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Affective stylistics : sermons by John Donne and Jonathan Edwards 1974

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AFFECTIVE STYIJSTICS: SERMONS BY JOHN DONNE AND JONATHAN EDWARDS by W I I L I A M STEPHEN GOOD B.A., University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1971 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THIS REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DBGffiEE OF MASTER OF ARTS in the Department of ENGLISH We accept t h i s thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l , 1 9 7 4 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the r e q u i r e m e n t s for an advanced degree a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I agree t I the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y . I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d by the Head o f my Department o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l n o t be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department o f The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada i . A B S T R A C T This thesis contains a s t y l i s t i c analysis of two sermons by John Donne, and two by Jonathan Edwards. The purpose of the thesis i s not to postulate a direct relationship between Donne and Edwards. Rather, the focus i s on a f f e c t i v e techniques i n terms of audience response within the context of the sermon form. General background material on each man i s provided, and the writer takes into account various s o c i a l , p o l i t i c a l , l i t e r a r y , and theological influences acting on each preacher. Each of the chapters containing the analyses i s introduced by a short discussion of the pa r t i c u l a r preacher's s t y l e . The analyses each consist of the examination of a sermon as a se- quential experience to which the l i s t e n e r responds. Techniques are discussed i n terms of response, rather than i n terms of l i t e r a r y t r a d i t i o n , rhetoric, or oratory. The analyses depend on the sermon form's sequential nature: that i s , the sermons are not treated as reservoirs of examples to i l l u s t r a t e a series of points, but rather as experiences. The thesis concludes with a summary of what has been attempted, along with comments on the value of, and the s i g n i - f i c a n t p o s s i b i l i t i e s a r i s i n g from, such studies t h i s i n terms of theology as well as l i t e r a t u r e , i n England and America. The conclusion points out that the study helps broaden our under- standing of sermon l i t e r a t u r e as a genre. The thesis i s also to act as an i n i t i a l step i n the process of using theological l i t e r - ature to examine the development of English and American culture and thought. Supervisor TABLE OF CONTENTS PREFACE i i i CHAPTER I: GENERAL BACKGROUND 1 John Donne 3 Jonathan Edwards 13 Notes 2 5 CHAPTER II: SERMONS BY JOHN DONNE 28 Introduction 28 Analysis #1 33 Analysis #2 47 Summary 72 Notes 74 CHAPTER IIIi SERMONS BY J. EDWARDS.....76 Introduction 76 Analysis #1 80 Analysis #2 96 Summary 121 Notes 123 CHAPTER IV; CONCLUSION 125 BIBLIOGRAPHY 129 PREFACE I n t h i s t h e s i s , I s h a l l o f f e r a s t y l i s t i c a n a l y s i s o f f o u r se rmons , two by J o h n Donne, and two by J o n a t h a n Edwards . My i n t e n t h e r e i s n o t t o p o s t u l a t e any d i r e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p be tween Donne and Edwards , n o r n e c e s s a r i l y t o connec t t h e i r works w i t h i n t h e t r a d i t i o n s o f h o m i l e t i c l i t e r a t u r e . R a t h e r , I w i s h t o f o c u s on a f f e c t i v e t e c h n i q u e s , and on r e s p o n s e t o t h o s e i t e c h n i q u e s , w i t h i n t h e c o n t e x t o f t h e sermon as each man u n d e r - s t o o d i t . I w i l l t r y t o t a k e i n t o a c c o u n t some o f t h e v a r i o u s i s o c i a l , p o l i t i c a l , l i t e r a r y , and t h e o l o g i c a l i n f l u e n c e s a c t i n g upon each man. The c r i t i c a l a p p r o a c h w h i c h d e a l s w i t h a f f e c t i v e s t y l i s t i c s a t t e m p t s t o a n a l y z e r e a d e r o r a u d i e n c e r e s p o n s e and e x p e r i e n c e . By f i r s t e x a m i n i n g t h e p e r c e i v e r ' s r e s p o n s e s t o a p i e c e o f l i t e r a t u r e , and t h e n a s k i n g how t h o s e r e s p o n s e s a r e shaped by s t y l e , one a c c e p t s t he f a c t t h a t l i t e r a t u r e i s a s e q u e n t i a l e x p e r i e n c e . I t i s o n l y a f t e r t h e i n i t i a l e x p e r i e n c e t h a t one may b e g i n t o speak o f l i t e r a t u r e i n a d e t a c h e d c r i t i c a l s e n s e . Such an a p p r o a c h i s n o t new o r d i f f e r e n t . I t i s , however , h e l p f u l i n r e m i n d i n g one t h a t t h e q u e s t i o n s o f e x p e r i e n c e and s e q u e n t i a l r e s p o n s e s i n c r i t i c i s m cannot be t a k e n f o r g r a n t e d i n t h e d e s i r e t o make o b j e c t i v e o b s e r v a t i o n s about l i t e r a r y t r a d i t i o n s o r abou t t h e r e l a t i v e m e r i t s o f a p i e c e o f w o r k . We w i l l no l o n g e r r e c o g n i z e a t e c h n i q u e o r d e v i c e and s a y , " T h i s i s a t r a d i t i o n a l d e v i c e w h i c h t r a d i t i o n a l l y i s supposed t o have s u c h - a n d - s u c h and e f f e c t " . R a t h e r , we s h a l l be much more i n t e r e s t e d i n s a y i n g , "The r e a d e r o r l i s t e n e r i s made t o f e e l s u c h - a n d - s u c h a n e f f e c t t h r o u g h t h i s c u m u l a t i v e m a n i p u l a t i o n o f s t y l e , grammar, w o r d s , o r i m a g e s " . One emphas izes t h e m a n i - p u l a t i o n o f r e s p o n s e , w h i c h was t h e b a s i s f o r t h e deve lopment o f t r a d i t i o n a l r h e t o r i c a l s y s t e m s . T h i s k i n d o f a p p r o a c h p r o v i d e s an i n t e r e s t i n g c r i t i c a l f ramework w i t h w h i c h t o w o r k . , I t a l l o w s one t o examine c l o s e l y a t y p e o f l i t e r a t u r e w h i c h r e f l e c t s t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e o l o g i c a l c o n c e r n s , and t h e m a n i p u l a t i o n o f l anguage f o r t h e purpose o f a l t e r i n g i n t e l l e c t u a l and e m o t i o n a l r e s p o n s e . C e r t a i n l y , h o m i l e t i c l i t e r a t u r e i s shaped by t r a d i t i o n s b o t h l i t e r a r y and t h e o l o g i c a l . Y e t , s i n c e one i s d e a l i n g w i t h r e s p o n s e r a t h e r t h a n i n t e n t o r e x a m i n a t i o n o f a t r a d i t i o n , t h e a p p r o a c h a l l o w s one t o compare two u n r e l a t e d exponen t s o f t he l i t e r a r y fo rm on a g round where t h e r e w o u l d o t h e r w i s e be l i t t l e b a s i s f o r c o m p a r i s o n . I n s h o r t , t he a p p r o a c h becomes a means whereby t h e r e a d e r may g a i n a deepe r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f l i t e r a t u r e as a f u n c t i o n o f t h e human mind--——and t h i s i s t he g o a l o f a l l good c r i t i c i s m , no t m e r e l y s t y l i s t i c s . One may a l s o a c h i e v e a g r e a t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e e x e r c i s e o f l i t e r a r y and l i n g u i s t i c powers w i t h i n t h e v a r i e d c o n t e x t s o f C h r i s t i a n t h e o l o g y . Pe rhaps most i m p o r t a n t l y , t h e a p p r o a c h p r o v i d e s a way o f i n c r e a s i n g o n e ' s u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e p a r a d o x i c a l d i v e r s i t y o f ways i n w h i c h f a i t h m a n i f e s t s i t s e l f i n r e l i g i o u s l i t e r a t u r e , by u s i n g the o n l y common d e n o m i n a t o r p o s s i b l e : human i n t e l l e c - t u a l and e m o t i o n a l r e s p o n s e . Tha t i s , one may b e g i n t o see a r e l a t i o n s h i p be tween the human need t o w o r s h i p God ; t h e c o n t e x t s o f t h a t w o r s h i p i n d i f f e r e n t r e l i g i o n s ; and l a n g u a g e , t h e most u n i v e r s a l o f human i n v e n t i o n s . Some comment i s n e c e s s a r y r e g a r d i n g my c h o i c e o f Donne and Edwards as t h e two t h e o l o g i a n s whose work I w i s h t o c o n s i d e r i n t h i s t h e s i s . B o t h men s t a n d ou t s t r o n g l y i n o u r v i e w o f t h e t i m e s i n w h i c h each l i v e d . Donne has a l w a y s been a f a s c i n a t i n g c h a r a c t e r , whose m u l t i - f a c e t e d l i t e r a r y and t h e o l o g i c a l p e r s o n - a l i t y , and whose i m p a c t on t h e age i n w h i c h he l i v e d , have a t t r a c t e d t h e a t t e n t i o n o f numerous c r i t i c s s i n c e h i s own t i m e . I n h i s sermons he b l e n d s g r e a t l e a r n i n g and t h e ene rgy o f l i f e - l o n g i n t e l l e c t u a l c u r i o s i t y w i t h a deep and s y m p a t h e t i c u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e s e c u l a r and s p i r i t u a l n a t u r e s o f men. He i s a r a r e and e n i g m a t i c f i g u r e who has made a ma jo r c o n t r i b u t i o n t o E n g l i s h l i t e r a t u r e and t h e o l o g y , and f o r t h i s r e a s o n a l o n e he i s w o r t h y o f s t u d y . The two sermons I have chosen f r o m h i s - canon were p i c k e d , n o t because t h e y a r e two o f D o n n e ' s b e s t , b u t because t h e y a r e f a i r l y t y p i c a l o f h i s work f rom t h e v i e w ^ p o i n t o f s t y l i s t i c s , and because t h e y b o t h r e f l e c t one o f h i s major t h e o l o g i c a l p r i n c i p l e s . ^ J o n a t h a n Edwards i s a f i g u r e whose l i t e r a r y powers w i t h i n a t h e o l o g i c a l c o n t e x t s e p a r a t e h i m f rom h i s c o n t e m p o r a r i e s i n t h e a r t o f p r e a c h i n g . H i s u se o f l anguage i n t h e s e r v i c e of t h e o l o g y , and h i s c o n n e c t i o n w i t h t h a t s e t o f s o c i a l , t h e o - l o g i c a l , and p s y c h o l o g i c a l phenomena known as t h e G r e a t A w a k e n i n g i n e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y New E n g l a n d , p r o v i d e r i c h p o t e n t i a l f o r s t u d y i n t h e a r e a s o f h o m i l e t i c l i t e r a t u r e and s t y l i s t i c s . F o r t h i s r e a s o n I have c h o s e n t o a n a l y z e two o f h i s b e t t e r known se rmons , works w h i c h complement e ach o t h e r i n s e t t i n g f o r t h c e r t a i n a s p e c t s o f E d w a r d s ' t h e o l o g y . As s e p a r a t e p i e c e s , e a c h i s t y p i c a l o f one o f E d w a r d s ' two m a i n sermon t y p e s ; i n v i t a t i o n a l , and i m p r e c a t o r y . B o t h works refleot the relationship between Edwards' use of language and style, and the peculiar power o f the man over his audience within given theological contexts. A prefatory comment is necessary regarding my use of c r i t i c s . My f i r s t chapter, which provides some background Information, depends upon material gathered from a number of c r i t i c s . " With regard to my discussions of s t y l i s t i c devices, and to my actual analyses of the sermons, my reader w i l l note that I use certain c r i t i c s very extensively. Most often this w i l l be because a particular c r i t i c may provide a simple way of talking about aspects of style, a way which I may find useful throughout my discussion. However, I w i l l in a l l cases try to make clear my indebtedness to c r i t i c s during the course of my analyses. One f i n a l note i s necessary. I owe a debt of gratitude to my advisor, Dr. Annette Kolodny. Without her help, her kind- ness, and the g i f t of her friendship during the four years I have known her, I would s t i l l be blind to certain facts about language, literature, and my own nature as a human being. This is a debt I can never repay. I should also like to express my appreciation to Dr. Harriet Kirkley and Dr. Paul Stanwood for their kindness and aid i n the production of this thesis. Notes 1The texts of both Donne sermons are from the following edition, which i s generally accepted as definitive: The Sermons of John Donne, ed. E.M. Simpson and G.R. Potter, 10 vols.,.second •printing (1956; rpt.Berkeley: University o f California Press, 1962). There does n o t a t p r e s e n t seem t o be a s i n g l e authoritative o r d e f i n i t i v e e d i t i o n o f Edwards ' w o r k s . I have r e l i e d on one o f t h e more r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e and w i d e l y u s e d e d i t i o n s f o r t h i s s t u d y : J o n a t h a n Edwards : R e p r e s e n t a t i v e S e l e c t i o n s , e d . C l a r e n c e H . F a u s t and Thomas H . Johnson (New Y o r k : H i l l and Wang, 1935; r e v . ed. A m e r i c a n C e n t u r y S e r i e s , 1 9 6 2 ) . I have a l s o made use o f J o n a t h a n E d w a r d s : B a s i c W r i t i n g s , e d . O l a E l i z a b e t h W i n s l o w ( T o r o n t o : New A m e r i c a n L i b r a r y I n c . , 1 9 6 6 ) . F i n a l l y , I have checked my s e l e c t i o n s f rom t h e s e s o u r c e s a g a i n s t The Works o f P r e s i d e n t Edwards , i n E i g h t V o l u m e s , e d . E . W i l l i a m s and E . P a r s o n s (London: p r i n t e d for James B l a c k and Son, 1817)* CHAPTER I : GENERAL BACKGROUND B e f o r e one c a n b e g i n s u c h an a n a l y s i s as I have p r o p o s e d f o r t h i s t h e s i s , one must t a k e i n t o a c c o u n t c e r t a i n p r o b l e m s . Q u e s t i o n s t o be r e s o l v e d , w i t h r e g a r d t o b o t h Donne and Edwards , i n c l u d e p rob lems o f a u d i e n c e , t h e t r a d i t i o n s o f h o m i l e t i c l i t e r a t u r e , and t h e t h e o l o g i c a l , s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l f a c t o r s w h i c h may have i n f l u e n c e d each man ' s s t y l e . I t s h o u l d n o t e d , however , t h a t t h e r e l a t i v e emphas i s p l a c e d on t h e s e q u e s t i o n s w i l l d i f f e r f rom one man t o t h e o t h e r . The purpose o f t h i s c h a p t e r i s t o d e a l i n g e n e r a l w i t h some o f t h e s e p r o b l e m s , and t o p r o v i d e a b a c k g r o u n d w h i c h w i l l make more m e a n i n g f u l t h e a n a l y s e s o f each man ' s se rmons . O b v i o u s l y , a major r e q u i r e m e n t i s some s o r t o f d e f i n i t i o n f o r " h o m i l e t i c l i t e r a t u r e " o r " h o m i l y " . One d e f i n i t i o n t h a t i s as u s e f u l as any f o r my pu rpose i s t h a t g i v e n by C . Hugh Holman i n A Handbook t o L i t e r a t u r e : H o m i l y : A form o f o r a l r e l i g i o u s i n s t r u c t i o n g i v e n by an o r d a i n e d m i n i s t e r w i t h a c h u r c h c o n g r e g a t i o n as a u d i e n c e . The h o m i l y i s somet imes d i s t i n g u i s h e d f rom t h e sermon i n t h a t t h e sermon u s u a l l y i s on a theme drawn f rom a s c r i p t u r a l t e x t and a h o m i l y u s u a l l y g i v e s p r a c t i c a l m o r a l c o u n s e l . The . d i s t i n c t i o n i s by no means r i g o r o u s l y m a i n t a i n e d . I n t e rms o f t h i s t h e s i s , t h e d i s t i n c t i o n Holman m e n t i o n s be tween "sermon" and " h o m i l y " i s n o n e x i s t e n t . G i v e n t h a t a sermon i s a f o rm o f " o r a l r e l i g i o u s i n s t r u c t i o n " , and p r e s u m i n g t h a t any p r e a c h e r w o u l d w i s h t o do as t h o r o u g h and e f f i c i e n t a j o b as p o s s i b l e i n t e a c h i n g h i s c o n g r e g a t i o n , o n e ' s major i n t e r e s t s h o u l d be t h e way i n w h i c h t h e p r e a c h e r e l i c i t s and shapes r e s p o n s e I n t r y i n g t o make a number o f p e o p l e aware o f one p a r - t i c u l a r c o n c l u s i o n . We w i s h t o examine s t y l e t h r o u g h t h e n a t u r e and q u a l i t y o f i t s e f f e c t s , as t h e p r e a c h e r shapes h i s a u d i e n c e ' r e s p o n s e s . My method i n t h i s t h e s i s does n o t depend upon a knowledge o f r h e t o r i c a l o r h o m i l e t i c t r a d i t i o n and v o c a b u l a r y f o r a n a l y s i s T e t some homage must be p a i d t o t h e s e t r a d i t i o n s , i f o n l y t o remind t h e r e a d e r t h a t an e x a m i n a t i o n o f s t y l e t h r o u g h e f f e c t i s o n l y t h e f i r s t major s t e p i n e x h a u s t i v e c r i t i c a l a n a l y s e s . There a r e o b v i o u s l y many o t h e r s t e p s , r e l a t e d t o more o b j e c t i v e f a c t o r s and e l e m e n t s w i t h i n a l i t e r a r y t r a d i t i o n o r t r a d i t i o n s . Donne and Edwards b o t h were i n f l u e n c e d by h o m i l e t i c and r h e t o r - i c a l t r a d i t i o n s , w i t h i n t h e c o n t e x t o f t h e i r own i n t e l l e c t u a l and t h e o l o g i c a l m i l i e u x . Donne f e l t the e f f e c t s o f t h e s e t r a d i t i o n s d i r e c t l y , a l o n g w i t h changes wrought by contemporary s c i e n t i f i c and p h i l o s o p h i c a l d e v e l o p m e n t s . Edwards a l s o f e l t t h e d i r e c t i n f l u e n c e o f r h e t o r i c a l t r a d i t i o n , s i n c e t r a i n i n g i n r h e t o r i c was r e q u i r e d a t b o t h Y a l e and H a r v a r d . Edwards was w o r k i n g w i t h i n t h e c o n t e x t o f a t h e o l o g y r a d i c a l l y opposed to D o n n e ' s , even t h o u g h i n h i s own t i m e he was a throwback t o r e l i g i o u s c o n s e r v a t i s m , r a t h e r t h a n a r a d i c a l . Edwards was a p a r t o f a l i t e r a r y and t h e o l o g i c a l c o n s c i o u s n e s s w h i c h , d e s p i t e i t s d i f f e r e n c e s w i t h A n g l i c a n i s m , d a t e d b a c k t o E n g l i s h o r i g i n s and t r a d i t i o n s . I w i l l make c e r t a i n r e f e r e n c e s t o t h e s e t r a d i t i o n s a t t i m e s , but t h e s e w i l l be by way o f p r o v i d i n g s u p p l e m e n t a l d e t a i l . I t i s n o t t o my immediate p u r p o s e t o o f f e r any s e p a r a t e and s p e c i a l e x a m i n a t i o n of h o m i l e t i c and r h e t o r i c a l t r a d i t i o n i n t h i s t h e s i s * H a v i n g s a i d t h i s , l e t 3 me now b e g i n t o examine the v a r i o u s p rob l ems men t ioned a t t h e o p e n i n g o f t h e c h a p t e r . F o r t h e sake o f s i m p l i c i t y , I w i l l f i r s t examine t h e s i t u a t i o n o f J o h n Donne as c o m p l e t e l y as p o s s i b l e , b e f o r e t u r n i n g t o c o n s i d e r J o n a t h a n Edwards . I n h e r book , A S tudy o f t he P r o s e Works o f John Donne. E v e l y n M . S impson p r o v i d e s a u s e f u l o v e r v i e w o f Donne as a t h e o l o g i a n . She demons t r a t e s t h a t "Donne was n o t a g r e a t s p e c u l a t i v e o r c o n s t r u c t i v e t h e o l o g i a n " : H i s sermons a r e t h e work o f an o r a t o r and a p o e t , whose s t r e n g t h l a y i n t h e r e a l i t y o f h i s own p e r s o n a l r e l i g i o u s e x p e r i e n c e and i n t h e power o f i m a g i n a t i o n by w h i c h he b o d i e d f o r t h t h i n g s unseen ar>d made them a l m o s t v i s i b l e t o h i s h e a r e r s . . . . H e was h a p p i e s t when he c o u l d e scape f rom the m i s t s o f t h e o l o g i c a l 2 d i s p u t e s i n t o t h e c l e a r e r a i r o f f a i t h and d e v o t i o n . Donne was one o f t h o s e u n u s u a l p e r s o n a l i t i e s who r e f u s e d t o f i t i n t o any s p e c i f i c t h e o l o g i c a l mould u n l e s s i t s u i t e d h i s c o n c e p t i o n o f C h r i s t i a n t r u t h . H i s n a t i v e i n t e l l e c t u a l energy n e v e r l e t h im cease e x a m i n i n g t h e v a l i d i t y o f o r g a n i z e d r e l i g i o n s and t h e i r d o c t r i n e s as v e h i c l e s f o r f a i t h , and y e t he n e v e r q u e s t i o n e d t h e n e c e s s i t y f o r f a i t h and d e v o t i o n . H i s t h e o l o g y r e s u l t s i n p a r t f rom h i s C a t h o l i c u p b r i n g i n g , h i s s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i t i e s , h i s awareness o f h i m s e l f as a s i n n e r , and h i s c o n v e r s i o n t o A n g l i c a n i s m and t o an u n d e r - s t a n d i n g o f t he e s sence o f C h r i s t i a n f a i t h . The re were t i m e s when he came i n t o open c o n f l i c t w i t h c o l l e a g u e s o f h i s own f a i t h , and h i s w r i t i n g s a l w a y s b e a r the s t r o n g stamp o f h i s i n d i v i d u a l and somet imes i d i o s y n c r a t i c b e l i e f s , and o f h i s own i n t e l l e c t u a l and r e l i g i o u s p a s t : ^ ^ jhe r e 1^ * s u b t l e - d i f f e r e n c e w h i c h a r i s e s f rom Donne*8 C a t h o l i c u p b r i n g i n g , and t h e a f f e c t i o n w h i c h he c o n t i n u e d t o f e e l f o r c e r t a i n C a t h o l i c t r a d i t i o n s . — jgs. 4. C o n s c i o u s l y he gave an i n t e l l e c t u a l a s s e n t t o t h e d o c t r i n a l f o r m u l a r i e s o f t h e C h u r c h o f E n g l a n d , b u t i n v a r i o u s ways he showed t h a t t h e p u l l o f t h e o l d e r a s s o c i a t i o n s was s t r o n g upon h i m .3 One i s a l w a y s aware i n D o n n e ' s work o f t h e emphas is p l a c e d upon the need f o r a t h e o l o g y t o be as g r e a t an a i d as p o s s i b l e i n h e l p i n g t h e s i n n e r towards f a i t h . F o r h i m t h e C h u r c h o f E n g l a n d p r o v i d e s a happy medium between P u r i t a n C a l v i n i s m and C a t h o l i c i s m , b o t h o f w h i c h have t h e i r own p e c u l i a r f a i l i n g s : fDonne) . . . p r e f e r s t h e v i a media o f t he E n g l i s h C h u r c h , and says t h a t i n h i s ' p o o r o p i n i o n * the fo rm o f w o r s h i p e s t a b l i s h e d i n t h a t C h u r c h i s 'more c o n v e n i e n t , and advan tageous t h e n o f any o t h e r Kingdome, b o t h t o p rovoke and k i n d l e d e v o t i o n , and a l s o t o f i x i t , t h a t i t s t r a y n o t i n t o i n f i n i t e e x p a n s i o n s and S u b - d i v i s i o n s ; ( i n t o t h e fo rmer o f w h i c h , Churches u t t e r l y d e s p o y l ' d o f C e r e m o n i e s , seem t o me t o have f a l l e n ; and the Roman C h u r c h , by p r e s e n t i n g i n u m e r a b l e o b j e c t s , i n t o t h e l a t e r 1 ) . 4 However , i t must be n o t e d t h a t when Donne, b e f o r e h i s c o n v e r s i o n , was most p e r p l e x e d about h i s own p e r s o n a l t h e o l o g y , he d i d n o t h e s i t a t e t o condemn c e r t a i n a s p e c t s o f t h e A n g l i c a n C h u r c h w h i c h 5 seemed d i s t a s t e f u l and p u r p o s e l e s s t o h i m . I have men t ioned t h a t Donne o f t e n s t a n d s a p a r t f rom h i s c o n - t e m p o r a r i e s , even w i t h i n the A n g l i c a n C h u r c h . As l i b e r a l and i moderate as t h a t C h u r c h may have been when compared t o o r t h o d o x C a l v i n i s m and C a t h o l i c i s m , t h e r e were t i m e s when e c c l e s i a s t i c a l a u t h o r i t i e s were s u r p r i s e d by h i s w o r k : He p r e a c h e d t o l e r a t i o n i n an age w h i c h demanded r i g i d c o n f o r m i t y , and h i s c o n t r o v e r s i a l sermons l a c k e d t h e b i t t e r n e s s w h i c h was demanded o f a z e a l o u s d e f e n d e r o f t h e f a i t h . ° W i t h i n t h e c o n t e x t o f o r t h o d o x A n g l i c a n i s m , Donne s t r e s s e s d i f f e r e n t t e n e t s o f t h e f a i t h more s t r o n g l y t h a n o t h e r s . He o f t e n works t h r o u g h a p o e t i c and i n t u i t i v e i n s i g h t i n t o t h e n a t u r e o f f a i t h . A t t h e same t i m e , he o f t e n l a c k s t h e more 5 . t r a d i t i o n a l a s p e c t o f t h e C h r i s t i a n t h e o l o g i a n , who b u i l d s up a f r a g i l e t h e o l o g i c a l s t r u c t u r e u s i n g d o g m a t i c l o g i c . He does use dogma, bu t w i t h o u t l e t t i n g i t use h i m . T h i s f r e e s h i m f rom many o f t h e c o n s t r a i n t s , t h e o l o g i c a l and l i t e r a r y , w h i c h i n h i b i t v i t a l i t y and energy i n t e a c h i n g and p r e a c h i n g : The i m p r e s s i o n o f v i t a l i t y and u n c o n v e n t i o n a l i t y g i v e n by much o f D o n n e ' s t e a c h i n g i s due l a r g e l y t o h i s f reedom f rom o r d i n a r y e c c l e s i a s t i c a l p r e - j u d i c e s . Though h i s t h e o l o g y i s o r t h o d o x , h i s s t a n d a r d o f m o r a l v a l u e s i s n o t t h a t w h i c h i s o f t e n _ a s c r i b e d , r i g h t l y o r w r o n g l y , t o o r t h o d o x t h e o l o g i a n s . ' * Donne denounces p u r e l y f o r m a l r e l i g i o n , condemning t h e appea rances o f f a i t h when t h e r e i s no l o v e i n t h e h e a r t . A t t h e same t i m e t h e r e must be " r e v e r e n c e and o r d e r l i n e s s i n c h u r c h w o r s h i p " . L o v e must be t h e e s s e n c e , t h e l i v i n g f o r c e t h a t accompanies t h e t r a p p i n g s and d i s c i p l i n e o f r e l i g i o n , i f an i n d i v i d u a l i s t o a p p r o a c h s p i r i t u a l i t y t h r o u g h C h r i s t : F o r D o n n e . . . a l l v i r t u e s a r e summed up i n l o v e , and t h e p r o c e s s o f p u r g a t i o n and s e l f - d i s c i p l i n e has no v a l u e e x c e p t i n so f a r as i t i s t h e work o f l o v e . 'God i s l o v e ; and he t h a t d w e l l e t h i n l o v e , d w e l l e t h i n God , and God i n h i m . ' . . . S o Donne r i s e s f rom t h e l o v e o f t h e c r e a t u r e t o t h a t o f t h e C r e a t o r , and f i n d s i n t h i s l o v e t h e one e s s e n t i a l means o f p u r i f i c a t i o n . 8 D o n n e ' s l o v e s h i n e s t h r o u g h h i s se rmons , m a k i n g them monuments o f h i s p e r s o n a l d e v o t i o n t o G o d , and e v i d e n c e s o f h i s C h r i s t i a n l o v e f o r h i s f e l l o w s , t o whom t h e sermons a r e a d d r e s s e d . Donne had c e r t a i n s p e c i f i c i d e a s abou t t h e n a t u r e and r o l e o f t h e m i n i s t e r i n s o c i e t y , t h e o l o g i c a l l y and s o c i a l l y . F o r t h e p r e s e n t we a r e i n t e r e s t e d i n h i s i d e a o f t h e p r e a c h e r as a r e l i g i o u s mentor i n a s o c i a l g r o u p , r a t h e r t h a n i n h i s concep t o f t he r e l a t i o n s h i p between r e l i g i o u s and s e c u l a r " m i n i s t e r s " and con t empora ry s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l e v e n t s . I n r e f e r r i n g t o a sermon p r e a c h e d a t t h e S p i t a l i n 1622 , S impson o u t l i n e s b r i e f l y 6 D o n n e ' s o p i n i o n as t o what a m i n i s t e r s h o u l d b e . F o r t h o s e who w i s h t o be " ' m i n i s t e r s o f G o d ' s Word and S a c r a m e n t s ' " , They must have a t r u e sense o f v o c a t i o n , must be i n - deed c a l l e d o f God and a l s o o r d a i n e d by l a w f u l a u t h o r i t y , and i n a d d i t i o n t h e y must have a due e q u i p - ment o f l e a r n i n g , f o l l o w h o l i n e s s o f l i f e , and p r e a c h z e a l o u s l y and f r e q u e n t l y .9 I n t r y i n g t o f u l f i l l h i s own r e q u i r e m e n t s , Donne s eeks t o u n i f y t h e o l o g i c a l p r i n c i p l e s , t he f o r m a l s t r u c t u r e o f r e l i g i o n , and t h e l o v e w h i c h s h o u l d be i n men ' s h e a r t s i n o r d e r t o p r o v i d e a way t o w a r d s a l v a t i o n f o r a l l b e l i e v e r s . As f a r as Donne was c o n c e r n e d , what was t h e pu rpose o f a sermon? I n t e rms o f h i s backg round as a man o f l e t t e r s , we know t h a t Donne was i n f l u e n c e d by t h e L a t i n c l a s s i c a l w r i t e r s , and by t h o s e o f t h e Greek a u t h o r s whom he found i n L a t i n t r a n s l a t i o n s . 1 ^ He was f a m i l i a r w i t h P l a t o n i c d o c t r i n e s , some o f w h i c h had been t i e d i n t o C h r i s t i a n p h i l o s o p h y by A u g u s t i n e ; t h e r e i s e v i d e n c e f o r t h i s f a m i l i a r i t y i n h i s s e r m o n s . 1 1 D e n n i s Q u i n n , i n h i s a r t i c l e "Donne ' s C h r i s t i a n E l o q u e n c e " , u s e s t r a d i t i o n a l A u g u s t i n i a n c o n c e p t s t o e x p l a i n D o n n e ' s method o f compos ing 12 se rmons . I n d o i n g so he makes s e v e r a l p o i n t s w h i c h a r e v a l u a b l e t o an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f D o n n e ' s w o r k . H i s d i s c u s s i o n l o o k s a t t h e p a t r i s t i o n o t i o n o f t h e sermon and t h e changes wrought i n i t as a r e s u l t o f R e n a i s s a n c e t h o u g h t . W h i l e t h e r e a r e c e r t a i n weaknesses i n h i s a rgument , some o f h i s p o i n t s a r e w o r t h e x a m i n i n g . I n A u g u s t i n i a n t r a d i t i o n , t h e C h r i s t i a n o r a t o r s h o u l d be a commentator and t e a c h e r o f t h e B i b l e , one who " w i n s s o u l s by 1 3 e x p r e s s i n g t h e t r u t h as i t i s embodied i n t h e S c r i p t u r e s . " The t r a d i t i o n s o f pagan o r a t o r y , w i t h i t s arguments and e m o t i o n a l l a n g u a g e , were o f f e n s i v e t o A u g u s t i n e because t h e y seemed t o be based on weak i n t e l l e c t u a l g round by t h e m s e l v e s : (HeJ.. . s o u g h t t o found C h r i s t i a n o r a t o r y on more s o l i d g round on t h i n g s r a t h e r t h a n w o r d s , on t r u t h r a t h e r t h a n p r o b a b i l i t i e s ; hence t h e m a t e r i a l o f t he sermon i s the t r u t h o f God as e x p r e s s e d i n t h e B i b l e . A u g u s t i n e encouraged u s e o f a l l t he i n s t r u m e n t s o f human s c i e n c e ( i n c l u d i n g pagan r h e t o r i c ) i n i n t e r - p r e t i n g and c o n v e y i n g t h e t r u t h o f t h e S c r i p t u r e s , b u t i t i s t h e t r u t h w h i c h s aves s o u l s , n o t human argument o r d e v i c e s o f l a n g u a g e . 1 4 i Quinn sees t h i s t h e o r y o f C h r i s t i a n e l o q u e n c e , as w e l l as t h e A u g u s t i n i a n c o n c e p t i o n o f t h e B i b l e , as t he c o n t r o l l i n g t h e o r y u n d e r l y i n g r e l i g i o u s o r a t o r y u n t i l t he R e n a i s s a n c e . D e s p i t e t h e changes b r o u g h t by t h e R e n a i s s a n c e i n t e rms o f new approaches t o t h e B i b l e , new n o t i o n s about r h e t o r i c , and new i d e a s about what a s e r m o n ' s f u n c t i o n s h o u l d b e , Q u i n n sees Donne as owing a s t r o n g a l l e g i a n c e t o t h e A u g u s t i n i a n t r a d i t i o n s . Qu inn*s argument i s c o n v i n c i n g , t hough he t e n d s t o de -emphas i ze t h e more immedia te e f f e c t s o f t h e "new" s c i e n c e and t h e t r e a t - ment o f t h e r e a s o n - f a i t h r e s o l u t i o n i n D o n n e ' s t h o u g h t . T o o , Q u i n n does n o t pay s u f f i c i e n t a t t e n t i o n t o D o n n e ' s i n d i v i d u a l i t y , and t o h i s m a n i p u l a t i o n o f t r a d i t i o n f o r t h e sake o f h i s t h e o - l o g i c a l ends and h i s own i n t e l l e c t u a l and m o r a l s e l f - r e s p e c t . Q u i n n i s c o r r e c t , however , when he s ays t h a t "Donne ' s sermons a r e n o t a d d r e s s e d p r i m a r i l y t o t h e r e a s o n . " J R e a s o n becomes a p a r t o f t h e p r o c e s s w h e r e i n t h e s e e k e r i s h e l p e d t o move t oward C h r i s t , b u t Donne was aware t h a t one "does n o t w i n s o u l s by r a t i o n a l c o n v i c t i o n " a l o n e : The p s y c h o l o g y o f p r e a c h i n g i n g e n e r a l i s , f o r Donne, t h e same as t h e p s y c h o l o g y o f t h e B i b l e , w h i c h works d i r e c t l y upon t h e s o u l and o n l y i n - d i r e c t l y upon men ' s r e a s o n . * 6 Donne h i m s e l f has s a i d , " E l o q u e n c e i s n o t our n e t . . . o n l y t h e 17 G o s p e l i s . " Tha t I s , t h e m i n i s t e r does n o t pe r suade h i s a u d i e n c e t o d e v o t i o n t h r o u g h r e a s o n a b l e a rgument . The t r u t h o f t h e G o s p e l , d e s c r i b e d i n r e a s o n a b l e t e r m s , i s what k i n d l e s d e v o t i o n . Y e t , i n c o m p l y i n g w i t h t h e A u g u s t i n i a n n o t i o n t h a t any d e v i c e ( n . . . a l l t h e i n s t r u m e n t s o f human s c i e n c e " ) i s p e r - m i s a a b l e i n r e a c h i n g f o r a s o u l , Donne h i m s e l f o b s c u r e s h i s c o n n e c t i o n w i t h t h e A u g u s t i n i a n p r i n c i p l e s . H i s own b r i l l i a n c e , the scope o f h i s l e a r n i n g , and t h e changes wrought by t h e R e n a i s s a n c e i n r h e t o r i c , t h e o l o g y , and t h e conoep t o f t h e sermon a l l h e l p t o p r o v i d e an o f t e n c o n f u s i n g , a l w a y s r e m a r k a b l e r a t i o n a l framework i n D o n n e ' s r e l i g i o u s p r o s e . J u s t as r e a s o n and f a i t h a r e combined i n a R e n a i s s a n c e a p p r o a c h t o C h r i s t , so r a t i o n a l argument and i n t e l l e c t u a l l y o r r a t i o n a l l y c o n c e i v e d p l o y s a r e u sed as a means o f r e a c h i n g t h e s o u l on a n o n - r a t i o n a l l e v e l w i t h i n a se rmon . I f t h e G o s p e l i s " o u r n e t " , t h e n r e a s o n and i t s m a n i f e s t a t i o n s , r h e t o r i c , and s k i l f u l a p p e a l s t o t h e emot ions a l l p a r t s o f C h r i s t i a n e l o q u e n c e a r e t h e means by w h i c h Donne m a n i p u l a t e s t h e s o u l i n t o a p o s i t i o n where i t can be " n e t t e d " . To u n d e r s t a n d more about D o n n e ' s i d e a o f a se rmon, one has t o know more about t h e b a l a n c e o f R e n a i s s a n c e and m e d i e v a l e l emen t s i n h i s t h o u g h t . C e r t a i n s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n s a r e i n - e s c a p a b l y i n t e r t w i n e d w i t h t h i s , and must be d e a l t w i t h a t more o r l e s s t h e same t i m e . R e n a i s s a n c e sermons became f o r a t i m e t h e p r o d u c t s o f a c o n f l i c t r e s u l t i n g f rom t h e c o n s t a n t t h e o - l o g i z i n g and p o l e m i c w h i c h began a f t e r t h e i n i t i a l t h e o l o g i c a l o u t b u r s t s o f t h e R e f o r m a t i o n . Because o f s h a r p r e l i g i o u s 9. c o n t r o v e r s i e s w i t h f a r - r e a c h i n g s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l r a m i - f i c a t i o n s , sermons became a l m o s t i n d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e a t t i m e s f rom a r g u m e n t a t i v e p o l i t i c a l l e c t u r e s w h i c h were meant t o r e a c h t h e p u b l i o : The v e r y s u r v i v a l o f P r o t e s t a n t i s m depended upon t h e f o r m u l a t i o n , p r o m u l g a t i o n , and de fense o f sound d o c t r i n e ; and t h e p u l p i t was t h e b e s t means o f r e a c h i n g t h e p e o p l e . * ° There were h a r s h c o u n t e r - a t t a c k s f rom t h e C a t h o l i c C h u r c h and the J e s u i t f a t h e r s , and a need f o r more e f f i c i e n t t h e o l o g i c a l weapons was t h e r e s u l t . There was a r e l a t e d change i n t h e r u l e s o f r h e t o r i c c o n c e r n i n g sermon l i t e r a t u r e , a change w h i c h i n t r o - duced a p p e a l s t o " l o g i c and a f f e c t i o n s ' ' . Bu t one o f t h e most s i g n i f i c a n t changes had t o do w i t h t h e t r e a t m e n t o f t h e B i b l e 1 Q as an " h i s t o r i c a l document r a t h e r t h a n a s p i r i t u a l i n s t r u m e n t " . * Qu inn d e s c r i b e s t h e B i b l e as becoming an " a r s e n a l o f p r o o f - t e x t s " w h i c h C a t h o l i c and P r o t e s t a n t t h e o l o g i a n s u s e d a g a i n s t each o t h e r w i t h much v i g o u r . W i t h r e s p e c t t o Donne, l e s s emphas i s need be p l a c e d on the i d e a o f o v e r t t h e o l o g i c a l c o n f l i c t i n e x a m i n i n g h i s se rmons . By h i s t i m e , s u c h open w a r f a r e had d e c r e a s e d somewhat, t hough con tempora ry t h e o l o g i a n s were s t i l l e x t r e m e l y s e n s i t i v e t o t h e r e l i g i o u s p o l a r i z a t i o n o f t h e a g e . C r i t i c s have a rgued on t h e one hand t h a t D o n n e ' s t hough t marks h im as a m e d i e v a l s c h o l a r , and on t h e o t h e r t h a t Donne i s 20 c l e a r l y a R e n a i s s a n c e man. The M i d d l e Ages and the R e n a i s s a n c e o v e r l a p i n te rms o f s o c i a l b e h a v i o r , s c h o o l s o f t h o u g h t , p h i l o - sophy , t h e o l o g y and l i t e r a t u r e . By t r y i n g t o l a b e l Donne as e i t h e r a m e d i e v a l o r a R e n a i s s a n c e man, one n e c e s s a r i l y s h u t s o n e s e l f away f rom t h e m u l t i - f a c e t e d n a t u r e o f t h e man and h i s w o r k s . He s h a r e s t h e m e d i e v a l v i e w o f God and H i s m a n i f e s t a t i o n s t h r o u g h o u t t h e u n i v e r s e : — — U n d o u b t e d l y D o n n e * s t h o u g h t i s b a s e d o n a f i r m c o n v i c t i o n o f t h e e x i s t e n c e o f G o d , a n d h e s e e s G o d e v e r y w h e r e i n t h e U n i v e r s e . I n h i s m e t h o d o f e x - p o u n d i n g t h i s g r e a t r e a l i t y h e f o l l o w e d t h e S c h o o l m e n i n t h e i r r e s p e c t f o r t h e p a s t , i n t h e c o n s t a n t a p p e a l t o a u t h o r i t y , a n d i n t h e f r e q u e n t u s e o f t h e a l l e g o r - i c a l s y s t e m o f i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . 2 1 S i m p s o n c o n f i r m s D o n n e ' s a l l e g i a n c e t o p a t r i s t i c t r a d i t i o n ( a n d i n p a r t i c u l a r t o A u g u s t i n e ) , a n d t o t h e c l a s s i c a l s c h o l a r s h i p o f t h e M i d d l e A g e s . D o n n e ' s w o r k s a r e d o m i n a t e d b y e v i d e n c e o f h i s b e l i e f i n G o d , a n d b y a t r a d i t i o n a l a p p r o a c h t o G o d ' s w o r k s : . . . D o n n e ' s p h i l o s o p h y i s r o o t e d i n a b e l i e f i n G o d , a n d i n t h e n a t u r a l o r d e r a s a c h a i n o f b e i n g d e r i v e d f r o m G o d . God i s t h e C r e a t o r , t h e e f f i c i e n t c a u s e o f t h e u n i v e r s e . He i s a l s o t h e f i n a l c a u s e , t h e a i m a n d g o a l o f a l l . T h e s o u l o f man i s n o t e t e r n a l ; i t i s c r e a t e d b y G o d a t t h e moment when i t i s i n - f u s e d b y H i m i n t o t h e b o d y . I n t h i s D o n n e f o l l o w s S t . A u g u s t i n e . . . . 2 2 l e t a t t h e same t i m e D o n n e was n o t m e r e l y a f o l l o w e r i n t h e f o o t s t e p s o f t h e m e d i e v a l S c h o o l m e n . S i m p s o n c i t e s a s t a t e m e n t b y C M . C o f f i n w h i c h d e s c r i b e s D o n n e a s p a r t o f t h e i n t e l l e c t u a l movement o f t h e R e n a i s s a n c e : (bonne! ' . . . r e p r e s e n t s t h e e f f o r t o f t h e l a t e R e n a i s s a n c e m i n d t o make a n a d j u s t m e n t t o i t s w o r l d o f c h a n g i n g v a l u e s w i t h o u t s a c r i f i c i n g i t s r e g a r d f o r t h e e q u a l c l a i m s o f e m o t i o n a n d r e a s o n .'23 I n D o n n e one may f i n d c o m b i n e d t h e m e d i e v a l b e l i e f i n e s t a b l i s h e d a u t h o r i t y , a n d t h e R e n a i s s a n c e t h i n k e r s ' w i l l i n g n e s s t o e x a m i n e new d a t a i n a l e s s d o g m a t i c m a n n e r . S i m p s o n w i l l n o t d e s c r i b e D o n n e a s e i t h e r a s c i e n t i s t o r a p h i l o s o p h e r , a l t h o u g h h i s i n t e l l e c t u a l e n e r g y c a r r i e d h i m i n t o s c i e n t i f i c a n d p h i l o - s o p h i c a l s t u d i e s . S h e d e s c r i b e s D o n n e a s a p o e t who r e c o g n i z e d " . . . t h e p h i l o s o p h i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h e new s c i e n t i f i c d i s c o v e r i e s . L i v i n g i n an age o f t r a n s i t i o n he c o u l d f e e l t h e s h o c k s w h i c h were t h r e a t e n i n g t h e s e c u r i t y o f t h e o l d e d i f i c e OA o f t h o u g h t . " * H i s r e l i g i o u s t h o u g h t , g i v e n e x t e n s i o n by t h e c o m b i n a t i o n o f m e d i e v a l and R e n a i s s a n c e e l emen t s under t h e t r ademark o f h i s p e c u l i a r i n d i v i d u a l i t y , c a r r i e s . . . D o n n e ' s c o n v i c t i o n o f t h e u l t i m a t e r e a l i t i e s o f God and t h e s o u l . B e h i n d t h e appearances o f sense t h e r e i s an i n v i s i b l e o r d e r w h i c h r e m a i n s u n s h a k e n . He a d j u r e s h i s s o u l t o l e a v e t h e s e ou tward shows, and seek t h e Source o f a l l k n o w l e d g e . . ..25 When one b e g i n s t o d i s c u s s p o l i t i c a l a n d / o r s o c i a l i n f l u e n c e s on D o n n e ' s se rmons , one b e g i n s t o e n t e r i n t o d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e p rob l ems o f a u d i e n c e , t i m e , and p l a c e as w e l l . C e r t a i n l y , t he n a t u r e o f D o n n e ' s a u d i e n c e was c o n d i t i o n e d by t h e l o c a t i o n i n w h i c h a p a r t i c u l a r sermon may have been d e l i v e r e d . I f Donne were t o d e l i v e r a sermon a t c o u r t he c o u l d j u s t i f i a b l y e x p e c t a w e l l - e d u c a t e d , w e a l t h y and n o b l e a u d i e n c e w h i c h w o u l d be v i t a l l y c o n c e r n e d w i t h c u r r e n t s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l e v e n t s o r c r i s e s . He c o u l d a l s o e x p e c t i n t e r e s t i n any t h e o l o g i c a l c o n t r o - v e r s y t h a t had s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l o v e r t o n e s . E v e n when d e a l i n g w i t h l a r g e r and l e s s n o b l e a u d i e n c e s , he c o u l d coun t f a i r l y s t r o n g l y on h i s a u d i e n c e ' s awareness o f t h e r e l i g i o u s p o l a r - i z a t i o n o f t he t i m e s and on t h e i r knowledge o f major c u r r e n t a f f a i r s . I t seems r e a s o n a b l e , t h e n , t h a t t h e n a t u r e o f Donne ' s a u d i e n c e , as d e t e r m i n e d by t h e s e f a c t o r s , may have i n f l u e n c e d s t y l e i n h i s se rmons . These f a c t o r s u n d o u b t e d l y i n f l u e n c e d c o n t e n t and even m o t i v a t i o n i n t h e p r e a c h i n g o f p a r t i c u l a r sermons on p a r t i c u l a r o c c a s i o n s . D o n n e ' s sense o f h i s own r o l e and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s as a m i n i s t e r w o u l d i n p a r t d e t e r m i n e t h e e x t e n t o f a p a r t i c u l a r e v e n t ' s e f f e c t s on a s p e c i f i c s e rmon . 1 2 . While the examination of sermons to discover various references to current events i s not to my immediate purpose, I may comment on the relevance of secular or social issues as influences on style in particular passages from the, sermon". For now, let the reader consider merely that Donne "makes external l i f e . . • 27 part and symbol of his text". There i s one f i n a l problem-to be considered with respect to Donne: there i s reason to believe that the sermons were written in the form we have them after they were delivered, rather than before. We have l i t t l e way of deciding with certainty whether or in what ways the extant texts differ from the versions 28 originally presented. But Donne did prepare the f u l l y ex- panded written texts. There is no reason why we should think that the written forms which are extant were designed to be any less persuasive than the originals, many of which were de- livered from notes. If Donne wished to teach and "affect" his audience, would not the written forms be equally persuasive? The extant texts, in most cases, reflect the expenditure of great care and energy on Donne's part. It does not seem like l y that Donne! would have been any less intent on his goals as a Christian minister in his written sermons, especially in a time when.religion was such a pervasive force. It is there- fore not only reasonable, but important to examine the extant texts from the standpoint of affective style. It i s almost as~if Donne were delivering his sermons to us personally, giving us a unique opportunity for study of style by effect. * • * * • One must approach background m a t e r i a l to Jonathan Edwards i n a manner d i f f e r e n t from that used wi t h respect to Donne. While the same kinds of questions could be asked regarding theo- logy* the idea and purpose of the sermon, s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l i n f l u e n c e s and problems of audience, emphasis on various of these questions must be a p p l i e d d i f f e r e n t l y . For the purposes of a f f e c t i v e c r i t i c i s m , I am c h i e f l y concerned w i t h the general s p i r i t of Edwards' times, h i s theology, and h i s i n t e l l e c t u a l i background ( e s p e c i a l l y h i s concept of language and h i s n o t i o n of a sermon). Since Edwards i s associated w i t h the Great Awakening i n P u r i t a n New England, l e t me begin w i t h a b r i e f d i s - cussion of that phenomenon. One of the more u s e f u l books on the Great Awakening i s Edwin 30 Scott Gaustad's The Great Awakening. In New England. Gaustad o f f e r s u s e f u l d i s c u s s i o n on the P u r i t a n settlement ( i n the theo- l o g i c a l sense) of New England, and traces the development of the circumstances which lead up t o the period of r e l i g i o u s r e v i v a l - 31 ism we c a l l the Great Awakening. We know that by the e a r l y eighteenth century r e l i g i o u s e x e r c i s e i n New England was f a l t e r i n g . The nature of the P u r i t a n theocracy was such that i t s members were s e n s i t i v e to t h e i r s p i r i t u a l d e c l i n e as a community. This d e c l i n e was due more to "...a l a x i t y i n personal m o r a l i t y and r e l i g i o n " which a f f e c t e d the whole community, than to any major d o c t r i n a l changes. Seventeenth century P u r i t a n d i v i n e s had not recognized any great d i f f e r e n c e s d o c t r i n a l l y between themselves and the E n g l i s h P r o t e s t a n t s , but New England Calvinism was described i n terms of a covenant r e l a t i o n s h i p between God and men.'2 This covenant r e l a t i o n s h i p was n o t o n l y r e l i g i o u s , bu t a l s o " . . . s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l , as i t was ex t ended t o b i n d a t o t a l s o c i e t y , s a i n t s and s i n n e r s , t o t h e a c t i v e d o m i n i o n o f G o d . " - ^ T h e r e f o r e , t h e s t a t u s o f t he r e l a t i o n s h i p be tween God and man was , t o t h e s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y A m e r i c a n C a l v i n i s t s , an a l l - p e r v a d i n g q u e s t i o n w h i c h abso rbed t h e t i m e , t h o u g h t , and energy o f t h e t h e o c r a c y ' s i n h a b i t a n t s (whe ther t h e y were e l e c t o r n o t ) . The G r e a t Awaken ing was due i n p a r t t o t h e f a c t t h a t t h e second and t h i r d g e n e r a t i o n s o f P u r i t a n s were more removed f rom t h e covenan t o f g r a c e t h a n t h e i r f i r s t - g e n e r a t i o n f o r b e a r s . Because o f t h i s , and because o f t h e r e s u l t i n g weaken ing o f t h e community b o t h s o c i a l l y and p o l i t i c a l l y , t h e c h u r c h l e a d e r s t r i e d t o f i n d means" o f d r a w i n g t h e community t o g e t h e r a g a i n . I n an a t t emp t t o r e g a i n r e l i g i o u s s o l i d a r i t y w i t h i n t h e communi ty , t he covenan t was ex t ended i n m o d i f i e d fo rm t o t hose who n o r m a l l y w o u l d n o t have r e c e i v e d i t u n d e r t h e o r i g i n a l s y s t e m . I t was t h o u g h t t h a t " o p e n i n g w i d e r t h e c h u r c h e s ' d o o r s " wou ld h a l t t h e P u r i t a n s p i r i t u a l d e c l i n e , b u t t h i s was n o t t o b e . ' 4 The c h i e f e f f e c t upon i n d i v i d u a l members o f t h e community was t h a t r e l i g i o n became an i n t e l l e c t u a l e x e r c i s e o f i n s t i t u t i o n a l i n s t r u c t i o n , r a t h e r t h a n a h i g h l y p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e i n t h e o r i g i n a l P u r i t a n s e n s e . By t h e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y , New E n g l a n d was r a p i d l y l o s i n g i t s t h e o l o g i c a l u n i f o r m i t y : The dominant r e l i g i o u s g r o u p , C o n g r e g a t i o n a l i s m , was l o s i n g i t s monopoly and i t s i n t e g r i t y as was t h e dominant t h e o l o g y , C a l v i n i s m , ,3? Edwards was t o b e g i n e f f e c t i v e r e v i v a l i s t work as e a r l y as 1733t o p e r a t i n g w i t h i n t h e r i g i d , and p r e s u m a b l y o u t - d a t e d c o n f i n e s o f o r t h o d o x C a l v i n i s m . By t h e 1740 ' s , r e v i v a l i s m was 15. i n f u l l swing. The descendants of New England Puritanism had l o s t the most important r e l i g i o u s focuses f o r the f i e r c e l y i n t r o s p e c t i v e C a l v i n i s t s p i r i t u a l energy, without l o s i n g that energy i t s e l f . The people of New England were r i p e f o r s p i r i t u a l p l u c k i n g by the powers of Jonathan Edwards. They were s u s c e p t i b l e to any i n f l u e n c e which would reintroduce the cohesion which had c h a r a c t e r i z e d the e a r l y P u r i t a n theocracy. In r e t u r n i n g t o orthodoxy Edwards d e l i b e r a t e l y used the people's unconscious need to focuB t h e i r s p i r i t u a l energy; at the same time he imparted a new sense of immediacy t o o l d t h e o l o g i c a l i s s u e s . He was to r e d e f i n e f o r a b r i e f time the l i m i t s of P u r i t a n s p i r i t u a l experience. He was to become, i n e f f e c t , an anachronism, i n h i s attempt t o make the past r e c u r i n the present. Probably the best d i s c u s s i o n of Edwards' theology i s t o be found i n John LynenTs The Design of the Present.'** While there are other u s e f u l d i s c u s s i o n s of Edwards' theology d i s c u s s i o n s to which I may r e f e r p e r i o d i c a l l y Lynen does the best job of t y i n g together Edwards' theology, h i s i n t e l l e c t u a l background, and h i s theory of language. Therefore i t i s c h i e f l y on Lynen*s work th a t I s h a l l r e l y . Edwards' theology has been described as ...a s t a t e l y and w e l l buttressed t h e o l o g i c a l and p h i l o s o p h i c a l system, a system b u i l t both of m a t e r i a l s i n h e r i t e d from h i s C a l v i n i s t i c forbears and of m a t e r i a l s b o l d l y s e i z e d from the p h i l o - s o p h i c a l schools of h i s time.57 However, despite the strong p h i l o s o p h i c a l i n f l u e n c e s a c t i n g upon him, Edwards i s p r i m a r i l y a t h e o l o g i a n , not a philosopher. His theology i s such t h a t , as a r a t i o n a l scheme, i t i s not 16. c o m p l e t e u n l e s s a c c o m p a n i e d b y a s e n s e o f t h e r e l i g i o u s e x - p e r i e n c e o r v i s i o n w h i c h g i v e s t r a n s c e n d e n t m e a n i n g o n t h e s p i r i t u a l p l a n e t o h i s s y s t e m ' s l o g i c a l f r a m e w o r k . T h e l o g i c o f t h e s c h e m e i s d e s i g n e d t o h e l p move t h e s e e k e r b e y o n d l o g i c a l i t y a n d r e a s o n a b l e a r g u m e n t , t o w a r d t h e r e l i g i o u s e x p e r i e n c e . H e r e , I am m a i n l y c o n c e r n e d w i t h one c r u c i a l e l e m e n t o f E d w a r d s ' t h e o l o g y , b e c a u s e o f i t s r e l e v a n c e t o b o t h h i s i n v i t a t i o n a l a n d i m p r e c a t o r y s e r m o n s . E d w a r d s a c c e p t e d t h e o r t h o d o x C a l v i n i s t b e l i e f i n p r e d e t e r m i n e d d a m n a t i o n o r s a l v a t i o n . T h a t b e i n g t h e c a s e , why was h e s o i n t e n t u p o n r e a c h i n g t h e h e a r t s o f h i s a u d i e n o e ? T h e r e i s a n a p p a r e n t c o n t r a d i c t i o n b e t w e e n t h e i d e a o f p r e d e s t i n a t i o n a n d t h e b e l i e f t h a t h e , a s a m i n i s t e r , o o u l d somehow a l t e r t h e f a t e o f h i s a u d i e n c e ' s s o u l s . What c o u l d h i s p r e a c h i n g a c h i e v e , i n t h e f a c e o f G o d ' s p r e - o r d a i n e d w i l l ? P a r t o f t h e a n s w e r h a s t o d o w i t h E d w a r d s ' t h e o r y o f c a u s a t i o n . E d w a r d s b e l i e v e d h e c o u l d r e s o l v e t h e q u e s t i o n o f o r i g i n a l s i n a s a c a u s a l e l e m e n t i n C r e a t i o n , a n d G o d ' s s u b - s e q u e n t i n t e r v e n t i o n t o ^ a i r t B r e v e n t s w h i c h m i g h t n o t h a v e o c c u r r e d i n t h e n a t u r a l , s e q u e n t i a l c o u r s e o f t h i n g s . D i d n o t d i v i n e i n t e r v e n t i o n i m p l y i m p e r f e c t i o n i n t h e o r i g i n a l w o r k o f C r e a t i o n ? . How c o u l d t h e . w o r k o f a p e r f e c t G o d b e i m p e r f e c t ? How w a s o n e t h e n t o d i s t i n g u i s h b e t w e e n t h e n a t u r a l a n d s p i r i t u a l l e v e l s o f b e i n g ? E d w a r d s c o u l d e l i m i n a t e a l l t h e s e p r o b l e m s b y p o i n t i n g o u t t h a t t h e d i s t i n c t i o n b e t w e e n o r i g i n a l c a u s e a n d s u b s e q u e n t c a u s e ( o r d i v i n e i n t e r v e n t i o n ) w a s f a l s e , i f o n e w e r e w i l l i n g t o a b a n d o n t h e n o r m a l h u m a n e x p e r i e n t i a l v i e w o f e v e n t s : 17 In experience causes appear to precede e f f e c t s , and common sense the r e f o r e concludes t h a t a cause i s e f f i c i e n t or has inherent power to "produce" the l a t e r event as i t s e f f e c t . For Edwards, however, causation i s not e f f i c i e n c y hut, r a t h e r , a connection, "consent", or appropriateness such that an i d e a of one t h i n g involves that of another.55 That i s , one does not judge causation on the b a s i s of success or l a c k of success i n completing a proje c t e d sequence of events. The e v a l u a t i o n of causation depends upon one's point of view i n r e l a t i o n t o the idea of one event and i t s connection t o the idea of another event. This i s an atemporal r e l a t i o n s h i p . I n f a c t , the same concept a p p l i e s to time: " I f place i s an id e a , and the l o c a t i o n of a t h i n g 'a mode of our idea of p l a c e , 1 then time too i s an id e a , and the period of time during which a t h i n g e x i s t s i s a mode of that idea a l s o . " Thus, time and place are only parts of God's w i l l , and the only i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s regarding d i v i n e i n t e r v e n t i o n " a f t e r " the o r i g i n a l C r e a t i o n are imagined by humans because of t h e i r i n f e r i o r " n a t u r a l " viewpoint. N a t u r a l and temporal d i s t i n c t i o n s are apparent only t o us, and not t r u l y s i g n i f i c a n t t o the f u n c t i o n i n g of Edwards' God. God i s Absolute, and cannot be encompassed r a t i o n a l l y . T h i s theory of causation a l s o allows f o r the concepts of Absolute Sovereignty and dependence upon God t o be expounded i n a t o t a l l y u n i n h i b i t e d manner. The s p i r i t u a l frame of r e f - erence i s made t o encompass the n a t u r a l world through a l t e r a t i o n of one's point of view. Yet i f one i s prepared to accept the concepts of Absolute Sovereignty and p r e d e s t i n a t i o n , one must re s o l v e the problem of the c o n t r a d i c t i o n between p r e d e s t i n a t i o n and f r e e w i l l , and examine t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p t o the idea of regeneration. I f p r e d e s t i n a t i o n t r u l y c o n t r o l s men's l i v e s , how can Edwards hope to a l t e r the f a t e of t h e i r souls through preaching? F i r s t l y , the concepts of p r e d e s t i n a t i o n , f r e e w i l l , and regeneration are t i e d together inseparably. Orthodox Calvinism d i c t a t e s that one i s both predestined, and capable of f r e e acts of w i l l ; and i t i s the b e l i e v e r ' s Job t o i n s p e c t and discover w i t h i n himself the grace of God under the covenant r e l a t i o n s h i p , . the means of regeneration, with Edwards t h i s i s a passion, inasmuch as he favors a r e t u r n t o almost t o t a l orthodoxy. For Edwards, God's grace i s something which i s , i f one i s of the regenerate, always present i n s i d e one whether one w i l l s i t or not, as a r e s u l t of e l e c t i o n through p r e d e s t i n a t i o n . The experience of the l i g h t of grace i s a u n i t y of the S p i r i t of God w i t h man i n t h i s world, and i s immensely b e a u t i f u l . But the mere presence of the d i v i n e l i g h t w i t h i n a person does not guarantee that person's behavior, or even h i s r e c o g n i t i o n of i t s presence. I t merely gives one the c a p a b i l i t y of r e c o g n i z i n g oneself as one of the lucky regenerate. Therefore, the predestined con- d i t i o n has no d i r e c t c o n t r o l over personal a c t i o n . For one who i s destined to be unregenerate, no amount of good works or godly behavior w i l l be of a i d i n changing the so u l ' s f a t e . T e c h n i c a l l y , one i s f r e e to do whatever one wants; the f a t e of one's s o u l i s as c e r t a i n a f a c t as death. I t i s e t e r n a l l y sealed i n Creation, and i s everpresent i n God's mind (since temporal d i s t i n c t i o n s do not apply to God). In Edwards' theory the concept of "before" does not apply. " P r e d e s t i n a t i o n " i s a word men use t o r e f e r to the relationship-between the f a t e of n a t u r a l men, who experience time s e q u e n t i a l l y , t o God. God knows what one w i l l do because 19. a l l e t e r n i t y i s open to Him, but He does not f o r c e one to act i n a c e r t a i n way. E i t h e r one i s regenerate or not. Edwards' pur- pose i s to help the seeker f i n d out, and t o urge him toward the experience of the Divine L i g h t which i s the mark and the g l o r y of the regenerate. T h i s , then, i s one of the p r i n c i p l e i s s u e s i n Edwards' sermons: to recognize the t r u t h of the f a t e of one's s o u l , r a t h e r than t o change i t . Of course, the person who f e a r s back- s l i d i n g i n t o 8 i n as an i n d i c a t i o n of unregeneracy may always hope f o r d i v i n e i n t e r v e n t i o n or "subsequent cause" to occur. Edwards' theory of causation e l i m i n a t e s the seeming c o n t r a - d i c t i o n between p e r f e c t C r e a t i o n and subsequent d i v i n e manipulation. The o v e r a l l r e s u l t f o r the members of the church i s that t h e i r w i l l s are constrained only by t h e i r own d e s i r e s , and t h e i r i n a b i l i t y as temporal creatures t o grasp God's master plan. Edwards' i n t e l l e c t u a l background and h i s theory of language give shape and focus to h i s idea of a sermon. He was known, even as a young man, to have been a g i f t e d s c h o l a r , and he reoeived the b e n e f i t of a t r a d i t i o n a l Yale education. He was s t r o n g l y i n f l u e n c e d i n h i s e a r l y i n t e l l e c t u a l l i f e by the teachings of Locke, p a r t i c u l a r l y w i t h regard to language theory. Locke taught that language . . . i s a r t i f i c i a l ; i t r e s t s upon c o n t r a c t , and n e i t h e r vocabulary nor syntax have any inherent or organic r a t i o n a l e . By themselves, words are only n o i s e s , having no transcendental or p r e t e r n a t u r a l correspon- dence wi t h what they name; there i s no " n a t u r a l connexion...between p a r t i c u l a r a r t i c u l a t e sounds and c e r t a i n ideas," and a s p e c i f i c word serves as the s e n s i b l e mark of a p a r t i c u l a r i d e a only "by a p e r f e c t voluntary i m p o s i t i o n . " Meaning i s a r b i t r a r y , 2 0 . the r e s u l t of s o c i a l convention...Therefore...words are separable from th i n g s .4 * When Edwards examined Locke's s e n s a t i o n a l psychology and the theory of language a r i s i n g therefrom, he encountered c e r t a i n problems. He a r r i v e d at the same conclusion as Berkeley, although there i s no evidence that he was f a m i l i a r w i t h Berkeley's work. Locke, i n h i s a n a l y s i s of secondary q u a l i t i e s or complex ideas, destroys the p o s s i b i l i t y of an object's existence independent from thought. Consequently, Edwards reasoned, " a l l t hings have t h e i r being i n consciousness." 4^ Complex ideas e s p e c i a l l y , when deprived of t h e i r conventional and " o b j e c t i v e " s i g n i f i c a n c e , become " ' f i c t i o n s and con- t r i v a n c e s of the mind'". 4' However, despite t h i s d e f i c i e n c y , Edwards was prepared t o accept the terminology of Locke's a n a l y s i s . At the same time, Edwards was a l s o i n f l u e n c e d by the Newtonian concept of nature as "...a system of unchanging and u n i v e r s a l l y operative laws" which provided warrant f o r the " d e t e r m i n i s t i c assumptions of p r e d e s t i n a t i o n " , as w e l l as a way of "rendering nature's processes i d e n t i c a l w i t h God's t h o u g h t s . " 4 4 Where Locke's ideas d e a l t w i t h language and the development of convention between human minds, the Newtonian concepts of u n i v e r s a l law, order, and planning r e i n f o r c e d Edwards' sense of the universe as God's p e r f e c t c r e a t i o n and of the predestined order of t h i n g s . Language and the problems associated w i t h i t seemed t o r e l a t e d to men's c a p a b i l i t y f o r f r e e a c t i o n and misunderstanding. The Newtonian emphasis on the r e l a t i o n s h i p between cause and e f f e c t i n f l u e n c e d Edwards' own theory of causation, and underscored man's i n a b i l i t y to a l t e r the progress of u n i v e r s a l events ( o r , f o r that matter, guess the outcome of those events). Edwards' s t u d i e s of Locke convinced him that the contem- porary methods and vocabulary of preaching " s i g n i f i e d nothing that r e a l l y e x i s t e d i n nature." His job was then "to e x t r i c a t e a l l questions from the l e a s t confusion of ambiguity of words, 4.15 so that the ideas s h a l l be l e f t naked." . He recognized that "our people do not so much need to have t h e i r heads s t o r e d , as to have t h e i r hearts touched...", and so he made that h i s end. 4' His people had f a l l e n away from the covenant of grace and from knowledge i n the heart of regeneration. He would remind them of the covenant, teach them to recognize i t by going d i r e c t l y to t h e i r h e a r t s , r a t h e r than to t h e i r minds. Into the synt h e s i s he derived from the ideas of Locke and Newton, Edwards incorporated another important element. He rev e a l s an understanding of the e s s e n t i a l l y c h i l d - l i k e and s u p e r s t i t i o u s nature of the human s p i r i t , and an awareness of the extent to which men are c o n t r o l l e d by conceptions or i l l u s t r a t i o n s of love and anger or t e r r o r . He r e v e a l s t h i s awareness c l e a r l y i n both h i s i n v i t a t i o n a l and imprecatory sermons. In the former Edwards describes the covenant w i t h God, or other aspects of t h e o l o g i c a l t r u t h , i n terms which are designed to play upon h i s audience's n a t u r a l d e s i r e s f o r comfort, s e c u r i t y , and l o v e . The audience i s i n v i t e d i n a warm and s p i r i t u a l f a s h i o n to accept or move toward the goal to which he may be p o i n t i n g i n a p a r t i c u l a r sermon. Such a goal need not dea l d i r e c t l y w i t h the concepts of d i v i n e l o v e ; Edwards uses language designed to act upon the need, f o r l o v e 22. In men's he a r t s , as a means to h i s end. In h i s imprecatory sermons Edwards e s t a b l i s h e s s p i r i t u a l u n i t y w i t h God and awareness of C h r i s t i a n t r u t h as a refuge i or escape from the untenable p o s i t i o n of the s i n n e r . He depends upon language designed to evoke f e a r i n h i s audience's h e a r t s . In the i n v i t a t i o n a l sermons, mot i v a t i o n depends upon a t t r a c t i o n to a p o s i t i v e g o a l ; i n the imprecatory sermons, i t depends upon the d e s i r e t o f i n d s a f e t y from a negative s i t u a t i o n . Since the only s u c c e s s f u l means of s a l v a t i o n i s derived from union w i t h God, the two sermon types complement each other and, i n a sense, circumscribe the nature of man's i n t e l l e c t u a l and emotional r e l a t i o n s h i p to God and His m a n i f e s t a t i o n s . S a l v a t i o n i s both one's aim or hope, and one's refuge. A b r i e f word i s necessary concerning Edwards' l i t e r a r y models. Faust and Johnson, i n the i n t r o d u c t i o n t o t h e i r e d i t i o n of Edwards, i l l u s t r a t e that " . . . i n h i s concern f o r modest, un- adorned, cogent l o g i c , EdwardB was o l o s e l y f o l l o w i n g the pre- v a i l i n g t h e o r i e s of l i t e r a r y a r t as they were expressed both r i 47 here [in America] and i n England." His sermon s t y l e seems modelled i n part upon the works of h i s f a t h e r and grandfather, Timothy Edwards and Solomon Stoddard. C e r t a i n l y he must have been f a m i l i a r w i t h t h e i r work at an e a r l y age. There are a l s o c e r t a i n s i m i l a r i t i e s between Edwards' sermons and those of Increase Mather. But by f a r one of the strongest i n f l u e n c e s on h i s sermon s t y l e was the K i n g James v e r s i o n of the B i b l e . Faust and Johnson note that Edwards showed a d e f i n i t e preference f o r t e x t s chosen from the "more p o e t i c a l c h a p t e r s — P s a l m s , Proverbs, E o c l e s i a s t e s , Solomon, and the Gosepls": 23 . . . I t i s q u i t e p l a i n that Edwards' s e n s i t i v e nature was so i n s p i r e d by the beauty of t e x t i n Psalms, Solomon, St. John, and e s p e c i a l l y i n R e v e l a t i o n , that a very d i r e c t modeling upon t h e i r phrasing can be established.48 A l l Edwards' sermons r e f l e c t a l a r g e debt to the B i b l e , from h i s animal f i g u r e s t o h i s imagery and r h e t o r i c So great i s h i s dependence upon s c r i p t u r a l models that i n some cases a l l the other i n f l u e n c e s a c t i n g upon him become secondary, p e r i p h e r a l . His phrasing i s such that o f t e n i t may be traced d i r e c t l y to B i b l i c a l o r i g i n s . 4 9 I s h a l l have more s p e c i f i c comments to make on Edwards' sermon s t y l e i n my t h i r d chapter. At present, time presses, and I must now move t o consider the question of Edwards' audience. In the 1740's, as r e v i v a l i s m spread throughout New England, one could count on a l a r g e degree of audience i n t e r e s t and w i l l i n g n e s s t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n the r e l i g i o u s experience of the sermon, even when the members of the audience were not f u l l y possessed of an understanding of the u n d e r l y i n g theology. The f a c t that Edwards was something of a t h e o l o g i c a l throwback, or that h i s audience was a generation or two removed from the orthodox theology he preached, d i d nothing t o hinder him i n h i s task ( u n t i l the r e v i v a l began t o f a i l ) . In f a c t , the s t a t e of tens i o n and dependence upon the preacher i n which the audience must often have found i t s e l f probably increased i t s s u s c e p t i b i l i t y to Edwards' powers. I f one i s at a l l i n doubt about the problem of audience response to sermons d e l i v e r e d by Edwards and others during the Great Awakening, one need only examine Edwards' N a r r a t i v e of S u r p r i s i n g Conversions.^ 0 Often one i s tempted to desoribe some of the responses of Edwards' audience t o both 2 4 . his major types of sermons as nothing short of psychotic. Where his i n v i t a t i o n a l sermons carried some of his l i s t e n e r s away with a sense of divine joy and ineffable b l i s s , h i s imprecatory sermons often provoked the most unusual and f r a n t i c symptoms of emotional desperation and stress. That t h i s i s so, and that Edwards created these effects with apparent ease, makes a study of a f f e c t i v e technique i n Edwards' sermons a l l the more reason- able and necessary. * » * * « Obviously, the background material I have provided f o r both Donne and Edwards i s woefully incomplete. This i s a recognized deficiency occasioned by the li m i t a t i o n s of time Land space. As r minimal as t h i s background i s , i t w i l l be useful i n illuminating my analyses of the four sermons I have chosen. i i i i • i i 25. Notes 1 C . Hugh Holman, A Handbook t o L i t e r a t u r e , based on t h e o r i g i n a l by W . F . T h r a l l (New Y o r k : Odyssey P r e s s , 1936, 1 9 6 0 ) , B o b b s - M e r r i l l Company, I n c . , 1972, p . 2 5 6 . E v e l y n M . S i m p s o n , A Study o f t h e P r o s e Works o f John Donne ( O x f o r d : The U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s i p i a r e n d o n j , 1924. Second e d . 1 9 4 8 ) , p . 1 1 1 . ^ E v e l y n M . S i m p s o n , A S tudy o f t h e P r o s e Works o f J o h n Donne, p . 1 0 7 . \ 5 ^ S i m p s o n , p . 1 0 0 . See Donne, " S a t y r e I I I " , The Comple te P o e t r y o f J o h n Donne, e d . John T . Shawcross (New Y o r k : A n c h o r B o o k s , 1 9 6 7 ) , 1 8 - 2 6 , p . 2 4 , 1 1 . 5 5 - 6 2 . ^ S i m p s o n , A S tudy o f t he P r o s e Works o f J o h n Donne, p . 7 4 . 7 I S i m p s o n , p . 7 7 . j 8 S impson , p . 8 9 q ^S impson , p . 8 1 . 1 ^ S e e S i m p s o n , p p . 5 1 - 5 6 and f o l l o w i n g . 1 1 S i m p s o n , p . 5 5 . S impson p r e s e n t s e v i d e n c e t o back up t h i s p o i n t . 1 2 D e n n i s B . Q u i n n , "Donne ' s C h r i s t i a n E l o q u e n c e " , E L H , 2 7 ( 1 9 6 0 ) , 2 7 6 - 2 9 7 . 1 ' D e n n i s B . Q u i n n , "Donne ' s C h r i s t i a n E l o q u e n c e " , E L H , 2 7 ( 1 9 6 0 ) , 2 7 6 - 2 9 7 , p . 2 7 6 . 1 4 Q u i n n , "Donne ' s C h r i s t i a n E l o q u e n c e " , p . 2 7 7 . 1 ^ Q u i n n , p p . 2 8 2 - 2 8 3 . Qu inn c i t e s by way o f p r o o f R . L . H i c k e y , "Donne ' s A r t o f Memory" , Tennessee S t u d i e s i n L i t . . 1 1 1 ( 1 9 5 8 ) , 3 0 - 3 1 . l 6 Q u i n n , p . 2 8 3 . 1 > 7 Q u i n n , p . 2 8 2 . Q u i n n c i t e s The Sermons o f J o h n Donne, e d . E . S impson and G . P o t t e r ( B e r k e l e y , 1 9 5 5 ) , I I , 3 0 7 . 1 8 Q u i n n , p . 2 7 9 . ! 1 9 Q u i n n , p . 2 8 0 . £0« 20 S i m p s o n , p . 1 1 2 , c i t e s t h e f o l l o w i n g : M i s s M . P . R a m s a y ' s d o c - t o r a l t h e s i s , L e s D o c t r i n e s m e d l e v a l e s chez Donne, l e poe t e m e t a p h y s i c i a n de 1* A n g l e t e r r e ( O x f o r d . 1 9 1 6 ) : and C M . C o f f i n . J o h n Donne and t h e New P h i l o s o p h y ( C o l u m b i a , 1 9 3 7 ) . 2 1 S i m p s o n , p p . 1 1 2 - 1 1 3 . 2 2 S i m p s o n , p . 1 1 5 * 2 ' s i m p s o n , p . 117 , o i t e a C o f f i n , J o h n Dormo »r\A t h e New P h i l o s o p h y , p . 6 . 2 4 S i m p s o n , p . 1 3 0 . 2 ^ S i m p s o n , p . 1 3 1 . F o r t h e r e a d e r i n t e r e s t e d i n f u r t h e r s t u d y i n t h i s a r e a , I recommend t h e f o l l o w i n g : W i l l i a m G i f f o r d , "Time and P l a c e i n D o n n e ' s Se rmons" , PMLA, 8 2 , N o . 5 ( O c t . ' 6 7 ) , 3 8 8 - 3 9 8 ; and J o h n B . G l e a s o n , " D r . Donne i n t h e C o u r t s o f K i n g s : A G l i m p s e f rom M a r g i n a l i a " , J E G P , 6 9 ( 0 c t . ' 7 0 ) , 5 9 9 - 6 1 2 . 2 7 J o a n Webber, C o n t r a r y M u s i c : The P r o s e S t y l e o f J o h n Donne ( M a d i s o n : U n i v e r s i t y o f W i s c o n s i n P r e s s , 1 9 6 3 ) , p . 1 6 7 . 2 8 S e e W i l l i a m G i f f o r d , "Time and P l a c e i n D o n n e ' s Se rmons" , PMLA. 8 2 , N o . 5 ( O c t . ' 6 7 ) , 3 8 8 - 3 9 8 . 2 9 S e e G i f f o r d , "Time and P l a c e i n D o n n e ' s Se rmons" , PMLA, 3 8 8 - 3 9 8 . ' ° E d w i n S c o t t G a u s t a d . The G r e a t A w a k e n i n g ' I n Kew E n g l a n d ( C h i c a g o : Quadrang le B o o k s , 1968; f i r s t e d . New Y o r k : H a r p e r and B r o t h e r s , 1 9 5 7 ) . ' 1 F o r d e t a i l s , see G a u s t a d , The G r e a t A w a k e n i n g I n New E n g l a n d , c h a p t e r s one and two* 5 2 G a u s t a d , pp.7-9* ' ^ G a u s t a d , p . 8 . ' 4 F o r d e t a i l s , i n c l u d i n g t h e H a l f - W a y Covenan t and o t h e r d e v e l o p - men t s , see G a u s t a d , pp.9 -12* ^ G a u s t a d , p . 1 5 . ' 6 J o h n F . L y n e n , The D e s i g n o f t h e P r e s e n t (New H a v e n : Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 6 9 ) . ' ^ C H . F a u s t and T . H . J o h n s o n , e d . , J o n a t h a n Edwards : R e p r e s e n t a t i v e S e l e c t i o n s (New Y o r k : H i l l and Wang7 1935 , 1962 ; A m e r i c a n C e n t u r y S e r i e s e d . , 1 9 6 2 ) , i n t r o . , x v - x v i . 5 8 J o h n P. L y n e n , The D e s i g n o f t h e P r e s e n t . p*93 and f o l l o w i n g . 39 • ^ L y n e n , p . 9 9 . L y n e n c i t e s Ramsay ' s i n t r o d u c t i o n t o "Freedom o f t he W i l l " , i n P a u l Ramsay, e d . , The Works o f J o n a t h a n Edwards , I (2 v o l s . New H a v e n : Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 5 7 - 5 9 ) , 3 4 - 3 7 . 4 0 L y n e n , p . 9 9 4 1 P e r r y M i l l e r , "The R h e t o r i o o f S e n s a t i o n " , E r r a n d I n t o t h e W i l d e r n e s s (New Y o r k : H a r p e r and Row, 1 9 5 6 ) , 1 6 7 - 1 8 3 , p . 1 6 9 . A O L y n e n , p . 9 3 . 43 ^ M i l l e r , "The R h e t o r i c o f S e n s a t i o n " , E r r a n d I n t o the W i l d e r n e s s , p . 174 . M i l l e r i s u s i n g B e r k e l e y , A T r e a t i s e C o n c e r n i n g the P r i n c i p l e s o f Human Knowledge (London , 1 7 1 0 ) , i n t r o . , p a r . 1 3 « 4 4 L y n e n , p p . 9 3 - 9 4 . 4 5 M i l l e r , p . 1 7 6 . 4 ^ M i l l e r , p . 1 7 5 . F o r f u r t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n , see M i l l e r , L y n e n , and James P. C a r s e , J o n a t h a n Edwards and The V i s i b i l i t y o f God (New Y o r k : S c r i b n e r ' s , 1 9 6 7 ) . ^ C . H . F a u s t and T . H . J o h n s o n , e d . , J o n a t h a n Edwards : R e p r e s e n t a t i v e S e l e c t i o n s (New Y o r k : H i l l and Wang, 1935» 1962; A m e r i c a n C e n t u r y S e r i e s e d . , 1 9 6 2 ) , p . c i i i . See p p . c i i i and f o l l o w i n g f o r f u r t h e r d e t a i l s . 4 8 F a u s t and J o h n s o n , i n t r o . , c v i i - c v i i i . 4 ^ F a u s t and J o h n s o n , i n t r o . , c v i i i . ^ T h e r e a r e a few e d i t i o n s o f t h i s w o r k . F o r t h e purpose o f t h i s t h e s i s t he F a u s t and J o h n s o n e d i t i o n p r o v i d e s adequa te t e x t f o r c o n s u l t a t i o n . CHAPTER H i SERMONS BY JOHN DONNE Joan Webber, i n her book Contrary Music: The Proae Style of John Donne, claims that Donne, as a writer, was only good at one thing, though that one thing i s very intense and valuable. He was good at communicating his own experience, and he could only do t h i s by showing what the experience was made of.* The knowledge that Donne seeks to communicate or share (rather than merely describe) r e l i g i o u s experience i s v i t a l to any ex- amination of his sermons. He i s always aware of the significance of his own experience, which he t r i e s continually to express throughout the progress of any given sermon. He recognizes also that a sermon i s i t s e l f an experience f o r the audience to whom i t i s delivered. Donne attempts to create a r e l i g i o u s experience for his audience by consciously, deliberately, and a r t i s t i c a l l y manipulating the theological and l i t e r a r y tools he finds available. He seems to have achieved an awareness of the sequential nature of his audience's experience i n apprehend- ing a sermon. Indeed, he seems to have r e a l i z e d that the bases for r h e t o r i c a l t r a d i t i o n s are the a f f e c t i v e purposes for which the t r a d i t i o n s were i n i t i a l l y devised. In his awareness of the sermon as a sequential process or progression insofar as the audience i s concerned, Donne demon- strates his r e a l i z a t i o n that style and context are devices or means, rather than ends or goals i n a sermon. S t y l i s t i c devices and contextual components may be u t i l i z e d and then discarded or consumed by the progression of the sermon, as Donne manipulates audience response. Style used s e n s i t i v e l y f o r experience's sake, 2 9 . r a t h e r t h a n merely as a p a r t o f a t r a d i t i o n a l system, may s a c r i - f i c e i t s e l f t o t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s o f the e x p e r i e n c e Donne wants t o c r e a t e o r s h a r e . The audience and the p r e a c h e r p a r t i c i p a t e m u t u a l l y i n t h e l a t t e r ' s a s s o c i a t i v e p r o c e s s e s as Donne g i v e s shape t o h i s own e x p e r i e n c e and i t s s i g n i f i c a n c e . E x p e r i e n c e becomes o b v i o u s l y l i n k e d t o s t r u c t u r e , s t y l e , image and metaphor, and t h e s e q u e n t i a l p r o g r e s s o f a s s o c i a t i o n s w i t h i n a sermon c u l m i n a t e s i n t h e r e a l i z a t i o n o f a t r u t h . The depth o f t h i s r e a l i z a t i o n , as f a r as the audience i s concerned, w i l l depend t o some e x t e n t upon t h e degree o f mutual awareness i t s h a r e s w i t h the p r e a c h e r w i t h i n a g i v e n sermon. A good summary statement o f one o f Donne's main aims t h r o u g h - out h i s sermons i s p r o v i d e d by L i n d s a y Mann. Donne seeks t o e s t a b l i s h i n some way an awareness o f t h e . . . r e a l and e s s e n t i a l l mutual i n h e r e n c e and i n t e r - dependence o f the n a t u r a l and s p i r i t u a l o r d e r s i n a p a r t i c i p a t i n g and i n t e r a c t i n g p a t t e r n w h i c h s t r e s s e s human r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n t h i s w o r l d . 2 I t i s the e x p r e s s i o n o f t h i s awareness w h i c h h e l p s u n i f y Donne's sermons, even when t h e s u b j e c t s o f i n d i v i d u a l p i e c e s appear d i v e r s e . T h i s concept and some o f i t s r a m i f i c a t i o n s , t o g e t h e r w i t h the i d e a o f Donne as a communicator o f e x p e r i e n c e , w i l l h e l p t o u n i f y my a n a l y s e s o f the two sermons I have chosen. B e f o r e t u r n i n g t o my a n a l y s e s , I must make some comments r e g a r d - 's i n g Donne ' 8 s t y l e . To a l l appearances, Donne a v o i d s l o g i c a l p r o g r e s s i o n i n f a v o r o f a s s o c i a t i v e p r o g r e s s i o n i n c o n t e n t and t h e m a t i c s t r u c t u r e . That i s , w h i l e a sermon may show a r t i s t i c and s t r u c t u r a l l o g i c as a l i t e r a r y c r e a t i o n , i t may be w r i t t e n i n 30 a manner designed to move the audience by association rather than l o g i c a l progression (although the two are not necessarily mutually exclusive). This opinion tends to be supported by the strange and re s t l e s s quality of Donne's sentences. Webber de- fines t h i s quality well: His sentences, when they do not c i r c l e around a single word, are apt to build to a climax before they end; and they are apt to end where they began. The ways i n which his sentences are broken up are r e p e t i t i v e and musical as well as thoughtful.4 She also appreciates that apparent i l l o g i c i n form does not im- pede the formation of i n t e l l e c t u a l l y consistent wholes i n Donne's sentence periods. Donne l i k e s to produce a sequence of non- mechanical figures which culminates i n an understandable, i f not s t r i c t l y l o g i c a l unity of form of content. In many instances, t h i s very i r r e g u l a r i t y affects the audience from the outset of a sermon, and creates a state of tension i n which the audience's s e n s i t i v i t y to Donne's language i s heightened. The l i s t e n e r i s Jarred s l i g h t l y , and becomes sensitive to key words, ideas, and association, rather than symmetry and grammatical l o g i c . Grammar and sense approach each other from d i f f e r e n t directions. One finds that "...there i s a comprehensive order to the sentence; and i t s inward and apparently spontaneous development meets an outer and confirming f r a m e . I n f a c t , Donne deliber- ately manipulates style and grammar i n the sentence period, with an eye to ...lessening i t s grammatical coherence, increasing i t s associative or conceptual unity; the period does not progress with grammatical l o g i c or smoothness, but imitates the action of the memory....' Thus grammar i s made to confirm association rather than l o g i c . Perhaps one of the most int e r e s t i n g aspects of Donne's sermon.style.is'the strange juxtaposition of unlike l y figures i n image and metaphor. These juxtapositions are useful s t y l i s t i c tools i n heightening the l i s t e n e r ' s s e n s i t i v i t y to the i l l u s t r a - tions of p a r t i c u l a r concepts by t h e i r very stangeness and the d i s s i m i l a r i t i e s between t h e i r parts. In his book The Imagery of John Donne's Sermons. Winfried Schleiner gives an account of the t r a d i t i o n s with which Donne was working i n the creation of Q his unusual images and juxtapositions. Using the t r a d i t i o n s of decorum, high and low metaphor, and the topoi or commonplaces, Donne seeks to i l l u s t r a t e theological points i n the most ef f e c t i v e manner possible. Often t h i s involves manipulation and departure from these t r a d i t i o n s , so that Donne may surprise his l i s t e n e r and thereby increase his attention and s e n s i t i v i t y . Further, i n tracing the flow and the quality of s t y l e and meta- phor within the sermons i n terms of a f f e c t i v e response, one may see how experience and awareness have replaced mere persuasion Q and l o g i c a l progression as the central emphases. Donne was aware of the o v e r a l l structure of his sermons as a s t y l i s t i c t o o l . Beyond whatever debt his sermon form owes to t r a d i t i o n , one may see a. s e n s i t i v i t y to form as a device for regulating the l i s t e n e r ' s independence and the flow of association through the sermon. Sometimes Donne provides a strong geometrical or l o g i c a l metaphor which not only provides an i n t e l l e c t u a l means to approach a subject, but which also serves as a p r i n c i p l e of s t r u c t u r a l organization. By treating organization as a r e f l e c t i o n of a c o n t r o l l i n g metaphor i n a : sermon, Donne brings form and content together to ease the l i s t e n e r ' s progress i n reaching a given goal. Donne establishes a framework by overt statement and example; the l i s t e n e r who stays within the context provided has, r e l a t i v e l y speaking, an easy time following! up the implications of the c o n t r o l l i n g metaphor. i signed to confuse the l i s t e n e r . While he may inform the l i s t e n e r of some o v e r a l l plan, the approach delineated may be overwhelmed by the sermon's movement. That i s , Donne maintains control of the l i s t e n e r ' s a b i l i t y to project a l o g i c a l sequence of associa- t i o n according to knowledge of some o v e r a l l plan or c o n t r o l l i n g metaphor. The l i s t e n e r becomes trapped by his own associative movement within each subsequent context i n the sermon's progress. Donne uses structure to confuse when he f e e l s i t necessary to: increase the l i s t e n e r ' s dependence upon the preacher as a s p i r i t u a l guide and coincidentally, as a guide through the i n t r i c a c i e s of the sermon. Bearing i n mind these few introductory comments, l e t us now turn to the first', of the sermons I have chosen for analysis. In i t , Donne expresses some of the ramifications of that " . . . r e a l i and essential mutual inherence and interdependence of the natural and s p i r i t u a l orders" i n a manner which "...stresses human • r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n th i s world." Donne works i n p a r t i c u l a r with the relationship between p o l i t i c a l , and r e l i g i o u s or s p i r i t u a l leadership i n a society where that r e l a t i o n s h i p Is a-topic of considerable concern. structure i s deliberately de- 33. "Preached to the King at White-hall, A p r i l 15. 1628. EBay. 32.8. BUT THE LIBERALL DEVISETH LIBERAL! THINGS, AND BY LIBERALL THINGS HE SHALL STAND."10 In t h i s sermon Donne w i l l establish f o r the l i s t e n e r a strong and growing sense of moral and i n t e l l e c t u a l duality a r i s i n g from the chosen text. He w i l l then transmit the r e a l i z a t i o n that the i apparent d u a l i t i e s are s u p e r f i c i a l , and that what he i s r e a l l y delineating i s a u n i f i c a t i o n of apparently d i s t i n c t elements which w i l l i l l u s t r a t e the interdependence of "the natural and s p i r i t u a l orders". More s p e c i f i c a l l y , Donne uses the theological and s o c i a l implications of the text to reinforce the notion of England's king as her p o l i t i c a l and (technically) her s p i r i t u a l leader. The c i v i l and r e l i g i o u s modes or elements represen- tat i v e of the natural and the s p i r i t u a l orders respectively w i l l be made to cohere, so that the l i s t e n e r w i l l be l e f t with a new and u n i f i e d sense of s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l and r e l i g i o u s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . ^ Donne begins the sermon thus: "By two wayes especially hath the Gospell beene propagated by men of l e t t e r s , by E p i s t l e s , and by Sermons"(11.1 -2). The sermon's opening forty-three l i n e s make up an i n s t r u c t i v e expansion upon the two elements to which Donne alludes: " E p i s t l e s " and "Sermons". The former are rep- resentative of the c i v i l element, and the l a t t e r of the r e l i g i o u s element, i n the apparent duality Donne i s to e s t a b l i s h . The opening passage thus becomes a prefiguration of the course to be followed thematically and s t r u c t u r a l l y i n the sermon. The apparent d u a l i t i e s appear to arise from considering the chosen text; they are l i s t e d i n a manner which emphasizes t h e i r apparently d i s t i n c t natures; and they are brought together at the end of the opening passage, within the context of the chosen text* And so names multiplied; Homilies, Sermons, Conciones lectures, S. Augustins Enarrations, Dlctiones. that i s , Speeches, Damascens and C y r i l s Orations (nay, one exercise of Caesareus, conveied i n the forme of a Dialogue) were-all Sermons. Add to these Church-exercises, (Homilies, Sermons, Lectures, Orations, Speeches, and the rest) the Declamations of C i v i l l men i n Courts of Justice, the Tractates of Morall men written i n t h e i r Studies, nay goe backe to our owne times, when you went to Schoole, or to the University; and remember but your owne, or your fellowes Themes, or Problemes, or Common- places, and i n a l l these you may see evidence of that to which jthe Holy Ghost himselfe hath set a Seale in t h i s t e s t , that i s , the recommendation of Bountie, of Munificence, of L i b e r a l i t i e , The L i b e r a l l deviseth l i b e r a l l things, and by l i b e r a l l things hee s h a l l stand.(11.31-43) The impact^of the sermon's text as a climax to the passage remains strongly i n the l i s t e n e r ' s mind. A sense of the text as the key to unity within the sermon w i l l l i n g e r , as Donne sets about exploring the ramifications of the c i v i l - p o l i t i c a l element and the e c c l e s i a s t i c a l - s p i r i t u a l element i n the sermon. In the sermon's d i v l s i o . which follows immediately after the passage quoted above, Donne forces the l i s t e n e r to accept the a r b i t r a r i l y set c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s he wishes to apply to the text's implications. The appeal to i n t e l l e c t u a l order, as well as the grammatical alternation of apparently opposing or d i s - parate elements, helps to establish a seemingly r i g i d structure by which to approach various apects of the problem at hand. Donne brings the consideration of the duality to the present and the personal, of a "now" and a "me": ...In c i v i l l Authors, and exercises, as well as i n E c c l e s i a s t i c a l l , . . . o u r Expositors, of a l l three ranks and Classes (The Fathers and Ancients, The l a t e r men i n theRomane Church, and ours of the Reformation) are very near equally divided, i n every of these 35. three ranks; whether th i s Text be intended of a morall and a c i v i l l , or of a s p i r i t u a l l and E c c l e s i a s t i c a l l l i b e r a l i t y ; . . . h a t h divided our Expositiors i n a l l those three Classes.(11 . 4 5 - 5 8 ) Donne provides a r e l a t i v e l y simple but l o g i c a l frame which may appeal to the l i s t e n e r ' s innate desire to "cubby-hole" evidence i n the attempt to arrive at a correct conclusion. We have a d i v i s i o n within a d i v i s i o n . That i s , Donne studies both sides of the question of " l i b e r a l i t y " because each of the three types of "Expositors" dealing with the two-fold problem ( i . e . , moral and c i v i l s p i r i t u a l and e c c l e s i a s t i c a l ) are equally divided i n th e i r responses. Donne imparts a heightened awareness of the . fact that an apparent c o n f l i c t e x i s t s . In the very next sentence period, Donne forces the l i s t e n e r to dwell i n greater d e t a i l upon the seemingly r i g i d structure he has established.: In doing so, he produces one of the i n - credibly long sentence periods which appear so often i n his sermons. The periojd begins by informing the l i s t e n e r that i t s substance w i l l r e l a t e to a l l three types of "Expositors" mentioned i n the preceding passage: "In a l l three,...."(1 . 5 8 ) . There follows a parenthetical and subordinate section of some ten l i n e s , which absorbs the l i s t e n e r ' s attention. Since t h i s parenthetical expression begins with "though", the l i s t e n e r i s made to f e e l that an understanding of i t w i l l be necessary to the conclusion the period i s to reach. Yet, i n the part of the period which follows the parenthetical section, the information previously given i n the period i s set aside. The emphasis s h i f t s to a more l i b e r a l view which, while reminding the l i s t e n e r of the importance of " l i b e r a l i t y " , requires that an examination of the " c o n f l i c t " between the c i v i l and r e l i g i o u s modes be made: 3 6 . . . . y e t , I s a y , t h o u g h t h e r e b e s o m e p e r e m p t o r y , t h e r e a r e i n a l l t h e t h r e e C l a s s e s , A n c i e n t s , R o m a n s , R e f o r m e d , m o d e r a t e . m e n , t h a t a p p l y t h e p r o p h e c y b o t h w a y e s , a n d f i n d e t h a t i t m a y v e r y w e l l s u b s i s t s o , T h a t i n a f a i r e p r o p o r t i o n , a l l t h e s e b l e s s i n g s s h a l l b e i n t h e r e i g n e s o f t h o s e H e z e k i a s s e s . a n d t h o s e I o s i a s s e s . t h o s e g o o d K i n g s w h i c h G o d a f f o r d s t o h i s p e o p l e ; B u t t h e m u l t i p l i c a t i o n , t h e e x a l t a t i o n o f a l l t h e s e b l e s s i n g s , a n d v e r t u e s , i s w i t h r e l a t i o n t o t h e c o m m i n g o f C h r i s t , a n d t h e e s t a b l i s h i n g o f h i s K i n g d o m e . ( 1 1 . 6 7 - 7 4 ) T h i s i s f o l l o w e d b y t h e t w o c o n c l u d i n g p e r i o d s o f t h e p a r a g r a p h , w h i c h d e m o n s t r a t e a s a c o n c l u s i o n t h e a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s o f t h e f o r m a n d s u b s t a n c e o f o u r e x a m i n a t i o n . A n d t h i s p u t s u s , i f n o t t o a n e c e s s i t y , y e t w i t h c o n v e n i e n c y , t o c o n s i d e r t h e s e w o r d s b o t h w a y e s ; W h a t t h i s c i v i l l l i b e r a l i t y i s , t h a t i s h e r e m a d e a b l e s s i n g o f a g o o d K i n g s r e g n e ; A n d w h a t t h i s s p i r i t u a l l l i b e r a l i t y i s , t h a t i s h e r e m a d e a t e s t i m o n y o f U h r i s t s r e i g n e , a n d o f h i s G o s p e l . A n d t h e r e f o r e , s i n c e w e m u s t p a s s e t w i c e t h o r o u g h t h e s e w o r d s , i t i s t i m e t o b e g i n ; T h e l i b e r a l l m a n d e v i s e t h l i b e r a l l t h i n g s , a n d b y l i b e r a l l t h i n g s h e s h a l l s t a n d . ( 1 1 . 7 4 - 8 1 ) T h e c o m p l e x g r a m m a t i c a l s t r u c t u r e o f t h e l o n g p e r i o d , a n d o f t h e p a s s a g e i n w h i c h w e f i n d i t , i n s p i r e s i n t e l l e c t u a l a n d s u b - j e c t i v e a n x i e t i e s a n d d i s c o m f o r t i n t h e l i s t e n e r a s h e p e r c e i v e s t h e p e r i o d s e q u e n t i a l l y . T h e s e a n x i e t i e s s e e k r e l i e f w i t h i n t h e g i v e n s t r u c t u r e , a n d a r e s a t i s f i e d b y t h e r e l a t i v e l y s i m p l e a n d i s o l i d c o n c l u d i n g s e n t e n c e s o f t h e p a s s a g e . T h e r e s t a t e m e n t o f t h e t e x t a c t s a s a k i n d o f c l i m a c t i c p o i n t , a n d t h e s e n s e o f t h e r e b e i n g t w o d i v e r g e n t r e a d i n g s h a s a g a i n b e e n r e i n f o r c e d . T h e c u m u l a t i v e e f f e c t o f t h e s e r m o n ' s f i r s t h u n d r e d l i n e s i s t o a l l o w t h e l i s t e n e r a f i r m a s s o c i a t i v e h o l d o n t h e p r o b l e m ' s o u t l i n e s t h r o u g h t h e s t y l i s t i c a n d c o n c e p t u a l j u x t a p o s i t i o n o f t h e a p p a r e n t d u a l i t y o n t h e o n e h a n d , a n d t h e i m p l i e d u n i t y o n t h e o t h e r . B e c a u s e t h e d u a l i t y i s r e a l l y a n o t h e r w a y o f d e - s c r i b i n g t h e u n i t y , a n d b e c a u s e t h e e l e m e n t s o f t h e d u a l i t y d o 37. * not r e a l l y oppose each other as one may believe i n i t i a l l y , the a f f e c t i v e impact of the sermon's s t y l i s t i c plan w i l l favor the l i s t e n e r ' s association of the p o s s i b i l i t i e s . That i s , t h i s i s one of those sermons where structure i s made to r e f l e c t stated intent. Over the next hundred or so l i n e s , Donne begins to explore i n greater d e t a i l the concept of " L i b e r a l i t y " as he conceives i t , under the s t r u c t u r a l d i v i s i o n s which he has established. He never loses sight of the apparent duality he has outlined, nor of the unity which i s implied i n his projected conclusion. He continues to play the c i v i l and r e l i g i o u s modes against each other. Each i s strengthened by d e f i n i t i o n of the other, as Donne moves toward a culmination i n which the elements of the duality are to be u n i f i e d i n a new r e a l i z a t i o n . The framework of duality which provides the s t r u c t u r a l basis f o r the sermon w i l l r e f l e c t that u n i f i c a t i o n when Donne eventually brings the sermon to a close. I should now l i k e to examine more closely a p a r t i c u l a r passage, i n which Donne applies the concept of l i b e r a l i t y to the King and his o f f i c e . This passage, which extends from 11. 213-234, relates d i r e c t l y to the c i v i l aspects of l i b e r a l i t y and of the sermon's text. The passage begins this way: For the King f i r s t , t h i s vertue of our Text, i s so r a d i c a l l y so elementary, so e s s e n t i a l l to the King, as that the vulgat Edition in the Romane Church read t h i s very Text thus, Princeps vero ea quae principe digna sunt, cogitabit . The King s h a l l exercise him- s e l f e i n r o y a l l Meditations, and Actions; Him, whom we c a l l a L l b e r a l l man, they c a l l a King, and those actions that we c a l l L i b e r a l l . they c a l l Royall.(11. 213-219) allow the l i s t e n e r to 3 8 . associate strongly the concepts of l i b e r a l i t y and royalty. The l i s t e n e r must work within the conditions of the seemingly r i g i d structure Donne established e a r l i e r ; but within the period a l l considerations are subordinated to the p r i n c i p a l associative focus the King. The word i n the l i s t e n e r ' s mind associates the person and the o f f i c e with the concept of L i b e r a l i t y , to which both should bte inseparably t i e d . Donne implants the i i n i t i a l suggestion of t h i s with an uneven c i r c u l a r structure using two short phrases which repeat "the King". He thereby stresses the primary position of the concept "King" represents, and encompasses a sort of d e f i n i t i v e , concise statement of intent. We proceed from "the King f i r s t " to "this vertue of our Text", and then to a quick series of three strong modifiers. These, although obviously d i f f e r e n t , create similar associations for the l i s t e n e r "so r a d i c a l l , so elementary, so e s s e n t i a l l . . . . " There i s an implied downward i n f l e c t i o n to what one might expect to be the conclusion: "...so r a d i c a l l , so elementary, so e s s e n t i a l l to the King...". The effect i s one of amplification and reinforcement surrounding (conceptually but not grammatically) the key word. From there, against expectation, the already un- even, small c i r c u l a r mbvement i s broken by a rather sharp turn toward " t h i s very Text", but i n the context of the "Romane Church". Immediately there i s a dichotomy established between a "we" and a "they". It i s re f l e c t e d by the divergence i n the readings of the same text, and i n the difference between responses to the i n i t i a l proposition of the text's relationship to the word "King" and i t s implications. Donne follows his reference to the "Romane i Church" with a Latin quotation which tends both to slow one's 39. progress i n the reading, and to make one pause, allowing for the forthcoming t r a n s l a t i o n . Both the Latin and the English s h i f t the stress from the "Romane Church" back to the King, who " s h a l l exercise himselfe". Donne has now managed to establish a state of balance between "King"-as concept and the r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s embodied by same, a central but moving focus; the treatment by the "Romane Church" of the same text, and i t s implications i n terms of response and projected disagreement; and at bottom, the expectation that Donne w i l l reveal p a r a l l e l s i n interpretation, thus pointing to some s i g n i f i c a n t conclusion. In the d i v i s l o of the sermon Donne prepared the way for the i "we-they" opposition and p a r a l l e l s . Here the outlines of the p a r a l l e l s are more firmly established: we—"a L i b e r a l l man", t h e y — " a King"; w e — " L i b e r a l l " , t h e y — " R o y a l l " . Having suggested a p r o f i t a b l e comparison to the l i s t e n e r , Donne maintains the necessary associative l i n k s by.repetition of the key words " L i b e r a l l " and "Royall". The memory of "Romane Church" remains to insure the strength and apparent r i g i d i t y of the dichotomy. In the second sentence period of the passage one finds the sort of grammatical and l o g i c a l incoherence that occurs con- t i n u a l l y i n Donne's prose. Webber writes: The whole period often seems to be pulled out of a b r i e f and disconnected opening...which, while i t i s the basis f o r a l l that follows, i s absolved from grammatical r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to the rest of the sentence by i t s own e l l i p t i c a l or otherwise isolated form.... ...An imaginative elaboration of an idea may spring from almost anything, a word or a phrase buried in one sentence serving as a pivot f o r a s t r i n g of grammatically disconnected thoughts. 1 2 ...Him, whom we c a l l a L i b e r a l l man, they c a l l a King, and those actions we c a l l L i b e r a l l . they c a l l Roya l l . 40 . This i s what the second period does- i t seems incomplete i n the grammatical or l o g i c a l senses. Yet i t l i n k s the two words and ideas, " L i b e r a l l " and "Royall", i n a manner which i n v i t e s the l i s t e n e r to examine them i n the context of the Scriptures: A Translation herein excusable enough; for the very O r i g i n a l l word, which we translate, L i b e r a l l . i s a Royall word, Nadib, and very often i n the Scriptures hath so high, a Royall.signification.(11.219-221) In this case the second clause of the sentence contains a com- plete thought, but the dangling opening phrase and the strange word order give the impression of a lack of grammatical unity. This impression i n no way diminishes the i n t e l l e c t u a l and associative bonds with the content, and we end with "a Royall s i g n i f i c a t i o n " . There i s a much stronger sense of order than * can be j u s t i f i e d either grammatically or l o g i c a l l y . The next sentence's opening emphasizes and reinforces t h i s , with the f i r s t clause using grammatically sound construction and con- taining a complete thought: The very word i s i n that place, where David prayes to God, to renew him s p i r i t u P r i n c i p a l l ; And t h i s , ( s p i r i t u s P r i n c i p a l i s ) as many Translators c a l l a P r i n c i p a l l , a Princely, a Royall s p i r i t , as a l i b e r a l l , a free, a b o u n t i f u l l s p i r i t ; I f i t be L i b e r a l l , i t i s Royall.(11.222-225) Only through i t s l a s t two words, " s p i r i t u P r i n c i p a l l " . i s the f i r s t clause t i e d to the next, which i s used to repeat, expand, and amplify the significance of both translations. The l i s t e n e r ' s movement can only be associative here. Although the second clause i s complete, the word order and o v e r a l l structure of i t i s so reversed that i t does not seem a complete thought. None- theless, understanding i s preserved. In the f i n a l clause of the sentence period, both versions of the t r a n s l a t i o n are united i n a blunt, f l a t , e a s i l y remembered statement of equality: " I f i t be L i b e r a l l , i t i s Royall". There may be more here than the mere equation of the two terms. For the present, however, the l i s t e n e r w i l l remember them most ea s i l y i n the stated fashion. There i s a decided pause here, while the l i s t e n e r assimilates the information he has been given. Then, the next sentence begins i n a manner which implies continuing movement. It con- tinues to be s a t i s f y i n g i n terms of the l i s t e n e r ' s associative i processes: For, when David would have brought a threshing-floore, to erect an Altar upon, of Araunah.; and Araunah offered so f r e e l y place, and s a c r i f i c e , and instruments and a l l , the Holy Ghost expresses i t so, A l l these things did Araunah. as a King, of f e r to the King; There was but t h i s difference between the L i b e r a l l man, and David, A King, and The King.(11.225-230) Grammatical and l o g i c a l expectations are again upset. Since the f i r s t part of the period deals with intention and action, and since the period begins with "For, when..."(thus umplying a revelation of r e s u l t i n g actions to follow), one tends to expect a conclusion which completes the actions involved. Instead, we are presented with a conceptual, rather than a circumstantial resolution. This resolution i s drawn from Scripture, and mixes example and concept'unwevenly.for the sake of'. the central idea's I associative development. Donne establishes a stronger tension between association and logic-grammar. The r e s u l t i n g sense of d i s l o c a t i o n moves one to r i s e above the written words to the concept i t s e l f , which i s moulded by association within the sequential structure. Stress has again s h i f t e d s l i g h t l y from equa l i t i e s of word and concept to a rather u t i l i t a r i a n exemplum of operation i n the S c r i p t u r a l context. The b i b l i c a l s i t u a t i o n 42 allows-for the l i s t e n e r ' s personal involvement i n sharing an understanding of the concept of l i b e r a l i t y i n operation. Presumably the intent i s to enable one to move on from the te example, keeping the associations i t produced a l i v e , and coming to an awareness of L i b e r a l i t y ' s meaning i n one's own si t u a t i o n . David and Araunah are made equal i n such a way that there can be l i t t l e doubt: the only difference between them i s that one i s a King, and the other, the King. That t h i s i s unalterably true i s obvious, because "the Holy Ghost expresses i t so". The comparison between David and Araunah enhances the effects of "the L i b e r a l l " and raises that quality to an even greater degree of importance. It leads to a natural statement of the relationship of Royalty, and therefore L i b e r a l i t y , to God. A King i s the highest mortal example of the L i b e r a l l , and therefore closest to God i n that respect. The l a s t two sentence periods of the passage decidedly s h i f t stress back to the idea of King- ship and the King, with the l a s t sentence building to a crescendo through expansion and amplification: Higher then a King, for an example and comparison of L i b e r a l i t y , on this side of God, hee could not goe. The very forme of the Office of a King, i s L i b e r a l i t y , that i s Providence, and Protection, and Possession, and Peace, and Justice shed upon all.(11.231-234) The passage concludes s o l i d l y and with grandeur, subsuming i n i t s f i n a l effects the memories from the associative and i n - «• t e l l e c t u a l processes which went into i t s sequential apprehension. There i s a rhythmic dispensation of power which eliminates l i n g e r i n g f r u s t r a t i o n over grammatical considerations, and which ' -the, u n i f i e s the important values i n ' l i s t e n e r ' s mind. The rhythmic i pattern i s completed i n the way Webber describes. I t was created 43. "...by way of a f l o u t i n g of normal grammar and adoption of patterns that do not hold a steady external course, but imitate 1 3 the more associative movement of the mind." ' Donne uses L i b e r a l i t y as a conceptual common denominator i to bind together apparently opposed elements. We notice that the r e p e t i t i o n of the text (or at least, some part of i t ) occurs with the regu l a r i t y of a r e f r a i n throughout the sermon. It be- comes a point of u n i f i c a t i o n both s t y l i s t i c a l l y and conceptually, a common denominator of sorts i t s e l f . As such, i t works and i s v a l i d i n a l l the suggested modes of interpretation one might say, i n fa c t , that i t provides a "middle way". The c i v i l or s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l part of the treatment of L i b e r a l i t y i s complete by 1.308 of the sermon. Having treated the various aspects of c i v i l l i b e r a l i t y (with respect to the King, his Of f i c e r s , and the people), Donne offers a moment of resolution, a moment i n which tension i s temporarily suspended. The l i s t e n e r may re-establish himself on firm ground, sure of certain facts regarding the c i v i l aspects of l i b e r a l i t y . Within th i s moment of resolution the movement i s upward toward a sublime r e a l i z a t i o n : And by these L i b e r a l l things, these L i b e r a l l men s h a l l stand. The King s h a l l stand; stand i n safety at home, and stand i n triumph abroad. The Magistrate s h a l l stand; stand i n a due reverence of his place from below, and i n safe possession of his place from above; neither be contemned by his Inferiours, nor suspiciously, and g u i l t i l y inquired into by his Superiours; neither feare petitions against him, nor commissions upon him. And the People s h a l l stand; stand upon the i r right Basis, that i s , an inward f e e l i n g , and an outward declaration, that they are safe onely i n the Publique safety. And they s h a l l a l l stand i n the Sunshine, and serenity of a cleere conscience, which serenity of conscience i s one f a i r e beame, even of the glory of God, and of the joy of heaven, upon that soule that enjoyes it.(11.297-308) 44. The r e c a p i t u l a t i o n given here i s s u f f i c i e n t , and s u f f i c i e n t l y a t t r a c t i v e , to remain with the l i s t e n e r as the sermon continues. One's memory of i t w i l l give one a sense of mastery over one side of the o r i g i n a l duality, as Donne proceeds to investigate the meaning of l i b e r a l i t y i n the s p i r i t u a l or e c c l e s i a s t i c a l context. S t y l i s t i c a l l y the sense of duality i s s t i l l i n e f f e c t , but there ensues i n 11.324-339 a highly important conceptual s h i f t which i n v i t e s the l i s t e n e r to a l t e r his perspective i n exploring the text's ramifications. Using quick, r i s i n g , rhythmic ex- pressions of the difference between the c i v i l (physical, moral, temporal world of reason and "becoming") and the e c c l e s i a s t i c a l * ( s p i r i t u a l , r e l i g i o u s , atemporal world of f a i t h and "being"), Donne manages to invest the outline of the text's s p i r i t u a l significance with a calmness and a comfort. It i s the comfort of the Holy S p i r i t , and the degree to which one sense the calm thus inspired reveals the degree of one's p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the experience Donne i s creating: But we invest the whole consideration i n a meere s p i r i t u a l l nature; and so that L i b e r a l i t y . . . i s now, i n this second part, i n t h i s s p i r i t u a l l acceptation, the r a i s i n g of a dejected s p i r i t , the redintegration of a broken heart, the resuscitation of a buried soule, the re-consolidation of a scattered conscience, ...this i s the L i b e r a l i t y , of which the Holy Ghost himselfe i s content to be the Steward, of the holy, blessed, and glorious T r i n i t y , and to be n o t i f i e d , and q u a l i f i e d by that d i s t i n c t i v e notion, and s p e c i f i c a t i o n , The Comforter.(11.324-339) Donne w i l l reinforce the idea of comfort throughout his exami- nation of the text's s p i r i t u a l s i g n i f i c a n c e . He makes clear that h i s treatment of the s p i r i t u a l mode w i l l p a r a l l e l that of the c i v i l mode, thus giving the l i s t e n e r a way to begin his own 45 consideration: We follow our text, i n the Context, our Prophet, as he places this l i b e r a l i t y i n the King, i n the Magistrate, i n the People. Here, the King i s Christ, The Magistrate the Minister, The People the people.... (11.462-464) Donne w i l l sustain the sense of parallelism i n the treatment so that the l i s t e n e r may make associations more eas i l y with the c i v i l aspect of the text. However, ensuing comparisons of the c i v i l and e c c l e s i a s t i c a l elements w i l l r e f l e c t the s h i f t i n conceptual focus dictated by consideration of the s p i r i t u a l l e v e l : i ...To enrich t h i s poore soule, to comfort t h i s sad soule so> as that he s h a l l beleeve, and by beleeving finde a l l Christ to be his , t h i s i s that L i b e r a l i t y which we speake of now, i n dispensing whereof, The l i b e r a l l man deviseth l i b e r a l l things, and by l i b e r a l l things s h a l l stand. (11.'357-361') Donne._is sharing the awareness of e c c l e s i a s t i c a l or s p i r i t u a l import, but on the c i v i l or temporal plane. This does not con- s t i t u t e a separation, but rather a p a r t i c u l a r kind of unity. Just how glorious the significance of L i b e r a l i t y i s i n r e l a t i o n to Christ, i s expressed i n an image which inspires i n the l i s t e n e r a complete sense of Christ's might and the concept's importance. In t h i s image, Donne associates abstractions as the highest r e a l i t i e s . His experience i s not one of simple understanding, but rather one of associating oneself with eternal conditions through the non-logical powers of the i n - t e l l e c t , memory, and emotions. Emotional s e n s i t i v i t y i s heightened, despite the lack of s p e c i f i c a l l y emotional adjectives. Donne r e l i e s on the fact that the mind cannot l o g i c a l l y appreciate i n f i n i t u d e i t can only accept and glory emotionally i n the higher realms: | To have been once nothing, and to be now co-heire with the Son of God, i s such a C i r c l e , such a Compasse, as that no revolutions i n this world, to r i s e from the lowest to the highest, or to f a l l from the highest to the lowest, can be call e d or thought any Segment, any Arch, any Point i n respect of t h i s C i r c l e ; To have once been nothing, and now to be co-heires with the Son of God: That Son of God, who i f there had been but one soule to have been saved, but one, and that that onely had sinned, he would not have contented himselfe with a l l the re s t , but would have dyed for that. And there i s the goodnesse, the l i b e r a l i t y of our King, our God, our Christ, our Jesus.(11.503-514) At the conclusion of the sermon, the associative movement culminates i n a u n i f i c a t i o n of the c i v i l and e c c l e s i a s t i c a l modes of interpretation. The u n i f i c a t i o n takes place i n the terms of the " r i g i d " divisions which have been used as a frame- work device throughout the sermon. Donne provides the means whereby the l i s t e n e r may combine ea s i l y the main conceptual statements of the two interpretations. Because association i s not a temporal function ( i . e . , because i t does not depend upon time the way l o g i c a l or sequential progression does), the concluding passage [embraces and makes palpable th^ entire textual import. The f i n a l e f f e c t i s to leave the l i s t e n e r i with a sense of u n i f i e d understanding and a knowledge of personal application. The s p i r i t u a l and natural l e v e l s of b e i n g — i n s o f a r as they are represented by the c i v i l and e c c l e s i a s t i c a l i n t e r - pretations of the text—cohere, and are mutually interdependent. The plan i s divine, but the major r e s p o n s i b i l i t y rests with l i v i n g men: The King himselfe stands by i t , Christ himselfe. It destroys the nature, the o f f i c e , the merit of Christ himselfe, to make his redemption so penurious, so i l l i b e r a l l . We, his o f f i c e r s , his Ministers stand i t . I t overthrowes the cr e d i t , and evacuates the purpose of our employment, and our Ministery, i f we 47. must offer salvation to the whole Congregation, and must not be beleeved, that he that sends i t , means i t . The people, every p a r t i c u l a r soule stands by i t . For, i f he cannot beleeve,God, to have been more l i b e r a l l to him, then he hath been to any other man, he i s i n an i l l case, because he knowes more i l l by himselfe, then he can know by any other man. Beleeve therefore l i b e r a l l purposes i n thy God; Accept l i b e r a l l pro- positions from his Ministers; And apply them l i b e r a l l y , and chearfully to thine own soule; for, The l i b e r a l l man deviseth l i b e r a l l things, and by l i b e r a l l things he s h a l l stand.(11.567-580) Donne issues an i n v i t a t i o n to use the personal application of L i b e r a l i t y as a means of p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the f u l l e r experience of Christian l i f e to which he has opened the way. One f e e l s that he has participated f u l l y i n recognizing the truths i m p l i c i t i n Donne 's text. Donne r e a l i z e s his objective through his intimate understanding of h i s own experience, and h i s sense o f o r a t o r y ' s t o o l s a s J d e v i c e s f o r the manipulation oif response. "The f i r s t Sermon upon t h i s Text, Preached at S. Pauls, i n the Evening, upon Easter-day. 1626. I Cor. 15.29. ELSE WHAT SHALL THEY DO THAT ARE BAPTIZED FOR ' DEAD? IF THE DEAD RISE NOT AT ALL, WHY ARE THEY THEN BAPTIZED FOR DEAD?" r 4 The sermon on t h i s text i s a massive and complex piece which i s concerned with knowledge and assurance of the Resurrection, i n i t s manifold meaning and significance, on the eternal plane as well as i n t h i s l i f e . Donne r e f l e c t s another aspect of the relationship between the natural and s p i r i t u a l orders by examining the Resurrection—a heavenly e v e n t — i n terms of i t s significance f o r l i v i n g men. The sermon depends upon the interaction between the l i s t e n e r and the complex conceptual and s t y l i s t i c machinery Donne uses to ef f e c t a growing emotional 48 and i n t e l l e c t u a l acceptance of the Resurrection i n a l l i t s A glorious s i g n i f i c a t i o n s . This acceptance does not re s u l t solely from the l u c i d i t y of Donne's explanations of obscure theological points, but rather from the l i s t e n e r ' s increasing dependence upon Donne as he leads one through the r h e t o r i c a l and st r u c t u r a l i complexities of the unfolding argument. S t y l i s t i a subterfuge i s so i n t r i c a t e that the deliberate device of almost geometrically precise proportioning and subdivision of parts within the sermon provides a framework which envelops and overwhelms the l i s t e n e r . Where i n the previous sermon, the l i s t e n e r was allowed an ove r a l l grasp of format with an eye to furthering the apparently l o g i c a l nature of the text's treatment, here Donne hems i n the l i s t e n e r as the sermon progresses. One i s aware, of course, of the ser- mon's pattern, but no longer as an ov e r a l l metaphoric or con- t r o l l i n g structure. Rather, i t i s something one fe e l s as an oppressive or overpowering shaping force. Its fixed l i m i t s are obscured by the immediate i n t e l l e c t u a l , emotional, and theo- l o g i c a l contexts i n which one finds oneself at any given moment. Hence, there i s the above noted dependence upon the preacher as an i n t e l l e c t u a l and theological guide. This i s the sermon's basic pattern: there are two major parts dealing with the main considerations a r i s i n g out of the chosen text. ...our f i r s t part i n t h i s , How the assurance of this Resurrection accrues to us...our second part, That i s the consolation which we receive whilest we are In v i a , here upon our way i n t h i s world, out of the contem- plat i o n of that Resurrection to glory...and how these two Resurrections are arguments and evidences of one another.;... (11.43-49) Part I of the sermon i s c a r e f u l l y structured, and consists i i 49 p r i n c i p a l l y of the r a i s i n g of certain questions related to the fact of the Resurrection. I t also includes a structured d i s - cussion of the Resurrection as a threefold mystery. Donne sets about demonstrating to the l i s t e n e r that one believes "no im- possible thing, i n beleeving the Resurrection" (11.310-311 ) . Part II consists of three d i s t i n c t sections, of which the second i s i t s e l f divided into three components. There i s also a short, and unifying conclusion which develops from the t h i r d section of Part I I . Though these basic d i v i s i o n s seem a clear and simple plan, Donne entraps, the l i s t e n e r within the progression of a sequence of concepts. The l i s t e n e r may very e a s i l y lose sight 1 5 of the o v e r a l l structure as a r e s u l t . This i s a deliberately created e f f e c t , to which I made reference near the beginning of t h i s chapter. 1^ Donne uses a s o l i d s t r u c t u r a l framework which i s obscured, from the l i s t e n e r ' s viewpoint, by the flow and manipulation of concept the l i s t e n e r tends to become trapped by the machinery of his own associative process. In his introduction, Donne sets about creating a need for the l i s t e n e r to depend strongly upon the preacher as explicator and guide. The reasons for t h i s do not become apparent immediately. It i s nonetheless the f i r s t important step i n making the l i s t e n e r doubt hi s own i n t e l l e c t u a l capacities and associative responses. The sermon's opening Latin phrase implies a sense of importance regarding i t s explication. Its primary position at the opening of the sermon creates anxiety as to i t s meaning and significance. As soon as the l i s t e n e r begins to project what i s to follow, he i s on h i s way to becoming entrapped by his own expectations and associative processes; 50 ODIT DOMINUS qui festum Domini unum putat diem, sayes Origen; God hates that man that thinks any of h i s Holy dayes l a s t but one day; That i s , that never thinks of a Resurrection, but upon Easter-day.(11.1-4) One notices that the emphasis of the t r a n s l a t i o n f a l l s on i t s l a s t two words ;"one day". There i s then a deliberate pause, even though the sentence period i s only h a l f f i n i s h e d . During t h i s pause the words "that i s " set up the l i s t e n e r f o r further explanation. The statement which follows acts as a p a r t i c u l a r example of that for which the t r a n s l a t i o n was the general r u l e : that i s , that "God hates that man...", etc. The sense of the t r a n s l a t i o n i s applied deliberately and s p e c i f i c a l l y to "a Resurrection", and the period ends by pinpointing the "one day" as Easter-day. However, despite the grammatical emphasis on one s p e c i f i c day, the statement's actual meaning has to do with much larger periods of time. By stating time l i m i t s with which the Resurrection i s not to be associated, Donne forces the l i s t e n e r to come to| h i s own conclusions about the proper time for thinking of the Resurrection. There may even be an im- p l i c a t i o n that the l i s t e n e r i s to f e e l g u i l t y and self-conscious, since the statement i s couched i n the form of an admonition indeed, almost a rebuke. That which i s celebrated on Easter-day i s to be celebrated year-round; the i n d i v i d u a l may f e e l a sense of shame at having to be t o l d t h i s . The l i s t e n e r may become agitated at the implied admonition. He f e e l s uncertain. He naturally looks to the preacher for more s p e c i f i c information by which to define his own behavior. Even so simple a device as the use of the i n d e f i n i t e rather than the d e f i n i t e a r t i c l e before "Resurrection" aids i n the establishment of a conceptual frame the problem of Resurrection while maintaining a degree of ambiguity within the context. The next statement reinforces the conditions of uncertainty and ambiguity. It reveals what w i l l be accomplished by stating what w i l l not be accomplished: I have therefore proposed words unto you, which w i l l not be determined t h i s day; That so, when at any other time, we return to the handling of them, we may also return to the meditation of the Resurrection. (11.4-7) The meaning of the whole sentence i s clear enough. But the l i s t e n e r , i n his sequential apprehension of the period, may be i badly shaken by the appearance of the word "not". One tends to expect a positive statement, an assertion regarding some positive resolution of the sermon's issues and of the Resurrection's manifold significance.. Instead, Donne upsets the l i s t e n e r ' s expectations with a statement of apparent negative intent. The l i s t e n e r , his associative responses interrupted by an unexpected element, i s distracted. Not only does he become anxious about the explanation he hopes w i l l follow, but also he w i l l become increasingly dependent on Donne f o r any sort of s a t i s f y i n g resolution. Donne mimics grammatically the mind's associative processes those f a c u l t i e s which, among other things, allow j one to "jump to conclusions" and then roughly breaks the associative movement. He maintains grammatical smoothness, and continues to undermine the l i s t e n e r ' s confidence i n his own a b i l i t i e s within the given frame of reference. The explanation f o r the negative statement i n the above quotation i s grammatic- a l l y and l e x i c a l l y clear enough, but the nature of the Resu- r r e c t i o n (or of the meditation upon i t ) has not been made clear. Now the "meditation of the Resurrection" has become a goal of 52 sorts._but the l i s t e n e r i s s t i l l unable to proceed without Donne's guidance. In t h i s sermon, says Donne, we w i l l make a beginning i n t h i s meditation, using Easter-day—upon which we celebrate the Resurrection of C h r i s t — a s a s t a r t i n g place to consider " i n his one Resurrection, a l l those s e v e r a l l kinds of Resurrections whioh appertain to us..."(11.9-10): And yet t h i s day we s h a l l not so much inquire, wherein, and i n what sense the words are an argument of the Resurrection, as enjoy the assurance that they are so; not so much di s t r i b u t e the Text into an e x p l i - cation of the p a r t i c u l a r words...as to lay up the whole wedge, and ingot of Gold a l l at once i n you, that i s , the precious assurance of your glorious Resurrection.(11.1 6-22) Here Donne depends on the l i s t e n e r ' s uncertainty and desire f o r s p e c i f i c i t y i n terms of the subject at hand. He produces a balanced structure which reveals i n a general way the method i he proposes to follow i n the sermon. It i s true that the period j acts as a p a r t i a l resolution for the l i s t e n e r ' s anxieties, i n as much as there i s now a " r e a l " goal available: "the precious assurance of your glorious Resurrection." However, no r e a l l y s p e c i f i c information i s offered, and those ideas or methods of treatment Donne rejects are precisely the ones the l i s t e n e r might expect him to use. The methods proposed w i l l appeal to the l i s t e n e r , since they appear to relate more d i r e c t l y to the benefits he derives from the Resurrection. But despite the appeal of the proposals, the t e r r i t o r y w i l l be unfamiliar to the l i s t e n e r . Though some of h i s anxieties have been relieved, he i s dependent upon the preacher as a guide to an understanding of the Resurrection, and through the i n t r i c a c i e s of the sermon. , i Also, Donne leads the l i s t e n e r to believe that the goal of i "assurance of your glorious Resurrection" i s associated with a p a r t i c u l a r moment i n time the " a l l at once" of 1.21. whether or not t h i s b e l i e f lis j u s t i f i e d , and whether or not the "goal" described here i s synonymous with the process of ^meditation of the Resurrection" i s not yet known. Because of the Resurrection's mysterious nature, Donne must deal with"the relationship of reason and f a i t h i n approaching i t . He does so i n his introduction. Both reason and f a i t h are evident i n man's a c t i v i t i e s . One i s more d i s t i n c t l y an element of the natural world of men, while the other depends upon l i v i n g man's relationship to the s p i r i t u a l realm and God. The two do not c o n f l i c t , but rather complement each other, and re- f l e c t one aspect of the relationship between the natural and s p i r i t u a l orders of being. In deciding how we may be assured of the Resurrection, ...we s h a l l see, that though i t be presented by Reason before, and i l l u s t r a t e d by Reason after, yet the foote and foundation thereof i s i n Faith; though Reason may chafe the wax, yet Faith imprints the seale, (for the Resurrection i s not a conclusion out of n a t u r a l l Reason, but i t i s an a r t i c l e of supernaturall Faith; and though you assent to me now, speaking of the Resurrection, yet that i s not out of my Logick, nor out of my Rhetorique, but out of that Character, and Ordinance which God hath imprinted i n me, i n the power and effi c a c y whereof, I speak unto you. as often as I speak out of t h i s place.!) (11.34-43) Donne relates t h i s to the f i r s t of the two parts of his discussion. But, since an understanding and acceptance of the material i n Part I i s necessary to the discussion i n Part I I , the resolution between reason and f a i t h becomes a key element i n the sermon, and i n the problem of the Resurrection. Donne has said before, 17 "Eloquence i s not our net...only the Gospel i s . " ' The Resu- 54. r r e c t i o n i s "an a r t i c l e of supernaturall F a i t h " which i s given extension i n the minds of l i v i n g men by reason's powers and manifestations ( i . e . , l o g i c , rhetoric, e t c . ) . Assurance of the Resurrection i s based on f a i t h , and reason helps to present i t as a prospect and support i t as a p r i n c i p l e . The necessity of combining reason and f a i t h i n t h i s world r e f l e c t s the stress Donne places on human r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n the interdependent systems of the natural and s p i r i t u a l orders. Part I of the sermon, which begins at 1.53, i s organized around a series of the discussions of three questions r e l a t i n g to the Resurrection, these questions, and the threefold mystery i of the Resurrection. The three questions, i n the order i n which Donne treats them, are: " . . . f i r s t , whether there be a Resurrection, then what manner of Resurrection^ and then what kinde of Resu- rre c t i o n they s h a l l have that l i v e to the day of Judgement..." (11.128-131). Donne borrows, his approach from the teachings of the Apostle, establishing a stronger authority than himself to support h i s argument, and helping to bolster the l i s t e n e r ' s willingness to r e l y on him as a guide i n these matters. The f i r s t of the three questions i s of prime concern to Donne. It deals with "...whether there be a Resurrection, or no.. ."(1.72). Donne re-examines and restates i n 11.62-71 the problems suggested by the text as the Apostle reviewed them: that i s , as positive proof of the Resurrection's existence. Donne withholds supportive argument for his statement of con- v i c t i o n u n t i l the passage extending from 11.72-84. By doing so, and by his r e p e t i t i o n of the text i n 11.62-71 (together with a number of bewildering reworkings of the puzzling questions the 55. text asks), Donne forces the l i s t e n e r to an awareness of the most basic awareness of the most basic problem the text r a i s e s . He also renews the l i s t e n e r ' s doubts as to his own capacity for understanding. The l i s t e n e r i s aware of his own lack of a methodology for coping with the problem. Having been betrayed repeatedly by Donne's grammatical manipulation of his expec- tations, and by the denial of his own associative patterns, the l i s t e n e r i s reduced to a condition of urgent interest i n the theological immediacy of the question. He must depend upon Donne f o r the explanation. Donne gives that explanation, at least p a r t i a l l y , i n the b r i l l i a n t l y worked passage extending from 11.72-84, which I w i l l examine i n sections. F i r s t , with respect to the question of the Resurrection's existence, ...For, i f that be denyed, or doubted i n the roote, i n the person of Christ, whether he be r i s e n or no, the whole frame of our r e l i g i o n f a l s , and every man w i l l be apt (and j u s t l y apt) to ask that question which the Indian King asked....(11.72-76) This part of the long and complex period begins by drawing the l i s t e n e r right to the "roote" of the problem. By beginning the clause with "For, i f " , Donne n o t i f i e s the l i s t e n e r that the statement w i l l have an " i f - t h e n " structure. That i s , the " i f " points to a set of conditions which, should they exist, w i l l "then" lead to a p a r t i c u l a r conclusion. The hypothesis suggested by the " i f " part of the statement deals with negative response to the problem of the Resurrection's existence. The phrase, " i f that [the Resurrection] be denyed", establishes a context within which the l i s t e n e r may evaluate the information he receives. Donne strengthens the negative associations en- gendered by "denyed" and makes the denial more s p e c i f i c . The 56 " i f " , the conditional case, now becomes a questioning of the i "roote" that i s , the source of the Resurrection, the "person of Christ, whether he be ri s e n or no...". Donne then utters a terse, powerful statement encompassing the r e s u l t s accruing from the 'hypothetical condition. The state- ment temporarily slows the period's rhythm, bringing emphasis on each word and allowing the l i s t e n e r to grasp the f u l l impact: "...the whole frame of our r e l i g i o n f a l s . . . " . The period proceeds, s t i l l within the context of the described " i f - t h e n " structure. Donne turns to the example of the Indian King to i l l u s t r a t e the natural results i f one begins by questioning b e l i e f i n Christ's Resurrection. ...that question which the Indian King asked, when he had been catechized so far i n the a r t i c l e s of our Christian r e l i g i o n , as to come to the suffered, and c r u c i f i e d , and dead, and buried, impatient of proceeding any farther, and so losing the consolation of the Resurrection, he asked only, Is your God dead, and buried?(11.75-80) Presumably the l i s t e n e r i s to recognize that under the stated conditions (the " i f " p a r t , plus the new information), he would respond l i k e the Indian King, and would ask the same question. The patterned, rhythmic, f o u r - l i n e i n t e r j e c t i o n between the reference to the Indian King's question and the actual posing of the question leaves no possible doubt as to the condition which i makes such a question possible. The whole i n t e r j e c t i o n i s designed to pinpoint a pa r t i c u l a r moment: that i s , the moment when one attains a certain l e v e l of theological knowledge and a certain understanding about Christ's death. Thi,s l e v e l of knowledge depends-upon man's reasonable f a c u l t i e s and the a b i l i t y to learn, rather than upon f a i t h i n Christ. Even a 57 heathen may get t h i s f a r . The words "so far...as to" point to the l i m i t or degree of understanding. That degree, i n s u f f i c i e n t as i t i s , i s made starkly clear by a series of heavily emphasized words which represent the stages of Christ's movement toward the Resurrection: "...suffered, and c r u c i f i e d , and dead, and i buried...".' The Indian King f a i l s to achieve secure knowledge at the l a s t climactic moment. The emphasis of the fo u r - l i n e i n t e r j e c t i o n f a l l s most heavily on the l a s t phrase: "...and so lo s i n g the consolation of the Resurrection". The l i s t e n e r accepts th i s as the most l i k e l y r e s u l t i f "the whole frame of our r e l i g i o n f a l s " . This i s to be avoided; therefore, the " i f " conditions of the period are to be avoided. Having l o s t consolation through the Resurrection the Indian King asks his question. Because of the appearance of "only" "...he asked only, Is your God dead and buried?" and because of the apparent abrupt grammatical termination indicated by the interrogative, the l i s t e n e r may believe that with the statement of the question, the period also concludes. He may wish to pause, to consider the information given him so f a r . ^ But Donne does not allow him to do so, immediately following the question with the Indian King's incorrect or overly hasty con- clusion to the problem. As a r e s u l t , two additional effects w i l l have been created. F i r s t , the questioner has referred to "your God", thereby shutting himself out of the Christian world. Donne implies that without "the consolation of the Resurrection" one i s not Christian, other knowledge of C h r i s t i a n i t y (or l i p - s e r v i c e paid to i t ) notwithstanding. This makes the means, of attaining such a consolation 'all the more urgent an issue for the l i s t e n e r . 58 Secondly, Donne phrases the question of the Indian King, who does not r e a l l y wait f o r an answer, as i f i t were a r h e t o r i c a l question. He thereby indicates to the l i s t e n e r that a person i n such a condition not only i s outside the Christian world, but because of h i s b a s i c a l l y unsound and impatient attitude, can never be brought into i t . Vie may p i t y such a person because he acts only on the basis of reason; the conclusion he reaches i s the only one possible f o r him under the cirucmstances. The Christian must act on f a i t h , supported by reason and i t s manifestations. ! I The period moves on. Donne i s unwilling to allow the l i s t e n e r a moment's respite to draw a conclusion of his own, since that would weaken the preacher's control. The l i s t e n e r would regain too large a degree of trust i n his. own capacity for making theological judgments. The Indian King's hasty conclusion i s now presented: ...then l e t me return to the worship of the Sun, for I am sure the Sun w i l l not die; I f Christ be dead and buried, that i s , continue i n the state of death, and of the grave, without a Resurrection, where s h a l l a Christian look for life?(11.80-83) These l i n e s present a simple analogy which i s deliberately made accessible to the l i s t e n e r f o r the purpose of placing emphasis on the l a s t part of the period: "...without a Resurrection, where s h a l l a Christian look f o r l i f e ? " The section on the f i r s t of the three questions ends with a l o g i c a l l y couched conclusion giving assurance of the Resu- rrection's existence: "Therefore the Apostle handles, and establishes that f i r s t , that assurance, A Resurrection there i s " (11.83-84). In reaching t h i s conclusion Donne has removed a 59. degree of the l i s t e n e r ' s i n t e l l e c t u a l autonomy; established a sense of urgency regarding the attainment of a p a r t i c u l a r goal, the nature of which i s uncertain; and used the l i s t e n e r ' s growing need to avoid "un-Christian" behavior i n order to make him want to believe i n the Resurrection. He has pointed up the necessary interaction between reason and f a i t h — a n d a l l t h i s while the sermon i s s t i l l more or less i n i t s opening stages. It i s not enough to conclude, based on the discussion so far, that "A Resurrection there i s . " In 11.148-152 Donne makes e x p l i c i t the most c r u c i a l question i n coming to an awareness of the Resurrection. Quite simply, Donne asks whether any amount of reasonable discussion w i l l be of aid i f the l i s t e n e r i s not already motivated to believe i n the Resurrection: But would a l l these wayes serve? would a l l t h i s s a t i s f i e that Inquisition which wee haye brought, how t h i s assurance of the Resurrection accrues to us? Would any of these reasons, or would a l l these reasons convince a man, who were not at a l l pre- possessed, and preoccupated with a b e l i e f e of the resurrection, with an assurance thereof?(11.148-152) With the b r i e f series of fast-moving r h e t o r i c a l questions Donne makes the l i s t e n e r search quickly for answers which he, the preacher, knows are as yet unavailable to the l i s t e n e r . Again, one may see how t h i s relates to Donne's interest i n the r e l a t i o n - ship between reason and f a i t h . This passage makes that r e l a t i o n - ship of urgent interest to the l i s t e n e r , and underscores the meaning of true C h r i s t i a n i t y . The questions raised i n the passage demand resolution, and provide a means by which Donne may begin to treat the threefold mystery of the Resurrection. The p r i n c i p a l purpose of the section on the threefold mystery i s to i l l u s t r a t e and reinforce i n diverse ways the interdependence of reason and f a i t h with respect to the basis of C h r i s t i a n i t y . Donne s t i l l speaks i n a l o g i c a l manner. His words demonstrate the power of reason, not t o solve the problem, but to define i t more c l e a r l y . At! the same time there may be a s l i g h t tension between grammatical l o g i c , and the i n a b i l i t y of l o g i c to solve the problem of the Resurrection. The examination of the mystery's t h i r d aspect begins this way: The resurrection i n i t s e l f , Christs Resurrection, though i t be clearer then ours, Christs Resurrection, even afte r i t was actually accomplished, was s t i l l a mystery, out of the compasse of reason; And then, as i t was above our reason, so, howsoever i t be our proofe, and our pattern for our resurrection, yet i t i s above our imitation. For our resurrection s h a l l not be l i k e h i s . . . . A l l we s h a l l be raised from the dead, onely Christ arose from the dead.(11.212-219) Man cannot a t t a i n an awareness of the Resurrection on his own. As we must be raised, rather than r a i s i n g ourselves, so we must be led to knowledge. The degree of mystery becomes an issue. Our resurrection i s more amenable to examination by reason, being less of a miracle, i Nevertheless, i t cannot be comprehended solely ! through reason, and so we must submit to i t on the grounds of f a i t h . Donne expresses these ideas i n a sentence period of staggering length, which extends from 11.221-243. He begins with a simple phrase, i n which the key word i s "though": "...though...our resurrection be more open to the proofe of reason, then the resurrection of Christ..."(11.221-222). The following ten l i n e s depend upon "though". Donne signals the l i s t e n e r that the conditions following "though" exist, but that the conclusion to be drawn w i l l be i n spite of them, rather than because of them. Donne uses a lengthy parenthetical statement of confusing structure and rhythm to inform the l i s t e n e r of the l o g i c behind the "though" condition of 11.221-222. The paren- t h e t i c a l statement recapitulates the reasonable views supporting the probability of "our" resurrection: ...though i n t h i s respect, our resurrection be more open to the proofe of reason, then the resurrection of Christ, (for that which hath least miracle i n i t , i s most open to reason; and therefore a n a t u r a l l man would e a s i l i e r beleeve that God might raise a dead man, then that a dead man should be God, and so able to raise himselfe, which was Christ's case, for the God-head of Christ was as much united to his dead body i n the grave, as i t was to his soule i n Paradise, or to his whole person consisting of body and soule, before, or af t e r his death and resurrection) Though, i n t h i s respect, I say, our resurrection be more open to reason, because i t hath lesse of the miracle i n i t , yet....(11.221-230) The continually changing rhythms i n this part of the period are i i n direct c o n f l i c t with the l i s t e n e r ' s wishes to reorganize for himself the information he receives. It becomes d i f f i c u l t to remember a l l the steps i n the argument Donne presents. Further, the l i s t e n e r knows that t h i s information leads only i n d i r e c t l y , and by contrast, to Donne's conclusion. Donne reinforces the l i s t e n e r ' s anxiety regarding t h i s conclusion by repeating the thought contained i n the opening phrase. The lengthening o v e r a l l of the period adds to a general anxiety concerning one's a b i l i t y to keep track of what i s happening as the period progresses. The l i s t e n e r ' s anxiety decreases s l i g h t l y with the appearance of the word "yet" at the opening of the period's second part: i ...hath lesse of the miracle i n i t , yet when we come to assigne reasons, even for our resurrection, (as we see Athenagoras hath undertaken, with a great deale of wit, and learning, and confidence, i n his Apology for the Christians, to the Emperour, within 155. yeares after Christ; and the Schoole-men make account, that they have brought i t nearer to the understanding, nay even to the very sense, by pro- ducing some such things, as even i n nature, doe not only resemble, but (as they apprehend) evict a resurrection) yet....(11.230-237) One may b e l i e v e that Donne w i l l now present the conclusion reached when "...we assigne reasons...for our r e s u r r e c t i o n . . . " . Instead, the l i s t e n e r encounters another long p a r e n t h e t i c a l i n t e r j e c t i o n . Tension again begins t o b u i l d . To the anxiety caused by the new delay, Donne adds the problem of a mass of new and s p e c i f i c information. The l i s t e n e r f e e l s that a grasp of t h i s information w i l l be necessary f o r a sound understanding of the forthcoming c o n c l u s i o n . At the end of the second p a r e n t h e t i c a l expression the word "yet" appears again. The l i s t e n e r ' s anxiety again decreases. He readies himself f o r what he hopes w i l l t r u l y be the conclusion of the argument and of the p e r i o d . He c l i n g s to whatever ideas the a s s o c i a t i v e movement of the period has l e f t him thus f a r : . . . e v i c t a r e s u r r e c t i o n ) yet when a l l i s done, and a l l the reasons of Athenagoras. and the Schoole, and of S.Paul hi m s e l f e , are waighed, they determine a l l i n t h i s , that they are f a i r e , and pregnant, and con- venient i l l u s t r a t i o n s of that which was beleeved before; and that they have f o r c e , and power to encline to an assent, and t o create and beget such a proba- b i l i t y , as a d i s c r e e t , and sad, and constant man might r e s t i n , and submit to.(11.237-243) Here there i s an o r d e r l y r e c a p i t u l a t i o n on a much smaller scale as the period ends. The l i s t e n e r has an e a s i e r time grasping . and o r g a n i z i n g the m a t e r i a l . The short s e r i e s of phrases, "...when a l l i s done, and a l l the reasons of Athenagoras. and the Schoole, and of S.Paul himselfe are waighed...", enables the l i s t e n e r to f i t the d i s c u s s i o n of the preceding l i n e s w i t h i n e a s i l y graspable dimensions. But reason i s shown only as a persuasive i n f l u e n c e . The true s t a t e to which one should a t t a i n i s revealed a few l i n e s l a t e r a s o r t of delayed punch-line, when much of the l i s t e n e r ' s t e n s i o n has d i s s i p a t e d . Donne 6 3 . impresses on the l i s t e n e r the joy i m p l i c i t i n an acceptance of the Resurrection through f a i t h supported by reason. F a i t h i s necessary; without i t , reason can be used i n arguments against the Resurrection as well as for i t . So, one must ...beleeve i t immediately, i n t i r e l y , chearfully, undisputably, because we see i t expres^y delivered by the Holy Ghost; And we embrace thankfully, that sweetnesse, and that fulnesse of that blessed S p i r i t , that as he l a i e s an obligation upon our f a i t h , by del i v e r i n g the a r t i c l e p o s i t i v e l y to us, so he i s — also pleased to accompany that A r t i c l e , with reasons and arguments proportionable to our reason and understanding...By those reasons and arguments, and i l l u s t r a t i o n s , that f a i t h i s nourished and maintained i n good habitude and constitution.(11.248-260) Donne concludes Part I with an analogy which provides a f i n a l , apt i l l u s t r a t i o n of the reason-faith r e l a t i o n s h i p . He speaks i n terms of himself, putting himself on display i n a sense, f o r an audience which has regarded him as a guide: ...as i t i s the candle that l i g h t s me, but yet I take a lanthorne to,defend that candle from the wind; so my f a i t h assures me of the Resurrection, but these reasons and i l l u s t r a t i o n s a s s i s t that f a i t h . ( 1 1 . 3 1 1 - 3 1 3 ) In concluding Part I, Donne restates his objectives and the goals achieved thus f a r . He ends the section i n such a way as to leave the assurance of the Resurrection uppermost i n the l i s t e n e r ' s mind. Part II of the sermon begins at 1 . 3 1 9 , and deals with both the s p i r i t u a l and: physical aspects and implications of the i Resurrection. It further r e f l e c t s Donne's insistence on the relationship between the natural and s p i r i t u a l orders of being. Because of the l i m i t s of time and space, my examination of this portion of the sermon must be shorter and sketchier than the work deserves. I w i l l try to examine one or two passages selected, not on the basis of st r u c t u r a l location i n Donne's complex scheme f o r P a r t I I , bu t r a t h e r on the b a s i s o f c o n t e n t and c o n t e x t as b e f o r e . The r o l e s o f body and s o u l and t h e i r i m p l i c a t i o n s i n t h e r e s u r r e c t i o n f rom n a t u r a l d e a t h a r e s i g n i f i c a n t enough t o r e q u i r e t h a t . . . w e r e c e i v e i n t o c o m p a r i s o n , T r i p l i c e m casum. a t h r e e f o l d f a l l , and a t h r e e f o l d r e s u r r e c t i o n , as i n t he n a t u r a l l and b o d i l y d e a t h , so i n t h e s p i r i t u a l l d e a t h o f t he s o u l e a l s o : F o r f i r s t , i n n a t u r a l l d e a t h , t h e r e i a Casus i n s e p a r a t i o n e m . The man, t he p e r s o n f a l l s i n t o a s e p a r a t i o n , a d i v o r c e o f body and s o u l ; and the r e s u r r e c t i o n f rom t h i s f a l l i s by R e - u n i o n , t h e s o u l e and body a r e r e - u n i t e d a t t h e l a s t d a y . ( 1 1 . 3 3 1 - 3 3 7 ) The second p a r t o f t h e " T r i p l i c e m casum" has t o dC| w i t h the d i s s o l u t i o n o f t h e body a f t e r d e a t h , and the r e s u r r e c t i o n f rom t h a t p a r t i c u l a r - k i n d o f f a l l . The t h i r d ca se deal,s w i t h the d i s p e r s i o n o f t he body-become-dus t o v e r the e a r t h , and t h e r e s u r r e c t i o n from t h i s a s p e c t o f t h e t h r e e f o l d f a l l . Donne r e s t a t e s the c o m p a r a t i v e b a s i s on w h i c h the r e m a i n d e r o f t h e sermon w i l l be b u i l t : . . . A n d t h e s e t h r e e f a l l s , I n t o a D i v o r c e , i n t o a S e p a r a t i o n , i n t o a D i s p e r s i o n ; And t h e s e t h r e e R e s u r r e c t i o n s , By R e - u n i o n , by R e - e f f o r m a t i o n , by R e - c o l l e c t i n g , we s h a l l a l s o f i n d e i n our p r e s e n t s t a t e , The s p i r i t u a l l d e a t h o f t h e s o u l e by s i n n e . ( 1 1 . 3 4 8 - 3 5 2 ) The " d i v o r c e o f body and s o u l e " i s t h e " f i r s t f a l l i n t he s p i r i t u a l l d e a t h " as w e l l as i n n a t u r a l d e a t h ( 1 . 3 5 3 ) . I n h i s t r e a t m e n t o f i t , Donne a g a i n makes m a n i f e s t h i s f i r m b e l i e f i n the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the n a t u r a l and s p i r i t u a l e l emen t s o f b e i n g . The r o l e s o f body and s o u l are made t o appear complemen- t a r y and i n t e r d e p e n d e n t . They r e l a t e . t o each o t h e r i n the same way r e a s o n and f a i t h r e l a t e d t o each o t h e r i n P a r t I . I n a passage b e g i n n i n g ' a t 1 . 354 , Donne makes t h e l i s t e n e r r e g a r d t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p as o r g a n i c , and a t t h e same t i m e s p i r i t u a l , t h u s e m p h a s i z i n g the i n t e r d e p e n d e n c e : . . . w h e r e a s God h a t h made the body t o be the Organ o f t he s o u l e , and t h e s o u l e t o be t h e b r e a t h o f t h a t Organ , and bound them t o a m u t u a l l r e l a t i o n t o one a n o t h e r ( 1 1 . 3 5 4 - 3 5 6 ) By o p e n i n g t h e c l a u s e w i t h "whe reas" , Donne f o r c e s the l i s t e n e r t o r e c o g n i z e t h a t he w i l l be c o n f r o n t e d w i t h a p r emi se w h i c h must be g r a n t e d f o r t h e d i s c u s s i o n t o p r o g r e s s s u c c e s s f u l l y . Then , "God h a t h m a d ® . . " g i v e s a sense o f heavy emphasis w h i c h b r o o k s no d i s p u t e and w h i c h moves the l i s t e n e r t o a c c e p t t he p remise e a s i l y and q u i c k l y . Donne u se s d i v i n e a u t h o r i t y t o e s t a b l i s h an a tmosphere f o r u n q u e s t i o n i n g a c c e p t a n c e , and t h e n s t a t e s h i s p r emi se as i f i t were s e l f - e v i d e n t . He, does i t i n a manner w h i c h r e p h r a s e s and r e - e m p h a s i z e s t h e b o d y - s o u l i n t e r d e p e n d e n c e . As r e a s o n i s u n i t e d w i t h , bu t i n , some sense s u b o r d i n a t e t o f a i t h , so t h e body s h o u l d r e l a t e t q the s o u l . As t h e r e - a r e i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s i n - e a c h o f us w h i c h p r e v e n t r e a s o n and f a i t h f rom o p e r a t i n g c o n j o i n t l y , so t o o we o f t e n s e p a r a t e body and s o u l t h r o u g h ou r own weakness and n e g l e c t . I n 1 .360 Donne u se s the t e rms o f f a m i l i a r s o c i a l r e l a t i o n - s h i p s t o d s c r i b e p rob lems i n t h e c o n n e c t i o n between body and s o u l . The body " s h o u l d be a w i f e t o the s o u l e , and does s t a n d out i n a d i v o r c e . " L i k e t h e s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p f rom w h i c h the a n a l o g y i s d r awn , t h i s s p e c i a l k i n d o f d i v o r c e i s t o be a m a t t e r o f e v e r y d a y c o n c e r n . The s e n t e n c e ends w i t h " d i v o r c e " , and Donne u se s i t as a s o r t o f v e r b a l b r i d g e i n t o the passage d e a l i n g w i t h the r e s u r r e c t i o n f rom " t h i s f i r s t f a l l " . That passage opens w i t h a n o t h e r o f D o n n e ' s monumental s e n t e n c e p e r i o d s , w h i c h ex t ends f rom 1 1 . 3 6 1 - 3 8 4 . 66 In the f i r s t part of thi s period, Donne establishes f o r the l i s t e n e r a sense of grammatical balance and orderly treatment of a problem: Now the Resurrection, from t h i s f i r s t f a l l into a Divorce, i s , seriously and wisely, that i s , both piously and c i v i l l y to consider, that Man i s not a soule alone, but a body too....(11.361-363) The resurrection "...from t h i s f i r s t f a l l . . . " l i e s simply i n considering the problem a certain way. Donne uses grammatical structure to r e f l e c t the reasonable twofold method of consider- ation he i s proposing. Considering the problem "seriously and wisely" i s made equivalent to considering i t "both piously and c i v i l l y " . Although there i s nothing i n the l e x i c a l meanings of the words that immediately indicates t h i s equality, the fact that Donne expresses i t i n such a balanced way the neat two-word to two-word correspondence readies the l i s t e n e r to organize his thinking i n terms of_evenly balanced grammatical and conceptual unity within the sentence. The i n f i n i t i v e "to consider" i s separated from the copula " i s " , and i,n a sense be- comes almost an object. To consider something i s an act of w i l l ; therefore the; l i s t e n e r may have the means of; resurrection from t h i s f a l l at h i s d i s p o s a l . The appearance of "that" after "consider", together with the pause indicated by the comma be- tween the two, prepares the l i s t e n e r f o r the c r u c i a l conclusion the resurrection from t h i s f a l l . Donne presents t h i s con- clusion i n a short, emphasized statement which maintains the sense of dual balanced elements i n the sentence: "...Man i s not a soule alone, but a body too...". Donne follows with a system of grammatically balanced, increasingly amplified two-part expressions to express t h i s unity. These expressions, with t h e i r 6 7 . p a r a l l e l s t r u c t u r e s , w i l l complement each o t h e r c o n c e p t u a l l y . A l l o f them a re b u i l t on a "no t o n l y . . . , bu t a l s o " f ramework . The c o n c l u s i o n t h a t man " i s n o t a s o u l e a l o n e , bu t a body t o o " needs e x p a n s i o n . I n f a c t , i t demands a w o r k i n g ou t o f t h e c o n s i d e r a t i o n w h i c h Donne says' c o n s t i t u t e s t h e r e s u r r e c t i o n f rom t h i s f a l l . T h i s i s what t h e e x p a n d i n g framework o f the "not o n l y . . . b u t a l s o " e x p r e s s i o n s p r o v i d e s : . . . T h a t man i s no t p l a c e d i n t h i s w o r l d o n e l y f o r s p e c u l a t i o n ; He i s n o t s en t i n t o t h i s w o r l d t o l i v e out o f i t , bu t t o l i v e i n i t ; Adam was no t put i n t o P a r a d i s e , o n e l y i n t h a t P a r a d i s e t o c o n t e m p l a t e the f u t u r e P a r a d i s e , bu t t o d r e s s e and t o keep t h e p r e s e n t ; God d i d no t b r e a t h e a s o u l e t owards h i m , bu t i n t o h i m ; Not i n an o b s e s s i o n , bu t a p o s s e s s i o n ; Not t o t r a v a i l s f o r knowledge a b r o a d , bu t t o d i r e c t h im by c o u n s e l l a t home; Not f o r e x t a s i e s , bu t f o r an i n h e r e n c e . . . . ( 1 1 . 3 6 3 - 3 7 0 ) The s e r i e s o f e x p a n d i n g e x p r e s s i o n s r e l a t e s t o the i m p o r t a n c e o f the body i n the b o d y - s o u l r e l a t i o n s h i p . The second p a r t o f each e x p r e s s i o n the "but a l s o " p a r t — a c t s as a p o i n t o f r e p e a t e d and a m p l i f i e d e m p h a s i s . We n o t e t h e changes i n t h e l i s t e n e r ' s frame o f r e f e r e n c e : ! f i r s t , what man i s ; n e x t , why he i s a l i v e i n i the w o r l d i n te rms o f " s p e c u l a t i o n " ; t h e n , h i s " p l a c e " i n the w o r l d t h a t i s , inj put i n t o P a r a d i s e . . i t r a t h e r t h a n out o f i t . "Adam was n o t r . t o c o n t e m p l a t e t h e f u t u r e P a r a d i s e , bu t t o d r e s s e and keep the | p r e s e n t . . . " . The p e r i o d c o n t i n u e s , w i t h the rhy thm o f t h e b a l a n c e d e x - p a n s i o n b e i n g i n t e r r u p t e d i n 1 . 3 7 1 . There Donne abandons the "not o n l y . . . b u t a l s o " s t r u c t u r e m o m e n t a r i l y , i l l u s t r a t i n g a p o i n t by way o f r e f e r e n c e t o S t . P a u l , h i s major a u t h o r i t y from P a r t I . W i t h o u t b r e a k i n g the p e r i o d g r a m m a t i c a l l y he c o n t i n u e s anew, r e - e m p h a s i z i n g t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e b o d y ' s r o l e i n the b o d y - s o u l u n i t y : 68 ...Our body also must t e s t i f i e and expresse our love, not onely i n a r e v e r e n t i a l l humiliation thereof, i n the dispositions, and postures, and motions, and actions of the body, when we present our selves at Gods Service, i n his house, but i n the discharge of our bodily duties, and the sociable o f f i c e s of our c a l l i n g s , towards one another....(11.374-379) This part of the period provides a summary statement of the positive nature of the body's r o l e : "Our body also must t e s t i f i e and expresse our love...". Donne makes the l i s t e n e r f e e l the emphasis on this statement, making i t a kind of focus f o r the "not only...but also" expressions. Immediately, those balanced two-element expressions reappear as the meaning and means of our body's testimony i s amplified and expanded. Donne generates for the l i s t e n e r a sense of completeness or of t o t a l coverage of the body's possible roles i n the body-soul re l a t i o n s h i p . These expressions continue, reaffirming the rhythmic pattern of reve- l a t i o n f o r the l i s t e n e r . Donne gives him a sense of increasingly greater understanding of the body's ramifications i n the relationship. In f a c t , the period reaches grammatical termination with one of these rhythmic expansions, which are now phrased as negatives: ...Not to avoid a C a l l i n g , by taking none: Not to make void a C a l l i n g , by neglecting the due o f f i c e s thereof.(11.382-384). Though the period i s concluded grammatically, the l i s t e n e r w i l l be waiting for a further positive explanation to summarize' the state of awareness to which Donne has been urging him. His anxieties regarding:this, and regarding the whole problem of i the "divorce of body and soule" are resolved i n 11.384-387: In a word, To understand, and to performe i n the best measure we can, the duties of the body and of the soule, t h i s i s the resurrection from the f i r s t :> f a l l , The f a l l into a divorce of body and soule.(11.384- 1 69. The import of the whole passage applies to both the physical and s p i r i t u a l elements of the comparative structure. *• Donne's conclusion grows naturally out of the t h i r d sub- d i v i s i o n of Part I I . This deals with the t h i r d aspect of the threefold f a l l into death (and by comparison, into s p i r i t u a l death) the casus i n dispersionem. Into h i s argument concerning t h i s case, Donne manages to incorporate a summarized conclusion which i s designed to remind the l i s t e n e r of the threefold problem's t o t a l i t y and of the threefold solution to i t . At the same time he refocuses the l i s t e n e r ' s attention on an amplified explanation f o r the solution to the casus i n dispersionem: In the generall resurrection upon n a t u r a l l death, God s h a l l work upon th i s dispersion of our scattered dust, as i n the f i r s t f a l l , which i s the Divorce, by way of Re-union, and i n the second, which i s Pu t r i f a c t i o n , by way of Re-efformation; so i n this t h i r d , which i s Dispersion, by way of Re-collection; where mans buried f l e s h hath brought f o r t h grasse, and that grasse fed beasts, and those beasts fed men, and those men fed other men, God that knowes i n which Boxe of his Cabinet a l l t h i s seed Pearle l i e s , i n what corner of the world every atome, every graine of every mans dust sleeps, s h a l l r e c o l l e c t that dust, and then recompact that body, and then r e- inanimate that man, and that i s the accomplishment of all.(11.776-786) One notes that the l a s t phrase of the passage "the accomplish- ment of a l l " grows from an explanation of the process of "r e c o l l e c t i o n " . But the associations the l i s t e n e r brings with him to the conclusion include the concepts of "Re-union" and "Re-efformation" mentioned e a r l i e r i n the period. "Re-collection" tends to take on the associative impact of a l l three terms. That i s , Donne brings the l i s t e n e r to a point where he w i l l associate the word with the entire threefold solution to the i problem of the resurrection, on both the physical and s p i r i t u a l 7 0 , . Donne depends upon t h i s f o c a l point i n the l i s t e n e r ' s associative patterns f o r the development of the sermon's conclusion: Your way i s Recollecting; gather your selves into the Congregation, and Communion of Saints i n these places; gather your sins into your memory, and poure them out i n humble confessions, to that God, whom they have wounded;•Gather the crummes under his Table, lay hold upon the gracious promises, which by our Ministery he l e t s f a l l upon the Congregation now; and gather the seales of those promises....(11.828-833) This new period opens with a short, emphasized statement of four words which provides f o r the l i s t e n e r both a summation of a l l the previous directions he has received, and a f o c a l point fo r which Donne's concluding remarks w i l l be the explanation: "Your way i s Recollecting...". This also suggests that the means of Resurrection i s back i n the l i s t e n e r ' s hands. If he follows the directions, resurrection i s within his grasp. Donne, the guide, i s pointing out the way the l i s t e n e r must follow on h i s own. The opening phrase i s followed by the series of directions, which r e i t e r a t e s what Recollection consists .of. The idea< of Recollection i s emphasized by the p a r a l l e l constructions of these directions around the word "gather"(which i s synonymous with " c o l l e c t " ) . These p a r a l l e l s help to promote a sense of flow i n the period, as they reinforce associative li n k s with e a r l i e r arguments. The echoing of "gather" grows stronger rather than weaker; and the l i s t e n e r may associate each d i r e c t i v e with the solutions, as he remembers them, to the problems raised i n considering the body-soul relationship. The period concludes i n a manner which allows the l i s t e n e r to associate i n a single moment a l l the directions he has received under Donne's guidance, as he remembers them from his movement through the sermon. This moment occurs when the l i s t e n e r hears i : t h a t , based on h i s knowledge o f R e c o l l e c t i o n , he s h a l l be r e s u - r r e c t e d i n t h e s p i r i t u a l as w e l l as i n t h e p h y s i c a l s e n s e : . . . a n d g a t h e r the s e a l e s o f t h o s e p r o m i s e s , whensoever , i n a r e c t i f i e d c o n s c i e n c e , h i s S p i r i t bea res ! w i t n e s s e w i t h y o u r s p i r i t , t h a t y o u may be . w o r t h y r e c e i v e r s o f h im i n h i s Sac rament ; and t h i s r e c o l l e c t i n g s h a l l be y o u r r e s u r r e c t i o n .(11 . 8 3 3 - 8 3 6 ) I n e n d i n g the sermon, Donne manages t o r e v i e w and r e s t a t e h i s b a s i c p r e m i s e s and c o n c l u s i o n s , c h o o s i n g words and s en t ence s t r u c t u r e w h i c h a l l o w t h e l i s t e n e r t o b r i n g i n t o f o c u s i n one moment h i s most v i v i d a s s o c i a t i o n s f rom h i s memory o f t h e se rmon. T h i s moment i s t h e p o i n t o f c u l m i n a t i o n sought a f t e r i n t h e se rmon. The a im was t o a c h i e v e " the m e d i t a t i o n upon the R e s u r r e c t i o n " and t h e r e b y t o g a i n some u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f " the c o n s o l a t i o n o f t h e R e s u r r e c t i o n " . The p o i n t o f c u l m i n a t i o n c i r c u m s c r i b e s the l i s t e n e r ' s ach ievement o f t h e moment when i t becomes p o s s i b l e f o r h im t o m e d i t a t e upon the R e s u r r e c t i o n i h i m s e l f . He w i l l t h e n u n d e r s t a n d what i t means t o be a t r u e i C h r i s t i a n , and h i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g w i l l r e g u l a t e h i s a c t i o n s i n d a i l y l i f e . Donne u s e s r h y t h m i c e x p a n s i o n s on c e r t a i n words and i d e a s t o c o l o r t he l i s t e n e r ' s v i e w o f n a t u r a l l i f e as i t compares t o t h e g l o r y o f R e s u r r e c t i o n : When t h y body , w h i c h h a t h been s u b j e c t t o a l l k i n d e s o f d e s t r u c t i o n h e r e ; t o the d e s t r u c t i o n o f a F l o o d , i n C a t a r r h s , and Rheums, and D r o p s i e s , and s u c h d i s t i l l a t i o n s , t o the d e s t r u c t i o n o f a f i r e , i n F e a v e r s , and F r e n z i e s , and s u c h c o n f l a g r a t i o n s , s h a l l be removed s a f e l y and g l o r i o u s l y above a l l s u c h d i s t e m p e r s , and m a l i g n a n t i m p r e s s i o n s , and body and s o u l e so u n i t e d , as i f b o t h were one s p i r i t i n i t s e l f e , and God so u n i t e d t o b o t h , as t h a t t h o u s h a l t be the same s p i r i t w i t h God .(11 . 845 -852) Donne b r i n g s the sermon t o a c l o s e w i t h a f i n a l r e m i n d e r o f t h e p o s i t i v e r e s u l t s o f c o n s i d e r i n g the R e s u r r e c t i o n . E v e n h e r e , a c a u t i o n a r y n o t e i s i m p l i e d : ...when he establishes the l a s t and everlasting world i n the l a s t Resurrection, he s h a l l admit such a number, as that none of us who are here now, none that i s , or hath, or s h a l l be upon the face of the earth, s h a l l be denied i n that Resurrection, i f he have t r u l y f e l t this....(11 . 8 5 5 - 8 5 9 ) Donne cannot help throwing a l a s t l i t t l e scare into the l i s t e n e r . When God i s ready to establish the l a s t Resurrection, he w i l l admit a certain unspecified number of people to glory. The appearance of the: word "none" and i t s r e p e t i t i o n w i l l alarm him he may think that "none of us who are here now" w i l l be i n that number:. Donne t r i c k s him, and the effect of the momentary scare i s to impress upon the l i s t e n e r the need to have t r u l y f e l t a sense of the Resurrection. The f i n a l conclusion i s drawn; i t reminds the l i s t e n e r of the keystone to the "meditation of the Resurrection", and to a sense of his own resurrection: "...Grace accepted, i s the i n f a l l i b l e earnest of Glory."(1 . 859) What the l i s t e n e r has undergone during t h i s sermon i s a series of i l l u s t r a t i o n s of the relationships between reason and f a i t h , body and soul insofar as they relate to one's awareness of the Resurrection as a mysterious truth. And, at i t s con- clusion, having been moved to an awareness of the interdependence i of the natural and j s p i r i t u a l elememts i n the attainment of Chr i s t i a n truth, he leaves the church with a new sense of i n - tegration and purpose, intent on achieving f o r himself the "meditation of the Resurrection". * * * * * Both the Donne sermons r e f l e c t the vigor and a r t i f i c e with which Donne set about i l l u s t r a t i n g one of his most basic theo- l o g i c a l p r i n c i p l e s : the interdependence between the natural and a p i r i t u a l orders of being i n a manner which stresses man's re l i g i o u s and s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s i n t h i s world. Donne emphasizes the importance of experiencing theological truths i n the Christian context; his sermons become experiences for his audience, whereby i t s members may gain a sense of C h r i s t i a n experience and meaning i n a way that i s applicable to t h e i r d a i l y l i v e s . In examining the two sermons by Jonathan Edwards, we s h a l l again f i n d a heavy emphasis on the r e l i g i o u s experience and i t s nature. We w i l l also see the same kind of unifying influence exerted by one of; Edwards' most important theological ideas. ! The two sermons, one i n v i t a t i o n a l and one imprecatory, give shape and expression to two sides of one theological coin. In working out the ramifications of man's dependence on God for goodness and mercy, Edwards demonstrates a dedication l i k e Donne's, cast i n another theological, s o c i a l , and l i t e r a r y mould. Edwards may evoke joy or terror; but always, the experiences he creates are aimed at his l i s t e n e r s ' hearts. 7 4 . Notes ! 1 J o a n Webber, C o n t r a r y M u s i c ; The P r o s e S t y l e o f J o h n Donne ( M a d i s o n : The U n i v e r s i t y o f W i s c o n s i n P r e s s , 1963'), p . 1 2 . 2 L i n d s a y Mann, "The M a r r i a g e Ana logue o f L e t t e r and S p i r i t i n D o n n e ' s D e v o t i o n a l P r o s e " , J E G P , 70 ( 1 9 7 1 ) , . 6 0 7 - 6 1 6 , * . 6 1 5 . 3 F o r t h i s _ d i s c u s s i o n I depend s t r o n g l y on Webber ' s work because I f i n d h e r a n a l y s i s and v o c a b u l a r y u s e f u l t o my own a n a l y s i s . ^Webber, C o n t r a r y M u s i c : The P r o s e S t y l e o f J o h n Donne, p . 3 1 . F o r c o n v e n i e n c e ' s s a k e , I w i l l r e f e r f r o m h e r e on t o a " l i s t e n e r " . The r e a d e r may t a k e t h i s t o mean a member o f an a u d i e n c e o r a " r e a d e r - a u d i t o r " . I t r e f e r s t o someone who i s e x p e r i e n c i n g the sermon as a s e q u e n t i a l even t i n t i m e . ^Webber, p . 3 1 » ^Webber, p . 3 1 • ^ W i n f r i e d S c h l e i n e r , The Imagery o f J o h n D o n n e ' s Sermons ( P r o v i d e n c e : Brown U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 7 0 ) . o ^ F o r f u r t h e r d e t a i l s , see S c h l e i n e r * s b o o k . He d e v o t e s s e p a r a t e s e c t i o n s t o d i s c u s s i o n o f decorum, h i g h and low metaphor , the l o w e r i n g o r h e i g h t e n i n g o f s t y l e , and decorum i n r e l a t i o n t o l e a r n i n g . See pp.1 3 - 6 2 . 1 ^ E . M . S impson and 6 . R . P o t t e r , e d . , The Sermons o f J o h n Donne ( B e r k e l e y : U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s , 1 9 5 6 - 6 2 ) , V I I I , 2 3 7 - 2 5 2 . A l l q u o t a t i o n s f rom t h i s sermon w i l l be f rom t h i s e d i t i o n o f t h e t e x t . F u r t h e r r e f e r e n c e s w i l l be i n c o r p o r a t e d i n the body o f t he t h e s i s by l i n e number, as p e r t h i s e d i t i o n . 1 1 There seems t o be s p e c i f i c p o l i t i c a l m o t i v a t i o n u n d e r l y i n g t h i s se rmon. F o r d e t a i l s r e g a r d i n g the c i r c u m s t a n c e s , see Simpson and P o t t e r , e d . , The Sermons o f J o h n Donne ( B e r k e l e y : U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s , 1 9 5 6 - 6 2 ) , V I I I , 2 0 - 2 2 . 1 2 W e b b e r , p p . 3 2 - 3 3 . 1 5 W e b b e r , p . 3 6 . ^ S i m p s o n and P o t t e r , e d . , The Sermons o f J o h n Donne. V I I , 9 4 - 1 1 7 . A l l q u o t a t i o n s f rom t h i s sermon w i l l be f rom t h i s e d i t i o n o f the t e x t . F u r t h e r r e f e r e n c e s w i l l be i n c o r p o r a t e d i n the body o f the t h e s i s by l i n e number, as p e r t h i s e d i t i o n . 15 • I have chosen n o t t o g i v e a d e t a i l e d e x a m i n a t i o n o f s t r u c t u r e because o f t h e l i m i t s o f t i m e and s p a c e . A l t h o u g h s t r u c t u r e has a major e f f e c t on t h e q u a l i t y o f s e q u e n t i a l e x p e r i e n c e , t h e r e a r e o t h e r i m p o r t a n t t h i n g s t o be s a i d as w e l l and one s i m p l y canno t say e v e r y t h i n g . See page 32. See chapter I, footnote 17* 76 CHAPTER I I I : SERMONS BY JONATHAN EDWARDS In her a r t i c l e "Imagery i n the Sermons of Jonathan Edwards", Annette Kolodny points out one of the most important facts about style and effect i n Edwards' sermons: The power of the sermons, however, l i e s not so much i n the abstract theology as i n the s t y l i s t i c devices through which i t has been experienced; and the images, as Perry M i l l e r pointed out i n "The Rhetoric of Sensation", e f f e c t i v e l y translate the mystery of the unknown and abstract to the accessible borders of immediate emotional experience.' When Edwards and the l i s t e n e r confront one another from t h e i r i respective positions of knowledge and "ignorance", the sermon i becomes an emotional, r e l i g i o u s experience. Edwards i s less interested i n t r a n s m i t t i n g an i n t e l l e c t u a l understanding of a theological p r i n c i p l e , than i n creating an emotional awareness of the awful and mysterious truths of God. The theological p r i n c i p l e provides an expanding framework upon which a sermon's experience i s to be b u i l t . In the two sermons I have chosen, one of the major pr i n c i p l e s being i l l u s t r a t e d i s man's .dependence upon God fo r goodness and mercy. Related to t h i s i n both sermons i s man's cap a b i l i t y f o r free action i n the face of predestination and the dependence upon God. Edwards' power to make his p r i n - ciples and dogma functional on a strongly emotional l e v e l i s 2 due, among other things, to various aspects of his s t y l e . So, as I did with Donne, I must make a few comments on Edwards' style before beginning my analyses of the two sermons. In the introduction to t h e i r edition of Edwards, Faust and Johnson provide a useful review of his s t y l e . They c i t e from Edwards' early theory of s t y l e , as set down i n the twenty rules 77. he established f o r himself when he was sixteen years old. B r i e f l y , Edwards believed that one should not reveal to one's audience any undue concern about style and method. Style should demonstrate modesty, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n view of Edwards' youth at the time when he devised his r u l e s . The models one uses should be appropriate and proper, rather than affected. Edwards also recognized the wisdom of taking into account the reader or li s t e n e r ' s weaknesses when writing, and to be moderate i n demon- str a t i n g his learning. He f e l t i t better to appear as i f he were not extremely learned, since a show of a r t i f i c e was not to his theological purposes. Edwards' sermons are written precisely and c l e a r l y , and his work does not suffer from various weaknesses to which sermons are prone. He i s rarely verbose, he avoids strained metaphors and similes, and he tends away from long complex sentence periods with complicated clause structures. He i s careful with his usage of r h e t o r i c a l questions and parenthetical expressions. He rarely, i f ever, quotes c l a s s i c a l authorities; " . . . i n short, he lacks ' l i t e r a r y dress'." 4 Edwards' imagery i s f a i r l y conventional. He i s not given to wild imaginative leaps and s t a r t l i n g depictions or i l l u s t r a t i o n s . This doesnot imply-that his imagery i s weak quite the contrary. He depends upon the emotional power of his utterances, rather than upon the elements of surprise or strangeness to affe c t h is audience. Often his images or i l l u s t r a t i o n s are derived from a typological turn of mind: Edwards sees a correspondence between the natural and i n f e r i o r world* and the s p i r i t u a l and superior world. He chooses models from one area to rel a t e to the other, 78. with the comparison pointing to some s i g n i f i c a n t conclusion. Edwards1 rhetoric i s heightened only when he wishes to increase the emotional impact of a point. Even when his rhetoric becomes unusual, i t appears subdued; there i s often a sense of great power, under r e s t r a i n t . Sections of Edwards' sermons, and sometimes whole sermons, are often held together by a chain of recurring words which pro- vide the emotional t o n a l i t y f o r a given theme. This usage i s not intended to replace elements of structure and organization, but quite often i t overshadows those elements. Sometimes Edwards employs pairs of words which act as ornamental a l l i t e r - ative expansions: "'search and seek', 'mildness and mercy'". More often they act as amplifications of ideas which are central to a statement's emotional impact: "'Labors and sufferings', 5 'prepossession and desire*". Ease and c l a r i t y , even i n moments of emotional tension, characterize Edwards' sentences. His sentence rhythms are a unit, s e n s i t i v e l y b u i l t the word-pairs, even when conventional and redundant, are not forced. Repetition of words and constructions i s the essence of his s t y l e . " Repetition, while perhaps not the "essence" of Edwards' s t y l e , i i s indeed one of i t s most important elements. In The Design of the Present. John Lynen has thi s to say with respect to Edwards' use of r e p e t i t i o n of words and phrases: The chiming and revolving effects o f r e p e t i t i o n produce a language so smooth i n i t s movement that the argument glides forward as i f i t were developing i t s e l f .TTTThe style~~enacte the i n e v i t a b i l i t y of the divine w i l l , so that the God who disposes a l l things according to his i n f i n i t e wisdom and power i s made to seem present i n the theological demonstration of his Absolute Sovereignty.7 7 9 . Edwards' use o f r e p e t i t i o n r e f l e c t s h i s awareness o f t h e mind's a s s o c i a t i v e o p e r a t i o n i n p e r c e i v i n g the sermon. He uses s u b t l e m o d u l a t i o n i n h i s r e p e t i t i o n s , g r a d u a l l y a l t e r i n g meaning and response w i t h o u t d e p a r t i n g from h i s main t h e o l o g i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s As the same word, Cr v a r i a n t form o f i t , appears i n changing c o n t e x t s , i t s meaning undergoes d e l i c a t e m o d i f i c a t i o n s . I t shimmers, as i f i n a changeable l i g h t , r e v e a l i n g v a r i e d and unexpected hues." Each d e v i c e Edwards uses p u t s c o n s t r a i n t s on the o t h e r s t o e f f e c t a b l e n d and u n i t y o f s t y l e and concept i n a c h a n g i n g b a l a n c e w h i c h v a r i e s f r om work t o work. Edwards i s seldom m e c h a n i c a l , and " . . . h i s r e s p e c t f o r the mystery o f t h i n g s i s such t h a t he w r i t e s , a lways, as one who knows t h a t h i s b e s t q statements merely approximate, s u g g e s t . " H i s thought moves q u i e t l y much of t h e t i m e ; and emotion, even when i t i s s t r o n g , has a m o b i l e q u a l i t y t o i t which never grows s l u g g i s h . H i s v o c a b u l a r y " . . . i s shaped t o t h e comprehension o f h i s l i s t e n e r s . . . h i s c l a r i t y , freedom from e c c e n t r i c i t y , and easy s t r a i g h t - f o r w a r d n e s s a r e v i r t u e s t h a t go f a r t o supplement any want of a more c o n s c i o u s a r t i s t r y of s t y l e . A nother i m p o r t a n t s t y l i s t i c element i s Edwards' c r e a t i o n of e m o t i o n a l tones by i n d i r e c t means, or by d e l i b e r a t e d i s p a r i t y between s i g n i f i c a n c e and manner of d e s c r i p t i o n . T h i s i s e s - p e c i a l l y t r u e o f h i s i m p r e c a t o r y sermons, l i k e " S i n n e r s i n t h e Hands o f an Angry God", where he c u l t i v a t e s a t e r r i f y i n g "sang- f r o i d " o r c o l d - b l o o d e d n e s s . He p r o g r e s s e s c a l m l y , a p p a r e n t l y detached from the f u r y he may be d e s c r i b i n g . He r e f l e c t s h i s detachment t h r o u g h Ithe absence o f s p e c i f i c a l l y e m q t i o n a l a d j e c t i v e s and i m p a r t s a sense o f i n e v i t a b i l i t y t o h i s themaljic movement. The l i s t e n e r d e r i v e s t h e emotion from h i s p e r c e p t i o n o f a d e s c r i b e d 80 s i t u a t i o n , and Edwards' s e r e n i t y , s t r a n g e c a l m , and b l a n d n e s s i n c r e a s e h i s h o r r o r . Edwards' s t y l e d e m o n s t r a t e s a " q u a l i t y o f f e e l i n g a t once somber and s t r a n g e l y j o y o u s . " 1 1 T h i s q u a l i t y i s e v i d e n t i n the f i r s t o f the sermons I have chosen t o a n a l y z e . The second sermon, " S i n n e r s i n t h e Hands o f an Angry G o d " , c e r t a i n l y d e m o n s t r a t e s Edwards' somber s i d e ; but t h e r e a r e o t h e r f a c t o r s a t work i n i t , and we s h a l l c o n s i d e r i t s h o r t l y . I n b o t h sermons one may o b - s e r v e how Edwards c r e a t e s e m o t i o n a l r e s p o n s e t o a t h e o l o g i c a l p r i n c i p l e , and thus: d e v e l o p s t h e sermon i n t o an e m o t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e . H a v i n g made t h e s e few i n t r o d u c t o r y comments on Edwards' s t y l e , I w i l l now t u r n t o t h e f i r s t o f the two sermons: "God G l o r i f i e d i n t h e Work o f R e d e m p t i o n " . * # * * • 1 COR. i . 29-31 That no f l e s h should glory i n his presence. But of him are ye i n Christ Jesus, who of God i s made unto us wisdom and righteousness, and s a n c t i f i c a t i o n . and redemption. That according as i t i s written. He t h a t ' g l o r i e t h . l e t him glory i n the Lord.TTi The sermon on t h i s t e x t i s known by two t i t l e s : "God G l o r i f i e d i n the Work o f R e d e m p t i o n " , and "God G l o r i f i e d i n Man's Dependence". I t has been d e s c r i b e d as " w o r l d h i s t o r y seen t h e o l o g i c a l l y from the f a l l o f Adam t o the end o f t h e 13 w o r l d . " J I have s a i d t h a t t h i s i s one o f Edwards' I n v i t a t i o n a l sermons; t h e sermon o p e r a t e s by d e l i n e a t i n g a p o s i t i v e g o a l , o r by o p e r a t i n g on t h e l i s t e n e r ' s s e n s i t i v i t y t o l o v e , s e c u r i t y , and G o d ' s m u n i f i c e n c e . Now, a l i t t l e e l a b o r a t i o n on t h e meaning of " i n v i t a t i o n a l " i s required. Faust and Johnson divide Edwards' sermons into four groups ( d i s c i p l i n a r y , pastoral, d o c t r i n a l , and occasional), rather than two ( i n v i t a t i o n a l and imprecatory). They recognize that these categories may overlap. The d i s c i p l i n a r y sermons include the imprecatory sermons l i k e "Eternity of H e l l Torments" and "Sinners i n the Hands of an Angry God". "God G l o r i f i e d i n the Work of Redemption" i s viewed as one of the do c t r i n a l sermons, i n which "Edwards interprets his f a i t h and concentrates on Bible exegesis".^ 4 When I use "inv i t a t i o n a l " i n reference to Edwards' sermons, I am not r e f e r r i n g only to the pastoral sermons, which "set f o r t h i n po s i t i v e , joyous, tender, rhapsodic, and even rapt language the beauty of r e l i g i o u s contemplation." I mean " i n v i t a t i o n a l " to include many of the do c t r i n a l sermons, l i k e "God G l o r i f i e d i n the Work of Redemption", as well as those ser- mons from a l l categories which do not imply a sense of g u i l t or evoke fear i n the experiences they create. This i s not to say that these sermons remove a l l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y from the l i s t e n e r . Rather they are designed to make the l i s t e n e r w i l l i n g , even eager to shoulder his r e l i g i o u s r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . The imprecatory sermons I id e n t i f y with " d i s c i p l i n a r y " ; Faust and Johnson's use of "imprecatory" denotes the more violent and enthusiastic ser- mons of the type. As an i n v i t a t i o n a l sermon, "God G l o r i f i e d i n the Work of Redemption" deals with the p o s s i b i l i t y of redemption as i t relates to dependence on God, and therefore, to pre- destination. The structure of "God G l o r i f i e d i n the Work of Redemption" r e f l e c t s the curious mixture of power and finesse that the thematic 82 context demands. Edwards explains a given doctrine i n r e l a t i o n to the "true" f a i t h as a whole fo r the sake of theological con- sistency and orthodoxy, and he t r i e s to f i n d the most e f f i c i e n t way to deeply a f f e c t h i s l i s t e n e r ' s s e n s i b i l i t i e s . Structure, however Edwards manipulates i t , reinforces the preacher's ends by being as appropriate as possible for the presentation of h i s theme. It helps r e f l e c t the relationship of theological purpose to the l i s t e n e r ' s s e n s i t i v i t y to love or fear. I t never be- wilders unless Edwards wants the l i s t e n e r bewildered. The sermon i s divided into three basic sections. There i s a f a i r l y short introduction i n which Edwards offers what appears to be a basic plan f o r presentation. The second section i s the "Doctrine", i n which the text i s explicated and i t s ramifications worked out. The t h i r d section i s the "Use", i n which one learns to apply the doctrine i n the personal and s o c i a l theological senses. The introductory section opens with an explanation of the t e x t ' 8 import for the people to whom the text was directed at the time i t was written. There i s an implied s i m i l a r i t y between Christians at the time the Apostle made the statement, and the members of Edwards' l i s t e n i n g audience. One must remember that Edwards i s t r y i n g to correct what he sees as a f a l l away from orthodoxy. The opening passage provides the implied p a r a l l e l to the l i s t e n e r ' s s i t u a t i o n as a Chri s t i a n . Those Christians to whom the apostle directed t h i s e p i s t l e , dwelt i n a part of the world where human wis- dom was i n great repute; as the apostle observes i n the 22d verse of t h i s chapter, "The Greeks seek aft e r wisdom."...The apostle therefore observes to them how God by the gospel destroyed, and brought to nought th e i r wisdom. The learned'Grecians and t h e i r great 'I philosophers, by a l l th e i r wisdom did now know God, they.were not able to fin d out the truth i n divine things. But, aft e r they had done t h e i r utmost to no effe c t , i t pleased God at length to reveal himself by the gospel, which they accounted foolishness. (pp.106-107) From the outset Edwards emphasizes ease and l u c i d i t y i n his periods, as well as a quality of straightforwardness that i s at times deliberately suppressed i n Donne. He presents r e l a t i v e l y simple e a s i l y grasped ideas i n a potent but uncomplicated way. He c a p i t a l i z e s upon h i s l i s t e n e r ' s willingness to accept his statements as h i s t o r i c a l l y accurate facts rather than merely theological interpretations. He makes l i t t l e d i s t i n c t i o n between the fact and the interpretation. The passage's opening phrase points to a s p e c i f i c group of believers "Those Christians to whom the apostle directed t h i s e p i s t l e " and provides an immediate focus f o r the l i s t e n e r ' s attention. There i s no mention of a s p e c i f i c time, but the next part of the sentence . begins with "dwelt", indicating the past. The fact that "human wisdom was i n great repute" begins to narrow the focus. Edwards then makes the focus s p e c i f i c by c i t i n g the apostle's reference to the Greeks. In r e l a t i n g the apostle's observations "to them how God...brought to nought, t h e i r wisdom", Edwards deliberately makes the antecedents for "them" and " t h e i r " ambiguous. "Them" refers.to the Christians to whom the apostle spoke or wrote, and presumable " t h e i r " refers to "the Greeks". However, those early Christians may have been Greeks who had been converted and con- vinced of God's might. The "them", as i t refe r s to the Christians, i s incorporated into the larger "them" who f e l t the impact of God's might. The next sentences stress the in e f f i c a c y of " a l l 8 4 t h e i r wisdom...to f i n d out the truth i n divine things." The use j of "utmost" to describe the e f f o r t s of human wisdom, and the de- i n i a l of any e f f e c t , contribute to the l i s t e n e r ' s sense of the helplessness of "tllose Christians". Implicit i n t h i s , i s the l i s t e n e r ' s r e a l i z a t i o n that he, as a Christian, may have no more power to explicate divine things than "those Christians to whom the apostle d recte  t h i s e p s t l e " . Edwards' phrasing of God's manner of revelation increases the sense that God i s t o t a l l y immovable by dint of human e f f o r t . He did what pleased Him: He revealed "...himself by the gospel, which they accounted foolishness." The fact that Edwards now d i r e c t s the e p i s t l e to h i s congregation may make the l i s t e n e r r e a l i z e more strongly that such reactions are happening i n his own time, and must be dealt with. Edwards applies terms r e f l e c t i n g "wisdom" to the Greeks' opinions, and "foolishness" to t h e i r evaluation of the gospel. This reversal i n terminology may shame the l i s t e n e r , i f he i s one who has not taken the gospel as seriously as he should. While i t i s not confusing or even complex, i t i s to be accepted: i t i s the terminology of God's working out of the gospel i n the world: He "chose the f o o l i s h things of the world to confound the wise, and the weak things of the world to con- found the things which are mighty, and the base things of the world, and things that are despised, yea, and things which are not, to bring to nought the things that are."(p.107) Edwards anticipates the appropriate response to t h i s information: "Why did God do these things?" He uses the quotation to return to "those Christians" past and present, and to the text. The need for elaboration on t h i s point as i t relates to the text now 85. becomes a source of emotional and i n t e l l e c t u a l tension. To s a t i s f y the l i s t e n e r ' s need for a means to approach the text, Edwards presents a s t r u c t u r a l outline for the method. This outline i s a subtle piece of manipulation i n that the l i s t e n e r i s misled into regarding i t as' a promise, and exact s t r u c t u r a l plan for the sermon, which follows. It i s not that at a l l . i Rather, i t i s a spreading out of the conceptual elements into which the sermon's problems resolve. It promises nothing i n ! terms of the technical or l i t e r a r y structure of the sermon: And the apostle informs them i n the text why he thus did, That no f l e s h should glory i n his presence. &c. In which words may be observed, 1. What God aims at i n the d i s p o s i t i o n of things i n the a f f a i r of redemption, v i z . that man should not glory i n himself, but alone i n God; That no f l e s h should glory i n his presence. that according as i t i s written. He that g l o r i e t h . l e t him glory i n the Lord. 2. How t h i s end i s attained i n the work of re- demption, v i z . by that absolute and immediate de- pendence which men have upon God i n that work, for a l l t h e i r good.(p.107) The outline c e r t a i n l y suggests how the treatment of s p e c i f i c conceptual elements should be organized. But that treatment i s not to follow the order or proportioning suggested. The pur- pose of the outline i s to afford the l i s t e n e r a grasp of the elements Edwards w i l l deal with, and to s a t i s f y the l i s t e n e r ' s need to organize material l o g i c a l l y . The l i s t e n e r w i l l not be disturbed when the ordering indicated here i s abandoned. The sermon's progress;will seem reasonable because his need for organization w i l l have been s a t i s f i e d . We note that the two steps i n the outline circumscribe the apparent paradoxical nature of certain elements i n Edwards' .• theology. It i s possible f o r the sinner to be redeemed, but he i a completely dependent upon God for such a "disposition". It i s a " p o s s i b i l i t y " only insofar as temporal man i s concerned; God the eternal knows ahead of time who i s predestined f o r re- demption because he knows who w i l l deserve i t . Glory i n God i s the mark of the regenerate, and Edwards' delineation of man's dependence on God may lead to a recognition of glory within the l i s t e n e r . The means of redemption i s the dependence on God (or perhaps the a b i l i t y to recognize i t ) , and t h i s i s what Edwards points to. He seeks i n the sermon to make the l i s t e n e r experience the dependence on God, and thus recognize the means of redemption within himself. j The rest of the introductory section i s devoted to an ordered expansion of the reasons behind part "2." i n the outline. Edwards i gives the l i s t e n e r another conceptual plan which relates to one component of the larger theme: men's dependence on God i n the work of redemption "...for a l l t h e i r good." The emphasis on part "2." of the outline should make the l i s t e n e r wonder why i t was not given the primary position instead. The answer l i e s i n my e a r l i e r contention that the l i s t e n e r has not been given a st r u c t u r a l outline of the sermon. Elements of number "2." are to be treated f i r s t i n the sermon's next section, the "Doctrine". Edwards' i n i t i a l outline i s not designed to allow the l i s t e n e r a true grasp of the sermon's technical structure. The introduction closes with the following passage. It sums up the ramifications of the text as they have been described so fa r , and as they w i l l be worked out i n the remainder of the • sermon: So that i n t h i s verse i s shown our dependence on each person i n the T r i n i t y f o r a l l our good. Vie are | " 'I 8 7 . dependent on Christ the Son of God, as he i s our wisdom, righteousness, s a n c t i f i c a t i o n , and redemption. We are dependent on the Father, who has given us Christ, and made him to be these things to us. We are dependent on the Holy Ghost, for i t i s of him that we are i n Christ Jesus; i t i s the S p i r i t of God that gives f a i t h i n him, whereby we receive him, and close with him.(p.108) The passage begins with "So that", indicating that what follows i s a conclusion based on a l l the preceding information of the introduction. The opening i s organized l o g i c a l l y , and gives a sense of calm emphasis on the importance of the text: " . . . i n t h i s verse i s shown our dependence...". The sentence makes clear the l i s t e n e r ' s dependence on each aspect of God's three- f o l d nature; and the next sentences are even units of expansion and emphasis on each aspect. The words "We are dependent" recur l i k e a r e f r a i n at the opening of the second, t h i r d , and fourth sentences, and the jsubstance of each sentence d i r e c t l y r e c a l l s remarks made i n the introduction. Edwards reveals h i s awareness of the importance ojf associative development, and u n i f i e s the import of the introduction i n his l i s t e n e r ' s mind. He makes the l i s t e n e r f e e l equal dependence upon each aspect of the Trinity.. In the,last sentence's second clause, Edwards subsumes each of the three aspects into the receiving of, and closing with Chris t . The unifying statement of impact provided by the clause re-establishes and reinforces the l i s t e n e r ' s sense of t o t a l obligation to God f o r good. He becomes t o t a l l y dependent on God's w i l l ; he cannot, through independent action, a l t e r his fate. Recognition of this dependence i s at the same time volun- tary, and must be urged. Thus EdwardB shows how part of the problem of predestination i s to be reconciled with man's free w i l l . He reinforces the passage's import through i t s apparent s i m p l i c i t y . 88. He i s unwilling to force the l i s t e n e r into i n t e l l e c t u a l gymnas- t i c s to perceive, an- emotionally charged truth. He reveals the truth i n i t s own awful, simple majesty. In Part II of the "Doctrine", Edwards i s concerned with the way "...God i s g l o r i f i e d i n the work of redemption by t h i s means, v i z . By there being so great and universal a dependence of the redeemed on him"(p.117). Edwards has devoted the f i r s t part of the "Doctrine" to the f u l l e r exploration of the ways i n which one i s dependent on God, and the reasons f o r the dependence i n each case. The emphasis i n the second part i s s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t . In the f i r s t of Part II's three sections, Edwards impresses on the l i s t e n e r h i s obligation to recognize and acknowledge God's power and grace. There i s a direct relationship between the degree of one's dependence on Him, and the degree of one's obligation to acknowledge Him: 1 . Wan hath so much the greater occasion and obligation to notice and acknowledge God's perfections, and a l l - s u f f i c i e n c y . The greater the creature's de- pendence i s on God's perfections, and the greater the concern he has with them, so much the greater occasion he has to take notice of them.(p.117) The f i r s t of these two sentence periods requires the l i s t e n e r to regard i t as a conclusion. There i s a t a c i t demand that the l i s t e n e r re-examine the statement of the premise on which i t i s based. By using the phrase "so much the greater" af t e r the verb "hath", Edwards s p e c i f i c a l l y points out that the strength of his conclusion i s d i r e c t l y related to the strength of the premise (man's dependence on God). "So much the greater" i s a cue to the l i s t e n e r that before "Man" there i s a l i n g u i s t i c gap, to be f i l l e d with an unspoken phrase l i k e "Because of t h i s " . I 8 9 . This i s so because the l i s t e n e r ' s knowledge of language must include an understanding that certain l o g i c a l syntactic structures are necessarily accompanied by certa i n others. How t h i s under- standing i s generated i s not en t i r e l y clear. It obviously has something to do with the problems of language ac q u i s i t i o n and conventionalized l o g i c a l s t r u c t u r e s . ^ But however i t i s generated, Edwards shows his awareness of i t , and his a b i l i t y to u t i l i z e that awareness i n the sermon. The f i r s t sentence also makes perfectly clear the substance of the passage which follows. The subject i s man's obligation to God i n terms of dependence and acknowledgement. The second sentence depends on a change i n the sense of the syntactic structure represented by the phrase "so much the greater". "So much the greater" now becomes associated with a premise i t s e l f , and generates a conclusion of equal degree. That i s , i f the l i s t e n e r recognizes "so much the greater" condition "x", then "so much the greater" condition "y". Edwards uses the two elements of the structure ( i . e . , premise and conclusion) to balance and rel a t e man's dependence and the degree of his obligation. On the premise side, the l i s t e n e r finds the degree of dependence, and the "concern" with i t ; on the conclusion side he finds "so much the greater" obligation or occasion f o r acknowledgement. Edwards w i l l maintain t h i s d i v i s i o n . Edwards continues to use t h i s syntactic structure f o r balance and amplification well into the passage, thus giving the l i s t e n e r an easy framework i n which to examine dependence and obligation. i At the same time, he influences the l i s t e n e r by the r e p e t i t i o n and modulation of ; certain words, word-pairsi and phrases: 90, So much the greater concern any one has with and dependence upon the power and grace of God, so much the greater occasion has he to take notice of that power and grace. So much the greater and more immediate dependence there is on the divine holiness, so much the greater occasion to take notice of and acknowledge that. So much the greater and more absolute dependence we have on the divine perfections, as belonging to the several persons of the Trinity, so much the greater occasion have we to observe and own the divine glory of each of them.(pp.117-118) Edwards touches on dependence and obligation with respect to various manifestations of God. The last sentence returns to and reinforces the listener's dependence (and therefore, obligation) to each part of the Trinity. While the basic logical structure of the passage deals with comparison and equalities of degree, i t also re-emphasizes most strongly a sense of interdependence between the elements compared. Edwards maintains emphasis upon the relative degrees of dependence on, and obligation to God. For him, however, the principal point is not merely an intellectual understanding of the issue, but rather an emotional awareness of i t . He makes an understanding of the issue an emotional necessity. He knows the intensity of the listener's need w i l l be multiplied by the fact that redemption is an immediate and real event, rather than a purely philosophical concern. Edwards reminds the listener of the immediacy of this event by a summary statement which demon- strates the immediate results of "our so great dependence on God": By reason of our so great dependence on God, and his perfections and in so many respects, he and his glory are more directly set in our view, which way soever we turn our eyes.(p.118) Edwards uses the passive "are...set in" to heighten the listener's sense of total dependence. The greater dependence the more one is aware of the total obligation to God. The passive informs 91. the l i s t e n e r that, with respect to regulating t h i s dependence, he has no» power to act. He may, of course, choose ( f o o l i s h l y ) to ignore his obligation. Edwards concludes Part II's f i r s t section by summarizing what i s shown by the l i s t e n e r ' s dependence on God. The summary gives way to a return to the e a r l i e r premise—conclusion syntactic structure. By doing t h i s , Edwards re-emphasizes the r e l a t i v e degrees of dependence on, and obligation to God: Our having a l l of God, shows the fulness of his power and grace; our having a l l through him, shows the f u l - ness of his merit and worthiness; our having a l l i n him demonstrates his fulness of beauty, love, and happiness. And the redeemed, by reason of the greatness of t h e i r dependence on God, have not only so much the greater occasion, but obligation to contemplate and acknowledge the glory and fulness of God.(p.118) The f i r s t sentence consists of three clauses which express the dif f e r e n t ways we derive benefits from God: "of God", "through him", " i n him". Each of the three aspects i s important; and the sentence's organization i s reminiscent of Edwards' treatment of the dependence on the T r i n i t y . Between the three elements of the T r i n i t y we have t o t a l dependence on the one God. The functions of dependence show the l i s t e n e r the t o t a l i t y of God's power and grace. The r e p e t i t i o n of "our having a l l " contributes to a sense of equal emphasis on the d i f f e r e n t aspects. The sentence ends by emphasizing f o r the l i s t e n e r God's fulness of beauty, love, and happiness." The second sentence restates the degree of obligation to acknowledge God, but i t i s no longer "our" obligation. It i s the obligation of "the redeemed". This s p e c i f i c i t y i s bound to make the l i s t e n e r f e e l a l l the more strongly the need to f e e l his dependence on God, since redemption and the sense of dependence are inseparable. 9 2 . i j Edwards ends the passage with a r h e t o r i c a l exclamation which i s charged with emotion. It i s a l l the more effe c t i v e because i t appears suddenly: How unreasonable and ungrateful should we be, i f we did not acknowledge that s u f f i c i e n c y and glory which we absolutely, immediately and universally depend on! (p.118) Edwards speaks here as i f certain things had already been accomplished. It i s as i f the l i s t e n e r has acknowledged his dependence on God, and i s already redeemed. This thought i s made more impressive by the r h e t o r i c a l emphasis with which i t i s presented. Edwards may be t r y i n g to make the unredeemed l i s t e n e r f e e l l e f t out, as i f his concern with his dependence on God has been i n s u f f i c i e n t . The t r i p l e emphasis on dependence "absolutely, immediately and universally" and on the d e l i b - I erately implied incorrect assumption should make the l i s t e n e r i seek awareness a l l the more urgently. In the section of the sermon e n t i t l e d "Use", Edwards wants the l i s t e n e r to "...here observe the marvellous wisdom of God, i n the work of redemption"(p.120). In the passage which begins with t h i s statement, Edwards demonstrates his a b i l i t y to combine power and symmetry i n the explanation or summary of a theological p r i n c i p l e : God hath made man's emptiness and misery, his low, l o s t and ruined state, into which he sunk by the f a l l , an occasion of the greater advancement of his own glory, as i n other ways, so p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t h i s , that there i s now a much more universal and apparent . dependence of man on God.(p.120) In t h i s period EdwardB uses syntax and grammar to emphasize and even imitate the conceptual flow of the sentence. The sen- tence begins and ends with "God", and 1B dependent on "God", just 93 as the l i s t e n e r i s . Edwards reminds the l i s t e n e r of God's creative r o l e : "God hath made". Edwards i s subtle: the structure leads the l i s t e n e r to believe that the object for "hath made" i s "man's emptiness...and ruined state". He i s l u l l e d into j the notion that God i s behind h i s f a l l e n condition. Then, the appearance of "an occasion" provides a new grammatical and conceptual focus, and the l i s t e n e r ' s understanding of what "God hath made" changes and expands. Edwards shows both man's f a l l e n condition and his redemption as a means of r e f l e c t i n g God's glory, and man's dependence on Him. He does, however, emphasize the state of unredeemed man to the l i s t e n e r i n the f i r s t part of the period: "...man's emptiness and misery, his low, l o s t and ruined state...". There i s an uneven rhythmic progression here. It moves with a downward i n f l e c t i o n , expanding the l i s t e n e r ' s sense of f a l l e n man, unredeemed. The advantages for the l i s t e n e r i n recognizing his dependence on God are great. They seem even greater by comparison to t h i s statement. Edwards thus touches the l i s t e n e r ' s sense of himself as a sinner,, and moves on. Edwards i s careful to re-emphasize God's t o t a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for man's fate. He r e f l e c t s his orthodox b e l i e f i n predestination, as he has throughout the sermon. At the same time, his s i n c e r i t y i n t r y i n g to reach h i s l i s t e n e r s marks the fac t that he f e e l s them capable of free action i n the temporal context. This does not a l t e r the degree of th e i r dependence on God i n each aspect of the T r i n i t y : . . . a l l the glory evidently belongs to God, a l l i s i n a mere, and most absolute, and divine dependence on the Father, Son, and Holy Ghost. And each person of the T r i n i t y i s equally g l o r i f i e d i n t h i s work: There i s an absolute dependence of the creature on every one fo r a l l : A l l i s of the Father, a l l through the Son, I and a l l i n the Holy Ghost.(p.120) Here Edwards emphasizes " a l l " i n the opening statement, which contains the d i s t i n c t but united elements of the T r i n i t y . As before, he makes the l i s t e n e r f e e l dependence on each "person" of the T r i n i t y . The l i s t e n e r ' s awareness i s made stronger by Edwards' thoroughness: the T r i n i t y i s treated as a unit i n the f i r s t part, and then each aspect i s mentioned separately. Edwards' use of "every one f o r a l l " i s clever i t intertwines the " a l l " of the T r i n i t y and the " a l l " of t o t a l dependence. " A l l " immediately becomes the central focus i n a series of three evenly emphasized phrases. These r e c a l l the functions of the T r i n i t y as they were described e a r l i e r , and unify the l i s t e n e r ' s associations and memories of the sermon to thi s point: " A l l i s of the Father, a l l through the Son, and a l l i n the Holy Ghost." The " a l l " of dependence rests with the " a l l " of the united T r i n i t y . Edwards places f i n a l emphasis on t h i s i n the passage's conclusion: Thus God appears i n the work of redemption as a l l i n a l l . It i s f i t that he who i s , and there i s none else, should be the Alpha and Omega, the f i r s t and the l a s t , the a l l and the only, i n this work.(p.120) In the f i r s t of the two sentences Edwards states his con- clusion simply, giving the l i s t e n e r a chance to unite h i s associations under the knowledge that God i s " a l l i n a l l " . The second sentence expands on " a l l i n a l l " , g i v i n g a sense of God alone "there i s none other" as A l l . The sentence (and the passage) ends with three d i f f e r e n t statements of God as A l l , broadening and strengthening the l i s t e n e r ' s awareness: "...the Alpha and Omega, the f i r s t and the l a s t , the a l l and the only". The conclusion increases the emotional and i n t e l l e c t u a l intensity I of the passage as the period ends. Edwards leaves the l i s t e n e r with a new sense of his own i n s i g n i f i c a n c e . The l a s t phrase, " . . . i n t h i s work", f o r c e f u l l y reminds the l i s t e n e r of Edwards' s p e c i f i c context. It also suggests.the importance of redemption to God, as well as to the l i s t e n e r . Through redemption of man i s God g l o r i f i e d . Edwards concludes the sermon with a b e a u t i f u l l y constructed passage using a balanced series of r h e t o r i c a l questions. These are combined with : an equal number of rules that supply answers of a sort for each question. Each question and rule constitute a reworking of man's obligation to God for good or a l l kinds, but especially f o r redemption. Each also restates i n an i n - creasingly l o f t y manner the place of "glory" i n the l i s t e n e r ' s relationship with God. Both passage and sermon conclude thus: . . . l e t him give God a l l the glory; who alone makes him to d i f f e r from the worst of men i n t h i s world, or the most miserable of the damned i n h e l l . Hath any man much comfort and strong hope of eternal l i f e ? l e t not his hope l i f t him up, but dispose him the more to abase himself, to r e f l e c t on his own exceeding unworthiness of such a favour, and to exalt God alone. Is any man eminent i n holiness, and abundant i n good works? l e t him take nothing of the glory of i t to himself, but ascribe i t to him whose "workmanship we are, created i n Christ Jesus unto good works." (p.122) The progress of thejpassage emphasizes the emotional i n t e n s i t y I of the issue without disturbing a sense of deep and abiding calmneBs. Edwards restates the relationship of redeemed man to God so that the l i s t e n e r i s reminded of each aspect dealt with i n the sermon. The l i s t e n e r comes away with a new awareness of the relationship, reinforced by the concluding r h e t o r i c a l expansion. The f i n a l step i s the ascribing of glory to God. Edwards reminds the l i s t e n e r that t h i s i s a voluntary action he I 96 must take to recognize his dependence on God and thus be redeemed: " . . . l e t him...ascribe i t to" God. There i s no emotional outburst at the conclusion; and Edwards allows the l i s t e n e r to depart, sharing the sense of calmness which the trust i n God generates. Redemption and the dependence 'on God are inseparable, and the l i s t e n e r now i s aware of the importance of his relationship as an i n d i v i d u a l to God. Compared to what follows i n the next portion of t h i s chapter, "God G l o r i f i e d i n the Work of Redemption" i s one of Edwards' gentler and more relaxing pieces. Edwards' power has been sub- eijrv tactic dued and channelled b y S i m p l i c i t y to show the dependence on God as necessary and desirable. We are about to see the idea of dependence presented d i f f e r e n t l y . Edwards w i l l be at his violent best, wielding the t o t a l might of his r h e t o r i c a l resources. His words become a "brutal engine against the brain" i n what i s perhaps h i s best known sermon—-"Sinners i n the Hands of an 17 Angry God." ' * * * * * "Sinners i n the Hands of an Angry God" " . . . i s perhaps the most f i e r y and fear-ridden of Edwards' imprecatory sermons...". In his attempt to move his audience, to touch t h e i r hearts as strongly as possible, Edwards ...plays upon the insecurity of [his] audience by the repeated, juxtaposition of images of power and help- lessness, physical strength and puniness, action and inaction, and by building a sense of repressed energies: desperately seeking r e l e a s e . 1 ^ Ms. Kolodny makes t h i s statement near the beginning of her a r t i c l e 97 on imagery i n Edwards' sermons. Her discussion of the sermon i s limited to the delineation and purpose of various groups of images within i t , without s p e c i f i c and detailed reference to the sermon's movement, j She does, however, point out the following p r i n c i p l e , which underlies s t y l i s t i c organization i n Edwards' sermons: The s t y l i s t i c organization of Edwards' sermons grows out of his admonition that "Comfort...is to be held f o r t h to sinners, under awakenings of conscience ....But comfort i s not to be administered to them, in t h e i r present state, as anything they now have t i t l e to, while out of Christ. No comfort i s to be administered [to those out of Christ]...but ministers should...strive to t h e i r utmost to take a l l such comforts away from them...."19 In fact, Edwards applies t h i s p r i n c i p l e even at the syntactic and grammatical l e v e l s . The impact of Edwards' images i s due as much to grammar and syntax as to the concepts or figures the images may represent. In "Sinners i n the Hands of an Angry God", o Edwards urges the l i s t e n e r fward an awareness of his dependence on God through the withholding of comfort according to t h i s p r i n c i p l e . That i s , as an "imprecatory" sermon, i t frightens the l i s t e n e r away,from one condition to get him into another. In the f i r s t Edwards sermon, dependence was associated with ! redemption to recognize i t was to be redeemed. Here, depen- dence i s associated with God's absolute capacity to cast the sinner into h e l l ' s torments while he i s "out of Christ". Edwards wants to t e r r i f y the l i s t e n e r , to make him want to be i n Christ. In working out the deprivation of comfort for those people who are "out of Christ", Edwards i l l u s t r a t e s a key point i n his theory of language. He depends upon "sensible words", which are d i r e c t l y related to the emotional balance between love and fear j 1 9 8 . i n man's mind: ...the sensory impression, and especially the sensible word, comes to the human s p i r i t bearing significances of love or terr o r , and the leap to a saving under- standing proceeds out of the n a t u r a l . 2 0 Therefore, i n "Sinners i n the Hands of an Angry God" one wishes to examine the joining together i n a d e f i n i t e manner of groups of "sensible words" to create emotionally charged, rea d i l y graspable "naked ideas". I emphasize t h i s point because i t provides the closest approach to an understanding of the anatomy of t e r r o r the kind of terro r which was both a re s u l t and a cause of the unusual behavior of New Englanders during the Great Awakening. - The whole sermon stands as an i l l u s t r a t i o n of the r e c o n c i l i a t i o n between Edwards* ideas of predestination and free w i l l . As strongly as he emphasizes God's absolute control over man, he urges man to v o l u n t a r i l y recognize that control and thus move toward redemption. "Sinners i n the Hands of an Angry God" i s divided into two major parts, the f i r s t of which consists of an explanation of the sermon's text: "---Their foot s h a l l s l i d e i n due time " (Deut.xxxii.35)• The f i r s t part i s made up of four i n t r o - ductory sections which work out i n a general manner the text's implications. Ten more numbered points follow. These system- a t i c a l l y expand, reinforce, and amplify the text's ramifications i n terms of the relationship between God and sinners. Perhaps the best way to examine the sermon's f i r s t part i s to study the introduction b r i e f l y , and then to examine a passage from the sections numbered one to ten. The sermon's f i r s t h a l f provides an emotionally charged, c l e v e r l y organized demonstration of the reasons f o r , and inescapability from, a sinner's fate. Once the I 99 l i s t e n e r becomes ^trapped by the associative movement of part one, Edwards w i l l batter him with terr o r i n the sermon's second h a l f . There, the l i s t e n e r w i l l become more and more desperate as Edwards amplifies terror within r i g i d l y defined theological l i m i t s . The sermon's opening passage presents a statement of the matters Edwards intends to put before his audience. There are elements i n the passage which seem designed to affect the l i s t e n e r by covert means. That i s , the text's import and the l i s t e n e r ' s response to i t depend on the l i s t e n e r ' s recognition i n h i s own situ a t i o n of certain factors which p a r a l l e l the condition of the I s r a e l i t e s when they were threatened with God's vengeance. Rather than depending on chastising his l i s t e n e r d i r e c t l y so i i early i n the sermon, Edwards depends on his l i s t e n e r ' s w i l l i n g - ness to see sin within himself. The opening paragraph thus constitutes not only a thematic introduction, but also an i n - dire c t admonition or rebuke: In t h i s verse i s threatened the vengeance of God on the wicked unbelieving I s r a e l i t e s , who were God's v i s i b l e people, and who l i v e d under the means of grace; but who, notwithstanding a l l God's wonderful works towards them, remained...void of counsel, having no understanding i n them. Under a l l the c u l t i - vations of heaven, they brought f o r t h b i t t e r and poisonous fruit....The expression I have chosen for my text, Their foot s h a l l s l i d e i n due time, seems to imply the following things, r e l a t i n g to the punish- ment and destruction to which these wicked I s r a e l i t e s were exposed.(p.155) Edwards begins with "In t h i s verse", establishing the text as a permanent s c r i p t u r a l focus through which the l i s t e n e r may approach a consideration of "the vengeance of God". The object of "vengeance" i s revealed as the "wicked unbelieving I s r a e l i t e s " , providing a s c r i p t u r a l and i n t e l l e c t u a l focus for the passage without creating any speoial tension i n the l i s t e n e r . But, a f t e r 1 " I s r a e l i t e s , " Edwards begins to describe the conditions which made those people deserve the "vengeance of God". As Edwards systematically adds to his expansion on " I s r a e l i t e s " , the l i s t e n e r w i l l become increasingly aware that "thi s congregation" could be substituted for "wicked unbelieving I s r a e l i t e s " . To Edwards, the condition of the I s r a e l i t e s p a r a l l e l s the condition of New Englanders i n the 1740's. He r e f l e c t s his sense of New England'8 f a l l away from orthodox C a l v i n i s t doctrine, and hence, from grace. The implied analogy also r e f l e c t s the typological habit of mind which often characterizes Edwards' images and analogies. The series of phrases beginning with "who" should begin to make the l i s t e n e r ashamed of his own condition under the implied analogy's terms. His Puritan forbears had been "God's v i s i b l e people"(in t h e i r own eyes, i f i n no one else's), l i k e the " I s r a e l i t e s " . They had l i v e d under "the means of grace" by virtu e of the covenant with God, l i k e the " I s r a e l i t e s " . "But" cues the l i s t e n e r f o r the coming reversal of t h i s positive state of a f f a i r s : "...but who...remained...void of counsel...". By the 1740's, New Englanders had f a l l e n away from awareness of God's "wonderful works towards them" just as the I s r a e l i t e s had e a r l i e r . By t h i s stage i n the Great Awakening, the l i s t e n e r would be very sensitive to such judgments; i t was because of such feelings and s e n s i t i v i t y that revivalism flourished. Edwards causes the l i s t e n e r ' s nervous apprehension to grow as the analogy becomes more evident. The introductory paragraph's second sentence period describes God's treatment of "them" by the metaphor of " c u l t i v a t i o n " and organic growth: "Under a l l the c u l t i v a t i o n s of heaven, they i I 101 I ! : i brought fort h b i t t e r and poisonous f r u i t " The l i s t e n e r must be aware that t h i s f a i l u r e cannot l i e with the perfect God. It i must therefore l i e |with the imperfect and undeserving " I s r a e l i t e " . The fact that t h i s metaphor i s organic i s a subtle reminder of the r e a l i t y of God's relationship to and interest i n human a f f a i r s . This relationship i s a r e a l i t y , not a philosophical argument. Edwards concludes the passage by setting the l i s t e n e r up to receive an enumeration of certain "things" r e l a t i n g to "...the punishment and destruction to which these wicked I s r a e l i t e s were exposed." The l i s t e n e r sees reunited-the idea of f a t a l punishment and the "wicked I s r a e l i t e s " . Edwards thus forces him into a state of heightened tension by v i r t u e of the implied analogy between the audience and the " I s r a e l i t e s " . The l i s t e n e r w i l l now await "the following things" with some trepidation. Given that one's "...foot s h a l l s l i d e i n due time", Edwards now makes the l i s t e n e r f e e l the hand of God i n terms of the "how" and "why" of that 1 s l i d i n g and f a l l i n g . The four numbered i n t r o - ductory paragraphs increase the l i s t e n e r ' s sense of God's role, as well as h i s own f e e l i n g of impotence. The presentation of a l o g i c a l sequence of explanations systematically reinforces the l i s t e n e r ' s growing discomfort (by " l o g i c a l " I mean s t y l i s t i c l o g i c the l i s t e n e r ' s movement i s a s s o c i a t i o n a l ) . The four paragraphs develop the I s r a e l i t e s ' precarious state by analogy with expansions of Edwards' text, so that "destruction." and f a l l i n g become synonymous i n the l i s t e n e r ' s mind: 1....they were always exposed to destruction: as one that stands or walks i n slippery places i s always exposed to f a l l . This i s implied i n the manner of t h e i r destruction coming upon them, being represented 102. by t h e i r foot s l i d i n g . The same i s expressed, Psalm l x x i i i . 18. "Surely thou didst set them i n slippery places; thou castedst them down into destruction." (p.155) F i r s t Edwards uses the simile to juxtapose "destruction" and the description of a person s l i d i n g and f a l l i n g . He i s careful to place equal emphasis on both sides of the simile, thus insuring that the l i s t e n e r w i l l begin to equate the two. Edwards recog- nizes that the l i s t e n e r must be absolutely sure of the simile's meaning. Therefore, the paragraph's second sentence i s organized as simply as possible. Its almost c h i l d l i k e construction r e- iterates the point with emphasis a more complex structure could ! taken, not achieve. Not only i s the listener'by the significance of the syntactic s i m p l i c i t y , but also he w i l l begin to be disturbed by Edwards' blandness. There i s no overt emotional coloration here; yet the subject i s associated with the r e a l and present terrors of destruction. The paragraph's t h i r d sentence preserves the syntactic s i m p l i c i t y , turning to scripture as the f i n a l r e i t e r a t i o n and support of the juxtaposition: "'Surely thou didst set them i n slippery places; thou castedst them down into destruction.'" Not only does the l i s t e n e r f e e l the f i n a l i t y of this proof, but his sense of God's absolute dominion over sinner's i s renewed: "...thou didst set them...thou castedst them down...". The second and t h i r d paragraphs continue the juxtaposition of the two elements, uniting them i n the l i s t e n e r ' s mind. The second deals with the sudden and unexpected nature of the de- struction to which the I s r a e l i t e s were exposed; the t h i r d points out that t h e i r f a l l need not be contrived. God does not necessarily throw them down. He withdraws his support and they f a l l "of themselves". Edwards depends upon the r e p e t i t i o n o f c e r t a i n * I 103. words and phrases, and the reworkings of the analogy to reinforce the l i s t e n e r ' s sense of the ease with which the " I s r a e l i t e s " f e l l : "exposed to destruction", "exposed to f a l l " , " l i a b l e to f a l l " , "slippery ground", "slippery places". In both paragraphs Edwards places equal emphasis on "destruction" and f a l l i n g . This strengthens the unity of the two elements even further i n the l i s t e n e r ' s mind; and i t generates tension, as the l i s t e n e r faces a growing r e a l i z a t i o n of his own v u l n e r a b i l i t y . The l a s t of the four paragraphs i s probably the most important. Having stimulated! the l i s t e n e r ' s awareness that he, l i k e the I s r a e l i t e s , may be i n continual danger of s l i p p i n g and f a l l i n g away from God, Edwards now offers the solution to the l i s t e n e r ' s unspoken and rather apprehensive question: "Why, i f they are i n such danger of i t , have they not already f a l l e n ? " The l i s t e n e r may think of himself when he hears "they" or " I s r a e l i t e s " . 4....the reason they are not f a l l e n already, and do not f a l l now, i s only that God's appointed time i s not come. For i t i s said, that when that due time, or appointed time comes, t h e i r foot s h a l l slide.(p.156) * The fourth point answers the question i n a d i r e c t , emotionless manner. Its very blandness causes tension while i t insures understanding. Both sentences, both sides of the analogy between I "destruction" and f a l l i n g , emphasize that sinners have only time between themselves and t h e i r f a l l . At that, the time i s un- specified; but by speaking so d e f i n i t e l y , and by emphasizing the text ("...their foot s h a l l s l i d e " ) at the end, Edwards gives the l i s t e n e r an uncomfortable impression of immediacy. Edwards believes firmly i n r e i n f o r c i n g the associative move- ment of the l i s t e n e r ' s mind. Having answered the l i s t e n e r ' s unspoken question, he recognizes a new and more immediate question I 1 produced by his l a s t answer: what w i l l happen when t h i s appointed time arrives? The janswer to t h i s makes up the rest of the fourth paragraph: Then they s h a l l be l e f t to f a l l , as they are i n c l i n e d by t h e i r own weight. God w i l l not hold them up i n these slippery places any longer, but w i l l l e t them go; and then, at that very instant, they s h a l l f a l l into destruction; as he that stands on such slippery declining ground, on the edge of a p i t , he cannot stand-alone. when he i s l e t go he immediately f a l l s and i s lost.(p . 1 5 6 ) By answering the l i s t e n e r ' s question immediately, Edwards pre- serves the associative tension and anxiety generated so f a r i n the sermon. The importance of t h i s i m p l i c i t question and of the answer's negative aspect increases the tension markedly, as the l i s t e n e r ' s fears begin to be r e a l i z e d . Edwards also preserves the balance between "destruction" and the application of the text, s o l i d i f y i n g the l i s t e n e r ' s association of them. "Shall be l e f t " indicates to the l i s t e n e r that he has no active part i n t h i s aspect of his downfall; Edwards often speaks of the sinner's fate i n the passive voice. The g u i l t y l i s t e n e r may become agitated by the measure of his f a l l : "...as they are in c l i n e d by t h e i r own weight". Edwards places the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for g u i l t ("weight") with the sinner, even though he apparently i has l i t t l e power jto control the s i t u a t i o n . Edwards says, more or l e s s , that the sinner w i l l get what he deserves; the l i s t e n e r , so w i l l i n g to see himself as a sinner, creates his own tension ' and anxiety. The f i r s t sentence i n the above quotation main- tains the bland s i m p l i c i t y which so disturbs the l i s t e n e r . He envisions the worst as the passage continues, even though Edwards i s not yet r e f e r r i n g d i r e c t l y to him. The grammar and syntactic structure of the second sentence 1 0 5 . r e f l e c t the sentence's conceptual movement. F i r s t , "God w i l l not hold them up i n these slippery places any longer, but w i l l l e t them go...". Edwards speaks i n the future tense, making grammar r e f l e c t the look forward to "God's appointed time". He emphasizes that there i s no option: "God w i l l not hold them up...". God's deliberate release of the sinner, and the sentence's deliberate movement take away the l i s t e n e r ' s only chance for comfort. The r e p e t i t i o n of "slippery places" r e c a l l s f o r the l i s t e n e r the working but of the textual analogy, and the sinner's i n a b i l i t y to stand on his own. In pointing to an instant of time, Edwards enables the l i s t e n e r to focus on the moment of release as he examines what w i l l transpire: "...and then* at that very instant, they s/a^jil f a l l into destruction...". Then, Edwards returns to the textual analogy to describe : i " t h e i r " f a l l i n "that very instant". In doing so, he consciously uses the structure of the passage's l a s t clause to imitate the movements of the f a l l . The clause, a simile which contains the textual analogy, picks up speed unevenly: "...as he that stands on such slippery declining ground, on the edge of a p i t , he cannot stand alone, when he i s l e t go he immediately f a l l s and i s l o s t . " Edwards moves the l i s t e n e r along breathlessly as he imitates the growing disorganization of a person s l i p p i n g and f a l l i n g . The energy of the sentence i s cut off abruptly and the l i s t e n e r ' s tension i s bottled up by " l o s t " . Edwards' passing comparison to the man standing by "a p i t " i s certain to affect the l i s t e n e r as well the f a l l away from God i s the f a l l into the p i t of h e l l . In the passages numbered one to ten, Edwards expands on t h i s 'f 106. statement: "'There Is nothing that keepswicked men one moment out of h e l l , but the mere pleasure of God'"(p.156). The l i s t e n e r sees the sinner forced to depend on the a r b i t r a r y w i l l of a God whom he i s fa s t alienating-by his wicked ways. Edwards follows the same procedure (with greater d e t a i l ) that he used i n expanding the " d e s t r u c t i o n " — f a l l i n g analogy of the f i r s t four points. Each of the ten passages works out another aspect of the text's significance. Edwards allows the development to naturally r e f l e c t and emphasize the l i s t e n e r ' s sequential associations as he hears the passages. The f i r s t of the ten passages deals with the fact that God i s not restrained by weakness from dropping sinners into h e l l at any time: 1. There i s no want of power i n God to cast wicked men into h e l l at any moment. Men's hands cannot be strong when God r i s e s up. The strongest have no power to r e s i s t him, nor can any d e l i v e r out of his hands. —-He i s not only able to cast wicked men into h e l l , but he can most e a s i l y do it.(p.156) Edwards uses short, emphatic statements which admit of no doubt concerning God's powers. Edwards' bland s i m p l i c i t y increases the l i s t e n e r ' s emotional tension through i t s very lack of overt emotion. The f i r s t j sentence ends, with emphasis, on "at any moment". Edwards makes clear that not only does God not lack power, but also he i s l i a b l e to punish sinners on very short notice. Edwards i s moving smoothly around the issue of punish- ment, disturbing the l i s t e n e r with his apparent lack of s e n s i t i v i t y . The l i s t e n e r i s also isolated by the fact that Edwards i s not yet addressing him d i r e c t l y he must keep whatever shame and apprehension he f e e l s hidden inside himself. In the second sentence "strongest" apparently refers to "Men's hands", but i t M ... ' I 107 i s used i n an expression in d i c a t i n g man's weakness. In the same sentence Edwards uses "hands" again, th i s time r e f e r r i n g to God. By doing so, he subtly reminds the l i s t e n e r of the physical nature of the impending doom. He re-emphasizes the li s t e n e r ' s weakness through the unspoken comparison between the re l a t i v e powers of "Men's hands" and "his [God's] hands". The thi r d sentence depends on the r e p e t i t i o n of the main concept for emphasis: " He i s not only able to cast wicked men into h e l l , but he can mojst easily do i t . " By using "not only able" Edwards controls the l i s t e n e r ' s expectation regarding the rest I of the sentence: the l i s t e n e r waits for "but also able". The la s t phrase reminds the l i s t e n e r that the subject of t h i s section i s God's "power". The emphasis informs the l i s t e n e r of a su r f e i t of power i n God to damn sinners. In expanding on God's power to damn, Edwards offers a simply presented but highly s i g n i f i c a n t analogy: Sometimes an earthly prince meets with a great.deal of d i f f i c u l t y to subdue a rebel, who has found means to f o r t i f y himself, and has made himself strong by the numbers of hi s followers. But i t i s not so with God.(p.156) Several things should be noted about th i s analogy. F i r s t , l i k e the analogy between the I s r a e l i t e s and Edwards' audience, i t r e f l e c t s a typological habit of thought which would have been fa m i l i a r to New Englanders as a convention of sermons at the time. Edwards i s fond of drawing analogies between the natural and i n f e r i o r world, and the heavenly and superior world. He draws such a p a r a l l e l here to re-emphasize man's weakness i n r e l a t i o n to God, Further, the si t u a t i o n of an earthly prince confronted by a rebel i s p a r a l l e l to God's confrontation with Satan. There the s i m i l a r i t y ends, since God's capacity for action i s so great. Also, the implication that the earthly rebel (or the hopeful sinner) i s a p a r a l l e l for Satan w i l l up- set the l i s t e n e r greatly, especially since he i s aware of Satan' punishment. Grammatically, t h i s section of the passage r e f l e c t s the r e l a t i v e strength of man and God. The part dealing with the analogy's earthly side i s lengthyj uneven, and suggestive of a forced mustering of power. The part dealing with God opens abruptly, with much power:. "But i t i s not so with God." The l i s t e n e r senses through th i s emphasis God's power to brush aside human e f f o r t s and comparisons i n the ordering of his divine w i l l . Edwards follows with an explanatory expansion of the above abrupt statement. Edwards intends to increase the l i s t e n e r ' s fear and f e e l i n g of insignificance by denigrating the powers of God's enemies i n the face of God's strength. i There i s no fortress that i s any defence from the power of God. Though hand j o i n i n hand, and vast multitudes of God's enemies combine and associate themselves, they are eas i l y broken i n pieces. They ... are as great heaps of l i g h t chaff before the whi r l - wind; or large quantities of dry stubble before de- vouring flames.(p. 156) Edwards utters another of those simple, blunt assertions which do not admit doubt. Edwards does not of f e r a statement for evaluation; he states unalterable facts, depriving the l i s t e n e r of i n i t i a t i v e within the sermon. In repeating "hand" again "Though hand j o i n i n hand..." he amplifies ,the insignificance men's actions against God. These actions would be s i g n i f i c a n t among men, and the l i s t e n e r gets a sense that any force he can imagine i s useless against God. Edwards speaks of God's I 109 enemies' downfall i n the passive voice: "...they are e a s i l y broken i n pieces". The l i s t e n e r sees that even the greatest amalgam of human power ("...though hand j o i n i n hand...", etc) has i t s c a p a b i l i t y f o r aotion stripped away. Edwards s h i f t s to two evenly emphasized similes drawn from the natural world. This makes the r e l a t i v e power of God and sinners easier to grasp. The l i s t e n e r now has terms which his mind can cope with, rather than the i n f i n i t e "power of God": "They are as great heaps of l i g h t chaff before the whirlwind; or large quantities of dry stubble before devouring flames". In each clause Edwards opposes elements of insignificance and power. In each, the r e s u l t of the s i t u a t i o n described i s "destruction". The l i s t e n e r moves toward the end of section "1." f e e l i n g t o t a l l y i n s i g n i f i c a n t , stripped of power i n the face of God's might. We f i n d i t easy to tread on and crush a worm that we see crawling on the earth; so i t i s easy for us to cut or singe a slender thread that any thing hangs by: thus easy i s i t for God, when he pleases, to cast his enemies down to hell.(p.156) One again sees Edwards' typological habit of thought at work. Both the examples given here are raised from the human to the heavenly l e v e l , though the sense of punishment remains strongly physical. The l i s t e n e r perceives the punishment as t o t a l o b l i t e r a t i o n : "...to tread on and crush a worm...". The r e l a t i v e significance of the elements remains the same. The l a s t clause formally draws the obvious conclusion regarding God's power: "thus easy i t i s . . . ? . Edwards refe r s to "his enemies", with whom the l i s t e n e r unwillingly i d e n t i f i e s ; the sentence ends on "down to h e l l " , making the l i s t e n e r face the confirmed fact of I 110 the sinner's fate, emphasized with a downward i n f l e c t i o n . F i n a l l y , the whole passage concludes with a r h e t o r i c a l question. For the f i r s t time Edwards pointedly addresses "we", drawing the l i s t e n e r d i r e c t l y into his theological " l i n e of f i r e " . Emotional tension i s thereby increased, and the question's r i t u a l i s t i c intensity augments the e f f e c t : What are we, that we should think to stand before him, at whose rebuke the earth trembles, and before whom the rocks are thrown down?(p.157) "We", as elements of the natural world, have no hope of standing before God, inasmuch as the most powerful elements of our world cannot "stand before him". The l i s t e n e r i s i n a state of growing .anxiety that i s quietly fostered by Edwards as the sermon progresses. There i s s t i l l the disturbing lack of overt emotional coloration, despite the l i s t e n e r ' s increasing emotional anxiety. The greater the l i s t e n e r ' s tension, the more Edwards' bland facade affects him. Edwards i s i n the process of i n s t i l l i n g i n the l i s t e n e r a sense of utter dependence on God's mercy i n terms of predestined damnation and redemption. By the end of the ser- mon's f i r s t h a l f , the l i s t e n e r w i l l understand "...that whatever pains a natural man takes i n r e l i g i o n , t i l l he believes i n Christ, God i s under no manner of obligation to keep him a moment from eternal destruction"(p.161). His fate depends on the "...un- covenanted, unobliged forbearance of an incensed God"(p.161). In the sermon's second h a l f , s u b t i t l e d "Application", Edwards becomes h i s b r u t a l best. He works more d i r e c t l y on the l i s t e n e r as an i n d i v i d u a l , whose terro r and desperation increase within the r i g i d l i m i t s defined by the sermon's f i r s t h a l f . Edwards i I addresses the l i s t e n e r as "you", pinning him down under the 111 onslaught of an inescapable attack. The attack depends on Edwards' structuring and the l i s t e n e r ' s associative movement toward the conclusion. Edwards organizes t h i s half of the sermon around a discussion and application of the concept' of "wrath". The discussion con- s i s t s of introductory sections on the l i s t e n e r ' s wickedness and the nature of the fate t h i s wickedness has earned. There i s then a four-part working out of the nature and implications of "wrath". Edwards treats "wrath" as he treated the textual analysis at the sermon's opening, but i n greater d e t a i l . In the "Application" Edwards amplifies the strange, disturbing calmness he evinced i n the sermon's f i r s t h a l f . His sentences and paragraphs take on a powerful but e f f o r t l e s s hypnotic quality. He s t i l l avoids overt emotional displays i n his delivery. As a re s u l t , i n the new context, the d i s p a r i t y between overt emotional elements and the subject matter's emotional impact generates a morbid interest, a fascination i n the l i s t e n e r . The serenity, the blandness, the preternatural calm, which...in "Sinners i n the Hands of an Angry God," takes the form of a t e r r i f y i n g sang-froid, manifest an emotional appeal of great power Edwards depends on the l i s t e n e r ' s growing horror of cert a i n dam- nation as the source of emotional tension. The coolness with which the sermon progresses has the perverse effect of making the l i s t e n e r manufacture the terror within himself. The l i s t e n e r ' s terror even may be of himself, of his g u i l t and the fate i t earns him. Edwards acts on his rule that one deprives the sinner ("out of Christ") of a l l comfort. Throughout the sermon's second half, he i n t e n s i f i e s the l i s t e n e r ' s fear and f r u s t a t i o n by repeatedly holding out comfort and then snatching i t away. This manipulation 112,, is reflected syntactically as well as conceptually, as Edwards calmly tortures his audience. Finally, the second half makes absolute the listener's dependence on God for escape and salvation. Edwards' listener w i l l be frantic to be "in Christ"; his w i l l i s constrained, notjby predestination, but by the desire to escape from the terrors Edwards w i l l describe. i In treating the "Application", the f i r s t of the passages I wish to examine consists of a single sentence that deals with the listener's wickedness. Your wickedness makes you as i t were heavy as lead, and to tend downwards with great weight and pressure towards h e l l ; and i f God should let you go, you would immediately sink and swiftly descend and plunge into the bottomless gulf, and your healthy constitution, and your own care and prudence, and best contrivance, and a l l your righteousness, would have no more influence to uphold you and keep you out of hell, than a spider's would have to stop a fallen rock.(p.162) "Wickedness" assumes the role of a major causal element in the period, just as i t does in the sermon as a whole. As an agency, i t assumes grammatical and conceptual responsibility for the sense of the period's f i r s t part. As an agency over which he has l i t t l e control, the listener fears i t a l l the more i t "makes you" face h e l l . The fact that i t is "your wickedness" Imbues the listener with a reinforced sense of personal respon- s i b i l i t y which w i l l be maintained throughout the sentence: "Your wickedness makes you...heavy as lead, and to tend downwards with great weight and pressure towards h e l l . . . " . The repetition of words connoting conditions or degrees of heaviness strengthens the listener's move,to associate "wickedness" with "weight"; and, through the power of weight to drag one down, "wickedness" with "hel l " . The grammajbical structure of the period's opening is 112 slow, even ponderous. The sounds of the words and phrases-—"... as i t were heavy as lead...", "...to tend downwards...", "great I weight", "pressure" emphasize pressure and slowness i n a r t i c u l a t i o n . The opening of the period places a downward i n - f l e c t i o n on i t s import, the tending "...downwards...towards h e l l . . . " . Edwards follows with an immediate reminder of God's role i n r e l a t i o n to the sinner and his fate: " . . . i f God should l e t you go, you would immediately sink and swi f t l y descend and plunge into the bottomless gulf...". The l i s t e n e r knows his fate may soon be upon him. The " i f " statement signals him that h i s doom i s about to be described, and the phrase "God should l e t you go" reminds him of the nature of his t o t a l dependence. The i three verbs used ''sink", "descend", and "plunge" are a l l descriptive of processes or changes i n condition, rather than Conditions i n themselves. Further, the adverbs which modify "sink" and "descend", separating them from the a u x i l i a r y "would" ("immediately" and " s w i f t l y " respectively), exaggerate the verbs' meanings. They strongly influence the l i s t e n e r ' s sense of the impending f a l l . One must remember that, f o r the l i s t e n e r , the act of f a l l i n g supposedly has a fixed endpoint namely, h e l l . The adverbs and verbs describing the f a l l indicate that the fixed endpoint w i l l be reached quickly, "immediately", or " s w i f t l y " . Edwards now confronts the l i s t e n e r with a paradox. The f a l l i s into a "bottomless gulf". "Bottomless" snatches away the l o g i c by which the l i s t e n e r has examined the s i t u a t i o n , and the " f a l l " becomes a l l the more t e r r i f y i n g to him. How can he "immediately" reach i 1 1 4 . the endpoint of a f a l l into a "bottomless gulf"? Edwards purposely overwhelms the l i s t e n e r ' s mind by the departure from natural l o g i c . The period continues with a rhythmically structured return to the l i s t e n e r ' s positive human f a c u l t i e s . As the period moves forward, Edwards appears to be of f e r i n g the l i s t e n e r hope: "...and your healthy constitution, and your own care and prudence, and best contrivance, and a l l your righteousness...". Edwards cuts short the rhythmically expanding series of hopeful phrases with the period's conclusion, which roughly snatches away the element of hope. I Its substance reduces the l i s t e n e r by a com- parative image of,destruction i n the natural world. The com- i parison contains a sneer at the l i s t e n e r ' s temerity i n seeing anything hopeful i n human f a c u l t i e s : "...and a l l your righteous- ness, would have no more influence, than a spider's web would have to stop a f a l l e n rock." The concluding image reinforces the t o t a l insignificance of men and t h e i r powers, as i l l u s t r a t e d by the entire period. Edwards has acted with controlled but devastating force on his p r i n c i p l e of deprivation of the sinner's comfort. Edwards continues to direc t h is f u l l powers against the sinner's s e n s i b i l i t i e s . The following passage i s the f i r s t paragraph but one before the f i r s t numbered section i n thi s half of the sermon: I l The God that holds you over the p i t of h e l l , much as one holds a spider, or some loathsome insect over the f i r e , abhors you, and i s dreadfully provoked: his wrath thowards you burns l i k e f i r e ; he looks upon you as worthy of nothing else, but to be cast into the f i r e ; he i s of purer eyes than to bear to have you i n his sight; you are ten thousand times more abominable i n his eyes, than the most hateful venomous serpent i s i n ours. You have offended him i n f i n i t e l y more than ever a stubborn rebel did his prince; and yet i t i s nothing but his hand that holds you from f a l l i n g into the f i r e every moment. ...There i s no other reason to be given why you have not, gone to h e l l , since you have sat here i n the house of God, provoking his pure eyes by your s i n f u l wicked manner of attending his solemn worship. Yea, there i s nothing else that i s to be given as a reason 1 why you do not t h i s very moment drop down into hell.(pp.1 64-165) The f i r s t - p a r t of-the passage's-opening sentence i s arresting and c l e v e r l y constructed * There i s shared emphasis between "The God" as the c o n t r o l l i n g factor or agent i n the statement, and the r e l a t i v e clause which describes the l i s t e n e r ' s locale i n r e l a t i o n to God. The l i s t e n e r i s made to f e e l the statement's impact i n a personal way: the object of God's wrath i s again "you r e f e r r i n g both to the congregation and the i n d i v i d u a l l i s t e n e r . Describing the sinner's s i t u a t i o n i n terms of earthly and divine p a r a l l e l s , Edwards reinforces the l i s t e n e r ' s g u i l t and loathsome- ness i n a potent image. The earthly example of an insect sus- pended over a flame i s si m i l a r to the s i t u a t i o n of the sinner who i s suspended by God "over the p i t of h e l l " : "The God that holds you over the p i t of h e l l , much as one holds a spider, or some loathsome insect over the f i r e , abhors you, and i s dreadfully i provoked...". Edwards has shifted the focus away from the sinner fate as something!which i s prevented by "the mere pleasure of God". God's feelings are described by words with strongly negative emotional significance he i s "dreadfully provoked" and "abhors" the l i s t e n e r . Also, syntactic structure imitates the l i s t e n e r ' s supension by God. The long r e l a t i v e clause be- tween "The God" and "...abhors you.;." suspends the movement of the period while the l i s t e n e r ' s horror of h i s physical suspension over the p i t i s amplified. ...his wrath towards you burns l i k e f i r e ; he looks upon you as worthy of nothing else, but to be cast into the f i r e . . . . By this point i n the passage's opening period, " f i r e " has been repeated three times. Edwards' r e p e t i t i v e use of " f i r e " i s such that the l i s t e n e r begins to see the f i r e s of h e l l i n every d i r e c t i o n . I t i s associated with his fate, s i m i l a r to that of the insect suspended over the f i r e ; i t i s associated with the nature of God's wrath; i t i s regarded as the l i s t e n e r ' s just fate; and i t describes the condition of h e l l . " F i r e " i s firmly entrenched i n the l i s t e n e r ' s mind as an aspect of a l l the elements concerning his fate as a sinner. ...he i s of purer eyes than to bear to have you i n his sight; you are ten thousand times more abominable i n his eyes than the most hateful venomous serpent i s i n ours. Beginning with "...his wrath", the series - of statements punctuated by semi-colons provides an hypnotic rhythm around the idea of f i r e , and the new expansion i n the above quotation. The strange calmness and the emotional impact of the statements make apparent Edwards' "sang-froid", that so alarms his l i s t e n e r s . In the above quotation Edwards sp e c i f i e s the r e l a t i v e degree of man's "abominability"•in God's sight. In doing so he reaffirms the r i t u a l i s t i c solemnity and intensity which i s so often a part of h i s judgments against the l i s t e n e r : "...you are ten thousand times more abominable i n his eyes...". Such a formal expression w i l l impress the l i s t e n e r as an o f f i c i a l statement of f a c t , an enormous confirmation of his own despicable nature. The syntax and l e x i c a l meaning of the statement cue the l i s t e n e r that i t i s part of a comparison; and he waits f e a r f u l l y and without hope for I 1 1 7 . the comparison to be completed. He i s "ten thousand times more abominable" than...what? The comparison makes God's view of man analogous to man's view of "the most hateful venomous serpent". The l i s t e n e r must be t r u l y stricken by t h i s , the standard by which the comparison i s made. Aside from i t s significance i n the natural world, the snake comparison implies to the l i s t e n e r that he i s worse than the snake as either an emissary of the d e v i l , or as emblematic of Satan himself. To be "out of Christ" i s condemnation enough; but to be made "ten thousand times" worse than Satan would be unthinkable. The passage's next sentence lends support to the conclusion that "the most hateful venomous serpent" should i n - deed c a l l Satan to mind. It r e c a l l s the "earthly p r i n c e — r e b e l " analogy of the sermon's f i r s t h a l f , thus sealing associative li n k s i n the l i s t e n e r ' s mind. It r e c a l l s also the p a r a l l e l of Satan as a rebel against the Prince of Heaven: You have offended him i n f i n i t e l y more than ever a stubborn rebel did his prince; and yet i t i s nothing but his hand that holds you from f a l l i n g into the f i r e every moment. The l i s t e n e r has trouble coping with " i n f i n i t e l y " , since i t purposely denotes a condition of degree which i s , and always w i l l be, beyond his grasp. The return to the analogy of the "stubborn rebel" confirms the! l i s t e n e r ' s worst fears. Since " i n f i n i t e l y " modifies "more", the l i s t e n e r now knows that he i s unbelievably worse than an earthly or a heavenly rebel. He i s " i n f i n i t e l y " worse than Satan. For his s i n , Edwards reminds the l i s t e n e r , Satan^was~cast "into the fire"pwhat then can the l i s t e n e r hope for? In the f i n a l clause of the sentence, Edwards again shows a te - i 118. f l i c k e r of hope and then snatches i t away. The clause begins with "...and yet i t i s nothing...". The use of "yet" might indicate a reversal i n the l i s t e n e r ' s t e r r i b l e state, or so he hopes. "It i s nothing" confuses the l i s t e n e r because the antecedent of " i t " i s not clearj and the use' of "nothing" might apply to the seriousness of the l i s t e n e r ' s crime. Unfortunately, such hopes are not reasonable, and Edwards snatches them away with the appearance of "but": " . . . i t i s nothing but his hand that holds you from f a l l i n g into the f i r e every momenti" The use of "his i hand" r e c a l l s the e k r l i e r comparison of the r e l a t i v e strength of man's hands and God's. The l i s t e n e r i s again reminded that he i s being held up by that hand of God. Edwards returns to " f i r e " as i t relates to punishment, thus maintaining associations within the passage, as well as within the sermon as a whole. The l i s t e n e r now faces the added problem of "every moment", as opposed to "any moment". The l a t t e r implies that there could be a delay between the removal of God's hand and the l i s t e n e r ' s f a l l . But the former makes p l a i n that no such delay w i l l occur. The whole sentence reinforces the beaten listener'.s awareness that God i s very, very angry, and l i a b l e to release him at any time. Near the end of the passage, Edwards focuses d i r e c t l y on the hypocrisy of the l i s t e n e r who dares to enter the church while out of Christ. To the l i s t e n e r , who i s already writhing with g u i l t , Edwards' treatment of t h i s point w i l l be doubly e f f e c t i v e : There i s no other reason to be given £beside God's holding you up] why you have not gone to h e l l , since you have sat here i n the house of God, provoking his pure eyes by your s i n f u l wicked manner of attending his solemn worship. Edwards affirms God's control by denying any other possible ex- planation f o r the l i s t e n e r ' s continued existence. Although he maintains his coolness, there i s a sarcastic bite to the f i r s t part of the period. It i s a subtly implied tonal quality which makes the l i s t e n e r f e e l smaller than he already i s . Edwards returns to God's "pure eyes" and the l i s t e n e r ' s impurity i n God's view, closing another associational l i n k within the passage. The " s i n f u l wicked manner of attending his solemn worship" doubly reinforces the l i s t e n e r ' s meanness he r e c a l l s the e a r l i e r discussion of the reward "wickedness" earns. In pointing thus to the l i s t e n e r ' s hypocrisy, Edwards questions the hypocrite's presence i n the church. The church i s the place to repent, to be " i n Christ"; Is the l i s t e n e r ' s l a s t refuge the church to be denied him? The l i s t e n e r ' 8 hypocrisy i s due to his b e l i e f , nurtured by Edwards, that he i s a damned sinner. He condemns himself by his own associative understanding of the sermon so f a r . He i s hypo- c r i t i c a l through h i s profanation of the church by h i s very presence i n i t . He cannot repent i n a state of s i n ; i n his current state, even the refuge of the church i s denied him. Edwards i s therefore j u s t i f i e d i n concluding the passage with i a restatement of emphasis on God's holding up of men as the sole reason f o r t h e i r continuing miserable existence: Yea, there i s nothing else that i s to be given as a reason why you do not t h i s very moment drop down into h e l l . Even at i t s conclusion, "Sinners i n the Hands of an Angry God" i s not too hopeful. Through the course of the "Application", Edwards has worked with metaphors of increasing power, i n ; i rhythmically presented passages that d e t a i l man's s i t u a t i o n , God's view of i t , and the potential outcome for a l l concerned. The progress-of these- passages lowers the l i s t e n e r ' s hope of re- demption, and increases his anxiety, fear, and sense of impending damnation. The sermon's short concluding paragraph i s delivered at the moment when the l i s t e n e r ' s anxiety and desperation are strongest, and when the pressure on him i s greatest: Therefore, l e t every one that i s out of Christ, now awake and f l y from the wrath to come. The wrath of Almighty God i s now undoubtedly hanging over a great part of t h i s congregation: l e t every one f l y out of Sodom: "Haste and escape for your l i v e s , look not behind you, escape to the mountain, l e s t you be consumed."(p.172) This i s the f i n a l stern warning to the l i s t e n e r . The "there- fore" at i t s beginning indicates that what follows i t w i l l be the associative and l o g i c a l (as well as theological) conclusion to the sermon's progress. Edwards makes "everyone" into two words, giving i t a sense of s p e c i f i c i t y as he points to each l i s t e n e r who i s "out of Christ". The l i s t e n e r i s to "awake" from his s i n f u l state (and from the sermon's hypnotic effects) "now"; "now" i s the time to " f l y " . Edwards suddenly makes the a r r i v a l of God's wrath seem nearer i n a l a s t dig at the l i s t e n e r , whose panic i n t e n s i f i e s . The l i s t e n e r ' s fear that he i s one of the sinners who deserve God's anger i s supported by Edwards' blunt statement: "The wrath of Almighty God i s now undoubtedly hanging over a great part of t h i s congregation...". The re- mainder of the passage shows one t h i n hope of escape, drawn from the s c r i p t u r a l context. Edwards r e c a l l s the destruction of Sodom, and the sermon ends with a reworking of the idea of destruction by f i r e : Let every one f l y out of Sodom: "Haste and escape f o r your l i v e s , look not behind you, escape to the moun- ta i n , l e s t you be consumed. The quotation moves with uneven speed, imitating the c o n t r o l l i n g , idea of " f l i g h t " and adding a new dimension to the .listener's sense of panic he can escape i f he hurries. The quotation c; ends abruptly with a downward i n f l e c t i o n on "consumed", r e - emphasizing the t o t a l nature of the sinner's forthcoming doom by " f i r e " . The l i s t e n e r ' s emotional, tension i s contained and increased.by the narrow focus, as Edwards maintains his cold--. ' blooded \calm. One can almost imagine him dropping his voice to a \ c h i l l i n g , penetrating whisper as the sermon concludes: " . . . l e s t you be consumed." / / This sermon has put the l i s t e n e r through a t e r r i f y i n g ex- - perience of his own s p i r i t u a l and physical weakness and mortality. The l i s t e n e r has seen h i s fate and his t o t a l dependence on God for good or e v i l i l l u s t r a t e d i n an agonizingly clear manner. He w i l l be driven to accept any fate other than that outlined i n the sermon, and w i l l be es p e c i a l l y eageri to act on his own -~ i n i t i a t i v e to get " i n Christ"., He departs from the church s t i l l - v,;A sweating the sweat, of mortal fear,"'determined f o r h i s l i f e to ;. f i n d his means of redemption. 7 v (- • * * # * * In the two Edwards sermons, one sees developed two d i f f e r e n t aspects of one theological issue dependence on God, and the prob- • lem of free w i l l to which i t i s t i e d . . Both sermons r e f l e c t Edwards' s e n s i t i v i t y to the strengths and weaknesses of his audience. At the same time they r e f l e c t h i s understanding of language and emotion as the means of touching h i s l i s t e n e r s ' h e a r t s . The sermons p i v o t around "dependence*': one points to damnation, one to r e - demption; one t o f e a r , the other t o l o v e . Edwards i s no l e s s vigorous than Donne. I f h i s form and substance are d i f f e r e n t , he was nonetheless able to i n f l u e n c e f o r a time the t h e o l o g i c a l f a b r i c of h i s s o c i e t y . 123, Notes 1 Annette Kolodny, "Imagery i n the Sermons of Jonathan Edwards", EAL (1971 ), 172-182, p.181 . p For other factors conditioning response to Edwards, see ch.I, pp.13-22. •'CH. Faust and T.H. Johnson, ed., Jonathan Edwards: Representative Selections (New York: H i l l and V/ang, 1935, 1962; American Series ed., 1962), introduction, c i i . 4Faust and Johnson, ed., Jonathan Edwards: Representative Selections, i n t r o . , cx. ^Faust and Johnson, i n t r o . , c x i i . ^Faust and Johnson, i n t r o . , c x i i . 7 John F. Lynen, The Design of the Present (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1969), P«113. 8 I John F. Lynen, The Design of the Present, p.114. o ^Lynen, p.115• .1 1 0 F a u s t and Johnson, i n t r o . , c x i i i . 1 1Lynen, p.114. 1 2 Jonathan Edwards, "God G l o r i f i e d i n the Work of Redemption", Jonathan Edwards: Basic Writings, ed. Ola Elizabeth Winslow (Toronto: Signet Classics—New American Library of Canada Ltd., 1966), 106-122, p.106. Winslow notes that the text i s taken from The Works of President Edwards, ed. S.B. Dwight, VII, 149-162. A l l references to th i s sermon w i l l be from the Winslow edition, and w i l l be included i n the body of the thesis by page number. ^ U r s u l a Brumm, American Thought and Religious Typology (New Jersey: Rutgers University Press, 1970), p.87/ 1 4 F a u s t and Johnson, i n t r o . , c x i . 15 Faust and Johnson, i n t r o . , c x i . 1^There has been a great deal of speculation i n modern l i n g u i s t i c s and psychology as to the problems of language acquisition and the generation of various syntactic and grammatical structures. There i s no room i n t h i s thesis for exploration of modern spec- u l a t i o n and research on the subject. The reader interested i n such studies must approach them on his own. 1 7 P e r r y M i l l e r , "The Rhetoric of Sensation", Errand Into the Wilderness (New York: Harper and Row, 1956), 167-183, p.167. 124. 18 19 20 21 22 Annette Kolodny, "Imagery i n the Sermons of Jonathan Edwards", p.173. Kolodny, p.172. M i l l e r , "The Rhetoric of Sensation", Errand Into the Wilderness, p.183. Jonathan Edwards, "Sinners i n the Hands of an Angry God", Jonathan Edwards: Representative Selections, ed. Faust and Johnson, 155-172. A l l references to t h i s sermon w i l l be from the Faust and Johnson edition, and w i l l be included i n the body of the thesis by page number. Lynen, The Design of the Present, p.111• CHAPTER IV: CONCLUSION It should be clear that my method i n t h i s thesis has d i f f e r e d i n at least one major aspect from other methods of s t y l i s - t i c or r h e t o r i c a l analysis. I have refused to regard the works of either Donne or Edwards as pools or reservoirs of examples to aid i n t h e \ i l l u s t r a t i o n of p a r t i c u l a r techniques. Biven that a sermon (or any work o f , l i t e r a t u r e ) i s before anything else a sequential experience through which the reader or l i s t e n e r moves, j the c r i t i c i s obligated to make the quality of the experience his' f i r s t focus. To do t h i s he must examine technique through the l i s t e n e r ' s responses as they occur sequentially. Only then can he begin to see the a r t i s t r y behind the use of various techniques v i n the creation of an entire work. I have t r i e d to adhere to t h i s p r i n c i p l e i n my study. In applying t h i s approach to a p a r t i c u l a r genre, one i s able to return to the e s s e n t i a l human element i n l i t e r a t u r e . Differences and s i m i l a r i t i e s i n the quality of experience and response remind us of human nature as i t manifests i t s e l f i n a given context. Moreover, the method provides insight into, and contributes to our t o t a l understanding of the genre i n which an author writes. Comparative examinations of d i f f e r e n t writers i n .; a single genre may augment t h i s understanding by revealing some- thing of the genre's development as a recognized form. Such studies may reveal d i v e r s i t i e s that inform us of>the broadness^ and scope of a l i t e r a r y type, or they may reveal the various; s i m i l a r i t i e s which t y p i f y a genre. F i n a l l y , by using t h i s approach one might begin to see the rel a t i o n s h i p between c r e a t i v i t y i n an important l i t e r a r y form, and the impact on man of that form's development as a shaping and r e f l e c t i n g c u l t u r a l or i n t e l l e c t u a l : influence. One might observe thought and the l i t e r a r y organism growing, changing, developing within the focus supplied by the p a r t i c u l a r genre. / - V Homiletic or sermon l i t e r a t u r e i s one of the more important areas available f o r such studies.' As people with a s p e c i f i c and • ><• complex national and r e l i g i o u s heritage (our English Judeo-Christian ) hei-itage), we have been inextricably involved with theological . . . / • • ' . . < concerns since the origins of our r e l i g i o n and l i t e r a t u r e . Theology and l i t e r a t u r e have affected and r e f l e c t e d almost every-aspect of..'-:';̂ growth or change i n the.progress of our development. Because of. the widespread conoern ,with these things, i t i s not unreasonable to expect that an examination of sermons by two d i f f e r e n t writers might add to one's knowledge and understanding of the sermon per se.r Nor i s i t unreasonable to expect that the d i v e r s i t i e s and simi-; l a r i t i e s which appear, irresp e c t i v e of sectarian considerations t ) ' y : f ^ : . / . '-\*-y w i l l broaden one's understanding of the r e l i g i o u s experience as -f a shaping influence i n the development of l i t e r a t u r e and culture.•Y.-k'M Moreover, i t i s reasonable to expect that such examinations are:->--;.'^Jf; steps i n approaching human i n t e l l e c t u a l development i n a given; context over long periods of time. John Donne and Jonathan Edwards are two acknowledged masters.^ of the sermon form. In choosing these two preachers as the sub- jects of my study, I had to consider what j u s t i f i c a t i o n there might be f o r dealing with figures from such d i f f e r e n t backgrounds. 3 " 1 2 7 . There i s much j u s t i f i c a t i o n . Certainly, the two were not i n - appropriate choices i n terms of exploring di f f e r e n t concepts of what a "sermon" might be. Also, they i l l u s t r a t e d by the d i v e r s i t y i n t h e i r styles and theologies the wide range of approaches to preaching within the context of C h r i s t i a n i t y . But more im- portantly, the r e l i g i o u s experiences v i s i b l e i n each man's ser- mons act as r e f l e c t i o n s of the times i n which each l i v e d . As such, they are representative of the developing l i t e r a r y and theological consciousnesses of t h e i r times. Juxtaposing the works of the two men reveals to some extent the beginnings of the divergence i n l i t e r a t u r e i n English. Edwards wrote "Sinners i n the Hands of an Angry God" about twenty-five years before the Revolution, and his sermons have a directness and strength that prefigures the f i e r c e individualism, austerity, and power of early American l i t e r a t u r e and thought. Donne wrote i n a more t y p i c a l l y "English" and d i s t i n c t l y Renai- ssance context, r e f l e c t i n g the p o l i t i c a l as well as the r e l i g i o u s intensity of his times. The differences between t h e i r sermons are due as much to t h e i r opposing theologies Anglicanism and Calvinism as to the differences i n time, location, and education. The s i m i l a r i t i e s between the two l i e i n t h e i r shared a b i l i t y to make r e l i g i o u s experience r e a l to t h e i r audiences, and to operate successfully under the l o g i c a l l i m i t a t i o n s imposed by t h e i r re- spective theologies. To be sure, t h e i r a b i l i t i e s i n t h i s area are due i n large part t o t h e fact that the times i n which they l i v e d were appropriate to the application of t h e i r peculiar g i f t s . When they are successful they are exemplary of t h e i r times' pre- v a i l i n g i n t e l l e c t u a l and theological standards and b e l i e f s . I do not pretend that my analysis makes clear the r e l a t i o n - ship between American and English sermon l i t e r a t u r e , as t y p i f i e d by Edwards and Donne respectively. Neither do I claim to have described a stage i n the development of American theology and culture from i t s English ori g i n s . What I have done i s to try to reveal i n two cases the relationship of theological thought to the development of the sermon as a l i t e r a r y experience, using response and " a f f e c t " as c r i t e r i a . To achieve that greater sense of sermon l i t e r a t u r e ' s development as a genre r e f l e c t i v e of c u l - t u r a l and i n t e l l e c t u a l growth, one would have to repeat the process I have carried out herein many times with many preachers. I have offered but a f i r s t step i n this thesis. I considered that a comparative discussion of the actual techniques used by each preacher would provide a conclusion. But such a conclusion, while i t might be useful, would negate the import of my method i n t h i s thesis. Whether one writes of Donne, Edwards, or any other preacher, technical devices remain mechanical contrivances no matter how many i l l u s t r a t i v e examples of them are offered. Therefore, I s h a l l conclude as I began, by s t a t i n g that the f i r s t step i n approaching l i t e r a t u r e i s the experience of the work i t s e l f . Whatever else one speaks of, one must always resolve the questions of meaning, sense, emotion, and impact: i n short, one must experience. 129 . BIBLIOGRAPHY B a l d , R . C . John Donne: A L i f e . O x f o r d : C l a r e n d o n P r e s s , 1970 Brumm, U r s u l a . A m e r i c a n Thought and R e l i g i o u s T y p o l o g y . New J e r s e y : R u t g e r s U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1970. C a r s e , James . J o n a t h a n Edwards & The V i s i b i l i t y o f God . New Y o r k : C h a r l e s S c r i b n e r ' s S o n s , 1967. F i s h , S t a n l e y E . S e l f - C o n s u m i n g A r t i f a c t s : The E x p e r i e n c e o f S e v e n t e e n t h - C e n t u r y L i t e r a t u r e . B e r k e l e y : U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s , 1972. G a u s t a d , E d w i n S c o t t . The G r e a t Awaken ing i n New E n g l a n d . 2nd ed, C h i c a g o : Quadrang le B o o k s , 1968 . G i f f o r d , W i l l i a m . "Time and P l a c e i n D o n n e ' s Se rmons" . PMLA. 8 2 , N o . 5 ( O c t . ' 6 7 ) , 3 8 8 - 3 9 8 . G l e a s o n , J o h n B . " D r . Donne i n t h e C o u r t s o f K i n g s : A G l i m p s e f rom M a r g i n a l i a " . J E G P , 69 ( O c t . ' 7 0 ) , 5 9 9 - 6 1 2 . Holman, C . Hugh. A Handbook t o L i t e r a t u r e . Based on t h e o r i g i n a l by W . F . T h r a l l . R e v . e d . New Y o r k : B o b b s - M e r r i l l Company, I n c . , 1972 . John Donne: S e l e c t e d P r o s e . Chosen by E v e l y n S i m p s o n . E d . H e l e n Gardne r and T imothy H e a l y . O x f o r d : The C l a r e n d o n P r e s s , 1967 . J o n a t h a n Edwards : B a s i c W r i t i n g s . E d . O l a E l i z a b e t h W i n s l o w . T o r o n t o : S i g n e t C l a s s i c s — N e w A m e r i c a n L i b r a r y , I n c . , 1966. J o n a t h a n Edwards : R e p r e s e n t a t i v e S e l e c t i o n s . E d . C l a r e n c e H . F a u s t and Thomas H . J o h n s o n . R e v . e d . New Y o r k : H i l l and Wang, 1962 . K o l o d n y , A n n e t t e . " Imagery i n t h e Sermons o f J o n a t h a n E d w a r d s " . EAL (1971 ) , 1 7 2 - 1 8 2 . L y n e n , J o h n F . The D e s i g n o f t he P r e s e n t . New Haven : Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1969. Mann, L i n d s a y . "The M a r r i a g e Ana logue o f L e t t e r and S p i r i t i n D o n n e ' s D e v o t i o n a l P r o s e " . JEGP* 70 ( 1 9 7 1 ) , 607-616 M i l l e r , P e r r y . E r r a n d I n t o the W i l d e r n e s s . New Y o r k : H a r p e r and Row, 1956~i Q u i n n , D e n n i s B . "Donne ' s C h r i s t i a n E l o q u e n c e " . E L H , 27 ( 1 9 6 0 ) , 2 7 6 - 2 9 7 . 130 . S impson , E v e l y n M . A Study o f t h e P r o s e Works o f J o h n Donne. 2nd e d . , 1948; r p t . O x f o r d : C l a r e n d o n P r e s s , 1969 . S c h l e l n e r , W i n f r i e d . The Imagery o f J o h n Donne ' s Sermons . P r o v i d e n c e : Brown U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1970 . The Comple te P o e t r y o f John Donne. E d . J o h n T . S h a w c r o s s . New Y o r k : Doubleday & Company, I n c . — A n c h o r B o o k s , 1967. The Sermons o f J o h n Donne. E d . E v e l y n M . Simpson and George R . P o t t e r . 10 v o l s . B e r k e l e y : U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s , 1 9 5 6 - 6 2 . The Works o f P r e s i d e n t Edwards , i n E i g h t Vo lumes . E d . E . W i l l i a m s and E . P a r s o n s . L o n d o n : p r i n t e d f o r James B l a c k and S o n , 1817 . Webber, J o a n . C o n t r a r y M u s i c : The P r o s e S t y l e o f J o h n Donne M a d i s o n : U n i v e r s i t y o f W i s c o n s i n P r e s s , 1963 .

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