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The "Nostalgia for Paradise" in Mircea Eliade’s quest for Homo Religiosus Jochim, Christian 1974

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THE "NOSTALGIA FOR PARADISE" IN MIRCEA ELIADE'S QUEST FOR HOMO RELIGIOSUS by CHRISTIAN JOCHIM B.A., U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a a t Santa B a r b a r a , 1970 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS  i n t h e Department of RELIGIOUS STUDIES  We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the required standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September, 1974  In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s  in p a r t i a l  f u l f i l m e n t o f the requirements  an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t  freely available  for  I agree  thesis  f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be g r a n t e d by the Head o f my Department It  of this thesis for financial written  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Vancouver 8, Canada  Oct  16,  197^  Columbia  or  publication  g a i n s h a l l not be allowed w i t h o u t my  Religious Studies  Department o f  Date  i s understood t h a t copying or  permission.  that  reference and study.  I f u r t h e r agree t h a t permission f o r e x t e n s i v e copying o f t h i s  by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s .  for  i  Abstract  T h i s t h e s i s examines M i r c e a E l i a d e ' s t r e a t m e n t o f t h e problem o f r e l i g i o n and m o d e r n i t y .  I t shows how h i s e f f o r t  t o g r a s p t h e meaning o f r e l i g i o n f o r modern man i s a h e r m e n e u t i c a l p r o c e d u r e w h i c h opposes r e d u c t i o n i s m e s s e n t i a l l y humanistic.  and i s  I t demonstrates t h a t he aims t o  awaken t h e r e l i g i o u s s e n s i t i v i t y o f h i s c o n t e m p o r a r i e s t h r o u g h a s t u d y o f premodern r e l i g i o u s b e h a v i o r t h a t avoids  t h e c l i c h e s and c a t e g o r i e s o f t h e Western r a t i o n a l i s t  tradition, areas; his  T h i s d e m o n s t r a t i o n d i v i d e s h i s thought i n t o f o u r  f i r s t , h i s polemic against reductionism,  second,  n o n - r e d u c t i o n i s t i c method o f i n t e r p r e t i n g r e l i g i o u s  phenomena, t h i r d , h i s d e s c r i p t i o n o f homo r e l i g i o s u s b y reference  t o t r a n s h i s t o r i c a l s t r u c t u r e s , and, f o u r t h , h i s  p l a n t o change modern s p i r i t u a l i t y through a r e c o v e r y o f a r c h a i c r e l i g i o u s awareness. The  point of this thesis i s to underline a c e r t a i n  n o s t a l g i a f o r t h e l i f e o f a r c h a i c man i n E l i a d e ' s h e r m e n e u t i c s , but n o t an u n h e a l t h y one.  I t i s a n o s t a l g i a for the  o r i g i n s o f man's p r e s e n t s i t u a t i o n , t h e e s s e n t i a l c o n d i t i o n w h i c h precedes a c t u a l human e x i s t e n c e .  I t discloses  itself  i n E l i a d e ' s quest f o r homo r e l i g i o s u s , w h i c h does n o t a i m to r e t u r n modern man t o a mode o f b e i n g l i v e d i n o b j e c t i v e a r c h a i c h i s t o r y , b u t r a t h e r seeks t o i n i t i a t e h i m i n t o  ii  a new  s p i r i t u a l awareness t h r o u g h the r e d i s c o v e r y o f  archaic modality starting  i n himself.  p o i n t f o r a new  T h i s r e d i s c o v e r y i s the  humanism, a p h i l o s o p h i c a l  a n t h r o p o l o g y t h a t can grasp the u n i t y of the s p e c i e s i t s highest  the  at  l e v e l , w h i c h i s , f o r E l i a d e , the r e l i g i o u s  H i s hermeneutics i s thus a s p i r i t u a l e x e r c i s e i t s e l f , w h i c h the " n o s t a l g i a f o r p a r a d i s e "  level. of  i s a c o n s t i t u e n t element.  An e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h i s f a c t r e v e a l s the n a t u r e o f E l i a d e ' s approach to the problem of r e l i g i o n  and m o d e r n i t y ,  and  c o n t r i b u t e s g r e a t l y t o an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f h i s thought as a whole.  iii  Contents  Introduction I. II.  III. IV.  1  E l i a d e ' s Polemic Against Reductionism: The N e g a t i v e B a s i s o f h i s Hermeneutics.  , 6  E l i a d e ' s Morphology o f t h e S a c r e d : A N o n - R e d u c t i o n i s t i c Method o f Interpretation  28  The S t r u c t u r e s o f the Sacred and the Mode o f B e i n g Homo R e l i g i o s u s  51  E l i a d e ' s R e l i g i o u s Hermeneutics The " N o s t a l g i a F o r P a r a d i s e "  and 78  Conclusion  104  Bibliography  108  -1-  INTRODUCTION  The problem o f r e l i g i o n and m o d e r n i t y commands t h e a t t e n t i o n o f e v e r y contemporary s c h o l a r whose s t u d i e s t o u c h upon t h e s u b j e c t o f r e l i g i o n .  The h i s t o r i a n o f r e l i g i o n s ,  the t h e o l o g i a n , t h e p s y c h o l o g i s t , t h e s o c i o l o g i s t , and the a n t h r o p o l o g i s t w i l l each have an i n t e r e s t i n one o r more o f t h e q u e s t i o n s w h i c h t h i s problem r a i s e s .  Is  r e l i g i o n no l o n g e r r e l e v a n t t o man i n h i s modern s t a t e , and i f so, w i l l i t s l o w l y d i s a p p e a r ?  I s r e l i g i o n such an  e s s e n t i a l p a r t o f man t h a t i t cannot b u t s u r v i v e , e i t h e r i n i t s t r a d i t i o n a l forms o r i n r a d i c a l l y s e c u l a r i z e d forms: p o l i t i c a l ideologies, psychoanalytic dogmas?  therapies, or s c i e n t i f i c  Or can one even speak o f r e l i g i o n i n g e n e r a l ,  e x p e c i a l l y i n t h i s age o f i n d i v i d u a l autonomy, s o c i a l m o b i l i t y , and p l u r a l i s m ?  These q u e s t i o n s  i n d i c a t e the  f o r m i d a b l e n a t u r e o f t h e problem o f r e l i g i o n and m o d e r n i t y . The aim o f t h i s t h e s i s i s n o t t o answer t h e s e q u e s t i o n s or t o o f f e r a s o l u t i o n t o t h i s problem.  I t s aim i s s i m p l y  to show how one s c h o l a r , t h e h i s t o r i a n o f r e l i g i o n s M i r c e a E l i a d e , d e f i n e s the problem, how he approaches r e l i g i o n and determines i t s meaning f o r modern man, E l i a d e c o n s i d e r s r e l i g i o n an e s s e n t i a l d i m e n s i o n o f human e x i s t e n c e ; y e t much o f h i s work i s concerned w i t h i t s  -2-  attenuated significance recover the r e l i g i o u s  f o r modern man.  An e f f o r t t o  s e n s i t i v i t y of h i s predecessors,  E l i a d e argues, w i l l b e n e f i t modern man f o r two r e a s o n s : f i r s t , because i t w i l l aide him i n u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e r e l i g i o u s c h a r a c t e r o f premodern s o c i e t i e s , and second, because i t w i l l h e l p him t o complete h i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f himself.  W h i l e E l i a d e i n d i c a t e s t h e r e a r e two d i f f e r e n t  a s p e c t s t o t h i s e f f o r t , they a r e f o r h i m i n s e p a r a b l e because he c o n s i d e r s t h e s t u d y o f premodern man's r e l i g i o u s b e h a v i o r t h e v e h i c l e by w h i c h contemporary o b s e r v e r s can b e s t a t t a i n a c l e a r e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f man's r e l i g i o u s dimension.  I n o t h e r words, t h e e f f o r t t o r e c o v e r t h e  meaning o f r e l i g i o n f o r t h e p r e s e n t day must be a h e r m e n e u t i c a l one. hermeneutics  The p a r t i c u l a r c o n c e p t i o n o f  u n d e r l y i n g E l i a d e ' s approach  t o r e l i g i o n has  been f o r m u l a t e d by t h e h i s t o r i a n o f r e l i g i o n s , C h a r l e s Long. Hermeneutics,  Long s a y s , " i s t h e e f f o r t t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e  s e l f through t h e m e d i a t i o n o f t h e other.""'' d e f i n i t i o n o f hermeneutics  This  provides the best s t a r t i n g p o i n t  f o r a d i s c u s s i o n o f E l i a d e ' s approach  to r e l i g i o n , f o r  i t d i s c l o s e s t h a t he aims t o make s p i r i t u a l s e l f u n d e r s t a n d i n g a t t a i n a b l e f o r modern man. A t each stage o f E l i a d e ' s h e r m e n e u t i c s ,  he approaches  C h a r l e s H. Long, "Archaism and Hermeneutics," The H i s t o r y o f R e l i g i o n s : Essays on t h e problem o f U n d e r s t a n d i n g , ed. J.M. Kitagawa (Chicago: U n i v . o f Chicago P r e s s , 1967)7 p.78.  -3-  r e l i g i o n as an e s s e n t i a l d i m e n s i o n o f man  w h i c h i s always  a c c e s s i b l e t o him d e s p i t e h i s w i l l i n g n e s s t o f o r g e t i t or his  a t t e m p t s t o oppose i t .  against  E l i a d e d e f i n e s h i s approach  those approaches w h i c h reduce r e l i g i o n t o  r e l i g i o u s f a c t o r s (e.g., s o c i a l , p s y c h o l o g i c a l , economic, e t c . ) .  Through t h i s p o l e m i c a g a i n s t  nonpolitical,  reductionism  he e s t a b l i s h e s an approach t o r e l i g i o n as something i n of i t s e l f .  and  I n the f i r s t c h a p t e r of t h i s t h e s i s the n a t u r e  and background of t h i s p o l e m i c w i l l be d i s c u s s e d . second c h a p t e r , the n a t u r e o f h i s method f o r the r e d u c t i o n i s t i c u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f r e l i g i o n w i l l be  In  the  nonoutlined,  showing the p r o c e s s by w h i c h he moves from the phenomena a t his  d i s p o s a l t o the " s t r u c t u r e s o f the sacred!'  show how  It will  h i s method i s r e l a t e d t o o t h e r contemporary  approaches t o r e l i g i o n .  I n the t h i r d c h a p t e r t h e s e  s o - c a l l e d " s t r u c t u r e s o f the s a c r e d " w i l l be s c r u t i n i z e d by a t t e m p t i n g to d e c i d e j u s t what k i n d o f s t r u c t u r e s t h e y a r e , or what they a r e " s t r u c t u r e s o f " a s i d e from "the The  sacred!'  purpose o f the s c r u t i n y i s t o r e v e a l the f u n c t i o n which  these s t r u c t u r e s have i n d e f i n i n g homo r e l i g i o s u s . be c a r r i e d out l a r g e l y through r e s p o n d i n g to  It will  critical  commentary on the v a l u e and use  of E l i a d e ' s  The  the r o l e of the h i s t o r i a n  f i n a l chapter w i l l consider  structures.  o f r e l i g i o n s i n the r e n e w a l o f thought i n modern c u l t u r e . S p e c i f i c a l l y , the i d e a w i l l be c o n s i d e r e d  whether  the  h i s t o r i a n of r e l i g i o n s i s i n a p o s i t i o n to i n f l u e n c e s p i r i t u a l s i t u a t i o n o f modern man  by r e s t o r i n g h i s  the  lost  -4-  spiritual  awareness.  E l i a d e f e e l s t h a t t h e q u e s t f o r homo r e l i g i o s u s i s b e s t s a t i s f i e d by s t u d y i n g man.  r e l i g i o n i n the l i f e of "archaic"  I n c h o o s i n g t h i s p r i m o r d i a l b e i n g as t h e c h i e f  object  o f h i s s t u d y , one may wonder i f he seeks t h e t r u e n a t u r e o f r e l i g i o n i n i t s " o r i g i n a l form" i n human h i s t o r y - - a s most of the e a r l y students o f p r i m i t i v e r e l i g i o n s d i d .  I n view  o f a l l t h a t he has w r i t t e n c r i t i c i z i n g t h e i r s o - c a l l e d 2  "quest f o r o r i g i n s " t h i s h a r d l y  seems l i k e l y .  Yet, noting  the d i f f e r e n c e s between h i s purpose and t h e i r s , t h i s t h e s i s w i l l attempt t o show t h a t h i s quest is. i n some sense a -  "quest f o r origins^'.'! W h i l e E l i a d e admires t h e e a r l y s t u d e n t s o f p r i m i t i v e r e l i g i o n s f o r t h e i r b r o a d p h i l o s o p h i c a l concerns and t h e i r a b i l i t y t o arouse p u b l i c i n t e r e s t i n r e l i g i o n , he r e j e c t s the h i s t o r i c a l - e v o l u t i o n a r y framework o f t h e e a r l y t h e o r i s t s and has no i n t e r e s t i n r e p e a t i n g  t h e i r search  f o r t h e e a r l i e s t h i s t o r i c a l form o f r e l i g i o n .  Although  E l i a d e ' s quest f o r homo r e l i g b s u s i s n e c e s s a r i l y  historical  and t a k e s a r c h a i c man as i t s model, i t i s n o t a quest f o r the a r c h a i c  i n objective history.  I t i s r a t h e r a non-  o b j e c t i v e q u e s t f o r o r i g i n s w h i c h aims t o show t h e importance of r e l i g i o n as an e s s e n t i a l d i m e n s i o n o f man. I t For example, M i r c e a E l i a d e , "The Quest f o r t h e ' O r i g i n s ' o f R e l i g i o n , " Ch.3 i n h i s The Quest: H i s t o r y and Meaning i n R e l i g i o n (Chicago: U n i v . o f Chicago P r e s s , 1969), pp. 37-53.  -5-  presupposes a v i e w o f a r c h a i c man w h i c h i s q u i t e d i f f e r e n t from t h e s i m p l e , c h i l d l i k e , and n e a r l y a n i m a l i s t i c c r e a t u r e of  the early theorists.  H i s view i s i n f a c t c l o s e r t o the  E n l i g h t e n m e n t v i s i o n o f t h e "noble savage*" l i v i n g i n t h e p a r a d i s a i c a l s t a t e o f man b e f o r e t h e f a l l .  However, f o r  E l i a d e , t h i s b e a t i f i c creature l i v e s i n the r e l a t i v e l y p a r a d i s a i c a l s t a t e o f man b e f o r e h i s "second f a l l " d e s a c r a l i z e d modern e x i s t e n c e .  into  The f i r s t s e a r c h f o r t h e  o r i g i n s o f r e l i g i o n attempted t o show t h e low l e v e l o f a r c h a i c man's r e l i g i o u s awareness; E l i a d e ' s quest has t h e o p p o s i t e aim. The o u t s t a n d i n g q u e s t i o n i s i n what sense does E l i a d e hope t o r e c o v e r f o r man h i s o r i g i n a l l y a c u t e p r e d i s p o s i t i o n for  r e l i g i o u s thought and b e h a v i o r .  The assumption t o be  a n a l y z e d i s whether E l i a d e wants modern Western man t o understand h i m s e l f r e l i g i o u s l y through a r e c a p i t u l a t i o n of archaic existence.  I t w i l l be shown t h a t such an  assumption must be f a l s e because o f t h e s p e c i f i c a l l y h e r m e n e u t i c a l n a t u r e o f E l i a d e ' s quest f o r homo r e l i g i o s u s . The a c t o f s e l f - u n d e r s t a n d i n g w h i c h i s t h e a i m o f h i s quest can n e v e r be c o n s i d e r e d an o b j e c t i v e r e s u r r e c t i o n o f a r c h a i c r e l i g i o u s v i e w s because i t presupposes modern man's p r e occupation with h i s t o r y .  This act of self-understanding  i s h e r m e n e u t i c a l , and as C h a r l e s Long s a y s , h e r m e n e u t i c s 3 "presupposes m o d e r n i t y "  Long, p.79.  -6.  I.  E l i a d e ' s Polemic Against The N e g a t i v e  Reductionism:  B a s i s o f h i s Hermeneutics  E l i a d e ' s approach t o the h i s t o r y o f r e l i g i o n s i s e x e m p l i f i e d i n C h a r l e s Long's d e f i n i t i o n o f h e r m e n e u t i c s as "the e f f o r t t o u n d e r s t a n d the s e l f t h r o u g h the of the o t h e r " .  mediation  For E l i a d e , the o t h e r i s c o n s t i t u t e d by  r e l i g i o u s m a t e r i a l s , p r i m a r i l y from premodern c u l t u r e s . The  e n c o u n t e r w i t h the o t h e r i s v a l u a b l e because the  i s " f o r e i g n " or " a l i e n " and t h e r e f o r e i n v i t e s new s u g g e s t s new ways o f r e l a t i n g t o the w o r l d , and categories of understanding.  other  thought, new  E l i a d e f e e l s the i n f o r m a t i v e  f u n c t i o n o f the o t h e r i s r e s t r i c t e d when i t i s reduced t o the c a t e g o r i e s o f contemporary thought and i t s fashionable cliches. own  He aims t o approach the o t h e r a t i t s  u n i q u e l y r e l i g i o u s and d i s t i n c t l y non-modern l e v e l . The  s t a r t i n g p o i n t of E l i a d e ' s hermeneutics i s a  negative polemic  against reductionism.  This polemic  takes  two forms; one a r i s e s out o f E l i a d e ' s c r i t i c i s m of v a r i o u s approaches t o premodern c u l t u r e s and the o t h e r stems from h i s c r i t i c i s m of v a r i o u s e f f o r t s t o t r e a t r e l i g i o n as a f u n c t i o n o f p o l i t i c a l , economic, s o c i a l , p s y c h o l o g i c a l , and o t h e r n o n - r e l i g i o u s f a c t o r s .  Although  the two  forms  combine i n E l i a d e ' s thought, they are h e r e t r e a t e d s e p a r a t e l y because each i s connected w i t h a d i f f e r e n t  area  -7-  i n the s t u d y o f r e l i g i o n : the f i r s t w i t h the s t u d y o f p r i m i t i v e r e l i g i o n s , and the second w i t h the h i s t o r i c a l c o m p a r a t i v e study o f r e l i g i o n s . r e a c t i o n s t o developments  and  This chapter presents E l i a d e ' s  i n b o t h areas as he forms h i s  p a r t i c u l a r approach t o r e l i g i o n .  U n d e r s t a n d i n g Premodern C u l t u r e s  What does E l i a d e mean by "modern" c u l t u r e and how he d i s t i n g u i s h i t from premodern c u l t u r e ?  does  A t one p o i n t he  states: By the "modern w o r l d , " we mean contemporary Western s o c i e t y ; but a l s o a s t a t e o f mind w h i c h has been formed by s u c c e s s i v e d e p o s i t s ever s i n c e the R e n a i s s a n c e and the R e f o r m a t i o n . The a c t i v e c l a s s e s o f the urban s o c i e t i e s are i n t h i s sense "modern"--that i s , the mass o f mankind w h i c h has been more o r l e s s d i r e c t l y shaped by e d u c a t i o n and o f f i c i a l culture.^-  The s u c c e s s i v e d e p o s i t s mentioned here c o n s t i t u t e a l i n e o f thought l e a d i n g through the E n l i g h t e n m e n t , p o s i t i v i s m ,  Marxism,  b e h a v i o r i s m , and more r e c e n t l y , h i s t o r i c i s m and  existentialism.  E l i a d e r e f e r s t o those types o f c u l t u r e t h a t he  finds  f u r t h e s t removed from t h i s k i n d o f m o d e r n i t y as " a r c h a i c , " and p l a c e s i n t h i s c a t e g o r y a n c i e n t and p r i m i t i v e s o c i e t i e s as w e l l  E l i a d e , Myths, Dreams, and M y s t e r i e s , t r . P h i l i p M a i r e t (New York: Harper and Row, 1960), p.25., n . l .  -8-  as t h e t r a d i t i o n a l , p o p u l a r , o r peasant s e c t o r s o f s o c i e t y i n A s i a , A f r i c a , t h e A m e r i c a s , and Europe.  He d i s t i n g u i s h e s  modern c u l t u r e from a r c h a i c c u l t u r e s a c c o r d i n g t o d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a t t i t u d e o f each toward t i m e , o r h i s t o r y , and space.  E l i a d e b e l i e v e s t h a t f u l l y modern man i s c h a r a c t e r -  i z e d by h i s t o r i c i t y , w h i c h means t h a t he i s a man who can l i v e only i n h i s t o r y , i n the f l u x o f l i n e a r time.  In contrast,  a r c h a i c man i n h i s most r a d i c a l form p l a c e s no v a l u e on history.  F o r t h i s man, t h e events o f l i n e a r t i m e , and e q u a l l y  the g e o g r a p h i c a l f e a t u r e s o f h i s s p a t i a l environment, have no meaning i n themselves; t h e o n l y meaning they have i s one c o n f e r r e d upon them from a superhuman s o u r c e o u t s i d e o f h i s t o r y . More w i l l be s a i d about t h e gap s e p a r a t i n g modern man from a r c h a i c man i n a l a t e r c h a p t e r .  What one might now c o n s i d e r  i s t h e f a c t t h a t E l i a d e has found i t n e c e s s a r y t o t u r n t o premodern s o c i e t i e s i n o r d e r t o i n q u i r e i n t o man's r e l i g i o u s nature.  I n h i s words: "To come t o know t h e m e n t a l u n i v e r s e o f  homo r e l i g i o s u s , we must above a l l t a k e i n t o account t h e men o f these p r i m i t i v e s o c i e t i e s . " " '  E l i a d e , of course, i s not the  o n l y one who has t u r n e d t o t h i s source i n o r d e r t o u n d e r s t a n d the r e l i g i o u s elements i n man's c h a r a c t e r , o r i t s o t h e r s i g n i f i c a n t elements.  In the i n t r o d u c t i o n to h i s Theories of  P r i m i t i v e R e l i g i o n , E.E. E v a n s - P r i t c h a r d remarks  that,  E l i a d e , The S a c r e d and t h e P r o f a n e , t r . W i l l a r d T r a s k (New York: Harper and Row, 1961), p.165.  -9-  some of the most i m p o r t a n t p o l i t i c a l , s o c i a l , and m o r a l p h i l o s o p h e r s from Hobbes, Locke, and Rousseau t o H e r b e r t Spencer, Durkheim and Bergson have c o n s i d e r e d the f a c t s o f p r i m i t i v e l i f e to have g r e a t s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r the unders t a n d i n g of s o c i a l l i f e i n g e n e r a l ; and I would remark t h a t the men who have been most r e s p o n s i b l e f o r changing the whole c l i m a t e o f thought i n our c i v i l i z a t i o n d u r i n g the l a s t c e n t u r y , the g r e a t myth-makers Darwin, M a r x - E n g e l s , F r e u d , and F r a z e r (and perhaps I s h o u l d add Compte), a l l showed an i n t e n s e i n t e r e s t i n p r i m i t i v e p e o p l e s . . .6 A l t h o u g h men  d i d develop s o c i a l t h e o r i e s and p h i l o s o p h i c a l  t r u t h s t h r o u g h t h e i r study o f p r i m i t i v e c u l t u r e s i n the l a s t c e n t u r y , t h e i r accomplishments remained s m a l l i n the a c t u a l understanding  primitive l i f e itself, especially  i n the a r e a o f r e l i g i o n .  E v a n s - P r i t c h a r d has  convincingly  demonstrated t h i s i n h i s work as has E l i a d e i n v a r i o u s essays.  7  Both s c h o l a r s f e e l t h a t few of t h e i r  have been a b l e t o see t h r o u g h the c l i c h e s and o f t h e i r own  predecessors categories  i n t e l l e c t u a l era to a c l e a r understanding  their subject.  of  Upon c o n s i d e r i n g some o f the developments  d u r i n g the l a s t c e n t u r y i n t h i s f i e l d of s t u d y , one  can  w e l l u n d e r s t a n d why  study  E l i a d e f e e l s i t i s necessary  p r i m i t i v e r e l i g i o n s from a new  to  p e r s p e c t i v e i n order  to  E.E. E v a n s - P r i t c h a r d , T h e o r i e s o f P r i m i t i v e R e l i g i o n (Oxford: The Univ. P r e s s , 1965), p . l . E l i a d e , "On U n d e r s t a n d i n g P r i m i t i v e R e l i g i o n s , " Glaube, G e i s t , G e s c h i e c h t e : F e s t s c h r i f t f u r E r n s t Benz, ed. G. M Q l l e r and W. Z e l l e r ( L e i d e n : E . J . B r i l l , 1967), pp~£98-505; "The H i s t o r y o f R e l i g i o n s i n R e t r o s p e c t : 1912 and A f t e r " and "The Quest f o r the ' O r i g i n s ' o f R e l i g i o n , " Chapters 2 and 3 o f The Quest. 7  -10-  u n d e r s t a n d t h e essence o f homo r e l i g i o s u s . The p h i l o s o p h e r Susanne Langer p o i n t s o u t t h a t an i n t e l l e c t u a l e r a i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d above a l l by t h e k i n d of q u e s t i o n s w h i c h i t a s k s .  In the l a t e nineteenth  c e n t u r y , t h e q u e s t i o n o f " o r i g i n s " dominated t h e i n t e l l e c t u a l climate.  Scholars i n the f i e l d of p r i m i t i v e r e l i g i o n s  each  proposed t h e o r i e s i n an e f f o r t t o d e f i n e t h e " o r i g i n a l form" of r e l i g i o n .  Among t h e s e t h e o r i e s were T y l o r ' s  "animism",  M a r e t t ' s "pre-animism", H e r b e r t Spencer's " a n c e s t o r w o r s h i p " , R o b e r t s o n Smith's "totemism", and F a t h e r Schmidt's " p r i m o r d i a l monotheism".  Moreover, most s c h o l a r s sought an  analogue t o b i o l o g i c a l e v o l u t i o n i n showing how r e l i g i o n developed from i t s s i m p l e o r i g i n s t o i t s " h i g h e r " forms. Evans-Pritchard c a l l s these e a r l y t h e o r i e s o f the o r i g i n o f r e l i g i o n " p s y c h o l o g i c a l " t h e o r i e s , because i n one way o r a n o t h e r each o f them e x p l a i n e d t h e o r i g i n o f r e l i g i o n by some imagined a c t o f t h e p r i m o r d i a l mind. suggests t h a t p r o g r e s s was made o n l y i n moving  He  from  " i n t e l l e c t u a l i s t " psychological theories to "emotionalist" q ones.  The advent o f s o c i o l o g y f i n a l l y p u t an end t o  theories proposing that r e l i g i o n originated i n a primal a c t o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l mind.  I n p a r t i c u l a r , E m i l e Durkheim  S u s a n n e Langer, P h i l o s o p h y i n a New Key_ (New York: The New American L i b r a r y , 1951), p.15. 8  ^ E v a n s - P r i t c h a r d , pp.20-47.  -11-  c l a r i f i e d Compte's p r o c l a m a t i o n ,  made f i f t y y e a r s e a r l i e r ,  t h a t t h e i n d i v i d u a l was a mere a b s t r a c t i o n .  Yet,  early  s o c i o l o g i s t s p e r s i s t e d i n t r y i n g to explain the o r i g i n of r e l i g i o n , i n t h e i r case, i t s s o c i a l o r i g i n .  T h e i r work  marked a change i n t h e i n t e l l e c t u a l c l i m a t e o n l y i n t h a t i t went beyond i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c h y p o t h e s e s ; i t p r e f i g u r e d an era i n which the question  o f " o r i g i n s " would become  t o be superseded by t h e q u e s t i o n individual's multiple The  obsolete,  of " d e s c r i p t i o n " , of the  conditionings.  new i n t e l l e c t u a l c l i m a t e i n w h i c h t h e s t u d e n t o f  p r i m i t i v e r e l i g i o n s found h i m s e l f  d i d n o t s i m p l y r e s u l t from  developments i n s o c i o l o g y : n o r d i d i t r e s u l t from d i s c o v e r i e s made by a new b r e e d o f " f i e l d " a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s contradicted  who  theories o f the o r i g i n of r e l i g i o n .  As E l i a d e  remarks: I t was a new environment n o u r i s h e d by N i e t z s c h e and Marx, D i l t h e y , Croce, and O r t e g a , and l a t e r on by Heidegger and S a r t r e ; an environment i n w h i c h t h e f a s h i o n a b l e c l i c h e was n o t n a t u r e b u t h i s t o r y , n o t " o r i g i n and development" b u t t e m p o r a l i t y and h i s t o r i c i t y . In the study o f r e l i g i o n t h i s p r e c i p i t a t e d a strong against  reaction  t h e quest f o r " o r i g i n s " and a heavy emphasis upon  the d e p i c t i o n o f r e l i g i o n i n terms o f i t s m u l t i p l e conditionings.  Scholars  f e l t t h a t i n q u i r i e s s h o u l d be  r e s t r i c t e d as c o m p l e t e l y as p o s s i b l e t o t h e d e s c r i p t i o n o f  °Eliade, "Comparative R e l i g i o n : I t s P a s t and Future," Knowledge and t h e F u t u r e o f Man, ed. W a l t e r J . Ong (New York: H o l t , R e i n h a r t , and W i n s t o n , 1968), p.250.  the r e l a t i o n o f r e l i g i o n t o o t h e r elements i n i t s v a r i o u s socio-historical  contexts.  T h i s a t t i t u d e p e r s i s t s among most s c h o l a r s a t p r e s e n t . For example, E v a n s - P r i t c h a r d w r i t e s i n h i s C o n c l u s i o n t o Theories o f P r i m i t i v e R e l i g i o n : I h o l d t h a t i t i s n o t sound s c i e n t i f i c method t o seek f o r o r i g i n s , e s p e c i a l l y when they cannot be found. S c i e n c e d e a l s w i t h r e l a t i o n s , n o t w i t h o r i g i n s and e s s e n c e s . . A relational a n a l y s i s o f t h e k i n d suggested can be made a t any p o i n t where r e l i g i o n i s i n a r e l a t i o n t o any other s o c i a l f a c t s — m o r a l , e t h i c a l , j u r i d i c a l , a e s t h e t i c and s c i e n t i f i c , . . iJ  No contemporary s c h o l a r would c h a l l e n g e t h e v i e w t h a t t h e o r i g i n o f r e l i g i o n cannot be f o u n d , and none would deny t h e importance o f s o c i o - h i s t o r i c a l c o n t e x t s f o r u n d e r s t a n d i n g particular religions. thinks not.  But i s t h i s t h e f i n a l word?  Eliade  He i s more c a u t i o u s i n h i s r e a c t i o n t o e a r l y  s t u d e n t s o f r e l i g i o n and, i n f a c t , admires them f o r t h e i r b r e a d t h o f purpose and t h e i r a b i l i t y t o arouse p u b l i c 12 interest i n religion.  He f u r t h e r m o r e  cautions  against  a l l o w i n g t h e c u r r e n t i n t e r e s t i n man's h i s t o r i c i t y t o become as much an o b s e s s i o n as t h e p r o b l e m o f " o r i g i n s " was f o r n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y s c h o l a r s . The c r u x o f E l i a d e ' s p o l e m i c  i s the warning that the  d i s c o v e r y o f man's h i s t o r i c i t y and, w i t h i t , t h e E v a n s - P r i t c h a r d , pp.111-12. E l i a d e , " C r i s i s and Renewal," Chapter 4 o f The Quest, pp.54-55.  -13recognition of conditionings of a l l sorts  (social,  economic, p s y c h o l o g i c a l , e t c . ) may l e a d i n t o a new " h i s t o r i c i s t i c " reductionism.  A t t h e end o f h i s d i s c u s s i o n  o f "The Quest f o r t h e ' O r i g i n s ' o f R e l i g i o n / " he a s k s : "Does t h e f a c t t h a t we can't r e a c h t h e o r i g i n o f r e l i g i o n a l s o mean t h a t we cannot grasp t h e essence o f r e l i g i o u s phenomena?".  He then o f f e r s h i s v i e w o f t h e p r o b l e m o f  i n t e r p r e t i n g r e l i g i o u s phenomena: A pure r e l i g i o u s phenomenon does n o t e x i s t . A r e l i g i o u s phenomenon i s always a l s o a s o c i a l , an economic, a p s y c h o l o g i c a l phenomenon, and, o f c o u r s e , a h i s t o r i c a l one, because i t t a k e s p l a c e i n h i s t o r i c a l time and i t i s c o n d i t i o n e d by e v e r y t h i n g w h i c h had happened b e f o r e . But t h e q u e s t i o n i s : A r e t h e m u l t i p l e systems of c o n d i t i o n i n g a s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t explanation of the r e l i g i o u s phenomenon? When a g r e a t d i s c o v e r y opens new p e r s p e c t i v e s t o t h e human mind, t h e r e i s a tendency t o e x p l a i n e v e r y t h i n g i n t h e l i g h t o f t h a t d i s c o v e r y and on i t s p l a n o f r e f e r e n c e . . . , The d i s c o v e r y , a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e c e n t u r y , o f the importance o f h i s t o r y urged many o f o u r c o n t e m p o r a r i e s t o reduce man t o h i s h i s t o r i c a l d i m e n s i o n , t h a t i s t o s a y , t o t h e systems o f c o n d i t i o n i n g s i n w h i c h every human b e i n g i s h o p e l e s s l y " s i t u a t e d ! . . . We know t h a t we can grasp t h e s a c r e d o n l y through m a n i f e s t a t i o n s w h i c h a r e h i s t o r i c a l l y c o n d i t i o n e d . But t h e study o f t h e s e h i s t o r i c a l l y c o n d i t i o n e d e x p r e s s i o n s does n o t g i v e us t h e answer t o t h e questions: What i s the sacred? What does a r e l i g i o u s e x p e r i e n c e a c t u a l l y mean? ^ 1  1  E l i a d e b e l i e v e s we can ask about t h e e s s e n t i a l s o f r e l i g i o n even though i t s o r i g i n eludes u s ; he f e e l s we must i n q u i r e i n t o t h e s p e c i f i c n a t u r e and meaning o f r e l i g i o n even though n e i t h e r i s apparent i n i t s h i s t o r i c a l  E l i a d e , The Quest, pp.52-53.  "situations",  -14-  Eliade  considers t h i s kind of inquiry  especially  important f o r the study o f r e l i g i o n i n p r i m i t i v e  societies.  W h i l e t h e s e s o c i e t i e s do n o t c o n t a i n t h e " o r i g i n a l form" of r e l i g i o n , a l l o f t h e i r s i g n i f i c a n t c u l t u r a l (myths, a r t forms, dance, e t c . ) r e l i g i o u s plane.  creations  a r e e x p r e s s e d on a  I n o r d e r t o approach them a t t h e i r own  l e v e l , E l i a d e a r g u e s , one must grasp t h e meaning o f t h e i r religious creations.  He doubts t h a t  reductionistic  approaches w h i c h c o n c e n t r a t e upon f a m i l y law,  s o c i a l organizations,  structure,  tribal  e t c . w i l l be a b l e t o comprehend  the r e l i g i o u s c r e a t i v i t y o f p r i m i t i v e s o c i e t i e s .  He s t a t e s :  R e d u c t i o n i s m as a g e n e r a l method f o r g r a s p i n g c e r t a i n types o f " r e a l i t y " may h e l p t o s o l v e w e s t e r n man's problems, b u t i t i s i r r e l e v a n t as a h e r m e n e u t i c a l t o o l . I t i s i r r e l e v a n t p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t h e case o f a r c h a i c c u l t u r e s . For p r i m i t i v e man's c r e a t i v i t y i s r e l i g i o u s par e x c e l l e n c e . His ethical, i n s t i t u t i o n a l , and a r t i s t i c c r e a t i o n s a r e dependent upon, o r i n s p i r e d by, r e l i g i o u s e x p e r i e n c e and thought. Only i f we t a k e s e r i o u s l y these o e u v r e s - - i n the same way t h a t we t a k e s e r i o u s l y t h e O l d Testament, t h e Greek t r a g e d i e s , o r Dante, Shakespeare, and G o e t h e - - w i l l t h e P r i m i t i v e s f i n d t h e i r proper place i n the unfolding Universal History, i n continuity with other p e o p l e s o f p a s t and p r e s e n t . ^ Explanations of s o c i a l organization,  e t c . , may be s u f f i c i e n t  to show t h a t p r i m i t i v e man i s "normal".  The a n t h r o p o l o g i s t  or s o c i o l o g i s t may be s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h i s , b u t a c c o r d i n g t o Eliade,  t h e h i s t o r i a n o f r e l i g i o n s has a s p e c i a l  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to appreciate the f a c t that the p r i m i t i v e  Eliade,  "On U n d e r s t a n d i n g P r i m i t i v e R e l i g i o n s , "  p.502.  -15-  is also  "creative".  The h i s t o r i a n o f r e l i g i o n s w i l l , o f c o u r s e , have a valuable r o l e i n understanding  primitive religions.  The  v a l u e o f a g e n e r a l knowledge of r e l i g i o u s f a c t s f o r the understanding  o f any p a r t i c u l a r form o f r e l i g i o n i s c l e a r .  Y e t , f o r E l i a d e the m a t t e r does n o t end here. b e f o r e one t r i e s to u n d e r s t a n d  As he sees i t ,  a p a r t i c u l a r form of r e l i g i o n ,  he s h o u l d n o t o n l y p o s s e s s a g e n e r a l knowledge o f r e l i g i o u s f a c t s but a l s o an i d e a o f what r e l i g i o n i s , i n and o f i t s e l f . W h i l e E l i a d e w r i t e s t h a t "a pure r e l i g i o u s phenomenon does n o t e x i s t , - ' and t h a t "we  can grasp the s a c r e d o n l y  through  m a n i f e s t a t i o n s w h i c h a r e h i s t o r i c a l l y conditioned}'" he  feels  the meaning o f a r e l i g i o u s phenomenon i s not exhausted when i t i s reduced to i t s s o c i a l , p o l i t i c a l , components.  and economic  I t a l s o c o n t a i n s an i r r e d u c i b l y r e l i g i o u s  element, w h i c h E l i a d e c a l l s " t h e element o f the sacred." As t h i s element i s c e n t r a l i n h i s p o l e m i c r e d u c t i o n i s m , i t i s now  necessary  a r r i v e d a t and developed  Understanding  The  the  against  t o see how  h i s i d e a o f the  he  has  sacred.  Sacred  sacred, according to E l i a d e ,  h i s t o r i c a l l y c o n d i t i o n e d forms.  appears o n l y i n  There a r e two  subjects  w h i c h t h e r e f o r e a r i s e i n h i s approach t o the s a c r e d : i t n a t u r e and i t s manner o f appearance i n h i s t o r y .  The f i  -16-  c o n c e r n here w i l l be how he has d e v e l o p e d h i s i d e a o f the s a c r e d from the works o t h e r s c h o l a r s , and the second  will  be how he has added t o t h i s c o n c e p t i o n t h r o u g h what might be c a l l e d the laws o f s a c r e d m a n i f e s t a t i o n . to  With regard  the f i r s t i s s u e , Jonathan Smith w r i t e s : Indeed one might suggest t h a t p a r t o f E l i a d e ' s " s t r a t e g y " has been t o s u b s t i t u t e O t t o ' s language o f the H o l y f o r Durkheim's more n e u t r a l and p o s i t i o n a l S a c r e d w h i l e m a i n t a i n i n g the dynamics o f Durkheim's d u a l i s m .  O t t o i s the s c h o l a r who has had the g r e a t e s t i n f l u e n c e on E l i a d e , f o r he has g i v e n him the p r i n c i p l e o f the i r r e d u c i b i l i t y o f s a c r e d phenomena.  However, the p r o p e r  p l a c e t o b e g i n t h i s d i s c u s s i o n i s where the i d e a o f the s a c r e d f i r s t became a t o o l o f p r i m a r y importance f o r the u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f r e l i g i o n , i . e . , i n the s o c i o l o g y o f Emile  Durkheim. Durkheim e s t a b l i s h e s a m i n i m a l d e f i n i t i o n o f the  s a c r e d as t h a t w h i c h i s opposed t o the p r o f a n e .  I n The  E l e m e n t a r y Forms o f R e l i g i o u s L i f e he w r i t e s : In the h i s t o r y o f human thought t h e r e e x i s t s no o t h e r example o f two c a t e g o r i e s o f t h i n g s so p r o f o u n d l y d i f f e r e n t i a t e d o r so r a d i c a l l y opposed t o one a n o t h e r . , . . the s a c r e d and the p r o f a n e have always and everywhere been c o n c e i v e d by the human mind as two d i s t i n c t c l a s s e s , two w o r l d s between w h i c h t h e r e i s n o t h i n g i n common.1"  J o n a t h a n Smith, "The Wobbling Pivot'*, The J o u r n a l o f R e l i g i o n , 52 (1972), p.137. 1 5  E m i l e Durkheim, The E l e m e n t a r y Forms o f R e l i g i o u s L i f e t r . J o s e p h Ward Swain (New York: The Free P r e s s , 1965), pp.53 1 6  -17-  A c c o r d i n g t o Durkheim, t h e o p p o s i t i o n between t h e s e two w o r l d s i s dynamic n o t s t a t i c , f o r t h e s a c r e d has a p o w e r f u l p r o p e n s i t y f o r s p r e a d i n g i t s e l f over t h e w o r l d o f t h e profane; i t i s "contagious."  The m a j o r i t y o f r e l i g i o u s  r i t e s f u n c t i o n t o keep t h e two w o r l d s s e p a r a t e d , and even those r i t e s w h i c h a l l o w passage from one w o r l d t o t h e o t h e r put i n t o r e l i e f t h e antagonism  between them (e.g., passage  from one t o t h e o t h e r would be accompanied by a s y m b o l i c death o r some break i n c o n t i n u i t y ) . contradictory principles  The two m u t u a l l y  o f antagonism  and c o n t a g i o n  describe the sacred's d i a l e c t i c a l r e l a t i o n t o the profane i n Durkheim's s a c r e d - p r o f a n e  dichotomy.  Durkheim's u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e s a c r e d , however, goes beyond h i s d e f i n i t i o n o f i t as something profane.  opposed t o t h e  I t a l s o i n c l u d e s h i s theory of the s o c i a l  of s a c r e d n e s s .  origin  He s u g g e s t s :  R e l i g i o u s f o r c e i s o n l y the sentiments i n s p i r e d by t h e group i n i t s members, b u t p r o j e c t e d o u t s i d e of t h e c o n s c i o u s n e s s e s t h a t e x p e r i e n c e them, and objectified. To be o b j e c t i f i e d , they a r e f i x e d upon some o b j e c t w h i c h thus becomes s a c r e d . . . . the s a c r e d c h a r a c t e r assumed by an o b j e c t i s not i m p l i e d i n the i n t r i n s i c p r o p e r t i e s of t h i s l a t t e r : i t i_s added t o them.-1/ T h i s c o n s t i t u t e s a c l a s s i c example o f t h e e f f o r t t o e x p l a i n t h e s a c r e d as a p r o j e c t i o n o f some n o n - r e l i g i o u s human dimension.  E l i a d e ' s i d e a o f t h e s a c r e d i s formed i n  opposition to t h i s k i n d of explanation, although i t i s  I b i d . , p.261.  -18-  i n f l u e n c e d by Durkheim's u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the dichotomy.  sacred-profane  O p p o s i t i o n t o t r e a t i n g the s a c r e d i n terms o f  non-religious  f a c t o r s was  e s t a b l i s h e d b e f o r e E l i a d e , however;  i t can be t r a c e d back t o the f i r s t c o m p a r a t i v e s t u d i e s  of  religion. When Durkheim s t a t e s , " t h e r e i s something e t e r n a l i n r e l i g i o n " , he r e f e r s t o i t s permanent s i g n i f i c a n c e as 18 social fact.  a  I n the c o m p a r a t i v e s t u d y o f r e l i g i o n s , the  i d e a o f the e t e r n a l i n r e l i g i o n means something q u i t e d i f f e r e n t ; i t suggests a s u p e r n a t u r a l  q u a l i t y , an element  above and beyond the e m p i r i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f r e l i g i o u s phenomenon, U l t i m a t e or s i m p l y , the E t e r n a l . comparativists  any  R e a l i t y , the H o l y , the  Sacred,  Through such c o n c e p t i o n s ,  i n r e l i g i o n seek t o e s t a b l i s h a d i s c i p l i n e  which, u n l i k e sociology, as something i n and  f o r example, t r e a t s r e l i g i o n  of i t s e l f .  such e a r l y w r i t e r s as Max  T h i s can be t r a c e d  Mu'ller and  CP.  Tiele,  to who  suggest d i s t i n g u i s h i n g what i s u n i q u e and permanent i n r e l i g i o n from i t s e m p i r i c a l l y c o n d i t i o n e d  appearances i n  h i s t o r y , i t s essence from i t s m a n i f e s t a t i o n s . R u d o l f O t t o who the r e d u c t i o n  It  was  f i r s t o f f e r e d a s y s t e m a t i c argument  against  o r r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n o f r e l i g i o n i n terms o f  social, political,  psychological,  and  economic f a c t o r s .  He e s t a b l i s h e d the model f o r such l a t e r s c h o l a r s I b i d . , p.474.  as  Eliade,  -19-  who argue t h a t r e l i g i o n can be t r e a t e d as something s u i generis. O t t o argues f o r t h e s p e c i f i c i t y o f r e l i g i o n i n K a n t i a n terms.  I n The Idea o f t h e H o l y he d i s c u s s e s " t h e  d i s t i n c t i o n between h o l i n e s s as an a p r i o r i c a t e g o r y and h o l i n e s s as r e v e a l e d i n outward 19 history.  appearance,"  that i s , i n  He p o i n t s t o an element i n r e l i g i o u s e x p e r i e n c e  above and beyond i t s m a n i f e s t c h a r a c t e r , a p r e s e n t i m e n t o f some sheer o v e r p l u s i n a d d i t i o n t o e m p i r i c a l r e a l i t y .  What  i s e x p e r i e n c e d , he argues can o n l y be d e s c r i b e d as t h e " w h o l l y otheri'" i . e . , "something w h i c h has no p l a c e i n our scheme o f r e a l i t y b u t belongs t o an a b s o l u t e l y  different  one, and w h i c h a t t h e same time arouses an i r r e p r e s s i b l e 20 i n t e r e s t i n t h e mind'.'"  I t s n a t u r e suggests i t s e l f t o us  o n l y i n t h e s t a t e o f mind i t a r o u s e s .  T h i s s t a t e o f mind,  w h i c h he terms "numinousi" e l u d e s t h e comprehension o f a l l b u t t h o s e who have e x p e r i e n c e d i t . W h i l e a k i n t o f e e l i n g s o f m o r a l goodness and deep a e s t h e t i c a p p r e c i a t i o n , t h i s s t a t e o f mind has something  irreducibly  religious  about i t , w h i c h i s an i m m e d i a t e l y f e l t p r e s e n t i m e n t o f t h e "wholly other."  H o l i n e s s o r sacredness i s t h e a t t r i b u t e  a t t a c h e d t o whatever i s so e x p e r i e n c e d - - d e i t y , o b j e c t , or e v e n t - - s i m p l y and o n l y because i t s i g n i f i e s t h e u t t e r l y unfamiliar. R u d o l f O t t o , The Idea o f t h e H o l y , t r , John W. Harvey (New York; O x f o r d Univ. P r e s s , 1958), p.175. 1 9  2 0  I b i d . , p.29.  -20-  Otto thus d e s c r i b e s t h e i r r e d u c i b l e n a t u r e o f t h e " r e l i g i o u s e x p e r i e n c e ^ " w h i c h was f o r him t h e phenomenon par e x c e l l e n c e o f r e l i g i o n .  I n c o n t r a s t t o Durkheim's i d e a  o f t h e s a c r e d as a c o n c e p t i o n o f t h e human mind w h i c h i s a p p l i e d to a c e r t a i n c l a s s o f t h i n g s , Otto understands i t as something c o m p l e t e l y o u t s i d e t h e m e n t a l and n a t u r a l order. his  E l i a d e a c c e p t s Otto's i d e a o f t h e s a c r e d a n d ,  p r i n c i p l e of i r r e d u c i b i l i t y , which maintains  also,  t h a t each  r e l i g i o u s phenomenon must be viewed s i m p l y as an i n s t a n c e i n w h i c h t h e s a c r e d "shows i t s e l f ^  1 1  I n moving on t o t h e  q u e s t i o n o f how t h e s a c r e d shows i t s e l f , however, E l i a d e goes beyond O t t o , t a k i n g h i s f i r s t cue from Durkheim. In o r d e r t o convey h i s v i e w o f r e l i g i o u s phenomena, E l i a d e c a l l s each a "hierophanyj-f w h i c h means t h e s a c r e d "shows i t s e l f ; ' ' '  In E l i a d e ' s understanding  one can d i s c e r n c e r t a i n laws  of hierophanies,  of sacred m a n i f e s t a t i o n .  Three such laws w i l l be d i s c u s s e d here. a r i s e s from Durkheim's s a c r e d - p r o f a n e  The f i r s t law  dichotomy, and shows  how E l i a d e superimposes t h e "dynamics o f Durkheim's d u a l i s m " on Otto's i d e a o f t h e Holy.  The second law i n d i c a t e s  h i e r o p h a n i e s , o r m a n i f e s t a t i o n s o f t h e s a c r e d , have a s o t e r i o l o g i c a l value which i s immediately r e l i g i o u s man. generate  evident to  A c c o r d i n g t o t h e t h i r d law, h i e r o p h a n i e s  r e l i g i o u s man's most fundamental i d e a , t h e i d e a  of a transcendent axiomatic.  r e a l i t y w h i c h he c o n s i d e r s a b s o l u t e and  Taken t o g e t h e r these laws o f s a c r e d m a n i f e s t a t i o n  demonstrate E l i a d e ' s b a s i c a t t i t u d e toward r e l i g i o u s  -21-  phenomena and suggest h i s d e f i n i t i o n o f r e l i g i o n . For E l i a d e , as f o r Durkheim, the  21  sacred-profane  dichotomy has d e t e r m i n i n g s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r a l l r e l i g i o u s life.  He s t a t e s : The dichotomy o f s a c r e d and p r o f a n e i s the i n v a r i a b l e p a r e x c e l l e n c e . F o r , w h i l e the s a c r e d i s m a n i f e s t e d i n an i n f i n i t y o f forms and o b j e c t s , t h e r e i s always a d i f f e r e n c e o f an o n t o l o g i c a l o r d e r between s a c r e d o b j e c t s and those w h i c h are not.22  T h i s statement  a l s o shows an awareness o f the p r i n c i p l e s  o f antagonism and c o n t a g i o n w h i c h c h a r a c t e r i z e Durkheim's d i a l e c t i c a l dynamics o f s a c r e d and p r o f a n e .  One  a s p e c t o f t h i s dynamic p r o c e s s seems e s p e c i a l l y to E l i a d e ,  particular important  T h i s i s the f a c t t h a t the s a c r e d s h o u l d a c t u a l l y  appear i n the p r o f a n e w o r l d ,  He emphasizes t h i s  fact  because, l i k e O t t o , he c o n c e i v e s the s a c r e d as something w h o l l y o u t s i d e the m e n t a l and n a t u r a l o r d e r .  The  great  mysterium tremendum he says i s t h a t the s a c r e d s h o u l d m a n i f e s t i t s e l f a t a l l , " t h e r e b y l i m i t i n g i t s e l f and c e a s i n g t o be M 23 absolute" E l i a d e u s u a l l y has t h i s f a c t i n mind when he 21 T h i s i s mentioned because E l i a d e d e c l i n e s from b e g i n n i n g w i t h an a p r i o r i d e f i n i t i o n o f r e 1 i g i o n - - P a t t e r n s i n Comparative R e l i g i o n , t r . Rosemary Sheed (New York: Sheed and Ward^ 1958), p . x v i - - y e t seems t o have a w e l l - d e f i n e d n o t i o n o f what i t i s , as the f o l l o w i n g r e v e a l s . 22 E l i a d e , " S t r u c t u r e s and Changes i n the H i s t o r y o f R e l i g i o n , " ; The C i t y I n v i n c i b l e , ed. C H . K r a e l i n g and R.M. Adams TcEicago: Univ. P r e s s , 1960), p.353. 23 E l i a d e , Myths, Dreams, and M y s t e r i e s , p.125.  -22-  speaks o f " t h e d i a l e c t i c o f t h e s a c r e d and p r o f a n e " o r "the d i a l e c t i c o f h i e r o p h a n i e s . "  Both Douglas A l l e n and  Mac R i c k e t t s p o i n t o u t t h a t t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p w h i c h E l i a d e so d e s c r i b e s i s a c t u a l l y more " p a r a d o x i c a l " than 0/  "dialectical."  He v e r i f i e s t h e i r o b s e r v a t i o n when he  remarks o f t h e d i a l e c t i c o f h i e r o p h a n i e s , " t h i s p a r a d o x i c a l coming t o g e t h e r o f s a c r e d and p r o f a n e , b e i n g and non-being, a b s o l u t e and r e l a t i v e , t h e e t e r n a l and t h e becoming, i s 25 what every h i e r o p h a n y ,  even t h e most elementary,  reveals."  Thus, E l i a d e ' s f i r s t law o f s a c r e d m a n i f e s t a t i o n i s t h a t t h e sacred manifests i t s e l f i n the profane i n hierophanies. I t i s t h i s q u a l i t y o f hierophanies which leads r e l i g i o u s man t o i n t e r p r e t them s o t e r i o l o g i c a l l y . A hierophany  " c a l l s " r e l i g i o u s man t o d e c i s i o n ; as t h e  s a c r e d d i m e n s i o n i s r e v e a l e d he e v a l u a t e s h i s p r o f a n e existence negatively.  E l i a d e ' s p o s i t i o n on t h i s p o i n t i s  w e l l f o r m u l a t e d by A l l e n i n t h e f o l l o w i n g words: The d i a l e c t i c o f h i e r o p h a n i e s throws t h e realm of n a t u r a l ordinary existence i n t o ^ D o u g l a s A l l e n , "Mircea E l i a d e ' s Phenomenological A n a l y s i s o f R e l i g i o u s E x p e r i e n c e , " The J o u r n a l o f R e l i g i o n , 52 (1972), p.181; Mac L. R i c k e t t s , "HTrcea E l i a d e and t h e Death o f God," R e l i g i o n i n L i f e , S p r i n g 1967, p.45. Both s c h o l a r s f e e l c o n s t r a i n e d t o p o i n t t h i s f a c t o u t because E l i a d e i s m i s r e p r e s e n t e d i n t h i s m a t t e r by Thomas A l t i z e r i n M i r c e a E l i a d e and t h e D i a l e c t i c o f The Sacred ( P h i l a d e l p h i a : W e s t m i n s t e r P r e s s , 1963). F o r example, on p.65 he s t a t e s : "The s a c r e d and p r o f a n e a r e r e l a t e d by a n e g a t i v e d i a l e c t i c , a s i n g l e moment cannot be s a c r e d and p r o f a n e a t once." E l i a d e , P a t t e r n s , p.29.  -23-  sharp r e l i e f . A f t e r the " r u p t u r e " o f the s a c r e d and the p r o f a n e , man e v a l u a t e s h i s n a t u r a l e x i s t e n c e as a " f a l l . " 2 6 The r e l i g i o u s man  i s impressed because something  infinitely  more r e a l than o r d i n a r y e x i s t e n c e has shown i t s e l f t o him i n h i s world.  E l i a d e quotes an I n d i a n m y s t i c on  subject of Visnu's arkas  the  ( o b j e c t s embodying the gods  p r e s e n c e ) t o show what the appearance o f the s a c r e d i n the p r o f a n e w o r l d can mean to  man.  "Though o m n i s c i e n t V i s n u shows h i m s e l f i n the a r k a s as i f he were w i t h o u t knowledge; though a s p i r i t , he appears m a t e r i a l ; though t r u l y God he appears t o be a t the d i s p o s a l o f man; though a l l - p o w e r f u l he appears weak; though f r e e o f a l l c a r e he appears t o need l o o k i n g a f t e r ; though i n a c c e s s i b l e ("to sense"! , he appears as tangible."27 J  As t h i s statement p o s i t i v e response,  s u g g e s t s ; man  i s a l s o moved toward  i . e . , one w h i c h i s the p o s i t i v e  o f h i s n e g a t i v e e v a l u a t i o n o f the o r d i n a r y w o r l d . response  a  correlate Man's  i s s o t e r i o l o g i c a l ; he senses t h a t h i s w o r l d must  be "founded" and p e r i o d i c a l l y "saved" by a s s i m i l a t i n g i t to  the s a c r e d dimension.  Thus, a c c o r d i n g t o a second law  o f s a c r e d m a n i f e s t a t i o n , the h i e r o p h a n y  p o i n t s beyond i t s e l f ;  i t e x p r e s s e s , i n m i e r o c o s m i c form, the i d e a o f r e l i g i o u s man  t h a t h i s w o r l d must be "open" t o a h i g h e r w o r l d ,  w o r l d o f a b s o l u t e and a x i o m a t i c v a l u e s .  2 6  A l l e n , p.183.  97  'Eliade, Patterns,  p.28.  the  -24-  The  i r r u p t i o n of the sacred i n t o the world,  then,  causes t h e r e l i g i o u s man t o o r i e n t h i m s e l f toward some " o t h e r " w o r l d and t o t h e s a c r e d v a l u e s w h i c h o r i g i n a t e i n that world.  E l i a d e describes the " f u n c t i o n " of r e l i g i o n  i n terms o f t h e p r e s e r v a t i o n o f such v a l u e s and t i e s to t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f c o n f r o n t i n g t h e s a c r e d .  this  The " p r i n c i p l e  f u n c t i o n o f r e l i g i o n " i s one, he s a y s , o f m a i n t a i n i n g an "opening" toward a w o r l d w h i c h i s superhuman, t h e w o r l d o f a x i o m a t i c s p i r i t u a l v a l u e s . These v a l u e s a r e " t r a n s c e n d e n t " i n t h e sense t h a t t h e y a r e c o n s i d e r e d r e v e a l e d by d i v i n e b e i n g s o r m y t h i c a l a n c e s t o r s . They t h e r e f o r e c o n s t i t u t e a b s o l u t e v a l u e s , paradigms f o r a l l human activity. The f u n c t i o n o f r e l i g i o n i s t o awaken and s u s t a i n t h e c o n s c i o u s n e s s o f another w o r l d , o f a "beyond" whether i t be t h e d i v i n e world or the world of mythical ancestors. T h i s o t h e r w o r l d r e p r e s e n t s a superhuman "transcendent" plane, that of absolute r e a l i t i e s . I t i s t h i s experience of the sacred, that i s , the m e e t i n g w i t h a t r a n s c e n d e n t r e a l i t y , t h a t g e n e r a t e s t h e i d e a o f something w h i c h r e a l l y e x i s t s and, i n consequence, t h e n o t i o n t h a t t h e r e are absolute i n t a n g i b l e values which confer a meaning upon human existence.^° T h i s statement conveys a t h i r d l a w o f s a c r e d m a n i f e s t a t i o n : the appearance o f t h e s a c r e d generates r e a l i t y , a transcendent  t h e i d e a o f another  and superhuman w o r l d w h i c h i s t h e  source o f paradigms, o r p a t t e r n s , f o r a l l human a c t i v i t y . To summarize E l i a d e ' s v i e w o f h i e r o p h a n i c m a n i f e s t a t i o n ; he c o n s i d e r s each r e l i g i o u s phenomenon a h i e r o p h a n y o r m a n i f e s t a t i o n of the sacred.  Man's r e s p o n s e t o t h e s a c r e d  E l i a d e , " S t r u c t u r e s and Changes i n t h e H i s t o r y o f R e l i g i o n , ' * p. 366,  -25-  begins w i t h a negative e v a l u a t i o n o f the ordinary  profane  w o r l d and ends w i t h an e f f o r t t o make h i s l i f e s a c r e d by modeling i t a f t e r patterns  r e c e i v e d from t h e o t h e r w o r l d .  E l i a d e b e l i e v e s these revealed patterns elements o f t h e study o f r e l i g i o n .  are the b a s i c  He sees t h e s t r u c t u r e  o f r e l i g i o u s symbolism, t h e forms o f r i t u a l b e h a v i o r , and  t h e themes o f m y t h i c a l  expression  as each b e i n g connected  w i t h such p a t t e r n s . A l t h o u g h E l i a d e c o n c e i v e s r e l i g i o u s l i f e as an e x i s t e n c e modeled upon p a t t e r n s  r e c e i v e d from a superhuman  s o u r c e , t h i s does n o t n e c e s s a r i l y d i s t i n g u i s h him from the s o c i o l o g i s t , h i s t o r i c i s t , o r e x i s t e n t i a l i s t .  As  Mac R i c k e t t s p o i n t s o u t : To l i v e by any " r e c e i v e d p a t t e r n " o r exemplary model w h i c h i s r e g a r d e d as a b s o l u t e i s t o be r e l i g i o u s , f o r E l i a d e . To s u b o r d i n a t e one's own independent judgement t o a s t a n d a r d from " o u t s i d e " w h i c h i s h e l d t o be o f supreme v a l i d i t y i s t o f o l l o w a r e l i g i o u s course of a c t i o n . I n o t h e r words, E l i a d e d e f i n e s r e l i g i o n i n e x a c t l y t h e same terms as do e x i s t e n t i a l i s t s such as S a r t r e ; o n l y i n s t e a d o f choosing h i s t o r i c i s m , E l i a d e chooses t h e r e l i g i o u s mode o f b e i n g as more human.29 D e f i n i n g r e l i g i o n i n t h e same way as they do, E l i a d e i s d i s t i n g u i s h e d from t h e v a r i o u s r e d u c t i o n i s t s p r i m a r i l y by his  s y m p a t h e t i c approach t o r e l i g i o n .  But h i s approach  i s a l s o d i s t i n c t l y d i f f e r e n t from t h e i r s a t a more  ^ R i c k e t t s , " M i r c e a E l i a d e and t h e Death o f God," pp.42-43.  -26-  significant  level.  I n d e f i n i n g h i s approach a g a i n s t r e d u c t i o n i s m , differentiates  between " s p i r i t u a l morphology"  Eliade  and  on  " s p i r i t u a l embryology!;"  The  l a t t e r i s characterized  by the v i e w t h a t r e l i g i o n i s an epiphenomenon o f some o t h e r a s p e c t of human e x i s t e n c e .  In i t s rudimentary  forms i t sees r e l i g i o n as a f e a r o f the unknown, s u b c o n s c i o u s d r i v e s , or the p r o j e c t i o n o f s o c i a l f o r c e s , and advanced forms, as a s c r e e n r a i s e d f o r economic p o l i t i c a l reasons or a complex s e t o f factors,  i n i t s more and  socio-historical  " S p i r i t u a l morphology", on the o t h e r hand, i s  c h a r a c t e r i z e d by the v i e w t h a t , even s h o u l d  religion  seem t o have i t s b i r t h i n something e l s e , i t can f u l l y u n d e r s t o o d o n l y on i t s own  be  plane of reference;  as  E l i a d e s a y s , "the embryonic s t a t e does n o t account f o r mode o f b e i n g o f the adult.-' , 1  the  T h i s means one must t r e a t  r e l i g i o n as a f u n c t i o n of the s a c r e d r a t h e r than a f u n c t i o n o f p o l i t i c a l , economic, p s y c h o l o g i c a l , or s o c i a l r e a l i t i e s . No a l t e r n a t i v e e x p l a n a t i o n religious  i s o f f e r e d f o r the f a c t t h a t  l i f e i s b u i l t upon the i d e a  t o e m p i r i c a l i n q u i r y ) o f an a b s o l u t e , t h i s f a c t i s simply  stated.  (however i n c o n g r u o u s transcendent r e a l i t y ;  I n o r d e r t o account f o r  n a t u r e o f r e l i g i o n as something i n and  o f i t s e l f one  the must  E l i a d e , The Quest, p.21. Eliade differentiates the two i n a d i s c u s s i o n o f "Freud's r e d u c t i o n i s m " , but t h e y a r e s u g g e s t i v e o f the whole o f h i s thought on the m a t t e r . 3 1I b .i d,. T W  -27-  take the m o r p h o l o g i c a l p a t h .  *  *  *  Thus a t t h i s p o i n t i n our d i s c u s s i o n o f E l i a d e ' s approach  t o r e l i g i o n , the importance o f f i n d i n g a way t o  s t u d y r e l i g i o u s phenomena on t h e i r own p l a n e o f r e f e r e n c e s h o u l d be c l e a r .  E l i a d e laments t h e u n f o r t u n a t e f a c t  t h a t a l l t h e " g e n e r a l t h e o r i e s " which have dominated t h e h i s t o r y o f r e l i g i o n s have come from i t s a u x i l i a r y 32 disciplines,  which have q u i t e n a t u r a l l y e x p l a i n e d r e l i g i o n  on t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l p l a n e s o f r e f e r e n c e .  He f e e l s t h a t t h e  e x i s t e n c e o f t h e h i s t o r y o f r e l i g i o n s a s an autonomous  discipline  may v e r y w e l l depend on i t s a r r i v i n g a t a c l e a r g e n e r a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f i t s p a r t i c u l a r s u b j e c t . As he p u t s i t : In s h o r t , we have n e g l e c t e d t h i s e s s e n t i a l f a c t : t h a t i n t h e t i t l e o f the " h i s t o r y o f r e l i g i o n s " t h e a c c e n t ought n o t t o be upon the word h i s t o r y , b u t upon t h e word r e l i g i o n s . . . . B e f o r e making a h i s t o r y o f a n y t h i n g , we must have a p r o p e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f what i t i_s_, i n and f o r i t s e l f . ^ I t has been i n d i c a t e d t h a t the p a t h t o such an u n d e r s t a n d i n g i s a m o r p h o l o g i c a l one.  I n t h e n e x t c h a p t e r , we w i l l  examine E l i a d e ' s "morphology o f t h e s a c r e d " and see how i t c o n s t i t u t e s a n o n - r e d u c t i o n i s t i c approach  to r e l i g i o n .  E l i a d e , The Two and the One, t r . J.M. Cohen (New York: Harper and Row, "T965T7 p7T95. 33 E l i a d e , Images and Symbols, t r . P h i l i p M a i r e t (New York: She'e'd and Ward, T961), p. 29.  -28-  II,  E l i a d e ' s Morphology o f t h e Sacred:  A N o n - R e d u c t i o n i s t i c Method o f I n t e r p r e t a t i o n  E l i a d e ' s approach t o a r e l i g i o u s phenomenon i n v o l v e s understanding  t h e element o f t h e s a c r e d w h i c h i t c o n t a i n s .  In order t o understand  t h e s a c r e d , he seeks t o comprehend  the r e l i g i o u s o b j e c t , t h e r e l i g i o u s s u b j e c t , and t h e r e l a t i o n between t h e two.  He moreover r e c o g n i z e s  every  i n s t a n c e i n w h i c h t h e s a c r e d appears as b e i n g a h i s t o r i c a l phenomenon (thus a l s o a s o c i a l phenomenon, a p s y c h o l o g i c a l phenomenon, e t c . ) as w e l l as a h i e r o p h a n y ,  f o r i t i s not  only to a c e r t a i n extent h i s t o r i c a l l y conditioned but a l s o an independent m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f t h e " w h o l l y o t h e r ; "  A  p a r t i c u l a r r e l i g i o u s phenomenon thus o p e r a t e s upon two levels.  I n E l i a d e ' s words:  Each i s v a l u a b l e f o r two t h i n g s i t t e l l s u s : because i t i s a h i e r o p h a n y , i t r e v e a l s some m o d a l i t y o f t h e s a c r e d ; because i t i s a h i s t o r i c a l i n c i d e n t , i t r e v e a l s some a t t i t u d e man has toward t h e s a c r e d . I n s t u d y i n g h i e r o p h a n i e s , one can f i r s t d i s c e r n t h e modes o f s a c r e d appearance w h i c h they r e v e a l ; one can d i s c e r n t h e element o f t h e s a c r e d i n any g i v e n h i e r o p h a n y the m o r p h o l o g i c a l  by i d e n t i f y i n g  s t r u c t u r e of the sacred which i t expresses.  E l i a d e , P a t t e r n s , p.2.  -29-  In t h i s c h a p t e r , i t w i l l be  shown how  i d e n t i f y i n g such s t r u c t u r e s , feature The  E l i a d e goes about  f o r t h i s i s the  of h i s n o n - r e d u c t i o n i s t i c  salient  morphology o f the  sacred.  o t h e r h a l f o f the problem,how he d e f i n e s homo r e l i g i o s . u s  a c c o r d i n g to the way  he r e l a t e s to the s a c r e d , w i l l be  the  s u b j e c t o f the n e x t c h a p t e r . To b e g i n our  discussion  o f E l i a d e ' s morphology o f  s a c r e d , we w i l l i n t r o d u c e c e r t a i n c r i t e r i a to show a r e d u c t i o n i s t i c method may  be  Eliade's  method.  non-reductionistic  how  s a i d to d i f f e r from Second, we  will  s i t u a t e h i s approach among contemporary approaches to s t u d y of r e l i g i o n , s p e c i f i c a l l y , by c o n s i d e r i n g w i t h the "phenomenology of r e l i g i o n ; " show how how  he  his  F i n a l l y , we  E l i a d e c a r r i e s out h i s morphology of the i d e n t i f i e s the  the  structures  of the  s a c r e d and  the  affinity will  sacred, seeks  to g r a s p the meaning o f r e l i g i o u s phenomena.  Non-reductionistic  Understanding  What c r i t e r i a can be used to d e t e r m i n e the e x t e n t to w h i c h a c e r t a i n method may non-reductionistic?  be  s a i d to be r e d u c t i o n i s t i c or  In h i s a r t i c l e , "Mircea E l i a d e :  S t r u c t u r a l Hermeneutics and  Philosophy;''! D a v i d Rasmussen  states; To the e x t e n t t h a t a t h e o r y i s imposed upon the o b j e c t o f i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i t may be s a i d to be r e d u c t i o n i s t i c . To the e x t e n t t h a t a t h e o r y may be s a i d to be the r e s u l t o f  -30-  i n v e s t i g a t i o n i t may be s a i d t o be 25 c o n s e q u e n t i a l , o r d e r i v e d from the o b j e c t . U s i n g the example o f E l i a d e ' s method f o r s t u d y i n g r e l i g i o u s phenomena, Rasmussen i n d i c a t e s what i t means f o r a of i n t e r p r e t a t i o n t o be d e r i v e d from i t s o b j e c t .  theory He f e e l s  t h a t , w i t h E l i a d e , r e l i g i o u s ' phenomena a r e shown t o have c e r t a i n i n n a t e t e n d e n c i e s toward o r g a n i z a t i o n ; they a r e o b s e r v e d as always b e i n g p a r t o f a l a r g e r "system."  According  to him, " u n d e r s t a n d i n g o c c u r s when the t o t a l system o f a s s o c i a t i o n s i s uncovered, o r b e t t e r , As he sees i t ,  reconstructed'/.  E l i a d e ' s t h e o r y o f i n t e r p r e t a t i o n succeeds  i n d o i n g t h i s by means o f the " m o r p h o l o g i c a l o f r e l i g i o u s phenomena and t h e " i m a g i n a t i v e 37  classification" reconstruction"  o f t h e i r systems o f a s s o c i a t i o n s . Rasmussen's a n a l y s i s thus d i s c l o s e s how E l i a d e  studies  r e l i g i o u s phenomena upon t h e i r own p l a n e o f r e f e r e n c e . When E l i a d e r e j e c t s approaches t o r e l i g i o n w h i c h e x p l a i n i t i n terms o f economics, p s y c h o l o g y , s o c i o l o g y , e t c . , he does so because t h e s e p l a n e ? o f e x t e r i o r norms. reference,  reference  constitute  They a r e n o n - r e l i g i o u s p l a n e s o f  and a r e a l s o i n f l u e n c e d by a h i s t o r i c i s t i c v i e w  of human e x i s t e n c e t h a t i s the opposite, o f r e l i g i o u s D a v i d Rasmussen, " M i r c e a E l i a d e : S t r u c t u r a l Hermeneutics and Philosophy/' , P h i l o s o p h y Today, 12 (Summer 1968), pp. 139-40. 3 6  I b i d . , p.142.  3 7  I b i d . , pp.142-43.  -31-  man's view.  I f t h e r e i s a p l a n e o f r e f e r e n c e w h i c h i s not  e x t e r i o r t o r e l i g i o n , u s i n g Rasmussen's c r i t e r i a , i t must be d e r i v e d from the r e l i g i o u s phenomena  themselves.  Such a p l a n e o f r e f e r e n c e i s to be found i n E l i a d e ' s morphology o f the s a c r e d .  I t i s a r r i v e d a t by  the  s y s t e m a t i c arrangement o f r e l i g i o u s phenomena i n t o m o r p h o l o g i c a l groups.  The phenomena grouped t o g e t h e r a r e  n o t s u b j e c t e d t o any e x t e r i o r norm; i n s t e a d t h e i r meaning i s a r r i v e d a t by comparing them t o one another. i s suggested by the phenomena themselves sees how  The  process  i n t h a t the i n t e r p r e t e r  r e l i g i o n p e r m i t s a v i e w o f the w o r l d as a t o t a l i t y ,  r e v e a l i n g t o man  the a s s o c i a t i o n s between d i s s i m i l a r  a s p e c t s o f h i s w o r l d , and t r i e s to r e p e a t the procedure his studies.  The  in  s y s t e m a t i c arrangement and comparison o f  r e l i g i o u s phenomena i s t h e r e f o r e c o n c e i v e d as a p r o c e s s of i n t e g r a t i o n .  As w i l l l a t e r be shown, by s t u d y i n g  r e l i g i o u s phenomena through such a method o f i n t e g r a t i o n , E l i a d e e s t a b l i s h e s h i s approach as the e x a c t o p p o s i t e o f reductionism. Thus, E l i a d e ' s method o r t h e o r y o f i n t e r p r e t a t i o n  may  be c o n s i d e r e d an example o f n o n - r e d u c t i o n i s t i c u n d e r s t a n d i n g . I n o r d e r t o approach r e l i g i o u s phenomena a t t h e i r own  level,  E l i a d e engages i n what can be r o u g h l y c h a r a c t e r i z e d as the s y s t e m a t i c arrangement and comparison o f t h e s e phenomena.  These are the k i n d o f m e t h o d o l o g i c a l  techniques  w h i c h a r e g e n e r a l l y used by the "phenomenologist" o f religion. An awareness o f E l i a d e ' s a f f i n i t i e s w i t h  -32-  phenomenologistiS:, of r e l i g i o n c o n t r i b u t e s g r e a t l y to understanding  an  of h i s method o f i n t e r p r e t i n g r e l i g i o u s  phenomena.  P h e n o m e n o l o g i c a l Under s t a n d i n g  I t i s g e n e r a l l y assumed t h a t t h e r e a r e two  distinct  contemporary approaches t o the h i s t o r y o f r e l i g i o n s . "historical'V.iapproach i s mainly  concerned w i t h  The  the  h i s t o r i c a l f e a t u r e s o f r e l i g i o n s , w h i l e the p h e n o m e n o l o g i c a l approach i s m a i n l y  concerned w i t h i t s t r a n s h i s t o r i c a l ,  "essential" features,  E l i a d e w r i t e s of these approaches:  At p r e s e n t , h i s t o r i a n s of r e l i g i o n are d i v i d e d between two d i v e r g e n t but complementary methodological o r i e n t a t i o n s . One group c o n c e n t r a t e p r i m a r i l y on the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t r u c t u r e s of r e l i g i o u s phenomena, the o t h e r choose t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e i r h i s t o r i c a l context, The former seek t o u n d e r s t a n d the essence of r e l i g i o n , the l a t t e r t o d i s c o v e r and communicate i t s h i s t o r y . 3 8 A l t h o u g h he i s aware t h a t h i s t o r i a n s o f r e l i g i o n s  are  g e n e r a l l y d i v i d e d i n t o two groups, one whose approach t o r e l i g i o n i s d e f i n i t e l y more " a h i s t o r i c a l " than the  other,  he i s r e l u c t a n t t o s i t u a t e h i m s e l f s q u a r e l y w i t h i n the a h i s t o r i c a l l y o r i e n t e d group known as phenomenologists of r e l i g i o n .  Commentators on h i s w o r k , c r i t i c s and  a l i k e , are n o t n e a r l y so r e l u c t a n t t o do so.  E l i a d e , The  Sacred and the P r o f a n e ,  supporters  In order  p.232.  to  -33-  c l a r i f y t h i s problem, l e t us b e g i n w i t h what E l i a d e  considers  himself to b e — a general h i s t o r i a n of r e l i g i o n s . E l i a d e f e e l s t h a t the s y s t e m a t i c arrangement  and  comparison o f r e l i g i o u s phenomena i s b e s t s a t i s f i e d when the phenomena b e i n g s t u d i e d are s e l e c t e d from numerous and d i v e r s e h i s t o r i c a l c o n t e x t s .  He b e l i e v e s t h a t t h i s  k i n d o f b r o a d scope i s a b s o l u t e l y n e c e s s a r y f o r a r r i v i n g at a c l e a r general understanding  of r e l i g i o n .  To show the  b r e a d t h o f scope r e q u i r e d o f s c h o l a r s i n the f i e l d allegemeine  of  R e l i g i o n s g e s c h i c h t e , he p o i n t s t o the example  o f R a f f a e l e P e t t a z z o n i , who  " d i d not h e s i t a t e to handle  c e n t r a l , though immense, p r o b l e m s — t h e o r i g i n o f monotheism, the Sky gods, the M y s t e r i e s , the c o n f e s s i o n s For t h i s same r e a s o n ,  of s i n . . . etc.  E l i a d e considers himself a  h i s t o r i a n of r e l i g i o n s .  E l i a d e a l s o p o i n t s out  general that  P e t t a z z o n i became aware, l a t e i n h i s c a r e e r , of the  value  o f the p h e n o m e n o l o g i c a l approach to r e l i g i o n f o r h a n d l i n g i t s c e n t r a l and g e n e r a l themes. above a l l ,  He p r a i s e s P e t t a z z o n i ,  f o r h i s r e c o g n i t i o n o f the complementary r o l e s  o f "phenomenology" and " h i s t o r y " i n the study o f r e l i g i o n . He quotes P e t t a z z o n i as f o l l o w s : "Phenomenology and h i s t o r y complement each other. Phenomenology cannot do w i t h o u t e t h n o l o g y , p h i l o g y , and o t h e r h i s t o r i c a l disciplines. Phenomenology, on the o t h e r hand, g i v e s the h i s t o r i c a l d i s c i p l i n e s t h a t  E l i a d e , The  Quest,  p.29.  -34-  sense o f the r e l i g i o u s w h i c h they are u n a b l e to c a p t u r e . So c o n c e i v e d , r e l i g i o u s phenomenology i s the r e l i g i o u s understanding (Verstandniss)of h i s t o r y ; i t i s h i s t o r y i n i t s r e l i g i o u s dimension. Phenomenology and h i s t o r y are not two s c i e n c e s but are two complementary a s p e c t s of the i n t e g r a l s c i e n c e o f r e l i g i o n , and the s c i e n c e o f r e l i g i o n as such has a w e l l - d e f i n e d c h a r a c t e r g i v e n to i t by i t s u n i q u e and p r o p e r s u b j e c t m a t t e r . " 4 0 E l i a d e t e l l s us t h a t h i s own v i e w of the r e l a t i o n between phenomenology and h i s t o r y  i s s i m i l a r ; he chooses t o d e s c r i b e  t h i s r e l a t i o n as a " h e a l t h y t e n s i o n " and says i t i s one w i l l n e v e r be done away with, ''" 4  either  What he does not t e l l  i n h i s remarks on the g e n e r a l h i s t o r y o f  that us,  religions  or on t h e t e n s i o n between phenomenology and h i s t o r y  i n the  study of r e l i g i o n s , i s whether he c o n s i d e r s h i m s e l f a phenomenologist o r a h i s t o r i a n i n the s t r i c t  sense.  When he does b r i n g up t h i s i s s u e , as i n h i s "Foreword" to Shamanism, he s u g g e s t s t h a t h i s work as a  historian  o f r e l i g i o n s i s d i f f e r e n t from t h a t o f the phenomenologist. They are d i f f e r e n t he  says:  For the l a t t e r , i n p r i n c i p l e , r e j e c t s any work o f comparison; c o n f r o n t e d w i t h one r e l i g i o u s phenomenon o r a n o t h e r he c o n f i n e s h i m s e l f t o " a p p r o a c h i n g " i t and d i v i n i n g i t s meaning. Whereas the h i s t o r i a n o f r e l i g i o n s does not r e a c h a comprehension o f a phenomenon u n t i l he has compared i t w i t h thousands of s i m i l a r and d i s s i m i l a r phenomena, u n t i l he  4 0  I b i d , , p.9,n,8,  4 1  Ibid.,  pp.8-9,  -35-  has s i t u a t e d i t among them; and these thousands o f phenomena are s e p a r a t e d not o n l y i n time but a l s o i n space.A2From t h i s d e s c r i p t i o n o f h i s aims we  can draw our  own  c o n c l u s i o n s about E l i a d e ' s a f f i n i t y w i t h the phenomenologist o f r e l i g i o n , d e s p i t e what he says the phenomenologist does, or ought to do,  " i n principle;-'!  comparative nature  By p o i n t i n g out  the  o f h i s s t u d i e s E l i a d e d i s c l o s e s the most  b a s i c a f f i n i t y between h i m s e l f and  the b e s t known  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of the phenomenology of r e l i g i o n . f o r example, l e a v e s no doubt c o n c e r n i n g  C. J .  Bleeker,  the c o m p a r a t i v e  n a t u r e o f the phenomenology o f r e l i g i o n as he sees i t . He says: "one  can r i g h t l y s t a t e t h a t t h i s s c i e n c e i s u s i n g  the method o f comparison. phenomena, e.g.,  For i t p l a c e s analogous r e l i g i o u s  c e r t a i n forms o f the i d e a of God,  s i d e and t r i e s t o d e f i n e t h e i r s t r u c t u r e by Brede K r i s t e n s e n ' s  s i d e by ,,,,43  comparisons  emphasis i s s i m i l a r ; he groups  together  numerous phenomena o f d i v e r s e o r i g i n s so t h a t they as he s i m p l y p u t s i t , Thus, one  "shed l i g h t upon one  may,  another,.  s h o u l d not be p r e v e n t e d from c o n s i d e r i n g E l i a d e  a phenomenologist o f r e l i g i o n because the phenomenologist / 0  E l i a d e , Shamanism: A r c h a i c Techniques o f E c s t a s y , t r . W i l l a r d T r a s k , B o l l i n g e n S e r i e s LXXVI ( P r i n c e t o n : P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1964), p.xv. 4 3  Bridge  C . J . B l e e k e r , "The P h e n o m e n o l o g i c a l Method^' ( L e i d e n : E . J . B r i l l , 1963), p.2.  The  Sacred  Brede K r i s t e n s e n , The Meaning o f R e l i g i o n , t r . John B. Carmen (The Hague; M a r t i n u s N i j h o f f , i 9 6 0 ) , p.2,  -36-  of r e l i g i o n " r e j e c t s any work o f comparison,"  I t i s clear  t h a t t h e phenomenology o f r e l i g i o n sees i t s e l f as a c o m p a r a t i v e s c i e n c e , w h i c h g i v e s i t a t l e a s t one  affinity  w i t h E l i a d e ' s work as a g e n e r a l h i s t o r i a n o f r e l i g i o n s . E l i a d e ' s i n t e r p r e t i v e work has been d e s c r i b e d as i n v o l v i n g the " s y s t e m a t i c arrangement" o f r e l i g i o u s phenomena.  and the  Put a n o t h e r way,  "comparison"  the s y s t e m a t i c  arrangement o f phenomena e s t a b l i s h e s t h e n e c e s s a r y b a s i s f o r t h e i r comparison.  T h i s means t h a t b e f o r e c e r t a i n  phenomena can be compared i t must be shown t h a t they b e l o n g to the same group and t h a t they share some b a s i c  similarity.  E l i a d e attempts t o show t h e s e two t h i n g s i n e x a c t l y t h e same way as most phenomenologists  o f r e l i g i o n do, w h i c h i s  t h r o u g h the use o f t y p o l o g y and s t r u c t u r e . o f phenomenologists  The  studies  of r e l i g i o n a r e c o n s i d e r e d a h i s t o r i c a l  and m o r p h o l o g i c a l because they i n v o l v e the use o f t r a n s h i s t o r i c a l types.  That i s t o say, t h e b a s i c c a t e g o r i e s  o f i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i n these s t u d i e s are t r a n s h i s t o r i c a l r a t h e r than h i s t o r i c a l ; each i n c l u d e s phenomena o f a t y p e found i n numerous d i f f e r e n t r e l i g i o u s c o n t e x t s , e.g., " i n i t i a t i o n s , " " c r e a t i o n myths," " s k y gods," e t c . , and a r e thus d i s t i n g u i s h e d from the normal c a t e g o r i e s f o r the h i s t o r i c a l study of r e l i g i o n , e.g., "Buddhism,"  "Hinduism,"  " r e l i g i o n i n I n d i a , " " r e l i g i o n i n the F a r E a s t , " e t c . t h i s s u g g e s t s , the p a t h f o l l o w e d by a l l  As  phenomenologists  o f r e l i g i o n i n i n t e r p r e t i n g t h e i r d a t a i s one w h i c h l e a d s from the p a r t i c u l a r t o the u n i v e r s a l .  The u n d e r l y i n g  -37assumption of t h i s  kind of interpretation  phenomena g r o u p e d t o g e t h e r , outward h i s t o r i c a l (non-historical) tains  that this  though d i s s i m i l a r  appearance,  level.  The  in  their other  phenomenology o f r e l i g i o n  is a structural  main-  level. recognize  s t r u c t u r e as  t h e most v a l u a b l e means f o r  historically  d i s s i m i l a r phenomena and  The  the  a r e homologous a t some  Phenomenologists of r e l i g i o n  meanings.  i s that  the use  of  homologizing  arriving  d i s c o v e r y o f s t r u c t u r e has  had  at  their  great  importance f o r c o m p a r a t i v i s t s o f a l l kinds because i t allows them t o p a s s  f r o m one  context  stability.  Through the  d i s c o v e r an  interpretability  to another  structural  without  approach,  of r e l i g i o u s  losing  they  can  phenomena w h i c h  transcends  t h e m e a n i n g s t h e phenomena h a v e i n p a r t i c u l a r  historical  contexts.  are  When c e r t a i n r e l i g i o u s  shown t o h a v e t h e  meanings w h i c h a r e not Inquiry religion  phenomena and cut  for  to e s t a b l i s h  taken  particular  factors  lines.  one  The  reveal  o f them  phenomenologists  of  o r " c r e a t i o n myths,",  of separate  their  of  c a t e g o r i e s which  phenomenology  rites"  alone.  religious  historical  c o n f i g u r a t i o n or "system"  governing  religion.  diverse h i s t o r i c a l  any  interpretative  from a l l k i n d s  form a t o t a l  of e x t e r i o r  by  enables  shows t h a t " i n i t i a t i o n  example,  contexts  expressed  the b a s i c forms o f d i v e r s e  across h i s t o r i c a l  religion  same s t r u c t u r e , t h e y may  i n t o s t r u c t u r e thus to grasp  phenomena  independent  operation within a  T h i s a c t o f t r a n s f o r m i n g numerous  phenomena i n t o  a coherent  and  w h o l e i s what  -38-  g i v e s t h e phenomenology o f r e l i g i o n i t s s y s t e m a t i c o r morophological character. I t i s o f t e n s a i d , however, t h a t t h e w h o l i s t i c unders t a n d i n g o f a s e t o f phenomena w h i c h the phenomenologist o f f e r s i s p r i m a r i l y t h e r e s u l t o f h i s own i n t u i t i v e u n d e r s t a n d i n g r a t h e r than o f any d i s t i n c t and r e p e a t a b l e method o f i n t e r p r e t a t i o n .  One o f t h e o u t s t a n d i n g c r i t i c s  o f t h e phenomenology o f r e l i g i o n , W i l l a r d Oxtoby, p r e s e n t s t h i s v i e w i n h i s d i s c u s s i o n o f " t h e e i d e t i c v i s i o n ^ ' a term used by c e r t a i n phenomenologists t o d e s c r i b e t h e i r  effort  t o grasp t h e meaning o f a s e t o f r e l i g i o u s phenomena as a whole.  He s t a t e s :  Thus h a v i n g s e t a s i d e t h e p r o c r u s t e a n beds of preconceived c r i t i c a l notions, the phenomenologist a p p l i e s t o h i s s u b j e c t " t h e e i d e t i c v i s i o n , , ' a grasp o f a r e l i g i o u s c o n f i g u r a t i o n i n i t s t o t a l i t y . . . . There i s n o t h i n g o u t s i d e o f one's i n t u i t i v e grasp of a p a t t e r n which v a l i d a t e s t h a t p a t t e r n . The phenomenologist i s o b l i g e d s i m p l y t o s e t f o r t h h i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g as a whole, t r u s t i n g that h i s reader w i l l enter i n t o i t . But t h e r e i s no p r o c e d u r e s t a t e d by w h i c h he can compel a second phenomenologist t o agree w i t h t h e adequacy and i n c o n t r o v e r t i b i l i t y o f h i s a n a l y s i s , u n l e s s t h e second phenomenologist's e i d e t i c v i s i o n happens t o be t h e same as the f i r s t ' s . 1  5  I t i s n o t c o n t e s t a b l e t h a t i n t u i t i o n may p l a y a l a r g e r o l e i n t h e phenomenologist's grasp o f t h e meaning o f a type o f r e l i g i o u s phenomena; however, t h e p r e s e n c e o f i n t u i t i o n  ^ W i l l a r d Gurdon Oxtoby, " R e l i g i o n s w i s s e n s c h a f t R e v i s i t e d , " R e l i g i o n s i n A n t i q u i t y , ed. Jacob Neusner ( L e i d e n : E . J , B r i l l , 1968), p.597,  -39-  does n o t n e c e s s a r i l y i m p l y the l a c k o f a d i s t i n c t  and  r e p e a t a b l e p r o c e d u r e f o r v e r i f y i n g the phenomenologist's conclusions.  I f t h e r e i s one t h i n g t h a t makes  p h e n o m e n o l o g i c a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g a t a l l unique i t i s the f a c t t h a t i t r a i s e s i n t u i t i o n t o the l e v e l o f a v a l i d i n t e r p r e t i v e technique.  A l l phenomenological  investigations s t r i v e to provide t h e o r e t i c a l for  an i n t u i t i v e u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f r e a l i t y ,  o g i s t s c o n s t r u c t t h e o r e t i c a l frameworks  justification Thus phenomenol-  to s y s t e m a t i c a l l y  a r r a n g e and compare r e l i g i o u s phenomena,  A more s p e c i f i c  d e m o n s t r a t i o n o f how such a t h e o r e t i c a l framework may  be  u t i l i z e d w i l l be g i v e n i n the f o l l o w i n g d i s c u s s i o n o f E l i a d e ' s d i s t i n c t i v e method o f i n t e r p r e t i n g r e l i g i o u s phenomena.  The F e a t u r e s o f E l i a d e s Method !  The f e a t u r e s o f E l i a d e ' s method w i l l be p r e s e n t e d h e r e as a c o n t i n u o u s s e r i e s o f p r o c e d u r e s by w h i c h he a r r i v e s a t the meaning o f r e l i g i o u s phenomena.  T h i s o u t l i n e o f h i s method  i s d e r i v e d from h i s v a r i o u s i n t e r p r e t i v e works; i t i s n o t one w h i c h E l i a d e p r e s e n t s as such i n any o f h i s w r i t i n g s on methodology  i n the h i s t o r y o f r e l i g i o n s . ^  H i s method  A c c o r d i n g t o a l i s t w h i c h he p r o v i d e s i n The Quest, p.8, n.6., h i s w r i t i n g s on methodology i n c l u d e t h e f o l l o w i n g : P a t t e r n s , pp.1-33; Images and Symbols, pp. 27-41 and 161-78; Myths, Dreams, and M y s t e r 1 e s , pp.13-20 and 99-122; and " M e t h o d o l o g i c a l Remarks on the Study o f R e l i g i o u s Symbolism^" The H i s t o r y o f R e l i g i o n s ; Essays i n Methodology, ed, M. E l i a d e and J . M. Kitagawa (Chicago: U n i v . o f Chicago P r e s s , 1959), pp. 86-107. T h i s l a s t a r t i c l e a l s o appears as Ch, V, o f The Two and the One and w i l l be c i t e d h e r e as such.  -40-  e s s e n t i a l l y c o n s i s t s of the f o l l o w i n g the  four stages; f i r s t ,  i n t r o d u c t o r y s t a g e i n w h i c h he s u g g e s t s how t h e p r o p e r  interpretive  c a t e g o r i e s can be d e r i v e d ; second, the  typological  s t a g e ; t h i r d , t h e s t r u c t u r a l s t a g e ; ;and  f o u r t h , t h e end p r o d u c t , t h e meaning o f r e l i g i o u s phenomena as a r r i v e d  a t t h r o u g h comparison.  The p a r t i c u l a r way i n w h i c h E l i a d e c o n c e i v e s a h i s t o r i c a l interpretive  c a t e g o r i e s r e s u l t s from h i s b e l i e f t h a t a l l  r e l i g i o u s phenomena, by t h e i r h i e r o p h a n i c n a t u r e , p o i n t beyond themselves; t h a t i s , they have an "symbolic" character.  ultimately  He remarks:  No a s s u m p t i o n c o u l d be more c e r t a i n than t h a t e v e r y r e l i g i o u s a c t and e v e r y c u l t o b j e c t has a m e t a e m p i r i c a l purpose. The t r e e t h a t becomes a c u l t o b j e c t i s n o t w o r s h i p p e d as a t r e e , b u t as a h i e r o p h a n y , a m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f t h e s a c r e d . And e v e r y r e l i g i o u s a c t , from t h e moment t h a t i t becomes r e l i g i o u s i s charged w i t h a s i g n i f i c a n c e that i s , i n the f i n a l i n s t a n c e , "symbolic" since i t refers to supernatural v a l u e s o f forms.47 The c a t e g o r i e s o f r e l i g i o u s phenomena w h i c h he attempts t o i d e n t i f y and u n d e r s t a n d a r e c o n s i d e r e d , i n t h i s b r o a d sense, "symbol systems."  Furthermore, these c a t e g o r i e s  of phenomena a r e d e r i v e d from examining c e r t a i n s y s t e m a t i c t e n d e n c i e s w h i c h r e l i g i o u s phenomena have as symbols.  The  s y s t e m a t i c t e n d e n c i e s o f r e l i g i o u s phenomena were d e s c r i b e d p r e v i o u s l y i n g e n e r a l terms; t h e i r s p e c i f i c n a t u r e can now  Eliade,  The Two and t h e One, p.199.  -41-  be more f u l l y  disclosed.  E l i a d e speaks o f two k i n d s o f s y s t e m a t i c t e n d e n c i e s w h i c h he has found a p p l i c a b l e t o r e l i g i o u s phenomena o f a l l t y p e s ; one i s the tendency o f each toward an a r c h e t y p e and the o t h e r i s the tendency o f each t o i m p l y the whole system t o w h i c h i t b e l o n g s .  With regard to the f i r s t ,  he  s t a t e s ; "However many and v a r i e d a r e the components t h a t go t o g e t h e r t o make up any r e l i g i o u s c r e a t i o n (any d i v i n e form, r i t e , myth o r c u l t ) t h e i r e x p r e s s i o n tends c o n s t a n t l y 48  to r e v e r t t o an a r c h e t y p e . " , us:  Of the second, he  tells  "The tendency o f each t o become the Whole i s r e a l l y  a tendency t o f i t the whole' i n t o a s i n g l e system, t o :r  reduce the m u l t i p l i c i t y o f t h i n g s t o a s i n g l e  -situation'  i n such a way as t o make i t as c o m p r e h e n s i b l e as i t can 49 be made."  T h i s means t h a t e v e r y h i e r o p h a n y r e f e r s  b o t h to an a r c h e t y p a l form and t o some l a r g e r u n i t y (e.g., s o c i e t y o r the cosmos).  The s a c r e d thus r e v e a l s  i t s e l f n o t o n l y as something " w h o l l y o t h e r " and i r r e d u c i b l e , but a l s o as something s t r u c t u r a l , i . e . , as a r c h e t y p e and system. E l i a d e w r i t e s ; On the one hand, the s a c r e d i s , supremely, the o t h e r than man--the t r a n s c e n d e n t , the t r a n s p e r s o n a l - - a n d , on the o t h e r hand, the s a c r e d i s the exemplary i n the sense t h a t E l i a d e , P a t t e r n s , pp,58-59. I b i d . , p.453.  -42-  i t e s t a b l i s h e s p a t t e r n s t o be f o l l o w e d ; by b e i n g t r a n s c e n d e n t and exemplary i t compels the r e l i g i o u s man t o come out o f p e r s o n a l s i t u a t i o n s , t o surpass t h e c o n t i n g e n t and t h e p a r t i c u l a r and t o comply w i t h g e n e r a l v a l u e s , w i t h t h e universal.50 Because t h e s a c r e d r e v e a l s i t s e l f i n t h e form o f exemplary p a t t e r n s , i t i s p o s s i b l e t o speak o f a morphology o f t h e sacred, or of " s t r u c t u r e s of the sacred." The c h i e f aim o f E l i a d e ' s method i s t o i d e n t i f y the s t r u c t u r e s o f t h e s a c r e d , and i t s c h i e f problem i s t h a t these s y m b o l i c s t r u c t u r e s never appear i n pure form in history.  In order to r e c o n s t r u c t the t r a n s h i s t o r i c a l  symbol systems w h i c h t h e h i s t o r i c a l l y g i v e n r e l i g i o u s phenomena a r e s a i d t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n , i t i s n e c e s s a r y  t o pay  s p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n to the systematic tendencies of the phenomena; t h a t i s , t o p l a c e each i n i t s t o t a l system and d i s c o v e r t h e a r c h e t y p a l form t o w h i c h i t r e f e r s . Rasmussen p o i n t e d out t h a t t h i s i s a two-stage i n v o l v i n g "morphological reconstruction."  David procedure,  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n " and " i m a g i n a t i v e  The f i r s t corresponds  to the t y p o l o g i c a l  stage o f E l i a d e ' s method, and t h e second t o i t s s t r u c t u r a l stage. As E l i a d e a r r i v e s a t a b a s i c d e f i n i t i o n o f r e l i g i o u s phenomena through t h e n o t i o n o f h i e r o p h a n y - - t h e  sacred  E l i a d e , Myths, Dreams, and M y s t e r i e s , p.18.  -43showing i t s e l f - - h e a r r i v e s a t a t y p o l o g y o f r e l i g i o u s phenomena by d e t e c t i n g t h e v a r i o u s modes o f s a c r e d manifestation.  He c l a s s i f i e s phenomena under t h e headings  of various hierophanies:  l u n a r , s o l a r , v e g e t a l , and ones  p e r t a i n i n g t o w a t e r , s t o n e s , e a r t h , s k y , e t c , These morphological  types a r e n o t , however, m u t u a l l y e x c l u s i v e ;  w i t h i n each t h e b r o a d e s t  p o s s i b l e spectrum o f phenomena i s  incorporated, a l l o w i n g f o r a great deal o f overlapping.  It  i s i n terms o f t h e whole t h a t each p a r t i s u n d e r s t o o d , and t h i s understanding  can o n l y be s a t i s f i e d w i t h a v i e w o f  the whole w h i c h encompasses t h e g r e a t e s t number and v a r i e t y o f r e l a t e d phenomena. hierophanies,  When E l i a d e s t u d i e s l u n a r  f o r example, he b r i n g s i n t o h i s a n a l y s i s  phenomena from a l l areas o f human l i f e - - a g r i c u l t u r e , sex, i n i t i a t i o n s , c h r o n o l o g i e s , f u n e r a l s - - w h i c h have a t one  time o r another been a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e moon.  He  f e e l s t h a t o n l y t h r o u g h an a n a l y s i s o f t h i s scope can one grasp t h e sense o f "system" w h i c h emerges when t h e phenomena o f a c e r t a i n type a r e taken t o g e t h e r .  He a l s o f e e l s t h a t  the meaning o f any system so a r r i v e d a t can be u n d e r s t o o d only a f t e r i t s " t o t a l pattern" i s discovered.  This  leads  t o t h e s t r u c t u r a l s t a g e o f E l i a d e ' s method, w h i c h i n v o l v e s the r e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e t o t a l system o f a s s o c i a t i o n s i n w h i c h phenomena o f a type  participate,  When E l i a d e speaks o f t h e " s t r u c t u r e s o f t h e s a c r e d " he r e f e r s t o c e r t a i n p a t t e r n s through w h i c h t h e s a c r e d reveals i t s e l f .  When he says t h a t each such p a t t e r n must  -44-  be grasped i n i t s t o t a l i t y he means t h a t one must take i n t o account a l l of the d i f f e r e n t s y m b o l i c  themes w h i c h can  e x p r e s s e d t h r o u g h a c e r t a i n h i e r o p h a n i c mode, he w r i t e s o f l u n a r h i e r o p h a n i e s is  be  For example,  t h a t "the whole p a t t e r n  moon-rain-fertility-woman-serpent-death-periodic-  regenerationj ' :  ?  and argues t h a t a p a t t e r n o f any l e s s e r  scope w i l l tend t o o b s c u r e the o v e r a l l meaning o f symbol system."^  this  To u n d e r s t a n d such a system as a c o h e r e n t  whole i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o d i s c o v e r i t s a r c h e t y p a l s i g n i f i c a n c e . E l i a d e t e l l s us a l l the themes e x p r e s s e d t h r o u g h l u n a r symbolism a r e permeated by a s i n g l e "dominant i d e a " , w h i c h i s "one  o f rhythm c a r r i e d out t h r o u g h the s u c c e s s i o n  contraries." shows how how  The  of  s t r u c t u r a l stage of h i s method thus  a symbol system h o l d s i t s e l f t o g e t h e r  and  reveals  s u p e r f i c i a l l y d i s p a r a t e phenomena can be i n t e g r a t e d i n t o  a c o h e r e n t whole. The  r e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f a r e l i g i o u s symbol system i n  t h i s f a s h i o n , i . e . , by a p r o c e s s o f i n t e g r a t i o n , c o n t r i b u t e s i n two ways t o a r r i v i n g a t i t s meaning. r e c o n s t r u c t i o n shows how  First,  imaginative  a symbol system f u n c t i o n s t o i n t e g r a t e  heterogeneous r e a l i t i e s ; second, i t e s t a b l i s h e s the b a s i s f o r a c o m p a r a t i v e a n a l y s i s of meaning by u n i t i n g s u p e r f i c i a l l y d i s p a r a t e phenomena a t the l e v e l of s t r u c t u r e .  E l i a d e , P a t t e r n s , p. 17.0, I b i d . , p.183.  -45I n the f i r s t i n s t a n c e ,  d e s c r i p t i o n of the system as  an  i n t e g r a t e d whole r e f l e c t s i t s meaning as an i n t e g r a t o r o f heterogeneous r e a l i t i e s existence;  (man,  the v a r i o u s  aspects of h i s  sex, a g r i c u l t u r e , t i m e , e t c . , and  the  i n h i s environment: e a r t h , w a t e r s , sky, e t c . ) , underlines for  things Hans Penner  the importance o f t h i s d e s c r i p t i v e p r o c e d u r e  the p h e n o m e n o l o g i c a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f r e l i g i o n  as  follows; T h i s d e s c r i p t i o n o f the meaning o f r e l i g i o u s symbols i s an e x a c t p a r a l l e l of E l i a d e ' s d e s c r i p t i o n of the h i s t o r i a n o f r e l i g i o n ' s task. I t i s the b e s t example I know o f where the meaning o f r e l i g i o u s symbolism as an i n t e g r a t e d , c o h e r e n t u n i t y and the i n t e r p r e t i v e work as an i n t e g r a t i o n o f the v a r i o u s r e l i g i o u s phenomena form a s i n g l e and c o n s i s t e n t correlation. I t i s the e x e m p l i f i c a t i o n o f the maxim t h a t the "method s h o u l d f i t the phenomena.'.' T h i s c o r r e l a t i o n p r e v e n t s the r e d u c t i o n o f the meaning of r e l i g i o n as i t appears i n and f o r i t s e l f , and i t thus r e p r e s e n t s the aim o f a l l phenomenologies of r e l i g i o n . 5 3 T h i s statement by Penner echoes p r e v i o u s comments on  the  n o n - r e d u c t i o n i s t i c n a t u r e o f E l i a d e ' s method: the method " f i t s " the phenomena b e i n g i n t e r p r e t e d because i t i s d e r i v e d from t h e i r own opposite  f u n c t i o n of i n t e g r a t i o n , and  of reductionism  because i t u t i l i z e s t h i s  i s the function  itself. I n a d d i t i o n t o r e v e a l i n g the coherence of a s e t r e l i g i o u s symbols, i m a g i n a t i v e  of  reconstruction provides  the  H a n s H, Penner, "Myth and R i t u a l ; A Wasteland or a F o r e s t o f Symbols, " On Method i n the H i s t o r y o f R e l i g i o n s , ed. James S. H e i f e r , B e i h e f t 8 o f H i s t o r y and Theory (1968), p.55. 5 3  -46-  b a s i s f o r a c o m p a r a t i v e a n a l y s i s o f t h e i r meanings because i t i n c o r p o r a t e s  them under the same " t o t a l p a t t e r n " .  a s p e c i f i c s t r u c t u r e o f the s a c r e d ,  E l i a d e ' s aim w i t h  regard  to the meanings e x p r e s s e d by: r e l i g i o u s symbols i s to show how  they have become a t t a c h e d  t h i s i s , f o r him, He  to a s p e c i f i c s t r u c t u r e ;  j u s t the o p p o s i t e  of t h e i r  reduction,  states; One cannot s u f f i c i e n t l y i n s i s t on t h i s p o i n t ; t h a t the e x a m i n a t i o n o f s y m b o l i c s t r u c t u r e s i s a work not o f r e d u c t i o n but of i n t e g r a t i o n . One compares and c o n t r a s t s two e x p r e s s i o n s of a symbol not i n o r d e r t o reduce them t o a s i n g l e p r e - e x i s t e n t e x p r e s s i o n , but i n o r d e r t o d i s c o v e r the p r o c e s s by w h i c h a s t r u c t u r e i s c a p a b l e o f e n r i c h i n g i t s meanings.54  E l i a d e both incorporates  the b r o a d e s t p o s s i b l e spectrum  of r e l a t e d phenomena under a m o r p h o l o g i c a l  t y p e and  seeks  t o t a k e i n t o account the m u l t i p l i c i t y o f meanings w h i c h have become a t t a c h e d He  t o a s t r u c t u r e o f the s a c r e d  in history.  f e e l s a l l o f t h e s e meanings are i m p o r t a n t f o r under-  standing  each p a r t i c u l a r i n s t a n c e i n w h i c h a s t r u c t u r e  appears.  This i d e a u n d e r l i e s the process of comparative  a n a l y s i s w h i c h consummates h i s method. E l i a d e b e l i e v e s t h a t each r e l i g i o u s phenomenon i m p l i e s the whole system t o w h i c h i t b e l o n g s and r e f l e c t s  the  t o t a l i t y of meanings t h a t can be e x p r e s s e d t h r o u g h i t s structure.  E v e r y appearance o f a s t r u c t u r e d e l i v e r s ' i t s  f u l l meaning, the meaning of the whole, whether or not  E l i a d e , The  Two  and  the One,  p,201.  this  -47-  i s consciously recognized.  Thus, each p a r t i c u l a r  phenomenon must be u n d e r s t o o d i n terms o f t h e t o t a l i t y o f meanings t h a t can be expressed structure.  through i t s a t t e n d a n t  This determines the u n d e r l y i n g p r i n c i p l e o f  E l i a d e ' s c o m p a r a t i v e a n a l y s i s o f meaning, w h i c h i s t h a t a l l phenomena w i t h a common s t r u c t u r e may be s a i d t o share i n t h e same meanings,  On t h i s b a s i s he f e e l s  justified  i n u s i n g i n s t a n c e s i n w h i c h t h e meaning o f a s t r u c t u r e is apparent—so-called decipher  " c l e a r " hierophanies--in order to  those i n w h i c h t h e meaning i s l e s s o b v i o u s - - s o - c a l l e d  "obscure"  hierophanies.  I n i t s most common form t h i s  technique  i n v o l v e s a p p l y i n g t h e meaning r e v e a l e d by a  symbol i n i t s " m a t u r i t y " t o t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g e l e m e n t a r y forms.  I n support  r e f e r s t o modern p s y c h o l o g y .  o f i t s more  o f t h i s approach, E l i a d e He s t a t e s :  . . .one has n o t t h e r i g h t t o c o n c l u d e t h a t the message o f t h e symbol i s c o n f i n e d o n l y t o those s i g n i f i c a n c e s o f w h i c h these i n d i v i d u a l s [of one p a r t i c u l a r t r a d i t i o n 3 a r e f u l l y conscious. The depth p s y c h o l o g i s t has taught us t h a t a symbol d e l i v e r s i t s message and f u l f i l l s i t s f u n c t i o n even when i t s meaning escapes t h e c o n s c i o u s mind.55 An example o f t h i s p a r t i c u l a r approach w h i c h w i l l show how the c o m p a r a t i v e stage o f h i s method works i n g e n e r a l can 56 be found i n h i s study o f a s c e n s i o n  symbolism.  The  meaning r e v e a l e d through t h e s t r u c t u r e o f a s c e n s i o n symbolism on t h e p l a n e o f m e t a p h y s i c s a n d m y s t i c i s m , Ibid,,  p,2Il,  E l i a d e , Myths, Dreams, and M y s t e r i e s , pp.99-122.  -48-  he says, w i l l guide us to a c l e a r e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g r o l e i n r i t u a l , myth, and d r e a m - l i f e .  of i t s  He f e e l s t h a t  the  meaning w h i c h i s c l e a r l y e x p r e s s e d on t h i s p l a n e - - o f o f e c s t a s y , and o f s u r p a s s i n g  freedom,  the human c o n d i t i o n - - c a n  a p p l i e d t o the s i m p l e s t r i t u a l a c t s o f p r e l i t e r a t e i n w h i c h the s t r u c t u r e o f a s c e n s i o n  be  men  symbolism i s i n v o l v e d .  He thus f i n d s t h a t the shamanic r i t e o f c l i m b i n g a t r e e c a r r i e s w i t h i t the meaning e x p r e s s e d by a s c e n s i o n  symbolism  i n i t s m a t u r i t y ; the r o l e of the shaman i n h i s s o c i e t y as "psychopompi!' the g u i d e o f men's s o u l s and the w o r l d of s p i r i t s , c o i n c i d e s w i t h h i s  t h e i r mediator to ascensional  a c t i v i t i e s and t h e i r e s s e n t i a l meaning o f s u r p a s s i n g human c o n d i t i o n .  the  Comparative a n a l y s i s of t h i s k i n d not  only  sheds l i g h t on t h e s e r i t u a l a c t i v i t i e s o f the shaman but also corroborates  the meaning e x p r e s s e d t h r o u g h  ascension  symbolism on a n o t h e r p l a n e . Comparative a n a l y s i s o f meaning i n t h i s manner provides  t h e o r e t i c a l j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r an  understanding  of r e a l i t y .  intuitive  I t must be a d m i t t e d ,  initially,  t h a t the meaning of a s i n g l e phenomenon i s o f t e n a r r i v e d a t by an i n t u i t i v e p r o c e d u r e , on a n o n - d i s c u r s i v e , level.  unconscious  T h i s f o l l o w s E l i a d e ' s b e l i e f t h a t "a symbol d e l i v e r s  i t s message and f u l f i l l s i t s f u n c t i o n even when i t s meaning escapes the c o n s c i o u s  mind, !! 1  Recognizing  the  l i m i t a t i o n s imposed by t h i s s i t u a t i o n , E l i a d e does not a t t a c h c o n c l u s i v e importance t o the meaning r e v e a l e d i n t u i t i o n from l o o k i n g a t a s i n g l e h i e r o p h a n y .  He  to  draws  -49-  his conclusions  about t h e meaning o f one such phenomenon  o n l y a f t e r s i t u a t i n g i t i n a system a l o n g w i t h  structurally  r e l a t e d phenomena and comparing i t w i t h them,  The i n t u i t i v e  grasp o f a phenomenon's meaning, enhanced by i t s b e i n g viewed w i t h i n i t s own p r o p e r system o f a s s o c i a t i o n s , becomes s u s c e p t i b l e to v e r i f i c a t i o n through comparative a n a l y s i s . To r e i t e r a t e , i n t u i t i o n i s v e r i f i e d t h r o u g h comparison. What makes t h i s p o s s i b l e i s an i n t e r p r e t i v e p r i n c i p l e connecting  meaning and s t r u c t u r e : s t r u c t u r a l l y s i m i l a r  phenomena s u p p l y meanings f o r one a n o t h e r ; t h e meaning o f a phenomenon is/.the c o r r e l a t e o f i t s s t r u c t u r e , and e v e r y o t h e r appearance o f t h a t s t r u c t u r e p r o v i d e s to c o r r o b o r a t e  i t s meaning.  an o p p o r t u n i t y  Thus, E l i a d e ' s method o f  i n t e r p r e t i n g r e l i g i o u s phenomena succeeds i n p r o v i d i n g a t h e o r e t i c a l j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r i n t u i t i v e understanding.  *  •k  I n c o n c l u s i o n , t h e importance o f s t r u c t u r e i s e v i d e n t t h r o u g h o u t E l i a d e ' s approach t o the s t u d y o f r e l i g i o n .  His  s p i r i t u a l morphology i s made p o s s i b l e by t h e i d e a t h a t t h e s a c r e d r e v e a l s i t s e l f as s t r u c t u r e .  The aim o f s p i r i t u a l  morphology i s t o t r e a t r e l i g i o u s phenomena  non-reduction-  i s t i c a l l y j t o d i s c e r n t h e i r unique i n t e r p r e t a b i l i t y as something r e l i g i o u s .  E l i a d e grasps t h i s  t h r o u g h u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e modes o f s a c r e d and  t h e s t r u c t u r e s w h i c h govern them.  of s a c r e d m a n i f e s t a t i o n  interpretability manifestation  The v a r i o u s  modes  (lunar, solar, vegetal, etc.)  -50-  provide for  the i n t e r p r e t i v e c a t e g o r i e s  or m o r p h o l o g i c a l t y p e s  g r o u p i n g the h i s t o r i c a l l y d i v e r s e phenomena,  Eliade  i n t e g r a t e s the phenomena grouped t o g e t h e r i n t o a t o t a l p a t t e r n , a system o f meaning w h i c h i s s a i d t o be i m p l i e d any  one  by  o f them because i t i s e x p r e s s e d t h r o u g h t h e i r common  structure.  He a r r i v e s a t a morphology of the s a c r e d when  the v a r i o u s  s t r u c t u r e s and  w i t h each o f them are  the systems o f meaning connected  identified.  T h i s method of a p p r o a c h i n g r e l i g i o u s phenomena by means o f i d e n t i f y i n g the s t r u c t u r e s o f the s a c r e d  does not  a t h e o r e t i c a l framework upon the phenomena. of the s a c r e d  i s not a d e d u c t i v e t y p o l o g y ;  a d e s c r i p t i o n of the i n h e r e n t u n i t y and pre-objective  impose  E l i a d e ' s morphology rather, i t i s  the necessary,  s t r u c t u r e of r e l i g i o u s l i f e .  T h i s morphology  does s e r v e the r e l a t i v e l y modest purpose of p r o v i d i n g  a  h e u r i s t i c framework f o r d i s c u s s i n g r e l i g i o n as something i n and  of i t s e l f ,  history.  a p a r t from i t s c o n d i t i o n i n g s  I n a sense analogous t o A r t H i s t o r y , f o r example,  i t p r o v i d e s the c a t e g o r i e s , for  a m b i t i o u s aim;  his  But  i t a l s o has  a more  i t attempts to i d e n t i f y the s t r u c t u r e s o f  seeks to d i s c o v e r  religiousness. we  themes, and v o c a b u l a r y needed  c r o s s - c u l t u r a l understanding.  s a c r e d and  i n objective  the f o u n d a t i o n  the  o f human  T h i s aim w i l l become more apparent as  i n v e s t i g a t e f u r t h e r the c l a i m s E l i a d e has made c o n c e r n i n g s t r u c t u r e s of the s a c r e d ,  and  the r o l e t h e s e  have i n h i s d e s c r i p t i o n o f homo r e l i g i o s u s .  structures  -51-  III,  The S t r u c t u r e s o f t h e Sacred and  The Mode o f B e i n g o f Homo R e l i g i o s u s  The  greatest controversy  i n commentaries upon E l i a d e ' s  work a r i s e s over t h e n a t u r e and s t a t u s o f h i s s t r u c t u r e s of the sacred.  I n E l i a d e ' s v i e w , these s t r u c t u r e s have  s i g n i f i c a n c e above and beyond s i m p l y b e i n g h e u r i s t i c devices  f o r d i s c u s s i n g r e l i g i o n as a c r o s s - c u l t u r a l  phenomenon.  Though d e r i v e d from h i s t o r i c a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n ,  they p r e - e x i s t t h e i r a c t u a l appearance i n h i s t o r y ; moreover, though i d e n t i f i e d t h r o u g h study o f r e l i g i o n s o f p a s t c u l t u r e s , they a l s o s u r v i v e on a l l s o r t s o f l e v e l s ( i n l i t e r a t u r e , dreams, a r t , t h e cinema) i n t h e d e s a c r a l i z e d w o r l d o f modern man.  I n h i s claims f o r pre-objective  e x i s t e n c e and s u r v i v a l i n nonsacred s o c i e t i e s , E l i a d e suggests t h a t t h e s e s t r u c t u r e s a r e n e c e s s a r y and u n i v e r s a l . They possess a fundamental q u a l i t y which i s u n a l t e r e d by history.  The problem o f d e t e r m i n i n g  t h e s e s t r u c t u r e s , however, s t i l l  the a c t u a l nature of  remains.  As was p o i n t e d o u t i n t h e p r e v i o u s  chapter,  according  to E l i a d e , t h e s e s t r u c t u r e s a r e p a t t e r n s w h i c h govern the s a c r e d ' s mode o f m a n i f e s t a t i o n .  This i s but,half of  the d e f i n i t i o n , f o r these s t r u c t u r e s must a l s o be r e l a t e d t o p a t t e r n s o f human r e l i g i o u s b e h a v i o r .  Eliade's  h e r m e n e u t i c s , u n d e r s t o o d as " t h e e f f o r t t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e  -52-  s e l f t h r o u g h t h e m e d i a t i o n o f t h e other/ ' has t h e f i n a l 1  aim o f t r a n s f o r m i n g  the m a t e r i a l s a t h i s d i s p o s a l i n t o a  p i c t u r e o f r e l i g i o u s man's mode o f b e i n g - i n - t h e  w o r l d , and  l e a d i n g contemporary man t o i n t e r p o l a t e t h i s " o t h e r " mode o f b e i n g i n t o h i s modern c o n s c i o u s n e s s .  Any i n q u i r y i n t o  the n a t u r e and s t a t u s o f E l i a d e ' s s t r u c t u r e s o f t h e s a c r e d must u l t i m a t e l y show how they f u n c t i o n i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e mode o f b e i n g o f homo r e l i g i o s u s as a p a r t i c u l a r d i m e n s i o n of human e x i s t e n c e . As t h e n a t u r e and s t a t u s o f E l i a d e ' s s t r u c t u r e s has been the s u b j e c t o f much commentary, i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o introduce  and e v a l u a t e  these c r i t i q u e s before d e a l i n g  with  the f u n c t i o n o f h i s s t r u c t u r e s i n t h e d e s c r i p t i o n o f homo r e l i g i o s u s . f i n d i t impossible  I n general, c r i t i c s complain that they t o f o l l o w E l i a d e from h i s h i s t o r i c a l  starting point to h i s " t r a n s h i s t o r i c a l " structures. A l l e n c a l l s t h i s c o m p l a i n t " t h e most f r e q u e n t  Douglas  criticism  o f h i s p h e n o m e n o l o g i c a l approach;V and d e s c r i b e s  i t as  follows: T h i s g e n e r a l c r i t i c i s m u s u a l l y contends t h a t Eliade, while investigating p a r t i c u l a r r e l i g i o u s manifestations, arrives at h i s u n i v e r s a l s t r u c t u r e s by means o f h i g h l y unc r i t i c a l g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s ; thus he " r e a d s into'' h i s s p e c i f i c r e l i g i o u s data a l l kinds o f " s o p h i s t i c a t e d " u n i v e r s a l s t r u c t u r e s and meanings. I t seems t o me t h a t u n d e r l y i n g most o f these methodological c r i t i c i s m s i s the assumption t h a t E l i a d e proceeds by some k i n d of i n d u c t i v e i n f e r e n c e , , . . C r i t i c s submit t h a t t h e y cannot f o l l o w E l i a d e ' s i n d u c t i v e p r o c e d u r e ; they do n o t f i n d i t p o s s i b l e t o  -53-  g e n e r a l i z e from the p a r t i c u l a r examples to h i s "profound" u n i v e r s a l s t r u c t u r e s of r e l i g i o u s experience.57 T h i s g e n e r a l c r i t i c i s m can be found i n the  commentaries  o f Edmund Leach, a l e a d i n g B r i t i s h a n t h r o p o l o g i s t ,  and  Robert B a i r d , an American h i s t o r i a n o f r e l i g i o n s who been a c o n s i s t e n t c r i t i c o f the p h e n o m e n o l o g i c a l to r e l i g i o n i n g e n e r a l .  has  approach  The s p e c i a l s i g n i f i c a n c e of t h e i r  c r i t i c i s m s f o r purposes o f the p r e s e n t d i s c u s s i o n l i e s i n the f a c t t h a t each a s s i s t s i n answering, r e s p e c t i v e l y , one of the two c r u c i a l q u e s t i o n s t h a t bear upon the n a t u r e o f E l i a d e s t r a n s h i s t o r i c a l s t r u c t u r e s : i n what sense a r e t h e y !  " s t r u c t u r e s " ? ; and, i n what sense a r e they " t r a n s h i s t o r i c a l " ?  E l i a d e ' s View o f  Structure  I n l i g h t o f the c u r r e n t vogue f o r s t r u c t u r a l a n a l y s i s i n t h e h u m a n i t i e s and the s o c i a l s c i e n c e s ,  this inquiry into  the n a t u r e o f E l i a d e ' s s t r u c t u r e s must examine the way i n w h i c h h i s a n a l y s i s compares t o t h a t o f " s t r u c t u r a l i s m " as i t i s most u s u a l l y p r a c t i c e d .  Structuralism i n i t s  most common form i s a method o f s t u d y whose aim i s t o a b s t r a c t from a s e t o f symbols i t s f o r m a l s y n t a c t i c a l p r o p e r t i e s ; i t i s i n d i f f e r e n t t o q u e s t i o n s o f c o n t e n t and  Allen,  p,85,  -54-  subjectivity, has p o i n t e d  Edmund Leach,  as w e l l as o t h e r s c h o l a r s ,  out t h a t t h i s k i n d o f s t r u c t u r a l a n a l y s i s  d i f f e r s from E l i a d e ' s  i n g e n e r a l aim and b i a s .  assessment o f the d i f f e r e n c e between E l i a d e ' s  W h i l e Leach's interpretative  work and s t r u c t u r a l i s m p e r se i s c l e a r l y p a r t i a l t o the l a t t e r and g e n e r a l l y m i s l e a d i n g i n i t s attempt t o  describe  the n a t u r e o f t h i s d i f f e r e n c e , i t a t l e a s t shows where the two seem t o d i f f e r and thus g i v e s us a b a s i s f o r f u r t h e r i n g our u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f E l i a d e ' s the  structures  of  sacred, Leach argues t h a t the k i n d o f s t r u c t u r e s w h i c h E l i a d e  a r r i v e s at through h i s comparative i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of r e l i g i o u s symbols a r e n o t " s t r u c t u r e s " a t a l l from t h e viewpoint of structuralism.  The b a s i c c h a r a c t e r  of h i s  argument appears i n the f o l l o w i n g s t a t e m e n t s : . . . c o m p a r a t i v e ethnography i n the s t y l e w h i c h E l i a d e employs, can o n l y i l l u s t r a t e by example, i t can n e v e r p r o p e r l y be used as a basis f o r generalization , . . . , . the most i n t e r e s t i n g p a r t s o f E l i a d e ' s work become fogged by h i s f a i l u r e t o d i s t i n g u i s h c l e a r l y between the c o n t e n t o f a s e t o f symbols and i t s s t r u c t u r e . 6 0 58 Edmund Leach, "Sermons by a Man on a L a d d e r , " The New York Review, V o l . I l l , No.6 (Oct. 20, 1966), pp.28-31. 59 See, f o r example, t h e a r t i c l e by D a v i d Rasmussen w h i c h was c i t e d above, esp. p.143; and a l s o , P a u l R i c o e u r , "The Problem o f the Double-sense as Hermeneutic Problem and as Semantic Problem," Myths and Symbols: S t u d i e s i n Honor o f M i r c e a E l i a d e , ed. J.M. Kitagawa and C H . L o n g ^ C h i c a g o : Univ. o f Chicago P r e s s , 1969), pp.63-79. L e a c h , p.28. -  6 0  -55-  I n terms o f A l l e n ' s f o r m u l a t i o n o f the g e n e r a l c r i t i c i s m o f E l i a d e ' s approach, these statements suggest Leach does not f i n d i t p o s s i b l e to g e n e r a l i z e from E l i a d e ' s p a r t i c u l a r examples to h i s " p r o f o u n d " u n i v e r s a l s t r u c t u r e s ; the o n l y guideposts  he can f i n d are some s n i p p e t s o f ethnography  p r o v i d e d i n F r a z e r i a n f a s h i o n , and a concept of s t r u c t u r e which confuses i t w i t h content.  H i s b a s i c c r i t i c i s m of  E l i a d e , then, i s t h a t E l i a d e g r a n t s to p a r t i c u l a r k i n d s  of  r e l i g i o u s symbols the s o r t o f g e n e r a l s i g n i f i c a n c e t h a t belongs o n l y t o genuine s t r u c t u r e s , w h i c h a r e  solely  concerned w i t h the r e l a t i o n s between symbols. The n a t u r e o f Leach's c r i t i c i s m i s most c l e a r l y  expressed  i n an example he g i v e s of E l i a d e ' s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f the ethnographic  data.  The  example concerns the fundamental  system by w h i c h r e l i g i o u s man  comprehends h i s u n i v e r s e .  C a l l i n g t h i s E l i a d e ' s " ' a c r h a i c ' system,'! Leach d e s c r i b e s i t as f o l l o w s : The b a s i c r e l i g i o u s d i s t i n c t i o n i s between the here-now and the o t h e r . The o t h e r i s the sacred. The here-now i s the c e n t e r of the u n i v e r s e and man c o n s t r u c t s i t i n i m i t a t i o n of a p r o t o t y p e a l r e a d y e x i s t i n g i n the o t h e r . Man e n t e r s the here-now from the o t h e r a t b i r t h and r e t u r n s to the o t h e r a t death. Time i s thus a c y c l e , an e t e r n a l r e t u r n . Leach admits most a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s would c o n s i d e r the p a t t e r n p o r t r a y e d h e r e v a l i d f o r numerous s e t s o f  ethnographic  d a t a , but he s t r e s s e s t h a t i t i s the p a t t e r n a l o n e w h i c h ...  Ibid.;, pp., 30-31,  -56-  i s i m p o r t a n t , whereas the p a r t i c u l a r symbols i n v o l v e d are of only passing i n t e r e s t .  To show how  E l i a d e has  missed  t h i s p o i n t , he d i s c u s s e s the r o l e p l a y e d i n t h i s system by those symbols t h a t s e r v e to e s t a b l i s h a l i n k between the here-now and the o t h e r (which a r e always r a d i c a l l y  separated  by the sea, the sky, o r a range o f mountains, f o r example). He attempts  to c h a r a c t e r i z e the d i f f e r e n c e between t r u e  s t r u c t u r a l a n a l y s i s and E l i a d e ' s i n t e r p r e t i v e work i n the f o l l o w i n g words; I n t h i s k i n d o f a n a l y s i s we a t t a c h importance to s t r u c t u r a l r e l a t i o n s r a t h e r than t o symbols as such; the l a d d e r , the t r e e , the b o a t , the b r i d g e a r e a l l "the same" because they do the same t h i n g , they l i n k the two w o r l d s . But i n E l i a d e ' s J u n g i a n scheme i t i s the symbol per se t h a t m a t t e r s , so he t e l l s us about t r e e s and l a d d e r s as means o f r e a c h i n g the o t h e r w o r l d but n e v e r g e t s around to boats o r b r i d g e s , o r t u n n e l s , or rocky c l i f f s , or heavenly f i s h i n g n e t s , o r magic b e a n s t a l k s , a l l o f w h i c h t h i n g s , and many o t h e r s b e s i d e s , can s e r v e the same f u n c t i o n i n m y t h i c a l syntax.62 A l t h o u g h t h i s exampjs i s exaggerated  (for Eliade discusses  a f a r broader range o f symbols s e r v i n g t h i s f u n c t i o n than Leach i s w i l l i n g t o a d m i t ) ,  i t a t l e a s t shows where  E l i a d e ' s i n t e r p r e t i v e scheme d i f f e r s from s t r u c t u r a l i s m . I t a t l e a s t i n d i c a t e s t h a t the f o r m a l r e l a t i o n s between symbols i n m y t h i c a l s y n t a x a r e not o f overwhelming importance  to E l i a d e ,  I b i d . , p.31, See, f o r example, E l i a d e , Shamanism, pp,487-94; and The Two and the One, pp,160-88, 6 2  -57-  When Leach says,  " i n E l i a d e ' s J u n g i a n scheme i t i s t h e  symbol p e r se t h a t m a t t e r s , " he i n t i m a t e s t h a t E l i a d e does n o t s h a r e t h e s t r u c t u r a l i s t ' s e x c l u s i v e concern w i t h t h e s y n t a x o f a s e t o f symbols, b u t has o t h e r i n t e r e s t s . One must moreover f e e l t h a t t h e r e i s a v e r y s p e c i f i c r e a s o n f o r a s s o c i a t i n g E l i a d e w i t h Jung i n a d i s c u s s i o n o f structural analysis, f o r leading s t r u c t u r a l i s t s  often  p o i n t t o Jung as t h e example o f a s c h o l a r who makes t h e error of a t t r i b u t i n g general  s i g n i f i c a n c e to p a r t i c u l a r  symbols r a t h e r than t o t h e r e l a t i o n s between symbols (the F r e n c h a n t h r o p o l o g i s t Claude L e v i - S t r a u s s . c a l l s t h i s e r r o r the "Jungian t r a p " ) . E l i a d e w i t h Jung i n o r d e r  Leach perhaps  associates  t o show t h a t E l i a d e ' s c o n c e r n  i s w i t h something on t h e o r d e r o f Jung's a r c h e t y p e s o f t h e c o l l e c t i v e unconscious.  He means t o show t h a t E l i a d e  f a i l s t o d i s t i n g u i s h between t h e " h i s t o r i c a l " problem o f e x p l a i n i n g why c e r t a i n symbols f r e q u e n t l y crop up i n d i f f e r e n t r e l i g i o u s contexts determining  and t h e s t r u c t u r a l one o f  t h e r e l a t i o n s between symbols.  Jung a d d r e s s e s  h i m s e l f t o t h i s " h i s t o r i c a l " problem i n h i s t h e o r y o f t h e a r c h e t y p e s o f t h e c o l l e c t i v e u n c o n s c i o u s , and Leach seems t o t h i n k t h a t E l i a d e s i m i l a r l y t r e a t s t h i s problem w i t h h i s d e l i b e r a t i o n s on t h e u n i v e r s a l and a r c h e t y p a l s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e Cosmic T r e e , t h e M y s t i c a l L i g h t , o r the symbolism o f k n o t s .  Leach, p.30.  The s i m i l a r i t i e s and d i f f e r e n c e s  -58-  between E l i a d e and Jung i n t h i s m a t t e r a r e indeed f o r understanding  important  E l i a d e ' s p a r t i c u l a r view of s t r u c t u r e ,  but to p r o p e r l y compare the two,  one must get beneath the ft  5  s u p e r f i c i a l l e v e l on w h i c h Leach a s s o c i a t e s them. The  outstanding  s i m i l a r i t y between E l i a d e and Jung i s  t h e i r use o f the term "archetype. " answer t o the q u e s t i o n o f how  There i s no  o f t e n , i f ever,  simple  Eliade  uses the term w i t h i t s J u n g i a n meaning i n mind,  Mac  Ricketts  p o i n t s out t h a t the o n l y passage where E l i a d e r a i s e s t h i s q u e s t i o n c l e a r l y s p e c i f i e s t h a t he has never used the term ft ft  "archetype"  i n i t s J u n g i a n sense.  (from the P r e f a c e t o the 1959  I n t h i s passage  e d i t i o n o f Cosmos and H i s t o r y ) ,  he says t h a t h i s f a i l u r e t o s p e c i f y t h i s p r e v i o u s l y a " r e g r e t t a b l e e r r o r , " f o r he used " a r c h e t y p e "  was  o n l y as a  synonym f o r paradigm or exemplary model, and o n l y t o emphasize a p a r t i c u l a r f a c t : namely, t h a t f o r the man o f a r c h a i c and t r a d i t i o n a l s o c i e t i e s , the models f o r h i s 1, i n s t i t u t i o n s and the norms f o r h i s v a r i o u s c a t e g o r i e s o f b e h a v i o r a r e b e l i e v e d t o have  W i t h Leach, the mere o b s e r v a t i o n t h a t E l i a d e ' s works have o f t e n been t r a n s l a t e d under the s p o n s o r s h i p of t h e B o l l i n g e n F o u n d a t i o n o r p r e p a r e d f o r the J u n g i a n Eranos c o n f e r e n c e s i s s u f f i c i e n t to c l a s s i f y him as "Jungian.". ft ft  R i c k e t t s , "The Nature and E x t e n t o f E l i a d e ' s ' Jungianism,'" U n i o n Seminary Q u a r t e r l y Review, XXV, (Winter 1970), p.216.  No. 2  -59-  been " r e v e a l e d " -.at the b e g i n n i n g o f t i m e , t h a t , c o n s e q u e n t l y , t h e y a r e r e g a r d e d as h a v i n g a superhuman and " t r a n s c e n d e n t a l " origin,67 D e s p i t e t h i s d i s c l a i m e r , many statements w h i c h E l i a d e has made c o n c e r n i n g a r c h e t y p e s are s u s c e p t i b l e t o a J u n g i a n interpretation,  These a r e statements i n which he speaks  of  the a r c h e t y p e s found i n a r c h a i c symbolism n o t o n l y as b e i n g i m p o r t a n t f o r the man  o f a r c h a i c s o c i e t i e s , b u t a l s o as  l i v i n g on i n t h e b e h a v i o r and e s p e c i a l l y i n t h e u n c o n s c i o u s a c t i v i t y of, modern man.  Yet t h i s i n i t s e l f does not  prove  t h a t E l i a d e and Jung mean the. same t h i n g when t h e y use  the  term " a r c h e t y p e " i n d i s c u s s i n g s y m b o l i c e x p r e s s i o n s which l i v e on r e g a r d l e s s o f the c a p r i c e s o f h i s t o r y , puts i t ;  "The  q u e s t i o n i s , how  do they  As R i c k e t t s  live?"  Jung's t h e o r y i n t h i s m a t t e r i s w e l l known,  He  calls  c e r t a i n s y m b o l i c e x p r e s s i o n s " a r c h e t y p a l " because he b e l i e v e s they became i m p r i n t e d on the human mind as a r e s u l t o f p r o f o u n d e x p e r i e n c e s d u r i n g the c o u r s e o f man's h i s t o r y and were t r a n s m i t t e d down t o t h e p r e s e n t day as p a r t o f man's o v e r a l l p s y c h o l o g i c a l make-up.  He  calls  them " a r c h e t y p e s o f the c o l l e c t i v e u n c o n s c i o u s , " f o r he b e l i e v e s they b e l o n g t o an i n h e r i t e d and t r a n s p e r s o n a l zone o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l human psyche ( i . e . , the c o l l e c t i v e u n c o n s c i o u s , w h i c h a l o n g w i t h the c o n s c i o u s and  the  67  E l i a d e , Cosmos and H i s t o r y , t r . W i l l a r d T r a s k York; Harper and Row, 1959), p . v i i i , R i c k e t t s , " E l i a d e ' s ' J u n g i a n i s m ' , " p.217. 6 8  (New  -60-  p e r s o n a l u n c o n s c i o u s c o n s t i t u t e s h i s o u t l i n e o f the p s y c h e ) . How  f a r does E l i a d e f o l l o w t h i s t h e o r y i n h i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g  o f the u n i v e r s a l s i g n i f i c a n c e o f r e l i g i o u s symbolism? One  can a t l e a s t c o n c l u d e t h a t he e n l i s t s the a i d o f Jung's  "depth-psychology"  i n t r y i n g t o persuade  the h i s t o r i a n o f  r e l i g i o n s t o overcome h i s h e s i t a t i o n s about t h i s u n i v e r s a l significance,  Eliade writes;  By d i r e c t i n g a t t e n t i o n t o the s u r v i v a l o f symbols and m y t h i c a l themes i n the psyche o f modern man, by showing t h a t the spontaneous r e d i s c o v e r y o f the a r c h e t y p e s o f a r c h a i c symbolism i s a common occurence i n a l l human b e i n g s , i r r e s p e c t i v e o f r a c e and h i s t o r i c a l s u r r o u n d i n g s , depthp s y c h o l o g y has f r e e d the h i s t o r i a n o f r e l i g i o n s from h i s l a s t h e s i t a t i o n s . 6 9 I n t h i s and o t h e r passages  E l i a d e appears  t o seek  an  e x p l a n a t i o n f o r the c a p a c i t y o f r e l i g i o u s s y m b o l i c . expressions to survive.  However, he i s u l t i m a t e l y  u n s a t i s f i e d w i t h any s o l u t i o n t o t h i s problem  (such as  Jung's) w h i c h t r e a t s i t as a " h i s t o r i c a l " problem, f o r , i n t h e f i n a l a n a l y s i s , he c o n s i d e r s i t a t r a n s h i s t o r i c a l matter.  T h i s i s i n d i c a t e d by a statement he makes e a r l i e r  i n the passage j u s t  quoted:  One has o n l y t o t a k e t h e t r o u b l e to study the problem, t o f i n d out t h a t , whether o b t a i n e d by d i f f u s i o n o r s p o n t a n e o u s l y d i s c o v e r e d , myths and r i t e s always d i s c l o s e a boundary s i t u a t i o n o f man--not o n l y a h i s t o r i c a l s i t u a t i o n . A boundary s i t u a t i o n i s one which man d i s c o v e r s i n becoming c o n s c i o u s o f h i s p l a c e i n the u n i v e r s e . 7 0  E l i a d e , Images and Symbols, pp.34-35. Ibid.,  p.34.  -61-  E l i a d e b e l i e v e s s y m b o l i c e x p r e s s i o n s w h i c h are w i d e l y disseminated  s i m p l y owe  t h i s to the f a c t t h a t they answer  p e r s o n a l e x i s t e n t i a l s i t u a t i o n s w h i c h c o n f r o n t man a l l p e r i o d s and l e v e l s o f c u l t u r e .  According to  r e l i g i o u s symbols f u n c t i o n t o t r a n s f o r m these s i t u a t i o n s i n t o something u n i v e r s a l ,  at him,  personal  That i s to say,  r e l i g i o u s symbols show them to be "boundary s i t u a t i o n s " by r e v e a l i n g t h a t these h i s t o r i c a l s i t u a t i o n s have a meaning and a s o l u t i o n w h i c h i s p a r a d i g m a t i c  and t r a n s -  his torical. Thus, E l i a d e does not f o l l o w the t h e o r y t h a t the u n i v e r s a l s i g n i f i c a n c e o f r e l i g i o u s symbols i s e x p l a i n e d by the f a c t t h a t they have become i m p r i n t e d on the human psyche d u r i n g the course o f h i s t o r y .  He emphasizes t h a t r e l i g i o u s  symbols always r e f e r to what i s u n i v e r s a l or  paradigmatic,  and r e j e c t s the need f o r e x p l a i n i n g t h i s as a h i s t o r i c a l f a c t , whether by p s y c h o l o g i c a l t h e o r y , by d i f f u s i o n i s m , or by any o t h e r means.  He notes  that,  i n s o f a r as the u n c o n s c i o u s i s the r e s u l t o f c o u n t l e s s e x i s t e n t i a l e x p e r i e n c e s i t cannot but resemble the v a r i o u s r e l i g i o u s u n i v e r s e s . F o r r e l i g i o n i s the p a r a d i g m a t i c s o l u t i o n f o r every e x i s t e n t i a l c r i s i s . I t i s the p a r a d i g m a t i c s o l u t i o n n o t o n l y because i t can be i n d e f i n i t e l y r e p e a t e d , but a l s o because i t i s b e l i e v e d t o have a t r a n s c e n d e n t a l o r i g i n and hence i s v a l o r i z e d as a r e v e l a t i o n r e c e i v e d from an o t h e r , transhuman w o r l d . 7 1 T h i s means t h a t when E l i a d e speaks o f the u n i v e r s a l s i g n i f i c a n c e o f r e l i g i o u s symbols, he r e f e r s to t h e i r  E l i a d e , Sacred and P r o f a n e , p.210  ( i t a l i c s mine).  -62-  capacity f o r r e v e a l i n g paradigmatic  solutions f o r c r i t i c a l  human s i t u a t i o n s , a r c h e t y p e s f o r m e a n i n g f u l human e x i s t e n c e . The  problem o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g  t h e i r expressive capacity i s  for  him a s t r u c t u r a l problem; i t i s c l e a r l y d i s t i n g u i s h e d  from t h e h i s t o r i c a l problem o f e x p l a i n i n g why t h e s e symbols so f r e q u e n t l y crop up i n c o m p l e t e l y contexts.  separate  religious  E l i a d e d i f f e r s from t h e s t r u c t u r a l i s t because  he c o n c e i v e s  t h e problem by r e f e r e n c e t o t h e e x p r e s s i v e  q u a l i t i e s o f r e l i g i o u s symbols r a t h e r than t o t h e i r syntactical properties. E l i a d e a r r i v e s a t h i s concept o f s t r u c t u r e t h r o u g h a theory of archetypes;  t h i s i s n o t , however, a t h e o r y i n  w h i c h " i t i s t h e symbol p e r s e t h a t m a t t e r s . "  Eliade  tells  us t h a t symbols always p o i n t beyond themselves; they always have an a r c h e t y p a l r e f e r e n t .  He n e v e r s a y s , however,  t h a t a p a r t i c u l a r symbol has a r c h e t y p a l s i g n i f i c a n c e , b u t o n l y t h a t each symbol tends toward an a r c h e t y p e .  Thus,  t o use Leach's example, when E l i a d e i s c o n f r o n t e d w i t h a number o f symbols w h i c h l i n k t h e here-now w i t h t h e o t h e r : t r e e s , l a d d e r s , b o a t s , b r i d g e s , e t c . , he c o r r e c t l y views them as v a r i a n t s o f t h e same t h i n g . for  They a r e " t h e same,"  E l i a d e , because each tends t o become t h e a r c h e t y p a l  a x i s mundi, t h e Center o f t h e World.  This i s d i f f e r e n t  from s a y i n g t h e y a r e " t h e same" because they s e r v e " t h e same f u n c t i o n i n m y t h i c a l s y n t a x . "  When E l i a d e approaches  the v a r i o u s examples o f t h e symbolism o f t h e c e n t e r , h i s c o n c e r n i s n o t w i t h t h e s y n t a c t i c a l f u n c t i o n o f each  -63-  symbol.  I n s t e a d , h i s c o n c e r n i s w i t h the c a p a c i t y o f each  symbol t o e x p r e s s the meaning o f the whole symbolism and r e v e a l i t s a s s o c i a t e d e x p e r i e n c e of b e i n g a t the C e n t e r o f the World, Thus, when c o n f r o n t e d w i t h a s e t o f symbols i n w h i c h each shares the same f u n c t i o n and has no s p e c i a l importance i n i t s e l f , E l i a d e responds d i f f e r e n t l y from the s t r u c t u r a l i s t . The l a t t e r , s e e i n g the r e l a t i v e unimportance o f the p a r t i c u l a r symbols, o n l y a t t a c h e s i m p o r t a n c e t o t h e s t r u c t u r a l r e l a t i o n w h i c h d e f i n e s t h e i r common f u n c t i o n , u n d e r s t o o d as a s y n t a c t i c a l one,  He a s concerned o n l y w i t h the  s y n t a c t i c a l p r o p e r t i e s o f symbols and i s i n d i f f e r e n t t o the q u e s t i o n o f c o n t e n t and, a l s o , s u b j e c t i v i t y .  E l i a d e , on  the o t h e r hand, i s concerned p r i m a r i l y w i t h the e x p r e s s i v e q u a l i t i e s o f symbols.  P a r t i c u l a r symbols a r e  u n i m p o r t a n t as such, f o r him, because t h e y p o i n t beyond t h e m s e l v e s , " r e v e a l i n g a m o d a l i t y o f the r e a l o r a c o n d i t i o n o f the w o r l d w h i c h i s n o t e v i d e n t on the p l a n e 72 Of immediate e x p e r i e n c e .  11  He s t r e s s e s t h i s  "non-discursive"  f u n c t i o n o f symbols t o p o i n t beyond the c o n t i n g e n c i e s o f the immediate s i t u a t i o n t o what i s a r c h e t y p a l and a t e m p o r a l i n that situation.  Each symbol o f the c e n t e r , f o r example,  i s a b l e t o r e v e a l t h a t t h i s w o r l d i s "open" t o the o t h e r w o r l d ("the s a c r e d " ) i n s o f a r as i t becomes the a r c h e t y p a l a x i s mundi.  Thanks t o such a symbol, one's own house or  E l i a d e , The Two  and the One,  p,201.  -64-  v i l l a g e may  be e x p e r i e n c e d as b e i n g "open" t o the  sacred,  f o r by means o f such a symbol t h a t house or v i l l a g e can  be  a s s i m i l a t e d to the a x i s mundi, the Center o f the World. Eliade describes the f o l l o w i n g  t h i s f u n c t i o n o f the r e l i g i o u s symbol i n  way;  A r e l i g i o u s symbol t r a n s l a t e s a human s i t u a t i o n i n t o c o s m o l o g i c a l terms, and v i c e v e r s a ; t o be more p r e c i s e , i t r e v e a l s the u n i t y between human e x i s t e n c e and a s t r u c t u r e o f the Cosmos. Man does n o t f e e l h i m s e l f " i s o l a t e d " i n the Cosmos, he i s open t o a World w h i c h thanks t o the symbol, becomes " f a m i l i a r . " 7 3 T h i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the r o l e of r e l i g i o u s symbols i n g i v i n g meaning and  s t r u c t u r e t o human e x p e r i e n c e a r i s e s  out o f E l i a d e ' s c o n c e r n f o r t h e i r e x p r e s s i v e r a t h e r than t h e i r s y n t a c t i c a l  qualities  properties,  To summarize, i n l i g h t o f the c u r r e n t vogue f o r s t r u c t u r a l a n a l y s i s , i t has been n e c e s s a r y t o see E l i a d e ' s v i e w o f s t r u c t u r e compares t o t h a t of "structuralists."  The  r e l i g i o u s symbols and  the  d i f f e r e n c e between the two  E l i a d e i s concerned w i t h the e x p r e s s i v e  qualities  the s t r u c t u r a l i s t s w i t h  syntactical properties.  how  i s that of  their  T h i s means t h a t i n s t e a d o f  wishing  to show what the symbols s t a n d f o r on the l e v e l o f s y n t a x , E l i a d e wants to show what they e x p r e s s on a l e v e l ; he wants t o show how  non-discursive  they are a b l e t o c o n f e r  meaning upon human e x i s t e n c e w h i c h i s not e v i d e n t  I b i d , , p,207,  on  a the  -65-  p l a n e o f immediate e x p e r i e n c e ,  Eliade's structures of  r e l i g i o u s symbolism do n o t d e f i n e f o r m a l r e l a t i o n s elements i n a s y n t a c t i c a l  between  system, b u t r a t h e r r e l a t i o n s  between t h e r e l i g i o u s s u b j e c t and t h e r e a l w o r l d o f s a c r e d realities, never m e r e l y  The s t r u c t u r e s w h i c h E l i a d e i d e n t i f i e s a r e f o r m a l o r s y n t a c t i c a l , f o r they always  s i g n i f y t h e way i n w h i c h t h e r e l i g i o u s s u b j e c t o r g a n i z e s h i s experience.  The s t r u c t u r e o f t h e symbolism o f t h e  c e n t e r , f o r example, shows how r e l i g i o u s man o r g a n i z e s t h e space w h i c h surrounds h i m i n t o a u n i f i e d and m e a n i n g f u l whole,  I n E l i a d e ' s v i e w o f s t r u c t u r e t h e a c c e n t i s always  upon what r e l i g i o u s symbols r e v e a l ; t h e a r c h e t y p e s f o r m e a n i n g f u l human e x i s t e n c e . Such a g e n e r a l , n o n - s y n t a c t i c a l v i e w o f r e l i g i o u s s t r u c t u r e s i s n o t , however, p e c u l i a r t o E l i a d e a l o n e ,  One  o f t e n hears i n c u r r e n t d i s c u s s i o n about r e l i g i o n t h a t i t s e r v e s t o s t r u c t u r e human e x i s t e n c e i n some m e a n i n g f u l way. The  c r u c i a l q u e s t i o n , o f c o u r s e , i s how does i t s e r v e t o  s t r u c t u r e human e x p e r i e n c e ?  Commonly, t h i s q u e s t i o n i s  answered i n terms o f t h e r o l e o f r e l i g i o n i n m a i n t a i n i n g s o c i a l cohesion, preserving c u l t u r a l values, or supporting t r a d i t i o n a l sources o f a u t h o r i t y .  Eliade describes the  r o l e o f r e l i g i o n as t h a t o f m a i n t a i n i n g a b s o l u t e and a x i o m a t i c v a l u e s , paradigms f o r a l l human a c t i v i t y w h i c h have a superhuman and " t r a n s c e n d e n t a l " o r i g i n . paradigms o r a r c h e t y p e s  He f e e l s  these  s u r v i v e a p a r t from t h e a r c h a i c  symbolisms i n w h i c h t h e h i s t o r i a n o f r e l i g i o n s f i n d s them.  -66-  These a r c h e t y p a l p a t t e r n s , the s t r u c t u r e s of the  sacred,  p r e - e x i s t t h e i r h i s t o r i c a l appearances; they not o n l y have an i m p o r t a n t r o l e i n the r e l i g i o - h i s t o r i c a l c o n t e x t s they appear but a l s o s u r v i v e i n n o n - r e l i g i o u s  contexts.  E l i a d e ' s View of the T r a n s h i s t o r i c i t y o f R e l i g i o u s  I n what sense do E l i a d e ' s s t r u c t u r e s o f the p r e - e x i s t t h e i r h i s t o r i c a l appearances?  where  Structures  sacred  What s t a t u s do  have w h i c h can account f o r t h e i r t r a n s h i s t o r i c i t y and " s u r v i v a l " i n n o n - r e l i g i o u s contexts?  Robert B a i r d  they  their has  made i m p o r t a n t c r i t i c a l comments on t h i s q u e s t i o n .  As  f a r as he i s concerned, o n l y by assuming t h a t t h e s e s t r u c t u r e s have o n t o l o g i c a l s t a t u s can one  accept E l i a d e ' s  c l a i m s about t h e i r n a t u r e and h i s m e t h o d o l o g i c a l  use o f them.  He f e e l s i t i s p o s s i b l e f o r E l i a d e to g e n e r a l i z e from h i s p a r t i c u l a r examples t o h i s u n i v e r s a l s t r u c t u r e s because an o n t o l o g y i s p o s i t e d a l o n g  the  only  way.  B a i r d ' s remarks on t h i s i s s u e form p a r t of h i s o v e r a l l d e l i b e r a t i o n s on the d i f f e r i n g n a t u r e s of the p h e n o m e n o l o g i c a l and h i s t o r i c a l approaches to r e l i g i o n , ^  He f i n d s  the  ^ S e e R o b e r t D, B a i r d , " I n t e r p r e t i v e C a t e g o r i e s and the H i s t o r y o f R e l i g i o n s / " Oh Method i n the H i s t o r y o f R e l i g i o n s , ed. James S. H e i f e r , B e i h e f t 8 of H i s t o r y and Theory (1968), pp.17-36;"Normative Elements i n E l i a d e ' s Phenomenology o f Symbolism," Union Seminary Q u a r t e r l y Review, XXV, No,4 (1970), pp.505-16; C a t e g o r y F o r m a t i o n and the H i s t o r y of R e l i g i o n s ( H e r d e r s t r a a t 5, the N e t h e r l a n d s : Mouton and Co. N.V., 1971). 7  f  -67-  c e n t r a l problem t o be whether o r n o t a p h e n o m e n o l o g i c a l approach such as E l i a d e ' s has more i n common w i t h  such  n o r m a t i v e d i s c i p l i n e s as t h e o l o g y and the p h i l o s o p h y o f r e l i g i o n than w i t h such d e s c r i p t i v e ones as h i s t o r y and the s o c i a l s c i e n c e s .  He d e f i n e s  normative d i s c i p l i n e s  as f o l l o w s ; . . .when c e r t a i n d i s c i p l i n e s a r e d e s c r i b e d as n o r m a t i v e i t i s u s u a l l y meant t h a t they a r e n o t m e r e l y attempt t o d e s c r i b e c e r t a i n views about r e a l i t y , but propose t o d e s c r i b e r e a l i t y i t s e l f . That i s , n o r m a t i v e d i s c i p l i n e s a r e so c a l l e d because o f t h e i r o n t o l o g i c a l stance.75 He m a i n t a i n s t h a t E l i a d e p o s i t s such an o n t o l o g i c a l s t a n c e i n h i s p h e n o m e n o l o g i c a l approach t o r e l i g i o n .  Baird  argues t h a t , w h i l e E l i a d e i n v e s t i g a t e s h i s t o r i c a l  materials,  he a l s o p r e s e n t s an " o n t o l o g y o f the s a c r e d " w h i c h becomes i n d i s u p t a b l y e v i d e n t as one examines h i s i d e a s , f i r s t ,  on  the s t r u c t u r e s o f r e l i g i o u s symbolism, second, on the ("authentic") existence  o f those who  l i v e by t h e s e s t r u c t u r e s ,  and f i n a l l y , on the duty o f the h i s t o r i a n o f r e l i g i o n s t o r e f l e c t p h i l o s o p h i c a l l y upon the "meaning" o f r e l i g i o u s symbols and b e h a v i o r . A c c o r d i n g t o B a i r d , the o n t o l o g y o f the s a c r e d has a role i n Eliade's  thought beyond i t s p l a c e i n the r e l i g i o u s  views o f r e a l i t y w h i c h he i n t e r p r e t s ; i t has a c r u c i a l r o l e i n the method o f i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i t s e l f .  In Eliade's  i n q u i r y i n t o the s t r u c t u r e s o f r e l i g i o u s symbolism, he n o t e s , E l i a d e i n t e r p r e t s the meaning of symbols from  diverse  B a i r d , "Normative Elements i n E l i a d e ' s of Symbolism;" p.505.  Phenomenology  -68-  h i s t o r i c a l c o n t e x t s i n l i g h t o f one  a n o t h e r and,  i n l i g h t of a complete "symbol system",  ultimately,  This procedure  i s p o s s i b l e , B a i r d a r g u e s , o n l y i f the i n t e r p r e t e r  himself  a c c e p t s an o n t o l o g y of the s a c r e d w h i c h i n c l u d e s i t s structures, he  " T h i s o n t o l o g i c a l s t a n c e i s most a p p a r e n t , "  states, when c l e a r h i e r o p h a n i e s are used t o c l a r i f y the " i n t e n t i o n " o f obscure "hierophanies.'" Such a h e r m e n e u t i c i s p o s s i b l e o n l y i f one assumes not o n l y t h a t the s a c r e d has o n t o l o g i c a l s t a t u s , but a l s o t h a t i t s s t r u c t u r e s Cand hence the systems o f symbolism) a l s o have o n t o l o g i c a l s t a t u s . Only on t h i s b a s i s c o u l d a symbolism r e v e a l the meaning or i n t e n t i o n of a symbol.76 B a i r d f u r t h e r develops t h i s p o i n t i n h i s  discussion  o f E l i a d e ' s v i e w of a r c h a i c r e l i g i o u s e x i s t e n c e ,  E l i a d e does  not m e r e l y say t h a t the " a r c h a i c " mode o f e x i s t e n c e o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the s t r u c t u r e s o f the s a c r e d , c o n c l u d e s t h a t t h i s k i n d of e x i s t e n c e than modern e x i s t e n c e i n the s a c r e d and  i s more  is but  "authentic"  because i t i s more f u l l y absorbed  i t s structures,  i m p l i c a t i o n s of t h i s v i e w as  B a i r d comments on  follows:  Once one sees the s a c r e d or r e l i g i o n as an o n t o l o g i c a l r e a l i t y , and one o p e r a t e s as though i t s s t r u c t u r e s are a l s o o n t o l o g i c a l l y r e a l , h a v i n g i d e n t i f i e d t h e s e s t r u c t u r e s , one has discovered r e a l i t y . I t then f o l l o w s t h a t those whose l i v e s are l i v e d i n the s a c r e d as c o m p l e t e l y as p o s s i b l e a r e the most 77 authentic since they e x i s t c l o s e s t to r e a l i t y .  7 6  I b i d . , p-,512.  7 7  I b i d . , p,513.  one  the  -69-  B a i r d a l s o examines E l i a d e ' s philosophizing  i d e a s on the need f o r  i n the h i s t o r y of r e l i g i o n s ,  He  contends  t h a t w h i l e E l i a d e urges h i s t o r i a n s o f r e l i g i o n s to "complete" t h e i r i n v e s t i g a t i v e work w i t h p h i l o s o p h i c a l r e f l e c t i o n upon the "meaning"rof t h e i r m a t e r i a l s , E l i a d e ' s philosophizing  own  i s needed a t the b e g i n n i n g o f h i s  T h i s means t h a t u n l e s s E l i a d e i s w i l l i n g t o g i v e a r g u m e n t a t i o n f o r the o n t o l o g i c a l s t a n c e w h i c h he from the o u t s e t o f h i s s t u d i e s , they cannot be  studies. philosophical posits  taken  s e r i o u s l y on a p h i l o s o p h i c a l or even on a h e u r i s t i c l e v e l of understanding.  He e x p l a i n s  t h i s i n the f o l l o w i n g  way:  The q u e s t i o n now a r i s e s as to whether i t would be p o s s i b l e t o empty E l i a d e ' s phenomena o l o g i c a l method of i t s o n t o l o g i c a l " p o s t u l a t e s " and c o n t i n u e to use i t as a Q i e u r i s t i c O l e v e l o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g . . . we are; f o r c e d t o answer i n the n e g a t i v e , Here, i f one e l i m i n a t e s the m e t a p h y s i c a l , he e l i m i n a t e s the t r a n s h i s t o r i c a l r e l i g i o u s s t r u c t u r e s . And the e l i m i n a t i o n o f the t r a n s h i s t o r i c a l r e l i g i o u s s t r u c t u r e s e l i m i n a t e s the p o s s i b i l i t y o f f i n d i n g a t r a n s h i s t o r i c a l r e l i g i o u s meaning i n a symbol or myth or r i t e . Without i t s i m p l i e d ontology, t h i s method f a l l s t o the ground and becomes a t b e s t a means o f c l a s s i f y i n g data.78 F o r B a i r d , t h e n , the t r a n s h i s t o r i c a l and o n t o l o g i c a l a r e one  and  the same, and  the m e t a p h y s i c a l -  the use  of t r a n s h i s t o r i c a l  s t r u c t u r e s must be j u s t i f i e d by arguments of a m e t a p h y s i c a l and  o n t o l o g i c a l order,  Because these s t r u c t u r e s  have a v a l i d i t y and a meaning of t h e i r own, t h e i r conditioned  a p a r t from  expressions i n h i s t o r y , i t follows for  t h a t they have o n t o l o g i c a l r e a l i t y .  p.89.  supposedly  B a i r d , C a t e g o r y F o r m a t i o n and '  him  I t i s suggested h e r e  the H i s t o r y o f  Religions,  -70-  t h a t t h i s c o n c l u s i o n can be  questioned.  As B a i r d shows, E l i a d e ' s method i s u n i q u e , and a t the same time open t o c r i t i c i s m , because o f i t s t r a n s h i s t o r i c a l structures.  U n l e s s one a c c e p t s t h a t t h e s e s t r u c t u r e s a r e  t r a n s h i s t o r i c a l , t h e r e would be no r e a s o n t o b e l i e v e h i s t o r i c a l l y d i s s i m i l a r hierophanies one a n o t h e r ,  More i m p o r t a n t l y ,  that  w i l l shed l i g h t upon  t h e r e would be no r e a s o n  t o b e l i e v e t h a t one c o u l d d e f i n e man's r e l i g i o u s mode o f e x i s t e n c e i n terms o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n  i n these s t r u c t u r e s ,  E l i a d e ' s method depends on i t s t r a n s h i s t o r i c a l  structures  because i t has t h e aim o f d e s c r i b i n g homo r e l i g i o s u s ; man i n h i s r e l i g i o u s dimension a p a r t from p a r t i c u l a r persons i n h i s t o r y .  religious  B a i r d shows he i s aware o f t h i s i n  the f o l l o w i n g ; We began o u r d i s c u s s i o n o f E l i a d e ' s p h e n o m e n o l o g i c a l method by s t a t i n g t h a t i t was p r i m a r i l y concerned w i t h r e l i g i o u s structures. I t might be c o u n t e r e d t h a t t h i s does n o t mean t h a t i t i s u n i n t e r e s t e d i n r e l i g i o u s p e o p l e . F o r , t h e o n l y way E l i a d e proposes t o a d e q u a t e l y u n d e r s t a n d r e l i g i o u s man i s by t h e s t r u c t u r e s i n w h i c h he p a r t i c i p a t e s . However, t h e emphasis i s c e r t a i n l y on t h e s t r u c t u r e s . . , . I t i s true that Eliade's goal i s to u n d e r s t a n d homo r e l i g i o s u s . But homo r e l i g i o s u s i s n o t an h i s t o r i c a l b u t an archetypal r e l i g i o u s man.™ I n a r r i v i n g a t a d e s c r i p t i o n o f homo r e l i g i o s u s by r e f e r e n c e to t h e s t r u c t u r e s o f t h e s a c r e d , E l i a d e i d e n t i f i e s  7 9  I b i d . , p.86.  -71-  c e r t a i n f a c t o r s w h i c h determine t h e n a t u r e o f human r e l i g i o u s behavior, y e t transcend a l l i t s p a r t i c u l a r h i s t o r i c a l forms.  He i d e n t i f i e s those " t r a n s - e x p e r i e n t i a l "  f a c t o r s w h i c h shape t h e l i f e o f man as a r e l i g i o u s b e i n g . They a r e t r a n s - e x p e r i e n t i a l because they come from o u t s i d e of one's immediate s i t u a t i o n .  Y e t t h e q u e s t i o n s : where do  t h e y come from--a zone o f man's u n c o n s c i o u s , some m e t a p h y s i c a l r e a l m , e t c . ? ; and, what i s t h e i r o n t o l o g i c a l s t a t u s - - r e a l , i d e a l , etc,?, are not important f o r E l i a d e . As a phenomenologist, rather  he i s concerned w i t h t h e i r meaning  than t h e i r o r i g i n , t h e i r s i g n i f i c a n c e r a t h e r  their status.  than  I t i s s u f f i c i e n t f o r him t o underline the  importance w h i c h they have i n d e f i n i n g an e s s e n t i a l d i m e n s i o n o f man, t h a t i s , i n a r r i v i n g a t a d e s c r i p t i o n o f homo r e l i g i o s u s .  I n o t h e r words, E l i a d e does n o t c o n s i d e r  religious structures  t r a n s h i s t o r i c a l because they have  o n t o l o g i c a l r e a l i t y o r a m e t a p h y s i c a l o r i g i n ; he c o n s i d e r s them t r a n s h i s t o r i c a l because he b e l i e v e s  they have a  permanent s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r human l i f e and c o r r e s p o n d t o a p r i m a r y dimension o f human e x i s t e n c e w h i c h history.  transcends  The r e s t o f t h i s c h a p t e r w i l l be devoted t o  examining t h i s view.  Homo R e l i g i o s u s ; An E s s e n t i a l and P r i m a r y Dimension Eliade considers r e l i g i o u s structures  o f Man  t h e most  fundamental k i n d o f t r a n s - e x p e r i e n t i a l f a c t o r s known t o man.  -72-  Joseph Dabney B e t t i s e x p l a i n s t h i s i d e a i n h i s d i s c u s s i o n of E l i a d e ' s u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f r e l i g i o u s  structures;  What we e x p e r i e n c e i s a p r o d u c t o f t h e d a t a i n o u r environment and t h e images, models, i d e a s and e x p e c t a t i o n s w h i c h we b r i n g t o i t . These t r a n s ^ e x p e r i e n t i a l f a c t o r s may come from a number o f p l a c e s and f u n c t i o n i n a v a r i e t y o f ways, b u t t h e y have a s i g n i f i c a n t i n f l u e n c e i n s h a p i n g our w o r l d . When t h e s e images and models c o n s t i t u t e our. fundamental w o r l d - v i e w or l i f e - s t y l e , t h e y become r e l i g i o u s . Religious symbols and images p r o v i d e t h e fundamental a r c h e t y p e s o f p a r a d i g m a t i c models f o r o r g a n i z i n g and s h a p i n g t h e r e l i g i o u s man's environment.80 This c o r r e c t l y represents E l i a d e ' s understanding of r e l i g i o u s s t r u c t u r e s as " r e a l , ? ' n o t because they have o n t o l o g i c a l s t a t u s , b u t because they c o n f e r u l t i m a t e meaning upon human e x i s t e n c e ,  F o r E l i a d e , r e l i g i o n i s "the paradigmatic  s o l u t i o n f o r every e x i s t e n t i a l c r i s i s " ; r e l i g i o u s  structures  a r e n e c e s s a r y and u n i v e r s a l because they appear, and r e a p p e a r , whenever man's fundamental  c o n c e p t i o n s , b e l i e f s , o r doubts  about e x i s t e n c e a r e a t s t a k e . Thus, i f t h e r e i s a s i n g l e n o r m a t i v e p r e s u p p o s i t i o n w h i c h determines t h e n a t u r e o f E l i a d e ' s thought about r e l i g i o n , i t i s h i s view that r e l i g i o n i s a very p a r t i c u l a r dimension o f human e x i s t e n c e w h i c h i s concerned w i t h u l t i m a t e o r " t o t a l " meaning,  He aims t o e s t a b l i s h t h e  s p e c i f i c i t y o f man's r e l i g i o u s d i m e n s i o n , as O t t o d i d w i t h  J o s e p h Dabney B e t t i s , ed,, Phenomenology o f R e l i g i o n (New York; Harper and Row, 1969), p,202, s u  -73-  n  ^  s  £ p r i o r i r e l i g i o u s c a t e g o r y o f t h e human mind, by  i d e n t i f y i n g t h e b a s i s f o r human r e l i g i o u s n e s s a t t h e l e v e l of s t r u c t u r e ,  This u n i v e r s a l , p r e - o b j e c t i v e  i n t h e way he d e f i n e s  t h e mode o f e x i s t e n c e  b a s i s emerges o f homo  religiosus, Eliade defines by r e f e r e n c e  t h e mode o f e x i s t e n c e  t o t h e s t r u c t u r e s i n w h i c h he p a r t i c i p a t e s ; these  ''structures o f t h e s a c r e d " through studying historical  o f homo r e l i g i o s u s  are necessarily  derived  the r e l i g i o u s expressions o f p a r t i c u l a r  persons.  Because h i s c o n c e r n i s i n i t i a l l y  with, t h e myths, r i t e s , and symbols t h r o u g h w h i c h man expresses the r e v e l a t i o n s of the sacred,  h i s analysis  produces s t r u c t u r e s w h i c h are,' i n t h e f i r s t s t r u c t u r e s o f sacred m a n i f e s t a t i o n ,  instance,  I n C h a r l e s Long's.  b r i l l i a n t p h r a s e ; "His a n a l y s i s ' d e s c r i b e s  the pre-objective 81  l a t e n t s t r u c t u r e s o f r e l i g i o u s •expression,".  Yet? as  Long a l s o r e a l i z e s , t h e m a t t e r does n o t end h e r e , s t r u c t u r e s .described  a r e a l s o , i n the, f i n a l  s t r u c t u r e s o f human thought and b e h a v i o r , u l t i m a t e l y t o something i n t h e e x i s t e n c e  The  instance, They r e f e r  o f those who  p a r t i c i p a t e i n these s t r u c t u r e s which i s p r i o r t o expression,  o r as Long s a y s , p r i o r t o r e f l e c t i o n ,  W h i l e o t h e r s may d e s c r i b e t h e u n i v e r s a l ,  pre-objective  b a s i s o f human r e l i g i o u s n e s s as an a p r i o r i c a t e g o r y o f man's mind o r a c e r t a i n zone o f h i s u n c o n s c i o u s , t o Long, E l i a d e ' s d e s c r i b e s 8 1  L o n g , p.77.  according  i t as a s p e c i f i c d i m e n s i o n o f  -74-  man's p r e r e f l e c t i v e l i f e . Eliade's  Long's o b s e r v a t i o n g r e a t l y  clarifies  v i e w o f r e l i g i o n as an e s s e n t i a l d i m e n s i o n o f man,  for i t discloses  t h a t homo r e l i g i o s u s i s one among s e v e r a l  d e s i g n a t i o n s w h i c h have been i n t r o d u c e d i n t o modern s c h o l a r s h i p t o d e s c r i b e p a r t i c u l a r a s p e c t s o f man's prereflective l i f e .  Long  writes:  The new d e f i n i t i o n s o f man i n t r o d u c e d over the l a s t one hundred y e a r s add t o t h e d e s i g n a t i o n homo s a p i e n s supplementary or a l t e r n a t i v e d e s c r i p t i o n s o f t h e human, Compare, f o r example, t h e f o l l o w i n g as d e s c r i p t i o n s o f man; homo g e o g r a p h i c u s , homo l u d e n s , homo l a b o r ans , homo f a b e r , homo r e l i g i o s u s . I t was o b v i o u s l y common knowledge p r i o r t o t h e l a s t one hundred y e a r s t h a t man l i v e d i n a l a n d s c a p e , t h a t he p l a y e d , made t o o l s , w o r s h i p p e d , and so on, But what was n o t so o b v i o u s was t h e importance and s t a t u s o f t h e s e dimensions o f h i s l i f e as p a r t o f a t o t a l d e f i n i t i o n o f h i s b e i n g , These d e f i n i t i o n s o f man r e f e r t o h i s ordinary prereflective life.82 T h i s o b s e r v a t i o n c l a r i f i e s t h e sense i n w h i c h homo r e l i g i o s u s is,  f o r E l i a d e , n o t so much a p a r t i c u l a r k i n d o f man,  e x i s t i n g i n o r o u t s i d e o f h i s t o r y , as a p a r t i c u l a r  dimension  of human e x i s t e n c e . E v e r y e f f o r t t o u n d e r s t a n d man i n one o f h i s fundamental dimensions i n v a r i a b l y has a tendency t o become a l l encompassing and e x c l u s i v e ,  E v e r y d i s c i p l i n e tends t o  i n c o r p o r a t e as much as p o s s i b l e  under i t s v i e w o f man and  believes i n the s p e c i a l s i g n i f i c a n c e of the values i t studies I b i d , , p,83.  -75-  f o r the u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f man  i n general,  r e l i g i o n , as James S. H e i f e r p o i n t s out,  I n the s t u d y of the h e r m e n e u t i c a l  s i t u a t i o n o f many s c h o l a r s i s determined by a b e l i e f i n the u l t i m a c y o f r e l i g i o u s v a l u e s .  The  r e s u l t i s that  the h e r m e n e u t i c a l p r o c e d u r e becomes a r e l i g i o u s i n i t s e l f ; how  else,  u l t i m a t e values  s c h o l a r s say, can one  of others  study  the  except i n r e l a t i o n t o one's  sense of the u l t i m a t e and one may  exercise  own  i n v i e w o f the p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t  grow r e l i g i o u s l y i n so s t u d y i n g them.  Heifer  c o n c l u d e s from t h i s s i t u a t i o n t h a t "the b a s i c problem i n the e n t i r e f i e l d of the h i s t o r y s o l i p s i s m and He  i t s cohort,  of r e l i g i o n s  is  methodological  the: u l t i m a c y o f r e l i g i o u s v a l u e s i "  continues; S t r a n g e l y , but a p p r o p r i a t e l y , economic h i s t o r i a n s are not more "economic", m i l i t a r y h i s t o r i a n s more " m i l i t a n t " , i n t e l l e c t u a l h i s t o r i a n s more " i n t e l l e c t u a l " , or s o c i a l h i s t o r i a n s more " s o c i a l * why must h i s t o r i a n s o f r e l i g i o n s p e r s i s t i n b e i n g more " r e l i g i o u s " ?  This i s of course a r h e t o r i c a l question,  f o r as H e i f e r knows,  the " r e l i g i o u s " c h a r a c t e r a c c o r d e d by some t o the study of r e l i g i o n i s presupposed i n the v i e w of i t s m a t e r i a l s t h e y have a q u a l i t y o f  that  ultimacy.  E l i a d e f o l l o w s t h i s view i n h i s study of  religious  m a t e r i a l s , f o r he c o n s i d e r s homo r e l i g i o s u s man's most fundamental dimension. represents  Homo r e l i g i o s u s , he t e l l s  the " t o t a l man";  the e x p e r i e n c e of the  us, sacred,  J a m e s S, H e i f e r , ed., On Method i n the H i s t o r y o f R e l i g i o n s , B e i h e f t 8 of H i s t o r y and Theory (1968), p.7. 83  -76-  he s a y s , i s t h e c o r r e l a t e  o f "man's s p e c i f i c e x i s t e n t i a l  situation of ' b e i n g - i n - t h e - w o r l d ' . " T h i s attitude i s r e v e a l e d throughout  h i s quest f o r homo r e l i g i o s u s ,  While  he b e g i n s t h i s quest w i t h h i s t o r i c a l m a t e r i a l s h i s aim i s t o d e s c r i b e a dimension a p a r t from h i s t o r y .  o f man's p r e r e f l e c t i v e  life  He seeks t o t r a n s f o r m t h e h i s t o r i c a l  materials into a description  o f man as a r e l i g i o u s  t h a t i s , as a b e i n g who t r u l y l i v e s i n t r a n s c e n d i n g  being, history  through p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the s t r u c t u r e s o f the sacred.  Of  the h i s t o r i a n o f r e l i g i o n s ' aim, E l i a d e w r i t e s ; He attempts t o d e c i p h e r , i n t h e t e m p o r a l sphere o f h i s t o r i c a l a c t u a l i t y t h e f a t e o f e x p e r i e n c e s a r i s i n g from an i n f l e x i b l e human d e s i r e t o t r a n s c e n d t h e temporal and the h i s t o r i c . A l l a u t h e n t i c r e l i g i o u s experience i m p l i e s a desparate e f f o r t t o penetrate to the root of t h i n g s , the u l t i m a t e reality. But every e x p r e s s i o n o r c o n c e p t u a l formulation o f a given r e l i g i o u s experience l i e s i n a h i s t o r i c a l c o n t e x t . . ..The supreme m e r i t o f any h i s t o r i a n o f r e l i g i o n s i s p r e c i s e l y h i s endeavor t o d i s c o v e r i n a " f a c t " d u l y c o n d i t i o n e d by t h e h i s t o r i c a l moment and t h e c u l t u r a l s t y l e o f t h e age t h e e x i s t e n t i a l s i t u a t i o n w h i c h caused i t . 8 5 I n moving from t h e l e v e l o f t h e h i s t o r i c a l l y c o n c r e t e t o t h a t o f e x i s t e n t i a l experience>; where he c a n grasp t h e s p e c i f i c mode o f b e i n g - i n - t h e - w o r l d o f homo r e l i g i o s u s , t h e h i s t o r i a n o f r e l i g i o n s must p e r f o r m a r e l i g i o u s e x e r c i s e h i m s e l f .  He  must comprehend t h e u l t i m a t e and t r a n s h i s t o r i c a l meaning o f the h i s t o r i c a l l y c o n d i t i o n e d f a c t s ,  Eliade,  The Quest, pp.8-9,  Eliade,  The Two and t h e One, pp,191-92,  -77•k  k  -k  To summarize, i n h i s quest f o r t r a n s h i s t o r i c a l  religious  s t r u c t u r e s E l i a d e moves from t h e h i s t o r i c a l l y c o n d i t i o n e d events t o t h e e x i s t e n t i a l s i t u a t i o n s  w h i c h produced them,  and f i n a l l y t o t h e mode o f b e i n g w h i c h u n d e r l i e s these situations,  I n t h i s manner he f o r m s a morphology o f  r e l i g i o - h i s t o r i c a l f a c t s and e x p l o r e s t h e r e l a t i o n between man and t h e w o r l d o f s a c r e d r e a l i t i e s , relationship  p e r m i t s h i m t o d e f i n e t h e mode o f b e i n g o f  homo r e l i g i o s u s , man i n h i s e s s e n t i a l , religious  Examination of t h i s  prereflective  dimension.  I t a l s o enables t h e h i s t o r i a n o f r e l i g i o n * , u s i n g E l i a d e ' s methodology, t o d i s c o v e r t h i s mode o f b e i n g - i n t h e - w o r l d f o r modern c o n s c i o u s n e s s . i n the next chapter,  As w i l l be p o i n t e d o u t  t h i s n e c e s s i t a t e s an a c t o f c r e a t i v e  s e l f - u n d e r s t a n d i n g , an a c t w h i c h p a r t a k e s exercise, f o r the recovery  of a r e l i g i o u s  o f t h e a r c h a i c homo r e l i g i o s u s  by modern awareness has i m p o r t a n t f o r man*s b a s i c u n d e r s t a n d i n g  s p i r i t u a l consequences  o f h i m s e l f and h i s w o r l d .  -78-  IV,  E l i a d e ' s R e l i g i o u s Hermeneutics and The  "Nostalgia For Paradise"  E l i a d e ' s hermeneutics  can be c a l l e d " r e l i g i o u s " f o r  two r e a s o n s ; f i r s t , because i t d e a l s w i t h r e l i g i o u s m a t e r i a l s , and second, because as a " c r e a t i v e " i t i s a religious exercise. hermeneutics  changes man.  h e r m e n e u t i c a l encounter r e l i g i o u s nature.  hermeneutics  According to Eliade, c r e a t i v e  He b e l i e v e s t h a t e v e r y t r u e  g i v e s r i s e t o an e x p e r i e n c e o f a  Because i t i s an encounter w i t h some  " o t h e r " w o r l d o f meaning i t a l t e r s one's fundamental c o n c e p t i o n s about h i s own w o r l d . consciousness  Because i t awakens t h e  o f an " o t h e r " mode o f b e i n g - i n - t h e - w o r l d , i t  causes one t o r e f l e c t c r i t i c a l l y s i t u a t i o n i n the world.  upon h i s p a r t i c u l a r  C r e a t i v e hermeneutics  then, because i t i n v o l v e s an a c t o f c r i t i c a l understanding:  " t h e e f f o r t to: u n d e r s t a n d  changes man, self-  the s e l f  through  the mediation o f the other," T h e r e f o r e , t h e c r e a t i v e "hermeneut" r e l a t e s t o some " o t h e r " w o r l d i n o r d e r t o c o n f e r a meaning upon h i s own everyday w o r l d , j u s t as r e l i g i o u s man r e l a t e s t o t h e w o r l d o f m y t h i c a l a n c e s t o r s o r d i v i n e b e i n g s f o r t h e same r e a s o n . He a l s o shares i n t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a t t i t u d e o f r e l i g i o u s man toward  t h e " o t h e r " w o r l d , an a t t i t u d e w h i c h E l i a d e  c a l l s t h e " n o s t a l g i a f o r p a r a d i s e " ; he c o n s i d e r s t h e " o t h e r "  -79-  w o r l d more r e a l than t h e w o r l d o f p r e s e n t r e a l i t i e s and seeks t o r e c o v e r  t h i s p r i m o r d i a l world.  T h i s i s n o t t o suggest  t h a t t h e modern hermeneut yearns t o r e c o v e r what i s r e a l and p r i m o r d i a l i n t h e same c o n c r e t e way as does a r c h a i c r e l i g i o u s man. has  As w i l l be shown h e r e , c r e a t i v e h e r m e n e u t i c s  the aim of s e l f - u n d e r s t a n d i n g ,  not of recovering i n  a c t u a l i t y some p r e v i o u s mode o f e x i s t e n c e o r v i e w o f t h e world. S p e c i f i c a l l y , i t w i l l be shown t h a t E l i a d e ' s h e r m e n e u t i c a l quest t o recover  t h e a r c h a i c homo r e l i g i o s u s i s n e i t h e r an  o b j e c t i v e q u e s t f o r o r i g i n s n o r an attempt t o r e s u r r e c t archaic r e l i g i o u s r e a l i t i e s i n concreto.  The manner i n  w h i c h i t t r e a t s t h e q u e s t i o n o f o r i g i n s w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n the f i r s t s e c t i o n of t h i s chapter i n r e l a t i o n t o the theme o f t h e " n o s t a l g i a f o r paradise';,*"  I n t h e second s e c t i o n ,  E l i a d e ' s u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e problems i n v o l v e d i n g r a s p i n g a r c h a i c r e l i g i o u s v i e w s w i l l be e x p l a i n e d .  In the t h i r d  s e c t i o n , the true i n t e n t i o n o f E l i a d e ' s c r e a t i v e hermeneutics i n r e c o v e r i n g t h e a r c h a i c homo r e l i g i o s u s w i l l be d i s c l o s e d , In the f i n a l s e c t i o n , E l i a d e ' s idea that the h i s t o r i a n o f r e l i g i o n s i s i n a prime p o s i t i o n t o r e f l e c t  critically  upon t h e s p i r i t u a l s i t u a t i o n o f modern man through a h e r m e n e u t i c s o f a r c h a i c r e l i g i o u s r e a l i t i e s w i l l be discussed.  The " N o s t a l g i a f o r P a r a d i s e " The theme o f t h e " n o s t a l g i a f o r p a r a d i s e " has a r o l e  -80-  i n Eliade's. understanding  o f s a c r e d time and space, t h e  symbolism o f t h e c e n t e r , m i l l e n i a l i s m , and every  other  i n s t a n c e o f r e l i g i o u s man's y e a r n i n g t o r e g a i n c o n t a c t w i t h some ''other" w o r l d .  I t has two e s s e n t i a l f e a t u r e s : f i r s t ,  r e l i g i o u s man c o n s i d e r s t h e " o t h e r " w o r l d a w o r l d o f a b s o l u t e r e a l i t y , o f pure c r e a t i v e b e i n g , and thus o f t h e beginnings  o f a l l t h i n g s ; second, he b e l i e v e s i t i s a  w o r l d from w h i c h he i s f o r e v e r s e p a r a t e d because o f a d e c i s i v e deed t h a t took p l a c e i n t h e time o f t h e b e g i n n i n g s . The  first  c o n s t i t u t e s a v i s i o n o f p a r a d i s e and t h e second  the i d e a o f a " f a l l "  from p a r a d i s e .  R e l i g i o u s man must  never l o s e s i g h t o f t h e p a r a d i s a i c a l s t a t e o f t h e b e g i n n i n g s , n o r f o r g e t t h e d e c i s i v e deed by w h i c h he was c u t o f f from t h a t s t a t e and a r r i v e d a t h i s p r e s e n t c o n d i t i o n . A l l o f t h i s i s p r e s e r v e d f o r him i n myth, E l i a d e c a l l s myth " s a c r e d h i s t o r y " because i t r e c o r d s all man,  t h e events w h i c h a r e r e a l and i m p o r t a n t f o r r e l i g i o u s L i k e any h i s t o r y , myth t e l l s how man became what he  i s today; m o r t a l , s e x u a l , e t c ,  I n h i s a r t i c l e "The  Yearning f o r Paradise i n P r i m i t i v e T r a d i t i o n " . E l i a d e e x p l a i n s t h i s i d e a as f o l l o w s : . , , i n d e s c r i b i n g the p r i m o r d i a l s i t u a t i o n the myths r e v e a l i t s p a r a d i s i a l Csic3 q u a l i t y by t h e f a c t t h a t i n i l l o tempore Heaven i s s a i d t o have been v e r y near E a r t h o r t h a t i t was easy t o r e a c h by means o f a t r e e , o r a v i n e , o r a l a d d e r , o r by c l i m b i n g a mountain. When Heaven was r u d e l y " s e p a r a t e d " from E a r t h , when i t became " d i s t a n t " as i t i s today, when the t r e e o r t h e v i n e l e a d i n g from E a r t h t o Heaven was c u t , o r t h e mountain w h i c h touched  -81-  Heaven was l e v e l l e d — t h e p a r a d i s i a l s t a t e was over and humanity a r r i v e d a t i t s p r e s e n t s t a t e ,'86 I n myth we f i n d e x p r e s s e d b o t h e s s e n t i a l f e a t u r e s o f t h e theme o f t h e " n o s t a l g i a f o r p a r a d i s e " : t h e v i e w t h a t events w h i c h took p l a c e i n t h e b e g i n n i n g have g r e a t e r s i g n i f i c a n c e than a l l subsequent  e v e n t s ; and, t h e  v i e w t h a t man's p r e s e n t c o n d i t i o n i s e x p l a i n e d by a deed w h i c h took p l a c e i n t h a t p r i m o r d i a l e r a .  The " n o s t a l g i a  f o r p a r a d i s e " has a p l a c e i n modern c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n and hermeneutics because these two v e s t i g e s o f m y t h i c a l thinking are s t i l l present, E l i a d e d e s c r i b e s t h e f i r s t v i e w as a b e l i e f i n t h e "prestige of beginningsT"  I n d i s c u s s i n g "The Myth o f  the Noble Savage, o r t h e P r e s t i g e o f t h e B e g i n n i n g , " he says i t u n d e r l i e s many o f t h e a t t i t u d e s h e l d i n r e c e n t c e n t u r i e s toward p r i m i t i v e man, e a r l y human h i s t o r y , and man's e a r l y c h i l d h o o d , as w e l l as t h e a t t i t u d e o f p r i m i t i v e man h i m s e l f toward h i s p r i m o r d i a l a n c e s t o r s ( f o r he t o o knew t h e myth o f t h e " n o b l e savage").  E l i a d e speaks o f "a g e n e r a l  a t t i t u d e t o what happened ' i n t h e b e g i n n i n g ' : and e x p l a i n s t h e meaning t h i s a t t i t u d e has i n a l l i t s forms, as f o l l o w s : "Whatever t h e d i f f e r e n c e s between these images and f o r m u l a e , i n t h e f i n a l r e c k o n i n g they a l l mean t h e same t h i n g ;  that  8 6 E l i a d e , "The Y e a r n i n g f o r P a r a d i s e i n P r i m i t i v e T r a d i t i o n " , Daedalus, L X X X V I I I (1959), p , 2 2 5 ,  -82-  the e s s e n t i a l human c o n d i t i o n precedes 87 condition."  t h e a c t u a l human  T h i s v i e w i s a f f i r m e d , he s a y s , i n most  o f man's h i s t o r i o g r a p h i c p o s i t i o n s .  C e r t a i n events are'  s e l e c t e d from man's p a s t as d e c i s i v e and d e t e r m i n i n g f o r a l l t i m e , as models f o r p r e s e n t and f u t u r e a c t i v i t y ; a r e examples o f what i t r e a l l y means t o be human.  they  The  i d e a i s thus p r e s e r v e d by t h e h i s t o r i a n o f a r e a l w o r l d o f model e v e n t s , as d i s t i n g u i s h e d from h i s own world,  everyday  However, f o r him, i n s t e a d o f t a k i n g p l a c e " i n t h e  b e g i n n i n g " these events t a k e p l a c e " i n t h e p a s t " ; t h a t i s , f o r him, t h e b e g i n n i n g i s t h e p a s t . M y t h i c a l man u n d e r s t o o d how he a r r i v e d a t h i s p r e s e n t c o n d i t i o n through remembrance o f what happened i n t h e b e g i n n i n g ; modern man a c h i e v e s s i m i l a r awareness through the study o f the past.  T h i s does n o t mean, however, t h a t  every h i s t o r i c a l s t u d y a i m i n g t o show how man has become what he i s today can be c o n s i d e r e d " m y t h i c a l " i n t h e proper sense.  The s p e c i f i c n a t u r e o f myths i s such t h a t they  o f f e r e s s e n t i a l i s t i c , almost s i m p l i s t i c ,  descriptions  o f how man a r r i v e d a t h i s p r e s e n t c o n d i t i o n , and o f t e n r e p r e s e n t a l o n g and c o m p l i c a t e d p r o c e s s by a s i n g l e and sudden event, o f contemporary  When one r e f e r s t o t h e g r e a t mythmakers c u l t u r e : Marx, Darwin, F r e u d , e t c , i t i s  because they have o f f e r e d such d e s c r i p t i o n s y t h e y have E l i a d e , Myths, Dreams, and M y s t e r i e s , p,54,  -83-  t o l d how man has emerged as an e s s e n t i a l l y s o c i a l b e i n g , as a b i o l o g i c a l b e i n g , o r as a p s y c h o l o g i c a l b e i n g . r e p r e s e n t s a l o n g and c o m p l i c a t e d p r o c e s s by a s i n g l e event:  the f i r s t p a r r i c i d e .  F r e u d even  o f human development Furthermore, t h i s  event can be thought o f as a " f a l l , " w h i c h i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f m y t h i c a l e x p l a n a t i o n s o f how man has become what he i s today. The q u e s t i o n now a r i s e s as t o how these v e s t i g e s o f m y t h i c a l t h i n k i n g a r e expressed  i n E l i a d e ' s t h o u g h t , how a  c e r t a i n " n o s t a l g i a f o r p a r a d i s e " i s e v i d e n t i n h i s quest f o r the a r c h a i c homo r e l i g i o s u s .  As was p o i n t e d o u t i n t h e p r e v i o u s  c h a p t e r , he seeks something o r i g i n a l i n man--the e s s e n t i a l w h i c h precedes t h e a c t u a l - - a n d has an i n t e r e s t i n exemplary forms and v a l u e s , those o f a u t h e n t i c o r m e a n i n g f u l human existence,  W h i l e h i s quest f o r o r i g i n s i s t h e r e f o r e n o t an  o b j e c t i v e quest f o r the beginnings  of r e l i g i o n , i t s underlying  assumption i s t h a t man's r e l i g i o u s d i m e n s i o n i s most f u l l y e v i d e n t i n " a r c h a i c " man.  From t h e v i e w p o i n t o f modern man,  who has l o s t h i s sense o f r e l i g i o u s n e s s , t h e w o r l d o f a r c h a i c man may t h e n be seen as a l o s t p a r a d i s e . expressed  This a t t i t u d e i s  i n E l i a d e ' s myth o f man's second " f a l l "  d e s a c r a l i z e d modern e x i s t e n c e .  into  I n h i s view:  . , . i t c o u l d be s a i d t h a t n o n r e l i g i o n i s e q u i v a l e n t t o a new " f a l l " o f man--in o t h e r words t h a t n o n r e l i g i o u s man has l o s t the c a p a c i t y t o l i v e r e l i g i o n c o n s c i o u s l y , and hence t o u n d e r s t a n d and assume i t ; b u t t h a t , i n h i s deepest b e i n g , he s t i l l r e t a i n s a memory o f i t , a s , a f t e r t h e f i r s t " f a l l , " h i s a n c e s t o r , t h e p r i m o r d i a l man r e t a i n e d  -84-  i n t e l l i g e n c e enough t o e n a b l e him t o r e d i s c o v e r t h e t r a c e s o f God t h a t a r e v i s i b l e i n the world, A f t e r the f i r s t " f a l l ' ' t h e r e l i g i o u s sense descended t o the l e v e l o f t h e " d i v i d e d " c o n s c i o u s n e s s ; now a f t e r t h e second " f a l l " i t has f a l l e n even f u r t h e r , i n t o t h e depths o f t h e „g u n c o n s c i o u s ; i t has been " f o r g o t t e n . " . E l i a d e ' s myth o f man's second " f a l l "  thus e x p r e s s e s t h e  same i d e a as t h e myth o f h i s f i r s t " f a l l " ; man has been '.'separated"  from t h e s t a t e o f h i s a n c e s t o r s , and, a t t h e  same time, he r e t a i n s a memory o f t h i s s t a t e and c a n perhaps r e d i s c o v e r i t , how E l i a d e c o n c e i v e s for  The f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n w i l l  t h i s s e p a r a t i o n and g i v e s  discuss  suggestions  t h e endeavor o f r e d i s c o v e r y .  The Gap S e p a r a t i n g  "Modern" and " A r c h a i c " Man  E l i a d e b e l i e v e s t h a t t h e d i f f i c u l t y i n modern man's achieving a proper understanding  o f a r c h a i c r e l i g i o u s man  l i e s i n t h e f a c t t h a t he has c o n s c i o u s l y chosen t o r e j e c t his  p r e d e c e s s o r ' s way o f l i f e .  However, f o r E l i a d e , t h e  gap s e p a r a t i n g modern n o n r e l i g i o u s man from a r c h a i c r e l i g i o u s man i s n o t a b s o l u t e ,  According  t o him,  n o n r e l i g i o u s man descends from homo r e l i g i o s u s and, whether he l i k e s i t o r n o t , he i s a l s o t h e work o f r e l i g i o u s man. . . I n s h o r t , he i s t h e r e s u l t o f a process o f d e s a c r a l i z a t i o n . . , . t h i s means t h a t n o n r e l i g i o u s man has been formed by o p p o s i n g h i s p r e d e c e s s o r , by a t t e m p t i n g to empty h i m s e l f o f a l l . r e l i g i o n and a l l  E l i a d e , Sacred and P r o f a n e ,  p,213.  -85-  transhuman meaning. He r e c o g n i z e s h i m s e l f i n p r o p o r t i o n as he " f r e e s " h i m s e l f f r o m the " s u p e r s t i t i o n s " o f h i s a n c e s t o r s , . , . To a c q u i r e a w o r l d o f h i s own, he has d e s a c r a l i z e d the world i n which h i s a n c e s t o r s l i v e d ; b u t t o do so he has been o b l i g e d t o adopt t h e o p p o s i t e o f an e a r l i e r type o f b e h a v i o r , and t h a t b e h a v i o r l i s s t i l l e m o t i o n a l l y p r e s e n t t o him, i n one form o r a n o t h e r , ready t o be r e a c t u a l i z e d i n h i s deepest being.°^ Modern man i s e s s e n t i a l l y f a c e d w i t h t h e same d e c i s i o n as was r e l i g i o u s man i n h i s c o n f r o n t a t i o n w i t h " t r a n c e n d e n t a l " s a c r e d r e a l i t i e s ; however, he makes an o p p o s i t e c h o i c e , f o r he d e c i d e s t o r e j e c t  transcendence.  As Guy Welbon p u t s i t , E l i a d e " c o n s i d e r s d e s a c r a l i z a t i o n 90 to be t h e a c t u a l i z a t i o n o f a p r i m o r d i a l a l t e r n a t i v e " . What, then, r e a l l y d i s t i n g u i s h e s modern and a r c h a i c man? What i s i m p l i e d i n t h i s  choice?  As E l i a d e sees i t , i n c h o o s i n g t o r e j e c t modern man has d e c i d e d t o l i v e i n l i n e a r ,  transcendence,  historical  time and t o deny t h e e x i s t e n c e o f any r e a l i t y beyond h i s immediate, e m p i r i c a l w o r l d .  E l i a d e d e f i n e s t h e two main  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the world-view  of archaic societies  i n d i r e c t o p p o s i t i o n t o t h i s modern a t t i t u d e .  The f i r s t  he c a l l s " t h e r e v o l t a g a i n s t l i n e a r t i m e " and t h e second " a r c h a i c ontology".-  W i t h r e g a r d t o t h e f i r s t , he s t a t e s :  °*Ibid, pp.;203-4, G . R i c h a r d Welbon, "Some Remarks on t h e Work o f M i r c e a E l i a d e " A c t a P h i l o s o p h i c a e t TheoTogica, V o l , 2 (1964), p.481, 90  -86-  I n s t u d y i n g these t r a d i t i o n a l s o c i e t i e s , one c h a r a c t e r i s t i c has e s p e c i a l l y s t r u c k us; i t i s t h e i r r e v o l t a g a i n s t c o n c r e t e , h i s t o r i c a l time, t h e i r n o s t a l g i a f o r a p e r i o d i c a l r e t u r n t o t h e m y t h i c a l time o f the b e g i n n i n g o f t h i n g s , t o the "Great Time:,',91 A r c h a i c man  defends h i m s e l f a g a i n s t c o n c r e t e , h i s t o r i c a l  time through the r e p e t i t i o n o f a r c h e t y p e s b e l i e v e d t o o r i g i n a t e outside of h i s t o r y .  Modern man,  has g r e a t d i f f i c u l t y i n u n d e r s t a n d i n g how  of course, i t i s possible  to l i v e t h i s l i f e o f e n d l e s s r e p e t i t i o n , f o r he i s p r e - e m i n e n t l y " h i s t o r i c a l man^"  t h a t i s , "man  i n s o f a r as he makes h i m s e l f , w i t h i n  who is_ 92  h i s t o r y T h e  p o s s i b i l i t y o f comprehending the l i f e - s t y l e o f a r c h a i c man l i e s , f o r E l i a d e , i n p o s i t i n g an a r c h a i c o n t o l o g y . states; I t m a t t e r s l i t t l e i f the f o r m u l a s and images through which the p r i m i t i v e e x p r e s s e s " r e a l i t y " seem c h i l d i s h and even a b s u r d t o us. I t i s the p r o f o u n d meaning o f p r i m i t i v e b e h a v i o r t h a t i s r e v e l a t o r y ; t h i s b e h a v i o r i s governed by b e l i e f i n an a b s o l u t e r e a l i t y opposed t o t h e profane world of " u n r e a l i t i e s " . . . Hence we a r e j u s t i f i e d i n s p e a k i n g o f an a r c h a i c o n t o l o g y , and i t i s o n l y by t a k i n g t h i s o n t o l o g y i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n t h a t we succeed i n u n d e r s t a n d i n g - - a n d hence i n n o t s c o r n f u l l y d i s m i s s i n g - - e v e n the most e x t r a v a g a n t b e h a v i o r on..the p a r t o f the p r i m i t i v e w o r l d ; i n f a c t , t h i s b e h a v i o r corresponds t o a d e s p e r a t e e f f o r t n o t t o l o s e c o n t a c t w i t h being.93 ^ Cosmos and H i s t o r y , p , i x , 9 2  Ibid.  9 3  Ibid.  p,92  He  -87-  Thus, a l l of the attempts by a r c h a i c man  to " k i l l '  t h r o u g h a r c h e t y p a l f o r m u l a s or images r e p r e s e n t  Time  1  an  effort  to s a t u r a t e h i s l i f e w i t h b e i n g , w h i c h i s opposed t o becoming, or the f l u x of Time, W h i l e the w o r l d of a r c h a i c man  i s f a r removed from t h a t  of the modern i n t e r p r e t e r , t h i s does not l e s s e n ,  but  enhances, the v a l u e o f s e e k i n g t o u n d e r s t a n d i t ,  It will  be remembered t h a t the v a l u e o f the h e r m e n e u t i c a l  effort  l i e s p r e c i s e l y i n the f a c t t h a t i t seeks t o comprehend something ''other.". modern Western man  According  to E l i a d e , the v a l u e f o r  of confronting both a r c h a i c  and  non-Western p e o p l e s can be measured i n terms o f understanding,  self-  He s t a t e s :  , , , t h i s c o n f r o n t a t i o n w i t h "the o t h e r s " h e l p s Western man b e t t e r t o u n d e r s t a n d h i m s e l f . The e f f o r t expended i n c o r r e c t l y u n d e r s t a n d i n g ways o f t h i n k i n g t h a t are f o r e i g n to the Western r a t i o n a l i s t t r a d i t i o n - - a n e f f o r t w h i c h i s , p r i m a r i l y , t h a t o f d e c i p h e r i n g the meanings of myths and s y m b o l s - - i s r e p a i d by a c o n s i d e r a b l e enrichment o f c o n s c i o u s n e s s , 9 4 Eliade feels that, despite i t s p o t e n t i a l value,  few  rewards have y e t been reaped from t h i s c o n f r o n t a t i o n ,  He  a t t r i b u t e s t h i s t o the i n c a p a c i t y o f r e d u c t i o n i s t i c i d e o l o g i e s o f the Western r a t i o n a l i s t t r a d i t i o n t o u n d e r s t a n d c o r r e c t l y the r e l i g i o u s w o r l d s of "the  others".  Moreover, he o f f e r s c e r t a i n s u g g e s t i o n s  reaping  for truly  E l i a d e , Myths, Dreams, and M y s t e r i e s ,  p,9.  -88-  the b e n e f i t s o f the encounter w i t h "the o t h e r s , •". f o r b r i d g i n g the gap w h i c h s e p a r a t e s modern n o n r e l i g i o u s man  from the a r c h a i c homo r e l i g i o s u s , E l i a d e makes h i s s u g g e s t i o n s  i n r e s p o n s e t o one  great  problem; "the m a j o r i t y o f h i s t o r i a n s o f r e l i g i o n s defend themselves a g a i n s t the messages w i t h w h i c h t h e i r documents 95 are f i l l e d . "  T h i s may  be overcome, f i r s t , he  by a v o i d i n g e x c e s s i v e s p e c i a l i z a t i o n . the v a r i o u s s p e c i a l i s t s  suggests,  He t h e r e f o r e i n v i t e s  (Indologists, Judaicists,  S i n o l o g i s t s , e t c ) to become a c q u a i n t e d w i t h developments i n areas o u t s i d e t h e i r own.  Second, he i m p l o r e s  h i s t o r i a n o f r e l i g i o n s to c a r r y out h i s own work; he has  s e r v e d l o n g enough, due  the  interpretive  to h i s p h i l o s o p h i c a l  t i m i d i t y , t o p r o v i d e "raw m a t e r i a l s " f o r t h e p h i l o s o p h e r s and s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t s . r e l i g i o n progresses  T h i r d , he says the h i s t o r i a n o f  l i t t l e i n h i s own  i n t e r p r e t i v e work i f  he i m i t a t e s some f a s h i o n a b l e p h i l o s o p h e r or borrows h i s models from the s o c i a l s c i e n c e s .  Fourth,, he p o i n t s out  t h a t , i n f a c t , the h i s t o r i a n o f r e l i g i o n s needs to r e c t i f y c e r t a i n fashionable i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of r e l i g i o n  (an  o u t s t a n d i n g example b e i n g the i d e a o f Feurbach and Marx that r e l i g i o n i s alienation).  F i n a l l y , he asks  the  h i s t o r i a n o f r e l i g i o n s to be m i n d f u l o f "the f a l l a c y o f demystification*  1 1  o f the f a l s e n o t i o n t h a t he ought to seek  E l i a d e , The Quest, p.62, For a more complete v i e w o f the s u g g e s t i o n s summarized h e r e , see p p , 6 2 f f .  -89-  an a l t e r n a t i v e , r a t i o n a l e x p l a n a t i o n f o r r e l i g i o u s v i e w s , w h i c h , a t f i r s t , make l i t t l e sense to the modern Western mind. t o  not  T h i s i s the c r u x of the m a t t e r ; the aim  should  r e c o v e r the s p i r i t u a l messages c o n t a i n e d i n the to reduce them to f i t p r o v i n c i a l p h i l o s o p h i e s  be  materials, or  s o c i a l s c i e n t i f i c models, so t h a t , c l a d i n contemporary garb, they a r e i n d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e from the v i e w s o f modern 96 thinkers, E l i a d e suggests t h a t the a t t i t u d e of the v a r i o u s r e d u c t i o n i s m s toward "the o t h e r s " may b e t r a y a 97 s u p e r i o r i t y complex on the p a r t of Western He  feels that instead  scholars.  of i n t e r p r e t i n g them from the  of r e f e r e n c e of our p a r t i c u l a r moment i n h i s t o r y , them somewhere b e h i n d us development, we  i n our  point  situating  historical-evolutionary  ought to r a i s e them to a l e v e l o f  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n on w h i c h they can  s e r v e as a b a s i s  for  c r i t i c a l r e f l e c t i o n upon p r o v i n c i a l ways o f t h i n k i n g .  He  suggests the need f o r an e f f o r t to " r e v a l o r i z e " or to "save" archaic  religious realities.  when he p o s i t s an " a r c h a i c p r i m i t i v e actions  This e f f o r t i s  exemplified  o n t o l o g y " to make sense of  w h i c h are o t h e r w i s e i n c o m p r e h e n s i b l e to  the Western r a t i o n a l i s t t r a d i t i o n . .A  hermeneutical e f f o r t  o f t h i s k i n d presupposes a d e v a l u a t i o n of comtemporary As, f o r example, when the r e l i g i o u s views o f e a r l y C h r i s t i a n i t y , h a y i n g been " d e m y t h o l o g i s e d " from the p o i n t o f v i e w o f e x i s t e n t i a l i s m , become i n d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e from e x i s t e n t i a l i s t philosophy i t s e l f . 9 7  I b i d , , p,9,11.4.  -90-  r a t i o n a l thought and w i l l i n e v i t a b l y meet w i t h from s c i e n t i f i c a l l y minded s c h o l a r s /  resistance  They w i l l be  inclined  " t o s u s p e c t o b s c u r a n t i s m or n o s t a l g i a " , E l i a d e s a y s , i n a u t h o r s who see i n the d i f f e r e n t forms o f r e l i g i o n something o t h e r than s u p e r s t i t i o n , i g n o r a n c e , o r , a t t h e most, p s y c h o l o g i c a l b e h a v i o r , s o c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s , and r u d i m e n t a r y i d e o l o g i e s f o r t u n a t e l y l e f t b e h i n d us by the p r o g r e s s o f s c i e n t i f i c thought and the t r i u m p h o f technology,98 I t has a l r e a d y been a d m i t t e d i n the p r e s e n t a n a l y s i s t h a t there i s a c e r t a i n " n o s t a l g i a " inherent  i n the h e r m e n e u t i c a l  e f f o r t t o " r e v a l o r i z e " or r e c o v e r a r c h a i c r e l i g i o u s r e a l i t i e s . I t remains  t o be shown t h a t t h i s " n o s t a l g i a " must not be  u n d e r s t o o d as a d e s i r e t o r e t u r n t o the a c t u a l way  of  life  of premodern r e l i g i o u s s o c i e t i e s , w i t h t h e i r s o - c a l l e d s u p e r s t i t i o n s and n o n - r a t i o n a l i d e o l o g i e s ,  Creative  Hermeneutics  C e r t a i n scholars suspect obscurantism or n o s t a l g i a i n Eliade's e f f o r t to " r e v a l o r i z e " archaic r e l i g i o u s r e a l i t i e s because they f i n d i t p a r a d o x i c a l ,  Having heard from an  e a r l i e r g e n e r a t i o n o f s c h o l a r s t h a t the study o f a r c h a i c r e l i g i o n s i s i m p o r t a n t t o modern man  because i t shows  how  f a r man's r e l i g i o u s sense has developed i n l e a v i n g b e h i n d these " l o w e r " forms o f r e l i g i o n , they s t a n d aghast a t E l i a d e ' s v i e w t h a t the s t u d y o f a r c h a i c r e l i g i o n s w i l l  I b i d . , pp,66-67.  -91-  r e s t o r e t o modern man h i s t r u e sense o f r e l i g i o u s n e s s . Because E l i a d e h o l d s a n o b l e c o n c e p t i o n  of archaic  r e l i g i o u s e x i s t e n c e , and argues t h a t modern e x i s t e n c e i s by c o n t r a s t i m p o v e r i s h e d and b e r e f t o f meaning, he i s s u s p e c t e d o f b e i n g a proponent o f b a s e l e s s  anti-postivist  i n v e c t i v e , o r a v i c t i m o f n o s t a l g i a f o r t h e supposedly b e a t i f i c e x i s t e n c e o f premodern man, "using'  1  He i s s u s p e c t e d o f  the study of a r c h a i c r e l i g i o u s behavior t o preach  about modern Western man's a n x i e t y o r t o prophesy t h e appearance o f t h e means f o r human s a l v a t i o n on t h e h o r i z o n o f non-Western s p i r i t u a l i t y , I t w i l l be shown t h a t t h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n stems from a b a s i c m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f E l i a d e ' s c r e a t i v e hermeneutics.  T h i s m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g l i e s i n t h e assumption  t h a t E l i a d e ' s quest f o r t h e a r c h a i c homo r e l i g i o s u s seeks the r e t u r n , i n a c t u a l i t y , t o a form o f premodern r e l i g i o u s behavior.  C e r t a i n i n t e r p r e t e r s o f h i s thought assume t h a t  he advocates t h e o b j e c t i v e r e c a p i t u l a t i o n o f a r c h a i c r e l i g i o u s e x i s t e n c e because they c o n f u s e h i s quest f o r t h e archaic homo-rellglosus  w i t h the h i s t o r i c a l - e v o l u t i o n a r y  quest f o r t h e e a r l i e s t form o f r e l i g i o n .  The two t a s k s  are even c o n f u s e d i n cases\ where i t i s e x p l i c i t l y n o t e d t h a t E l i a d e r e j e c t s t h e use o f a h i s t o r i c a l - e v o l u t i o n a r y framework i n h i s s t u d y o f r e l i g i o n , Such a c o n f u s i o n o f t a s k s i s e v i d e n t ,  f o r example, i n  an o t h e r w i s e i n s i g h t f u l r e v i e w o f E l i a d e ' s works by t h e  -92-  well-known l i t e r a r y c r i t i c N o r t h r o p F r y e , his  99  He n o t e s i n  r e v i e w , t h a t i n E l i a d e ' s "grammar o f c o m p a r a t i v e  symbolism" something p r i m a r y and u n i v e r s a l i n r e l i g i o n i s uncovered, something " o f t h e type t h a t T y l o r c a l l e d animism!'  He adds;  " E l i a d e thinks of t h i s  animism,  however, n o t as c h r o n o l o g i c a l l y p r i o r t o a l l o t h e r r e l i g i o n s , as T y l o r d i d , but as l a t e n t i n a l l r e l i g i o u s s t r u c t u r e s and the key t o most o f t h e i r imagery/'.  He thus r e c o g n i z e s t h a t E l i a d e has d i s p e n s e d  w i t h h i s t o r i c a l - e v o l u t i o n i s m and g i v e n us a v i e w of a r c h a i c imagery and symbolism w h i c h shows' i t s importance to man  i n g e n e r a l , n o t to: o n l y one s t a g e i n h i s h i s t o r i c a l  development.  I n a d d i t i o n , F r y e .does n o t h e s i t a t e t o  announce the r e l e v a n c e o f E l i a d e ' s work t o the modern literary critic,  " I t i s obvious,", he s t a t e s , " t h a t such  s t u d i e s as E l i a d e ' s have an immediate r e l e v a n c e t o l i t e r a r y c r i t i c i s m - ^ s o immediate t h a t a c r i t i c who  ignores t h i s  k i n d o f work i s r i s k i n g competence i n h i s own  field,"  I n v i e w o f t h e s e remarks, F r y e ' s c o n c l u s i o n about E l i a d e s l  e f f o r t t o r e s t o r e the. v a l u e o f a r c h a i c r e l i g i o u s r e a l i t i e s s u r p r i s e s us,  He w r i t e s ;  S a c r e d t r e e s and s t o n e s , c i t i e s a t the  " N o r t h r o p F r y e , "World Enough W i t h o u t Time," The Huds Review, 12 (1959), pp.423-31, 1 0 0  ibid;,  p;427;  1 0 1  Ibld.,  p,431,  -93-  n a v e l o f t h e e a r t h , a p r i m o r d i a l time o f t h e gods, a r e a l l p r o j e c t i o n s , and i t would be t h e s i l l i e s t k i n d o f s e l f hypnosis to t r y to t a l k ourselves i n t o a c c e p t i n g such p r o j e c t i o n s a g a i n . The d i f f e r e n c e between s u p e r s t i t i o n and r e l i g i o n , w h i c h seems t o d i s a p p e a r from E l i a d e ' s argument, i s t h a t i n r e l i g i o n such f e e l i n g s a r e t r a n s f e r r e d from t h e p h y s i c a l t o t h e s p i r i t u a l w o r l d , from o u t e r time and space t o i n n e r e x p e r i e n c e . . . . t h i s p r o c e s s i s o f immense h e l p i n t h e development o f a h i g h e r r e l i g i o n and i s p r o b a b l y e s s e n t i a l t o i t . ^ ^ F r y e h e r e uses a form o f d i a l o g u e w h i c h , as he i s aware, E l i a d e has l a b o r e d with notions and  t o do away w i t h , a d i a l o g u e  of "superstition,"  "projections",  burdened "higher"  " l o w e r " r e l i g i o n s , e t c . He f a i l s t o r e c o g n i z e  i n r e j e c t i n g these notions  that,  of historical-evolutionism,  E l i a d e has sought t o r e s t o r e t h e v a l u e o f a r c h a i c r e l i g i o u s r e a l i t i e s through a non-objective of a hermeneutical procedure.  q u e s t , t h a t i s , by means  I t i s a hermeneutical  procedure which i n v o l v e s c r i t i c a l r e f l e c t i o n ; i t i n v o l v e s , as a n e c e s s a r y r e s u l t o f t h e encounter w i t h r e a l i t i e s , the devaluation contemporary e x i s t e n c e . archaic existence  "other"  and r e i a t i v i z a t i o n o f  Eliade's " r e v a l o r i z a t i o n " of  displays the kind of c r i t i c i s m of  contemporary c u l t u r e w h i c h i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f c r e a t i v e hermeneutics.  I t does n o t d i s p l a y , as F r y e t h i n k s , t h e  k i n d of " i n s e n s i t i v i t y t o culture'' which i s " c h a r a c t e r i s t i c 103 o f p r e a c h e r s o f a n x i e t y " i n modern e x i s t e n c e .  1 0 3  Ibid.  -94-  The  c r i t i c i s m o f E l i a d e by t h e t h e o l o g i a n Kenneth  Hamilton i s s i m i l a r t o that o f Frye i n that i t misrepresents Eliade's hermeneutical  q u e s t f o r homo r e l i g i o s u s as an  argument f o r t h e r e t u r n t o a r c h a i c r e l i g i o u s He a l s o sees t h e r e l e v a n c e  existence."^  4  t o modern man o f E l i a d e ' s  d e s c r i p t i o n o f a r c h a i c r e l i g i o u s man.  He f e e l s , however,  that i t i s p r e c i s e l y the k i n d of r e l i g i o u s n e s s which E l i a d e d e s c r i b e s t h a t t h e modern t h e o l o g i a n ought t o recognize  and oppose i n d e f i n i n g a form o f f a i t h w h i c h  i s a p p r o p r i a t e f o r modern, h i s t o r i c a l man.  H i s main p o i n t  i s t h a t i t would be b o t h i r r e s p o n s i b l e and i m p o s s i b l e  for  the modern C h r i s t i a n t o assume t h e mode o f e x i s t e n c e o f homo r e l i g i o s u s , c h a r a c t e r i z e d as i t i s by "a sense o f cosmic cosiness."  He s t a t e s :  The f a c t t h a t t h e r e l i g i o u s c o n s c i o u s n e s s o f modern C h r i s t i a n s i s no l o n g e r "open" to t h e cosmos as was t h e c o n s c i o u s n e s s o f m e d i e v a l C h r i s t i a n s o r o f a r c h a i c man may mean more g a i n than l o s s . Perhaps t h e assumption o f homo r e l i g i o s u s t h a t he need o n l y d e c i p h e r what t h e cosmos says i n o r d e r to u n d e r s t a n d t h e m y s t e r y o f l i f e was an i l l - f o u n d e d assumption n e e d i n g t o be c o r r e c t e d by t h e c o u n t e r t h e s i s o f n o r i r e l i g i o u s man t h a t t h e cosmos h o l d s no c i p h e r . 1 0 5 Hamilton's suggestion  of a counterthesis i s well-stated,  but i t i s n o t E l i a d e ' s awareness o f t h i s  counterthesis  K e n n e t h H a m i l t o n , "Homo R e l i g i o s u s and H i s t o r i c a l F a i t h , »• J o u r n a l o f B i b l e and R e l i g i o n , 33 (1965), pp. 213-222 1 0 4  1 Q 5  I b i d . , p.216.  -95-  which i s at stake,  E l i a d e has p o i n t e d out t h a t modern  man  has  i n f a c t chosen t o d e s a c r a l i z e the cosmos i n  his  t h e o r y o f man's second " f a l l , " What i s a t s t a k e i s  E l i a d e ' s c o n t e n t i o n t h a t modern man  can a c h i e v e  awareness o f the views of homo r e l i g i o s u s .  a restored  Hamilton  a d d r e s s e s h i m s e l f t o t h i s i s s u e when he a s k s ; "Can  the  s p i r i t u a l o u t l o o k o f homo r e l i g i o s u s be r e v i v e d i n our 106  modern, h i s t o r i c a l l y - m i n d e d , a n t i - m e t a p h y s i c a l Y e t he s t i l l m i s c o n s t r u e s E l i a d e ' s u n d e r s t a n d i n g s p i r i t u a l reawakening w h i c h may hermeneutical  age?" of  o c c u r as a r e s u l t o f  encounter w i t h non-Western c u l t u r e s .  t o H a m i l t o n ' s r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f E l i a d e ' s v i e w s , the f a l l e n man  the the According twice-  o f the modern Western w o r l d ought t o l o o k t o  the h o r i z o n o f non-Western, n o n - C h r i s t i a n r e l i g i o n s f o r an a c t u a l s o l u t i o n t o h i s s p i r i t u a l c r i s i s .  He  represents  E l i a d e ' s u n d e r s t a n d i n g as f o l l o w s : . . , as i t i s i n t h e C h r i s t i a n i z e d West t h a t s e c u l a r i z a t i o n has proceeded most r a p i d l y , we s h o u l d e x p e c t the n o n - C h r i s t i a n r e l i g i o n s to take the l e a d i n h a l t i n g — a n d perhaps i n r e v e r s i n g - - t h e second F a l l . . . . Should we a l s o expect, from the same s o u r c e s , a second saviour?107 Again,  the s p e c i f i c a l l y h e r m e n e u t i c a l  nature of E l i a d e ' s  e n c o u n t e r w i t h the w o r l d s o f homo r e l i g i o s u s i s i g n o r e d . C r e a t i v e hermeneutics has no i n t e n t i o n o f " r e v e r s i n g " man's second " f a l l , "  f o r i t i s t h i s " f a l l " w h i c h makes t h a t  I b i d , , p.221. I b i d . , p.215.  -96-  hermeneutics b o t h n e c e s s a r y and p o s s i b l e ; i t i s , i n essence, a f a l l i n t o h i s t o r y . In c o n c l u s i o n , the important t h i n g i s that hermeneutics i s an a c t i v i t y p e c u l i a r t o contemporary  man,  f o r i t i s an e x e r c i s e i n s e l f - u n d e r s t a n d i n g through t h e h i s t o r i c a l study of other c u l t u r e s .  C h a r l e s Long e x p r e s s e s  t h i s i d e a when he says o f h e r m e n e u t i c s : " i t  presupposes  108 modernity." A t t h e same t i m e , however, i t presupposes a c e r t a i n d e v a l u a t i o n or r e l a t i v i z a t i o n o f modernity: i t c o n f r o n t s t h e contemporary i n t e r p r e t e r w i t h t h e r e a l i z a t i o n t h a t h i s e x i s t e n c e i s o n l y one among many possibilities. of existence.  As a r e s u l t , i t a l t e r s h i s fundamental v i e w As E l i a d e p u t s  it:  I n t h e end, c r e a t i v e h e r m e n e u t i c s changes man; i t i s more t h a n i n s t r u c t i o n , i t i s also a s p i r i t u a l technique s u s c e p t i b l e o f modifying the q u a l i t y of existence i t s e l f . T h i s i s t r u e above a l l f o r t h e h i s t o r i c o r e l i g i o u s hermeneutics.. . For i n presenting and a n a l y z i n g t h e A u s t r a l i a n , A f r i c a n o r Oceanian myths and r i t u a l s , i n g i v i n g a commentary on t h e hymns o f Z a r a t h u s t r a , Taoist texts, or the shamanistic mythologies and t e c h n i q u e s , t h e h i s t o r i a n o f r e l i g i o n s u n v e i l s some e x i s t e n t i a l s i t u a t i o n s t h a t a r e unknown o r t h a t a r e i m a g i n a b l e o n l y w i t h g r e a t d i f f i c u l t y by t h e modern r e a d e r ; t h e encounter w i t h t h e s e " f o r e i g n " w o r l d s cannot c o n t i n u e w i t h o u t consequences.109 These consequences  are, f o r E l i a d e , i n d i v i d u a l  self-  u n d e r s t a n d i n g , r e n e w a l o f thought i n Western c u l t u r e s , and a l t e r a t i o n i n t h e s p i r i t u a l c o n d i t i o n o f modern man.  Long, p.79. E l i a d e , The Quest, p.62.  -97-  These consequences w i l l be c o n s i d e r e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g discussion  o f the r o l e o f the h i s t o r i a n o f r e l i g i o n s i n  r e l a t i o n t o t h e problem o f r e l i g i o n and m o d e r n i t y .  The H i s t o r i a n  of Religions  and t h e S p i r i t u a l S i t u a t i o n o f  Modern Man  Eliade's  quest f o r homo r e l i g i o s u s i s a c r e a t i v e  h e r m e n e u t i c s because he seeks t h r o u g h o b j e c t i v e h i s t o r i c a l m a t e r i a l s t o t r a n s c e n d h i s t o r y and d i s c o v e r t h e u n i v e r s a l , p r e - o b j e c t i v e b a s i s o f human r e l i g i o u s n e s s .  The t h r e e  consequences o f t h i s a p p r o a c h — s e l f - u n d e r s t a n d i n g , c u l t u r a l r e n e w a l , and a l t e r a t i o n o f man's s p i r i t u a l condition--are central to Eliade's  b e l i e f i n t h e power  o f h i s h e r m e n e u t i c s t o t r a n s f o r m t h e awareness o f modern man.  I n t h e l i g h t o f t h i s p e r s p e c t i v e w i l l be d i s c u s s e d ,  f i r s t , the r o l e o f the h i s t o r i a n of r e l i g i o n s i n contributing to man's t o t a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f h i m s e l f t h r o u g h t h e s t u d y of a r c h a i c r e l i g i o u s r e a l i t i e s .  Second w i l l be d i s c u s s e d  the i d e a o f c u l t u r a l r e n e w a l as i t r e l a t e s of t h e h i s t o r i a n o f r e l i g i o n s t o u n v e i l existential positions upon a t t i t u d e s  to the e f f o r t s  "foreign"  and thus p e r m i t c r i t i c a l r e f l e c t i o n  toward e x i s t e n c e i n contemporary  culture.  F i n a l l y w i l l be d i s c u s s e d t h e p o t e n t i a l a b i l i t y o f t h e h i s t o r i a n o f r e l i g i o n s to a l t e r t h e s p i r i t u a l c o n d i t i o n of modern man, t o show modern man t h a t h i s t o t a l s i t u a t i o n  -98-  has b o t h a h i s t o r i c a l and a t r a n s h i s t o r i c a l , o r s p i r i t u a l dimension. The e f f o r t t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e s e l f t h r o u g h t h e m e d i a t i o n o f t h e o t h e r can succeed o n l y i n s o f a r as " t h e o t h e r " c o r r e s p o n d s t o something r e c o g n i z a b l e i n t h e s e l f .  In  E l i a d e ' s s t u d y o f t h e a r c h a i c homo r e l i g i o s u s , he t e l l s us t h a t i t c o n s t i t u t e s a form o f b e h a v i o r " s t i l l e m o t i o n a l l y present'.' t o modern n o n r e l i g i o u s . man, w h i c h i s "ready t o be r e a c t u a l i z e d i n h i s deepest being,!'.  Thus, t h e aim o f  h i s t o r i c o - r e l i g i o u s h e r m e n e u t i c s i s t o seek " t h e o t h e r " o r " t h e a r c h a i c " as a d i m e n s i o n o f t h e i n t e r p r e t i n g s u b j e c t h i m s e l f ; t h i s hermeneutics i s an a l t e r n a t i v e t o t h e h i s t o r i c a l - e v o l u t i o n a r y quest f o r t h e o r i g i n a l form o f r e l i g i o n i n objective history.  I n h i s comments on t h e  f a i l u r e o f t h e o b j e c t i v e quest f o r t h e o r i g i n s o f r e l i g i o n , C h a r l e s Long p r e s e n t s t h i s i d e a o f an a l t e r n a t i v e q u e s t . A c c o r d i n g t o him, the s e a r c h f o r o r i g i n s - - t h e a r c h a i c i n o b j e c t i v e h i s t o r y — m u s t now be complemented by a s e a r c h o f t h e a r c h a i s m o f t h e s u b j e c t . T h i s a r c h a i s m i s no l o n g e r a s e a r c h f o r o r i g i n s i n o b j e c t i v e h i s t o r y , for', as we i. have seen, t h i s poses an i m p o s s i b l e t a s k . T h i s "new a r c h a i s m " a r i s e s i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e u n i v e r s a l s t r u c t u r e and i n t e n t i o n a l i t y r e v e a l e d i n r e l i g i o u s symbols. We now w i s h t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e meaning o f t h e a r c h a i c as a c o n s t i t u e n t element i n man's u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f h i m s e l f and h i s w o r l d . H O  Long, p.74.  -99-  C h a r l e s Long would r e p l a c e t h e i d e a o f an o r i g i n a l , o b j e c t i v e stage o f human r e l i g i o u s l i f e w i t h t h e i d e a of i t s u n i v e r s a l , p r e - o b j e c t i v e s t r u c t u r e ,  This p o s i t i o n  p a r a l l e l s t h a t o f E l i a d e i n t h i s statement: " I t s u f f i c e s to  say t h a t t h e ' s a c r e d ' i s an element i n t h e s t r u c t u r e  of consciousness,  n o t a stage i n t h e h i s t o r y o f  111  consciousness,"  Through t h e comprehension o f t h e  a r c h a i c homo r e l i g i o s u s on a p r i m o r d i a l l e v e l o f h i s b e i n g , modern man can add t o an u n d e r s t a n d i n g achieves  " t o t a l " understanding  of himself.  He  when he comprehends h i m s e l f  i n a l l o f h i s d i m e n s i o n s , even those t h a t have been " f o r g o t t e n " i n t h e p r e s e n t h i s t o r i c a l moment, o n l y t o be r e d i s c o v e r e d i n h i s encounter w i t h "the o t h e r s . " When, i n h i s e n c o u n t e r w i t h t h e " o t h e r s , " man d i s c o v e r s the p o s s i b i l i t y o f assuming a " f o r g o t t e n " o r " a l i e n " mode o f e x i s t e n c e , he i s moved t o r e f l e c t c r i t i c a l l y upon contemporary a t t i t u d e s toward e x i s t e n c e .  "For, a f t e r a l l , "  E l i a d e e x p l a i n s , " r e c o g n i z i n g the existence o f 'others' i n e v i t a b l y b r i n g s w i t h i t t h e r e l a t i v i z a t i o n , o r even 112  the d e s t r u c t i o n , o f t h e o f f i c i a l c u l t u r a l  world."  However, o n l y t h r o u g h such c r i t i c i s m o f fundamental, contemporary views can we t r u l y comprehend t h e o t h e r and " i n t e r p o l a t e " that other i n t o our l i v e s .  C h a r l e s Long  E l i a d e , The Quest, from t h e P r e f a c e . E l i a d e , The Quest, p.4.  -100-  e x p r e s s e s t h i s v i e w i n t h e passage where he p r e s e n t s h i s d e f i n i t i o n o f hermeneutics: E v e r y adequate h e r m e n e u t i c s i s a t h e a r t an e s s a y i n s e l f - u n d e r s t a n d i n g . I_t i s the e f f o r t t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e s e l f t h r o u g h the m e d i a t i o n o f t h e o t h e r . By s e l f u n d e r s t a n d i n g I do n o t mean t h e r e d u c t i o n of t h e o t h e r t o t h e c a t e g o r i e s o f c o n t e m p o r a n e i t y . S e l f - u n d e r s t a n d i n g through the m e d i a t i o n o f t h e o t h e r i n v o l v e s t h e p r i n c i p l e of r e c i p r o c a l c r i t i c i s m . It is t h i s r e c i p r o c a l c r i t i c i s m o f s e l f and o t h e r which permits the i n t e r p o l a t i o n of the phenomenon i n t o our l i v e s . H 3 When E l i a d e speaks o f c u l t u r a l r e n e w a l o r enrichment o f c o n s c i o u s n e s s i n t h e modern Western w o r l d he has t h i s k i n d o f r e c i p r o c a l c r i t i c i s m i n mind.  As mentioned above, he  shows t h e way t o a t r u e comprehension  o f p r i m i t i v e man's  l i f e o f " a r c h e t y p e s and r e p e t i t i o n " t h r o u g h d e m o n s t r a t i n g t h a t , from t h e p r i m i t i v e ' s own p o i n t o f v i e w ,  this  e x i s t e n c e p a r t i c i p a t e s i n an " a r c h a i c o n t o l o g y , " I n a n o t h e r i n s t a n c e he experiments w i t h r e c i p r o c a l c r i t i c i s m o f t h e a t t i t u d e s toward death o f modern h i s t o r i c a l man and o f homo r e l i g i o s u s , and shows t h e d i f f e r e n c e between t h e e x i s t e n t i a l views o f d e a t h on t h e one hand as N o t h i n g n e s s , and on t h e o t h e r as I n i t i a t i o n .  E l i a d e b e l i e v e s the  d i s c o v e r y o f o t h e r e x i s t e n t i a l p o s i t i o n s has a s p e c i a l importance f o r modern man because he i s t h e v i c t i m o f h i s  I 1o  Long, p.78 I i t a l i c s m i n e ) . E l i a d e , " R e l i g i o u s Symbolism and Modern Man's A n x i e t y " , i n Myths, Dreams, and M y s t e r i e s , pp.231-45. 1 1 4  -101-  own  h i s t o r i c i t y , o f the b e l i e f t h a t the p r e s e n t h i s t o r i c a l  moment s o l e l y c o n d i t i o n s h i s s i t u a t i o n . man  i s unaware, a c c o r d i n g  Contemporary  to E l i a d e , that h i s  s i t u a t i o n can have a t r a n s h i s t o r i c a l meaning.  particular Eliade  f e e l s t h a t the h i s t o r i a n of r e l i g i o n s i s i n a prime position he has  t o r e v e a l t h i s f a c t t o modern c o n s c i o u s n e s s because  a knowledge o f the symbolism and  w h i c h man  has  imagery t h r o u g h  a t t a i n e d the U n i v e r s a l i n h i s moments as  homo r e l i g i o s u s . The  r o l e w h i c h E l i a d e asks the h i s t o r i a n of  religions  t o t a k e i n a l t e r i n g man's p r e s e n t s p i r i t u a l c o n d i t i o n i s , t h e n , m a i n l y one  o f r e v e a l i n g t o modern man  meaning o f a r c h a i c symbols and symbolism, i s f o r him, a c o n s c i o u s n e s s may  and  Religious  the v e h i c l e par e x c e l l e n c e by w h i c h  transcend  i d e a t h a t the h i s t o r y  archetypes.  the value  i t s own  historicity.  The  o f r e l i g i o n s can become a r e l i g i o u s  e x e r c i s e i s t h e r e f o r e most apparent i n E l i a d e ' s statements about the s t u d y o f r e l i g i o u s symbolism.  He w r i t e s :  By e n v i s a g i n g the s t u d y o f man not o n l y inasmuch as he i s a h i s t o r i c b e i n g , but a l s o as a l i v i n g symbol, the h i s t o r y o f r e l i g i o n s c o u l d become ( i f we may be pardoned the word) a m e t a p s y c h o a n a l y s i s . For t h i s would l e a d t o an awakening, and a r e n e w a l of c o n s c i o u s n e s s , of the a r c h a i c symbols and a r c h e t y p e s , whether s t i l l l i v i n g or now f o s s i l i s e d i n the r e l i g i o u s t r a d i t i o n s o f a l l mankind. . . . One c o u l d e q u a l l y w e l l c a l l t h i s a new m a l e u t i c s . J u s t as S o c r a t e s . . .acted on the mind o b s t e t r i c a l l y , b r i n g i n g to b i r t h thoughts i t d i d not know i t c o n t a i n e d , so the h i s t o r y o f r e l i g i o n s c o u l d b r i n g f o r t h a new man, more a u t h e n t i c and more complete: f o r , t h r o u g h  -102-  the s t u d y o f t h e r e l i g i o u s t r a d i t i o n s , modern man would n o t o n l y r e d i s c o v e r a k i n d o f a r c h a i c b e h a v i o r , he would a l s o become c o n s c i o u s o f t h e s p i r i t u a l r i c h e s i m p l i e d i n such b e h a v i o r . 1 1 5 E l i a d e thus d i s c l o s e s t h a t t h e u l t i m a t e aim o f h i s hermeneutics i s not simply  to rediscover archaic behavior,  but t o g i v e i t new and e n r i c h e d  significance.  He seeks  b o t h t o r e d i s c o v e r p a s t h i s t o r i c a l s i t u t a t i o n s o f man and to r e v e a l t h e t r a n s h i s t o r i c a l meaning o f these s i t u a t i o n s . In conclusion,  i t can be s a i d t h a t E l i a d e aims t o  t r a n s c e n d h i s t o r y t h r o u g h t h e study o f h i s t o r y .  T h i s means  that i n uncovering the p r i m o r d i a l condition of the archaic homo r e l i g i o s u s t o modern man, he opens t h e way f o r t h e emergence o f a more complete b e i n g .  Eliade's h i s t o r i c o -  r e l i g i o u s hermeneutics i s then i n v o l v e d i n the k i n d o f r e t u r n t o t h e p r i m o r d i a l s i t u a t i o n w h i c h he d e s c r i b e s i n h i s d i s c u s s i o n o f yoga. i n recovering  The y o g i becomes l i b e r a t e d when  t h e p r i m o r d i a l s t a t e he i s i n i t i a t e d i n t o  a t o t a l l y new mode o f b e i n g ;  as E l i a d e p u t s i t : "The man  'delivered i n l i f e ' regains h i s o r i g i n a l s i t u a t i o n enriched 116 by dimensions o f freedom and t r a n s c o n s c i o u s n e s s . " .  Thus  i t i s w i t h t h e quest f o r homo r e l i g i o s u s , w h i c h does n o t r e t u r n modern man t o a mode o f e x i s t e n c e  lived i n  E l i a d e , Images and Symbols, p.35. E l i a d e , P a t a f a j a l i and Yoga, t r . C h a r l e s L. Markmann York: Funk and W a g n a l l s , 1969), p.121. 1 1 6  (New  -103-  o b j e c t i v e a r c h a i c h i s t o r y , but r a t h e r seeks t o i n i t i a t e him i n t o a new  s p i r i t u a l awareness t h r o u g h the r e d i s c o v e r y  o f the a r c h a i c m o d a l i t y i n h i m s e l f ,  •k  k  k  To summarize, i n E l i a d e ' s r e l i g i o u s h e r m e n e u t i c s " n o s t a l g i a f o r p a r a d i s e " t a k e s the form o f an s p i r i t u a l technique.  elevated  I t c o u l d be compared w i t h  y e a r n i n g f o r the p r i m o r d i a l s t a t e o f v a r i o u s  the  mystics  o r the s e a r c h f o r the " f i r s t p h i l o s o p h y " by t h i n k e r s b o t h a n c i e n t and modern, the o n l y d i f f e r e n c e b e i n g  that  E l i a d e ' s q u e s t b e g i n s w i t h the h i s t o r i c a l l y g i v e n not w i t h i n t r o s p e c t i o n ,  I t b e g i n s w i t h the  and  historically  g i v e n " o t h e r " as i t s i n d i s p e n s i b l e g u i d e , and a t t a i n s to s e l f - u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h r o u g h the r e c i p r o c a l c r i t i c i s m o f the s e l f and the o t h e r , man";  Thus, " c r e a t i v e h e r m e n e u t i c s changes  a l l the consequences f o r modern man  o f the e n c o u n t e r  w i t h h i s t o r i c o - r e l i g i o u s r e a l i t i e s are made p o s s i b l e by the a c t o f r e c i p r o c a l c r i t i c i s m . by d e f e n d i n g  These r e s u l t s are  thwarted  o n e s e l f a g a i n s t the s p i r i t u a l messages r e v e a l e d  by h i s t o r i c o - r e l i g i o u s f a c t s i n the p r o v i n c i a l manner o f Western thought. S e l f - u n d e r s t a n d i n g w i l l f o l l o w from the encounter w i t h the o t h e r o n l y when the o t h e r i s t a k e n s e r i o u s l y and r a i s e d t o a l e v e l on w h i c h i t can t r u l y as the b a s i s f o r r a d i c a l  self-criticism.  serve  -104-  Conclusion  The importance o f E l i a d e ' s s t u d y o f r e l i g i o u s phenomena i s t h a t i t d e s c r i b e s what r e l i g i o u s e x i s t e n c e i s , a p a r t from t h e s o c i a l , p o l i t i c a l , economic, and h i s t o r i c a l f a c t o r s which n e c e s s a r i l y c o n d i t i o n a l l r e l i g i o u s phenomena.  The s a l i e n t f e a t u r e s o f h i s  description are: f i r s t , r e l i g i o u s existence i s characterized by an a t t i t u d e toward h i s t o r y w h i c h i s t h e o p p o s i t e o f t h a t w h i c h u n d e r l i e s most modern i d e o l o g i e s and t h e o r i e s o f i n t e r p r e t a t i o n ; second, i t i s dominated by a r c h e t y p e s and symbols w h i c h r e v e a l t h e i r meaning a t a  non-discursive  l e v e l r a t h e r than t h e r a t i o n a l l e v e l o f d i s c o u r s e ; and f i n a l l y , i t i s n o t c o m p r e h e n s i b l e t o those who i n s i s t upon r e d u c i n g i t t o t h e i d e o l o g i c a l c a t e g o r i e s o f t h e Western rationalist  tradition.  For E l i a d e , t h e r e f o r e , t h e problem o f r e l i g i o n and modernity i s , f i r s t of a l l , the d i f f i c u l t i e s which are inherent  i n t h e h e r m e n e u t i c a l s i t u a t i o n o f t h e modern  interpreter.  These d i f f i c u l t i e s a r i s e out o f t h e f a c t  t h a t t h e i n t e r p r e t e r must seek t o u n d e r s t a n d a mode o f e x i s t e n c e w h i c h t r a n s c e n d s t h e t e m p o r a l and h i s t o r i c .  To  overcome t h e s e d i f f i c u l t i e s , E l i a d e s u g g e s t s an approach t o r e l i g i o - h i s t o r i c a l phenomena w h i c h t r a n s c e n d s t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r c o n d i t i o n i n g s , o r a t l e a s t g e t s beyond t h e v i e w  -105-  t h a t they a r e c o n s t i t u t e d s o l e l y by these c o n d i t i o n i n g s . H i s approach b r a c k e t s o u t t h e v a r i o u s r e d u c t i o n i s m s w h i c h t r e a t r e l i g i o u s phenomena as a f u n c t i o n o f s o c i a l , p o l i t i c a l , economic, and o t h e r n o n - r e l i g i o u s f a c t o r s . T r e a t i n g r e l i g i o n as a f u n c t i o n o f t h e s a c r e d i s a p u r e l y m o r p h o l o g i c a l t a s k w i t h o u t any a i m toward e x p l a i n i n g what has produced a r e l i g i o u s phenomenon.  I t s aim, i n s t e a d ,  i s t o d i s c o v e r t h e s t r u c t u r e and meaning w h i c h t h e phenomenon has when taken t o g e t h e r w i t h o t h e r phenomena o f t h e same u n i v e r s a l , a h i s t o r i c a l type. g i v e s us an u n d e r s t a n d i n g  Morphological interpretation  of the s p e c i f i c nature of  r e l i g i o u s e x i s t e n c e because i t shows t h e meaning w h i c h r e l i g i o u s phenomena r e v e a l through t h e i r common s t r u c t u r e . The i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f t h e s t r u c t u r e s o f r e l i g i o u s  life  l e a d s t o a d e s c r i p t i o n o f homo r e l i g i o s u s , i n w h i c h h i s e x i s t e n c e i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e "structures of the sacred". procedure,  By v i r t u e o f t h i s  interpretive  E l i a d e ' s approach c l a i m s t o p r o v i d e an  u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f r e l i g i o n as something i n and o f i t s e l f , an u n d e r s t a n d i n g  o f man i n h i s e s s e n t i a l l y and d i s t i n c t l y  r e l i g i o u s dimension.  This understanding  transcends the  d i f f i c u l t i e s p r e s e n t e d by t h e h i s t o r i c i t y o f p a r t i c u l a r r e l i g i o u s f a c t s by t r a n s f o r m i n g them i n t o a p i c t u r e o f t h e a r c h e t y p a l homo r e l i g i o s u s ,• W h i l e one might expect t h a t t h e c o n t r i b u t i o n o f t h e h i s t o r i a n o f r e l i g i o n s t o d i s c u s s i o n on t h e problem o f r e l i g i o n and m o d e r n i t y would end w i t h an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f  -106-  what r e l i g i o u s e x i s t e n c e i s as r e v e a l e d by r e l i g i o h i s t o r i c a l f a c t s , t h i s i s n o t so w i t h E l i a d e .  He f e e l s  a t r u e u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f r e l i g i o u s f a c t s from p a s t h i s t o r i c a l c o n t e x t s w i l l modify t h e q u a l i t y o f p r e s e n t existence.  I n o t h e r words, he f e e l s t h e messages w h i c h  t h e s e f a c t s r e v e a l t o modern man can change him.  They  can h e l p man t o complete h i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f h i m s e l f because t h e y r e v e a l what i s u n i v e r s a l and t r a n s h i s t o r i c a l i n h i s s i t u a t i o n i n the world.  I n E l i a d e ' s view of  r e l i g i o n and m o d e r n i t y , i t i s n o t o n l y a problem o f modern man's l o s i n g a sense o f t h e r e l i g i o u s , b u t a l s o o f l o s i n g a sense o f t h e e s s e n t i a l human c o n d i t i o n w h i c h  precedes  a c t u a l human e x i s t e n c e . One o u t s t a n d i n g f a c t about E l i a d e w h i c h has emerged i s t h a t he i s , above a l l ,  a humanist.  He i s a humanist  who i s concerned w i t h t h e e s s e n t i a l human c o n d i t i o n , and he sees h i s s t u d y o f t h e h i s t o r y o f r e l i g i o n s as a p r e p a r a t o r y work f o r u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e essence o r u n i t y o f humanity, anthropology.  a preparation, that i s , f o r philosophical I t w i l l be remembered t h a t he says  "homo r e l i g i o s u s r e p r e s e n t s t h e ' t o t a l man',",  He a l s o  says ; More than any o t h e r h u m a n i s t i c d i s c i p l i n e ( i , e , , psychology, anthropology, s o c i o l o g y , e t c , ) h i s t o r y o f r e l i g i o n s can open t h e way to a p h i l o s o p h i c a l a n t h r o p o l o g y .  E l i a d e , The Quest, p.9.  -107-  And  again; C e r t a i n l y , t h e u n i t y o f t h e human s p e c i e s i s a c c e p t e d de f a c t o ..in o t h e r d i s c i p l i n e s , f o r example, l i n g u i s t i c s , a n t h r o p o l o g y , sociology. But t h e h i s t o r i a n o f r e l i g i o n s has t h e p r i v i l e g e o f g r a s p i n g t h i s u n i t y a t the h i g h e s t l e v e l s — o r t h e d e e p e s t — a n d such an e x p e r i e n c e i s s u s c e p t i b l e o f e n r i c h i n g and changing h i m . H S T h i s d e s i r e t o grasp t h e essence o f humanity t h r o u g h  the encounter w i t h man i n h i s r e l i g i o u s s t a t e b e f o r e t h e "second f a l l " r e v e a l s t h e " n o s t a l g i a f o r p a r a d i s e " i n E l i a d e ' s quest.  T h i s i s n o t , however, t h e a b j e c t  nostalgia  o f t h e m a l c o n t e n t i n modern s o c i e t y ; i t i s t h e n o s t a l g i a o f t h e hermeneut, who b e l i e v e s i n t h e r e l e v a n c e t o m o d e r n i t y o f a l l p a s t e x i s t e n t i a l p o s i t i o n s o f man.  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P h i l o s o p h y i n a New Key. The New American L i b r a r y , 1951.  New  York:  Long, C h a r l e s H. "Archaism and Hermeneutics". The H i s t o r y of R e l i g i o n s : Essays on the Problem o f U n d e r s t a n d i n g . Ed. J.M. K i t a g a w a , Chicago: The U n i v e r s i t y o f Chicago P r e s s , 1967, pp.67-87. O t t o , R u d o l f . The Idea o f the H o l y . T r . John W. New York: O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1958.  Harvey.  -113-  Oxtoby, W i l l a r d Gurdon, "Religionswissens chaf t R e l i g i o n s i n A n t i q u i t y . Ed. Jacob Neusner. E,J, B r i l l , 1968, pp,590-608.  Revisited." Leiden:  Penner, Hans H, "Myth and R i t u a l : A Wasteland o r a F o r e s t o f Symbols." On Method i n the H i s t o r y o f R e l i g i o n s . Ed. James S. HeTfer. B e l E e f t 8 o f H i s t o r y and Theory (1968), pp.46-57. Ricoeur, Paul, "The Problem o f the Double-sense as Hermeneutic Problem and as Semantic Problem." 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