 13.9 14.7 17.0 12.8 11.2 26.6 33.6 17.6 21.0 66.7 38.2 3.9 5.1 5.1 5.6 6.6 6.2 6.5 7.3 6.4 '6.9 7.0 6.6 7.7 0.71 72.9 60.0 0.82 70.4 50.0 5.4 5.9 6.9 7.1 6.7 6.7 6.7 7.4 7.4 6.4 6.9 7.2 7.2 3.-: 3.4 3.0 4.3 4.3 5.1 6.3 5.6 5.9 6.8 5.9 6.4 6.3 5.8 7.1 5,6 5.8 5.8 6.2 4.7 5.1 5.8 6.4 5.9 6.4 6.6 6.4 2.6 2.5 8.81 8.13 15.21 8.44 12.50 7.81 12.88 5.00 13.13 15.00 15.00 46.88 33.75 18.13 13.75 15.00 13.13 14.38 13.75 15.00 9.38 9.38 13.75 13.75 1.15 25.00 23.75 13.13 13.31 6.88 6.06 6.44 7.88 8.06 4.13 5.00 4.75 5.50 7.06 6.06 8.94 9.44 8.38 4.63 3.00 7.19 9.31 9.13 8.69 9.25 7.38 7.75 4.13 30.94 17.50 7.06 7.90 4.00 8.03 3.75 1.96 1.55 126.22 1.89 0.38 99.45 1.95 0.29 82.87 8.75 0.34 0.63 0.29 0.69 0.24 0.69 0.22 0.63 0.18 3.13 0.48 1.25 0.17 0.63 0.16 0.63 0.19 0.56 0.13 0.69 0.20 0.69 0.36 0.69 0.29 0.69 0.22 1.38 0.33 1.25 0.20 0.56 0.18 0.39 0.26 0.05 0.50 0.02 0.19 0.02 0.18 0.02 0.20 0.20 0.20 40.16 29.89 27.47 29.25 25.17 58.45 52.78 31.29 26.32 26.57 29.63 26.70 28.23 28.87 30.60 27.79 26.83 26.96 39.01 39.78 36.85 25.43 25.30 4.38 1.25 0.81 3.75 0.10 1.06 158.74 0.03 0.17 29.31 0.02 0.15 22.50 0.02 0.14 22.50 0.04 0.08 34.42 0.15 0.28 56.82 0.20 0.19 0.17 0.19 0.17 0.18 0.24 0.28 0.25 0.31 0.27 0.26 0.29 0.27 0.34 0.12 0.20 0.20 0.19 0.18 0.14 0.20 0.18 0.12 0.21 0.20 0.18 0.19 0.16 0.13 0.14 0.14 0.08 0.08 44 measurable indicator of the environment. For example, though vegetation influences landform by controll ing rates of erosion, and soi l influences vegetation through the development of material suitable for rooting and nutr i t ion, the degree of both is reflected by the dissolved chemical load of the draining waters. In this particular study, f ive landforms were defined and de-scribed in terms of s o i l , vegetation and water chemistry parameters. The study area is schematically presented as a cross-sectional diagram in Figure 1. The developed soi ls are also f iguratively drawn in an attempt to show the catenary sequence in terms of so i l genesis. Elevation above sea level is given by a scale on the right side of the diagram. The f i r s t landform, the alpine meadow unit , was dist inct in terms of surface form and geologic substratum. Topographically, the area was f l a t to very gently sloping. Poor internal drainage and climatic factors affecting biological decomposition resulted in the buildup of organic material on the soi l which was frozen at approximately 30 cm. Chemical data (Table 1) indicated the so i l is extremely to very strongly acid. The values tend to be low at the surface and increase with depth. Organic matter decreased with depth and is in good agree-ment with cation exchange capacity values which also decreased with depth. The decrease in C/N ratios with depth is indicative of increased decomposition perhaps being a function of increased microbial act iv i ty with depth. The exchangeable cations in order of abundance are Ca, Mg, Na and K, considered typical for this soi l type. Relatively high levels of total N are indicative of a relat ively high level of decomposition, reflecting warm soi l temperatures during the summer 45 months. In this sense, elevation and landform have tended to modify the micro-climate and keep this area windswept and relat ively clear of snow. The geographical occurrence of this landform as a receiving si te for moisture from surrounding slopes and i ts close proximity to standing water have also determined the expression of this landform in terms of vegetation and s o i l s . Shallow depth to bedrock had resulted in impeding water flow through the so i l material which was also reflected by the presence of a rich herb layer of vegetation and the development of an organic s o i l . The stone stripe and stone ring area occurring downslope from the alpine weadow unit was another dist inct ive landform in terms of surface form as modified by climate. Ground frost had caused mixing and convoluting of the sur f i c ia l material and hence the so i l horizons. Reference to Table 1 for the four soi ls sampled on this landform indicate that there were differences between the soi ls developed under the stone rings and the soi ls developed under the depressions between the stone rings. The Ah horizon developed under the stone ring showed a s igni f icant ly lower organic matter content (2.6%) compared with the Ah horizons developed in the areas between the stone rings (15.1%). The interaction of elevation (climate) and landform has resulted in a more intensive level of biological act iv i ty in the area between the stone rings as well as greater cryoturbation under the stone rings causing a considerable movement of mineral material into this zone. The gently undulating form of the landscape in this area and the elevation have caused windswept conditions to prevail resulting in very cold soi ls during the winter and a substantial difference between LANDFORMS I. Alpine Meadow EE. Stone Stripe and Stone Ring m. Colluvial Slope BL. Coalescing Fan 3E. Polygonal Bog Cryic Fibrisol Orthic Gleysol CAP MOUNTAIN Lithic Alpine Eufric Brunisol Alpine Eutric Brunisol ELEVATION ABOVE SEA LEVEL (meters) r 1200 1100 I- 1000 900 800 700 600 500 Figure 1. Schematic representation of a toposequence of soils and the relationships to the landform units in the Wrigley area, N.W.T. summer and winter soi l temperatures. The geologic material comprising the substratum, having a relatively loose structure and a clay loam texture, provides an environment conducive for cryoturbic processes to act. The sparse amount of vegetation is indicative of an area of disturbance and also maintains the natural regime by not providing an insulating layer [F l int , 1963]. For similar reasons both the Ah and Bml horizons under the stone ring area had a considerably lower nitrogen level (0.13% and 0.07% respectively) relative to the same horizons developed under the area between the stone rings (0.47% and 0.37% respectively). Just as the depth of the 0b horizons were approximately 5 to 10 cm below the surface of the depressions, the Bml horizon was at approximately the same depth. A depth of approximately 15 cm is suggested for the maximum depth of extensive cryoturbation. Particle size analysis i l lustrated that these soi ls had relatively high s i l t and clay contents. Frost action was considered to be largely responsible for this heterogenity as reported for other soi ls in similar environments [Sneddon, et al_., 1972]. Sites 1, 2 and 4 have a lower s i l t content in the surface mineral horizon in comparison to the other mineral horizons whereas the converse is true for site 3 (15.2%, 25.5% and 23.7% for sites 1, 2 and 4 respectively and 35.5% for s i te 3). This was considered to be the result of sites 1, 2 and 4 being more windswept causing removal of fines from the surface while site 3 is located on a stone stripe area and is thus protected from the wind. Evidence of clay translocation at s i te 3 is i l lustrated by the distribution of clay in the profi le although no clay skins were observed on f i e ld examination. Since this material is directly 48 beneath the stone stripe i t is considered to be subject to the greatest amount of frost penetration producing the deepest weathering. Also, vertical sorting is pronounced in this zone resulting in a downward migration of fine material. Percent organic matter tended to decrease with depth at a l l s i tes . Although no indication was given that organic matter translocation had taken place, the cation exchange capacity values and carbon to nitrogen ratios indicated that organic matter may become more humified with depth. In this region of northern Canada, extremely low temperatures prevailing for most of the year result in the accumulation of organic material due to the low level of microbial act iv i ty . Cation exchange capacity decreased with depth as did total nitrogen content and appeared not as much a function of clay distr ibution as organic matter content. The increase in the Ob horizon for s i te 2 was a result of the buried organic material incorporated into the solum by cryoturbic processes. The pH values show the soi ls are s l ight ly acid to neutral, inhibit ing the mobil iz-ation of Fe and A l . This observation is supported by the data for acid ammonium oxalate extrable Fe and Al which, although i l lus t ra t ing generally more Fe present than A l , indicate no horizons of sesquioxide accumulation are present. The third unit of study occurred downslope from the stone stripe area on much steeper terrain (25% to 30%). The landform, called the col luv ia l slope area, was typif ied by coarse textured material , generally rocky at the surface with many protrusions of bedrock outcrops. The same general chemical trends held for this so i l in comparison with the stone stripe area in terms of decreasing organic 49 matter and nitrogen contents with depth. The main differences stemmed from the fact that the sur f ic ia l material in this area is moving down-slope almost continuously as indicated by the presence of the Ahb horizon. Organic material has become incorporated into this pedon by these so l i f luct ion and gravitational processes. This has resulted in a relat ively higher organic matter content (4.7%) and C:N ratio (33.6) for the soi l parent material (C horizon) as compared to the stone ring area (approximately 2% and 14.0 respectively). Also, physical analyses i l lust rated a coarser texture as well as a higher coarse fragment content in comparison to the stone ring unit. Vegetation has provided l i t t l e influence on the s tab i l i t y of the material as reflected by the sparse occurrence of herbs and lichens. Pedogenic processes in terms of gravitational and physical weathering acting on the geologic material in this environment have produced the expression of this landform and hence determined the makeup of the ecosystem.. The condition of the geologic substratum in terms of i t s coarse texture and convoluted nature and the sparse vegetation are indicative of the ins tab i l i t y of this area. The coalescing fan landform, occurred at approximately the 800 m level and extended from the foot of the slope for a distance of approximately one kilometer. The landform was characterized by a vast expanse of krummholz l ife-forms consisting mainly of Picea glauca and various herbs. Due to the nature of the sur f i c ia l material comprising this landform, i t is believed that the area is under constant movement due to gravitational and so l i f luct ion processes. Groundwater appear to be constantly flowing through this material during the frost free months 50 w i t h t h e r e s u l t a n t p o o r l y d r a i n e d c o n d i t i o n s and t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f a G l e y s o l i c o r d e r f o r t h e dominant s o i l . P a r t i c l e s i z e a n a l y s i s i l l u s t r a t e d t h e c o a r s e t e x t u r e o f t h e s e s o i l s w i t h l a r g e amounts o f sand b e i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c . Low l e v e l s o f c l a y and s i l t i n t h e solum were c o n s i d e r e d i n d i c a t i v e o f i n t e r n a l w a t e r movement removing f i n e m a t e r i a l from t h e s o i l . C o n s t a n t movement o f t h e g e o l o g i c m a t e r i a l had t e n d e d t o m a i n t a i n a p e d o g e n i c a l l y y o u t h f u l s o i l . T h e r e was no e v i d e n c e o f e x t e n s i v e c l a y t r a n s l o c a t i o n p r o v i d e d by f i e l d i n s p e c t i o n o r l a b o r a t o r y a n a l y s i s . B a s i c a l l y , s i m i l a r t r e n d s were p r e s e n t f o r t h i s s o i l i n c o m p a r i s o n t o t h e s t o r e s t r i p e a r e a and the c o l l u v i a l s l o p e a r e a . O r g a n i c m a t t e r c o n t e n t tended t o d e c r e a s e w i t h d e p t h as d i d t o t a l N and c a t i o n exchange c a p a c i t y . C h e m i c a l l y , t h e main d i f f e r e n c e between t h i s l a n d f o r m and t h e c o l l u v i a l s l o p e a r e a and s t o n e s t r i p e a r e a was t h e h i g h e r l e v e l o f h u m i f i c a t i o n i n d i c a t e d f o r t h e LFH h o r i z o n . O r g a n i c m a t t e r , t o t a l N and c a t i o n exchange c a p a c i t y v a l u e s i n d i c a t e d a h i g h e r l e v e l o f m i c r o b i a l d e c o m p o s i t i o n f o r t h e s u r f a c e l a y e r o f o r g a n i c m a t e r i a l . T h i s s i t u a t i o n i s c o n s i d e r e d t o be r e s u l t a n t from t h e p o s i t i o n o f t h i s l a n d f o r m on the l a n d s c a p e . Not o n l y i s t h e l a n d f o r m a t a l o w e r e l e v a t i o n t h a n t h o s e i n t h e p r e c e d i n g d i s c u s s i o n and hence n o t s u b j e c t t o as h a r s h a c l i m a t e but snow a c c u m u l a t i o n i s c o n s i d e r e d t o be l a r g e due t o d r i f t s b l o w i n g o f f nearby mountains and s l o p e s . Such a s i t u a t i o n m a i n t a i n s s o i l t e m p e r a t u r e s a t a l e v e l h i g h e r than t h e p r e v a i l i n g a i r t e m p e r a t u r e d u r i n g t h e w i n t e r months by p r o v i d i n g an i n s u l a t i n g l a y e r . T h i s l a n d f o r m p r o v i d e d an e x c e l l e n t example f o r t h e s t a t e m e n t g i v e n i n t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n ; t h a t v e g e t a t i o n and s o i l s a r e u s e f u l as i n d i c a t o r s o f a p a r t i c u l a r e n v i r o n -ment and not n e c e s s a r i l y d e f i n e r s o f i t . E c o l o g i c a l l y , t h i s l a n d f o r m 51 closely approximates the schneetalchen semi-terrestr ial habitat commonly found in alpine and subalpine areas of more southern latitudes characterized by soi l and vegetation development l imited by late snow-l i e and a cold usually water saturated root environment [Krajina and Brooke, 1970]. The f i f t h landform designated on this transect consisted of an extensive lichen covered bog containing cracks and fissures delineating a polygonal structure to the surface. Polygonal ground is defined as ground with a polygonal surface pattern caused by the subsidence of the surface over ground-ice arranged in a polygonal network [Black, 1952]. As in the stone stripe landform, climate is operating in conjunction with a unique array of substrate and surface characteristics [Britton, 1957]. It is the distr ibution of re l ie f of this landform that causes differences in distr ibution of ground water and hence vegetative types. Similar to the alpine meadow area an organic so i l has developed on this landform. Due to cl imatic and vegetative differences, the so i l material is not as well decomposed as that of the alpine meadow area. Levels of total M are lower in this soi l due to decreased microbial ac t i v i t y . Lower total cation exchange capacity and levels of exchangeable cations also ref lect the nature of the environment. The pH measurements indicated more acidic conditions for this so i l in relation to the soi l developed on the alpine meadow landform. Waksman and Stevens  i l lust rated that acidity has an over-riding influence on the chemical composition of peat due to i ts effect on vegetation and the rates and products of decomposition. For example, highly acidic sites indicated slow decomposition rates, low levels of microorganism 52 act iv i t ies and the presence of certain celluloses and hemicelluloses. Less acidic sites normally show a higher rate of decomposition of cellulose and hemicellulose with an accumulation of l i g n i n , proteins and minerals [Walmsley, 1973]. Mineralogical Analyses The results of selected mineralogical analyses are presented in Table 2. The clay mineralogy of the so i l samples demonstrated that vermiculite was the dominant clay mineral found in the stone stripe landform whereas i l l i t e was dominant in the coalescing fan landform. Kaolinite was the next most s ignif icant clay mineral. Montmorillonite and chlor i te were found only sporadically and in less abundance than the previously mentioned clay minerals. This was indicative of l i t t l e active weathering and a subdued pedogenic regime. Interstrat i f ied minerals such as v e r m i c u l i t e - i l l i t e occurring in the material on the stone stripe landform, although in low abundance, indicate s l ight ly more weathering in relation to the other landforms, conceivably the result of cryic processes. Fine grained quartz appeared in a l l samples. In general, the clay minerals are l i t t l e weathered and appear to ref lect the original geologic material from which the deposits have been derived. TABLE 2 X-Ray I d e n t i f i c a t i o n of Minerals Present i n the Clay Fraction L a n d f o r m Stone s t r i p e and, stone r i n " area Horizon Bml Bm2 C Depth (cm) 12-22 22-47 47+ Dominant"Minerals i n Clay Fraction-Vm Kt It Qtz Vm-It Vm Kt I t Mt Cht Qtz Vm-It Vm Kt I t Cht Qtz Vm-It C o l l u v i a l slope area Bm C 8-18 18+ It Kt Qtz Vm It Kt Qtz Coalescing fan area Bg 20-51 39+ It Kt Qt< It Kt Qt2 Listed i n decreasing order of abundance Cht = Chlorite It = I l l i t e Kt = Ka o l i n i t c Mt = Montmorillonite Vm = Vermiculite Qtz = Quartz 5 4 Water Chemical Analyses The chemical water data presented in Table 3 indicated a higher dissolved chemical load for the creek flowing into the coalescing fan area as compared to the other sampling s i tes . A signif icant increase in dissolved Ca, Mg and K i l lust rated the use of water chemistry information as an ecological indicator. The increase in dissolved load is due in part to the f iner grain size of the materials in the coalescing fan area as well as the greater erosive capacity of the water as i t flows down the slope. In this sense, a particular terrain type (landform and soi ls ) is characterized. Differences in bedrock may also be indicated by the data. In terms of so i l genesis, the water chemistry data i l lust rated that the re lat ively high exchangeable Ca in a l l horizons of the so i l developed on the coalescing fan landform is reflected by the re lat ively high amount of dissolved Ca in the stream water in this area. Values of approximately 62.0 me/100 gm exchangeable Ca were measured for the so i l parent material in this area and 10.4 ppm dissolved Ca were measured for the creek flowing into and through the area. This is in comparison to values of 13.1 me/100 gm exchangeable Ca for the parent material of the dominant soi l developed on the col luv ia l slope landform and 3.1 ppm dissolved Ca in the alpine lake at the top of Cap Mountain. A higher value of dissolved oxygen for the coalescing fan stream as compared with the alpine lake and lake near the polygonal bog area was considered typical due to the mixing and s t i r r ing of the stream water as i t flows down slope. The water chemical data also indicated that steady state conditions existed in the alpine lake and the lake near the polygonal TABLE 3 R e s u l t s of Water Chemical A n a l y s i s L o c a t i o n pH" D i s s o l v e d Ca* Mg** Na* K** C l * F* Oxygen* — p p m Ncy A l p i n e Lake ( ta rn ) 8 . 1 Creek f l o w i n g i n t o fan a rea 7 .8 Lake; peat polygon a rea 8 . 0 P o l y g o n a l Bog 5 .7 7 .5 10 .6 8 . 1 1.7 3 . 1 1.4 10.4 5 . 1 0 . 1 0 .2 1.3 0 .0 0 .2 0 . 5 1.4 0 .6 3 .5 1 .3 0 . 1 0 . 1 1.0 0 .0 3 .6 0 . 5 0 .2 0 .4 2.6 0 .0 3 .0 1 . 1 2 .8 2 .6 * i_n s i tu analysis ** laboratory analysis bog area. Values obtained for the dissolved chemical load were quite similar for these two bodies of standing water. As well'as the water flowing in the creek through the coalescing fan area, water chemical analysis indicated a non-steady state environment for the polygonal bog landform. Water samples examined in the peat polygon area i t se l f were relatively low in dissolved material. Quite acidic conditions (pH 5.7) are typical of bog landforms in this environment,>due in large part to microbial act iv i ty and an essentially closed environment [Walmsley and Lavkulich, 1973]. Values for dissolved oxygen (1.7 ppm02)were also indicative of a closed environment, the bog receiving most of i ts water in the form of precipitation. Analysis for the parameters pH, dissolved oxygen, Ca, Na, C l , F and NG*3 were performed by in situ techniques whereas the parameters Mg and Kwere analyzed for in the laboratory using, an atomic absorption spectrophotometer on water samples collected in the f i e l d . A duplicate analysis for Ca and Na performed on the collected samples using atomic absorption techniques provided results compatable with the in situ specific ion electrode analysis. 57 CONCLUSIONS The objective of this study was to i l lus t ra te the re lat ion-ships between s o i l , vegetation, landform and water chemistry in the intermittent permafrost zone of the Boreal Forest. Information presented on soi l chemical and physical characteristics indicated considerable cryoturbation in the stone stripe area. Quite sparse or areas often barren of vegetation i l lustrated considerable downslope movement of material. In the coalescing fan landform, water chemistry data indicated an increase in dissolved chemical load, due to an increase in slope as well as a decrease in the grain size of the material. Clay mineral analyses also indicated the somewhat different pedogenic regimes occurring on each of these landforms f i r s t l y by a decrease in the abundance and distr ibution of clay minerals from the stone stripe to the coalescing fan area and secondly by a difference in the kind of clay minerals present. Just as water chemistry information indicated areas affected by harsh conditions produced, for example, by slope or climate, mineral-ogical analyses also identif ied such areas through an indication of the kind and amount of clay minerals present. Both so i l and vegetation provided useful indicators of the polygonal bog environment. The developed s o i l , due to i ts frozen nature, is undecomposed relative to the organic soi l in the alpine landform. As an example, the dense lichen cover is often considered useful as an indicator of the presence of permafrost [Korpijaakko and Radforth, 1966] in peatlands. Brown  however, disagreed with this concept, as he points out, lichens proliferate in 58 many peat landforms where no permafrost exists as well as being absent from many areas where permafrost occurs. This contradiction points to the necessity of interpreting a l l three factors; s o i l , vegetation and landform to fac i l i ta te a thorough understanding of the ecosystem. Water chemical data has also proven beneficial as an environmental indicator by several examples. An indication is given of steady state conditions by both the alpine lake and polygonal bog lake sample s i tes. The increased chemical load in the coalescing fan creek i l lustrates the greater competency of the water as well as greater mixing and st i r r ing as indicated by the higher dissolved oxygen concentration. Water chemical analysis also characterizes the polygonal bog landform by indicating the increased acidity and the oxygen concentration of the water, typical of a part ia l ly closed environment in this region. In general, an indication is given of the value of coupling information on s o i l , landform, vegetation and water chemical relat ion-ships in order to better understand the complex interactions in each environment. It is suggested that a thorough analysis of these four parameters, in relation to each other, wi l l provide a working framework for any land use or management of a particular environment. 59 REFERENCES ALLISON, L . E . , W.B. BOLLEN and C D . MOODIE. 1965. Total carbon. In C A . Black, ed. Methods of s o i l a n a l y s i s . Agronomy 9, Part 2, Amer. Soc. Agron. , Madison, Wisconsin, pp. 1346-1366. BLACK, R.F. 1952. Polygonal patterns and ground condit ions from a e r i a l photographs. Photogrammetric Eng. , 18: 123-124. BREMNER, J . M . 1965. Total n i t rogen. In_ C A . B lack, ed. Methods of s o i l a n a l y s i s . Agronomy 9, Part 2, Amer. Soc. Agron. , Madison, Wisconsin, pp. 1149-1178. BRITTON, M.E. 1957. Vegetation of the a r c t i c tundra. In H.P. Hansen, ed. A r c t i c b io logy , Oregon State Univ. Press , pp. 67-130. BROWN, R . J .E . 1968. Occurrence of permafrost in Canadian peat-lands. J_n Claude Laf leur and Joyanne B u t l e r , eds. Proc. Third Int. Peat Congress, Quebec, Canada. Publ . By E.M. and R. and N.R.C. of Canada. DAY, P.R. 1950. Physical basis of p a r t i c l e s i ze analys is by the hydrometer method. So i l Science 70: 363-374. 60 7. FLINT, P . .F . 1963. Glacial and pleistocene geology. John Wiley and Sons, Inc. 553 p 8. JACKSON, M.L. 1956. Soil chemical analysis, advanced coarse. Pub. by author, Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, 991 p. 9. JACKSON, M.L. 1964. Soil clay mineralogical analysis. ]_n C.I. Rich and G.W. Kunze, eds. Soil clay mineralogy. Univ. of North Carolina Press, Chapel H i l l . 350 p. 10. KORPIJAAKO, E. and N.W. RADFORTH. 1966. Aerial photographic interpretation of muskeg conditions at the southern l imi t of permafrost. Proc. Eleventh Muskeg Res. Conf. N.R.C. Canada, Assoc. Comm. on Geotech. Res., Tech. Mem. 87: 142-151. 11. KRAJINA, V.S. and R.C. BROOKE (eds.) 1970. Ecology of Western North America. Vol. 2, Nos. 1 and 2. Dept. of Botany, Univ. of Br i t ish Columbia. 349 p. 12. McKEAGUE, J .A. and J .H. DAY. 1966. Dithionite and oxalate extractable iron and aluminum as aids in differentiat ing various classes of s o i l s . Can. J . Soil Science 46: 13-22. 61 13. SNEDDON, J . I . , L.M. LAVKULICH and L. FARSTAD. 1972. The morph-olog y and genesis o f some a l p i n e s o i l s i n B r i t i s h Columbia, Canada. I: Morphology, c l a s s i f i c a t i o n and ge n e s i s . S o i l S c i . Soc. Amer. Proc. 6: 96-100. 14. WAKSMAN, S.A. and K.R. STEVENS. 1929. S o i l S c i ence 26: 113. 15. WALMSLEY, M.E. and L.M. LAVKULICH. 1973. In s i t u measurement o f d i s s o l v e d m a t e r i a l s as an i n d i c a t o r o f o r g a n i c t e r r a i n t ype. Can. J . S o i l S c i e n c e 53: 231-236. 16. WALMSLEY, M.E. 1973. P h y s i c a l and chemical p r o p e r t i e s o f muskeg. In C.O. Brawner, ed. Muskeg and the environment. Muskeg Research I n s t i t u t e o f Canada ( i n p r e s s ) . 18. WHITTIG, L.D. 1965. X-ray d i f f r a c t i o n techniques f o r mineral i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and m i n e r a l o g i c a l composition, I_n C.S. Black ed., Methods o f s o i l a n a l y s i s , P a r t 1. Agronomy 9: 671-698. 6 2 C H A P T E R 3 IN SITU MEASUREMENT OF DISSOLVED MATERIALS AS AN INDICATOR OF ORGANIC TERRAIN TYPE 63 ABSTRACT Portable equipment has been used to measure selected environ-mental parameters in s i tu A battery operated potentiometer used in conjunction with several specif ic ion electrodes, a platinum redox electrode and a combination pH electrode were used to obtain ion ac t i v i t y , pH and Eh measurements of natural systems. In addition, dissolved oxygen concentration was measured using an oxygen electrode and battery operated meter. Results from the analysis of several streams is presented to i l lus t ra te the application of the technique to f i e l d measurements of streams as an indicator of environmental disturbance. Information collected also allowed for the differentiation of different types of organic terrain based on the dissolved load of the saturated organic materials. The terrain type referred to as fen had a higher act iv i ty of Na, Cl and Ca, a higher pH value and a lower concentration of oxygen than the bog terrain type. These results are explained with reference to organic terrain morphology and the distr ibution of permafrost in the study area. i 64 INTRODUCTION In view o f the importance o f water i n every f a c e t of the p h y s i c a l environment, i t i s s u r p r i s i n g to note t h a t few a c c u r a t e and r e l i a b l e methods e x i s t f o r the i n s i t u measurement o f the d i s s o l v e d chemical l o a d o f water i n the n a t u r a l environment. Of t e n , water q u a l i t y s t u d i e s are e i t h e r not o r i e n t e d towards i n t e g r a t i o n with the n a t u r a l p h y s i c a l environmental parameters or the a n a l y s i s i s c a r r i e d out by sampling the water, with subsequent st o r a g e p r i o r to a n a l y s i s , with l i t t l e r e g a r d to the changes i n the c h e m i s t r y o f the sample d u r i n g the storage p r o c e s s . O f t e n , streams c a r r y more d i s s o l v e d matter than they do s o l i d p a r t i c l e s [Morisawa, 1968]. The p r o p o r t i o n s o f suspended and d i s s o l v e d loads depends i n p a r t upon the r e l a t i v e c o n t r i b u t i o n s o f groundwater and s u r f a c e r u n o f f to stream d i s c h a r g e . When the flow r e s u l t s p r i m a r i l y from groundwater f l o w , the c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f d i s s o l v e d m a t e r i a l i s g e n e r a l l y high. T h i s c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f d i s s o l v e d s a l t s i s u s u a l l y lower when s u r f a c e r u n o f f c o n t r i b u t e s most to stream flow. A l s o , the b i o l o g i c a l balance o f the stream w i l l a f f e c t the chemical balance. C e r t a i n d i s s o l v e d m a t e r i a l can be taken up by organisms t h a t l i v e i n the stream and be subsequently r e l e a s e d , o f t e n i n a d i f f e r e n t form, a t death. I t has been suggested t h a t the environmental f a c t o r s which determine the chemical composition o f r i v e r water are c l i m a t e , geology, topography, v e g e t a t i o n and time [Gorham, 1961]. As a r e l a t i v e l y mobile component o f nature, water responds 65 q u i c k l y to the i n f l u e n c e s o f the environment as can be a p p r e c i a t e d by r e l a t i v e l y r e c e n t i n t e r e s t s i n water q u a l i t y s t u d i e s as i n d i c a t o r s o f environmental q u a l i t y and p o l l u t i o n [ M c G r i f f , 1972]. S t u d i e s have recog n i z e d the f a c t t h a t water i s a f f e c t e d and e f f e c t s every p a r t o f the p h y s i c a l environment and i s thus a u s e f u l agent to monitor. Hence, i n some ar e a s , i t i s p o s s i b l e to use t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n to d e f i n e t e r r a i n u n i t s s i n c e the water w i l l have a d i s s o l v e d chemical l o a d t h a t i s a d i r e c t f u n c t i o n o f the type o f g e o l o g i c m a t e r i a l with which i t has come i n c o n t a c t . The o b j e c t i v e s o f t h i s study were to i l l u s t r a t e the use o f p o r t a b l e equipment and s p e c i f i c i o n e l e c t r o d e s as an a i d i n o b t a i n i n g water q u a l i t y measurements i n areas where c o s t l y m o n i t o r i n g equipment i s not j u s t i f i e d and a l s o to demonstrate the u s e f u l n e s s o f the approach i n r e l a t i n g water che m i s t r y to t e r r a i n and s o i l i n d i c e s . R e l a t i o n s h i p s between landform, s o i l , v e g e t a t i o n and water chemistry t h a t were i n v e s t i -gated i n Chapter I are f u r t h e r e l u c i d a t e d w i t h s p e c i f i c r e f e r e n c e to o r g a n i c landforms i n t h i s r e g i o n o f the Boreal F o r e s t . Organic t e r r a i n or muskeg covers e x t e n s i v e areas i n t h i s r e g i o n and hence an understanding and i t s makeup i s important i n terms o f i t s use c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . 66 MATERIALS AND METHODS The two areas o f study were i n the v i c i n i t y o f Watson Lake, Yukon T e r r i t o r y and F o r t Simpson, North West T e r r i t o r i e s . S o i l s i n the Watson Lake area are developed e s s e n t i a l l y from coarse t e x t u r e d g l a c i a l f l u v i a l outwash and g l a c i a l t i l l m a t e r i a l which were d e r i v e d from a v a r i e t y o f bedrock m a t e r i a l s . The streams d r a i n i n g t h i s a r e a , t h e r e f o r e , r e f l e c t v a r i a b l e g e o l o g i c and s o i l - l a n d f o r m c o n d i t i o n s . In the F o r t Simpson a r e a , the s o i l s s t u d i e d were e x c l u s i v e l y o r g a n i c s . The u n d e r l y i n g mineral m a t e r i a l was g e n e r a l l y medium to f i n e t e x t u r e d g l a c i a l t i l l d e p o s i t s . In some ar e a s , a s h a l l o w l a y e r o f l a c u s t r i n e m a t e r i a l covered the g l a c i a l t i l l . R e s u l t s o f the l a b o r a t o r y a n a l y s i s o f two o r g a n i c s o i l s are given i n Table 1. A n a l y t i c a l Methods The potentiometer used i n c o n j u n c t i o n with the s p e c i f i c i o n e l e c t r o d e s was the Orion Model 407 I o n a l y z e r (Orion Research Inc., Mass.). It i s a t r a n s i s t o r i z e d , b a t t e r y operated potentiometer which may be used with monovalent o r d i v a l e n t c a t i o n or anion e l e c t r o d e s and w i t h pH and redox e l e c t r o d e s . A s p e c i a l s c a l e permits d i r e c t readout o f i o n c o n c e n t r a t i o n s i n s e v e r a l c o n c e n t r a t i o n u n i t s . The s p e c i f i c i o n e l e c t r o d e s employed were s o l i d s t a t e C l , Na and F i o n e l e c t r o d e s and l i q u i d j u n c t i o n Ca and N0^ ion e l e c t r o d e s . Redox measurements were taken with a combin-a t i o n platinum e l e c t r o d e using s a t u r a t e d KCl as the r e f e r e n c e f i l l i n g 67 solution. A combination pH electrode employing saturated KCl as the reference f i l l i n g solution was used for the measurement of hydrogen ion act iv i ty . Two standard solutions of each ion measured that encompassed the range of act iv i ty values expected, were used to standardize the potentiometer to allow direct readout of the act iv i ty value on the logarithmic scale. These standard solutions v/ere contained in plast ic bottles and replaced every few days with a fresh portion to decrease the chance of contamination and deterioration. Great care was employed in rinsing the electrode with d i s t i l l e d water and wiping dry prior to placing i t in the standard solutions. Buffer solutions of a certain pH value were also employed to standardize the meter for pH determinations. These solutions were prepared fresh every few days from the dry chemical to ensure a re l iable standard. A single junction reference electrode (Orion Model 90-01) was used with the N0^ and Ca specif ic electrodes. ' Saturated KCl was used as the f i l l i n g solution. The sleeve-type construction of this electrode eliminates the problems associated with the f r i t and fibre-type junctions, but does not eliminate the l iquid junction potential . A double junction (Orion Model 90-02) reference electrode was used with the Cl electrode to minimize the l iqu id junction potential and avoid sample contamination. The choice of reference electrode, as well as a sensitive potentiometer, is of prime importance in obtaining accuracy with specif ic ion electrodes. The response of specif ic ion electrodes is Nernstian in nature and, therefore, s imilar in operation to pH electrodes. Since some 68 specific ion electrodes wi l l respond to a certain extent to ions other than the one i t was designed to measure, there is an additive term in the normal Nernst equation. Equation  is the modified form of the Nernst equation. E = E a - F T 1 ^ A x + K y ( A / ^ y ] (1) x where E = the measured total potential of the system E = the portion of the total potential due to the choice a of the reference electrode and internal solution R = universal gas constant (8.314 joule °K~ )^ T = temperature in degrees absolute n = number of electrons transferred in half-reaction of x ion to be measured F = Faraday constant (9.65 x 10^ coulomb mole )^ A x = act iv i ty of the ion to be measured Ky = select iv i ty constant for the interfering ion A y = act iv i ty of the interfering ion n y = number of electrons transferred in half-reaction of interfering ion. This additive term is made up of three parameters, namely the charge on the interfering ion, the act iv i ty of the interfering ion and the select iv i ty constant for the interfering ion. Selectivity constants are usually determined by the manufacturer of the electrode. Normally, selectively constant values are given for several species. 69 By using a ratio of this additive term to the term for the act iv i ty of the ion one wishes to measure, a percentage interference on percentage error can be defined. This allows a better understanding of the accuracy of the measurement i f the act iv i ty levels of the highly interfer -ing ions are known [Mack and Sanderson, 1970]. Similar to the specif ic ion meter is the Y .S . I . Model 54 oxygen meter (Yellow Springs Instrument Co. Inc., Ohio). This meter, in conjunction with an oxygen electrode is capable of determining the dissolved oxygen concentration of l iquids within the range of 0.0 to 20.0 ppm. The technique employed by the electrode is polarography or, more spec i f i ca l l y , voltammetry. Dissolved oxygen is reduced at the polarized electrode and the meter is designed to indicate the concentra-tion of dissolved oxygen in parts per mi l l i on . Standardization is accomplished by reference to a table of oxygen concentrations in the atmosphere at a particular barometric pressure and at a certain tempera-ture. For this purpose, a sensitive barometer is required. Temperature measurement is achieved with a temperature probe that is an integral part of the electrode. The meter has a scale that permits temperature readout. The maximum error is stated by the manufacturer to be ± 0.59 ppm 0 2 at 20°C. In the laboratory analysis of the organic soi ls (Table 1), the determination of pH was carried out in 1:4 organic material-water and in 1:8 organic material 0.01M CaCl 2 s lu r r ies . Organic matter was estimated by determination of total carbon with a Leco induction furnace and carbon analyzer [All ison et aj_., 1965]. Total nitrogen was determined by Kjeldahl methods [Bremner, 1965]. Cation exchange capacity and 70 exchangeable c a t i o n s were determined by n e u t r a l , normal NH^OAc l e a c h i n g , f o l l o w e d by m i c r o - K j e l d a h l d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f absorbed ammonium and atomic a b s o r p t i o n s p e c t r o p h o t o m e t r y procedures f o r exchangeable c a t i o n s , as developed i n the U.B.C. Department o f S o i l Science l a b o r a t o r y . F i e l d A p p l i c a t i o n Due to the remoteness o f the study s i t e s , small a i r c r a f t were used e x c l u s i v e l y to achieve access to the a r e a s . With t h i s type o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , a p r o t e c t i v e d e v i c e f o r the instruments i s r e q u i r e d t h a t i s both convenient f o r c a r r y i n g the equipment and s t u r d y enough to w i t h -stand repeated shock. A r i g i d box, mounted on a packboard frame proved to be reasonably s a t i s f a c t o r y f o r t h i s purpose. Great care must be e x e r c i s e d when using t h i s type of equipment i n the f i e l d . The meters must not be j a r r e d too s e v e r e l y or exposed to high-humidity f o r long p e r i o d s o f time. None o f the e l e c t r o d e s should be f o r c e d i n t o mineral s o i l o r have t h e i r membrance touched by any rough s u r f a c e . P r e c a u t i o n s t h a t may become l a x i n the l a b o r a t o r y must be r i g i d l y f o l l o w e d i n the f i e l d . i TABLE 1 S e l e c t e d Chemical P r o p e r t i e s o f Two Organic S o i l s Exchangeable Cations PH S o i l Horizon Depth H 90 C a C l 9 O.M. N Ca Mg Na K C.E.C. 6 L % % me/lOOg Of, 0 - 7.5 4.0 3.5 75.92 0.89 25.00 5.38 0.18 1.50 118.95 C r y i c F i b r i s o l 0 f 2 7.5 - 32.5 4.1 3.5 78.23 1.40 28.38 5.63 0.24 0.50 158.94 °z 0m1 0 - 15.0 6.5 6.3 65.73 1.88 81.25 34.00 5.50 0.50 166.27 £ r y ! c . 0m o 15.0 - 30.0 5.5 5.1 77.56 1.46 42.50 19.25 1.50 2.63 93.30 Mesisol 2 0 z 72 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Results of the in situ analysis in the Watson Lake area (Table 2) indicate that with the exception of a few minor differences 5 the six streams studied have essentially the same chemical status with respect to the parameters analyzed. The values obtained correspond with values obtained previously by other methods in different parts of North America [Morisawa, 1968]. Ca act i v i t ies ranged from 2.4 ppm to 22.2 ppm and Na act i v i t ies from 1.0 to 2.3 ppm. Oxygen concentrations of 10.2 ppm to 10.6 ppm and Eh values of 256.4 mV to 316.4 mV were found. The minor chemical differences among these rivers may be attributed to the fact that each is located in a s l ight ly different environment. For example, the amount of oxygen dissolved in water is a function of the temperature of the water and the barometric pressure at the time of measurement. Hence, the concentrations may change s l ight ly from river to r iver s t r i c t l y because of climatic differences. Values for the parameters above and below the mining operation indicate that there is a substantial change in the chemical status of the r iver . The change from an oxidizing to a reducing state may be of extreme importance. Not only may aquatic l i f e be altered but any engineering application, such as bridge or pipeline construction, could be adversely affected. The increase in F act iv i ty below the mining operation i l lust rates that the chemical analysis of water can be used as an indicator of terrain disturbance. Mainly because of differences associated with respect to permafrost, there has arisen a need for a more s t r i c t definit ion as Table 2. Chemical composition of some river waters in the Watson Lake area, Yukon Territory Location Ca + + Cl" N03" F~ Na+ °2 Eh* - mV PP m Little Rancheria 11.2 1.8 1.3 5.5 2.3 10.4 286.4 Big Creek 22.2 1.3 - 2.3 1.5 10.4 256.4 Canyon Creek 4.8 1.7 - 0.7 1.0 10.3 256.4 Upper Rancheria 4.0 2.5 1.4 ' 1.7 1.1 10.1 266.4 Swift River 7.4 1.6 - 2.0 1.3 10.2 316.4 Seagull River 2.4 6.1 1.5 2.1 1.1 10.6 266.4 Above Mining Operation 10.6 1.4 1.6 1.0 0.5 11.1 296.4 Below Mining Operation 12.6 3.3 1.7 5.2 1.6 10.7 156.4 measured reference electrode 'reference electrode = 2 4 6 , 4 m V 74 well as a better understanding of the different segments that make up extensive areas of organic s o i l s . Figure 1 i l lust rates the relationship of some organic soi ls in Northern Canada. These organic terrain types may be divided into two parts, namely bog [Drury, 1956] and fen [Sjors, 1963]. The fen is open to the inflow of mineral r ich water from rivers and ground water, while the bog is enclosed by a peat plateau [Radforth, 1955]. The peat plateau is essential ly composed of frozen peat which restr icts the inflow of groundwater and l imits the bog to precipitation as a source of water. The spatial relationship between the bog and peat plateau "as viewed from the ground is presented in Figure 2. An oblique photograph taken from an a i rcraf t of a peat plateau area that had been part ia l ly burnt is presented in Figure 3. The bogs appear as l ighter blotches within the reddish peat plateau matrix. Figure 4 i l lust rates a fen typical of the region around Fort Simpson. The effect of groundwater flowing through the area is to produce the darker network of l ines within the l ight green area. These drainage lines are dist inct because of the different vegetation supported by the mineral r ich ground water. Act iv i ty values for the measured ionic species (Table 3) i l lust rates the chemical differences between these two terrain types. There is a general increase in Na, C l , Ca and NO^ act iv i ty in the fen compared to the bog. The two transitions between these terrain types are also in l ine with the reasoning that the fen is minerotrophic (associated with water from mineral so i l ) while the bog is ombotrophic (less influenced by soi l water than by direct precipitation). Selected Figure 1. Schematic diagram'of a domir.antly organic landscape. 76 Figure 2: Bog area surrounded by peat plateau, 77 Figure 3: Oblique photograph of p a r t i a l l y burnt peat plateau area. 78 Figure 4: Fen area i l l u s t r a t i n g ground water flow along network of drainage l i n e s . 79 Table 3. In situ measurement of selected chemical parameters associated with organic terrain types Variable Bog Transitional Transitional Fen Bog Fen pH 3.8 4.4 4.8 6.5 Na+ (ppm) 0.6 9.7 14.5 47.7 N 03 ~ (ppm) 3.4 2.7 6.3 6.5 Cl~ (ppm) 4.1 3.4 19.0 70.0 Ca + + (ppm) 7.2 99.0 100.0 140.0 0 2 (ppm) 6.1 5.1 2.0 1.8 80 chemical properties (Table 1) of the soil developed on the bog (Cryic Fibrisol) and on the fen (Cryic Mesisol) also indicate the effect of groundwater on these two terrain types. Pictorial examples of a Cryic Fibrisol and a Cryic Mesisol typical of those sampled are given in Figures 5 and 6 respectively. The Cryic Mesisol has a higher pH value and N content. The exchangeable cations show a significant increase in the Cryic Mesisol compared to the Cryic Fibrisol. Higher pH values in the fen are also indicative of the inflow of nutrient rich waters. Although one might expect the dissolved oxygen concentration to be higher in the fen, i t is believed that due to the higher activities of nutrients in the fen water, vegetative species are supported that reduce the dissolved oxygen level. Since the oxygen level is low, bacteria that normally use dissolved oxygen will extract i t from a variety of compounds dissolved in the water. For example, the reduction of sulphate to hydrogen sulphide produces the required oxygen for the bacteria and also the characteristic 'rotten egg1 odor of the fen [Stanier et aj_., 1965]. The results obtained indicate the usefulness of specific ion electrodes and related portable equipment for the in situ measure-ment of dissolved materials in water and soil solution. The methodology has application in relating water chemistry to terrain type as well as an indicator of modification of the physical environment. With water samples and saturated soils the methodology appears to be precise and useful for characterization without the need for costly permanent installations. It is believed that this technique could be applied for the determination of selected dissolved parameters, such as oxygen, 81 Figure 5: Cryic Fibrisol soil, frozen at 30 cm. 82 F i g u r e 6 : C r y i c M e s i s o l s o i l , f r o z e n a t 25 cm. 83 in attempting to characterize soi l drainage, provided there exists enough groundwater at the sites for measurement. It must be emphasized, however, that certain problems exist in the application of this methodology to natural systems, such as so i l s . Problems associated with electrodes being coated by dissolved materials and the extent of interference from other substances require further study and elucidation. Problems associated with disruption of the natural equilibrium during the measurements of dissolved materials are s t i l l probable, especially with considerations of redox potential and dissolved oxygen. It is f e l t , nevertheless, that the methodology, i f carried out with care, yields more rel iable data than conventional methods of sampling and storage followed by laboratory analysis. Due to the climate in the area i t is believed that the sampling and analysis of water associated with these landforms in this area should be performed during July and early August in order to obtain near equilibrium conditions between the ground water, the atmosphere and the soi l materials after the spring thaw period. In order to understand the inherent var iabi l i ty associated with this analysis i t is believed a minimum of three and perhaps five years of sampling is required. 84 REFERENCES ALLISON, L .E. , BOLLEN, W.B. and MOODIE, C D . 1965. Total carbon. Agronomy No. 9, Part 2, pp. 1346-1366. In C A . Black (ed.). Methods of soi l analysis. Amer. Soc. of Agron., Madison, Wisconsin. BREMNER, J.M. 1965. Total nitrogen. Agronomy No. 9, Part 2, pp.- 11 1178. In CA . Black (ed.). Methods of so i l analysis. Amer. Soc. of Agron., Madison, Wisconsin. DRURY, W.H. 1956. Bog f la ts and physiographic processes in the Upper Koskokwin River Region, Alaska. The Gray Herbarium of Harvard Univ. Cambridge, Mass., No. CLXXVIII, 178 pp. GORHAM, E. 1961. Factors influencing supply of major ions to inland waters, with special reference to the atmosphere. Geol. Soc. Amer. B u l l . 72, pp. 795-840. MACK, A.R. and SANDERSON, R.B. 1970. Sensit iv i ty of the n i t rate -ion membrane electrode in various so i l extracts. Can. J . S o i l . Sc. 51: 95, 104. McGRIFF, JR. E.C 1972. The effects of urbanization on water quality. Jour. Environ. Quality Vol. 1, No. 1, pp. 86. 89. 85 MORISAWA, M. 1968. Streams, their dynamics and morphology. Earth and planetary science series. Mcgraw-Holl, New York. RADFORTH, N.W. 1955. Organic terrain organization from the a i r (altitudes less than 1000 feet) . Handbook No. 1, Canada Defence Res. Bel . DR 95: 1-49. SJORS, H. 1963. Bogs and fens on Attawapiskat River, northern Ontario. Nat. Mus. Canada B u l l . No. 136, pp. 45-133. STAINIER, R.Y., DAIDOROFF, M and ADELBERG, E.A. 1965. The microbial world. 2nd Ed. Prentice Hall Inc. , N.J. pp. 527-546. 86 SUMMARY In summary, methodology developed for the use of specif ic ion electrodes and other portable equipment for the determination of in situ water chemical parameters proved beneficial for the col lect ion of data i l lus t ra t ing the relationships between terrain types in terms of landform, so i l and vegetation and chemical water quality. The catenary sequence of landform, soi l and vegetative types in the Wrigley area, N.W.T. provided information on the characterization of the physical environment in the region of the Boreal Forest and provided a physical base upon which a discussion of the relationship between these parameters and the dissolved chemical load of the water associated with the various units can be integrated. Physical and chemical information presented for the soi ls sampled from each of the units indicated areas of extensive cryoturbation characteristic of northern climates as well as areas of i ns tab i l i t y , essentially devoid of vegetation. Special emphasis is placed on the strongly inf luent ial effect that landform, in conjunction with elevation, plays in shaping the structure and function of eco-systems. Vegetation, so i ls and water chemistry are i l lust rated as useful indicators of particular environments as they are a function of land-form as influenced by elevation in a particular cl imatic regime. The definit ion of the two organic terrain types, bog and fen, i l lust rates this principle by using water chemistry as a def init ive c r i t e r i a . S o i l , vegetation and organic terrain morphology also provide a basis for the dist inct ion of these two terrain types. Spec i f ica l ly , information is presented on the value of coupling data on s o i l , landform, vegetation and water chemical relationships in order to better understand the 87 complex interactions in each environment. It is suggested that an integrated analysis of these four parameters within a particular cl imatic region w i l l provide a working framework for any land use operation or management of a particular environment.
UBC Theses and Dissertations
Soil-water chemistry relationships and characterization of the physical environment : intermittent permafrost… Walmsley, Mark E 1973
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