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The subject matter of the ceiling decorations by Prospero Fontana and Taddeo Zuccaro in the casino of… Hunter, Jacqueline Ethel Burnett 1973

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THE SUBJECT MATTER OF THE CEILING DECORATIONS BY PROSPERO FONTANA AND TADDEO ZUCCARO IN THE CASINO OF THE VILLA GIULIA, ROME by J a c q u e l i n e Hunter B.A., U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto, 1949. A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n the Department of Pine A r t s We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the re q u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA December, 1973 In presenting t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r reference and study. I f u r t h e r agree that permission f o r extensive copying of t h i s thes f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s understood that copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my w r i t t e n permission. Department of Fine a r t s The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada i i ABSTRACT The V i l l a G i u l i a was erected between 1551 and 1555 as a suburban r e t r e a t . f o r Pope.Julius I I I . Designed by V i g n o l a , Ammannati, and V a s a r i i t was of great importance i n the development of mannerist a r c h i t e c t u r e . From contemp-orary d e s c r i p t i o n s i t i s known that the b u i l d i n g s were e l a b o r a t e l y ornamented wi t h frescoes and stuccoes. Few of these works sur v i v e but among those that do are the decora-t i o n s of the c e i l i n g s of the north and south rooms on the ground f l o o r of the Casino a t t r i b u t e d by J . A. Gere to Prospero Fontana and Taddeo Zuccaro. The concern of t h i s t h e s i s i s to uncover the subject matter.of these c e i l i n g decorations. Each of the c e i l i n g s i s d i v i d e d i n t o nine rectangles c o n t a i n i n g f i v e large.works i n stucco and four f r e s c o panels. These l a r g e r works are surrounded by frames f i l l e d w i th small f r e s c o and stucco ornaments. The subject matter of the major stuccoes has .been i d e n t i f i e d as, i n the north room: Fortuna s e i z e d by V i r t u e , the emblem of J u l i u s , and the four c l a s s i c a l v i r t u e s , Prudence, Temperance, J u s t i c e , and F o r t i t u d e ; and i n the south room: Fortuna overcome by V i r t u e , and the three C h r i s t i a n . v i r t u e s , F a i t h , Hope and C h a r i t y , and R e l i g i o n . The subject matter of the-fresco panels has been impossible.to determine. One panel i n the north room i s based.on P h i l o s t r a t u s ! . d e s c r i p t i o n of.the River of Andros. One panel. i n the • north ..room and ..one. i n the south are r e l a t e d i n composition~to.two.plaquettes by Guglielmo d e l l a Porta., but. t h e i r subj ects\'are .not the same. The subjects' of ,.some...of the small, stucco medallions have.been i d e n t i f i e d , but those, of the other minor decora-tions-and grotesques have. not.... .As the. major. panels are not i d e n t i f i e d i t cannot be .ascertained whether the minor decorations have any.. i c o n o l o g i c a l . s i g n i f i c a n c e . Much of the minor fresco.work appears.to be.purely ornamental i n keeping w i t h the t a s t e and custom, of the times:. The minor decoration of the south room i s r i c h e r . t h a n that of the north room le a d i n g to . the. surmise... that the a r t i s t had some freedom to improvise, t h i s .part of. the work. Though.the. subjects of the panels have not been i d e n t i f i e d . , they do . f i t . contemporary, ideas . of. the decora--t i o n appropriate .for. a . v i l l a . . . of. t h i s type. . The programme was probably devised by one.of.the,scholars or poets of whom J u l i u s was patron, and may.include .parodies of c l a s s i c a l myths. The search.for the. iconographical. and . i c o n o l o g i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e .of.these works in v o l v e d an examination of i v both p i c t o r i a l and t e x t u a l sources. The p i c t o r i a l sources included the photograph c o l l e c t i o n s of the Warburg and F r i c k a r t reference l i b r a r i e s , and many books and p e r i o d i c a l s c o n t a i n i n g reproductions of s i x t e e n t h century works. The t e x t u a l sources included s i x t e e n t h century works on c l a s s i c a l mythology, c l a s s i c a l l i t e r a t u r e known i n the s i x t e e n t h century, twentieth century works on mannerist iconography and iconology, and to a l e s s e r extent works on s i x t e e n t h century l i t e r a t u r e . As most of t h i s m a t e r i a l proved i r r e l e v a n t , i t has been omitted from the b i b l i o g r a p h y . V TABLE OF CONTENTS LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS v i CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION. 1 CHAPTER II MAJOR FRESCOES 10 CHAPTER I I I MAJOR STUCCOES. . . 4S CHAPTER IV MINOR DECORATIONS 60 CHAPTER V CONCLUSIONS , .81 NOTES 98 SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY 124 v i LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS PLATE PAGE I. North room, by Prospero Fontana (G-abinetto F o t o g r a f i c o Nazionale).. 131 I I . North room (Anderson). . . . . . . . . . . . 132 I I I . R iver ..of wine f r e s c o . . . . 133 IV. Fountain goddess fresco.. 134 V. . Bacchic f e a s t : f r e s c o .. . . 135 VI. Feast of gods w i t h r i v e r . N i l e f r e s c o . . . . . 136 V I I . South room, by Taddeo.Zuccaro. (Gabinetto F o t o g r a f i c o Nazionale) . . . . . . . . . . . . 137 V I I I . South room (Anderson). . . . . 138 IX. Diana and the bathers f r e s c o 139 X. Harpocrates and worshippers f r e s c o . .... . . 140 XI. Diana and the dancers f r e s c o . (Gabinetto F o t o g r a f i c o Nazionale) . . . . . . . . . . . 141 X I I . Diana.and the dancers, fresco.. (Anderson).. . . 142 X I I I . Banquet of . nymphs., w i t h amor i n i f r e s c o (Gabinetto F o t o g r a f i c o N a z i o n a l e ) . . .... . 143 XIV. Banquet of nymphs w i t h amorini f r e s c o (Anderson) . . 144 XV. C h a r i t y stucco . 145 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION 2 J u l i u s I I I , b u i l d e r of the V i l l a G i u l i a , was born Giovah Maria d e l C i o c c h i d e l Monte i n Rome on September 10, 1487, of a f a m i l y o r i g i n a l l y from Monte San Savino. A f t e r r e c e i v i n g a humanist education, he s t u d i e d law i n Perugia and Siena and then moved s t e a d i l y upward i n the church, from chamberlain to. J u l i u s I I , and Governor of Rome, u n t i l he was created C a r d i n a l by Paul I I I i n 1536. An expert on canon law and a reformer, he was appointed one of Paul's r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s to the Council of Trent. V a s a r i r e p o r t s that when he met J u l i u s outside Bologna on h i s way to the conclave J u l i u s s a i d that he was sure that he would be the next pope,-*- a confidence that seems hard to j u s t i f y l o o k i n g back on h i s adequate but not b r i l l i a n t career. His e l e c t i o n to the papacy d i d take place on February 8, 1550, but only a f t e r the longest conclave i n h i s t o r y when he was chosen to break the dead-lock between the French candidate, the C a r d i n a l of F e r r a r a , and the Imperial candidate, C a r d i n a l Pole. Once the t i a r a and the keys were h i s , J u l i u s began to d i s c l o s e the pagan, p l e a s u r e - l o v i n g , 'Renaissance' streak i n h i s character. His e l e c t i o n , and i t s a n n i v e r s a r i e s were celebrated w i t h f e s t i v i t i e s t a k i n g t h e i r motifs and decorations from the pagan c l a s s i c s and two of h i s medals bore the r e v e a l i n g mottoes H i l a r i t a s p o r i t i f i ' c i a and 3 H i l a r i t a s p u b l i c a . z He p a t r o n i z e d s c h o l a r s , humanists, and poets, music and the t h e a t r e . He was a f r i e n d to Michelangelo whose L i f e Condivi dedicated to him. Though thoroughly i n f e c t e d w i t h the b u i l d i n g disease, the s t a t e of the papal c o f f e r s prevented h i s becoming one of the great b u i l d i n g popes. C o o l i d g e - c r e d i t s him, however, w i t h i n the l i m i t e d means at h i s d i s p o s a l , of g i v i n g impetus to a new generation of mannerist a r c h i t e c t s . The p r i n c i p a l o u t l e t f o r h i s patronage, the one i n which he took the greatest personal i n t e r e s t , was h i s v i l l a on the Vigna G i u l i a . The V i l l a G i u l i a . was not t h e . f i r s t a r c h i t e c t u r a l e n t e r p r i s e that J u l i u s had planned. In 1548 and 1549 he had engaged V a s a r i on the design of a v i l l a at Monte San Savino,4 where C a r d i n a l Antonio, d e l Monte had already b u i l t , one palace. The new v i l l a , to be modelled on the V i l l a Madama, was to be c a l l e d Georgica a f t e r V i r g i l ' s Georgica, and i t s architecture.was.to incorporate the t h e o r i e s of V i t r u v i u s " and the.De re r u s t i c a of Columella. A f t e r 1550 no more i s heard of the V i l l a Georgica, and J u l i u s ' resources and energies seem a l l to have been d i r e c t e d to the V i l l a G i u l i a . The o r i g i n a l vigna on which the V i l l a G i u l i a was erected had been.purchased by C a r d i n a l Antonio d e l Monte 4 i n 1530. At h i s death i n 1533 he l e f t the property to his.two nephews Giovanni and Baldbvino. By October 1550 Giovanni, now J u l i u s . I l l , was e n l a r g i n g h i s i n h e r i t a n c e u n t i l two years l a t e r he had acquired n e a r l y a l l the a d j o i n i n g estates from the c i t y w a l l to the M i l v i a n bridge almost a mile away i n c l u d i n g the lands between the V i a Flaminia and the T i b e r . ^ The V i l l a G i u l i a was.to be a v i l l a suburbana, a pleasure v i l l a p r o v i d i n g . a day's r e t r e a t from the c i t y i n a r u s t i c s e t t i n g . Between 1551 and 1553 J u l i u s had bought or was given 36,000 a d d i t i o n a l trees and p l a n t s f o r the grounds. From the landing stage on the Tiber to the V i a Flaminia ran a grape arbour under which passed the v i s i t o r s who a r r i v e d by. the r i v e r route. The avenue to the V i l l a from the V i a F l a m i n i a s t a r t e d a t . t h e . o l d p u b l i c f o u n t a i n r e s t o r e d by J u l i u s , and ended i n a . s e m i c i r c u l a r p i a z z a i n f r o n t of the Casino.. This avenue was l i n e d w i t h f r u i t t r e e s . How the r e s t of the estate was l a i d out i s now conjec-t u r a l . B a f i l e t hinks that i t was given.over to orchards and vineyards and f i n d s .in i t s gardens.the.forerunner of the romantic E n g l i s h garden w i t h i t s woods, h i l l s and v a l l e y s . Boissard i n 1597 w r i t e s of ancient herms being used as' supports f o r grape vines? so i t must have r e t a i n e d something of i t s character of a vigna. 5 According to V a s a r i , J u l i u s appointed V i g n o l a a r c h i t e c t i n 1550 f o r the V i l l a and the Aqua V i r g o . Construction began i n May 1551. O r i g i n a l l y the V i l l a seems to have been designed as two separate s t r u c t u r e s , the Casino to the west and the Nymphaeum.to the east. B a f i l e c r e d i t s V i g n o l a - w i t h the design of the main b u i l d i n g and Ammannati and V a s a r i w i t h the Nymphaeum. The work proceeded under the close s u p e r v i s i o n of the Pope, who, says P a n v i n i o , neglected s t a t e a f f a i r s f o r the 8 sake of the V i l l a . J u l i u s proved such a c a p r i c i o u s task-master, a l t e r i n g the b u i l d i n g at h i s whim, that V a s a r i l e f t h i s s e r v i c e i n 1553. In i t s u l t i m a t e form the V i l l a combined mannerist elements of s u r p r i s e and bafflement w i t h a proto-baroquej or perhaps antique,^ i n s i s t e n c e on the long v i s t a from Casino entrance to f i n a l e n c l o s i n g w a l l . From the.present day road alongside, the V i l l a ' s dimensions appear r e l a t i v e l y modest, but viewed from the.Casino entrance door, i t s v a r i e d spaces and structures.have the e f f e c t of very much elongating i t s extent. The mannerist element l i e s i n the concealment from that f i r s t view of the f u l l complexity of the r e l a t i o n -ship among the s t r u c t u r e s . To the eye i t looks a simple matter to t r a v e r s e the whole from the f i r s t courtyard to the mediaeval hortus conclusus at.the end; only at the 6 entrance to the Nymphaeum are i t s three l e v e l s r e v e a l e d , and s t i l l concealed are the means of access to the sub-terranean f o u n t a i n below and the garden beyond. ' The V i l l a ' s a t t r a c t i v e n e s s l i e s , p a r t l y i n these devious, un-foreseen, connections, and p a r t l y i n the con t r a s t s among spaces and s t r u c t u r e s - - t h e large:, once s c u l p t u r e - f i l l e d f o recourt,. the m u l t i - l e v e l Nymphaeum wit h i t s elegant curving s t a i r w a y s , and i t s second set of.hidden winding s t a i r s down to the coolness of the f o u n t a i n , and then i t s t e r m i n a t i o n i n a small q u i e t garden. Of the component b u i l d i n g s , the Nymphaeum, housing the Aqua V i r g o , i s the most i n t e r e s t i n g both a r c h i t e c t u r a l l y and h i s t o r i c a l l y . A medal of J u l i u s has on the reverse the V i l l a G i u l i a w i t h above i t the . i n s c r i p t i o n Pons V i r g i n i s and below V i l l a e .Tul'ia.-r 0 F e r r o . e x p l a i n s . i t as showing the p u r i t y of the place unspotted by v i c e . H The Aqua Virgo was brought to.Rome i n 19 B.C. and according.to Frontinus i t was c a l l e d the Aqua.Virgo because a young maiden appeared to a par t y of s o l d i e r s seeking water and pointed out the springs to them, but P l i n y says the name arose because the Virgo.refused to mingle i t s waters w i t h the nearby stream of Hercules.12 More p r o s a i c a l l y i t may have'taken i t s name from the p u r i t y . o f i t s w a t e r . ^ I t was e a r l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h gardens. Frontinus mentions 7 that the arches of the Virgo began .by the garden of L u c u l l u s and P l i n y complains that the c o o l V i r g i n waters had been d i v e r t e d by t h e . r i c h to.supply t h e i r country seats and . suburban, villas...to...the,.detriment of p u b l i c h e a l t h . The.Aqua-Virgo,was.the.only .water.supply, apart from the Tiber and. a. few. fountains,. a v a i l a b l e to Rome during the.Middle Ages I t had.escaped.destruction by the Goths because i t . ran underground, part of the way,^ and i t was r e p a i r e d from-time ..to .time, by. the. l a t e r popes . The Roman Baedeker of 1893.says t h a t - i t . i s s t i l l . t h e best aqueduct i n Rome,.and i n the mid-sixteenth.century, except f o r the one.serving the V a t i c a n , it.was the only e f f i c i e n t aqueduct i n Rome..1^ As no water was a v a i l a b l e , i n . t h e area outside the Porta d e l Popolo where. J u l i u s ' vigna was situated'he. had to draw from the nearest .source which.was the Aqua Virgo i n the v i c i n i t y of.the Piazza, d i Spagna. . Vi g n o l a constructed for. him a d e r i v a z i o n e to c a r r y water to the V i l l a , and the same d c r i v a z i o n c . supplied. the.. f o u n t a i n on..the; V i a F l a m i n i a , the o l d p u b l i c f o u n t a i n which J u l i u s had r e s t o r e d . B a f i l e says that the.Nymphaeum. f o u n t a i n had to be placed below.the ground-because the water from the aqueduct a r r i v e d . a t the V i l l a at too;low a l e v e l f o r a. f o u n t a i n at ground l e v e l . However, he also.mentions ground l e v e l fountains 8 i n the main court and the enclosure behind the Nymphaeum. O r i g i n a l l y a nymphaeum was a cave sp r i n g sacred to nymphs. P l i n y i n h i s L e t t e r s mentions nymphaea i n connection w i t h antique v i l l a s , and Steinberg says that to r e c r e a t e a v i l l a i n the c l a s s i c a l manner a nymphaeum was a necessity.16 Masson sees t h i s semi-underground 17 s t r u c t u r e as a ' r e v i v a l of t h e ' c l a s s i c a l c r y p t o p o r t i c u s . The f o u n t a i n of the V i l l a G i u l i a may therefore have been placed underground as much f o r reasons of s t y l e as of h y d r a u l i c engineering. P r i m a r i l y the V i l l a was designed to o f f e r the Pope a nearby suburban r e t r e a t from the pressures ""of Rome. I t s secondary purposes may have been to serve as a s e t t i n g f o r the t h e a t r i c a l productions of which J u l i u s was so fond, as a s e t t i n g f o r other f e s t i v i t i e s , or as a place to house hi s c o l l e c t i o n of c l a s s i c a l sculpture."*"^ Records of payment show that the V i l l a was used f o r e n t e r t a i n i n g . Dinners were held there and at l e a s t one f e t e champetre. One comedy was performed at the V i l l a G i u l i a , but the records are too confused to determine i f other pay-ments r e f e r to plays shown at the V i l l a or e l s e w h e r e . ^ That J u l i u s ' c o l l e c t i o n of antiques was housed there i s amply confirmed i n numerous accounts and records. Estimates of the number of antique statues i n the V i l l a vary from 9 t h i r t y to 300, some of which can be i d e n t i f i e d from drawings by P i r r o L i g o r i o , ^ a n c j i n a d d i t i o n , new works were commissioned. Every p a r t of the b u i l d i n g s was p r o f u s e l y adorned wi t h frescoes and stuccoes, many of which have disappeared i n the course of the c e n t u r i e s . Among the s u r v i v i n g decorations are those on the c e i l i n g s of the north and south rooms on the ground f l o o r of the Casino. Each of these c e i l i n g s i s d i v i d e d i n t o nine r e c t a n g l e s , the centre ones each c o n t a i n i n g two lar g e stucco f i g u r e s , and the four corner ones each having a large stucco oval w i t h one f i g u r e . The four i n t e r v e n i n g rectangles are occupied by p a i n t i n g s i n f r e s c o , and the surround of the ovals i n the corners i s f i l l e d w i t h grotesques i n f r e s c o . The nine d i v i s i o n s are separated by double stucco frames, and between the frames are small f i g u r e s i n stucco medallions and more grotesques i n f r e s c o . F i n i s h i n g each c e i l i n g i s a heavy stucco f r i e z e of i n t e r t w i n e d p l a n t s and grotesques, i n t o which, beneath each f r e s c o panel, i s i n s e r t e d a small f r e s c o scene. Gere has a t t r i b u t e d the work i n the north room to Prospero Fontana, and the work i n the south room to Taddeo Zuccaro, and these a t t r i b u t i o n s w i l l be taken as given by him.21 The object of t h i s t h e s i s w i l l be to i d e n t i f y the subject matter represented i n the major stuccoes and frescoes and the minor decorations a d j o i n i n g them. CHAPTER II MAJOR FRESCOES 10 11 In the f i r s t f r e s c o p a n e l . i n the. north, room an o l d , bearded man r e c l i n e s on a bed of grapes, ho l d i n g i n h i s l e f t hand a thyrsu s , h i s head crowned.with.a wreath of vin e . Behind him i s a screen of grape shoots and h i s r i g h t arm r e s t s on an .overturned.jar from which pours down a r i v e r of wine. On the le f t . h a n k of the r i v e r . one f i g u r e leans over, lapping wine, d i r e c t l y from, the stream,, h i s face half-submerged. Below him.on the bank, a man s i t s and a woman .reclines . . On the other bank s i t s a man of the Silenus.type supported..on each side, by two f i g u r e s , one of whom might be male.and the other.female. Another man pours wine from a wineskin i n t o h i s mouth. Another f i g u r e i s eating grapes, while three, women, maenads, are c l a s h i n g cymbals. In the foreground a .nude woman.sitting on a c l o t h sack, dips ..wine from, the . r i v e r w i t h a jug while o f f e r i n g a bowl of wine.to,.. or .being, of f ered . a bowl of wine by the man standing.behind her. This man seems to have horns on h i s forehead but human f e e t . This scene resembles.two d e s c r i b e d . i n c l a s s i c a l sources though i t does not match .either.. i n exact d e t a i l . In the Diortysiaca, Nonnos relates.how i n India.Bacchus changed a r i v e r , into.wine. One Indian drank-and s a i d "Here I see an image of the heavens: . f o r . t h a t nectar.of Olympus which they s a y . i s the dri n k of Zeus, the Naiads are pouring out 12 i n n a t u r a l streams on the e a r t h . " The other Indians drank too. One went i n waist deep and drank from the hollow of h i s hands, one l a y on the bank and drank with h i s mouth, one pressed h i s hands on the sandy bottom and drank. Others used shards f o r cups and great swarms drank from cups.1 The second d e s c r i p t i o n , by P h i l o s t r a t u s i n the Imagines, i s of the r i v e r of wine on the i s l a n d of Andros created'by an act of Dionysus. That r i v e r i s i n c a r n a t e ; he l i e s on a couch of grape c l u s t e r s and pours out a stream of wine. T h y r s i grow around him, and on h i s banks men crowned with i v y and byrony r e c l i n e , dance and s i n g to t h e i r wives and c h i l d r e n . At the r i v e r ' s mouth T r i t o n s dip up the wine i n sea s h e l l s , d r i n k or blow out streams of wine, and dance. In the harbour l a y s the ship of Dionysus who leads a group of s a t y r s and bacchantes. Other c l a s s i c a l sources a l s o r e f e r to r i v e r s of wine though without the g r a p h i c d e t a i l of Nonnos and P h i l o s t r a t u s . Pausanias mentions the r i v e r of wine at Andros which flowed from the sanctuary every other year dur i n g the f e s t i v a l of Dionysus, and P l i n y d e s c r i b e s . t h e same s p r i n g i n the temple of Bacchus on Andros which t a s t e s of.wine on January 5, the god's g i f t day. In another w e l l known myth Midas traps a s a t y r by pouring wine i n t o the r i v e r . 13 A Nonnos manuscript was' i n the l i b r a r y of the Medici at Florence and i n 1551 one was'in the V a t i c a n and may have been known to the designer though the Diohysiaca was not p r i n t e d t i l l 1569 i n Antwerp. P h i l o s t r a t u s ' Imagines was p r i n t e d i n 1503 and,was the'source of the Bacchanal of the  Andrians by T i t i a n i n the studio of the Duke of F e r r a f a painted i n 1519. The treatment i n the V i l l a . G i u l i a follows. P h i l o s t r a t u s i n having the r i v e r l i e on a group of grape c l u s t e r s , while men and women r e c l i n e and d r i n k . There are no dancing f i g u r e on both banks. Though the maenad f i g u r e s below the r i v e r god might be engaged i n a dance, the dancing aspect i s not emphasized as i n T i t i a n where the dancers are prominent and the r i v e r god subordinate. From Nonnos might come the man at the upper l e f t lapping wine d i r e c t l y from the r i v e r . This panel then may be based t e x t u a l l y on P h i l o s t r a t u s w i t h a drawing from other sources,, but i t does not r e f l e c t 3 the previous p i c t o r i a l treatment by T i t i a n . The Andros scene may have been chosen because as P h i l o s t r a t u s says: "This r i v e r makes men r i c h , and powerful i n the assembly, and h e l p f u l t o - t h e i r friends., and b e a u t i f u l and, instead of s h o r t , four c u b i t s t a l l ; f o r when a man has drunk h i s f i l l of i t he can assemble a l l these q u a l i t i e s and i n h i s thought make them h i s own."4 14 In the small panel opposite that of the r i v e r of wine, a statue i n grey stone of a draped woman stands on the edge of.a square bas i n of water. In her l e f t - h a n d she holds a wreath.of f l o w e r s . Behind her i s a clump'of trees on a . h i l l o c k . a n d . behind, them.the sky glows pink. At her l e f t . f o o t . a r e . t w o b i r d s . . On. the l e f t s i de of the panel stand two. women draped i n green and purple gazing at the statue. Below them another.woman wi t h yellow drape-r i e s s i t s on the corner, of the b a s i n , her legs immersed, while she too gazes at the statue. On the r i g h t s i d e . i s a horned man i n the background and beside and . i n . f r o n t . of him. another., b a l d , bearded older man o f f e r s to the statue a d i s h of f r u i t . I n . f r o n t of them a nude woman s i t s on the f a r r i g h t corner.of the b a s i n , her r i g h t l e g i n the water.while she d r i e s her l e f t f o o t . In the foreground water pours out from the basi n from-the mouth of a s a t y r ' s head. To the l e f t a woman, h a l f nude, s i t s on the ground i n the act of draping h e r s e l f . . To the l e f t a naked baby crawls along the..ground .looking up. At the edge of the p o o l , made by the overflow from the b a s i n , grow various f l o w e r s . T r a d i t i o n has i t that t h i s panel represents the o f f e r i n g of nymphs.and p i l g r i m s to Eonte C a s t i l i a . ^ No c l a s s i c a l t e x t d e s c r i b e s . e x a c t l y the C a s t i l i a n s p r i n g 15 dedicated to the Muses on Mount Parnassus, but p i c t o r i a l r e presentations are common, and these u s u a l l y show A p o l l o surrounded by the Muses, o f t e n w i t h poets i n the company, and the spri n g p e r s o n i f i e d as a man or woman r e c l i n i n g w i t h an urn i n the background or foreground. The best argument f o r t h i s being the C a s t i l i a n s p r i n g i s i t s being placed opposite the r i v e r of wine; the wine of.Dionysus i n s p i r e s men--as P h i l o s t r a t u s says, makes a man four c u b i t s t a l l - - a n d the water of the C a s t i l i a n s p r i n g s i m i l a r l y i n s p i r e s the poet. Were the b i r d s at the foot of the statue more d i s t i n c t they should i d e n t i f y it,°.but they are not recognizable as magpies, peacocks, hawks, geese, cuckoos, doves' or swans, the b i r d s given to the Muses, Juno, Ceres, Proserpina and Venus. There are no i n d i c a t i o n s ' t h a t t h i s i s any of the other fountains described i n c l a s s i c a l l i t e r a t u r e , Canathus, Juventa, or A c i d a l i a , or the s p r i n g at the sanctuary of Ionides. Nor can the scene be associated w i t h contemporary f o u n t a i n s u b j e c t s , the Fountain of Youth, the Fountain of Love, or the f o u n t a i n of Francesco .Colonna's Hypnerotomachia  p Q l i p h i l i . Appropriate here would be a nymph to r e c a l l the Nymphaeum or the Aqua V i r g o . The garden of the C o l o c c i f a m i l y at Rome near the arch of Claudius of the Aqua Virgo 16 had a f o u n t a i n w i t h a statue of a slee p i n g nymph.1 P i r r o L i g o r i o says that the Romans dedicated to the Aqua Q Virgo a maiden wi t h an eagle at her br e a s t , but the b i r d s here are not c l e a r l y eagles. Caro's suggestions t o . V a s a r i f o r the V i l l a ' s decora-t i o n s were a Bacchus, a Ceres, and a F o n t a i i a l i a or group of f o u n t a i n goddesses.^ This panel probably represents a fo u n t a i n or water goddess, who should.be i d e n t i f i a b l e by means'of the b i r d s at her f e e t , and was chosen to complement the r i v e r of wine opposite. T h e V i l l a was set i n a vi g n a , and one of. i t s notable features ..was the pure, cool water of the Aqua V i r g o . The f i r s t l a r g e panel in. the north room dep i c t s a r u s t i c f e a s t i n a f o r e s t glade. At a round t a b l e w i t h a white c l o t h s i t eight f i g u r e s , four men and four women. On the ta b l e are a t o r t o i s e or t u r t l e , a porcupine or hedgehog, a handful of mushrooms, and f r u i t s - - g r a p e s , and perhaps pears--and what might,be a.loaf of bread. From a branch above the ta b l e i s suspended.a mask. Two of the women at the ta b l e turn to a companion who.has her arms around t h e i r shoulders. Immediately behind the t a b l e are three s e r v i t o r s , two women and a man c a r r y i n g grapes, a basket of f r u i t , and a flo w i n g j a r of wine. In the distance among the trees and against-a glowing sky are.two f i g u r e s , 17 one c a r r y i n g a bundle of wood. On the r i g h t hand side of the p i c t u r e a horned waitress pours l i q u i d from a j a r i n t o the bowl held out by one of the women at the t a b l e . In the r i g h t corner a woman lowers a small tub from which a goat-footed and - t a i l e d c h i l d d r i n k s . At the l e f t side a f a t man i s supported on an ass by two youths. Behind him a f i g u r e i n a purple cloak pours l i q u i d from a small j a r to a large bowl. In the l e f t foreground a horned f i g u r e pours l i q u i d from a s k i n i n t o a bowl from which a horned, goat-footed man d r i n k s , h i s l e f t arm r e s t i n g on a c l u s t e r of grapes. The bowl i s supported'also by a goat-footed and - t a i l e d c h i l d . In the centre foreground a goat-footed, - t a i l e d c h i l d s i t s on the back of a crouched f e l i n e animal and holds before the animal's open mouth a c l u s t e r of grapes. The group at the l e f t hand s i d e , f a m i l i a r from both t e x t u a l and p i c t o r i a l sources, i s Silenus r i d i n g on h i s ass. The f i r s t f i g u r e to'the l e f t seated at the t a b l e , horned, wi t h goat f e e t and c a r r y i n g . a set of pipes i s Pan."^^ The next two f i g u r e s , a bearded man and a man with horns and pointed animal ears., are u n i d e n t i f i a b l e except as a man and a s a t y r . The c e n t r a l figure.has one arm around a ly n x , h i s head i s wreathed w i t h i v y and he drinks from a bowl: t h i s must be Bacchus. Of the group of three women beside him two wear wreaths of grain:' one of them may be Ceres and 18 the other a f o l l o w e r of Ceres. Of the two remaining women at the t a b l e one wears a l e a f y wreath but they have no other a t t r i b u t e s to i d e n t i f y them: Pomona, or F l o r a would be l i k e l y goddesses. The f i g u r e s with goat's legs and horns are s a t y r s , and the animal on which the c h i l d s a t y r r i d e s i s the panther a s s o c i a t e d with Bacchus. The presence of grapes and wine mark t h i s as a Bacchic f e s t i v a l . The two f i g u r e s i n the d i s t a n c e might be the youths who.carried boughs at the Oschophoria, a v i n t a g e f e s t i v a l . "^ The mask or o s c i l l u m suspended from the branch i s a s s o c i a t e d with Bacchic f e s t i v a l s . V i r g i l says i n the Georgics t h a t at Bacchic f e s t i v a l s men. wore masks of cork and hung amulets from the t r e e s . In only one other Bacchic 13 i l l u s t r a t i o n i s found such a mask, though the mask was an a t t r i b u t e of Melpomene, Muse of the t h e a t r e , whose pat r o n Bacchus was. The unusual combination of o b j e c t s on the t a b l e , t u r t l e , hedgehog, and mushrooms, must c o n t r i b u t e to the meaning of the scene. The t u r t l e on the t a b l e near Pan i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h both Pan and V e n u s . ^ I t a l s o stood f o r t a r d i n e s s , and i t s f l e s h might cause p a i n or act as a purgative.1^ The porcupine, able to discharge i t s q u i l l s when threatened, i s a s s o c i a t e d with Mars. A hedgehog stands f o r the s e i z i n g of a f a v o u r a b l e o p p o r t u n i t y . " ^ The l o r e 19 gathered about the mushroom i s l a r g e ; i t i s produced by thunder, i t i s the s i g n of an e x t r a o r d i n a r y event, or a symbol of f o o l i s h n e s s , but none.of the meanings gi v e n to i t seem r e l e v a n t to t h i s scene, and there seems to be no reason to p l a c e i t before Bacchus on the t a b l e . The t u r t l e , and the porcupine might stand f o r the absent gods Venus and Mars; Venus would be a co n g e n i a l guest at a Bacchic f e a s t , but Mars would have no. p l a c e . a t t h i s t a b l e . The most common scenes w i t h Bacchus are Bacchus and Ariadne, and general triumphs of Bacchus. Some of the ch a r a c t e r s here are those whom.Dionysus made gods, Pan, Si l e n u s and the s a t y r s . ^  The c l o s e s t t e x t u a l p a r a l l e l i s Ovid's d e s c r i p t i o n . i n the F a s t i o f . t h e f e a s t where Pan attempts the s e d u c t i o n of L o t i s which i s the source of 19 B e l l i n i ' s Feast at F e r r a r a . Some of the same elements are present here, S i l e n u s ' ass which seems to be on the p o i n t of b r a y i n g and Pan s t a r i n g f i x e d l y at someone, but so many d e t a i l s d i f f e r , e.g. no one l i e s on the gr a s s , t h a t i t i s c e r t a i n l y not an i l l u s t r a t i o n of that episode. An assemblage of demi-gods and r u s t i c d i v i n i t i e s , i t c o u l d be the f e a s t of Bacchus on March 17, the f e a s t of Bacchus A p o l l o held.every other year on Mount Parnassus, the Oschophoria, or i t might be simply a r u s t i c f e a s t to c e l e b r a t e the f e r t i l i t y of the e a r t h , w i t h Ceres and Bacchus as host 20 and h o s t e s s . z u A j o i n t f e a s t of Bacchus and Ceres i s the Ambarvalia i n l a t e s p r i n g or e a r l y summer. Ceres and Bacchus are associated not only i n "Venus grows c o l d without Ceres and Bacchus," but also i n V i r g i l , "0 ye'most r a d i a n t l i g h t s of the firmament that guide through heaven 21 the g l i d i n g year, 0 L i b e r and bounteous Ceres." Bacchus' being god of music and the t h e a t r e , and h i s '77 r e l a t i o n s h i p to the Muses, might r e l a t e t h i s panel to the neighbouring one, the s o - c a l l e d C a s t i l i a n .spring, i f i t i s the C a s t i l i a n s p r i n g . This Bacchic f e a s t bears some resemblance to one i n the K u n s t h i s t o r i s c h e s Museum i n Vienna discussed by 23 P l a n i s c i g . In the Vienna scene Silenus supported by two saty r s enters on the l e f t accompanied by two g i r l s w i t h tambourines and a youth with a double f l u t e . To h i s l e f t a s a t y r cooks a boar's head i n a cauldron while i n the f o r e -ground two satyrs.crouch before, a pot. Around an oval t a b l e s i t fauns, nymphs, and s a t y r s . At the r i g h t a r i v e r god leans on h i s f l o w i n g urn. Behind him sat y r s pour wine and i n the background g i r l s c a r r y baskets of f r u i t on t h e i r heads. On the ta b l e i s something resembling.a porcupine or hedgehog. Though the general composition i s s i m i l a r to that of the V i l l a G i u l i a f r e s c o , i n the Vienna plaquette the ass has one hoof on the t a b l e , and Pan i s opposite, the ass wit h 21 three nude women between them. The minor f i g u r e s d i f f e r c o n s i d e r a b l y . The Vienna p l a q u e t t e i s one of a s e r i e s of s i x t e e n , i l l u s t r a t i n g s t o r i e s from Ovid, designed by Guglielmo d e l l a P orta and used by l a t e r a r t i s t s . ^ T h i s scene says P h i l l i p s i s based on a passage i n Ovid's Metamorphoses 4. 26-30, but Ovid d e s c r i b e s a t r a i n of s a t y r s not a f e a s t . Gramberg turns to another passage i n the.Metamorphoses 11. 94-96, the f e a s t of Midas to welcome S i l e n u s . Ovid's d e s c r i p t i o n of t h i s f e a s t i s meager and mentions n e i t h e r Pan nor Bacchus among the company. Apart from the resemblance i n composition, the most i n t e r e s t i n g s i m i l a r i t y between the p l a q u e t t e and the f r e s c o i s the porcupine or hedgehog on the t a b l e , a c u r i o u s presence f o r which none of the suggested t e x t s accounts. I f t h i s animal i s a hedgehog then the hedgehog i n the meaning of s e i z i n g a f a v o u r a b l e o p p o r t u n i t y might r e f e r to the Fortuna/Occasio of J u l i u s ' emblem, and the 27 p l a q u e t t e and the f r e s c o might be r e l a t e d . i n s u b j e c t , Were i t not f o r the mushrooms, t u r t l e and hedgehog on the t a b l e t h i s scene might be taken as one of the r u s t i c banquets independent of any l i t e r a r y source or 2 8 profound meaning t h a t Bardon assigns to t h i s p e r i o d . The f o u r t h major panel i n the n o r t h room d e p i c t s nine people seated at an oblong t a b l e supported on the 22 clouds i n f r o n t of a golden sky. Behind the t a b l e three female s e r v i t o r s i n green, orange and p u r p l e h o l d bowls or d r i n k i n g v e s s e l s and at the head a boy pours l i q u i d from, a small j a r i n t o . a f l a t g o b l e t . On the t a b l e i s a d i s h c o n t a i n i n g what.may be l e a v e s , grapes or f r u i t . At each s i d e of the p i c t u r e . s t a n d two women draped i n green, white, red and yellow, h o l d i n g back a c u r t a i n to r e v e a l the banqueters. To the l e f t two p u t t i h o l d up the c l o u d bank. Below the p u t t i i s a landscape w i t h t r e e s and a s m a l l h i l l . The r i g h t hand corner of the panel i s taken up w i t h a l a r g e nude bearded man, h i s h a i r bound wi t h heads of g r a i n , who looks out of the p i c t u r e to h i s l e f t . Over and around h i s body p l a y s i x t e e n i n f a n t s . One grasps h i s r i g h t f o o t , w h i le f o u r p l a y around h i s r i g h t . c a l f . Three more climb on h i s r i g h t t h i g h and arm and.one s i t s . o n h i s r i g h t shoulder. Two s i t beside h i s l e f t knee. Four surround.his l e f t arm, and the s i x t e e n t h . s i t s atop a cornucopia of f r u i t at the man's l e f t t r y i n g on h i s head a basket o f . f l o w e r s or f r u i t . Above and behind the g i a n t ' s head are two animal heads, one might be a c r o c o d i l e , the other a . s e a l or lynx. Of the group s i t t i n g at the t a b l e , the one at the head i s J u p i t e r who has an e a g l e . a t h i s f o o t . Beside him should s i t Juno. The t h i r d f i g u r e i s i d e n t i f i a b l e as Minerva because of the plumed helmet.. The f o u r t h f i g u r e i s a bearded man. 23 In the Anderson photograph.the f i f t h f i g u r e looks as i f he were a p u f f i n g man, Eolus. The s i x t h and seventh f i g u r e s are white-bearded men wit h no. d i s c e r n i b l e a t t r i b u t e s . . At the other side .of the ta b l e i s , f i r s t , a white-bearded o l d man and beside him A p o l l o , w i t h h i s l y r e and l a u r e l w r e a t h . ^ None of these four bearded men have any a t t r i b u t e s . o t h e r . t h a n . age, and they could be Chronos, Saturn, Pluto,.Vulcan, Neptune, or Bacchus. I f the animal head immediately behind A p o l l o ' s l y r e i s a lynx then t h e . o l d man i s Bacchus. Behind the t a b l e one of the three women servers should be Hebe. The young boy pouring wine f o r J u p i t e r i s Ganymede. The f i g u r e i n the r i g h t hand.corner i s the r i v e r N i l e , the source f o r which i s . t h e statue uncovered i n Rome i n 1513. This statue was a popular subject w i t h many a r t i s t s who r e s t o r e d the damaged parts to t h e i r own t a s t e ; Francesco de Hollanda gave h i m . t h i r t e e n c h i l d r e n , Taddeo Zuccaro e i g h t . Sixteen c h i l d r e n s i g n i f y the optimum l e v e l 30 of the N i l e , and the cornucopia i t s abundance. P h i l o s t r a t u s describes t h e . N i l e , w i t h c h i l d r e n romping round and on him, and. looking/toward t h e . d i v i n i t y who 31 regulates h i s flow. Here the N i l e . l o o k s . d i r e c t l y away from J u p i t e r , to the fo u n t a i n goddess, i n the next panel, or to Bacchus i n the opposite panel. 24 The connections between the gods and the N i l e are numerous. . The whole pantheon took refuge from.the gia n t s i n Egypt, and both.gods and.men. o r i g i n a t e d i n Egypt. J u p i t e r and.Bacchus have many.associations w i t h the N i l e , both were.worshipped on i t s banks, and Bacchus was begotten and nurtured i n i t s v i c i n i t y ; Bacchus, Minerva, Hercules, 32 Mercury and Vulcan were c h i l d r e n of the. N i l e . C l a s s i c a l t e x t s abound w i t h references to Jupiter., the gods and the N i l e yet none describes the scene i n . t h i s panel. Diodorus says that during the.inundation of the N i l e v a l l e y , between the summer s o l s t i c e and the autumnal equinox, the people.feasted, but" he does not mention any 33 f e a s t s of the gods. The f e a s t s . o f the gods u s u a l l y depicted i n the Cinquecento.were the wedding.of Psyche and Cupid from Apuleus' The .golden ass, the f e a s t with..Lotis i n the F a s t i of Ovid, and the wedding of Theti s and Peleus from Catullus.34 Councils of the gods were: the .council summoned f o r the .. wedding of Mercury and Philology,, from the I H a d the c o u n c i l on the Trojan war, and . from.. Ovid's Metamorphoses ,. the c o u n c i l to punish e v i l - d o e r s by a flood.^5 one of J u p i t e r ' s concerns at t h i s l a s t c o u n c i l was to p r o t e c t the r u s t i c d e i t i e s of the mountain glades. The opposite panel.might r e f e r to these innocents, and the N i l e below.to the .rivers who aided i n the f l o o d that destroyed the wicked. Another c o u n c i l of the,gods, 25 to which the r i v e r gods came, was summoned to deal w i t h the rape of Prosperina. The V i l l a G i u l i a f e a s t or c o u n c i l i s unique, i n the .proportion, of women to men'; of the nine f i g u r e s at the t a b l e only two are women, Minerva and Juno. In. no other f e a s t . o f the gods do men outnumber women by four to one. The V i l l a . G i u l i a panel perhaps comes c l o s e s t to the c o u n c i l on. the rape of Prosperina because of the number of o l d men, f o r r i v e r gods are u s u a l l y o l d men. Bardon.connects t h i s f e a s t w i t h Raphael's wedding of Cupid and Psyche i n the Farnesina, and V e n t u r i c a l l s i t a parodia of the Farnesina banquet. V e n t u r i may be r i g h t . These two f e a s t i n g scenes by Fontana d i f f e r s t r o n g l y i n t h e i r c a s t s , the Olympian and the r u s t i c d e i t i e s , and i n t h e i r moods, the one group.dominated by t h e . N i l e and the other by the wine d r i n k e r s . "For he who draws from i t •7 O [Andros] may w e l l d i s d a i n both N i l e and I s t e r . . . " ° The Bacchic f e a s t i s complemented by . the Andros scene, both being c e l e b r a t i o n s of ..wine. I f the Olympian/Nile scene i s meant to ce l e b r a t e water.then the goddess being worshipped i n the other small panel must.be a f o u n t a i n or water goddess. In very general terms the frescoes honour the abundance of water and the abundance, of the.grape.which the earth brings f o r t h . 26 In the f i r s t panel of the south room three nude women wit h b r a i d e d h a i r bathe i n a stream or s p r i n g . The water i s coming f o r t h from the bank behind, on which grows an oak t r e e . One woman s i t s and faces the viewer i n a Venus pudica a t t i t u d e w h ile the other two watch three women i n . t h e middle d i s t a n c e . . The woman to the r i g h t holds a j a r i n her l e f t hand. The women.in the middle ground are h e a v i l y draped i n mauve and red.. The f i r s t o f these women has a c r e s c e n t on her forehead and she and one of her companions c a r r y bundles.of mauve and grey d r a p e r i e s . The landscape behind i s h i l l y and bar r e n . In the sky, v e r y f a i n t l y , are two' dogs drawing a c h a r i o t . I f there i s a f i g u r e i n . t h e c h a r i o t i t i s i n d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e . The f i r s t f i g u r e i n the middle ground i s i d e n t i f i e d as Diana or.Luna.by the c r e s c e n t oh .her head and the dogs i n the sky. The catalogue of the Gabinetto F o t o g r a f i c o Nazionale l i s t s t h i s scene as Diana f l e e i n g from her bath because she has met one of her.nymphs, C a l l i s t o , who has l o s t her c h a s t i t y , . a n d V e n t u r i a l s o i d e n t i f i e s i t as an 39 episode i n the C a l l i s t o s t o r y . Ovid t e l l s the s t o r y of C a l l i s t o t w i c e j i n the F a s t i and i n the Metamorphoses.^. ... In the F a s t i C a l l i s t o ' s pregnancy was d i s c o v e r e d when she was i n v i t e d to bathe by Diana a f t e r hunting. Diana d i s m i s s e d her.from her maidens 27 and her pool f o r she was d e f i l i n g the waters. The same st o r y i s t o l d - i n more d e t a i l in,the Metamorphoses. Diana and her band a f t e r hunting: . . . came to a cool grove through which a gently murmuring stream flowed .over i t s smooth sands. The place d e l i g h t e d her and .she dipped her f e e t i n t o the water. Delighted too . w i t h . t h i s , she s a i d to her companions: "Come, no one i s near to see; l e t us disrobe and bathe us i n the brook." The Arcadian blushed, and, while a l l the r e s t obeyed, she only sought excuses.for delay. But her companions fo r c e d her to comply, and there her shame, was openly, confessed. As she stood t e r r o r - s t r i c k e n . , v a i n l y s t r i v i n g to hide her s t a t e , Diana . c r i e d : "Begone I and p o l l u t e not our. sacred p o o l " ; and so e x p e l l e d her.from her company.^1 There are many v a r i a t i o n s . o n the s t o r y of C a l l i s t o , sometimes she. i s changed to a bear. by. J u p i t e r , sometimes by Diana, sometimes by J u n o , ^ but these v a r i a n t s are i r r e l e v a n t to t h i s panel. Ovid's i s . the most d e t a i l e d t e x t of t h e . a c t u a l discovery, of the pregnancy; C a l l i s t o i s disrobed by the other nymphs and:stands before the angry Diana. Erwin Panofsky says t h a t . b e f o r e . T i t i a n ' s Diana and C a l l i s t o , 1559, C a l l i s t o was always shown.standing as i n Ovid's t e x t , and Diana was arguing, w i t h C a l l i s t o . or bathing 43 i n the water. The V i l l a G i u l i a . p a n e l was painted before 1559 , and i f Panofsky i s c o r r e c t , . ^ none of the. nude bathers can be C a l l i s t o f o r none i s standing. None of the three nude f i g u r e s seems to b e . i n an advanced.state of pregnancy, 28 nor do two of them appear - to.have disrobed the t h i r d , nor does the t h i r d appear to be the cause of any d i s t r e s s . I f they are d i s t r e s s e d i t seems more l i k e l y to be'at Diana's t h e f t of t h e i r c l o t h e s . In t h i s panel.the myth .has been i n v e r t e d . Diana r e t r e a t s from C a l l i s t o which i s .not i n accordance w i t h Ovid's t e x t , and she r e t r e a t s w i t h the draperies of the bathers which i s . v e r y . s t r a n g e behaviour indeed.on the part of the chaste Diana. The Graces are the most common group of three nude women, and they bathed i n the f o u n t a i n of A c i d a l i u s sacred to Venus. There i s no reference to.Venus here, and no tex t connects Diana and the Graces. The subject here i s not Ovid's Diana and C a l l i s t o nor.any of the widely i l l u s t r a t e d Diana myths such as those i n which Actaeon or Endymion appear.. This panel probably represents e i t h e r . a new Diana myth.of the s i x t e e n t h century or.a parody of the C a l l i s t o myth. The opposite panel has below f i v e women i n yel l o w , pink and white draperies.. Above them i s a c h i l d i n a tree and a woman seated on a throne or c h a r i o t i n the sky. The f i r s t woman at the l e f t stands, ho l d i n g i n her r i g h t hand two arrows which she o f f e r s . t o the woman enthroned above. In her l e f t hand she grasps a . s i n g l e arrow whose head p o i n t s 29 to the c h i l d . Beside her another woman holds up a q u i v e r f u l of arrows and gazes at the woman i n the sky. : In the r i g h t hand corner kneels a.woman, a bow i n her l e f t hand and.two arrows i n her r i g h t , who looks at the c h i l d i n the t r e e . . Behind her stands a woman p o i n t i n g the f i n g e r of.her upraised hand at the boy,.while the f i f t h woman behind her looks out.at the viewer. The boy i n the tree i s winged and h i s l e f t foot and r i g h t arm a r e . t i e d to branches of the t r e e . His l e f t f o r e f i n g e r touches his.mouth. Opposite.him the draped woman s i t s i n what may be a throne or a c h a r i o t . The arm r e s t i s a sphinx f i g u r e and one wheel appears h a l f cut o f f by the p i c t u r e frame. The v e h i c l e r e s t s on the clouds. The f i g u r e i s surrounded by an aureole. She looks down on the women below and gestures to the winged boy wi t h her r i g h t hand. The winged boy t i e d to the.tree might be Harpocrates, god of s i l e n c e , who was represented as a p u t t i or youth w i t h h i s hand.or f i n g e r to h i s mouth, and who c a l l e d f o r s i l e n c e during r e l i g i o u s o b s e r v ances.^ P i r r o L i g o r i o discusses Harpocrates at le n g t h , i l l u s t r a t i n g s i x s t a t u e t t e s of him, and l i s t s as p o s s i b l e a t t r i b u t e s dragonwort, a s t i c k l i k e that of Hercule's., cock, owl, l i g h t e d t o r c h , key, horn of Amalthea, poppy, bow and c l u b , f l o w e r s , b i r d s , whip, 30 square and r u l e r s . i + D None of these a d d i t i o n a l a t t r i b u t e s are used i n t h i s panel, only the f i n g e r g e s t u r i n g s i l e n c e . Harpocrates i s the god of conception, pregnant women and unborn c h i l d r e n . His images are dedicated to Luna or to Juno Lucina. There appears to be no instance of Harpocrates being bound to a t r e e . The small winged boy who i s sometimes bound to a tree i s Cupid. Here he has none of the,other a t t r i b u t e s commonly given to Amore or Cupid, b l i n d f o l d , bow, arrows, t o r c h or c o c k s . ^ There i s no i l l u s t r a t i o n of Cupid with h i s f i n g e r to h i s l i p s . The woman beside the boy has two a t t r i b u t e s , the aureole behind her and the sphinx on her c h a r i o t . The sphinx can stand f o r knowledge, ignorance, or voluptuous-ness, but the only goddess w i t h whom she i s ass o c i a t e d i s 48 Minerva. Having the head of a woman and the body of a . l i o n , the sphinx s i g n i f i e s the two signs of the Zodiac, 49 Virgo and Leo, between which the N i l e r i s e s . . The sphinx was used, however; simply as a.decorative element i n f u r n i t u r e w i t h no i c o n o l o g i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e . The usual a t t r i b u t e . o f Luna i s the crescent on her forehead. Lucina, goddess of c h i l d b i r t h , holds a key or to r c h , bow, arrows, and a garland of d i t t a n y . ^ Venus, whose c h a r i o t i s drawn by swans and doves may have apples, 31 roses or conch s h e l l . None of these objects, appear here. In a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h Harpocrates.the f i g u r e would l i k e l y be Lucina,.goddess of chi l d b i r t h . , , w i t h Cupid, Venus, 51 goddess of love and generation, but Venus i s Luna, and the aureole could e q u a l l y w e l l belong to e i t h e r . The goddess gestures as i f assigning r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to the c h i l d , whether her.gesture means that the woman should blame the c h i l d f o r t h e i r misfortunes or appeal to him f o r an answer to t h e i r prayers depends on whether the c h i l d i s Cupid or Harpocrates. I f the c h i l d were.Cupid and the woman Venus then t h i s would be some v a r i a t i o n of the Punishment of Cupid. The women below w i t h the bows, arrows and quivers would be the lovers t a k i n g vengeance. The s t o r y of the Punishment of Love appears i n c l a s s i c a l . l i t e r a t u r e ; A u s o nias.relates how Cupid went to the underworld and was hung up i n a myrtle tree by h i s v i c t i m s , N a r c i s s u s , Adonis, Hero, and the r e s t , who threatened him w i t h the weapons that k i l l e d them. Venus 52 scourged him w i t h roses, and the lov e r s intervened. P e t r a r c h used the same theme, other Renaissance poets worked 53 v a r i a t i o n s on i t , and i t was a popular subject f o r cassoni p a i n t i n g s and graphic works. The women here, except f o r the f i g u r e w i t h her f i n g e r o u t s t r e t c h e d , do not appear to threaten, or.even admonish, the c h i l d . They ought to be breaking the bows and arrows 32 rather than o f f e r i n g them to him as the one at the r i g h t does. The d e t a i l s are so much at variance w i t h other representations and t e x t u a l sources, that t h i s scene i s probably not the Punishment of Cupid. I f the c h i l d i s Harpocrates another meaning could be read i n t o i t , though such meaning, has no t e x t u a l founda-t i o n . I f any of the women looked pregnant they could be praying to Harpocrates and Lucina, god and goddess of c h i l d b i r t h , but none of them look pregnant, so they could be appealing to Venus, goddess of generation, and Harpocrates/ Cupid, god of conception, to be made pregnant. Though the subject of pregnancy and c h i l d b i r t h would seem outside the range of J u l i u s ' i n t e r e s t s , t h e ' V i l l a and the estate d i d belong to the d e l Monte f a m i l y , and a prayer f o r the continuance of the f a m i l y would be appropriate. There seems, to be no connection w i t h the opposite Diana panel, unless the woman here i s Venus and the three women bathing are the three . Graces. L i k e that panel i t might be a parody, a parody of the Punishment of Love. The f i r s t l a r g e panel of the south room.depicts nine women, draped i n yel l o w , white, pink and pur p l e , performing a dance i n a f o r e s t c l e a r i n g . They dance i n a chain w i t h j o i n e d hands and the n i n t h dancer moves under the arched arms of the f i r s t and second dancers as i n some'folk dances 33 or c h i l d r e n ' s games. The t h i r d dancer has a crescent on her forehead and a.hunting horn suspended from her g i r d l e . In the foreground, t o . t h e . l e f t a standing draped woman shakes a tambourine, beside her.on the ground a s i t t i n g draped woman clashes the cymbals.' At the l e f t side two s i t t i n g draped women .hold tambourines. In f r o n t of them l i e s a dog, only his. head and;leg showing,.the r e s t of hi s body.being cut o f f .by the .picture frame. In the f r o n t centre, at the f e e t of.the t h i r d . d a n c e r , l i e a bow, a quiver and a s p e a r , . a l l cut o f f half-way by damage to the p l a s t e r . J u s t beyond, them are two '. l i g h t - c o l o u r e d odd shaped objec t s . . . At the r i g h t emerging.from the woods i s a man w i t h winged boots, a ..hat with, wings, and c a r r y i n g a caduceus i n h i s . r i g h t hand, a s t r e t c h of drapery fans out behind h i s back and over. h i s . l e f t t h i g h . In the sky to the r i g h t a f i g u r e i n a c h a r i o t , a halo around i t s head and a cloak b i l l o w i n g out behind . i t . d r i v e s ..four. white horses beneath an arch. In f r o n t o f " t h e . h o r s e s . g l i d e s a draped f i g u r e w i t h outstretched arms. The t h i r d dancer . i s Diana or.. Luna, so. i d e n t i f i e d by the crescent moon upon her forehead,.the.horn,.and the bow, quiver and spear at her f e e t . T h e man to the r i g h t i s Mercury as.shown by the winged, boots, hat,.and caduceus.^ The chariot...in the sky w i t h .the four horses i s A p o l l o ' s . 34 The f i g u r e preceding the c h a r i o t should be.the crepuscle of dawn or evening, but. the crepuscle of evening i s a winged i n f a n t dropping arrows, and that of morning a 57 winged i n f a n t emptying a j a r of dew. Mercury had under h i s p r o t e c t i o n a m u l t i p l i c i t y of t h i n g s , peace t r e a t i e s , trade, t h e f t , w r e s t l i n g schools, and many other a c t i v i t i e s . Sent by Jove to teach the a r t of speech, he was patron of the f i n e a r t s and leader of the Graces. A god of shepherds and spring,, the Ides' of May were sacred to him. He was the guide of . s o u l s and messenger of the gods f o r sports., meetings,. marriages and pleasant r o a f f a i r s . In h i s r o l e as messenger he accompanied Pro s e r p i n a , l b , Bacchus, and Lara. The only message he d e l i v e r e d to Diana was on the occasion when.Jove saw her 59 nude and sent Mercury to her w i t h her c l o t h e s . Of groups of women he i s u s u a l l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the Graces, and i n at l e a s t one instance w i t h the Muses, but the best known episode connecting. Mercury w i t h a group of women i s h i s encounter w i t h Herse and her s i s t e r s .returning i n procession f r o m the f e s t i v a l o£ P a l l a s . 6 0 In.one new m y t h of the s i x t e e n t h century, used f o r a b a l l e t performed at the French c o u r t , Mercury appears w i t h the.order of Jove that the w a r r i o r nymphs .must f i g h t Cupid, and i n the course of t h e i r ensuing b a t t l e w i t h Cupid.the nymphs dance. This 35 episode appears to be the only a s s o c i a t i o n of Mercury w i t h dancing nymphs. Bardon says that the f a b l e i s t r a d i t i o n a l , and the source of the t r a d i t i o n i s unpublished, u n f o r t u n a t e l y , f o r t h i s fable.seems c l o s e r than any other t e x t to the V i l l a G u i l i a panel, i f only i t s date and o r i g i n were known.^ Diana, Luna and Proserpina are a l l forms of one goddess, a goddess who at times i s also I s i s , Hecate, and 6 2 Semele. As Luna she i s a f e r t i l i t y goddess; the moon provides the humidity necessary f o r p l a n t s , and her rays f o s t e r t h e i r growth. The ancients clashed copper and i r o n pots during the moon's e c l i p s e and cymbals became an a t t r i b u t e of Luna. Diana was - assoc i a t e d . w i t h woods and mountains, and ofte n danced w i t h her nymphs. She danced near the springs on Inopus, on the banks of the Eurotas, and i n the h a l l of A p o l l o . Her worshippers danced the kordax. and i n Sparta the maidens danced to Ca r y a t i s Diana. A p o l l o i s the sun god. and'.brother of Diana. Luna l i v e s by h i s r e f l e c t e d l i g h t , and they both.nourish growing t h i n g s . He leads the dancing Muses. V e n t u r i c a l l s the scene i n the V i l l a G i u l i a a dance 6 3 of Diana w i t h her nymphs, but s u r e l y i t i l l u s t r a t e s a d e f i n i t e episode though there i s no te x t that seems e n t i r e l y 36 to f i t the circumstances. I t i s not Mercury c a r r y i n g robes to Diana f o r he i s not c a r r y i n g them, and she i s cl o t h e d . I t i s not l i k e l y to be Mercury coming f o r Proserpina f o r the s e t t i n g does.not l o o k . l i k e Hades, nor was Proserpina dancing.at .the time of her d e l i v e r a n c e . The composition bears some resemblance to another of the plaquettes' of the Estenische c o l l e c t i o n i n Vienna i n which ten g i r l s , . a l t e r n a t e l y : d r a p e d and nude, hold hands and dance i n a r i n g in'the woods.^ In the r i g h t foreground s i t two g i r l s , one p l a y i n g a f l u t e , the other a cythera. At the l e f t one g i r l s i t s p l a y i n g the cythera, and a second stands p l a y i n g a tambourine. In the middle-ground a s a t y r spies on the scene from behind a t r e e . In the V i l l a G i u l i a scene there are only.nine dancers, one of whom i s Diana or Luna. The players are posed d i f f e r e n t l y , three have tambourines and one cymbals, and Mercury replaces the s a t y r . The plaquette has no dog or bows and arrows. The general f e e l i n g and some of the f i g u r e s e s p e c i a l l y Diana and the f i v e dancers to her l e f t are very s i m i l a r . B e r l i n e r has i d e n t i f i e d the d e l l a Porta scene as st o r y of the A p u l i a n shepherd r e l a t e d i n Ovid's Metamorphoses 14. 517-526.^ The V i l l a G i u l i a scene cannot represent the A p u l i a n shepherd because t h i s t a l e mentions n e i t h e r Mercury nor Diana. The dancing f i g u r e s . o f Taddeo's composition are based not on d e l l a Porta but on a ..work by Marc Antonio Raimondi, 37 Dance of i n f a n t s and cupids a f t e r Raphael. Nine c h i l d r e n dance; the two winged cupids.are i n the p o s i t i o n of Diana and the f i g u r e to her l e f t , and the other seven c h i l d r e n are s i m i l a r posed, the l a s t one .passing under.the arms of the f i r s t two as i n the V i l l a G i u l i a composition. A l a t e r p i c t o r i a l v a r i a t i o n i s found on the cover of a harpsichord i n the Musee du Conservatoire de Musique de P a r i s . ^ This v e r s i o n has e i g h t women dancing i n a c i r c l e , the f o u r t h one passing under the arch made by two of her companions, one tambourine p l a y e r , two dogs, and i n the background a f i g u r e w i t h upraised hands. The s e t t i n g i s again a f o r e s t glade. With i t s companion p i e c e , a v i s i t of Minerva to the Muses, i t i s meant to show that music i s as noble as i t i s pure, a meaning that has no a p p l i c a t i o n i n the V i l l a G i u l i a . The V i l l a G i u l i a scene would f i t the French b a l l e t of the b a t t l e of nymphs and cupids, and i t might be r e l a t e d to that b a l l e t ' s unknown source.. The mood i s s u i t e d to the, theme of Mercury d e l i v e r i n g a challenge to a b a t t l e i n which Love w i l l defeat C h a s t i t y . The two neighbouring panels would be the defeated D i a n a . r e t r e a t i n g , and the triumphant Cupid accepting the surrender of arms from the vanquished nymphs. Unexplained, however, are the reasons why Diana c a r r i e s away the d r a p e r i e s , and why Cupid i s bound to the t r e e . 38 The l a s t panel shows a group of eighteen women, draped i n white, r e d , purple and yellow., a l l but two of whom hold yellow j a r s , and.eight winged boys, seven of whom are o f f e r i n g baskets of yellow f r u i t s to the women. To the r i g h t stands a. goat on h i s hind legs n i b b l i n g at a p l a n t . The s e t t i n g i s again.a wooded.one. In the l e f t middleground three standing women pour water from t h e i r j a r s i n t o the j a r s of three seated.women before them. Three women bearing j a r s ascend a h i l l . In the l e f t f o r e -ground s i t s a woman, her r i g h t hand h o l d i n g her j a r , w h i l e her l e f t elbow r e s t s on i t s rim and her l e f t hand supports her c h i n as she stares o f f i n t o the d i s t a n c e , p o s s i b l y at the goat. In the centre foreground a winged c h i l d dabbles h i s hands i n a t i n y stream. "Beside him s i t two women w i t h j a r s poised h o r i z o n t a l l y , a stream of l i q u i d pouring from the j a r of the nearer one who looks.out at the spe c t a t o r . The f a r t h e r one takes a piece of f r u i t from the basket held by one of the c h i l d r e n whose companion's arm i s round h i s shoulder. In the r i g h t corner another p a i r of women s i t together, the r i g h t ' hand of one r e s t i n g on her upturned j a r , w h i l e the l e f t arm of the other r e s t s on.the side of her h o r i z o n t a l j a r from which l i q u i d pours. Behind them a woman hold i n g an up r i g h t j a r in.her r i g h t arm takes a piece of f r u i t from a basket held by f i v e c h i l d r e n and a 39 woman. Behind them again two women walk down the path one w i t h a j a r i n her arm, the other w i t h her r i g h t arm embracing the former's shoulder. The goat, Capricorn, i s the s i g n of winter and December, and he i s associated w i t h Saturn, Mars, Diana, Venus, Bacchus, Mercury, Pan, Pr i a p u s , Faunus, Juno Lucina, A p o l l o and Hercules. In emblems a standing browsing goat stood f o r e i t h e r unthankfulness or ambition. He al s o s i g n i f i e d the f e c u n d i t y of man, l u x u r y , childhood, and the c o r r u p t i b l e m a t e r i a l from which Pan struggles to produce temporal l i f e . Water j a r s belong to the Danaides, punished f o r the murder of t h e i r husbands by. being made to c a r r y the water of the Styx i n leaky j a r s . At the marriage of Ceres nymphs c a r r i e d j a r s and poured water, and a number of nymphs are associated w i t h w a t e r — N a i a d e s , Limiades, Ephyriades. Cupids are u s u a l l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h Venus, though they are also the sons of nymphs, or of Mercury and Diana, to the l a t t e r of whom.the care.of young c h i l d r e n was 69 given. The V i l l a G i u l i a panel has something of the mood of the Cupid scene described b y . P h i l o s t r a t u s w i t h Cupids gathering apples but the d e t a i l s d i f f e r too w i d e l y — n o n e chase r a b b i t s , or w r e s t l e or shoot arrows-- and P h i l o s t r a t u s does not mention the presence of any adu l t women, but the 40 f e e l i n g of the Garden of Love.is s t i l l present.'" The act of pouring water may mean t r u s t w o r t h i n e s s , the g i v i n g of the C a s t i l i a n waters to man, .or the apportion-71 ing to each man h i s share of the sweet and b i t t e r of l i f e . Water i t s e l f may mean d i s c o r d , and. the vase may symbolize 7 2 man's abandonment to h i s passions. 7 3 F r u i t may r e f e r , to C h a r i t y , autumn, Ceres, or t a s t e . J Apples are the a t t r i b u t e of the three Graces, and the apples of Hesperides stand f o r H e r c u l e a n . v i r t u e s , r e s t r a i n t of anger, av a r i c e and pl e a s u r e , j u s t i c e , p u r i t y of r e p u t a t i o n and hope 74 of i m m o r t a l i t y . The pear and the apple belong to Venus, 75 and the quince i s the f r u i t of marriage. The goddess of flowers and f r u i t i s F l o r a whose games take place at the end 7 6 of A p r i l w i t h dancing and d r i n k i n g . Pomona i s al s o a goddess of f r u i t s whose g i f t s are given and need not be 77 earned by t o i l as Ceres' must. When the. moon i s f u l l , f r u i t i s gathered i n baskets, f o r Luna has made the f r u i t 7 8 mature. In the labours of the months May and June were represented by the gathering of f r u i t . J u p i t e r was nourished by a she-goat on Mount Ida, and Bacchus was changed to a goat to p r o t e c t him from Juno, and again when he f l e d to Egypt during the war w i t h the. g i a n t s . Pausanias describes the nurture of J u p i t e r , one nymph c a r r i e s him, one has a.torch and one a water pot and 41 goblet, and two others have water pots w i t h water pouring 79 from them. Apart from the water pots t h i s d e s c r i p t i o n does not meet the V i l l a G i u l i a scene f o r none of the in f a n t s appears to be J u p i t e r . . Bacchus was al s o cared f o r by nymphs, by the same nymphs who reared J u p i t e r on Mount Ida, or by the Muse on Nysa,.or.by water nymphs, s i s t e r s of h i s mother, or by daughters.of the r i v e r Acheloo, and he 8 0 was c a r r i e d to them i n the shape of a k i d by Hermes. Thus the goat to the r i g h t might be . Bacchus ,. and. the women: w i t h the j a r s the water-nymphs, h i s nurses. V e n t u r i c a l l s t h i s panel a banquet of nymphs served 81 by amorini i n the open country. I t i s t h i s , but i t must have some more p r e c i s e meaning to take i n t o account the presence of the goat and the water c a r r i e r s . Gere suggests that V a s a r i i n r e f e r r i n g to Parnassus was r e c o l l e c t i n g t h i s 8 2 panel as the Muses at the C a s t a l i a n s p r i n g , but these women la c k both the a t t r i b u t e s of the Muses and t h e i r i n t e l l e c t u a l appearance. The women c a r r y i n g water might a l l u d e to the Aqua Virgo and the goat, Capricorn, to J u l i u s . There seems to be no t e x t that describes the scene represented. There i s a co n t r a s t w i t h the opposite panel; nymphs v i g o r o u s l y dancing oppose languid nymphs being waited upon by amorini. I f the two Diana scenes are p a i r e d , then the banquet of the nymphs and the boy i n the tree should have 42 something i n common.. I f Diana and Mercury are taken as the parents of Cupid then some n a r r a t i v e may connect the panels. Though the exact meaning i s not c l e a r the general theme seems to be f e r t i l i t y — t h e goat stands f o r f e c u n d i t y , the seed, or f o r A p o l l o , the sun, or f o r P r i a p u s , god of orchards and gardens, the water and the nymphs f o r the n u t r i e n t s of the seed, and the f r u i t . a n d the c h i l d r e n f o r the product of sun, seed and water. The two sets of panels might be opposed, Diana against Cupid, c h a s t i t y against l a s c i v i o u s n e s s , or complementary, Luna a s s i s t i n g the f e r t i l i t y of the earth. The same elements run through.many of the eight panels. They are set mainly i n wooded groves, they repeat-edly include wine or water. These themes r e l a t e to the V i l l a G i u l i a s i t e , i t was wooded, i t was a v i g n a , and i t was served by the famous Aqua V i r g o . The trees seem to be oaks, the tree of mountain, which might r e f e r to the h i l l y grounds of the V i l l a G i u l i a . or the name de l Monte. The general motif seems to be one of the abundance of the earth which goes w e l l w i t h the vigna and the expansive p e r s o n a l i t y of J u l i u s I I I . Some of the panels, most e s p e c i a l l y the ones i n the south room of Diana dancings and Diana c a r r y i n g o f f the d r a p e r i e s , have a sense of movement making them seem l i k e 43 i l l u s t r a t i o n s of some n a r r a t i v e . Other panels, such as the N i l e scene, i n the.north room, have a more s t a t i c tone, as i f they could be i l l u s t r a t i o n s , or as i f they could e q u a l l y w e l l be e n t i r e l y a r t i f i c i a l . . c o n s t r u c t i o n s , put together from i n s t r u c t i o n s l i k e Annibale Caro's design f o r Caprarola, w i t h the i n t e n t of a l l e g o r y . Only one panel, the r i v e r of wine, i n the north room, seems to f o l l o w any known c l a s s i c a l t e x t , that of P h i l o s t r a t u s ' Imagines. The very odd mixture of objects.used i n the other panels, mushrooms, hedgehog and t u r t l e on a banquet t a b l e , goat and water c a r r i e r s , the N i l e and an unusual company of gods, make i t seem probable that the a r t i s t was f o l l o w i n g a p r e c i s e programme wi t h a very p r e c i s e meaning, f o r s u r e l y an a r t i s t l e f t to h i s own devices would have followed a known t e x t , or a previous p i c t o r i a l example. Though c l a s s i c a l t e x t s are not used the c l a s s i c a l gods are, and i n some panels--Diana r e t r e a t i n g from C a l l i s t o i n s t e a d of e x p e l l i n g her, the bound Cupid being worshipped ra t h e r than punished, the male.Olympian gods assembled gloomily above the N i l e without the f u l l company of t h e i r goddesses--it seems as i f a c l a s s i c a l t e x t , or an often used p i c t o r i a l theme has been i n v e r t e d or parodied. The subject matter of these panels must have been c l o s e l y l i n k e d to J u l i u s , the d e l Monte f a m i l y , or the vigna 44 f o r t h e i r themes were not copied although the V i l l a became a guest house f o r v i s i t o r s - t o the papal court a f t e r J u l i u s 1 death and i t s decorations were known. Some of the panels are v i s u a l l y a t t r a c t i v e and had t h e i r subjects had a general a p p l i c a t i o n they might have entered i n t o the p i c t o r i a l r e p e r t o r y of mytho l o g i c a l scenes. CHAPTER I I I MAJOR STUCCOES 45 46 The centre stucco of the south room represents a long - h a i r e d , draped woman kneeling on her l e f t knee on a s h e l l and ho l d i n g a l o f t a s a i l w i t h a spar attached. The s a i l f l o a t s behind her ending i n a t a s s e l . Above her stands another draped woman grasping the spar of the s a i l w i t h her r i g h t hand while w i t h her l e f t she se i z e s the h a i r of the kne e l i n g woman. Her r i g h t l e g i s r a i s e d and her r i g h t f o o t forces down the r i g h t t h i g h of the kneeling woman. In the centre stucco of the north room a very l i g h t l y draped woman stands on a s h e l l . She holds the spar of a s a i l i n her l e f t hand and the g i r d l e of the draped woman behind her i n her r i g h t hand. The woman behind her grasps her h a i r . The kneeling f i g u r e holding the s a i l whose long h a i r i s s e i z e d by the woman behind i s Occasio or Fortuna. C a r t a r i describes Occasio as standing w i t h winged f e e t on a wheel or b a l l , her long h a i r streaming over her forehead. Fortuna can be winged and seated on.a b a l l or she can be i n the sea holding a s a i l . Van Marie says that Fortuna was p o p u l a r l y depicted as a nude woman standing on a globe, a s h e l l , or a dolp h i n and g e n e r a l l y h o l d i n g a: w i n d - f i l l e d sail."'" The globe was used more ofte n by the Germans while the I t a l i a n s favoured the s h e l l , and he al s o says t h a t Fortuna on a s h e l l or d o lphin could convey the idea of v i c e or s i n , but t h i s 47 l a t t e r i m p l i c a t i o n does not seem to p e r t a i n here. Wittkower traces the development of the Greek god Kairos from Time as a s e r i e s of p r o p i t i o u s moments, i n the Golden Age of Greece, to the H e l l e n i s t i c age when Kai r o s , became Krorios and the o l d Kairos became Eukaria a p r o p i t i o u s 2 moment i n a lapse of time. Lysippus created a statue of t h i s Time/Opportunity, w i t h winged f e e t , head b a l d behind and h a i r f l o w i n g over her f a c e , f o r a man had to s e i z e her by the f o r e l o c k ; when she was past.he had nothing to take hold of. Panofsky discusses the c l a s s i c view of Chance or Fortune: human endeavour could be powerless against Chance; Chance could be overcome by s k i l l , prudence and.wisdom, i . e . 4 V i r t u e ; or Chance and merit could go hand i n hand. A f o u r t h view had i t that V i r t u e leads and Fortune f o l l o w s . This view Cicero set out i n ad F a m i l i a r e s TO. 3,2 "Omnia summa consecutus es v i r t u t e duce, comite f o r t u n a . " ( A l l the most valued things you have achieved w i t h V i r t u e as a guide and Fortune as a companion.) C h r i s t i a n i t y and an omnipotent C h r i s t i a n God swept away the idea of Chance. Though the theory of f r e e w i l l r e q u i r e d some r o l e f o r Chance, the theologians denied t h i s p a r t to the pagan Fortuna.^ During the Middle Ages the concept of one.-generalized V i r t u s gave way to p a r t i c u l a r v i r t u e s bestowed on those'who 48 accepted Divine Grace. In the Renaissance the pagan Fortuna reappeared and wit h her the ge n e r a l i z e d V i r t u s r e v i v e d too as Panofsky e x p l a i n s . ^ The r e v i v a l of V i r t u e and Fortune reopened the question of t h e i r r e l a t i v e powers, to which the answer t h i s time was that the v i r t u o u s man could bend Fortune to h i s w i l l . Occasio or Fortuna became a f a v o u r i t e motif of the emblem books w i t h Fortuna a u t o m a t i c a l l y i n t r o d u c i n g the idea of V i r t u e . ^ When i n a Renaissance d e p i c t i o n a woman wi t h f l o w i n g f o r e l o c k balances on a globe, b a l l , or s h e l l , she w i l l c e r t a i n l y be Fortuna, and the woman accompanying her w i l l be V i r t u e . One of J u l i u s ' medals, undated, shows a nude woman, b l i n d f o l d e d , i n the sea on a s h e l l or f i s h , her v e i l f l o a t -ing over her head, while a draped woman behind her sei z e s her by the f o r e l o c k and to the l e f t . a snake gazes i n t o the mir r o r around whose handle he i s wound. At the r i g h t side g of the medal i s i n s c r i b e d the word KPATOYMAI--I am overcome. Another of h i s medals, executed between 1534 and 1536, has Fortuna standing mid the waves on a sphere or s h e l l holding w i t h both hands a drapery which blows out i n an arc behind her. Her companion, a draped woman standing on a block decorated w i t h a snake and t o r t o i s e or s n a i l , s e i z e s 9 Fortuna's h a i r w i t h both hands. In a fre s c o by N i c c o l o dell'Abbate, painted i n Bologna to c e l e b r a t e the e l e c t i o n of J u l i u s , a horse i s placed on one 49 of the three d e l Monte mountains wi t h c h i l d r e n c l i m b i n g onto h i s back, and some jumping and some f a l l i n g to the ground while o f f to one side stands V i r t u e , and under-neath i s . w r i t t e n "Dux v i r t u s f o r t u n a comes, mens conscia r e c t i montibus i s [ s i c ] p e t r i sancta ad f a s t i g i g i a v e n i t . " (Courage h i s le a d e r , fortune h i s companion, a mind conscious of r i g h t i n these mountains soars up to the sacred heights of Peter.) The c h i l d r e n p l a y i n g around the horse are probably an unusual r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of the wheel of fortune. Andreas. Masius reported that J u l i u s l i k e d to be respected, and looked upon as having achieved eminence from modest o r i g i n s . " ^ I t i s , t h e r e f o r e , q u i t e i n harmony w i t h J u l i u s ' view of h i m s e l f , that he should repeat i n the two p r i n c i p a l rooms of the V i l l a G i u l i a h i s long used emblem of V i r t u e s e i z i n g Fortuna. The four corners of each room.contain another major stucco f i g u r e . In the north room these are: 1) a woman pouring l i q u i d from one v e s s e l to another, 2) a woman w i t h a column and l i o n , 3) a woman w i t h a m i r r o r and caduceus, and 4) a woman i n armour w i t h a masklike s h i e l d , a long necked b i r d , and some u n i d e n t i f i a b l e object i n her upraised hand, and i n the south room: 1) a woman gazing a l o f t , w i t h upraised hands, 2) a woman hold i n g a c h a l i c e i n one hand, while she pours l i q u i d over the head of a kneeling c h i l d 50 beside her from a p a t e r a h e l d i n the other hand, 3) a woman h o l d i n g a c h i l d , with two other c h i l d r e n at her knees, and 4) a woman h o l d i n g i n each hand a t a b l e t . The woman pouring l i q u i d . f r o m one v e s s e l to another can be i d e n t i f i e d .as Temperance. Out of f o r t y -f i v e f i g u r e s i d e n t i f i e d as Temperance i n p i c t o r i a l sources twenty-six show her p o u r i n g . l i q u i d from one v e s s e l to another• Temperance could also.have a b r i d l e and sword, or s p e c t a c l e s , two keys and a. c a s t l e , a c l o c k , an h o u r g l a s s , a spray of f l o w e r s , . o r a t o r c h and a jug of water. The pouring of water from one v e s s e l to another symbolized 1 2 S o b r i e t y , an accessory v i r t u e of Temperance, and i n I t a l y t h i s was the a t t r i b u t e most o f t e n used. The second of the f i g u r e s i s . a l i g h t l y draped woman her r i g h t elbow l e a n i n g on a broken column while her l e f t hand r e s t s on the head of a l i o n . The column and the l i o n were both f a v o u r i t e a t t r i b u t e s of F o r t i t u d e . Of f o r t y -four examples i d e n t i f i e d as F o r t i t u d e , twenty-seven have a column or.a l i o n or both. Both the l i o n and the column are a s s o c i a t e d with.Samson whose f i r s t .notable deed was the rending of a young l i o n , and whose last.was the d e s t r u c t -i o n of the house of the P h i l i s t i n e s ..by the brea k i n g of the p i l l a r s of the house. The l i o n was symbolic of courage i n 51 c l a s s i c a l l i t e r a t u r e and was a s s o c i a t e d w i t h Hercules, a f i g u r e c l o s e l y r e l a t e d to Samson. The B i b l e too l i n k s the l i o n w i t h moral courage: "The wicked f l e e when no man pursueth; but the righteous.are bold as a l i o n , " Proverbs 28:1. V a s a r i describes F o r t i t u d e as armed, w i t h a l i o n at her f e e t , one hand on a sword while the other leans on a s h i e l d w i t h the Medusa head, and Ripa's Fortezza has 13 column, l i o n and arms. To St. Thomas, however, F o r t i t u d e may have a s h i e l d but no o f f e n s i v e arms f o r she must-endure but not attack. Here the f i g u r e w i t h column and l i o n , though unarmed, must without doubt be F o r t i t u d e . The t h i r d medallion a l s o contains a l i g h t l y c l a d woman holding i n her r i g h t hand a l o o k i n g glass and i n her l e f t a caduceus which may be attached to the glass to serve as a handle. Of f o r t y - s e v e n i d e n t i f i e d i l l u s t r a t i o n s of Prudence t h i r t y have a snake or a m i r r o r as a t t r i b u t e , and some have both. The snake was connected w i t h Prudence both from B i b l i c a l sources, Matthew 10: 1: "Behold, I send you f o r t h as a sheep i n the midst of wolves: be ye therefore, as wise as serpents, and as harmless as doves," and from Egyptian sources — accord-ing to Caro the serpent meant prudence i n wordly t h i n g s . The m i r r o r , "speculum sine macula," was i n the Middle Ages the a t t r i b u t e of the V i r g i n , and l a t e r became the 52 a t t r i b u t e of T r u t h , Prudence or Wisdom."1"" The mediaeval Prudence i n the poem by F r a n c i s c o Imperial c i t e d by Woodford i s two f a c e d and c a r r i e s a m i r r o r which stands f o r c i r c u m s p e c t i o n , one of the a t t r i b u t e s given to 17 • Prudence by S t . Thomas. The f a c e l o o k i n g forward i s f o r e s i g h t and the face turned behind i s memory. I f the f i g u r e has only one face and a m i r r o r , the m i r r o r r e p r e s e n t s good judgment. Lomazzo a s s o c i a t e s the m i r r o r . o f Venus used 18 f o r s e l f - e x a m i n a t i o n w i t h Prudence. Though o f t e n a snake i s wound around the arm of Prudence, a m i r r o r combined with a caduceus handle seems to be unique. The caduceus i t s e l f stands f o r peace or good f o r t u n e and i s u s u a l l y a s s o c i a t e d with Mercury, a god noted f o r h i s w i l i n e s s or prudence. The l a s t of these f i g u r e s , the woman i n a helmet and j e r k i n , w i t h a masklike s h i e l d , a long-necked b i r d to one s i d e and an u n i d e n t i f i e d o b j e c t i n - h e r u p r a i s e d hand i s the most unusual. Since the other f i g u r e s are Temper-ance, Prudence and F o r t i t u d e , t h i s one should be J u s t i c e . J u s t i c e , however, i s u s u a l l y p o r t r a y e d w i t h a sword and a balance or very o f t e n both. Of s i x t y - t h r e e examples i d e n t i f i e d as J u s t i c e f i f t y - s i x show the sword or the balance or both. In Ripa the m a j o r i t y of the v a r i o u s forms of 19 G i u s t i t i a have sword and balance. There i s a B i b l i c a l 53 warrant f o r the use of the sword i n Deuteronomy 32:41: " I f I whet my g l i t t e r i n g sword and mine hand take hold on judgment; I w i l l render vengeance to mine enemies, and w i l l reward them that hate me," and'.for the balances i n Proverbs 11:1 "A f a l s e . b a l a n c e i s an abomination to the Lord: a j u s t weight i s h i s d e l i g h t . " The scales of 20 J u s t i c e were t r a d i t i o n a l i n c l a s s i c a l times. The long-necked b i r d could be a s t o r k , a crane, or an o s t r i c h . The crane stood, f o r V i g i l a n c e , more p a r t i c u l a r l y the crane w i t h a stone i n i t s upraised claw, and V i g i l a n c e was an a t t r i b u t e . o f J u s t i c e . The s t o r k stood f o r p i e t y as i t d i d not desert i t s p a r e n t s . i n t h e i r o l d age; V a s a r i gave J u s t i c e a sceptre w i t h the s t o r k above and the hippopo-21 tamus below. The o s t r i c h too was a s s o c i a t e d w i t h J u s t i c e . Giulio.Romano gave.his J u s t i c e i n the Sala d i Costantino, 22 1524, an o s t r i c h and s c a l e s . Just as an o s t r i c h ruminates i t s food, so J u s t i c e ruminates problems.; and a l l i t s feathers 23 being of equal length i t i s a symbol of e q u i t y . Here the long-necked b i r d resembles an o s t r i c h r a t h e r more than a stork or a crane. The object i n the upraised hand.of the figure'may be the h i l t of-a sword w i t h the blade cut o f f by the frame. Tuve mentions two aspects .of J u s t i c e , S e v e r i t a s and L i b e r a l i t a s , symbolized by the sword being wielded and the sword descending 2 4 from above. The sword i s such,orthodox a t t r i b u t e of J u s t i c e , 54 that t h i s must s u r e l y be a sword descending from above. The helmet appears to.have a t a s s e l on the f r o n t and behind, two plumes; i t ' s h o u l d have three plumes 2 5 standing., f o r F a i t h , Hope, and C h a r i t y . The s h i e l d grasped in. the r i g h t hand i s a most c u r i o u s one f o r i t does not contain, t h e . t r a d i t i o n a l Medusa head wi t h i t s snaky l o c k s , but a grotesque mask wit h a snub nose and wide open mouth. The Medusa'head s h i e l d was emblematic of wisdom as i t turned men to stone and made s i l e n t those who d i d not-know, b u t . t h i s head i s q u i t e u n l i k e the u s u a l Medusa head. I t seems more.like V a s a r i ' s d e s c r i p t i o n of the o l d and u g l y mask produced by D i v i n e Love trampling upon V i c e . The p o r t r a y a l o f . J u s t i c e armed as to.head but'not as to ehest i s l i k e the p a i n t i n g of J u s t i c e by V a s a r i i n the Salon of the Palazzo d e l Vecchio where J u s t i c e i s helmeted to show, t h a t her mind i s not i n f e c t e d , and her b r e a s t i s 27 • unarmed to show t h a t i t i s f r e e : of.. p a s s i o n and animosity. In the south room the major stuccoes begin w i t h the draped.woman..whose f a c e i s u p l i f t e d and whose arms are u p r a i s e d and .hands c l a s p e d i n a gesture o f . p r a y e r . T h i s a t t i t u d e i s standard for.Hope.. Of.nineteen i d e n t i f i e d examples of.Hope eleven are c h a r a c t e r i z e d , by the p r a y i n g hands and h a r d l y any o t h e r . p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n uses, t h i s g e s t u r e . 55 From the f i f t e e n t h century on says Tervarent Hope i s represented w i t h her hands r a i s e d to heaven.^ Upraised eyes and hands are everywhere used i n the B i b l e to i n d i c a t e prayer, and Ripa gives the eyes r a i s e d to heaven, the arms open, l i f t i n g from earth.as character-29 i s t i c of Spereriza,.. d i v i r i a o 'cert a. The next f i g u r e . i s a draped woman hold i n g a l o f t i n her r i g h t hand a c h a l i c e , with.wafer v i s i b l e above the brim, and w i t h her r i g h t hand pouring water over the head of a kneeling c h i l d whose hands are clasped i n prayer. Of t h i r t y - o n e f i g u r e s i d e n t i f i e d as Faith.twenty-three have a c r o s s , and by f a r the greater number of these a l s o hold a c h a l i c e . None of them has a small c h i l d . The standard F a i t h holds cross or the c h a l i c e or both, though there are o c c a s i o n a l v a r i a t i o n s : Ambrogio L o r e n z e t t i gives her a m i r r o r , and Lomazzo describes her 30 w i t h her hands r a i s e d l i k e Hope and a dog beside her. V a s a r i i s the only person to connect water w i t h F a i t h which he does twice. In the Ragioriameriti he gives to F a i t h the water of Baptism, and i n h i s V i t e he describes a F a i t h h o l d i n g a cross i n her l e f t hand who baptizes a boy i n a 31 s h e l l f u l l of water. This l a t t e r p r e s e n t a t i o n i s c l o s e r to t h i s f i g u r e than any depicted elsewhere, but the c h a l i c e , wafer, and about-to-be-baptized c h i l d are unique to the V i l l a and are repeated i n the north room. 56 The t h i r d f i g u r e i s a draped woman wit h a c h i l d c l i n g i n g to her knee, another standing at her l e f t s i d e and a baby whom.she holds i n . h e r . r i g h t arm. Of twenty-nine p i c t o r i a l examples i d e n t i f i e d as C h a r i t y twelve have one or more c h i l d r e n with. them. Though other f i g u r e s , such as Venus, may al s o have c h i l d r e n , in.the context of the two rooms.of the V i l l a . G i u l i a t h i s f i g u r e i s c e r t a i n l y C h a r i t y , the t h i r d of the C h r i s t i a n v i r t u e s . Freyhan has traced the e v o l u t i o n o f . C h a r i t y from a woman performing an act of mercy to i l l u s t r a t e amor proximi i n t h i r t e e n t h century France, and a woman w i t h a to r c h standing f o r amor d e i i n t h i r t e e n t h century I t a l y . Contemp-oraneously i n I t a l y Venus was.given a torch and the ideas of sacred and profane love fused. Next appeared C a r i t a s w i t h a c h i l d who was performing.the act of giving--amor  p r o x i m i , then the s u c k l i n g motif was introduced. For a time Charity.had both c h i l d , and flame, but g r a d u a l l y the c h i l d replaced a l l e a r l i e r . a t t r i b u t e s , and by 1550 C h a r i t y i s normally the woman surrounded by c h i l d r e n that we have h e r e . 3 2 The f o u r t h f i g u r e i s heavily, draped w i t h . v e i l e d head and i n each hand she holds a t a b l e t . Her r i g h t hand holds the t a b l e t through a l a y e r of drapery, but her l e f t hand appears to hold.the t a b l e t i n i t s naked f l e s h . 57 There was no standard f i g u r e to make a complement-ary f o u r t h f o r F a i t h , Hope and C h a r i t y , though i n e a r l i e r c e n t u r i e s H u m i l i t a s , the. v i r t u e from which a l l others sprang, was used to make.an e i g h t h . f o r the. seven v i r t u e s . R e l i g i o n , Theology, .Pietas or E c c l e s i a would have been s u i t a b l e to make a quartet of the t r i o : o f t h e o l o g i c a l v i r t u e s , yet none of them was ever c o n s i s t e n t l y used, nor had any of them a standard p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n . There are s e v e r a l examples of R e l i g i o n , Theology, P i e t a s and Philosophy, ho l d i n g books or t a b l e t s . Here the two t a b l e t s might be the tab l e s of the Ten Commandments, or l e s s l i k e l y , the Old and New Testaments; the Old and New Testaments are u s u a l l y represented by books. The f i g u r e might.be the Old Testament i d e n t i f i e d by the t a b l e s of the Commandments and her v e i l e d head: I I Corinthians 3:44: "But t h e i r minds were b l i n d e d : f o r unto t h i s day remaineth the same v a i l untaken away i n the reading of the o l d testament; which v a i l i s done away i n C h r i s t , " and contrasted'with the s p i r i t u a l g i f t s , F a i t h , Hope, and C h a r i t y of the New Testament. The v e i l e d head might also have some reference to H u m i l i t a s . In the Stanza d e l l a Segnatura, between J u s t i c e i n the v a u l t , and the two panels i l l u s t r a t i n g the c o d i f i c a t i o n of s e c u l a r and church law, Raphael places i n the l u n e t t e Prudence accompanied by F a i t h , Temperance by Hope, and 58 F o r t i t u d e by C h a r i t y . These three c a r d i n a l v i r t u e s are s a i d by P l a t o to have t h e i r source i n the power of the 34 soul which i s J u s t i c e . To.complete the t h e o l o g i c a l v i r t u e s another w i t h the same transcendence as J u s t i c e would be n e e d e d — R e l i g i o n or Theology. The f o u r t h f i g u r e here may be R e l i g i o n as the C h r i s t i a n e quivalent of the pagan J u s t i c e . The Ten Commandments, the t a b l e s of the law, would, a l l u d e both to. the ..roots of the C h r i s t i a n r e l i g i o n and to J u s t i c e . . . V a s a r i g i v e s J u s t i c e t a b l e s , 35 papers and books.and.he gives books'to R e l i g i o n as w e l l . 3 6 R e l i g i o n being a l s o . a Roman v i r t u e , she would be an appropriate f i g u r e . t o l i n k the C h r i s t i a n v i r t u e s of the south room w i t h the pagan v i r t u e s of the north room. This f i g u r e i s probably R e l i g i o n . The major stuccoes .,in the north room' represent the four n a t u r a l v i r t u e s , those i n the south, room the three t h e o l o g i c a l , v i r t u e s and R e l i g i o n . C e n t r a l i n both rooms i s J u l i u s ' emblem o f . V i r t u e s e i z i n g Fortuna. The seven v i r t u e s and R e l i g i o n may be the components of.the V i r t u e of the emblem. In the north.room surrounded by the n a t u r a l v i r t u e s the f i g u r e s of Virtue.and Fortuna are both u p r i g h t as they are i n J u l i u s ' medals. In the south room amid, the theolo-g i c a l v i r t u e s , V i r t u e has forced Fortuna to her knees. This more c e r t a i n v i c t o r y of V i r t u e , i n a C h r i s t i a n s e t t i n g 59 seems e n t i r e l y appropriate.and perhaps s i g n i f i e s J u l i u s ' r e c o g n i t i o n of the a s s i s t a n c e .of those.same C h r i s t i a n v i r t u e s i n achieving h i s u l t i m a t e o f f i c e . CHAPTER IV MINOR FRESCOES AND STUCCOES 60 61 The borders and backgrounds d i v i d i n g the c h i e f stucco works and-the large f r e s c o panels are f i l l e d w i t h small stucco medallions, t i n y f r e s c o scenes and a v a r i e t y of decorative.grotesques. C i r c u l a r medallions are placed .at the bottom of each p r i n c i p a l border surround-ing the panels i n both north and south rooms, and i n the south room each of these borders contains as ,well, i n the middle, an oval medallion w i t h two f i g u r e s . In the f i r s t round medallion of the north room a draped woman,.seated, holds a palm.leaf or plume, behind her are three arrows or spears,.a. s h i e l d .and a sack. She i s surrounded by other objects which are not al t o g e t h e r c l e a r but which might be a helmet and c u i r a s s . No f i g u r e i n Ripa e x a c t l y matches t h i s one. His Clemency i s a woman trampling on a p i l e of .arms,.an.olive branch i n her r i g h t hand, h e r . l e f t arm lean i n g on an o l i v e tree, from which the fasces hang, and h i s seventh B e a t i t u d i n e has at her f e e t a p i l e of broken arms and armor and holds. an o l i v e branch."*" The palm l e a f i s an a t t r i b u t e . o f . P e a c e , who i s ofte n represented s i t t i n g on a p i l e . o f arms... This f i g u r e i s probably Peace. The f i g u r e i n the second medallion i s a woman, seated ( a l l the f i g u r e s are seated, presumably t o . f i t i n t o the c i r c u l a r form), draped.below the w a i s t , a trumpet i n each hand, the one i n her l e f t hand to her mouth. Fame i s 62 represented as a running f i g u r e blowing a trumpet. Maenads have two trumpets. Here because of the round form i t would be d i f f i c u l t to represent a running f i g u r e , and though she has .two trumpets rather than one, the f i g u r e i s . probably Fame. The next f i g u r e i s a draped woman seated on what may be a bench, her hands upraised.. Ripa describes f i v e f i g u r e s w i t h upraised hands, Paura, Preghiera a d i o , who als o has a flame i s s u i n g from her mouth., Providenza whose jo i n e d hands .are d i r e c t e d to a. s t a r , Sapienza vera who looks to a l i g h t above: the e a r t h , and Sperenza d i v i n a o  c e r t a w i t h upraised eyes. The second.Beatitudine has jo i n e d hands.and a dagger i n her.chest.f Because the next two f i g u r e s may be Ch a r i t y and F a i t h t h i s . f i g u r e i s probably Hope. The f o u r t h medallion depicts a.draped woman holding, one c h i l d , while one c h i l d climbs on.her back.and a t h i r d , o l d e r , c h i l d stands -beside him. .Children ...are an a t t r i b u t e of s e v e r a l p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n s i n c l u d i n g Elemosina, P i e t a , and S e c u r i t a s , and also of the goddesses Diana L u c i f e r a , and Ops.^ A woman surrounded by c h i l d r e n i s most l i k e l y to be C h a r i t y , however. In the next.medallion,-a^draped female f i g u r e , an aureole behind her head, holds in. her r i g h t hand a c h a l i c e 63 and wafer and i n her l e f t a s h e l l . o r . p a t e r a . f r o m which she i s about to pour l i q u i d , over the head of the c h i l d s i t t i n g at h e r . r i g h t . The c h a l i c e i s . a n a t t r i b u t e of 6 7 F a i t h or Theology. P i e t y can have a cup and a c h i l d . This f i g u r e taken i n conjunction w i t h the two preceding ones i s F a i t h , a r e p e t i t i o n of the most unusual F a i t h of the south room. The s i x t h medallion contains a l i g h t l y draped woman, winged,.holding.a palm l e a f , or plume, i n her r i g h t hand and a wreath, probably of l a u r e l i n her l e f t . Several of Ripa's f i g u r e s have a palm and garland of l a u r e l . F e l i c i t a eterna i s a youth wearing.a l a u r e l crown, a palm i n h i s l e f t hand, a flame i n h i s r i g h t and his. eyes r a i s e d on high, and G l o r i a i s a woman hold i n g a garland and palm i n her r i g h t hand, a sphere w i t h the signs of the zodiac i n her l e f t . Peace has a garland of.palms and holds a l a u r e l crown and an o l i v e branch; V i t t o r i a i s a f l y i n g woman w i t h a l a u r e l or o l i v e garland i n her r i g h t hand and a palm i n her l e f t . At her f e e t i s an eagle w i t h a palm. C a r t a r i ' s V i c t o r y i s a winged maiden w i t h a l a u r e l or o l i v e crown and 10 a palm branch. This f i g u r e i s probably V i c t o r y . In the seventh medallion s i t s a nude f i g u r e , back to the viewer, helmeted, a cloak over:.the l e f t . s h o u l d e r and what may be a spear i n the r i g h t hand. I t i s not alt o g e t h e r c e r t a i n whether t h i s i s a man or a woman, but since the hips 64 appear to be s l i g h t l y emphasized i t i s more l i k e l y a woman. In C a r t a r i A p o l l o , Mars.and Minerva c a r r y spears. At the 11 V i l l a . d ' E s t e Constantia i s helmeted and leans on.her s t a f f . V a s a r i ' s S i c u r t a . i s helmeted and leans on a spear.- 1 2 This f i g u r e may be Constantia.. or S i c u r t a. The l a s t f i g u r e i s a semi-nude woman, helmeted, a sword i n her. l e f t - h a n d , a s h i e l d w i t h a mask or gorgon head by her r i g h t s i d e . Ripa represents Guerra.as an.armed woman, a sword i n her r i g h t hand .and a. s h i e l d w i t h a wolf' s head i n her l e f t , Ragione as helmeted with.a flaming c r e s t and a spear i n her r i g h t hand, and i n her l e f t an o l i v e branch from which hangs a Medusa head.shield, and the f o u r t h B e a t i t u d i n e as haying balance: and sword. C a r t a r i ' s Minerva i s armed, w i t h spear and s h i e l d of c r y s t a l . This f i g u r e might be J u s t i c e , who may also have sword, and s h i e l d , but i s more l i k e l y Reason, f o r J u s t i c e . i s already represented i n a major stucco' i n the same room. The medallions in. the north .room a r e . i n t e r s p e r s e d w i t h major stuccoes and frescoes as .follows: Peace, f o u n t a i n goddess fresco,.Fame,.Justice, stucco, Hope, Bacchic f r e s c o , C h a r i t y , Prudence stucco, F a i t h , Andros f r e s c o , V i c t o r y , F o r t i t u d e . s t u c c o , Constantia (or S i c u r t a , ) , Feast of gods . f r e s c o , Reason, Temperance stucco. I t i s d i f f i c u l t to see.any.meaningful r e l a t i o n s h i p between the medallions: and the adjacent frescoes, or stuccoes. 65 Temperance might produce-Reason and Peace or v i c e v e r s a , but i n the next corner Prudence seems u n l i k e l y to be e i t h e r the cause or the e f f e c t . o f C h a r i t y and F a i t h . S i m i l a r l y i t i s hard to work out any necessary connection between Hope, C h a r i t y and a. Bacchic f e a s t , unless i t i s that Bacchus i s Jesus, the true v i n e ; or F a i t h , the River of Andros and V i c t o r y , unless wine.is the blood of the v i c t o r i o u s C h r i s t - - i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s . . w h i c h seem h i g h l y f o r c e d . T h e . f i r s t small medallion in. the south room.shows a nude woman.with what may be.a basket of f l o w e r s , and a garland on her head. The nearest f i g u r e described by Ripa 15 i s Gusto, who holds a basket of f r u i t and a peach. Other f i g u r e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h flowers are Spring, F l o r a , Zephyr and Aurora. The second medallion here i s s i m i l a r to the second i n the north room. A winged.woman holds two trumpets, one of which she sounds. This again would be Fame. The t h i r d medallion represents a s i t t i n g nude man who pats the dog.at h i s . r i g h t s i d e . On h i s l e f t . s i d e sprouts a tree . o r a bush. The dog i s an a t t r i b u t e . o f F e d e l t a , I n v i d i a , L o y a l t y , Memoria, M i s e r i a , and Odorata. A l l except the l a s t of these are women. In mythology.Mars, Aesculapus, Lar, Cephalus, S i l v a n u s , Pan, Icarius,. and Orion, a l l had A  1 8 dogs. 66 A nude woman s i t s i n the f o u r t h medallion h o l d i n g up what may be a b a l l or.a.piece of f r u i t i n her r i g h t hand. Her l e f t hand grasps... the r i g h t hand of the small boy standing i n f r o n t . o f her who reaches f o r the object she i s holding w i t h h i s l e f t hand. . P h i l o s t r a t u s the Younger, describes a p i c t u r e . o f Venus showing Cupid a 19 gold b a l l w i t h which she i s . b r i b i n g him to f e t c h Medea. He c l i n g s to her dress begging her to keep her promise. This p a i r are l i k e l y Venus and Cupid. The next medallion shows a l i g h t l y draped woman with a peacock beside her. The peacock i s the a t t r i b u t e 20 of Juno. Ripa gives Superbia a peacock and a m i r r o r . This f i g u r e has no mi r r o r and i s l i k e l y Juno. The h a l f draped woman i n the s i x t h medallion holds a sheaf of g r a i n and has.a garland of g r a i n . . A small c h i l d i s seated to the r i g h t . Ripa's Abondanza, Conservation, Summer (Ceres), Peace, and Sostariza have g r a i n as an a t t r i b u t e 21 and Fecondita has a cornucopia and a c h i l d . The seventh medallion shows, a draped woman hold i n g a cornucopia of f r u i t i n her r i g h t , hand and what may be a. b a l l or a piece of f r u i t i n her l e f t hand.. The cornucopia plus g r a i n i s an a t t r i b u t e of.Abondanza t e r r e s t r c , plus s i c k l e , of A g r i c o l t u r a , plus a child.,, of Fecondita, w i t h caduceus F e l i c i t a s P u b l i c a , w i t h sceptre Providenza, or w i t h 67 a pomegranate and a crow Concordia i n the antique, s t y l e . C a r t a r i gives Providence a sphere and a cornucopia and 23 Concord a cup and a cornucopia. A couple of Roman coins • 24 show Concord w i t h a patera and.a cornucopia. Pomona i s the goddess of f r u i t . In the V i l l a d'Este V e r i t a s has a cornucopia of f r u i t and a purse. The l a s t of the small round medallions has a nude woman wit h a bow i n her l e f t hand and her r i g h t hand at her breast as i f she i s preparing to shoot an arrow. Diana i s the woman most commonly provided!with a bow and arrow. While i n the north room most of the f i g u r e s seemed to be p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n s i n . t h e south room some may be myth-o l o g i c a l f i g u r e s and others p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n s . T e n t a t i v e l y the medallions i n the South room might be i d e n t i f i e d as F l o r a , Fame, U n i d e n t i f i e d , Venus, Juno, Ceres, Pomona, and Diana. As i n the north room they seem to have no cl o s e connection w i t h the stucco f i g u r e s of F a i t h , Hope, C h a r i t y and R e l i g i o n , or the fr e s c o scenes, none of which I could i d e n t i f y e i t h e r . The small medallions of the north room use the more conventional subjects which i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the more r e s t r a i n e d mood of that room. In a d d i t i o n . t o these, small round medallions each frame i n the south room c o n t a i n s , half-way up, an oval medallion w i t h two or more standing f i g u r e s . 68 The f i r s t of these.oval medallions, above the F l o r a f i g u r e , contains a nude.youth, holding i n h i s r i g h t hand a piece.of drapery.which goes behind h i m t o cover h i s l e f t .shoulder and. upper, arm. I t i s not c l e a r , whether h i s l e f t arm i s around .the. draped woman..who appears i n p r o f i l e stepping toward him. The next medallion over Fame.shows a nude man, a club i n h i s r i g h t hand a n d - h i s . l e f t hand r e s t i n g on the chi n of the nude woman .beside-him,who holds h i s l e f t elbow. A man w i t h a club ougth to ..be Hercules. . I t i s harder to place h i s companion f o r he was.associated w i t h many women. An antique r e l i e f i n .Naples ..with Hercules. and . a woman i s i d e n t i f i e d as Hercules, and Omphale.. He.has club and l i o n -s k i n and she i s semi-draped. .According to.the myth however Omphale should ..have the..club and..Hercules her. drapery and 2 7 wool carder. I f i t were .Hercules.,'and one . of the .Hesperides , she should be-holding apples: and behind her should be the no snake.entwined t r e e . It.may.be.simply. Hercules and an anonymous nymph s i m i l a r . t o . t h e . a n t i q u e . r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s shown 29 i n Furtwangler and Vollenwieder. In the t h i r d . m e d a l l i o n .a draped.woman c a r r i e s a boar's head.on a t r a y . Beside her stands.a nude youth h o l d i n g a spear. The boar's head .appears . i n ..the. Meleager-rAtalanta myth, when.Meleager.gives the pelt.and head.of the.boar . to A t a l a n t a . 69 There i s no other instance of a boar's head changing hands. But here the myth i s reversed f o r A t a l a n t a , i f i t i s she, seems to be o f f e r i n g the head to Meleager ra t h e r than taking i t from him. I f t h i s scene were d e f i n i t e l y Meleager.and A t a l a n t a , the f i g u r e w i t h the dog i n the round medallion below might be Cephalus. I t would be f i t t i n g to p a i r two episodes of the hunt which ended t r a g i c a l l y . Next comes the medallion i n which a bearded man i s seated bound to a tree on which hang two pipes. Beside him stands a h a l f nude man holding a l y r e i n h i s l e f t hand. This i s undoubtedly an i l l u s t r a t i o n of the Apollo-Marsyas myth. P i c t o r i a l v e rsions of the myth abound, the meanings 30 are e q u a l l y abundant. The scene can symbolize the v i c t o r y of reason over p a s s i o n , d i v i n e ecstasy achieved by d i v i n e t o r t u r e , or the punishment of the presumption of a f o o l f o r 31 c h a l l e n g i n g h i s b e t t e r . In the f i f t h o v al a l i g h t l y draped woman wit h knotted h a i r touches w i t h her l e f t hand the chest of her companion, a man i n buskin, leggings and helmet whose l e f t hand r e s t s on her breast. A man i n armour i s l i k e l y to be Mars. Seznec describes the c l a s s i c a l motif of Venus and Mars as a young man nude, h i s l e f t hand on the breast and h i s r i g h t hand on the neck of the g i r l beside him whose h a i r i s knotted 70 at the back of her head.^^ This medallion I take to represent Mars and Venus. The next medallion shows a nude man hold i n g i n hi s r i g h t hand.what may be drapery or r e i n s . He i s k i s s i n g a nude woman whose back i s to the viewer. Her l e f t arm embraces him.. She holds what may be a piece of drapery i n her right.hand. I cannot., i d e n t i f y them. The seventh medallion has.a nude..woman standing her r i g h t , hand..to her br e a s t , a c h i l d c l u t c h i n g her knee. A nude man h i s back to the viewer, holds an u n i d e n t i f i e d object i n h i s upraised right.hand and another u n i d e n t i f i e d object i n h i s l e f t hand. The man's pose i s a threatening one and the. c h i l d shows fear.. These three might be Venus, Mars,.and Cupid, but the man i s unarmed and seems too clumsy f o r Mars, and. a.preceding.medallion represents Venus and Mars. I t might also.be Venus, Vulcan, and Cupid, w i t h Vulcan holding .the instruments of the forge. In the l a s t medallion.a nude man holds a bowl. A woman draped to the knee holds in. her r i g h t hand what may be a c l u s t e r of grapes and i n her. l e f t hand, what may be a bowl. The man has human f e e t , but h i s ears may be pointed. I f h i s ears are pointed, he might be a faun.or s a t y r w i t h a nymph i n some Bacchic scene. Only one of.the oval, medallions.can be i d e n t i f i e d w i t h c e r t a i n t y , the Apollo-Marsyas.one, a n d , . i f the round and oval 71 stuccoes are r e l a t e d A p o l l o and Marsyas might stand f o r reason over passion. Fame might have a l i n k w i t h Hercules--by chosing v i r t u e he achieved fame. A t a l a n t a and Meleager might be r e l a t e d to Cephalus. There.seems to be.no l i n k between Venus and Mars, and Juno. In the.other cases t h e " i d e n t i t y of the f i g u r e s i n e i t h e r the oval or the c i r c u l a r medallion i s so un-c e r t a i n that i t i s f r u i t l e s s to t r y to connect them or to t r y to connect them .with the stuccoes of the v i r t u e s or the fre s c o panels. Meleager and A t a l a n t a might be r e l a t e d to Diana dancing i n t h e next p a n e l . f o r she sent the boar to Calydon. But there.seems to be no connection with A p o l l o and Marsyas on the other s i d e . o f the panel, nor any connection among Hercules and h i s companion, Meleager and A t a l a n t a , and F a i t h who stands between them. The upper c o r n e r o f the frames, i n which these medallions are placed a r e . f i n i s h e d . i n the south room w i t h another set o f . s m a l l oval stuccoes... In the north room a small. frescoe.. f i g u r e , i s . set! i n an., arc over each of the V i r t u e s . In the north room, above Temperance a white bearded man r e c l i n e s on an i s l a n d . . At h i s f e e t a c h i l d holds a cornucopia. Reeds grow i n the background. The man may hold a n u r n a n d there may be.aswan i n f r o n t ' o f . t h e i s l a n d . 72 In general pose t h i s looks l i k e a r i v e r god. Numerous r i v e r s are portrayed w i t h a cornucopia--the Arno, the B i s e n z i o , the Euphrates, the Meduna, the N i l e , the Ombrone, the Peneo, the Po, the Tiber and the T i g r u s ; the cornucopia seems to show the f e r t i l i t y caused by r i v e r s r a t h e r than being the a t t r i b u t e of.any p a r t i c u l a r one. The Po i s the 33 only r i v e r which includes a swan among i t s a t t r i b u t e s . 34 The B i s e n z i o i s portrayed w i t h a. nymph,and a putto. Over'Justice i s ' a nude .female whose drapery f l o a t s behind and around her shoulders. She appears to be s i t t i n g i n a cloud. J u p i t e r i n the-form, of a cloud seduced I o , and i n the form of smoke seduced.Egina. J u p i t e r made an image of Juno from a cloud and t h i s image I x i o n seduced. Diana changed Arethus to a cloud to thwart the a t t e n t i o n s of Alpheus. Here the cloud appears.to.be.embracing the woman s o . i t i s l i k e l y that t h i s ..is. J u p i t e r and Io, or J u p i t e r and Egina. In the t h i r d corner,.over Prudence, a nude man s i t s upon an i s l a n d . His r i g h t arm appears to e n c i r c l e a basket of flowers o r . f r u i t . In h i s l e f t hand is.an: u n i d e n t i f i e d object. Behind him i s a small.clump of bushes. I cannot i d e n t i f y t h i s f i g u r e . The l a s t of these small f r e s c o f i g u r e s , over F o r t i t u d e , i s a naked human f i g u r e w i t h a large open winged b i r d behind him and clouds at h i s f e e t . An eagle c a r r y i n g o f f a boy represents the Rape of Ganymede. J u p i t e r i n the form of an eagle c a r r i e d Hercules to Juno, but Hercules was a baby. The.Ganymede episode - pictured.here . symbolizes the mortal soul being enraptured by the d i v i n e . In the south room,, i n the. f i r s t of the small stucco medallions, a winged c h i l d presents a bow t o , or receives one from, a draped woman r e c l i n i n g , on the earth.. She holds an u n i d e n t i f i e d object', in'..her l e f t hand and her l e f t arm appears to r e s t o n a.sack. A.cupid and. a woman i s l i k e l y to be Venus and Cupid, but Venus would probably be nude. The bow i s an a t t r i b u t e , of Diana:, and .though, she sometimes was Cupid's mother she was not often protrayed w i t h him. While r i v e r s are sometimes women—the.Ombrone, the Meduna— at t h i s p e r i o d the female r i v e r seems to have been r a r e . Simply because a f i g u r e r e c l i n e s i t : i s not n e c e s s a r i l y a r i v e r god, the oval form used_here imposes, a r e c l i n i n g p o s i t i o n . The second medallion.shows, a.nude.man h i s r i g h t arm r e s t i n g on a fl o w i n g vase, h i s r i g h t hand holding a cornucopi At h i s f e e t i s a small t r e e . That t h i s i s . a . r i v e r god i s shown by the urn, f u r t h e r than that.I.cannot i d e n t i f y him. In the t h i r d medallion a.nude man r e c l i n e s and holds a f l o w i n g j a r in.both hands. At h i s f e e t i s a.small tree 74 and behind him a clump of reeds. He i s a r i v e r god. Beyond t h a t - I c a n n o t . i d e n t i f y him. The l a s t medallion.depicts a r e c l i n i n g nude man. At h i s feet.. i s ~a l a r g e .bird..which I. take .for an eagle. He does not seem to hold an,urn. A.man w i t h an eagle at h i s f e e t i s usua l l y . Jupiter... I f the b i r d were a hawk, however, t h i s could be A p o l l o . Of these eight .small f i g u r e s four seem d e f i n i t e l y to be r i v e r gods. The iconography of river, gods, w i t h two or three exceptions — the Tiber with the twins and wolf, the Arno w i t h a l i o n , the N i l e . w i t h h i s i n f a n t s , - - n e v e r seems to. have been e s t a b l i s h e d f i r m l y . The t y p i c a l r i v e r 37 god i s a bearded o l d man wit h an urn. C a r t a r i ' s general-i z e d r i v e r gods are long'haired bearded men l e a n i n g on a flow i n g j a r and crowned.with reeds, who.may al s o have horns 3 8 and c a r r y a rudder. At t h i s . p e r i o d the four, most'often used components were r e c l i n i n g man,.cornucopia, f l o w i n g urn, 39 and reeds. Other.elements i n the scene more.often i n d i c a t e the r i v e r r e p r e s e n t e d r a t h e r . than the a t t r i b u t e s of the r i v e r e s t a b l i s h i n g the l o c a l e . In a d d i t i o n to these.medallions., both, rooms include a v a r i e t y of .other minor stucco/or f r e s c o ornament. In the north room, .around the Fortuna . in,the centre, p u t t i i n stucco play.on swags of f r u i t , and then comes another 75 frescoed border w h e r e . s m a l l . f i g u r e s . b a t t l e dragons wi t h clubs,, or trap w i t h reins.long.necked.birds i n a reedy background. .. The theme of pygmies b a t t l i n g cranes i s w e l l , known in., c l a s s i c a l ..mythology and., was used i n a n t i q u i t y in..Pompeian.wall paintings.. ^  In the corners of the main borders over-Jus.ti.ce.-.and.Fortitude are grape arbours on one of which a putto.swingsj a . r e p e t i t i o n of the motif i n the arcade of the Casino.. W i t h i n the borders surrounding the V i r t u e s are vases, s c r o l l s , l eaves, rams, creatures p a r t l y human wit h b u t t e r f l y or angel wings, temples, f i g u r e s ' i n .tiny . medallions., s a t y r s chained back to back, cornucopia, many-breasted Diana, baskets of f r u i t and so on. On the.lower.edge a r e . i n s e r t e d ; t i n y frescoes where marine c r e a t u r e s , half-monster, half-man play and b a t t l e . In the quarters around the - v i r t u e s are.placed f l o w e r s , swags, b i r d s , p u t t i and grotesques. Along the lowest border at the c o v e ' i s - a l e a f y s c r o l l , of , stucco in'which p u t t i clamber and i n which are i n s e r t e d fresco.oblongs w i t h a design of long necked b i r d s . In the south room, the border. ..of. the Fortuna stucco i n the centre also.has p u t t i playing,on swags of f r u i t and then a narrow edging of lion.masks and. r o s e t t e s painted on small c i r c l e s . In the.next .border ..marine monsters , d o l p h i n s , 76 hippocamps, t r i t o n s , men, women and c h i l d r e n p l a y and b a t t l e among, the reeds.. Dolphins were connected w i t h 4 1 persons born under Capricorn, Julius!.. adopted s i g n . T r i t o n s and other sea. monsters., are.'often, r e f e r r e d to i n 42 c l a s s i c a l l i t e r a t u r e , and .abundantly.described by C a r t a r i . They were a l s o known from c l a s s i c a l r e l i e f s c u l p t u r e and by the s i x t e e n t h . c e n t u r y were used as d e c o r a t i o n , or to 43 symbolize s a l v a t i o n . o f t h e . s o u l . Hippocampi guided by cupids a r e . i n t e r p r e t e d ' b y L i g o r i o as :love.governing the 44 c r u e l t y of nature. In s p i t e of t h i s , being, a papal v i l l a , these motifs seem.more. l i k e l y .to:.be .used f o r t h e i r decorative e f f e c t r a t h e r than, t h e i r moral, message,. or. at most to harmon-iz e w i t h a general e f f e c t of f e r t i l i t y l i k e the decorations described by P o l i f i l o i n t h e . g a l l e r y , o f Venus i n the temple • f : , . 4 5 . of the sun. The borders surrounding, the. V i r t u e s ..contain a m u l t i -tude of ornament,. sa t y r s chained back to. back., a motif from the Domus. A u r e a , ^ flowers., M i n e r v a - l i k e , f i g u r e s w i t h helmet and spear, vases, t i n y medallions w i t h . f i g u r e s , monsters w i t h wings and animal f e e t , . p u t t i , and s h e l l s , , cherub heads i n stucco.. Into the flowers, and ..grotesques : of the lower border are i n s e r t e d . eight stucco /scenes,.. s i x . of monstrous marine b a t t l e s s i m i l a r to those above,. one .of... a b a t t l e of l a p i t h s and centaurs., and.one of:.a. l i o n hunt. 77 Around each of the V i r t u e s i s a border of masks 47 and s h e l l s or masks and l i o n s ' heads, and i n the r e s t of the quarters are b i r d s , t i n y medallions w i t h f i g u r e s , b u t t e r f l i e s , . s w a g s of f r i n g e d - c l o t h , winged f i g u r e s , l u t e s and l y r e s , g r i f f o n s , semi-human monsters, vases and l i o n s . Some of these elements do.have meaning, a l i o n . i s courage, c r u e l t y , and clemency among other things,.and the b u t t e r f l y the s o u l , but again they ..give. the impression: of being used 4 8 p r i m a r i l y and randomly f o r ornament. The lowest.border on the cove...consists .of a p u t t i , l e a f and mask edging i n stucco.within.which nude men and draped women.support . s c r o l l s c o n t a i n i n g small-frescoes of cupids w i t h swags and garlands o f . f r u i t and f l o w e r s , cupids making f i r e , c a r r y i n g a pork, carcass., sheafs .of.grain and baskets, and r o a s t i n g meat .on a spit,. cupids. c a r r y i n g grapes to a hogshead, and cupids bringing, i n .a ..basket of f r u i t from which they.make swags.: P i c a r d . discusses :the.~J3acchic s a c r i f i c e . of a p i g as symbolic of p u r i f i c a t i o n by c a t h a r s i s , but here there i s not the metal ..cauldron:..that..he f i n d s necessary to 49 the theme. Bacchanals of .children., such as these, were popular i n the s i x t e e n t h .century...and .probably, have no. more s i g n i f i c a n c e , than appears: on. the, surface--a..playful t r e a t -ment of.the harvest.from an abundant earth. Antique motifs .used i n ornamental, work, were taken from sarcophagi. and such •-architecture as triumphal arches 78 even before the discovery of the Domus Aurea at the end of the f i f t e e n t h c e n t u r y . ^ .. Indeed c l a s s i c a l frescoes may have been known before.-that discovery; S t e r l i n g says that more such works, may ..have been . seen i n the .fourteenth than i n the two succeeding, c e n t u r i e s By the end of the Quattrocento an i n c l i n a t i o n toward -grotesque ornament already existed,, w i t h c l a s s i c a l .elements from, sarcophagi and a r c h i t e c t u r e being.combined, w i t h grotesque elements i n 52 Gothic. The motifs from the Domus. Aurea r e i n f o r c e d and enriched the bent, and the red i s c o v e r y . o f the technique of stucco by Giovanni da Udine expanded the p o s s i b i l i t i e s of t h i s type of decorative work. In the c l a s s i c a l ornament l i k e that of the Domus Aurea there appears to have been no i c o n o l o g i c a l meaning a n c i e n t l y , an idea d i f f i c u l t f o r some-sixteenth century a n t i q u a r i a n s to accept, and: -Pirro. L i g o r i o . t r i e d . to e s t a b l i s h 53 a symbolism for-grotesques. . Absence of.meaning supposedly gave to the a r t i s t freedom to improvise, freedom from the r e s t r i c t i o n s of a programme.^ Upon reading.a programme l i k e that of Annibal Caro's.for .Caprarola, however, which goes i n t o great d e t a i l for.even.minor p a r t s . o f . t h e work, one wonders e x a c t l y how much freedom was„in f a c t ' l e f t to the a r t i s t . A comparison of the minor, decorations.: i n the north and south.rooms of the V i l l a G i u l i a . r e v e a l s great d i f f e r e n c e s 79 i n q u a n t i t y and q u a l i t y . The south room.has more decora-t i o n , f o r example around the V i r t u e s . i s a f r i e z e of masks and s h e l l s , while there are only, marginal l i n e s around them i n the.north room,.and . the. cove.border.contains the v a r i e d p u t t i scenes, whereas the north cove ornament has only s t y l i z e d b i r d s . The stucco, ornament. i s f a r more abundant:, there are oval m e d a l l i o n s . o f . r i v e r gods, and.pairs of myth-o l o g i c a l f i g u r e s i n the borders and .marine b a t t l e s i n the bottom margins. In. the.quarters.with the V i r t u e s the decorative frescoes are r i c h e r , more i n v e n t i v e and b e t t e r executed than i n the north room. I f one mind were r e s p o n s i b l e . f o r the programme f o r the two c e i l i n g s i t i s odd that Fame should have been used f o r medallions i n both north and south rooms, and that the t h e o l o g i c a l v i r t u e s , e s p e c i a l l y the most unusual.represent-a t i o n of F a i t h , should have been'used, as major.stuccoes i n the south room and.-minor stuccoes, i n the north room. From' one mind might .also be. expected a more exact p a r a l l e l i s m i n the placement of the minor.decorations, f o r instance small stucco ovals would have been used i n the p r i n c i p a l borders i n the same way i n both rooms. The d i f f e r e n c e s between the,minor decorations i n the two rooms lead to the b e l i e f that e i t h e r the a r t i s t s , themselves had some r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h i s part of the.work, or that 80 two d i f f e r e n t scholars, supplied, programmes. The greater richness of the minor decoration i n the south room could i n d i c a t e that the scholar, i n charge.-of, that room gave the more . d e t a i l e d - in s t r u c t i o n s . , ;.or:, that .the minor decorations were l e f t - t o the .  artists.,.'. Fontana and Zuccaro, and that the more abundant, ornament of the south room ..is evidence of Zuccaro's more' energetic" and ...fertile imagination. CHAPTER V THE: MEANING OF. THE DECORATIONS 82 Though the large stuccoes c o n t a i n i n g J u l i u s ' imprese and the t h e o l o g i c a l and c a r d i n a l v i r t u e s , and a few of the minor, decorations ..can. .be i d e n t i f i e d , the other decorations and the l a r g e - f r e s c o panels"of the north and.south rooms.of the.Casino, remain enigmas. We do .not know what the o r i g i n a l purpose.of these rooms was, but we do know that.each of them, was f u r n i s h e d w i t h a large marble t a b l e i n d i c a t i n g that they may have been some s o r t of r e c e p t i o n rooms,. and ..if. they were r e c e p t i o n rooms then t h e i r decoration.should have been important and meaningful. The only information we.have.concerning the frescoes comes from V a s a r i who states, that Taddeo Zuccaro: .... n e l l e prime camere de l p a l a z z o , fece d i c o l o r i ,nel mezzo. d e l l a .volta alcune s t o r i e , e p a r t i c o l a r m e n t e . i l monte Parnaso; .e n e l c o r t i l e d e l medesimo fece d u e . s t o r i e . d i c h i a r o s c u r o , d e ' f a t t i d e l l e Sabine, che.mettono i n mezzo l a porta d i mischio p r i n c i p a l e : c h e entra n e l l a l o g g i a , dove s i scende a l i a , fonte dell'acqua vergine.1 In theory a plan.of decoration.might have.been based on some b i o g r a p h i c a l d e t a i l i n t h e . l i f e . o f . J u l i u s , the h i s t o r y of the d e l Monte f a m i l y , t h e . p r i o r h i s t o r y of the s i t e or i t s contemporary uses,.or the purposes f o r which the V i l l a was b u i l t , . o r on-some .of the quartet themes, the seasons, the ages .of man, and so.on, or on a.cycle'of myth-o l o g i c a l n a r r a t i v e . 83 The personal a s t r o l o g i c a l - c h a r t of J u l i u s might be r e f e r r e d to in.the decoration, of the .south room i n the f o u r t h panel of which are.represented Capricorn and the water c a r r i e r s , the two houses of Saturn, and i n the other, panels, Venus., Luna., Mercury and A p o l l o . 2 Saturn i s c o l d l i k e h i s houses,.and brings death. I f the banquet of the nymphs.stands f o r death i t must be some v e r s i o n of t h e . E l y s i a n . f i e l d s . The opposite panel contains Luna and A p o l l o , the Sun, who b r i n g l i f e . Mercury, the Sun, and the Moon are r e s p e c t i v e l y the f i f t h , s i x t h and seventh p l a n e t s . J u l i u s took Capricorn as the. s i g n of h i s b i r t h , but the other c o n s t e l l a t i o n s and planets, seem to have no s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r him. The north room, has.no a s t r o l o g i c a l references. In the north room., thescene..of..the gods over the N i l e might be e i t h e r a f e a s t ' o r a . c o u n c i l . o f the gods. I f i t were a c o u n c i l then i t might have some connection.with J u l i u s 3 being a delegate,to the Council of Trent... This l i n e of thought does not seem to be c a r r i e d o u t . i n the.other panels. The t h e o l o g i c a l v i r t u e s are the only references to J u l i u s as Pope and.any C h r i s t i a n might have used those. Nor.is any c l e a r connection w i t h mountains, to be found The s i t e of. the Bacchic f e a s t could.be Mount Parnassus where every other year a f e s t i v a l of Bacchus took p l a c e . A f e a s t 84 of the gods should take place on Mount Olympus, here i t i s t a k i n g place, i n the sky..over the N i l e . In the south room the. l o c a l e .might....or might not-be. .mountainous , and n o . p a r t i c u l a r mountains.seem to be r e f e r r e d t o . The del.Monte family.was not.a d i s t i n g u i s h e d one, though, i t was.supposedly"of Etruscan o r i g i n , a source of p r i d e to J u l i u s . The .scenes, of .the Sabines ..might have Etruscan r e f e r e n c e s , but there..are. none evident in: these c e i l i n g s . The . s i t e ' of . the'.Villa, .does;:have an., h i s t o r i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e . ...It i s the. place, .where... the f e a s t of Anna Perenna described i n Ovid's F a s t i , 3. 523-542, was c e l e b r a t e d , but t h i s f a c t was .unknown"in 1550 f o r the i n s c r i p t i o n l o c a t i n g , i t here was. not rediscovered u n t i l the eighteenth century. The main features of the vigna i n J u l i u s ' time were i t s h i l l i n e s s , . i t s v i neyards, i t s woods, l i k e Olympus and Parnassus it...was .covered w i t h t r e e s , 5 the, neighbour-ing T i b e r , and the'Aqua V i r g o . t r a n s p o r t e d b y : J u l i u s from the T r e v i f o u n t a i n . . Most of the. panels ..have trees:.in the back-ground. The River of Andros." and the. .Bacchic f e a s t are connected w i t h vineyards.. Rivers and ..waters c e r t a i n l y are prominent--the N i l e and the f o u n t a i n goddess, and,the water-c a r r y i n g nymphs--but ...none . of them, i l l u s t r a t e s .any. p a r t i c u l a r myth or metamorphoses .concerning water. . Three . uses ,. i n a d d i t i o n to-being' a.suburban r e t r e a t , have been suggested:, for. t h e . . v i l l a : .. a ., s e t t i n g f o r . f e s t i v i t i e s , 8S a s e t t i n g f o r p l a y s , and.a.place to house ...a . c o l l e c t i o n of a n t i q u i t i e s . / The- scenes -of .feasting:.in the. north room might indicate.. that. i t was... a., banqueting, . h a l l and that themes were chosen to ..match . i t s .use. ^  . The young women r a i s i n g the c u r t a i n .in the N i l e scene ..have., a . t h e a t r i c a l a i r , and Bacchus was the god of music and t h e a t r e . J u l i u s ' c o l l e c t i o n ' o f statues included, such.a: wide v a r i e t y of subjects that any .repetition:..of:...the..same f i g u r e s i n the c e i l i n g s , i s .scarcely. significant..:. The a i r . of c l a s s i c a l mythology permeates the .whole from„major.panels to minor' medallions even i f . there seems...to be no t e x t u a l b a s i s f o r i t . Since each room has ..four frescoes.. each room or both rooms together would have . l e n t ..themselves, to. themes based on a s e r i e s . of .four--the seasons.,...the . times of day, the elements , . the ages of man, ..the ages..of c i v i l i z a t i o n , the humours,-the winds, the parts o f the world. The seasons had,already.been.used twice i n the Nymphaeum and.once i n the.upper storey ...of,, the. Casino, but that would not preclude .the .same:theme being chosen again. A Bacchic f e s t i v a l might .be used f o r . autumn:, .and the f e a s t over the N i l e might r e f e r . t o w i n t e r j January being the month of f e a s t i n g , or.the.Bacchic scene might be the Ambarvalia of the spring.and the. N i l e scene, the l a t e summer, 86 but the Andrian and the f o u n t a i n goddess panels do not seem s u i t a b l e f o r s p r i n g or summer.. In the south room, however, the Diana and Mercury panel might be s p r i n g since Mercury is.a.god of Spring., l e a v i n g the panel of Capricorn, who normally, presides over January, and the nymphs f o r summer. The.four smaller panels do not f i t i n t o such a scheme.. In.the south room.Luna.and Mercury might represent Night, Venus Evening, Luna r e t r e a t i n g Dawn, but there i s no,argument..for Day's.being represented by the nymphs and the goat. With the other quartet: themes there i s no p o s s i b i l i t y of a s s o c i a t i n g more than one p a n e l . i n the s e t . Nor are the panels r e l a t e d to., the. V i r t u e s beside them. Schubring has i d e n t i f i e d the t e x t u a l sources of cassoni p a i n t i n g s of the f i f t e e n t h century, Ovid, Homer, V i r g i l , L i v y , the Ges.ta romahorum, Dante, Petrarch., Boccaccio, as w e l l as contemporary poets,.and states that the subject of the Quattrocento cassoni became the subject of Cinquecento 7 f r e s c o e s . Of a l l sources Ovid.was most popular. Neither c e i l i n g seems.to present.any sequence from a known c l a s s i c a l myth. The panel of Diana r e t r e a t i n g , and' the boy i n the tree at . f i r s t glance l o o k . l i k e - C a l l i s t o , and the Punishment of .Cupid, but a ..closer examination reveals that they cannot be i l l u s t r a t i o n s . . o f . a n y . a c c e p t e d v e r s i o n s 87 of these episodes. In both c e i l i n g s there i s an element of c o n t r a s t - - t h e .feast of the Olympian gods w i t h the r u s t i c d e i t i e s , . t h e . c h a s t e . a n d energetic. Diana w i t h the languorous nymphs. .. Both classical.and.Renaissance mythographers gave i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s .. to '.mythological.-f igures ;.that made them f i t t i n g inhabitants, of . suburban.,. .pseudoTrural v i l l a s . Bacchus stood f o r . theelement... of moisture and as such g became the final,cause'. According to Boccaccio, Luna, mistress..of woods, and mountains , gave 'by her humidity 9 f e c u n d i t y to", p i ants and. caused them to grow:. Her nymphs were water, humidity. Venus ,. said., G i r a l d i , was the goddess of generation, from whom a l l . . things arose. ^  To Conti the nymphs were the -part of..seed.or.water by means of 11 which generation.took p l a c e . The use of .Bacchus, Venus., and Luna may i n d i c a t e that t h e - f r e s c o . scenes:, are:, avsecular..allegory, of f e r t i l i t y , but I .cannot .reconstruct i t . Any Chr i s t i a n . . a l l e g o r y ' w i t h Bacchus as C h r i s t and ..Diana: .as. .Mary.:,...Ecclesia, . or the Tr i n i t y . , seems . out'of keeping w i t h . t h e i r .tone . Nor i n s p i t e . of., the V i l l a ! s. being ..built by a Pope was i t meant f o r r e t e n t i o n as.a.papal property.- Ownership.was l e g a l l y t r a n s f e r r e d . to Baldovino...del. Monte .in 1553,.. and from the beginning i t was a d e l Monte, not'.: a .papal e s t a t e , t h e r e f o r e 88 r e l i g i o u s a l l e g o r y would not be.necessary or even appro-p r i a t e . The question of subject matter i n Mannerist p a i n t -ing has l e d to much discussion., i n which.most h i s t o r i a n s are agreed that Mannerist works;.tend to have .some e r u d i t e or a l l e g o r i c a l . s i g n i f i c a n c e . As Freedberg puts i t : . . . Not .only from sympathy,but by the patron's and the c r i t i c ' s injunction.,, the development of contemporary l i t e r a t u r e ' o f symbol, metaphor, and a l l e g o r y was incorporated i n t o . t h e . a l r e a d y complex v i s u a l matter of Maniera a r t . Compounded w i t h t h i s v i s u a l matter, the masking and the m u l t i p l i c i t y of meaning given i n a l i t e r a r y program have produced, i n some Maniera p i c t u r e s , the m o s t . d i f f i c u l t rebuses i n the h i s t o r y of a r t . . . . But i n Maniera n a r r a t i v e s , .the meaning . of the s t o r y i s so i n d i r e c t l y given, so.much accompanied by i n d i r e c t a l l u s i o n , and so complicated by the m u l t i p l e senses of an a l l e g o r y that i t may defeat our.comprehension.even at what, should be the apparent l e v e l . . . . 12 13 With t h i s view B r i g a n t L a n d C o f f i n concur. Of twentieth century s c h o l a r s . v e r y few see Mannerist works as being readable at t h e i r face value'without l a y e r s ' of a l l u s i v e subject-matter.. One of the.few i s B a t t i s t i , who sees, with.the rise.of.comedy..in the s i x t e e n t h century, the m u l t i p l i c a t i o n of works w i t h e r o t i c or profane subjects 14 and no a l l e g o r i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e . In the Cinquecento. the. use of symbols and myths had 15 become c h a o t i c . The l i t e r a t u r e of the p e r i o d created new gods and new myths.and devised new myths f o r the o l d gods. 89 Into o l d myths were read many l e v e l s of meaning and new a l l e g o r i e s were made of them beyond the mediaeval Ovid Moralise or the Neo-Platonism. of.the f i f t e e n t h century. Mannerist s c h o l a r s . d e l i b e r a t e l y wove complex-i t y i n t o a r t to d i s p l a y .their .own erudition..and devised e s o t e r i c .works whose meaning would, be i n t e l l i g i b l e only to a small c i r c l e . o f l i t e r a t i . . . From G i r a l d i ' s b i b l i o -graphy i t can be seen that the greater p a r t . o f c l a s s i c a l l i t e r a t u r e was already a v a i l a b l e to s c h o l a r s . With G i r a l d i , 1548, and C o n t i , 1567 the content of c l a s s i c a l mythology was o r g a n i z e d . i n t o . s i n g l e t r e a t i s e s . With C a r t a r i , 1556, and Ripa, .1593, p h y s i c a l d e s c r i p t i o n s of gods and p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n s were s e t . f o r t h . For r e l i g i o u s works the Counter-Reformation began a.trend to r e a l i s m and c l a r i t y ; i n post-Mannerist s e c u l a r works meanings.and present-ations a l s o seem to become.more s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d . Perhaps t h i s trend to the i n t e l l i g i b l e . i n s e c ular works was a s s i s t e d by t h e - p u b l i c a t i o n s of G i r a l d i . and .Conti.,.. C a r t a r i and Ripa, which gave to a r t i s t s and s c h o l a r s . o f the l a t e r s i x t e e n t h century encyclopaedic manuals from which to s e l e c t s u i t a b l e myths w i t h t h e i r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s and stand a r d . d e s c r i p t i o n s of mythological f i g u r e s and p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n s . Only G i r a l d i ' s work would have been a v a i l a b l e to the.programmers of the 16 V i l l a G i u l i a . 90 Though not s p e a k i n g , . s p e c i f i c a l l y of the V i l l a G i u l i a Burckhardt .comments ..on.Taddeo .and Frederico Zuccaro t h a t - " i n . t h e i r , allegories,..unfathomable, because worked out. on. a l i t e r a r y plan., they, become c o m i c a l l y 1 7 p i t i f u l . " Rouchette;too:finds Taddeo's.work unfathom-able, "La peinture devient un: rebus, ( c e l l e de Taddeo Zuccaro avec l e s inventions.:de--A. Caro). On v o i t comment 18 1'invention est passee:du concept a u . c o n c e t t i . " Even so soon .as . a. .decade af.ter -the V i l l a G i u l i a ' s completion the.meaning must have . been.lost" f o r G i l i o , i n 1564, takes the decoration of.the V i l l a as an example of the p o e t i c a l v a r i e t y painted.at the c a p r i c e . o f the a r t i s t and a twentieth century historian.,. B r i g a n t i , w r i t e s ! . Non pud s f u g g i r e l a gran .parte di'responsa-b i l i t a che, n e i riguardi..dei nuov.i .orientameriti , tocca a Taddeo .Zuccari. , ..Gia n e l sesto decennio del Cinquecento.egli dipingeva. n e l l e s a l e a pianterreno d e l l a v i l l a d i Papa G i u l i o q u e l l e scene mitologiche i n c u i una p i t t u r a povera. e impersonale anima appena.la .vita d e c o r a t i v a d e l l e f i g u r e d e i fauni..e d e l l e n i n f e .che . s i . i n s e r i s c o n o , p e r - c o s i d i r e , con. p a r i t a ,.di importanza t r a . g l i s t u c c h i , l e grottesche., i l r i c c o . e pesanfe aggettare d e l l e c o r n i c i . . . . A l i a decorazione, di.gusto t u t t o r a f f a e l l e s c o , si.accompagna una continua e f i d u c i o s a c i t a z i o n e " d e l l ' a n t i c o in", un' atmosf era c o l t a . ed e l e t t a . d i umanesimO.alla. Giulio.Romano non p r i v a d i accorgimenti" esornativ.i: vasarianai., ; q u a l i avrebbe potuto immaginare: ad esemp.iq un Cr.istofaro Gherardi. S i capisce.pero che .una strada come q u e l l a , che s i abbandoneva cbn tanta p a r t e e i p a z i o n e . a i t f a s c o r s i d e l l a p i t t u r a d e c o r a t i v a , rimpolpata ..appena da b l a n d i suggerimenti l e t t e r a r i , era una.strada p e r i c o l o s a che s i sarebbe perduta ben p r e s t o . f r a l a .selva.regolare ed 91 anonima d e i f r e g i e d e l l e grottesche, su per i s b f f i t t i , g l i s c a l o n i e l e f a c c i a t e , se Taddeo Zuccari stesso non v'avesse.posto r i p a r o . Quelle opere g i o v a n i l i , i n f a t t i , restano alquanto i s o l a t e n e l l o s v o l g e r s i d e l l e esperienze d e l p i t t o r e . . . . Yet the eight p r i n c i p a l panels convey more than amiable l i t e r a r y suggestions... V e n t u r i c a l l s the Feast of.the.gods a parodia.of the Wedding of Psyche i n the Farnesina. I t i s not clear'.whether V e n t u r i r e f e r s to s t y l e or content, but certainly.some.of the .other panels . a l s o seem to be parodies--the scene of Diana and the bathers might w e l l be a parody of the C a l l i s t o . myth, the Harpocrates scene of. the Punishment of Cupid., and the Luna and Mercury scene of the .Apulian shepherd.. The frescoes of both north and south rooms represent more than f i g u r e s i n . a landscape, and there must be some meaning.to . the hedgehog, t u r t l e , and mushrooms on the t a b l e . i n the r u s t i c , f e a s t or to the banquet of gloomy gods above the N i l e . Even though the subj ects:.of the -frescoes, are obscure they are appropriate to:..such a - v i l l a according . to the theory of decoration.. V i t r u v i u s i n w r i t i n g of stage decorations mentioned the ..use.of trees , .caves, mountains and r u r a l images 2 2 f o r s a t y r i c p l a y s . A l b e r t i s a i d that f o r pleasure, houses scenes from r u s t i c l i f e were f i t t i n g , and that p i c t u r e s of landscapes, f i s h i n g , hunting and.country, sports d e l i g h t e d the mind,.while p i c t u r e s : of s p r i n g s , cascades..and streams 2 "5 of water helped those.with f e v e r s . . Lomazzo, i n 1584, 9,2 elaborated f u r t h e r on s u b j e c t s . s u i t a b l e f o r gardens and pleasure houses:,, fables-of., l o v e , metamorphoses of gods, nymphs w i t h trees'-and. water, Diana bathing w i t h her nymphs, the,.Graces bathing, Ceres, and her nymphs, 24 f e a s t s , dances and.seasons,.months and triumphs. The frescoes of the two rooms, meet the s p i r i t of these i n s t r u c t i o n s . The decoration chosen, .for. the . c e i l i n g s of the Casino s u i t e d classicaland..Renaissance theory of decora-t i o n , the s i t e of the b u i l d i n g , .a wooded t r a c t of land w i t h a vineyard and a famous f o u n t a i n , i t s use as a r e s t i n g place f o r . a c o l l e c t i o n of . antique .  s c u l p t u r e , and the h a l f -pagan m e n t a l i t y of the Pope'who b u i l t i t . . . Beyond t h i s general s u i t a b i l i t y - - a Bacchic f e a s t .for..a v i n e y a r d , scenes of Luna and her nymphs.:f or .moisture ^nd ..fecundity, embel-l i s h e d w i t h grotesques and stuccoes w i t h . ' c l a s s i c a l m o t i f s - -though.. only . one of the. f r e s c o ..panels .is . based on a c l a s s i c a l t e x t , the mood, of Ovid .is pervasive. The decorations of the r e s t . o f t h e " v i l l a , as we knOw them today, r e v e a l a repetition/.of themes, r e l a t i o n s h i p among themes, but no c o n s i s t e n t p l a n . The upper rooms of the.Casino are decorated.with.frescoes of landscapes, i n c l u d i n g , a c y c l e of .the four seasons,. a l l e g o r i e s of the 25 a r t s and sciences., and .scenes, w i t h mythological f i g u r e s . 93 Within the l o g g i a are placed the gods.and goddesses of the cy c l e of the.year and o n . i t s c e i l i n g a vine-covered t r e l l i s ' w i t h cupids ,.. b i r d s and . satyrs., . and i n the .centre "Helios i n a four-hourse c h a r i o t . On.the end w a l l o f . t h e . f i r s t c ourt-yard one panel has V i r t u e , s e i z i n g . Fortune, while below a satyr disrobes, a sle e p i n g nymph, and i n another panel two women, s a i d to be J u s t i c e . and Peace.,.. are about. to embrace above a Bacchus attended.by two winged.putti. On the c e i l i n g of the small room.in the Nymphaeum a stucco of four Roman s o l d i e r s meeting two women i s s a i d . t o represent Xerxes, meeting the mother and widow of Darius, or Coriolanus s u p p l i c a t e d by h i s . w i f e and mother., or. the discovery of the Aqua V i r g o . The reason f o r representing.Darius i s not apparent. The Senate rewarded .the.women who met Coriolanus by b u i l d i n g f o r them a temple to Fortune. Ammannati describes t h i s as the discovery, of the.' Aqua. Virgo a f t e r 2 6 F r o n t i n u s , but it.does n o t : f o l l o w the .text. • And f i n a l l y i n the Nymphaeum the opposite.' room. contains a . c e i l i n g f r e s c o w i t h J u p i t e r , Juno, Venus, A p o l l o , and..Mercury, A p o l l o and Diana., the .signs...of the Zodiac .and the four seasons represented-by the .triumphs, of Vulcan., F l o r a , A p o l l o and Ceres,.and.Bacchus and Ariadne. • Now vanished are the Sabine: scenes.mentioned by V a s a r i , and the Charity.and R e l i g i o n , Hercules and the 9 it-V i r g i n of the Aqua V i r g o , and the four elements — earth w i t h Eve and her. sons, water.with Venus and sea gods, a i r w i t h Juno . and the winds,.and f i r e , w ith men s a c r i f i c i n g — a l l on.the end w a l l of the.,first.courtyard.and described 27 by Ammannati. .A p r i n t of 1582 by Paolo G r a z i a n i shows 7 8 four.landscapes on the. upper storey of the Nymphaeum. The theme of the.year and the.seasons are repeated i n the upper storey of the.Casino,. the l o g g i a , and the c e i l i n g of the "Nymphaeum.. V i r t u e ..seizing. Fortune appears twice i n the Casino stuccoes - and.again on the w a l l of the courtyard. ...Charity and. R e l i g i o n aire. on. the same w a l l and a l s o . i n the.Casino. Appearing.only, onee are the a l l e g o r i c a l f i g u r e s , of the a r t s and. sciences,, a.commonplace, of the time. More.unusual and p o s s i b l y influenced:by c l a s s i c a l t o p i a are the scenes . of the Seven . H i l l s . of . Rome.. and ..the . V i l l a G i u l i a . The decoration ..thus .includes, recurrent, themes , the year and the seasons., ..highly .appropriate, to; a. suburban v i l l a , and other ..single, themes appropriate., to., the . c l a s s i c a l idea of a r u r a l . v i l l a , as taken .from:, the. Romans , to. the antiques c o l l e c t e d there, and to . the. bent of ..Julius'mind.. A survey of the whole of the decoration gives.the. same sense of improvisation-and impulse: that .is evidenced-.in. the b u i l d i n g i t s e l f . A w e l l though out programme.of - decoration might have been expected . . . for the. V i l l a - w a s . J u l i u s 1 main .preoccupation during the f i v e years of his.papacy, and.presumably he would be i n t e r e s t e d i n i t s decoration as w e l l as i t s a r c h i t e c t u r e . I t i s , . t h e r e f o r e , s u r p r i s i n g to f i n d Ieronimo Soperchio, an. intimate of. J u l i u s , applying to Annibal Caro , . a..f ollower of the ..Farnese, .£or help i n devising.a motto.for J u l i u s , a motto which was probably 2 9 f o r the V i l l a . . It.was to.Caro, too, that V a s a r i i s s a i d to .have turned f o r the:conception of h i s designs f o r 30 the V i l l a , designs that were never used. C e r t a i n l y the custom was i n the s i x t e e n t h century f o r a sc h o l a r to present the a r t i s t .with a verbal.programme of the subject matter to be executed i n an important .work. The r e p e t i t i o n s and the mi s c e l l a n y of themes i n the v a r i o u s . p a r t s of. t h e . V i l l a make i t seem probable that many minds, were working.independently of one another. Even the north. and south rooms... of the Casino d i f f e r i n s p i r i t , i n both major frescoes" and.in iminof. decorations. The f e a s t s of the.north room have, a s t a t i c q u a l i t y , an a i r ' of the set p i e c e , w h i l e the.south room scenes.have a f e e l i n g of movement.and n a r r a t i v e .as i f some new metamorphosis were being, acted out. In. neither, room do the minor.' decorations seem to be c l o s e l y r e l a t e d .to e i t h e r the major frescoes or the major stuccoes and both t h e . q u a l i t y and.quantity of minor ornament i n the south..room..surpasses: that of the north 96 room. Two minds as . w e l l . as ..two. brushes seem to have been at work.. G i v e n . J u l i u s ' f i c k l e n e s s i n . h i s treatment of a r c h i t e c t s . and a r t i s t s i t . i s quite., p o s s i b l e that two d i f f e r e n t s c h olars.should have-been entrusted to supply the ideas f o r the north and... south, rooms. I t . . i s u n l i k e l y that i t was l e f t to-the a r t i s t ...to. chose ..the subjects of the major .frescoesland stuccoes.,The.amount of l i b e r t y the . a r t i s t . h a d to ..devise the minor, decoration must be c o n j e c t u r a l , . b u t . t h e , r i c h e r ornament of the south room I take.as an i n d i c a t i o n . that Zuccaro, who.was to become the more eminent of the two a r t i s t s , . h a d some freedom. The object .of t h i s t h e s i s was ..to i d e n t i f y and. i n t e r -pret the subject matter of ..the works" by. Fontana. and Zuccaro i n the north and south rooms of. the Casino. Of the f r e s c o panels one is.based on P h i l o s t r a t u s 1 River of Andros. The ten major stuccoes r e p r e s e n t - J u s t i c e , Prudence., Temperance, F o r t i t u d e , F a i t h , Hope, Charity.. and R e l i g i o n , and. the emblem of V i r t u e and Fortuna, used-twice. Of.the twenty-eight minor stuccoes s i x t e e n represent Peace, Fame, Hope, C h a r i t y , F a i t h , V i c t o r y , Constance., Reason, . F l o r a , . Fame, Venus, Juno, Ceres, .Pomona, Diana,.and A p o l l o and Marsyas. The other minor . decorations .include-.river...gods ,.. Ganymede ,. pygmies and cranes, marine b a t t l e s . w i t h dolphins a n d . t r i t o n s , l a p i t h s and centaurs, a. l i o n , hunt,. .and bacchanals .of c h i l d r e n . The subject matter.of.the r e s t . o f . the decoration I cannot i d e n t i f y . The major. fresco, panels,, do not. seem to be a l l e g o r i -c a l and .only .one. of them can be r e l a t e d , to a c l a s s i c a l t e x t . . They might i l l u s t r a t e . a \ new mythological c y c l e , p o s s i b l y based, on one.of the works, dedicated.to J u l i u s , or they might.be parodies of o l d myths. Since the subjects do not-reappear ..elsewhere, i n panel..paintings . or i n other f r e s c o ..cycles , t h e i r . meaning, must be l i n k e d c l o s e l y to the V i l l a . Of the major stuccoes, the" two . c e n t r a l one represent J u l i u s ' own emblem,. V i r t u e overcoming Fortune. In a d d i t i o n to being s u i t a b l e . q u a r t e t s ' f o r the two s e t s . o f corners, the Roman and C h r i s t i a n v i r t u e s may amplify the V i r t u e of the emb1em. The minor decorations do not' seem to.be r e l a t e d i n subject to.either.major.frescoes-orlmajor, stuccoes , and a comparison.of t h e i r q u a l i t y , a n d q u a n t i t y leads to the conc l u s i o n that.some r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for,them was l e f t w i t h the a r t i s t s . Having been unable.to i d e n t i f y the. l a r g e r p a r t of the subject matter I.cannot i n t e r p r e t . i t s ' i c o n o l o g i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e . The whole of the decoration,. however, has the a i r of being w e l l adapted to the nature and.uses.of the V i l l a , and the p e r s o n a l i t y and tastes..of i t s b u i l d e r , J u l i u s I I I . 98 Notes: Chapter I Gi o r g i o V a s a r i , Le v i t e d e ' p i u . e c c c l l e n t i -pit t o r i , s c u l t o r i ...ed. a r c h i t e t t o r i , con nuove annotazibni e commenti d i Gaetano Mi lanes i C Florence:. . G. . C. . Sansoni , 1881) V I I , 692. ^Alfonso . Chacon, V i t a e , . e t r e s ..gestae p o n t i f i'cum Romanorum et S. R. E.. cardirialiuinvab. i n i t i o nascehtTs  E c c l e s i a e usque ad.Clemeritem.IX.P. 0. M.~ (Rome: Cura, et sumptib. P h i l i p p i , e t . A r t . de .Rabeis, 1 6 7 7 ) , . I l l , 755-56. John Coolidge., '-The . V i l l a ..Giulia: a.study .of c e n t r a l I t a l i a n - a r c h i t e c t u r e , i n the: midr-sixteenth x e n t u r y , " A r t  b u l l e t i n , XXV (September, 1943), 177-78. ~ 4 G i o r g i o .Vasari,.11 c a r t e g g i o , e d i t o e accompagnato d i commento c r i t i c o d a l Carlo.Erey.(Munich:. Casa E d i t r i c e Georg Muller., 1923), p. 226. This v i l l a was also to have a f o u n t a i n .and an.aviary: G i o r g i o - V a s a r i , Per l i t e r a r i s c h e Nachlass - Gi o r g i o Vasaris., herausgegeben. und mit k r i t i s c h e n Apparate versehen von K a r l Frey (Munich:- . Georg M u l l e r , 1923), I , 225. Coolidge, "The. V i l l a . . . G i u l i a , " pp. 182-83. "Mario . B a f i l e , V i l l a . G i u l i a , . 1.' a r c h i t e t t u r a — i l  g i a r d i n o , I s t i t u t o . d ' A r c h e o l o g i a e . S t o r i a . . d e l l ' A r t e , Opere d'arte, f a s c i c o l o XIV (Rome: I s t i t u t o . P o l o g r a f i c o d e l l o Stato, 1948) , p. 21. Jean.Jacques Boissard, :Romanae u r b i s topographiae (1597), quoted i n B a f i l e , . V i l l a G i u l i a , p. 26. Onofrio Panvinio quoted i n , [ P i e r r e ] Bayle, A general d i c t i o n a r y , h i s t o r i c a l .and c r i t i c a l - (London: P r i n t e d by James Bettenham, 1738), VI, 463. 99 Notes: Chapter I (cont'd) ^The components of P l i n y ' s Laurentian v i l l a were put together to give a s i m i l a r e f f e c t : P l i n y L e t t e r s and  Panegyricus, Loeb c l a s s i c a l . l i b r a r y (Cambridge, Mass., 1969), I , 133. 1 0Chacon, V i t a e , I I I , 756. -^Giovanni. Ferro., Teatro d'imprese (Venice: G. Sarzina., 1623), I I , 188. 12 Julius.may have i n c l i n e d to.the Frontinus v e r s i o n i f one of the s t u c c o - r e l i e f s i n the Nymphaeum d e p i c t i n g two women meeting a.group of s o l d i e r s does i l l u s t r a t e the discovery of the Aqua V i r g o . That t h i s i s the subject of the r e l i e f i s questionable f o r . a c c o r d i n g to the t e x t the. s o l d i e r s were- guided by only one maiden. 13 Hereward Lester Cooke, "The documents r e l a t i n g to the f o u n t a i n of T r e v i , " A r t b u l l e t i n , XXXVIII (1956), 149. • ^ T o r g i l Magnuson, Studies i n Roman.Quattrocento  a r c h i t e c t u r e , Figura 9 (Stockholm: Almqvist. & W i k s e l l , 1958) , p.. 1.8. "^E. M. Winslow says i n his. A l i b a t i o n to the gods:  the s t o r y . o f ' t h e Roman aqueducts (London: Hodder and Stoughton, 1963) pp. 55-57, that by 1550 only a small part of the o r i g i n a l Roman c o n s t r u c t i o n was l e f t . 16" Ronald M a r t i n . S t e i n b e r g , "The iconography of the Teatro dell'acqua at the V i l l a .Aldob.randini," A r t B u l l e t i n , XLVII (December, 1965), 455. A f o u n t a i n w i t h a s l e e p i n g nymph was a popular f e a t u r e of s i x t e e n t h century gardens says Otto Kurz,."Huis nympha l o c i : , a p s e u d o - c l a s s i c a l i n s c r i p t i o n and a drawing by Durer," Warburg and Courtauld . I n s t i t u t e s , J o u r n a l , XVI (1953) , 172-73. Columella On a g r i c u l t u r e : ' Res  rustica", Loeb c l a s s i c a l l i b r a r y (London., 1960), I , 61, suggests that a brook be conducted - i n t o t h e . v i l l a . w h e r e p o s s i b l e . 1Q.9. Notes: Chapter I (cont'd) 1 7 ' Georgina Masson, I t a l i a n gardens (London: Thames and Hudson, 1961), p. 135. G i u l i o Romano i n the Sala d i Costantino, V a t i c a n , Rome, i l l u s t r a t e s , a two storey nymphaeum with, an underground f o u n t a i n : F r e d e r i c k H a r t t , G i u l i o Romano (New Haven: Yale U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1958), I I , F i g . 75. 1 8 C o o l i d g e , " V i l l a G i u l i a , " p. 215; Andre C h a s t e l , The c r i s i s of the .Renaissance, 15 20-1600, A r t , ideas, h i s t o r y (Geneva: S k i r a , 1968) , p. 163; Fre d e r i c k A n t a l , C l a s s i c i s m and romanticism (London: Routledge & Kegan Pa u l , 1966), p. 140. •^Ra f f a e l e E r c u l e i , . "La. v i l l a di. G i u l i o I I I , suoi u s i e destinazioni,".Nuova a n t o l o g i a , . CX (1890), 97-99. u A n t a l , C l a s s i c i s m , p. 134; Jacob.Hess, Kuristgeschicht•  l i c h e Studien zu Renaissance..uhd Barock (Rome,: E d i z i o n i d i . S t o r i a e. L e t t e r a t u r a , 1967), .1 , 317; Tilman F a l k , "Studien zur Topographie und Geschichte d e r . V i l l a G i u l i a i n Rom," Romisches Jahrbuch f u r Kunstgeschichte, X I I I (1971) , 1.70-71; Erna Mandowsky and Charles M i t c h e l l , P'irro L i g o r i o ' s Roman  a n t i q u i t i e s , Studies of the .Warburg I n s t i t u t e , V o l . 2l3 (London: . Warburg I n s t i t u t e , U n i v e r s i t y of London, 1963) , pp. 84-110. passim.; Ch. Huelsen, ."Die Hermeninschriften beruehmter Griechen und d i e ikonogfaphischen Sammlungen des XVI Jahrhunderts.,"...Mitteilungen .des . k a i s e r l i c h deutschen archaeOlogischeri. Ihs:ti,tuts: Roemische A b t e i l u n g , XVI (1901 j , 126-31, passim. Z 1 J . A. Gere, "The decoration.of. the V i l l a G i u l i a , " B u r l i n g t o n magazine, CVIII ( A p r i l , .1965) , 200-202. 101 Notes: Chapter I I ^Nonnos Dionysiaca, Loeb . c l a s s i c a l l i b r a r y (London, 1940), I , 501-03. ^•Philostratus Imagines, Loeb c l a s s i c a l l i b r a r y (London, 1931), pp. 97-99. °Titian's work h a d . . l i t t l e i n f l u e n c e because of i t s l o c a t i o n i n the Duke of Ferrara's p r i v a t e study according to John Walker, B e l l i n i and T i t i a n at Ferrara'. (New York: Phaidon P u b l i s h e r s Ihc., 1956) , p. ,80. ^Imagines, pp. 97-99. i n f o r m a t i o n from ' the catalogue of the Gabinetto F o t o g r a f i c o Nazionale r e c e i v e d from Graham Smith. ^Neither Dr. W. E. Godfrey nor Miss V. M.. Humphreys, o r n i t h o l g i s t s w i t h ' the Zoology D i v i s i o n , N a t i o n a l Museum of Natural Sciences, Ottawa, were able to i d e n t i f y these b i r d s . ?0tto Kurz, "Huius riympha. l o c i : a p s e u d o - c l a s s i c a l i n s c r i p t i o n and a drawing by. Dtfrer," Warburg and Courtauld I n s t i t u t e s , Journal,.XVI (1953), 173. o P i r r o L i g o r i o quoted i n Thomas Ashby, The aqueducts  of ancient Rome (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1935), p. 171. ^Giorgio V a s a r i , Per l i t e r a r i s c h e Nachlass G i o r g i o  V a s a r i s , herausgegeben und mit kritisch.em Apparate versehen von K a r l Frey (Munich: Georg M u l l e r , 1923), I , 347, 356. "^Here the pipes have eight reeds. Pan's.pipes should have seven reeds to stand f o r the harmony of the seven planets says V i c e n z o . C a r t a r i , . Imagini del 11 dei de g l ' a n t i c h i , Nachdruck der Ausgabe Venedig, 1647, Instrumentaria Artium, Band I (Graz: Akademische Druck- u . . V e r l a g s a n s t a l t , 1963), p. 74. • 102 -Notes: Chapter I I (cont'd) 11 P l u t a r c h L i v e s , Loeb c l a s s i c a l l i b r a r y (London, 1914), I , 49-51. I 2 V i r g i l Georgics.. i n V i r g i l , Loeb c l a s s i c a l l i b r a r y (Cambridge, Mass., 1967) , I , 143. 1 3 Thomas Ashby, "Drawings, of. ancient p a i n t i n g s i n E n g l i s h c o l l e c t i o n s , " B r i t i s h School...,at Rome, Papers, VII (1914),52. 1 4 C a r t a r i , Imagini, pp. 73, 279. l^Athenaeus The deipnosophists, Loeb c l a s s i c a l l i b r a r y (London, 1927), IV,~~TT. 16 G i o v a n n i P i e r i o V a l e r i a n o l B o l z a n i ], H i e r o g l y p h i c a , s i v e De sacres Aegyptiorum,.aliarumque.gentium U t e r i s (Basel: Per Thomam Guarinum, 1567) , p. 6T^ l^There would be a r i v e r god present i f t h i s were the meeting of Bacchus and Ariadne .on..Naxos according to Guy de Tervarent, A t t r i b u t s et symboles .dans...1.'art profane, 1450- 1600: d i c t i o n n a i r e ,d'un langage perdu, Travaux d'humanisme et renaissance, XXIX (Geneva: L i b r a i r i e E . Droz, 1958), c o l . 217. 1 o Lucian The parliament...of the gods i n Lucian, Loeb c l a s s i c a l l i b r a r y (London, 1936), V, 423. l^Ovid F a s t i , Loeb c l a s s i c a l . l i b r a r y (London, 1951), pp. 31-33. 20 Ovid F a s t i , p. 173; Macrobius The s a t u r n a l i a , Records of c i v i l i z a t i o n : sources and. s t u d i e s , number LXXIX (New York,. 1969), pp.. 128-29; .Plutarch L i v e s , I , 49-51. 2 1Terence E u n u c h u s t h e eunuch i n The comedies of  Terence (London, 1891), p. 110; V i r g i l Georgics, I , 81. 103 Notes: Chapter. I I (cont'd) Eugenio B a t t i s t i , Ririascim'erito e barocco, Saggi, 264 (Turin: G i u l i o Einaudi e d i t o r e , 1960), pp. 142-44. " L e o P l a n i s c i g , Die Est ens i s che Kunsts ammlung, Band I: Skulpturen und P l a s t i k e r i des M i t t e l a l t e r s und der  Renaissance: Katalog, K u n s t h i s t o r i s c h e s Museum i n Wien, P u b l i k a t i o n e n aus den Sammlungen f u r P l a s t i k und Kunstgewerbe, Band I (Vienna: Kunstverlag Anton S c h r o l l , 1919), p. 189. Rudolf B e r l i n e r , "Eine P l a k e t t e n f o l g e von Jakob Corn. Cobaert," A r c h i v f u r M e d a i l l e n und Plaketteri-Kuride, I I I (1921/22), 134. 3John Goldsmith P h i l l i p s , "Guglielmo d e l l a P o r t a - -h i s Ovid p l a q u e t t e s , " New York M e t r o p o l i t a n Museum of A r t , B u l l e t i n , XXXIV (June, 1939), 150. Werner Gramberg, "Guglielmo d e l l a P o r t a , Coppe Fiammingo und Antonio. G e n t i l i da Faenza: Bemerkungen zu sechs B r o n z e r e l i e f s mit Szenen aus Ovids Metamorphosen im Museum f u r Kunst und Gewerbe, Hamburg," ' Jahrbuch der  Hamburger Kunstsammlungen, V (1960), 40. 'Werner Gramberg, " V i e r Zeichnungen des Guglielmo d e l l a Porta zu s e i n e r S e r i e mythologischer R e l i e f s , " Jahrbuch  der Hamburger Kunstsammlungen, X I I I (1968), 90, says that the plaquettes were designed but not used f o r the Farnese t a b l e now i n the M e t r o p o l i t a n Museum of A r t , New York. No one has suggested that they.might have been designed f o r the tables i n the ground f l o o r rooms of the Casino of the V i l l a G i u l i a mentioned by Bartolomeo Ammannati. " L e t t e r a d e l l ' a r c h i t e t t o Bartolomeb Amannatia Messer Marco Mantova Bonavides i n Padova Roma 2 maggio 1555," i n Mario B a f i l e , V i l l a G i u l i a ,  1' archit'e-t'tura—'il g i a r d i n o , I s t i . t u t o d 'Archeologia e S t o r i a d e l l ' A r t e , Opere d'arte, f a s c i c o l o X I V (Rome:' I s t i t u t o P o l i g r a f i c o d e l l o S t a t o , 1948), p. 31. °Henry Bardon, Le f e s t i r i d e s dieux; e s s a i sur. 1'humanisme  dans l e s a r t s plastiques" ( P a r i s : Presses U n i v e r s i t a i r e s de France, 1960), pp. 19, 61. 104 Notes: Chapter I I (cont'd) 2 ^ I n the Anderson photograph ten p e o p l e . s i t at the t a b l e ; yet another bearded o l d man s i t s beside A p o l l o . •^Gregorio Comanini, I I F i g i n o ; overo, Del f i n e d e l l a  p i t t u r a in. Paola Ba r o c c h i , e d . , . T r a t t a t i d'arte d e l Cihquecento  f r a manicrismo e c o n t r o r i f o r m a , S c r i t t o r i d ' l t a l i a ( B a r i : Gius. Lateraza & F i g l i , 1962), I I I , 572; P l i n y N a t u r a l h i s t o r y , Loeb c l a s s i c a l l i b r a r y (London, 1949), X, 47. 71 ^Imagines, p. 21. 32 -Herodotus, Loeb c l a s s i c a l l i b r a r y (London, 1960), I , 307-309; P l u t a r c h , The complete works (New York: Thomas Y. Crowell & Co.., 1909), IV, 746-47; Giovanni Boccaccio, La geneologia de g l i d e i de g e n t i l i , t r a d o t t a per.M. Gioseppe B e t u s s i (Venice: Appresso'Giovan. Antonio Bertano, 1574) , pp. 127-28. ^^Diodorus.Siculus Diodorus of S i c i l y , Loeb c l a s s i c a l l i b r a r y (London, 1946), I , 125. -^Bardon, Le f e s t i n des dieux, p. 8. 3 5 M a r t i a n u s Ca p e l l a De.nuptiis P h i l o l o g i a e et M e r c u r i i , B i b l i o t h e c a scriptorum graecorum et romanorum Teubneriana ( L e i p z i g , 1925), pp. 24-38.; Homer The I l i a d , Loeb. c l a s s i c a l l i b r a r y (Cambridge, Mass., 1965), p~! 153; Ovid Metamorphoses, Loeb c l a s s i c a l l i b r a r y (London, 1960), I , 15. ' ~ ' = ~~ 36 3 4 7 . CIaudian, Loeb c l a s s i c a l l i b r a r y (London,•1922), I I , 3 7 Bardon, Le f e s t i n des dieux, p. 19; A. V e n t u r i , S t o r i a d e l l a r t e i t a l i a n a , IX: La~"pittura d e l Cinquecento (Milan: U l r i c o H o e p l i , 1925) , V, 854. ! • ^ P h i l o s t r a t u s Imagines, p. 97. 105 Notes: Chapter XI (cont'd) •^Information r e c e i v e d from Graham.Smith; V e n t u r i , La p i t t u r a , V, 852. 4 0 F a s t i , pp. 69-71; Metamorphoses, I , 89-95. 4lQvid.Metamorphoses, I , 93. Reinholdus Franz, "De C a l l i s t u s . . . f a b u l a , " L e i p z i g e r  Studien zur c l a s s i s c h e n . P h i l o l o g i e , XII,(1890), 235-365, passim'. ^Problems i n T i t i a n , The Wrightsman l e c t u r e s , I I (New York! .New York U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1969.) , pp. 159-60. ^^Paul Schubring, Cassoni, 2 vermehrte Auflage ( L e i p z i g : V e r l a g von K a r l W. Hiersemann, 1923), I I , P I. CLXXXVI, 892, a Venetian work of 1450, has C a l l i s t o being disrobed while she r e c l i n e s on the ground. Raymond B. Waddington, "The iconography of S i l e n c e and Chapman's Hercules," Warburg and ".Courtauld . I n s t i t u t e s , J o u r n a l , XXXIII (1970), 260. °Erna Mandowsky and Charles M i t c h e l l , Pir.ro L i g o r i o ' s  Roman a n t i q u i t i e s , Studies of the Warburg.Institute, V o l . 28 (London: " Warburg I n s t i t u t e , U n i v e r s i t y of London, 1963), pp. 65-66. 4 / C a r t a r i , Imagini, pp. 256-58. Cupid winged i s the son of Mercury and Diana and stands f o r . t h e . l o v e of r i c h e s says Leone Ebreo,-The philosophy of .love ( D i a l o g h i d'amore), tr a n s , i n t o E n g l i s h by F. Friedeberg-Seeley.and Jean H. Barnes, w i t h an i n t r o d u c t i o n by C e c i l Roth (London: Soncino Press, 1937), p. 339. de.Tervarent, A t t r i b u t s , c o l . 363; C a r t a r i , Imagini, p. 190. 106 Notes: Chapter I I (cont'd) ^ C o m a n i n i , F i g i n o i n B a r o c c h i , . T r a t t a t i d'arte, I I I , 372. ^ C a r t a r i , Imagini, pp. 59-60. 5 1 C a r t a r i , Imagini, p. 284: Giacomo.Zucchi, Discorso  sopra l i d e i de' g e n t i l i e l o r o imprese (1602), i n F r i t z S a x l , Antike Go'tter i n der Spatrenaissance, Studien der B i b l i o t h e k Warburg, V I I I (Leipzig'; B. G. Teubner, 1927) , pp. 52-53. ^^Ausonius, Loeb c l a s s i c a l l i b r a r y (London, 1951), I , 207-21F: ^W. Leonard.Grant, "New forms .of Neo-Latin p a s t o r a l , " Studies i n the Renaissance, IV, (1957), 76-77; Barnabe Googe, "Cupido conquered,"Eglogs, epytaphes and sonettes, e d i t e d by Edward Arber, E n g l i s h r e p r i n t s (Westminster:.A. Constable and .Co., 1895), pp. 107-27; Schubring, Cassoni, I , 21. 54[Natale C o n t i ] , Mythologie,.ou E x p l i c a t i o n de  f a b l e s , oeuvre d'eminente~doctrine., & d'agreable l e c t u r e , cy devant t r a d u i t t e par I . de Montlyard ( P a r i s : Chez P i e r r e Chevalier et Samuel Thiboust,,. 1627) , pp. 240-41; C a r t a r i , Imagini, p. 54. ^ C a r t a r i , . I m a g i n i , p. 166. 5 6 I b i d . , p. 51." Emile Male, L'art r e l i g i e u x . .apres l e Concile de Trente ( P a r i s : L i b r a i r i e Armand C o l i n , 193 2), pp. 397-98. S ^ I r i s brought news of p e s t i l e n c e , war.or d i s a s t e r says C a r t a r i , Imagini, p. 166. 59 V a l e r i a n o [Bolzani]., H i e r o g l y p h i c a , p. 433. 107 Notes: Chapter I I (cont'd) ^^Aby Warburg, La Rinasci.ta: del.paganesimo a n t i c o , I I Pensiero s t o r i c o , 43 (Florence: "La Nuova I t a l i a " E d i t r i c e , 1966), p. 50; Ovid!Metamorphoses, I , 111. ^Frangois.e Bardon, Diane de P o i t i e r s et l e mythe  de Diane ( P a r i s : Presses U n i v e r s i t a i r e s de France, 1963) , p~i 147; Jean Jacquot, Les f e t e s de' l a Renaissance, C o l l e c t i o n Le choeur des Muses.(Paris: E d i t i o n s du Centre N a t i o n a l de l a Recherche. S c i e n t i f i q u e , 1956) , p. 164; Henry P r u n i e r e s , Le b a l l e t de cour en France avant Benserade  et L u l l y ( P a r i s : Henri Laurens, 1913), pp. 95-96. ~~ Ca r t a r i , . I m a g i n i , . p p . 64-68. 6 3 L a p i t t u r a , V, 852. ^ P l a n i s c i g , Skulpturen.und P l a s t i k e n , p. 189. U 0 B e r l i n e r , "Plakettenfolge.," pp. 134-35, f i n d s the source of seven of the p l a q u e t t e s . i n the Metamorphoses and dates-them 1550. Gramberg,."Guglielmo. d e l l a P o r t a , " pp. 40-41, dates them between 1552 and 1555, when d e l l a Porta was working, i n the V i l l a G i u l i a , and notes.the resemblance .of .Fontana's Bacchic f e a s t to the Bacchanal of the plaquettes without d e c i d i n g which work came f i r s t . Zuccaro's composition f o r the dance.of Diana'comes from Raimondi's Dance of i n f a n t s and cupids as i l l u s t r a t e d by Henri Delaborde, Marc-Anto.ine Raimondi: etude, h i s t o r i q u e  et c r i t i q u e s u i y i e d'un catalogue.raisonne des oeuvres du  maitre, B i b l i o t h e q u e i n t e r n a t i o n a l e de 1'art ( P a r i s : L i b r a i r i e de l ' a r t , 1888), p..83. I t seems more l i k e l y that d e l l a Porta a l t e r e d the compositions'of both Fontana and Zuccaro to his.needs than that they f o l l o w e d d e l l a Porta and Zuccaro removed.his m o d i f i c a t i o n s of Raimondi. The sequence would then be V i l l a G i u l i a frescoes before d e l l a Porta p l a q u e t t e s . That d e l l a Porta could so e a s i l y adapt the frescoes to Ovidian episodes would be a happy coincidence unless the themes of the two s e r i e s of works were r e l a t e d , the frescoes perhaps being burlesques of Ovid. 108 Notes: Chapter I I (cont'd) ^°A. P. de Mirimonde, "Les.concerts des Muses chez l e s maitres du nord," Gazette -des. beaux-arts, VIeme pSriode, LXIII (mars, 1964), 147. 67 •» . Arthur Henkel und A l b r e c h t Scheme, eds., Emblemata: Handbuch zur S i n n b i l d k u n s t des XVI. und XVII. Jahrhunderts ( S t u t t g a r t : T". B. Metzlersche Verlagsbuchhandlung, 1967), c o l s . 186, 534. p. 113 6 ft . Mandowsky, Pir.ro Ligorio.l.s Roman, a n t i q u i t i e s , ^ 9 C a r t a r i , Imagini, p. 261; [ C o n t i ] , Mythologie p. 383; Diodorus Si e u l u s Diodorus of S i c i l y , I I I , 295. 7 0 P h i l o s t r a t u s Imagines, pp. 21-29. ^ G i o . Paolo-Lomazzo, Trattato. d e l l ' a r t e de l a  p i t t u r a (Milan: Appresso Paolo Gottardo P o n t i o , 1584), pT 440 ; . P a t r i c i a Egan, "Poesia. and the Fete champetre," A r t b u l l e t i n , XLI. (December, 1959), 313; Henkel, EmbTemata, c o l . 1719. 7 2 d e Tervarent, A t t r i b u t s , c o l . 150; Guy:de Tervarent, L'art•savant, Les enigmes de 1'art,.IV (Bruges: E d i t i o n s "de Tempel," n.ad.), p. 47. 73 de Tervarent, A t t r i b u t s , c o l . 196. 7 4 I b i d . , c o l s . 312-13. 7 5 I b i d . , c o l s . 309, 311, 104. 7 6 0 v i d F a s t i , p. 275. 7 7 P l i n y N a t u r a l h i s t o r y , Loeb c l a s s i c a l l i b r a r y (London, 1949), V I , 415-17. 109 Notes: Chapter I I (cont'd) 7 ft C a r t a r i , Imagini, p. 63. 7 9 D e s c r i p t i o n of Greece, t r a n s . w i t h a commentary by J . G. F r a z e r , 2d ed. (London, 1913), I , 414. - C a r t a r i / . I m a g i n i , p. 218; David R. C o f f i n , The  V i l l a d'Este at T i v o l i , P r i n c e t o n monographs i n a r t and archaeology . (Pr i n c e t o n : . P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1960) , p. 87; Dora Panofsky, "Narcissus and.Echo:. notes on Poussin's B i r t h of Bacchus i n the Fogg Museum, of . A r t , " A r t b u l l e t i n , XXXI (1949) , 117; Apollodorus .The l i b r a r y , Loeb c l a s s i c a l l i b r a r y (London, 1921), I , 321. ft 1 Venturi.,. La . p i t t u r a , V, 852. 8 2 J . A. Gere, "The.decoration.of t h e . V i l l a G i u l i a , " B u r l i n g t o n magazine ,.,CVIII ( A p r i l , 1965), 202. • 110 Notes: Chapter-III Raymond van Marie, Iconographie.de l ' a r t profane ;  au Moyen-Age et a l a Rennaiss.ance... et' l a .decoration, des demeures , V o l . TTi A l l e g o r i e s et symboles:(The Hague: Martinus N i j h o f f , 1932),.pp. 182, 186. ^Rudolf.Wittkower, "Chance,, time, and v i r t u e , " Warburg I n s t i t u t e , J o u r n a l , I (1937-1938) , 313. •z ^The.Greek anthology, Loeb c l a s s i c a l - l i b r a r y (London, 1918), V, 32S. : ^Erwin Panofsky, The iconography.of Correggio's  Camera d i San Paolo, Studies of the Warburg I n s t i t u t e , Vo 1 ..26 (London:. . The Warburg I n s t i t u t e ,. U n i v e r s i t y of London., 1961), p. 60. . ^ Howard R. Patch, .The..goddess .Fortuna i n mediaeval  l i t e r a t u r e (Cambridge: Harvard U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1927) , p. 16. . ^Panofsky, The . iconography.; of Correggio' s Camera  d i San Paolo, pp(; 62-64. ' 1 Wittkower, "Chance,.time.and v i r t u e , " P i s . 50 cd, 51 a, 51 c, 53 b. Q Alfonso Chacon, Vitae,.et.res.gestae. P o n t i f i c u m Romanorum et S. R. E. cardinalium_ab i n i t i o _ n a s c e n t i s  E c c l e s i a e usque ad Clementem .IX. P. 0. M. (Rome: Cur a, et sumptib. P h i l i p p i , et Ant. de Rubeis, 1677), I I I , 755. 9G. F. . H i l l , "Notes on I t a l i a n m e d a l s — X V I I I , " B u r l i n g t o n magazine, XXV (September, 1914) , 341, P I . I I , F. I l l Notes: Chapter I I I (cont'd) l O S y l v i e Beguin, "A l o s t f r e s c o of N i c c o l o d e l l ' Abbate at Bologna i n honour of J u l i u s . I l l , " Warburg and Courtauld I n s t i t u t e s , J o u r n a l , XVIII (1955), 119-20. ^Ludwig von Pa s t o r , The-history of the Popes, X I I I (London: Routledge & Kegan. Paul., 1951) , 5T7 ~~ 12 Archer Woodford,."Mediaeval iconography of the v i r t u e s ; a p o e t i c portraiture.,." Speculum, XXVIII ( J u l y , 1953),523. 13 I I V a s a r i : R i v i s t a . d'arte e ..di . s.tudi- v a s a r i a n i , I (1927)-, 51 ; Cesare Ripa, Iconologia;. overa, D e s c r i t t i d n  d e l l ' i m a g i n i u n i v e r s a l ! cavate d a l l ' a n t i c h i t a - e t da a l t r i  l u o ghi ' (Rome: Per g l i heredi de Gio. G i g l i o t t i , 1593) , p. 90. •^Woodford, "Mediaeval iconography of. the v i r t u e s , " p. 523. ^^Annibal.-Caro, L e t t e r e f a m i l i a r i , e d i z i o n e c r i t i c a con introduzione e n o t e d ! Aulo. Greco ("Florence: F e l i c e Le Monnier, 1957), I , 74. l^Heinrich-Schwarz,. "The m i r r o r - i n . art,". A r t q u a r t e r l y , XV (1952) , 98, 104-05. 17 ^.Mediaeval iconography," p. 524. 18 Gio. Paolo Lomazzo, T r a t t a t o d e l l ' a r t e de l a p i t t u r a (Milan: Appresso-Paolo Gottardo P o n t i o , 1584) , p. 471. 1 Q ^ I c o n o l o g i a , p. 107-09. 2 0 A d o l f Katzenellenbogen, A l l e g o r i e s , of.the v i r t u e s  and v i c e s i n mediaeval a r t , Norton l i b r a r y (New York: W. W. Norton & Company, Inc., 1964) , p. 55. 112 Notes: Chapter I I I (cont'd) 21 Gi o r g i o Vasari., Ragionamenti , . 2 . ed. (Arezzo: Per Miehele B e l l o t t i Stampat., 1762), pp. 10-11. 2 2 S. J . Freedberg, P a i n t i n g of the High Renaissance  i n Rome and Florence (Cambridge: Harvard U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1961), I I , p i . 692. 2 3 Samuel C Chew, The.virtues r e c o n c i l e d (Toronto: U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto Press" 1947) , p. 143; Giuseppe R o n c h e t t i , D i z i o n a r i o i l l u s t r a t o d e i s i m b o l i , Manuali Hoepli (MilaiTol H o e p l i , 1922) , p. 24 Rosemond Tuve, "Notes. on. the v i r t u e s , and v i c e s , Part I: two f i f t e e n t h c e n t u r y . l i n e s of dependence on the t h i r t e e n t h and t w e l f t h c e n t u r i e s , " Warburg and Courtauld I n s t i t u t e s , J o u r n a l , XVI (1963), 284. 2 5 V a s a r i , Ragionamenti, p. 10. 2 6 I b i d . , p. 35. 2 7 I b i d . , p. 10. 2 8 Guy de Tervarent, ..Attributs. et symboles dans l ' a r t  profane, 1450-1600: d i c t i o n n a i r e . d ' u n langage perdu, Travaux d'humanisme et renaissance, XXIX (Geneva: L i b r a i r i e E. Droz, 1958), c o l . 8. 2 9 I c o n o l o g i a , p. 263. 3 0 v a n Marie ,: A l l e g o r i e s , p. 64; Ripa., I c o n o l o g i a , pp. 80-81; Howard HibbarcTT "A r e p r e s e n t a t i o n / o f F i d e s , " A r t b u l l e t i n , XXXIX (March, 1957) , 137 ; Lomazzo, T r a t t a t o , p. 660. Vasari,.Ragionamenti, p. 36; G i o r g i o . V a s a r i , Le v i t e  de'piu e c c e l l e n t i p i t t o r i , , s c u l t o r i . e d a r c h i t e t t o r i , con nuove annotazioni e commenti d i Gaetano M i l a n e s i (Florence: G. C. Sansoni, 1881), V I , 234. 113 Notes: Chapter I I I (cont'd) TO J^R. Freyhan, "The e v o l u t i o n of the C a r i t a s f i g u r e i n the t h i r t e e n t h and fourteenth., c e n t u r i e s , " Warburg and Courtauld I n s t i t u t e s , . J o u r n a l , XI (1948), 68-85. Katzenellenbogen,.Allegories of the v i r t u e s and v i c e s , p. 34. 3^E. W., " P l a t o n i c J u s t i c e , designed by Raphael,' Warburg I n s t i t u t e , J o u r n a l , I . (1937.-1938) , 69-70 . 3 5 I 1 V a s a r i , 1,(1927), 42, 44, 56. 3 ( > N i c o l a i Rubinstein., " P o l i t i c a l ideas i n Sienese a r t : the frescoes by Ambrogio.Lorenzetti and Taddeo d i B a r t o l o . i n the Palazzo P u b b l i c o , " Warburg and Courtauld I n s t i t u t e s , J o u r n a l , XXI (1958), 197. 114 Notes: Chapter IV Cesare Ripa , . Ic o r i o l o g i a ; ..oyer a . D e s c r i t t i o n d e l l ' imagini u n i v e r s a l i cavatc d a l l ' a n t i c h i t a et da a l t r i  l uoghi (Rome: Per g l i heredi d i Gio. G i g l i b t t i , 1593), pp. 43, 34. ^Ripa, I c o n o l o g i a , -p. 73; Vicenzo.. C a r t a r i , Imagini d e l l i d e i de g l 1 a n t i c h i , Nachdruck.der.Ausgabe Venedig 1647, Instrumentaria artium, .Band.I.(Graz: Akademische Druck- u. V e r l a g s a n s t a l t , 1963) , p. 208; John Rupert M a r t i n , The .Famese G a l l e r y , P r i n c e t o n monograph i n a r t and archaeology, XXXVI ( P r i n c e t o n : . P r i n c e t o n . U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1965), p. 31. ^Ripa,. I c o n o l o g i a , pp. .197.,. 220 , 223., 246, 263. I b i d . , p. 3.0.. Ripa ' s.. eight Beatitudes, pp. 29-30, would have made a f i t t i n g o c t e t f o r the eight medallions, but only the second, f o u r t h , s i x t h and seventh of them bear any resemblance to .the .subjects here. J I b i d . , pp. 66,,213; Annibal. Caro, L e t t e r e f a m i l i a r i , e dizione c r i t i c a con ihtroduzione-e note d i Aulo Greco (Florence:. F e l i c e Le Monnier,: 1961) , I I I , 124; Erna Mandowsky and. Charles . M i t c h e l l , l.Pirro L i g o r i o ' s Roman a n t i q u i t i e s , Studies of the Warburg I n s t i t u t e , V o l . Z8 '(London: Warburg I n s t i t u t e , U n i v e r s i t y , of. London, 1963), p. 77 C a r t a r i , .Imagini , p. 111. . . R i p a I c o n o l o g i a , . pp. 80-81. . / R i p a , . I c o n o l o g i a , : p . 213; L a u r a . B r e g l i a , Roman  Imperial c o i n s ; t h e i r ar.t:& technique (London: Thames and Hudson, 1968), p. W] i n the V i l l a ' d ' E s t e she has two c h i l d r e n : David R. C o f f i n , The V i l l a . d ' E s t e at T i v o l i , P r i n c e t o n monographs"in a r t and archaeology (Princeton: P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1960), p. 163. U S Notes: Chapter IV (cont'd) o R i p a , . I c o n o l o g i a , pp. 83, 110. 9 I b i d . , pp. 191, 295. 1 0 I m a g i n i , pp. 212-13. 1 1 C o f f in., V i l l a d'Este, p. 162 l z G i o r g i o V a s a r i , Lo zibaldone, a cura d i Alessandro de l V i t a , R. I s t i t u t o . d ' A r c h e o l o g i a e S t o r i a d e l l ' A r t e , Opere i n e d i t e o rare d i s t o r i a dell.'arte (Rome: 1938), pp. 80-81. I c o n o l o g i a , pp. 117, 233, 32. Imagini, p. 188. Ic o n o l o g i a , p. 117. l^Guy de Tervarent, A t t r i b u t s et.symboles dans . 1,'art profane, 1450-1600: ' d i c t i o n n a i r e d'un langage perdu, Travaux d'humanisme et renaissance XXIX (Geneva: L i b r a i r i e E. Droz, 1958), c o l s . 190-92. 1 7 R i p a , I c o n o l o g i a , pp. 82, 144, 147,.166, 169, 182. 18 C a r t a r i , Imagini, pp. 214, 46, 233; Apollodorus The l i b r a r y , Loeb c l a s s i c a l l i b r a r y (London, 1921) , 1 , 173 ; Thomas Ashby, "Drawings of ancient p a i n t i n g i n E n g l i s h c o l l e c t i o n s , " B r i t i s h School at Rome, Papers, V I I ' (1914), 56; Nonnos Dioriysiaca, Loeb c l a s s i c a l l i b r a r y (London, 1940), I I , 17. 19 P h i l o s t r a t u s the ..Younger Imagines i n P h i l o s t r a t u s Imagines, Loeb c l a s s i c a l l i b r a r y (London, 1931), pp. 319-21. I c o n o l o g i a , p. 266. 116 Notes: Chapter IV (cont'd) 2 1 I b i d . , pp. 2, 47, 70, 190, 267, 79 2 2 I b i d . , pp. 2, 7, 7.9, 84, 223, 44, °Imagini, pp. 7, 169 2 4 B r e g l i a , Roman Imperial c o i n s , pp. 6, 79. • 2 5Cof£in, V i l l a d'Este, p. 163. Bernard Andreae,.. Studlen. zur Romischen Grabkunst, M i t t e i l u n g e n des Deutschen Archaeologischen I n s t i t u t s , ~ Roemische. A b t e i l u n g , neuntes Erganzungsheft (Heidelberg: F. H. Kerle V e r l a g , 1963), t a b l e 38. 2 ^ L u c i a n , Loeb c l a s s i c a l ' l i b r a r y (London, 1959), VI, 17. ? 8 Mandowsky, P i r r o . L i g o r i o ' s Roman a n t i q u i t i e s , p. 83, PI. 32b. 2 9Adol£ Furtwangler, Die aritiken Gemmeri: Geschichte  der Steinscheidekunst im k l a s s i s c h e n Altertum (Amsterdam: Verlag Adolf M. Hakkert, 1964), I , P I . XLIX, No. 25, I I , 238; Marie-Louise Vollenweider, Die.Steinschneidekunst und  i h r e Ku'nstler i n spa'trepublikanischer und Augusteischer  Z e i t (Baden-Baden: Erschienen b e i Bruno Grimm, 1966) , PT7"36, Nos. 3, 4. 30 Andre C h a s t e l , Art, et humanisme.a.Florence au  temps de Laurent l e MagniTique, P u b l i c a t i o n s de l ' I n s t i t u t d'Art et d'Archeologie de l ' U n i v e r s i t e de P a r i s , Tome IV ( P a r i s : Presses U n i v e r s i t a i r e s ' d e France, 1959), pp. 48-54, passim. I have t r i e d u n s u c c e s s f u l l y to f i n d sources f o r the other medallions i n antique and Renaissance c o i n s , medals, and gems. 117 Notes: Chapter IV (cont'd) •^Emanuel W i n t e r n i t z , "The curse o f . P a l l a s Athena," i n Studies i n the h i s t o r y of a r t dedicated.to W i l l i a m E.  Suida (London: Published by the Phaidon Press f o r the Samuel H. Kress Foundation, 1959), p. 187; Edgar Wind, Pagan mysteries i n the Renaissance (New Haven: Yale U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1958) , p. 145; .Martin, Farnese G a l l e r y , p. 95. • J:ean Seznec, The s u r v i v a l of the pagan gods, B o l l i n g e n s e r i e s XXXVlTI (New York.: Pantheon Books, 1953) , p. 54. 3 3 F r e d e r i c k . H a r t t , . G i u l i o Romano (New Haven: Yale U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1958), I I , F i g . 162. •^ G i o r g i o V a s a r i , _ Ragioriameriti , 2. ed. (Arezzo: Per Michele B e l l o t t i Stampat., 1762) , p. 141. •^V a s a r i . , Ragioriameriti , p . 132; .Jacopo G e l l i , D i v i s e - - m o t t i e imprese d i f a m i g l i e e personaggi i t a l i a n i , 2~. ed. r i v e d u t a (Milan: U l r i c o H o e p l i , 1928) , p. 439. 3 6 C a r t a r i , Imagini, p. 33. •^Raimond van Marie, Iconographie de l ' a r t profane  au Moyen-Age et a l a Renaissance et l a decoration des demeures, V o l . I I : A l l e g o r i e s et symboles (The Hague: Martinus N i j h o f f , 1932), p. 2W. Imagini, pp. 143, 314. J i , 0 f s i x t y - s e v e n descriptions, of t h i r t y r i v e r s assembled from f i f t e e n t e x t s by Ovid, V a s a r i , C a r t a r i and others, s i x t y -three describe the r i v e r as male, eighteen.give him a. cornucopia, twelve give him a water j a r , and eight reeds. The same r i v e r may be described i n widely d i f f e r e n t ways, f o r example i n V a s a r i ' s Ragionamenti on p. 141. the B i s e n z i o i s a man w i t h a cornucopia of f r u i t and herbs whose h a i r i s being dressed by a numph.and a p u t t o , and on p. 132 the same r i v e r i s an o l d woman wit h a water j a r . 118 Notes: Chapter IV (cont'd) ^ I n g v a r Bergstrom, R e v i v a l of antique i l l u s i o n i s t i c  w a l l - p a i n t i n g - i n Renaissance a r t , Acta u n i v e r s i t a t i s Gothoburgensis, Goteborgs u n i v e r s i t e t s a r s s k r i f t , L X I I I , 1957 , 1 (Gothenburg: 1957)', pp." 5-. and 25, says t h a t Renaissance a r t i s t s may have known and used a l l s t y l e s of antique - f r e s c o p a i n t i n g . 4 1 E . H. Gombrich, "The Sala d e i V e n t i i n the Palazzo del Te," Warburg and C o u r t a u l d . I n s t i t u t e s / J o u r n a l , X I I I (1950), 194. 4 - 2 t ~ — T i n i , : pp. 129-140. 4 3 Kenneth C l a r k , "Transformations of nereids i n the Renaissance," B u r l i n g t o n magazine, XCVII (1955), 217; Jan B i a l f o s t o c k i , "The Sea-Thiasos i n Renaissance s e p u l c h r a l a r t , " i n Studies i n Renaissance &..Baroque a r t presented to  Anthony Blunt on h i s 60th b i r t h d a y (London: Phaidon, 1967), p. 72. 4 4Mandowsky, P i r r o L i g o r i o ' s Roman a n t i q u i t i e s , p. I l l 4 : >Emanuela Quaranta, Inf luenze. p r o b a b i l i d e l " P o l i f i l o " s u g l i a f f r e s c h i d e i C a r r a c c i i n Palazzo Farnese, B i b l i o t e c a d e g l i e r u d i t i .e d e l b i b l i o f l l i , XXV. (Florence: E d i z i o n i Sansoni A n t i q u a r i a t o , 1957), p. 10. ^ N i c o l e Dacos , . La decouverte.. de. l a Domus Aurea et l a  formation,des grotesques a l a Renaissance, Studies of the Warburg-Institute, V o l . 31" (London: The Warburg I n s t i t u t e , U n i v e r s i t y of London, 1969) , p. 37. Lyres were al s o used i n the Domus Aurea: p. 12. 4?Masks may accompany mundane t h i n g s , or la u g h t e r , and the l i o n ' s head may i n d i c a t e debauchery according to Ripa, I c o n o l o g i a , pp. 50, 241, 54. Only laughter seems rel e v a n t i n t h i s context. °de Tervarent,. A t t r i b u t s , c o l s . 242-47 ; W. Deonna, "The crab and the b u t t e r f l y : a~study i n animal symbolism," Warburg and Courtauld I n s t i t u t e s , 'Journal, XVII (1954), 63. 119 Notes: Chapter IV (cont'd) ^ C h a r l e s p i c a r d , "Themes rares d ' i n s p i r a t i o n antiques dans l a decoration p a l a t i a l e : aux j a r d i n s de V e r s a i l l e s : .deuxieme p a r t i e ,". Gazette, des beaux-arts , Vie periode, LXII . (decembre, 1963), 324. 5 0 A r n o l d von S a l i s , Antike und Renaissance: uber  Nachleben und Weiterwirken der a l t e n m der neueren Kunst (Erlenbach-Ziirich: Eugen Rentsch V e r l a g , 1947) , p. 38 . " ^ C h a r l e s • S t e r l i n g , La nature mortede l ' a n t i q u i t e  a. nos jours ( P a r i s : E d i t i o n s P i e r r e Tisne, 1959), p. 18. 5 2Dacos, La decouverte de.-la Domus Aurea, pp. 57, 116 5 3Dacos, La decouverte.de l a Domus.Aurea, pp. 131, 162-45; David R. C o f f i n , " P i r r o . L i g o r i o and decoration of.the l a t e s i x t e e n t h century at F e r r a r a , " A r t b u l l e t i n , XXXVII (1955), 183-84. 5 4Dacos, La decouverte de :1a Domus Aurea, p. 117 120 Notes: Chapter V Gi o r g i o V a s a r i , Le v i t e de'piu e c c e l l e n t i p i t t o r i , s c u l t o r i ed a r c h i t e t t o r i , con nuove annotazione commenti d i Gaetano M i l a n e s i (Florence: G. C. Sansoni, 1881), V I I , 82. zLeone Ebreo, The.philosophy of love ( D i a l o g h i d'amore), trans , i n t o E n g l i s h by F. Friedeberg-Seeley and Jean H. Barnes (London: The Soncino Press, 1937), p. 174. Gi o r g i o V a s a r i may have t r i e d to o b t a i n . J u l i u s 1 horoscope: Per  l i t e r a r i s c h e Nachlass G i o r g i o V a s a r i s , hereausgegeben und mit k r i t i s c h e m Apparate.versehen von K a r l Frey (Munich: Georg M u l l e r , 1923) , I , 267-68.. The gods r e t r e a t e d to t h e . N i l e .in the war w i t h the g i a n t s , and the Council of Trent was.unsuccessful i n stemming Protestantism., but " a l l u s i v e c o r r e l a t i o n " should be f l a t t e r i n g say Dora Panofsky. and Erwin Panofsky, "The iconography of the G a l e r i e Francois I e r at Fontainebleau," Gazette des beaux-arts, V i e periode, L I I (.1958), 114-15. 4 I n t h e . f e s t i v i t i e s at Bologna f o r J u l i u s ' e l e c t i o n mountains and h i l l s were among the themes used says S y l v i e Beguin, "A l o s t f r e s c o . o f N i c c o l o dell'Abbate at.Bologna i n honour of J u l i u s . I I I , " Warburg and C o u r t a u l d . I n s t i t u t e s , J o u r n a l , XVIII (1955), 118. P l i n y N a t u r a l h i s t o r y , Loeb c l a s s i c a l l i b r a r y (London, 1949) , V I I I , 405. Andre Chastel,.The cr i s i s . ; o f . . t h e Renaissance, 1520- 1600, A r t , ideas, h i s t o r y (Geneva: S k i r a , 1968), p. 163. Paul Schubring, Cassoni,. 2. vermehrte Auflage ( L e i p z i g : V erlag von K a r l W. Hiersemann, 1923), I , 19-60, passim. P l u t a r c h , The.complete works (New York: Thomas Y. Crowell & Co., 1909), IV, 392. 121 Notes: Chapter V (cont'd) ^Giovanni Boccaccio, La geneolo.gia de g l i d e i de  g e n t i l i , t r a d o t t a per M. Gioseppe B e t u s s i (Venice: Appresso Giovan. Antonio Bertano, 1574), pp. 64, 84. l ^ L i l i o -Gregerib. G i r a l d i D . e . d e i s gentium (Basel: Per Ioannem Oporinum, 1548), p. 531. ^\ Natale C o n t i ] , Mythologie, ou E x p l i c a t i o n de f a b l e s ,  oeuvre d'eminente d o c t r i n e , & d'agreable l e c t u r e , cy devant t r a d u i t t e par I . de Montlyard ( P a r i s ; Chez P i e r r e C hevalier et Samuel Thiboust, 1627)., pp." 1064-65. 12 • S. . J . . Freedberg,.. "Observations;. on the p a i n t i n g of" the Maniera," A r t b u l l e t i n , XLVII . (1965), 192. G i u l i a n o B r i g a n t i , I I . manier.ismo e P e l l e g r i n o T i b a l d i (Rome: Cosmopolita, 1945), p. 33; David R. C o f f i n , The V i l l a  d'Este at T i v o l i , P r i n c e t o n monographs i n a r t and archaeology (Princeton: P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y . P r e s s , 1960), p. 68. l^Eugenio B a t t i s t i ,. L'an.tirinascimento (Milan: F e l t r i n e l l i , 1962), p. 2897" ~ 1 5 I b i d . , p. 196. ^"^Ripa's I c o n o l o g i a appeared in.1593; though i t could not have-had.a.direct i n f l u e n c e on the V i l l a G i u l i a i t incorporated usages that were c u r r e n t . i n the s i x t e e n t h century as Erna Mandowsky, "Ricerche intorno a l l ' I c o n o l o g i a d i Cesare Ripa," B i b l i o f i l i a , XLI (1939), 11-124, 204-235, assim. shows. Barbara E l i z a b e t h Carman, "A study of a t a l i s Comes' theory of mythology, and of i t s i n f l u e n c e i n England together w i t h an English, t r a n s l a t i o n of Book I of the Mythologia and of the i n t r o d u c t i o n s to the other books," (unpublished Ph.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y of London, 1966), I , 17-20, dates the f i r s t e d i t i o n of the Mythologia 1567, but i t may a l s o have contained current ideas. 17 Jacob Burckhardt,.The cicerone (London: T. Werner L a u r i e , n. d.), p. 216. 8 122 Notes: Chapter V (cont'd) •^Jean Rouchette, La Renaissance que nous a leguee  V a s a r i , Les Classiques de l'humanisme ( P a r i s : SociSte des e d i t i o n s " L e s . b e l l e s l e t t r e s , " 1959), p. 110. 19 Giovanni. Andrea G i l i o , Dialogo i n Paola B a r o c c h i , ed., T r a t t a t i d'arte del. Cinquecento fra.manierismo e  con t r o r i f o r m a , S c r i t t o r i d ' l t a l i a ( B a r i : Gius. Lateraza & F i g l i , i 9 6 0 ) , I I , 15, 22-23. ? D B r i g a n t i , I I manierismo, p. 94. ^Henry Bardon, Le f e s t i n des dieux: e s s a i sur  l'humanisme dans l e s a r t s p l a s t i q u e s ( P a r i s : Presses U n i v e r s i -t a i r e s de France, 1960) , pp..19, 61, says that i n the pe r i o d a f t e r Raphael and G i u l i o Romano f e a s t scenes l o s t , p h i l o s o p h i -c a l meaning and were divorced from l i t e r a r y sources. 7 7 V i t r u v i u s The ten books ..on . a r c h i t e c t u r e (Cambridge, Mass., 1914), p. 2^Leone B a t t i s t a A l b e r t i , . Ten, books -on a r c h i t e c t u r e (London: A l e c T i r a n t i Ltd.,,1955),.pp. 192-93. ~ 2 ^ G i o . Paolo Lomazzo,.Trattato.dell'arte de l a p i t t u r a (Milan: Appresso Paolo Gottardo P o n t i o , 1584),. p. 345. Francesco . de. Hollanda thought-grotesques ..were s u i t a b l e f o r the decoration of : fountains.and.gardens according to Rouchette, La Renaissance, p. 160. 2 ^ I n f o r m a t i o n on the other, d e c o r a t i o n s . r e c e i v e d from Graham Smith, photographs, and personal.observation. z oBartolomeo. Ammannati , " L e t t e r a d e l l ' . a r c h i t e t t o Bartolomeo Amannati a.Messer Marco Mantova Bonavides i n Padova Roma 2 maggio 1555," i n Mario.. B a f i l e , V i l l a G i u l i a , 1 ' a r c h i t e t t u r a - - i l g i a r d i n o , I s t i t u t o d'Archeologia e S t o r i a d e l l ' A r t e , Opere d'arte, f a s c i c o l o XIV (Rome: I s t i t u t o P o l i g r a f i c o d e l l o S t ato, 1948), p..32. The r e l i e f on the fo u n t a i n of Trev.i . constructed i n . the eighteenth century f o l l o w s the t e x t , f i v e s o l d i e r s surround .a s i n g l e maiden, as shown by the i l l u s t r a t i o n i n Armando Schiavo, La fontana d i T r e y i e l e a l t r e opere d i N i c o l a S a l v i (Rome: I s t i t u t o P o l i g r a f i c o d e l l o S t a t o , 1956) , p. 123, f i g . 83. 123 Notes: Chapter V (cont'd) 31-32. 28 2 7 V a s a r i , V i t e , V I I , 82;.Ammannati, " L e t t e r a , " pp, B a f i l e , V i l l a G i u l i a , p. 17, f i g . 14. ? Q Annibal Caro., L e t t e r e f a m i l i a r i , , ed.izione c r i t i c a con introduzione. e note d i Aulo.Greco.(Florence: F e l i c e Le Monnier, 1956), I I , 99-100. •^Florence, U f f i z i , Gabinetto.disegni. e stampe, Mostra  d i d i s e g n i del. V a s a r i ' e - d e l l a . s u a c e r c h i a , catalogo a cura d i Paola Barocchi (Florence:' Leo S. O l s c h k i , 1964), pp. 24-25, f i g s . 10-12. 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North room (Anderson) PLATE III. River of wine fresco PLATE IV. Fountain goddess fresco 135 PLATE V. Bacchic feast fresco 136 PLATE VI. Feast of gods with river Nile fresco 137 PLATE VII. South room, by Taddeo Zuccaro (Gabinetto F o t o g r a f i c o Nazionale) H m f v f fr" 1 1 8 f f i t t ° d e l l a I * » ^1 Museo di Papa Giulio Fratelli Zuccari Anc PLATE V I I I . South room (Anderson) PLATE IX. Diana and the bathers fresco 140 PLATE X. Harpocrates and worshippers fresco 141 PLATE XI. Diana and the dancers fresco (Gabinetto Fotografico Nazionale) PLATE XII. Diana and the dancers f r e s c o (Anderson) 143 PLATE X I I I . Banquet o f nymphs w i t h amorini f r e s c o (Gabinetto F o t o g r a f i c o Nazionale) PLATE XV. Charity stucco 

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