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Affective stylistics : sermons by John Donne and Jonathan Edwards Good, William Stephen 1974

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AFFECTIVE STYIJSTICS: SERMONS BY JOHN DONNE AND JONATHAN EDWARDS by WIILIAM  STEPHEN GOOD  B.A., U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1971  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THIS REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DBGffiEE OF MASTER OF ARTS  i n the Department of ENGLISH  We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA April, 1974  In p r e s e n t i n g an the  this  thesis  advanced degree at the Library  in partial  f u l f i l m e n t of  s h a l l make i t f r e e l y  by  s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may his representatives.  be  a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and  thesis for financial  written  permission.  g r a n t e d by  gain  of  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h V a n c o u v e r 8, C a n a d a  for  the  Head o f my  Columbia  s h a l l not  be  thesis  Department  copying or  I  study.  copying of t h i s  I t i s understood that  of t h i s  Department  requirements  U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t  I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e for  the  or  publication  allowed without  my  i.  ABSTRACT  T h i s t h e s i s c o n t a i n s a s t y l i s t i c a n a l y s i s of two John Donne, and two by Jonathan Edwards.  sermons by  The purpose of the  t h e s i s i s not t o p o s t u l a t e a d i r e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p between Donne and Edwards.  Rather, the focus i s on a f f e c t i v e techniques i n  terms of audience response w i t h i n the context of the sermon form. General background m a t e r i a l on each man  i s p r o v i d e d , and  w r i t e r takes i n t o account v a r i o u s s o c i a l , p o l i t i c a l ,  the  literary,  and t h e o l o g i c a l i n f l u e n c e s a c t i n g on each preacher. Each of the chapters c o n t a i n i n g the a n a l y s e s i s i n t r o d u c e d by a short d i s c u s s i o n of the p a r t i c u l a r preacher's s t y l e . analyses each c o n s i s t of the examination  The  of a sermon as a se-  q u e n t i a l experience t o which the l i s t e n e r responds.  Techniques  are d i s c u s s e d i n terms of response, r a t h e r than i n terms of l i t e r a r y t r a d i t i o n , r h e t o r i c , or o r a t o r y .  The analyses depend  on the sermon form's s e q u e n t i a l nature: t h a t i s , the sermons are not t r e a t e d as r e s e r v o i r s of examples to i l l u s t r a t e a s e r i e s of p o i n t s , but r a t h e r as experiences. The attempted,  t h e s i s concludes with a summary of what has been along w i t h comments on the value o f , and the  signi-  f i c a n t p o s s i b i l i t i e s a r i s i n g from, such s t u d i e s t h i s i n terms of  theology as w e l l as l i t e r a t u r e , i n England  and America.  The  c o n c l u s i o n p o i n t s out that the study h e l p s broaden our understanding of sermon l i t e r a t u r e as a genre. act  The  t h e s i s i s a l s o to  as an i n i t i a l step i n the process of u s i n g t h e o l o g i c a l  liter-  ature t o examine the development of E n g l i s h and American c u l t u r e and  thought. Supervisor  TABLE OF CONTENTS  PREFACE  i i i  CHAPTER I : GENERAL BACKGROUND John Donne Jonathan Edwards Notes  1 3 13 25  CHAPTER I I : SERMONS BY JOHN DONNE Introduction  28 28  Analysis #1 Analysis #2 Summary Notes  33 47 72 74  CHAPTER I I I i SERMONS BY J . EDWARDS.....76 Introduction 76 Analysis #1 80 Analysis #2 96 Summary 121 Notes  123  CHAPTER IV; CONCLUSION  125  BIBLIOGRAPHY  129  PREFACE In  this thesis,  sermons, intent  I s h a l l offer a s t y l i s t i c analysis of  two b y J o h n D o n n e , and two by J o n a t h a n E d w a r d s .  here i s not t o postulate  four My  any d i r e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p  between  Donne a n d E d w a r d s , n o r n e c e s s a r i l y t o c o n n e c t t h e i r w o r k s w i t h i n the t r a d i t i o n s of h o m i l e t i c l i t e r a t u r e . to focus on a f f e c t i v e t e c h n i q u e s , i techniques, stood i t .  w i t h i n the context I will  t r y to take  Rather,  and on r e s p o n s e  to  I  wish  those  o f t h e s e r m o n a s e a c h man u n d e r i n t o a c c o u n t some o f t h e  various  i social,  political,  l i t e r a r y , and t h e o l o g i c a l i n f l u e n c e s  acting  u p o n e a c h man. The  c r i t i c a l approach which deals w i t h a f f e c t i v e s t y l i s t i c s  attempts to analyze reader By f i r s t  examining the p e r c e i v e r ' s responses  literature, by  It  the f a c t  i s only after  that literature the  b e g i n t o speak o f l i t e r a t u r e  initial  i n a detached  in  It  i n r e m i n d i n g one t h a t t h e q u e s t i o n s  s e q u e n t i a l responses  experience.  are is a  shaped sequential  experience that  S u c h a n a p p r o a c h i s n o t new o r d i f f e r e n t . helpful  and  to a piece of  a n d t h e n a s k i n g how t h o s e r e s p o n s e s  s t y l e , one a c c e p t s  experience. may  or audience response  critical is,  sense.  however,  of experience  i n c r i t i c i s m c a n n o t be t a k e n f o r  t h e d e s i r e t o make o b j e c t i v e o b s e r v a t i o n s  one  about  and  granted  literary  t r a d i t i o n s o r about the r e l a t i v e m e r i t s o f a p i e c e o f work. We w i l l is  no l o n g e r r e c o g n i z e a t e c h n i q u e  o r d e v i c e and s a y ,  a t r a d i t i o n a l d e v i c e which t r a d i t i o n a l l y i s supposed t o  s u c h - a n d - s u c h and e f f e c t " . interested  have  R a t h e r , we s h a l l be much more  i n s a y i n g , "The r e a d e r  such-and-such an e f f e c t  "This  o r l i s t e n e r i s made t o  feel  through t h i s cumulative manipulation  o f s t y l e , grammar, w o r d s , o r i m a g e s " . p u l a t i o n of response, of  w h i c h was t h e b a s i s f o r t h e  traditional rhetorical This kind  framework  One e m p h a s i z e s t h e m a n i development  systems.  o f approach p r o v i d e s an i n t e r e s t i n g  w i t h which to work.,  c l o s e l y a type of l i t e r a t u r e  It  a l l o w s one t o  which r e f l e c t s  between t h e o l o g i c a l c o n c e r n s ,  the  critical examine  relationship  and t h e m a n i p u l a t i o n o f  language  f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f a l t e r i n g i n t e l l e c t u a l and e m o t i o n a l Certainly,  homiletic literature  l i t e r a r y and t h e o l o g i c a l . response  response.  i s shaped by t r a d i t i o n s  both  Y e t , s i n c e one i s d e a l i n g w i t h  rather than intent  or examination of a t r a d i t i o n ,  a p p r o a c h a l l o w s one t o compare t w o u n r e l a t e d e x p o n e n t s  of  l i t e r a r y f o r m on a g r o u n d where t h e r e w o u l d o t h e r w i s e be basis  for comparison.  In short,  a s a f u n c t i o n o f t h e human mind--——and t h i s not merely s t y l i s t i c s .  a g r e a t e r understanding of the  of  little  literature  i s the g o a l o f a l l  One may a l s o  achieve  e x e r c i s e o f l i t e r a r y and  l i n g u i s t i c powers w i t h i n the v a r i e d c o n t e x t s theology.  the  t h e a p p r o a c h becomes a means  w h e r e b y t h e r e a d e r may g a i n a d e e p e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f  good c r i t i c i s m ,  the  of  Christian  P e r h a p s most i m p o r t a n t l y , t h e a p p r o a c h p r o v i d e s a way  i n c r e a s i n g one's understanding o f the p a r a d o x i c a l d i v e r s i t y  o f ways i n w h i c h f a i t h m a n i f e s t s by u s i n g t h e  itself  in religious  literature,  o n l y common d e n o m i n a t o r p o s s i b l e : human i n t e l l e c -  t u a l and e m o t i o n a l r e s p o n s e .  T h a t i s , one may b e g i n t o  see  a r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h e human n e e d t o w o r s h i p G o d ; t h e contexts  of that worship i n different  r e l i g i o n s ; and  language,  t h e most u n i v e r s a l o f human i n v e n t i o n s . Some comment i s n e c e s s a r y  r e g a r d i n g my c h o i c e o f Donne a n d  E d w a r d s a s t h e t w o t h e o l o g i a n s whose w o r k I w i s h t o c o n s i d e r i n this thesis.  B o t h men s t a n d o u t s t r o n g l y i n o u r v i e w o f  times i n which each l i v e d . character, ality,  Donne h a s a l w a y s b e e n a f a s c i n a t i n g  whose m u l t i - f a c e t e d l i t e r a r y a n d t h e o l o g i c a l p e r s o n -  a n d whose i m p a c t o n t h e a g e i n w h i c h h e l i v e d ,  attracted  the  the a t t e n t i o n  o f numerous c r i t i c s  have  s i n c e h i s own t i m e .  I n h i s s e r m o n s he b l e n d s g r e a t l e a r n i n g and t h e e n e r g y o f life-long  i n t e l l e c t u a l c u r i o s i t y w i t h a deep and  sympathetic  u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e s e c u l a r and s p i r i t u a l n a t u r e s o f men. i s a rare  and e n i g m a t i c f i g u r e who h a s made a m a j o r c o n t r i b u t i o n  to English l i t e r a t u r e  and t h e o l o g y , and f o r t h i s r e a s o n  he i s w o r t h y o f s t u d y .  but because  they are  of s t y l i s t i c s ,  alone  The two s e r m o n s I h a v e c h o s e n f r o m h i s -  canon were p i c k e d , n o t because  point  He  fairly  t h e y a r e two o f D o n n e ' s b e s t ,  t y p i c a l o f h i s work from the  and because  they both r e f l e c t  view^  one o f h i s  major t h e o l o g i c a l p r i n c i p l e s . ^ J o n a t h a n E d w a r d s i s a f i g u r e whose l i t e r a r y p o w e r s  within  a t h e o l o g i c a l c o n t e x t s e p a r a t e him from h i s c o n t e m p o r a r i e s the art  of preaching.  theology, logical,  H i s use o f language i n the  and h i s c o n n e c t i o n w i t h t h a t s e t  s e r v i c e of  of social,  a n d p s y c h o l o g i c a l phenomena known a s t h e  A w a k e n i n g i n e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y New E n g l a n d ,  theo-  Great  provide  rich  p o t e n t i a l f o r study i n the areas of h o m i l e t i c l i t e r a t u r e stylistics.  in  and  F o r t h i s r e a s o n I have c h o s e n t o a n a l y z e two o f  h i s b e t t e r known s e r m o n s , w o r k s w h i c h c o m p l e m e n t e a c h i n s e t t i n g f o r t h c e r t a i n aspects of Edwards' t h e o l o g y .  other As  s e p a r a t e p i e c e s , e a c h i s t y p i c a l o f one o f E d w a r d s ' two m a i n sermon t y p e s ;  invitational,  and i m p r e c a t o r y .  B o t h works refleot  the relationship between Edwards' use of language and s t y l e , and the peculiar power o f the man over h i s audience within given theological contexts. A prefatory comment i s necessary regarding my use of critics.  My f i r s t chapter, which provides some background  Information, depends upon material gathered from a number of c r i t i c s . " With regard to my discussions of s t y l i s t i c devices, and to my actual analyses of the sermons, my reader w i l l note that I use certain c r i t i c s very extensively. Most often t h i s w i l l be because a p a r t i c u l a r c r i t i c may provide a simple of t a l k i n g about aspects of s t y l e , a way which I may  way  f i n d useful  throughout my discussion. However, I w i l l i n a l l cases t r y to make clear my indebtedness to c r i t i c s during the course of my analyses. One f i n a l note i s necessary. my advisor, Dr. Annette Kolodny.  I owe a debt of gratitude to Without her help, her kind-  ness, and the g i f t of her friendship during the four years I have known her, I would s t i l l be blind to certain facts about language, l i t e r a t u r e , and my own nature as a human being.  This  i s a debt I can never repay. I should also l i k e to express my appreciation to Dr. Harriet Kirkley and Dr. Paul Stanwood f o r t h e i r kindness and aid i n the production of t h i s thesis.  Notes The texts of both Donne sermons are from the following edition, which i s generally accepted as d e f i n i t i v e : The Sermons of John Donne, ed. E.M. Simpson and G.R. Potter, 10 vols.,.second • p r i n t i n g (1956; rpt.Berkeley: University o f C a l i f o r n i a Press, 1962). 1  T h e r e d o e s n o t a t p r e s e n t seem t o be a s i n g l e a u t h o r i t a t i v e o r d e f i n i t i v e e d i t i o n of Edwards' works. I h a v e r e l i e d o n one o f t h e more r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e a n d w i d e l y u s e d e d i t i o n s f o r t h i s study: Jonathan Edwards: R e p r e s e n t a t i v e S e l e c t i o n s , ed. C l a r e n c e H . F a u s t a n d Thomas H . J o h n s o n (New Y o r k : H i l l and Wang, 1 9 3 5 ; r e v . ed. A m e r i c a n C e n t u r y S e r i e s , 1 9 6 2 ) . I have a l s o made u s e o f J o n a t h a n E d w a r d s : B a s i c W r i t i n g s , e d . O l a E l i z a b e t h W i n s l o w ( T o r o n t o : New A m e r i c a n L i b r a r y I n c . , 1 9 6 6 ) . F i n a l l y , I h a v e c h e c k e d my s e l e c t i o n s f r o m t h e s e s o u r c e s a g a i n s t The W o r k s o f P r e s i d e n t E d w a r d s , i n E i g h t V o l u m e s , e d . E . W i l l i a m s a n d E . P a r s o n s (London: p r i n t e d f o r James B l a c k  and Son, 1817)*  CHAPTER I :  for  GENERAL BACKGROUND  B e f o r e one c a n b e g i n s u c h a n a n a l y s i s a s I have  proposed  this thesis,  problems.  one must t a k e  i n t o account  certain  Q u e s t i o n s t o be r e s o l v e d , w i t h r e g a r d t o b o t h Donne and E d w a r d s , i n c l u d e problems o f audience, literature,  and t h e  the t r a d i t i o n s  of homiletic  t h e o l o g i c a l , s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l  w h i c h may h a v e i n f l u e n c e d e a c h m a n ' s s t y l e .  It  should  however, t h a t the r e l a t i v e emphasis p l a c e d on these will  d i f f e r f r o m one man t o t h e  chapter  other.  factors  The p u r p o s e  noted,  questions of  this  i s t o d e a l i n g e n e r a l w i t h some o f t h e s e p r o b l e m s ,  t o p r o v i d e a b a c k g r o u n d w h i c h w i l l make more m e a n i n g f u l analyses  o f each man's  is  "homiletic literature"  i s some s o r t  or "homily".  a s u s e f u l a s any f o r my p u r p o s e  H o l m a n i n A Handbook t o  the  sermons.  O b v i o u s l y , a major requirement for  and  of definition  One d e f i n i t i o n t h a t  i s t h a t g i v e n b y C . Hugh  Literature:  H o m i l y : A form o f o r a l r e l i g i o u s i n s t r u c t i o n g i v e n by a n o r d a i n e d m i n i s t e r w i t h a c h u r c h c o n g r e g a t i o n as a u d i e n c e . The h o m i l y i s s o m e t i m e s d i s t i n g u i s h e d f r o m t h e sermon i n t h a t t h e s e r m o n u s u a l l y i s o n a theme d r a w n f r o m a s c r i p t u r a l t e x t and a h o m i l y u s u a l l y gives p r a c t i c a l moral counsel. The . d i s t i n c t i o n i s b y no means r i g o r o u s l y m a i n t a i n e d . In  terms o f t h i s t h e s i s ,  t h e d i s t i n c t i o n Holman mentions  "sermon" and " h o m i l y " i s n o n e x i s t e n t .  between  G i v e n t h a t a sermon  is  a f o r m o f " o r a l r e l i g i o u s i n s t r u c t i o n " , and p r e s u m i n g t h a t preacher  w o u l d w i s h t o do a s t h o r o u g h a n d e f f i c i e n t a j o b  possible i n teaching h i s congregation, s h o u l d be t h e way i n w h i c h t h e p r e a c h e r  o n e ' s major  any as  interest  e l i c i t s and shapes  response ticular  I n t r y i n g t o make a number o f p e o p l e conclusion.  and q u a l i t y  of  its  We w i s h t o effects,  examine  as t h e  aware  style  preacher  of  one  par-  through the  shapes  his  nature  audience'  responses. My method i n t h i s  thesis  of r h e t o r i c a l or h o m i l e t i c Tet  n o t depend u p o n a  reader that  only the  There are factors  first  an e x a m i n a t i o n o f  major  obviously  style  step i n exhaustive  many o t h e r s t e p s ,  and e l e m e n t s  within a literary  t r a d i t i o n or  ical  context  and t h e o l o g i c a l  milieux.  of t h e i r  Donne f e l t  the  directly,  scientific  and p h i l o s o p h i c a l d e v e l o p m e n t s .  the  influence  direct  a l o n g w i t h changes  Donne's, religious part its  of  context  even though  differences  and t r a d i t i o n s . traditions  It  any s e p a r a t e  and s p e c i a l  rhetorical tradition in this  analyses. objective  traditions. and  consciousness  contemporary felt  training Edwards opposed  was to  to  Edwards was  a  which,  despite  to E n g l i s h  origins  to  these  providing  t o my i m m e d i a t e p u r p o s e examination of h o m i l e t i c  thesis*  rhetor-  these  a throwback  t h e s e w i l l be by way o f i s not  by  since  I w i l l make c e r t a i n r e f e r e n c e s  supplemental d e t a i l .  effect  Edwards a l s o  r a t h e r than a r a d i c a l .  w i t h A n g l i c a n i s m , dated back  but  of  radically  own t i m e he was  to  intellectual  and H a r v a r d .  of a theology  and t h e o l o g i c a l  times,  offer  at  both Yale  in his  conservatism,  a literary  wrought  of r h e t o r i c a l t r a d i t i o n ,  i n r h e t o r i c was r e q u i r e d a t working w i t h i n the  own  effects  traditions  only  t o more  i n f l u e n c e d by h o m i l e t i c  w i t h i n the  analysis  through  critical  related  for  if  Donne and Edwards b o t h were traditions,  knowledge  t r a d i t i o n and v o c a b u l a r y  some homage must be p a i d t o t h e s e t r a d i t i o n s ,  remind the is  does  Having s a i d t h i s ,  to and let  3  me now b e g i n t o e x a m i n e t h e v a r i o u s p r o b l e m s m e n t i o n e d  at  opening o f the  will  first  chapter.  examine t h e  possible,  before  I n her book,  For the  situation  o f J o h n Donne a s c o m p l e t e l y  t u r n i n g to consider Jonathan A Study o f the  E v e l y n M . Simpson p r o v i d e s theologian.  sake of s i m p l i c i t y , I  a useful  or constructive  as  Edwards.  P r o s e Works o f J o h n D o n n e .  She d e m o n s t r a t e s t h a t  speculative  the  a  o v e r v i e w o f Donne a s "Donne was n o t  a great  theologian":  H i s s e r m o n s a r e t h e w o r k o f a n o r a t o r and a p o e t , whose s t r e n g t h l a y i n t h e r e a l i t y o f h i s own p e r s o n a l r e l i g i o u s e x p e r i e n c e and i n t h e power o f i m a g i n a t i o n b y w h i c h he b o d i e d f o r t h t h i n g s u n s e e n ar>d made them a l m o s t v i s i b l e t o h i s h e a r e r s . . . . H e was h a p p i e s t when he c o u l d e s c a p e f r o m t h e m i s t s o f t h e o l o g i c a l d i s p u t e s i n t o t h e c l e a r e r a i r o f f a i t h and d e v o t i o n . 2  Donne was one o f t h o s e u n u s u a l p e r s o n a l i t i e s to f i t  i n t o any s p e c i f i c t h e o l o g i c a l m o u l d u n l e s s  his conception of C h r i s t i a n t r u t h . energy  who  never  let  doctrines  he n e v e r  the necessity  questioned  standing  and h i s o f the  suited  intellectual  as v e h i c l e s f o r f a i t h ,  organized and  yet  f o r f a i t h and d e v o t i o n .  i n p a r t from h i s C a t h o l i c u p b r i n g i n g ,  s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l sinner,  it  him cease examining the v a l i d i t y of  r e l i g i o n s and t h e i r  theology r e s u l t s  His native  refused  His  his  a c t i v i t i e s , h i s awareness o f h i m s e l f as  a  c o n v e r s i o n t o A n g l i c a n i s m and t o a n u n d e r essence of C h r i s t i a n f a i t h .  There were  when he came i n t o o p e n c o n f l i c t w i t h c o l l e a g u e s and h i s w r i t i n g s a l w a y s b e a r the  strong  and sometimes  idiosyncratic beliefs,  and r e l i g i o u s  past:  of his  times own f a i t h ,  stamp o f h i s i n d i v i d u a l  and o f h i s own i n t e l l e c t u a l  ^ ^jhere 1 ^ * s u b t l e d i f f e r e n c e w h i c h a r i s e s from Donne*8 C a t h o l i c u p b r i n g i n g , and t h e a f f e c t i o n w h i c h he c o n t i n u e d t o f e e l f o r c e r t a i n C a t h o l i c t r a d i t i o n s . -  —  jgs.  4.  C o n s c i o u s l y he g a v e a n i n t e l l e c t u a l a s s e n t t o t h e d o c t r i n a l f o r m u l a r i e s o f the Church of England, but i n v a r i o u s ways he showed t h a t t h e p u l l o f t h e o l d e r a s s o c i a t i o n s was s t r o n g u p o n h i m . 3 One i s a l w a y s aware i n D o n n e ' s w o r k o f t h e  emphasis  u p o n t h e n e e d f o r a t h e o l o g y t o be as g r e a t a n a i d as i n h e l p i n g the s i n n e r towards f a i t h .  placed  possible  For him the Church of  E n g l a n d p r o v i d e s a h a p p y medium b e t w e e n P u r i t a n C a l v i n i s m and C a t h o l i c i s m , b o t h o f w h i c h h a v e t h e i r own p e c u l i a r  failings:  fDonne) . . . p r e f e r s t h e v i a m e d i a o f t h e E n g l i s h C h u r c h , and s a y s t h a t i n h i s ' p o o r o p i n i o n * t h e f o r m o f w o r s h i p e s t a b l i s h e d i n t h a t C h u r c h i s 'more c o n v e n i e n t , a n d a d v a n t a g e o u s t h e n o f any o t h e r K i n g d o m e , b o t h t o p r o v o k e a n d k i n d l e d e v o t i o n , and a l s o t o f i x i t , t h a t i t s t r a y n o t i n t o i n f i n i t e e x p a n s i o n s and S u b - d i v i s i o n s ; ( i n t o the former o f w h i c h , Churches u t t e r l y d e s p o y l ' d o f C e r e m o n i e s , seem t o me t o h a v e f a l l e n ; and t h e Roman C h u r c h , by p r e s e n t i n g i n u m e r a b l e o b j e c t s , i n t o the l a t e r ) . 1  4  H o w e v e r , i t must be n o t e d t h a t when D o n n e , b e f o r e h i s  conversion,  was most p e r p l e x e d a b o u t h i s own p e r s o n a l t h e o l o g y , he d i d n o t h e s i t a t e t o condemn c e r t a i n a s p e c t s o f t h e A n g l i c a n C h u r c h w h i c h 5  seemed d i s t a s t e f u l  and p u r p o s e l e s s  to him.  I h a v e m e n t i o n e d t h a t Donne o f t e n s t a n d s a p a r t f r o m h i s c o n temporaries,  even w i t h i n the A n g l i c a n C h u r c h .  As l i b e r a l  and  i moderate  a s t h a t C h u r c h may h a v e b e e n when compared t o  C a l v i n i s m and C a t h o l i c i s m ,  orthodox  t h e r e w e r e t i m e s when e c c l e s i a s t i c a l  authorities  were s u r p r i s e d by h i s w o r k : He p r e a c h e d t o l e r a t i o n i n a n age w h i c h demanded r i g i d c o n f o r m i t y , and h i s c o n t r o v e r s i a l sermons l a c k e d t h e b i t t e r n e s s w h i c h was demanded o f a zealous defender of the f a i t h . °  W i t h i n the  context  different  o f o r t h o d o x A n g l i c a n i s m , Donne s t r e s s e s  t e n e t s of the  f a i t h more s t r o n g l y t h a n o t h e r s .  He  o f t e n w o r k s t h r o u g h a p o e t i c and i n t u i t i v e i n s i g h t i n t o t h e n a t u r e o f f a i t h . A t t h e same t i m e , he o f t e n l a c k s t h e more  5.  t r a d i t i o n a l a s p e c t o f t h e C h r i s t i a n t h e o l o g i a n , who b u i l d s up a f r a g i l e t h e o l o g i c a l s t r u c t u r e u s i n g dogmatic l o g i c . u s e dogma, b u t w i t h o u t l e t t i n g i t u s e h i m . many o f t h e  constraints,  v i t a l i t y and e n e r g y  He d o e s  T h i s f r e e s him from  t h e o l o g i c a l and l i t e r a r y , w h i c h i n h i b i t  i n t e a c h i n g and  preaching:  The i m p r e s s i o n o f v i t a l i t y a n d u n c o n v e n t i o n a l i t y g i v e n by much o f D o n n e ' s t e a c h i n g i s due l a r g e l y t o h i s freedom from o r d i n a r y e c c l e s i a s t i c a l p r e judices. Though h i s t h e o l o g y i s o r t h o d o x , h i s standard o f moral values i s not t h a t which i s often _ a s c r i b e d , r i g h t l y or wrongly, to orthodox t h e o l o g i a n s . ' Donne d e n o u n c e s p u r e l y f o r m a l r e l i g i o n , c o n d e m n i n g  the  a p p e a r a n c e s o f f a i t h when t h e r e i s no l o v e i n t h e h e a r t . same t i m e t h e r e must be " r e v e r e n c e worship". accompanies  L o v e must be t h e the  trappings  and o r d e r l i n e s s  At the  i n church  essence, the l i v i n g f o r c e  that  and d i s c i p l i n e o f r e l i g i o n , i f a n  i n d i v i d u a l i s to approach s p i r i t u a l i t y through  Christ:  F o r D o n n e . . . a l l v i r t u e s a r e summed up i n l o v e , and t h e p r o c e s s o f p u r g a t i o n a n d s e l f - d i s c i p l i n e h a s no v a l u e e x c e p t i n s o f a r a s i t i s t h e work o f l o v e . ' G o d i s l o v e ; and he t h a t d w e l l e t h i n l o v e , d w e l l e t h i n G o d , and God i n h i m . ' . . . S o Donne r i s e s f r o m t h e l o v e o f t h e c r e a t u r e t o t h a t o f the C r e a t o r , and f i n d s i n t h i s l o v e t h e one e s s e n t i a l means o f purification. 8  Donne's l o v e shines  through h i s sermons,  m a k i n g them  monuments  o f h i s p e r s o n a l d e v o t i o n t o God, and e v i d e n c e s  of his Christian  l o v e f o r h i s f e l l o w s , t o whom t h e  addressed.  sermons a r e  Donne h a d c e r t a i n s p e c i f i c i d e a s a b o u t t h e n a t u r e a n d of the m i n i s t e r i n s o c i e t y , p r e s e n t we a r e  interested  r e l i g i o u s mentor o f the  t h e o l o g i c a l l y and s o c i a l l y .  i n h i s i d e a o f the preacher  i n a s o c i a l group,  r e l a t i o n s h i p between r e l i g i o u s and s e c u l a r  and c o n t e m p o r a r y sermon p r e a c h e d  s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l events. at  For  as  r a t h e r than i n h i s  role the  a  concept  "ministers"  In referring to  the S p i t a l i n 1622, Simpson o u t l i n e s  a  briefly  *  6  D o n n e ' s o p i n i o n a s t o what a m i n i s t e r s h o u l d b e . w i s h t o be " ' m i n i s t e r s  o f G o d ' s Word and  F o r t h o s e who  Sacraments'",  They must h a v e a t r u e s e n s e o f v o c a t i o n , must be i n d e e d c a l l e d o f God and a l s o o r d a i n e d b y l a w f u l a u t h o r i t y , and i n a d d i t i o n t h e y must h a v e a due e q u i p ment o f l e a r n i n g , f o l l o w h o l i n e s s o f l i f e , and p r e a c h z e a l o u s l y and f r e q u e n t l y . 9 In t r y i n g to f u l f i l l  h i s own r e q u i r e m e n t s ,  Donne s e e k s t o  t h e o l o g i c a l p r i n c i p l e s , the f o r m a l s t r u c t u r e  unify  of r e l i g i o n ,  and  t h e l o v e w h i c h s h o u l d be i n m e n ' s h e a r t s i n o r d e r t o p r o v i d e a way t o w a r d s a l v a t i o n f o r a l l b e l i e v e r s . As f a r a s Donne was c o n c e r n e d , what was t h e p u r p o s e sermon?  of a  I n t e r m s o f h i s b a c k g r o u n d a s a man o f l e t t e r s ,  we know  t h a t Donne was i n f l u e n c e d b y t h e L a t i n c l a s s i c a l w r i t e r s , t h o s e o f t h e G r e e k a u t h o r s whom he f o u n d i n L a t i n He was f a m i l i a r w i t h P l a t o n i c d o c t r i n e s , tied  translations. ^ 1  some o f w h i c h h a d  i n t o C h r i s t i a n p h i l o s o p h y by A u g u s t i n e ; t h e r e i s  for this article  familiarity  i n his sermons.  Dennis Quinn,  1 1  "Donne's C h r i s t i a n Eloquence", uses  Augustinian concepts  and by  been  evidence in his  traditional  t o e x p l a i n D o n n e ' s method o f c o m p o s i n g  12 sermons.  I n d o i n g s o he makes s e v e r a l p o i n t s w h i c h  v a l u a b l e t o an u n d e r s t a n d i n g looks at  the p a t r i s t i o n o t i o n of the  wrought i n i t as a r e s u l t are  o f Donne's work.  c e r t a i n weaknesses  His discussion  sermon and t h e  of Renaissance thought.  i n h i s argument,  are  changes While  there  some o f h i s p o i n t s  are  worth examining. In A u g u s t i n i a n t r a d i t i o n , the  Christian orator  c o m m e n t a t o r and t e a c h e r o f t h e B i b l e ,  s h o u l d be a  one who " w i n s s o u l s b y 1  3  e x p r e s s i n g t h e t r u t h as i t i s embodied i n t h e S c r i p t u r e s . " The t r a d i t i o n s o f p a g a n o r a t o r y , w i t h i t s a r g u m e n t s a n d e m o t i o n a l  l a n g u a g e , were o f f e n s i v e t o A u g u s t i n e b e c a u s e  t h e y seemed t o  be  b a s e d o n weak i n t e l l e c t u a l g r o u n d b y t h e m s e l v e s : (HeJ.. . s o u g h t t o f o u n d C h r i s t i a n o r a t o r y on more s o l i d ground on t h i n g s r a t h e r t h a n w o r d s , on t r u t h r a t h e r t h a n p r o b a b i l i t i e s ; hence t h e m a t e r i a l o f the sermon i s t h e t r u t h o f God a s e x p r e s s e d i n t h e B i b l e . Augustine encouraged use o f a l l the instruments o f human s c i e n c e ( i n c l u d i n g p a g a n r h e t o r i c ) i n i n t e r p r e t i n g and c o n v e y i n g t h e t r u t h o f t h e S c r i p t u r e s , b u t i t i s t h e t r u t h w h i c h s a v e s s o u l s , n o t human argument o r d e v i c e s o f l a n g u a g e . 1 4 i  Quinn sees t h i s t h e o r y o f C h r i s t i a n e l o q u e n c e , as w e l l as A u g u s t i n i a n conception of the B i b l e ,  as the  controlling  the  theory  u n d e r l y i n g r e l i g i o u s o r a t o r y u n t i l the R e n a i s s a n c e . D e s p i t e the changes brought by the R e n a i s s a n c e i n terms o f new a p p r o a c h e s  to the B i b l e ,  new n o t i o n s a b o u t r h e t o r i c , and  new i d e a s a b o u t what a s e r m o n ' s f u n c t i o n s h o u l d b e , Q u i n n s e e s Donne a s o w i n g a s t r o n g a l l e g i a n c e t o t h e A u g u s t i n i a n Q u i n n * s argument  i s convincing,  t h e more i m m e d i a t e e f f e c t s  t h o u g h he t e n d s t o  of the  traditions.  de-emphasize  "new" s c i e n c e and t h e  ment o f t h e r e a s o n - f a i t h r e s o l u t i o n i n D o n n e ' s t h o u g h t . Quinn does n o t pay s u f f i c i e n t a t t e n t i o n t o D o n n e ' s and t o h i s m a n i p u l a t i o n o f t r a d i t i o n f o r t h e  Q u i n n i s c o r r e c t , h o w e v e r , when he s a y s t h a t are not addressed p r i m a r i l y t o the reason." a part  of the process wherein the seeker  toward C h r i s t ,  Too,  individuality,  sake o f h i s  l o g i c a l e n d s and h i s own i n t e l l e c t u a l a n d m o r a l  treat-  theo-  self-respect.  " D o n n e ' s sermons J  R e a s o n becomes  i s h e l p e d t o move  b u t Donne was aware t h a t one " d o e s n o t w i n s o u l s  by r a t i o n a l c o n v i c t i o n "  alone:  The p s y c h o l o g y o f p r e a c h i n g i n g e n e r a l i s , f o r D o n n e , t h e same a s t h e p s y c h o l o g y o f t h e B i b l e , w h i c h works d i r e c t l y upon t h e s o u l and o n l y i n d i r e c t l y upon men's r e a s o n . * 6  Donne h i m s e l f h a s  said,  "Eloquence i s not our n e t . . . o n l y  the  17 Gospel i s . "  That I s ,  the m i n i s t e r does n o t persuade  audience t o devotion through reasonable of the Gospel, described i n reasonable devotion.  argument. terms,  The  truth  i s what k i n d l e s  Y e t , i n complying w i t h the A u g u s t i n i a n n o t i o n  any d e v i c e ( . . . a l l  the  n  instruments  misaable i n reaching for a s o u l ,  o f human s c i e n c e " )  s c o p e o f h i s l e a r n i n g , and t h e  Renaissance  in rhetoric,  and t h e  per-  his  H i s own b r i l l i a n c e ,  changes wrought by  theology,  that  is  Donne h i m s e l f o b s c u r e s  connection w i t h the A u g u s t i n i a n p r i n c i p l e s . the  his  conoept  a l l h e l p t o p r o v i d e an o f t e n c o n f u s i n g , a l w a y s  the  o f the  sermon  remarkable  r a t i o n a l framework i n D o n n e ' s r e l i g i o u s p r o s e .  Just  as  reason  and f a i t h a r e c o m b i n e d i n a R e n a i s s a n c e a p p r o a c h t o C h r i s t , s o r a t i o n a l argument  and i n t e l l e c t u a l l y o r r a t i o n a l l y c o n c e i v e d  p l o y s a r e u s e d a s a means o f r e a c h i n g t h e  s o u l on a  l e v e l w i t h i n a sermon.  I f the Gospel i s "our net",  and i t s m a n i f e s t a t i o n s ,  rhetoric,  emotions  a l l p a r t s of C h r i s t i a n eloquence  b y w h i c h Donne m a n i p u l a t e s c a n be  the  then  reason  appeals  to  the  are the  means  s o u l i n t o a p o s i t i o n where  it  "netted".  To u n d e r s t a n d t o know more a b o u t elements  more a b o u t D o n n e ' s i d e a o f a s e r m o n , the balance  i n h i s thought.  escapably or l e s s  and s k i l f u l  non-rational  of Renaissance  the  same t i m e .  and must be d e a l t  Renaissance  the products o f a c o n f l i c t  with at  r e s u l t i n g from the constant  of the Reformation.  inmore  s e r m o n s became f o r a t i m e  l o g i z i n g and p o l e m i c w h i c h began a f t e r outbursts  has  and m e d i e v a l  C e r t a i n s o c i a l conditions are  intertwined with this,  one  the  initial  Because o f sharp  theo-  theological  religious  9.  c o n t r o v e r s i e s w i t h f a r - r e a c h i n g s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l fications,  rami-  sermons became a l m o s t i n d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e a t  times  a r g u m e n t a t i v e p o l i t i c a l l e c t u r e s w h i c h w e r e meant t o r e a c h  from the  publio: The v e r y s u r v i v a l o f P r o t e s t a n t i s m depended u p o n f o r m u l a t i o n , p r o m u l g a t i o n , and defense o f sound d o c t r i n e ; and t h e p u l p i t was t h e b e s t means o f reaching the p e o p l e . * ° There were h a r s h c o u n t e r - a t t a c k s the J e s u i t f a t h e r s ,  the  from t h e C a t h o l i c C h u r c h and  a n d a n e e d f o r more e f f i c i e n t t h e o l o g i c a l  weapons was t h e r e s u l t .  T h e r e was a r e l a t e d change i n t h e  rules  o f r h e t o r i c c o n c e r n i n g sermon l i t e r a t u r e ,  a change w h i c h i n t r o -  d u c e d a p p e a l s t o " l o g i c and a f f e c t i o n s ' ' .  B u t one o f t h e  significant  c h a n g e s h a d t o do w i t h t h e t r e a t m e n t o f t h e  most Bible  1Q a s a n " h i s t o r i c a l document r a t h e r  than a s p i r i t u a l instrument".  Quinn d e s c r i b e s t h e B i b l e as becoming an " a r s e n a l o f w h i c h C a t h o l i c and P r o t e s t a n t w i t h much v i g o u r .  proof-texts"  t h e o l o g i a n s used against  With respect  each  other  t o D o n n e , l e s s e m p h a s i s n e e d be  p l a c e d on t h e i d e a o f o v e r t t h e o l o g i c a l c o n f l i c t  i n examining  h i s sermons.  decreased  somewhat,  By h i s t i m e , s u c h o p e n w a r f a r e h a d  t h o u g h c o n t e m p o r a r y t h e o l o g i a n s were s t i l l  s e n s i t i v e to the r e l i g i o u s p o l a r i z a t i o n o f the C r i t i c s h a v e a r g u e d on t h e  *  extremely  age.  one h a n d t h a t D o n n e ' s  thought  m a r k s h i m as a m e d i e v a l s c h o l a r , and on t h e o t h e r t h a t Donne i s 20 c l e a r l y a R e n a i s s a n c e man.  The M i d d l e A g e s and t h e  Renaissance  o v e r l a p i n terms o f s o c i a l b e h a v i o r , s c h o o l s o f thought, s o p h y , t h e o l o g y and l i t e r a t u r e .  philo-  B y t r y i n g t o l a b e l Donne a s  e i t h e r a m e d i e v a l o r a R e n a i s s a n c e man, one n e c e s s a r i l y s h u t s oneself  away f r o m t h e m u l t i - f a c e t e d n a t u r e o f t h e man a n d h i s  works.  He s h a r e s t h e m e d i e v a l v i e w o f God a n d H i s m a n i f e s t a t i o n s  throughout —  the  —  Simpson  universe:  U n d o u b t e d l y Donne*s t h o u g h t i s b a s e d on a f i r m c o n v i c t i o n o f t h e e x i s t e n c e o f G o d , and he s e e s God everywhere i n the U n i v e r s e . I n h i s method o f exp o u n d i n g t h i s g r e a t r e a l i t y he f o l l o w e d t h e S c h o o l m e n i n t h e i r respect f o r the past, i n the constant appeal t o a u t h o r i t y , and i n the f r e q u e n t use o f t h e allegori c a l system of i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . 2 1  confirms  Donne's  in  particular  to  of  the  Middle Ages.  of  his  belief  allegiance  Augustine), Donne's  i n God,  and by  to  and to works a  patristic  the are  tradition  classical dominated  traditional  (and  scholarship by  evidence  approach to  God's  works: . . . D o n n e ' s philosophy i s rooted i n a b e l i e f i n God, and i n t h e n a t u r a l o r d e r as a c h a i n o f b e i n g d e r i v e d from God. God i s t h e C r e a t o r , t h e e f f i c i e n t cause of the u n i v e r s e . He i s a l s o t h e f i n a l c a u s e , the aim and g o a l o f a l l . T h e s o u l o f man i s n o t e t e r n a l ; i t i s c r e a t e d b y G o d a t t h e moment w h e n i t i s i n f u s e d by Him i n t o t h e b o d y . I n t h i s Donne f o l l o w s  St. let  at  footsteps by  C M .  movement  the of  same  the  Coffin of  Augustine....22 time  medieval  which  the  Donne was  not  Schoolmen.  describes  merely  a follower  Simpson c i t e s  Donne as  part  of  the  a  in  the  statement  intellectual  Renaissance:  (bonne! ' . . . r e p r e s e n t s t h e e f f o r t o f t h e l a t e R e n a i s s a n c e m i n d t o make a n a d j u s t m e n t t o i t s w o r l d of changing values without s a c r i f i c i n g i t s regard f o r t h e e q u a l c l a i m s o f e m o t i o n a n d r e a s o n .'23 I n Donne established to  examine  describe his  one  "...the  find  authority, new d a t a  Donne  as  intellectual  sophical  may  studies.  combined  and the  in a less  either energy She  philosophical  a  the  medieval  Renaissance dogmatic  scientist  of  willingness  Simpson w i l l  or a philosopher,  Donne a s  implications  in  thinkers'  manner.  c a r r i e d him i n t o describes  belief  the  scientific a  poet  new  who  not  although  and  philo-  recognized  scientific  discoveries.  L i v i n g i n a n age o f t r a n s i t i o n he c o u l d f e e l  s h o c k s w h i c h were t h r e a t e n i n g  the  s e c u r i t y o f the  the  old edifice  OA  of thought."  *  His r e l i g i o u s thought,  g i v e n e x t e n s i o n by  c o m b i n a t i o n o f m e d i e v a l and R e n a i s s a n c e trademark  elements under  the  the  of his peculiar i n d i v i d u a l i t y , carries . . . D o n n e ' s c o n v i c t i o n of the u l t i m a t e r e a l i t i e s o f God and t h e s o u l . Behind the appearances o f sense t h e r e i s an i n v i s i b l e o r d e r w h i c h r e m a i n s u n s h a k e n . He a d j u r e s h i s s o u l t o l e a v e t h e s e o u t w a r d s h o w s , and s e e k t h e S o u r c e o f a l l k n o w l e d g e . . . . 2 5  When one b e g i n s t o d i s c u s s p o l i t i c a l a n d / o r s o c i a l on D o n n e ' s s e r m o n s ,  influences  one b e g i n s t o e n t e r i n t o d i s c u s s i o n o f  problems of audience,  t i m e , and p l a c e a s w e l l .  Certainly,  the the  n a t u r e o f D o n n e ' s a u d i e n c e was c o n d i t i o n e d b y t h e l o c a t i o n i n w h i c h a p a r t i c u l a r s e r m o n may h a v e b e e n d e l i v e r e d . were t o d e l i v e r a s e r m o n a t  c o u r t he c o u l d  I f Donne  justifiably  expect  a w e l l - e d u c a t e d , w e a l t h y and n o b l e a u d i e n c e w h i c h w o u l d vitally  concerned w i t h c u r r e n t  crises.  He c o u l d a l s o e x p e c t  s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l e v e n t s interest  w i t h l a r g e r and l e s s n o b l e a u d i e n c e s ,  E v e n when d e a l i n g  he c o u l d c o u n t  awareness o f the r e l i g i o u s  i z a t i o n o f t h e t i m e s a n d on t h e i r k n o w l e d g e o f m a j o r seems r e a s o n a b l e ,  affairs.  It  audience,  as d e t e r m i n e d by t h e s e f a c t o r s ,  s t y l e i n h i s sermons.  then,  These f a c t o r s  fairly polarcurrent  t h a t the nature of Donne's may h a v e  undoubtedly  content  and even m o t i v a t i o n i n t h e p r e a c h i n g o f  sermons  on p a r t i c u l a r o c c a s i o n s .  influenced  influenced particular  D o n n e ' s s e n s e o f h i s own r o l e  and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s a s a m i n i s t e r w o u l d i n p a r t d e t e r m i n e extent  or  i n any t h e o l o g i c a l c o n t r o -  v e r s y t h a t had s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l o v e r t o n e s .  s t r o n g l y on h i s a u d i e n c e ' s  be  of a particular event's effects  on a s p e c i f i c  the  sermon.  12.  While the examination of sermons to discover various references to current events i s not to my immediate purpose, I may comment on the relevance of secular or s o c i a l issues as influences on style i n particular passages from the, sermon".  For now, l e t  the reader consider merely that Donne "makes external l i f e . . • 27 part and symbol of h i s text". There i s one f i n a l problem-to be considered with respect to Donne: there i s reason to believe that the sermons were written in the form we have them after they were delivered, rather than before.  We have l i t t l e way of deciding with certainty whether  or i n what ways the extant texts d i f f e r from the versions 28 o r i g i n a l l y presented. panded written texts.  But Donne did prepare the f u l l y exThere i s no reason why we should think  that the written forms which are extant were designed to be any less persuasive than the o r i g i n a l s , many of which were delivered from notes.  I f Donne wished to teach and " a f f e c t " his  audience, would not the written forms be equally persuasive? The extant texts, i n most cases, r e f l e c t the expenditure of great care and energy on Donne's part.  It does not seem  l i k e l y that Donne! would have been any l e s s intent on h i s goals as a Christian minister i n his written sermons, especially i n a time when.religion was such a pervasive force.  It i s there-  fore not only reasonable, but important to examine the extant texts from the standpoint of a f f e c t i v e s t y l e .  It i s almost  a s ~ i f Donne were delivering h i s sermons to us personally, giving us a unique opportunity f o r study of style by e f f e c t .  *  •  *  *  •  One  must approach background m a t e r i a l t o Jonathan Edwards  i n a manner d i f f e r e n t from t h a t used w i t h r e s p e c t t o Donne. W h i l e the same k i n d s of q u e s t i o n s  c o u l d be asked r e g a r d i n g  theo-  l o g y * t h e i d e a and purpose of the sermon, s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l i n f l u e n c e s and problems o f a u d i e n c e , emphasis on v a r i o u s of t h e s e q u e s t i o n s must be a p p l i e d d i f f e r e n t l y .  F o r t h e purposes o f  a f f e c t i v e c r i t i c i s m , I am c h i e f l y concerned w i t h the s p i r i t of Edwards' t i m e s , h i s t h e o l o g y ,  general  and h i s i n t e l l e c t u a l  i  background ( e s p e c i a l l y h i s concept of language and h i s n o t i o n o f a sermon).  S i n c e Edwards i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the Great  Awakening i n P u r i t a n New cussion of that One  E n g l a n d , l e t me b e g i n w i t h a b r i e f d i s -  phenomenon.  of the more u s e f u l books on the Great Awakening i s Edwin 30  S c o t t Gaustad's The  Great Awakening. I n New  England .  o f f e r s u s e f u l d i s c u s s i o n on the P u r i t a n s e t t l e m e n t l o g i c a l sense) of New  Gaustad ( i n the theo-  England, and t r a c e s the development of the  c i r c u m s t a n c e s which l e a d up t o the p e r i o d o f r e l i g i o u s r e v i v a l 31  ism we  c a l l the Great Awakening.  eighteenth faltering.  We know t h a t by the e a r l y  c e n t u r y r e l i g i o u s e x e r c i s e i n New  England  The n a t u r e of the P u r i t a n t h e o c r a c y  was  was such t h a t  i t s members were s e n s i t i v e t o t h e i r s p i r i t u a l d e c l i n e as a community.  T h i s d e c l i n e was  due  more t o "...a  laxity in  p e r s o n a l m o r a l i t y and r e l i g i o n " which a f f e c t e d the whole community, t h a n t o any major d o c t r i n a l changes. Seventeenth c e n t u r y P u r i t a n d i v i n e s had not r e c o g n i z e d g r e a t d i f f e r e n c e s d o c t r i n a l l y between themselves and the P r o t e s t a n t s , but New  England C a l v i n i s m was  o f a covenant r e l a t i o n s h i p between God  any English  d e s c r i b e d i n terms  and men.'  2  T h i s covenant  r e l a t i o n s h i p was n o t political,  only r e l i g i o u s , but a l s o  as i t was e x t e n d e d  and s i n n e r s ,  to the  "...social  to bind a t o t a l society,  a c t i v e dominion of G o d . " ^  saints  Therefore,  -  s t a t u s o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n God and man w a s , t o seventeenth  century American C a l v i n i s t s ,  the t i m e , thought,  theocracy's  (whether  the  covenant  of grace  Because o f t h i s ,  t h e y were e l e c t  or  not). that  than t h e i r f i r s t - g e n e r a t i o n  forbears.  the  church  c o v e n a n t was e x t e n d e d  I t was t h o u g h t  would h a l t be.'  4  that  "opening wider the  the P u r i t a n s p i r i t u a l d e c l i n e , but  The c h i e f  effect  again.  the  i n m o d i f i e d form t o  who n o r m a l l y w o u l d n o t h a v e r e c e i v e d i t u n d e r t h e  the  leaders  community t o g e t h e r  I n an attempt t o r e g a i n r e l i g i o u s s o l i d a r i t y w i t h i n  system.  the  and b e c a u s e o f t h e r e s u l t i n g w e a k e n i n g o f  t o f i n d means" o f d r a w i n g t h e  community, the  the  o f P u r i t a n s w e r e more removed f r o m  community b o t h s o c i a l l y and p o l i t i c a l l y , tried  the  and e n e r g y o f  The G r e a t A w a k e n i n g was due i n p a r t t o t h e f a c t s e c o n d and t h i r d g e n e r a t i o n s  the  an a l l - p e r v a d i n g  q u e s t i o n which absorbed inhabitants  and  those  original  churches'  doors"  t h i s was n o t  u p o n i n d i v i d u a l members o f t h e  to  community  was t h a t r e l i g i o n became a n i n t e l l e c t u a l e x e r c i s e o f i n s t i t u t i o n a l instruction,  r a t h e r than a h i g h l y personal experience  o r i g i n a l Puritan sense.  By t h e  eighteenth  century,  in  the  New E n g l a n d  was r a p i d l y l o s i n g i t s t h e o l o g i c a l u n i f o r m i t y : The d o m i n a n t r e l i g i o u s g r o u p , C o n g r e g a t i o n a l i s m , was l o s i n g i t s m o n o p o l y and i t s i n t e g r i t y a s was the dominant t h e o l o g y , Calvinism,,3? E d w a r d s was t o b e g i n e f f e c t i v e 1733t o p e r a t i n g w i t h i n t h e r i g i d , confines of orthodox C a l v i n i s m .  r e v i v a l i s t work as e a r l y and p r e s u m a b l y  By the  as  out-dated  1 7 4 0 ' s , r e v i v a l i s m was  15.  i n f u l l swing.  The descendants of New England P u r i t a n i s m had  l o s t the most i m p o r t a n t r e l i g i o u s f o c u s e s f o r the f i e r c e l y i n t r o s p e c t i v e C a l v i n i s t s p i r i t u a l energy, w i t h o u t l o s i n g t h a t energy i t s e l f .  The people o f New  England were r i p e f o r  s p i r i t u a l p l u c k i n g by t h e powers o f Jonathan Edwards.  They  were s u s c e p t i b l e t o any i n f l u e n c e which would r e i n t r o d u c e t h e c o h e s i o n which had c h a r a c t e r i z e d the e a r l y P u r i t a n t h e o c r a c y . I n r e t u r n i n g t o orthodoxy Edwards d e l i b e r a t e l y used t h e p e o p l e ' s u n c o n s c i o u s need t o focuB t h e i r s p i r i t u a l energy; a t t h e same time he i m p a r t e d a new sense of immediacy t o o l d t h e o l o g i c a l issues.  He was t o r e d e f i n e f o r a b r i e f t i m e t h e l i m i t s o f  P u r i t a n s p i r i t u a l e x p e r i e n c e . He was t o become, i n e f f e c t , an anachronism, i n h i s attempt t o make t h e p a s t r e c u r i n t h e present. P r o b a b l y t h e b e s t d i s c u s s i o n o f Edwards' t h e o l o g y i s t o be found i n John LynenTs The D e s i g n of the Present.'** W h i l e t h e r e are o t h e r u s e f u l d i s c u s s i o n s o f Edwards' t h e o l o g y t o which I may r e f e r p e r i o d i c a l l y  discussions  Lynen does t h e b e s t j o b o f  t y i n g t o g e t h e r Edwards' t h e o l o g y , h i s i n t e l l e c t u a l background, and h i s t h e o r y o f language.  T h e r e f o r e i t i s c h i e f l y on Lynen*s  work t h a t I s h a l l r e l y . Edwards' t h e o l o g y has been d e s c r i b e d as ...a s t a t e l y and w e l l b u t t r e s s e d t h e o l o g i c a l and p h i l o s o p h i c a l system, a system b u i l t b o t h of m a t e r i a l s i n h e r i t e d from h i s C a l v i n i s t i c f o r b e a r s and o f m a t e r i a l s b o l d l y s e i z e d from the p h i l o s o p h i c a l s c h o o l s o f h i s time.57 However, d e s p i t e t h e s t r o n g p h i l o s o p h i c a l i n f l u e n c e s a c t i n g upon him, Edwards i s p r i m a r i l y a t h e o l o g i a n , n o t a p h i l o s o p h e r . H i s t h e o l o g y i s s u c h t h a t , as a r a t i o n a l scheme, i t i s n o t  16.  complete  unless  perience  or v i s i o n which gives  spiritual of  the  plane  scheme  logicality  to  is  his  designed  of  Here, Edwards'  by  a sense  to  I  logical  h e l p move  argument,  theology,  the  orthodox  reaching  Calvinist belief  the  being the  hearts  of his  c o n t r a d i c t i o n between that  he,  as  audience's face  of  souls.  of  causation. original  answer  has  a causal  i n the  natural,  How w a s  of  then to  levels  of  and subsequent  one were of  willing  events:  to  religious crucial  relevance  Edwards  to  both  accepted  damnation  so  intent  There  is  an  alter  preaching  to  the  or  upon  apparent belief  fate  of  his  achieve,  in  the  do w i t h E d w a r d s ' he  could resolve i n Creation,  theory the  course  of  a perfect the  of  question  and G o d ' s  events which might not  sequential  the  things.  sub-  Did  not  o r i g i n a l work  God be  and  d i s t i n c t i o n between  n o r m a l human  of  imperfect?  natural  (or divine intervention)  abandon the  of  have  Edwards c o u l d e l i m i n a t e a l l  that  cause  beyond  he  d i s t i n g u i s h between  problems by p o i n t i n g out  logic  will?  element  being?  the  The  w i t h one  its  ex-  p r e d e s t i n a t i o n and the  somehow  How c o u l d t h e . w o r k o f  one  spiritual  view  seeker  intervention imply imperfection i n the  Creation?.  if  of  why w a s  What c o u l d h i s  Edwards b e l i e v e d  s i n as  occurred  cause  idea  pre-ordained  the  the  i n predetermined  audienoe?  oould  meaning on  framework.  sermons.  case,  intervention to^airtBr  sequent  divine  a minister,  God's  Part  the  religious  toward the  because  i n v i t a t i o n a l and i m p r e c a t o r y  That  the  am m a i n l y c o n c e r n e d  his  salvation.  of  transcendent  system's  and r e a s o n a b l e  experience. element  accompanied  these  original  was  false,  experiential  17  I n e x p e r i e n c e causes appear t o precede e f f e c t s , and common sense t h e r e f o r e c o n c l u d e s t h a t a cause i s e f f i c i e n t o r has i n h e r e n t power t o "produce" t h e l a t e r event as i t s e f f e c t . F o r Edwards, however, c a u s a t i o n i s n o t e f f i c i e n c y hut, r a t h e r , a c o n n e c t i o n , "consent", o r a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s such t h a t an i d e a o f one t h i n g i n v o l v e s t h a t o f another.55 That i s , one does n o t judge c a u s a t i o n on t h e b a s i s o f s u c c e s s or l a c k o f s u c c e s s i n c o m p l e t i n g  a p r o j e c t e d sequence o f e v e n t s .  The e v a l u a t i o n o f c a u s a t i o n depends upon one's p o i n t o f view i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e i d e a o f one event and i t s c o n n e c t i o n t o t h e i d e a of another event.  T h i s i s an a t e m p o r a l r e l a t i o n s h i p . I n f a c t ,  the same concept a p p l i e s t o t i m e : " I f p l a c e i s an i d e a , and t h e l o c a t i o n o f a t h i n g 'a mode o f o u r i d e a o f p l a c e ,  1  then time  too i s an i d e a , and t h e p e r i o d o f time d u r i n g which a t h i n g e x i s t s i s a mode o f t h a t i d e a a l s o . "  Thus, time and p l a c e  are o n l y p a r t s o f God's w i l l , and t h e o n l y i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s regarding d i v i n e i n t e r v e n t i o n " a f t e r " the o r i g i n a l Creation are imagined by humans because o f t h e i r i n f e r i o r " n a t u r a l " viewpoint.  N a t u r a l and t e m p o r a l d i s t i n c t i o n s a r e apparent o n l y  t o u s , and n o t t r u l y s i g n i f i c a n t t o t h e f u n c t i o n i n g o f Edwards' God.  God i s A b s o l u t e , and cannot be encompassed r a t i o n a l l y . T h i s t h e o r y o f c a u s a t i o n a l s o a l l o w s f o r t h e concepts o f  Absolute  Sovereignty  and dependence upon God t o be expounded  i n a t o t a l l y u n i n h i b i t e d manner.  The s p i r i t u a l frame o f r e f -  erence i s made t o encompass t h e n a t u r a l w o r l d t h r o u g h a l t e r a t i o n of one's p o i n t o f v i e w . concepts o f A b s o l u t e  Y e t i f one i s p r e p a r e d t o a c c e p t t h e  Sovereignty  and p r e d e s t i n a t i o n , one must  r e s o l v e t h e problem o f t h e c o n t r a d i c t i o n between p r e d e s t i n a t i o n and f r e e w i l l , and examine t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p t o t h e i d e a o f regeneration.  I f p r e d e s t i n a t i o n t r u l y c o n t r o l s men's l i v e s , how  can Edwards hope t o a l t e r the f a t e o f t h e i r s o u l s t h r o u g h preaching? F i r s t l y , the concepts of p r e d e s t i n a t i o n , f r e e w i l l , r e g e n e r a t i o n are t i e d t o g e t h e r  inseparably.  d i c t a t e s t h a t one i s b o t h p r e d e s t i n e d , and  and  Orthodox C a l v i n i s m capable o f f r e e a c t s  o f w i l l ; and i t i s the b e l i e v e r ' s Job t o i n s p e c t and  discover  w i t h i n h i m s e l f the grace o f God under the covenant r e l a t i o n s h i p , . the means of r e g e n e r a t i o n ,  w i t h Edwards t h i s i s a p a s s i o n ,  inasmuch as he f a v o r s a r e t u r n t o almost t o t a l orthodoxy. Edwards, God's grace i s something which i s , i f one regenerate,  always p r e s e n t  For  i s of the  i n s i d e one whether one w i l l s i t or n o t ,  as a r e s u l t of e l e c t i o n t h r o u g h p r e d e s t i n a t i o n .  The  experience  of the l i g h t o f grace i s a u n i t y of the S p i r i t o f God  with  man  i n t h i s w o r l d , and i s immensely b e a u t i f u l . But the mere presence of the d i v i n e l i g h t w i t h i n a p e r s o n does not guarantee t h a t person's b e h a v i o r ,  o r even h i s r e c o g n i t i o n of i t s presence.  I t merely g i v e s one the c a p a b i l i t y of r e c o g n i z i n g o n e s e l f one of the l u c k y r e g e n e r a t e .  Therefore,  the p r e d e s t i n e d  d i t i o n has no d i r e c t c o n t r o l over p e r s o n a l a c t i o n .  as con-  F o r one  i s d e s t i n e d t o be u n r e g e n e r a t e , no amount of good works or b e h a v i o r w i l l be o f a i d i n c h a n g i n g the s o u l ' s f a t e .  who godly  Technically,  one i s f r e e t o do whatever one wants; the f a t e of one's s o u l i s as c e r t a i n a f a c t as d e a t h . and i s e v e r p r e s e n t  i n God's mind ( s i n c e t e m p o r a l d i s t i n c t i o n s  do not a p p l y t o God). does not a p p l y .  I t i s e t e r n a l l y sealed i n Creation,  I n Edwards' t h e o r y the concept o f  " P r e d e s t i n a t i o n " i s a word men  the r e l a t i o n s h i p - b e t w e e n  use t o r e f e r t o  the f a t e of n a t u r a l men,  time s e q u e n t i a l l y , t o God.  "before"  who  experience  God knows what one w i l l do because  19.  a l l e t e r n i t y i s open t o Him, a c e r t a i n way.  E i t h e r one  but He does not f o r c e one i s regenerate or not.  to act i n  Edwards' p u r -  pose i s t o h e l p the seeker f i n d out, and t o urge him  toward  the e x p e r i e n c e of t h e D i v i n e L i g h t which i s the mark and g l o r y o f the  the  regenerate.  T h i s , t h e n , i s one sermons: t o r e c o g n i z e  of the p r i n c i p l e i s s u e s i n Edwards' the t r u t h of the f a t e o f one's s o u l ,  r a t h e r t h a n t o change i t .  Of c o u r s e , the p e r s o n who  f e a r s back-  s l i d i n g i n t o 8 i n as an i n d i c a t i o n of unregeneracy may  always  hope f o r d i v i n e i n t e r v e n t i o n o r "subsequent cause" t o  occur.  Edwards' t h e o r y o f c a u s a t i o n e l i m i n a t e s the seeming c o n t r a d i c t i o n between p e r f e c t C r e a t i o n and subsequent d i v i n e manipulation.  The  o v e r a l l r e s u l t f o r t h e members of the  i s t h a t t h e i r w i l l s are c o n s t r a i n e d o n l y by t h e i r own  church  desires,  and t h e i r i n a b i l i t y as t e m p o r a l c r e a t u r e s t o grasp God's master plan. Edwards' i n t e l l e c t u a l background and h i s t h e o r y o f language g i v e shape and f o c u s t o h i s i d e a of a sermon. even as a young man, reoeived  He was  t o have been a g i f t e d s c h o l a r , and  the b e n e f i t of a t r a d i t i o n a l Y a l e e d u c a t i o n .  s t r o n g l y i n f l u e n c e d i n h i s e a r l y i n t e l l e c t u a l l i f e by teachings  known, he He  was  the  o f Locke, p a r t i c u l a r l y w i t h r e g a r d t o language  theory.  Locke t a u g h t t h a t language . . . i s a r t i f i c i a l ; i t r e s t s upon c o n t r a c t , and n e i t h e r v o c a b u l a r y nor s y n t a x have any i n h e r e n t or o r g a n i c r a t i o n a l e . By t h e m s e l v e s , words are o n l y n o i s e s , h a v i n g no t r a n s c e n d e n t a l or p r e t e r n a t u r a l c o r r e s p o n dence w i t h what they name; t h e r e i s no " n a t u r a l connexion...between p a r t i c u l a r a r t i c u l a t e sounds and c e r t a i n i d e a s , " and a s p e c i f i c word s e r v e s as the s e n s i b l e mark o f a p a r t i c u l a r i d e a o n l y "by a p e r f e c t v o l u n t a r y i m p o s i t i o n . " Meaning i s a r b i t r a r y ,  20.  the r e s u l t o f s o c i a l convention...Therefore...words are s e p a r a b l e from t h i n g s . 4 * When Edwards examined Locke's s e n s a t i o n a l psychology  and t h e  t h e o r y o f language a r i s i n g t h e r e f r o m , he encountered  certain  problems.  He a r r i v e d a t t h e same c o n c l u s i o n as B e r k e l e y ,  a l t h o u g h t h e r e i s no evidence t h a t he was f a m i l i a r w i t h B e r k e l e y ' s work.  L o c k e , i n h i s a n a l y s i s o f secondary q u a l i t i e s  or complex i d e a s , d e s t r o y s t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f an o b j e c t ' s e x i s t e n c e independent from thought. reasoned,  Consequently,  Edwards  " a l l t h i n g s have t h e i r b e i n g i n c o n s c i o u s n e s s . " ^ 4  Complex i d e a s e s p e c i a l l y , when d e p r i v e d o f t h e i r c o n v e n t i o n a l and " o b j e c t i v e " s i g n i f i c a n c e , become " ' f i c t i o n s and cont r i v a n c e s of the mind'". ' 4  However, d e s p i t e t h i s d e f i c i e n c y ,  Edwards was prepared t o accept t h e t e r m i n o l o g y o f Locke's analysis. At t h e same t i m e , Edwards was a l s o i n f l u e n c e d by t h e Newtonian concept o f n a t u r e as "...a system o f unchanging and u n i v e r s a l l y o p e r a t i v e l a w s " w h i c h p r o v i d e d warrant f o r t h e " d e t e r m i n i s t i c assumptions o f p r e d e s t i n a t i o n " , as w e l l as a way o f " r e n d e r i n g n a t u r e ' s p r o c e s s e s i d e n t i c a l w i t h God's thoughts."  4 4  Where Locke's i d e a s d e a l t w i t h language and t h e  development o f c o n v e n t i o n between human minds, t h e Newtonian concepts  o f u n i v e r s a l law, o r d e r , and p l a n n i n g r e i n f o r c e d  Edwards' sense o f t h e u n i v e r s e as God's p e r f e c t c r e a t i o n and o f the p r e d e s t i n e d o r d e r o f t h i n g s .  Language and t h e problems  a s s o c i a t e d w i t h i t seemed t o r e l a t e d t o men's c a p a b i l i t y f o r f r e e a c t i o n and m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g .  The Newtonian emphasis on  t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between cause and e f f e c t i n f l u e n c e d Edwards' own t h e o r y o f c a u s a t i o n , and u n d e r s c o r e d  man's i n a b i l i t y t o  a l t e r t h e p r o g r e s s o f u n i v e r s a l events ( o r , f o r t h a t m a t t e r , guess t h e outcome o f those e v e n t s ) . Edwards' s t u d i e s o f Locke c o n v i n c e d him t h a t t h e contemp o r a r y methods and v o c a b u l a r y o f p r e a c h i n g " s i g n i f i e d n o t h i n g that r e a l l y existed i n nature."  H i s j o b was then " t o e x t r i c a t e  a l l q u e s t i o n s from t h e l e a s t c o n f u s i o n o f a m b i g u i t y o f words, 4.15  so t h a t t h e i d e a s s h a l l be l e f t naked."  .  He r e c o g n i z e d t h a t  "our people do n o t so much need t o have t h e i r heads s t o r e d , as to have t h e i r h e a r t s touched...", and so he made t h a t h i s end. ' 4  His  people had f a l l e n away from t h e covenant o f grace and from  knowledge i n t h e h e a r t o f r e g e n e r a t i o n .  He would remind them  of t h e covenant, t e a c h them t o r e c o g n i z e i t by g o i n g d i r e c t l y to t h e i r h e a r t s , r a t h e r than t o t h e i r minds. I n t o t h e s y n t h e s i s he d e r i v e d from t h e i d e a s o f Locke and Newton, Edwards i n c o r p o r a t e d another i m p o r t a n t element.  He  r e v e a l s an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e e s s e n t i a l l y c h i l d - l i k e and s u p e r s t i t i o u s n a t u r e o f t h e human s p i r i t , and an awareness of  t h e e x t e n t t o which men a r e c o n t r o l l e d by c o n c e p t i o n s o r  i l l u s t r a t i o n s o f l o v e and anger o r t e r r o r .  He r e v e a l s t h i s  awareness c l e a r l y i n b o t h h i s i n v i t a t i o n a l and i m p r e c a t o r y sermons.  I n t h e former Edwards d e s c r i b e s t h e covenant w i t h  God, o r o t h e r a s p e c t s o f t h e o l o g i c a l t r u t h , i n terms which are designed t o p l a y upon h i s audience's n a t u r a l d e s i r e s f o r c o m f o r t , s e c u r i t y , and l o v e .  The audience i s i n v i t e d i n a  warm and s p i r i t u a l f a s h i o n t o a c c e p t o r move toward t h e g o a l to which he may be p o i n t i n g i n a p a r t i c u l a r sermon.  Such a  g o a l need n o t d e a l d i r e c t l y w i t h t h e concepts o f d i v i n e l o v e ; Edwards uses language d e s i g n e d t o a c t upon t h e need, f o r l o v e  22.  I n men's h e a r t s , as a means t o h i s end. I n h i s i m p r e c a t o r y sermons Edwards e s t a b l i s h e s s p i r i t u a l u n i t y w i t h God and awareness o f C h r i s t i a n t r u t h as a r e f u g e i  o r escape from t h e u n t e n a b l e p o s i t i o n o f t h e s i n n e r .  He depends  upon language d e s i g n e d t o evoke f e a r i n h i s audience's h e a r t s . I n t h e i n v i t a t i o n a l sermons, m o t i v a t i o n depends upon a t t r a c t i o n t o a p o s i t i v e g o a l ; i n t h e i m p r e c a t o r y sermons, i t depends upon the d e s i r e t o f i n d s a f e t y from a n e g a t i v e s i t u a t i o n .  Since the  o n l y s u c c e s s f u l means o f s a l v a t i o n i s d e r i v e d from u n i o n w i t h God, t h e two sermon t y p e s complement each o t h e r and, i n a sense, c i r c u m s c r i b e the n a t u r e o f man's i n t e l l e c t u a l and e m o t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p t o God and H i s m a n i f e s t a t i o n s .  S a l v a t i o n i s both  one's aim o r hope, and one's r e f u g e . A b r i e f word i s n e c e s s a r y c o n c e r n i n g Edwards' l i t e r a r y models.  Faust and Johnson, i n t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n t o t h e i r e d i t i o n  of Edwards, i l l u s t r a t e t h a t " . . . i n h i s c o n c e r n f o r modest, unadorned, cogent l o g i c , EdwardB was o l o s e l y f o l l o w i n g t h e p r e v a i l i n g t h e o r i e s o f l i t e r a r y a r t as they were expressed b o t h r i 47 here [ i n America] and i n England." H i s sermon s t y l e seems modelled i n p a r t upon t h e works o f h i s f a t h e r and g r a n d f a t h e r , Timothy Edwards and Solomon S t o d d a r d .  C e r t a i n l y he must have  been f a m i l i a r w i t h t h e i r work a t an e a r l y age.  There a r e  a l s o c e r t a i n s i m i l a r i t i e s between Edwards' sermons and those o f I n c r e a s e Mather.  But by f a r one o f the s t r o n g e s t i n f l u e n c e s  on h i s sermon s t y l e was the K i n g James v e r s i o n o f t h e B i b l e . Faust and Johnson note t h a t Edwards showed a d e f i n i t e p r e f e r e n c e f o r t e x t s chosen from t h e "more p o e t i c a l c h a p t e r s — P s a l m s , P r o v e r b s , E o c l e s i a s t e s , Solomon, and t h e G o s e p l s " :  23 . . . I t i s q u i t e p l a i n t h a t Edwards' s e n s i t i v e n a t u r e was so i n s p i r e d by t h e beauty o f t e x t i n Psalms, Solomon, S t . John, and e s p e c i a l l y i n R e v e l a t i o n , t h a t a v e r y d i r e c t modeling upon t h e i r p h r a s i n g can be e s t a b l i s h e d . 4 8 A l l Edwards' sermons r e f l e c t a l a r g e debt t o t h e B i b l e , from h i s a n i m a l f i g u r e s t o h i s imagery and r h e t o r i c  So g r e a t i s  h i s dependence upon s c r i p t u r a l models t h a t i n some cases a l l the o t h e r i n f l u e n c e s a c t i n g upon him become secondary, p e r i p h e r a l . H i s p h r a s i n g i s such t h a t o f t e n i t may be t r a c e d d i r e c t l y t o Biblical  origins.  4 9  I s h a l l have more s p e c i f i c comments t o make on Edwards' sermon s t y l e i n my t h i r d c h a p t e r .  At p r e s e n t , time p r e s s e s ,  and I must now move t o c o n s i d e r t h e q u e s t i o n o f Edwards' audience.  I n t h e 1740's, as r e v i v a l i s m s p r e a d throughout New  England, one c o u l d count on a l a r g e degree o f audience i n t e r e s t and w i l l i n g n e s s t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e r e l i g i o u s e x p e r i e n c e o f the sermon, even when t h e members o f t h e audience were n o t f u l l y possessed o f an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e u n d e r l y i n g t h e o l o g y .  The  f a c t t h a t Edwards was something o f a t h e o l o g i c a l throwback, o r t h a t h i s audience was a g e n e r a t i o n o r two removed from t h e orthodox t h e o l o g y he preached, d i d n o t h i n g t o h i n d e r him i n h i s t a s k ( u n t i l t h e r e v i v a l began t o f a i l ) .  I n f a c t , the state of  t e n s i o n and dependence upon t h e p r e a c h e r i n which t h e audience must o f t e n have found i t s e l f p r o b a b l y i n c r e a s e d i t s s u s c e p t i b i l i t y t o Edwards' powers.  I f one i s a t a l l i n doubt about t h e problem  o f audience response t o sermons d e l i v e r e d by Edwards and o t h e r s d u r i n g t h e Great Awakening,  one need o n l y examine Edwards'  Narrative of Surprising Conversions.^  0  O f t e n one i s tempted  t o d e s o r i b e some o f t h e responses o f Edwards' audience t o b o t h  24.  h i s major types o f sermons as n o t h i n g s h o r t o f p s y c h o t i c . his  Where  i n v i t a t i o n a l sermons c a r r i e d some of h i s l i s t e n e r s away w i t h  a sense o f d i v i n e joy and i n e f f a b l e b l i s s , h i s imprecatory sermons o f t e n provoked  the most unusual and f r a n t i c symptoms o f  emotional d e s p e r a t i o n and s t r e s s .  That t h i s i s so, and that  Edwards c r e a t e d these e f f e c t s w i t h apparent ease, makes a study of a f f e c t i v e technique i n Edwards' sermons a l l the more r e a s o n able and necessary.  *  »  *  *  «  Obviously, the background m a t e r i a l I have provided f o r both Donne and Edwards i s w o e f u l l y incomplete.  This i s a recognized  d e f i c i e n c y occasioned by the l i m i t a t i o n s of time Land space.  As r  minimal as t h i s background i s , i t w i l l be u s e f u l i n i l l u m i n a t i n g my analyses o f the f o u r sermons I have  chosen.  i  i  ii  • i i  25.  Notes C . Hugh H o l m a n , A Handbook t o L i t e r a t u r e , b a s e d on t h e o r i g i n a l by W . F . T h r a l l (New Y o r k : O d y s s e y P r e s s , 1 9 3 6 , 1 9 6 0 ) , B o b b s M e r r i l l Company, I n c . , 1 9 7 2 , p . 2 5 6 .  1  E v e l y n M . S i m p s o n , A S t u d y o f t h e P r o s e Works o f J o h n Donne ( O x f o r d : The U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s i p i a r e n d o n j , 1 9 2 4 . Second e d . 1948), p . 1 1 1 . ^ E v e l y n M. p.107. ^\S i m p s o n ,  Simpson, A Study o f the  P r o s e Works o f J o h n D o n n e ,  p.100.  5 See D o n n e , " S a t y r e I I I " , The C o m p l e t e P o e t r y o f J o h n D o n n e , e d . J o h n T . S h a w c r o s s (New Y o r k : A n c h o r B o o k s , 1 9 6 7 ) , 1 8 - 2 6 , p . 2 4 , 11.55-62. ^ S i m p s o n , A S t u d y o f t h e P r o s e Works o f J o h n D o n n e , p . 7 4 . 7 I Simpson, p . 7 7 . j 8 Simpson, q ^Simpson, 1  ^See  Simpson, pp.51-56  and  following.  Simpson p r e s e n t s evidence  t o b a c k up  this  D e n n i s B . Quinn, "Donne's 276-297.  C h r i s t i a n Eloquence",  ELH, 27(1960),  ' D e n n i s B . Quinn, "Donne's 276-297, p.276.  C h r i s t i a n Eloquence",  ELH, 27(1960),  1 2  1 4  1  p.81.  Simpson, p . 5 5 . point.  1 1  1  p.89  Quinn,  "Donne's  C h r i s t i a n Eloquence",  p.277.  ^Quinn, pp.282-283. Q u i n n c i t e s by way o f p r o o f R . L . H i c k e y , "Donne's A r t o f Memory", Tennessee S t u d i e s i n L i t . . 111(1958), 30-31.  l 6  Quinn,  1 > 7  p.283.  Quinn, p.282. Q u i n n c i t e s The Sermons o f J o h n D o n n e , S i m p s o n and G . P o t t e r ( B e r k e l e y , 1 9 5 5 ) , I I , 3 0 7 .  1 8  Quinn,  p.279.  1 9  Quinn,  p.280.  !  ed. E .  £0«  20  Simpson,  2 1  Simpson,  2 2  2  pp.112-113. p.115*  ' s i m p s o n , p . 117, o i t e a C o f f i n , p. 6. Simpson,  p.130.  ^Simpson,  p.131.  2 4  2  Simpson, p.112, c i t e s the f o l l o w i n g : Miss M . P . Ramsay's doct o r a l t h e s i s , L e s D o c t r i n e s m e d l e v a l e s chez Donne, l e p o e t e m e t a p h y s i c i a n de 1* A n g l e t e r r e ( O x f o r d . 1 9 1 6 ) : and C M . C o f f i n . J o h n Donne and t h e New P h i l o s o p h y ( C o l u m b i a , 1 9 3 7 ) .  J o h n Dormo »r\A t h e New P h i l o s o p h y ,  For the reader i n t e r e s t e d i n f u r t h e r study i n t h i s a r e a , I recommend t h e f o l l o w i n g : W i l l i a m G i f f o r d , " T i m e and P l a c e i n D o n n e ' s S e r m o n s " , PMLA, 8 2 , N o . 5 ( O c t . ' 6 7 ) , 3 8 8 - 3 9 8 ; and J o h n B . G l e a s o n , " D r . Donne i n t h e C o u r t s o f K i n g s : A G l i m p s e from M a r g i n a l i a " , JEGP, 6 9 ( 0 c t . ' 7 0 ) , 5 9 9 - 6 1 2 . 2 7  J o a n W e b b e r , C o n t r a r y M u s i c : The P r o s e S t y l e o f J o h n Donne (Madison: U n i v e r s i t y of Wisconsin Press, 1963), p.167.  2 8  S e e W i l l i a m G i f f o r d , " T i m e and P l a c e i n D o n n e ' s PMLA. 8 2 , N o . 5 ( O c t . ' 6 7 ) , 3 8 8 - 3 9 8 .  2 9  See Gifford, 398.  Sermons",  " T i m e and P l a c e i n D o n n e ' s S e r m o n s " , PMLA,  388-  ' ° E d w i n S c o t t G a u s t a d . The G r e a t A w a k e n i n g ' I n Kew E n g l a n d ( C h i c a g o : Q u a d r a n g l e B o o k s , 1 9 6 8 ; f i r s t e d . New Y o r k : H a r p e r and B r o t h e r s , 1957). ' F o r d e t a i l s , s e e G a u s t a d , The G r e a t A w a k e n i n g I n New E n g l a n d , c h a p t e r s one and two* 1  5 2  Gaustad,  '^Gaustad,  pp.7-9* p.8.  ' F o r d e t a i l s , i n c l u d i n g t h e H a l f - W a y C o v e n a n t and o t h e r ments, see G a u s t a d , pp.9-12* 4  ^Gaustad,  develop-  p.15.  ' J o h n F . L y n e n , The D e s i g n o f t h e P r e s e n t U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1969). 6  (New H a v e n : Y a l e  ' ^ C H . F a u s t and T . H . J o h n s o n , e d . , J o n a t h a n E d w a r d s : R e p r e s e n t a t i v e S e l e c t i o n s (New Y o r k : H i l l a n d Wang7 1 9 3 5 , 1962; American Century S e r i e s e d . , 1 9 6 2 ) , i n t r o . , x v - x v i . 5 8  John  P.  L y n e n , The D e s i g n o f t h e P r e s e n t .  p*93  and  following.  39  •^Lynen, p.99. Lynen c i t e s Ramsay's i n t r o d u c t i o n t o "Freedom o f t h e W i l l " , i n P a u l Ramsay, e d . , The Works o f J o n a t h a n E d w a r d s , I (2 v o l s . New H a v e n : Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 5 7 - 5 9 ) , 34-37.  4 0  Lynen,  p.99  P e r r y M i l l e r , "The R h e t o r i o o f S e n s a t i o n " , E r r a n d I n t o t h e W i l d e r n e s s (New Y o r k : H a r p e r and Row, 1 9 5 6 ) , 1 6 7 - 1 8 3 , p . 1 6 9 .  4 1  A O  Lynen, p . 9 3 . 43 ^ M i l l e r , "The R h e t o r i c o f S e n s a t i o n " , E r r a n d I n t o t h e W i l d e r n e s s , p . 174. M i l l e r i s u s i n g B e r k e l e y , A T r e a t i s e C o n c e r n i n g the P r i n c i p l e s o f Human K n o w l e d g e ( L o n d o n , 1 7 1 0 ) , i n t r o . , p a r . 1 3 « 4 4  4 5  4  Lynen,  pp.93-94.  Miller,  p.176.  ^ M i l l e r , p.175. F o r f u r t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n , see M i l l e r , L y n e n , and James P. C a r s e , J o n a t h a n E d w a r d s and The V i s i b i l i t y o f God (New Y o r k : S c r i b n e r ' s , 1 9 6 7 ) .  ^ C . H . F a u s t and T . H . J o h n s o n , e d . , J o n a t h a n E d w a r d s : R e p r e s e n t a t i v e S e l e c t i o n s (New Y o r k : H i l l and Wang, 1935» 1962; A m e r i c a n C e n t u r y S e r i e s e d . , 1 9 6 2 ) , p . c i i i . See p p . c i i i and f o l l o w i n g f o r f u r t h e r d e t a i l s . Faust  and J o h n s o n ,  intro.,  cvii-cviii.  ^Faust  and J o h n s o n ,  intro.,  cviii.  4 8  4  ^ T h e r e a r e a few e d i t i o n s o f t h i s w o r k . F o r t h e p u r p o s e o f t h i s t h e s i s the F a u s t and J o h n s o n e d i t i o n p r o v i d e s a d e q u a t e t e x t for consultation.  CHAPTER H i  SERMONS BY JOHN DONNE  Joan Webber, i n her book Contrary Music: The Proae S t y l e of John Donne, claims t h a t Donne, as a w r i t e r , was only good at one t h i n g , though that one t h i n g i s very i n t e n s e and v a l u a b l e . He was good at communicating h i s own experience, and he could only do t h i s by showing what the experience was made of.* The knowledge t h a t Donne seeks t o communicate or share ( r a t h e r than merely d e s c r i b e ) r e l i g i o u s experience i s v i t a l t o any amination of h i s sermons.  He i s always aware of the  ex-  significance  of h i s own  experience, which he t r i e s c o n t i n u a l l y t o express  throughout  the progress of any g i v e n sermon.  He r e c o g n i z e s  a l s o t h a t a sermon i s i t s e l f an experience f o r the audience whom i t i s d e l i v e r e d .  Donne attempts  to c r e a t e a r e l i g i o u s  experience f o r h i s audience by c o n s c i o u s l y , d e l i b e r a t e l y , a r t i s t i c a l l y manipulating the t h e o l o g i c a l and l i t e r a r y he f i n d s a v a i l a b l e .  and  tools  He seems t o have achieved an awareness of  the s e q u e n t i a l nature of h i s audience's i n g a sermon.  to  experience i n apprehend-  Indeed, he seems to have r e a l i z e d that the bases  f o r r h e t o r i c a l t r a d i t i o n s are the a f f e c t i v e purposes the t r a d i t i o n s were i n i t i a l l y  f o r which  devised.  In h i s awareness of the sermon as a s e q u e n t i a l process or p r o g r e s s i o n i n s o f a r as the audience i s concerned, Donne demons t r a t e s h i s r e a l i z a t i o n that s t y l e and context are d e v i c e s or means, r a t h e r than ends or g o a l s i n a sermon. and c o n t e x t u a l components may  S t y l i s t i c devices  be u t i l i z e d and then d i s c a r d e d or  consumed by the p r o g r e s s i o n of the sermon, as Donne manipulates audience response.  S t y l e used s e n s i t i v e l y f o r experience's  sake,  29.  r a t h e r than merely fice itself  t o the requirements  create or share. mutually  a s a p a r t o f a t r a d i t i o n a l s y s t e m , may  The a u d i e n c e  o f t h e e x p e r i e n c e Donne w a n t s t o and t h e p r e a c h e r  i n the l a t t e r ' s a s s o c i a t i v e processes  participate a s Donne g i v e s  shape t o h i s own e x p e r i e n c e a n d i t s s i g n i f i c a n c e . becomes o b v i o u s l y l i n k e d t o s t r u c t u r e , s t y l e , and  the sequential progress  culminates  Experience  image and m e t a p h o r ,  o f a s s o c i a t i o n s w i t h i n a sermon  i n the r e a l i z a t i o n of a truth.  r e a l i z a t i o n , as f a r as t h e audience to  sacri-  The d e p t h  i s concerned,  of this  will  depend  some e x t e n t u p o n t h e d e g r e e o f m u t u a l a w a r e n e s s i t s h a r e s  with the preacher  w i t h i n a g i v e n sermon.  A good summary s t a t e m e n t  o f one o f Donne's m a i n a i m s  o u t h i s s e r m o n s i s p r o v i d e d b y L i n d s a y Mann.  through-  Donne s e e k s t o  e s t a b l i s h i n some way a n a w a r e n e s s o f t h e . . . r e a l and e s s e n t i a l l m u t u a l i n h e r e n c e and i n t e r d e p e n d e n c e o f t h e n a t u r a l and s p i r i t u a l o r d e r s i n a p a r t i c i p a t i n g and i n t e r a c t i n g p a t t e r n w h i c h s t r e s s e s human r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n t h i s w o r l d . 2  It  i s t h e e x p r e s s i o n o f t h i s a w a r e n e s s w h i c h h e l p s u n i f y Donne's  s e r m o n s , e v e n when t h e s u b j e c t s o f i n d i v i d u a l p i e c e s a p p e a r diverse.  This concept  and some o f i t s r a m i f i c a t i o n s ,  together  w i t h t h e i d e a o f Donne a s a c o m m u n i c a t o r o f e x p e r i e n c e ,  will  h e l p t o u n i f y my a n a l y s e s o f t h e two s e r m o n s I h a v e c h o s e n . B e f o r e t u r n i n g t o my a n a l y s e s , I must make some comments r e g a r d 's ing  Donne'8  style.  To a l l a p p e a r a n c e s , Donne a v o i d s l o g i c a l p r o g r e s s i o n i n favor of a s s o c i a t i v e progression i n content structure.  and t h e m a t i c  T h a t i s , w h i l e a s e r m o n may show a r t i s t i c  and  s t r u c t u r a l l o g i c a s a l i t e r a r y c r e a t i o n , i t may be w r i t t e n i n  30  a manner designed t o move the audience by a s s o c i a t i o n r a t h e r than l o g i c a l p r o g r e s s i o n (although the two are not n e c e s s a r i l y mutually e x c l u s i v e ) .  T h i s o p i n i o n tends to be supported by the  strange and r e s t l e s s q u a l i t y of Donne's sentences.  Webber de-  fines this quality well: H i s sentences, when they do not c i r c l e around a s i n g l e word, are apt t o b u i l d t o a climax before they end; and they are apt t o end where they began. The ways i n which h i s sentences are broken up are r e p e t i t i v e and m u s i c a l as w e l l as t h o u g h t f u l . 4 She a l s o a p p r e c i a t e s that apparent i l l o g i c i n form does not  im-  pede the f o r m a t i o n o f i n t e l l e c t u a l l y c o n s i s t e n t wholes i n Donne's sentence p e r i o d s .  Donne l i k e s to produce a sequence of non-  mechanical f i g u r e s which culminates i n an understandable, i f not s t r i c t l y l o g i c a l u n i t y o f form of content.  In many i n s t a n c e s ,  t h i s v e r y i r r e g u l a r i t y a f f e c t s the audience from the outset of a sermon, and c r e a t e s a s t a t e of t e n s i o n i n which the audience's s e n s i t i v i t y t o Donne's language  i s heightened.  The  listener  i s J a r r e d s l i g h t l y , and becomes s e n s i t i v e t o key words, i d e a s , and a s s o c i a t i o n , r a t h e r than symmetry and grammatical Grammar and sense approach each other from d i f f e r e n t One  f i n d s that "...there i s a comprehensive  directions.  order t o the  sentence; and i t s inward and a p p a r e n t l y spontaneous meets an outer and c o n f i r m i n g f r a m e . I n  logic.  development  f a c t , Donne d e l i b e r -  a t e l y manipulates s t y l e and grammar i n the sentence p e r i o d , with an eye t o . . . l e s s e n i n g i t s grammatical coherence, i n c r e a s i n g i t s a s s o c i a t i v e or conceptual u n i t y ; the p e r i o d does not progress with grammatical l o g i c or smoothness, but i m i t a t e s the a c t i o n of the memory....' Thus grammar i s made t o c o n f i r m a s s o c i a t i o n r a t h e r than l o g i c . Perhaps one o f the most i n t e r e s t i n g a s p e c t s o f Donne's  sermon.style.is'the  strange j u x t a p o s i t i o n of u n l i k e l y f i g u r e s i n  image and metaphor.  These j u x t a p o s i t i o n s are u s e f u l s t y l i s t i c  t o o l s i n h e i g h t e n i n g the l i s t e n e r ' s s e n s i t i v i t y to the t i o n s of p a r t i c u l a r concepts  illustra-  by t h e i r very stangeness and  d i s s i m i l a r i t i e s between t h e i r p a r t s .  In h i s book The  the  Imagery  of John Donne's Sermons. W i n f r i e d S c h l e i n e r gives an account of the t r a d i t i o n s w i t h which Donne was  working i n the c r e a t i o n of Q  his  unusual  images and  juxtapositions.  Using the  traditions  of decorum, high and low metaphor, and the t o p o i or commonplaces, Donne seeks to i l l u s t r a t e t h e o l o g i c a l p o i n t s i n the most e f f e c t i v e manner p o s s i b l e .  Often t h i s i n v o l v e s manipulation  and departure from these t r a d i t i o n s , so t h a t Donne may his  l i s t e n e r and thereby  i n c r e a s e h i s a t t e n t i o n and  F u r t h e r , i n t r a c i n g the flow and  surprise  sensitivity.  the q u a l i t y of s t y l e and meta-  phor w i t h i n the sermons i n terms of a f f e c t i v e response, see how  experience  one  may  and awareness have r e p l a c e d mere persuasion Q  and l o g i c a l p r o g r e s s i o n as the c e n t r a l emphases. Donne was  aware of the o v e r a l l s t r u c t u r e of h i s sermons as  a stylistic tool. to for  Beyond whatever debt h i s sermon form owes  t r a d i t i o n , one may  see a. s e n s i t i v i t y to form as a device  r e g u l a t i n g the l i s t e n e r ' s independence and the flow of  a s s o c i a t i o n through the sermon.  Sometimes Donne p r o v i d e s a  s t r o n g g e o m e t r i c a l or l o g i c a l metaphor which not only  provides  an i n t e l l e c t u a l means to approach a s u b j e c t , but which a l s o serves as a p r i n c i p l e of s t r u c t u r a l o r g a n i z a t i o n .  By  treating  o r g a n i z a t i o n as a r e f l e c t i o n of a c o n t r o l l i n g metaphor i n a  :  sermon, Donne b r i n g s form and content together t o ease the l i s t e n e r ' s progress  i n r e a c h i n g a given g o a l .  Donne e s t a b l i s h e s  a framework by overt statement and example; the l i s t e n e r stays w i t h i n the context  provided  who  has, r e l a t i v e l y speaking, an  easy time f o l l o w i n g ! up the i m p l i c a t i o n s of the c o n t r o l l i n g i  metaphor.  s t r u c t u r e i s d e l i b e r a t e l y designed  to confuse the l i s t e n e r .  While he may inform the l i s t e n e r  of some o v e r a l l p l a n , the approach d e l i n e a t e d may be overwhelmed by the sermon's movement.  That i s , Donne maintains c o n t r o l of  the l i s t e n e r ' s a b i l i t y to p r o j e c t a l o g i c a l sequence of a s s o c i a t i o n according metaphor.  t o knowledge o f some o v e r a l l p l a n or c o n t r o l l i n g  The l i s t e n e r becomes trapped by h i s own a s s o c i a t i v e  movement w i t h i n each subsequent context  i n the sermon's  progress.  Donne uses s t r u c t u r e t o confuse when he f e e l s i t necessary to: increase the l i s t e n e r ' s dependence upon the preacher as a s p i r i t u a l guide  and c o i n c i d e n t a l l y , as a guide through the  i n t r i c a c i e s of the sermon. Bearing  i n mind these few i n t r o d u c t o r y comments, l e t us now  t u r n t o the f i r s t ' , of the sermons I have chosen f o r a n a l y s i s . In i t , Donne expresses some of the r a m i f i c a t i o n s o f that  "...real  i and  e s s e n t i a l mutual inherence and interdependence of the n a t u r a l  and  s p i r i t u a l o r d e r s " i n a manner which " . . . s t r e s s e s human •  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n t h i s world."  Donne works i n p a r t i c u l a r with  the r e l a t i o n s h i p between p o l i t i c a l , and r e l i g i o u s or s p i r i t u a l l e a d e r s h i p i n a s o c i e t y where t h a t r e l a t i o n s h i p I s a - t o p i c of considerable  concern.  33.  "Preached to the King at W h i t e - h a l l , A p r i l 15. 1628. EBay. 32.8. BUT THE LIBERALL DEVISETH LIBERAL! THINGS, AND LIBERALL THINGS HE SHALL STAND."  BY  10  In t h i s sermon Donne w i l l e s t a b l i s h and  growing sense of moral and  the  chosen t e x t .  He  f o r the  l i s t e n e r a strong  i n t e l l e c t u a l duality  w i l l then transmit the  a r i s i n g from  r e a l i z a t i o n that  the  i  apparent d u a l i t i e s are delineating  s u p e r f i c i a l , and  s p i r i t u a l orders".  England's k i n g as her The  interdependence of "the  of the  text  c i v i l and  unified  the  (technically)  the  and  theological notion  her  r e l i g i o u s modes or elements  of  spiritual represen-  s p i r i t u a l orders r e s p e c t i v e l y  w i l l be made to cohere, so that the and  to r e i n f o r c e  p o l i t i c a l and  t a t i v e of the n a t u r a l and  a new  natural  More s p e c i f i c a l l y , Donne uses the  s o c i a l implications  leader.  is really  i s a u n i f i c a t i o n of apparently d i s t i n c t elements  which w i l l i l l u s t r a t e the  and  t h a t what he  l i s t e n e r w i l l be  sense of s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l and  l e f t with  religious  responsibility.^ Donne begins the  sermon thus: "By  the  G o s p e l l beene propagated by men  and  by  Sermons"(11.1 - 2 ) .  make up  an i n s t r u c t i v e  Donne a l l u d e s :  The  wayes e s p e c i a l l y  of l e t t e r s , by  "Sermons".  c i v i l element, and  element, i n the apparent d u a l i t y  the  f o l l o w e d t h e m a t i c a l l y and  elements to which  The  former are  l a t t e r of the  Donne i s to e s t a b l i s h . of the  s t r u c t u r a l l y i n the  they are  repreligious The  course to  sermon.  apparent d u a l i t i e s appear to a r i s e from c o n s i d e r i n g the text;  lines  two  opening passage thus becomes a p r e f i g u r a t i o n be  hath  Epistles,  sermon's opening f o r t y - t h r e e  expansion upon the  " E p i s t l e s " and  r e s e n t a t i v e of the  two  The chosen  l i s t e d i n a manner which emphasizes t h e i r  a p p a r e n t l y d i s t i n c t natures; and  they are brought together at  the end  of the opening passage, w i t h i n the context  of the  chosen  text* And so names m u l t i p l i e d ; Homilies, Sermons, Conciones l e c t u r e s , S. Augustins E n a r r a t i o n s , D l c t i o n e s . that i s , Speeches, Damascens and C y r i l s Orations (nay, one e x e r c i s e of Caesareus, conveied i n the forme of a Dialogue) w e r e - a l l Sermons. Add to these Church-exercises, (Homilies, Sermons, L e c t u r e s , O r a t i o n s , Speeches, and the r e s t ) the Declamations of C i v i l l men i n Courts of J u s t i c e , the T r a c t a t e s of M o r a l l men w r i t t e n i n t h e i r S t u d i e s , nay goe backe to our owne times, when you went to Schoole, or to the U n i v e r s i t y ; and remember but your owne, or your f e l l o w e s Themes, or Problemes, or Commonp l a c e s , and i n a l l these you may see evidence of that to whichjthe Holy Ghost himselfe hath set a Seale i n t h i s t e s t , that i s , the recommendation of Bountie, of Munificence, of L i b e r a l i t i e , The L i b e r a l l d e v i s e t h l i b e r a l l t h i n g s , and by l i b e r a l l things hee s h a l l stand.(11.31-43) The  impact^of the sermon's t e x t as a climax to t h e  remains s t r o n g l y i n the l i s t e n e r ' s mind. as the key  passage  A sense of the  text  to u n i t y w i t h i n the sermon w i l l l i n g e r , as Donne sets  about e x p l o r i n g the r a m i f i c a t i o n s of the c i v i l - p o l i t i c a l and  element  the e c c l e s i a s t i c a l - s p i r i t u a l element i n the sermon. In the sermon's d i v l s i o . which f o l l o w s immediately  after  the passage quoted above, Donne f o r c e s the l i s t e n e r to  accept  the a r b i t r a r i l y set c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s he wishes to apply to text's implications.  The  appeal to i n t e l l e c t u a l order,  as the grammatical a l t e r n a t i o n of apparently parate  the  as w e l l  opposing or d i s -  elements, helps to e s t a b l i s h a seemingly r i g i d  structure  by which to approach v a r i o u s apects of the problem at hand. Donne b r i n g s the c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the d u a l i t y to the and  the p e r s o n a l ,  of a "now"  and  a  present  "me":  ...In c i v i l l Authors, and e x e r c i s e s , as w e l l as i n E c c l e s i a s t i c a l l , . . . o u r E x p o s i t o r s , of a l l three ranks and C l a s s e s (The Fathers and A n c i e n t s , The l a t e r men i n theRomane Church, and ours of the Reformation) are very near e q u a l l y d i v i d e d , i n every of these  35.  three ranks; whether t h i s Text be intended o f a m o r a l l and a c i v i l l , or o f a s p i r i t u a l l and E c c l e s i a s t i c a l l l i b e r a l i t y ; . . . h a t h d i v i d e d our E x p o s i t i o r s i n a l l those three C l a s s e s . ( 1 1 . 4 5 - 5 8 ) Donne provides  a r e l a t i v e l y simple but l o g i c a l frame which may  appeal t o the l i s t e n e r ' s innate d e s i r e t o "cubby-hole" evidence i n the attempt t o a r r i v e at a c o r r e c t c o n c l u s i o n . division within a d i v i s i o n .  We have a  That i s , Donne s t u d i e s both s i d e s  of the question o f " l i b e r a l i t y " because each of the three of " E x p o s i t o r s " d e a l i n g with the two-fold and  civil  types  problem ( i . e . , moral  s p i r i t u a l and e c c l e s i a s t i c a l ) are e q u a l l y d i v i d e d i n  t h e i r responses.  Donne imparts a heightened awareness o f the .  f a c t that an apparent c o n f l i c t  exists.  In the very next sentence p e r i o d , Donne f o r c e s the l i s t e n e r to dwell i n g r e a t e r d e t a i l upon the seemingly r i g i d s t r u c t u r e he has established.:  In doing so, he produces one o f the i n -  c r e d i b l y long sentence periods which appear so o f t e n i n h i s sermons.  The periojd begins by informing the l i s t e n e r that i t s  substance w i l l r e l a t e t o a l l three types o f " E x p o s i t o r s " mentioned i n the preceding  passage: "In a l l t h r e e , . . . . " ( 1 . 5 8 ) .  There f o l l o w s a p a r e n t h e t i c a l and subordinate  s e c t i o n o f some  ten l i n e s , which absorbs the l i s t e n e r ' s a t t e n t i o n . p a r e n t h e t i c a l expression  Since  this  begins with "though", the l i s t e n e r i s  made t o f e e l that an understanding o f i t w i l l be necessary t o the c o n c l u s i o n the p e r i o d i s t o reach.  Y e t , i n the p a r t o f the  p e r i o d which f o l l o w s the p a r e n t h e t i c a l s e c t i o n , the i n f o r m a t i o n p r e v i o u s l y given i n the p e r i o d i s s e t a s i d e .  The emphasis  s h i f t s t o a more l i b e r a l view which, while reminding the l i s t e n e r of the importance o f " l i b e r a l i t y " , r e q u i r e s t h a t an examination of the " c o n f l i c t " between the c i v i l and r e l i g i o u s modes be made:  36. . . . y e t , I say, though there be some p e r e m p t o r y , th are i n a l l the three C l a s s e s , A n c i e n t s , Romans, Reformed, moderate.men, that apply the prophecy b o wayes, and f i n d e that i t may v e r y w e l l s u b s i s t so, That i n a f a i r e p r o p o r t i o n , a l l these b l e s s i n g s s h be i n the r e i g n e s of those H e z e k i a s s e s . and those I o s i a s s e s . t h o s e good K i n g s w h i c h God a f f o r d s to h p e o p l e ; But the m u l t i p l i c a t i o n , the e x a l t a t i o n of these b l e s s i n g s , and v e r t u e s , i s w i t h r e l a t i o n t o the comming of C h r i s t , and the e s t a b l i s h i n g of h i s Kingdome.(11.67-74) T h i s  i s  which form  f o l l o w e d  by  demonstrate and  the  as  substance  a  of  two  c o n c l u d i n g  c o n c l u s i o n our  the  p e r i o d s  of  the  ere t h a l l i s a l l  paragraph,  a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s  of  the  e x a m i n a t i o n .  And t h i s puts us, i f not to a n e c e s s i t y , yet w i t h conveniency, to c o n s i d e r these words b o t h wayes; What t h i s c i v i l l l i b e r a l i t y i s , that i s here made a b l e s s i n g of a good Kings regne; And what t h i s s p i r i t u a l l l i b e r a l i t y i s , that i s h e r e made a testimony of U h r i s t s r e i g n e , and of h i s G o s p e l . And t h e r e f o r e , s i n c e we m u s t p a s s e twice thorough these words, i t i s t i m e t o b e g i n ; The l i b e r a l l man d e v i s e t h l i b e r a l l t h i n g s , and by l i b e r a l l t h i n g s he s h a l l stand.(11.74-81) The  complex  grammatical  passage  i n  j e c t i v e  a n x i e t i e s  the  p e r i o d  given  which  we  s t r u c t u r e  f i n d  and  i t ,  s t r u c t u r e ,  and  These  are  the  i n s p i r e s  d i s c o m f o r t  s e q u e n t i a l l y .  of  i n  l o n g  i n t e l l e c t u a l  the  l i s t e n e r  a n x i e t i e s  s a t i s f i e d  p e r i o d ,  by  the  seek  and  and  as  r e l a t i v e l y  the  s u b -  he  r e l i e f  of  perceives w i t h i n  simple  the and  i s o l i d the  c o n c l u d i n g  t e x t  there  b e i n g  The i s  to  acts  the  through  the  apparent  the  o t h e r .  s c r i b i n g  two  of  a  c l i m a c t i c  the  k i n d  of  d i v e r g e n t  cumulative  a l l o w  o u t l i n e s  as  sentences  the  d u a l i t y  of a  the  f i r m  s t y l i s t i c on  passage.  r e a d i n g s  e f f e c t  l i s t e n e r  the  the  one  p o i n t ,  has  d u a l i t y  i s  u n i t y ,  and  because  the  the  been  and  r e a l l y  the  of of  r e i n f o r c e d .  on  the  l i n e s problem's  j u x t a p o s i t i o n  of  i m p l i e d  on  another  elements  sense  hundred  h o l d  c o n c e p t u a l  hand,  the  and  f i r s t  a s s o c i a t i v e  Because  restatement  a g a i n  sermon's  and  The  o f  way  the  u n i t y o f  d e -  d u a l i t y  do  37.  not r e a l l y oppose each other as one may  believe i n i t i a l l y ,  the  a f f e c t i v e impact of the sermon's s t y l i s t i c p l a n w i l l f a v o r the l i s t e n e r ' s a s s o c i a t i o n of the p o s s i b i l i t i e s . one  That i s , t h i s i s  of those sermons where s t r u c t u r e i s made t o r e f l e c t s t a t e d  intent. Over the next hundred or so l i n e s , Donne begins  to  explore  i n g r e a t e r d e t a i l the concept of " L i b e r a l i t y " as he conceives i t , under the s t r u c t u r a l d i v i s i o n s which he has  established.  He  never l o s e s s i g h t of the apparent d u a l i t y he has o u t l i n e d , nor of the u n i t y which i s implied i n h i s p r o j e c t e d c o n c l u s i o n . continues other.  He  to play the c i v i l and r e l i g i o u s modes a g a i n s t each  Each i s strengthened  by d e f i n i t i o n of the other,  as  Donne moves toward a c u l m i n a t i o n i n which the elements of the d u a l i t y are t o be u n i f i e d i n a new  realization.  The  framework  of d u a l i t y which provides the s t r u c t u r a l b a s i s f o r the sermon w i l l r e f l e c t that u n i f i c a t i o n when Donne e v e n t u a l l y b r i n g s  the  sermon t o a c l o s e . I should now  l i k e to examine more c l o s e l y a p a r t i c u l a r  passage, i n which Donne a p p l i e s the concept of l i b e r a l i t y the King and h i s o f f i c e .  T h i s passage, which extends from  to 11.  213-234, r e l a t e s d i r e c t l y to the c i v i l aspects of l i b e r a l i t y and  of the sermon's t e x t .  The passage begins  this  way:  For the King f i r s t , t h i s vertue of our Text, i s so r a d i c a l l y so elementary, so e s s e n t i a l l to the King, as that the v u l g a t E d i t i o n i n the Romane Church read t h i s very Text thus, Princeps vero ea quae p r i n c i p e digna sunt, c o g i t a b i t . The King s h a l l e x e r c i s e hims e l f e i n r o y a l l M e d i t a t i o n s , and A c t i o n s ; Him, whom we c a l l a L l b e r a l l man, they c a l l a King, and those a c t i o n s that we c a l l L i b e r a l l . they c a l l R o y a l l . ( 1 1 .  213-219)  allow the l i s t e n e r t o  *  38.  a s s o c i a t e s t r o n g l y the concepts of l i b e r a l i t y and r o y a l t y . l i s t e n e r must work w i t h i n the c o n d i t i o n s of the seemingly  The rigid  s t r u c t u r e Donne e s t a b l i s h e d e a r l i e r ; but w i t h i n the p e r i o d a l l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s are subordinated to the p r i n c i p a l a s s o c i a t i v e focus  the K i n g .  The word i n the l i s t e n e r ' s mind a s s o c i a t e s  the person and the o f f i c e with the concept which both should bte i n s e p a r a b l y t i e d . i  of L i b e r a l i t y , t o  Donne implants  the  i n i t i a l suggestion of t h i s with an uneven c i r c u l a r s t r u c t u r e u s i n g two  short phrases which repeat "the K i n g " .  s t r e s s e s the primary p o s i t i o n of the concept  He  thereby  "King" r e p r e s e n t s ,  and encompasses a s o r t of d e f i n i t i v e , c o n c i s e statement intent.  We proceed  from "the King f i r s t "  of  to " t h i s vertue of  our Text", and then to a quick s e r i e s of three s t r o n g m o d i f i e r s . These, although o b v i o u s l y d i f f e r e n t , c r e a t e s i m i l a r a s s o c i a t i o n s for  the l i s t e n e r  "so r a d i c a l l , so elementary,  so e s s e n t i a l l . . . . "  There i s an i m p l i e d downward i n f l e c t i o n to what one might to  be the c o n c l u s i o n : "...so r a d i c a l l , so elementary,  e s s e n t i a l l to the K i n g . . . " .  so  The e f f e c t i s one of a m p l i f i c a t i o n  and reinforcement surrounding ( c o n c e p t u a l l y but not the key word.  expect  grammatically)  From t h e r e , a g a i n s t e x p e c t a t i o n , the a l r e a d y un-  even, s m a l l c i r c u l a r mbvement i s broken by a r a t h e r sharp t u r n toward " t h i s very Text", but i n the context of the "Romane Church". Immediately there i s a dichotomy e s t a b l i s h e d between a and a "they". of  "we"  I t i s r e f l e c t e d by the divergence i n the readings  the same t e x t , and i n the d i f f e r e n c e between responses  t o the  i n i t i a l p r o p o s i t i o n of the t e x t ' s r e l a t i o n s h i p to the word "King" and i t s i m p l i c a t i o n s . i  Donne f o l l o w s h i s r e f e r e n c e to the "Romane  Church" with a L a t i n q u o t a t i o n which tends both to slow one's  39.  progress i n the r e a d i n g ,  and  forthcoming t r a n s l a t i o n . the s t r e s s from the  to make one  pause, a l l o w i n g f o r the  Both the L a t i n and  the E n g l i s h  shift  "Romane Church" back to the King, who  exercise himselfe".  Donne has now  "shall  managed to e s t a b l i s h a s t a t e  of balance between "King"-as concept and  the  responsibilities  embodied by same, a c e n t r a l but moving focus; the treatment the "Romane Church" of the same t e x t , and  by  i t s implications i n  terms of response and p r o j e c t e d disagreement; and at bottom, the e x p e c t a t i o n  that Donne w i l l r e v e a l p a r a l l e l s i n i n t e r p r e t a t i o n ,  thus p o i n t i n g to some s i g n i f i c a n t  conclusion.  In the d i v i s l o of the sermon Donne prepared the way  f o r the  i  "we-they" o p p o s i t i o n and  parallels.  Here the o u t l i n e s of  p a r a l l e l s are more f i r m l y e s t a b l i s h e d : we—"a L i b e r a l l they—"a  King"; w e — " L i b e r a l l " , t h e y — " R o y a l l " .  the  man",  Having suggested  a p r o f i t a b l e comparison to the l i s t e n e r , Donne maintains  the  necessary a s s o c i a t i v e l i n k s b y . r e p e t i t i o n of the key words " L i b e r a l l " and  "Royall".  The  memory of "Romane Church" remains  to i n s u r e the s t r e n g t h and apparent r i g i d i t y of the dichotomy. ...Him, whom we c a l l a L i b e r a l l man, they c a l l a King, and those a c t i o n s we c a l l L i b e r a l l . they c a l l  Royall.  In the second sentence p e r i o d of the passage one  f i n d s the  s o r t of grammatical and l o g i c a l incoherence that occurs cont i n u a l l y i n Donne's prose.  Webber w r i t e s :  The whole p e r i o d o f t e n seems to be p u l l e d out of a b r i e f and disconnected opening...which, while i t i s the b a s i s f o r a l l that f o l l o w s , i s absolved from grammatical r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to the r e s t of the sentence by i t s own e l l i p t i c a l or otherwise i s o l a t e d form.... ...An imaginative e l a b o r a t i o n of an idea may s p r i n g from almost anything, a word or a phrase b u r i e d i n one sentence s e r v i n g as a p i v o t f o r a s t r i n g of grammatically disconnected t h o u g h t s . 1 2  40.  T h i s i s what the second p e r i o d doesgrammatical  or l o g i c a l senses.  i d e a s , " L i b e r a l l " and  i t seems incomplete i n the  Yet i t l i n k s the two words and  " R o y a l l " , i n a manner which i n v i t e s the  l i s t e n e r t o examine them i n the context of the S c r i p t u r e s : A T r a n s l a t i o n h e r e i n excusable enough; f o r the very O r i g i n a l l word, which we t r a n s l a t e , L i b e r a l l . i s a R o y a l l word, Nadib, and very o f t e n i n the S c r i p t u r e s hath so h i g h , a R o y a l l . s i g n i f i c a t i o n . ( 1 1 . 2 1 9 - 2 2 1 ) In t h i s case the second c l a u s e of the sentence c o n t a i n s a comp l e t e thought, but the d a n g l i n g opening phrase and the strange word order g i v e the impression of a l a c k of grammatical T h i s impression i n no way  d i m i n i s h e s the i n t e l l e c t u a l  unity.  and  a s s o c i a t i v e bonds with the content, and we end with "a R o y a l l signification".  There i s a much s t r o n g e r sense of order than  can be j u s t i f i e d e i t h e r grammatically or l o g i c a l l y .  The next  sentence's opening emphasizes and r e i n f o r c e s t h i s , w i t h the f i r s t c l a u s e u s i n g grammatically sound c o n s t r u c t i o n and t a i n i n g a complete  con-  thought:  The very word i s i n that p l a c e , where David prayes to God, to renew him s p i r i t u P r i n c i p a l l ; And t h i s , ( s p i r i t u s P r i n c i p a l i s ) as many T r a n s l a t o r s c a l l a P r i n c i p a l l , a P r i n c e l y , a R o y a l l s p i r i t , as a l i b e r a l l , a f r e e , a b o u n t i f u l l s p i r i t ; I f i t be L i b e r a l l , i t i s Royall.(11.222-225) Only through i t s l a s t two words, " s p i r i t u P r i n c i p a l l " . i s the first  c l a u s e t i e d t o the next, which i s used t o r e p e a t , expand,  and amplify the s i g n i f i c a n c e of both t r a n s l a t i o n s . movement can only be a s s o c i a t i v e here. clause i s complete,  The  listener's  Although the second  the word order and o v e r a l l s t r u c t u r e of i t  i s so r e v e r s e d that i t does not seem a complete t h e l e s s , understanding i s p r e s e r v e d .  thought.  None-  In the f i n a l c l a u s e of  the sentence p e r i o d , both v e r s i o n s of the t r a n s l a t i o n are u n i t e d  *  in a blunt, f l a t ,  e a s i l y remembered statement of e q u a l i t y : " I f  i t be L i b e r a l l , i t i s R o y a l l " . mere equation of the two  terms.  There may  be more here than the  For the present,  however, the  l i s t e n e r w i l l remember them most e a s i l y i n the s t a t e d There i s a decided  fashion.  pause here, while the l i s t e n e r a s s i m i l a t e s  the i n f o r m a t i o n he has been g i v e n .  Then, the next sentence  begins i n a manner which i m p l i e s c o n t i n u i n g movement.  I t con-  t i n u e s t o be s a t i s f y i n g i n terms of the l i s t e n e r ' s a s s o c i a t i v e i processes: For, when David would have brought a t h r e s h i n g - f l o o r e , to e r e c t an A l t a r upon, of Araunah.; and Araunah o f f e r e d so f r e e l y p l a c e , and s a c r i f i c e , and instruments and a l l , the Holy Ghost expresses i t so, A l l these t h i n g s d i d Araunah. as a King, o f f e r to the King; There was but t h i s d i f f e r e n c e between the L i b e r a l l man, and David, A King, and The King.(11.225-230) Grammatical and  l o g i c a l expectations  are again upset.  f i r s t p a r t of the p e r i o d d e a l s with i n t e n t i o n and  Since  action,  the  and  s i n c e the p e r i o d begins with "For, when..."(thus umplying a r e v e l a t i o n of r e s u l t i n g a c t i o n s to f o l l o w ) , one  tends to expect  a c o n c l u s i o n which completes the a c t i o n s i n v o l v e d . are presented w i t h a conceptual, resolution. example and  Instead,  we  r a t h e r than a c i r c u m s t a n t i a l  T h i s r e s o l u t i o n i s drawn from S c r i p t u r e , and  mixes  concept'unwevenly.for the sake of'. the c e n t r a l idea's  I a s s o c i a t i v e development. between a s s o c i a t i o n and d i s l o c a t i o n moves one  Donne e s t a b l i s h e s a stronger logic-grammar.  The  tension  r e s u l t i n g sense o f  to r i s e above the w r i t t e n words to  concept i t s e l f , which i s moulded by a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h i n  the  the  sequential structure.  S t r e s s has again s h i f t e d s l i g h t l y from  e q u a l i t i e s of word and  concept t o a r a t h e r u t i l i t a r i a n exemplum  of o p e r a t i o n  i n the S c r i p t u r a l context.  The  biblical situation  42  a l l o w s - f o r the l i s t e n e r ' s p e r s o n a l involvement i n s h a r i n g an understanding o f the concept of l i b e r a l i t y i n o p e r a t i o n . Presumably  the i n t e n t i s t o enable one t o move on from the te  example, keeping the a s s o c i a t i o n s i t produced a l i v e , and coming to an awareness of L i b e r a l i t y ' s meaning i n one's own s i t u a t i o n . David and Araunah are made equal i n such a way that t h e r e can be l i t t l e doubt: the only d i f f e r e n c e between them i s that one i s a King, and the other, the K i n g . true i s obvious, because  That t h i s i s u n a l t e r a b l y  "the Holy Ghost expresses i t s o " .  The comparison between David and Araunah enhances the e f f e c t s of "the L i b e r a l l " and r a i s e s that q u a l i t y t o an even g r e a t e r degree o f importance.  I t l e a d s t o a n a t u r a l statement o f the  r e l a t i o n s h i p o f R o y a l t y , and t h e r e f o r e L i b e r a l i t y , t o God. A King i s the h i g h e s t m o r t a l example o f the L i b e r a l l , and t h e r e f o r e c l o s e s t t o God i n t h a t r e s p e c t .  The l a s t two sentence p e r i o d s  of the passage d e c i d e d l y s h i f t s t r e s s back t o the i d e a o f K i n g s h i p and the King, with the l a s t sentence b u i l d i n g to a crescendo through expansion and a m p l i f i c a t i o n : Higher then a K i n g , f o r an example and comparison of L i b e r a l i t y , on t h i s s i d e o f God, hee could not goe. The very forme o f the O f f i c e of a K i n g , i s L i b e r a l i t y , that i s Providence, and P r o t e c t i o n , and P o s s e s s i o n , and Peace, and J u s t i c e shed upon all.(11.231-234) The passage concludes s o l i d l y and with grandeur, subsuming i n i t s f i n a l e f f e c t s the memories from the a s s o c i a t i v e and i n t e l l e c t u a l processes which went i n t o i t s s e q u e n t i a l apprehension. There i s a rhythmic d i s p e n s a t i o n of power which  eliminates  l i n g e r i n g f r u s t r a t i o n over grammatical c o n s i d e r a t i o n s , and which ' -the, u n i f i e s the important v a l u e s i n ' l i s t e n e r ' s mind. The rhythmic i p a t t e r n i s completed i n the way Webber d e s c r i b e s . I t was created  «•  43.  "...by way o f a f l o u t i n g o f normal grammar and adoption o f p a t t e r n s t h a t do not hold a steady e x t e r n a l course, but i m i t a t e 13 the more a s s o c i a t i v e movement o f the mind." '  Donne uses L i b e r a l i t y as a conceptual common denominator i to  bind together apparently opposed elements.  We n o t i c e t h a t  the r e p e t i t i o n o f the t e x t ( o r at l e a s t , some p a r t o f i t ) occurs with the r e g u l a r i t y o f a r e f r a i n throughout  the sermon.  I t be-  comes a p o i n t o f u n i f i c a t i o n both s t y l i s t i c a l l y and c o n c e p t u a l l y , a common denominator o f s o r t s i t s e l f . v a l i d i n a l l the suggested  As such, i t works and i s  modes of i n t e r p r e t a t i o n  say, i n f a c t , that i t provides a "middle  one might  way".  The c i v i l or s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l p a r t o f the treatment o f L i b e r a l i t y i s complete by 1.308 of the sermon. the v a r i o u s aspects o f c i v i l l i b e r a l i t y  Having t r e a t e d  (with r e s p e c t t o the  King, h i s O f f i c e r s , and the p e o p l e ) , Donne o f f e r s a moment of r e s o l u t i o n , a moment i n which t e n s i o n i s t e m p o r a r i l y suspended. The l i s t e n e r may r e - e s t a b l i s h h i m s e l f on f i r m ground, sure of c e r t a i n f a c t s r e g a r d i n g the c i v i l aspects o f l i b e r a l i t y .  Within  t h i s moment o f r e s o l u t i o n the movement i s upward toward a sublime  realization: And by these L i b e r a l l t h i n g s , these L i b e r a l l men s h a l l stand. The King s h a l l stand; stand i n s a f e t y at home, and stand i n triumph abroad. The Magistrate s h a l l stand; stand i n a due reverence o f h i s place from below, and i n s a f e p o s s e s s i o n o f h i s place from above; n e i t h e r be contemned by h i s I n f e r i o u r s , nor s u s p i c i o u s l y , and g u i l t i l y i n q u i r e d i n t o by h i s Superiours; n e i t h e r f e a r e p e t i t i o n s a g a i n s t him, nor commissions upon him. And the People s h a l l stand; stand upon t h e i r r i g h t B a s i s , t h a t i s , an inward f e e l i n g , and an outward d e c l a r a t i o n , that they are safe onely i n the Publique s a f e t y . And they s h a l l a l l stand i n the Sunshine, and s e r e n i t y of a c l e e r e conscience, which s e r e n i t y o f conscience i s one f a i r e beame, even o f the g l o r y of God, and o f the j o y o f heaven, upon t h a t soule that enjoyes it.(11.297-308)  44.  The  r e c a p i t u l a t i o n g i v e n here i s s u f f i c i e n t , and  sufficiently  a t t r a c t i v e , t o remain w i t h the l i s t e n e r as the sermon One's memory of i t w i l l g i v e one  continues.  a sense o f mastery over  one  s i d e of the o r i g i n a l d u a l i t y , as Donne proceeds to i n v e s t i g a t e the meaning of l i b e r a l i t y i n the s p i r i t u a l or  ecclesiastical  context. S t y l i s t i c a l l y the sense of d u a l i t y i s s t i l l i n e f f e c t , there ensues i n 11.324-339 a h i g h l y important conceptual which i n v i t e s the l i s t e n e r to a l t e r h i s p e r s p e c t i v e the t e x t ' s r a m i f i c a t i o n s . pressions  temporal world of reason and  "becoming") and  the e c c l e s i a s t i c a l  Donne manages to i n v e s t the o u t l i n e of the t e x t ' s  of the Holy S p i r i t , and  a comfort.  ex-  ( p h y s i c a l , moral,  ( s p i r i t u a l , r e l i g i o u s , atemporal world of f a i t h and  s i g n i f i c a n c e with a calmness and  shift  i n exploring  Using quick, r i s i n g , rhythmic  of the d i f f e r e n c e between the c i v i l  but  "being"),  spiritual  I t i s the  the degree to which one  comfort  sense the calm  thus i n s p i r e d r e v e a l s the degree of one's p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the experience Donne i s c r e a t i n g : But we i n v e s t the whole c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n a meere s p i r i t u a l l nature; and so that L i b e r a l i t y . . . i s now, i n t h i s second p a r t , i n t h i s s p i r i t u a l l a c c e p t a t i o n , the r a i s i n g of a dejected s p i r i t , the r e d i n t e g r a t i o n of a broken heart, the r e s u s c i t a t i o n of a b u r i e d soule, the r e - c o n s o l i d a t i o n of a s c a t t e r e d conscience, . . . t h i s i s the L i b e r a l i t y , of which the Holy Ghost h i m s e l f e i s content t o be the Steward, of the h o l y , b l e s s e d , and g l o r i o u s T r i n i t y , and to be n o t i f i e d , and q u a l i f i e d by t h a t d i s t i n c t i v e n o t i o n , and s p e c i f i c a t i o n , The Comforter.(11.324-339) Donne w i l l r e i n f o r c e the i d e a of comfort throughout h i s examin a t i o n o f the t e x t ' s s p i r i t u a l s i g n i f i c a n c e .  He makes c l e a r  t h a t h i s treatment of the s p i r i t u a l mode w i l l p a r a l l e l t h a t of the c i v i l mode, thus g i v i n g the l i s t e n e r a way  to begin h i s  own  *  45  consideration: We f o l l o w our t e x t , i n the Context, our Prophet, as he p l a c e s t h i s l i b e r a l i t y i n the King, i n the M a g i s t r a t e , i n the People. Here, the King i s C h r i s t , The Magistrate the M i n i s t e r , The People the people.... (11.462-464) Donne w i l l s u s t a i n the sense o f p a r a l l e l i s m i n the treatment so t h a t the l i s t e n e r may make a s s o c i a t i o n s more e a s i l y with the civil  aspect  civil  and e c c l e s i a s t i c a l elements w i l l r e f l e c t the s h i f t i n  conceptual  o f the t e x t .  However, ensuing comparisons o f the  focus d i c t a t e d by c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the s p i r i t u a l i  level:  ...To e n r i c h t h i s poore soule, t o comfort t h i s sad soule so> as that he s h a l l beleeve, and by b e l e e v i n g f i n d e a l l C h r i s t to be h i s , t h i s i s that L i b e r a l i t y which we speake of now, i n d i s p e n s i n g whereof, The l i b e r a l l man d e v i s e t h l i b e r a l l t h i n g s , and by l i b e r a l l t h i n g s s h a l l stand. (11.'357-361') Donne._is s h a r i n g the awareness of e c c l e s i a s t i c a l or s p i r i t u a l import, but on the c i v i l s t i t u t e a separation,  or temporal plane.  T h i s does not con-  but r a t h e r a p a r t i c u l a r kind of u n i t y .  Just how g l o r i o u s the s i g n i f i c a n c e o f L i b e r a l i t y i s i n r e l a t i o n to C h r i s t , i s expressed i n an image which i n s p i r e s i n the l i s t e n e r a complete sense of C h r i s t ' s might and the concept's importance.  In t h i s image, Donne a s s o c i a t e s a b s t r a c t i o n s as  the h i g h e s t r e a l i t i e s .  H i s experience i s not one o f simple  understanding, but r a t h e r one of a s s o c i a t i n g o n e s e l f  with  e t e r n a l c o n d i t i o n s through the n o n - l o g i c a l powers of the i n t e l l e c t , memory, and emotions.  Emotional s e n s i t i v i t y i s heightened,  d e s p i t e the l a c k of s p e c i f i c a l l y emotional a d j e c t i v e s . r e l i e s on the f a c t that the mind cannot l o g i c a l l y infinitude  appreciate  i t can only accept and g l o r y emotionally  h i g h e r realms:  |  Donne  i n the  To have been once nothing, and to be now c o - h e i r e with the Son of God, i s such a C i r c l e , such a Compasse, as that no r e v o l u t i o n s i n t h i s world, to r i s e from the lowest to the h i g h e s t , or to f a l l from the highest to the lowest, can be c a l l e d or thought any Segment, any Arch, any Point i n r e s p e c t of t h i s C i r c l e ; To have once been nothing, and now to be c o - h e i r e s with the Son of God: That Son of God, who i f there had been but one soule to have been saved, but one, and t h a t that onely had sinned, he would not have contented h i m s e l f e with a l l the r e s t , but would have dyed f o r t h a t . And there i s the goodnesse, the l i b e r a l i t y of our King, our God, our C h r i s t , our Jesus.(11.503-514) At the c o n c l u s i o n of the sermon, the a s s o c i a t i v e movement culminates i n a u n i f i c a t i o n of the c i v i l and modes of i n t e r p r e t a t i o n .  ecclesiastical  The u n i f i c a t i o n takes place i n the  terms of the " r i g i d " d i v i s i o n s which have been used as a framework d e v i c e throughout  the sermon.  whereby the l i s t e n e r may statements  of the two  Donne provides the means  combine e a s i l y the main conceptual  interpretations.  Because a s s o c i a t i o n  i s not a temporal  f u n c t i o n ( i . e . , because i t does not depend  upon time the way  l o g i c a l or s e q u e n t i a l p r o g r e s s i o n does), the  c o n c l u d i n g passage [embraces and makes p a l p a b l e t h ^ e n t i r e t e x t u a l import.  The  f i n a l e f f e c t i s to leave the  listener  i with a sense of u n i f i e d understanding and a knowledge of personal a p p l i c a t i o n . The s p i r i t u a l and n a t u r a l l e v e l s of b e i n g — i n s o f a r as they are represented by the c i v i l and e c c l e s i a s t i c a l p r e t a t i o n s of the t e x t — c o h e r e , and are mutually  inter-  interdependent.  The p l a n i s d i v i n e , but the major r e s p o n s i b i l i t y r e s t s with living  men: The King h i m s e l f e stands by i t , C h r i s t h i m s e l f e . It destroys the nature, the o f f i c e , the merit of C h r i s t h i m s e l f e , to make h i s redemption so penurious, so i l l i b e r a l l . We, h i s o f f i c e r s , h i s M i n i s t e r s stand i t . I t overthrowes the c r e d i t , and evacuates the purpose of our employment, and our M i n i s t e r y , i f we  47.  must o f f e r s a l v a t i o n to the whole Congregation, and must not be beleeved, that he that sends i t , means i t . The people, every p a r t i c u l a r soule stands by i t . For, i f he cannot beleeve,God, to have been more l i b e r a l l to him, then he hath been to any other man, he i s i n an i l l case, because he knowes more i l l by h i m s e l f e , then he can know by any other man. Beleeve t h e r e f o r e l i b e r a l l purposes i n thy God; Accept l i b e r a l l prop o s i t i o n s from h i s M i n i s t e r s ; And apply them l i b e r a l l y , and c h e a r f u l l y t o t h i n e own s o u l e ; f o r , The l i b e r a l l man d e v i s e t h l i b e r a l l t h i n g s , and by l i b e r a l l t h i n g s he s h a l l stand.(11.567-580) Donne i s s u e s an i n v i t a t i o n to use the p e r s o n a l a p p l i c a t i o n L i b e r a l i t y as a means of p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the f u l l e r of C h r i s t i a n l i f e  t o which he has opened the way.  that he has p a r t i c i p a t e d f u l l y in  Donne's t e x t .  experience  One  feels  i n r e c o g n i z i n g the t r u t h s  implicit  Donne r e a l i z e s h i s o b j e c t i v e through h i s  i n t i m a t e understanding of h i s oratory's tools asJdevices for  '  of  own experience, and h i s sense the  m a n i p u l a t i o n oif  of  response.  "The f i r s t Sermon upon t h i s Text, Preached at S. P a u l s , i n the Evening, upon Easter-day. 1626. I Cor. 15.29. ELSE WHAT SHALL THEY DO THAT ARE BAPTIZED FOR DEAD? IF THE DEAD RISE NOT AT ALL, WHY ARE THEY THEN BAPTIZED FOR DEAD?" r4  The sermon on t h i s t e x t i s a massive and complex p i e c e which i s concerned w i t h knowledge and assurance of the R e s u r r e c t i o n , i n i t s manifold meaning and s i g n i f i c a n c e , on the e t e r n a l plane as w e l l as i n t h i s l i f e .  Donne r e f l e c t s  aspect of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the n a t u r a l and  another  spiritual  orders by examining the R e s u r r e c t i o n — a heavenly e v e n t — i n terms of  i t s significance for living  men.  The sermon depends upon  the i n t e r a c t i o n between the l i s t e n e r and the complex conceptual and s t y l i s t i c machinery  Donne uses t o e f f e c t a growing  emotional  48  and  i n t e l l e c t u a l acceptance o f the R e s u r r e c t i o n  ina l l its A  glorious s i g n i f i c a t i o n s .  T h i s acceptance does not r e s u l t  from the l u c i d i t y of Donne's explanations  solely  of obscure t h e o l o g i c a l  p o i n t s , but r a t h e r from the l i s t e n e r ' s i n c r e a s i n g dependence upon Donne as he l e a d s one through the r h e t o r i c a l and s t r u c t u r a l i complexities  o f the u n f o l d i n g argument.  Stylistia  subterfuge  i s so i n t r i c a t e t h a t the d e l i b e r a t e device o f almost g e o m e t r i c a l l y p r e c i s e p r o p o r t i o n i n g and s u b d i v i s i o n o f p a r t s w i t h i n the sermon provides  a framework which envelops and overwhelms the l i s t e n e r .  Where i n the previous  sermon, the l i s t e n e r was allowed  an o v e r a l l  grasp o f format with an eye t o f u r t h e r i n g the apparently  logical  nature o f the t e x t ' s treatment, here Donne hems i n the l i s t e n e r as the sermon progresses.  One i s aware, o f course,  o f the s e r -  mon's p a t t e r n , but no longer as an o v e r a l l metaphoric o r cont r o l l i n g structure. oppressive  Rather, i t i s something one f e e l s as an  or overpowering shaping f o r c e .  I t s f i x e d l i m i t s are  obscured by the immediate i n t e l l e c t u a l , emotional, l o g i c a l contexts  and theo-  i n which one f i n d s o n e s e l f a t any g i v e n moment.  Hence, there i s the above noted dependence upon the preacher as an i n t e l l e c t u a l and t h e o l o g i c a l guide. T h i s i s the sermon's b a s i c p a t t e r n : there are two major p a r t s d e a l i n g with the main c o n s i d e r a t i o n s a r i s i n g out of the chosen t e x t . ...our f i r s t part i n t h i s , How the assurance of t h i s R e s u r r e c t i o n accrues to us...our second p a r t , That i s the c o n s o l a t i o n which we r e c e i v e w h i l e s t we are In v i a , here upon our way i n t h i s world, out of the contemp l a t i o n o f that R e s u r r e c t i o n t o glory...and how these two R e s u r r e c t i o n s are arguments and evidences o f one another.;... (11.43-49) P a r t I o f the sermon i s c a r e f u l l y s t r u c t u r e d , and c o n s i s t s  i  i  49  p r i n c i p a l l y of the r a i s i n g of c e r t a i n questions r e l a t e d to f a c t of the R e s u r r e c t i o n . cussion  I t also includes a structured  of the R e s u r r e c t i o n  as a t h r e e f o l d mystery.  about demonstrating to the l i s t e n e r that one  Donne sets "no  im-  I I c o n s i s t s of three d i s t i n c t s e c t i o n s , of which the  i s i t s e l f divided and  dis-  the R e s u r r e c t i o n " ( 1 1 . 3 1 0 - 3 1 1 ) .  possible thing, i n beleeving Part  believes  i n t o three components.  unifying conclusion  of Part  II.  the  second  There i s a l s o a  which develops from the t h i r d  short,  section  Though these b a s i c d i v i s i o n s seem a c l e a r and  p l a n , Donne entraps, the l i s t e n e r w i t h i n the p r o g r e s s i o n sequence of concepts.  The  l i s t e n e r may  simple  of a  very e a s i l y l o s e  sight  15  of the o v e r a l l s t r u c t u r e as a r e s u l t . created  This i s a d e l i b e r a t e l y  e f f e c t , to which I made reference  this chapter. ^ 1  near the beginning of  Donne uses a s o l i d s t r u c t u r a l framework which  i s obscured, from the l i s t e n e r ' s viewpoint, by the flow manipulation of concept  and  the l i s t e n e r tends to become trapped  by the machinery of h i s own  associative  process.  In h i s i n t r o d u c t i o n , Donne s e t s about c r e a t i n g a need f o r the l i s t e n e r to depend s t r o n g l y upon the preacher as and  guide.  The  immediately.  reasons f o r t h i s do not become apparent  I t i s nonetheless the f i r s t  making the l i s t e n e r doubt h i s own a s s o c i a t i v e responses.  The  important step i n  intellectual capacities  sermon's opening L a t i n phrase  a sense of importance r e g a r d i n g  i t s explication.  p o s i t i o n at the opening of the sermon c r e a t e s meaning and  significance.  e x p e c t a t i o n s and  and implies  I t s primary  anxiety  as to i t s  As soon as the l i s t e n e r begins t o  p r o j e c t what i s t o f o l l o w , he by h i s own  explicator  i s on h i s way  t o becoming entrapped  a s s o c i a t i v e processes;  50  ODIT DOMINUS q u i festum Domini unum putat diem, sayes Origen; God hates t h a t man t h a t t h i n k s any of h i s Holy dayes l a s t but one day; That i s , that never t h i n k s of a R e s u r r e c t i o n , but upon Easter-day.(11.1-4) One  n o t i c e s t h a t the emphasis of the t r a n s l a t i o n f a l l s on i t s  l a s t two  words  ;"one  day".  There i s then a d e l i b e r a t e pause,  even though the sentence p e r i o d i s only h a l f f i n i s h e d .  During  t h i s pause the words "that i s " set up the l i s t e n e r f o r f u r t h e r explanation.  The  statement which f o l l o w s a c t s as a p a r t i c u l a r  example of that f o r which the t r a n s l a t i o n was that i s , that "God  hates that man...", e t c .  t r a n s l a t i o n i s a p p l i e d d e l i b e r a t e l y and Resurrection",  and  as Easter-day. one  The  sense of  s p e c i f i c a l l y to  the  "a  the p e r i o d ends by p i n p o i n t i n g the "one  day"  However, d e s p i t e the grammatical emphasis on  s p e c i f i c day,  the statement's a c t u a l meaning has  much l a r g e r p e r i o d s the R e s u r r e c t i o n  the g e n e r a l r u l e :  of time.  to do with  By s t a t i n g time l i m i t s w i t h which  i s not to be a s s o c i a t e d , Donne f o r c e s  l i s t e n e r t o come to| h i s own  conclusions  f o r t h i n k i n g of the R e s u r r e c t i o n .  the  about the proper time  There may  even be an  p l i c a t i o n t h a t the l i s t e n e r i s t o f e e l g u i l t y and  im-  self-conscious,  since the statement i s couched i n the form of an admonition indeed, almost a rebuke.  That which i s c e l e b r a t e d  i s to be c e l e b r a t e d year-round; the i n d i v i d u a l may of shame at having t o be t o l d t h i s .  The  a g i t a t e d at t h e  He  i m p l i e d admonition.  as the use before  behavior.  f e e l a sense  l i s t e n e r may  become  f e e l s uncertain.  n a t u r a l l y looks to the preacher f o r more s p e c i f i c by which to d e f i n e h i s own  on Easter-day  He  information  Even so simple a  device  of the i n d e f i n i t e r a t h e r than the d e f i n i t e a r t i c l e  "Resurrection"  a i d s i n the establishment  of a  conceptual  frame  the problem of R e s u r r e c t i o n  of ambiguity  w i t h i n the context.  while m a i n t a i n i n g a degree  The next statement r e i n f o r c e s  the c o n d i t i o n s of u n c e r t a i n t y and ambiguity. w i l l be accomplished  I t r e v e a l s what  by s t a t i n g what w i l l not be  accomplished:  I have t h e r e f o r e proposed words unto you, which w i l l not be determined t h i s day; That so, when at any other time, we r e t u r n to the h a n d l i n g of them, we may a l s o r e t u r n to the m e d i t a t i o n of the R e s u r r e c t i o n . (11.4-7) The meaning of the whole sentence i s c l e a r enough. l i s t e n e r , i n h i s s e q u e n t i a l apprehension  But  of the p e r i o d , may  the be  i  badly shaken by the appearance of the word "not". expect  One  tends to  a p o s i t i v e statement, an a s s e r t i o n r e g a r d i n g some p o s i t i v e  r e s o l u t i o n of the sermon's i s s u e s and of the R e s u r r e c t i o n ' s manifold s i g n i f i c a n c e . . Instead, Donne upsets  the l i s t e n e r ' s  expectations with a statement of apparent negative i n t e n t .  The  l i s t e n e r , h i s a s s o c i a t i v e responses i n t e r r u p t e d by an unexpected element, i s d i s t r a c t e d .  Not  only does he become anxious  about  the e x p l a n a t i o n he hopes w i l l f o l l o w , but a l s o he w i l l become i n c r e a s i n g l y dependent on Donne f o r any s o r t o f s a t i s f y i n g resolution. processes  Donne mimics grammatically  the mind's a s s o c i a t i v e  those f a c u l t i e s which, among other t h i n g s , allow  j one to "jump to c o n c l u s i o n s " a s s o c i a t i v e movement.  and then roughly breaks the  He maintains  grammatical smoothness, and  continues to undermine the l i s t e n e r ' s confidence a b i l i t i e s w i t h i n the g i v e n frame of r e f e r e n c e . for  in his The  own  explanation  the negative statement i n the above q u o t a t i o n i s grammatic-  a l l y and l e x i c a l l y c l e a r enough, but the nature of the Resur r e c t i o n (or of the m e d i t a t i o n upon i t ) has not been made c l e a r . Now  the "meditation of the R e s u r r e c t i o n " has become a g o a l of  52  s o r t s . _ b u t the l i s t e n e r i s s t i l l unable to proceed without Donne's guidance. In t h i s sermon, says Donne, we w i l l make a beginning m e d i t a t i o n , u s i n g E a s t e r - d a y — u p o n which we  in this  c e l e b r a t e the  R e s u r r e c t i o n of C h r i s t — a s a s t a r t i n g place to c o n s i d e r " i n h i s one R e s u r r e c t i o n , a l l those s e v e r a l l kinds of  Resurrections  whioh a p p e r t a i n t o us..."(11.9-10): And yet t h i s day we s h a l l not so much i n q u i r e , wherein, and i n what sense the words are an argument of the R e s u r r e c t i o n , as enjoy the assurance t h a t they are so; not so much d i s t r i b u t e the Text i n t o an e x p l i c a t i o n of the p a r t i c u l a r words...as to l a y up the whole wedge, and ingot of Gold a l l at once i n you, that i s , the precious assurance of your g l o r i o u s Resurrection.(11.1 6-22) Here Donne depends on the l i s t e n e r ' s u n c e r t a i n t y and d e s i r e f o r s p e c i f i c i t y i n terms of the s u b j e c t at hand. balanced  He produces a  s t r u c t u r e which r e v e a l s i n a g e n e r a l way i  he proposes to f o l l o w i n the sermon.  the method  I t i s t r u e that the p e r i o d  j  acts as a p a r t i a l r e s o l u t i o n f o r the l i s t e n e r ' s a n x i e t i e s , i n as much as there i s now  a " r e a l " g o a l a v a i l a b l e : "the  assurance of your g l o r i o u s R e s u r r e c t i o n . "  precious  However, no  really  s p e c i f i c i n f o r m a t i o n i s o f f e r e d , and those ideas or methods of treatment Donne r e j e c t s are p r e c i s e l y the ones the might expect him t o use.  listener  The methods proposed w i l l appeal  to  the l i s t e n e r , s i n c e they appear to r e l a t e more d i r e c t l y to the b e n e f i t s he d e r i v e s from the R e s u r r e c t i o n . appeal  But d e s p i t e  the  of the p r o p o s a l s , the t e r r i t o r y w i l l be u n f a m i l i a r to  the l i s t e n e r .  Though some o f h i s a n x i e t i e s have been r e l i e v e d ,  he i s dependent upon the preacher  as a guide to an  understanding  of the R e s u r r e c t i o n , and through the i n t r i c a c i e s of the sermon.  , i  A l s o , Donne l e a d s the l i s t e n e r to b e l i e v e t h a t the g o a l of  i  "assurance  of your g l o r i o u s R e s u r r e c t i o n " i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a  p a r t i c u l a r moment i n time  the " a l l at once" of 1.21.  whether  or not t h i s b e l i e f lis j u s t i f i e d , and whether or not the " g o a l " d e s c r i b e d here i s synonymous w i t h the process of ^meditation of the R e s u r r e c t i o n " i s not yet known. Because of the R e s u r r e c t i o n ' s mysterious  nature, Donne must  d e a l with"the r e l a t i o n s h i p of reason and f a i t h i n approaching i t . He does so i n h i s i n t r o d u c t i o n . Both reason and f a i t h evident i n man's a c t i v i t i e s . of the n a t u r a l world of men,  One  are  i s more d i s t i n c t l y an element  while the other depends upon  l i v i n g man's r e l a t i o n s h i p to the s p i r i t u a l realm and God.  The  two do not c o n f l i c t , but r a t h e r complement each other, and r e f l e c t one aspect of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the n a t u r a l and s p i r i t u a l orders of being.  In d e c i d i n g how  we may  be  assured  o f the R e s u r r e c t i o n , ...we s h a l l see, t h a t though i t be presented by Reason b e f o r e , and i l l u s t r a t e d by Reason a f t e r , yet the f o o t e and f o u n d a t i o n t h e r e o f i s i n F a i t h ; though Reason may chafe the wax, yet F a i t h i m p r i n t s the s e a l e , ( f o r the R e s u r r e c t i o n i s not a c o n c l u s i o n out of n a t u r a l l Reason, but i t i s an a r t i c l e of s u p e r n a t u r a l l F a i t h ; and though you assent to me now, speaking of the R e s u r r e c t i o n , yet that i s not out of my L o g i c k , nor out of my Rhetorique, but out of that Character, and Ordinance which God hath imprinted i n me, i n the power and e f f i c a c y whereof, I speak unto you. as o f t e n as I speak out of t h i s place.!) (11.34-43) Donne r e l a t e s t h i s to the f i r s t But, s i n c e an understanding Part I i s necessary  of the two  and acceptance  p a r t s of h i s d i s c u s s i o n . of the m a t e r i a l i n  to the d i s c u s s i o n i n P a r t I I , the r e s o l u t i o n  between reason and f a i t h becomes a key element i n the sermon, and i n the problem of the R e s u r r e c t i o n .  Donne has s a i d b e f o r e ,  "Eloquence i s not our n e t . . . o n l y the Gospel i s . "  17 '  The Resu-  54.  r r e c t i o n i s "an a r t i c l e of s u p e r n a t u r a l l F a i t h " which i s g i v e n extension i n the minds of l i v i n g men  by reason's powers and  manifestations ( i . e . , l o g i c , r h e t o r i c , e t c . ) .  Assurance of the  R e s u r r e c t i o n i s based on f a i t h , and reason helps to present i t as a prospect and support i t as a p r i n c i p l e . of  The n e c e s s i t y  combining reason and f a i t h i n t h i s world r e f l e c t s the  Donne p l a c e s on human r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n the  stress  interdependent  systems of the n a t u r a l and s p i r i t u a l o r d e r s . Part I of the sermon, which begins at 1.53,  i s organized  around a s e r i e s of three questions r e l a t i n g to the R e s u r r e c t i o n , the d i s c u s s i o n s of these q u e s t i o n s , and the t h r e e f o l d mystery  i of  the R e s u r r e c t i o n .  The  three questions, i n the order i n which  Donne t r e a t s them, a r e : " . . . f i r s t , whether there be a R e s u r r e c t i o n , then what manner of R e s u r r e c t i o n ^ and then what kinde of Resur r e c t i o n they s h a l l have t h a t l i v e to the day of Judgement..." (11.128-131).  Donne borrows, h i s approach from the teachings of  the A p o s t l e , e s t a b l i s h i n g a s t r o n g e r a u t h o r i t y than h i m s e l f to support h i s argument, and h e l p i n g to b o l s t e r the w i l l i n g n e s s to r e l y on him as a guide i n these The f i r s t Donne.  listener's  matters.  of the three questions i s of prime concern  to  I t deals w i t h "...whether there be a R e s u r r e c t i o n , or  no..."(1.72).  Donne re-examines and r e s t a t e s i n 11.62-71 the  problems suggested  by the t e x t as the A p o s t l e reviewed  them:  that i s , as p o s i t i v e proof of the R e s u r r e c t i o n ' s e x i s t e n c e . Donne withholds s u p p o r t i v e argument f o r h i s statement v i c t i o n u n t i l the passage extending from 11.72-84. and by h i s r e p e t i t i o n of the t e x t i n 11.62-71 number of b e w i l d e r i n g reworkings  of con-  By doing so,  (together with a  of the p u z z l i n g questions  the  55.  t e x t a s k s ) , Donne f o r c e s the l i s t e n e r to an awareness of the most b a s i c awareness of the most b a s i c problem the t e x t r a i s e s . a l s o renews the l i s t e n e r ' s doubts as to h i s own understanding.  The  capacity f o r  l i s t e n e r i s aware of h i s own  methodology f o r coping with the problem.  t a t i o n s , and by the d e n i a l of h i s own  Donne f o r the e x p l a n a t i o n .  betrayed  of h i s expec-  associative patterns,  the l i s t e n e r i s reduced to a c o n d i t i o n of urgent t h e o l o g i c a l immediacy of the q u e s t i o n .  l a c k of a  Having been  r e p e a t e d l y by Donne's grammatical manipulation  He  i n t e r e s t i n the  He must depend upon  Donne g i v e s t h a t e x p l a n a t i o n , at  l e a s t p a r t i a l l y , i n the b r i l l i a n t l y worked passage from 11.72-84, which I w i l l examine i n s e c t i o n s . r e s p e c t to the q u e s t i o n of the R e s u r r e c t i o n ' s  extending First,  with  existence,  ...For, i f that be denyed, or doubted i n the r o o t e , i n the person of C h r i s t , whether he be r i s e n or no, the whole frame of our r e l i g i o n f a l s , and every man w i l l be apt (and j u s t l y apt) to ask that q u e s t i o n which the Indian King asked....(11.72-76) T h i s p a r t of the l o n g and  complex p e r i o d begins by drawing  the l i s t e n e r r i g h t to the " r o o t e " of the problem.  By  beginning  the clause with "For, i f " , Donne n o t i f i e s the l i s t e n e r that the statement w i l l have an " i f - t h e n " s t r u c t u r e .  That i s , the  " i f " p o i n t s t o a set of c o n d i t i o n s which, should they will  "then" l e a d to a p a r t i c u l a r c o n c l u s i o n .  The  exist,  hypothesis  suggested by the " i f " part of the statement deals with  negative  response t o the problem of the R e s u r r e c t i o n ' s e x i s t e n c e . phrase, " i f that  [the Resurrection]  be denyed", e s t a b l i s h e s a  context w i t h i n which the l i s t e n e r may he r e c e i v e s .  Donne strengthens  The  evaluate the  the negative  information  a s s o c i a t i o n s en-  gendered by "denyed" and makes the d e n i a l more s p e c i f i c .  The  56  "if",  the c o n d i t i o n a l case, now becomes a q u e s t i o n i n g o f the i "roote" that i s , t h e source o f the R e s u r r e c t i o n , the "person of C h r i s t , whether he be r i s e n or no...". Donne then u t t e r s a t e r s e , powerful  statement encompassing  the r e s u l t s a c c r u i n g from the 'hypothetical c o n d i t i o n . ment te mp orarily  The s t a t e -  slows the p e r i o d ' s rhythm, b r i n g i n g emphasis  on each word and a l l o w i n g the l i s t e n e r t o grasp the f u l l "...the whole frame of our r e l i g i o n f a l s . . . " . s t i l l w i t h i n the context  impact:  The p e r i o d proceeds,  of the d e s c r i b e d " i f - t h e n " s t r u c t u r e .  Donne turns t o the example of the Indian King t o i l l u s t r a t e the n a t u r a l r e s u l t s i f one begins by q u e s t i o n i n g b e l i e f i n C h r i s t ' s Resurrection. ...that q u e s t i o n which the Indian King asked, when he had been c a t e c h i z e d so f a r i n the a r t i c l e s of our C h r i s t i a n r e l i g i o n , as t o come t o the s u f f e r e d , and c r u c i f i e d , and dead, and b u r i e d , impatient o f proceeding any f a r t h e r , and so l o s i n g the c o n s o l a t i o n of the R e s u r r e c t i o n , he asked only, Is your God dead, and buried?(11.75-80) Presumably the l i s t e n e r i s t o recognize t h a t under the s t a t e d c o n d i t i o n s (the " i f " p a r t , plus the new i n f o r m a t i o n ) , he would respond l i k e the Indian King, and would ask the same q u e s t i o n . The  patterned, rhythmic,  f o u r - l i n e i n t e r j e c t i o n between the  r e f e r e n c e t o the Indian King's q u e s t i o n and the a c t u a l posing o f the q u e s t i o n leaves no p o s s i b l e doubt as t o the c o n d i t i o n which i  makes such a q u e s t i o n p o s s i b l e . designed  The whole i n t e r j e c t i o n i s  t o p i n p o i n t a p a r t i c u l a r moment: t h a t i s , the moment  when one a t t a i n s a c e r t a i n l e v e l of t h e o l o g i c a l knowledge and a c e r t a i n understanding  about C h r i s t ' s death.  knowledge depends-upon man's reasonable  Thi,s l e v e l o f  f a c u l t i e s and the  a b i l i t y t o l e a r n , r a t h e r than upon f a i t h i n C h r i s t .  Even a  57  heathen may  get t h i s f a r .  The words "so f a r . . . a s t o " p o i n t to  the l i m i t or degree of understanding.  That degree, i n s u f f i c i e n t  as i t i s , i s made s t a r k l y c l e a r by a s e r i e s of h e a v i l y emphasized words which represent the stages of C h r i s t ' s movement toward the R e s u r r e c t i o n : " . . . s u f f e r e d , and c r u c i f i e d , and dead, and i  buried...".'  The  Indian King f a i l s to achieve secure knowledge  at the l a s t c l i m a c t i c moment.  The  emphasis of the  four-line  i n t e r j e c t i o n f a l l s most h e a v i l y on the l a s t phrase: l o s i n g the c o n s o l a t i o n of the R e s u r r e c t i o n " .  "...and so  The l i s t e n e r  t h i s as the most l i k e l y r e s u l t i f "the whole frame of our fals".  T h i s i s t o be avoided;  the p e r i o d are to be  t h e r e f o r e , the " i f "  accepts religion  c o n d i t i o n s of  avoided.  Having l o s t c o n s o l a t i o n through the R e s u r r e c t i o n the King asks h i s q u e s t i o n .  Indian  Because of the appearance of "only"  "...he asked only, Is your God  dead and b u r i e d ? "  and because  of the apparent abrupt grammatical t e r m i n a t i o n i n d i c a t e d by the i n t e r r o g a t i v e , the l i s t e n e r may  b e l i e v e t h a t with  the  statement of the q u e s t i o n , the p e r i o d a l s o concludes.  He  wish to pause, to c o n s i d e r the i n f o r m a t i o n given him But Donne does not allow him to do so, immediately q u e s t i o n with the Indian King's c l u s i o n to the problem. have been c r e a t e d . God",  thereby  so f a r .  con-  additional effects w i l l  F i r s t , the questioner has r e f e r r e d to "your  s h u t t i n g h i m s e l f out of the C h r i s t i a n world.  i m p l i e s t h a t without  ^  f o l l o w i n g the  i n c o r r e c t or o v e r l y hasty  As a r e s u l t , two  may  "the c o n s o l a t i o n of the R e s u r r e c t i o n "  i s not C h r i s t i a n , other knowledge of C h r i s t i a n i t y p a i d to i t ) notwithstanding.  Donne one  (or l i p - s e r v i c e  T h i s makes the means, of a t t a i n i n g  such a c o n s o l a t i o n 'all the more urgent  an i s s u e f o r the  listener.  58  Secondly, Donne phrases the q u e s t i o n of the Indian King,  who  does not r e a l l y wait f o r an answer, as i f i t were a r h e t o r i c a l question.  He thereby  i n d i c a t e s to the l i s t e n e r that a person  i n such a c o n d i t i o n not only i s o u t s i d e the C h r i s t i a n world, but because of h i s b a s i c a l l y unsound and can never be brought i n t o i t .  Vie may  he a c t s only on the b a s i s of reason; i s the only one  p i t y such a person because the c o n c l u s i o n he reaches  p o s s i b l e f o r him under the cirucmstances.  C h r i s t i a n must a c t on f a i t h , supported manifestations.  impatient a t t i t u d e ,  The  by reason and i t s  !  I The  p e r i o d moves on.  Donne i s u n w i l l i n g to allow  the  l i s t e n e r a moment's r e s p i t e t o draw a c o n c l u s i o n of h i s s i n c e t h a t would weaken the preacher's  control.  The  would r e g a i n too l a r g e a degree of t r u s t i n his. own for  making t h e o l o g i c a l judgments.  The  own,  listener capacity  Indian King's hasty  c o n c l u s i o n i s now presented: ...then l e t me r e t u r n to the worship of the Sun, f o r I am sure the Sun w i l l not d i e ; I f C h r i s t be dead and b u r i e d , that i s , continue i n the s t a t e of death, and of the grave, without a R e s u r r e c t i o n , where s h a l l a C h r i s t i a n look f o r l i f e ? ( 1 1 . 8 0 - 8 3 ) These l i n e s present  a simple  analogy which i s d e l i b e r a t e l y made  a c c e s s i b l e to the l i s t e n e r f o r the purpose of p l a c i n g emphasis on the l a s t p a r t of the p e r i o d : "...without s h a l l a C h r i s t i a n look f o r The  s e c t i o n on the f i r s t  a R e s u r r e c t i o n , where  life?" of the three questions  ends with  a l o g i c a l l y couched c o n c l u s i o n g i v i n g assurance of the Resur r e c t i o n ' s e x i s t e n c e : "Therefore  the Apostle handles,  e s t a b l i s h e s t h a t f i r s t , t h a t assurance, (11.83-84).  and  A R e s u r r e c t i o n there i s "  In r e a c h i n g t h i s c o n c l u s i o n Donne has removed a  59.  degree  of the l i s t e n e r ' s i n t e l l e c t u a l autonomy; e s t a b l i s h e d a  sense of urgency  r e g a r d i n g the attainment of a p a r t i c u l a r g o a l ,  the nature of which i s u n c e r t a i n ; and used the l i s t e n e r ' s  growing  need to a v o i d " u n - C h r i s t i a n " behavior i n order t o make him want to b e l i e v e i n the R e s u r r e c t i o n .  He has p o i n t e d up the necessary  i n t e r a c t i o n between reason and f a i t h — a n d a l l t h i s while the sermon i s s t i l l more or l e s s i n i t s opening stages. It i s not enough to conclude, based on the d i s c u s s i o n so f a r , that "A R e s u r r e c t i o n there i s . "  In 11.148-152 Donne makes  e x p l i c i t the most c r u c i a l q u e s t i o n i n coming to an awareness of the R e s u r r e c t i o n .  Quite simply, Donne asks whether any amount  of reasonable d i s c u s s i o n w i l l be of a i d i f the l i s t e n e r i s not already motivated t o b e l i e v e i n the R e s u r r e c t i o n : But would a l l these wayes serve? would a l l t h i s s a t i s f i e that I n q u i s i t i o n which wee haye brought, how t h i s assurance of the R e s u r r e c t i o n accrues t o us? Would any of these reasons, or would a l l these reasons convince a man, who were not at a l l p r e possessed, and preoccupated w i t h a b e l i e f e of the r e s u r r e c t i o n , with an assurance thereof?(11.148-152) With the b r i e f s e r i e s of fast-moving r h e t o r i c a l questions Donne makes the l i s t e n e r search q u i c k l y f o r answers which he,  the  preacher, knows are as yet u n a v a i l a b l e t o the l i s t e n e r . one may  see how  Again,  t h i s r e l a t e s t o Donne's i n t e r e s t i n the r e l a t i o n -  s h i p between reason and f a i t h .  T h i s passage makes that  relation-  s h i p of urgent i n t e r e s t to the l i s t e n e r , and underscores meaning of t r u e C h r i s t i a n i t y .  the  The questions r a i s e d i n the  passage demand r e s o l u t i o n , and provide a means by which Donne may  begin t o t r e a t the t h r e e f o l d mystery The p r i n c i p a l purpose  of the R e s u r r e c t i o n .  of the s e c t i o n on the t h r e e f o l d  i s t o i l l u s t r a t e and r e i n f o r c e i n d i v e r s e ways the  mystery  interdependence  of  reason and f a i t h with r e s p e c t to the b a s i s of C h r i s t i a n i t y .  Donne s t i l l  speaks i n a l o g i c a l manner.  His words  demonstrate  the power of reason, not t o s o l v e the problem, but to d e f i n e i t more c l e a r l y .  At! the same time there may  be a s l i g h t t e n s i o n  between grammatical l o g i c , and the i n a b i l i t y of l o g i c to s o l v e the problem of the R e s u r r e c t i o n . t h i r d aspect begins t h i s  The examination of the  mystery's  way:  The r e s u r r e c t i o n i n i t s e l f , C h r i s t s R e s u r r e c t i o n , though i t be c l e a r e r then ours, C h r i s t s R e s u r r e c t i o n , even a f t e r i t was a c t u a l l y accomplished, was s t i l l a mystery, out of the compasse of reason; And then, as i t was above our reason, so, howsoever i t be our proofe, and our p a t t e r n f o r our r e s u r r e c t i o n , yet i t i s above our i m i t a t i o n . For our r e s u r r e c t i o n s h a l l not be l i k e h i s . . . . A l l we s h a l l be r a i s e d from the dead, onely C h r i s t arose from the dead.(11.212-219) Man  cannot a t t a i n an awareness of the R e s u r r e c t i o n on h i s  own.  As we must be r a i s e d , r a t h e r than r a i s i n g o u r s e l v e s , so we must be l e d t o knowledge.  The degree of mystery  becomes an i s s u e .  Our r e s u r r e c t i o n i s more amenable to examination by reason, being l e s s of a m i r a c l e , i N e v e r t h e l e s s , i t cannot be comprehended s o l e l y !  through reason, and so we must submit to i t on the grounds of faith.  Donne expresses these ideas i n a sentence p e r i o d of  s t a g g e r i n g l e n g t h , which extends from 11.221-243. He begins with a simple phrase, i n which the key word i s "though":  "...though...our  r e s u r r e c t i o n be more open to the  proofe of reason, then the r e s u r r e c t i o n of Christ..."(11.221-222). The f o l l o w i n g ten l i n e s depend upon "though".  Donne s i g n a l s the  l i s t e n e r that the c o n d i t i o n s f o l l o w i n g "though" e x i s t , but that the c o n c l u s i o n t o be drawn w i l l be i n s p i t e of them, r a t h e r than because of  of them.  Donne uses a lengthy p a r e n t h e t i c a l  statement  c o n f u s i n g s t r u c t u r e and rhythm to inform the l i s t e n e r of the  l o g i c behind  the "though" c o n d i t i o n of 11.221-222.  t h e t i c a l statement r e c a p i t u l a t e s the reasonable  The  paren-  views s u p p o r t i n g  the p r o b a b i l i t y of "our" r e s u r r e c t i o n : ...though i n t h i s r e s p e c t , our r e s u r r e c t i o n be more open to the proofe of reason, then the r e s u r r e c t i o n of C h r i s t , ( f o r t h a t which hath l e a s t m i r a c l e i n i t , i s most open to reason; and t h e r e f o r e a n a t u r a l l man would e a s i l i e r beleeve that God might r a i s e a dead man, then that a dead man should be God, and so able to r a i s e h i m s e l f e , which was C h r i s t ' s case, f o r the God-head of C h r i s t was as much u n i t e d to h i s dead body i n the grave, as i t was to h i s soule i n P a r a d i s e , or to h i s whole person c o n s i s t i n g of body and soule, b e f o r e , or a f t e r h i s death and r e s u r r e c t i o n ) Though, i n t h i s r e s p e c t , I say, our r e s u r r e c t i o n be more open to reason, because i t hath l e s s e of the m i r a c l e i n i t , yet....(11.221-230) The  c o n t i n u a l l y changing rhythms i n t h i s p a r t of the p e r i o d are i  i n d i r e c t c o n f l i c t with the l i s t e n e r ' s wishes to r e o r g a n i z e f o r h i m s e l f the i n f o r m a t i o n he r e c e i v e s .  I t becomes d i f f i c u l t  remember a l l the steps i n the argument Donne p r e s e n t s . the l i s t e n e r knows that t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n l e a d s only and by c o n t r a s t , to Donne's c o n c l u s i o n .  to  Further,  indirectly,  Donne r e i n f o r c e s the  l i s t e n e r ' s a n x i e t y r e g a r d i n g t h i s c o n c l u s i o n by r e p e a t i n g the thought contained  i n the opening phrase.  The  lengthening  overall  of the p e r i o d adds to a g e n e r a l a n x i e t y concerning one's a b i l i t y to keep t r a c k of what i s happening as the p e r i o d The  l i s t e n e r ' s a n x i e t y decreases  progresses.  s l i g h t l y with the appearance  of the word "yet" at the opening of the p e r i o d ' s second p a r t : i  ...hath l e s s e of the m i r a c l e i n i t , yet when we come t o assigne reasons, even f o r our r e s u r r e c t i o n , (as we see Athenagoras hath undertaken, w i t h a great deale of wit, and l e a r n i n g , and confidence, i n h i s Apology f o r the C h r i s t i a n s , to the Emperour, w i t h i n 155. yeares a f t e r C h r i s t ; and the Schoole-men make account, that they have brought i t nearer t o the understanding, nay even to the very sense, by producing some such t h i n g s , as even i n nature, doe not only resemble, but (as they apprehend) e v i c t a r e s u r r e c t i o n ) yet....(11.230-237)  One may b e l i e v e t h a t Donne w i l l now present reached when "...we a s s i g n e r e a s o n s . . . f o r  the conclusion  our r e s u r r e c t i o n . . . " .  I n s t e a d , t h e l i s t e n e r encounters a n o t h e r l o n g p a r e n t h e t i c a l interjection.  Tension again begins t o b u i l d .  To t h e a n x i e t y  caused by t h e new d e l a y , Donne adds t h e problem o f a mass o f new and s p e c i f i c i n f o r m a t i o n .  The l i s t e n e r f e e l s t h a t a grasp  of t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n w i l l be n e c e s s a r y f o r a sound of t h e f o r t h c o m i n g  understanding  conclusion.  At t h e end o f t h e second p a r e n t h e t i c a l e x p r e s s i o n t h e word " y e t " appears a g a i n .  The l i s t e n e r ' s a n x i e t y a g a i n d e c r e a s e s .  He r e a d i e s h i m s e l f f o r what he hopes w i l l t r u l y be t h e c o n c l u s i o n of t h e argument and o f t h e p e r i o d .  He c l i n g s t o whatever i d e a s  the a s s o c i a t i v e movement o f t h e p e r i o d has l e f t him thus f a r : . . . e v i c t a r e s u r r e c t i o n ) y e t when a l l i s done, and a l l t h e reasons o f Athenagoras. and t h e S c h o o l e , and of S.Paul h i m s e l f e , a r e waighed, t h e y determine a l l i n t h i s , t h a t they a r e f a i r e , and pregnant, and conv e n i e n t i l l u s t r a t i o n s o f t h a t which was b e l e e v e d b e f o r e ; and t h a t they have f o r c e , and power t o e n c l i n e t o an a s s e n t , and t o c r e a t e and beget such a probab i l i t y , as a d i s c r e e t , and sad, and constant man might r e s t i n , and submit to.(11.237-243) Here t h e r e i s an o r d e r l y r e c a p i t u l a t i o n on a much s m a l l e r s c a l e as the p e r i o d ends.  The l i s t e n e r has an e a s i e r time g r a s p i n g .  and o r g a n i z i n g t h e m a t e r i a l .  The s h o r t s e r i e s o f p h r a s e s ,  "...when a l l i s done, and a l l t h e reasons o f Athenagoras. and the S c h o o l e , and o f S.Paul h i m s e l f e a r e waighed...", enables the l i s t e n e r t o f i t t h e d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e p r e c e d i n g e a s i l y graspable persuasive  dimensions.  influence.  lines within  But r e a s o n i s shown o n l y as a  The t r u e s t a t e t o which one s h o u l d  i s r e v e a l e d a few l i n e s l a t e r  a s o r t o f delayed  attain  punch-line,  when much o f t h e l i s t e n e r ' s t e n s i o n has d i s s i p a t e d .  Donne  63.  impresses on the l i s t e n e r the joy i m p l i c i t  i n an acceptance o f  the R e s u r r e c t i o n through f a i t h supported by reason. necessary; without i t ,  reason can be used i n arguments a g a i n s t  the R e s u r r e c t i o n as w e l l as f o r i t .  —  Faith i s  So, one must  ...beleeve i t immediately, i n t i r e l y , c h e a r f u l l y , u n d i s p u t a b l y , because we see i t expres^y d e l i v e r e d by the Holy Ghost; And we embrace t h a n k f u l l y , that sweetnesse, and that f u l n e s s e of t h a t b l e s s e d S p i r i t , t h a t as he l a i e s an o b l i g a t i o n upon our f a i t h , by d e l i v e r i n g the a r t i c l e p o s i t i v e l y to us, so he i s a l s o pleased to accompany that A r t i c l e , w i t h reasons and arguments p r o p o r t i o n a b l e t o our reason and understanding...By those reasons and arguments, and i l l u s t r a t i o n s , t h a t f a i t h i s n o u r i s h e d and maintained i n good habitude and constitution.(11.248-260) Donne concludes Part I w i t h an analogy which p r o v i d e s a  f i n a l , apt i l l u s t r a t i o n o f the r e a s o n - f a i t h r e l a t i o n s h i p .  He  speaks i n terms of h i m s e l f , p u t t i n g h i m s e l f on d i s p l a y i n a sense, f o r an audience which has regarded him as a guide: ...as i t i s the candle t h a t l i g h t s me, but yet I take a l a n t h o r n e to,defend that candle from the wind; so my f a i t h assures me of the R e s u r r e c t i o n , but these reasons and i l l u s t r a t i o n s a s s i s t t h a t f a i t h . ( 1 1 . 3 1 1 - 3 1 3 ) In c o n c l u d i n g P a r t I, Donne r e s t a t e s h i s o b j e c t i v e s and the goals achieved thus f a r .  He ends the s e c t i o n i n such a way  as  to l e a v e the assurance of the R e s u r r e c t i o n uppermost i n the l i s t e n e r ' s mind. Part I I of the sermon begins at 1 . 3 1 9 , and d e a l s with both the s p i r i t u a l and: p h y s i c a l a s p e c t s and i m p l i c a t i o n s o f the i Resurrection.  I t f u r t h e r r e f l e c t s Donne's i n s i s t e n c e on the  r e l a t i o n s h i p between the n a t u r a l and s p i r i t u a l orders of b e i n g . Because of the l i m i t s of time and space, my  examination of t h i s  p o r t i o n of the sermon must be s h o r t e r and s k e t c h i e r than the work deserves.  I w i l l t r y t o examine one or two passages s e l e c t e d ,  not on the b a s i s o f s t r u c t u r a l l o c a t i o n i n Donne's complex scheme  for  Part  I I , but r a t h e r  on t h e b a s i s o f c o n t e n t  and c o n t e x t  as  before. The  r o l e s o f body and s o u l and t h e i r i m p l i c a t i o n s i n  r e s u r r e c t i o n from n a t u r a l death are  the  s i g n i f i c a n t enough t o  require  that . . . w e r e c e i v e i n t o c o m p a r i s o n , T r i p l i c e m casum. a t h r e e f o l d f a l l , and a t h r e e f o l d r e s u r r e c t i o n , a s i n t h e n a t u r a l l and b o d i l y d e a t h , so i n t h e s p i r i t u a l l death of the soule a l s o : F o r f i r s t , i n n a t u r a l l death, t h e r e i a C a s u s i n s e p a r a t i o n e m . The man, t h e p e r s o n f a l l s i n t o a s e p a r a t i o n , a d i v o r c e o f body and s o u l ; a n d t h e r e s u r r e c t i o n f r o m t h i s f a l l i s by R e - u n i o n , t h e s o u l e and body a r e r e - u n i t e d a t t h e l a s t d a y . (11.331-337) The  second p a r t  of the  " T r i p l i c e m casum" h a s t o dC| w i t h  d i s s o l u t i o n o f t h e body a f t e r that  p a r t i c u l a r  -kind  o f  death,  and t h e r e s u r r e c t i o n  The t h i r d c a s e deal,s w i t h  f a l l .  d i s p e r s i o n of the body-become-dust r e s u r r e c t i o n from t h i s a s p e c t r e s t a t e s the  the  over the  earth,  and  of the t h r e e f o l d f a l l .  comparative b a s i s  on w h i c h t h e  from the  the Donne  remainder of  the  sermon w i l l be b u i l t : . . . A n d these three f a l l s , Into a Divorce, i n t o a S e p a r a t i o n , i n t o a D i s p e r s i o n ; And t h e s e t h r e e R e s u r r e c t i o n s , By R e - u n i o n , by R e - e f f o r m a t i o n , by R e - c o l l e c t i n g , we s h a l l a l s o f i n d e i n o u r p r e s e n t s t a t e , The s p i r i t u a l l d e a t h o f t h e s o u l e b y s i n n e . (11.348-352) The  " d i v o r c e o f body and s o u l e " i s t h e  s p i r i t u a l l death" treatment of i t ,  as w e l l a s  "first fall  i n n a t u r a l death  the  In h i s  his firm belief  in  t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h e n a t u r a l and s p i r i t u a l e l e m e n t s  of  being.  Donne a g a i n makes m a n i f e s t  (1.353).  in  The r o l e s o f body and s o u l a r e made t o a p p e a r  t a r y and i n t e r d e p e n d e n t .  They r e l a t e . t o  each other  way r e a s o n and f a i t h r e l a t e d t o e a c h o t h e r p a s s a g e b e g i n n i n g ' a t 1 . 3 5 4 , Donne makes t h e  i n Part  complemen-  i n the I.  same  In a  l i s t e n e r regard  the  r e l a t i o n s h i p a s o r g a n i c , and a t emphasizing the  the  same t i m e s p i r i t u a l , t h u s  interdependence:  . . . w h e r e a s God h a t h made t h e body t o be t h e O r g a n o f t h e s o u l e , and t h e s o u l e t o be t h e b r e a t h o f t h a t O r g a n , and bound them t o a m u t u a l l r e l a t i o n t o one another (11.354-356) By o p e n i n g t h e  clause w i t h "whereas",  l i s t e n e r t o r e c o g n i z e t h a t he w i l l w h i c h must be g r a n t e d Then,  for the  Donne f o r c e s  be c o n f r o n t e d w i t h a  d i s c u s s i o n to progress  e s t a b l i s h an atmosphere  for unquestioning acceptance,  a manner w h i c h r e p h r a s e s and r e - e m p h a s i z e s interdependence. subordinate  As r e a s o n  to f a i t h ,  i s united with,  the but  ships to d s c r i b e problems i n the  i n , some t q the  social  soul. reason  separate  relation-  and d o e s  stand the  s p e c i a l k i n d o f d i v o r c e i s t o be a m a t t e r The s e n t e n c e e n d s w i t h " d i v o r c e " , and  as a s o r t  of v e r b a l b r i d g e i n t o the passage d e a l i n g first  fall".  That passage  o f D o n n e ' s monumental s e n t e n c e p e r i o d s ,  11.361-384.  sense  s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p from which  w i t h the r e s u r r e c t i o n from " t h i s w i t h another  in  c o n n e c t i o n b e t w e e n b o d y and  The body " s h o u l d be a w i f e t o t h e s o u l e ,  of everyday concern.  then  neglect.  I n 1 . 3 6 0 Donne u s e s t h e t e r m s o f f a m i l i a r  analogy i s drawn, t h i s  and  i n - e a c h o f us which prevent  body and s o u l t h r o u g h o u r own w e a k n e s s a n d  L i k e the  to  body-soul  and f a i t h f r o m o p e r a t i n g c o n j o i n t l y , s o t o o we o f t e n  in a divorce."  the  He, d o e s i t  so t h e b o d y s h o u l d r e l a t e  As t h e r e - a r e i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s  Donne u s e s i t  which  Donne u s e s d i v i n e a u t h o r i t y  s t a t e s h i s p r e m i s e a s i f i t were s e l f - e v i d e n t .  from  successfully.  and w h i c h moves t h e l i s t e n e r t o a c c e p t  p r e m i s e e a s i l y and q u i c k l y .  out  premise  "God h a t h m a d ® . . " g i v e s a s e n s e o f h e a v y e m p h a s i s  b r o o k s no d i s p u t e  soul.  the  which  opens extends  66  In  the f i r s t  p a r t of t h i s p e r i o d , Donne e s t a b l i s h e s f o r the  l i s t e n e r a sense of grammatical balance and o r d e r l y treatment o f a  problem: Now the R e s u r r e c t i o n , from t h i s f i r s t f a l l i n t o a D i v o r c e , i s , s e r i o u s l y and w i s e l y , that i s , both p i o u s l y and c i v i l l y t o c o n s i d e r , that Man i s not a soule alone, but body too....(11.361-363)  a  The r e s u r r e c t i o n "...from t h i s f i r s t  f a l l . . . " l i e s simply i n  c o n s i d e r i n g the problem a c e r t a i n way.  Donne uses  grammatical  s t r u c t u r e t o r e f l e c t the reasonable twofold method o f c o n s i d e r a t i o n he i s p r o p o s i n g .  C o n s i d e r i n g the problem  " s e r i o u s l y and  w i s e l y " i s made e q u i v a l e n t t o c o n s i d e r i n g i t "both p i o u s l y and c i v i l l y " . of  Although there i s nothing i n the l e x i c a l meanings  the words t h a t immediately i n d i c a t e s t h i s e q u a l i t y , the f a c t  that Donne expresses i t i n such a balanced way two-word t o two-word correspondence  the neat  r e a d i e s the l i s t e n e r t o  organize h i s t h i n k i n g i n terms o f _ e v e n l y balanced and conceptual u n i t y w i t h i n the sentence. consider" i s  separated from  comes almost an o b j e c t . will;  grammatical  The i n f i n i t i v e "to  the copula " i s " , and i,n  To c o n s i d e r something  a sense  be-  i s an a c t o f  t h e r e f o r e the; l i s t e n e r may have the means of; r e s u r r e c t i o n  from t h i s f a l l a t h i s d i s p o s a l .  The appearance  of "that" after  " c o n s i d e r " , t o g e t h e r with the pause i n d i c a t e d by the comma between the two, prepares the l i s t e n e r f o r the c r u c i a l c o n c l u s i o n the r e s u r r e c t i o n from t h i s f a l l . c l u s i o n i n a s h o r t , emphasized sense o f dual balanced elements  Donne presents t h i s  con-  statement which maintains the i n the sentence: "...Man i s  not a soule alone, but a body t o o . . . " .  Donne f o l l o w s with a  system o f grammatically balanced, i n c r e a s i n g l y a m p l i f i e d e x p r e s s i o n s t o express t h i s u n i t y .  two-part  These e x p r e s s i o n s , with t h e i r  67.  parallel structures, All  will  complement e a c h o t h e r  o f them a r e b u i l t on a " n o t o n l y . . . ,  conceptually.  but a l s o "  framework.  The c o n c l u s i o n t h a t man " i s n o t a s o u l e a l o n e , b u t a body t o o " needs e x p a n s i o n .  In fact,  it  demands a w o r k i n g o u t o f  c o n s i d e r a t i o n w h i c h Donne says' c o n s t i t u t e s this f a l l .  T h i s i s what t h e  o n l y . . . b u t also" expressions  the  the r e s u r r e c t i o n  e x p a n d i n g framework o f the  from  "not  provides:  . . . T h a t man i s n o t p l a c e d i n t h i s w o r l d o n e l y f o r s p e c u l a t i o n ; He i s n o t s e n t i n t o t h i s w o r l d t o l i v e o u t o f i t , b u t t o l i v e i n i t ; Adam was n o t p u t i n t o P a r a d i s e , onely i n t h a t P a r a d i s e to contemplate the f u t u r e P a r a d i s e , b u t t o d r e s s e and t o k e e p t h e p r e s e n t ; God d i d n o t b r e a t h e a s o u l e t o w a r d s h i m , b u t i n t o h i m ; Not i n an o b s e s s i o n , but a p o s s e s s i o n ; Not t o t r a v a i l s f o r knowledge abroad, but t o d i r e c t him by c o u n s e l l a t home; N o t f o r e x t a s i e s , b u t f o r a n inherence....(11.363-370) The s e r i e s  of expanding expressions r e l a t e s  t h e body i n t h e b o d y - s o u l r e l a t i o n s h i p . expression and a m p l i f i e d  the  "but a l s o " p a r t — a c t s  emphasis.  We n o t e t h e  frame o f r e f e r e n c e : ! f i r s t ,  as a p o i n t o f  changes  put  that  into  is,  inj i t  rather  his  t h a n out o f i t .  P a r a d i s e . . . t o contemplate the future  d r e s s e and k e e p t h e |  i n the  what man i s ; n e x t ,  i  importance of  The s e c o n d p a r t  the w o r l d i n terms o f " s p e c u l a t i o n " ; t h e n , world  to the  o f each  repeated  listener's  why he i s a l i v e "place" i n r  Paradise,  but  i n 1.371.  "not o n l y . . . b u t a l s o " s t r u c t u r e p o i n t by way o f r e f e r e n c e  T h e r e Donne a b a n d o n s  anew, r e - e m p h a s i z i n g t h e  exthe  momentarily, i l l u s t r a t i n g a  t o S t . P a u l , h i s major a u t h o r i t y  W i t h o u t b r e a k i n g t h e p e r i o d g r a m m a t i c a l l y he  body-soul unity:  to  present...".  pansion being interrupted  I.  the  "Adam was n o t  The p e r i o d c o n t i n u e s , w i t h t h e r h y t h m o f t h e b a l a n c e d  Part  in  from  continues  importance o f the body's r o l e i n  the  68  ...Our body a l s o must t e s t i f i e and expresse our l o v e , not onely i n a r e v e r e n t i a l l h u m i l i a t i o n t h e r e o f , i n the d i s p o s i t i o n s , and postures, and motions, and a c t i o n s of the body, when we present our s e l v e s at Gods S e r v i c e , i n h i s house, but i n the discharge of our b o d i l y d u t i e s , and the s o c i a b l e o f f i c e s of our c a l l i n g s , towards one another....(11.374-379) T h i s p a r t of the p e r i o d provides a summary statement of the p o s i t i v e nature of the body's r o l e : "Our and  expresse our l o v e . . . " .  body a l s o must  testifie  Donne makes the l i s t e n e r f e e l  the  emphasis on t h i s statement, making i t a k i n d of focus f o r the "not  only...but  a l s o " expressions.  two-element expressions  Immediately, those balanced  reappear as the meaning and means of  our body's testimony i s a m p l i f i e d and  expanded.  Donne generates  f o r the l i s t e n e r a sense of completeness or of t o t a l coverage of the body's p o s s i b l e r o l e s i n the body-soul r e l a t i o n s h i p .  These  expressions  reve-  continue,  r e a f f i r m i n g the rhythmic p a t t e r n of  l a t i o n f o r the l i s t e n e r .  Donne g i v e s him  a sense o f i n c r e a s i n g l y  g r e a t e r understanding of the body's r a m i f i c a t i o n s i n the relationship. with one  In f a c t , the p e r i o d reaches grammatical  o f these rhythmic expansions, which are now  termination  phrased as  negatives: ...Not to avoid a C a l l i n g , by t a k i n g none: Not to make v o i d a C a l l i n g , by n e g l e c t i n g the due o f f i c e s thereof.(11.382-384). Though the p e r i o d i s concluded grammatically,  the l i s t e n e r  will  be w a i t i n g f o r a f u r t h e r p o s i t i v e e x p l a n a t i o n to summarize' the s t a t e of awareness t o which Donne has been u r g i n g him.  His  a n x i e t i e s r e g a r d i n g : t h i s , and r e g a r d i n g the whole problem of  i  the "divorce of body and  s o u l e " are r e s o l v e d i n 11.384-387:  In a word, To understand, and t o performe i n the best measure we can, the d u t i e s of the body and of the s o u l e , t h i s i s the r e s u r r e c t i o n from the f i r s t :> f a l l , The f a l l i n t o a d i v o r c e o f body and soule.(11.384-  69.  1  The  import o f the whole passage a p p l i e s t o both the p h y s i c a l and  s p i r i t u a l elements  o f the comparative  structure.  *•  Donne's c o n c l u s i o n grows n a t u r a l l y out o f the t h i r d d i v i s i o n o f Part I I . threefold f a l l death)  sub-  T h i s d e a l s w i t h the t h i r d aspect o f the  i n t o death (and by comparison,  the casus i n dispersionem.  into  spiritual  Into h i s argument concerning  t h i s case, Donne manages t o i n c o r p o r a t e a summarized c o n c l u s i o n which i s designed t o remind  the l i s t e n e r o f the t h r e e f o l d  problem's t o t a l i t y and o f the t h r e e f o l d s o l u t i o n t o i t .  At the  same time he r e f o c u s e s the l i s t e n e r ' s a t t e n t i o n on an a m p l i f i e d e x p l a n a t i o n f o r the s o l u t i o n to the casus i n dispersionem: In the g e n e r a l l r e s u r r e c t i o n upon n a t u r a l l death, God s h a l l work upon t h i s d i s p e r s i o n o f our s c a t t e r e d dust, as i n the f i r s t f a l l , which i s the D i v o r c e , by way o f Re-union, and i n the second, which i s P u t r i f a c t i o n , by way o f Re-efformation; so i n t h i s t h i r d , which i s D i s p e r s i o n , by way of R e - c o l l e c t i o n ; where mans b u r i e d f l e s h hath brought f o r t h grasse, and that grasse f e d b e a s t s , and those beasts f e d men, and those men f e d other men, God that knowes i n which Boxe of h i s Cabinet a l l t h i s seed P e a r l e l i e s , i n what corner of t h e world every atome, every graine o f every mans dust s l e e p s , s h a l l r e c o l l e c t that dust, and then recompact that body, and then r e inanimate that man, and that i s the accomplishment of all.(11.776-786) One notes that the l a s t phrase o f the passage ment of a l l " "recollection".  "the accomplish-  grows from an e x p l a n a t i o n o f the process o f But the a s s o c i a t i o n s t h e l i s t e n e r b r i n g s w i t h  him t o the c o n c l u s i o n i n c l u d e the concepts o f "Re-union" and "Re-efformation" mentioned e a r l i e r i n the p e r i o d . tends t o take on the a s s o c i a t i v e impact  "Re-collection"  of a l l three terms.  That i s , Donne b r i n g s the l i s t e n e r t o a p o i n t where he w i l l a s s o c i a t e t h e word w i t h t h e e n t i r e t h r e e f o l d s o l u t i o n t o the i  problem  o f the r e s u r r e c t i o n , on both the p h y s i c a l and s p i r i t u a l  70,.  Donne depends upon t h i s f o c a l p o i n t i n the l i s t e n e r ' s a s s o c i a t i v e p a t t e r n s f o r the development of the sermon's c o n c l u s i o n : Your way i s R e c o l l e c t i n g ; gather your s e l v e s i n t o the Congregation, and Communion of S a i n t s i n these p l a c e s ; gather your s i n s i n t o your memory, and poure them out i n humble c o n f e s s i o n s , to t h a t God, whom they have wounded;•Gather the crummes under h i s Table, l a y h o l d upon the g r a c i o u s promises, which by our M i n i s t e r y he l e t s f a l l upon the Congregation now; and gather the s e a l e s of those promises....(11.828-833) T h i s new  p e r i o d opens with a s h o r t , emphasized statement of  f o u r words which provides f o r the l i s t e n e r both a summation of a l l the previous d i r e c t i o n s he has r e c e i v e d , and  a f o c a l point  f o r which Donne's concluding remarks w i l l be the  explanation:  "Your way  i s Recollecting...".  means of R e s u r r e c t i o n  T h i s a l s o suggests t h a t  i s back i n the l i s t e n e r ' s hands.  the I f he  f o l l o w s the d i r e c t i o n s , r e s u r r e c t i o n i s w i t h i n h i s grasp. Donne, the guide,  i s p o i n t i n g out the way  f o l l o w on h i s own.  The  the l i s t e n e r must  opening phrase i s f o l l o w e d by  the  s e r i e s of d i r e c t i o n s , which r e i t e r a t e s what R e c o l l e c t i o n c o n s i s t s .of.  The  idea< of R e c o l l e c t i o n i s emphasized by the  parallel  c o n s t r u c t i o n s of these d i r e c t i o n s around the word "gather"(which i s synonymous w i t h " c o l l e c t " ) .  These p a r a l l e l s help to promote  a sense of flow i n the p e r i o d , as they r e i n f o r c e a s s o c i a t i v e l i n k s with e a r l i e r arguments.  The  stronger r a t h e r than weaker; and  echoing of "gather"  the l i s t e n e r may  grows  associate  each d i r e c t i v e with the s o l u t i o n s , as he remembers them, t o the problems r a i s e d i n c o n s i d e r i n g the body-soul r e l a t i o n s h i p . The  p e r i o d concludes i n a manner which allows the l i s t e n e r to  a s s o c i a t e i n a s i n g l e moment a l l the d i r e c t i o n s he has  received  under Donne's guidance, as he remembers them from h i s movement through the sermon.  i  T h i s moment occurs when the l i s t e n e r hears  :  t h a t , b a s e d on h i s k n o w l e d g e o f R e c o l l e c t i o n , he s h a l l be rrected  i n the  resu-  s p i r i t u a l as w e l l a s i n t h e p h y s i c a l s e n s e :  . . . a n d g a t h e r the s e a l e s of those p r o m i s e s , whensoever, i n a r e c t i f i e d c o n s c i e n c e , h i s S p i r i t b e a r e s w i t n e s s e w i t h y o u r s p i r i t , t h a t y o u may be . w o r t h y r e c e i v e r s o f h i m i n h i s S a c r a m e n t ; and t h i s r e c o l l e c t i n g s h a l l be y o u r r e s u r r e c t i o n . ( 1 1 . 8 3 3 - 8 3 6 ) !  In his  ending the  s e r m o n , Donne manages t o r e v i e w and  b a s i c premises  structure  and c o n c l u s i o n s , c h o o s i n g w o r d s and  which a l l o w the l i s t e n e r  moment h i s most v i v i d  associations  The a i m was t o a c h i e v e  R e s u r r e c t i o n " and t h e r e b y  f r o m h i s memory o f t h e  c i r c u m s c r i b e s the  t o g a i n some u n d e r s t a n d i n g  listener's  He w i l l  Christian,  achievement  and i d e a s  i  then understand i  of  "the  o f t h e moment when i t  upon the  regulate  Donne u s e s r h y t h m i c e x p a n s i o n s  to c o l o r the l i s t e n e r ' s  the  the  Resurrection  what i t means t o be a  and h i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g w i l l  daily l i f e .  in  sermon.  The p o i n t o f c u l m i n a t i o n  becomes p o s s i b l e f o r h i m t o m e d i t a t e himself.  after  "the m e d i t a t i o n upon  c o n s o l a t i o n of the R e s u r r e c t i o n " .  sentence  t o b r i n g i n t o f o c u s i n one  T h i s moment i s t h e p o i n t o f c u l m i n a t i o n s o u g h t sermon.  restate  true  his actions  on c e r t a i n  view of n a t u r a l l i f e  in  words as  it  compares t o t h e g l o r y o f R e s u r r e c t i o n : When t h y b o d y , w h i c h h a t h b e e n s u b j e c t t o a l l k i n d e s of d e s t r u c t i o n h e r e ; t o the d e s t r u c t i o n of a F l o o d , i n C a t a r r h s , and Rheums, and D r o p s i e s , and s u c h d i s t i l l a t i o n s , to the d e s t r u c t i o n of a f i r e , i n F e a v e r s , and F r e n z i e s , and s u c h c o n f l a g r a t i o n s , s h a l l be removed s a f e l y and g l o r i o u s l y above a l l s u c h d i s t e m p e r s , a n d m a l i g n a n t i m p r e s s i o n s , a n d body and s o u l e so u n i t e d , a s i f b o t h were one s p i r i t i n i t s e l f e , and God so u n i t e d t o b o t h , as t h a t t h o u s h a l t be t h e same s p i r i t w i t h G o d . ( 1 1 . 8 4 5 - 8 5 2 ) Donne b r i n g s t h e  sermon t o a c l o s e w i t h a f i n a l  positive results  o f c o n s i d e r i n g the R e s u r r e c t i o n .  a cautionary note i s  implied:  reminder of Even  the  here,  ...when he e s t a b l i s h e s the l a s t and e v e r l a s t i n g world i n the l a s t R e s u r r e c t i o n , he s h a l l admit such a number, as t h a t none of us who are here now, none that i s , or hath, or s h a l l be upon the f a c e of the e a r t h , s h a l l be denied i n t h a t R e s u r r e c t i o n , i f he have t r u l y f e l t t h i s . . . . ( 1 1 . 8 5 5 - 8 5 9 ) Donne cannot help throwing a l a s t l i t t l e scare i n t o the When God  listener.  i s ready t o e s t a b l i s h the l a s t R e s u r r e c t i o n , he  admit a c e r t a i n u n s p e c i f i e d number of people to g l o r y . appearance of the: word "none" and him  he may  i t s repetition w i l l  t h i n k t h a t "none of us who  be i n t h a t number:.  Donne t r i c k s him,  are here now"  will The  alarm will  and the e f f e c t of the  momentary scare i s to impress upon the l i s t e n e r the need to have t r u l y f e l t a sense of the R e s u r r e c t i o n .  The f i n a l  conclusion  i s drawn; i t reminds the l i s t e n e r of the keystone to the "meditation of the R e s u r r e c t i o n " , and to a sense of h i s r e s u r r e c t i o n : "...Grace accepted,  own  i s the i n f a l l i b l e earnest  of  Glory."(1.859) What the l i s t e n e r has undergone d u r i n g t h i s sermon i s a s e r i e s of i l l u s t r a t i o n s of the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between reason f a i t h , body and  and  s o u l i n s o f a r as they r e l a t e to one's awareness  of the R e s u r r e c t i o n as a mysterious t r u t h .  And,  at i t s con-  c l u s i o n , having been moved to an awareness of the interdependence i  of the n a t u r a l and j s p i r i t u a l elememts i n the attainment C h r i s t i a n t r u t h , he leaves the church with a new  sense of i n -  t e g r a t i o n and purpose, i n t e n t on a c h i e v i n g f o r h i m s e l f "meditation of the  of  the  Resurrection".  *  *  *  *  *  Both the Donne sermons r e f l e c t the v i g o r and a r t i f i c e which Donne set about i l l u s t r a t i n g one  with  of h i s most b a s i c theo-  l o g i c a l p r i n c i p l e s : the interdependence between the n a t u r a l  and  a p i r i t u a l orders of being i n a manner which s t r e s s e s man's r e l i g i o u s and  s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s i n t h i s world.  emphasizes the  importance of e x p e r i e n c i n g  Donne  theological  truths  i n the C h r i s t i a n context; h i s sermons become experiences f o r h i s audience, whereby i t s members may experience and daily  meaning i n a way  g a i n a sense of C h r i s t i a n  t h a t i s a p p l i c a b l e to t h e i r  lives.  In examining the two  sermons by Jonathan Edwards, we  shall  again f i n d a heavy emphasis on the r e l i g i o u s experience  and  i t s nature.  influence  We  exerted by one  w i l l a l s o see  the  same k i n d  of u n i f y i n g  of; Edwards' most important t h e o l o g i c a l  ideas.  !  The  two  sermons, one  shape and  i n v i t a t i o n a l and  e x p r e s s i o n to two  one  s i d e s of one  imprecatory,  give  theological coin.  In working out the r a m i f i c a t i o n s of man's dependence on God goodness and mercy, Edwards demonstrates a d e d i c a t i o n Donne's, cast i n another t h e o l o g i c a l , s o c i a l , and mould.  Edwards may  experiences he  evoke joy or t e r r o r ; but  creates  like  literary  always,  the  are aimed at h i s l i s t e n e r s ' h e a r t s .  for  74.  Notes  !  J o a n W e b b e r , C o n t r a r y M u s i c ; The P r o s e S t y l e o f J o h n Donne ( M a d i s o n : The U n i v e r s i t y o f W i s c o n s i n P r e s s , 1963'), p . 1 2 . 2 L i n d s a y Mann, "The M a r r i a g e A n a l o g u e o f L e t t e r and S p i r i t i n D o n n e ' s D e v o t i o n a l P r o s e " , J E G P , 70 ( 1 9 7 1 ) , . 6 0 7 - 6 1 6 , * . 6 1 5 . 1  3  F o r t h i s _ d i s c u s s i o n I depend s t r o n g l y on W e b b e r ' s work b e c a u s e I f i n d h e r a n a l y s i s and v o c a b u l a r y u s e f u l t o my own a n a l y s i s .  ^ W e b b e r , C o n t r a r y M u s i c : The P r o s e S t y l e o f J o h n D o n n e ,  p.31.  For c o n v e n i e n c e ' s s a k e , I w i l l r e f e r from h e r e on t o a " l i s t e n e r " . The r e a d e r may t a k e t h i s t o mean a member o f a n a u d i e n c e o r a "reader-auditor". I t r e f e r s t o someone who i s e x p e r i e n c i n g t h e sermon a s a s e q u e n t i a l e v e n t i n t i m e . ^Webber, p . 3 1 » ^Webber,  p.31•  ^ W i n f r i e d S c h l e i n e r , The I m a g e r y o f J o h n D o n n e ' s ( P r o v i d e n c e : Brown U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 7 0 ) .  Sermons  o  ^ F o r f u r t h e r d e t a i l s , see S c h l e i n e r * s b o o k . He d e v o t e s s e p a r a t e s e c t i o n s t o d i s c u s s i o n o f d e c o r u m , h i g h and l o w m e t a p h o r , the l o w e r i n g o r h e i g h t e n i n g o f s t y l e , and d e c o r u m i n r e l a t i o n t o learning. See p p . 1 3 - 6 2 .  1  ^ E . M . S i m p s o n and 6 . R . P o t t e r , e d . , The Sermons o f J o h n Donne (Berkeley: U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a Press, 1956-62), V I I I , 237-252. A l l q u o t a t i o n s f r o m t h i s sermon w i l l be f r o m t h i s e d i t i o n of the t e x t . F u r t h e r r e f e r e n c e s w i l l be i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t h e body o f t h e t h e s i s b y l i n e number, as p e r t h i s e d i t i o n . T h e r e seems t o be s p e c i f i c p o l i t i c a l m o t i v a t i o n u n d e r l y i n g t h i s sermon. F o r d e t a i l s r e g a r d i n g the c i r c u m s t a n c e s , see Simpson and P o t t e r , e d . , The Sermons o f J o h n Donne ( B e r k e l e y : U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s , 1956-62), V I I I , 2 0 - 2 2 .  1 1  1 2  Webber,  pp.32-33.  1 5  Webber,  p.36.  ^ S i m p s o n and P o t t e r , e d . , The Sermons o f J o h n D o n n e . V I I , 9 4 - 1 1 7 . A l l q u o t a t i o n s f r o m t h i s sermon w i l l be f r o m t h i s e d i t i o n o f the t e x t . F u r t h e r r e f e r e n c e s w i l l be i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t h e body o f t h e t h e s i s by l i n e number, a s p e r t h i s e d i t i o n . 15  • I  have chosen n o t t o g i v e a d e t a i l e d e x a m i n a t i o n o f s t r u c t u r e b e c a u s e o f t h e l i m i t s o f t i m e and s p a c e . Although structure h a s a m a j o r e f f e c t on t h e q u a l i t y o f s e q u e n t i a l e x p e r i e n c e , t h e r e a r e o t h e r i m p o r t a n t t h i n g s t o be s a i d a s w e l l a n d one s i m p l y cannot say e v e r y t h i n g .  See page 32. See chapter I, f o o t n o t e  17*  76  CHAPTER I I I : SERMONS BY JONATHAN EDWARDS  In her a r t i c l e "Imagery i n t h e Sermons o f Jonathan  Edwards",  Annette Kolodny p o i n t s out one of the most important f a c t s about s t y l e and e f f e c t i n Edwards' sermons: The power o f the sermons, however, l i e s not so much i n the a b s t r a c t theology as i n the s t y l i s t i c devices through which i t has been experienced; and the images, as Perry M i l l e r p o i n t e d out i n "The R h e t o r i c o f Sensation", e f f e c t i v e l y t r a n s l a t e the mystery of the unknown and a b s t r a c t t o the a c c e s s i b l e borders of immediate emotional experience.' When Edwards and t h e l i s t e n e r c o n f r o n t one another from  their  i  r e s p e c t i v e p o s i t i o n s o f knowledge and "ignorance", the sermon i  becomes an emotional, r e l i g i o u s experience.  Edwards i s l e s s  i n t e r e s t e d i n t r a n s m i t t i n g an i n t e l l e c t u a l understanding  of a  t h e o l o g i c a l p r i n c i p l e , than i n c r e a t i n g an emotional awareness of the awful and mysterious t r u t h s of God. p r i n c i p l e provides an expanding experience i s t o be b u i l t .  The t h e o l o g i c a l  framework upon which a sermon's  I n the two sermons I have  chosen,  one of the major p r i n c i p l e s being i l l u s t r a t e d i s man's .dependence upon God f o r goodness and mercy.  R e l a t e d t o t h i s i n both sermons  i s man's c a p a b i l i t y f o r f r e e a c t i o n i n the f a c e of p r e d e s t i n a t i o n and the dependence upon God.  Edwards' power t o make h i s p r i n -  c i p l e s and dogma f u n c t i o n a l on a s t r o n g l y emotional l e v e l i s 2 due, among other t h i n g s , t o v a r i o u s aspects of h i s s t y l e .  So,  as I d i d with Donne, I must make a few comments on Edwards' s t y l e before beginning my analyses o f the two sermons. In t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n t o t h e i r e d i t i o n o f Edwards, Faust and Johnson provide a u s e f u l review o f h i s s t y l e .  They c i t e  from  Edwards' e a r l y theory o f s t y l e , as s e t down i n the twenty r u l e s  77.  he e s t a b l i s h e d f o r h i m s e l f when he was s i x t e e n years o l d . B r i e f l y , Edwards b e l i e v e d that one should not r e v e a l to one's audience any undue concern about s t y l e and method.  S t y l e should  demonstrate modesty, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n view o f Edwards' youth at the time when he devised h i s r u l e s .  The models one uses should  be a p p r o p r i a t e and proper, r a t h e r than a f f e c t e d .  Edwards a l s o  recognized the wisdom o f t a k i n g i n t o account the reader or l i s t e n e r ' s weaknesses when w r i t i n g , and t o be moderate i n demonstrating his learning. were not extremely  He f e l t i t b e t t e r t o appear as i f he  l e a r n e d , s i n c e a show of a r t i f i c e was not t o  h i s t h e o l o g i c a l purposes. Edwards' sermons are w r i t t e n p r e c i s e l y and c l e a r l y , and h i s work does not s u f f e r from v a r i o u s weaknesses t o which sermons are prone. and  He i s r a r e l y verbose,  he avoids s t r a i n e d metaphors  s i m i l e s , and he tends away from l o n g complex sentence periods  with complicated  clause s t r u c t u r e s .  He i s c a r e f u l with h i s usage  of r h e t o r i c a l questions and p a r e n t h e t i c a l e x p r e s s i o n s .  He r a r e l y ,  i f ever, quotes c l a s s i c a l a u t h o r i t i e s ; " . . . i n s h o r t , he l a c k s 'literary  dress'."  4  Edwards' imagery i s f a i r l y c o n v e n t i o n a l .  He i s not given t o  w i l d imaginative leaps and s t a r t l i n g d e p i c t i o n s or i l l u s t r a t i o n s . T h i s d o e s n o t imply-that h i s imagery i s weak He depends upon the emotional  q u i t e the c o n t r a r y .  power of h i s u t t e r a n c e s , r a t h e r  than upon the elements of s u r p r i s e or strangeness audience.  to affect h i s  Often h i s images or i l l u s t r a t i o n s are d e r i v e d from  a t y p o l o g i c a l t u r n o f mind: Edwards sees a correspondence between the n a t u r a l and i n f e r i o r world* world.  and the s p i r i t u a l and s u p e r i o r  He chooses models from one area t o r e l a t e t o the other,  78.  with the comparison Edwards  1  p o i n t i n g t o some s i g n i f i c a n t c o n c l u s i o n .  r h e t o r i c i s heightened only when he wishes t o i n c r e a s e  the emotional impact of a p o i n t .  Even when h i s r h e t o r i c becomes  unusual, i t appears subdued; t h e r e i s o f t e n a sense o f great power, under r e s t r a i n t . S e c t i o n s of Edwards' sermons, and sometimes whole sermons, are o f t e n h e l d together by a c h a i n of r e c u r r i n g words which p r o v i d e the emotional t o n a l i t y f o r a g i v e n theme. not intended t o r e p l a c e elements  T h i s usage i s  o f s t r u c t u r e and o r g a n i z a t i o n ,  but q u i t e o f t e n i t overshadows those elements.  Sometimes  Edwards employs p a i r s of words which a c t as ornamental a t i v e expansions: "'search and seek',  alliter-  'mildness and mercy'".  More o f t e n they a c t as a m p l i f i c a t i o n s o f ideas which are c e n t r a l to a statement's emotional impact: "'Labors and s u f f e r i n g s ' ,  5 'prepossession and d e s i r e * " . Ease and c l a r i t y , even i n moments o f emotional t e n s i o n , c h a r a c t e r i z e Edwards' sentences. His sentence rhythms are a u n i t , s e n s i t i v e l y b u i l t the word-pairs, even when c o n v e n t i o n a l and redundant, are not f o r c e d . R e p e t i t i o n of words and c o n s t r u c t i o n s i s the essence of h i s s t y l e . " R e p e t i t i o n , while perhaps not the "essence" o f Edwards' s t y l e , i  i s indeed one of i t s most important elements.  I n The Design o f  the Present. John Lynen has t h i s to say w i t h r e s p e c t t o Edwards' use o f r e p e t i t i o n o f words and phrases: The chiming and r e v o l v i n g e f f e c t s o f r e p e t i t i o n produce a language so smooth i n i t s movement that the argument g l i d e s forward as i f i t were d e v e l o p i n g i t s e l f .TTTThe style~~enacte the i n e v i t a b i l i t y o f the d i v i n e w i l l , so t h a t the God who d i s p o s e s a l l t h i n g s a c c o r d i n g t o h i s i n f i n i t e wisdom and power i s made t o seem present i n the t h e o l o g i c a l demonstration o f h i s Absolute Sovereignty.7  79.  Edwards' use o f r e p e t i t i o n r e f l e c t s h i s awareness a s s o c i a t i v e o p e r a t i o n i n p e r c e i v i n g the sermon.  o f t h e mind's He u s e s  subtle  m o d u l a t i o n i n h i s r e p e t i t i o n s , g r a d u a l l y a l t e r i n g m e a n i n g and response w i t h o u t d e p a r t i n g from h i s main t h e o l o g i c a l  considerations  As t h e same w o r d , Cr v a r i a n t f o r m o f i t , a p p e a r s i n changing c o n t e x t s , i t s meaning undergoes d e l i c a t e modifications. I t shimmers, as i f i n a changeable l i g h t , r e v e a l i n g v a r i e d and u n e x p e c t e d h u e s . " E a c h d e v i c e E d w a r d s u s e s p u t s c o n s t r a i n t s on t h e o t h e r s t o e f f e c t a b l e n d and u n i t y o f s t y l e and c o n c e p t i n a c h a n g i n g b a l a n c e w h i c h v a r i e s f r o m work t o work. m e c h a n i c a l , and  Edwards i s seldom  " . . . h i s r e s p e c t f o r the mystery of t h i n g s i s  s u c h t h a t he w r i t e s , a l w a y s , a s one who  knows t h a t h i s b e s t q  statements merely approximate, suggest."  H i s t h o u g h t moves  q u i e t l y much o f t h e t i m e ; and e m o t i o n , e v e n when i t i s s t r o n g , has a m o b i l e q u a l i t y t o i t w h i c h never grows s l u g g i s h . vocabulary " . . . i s  shaped t o t h e comprehension  of h i s l i s t e n e r s  . . . h i s c l a r i t y , f r e e d o m f r o m e c c e n t r i c i t y , and e a s y f o r w a r d n e s s a r e v i r t u e s t h a t go f a r t o s u p p l e m e n t more c o n s c i o u s a r t i s t r y o f  any want o f a  element  i s Edwards' c r e a t i o n of  e m o t i o n a l t o n e s b y i n d i r e c t means, o r by d e l i b e r a t e b e t w e e n s i g n i f i c a n c e and manner o f d e s c r i p t i o n . p e c i a l l y t r u e o f h i s i m p r e c a t o r y sermons,  froid"  like  disparity  This i s es"Sinners i n the  where he c u l t i v a t e s a t e r r i f y i n g  or cold-bloodedness.  "sang-  He p r o g r e s s e s c a l m l y , a p p a r e n t l y  d e t a c h e d f r o m t h e f u r y he may detachment  straight-  style.  Another important s t y l i s t i c  Hands o f a n A n g r y God",  His  t h r o u g h Ithe a b s e n c e  be d e s c r i b i n g .  He r e f l e c t s h i s  of s p e c i f i c a l l y emqtional adjectives  and i m p a r t s a s e n s e o f i n e v i t a b i l i t y t o h i s t h e m a l j i c movement. The l i s t e n e r d e r i v e s t h e e m o t i o n f r o m h i s p e r c e p t i o n o f a d e s c r i b e d  80  situation, increase  and E d w a r d s '  his  Edwards'  of the  strange  calm,  and  style  demonstrates joyous."  a "quality  of feeling  This quality  1 1  sermons I have c h o s e n t o  is  analyze.  and  somber s i d e ;  we s h a l l c o n s i d e r  serve  it  there  are other  shortly.  and thus: d e v e l o p s  experience. Edwards'  the  *  COR.  sermon,  at  work i n  introductory first  of  it,  ob-  theological  emotional comments the  two  on sermons:  Redemption".  #  1  the  demonstrates  to a  sermon i n t o a n  I w i l l now t u r n t o t h e  G l o r i f i e d i n t h e Work o f  in  I n b o t h sermons one may  H a v i n g made t h e s e few  style,  once  The s e c o n d  factors  how Edwards c r e a t e s e m o t i o n a l r e s p o n s e  principle,  "God  but  at  evident  " S i n n e r s i n t h e Hands o f an A n g r y G o d " , c e r t a i n l y Edwards'  blandness  horror.  somber and s t r a n g e l y first  serenity,  *  *  •  29-31  i .  That no f l e s h should g l o r y i n h i s presence. But of him are ye i n C h r i s t J e s u s , who of God i s made unto us wisdom and r i g h t e o u s n e s s , and s a n c t i f i c a t i o n . and redemption. That a c c o r d i n g as i t i s w r i t t e n . He t h a t glorieth. let  '  The sermon on t h i s Glorified  i n the  him g l o r y i n t h e  text  is  known by two t i t l e s :  Work o f R e d e m p t i o n " ,  Man's Dependence". seen t h e o l o g i c a l l y  It  Lord.TTi  "God  and "God G l o r i f i e d  has been d e s c r i b e d  as  from the  fall  o f Adam t o  I have s a i d t h a t  this  is  in  "world h i s t o r y the  end o f  the  13 world." sermons;  J  the  by o p e r a t i n g and  sermon o p e r a t e s on t h e  by d e l i n e a t i n g  listener's  God's munificence.  one o f E d w a r d s '  sensitivity  Now, a l i t t l e  Invitational  a positive to  love,  goal,  or  security,  e l a b o r a t i o n on t h e  meaning  of " i n v i t a t i o n a l " i s r e q u i r e d . Faust and Johnson d i v i d e Edwards' sermons i n t o f o u r groups ( d i s c i p l i n a r y , p a s t o r a l , d o c t r i n a l , and o c c a s i o n a l ) , r a t h e r than two  ( i n v i t a t i o n a l and i m p r e c a t o r y ) .  c a t e g o r i e s may o v e r l a p .  They recognize that these  The d i s c i p l i n a r y sermons i n c l u d e the  imprecatory sermons l i k e " E t e r n i t y of H e l l Torments" and "Sinners i n the Hands o f an Angry God".  "God G l o r i f i e d i n the Work o f  Redemption" i s viewed as one of the d o c t r i n a l sermons, i n which "Edwards i n t e r p r e t s h i s f a i t h and concentrates on B i b l e exegesis".^  4  When I use " i n v i t a t i o n a l " i n r e f e r e n c e t o Edwards'  sermons, I am not r e f e r r i n g only t o the p a s t o r a l sermons, which "set f o r t h i n p o s i t i v e , joyous, tender, r h a p s o d i c , and even r a p t language the beauty  of r e l i g i o u s contemplation."  I mean  " i n v i t a t i o n a l " t o i n c l u d e many o f the d o c t r i n a l sermons, l i k e "God  G l o r i f i e d i n the Work of Redemption", as w e l l as those s e r -  mons from a l l c a t e g o r i e s which do not imply a sense o f g u i l t or evoke f e a r i n t h e experiences they c r e a t e .  T h i s i s not t o say  that these sermons remove a l l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y from the l i s t e n e r . Rather they are designed t o make the l i s t e n e r w i l l i n g , even eager to shoulder h i s r e l i g i o u s r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s .  The imprecatory  sermons I i d e n t i f y with " d i s c i p l i n a r y " ; Faust and Johnson's use of "imprecatory" denotes the more v i o l e n t and e n t h u s i a s t i c s e r mons o f the type.  As an i n v i t a t i o n a l sermon, "God G l o r i f i e d  i n the Work of Redemption" d e a l s with the p o s s i b i l i t y of redemption as i t r e l a t e s t o dependence on God, and t h e r e f o r e , t o p r e destination. The  s t r u c t u r e o f "God G l o r i f i e d i n the Work o f Redemption"  r e f l e c t s t h e c u r i o u s mixture o f power and f i n e s s e t h a t the thematic  82  context demands.  Edwards e x p l a i n s  a given doctrine  in relation  t o the " t r u e " f a i t h as a whole f o r the sake o f t h e o l o g i c a l cons i s t e n c y and orthodoxy, and he t r i e s t o f i n d the most e f f i c i e n t way  t o deeply a f f e c t h i s l i s t e n e r ' s s e n s i b i l i t i e s .  Structure,  however Edwards manipulates i t , r e i n f o r c e s the preacher's ends by b e i n g as appropriate theme.  as p o s s i b l e f o r the p r e s e n t a t i o n  I t helps r e f l e c t the r e l a t i o n s h i p o f t h e o l o g i c a l purpose  t o the l i s t e n e r ' s s e n s i t i v i t y t o l o v e o r f e a r . wilders The  of h i s  I t never be-  u n l e s s Edwards wants t h e l i s t e n e r bewildered. sermon i s d i v i d e d i n t o three b a s i c s e c t i o n s .  a f a i r l y short  i n t r o d u c t i o n i n which Edwards o f f e r s what appears  t o be a b a s i c p l a n f o r p r e s e n t a t i o n . "Doctrine", worked out.  There i s  The second s e c t i o n i s t h e  i n which the t e x t i s e x p l i c a t e d and i t s r a m i f i c a t i o n s The t h i r d s e c t i o n i s the  to apply the d o c t r i n e  "Use", i n which one l e a r n s  i n the p e r s o n a l and s o c i a l t h e o l o g i c a l  senses. The  introductory  s e c t i o n opens w i t h an explanation  o f the  t e x t ' 8 import f o r the people t o whom the t e x t was d i r e c t e d a t the time i t was w r i t t e n .  There i s an i m p l i e d  s i m i l a r i t y between  C h r i s t i a n s a t the time the A p o s t l e made the statement, and the members o f Edwards' l i s t e n i n g audience.  One must remember that  Edwards i s t r y i n g t o c o r r e c t what he sees as a f a l l away from orthodoxy.  The opening passage provides the implied  p a r a l l e l to  the l i s t e n e r ' s s i t u a t i o n as a C h r i s t i a n . Those C h r i s t i a n s t o whom the a p o s t l e d i r e c t e d t h i s e p i s t l e , dwelt i n a p a r t o f the world where human w i s dom was i n great repute; as the a p o s t l e observes i n the 22d verse o f t h i s chapter, "The Greeks seek a f t e r wisdom."...The a p o s t l e t h e r e f o r e observes t o them how God by the g o s p e l destroyed, and brought t o nought t h e i r wisdom. The l e a r n e d ' G r e c i a n s and t h e i r great  'I  p h i l o s o p h e r s , by a l l t h e i r wisdom d i d now know God, they.were not able t o f i n d out the t r u t h i n d i v i n e t h i n g s . But, a f t e r they had done t h e i r utmost t o no e f f e c t , i t pleased God a t l e n g t h t o r e v e a l h i m s e l f by the g o s p e l , which they accounted f o o l i s h n e s s . (pp.106-107) From the outset Edwards emphasizes ease and l u c i d i t y i n h i s p e r i o d s , as w e l l as a q u a l i t y o f s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d n e s s t h a t i s a t times d e l i b e r a t e l y suppressed i n Donne.  He presents r e l a t i v e l y  simple e a s i l y grasped ideas i n a potent but uncomplicated way. He c a p i t a l i z e s upon h i s l i s t e n e r ' s w i l l i n g n e s s t o accept h i s statements as h i s t o r i c a l l y a c c u r a t e f a c t s r a t h e r than merely theological interpretations.  He makes l i t t l e d i s t i n c t i o n between  the f a c t and the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n .  The passage's  p o i n t s t o a s p e c i f i c group o f b e l i e v e r s  phrase  "Those C h r i s t i a n s  to whom the a p o s t l e d i r e c t e d t h i s e p i s t l e "  and p r o v i d e s an  immediate focus f o r the l i s t e n e r ' s a t t e n t i o n . mention  opening  There i s no  o f a s p e c i f i c time, but the next p a r t o f the sentence .  begins w i t h "dwelt", i n d i c a t i n g the p a s t .  The f a c t that "human  wisdom was i n great r e p u t e " begins t o narrow the f o c u s .  Edwards  then makes the focus s p e c i f i c by c i t i n g the a p o s t l e ' s r e f e r e n c e to the Greeks. how  I n r e l a t i n g the a p o s t l e ' s o b s e r v a t i o n s "to them  God...brought t o nought, t h e i r wisdom", Edwards d e l i b e r a t e l y  makes t h e antecedents f o r "them" and " t h e i r " ambiguous.  "Them"  r e f e r s . t o the C h r i s t i a n s t o whom the a p o s t l e spoke o r wrote, and presumable " t h e i r " r e f e r s t o "the Greeks".  However, those e a r l y  C h r i s t i a n s may have been Greeks who had been converted and conv i n c e d o f God's might.  The "them", as i t r e f e r s t o the C h r i s t i a n s ,  i s i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o the l a r g e r "them" who f e l t the impact o f God's might.  The next sentences s t r e s s the i n e f f i c a c y o f " a l l  84  t h e i r wisdom...to f i n d out the t r u t h i n d i v i n e t h i n g s . "  The  use  of "utmost" to d e s c r i b e the e f f o r t s of human wisdom, and the i  de-  j  n i a l of any e f f e c t , c o n t r i b u t e to the l i s t e n e r ' s sense of the h e l p l e s s n e s s of "tllose C h r i s t i a n s " .  I m p l i c i t i n t h i s , i s the  l i s t e n e r ' s r e a l i z a t i o n that he, as a C h r i s t i a n , may  have no  more power "those C p h hr riasstiinagn s of to whom the a p oto s t leex p dl i rc ea ct te e d itvhiinse t eh pin s gt sl e "than . Edwards' God's manner of r e v e l a t i o n i n c r e a s e s the sense that God immovable by d i n t of human e f f o r t .  He d i d what pleased  He r e v e a l e d " . . . h i m s e l f by the gospel, which they foolishness."  The  h i s congregation  f a c t that Edwards now  may  Him:  accounted  d i r e c t s the e p i s t l e to  make the l i s t e n e r r e a l i z e more s t r o n g l y  that such r e a c t i o n s are happening i n h i s own dealt  is totally  time, and must be  with.  Edwards a p p l i e s terms r e f l e c t i n g "wisdom" to the Greeks' o p i n i o n s , and  " f o o l i s h n e s s " to t h e i r e v a l u a t i o n of the  T h i s r e v e r s a l i n terminology one who  may  shame the l i s t e n e r , i f he i s  has not taken the gospel as s e r i o u s l y as he  should.  While i t i s not c o n f u s i n g or even complex, i t i s to be it  i s the terminology  gospel.  accepted:  of God's working out of the gospel i n the  world: He "chose the f o o l i s h t h i n g s of the world to confound the wise, and the weak t h i n g s of the world to confound the t h i n g s which are mighty, and the base t h i n g s of the world, and t h i n g s t h a t are despised, yea, and t h i n g s which are not, to b r i n g to nought the t h i n g s t h a t are."(p.107) Edwards a n t i c i p a t e s the a p p r o p r i a t e response t o t h i s "Why  d i d God  do these t h i n g s ? "  information:  He uses the q u o t a t i o n t o r e t u r n  t o "those C h r i s t i a n s " past and present, and t o the t e x t .  The  need f o r e l a b o r a t i o n on t h i s p o i n t as i t r e l a t e s to the t e x t  now  85.  becomes a source of emotional and  intellectual  tension.  To s a t i s f y the l i s t e n e r ' s need f o r a means to approach the t e x t , Edwards presents  a s t r u c t u r a l o u t l i n e f o r the method.  o u t l i n e i s a s u b t l e piece of m a n i p u l a t i o n i n that the i s misled  into regarding  i t as' a promise, and  p l a n f o r the sermon, which f o l l o w s .  This  listener  exact s t r u c t u r a l  I t i s not t h a t at a l l .  i  Rather, i t i s a spreading  out of the conceptual  which the sermon's problems r e s o l v e .  elements i n t o  I t promises nothing  in  !  terms of the t e c h n i c a l or l i t e r a r y s t r u c t u r e of the sermon: And the a p o s t l e informs them i n the t e x t why he thus d i d , That no f l e s h should g l o r y i n h i s presence. &c. In which words may be observed, 1. What God aims at i n the d i s p o s i t i o n of things i n the a f f a i r of redemption, v i z . that man should not g l o r y i n h i m s e l f , but alone i n God; That no f l e s h should g l o r y i n h i s presence. that a c c o r d i n g as i t i s w r i t t e n . He that g l o r i e t h . l e t him g l o r y i n the Lord. 2. How t h i s end i s a t t a i n e d i n the work of r e demption, v i z . by t h a t absolute and immediate dependence which men have upon God i n that work, f o r a l l t h e i r good.(p.107) The  o u t l i n e c e r t a i n l y suggests how  conceptual  elements should  the treatment of s p e c i f i c  be organized.  not to f o l l o w the order or p r o p o r t i o n i n g  But  that treatment i s  suggested.  The  pur-  pose of the o u t l i n e i s to a f f o r d the l i s t e n e r a grasp of elements Edwards w i l l d e a l with, need to organize  and  the  to s a t i s f y the l i s t e n e r ' s  material l o g i c a l l y .  The  l i s t e n e r w i l l not  d i s t u r b e d when the o r d e r i n g i n d i c a t e d here i s abandoned.  be  The  sermon's p r o g r e s s ; w i l l seem reasonable because h i s need f o r o r g a n i z a t i o n w i l l have been s a t i s f i e d . We  note that the two  steps i n the o u t l i n e c i r c u m s c r i b e  the  apparent p a r a d o x i c a l nature of c e r t a i n elements i n Edwards' .• theology.  I t i s p o s s i b l e f o r the s i n n e r t o be redeemed, but  he i a completely dependent upon God f o r such a " d i s p o s i t i o n " . It  i s a " p o s s i b i l i t y " only i n s o f a r as temporal man i s concerned;  God the e t e r n a l knows ahead of time who i s predestined  forre-  demption because he knows who w i l l deserve i t . Glory  i n God i s  the mark of the regenerate, and Edwards' d e l i n e a t i o n of man's dependence on God may l e a d to a r e c o g n i t i o n of g l o r y w i t h i n the listener.  The means of redemption i s the dependence on God (or  perhaps the a b i l i t y t o recognize points t o .  i t ) , and t h i s i s what  Edwards  He seeks i n the sermon t o make the l i s t e n e r experience  the dependence on God, and thus recognize  the means of redemption  j  within himself.  The r e s t of the i n t r o d u c t o r y  s e c t i o n i s devoted t o an ordered  expansion of the reasons behind p a r t "2." i n the o u t l i n e . i  Edwards  gives the l i s t e n e r another conceptual p l a n which r e l a t e s t o one component  of the l a r g e r theme: men's dependence on God i n the  work of redemption " . . . f o r a l l t h e i r good."  The emphasis on  part "2." o f the o u t l i n e should make the l i s t e n e r wonder why i t was not g i v e n the primary p o s i t i o n i n s t e a d . my e a r l i e r c o n t e n t i o n  that the l i s t e n e r has not been given a  s t r u c t u r a l o u t l i n e of the sermon. to be t r e a t e d f i r s t Edwards' i n i t i a l  The answer l i e s i n  Elements of number "2." are  i n the sermon's next s e c t i o n , the  "Doctrine".  o u t l i n e i s not designed t o allow the l i s t e n e r  a t r u e grasp o f the sermon's t e c h n i c a l s t r u c t u r e . The i n t r o d u c t i o n c l o s e s w i t h the f o l l o w i n g passage.  I t sums  up the r a m i f i c a t i o n s of the t e x t as they have been d e s c r i b e d far,  so  and as they w i l l be worked out i n the remainder of the •  sermon: So that i n t h i s v e r s e i s shown our dependence on each person i n the T r i n i t y f o r a l l our good. Vie are | "  'I  87.  dependent on C h r i s t the Son of God, as he i s our wisdom, r i g h t e o u s n e s s , s a n c t i f i c a t i o n , and redemption. We are dependent on the F a t h e r , who has g i v e n us C h r i s t , and made him to be these t h i n g s to us. We are dependent on the Holy Ghost, f o r i t i s of him that we are i n C h r i s t Jesus; i t i s the S p i r i t of God that g i v e s f a i t h i n him, whereby we r e c e i v e him, and c l o s e with him.(p.108) The passage begins w i t h "So t h a t " , i n d i c a t i n g that what f o l l o w s i s a c o n c l u s i o n based on a l l the p r e c e d i n g i n f o r m a t i o n of the introduction.  The opening i s organized l o g i c a l l y , and g i v e s  a sense of calm emphasis  on the importance of the t e x t :  t h i s v e r s e i s shown our dependence...".  "...in  The sentence makes  c l e a r the l i s t e n e r ' s dependence on each aspect of God's t h r e e f o l d nature; and the next sentences are even u n i t s of expansion and emphasis  on each aspect.  The words "We  are dependent"  l i k e a r e f r a i n at the opening of the second, t h i r d , and sentences, and the jsubstance of each sentence d i r e c t l y remarks made i n the i n t r o d u c t i o n .  recur  fourth recalls  Edwards r e v e a l s h i s awareness  of the importance ojf a s s o c i a t i v e development,  and u n i f i e s the  import o f the i n t r o d u c t i o n i n h i s l i s t e n e r ' s mind.  He makes  the l i s t e n e r f e e l equal dependence upon each aspect of the Trinity..  In t h e , l a s t sentence's second c l a u s e , Edwards subsumes  each of the three aspects i n t o the r e c e i v i n g o f , and with C h r i s t .  closing  The u n i f y i n g statement of impact provided by the  clause r e - e s t a b l i s h e s and r e i n f o r c e s the l i s t e n e r ' s sense of t o t a l o b l i g a t i o n to God f o r good.  He becomes t o t a l l y  dependent  on God's w i l l ; he cannot, through independent a c t i o n , a l t e r h i s fate.  R e c o g n i t i o n of t h i s dependence i s at the same time v o l u n -  t a r y , and must be urged.  Thus EdwardB shows how  part of the  problem o f p r e d e s t i n a t i o n i s to be r e c o n c i l e d w i t h man's f r e e w i l l . He r e i n f o r c e s the passage's import through i t s apparent  simplicity.  88.  He  i s u n w i l l i n g t o f o r c e the l i s t e n e r i n t o i n t e l l e c t u a l gymnas-  t i c s to perceive, an- emotionally t r u t h i n i t s own  awful, simple  charged t r u t h .  He r e v e a l s the  majesty.  In Part I I of the "Doctrine", Edwards i s concerned with way  the  "...God i s g l o r i f i e d i n the work of redemption by t h i s means,  viz.  By there being so great and u n i v e r s a l a dependence of the  redeemed on him"(p.117).  Edwards has devoted the f i r s t  part of  the "Doctrine" to the f u l l e r e x p l o r a t i o n of the ways i n which one  i s dependent on God,  each case.  and the reasons f o r the dependence i n  The emphasis i n the second p a r t i s s l i g h t l y  different. In the f i r s t  of Part I I ' s three s e c t i o n s , Edwards impresses  on the l i s t e n e r h i s o b l i g a t i o n t o recognize and God's power and grace.  acknowledge  There i s a d i r e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p between  the degree of one's dependence on Him, o b l i g a t i o n to acknowledge  and  the degree of one's  Him:  1 . Wan hath so much the g r e a t e r o c c a s i o n and o b l i g a t i o n to n o t i c e and acknowledge God's p e r f e c t i o n s , and a l l - s u f f i c i e n c y . The g r e a t e r the c r e a t u r e ' s dependence i s on God's p e r f e c t i o n s , and the g r e a t e r the concern he has with them, so much the g r e a t e r o c c a s i o n he has to take n o t i c e of them.(p.117) The f i r s t to  of these two  sentence periods r e q u i r e s the  regard i t as a c o n c l u s i o n .  listener  There i s a t a c i t demand that the  l i s t e n e r re-examine the statement of the premise on which i t i s based. verb  By u s i n g the phrase "so much the g r e a t e r " a f t e r  "hath",  Edwards s p e c i f i c a l l y p o i n t s out that the  the  strength  of h i s c o n c l u s i o n i s d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d to the s t r e n g t h of the premise (man's dependence on God). cue to the l i s t e n e r that before gap,  "Man"  "So much the g r e a t e r " i s a there i s a l i n g u i s t i c  to be f i l l e d with an unspoken phrase l i k e "Because of t h i s " . I  89.  T h i s i s so because the l i s t e n e r ' s knowledge o f language must i n c l u d e an understanding that c e r t a i n l o g i c a l s y n t a c t i c are n e c e s s a r i l y accompanied by c e r t a i n o t h e r s . standing  i s generated i s not e n t i r e l y c l e a r .  structures  How t h i s underI t obviously has  something t o do w i t h the problems o f language a c q u i s i t i o n and conventionalized  logical structures.^  But however i t i s  generated, Edwards shows h i s awareness o f i t , and h i s to u t i l i z e The  ability  that awareness i n the sermon.  first  sentence a l s o makes p e r f e c t l y c l e a r the substance  of the passage which f o l l o w s .  The subject  i s man's o b l i g a t i o n  to God i n terms o f dependence and acknowledgement.  The second  sentence depends on a change i n the sense o f the s y n t a c t i c s t r u c t u r e represented by the phrase "so much the g r e a t e r " . much the g r e a t e r " now becomes a s s o c i a t e d and  generates a c o n c l u s i o n  l i s t e n e r recognizes  o f equal degree.  "so much the g r e a t e r "  "so much the g r e a t e r "  with a premise  "So  itself,  That i s , i f the  c o n d i t i o n "x", then  c o n d i t i o n "y". Edwards uses the two  elements o f the s t r u c t u r e  ( i . e . , premise and conclusion) t o  balance and r e l a t e man's dependence and the degree of h i s obligation.  On the premise s i d e , the l i s t e n e r f i n d s the degree  of dependence, and the "concern" with i t ; on the c o n c l u s i o n he f i n d s "so much the g r e a t e r " acknowledgement.  o b l i g a t i o n or occasion  side  for  Edwards w i l l maintain t h i s d i v i s i o n .  Edwards continues t o use t h i s s y n t a c t i c s t r u c t u r e f o r balance and  a m p l i f i c a t i o n w e l l i n t o the passage, thus g i v i n g the l i s t e n e r  an easy framework i n which t o examine dependence and o b l i g a t i o n . i At the same time, he i n f l u e n c e s the l i s t e n e r by the r e p e t i t i o n and  modulation of c e r t a i n words, word-pairsi ;  and phrases:  90,  So much the greater concern any one has with and dependence upon the power and grace of God, so much the greater occasion has he to take notice of that power and grace. So much the greater and more immediate dependence there i s on the divine holiness, so much the greater occasion to take notice of and acknowledge that. So much the greater and more absolute dependence we have on the divine perfections, as belonging to the several persons of the T r i n i t y , so much the greater occasion have we to observe and own the divine glory of each of them.(pp.117-118) Edwards touches on dependence and obligation with respect to various manifestations  of God. The l a s t sentence returns to and  reinforces the l i s t e n e r ' s dependence (and therefore, to each part of the T r i n i t y .  obligation)  While the basic l o g i c a l structure  of the passage deals with comparison and equalities of degree, i t also re-emphasizes most strongly a sense of interdependence between the elements compared. Edwards maintains emphasis upon the r e l a t i v e degrees of dependence on, and obligation to God. For him, however, the p r i n c i p a l point i s not merely an i n t e l l e c t u a l understanding of the issue, but rather an emotional awareness of i t . understanding of the issue an emotional necessity.  He makes an He knows the  intensity of the l i s t e n e r ' s need w i l l be multiplied by the fact that redemption i s an immediate and r e a l event, rather than a purely philosophical concern.  Edwards reminds the l i s t e n e r of  the immediacy of t h i s event by a summary statement which demonstrates the immediate results of "our so great dependence on God": By reason of our so great dependence on God, and h i s perfections and i n so many respects, he and his glory are more d i r e c t l y set i n our view, which way soever we turn our eyes.(p.118) Edwards uses the passive "are...set i n " to heighten the l i s t e n e r ' s sense of t o t a l dependence.  The greater dependence the more one  i s aware of the t o t a l obligation to God. The passive informs  91.  the l i s t e n e r t h a t , with r e s p e c t to r e g u l a t i n g t h i s dependence, he has no» power t o a c t . to  He may,  of course, choose  (foolishly)  ignore h i s o b l i g a t i o n . Edwards concludes Part I I ' s f i r s t  s e c t i o n by  summarizing  what i s shown by the l i s t e n e r ' s dependence on God. g i v e s way structure.  The  summary  to a r e t u r n to the e a r l i e r p r e m i s e — c o n c l u s i o n s y n t a c t i c By doing t h i s , Edwards re-emphasizes  degrees of dependence on, and o b l i g a t i o n to  the r e l a t i v e  God:  Our having a l l of God, shows the f u l n e s s of h i s power and grace; our having a l l through him, shows the f u l ness of h i s merit and worthiness; our having a l l i n him demonstrates h i s f u l n e s s of beauty, l o v e , and happiness. And the redeemed, by reason of the greatness of t h e i r dependence on God, have not only so much the g r e a t e r o c c a s i o n , but o b l i g a t i o n to contemplate and acknowledge the g l o r y and f u l n e s s of God.(p.118) The f i r s t  sentence c o n s i s t s of three c l a u s e s which express the  d i f f e r e n t ways we d e r i v e b e n e f i t s from God: him",  " i n him".  "of God",  "through  Each of the t h r e e aspects i s important;  and  the sentence's o r g a n i z a t i o n i s r e m i n i s c e n t of Edwards' treatment of  the dependence on the T r i n i t y .  Between the three  elements  of  the T r i n i t y we have t o t a l dependence on the one God.  The  f u n c t i o n s of dependence show the l i s t e n e r the t o t a l i t y of God's power and grace. to  The r e p e t i t i o n of "our having a l l " c o n t r i b u t e s  a sense of equal emphasis on the d i f f e r e n t a s p e c t s .  sentence ends by emphasizing beauty, l o v e , and happiness."  f o r the l i s t e n e r God's f u l n e s s of The second sentence r e s t a t e s the  degree of o b l i g a t i o n to acknowledge God, "our" o b l i g a t i o n .  The  but i t i s no l o n g e r  I t i s the o b l i g a t i o n of "the redeemed".  This  s p e c i f i c i t y i s bound t o make the l i s t e n e r f e e l a l l the more s t r o n g l y the need t o f e e l h i s dependence on God, and the sense of dependence are i n s e p a r a b l e .  s i n c e redemption  92. i j  Edwards ends the passage w i t h a r h e t o r i c a l exclamation which i s charged with emotion. it  appears  I t i s a l l the more e f f e c t i v e  because  suddenly: How unreasonable and u n g r a t e f u l should we be, i f we d i d not acknowledge that s u f f i c i e n c y and g l o r y which we a b s o l u t e l y , immediately and u n i v e r s a l l y depend on! (p.118)  Edwards speaks here as i f c e r t a i n t h i n g s had already been accomplished.  I t i s as i f the l i s t e n e r has acknowledged h i s  dependence on God,  and i s a l r e a d y redeemed.  T h i s thought i s  made more impressive by the r h e t o r i c a l emphasis with which i t i s presented.  Edwards may  be t r y i n g t o make the unredeemed  l i s t e n e r f e e l l e f t out, as i f h i s concern w i t h h i s dependence on God has been i n s u f f i c i e n t .  The t r i p l e emphasis on dependence  " a b s o l u t e l y , immediately and u n i v e r s a l l y "  and on the d e l i b -  I e r a t e l y i m p l i e d i n c o r r e c t assumption should make the l i s t e n e r i  seek awareness a l l the more u r g e n t l y . In the s e c t i o n of the sermon e n t i t l e d "Use", Edwards wants the l i s t e n e r t o "...here observe the marvellous wisdom of God, i n the work of redemption"(p.120).  In the passage which begins  with t h i s statement, Edwards demonstrates h i s a b i l i t y to combine power and symmetry i n the e x p l a n a t i o n or summary of a t h e o l o g i c a l principle: God hath made man's emptiness and misery, h i s low, l o s t and r u i n e d s t a t e , i n t o which he sunk by the f a l l , an o c c a s i o n of the g r e a t e r advancement of h i s own g l o r y , as i n other ways, so p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t h i s , that there i s now a much more u n i v e r s a l and apparent . dependence of man on God.(p.120) In t h i s p e r i o d EdwardB uses syntax and grammar t o emphasize and even i m i t a t e the conceptual flow of the sentence. tence begins and ends w i t h "God", and 1B dependent  The  sen-  on "God", j u s t  93  as the l i s t e n e r i s .  Edwards reminds the l i s t e n e r o f God's  c r e a t i v e r o l e : "God hath made".  Edwards i s s u b t l e : the s t r u c t u r e  leads the l i s t e n e r t o b e l i e v e that the object f o r "hath made" i s "man's emptiness...and r u i n e d s t a t e " .  He i s l u l l e d  into  j  the  n o t i o n that God i s behind h i s f a l l e n c o n d i t i o n .  Then, the  appearance o f "an o c c a s i o n " p r o v i d e s a new grammatical and conceptual focus, and the l i s t e n e r ' s understanding o f what "God hath made" changes and expands.  Edwards shows both man's f a l l e n  c o n d i t i o n and h i s redemption as a means o f r e f l e c t i n g God's g l o r y , and man's dependence on Him. the  He does, however,  emphasize  s t a t e o f unredeemed man to the l i s t e n e r i n the f i r s t  part  of the p e r i o d : "...man's emptiness and misery, h i s low, l o s t and ruined s t a t e . . . " .  There i s an uneven rhythmic p r o g r e s s i o n here.  I t moves w i t h a downward i n f l e c t i o n , expanding the l i s t e n e r ' s sense of f a l l e n man, unredeemed.  The advantages f o r the l i s t e n e r  i n r e c o g n i z i n g h i s dependence on God are g r e a t . g r e a t e r by comparison t o t h i s statement. the  listener's  Edwards thus touches  sense o f h i m s e l f as a sinner,, and moves on.  Edwards i s c a r e f u l f o r man's f a t e .  They seem even  t o re-emphasize God's t o t a l  responsibility  He r e f l e c t s h i s orthodox b e l i e f i n p r e d e s t i n a t i o n ,  as he has throughout the sermon.  At the same time, h i s s i n c e r i t y  i n t r y i n g t o reach h i s l i s t e n e r s marks the f a c t that he f e e l s them capable of f r e e a c t i o n i n the temporal context. not  T h i s does  a l t e r the degree o f t h e i r dependence on God i n each aspect  of the T r i n i t y : . . . a l l the g l o r y e v i d e n t l y belongs t o God, a l l i s i n a mere, and most a b s o l u t e , and d i v i n e dependence on the F a t h e r , Son, and Holy Ghost. And each person o f the T r i n i t y i s e q u a l l y g l o r i f i e d i n t h i s work: There i s an absolute dependence o f the c r e a t u r e on every one f o r a l l : A l l i s o f the F a t h e r , a l l through the Son, I  and a l l i n the Holy Ghost.(p.120) Here Edwards emphasizes " a l l " i n the opening statement, which c o n t a i n s the d i s t i n c t but u n i t e d elements o f the T r i n i t y . before, he makes the l i s t e n e r f e e l dependence on each of  the T r i n i t y .  As  "person"  The l i s t e n e r ' s awareness i s made s t r o n g e r  by Edwards' thoroughness: the T r i n i t y i s t r e a t e d as a u n i t i n the f i r s t p a r t , and then each aspect i s mentioned s e p a r a t e l y . Edwards' use of "every one f o r a l l " i s c l e v e r  i t intertwines  the " a l l " of the T r i n i t y and the " a l l " o f t o t a l dependence. " A l l " immediately becomes the c e n t r a l focus i n a s e r i e s of three evenly emphasized  phrases. These r e c a l l the f u n c t i o n s o f the  T r i n i t y as they were d e s c r i b e d e a r l i e r , and u n i f y the l i s t e n e r ' s a s s o c i a t i o n s and memories o f the sermon t o t h i s p o i n t : " A l l i s of  the F a t h e r , a l l through the Son, and a l l i n the Holy  Ghost."  The " a l l " o f dependence r e s t s with the " a l l " of the u n i t e d Trinity.  Edwards p l a c e s f i n a l emphasis on t h i s i n the passage's  conclusion: Thus God appears i n the work o f redemption as a l l i n a l l . I t i s f i t that he who i s , and there i s none e l s e , should be the Alpha and Omega, the f i r s t and the l a s t , the a l l and the o n l y , i n t h i s work.(p.120) In  the f i r s t  of the two sentences Edwards s t a t e s h i s con-  c l u s i o n simply, g i v i n g the l i s t e n e r a chance t o u n i t e h i s a s s o c i a t i o n s under the knowledge t h a t God i s " a l l i n a l l " .  The  second sentence expands on " a l l i n a l l " , g i v i n g a sense o f God alone  "there i s none o t h e r "  as A l l .  The sentence  (and the  passage) ends w i t h three d i f f e r e n t statements o f God as A l l , broadening and s t r e n g t h e n i n g the l i s t e n e r ' s awareness: "...the Alpha and Omega, the f i r s t and the l a s t , the a l l and the o n l y " . The c o n c l u s i o n i n c r e a s e s the emotional and i n t e l l e c t u a l  intensity I  of the passage as the p e r i o d ends. with a new  sense of h i s own  Edwards l e a v e s the l i s t e n e r  insignificance.  The l a s t  phrase,  " . . . i n t h i s work", f o r c e f u l l y reminds the l i s t e n e r of Edwards' s p e c i f i c context. to God, i s God  I t a l s o suggests.the importance  as w e l l as t o the l i s t e n e r .  of  redemption  Through redemption  of  man  glorified.  Edwards concludes the sermon w i t h a b e a u t i f u l l y c o n s t r u c t e d passage u s i n g a balanced s e r i e s of r h e t o r i c a l q u e s t i o n s .  These  are combined with an equal number of r u l e s t h a t supply answers :  of a s o r t f o r each q u e s t i o n .  Each q u e s t i o n and r u l e  a reworking of man's o b l i g a t i o n t o God but e s p e c i a l l y f o r redemption.  constitute  f o r good or a l l k i n d s ,  Each a l s o r e s t a t e s i n an i n -  c r e a s i n g l y l o f t y manner the p l a c e of " g l o r y " i n the l i s t e n e r ' s r e l a t i o n s h i p with God.  Both passage and sermon conclude  thus:  . . . l e t him give God a l l the g l o r y ; who alone makes him to d i f f e r from the worst of men i n t h i s world, or the most miserable of the damned i n h e l l . Hath any man much comfort and s t r o n g hope of e t e r n a l l i f e ? l e t not h i s hope l i f t him up, but dispose him the more t o abase h i m s e l f , t o r e f l e c t on h i s own exceeding unworthiness of such a favour, and to e x a l t God alone. Is any man eminent i n h o l i n e s s , and abundant i n good works? l e t him take nothing of the g l o r y of i t t o h i m s e l f , but a s c r i b e i t t o him whose "workmanship we a r e , c r e a t e d i n C h r i s t Jesus unto good works." (p.122) The progress of thejpassage emphasizes the emotional  intensity  I of the i s s u e without d i s t u r b i n g a sense of deep and a b i d i n g calmneBs. t o God  Edwards r e s t a t e s the r e l a t i o n s h i p of redeemed  man  so t h a t the l i s t e n e r i s reminded of each aspect d e a l t w i t h  i n the sermon.  The l i s t e n e r comes away with a new  awareness of  the r e l a t i o n s h i p , r e i n f o r c e d by the c o n c l u d i n g r h e t o r i c a l expansion.  The f i n a l step i s the a s c r i b i n g o f g l o r y t o  God.  Edwards reminds the l i s t e n e r t h a t t h i s i s a v o l u n t a r y a c t i o n he I  96  must take to recognize h i s dependence on God " . . . l e t him...ascribe  i t t o " God.  and thus be redeemed:  There i s no emotional  outburst  at the c o n c l u s i o n ; and Edwards allows the l i s t e n e r t o depart, s h a r i n g the sense of calmness which the t r u s t i n God  generates.  Redemption and the dependence 'on God are i n s e p a r a b l e , and l i s t e n e r now  i s aware of the importance of h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p  as an i n d i v i d u a l t o  God.  Compared to what f o l l o w s i n the next p o r t i o n of t h i s "God  the  chapter,  G l o r i f i e d i n the Work of Redemption" i s one of Edwards'  g e n t l e r and more r e l a x i n g p i e c e s .  Edwards' power has been  sub-  eijrv tactic dued and channelled b y S i m p l i c i t y to show the dependence on as necessary and d e s i r a b l e .  We  God  are about to see the i d e a of  dependence presented d i f f e r e n t l y .  Edwards w i l l be at h i s v i o l e n t  best, w i e l d i n g the t o t a l might of h i s r h e t o r i c a l r e s o u r c e s .  His  words become a " b r u t a l engine a g a i n s t the b r a i n " i n what i s perhaps h i s best known s e r m o n — - " S i n n e r s i n the Hands o f an 17 Angry God." '  *  *  *  *  *  "Sinners i n the Hands of an Angry God"  " . . . i s perhaps the  most f i e r y and f e a r - r i d d e n of Edwards' imprecatory In h i s attempt to move h i s audience,  sermons...".  to touch t h e i r h e a r t s as  s t r o n g l y as p o s s i b l e , Edwards ...plays upon the i n s e c u r i t y of [his] audience by the repeated, j u x t a p o s i t i o n of images o f power and h e l p l e s s n e s s , p h y s i c a l s t r e n g t h and puniness, a c t i o n and i n a c t i o n , and by b u i l d i n g a sense of r e p r e s s e d energies: d e s p e r a t e l y seeking r e l e a s e . ^ 1  Ms.  Kolodny makes t h i s statement  near the beginning of her  article  97  on imagery i n Edwards' sermons.  Her d i s c u s s i o n of the sermon i s  l i m i t e d to the d e l i n e a t i o n and purpose o f v a r i o u s groups o f images w i t h i n i t , without s p e c i f i c and d e t a i l e d r e f e r e n c e t o the sermon's movement, j She does, however, p o i n t out the f o l l o w i n g p r i n c i p l e , which u n d e r l i e s s t y l i s t i c o r g a n i z a t i o n i n Edwards' sermons: The s t y l i s t i c o r g a n i z a t i o n of Edwards' sermons grows out of h i s admonition that "Comfort...is to be h e l d f o r t h to s i n n e r s , under awakenings of conscience ....But comfort i s not to be administered to them, i n t h e i r present s t a t e , as anything they now have t i t l e t o , while out of C h r i s t . No comfort i s to be administered [to those out of C h r i s t ] . . . b u t m i n i s t e r s s h o u l d . . . s t r i v e t o t h e i r utmost to take a l l such comforts away from them...."19 In f a c t , Edwards a p p l i e s t h i s p r i n c i p l e even a t the s y n t a c t i c and grammatical l e v e l s .  The impact of Edwards' images i s due  as much to grammar and syntax as to the concepts or f i g u r e s the images may  represent.  In "Sinners i n the Hands o f an Angry  God",  o Edwards urges the l i s t e n e r fward an awareness of h i s dependence on God through the w i t h h o l d i n g of comfort a c c o r d i n g to t h i s principle.  That i s , as an "imprecatory" sermon, i t f r i g h t e n s  the l i s t e n e r away,from one c o n d i t i o n t o get him i n t o another. In the f i r s t Edwards sermon, dependence was  a s s o c i a t e d with  !  redemption  to r e c o g n i z e i t was t o be redeemed.  Here, depen-  dence i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h God's absolute c a p a c i t y t o c a s t the s i n n e r i n t o h e l l ' s torments w h i l e he i s "out of C h r i s t " .  Edwards  wants t o t e r r i f y the l i s t e n e r , t o make him want t o be i n C h r i s t . In working out the d e p r i v a t i o n of comfort f o r those people who  are "out of C h r i s t " , Edwards i l l u s t r a t e s a key p o i n t i n h i s  theory of language.  He depends upon " s e n s i b l e words", which are  d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o the emotional balance between l o v e and  j  fear 1  98.  i n man's mind: ...the sensory impression, and e s p e c i a l l y the s e n s i b l e word, comes t o the human s p i r i t b e a r i n g s i g n i f i c a n c e s of l o v e o r t e r r o r , and the l e a p t o a s a v i n g unders t a n d i n g proceeds out o f the n a t u r a l . 2 0  Therefore, i n "Sinners i n the Hands o f an Angry God" one wishes to  examine the j o i n i n g together i n a d e f i n i t e manner o f groups  of  " s e n s i b l e words" t o create emotionally charged,  graspable  "naked i d e a s " .  I emphasize t h i s p o i n t because i t  provides the c l o s e s t approach t o an understanding of  terror  readily  o f the anatomy  the k i n d o f t e r r o r which was both a r e s u l t and a  cause of the unusual behavior of New Englanders  d u r i n g the Great  Awakening. - The whole sermon stands as an i l l u s t r a t i o n o f the r e c o n c i l i a t i o n between Edwards* ideas o f p r e d e s t i n a t i o n and f r e e will.  As s t r o n g l y as he emphasizes God's absolute c o n t r o l over  man, he urges man t o v o l u n t a r i l y r e c o g n i z e t h a t c o n t r o l and thus move toward redemption. "Sinners i n the Hands o f an Angry God" i s d i v i d e d i n t o two major p a r t s , the f i r s t  of which c o n s i s t s o f an e x p l a n a t i o n o f  the sermon's t e x t : " - - - T h e i r f o o t s h a l l s l i d e i n due time (Deut.xxxii.35)•  "  The f i r s t p a r t i s made up of f o u r i n t r o -  ductory s e c t i o n s which work out i n a g e n e r a l manner the t e x t ' s implications.  Ten more numbered p o i n t s f o l l o w .  These system-  a t i c a l l y expand, r e i n f o r c e , and amplify the t e x t ' s r a m i f i c a t i o n s i n terms of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between God and s i n n e r s . the best way t o examine the sermon's f i r s t  Perhaps  part i s t o study the  i n t r o d u c t i o n b r i e f l y , and then t o examine a passage from the s e c t i o n s numbered one t o t e n . an e m o t i o n a l l y charged, reasons  The sermon's f i r s t h a l f provides  c l e v e r l y organized demonstration  f o r , and i n e s c a p a b i l i t y from, a s i n n e r ' s f a t e .  of the Once the I  99  l i s t e n e r becomes ^trapped by the a s s o c i a t i v e movement of p a r t Edwards w i l l b a t t e r him w i t h t e r r o r i n the sermon's second  one,  half.  There, the l i s t e n e r w i l l become more and more desperate as Edwards amplifies t e r r o r within r i g i d l y defined theological  limits.  The sermon's opening passage presents a statement matters Edwards i n t e n d s t o put b e f o r e h i s audience.  of the There are  elements i n the passage which seem designed t o a f f e c t the by covert means.  listener  That i s , the t e x t ' s import and the l i s t e n e r ' s  response t o i t depend on the l i s t e n e r ' s r e c o g n i t i o n i n h i s own s i t u a t i o n of c e r t a i n f a c t o r s which p a r a l l e l the c o n d i t i o n of the I s r a e l i t e s when they were threatened w i t h God's vengeance. Rather than depending ii  on c h a s t i s i n g h i s l i s t e n e r d i r e c t l y so  e a r l y i n the sermon, Edwards depends on h i s l i s t e n e r ' s ness to see s i n w i t h i n h i m s e l f .  willing-  The opening paragraph thus  c o n s t i t u t e s not only a thematic i n t r o d u c t i o n , but a l s o an i n d i r e c t admonition or rebuke: In t h i s v e r s e i s threatened the vengeance of God on the wicked u n b e l i e v i n g I s r a e l i t e s , who were God's v i s i b l e people, and who l i v e d under the means of grace; but who, n o t w i t h s t a n d i n g a l l God's wonderful works towards them, remained...void of c o u n s e l , having no understanding i n them. Under a l l the c u l t i v a t i o n s of heaven, they brought f o r t h b i t t e r and poisonous f r u i t . . . . T h e e x p r e s s i o n I have chosen f o r my t e x t , T h e i r f o o t s h a l l s l i d e i n due time, seems to imply the f o l l o w i n g t h i n g s , r e l a t i n g to the punishment and d e s t r u c t i o n t o which these wicked I s r a e l i t e s were exposed.(p.155) Edwards begins with "In t h i s v e r s e " , e s t a b l i s h i n g the text as a permanent s c r i p t u r a l focus through which the l i s t e n e r approach a c o n s i d e r a t i o n of "the vengeance o f God".  The  may  object  of "vengeance" i s r e v e a l e d as the "wicked u n b e l i e v i n g  Israelites",  p r o v i d i n g a s c r i p t u r a l and i n t e l l e c t u a l focus f o r the  passage  without c r e a t i n g any s p e o i a l t e n s i o n i n the l i s t e n e r .  But, 1  after  " I s r a e l i t e s , " Edwards begins to d e s c r i b e the c o n d i t i o n s made those people deserve the "vengeance of God".  which  As Edwards  s y s t e m a t i c a l l y adds to h i s expansion on " I s r a e l i t e s " , the l i s t e n e r w i l l become i n c r e a s i n g l y  aware t h a t " t h i s c o n g r e g a t i o n " c o u l d be  s u b s t i t u t e d f o r "wicked u n b e l i e v i n g I s r a e l i t e s " .  To Edwards,  the  c o n d i t i o n of the I s r a e l i t e s p a r a l l e l s the c o n d i t i o n of  New  Englanders i n the 1740's.  He r e f l e c t s h i s sense of  New  England'8 f a l l away from orthodox C a l v i n i s t d o c t r i n e , and from grace.  The i m p l i e d analogy a l s o r e f l e c t s the  hence,  typological  h a b i t of mind which o f t e n c h a r a c t e r i z e s Edwards' images and analogies.  The s e r i e s  of phrases b e g i n n i n g w i t h "who"  begin to make the l i s t e n e r ashamed of h i s own the  i m p l i e d analogy's terms.  condition  by v i r t u e  They had l i v e d under  of the covenant w i t h God,  else's),  "the means of grace"  l i k e the " I s r a e l i t e s " .  "But" cues the l i s t e n e r f o r the coming r e v e r s a l positive  under  H i s P u r i t a n f o r b e a r s had been  "God's v i s i b l e p e o p l e " ( i n t h e i r own eyes, i f i n no one l i k e the " I s r a e l i t e s " .  should  of t h i s  s t a t e o f a f f a i r s : "...but who...remained...void  counsel...".  By the 1740's, New  of  Englanders had f a l l e n away  from awareness of God's "wonderful works towards them" the  I s r a e l i t e s had e a r l i e r .  the  l i s t e n e r would be very s e n s i t i v e  because  of such f e e l i n g s  flourished.  just  as  By t h i s stage i n the Great Awakening, to such judgments;  and s e n s i t i v i t y t h a t  i t was  revivalism  Edwards causes the l i s t e n e r ' s nervous  apprehension  to grow as the analogy becomes more e v i d e n t . The i n t r o d u c t o r y paragraph's second sentence p e r i o d  describes  God's treatment of "them" by the metaphor of " c u l t i v a t i o n " organic growth:  "Under a l l the c u l t i v a t i o n s  i  of heaven,  and  they I  101 I :  !  i  brought f o r t h b i t t e r and  poisonous f r u i t  "  The  l i s t e n e r must  be aware that t h i s f a i l u r e cannot l i e w i t h the p e r f e c t God.  It  i  must t h e r e f o r e l i e |with the imperfect The  f a c t that t h i s metaphor i s organic  and undeserving  i s a s u b t l e reminder of  the r e a l i t y of God's r e l a t i o n s h i p to and affairs.  "Israelite".  i n t e r e s t i n human  T h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p i s a r e a l i t y , not a p h i l o s o p h i c a l  argument.  Edwards concludes the passage by s e t t i n g the  listener  up to r e c e i v e an enumeration of c e r t a i n " t h i n g s " r e l a t i n g to "...the punishment and d e s t r u c t i o n to which these wicked I s r a e l i t e s were exposed." of f a t a l punishment and f o r c e s him  The  l i s t e n e r sees r e u n i t e d - t h e  the "wicked I s r a e l i t e s " .  idea  Edwards thus  i n t o a s t a t e of heightened t e n s i o n by v i r t u e of the  implied analogy between the audience and l i s t e n e r w i l l now  the  "Israelites".  The  await "the f o l l o w i n g t h i n g s " with some  trepidation. Given that one's " . . . f o o t s h a l l s l i d e i n due  time", Edwards  now  makes the l i s t e n e r f e e l the hand of God  i n terms of the  and  "why"  f o u r numbered  ductory  of t h a t s l i d i n g and 1  falling.  intro-  paragraphs i n c r e a s e the l i s t e n e r ' s sense of God's r o l e ,  as w e l l as h i s own  f e e l i n g of impotence.  l o g i c a l sequence of explanations l i s t e n e r ' s growing discomfort logic  The  "how"  The  p r e s e n t a t i o n of a  s y s t e m a t i c a l l y r e i n f o r c e s the  (by " l o g i c a l " I mean s t y l i s t i c  the l i s t e n e r ' s movement i s a s s o c i a t i o n a l ) .  paragraphs develop the I s r a e l i t e s ' p r e c a r i o u s  The  s t a t e by  four analogy  with expansions of Edwards' t e x t , so that "destruction." and become synonymous i n the l i s t e n e r ' s 1....they were always one t h a t stands or walks exposed t o f a l l . T h i s i s t h e i r d e s t r u c t i o n coming  falling  mind: exposed to d e s t r u c t i o n : as i n s l i p p e r y p l a c e s i s always i m p l i e d i n the manner of upon them, being represented  102.  by t h e i r f o o t s l i d i n g . The same i s expressed, Psalm l x x i i i . 18. "Surely thou d i d s t s e t them i n s l i p p e r y p l a c e s ; thou c a s t e d s t them down i n t o d e s t r u c t i o n . " (p.155) F i r s t Edwards uses the s i m i l e t o juxtapose " d e s t r u c t i o n " and the d e s c r i p t i o n o f a person s l i d i n g and f a l l i n g .  He i s c a r e f u l  to place equal emphasis on both s i d e s o f the s i m i l e , thus i n s u r i n g that the l i s t e n e r w i l l begin t o equate the two.  Edwards recog-  n i z e s that the l i s t e n e r must be a b s o l u t e l y sure of the s i m i l e ' s meaning.  Therefore,  the paragraph's second sentence i s organized  as simply as p o s s i b l e .  I t s almost c h i l d l i k e c o n s t r u c t i o n r e -  i t e r a t e s the p o i n t w i t h emphasis a more complex s t r u c t u r e !  not achieve.  could  taken,  Not only i s the l i s t e n e r ' b y the s i g n i f i c a n c e of  the s y n t a c t i c s i m p l i c i t y , but a l s o he w i l l begin to be d i s t u r b e d by Edwards' blandness. here; y e t the s u b j e c t  There i s no overt emotional c o l o r a t i o n i s associated  terrors of destruction.  with the r e a l and present  The paragraph's t h i r d sentence preserves  the s y n t a c t i c s i m p l i c i t y , t u r n i n g t o s c r i p t u r e as the f i n a l r e i t e r a t i o n and support o f t h e j u x t a p o s i t i o n : "'Surely d i d s t s e t them i n s l i p p e r y p l a c e s ; thou c a s t e d s t destruction.'" t h i s proof,  them down i n t o  Not only does the l i s t e n e r f e e l the f i n a l i t y of  but h i s sense of God's absolute  dominion over  i s renewed: "...thou d i d s t s e t them...thou castedst The  thou  sinner's  them down...".  second and t h i r d paragraphs continue the j u x t a p o s i t i o n  of the two elements, u n i t i n g them i n the l i s t e n e r ' s mind.  The  second deals w i t h the sudden and unexpected nature o f the des t r u c t i o n to which the I s r a e l i t e s were exposed; the t h i r d out that t h e i r f a l l need not be c o n t r i v e d . throw them down. themselves".  points  God does not n e c e s s a r i l y  He withdraws h i s support and they f a l l "of  Edwards depends upon the r e p e t i t i o n o f c e r t a i n *  I  103.  words and phrases, and the reworkings of the analogy t o r e i n f o r c e the  l i s t e n e r ' s sense of the ease with which the " I s r a e l i t e s "  "exposed  t o d e s t r u c t i o n " , "exposed  " s l i p p e r y ground",  to f a l l " ,  "slippery places".  " l i a b l e to  fell:  fall",  In both paragraphs Edwards  p l a c e s equal emphasis on " d e s t r u c t i o n " and f a l l i n g .  This  strengthens the u n i t y of the two elements even f u r t h e r i n the l i s t e n e r ' s mind; and i t generates t e n s i o n , as the l i s t e n e r f a c e s a growing r e a l i z a t i o n of h i s own  vulnerability.  The l a s t of the f o u r paragraphs i s probably the most important. Having stimulated! the l i s t e n e r ' s awareness t h a t he, l i k e the I s r a e l i t e s , may  be i n c o n t i n u a l danger of s l i p p i n g and  away from God, Edwards now  o f f e r s the s o l u t i o n to the l i s t e n e r ' s  unspoken and r a t h e r apprehensive q u e s t i o n : "Why, such danger of i t , have they not a l r e a d y f a l l e n ? " may  falling  i f they are i n The  listener  t h i n k of h i m s e l f when he hears "they" or " I s r a e l i t e s " . 4....the reason they are not f a l l e n a l r e a d y , and do not f a l l now, i s o n l y t h a t God's appointed time i s not come. For i t i s s a i d , that when t h a t due time, or appointed time comes, t h e i r f o o t s h a l l s l i d e . ( p . 1 5 6 )  The f o u r t h point answers the q u e s t i o n i n a d i r e c t , emotionless manner.  I t s very blandness causes t e n s i o n w h i l e i t i n s u r e s  understanding.  Both sentences, both s i d e s of the analogy between I  " d e s t r u c t i o n " and f a l l i n g , emphasize between themselves and t h e i r f a l l .  t h a t s i n n e r s have only time At t h a t , the time i s un-  s p e c i f i e d ; but by speaking so d e f i n i t e l y , and by  emphasizing  the  text  ( " . . . t h e i r f o o t s h a l l s l i d e " ) at the end, Edwards g i v e s  the  l i s t e n e r an uncomfortable impression of immediacy. Edwards b e l i e v e s f i r m l y i n r e i n f o r c i n g the a s s o c i a t i v e move-  ment o f the l i s t e n e r ' s mind.  Having answered the l i s t e n e r ' s  unspoken q u e s t i o n , he r e c o g n i z e s a new  and more immediate q u e s t i o n  I  *  1  produced by h i s l a s t answer: what w i l l happen when t h i s appointed time a r r i v e s ?  The janswer to t h i s makes up the r e s t of the  fourth  paragraph: Then they s h a l l be l e f t to f a l l , as they are i n c l i n e d by t h e i r own weight. God w i l l not h o l d them up i n these s l i p p e r y p l a c e s any longer, but w i l l l e t them go; and then, at t h a t very i n s t a n t , they s h a l l f a l l i n t o d e s t r u c t i o n ; as he that stands on such s l i p p e r y d e c l i n i n g ground, on the edge of a p i t , he cannot stand-alone. when he i s l e t go he immediately f a l l s and  lost.(p.156)  is  By answering the l i s t e n e r ' s question  immediately, Edwards pre-  serves the a s s o c i a t i v e t e n s i o n and anxiety generated so f a r i n the sermon.  The  importance of t h i s i m p l i c i t q u e s t i o n and  answer's negative  aspect  i n c r e a s e s the t e n s i o n markedly, as  l i s t e n e r ' s f e a r s begin to be r e a l i z e d . the balance between " d e s t r u c t i o n " and  the a p p l i c a t i o n of  be l e f t " i n d i c a t e s to the l i s t e n e r that he has of h i s downfall;  The  for  guilt  weight".  no a c t i v e part the  guilty listener  become a g i t a t e d by the measure of h i s f a l l : i n c l i n e d by t h e i r own  the  "Shall  Edwards o f t e n speaks of  s i n n e r ' s f a t e i n the passive v o i c e .  the  Edwards a l s o preserves  t e x t , s o l i d i f y i n g the l i s t e n e r ' s a s s o c i a t i o n of them.  i n t h i s aspect  of the  may  "...as they are  Edwards p l a c e s the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  ("weight") with the s i n n e r , even though he  apparently  i  has  l i t t l e power jto c o n t r o l the s i t u a t i o n .  Edwards says, more  or l e s s , t h a t the s i n n e r w i l l get what he deserves; the so w i l l i n g to see h i m s e l f as a s i n n e r , c r e a t e s h i s own and a n x i e t y .  The  t a i n s the bland  f i r s t sentence i n the above q u o t a t i o n  tension  i s not y e t r e f e r r i n g d i r e c t l y t o grammar and  '  main-  s i m p l i c i t y which so d i s t u r b s the l i s t e n e r .  e n v i s i o n s the worst as the passage continues,  The  listener,  He  even though Edwards  him.  s y n t a c t i c s t r u c t u r e of the second sentence  105.  r e f l e c t the sentence's conceptual not hold them up let  movement.  First,  i n these s l i p p e r y places any  them go...".  "God  will  longer, but  Edwards speaks i n the f u t u r e tense,  will  making  grammar r e f l e c t the look forward to "God's appointed time". He  emphasizes that there i s no o p t i o n : "God  up...".  w i l l not h o l d them  God's d e l i b e r a t e r e l e a s e of the s i n n e r , and  the  sentence's  d e l i b e r a t e movement take away the l i s t e n e r ' s only chance f o r comfort.  The  r e p e t i t i o n of " s l i p p e r y p l a c e s " r e c a l l s f o r the  l i s t e n e r the working but of the t e x t u a l analogy, and i n a b i l i t y to stand  on h i s own.  the  sinner's  In p o i n t i n g to an i n s t a n t of time,  Edwards enables the l i s t e n e r t o focus on the moment of r e l e a s e as he examines what w i l l t r a n s p i r e : "...and then* at that i n s t a n t , they s/a^jil f a l l  into destruction...".  Then, Edwards r e t u r n s to the t e x t u a l analogy t o :  "their" f a l l  very  describe  i  i n "that very  instant".  In doing so, he  consciously  uses the s t r u c t u r e of the passage's l a s t clause t o i m i t a t e movements of the f a l l .  The  the  c l a u s e , a s i m i l e which c o n t a i n s  the  t e x t u a l analogy, p i c k s up speed unevenly: "...as he that stands on such s l i p p e r y d e c l i n i n g ground, on the edge of a p i t , he cannot stand alone, and  is lost."  when he i s l e t go he immediately  falls  Edwards moves the l i s t e n e r along b r e a t h l e s s l y as  he i m i t a t e s the growing d i s o r g a n i z a t i o n of a person s l i p p i n g and  falling.  The  energy of the sentence i s cut o f f a b r u p t l y  the l i s t e n e r ' s t e n s i o n i s b o t t l e d up by " l o s t " . comparison to the man the l i s t e n e r as w e l l the p i t of h e l l .  standing by the f a l l  In the passages numbered one  and  Edwards' passing  "a p i t " i s c e r t a i n to a f f e c t  away from God  i s the f a l l  into  to ten, Edwards expands on  'f  this  106.  statement: "'There Is  nothing  t h a t keepswicked men  of h e l l , but the mere pleasure  of God'"(p.156).  one moment out  The  l i s t e n e r sees  the s i n n e r f o r c e d t o depend on the a r b i t r a r y w i l l of a God whom he i s f a s t a l i e n a t i n g - b y h i s wicked ways.  Edwards f o l l o w s  the  same procedure (with g r e a t e r d e t a i l ) that he used i n expanding the " d e s t r u c t i o n " — f a l l i n g analogy of the f i r s t Each of the t e n passages works out another aspect significance.  Edwards allows  four points. of the  text's  the development t o n a t u r a l l y r e f l e c t  and emphasize the l i s t e n e r ' s s e q u e n t i a l a s s o c i a t i o n s as he hears the passages. The  first  of the ten passages deals w i t h the f a c t t h a t  God  i s not r e s t r a i n e d by weakness from dropping s i n n e r s i n t o h e l l at any  time: 1. There i s no want of power i n God to cast wicked men i n t o h e l l at any moment. Men's hands cannot be strong when God r i s e s up. The s t r o n g e s t have no power to r e s i s t him, nor can any d e l i v e r out of h i s hands. —-He i s not only able to cast wicked men i n t o h e l l , but he can most e a s i l y do it.(p.156)  Edwards uses s h o r t , emphatic statements which admit of no doubt concerning  God's powers.  Edwards' bland  s i m p l i c i t y increases  l i s t e n e r ' s emotional t e n s i o n through i t s very  l a c k of  overt  emotion.  The f i r s t j sentence ends, with emphasis, on "at  any  moment".  Edwards makes c l e a r t h a t not only does God  lack  power, but a l s o he notice.  not  i s l i a b l e to punish s i n n e r s on very  short  Edwards i s moving smoothly around the i s s u e of punish-  ment, d i s t u r b i n g the l i s t e n e r w i t h h i s apparent l a c k of The  the  sensitivity.  l i s t e n e r i s a l s o i s o l a t e d by the f a c t t h a t Edwards i s not  yet addressing  him  directly  he must keep whatever shame and  apprehension he f e e l s hidden i n s i d e h i m s e l f . sentence " s t r o n g e s t " apparently  In the second  r e f e r s t o "Men's hands", but ...  '  I  it  M  107  i s used i n an e x p r e s s i o n i n d i c a t i n g man's weakness.  In the same  sentence Edwards uses "hands" again, t h i s time r e f e r r i n g t o God.  By doing so, he s u b t l y reminds the l i s t e n e r o f the  p h y s i c a l nature of the impending doom.  He re-emphasizes the  l i s t e n e r ' s weakness through the unspoken comparison between the r e l a t i v e powers o f "Men's hands" and " h i s [God's] hands".  The  t h i r d sentence depends on the r e p e t i t i o n of the main concept f o r emphasis:  "  He i s not only able t o c a s t wicked men i n t o  h e l l , but he can mojst e a s i l y do i t . "  By u s i n g "not only a b l e "  Edwards c o n t r o l s t h e l i s t e n e r ' s e x p e c t a t i o n r e g a r d i n g the r e s t  I of the sentence: the l i s t e n e r waits f o r "but a l s o a b l e " . l a s t phrase reminds the l i s t e n e r that the s u b j e c t o f t h i s i s God's "power".  The section  The emphasis informs the l i s t e n e r o f a s u r f e i t  of power i n God t o damn s i n n e r s . In expanding on God's power t o damn, Edwards o f f e r s a simply presented but h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t analogy: Sometimes an e a r t h l y p r i n c e meets with a g r e a t . d e a l of d i f f i c u l t y t o subdue a r e b e l , who has found means to f o r t i f y h i m s e l f , and has made h i m s e l f s t r o n g by the numbers o f h i s f o l l o w e r s . But i t i s not so w i t h God.(p.156) S e v e r a l t h i n g s should be noted about t h i s analogy.  First,  like  the analogy between the I s r a e l i t e s and Edwards' audience, i t r e f l e c t s a t y p o l o g i c a l h a b i t o f thought which would have been f a m i l i a r t o New Englanders as a convention o f sermons at the time.  Edwards i s fond of drawing a n a l o g i e s between the n a t u r a l  and i n f e r i o r world, and the heavenly and s u p e r i o r world.  He  draws such a p a r a l l e l here t o re-emphasize man's weakness i n r e l a t i o n t o God,  F u r t h e r , the s i t u a t i o n o f an e a r t h l y p r i n c e  confronted by a r e b e l i s p a r a l l e l t o God's c o n f r o n t a t i o n with  Satan.  There the s i m i l a r i t y ends, s i n c e God's c a p a c i t y f o r  a c t i o n i s so g r e a t .  A l s o , the i m p l i c a t i o n that the e a r t h l y  r e b e l ( o r the h o p e f u l  s i n n e r ) i s a p a r a l l e l f o r Satan w i l l up-  set the l i s t e n e r g r e a t l y , e s p e c i a l l y s i n c e he i s aware o f Satan' punishment.  Grammatically, t h i s s e c t i o n o f the passage r e f l e c t s  the r e l a t i v e s t r e n g t h o f man and God.  The p a r t d e a l i n g with  the analogy's e a r t h l y s i d e i s l e n g t h y j uneven, and suggestive of a f o r c e d mustering of power.  The part d e a l i n g with God opens  a b r u p t l y , w i t h much power:. "But i t i s not so w i t h God." The l i s t e n e r senses through t h i s emphasis God's power t o brush aside human e f f o r t s and comparisons i n the o r d e r i n g o f h i s divine w i l l . Edwards f o l l o w s with an explanatory abrupt statement.  expansion o f the above  Edwards intends t o i n c r e a s e the l i s t e n e r ' s  f e a r and f e e l i n g of i n s i g n i f i c a n c e by d e n i g r a t i n g the powers of God's enemies i n the face of God's s t r e n g t h . i  There i s no f o r t r e s s that i s any defence from the power of God. Though hand j o i n i n hand, and v a s t multitudes o f God's enemies combine and a s s o c i a t e themselves, they are e a s i l y broken i n p i e c e s . They ... are as great heaps of l i g h t c h a f f before the w h i r l wind; or l a r g e q u a n t i t i e s o f dry stubble before dev o u r i n g flames.(p. 156) Edwards u t t e r s another o f those simple, do not admit doubt.  b l u n t a s s e r t i o n s which  Edwards does not o f f e r a statement f o r  e v a l u a t i o n ; he s t a t e s u n a l t e r a b l e f a c t s , d e p r i v i n g the l i s t e n e r of i n i t i a t i v e w i t h i n the sermon. "Though hand j o i n i n hand..." men's a c t i o n s against God.  In r e p e a t i n g  "hand" again  he a m p l i f i e s ,the i n s i g n i f i c a n c e  These a c t i o n s would be s i g n i f i c a n t  among men, and the l i s t e n e r gets a sense t h a t any f o r c e he can imagine i s u s e l e s s against God.  Edwards speaks o f God's  109 I  enemies' downfall  i n the passive v o i c e : "...they are  broken i n p i e c e s " .  The  l i s t e n e r sees that even the  easily greatest  amalgam of human power ("...though hand j o i n i n hand...", etc) has  i t s c a p a b i l i t y f o r a o t i o n s t r i p p e d away. Edwards s h i f t s to two  the n a t u r a l w o r l d .  evenly  emphasized s i m i l e s drawn from  T h i s makes the r e l a t i v e power of God  s i n n e r s e a s i e r to grasp.  The  l i s t e n e r now  has  mind can cope with, r a t h e r than the i n f i n i t e  or l a r g e q u a n t i t i e s of dry stubble before  terms which h i s  "power of  "They are as great heaps of l i g h t c h a f f before  and  God":  the whirlwind;  devouring flames".  In each clause Edwards opposes elements of i n s i g n i f i c a n c e and power.  In each, the r e s u l t of the s i t u a t i o n d e s c r i b e d  "destruction".  The  l i s t e n e r moves toward the end  is  of s e c t i o n  "1." f e e l i n g t o t a l l y i n s i g n i f i c a n t , s t r i p p e d of power i n the face of God's might. We f i n d i t easy to t r e a d on and crush a worm t h a t we see c r a w l i n g on the earth; so i t i s easy f o r us to cut or singe a s l e n d e r thread t h a t any t h i n g hangs by: thus easy i s i t f o r God, when he p l e a s e s , t o cast h i s enemies down to hell.(p.156) One  again sees Edwards' t y p o l o g i c a l h a b i t of thought at work.  Both the examples g i v e n here are r a i s e d from the human to  the  heavenly l e v e l , though the sense of punishment remains s t r o n g l y physical.  The  l i s t e n e r perceives  o b l i t e r a t i o n : " . . . t o tread on and  the punishment as  total  crush a worm...".  The  s i g n i f i c a n c e of the elements remains the same.  The  last  relative clause  f o r m a l l y draws the obvious c o n c l u s i o n r e g a r d i n g God's power: "thus easy i t i s . . . ? .  Edwards r e f e r s t o " h i s enemies", with  whom the l i s t e n e r u n w i l l i n g l y i d e n t i f i e s ; the sentence ends on "down t o h e l l " , making the l i s t e n e r face the confirmed f a c t  I  of  110  the s i n n e r ' s f a t e , emphasized with a downward i n f l e c t i o n . F i n a l l y , the whole passage concludes with a r h e t o r i c a l question.  For the f i r s t time Edwards p o i n t e d l y addresses  "we",  drawing the l i s t e n e r d i r e c t l y i n t o h i s t h e o l o g i c a l " l i n e of f i r e " . Emotional t e n s i o n i s thereby i n c r e a s e d , and the r i t u a l i s t i c i n t e n s i t y augments the  question's  effect:  What are we, t h a t we should t h i n k to stand before him, a t whose rebuke the e a r t h trembles, and before whom the rocks are thrown down?(p.157) "We",  as elements of the n a t u r a l world, have no hope of standing  before God,  inasmuch as the most powerful elements of our world  cannot "stand before him".  The  l i s t e n e r i s i n a s t a t e of growing  .anxiety t h a t i s q u i e t l y f o s t e r e d by Edwards as the sermon progresses.  There i s s t i l l the d i s t u r b i n g l a c k of overt  c o l o r a t i o n , d e s p i t e the l i s t e n e r ' s i n c r e a s i n g emotional  emotional anxiety.  The g r e a t e r the l i s t e n e r ' s t e n s i o n , the more Edwards' bland facade a f f e c t s him.  Edwards i s i n the process of i n s t i l l i n g i n  the l i s t e n e r a sense of u t t e r dependence on God's mercy i n terms of p r e d e s t i n e d damnation and redemption.  By the end of the s e r -  mon's f i r s t h a l f , the l i s t e n e r w i l l understand pains a n a t u r a l man God  takes i n r e l i g i o n , t i l l  " . . . t h a t whatever  he b e l i e v e s i n C h r i s t ,  i s under no manner of o b l i g a t i o n t o keep him a moment from  eternal destruction"(p.161).  H i s f a t e depends on the "...un-  covenanted, unobliged forbearance of an incensed God"(p.161). In the sermon's second h a l f , s u b t i t l e d " A p p l i c a t i o n " , Edwards becomes h i s b r u t a l b e s t .  He works more d i r e c t l y on the  listener  as an i n d i v i d u a l , whose t e r r o r and d e s p e r a t i o n i n c r e a s e w i t h i n the r i g i d l i m i t s d e f i n e d by the sermon's f i r s t h a l f . Edwards iI addresses the l i s t e n e r as "you", p i n n i n g him down under the  111  onslaught of an inescapable a t t a c k .  The a t t a c k depends on Edwards'  s t r u c t u r i n g and the l i s t e n e r ' s a s s o c i a t i v e movement toward  the  conclusion. Edwards organizes t h i s h a l f of the sermon around and a p p l i c a t i o n of the concept' of "wrath".  a discussion  The d i s c u s s i o n con-  s i s t s of i n t r o d u c t o r y s e c t i o n s on the l i s t e n e r ' s wickedness and the nature of the f a t e t h i s wickedness has earned. then a f o u r - p a r t working "wrath".  There i s  out of the nature and i m p l i c a t i o n s of  Edwards t r e a t s "wrath" as he t r e a t e d the t e x t u a l  a n a l y s i s at the sermon's opening, but i n g r e a t e r d e t a i l . In the " A p p l i c a t i o n " Edwards a m p l i f i e s the strange, d i s t u r b i n g calmness he evinced i n the sermon's f i r s t h a l f . and paragraphs  His  sentences  take on a powerful but e f f o r t l e s s h y p n o t i c q u a l i t y .  He s t i l l avoids o v e r t emotional d i s p l a y s i n h i s d e l i v e r y . r e s u l t , i n the new  As a  context, the d i s p a r i t y between overt emotional  elements and the s u b j e c t matter's emotional impact generates a morbid  i n t e r e s t , a f a s c i n a t i o n i n the l i s t e n e r . The s e r e n i t y , the blandness, the p r e t e r n a t u r a l calm, which...in "Sinners i n the Hands of an Angry God," takes the form of a t e r r i f y i n g s a n g - f r o i d , manifest an emotional appeal of great power  Edwards depends on the l i s t e n e r ' s growing h o r r o r of c e r t a i n damn a t i o n as the source of emotional t e n s i o n .  The coolness with  which the sermon progresses has the perverse e f f e c t of making the l i s t e n e r manufacture the t e r r o r w i t h i n h i m s e l f . t e r r o r even may him.  The  listener's  be of h i m s e l f , of h i s g u i l t and the f a t e i t earns  Edwards a c t s on h i s r u l e that one d e p r i v e s the s i n n e r ("out  of C h r i s t " ) of a l l comfort.  Throughout the sermon's second  half,  he i n t e n s i f i e s the l i s t e n e r ' s f e a r and f r u s t a t i o n by r e p e a t e d l y h o l d i n g out comfort and then s n a t c h i n g i t away.  This manipulation  112,,  i s reflected s y n t a c t i c a l l y as well as conceptually, as Edwards calmly tortures h i s audience.  F i n a l l y , the second h a l f makes  absolute the l i s t e n e r ' s dependence on God f o r escape and salvation. Edwards' l i s t e n e r w i l l be f r a n t i c to be " i n Christ"; h i s w i l l i s constrained, notjby predestination, but by the desire to escape from the terrors Edwards w i l l describe. i  In treating the "Application", the f i r s t of the passages I wish to examine consists of a single sentence that deals with the l i s t e n e r ' s wickedness. Your wickedness makes you as i t were heavy as lead, and to tend downwards with great weight and pressure towards h e l l ; and i f God should l e t you go, you would immediately sink and swiftly descend and plunge into the bottomless gulf, and your healthy constitution, and your own care and prudence, and best contrivance, and a l l your righteousness, would have no more influence to uphold you and keep you out of h e l l , than a spider's would have to stop a f a l l e n rock.(p.162) "Wickedness" assumes the role of a major causal element i n the period, just as i t does i n the sermon as a whole.  As an agency,  i t assumes grammatical and conceptual r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for the sense of the period's f i r s t part.  As an agency over which he  has l i t t l e control, the l i s t e n e r fears i t a l l the more "makes you" face h e l l .  it  The fact that i t i s "your wickedness"  Imbues the l i s t e n e r with a reinforced sense of personal respons i b i l i t y which w i l l be maintained throughout the sentence: "Your wickedness makes you...heavy  as lead, and to tend downwards  with great weight and pressure towards h e l l . . . " .  The r e p e t i t i o n  of words connoting conditions or degrees of heaviness strengthens the  l i s t e n e r ' s move,to associate "wickedness" with "weight"; and,  through the power of weight to drag one down, "wickedness" with "hell".  The grammajbical structure of the period's opening i s  112  slow, even ponderous.  The sounds of the words and  phrases-—"...  as i t were heavy as l e a d . . . " , " . . . t o tend downwards...", "great I weight", "pressure" emphasize pressure and slowness i n articulation.  The opening of the p e r i o d p l a c e s a downward i n -  f l e c t i o n on i t s import, the t e n d i n g "...downwards...towards hell...". Edwards f o l l o w s with an immediate reminder of God's r o l e i n r e l a t i o n to the s i n n e r and h i s f a t e : " . . . i f God should l e t you go, you would immediately sink and s w i f t l y descend and i n t o the bottomless g u l f . . . " . soon be upon him.  The l i s t e n e r knows h i s f a t e  may  The " i f " statement s i g n a l s him t h a t h i s doom  i s about t o be d e s c r i b e d , and the phrase "God  should l e t you  go" reminds him of the nature of h i s t o t a l dependence. i three verbs used  plunge  ''sink", "descend", and "plunge"  The  are a l l  d e s c r i p t i v e of processes or changes i n c o n d i t i o n , r a t h e r than Conditions i n themselves. " s i n k " and "descend", ("immediately" meanings. impending  F u r t h e r , the adverbs which modify  s e p a r a t i n g them from the a u x i l i a r y "would"  and " s w i f t l y " r e s p e c t i v e l y ) , exaggerate the v e r b s '  They s t r o n g l y i n f l u e n c e the l i s t e n e r ' s sense of the fall.  One must remember t h a t , f o r the l i s t e n e r , the act of f a l l i n g supposedly has a f i x e d endpoint and verbs d e s c r i b i n g the f a l l  namely, h e l l .  The  adverbs  i n d i c a t e t h a t the f i x e d  endpoint  w i l l be reached q u i c k l y , "immediately", or " s w i f t l y " .  Edwards  now  c o n f r o n t s the l i s t e n e r w i t h a paradox.  "bottomless g u l f " .  The f a l l  i s into a  "Bottomless" snatches away the l o g i c by which  the l i s t e n e r has examined the s i t u a t i o n , and the " f a l l " becomes a l l the more t e r r i f y i n g to him.  How  can he "immediately" reach i  114.  the endpoint of a f a l l i n t o a "bottomless g u l f " ? overwhelms the l i s t e n e r ' s mind by the departure  Edwards  purposely  from n a t u r a l  logic. The  p e r i o d continues  with a r h y t h m i c a l l y s t r u c t u r e d r e t u r n  to the l i s t e n e r ' s p o s i t i v e human f a c u l t i e s .  As the p e r i o d moves  forward, Edwards appears t o be o f f e r i n g the l i s t e n e r hope: "...and your h e a l t h y c o n s t i t u t i o n , and your own care and prudence, and best c o n t r i v a n c e ,  and a l l your r i g h t e o u s n e s s . . . " .  Edwards  cuts short the r h y t h m i c a l l y expanding s e r i e s o f h o p e f u l with the p e r i o d ' s c o n c l u s i o n , which roughly  phrases  snatches away the  element o f hope. I I t s substance reduces the l i s t e n e r by a comp a r a t i v e image o f , d e s t r u c t i o n i n the n a t u r a l world.  The com-  i  p a r i s o n contains a sneer at the l i s t e n e r ' s temerity anything  hopeful  i n seeing  i n human f a c u l t i e s : "...and a l l your r i g h t e o u s -  ness, would have no more i n f l u e n c e , than a s p i d e r ' s web would have t o stop a f a l l e n rock."  The concluding  image r e i n f o r c e s  the t o t a l i n s i g n i f i c a n c e o f men and t h e i r powers, as i l l u s t r a t e d by the e n t i r e p e r i o d .  Edwards has acted with c o n t r o l l e d but  d e v a s t a t i n g f o r c e on h i s p r i n c i p l e of d e p r i v a t i o n of the s i n n e r ' s comfort. Edwards continues  t o d i r e c t h i s f u l l powers a g a i n s t the  sinner's s e n s i b i l i t i e s .  The f o l l o w i n g passage i s the f i r s t  paragraph but one before the f i r s t numbered s e c t i o n i n t h i s h a l f of the sermon:  I l  The God that holds you over the p i t of h e l l , much as one holds a s p i d e r , or some loathsome i n s e c t over the f i r e , abhors you, and i s d r e a d f u l l y provoked: h i s wrath thowards you burns l i k e f i r e ; he looks upon you as worthy o f nothing e l s e , but t o be cast i n t o the f i r e ; he i s o f purer eyes than t o bear t o have you i n h i s s i g h t ; you are t e n thousand times  more abominable i n h i s eyes, than the most h a t e f u l venomous serpent i s i n ours. You have offended him i n f i n i t e l y more than ever a stubborn r e b e l d i d h i s p r i n c e ; and yet i t i s nothing but h i s hand that holds you from f a l l i n g i n t o the f i r e every moment. ...There i s no other reason to be g i v e n why you have not, gone to h e l l , s i n c e you have sat here i n the house of God, provoking h i s pure eyes by your s i n f u l wicked manner of a t t e n d i n g h i s solemn worship. Yea, there i s nothing e l s e that i s t o be g i v e n as a reason why you do not t h i s v e r y moment drop down i n t o h e l l . ( p p . 1 64-165) 1  The f i r s t - p a r t o f - t h e passage's-opening and c l e v e r l y c o n s t r u c t e d * God"  sentence i s a r r e s t i n g  There i s shared emphasis between "The  as the c o n t r o l l i n g f a c t o r or agent i n the statement,  and  the r e l a t i v e c l a u s e which d e s c r i b e s the l i s t e n e r ' s l o c a l e i n r e l a t i o n to God.  The l i s t e n e r i s made to f e e l the  impact i n a p e r s o n a l way:  statement's  the o b j e c t o f God's wrath i s again "you  r e f e r r i n g both to the congregation and the i n d i v i d u a l  listener.  D e s c r i b i n g the s i n n e r ' s s i t u a t i o n i n terms of e a r t h l y and p a r a l l e l s , Edwards r e i n f o r c e s the l i s t e n e r ' s g u i l t and ness i n a potent image.  divine  loathsome-  The e a r t h l y example of an i n s e c t sus-  pended over a flame i s s i m i l a r t o the s i t u a t i o n of the s i n n e r i s suspended  by God  "over the p i t of h e l l " :  who  "The God t h a t holds  you over the p i t of h e l l , much as one holds a s p i d e r , or some loathsome  i n s e c t over the f i r e , abhors you, and i s d r e a d f u l l y i  provoked...".  Edwards has s h i f t e d the focus away from the s i n n e r  f a t e as something!which God".  i s prevented by "the mere p l e a s u r e of  God's f e e l i n g s are d e s c r i b e d by words with s t r o n g l y  negative emotional s i g n i f i c a n c e and "abhors" the l i s t e n e r .  provoked"  Also, syntactic structure  the l i s t e n e r ' s supension by God. tween "The God"  he i s " d r e a d f u l l y  imitates  The l o n g r e l a t i v e c l a u s e be-  and "...abhors you.;."  suspends the movement of  the p e r i o d w h i l e the l i s t e n e r ' s h o r r o r of h i s p h y s i c a l suspension  over the p i t i s a m p l i f i e d . . . . h i s wrath towards you burns l i k e f i r e ; he l o o k s upon you as worthy of nothing e l s e , but t o be cast i n t o the f i r e . . . . By t h i s p o i n t i n the passage's been repeated t h r e e t i m e s .  opening p e r i o d , " f i r e " has  Edwards' r e p e t i t i v e use o f " f i r e " i s  such that the l i s t e n e r begins t o see the f i r e s of h e l l i n every direction.  I t i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h h i s f a t e , s i m i l a r t o that of  the i n s e c t suspended  over the f i r e ;  nature o f God's wrath;  i t i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the  i t i s regarded as the l i s t e n e r ' s  f a t e ; and i t d e s c r i b e s the c o n d i t i o n of h e l l .  just  "Fire" i s firmly  entrenched i n the l i s t e n e r ' s mind as an aspect of a l l the elements concerning h i s  f a t e as a s i n n e r .  ...he i s o f purer eyes than to bear t o have you i n h i s s i g h t ; you are t e n thousand times more abominable i n h i s eyes than the most h a t e f u l venomous serpent i s i n ours. Beginning with " . . . h i s wrath", the s e r i e s - of statements  punctuated  by semi-colons p r o v i d e s an h y p n o t i c rhythm around the i d e a o f f i r e , and the new expansion i n t h e above q u o t a t i o n . calmness  The strange  and the emotional impact o f the statements make apparent  Edwards' " s a n g - f r o i d " , that so alarms h i s l i s t e n e r s . In  the above q u o t a t i o n Edwards s p e c i f i e s the r e l a t i v e degree o f  man's " a b o m i n a b i l i t y " • i n God's s i g h t . the r i t u a l i s t i c  I n d o i n g so he r e a f f i r m s  solemnity and i n t e n s i t y which i s so o f t e n a part  of h i s judgments a g a i n s t the l i s t e n e r : "...you are t e n thousand times more abominable will  i n h i s eyes...".  Such a formal e x p r e s s i o n  impress the l i s t e n e r as an o f f i c i a l statement o f f a c t , an  enormous c o n f i r m a t i o n of h i s own d e s p i c a b l e nature.  The syntax  and l e x i c a l meaning o f the statement cue the l i s t e n e r t h a t i t i s p a r t o f a comparison;  and he waits f e a r f u l l y and without hope f o r I  117.  the comparison abominable"  to be completed.  He i s "ten thousand times more  than...what?  The comparison makes God's view of man  analogous to man's  view of "the most h a t e f u l venomous s e r p e n t " .  The l i s t e n e r must  be t r u l y s t r i c k e n by t h i s , t h e standard by which the i s made.  comparison  Aside from i t s s i g n i f i c a n c e i n the n a t u r a l world, the  snake comparison  i m p l i e s to the l i s t e n e r that he i s worse than  the snake as e i t h e r an emissary of the d e v i l , or as of Satan h i m s e l f .  emblematic  To be "out of C h r i s t " i s condemnation enough;  but t o be made "ten thousand times" worse than Satan would be unthinkable.  The passage's next sentence lends support to the  c o n c l u s i o n that "the most h a t e f u l venomous serpent" should i n deed c a l l Satan t o mind.  I t r e c a l l s the " e a r t h l y  prince—rebel"  analogy of the sermon's f i r s t h a l f , thus s e a l i n g a s s o c i a t i v e l i n k s i n the l i s t e n e r ' s mind.  I t r e c a l l s a l s o the p a r a l l e l of  Satan as a r e b e l a g a i n s t the P r i n c e of Heaven: You have offended him i n f i n i t e l y more than ever a stubborn r e b e l d i d h i s p r i n c e ; and yet i t i s nothing but h i s hand t h a t h o l d s you from f a l l i n g i n t o the f i r e every moment. The l i s t e n e r has t r o u b l e coping with " i n f i n i t e l y " ,  since i t  purposely denotes a c o n d i t i o n of degree which i s , and always be, beyond h i s grasp.  The r e t u r n t o the analogy of the "stubborn  r e b e l " confirms the! l i s t e n e r ' s worst f e a r s . m o d i f i e s "more", the l i s t e n e r now  Satan^was~cast  Since  "infinitely"  knows that he i s u n b e l i e v a b l y  worse than an e a r t h l y or a heavenly r e b e l . worse than Satan.  will  He i s " i n f i n i t e l y "  For h i s s i n , Edwards reminds the l i s t e n e r ,  " i n t o the f i r e " p w h a t then can the l i s t e n e r hope  for? In the f i n a l c l a u s e of the sentence, Edwards a g a i n shows a te  i  -  118.  f l i c k e r of hope and then snatches i t away. "...and yet i t i s n o t h i n g . . . " . a r e v e r s a l i n the l i s t e n e r ' s  The clause begins w i t h  The use of " y e t " might  indicate  t e r r i b l e s t a t e , or so he hopes.  " I t i s nothing" confuses the l i s t e n e r because the antecedent "it"  of  i s not c l e a r j and the use' of "nothing" might apply to the  s e r i o u s n e s s of the l i s t e n e r ' s  crime.  U n f o r t u n a t e l y , such hopes  are not reasonable, and Edwards snatches them away with the appearance of "but": " . . . i t  i s nothing but h i s hand that holds  you from f a l l i n g i n t o the f i r e every momenti"  The use of " h i s  i hand" r e c a l l s the e k r l i e r comparison of the r e l a t i v e s t r e n g t h of man's hands and God's.  The l i s t e n e r i s again reminded that  he i s being h e l d up by that hand of God. " f i r e " as i t r e l a t e s  Edwards r e t u r n s to  t o punishment, thus m a i n t a i n i n g a s s o c i a t i o n s  w i t h i n the passage, as w e l l as w i t h i n the sermon as a whole. The l i s t e n e r now  f a c e s the added problem of "every moment", as  opposed to "any moment".  The l a t t e r i m p l i e s that there could  be a d e l a y between the removal of God's hand and the fall.  listener's  But the former makes p l a i n t h a t no such delay w i l l occur.  The whole sentence r e i n f o r c e s the beaten listener'.s awareness that God  i s very, very angry, and l i a b l e t o r e l e a s e him at any  time. Near the end of the passage, Edwards focuses d i r e c t l y on the h y p o c r i s y of the l i s t e n e r who out of C h r i s t .  dares to enter the church while  To the l i s t e n e r , who  i s a l r e a d y w r i t h i n g with  g u i l t , Edwards' treatment of t h i s p o i n t w i l l be doubly e f f e c t i v e : There i s no other reason to be g i v e n £beside God's h o l d i n g you up] why you have not gone t o h e l l , s i n c e you have s a t here i n the house of God, provoking h i s pure eyes by your s i n f u l wicked manner of a t t e n d i n g h i s solemn worship.  Edwards a f f i r m s God's c o n t r o l by denying any  other p o s s i b l e ex-  p l a n a t i o n f o r the l i s t e n e r ' s continued e x i s t e n c e .  Although  maintains h i s c o o l n e s s , there i s a s a r c a s t i c b i t e to the part of the p e r i o d .  he  first  I t i s a s u b t l y i m p l i e d t o n a l q u a l i t y which  makes the l i s t e n e r f e e l s m a l l e r than he a l r e a d y i s . r e t u r n s to God's "pure eyes" and  Edwards  the l i s t e n e r ' s impurity i n  God's view, c l o s i n g another a s s o c i a t i o n a l l i n k w i t h i n the passage. worship"  The  " s i n f u l wicked manner of a t t e n d i n g h i s solemn  doubly r e i n f o r c e s the l i s t e n e r ' s meanness  he  recalls  the e a r l i e r d i s c u s s i o n of the reward "wickedness" earns.  In  p o i n t i n g thus to the l i s t e n e r ' s h y p o c r i s y , Edwards questions the h y p o c r i t e ' s presence  i n the church.  to repent, to be " i n C h r i s t " ; the church The  church i s the p l a c e  Is the l i s t e n e r ' s l a s t  refuge  t o be denied him?  l i s t e n e r ' 8 h y p o c r i s y i s due  to h i s b e l i e f , nurtured  Edwards, t h a t he i s a damned s i n n e r . own  The  a s s o c i a t i v e understanding  by  He condemns h i m s e l f by h i s  of the sermon so f a r .  He  i s hypo-  c r i t i c a l through h i s p r o f a n a t i o n of the church by h i s v e r y presence  in i t .  He cannot  repent  i n a s t a t e of s i n ; i n h i s  current s t a t e , even the refuge of the church i s denied Edwards i s t h e r e f o r e j u s t i f i e d  him.  i n c o n c l u d i n g the passage with  i  a restatement  of emphasis on God's h o l d i n g up of men  as the s o l e  reason f o r t h e i r c o n t i n u i n g miserable e x i s t e n c e : Yea, t h e r e i s nothing e l s e t h a t i s to be g i v e n as a reason why you do not t h i s very moment drop down i n t o hell. Even at i t s c o n c l u s i o n , "Sinners i n the Hands of an Angry i s not too h o p e f u l .  Through the course of the  "Application",  Edwards has worked w i t h metaphors of i n c r e a s i n g power, i n  ; i  God"  r h y t h m i c a l l y presented passages that d e t a i l man's s i t u a t i o n , God's view of i t ,  and the p o t e n t i a l outcome f o r a l l concerned.  The  p r o g r e s s - o f these- passages lowers the l i s t e n e r ' s hope of r e demption, and i n c r e a s e s h i s a n x i e t y , f e a r , and sense of impending damnation.  The sermon's short c o n c l u d i n g paragraph i s d e l i v e r e d  at the moment when the l i s t e n e r ' s anxiety and d e s p e r a t i o n are s t r o n g e s t , and when the pressure on him i s g r e a t e s t : T h e r e f o r e , l e t every one that i s out of C h r i s t , now awake and f l y from the wrath t o come. The wrath of Almighty God i s now undoubtedly hanging over a great p a r t of t h i s congregation: l e t every one f l y out of Sodom: "Haste and escape f o r your l i v e s , look not behind you, escape t o the mountain, l e s t you be consumed."(p.172) T h i s i s the f i n a l s t e r n warning t o the l i s t e n e r .  The "there-  f o r e " at i t s b e g i n n i n g i n d i c a t e s that what f o l l o w s i t w i l l be the a s s o c i a t i v e and l o g i c a l to the sermon's p r o g r e s s .  (as w e l l as t h e o l o g i c a l ) c o n c l u s i o n Edwards makes "everyone" i n t o two  words, g i v i n g i t a sense of s p e c i f i c i t y as he p o i n t s t o each l i s t e n e r who i s "out of C h r i s t " .  The l i s t e n e r i s t o "awake"  from h i s s i n f u l s t a t e (and from the sermon's h y p n o t i c e f f e c t s ) "now"; "now"  i s the time t o " f l y " .  Edwards suddenly makes the  a r r i v a l o f God's wrath seem nearer i n a l a s t d i g a t t h e l i s t e n e r , whose p a n i c i n t e n s i f i e s .  The l i s t e n e r ' s f e a r that he i s one of  the s i n n e r s who deserve God's anger i s supported by Edwards' blunt statement: "The wrath of Almighty God i s now undoubtedly hanging over a great part of t h i s congregation...". The r e mainder of the passage shows one t h i n hope of escape, drawn from the s c r i p t u r a l context.  Edwards r e c a l l s the d e s t r u c t i o n  of Sodom, and the sermon ends w i t h a reworking of the i d e a of d e s t r u c t i o n by f i r e :  Let every one f l y out of Sodom: "Haste and escape f o r your l i v e s , look not behind you, escape t o the mount a i n , l e s t you be consumed. The q u o t a t i o n moves w i t h uneven speed, i m i t a t i n g the i d e a of " f l i g h t " and adding a new sense of panic  controlling,  dimension to the . l i s t e n e r ' s  he can escape i f he h u r r i e s .  The q u o t a t i o n c;  ends a b r u p t l y with a downward i n f l e c t i o n on "consumed", r e emphasizing the t o t a l nature of the s i n n e r ' s forthcoming doom by " f i r e " .  The l i s t e n e r ' s emotional, t e n s i o n i s contained and  increased.by the narrow f o c u s , as Edwards maintains h i s cold--. ' blooded \calm.  One  can almost imagine him dropping h i s v o i c e  to a \ c h i l l i n g , p e n e t r a t i n g whisper as the sermon concludes: " . . . l e s t you be consumed."  / /  T h i s sermon has put the l i s t e n e r through a t e r r i f y i n g ex- p e r i e n c e of h i s own  s p i r i t u a l and p h y s i c a l weakness and  mortality.  The l i s t e n e r has seen h i s f a t e and h i s t o t a l dependence on  God  f o r good or e v i l i l l u s t r a t e d i n an a g o n i z i n g l y c l e a r manner.  He  w i l l be d r i v e n to accept any f a t e other than t h a t o u t l i n e d i n the sermon, and w i l l be e s p e c i a l l y eageri to a c t on h i s own  -~  i n i t i a t i v e t o get " i n C h r i s t " . , He departs from the church s t i l l - v,;A sweating the sweat, of m o r t a l fear,"'determined f o r h i s l i f e t o . ;  7  f i n d h i s means of redemption. • *  *  #  v *  (  -  *  In the two Edwards sermons, one sees developed two aspects of one t h e o l o g i c a l i s s u e  dependence on God,  different  and the prob- •  lem of f r e e w i l l t o which i t i s t i e d . . Both sermons r e f l e c t Edwards' s e n s i t i v i t y to the s t r e n g t h s and weaknesses of h i s audience.  At the  same time they r e f l e c t h i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f language and emotion as t h e means o f t o u c h i n g h i s l i s t e n e r s ' h e a r t s .  The sermons  p i v o t around "dependence*': one p o i n t s t o damnation, one t o r e demption; one t o f e a r , t h e o t h e r t o l o v e . v i g o r o u s than Donne.  Edwards i s no l e s s  I f h i s form and substance a r e d i f f e r e n t ,  he was n o n e t h e l e s s a b l e t o i n f l u e n c e f o r a time t h e t h e o l o g i c a l fabric of h i s society.  123,  Notes Annette Kolodny, "Imagery i n the Sermons of Jonathan EAL (1971 ), 172-182, p.181 .  1  Edwards",  p  For other f a c t o r s c o n d i t i o n i n g response to Edwards, pp.13-22.  see ch.I,  •'CH. Faust and T.H. Johnson, ed., Jonathan Edwards: R e p r e s e n t a t i v e S e l e c t i o n s (New York: H i l l and V/ang, 1935, 1962; American S e r i e s ed., 1962), i n t r o d u c t i o n , c i i . 4  F a u s t and Johnson, ed., Jonathan Edwards: R e p r e s e n t a t i v e S e l e c t i o n s , i n t r o . , cx.  ^Faust and Johnson, i n t r o . ,  cxii.  ^Faust and Johnson, i n t r o . ,  cxii.  7 John F. Lynen, The Design of the Present (New Haven: Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1969), P«113. 8 I John F. Lynen, The Design o f the Present, p.114. o ^Lynen, p.115• . 1  1 0  F a u s t and Johnson, i n t r o . ,  11  L y n e n , p.114.  cxiii.  12 Jonathan Edwards, "God G l o r i f i e d i n the Work of Redemption", Jonathan Edwards: B a s i c W r i t i n g s , ed. O l a E l i z a b e t h Winslow (Toronto: Signet C l a s s i c s — N e w American L i b r a r y of Canada L t d . , 1966), 106-122, p.106. Winslow notes that the t e x t i s taken from The Works of P r e s i d e n t Edwards, ed. S.B. Dwight, V I I , 149-162. A l l r e f e r e n c e s to t h i s sermon w i l l be from the Winslow e d i t i o n , and w i l l be i n c l u d e d i n the body of the t h e s i s by page number. ^ U r s u l a Brumm, American Thought and R e l i g i o u s Typology J e r s e y : Rutgers U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1970), p.87/ 1 4  (New  F a u s t and Johnson, i n t r o . , c x i .  15 Faust and Johnson, i n t r o . , c x i . 1  ^ T h e r e has been a great d e a l of s p e c u l a t i o n i n modern l i n g u i s t i c s and psychology as to the problems of language a c q u i s i t i o n and the g e n e r a t i o n of v a r i o u s s y n t a c t i c and grammatical s t r u c t u r e s . There i s no room i n t h i s t h e s i s f o r e x p l o r a t i o n of modern specu l a t i o n and r e s e a r c h on the s u b j e c t . The reader i n t e r e s t e d i n such s t u d i e s must approach them on h i s own.  1 7  P e r r y M i l l e r , "The R h e t o r i c o f Sensation", Errand Into the Wilderness (New York: Harper and Row, 1956), 167-183, p.167.  124.  18  Annette Kolodny, "Imagery i n the Sermons of Jonathan p.173.  Edwards",  19 Kolodny, p.172. 20 21  22  M i l l e r , "The R h e t o r i c of Sensation", Errand Into the p.183.  Wilderness,  Jonathan Edwards, "Sinners i n the Hands of an Angry God", Jonathan Edwards: R e p r e s e n t a t i v e S e l e c t i o n s , ed. Faust and Johnson, 155-172. A l l r e f e r e n c e s to t h i s sermon w i l l be from the Faust and Johnson e d i t i o n , and w i l l be i n c l u d e d i n the body of the t h e s i s by page number. Lynen, The Design of the Present, p.111•  CHAPTER IV: CONCLUSION  It  should be c l e a r that my method i n t h i s t h e s i s  has  d i f f e r e d i n at l e a s t one major aspect from other methods of s t y l i s t i c or r h e t o r i c a l a n a l y s i s . of aid  I have r e f u s e d t o r e g a r d the works  e i t h e r Donne or Edwards as p o o l s or r e s e r v o i r s of examples t o i n t h e \ i l l u s t r a t i o n of p a r t i c u l a r t e c h n i q u e s .  Biven that  a sermon (or any work o f , l i t e r a t u r e ) i s b e f o r e anything e l s e a s e q u e n t i a l experience through which the reader or l i s t e n e r moves, j the c r i t i c i s o b l i g a t e d t o make the q u a l i t y o f the experience his' f i r s t focus.  To do t h i s he must examine technique through the  l i s t e n e r ' s responses as they occur s e q u e n t i a l l y .  Only then can  he b e g i n t o see the a r t i s t r y behind the use of v a r i o u s techniques i n the c r e a t i o n of an e n t i r e work. p r i n c i p l e i n my In  v  I have t r i e d t o adhere t o t h i s  study.  a p p l y i n g t h i s approach  t o a p a r t i c u l a r genre, one i s  able t o r e t u r n t o the e s s e n t i a l human element i n l i t e r a t u r e . D i f f e r e n c e s and s i m i l a r i t i e s i n the q u a l i t y of experience  and  response remind us of human nature as i t m a n i f e s t s i t s e l f  in a  given context.  Moreover, the method p r o v i d e s i n s i g h t i n t o ,  and  c o n t r i b u t e s t o our t o t a l understanding of the genre i n which an author w r i t e s .  Comparative  a s i n g l e genre may  examinations  of d i f f e r e n t writers i n  augment t h i s understanding by r e v e a l i n g some-  t h i n g of the genre's development as a r e c o g n i z e d form. s t u d i e s may  r e v e a l d i v e r s i t i e s t h a t inform us of>the  and scope of a l i t e r a r y type, or they may  Such  broadness^  r e v e a l the v a r i o u s ;  .;  s i m i l a r i t i e s which t y p i f y a genre.  F i n a l l y , by u s i n g t h i s  approach  one might b e g i n t o see the r e l a t i o n s h i p between c r e a t i v i t y i n an important l i t e r a r y form, and the impact  on man o f t h a t form's  development as a shaping and r e f l e c t i n g c u l t u r a l or i n t e l l e c t u a l influence. growing,  One might observe thought  and the l i t e r a r y  :  organism  changing, d e v e l o p i n g w i t h i n the f o c u s s u p p l i e d by the /  p a r t i c u l a r genre.  -  V  H o m i l e t i c o r sermon l i t e r a t u r e i s one of the more important areas a v a i l a b l e f o r such s t u d i e s . ' As people w i t h a s p e c i f i c and  • ><•  complex n a t i o n a l and r e l i g i o u s h e r i t a g e (our E n g l i s h J u d e o - C h r i s t i a n ) hei-itage), we have been i n e x t r i c a b l y i n v o l v e d w i t h t h e o l o g i c a l . . .  •  /  •  '  .  concerns s i n c e the o r i g i n s o f our r e l i g i o n and l i t e r a t u r e . and l i t e r a t u r e have a f f e c t e d and r e f l e c t e d almost  <  Theology  every-aspect of..'-';^ :  growth or change i n t h e . p r o g r e s s of our development. the widespread  .  Because of.  conoern ,with these t h i n g s , i t i s not unreasonable  to expect t h a t an examination o f sermons by two d i f f e r e n t  writers  might add t o one's knowledge and u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the sermon per s e . r Nor  i s i t unreasonable  l a r i t i e s which appear, w i l l broaden  t o e x p e c t t h a t the d i v e r s i t i e s and s i m i - ; i r r e s p e c t i v e of s e c t a r i a n . /  considerations 'y:f^: t)  .  one's understanding of the r e l i g i o u s experience as  '-\*-y  -f  a shaping i n f l u e n c e i n the development o f l i t e r a t u r e and culture.•Y.-k'M Moreover, i t i s reasonable to expect t h a t such examinations  are:->--;.'^Jf;  steps i n approaching human i n t e l l e c t u a l development i n a g i v e n ; context over l o n g p e r i o d s of time. John Donne and Jonathan Edwards are two acknowledged o f the sermon form.  masters.^  In choosing these two preachers as the sub-  j e c t s of my study, I had t o c o n s i d e r what j u s t i f i c a t i o n t h e r e might be f o r d e a l i n g w i t h f i g u r e s from such d i f f e r e n t backgrounds.  3"  127.  There i s much j u s t i f i c a t i o n .  C e r t a i n l y , the two were not i n -  a p p r o p r i a t e choices i n terms of e x p l o r i n g d i f f e r e n t concepts of what a "sermon" might be.  A l s o , they i l l u s t r a t e d by the d i v e r s i t y  i n t h e i r s t y l e s and t h e o l o g i e s the wide range of approaches preaching w i t h i n the context of C h r i s t i a n i t y .  to  But more im-  p o r t a n t l y , the r e l i g i o u s experiences v i s i b l e i n each man's s e r mons act as r e f l e c t i o n s of the times i n which each l i v e d . such, they are r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the d e v e l o p i n g l i t e r a r y  As and  t h e o l o g i c a l consciousnesses o f t h e i r times. Juxtaposing the works of the two men  r e v e a l s t o some extent  the beginnings of the divergence i n l i t e r a t u r e i n E n g l i s h . Edwards wrote "Sinners i n the Hands of an Angry God"  about  twenty-five years before the R e v o l u t i o n , and h i s sermons have a d i r e c t n e s s and s t r e n g t h that p r e f i g u r e s the f i e r c e a u s t e r i t y , and power of e a r l y American l i t e r a t u r e and  individualism, thought.  Donne wrote i n a more t y p i c a l l y " E n g l i s h " and d i s t i n c t l y  Renai-  ssance context, r e f l e c t i n g the p o l i t i c a l as w e l l as the r e l i g i o u s i n t e n s i t y of h i s times.  The d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e i r sermons  are due as much t o t h e i r opposing t h e o l o g i e s Calvinism  Anglicanism and  as t o the d i f f e r e n c e s i n time, l o c a t i o n , and education.  The s i m i l a r i t i e s between the two l i e i n t h e i r shared a b i l i t y to make r e l i g i o u s experience r e a l t o t h e i r audiences, and to operate s u c c e s s f u l l y under the l o g i c a l l i m i t a t i o n s imposed by t h e i r r e spective theologies.  To be sure, t h e i r a b i l i t i e s i n t h i s area  are due i n l a r g e p a r t t o t h e f a c t that the times i n which they l i v e d were a p p r o p r i a t e t o the a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e i r p e c u l i a r g i f t s . When they are s u c c e s s f u l they are exemplary of t h e i r times' p r e v a i l i n g i n t e l l e c t u a l and t h e o l o g i c a l standards and  beliefs.  I do not pretend that my  a n a l y s i s makes c l e a r the r e l a t i o n -  s h i p between American and E n g l i s h sermon l i t e r a t u r e , as  typified  N e i t h e r do I c l a i m t o have  by Edwards and Donne r e s p e c t i v e l y .  d e s c r i b e d a stage i n the development of American theology c u l t u r e from i t s E n g l i s h o r i g i n s .  What I have done i s to t r y  to r e v e a l i n two cases the r e l a t i o n s h i p of t h e o l o g i c a l to  thought  the development of the sermon as a l i t e r a r y experience, u s i n g  response of  and  and  " a f f e c t " as c r i t e r i a .  To achieve that g r e a t e r sense  sermon l i t e r a t u r e ' s development as a genre r e f l e c t i v e of c u l -  t u r a l and  i n t e l l e c t u a l growth, one would have to repeat the  process I have c a r r i e d out h e r e i n many times with many preachers. I have o f f e r e d but a f i r s t I  step i n t h i s  considered t h a t a comparative  thesis.  d i s c u s s i o n of the a c t u a l  techniques used by each preacher would provide a c o n c l u s i o n . But such a c o n c l u s i o n , while i t might be u s e f u l , would negate the import of my method i n t h i s t h e s i s .  Whether one w r i t e s of  Donne, Edwards, or any other preacher, t e c h n i c a l d e v i c e s remain mechanical of  c o n t r i v a n c e s no matter how  them are o f f e r e d .  many i l l u s t r a t i v e  examples  T h e r e f o r e , I s h a l l conclude as I began,  by s t a t i n g t h a t the f i r s t step i n approaching l i t e r a t u r e i s the experience of the work i t s e l f .  Whatever e l s e one speaks o f , one  must always r e s o l v e the questions of meaning, sense, emotion, and impact: i n s h o r t , one must experience.  129.  BIBLIOGRAPHY  Bald, R.C.  John Donne: A L i f e .  Oxford: Clarendon Press,  1970  Brumm, U r s u l a . A m e r i c a n T h o u g h t and R e l i g i o u s T y p o l o g y . J e r s e y : Rutgers U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1970.  New  C a r s e , James. J o n a t h a n Edwards & The V i s i b i l i t y Y o r k : C h a r l e s S c r i b n e r ' s Sons, 1967.  New  of God.  F i s h , Stanley E. S e l f - C o n s u m i n g A r t i f a c t s : The E x p e r i e n c e o f Seventeenth-Century L i t e r a t u r e . B e r k e l e y : U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s , 1972. Gaustad, Edwin S c o t t . The G r e a t A w a k e n i n g i n New E n g l a n d . C h i c a g o : Quadrangle Books, 1968. G i f f o r d , W i l l i a m . "Time and P l a c e i n D o n n e ' s 82, N o . 5 ( O c t . ' 6 7 ) , 388-398.  Sermons".  2nd ed,  PMLA.  Gleason, John B . " D r . Donne i n t h e C o u r t s o f K i n g s : A G l i m p s e f r o m M a r g i n a l i a " . J E G P , 69 ( O c t . ' 7 0 ) , 5 9 9 - 6 1 2 . H o l m a n , C . H u g h . A Handbook t o L i t e r a t u r e . B a s e d on t h e o r i g i n a l by W . F . T h r a l l . Rev. ed. New Y o r k : B o b b s - M e r r i l l Company, I n c . , 1 9 7 2 . John Donne: S e l e c t e d P r o s e . C h o s e n by E v e l y n S i m p s o n . E d . H e l e n G a r d n e r and T i m o t h y H e a l y . O x f o r d : The C l a r e n d o n P r e s s , 1967. Jonathan Edwards: B a s i c W r i t i n g s . E d . O l a E l i z a b e t h Winslow. T o r o n t o : S i g n e t C l a s s i c s — N e w A m e r i c a n L i b r a r y , I n c . , 1966. Jonathan Edwards: R e p r e s e n t a t i v e F a u s t and Thomas H . J o h n s o n . Wang, 1 9 6 2 . K o l o d n y , A n n e t t e . "Imagery EAL (1971 ) , 1 7 2 - 1 8 2 .  i n the  Lynen, John F . The D e s i g n o f t h e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1969.  Selections. Ed. Clarence H. Rev. ed. New Y o r k : H i l l and Sermons o f J o n a t h a n Present.  Edwards".  New H a v e n : Y a l e  Mann, L i n d s a y . "The M a r r i a g e A n a l o g u e o f L e t t e r and S p i r i t D o n n e ' s D e v o t i o n a l P r o s e " . JEGP* 70 ( 1 9 7 1 ) , 6 0 7 - 6 1 6 Miller, Perry. E r r a n d I n t o the W i l d e r n e s s . and Row, 1956~i Quinn, Dennis B . 276-297.  New Y o r k :  "Donne's C h r i s t i a n Eloquence".  in  Harper  E L H , 27  (1960),  130.  Simpson, E v e l y n M . A Study o f t h e P r o s e Works o f J o h n Donne. 2nd e d . , 1 9 4 8 ; r p t . O x f o r d : C l a r e n d o n P r e s s , 1 9 6 9 . Schlelner, Winfried. The I m a g e r y o f J o h n D o n n e ' s P r o v i d e n c e : Brown U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 7 0 .  Sermons.  The C o m p l e t e P o e t r y o f J o h n D o n n e . E d . John T. Shawcross. Y o r k : D o u b l e d a y & Company, I n c . — A n c h o r B o o k s , 1 9 6 7 .  New  The Sermons o f J o h n D o n n e . E d . E v e l y n M . S i m p s o n and G e o r g e R . Potter. 10 v o l s . Berkeley: University of California Press, 1956-62. The Works o f P r e s i d e n t E d w a r d s , i n E i g h t V o l u m e s . E d . E . W i l l i a m s and E . P a r s o n s . L o n d o n : p r i n t e d f o r James B l a c k and S o n , 1817. Webber, J o a n . C o n t r a r y M u s i c : The P r o s e S t y l e o f J o h n Donne Madison: U n i v e r s i t y o f W i s c o n s i n P r e s s , 1963.  

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