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An analysis of Canadian legislation on television advertising directed at children Yeung, Rosanna Che-Yuen 1974

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AN ANALYSIS UF CANADIAN ON TELEVISION ADVERTISING  LEGISLATION  DIRECTED AT CHILDREN  by  ROSANNA CHE - YUEN YEUNG B.B.A.  U n i v e r s i t y of Oregon, 1972  A THESIS SUBMITTED  IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF  THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF PASTES OF SCIENCE {BUSINESS  in  ADMINISTRATION)  the Department of COMMERCE  We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the required  standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA April-  1974  In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s  in p a r t i a l  f u l f i l m e n t o f the requirements f n r  an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , the L i b r a r y  s h a l l make i t f r e e l y  I agree  that  a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y .  I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e  copying o f t h i s  thesis  f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head o f my Department nr by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s .  It  i s understood that copying o r p u b l i c a t i o n  of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be a l l o w e d without my written  permission.  Department o f  Cj/Vfi/fKCg  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada  Date  ^Pfi/C  a.Sr/j J?r#  1  _________  The  topic  of  this  thesis  is  an  analysis  of  Canadian  l e g i s l a t i o n on t e l e v i s i o n a d v e r t i s i n g d i r e c t e d at c h i l d r e n . purpose  is  to  present  l e g i s l a t i o n and the  an  to d i s c u s s  advertising  in-depth  analysis  the r e l e v a n c e and  industry,  of the  effects i t  the b r o a d c a s t i n g i n d u s t r y  The  present has  and  on  society  as a whole. This t h e s i s i s d i v i d e d concerned studies  with done  sociology  a in  on  the  into  literature the  apparent lack of research  parts.  research  fields  effects  three  of  of  of the  education,  television  data  The  on  the  on  major  children.  The  effects  of  the  studied  variables  interdependence of t e l e v i s i o n and  empirical and  i t i s believed  of  television t h a t due  and  the  advertising, i t i s possible  from the evidence on e f f e c t s of t e l e v i s i o n on c h i l d r e n  the  effects  inference  forms the  analysis  is  legislation  television  to  a  specifically children,  The  second  on  children.  material part  is  upon a  c o n t r o l l i n g a d v e r t i s i n g i n g e n e r a l and  adequate i n p r o v i d i n g devoted  advertising  major background  made.  the  protection  discussion with  the  Consumer  of  to c h i l d r e n . the  control  two of  Protection  Broadcast Code f o r A d v e r t i s i n g  to  close  infer  of  is  psychology  a d v e r t i s i n g on c h i l d r e n i s a l o s s but similarities  first  The  which  discussion  Act  to C h i l d r e n ,  of  to The the of  whether i t i s t h i r d part i s  provisions  advertising  to  that directed  Quebec  and  to a s c e r t a i n  deal at the  whether  these  are  successful  in  granting  c h i l d r e n from o b j e c t i o n a b l e been done adequately and It  is  found  imitative,  and  and  of  people  whether  this  that  they can  they  are  to has  highly  i d e n t i f y with; that  and  are  most  willing  what they l e a r n ; that they are g u l l i b l e  they do not  are  protection  devote more time to watching  activity;  i n t e r a c t the same way  as with t h e i r p a r e n t s , i n d i c a t i n g opinions  and  about almost e v e r y t h i n g  ready to t r y out  credulous  children  other  especially  they are c u r i o u s  advertising  desired  relevantly.  that  t e l e v i s i o n than to any  the  important  that  deciding  with t e l e v i s i o n  parental  factors  and  in  guidance their  and  behavior  patterns. While a d u l t s are legislation  usually defensive  controlling advertising  tendency to expect and advertisers, and  defensive  instinct  advertising  cognitive and  development  their  directed  higher than those used i n There i s no of  regulation  a l s o takes i n t o account  to  acguire  simple mindedness and The  standards  at c h i l d r e n are  our from  this  credulity  of  regulation  therefore  necessarily  general.  doubt t h a t o b j e c t i v e are  and  i n g e n e r a l l a c k the commercial knowledge  make them 'preys' to a d v e r t i s e r s . of  advertising  condone a c e r t a i n degree of p u f f e r y  children  s o p h i s t i c a t i o n of  about  necessary.  legislation  to  police  advertising  is  dangerous.  and  verifiable  However, the  opinions What  and we  standards  tendency of  values  present  presented  in  need i n t h i s s o c i e t y i s a  Hi  balanced reflector ma nne r.  p r e s e n t a t i o n of everything and of s o c i e t y ' s values, should  advertisement. reflect a l l in a  being  a  truthful  TABLE OF CONTENTS  I introduction Chapter 1 - Summary of Research S t u d i e s Chapter 2 - Summary of L e g i s l a t i o n  .....pp.1 ....... pp.6 ....pp.28  Chapter 3 - A n a l y s i s of L e g i s l a t i o n Misleading Advertising  ...pp.69  Chapter 4 - A n a l y s i s of L e g i s l a t i o n S a f e t y and Product A c c e p t a b i l i t y  ......pp.76  Chapter.5 A n a l y s i s of L e g i s l a t i o n Socialization Chapter 6 - Conclusion Footnotes Selected  .....pp.93 .pp.91 pp. 107  Bibliography  Appendices  ...pp.116 .....pp.125  1  INTRODUCTION Historians t e l l changed  over  the  been u n s u c c e s s f u l brought doubt  last quarter in  about these of  the  us t h a t man a n d w i t h  dramatic  came  into  determine  society  effects  of  exactly  the  McLuhan  o f man t o o k a m a j o r s t e p  what  the  has  little  advent  of  that  the  claimed  when  has  R e s e a r c h e r s have  However, t h e r e seems t o be  Marshall  existence.  the  of a century.  to  changes.  telecommunication. civilization  trying  him  printing  press  A f t e r t h e Gutenberg R e v o l u t i o n , and w i t h  t h e d o m i n a n c e o f e l e c t r o n i c m e d i a i n s o c i e t y , an e q u a l l y f a r reaching  revolution  industrialization transcending importance.  i s  bring  those  of  now to  taking a  pure  place.  society  unfathomable  materialistic  The D i r e c t o r - G e n e r a l  of  Technology  the  and  I.I.C.  and  changes  superficial has  pointed  out :  S u c c e s s f u l i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n ..... i m p l i e s a social r e v o l u t i o n . To s e t up i n d u s t r y and introduce new t e c h n o l o g y i s not only a m a t t e r o f a c q u i r i n g c a p i t a l and a k n o l w l e d g e of techniques. Modern i n d u s t r y c a l l s i n t o b e i n g i t s own kind o f s o c i e t y .... It (technology) f u n c t i o n s a t a d i f f e r e n t pace , and makes p e o p l e o r g a n i z e t h e i r l i v e s i n a d i f f e r e n t way ; i t c h a l l e n g e s o l d v a l u e s , it creates new values. This social transformation which must accompany industrialization a f f e c t s i n d e e d , a man's whole v i e w o f m e a n i n g a n d p u r p o s e of life and o f h i s r e l a t i o n s t o h i s f e l l o w man. 1  Before pictures  ,  r a d i o and t e l e v i s i o n most  , before  p h o t o g r a p h y and m o t i o n  o f t h e c o n c e p t s o f i n d i v i d u a l s were s h a p e d by  2  visual  and  evironment. heard  aural We  2  perception saw  what  and  our  touch  eyes saw  , sensed what our bodies touched.  reality  d e r i v e d d i r e c t l y from h i s  Today , we s t i l l  directly  Then , man's concept of  environment.  maintain our autonomy over a l l our senses.  pass through facades and f i l t e r s . bring  rooms  an  seemingly  I t i s edited.  to each of us comfortably couched  expanded no  environment  of  It The  i n our own  classroom  in  a  Liberal  spends  in  is  or the events within i t  to man's p e r c e p t i o n .  student  to  living  There  3  Today an average c h i l d spends more time watching than an average  has  electronic  reproduction.  l i m i t t o t h i s environment  which can be conveyed  the  , heard what our e a r s  But r e a l i t y no longer reaches our senses d i r e c t l y .  media  from  four  full  television  years  in  his  a r t s C o l l e g e . * T e l e v i s i o n i s the most  p e n e t r a t i n g medium that reaches the c h i l d .  We  do  not  really  know what i t i s doing to him. Today  a  seven  year o l d p o i n t s to h i s luncheon  companions  and taunts : "You are e a t i n g chemicals A f o u r t h - grader c e l e b r a t e d "In  1985  the  day  got o l d e r .  The people were dying , l i t t l e death.  One  Whether or  Earth Day  1970  by  writing  The sun got darker and was o l d . by  little.  day I coughed and coughed.  I  was  Then I d i e d . "  scared  , f o r t h a t matter ) one  to  5  these remarks are t y p i c a l of the American  not , (or the Canadian  :  children  i s a p p a l l e d by  3  the c y n i c i s m placed  in  , the s k e p t i c i s m the f u t u r e and  , the  the  fear  every f o r m e r l y  The  functions  no  longer  growing c h i l d .  and  wisdom envisioned  c h i l d r e n are q u e s t i o n i n g family  ,  as  Whatever i s missing  There i s j u s t not enough i n our  stable  the  distrust  i n them. area  the value  of  center  The  life. for  the  , i s gone , perhaps f o r e v e r .  modern  urban  society  to  back t o the c h i l d what i s l o s t - a world i n which he can a child.  These  give  grow as  television i s his 'third parent .  The  environment  i n which he l i v e s i s that which the broadcasters  and  advertisers  1  o f f e r to him.  The  h i s emotions and television  world to which he adapts , the  h i s b r a i n are l a r g e l y shaped i s the world which  selects  and  brings  s o c i e t y such as ours , we adults the and  'they  world i n which  are  to him. concerned  In a c h i l d -  centered  about  kind  ' are making our c h i l d r e n to be.  what  We  are alarmed at  e a r l y exposure of our c h i l d r e n to most of our weaknesses as p o r t r a y e d  demand  on  the  irresponsible children.  legislators  influence  The  analysis  Regulations  which  of  of our the  relating  presented i n t h i s paper. administration  of the  medium. this  We  v i c e s , whims make  country  to  advertisers  have  constant curb  the  on  our  r e s u l t i s a trend towards s t r i n g e n t c o n t r o l over  t h i s p a r t i c u l a r aspect An  by the  of  of  t e c h n o l o g i c a l world . present  to  advertising  The  the law  Canadian to  children  emphasis i s not on  , but on  ho.__f  go i n the c o n t r o l l i n g of such a d v e r t i s i n g  Statutes  ar _th§  and  will  be  the meaning  or  lggislatigncan  4  Results  of research  s t u d i e s on the e f f e c t s of t e l e v i s i o n on  c h i l d r e n over the decades undoubtedly lead t o the most  of  the  present  enactment  of  l e g i s l a t i v e p r o v i s i o n s i n t h i s area.  An  a n a l y s i s of the l e g i s l a t i o n concerning a d v e r t i s i n g children  will  not  empirical  studies.  be  The f i r s t  devoted t o an i n v e n t o r y 1953  to 1973.  complete  without  part of t h i s  and c h i l d r e n  of e m p i r i c a l  on c h i l d r e n . variables  paper  studied  , most of the  concerned wtih t e l e v i s i o n and c h i l d r e n . lack  glance  of most o f t h e s t u d i e s  Although the s t a t u t e s  with a d v e r t i s i n g  a  directed at  is  done i n the years i n t h i s paper  studies  cited  deal are  T h i s i s a r e s u l t of the  data on the e f f e c t s of t e l e v i s i o n a d v e r t i s i n g  However  studied  on  these  therefore  ,  and  the  the  similarities  of  interdependence  the  essential  of t e l e v i s i o n and  a d v e r t i s i n g enable one t o make some i n t e l l i g e n t i n f e r e n c e s studies  at  effects  of  television  on  from  c h i l d r e n to e f f e c t s of  a d v e r t i s i n g on c h i l d r e n . The of  the  second p a r t of t h i s paper w i l l be devoted to  a  survey  present l e g i s l a t i o n aimed a t c o n t r o l l i n g a d v e r t i s i n g i n  general.  As there i s a trend  concerning  advertising  towards  directed  at  a  separate  children  ,  legislation i t would be  h e l p f u l t o analyse whether t h e present l e g i s l a t i o n i n g e n e r a l i s adequate i n p r o v i d i n g The  t h i r d part  protection  to children.  of t h i s paper w i l l be devoted to an a n a l y s i s  of t h e present l e g i s l a t i o n  which  advertising  s p e c i f i c a l l y and a d i s c u s s i o n  for children  i s directed  at  controlling of how  5  these p r o v i s i o n s  t r y t o d e a l with i s s u e s not amply d e a l t with by  other s t a t u t e s  .  the  legislative  Canadian  & final  chapter of t h i s paper.  word on the a l t e r n a t i v e s a v a i l a b l e bodies  will  be  made  to  i n the f i n a l  6  _________ When t e l e v i s i o n f i r s t came i n t o fifties  ,  researchers  ,  most  of  prominence  in  them  the  from  the  early  field  of  education, were concerned about the e f f e c t s of t e l e v i s i o n on the p h y s i c a l well being of the c h i l d .  There  were  studies  e f f e c t s on e y e s i g h t , p a s s i v i t y of the c h i l d , the way his  on he  the  spends  l e i s u r e time, h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p with h i s f a m i l y and h i s peer-  group,  the  effects  on  his  school  work  and  so  on.  Later  r e s e a r c h e r s are more i n t e r e s t e d i n the e f f e c t s of t e l e v i s i o n the  c h i l d ' s out - look on l i f e ,  on h i s i n t e l l e c t u r a 1 comprehensive  and  and  on h i s s o c i a l and moral v a l u e s ,  personality  extensive  development.  The  most  s t u d i e s were made by Himmelweit ,  Oppenheim and Pamela Vince (1958) ; and that of Schramm , S  Parker  (1961).  Other  1  on  minor  studies  and  essays  Edwin mostly  emphasize s p e c i f i c i s s u e s brought t o l i g h t by these two  studies.  In  the  t h i s chapter , a summary of the  decades from  1950  to 1973  research  done  in  two  w i l l be presented .  EII_ICAL_E_F_CTS__F_TEL__ISI__ Host  studies  do  watching causes eye conditions  and  not  confirm  strain  if  guidance.  sleeping  time  television.  4  is  about  children  view  There i s l i t t l e  2  l o s s of s l e e p or energy as  the idea that t e l e v i s i o n -  a  result 15  of  minutes  under  proper  evidence of s e r i o u s  television. later  in  3  Average  homes  with  7  When c h i l d r e n phenomenal the  most  amount extensive  different  have t e l e v i s i o n a v a i l a b l e of  use of i t .  , they  do  measurements  of  viewing  by  children  By  the  of  front  of  the  television  time spent s l o w l y i n c r e a s e s and a r r i v e s  set.  viewing  tends  except  the  in  both  children. other  They most o f t e n have t o choose between t e l e v i s i o n  and  of  activities.  The  activities  most  are those which s a t i s f y the same needs as  on  comic  books  reading and r a d i o - l i s t e n i n g .  needs than t e l e v i s i o n .  readily  television,  For example, c h i l d r e n  f i c t i o n reading are h a r d l y l e s s because  findings  Western  of  l e s s time on cinema-going,  different  and  6  viewing o b v i o u s l y dominates  but probably l e s s e f f e c t i v e l y .  fiction  England  will  reading,  is  consequent  But newspaper and non they  tend  According to Dr.  reduction  spend  magazine-  to  satisfy  Himmelweit's  :  There  s  the l e i s u r e time  forms  sacrificed  day.  time spent on the whole i s probably l e s s  when compared with the United S t a t e s . Television  a  to d i m i n i s h i n high - school y e a r s .  The p a t t e r n i s somewhat s i m i l a r ,  The  at a peak at  twelve , when the time spent i s about t h r e e hours  Television  1.  television  time he i s f i v e or s i x , he w i l l be spending  about two hours a day i n  Europe  of  ages have been made , i t i s estimated that a c h i l d of  viewing.  about  a  In the United S t a t e s , where  t h r e e i s already averaging about 45 minutes a day on  amount  make  of l e i s u r e  itself  as  8  c h i l d r e n ' s l i v e s become more crowded. 2.  When  there  is  activities  television,  will  be  d i f f e r e n t ones w i l l 3.  functionally  replaced,  where  similar  functionally  not.  C e r t a i n a c t i v i t i e s w i l l be  transformed  in  function,  (eg. from drama to popular music l i s t e n i n g on radio) 4.  Marginal  or  unorganized  .  a c t i v i t i e s w i l l be r e p l a c e d  before p u r p o s e f u l or organized  ones.  8  G E _ E R _ L _ 0  Japanese c h i l d r e n spend about homework  when  they  have  14  minutes  television  less  cn  a t home ; while Canadian  c h i l d r e n spend a l s o l e s s time , the d i f f e r e n c e betweeen and non - viewers i s not Children viewing other  can  undoubtedly  takes time and sources  significiant. learn  from  television spent  as  general  r e a l l y young proves  to  knowledge  (who be  may  an  is  on  concerned  nor a  , except  For these c h i l d r e n  these  and  visual  form.  suggest help  as  , television being  in  However , most of the l e a r n i n g i n  years i s i n c i d e n t a l increment  sends the b r i g h t and  or  television  p r o v i d e s i n f o r m a t i o n i n the form most s u i t e d to them, dramatic  but  t h a t f o r the  not be able to read as yet ) ,  advantage.  ,  books  Most of the r e s e a r c h e r s  t h a t t e l e v i s i o n proves to be n e i t h e r a hindrance far  viewers  9  some of i t might be  of i n f o r m a t i o n .  their  from f a n t a s y programmes.  th v o c a b u l a r i e s one  It  grade higher than non l  9  viewers.  With more years of viewing to t h e i r c r e d i t  repetitiveness  and  that  1  group  are  on  gratomer  to lead  school  the whole l e s s knowledgeable than the c o n t r o l  (those without  viewing  due  the low i n t e l l e c t u a l v a l u e , any i n i t i a l  soon d i s a p p e a r s . o Schramm e t a l d i d f i n d children  ,  television  at  home)  because  television  takes them away from other sources of i n f o r m a t i o n , such  as r a d i o and  newspapers.  For c h i l d r e n impairment  in  with t e l e v i s i o n at home , there seems t o be  school  work.  Coffin  did  find  that  no  greater  p a r e n t a l c o n t r o l and s h o r t e r viewing time tend to be found among children  with  higher  between viewers and  a.  IQ.  1 1  There i s no s i g n i f i c a n t  difference  non-viewers i n :  C h i l d r e n ' s s u b j e c t i v e assessments  of t i r e d n e s s i n  the  morning ; b.  Ratings  by  class  teachers  of  each  child's  concentration ; c.  C h i l d r e n ' s i n t e r e s t i n s c h o o l or school s o c i e t i e s ;  d.  Frequency  with  which  they  took  part  in  extra  curricular activities ; e.  Attitude teachers.  to  school  school  work  as  judged  by  1 2  C h i l d r e n may  be more knowledgeable on some g e n e r a l t o p i c s ,  such as entertainment and Since  and  popular music , than  non  -  viewers.  viewing takes them away from other sources of i n f o r m a t i o n  10 generally  , t h e i r i n f o r m a t i o n i n p u t may be unbalanced.  t h a t viewers performance  are  not  necessarily  inferior  in  television  being  constantly  encouragement i n c e n t i v e or means o f punishment. to  their  school  , even though viewing takes up much of t h e i r time ,  may be e x p l a i n e d by  told  The f a c t  finish  their  t e l e v i s i o n a t home.  school  work  before  used  as  an  C h i l d r e n may be switching  on the  I t can be s a i d t h a t • t e l e v i s i o n c h i l d r e n '  are q u i t e w e l l adapted  to the dilemma of t e l e v i s i o n viewing  and  the pressure f o r s a t i s f a c t o r y s c h o o l work performance.  C h i l d r e n , once they s t a r t viewing, c e r t a i n l y read l e s s before.  By  how much depends on the type of c h i l d and how long  he has been viewing. gradually  revert  But as c h i l d r e n get used to  ,  share o f stimulates of books. that  he  and  viewing  they  back t o books , so t h a t a f t e r a few years the  viewers are once again r e a d i n g viewers  than  the  reading.*  3  duller Schramm  as  many  books  as  the  non  c h i l d r e n have even i n c r e a s e d t h e i r et  al  suggest  i n t e r e s t i n reading through  that  television  i t s s e r i a l dramatisation  I t a l s o rouses the c h i l d ' s i n t e r e s t and c u r i o s i t y becomes  interested  in  a  wider  so  range of books than  before. From the r e s e a r c h r e s u l t s television  has  a  'novelty'  , i t would seem to impact  on  suggest  children.  s u b s i d e s , any 'abnormality' w i l l begin to d i s a p p e a r .  that  But as i t It  leads  11  one  to  guestion  whether the e f f e c t s o f t e l e v i s i o n on c h i l d r e n  are l o n g - term  ; whether any  singularity  ,  without  child  be viewed  cannot  himself  effect  can  be  studied  in i t s  regard t o other v a r i a b l e s a t a l l . as  static  ;  he  is  developing  The  within  and i t i s hardly f a i r to study the e f f e c t of t e l e v i s i o n  on him without g i v i n g c r e d i t to the  internal  development  that  goes on w i t h i n him .  Television  does  keep  members  But i t does not bind the f a m i l y sense.  Many  researchers  of a f a m i l y at home more .  any  suggest  more that  than  this  mothers  physical  tend  t e l e v i s i o n as a baby - s i t t e r f o r t h e i r young c h i l d r e n . have o f t e n expressed be l e f t t o t h e i r easier. child  1 4  Mothers  the i d e a that with t e l e v i s i o n , c h i l d r e n can  own  viewing  and  thereby  making  child-care  A l s o i t i s expressed t h a t t e l e v i s i o n viewing keeps the  more at home and l e s s i n c l i n e d t o t r o u b l e - making o u t s i d e  the house.  I t i s a l s o suggested  that t e l e v i s i o n  peer - group a c t i v i t i e s to a c e r t a i n  What thing deeper up  to use  is  the  appeal  extent.  viewing  1 5  o f t e l e v i s i o n to c h i l d r e n ?  , i t i s convenient and easy  to use.  reduces  when  For one  researchers  go  i n t o the p s y c h o l o g i c a l reasons behind i t , i t always ends  something  very  similar  to  the  reasons  f o r going to the  12  cinema: the d e s i r e to escape from everyday to  l i f e and  the  desire  get to know r e a l l i f e b e t t e r . Himmelweit e t _ a l conclude : "It  gives  the scenes the  the  chance to be i n the know .... t o go behind  ... l e a r n i n g about  emotional  side  ,  the world and  television  about  .....offers  people.  On  security  and  reassurance through  the f a m i l i a r format and themes  its  notably the f a m i l y s e r i a l s and the  It  programmes offers  provides  ,  constant escape  change  from  glamour , and romance  ,  excitement  the  h i m s e l f with d i f f e r e n t romantic heroes  ".»*  e t_al  many  of  Westerns.  suspense.  It  everyday demands with l i g h t h e a r t e d n e s s , permits  Schramm  and  of  ,  and  also  conclude  that  child  there  to  identify  are  two  main  reasons: "First entertained thrill  , the obvious reason : the p a s s i v e p l e a s u r e of being , l i v i n g a fantasy  ,  taking  part  vicariously  in  play , i d e n t i f y i n g with e x c i t i n g and a t t r a c t i v e people ,  g e t t i n g away from r e a l l i f e problems and escaping  from  real  l i f e boredom - i n o t h e r words , a l l the g r a t i f i c a t i o n t h a t comes from  having  home  ,  at  significant  a  s u p e r l a t i v e means of entertainment i n one's  one's  command  component  ...But  there  nevertheless  a  of i n f o r m a t i o n which c h i l d r e n a l s o get ,  u s u a l l y without seeking , from t e l e v i s i o n that  is  own  they l e a r n something  about how  The  girls  t o wear t h e i r h a i r , how  say to  13  walk and speak , how a plump g i r l  ,  television.  by  t o choose garments f o r a t a l l or a s h o r t or observing  They  learn  the  some  ....Some of the boys say they C a l i f o n i a or New happens".  well  details learn  how  groomed  creatures  of manners and young  men  customs  dress  in  York,.... i t i s more r e a l when you see where i t  17  Schramm  ______  also  suggest  viewing among the young teens . Teenagers  use  it  another  reason f o r t e l e v i s i o n  I t provides a  social  Maccoby ultimately  suggests with  utility.  o f t e n as a means to get together and i t a l s o  p r o v i d e s a common ground f o r d i s c u s s i o n and shared that  the  television  viewer's  programme i n t e r e s t i n g chord  on  viewing  personality.  , i t i s because i t  experiences . is  If  linked  he f i n d s  strikes  a  one  responsive  w i t h i n him - s a t i s f i e s a p a r t i c u l a r need , s u p p l i e s wanted  iinformation In  , or perhaps o f f e r s r e l e a s e from  summary,  it  would  general t e n s i o n .  1 8  seem t h a t most r e s e a r c h e r s suggest  t h a t c h i l d r e n view t e l e v i s i o n as  a  vehicle  to  their  fantasy  l a n d , to escape from r e a l i t y , to be e n t e r t a i n e d , to get c e r t a i n information  ,  younger c h i l d r e n  and  to  be s a t i s f i e d  i n c e r t a i n needs.  ( pre - s c h o o l , f o r example ) the  For the  reason  for  t e l e v i s i o n viewing i s simply because i t i s there .  ________£___I___2_______2 Undoubtedly  most r e s e a r c h e r s are i n t e r e s t e d i n the content  11  of  programmes  researchers  most  often  analysed  watched  the  by  content  programmmes o r i g i n a t i n g i n b o t h J a p a n were  the  favorites  of  Japanese  and  self  employed c r u e l t y  -  were s e l d o m bad,  and  in  the  to  and  television problems  to  States  I t was  found  stress  while  Socially  , diligence  and  desirable  I n t h e s e s h o w s , good i n v a r i a b l y  overcame  , v i o l e n c e was  l  b e f o r e 0.  Juvenile  S.  S e n a t e Sub  Delinquency ,  that  almost  in three  -  Committee  more out  He  f o u n d an e m p h a s i s  more t h a n 200  found  network  five  verbal,  programmes  on  in  that crime - aggression index f o r programmes  p r o f e s s i o n a l c r i m i n a l s i n t h e s e shows.  C h a r a c t e r s a l s o o v e r - r e p r e s e n t e d t h e m i d d l e and  upper  class  of  analysis  of  2 1  Himmelweit  et_a1  performed  programming a v a i l a b l e t o B r i t i s h mostly  of  200  21  c h i l d r e n ' s p l a y s were h i g h e r t h a n any o t h e r t y p e s o f  society.  than  means. '  Head a l s o i n v e s t i g a t e d  and  the  justice. '  mechanical  50»s.  ,  usually  p r e s e n t e d were s o l v e d by v i o l e n t t a c t i c s , w i t h  early  that  justice  the v i l l a i n  violence.  which  manners  programmes he s t u d i e d  p h y s i c a l and  the  United  good  testified  Investigate  television  m a j o r i t y of c a s e s s t u d i e d  means t o a c c o m p l i s h Greenberg  ,  , s e l f i s h n e s s and  portrayed.  seventy  children.  confidence  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s such as f a i r n e s s  Japanese  of  a g g r e s s i v e - h e r o t y p e programmes t e n d e d courage  children.  consisted  of  a  content  children.  plays , particularly  He  found  Westerns  that  i t  , crime  and  15  adventure. with  In a typical  some a s p e c t o f l a w - b r e a k i n g  t h e p r e - 9pm. for adults . the  period  The v a l u e s  be  to look  a  great  were shown w h i c h  depicted Despite  of  obviously  moments o f t e n s i o n , v i o l e n c e However  ,  there  v a r i a t i o n i n preference.  c h i l d r e n o f t h e same age , s e x and i n t e l l i g e n c e considerable  d i f f e r e n c e i n the choice  ,  mainly  upper  one i n t e n c h a r a c t e r s typically  were p o r t r a y e d  respects.  as 'crude  1  found  that  of f a v o r i t e programmes.  In summarizing  l e s s than  a s w o r k i n g c l a s s and t h e s e  and  'negative'  in  that  that  over  juvenile  both  television  programmes.  -  are  mostly  represented  prefer  c h i l d r e n seldom f i n d they  tend  This 2 4  adult  here ,  p r o g r a m m i n g and t h e programmes  upper  ; seldom emphasize s o c i a l l y  children  Instead  various  t h e s e f i n d i n g s and t h o s e n o t r e p o r t e d  p r e f e r r e d by c h i l d r e n  society  2 2  programmes  t e n d e n c y was more p r o n o u n c e d f o r w o r k i n g c l a s s c h i l d r e n .  portray  a  most 8 t o 15 y e a r - o l d c h i l d r e n , i n a  s a m p l e o f 1500, p r e f e r r e d a d u l t t o  seems  i s  2 3  Abram  it  seems  there  and m i d d l e c l a s s c h a r a c t e r s .  were c l a s s i f i e d  was  E v e n among  G e n t i l e e t _ a l found t h a t prime - time t e l e v i s i o n featured  designed  were s i m i l a r t o t h o s e c i t e d i n  r e m o t e , t o be a game. deal  dealt  , most o f them were shown i n  e v e n t h o u g h t h e y were  Japanese s t u d i e s .  disguised to  week , 18 p l a y s  violence  -  orientated  and  and m i d d l e c l a s s v a l u e s i n desirable  values  t o j u v e n i l e shows.  programmes d i r e c t e d  at  to look f o r s a t i s f a c t i o n  them  and  I t seems  also that  stimulating.  i n adult  programmes  16  which are not geared f o r a c h i l d audience  .  However, the q u e s t i o n whether ' c h i l d r e n see what they or ' l i k e what they cannot  see'  has  been  come to any c o n c l u s i o n .  raised.  ,  children  viewing some  were  England  at  that  they  did  not  expect  to  find  very  They o f t e n chose to see that programme and became  interested in i t .  With more v a r i e t y c f programmes , they  to view those they found that  in  faced with the c h o i c e of not viewing or  programmes  interesting.  researchers  In the Himmelweit e t a l study ,  when there was only one channel a v a i l a b l e time  Most  like'  previously  interesting.  This  c h i l d r e n ' s p r e f e r e n c e i s narrow and c o n d i t i o n e d by  tended shows earlier  experience .  DOES T E L E V I S I O N _ , M A K E CHILDREH PRSSIVE_? The term  'passivity*  to d i f f e r e n t people. 1.  The  assertion  i s vague and i t means a l o t of  Schramm e t _ a l claimed t h a t : that  c h i l d r e n absorb  television  l i k e a sponge i s proved to be untenable. 2.  There  i s no evidence of the view that  viewing  leads  children  to  v e r s i o n of l i f e t o the r e a l However,  Greenberg  e i g h t h graders b e l i e v e d episodes  to  be  prefer  television an  edited  thing.  found certain  'realistic*.  that  fifth  film  violence  Lower  c h i l d r e n are more i n c l i n e d t o t h i n k t h i s  and  class way.  25  things  LeScicito  also  see d r a m a t i c realistic Lyle,  claimed  television  portrayals  Hoffman e t _ a l  study.  2  to  and  who  tend  may  not  be  and  do  age  but  a  is  6  a t a young  screen.  Experience  to  between  2  et_al  real  the  in  world  8  assert  loss  that  television  of i n i t i a t i v e  and  heavy  viewers  turn having  away  cutting  that  However, b r i g h t e r  supposedly  sort  child's  'make - b e l i e v e '  forms of a c t i v i t i e s .  then  the life  some  the  by  t e n d t o be  on  A unstable environment i s factor  believe  they  what i s  shown  t o h e l p them t o d e v e l o p  be  fully,  age,  with  of  children  yet developed  as  that  not  f o r younger  fantasy  determining  to  that  make room f o r v i e w i n g  and  2  their  version  would  able to d i f f e r e n t i a t e  tele vision.  leads  is.  to suggest  i t  i s not  a d i s c o u n t system.  Schramm  generally  the opposite i n  the e d i t e d  to fantasize  tend  tendency of  viewers  world a s i t  evidence  prefer  to assert  what  television  also  the  found  whose m e n t a l a b i l i t y  of  of  reality,  unreasonable  and  programmes as  t h e r e i s no  young c h i l d r e n  real  most young  7  Maybe  life  that  until to  down  greater  children on  t h e age other  viewing  other  children of  eleven  activities, intellectual  18  challenge. 4.  T e l e v i s i o n viewing  tends to s t i m u l a t e c h i l d r e n ' s  i n t e r e s t i n a wider range of s u b j e c t s . 5.  Finally  ,  there  between viewers  seems  to  be  no  and non-viewers i n  difference their  being  rated as 'unusually* or 'moderately' i m a g i n a t i v e or 'unimaginative' In  summary  that t e l e v i s i o n meanings  of  by t h e i r  teachers.  , there i s no g r e a t evidence viewing  the  word  makes a c h i l d usually  passive  explored.  i m a g i n a t i o n i s d u l l e d or not , whether he not  ,  whether  he  t e l e v i s i o n viewing It  i s important  i s inclined  f o r the a s s e r t i o n  to  in  a l l of the  whether lacks  fantasize  i s not the s o l e determining  a child's  initiative  a l o t or not ,  factor  involved.  t o take i n t o account each o t h e r ' s own i n t e r n a l  development , h i s p e r s o n a l i t y and the environment around him the determining  or  in  o f the e f f e c t s of t e l e v i s i o n on h i s w e l l b e i n g .  we have seen t h a t t e l e v i s i o n o f f e r s a great o p p o r t u n i t y f o r coming  into  contact  with  a broad  spectrum of experience.  have a l s o seen t h a t one of the reasons  c h i l d r e n watch  i s to o b t a i n • i n f o r m a t i o n ' about l i f e  ,  the  s t y l e of l i v i n g  .  to the dramatic  i n f l u e n c e i t has on c h i l d r e n i n t h e i r  years.  For  the  Undoubtedly , t e l e v i s i o n ' s  world  two  and  a  half  We  television and  * proximity  the  • adds  developing  decades s i n c e i t came i n t o  19  prominence , i t has gained socialization  agent  the  importance  of  being  a  major  of the c h i l d , i n a d d i t i o n t o the f a m i l y ,  the s c h o o l , the church , the peer - group and the community large.  Its  p r o x i m i t y probably makes i t as equal , i f not more  important , as the f a m i l y and the s c h o o l , as an child»s  at  process  of s o c i a l i z a t i o n .  Do young viewers tend t o  different  from  of  non  i n the  Does r e s e a r c h evidence bear  t h i s out?  those  agent  -  have  values  viewers?  substantially  Since  the  life  television  programmes are very much unbalanced  in  -  style  and  v a l u e s they p o r t r a y , do t e l e v i s i o n  viewers take on these v a l u e s  more r e a d i l y than non - viewers ? The  answer, a c c o r d i n g to Schramm  e t _ a l i s yes.  a number of i n s t a n c e s where viewers and non-viewers their  outlook  on l i f e .  to s t r e s s  confidence as the most important f a c t o r i n success. these  values  and  portrayed i n t e l e v i s i o n tended  to  as a r e s u l t and  they  outlook  on  life  programmes.  The  note  of exposure to  However,  in  selfthat  are being c o n s t a n t l y young  viewers  maker fewer value judgement about f o r e i g n e r s  tended  television.  differed  The young viewers were more ambitious,  more middle - c l a s s o r i e n t a t e d and more i n c l i n e d  all  They found  also  ( maybe  t o programmes about f o r e i g n c o u n t r i e s think when  of one  foreigners comes  to  as  )  s t e r e o t y p e d by  information  about  s u b j e c t s which they can get from other sources, t e l e v i s i o n  makes  no impact on c h i l d r e n . In  summary  , television  i s most i n f l u e n t i a l i n the process  20  of s o c i a l i z a t i o n available  to  when  no  other  children.  sources  pushing  a  environment  button  ,  information  are  T h i s i s the case because , l i k e i t or  not , t e l e v i s i o n i s e a s i l y a v a i l a b l e . by  of  ,  the  interesting  child  and  By s w i t c h i n g on is  exposed  entertaining  the  to  and  set  another  capable  of  a t t r a c t i n g and absorbing a t t e n t i o n . Halloran  in  Change concluded  his  book  ,  & t t i t u d e _ F o r m a t i o n and_ A t t i t u d e  t h a t the main sources of a t t i t u d e formation  d i r e c t experience with o b j e c t s and implicit  ,  and  learning  from  situations others.  ,  are  explicit  and  The t e l e v i s i o n medium  a f f e c t s the c h i l d ' s s o c i a l i z a t i o n by teaching norms , s t a t u s and p o s i t i o n and with  i n s t i t u t i o n a l functiongs.  models  He  is  also  presented  of behavior and i n f o r m a t i o n beyond the c h i l d ' s  immediate experience.  However, group and  parental influences  the c h i l d ' s p e r s o n a l i t y and h i s s u s c e p t a b i l i t y to persuasion still  important f a c t o r s i n s o c i a l i z a t i o n and  and c h a n g e . relinguish  29  It  is  only  when  the  attitude  family  and  own , are  formation  the  school  t h e i r r o l e s i n the process of s o c i a l i z a t i o n t h a t the  t e l e v i s i o n i s more powerful and probably more responsibility  ,  dangerous. ° 3  The  i n t h i s r e s p e c t , r e v e r t s back to the parents  and not s o l e l y t o the b r o a d c a s t e r s .  1ILIYISI0N_¥I0LENCE  As most content analyses of t e l e v i s i o n programmes p o i n t out the f a c t  that  most  of  the  entertainment  a  child  sees  on  21  television  is  violent  r e s e a r c h e r s to the on the  ,  special  possible  attention  e f f e c t s of these v i o l e n t  o r i g i n a l hypothesis was  that  c o n c l u s i o n of an  suggested by reduce  Maccoby , who  claimed that  f r u s t r a t i o n momentarily , but , children  television  screen  behavior.  who  may  If  T h i s was  31  televised  also  violence  may  at a l a t e r time , when  resort  to  a g g r e s s i o n and  the the  imitate  not  really  bear  such  out  anything , t h e ' o p p o s i t e i s always the  television  The  was  3 2  hypothesis.  behavior.  This  have been exposed to v i o l e n c e on  However, l a t e r experiments do  violence  tends  to  build  up  this  result ,  aggressive  3 3  t y p i c a l method used i n such experiemnts i s to  group  of  children  aggression. recording  Then of  a  so  they drama  that are  in  prominent part .  Similar  frustrated  , are  shown the  of c h i l d r e n  are  either  by  behavior  frustrated  ( control  the  programmes  aggression.  e a r l i e r study by F e s h b a c h .  need a r i s e s  a  by  t e l e v i s i o n v i o l e n c e might  r i d the c h i l d v i c a r i o u s l y of f r u s t r a t e d  that  been paid  child .  The  the  has  group  who  given a  have  shown which  group of  in  develop a  film  a high l e v e l of or  aggressive children  same programme.  chance  or  they  to  show  a test.  a  television  behavior p l a y s a  , who  have not  Then the their  The  frustrate  two  been groups  frustration  children  who  were  ) seem no more a g g r e s s i v e than b e f o r e . been  frustrated  do  not  reduce  , not But  their  22  frustration  :  if  anything  , they have b u i l t i t up.  They have  always found some ways of expressing  it  Such  shown that c h i l d r e n l e t out  experiements  t h e i r aggression generalization prove to be not  may  have  on t a r g e t s as shown on the beyond  the  too broad and  entirely  only  (eg. h i t t i n g  conditions  dangerous.  reassuring  ,  programme  of  it  doll).  and  the experiments  However , such  because  a  result  shows that  any may is  television  v i o l e n c e seldom r e l e a s e s f r u s t r a t i o n as suggested by Feshbach  ,  but tends to encourage i t . These  experiments do suggest t h a t c h i l d r e n tend to i m i t a t e  what i s shown on the t e l e v i s i o n screen. they  imitate  The  unquestionably or s e l e c t i v e l y  seem that the c a p a c i t y to i m i t a t e does not However  ,  aggressive  violence  on  television  question  ,  , arises.  imply  whether I t would  performance  i n c r e a s e s the l i k l i h o o d  of  behavior seems to be i n d i s p u t a b l e .  Studies television  show t h a t violence  the and  relationship aggressive  the c o r r e l a t i o n i s u s u a l l y of low  between  exposure  to  tendency i s p o s i t i v e . but  magnitude  (  ranging  from  a  n u l l r e l a t i o n s h i p as shown i n the study of L e f k o w i t z to a modest range of 0. The  17 to 0. 23 low  exposure and  i n the study of Mcleod ) . * 3  magnitude  aggressive  of  correlation  between  behavior tendency leads one  on the v a r i a b l e s i n v o l v e d other L e f k o w i t z suggests t h a t the  television to  speculate  than that of the medium . tendency to a g g r e s s i v e  behavior  23  after television boys.  v i o l e n c e exposure i s  higher  among  aggressive  Both Greenberg and McLeod c l a i m t h a t the r e l a t i o n s h i p i s  higher among g i r l s and j u n i o r high s c h o o l boys. McLeod a l s o suggests t h a t p a r e n t a l a f f e c t i o n to  aggression  ,  strong negative  and  P a r e n t a l emphasis on non - aggression  b.  S t a b l e f a m i l y communication  more  strong  readily  evidence  the  at  tend  pattern  suggesting  behavior  t e l e v i s i o n whom they can i d e n t i f y they  and exposure and  a.  imitate  unrelated  so i s p a r e n t a l punishment but there i s a  c o r r e l a t i o n between aggression  There i s a l s o  is  of  with.  3 S  that  children  characters  shown  on  I t has been shown t h a t  to be more d i s t u r b e d i f a g g r e s s i v e a c t s  are  directed  c h i l d r e n of s i m i l a r age and s o c i a l background . In sum , the experimental  aggressive  s t u d i e s bearing on the e f f e c t s of  t e l e v i s i o n entertainment  content  on c h i l d r e n support  i n d i c a t i o n s that : 1.  V i o l e n c e depicted on t e l e v i s i o n can or  shortly  copying  by c h i l d r e n .  a c t u a l l y be spectrum  thereafter  of  carried other  2.  mimicking  or  But whether i m i t a t i o n w i l l out  depends  on  a  large  v a r i a b l e s which i n c l u d e the  child's personality , his and  induce  immediately  family's  environment  p a r e n t a l values on non - a g g r e s s i o n  Under c e r t a i n circumstances  , televised  . violence  24  can  instigate  The  variables  an  increase i n aggressive  cited in  (1) above,  also  acts.  operate  here. Such violence that  conclusion has  it  does not  of course suggest that  a uniformly adverse e f f e c t on c h i l d r e n  has  an  adverse  effect  televised  nor  asserts  on a majority of c h i l d r e n  in  society. . I t would seem that modified  or  nullified  environment and Maria P i e r s Early  the by  satisfying  , psychologist  Education  in  Chicago  in  I t i s the  fulfilling Child  life.  Therapy  Psychoanalysis not  peer and  ,  who  -  group  Dean of the  1973  said  that  , or  keeps  ,  can  stable  be  family  relationship.  Dr.  Erikson I n s t i t u t e  for  Services  for  t e l e v i s i o n which  them  relating  from  at  also  i n the  said  the  are  crucial  conscience , i d e a l s and  i n the  values.  Chicago  d i r e c t o r of  the  Institute  for  same meeting that  way  they  to  which make f o r a  Palombo , a s o c i a l worker and  Programme  Children,  i t i s not  absence of other i n g r e d i e n t s  i n t e r a c t with t e l e v i s i o n the  parents  control  of P s y c h i a t r i c  makes young people v i o l e n t others.  parental  violence  i n Chicago , speaking i n the annual meeting of  the American A s s o c i a t i o n Inc.  impact of t e l e v i s e d  interact  children with  development of the  do  their child's  3 6  TELEVISION There are only a handful of r e s e a r c h s t u d i e s  on  the  effects  25  of a d v e r t i s i n g on c h i l d r e n .  Ward found t h a t o l d e r c h i l d r e n  very s k e p t i c a l of t e l e v i s i o n commercials. skepticism child's  are  He a s s e r t e d t h a t  this  i s r e l a t e d to * consumer awareness * formed from  experience  television  with  advertising  advertising  generally  specifically.  p o s s i b l e to s p e c u l a t e t h a t e a r l y  He s t a t e d  experience  and  the with  that : " I t i s  with  questionable  t e l e v i s i o n a d v e r t i s i n g engenders a high degree of c y n i c i s m among youthful  viewers  which  may  reflect  itself  g e n e r a l sense of d i s t r u s t and a l i e n a t i o n . kinds  of e a r l y  experience may  develop the kind immunize  healthy  skepticism  to  that  increases  commercials  'cognitive' development. not understand  with  may 38  be  and  related  the content and purpose  these  as h e l p i n g to  will  serve  In another paper  37  age  He suggested  in a  ,  that the understanding of the content and  advertisements  response  In c o n t r a s t  very well be viewed  viewers a g a i n s t p r o p a g a n d a " .  a l s o suggested of  of  ultimately  that to  to  , Ward purpose  children's  stages i n t h e i r  that younger c h i l d r e n of advertisements and  only d i f f e r e n t i a t e programmes and commercials  by the  fact  do can  that  the l a t t e r are s h o r t e r . In  a  Television young  study by R.  children  terms of brands correlation  H.  conducted  for  Metropolitan  Bruskin associates ,  it  Broadcasting  was  found  that  (age 1 t o 12 ) s t a t e d t h e i r food p r e f e r e n c e s i n r a t h e r than c a t e g o r i e s and that t h e r e i s a  between  these  brands  and  those  c h i l d r e n ' s programmes. 76 percent of them s a i d  advertised that  they  high on have  asked t h e i r parents to buy food or d r i n k products they have seen  26  on  t e l e v i s i o n . 91  interviewed  percent  s a i d they  of  one  mothers  of these c h i l d r e n  • on the average ' brought the  requested by t h e i r c h i l d r e n . In  the  as  3 9  study by Berey 8 P o l l a y  , i t was found that  centered mothers tended not to buy pre - sweetened their  brands  c h i l d r e n even when requested by t h e m .  child-  cereals f o r  40  SUMMARY Summarising  a l l the s t u d i e s discussed  i s not i n c o n c e i v a b l e 1.  Children  i n t h i s chapter , i t  t o conclude that :  u s u a l l y spend  more  time  watching  TV  than on any other a c t i v i t y ; 2.  Children  are  usually  l e f t to t h e i r t e l e v i s i o n  viewing on t h e i r own , unattended by  adults  or  parents ; 3.  Children  4.  The  are highly i m i t a t i v e ;  tendency  to  believe  world o f t e l e v i s i o n v a r i e s environment  ,  parental  t h e 'make - b e l i e v e ' with  personality  ,  guidance and c o g n i t i v e  development ; 5.  Children  have great  potentialities  to  'learn'  from t e l e v i s i o n ; 6.  C h i l d r e n u s u a l l y enjoy a d u l t s ' programmes .  These  ,  coupled  with  children's  susceptability  persuasion , simple mindedness and t h e i r c r e d u l i t y ,  make  to them  27  'prey'  to  the  highly  a d v e r t i s i n g messages. measures  to  guard  which are using companies  skilled They ,  them  them as no  involved.  as  , sophisticated a  against the more  than  group  ,  and p e r s u a s i v e  need  protective  bombardment of a d v e r t i s i n g selling  tools  for  the  28  _________ While Canada does not have any f e d e r a l l e g i s l a t i o n  directly  d e a l i n g with a d v e r t i s i n g to c h i l d r e n , a d v e r t i s e r s are s u b j e c t to broad  control  as  a d v e r t i s i n g i n one Act,*  the  stipulated  form or  the Precious  3  Textile Lablelling Act, the  7  since  9  and  the  2  These  Act,  8  laws include  Metals  Marketing  the  Bank  Act,*  the  Drug Act,* the Trade Marks  the  Consumer  Packaging  the Combines I n v e s t i g a t i o n Act.*o  and  Over  the  enactment of these s t a t u t e s , there have been  few r e p o r t e d cases d e a l i n g with f a l s e a d v e r t i s i n g brought  regulating  the N a t i o n a l Trade Mark and  the Food and  Broadcasting  Labelling Act, years  5  federal  another.  Hazardous Products A c t ,  True L a b e l l i n g A c t ,  Act,  in  except  under the Combines I n v e s t i g a t i o n Act , which  those  undoubtedly  i s the most important f e d e r a l l e g i s l a t i o n i n t h i s area . The  Canadian  legislation  dealing  with  The  Consumer  advertising. first  and  dealing  only with  provinces  provincial advertising  have  consumers  drafted and  Protection statute directed  little  which at  less Act  with  with  the  effects  of  contains children.  television  e s p e c i a l l y i n the area of advertisements. provincial  statutes  deal  Consumer P r o t e c t i o n Act further  of  Columbia  t o cover the i s s u e s of r e f e r r a l s a l e s ,  of  going 1 1  section  late on  Most  a  As such, i t  only with consumer c r e d i t British  false  of Quebec, i s the  r e f l e c t s the t r e n d of s o c i a l consciousness i n the concerned  significant  the  sixties  children the  ,  other  , with the a  little  rescission  29  of door - to - door t r a n s a c t i o n s ,  1 2  and  u n s o l i c i t e d c r e d i t cards  or g o o d s . ' However , these p r o v i n c i a l a c t s are almost u n i v e r s a l 1  i n t h e i r l a c k i n g any advertising  p r o v i s i o n s d e a l i n g with f a l s e or  .  Besides f e d e r a l and  p r o v i n c i a l l e g i s l a t i o n , there are  extra - legal organisational These  are  usually  codes  do  codes  voluntary  because of the e x t e n s i v e these  misleading  of  codes  membership  provide  very  advertising and  of  not  standards.  mandatory.  these  significant  codes  are  the  Broadcast  C h i l d r e n of the Canadian A s s o c i a t i o n Canadian  Code  of  A d v e r t i s i n g Advisory  Advertising  self  with  Harks Act  -  regulatory  , the Food and  provincial Protection Alberta,  1 5  Act and  statutes Act  of  of  with  voluntary presented.  of  special  Drug Act  most  and  the  the  federal  the  this  , the Hazardous Products Act ,  area  Quebec, * 1  Bureau  Columbia;  18  and  emphasis  in  laws  emphasis on the Trade  ,  covering  the  Consumer  Act  of  1 7  and  Hew  the  ; of  Affairs  Act  Brunswick,  the Consumer  the e x t r a - l e g a l  this  chapter  the  Consumer  16  of the  Protection  organization  codes of a d v e r t i s i n g standards as c i t e d above w i l l The  to  Canadian  the Combines I n v e s t i g a t i o n Act  in  the Consumer  British  Broadcasters  survey  Consumer P r o t e c t i o n Act of O n t a r i o Act  The  Advertising  of  ,  Board .  advertising  the Broadcasting  of  for  Standards  In t h i s chapter , a g e n e r a l dealing  Code  But  organisations  standards adopted by most a d v e r t i s i n g p r a c t i t i o n e r s . important  also  i s on the  be  general  30  provisions penalties  ,  the  administration  ,  and the remedies i n v o l v e d .  the  c h i l d r e n w i l l be discussed  As  cited  above  consumer p r o t e c t i o n credit  and  , tend  advertising  directed  most  of  the  to  deal  provincial  exclusively In the area  statutes in  with  consumer  of a d v e r t i s i n g ,  the s t a t u t e s can be described  as • p r i m i t i v e ' and i n most  the  to be the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  are  content  federal legislation  without e n a c t i n g  on t h e i r own i n i t i a t i v e .  this  practices  are  that  to  For example , the Consumer  A f f a i r s Act  receive  are  and  the Consumer  established.  Bureau Act of New  The  2 0  The main d u t i e s of complaints  Nova  above.  1.  t o administer  2.  to counsel  to advise  of  consumers.  Scotia  Consumer  creative  and  functions  are  Services  Act  assertive  I t i s empowered to :  Acts designed to p r o t e c t consumers ;  and advise  19  Brunswick and the Consumer  , bureaux with s i m i l a r  e s t a b l i s h e s a bureau with a more than those d i s c u s s e d  without  i n v i o l a t i o n of a c t s f o r the p r o t e c t i o n of  P r o t e c t i o n Act of O n t a r i o also  A f f a i r s Bureau  investigate  consumers and to disseminate i n f o r m a t i o n Under  bodies of  regulations  i t an a c t of i t s own to a d m i n i s t e r . bureau  cases,  any s i g n i f i c a n t  of A l b e r t a merely e s t a b l i s h e s a Consumer giving  the  i n l a t e r chapters .  c o n t r a c t s i n general.  provinces  ,  Hore d e t a i l e d a n a l y s i s of  the r e l e v a n t s t a t u t e s d e a l i n g s o l e l y with at  jurisdiction  consumers ;  role  31  3,  t o educate consumers on consumer protectuon  4.  t o do research  Most  i n the r e l a t e d  2 1  of the s e c t i o n s i n the p r o v i n c i a l s t a t u t e s s t u d i e d i n  t h i s paper d e a l i n g with a d v e r t s i n g c r e d i t only.  any  misleading the  registered or deceptive  extension  circular Minister the  concern  the  advertising  to  F o r example , the New Brunswick Act provides :  "Where  The  area.  ;  makes  statements  false  .,  relating  to  of c r e d i t i n any advertisements ,  , pamphlet or s i m i l a r may  order  use of such  material  ,  the  the immediate c e s s a t i o n of  material".  Acts o f P r i n c e  Nova S c o t i a ,  lender  Edward  2 2  Island,  2 3  Newfoundland,  24  and  also contain s i m i l a r provisions r e l a t i n g to f a l s e  2 S  or misleading  a d v e r t i s i n g but o n l y l i m i t e d to the a d v e r t i s i n g of  the extension  of c r e d i t .  of  borrowing  must  Disclosure  be made i n t h e advertisement under the Nova  S c o t i a and Newfoundland A c t s . in  the  legislation  Manitoba. The  of  2 6  Such a p r o v i s i o n i s a l s o s e t out  Ontario,  2 7  British  Columbia,  28  and  29  two  most  important  separate sections dealing Consumer  of terms of c r e d i t and c o s t  Protection  Act o f Q u e b e c .  provincial  statutes  with a d v e r t i s i n g i n  Act of Ontario  general  and the Consumer  which have are the Protection  30  S e c t i o n 31 of the O n t a r i o Consumer P r o t e c t i o n Act reads  as  32  follows :  "where  in  the  opinion  s e l l e r or buyer or misleading  or  o f the R e g i s t r a r , any  lender  is  deceptive  pamphlet  the R e g i s t r a r may order  ,  i n any  or  similar  the c e s s a t i o n  of the use of such m a t e r i a l and any  such  is  i n the same  subject  to  review  manner as an order under P a r t However  ,  I "  this  3  section.  It  3 2  not  or  appeal  respecting r e g i s t r a t i o n  made  section  is  and  limited  *buyer'  i n scope due to the  given  in  an  earlier  t h e r e f o r e extends coverage to consumers o n l y and  include  wholesalers  on  order  1  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of ' s e l l e r *  does  false  statements  advertisement , c i r c u l a r , material,  making  advertising  retailers  directed  by  manufacturers  to  o r any person who buys goods f o r the  purpose of c a r r y i n g on h i s b u s i n e s s . The Like  Consumer P r o t e c t i o n Act o f Quebec was enacted i n 1971.  almost  extensively is  a l l of  the  other  p r o v i n c i a l statutes , i t deals  with c r e d i t s and c o n t r a c t s .  S e c t i o n 60 of  concerned with a d v e r t i s i n g i n a broader context  c r e d i t and borrowing of money.  the Act  than that of  However , t h i s s e c t i o n i s worded  vaguely and f o r p r a c t i c a l purposes, i t i s probably i n s i g n i f i c a n t in controlling false advertising.  T h i s s e c t i o n reads :  33  "Any  goods f u r n i s h e d by a merchant  with  the  description  c o n t r a c t s and  of  them  i n catalogues  must  comply  given  in  the  , c i r c u l a r s or  other  means of a d v e r t i s i n g " . The concern misleading  i s with t r u t h i n a d v e r t i s i n g  advertising.  w r i t t e n m a t e r i a l s and  ,  deceptive  I t s major emphasis i s on published  television  advertising,  in  most  seldom comes within the j u r i s d i c t i o n of t h i s Act. that  in  television  the product  of  Quebec  was  is  f a c t u a l i n f o r m a t i o n about  , an amendment to the made.  and  cases,  reason  are seldom employed as means of persuasion  In October 1972 Act  , d e s c r i p t i o n and  The  and  Consumer  A D i v i s i o n XI - A was  . Protection  added and i t  r e p r e s e n t s a major step taken by the l e g i s l a t i v e body of  Quebec  to c o n t r o l a d v e r t i s i n g directed at c h i l d r e n . There  are  two  d e a l i n g with two  separate  separate  t h a t i t i s an o f f e n c e to published or prepare which  is  subsections  offences. publish  In S. ,  to  in  11. 52 , i t i s s t a t e d use  or  m i s l e a d i n g * definded.  'unfair  As a r e s u l t  w i l l have to depend on the judges of  what i s c o n s i d e r e d The  cause  ' u n f a i r , f a l s e , d e c e p t i v e or m i s l e a d i n g * .  i s given a very wide i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of these it  or  to  be  i n Quebec a d v e r t i s i n g intended f o r c h i l d r e n  i n t h i s amendment o f the Act are the terms deceptive  this division ,  the  3 4  ,  Nowhere false  ,  , this section  terms. courts  to be u n f a i r , d e c e p t i v e , f a l s e or  Presumably, to  decide  misleading.  cases brought to c o u r t under the Combines I n v e s t i g a t i o n Act  may provide  a s i g n i f i c a n t case law r e f e r e n c e  s i n c e the two s t a t u t e s are worded i n s i m i a r In  S. 1 1 . 53  ,  fifteen  specific  for this section fashion.  3 S  forms or techniques  advertisement d i r e c t e d a t c h i l d r e n are p r o h i b i t e d by  this  These are advertisement which :  a.  exaggerates  the  nature  ,  performance or l e n g t h or l i f e b.  de - emphasize the s k i l l  ,  characteristics  ,  of a commodity ;  age  ,  strength  of  d e x t e r i t y necessary to use a commodity ; c.  makes  use  of  superlatives  to  describe  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of a commodity or makes diminutives d.  makes  the  use  of  to d e s c r i b e the p r i c e thereof ;  use of a comparative c l a i m or e s t a b l i s h e s  a claim ; e.  expressly  urges c h i l d r e n to buy , or to  request  another person t o buy , a commodity ; f.  belittles  parental  preferences  authority  judgement  cr  ;  g.  portrays  h.  concerns a product , which ,  reprehensible  q u a l i t y or o r d i n a r y at  ,  f a m i l y l i f e or customs ; by  i t s nature  ,  usage ought not t o be placed  the d i s p o s a l of c h i l d r e n ;  i.  concerns a drug or a p r o p r i e t a r y medicine ;  j.  concerns  a  t a b l e t form ;  vitamin  in  liquid  ,  powdered or  Ac  35  k.  p o r t r a y s a person performing any unsafe act ;  1.  p o r t r a y s a commodity i n a manner improper or dangerous use  m.  suggestive  of  thereof;  employs a person or personage known to c h i l d r e n , except  in  the  announcer who  case o f a p r o f e s s i o n a l a c t o r  i s not f e a t u r e d i n any p u b l i c a t i o n  or programme intended n.  employs cartoons  o.  suggests  that  commodity  or  for children ;  ; the  will  possession  endow  a  or  child  use  of  a  with p h y s i c a l ,  s o c i a l or p s y c h o l o g i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s s u p e r i o r to those of h i s peers , or c o n v e r s e l y lack  of possession  or use  that  t h e r e o f w i l l have the  opposite  e f f e c t except i f such suggestion  so  as i t concerns education  far  the  ,  or h e a l t h  in , be  true ; p.  i n t r o d u c e s a commodity i n such a context c h i l d would be f a l s e l y the  price  all As can spells  out  techniques children the age  a  l e d to b e l i e v e t h a t , f o r  such commodity  , he c o u l d  obtain  the commodities or a s s e s s o r i e s  advertised.  be seen from the above , t h i s  section  of  3 6  the  Act  i n s p e c i f i c d e t a i l what c e r t a i n types of a d v e r t i s i n g are deemed to be  (a of  of  that  child  13 y e a r s  undesirable  and  harmful  for  the  , as defined i n t h i s Act , i s a person under 3 7  ).  36  Loosely  , t h i s p a r t o f the s e c t i o n  can  be  grouped  under  f i v e headings :  1.  m i s l e a d i n g a d v e r t i s i n g which e x p l o i t s c h i l d r e n ' s immaturity  i n understanding  and t h e i r  inability  to d i f f e r e n t i a t e between f a n t a s y and r e a l i t y  at  a young age. (clauses a, b, c, d) 2.  advertising  which  is  considered  to  be  u n d e s i r a b l e because i t makes the upbringing of a c h i l d more d i f f i c u l t a t home, (clauses e,f,g,o) 3.  advertising undesirable or  is  considered  deemed  to  be  advertising  which  i d e n t i f y with. advertising undesirable  cases  exploits  because  subgrouping  the  for  children's  by people  is  they  i t  considered teaches  can  to  be  undesirable  (clauses o, f , g) may appear to be s u p e r f i c i a l and i n some  , the c l a u s e s i n the Act do o v e r l a p .  explicitly  unsafe  (clauses m, n, o) which  s o c i a l values. This  be  (clauses i , j , k, 1)  s u s c e p t a b i l i t y t o persuasion  5.  to  because i t p o r t r a y s a dangerous a c t  product  children. 4.  which  criteria  to  d i r e c t e d a t c h i l d r e n or n o t .  I t does not s e t out  determine whether a commercial i s I t only suggests  context of p r e s e n t a t i o n , the nature  t h a t the time and  and intended  purpose of the  commodity and t h e time and place the a d v e r t i s i n g i s  shown  have  37  to be  taken i n t o In summary  the  consideration.  3 8  , the Consumer P r o t e c t i o n  most i n t e r e s t i n g s e c t i o n i n d e a l i n g  section  which c o n t r o l s a d v e r t i s i n g  to  extremely  be  dealing that  with a d v e r t i s i n g  a  the  inclusive  Act of Quebec c o n t a i n s with a d v e r t i s i n g .  d i r e c t e d at c h i l d r e n  appears  i n comparison with the one  i n general.  This  section  It i s i n t e r e s t i n g to  note  s i n g l e type of a d v e r t i s i n g demands so much a t t e n t i o n  legislation  whereas  appears  to be  The  explanation  only  legislation  a  greater  majority  more t o l e r a b l y r e g u l a t e d  in  while s t r i c t e r  for t h i s  respect  is  to  control  of  the  at the  the  the  of  fact  in  advertising  provincial level. the  federal  l a t t e r appears to be  adequate  former  that  is  considered  to  be  necessary. Before said  leaving  about  Protection  the  Bureau was ,  r e c e i v i n g and  acting  and  Quebec l e g i s l a t i o n  administration  Institutions  forms  the  of  established  Companies  and  affairs  and  Corporations.  on complaints r e c e i v e d  General  in  standards  Council for  to  3 9  make  advertising  intended f o r c h i l d r e n . *  0  The  The  be  Consumer  It  deals  from consumers.  on  matters  of  Act a l s o empowers the any  goods,  with It  other p r o v i n c i a l departments  informs consumers  protection.  Act.  to  i n the Department of Finance ,  a l i a s o n between f e d e r a l and  i t educates and  the  , a word has  regulations especially  to  1  Attorney determine  a l l advertising  Summary proceedings under the  be brought by the A t t o r n e y - G e n r a l . *  consumer  Besides the  Act  can  p e n a l i t i e s of  38  fines  and  imprisonment  minimum f i n e of one  ,  (in  the  case of an i n d i v i d u a l , a  hundred d o l l a r s r i s e s to a maximum of $2,000  and/or imprisonment of net more than one corporation appears  , a  to  maximum  be  the  same the  of  in  Act  $2,500  most also  ; i n the case of a  per  here  consumers  s u f f e r i n g damages as a r e s u l t of any  provides  Canadian  d e a l i n g with a d v e r t i s i n g , i t i s f a i r almost  minimal provinces  advertising  in  borrowing  usually  serve  the  have  other  money.  by  administration  that  general of  established  remedies  to  v i o l a t i o n of  the  Council  is  Ontario provision  Consumer  Quebec are  dealing  cf c r e d i t s  Protection  concerned  with  Bureaux  of Acts designed t o p r o t e c t the consumers ,  they  bodies to the p u b l i c . a  bureau  can  Quebec, where the Attorney  empowered  I t would seem perform  is  to  Other than the p r o v i s i o n i n the Consumer  to  set  statutes  c i v i l remedies a v a i l a b l e to probably  i n c e n t i v e s to b r i n g complaints to the  - General - i n -  regulations  devices.  legislation  the  up  standards,  Quebec  provisions  the  of  are  advertising The  and  than t h a t of extension  statutes  as a d v i s o r y  Act  that the  statutes  with  educate the consumers. Protection  any  While  t h a t the g r e a t e s t f u n c t i o n such  the  civil  provincial  to say  i n most p r o v i n c e s .  the o n l y two  and  This  2  Summarizing t h i s s e c t i o n on  are  offence.  of the p r o v i n c i a l s t a t u t e s  discussed  Act.*  )  fine  year  lack the  give court.  the  to  such  control initiative  consumers consumers  under more  39  In t h i s s e c t i o n controlling  , the f e d e r a l l e g i s l a t i o n i n  advertising  will  be  discussed.  be made on the Trade  Marks Act , the Food and  the  Hazardous  Act  ,  the  area  Drug  Broadcasting  Act ,  Act and the  Combines I n v e s t i g a t i o n A c t .  ___________________ Section 7. a.  7 o f t h e Trade Harks Act provides that ;  No person  make  a  shall  false  discredit  the  or  misleading  business  ,  statement  wares  or  tending  services  to of a  competitor ; b.  d i r e c t p u b l i c a t t e n t i o n to h i s business  wares  ,  services  i n such a way as t o cause or l i k e l y  c o n f u s i o n i n Canada , a t the time he commenced direct  attention  to  them  ,  between  or  to cause so to  h i s wares  ,  s e r v i c e s or business o f another ; c.  pass o f f other wares , s e r v i c e s as  those  ordered  or  requested ; d.  make any 1.  use , i n a s s o c i a t i o n with wares or s e r v i c e s  character,  quality,  composition ; 2.  , of  d e s c r i p t i o n that i s to mislead the p u b l i c as t o the  the geographical o r i g i n  of  S p e c i a l emphasis  will  Products  the  quantity  or  40  3.  the  mode  of the manufacture , p r o d u c t i o n or  performance of such wares or s e r v i c e s or e.  do any  act or  contrary  to  i n Canada.  4  adopt  an honest  other  business  practice  i n d u s t r i a l or commercial usage  3  The Act d e a l s mostly  with f a l s e and m i s l e a d i n g  information  S e c t i o n 7 (a) has i t s o r i g i n i n common law t o r t  in advertising. of  injurious  of  t h e Combines  competitors*  any  f a l s e h o o d but i t s p r o v i s i o n i s narrower than t h a t Investigation  wares  or  misleading a d v e r t i s i n g  Act.  business  In  this  section,  have to be d i s c r e d i t e d by the  , while i n the Combines I n v e s t i g a t i o n Act  (Section 37) detriment t o c m p e t i t o r s need not be proven a t a l l . Therefore  ,  i f competitors have s u f f e r e d damages , i t would be  wiser to b r i n g a c t i o n under the Trade Marks Act under which court  far  has g r e a t e r power to grant Most  of  have  been  Violation  of  the  7 (b)  4  packaging  kind  of  4 3  Marks Act so  7(b)  Subsections  and  business  of the same g e n e r a l c h a r a c t e r .  7 (c) i s concerned Columbia  under  includes  m a i n t a i n a b l e a g a i n s t any businesses  relief. *  cases l i t i g a t e d under the Trade  brought  the  the and  4 6  and 7 ( c ) . action not  is  merely  As f a r as Subsection  , i t was held by the Supreme Court o f  British  t h a t the passing o f f t e s t i s not whether the buyer has  been misled by the packaging  but whether a buyer  apprehension  would  and  eyesight  i n fact  of  reasonable  be d e c e i v e d .  p i n c i p l e of 'reasonable man* t h e r e f o r e a p p l i e s here.  4 7  The  41  Under Subsection specific quality  things ,  service.  ,  a product  ,  and  misleading  description  i s prohibited.  composition  ,  the g e o g r a p h i c a l  As such , t h i s s u b s e c t i o n i s  significance techniques  about  quantity  manufacturing  7 (d)  in  taking  action  of  certain  These are the  character  ,  mode  o r i g i n of the product limited  against  and  modern  of  of or  little  advertising  which go beyond the mere d e s c r i p t i o n of a product  and  hinge more on the p s y c h o l o g i c a l e f f e c t produced on the p u b l i c . Subsection the  7(e) covers e v e r y t h i n g and i s l e f t  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the c o u r t .  so f a r under t h i s  Few cases  have been  Combines  to  litigated  subsection.  The Trade Marks Act t h i s p r o v i d e s q u i t e an the  wide open  Investigation  g r e a t e r r e l i e f power granted  Act  especially  alternative  to  i n r e s p e c t to the  to the c o u r t under the A c t . *  8  The_Food_and_Drua_Act Like  most  of  the  federal  provisions  in  the  area  of  c o n t r o l l i n g a d v e r t i s i n g , the Food and Drug Act tends to o v e r l a p with the Combines I n v e s t i g a t i o n Act . S e c t i o n 9(1) o f the Food and Drug Act provides t h a t : "No  person  s h a l l l a b e l , package , t r e a t  , process  ,  s e l l or a d v e r t i s e any drug i n a manner t h a t i s f a l s e , misleading  or deceptive  or  is  likely  to  § £ £ 2 £ § 2 J 2 S _ i m £ r e s s i o n regarding i t s c h a r a c t e r  create  an  , value ,  42  quantity  , composition , merit  Section  10(1)  "where  a  provides  standard  in  , package , s e l l  such  mistaken f o r  that :  has been p r e s c r i b e d f o r a drug  person s h a l l l a b e l substance  a  such  same  a  drug  ,  This  5  Division  of  review of  the  Standards  advertising  significant  in  difference  the  any to  be  substance  5 0  are s e t out  i n Section  administered  Branch the  in  unless  is  no  advertise  standard".  p r o v i s i o n s f o r food  Section 6 r e s p e c t i v e l y . *  or  manner t h a t i t i s l i k e l y  complies with the p r e s c r i b e d The  or s a f e t y " . * *  by  the  which c a r r i e s out  broadcasting  administration  media. from  5 and Food  constant The  one  of  the  that  Combines I n v e s t i g a t i o n Act i s that warnincjs are u s u a l l y given  to  the a d v e r t i s e r about h i s wrong doings p r i o r to p r e s e c u t i o n s .  In  t h i s respect Corporate  ,  close  Affairs  cooperation  Department and  compliance under the Act and Department's  Consumer  i n d u s t r y b r i n g s about  regulations.  One  greater is  the  I t set out c e r t a i n g u i d e l i n e s suggested by the Department.  The  comparatives  manufacturers and  example  and  1961.  of  for  the  advertisers i n  use  guide  between  such  as  qualifying  words are advised  are  , the products should  used  to remove deception while scare  the  term  'better*  against.  or  'richer'  Where g e o g r a p h i c a l  be l a b e l l e d i n such a way  (for example , 'home-made' i s 'home-made-style*  techniques i s a l s o advised  without  is  against.  terms so  as  objectionable  a l l right).  The  use  of  I t i s important  t o note that under S e c t i o n 9(1) of the Act,  the p u b l i c need not be deceived t o have the A c t , but an erroneous  actions  brought  under  impression i s enough.  _a__H___RDOUS The Hazardous Products Act r e s t r i c t s a d v e r t i s i n g of c e r t a i n products  rather  in general. furniture  5 2  than merely  p r o h i b i t i n g misleading  I t p r o h i b i t s the a d v e r t i s i n g  and  other  articles  of  advertising  such  things  as  intended f o r c h i l d r e n which a r e  coated with p a i n t c o n t a i n i n g harmful amounts of l e a d , v a r n i s h e s and p a i n t s and p a i n t removers f o r household inflammable  use which are h i g h l y  and a l s o j e g u i r i t y beans or any substance  (such as toys o r jewelry) made with such poisonous Under  this  representation  Act ,  advertising  includes  by any means f o r the promotion  or a r t i c l e  beans.  any  form  of  o f s a l e or use of  such products d i r e c t l y o r i n d i r e c t l y . Both the Food and Drug Act and t h e Hazardous are  concerned  any form  about  Products  Act  t h e • s a f e t y ' of the p u b l i c d i r e c t e d a t by  of a d v e r t i s i n g .  The B r o a d c a s t i n g Act and the Regulations t h e r e t o  s  3  The B r o a d c a s t i n g Act and the R e g u l a t i o n s t h e r e t o are mostly concerned  with the t a s t e and  techniques  used  in  Emphasis i s on prevention r a t h e r than p r o s e c u t i o n .  advertising. Preclearance  with  the Canadian-Radio-Television-Commission ensures v o l u n t a r y  compliance and g u i d e l i n e s  are u s u a l l y  to b r o a d c a s t e r s , a d v e r t i s e r s and  issued  from the Commission  manufacturers.  Violation  the A c t and R e g u l a t i o n s w i l l make the p a r t i e s i n v o l v e d be  prosecuted  their  under  the  of  liable  to  Act and i n the case of b r o a d c a s t e r s ,  l i c e n c e s w i l l be revoked. The  most  controversial  subject  dealt  with  R e g u l a t i o n s i s i n the area of a l c o h o l i c beverages The  federal  government,  through  the  by  the  advertising. C.R.T.C.  has  j u r i s d i c t i o n over : 1.  whether or not l i q u o r advertisement  will  be  allowed  access to the broadcast media; 2.  and c o n t r o l over a.  the content of the l i q u o r advertisement;  b.  the  type of a l c o h o l i c beverages which  may  be  advertised; c.  good t a s t e i n p r e s e n t a t i o n ;  d.  the  amount  of  advertising  permitted f o r a l c o h o l i c  The the  which  will  be  beverages.  p r o v i n c i a l government has e s s e n t i a l l y the same power as  federal  government  with the exception t h a t  over both the amount of a d v e r t i s i n g a d v e r t i s i n g be a i r e d .  shown  and  i t has the  control  time  such  45  The  policy  followed  by  the  Canadian-Badio-Television-  Commission i s t h a t a d v e r t i s i n g should not be designed the g e n e r a l use of beer or wine. name  preference  is  allowed.  Only  and  promotion  of  brand  A l c o h o l i c beverages a d v e r t i s i n g  should only be d i r e c t e d a t those who consume  the  t o promote  are  legally  entitled  to  who i n f a c t do consume ( i e . a d v e r t i s i n g should not  persuade non-drinkers  to d r i n k ) .  A d v e r t i s i n g which i s  designed  or c r e a t e d to e s t a b l i s h t o show or i n f e r t h a t the consumption of beer  or  wine  is  a  necessary  activity  w i l l not be approved.  product  as  or d e s i r a b l e p a r t of any s o c i a l Any  attempt  to  establish  the  a s t a t u s symbol or a n e c e s s i t y f o r the enjoyment of  l i f e or an escape from l i f e ' s problems w i l l not be p e r m i t t e d . * 5  The  above  'undesirable following  1  policy  regulations  Advertising  c.  relate  to  the  the  general  F u r t h e r , the  s p e c i f i c techniques and  should not :  show the product  , except  , incidentally  in describing  process ;  show f a m i l y or other scenes persons  with  used i n a l c o h o l i c beverages a d v e r t i s i n g :  the manufacturing b.  deal  s o c i a l values attached to d r i n k i n g .  means of persuasion  a.  guidelines  which  include  minors  or  who appear to be minors ;  show g l a s s e s , b o t t l e s or cans except  t h a t these may be  shown i n sequences of c a r t o o n animation d.  show cartoon animation  e.  show  persons  o r puppetry  engaged  in  or p u f f e t r y ;  ;  activity  in  which  the  46  consumption of a l c o h o l i s p r o h i b i t e d ,  consumption  alcohol  i s p r o h i b i t e d , e i t h e r p r i o r to or during  activity  (eg. d r i n k i n g  The  above d i s c u s s i o n  advertising  of  the  R.  general.  other p r o v i s i o n s ,  these  Unlike  regulations  C. i n the  tend  Commission  i s an attempt to show  c o n t r o l l i n g of a d v e r t i s i n g both f e d e r a l and  compliance but  phenomenal.  and  advertisers  ,  good t a s t e  the  task  of  the  of  in  and  u s e f u l i n r e l i e v i n g the  f e d e r a l agencies i n p o l i c i n g o b j e c t i o n a b l e  the  regulations broadcasting  t o g e t h e r with the cede of standards adopted  , prove to be  the  provincial,  However , such  more or l e s s amount to s e l f - r e g u l a t i o n s industry  the  P r e c l e a r a n c e with the Commission i s  voluntary  i s therefore  concerning  to lay more emphasis on  technigues of p r e s e n t a t i o n . h e l p f u l i n ensuring  regulations  beverages  power of the C.  T.  such  while d r i v i n g a motor c a r ) . of  alcoholic  of  burden of  by the  advertising.  lli®_£2SMliS§_illvesti5ation_A^t The  Combines I n v e s t i g a t i o n  f a l s e a d v e r t i s i n g , i s the encompassing  the  Act  , i n the area of c o n t r o l l i n g  most e x t e n s i v e and  advertising  s i g n i f i c a n t of a l l ,  of a l l goods i n a l l media and  by  almost a l l means. Due House  of  to the imminence of the passing Commons  w i l l a l s o be  ,the  discussed  relevant  of B i l l  C -227  amendments to the  in this sectin.  in  present  the Act  47  The  p r o v i s i o n s concerning  Section  36  and  S e c t i o n 37 of the Act .  i n d i c t a b l e offence contains  a  f a l s e a d v e r t i s i n g are s e t out i n  whenever an advertisement  statement  which i s misleading  37 (4)  summary  improper  testing  guarantee  of  of  the  the  case  concerning  of  performance  any  or d e c e p t i v e .  Section  o f f e n c e i n the case o f inadeguate or  anything  made i n an advertisement. in  about  which  a  statement  36(1)  S e c t i o n 36 c r e a t e s a summary material  representation  to  the p u b l i c  a c t u a l t e x t of these s e c t i o n s i s : who , f o r the purpose o f promoting the  s a l e or use of an a r t i c l e misleading means  , makes  any  material  r e p r e s e n t a t i o n t o the p u b l i c , by any  whatever  , concerning  the p r i c e at which  such or l i k e a r t i c l e s , have been  ,  will  guilty  be  ordinarily  o f f e n c e punishable (2) Subsection publishes good course 37(1)  offence  the p r i c e a t which any a r t i c l e has been , i s or  Everyone  faith  or  , e f f i c a c y or length of l i f e i s  be o r d i n a r i l y s o l d . The  which  , deceptive or untrue or i s i n t e n t i o n a l l y so that i t i s m i s l e a d i n g  a  i s published  p u r p o r t i n g t o be a statement of f a c t but  worded or arranged creates  S e c t i o n 37 c r e a t e s an  sold  ,  is  are  ,  or  of an  on summary c o n v i c t i o n  (1) does not apply  to  an  t h a t he accepts i n  advertisement  for publication  in  a  person  the  who  ordinary  of h i s business.  Everyone who p u b l i s h e s or causes to be p u b l i s h e d  will  an  advertisement  containing  p u r p o r t s to be a statement untrue  ,  deceptive  a  statement  of f a c t but  or  so worded or arranged  deceptive  or  ,  five  misleading  years  ,  if  is  or  is  it  is  ,  that  i s guilty  i n d i c t a b l e o f f e n c e and i s l i a b l e to for  that  misleading  intentionally  the  that  of an  imprisonment  advertisement  is  published a. to  promote  ,  directly  or i n d i r e c t l y  s a l e or d i s p o s a l of property or any therein  in  who  the performance  lies is  , efficacy  t h a t i s not based  proper t e s t  interest.  p u b l i s h e s or causes to be p u b l i s h e d  an advertisement a statement  anything  interest  , or  b. to promote a business or commercial Everyone  , the  or guarantee  or l e n g t h of l i f e  of of  upon an adequate and  of t h a t t h i n g , the proof  upon the accused, i s , i f the  of  which  advertisement  published to promote, d i r e c t l y or i n d i r e c t l y ,  the s a l e or d i s p o s a l of such t h i n g , g u i l t y of an o f f e n c e punishable on summary c o n v i c t i o n ; Subsections  (1) and  (2) do not apply t o a person  who  p u b l i s h e s an advertisement  in  good  faith  that  he  accepts  f o r p u b l i c a t i o n i n the o r d i n a r y  course of h i s b u s i n e s s . For the purpose  of s u b s e c t i o n (2)  , a test  that  49  is  made  by  the  National  Research C o u n c i l of  Canada or by any other p u b l i c department adequate  and  proper  s h a l l be made i n an that  a  test  has  test  ,  but no r e f e r e n c e  advertisement been  made  to  by  the  publication publish  advertisement  , been approved  i t has  been  has and  given  indicate  the N a t i o n a l  Research C o u n c i l or the other p u b l i c unless  i s an  department ,  before  permission  to  i n w r i t i n g by the  p r e s i d e n t o f the N a t i o n a l Research C o u n c i l or by the deputy head o f the p u b l i c  department  , as  the case may be. (5) Nothing  in  Subsection  exclude , f o r the purpose other adequate Section  36  deals  or proper  (4)  s h a l l be deemed to  of t h i s s e c t i o n test.  5 5  with p r i c e a d v e r t i s i n g .  the i n s e r t i o n o f t h i s p r o v i s i o n has been s t a t e d Henry  , any  The reason f o r by  Kr.  David  , the then D i r e c t o r of I n v e s t i g a t o n and Research , i n the  f o l l o w i n g terms :  "This provision was i n s e r t e d after the Combines I n v e s t i g a t i o n Branch had a number of cases brought to i t s a t t e n t i o n where a vendor , i n order t o make i t appear t h a t the price at which he was o f f e r i n g an a r t i c l e was more f a v o r a b l e than was a c t u a l l y the case , misrepresented the p r i c e a t which the article was o r d i n a r i l y s o l d at the market generally. B e s i d e s being d i s h o n e s t and likely t o m i s l e the buying p u b l i c , t h i s k i n d o f t a c t i c s was regarded as u n f a i r as a  50  b a s i s of c o m p e t i t i o n " . Also  ,  the  intention  i n h i b i t p r i c e competition  5 6  of  the  s e c t i o n i s c l e a r l y not to  , but "merely t o  protect  from being misled as to the e x t e n t o f the bagain reliance  public often  a d v e r t i s e d when  i s placed on t h e word of the s e l l e r as to the o r d i n a r y  p r i c e a t which the goods a r e s o l d " . The  the p u b l i c  purpose i s to  protect  a  5 7  gullible  and  often  stupid  who r e l y on the good f a i t h of merchandisers , a r e l i a n c e misplaced.  The  5 8  e s s e n t i a l elements o f the o f f e n c e  under  this  section  are : 1.  the r e p r e s e n t a t i o n must be made t o the p u b l i c ;  2.  f o r t h e purpose of promoting the s a l e or use o f an a r t i c l e ;  3.  concerning articles  the have  price  at  which  such  or  like  been , are or w i l l be o r d i n a r i l y  sold ; U.  that  the  representation  must  be  materially  misleading. The public*.  first  i s s u e t o be d i s c u s s e d i s the element of * to the  The c o u r t has to determine whether a r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i s  made p u b l i c l y or not and t o d e f i n e the 'extent* of the p u b l i c to which the r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i s made. I t has been e s t a b l i s h e d t h a t any r e p r e s e n t a t i o n made i n an  51  establishment which * i s open to the g e n e r a l p u b l i c *  qualifies.  T h i s a p p l i e s even i f the communication i s made o r a l l y to of The  another;  6 0  5 9  cne person  and an o f f i c e r a t t a c h e d to the F e d e r a l Department  J u s t i c e has a l s o been held to be a member  of  the  public.  6 1  f a c t t h a t the r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i s made t o an i n v e s t i g a t o r who  i s not deceived w i l l  not be a bar to p r o s e c u t i o n .  The q u e s t i o n * who  i s the  public*  Beaulne i n the Simpsons - Sears c a s e .  6 3  was  6 2  raised  by  Judge  He s a i d :  "I have been r e f e r r e d t o a compendium of r e p o r t e d and unreported decisions prepared by the Department and from my r e a d i n g of a l l these cases , the p u b l i c was eguated to the consumers or shoppers in the limited g e o g r a p h i c a l area where the accused s t o r e or b u s i n e s s was o p e r a t i n g , comparable shopping prices i n the l i m i t e d area were being presented as evidence o f t h e p r i c e s at which each o f the items in question were ordinarily sold. I f I were t o i n t e r p r e t public i n this restricted sense , there would be no doubt t h a t t h e accused should be found g u i l t y ; however, i n the case a t b a r , the problem i s not so simple". In t h i s case , the p r e s e n t a t i o n i n v o l v e d was accused  mail  order  The accused sales  had 32 r e t a i l s t o r e s i n Canada  offices  across  decided t h a t the o r d i n a r y p r i c e has t o be  the n a t i o n . determined  e n t i r e area where the catalogue was d i s t r i b u t e d the  i n the  company's catalogue which i n d i c a t e d a $20 saving on the  ordinary price. 355  made  representation  was  directed  consumers but t h e c a t a l o g u e p u b l i c .  not  at  and  The Judge from  the  , asserting that  the r e t a i l  store  The charge was d i s m i s s e d .  52  The d i s m i s s a l had that  the  difficult for  wider  f a r reaching e f f e c t  since  it  the c i r c l a t i o n of the advertisement  i t would be to determine the  the Crown to get a c o n v i c t i o n .  suggested , the more  'ordinary p r i c e ' and  The  Crown appealed  and  thus Mr.  J u s t i c e Doyle of the County Court reversed the e a r l i e r d e c i s i o n . He s t a t e d that :  "Admittedly , the c a t a l o g u e i s designed to reach p r o s p e c t i v e consumers i n a l l of Zone 2. The advertisement i s d i r e c t e d to the consumers i n C h i c o u t i m i as well as to the consumer i n Ottawa. The C h i c o u t i m i consumer is not misled by the advertisement as i t would appear to be t r u e t h a t the a r t i c l e in question sold i n h i s area f o r a p r i c e of $149.95 or higher. The same advertisement, however, would mislead an Ottawa consumer as the a r t i c l e d i d not sell ordinarily for $149.95 or h i g h e r " . He a l s o continued t h a t : "I am unable t o agree with the d e f i n i t i o n of 'public' used by the learned Provncial Judge. The 'extent* of the p u b l i c i n each case must be l i m i t e d to each area where the goods are sold and the area would be extended to i n c l u d e ____________ competition would_exist_as_between the b u s i n e s s , e s t a b l i s h m e n t s . o f the p a r t i c u l a r area ". -  As  for  the  other e s s e n t i a l element of the offence : ' f o r  the purpose of promoting the s a l e or use of an a r t i c l e ' , i t has never been d i f f i c u l t presumed  t h a t any  to get over by  the  r e p r e s e n t a t i o n made has  the use or s a l e of the a r t i c l e i n v o l v e d . need  to  be  sought  other  than  the  Crown.  It  has  been  i t s purpose to pomote No  other  indication  publication  of  the  53  advertisement. *  This  6  section  representation  by  concerns the p r i c e at which such or  like  whatever means , not j u s t The  third  articles  issue  have been ,  establishment  of  advertisements.  are  the  includes  or  will  be  ordinarily  sold.  The  o r d i n a r y p r i c e i s the most important  and  most d i f f i c u l t job of the Crown It has  been held t h a t the phrase , *have been , are or w i l l  be o r d i n a r i l y s o l d * only c r e a t e s one the l e a d i n g case of Morse J e w e l l e r s The  Court  does  not  offence and  not  (Sudbury) L t d .  have to determine one  with which the competitors  i n the area comply.  in  the  represented. specific  advertisement  is  compared  When , as i n the Colgate -  ordinary  p r i c e i s mentioned  in  6 S  specific  price  But i t has to  proved t h a t the o r d i n a r y p r i c e a g a i n s t which the stated  three  bargain  , i s not  Palmolive  price  correctly  case,  no  6 6  , the Crown needs only  show t h a t the o r d i n a r y p r i c e of the a r t i c l e was  be  not higher  to  than  the s p e c i a l p r i c e s t a t e d . The  ordinary  witnesses article  who or  are like  price doing  is  to  be  business  articles  in  determined the  by c a l l i n g  area,  selling  The  records  area o f business determined.  of the accused w i l l a l s o be examined.  remains  to  the  to t e s t i f y as to the p r i c e at which  such are s o l d d u r i n g the time p e r i o d when the r e p r e s e n t a t i o n made.  on  be  an  important  element  to  is The be  54  As  determined  s a l e s of the product 10  i n the Breck Shampoo case ,  i f 90 % of the  6 7  i n the area were at the s p e c i a l  price  % at the ' o r d i n a r y p r i c e ' , the s p e c i a l p r i c e i s the o r d i n a r y  p r i c e and  the a d v e r t i s e r i s deemed to be l i a b l e .  Also  of  off/en  of t h r e e  '172  morns'  label  over  a  period  r e s u l t e d i n the establishment of the lower post price  cents  article.  about the value  The f a c t t h a t the merchandize was  price  years -  off  was  not a defence  b e t t e r than i t i s . the  product.  6 9  The  'bargain'  p r i c e i s the f o c a l p o i n t , not the  The  the  s i n c e the i s s u e d e a l t with here i s  f a c t t h a t what was  the b e s t p r i c e a v a i l a b l e i n the area was indicated  of  of the best value a t  t h a t the p u b l i c i s misled i n t o b e l i e v i n g t h a t the  i n the Advance c a s e .  make a p r o f i t i n the s a l e s , he case.  use  6 8  Further the Court i s not concerned  the  the  as the o r d i n a r y p r i c e ,as decided i n the Products Diament  case.  of  and  7 0  value  being a d v e r t i s e d  a l s o of no  is  concern  was as  Even though the s e l l e r d i d not was  convicted  in  th  Eeamish  7 1  The  use  of  words  like  'regular  price'  •comparable v a l u e ' , 'compare to' , 'compared 'retail  price'  ,  all  at'  , ,  'value'  ,  'save'  ,  of which are held to be synonymous with  • o r d i n a r y p r i c e ' , as the term i s employed i n S e c t i o n 36 of Combines I n v e s t i g a t i o n Act It  was  , w i l l not exclude  held t h a t t h e r e i s no evidence  the  the s e c t i o n .  of d i s h o n e s t y or  bad  55  faith  on the  price  and  p a r t of the manufacturers i n suggesting the the use  of the words i s not m i s l e a d i n g .  However i f  7 2  the p r i c e i s brought to the a t t e n t i o n of the consumer as  the  product f o r s a l e , there e x i s t s an  part of the s e l l e r  a bargain The  It  has  with  is  the  Act. *  In  7  on  B.V.Patton's  m a g i s t r a t e Carson s t a t e d  the  section.  words  7 3  •material  been decided t h a t these words must be  accorded t h e i r normal meaning s i n c e there in  intention  to i n d i c a t e that the consumer i s g e t t i n g  l a s t i s s u e to be d e a l t 1  used,  advertiser  at a l l , the a d v e r t i s e r i s g u i l t y under t h i s  representation .  out  and  a b a s i s of comparison with the p r i c e at which the  i s o f f e r i n g the  retail  i s no  Pace  definition  Ltd.  Case  set , the  :  " . . . I t h i n k the word •material' used here must bear i t s normal meaning and that i s a r e p r e s e n t a t i o n which i s c a l c u l a t e d t o , and in e f f e c t does , lead a person to a c e r t a i n course of conduct because he believes the information put before him i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h i s would be advantageous t o h i m s e l f " . 7 5  A d i f f e r e n c e o f between 5 and the court  has  Under  not l a i d  the  consolidates  amendments  s e c t i o n s i n t o one  to  the  s e c t i o n 36)  w i l l a l s o be covered by the Combines I n v e s t i g a t i o n Section itself,  36  w i l l a l s o be a p p l i e d t o p r i c e s shown on  expressed  on  , although  down a g u i d e l i n e as to t h i s percentage.  proposed  the two  10 % i s s u f f i c i e n t  anything  attached  to  Act  (which  , •services' Act. the  The  new  article  , i n s e r t e d i n or  accompanying an a r t i c l e o f f e r e d f o r s a l e s , or any  other  forms  56  of  advertisement  sales,  , including direct-mail materials,  home d e l i v e r e d promotional pamphlets.  imported a r t i c l e s o r salesmen Bill  on  imported  telephone  displays.  made  by  and i n t h e s t o r e w i l l a l s o be i n c l u d e d . offence  to  sell  an  at a p r i c e higher than the lowest p r i c e i n d i c a t e d on i t  by the s e l l e r advertises cannot  I t a l s o r e f e r s to  Statements  C - 227 a l s o p r o v i d e s t h a t i t i s an  article  door-to-door  ( i e . double -  ticketing).  Also  i f any  seller  at a bargain p r i c e f o r a product that he does not or  supply i n r e a s o n a b l e q u a n t i t i e s  ,  he  is  liable  to  be  prosecuted. There  a r e two  offences  Combines I n v e s t i a t i o n Act. to  created  under Section_37 of the  I t i s an o f f e n c e t o p u b l i s h o r cause  be p u b l i s h e d an advertisement c o n t a i n i n g a statement  a.  which :  1. p u r p o r t s to be a §_atement_of_fact 2. but which i s d e c e p t i v e _ f a l s e or misleadinq_____  b.  1. i s so  iB_gSlrJi2. §-- _-2£_g--2--§-^iB2_:n  v  2. that i s m i s l e a d i n g Under t h e second beyond reasonable _£__2__2£ii___ litigation these  s  doubt  o  that  worded  isdifficult.  or  statement  false.  , where the Crown has t o prove  the  advertisement  arranged  to  be  involved misleading  is ,  Unless by manipulation of presumpton ,  words seem to have l i t t l e Under t h e f i r s t  a  alternative  effect.  a l t e r n a t i v e , a statement  p u r p o r t i n g to  be  o f f a c t v i o l a t e s t h i s s e c t i o n i f such statement i s  The statement  may be f a c t u a l l y t r u e but i t  may  contain  57  iS£iiSl£i2H§ is  that  are deceptive or misleading.  s a i d that matters  example  ,  a  but  what  is  unsaid  that  than i t s l e a d i n g competitor's  factually  ,  list  true have  but  low  it  leaves  t a r content  of 118 c i g a r e t t e brands  competitor's to  be  counts.  c i g a r e t t e company c l a i m s t h a t i t s own  l e s s t a r content  cigarettes  I t i s not what  two  ,  under  product.  ilE£§§sion  has  This i s  that  its  , which i s not the case.  On a  it  ranks lower.  misleading  the  product  For  ranks  midway  Such advertisement  this  Section  of  ,  with  the  i s considered the  Combines  I n v e s t i g a t i o n Act. This  leads  us  to another  c o n s i d e r e d necessary  and  information  should  be  limitations  in  most  sufficient supplied  How  and  ,  advertising  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the product to  issue.  much i n f o r m a t i o n i s  specifically  given  the  promotions?  size  what  and  time  Whatever  a d v e r t i s e d , some may  some people but not to others.  ,  the  be r e l e v a n t  Bust e v e r y t h i n g be d i s c l o s e d ?  A common p r a c t i c e i s t h a t a d v e r t i s e r s w i l l a d v e r t i s e the g e n e r a l usefulness  of  a product but f a i l  as c i t e d i n the case above. too  far  in  the  The  puffery.  to d i s c l o s e the l i m i t a t i o n s ,  g e n e r a l g u i d e l i n e i s not to  If  what  the  a d v e r t i s e r does not  d i s c l o s e w i l l g i v e the impression of the o p p o s i t e been  disclosed  ,  the  go  to  provision  in  this  section  offence  is  that  the  what has  has been  infringed. The  essence  of  the  published i s misleading  , d e c e p t i v e or f a l s e .  advertisement  By whose standard  58  are the advertisements the viewpoint judgement  t o be judged?  are they t o be judged from  o f a d v e r t i s e r s or consumers?  s u b j e c t i v e or o b j e c t i v e ?  Are the standards of  who , the reasonable  man or  the slow - witted consumer , r e q u i r e s p r o t e c t i o n ?  The I m p e r i a l  Tobacco case  an  Mr.  7  6  Justice  "the  has a t l e a s t provided  which  credulous". used  in  7 7  the  Act  i s f o r the  public  answer.  said  -  The 'credulous  man*  Canadian c o u r t s .  principle  is  that :  that  i n c l u d e s the i g n o r a n t , the unthinking now  vast  and the  generally  The defence t h a t any reasonable  man w i l l not be f o o l e d by the ads can no Fryburger  of  S i n c l a i r o f the A l b e r t a Supreme Court  p r o t e c t i o n of the  multitude  some s o r t  stated at a Congressional  longer  operate.  Dr.  hearing :  "There i s the n o t i o n t h a t consumers should be able t o t u r n t o a d v e r t i s i n g f o r the whole t r u t h , f o r a l l the f a c t s , f o r a balanced presentation of pros and cons. As commendable as t h i s might be , consumers g e n e r a l l y look upon a d v e r t i s i n g as biased communication. They expect a d v e r t i s i n g to be one - s i d e d , to e x t o l l only the v i r t u e s of t h e i r brand, not i t s weaknesses; to promote not t h r e a t e n . T h i s does not mean t h a t consumers expect to be, nor should they be, shortchanged on u s e f u l i n f o r m a t i o n . In our competitive system , consumers get i n f o r m a t i o n from a v a r i e t y of sources - eg. s e l l e r s of competing products , consumer information services, and government agencies. They do not need, nor do they rely upon single manufacturer's a d v e r t i s i n g t o give them a l l the relevant i n f o r m a t i o n " . 7 8  The as  a  c o u r t has decided  defence  at  t h a t such argument w i l l  a l l . The 'credulous  p r o v i d e s p r o t e c t i o n t o t h e i g n o r a n t and  not  man' standard also  to  suffice  therefore  children  who  l a c k the a b i l i t y and the s o p h i s t i c a t i o n i n consumer knowledge to  59  p r o t e c t themselves as r e f e r r e d The  question  of  i n the Fryburger's  whether  'mens  rea*  testimony.  i s r e q u i r e d as an  e s s e n t i a l i n g r e d i e n t of an o f f e n c e under t h i s s e c t i o n or not has been decided that  by Hr.  Justice Jessup.  has s i n c e been almost  an i n g r e d i e n t o f the o f f e n c e " .  of  that  S e c t i o n 37)  would  not  be  Although  H i s argument was  necessary  ,  the  to  any  prosecution  amendment  to  f o r 'advertisement'  apply t o any form  selling  based  (Subsection 2 i s an  of  i n t h i s s e c t i o n has not  a g a i n s t l a b e l s , pamphlets this  section  substitutes  , thus e n l a r g i n g i t s scope  communication  ,  including  the  advertising  to the  i s g u i l t y of an o f f e n c e . t h e proposed amendment, the warranty or guarantee to  r e p a i r or r e p l a c e an a r t i c l e i s a m i s r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i f there no  prospect  of  is  o f i t being c a r r i e d out , or i f i t does not c o n f e r  any m a t e r i a l advantage on the liability  oral  F u r t h e r , under the  amendment , anyone who s u p p l i e s m i s l e a d i n g  Under  on the  i f knowledge  messages o f salesmen i n the s t o r e .  distributor,  i s not  s t a t e d i n the s e c t i o n .  proposed  'representation*  rule  T h i s does not apply to the  the use of *advertisement•  f a r prevented  the  : ".... that i t  an e x c u l p a t o r y c l a u s e of the p u b l i s h e r  second circumstance  etc.  down  and t h a t mens r e a ...  e s s e n t i a l ingredient of the offence.  so  laid  u n i v e r s a l l y followed  i s an offence of s t r i c t l i a b i l i t y  fact  He  7 9  consumer  or  the s u p p l i e r s t o a standard  i f i t limits  lower  the  than what would  be provide by c i v i l law unless i t i s so s t a t e d i n  the  warranty  60  or guarantee. or length  Testimonials  essence  g i v i n g the  of  these  Combines I n v e s t i g a t i o n criminal  offence.  the  only  The  burden  and  is  an  consumers , who  out i n B i l l C - 227  The  ,  The  the  is  offence  has  been  a  committed.  have s u f f e r e d  damages  ,  of  will  proposed amendment to the Act as  , introduces  set  a c i v i l a c t i o n remedy a v a i l a b l e  80  administration  investigation.  iniated  i n f a c t , of  on the prosecutor to prove  of t h i s Act takes the  Complaints are r e c e i v e d  D i r e c t o r of I n v e s t i g a t i o n annd Research. be  and  At, i s that a v i o l a t i o n of the Act  no other r e l i e f .  to c o n s u m e r s .  written  remedy a v a i l a b l e i s f i n e and/or imprisonment  the v i o l a t o r and have  performance  testimonial.  sections  beyond reasonable doubt t h a t Also  guarantees as to the  of l i f e of the product have to be supported by  permission of the one The  and  by  the  Director himself  36  are  complaints  by the s t a f f of  the  I n v e s t i g a t i o n can  also  or as the M i n i s t e r  R e s t r a i n t of Trade Commission d i r e c t s . of v i o l a t i o n s under S e c t i o n  form of  of  the  Reports of i n v e s t i g a t i o n to  be  submitted  to  the  Attorney - General within s i x months. Prosecution Fines  is  under S e c t i o n  Section  36 and  carried  out  37 are g e n e r a l l y  by  the  Attorney - G e n e r a l .  higher  than  average from $650 to about$3 000.  EXTRA-LEGAL ORGANIZATIONS  f  those  under  61  In  Canada  advertising  is  ,  part  in  the  organizations.  The  Board  second  and  the  Broadcasters.  The  of the burden of c u r b i n g hands  first is  the  ethics  research 1.  to  ,  and  extra  Canadian  -  , being  an  and  Advisory all  consumer  public information. promote  and  8 1  -  Advisory  Board , i s  ,  education  I t s main o b j e c t i v e s are adherence  3.  sponsor  and  support  research  practices,  economic e f f e c t s ;  to  continuing  advertising  to  the  effectiveness  development of a p p r o p r i a t e  by  ;  into advertising,  i n c l u d i n g i t s s o c i a l and contribute  :  to  i n c l u d i n g the Canadian_Codg_of_Adyertising_Standards to  body  i n such matters  relations  encourage  of  industry  approved n a t i o n a l a d v e r t i s i n g standards and  2.  legal  Association  on the a d v e r t i s i n g i n d u s t r y  government  develop,  large  Advertising  probably the most i n f l u e n t i a l  as  two  i s the Canadian A d v e r t i s i n g  Canadian  which a c t s on b e h a l f  of  objectionable  improvement assisting  educational  and  in  of the  training  programmes ; 4.  to  improve  advertising  public to  awareness of the c o n t r i b u t i o n s of  Canada's  economic  and  common  interest  of  social  well  being; 5.  to  serve  the  Advertising The  Industry.  1963  Canadian  8 2  main medium through which the Board r e c e i v e s  i s the Canadian Code of A d v e r t i s i n g Standards. in  the  and  republished  i n 1967  I t was  complaints compiled  a f t e r some r e v i s i o n s .  It i s  62  approved i n p r i n c i p l e by a l l of C.A.A.B., Bureau  and  in  Inc. ,  C.B.C. ,  addition,  Association  Canadian  by of  weekly  substantial  supervised the  Coporate  the  Industrial  Association represent  p a r t of the a d v e r t i s i n g i n d u s t r y .  des  of  Council  Normes de P u b l i c i t e (French).  the  Business  Advertisers  These together  by the A d v e r t i s i n g Standards  Conseil  Members  Canadian E e t t e r  Newspaper  P e r i o d i c a l Press A s s o c i a t i o n . and  the  ,  the  and  the  a  major  The Code i s  (English)  and  The purpose of  the Code i s , as s e t out i n the pamphlet : "Through the adoption of  the  Code  organizations  of  undertake  t o the p r e p a r a t i o n their  Advertising  Standards  t o apply  and execution  ,  the p a r t i c i p a t i n g  the h i g h e s t e t h i c a l  standards  of Canadian a d v e r t i s i n g .  It i s  d e s i r e and i n t e n t i o n to make a d v e r t i s i n g more e f f e c t i v e by  continuing  t o r a i s e the standard  by ensuring In  of a d v e r t i s i n g  excellence  and  t e x t of the Code, the s e c t i o n d e a l i n g  with  integrity i n advertising content",  the  actual  8 3  f a l s e a d v e r t i s i n g reads as f o l l o w s : "No advertisement s h a l l be prepared , or be accepted  ,  which  contains  false  unwarranted or exaggerated c l a i m s by i m p l i c a t i o n .  Advertisers  use  of  'claims*  and  'implication'  substantially  misleading  their  wider  than  the  agencies  claims".  words such as 'unwarranted makes  ,  - e i t h e r d i r e c t l y or  and a d v e r t i s i n g  must be prepared t o s u b s t a n t i a t e The  ,  knowingly  1  scope  , 'exaggerated' , of  this  Code  t h a t of the s e c t i o n s of the Combines  63  Investigation  Act.  based on o p i n i o n The  I t i s able  rather  sections  same  as  dealing  the  with t e s t i m o n i a l s ,  or s c i e n t i f i c  Combines  human ,  prepared,  and  i t states  second  superstitions  that  Further ,  : ,  advertisement  to  third  cure or r e l i e f  shall  suggestive  i s calculated  to  exploit  the  commodity or s e r v i c e " .  : "... which o f f e r s f a l s e hope i n the form  of  other  example  a  f o r the mental o r p h y s i c a l l y handicapped , e i t h e r  techniques  basis". used which might be imagined to be  l i n k e d t o these e x p l o i t a t i o n s appear to be l e f t out of the (for  be  play on f e a r s to mislead the consumers  on a temporary or permanent Some  public  t o p u b l i c decency".  "... which  or  it  exploitation*  The f i r s t d e a l s with "no  i n t o the purchase of the a d v e r t i s e d The  Act.  essentially  or be knowingly accepted, which i s v u l g a r ,  or i n any way, o f f e n s i v e The  are  with t h e ' a l l e g e d  weakness by a d v e r t i s i n g .  decency  p r i c e comparisons,  claims  Investigation  c o n t a i n s three s e c t i o n s d e a l i n g of  advertisements  than statement of f a c t .  guarantees, p r o f e s s i o n a l the  , then , t o catch  Code  , i s the play on a woman's f e a r o f growing o l d or  losing affection  considered  to  be  under  the  second  clause  mentioned above ? ) . There  i s another  c h i l d r e n which s t a t e s physical  section  dealing  : ".... which would  , mental or moral - t o c h i l d r e n " .  with result This  advertising in  damage  to -  , of course i s  64  extremely  vague  constitutes  and  moral  wide.  job  Council.  However  ,  Board and  its  advertising  and  on  placed  are  children  i n such  Council  if  violation  on  t h i s clause  members  The  determine  specifically  or emotional damage to c h i l d r e n  to be a formidable  advertising  To  the  concerned  and  are  would appear  Advertising  , does give the about  w i l l i n g and  Standards  idea t h a t  the  effects  of  the  eager to c o n t r o l  respect.  w i l l investigate  advertiser  immediately i n an e f f o r t to c o r r e c t  the  infraction.  this  not reached  r e s u l t i s voluntary  , the C o u n c i l  changes deemed to be make any the  revealed  is  the  ,  is  once a complaint ,  cases  compliance.  necessary.  I f the  until  received  i s notified In  most  I f agreement i s  w i l l review the case and  change , the media group are  advertisement  what  advertiser  decide on  the  refuses  to  then advised not  a c o r r e c t i o n i s made.  to accept  Such a case i s  rare. The  e f f e c t of t h i s Code may  complaints published effective.  are  made  or a i r e d .  usually  be somewhat d i m i n i s h e d a f t e r the  Correction  because  advertisement has  of the advertisement may  not  been be  P r e c l e a r a n c e of c o p i e s would be more u s e f u l i n t h i s  respect.  IHJ_J3R0ADCAST_C0D^ T h i s Code was and  i n May  1973  was  put  out by  the  adopted by the  Association following  of  Broadcasters  associations  :  65  Canadian A s s o c i a t i o n Association  of B r o a d c a s t e r s  of Canadian A d v e r t i s e r s Inc.  CTV T e l e v i s i o n Network I n s t i t u t e o f Canadian  Advertising  Radio Sale Bureau T e l e v i s i o n Bureau of Canada and  i n p r i n c i p l e by the C.B.C.  The  Code  Advertising  is  designed  Standards and supplement a l l f e d e r a l and  laws and r e g u l a t i o n s The  Code  concern  governing  undoubtedly  consciousness among The  t o complement the Canadian Code of  advertising. marks  broadcasters,  about  the  the  The  probable  effects  enforcement  de l a P u b l i c i t e .  of  this  of  p r o v i d e s that directed  of ,  social  consumers.  advertising is  the  ,  major  Code i s a l s o c a r r i e d out by the  Standards C o u n c i l  at  these no  and l e c o n s e i l des Normes  I t was s e t out i n the Code that there  be f i v e members i n the C h i l d r e n ' s two  and  of  f o r e s t a b l i s h i n g t h i s Code.  Canadian A d v e r t i s i n g  and  trend  advertisers  e s p e c i a l l y t e l e v i s i o n a d v e r t i s i n g to c h i l d r e n incentive  provincial  must  be  broadcasters  s e c t i o n of the  accept  to  Council/Conseil  public representatives. shall  are  any  The Code advertising  c h i l d r e n without the p r i o r a p p r o v a l of the C o u n c i l  or C o n s e i l .  P r e c l e a r a n c e i s not mandatory f o r a d v e r t i s i n g  that  is  In  will  local.  the case of a v i o l a t i o n , the b r o a d c a s t e r s  agree t h a t such an advertisement s h a l l not be re - run  and  the  a d v e r t i s e r s h a l l be The 1.  notified.  t e x t of the Code i s d i v i d e d i n t o nine headings :  Factual  presentation  -  A d v e r t i s e r s are urged  abuse the power of the c h i l d ' s i m a g i n a t i o n and exaggerate  claims  stimulate  2.  unreasonable  product  performance ;  Product  prohibition  be unsafe  for  advertised 3.  about  Undue  use  to  as  to  product  or  children  and  so  are deemed to  should  not  be  to them ;  pressure  is  of  - C e r t a i n products by  not  products  expectations  upon  parents  c h i l d r e n seldom possess what  the  not to  advertised  to  purchase  the purchasing  power  , a d v e r t i s e r s should not  t h e i r weakness i n wanting t h i n g s and  to  -  Since to  buy  exploit  encourage  a  purchase ; 4.  Promotion  by  programme  endorsements - S i n c e distinguish  characters  children  between  a  commercial  and  between  performers  and  the  may  P r i c e and to  compare  6.  personal able  programme  to and  influence  i n t r i n s i c value of the product own  the  p r i c e s a t t h e i r young age and Words l i k e  ' j u s t * and  of ,  merits.  purchase terms - C h i l d r e n l a c k  should be c l e a r . be  be  personal  products should be promoted on t h e i r 5.  not  broadcast the  and  p r i c e s used  'only'  avoided.  Comparison c l a i m s - T h i s i s d e a l t with i n  ability  (5).  should  67  7.  Safety  -  Dangerous  acts  should  not be  Exposure t o commercials about hazardous  portrayed.  products  l e a d c h i l d r e n t o misuse them and these products t h e r e f o r e not be a d v e r t i s e d 8.  S o c i a l values should  not  should  t o them.  - A d v e r t i s e r s should replace  may  parents  as  recognise the  that they  main source of  s o c i a l i z a t i o n a t home . 9.  Substantiation -  This  is in  advertising regulations. about  their  substantiate It  products  line  with  the  other  When a d v e r t i s e r s make c l a i m s ,  they  should  be  ready  to  them.  i s recognized  is a  relative  term and c h i l d r e n sometimes do enjoy a d u l t programmes.  The Code  therefore  refers  to  under 13 s p e c i f i c a l l y on  that the term  commercial  'children'  messages d i r e c t e d a t c h i l d r e n  , whether such commercial messages  c h i l d r e n ' s or a d u l t s *  appear  programmes.  SUMMARY Canada  has  a  considerable  amount  of  statutes  ,  both  p r o v i n c i a l and f e d e r a l , i n the area of c o n t r o l l i n g a d v e r t i s i n g . However , even with adopted  by  these  statutes  the a d v e r t i s i n g  industry  a d v e r t i s i n g i s extremely d i f f i c u l t now in  and ,  the  voluntary  false  to l i t i g a t e .  codes  or misleading The law  up to  has been concerned mostly with the o b j e c t i v e i s s u e of t r u t h a d v e r t i s i n g and  the s u b j e c t i v e  issues  such  as  taste  in  68  a d v e r t i s i n g have been s u c c e s s f u l l y avoided.  T h i s l i n e may  be  information  crossed  because  even  with  factual  never ,  i n f r i n g e m e n t of the laws has been d i f f i c u l t t o d e t e c t .  the  Besides,  the l e g i s l a t i v e bodies are s t i l l r e l u c t a n t to c u r t a i l freedom of e x p r e s s i o n i n the communication i n d u s t r y .  However , the  of  advertising  safeguarding  the  integrity  without compromising i t s own a d v e r t i s e r s themselves.  of  right  the of  expression  S e l f - r e g u l a t i o n may  the best means of m a i n t a i n i n g  this  balance.  still  is  burden  industry on  the  prove to be  69  CHAPTER 3  As  can  be  seen from the d i s c u s s i o n  Canada does have a c o n s i d e r a b l e advertising usually  i n one  l a s t chapter ,  body of l e g i s l a t i o n  form or another.  controlling  However these s t a t u t e s  are  worded i n g e n e r a l terms , as i n the case of the Combines  Investigation aimed  i n the  Act  at  the  rendering  any  , that  general  protection public.  o f f e r e d by They  special protection  are  these s t a t u t e s insignificant  to c h i l d r e n from  is in  objectionable  advertising. As d i s c u s s e d generally  i n the f i r s t chapter of t h i s  realize  that a d v e r t i s i n g i s biased  expect i t to be one brand, not we  the  usually  another.  weaknesses.  'discount'  directed  The  at  When we  the  general  effect'.  used  public  means t h a t they are instinct'  to  commercial different  is  the  it  as  a  indifferentiable  from i t only  that  on in  of  and  v i r t u e s of  the  i t i n one  way  advertisers  regulating  advertising  also  take i n t o account t h i s (age  2  to  purpose of a d v e r t i s i n g .  selling from  or  the p a r t of  exposed to i t without our  qualify  adults  communication  the  However , young c h i l d r e n  understand the content and  ,  are exposed to a commercial,  truthfulness  standards  the  'discounting  means  , e x t o l l i n g only  A c e r t a i n degree of p u f f e r y  i s tolerated.  seldom  - sided  paper  the  usual  That  'defensive  mesage.  To  programme,  by the f a c t t h a t i t i s s h o r t e r .  standards to be used i n r e g u l a t i n g  1  6)  2  them, a perhaps A l l this  advertising  70  d i r e c t e d at c h i l d r e n need t o be much  higher  p r o v i s i o n s s e t out i n most of the s t a t u t e s  than  the  studied..  In t h i s and the f o l l o w i n g chapers , the question two  provisions  of how the  , the Consumer P r o t e c t i o n Act of Quebec and the  Broadcast Code f o r A d v e r t i s i n g to C h i l d r e n controlling  general  , try  to  deal  a d v e r t i s i n g d i r e c t e d at c h i l d r e n w i l l be  Three aspects o f the i s s u e  will  misleading  the  advertising  ,  be  examined.  second  is  a c c e p t a b i l i t y and the t h i r d i s s o c i a l values  discussed.  The  safety  with  first  is  and product  and s o c i a l i z a t i o n .  IISLEADING_ADVERTISING Under Broadcast  the  Consumer  Protection  Act  of  Quebec  and  Code f o r A d v e r t i s i n g To C h i l d r e n , the f o l l o w i n g s are  prohibited : 1.  unfair , false  , misleading  2.  making  of  use  characteristics  3.  or deceptive  superlatives of  describe the p r i c e ; should  a  product  words  like  advertising ;  to  describe  or  diminutives  'only'  and  the to  'just  1  not be used ;  exaggerating  the  nature  ,  characteristics  ,  performance or l e n g t h of l i f e of commodity ; 4.  de -  emphasizing  the  skill  ,  age  ,  strength  or  d e x t e r i t y necessary t o use a commodity ; 5.  the  the  use  comparison;  of  comparitive  claim  or  establishing  a  71  6.  7.  employment  of  cartoons  who  to expressly  promote commodities ;  when  of  additional  price.  of  certain  Comparison ,  in  beyond  use the  be  clear  very s p e c i f i c that  are  cartoons  in  in  , the  general  the  that  any an  prohibiting  use  of  diminutives  personalities are  when i t i s d i r e c t e d a t c h i l d r e n .  By  of such  techniques  control  of  ,  the  misleading  t o e x p l o i t such v u l n e r a b i l i t y .  legislature  advertising  v u l n e r a b i l i t y of c h i l d r e n and  the  tendency  i s s u e d e a l t with i n these p r o v i s i o n s  young  and  their  mental  ability  understanding of the o p e r a t i n g mechanisms of obviously lacking. commercials subjects  of  is  They seldom  to s e l l  the  persuasion.  •cheapest' , ' l o v l i e s t '  realize  still the  that  like  'best*  is of  i s the  lack When  developing ,  market p l a c e i s the  products promoted and Words  is  and  of s o p h i s t i c a t i o n i n commercial knowledge among c h i l d r e n . are  in  commodities  advertisers  they  the  employed  and  programmes to promote the  the  first  in  generally  recognizing  The  programmes  stated  made  , exaggeration  advertising  p r o h i b i t i n g the  is  to  product w i l l only be obtained at  here are  in children's  forbidden  should  known  in children's  price  t__hni___s  superlatives  featured  going  the  provisions  advertising. and  it  accessory  The  featured  the  advertisement,  use  personalities  c h i l d r e n and  moreover  are  or  ,  purpose  of  that they  are  'finest'  ,  , 'only* , ' j u s t ' w i l l have f o r  children  72  their  literal  words  should  meanings be  because they do not r e a l i z e that  discounted  when  they  are  d e s c r i p t i o n of the commodities a d v e r t i s e d . more  credulous  and  gullible  world i n g e n e r a l and the commercial  exaggeration  of  the  these  products  g u l l i b l e and  are  the  resulting  'subtle' s e l l i n g  de  messages.  -  from  gross  emphasis of the  them.  children  should be p r o t e c t e d from  disappointment  usually  world i n p a r t i c u l a r .  or  that  are  The  reasons  credulous  experiencing  from a d v e r t i s e r s ' ' s o p h i s t i c a t e d ' and A d v e r t i s e r s should not  exploit  and simple - mindedness c h i l d r e n p l a c e i n the a d u l t  around  them.  I t i s being recognized  confidence  in  parents  that  ,  young  Irresponsibility  by  of  advertisers  1  are  order which  and will  curtailed.  issue i s children's s u s c e p t a b i l i t y  'identification .  world  i n f a m i l y and i n the world  s h a t t e r such t r u s t and confidence should be The t h i r d  the  children  o u t s i d e them and they view t h i s world as having some dependability.  and  unnecessary  trust  building  the  and e x p e r i e n c e s with the  r e q u i r e d i n the use of  provisions  to  a d u l t s because  i s s u e i s the p r o t e c t i o n of c h i l d r e n  d e x t e r i t y and s k i l l for  C h i l d r e n are  than most average  they l a c k the necessary knowledge about  The second  applied  these  to  persuasion  Empirical studies indicate that children  tend t o i m i t a t e the behavior of persons shown on t e l e v i s i o n when they i d e n t i f y with such persons.  unable  to  d i s t i n g u i s h between the p e r s o n a l i n f l u e n c e of performers and  the  intrinsic  values  Also  ,  they  of the products promoted.  are  The p r o h i b i t i o n of  73  the use of cartoons i n g e n e r a l r a t h e r than the characters  use  a  cartoon  f e a t u r e d i n cartoon programmes seems to suggest  c a r t o o n , being e x c e p t i o n a l l y welcomed and accepted is  of  uniquely  powerful  d i r e c t e d at c h i l d r e n .  persuasive  The  trend i n  by  technique  that  children,  in advertising  advertising  regulation  as  r e v e a l e d by these p r o v i s i o n s makes the p r o h i b i t i o n of the use * catchy  tunes*  impossibility!  to  promote  a  Sote  also  that  A d v e r t i s i n g to C h i l d r e n and  puppets  3  in  the  far  from  Broadcast  being  an  Code  for  the p r o h i b i t i o n of the use of c a r t o o n s  does not extend  to f a c t u a l statements  commodity  of  to p u b l i c s e r v i c e announcements or  about n u t r i t i o n a l or e d u c a t i o n a l b e n e f i t s . -  T h i s suggests  t h a t such e x p l o i t a t i v e persuasion  technigues  can  be  promote  not o t h e r s and  that  c e r t a i n a d v e r t i s i n g messages are d e s i r a b l e while o t h e r s are  not.  used  to  certain  things  and  The q u e s t i o n whether the l e g i s l a t i v e body should have the to  determine  what  the i n f o r m a t i o n i n p u t of c h i l d r e n should  remains a c o n t r o v e r s y .  T h i s i s s u e seems to  when s o c i a l values are  concerned.  Some  critics  of  the  the  idea  that  makes them c y n i c a l and misled This  by is  false often  •commercial protected.  be  legislation  p r o v i s i o n s are too p r o t e c t i v e . . with  power  S.  more  assert  Ward ,  for  e a r l y exposure of c h i l d r e n such c y n i c i s m p r o t e c t s  explosive  that  these  example  plays  to commercials  them  from  being  or misleading a d v e r t i s i n g when they grow cited  as  socialization'  being and  a  step  children  in  the  should  be  process  up.  4  of  not be over -  I t would seem that c h i l d r e n should not be molded  to  74  suit  the  vices  of the world.  grows up to meet i s f u l l such  of  I f the commercial  falsehood  and  misrepresentation,  • i m p e r f e c t i o n ' should be mended and we should not expect to  teach  our c h i l d r e n to be c y n i c a l and thus equipped  in t h i s  for survival  world.  Moreover, i t would seem that such a view sense  world a c h i l d  that one l e a r n s from  necessary to l e a r n from valuable  trait  to  experiences  but  'bad' e x p e r i e n c e s .  have  in  i s negative i n the it  would  not  be  Cynicism i s h a r d l y a  order to gtow up to be mature and  responsible adults.  SUMMARY  There i s no doubt watching  t e l e v i s i o n and  mental a b i l i t y They  are  that young c h i l d r e n spend  a l s o no doubt  that  s o p h i s t i c a t e d commercial In  order  to  the  world  outside  their  i m i t a t i v e and e a s i l y persuaded.  these  of  time  that they are i n g e n e r a l l a c k i n g i n the  to understand  credulous,  a lot  traits selling  protect  make  them  easy  homes. There i s  •preys  1  to  messages. children  from  objectionable  a d v e r t i s i n g , the l e g i s l a t i o n s t u d i e d i n t h i s chapter goes beyond general p r o h i b i t i o n specific advertising  a g a i n s t m i s l e a d i n g a d v e r t i s i n g and techniques commonly used.  r e c o g n i t i o n that c h i l d r e n are not merely a  prohibits  T h i s i s a simple  •young a d u l t s ' but  are  group of 'disadvantaged people' i n the sense that they do not  75  have the understanding nor the knowledge of the commercial which are so highly  demanded of us i n modern  living-  world  76  _________  In t h i s  chapter  ,  regulation  that  deals  with  a c c e p t a b i l i t y and s a f e t y f o r c h i l d r e n i n a d v e r t i s i n g them  will  be  discussed.  The  p r o v i s i o n s i n one form or another Act,  the  1  Broadcast  Protection  Act  of  Act,  these  are  and  of  the  the  d i r e c t e d at  that have such  Hazardous 3  the Consumer  Broadcast  Code  statutes  out  individual.  in  this  Act  is  the  health  to  the  Act.  evidence  showing  indicating  danger  hazards  the  notion  advertised  at  that  involved  all.  The  in  r e s u l t i n g from  certain trend  product is  emphasis  products due  With the newer s t a t u t e s l i k e the Quebec Act with  regulations  In l a t e r s t a t u t e s , f o r example , the  p r o h i b i t i o n of s p e c i f i c  research r e s u l t s  and  The composition and n u t r i t i o n a l content  Broadcast Act and the Hazardous Products Act , the shifted  for  , the Food and Drug Act i s the o l d e s t .  of the food and drug a d v e r t i s e d have to comply with set  Products  5  The main concern as r e f l e c t e d i n t h i s safety  statutes  the Food and Drug A c t ,  Quebec,*  A d v e r t i s i n g to C h i l d r e n . Of  2  main  product  is  to e i t h e r  consumption  or  misue of products. ,  the  concern  is  c l a s s e s should not  definitely  towards  be  more  s t r i n g e n t c o n t r o l i n t h i s area over the years.  SP_CIFIC_PROHIBITION Certain  products  are  specifically  prohibited  from being  77  advertised.  The  advertising  of  Hazardous  Products  amounts of l e a d .  f o r household  prohibits  coated  with  paint  V a r n i s h e s , p a i n t s and  use which are h i g h l y inflammable  containing  p a i n t removers  ; jeguirity  or any substance or a r t i c l e made with such poisonous similarly these  prohibited.  products  children  beans  beans  are  The concern expressed i n t h i s Act i s t h a t  named  are  dangerous  for  use  by  anyone and  specifically.  The R e g u l a t i o n s of the Canadian Commission beverages be  the  such t h i n g s as f u r n i t u r e and other toy a r t i c l e s  i n t e n d e d f o r c h i l d r e n which are harmful  Act  aimed  in  connection  with  s e t out s p e c i f i c a l l y  -  the  Radio  -  Television  advertising  of a l c o h o l i c  that such a d v e r t i s i n g  a t people not l e g a l l y e n t i t l e d  to d r i n k  should  not  ( i e . minors).  Family or other scenes which i n c l u d e minors or persons  appearing  to be minors should not be shown.  GENERAL_PROHIBITION The  Consumer  Protection  D i v i s i o n XI t h a t a d v e r t i s i n g 1.  concerns quality  a  product  , or o r d i n a r y  Act  of  Quebec  i s prohibited ,  enacts  which :  which , by i t s nature , usage  ought  not  to  be  placed at the d i s p o s a l of c h i l d r e n ; 2.  concerns a drug or p r o p r i e t a r y medicine  3.  concerns  a  vitamin  in  liquid  ,  ;  powdered or  in  its  t a b l e t form portrays  ;  a person performing any  unsafe a c t ;  p o r t r a y s a commodity i n a manner improper or dangerous use The  Broadcast  l s o provides  Code  suggestive  thereof.  f o r A d v e r t i s i n g to C h i l d r e  i n s i m i l a r terms t h a t :  Drugs , p r o p r i e t a r y medicine , and liquid  ,  powdered  advertised  or  or  vitamins  in  t a b l e t form must not  be  to c h i l d r e n .  Products not intended not  of  f o r use  by  children  must  be a d v e r t i s e d to c h i l d r e n , e i t h e r d i r e c t l y indirectly  through  the  advertising  of  promotions that are p r i m a r i l y c h i l d - o r i e n t e d . Advertisements, except s p e c i f i c s a f e t y messages, must  not p o r t r a y a d u l t s or c h i l d r e n engaging i n  unsafe a c t s , eg.  playing inside  a  refrigerator  or with matches , i g n o r i n g t r a f f i c r e g u l a t i o n s accepting  gifts  from  strangers  ,  , or under the  i n f l u e n c e o f a l c o h o l or n a r c o t i c s . Advertisements must not show products being i n an  unsafe  instance  ,  or when  dangerous  manner  products  containers  i n t o other c o n t a i n e r s  from  their  for  hazardous  product  original  which c h i l d r e n  a s s o c i a t e as s a f e or r e l a t e d to food a  as  they show a d u l t s t r a n s f e r r i n g  hazardous  eg. pouring  ,  used  or drink into  ,  cups ,  79  g l a s s e s or s o f t d r i n k b o t t l e s . The  phrases  ordinary  , 'product  usage  ought  not  c h i l d r e n ' , 'products •suggestive  of  which by i t s to  not  improper  and  placed  intended  for  hazards  children. curious  at  provisions.  Drugs  involved  in  the  about  the  outside  misuse in  of  their  world  The  year- o l d s are g r e a t broad  scope.  and  almost  curiosity  and i n t e r e s t .  'almost  that  available  them through  time  in  front  viewings  without to  of  the  and  secure home community  alone  with  products years  by are  are h i g h l y i m i t a t i v e .  their  interests  everything  cover  captures  e v e r y t h i n g ' r e f e r s to  television  that mothers  much guidance  up.  concern i s  buy  an  their  anything  t h e i r eyes , ears , nose , conceived  in  concrete  than on any  seldom  other  accompany  them  activity during  , c h i l d r e n are exposed c o n t i n o u s l y to t h i s medium  environments  growing  proprietary  Since t h e r e i s no doubt t h a t c h i l d r e n spend more  6  during the day and such  ,  developing  and  mouth , f i n g e r s or anything t h a t can be sensory t e r m s .  ,  s t a t e d that f i v e -  imitators  to  or  children'  these  Dorothy Cohen i n her book ,  is  by  vitamins are not c e r t a i n l y bad f o r consumption  Further , c h i l d r e n  amazingly  quality  the d i s p o s a l of  use  they are not to be a d v e r t i s e d to c h i l d r e n . the  ,  or dangerous use' , i n d i c a t e the wide  scope intended f o r these two medicine  be  nature  The  from t h e i r p a r e n t s .  7  The c h i l d  circumstances  far  beyond  in  has  been  which  he  is  exposed  the s m a l l and developing  and  o p p o r t u n i t y o f f e r e d by the t e l e v i s i o n medium ,  , i s f a r reaching.  It offers  an  exciting  stimulus  and  80  whether  people  behind  extremely  important  children.  Care  children safe  the  like  i t or not , i t i s an  'educational* i n s t r u c t o r f o r  must  be  taken  * l e a r n ' from t h i s  and  screen  enterprising.  -  constructive  This  to  regard  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i s c o n s i d e r e d t o be too g r e a t by some  b r o a d c a s t e r s and  there i s a n o t i o n that commercial t e l e v i s i o n i s  only an e n t e r t a i n i n g medium and the s c h o o l , the Given  ,  idea i s not to make the medium i n t o  a baby - s i t t e r f o r the parents as many parents seem it.8  school  to ensure t h a t whatever these  ' i n s t r u c t o r * must be  The  pre  that  •incidental'  educative  learning such  9  t h a t education should be l e f t  television  from  networks  television  for  and  to  parents.  children  is  an argument cannot remove r e s p o n s i b i l i t y from  the s h o u l d e r s of b r o a d c a s t e r s . The c h i l d culture.  i s never a completely  that  from which  especially should  recipient  of  his  He r e a c t s s e l e c t i v e l y to i t and a c t s on i t i n v a r i o u s  ways ; he gets out of an experience learns  passive  many sources and he  learns.  what he b r i n g s  to  he i s w i l l i n g t o t r y out and  The  broadcasters  and  be  the  ones  He test  advertisers  , have to r e s p e c t t h i s a b i l i t y to adopt and  not  it.  learn  responsible for bringing children  anything or any a c t i v i t y t h a t  may  endanger  their  health  and to and  safety. Growing  up  i s both p a i n f u l f o r the c h i l d and h i s parents.  The t e l e v i s i o n medium should not unnecessaily  more  complicated  make than  the  developing it  should  process be.  The  81  c o n t r a d i c t i o n between what parents and and  dangerous a c t s and  commercials should be  t e a c h e r s say  what are being shown on  about  the  safety  screeen  via  avoided.  SUMMARY  The  safety  issue  in  the area of a d v e r t i s i n g  c h i l d r e n i s probably the l e a s t c o n t r o v e r s i a l of a l l discussed harmful  in for  prohibited connection  the  paper.  children  to be  or  at  advertised.  directed  bear  potentiality  at  i n mind the of  the  the  the  disposal  of  Dangerous a c t s and reguired  are  improper use  in  depicted  Advertisers  in  p o t e n t i a l i t i e s should not be e x p l o i t e d  medium  to  i n any  way.  teach.  an  should  ' a b i l i t y ' of c h i l d r e n to l e a r n  television  be  children  not to be  children.  at  issues  Products that are c o n s i d e r e d to  with a product are  advertisement constantly  this  directed  and Such  82  CHAPTER_5  A  child  experience process  does  not  what i s to  of  (perhaps  thirty  the world  ,  up  i n a vacuum.  expected  of  him  He l e a r n s from  in  society.  The  , adopting and adapting the values of the  starts  or  mostly  neighbours  be  learning  s o c i e t y around him  grow  at  an  early  age.  Not  l e s s years ago?) , the c h i l d  from  his  h i s peers.  parents  ,  his  long  ago  l e a r n e d about  interaction  with  Today t e l e v i s i o n becomes h i s constant  companion , h i s teacher and a great ' s o c i a l i z a t i o n agent' i n h i s life.  The trend i n l e g i s l a t i o n r e f l e c t s the concern of  about  the  values  this  medium  s t a t u t e s of Canada attempting r e v e a l e d i n the Broadcast  Consumer  is  teaching  our  society  young.  The  to deal with t h i s i s s u e are mostly  Protection  Act  of  Quebec  and  the  prohibits  any  Code f o r A d v e r t i s i n g to C h i l d r e n  LEGISLATION_THAT_DEA  The  Consumer  Protection  Act  of  Quebec  advertisement d i r e c t e d a t c h i l d r e n which : 1.  e x p r e s s l y urges c h i l d r e n to buy , or to another  2.  request  person t o buy , a commodity ;  belittles  parental  authority  ,  judgement  cr  preferences ; p o r t r a y s reprehensive f a m i l y l i f e or customs ; suggests  that  commodity  the  will  possession  endow  a  or  use  of  a  c h i l d wtih p h y s i c a l ,  s o c i a l or p s y c h o l o g i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s s u p e r i o r to those of h i s peers lack  that  insofar ;  , except i f  as i t concerns  such  suggestion  education or h e a l t h , be  Code p r o v i d e s :  To a v o i d undue pressure , a d v e r t i s i n g  No s i n g l e  commercial  shall  presented  be  r e g u l a r l y scheduled apply  to  any  not  more  purchases.  segment  thereof  than once during  programme  (this  Specials'  does  which  are  any not not  scheduled).  advertisements  comparisons  statements  shall  or  r e f e r e n c e may  makes  claims  make  direct  ,  even  are v a l i d  when  - because  the such  undermine the c h i l d ' s enjoyment of  possessions  r e c e i v e d as  not  with the previous years* models ,or  competitive  present  or  broadcast  regularly  with  must  c h i l d r e n to purchase , or urge them to ask  t h e i r parents to make i n q u i r i e s or  Toy  ,  1  he Broadcast  urge  the  of p o s s e s s i o n or use t h e r e o f w i l l have the  opposite effect  true  ; or c o n v e r s e l y  gifts.  or  those  that  may  be  84  4.  Messages must not r e f l e c t d i s r e g a r d f o r p a r e n t a l authority  or  parental  judgement  or  portray  undesirable family l i v i n g habits. 5.  Any in  m a t e r i a l b e n e f i t s enjoyed should be i n h e r e n t the use of the product  Basically being  dealt  , there are three a s p e c t s of the with  in  a d v e r t i s e r s should the  home.  suggested  itself.  The  these  provisions.  issue  The  that  first  is  i s that  __________ aj__^  second  in  aspect i s t h a t m a t e r i a l i s m should not  to the c h i l d a t an e a r l y age.  The  third  aspect  be is  ____2_____ •  These parents  three  ,  influence  aspects  scholars of  of  and  the i s s u e r e f l e c t  legislators  television  on  a  about  child's  the concern  the  tremendous  outlook  on l i f e .  i n d i c a t e d i n chapter 1 of t h i s paper , young viewers tend to more  ambitious  ,  more  middle  s t r e s s s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e as values  are  being  the  - c l a s s o r i e n t a t e d and key  portrayed  to  success.  consistently  2  in  be  tend to  All  these  television  There can be no doubt t h a t  environment  beyond the c h i l d ' s immediate experience and i t a l s o  him the norms and b e h a v i o r a l  different  roles  in life.  h y p e r s e n s t i v i v e a d u l t world  not i s d o u b t f u l .  patterns  offers  associated  an  with  Whether such premature exposure to a before  s i g n i f i c a n c e of such norms and or  medium  As  programmes.  teaches  the  of  the  child  can  grasp  the  p a t t e r n s of behavior i s d e s i r a b l e  85  The  term  _____________  a c c o r d i n g to Z i g l e r a n d c h i l d :  is  always  broadly  defined.  3  " s o c i a l i z a t i o n i s a broad term f o r the whole process by which the individual develops through t r a n s a c t i o n with other people , h i s specific p a t t e r n s of socially relevant behaviors and experiences". Brim  referred  to  it  as the process by which i n d i v i d u a l s  a c q u i r e the knowledge , s k i l l s  , disposition  that enable them to  p a r t i c i p a t e as more or l e s s e f f e c t i v e members of groups and society.  the  *  The fundamental d i f f e r e n c e between these two d e f i n i t i o n s i s that  Brim  does  not s p e c i f y t h a t ' i n t e r a c t i o n  the process of s o c i a l i z a t i o n .  Under h i s  i s necessary i n  1  definition  then,  t e l e v i s i o n medium i s a s o c i a l i z a t i o n agent f o r the c h i l d he  can  acguire  w i l l enable medium. of  him t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n  a t t i t u d e formation are s  ,  by  experience  before  integrated  into  of  , and d i s p o s i t i o n s t h a t society  direct_ej_£erience  whatever the c h i l d  reinforced  certain  the  because  ,  through  the  However , as H a l l o r a n a l s o i n d i c a t e d , the main sources  situations be  the knowledge , s k i l l s  the  amount  socialization.  other such his  sources values  personality  with  objects  and  l e a r n s from the medium has to of and and  information outlook  on  behavior  and  direct  life  become  patterns.  of i n t e r a c t i o n has to take p l a c e i n the  a  process  86  As evidenced by r e s e a r c h s t u d i e s , the passive  recipient  as presented by exposed  to  the  televised  certain  'disposition* knowledge  television  medium.  commercials telling  when  6  the  child  him  how  marvellous  i t i s to  behave  in  disposition  a  materialistic  would  cease  to  fashion. be  Such  effective  were not i n accordance  them.  with  ,  disposition  the  child  equipped  effectively socialized  with  knowledge  and direct  , he a l s o ceases to be  by them.  , with h i s i n t e n s e c u r i o s i t y  and  ability  absorb knowledge and experience , to confirm what he sees on  television? possession,  He a  accumulation.  sees world  a  world  where  of  consumption,  achievement i n l i f e  His parents keep changing  a  keeps  count  of  what  the  Jones  have  t h e i r family car  better  every  mom always  that h i s s t e r e o s e t  ( i t i s the l a s t year's model) ;  came home today e x c i t e d by the ' d i s c o v e r y ' of a b e t t e r a  of  bought the day b e f o r e ;  b r o t h e r John who i s i n high s c h o o l complains i s j u s t not i n s t y l e anymore  world  means wealth -  year , with two or three c a r s parked i n t h e i r garage;  with  if  happens when a t e l e v i s i o n c h i l d of today t u r n s to h i s  immediate environment to  such  t o behave i s not r e i n f o r c e d the same way from  experience with h i s immediate environment  What  is  , u r g i n g him to buy , to ask  behavior p a t t e r n s o u t s i d e t e l e v i s i o n If  a  t h i n g s , he a c q u i r e s the 'knowledge* and the  to  and  i s never  of h i s c u l t u r e , even l e s s so of the s t i m u l i  h i s parents to buy or •possess'  child  detergent  c l e a n s i n g power ; daddy d i s c u s s e d with mom  night the mortgage they are g e t t i n g i n order to  mom  finance  a  last new  87  and  bigger  house  ( i t w i l l be i n a b e t t e r area too)  Jimmy t a l k s c o n s i s t e n t l y his  , i n c e s s a n t l y of the g i f t s he gets  b i r t h d a y , f o r t h i s and  that , f o r being good and  not so good , but good enough ; and on and on and He may what  the  not be able to understand nice  man  ; next door  on  f o r being  ....  what a l l these mean.  on the t e l e v i s i o n screen s a i d  for  But  yesterday i s  r e a l l y true : it  i s n i c e to have t h i s and  You can be  that  .....  b e t t e r than next door  Jimmy  if  you  have  t h i s ....... This  And  i s b e t t e r than l a s t year's model which Jimmy  on and  on and  on  Shut the adman up and switch o f f world  outside  toilet'  still  philosophy  responsibility  of  goes  on  simply  and  socializing  the  back on the p a r e n t s .  The c h i l d  with  the  he  Edgar B.  the  Phillips  v o i c e d the o p i n i o n determined  7  parental  fulfilling  television  on.  and  the  T h i s ' f l u s h - away work  child  anymore.  to be an  simply  doesn't  The  individual interact  i n t e r a c t s with h i s parents.  Dr.  , e x e c u t i v e d i r e c t o r of the American Guidance that  a  child's  standard  of  behavior  is  by what he sees h i s parents do r a t h e r than what sees  on t e l e v i s i o n . sound  way  the  doesn't  falls  'box'  has  A s t a b l e f a m i l y environment guidance  growing  up.  is  with  adequate t o ensure  constant  and  a fruitful  and  88  T h i s i s not denouncing the medium and  the a d v e r t i s e r s .  away  'reflector'  the  however undesirable outlook  on l i f e  of  responsibility  on  the  However, i t would seem t h a t to  shut  our  society's  they maybe , i s simply  may  emphases on p r o d u c t i o n , consumption and  may  have to g i v e  Are  we  ready  to  d e a r l y h e l d values , not enough.  have to change, s o c i e t y may  The  way  placed  that  much  own  have t c change.  m a t e r i a l achievement  to other more f u l f i l l i n g do  Our  emphases cn  life.  or more f o r the young of  our  society? Moreover ,  recognizing  the  influence  of  television  c h i l d r e n , l e g i s l a t o r s c o n s i d e r i t u s e f u l i n some r e s p e c t s . phrases  as  :  'except  concerns education If  one  if  such  suggestion  or h e a l t h , be t r u e " ,  were to study  on Such  , i n so f a r as i t  reflects  such  these p r o v i s i o n s c a r e f u l l y , one  belief.  would have  d i s c o v e r e d t h a t t h i s phrase r e c u r s from time to time throughout. If  the  means  of persuasion  , of p s y c h o l o g i c a l motivation  suggestions  of s u p e r i o r i t y or i n f e r i o r i t y are considered  deplorable  when  t h i n g s , be i t education Aldous  Huxley  when  were born were  ,  used  in  , i n h i s book The_Brave_New_World  instinctive  be ,  promoting  , h e a l t h or i d e o l o g y !  horror - dream of the f u t u r e - the h o r r o r mechanical  to  used i n the promotion of commercial products  such should a l s o be deemed d e p l o r a b l e other  , of  alikeness.  (or decanted) through  p r e s e l e c t e d , predetermined.  of  depicts a  conformity  ,  of  Children i n that s o c i e t y  scientific Those who  conception.  Genes  were d e s t i n e d to  be  89  l a b o r e r s were endowed with the p h y s i c a l , mental , p s y c h o l o g i c a l and  emotional q u a l i t i e s r e g u i r e d  After  they  were decanted  of neo - Pavlovian  to  be  good  , they were t o go through the process  (of the low l a b o r e r s * p r e d i s p o s i t i o n ) and  to have a d i s t i n c t c l a s s c o n s c i o u s n e s s . ensure  unforseeable  provisions discussed thread  separating  third  authority  in  this  judgement  and  avoided.  As  influences modified  horror  -  is  children  group  A d v e r t i s e r s should of  evey  be  , the  I f we i n s i s t on imposing a s e t of  To  reprehensible  indicated  on  to  dream from what we want our  i s the r e s p e c t  home.  or n u l l i f i e d  -  parent  * prophesy*  , how f a r a r e  we  a reality ?  aspect the  predestined  9  on c h i l d r e n and e l i m i n a t i n g the others  The  conditioning  i n t h i s chapter are moving towards the t h i n  from making conformity  peer  destiny.  this  c h i l d r e n to be - i n d i v i d u a l s . values  A l l this  that every one would l o v e what he was  t o do - h i s own unescapable s o c i a l However  laborers.  c o n d i t i o n i n g through which they w i l l l e a r n to  hate books and flowers  would  manual  suggest family  i n chapter ,  of p a r e n t a l judgement and disregard life 1  of  of  patterns this  parental should  paper  , the  no matter how good or how bad , are  by s t a b l e f a m i l y communication p a t t e r n s  relationship not take upon child  parents and f a m i l y should  in  be  and  guidance  themselves  h i s own home.  of to  the  be  ,  family.  the  third  Respect of a c h i l d ' s  be r e f l e c t e d i n the advertisements.  I t i s the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f t h e f a m i l y , the s c h o o l and the  90  society  at l a r g e to s o c i a l i z e c h i l d r e n .  children  in  this  society  I t i s a l s o the r i g h t  to demand a f r e e flowing  channel of  i n f o r m a t i o n f o r input,  f o r e x p r e s s i o n and  for  doubtful  is  l e g i s l a t o r s to  whether  it  what s o c i a l values and It  would  seem  view of s o c i e t y always  a  limit  to  the  duty of the  o p i n i o n s can  be  choice.  channeled  to  of  It  is  decide  children.  be extremely dangerous to present one-sided  e i t h e r by a d v e r t i s e r s to how  or l e g i s l a t o r s .  f a r l e g i s l a t i o n can  attempt to monopolize the i n f l u e n c e  go.  of ideas and  There  is  I t should never opinions.  91  _________  ____________________ Hone o f  the  statutes  to  control  specifically  studied the  p r e s e n t a t i o n of an advertisement. the  years  ,  {eg. a l c o h o l  first ,  with  drugs  ,  in  artform  tobacco)  ,  measures  taken  and  sets  out  techniques  of  of  of  certain  products  then with advertisements  d i r e c t e d at c e r t a i n groups i n s o c i e t y  general),  paper  As s o c i a l concern mounts over  advertising  a l c o h o l , smokers i n the case  this  (eg. minors i n the case of  cigarettes  and  children  in  t o c o n t r o l the p e r s u a s i v e techniques  used i n advertisements a l s o tend to become more s t r i n g e n t . As s c h o l a r s and c r i t i c s begin to voice t h e i r concern the  terrifying  process  of 'mind - bending  about  and the m o t i v a t i o n  1  techniques used i n a d v e r t i s i n g , l e g i s l a t o r s are being pressured c o n s t a n t l y i n t o e n a c t i n g new s t a t u t e s means  of  persuasion  i n line.  w.  trying  to  keep  certain  Howard Chase . p r e s i d e n t of  the P u b l i c R e l a t i o n s S o c i e t y of America  put  this  concern  into  words :  "The very presumptuousness of moulding or affecting the human mind through the techniques we use has c r e a t e d a deep sense of uneasiness i n our minds'*. 1  The statement  made by  Process_of_Persuasion  Clyde  Miller  in  h i s bock  ,  The  , e x p l a i n i n g the problems of c o n d i t i o n i n g  92  the r e f l e x e s of c h i l d r e n r a i s e s t h i s concern and t h i s  uneasiness  even much h i g h e r .  " I t takes time , yes , but i f you expect to be i n b u s i n e s s f o r any l e n g t h of time , t h i n k o f what i t can mean to your firm i n profits i f you can c o n d i t i o n a m i l l i o n or ten m i l l i o n s c h i l d r e n who w i l l grow up i n t o adults trained to buy your products as s o l d i e r s are t r a i n e d to advance when they hear the t r i g g e r words : forward march". The  r e s u l t of the general alarm c r e a t e d by such  i s the p r o l i f i c provided  and impressive l i s t  for in  statements  of s p e c i f i c p r o h i b i t i o n s  as  the Consumer P r o t e c t i o n Act o f Quebec and the  Broadcast Code f o r A d v e r t i s i n g t o C h i l d r e n . Inevitably advertisers  can  these  provisions  say  worded , the t h r e s h  about  -  hold  their of  i n f o r m a t i o n from an advertisement  place  limits  products.  demanding  anymore.  He  cannot  e f f e c t i v e l y s i n c e brand with  competitive  are  not  about  In  the product  I f he i s a marketer  s t i m u l a t e brand l o y a l t y d i r e c t l y and heavily  and such comparison  l a s t year's models i s p r o h i b i t e d . superiorit  factual  with very few a l t e r n a t i v e s to  l o y a l t y depends  makes  the  3  of c h i l d r e n ' s products, he i s l e f t them.  and  has long been transcended.  What does a l l t h i s mean to a marketer?  promote  what  As they are now  truth  c e r t a i n cases , even v a l i d and t r u e statements w i l l not s u f f i c e  on  Neither  on  comparison  or comparison can  he  with  claim  any  i n t r i n s i c i n the products themselves.  Any  93  appeal t o the p s y c h o l o g i c a l child  by  means  prohibited.  , emotional and s o c i a l  of m o t i v a t i o n a l  Advertising claims  i t s e l f as the c e r e a l with background  of  a  , such as "Cheerios" and  youngster  energy  of  a  considered  window  indicating  t o be o b j e c t i o n a b l e .  public. best  to  bring  any  probably  the  promotion i s to inform and  nothing  only  the  strength  since  way.  that - p r o v i d i n g difficult the  the  i t gives,  are  be  extremely  legislation  , the  t h a t can be used i n availability  advertisers  and t o f u n n e l  of  the  the o p p o r t u n i t y  i t i n an  can do these days i s j u s t  - but i t i s g e t t i n g  i n an i n t e r e s t i n g way.  advertisements  iron  Ralph Nader once s a i d that the r o l e  the i n f o r m a t i o n  t o inform  advertisers  providing  What  visual  t o the knowledge of the  alternative  of a d v e r t i s i n g i s t o f u n n e l i n f o r m a t i o n interesting  a  the  i t would  changes  the p u b l i c o f else.  with  hero p a r t i n g  To avoid any entanglement with the  and  product  new  advertising  I t would a l s o seem p o i n t l e s s to  promote product d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n difficult  a  on a trampoline or "Super  Power with Sugar C r i s p " with the cartoon bars  of  techniques and i m p l i c a t i o n s i s  protein  healthy  needs  ever  more  However i t does g i v e  to s t r e t c h t h e i r c r e a t i v i t y i n  which  are  both  executive,  Mr.  T.  entertaining  and  informative.  An  advertising  G.  Armstrong, i n a  speech to IAA's 21st World Congress i n 1969 s a i d :  94  "The very f a c t that we no longer need a p o l o g i z e , e x p l a i n or defend a d v e r t i s i n g as a p o s i t i v e economic f o r c e , does not mean that we do not have to e x e r c i s e great care regarding i t s e x i s t e n c e as a s o c i a l f o r c e . A c t u a l l y , the very fact of advertising ubiquity , i t s growing omnipresencee to one degree or another i n a l l of our cultures, its high degree of v i s i b i l i t y , i f you w i l l , probably c o n s t i t u t e the greatest potential problems we f a c e . We, i n a d v e r t i s i n g , have the c a p a c i t y t o k i l l o f f a d v e r t i s i n g if we are not prudent and wise i n our approaches to i t .... by f a i l i n g to recognize the s w i f t pace of s o c i a l change and where and how advertising fits in ; we must make sure that we are not locked i n a collision course with the very c u l t u r e i n which we are all a force , and within which we must survive". 4  T h i s view was 1974.  The  acute.  shaping and  enormous i n f l u e n c e  is  reflected  Provisions of  applied The  more  the  becoming  of the a d v e r t i s i n g  more  institution  c l e a r l y i n the l e g i s l a t i o n  Broadcast  the  Consumer  Code  for  to regulate  tastefulness.  of  The  of d e c i d i n g desirable.  in  This  dealing  Protection  Advertising  tend to be couched i n g e n e r a l terms and  the  Consumer  and  concern i s to  avoid  the  subjective shaky  whose ' t a s t e ' i s considered Policing  orientated.  Corporate A f f a i r s has  to l i t i g a t e on the  values  and  is  always  matter of  and  to be  opinions  to  standards  a d v e r t i s i n g are more o b j e c t i v e l y  expressed the r e l u c t a n c e  more  is  in  d i r e c t e d at c h i l d r e n .  and  Department  matter  i t i s even more true  culture  , o t h e r than those i n  Quebec  Children,  and  r e f l e c t i n g s o c i e t y ' s values i s being resented.  with a d v e r t i s i n g  Act  expressed i n 1969  i s s u e of s u r v i v a l i n our  The  concern  1  touchy  better not  and the  95  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the c o u r t or the However  legislators.  , as r e f l e c t e d i n the Quebec act and  the  Broadcast  Code , there i s a s t r o n g tendency t o prevent c h i l d r e n from being exposed t o c e r t a i n o b j e c t i o n a b l e values. is  Although  such  tendency  never e x p l i c i t l y s t a t e d i n the p r o v i s i o n s , the net r e s u l t of  administering  these p r o v i s i o n s has  i n f o r m a t i o n about values , l i f e patterns years.  which However ,  information  effect  of  controlling  s t y l e s , o p i n i o n s and b e h a v i o r a l  form the i n f o r m a t i o n input f o r t h e i r the  fact  that  are being channeled  Kennedy , namely ,  onl_  desirable  developing values  to c h i l d r e n does not prevent  from v i o l a t i n g the B i l l of B i g h t s i n President  the  the  manner  expressed  and us by  th__ri__t_to  choose. Mary Gardiner Jones , the  Commissioner  of  America's  said :  "While a d v e r t i s i n g has been expected from t h i s philosophy to the narrow extent of the accuracy of s p e c i f i c product c l a i m s i n i t , efforts to go beyond this essentially verifiable standard of r e g u l a t i o n , and to reach out to police the values , and cultural overtones and undertones in a d v e r t i s i n g would run the risk of simply s u b s t i t u t i n g the o p i n i o n s of one group , the regulators f o r those of another , the a d v e r t i s e r s , as to which values and which aspects of American c u l t u r e should be expressed by the commercials. Such a substitution would i n no sense o f f e r great assurance that these values and cultural elements would be any l e s s d i s t o r t e d or one - s i d e d or l i m i t e d " . 5  FTC  96  Monopolizing government  i n f o r m a t i o n i n p u t to  regulatory  agencies  be u n d e s i r a b l e .  In a  society  above  else  ,  anything  children  ,  whether  or by a d v e r t i s e r s would seem to where  individuality  i t i s inconceivable  is  ,  emphasized  as  evidenced  throughout  by  this  research  paper  ,  valued  to imagine t h a t  wish our c h i l d r e n to be conformers to only one s e t of Further  by  values.  results  parental  we  and  as  guidance  and  judgement are e s s e n t i a l to the development of c h i l d r e n .  Whether  it  or  be the e f f e c t s o f t e l e v i s e d  purchasing  pattern  d e c i d i n g and  act  the  pattern  together  after  C h i l d - centered  parents  tend  buying  request  on  avoid  television  medium  messages without  the  child  , parents can always e x e r t  with  A  stable  the l i k l i h o o d of  a  child  exposed to t e l e v i s e d  , t h i n k i n g of the  7  only  health  if  parents and  leave  expose  guidance or other sources  of  children  of i n f o r m a t i o n  cannot  can  take  the  The  The  issue  be  of a parent  to  to the  and  , l e a s t so the  i s the parents  solved  common notion t h a t l e g i s l a t i o n  of a problem i s unsound  role  medium or a d v e r t i s e r s .  6  them to a d v e r t i s i n g  to f a c e the problem s q u a r e l y .  one  to  children  I t i s time f o r  adopted , w i l l dispose  -  violence.  These r e s e a r c h r e s u l t s p o i n t c l e a r l y  unattended  alone.  family  p a r e n t a l emphasis on non  i n f l u e n c e of the medium at i t s g r e a t e s t .  legislation  the  presweetened c e r e a l even i f the c h i l d r e n  such p u r c h a s e s .  the c o n c l u s i o n that  being  on  children.  w i l l reduce or n u l l i f y  aggressively  to  family  major i n f l u e n c e s  communication aggression  of  violence  by  , once  naive.  No  television  97  The  e f f e c t i v e n e s s of these p r o v i s i o n s depends on  they are being of  Quebec  enforced.  and  the  ways  Under both the Consumer P r o t e c t i o n  Act  the Broadcast Code f o r A d v e r t i s i n g to C h i l d r e n ,  some form of c o n s u l t i n g agency i s e s t a b l i s h e d to o f f e r advice  to  advertisers. Preclearance  of  advertisements  mandatory  under  the  can  their  advertisements  have  Advertising  Code.  Directed  at  directed  to  received  administer  sent  to  the  the  Act  is  brought  about  under  administrative  these  work to  After  about one  was  established  be  ,  the  adds  regulatory  approved.  Another  the  and  mechanism  if  necessary  Department of  ,  Finance,  Corporations.  two done  impressive  provisions by  the  is  list  of  an  detailed  overload  regulatory  Counsel  admits  to the l a c k of time and  Copies to be p r e c l e a r e d processing  and  on  of  agencies.  year of a d m i n i s t r a t i v e experience s i n c e the Code  i n e f f e c t i v e n e s s due  and  by  e f f e c t of the p r o l i f i c and  prohibitions  Committee  Quebec i s through complaints  Investigation  I n s t i t u t i o n s , Companies and The  in  is  , advertisers  C h i l d r e n to be analysed  by the Committee.  prosecution  children  Under the Quebec Act  However , t h i s procedure i s not compulsory. used  at  often  pile  up  to  its  personnel  and  the  unexpected resources.  slowness  in  t o f r u s t r a t i o n experienced by both a d v e r t i s e r s  agencies.  98  P r e c l e a r n a c e does investigation  not  guarantee  i f complaints are r e c e i v e d ,  approved before i t i s being r e l e a s e d all  clean.  ,  i t i s difficult  everyone.  from  does not mean  laden  further  A copy that has been that  Since the standards used i n r e g u l a t i n g  d i r e c t e d a t c h i l d r e n are value cases  exemption  and  t o ensure that  it is  advertising  subjective  in  most  they are agreeable to  The r e s u l t of t h i s i s d u p l i c a t i o n of e f f o r t s i n  some  cases. Further regarding  ,  no  matter how s t r i n g e n t  advertising  absolutely  no  control  American channels. Canada i s o u t s i d e At  the  directed  our own l e g i s l a t i o n i s  at c h i l d r e n , the  over  the  Control of  advertisements  advertisements  stage  of  development  statutes  mostly  nationally  t h i s country legislation  now to  administrative  outside  in  the  area  of  sporadic  which a r e mostly i n e f f e c t i v e and i n cases ,  d u p l i c a t i v e of each o t h e r . is  from  legislation.  c o n t r o l l i n g a d v e r t i s i n g d i r e c t e d t o c h i l d r e n , we have provincial  have  aired  created  the j u r i s d i c t i o n of Canadian  present  statutes  televised  is a avoid  As a d v e r t i s i n g d i r e c t e d a t  coherent  children  commercials , what we need i n and  well  defined  national  undue d u p l i c a t i o n i n the c o n t r o l l i n g and  e f f o r t s and to avoid  c o n f u s i o n among  advertisers  as to the p o l i c y of the n a t i o n . There are three a l t e r n a t i v e s t o the approach adopted by the governement  to c o n t r o l a d v e r t i s i n g d i r e c t e d a t c h i l d r e n .  a l t e r n a t i v e s may not exclude each other  and  a  These  combination  of  99  them may prove to be u s e f u l .  ALTERNATIVES  1.  Co__lete_Contro1 - T h i s a l t e r n a t i v e has been contemplated by  many  and  i s viewed  legislature i s s t i l l complete  ban  of  with  alarm  by  most  advertisers.  The  u n w i l l i n g to take any major step towards  advertising  to  objection to t h i s a l t e r n a t i v e  children  i s of  on t e l e v s i o n .  course  the  8  question  a  The of  f i n a n c i n g c h i l d r e n ' s programmes over h a l f of which are supported by a d v e r t i s e r s p r e s e n t l y . to  be  found  before  Other means o f f i n a n c i a l support have  banning  advertising  medium can be s e r i o u s l y c o n s i d e r e d . Roper  Research  that  there  if  a  research  A s s o c i a t e s , 80 % of Americans  should  programmes  In  to c h i l d r e n from the  not  be  any  study  by  interviewed said  advertisement  in  children's  while o n l y 7 % would l i k e to see i t being e l i m i n a t e d  by the banning o f advertisements would  mean  reduced  number  and q u a l i t y o f c h i l d r e n ' s programmes. There  i s indeed a dilemma of c h o i c e .  ban i s an choice  economically_ a n d m o r a l l y s o u n d  i s between  elimination. former  drastic  Administrative  alternative  will  which may be d i f f i c u l t of  regulation  resources  (both  are  ,  stringent  agencies  have  However- a complete alternative codes  set  up  i f the  and  complete  under  the the  to p o l i c e v i o l a t i o n of o f f e n c e s  t o prove , e s p e c i a l l y when the  standards  f a r from being o b j e c t i v e l y v e r i f i a b l e .  financial  and  personnel)  saved  by  The not  100  establishing  such  holding  proceedings  court  subsidize  agencies,  i n t e r e s t i n g and  Further  not  would  making be  educational  investigations  adeguate  case,  t o o l s to nag  behalf.  children's  The  gross  avoided and  for advertisers  the  of c h i l d r e n ' s  at  standards_of_re__lation  of  buy  parents.  If  of c h i l d r e n ' s  such  was  the  weaknesses can  chance  to  choose  This  will  help  are the  upgrading t h e i r q u a l i t y .  c h i l d r e n on an  .  Misleading  ,  control  objective__^ false  and  deceptive  g e n e r a l should be c u r t a i l e d , while honesty  objective  be  what  products i n the case when they  t r u t h i n a d v e r t i s i n g should be hold  use  by advertisements of  second a l t e r n a t i v e a v a i l a b l e i s to  directed  in  at  d i r e c t l y to c h i l d r e n .  I i _ a _ s l a t i o n - The  advertising  to  c r e a t i v e programmes i s another a l t e r n a t i v e  of programmes and  advertising  fair  the best f o r t h e i r c h i l d r e n .  of  banned to a d v e r t i s e  2.  aimed  exploitation  to be  Sponsorship  financing  group  parents would be given the  they c o n s i d e r  not  t h e i r parents or anyone e l s e to  products should be  the  or  , i t would seem that s i n c e c h i l d r e n seldom do have  them as s e l l i n g their  finance  programmes f r o c h i l d r e n .  the purchasing power to consume , i t i s j u s t  on  to  and  standards  promoted. ,  Beyond  the  and  thresh  l e g i s l a t o r s should t r y not  to  trandscend. It interest  is in  important the  area  that of  provincial  governments  controlling advertising  take  an  directed  at  101  c h i l d r e n but  due  to the  nature of commercials  category  it  would  be  ,  government enacting the  present  in  the  Act are  case  under  Opportunities be  law  not  prosecution.  effective  main piece  criminal  Investigation or  the  more  of  legislation. under  in either  Consumer  f o r voluntary  Protection  federal ,  Combines  consumer  redress  provided as i s  Act  p r e c l e a r a n c e and  this  However the  C i v i l proceedings should be  the  in  to have the  proceedings  efficient  inluded  of  Quebec.  consultation  should  provided.  3.  S e l f - Regulation  advertising industry individual  advertisers  regulation  also  curtailment  of the  to  censureship.  recognized sided  as  the  third  alternative  itself.  The  is  idea i s  control  by  the  the  the  that  for  government.  removal  of  the  A  best way  balanced  Advertising reflect  should  be  promotion of a one  i s a r e f l e c t o r of the all  of  subjection  presentation  to prevent the  Self danger  r i g h t of freedom of e x p r e s s i o n and  i t should  for  to observe r u l e s of conduct i s much l e s s  involves  view of s o c i e t y .  of c u l t u r e and  The  to r e g u l a t e  c o s t l y than l e g i s l a t i v e  severe  -  aspects  in  a  -  values  truthful  manner. However,  this  alternative  undoubtedly w i l l depend on  good sense of judgement of a d v e r t i s e r s . should  supplement t h i s .  One  automatically  control  form of c o n t r o l i s to i n i t i a t e  system of l i c e n s i n g to a d v e r t i s e r s . be  Other forms of  A l i c e n s e to p r a c t i s e  become void f o l l o w i n g  the  certain convictions  the will for  102  v i o l a t i o n of o f f e n c e s provided f o r would  ensure t h a t  advertisers  a campaign or an a d v e r t i s i n g Another p o s s i b l e consumer that  attention  of  of  Publicity  Use  mote c a r e f u l i n  provisions  violations  by  the and  lessen  is  issue  of c o n t r o l l i n g a d v e r t i s i n g  based on moral judgement at l a r g e .  to persuade c h i l d r e n to buy  things  l e g i s l a t i o n i n t h i s country. a  certain  has  The  taken  notion  the  children  means  of  that i t i s  have to agree  of  bad of that  part of l e g i s l a t o r s  studies  a d v e r t i s i n g on c h i l d r e n w i l l shed i n v a l u a b l e of t h i s p a r t i c u l a r i s s u e on  the  place.  to enact l e g i s l a t i o n  recognised t h a t e m p i r i c a l  by  a f f e c t e d the enacting  degree of value judgement on  should be  burden  agencies.  to  such s o c i a l i s s u e as a d v e r t i s i n g d i r e c t e d at c h i l d r e n . it  the  d i r e c t e d at c h i l d r e n  Undoubtedly, we  always i n f l u e n c e s the d e c i s i o n  the  w i l l provide a good  educating consumers about frauds i n the market  ensure  to  regulatory actions  private  will  brought  departments and  government by these o r g a n i z a t i o n s  The  This  designing  area of  of such o r g a n i z a t i o n s  undertaken to  legislation.  copy.  the a p p r o p r i a t e  given  w i l l be  legislative  of p o l i c e work to be  the  form of c o n t r o l i s i n the  organizations.  violations  in  on the  control However, e f f e c t of  l i g h t on the  this  society.  impact Such  103  studies  will  a c t on.  As disussed  empirical  provide the s t a r t i n g p o i n t  studies  remove a l l doubts. to  further  research  i n chapter 1 i n this  area  of  f o r the l e g i s l a t o r s to  this  paper,  the  a r e not c o n c l u s i v e  scanty  enough to  Before any reasonable measures can be  control  advertising  directed  to  taken  children,  more  s t u d i e s a r e d e f i n i t e l y needed.  To conduct such s t u d i e s e m p i r i c a l study c a r r i e d on limited  interpretation.  i s not without any d i f f i c u l t y . under  To  experimental  generalize  any  conditions  beyond such  has  artificial  conditions  and to a p p l y to day-to-day l i v i n g  television  being a common medium i n the home nowadays, i t would  be  difficult,  i t not  i s dangerous.  impossible to separate experimental and  c o n t r o l groups i f the study i s not c a r r i e d out conditions were  (eg. i n t e r v i e w i n g  difficult  in  also  difficult  t e l e v i s i o n i s the only Isolation  to  ascertain  variable of  that  variables  and  group, i t  advertising  accountable  f o r any  target  extremely important p r e c a u t i o n a r y steps t o be that  If i t  t o compare the e f f e c t s of t e l e v i s i o n a d v e r t i s i n g  be  revelation.  experimental  of c h i l d r e n a t t h e i r homes).  on the experimental with the e f f f e c t s on the c o n t r o l would  With  taken  major  groups to  or  are  ensure  what i s being measured i s what i s intended t o be measured. Future e m p i r i c a l  issues. children. exposed  The  first  s t u d i e s should be addressed t o three  i s the ij§£act_of t e l e v i s i o n a d v e r t i s i n g on  How many a d v e r t i s i n g t o everyday?  basic  messages  i s an  average  How w e l l can he r e c a l l the messages?  child How  104  w e l l can he r e c a l l the products a d v e r t i s e d ? r e c a l l t h e brands? The second  advertising  well  can  he  A l l these q u e s t i o n s have to be answered.  i s s u e of concern i s the e f f e c t s of t e l e v i s i o n on  ___!__i°£_2_£__;____§ relationship  How  *  T  between and  n  basic  e  questions  children's  their  a r e : what i s the  exposure  buying p a t t e r n  to  television  and that of t h e i r  and what i s the r e l a t i o n s h i p between such exposure and  family  imiative  a c t i o n s by c h i l d r e n . The  third  i s s u e i s the r e a c t i o n of c h i l d r e n to t e l e v i s i o n  advertisements. Do  Do they understand  they know what i s a d v e r t i s i n g ?  they see on t e l e v i s i o n ? to  why?)p  desirability  recognised. children  advertisements?  The a l l e g e d  should  be  Do they enjoy  Are they, i n g e n e r a l ,  indifferent the  such  the concept of  of  If  long-term  advertising? advertisements  c y n i c a l about  they do enjoy them,  studies  the  determined  impact  should  be  ' c o n d i t i o n i n g ' e f f e c t o f a d v e r t i s i n g on once  and  for a l l .  i s o l a t i o n of v a r i a b l e s , i t would a l s o be u s e f u l t o compare  or  of  different  formats  of  Besides  isolate  and  advertising  (eg. p e r s o n a l i t i e s , cartoons and puppets) . There i s undoubtedly future.  In  1975 when C.  a l o t t o be done i n t h i s area B.  C. w i l l take a d v e r t i s i n g  at c h i l d r e n o f f the a i r , o p p o r t u n i t i e s will  be almost  unlimited.  f o r hypotheses  i n the directed testing  105  RECOMMENDATIONS  It  is  not  inconceivable  d i r e c t e d at c h i l d r e n would be screen  that  television  eliminated  advertising  completely  from  now that C.B.C. i s ordered t o take t h i s step by January,  1st 1975.  Ultimately,  8  the pressure f o r a c t i o n s  w i l l have i t s e f f e c t on l e g i s l a t i o n . advertising  directed  at  children  along t h i s  be  effective  i n achieving  remains t o be seen. to  be  under  age  13  only;  the d e s i r e d  f o r them  protection  I t can be s a i d t h a t c h i l d r e n  while  are  or not  expected  shut away i n a world o f t h e i r own and not be a f f e c t e d by  activities the  line  Whether the e l i m i n a t i o n of  c h i l d r e n continue t o be exposed t o messages not meant would  the  happening o u t s i d e  'spill  over'  effects  t h e i r walls. of  other  It  would  advertising  c h i l d r e n would be the main concern i n the next  seem  that  messages on  two  or  three  years. The eliminate  a c t i o n taken by the C.R.T.C. i n o r d e r i n g advertising  d i r e c t e d a t c h i l d r e n and r a d i o  i n g e n e r a l i s a warning s i g n a l t o the r e s t and  broadcasting  industries.  making c o n s t r u c t i v e are not 'locked  a  strong  of  the  Now i s the time that  advertising advertising they s t a r t  and reasonable measures t o ensure that  they  i n a c o l l i s i o n c o u r s e ' with the very c u l t u r e and  s o c i e t y i n which they are o p e r a t i n g that  the C.B.C. to  working  in.  relationship  I t should be recognised and  c o o p e r a t i o n between  l e g i s l a t i v e agencies and i n d u s t r i e s a r e d e s i r a b l e .  The  former  106  should r e f r a i n from taking the  latter;  probia'.  and  the  Objective,  an 'out-to-get-them• a t t i t u d e towards  other  should not take on a  'persecution  v e r i f i a b l e standards of r e g u l a t i o n  coupled  with l i c e n s i n g o f a d v e r t i s i n g agencies to ensure e f f e c t i v e s e l f regulation  would be a p l a u s i b l e a l t e r n a t i v e to a b a t t l e f r o n t . fi  l i a s o n between these two by the mediative e f f o r t s of independent consumer a s s o c i a t i o n s Everyone, objectionable  at  i s also one  desirable.  time  advertisements or  or  another,  entertained  by  What we are a p p a r e n t l y so concerned about i s that easily  persuaded  about our l i t t l e  by the a d v e r t i s i n g  drive  to  for protection  such uneasiness.  the  I s i t not then, that  admen  consumption  means t o i n c r e a s e  the outcry  f o r ourselves?  orientated  it.  l i v e with i t .  we  were  work out a l t e r n a t i v e s to our  s o c i e t y and t o a d v e r t i s i n g as a  wealth accumulation.  i t or e l i m i n a t e  If  E i t h e r we l i v e  with i t ,  U n t i l we f i n d a l t e r n a t i v e s to our  present system, we b e t t e r f i n d means t o c o n t r o l i t so can  are  aimed a t c h i l d r e n from such persuasive messages a  e n t e r p r i s i n g enough, maybe we could  control  Even  depth  I t i s t h e f e a r of the unknown t h a t  unconscious c r y f o r p r o t e c t i o n  present  ads.  we know we are  dark c o r n e r s of our unknown p s y c h o l o g i c a l  of such p e r s u a s i o n .  us  creative  by  messages and we are uneasy  , being exposed and manipulated so e a s i l y . subjects  i s annoyed  that  we  107  FOOTNOTES  __il______2£ 1. Idem, The E f f e c t i v e n e s s of the I.L.O. Development and Productivity Projects _§_§l2£___i____i____2__2 Geneva 1965 2. Boyle,H. R e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f Broadcasting J o u r n a l 8:120 1968  Management Management  0s2ood_Hall_Ia_  3. Boyle,H. supra, f n . no. 2 4. Jones,M,G. The C u l t u r a l and S o c i a l Impact of A d v e r t i s i n g on American S o c i e t y Os_ood_Hall_L^ 8:81 1968 5. Cohen,D. H. Thg_Learnin_  Child  pp.xii-xiii  Chaper__ 1. Himmelweit,H. e t a l ?el.vi_i2-_§--„_-_„_J}_1_ Oxford U n i v e r s i t y 1958  London:  Schramm, W.et a l T e l e v i s i o n a l n t h e _ ^ S t a n f o r d : S t a n f o r d U n i v e r s i t y press 1961 2. Schramm e t a l , supra, f n . no.1 of t h i s  chapter  3. Schramm e t a l , supra, f n . no. 1 of t h i s chapter 4. Schramm e t a l , supra, f n . no.1 of t h i s chapter 5. Schramm e t a l , supra, f n . no.1 of t h i s  chapter  6. Himmelweit et a l , supra, f n . no.1 of t h i s chapter 7. See l a t e r section T e l e v i s i o n pp. 12  in  t h i s chaper:  Why C h i l d r e n Watch  8. Himmelweit et a l , supra, f n . no. 1 of t h i s chapter 9. Furu,T. T e l e v i s i o n and C h i l d r e n ' s L i f e : Study ilajga n_B r o a d c as t i Television_Culture_Resear 1972 10. Schramm et a l , supra, f n . no.1 of t h i s 11. C o f f i n , T . E . T e l e v i s i o n ' s Impact P § I _ _ 2 l 2 a i _ _ § 10:630-641 1955  on  a  Before-After  chapter Society  American  108  12. Schramm et a l , supra, f n . no.1  of t h i s chapter  13. Schramm et a l , supra, f n . no.1  of t h i s chapter  14. Steiner,G.A. Knopf 196 3  _!_e___2Bl§^ .gg-,.-_- §„gg-g495 L  New  T  15. Maccoby,E. T e l e v i s i o n : i t s Impact on School £_£l__!__Ei_i2__2__I_-?_i- 15:421-444 1951 16. Himmelweit,et a l supra, f n . no.1,  pp  York,  Children  15  17. Schramm, e t a l supra, f n . no.1  of t h i s chapter, pp.57-58  18. Maccoby,E. Why do C h i l d r e n _£i__2__2_a___I_I 18:2401953  Watch  19. Content  Analysis  of  Programs  Television? Public  Preferred  by  Children  _2________I______2__£ Research_Institute  1960  20. Greenberg,B. The Content Mass Media i n Baker and Media 423-4 52 21. Head,S. Content of__ilm_____io_a 22.  and Context of V i o l e n c e i n the H a l l ed. of Violence_aj_d_the "  A n a l y s i s of TV drama Programs Q u a r t e r l y 9:175-194 1954  Himmelweit et a l , supra, f u . no.1  of t h i s  23. G e n t i l e , F . et a l T e l e v i s i o n and S o c i a l iM__2£ial__esearch 45:259-264 1961 24.  chapter  Class  Sociology  Abram,M. C h i l d Audience f o r T e l e v i s i o n i n Great _2M____i§I_2uarterly 33:35-41 1956  Eritain  25. Greenberg,B. et a l R a c i a l and S o c i a l C l a s s D i f f e r e n c e i n Teenagers' use of T e l e v i s i o n J g u r n a l _ o f Eroadc__stin_ 13:3331-3344 1969 26. L e S c i c i t o Study as quoted i n T e l e y i s i o _ _ a n d _ G The_Impact_of_Teleyised_Violence U.S.A.:Department of Health,Education and Welfare, P u b l i c Health S e r v i c e s P u b l i c a t i o n 1971 27. L y l e e Hoffman Study as quoted i n T e l e v i s i o n ^ _Bl.„„g..-_-a£t_pf • - g l g y l s g ^ _ _ i o i g g _ _ supra, f n . no.26 of t h i s chapter e  28.  Mendelsohn,H. Mass.Entertainment U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1967  New  Haven: C o l l e g e S  109  29.  Halloran,J.D. attitu_g_Format L e i c e s t e r , L e i c e s t e r U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1967  30.  T h i s can be demonstrated by a study of R. P o l l a y e t a l . In t h a t study, i t was found t h a t c h i l d - c e n t e r e d mothers tended not to buy pre-sweetened c e r e a l f o r t h e i r c h i l d r e n , even though they were requested t o do so .  31.  Feshbach,S. The Drive Reducing Function of Fantasy Behavior J o u r n a l of^Abnormal and_Social Psychology 50:312 1955  32.  Maccoby,E. supra,  33.  S t u d i e s by Bandura,A.,Maccoby,E. et a l and S i e g e l , A .  34.  Study by Lefkowitz e t a l as quoted i n T e l e v i s i o n _ a n d 5_2_iS_l-_E supra, f n . no.26 of t h i s chapter  f n . no.15 of t h i s  chapter  Study by McLeod, supra, f n . no.26 of t h i s  chapter  35.  By ' i d e n t i f i c a t i o n ' , i t i s meant t h a t the experience of being able to put o n e s e l f so deeply i n t o a t e l e v i s i o n c h a r a c t e r , f e e l s o n e s e l f t o be so l i k e the c h a r a c t e r , that one can f e e l the same emotion and experience the same events as the c h a r a c t e r i s supposed t o be feeling and e x p e r i e n c i n g .  36.  As quoted i n the Vancouver Sun, October 12 1973  37.  Ward,S. Advertising and Youth, 2 __n_«2_:a_:_t_Eg_i_:_ 1^: 63-82 F a l l 1972  Studies,  38.  Ward,S. Children and Promotion: Ba 11leg ro und? _arke_i_q_Sci_nc March 1972  New  3 9  »  Sloan  Consumer  BfO-^castincj 68:May 31 1965  40. P o l l a y , R . e t a l The I n f l u e n c i n g Role of the C h i l d i n Family Decision Making J o u r n a l _ o f Marketin__Research F 1968 p.70  _:^3J2_:_:I__ (See Appendix I I I f o r e x p l a n a t i o n of f o o t n o t e s style)" 1. 14-15-16 E l i z . 2 , S . C . 1966-67 C.87 2. 17-18 E l i z . 2 , S . C . 1968-69,C.42  110  3. R.S.A. 19528C. 19 1 4. 17-18  Eliz.2,S.C.1968-69,C.17  5.  Eliz.2,S.C.1969-70,C.34  18-19  6. 1-2 E l i z . 2,S. C. 1952-53 C.38 7. 1-2  Eliz.2,S.C.1952-53,C.49  8. 16-17 Eliz.2,S.C.1967-68C.25 9. B i l l C-180, 28th P a r l i a m e n t , 3rd Sess., 1970-71  19-20  Eliz.  2  10. R.S.C.1952 C.314 as from time to time amended 11. S.5A added by S.B.C. 1969 C.5S.5 12. S.7 added 13. S.15 S.1  by S.B.C.1969 C.5 S.5  added by S.B.13. S.15 added by S.B.C.1970 B i l l 16,  14. S.Q. 1971 C.74 15. S.A.1969 C.20 S.4 16. S.N.B.1967 C.5 17. S.0.1966 C.24 18. S.B.C.1967 C.14 S.14 19. Supra, f n . no.15 o f t h i s chapter 20. Supra, f n . no.16 &17 21. S.N.S.1968 S.5 22. Supra, f n . no.16 of t h i s chapter 23. S.P.E.I.1967 C.16 24. S. N.1969 B i l l 23 25. R.S.N.S.1967 C.53 26. Supra, f n . nos. 21 8 24 27. Supra, f n . no.17  111  28* Supra, f n . no.  18  29. R.S.M. 1970 C. 200 S.24(1) 30. Supra, f n . no.14 31. S.O. 1966 C.24 32. S.O.1966 S.1 33. S.Q.1971 C.74  S.31 (mSb) S.60  34. S.Q.1972 S.11.52 35. Combines I n v e s t i g a t i o n Act, 36. S.Q. 1972 C.74  S. 11.53  37. S.Q. 1972  S. 11.51(b)  C.74  38. S.Q. 1972 C.74  S.11.55  39. S.Q.1971 C.74  S.76-79  40. S.Q.1971 C.74  S.102(o)  41. S. Q.1971 C.74  S.114  42. S.Q. 1971 C.74  S.37  S.117  43. Supra, f n . no.7 44. S e c t i o n 52 of the Trade Harks Act provides that i t can award damages, give an i n j u n c t i o n and determine what to do with r e s p e c t to the d i s p o s i t i o n of any offending wares' packages, l a b e l s and a d v e r t i s i n g m a t e r i a l s . Under the Combines I n v e s t i g a t i o n Act, the p e n a l t i e s are f i n e s and/or imprisonment, sometimes i n j u n c t i o n would a l s o be granted. 45. Canadian Converters' Co. L t d . V. E a s t p o r t Ltd.(1968) 73 0. L. B. (2nd) p.149 46. B u i l d i n g Products L t d . V. B. P. Pat. C.130  Canada  47. P r a i r i e Maid C e r e a l s L t d . V. Gillman 48. Supra, f n . no.44 of t h i s chapter 49. S.C. 1952-53 C.38  S9(1)  Trading  L t d . (1961)  Co. Fox  (1959) Ex.C.R.423  112  50. S.C. 1952-53 C.38  S.10(1)  51. S.C.1952-53 C.38 S.5 & 6 52. Supra, f n . no. 2 of t h i s chapter 53. Supra, f n . no. 8 of t h i s chapter 54. These ' p o l i c y g u i d e l i n e s are being i s s u e d by the Eroad of Broadcaster Governors C i r c u l a r No.95 Nov.5 1963 1  55. Supra, f n . no.10 S e c t i o n s 36 S 37 56. Address t o the 64th General Meeting of the A s s o c i a t i o n of Canada, Sept. 26 1960 p.18  Proprietory  57. Address t o the Executive Seminar, School of Eusiness A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto, June 18 1962 p.17 58. B. V. Simpson-Sears Ltd. (1971) 65 C. P. R. 59. R. V. Carmen Jewelry Mfg. Co. May Sessions,Quebec C i t y , unreported 60. R. V. Amenblement Dumonchel M c G i l l Law J o u r n a l p.671  16  P.92  1967,  Court  of  F u r n i t u r e L t d . (1970) 15  61.,Supra, f n . no.59 of t h i s chapter 62. R. V. Mountain F u r n i t u r e Co. (1966) 15 M c G i l l Law 662 63. 58 C. P. R. P.56  (1969); Rev'd  (1971) 65 C. P. R. 892  64. R. V. M i l l e r s ' TV Ltd. (1968) 56 C. P. R. Pattons' P l a c e L t d . (1968) 57 C. P. R. 12 65.  (1963) 2 0. R. 107  66.  (1969) 54 C. P. R. 190; Rev'd  237;  R.  V.  (Mag. Ct.) Rev'd. (1964) 0. R. 103;  67. R. V. Thomas S a l e s Agencies 587; 58 C. P. R. 210 68.  Journal  (1969) 1 0. R. 73 (1963) L t d . (1969) 2 0. R.  (1969) 15 M c G i l l L. J . 658  69. R. V. R.5A. Cohen L t d . (1965) 15, M c G i l l L. J . 659 70.  (1969) 15, M c G i l l L. J . 680  71. R. V. Beamish S t o r e s Co. 1970 62 C. P. R. 97; Rev'd  1970  113  63 C. P. R. 72. A l l i e d  152  Tower Case  (1969) 15, M c G i l l L. J . 654  73. C o l g a t e - P a l m o l i v e Case  (1969) 1 0. R. 73; C. P. R.  221  74. Supra, f n . no.64 75.  (1968) 57 C. P. R.  76.  (1970) 64 C. P. R. P. 3  77. Supra, f n . no. 76  12 p. 16  p.4  78. U. S. House of Representatives,Committee on Interstate and Foreign Commerce, Hearing on C i g a r e t t e l a b e l l i n g and A d v e r t i s i n g 9 1st Congress, 1st S e s s i o n 1969 79.  (1965) 2 0. R. 628  p.631; 46 C. P. R. 239 p. 242-243  80. B i l l C-227 31 .1 (1) 81. As quoted i n the Canadain Code f o r A d v e r t i s i n g  Standards  82. Supra, f n . no.80 83. Supra, f n . no.80  _________ 1. See chapter 1  p.26  2. See chapter 1 p.26 3. See Appendix  2 f o r a complte v e r s i o n of the Code  4. See chapter 1, f o o t n o t e no.  Cha£ter_4 1. S.C. 1968-69  C.42  2. S.C.1967-68  C.25  3. S.C. 1952-53  C.38  4. S.Q.1971  C.74  38  114  5. See Appendix 2 6. Cohen,D. H, _he__earnin 7. See chapter 1 p. 8. See chapter 1  p.66-69  12  p.12  9. Schramm e t a l supra, f n . no.1  of chapter 1  Chaj_ter_5 1. S. Q. 1971  C.74  S.11.53  2. See chapter 1 : T e l e v i s i o n and S o c i a l i z a t i o n 3. Z i g l e r , E . and Child,I. eds of The_,H„n_„ook_gf_  Socialization i n lindzey,et a l Soci____SYchglog__yg_.2  4. Brim,A.G. J r . P e r s o n a l i t y Development as Bole in Iscoe, J. Et a l eds of P e r s o n a l i t y ^ Children 5. H a l l o r a n , J . D. A t t i t u d e Formation L e i c e s t e r U n i v e r s i t y Press  and  Learning  Change L e i c e s t e r ,  6. See chapter 1 7  «  66:50 June 15  8. S.Q.1971 C.74  1964  S.11.53(o)  9. Huxley,A. The_Braye__gw_World  Harpers  and Brothers  1962  _________ 1. Chase, H. as quoted _____.§____• p. 207 2. M i l l e r , C. as t h i s chapter 3. S.Q. 1971  C.74  quoted  by  Packard,V.  by Packard,  in  V. supra, f n . no.1  S.11.53  4. Speech to IAA's 21st World Congress i n 5. Jones, M.G.supra, f n . no.4.  Of  TJ3e_Hidden  1969  Introduction  of  115  6. S t u d i e s by L e f k o w i t z and Mcleod, supra, f n . nos.34 5 of chapter 1  35  7. Study by Pollay,R. supra, f n . no.40 of chapter 1 8. The C.B.C. was ordered by the C.R.T.C. to e l i m i n a t e r a d i o a d v e r t i s i n g and t e l e v i s i o n a d v e r t i s i n g d i r e c t e d a t c h i l d r e n by January 1st 1975. C h i l d r e n advertising i s deemed to i n c l u d e a d v e r t i s i n g d i r e c t e d at c h i l d r e n under the age o f 13 o n l y .  1 16  Papers and_Essays 1.  . Horwich H i t s Dse of Kids i n TV ads. Aimed at Adults Bewilders Them Adv__A_e 38:3+ My 1 67  2.  . Ads Manipulation Helps Told Ad_j__A_e 39:1 Mr 25 68  3.  . Cash R e g i s t e r s Ring f o r Toy Makers who T e l e v i s i o n Adv__A_e 39:77-78 Je 24 68  4.  . Aim Toy ads at A d u l t s , not K i d s , Parents Group Says, Admen Doublious Ad___l3_: 41:12 Ag 17 70  5.  . K i d d i e TV Programs, Food ads get C r i t i c i s m at Symposium ________ 41:60 N 9 70  6.  . TV ads not Normally D i s r u p t i v e t o C h i l d r e n ' s Development Ady__A_e 42:83-88 N 5 71  7.  43:8  •-. K e l l o g C a l l s FTC Ja 31 72  Order  Disllusion  Youth  Devastating  Adv___A_e  . ANA G u i d e l i n e s f o r Kid's Increase S o c i a l Awareness A____A_e 43:2  TV will J l 3 72  9.  . A d v e r t i s e r s on Kid's TV need Adv._A_e 43:50 J l 17 72  a  ________  .  Good  . T a l k of L i q u o r , C i g a r e t ads Ban Repeal C. i s not E x c i t i n g Many AdZ__A._e 43:2 0 23 72  12.  . ACT 43:74 N 6 72  13.  . B . C . Repeals Adv__A_e 43:74 N 6 72  14.  . Business A d v i s o r s ask for R e s t r a i n t on Ads ________ 43:2 N 13 72 c  »  Reveal Offense  Toy Makers Prepare f o r B a t t l e with Code Board 43:3 0 9 72  11.  15.  Think  Additional  8.  10.  ASA  in  Sets 78 f o r Ad Ban on K i d Shows A___ i t s Ad Ban,  B. A_e  Plan others S t r i c t u r e Less  Government  . New Regulations f o r C i g a r e t ads Issued i n B. ________ 43:98 N 13 72  117  16.  . S e l f R e g u l a t i o n B e t t e r f o r K i d TV, says Hooks Ady____e 44:8 F 5 73  17.  . Canada C i g Sales up Despite Broadcast Age 44:136 F 23 73  18.  .  FCC's  Ban Adv.  Q u a l i t y Kid TV must Have Ads Adv_ Age 44:3 Mr  1973  19.  . Canada Parliament Weights K i d d i e TV A_y__A_e 44:139 Ap 23 73  20.  . S e l l i n g Yes, E x p l o i t a i n g No, on Kid's TV Adv. Age 44:55 My 14 73  21.  . A u s t r a l i a n s ready Age 44:38 J l 30  22.  . FTC plans Industry Meeting TV ad Bules Adv__Age 44:1 Ag 6 73  23. Adv__A_e  Ban  on  Guides on K i d  . Admen, Consumerists 44:1 Ag 13 73  to  TV  Ads  Ads  for  Ady_  to Set C h i l d r e n ' s  Study  Children's  TV  25.  . Sell the K i d s , S e l l the Parents 68:32 May 318 1965  Broadcasting  26.  . Sophisticated 69:42 J u l y 19 1965  Broadcasting  27.  . Code Board Talks of Rules f o r A d v e r t i s i n g aimed a t Young B r o a d c a s t i n g 83:23 Oct 23 1972  28.  . ACT Complaint h i t s Broadcasters Makers Broadcasters 82:30 June 5 1972  and  29.  . Cry f o r Ad Reforms Grows louder 84:20 Mar 5 1973  Broadcasting  30.  . FTC Explores Children Broadcasting 81:19 Nov 15 1971  Advertising  31.  . Children's TV: __°__c__ti_g 83:30 Oct 9 1972  32.  . Cereal Executives Defend Products A d v e r t i s i n g B r o a d c a s t i n g 84:42 Mar 9 1973  33.  . Vitamin Makers Drop Commercials Aimed a t Young !_o__£a__i__ 83:31 J u l y 24 1972  34.  dabating  child  Audience  Much  Advertising  and Talk,  and  Few  Vitamin  Answers and  Children's  TV  TV  1 18  Sl___c_stin_  81:43  Oct 25  1971  35.  . ANA puts i t i n Writing A d v e r t i s i n g B r o a d c a s t i n g 82:23 J u l y 10  36.  . Cutback i n Commercials f o r Young Broadcasting 82:32Jan 10 1972  37.  Food Ads  on 1972  Children's  . Code G u i d e l i n e s f a i l to S a t i s f y McGovern on Broadcasting 84:28 June 18 1973  TV  38.  Alemson.M. A . A d v e r t i s i n g and the Nature of Competition in Oligopoly over time, a Case Study Economics J o u r n a l 80:282-306 June 73  39.  Bauer,B. A.The I n i t i a t i v e __I§I_i_i_g__§:__;_£__ June  40.  Burney,D. A n t i t r u s t and the R e l a t i o n Between the Economy and Government Conference_groad_Record 6:21 Aug 1969  41.  Cohen,D. FTC and the Regulation Consumer I n t e r e s t _ o _ r n _ l _ _ f _ _ a  42.  Cohen,R. I . M i s l e a d i n g Advertising I n v e s t i g a t i o n Act McGill__aw_Jour^  43.  Cohen,R. I. Comparative F a l s e A d v e r t i s i n g L e g i s l a t i o n ; a Beginning Canadian_Patent_Reporter 6:68-141 (1972)  44.  . Content Analysis Children _onthly_Bulletin Research^Institute 10 1960  45.  Frielderes,S. S. Advertising C h i l d r e n _o__nal_of_Adye  46.  Henry,D. H. W.  S p e c i a l Senate Committee Q_£__i_____M___B§_2I___ 2:150-178  47.  Loevinger,L. Attack on Advertising and the Goals of R e g u l a t i o n s Conference_Broad_Record 10:23-28 Ja 73  48.  . Committee Statement on Violence i n Entertainment Programs Natignal_Commission  49.  Quinland,J. J. A d v e r t i s i n g and 5:277-295  50.  Rose,S.  F.  of the 1963  of  Audience  Journal_of  of A d v e r t i s i n g i n the 33:40-44 Jan 69 and the Combines 15:622 (1969)  Programs  Buying  Preferred  Patterns 13:34 F 73 on  Mass  by  and Media  Television  Combines I n v e s t i g a t i o n Act: M i s l e a d i n g Deceptive P r a c t i c e s Ottawa_Law Review  Consumer  Class  Action  -  a  Comparative  11  Analysis of Legislature 5:140-155 Winter 1971  J o u r n a l of Consumer A f f a i r s  51.  Smith,L. C. Local Station l i a b i l i t y for Deceptive Advertising Journal., of _ Broadcasting 15:107-113 Winter 1970-1971  52.  Stern,L. L. Consumer P r o t e c t i o n ________2__________2 35:47-53 J u l y  53.  Tiebilcock,M. Advertising 1972  54.  Ward,S. C h i l d r e n ' s r e a c t i o n s to Commercials 12:37-45 Ap 1972  55.  Young,R. T e l e v i s i o n i n the L i v e s of our C h i l d r e n J o u r n a l 2l__?I2__castin_ 14:37-46 69-70  via 1971  Self  Regulation  J . P r i v a t e Law Remedies f o r Misleading U n i y e r _____ of _ Tor 013 to Law Journal 22:1-32 J o u r n a l of  56. Younger,J. W. A Fresh Look at the Combines I n v e s t i g a t i o n Act B u s i n e s s , Q u a r t e r l y 34:75-84 S p r i n g 1969 57.  Z i e g e l , J . S. The Future of Canadian Consumerism Canadian Bar Review 1973:191-206  Research  Articles  58.  Burmester,D. Language of D e c e i t : w i t h Guide to A c t i v i t i e s _ e _ i _ _ _ _ _ _ t h _ _ s 9:22-25 May 1973  Learning  59.  C o f f i n , T . E. T e l e v i s i o n ' s Impact _____2_2____ 10:630-641 1955  American  on  Society  60. Choate,R. B. Pressure on the Airways: Advocacy of I n f e r i o r Foods and E x p l o i t a t i o n Children_Today 2:10-11 Ja 1973 61.  Dickens,M. Mass Communication;Effects of TV on Review of: Education Research 34:215-216 Ap 64  Children  62.  Feshbach,S. The Drive Reducing Function of Fantasy Behavior J o u r n a l _ o f Abnormal and Sgcial_Psychology; 50:312 1955  63. G e n t i l e , F . & Miller,S. M. T e l e v i s i o n and S o c i a l C l a s s Sociology and S o c i a l Research 45:259-264 1961  120  64. Greenberg,B. et a l R a c i a l and S o c i a l C l a s s D i f f e r e n c e i n Teenagers' Ose of TV J o u r n a l of B r o a d c a s t i n _ 13:33313344 1969 65. Hartley,R. L. The Impact of Viewing 'Aggression' S t u d i e s and Problems of Extrapolation _§w__ork_Columbia Broadcasting_Systern_ O f f i c e _ o f _ s o c i a l _ R e s e a r c h 166. Head,S. Content A n a l y s i s of TV Drama Programs Q u a r t e r l y of_Fil_ __adio_ 9:175-194 1954 x  67. Hess,R. e t a l Parents'views of the Effects t h e i r C h i l d r e n Chil__Deyelo£_en 33:44 68.  of  TV  on  Highlander,J. P. Business and Broadcasting N a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n o f Secondary_Schco1_Princi_a1s Bulletin 50:59-63 0 66  69. K i r s h r e r , G . S t a r t where the C h i l d i s ; U s i n g T e l e v i s i o n to Teach the C h i l d Eleme_t_ry_En_ 46:955-958 N 1969 70.  Knowles,A. F. Notes on £2RJtinuous__earniji5:251-261  Canadian  71. K o s l o s k i , P . What C h i l d r e n Learn Education 83:113-117 0 6 1962  Mass from  Media  Policy  Commercial  72. Kronick,D. T e l e v i s i o n , the Opiate of our C h i l d r e n Therapy 6:399-403 Sum 1971  TV  Acad.  73. Krugman,H. E. The Impact of TV A d v e r t i s i n g Learning Without Involvement PubJ.ic_0_inion_2uart^ 29: 349-356 1965 74. Lovaas,0. J . E f f e c t of Exposure to Symbolic Aggression on Aggressive Behavior Child_Deyelo__ 32:37-44 1961 75. Lunstrum,J.P. et a l Commercial Television in the Teaching of the S o c i a l S t u d i e s S o c i a l Ed. 33:154-160 F 1969 76.  Maccoby,E. T e l e v i s i o n : i t s Impact on School P__li__0_inio___ 15:421-444 1951  77.  Maccoby,E. et a l The E f f e c t of Emotional A r o u s a l on the Retention of Aggressive / non Aggressive Movie Content ___I__i__l!_I___l2_I 10:359 1959  78.  Mackenzie,F. C. La C r i t i q u e de Television aux Etats-Unis et Communication 185-210 1969  79.  Maccoby,E.  Why  do  Children  Watch  la en  Children  Radio et de l a Grande-Eritagne  Television? Public  121  _£____-_____I_.__l_  240  1953  80. Matin,C. E. T e l e v i s i o n : the Misunderstood 1:6-7 N-D 1969  Medium  Media  81.  Mason,G. E. C h i l d r e n Learn Words from Commercial TV ______t_____c_ool_Jo_r__l 65:318-320 Mr 1965  82.  Noble,G. Concepts of Order and TV program Journalism_2uart  Balance i n a Children's 47:101-108 1970  83. Osborn,D. K. Emotional Reactions of Young C h i l d r e n to TV Violence C ^ i M - P e - S l o E S e - i 42:321-3 31 M 1971 84.  Olson,J. Professional 8:74 0 1971  Looks  85.  . I_iS_i_ion_and_Gr Teleyised_Violence 0. S.""Department o f ~ H e a l t h 7 E d u c a t i o n and Welfare, P u b l i c Health S e r v i c e s P u b l i c a t i o n 1971  86. Robinson,J. P. Television Yesterday,Today, and (maybe) _ _ _ r t e r l _ 33:210-223 19 65  at  Media Media &_Methods  and Leisure Tomorrow P u b l i c  Time, Opinion  87.  Searle,M. L. Deceptive TV advertising : Palmolive Case S _ c i a l _ E d u c a t i o n 31:703-714 D  88.  Smythe,D. W. R e a l i t y as Presented Q u a r t e r l y 18:143-156 1954  89.  Siegel,a. Strength 378 1956  90.  S p r i g l e , H . a. Who Wants to L i v e cn Sesame ________ 28:91-109 D 1972  91.  Therr,C. L. Young at Heart: an E v a l u a t i o n of C h i l d r e n ' s ETV on the CBC _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ t e r l y 4:39-52 Sum 1971  92.  0 27  bt TV  Colgate 1967  &  Public_Cpinion  Films:Mediated Fantasy, aggression and of aggressive D e s i r e C h i l d Development 27:365-  . P a r e n t a l Duty and 1961 and  Street  Youn_  TV Times_Ed_ Supp 2423: 3656  93.  . Children 2412:67 ag 1 1961  Television  Times Ed. Supp_  94.  . T e l e v i s i o n and Children ____________££_ 2188: 126 J a 25 1963  95.  . Window on the World:Television»s R e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s Time__Jd__Supp_ 2497: 657 Mr 28 1963  Soviet  Discussion  122  96. Su___  . Survey Doubt 3013: 17 F 23 1973  over  Sesame  Street  Times_Ed.  97. Ward.S. e t a l C h i l d r e n ' s purchase I n f l u e n c e Attempts and P a r e n t a l Y i e l d i n g J o u r n a l _ o f Marketing Research 9:316 Ag 1972 98. Ward.S. Advertising and Youth: Two _M_S__£_t___yi__ 14:63-82 F a l l 197 2  Studies  99. Winston,S. C h i l d r e n and the Mass Media C h i l d r e n 1970 100. Witty,P. Some Results of 12 Yearly Televiewing S c i e n c e _ E d u a t i g n 416:222-22.  Sloan 17:242 N  Studies  of  101. Witty,P. E f f e c t s of T e l e v i s i o n on A t t i t u d e s and Behavior Eduction 85:98-105 102. Witty,P. C h i l d r e n of the T e l e v i s i o E n g l i s h 44:528-535 My 1967  Era  103. Witty,P. C h i l d r e n o f the T e l e v i s i o n E n g l i s h 44:52 8-535 My 1967 104.  Furu,T. T e l e v i s i o n and C h i l d r e n ' s Study __£_2__£2___a__i_ £___!___ 1972  105.  Ward,S. Children_and_Promotion:New March 1972  Elementary '  Era  life:a  Elementary  Before-After  Consumer B a t t l e g r o u n d  Books 106. A m s t e l l , I . What You Should Know About A d v e r t i s i n g York: Oceana"1969 83p 107. Arons,L. e t a l Teley_sign_and_Hum Research_in_Mass_Cgm New C e n t u r y - C r o f t s " 196 3 307 p~ 108.  York  :  New  Appleton-  Bauer,R.a. et a l A_ye_tising_i View Boston : D i v i s i o n of Research, Graduate School of Business A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , Harward U n i v e r s i t y 1968 473p  109. Bluem,A. W. e t a l T e l e v i s i o n _ _ t h _ _ C r e a _ New York : Hastings House "l967~328p~ 110. Buzzi,G. A d y e r t i s i n c j : i t s C u l t u r a l and P o l i t i c a l M i n n e a p o l i s : U. of Minnesota Press 1968  Effects  123  111. Canadian  Consumer  Council  Co__ent__o__th  112. Canadian Consumer C o u n c i l _ r a n s c _ i _ t _ o f 1970 113. Canada, S p e c i a l Senate Committee on Hass Media G<_od_ Bad,_or_S imply _ I n e v i t a b l e Ottawa : Queen's P r i n t e r 1970 114. Meredith Law  Lectures S e r i e s Combines_La__and_PolicY_ _ i _ _ _ i _ _ C a n _ d _ 1971  115. A d v e r t i s i n g 1971 §e.ring_Before_t_e_Committee_on Commerce United S t a t e s Senate 116. E n g e l , J . e t a l Consumer^Behavior New York : Binehart and Winston 1968 652p 117. F i r e s t o n e ,0. J . _he_Ecj_nomic_I_ Toronto: Methuen 1967 118. F i r e s t o n e , 0 . J . 1970 258p  The_Public_Persuader ~ ~ '  Toronto:  Methuen  119. F i r e s t o n e , 0. J . B r o a d c a s t i n g and Future Growth Ottawa : U n i v e r s i t y of Ottawa Press 1966 258p 120. G a l b r a i t h , J . K. _he_Af f l u e n t ^ Ameican L i b r a r y 1958 286p  New  York:  New  121. G a l b r a i t h , J . k . The N e w _ I n d u s t r i a l i s t a t e Boston: Houghton M i f f l i n 1967 427p ~ ~ 122. H a l l o r a n , J . 0. A t t i t u d e _ F o r n a t i o n and Change L e i c e s t e r : L e i c e s t e r U n i v e r s i t y 1967 ~ " ~ 123. Himmelweit,H. e t a l T e l e y i s i o _ _ a n _ _ t Oxford U n i v e r s i t y Press 1958 522p  Oxford  :  124. Howard,J. e t a l The_Theory of Buyer Behavior New York : Wiley 1969 459p 125. I n g l i s , F . The Imagery_of_Power London : 139p 126. Katona,G. 1960 276p  The Powerful Consumer '  Heinemann  New York : McGraw  127. Mathers,L. L. Economicsof_Consumer  1972 Hill  Danville,  1 24  111. : I n t e r s t a t e P r i n t e r s 6 P u b l i s h e r s Press 1971 128. McCarthy,E. ________________  129. McLuhan,M. 1964 359p  J. _°____________2______§___g_i_____ Columbus,Ohio: G r i d Inc. 1971 119p  0nderj_tandin_[ Media  130. McLuhan,M . Typographic man 293F 131. Repor t s _ o f _the  140p  Sew  york : McGraw H i l l  The .Gutenberg Galaxy: The Making of T o r o n t o : Toronto U n i v e r s i t y Press 1962 Direcotrof  I n v e s t i g a t i o n and Research^  132. Report_of_t_e_Roya Inflation 133. Schramm,W. et a l T e l e v i s i o n _ i n _ t h e l i v e s _ o f _ O u r . C h i l d r e n Toronto : U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto Press 1961 324p 134. S t e i n e r , G . The__eople_Look_at_Te Knopf 1963 422p  New  135. Packard,V. T h e H i d d e n P e r s u a d e r s London  York  :  : Penguin 1968  136.  . __ii__gO^§_d_Teleyision Washington D. c. Association f o r Childhood Education, International B u l l e t i n 1967  137.  . Teleyision_for_Children f o r Character Education  Boston  : Foundation  138. Lindzey,G. et al The_Indiyidual_ Cambridge : Mass. Addison-Wesley 1954 139. I s c o e , J . P g r g o n a l i t y _ _ g y g l o p m e n t _ i n _ C h i l d r e n U n i v e r s i t y of Texas Press 1960 140. Huxley,A. The_Braye New 1962  World London  Austin  :  : Harper & Brothers  141. P o l l a y , R . et a l The I n f l u e n c i n g Role of the C h i l d i n Family D e c i s i o n Making Journal_of_Marketint__Research 70 F 1968  125  APPENDIX I  Kxtrait «U> In (lasrtle officirlU </n QuffotY, on 11 novciiiltre 11)72  tin  A.C. 3268-72, du 31 octobre 1972 LOI  D E  C O N S O M  LA  PROTECTION  D U  M A T E U R  ( L . Q . 1 9 7 1 , ch. 7 4 )  K t l met from l l i r Qitlbcc Official Novomlx-r 11, 11)72  (hwlteot  O.C. 3268-72, <31 October 1972^> (CONSUMER PROTECTION ACT ( R . S . Q . 1 9 7 1 , ch. 7 4 )  t  Publicite destinee aux enfants  Advertising intended for children  Present: Le lieutenaht-gouvcrneur er»conseil.  Present: The Lieutenant-Governor in Council  CONCERNANT la publicite destinee aux enfants.  RESPECTING advertising intended for children  ATTENDU QUE le paragraphe o) de Particle 1 0 2 de la L o i de la protection du consommaitcur ( L . Q . 1 9 7 1 , ch. 7 4 ) , permet au liculcnant-gouverneur en conseil d'adopter dcs reglcmcnls: « o) pour ctablir dcs normes concernant la publicite au sujct de tout bien faisant ou non Fobjet d'un contrat ou credit, spccialement toute publicite destinee aux enfants; •> ATTENDU QUI:, par I'arrete en conseil 1 4 0 8 - 7 2 du 2 4 mai 1 9 7 2 , public dans la Gazette officdelle du Quebec d u 1 0 j u i n 1 9 7 2 . (p. 4 7 4 7 ) lc licutertant-gouverneur en conseil a edicte un reglement gcneraB sous I'autorite de la L o i de la protection d u consommatcur; ATTENDU QU'II y a lieu de modifier ce reglement general en y inserant une section visant la publicite destinee aux enfants; I I EST ORIHINNE, en consequence, sur la recommandation du ministre des institutions ftnancieres, compagnies et cooperatives: Q U E le reglement ainsi adopte entre en vigueur conformement a son article 2.  WHEREAS under subparagraph o o f section 1 0 2 of the Consumer Protection Act (S.Q. 1 9 7 1 , ch. 7 4 ) the L i e u tenant-Governor in Council may make regulations:  Le Greffier du Conseil executif, JSJLIEN C l l O U l N A R D .  "(o) to determine standards for advertising goods, whether or not they are the object of a contract, or credit, especially all advertising intended for children;" WHEREAS under Order in C o u n c i l 1 4 0 8 - 7 2 dated 2 4 M a y 1 9 7 2 , published in the Quebec Official Gazette o n ' 10 June 1 9 7 2 (p. 4 7 4 7 ) , the Lieutenant-Governor in Council enacted a general regulation under the C o n s u mer Protection Act; WHEREAS it is expedient to amend this regulation by inserting therein a division respecting advertising intended for children; IT IS ORDERED, therefore, upon the recommendation of the Minister of Financial Institutions, Companies and Cooperatives: THAT the regulation annexed to this Order in C o u n c i l be approved; THAT this regulation come into force pursuant to section 2 of the said regulation. J u U E N CllOUlNARD,  Clerk of the Executive  Council.  Reglement modifiarit le Reglement general adopte sous I'autorite de la Loi de la protection du consommaaeur  Regulation amending the General Regulation under the Consumer Protection A ct.  I. Le Rcglcmcnt general, adoptc en vcrtu de la L o i de la protection du consommatcur parl'arrete en conseil N o . 1 4 0 8 - 7 2 du 2 4 m a i 1972, est modifie en inserant, aprcs la section X I , la suivante:  I. The General Regulation made pursuant to the Consumer Protection Act under Order in C o u n c i l 1 4 0 8 7 2 dated 2 4 May 1 9 7 2 is amended by adding the following after Division X I :  SECTION X I - A  "DIVISION X I - A "  Publicite destinee aux ensfants  Advertising intendedfor children  I I . 51 Dans cette section, a moires que lc contexte n'indique un sens different. Ics mots suivants signifienl: a) « publicite » : toute representation publicitairc faite • dans un but commercial: b) « enfant »: toute pcrsonne agee d e moinsde 13 ans;  II. 51 In this division, unless the context indicates a different meaning, the following words mean: (a) "advertising": any advertising of a commercial nature; (b) " c h i l d " : every person under the age of 13 years;  (r)  c ) n m a r c h a n d i s e »: t o u t b i e n faisant o u n o n I'objct 11.52  Nul  publicr ou  ne p c u t , a u Q u e b e c ,  preparer,  utiliscr,  fairc p u b l i e r d c l a p u b l i c i t e destinee a u x  e n f a n t s q u i est d e l o y a l e . f a u s s e , t r o m p e u s e o u  falla-  cieuse. 11.53  Nul  publicr ou  ne peut,  au Q u e b e c ,  preparer,  11.53  utiliscr,  faire p u b l i e r d c l a p u b l i c i t e destinee a u x  etablit  une  compa-  rison; e) i n c i t e f o r m e l l c m c n t u n e n f a n t a acheter o u a i n v i -  drcn which: (o) exaggerates  g)  r c p r e s e n t e des h a b i t u d e s de v i e f a m i l i a l e r e p r e h e n -  sibles; o r d i n a i r e , ne d e v r a i t  p a s etre a I'usage  r  vitaminc  sous  forme  k)  reprcsente  une  personne  agissant  d'une  o) suggere que le fait d e p o s s e d e r o u d ' u t i l i s e r u n e m a r c h a n d i s e d e v e l o p p e c h e z u n e n f a n t un a v a n t a g e p h y s i q u e , s o c i a l ou p s y c h o l o g i q u e s u p e r i e u r a c e l u i d ' u n e n f a n t d e son age. o u q u e l a p r i v a t i o n de cette m a r c h a n d i s e a u n effet c o n t r a i r e , s a u f si cette suggestion est v r a i e c n c e q u i a trait a I ' e d u c a t i o n o u a l a s a n t e ; p) a n n o n c e une m a r c h a n d i s e d ' u n e f a c o n telle q u ' u n e n f a n t s o i l faussement p o r t e a c r o i r e q u e , p o u r le p r i x o r d i n a i r e de cette m a r c h a n d i s e , i l p e u t sc p r o c u r e r l ' e n s e m b l e des m a r c h a n d i s e s o u accessoires a n n o n c e s . 11.54 L e s p a r a g r a p h e s i. J, m et n d e I'article 11.53 n e s ' a p p l i q u e n t pas a une p u b l i c i t e a p p a r a i s s a n t s u r u n e m b a l l a g e , une etiquette o u u n e m a r c h a n d i s e .  request  I  (g)  portrays  "~  reprehensible  family  life o r  customs;  (h) c o n c e r n s a p r o d u c t w h i c h , by its n a t u r e , q u a l i t y  o r o r d i n a r y usage o u g h t not to be p l a c e d at the d i s p o s a l of children; (0 c o n c e r n s a d r u g o r a p r o p r i e t a r y m e d i c i n e ;  (J) c o n c e r n s a v i t a m i n i n l i q u i d , p o w d e r e d o r t a b l e t form; (k) p o r t r a y s  a person performing any  unsafe act;  I (/) p o r t r a y s a c o m m o d i t y i n a m a n n e r suggestive o f • i m p r o p e r o r d a n g e r o u s use t h e r e o f ; r- (m) e m p l o y s a p e r s o n o r p e r s o n a g e k n o w n t o c h i l J d r e n . except in the case o f a p r o f e s s i o n a l a c t o r o r a n I n o u n c e r w h o are not f e a t u r e d in a n y p u b l i c a t i o n o r p r o g r a m m e interned for c h i l d r e n ; (n) e m p l o y s c a r t o o n s :  facon  (cartoon):  or to  belittles parental a u t h o r i t y , j u d g m e n t or preferen-  en  n) e m p l o i e u n d e s s i n a n i m c o u une b a n d c illustree  to buy,  (/)  I ces;  •poudre o u en c o m p r i m e ; imprudente; /) reprcsente une m a r c h a n d i s e de f a c o n a e n sugger e r u n usage i m p r o p r e o u d a n g e r e u x ; m) e m p l o i e une p e r s o n n e o u u n p e r s o n n a g e c o n n u s d c s e n f a n t s , s a u f s ' i l s'agit d ' u n a c t e u r o u d ' u n p r e s e n t a t e u r p r o f e s s i o n a l s q u i ne f i g u r e n t p a s d a n s u n e p u b l i c a t i o n ou un p r o g r a m m e destines aux enfants:  urges c h i l d r e n  L  d'un  liquide,  (p) e x p r e s s l y  j a n o t h e r p e r s o n to b u y , a c o m m o d i t y ;  » ) a n n o n c e un medicament o u une specialile p h a r m a une  m a k e s use o f a e o m p a r i l e c l a i m o r e s t a b l i s h e s a  (d)  p-  ceutique; annonce  perfor-  I comparison;  enfant;  j)  characteristics,  (/>) d c - c m p h a s i / c s the s k i l l , a g e , strenght o r d e x t e r i t y  h) a n n o n c e u n p r o d u i t q u i , p a r ses n a t u r e , q u a l i t e o u usage  nature,  necessary to use a c o m m o d i t y ; (<•) m a k e s use o f s u p e r l a t i v e s t o d e s c r i b e the c h a r a c teristics o f a c o m m o d i t y o r m a k e use o f d i m i n u t i v e s t o d e s c r i b e the price t h e r e o f :  d e c o n s i d e r e I ' a u t o r i t e . le j u g e m e n t o u les p r e f e -  r e n c e s des p a r e n t s ;  the  m a n c e o r length o f life o f a c o m m o d i t y :  l e r u n e a u t r e personne a a c h e t e r u n e m a r c h a n d i s e : /)  N o o n e s h a l l p r e p a r e , use, p u b l i s h o r c a u s e t o  be p u b l i s h e d in Q u e b e c a d v e r t i s i n g i n t e n d e d f o r c h i l * ^  enfants qui: a) e x a g e r c l a n a t u r e , Ics c a r a c t e r i s t i q u e s , le r e n d e m e n t o u l a d u r c c d"une m a r c h a n d i s e : b) m i n i m i s e lc degrc d ' h a b i l e t e . I'age, l a f o r c e o u I'adresse r e q u i s p o u r f a i r e usage d " u n c m a r c h a n d i s e ; c) c m p l o i e un s u p e r l a t i f p o u r d e c r i r e les c a r a c t e r i s t i q u e s d u n e marchandise o u u n d i m i n u t i f pour en i n d i querlecout; d) c m p l o i e u n c o m p a r a t i f o u  " c o m m o d i t y " : a l l g o o d s , w h e t h e r o r n o t they are  the object o f a c o n t r a c t o r c r e d i t . 11.52 N o o n e s h a l l p r e p a r e , use, p u b l i s h , o r c a u s e f t o be p u b l i s h e d in Q u e b e c a d v e r t i s i n g i n t e n t c d for c h i l d r e n w h i c h is u n f a i r , f a l s e , d e c e p t i v e o r m i s l e a d i n g ^  d ' u n c o n t r a t o u credit.  j  (o) suggests that the p o s s e s s i o n o r use o f a c o m m o d i ty w i l l e n d o w a c h i l d w i t h p h y s i c a l , s o c i a l o r p s y c h o l o g i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s s u p e r i o r l o those o f his peers, o r . c o n versely, that the l a c k o f p o s s e s s i o n o r use t h e r e o f w i l l h a v e the o p p o s i t e effect, except i f s u c h s u g g e s t i o n , i n s o •^far as it c o n c e r n s e d u c a t i o n o r h e a l t h , be t r u e : ^ (p) i n t r o d u c e s a c o m m o d i t y i n s u c h a c o n t e x t t h a t a \ c h i l d w o u l d be falsely led to b e l i e v e t h a t , f o r the r e g u l a r j price o f s u c h c o m m o d i t y , he c o u l d o b t a i n a l l the c o m - - - m o d i t i e s o r accessories a d v e r t i z e d . 11.54  P a r a g r a p h s i,j,  m a n d n o f s e c t i o n 11.53  do not  apply to advertising appearing on a w r a p p i n g , a label, or on a c o m m o d i t y .  3  128  11.55 T o determine if advertising is intended for children, account must be taken of the context of the presentation, and consideration must be given in particular to the nature and the iniented purpose o f the commodity, the type of presentation and also the time and place where it is shown. 2. This regulation shall come into force upon the date 2. L c present reglement cnlrcra cn vigucur a la date dc sa publication dans l a Gazelle officielle du Quebec,of its publication in the Quebec Official Gazelle, except paragraph c Of seCU6n"Tr.53'Wrrrch shall come into force sauf cn cc qui a trait au paragraphic c) dc Particle 11.53 on I June 1973.. lequcl cntreraen vigucur lc Icrjuin 1973. However, in the case contemplated in paragmph «i Ccpendant, au cas vise dans le paragraphe n de Parti^of section 11.53. the use o f cartoon advertisements* cle 11.53, I'emploi d ' u n dessin anime ou d'une bandc which were already in use prior to the date of publica-i illustree qui a etc utilisee pour fin de publicite avant la date de publication de la presente section dans la Gazel- »,tion of this Division in the Quebec Official Gazette shall ^ le officielle du Quebec est pcrmis jusqu'au ler scptembrc_»p?rmiUcd_oiii4September 1943.  11.55 Pour determiner si une publicite est ou non destinee aux enfants, on doit tcnir comptc du contcxtc dc sa presentation ct considercr notamment la nature et la destination de l a marchandise, la presentation de la publicite ainsi que le temps et I'endroit ou elle apparait.  1973.  LL  'Broadcast Code for Advertising to Children Background T h i s Code has been designed l o complement the Canadian Code o f Advertising Standards. It is a supplement to all federal and provincial laws and regulations governing advertising, including those regulations and procedures established by the C a n a dian Radio-Television Commission, the Department o f Consumer and Corporate Affairs and the Department o f N a t i o n a l Health and Welfare. The general principles for ethical advertising are outlined in the Canadian Code o f Advertising Standards, and apply l o all advertising. The purpose o f the regulations o f the Broadcast Code for A d vertising to Children is to serve as a guide to advertisers in distinguishing between the s I characteristics of a child and an adult audience.  The following o^.-.u'/aiions agree to abide by the Broadcast C o d e l\;r Advertising to C h i l d r e n : Association o f Canadian Advertisers  Incorporated  Canadian Association o f Broadcasters Canadian T o y Manufacturers Association C T V Television Network • Institute o f Canadian Advertising Radio Sales Bureau Television Bureau of Canada The code h;'s a K o bi.cn endorsed in piinciple by the Canadian Broadcasting C o r p o r a t i o n .  Definition ft is r c c g n i / - . d that "•children" is a relative term, in id th.-.s hi-.iiv. chilifren enjoy " a d u l t " piogramiues as fi'.vii'.ir,!;. as the) enjoy c o m . nl di'celed to the child atidiviict. I i ..' clauses in t i n . ( ode refer to e o m i v . r c i a l itn.-•,v,i; . i broadcast specifically to children • : <.'.'. l.'.whe-.'ie. on children'*, or adult prograiirm's . and the word "advertisim/' n.-Kr*. l o such message.*.. ,  ,  Code Clauses 1. Factual Puscntaliim Children, especially the very young, live in a world that is part imaginary, p u t real, and sometimes do not distinguish clearly between the two. Advertisements should respect and not abuse the power o f the child's imagination. (a) Written, sound, photographic and other visual presentations must not exaggerate service, product or premium characteristics, such as performance, speed, size, colour, durability, etc. (b) When advertising shows results from a d i a w i n g construction, craft or modelling toy o r kit. the results should be attainable by an average child, and should not be professionally-prepared results that only a child with a very high degree o f skill could hope to achieve. The foregoing docs not require the elimination o f fantasy in advertising. Many childhood possessions become particularly meaningful as they are incorporated into the child's fantasy world, and it is natural and appropriate to communicate with this audience through " m o o d settings." The purpose of this section is to assure that presentations shall not try to stimulate unreasonable expectations o f product o r premium performance. 2. Product Prohibitions Some products by their very nature should not be promoted to children. Therefore, (a) Drugs, proprietary medicines, and vitamins in liquid, powdered or tablet form must not be a d vertised to children. (b) Products not intended for use by children must not be advertised to children, cither directly o r through the advertising o f promotions that are primarily child-oriented. 3. Undue Pressure upon Parents to Purchase- T h e purpose o f most commercial content is to e n courage a purchase. Hovvevei. children arc generally not competent to make comparative buying decisions. (a) T o avoid undue pressure, advertising, must not urge children to purchase, or urge them to ask their parents to make inquiries or purchases. (b) N o single commercial nor any segments thereof shall be presented more than once during any regularly scheduled progi amine. (This does not apply to broadcast "specials" which ate no! regularly scheduled.) A. Pro'.t-ntioii h> I'uv.rumiin C'h.i.i;utct mid I V . s i - c ! Fniliirsvinciits • The child's mind may r.ot alw,.;s distinguish between a buudcust i'rouiai,nr...- and :>,:<•  niercial content or l.-.-iv.cen t h ; person:*! ir.f! -.-.r...e of performers ar.J i!;e intrih .'.z a*p,---;.! of they advertise. Product-, .•-•J-. ..-rti .ed to thi'dre;- v ..' ! be pro;::o:ed o n their ov.i. n.-.-rii-'aiid il._r«.ff-r*-: fa) Pers'iiialities and cl/ii-r.ter» featured civ! Jren"*. programmes nur.t not l.e uved to prorsi'.te rr<, .!„.»>. premiums o r services. (b) Cartoon character, and p:i; r::-. : r/,: expressly promote prcdu.ts. pren iur.v. or s c r . i T h i s prohibition dues dot extend to - -..Mi: ser.icc announcements, f i r to factual -.ta'.crr.cr.ts about I . J - • iritional or cducatior.a! b*enc:'::s. fc) Persons and c h a r a - . v . e l ' - k n o . ' . n to children must not be used to endorse products, premiur.-.s or services, except for professional actor-; or .ir.r.our.cers who are not featured on p.-ogrun.r.-.e-. ir.'.er.de-'J I'-.>.' children. -  5. Price raid Purchase Terras - Price and purchu-e ten.is. when used, nv_-t be clear and cor.trv.'c. . Price should net be -..-.cJ as a spur.--.* o f u:ch .i pressure to purchase. (a) Where the .*.'.*.*. er: U a retail org..-.'/; •' ". :•'-..* • price quoted nv.s' '-c : : price at - - h i . . I .• is sold in the re:.-..'. i/ation's M . T C ••»- store-. (b) The cost should not r e minimized as by the use c:' such words as "o:.h" o. ""ju<t". (c) W h e n any peris tl. : a child might re.:suppose to be part of the p u r c i c s e : re •'.. only at extra cost. thU must be ~ J: :'. \ r . ; ' orally and visually. (d) When accessories a - c used in an a d . - . - . -r-.T.: it must be clear that such accessories .>.-c •.."*: i n cluded in the purchase of tl:-.' p-oJret (c) Demonstrations a r j . •Je>.*ip;:. :!> -i c ' . . : ' ; . indicate thai assem'.*i> is require.!, when "' :•*!;; : normally be assyr-ied :'. at the ;;r;'.-:e wo. c c.-livcred assembled. %  ,  6. Comparison Claims Children sh.tre •':• .'.-..''s a desire for charge and variety, but i : \ \ •. etc not in a position to r.-... sure t!:e c - s c t. . v cr the family's ability to ..' -o: .* the-v c s. :  1  (a) Toy advertise;, v.:'.- >'.'. ul r o t r.vhc . v . c t c o : v parisons with the previous year's model, or with comp.'.itive makes evi.it when the state.". '••» or claims are valid b-.ea «uclt iclVivnc.**- «".•.'. .: dc * mine 'he child's v;'-!- ;. ••• • .•••t of fiese;". ; v . •'•>'.* '* l ! »s ' u i t may •eceiv.-.' vfiv 1  ;  % S.-« ty t o t t ! w c ' . . ' . i ..;.i.i-*-.s. - \ -vp'ot. i | ' . . i ! e l ' ! ' i '.s ., .' .*.. i-• !  COI.iiii.il!'».lli lis 4iie%i  ev.i'.i .bi.i."  • •  • s  so often introduce the children to products, a n d because >ome parents n u \ be unaware of the hazards that might exist through the misuse or abuse o f products, media can contribute directly or indirectly to sound and safe habits. (a) Advertisements, except specific safety messages, must not portray adults o r children i n unsafe acts, e.g. playing inside a refrigerator o r with matches, ignoring traffic regulations, accepting gifts f r o m strangers, o r under the influence o f alcohol o r narcotics. to) Advertisements must not show products being used i n a n unsafe o r dangerous manner, such as adults transferring hazardous products from their original containers irv.o other containers which c h i l dren associate as safe o r related to f o o d o r drink, e.g. pouring a hazardous product into cups, glasses or soft drink bottles.  ' J j |  S. S o c i a l Values - Although many influences affect a child's habit development, it remains the prime responsibility o f parents " t o instruct a child in the way that he should g o . " Advertisers should ensure that they do not make the task more difficult. 'a) Messages must r.ot reflect disregard for parental authority o r parental judgment o r portray u n desirable family living habits. (b» Advertising m w not imply that possession o r of a product r.-.a'ves the owner superior, or that ..i'.hoat it the child will be open to ridicule o r contempt. This prohibition docs not apply to true statements regarding educational or health benefits. (;> A n y material ber.sfits enjoyed should be inherent in the use of the product itself. 9. Substantiation Rt'juircd (a) \ \ here claims are made regarding specific product qualities—piri'oftrance, safety, speed, size, colour, durability, etc. —the advertiser must be prepared, on request from the enforcement bodies, to provide evidence supporting such claims. 10. Code AdtnitiN'.ration  <::j Ei:fn cement 6. J:niulkiiun  — The enforcement  hodie. for t h i i C o d : ".iii bo the Children's Advertising Sections o f the Advertising Standards Council • r.nylishj a n d !•; Cwr^cil dcs normes de la Publicite f l ' r c i v . h j i j v u W h h i d t>> the Canadian Advertisinu A d . i - " r > Hoard. " T i e Children's S v . i l ' . n o f the Council, Conseil shall hive, live nt'.'mh.f's ine'iidiny a l least two public  r-rr^nhiiiH"!: *Aiv- ay nik'niiwrs may to nnmis Hated to ensure a ^inUiUM  T h e C o n s u m e r s Assucia-  tion of Canada shall nominate two public representatives (and two alternate public representatives) f o r each o f the Councils.  Broadcast Code for Advertising to Children  In an emergency, a quorum may be three -members, least one of w h o r n shall be a public representative. The Council,Conseil have jurisdiction only over commercials broadcast by Canadian stations or o n behalf of Canadian advertisers. at  (b) Pre-clcarancc and  Coimdtation-^Zo"broadcaster  §rhnlt-acccpC7tny~a"dVCriiSing's^ciRcany directed tcS> children" which has not received t h e prior approval of, th«•Advertising Standards Council or the Conseil dcs:} Normes. de l a Publicite. This pre-clearancc is not, j j ^ n d r i t g r x f o r j i d v e r t i s i n g that is purely local..' <  1  Because o f the time and expense involved in creating television advertising, it is recommended that where a n y reasonable doubt exists about possible contravention o f the Code, advertisers o r their advertising agencies should submit ideas i n storyboard or script form. This is especially true o f toy commercials and promotion and premium offers, where the peak selling season o r concentrated promotion period tends t o be short, and an advertiser deprived o f a i r time might find himself severely handicapped. (c) Inquiries and comments about t h e Code, and complaints regarding alleged violations, should b e made to the Children's Advertising Section, Advertising Standards C o u n c i l , 1240 Bay Street, Suite 302, Toronto, Ontario M 5 R 2A7, or to le Departcmcnt dc l a publicite" destinee aux enfants. Conseil des normes de la Publicite, Case Postale 35, S u c & M o n t * R o y a l , Montreal 304, Quebec. A n y member o f the public may submit a complaint to the Children's Advertising Section of the Council/ Conseil or the C o u n c i l as a whole, but telephone complaints will not be acted upon unless confirmed in writing. (d) Enftircenu'iit Procedure — If the C ' d r e n * s A d vertising Section of the Council. Conseil find that an advertisement is in breach of the Code, the member broadcasters have agreed that the offending a d vertisement shall not be re-run and the advertiser and.'or his agency shall be so notified. m  (it) Effective lime This C o d e applies to'Mtt <:&%• mejjekirs d i r e c t e d archildrcn broadcast a f t e r ScptcivP? h&r.l. 1973.1 he Advertising Standards C o u n c i l may, at i i s discretion, allow time for compliance for c o m -  nnjfsiais provlttuoil prior to tho ititiumnccmoni of  this Code.  The CwutJLm . issochttion of firoihlctisters VAssociation Ctiiuidieime dcs rtulioJiffuseurs Single copies of this code may be obtained free from the olVieiS of cither the Canadian Association of nroade.iMcis, P.O. Itov (07, Station it. Ottawa. or the C.ui.idi.m Advertising Standards Council. IM0 B.iv Street, Suite .'0e. I'oronto, Ontario M . R 2.V7. Hiitfe eopje> available, ill §3,00 i* iHi'.HSrvJ, ;  May P»7J  131  III l^breviations_of_Statutes S. C. - S t a t u t e s of Canada S. A. - S t a t u t e s of A l b e r t a S. B. C. - S t a t u t e s of B r i t i s h Columbia S. N. B. - S t a t u t e s of £New Brunswick S. N. S. - S t a t u t e s of Nova S c o t i a S. 0 . - S t a t u t e s of O n t a r i o S. P. E. I. - S t a t u t e s of P r i n c e Edward I s l a n d S. Q. - S t a t u t e s of Quebec C. P. R. - Canadian Patent Reporter D. L. R. - Dominion Law Reports 0 . R. - O n t a r i o Reports Ex. C. R. - Exchequer Court Reports  

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